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Full text of "Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico; ed"

I 

! 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

BULLETIN 30 



HANDBOOK 



OF 



AMERICAN INDIANS 



NORTH OF MEXICO 



EDITED HY 

FREDERICK WEBB HODGE 



I N T \V () P A R T S 

PART 2 



THE 

Ri 
*Lli 




r -*F,-^ 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1910 



. v 

,,0> 

o" 



CONTRIBUTORS TO PART 2 

A. B. L. Dr Albert Buell Lewis of the Field Museum of Natural History. 

A. C. F. Miss Alice C. Fletcher of Washington. 

A. F. C. Dr Alexander F. Chamberlain of Clark University. 

A. H. Dr Ales Hrdlicka of the United States National Museum. 

A. L. K. Dr A. L. Kroeber of the University of California. 

A. S. G. The late Dr Albert S. Gatschet of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

A. S. Q. Mrs Amelia Stone Quinton of New York. 

C. B. M. Mr Clarence B. Moore of Philadelphia. 

C. C. W. Mr C. C. Willoughby of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University. 

C. F. L. Dr Charles F. Lummis of Los Angeles, California. 

C. T. The late Dr Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

C. W. Dr Clark Wissler of the American Museum of Natural History. 

D. I. B. Mr D. I. Bushnell, jr., of University, Virginia. 

D. R. Mr Doane Robinson of the South Dakota Historical Society. 

E. L. H. Dr Edgar L. Hewett of the School of American Archaeology. 

E. S. Dr Edward Sapir of the Geological Survey of Canada. 

F. B. Dr Franz Boas of Columbia University. 

F. G. S. Dr Frank G. Speck of the University of Pennsylvania. 

F. H. Mr Frank Huntington, formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

F. H. C. The late Frank Hamilton Gushing of the Bureau of American Ethnology 

F. L. Mr Francis LaFlesche of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

F. S. N. Mrs Frances S. Nichols of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

F. AV. H. Mr F. W. Hodge of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

G. A. D. Dr George A. Dorsey of the Field Museum of Natural History. 

G. F. Mr Gerard Fowke of Saint Louis. 

G. P. D. The Rev. Dr George P. Donehoo of Connellsville, Pa. 
G. T. E. Lieut. G. T. Ernmons, United States Navy, retired. 
G. W. G. Judge George W. Grayson of Eufaula, Okla. 
. E. B. Dr Herbert E. Bolton of Leland Stanford Junior University. 
. W. H. Mr Henry W. Henshaw, formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
A. G. The Rev. J. A. Gilfillan of Washington. 
D. M. Mr Joseph D. McGuire of Washington. 
M. Mr James Mooney of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

N. B. H. Mr J. N. B. Hewitt of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
O. D. The late Rev. J. Owen Dorsey of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
P. D. Mr Jacob P. Dunn of Indianapolis. 

R. S. Dr John R. Swanton of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

W. F. Dr J. Walter Fewkes of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
F. Dr Livingston Farrand of Columbia University. 

Dr Merrill E. Gates of the United States Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Miss M. S. Cook of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

The late Prof. Otis T. Mason of the United States National Museum. 

Dr Pliny E. Goddard of the American Museum of Natural History. 

Dr Paul Radin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Dr Roland B. Dixon of Harvard University. 

Dr S, A. Barrett of the Milwaukee Public Museum. 

HI 



IV ( ONTRIW TORS TO PART 2 

\V. I . Mr \Vil l.crt nnv Kami s of the New York Public Library. 

\V. II. I>r Walter HoiiLrli of the Tnited States National Museum. 

W. II l>. I>r William II. Dall of the Cnited States Geological Survey. 

\\ . II. II. .Mr William II. Holmes of tin- United Stales National Museum. 

\\ .1. Th.- late I>r U illiam Jones of the Field Museum of Natural History 

\\ M. The late Dr Washington .Matthews, United States Army. 

W. M. I!. The Kev. William M. Be:mcham| of Syracuse, N. Y. 

W. K. (.. Mr W. K. (ierard of New York. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 




HANDBOOK OF THE INDIANS 



NA. For all names beginning with this 
abbreviation and followed by Sa., 
Sra., or Sefiora, see Nuestra Senora. 

Naagarnep. See Nagonub. 

Naagetl. A Yurok village on lower 
Klauiath r., just below Ayootl and above 
the mouth of Blue cr., N. w. Cal. 
Naagetl. A. L. Kroeber, inf n, 1905. Nai-a-gutl. 
Gibbs (1851) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes,. in, 138, 
1853. 

Naahmao (Na-ah-ma -o, turkey ). A 
clan of the Mahican. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 
174, 1877. 

Naai ( monocline ). A Navaho clan. 
BTaa i. Matthews in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 
104, 1890. Naa i^ine. Ibid, (fine = people ). 
Naa idine . Matthews, Navaho Legends, 30, 1897. 

Naaik (X a isk, or X PtEk, the bear- 
berry ). A village of the Nicola band of 
Ntlakyapamuk near Nicola r., 39 m. 
above Spences Bridge, Brit. Col. ; pop. 
141 in 1901, the last time the name 
appears. 

Na-ai-ik. Dawson in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., sec. 
n, 44, 1891. N a iEk. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., II, 174, 1900. N e iEk. Ibid. Ni-ack. Can. 
Ind. Aff. 1884, 189, 1885. 

Naaish. (Na-aic / ). A Yaquina village 
on the s. side of the mouth of Yaquina r., 
Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 229, 1890. 

Naalgus-hadai (NcPa lgAs xa da-i, dark- 
house people ). A subdivision of the 
Yadus, a family of the Eagle clan of the 
Haida.S wanton, Cont. Haida, 276, 1905. 

Naalye (Na-al-ye). A division of the 
Skoton, living, according to the treaty of 
Nov. 18, 1854, on Rogue r., Oreg. Com- 
pend. Ind. Treaties, 23, 1873. 

Naansi. An extincttribe, probably Cad- 
doan, said by Douay to be numerous in 
1687. They were allied with the Haqui 
and Nabiri in a war against the Kadoha- 
dacho and the Hainai at the time La 
Salle s party were traveling toward the 
Mississippi after their leader s death. 
Naansi. Douay in Shea, Discov. Miss. Val., 217, 
1852. Nansi. Hennepin, New Discov., n, 41, 
1698. 

Naapope. See Nahpope. 

Naas-Glee. Given as a Chimmesyan 
village at the headwaters of Skeena r., w. 
Brit. Col. Downie in Jour. Roy. Geog. 
Soc., xxxi, 253, 1861. 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 207 1 



Naasumetunne ( people dwelling on or 
near the Naasu ). A clan or band , prob 
ably Yakonan, on a small stream called 
Naasu by the Naltunnetunne, s. of Sal 
mon r. and x. of the mouth of Siletz r., 
Oreg. 

Naaskaak. Scouler (1846) in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., i, 233, 1848 (probably identical). Na -a-su 
me :umne. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, m, 231, 
1890 (Naltunnetunne name). Naausi. McKen- 
ney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 81, 1854. 

Nabatutuei. (Nabat hu -tu ei, white 
village ). A traditional puel)lo oJ 
Tigua of Isleta, N. Mex. 

Nabat hii -tu ei. Gatschet, Mythic Talc of Isleta, 
210, 1891. Nah-bah-too-too-ee. Lummis, Man who 
Married the Moon. 12, 1S ( J4. White Pueblo. Gat 
schet, op. cit., 214. 

Nabedache (Na -bai-da -che, said to be a 
fruit resembling the blackberry. Gat 
schet says the archaic name of the tribe 
was Nawadishe, from witish, salt ; Joutel 
(Margry, Dec., m, 390,1878) corrobo 
rates this by saying that Naoudiche means 
salt* and" that the village bearing this 
name was so called because of the salt 
supply near by). One of the 12 or more 
tribes of the Hasinai, or southern Cad- 
do, confederacy. They spoke the com 
mon language of the group. Their main 
village stood for a century or more :i 
or 4 leagues w. of Neches r. and near 
Arroyo San Pedro, at a site close to 
the old San Antonio road, which became 
known as San Pedro. This name clung 
to the place throughout the 18th century, 
and seems still to cling to it, since San 
Pedro cr. and the village of San Pedro, in 
Houston co., Tex., are in the same gcn_- 
eral vicinity as old San Pedro. In 168, 
a well-beaten path led post this village t< 
the Hasinai hunting grounds beyond UH 
Braxos (Joutel in Margry, Dec., in, 
326, 332, 1878). It perhaps becaim 
of the later San Antonio road. 

The Nouadiche mentioned by 
ville in 1700 (Margry, Dec., iv, 441, Ih 
and the Amediche mentioned by La Hai pe 
fn 1719 (ibid., vr, 262, 1886) are c early 
he Nabedache of San Pedro. Joutel 
(ibid., in, 388, 1878) tells us that the 
Naodiche village, which he ]>JN ; 
through some 15 leagues N. 



of 



NABEDACHE 



[B. A. B. 



Pedro was allied to tin- latter, and it 
-i-ems probable that it l>elonged to the 
-ame tribe. Tin- Naouydiehe mentioned 
i!\ Uillarpeiu 1719, however^are not so 
easily identified with the Nabedache, 
- nee he associate them with the Ton 
ka \v a, calls them a wandering tribe which 
tiutil !- Salle s coming had been at war 
with the- Kadohadaeho, and on the same 
puire mentions the Amediche apparently 
as a di-tinct tribe t Margry, IVr., vi, 202, 
77. issiii. Yet the facts that the "great 
thief" "i the Naotiydiches, of whom 
\M Harpe writes, spoke the language of 
the Na>sonites, i. e., Caddoan, and that 
lie Notiadirhe of r.ienville s account 
were the Nahedache. make it probable 
that those of La Harpe s account were the 
same people. Concerning the Nabe- 
dache of San IVdro, al\\ays in historic 
times the chief ihe triie. the 

infor ivel v tul I and satisfac- 

. are the lir.-t Texas tribe of 
, there i- a definite account, and be- 
can-e nf their location mi the western 
frontier of the Hasinai group and on the 
hL hway from Mexico to Louisiana they 
are frequently mentioned during the ISth 
ivntury. La Salle passed through this 

illairein lO.sOi.n his way to the southern 
and by "the great Coenis village" 
imt of this expedition is 
meant specifically the Nabedache village 
w. of Neches r. and the Neehe village just 
on the other-side ( 1 >ouav iii French, Hist. 
C..11. La., iv. 204-20.V lsf>2). .Joutel s 
desrription of the (Vnis i 1 la-mai) , as dis 
tinguished frnn the .-out hern Na-oni an<l 
the Kadohadacho, is based on his sojourn 
:it the Nabcdache and Neche villages 

Margry, Dec., in, :i:!-;ir><i, 1S7S|; like- 
\\i-e.Iesus Maria s invaluable account of 
the Hasinai was written at his mission 
near the Nabedache village (Francisco de 
Jesus Maria. MS. Uelacion, Aug. lf>. 1001 ). 
The political, social, and economic or- 
U ani/.ation, as well asth.- g.-neral exterior 
relation^ ,,f this tribe, were much the 
KIIIII- a- tin-,- ,,f the c..nfed r rate tribes, 
l -crihed under \,;-l,,- (,,. v.). 

-7. informs us that from the 
western ed- r ,,, ,| M . \ ;l |,,.,l a( -l M . \illaire to 
the chiefs hoiisr it was a "large league" 
(Marjrry.Di r., iu,:;n, ls7si. The houses 
the way w,-re grouped into "ham- 
"t fniin 7 to |f>. :m ,| surrounded by 
Similar "hamlets" were scattered 
the way to the \erhes. In the mid- 
1 "" the settlement was a large assem- 
house, or town house (ibid. :t4:5) 
l-atherhamianMassanet (Tex. \l\<{ \ mi \[ 




" fs ll( " ^- HH he saw it in 
\Neran,e to, he governor s bonne, 
^ here we f, llln ,| a number of Indians- 
women, and children. . . The 



house is built of stakes thatched over with 
grass; it is about 20 varas high, is round, 
and has no windows, daylight entering 
through the door only; this door is like 
a room door such as we have here [in 
Mexico]. In the middle of the house is 
the tire, which is never extinguished by 
day or by night, and over the door on the 
inner side there is a little mound of peb 
bles very prettily arranged. Ranged 
around one-half of the house, inside, are 
10 beds, which consist of a rug made of 
reeds, laid on 4 forked sticks. Over the 
rug they spread buffalo skins, on which 
they sleep. At the head and foot of the 
bed is attached another carpet, forming 
a sort of arch, which, lined with a very 
brilliantly colored piece of reed matting, 
makes what bears some resemblance to 
a very pretty alcove. In the other half 
of the house, where there are no beds, 
there are some shelves about 2 varas 
high, and on them are ranged large round 
baskets made of reeds (in which they 
keep their corn, nuts, acorns, beans, etc.), 
a row of very large earthen pots like our 
earthen jars, . . . and (> wooden mortars 
for pounding corn in rainy weather (for 
when it is fair they grind it in the court 
yard )." Besides what is learned of Ilas- 
inai foods in general we are told by Soli s, 
who visited San Pedro in 1708, that the 
Nabedache used a root called //"////, which 
was somewhat like the Cuban cassava. 
They ground it in mortars and ate it with 
bear s fat, of which they were partic 
ularly fond. Soli s also tells us that res 
ident there at this time was an Indian 
woman of great authority, named Smiate 
Adlra, moaning great woman , or chief 
woman ; that she lived in a house of 
many rooms; that the other tribes brought 
her presents, and that she had 5 hus 
bands and many servants (Diario, Mem. 
de Nueva Espaiia, x.xvii, 280, 281, MS.). 
Though the Nabedache were a peace 
able people, they had many enemies, and 
in war they were high-spirited and cruel. 
In 1087 they and the Xeche, aided by 
some of JouteFs party, made a success 
ful campaign against the "Canohatinno." 
<>n the return one female captive was 
scalped alive and sent back to her people 
with ji challenge (Joutel in Margry, Dec., 
in, :i<7, 1878), while another was tortured 
to death by the women (ibid., 378). La 
Harpt reported that in 1714 the Nabe- 

iche (Amediches) and other Hasinai 
tribes were at war with the lower Xatehi- 
toch (ibid., vi, 1!);;, 1880). l n 1715 a 

ii ty ot Hasinai, including Nabedache, 

joined St. Denis in an expedition to 

xieo. On the way a fierce battle was 

ought near San Marcos r. (apparently the 

olorado) with 200 coast Indians, "always 
their chief enemies " (Sun Denis, Declara- 



BULL. 30] 



NABEDACHE 



cion, 1715, Mem. de Nueva Espafia, xxvn, 
124, MS.). Wars with the Apache were 
frequent. In 1719 Du Rivage met on lied 
r. a party of Naouydiches and other tribes 
who had just won a victory over thin 
enemy (Margry, Dec., vi, *277, 1886). 
Shortly after this, La Harpe was joined 
near the Arkansas by the Naouydiche 
"great chief" and 40 warriors (ibid., 
286). We are told that the Nabedache, 
with other Hasinai, aided the French in 
1730 in their war with the Natchez (Me 
zieres in Mem. de Nueva Espana, xxvin, 
229). Early in the 18th century the Na 
bedache seem generally to have been hos 
tile to the Tonka wan tribes; but later, 
hatred for the Apache made them fre 
quently allies, and we now hear of the 
Tonkawans selling Apache captives to the 
Nabedache. The possession at San Pedro 
in 1735 of some captive Apache women 
secured in this way threatened to cause 
war between the Spaniards and the 
Apache. The Spaniards, to avoid trouble, 
ransomed the women and sent them home 
(Gov. Barrios y Juaregui to the Viceroy, 
Apr. 17, 1753, MS. Archivo General, His- 
toria, 299). In 1791, after fierce warfare 
between the Lipan and the combined 
northern Indians the Wichita, Hasinai, 
and Tonkawa the Apache endeavored to 
secure the aid of the Hasinai against the 
Tonkawa, but Gil Ybarbo, Spanish com 
mander at Nacogdoches, prevented it 
(Ybarbo to the Governor, Apr. 26, 1791, 
Bexar Archives, Nacogdoches, 1758-93, 
MS.). Common hostility toward the 
Apache frequently made the Nabedache 
and the Coinanche friends, but this friend 
ship was unstable. The- military rela 
tions of the Nabedache in the 19th century 
have not yet been investigated, but it is 
known that hostility to the Apache con 
tinued well into that period. 

In May, 1690, Massanet and Capt. Do 
mingo Ramon founded the first Texas 
mission (San Francisco de los Texas) 
at the Nabedache village, and a few 
months later the second (Santi sima 
Nombre de Maria) was planted near by 
(Jesus Maria, Relacion, 1691). On May 
25, De Leon delivered to the Nabedache 
caddi a baston and a cross, and conferred 
on him the title of "governor of all his 
pueblos" (De Leon, Derrotero, 1690). 
This was done, as Jesus Maria clearly 
shows, under the mistaken notion that 
the Nabedache was the head tribe of the 
confederacy, and its caddi the head chief. 
These distinctions belonged, however, to 
the Hainai tribe and the great chenesi 
resident there (ibid., 18). This mistake, 
it is believed, caused some political dis 
turbance in the confederacy. In 1690-91 
an epidemic visited the tribe in common 
with its neighbors (Jesus Maria, Relacion, 



1691). Trouble, fomented by medicine 
men and soldiers, soon arose between the 
missionaries and the Indians. In 1692 
the chief, with most of his people, with 
drew from the mission to the distant 
"fields, "and refused to return (Massenet 
MS., 1692). In 1693 the mission wasaban- 
doned (Clark in Tex. Hist. Assn. Ouar 
v, 200-201, 1902), and when restored in 
1716 it was placed at the Neche village 
on the other side of the river. In 1727 
Rivera (Diario, leg. 2093, 1736) reported 
that San Pedro was then occupied by the 
Neche, though formerly by the S abe- 
dache. That the Xeche had moved t<- 
San Pedro is perhaps true; but it seems 
improbable that the Xabedache had left 
the place, for long afterward the inhab 
itants of it continued to be called Xabe 
dache (De Soto Bermude/ docs., 1753. 
MS. Archivo General, Historia, 299; 
Mezieres, Cartas, 1779). When Soli s 
visited the Nabedache in 1768 their cus 
toms were still about as first described, 
except that they had nearly discarded 
the bow for the firelock, and were very 
inebriate, due, Soli s claimed, to 1 ,,[, 
liquor. In the middle of the 18th 
century French influence over the Has 
inai greatly increased, and Spanish 
influence declined. In 1753 the Nabe 
dache took part in a gathering of the 
tribes at the Nadote (Nadaco?) village, 
in which, it was reported, the Indians 
proposed killing all the Spaniards in 
eastern Texas; but St. Denis, of Natch i- 
toches, prevented the attempt ( Fr. 
Calahorra y Sanz, Feb. 2:5, 1753, MS. 
Archivo General, Historia, 299). This 
situation led to a plan, which failed, to 
have a garrison posted at San Pedro 
(Barrios y Juaregui to the Viceroy, ibid. ). 
In 1778 or 1779 an epidemic reduced the 
population, and Mezieres, writing from 
"San Pedro Nevadachos," situated 
apparently just where Joutel had found 
it, reported the number of warriors at 
somewhat more than 160 (Carta, Aug. 
26, 1779, Mem. de Nueva Espana, xxvm, 
241). In 1805 Sibley gave the number 
at 80 men; but about 1809 Davenport, 
who was at Nacogdoches, gave it as 1 
(Report to Manuel Salcedo, copy dated 
\pr 24, 1809, in Archivo General, 
Provincial Interims, 201 ). Sibley 
Davenport s reports and Austin s map o 
1829 all indicate that the tribe had moved 
up Neches r. after 1779 (original Austin 
map, inSecretarfa de Fomento, Mexico). 
From a letter in the Bcxar Archives it 
appears that this mi-ration may have 
occurred before 1784 ( Xeve to Cabello, 
Bexar Archives, Province of Texas, 
1781-84) In the 19th century the 
Nabedache shared the fate of the othei 
tribes of the Caddo and Hasinai confed- 



N A HKSX ATANA N AC AMKRT 



[ 15. A. E. 



aries -i" l tht> " "-vivors are now on the 
, n;,l, NYtdutares. in Oklahoma, but 
.re not -eparatelv enumerated, (ii. E. B.; 

! i v I S r ^ A- 





, t 

NKbadache..^..y>. >: V-vnc-l!, His t. 
U -M*f n TY " 1&! Nabadatsu.-Gatschet 
:jt n Nabaducho.-I,.thaniin rans Ilnlol 
i fcnd, 101. 1*W. Nabaduchoe -I nnu.M ^ ) 

iiliiipi 

MS i,;<ii Nabedachw. Sibley. Hist. 
,;..; 71 isV,. Nabedoches. Brackenridge, 

i . v <Vl i . S7 JSlft. Nabeidacho. -Hidalgo, let- 

^^ M- -t 



.,-rainst the Kadohadaeho and tho Hamai. 
According to Del Isle s map of 1707 the 
: K , ,,U ; then lived N. of Washitar. in ^Ar 
kansas. See 1 )ouay in Shea, Discov. Miss. 
V.jl ->d od 9 21 1U08. 

Nabari.-McKenney and Hall, Ind Tribes in, 

?1 1S54. Nabiri.-Hennepin New Discov n 41 

098 Nabites.-Baudrv des Lozieres , \o>. a la 

,, -i-nie ->IS ISO 1 (probably identical). Na- 

Ji ti -Si We, map , 1701 ) inWinsor, Hist. Am 

n -H)4 iss(5. Nahari.-Coxe. Carolina, map, 1/41. 



Nahod. -I M in French, Hist. 

; iv,l. Nahordikhe. -loutel (lt >S7), 
sit; Nahouehkhe. Shea, note in 
,-h.; .evoix. New France, iv. lus ls70 Nahud : 
ques Uarcia Kiisnyo.27.M723. Naodiche. loiiti 
llfWUi in French. HM. Coll. La., i, 71, IMti. a- 
onediche. De la Tour, map Amenqiie Septeii 
i, ale 177 Naouadiche. Tonti (K. . Oi^m 
Yench Hist. Coll. La., i, 71. islii. Naoudiche. 
]bid..7.~>. Naoudishes. Martin. Hist. La., i, 20. 
;VT Naouediches. Anville, map N. A.. 17->2. 
Hao-.iidirhe. -.loutel i lf.87) in Margry, Dec., in.394, 
- N-iouydirhes. LM Harpe ( 1719) , ibid., VI. 262, 
<v.r, > -Tonti (1690) in French, Hist. 

(4,11 La i. 7:;, IMti. Navadacho, Bull. Soc. 
<iv>>:r. Me\ . 2i .7. \^~". Navedachos. Morti 
iiiju t i-d by Shea in har!evtii\, Ne\v France, IV, 
S) 1M70. "Navenacho. Li na ! < 171(1) in Margry, 
!,<., vi. 217. 1^6. Navidacho. -Hull. Soc. Geogr. 
M. x.. :*H. ]*> .*. Nawadishe. i latschet. Caddo 
and YatM-si MS., H. A. K.. M (archaic name. fr. 
n iti.*li. silt i. Nebadache. Brown. Wr-t. Ga/., 
Jl I I M 7. Nebedache. Ihiil., 2L">. Nevachos. 
-an lieiiN (171.^1 in Mem. de Nueva rNpafia, 
\\\:: . 12::. MS. Nevadizoes. Me/.iens il77*-i in 
Haiicr-iM. N . Mex. States, i, (,(,]. ISM;. Noadiches. 
Barcia. Kn>a> o. 2 s :i. 17_ : .. Nouadiche. Hienville 
( J7 Ki i in MuruT i . 1 >> < .. i v. lll.l ss <i. Nouidiches. 
Ie n-lf, map Anier.. 17"<i. Novadiches. Hareia, 
Kn-ayn. 2xs. 17 j:>. Ouadiches. McKeiiney and 
Hall Ind Tribe-, in s l l>-">t. Ouidiches. Donay 
il-.H7, in Shea. IMM-..V. Miss Val.. 2!s. is.VJ. 
Ouidichei. Hennepin. New Discov.. n. |:;, If. .is. 
Yneci -.1. -us Maria, lielacioii. lil .U, MS. 

Nabesnatana. A division of the Tenan- 
kntclun dwelling on the Nabesna branch 
of Tanana r., Alaska, and having the vil- 
laireof Khiii;it at its mouth. Allen, Kep. 
Alaska, 7!>, l.s.sT. 

Nabeyxa. A former tribe of Texas, 
mentioned as beinir N. K. <>f the Nabe- 
dache by Francisco de Jesus Maria, amis- 
-ioiiary among the latter tribe, in his MS. 
relation of Aniru-t, l M. lie included it 
n his list of Tcxias ( allies ). Inas 
much as in the same list he mentions the 
Naviti ( apparent Iv the Nabiri), the Na- 
lM-y\a must have been snppo.-ed by him 
to be a different tribe. It was probably 
:uldian. ( u. ic. it. ) 

Nabiri. An extinct village- or tribe of 
Tex:i>, jM.-sihly Caddoan, mentioned by 
houay in HJSTas populous and as allied 

with the Haolli and N:i;ui<i in :i u.-ir 



Kelacion, ioi, JA^. ^ Fi" 11 ">-^.> -- .- 

Nabisippi. A former Montagnais sta 
tion on the N. shore of the Gulf of St 
Lawrence, opposite Anticosti id., Quebec. 
Nabisippi -Stearns, Labrador. 2(19, 1884. Napis- 
sipi. Hind, Lab. Penin., n, ISO. I*<i3. 

Nabobish. (X&bobish, poor soup. )_ A 
Chippewa village, named from a chief, 
that formerly stood at the mouth of 
Saginaw r., Mich. The reservation was 

^< )1* 1 111 1 *^*"* 

Nababish,- -Detroit treaty (1SS7) in U. S. Ind. 
Tre-ities "i:> 1>T: ,. Nabobask. Saginaw treaty 
(1S >0) ibid., i fl. 1X57. Na-bo-bish. Detroit treaty 
(1S37) , ibid . . 249, 1S7; ,. 

Nabogame (from Xavoyeri, where no 
pals [/<(>] grow. Lumlioltz). ATepe- 
huane pueblo in the district of Mina, 17 
in. x. ot Uusidalupe y (."alvo, in the s. w. 
corner of Chihuahua, Mexico, about 1 at. 

Nabogame. oro/co y Berra, Geotf., 324 1S64. 
Navogame. Ibid. .322. Navogeri. Lumholtz, Un 
known Mex.. i, 42) ,. v.102 (Tepehuane name). 

Nabowu (named from an unknown 
plant ). A clan of the Chua ( Rattlesnake) 
phratry of tlu 1 Ilopi. 

Nabovu wiSwu. Fewkes in Wh Kep. B. A. E., 
")S2, l .H0 (iriTiirt i clan i. Na -bowii wuii-wu. 
Fewkes in Am. Anthrop.. vn, -102, 1894. 

Nabukak. A Yuit Kskimo village of 48 
houses and about 275 people on East cape, 
x. K. Siberia. 

Nabu qak. Bo^oras, Chukchee, 30, 1904. Ne - 
oaklit. Ibid., 20 i Chukehee name of people). 
Ne ekan. Ibid. (Chukehee name of the village). 
Pe ekit. Ibid, irhnkchec derisive name of peo 
ple.) 

Nacachau. One of the 9 tribes men 
tioned in a manuscript relation by Fran 
cisco de Jesus Man a, in 1691, as consti 
tuting the Hasinai confederacy in Texas. 
They lived just x. of the Neche tribe and 
on the K. side of Neches r. In 171(5 San 
Francisco de los Texas mission was estab 
lished, according to Ramon, in their vil 
lage; and, according to one of Ramon s 
companions, for them, the Neche, the Na- 
bedache, and the Nacoiio. The mission 
soon became known as San Francisco de 
los Neches and the name Nacachau dis 
appears, the tribe being absorbed, prob 
ably, by the Neche. (ir. E. B. ) 
Nacachad. Hidalgo, letter, Oct. ( >, 1716, Archiyo 
General. Nacachas. Kepresentacion of the mis 
sionaries 171C,. Mem. de Nueva Kspaiia, xxvil, 
It .H, MS. Nacoches. Ramon, Derrotero, 171<>, 
Mem. de Nueva Kspafia, xxvir, 157, MS. 

Nacameri ( bat dwelling. Och). A 
former pueblo of the 1 ima and the seat 
of a Spanish mission founded in 1638; 



BULL. 30] 



NACANICHE NACHENINGA 



situated on the E. bank of Rio Horcasitas, 
Sonora, Mexico. Pop. 362 in 1678, 62 in 
1730. 

Nacamere. Kino, map (1702) in Stocklein, Xeue 
Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. Rosario Nacameri. Rivera 
(1730) quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, f>13, 
1884. Santa Maria Nacameri. Zapata (1678), ibid., 
245. 

Nacaniche. Possibly ti division of the 
Nabedache, a Caddo tribe with whom 
they were closely affiliated, although they 
were not always at peace with the tribes 
composing the confederacy. They first 
became known to the French about 1690, 
and according to La Harpe their villages 
in 1719 were N. of the Hainai. During 
the disturbances between the Spaniards 
and French in the 18th century the Na 
caniche seem to have abandoned their 
more northerly villages and, about 1760, 
to have concentrated on Trinity r., near 
the road leading to New Mexico. The 
tribe was included in the Texas census of 
1790 as among those which were under 
the jurisdiction of Nacogdoehes. The Na 
caniche were exposed to the same adverse 
influences that destroyed so large a part 
of their kindred. They clung to the Na- 
bedache during the trying experiences of 
the first half of the 19th century, and if 
any survive they are with the Caddo (q. v. ) 
on the Wichita" res., Okla. A stream in 
E. Nacogdoches co., Texas, preserves 
their name. (A. c. F. ) 

Nacaniche. Census of 1790 in Tex. State Archives. 
Nicondiche. Tonti (1690) in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., i, 71, 1846. 

Nacau. A former tribe of Texas, closely 
associated with the Nacogdoche. They 
are mentioned in 1691 by Francisco de 
Jesus Maria in his manuscript list of 
Texias ( allies -) as x. E. of his mission 
among the Nabedache. San Denis, in 
1715, gave the Nacao, apparently the same, 
as one of the Hasinai or Texas tribes 
(Declaracion, MS., 1715, in Mem. deNueva 
Espana, xxvii, 123). In 1716 Nuestra 
Senorade Guadalupe mission was founded 
for this tribe and the Nacogdoche (Fran 
cisco Hidalgo and Manuel Castellano, 
letter to Pedro Mesquia, Oct. 6, 1716, MS. 
Archive General). This fact, taken with 
the statement of Jesus Maria, makes it 
seem probable that the tribe lived N. of 
the Nacogdoche. After 1716 the Nacau 
seem to disappear from history as an in- 
dependentgroup ; it was perhaps al >sorbed 
by the Nacogdoche. (n. E. B.) 

Nacao. San Denis, 1715, op. cit. Nacau. Fran 
cisco de Jesus Maria, 1691. MS., op. Cit. Nacaxes. 
Barrios y Jauregui, 1753, op. cit. (identical?). 
Nacoho. Joutel (1687) in Margry, Dec., m, 409, 
1878. Nijaos. Bui. Soc. Geog. Mex., 504, 1869 
(identical?). Nocao, Linares (1716) in Margry, 
Dec., VI, 217, 1886. 

Nacaugna. A Gabrieleno rancheria for 
merly in Los Angeles co., Cal., at a place 
later called Carpenter s ranch. 
Nacaugna. Ried quoted by Taylor in Cal. Far 
mer, Jan. 11, 1861 (cf. Hoffman in Bull. Essex 
lest., xvn, 1,1885). Nicaugna. Ibid., June8, 1860. 



Nacbuc. A Chumashan village w. of 
Pueblo de los Canoas ( San Buenaventura*) 
Ventura co., Cal., in 1542. 
Nacbuc. Cabrillo, Narr. (1542) in Smith Colec 
Doc. Fla., 181, 1857. Nacbue. -Taylor in Cal. Far 
mer, Apr. 17, 1863 (misprint). 

Nachaquatuck ( from Wa nashque-tuck, 
the ending creek, because it was tin- 
end or boundary of the Katon s Neck 
tract. Tooker). A former Matineeoe 
village near the present Cold Spring. 
Suffolk co., Long id., N. Y. The name 
occurs as early as 1666. 

Nachaquatuck. Thompson, Long Id., i, 501, 1843. 
Nackaquatok. Ruttenber, Ind. Geog Names 97 
1906. 

Nacheninga ( Xo-heart-of-fear ). The 
name of at least two prominent Iowa 
chiefs, commonly called Xo Heart, both 
noted for their sterling qualities and 
highly regarded by both their tribesmen 
and the whites. Nacheninga the elder 




died a short time before Catlin s visit to 
the tribe in 1832, when he was succeeded 
by his son, who, however, was regarded 
as subordinate to Mahaskah the yonngrr. 
The junior Naeheninga has been desrril > 
as a fine specimen of his race physical!} 
and as "the faithful husband of oil- 
wife." His portrait was painted by Cai 
lin in 1832. In behalf of the I"\\a h 
signed the treaty of St Louis, 
1S37, and in the same vear v 
ington, where his portrait s pai 
for the War Department l>y Charles I 
King, and is n,,w preserved in the 1 
National Museum (see i lustration) 
Nacheninga was a signer also of the 
treat v of Great Nemaha agencv, JNeb 
Oct 10 1838; the treaty of Washington, 
Miv 17 1854, and that of Great Nemaha 
agency, Mar. 6, 1861. The name i> 



NACOGDOCHE 



A. S. 



( , u .lv Celled Nachewinga, Nan-chee- 
, " n ,;. ;l \au-che-nm-:a, Non-ehe-ning- 
" \o,^ee m,u:a. and Noteh-ee nhi^a. 
ronMlt Fulton. Ked Men of Iowa 124, 
lss->- ratlin, North American Indiana, 
, , s.M: DoiKiMscn in National Museum 





Clieu-l.ita, the 1-ido *-n> <>t < 
i ;-t, : ! tce-.-n..rs,y i,, 1M, K.T. It. A.K.,Z!8,1>7. 

.AV/r-M rW,, yellow 
\ traditional pueblo ot the 



( Jat^ lH t. ..p. cit. Yellow Village. Lummis in St. 
Nifln >lu.s xvin. >: >. l v - l- 

Nachvak. An Fskimo missionary sta 
tion of the Moravians in Labrador, (-lose 
to ( Chid lev. Puck worth in Proc. Cam- 
l.rid-e 1 hilos. Soc., \. 288, 1900. 

Nacisi. A small tribe, possibly ot ( ad- 
doan r-ttirk. formerly dwelling in the re 
gion of Red r.. Fa. They were first men- 
Tioned by .J..utel in 1>S7, at which time 
lliev were at enmity with theCenis ( Cad- 
do Confederacy 1 . When lUenville and 
St I>enis were exploring Red r. of Fa., in 
17io, they found on that stream a village 
of the Nacisi consist ing of 8 houses. They 
were still r. this neighborhood in 1741, 
but duriii _r the vicissitudes of the ISth 
century -ecin to have drifted southward 
beyond the border of the French prov 
ince, for in 17 . Othey a re mentioned among 
the tribes under the jurisdiction of Xacog- 
doches. in Texas. ( A. c. F. ) 

Nacachez.-.lr!T.Ty<. Am. Atlas, map f>, 177(1. Na- 
cassa. - .I.iui.-l ( li .^l < in Marirry. DiV.. in. in .), l^TS. 

Naiasse. -l.a Hur| v ( . 1 71 1 ) in French. Hist. Coll. 

l.n., m. I 1 . . 1-~>1. Nacatches. Alcedo, Die. (it-og., 
m. JT . . 17--. Nacibi. Census of IT .M) in Texas 
Mate An-liivi-. Nagusi. Coxe, Carolana, map. 
1711. Nahacassi. .loiiu 1. >]>. eit. Nakasas. 
I .ii-nvilli- il7mii in M;ir_ Ty. Drc.. iv. -1 ; > .. I.SSK. 

Nacogdoche ( X<t-ko-h<nfn-l)(i). A tribe 
f In- lla-inai confederacy of Texas. It 
ha- hi-en said that their language dif 
fered from that of the Hasinai -/roup in 
general, but there is much evidence to 
indicate thai thi is not true. Forexam- 
ple. Kam .11. \\ h i . i.i.l.-d missions at the 
Neehe. Hainai. Na^oiii. and Naeoudoche 
\illa_-es iii 171 i. states in hi- report that 
" thc-e four mi ions will comprise from 
four to iiv- tliousand persons of both 
-exes, all . f one idiom" i Represent acion, 
.Inly 2L . I71 i. in Mem. de Nueva Kspafia, 
\ \vii. Itio. MS. .. On the same day the 
ni ionarie- wrote that the Naeogdoehe 
iii--i .!i "V >. de iiiadalupe ... is 
iwaititi .: people of the same lanirua^e 
ind cn-toiiis" a- those of the Indians 
ol mi ion < otieepeioii, i. e., the Hainai 

bid., jr,: 1 ,, I,, IT;,! , w hen the gov 
ernor of Texas \\as arranging to inspect 
tin- \illages of the Hainai, Nabedaehe, 



Xacogdoche, Xasoni, and Nadote, An- 
tonio Barrera was appointed interpreter, 
because be was a person understanding 
with all perfection the idiom of these 
Indians," the implication being that 
thev all spoke a single language (Jacinto 
de Barrios y Juaregui, Oct. 30 1752 in 
\rchivoGeneral, Hist., 299, MS.)- Mez- 
ieres said that the Nabedache, Nadaco 
( \nadarko), Hainai, and Nacogdoche 
spoke the same language (letter toCroix, 
Feb 20, 1778, Mem. de Nueva Espana, 
x.\ vii i, 229, MS.) . Other similar evidence 
might be cited. 

Their main village at the opening ot 
the 18th century and for a long time 
thereafter was approximately on the site 
of the modern city of Nacogdoches, where 
four Indian mounds existed until recently. 
This place seems to have been called 
Nevantin. The Nacogdoche were men 
tioned apparently by the Gentleman of 
Elvas in his account of the De Soto ex 
pedition; but they were first made def 
initely known by Jesus Maria in 1691, 
who called them the Nazadachotzi, indi 
cated correctly their location, and classi 
fied them as one of the nine Aseney 
(Hasinai) tribes (Relacion, 108, MS.}. 
It seems probable that the Nacogdoche 
are distinct from the Aquodocez, with 
Avhom Fvnicaut in 1714 said the Assina fs 
were at war (Margry, Dec., v, o04, 1883). 
At this time San Denis found the Nacog 
doche, Ilainai, Nadaco (Anadarko), and 
others at war with the lower Natchitoch, 
but he restored peace among them (La 
Harpe in Margry, Dec., vi, 193, 188(>; see 
also letter of Macartij, Nov. 17, 17(53, 
Xacogdoches Archives, MS. ). Espinosa 
tells us that the Nasoni, whose main vil 
lage was some 25 m. to the N., were es 
pecially closely allied with the Nacog 
doche, and came to their village for some 
of their principal religious observances 
(Chronica Apostolica, i, 425, 174(>). 

In July, 17K>, the Franciscans of the 
college at /acatecas established their first 
Texas mission at the main Nacogdoche 
village for this tribe and the Xacao._ 
This mission became the headquarters of 
the president, Fray Antonio Margil de 
Jesus (Fspinosa, Diario, entries for July 
5-8, MS., Archivo General). In 1719 
the mission, like all the others of K. Texas, 
was abandoned through fear of a French 
attack, but was reestablished in 1721 on 
the same site (IVfia, Diario, Mem. de 
Nueva Fspafia, \\vin, 44, MS.). The 
mission continued to exist long after three 
of its neighbors had been removed; but 
it had verv little success, and in 1773 it 
was abandoned. The Spanish settlers, 
who were removed at this time from 
Adaes, and at whose bead was Antonio 
*<il Ybarbo, were allowed to settle on the 
Trinity, founding in 1774 a place which 



fetLL. 30] 



NACOGDOCHE 



they called Pilar de Bucareli. Early in 
1779 they migrated, without authority, to 
the site of the Nacogdoches mission. The 
modern city of Nacogdoches dates from 
this time. 

The Nacogdoche were nominally within 
the Spanish jurisdiction, but the French 
early gained their affection through the 
unlicensed trade which they conducted 
with the Indians. The French supplied 
guns, ammunition, knives, cloth, vermil 
ion, and knickknacks, in return for horses, 
skins, bear s fat in great quantities, 
corn, beans, and Apache captives. This 
trade, particularly that in nrearrns, was 
opposed by the Spanish officials, and as 
a result there were frequent disputes 
on the frontier, the Indians sometimes 
taking one side and sometimes the other. 
In 1733, for example, two Nacogdoche 
chiefs reported at Adaes that the French 
had offered them a large reward if they 
would destroy the Spanish presidio of 
Adaes (Expediente sobre la Campana, 
etc., 1739, Archive General, Provincial 
Internas, xxxn, MS.). The charge was 
denied, of course, by the French. Again, 
in August, 1750, it was said that the Na 
cogdoche chief, Chacaiauchia, or San 
chez, instigated as he claimed by San Denis 
of Natchitoch.es, went to the Nacogdoches 
mission, threatened the life of the mis 
sionary, Father Calahorra y Sanz, and 
ordered him to depart with all the Span 
iards (Testimonio de Autos de Pesquiza 
sobre Comercio Ylicito, 1751, Bexar Ar 
chives, Adaes, 1739-55, MS.). On the 
other hand, when in 1752 a gathering of 
tribes was held at the Nadote village to 
discuss a plan for attacking all the Span 
ish establishments, the Nacogdoche chief, 
apparently Chacaiauchia, and San Denis 
both appear in the light of defenders of 
the Spaniards (Testimony of Calahorra y 
Sanz in De Soto Bermudez, Report of In 
vestigation, Archive General, Hist., 299, 
MS.). Chacaiauchia, or Sanchez, seems 
to have retained the chieftaincy a long 
time, for in 1768 Soli s tells of being vis 
ited at the mission by Chief Sanchez, a 
man of large following (Diario in Mem. 
de Nueva Espana, xxvn, 282, MS.). 

Some data as to the numerical strength 
of the tribe are extant, In 1721, when 
Aguayo refounded the mission, he pro 
vided clothing for "the chief and all the, 
rest," a total of 390 (Pefia, Diario, in Mem. 
de Nueva Espana, xxvu, 44, MS. ). This 
may have included some Nacao, and, on 
the other hand, it may not have included 
all of the Nacogdoche tribe. It was re 
ported that in 1733 the two Nacogdoche 
chiefs mentioned above went to Adaes 
with 60 warriors (Expediente sobre la 
Campana, 1739, op. cit. ) . It is not known 
whether the warriors were all Nacogdoche 
or not, but that is the implication. In 



1752 D.e Soto Bermudez inspected the 
Nacogdoche pueblo and reported that it 
consisted of 11 ^ rancherias grandes," con 
taining 52 warriors, besides many youths 
nearly able to bear arms (Rep. of Inves 
tigation, 1752, Archive General, Hist., 
299). Croix s list of 1778 does not in 
clude the Nacogdoche, unless they are his 
Nacogdochitos, a group of 30 families liv 
ing on the Attoyac (Relation Particular, 
Archive General, Prov. Intern., 182). 
According to a census of 1790, on the au 
thority of Gatschet, the Nacogdoche were 
reduced to 34 men, 31 women, 27 boys, 
and 23 girls. Davenport, in 1809, report 
ed the Nacogdochitos as comprising 50 
men (Noticia, Archive General, Prov. 
Intern., 201, MS.). 

By 1752 the Nacogdoche pueblo had 
been removed some 3 leagues northward 
( De Soto Bermudez, op. cit. ) . When this 
transfer took place is not clear, but 
Mezieres says that they deserted the mis 
sion at once (Carta, Aug. 23, 1779, in Mem. 
de Nueva Espana, xxvin, 225, MS.) . In 
1771 Gov. Barrios reported them as still 
near the Hainai (Informe, 2, MS.). It 
seems probable that a considerable part 
of the Nacogdoche tribe was absorbed in 
the general population at Nacogdoches 
after the settlement of the Spaniards in 
1779, for census reports thereafter show a 
large number of Indians and mixed-bloods 
at that place. After this time the rem 
nant of the tribe seems sometimes to ap 
pear as Nacogdochitos. Morn, about 1 781 , 
located this tribe on the Attoyac. In 
1809 Davenport, Avriting from Nacog 
doches, did not name the Xacogdoches in 
the list of surrounding tribes, but placed 
the Nacogdochitos on the Angelina, 5 
leagues N. of Nacogdoches (Noticia, Ar 
chive General, Prov. Intern., 201^, MS.). 
A Spanish map made between 17!r> and 
1819 shows the " Nacodoches" above 
where Davenport put the " Nocogdochi- 
tos " i. e., on the E. side of the Angelina 
about halfway between Nacogdoches and 
Sabine r. (MS. Mapa Geognifica de las 
Provincias Septentrionales de esta Nueva 
Espana). 

In habit, ceremony, and social < 
zatien the Nacogdoche resembled the 
other tribes of the Hasinai confederacy. 
(H. K. B. ) 

Nacado-cheets. Schoolcraft, 1ml. Tribe.- 
1851 . Nachodoches.- Krenrli . 1 1 ist. ( >! I U. , i : ii, 
Nacocodochy. LaHarpe( 
193. 1886. Nacocqdosez. i /iiwn 



S^I;;$iH|2|/: 

La i l l l s t>- - Nacogdocnet. uraKe.^BK. U1 " 



Nagogdoches. Sibley, 



Hist. Sketc 



"NADOWA 



[B. A. E. 






. One "f the tribes ot the 
Kasinai, or southern Caddo, confederacy. 
in lM Francisco de. Jesus Maria (Rela- 

,. , , JIN MS. ) located it s. E. ot the 
\rrheand Nal .edache t rihes. In 1721 the 
Indians ..f "el Macono," evidently the 
.v.ime, lived 5 leagues from the Neche 
t-ibe. In 17H> San Francisco de los 
Texas mission was founded near the 
Neche and Naeachau villages to minister 
t- these two tribes and to the Xahedaehe 
and Nao.no i Hidalgo. letter, Oct. 6, 1716, 
MS., Archivo (ieiieral). Kspinosa, who 
was present at the founding of San .!<>- 
>. ph de los Nasoiu s misson, said that it 
,,-as romposed of Nasoniand Nacono, but 
the latter were more likely the Xadaco 
( Anadarko). In 1721 Aguayowas visited 
>,n the Neches r. ly 100 Indians from 
1 Macono, who were still regarded as 
belonging to San Francisco mission. 
IVna. in his diary of this expedition, 
make- the interesting statement that 
"their chief. \vho is also chief priest to 
their idols, is blind. It is presumed that 
after having been chief many years, lie 
put out his eyes, according to a custom 
of the Indians, in order to become chief 
priest among them" ( Diario, Mem. de 
Nueva Kspafia, \\viii, 155, MS. ). Astheir 
name disappears thereafter, unless they 
were the Nacomones of Rivera s list 
17-7!, they were, apparently, like nu 
merous other Texan tribes, absorbed by 
their stronger neighbors. (H. K. H. ) 
Macono. ---IN -fin. i>p. < it.. 1721. Nacomones. Rivera 
1 1727>. I)iuri., kir. W2, I7;;c, (identical?). Na- 
cono. Kniuriscn dc .IrMis Maria, Itl .H, op. cit. 

Nacori. A former Opata pueblo and 
seat of a Spanish mission founded in 1(145; 



d on Rio Yiejo, an K. tributary of 
the upper Yaqui. lat. 29 3<V, Ion. 109, 
K. Sonora. Mfvieo. p,,),. |5() in 1I17S; 2<S1 
in 17. !0. The tov s suffered greatly 

from Apache depredations, the last attack 
ln-ing made in iss:;. The pueblo num- 
Ix-red . .39 persons in 190(1, of \\hom a few 
were Ya<|iii or I ima. the remainder be 
ing classed as Spaniards. 

Guadalupe Nacori. Kivcra il7: ,(l, nimtcd bv Han- 

TDft.N,,. Mex.StatrM,r,]|. lss|. Nacori. Oro/.co 

V M.-rra. <;.-..>:., :!i:i. ls;i. Nacori Grande. Davila 

ii -ni Misl. .ricD, HIT, IS .M. Sta Maria Nacori 

i HiTMi .juotiMl l.y Hinicruft, o|.. cit.. Jlf,. 
Hacori. A former Kudeve pueblo and 
<-at of a Spanish mission founded in HiL !); 
Hifuatedc.n the head waters of Rio Matap<>, 
lat. 2> , Ic.n. lur, Sonor. i. Mexico. ] ,,p 
.^t in KITS, and but 25 in 17:;o. It j s 
now a eivili/.e.l settlement, known as 



\iicori C hico, and contained 337 inhab- 

Narar^ Kino map (1702) in Stocklem, Neue 

It Bolt 71 17 2(i Nacori. Rivera (1730) quoted 
by Bancroft. No. Mex. States, i, 513, 1884. Sta Cruz 
( Nacori V Zapatu (1078), ibid., 24(5. 

Nacosari. A former Opata pueblo, sit 
uated in N. E. Sonora, Mexico, on Ilio 
Mocte/uma, one of the x. tributaries of 
Yaqui r., lat. 30 20 , Ion. 109 25 . It 
is now a civili/ed settlement and con 
tained 978 inhabitants in 1900. 
Nacosuras. Kilms (Kil.^) (|uotcd by Bandelier in 
\rcli lust. Papers, in, f>S, 1MH) (name applied to 
the inliabitants). Real de Nacosari. Oro/co y 
Berra. Geog., 343, 1864. 

Nacotchtank. A tribe or band, probably 
of tho C ono}-, formerly living on the Ana- 
costiabranch of the Potomac, about Wash 
ington, I). C. Their principal village-, of 
the same name, was near the present 
Anacostia (a corruption of the name of 
the tribe), in 1608. Smith seems to make 
them of Algonquian stock, but Shea says 
they were probably Lroquoian. TheCon- 
estoga were their enemies. 
Anacostan. White, Hclatio Itineris (1(142), 85, 1874 
(t onnused by the.Iesuits). Nacochtant. Bozman, 
Md I 119 1837. Nacostines. Ibid. Nacotch- 
tanks. Smith (lii 29), Va.. n, 78. vepr. 1819. 
Naotchtant. Simons in Smith, ibid., I, 177. 
Necosts. Smith, ibid., ir. 87. Nocotchtanke. 
Ibid., i, 118. 

Nadamin. A tribe or settlement men 
tioned by Joutel in 1687 (Margry,- Dec., 
in, 410, 1878) as an ally of the Hasinai 
(Caddo). They probably lived at that 
time in x. E. Texas, near Red r. 

Naden-hadai (X^dAn .ru dd-i, Naden 
river ]>eople ). A subdivision of the 
Koetas, a family of the Raven clan of the 
Haida. Unlike the rest of the family this 
subdivision remained on Queen Charlotte 
ids. and settled on Naden r. Swanton, 
Cont. Haida, 272, 1905. 

Nadohotzosn ( ])oint of the mountain ). 
A band of the Chiricahua Apache (Bourke 
in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 115, 1890), 
essentially the same as the Natootzuznof 
the White Mountain Apache and the Na- 
gosugn of the Final Coyoteros. 

Nadowa. A name, expressing utter de 
testation, applied by various Algonquian 
tribes to a number of their neighboring 
and most inveterate enemies. Its use 
was not limited to the tribes of a single 
linguistic stock, the historical references 
showing that it was applied in some in 
stances, in a modified form, to Eskimo, 
Siouan, and Iroquoian peoples. For syn 
onyms see Kxkinio, Dakota, Iroquois, Iowa, 
THon, and Xoftoira//. 

The etymology of the term is in doubt. 
The analysis proposed bv (lerard (Am. 
An thro p. , vi, 319, 326, 1904), namely, 
he goes to seek flesh to eat, while 
grammatically permissible, is historically 
improbable, being too general. Jn N. 
1 nited states the original application 
of the word appears to have been to vari- 



BULL. SO] 



NAENSHYA NAGUONABE 



ous small, dark-colored poisonous rattle 
snakes, inhabiting the lake and prairie 
regions, such as the Crotalophoms ter- 
gem mus (Sistrurus catenatus), and pos 
sibly to C.kirtlaudi, the black massasauga. 
Cuoq gives as the meaning of the term 
natowe, a "kind of large serpent formerly 
quite common in the neighborhood of 
Michillimakina, i. e.,Mackinac, the flesh 
of which the Indians ate; the Algonkin 
and all nations of the Algonquian tongue 
give this name to thelroquois and to tribes 
of the Iroquoian stock. The Menominee 
(Hoffman) apply the term to the mas- 
sasauga rattlesnake, and the Chippewa 
(Tanner) to a "thick, short rattlesnake." 
In Tanner s list of Ottawa tribal names 
are found Naittowaig, Naudoways, rattle 
snakes, and Matchcuawtoways, bad Nau- 
doways, and in a footnote to the word 
Anego, ant, it is stated that these same 
Naudoway Indians relate a fable of an 
old man and an old woman to the effect 
that these two watched an ant-hill until 
the ants therein became transformed into 
white men, and the eggs which these ants 
were carrying in their mouths were trans 
formed into bales of merchandise. But 
in none of these references are the people 
so named thereby defined in such manner 
that without other information they may 
be recognized by other nomenclature. 

The word "Sioux" is itself an abbrevi 
ation of the diminutive of this term, 
namely, Nadowe-is-iw, literally he is a 
small massasauga rattlesnake, the sense- 
giving part of the word being dropped, 
but signifying enemy, enemies. This 
diminutive form, with the qualifying 
epithet Mascoutens, was a name of the 
Iowa and the Teton. In Virginia the 
term, which became Anglicized into 
"Nottoway," was applied to an Iroquoian 
tribe resident there. In this locality it 
is probable that the name was applied 
originally to the rattlesnake common to 
this eastern region. (.T. x. E. H.) 

Naenshya (NaPnsx a, dirty teeth ). 
The name of two Kwakiutl gentes, one 
belonging to the Koskimo, the other to 
the Nakomgilisala, Boas in Nat. Mus. 
Rep. 1895, 329, 1897. 

Na-gan-nab. See Nagonub. 

Nageuktormiut ( horn people ). A 
tribe of Eskimo who summer at the 
mouth of Coppermine r. and winter on 
Richardson r., Mackenzie Ter., Canada. 

Deer-Horn Esquimaux. Franklin,. lourn. to Polar 
Sea, II, 178, 1824. Na-ge-uk-tor-me-ut. Richard 
son, Arct. Exped., 1,3(52, 1851. Naggiuktop-meut. 
Petitotin Bib. Ling, et Ethnog. Am., in, xi, 1H7(5. 
Naggoe-ook-tor-moe-oot. Richardson in Franklin, 
Second Exped., 174, 1828. Nappa-arktok-towock. 
Franklin, Journ. to Polar Sea, n, 178, 1.824. 

Nagokaydn ( pass in the mountains ). 
A band of the Final Coyoteros at San Car 
los agency, Ariz., in "1881. Bourke in 
Jour /Am. Folk-lore, in, 112, 1890. 



Nagonabe(A%rmafca). A former Chip 
pewa village in lower Michigan (Smith in 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 53, 1851). A chief of this 
name represented a band on "South 
Monistic" r. in 1835 (Mich. Pion. Coll.,xn, 
622, 1 888 ) . See also Nagonub, Naguonabe. 

Nagonub (Niganubl, or Niganub, the 
foremost sitter ). A Chippewa Indian, 
born about 1815, and first mentioned as 
attracting the attention of Gen. Lewis 
Cass by his sprightliness while but a 
mere lad. So well pleased was Cass that 
he gave Nagonub a medal and a written 
token of his precocity. He attained no 
toriety through his spirited and often 
fiery oratory, and his unusually cour 
teous manners won for him the decla 
ration that he was the "beau ideal of 
an Indian chief" (Morse in Wis. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., in, 349, 1857). Nagonub is 
said also to have been an especial favorite 
with the white ladies, whom he greeted 
with the ease and grace of a courtier. He 
signed as first chief of the Fond du Lac 
Chippewa the treaties of La Pointe, Wis., 
Oct. 4, 1842, and Sept. 30, 1854. His 
portrait, painted by J. O. Lewis ;>n<] 
copied by King in 1827, hung in the in- 
diaii Gallery of the Smithsonian build 
ing at Washington, but was destroyed by 
fire in 1865. His name is also written 
Naa-gar-nep, Na-gan-nab, and Naw-gaw- 
nub. (c. T. ) 

Nagosugn. A band of the Pinal Coyo 
teros found in 1881 by Bourke (Jour. Am. 
Folk-lore, in, 112, 1890) at San Carlos 
agency, Ariz.; correlated with the 
Natootzuzn of the White Mountain 
Apache, and with the Nadohotzosn of 
the Chiricah.ua. 

Naguatex. A town and province w. of 
the Mississippi, visited by Moscoso, of 
De Soto s army, in 1542. Located by 
Lewis (Narr. De Soto, 238, 1907) on the 
w. side of Washita r., in the present 
Clark co., Ark. The tribe was evidently 
Caddoan. 

Nagateux Harris, Voy. and Trav., I, 810, 1705. 
Naguatex. Gentl. of Elvas( 1557) iu French, Hist. 
Coll La., n, 19(5,1850. Naguatez. Barton, New 
Views, app., 9, 1798. 

Naguchee (NagutsV). A former im 
portant Cherokee settlement about the 
junction of Soquee and Sautee rs., in Na- 
coochee valley, at the head of Chatta- 
hoochee r., in" Habersham co., Ga. 
meaning of the word is lost, and 
doubtful if it be of Cherokee <>n;j 
may have some connection with 1. 1 
of the Yuchi lndians. 



.-p-d(cl: tedby Mmcj. op. 

cit 28 (probably identical). Nacoochee.-( n - 
mon map form. Nae oche.-Bartram, Travels,3,2, 
1792. Noccocsee.-Royce in nth Rep- A. L.. 

m Naguonabe ( feather end/ according to 
Warren, evidently referring to a feat 
at the end of a row of others) . The civil 



10 



NAUUS NAHCHE 



A. fl. 



chict of th Mille i-ir Chippewa of Mm- 
n-..tu in the first half of the 19th ceii- 
turv. and the principal man of the Wolf 
rlaii. He was descended from a Chip- 
iH>wu woman and a Dakota chief. In 
In-half of his tribe he signed the general 
treaty of Prairie du Chien, Wis., Aug. 
lii, isL .">, and the treaty between the 
Cliippewa an.l the I nited States made 
at F-.nd du Lac. Wis., Aug. J, ISL G. His 
name is also written Nauqnanabee and 
Nag\vunal>ee. 

Nagus i AVfVi.s town inhabited ). A 
town of the Hagi-lanas family of the 
Haida on an inlet on the ,s. w. coast of 
Moresby id.. Queen Charlotte ids., Brit. 
Col. Swan ton, ( out. Maida, 277, 190f,. 

Nagwunabee. See \iiytiuna1n . 

Nahaego. A Shoshoiu-an division for 
merly living in lieese r. valley and about 
Austin in central Nevada. There were 1 
several bands, numbering 580 in 1873. 
Nahaego. -P. .\\cll in lnl. All . Rep. 1*73.. ~>2. 1*7 1. 
Indians. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Juiu- - :. IN.:;. Tutoi band. Ibid. (named from 
Tutoi <>r Totoiiu. tlirir chii-fi. 

Nahane ( people >f the west. A. F. 
C.i. An Athapascan division occupy 
ing the region of British Columbia and 
Yukon Ter. between the Coast range 
and the Rocky mts., from the x. border 
of the Sekani, about f>7 N*., to that of the 
Kutchin tribes. about (>."> x. It com 
prises the Tahltan and Takutiue tribes 
forming the Tahltan division, the Titsho- 
tina and F.tagottine tribes forming the 
Ka-ka division, and the Ksbataottine and 
Abbatotine (considered by IVtitot to be 
the same tribe ), Sa/eutina, Kttchaottine, 
Ktagottine, Kraylongottine, Klokegot- 
tine. and perhaps Lakuyip and Tsetsaut. 
They correspond with I etitot s Montn- 
irnard group, except that he included also 
the Sekani. The laniruagcof the Nahane 
however constitutes a dialect by itself, en 
tirely distinct from Sekani, Carrier, or Ku- 
tchin. The western divisions have been 
powerfully influenced by their Tlingit 
neighbors of \Vrangell. and have adopted 
thesr dan orirani/ation with maternal 
l;; -nt. he potlatch customs of the coast 
triU-H.a.,.1 ,,-ds and expressions 

their langua-e. The t \\ o principal ,<o- 

ialdiyisionsorphratriesaiv called Kaven 

and \\olt.and tin-fart that Sa/eutina and 

Tit.-hotina sen,, to si-niiy Bear people 

and < irons.- people respectively, leads 

.Monce to suspe<-t that these "To ups are 

really phratries or clans. The eastern 

chavc a l ose paternal organization 

like the Sekani and other Athapascan 

;. farther K . According to Morice 

the Nahane have suffered very heavilv 

i white contact. He estimates 

repoj,ulati..natalM)ut 1,000 Con- 

Moruv in Trans. Can. Inst., vn r>17 

- .54. K O-I. See TnMtnn. (] s > 





, . 

nana.-M-Kv in loth 



Kcp X. W. Tribes Can., 88, 1895 (Tlingit name). 
Montagnais. IVtitot. Autour du lac des Esclaves, 
S(i IS U Naa -anee. Petitot quoted by Dall in 
Cont N.A. Ethnol., I, 32, 1877. Na-ai . Dawson 
in Geol Surv. Can. 1887-8, 201B, 1889. Na-ane. 
Morice Notes on W. Denes, 19, 1893. Na-ane- 
ottine, Petitot. MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1865. Na 
an _ n ._p t >titot in Bull. Soe. de Geog. Paris, chart, 
1875. Na" annes. Petitot, Diet, Dene-Dindjie, 
xx, 1876. Nah ane. Morice in Trans. Can. 
Inst., vn, 517, 1901. Nahanes. Morice in Proe. 
Can. Inst., 112, 1889. Nah -anestene. Morice, let 
ter, 1890. Nahanies. Dunn, Hist. Oregon, 79, 1844. 
Nahanis. Duflot de Mofras, Explor. del Oregon, 
n 183,1844. Nahan- ne. Petitot, Autour du lae 
lac des Esclaves, 362, 1891 . Nahannie. Hind, Lab 
rador Penin.,n, 261, 1863. Nahaunies. Hardistyin 
Smithson. Kep. 1866, 311, 1872. Nah-aw -ny. Ross, 
MS. notes on Thine, B. A. E. Napi-an-ottine. 
Petitot, MS. yocab., B. A. E., 1865. Nathannas. 
Mackenzie cited by Morice in Trans. Can. Inst., 
vn, 517, 1901. Nehanes. Bancroft, Nat. Races, 
r, map, 1882. Nehanies. Anderson (1858) in Hind, 
Labrador Penin., n, 260, 1863. Nehannee. 
Bancroft, Nat, Races, I, 149, 1882. Nehannes. 
Ibid., 125, 1874. Nehanni. Latham in Trans. 
Philol. Soc. Loud., 69, 1856. Nehaunajr. Ross, 
Nehaunay MS. vocab., B. A. E. Nehaunees. 
Dall, Alaska, 429, 1870. Nohannaies. Balbi, Atlas 
Ethnog., 821 , 1826. Nohannies. Gallatiri in Trans. 
Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 19, 1836. Nohannis. Prichard, 
Phys. Hist., V. 377, 1S47. Nbhhane. Richard 
son , Arct. Exped., I, 179, 1851. Nohhannies, 
Franklin, Jonrn. Polar Sea, II, 87, 1824. Rocky 
Mountain Indian. Mackenzie, Voy., 163, 1801. 

Nahankhuotane. A part of the Umpqua 
living on Cow cr., Oreg., and commonly 
known as Cow Creeks. By treaty of Sept. 
19, 1853, they ceded their lands in s. w. 
Oregon. They were associated with the 
Tututni and were among those who op 
posed the uprising in 1856. They were 
settled on Grande Eonde res., where 23 
were still living in 1906. 

Ci -sta-qwut ni -li t pat ^unne. Dorsey in Jour. 
Am. Folk-lore, in, 234. 1890 ( people far from 
Rogue r. : Naltunnetunne name). Cow Creek 
band of Indians. V. S. Ind. Treaties, 974, 1873. Cow 
Creeks, Palmer in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1856, 214, 1857. 
Cow Creek Umpquahs. Ibid. .219. Nahanxuotane. 
Gatschet, rmpqua MS. vocab. B. A. E., 1877 (Ump- 
qna name). Se -qwut ^unne, Dorsey, Coquille 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (Mishikhwutmeturine 
name.) 

Nahapassumkeck. A Massachuset vil 
lage, in ]()](), in the x. part of Plymouth 
co., Mass., probably on the coast. Smith 
( 1 ()!(>) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., vi. 
108, 1837. 

Nahawas-hadai (Na xawu n xa da-i, 
watery-house people ). A subdivision 
of the Salendas, a family of the Eagle clan 
of tlu^ llaida. They used to give away 
so much grease at their feasts that the 
floor of their house was said to be "mud 
dy" with it, hence the name. Swanton, 
Cont, Haida, 27, 1905. 

Nahche (No-ai-cJie, mischievous, 
meddlesome. George Wrattan). An 
Apache warrior, a member of the Chi- 
ricahua band. He is the second son of 
the celebrated Cochise, and as hereditary 
chief succeeded his elder brother, Tazi, 
on the death of the latter. His mother 
was a daughter of the notorious Mangas 
Coloradas. As a child Nahche was med- 
dlosonieand mischievous, hence his name. 
Me was the leading spirit in the many 
raids that almost desolated the smaller 



BULL. SO] 



HAHELTA HAIDKN1 



11 



settlements of Arizona and New Mexico 
and of northern Chihuahua and Sonora be 
tween 1 881 and 1886, for which Geronimo, 
i medicine-man and malcontent rather 
;han a warrior, received the chief credit, 
[n the latter ^vear Geronimo s band, so 
called, of whicji Nahche was actually the 
hief, was captured by General Mites and 
aken as prisoners of war successively to 
Florida, Alabama, and finally to Ft Sill, 
)kla., where Nahche still resides, re 
spected by his own people as well as by 
he whites. He is now (1907) about 49 
-ears of age. In his prime as a warrior 
le was described as supple and graceful, 
vith long, flexible hands, and a rather 
mndsome face. His present height is 
ft. lOiin. Col. H.L.Scott (inf n, 1907), 




r four years in charge of the Chiricahua 

isoners in Oklahoma, speaks of Nahche 
a most forcefiitand reliable man, faith- 
tty performing \he duties assigned to 
m as a prisoner, whether watched or 
)t. He was proud and self-respecting, 
id was regarded by the Chiricahua at 
: Sill as their leader. In recent years, 
)wever, he has lost his old-time influ- 
iceaswell as some of his trustworthi- 
iss (inf n from Geo. Wrattan, official 
terpreter, 1907). 

Nahelta (Na-hd-ta}. A subdivision of 
e Chasta (q. v.) tribe of Oregon. Sen. 
s. Doc. 48, 84th Cong., 3d sess., 10, 1873. 
Nahltushkan ( town on outside of 
>int ). A former Tlingit town on 
hitewater bay, w. coast of Admiralty 
., Alaska, belonging to the Hutsnuwu 



people. Pop. 246 in 1880, butsubsequently 

abandoned for Killisnoo. 

Naitu ck-an. Swan ton, Held notes, B. A. E., 19U4. 

Neltu schk -an. Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 118, 188."), 

Scutskon. Petroil in Tenth Census, Alaska, 32, 

1884. 

Nahpooitle. The chief village of the 
Cathlapotle tribe of tiie Chinookan fam 
ily at the mouth of Lewis r., Clarke co., 
Wash. Lyinan in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., 
i, 322, 1900. 

Nahpope ( Nepop", soup ) . A prominent 
warrior of Black Hawk s band of Sauk 
and Foxes in the Black Hawk war of 1 832. 
According to Whittlesey ( Wis. Hist. Coll., 
i, 71-2, 84, repr. 1903) Black Hawk was 
opposed to the war, but was overruled by 
the young men, who were sustained by 
Nahpope, who manifested intense hatred 
of the Americans. He was, however, 
largely influenced by Waupesliek, the so- 
called Prophet. Little has been recorded 
regarding his life. It is known that he 
took an active part in the Black Hawk 
war. and special mention is made of his 
command in the battle of Wisconsin 
heights, on Wisconsin r., near the pres 
ent Sauk City, Wis. Here Nah pope s 
band, reenforced by a score of Black 
Hawk s warriors, made a valiant stand 
to cover the flight of *he main body of 
his people down the bluffs and across the 
river, which was accomplished with slight 
loss. During the night following the bat 
tle the Americans were for a time in a 
panic, caused by the 1 noise in the Indian 
camp, which proved to have been only 
the applause, of a speech by Nahpope in 
which he endeavored to arouse the Win- 
nebago to remain with them in the con 
test. Nahpope continued in the war to 
its close, was captured and imprisoned 
with Black Hawk and his son, and finally 
released with them. While Nahpope was 
confined at Jefferson Barracks, Call in 
painted his portrait, As his name is not 
appended to any treaty made by the Sauk 
and Foxes with the United States, the 
omission may be attributed to his con 
tempt for the Americans. In the summer 
preceding the Black Hawk war he visited 
the English authorities at Ft Maiden, On 
tario, to consult them in regard to the 
rights of the Indians to their lands. After 
his release from prison nothing more is 
heard of him. His name is also written 
Xaapope and Xeapope. 

Nairn (Na -Jni}. The Medicine clan ot 
the Honani (Badger) phratry ol 
Hopi. Stephen in Sth Rep. I 

1.891. 

Nahuey. A former Chumashan v 
near Punsima mission, Santa Barbara 

Nah ajuey . Taylor in Oil. Fanner, Oct. IS, 1801. 
Nahuey. Ibid. 

Naich, Naichi. See Nafohf. 
Naideni. A former Opata pueblo . 
the vicinity of Fronteras, x. K. >ra, 



N A I G N A K A N KG YO 



Mexico. It is probable that the natives of 
ere identical with theNeideniba 



mentioned bv Mota-Padilla in 1742. 

Naideni.-Hand elier in Arch. lust. Papers. IV, 
5!J 1.S-! Neideniba.-Mota-I adilla. Hist de la 
C,.n. |ni-ta.;V>l. 17 IJ( referring to the inhabitants). 
Neideniva*. H id. 

Naig. A former village, presumably 
Co^tunoan. connected with Dolores mis 
sion. San Francisco. Oil. Taylor in Cal. 
Fanner, Oct. 18, IStJl. 

Naikun ( X<~i-iki m, house-point). A 
semi-legendary Ilaida town that stood 
near the famous sand-spit at Graham 
id., Brit. ( ol.. which bears its name. 
Anciently it was occupied by several 
families, "including the fluados, Kuna- 
lanas, and Stlenga-lanas, lint owing to in 
ternal troubles they separated, abandon 
ing the town. Later on the Naikun- 
stustai settled there, and- still later the 
Kuna-lanas returned. John Work, in 
is:{i--41. assigned to Naikun 5 houses and 
H 2 inhabitants. This must have been 
the Knna-lanas town. It has been long 
abandoned. (.r. R. s.) 

Naeku n.-Bna- in 1 Jlh Krp. N. W. Tribes Can., 
_>3. iv.is. Nai-koon. nuwson, Q. Charlotte Ms., 
1MB. lv<0. Na-ikun. Swanton, Cont. Haida, jso, 
! (>"> Ne coon. Sehoolcrat t. Iiul. Tribes, v, 4S<, 
ls.V). Nc-konhade. Krause.Tlinkit Indianer,304, 
ivO. 

Naikun-kegawai (Xd-ikn n (ji^gmm-i, 
tho>e l).irn at Xaiknn ). An impor 
tant familyof the Raven clanof the Haida. 
It seems to have been a sort of aristocratic 
branch of the lluados, receiving its name 
from the old town at Xaikuw, or Rose 
spit, (^ueen Charlotte ids., whence the 
family originally came. They are still 
fairly numerous. After abandoning Xai 
knn they lived a long time at C. Ball 
with the lluados, and moved with them 
to the t wn of Skidegate. (.r. K. s. ) 

Ellzu cathlans coon-hidery, Deans, Tales from the 
Hidi-ry. i:>. Is.t j i . noble- Guhlins-kun peopk- i. 
Nae kun k eraua i. Hoas in f>th Rep. N. W. 
TriJ.es Cull., jf.js.sy; 12th Rep., 2.">, 1XDS. Na-iku n 
qe gaw-i. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 270, 1905. 
NekwunKiiwe. Harrison in Pror. Kov.Soc Can 
M-C. ii. !_>">, ]v.i. ). 

Naila. A former Chnmashan village 
near I urisiina mission, Santa Barbara 
co.. Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. IS 
IHlil. 

Nain. A f. .rmer Moravian mission, 
built in 17. r )7 near the present Bethlehem, 
Pa., and named from theancient town in 
( ialilee. It was established for the con- 
verte<l Indians, chiefly Delawares, who 
wished to live separately from their tribe, 
and for this purpose land was obtained 
from the state government. In May, 17(i. i, 
a new and enlarged chapel was dedicated 
the congregation having increased innuin- 
lx-rs and prosperity. This condition 
however, was of short duration, for be 
fore the ye;ir had closed the unfriendly 
Indians commenced their attacks, and 
noon the congregation was blockaded on 
all sides. In November of the same year 
>ain wjw abandoned, tin; Indians remov 



f B. A. E.| 

ing to Philadelphia in accordance wit 
the order of the governor of Pennsylvania 
Consult Loskiel, Hist. Miss. United Breth 
ren, 1794. See Missions. 

Nain. A Moravian Eskimo mission o 
the E. coast of Labrador, hit 5(5 40 , be 
gun in 1771 (Mind, Lab. Penin., n, 19S 
18(5, ); Thompson, Moravian Missions, 228 

Naique. A former village, presumabl 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mi: 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Ca 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1801. 

Nak. A Knskwogmiut Eskimo villag 
on the x. bank of Kuskokwim r., Alaska 
Nag-miout. Zagoskin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5t 
i., xxi, map, 18-")0. 

Nakai ( white stranger, i.e., Spaniard] 
A Xavaho clan, the members of whic" 
are descended from a white woriian wh 
had been captured by the I te from a set 
tlement in the vicinity of Socorro, X. Mex 
Cf. Xiikaydi. 

Nakai. Matthews in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, nr,l(X 
is .K). Nakai, Matthews, Navaho Legends, 3( 
Ls JT. Nakai0ine. Matthews in Jour. Am. FoH 
lore. o|>. eit. (fnu - people ). Nakai /me .-M 
thews. Navaho Legends. op. eit.. HO. 146. 

Nakaidoklini (? freckled Mexican. - 
Matthews). An Apache medicine-man 
called Babbyduclone, Bardudeclenny 
Bobby-dok-linny, Nakaydoklunni, Xock 
ay-Delklinne, etc., by tlie whites, influen 
tial among the White Mountain Indian 
in 1881, near Camp Apache, Ariz. II 
taught them a new dance, claiming i 
would bring dead warriors to life. In as 
attempt to arrest him, August 30, thf 
Apache scouts with the 1 troops turned! 
upon the soldiers, resulting in a fight ii 
which several were killed on each sidef 
including the medicine-man himself. Se|| 
Bonrke in 9th Rep. B. A. E., 505, 1895 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 704, 189C 

Nakalas-hadai ( X <i!u l<is .m d( 
clay-house people ). A subdivision 
the Koetas, a family of the Raven clan c 
the Haida, living principally in Alaska. - 
Swanton, Cont. Haida, 272," 1905. 

Nakalnas-hadai ( Xu-k Ti/ r/ff.s xa/da- 
empty-house people ). (Jiven by Boa 
( Fifth Re]>. X. W. Tribes Can., 27, 1889 
as a subdivision of the Yakn-lanas, 
familyof the Kaven clan of the Haidt 
but in reality it is only a house-nam 
belonging to that family. 
Na k alnas :had a i. Boas, op. eit. 

Nakanawan (Xa kana imn). A div 
sion of the Caddo. Mooney in 14th Rej 
B. A. Iv, 1092, 189(5. 

Nakankoyo (Xi ikan kt rfo). A form^ 
village of the Maidu at Big Spring, i 
Big meadows, on the x. fork of Feath 
r., I lnmasco., Cal. The name is som 
times used for the people of the who 
valley. (R.B.D.) A 

Nakankoyo. Dixon in I5ull. Am. Mus. Nat. II iff i 
xvn, pt. 3, mup, 1905. Naku. Curtin.MS.vocaW 
B. A. ];., isr> (recorded us a division). 



JULL. 30] 



NAKAKORI NAKOMGIL1SALA 



13 



Nakarori ( many holes in the rocks ). 
^ small ranch eria of the Tarahumare near 
Norogachic, Chihuahua, Mexico. Lum- 
loltz, inf n, 1894. 

Nakasinena ( sagebrush people ). An 
mportant division of the Arapaho, rang- 
ng about the headwaters of the South 
} latte in the region of Pike s Peak and 
lorthward along the foot of Bighorn 
ats. and on Powder r. , in Colorado and 
Vyoming. Although not the largest 
livision, they claimed to be the mother 
>eople of the Arapaho. They were com- 
ooiily known to the whites as Northern 
Arapaho and to the rest of the tribe as 
Saachinena. See Arapaho. (j. M. ) 

ta achinena. Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 954, 
896. BEakuune na". Kroeber in Bull. Am. Mus. 
, at. Hist., xvm, 7, 1902 ( blood-soup men : S. 
irapaho name). Baa n tctiine na. Ibid, ( red- 
/illow men ). Na kasine na. Mooney, op. cit. 
Ta-ka-si -nin. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. 
r al., 321, 1862. Nanabine_ na. Kroeber, op. cit. 
northern, men ) . Na"k haa"seine na". Ibid, 
sagebrush men ). Northern Arapaho. Mooney, 
p. cit. 

Nakatkhaitunne ( people of the village 
bove ). A former Tututni village on 
he N. side of Rogue r. , Oreg. 

fa -kat-qai - :runne. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk- 
jre, in, 233, 1890 (own name). Na -kut-qe 
inne . Ibid. (Xaltunnetunne name.) 

Nakaydi (the name refers to the Mexi- 
an mode of walking with toes turned 
ut; cf. Nakai). A clan among the White 
lountain Apache, composed of descend- 
nts of Mexican captives and their Apache 
aptors (Bourke in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
[i, 114, 1890). They correspond to the 
Jakai of the Navaho and the Tidendaye 
f the Chiricahua. 

Nakeduts-hadai (Na q. e dAts j-a da-i, 
people of the house that went away 
iscouraged ). A subdivision of the 
r aku-lanas, a great family of the Raven 
Ian of the Haida; probably the name 
;as taken from that of a house. Swan- 
Dn, Cont. Haida, 272, 1905. 

Nakeduxo (NakZ duxo}. A summer vil- 
ige of the Utkiavinmiut Eskimo in 
Jaska. Murdoch in 9th Rep. B. A. E., 
3, 1892. 

Nakhituntunne (Xa-qi -tuniun nc, peo- 
le at the two roads ). A former village 
f the Mishikhwutmetunne on Coquille 
., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
:i, 232, 1890. 

Nakhochatunne (Na -qo-tcd lunne]. A 
>rmer village of the Mishikhwutmetunne 
n Coquille r., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. 
,m. Folk-lore, m, 232, 1890. 

Nakhopani ( brown streak, horizontal 
n the ground ). A Navaho clan which 
ad its origin s. of Zuni pueblo, N. Mex., 
ear the salt lake called Naqopa by the 
lavaho, whence the name, 
a/iopani. Matthews, Navaho Legends, 30, 1897. 
aqopani. Matthews in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 
)3, 1890. 

Nakhotodhanyadi (Naqotod/;aa"yadi, al- 
gator people ). A Biloxi clan. Dorsey 
1 15th Rep. B. A. E., 243, 1897. 



Nakhpakhpa ( take down leggings ) . A 
band of the Brule Teton Sioux. 
Natipatipa. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B A E 218 
1897. Naqpaqpa. Ibid. 

Nakhtskum. A Yurok village on lower 
Klamath r. , between Meta and Shregegon, 
x. w. Cal. A. L. Kroeber, infn, 1905. 

Nakila ( Na-qi -la ) . Given as a former 
Takelma village on the s. side of Rogue 
r., Oreg., about 10 m. above Yaasitun. 
Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in 235 
1890. 

Nakkawmininiwak ( men of divers 
races ) . A mixed tribe of Cree and Chip- 
pewa on Saskatchewan r., N. W. Ter., 
Canada. 

Nakkawmininiwak. Belcourt (m. 1850) in Minn 
Hist. Soc. Coll., I, 227, 1872. Nakoukouhirinous. 
Bacqueville de la Potherie, Hist. Am., i, 170, 1753. 

Naknahula ( Naxua/xnla, ? rising above 
other tribes ). A gens of the Koekso- 
tenok, a Kwakiutl tribe. Boas in Rep. 
Nat. Mus. 1895, 330, 1897. 

Nakoaik. A former Chinook town on 
the s. side of Columbia r., Oreg. 

Naqoa ix. Boas, infn, 1905. Navuaiv. Gatschet, 
MS., B. A. E., 1877. 



Nakoaktok (Nd q oaqttiq, or Xd k. waj - 
da ? -x f , ten-gens tribe ). A Kwakiutl 
tribe on Seymour inlet, Brit. Col., with the 
Gyeksem, * Kwakokutl, Sisintlae, Tsitsi- 
melekala, and AValas gentes, according 
to Boas. According to Dawson the win 
ter town of these people in 1885 was in 
Blunderi harbor, to which they had 
moved from an older town, Kikwistok. 
Their summer village was named Mapa- 
kum, and they had a fishing station called 
A wuts. Pop. 104 in 1901, 90 in 190(5. 

Nahcoktaws. Brit. Col. map, 1872. Nah-keoock- 
to. Boas in Bull. Am. Geog. Soc., 22(5, 1887. 
Nah-keuch-to. Sproat in Can Ind. Aft ., 118, 1879. 
Nah-knock-to. Can. Ind. Aff. 1883, pt, I, 190, 1884. 
Nahkwoch-to. Sproat, op. cit,, 145. Nahwahta. 
Can. Ind. Aff., pt, II, 166, 1901. Na k-oartok 1 . Boas 
in 6th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 53, 1890. Nakok- 
taws. Brit. Col. map, 1872. Nakwahtoh. Tolmie 
and Pawson, Vocabs. Brit. Col., 118B, 1881. Nak- 
wartoq. Boas in Bull. Am. Geog. Soc., 226, 1S87. 
Na k!wax da !: x". Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist v pt. n, 322, 1902. Na -kwok-to. Davvson 
in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., sec. u, 65, 1887. Na q - 
oaqtoq. Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 329, 1897. 
Naqoartoq. Boasin IVtermanns Mitt., pt. 5, 130, 
1887. Nar-kock-tau. Kane, Wand, in N. A., app., 
1859. Nuk wul tub. Tolmie and Dawson, op. cit., 

119B. 

Nakolkavik. A Kuskwogmiut Eskimo 

village on the left bank of Kuskokwim r., 
near the mouth, Alaska. Pop. 193 in 
1880. 

Nacholchavigamut. Spurr and Post quoi 
Baker Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1902. Naghaikhlaviga- 
mute.-PetrolV, Rep. on Alaska m.-ip, 1 
ghikhlavigamute. Ibid., 17. Nakolkavik. 

P Nakomgilisala (Xa<i6 mg Uisal<t, J al 
ways staying in their country ) . A Kwa 
kiutl tribe which formerly lived at < 
Scott, at the N. end of Vancouver id., but 
has since moved to Hope id., farthers. 
This and the Tlatlasi koala together re 
ceive the name of Nawiti from the whiten. 
The two tribes numbered 73 in 1897. 
Nakomgilisala gentes are Gyeksem and 
Naenshya. 



14 



NAKON 



S-IIADAI NAMASSINGAKENT 



[B.A.J 



Nak-o mgyilisila.-Hoas in . h Rep. \ \V.. ] v ., 
Can M.IMHI Naqo mg ihsala. Roasin Re] . N, i. 
M s. 1SH5 3" .> 1 . Naqomqilis.-B.Mis in Bull, 
iiii (ii oK Soc "26 1**7. Ne-kum .-ke-lis-la. 
],.i\ki I |iM.ixitiotedT>vDa\vson in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Can sec II, 65, 18*7. Nokumktesilla.-Brit. Col. 

" Nakoiis-hadai (X<t yon* .nVtfa~i, great- 
house people ). A sulxlivision ot the 
Yadus, a family of the l-lagle clan of the 
Haida, named from one of their houses. 
The Yadus were a part of the Stustas 
^ ([ v ). Swanton,Cont. Haida, 276, 1905. 

Nakoshkeni (XdkoxhX " , place of the 
dam i. A former Modoc settlement at 
the junction of Lost r. with Tule lake, 
( ) n>t r. ( Jatschet in Cont. N. A. Kthnol., n, 
pt. i, xxxii. 1S90. 

Nakotchokutchin. A Kntchin tribe 
dwelling on the lower Mackenzie r.. x. of 
the Kawchodinneh, in lat. n S N., Ion. 
i:;:; w. Their hunting grounds are i:. ot 
the Marken/.ie as far as Anderson r., and 
their chief game is the caribou. In for 
mer days they w aired intermittent warfare 
against the Kskimoof Macketi/ie r., with 
whom, however, they havealways traded. 
Their men numbered .">() in 1S66. 
Bastard. Da wson in Rep. (ieol. Surv. Can. for 
isss, J(Hn, 1 *-* .. Gens de la Grande Riviere. Ross, 
MS. notes on Tinne, H. A. K. Loucheux. Frank 
lin, .lourn. I olar Sen, 261. 1*21. Mackenzie s R. 
Louchioux. Ross, MS. notes on Tinne. H. A. K. 
Nakotcho-Kuttchin. I etitot in Bull. Soc. deGeog. 
1 arK cliart, 1*75. Nakotchpo-ondjig-Kouttchin. 
I etitot. Autour du lac ties Ksclaves, 361, 1891 (= 
people of the river with Idyll banks ). Nako- 
tch,,6 ondjig-Kuttchin. I etitot, Diet. Dene-Din- 
djie. xx. 1*76. Na-kutch-oo-un jeek. (iibbs. MS. 
notes from Rossi . half-caste Indians ). Na - 
kutch-u -un-juk ku tchln. Ross, MS. notes on 
Tinne. 174. H. A. K. 

Nak.raztli ( it flowed with arrows of 
the enemy 1 ). A village of the Niko/li- 
autiu at the outlet of Stuart lake, Brit. 
Col. Pop. 17S in 1901 , h)2 iu 1906. 
Na-ka-ztli. Morice in Trans. Can. Inst.. 188. isyi). 
Na kraztli. Ibi<l. Na kraztti. Morice in Trans. 
lioy. Soc. Can., .\, ]ui, l* l .i 2. 

Nakuimana (Xt i kuimaiKt, bear peo 
ple i. A local band of the (Southern) 
Cheyenne. (.1. M. ) 

Nakuntlun. The original village of the 
Tsilkotin, on Nakuntluu lake at the 
head of Salmon r., Brit. ( ol., and once the 
mo>t populous, but now almost deserted. 

Nakoontloon. Tolinie and Da w son. Vocabs. Brit. 
Col., 122U. 1*^1. Nakunt lun. Morice in Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Can., x. in 1 . , 1* .2. Tsoolootum. (Jainsby 
in Can. I ac. Ry. liep., 17 .t, 1*77. 

Nakwutthume ( Xd -yi il-fcii -iiu , at the 
gniss higher up the st ream ). A former 
village of the ( hetco on ( hetco r. , ( )re<jf. , 
above all their other \ illaires. Dorsey in 
Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, L . Ji;, IS .M). 

Nalekuitk ( X<~i li kn //./). A elan of the 
Wikeno, a Kwakiutl tribe. Boasin Kep. 
Nat. Mns. 1S<)."), :;-_ S, 1S!)7. 

Nalkitgoniash. A .Micmac village or 
band in 17 K), perhaps in Nova Scotia. 
!>> 07*10) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st 

Naltunnetunne ( people among the 
mushrooms ). An Athapascan tribe for- 



merly living on the coast of Oregon b 
twee n the Tututniand the Chetco. Tlu 
were not divided into villages, and had 
dialect distinct from that of the Tututn 
Thesurvivors are now onSiletzres., Oreg 
numbering 77 in 1877, according to Yi 
tor (Overland Mo., vn, 847, 1877). 
Nal -te-ne-me lunne. Dorsey, Chetco MS. vocal 
H V K 1SS4. Nal teneiuniie . Dorsey. Tutu M 
vocab.,I5.A.E.J8S4. Nal -tun-ne junne . Dorse 
in. lour. Am. Folk-lore, ill, 236, 1890. Noltanana. 
Ncwcoinb in Ind. A if. Rep., 162, 1861. Noltns 
nah.Ind.AfY. Rep. 1867, 62, 1868. Nolt-nat-nahs. 
Ind. AiY. Rep.. 470, 1865. Noltonatria. Ind. A 
Rep oOO 1877 Nootanana. Ind. Art . Rep. 18t 
505 1864. Nult-nort-nas. Ind.Aff.Rep.,495, 186 
Nul-to-nat-na. Siletz agency roll, 1884. Null 
nat -tene. Everette, Tutu MS. vocab., B. A. f 
1883 (trans., people by the ocean ). 

Nama (Xui ii, sturgeon ). A gens 
the Chippewa. See NameuUini. 

Na-ma. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 166, 1877. Nama. 
Wm. Jones, in f n, 1906. Name. Gatschet, Ojilnv 
MS.. }\. A. K., 1882. Numa. Warren (185 2) J 
Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 45, 1885. 

Namabin ( \r,tnt"ihni, sucker ) . A gei 
of the Chippewa. 

Nah-iha-bin. Tanner, Narr., 315, 1830 <tran 
carp . Nam-a -bin. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 10, 
1S77 i trans, carp ). Namabin. Wm. Jono 
inf n. I .tlHl (siir. sucker ). Numa-bin. Warro 
(1S52) in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 45, 
(sucker 1 ). 

Namakagon. A former village of th 
Munominikasheenhug division of th 
Chippewa at upper St Croix lake, w. 
cousin. 

Num-a quag-um. Ramsey in Ind. Aft". Rep., 8( 
1S50. 

Namanu ( beaver ). A sUbphratry 
gens of the Menominee. Hoffman in 14t 
Rep. B. A. K, 4 2, 1S<)(>. 

Namasket (from ixiinaus fish , a 
land, et at. .). N. H. II). A tribe 
band formerly living in a village of th 
same name about the site of Middleborc 
Mass. They were subordinate to tl 
Wampanoag. The village was populou 
Avheu lirst known, but the Indians ra^ 
idly decreased as the white settlemen 
advanced. In 1794 there were still aboi 
40. One family, named Mitchell, sti 
resides (1907) near Middleboro andclai 
descent from King Philip. A member i 
this family wears a so-called Indian cos 
tume (see ]S ew England Mag., 392, Dec 
1905). (j. M. F. o. 8.) 

Lamasket. Hinckley (1685) in Mass. Hist. Soc 
Coll., 4th *., v, 133, 1861 (misprint). Namascet.- 
Dee in Smith (1629), Va., II, 227, repr. 1819. Na 
maschet. Monrt (1622) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 
2<1 s.. ix, 52, 1822. Namascheucks. Monrt (1622] 
ibid., i.v. 52, 1822. Namasket. Dernier (1620] 
ibid. Namassachusett. Records (1644), ibid., VI] 
137, I*l,s. Namassakett. Bradford (ra. 1650), ibid. 
4th s., in, 1(13, 1856. Namassekett. Cotton (1674] 
ibid., Ists., 1,200, 1*06. Nemascut. Church (1716 
quoted l>y Drake, Ind. Wars, 75, 1825. Nemasket.- 
Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 9, 1848. Nummastaquyt.- 
Denner (1611)) quoted by Drake, ibid., bk.2,20. 

Namassingakent. A village of the Pow 
hatan confederacy existing in 1608 on th 
s. bank of the Potomac in Fairfax co. 
Va. Smith (1(529), Va., i, map, repr 
1819. 



BULL. 30] 



NAMATHA NAMBE 



15 



Namatha (Na-ma-tha , turtle ). A 
gens of the Shawnee. Morgan, Anc. 
Soc., 168, 1877. 

Namaycush. One of the names of the 
lake trout (Salmo namaycush), Macki 
naw trout, or great lake trout, called 
togue in Maine; from namekus, which in 
the Cree dialect of Algonquian signifies 
trout , the Chippewa word being name- 
gos. Namekus is a diminutive of nameiv, 
fish . The word originated in x. w. 
Canada. See Togue. (A. p. c. ) 

Nambe (from Nam-be-e, the native 
name, probably referring to a round hill 
or a round valley). A Tewa pueblo, 




NAMBE MAN (POTSHUNOJ 

situated about 16 "m. N.~ of Santa Fe, 
N. Mex., on Nambe r., a small tributary 
of the Rio Grande. It became the seat 
of a Franciscan mission early in the 17th 
century, but was reduced to a visita of 
Ppjoaque in 1782. Like Santa Clara and 
Sia this pueblo doubtless owes its decline 
to the constant intertribal execution for 
supposed evil practices of witchcraft (Ban- 
delier in Arch. Inst. Pap., in, 35, 1890). 
Pop. 79 in 1890, 100 (est.) in 1904. The 
Nambe" people claim to have once inhab 
ited the now ruined pueblos of Agawano, 
Kaayu, Keguayo, Kekwaii, Kopiwari, and 
Tobhipangge. The Nambe clans, so far as 
known, are Cloud (Owhu), Birch (Nana), 



Fire (Pa), Mountain Lion (Qen) Ea<*le 
(Tse), Bear (Ke), Tobacco (Sa), Sun 
(Tan, extinct), Calabash (Po). Ant 
(Kungyi), Earth (Nang), Grass (Ta) 
See Pueblos, Tewa. ( F . w .) 

Mambe. Ward in Ind. AfT. Rep. 1867 212 1868 
Mambo.-Ward, ibid., 1864, 191, 1865. Na-im-bai.- 




NAMBE GIRL (pABLA TAFOLLA) 

Jouvenceau in Oath. Tion.. i, no. 9, 12. 1906. 
Na-imbe. Bandolier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 
124, 1890. Na-im-be. Ibid., 260 (own name of pue 
blo). Na-i-mbi. Ibid., iv, 83. 1892 (or Nambe"). 
Kamba. Bent (1849) in Cal. Mess, and Corres., 
211 1850 Nambe. MS. en. 1715 quoted by Ban- 
del ier in Arch. Inst. Papers, v, 193, 1890. 
Nambe D Anville, map Am. Sept., 1746. Nam- 
behun Gatschet, Isleta MS. voeab., B. A. E.,1886 
(Isleta name for the people; sing. Nainbe-huide). 



VAMKAI d NAMES AND NAMING 




rt,! lftriilTitiMi-x., 111,317,1871. St. Fran- 
cii. Shea. < ath. Miss., Ml. ]>">">. Vampe. 1 ike, 
Kx|-l..*linap. l*in. 

Nameaug (Mahiean: name-attic, i 
place. r where fish are taken. Trum- 
Imll). A former village near the site of 
NYw London, Conn., in which some of 
the con<iuered Pequot were settled in 1647 
under the dominion of the Mahiean. The 
last chief died about 1740, but there were 
-till a considerable number of Indians 
there in 17^. (.1. M.) 

Mameae. Kendall, Trav.. I. W2. 1809. Mame- 
eag. -Stili-s (17.1 J) in Muss. Hist. Soc. Coll.. Ms., 
\ iul-iu:>. isi .i. Namcet. Mason (1( >")9), ibid., 
4th s vn; 42:5. 18i;.->. Nameacke. Doc. cited by 
Tnunbull, Iii.l. Names Conn., 31. issl. Name- 
age Mason i IdlS), ihil.. 11H. Nameaug. Hoyt, 
\ntiii. Kes.. (VJ. 1821. Nameeag. -Deed (lf.nl) 
quoted by Drake, Hk. Inds.. bk. 2, 110, 1S4S. 
Nameock. Trnmbnll, Ind. Names Conn.. 3I.1SS1. 
Nameocke. Hopkins (lM<n in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll 4th s.. VI, 334, 18C.3. Nameoke. Drake, Bk. 
Inds.. bk. 2. 9. r >, 1^18. Nameug. Williams (lf>17) 
in Ma-. Hist. Soc. ( ..11.. 3d s., l.\. 2(18, IMC,. 
Nameugg. Dor. cited by Truinbull, Ind. Names 
Ci.nn.. :U, l vs l. Nammiog. Ibid. Namyok. 
Ibid. Tawawag. Ibid.. 72. Tawawog. Deed of 
li::>t in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., X. 101-103,1809. 
Tfrwawog. Kendull, Trav., i. 292, 1809. 

Namequa. The only daughter of Black 
Hawk (]. v.), regarded as one of the 
handsomest of the Sank maidens of her 
time. A young Baltimorean of high so 
cial standing, being on a visit to Ft Madi 
son. lo\va, became enamored of her and 
would have made her his wife but for the 
opposition of his Iriends. Namequa ap- 
{x-ars to have been ever faithful to her 
father s interests and to his memory, and 
after reaching maturer years, and even 
after her marriage, was a constant help 
to her mother, especially during her fath 
er s imprisonment and after his death in 
1*K (c. T.) 

Nameroughquena. A viliageof the Tow- 
hatan confederacy in Kids, in the present 
Alexandria <<>., Ya., on the s. hank of the 
1 otumac, opposite NN ashin^ton, I). ( . 
S^mh (HiL".n, Va.. i. map, repr. lsl<). 
^X^Names and Naming. Amon^r thi^ In 
dians personal names were j^iven and 
changed at the critical epochs of life, such 
a* birth, puberty, the lirst war expedi 
tion, some notable feat, elevation to chief 
tainship, and, finally, retirement from 
active life was marked by the adoption 
of the name of one s son. In general, 
names may he divided into two classes: 
(1) True names, corresponding to our 
ixTHoiial names, and (! ) names -which 
answer rather to our titles and honorary 
appellations. The former define or indi 
cate the Hoeial group into which a man is 



born, whatever honor they entail being 
due to the accomplishments of ancestors, 
while the latter mark what the individual 
has done himself. 

There are characteristic: tribal differ 
ences in names, and where a clan system 
existed each clan had its own setof names, 
distinct from those of all other clans, and, 
in the majority of cases, referring to the 
totem animal, plant, or object At the 
same time there were tribes in which 
names apparently had nothing to do with 
totems, and some such names were apt 
to occur in clans having totemic names. 
Most Siouan clans and bands had names 
that were applied in a definite order to the 
hoys and girls born into them. AMohave 
child born out of wedlock received some 
ancient name, not commonly employed 
in the tribe. Among the interior Salish, 
where there were no clans, names were 
usually inherited in both the male and 
female lines for several generations, 
though new names were continually in 
troduced that were taken from dreams 
or noteworthy events. Loskiel records 
that a Delaware child was often named 
in accordance with some dream that had 
come to its father. According to Ross, 
a father among some of the northern 
Athapascan tribes lost bis name as soon 
as a male child was born and was hence 
forth called after the name of his son- 
a Thlingchadinne changed his name after 
the birth of each successive child, while 
an unmarried man was known as the 
child of his favorite dog. Among the 
Maidu infants might be named with ref 
erence to some incident occurring at the 
time of birth, but many received no 
names other than such general appella 
tions as child, baby, or boy, until 
they were old enough to exhibit some 
characteristic which suggested something 
appropriate. The father and mother ad 
dressed a boy all his life by his boyhood 
name. A girl, however, received differ 
ent successive names at puberty, child 
birth, and in old age. TheKiowa, being 
without elans, received names suggested 
by some passing incident or to commemo 
rate a warlike exploit of some ancestor. 
Sometimes, however, they were heredi 
tary, and in any case 1 , they were bestowed 
by the grandparents to the exclusion of 
the parents. Young men as they grew 
up usually assumed dream names, In obe 
dience to visions. 

The naming of a rich man s child 
among the coast Salish was accompanied 
by a great feast and distribution of prop 
erty, and an invited chief publicly an 
nounced the name given. Names even 
originally belonging to the higher class 
were bestowed upon young people 
among the Haida and Tlingit when 
their relatives had potlatches, and it 



BULL. 30] 



NAMES AND NAMING 



17 



thus resulted that names individually 
acquired became in time hereditary and 
were added to the list of common names 
owned by the clan. 

The second name, or title, was some 
times, as has been said, bestowed on 
account of some brave or meritorious 
action. Thus a Pawnee " was permitted 
to take a new name only after the per 
formance of an act indicative of great 
ability or strength of character," and it 
was done during a public ceremonial. 
Among the Siouan tribes a similar cus 
tom seems to have prevailed, but among 
the Maidu of California entrance into the 
secret society took its place as a reason 
for the bestowal of new titles. On the 
N. W. coast a man adopted one of the 
potlatch, or sacred, names of his pred 
ecessor when he gave the mortuary 
feast and erected the grave post. At 
every subsequent potlatch he was at 
liberty to adopt an additional title, either 
one used by his predecessor or a new 
one commemorative of an encounter with 
a supernatural being or of some success in 
war or feast-giving. Along with his place 
in a secret society a Kwakiutl obtained 
the right to certain sacred names which 
had been received by the first holder of 
his position from the spirit patron of the 
society and \vere used only during the 
season of the ceremonial, like the titles 
employed in the fraternal and other 
societies of civili/ed life. The second 
name among this people also marks indi 
vidual excellence rather than the attain 
ment of an hereditary position, for the 
person did not succeed to the office, but 
had to pass through a long period of 
training and labor to be accepted. After 
a man died his name was held in abey 
ance for a longer or shorter period, and 
if it were taken from the name of some 
familiar object, the name of that object 
often had to be altered, but the taboo 
period was not longer than \vould aiiow 
the person s successor to collect his prop 
erty and give the death feast, and a sim 
ple phonetic change often satisfied all 
scruples. Changes of this kind seem to 
have been carried to greater extremes by 
some tribes, notably the Kiowa, where, 
on the death of any member of a family 
all the others take new names, while all 
the terms suggesting the name of the 
dead person are dropped from the lan 
guage for a period of years. Among the 
coast Salish a single name was often 
used by successive chiefs for four or 
five generations. Among the Iroquois 
and cognate tribes, according to Hewitt, 
the official name of a chieftaincy is also 
the official name of the officer who may 
for the time being become installed in it, 
and the name of this chieftaincy is never 
changed, no matter how many persons 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 2 G/ 2 



may successively become incumbents of 
it. Unlike the Indians of most tribes a 
Pueblo, although bearing several names 
usually retained one name throughout 
life. In many tribes a curious custom 
prohibited a man from directly address 
ing his wife, his mother-in-law, and 
sometimes his father-in-law, and vice 
versa. 

Names of men and women were usually, 
though not always, different. When not 
taken from the totem animal, they were 
often grandiloquent terms referring to the 
greatness and wealth of the bearer, or they 
mightcommemorate some special triumph 
of the family, while, as among the Xavaho, 
nicknames referring to a personal charac 
teristic were often used. The first name 
frequently refers to something which es 
pecially impressed the child s mother at 
the time of its birth. Often names wen- 
ironical and had to be interpreted in a 
manner directly opposite to the apparent 
sense. A failure to understand this, along 
with faulty interpretation, has brought 
about strange, sometimes ludicrous, mis 
conceptions. Thus the name of a I >ak< >tn 
chief, translated Young-man-afraid-of- 
his-horses, really signifies Young man 
whose very horses are feared." Where 
the clan system did not flourish, as 
among the Salish, the name often in 
dicated the object in nature in which 
a person s guardian spirit was supposed 
to dwell. Names for houses, and canoes 
went by families and clans like personal 
names and property in general. 

Names could often be loaned, pawned, 
or even given or thrown away outright; 
on the other hand, they might be adopted 
out of revenge without the consent of the 
owner. The possession of a name was 
everywhere jealously guarded, and it was 
considered discourteous or even insulting 
to address one directly by it. This reti 
cence, on the, part of some Indians at lea.-t, 
appears to have been due to the fact that 
every man, and every thing as well, was 
supposed to have a real name which so 
perfectly expressed bin inmost nature as 
to be practically identical with him. 
This name might long remain unknown 
to all, even to its owner, but at some crit 
ical period in life it was confidentially 
revealed to him. It was largely on ac 
count of this sacred character that an In 
dian commonly refused to give his proper 
designation, or, when pressed for an an 
swer, asked someone else? to speak it. 
Among the Maidu it was not customary, 
in addressing a person, to use the name 
descriptive of his personal characteristics. 

In modern times the problem of satis 
factorily naming Indians for purposes of 
permanent record has been very pu/- 
zling owing to their custom of changing 
names and to the ignorance on the part 



18 



NAMKriLINT NAMPA IMAGE 



[ B. A. E. 



of persons in authority of native cus 
toms and methods of reckoning descent. 
According to Mooney, Setimkia, Bear 
hearing down (an antagonist), thejion- 
oraMe war name of a noted Kiowa 
chief, is mistranslated Stumbling-Bear. 
Tenepiabi, Bird coming into sight , has 
I een popularly known as Humming 
bird since he was a prisoner in Florida 
in 1S75, probably a mistake for Coining 
bird. Hajo, a Creek war title signifying 
recklessly bravo, is popularly rendered 
cra/y, as in the case of Chito Hajo, 
leader of the Creek opposition to allot 
ment, whose name is popularly and offi 
cially rendered Cra/.y Snake/ Even 
when translated correctly an Indian name 
often conveys an impression to a white 
man quite the reverse of the Indian con 
notation. Thus StinkingSaddlelUanket 
(Takaibodal) might be considered an op- 
probious epithet, whereas it is an honor 
ary designation, meaning that the bearer 
of it, a Kiowa, was on the warpath so con 
tinuously that he did not have time to 
take off his saddle blanket. Vnable-to- 
buy, the name of a llaida chief, instead 
of indicating his poverty, commemorates 
an occasion when a rival chief did not 
have enough property to purchase a cop 
per plate he offered for sale. 

In recent years the Office of Indian Af 
fairs has made an effort to systematize 
the names of some of the Indians for the 
purpose of facilitating land allotments, etc. 
By circular issued Dec. 1, 1902, the office 
set forth the following principles govern 
ing the recording of Indian names on 
agency rolls, etc.: (1) The father s name 
should l>e the family surname; (2) the 
Indian name, unless too long and clumsy, 
should he preferred to a translation; 
(. >) a clumsy name may be arbitrarily 
shortened (by one familiar with the lan 
guage) without losing its identity; (4) 
if the use of a translation seems neces 
sary," or if a translation has come into 
such general and accepted use that it 
ought to be retained, that name should 
be written as one word. 

Consult Boas in Kep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 
181*7; Cook in I nd. Aff. Kep. 1904, 423-427, 
1905; Dixon in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
xvii, pt. ?>, M)i)5; .}. (). horsey in 3d 
Rep. B. A. K., lss-4; Fletcher in Am 
Anthrop., Jan. 1899; Hill-Tout (1) in Kep. 
Brit. A. A. S., 1902, (2) in Am. Anthrop., 
vn, no. 4, 1905; (iatschet, Creek Migr. 
Leg., I, M, 1884-88; Loskiel, I list, of Mis 
sions of I nited Brethren, 1794; Mooney, 
Calendar Hist. Kiowa, 17th Rep. B. A. !! 
1898; JJiggs, Dakota-Kng. Diet., 1852; 
Sapir in Am. Anthrop., i\, no. 2, 1907; 
Speck, ibid.; Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., n, no. 4, 1900. (.1. u. s. ) 

Nameuilini ( AY/ ////////?/////, sturgeon 
man. \V. .1.). A band living x. w. of 



L. Superior, between Rainy lake and L. 
Nipigon, in Algoma, Ontario, about 1760. 
Chauvignerie says their totem was a stur 
geon. They are* probably the Nama gens 
of the Chippewa. 

Kinongeouilini. St Pierre (1753) in Margry, Dec., 
VI, 644, 1886. Nakonkirhirimms. Dobbs, Hudson 
B.iy, 23, 1744. Namawinini. YVm. Jones, inf n, 
1901). Nameanilieu. Schoolcraft, I ml. Tribes, in, 
556, 1S53 (misprint). NameSilinis. Chauvignerie 
(1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist,, IX, 1054, 1855. 
Namewilinis. Doc. of 1736 in \Vis. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
xvn, 246, 1906. Sturgeon In.dians. Dobbs, Hudson 
Bay, 13, 1744. 

Namoit. A village of a tribe of the 
Chinookan family formerly situated on 
the Columbia side of Sauvies id., Oreg., 
near its lower end. According to Lane 
(hid. Aff. Kep., 11)1, 1850) the inhabitants 
in 1850 were associated with the Cathla- 
eumup and Katlaminimim. Nothing 
-more is known of them. (L. F. ) 

Mamnit. Gairdner, after Framboise (1835), in 
Jour. Geog. Soc. Lond., xi, 255, 1841. Nah-moo- 
itk. Lyman in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., 1,322, 1900. 
Namo itk. Boas, inf n, 1905. Namowit. Ross, 
Adventures, 106, 1S49. Naw-moo-it. Ibid., 236. 

Namontack. A trusted Powhatan Ind- 
dian whom Powhatan gave to Capt. New 
port in 1608 in return for the English boy, 
Thomas Savage, left with the former for 
the purpose of gaining knowledge of the 
language, manners, customs, and geog 
raphy of tidewater Virginia. Namontack 
was of shrewd and subtle character, and 
proved of service to the English in pre 
venting attack and in obtaining needed 
corn (Smith, Works, Arber ed., 128, 1884). 
He was subsequently sent to England, 
and on the way back, in 1610, was mur 
dered in the Burmudas by an Indian 
companion. 

Nampa image. A. small human figure of 
baked clay, 1 in. in height, apparently in 
tended to represent a female. It is so 
much injured by exposure that the fea 
tures are entirely destroyed and the 
hands and feet are missing. It derives its 
archeological interest from the fact that it 
is said to have been brought from a depth 
of 320 ft by an artesian well sand-pump, 
at Nampa, Idaho, in 1889. According to 
Emmons, the formations in which the 
pump was operating are of late Ter 
tiary or early Quaternary age; and the 
apparent improbability of the occurrence 
of a well-modeled human figure in de 
posits of such great antiquity has led to 
grave doubt as to its authenticity. It is 
one of those discoveries which, on ac 
count of the importance of the prob 
lems involved, requires definitive veri 
fication. It is interesting to note that 
the age of this object, supposing it to be 
authentic, corresponds with that of the 
incipient man whose bones w r ere recently 
recovered by Dubois from the late Ter 
tiary or early Quaternary formations of 
Java, and it follows that the autochthon 
ous American sculptor had produced this 



BULL. 30] 



NAMSKAKET N AN A B( >ZH< ) 



beautifully formed" iigure of a woman 
at a period when the Master of the Uni 
verse had succeeded only in blocking out 
the first rude suggestion of the human 
form divine in the Old World. 

The history of this specimen is given 
by Wright in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., Jan. 1890, and Feb. 1891. Em- 
mons statement regarding the age of the 
formations involved is given in the same 
connection. Its authenticity is ques 
tioned by Powell in Pop. Sci. Monthly, 
July, 1893. (w. n. H.)" 

Namskaket. A Nauset village on or 
near Namskaket cr., Barnstableco., Mass. 
The Indians sold the site in 1644. 
Naamskeket. Freeman (1792) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 1st s., I, 232, 1806. Naemschatet. Bradford 
(ra. 1(540), ibid., 4th s., in, 373, 1856. Namskeket. 
Morton (1668) quoted by Drake, Ind. Wars, 276, 
1825. Naumskachett. Bradford ( ra.J.650) in Mass 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., in, 219, 1856. 

Namukatsup. A former Chitiniacha 
village in St Martins parish, La. 

Bayou Chene village. Gatsehet in Trails. Anthrop. 
Soc. Wash., n, 152, 1883. Namu katsup. Ibid. 
(n<irm*= village ). 

Namumpam. See Wetamoo. 

Nana (also Nanay, Narie). A subordi 
nate chief and warrior of the Chiricahua 
Apache daring their hostilities against the 
whites in the latter part of the 19th cen 
tury. He was Victorio s associate until 
the death of the latter in Mexico in 1880. 
In July 1881, with 15 warriors who had 
been with Yictorio, Nana crossed the Rio 
Grande and made his way into New Mex 
ico, where he was joined by 25 Mescaleros. 
He then made a rapid and bloody raid 
across the southern part of the territory, 
falling upon herders and prospectors, 
murdering them without mercy. The 
band was driven back to Mexico by the 
troops in August of the same year. This 
was probably the last serious raid made 
by Nana, w r ho was now an old man. 
Bourke (Apache Campaign, 99, 1886) de 
scribes him as having "a strong face, 
marked with intelligence, courage, and 
good nature, but with an under stratum 
of cruelty and vindictiveness. He has 
received many wounds in his countless 
fights with the whites, and limps very 
perceptibly in one leg." Lummis (Land 
D! Poco Tiempo, 178, 1893) speaks of Nana 
as fond of wearing in each ear a huge gold 
watch chain. 

Nana. Tire Birch clan of the Tewa 
pueblo of Nambe, N. Mex. 

Nana-tdoa. Hodge in Am. Anthrop., IX, 352,1896 
Jd6a= people ). 

Nanabozho. The demiurge of the cos- 
nologic traditions of the Algonquian 
Bribes, known among the various peoples 
)y several unrelated names, based on 
jome marked characteristic or dominant 
unction of this personage. Among these 
lames are Jamum, Kloskap (Gloskap), 
Vlanabozho, Messou, Michabo, Mina- 



bozho, Misabos, Xapiw, Xenabozho 
Wieska, Wisakedjak, and their dialectic 
variants. The etymologies proposed for 
these several names are most probably 
incorrect, wholly or in material parts. 

Nanabozho is apparently the imper 
sonation of life, the active quickening 
power of life of life manifested and 
embodied in the myriad forms of sen 
tient and physical nature. He is there 
fore reputed to possess not only the 
power to live, but also the correlative, 
power of renewing his own life and 
of quickening and therefore of creating 
life in others. He impersonates life in 
an unlimited series of diverse personali 
ties which represent various phases and 
conditions of life, and the histories of the 
life and acts of these separate indivit^nali- 
ties form an entire cycle of traditions and 
myths which, when compared one with 
another, are sometimes apparently con 
tradictory and incongruous, relating, as 
these stories do, to the unrelated objects 
and subjects in nature. The conception 
named Nanabozho exercises the diverse 
functions of many persons, and he like 
wise suffers their pains and needs. He 
is this life struggling with the many 
forms of want, misfortune, and death that 
come to the bodies and beings of nature. 

The true character of the concept em 
bodied in the personality called Nana 
bozho has been misconceived. Horatio 
Hale, for example, calls the Chippevva 
Nanabozho a fantastic deity, declaring 
him to have no relation to the Iroquois 
Te horo" hiawa k ho" , whereas he is in 
everything but minor details identical 
with the Iroquoian conception embodied 
in the latter personality. Few, if any, of 
the characteristic acts and functions of 
the one may not safely and correctly be 
predicated of the other, and it is a remark 
able parallel if the one is not a concept 
borrowed by the people of one linguistic 
family from the thought of the other. If 
independent creations, they agree in so 
many points that it is more than probable 
that the one suggested the other. Kvon 
the play of popular interpretation and 
etymologic analysis have made like er 
rors in the events connected with the life 
history of each. In the Iroquois legend 
the brother of Te horo "hiawa k ho" is 
reputed to have been embodied in chert 
or flint, a statement based on a miscon 
ception arising from the common origin 
of some terms denotive of ice on the one 
hand and of chert on the other. A like 
error gave rise to the Chippewa name for 
chert or flint (1 miskwam) t which signi 
fies ice-stone, and the connection be 
tween inolxinii, wolf, and ma halig, a 
flint or chert, also a name of Chakeke- 
napok, the brother of Nanabozho. The 
confusion is that the ruler of winter, the 



20 



NANABOZHO 



[B. A. B. 



ruler clothed in frost, ice, and snow, is 
identified with chert or flint, in Iroquois 
too, hernuse of the identity of origin be 
tween the terms for crystal or sparkling 
ice and the smooth glistening surface of 
chert or Hint. 

In Potawatomi and cognate tradition 
Nanal>o/ho is the eldest of male quad 
ruplets, the beloved Chipiapoos being the 
second, Wabosbo the third, and Chake 
kenapok the fourth. They were begot 
ten by a great primal being, who had 
come to earth, and were born of a reputed 
daughter of the children of men. Nana- 
bo/.ho was the professed and active friend 
of the human race. The mild and gentle 
but unfortunate Chipiapoos became the 
warder of the dead, the ruler of the coun 
try of the manes, after this transforma 
tion. Wabosso ( Maker of White ), see 
ing the sunlight, went to the northland, 
where, assuming the form of a white hare, 
he is regarded as possessing most potent 
manito or orenda (q. v. ). Lastly, Cha- 
kekenapok, named from chert, flint, or 
tirestone (?fire), was the impersonation 
originally of winter, and in coming into 
the world ruthlessly caused the death of 
his mother. 

Having attained the age of manhood, 
Nanabo/ho, still feeling deep resentment 
for the death of his mother, resolved to 
avenge it by the destruction of his brother 
Chakekenapok. The two brothers soon 
grappled with each other. Chakekenapok 
finally turned and tied, but Nanabo/ho 
pursued him over the world, finally over 
taking and striking him with a deerhorn 
<>r a chert, fracturing or chipping pieces 
from various parts of his body, and de 
stroying him by tearing out his entrails. 
The fragments from Chakekenapok s body 
became huge rocks, and the masses of 
Hint or chert found in various parts of the 
world show where the conflicts between 
the two brothers took place, while his 
entrails became vines. Before the Indians 
knew the art of lire-making Nanabo/ho 
taught them the art of making hatchets, 
lances, and arrowpoints. 

Nanaho/ho and Chipiapoos dwelt to 
gether in a lain? far removed from the 
haunts of mankind. They were noted 
for excellence of body and beneficence of 
mind, and for the supreme character of 
the magic power they possessed. These 
qualities and attributes excited the bitter 
antagonism of the evil manitos of the air, 
earth, and waters, who plotted to destroy 
the>e two brothers. Nanabo/ho, who 
was, immune to the effects of adverse 
orenda and from whose knowledge noth 
ing \\as haired, knew their snares and 
devices and hence eluded and avoided 
them. He, however, warned Chipiapoos, 
his less-gifted brother, not to leave their 
lodge or to separate from him even fora 



moment. But, disregarding this admoni 
tion, one day Chipiapoos ventured outoT 
the lodge and went on the ice of a great 
lake, probably L. Michigan. This temerity 
was the opportunity sought by the mani 
tos, who broke the ice, causing Chipia 
poos to sink to the bottom of the lake, 
where his body was hidden by the mani 
tos. Upon returning to the lodge, Nana 
bozho, missing Chipiapoios and surmising 
his fate, became inconsolable. Every 
where over the face of the earth he sought 
for him in vain. Then he became en 
raged and waged relentless war against 
all manitos, wreaking vengeance by pre 
cipitating a multitude of them into the 
abyss of the world, lie next declared a 
truce in order to mourn for his brother, 
disfiguring his person and covering his 
head to indicate grief, bitterly weeping, 
and uttering from time to time the name 
of the lost and unhappy Chipiapoos. It 
is said Nanabozho secluded himself for 
six years in his lodge of mourning. 
During this truce the evil manitos, 
knowing the unlimited powers of Nana 
bozho and recollecting the destruction 
of the vast numbers of manitos by their 
metamorphosis to gratify his anger, 
consulted together to devise means 
for pacifying Nanabozho s wrath; but 
through fear of their great adversary 
their plans came to naught. At last four 
of the manitos, hoary with age and ripe 
in experience and wisdom, and who had 
not been parties to the death of Chipia 
poos, undertook a mission of pacification. 
Having built a lodge of condolence near 
that of Nanabozho, they prepared a feast 
of welcome, filling with tobacco a pipe 
the stem of which was a calumet, and 
then silently and ceremoniously moved 
toward their antagonist. The four am 
bassadors severally carried a bag made 
from the entire skin of an otter, a lynx, 
a beaver, or of some other animal, which 
contained magically potent medicines 
and powerful fetishes. Arriving at the 
lodge of Nanabozho, they chanted to 
him with ceremonial formality their good 
intentions and kind greetings, and asked 
him to be pleased to accompany them to 
their lodge. Moved by these greetings, 
Nanabozho uncovered his head, and, 
arising, washed himself and then accom 
panied them. On his entering the lodge 
the manitos offered him a cup of purifica 
tion medicine preparatory to his initia 
tion into the Mide, or Grand Medicine 
Society. Nanabo/ho partook of the draft, 
and at once found himself completely 
freed from feelings of resentment and 
melancholy. Then the prescribed ritual 
was performed by the manitos. The 
proper dances and the chants of the Mide 
were chanted, and the four manitos, hu- 
mani/ed primal beings, gently applied to 



BULL. 30] 



NANABOZHO 



21 



Nanabozho their pindikosan, or magically 
potent medicine-bags, which, after cere 
monially blowing their orenda or magic 
power into him, they cast on the ground. 
At every fall of the medicine-bags Nana- 
bozho became aware that the melancholy, 
sadness, hatred, and anger that oppressed 
him gradually left, and that beneficent 
affection and feelings of joy arose in his 
heart. On the completion of his initia 
tion he joined in the dances and in the 
chanting; then they all ate and smoked 
together, and Nanabozho expressed 
thanks to his hosts for initiating him into 
the mysteries of the grand medicine. 

To further show their good will, the 
manitos, by the exercise of their magic 
powers, brought back the missing Chipia- 
poos, but, owing to his metamorphosis, 
he was forbidden to enter the lodge. 
Having received a lighted torch through 
a chink in the walls of the lodge, he was 
required to go to rule the country of 
the manes, where, with the lighted torch 
he carried, he should kindle a fire that 
should never be extinguished, for the 
pleasure of his uncles and aunts namely, 
all men and women who would repair 
thither. Subsequently, Nanabozho again 
descended upon the earth, and at once ini 
tiated all his family in the mysteries of 
the grand medicine. He provided each 
of them with a medicine-bag, well sup 
plied with potent medicines, charms, and 
fetishes. He also strictly enjoined upon 
them the need of perpetuating the accom 
panying ceremonies among their de 
scendants, explaining to them that these 
practices faithfully observed would cure 
their diseases, obtain for them abundance 
in fishing and hunting, and gain for them 
complete victory over their enemies. 

Some hold to" the doctrine that Nana 
bozho created the animals for the food 
and raiment of man ; that he caused those 
plants and roots to grow whose virtues 
cure disease and enable the hunter to kill 
wild animals in order to drive away fam 
ine. These plants he confided to the 
watchful care of his grandmother, the 
great-grandmother of the human race, 
Mesakkummikokwi, and lest man should 
invoke her in vain she was strictly for 
bidden ever to leave her lodge. So, when 
collecting plants, roots, and herbs for 
their natural and magic virtues, an Al- 
gonquian Indian faithfully leaves on the 
ground hard by the place whence he has 
taken the root or plant a small offering to 
Mesakkummikokwi. 

It is said that Nanabozho in his many 
journeys over the earth destroyed many 
ferocious monsters of land and water whose 
continued existence would have placed 
in jeopardy the fate of mankind. It is 
believed by the faithful that Nanabozho, 
resting from his toils, dwells on a great 



island of ice floating on a large sea in the 
northland, where the seraphim of auroral 
light keep nightly vigil. It is also be 
lieved that should he set foot on the land 
the world would at once take fire and 
every living being would share with it a 
common destruction. As a perversion of 
an earlier tradition, it is said that Nanabo 
zho has placed four beneficent humanized 
beings^ one at each of the four cardi 
nal points or world-quarters, to aid in 
promoting the welfare of the human 
race the one at the E. supplies light 
and starts the HUH on his daily journey 
over the sky; the one at the s. supplies 
warmth, heat, and the refreshing dews 
that cause the growth of the soothing 
tobacco plant, and of corn, beans, 
squashes, and all the herbs and shrubs 
that bear fruit; the one at the w. supplies 
cooling and life-giving ^ showers; lastly, 
the one at the N. supplies snow and ice, 
enabling the tracking and successful pur 
suit of wild animals, and who causes them 
to hibernate, to seek places of conceal 
ment from the cold of winter. Under 
the care of the man-being of the s. 
Nanabozho placed lesser humanized be 
ings, dominantly bird-like in form, whose 
voices are the thunder and the flashing 
of whose eyes is the lightning, and to 
whom offerings of tobacco are made when 
their voices are loud and menacing. 

Like the Iroquois and Huron sages, the 
Algoiiquian philosophers taught that the 
disembodied souls of the dead, on their 
journey to the great meadow in which is 
situated the village of their deceased an 
cestors, must cross a swift stream precari 
ously bridged by a tree trunk, which was 
in continual motion. Over this the manes 
of the justified pass in safety, while the 
shades of the vicious, overcome by the 
magic power of adverse fate, fail at this 
ordeal, and, falling into the abyss below, 
are lost. 

Another and equally credited tradition 
is to the effect that a manito or primal 
man-being formed a world which he peo 
pled with man-beings having the form 
but not the benevolent attributes of man, 
and that these primal man-beings, doing 
nothing but evil, finally caused the de 
struction of the world and themselves by 
a flood; that having thus satisfied his dis 
pleasure the primal man being brought 
the world again out of the waters and 
formed anew a fine looking young man, 
but, being alone, the latter seemed dis 
consolate and weary of life. Then, pity 
ing him, the primal man-being brought 
him as he slept a sister for a companion. 
Awaking, the young man was rejoiced to 
see his sister, and the two dwelt together 
for many years in mutual amusement and 
agreeable discourse. Finally the young 
man dreamed for the first time, and he 



NANABOZHO 



[B. A. 



related his dream to bis mister, saying 
that it had been revealed to him that 
live young man-beings would that night 
visit their lodge, and that she was for 
bidden to speak to 01- in any manner rec- 
o jni/.e any of the first four who would 
seek adm ission to the lodge, but that 
she should welcome the lit th when he 
would seek admission. This advice she 
followed. After their metamorphosis 
these four primal young man-beings be 
came respectively Sama or Tobacco, who, 
receiving no answer from the sister, died 
of chagrin; Wapekoiie or Squash; Kshke- 
tainok or Melon, and Kojees or Bean, 
who shared the fate of the first. Hut 
Mandamin or Corn, the fifth, was an 
swered and welcomed by the sister, and 
he entered the lodge and became her hus 
band. Then Mandamin buried his four 
comrades, and soon from their graves 
sprain: up respectively tobacco, squashes, 
melons, and beans in such quantity as to 
supply them for the year, and tobacco 
enough to enable them to make offerings 
to t lie primal man-beings and to smoke 
in council. From this union sprang the 
Indian race. 

In one version of the prevailing Algon- 
quian cosmogonic story it is said that 
before the formation of the earth there 
was only water; that on the surface of 
this vast expanse of water floated a large 
raft on which were the animals of the 
various kinds which are on the earth and 
of which the Great Hare was the chief. 
They sought a tit and firm place on which 
to disembark; but as there were in sight 
only swans and other waterfowl, they 
began to lose hope, and, having no other, 
they requested the beaver to dive for the 
purpose of bringing up some earth from 
the bottom of the water, assuring him in 
the name of all the animals present that, 
should he return with only a single par 
ticle, it would produce, an earth sufficiently 
spacious to contain and nourish all. Hut 
the beaver sought an excuse for refusal, 
saying that he had already dived around 
the rait and had failed to reach the bot 
tom. He was pressed so strongly to make 
anew so worthy an attempt, however, that 
he took the ha/ard and dived. He re 
mained without returning for so long a 
time that the supplicants believed him 
drowned. Finally they saw him appear 
nearly dead and motionless. Then all the 
animals, seeing that he was in no condi 
tion to remount the raft, at once interested 
themselves to take him into it. After ex 
amining carefully his pa\\s and tail, they 
found nothing. Hut the little hope left 
them of being able to save their lives com 
pelled them to address themselves to the 
otter to ask that he make an attempt to 
find earth at the bottom of the waters. 
it was told him that his own safety, as 



well as theirs, depended on the result of 
his effort. So the otter yielded to 
their urging and dived, lie remained 
in the depths of the waters a longer time 
than did the beaver, but, like him, he 
came to the surface without success. 
The impossibility of finding a place to 
dwell where they could subsist left them 
nothing more to hope, when the musk- 
rat offered to attempt to find the bottom, 
and he flattered himself that he would 
bring back sand. Although the beaver 
and the otter, much stronger than he, had 
not been able to accomplish the task, they 
encouraged him, promising even that, ii 
he succeeded in his attempt, he should be 
the ruler of the whole world. The musk- 
rat then cast himself into the waters and 
bravely dived into the depths. Aftei 
remaining therein nearly an entire da> 
and night he appeared motionless at the 
side of the raft, belly uppermost and 
paws closed. The other animals care 
fully took him out of the water, opened 
one of his paws, then a second, then i 
third, and finally the fourth, where then 
was a small grain of sand between his 
claws. The Great Hare, who was en 
couraged to form a vast and spacious 
earth, took this grain of sand and let ii 
fall on the raft, which became larger. 
He took a part and scattered it, which 
caused the mass to increase more anc 
more. When it was of the size of i 
mountain he willed it to turn, and a* 
it turned the mass still increased in si/e 
As soon as it appeared quite large hf 
gave orders to the fox to examine his 
work with power to enlarge it. H< 
obeyed. The fox, having learned tha 
the earth was of such size that he coulc; 
easily take his prey, returned to the Grea 
Hare to inform him that the earth was 
large enough to contain and nourish al 
the animals. After this report the Urea 
Hare went over his work, and, on goinj 
around it, found it imperfect. He ha; 
since not been disposed to trust any one 
of all the other animals, and ever keep) 
on enlarging the earth by ceaselessly 
going around it. The rumblings heart 
in the caverns of mountains confirm th< 
Indians in the belief that the Great Har< ! 
continues the work of enlarging tin 
earth. Heis honored by them, and the] 
regard him as the god who has formec 
the land. 

Such is what the Algonquians teacl 
regarding the formation of the earth 
which they believe is borne on a raft 
Concerning the sea and the firmament 
they assert that they have existed for al 
time. After the formation of the eartl 
all the other animals withdrew into th< 
places most fitted to them, where the? 
could feed and find their prey. The firs 
of these having died, the Great Hart 



BULL. 30] 



NANAHUANI NANG 



caused men to be born from their cada 
vers, even from those of the fish which 
were found along the banks of rivers 
which he had made in forming the earth, 
and gave each a different language or 
dialect. Because some ascribed their 
origin to the bear, others to the elk, 
and thus to all the different animals, 
they believed that they had their being 
from these creatures. (j. x. B. H.) 

Nanahuani. A former Chumashan vil 
lage on Santa Cruz id., Cal. 
Nanahuani. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863. 
Na-na-wa -ni. Henshaw, Buenaventura MS. vo- 
cab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Nanaimo (contraction of Snanaimux}. 
A Salish tribe, speaking the Cowichan 
dialect, living about Nanaimo harbor, on 
the E. coast of Vancouver id. and on 
Nanaimo lake, Brit. Col. Pop. 161 in 1906. 
Their gentes are Anuenes, Koltsiowotl, 
Ksalokul, Tewetken, and Yesheken. 

Nanaimos. Mayne, Brit. Col., 165, 1861. Nanai- 
muk. Gibbs quoted by Dall in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., I, 241, 1877. Nanainio. Douglas in Jour. 
Roy. Geog. Soc., 246, 1854. Snanaimooh. Tolmie 
and Dawson, Vocabs. Brit. Col., 120B, 1884. 
Snanaimuq. Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 
32, 1889. Suanaimuchs. Grant in Jour. Roy. Geog. 
Soc., 293, 1857. 

Nanamakewuk (N8riem&klwugi, thun- 
derers. W. J. ). A gens of the Sauk and 
Foxes. 

Na-na-ma -kew-uk. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 170, 1S77 
(trans, thunder ). Neneme kiwag .Wm. Jones, 
inf n, 1906. 

Nananawi (Na/-nan-a-wi, a species of 
lizard). A clan of the Tuwa (Earth or 
Sand) phratry of the Hopi. Stephen in 
8th Rep. B. A. E., 39, 1891. 

Nanashthezhin ( black-horizontal-stripe 
aliens , referring to the Zufii). ANavaho 
clan, descended from a body of Zuni who 
amalgamated with the Navaho. 
Nanacpeji". Matthews in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 104, 1890. TS&n&ste zin. Matthews, Navaho 
Legends, 30, 1897. 

Nanatlugunyi (Nd nft-tlu giin yl, or, in 
abbreviated form, Nd nii-tlu l yufi , or 
Nd nti-tsu *gun , l spruce-tree place ) . A 
traditional Cherokee settlement on the 
site of Jonesboro, Washington co., Tenn. 
The name of Nolichucky r. is probably a 
corruption of the same word. Mooney in 
19th Rep. B. A. E., 527, 1900. 

Nanatsoho. Probably a subdivision of 
one of the tribes of the Caddo confederacy 
which resided in a village on Red r. of 
Louisiana, and, according to Joutel, were 
allies of the Kadohadacho, Natchitoch, 
and Nasoni in 1687. They probably 
drifted southward in the middle of the 
18th century, gradually lost their distinc 
tive organization, and became merged 
with their kindred during the turbulence 
of that period, suffering distress incident 
to the introduction of new diseases by the 
whites. In 1812 a settlement of 12families 
was said to exist near the locality of their 
former villages. (A. c. F.) 

Nadsoos. La Harpe (1718) in Margry, Dec., vi, 243, 
1886. Nadsous. Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. 



Nanatscho. Trimble (1818) in Morse Ren to Sec- 
War, 259, 1822 (village). Natchoos. Douay (ai 
1687) quoted by Shea, Discov. Miss. Val., 218, 1852! 
Nathosos. Jontel (1687) in French, Hist. Coll. La. 
T, 168, 1846. Nathsoos. Barcia, Ensayo, 278, 1723* 
Natsohocks. Coxe, Carolana, 10, 1741 (also Nat 
choos). Natsohok. Ibid., map. Natsohos. Jou 
tel (1687) in Margry, Dec., in, 409 1878 Nat- 
soos. La Harpe (1719), ibid., vi, 263, 1886. Pecan 
Point. Trimble (en. 1812) in Morse, Rep to Sec 
War, 259, 1S22 (Nanatscho, or). 

Nanawonggabe. The principal chief, 
about the middle of the 19th century, of 
the Chippewa of Lake Superior. He was 
born about 1800, and was noted chiefly as 
an orator, and as the father of Ahshah- 
waygeeshegoqua ( The Hanging Cloud ), 
the so-called "Chippewa Princess", who 
was renowned as a warrior and as the 
only female among the Chippewa allowed 
to participate in the war ceremonies and 
dances, and to wear the plumes of the 
warriors. Nanawonggabe is described as 
having been of less than medium height 
and size, and as having intelligent fea 
tures. See Morse in Wis. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
in, 338, 1857. 

Nanawu. The Small Striped Squirrel 
clan of the Tuwa (Earth or Sand) phratry 
of the Hopi. 

Na -na-wii wun-wii. Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., 
vii, 404, 1894 (wim-wu= clan ). 

Nanay. See Nana. 

Nan-chee-ning-ga. See Xacheninija. 

Nandell. A Tenankutchin village, 
named from its chief, with 80 inhabitants 
in 1885; situated on Tetling r., near Wag 
ner lake, about 20 in. from Tanana r., 
lat. 63 2(Y, Alaska. 

Nandell. Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 453, 1906. 
Nandellas. Error cited, ibid. Nandell s village. 
Allen, Rep., 75, 137, 1885. 

Nane. See Nana. 

Nanepashemet. A Nipmuc chief of con 
siderable note in the early days of the 
Massachusetts colonies. His home was 
in Medford, Middlesex co., near Mystic 
pond. His house, it is said, unlike others, 
was elevated on a scaffold about 6 ft 
above the ground, on a hill, at the bottom 
of which was his fort. He was killed 
about 1619. His widow, who subse 
quently married Webcowit, assumed the 
chieftaincy and was known as the Squaw- 
sachem of the Nipmuc. lie left 5 chil 
dren one known as Sagamore James 
became sachem of Saugus; another, the 
sachem of Winnesimet. (c. T. ) 

Nang. The Earth or Sand clans of the 
Tewa pueblos of San Juan, Santa Clara, 
Nambe, and Tesuque, N. Mex., and 
Hano, Ariz.; that of Tesuque is extinct. 
Cf. Nung. 

Nan-tdoa. Hodge in Am. Anthrop., ix, 3,50, 1896 
(Nambe and Tesuque form; W6a= l j>eoplo > ). 
Nan-towa. Ibid. (Hano form). Na-tdoa. Ibid. 
(San Juan and Santa Clam form). 

Nang. The Stone clan of the Tewa 
pueblo of San Juan, N. Mex. Said to 
be distinct from the Nil (Earth or Sand) 
clan of that pueblo. Cf. Kn. 
Nan-tdoa. Hodge in Am. Anthrop. , ix, 352, 18% 
(td6a= people ). 



NANIHAS NANTICOKE 



[B. A. fl. 



Nanibas ( fish eaters ) . Probably a 
Choctaw tribe which early in the 18th 
century occupied a village near the Mo 
bile and Tohome tribes, about 5 leagues 
from Ft Mobile, on Mobile bay, Ala. 
Their earlier home, according to Hamil 
ton (Col. Mobile, 90-91, 1897), was at the 
bluff on Tombigbee r., still known as 
" Xanna Hubba," just above its junction 
with Alabama r. After removal to the 
vicinity of Ft Mobile they were absorbed 
bv the* Mobile tribe. 

Namabas. Poniciuit (1702) in Margry, Doc., v. 
CJT. INS;. Naniaba. .U lTerys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 
ITTii Naniabas. IV iiicaut (1702) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., n.s., I, SO, isc,i). 

Nanicksah. One of the chiefs sent by 
the Ohio Shawnee in 1765 to negotiate a 
treaty of peace with >Sir Win. Johnson on 
behalf of the British government. The 
treaty was signed at Johnson Hall, N. Y., 
July 13, 1765. X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 
755, 1S56. 

Nanihaba ( nnnth hill, aba above ). 
One of the 5 hamlets comprising the 
former Choctaw town of Imongalasha, 
in the ] resent Neshoba co., Miss. H al 
bert in Tub. .Miss. Hist. Soc., vi, 432, 1902. 

Nanikypusson. One of the chiefs s. iit 
by the Shawnee of Ohio in 1705 to nego 
tiate a treaty of peace with Sir Win. John- 
son in In-half of the British government. 
The treaty was completed and signed at 
.Johnson Hall, X. Y., July 13, 1765. X.Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 755J 1856. 

Nanipacna (Choctaw: high moun 
tain - -Gatsehet: hill top Halbert). 
An important town visited in 1559-00 by 
Tristan de Luna, by whom it was named 
Santa Cm/ de Nanipacna; situated in s. 
Alabama, not far from Alabama r. Hal 
bert (Gulf States Hist Mag.,n, 130, 1903) 
thinks it was on the E. side of Alabama 
r. in t he present Wilcox co., while Lou cry 
(Spanish Settlements, 301, 1901) places it 
fart tier down the river, in Monroe co. 
It had been visited and partly destroyed 
by other white; men, probably De Soto s 
expedition, some years before. (.1. M.) 
Nanipacna. Burcia, Knsay< >,: .: ., 172:;. Napicnoca. 
Fairbanks Ha., f>9.190l (misprint). Santa Cruzde 
Nanipacna. Bareia, 0)1. cit. 

Nannehamgeh (Creek: /// /// trail , 
fi imt/lii one : single trail ). The "old 
town" inhabited by theNatche/. Adair, 
Am. Inds., 190, 1775. 

Nanortalik. An Kskimo village on a 
small island in s. Greenland, lat. 00. 

Nannortalik. -Ail-land, !<;_>, IsSti. Nanortalik. 
Nanscn, First Crossing, :in7, IS<H). Nennortalik. 
KoMewey, German A ret Kxped., 1*2, 1874. 

Nanpanta ( \n" / ftn"((i 1 deer ). A <^ua- 
paw gens. Dorsey in 15th Rep. P>. A. 10 
2L"., 1S97. 

Nanpanta. A Deer gens: a division of 
the \\ ashashe,wanun gens of the Osage. 
Ke ^a tati. Dorsry in 15th Kep. H. A. ! ,., 2:>4, 1X97 
i -Turtle with a serrated crest along the shell ) 
Na" pa"ta. ibid. 



Nansattico. A former Matchotic village 
on Rappahannock r., s. w. of the present 
Hampstead, in King George co., Va. 

Nansattico. Herrman. map, 1670. Nanzaticos. 
JelTerson, Notes, i:W, 1H)1. 

Nansemond ( from nansamend, one goes 
to fish, or one (who) goes to iish (or 
fishing), possibly originally a personal 
name. Gerard)/ An important tribe 
of the Pcwhataii confederacy (q. v. ) 
formerly occupying a territory on the s. 
side of lower James r., Ya., within the 
present Nansemond and Norfolk cos., and 
having their principal town, "Nandsa- 
mund," probably about the present 
Chuckatuck in the former county. They 
were estimated by Capt. John Smith, in 
1608, at 200 warriors, or perhaps a total 
population of 700 or 800. Like the other 
tribes of the confederacy they quickly 
declined after the advent of the whites, 
and 1U1722, when they are mentioned in 
the Albany treaty with the Iroquois, they 
numbered, according to Beverley, only 1 50 
in all. A scattered band of about 180 
mixed-bloods, mostly truck farmers, still 
keep up the name* near Bowershill, a 
few miles s. w. from Norfolk. (j. M. ) 
Nancymond. Vassill (1667) in N. C. Col. Rec., I, 
159, 18X6. Nandsamunds. -mith (1624), Va., 347, 
18X1. Nanemonds. Albany conf. (1722) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., V, (>73, lXf>5. Nansamond. Bev 
erley, Va., bk. 3, <)3, 1705. Nansamund. Smith 
(1029), Va., II. 04, 1819. Nanseman.- -Winthrop 
(1647) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4ths.,Vil, 438, 1865. 
Nansemond. Doc. of 1729 in Martin, N. ( ., i,npp., 
xvii. 1X29. Nansemun. Harrison (1647) in Mass. 
Hist. Hoc. Coll., 4th s., VII, 438, 1865. Nasamonds. 
Jefferson, Notes, 138, 1801. Nassamonds. Boudi- 
not, Star in the West, 127, 1816. Nausamund. 
Smith (1629). Va., n, 10. 1819. 

Nantahala (N&fL d&yeU ( middle [i. e. 
noonday] sun ). Originally the name 
of a point on Nantahala r. near Jarrett 
station, Macon co., N. C., where the cliffs 
are so perpendicular that the sun is not 
seen at their liases until noon; later ap 
plied to the neighboring Cherokee settle 
ment of Briertown (q. v.). 
Nantahala. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 528, 
1900. Nantiyallee. Doc. of 1799 quoted by Royce 
in 5th Rep. B. A. E., 144, 18X7. Nuntialla. 
Mooney, op. cii. 

Nantapoyac. A villageof the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, situated on the s. 
bank of James r. in Surry co., -Va. Smith 
(1620), Ya., i, map, repr. 1811). 

Nantaughtacund. A tribe and village 
of the Powhatan confederacy, formerly 
s. of the? Rappahannock, in Essex and 
Caroline cos., Va. In 1608 they numbered 
about 750. 

Nandtaughtacund. Strachey (en. 1612), Va., 37, 
1849. Nantaughtacund. Smith (1629), Va., I, 117, 
repr. 1819. Nantautacund. Simons in Smith, ibid., 
189. Naudtaughtacund. 1 urclias, 1 ilgrimes, IV, 
map. 1716 (misprint). Nautaughtacunds. Drake, 
Bk. Inds., bk. 4, 9, 1848 (misprint). 

Nanticoke (from Nentego, var. of Dela 
ware ( )H_ rht</o, Unalachtgo, tidewater peo 
ple ). An important Algonquian tribe 
living on Nanticoke r. of Maryland, on the 



BOLL. 30] 



E. shore, where Smith in 1608 located their 
principal village, called Nanticoke. They 
were connected linguistically and ethnic 
ally with the Delawares and the Conoy, 
notwithstanding the idiomatic variance 
in the language of the latter. Their tra 
ditional history is brief and affords but 
little aid in tracing their movements in 
prehistoric times. The 10th verse of 
the fifth song of the Walam Olum is 
translated by Squier: "The Nentegos 
and the Shawanis went to the south 
lands." Although the Shawriee and 
Nanticoke are brought together in this 
verse, it does not necessarily indicate 
that they separated from the main body 
at the same time and place; but in both 
cases the separation appears to have oc 
curred in the region that in verse 1, same 
canto, is designated Talega land, which 
was probably in Ohio, since their tradi 
tion recorded by Beatty (Brinton, Lenape 
Leg., 139, 1885) is precisely the same as 
that of the Shawnee. It is also probable 
that "south" in the legend signifies some 
point below the latitude of Pittsburg, Pa., 
but not s. of the Kanawha. A different 
and more probable account was given to 
Heckewelder by the old chief, White, 
who said that, being grer.t trappers and 
fishers, they separated from the Dela 
wares after these had reached their east 
ern seat and wandered s. in search of good 
fishing and trapping grounds. 

The Conoy in 1660 informed the gov 
ernor of Maryland of a "league that had 
existed for 13 generations with an em 
peror of Nanticoke lineage at its head, 
which embraced all the "tribes of the 
province, and also the Potomac and, as 
they pretended, even the Iroquoian Con- 
estoga" (Maryland Arch., Proc. Counc., 
1636-67, 403). The Tocwogh of Smith, 
as well as the later Doag, were possibly 
identical with the Nanticoke. 

A short time after its settlement the 
Maryland colony found the Nanticoke a 
thorn in its side. As early as 1642 they 
were formally declared to" be enemies, 
and not until 1678 was the strife com 
posed by treaty. A renewal of hostilities 
w r as threatened in 1687, but by prudent 
measures this w r as prevented and the 
peace reaffirmed. In 1698, and from that 
time forward as long as they remained in 
the region, reservations were set aside for 
them. In 1 707 they had at least 7 vil 
lages. In 1722 their principal village, 
called Nanduge by Beverley, contained 
about 100 inhabitants and was the resi 
dence of the "empress," who ruled over 
all the neighboring Indians. At that 
time they numbered about 500. Soon 
afterward they began to move N., stop 
ping for a time on the Susquehanna, 
at the mouth of the Juniata, and about 



25 



1/48 the greater part of the tribe went 
up the Susquehanna, halting at various 
points, and finally settled under Iroquois 
protection at Chenango, Chugnut, and 
Owego, on the E. branch of the Susque 
hanna in s. New York. They were esti 
mated at about 500 in 1765. "A part re 
mained in Maryland, where they were 
still living under the name of AViwash 
in 1792, although reduced to about 30. 
In 1753 a part of those on the upper 
Susquehanna joined the Iroquois in w. 
New York, with whom they were still 
living in 18-10, but the majority of the 
tribe, in company with remnants of 
the Mahican and Wappinger, emigrated 
to the AV. about 1784 and joined the 
Delawares in Ohio and Indiana, with 
whom they soon became incorporated, 
disappearing as a distinct tribe. A few 
mixed bloods live on Indian r., Delaware. 

The Nanticoke were distinguished from 
neighboring tribes by a darker color and 
peculiar customs. They appear to have 
been devoted to fishing and trapping as 
a means of subsistence. Heckewelder 
says: "They are said to have been the 
inventors of a poisonous substance by 
which they could destroy a whole settle 
ment of people, and they are accused of 
being skilled in the arts of witchcraft. 
It is certain they are dreaded on this ac 
count. 1 have known Indians who firmly 
believed that they had people among 
them who could, if they pleased, destroy 
a whole army by merely blowing their 
breath toward them. Those of the Le 
nape and other tribes who pretend to 
witchcraft say that they learned the 
science from the Nanticokes." AVhut 
particular characteristic, art, or knowl 
edge caused them to be looked upon in 
this light is not stated; but it probably 
was their knowledge of poisons and the 
singular custom, which Heckewelder de 
scribes, of removing the bones of their 
dead from place to place during their va 
rious shiftings. They appear to have had 
a head chief, to whom the English, adopt 
ing Old AVorld terms, applied the name 
emperor to distinguish him from the sub 
ordinate chiefs whom they called kings. 
The line of descent of the former was 
in the female line, and as noted above, 
if Beverley be correct, a woman might, 
under certain circumstances, hold the 
chieftaincy. Their towns appear to have 
l>een in some instances fortified, as Smith 
says: "They conducted us to their palli- 
zadoed towne, mantelled with the barkes 
of trees, with scaffolds like mounts, 
brested about with brests very formally." 

The Nanticoke confederacy appears to 
have included, besides the Nanticoke 
proper, the Arseek, Cuscarawaoc, Nause, 
Ozinies (?), and Sarapinagh. The Nan- 



N ANTICOKE K ANUNTElf OO 



[B. A. E. 



tieoke had at various times the following 
villages: Askimimkansen, Byengeahtein 
(mixed), Chenango (mixed), Locust 
Neckt<>\vn, Matchcouchtin, Matcheatto- 
chousie, Nanduge, Nafcihquois, Pekoi- 
noke, Poheeommeati, Teahquois, and 

Doages. Lord Baltimore (1650) quoted by Boz- 
Md., i. 119. 1837. doegs. Writer of 1676 in 



. , . . 

Mass Hist. Soe. Coll. ,4th s., IX, 165, 1871. Gannia- 
e. (iatschet in Am. Antiq..IV, 75, 1882 



. 

taratich rone 



arac rone. . .., , 

(Mohawk name). Mantaquak. Brownell, In 
Races, Idti, IS")! , (misprint). Naaticokes. Pete 
(17ti(t) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s.. IX, 258, 1871. 



. . . ., 

Nanduye. Bevcrley, Va.,hk.3, 62, 1705. 
quack. Smith ( 1629), Va., I, map, repr. 1819. 



. ., .. , , 

Va.,hk.3, 62, 1705. Nanta- 



. , .,., , 

quack. Smith ( 1629), Va., I, map, repr. 1819. Nan- 
taquaes. Katinesque in Marshall, Ky., i.introd., 
37.1824. Nantaquak. Simons in Smith (1629),Va., 
I, 175, rei>r. 1819. Nantekokies. Miiumee counc. 
(1793) in Am. St. Papers, Ind. AIT., I, 357. 1832. 
Nantiakokies. Perkins and Peck, Annals of the 
West 423 1850 Nantico. Heckewelder in Mass. 
Hist. Soe. Coll. ,2ds.,X, 129, 1823. Nanticock. Bar 
ton, New Views, app., 5, 1798. Nanticoes. Rafin- 
esqne in Marshall. Ky., I, introd., 37. 1821. Nanti- 
cokes. Marshe (17-44) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st 
s vii, 199, 1801. Nanticoks. German Flats conf. 
(17701 inN.Y.Doc.Col. Hist., VIII, 229, 1857. Nan- 
ticooks. Ed wards (1788) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
1st s , ix, 92, 1804. Nantihokes. McKenneyand 
Hall, Ind. Tribes, in. 80, 1854. Nantikokes. Ft 
Johnson conf. (1757) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vii, 
245, 1856. Nantikokies. Brant (1793) in Am. St. 
Papers, Ind. AIT., 1,350, 1832. Nantiocks. Macau- 
ley, N. Y., in. 39.1829. Nantiokes. Ft Johnson 
conf. (1756) inN.Y.Doc.Col. Hist., vii, 173, 1856. 
Nantiquacks. Heckewelder (1819) quoted by 
Bozman. Md . i, 177, 1837. Nantiquaks. Bozman, 
Md.. i. 110, 1837. Nantue. Herrman, map, 1670. 
Nantycokes, Peters (1761) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., Ith s., ix, 440, 1871. Nautaquake. Purchas, 
Piltfrimes. iv, 1713 (misprint). Nauticokes. 
Vater, Mitllfc pi. 3. see. 3, 312, 1816 (misprint). 
Nentego. Fteckewelder (1819) quoted by Boxnian, 
Md., i, 174, 1837 town name). Nentegowi. 
Brinton, Lenape Letf.. 204, 1885. Nentico. 
Heekewelder in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s.. x, 
129.1823. Otayaehgo. Heckewelder (1819) quoted 
by Ho/man. Md., i, 171, 1837 r bridge people , so 
called by the Mahican and Dela wares because of 
their custom of felling trees across streams on 
which to set their traps, and of their skill in 
fastening lo^s together to form bridges). 
Scanehaderadeyghroones. Albany conf. (1748) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., VI, 441, 1855 ( be- 
yond-the-sea people i. Scaniadaradighroonas. Ft 
Johnson conf. (1756). ibid., vn, 106, 1856. 
Scanihaderadighroones. Ft Johnson conf. (1753), 
ibid., vi, 811, 1855. Schanadarighroenes. Ft 
Johnson conf. ( 1755), ibid., 964. Schaniadaradigh- 
roonas. Ibid., 9*8. Schani.ha.der.adygh.roon,- 
ees. Clinton (1750), ibid., 518. Seganiatera- 
tickrohne. Heckewelder (1819) quoted by Boz 
man, Md., i, 174, lh37 rbeyond-the-sea people : 
Iroqnois namei. Shaniadaradighroonas. Ft 
Johnson conf. (I756i in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vii, 
. r >0, 1856. Shanihadaradighroones. Albany conf 
(1754) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 3d s., v, 30, 1836. 
Skanatiarationo. --Mont real conf. (1756) in N. Y! 
Doc. Col. Hist. ,x. 503. 1858. Skaniadaradighroonas. 
Ft Johnson conf. (1755), ibid., vi, 977, 1855. Skan- 
iatarati-haka. (Jatvchet. Tuscarora MS.. B. A. K., 
1885 (Tuscarora name). Skaniatarationo. Mon 
treal conf. (1756) in N.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., x. 500,1858, 
Skanigadaradighroonas. Johnson ( 1756). ibid., vn, 
136.1856. Skamodaraghroonas. Ft Johnson conf 
(17.56), ibid., -16. Skaun ya-ta-ha-ti-hawk. Macau- 
ley, N. Y., n. 1C,6. 1829. Taux. Smith (1629) 
Va ; ,113, repr. 1884 (fromTawachguano). Tawach- 
guans. Heckewelder (18li) (pioted by (iallatin 
in Trans. Am. Anti<|. Soc.. n, 52. 1836 (Delaware 
name: bridge people , from t<ii<ir/,t/<iu<ni. a, 
bridge ). Tawackguano.Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
VI, 131, 1857. Tayachquans. Heckewelder (1819) 
quoted by Bo/man, Md., i, 174, 1SI57. Tiawco. 
Kaston treaty (1757) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist vn 
294, 1856. Toags. Smith (1629), Va., I, 177, repr. 



1819. Trappers. Heckewelder (1819) quoted by 
Bo/man, Md., i, 174. 1837 (name sometimes used 
by the whites, having reference to their skill in 
trapping animals). TTnechtgo. Ibid. (Delaware 
name). Wenuhtokowuk. Aupaumut(1791)quoted 
by Brinton, Lenape Leg., 20, 1885 (Mahican 
name). 

Nanticoke. A sort of bean; from the 
name of an Algonquian tribe. Lawson 
(Hist. Carolina, 76, 1709) mentions nan- 
ticokrx among "the pulse which we found 
the Indians possessed of when we settled 
in America." (A. F. c.) 

Nantucket. When first settled by the 
whites this island, s. of the coast of Mas 
sachusetts, was occupied by two tribes 
whose names have not been preserved. 
One occupied the w. end of the island 
and was supposed to have come from the 
mainland by way of Marthas Vineyard; 
the other tribe lived at the E. end and 
was said to have come direct from the 
mainland. The two tribes were inde 
pendent and were hostile to each other. 
They had several villages and numbered 
about 1,500 at the first settlement of the 
island in 1642 (Mayhew). In 1763 there 
were only 358 remaining and two-thirds 
of these died of a fever the next winter. 
In 1792 there were only 20 left, and these 
were reduced in 1809 to 2 or 3 persons oi 
pure blood and a few of mixed race. The 
Indian names of different districts, which 
were probably the names of villages also, 
were Shimmoah (also a village), Tetau- 
kimmo, Shaukimmo, Quayz, Podpis. 
Squam, Sasacacheh, and Siasconsit, and 
the village Miacomet (Notes on Nan 
tucket (1807) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
2d s., in, 25-26, 1815). For informatior 
concerning the early grants and convey 
ances of Nantucket lands, see Bull. Nan 
tucket Hist. Assn., i, 1896-1902. (j. M. ) 
Mantukes. London Doc. (1682) in N. Y. Doc. Col 
Hist,, in, 328, 1853. Mantukett. Ibid. Nan 
tuckett. London Doc. (1692-3), ibid., iv, 28. 1854 
Nantucquet. London Doc. (1664), ibid., in, 84 
1853. Nantukes. Holland Doc. (1664), ibid., II 
296. 1858. Nantukett. London Doc. (1674), ibid, 
in, 215, 1853. 

Nantuxet. A division of the Unam 
branch of the Delawares formerly living 
in Pennsylvania and Delaware. Macau 
ley, N. Y., n, 166, 1829. 

Nanualikmut ( lake people : Kodial 
name). A division of the Knaiakhotan:; 
of Cook inlet, Alaska. 

Na-nua-li -q mut. Hoffman, MS., B. A. E., 188 
( people around the lake : Chugachigmiu 
name). Na-nu -a-luk . Ibid, ( lake people : Ka 
niagmiut name). 

Nanumpum. See Wectamo. 

Nanuntenoo. A sachem of the Narra 
ganset, son of Miantonomo, called als< 
Canonchet or Quananchit. He was th< 
first signer of the treaty of Oct. 1675, bu 
supplied the strength of the Narraganse 
war against the English, his young mei 
having long secretly supported Philip 
He escaped with his life from the figh 
of Dec. 1(575, and in Mar. 1676 defeate< 
the English under Capt. Peirse; but ii 



BULL. 30] 



T^ANUSEK NAPESHNEEDUTA 



April of that year he was surprised by an 
English force and surrendered. He was 
taken to Stonington, Conn., and was shot 
by representatives of his allied enemies 
under the eyes of the English. His head 
was sent as a trophy to the magistrates of 
Hartford (De Forest, Inds. of Conn., 282, 
1852) . Nanuntenoo was tall and strongly 
built, and was a man of courage and ability . 
His fame at times was hardly less than that 
of King Philip. Some of his sayings have 
been preserved. (A. F. c. ) 

Nanusek. An Eskimo settlement in s. 
E. Greenland. Meddelelser om Gron- 
land, xxv, map, 1902. 

Nanussussouk (Ncnusinsowugi, they go 
by the name of the buffalo. W. J. ). A 
gens of the Sank and Foxes. 

Na-nus-sus -so-uk. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 170, 1877. 
Nenuswisowag . Win. Jones, inf n, 1906. 

Nanvogaloklak. A Magemiut village 
on one of the lakes connected with Kvich- 
ivak r., Alaska; pop. 100 in 1880. 

Nanvogalokhlagamute. Nelson (1879) quoted by 
Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 454, IDOti (mute= 
people ). Nanvogaloklak. Baker, ibid. Nau- 
vogalokhlagamute. Petroff in 10th Census, 
Alaska, map, 1884 (misprint). Nauwogalokhlaga- 
mute. Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 54, 1881 (mis 
print). 

Nanyaayi (perhaps people of Nanya ). 
The most important social group among 
the southern Tlingit. They belong to 
the Wolf clan, have their winter town at 
Wrangell, and camp in summer along 
Stikine r. in Alaska. Ketgohittan and 
Kutshittan are given as divisions. 
Naa-nu-aa-ghu. Kane, Wand, in N. A., app.,1859. 
Nanaa ri. Boas, 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 25, 
1889. Nan-gche-ari. Kranse, Tlinkit Ind., 120, 
1885. Nanya ayi. Swanton, field notes, B. A. E., 
1904. 

Nanykypusson. See Nanikypusson* 

Nanzewaspe ( quiet heart , ) . The prin 
cipal settlement of the Osage formerly in 
Neosho valley, s. E. Kans. According to 
De Smet its inhabitants numbered 600 in 
1850. 

(Ean ^se waspe. Dorsey, Osage MS. vocal)., B. A. 
E., 1883. Nan ise waspe. Ibid. Nanze- Waspe. 
De Smet, W. Missions, 355, 1856. 

Naogeh ( deer ) . A clan of the Seneca. 
Canendeshe. French writer (10(56) in N. Y. Doe. 
Col. Hist., ix, 47, 1855. Na-o -geh, Morgan, 
League Iroq., 46, 80, 1851 (Seneca form). 

Nap a. A name of doubtful Indian 
origin, now r used to designate a county, a 
town, a river, and a creek in California. 
So far as can be learned it was not used as a 
village name by either the Wintun or the 
Yukian Wappo, the territories of both of 
which peoples em brace parts of Napaco., 
the boundary between them passing just 
N. of Napa City. Powers (Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., in, 218, 1877) lists itasaPatwin 
tribe. (s. A. B.) 

Napai. A mixed Athapascan and Kus- 
kwogmiut village on the N. bank of Kus- 
kokwim r., a little above Kolmakof, 
Alaska; pop. 23 in 1890. 

Napaimute. Hallock in Nat. Geog. Mag., ix, 91, 
1898. 



Napai. A Nushagagmiut Eskimo vil 
lage in the Nushagak district, Alaska; 
pop. 11 in 1890. 

Napaimiut. llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893( Eskimo 
name for the people). 

Napaiskak. A Kuskwogmiut Eskimo 
village on the left bank of Kuskokwim 
r., about 4 in. below Bethel, Alaska; 
pop. 196 in 1880, 97 in 1S90. 
Napaiskagamut. Kilbuck quoted by Baker, Geog. 
Diet. Alaska, 1902. Napaskeagamiut. llth Cen 
sus, Alaska, 164, 1893. Napaskiagamute. I etrofY 
in 10th Census, Alaska, 17, 1SS4. 

Napakiak. A Kuskwogmiut village on 
the right bank of Kuskokwim r., about 
10 m. below Bethel, Alaska; pop. 98 in 
1880. 

Napachiakachagamut. Kilbuck quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 451, 1906. Napahaiagamut. 
Nelson in isth Rep. B. A. K., pt. 1, 23, map, ls J9. 
Napahaiagamute. IVtroff in loth Census, Alaska, 
17, 1881. Napahayagamiut. llth Census, Alaska, 
104, 1S93. Napahayagamute. Petroff, Resources 
of Alaska, 53, 1881. 

Napaklulik. A Malemiut Kskirno vil 
lage on Mangoak r., Alaska, S.K. of Sela- 
wik lake, about lat, 6<> 20 , Ion. ir>0 2(V . 
Nah-park-lu-lik. Stoney (1886) quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 154, 1906. Napaklulik. Baker, 
ibid. 

Napakutak. An Eskimo village on an 
island variously called Ettyhren, Ipekut, 
and Chirluk, off the N. K. coast of Siberia. 
Pop. 52 in 5 houses about 1895; ;>7 in 4 
houses in 1901. 

Napa kutak. Bogoras, Chukehee, 29, 1904 (Eski 
mo name). Nepe kuten. Ibid. (Chukehee name). 

Napeshneeduta ( Red man who flees 
not ). A Mdewakanton Sioux, the first 
full-blood Dakota man to be baptized and 
received into a Christian church. He 
was a son of the sister of Mrs Renville, 
wife of Joseph Renville the trader, and 
claimed kindred with some of the prin 
cipal chiefs of the Mdewakanton. He is 
described as having been above the aver 
age height, well formed, and with a coun 
tenance* indicative of intelligence, kind 
ness, and honesty. Pie was baptized at 
Lac-qui-Parle, Minn., Feb. 21, 1S40, re 
ceiving the name Joseph Napeshnee; his v 
wife was received into the church at the 
same time, and he brought four children 
to be baptized, three of them by former 
wives. His wife died within 5 years, 
when he married a convert, Pretty Rain 
bow, who deserted him ; he later married 
another Christian woman and removed 
to Little Crow s Village, a few miles below 
Ft Snellinu, on the Mississippi, where 
manv of his relatives lived. Here he 
became ill with fever, and because of his 
change of religious faith his people re 
fused him food and help. ^ hen t 
outbreak of the Sioux began in 1 
Joseph, like the other Christum Indians, 
befriended the whites, and in thefollow- 
ing spring he was engaged as a Govern 
ment scout, a position which he held for 
several years, returning finally to Lac- 
qui-Parle where he died in July 1870. 



ttA PETACA KARKAG ANSET 



[B. A. s. 



his last years Joseph was respected for 
his piety and industry by both whites 
and Indians. For nearly 10 years he was 
a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church, 
and supported his family, notwithstand 
ing the infirmities of old age, without 
Government aid. See Williamson in 
Minn. Hist. Soe. Toll., in, 188, 1880. 

Napetaca. A village of the Yustaga 
tribe or "province" in Florida, the scene 
of one >f the fiercest battles between the 
Indians and De Soto s troops in 1539. It 
was probably on one of the head-streams 
of Suwannee r. (.1. M.) 

.Napetaca. <Jentl. of Elvas (1557) quoted by 
Bourne, De Soto Nan 1 ., 1,41, 190-1. Napetuca. 
(it-ntl. of Elvas in Hakluyt Soc. Pub., ix, 39, 1851. 
Napituca. Ranjel (en. 1546) in Bourne, op. cit., 
II. 7:5, 1904. 

Napeut. A former Pima rancheria on 
the x. hank of the Rio Gila, s. Ariz.; vis 
ited by Father Garees in 1770. 
Napeut. Arricivita, Chronica, n, 416, 1792. 

Napissa (Choctaw: napixa, spy, sen 
tinel ). A tril>e mentioned in 1699 by 
Iberville as united with the Chickasaw, 
living in villages adjoining those of the 
latter, and speaking the same or a cognate 
language. As they disappear from his 
tory early in the 18th century, it is prob 
able that they were absorbed by the 
Chickasaw, if indeed they were not a 
local division of the latter. (A. s. G. ) 
Napissa. Ibrrville flti .i .M in Margry, Doc., IV, 184, 
ls*0. Napyosa. Ibid., 161. Napyssas. Ibid., 180. 

Napiw. See XnnnbozJio. 

Nap ob a tin. A name said by Gibbs 
(Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 110, 1853) 
to signify many houses, and to have 
been used by the Indians of Big valley, 
on the s. shore of the main body of Clear 
lake, for themselves collectively. This is 
doubtful. (s. A. B.) 

Napochies. A tribe living near Coosar., 
Ala., at war with the Cocas (Creeks) in 
15lin. They were probably a Muskhogean 
people, more nearly affiliated to the mod 
ern Choctaw. CL*N<ipissa. 
Napaches. Fairbanks, Hist. Fla., 80,1871 Napo 
chies. Harcia, Knsayu, 35 37, 1723. 

Napoya. ^ A clan of the Apohola phra- 
try of the Timucua of Florida. Pa re j a 
( <i. Kill ) (jnoted by (Jatschet in Proc. 
Am. Philos. Soc., xvn, 492, 1878. 

Nappeckamak ( enclosed or occupied 
water-place ). The principal village of 
the Manhattan, on the site of Yonkers, 

Nappeckamaks.-Bolton quoted by Ruttenber, 
I rib,- Hudson s K-, 77. 1*72. Nappikomack.-Rut- 
s, ->:}, 1906. Nepahko- 



trnbrr. Ind 
iuk. Ibi. 



Napuchi ( mountain pass ). A small 
rancheria of the Tarahumare near Noro- 
uachic, Chihuahua, Mexico. Lumholtz 
inf n, 1*94. 

Naquiscopa. An unidentified town vis 
ited by MOSCOHO H troops in 1542, w. of 
Mississippi r. ( Jentl. of Klvas (1557) in 
trench, Hist. Coll. La., n, 199, 1850. 



Narajeracbic ( where the dead are 
dancing ). A burial cave of tru Tarahu 
mare in the Arroyo de las Iglesias, on the 
road from Batopilas to Carichic, in s. w. 
Chihuahua, Mexico. It has been much 
despoiled in recent years on account of 
mining the saltpeter deposits in the cave, 
in conducting which about a hundred 
bodies were uncovered. Lumholtz, Un 
known Mex., i, 222, 1902. 

Nararachic (probably place of tears , 
or weeping place ). Formerly a large 
pueblo of the Tarahumare, but now an 
unimportant settlement about 15 m. N. 
of Norogachic, lat. 27 40 r , Ion. 107, 
Chihuahua, Mexico. With the neigh 
boring ranches the population numbered 
about 180 families in 1902. 
Marrarachic. Lumholtz in Scribner s Mag., xvi, 
311, Sept. 1S94 (misprint). Nararachic. Lumholtz 
in Internal. Cong. Anthrop., 102, 1894. 

Naraticon. A division of the Dela wares 
of s. Ncv/ Jersey. They have been vari 
ously located by writers, but according 
to Brinton lived on Raccoon cr. 
llattikongy. De Laet (1633) in X. Y. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., I, 315, 1841. Naratekons. De Laet 
(1633), ibid., 303. Naraticons. Brinton, Lenape 
Log., 42, 1S85. Naricon. Doc. of 1656 in X. Y. Doc 
Col. Hist., i, 590, 1856 < the creek). Narraticongs. 
Proud, Penn., n, 295, 1798. Narraticonse. Stuy- 
vesant (1608) in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., XII, 61, 1877. 
Narratikonck. Ilerrman map, 1670. Nar-rit-i- 
congs. Macauley, N. Y., u, 164, 1829. 

Narices. A tribe, probably Coahuilte- 
can or Tamaulipan, at Reinoso, Mexico, 
near the Rio Grain le, below Laredo, Texas, 
in 1757. They were with the Nazas, 
Comecrudos, and Tejones. The Narices 
and the Nazas had been converted at 
Villa de Pilon, in Nueva Leon (Joseph 
Tienda de Cuervo, Informe del Recono- 
cimiento e Ynspeccion de la Colonia de el 
Seno M^exicano, 1757, MS. in the Archive 
General, Historia, LVI; Orozco v Berra. 
Geog., 294, 1864). (IT/KB.) 

Narises. Tienda de Cuervo, op. cit., 1757. 

Nariz (probably Spanish nose ). A 
Papago village, probably in Pima co., s.. 
Ariz.; pop. about 250 in 18(53. 
Naris. Browne, Apache Country, 291, 1869 (mis 
quoting Poston). Nariz. Poston in Ind. Aff. 
liep. 1863, 385, 1864. 

Narosigak. An Ikogmiut F^skimo vil 
lage on the left bank of Kwemeluk pass, 
at Nioklakowik slough, Yukon delta, 
Alaska. 

Narosigagamieut. Putnam (1899) cited by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 454, 1906 (>nieut= f people ). 
Narosigak. Baker, ibid. 

Narraganset ( people of the small point, 
from naiayans, diminutive of naiag, small 
point of land, with locative ending -el). 
An Algonquian tribe, formerly one of the 
leading tribes of New England. They 
occupied Rhode Island w. of Narragansett 
bay, including theNiantie territory, from 
Providence r. on the x. E. to Pawcafcuck 
r. on the s. w. On the x. w. they claimed 
control over a part of the country of the 
Coweset and Nipmuc, and on the s. w. 
they claimed by conquest from, the Pequot 



BULL. 30] 



NARRAGANSET 



29 



a strip extending to the Connecticut line. 
They also" owned most of the islands in 
the bay, some of which had been con 
quered from the Wampanoag. The 
Niantic, living in the western part of the 
country, were a subordinate tribe who be 
came merged with the Narraganset after 
King Philip s war. The Narraganset 
escaped the great pestilence that in 1617 
desolated the -southern New England 
coast, and, being joined by numbers of 
the fugitives from the E., became a 
strong tribe. The early estimates, as 
usual, greatly exaggerate, but it is certain 




NARRAGANSET OF CONNECTICUT, BORN AT BROTHERTON, 
WISCONSIN. (p. G. SPECK, PHOTO.) 

that they numbered, including their de 
pendents, several thousand when first 
known to the whites. In 1633 they lost 
700 by smallpox, but in 1674 they still 
numbered about 5,000. The next year 
saw the outbreak of King Philip s war, 
which involved all the neighboring tribes 
and resulted in the destruction of the 
Indian power in southern New England. 
The Narraganset threw their whole 
strength into the contest and shared the 
common fate. In the celebrated swamp 
fight near Kingston, R. I., on Dec. 19, 
1675, they lost nearly 1,000 in killed and 
prisoners, and soon thereafter the survi 



vors were forced to abandon their country 
and take refuge in small bands among 
the interior tribes in the N. and W 
It is probable that most of them joined 
the Mahican and Abnaki, though 
some may have found their way to Can 
ada. In 1682 a party of about 100 fugi 
tives at Albany asked permission to 
return in peace. The Niantic had taken 
no part in the war against the whiten, 
and in this way preserved their tribal 
organization and territory. The scattered 
Narraganset, as they surrendered, were 
settled among them, and the whole body 
henceforth took the name of Narraganset. 
They were assigned a tract near Charles- 
town, R. I., and constantly decreased in 
numbers, as they were hemmed in by the 
whites. Many of them joined the Broth- 
erton Indians in New York in 1788. 
Those who remained numbered about 
140 in 1812, and 80 in 1832, but these are 
now reduced to a few individuals of 
mixed Indian and negro blood, some of 
whom have joined the Mohegan near 
Norwich, Conn. 

The Narraganset were ruled by eight 
chiefs, each of whom had his own particu 
lar territory, but was subject to the head 
chief, who lived at their principal village, 
called Narraganset, about the site of 
Kingston. Of the religion of the abo 
rigines of Rhode Island, Roger Williams 
wrote, Feb. 28, 1638 (Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 4th s., vi, 225, 1863) as follows: 
"They have plenty of Gods or divine 
powers: the Sunn, Moone, Fire, Water, 
Earth, the Deere, the Beare, &c. I 
brought home lately from the Nanhig- 
gonsicks the names of 38 of their Gods, 
all they could remember. Denison says: 
"They made no images; their divinities 
were ghosts; they were extreme spiritual 
ists. Every element and material and 
object had its ruling spirit, called a god, or 
Manitou. These divinities seemed ever 
passionate and engaged in war with each 
other; hence the passionate and warlike 
character of the worshippers. They 
adored not intelligence and virtue, but 
power and revenge. Every person was 
believed to be under the influence of some 
spirit, good or evil that is, weak or 
strong to further the person s desires. 
These spirits, or Manitous, inhabited dif 
ferent material forms, or dwelt at times in 
them. The symbolic signature employed 
by sachems and chiefs, in signing deeds, 
represented, in many cases, the forms 
inhabited by their guardian or inspiring 
spirits; these were bows, arrows, birds, 
fishes, beasts, reptiles, and the like." 

The following were the Narraganset 
and Niantic villages: Charlestown, Chau- 
batick, Maushapogue, Mittaubscut, Narra 
ganset, Niantic, Pawchauquet, and Sha- 
womet, 



A K K A ( } A 7s T S KTT TACER N ASCAPEE 



[B. A. E. 



In addition to the writings cited below, 
consult, for historical data, Rider, Lands 
of Rhode Island, 1904. (.1. M.) 

Amirgankaniois. ,les. Rel. 1652, 26. 1*58. Anygan- 
sets . Prince (1632 1 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., 
vn. 59, 1818. Marraganeet. .lones, Ojebway 
Inds., 139. 1*01 nnisprint). Nahiganiouetch. 
Je-. Rel. 1010, 35. 1S5S. Nahiganset, Williams 
(16S2i in R. I. Col. Rec., I, 26. 1856. Nahiggan- 
neucks. Patent of 1613. ibid.. 1 11. Nahiggonset. 
Williams 1 16751 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Col 1., "4th s., VI, 
301, 1*03. Nahiggonsick. Williams (1638), ibid., 
217. Nahiggonsjcks. Williams (1675), ibid.. 304. 
Nahigonset. Ibid.. 300. Nahigonsick. Williams 
.163* . ibid.. 216. Nanaganset. Doc. of 1671 
in R. I. Col. Rec.. n. 368. 1*57. Nanheygan- 
setts. Doc. of 1612. ibid.. I. 130, 1*5(1. Nanhigan- 
sets. Act oT 1611, ibid.. 131. Nanhigganeuck. 
Williams 1 16i: >i in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., in, 
2o5. 1791 (the true tribal name). Nanhigganset. 
Williams ( 1646) in R. I. Col. Rec., I, 33, 1*56. Nan- 
higgansick. Williams (1637) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 3d s.. ix. 299. 1*46. Nanhiggon. William; 

I, 222 

iksc 



. 

,s., vi, 222, lsd3. Nanhiggonset. 
Ibid. ,223. Nanhiggon- 



Ibid. NanhiggonL 

ticks. Williams 1 1636). ibid., 3d s.. I, 100. 1*25 
Nanhiggs. Williams (1600) quoted by Canlkins, 
Hist Norwich. 47. 1*66. Nanhigonset. Williams 
i UiOM quoted by Drake. Hk.Jnds.. l)k.2, 100, 1*4S. 
Nanhigonsick. Williams ( 1638 i in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
( ..11.. 4th s., vi. 223. 1S03. Nanhygansett. Doc.of 
1651 in R. I. Col. Rec., 1.131. 1*56. Nanhygansit. 
(iorton a!id Holden (1667). ibid,, n, 231, 1857. 
Nanihiggonsicks. Williams (1637 i in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll.. It li s., vi. 1*9. 1*63. Nannogans. Mason 
1 16i:; i. ibid., vn. 411, 1*65 (abbreviation). Nan- 
nogansetts. Ibid. Nanohigganeuks. Monrt 
.1622 1, ibid.. 1st s.. viii, 211, 1*02. Nanohiggan- 
set. Ibid., 239. Nanohiggunsets. Doc. of 1613 
limited by Drake. Hk. Inds.. bk. 2, 55. 1*4*. Nanti- 
gansick. Williams (</:. 1610), ibid., 23. Nanty- 
gansick. Callender in R. I. Hist. Soc. Coll., iv, 73, 
1*3*. Nantyggansiks. Callenderquoted by Drake, 
Hk. Inds., bk. 2. 2:;. isis. Naragancetts. Doc. of 
1612 in Ma-s. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s.. Ill, 101, 1*33. 
Naraganset. Win thro p (1031:. ibid., 4th s.. in, 
320. 1*56. Naragansicks. Peter (<. 1637), ibid., 
VI, 95, 1*63. Naraghenses. .H-s. Rel, 1060, 27, 1858. 
Naransett, Underbill (IMS) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll. , 3d s., VI. 1.1X37. Naregansets. Patrick 1 1637)! 
ibid., 4th s., VII, 323, 1*65. Narhigansets. Doc. of 
1675inN.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xiv, 699. 1**3. Narhig- 
gansetts. Hradiord i 1610) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
lths..vi,159. 1*63. Narhiggon. Doc.of 1075inN.V 
Doc.Col.Hist.,.\iv,099.1**3. Naricanset. Pynchon 
(1613) in Masv Hist. Soe. Coll., 1th s.. VI, 373, 1803. 
Narigansets. Cu-hmaM i 1622). ibid., in, 122, lS50 
Narigansette. Treaty ( 1644 i. ibid.. 430. Narigans- 
sets. Bradford (c<i. ]V,5oi, ibid.. 235. N- t rigenset 
Williams) 1651 ,(|iioted by Drake, Hk. Inds., bk.2, 80, 
v Nariggansets, Williams ( 16 IS) in Mass. Hist. 
Sue. Coll.. :5ds.. ix. 271. ls|6. Narighansets. Brad 
ford \f<i. 1050). ibid., 1th s.. in, 102, l.s iO Narihgan- 
sets. Ibid., 113. Narogansetts. Writer of 1070 
quoted by Drake.Ind.Chron., 115,1*30. Narohigan- 
sets. -Patent of 16: 15 in N.Y. Doe. Co]. Hist., xiv 

. Narragancett. Doc. of Kltls in R. |. ( of. 
llec.. n,231, 1*57. Narragangsett.~<;reene ( 1670) ill 
R. I. Col. Rec.. n.31 1. l*.")7. Narraganses. Do\\ nintr 
< 1030 1 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., vi, 38, 1S03. 
Narragansett. Haynes ( 1013), ibi<l., 3d s i 230 
*25. Narraghansets. Harris, Voy. and Tra v., i 
*51. 1705. Narrangansett. Writer of 16i|jn j{ j 
r<)l - It * -, I. 13*. 1*5(1. Narregansets.- Patrick 
(1637) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1th s.. vn.323 1*65 
Narrhagansitt. Do.-, of 1679 in R. I. Col. Rec m 63 
1*5*. Narricanses Doc. of 16.V) in N. V Doc Co ] 
Hist., xin. 5*. !*.*]. Narrigansets. Bradford 
(b .Ki) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 4th s.. vi, 160 ls ( ;3 
Narrigonset. -Williams (103*), ibid., 217 Narro- 
ganteU. Howes (1611) ibid., 513. Narrohigan- 
Bet8.-Mourt (1022), ibid., 1M s.. vn,. 23M, l> , 
Warrohigganscts. |)ee in Smitln 1029), Va II >>! 
repr 1*19. Narrohiggenset. Doc. of Kit:, iti Dra ke 
Hk. Inds., bk.2. 93, 1*1*. Narrohiggin. Ibid <>] 
Narrohiggonseta. M.Mirt M622i in Mass. Hist. Soc! 
Coll., Ms., IX, 27, 1*22. Narrowbiggonset. Ibid 
0*(iaisprint;. Narrowgancett. Allvn (1670) in R! 



I. Col. Rec., II, 317, 1ST.7. Narrowgannenciis. Doc. 
of 1726. ibid., IV, 371, T859. Narrowganneucks. 
Warwick (1643), ibid. ,303. narrow Ganset. John 
son (1654) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., IV, 42, 1816. 
Narrowgaiissits. Ibid., II, 00, 1814. Narrowgan- 
zet. Ibid., IV, 28, 1810. Narrow Higansetts. Pat 
ent of 1661 quoted by Thompson, Lonj? Id., 90, 
1839. Narrow Higgansents, Patent/of 1664 in Vt. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 11,501,1871. Narygansetts. \Vin- 
throp (1650) in .Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., IX, 289, 
1846. Nayhiggonsiks. Williams (1670), ibid., 1st s., 
1,278, 1806. Nazaganset. Kliot (1051), ibid., 3d 
s.,iv, 125, 1834. Nechegansitt. Gookin (ca. 3677) 
quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds., bk.2,23,J48. Neragon- 
sitt. St inton(1070)inN.Y.Doc.Col Hist.,xiv,715,. 
1883. Norragansett. Coddinjjrton (1674) in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll. ,4th s., vn, 295, 1865. Nousaghau- 
set. James quoted by Tanner, Narr.,329, 1830. 

Narragansett pacer. A breed of horses 
for which Rhode Island was once famous; 
so called from the place-name Narragan 
sett, also the appellation of the Algon- 
quian tribe formerly resident in the Rhode 
Island country. (A. F. c. ) 

Narsak. An Eskimo village at the 
month of Ameralik fjord, lat, 04, w. 
(ireenland. Xansen, First Crossing of 
(irec-nland, n, 2~r2, 1890. 

Narsarsuk. An Eskimo village in w. 
< ireenland. Ilartwig, JVdar World, 402, 
map, 1S()9. 

Narsuk. An Eskimo village on the 
s. K. coast of Greenland, lat. 00 3CK; 
pop. 20 in 1829. (iraah, Exped. East 
Coast (ireenland, 114, 1837. 

Na. Sa. Eor all names beginning with 
this abbreviation, see JVw,s /w tfefioni. 

Nasagas-haidagai (Xa wuja s xa i- 
dAga-i, }>eo{)le of the rotten house ). 
A subdivision of the (iitins of the Ilaida 
of Skidegate, belonging to the Eagle clan. 
They were unable to restore their house 
for such a long time that it began to fall 
to pieces, hence the name. They once 
occupied a separate town. (.1. R. s. ) 

Na s a gas qa edra. Boas in 12th Rep. N. W. 
Tribes Can., 21,25, 1898. Na saga s xa -idAga-i. 
Swan ton, Cont. Haida, 273, 1905. Na^ s a/yas 
qa etqa. Boas in 5th Rep. X. \V. Tribes Can., 26, 
1S98. NisigasHaade. Harrison in Proc. Rt>y. Soc. 
fan., 125, 1895. 

Nasaump. See $an)p. 

Nascapee (a term of reproach applied 
by the Montagnais). The most north 
easterly of the Algonquian tribes, occu 
pying the elevated interior of Quebec and 
Labrador penin. N. of the Gulf of St Law 
rence and extending from the vicinity of 
L. Mistassini to Ungava bay on the x. 
They call themselves Nanenot, true, 
real men. .Many of them have inter 
married with their congeners the Mon 
tagnais, and when they visit the coast 
the two tribes frequent the same stations. 
When in the neighborhood of Tngava 
hay they are known as Tngava Indians. 
They are shorter and of lighter build than 
the .Montagnais, and have delicately 
formed and clear-cut features, small hands 
and tect, and large, rather soft, eyes. 

According to their traditions the Nas 
capee were driven into their present 



BULL. 30] 



NASCAPEE 



31 



country in early times by the Iro-quois. 
They assert that originally they lived in 
a region to the w. , N. of a great river (sup 
posed to be the St Lawrence) and toward 
the E. lay an enormous body of water 
(believed to be Hudson bay). When 
they reached the Ungava region their 
only neighbors were Eskimo, who occu 
pied the coast strip and with whom they 
became involved in war, which continued 
until after the arrival of the whites. The 
two peoples are now on terms of intimacy. 
The Nascapee do not have the endurance 
of their Eskimo neighbors against fatigue 
and hunger, although equally able to 
\vithstand the rigors of their harsh cli 
mate. The children are obedient; disre 
spect toward their elders is unknown, and 
in their dealings one with another there 
is no quarreling. The Nascapee are gen 
erally healthy; their prevailing diseases 
are of the lungs and bowels the former 
resulting from exposure to the extremes 
3f wet and cold and their insanitary 
houses; the latter due to their gluttony 
ifter long fasting from scarcity of food. 
Those who go to the coast to reside, as 
nany have in recent years, appear to be 
nore subject to diseases than those in the 
nterior. Medical treatment consists of 
ihamanistic incantations and the use of 
Dowders and liniments, both native and 
;hose procured from traders. Mar- 
iage is effected without ceremony and 
s conditioned on the consent of the 
>arents of the young woman and the 
ibility of the prospective husband to 
support a wife; after marriage the bond 
nay be severed by either party on slight 
revocation. Polygamy is common, the 
lumber of wives a man may have being 
imited only by his means of support- 
ng them. The sexual relations of the 
Nascapee are very loose; but their im- 
fiorality is confined to their own people. 
A he division of labor is similar to that 
mong most tribes: the women perform 
11 domestic work, including the trans- 
ortation of game, fetching the fuel, 
recting the tipis, hauling the sleds when 
raveling, etc. ; the men are the providers, 
rirls reach puberty at 14 or 15 years, and 
re taken as wives at even an earlier age. 
lothers usually do not bear more than 4 
hildren; twins are rare. 
The Nascapee suspend the bodies of 
leir dead from branches of trees if the 
round be much frozen, and endeavor to 
eturn when the weather is warm to bury 
iem. Interment, however, has been 
ractised only since the advent of mis- 
onaries. A man of distinction is often 
uried at once, after a fire has been built 
i a tipi to thaw the earth. They have 
o horror _for the dead, having been 
nown, it is said, to rob Eskimo corpses 
f their clothing and accompanying im- 
lements, 



Like other Indians the Nascapee be 
lieve that every object, animate or inani 
mate, is possessed of a form of spirit 
which, in order that it may perform its 
services for the welfare of the people 
must be propitiated with acceptable offer 
ings. The medicine-men are supposed to 
be in direct contact with all forms of 
spirits, and are consulted when it is de 
sired to overcome their baneful influence 
by means of the shaman s art, 

The subsistence of the Nascapee is 
gained by the chase, which is engaged in 
chiefly during the winter. In the spring 
men, women, and children repair to the 
trading posts, chiefly Ft Chi mo, where 
they trade furs, ptarmigan feathers, etc., 
for the articles and products of civiliza 
tion. The reindeer forms the chief source 
of their food and clothing, although fish, 
ptarmigan, ducks, geese, hares, rabbits, 
porcupines, beaver, and, in stress of hun 
ger, an occasional lynx, are also eaten ; the 
eggs of wild fowl are consumed in enormous 
quantities and in all stages of incubation. 
Reindeer are speared from canoes while 
crossing a stream, or snared or shot from 
ambush while passing through a narrow 
defile, or, in winter, are driven into a 
snowbank and speared. In these slaugh 
terings an incredible number of carcasses 
and skins are left to decay. Wolverenes, 
wolves, and foxes are never eaten. The 
flesh of game animals is dried, pounded, 
made into pemmican, and stored in bas 
kets and bags for future use. 

The apparel of the Nascapee is quite 
distinct for the two sexes; the clothing 
varies also with the season, as the ex 
tremes of climate a re very great. That of 
the men consists of tanned reindeer coat, 
breeches, leggings, moccasins, gloves or 
mittens, and cap or headdress. Seams 
are sewed with sinew, and all the gar 
ments except the leggings, which are 
mostly hidden by the long coat, are orna 
mented with extravagant painted designs. 
Moccasins are rarely ornamented, except 
with beads or with strips of colored cloth. 
Beaded head-bands are used for bearing 
burdens, especially for carrying canoes 
when making portages. In winter the 
men wear the coat with the fur side in 
ward and with a hood attached. In sum 
mer the women wear calico dresses, thin 
shaw T ls obtained through trade, and moc 
casins; in winter their apparel consists 
of a reindeer skin robe, a sleeveless gown 
reaching a little below the knees, often 
highly ornamented with painted designs, 
bead work, and fringe; and blanket 
shawl, shoulder cape, leggings, mocca 
sins, and cap. 

The dwellings, for both winter and 
summer, are tents or tipis of reindeer 
skins sewed together, and measuring 1( 
to 18 ft at the base and 10 to 14 ft high. 
The floor is carpeted with young spruce 



32 



NASHAMOIESS NASHE AKUSK 



[B. A. H. 



branches, except around the central fire 
place; the smoke escapes through an 
opening in the top of the tipi where the 
supporting poles are brought together. 
The place of honor is the side opposite 
the fire. Poles extend across the tipi for 
the suspension of pots and kettles, and 
hunting apparatus, clothing, etc. are 
hung in convenient places. The outer 
edge of the interior is slightly raised 
above the center of the floor, affording a 
slope for the occupants when sleeping 
with their feet toward the fire. Sweat 
lodges of small poles covered with tent 
skins are in common use, and are heated, 
as usual, by means of hot stones on which 
water is poured. The domestic utensils 
of the Xascapee consist of thin vessels of 
spruce or birch, of various sixes, for hold 
ing liquids and for use as drinking cups; 
berry dishes or baskets of birchbark, 
sewed like the wooden vessels with split 
root>: baskets of birehbark with buck 
skin top and draw-string; bags made of 
the skins of reindeer legs sewed together; 
ami spoons or ladles of wood nicely carved. 
They are inordinately fond of smoking, 
chewing, and snulling tobacco the lat 
ter, however, is practised only among 
the aired, especially the women. When 
camped at the trading posts the Indians 
boil together tobacco and molasses, to 
which water is added; this compound is 
drunk until stupefaction ensues. Pipes 
are made usually of sandstone or slate, 
with stem of spruce, often ornamented 
with beadwork, and are valued according 
to the color of the stone. Transportation 
and traveling are conducted by means of 
canoes made of slats or ribs covered with 
birchbark, sleds or toboggans (tn-lxtx-knn), 
and snowshoes of four styles framed with 
wood and netted. Bows and arrows are 
now almost discarded for guns; but blunt- 
pointed arrows are still used fo r killing 
small game, and by boys. The reindeer 
spears, already referred to, consist of a 
shaft 6 ft long \\ith a steel head made 
Irom a fiat iile. Reindeer snares are 
made of reindeer parchment cut into thin 
narrow thongs and plaited, or of tanned 
skin. Beaver are sometimes trapped in 
a sort of net. Knives, awls, ice scoops 
and picks, hair combs and comb cases , 
porcupine tails for cleaning the combs, 
and fishing tackle are among the neces 
sary implements of every Nascapee house 
hold. 

The chief amusements of the men are 
games of draughts or checkers, of which 
they are exceedingly fond, and cup-and- 
ball. Feasts, acTTjnipanied by dam*; and 
ceremony, may be given by a man who 
has been unusually successful j n hunt 
ing. Drums and drum-like rattles are 
used for musical accompaniments in their 
ceremonies; other rattles, as well as bows 



and arrows, which are shot at effigy tar 
gets, are used by the boys, while elabo 
rately costumed dolls are made for the 
girls. Like other tribes the Nascapee 
have an abundance of folktales, the chief 
subject of which are the animals common 
to their environment. In these tales the 
wolverene seems to play a prominent 
part. (See Turner in llth Rep. B. A. E., 
267 et seq., 1894.) 

On account of their wandering habits, 
the nature of their country, and their 
mixture with the Montagnais, it is im 
possible to give an exact statement of 
their numbers. "Jn 1858 they vvere esti 
mated at about 2,500. In 1884 the Nas- 
kapee of the lower St Lawrence were 
officially reported to number 2,860, and 
the Indians of Labrador and E. Ruperts 
Land were returned as 5,016. ln ( 1906 
there were 2,18:> Montagnais and Nasca 
pee officially noted as such, and 2,741i 
unnamed Indians in the interior, 1,253 
of whom were in the unorganized territo 
ries of Chicoutimi and Saguenay. See 
Montagnais, Xilcltefjti.ou.. 

Cunsskapi. Laure (1731) quoted by Hind, Lab. 
Penin., i, 34, 18(i3 (misprint for Ouneskapi). Es 
ko-piks. Walch, Map Am., 1805. Nascopi. 
Stearns, Labrador, 262, 1884. Nascopie. -McLean, 
Hudson Bay, n. 53, 1849. Nascupi. Stearns, Lab 
rador, 262, 1*84. Naskapis. Hoc-quart (1733) 
quoted by Hind, op. cit., 11. Naskapit. Kingsley, 
Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 149, 1885. Naskopie. 
Turner in llth Rep. B. A. E., 183, 1894. Nasko- 
pis. Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 149, 1885. 
Naskupis. Hocquart (1733) quoted by Hind, Lab. 
Penin., n, 96, 1863. Naspapees, Stearns, Labra 
dor, 262, 1881. Nasquapees. - Ibid, (correct form). 
Nasquapicks. Cartwright (1774) quoted by Hind, 
Lab. Penin., n, litl, 1803. Ne ne not. Turner in 
llth Rep. B. A. E., 183, 1894 ( true men : own 
name). Neskaupe. Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., 
pt.G, 148, 188."). Ounachkapiouek. Jes. Rel. for 1643, 
38, 1858. Ounadcapis. Stearns, Labrador, 262, 
18s 1. Ounascapis. Hind, Lab. Penin., I, 275, 1863. 
Ounescapi. Bell in, map, 1755. Scoffies. Gallatin 
in Trans. Am. Ethnol. Soc., II, ciii, 1848. Secof- 
fee. Brinton, Lenape Leg., 11, 1885. Shouda- 
munk. Gatschrt in Trans. Am. Philos. Soc.,409, 
1885 i -good Indians : Beothuk name). Skoffie. 
Writer a;. 1799 in Mass. Hist. Soe. Coll., 1st s., VI, ; 
16. 1800. TJnescapis. La Tour, map, 1779. Ungava 
Indians. McLean, Hudson Bay, n, 53, 1849. 

Nashamoiess. An Algonquian village in 
the s. E. part of Marthas Vineyard, Mass., 
in 1659. Cotton in Mass. IJist. Soc. Coll., 
1st s., i, 204, 1806. 

Nashanekammuck. A former Algon 
quian village at Chilmark, Marthas 
Vineyard, Mass. In 1698 the inhabitants 
numbered 2:>1. 

Nashanekammuck. Rep. of 1698 in Mass Hist Soc. 
Coll., 1st s., x, 131, ISO .). Nashouohkamack. Ibid., 
1,204, note, 180(1. Nashouohkamuk. Mayhew, Ind. 
Converts, 13. 1727. Nashuakemmiuk. Cotton in 
Mass. Hist. Soc, Coll., Ists., I, 204, 1806. 

Nasheakusk ( Loud Thunder ; also 
spelled Na.shash.uk, Xasheshtik, Nasues- 
kuk, Nasheaskusk, Nasheescuck, etc.). 
The son of Black JIa\vk and his wife 
Asshawequa ( Singing Bird ). He was 
the eldest of Black Hawk s three chil 
dren, the others being Nasomsee or 
Gamesett, a son, and Namequa, a daugh- 



BULL. 30] 



NASHOBAH 



ter, who were living at the close of the 
Black Hawk war in 1832. Nasheakusk 
did not bear a conspicuous part in the 
Indian history of the N. W., being of 
note chiefly from his association with his 
famous father. He was horn probably 
about the close of the 18th century. He 
remained with and followed the fortunes 
of his father not only during the war of 
1832, but also during his captivity, and 
seems also to have lived with his father s 
family until the latter s death, Oct. 3, 
1838, subsequently remaining with bin 
mother for some years, probably until 
her death, Aug. 29, 1846. Nasheakusk 
and his brother made complaint to Gov. 
Lucas of Iowa when their father s grave 
was desecrated, which resulted in the re 
covery of the bones. The time of his 



quoted by Drake, Ind. 




NASHEAKUSK 



death is not given. 

by Samuel M. Brookes 

and his father were prisoners of war at 



A portrait, {minted 
while Xasheakusk 



Fortress Monroe, Va., is in possession of 
the Historical Society of Wisconsin (see 
illustration). (c. T. ) 

Nashobah. A former village of Chris 
tian Indians in the N ipmuc country, near 
Magog pond, in Littleton, Mass. " Of it 
John Eliot wrote in 1070: "This place 
lying in the road-way which the Mau- 
quaogs [Mohawk] haunted, was much mo 
lested by them, and was one year wholly 
deserted, but this year the people have 
taken courage, and dwell upon it again." 
In 1675 the inhabitants, numbering about 
50, w r ere removed to Concord, Mass., on 
account of King Philip s war. 
Nashoba. Drake, Bk. of Inds., bk. 2, 54, 1833. 
Nashobah. Gookin (1674) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
1st. s., i, 188, 1806. Nasholah. Writer of 1676 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 2-07 - 3 



38 



Nashola ( wolf ). A Chickasaw clan 
oi the Isnpanee phratrv. 

Nashoba. -Catschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i. 96, 18K4 
Na-sho-la. Morgan, Am:. Hoc., if,;} 1x77 

Nashua ( the laud between ). V tribe 
formerly living on upper Nashua r in 
Worcester co., Mass., said by some to 
have been connected with the Massa- 
chuset, but clashed by Potter with the 
Fennacook. They had a village called 
Nashua near the present Leominster, but 
their principal village seems to have been 
\\eshacum, a few miles farther s. The 
Nashua tract extended for several miles 
in every direction around Lancaster. ( )u 
the outbreak "of King Philip s war, in 
1675, they joined the hostile Indians, and, 
numbering several hundred, attempted to 
escape at his death in two bodies to the 
E. and w. Both parties were pursued and 
a large number were killed and captured, 
the prisoners being afterward sold into 
slavery. A few who escaped eastward 
joined the Pennacook, while about 200 of 
the others crossed the Hudson to the Ma- 
hican or the Munsee. and ceased to exist 
as a separate tribe. A fe\v still remained 
near their old homes in 1701. (.1. M.) 
Nashaue. Karly form cited by Kinnicutt Ind 
Names, 29, 1905. Nashaway. Kliot (1651) in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., iv, 123, 1S34. Nashawog. 
Eliot (1648), ibid., 81. Nashawogg. Karly form 
cited by Kinnicutt, op. cit. Nashoway. Rep. (ca. 
1657) in N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 96, 1832. Nash 
ua. Writer of 1810 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s. 
1,181,1814. Nashuays. Drake. Bk. Inds., ix. 1848. 
Nashuway. Hinckley (1676) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 4th s., v, 1, 1861. Nashuyas. Domenech, 
Deserts, 1,442.1860. Nassawach. Courtlandl 1688) 
inN. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 562, 1853. Nasshaway. 
Pynchon (1677), ibid., XIII, 511, 1881. Nassoway. 
Writer of 1676 quoted by Drake, Ind. Chron., 130, 
1836. Naushawag. Paine (ca. 1792) in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., 1st s., i,115.1XOti. 

Nashwaiya ( slanting wolf). One of 
the former Choctaw "Sixtowns," prob 
ably in Jasper co., Miss. 

Nashoopawaya. West Fla. ma]), c<i. 1772. Nasho- 
weya. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 109, 1884. 
Nashwaiya. Halbert in Pub. Ala. Hisl. Soc., I, 
383, 1901. 

Nasiampaa. A band of Mdewakanton 
Sioux, named from a chief, formerly liv 
ing E. of Mississippi r., 25 m. from the 
agency, near St Paul, Minn.; pop. K>9. 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 612, 1S58. 

Naskotin. A Takulli sept dwelling in 
Chentsithala and Nesietsha villages on 
Eraser r., near the mouth of Blackwater 
r., Brit. Col. Pop. <>5 in 1901), having be 
come reduced from 90 in 1S90 through 
alcoholic excesses. 

Nanscud-dinneh. Balbi, Atlas Ethnog., 821, 1826. 
Nascotins. Domenech, Deserts, n. 62, 1860. Nas- 
cud. Cox, Columbia R., 327, 1831. NascudDenee. 
Mackenzie Voy.,n, 175, 1802. Nashkoten. Smet, 
Oregon Miss., 100, 1817. Naskoaten. Maefie, Van 
couver Id., 428, 1S65. Nas-koo-tains. Harmon, 
Jour 245, 1820. Naskotins. Cox, Columbia K., 
II 346 ls31 Na-sku-tenne. A. (i. Morice, inf n, 
1890. Nasrad-Denee. Vater, Mithridates, m, 421, 
1816 Nauscud Dennies. (Jallatin in Trans. Am. 
Antiq. Soc., n, 20, 1836. Niscotins. Hale in U. S. 



NASNOOOMAC ACK NATAOTIN 



[B. A. B. 



Kxpl Kxped., iv. I ll, IS!. ). Tsistlatho band. Can. 

liitf. Air., 211. 1902. 

Nasnocomacack. A Massac-huset village 
in liilH, on the coast of Massachusetts, 
probably a few miles x. of Plymouth. 
Smith ( ltlH) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
3d s., vi, 108, -1837. 

Nasoinsee. See XasJicakusk. 

Nasoni. A former tribe of the Cadclo 
confederacy. Their principal village 
t nnu Jo S7 to 1 752, and probably later, was 
about 27 m. N. of Nacogdoches, on or 
near an eastern branch of Angelina r.,N.E. 
Texas. They are possibly identical with 
the Nisione of the De Soto narrative of 
Biedma. They are mentioned by Jontel 
in 1(>S7 and by La Harpe in 1719. The 
Spanish mission of San Jose de los Na- 
/ones was established among them in 
171 i, east of upper Angelina r., but was 
transferred to San Antonio r. in 1731. 
Being upon the contested Spanish-French 
border ground they suffered accordingly 
from disease. They are mentioned in 
the Texas census of 1790, but seem to 
have disappeared as a distinct tribe about 
the end of the century. In customs and 
religion they resembled their kindred of 
the Caddo confederacy. 

Nadsonites. Do la Tour," Map Amerique, 1779. 
Nasone. Census of Sept. It), 1790, in Tex. State 
Archives. Nasonis. Barcia. Ensayo, 289, 1723. 
Nasony. Linares (171(1) in Margry. Dec., vi, 217, 
ixstl. Nasoris. Barcia, op. eit., 2(15. Nasoui. 
Tomi dtV.td) in French, Hist. Coll. La., T, 73, 
ls4tl. Nassomtes. Boyd, Ind. Loo. Names, 70, 
1**5. Nassoni. .Joutel (1(187) in Margry, Dec., 
m. Ki9, l.*7s. Nassonians. Hennepin, New Dis- 
cov.. pt. n. 2S, Ki .ts. Nassonit. Walche, Charte 
von America, iso"). Nassonites. La Harpe (1719) 
in Margry, Dec., vi, 263, 1SS6. Nazone.Tex. 
State Archives, Nov. 17, 17C>3. Nisione. Biedma 
ilMltin Hakluyt, Soc. Pub., ix, 197, 1851. Nis- 
sohone. Gentl. of Elvas (1557) quoted by Shea, 
Karly Vuy., 149, 1861. Nissoon. Harris, Voy. and 
Trav.. i, MO, 1705. Nissoone. (Jentl. of Elvas 
(1557) in French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 198, 1850. 
Noachis. Bancroft. No. Mex. States, i, (ill, 188(1. 
Nossonis. Hennepin, Discov., Thwaites ed., 416. 
1903. Nozones. Rivera, Diario, leg. 2602, 173(1. 
Sassory. Cavelier (Ills") quoted bv Shea Early 
Voy., 39, istil (possibly identical). 

Nassauaketon ( forked river ). One of 
the four Ottawa divisions, living toward 
the close of the 17th century in x. Michi 
gan or Wisconsin on a river x. of (Jreen 
hay. They were so called from the fact 
that they resided then or previous to 
leaving Canada on a river having three 
branches. See Nat/a on ichlri idouek. 
Nancokoueten. Writer of 1(195 in x. y. Doc. Col. 
\\\^L, ix, (127, 1S55. NansoaKouatons. Bacqueville 
de la 1 otherie, Hist. Am., iv, 201, 1753. Nansoua- 
ketons. Ibid., 11, tli. Nansoua, Kostons. Ibid 

Nassauaketon. Cadillac (1(195) in Minn. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., v, .105, ]x.sr,. Nassauakuetoun. Cadillac 

H9..I in Margry, Dec., v. so, is,s;i. Nassawake- 
ton. -Yerwyst, Missionary Labors. 210, 188(1. 
Nation de Fourche. .les. Rel. 1(171, 12, 1858. 
Ounasacoetois. De la Chesnaye (ni. 1(195) in Mar- 
gry. Dr.,.., v,so, is8;. People of the Fork. Montreal 
conf. ilTiHi, in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist. ix. 719, 1S55 
Rasaoua koueton. Jes. l{el. K140, 35, 1858. Sassa- 
ouacottons. 1 riM de p,,ssession (].;71 i in 1 errot, 
Mem., 29:;, lhf.1. Sassasouakouetons. I errot 
Mem., 295, note, 18(11. Sassassaouacottons. Prise 
de possession (1(171 i in Margry, D,V., i, 97, is75 
Sasgassaoua Cottons. -Prise de possession (1671) 
in N. ^ . Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 803,1866. 



Nasskatulok. (iiven by Krause as a 
Yuit Eskimo village at the head of Plover 
bay, Siberia (Deutsche (Jeog. Bliitt,, v, 
80, map, 1882), but it is not mentioned 
by Bogoras. 

Nastedi ( peo])le of Nass ) . A division 
of the Wolf phratry of the Tlingit, living 
at Kuiu, Alaska. They are said to have 
come from Nass r., whence the name. 
Nas-tedi. Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 120, 18S5. 

Nasto-kegawai (Xasto qe ga. wa-i, those 
born at Nasto [ Mippa] id. ) . A branch of 
the Skwahladas, one of the most impor 
tant families of the Raven clan of the 
Haida, living on the w. coast of Queen 
Charlotte ids., Brit. Col. -S wanton, Cont. 
Haida, 270, 1905. 

Nasueskuk. See Nasheakusk. 

Nasumi. A former Kusan village or tribe 
on the s. side of the mouth of Coquille r., 
on the coast of Oregon, near the site of 
the present town of Bandon. 

Coquille. Abbott, MS. Coquille census, B. A. E., 
1858. Lower Coquille. Dorsey, NaltunnetunnC 
MS. vocal). , B. A. E., 1884. Masonah. Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, June 8, 18(10. Na -fu-mi ^unne . 
Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 231, 1890 (Tu- 
tutni name) . Nas-ah-mah. Kant/, MS. Census of 

1854, B. A. E., 1855. Nas-o-mah. I arrish in Ind. 
ArY. Rep. 1854, 495, 1855. Na-son. Smith, ibid., 
476. Nas-sou. Abbott. MS. Coquille census. B. A. 
E.. 1858. Na -su-mi. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk 
lore, in, 231, 1890 (Naltunnetunng name). 

Natahquois. A Nanticoke village in 
1707, probably on the E. shore of Mary 
land or on the lower Susquehanna. 
Evans (1707) quoted by Day, Perm., 391, 
1843. The name is probably only a vari 
ant of Nanticoke. 

Nataini ( mescal people ). A division 
of the Mescalero Apache who claim the 
country of the present Mescalero res., 
N. Mex., as their former home. 
Nata-hinde. Mooney, field notes, B. A. E., 1897. 
Nata-i ni. Ibid. 

Natal rites. See Child-life. 

Natalsemoch. (liven by Kane as the 
name of a tribe in Smith inlet, Brit, Col. 
It can not be identified with that of any 
tribe in this region, but it may have 
been applied to a part of the Goasila who 
also live on Smith inlet. 
Nalal se moch. Schoolcraft, Tnd. Tribes, v, 488, 

1855. Nalatsenoch. Sconler (1846) in, lour. Ethnol. 
Soc. Lond., i, 2153, 1848. Natal-se-moch. Kane, 
Wand, in N. Am., app., 1859. 

Nataotin. A Takulli tribe living on 
middle Babine r. and Babine lake, Brit. 
Col. Dawson gave their number as 
about 300 in 1881. Morice (Notes on 
W. Denes, 27, 1892) said that they were 
in 3 villages on the N. half of Babine 
lake and numbered 310. They are the 
people formerly known as Babines, but 
Morice gave that name also to the Hwot- 
sotenne, as there is perfect community of 
language, and both tribes wear labrets. 
In 1906 the two bands at Ft Babine and 
at the old fort numbered 283. The names 
of their villages are Lathakrezla and 
Neskollek. 

Babinas. Domenech, Deserts of N. Am., T, 440, 
18(50. Babine Indians. Hale, Ethnog. and Philol., 



BULL. 30 J 



NATARGHILIITUNNE NATCHEZ 



35 



202,18-16. Babin Indians. Latham in Trans. Philol. 
Soc. Lond., 66, 1S56. Babinis. Domenech, op.cit., 
II, 62, 1860. Big-lips. Kane, Wand, in N. Am., 241, 
1859. Nahto-tin Brit. Col. map. Naotetains. 
Prichard, Phys. Hist., v, 377, 1847. Nataotin. An 
derson quoted by Gibbs in Hist. Mag. , vn, 76, 
1863. Na-taw-tm! Dawson in Geol. Surv. Can. 
1879-80, 30B.1 SSI. Nate ote-tains. Harmon, Jour., 
203, 1820. NatotinTine. Am. Nat., xil, 484, 1878. 
Na-to-utenne. A. G. Morice, inf n, 1890. Ntaauo- 
tin. Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond.. 66, 1856. 

Natarghiliitunne ( people at the big 
dam ). A former village of the Mishikh- 
wutmetunne on Coquille r., Greg. 
Na -ta-rxi -li-i ;unne . Dorscy in Jour. Am. Folk 
lore, m, 232, 1890. Nate -l i -ate tene . Kverette, 
Tutu MS. vocab.,B. A. E.,1883 (trans, people near 
the waterfall ). 

Natashquan. A Montagnais rendezvous, 
visited also by the Nascapee, at the mouth 
of Natashquan r., on the x. shore of the 
Gulf of St Lawrence, Quebec. It con 
tained 76 people in 1906. 
Natashquan. Hind, Lab. Penin., n, map, 1863. 
Nataskouan. Ibid., 180. 

Natasi. A former village on Red r. of 
Louisiana, occupied by one of the tribes 
of the Caddo confederacy. In 1882 
a Caddo Indian gave the Natasi as a 
division of the Caddo confederacy (Gat- 
schet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 43, 1884), but 
as the name does not appear in the revised 
list of these divisions in 1891 (Mooney in 
14th Rep. B. A. K., 1092, 1896) it maybe 
merely a subdivision of the Nabedache. 
Tonti in 1690 mentioned the villages of 
the "Nadas" as N. w. of the Natchitoch 
and near the Yatasi; he also speaks of 
the Nadotic villages as 12 leagues from 
Red r. In both instances he probably 
referred to the same people whose village 
Iberville learned of in 1699, the name of 
which was given by his Taensa Indian 
guide as Natache. La Harpe in 1719 
speaks of the same people by the name 
Nadassa, saying they were a small nation 
on Red r. Although the villages of the 
Natasi lay within the area that was in dis 
pute by the Spaniards, French, and Amer 
icans during the .18th and the first half of 
the 19th centuries, the name of trie people 
is hardly mentioned. Nothing is known 
of them as a tribe; they had probably 
mingled with their kindred, whose fate 
they shared, and if any survive they are 
now with the Caddo on their reservation 
in Oklahoma. (A. c. F.) 

Nadas. Tonti (1690) in French, Hist. Coll. La., I, 
72,1846. Nadassa. La Harpe (1719), ibid., in, 19, 
1851. Nadouc. Tonti, op. cit., 83. Nadouches. 
La Harpe, op. cit., 68. Natache. Iberville (1699) 
in Margry, Dec., iv, 178, 1880. Natassi. Gatschet, 
Creek Migr. Leg., I, 43, 1884 (Caddo name). Nay- 
tasses. Robin, Voy. a la Louisiane. in, 3, 1807. 

Natatladiltin * (Xata-tla-cHltin, agave 
plant ). An Apache clan or band at San 
Carlos agency and Ft Apache, Ariz., in 
1881. Bourke in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 112, 1890. 

Natche, Natchez. See Nahche. 

Natchesan Family. A linguistic family 
established by Powell (7th Rep. B. A. E., 
1891), consisting of two tribes, usually 
known under the names Natchez and Ta 



ensa, each comprising several villages. 
The former dwelt near the present city 
of Natchez, Miss., the latter nearNewell- 
ton, La. For the relationship of these 
two tribes we are dependent entirely on 
the categorical statements of early French 
writers, as not a word of Taensa is cer 
tainly known to exist. A supposed gram 
mar of this language was published by 
Adam and Parissot, but it is still under 
suspicion. For the probable relations of 
this supposed family with the Muskho- 
geans, see Xutcltez. 

>Natches. Gallatin in Trans, and Coll. Am. 
Antiq. Soc., II, 95, 306, 1836 (Xatches only) ; Prich 
ard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v, 402, 403, 1S47. >Nat- 
sches. Berghaus (1845), Physik, Atlas, map 17, 
1848; ibid. ,1852. > Natchez. Bancroft, Hist. I .S. 
248, 1S40; Gallatin in Trans. Am. Kthnol. Soc., u, 
pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848 (Natchez only ); Latham, Nat. 
Hist. Man., 340, 1850 (tends to include Tacnsas, 
Pascagoulas, Colapissas, and Biluxi in same 
family); Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 
401, 1853 (Natchez only); Keane in Stanford s 
Compend., Cent, and So. Am., app., 460. 473, 1878 
(suggests that it may include the Utchees). 
>Naktche. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., J, 31, 
1884; Gatschet in Science, 414, Apr. 29, 1S87. 
>Taensa. Gatschet in The Nation. 382, May 4, 
1S82; Gatschet in Am. Antiq., iv. 238. LSS2; Gat 
schet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 33, 1884; Gatschet in 
Science, 414, Apr. 29. 1SS7 (Taensas only ). 

Natchez. A well-known tribe that for 
merly lived on and about St Cathe 
rine s cr., E. and s. of the present city of 
Natchez, Miss. The name, belonging to 
a single town, was extended to the tribe 
and entire group of towns, which in 
cluded also peoples of alien blood who 
had been conquered by the Natchez or 
had taken refuge with them. Iberville, 
on his ascent of the Mississippi in 1699, 
names, in the Choctaw language, the fol 
lowing 8 towns, exclusive of Natchez 
proper: Achougoulas, Cogoucoula, Ousa- 
goucoula, Pochougoula, Thoucoue, Tou- 
goulas, Yatanocas, and Ymacachas. Of 
these, Tougoulas and perhaps Thoucoue 
are the Tioux (q. v. ) towns. It is pro 
bably safe to infer that the 9 towns, in 
cluding Natchez, represented the entire 
group, and that the Corn, Gray, Jene/en- 
aque, White Apple, and White Earth 
villages areonly other names for some ot 
the abov%, with which it is now impos 
sible to identify them. The Tioux and 
Grigras were two nations under the pro 
tection of the Natchez; both were of alien 
blood. Du Pratz alludes to a tradition 
that the Taensa and Chitimacha were 
formerly united with the Natchez, but 
left them, though the latter had al 
ways recognized them as brothers. 
Taensa were, indeed, probably an offshoot 
of the Natchez, but the Chitimacha were 
of a distinct linguistic family. 

It is difficult to form an estimate of the 
numerical strength of this tribe, as the 
figures given vary widely. It is probable 
that in 1682, when first visited by the 
French thev numbered about 6,000. and 
were able to put from 1,000 to 1,200 war 
riors in the field. 



NATCHEZ 



IB. A. H. 



Tin Natche/ engaged in three wars 
with tin- French, in 17K), 17-\ and 1729. 
The last, which proved fatal to their 
nation, was caused by the attempt of the 
French governor, Chopart, to occupy 
tlie site of their principal _village as a 
plantation, and it opened with a general 
massacre of the French at Fort Rosalie, 
established in 17 Hi. The French, in re 
taliation, attacked the Xatchex villages 
with a strong force of Choctaw allies, and 
in 1730 the Natchez abandoned their vil 
lages, separating .into three bodies. A 
small section remained not far from their 
former home, and a second body tied to 
Sicily id., near Washita r., where they 
were" attacked early in 17. U by the French, 
many of them killed, and about 450 cap 
tured and sold into slavery in Santo Do 
mingo. The third and most numerous 
division was receive* 1 by the Chickasaw 
and built a village near them in N. Mis 
sissippi, called by Adair, Nanne Ilamgeh; 
in 17:15 these refugees numbered 180 war 
riors, or a total of about 700. In the year 
last named a body of Natchez refugees 
settled in South Carolina by permission of 
the colonial government, but some years 
later moved up to the Cherokee country, 
where they still kept their distinct tow r n 
and language up to about the year 1800. 
The principal bodv of refugees, however, 
had settled on Tallahassee cr., an affluent 
of Coosa r. Hawkins in 1799 estimated 
their gun-men at about 50. They occu 
pied the whole of one town called Natchez 
and part of Abikudshi. The Natchez were 
there fore not ex terminated by the French, 
as has frequently been stated, but after suf- 
feri i ig seven-losses the remainder scattered 
far and wide among alien tribes. A few 
.-urvivors, who speak their own language, 
still exist in Indian Ter., living with the 
Cherokee, and in the councils of the Creeks 
until recently had one representative. 

Though the accounts of the Natchez 
that have come down to us appear to be 
highly colored, it is evident that this 
tribe, and doubtless others on the lower 
Mississippi, occupied a somewhat anom 
alous position among the Indians. They 
seem to have been a strictly seden 
tary peo|,l,.. depending tor their live 
lihood chiefly upon agriculture. They 
had developed considerable skill in the 
arts, and wove a textile fabric; from 
the inner bark of the mulberry which 
they employed for clothing. They made 
excellent pottery and raised mounds of 
earth upon which to erect their dwell 
ings and temples. They were also OIK; 
of tin: eastern tribes that practised head- 
Hattening. In the main the Natchez ap 
pear to have been peaceable, though like 
other tribes they were involved in fre 
quent quarrels with their neighbors. All 
accounts agree in attributing to them an 



extreme form of sun worship and a highly 
developed ritual. Moreover, the position 
and function of chief among them dif- 
ered markedly from that among other 
tribes, as their head chief seems to have 
had absolute power over the property and 
lives of his subjects. On his death his 
wives were expected to surrender their 
lives, and parents offered their children 
as sacrifices. The nation was divided 
into two exogamic classes, nobility and 
commoners or michmichffupi, the former 
being again divided into suns, nobles 
proper, and esteemed men. Children of 
women of these three had the rank of their 
mother, but children of common women 
fell one grade below that of their father. 
There were various ways, however, by 
which a man could raise himself from 
one grade to another at least as far as the 
middle grade of nobles. While the com 
moners consisted partially of subject 
tribes, the great majority appear to have 
been as pure Natchez as the nobility. 
In spite of great lexical divergence, there 
is little doubt that the Natchez language 
is a Muskhogean dialect, 

Consult Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg.,i, 
1884; Mooney, (1) Siouan Tribes of the 
East, Bull. B. A. E., 1894, (2) in Am. 
Anthrop., n. s., i, no. 3, 1899, (3) in 19th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1900, and the authorities 
cited below. For the archeology of the 
old Natchez country, see Bull. Free Mus. 
ITniv. Pa., n, no. 3,\Ian. 1900. 

(H. w. n. .1. K. s. ) 

Ani -Na tsI. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 509, 
1900 (Cherokee name, abbreviated Anitittf; sing. 
A-Xa txl). Chelouels. Iberville (1699) in Margry, 
D6c., iv, 269, 1880. Innatchas. Doc. en. 1721, 
ibid., vr, 230, 1886. Nacha. -Iberville, op. c-it., 
255. Nachee. Adair, Am. Inds., 225, 1775. Na- 
ches. Tonti (1686) in Margry. Dec., in, 556, 1878. 
Nachez. Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, IS, 1*11. Nachis. Barcia, 
Ensayo, 24(5, 1723. Nachvlke. Brinton in Am. 
I hilos. Soe. Proc., xnr, 483, 1S73. Nachy. Tonti 
(1684) in Margry, Dec., I, 609, 1875. Nadches. 
Ibervifte (1700), "ibid., iv, 404, 1880. Nadeches. 
Ibid., (S02. Nadezes. Ibid., 402. Nahchee. 
Adair, Am. Inds., 353, 1775. Nahy. Tonti (1(584) 
in Margry, Dee., I, 603, 1875. Naichoas. Mc- 
Kenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 81, 1854 
(possibly identical). Naktche. Gatsehet, Creek 
Migr. Leg., i, 34, 1884. Natche. LaSalle (1682) in 
Margry, Dee., I, 558, 1875. Natchee. S. C. Gazette 
(1734) quoted by Rivers, Hist. S. Car., 38, 1856. 
Natches. Proees verbal (1682) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., I, 47, 1846. Natchese. Hervas, Idea dell 
Uni verso, xvn, 90, 1784. Natchets. Bacqueville 
de la Potherie, Hist, de 1 Ain., i, 239, 1753. 
Natchez. -Penicant (1700) in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., n. s., i, 57, 1869. Nattechez. Bart ram, Voy., I, 
map, 1799. Nauchee. Hawkins (1799), Creek 
Country, 42, 1848. Netches. Woodward, Rein., 79, 
1859. Nitches. Ibid. ,16. Noatches. Domenech, 
Deserts X. Am., I, 442, 1860. Notchees. Doc. of 
1751 quoted by Gregg, Hist. Old Cheraws, 10, 1867. 
Notches. Glen (1751) quoted by Gregg, ibid., 14. 
Pine Indians. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 509, 
1900 (given as incorrect rendering of Ani -Na teT, 



>p. fit. ). Sunset Indian 



(1795) in School- 



craft, Ind. Tribes, v, 260, 1855. Techloel. Iberville 
(1699) in Margry, Dec., iv, 155, 1880. Telhoel. 
rbid.,121. Theloei. Ibid., 179. Theloelles. Ibid., 
409. Tpelois. Iberville (1700) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., 11. s., 26, 1869. 



BtTLL. 301 



NATCHEZ NATKEKIN 



Natchez. The principal village of the 
Natchez, probably situated on St Cath 
erine s cr., near the Liberty road bridge, 
about 3 m. from the present city of Natchez. 
Miss. Later this name was given to a 
town of the refugee Natchez among the 
Upper Creeks. 

Natchitoch (Caddo form, Na-sh i tosli) . 
.A tribe of the Caddo confederacy which 
spoke a dialect similar to that of the Ya- 
tasi but different from that of the Kado- 
hadacho and its closely affiliated tribes. 
Their villages were in the neighborhood 
of the present city of Natchitocb.es, near 
those of another tribe called Doustioni 
(q. v.). Whether the army of De Soto 
encountered them is unknown, but after 
La Salle s tragic death among the Hasinai 
his companions traversed their country, 
and Douay speaks of them as a power 
ful nation/ In 1690Tonti reached them 
from the Mississippi and made an alli 
ance; and in 1699 Iberville learned of 
them through a Taensa Indian, but did 
not visit them in person. Next year, 
however, he sent is brother Bienville 
across to them from the Taensa villages. 
From that time and throughout the 
many vicissitudes of the 18th century the 
tribe never broke faith with the French. 
In 1705 they came to St Denis, comman 
dant of the first French fort on the M issis- 
sippi, and asked to be settled in someplace 
where they might obtain provisions, as 
their corn had been ruined. They were 
placed near the Acolapissa, and remained 
there until 1712 when St Denis took them 
back to their old country to assist him in 
establishing a new post as a protection 
against Spanish encroachments, and also 
in the hope of opening up commercial re 
lations. This post, to which a garrison was 
added in 1714, remained an important 
center for trade and travel toward the S. 
W. formore than a century. St Denis sent 
messages to the tribes living in the vicin 
ity, urging them to abandon their village s 
and come to settle near the post, assuring 
them that he would never forsake them. 
Some of the tribes yielded to his persua 
sions, hoping to rind safety during the 
disturbances of the period, but the move 
ment only accelerated the disintegration 
already begun. In 1731, St Denis, at the 
head of the Natchitoch and other In 
dians, besides a few Spaniards, inflicted 
severe defeat on a strong party of Natchez 
under the Flour chief, killing about SO of 
them. The Natchez, after their wars 
against the French, had tied to Red r. and 
were living not far from the trading post 
and fort. The importance of this estab- 
lishmentandthefriendlinessof the Natch 
itoch made the latter so conspicuous in the 
affairs of the time that during the first 



or Natchitoch. DuPratz states that about 
1730 their village near the French p<>st 
numbered 200 cabins. Owing to wars in 
which they were forced to take part, to 
the introduction of new diseases, particu 
larly smallpox and measles, thep< >pnluti< >n 
of the tribe rapidly declined. In his re 
port to President Jefferson, in 180"), Sibley 
gives their number as only 50, and adds, 
"The French inhabitants have a great 
respect for these natives, and a number 
of families have a mixture of their blood 
in them." Shortly afterward they ceased 
to exist as a distinct tribe, having been 
completely amalgamated with the other 
tribes of the Caddo confederacy (<|. v.), 
from whom they differed in no essential 
of custom, or of ceremonial or social 
organization. (A. c. F. .1. K. s. ) 

Na9acahoz. Gentl. of Elvas (1557) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n, 199, 1850. Na-ce-doc. .1 () 
Dorsey, Caddo MS., B. A. E., 18M. Nachito 
ches. Tonti (1690) in French, Hist. Coll. La., i, 
72, 1840. Nachitock, Coxe, Carolana, K), 1711. 
Nachitooches. Kingslcy, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. vi, 
173, 1885. Nachitos. Joutel (1(187) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., i. 108. 1840. Nachittoos. Yoakum, 
Hist. Texas, i, 392. 1855. Nachittcs. Ibid., 
380. Nachtichoukas. JerYerys, French Dom.. pt. 
1,104,1701. Nacitos. Linares (1710) in Martrry, 
Dee., vi, 217. 1880. Nactchitoches. Du Prat/. Hist. 
La., n. 242, 1758. Nactythos. Iberville (1099) in 
Margry, Dec., iv, 178, 1880. Nadchito. Bienville 
(1700), ibid., 431. Nadchitoches. Ibid., 435. 
Nadchitoe. Iberville (1700), ibid.. 409. Nagua- 
daco. Tex. State Archives. Sept. 10, 179(1. Na- 
guateeres. Coxe, Carolana. 10. 17 11. Naketoe s. 
ten Kate, Keixen in N.A.,371, lss5. Naketosh. 
(Jatsehet, Caddo and Yatassi MS.. 77, B. A. E. 
Nakitoches. Andn/.e (after 1*25 1 in Ann. de I rop. 
de la Foi, III, 501-509, Napgitache. McKcnney 
and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in. 82. 1*54. Napgitoches. 
Coxe, Carolana, map, 1711. Naquitoches. Belle 
Isle (1721) in Margry. Dec., VI, 311, 1880. Nashe- 
dosh, Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 43. 1884. 
Nashi tosh. Mooney in 1 1th Rep. B. A. K., 1092, 
1890 (proper Caddo form). Nasitti. .Joiitel (1087) 
in Margry, Dec., m, 409. 1S7S. Nassitoches. 
P6nicaut (1705), ibid., v, 459, 1883. Natchetes. 
Hennepin Ne\v Discov., II, 43, 109S. Natchi 
dosh (iatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 43, iss|. 
Natchiloches. Doinenech, Deserts N. A.. I. 442, 
180.0. Natchites. Donay (1087) quoted by Shea. 
Discov Miss 218. 1852. Natchitoch. lira vier 
(1701) quoted by Shea, Early Voy., 149, 1801. 
Natchitoches. Bienville (1700) in Margry. Dec., 
IV, 437, 1880. Natchitochis. Porter i!829i in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in. 590, 1853. Natchi- 
totches. Lewis and Clark. .Journal. 143, 1; 
Natchitto. Jontel (1087) in Margry, Dec., m, 409, 
1878 Natschitos. Ibid , 408. Natsitoches. .k t- 
fervs Vin. Atlas, map 5, 1770. Natsshostanno.- 
Joutcl, op. eit., 409. Natsytos. Iberville (1099 
ibid IV 178 1880 Nazacahoz. (ientl. of Klvas 
(1557) quoted by Shea, Karly Voy.. 1 19. isc.l. Ne- 



half of the 18th century Red r. was known 
Natchitock, a variant of Nashitosh 



as the 



guadoch. Gtissefeld. Cliarte v< 
1797. Nepgitoches.-Barcia. Ki .sivo. 2 i. 1/23. 
Notchitoches. Carver, Travels, map. 1778. Yat- 
chitcohea. Lewis and Clark,. Journal, 1 

Nateekin. An Alent village on Natee- 
kiu bay, Unalaska, Aleutian ids., Alaska, 
with 15 inhabitants in two houses in 

I S.SO. 

Nateekenakoi. -Elliott, Cond. Afl. Alaska, 2 . 
1875. Natieka.-Sarichef (1792) quoted by Baker, 
Ccoff Diet Maska. 290, 1901. Natiekmskoe. 
vlSfamlnof (1830) quoted by Baker, ibid.. 1900. 
Natuikinsk.-l etrotY in 10th .Census. Alaska 3 
1881 Natykinakoe. Veniaminof, Zapiski, ,2 
mo! Natykinskoje.-Holmberg, Ethnog. Ski/x. 
142, map, 1855. 



N ATES A N ATLT ATIN 



[B. A. B. 



Natesa (from <th:inyli, black, Mark, 
hence dark people ) . One of the three 
classes or castes into which the Kutcha- 
kutchin are divided, the others being the 
Chitsa and the Tangesatsa, q. v. 
Nah fsingh.-Hardisty in Smithson. Rep. 1866, 
3l.\ I8?2tnameoftheif country)- Nate-sa. -Kirby, 
ihi<l 1st! I 41S. 1S<;.">; Hardisty, ibid., IStiti, 31f>, 
1872. Nat sah-i. Jones in Smithson. Rep. 1S66, 
326, 1872. Nat singh. Hardisty, op. cit. 

Natick ( the place of (our) search. - 
Tooker). A village founded by Indian 
converts, mainly Massachuset, under the 
supervision of the noted missionary John 
Kliot, in 1H50, near the present Natick, 
Mass. Soon after its establishment it 
numbered about 150 inhabitants, who 
were given a reserve of (>,000 acres^ It 
increased in population and after King 
Philip s war was the principal Indian vil 
lage in that region. In 1749 there .were 
Kit) Indians connected with the settle 
ment. < )n the breaking out of the French 
and Indian war in 1754 many of the Natick 
Indiansenlistedagainstthe French. Some 
never returned, and the others brought 
back an infectious disease which rapidly 
reduced the population. In 17H4 there 
were 37 in the village and some others 
connected with it. In 1792 the whole 
body numbered but 25 or 30, and soon 
thereafter they had become so mixed with 
negroes and whites as to be no longer dis 
tinguishable. It was reported in Dec. 
1821, that Hannah Dexter, 7(> years of 
age. "the last of the Xaticks," had been 
murdered by her grandson at Natick. 
For :\ discussion of the name, consult 
Tooker, A Ignnqiiian Series, x, 1901. See 
Minions. (J.M.) 

Mawyk. Salisbury (1678) in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.. 
.Mil, 52H, issl i misprint ). Na-cheek. Plat of 1(177 
cited by Touker, Al^oiX). Ser., X, IS, 1901. Na- 
chick. Deel. of 1677. ibid. Naitticke. Salisbury 
( Iil7si,.,p.cit..52l. Natick. Wilson (1(151) in Mass. 
Hist. Soe. Coll., 3d s., iv, 177, 1S34. Natics. Bar 
ton. New Views, Iviii, 1798. Natik. Kliot (1(151) in 
Mass. Hist. Soe. Coll.. 3d s.. TV, 172, 1834. Natique. 
Kliot ( HITS), ibid., 1th s., vin, 377, IStiS. Nattick. 
Brorkholst dr,7s) in N. Y. Doe. Col. Hist., xin. 
5:{<i. issl. Natuck. Ibid., 524. Nittauke. Perry 
quoted by Tooker. Al^oiKj. Ser., x. 9, 1901 (given 
as Indian name i. 

Nation, The. A term formerly applied 
to several of the larger and more impor 
tant tribes and confederacies in the Gulf 
states, particularly the Creeks, but also to 
the Cherokee, Catawba, Choctaw, and 
Chickasaw. At present it is an ollicial 
term applied to each of the Five Civil i/ed 
Tribes (q. v. ) in < )klahoma, vi/., the ( her- 
okee, Creeks, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and 
Seminole. The term 7/rx \utiun* was 
used by Canadian French writers of the 
17th and isth centuries (and occasion 
ally in Knglish wi it ings) to designate the 
heathen tribes, who were distinguished 
into Les grandes Nations and Les petites 
Nations. The Iliviere des petites Na 
tions in the province of (Quebec preserves 
this designation. Spe.cilically Le petit 
Nation was the Weskarini, q. v. 

(u. \v. H. A. F. r.) 



National Indian Association. A society 
for improving the condition of the Indians. 
It originated in Philadelphia in 1879 with 
a memorial circulated by Mary L. Bon- 
ney and Amelia Stone Quinton petition 
ing the Government to prevent the 
encroachments of white settlers on Indian 
territory and to guard the Indians in the 
enjoyment of all the rights guaranteed to 
them on the faith of the Nation. A sec 
ond memorial in 1880 obtained 50,000 
signatures, and a third in 1881, signed by 
100,000 persons, asked for all Indians 
common school and industrial teaching, 
land in severalfy, and the full status of 
citizens. The association, formally con 
stituted in 1880, and taking the name the 
National Indian Association in 1882, 
changing it to the Women s National 
Indian Association in 1883, was the first 
body of friends of the Indians to demand 
for them citizenship and lands in sever- 
alty. For these objects it labored till 
1884, when missionary work was added, 
and since then it has established for 50 
tribes or tribal remnants Christian mis 
sions, erecting more than 50 buildings, 
which when well established were given 
to the various permanent denominational 
missionary societies. A home building 
and loan department, a young people s 
department, libraries, special education 
for bright Indians, and hospital work 
were added later. The National Indian 
Association, which resumed its earlier 
name in 1901, has asked for more schools, 
an increase in the number of field 
matrons, the righting of various wrongs, 
and protection and justice to many tribes, 
and has constantly advocated the appli 
cation of civil service reform principles to 
the entire Indian service, the gradual 
abolition of Indian agencies, the payment 
of debts due Indians from the Govern 
ment, and other measures needed to pre 
pare Indians for civilized self-support 
and good citi/enship. Since 1888 the 
Association has published a periodical 
called The Indian s Friend. (A. s. Q. ) 

Natkelptetenk (N atqf lptE tEnk, yellow- 
pine little slope ). A village of the Lyt 
ton band of Ntlakyapamuk, on the w. 
side of Fraser r., about a mile above 
Lytton, Brit. Col. Teit in Mem. Am. 
M ns. Nat. Hist., n, 172, 1900. 

Natkhwunche (Nat-qirnn -tct }. A for 
mer village of the Chastacosta on Rogue r., 
Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 234, 1890. 

Natleh ( it [the salmon] comes again ). 
A Natliatin village at the discharge of 
Fraser lake into Wat 1 eh r. , .Brit. Col.; 
pop. 53 in 1902, (U in 190(5. 
Frazer s Lake Village. Can. Ind. Afl ., pt. 2, 78, 
HM;. Natle. Morieo in Trans. Rov. Soc. Can. 
IS92, sec. 2, 109. 1S9I5. Hatleh. Morice, Notes on 
W. Denes, 25. 1893. 

Natliatin. A Takulli sept inhabiting 
the villages Natleh and Stella, one at each 



NATOOTZU ASA tfAVAHO 



end of Fraser lake, Brit, Col. Pop. 13b 
in 1892; 122 in 1906. 

Chinloes. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, July 19, 18(52. 
Nantley Tine. Hamilton in Jour. Anthrop. Inst. 
Gt. Br., vil, 206, 1878. Natilantin. McDonald, Brit, 
Columbia, 126, 1862. Natleh-hwo tenne. Morico, 
Notes on W. Den6s,25, 1893 ( = people of Natleh ). 
Natliantins. Domenech, Deserts N. Am., n, 62, 
1860. Natliautin. Hale, Ethnog. and Philol., 202, 
1846. Natlo tenne. Morice, Notes on W. Denes, 25, 
1893. Nau-tle-atin. Dawsoii in Can. Geol. Surv. 
1879-80, 30B, 1881. (Etsoenhwotenne. Morice, MS. 
letter, 1890 (= people of another kind : Niko/li- 
autin name). 

Natootzuzn ( point of mountain ) . A n 
Apache clan or band at San Carlos agency 
and Ft Apache, Ariz., in 1881 ; correlative 
with the Nagosugn clan of the Final Co- 
yoteros and the Nadohotzosn of the Chi- 
ricahua. 

Nar-ode-so-sin. Wliite, Apache Names of Ind. 
Tribes, MS., B. A. E. Nato-o-tzuzn. Bourke in 
Jour. Am. Folklore, in, 112, 1890. 

Natora. A former pueblo of the Jova in 
w. Chihuahua, Mexico, near the mission 
of Teopari, of which it was a visita prior to 
its abandonment in 17-48. The inhabi 
tants moved to within half a league of 
Arivechi and later settled in the pueblo 
of Ponida. 

Natorase. Doc. of 18th cent, quoted by Bandolier 
in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 511, 1892. 

Natowasepe ( Huron river ) . A former 
Potawatomi village -on St Joseph r. , about 
the present Mendon, St Joseph co., s. w. 
Mich., on a reservation sold in 1833. 
In addition to the references cited 
below T , see Coffinberry in Mich. Pion. 
Coll., ir, 489, 1880. 

Na-to-wa-se-pe. Treaty of 1832 in U. S. Ind. Treat., 
153, 1873. Notawasepe. Treaty of 1833. ibid., 176. 
Notawasepe s Village. Royce in 18th Rep. B. A.E., 
Mich, map, 1900. Wotawassippi. Council of 1839 
in Mich. Pion. ( oil., x, 170, 1886. Nottawa Sape. 
Treaty of 1827 in U.S. Ind. Treat., op. fit., 675. 
Nottawasippi. Douglass (1840) in H. R. Doc. 143, 
27th Cong., 2dsess.,3,1842. Notta-we-sipa. Treaty 
of 1832 in U. S. Ind. Treat., 701. 1873. 

Natsitkutchin ( strong people ). A Ku- 
tchin tribe inhabiting the country from 
Porcupine r. northward to the Roman/of 
mts., Alaska. Gibbs (Notes on Ross, 
Tinne MS., B. A. E. ) said that their habitat 
began in a mountainous region from 50 
to 100 in. N. of Ft Yukon. They hunt 
the caribou as far as the seacoast, being 
a shifting people. They are chiefly 
known from their trading with the Kang- 
maligmiut Eskimo, and for the strong 
babiche that they make. They resemble 
the Kutchakutchin in physique and 
manners. Richardson gave their number 
as 40 men in 1850; Gibbs (op. cit. ) stated 
that they had 20 hunters; Petroff in 1880 
gave the total population as 120. The 
Teahinkutchin probably belonged to this 
tribe. 

Gens de Large. Petroff, Rep. Alaska, 62, 188!. 
Gens du Large. Ross, MS. Notes on Tinne, H. A. K. 
Natche -Kutchin. Dall, Alaska, 430, 1870. Na-tsik- 
ku-chin. Hardisty in Smithson. Rep. 1866, 197. 
1872. Natsik-kutchin. Dall in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., I. 30, 1*77. Natsit-kutchin. Jones in 
Smithson. Rep. 1866,321.1872. Na -ts itkutch -in. 
Ross, MS. Notes on Tinne, B. A. K. (= outer- 
country .people ). Neyetse-kutchi. Richardson, 
Arct. Exped., i, 399, 1851 ( = peopleof the open 



41 



" Ka^Sl ^ w places on the reservati< >n, awav 
Nat, Racesp- Borders of the Rio San Juan 
tchm. Petitot. Autour du lal-W*ru.t,,,l i,,,* ,i 
1891 ( = people who dwell far from the/Malt . I m 

Natsshostanno. An unidentified village"" 
or tribe mentioned to Joutel in ll>87 
(Margry, Dec., in, 409, 1878) by the chief 
of the Kadohadacho on Red r. of Louisi 
ana as being among his enemies. 

Natsushltatunne ( Na -ts&d-ta -itm-nt- 
people dwelling where they play 
shinny ). A former village of the Misli- 
ikhwutmetunne on Coquille r., Oreg. 
Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore in 232 
1890. 

Nattahattawants. A Xipmur chief 
of Musketaquid, the present Concord, 
Mass., in ](i42. At this time he sold to 
Simon Willard, in behalf of (iov. Win- 
throp and others, a large tract of land on 
both sides of Concord r., in consideration 
of which he received "six fadoin of 
waoinpampege, one wastcot, and one 
breeches" (Drake, Bk. Inds., 54, 188:5). 
Nattahattawants was a supporter and 
propagator of Christianity among his 
people, and an honest and upright man. 
His son, John, usually known as .John 
Tahattawan, lived at Xashobah, Mass., 
where he was the chief ruler of the Pray 
ing Indians. His daughter became the 
wife of the celebrated Waban (q. v. ). 

Natthutunne ( people on the level 
prairie ). A former Tututni village on 
the s. side of Rogue r. , Oreg. 
Na-t gu ;unne . Dorsey in Jour] Am. Folk-lore, 
m,236" 1890. Na-t qio lunng. Dorsey, Tutu MS. 
vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (Tututni and Naltunnetunne 
name). 

Natuhli ( Na dult , of unknown mean 
ing). A former Cherokee settlement on 
Xottely r., a branch of Hiwassee r., at or 
near the si te of t he present vi 1 lage of Rang 
er, Cherokee co. ,s.w. S. Car. (.1. M.) 
Na du H . Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. K.,526, 1900. 
Nantalee. Royce in nth Rep. B. A. K.. map, 1S87. 
Notley. Doc. of 1799 quoted by Royce, ibid.. 141. 
Nottely town. Mooney, op. cit.. 332. 

Natutshltunne. A former village of the 
Tututni on the coast of Oregon, between 
Coquille r. and Flores cr. 
Na-tcul -tun. Dorsey iu Jour. Am. Folk-Ion-, m, 
233,1890. Na-tcutfl ^unne . Ibid. 

Natuwanpika (Nn-tu-wcfii-pi-kct). One 
of the traditionary stopping places of the 
Hear clan of the Hopi, situated near (he 
present Oraibi, Arix. 

Naugatuck. A former village, subject 
to the Paugusset, at the falls of Nauga 
tuck r., near Derby, Conn. (Trumbull, . 
Conn., i, 42, 1818). The name refers to 
a tree, which probably served as a land 
mark, said to have stood near Rock Rim- 
mon, in what is now Seymour, Conn. 
(Trumbull, Ind. Xames Conn. ,36, 1881). 

Nauhaught. A Massachusetts Indian, 
called Klisha and also Joseph, a deacon 
in 175S or 17HO of an Indian church that 
stood on the N. side of Swan s pond, at 
Yarmouth, Mass. He was a conscien 
tious man and the hero of Whittier s 



40 



NATMAN , TSET 



"Xauhaught the Deacon," in which tin 
poet alludes to his bravery in 
temptation. See n\<^ " 
Coll., uts 
.. - -, v, -><>, 1S16. 

Naujan. A summer settlement of the 
Aivilirmiut Eskimo on Repulse bay x 
end of Hudson bay. Boas in 6th Rep. 
B. A. K., 446, 1SSS. 

Naujateling. An autumn settlement of 
Talirpingmiut Okomiut Eskimo on an 
island near thes. w. coast of Cumberland 

sd., near the entrance; pop. 20 in 188 3 

Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Nauklak. A Kaniagmiut Eskimo vil- 
age lo .... K. of Xaknek lake, Alaska 
penin., Alaska. 

Naouchlagamut. SpuiTaml Post mint, -<1 l,v n ,i- . 
".-.jr. Diet. Alaska 1902. Naukla k.-BakVr.lbkL 
Naumkeag ( lishing place, from nu- 
init tx hsh, // place, -(,(/ at ) V 
tribe or band, probably belonging to the 
lennacook confederacy, which formerly 
ccupied the site of Salem, Mass It ap 
pears hmveyer, that thenatives had aban 
doned he locality before the English 
reached it, as there is no record that the 

:! ( ;::: uml . an >; J - li;i "-". tiH-spot. it 



Naamhok. Ma 



- -vnter (Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., Ists., vin 
159, 1802) says: "The Indians in the 
county of Barnstable were a distinct peo 
ple, but they were subject in some respects 
to the chief sac-hem of the Wampanoags." 
They probably came in contact with the 
whites at an early date, as the cape was 
frequently visited by navigators. Erom 
this tribe Hunt in 1614 carried off 7 natives 
and sold them into slavery with 20 In 
dians of Patuxet. Cham plain had an en 
counter with the Xauset immediately be 
fore returning to Europe. They seem to 
have escaped the great pestilence which 
prevailed along the New England coast 
in 1617. Although disposed to attack the 
colonists at their first meeting, they be 
came their fast friends, and with few 









H, 

Nauniem(AV,, 




eastward. 
Nauniim. 



Nauquanabee. Sec 
Nause. A former 

S 



NAUSET WOMAN OF MASHPEE, MASS. ( F . G . SPEC K, PHOTO-) 



( .xceptions_ remained faithful to them 
through King Philip s war, even in some 
is ances lending assistance. Mostof them 
ad been Christianized before this war 
broke out Their estimated population in 
1621 was 500, but this is probably below 
their real strength at that time, as they 
;em to have numbered as many 80 rears 
afterward. About 1710, by which ~ti,ne 
K .V were all organixed into churches 
XT ost a great many by fever. In 1 764 
they had decreased to 106, living mainly 
at 1 otanumaquut, but in 1802 only4 were 
Haul o remain. Their principal village, 
-viuset, \vas near the present Eastham. 
lough their location indicates that 
nsn lurnished their chief sustenance, the 
Nausetwere evidently cultivators of the 
supplies of corn and beans were 



NAUVASA KAVAHO 



41 



obtained from them by the famishing 
Plymouth colonists in 1622. 

The following villages were probably 
Nauset: Aquetnet, Ashimuit, Cataumut, 
Coatuit, Cummaquid, Manamoyik, Man- 
ornet, Mashpee, Mattakeset, Meeshawn, 
Namskaket, Nauset, Nobscusset, Pamet, 
Pawpoesit, Pispogutt, Poponesset, Pota- 
numaquut, Punonakanit, Satucket, Satuit, 
Skauton, Succonesset, Waquoit, and Wees- 
quobs. (j. M. c. T. ) 

Cape Indians. Hubbard (1680) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., V, 33, 1815. Namset. Josselyn (1675), 
ibid., 3d s., in, 317, 1833 (misprint). Nasi tt. Hub- 
bard (1680), ibid., 2d s., v, 54, 1815. Nauset. 
Monrt(1622) quoted by Drake, Bk.lnds., bk. 2, 29, 
1848. Nausit. Smith (1616) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 3d s., vi, 119, 1837. Nausites. Mourt (1622), 
ibid., 1st s., vin, 226, 1802. Nawsel. Dermer 
(1620), ibid., 4th s., in, 97, 1856 (misprint). Naw- 
et. Smith (1616), ibid., 3d s., vi, 108, 1837. 
Nawsits. Dee in Smith (1629), Va., n, 225 repr 
1819. 

Nauvasa. The northernmost of the 
Catawba towns formerly on San tee r., 
S. Car. Byrd (1728), Hist. Dividing 
Line, 181, 1866. 

Nauwanatats (Nau-wan -a-tats}. A Pai- 
ute band formerly living in or near Moapa 
valley, s. E. Nev. ; pop. 60 in 1873. Pow 
ell inlnd. Aff. Rep. 1873, 50, 1874. 

Navaho (pron. Na -rn-ho, from Tewa 
Naiwhi i; the name referring to a large 
area of cultivated lands; applied to a 
former Tewa pueblo, and, by extension, 
to the Navaho, known to the Spaniards 
of the 1 7th century as Apaches de Navajo, 
who intruded on the Tewa domain or who 
lived in the vicinity, to distinguish them 
from other Apache" bands. Hewett in 
Am. Anthrop., vin, 193, 1906. Fray Alonso 
Benavides, in his Memorial of 1630, gives 
the earliest translation of the tribal 
name, in the form Nanajo, semenferas 
grand es great seed-sowings , or great 
fields . The Navaho themselves do not 
use this name, except when trying to 
speak English. All do not know it, and 
none of the older generation pronounce 
it correctly, as v is a sound unknown in 
their language. They call themselves 
/>tne , which means simply j >eople . This 
word, in various forms, is used as a tribal 
name by nearly every people of the Atha 
pascan stock) . 

An important Athapascan tribe occu 
pying a reservation of 9,503,763 acn-. :. 
N. E. Arizona, N. w. New Mexico, and s. E. 
Utah. Here they are supposed to re 
main, but many isolated families live be 
yond the reservation boundaries in all 
directions. Their land has an average 
elevation of about 6,000 ft above sea level. 
The highest point in it is Pastora peak, 
in the Carrizo nits., 9,420 ft high. It is 
an arid region and not well adapted 
to agriculture, but it affords fair pastur 
age. For this reason the Navaho have 
devoted their attention less to agriculture 
than to stock raising. There were for 



merly few places on the reservation, away 
troin the borders of the Rio San Juan, 
where the soil could beirrigated, hut t here 
were many spots, apparently desert, where 
water gathered close to the surface and 
where by deep planting crops of corn, 
beans, squashes, and melons were raised. 
Within the last few years the Govern 
ment has built storage reservoirs on the 
reservation and increased the facilities 
for irrigation. 

It may be that under the loosely applied 
name Apache there is a record of the 
Navaho by Ofiate as early as 1598, but 
the first to mention them by name was 
Zarate-Salmeron, about 1629. They had 
Christian missionaries among them in 
the middle of the 18th century (see ( *>- 
bolleta, Ericinal), but their teachings did 
not prevail against paganism. For many 
years previous to the occupancy of their 
country by the Tinted States they kept 
up an almost constant predatory war 
with the Pueblos and the white settlers 
of New Mexico, in which they were usu 
ally the victors. When the Tinted States 
took possession of New Mexico in 1849 
these depredations were at their height. 
The first military expedition into their 
country was that of Col. Alex. W. Doni- 
phan, of the First Missouri Volunteers, in 
the fall of 1846. ( hi behalf of the United 
States, Doniphanmade the first treaty of 
peace with the Navaho Nov. 22 of that 
year, but the peace was not lasting. In 
1849, another military force, under the 
command of Col. .John M. Washington, 
penetrated the Navaho land as far as 
CheWy canyon, and made another treaty 
of peace on Sept. 9, but this treaty was also 
soon broken. To put a stop to their wars, 
Col. "Kit" Carson invaded their territory 
in 1863, killed so many of their sheep as 
to leave them without means of support, 
and took the greater part of the tribe 
prisoners to Ft Simmer at the Host j ue 
Kedondo on the Rio Pecos, N. Mex. 
Here they were kept in captivity until 
1867, when they were restored to their 
original country and given a new supply 
of sheep. Since that time they have re 
mained at peace and greatly prospered. 

There is no doubt that the Navaho 
have Vncrea -rvVm ^m-nV.^! wince they first 
became known to the Uiiited^tateH^and 
are still increasing. In 1867, whit ne y 
were still prisoners and could bccourU 1 
accurately, 7,300 of them were held in 
captivity at one time; but, owing to es 
capes and additional surrenders, the num 
ber varied. All were not captured by 
Carson. Perhaps the most accurate cen 
sus was taken in 1869, when the Govern 
ment called them to receive a gift of 
30, 000 sheep and 2,000 goats. The Indians 
were put in a large corral and counted as 
they went in; only a few herders were 



NAVAHO 



[B. A. H. 



absent. The result showed that there 
were somewhat fewer than 9,000, making 
dm- allowance lor absentees. According 
to the census of ISDD, which was taken on 
a faultv system, the tribe numbered 
1 7,20 1. Tlie census of 1900 places the 
population at more than 20,000, and in 
H0> they were roughly estimated by the 
Indian Office to number 28,500. 

According to the best recorded version 
of their origin legend, the first or nuclear 
clan of the Xavaho was created bv the 
gods in Ari/ona or Utah about 500 years 
ago. People had lived on the earth be 
fore this, but most of them had been de 
stroyed bv giants or demons. When the 



Aryan; consequently, the Navaho are a 
very composite people. A notable acces 
sion was made to their numbers, proba 
bly in the 16th century, when the Thkha- 
paha-dinnay joined them. These were 
a people of another linguistic stock 
Hodge says "doubtless Tanoan " for 
they wrought a change in the Navaho lan 
guage. A later very numerous accession 
of several clans came from the Pacific 




myth says thai the gods created the first 
pairot this clan, it is equivalent to saving 
that they knew -it" S-.ice they came 
and had no antecedent tradition of them- 
selvea. It is thus with many other Nav 
aho ,.| :ms . The story gives the impres- 
HOII that these Indians wandered into 
New Mexico and Ari/ona in small groups, 
probably in single families. Inthecourse 
"I time other groups joined them until, in 
the 17th century, they felt strong enough 
t" go to war. Some of the accessions 
werv evidently of Athapascan origin as 
is most ot the tribe, but others were de- 
ved trom different stocks, including Ke- 
resan, Shoshonean, Tanoan, Yuman, and 



NAVAHO WOMAN (jUAMTAJ 

coast; these were Athapascan. Some 1 of 
the various clans joined the Navaho will 
ingly, others are the descendants of cap 
tives. Hodge has shown that this Nav 
aho origin legend, omitting a few obvi 
ously mythic elements, can be substan 
tiated by recorded history, but he places 
the beginning at less than 500 years. 

The Navaho are classed as belonging to 
the widespread Athapascan linguistic 



BULL. 30] 



NAVAHO 



43 



family, and a vocabulary of their lan 
guage shows that the majority of their 
words have counterparts in dialects of 
Alaska, British America, and California. 
?he grammatical structure is like that of 
ithapascan tongues in general, but many 
fords have been inherited from other 
mrces. The grammar is intricate and the 
roeabulary copious, abounding especi- 
illy in local names. 




The appearance of the Navaho strength 
ens the traditional evidence of their very 
composite origin. It is impossible to de 
scribe a prevailing type; they vary in size 
from stalwart men of 6 ft or more to some 
who are diminutive in stature. In fea 
ture they vary from the strong faces with 
aquiline noses and prominent chins com 
mon with the Dakota and other northern 
tribes to the subdued features of the 



Pueblos. Their faces are a little more 
hirsute than those of Indians farther E. 
Many have occiputs so flattened that the 
skulls are brachycephalic or hyper- 
brachycephalic, a feature resulting from 
the hard cradle-board on which the head 
rests in infancy. According to Ilrdlicka 
(Am. Anthrop., n, 339, 1900) they ap 
proach the Pueblos physically much more 
closely than the Apache, notwithstanding 
their linguistic connection with the latter. 
In general their faces are intelligent and 
pleasing. Hughes (Doniphan s Kxped., 




1846) saysof them: "They are celebrated 
for intelligence and good order . 
noblest of American ahoriginen. 1 
is nothing somber or stoic in their charac 
ter. Among themselves they are merry 
and jovial, much given to jest and banter. 
Thev are very industrious, and the proud 
est among them scorn no remunerative 
labor. They do not bear pain with the 
fortitude displayed among the militant 
tribes of the N., nor do they inflict upon 
themselves equal tortures. They are, < 
the whole, a progressive people. 

The tribe is divided into a number of 



44 



NAVAHO 



[B. A. E. 



dans, -M dan name? haying been recorded, 

hut tin- number df existing dans may be 
somewhat more or less. Two of these are 
said to be extinct, and others nearly ^so. 
The dans are grouped in phratries. 
Some authorities give 8 of these, others 
11, with : independent dans; but ^ the 
phratry does not seem to bea well-defined 
irroup among the Navaho. Descent is in 
the female line; a man belongs to the 
dan of his mother, and when he marries 
must take a woman of some other dan. 
The social position of the women is high 
and their influence great. They often, 
possess much property in theirown right, 
which marriage does not alienate from 
them. The clans, so far as known, are as 
follows: 

Aatsosni, Narrow gorge; Ashihi, Salt; 
Bithani, Folded arms; Dsihlnaothihlni, 
Kncirded mountain; Dsihlthani, Brow of 
the mountain; Dsihltlani, P>ase of the 
mountain; Kai, \\ illows; Kanani, Living 
arrous; Khaltso, Yellow bodies; Khash- 
hli/hiii, Mud; Khaskankhatso, Much 
yucca; Khoghanhlani, Many huts; Khon- 
agani, Place of walking; Kinaani, High 
standing house; Kinhlitshi, Red house 
(of >toue); Klogi, Name of an old pue 
blo; Loka, Reeds (phragmites) ; Mai- 
theshki/h, ( oyote pass (.Jemex) ; Maitho, 
Coyote spring; Naai, Monocline; Nakai, 
White stranger (Mexican); Nakhopani, 
Brown streak, horizontal on the ground; 
Nanashthe/hin, Black hori/ontal stripe 
aliens i/uni); Notha, I te; Pinbitho, Deer 
spring; Theshtshini, Red streak; Thild- 
xhehi; Thkhane/a, Among the scattered 
(hillsi; Thkhapaha, Among the waters; 
Thkhatshini, Among the Red ( waters or 
banks); Thoba/hnaazh, Two come for 
water; Thochalsithaya, Water under the 
sitting t roi:; Thoditshini, Bitter water; 
Thokhani, Beside the, water; Thodho- 
kontr/hi, Saline wat T; Thotsoni, (ireat 
water; Thoyetlini, .Imictionof the rivers; 
Tlastshini, Red flat; Tli/ihlani, Manx- 
goats; Tsayiskithni, Sagebrush hill; 
Tse/hinkini, House of the black cliffs; 
Tsenahapihlni, Overhanging rocks; Tse- 
theshki/hni, Rocky pass; Tsethkhani, 
Aiming the rocks; Tsetlani, Bend in a 
canyon: Tseyanathoni, Hori/ontal water 
under cliffs; Tseyikehe, Rocks standing 
near one another; Tse/hint hiai, Trap 
dyke; Tsina/hini, Black hori/ontal forest; 
Tsinsakathni, l.oneiree; Yoo, Beads. 

The ordinary Xavaho duelling, or 
hot/i m. is a very simple struct lire, although 
erected with much ceremony (see Min- 
ddeff in 17th Rep. B. A. K , fs<)x). It, is 
usually conical in form, built of sticks set 
on end, covered with branches, grass, 
and earth, and often so low t hat a mail 
of ordinary stature can not stand erect in 
it. < )ne mn.-t stoop to enter the doorway, 
which is usually provided with a short 



passage or storm door. There is no chim 
ney; a hole in the apex lets out the 
smoke. Some hogans are rude polygo 
nal structures of logs laid horizontally; 
others are partly of stone 1 . In summer, 
"lean-to" sheds and small inclosures of 
brandies are often used for habitations. 
Sweat houses are small, conical hogans 
without the hole in the apex, for fires are 
not lighted in them; temperature is in 
creased by means of stones heated in fires 
outside. Medicine lodges, when built in 
localities where trees of sufficient size 
grow, are conical structures like the ordi 
nary hogans, but much larger. When 
built in regions of low-sized trees, they 
have flat roofs. ( )f late, substantial stone 
structures with doors, windows, and 
chimneys are replacing the rude hogans. 
One reason they built such houses was 
that custom and superstition constrained 
them to destroy or desert a house in 
which death had occurred. Such a place 
was called c1ii U<li-lt(>(/n, meaning devil- 
house . Those who now occupy good 
stone houses carry out the dying and let 
them expire outside, thus saving their 
dwellings, and indeed the same custom is 
sometimes practised in connection with 
the hogan. No people have greater dread 
of ghosts and mortuary remains. 

The most important art of the Navaho 
is that of weaving. They are especially 
celebrated for their blankets, which are 
in high demand among me white people 
on account of their beauty and utility; 
but they also weave belts, garters, and 
saddlegirths all with rude, simple looms. 
Their legends declare that in the early 
days they knew not the art of weaving 
by means of a loom. The use of the 
loom was probably taught to them by 
the Pueblo women who were incorpo 
rated into the tribe. They dressed in 
skins and rude mats constructed by hand., 
of cedar bark and other vegetal fibers. 
The few basket makers among them 
are said to be Tte or Paiute girls or their 
descendants, and these do not do much 
work. What they make, though of ex 
cellent quality, is confined almost exclu 
sively to two forms required forceremonial 
purposes. The Navaho make very little 
potterv, and this of a very ordinary vari 
ety, being designed merely for cooking 
purposes; but formerly they made a tine 
red ware decorated in black with charac 
teristic designs. They grind corn and 
other grains by band oil the met ate. For 
ceremonial purposes they still bake food in 
the ground and in other aboriginal ways. 
For many years they have had among 
them silversmiths who fabricate hand 
some ornaments with very rude appli 
ances, and who undoubtedly learned their 
art from 1 he Mexicans, adapting it to their 
own environment. Of late years many 



BULL. 30] 



NAVAHU 



45 



of those who have been taught in training 
schools have learned civilized trades and 
civilized methods of cooking. 

Investigations conducted within the 
last 25 years show that the Navaho, con 
trary to early published beliefs, are a 
highly religious people having many well- 
defined divinities (nature gods, animal 
t gods, and local gods), a vast mythic and 
legendary lore, and thousands of signifi 
cant formulated songs and prayers which 
must be learned and repeated in the most 
exact manner. They also have hundreds 
of musical compositions which experts 
have succeeded in noting and have pro 
nounced similar to our own music. The 
so-called dances are ceremonies which last 
for 9 nights and parts of 10 days, and the 
medicine-men spend many years of study 
in learning to conduct a single one prop 
erly. One important feat lire of these cere 
monies is the pictures painted in dry pow 
ders on the floor of the medicine lodge 
(see Dry-painting}. All this cultus is of 
undoubted antiquity. 

The most revered of their many deities 
is a goddess named Estsanatlehi, or 
Woman Who Changes , Woman 
Who Rejuvenates Herself, because she 
is said never to stay in one condition, but 
to grow old and become young again at 
will. She is probably Mother Nature, an 
apotheosis of the changing year. 

By treaty of Canyon de Chelly, Ari/., 
Sept. 9, 1849, the Navaho acknowledged 
the sovereignty of the United States. By 
treaty of Fort Smnner, N. Mex., June 1, 
1868, a reservation was set apart for them 
in Arizona and New Mexico, and they 
ceded to the United States their claim to 
other lands. Their reservation has been 
modified by subsequent Executive orders. 

For the literature pertaining to this 
tribe see Matthews, (1) Navaho Legends, 
1897, and the bibliography therein; (2) 
Night Chant, 1902. (w. M.) 

Apache Indians of Nabajii. Zarate-Salmeron 
fca.1629) trans, in Land of Sunshine, 183, Feb. 1900. 
Apaches deNabajoa. Turner in Pac. R.R. Rep., in, 
pt. 8, 83, 1856 (so called by Spanish writers). Apa- 
chesde Nabaju. Zarate-Salmeron (ca.lti29) quoted 
by Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 294, 1892. 
Apaches deNauajb.Bena vides, Memorial, 56, 1630. 
Apaches de navaio. De 1 Isle, map Am. Septeut., 
1700. Apaches de Navajo. Liiischoten, Deser. 
1 Amerique, map 1. 1638. Apaches de Navajox. 
Sanson, L Amerique, map, 27. 1657. Apaches de 
Navayo. Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 5 (1763), 1776. 
Apaches NabajaL Garces (1776), Diary, 369. 1900. 
A patchu. Cushing,inf n ( enemy : Znniname). 
A patsjoe. ten Kate. Reizen in N. A., 291, 1885 (or 
Patsjoe; Zuni name). Bagowits. ten Kate, Syn 
onymic, 8, 1884 (Southern Ute name). Daca- 
bimo. Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 35, 1891 (Hopi 
name). Dava\o. Gatschet, MS., B. A. E., 188-1 
(Kiowa Apache name). Mine . Matthews, Nav 
aho Leg., 210, 1897 (own name. sig. people ). 
Djene. Hodge, field notes. B. A. E., 1895 
(Laguna name). I hl-dene. Ibid. (Jicarilla 
name). Iyutagjen-ne. Escudero, Not. Estad. Chi 
huahua. 212, 1834 (own name). Messen-Apaches. 
ten Kate, Reizen in N. A., 241, 1885 (= Knife 
Apaches , supposedly from Span, navdja. 
knife ). Moshome. Bandelier, Delight Makers, 



17.), 1890 ( Keresau name). Nabaho. Malte-Brui 
Geog., v, 326, 1826. Nabahoes. -Pattie Per" 
Narr., 98, 1833. Nabaj6.-Alegre Hist Com 
Jesus, i, 336, 1841. nibajoa.-Humboldt 




s. Bent(1846)in II. R. Kx. ]), 7,1 :;i )il]"r,,n " 
sess., 11, 184S. Nabojo.-Davis. Span Conn V 
? T- Nahjo.-Pike, Kxpcd, 3d n,ap; 
. Namakaus.-Schermerhorn in Mass. Hist 
hoc. Coll., 2d s., ir, 29, ISM. Nanaha. Halbi \tl 
Ethnog., 737, 1*26. Nanahaws. Pike Kxped" pt 
Jirapp 9,1810. Napao. r -Garees(1776),Diar y ; 351 
1900. Nauajb.Bena vides, Memorial 57 1630 
= sementeras grandes ). Nauajoa. Alcedo 
Die Geog., in, 295, 1/ss. Navago. -Butler Wild 
North Land, 127, 1*73. Navahoe! Mollhausen 
Pacific, n, 77, 1*58. Navahoes. Parker Jour 
nal, 32, 1S40. Navajai. Garces (1775) (.noted 
by Orozco y Berra, Geog.. 3.50, 1*64 Nava- 
jhoes. Emory, Recon., 27, 1S4S. Navajo. Blaeii 
Atlas, xn, 62, 1667. Navajoas. Orozco v Berra 
Geog., 59, lr,4. Navajoes. Rivera. DiaYio, leg. 
818, 1736. Navajoos. Villa-Sefior, Theatro Am., 
pt. 2, 412. 1748. Navajoses, Kiixton, Adventures 
193, 184X. Navaosos. Latham, Nat. Hist. Man 
350, 1S50. Navejb. Conklin, Arizona, 211, 1*7* 
Navijoes. Morgan in N. Am. Rev., 58 .Ian 1*70 
Navijos. Gailatin in Nouv. Ann Vuv rub s . 
xxvii, 310, 1851. Navoasos. Boliaert in .lour 
Ethnol. Soe. Lond., n, 276, 1*50. Nevajoes Mow 
ry in Jour. Am. Ueog. Soc., i, 71, 1*59. Nodehs. 
Deniker, Races of Man, 525, 1900. Novajos 
dishing in The Millstone, ix, 94. June 1*81. 
Nwasabe. ten Kate, Synonymic, 8, 1*84 (Tesuqiie 
name). Oohp. ten Kate, Reizen in X. A., 160, 1*85 
(I ima name). Oop. Ibid. Pagowitch. ten 
Kate, Synonymic, 8, 1*84 (Southern Tte name). 
Page-wit s. Ibid. Pagu-uits. Gatschet, Yunia- 
Spr., i, 371. 1883 (Tte name). Pa -gu-wets. 
Powell, Rep. on Colo. River, 26, 1874 (= reed 
knives : Ute name). Patsjoe. ten Kate. Rei/en 
in N. A., 291, 1885 (or A patsjoe; Znfii name). Ta- 
cab-ci-nyu-muh. Fewkes in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
V, 33, 1892 (Hopi name). Ta hli mnin. Hodge, 
field notes. B. A. E:, 1895 (Sandia name). Ta- 
samewe. ten Kate, Rei/en in N. A., 259, 1*85 
( bastards : Hopi name). Ta-sha-va-ma. 
Bourke, Moquis of Ari/., 118, 1884 (Hopi name). 
Te liemnim. Gatschet, MS., B. A. F.,1884 ( with 
out pity : Isletaname). Ten-nai. Katon, Navajo 
MS vocal)., B. A. E. (own name). Tenuai. Katon 
in Schoolcnift, Ind. Tribes, iv, 218. 1S51. Tenye. 
ten Kate, Synonymic, 7, 1884 (Laguna name). 
Wilde Coyotes. ten Kate. Rei/en in N. A., 2*2, 
1885 (Zufii nickname translated). Yabipais Naba- 
jay._Garcesi 1776), Diary, 457, 1900. Yatilatlavi. 
(iatschet, Yuma-Spr., I, 409. 18*3 (Tonto name). 
Yavipai-navajoi. ()ro/co y Berra, Geog., 59, 1864. 
Yavipais-Navajai. Garces (1775-76) quoted by 
BaudeliiT in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 114. 1*90. 
Yoetaha. ten Kate, Rei/en in N. A., 197, 1*85 
(= those who live on the border of the I tcs : 
Apache name). Yu-i -ta. Henshaw, Ka itch 
MS. vocab.. B. A. K.. 18S3 (Panamint name). 
Yutacjen-ne. Oro/co y Berra, Geog.. 59. 1*64. 
Yutaha. -Gatschet, Yuma-Spr.. i, 370. 18*3 (Apache 
name). Yu-tah-kah. Katon, Navajo MS. vocab.. 
B A E (Apache name). Yutajen-ne. Oro/co y 
Berra, Geog., 41, 76. 1864. Yu-tar-har , White. 
Apache Names of Ind. Tribes, MS.. B. A. K.. 2, 
ni. d.l (trans, far oft": Apache name). Yutila 
na. Gatschet Yuma-Spr., in, *6. 188(! (Yavapai 
name) Yutilatlawi.-Ibid., i, 370, 1**3 i Tonto 



Navahu (Na-w-lni , referring to large 
area of cultivated lands ) . A former Tewa 
jmeblo situated in the second valley s. ot 
the great pueblo and cliff village of Puye, 
w. of Santa Clara pueblo, in the Pajarito 
Park, X. Mex. The name refers to the 
large areas of cultivated lands in the 
vicinity, and by extension was applied to 



NAVASINK NAWITI 



[B. A. E. 



the Navaho (o. v.). Consult Hewett(l) 
in \m Anthrop.,vm, lltt, 1906; (2) Bull. 
:il>, B. A. K., Hi, 1906. 

Navasink Cat the promontory ). A 
tribe of the I luuni branch of the Dela- 
wares formerly living in the highlands 
of Nave-sink. X. ,1., claiming the laud 
from Barnegat to the Raritan. Hudson, 
who encountered them immediately after 
(uterine the bay of New York, describes 
them as "clothed in mantles of feathers 
ami robes of fur, the women clothed in 
hemp; red copper pipes, and other things 
of copper they did wear about their 
necks." They appear to have passed out 
of history soon after their lands were sold. 
Na-ussins. Xelson, Inds. N. J., 101. 1894 (early 
form) Navecinx. Tom (1071) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist xit 493. 1x77. Navesand. Needham (1665), 
ibid. , xm. 39S, ISM. Navesinck. Winlield, Hud 
son Co -II. 1871. Navesinks. Xelson, op. eit. 
Navisinks. Scboolcraft, Ind. Tribes, VI, 100, 1857. 
Navison. Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 159, i87 2. 
Neuwesink. Stnyvesant (1660) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., xm, 163/1881. Neversincks. Ruttenber, 
Tribes Hudson K., 89, 1872. Neversinghs. X. Y. 
Doc Col. Hist., xm. 99, 1881. Neversink. Van der 



k (1656) 



. , . 
oted by Ruttenber, Tribes Hud 



D< 

son K.. 51, 1X72. Nevesin. Beekman (1660) in 
N Y Poc. Col. Hist., xil, 30X, 1X77. Nevesinck. 
Van Werekhoveii (1651), ibid., xm, 29, IXXl. 
Neve Sincks. Van der Donck (1656) quoted by 
Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 72, 1X72. Neve- 
sings. Doc. of 1674 in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., n, 
691. is:.8. Nevesinks. Doc. of 1659, ibid., XIII, 
W l^sl Nevisans. Lovelace (1669), ibid., 423. 
Newasons. Ugilby (1671) quoted by Xelson, 
Inds. X. .1., lol. 1X91. Newesinghs. Doe. of 1659 
in X. Y. Doe. Col. Hist., xm, 100, IXXl. Newe- 
sink. Stnyvesant (1658), ibid.. 84. Nieuesinck. 
Doc. of 16n2, ibid., 34. Nieuwesinck. Ibid., XIV. 
1<>S1 SS 3. Novisans. Lovelace (1665) quoted by 
Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 6x, 1X72. 

NavawK Xn-m-ir! , place of the bunting 
trap . A group of ancient Tewa ruins 
\v. of the Kio <irande, situated between 
the Kilo de los Frijoles and Santa Clara 
canyon, s. \v. of San Ildefonso, N. Mex. 
They consist of two large buildings about 
JOO yds. apart, several clan houses on the 
mesa near by, and a cliff village of con 
siderable extent in the base of the low 
mesa to the s. and w. The ruin takes its 
name from a pitfall (iiara) on the narrow 
neck of mesa about 800 yds. w. of the 
pueblo ruin, at the convergence of four 
trails. 

Navakwi. Ib-wtt in Am. Antbrop., vi, 645, 1904. 
Navawi. llewett in Bull. 32. I .. A. K., 22, 1906. 
Navt-kwi He\\ ett in Am. Antbrop., op. eit. , map. 

Navialik ( place of the long-tailed 
duck ) . An Ita Mskimo village on Smith 
sd.. N. < ireenland. 

Navialik. -Kane, Arctic Kxpli.r., n, lU l, 1X56. 
Nerdla rin. Stein in I etermanns Mitt, no 9 mat) 
1902. 

Navigation. Sec I!otitx, Trarel. 

Navisok. A former Aleut village on 
Agattu id., Alaska, one of the Near id. 
group of the Aleutians, now uninhabited. 

Navojoa ( prickly-pear house ; from 
iHilta prickly pear, ftona house. 
Buelna). One of the principal settle 
ments of the Mayo on Rio Mayo, s. w. 



Sonora, Mexico. Of a total population 
of 8,500 in 1900, 744 were Cahita (Mayo), 
69 "Cahuillo," and 28 Yaqui. 
Nabojoa. Kino map (1702) in Stocklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 1726. Natividad Navajoa. Orozco y 
Berra, (ieog., 356, 1864. Navahoa. Hardy, Travels 
in Mexico, 438, 1829. Navohoua. Orozco y Berra, 
op. cit. Navojoa. Censo de Sonora, 91, 1901 (pres 
ent official designation). 

Nawaas. An unidentified tribe or band 
occupying a stockaded village, under a* 
chief named Morahieck, on the E. side 
of Connecticut r. between the Scantic 
and the Podunk, near the mouth of the 
latter, in Hartford co., Conn., in the 17th 
century. 

Nawaas.* Map of 1616 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., I, 
13, 1856. Nawas. Macauley, X T . Y., II, 162, 1829. 
Nawes. De Laet (1(533) in X. Y. Hist. Boc. Coll.,. 
2d s.. I, 307, 1841. Newashe. Trumbull lud. 
Names Conn. ,38, 1881. _ 

Nawacaten. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, on the x. bank of the 
Rappahannock, in Richmond co., Va. 
Smith (H>29), Va., i, map, repr. 1S19. 

Nawake. A place marked as an Indian 
fort on Lattre s map of 1784, on the upper 
Scioto, in Ohio. It may have belonged 
to the Shawnee. 

Nawat ( Left-band ). The principal 
chief of the Southern Arapaho since the 
death of Little Raven (q. v.) in 1889. He 
was born about 1840, and became noted 
as a warrior and buffalo hunter, taking 
active part in the western border wars 
until the treaty of Medicine Lodge in 
1867, since which time his people, as a 
tribe, have remained at peace with the 
whites. In 1890 be took the lead in sign 
ing the allotment agreement opening the 
reservation to white settlement, notwith 
standing the Cheyenne, in open council, 
had threatened death to anyone who 
signed. He several times visited Wash 
ington in the interest of his tribe. Having 
become blind, he has recently resigned 
his authority to a younger man. (.1. M. ) 

Naw-gaw-nub. See Nagonub. 

Nawiti. A term with three applica 
tions: (1) A Kwakiutl town formerly at 
C. Commerell, N. coast of Vancouver id.; 
(2) a modern town, properly called Me- 
loopa, a short distance; s. of the preced 
ing, from which it received its name; (3) 
by an extension of the town name it came 
to be a synonym for the Nakomgilisala 
and Tlatlasikoala collectively, whose 
language constitutes the "Newettee sub- 
dialect" of Boas. Pop. 69 in 1906. 
Mel oopa. Dawson in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., sec. n, 
70,18X7. Nah-witte. Can. Ind.Aff., 145, 1879. Nah- 
wittis. Scott in Ind.AlV. Rep. .316, 1868. Nauete. 
Boasin Bull. Am. Geog.Soc., 227, 1887. Na-wee-tee. 
Kane, Wand, in N. A.,app.,1859. Nawiti. Tolmie 
iindDawson.Vocabs.Brit, Col., 118H.1884. Neu-wit- 
ties. Dunn, Oregon, 242, 1844. Newatees. Sproat, 
Savajje Life, 314, 1X68. Neweetee. Irving, Asto 
ria, 107, 1849. Neweetees. Lee and Frost, Oregon, 
54, 1844. Neweetg. Taylor in Cal. Fanner, July 
19, 1862. Newettee. Dunn, Oregon, 242. 1844. 
Newitlies. Armstrong, Oregon, 136, 1857. Newit- 
tees. -Grant in Jonr. Roy. Geog. Soc., 293, 1857, 



BULL. 30] 



NAWKAW NAYAKOLOLE 



47 



Newitti. Brit. Col. map, 1872. Niouetians. 
Nouv. Ann. Voy., ix, 14, 1821. Ni-wittai. Tolmie 
and Dawson, Vocabs. Brit. Col., 118B, 1884. Noo- 
we-tee. Can.Ind. Aff.1883. 190, 1884. Noo-we-ti. 
Ibid., 145, 1879. Nouitlies. Duflot de Mofras, 
Oregon, i, 139, 1844. Nu-witti. Can. Ind. Aff. 
1894, 279, 1895. Xumtaspe. Boas in Nat, Mus. 
Rep. 1895,379, 1897 (own name for the town). 

Nawkaw (? Wood ). A Winnebago 
chief, known also as Carryinaunee 
.( Walking Turtle ), because he was a 
member of the Walking Turtle family, 
the ruling family of the tribe. He was 
born in 1735, and died at the advanced 
age of 98 years in 1833. His residence 
wan at Big Green lake, between Green 
Bay and Ft Winnebago (Portage), Wis., 
and 30 in from the latter. The earliest 
recorded notice of Nawkaw relates to his 
presence, as principal chief of his tribe, 
at the battle of the Thames, Canada, Oct. 




v 



5, 1813, and that he was beside Tecumseh 
when the latter fell (Wis. Hist. Coll., xiv, 
86, 1898). If the statement in regard to 
his age be correct, Nawkaw was at that 
time 78 years of age. That he was active 
in behalf of his tribe in peaceful meas 
ures for the remaining years of his life is 
evident from the fact that he was one of 
the chief agents of the Winnebago in 
making settlements and treaties on their 
behalf. His name, in various forms 
(Carimine, Karry-Man-ee, Nan-kaw, Nau- 
kaw-kary-maume, Karamanu, and Onu- 
naka), is attached to the treaties of St 
Louis, Mo., June 3, 1816; Prairie du 
Chien, Wis., Aug. 19, 1825; Butte des 
Morts, Wis., Aug. 11,1827; Green Bay, 
Wis., Aug. 25, 1828; and Prairie du 
Chien, Aug. 1, 1829. But his most im 
portant acts in behalf of peace were his 



efforts in keeping his people from taking 
part m the Black Hawk war in 1 832. The 
policy of Nawkaw," say McKenney and 
Hall (Ind. Tribes, i, 316, 1858), "was 
decidedly pacific, and his conduct was 
consistent with his judgment and profes 
sions. To keep his followers from temp 
tation, as well as to place them under the 
eye of an agent of our government, he 
encamped with them near the agency, 
under the charge of Mr Kin/ie." It was 
chiefly through his exertions that Ked 
Bird and his accomplices in the Gagnier 
murder were surrendered, and through 
his influence that clemency was obtained 
for them, for which purpose he visited 
Washington in 1S29; but the pardon for 
Red Bird came after he died in prison at 
Prairie du Chien. Nawkaw was a large 
man, 6 ft tall and well built, Mrs Kin/ie 
(Wan-Bun, 89, 1856) says he was a stal 
wart Indian, with a broad, pleasant coun 
tenance, the great peculiarity of which 
was an immense under lip, hanging nearly 
to his chin; this is seen to some extent 
in his portrait. lie is described as a 
sagacious man, of firm, upright charac 
ter and pacific disposition, who filled his 
station with dignity and commanded re 
spect by his fidelity. One of his daugh 
ters, Flight-of-Geese, married Choukeka, 
or Spoon Dekaury (Wis. Hist. Coll., 
xiu, 455, 1895). A descendant of Naw 
kaw was living at Stevens Point, Wis., in 
1887. (c. T.) 

Nawnautough. A village of the Pow- 
hatan confederacy in 1608, on the x. bank 
of the Rappahannock, in Richmond co., 
Va. Smith ( 1629), Va., i, map, repr. 1819. 

Nawotsi. The Bear clan of theCaddo. 
Mooney in 14th Rep. I>. A. E., 1093, 1896. 

Nawunena ( southern men ). The 
name by which the Southern Arapaho, 
now associated with the Southern Chey 
enne in Oklahoma, are known to the 
rest of the tribe. They numbered 885 in 

1906. 

Na"wuine na". Kroeber in Bull. Am. Mns. Nat. 
Hist., xvm, 7, 1902 (Northern Arapaho name). 
Nawathi neha. -Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. K., 955, 
1896 ( southerners :archaic form). Na wunena. 
Moonev, ibid. Na-wuth -i-ni-han. Hayden, Kth- 
nog and Philol. Mo. Val., 321, 1S62. Ner-mon sin- 
nan-see. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 4%, 1855. 
Southern Arapahoes. Official reports. Southern 
Band. Sehoolcraft, op. eit. 

Nayakaukaue. A former town on the 
site of the present St Helens, Columbia 
co , Oreg. According to Gatschet a hand 
of the Chinookan family settled there in 
1877 and were called Nayakaukau by the 
Clackama. 

Nai-a-kook-wie.-Gibbs, MS no 248, B. A h 
Nayakaukau.-Gatschet, MS H. A. 
(Clackama namei. Ne-ah-ko-koi.-Gibbs, op en 
Ni-a-kow-kow. Lyman in Oreg. Hist. Soe. Quar., 
I, 322, 1900. 

Nayakolole. A Willopah village for 
merly situated opposite Bay Center, 
Pacific co., Wash. 



4S 



NAYOXSAY S VILLAGE NKAMATHLA 



[B. A. E. 



Kwulkwul (libbs Chinook vocal*.. H. A. H., 23 
(Chehali-namo. Naya q6161e. Boa/, infn, 1905. 
Quer quelin. Swan. N. \V. Coast. 211. 1*57. Q .we - 
qolr.n. -Boas op. eit. 

Nayonsay s Village. A former settle 
ment, probably of the Potawatomi, named 
after a chief, situated in the x. K. part of 
Kendall co., 111. P>\ treaty of July 29, 
1829, a tract of 9(10 acres at this village 
was ceded to \Yaishkeshaw. a Potawatomi 
woman, and her child. 

Nay-on-say s Village. Royee in istli Rep- A. 
K pt 2 Hi. map 1. 190U. Nay-ou-Say. Treaty ol 
IKWin r.s. In. 1. Treat.. Kapplered., n, 214. 1903. 

Nayuharuke i where the grass stalk or 
weed is forked. - Hewitt). A palisaded 
town occupied by the hostile Tuscarora in 
17b">, near Snowhill, Greene co., N. Car. 
They were defeated here by the colonists 
\vitli great loss and SOO prisoners taken. 
Nahardakha. Jour. Va. Council (1713) in N. C. 
Col. Rec., n. 36, 1**6. Naharuke. Williamson, 
HiM. N. C., i. 201. 1812. Nahasuke. Pollock 
(1713 in N.C. Col. Rec.. II. 3*. 1*86. Naherook. 
Hoinann Heirs map. 1756. Nahucke. Martin, 
N.C. .[.261, 1*29. Nayuharuke. (iatscliet, Tusca 
rora MS.. H. A. K.. 1**5 (Tuscarora form). No- 
ho-ro-co. Moore (1713) in N. C. Col. Rec.. 11.27, 
!**;. Nooherolu. War map (1711-15) in Winsor, 
HiM. Am.. V, 316, ISS7. Wahasuke. Pollock, 
op. eit. 

Nayuhi (Xii-yu -hl, sand place ). A 
former Cherokee settlement on theK. bank 
of Tugaloo r., S. Car., nearly opposite the 
mouth of Pant her cr. 

Nayowee. -l>oe. of 1755 quoted by Royce in 5th 
Rep. I .. A. K.. 112. 1*87. Noyoee. Royce, ibid., 
map. Noyohee. l>oc. of 1799. ihid.,144. Nuyu hi. 
Mooney in I .Hh Rep. 15. A. K., ftfl). 1900. 

Nayuuns-haidagai (\<i ui~i / .\it* j d / l- 
</.!>/"- , people of the great house ). A 
subdivision of the ( iitins of the Ilaida of 
Skidegate, P>rit. Col., so named from a 
larire house that the family owned at 
Illnahet, an old town near Skidegate. 
The town chief of Skidegate belonged to 
this division. (.1. K. s. ) 

Na yu ans qa edra. BOJIS iji 12th Ren. N . W. Tribes 
Can.. 21. 25. 1*9*. Na yu ans qa etqa. Hoas in 
5th Rep., ibid., 26. 1**9. Na yu .xns xa -id,\ga-i. 
Swanton, ( out. Ilaida. 273. 19(15. 

Naywaunaukauraunah ( they are sur 
rounded by bark or wood. Hewitt). 
The Tuscarora name of a reputed people 
viicamped mi the Pake Krie" at the 
lime of the war between the Iroquois 
and the Krie, about ln."U. 

Nay Waunaukauraunah Cu-ick (|8-J5i in School- 
cnilt. Ind. Tribes, v. .14:;. 1855. Waranakarana. 
Schoolcralt, ibid., iv. 2d(t. 1*51. 

Nazan. The present village of the Aleut 
on Atka id., Alaska. The natives speak a 
distinct dialect, and are not only the 
best otter hunters, but surpass all others 
in making baskets out of grasses. Pop. 
2. ! i in Isso; i:;i_> jn |so. 

Atkha. Sclnvatka. .Nlil. Recon. in Alaska. 115, 
**" . Nazan. Pet roll in 10th Census. Alaska, \(\, 

Nazas. A tribe, probably Coahuiltecan 
or Tarnaulipan, at Reinosa, Mexico, near 
the l\io< irande, in 17. r )7. They were with 
the Narices, ( oinecrudos, aiid Tejones. 
The Naxasand Narices had been bapti/ed 
at. Villa del 1 ilon, Xueva Peon (Joseph 



Tienda de Cuervo, Informe, 1757, MS. in 
Archive General, Historia, LVI, Orozco 
y Berra, Geog., 294, 1S()4). (n. E. K.) 
Nasas. Tienda di- Cuervo, op. cit., 1757. 

Nazas. A former Tepehtiane pueblo on 
Rio de Nazas, E. central Durango, Mexico. 
It was the seat of the mission of Santa 
Cruz. 

Santa Cruz de Nazas. Orozco y Berra, Ueog., 318, 
1864. 

Nchekchekokenk ( Ntc& qtcEqqdMnk, or 
Ntceqtceqkdkinnk, the red little side hill 
or slope ). A village of the Lytton band 
of the Xtlakyapamnk on the w. side of 
Fraser r., 15 m. above Lytton, Brit. 
Col. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
n, 172, 1900. 

Nchekus ( red rising ground or emi 
nence ). A village of the Nicola band of 
the Ntlakyapamuk, about a mile back in 
the mountains from Kwilchana, Brit. Col. 
Ntce kus. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 
174, 1900. Stce kus. Ibid. S tcukosh. Hill-Tout 
in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 4, 1899. 

Ndeyao ( dog ; probably akin to Chip- 
pewa nTn.d<ii, my pet, my domestic 
animate possession, a term applied to 
dogs, horses, and the like. \V. J.). A clan 
of the Mahican, <|. v. 

N-de-ya -o. Moruan. Anc. Soc., 174, 1877. 

Neacoxy. The principal winter village 
of the Clatsop, formerly at the mouth of 
Neacoxie cr., at the site of Seaside, Clat 
sop co., Greg. 

Neacoxa. Trans. Oregon Pioneer Assn.. 8(5, 1887. 
Neacoxy. Lee and Frost, Oregon, 283, 1844. Ne- 
ah-coxie. Lyman in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., 1,321, 
1900. Nia xaqce. Boas, Chinook Texts, 92, 1894 
(correct name). 

Neagwaih ( bear ). A clan of the 
Seneca, q. v. 

Atinionguin. French writer (1660) in X. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., ix, 47, 1855. Ne-e-ar-gu-ye. Morgan, 
League Iroq., 46, 80, 1851 (Seneca form). Ne- 
e-ar-guy -ee. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 15:5, 1877. 

Neah. A permanent town of the Ma- 
kah on the site of the old Spanish fort, 
Port Nunez Gaona, Neah bay, Wash. 
Neah. Treaty of Neah Bay, 1855, in V. S. Ind. 
Treaties, 461, 1873. Neeah. Swan in Smithson. 
Cont., xvi, 2. 1870. 

Neahkeluk. An important Clatsop vil 
lage formerly at Point Adams, Clatsop 
co., Oreg. 

Klakhelnk. (iairdner, after Framboise (1835), in 
.lour. Geog. Soc. Loud., xi, 255, 1841. Neahkeluk. 
Lyman in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., i. 321. 1900. 
Tia k;elake. Hoas, Chinook Texts, 277, 1894 (na 
tive name). 

Neahkstowt. A former village of the 
Clatsop near the present Hammond, Clat 
sop co., ( )reg. 

Naya qctaowe. Boas, Chinook Texts, 233, 1894. 
Ne-ahk-stow. Lyman in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., 
1,321, 1900. 

Neahumtuk. A former village of the Al- 
seaNj. v.) at the mouth of Alsear., Oregon. 

Neamathla. ( Iimi la is a war and busk 
title, corresponding nearly to disciplina 
rian ). A Seminole chief who acquired 
considerable note during the Indian hos 
tilities of 1824-36. Pie was by birth a 
Creek, and had come into notice before the 
war of 1812, but is not mentioned as a 



BULL. .30] 



NEAPOPE NECHE 



chief until 1820. He is spoken of by Guv. 
Duval, of Florida, as a man of uncom 
mon ability, a noted orator, with great 
influence among his people, and in 1824 
as desirous of being on terms of amity 
with the United States. Neamathla was 
one of the signers of the treaty of Camp 
Moultrie, Sept. 18, 1823, by which about 
5,000,000 acres of land were ceded to the 
United States. This treaty, which was 
repudiated by a large portion of the 
tribe, led by Osceola, was the primary 
cause of the war which shortly followed. 
His settlement, known also as Ft Town 
and Nehe Marthla s Town (Woodward, 
Reminis., 153, 1859) was situated s. of 
Flint r., Ga., and was destroyed in the 
war of 1816-17. Because of his treat 
ment by the Florida authorities he re 
turned to the Creek Nation, where he 
was well received, and became an influ 
ential member of the general council held 
at Tukabatchi. The name Neah Emarthla 
is signed on behalf of the Hitchiti towns 
to the Creek treaty of Nov. 15, 1827. 
See McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, i, 
77, 1858. 

Neapope. See Nahpope. 

Nebaunaubay (Ntbanaba, sleeping per 
son ). A mythic character whose home 
is said to be on the floor of the sea; the 
term is also applied to an under-water 
bear. Hence the "Merman" gens of 
the Chippewa (Warren, Ojibways, 44, 
1885.) (w. .T.) 

Neblazhetama ( blue river village , from 
nablezan, the Kansa name for Mississippi 
r., and tanman, village ). An ancient 
Kansa village on the w. bank of the Mis 
sissippi a few miles above the mouth of 
Missouri r. in the present Missouri. The 
territory was later occupied by the Sank 
and Foxes. 
Ne-bla-zhe-ta -ma. Morgan in X.Am. Rev., 45,1870. 

Nechacokee. A division of the Chi- 
nookan family found in 1806 by Lewis 
and Clark on the s. bank of Columbia r. , a 
few miles below Quicksand (Sandy) r., 
Oreg. Their estimated number was 100. 
Nechacohee. Lewis and Clark Expert., n, 217, 
1814. Nechacoke. Drake, Bk. Inds., ix. 1848. Ne 
chacokee. Lewis and Clark, op. eit., 472. Ne-cha- 
co-lee. Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark, iv, 236, 1905. 
Nechecolee. Lewis and Clark Exped., n, 222, 
1814. Neechaokee. Ibid., 4(59. 

Nechanicok. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, on the s. bank of the 
Chickahominy in the lower part of Hen- 
rico co., Va. Smith (1629), \ 7 a., i, map, 
repr. 1819. 

Nechaui. One of the nine^ tribes men 
tioned by Francisco de Jesus Maria as 
constituting the Hasinai, or southern 
Caddo confederacy. He described its 
location as s. E. of the Nabedache tribe, 
and half .a league from the Nacono ( Re- 
lacion, 1691, MS.). In 1721 Peiia, in his 
diary, stated that the Indians of el Ma- 
cono lived 5 leagues from the crossing of 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 207 4 



the Neches at the Neche village (Diario, 
Mem. de Nueva Espafia, AXVIII, 3(>, MS. )! 
The Nechaui apparently are. not men 
tioned thereafter; they were probably 
absorbed by their neighbors, perhaps the 
Nabedache. (n. K. B. ) 

Neche. A Hasinai tribe that, on the 
coming of the Europeans in the latter 
part of the 17th century, lived on Neches 
r. in E. Texas. Their main village was 
a league or more E. of that stream, 
nearly w. of the present city of Nacog- 
doches and near the mounds s. w. of 
Alto, Cherokee co. This village was 
visited by La Salle s party, and it was par 
ticularly to it and the Nabedache tribe 
across the stream that Joutel (Margry, 
Dec., in, 336 et seq., 1878) applied the 
name of "Cenis," his rendering of the In 
dian group name Ilasittai. This Neche 
tribe was closely allied by language and 
culture with about a do/en southern Cad- 
doan tribes, includingthe well-known Na 
bedache, Nacogdoche, Hainai,andNas< ni. 
There are strong indications that these 
southern tribes, under the headship of 
the Hainai, formed a subconfederacy 
fairly distinct from the northern group 
of Caddoan tribes, which were under the 
headship of the Kadohadacho. 

The enemies of the Neche were the 
common enemies of this southern Cad 
doan group. In 1687 some members of 
La Salle s party went with them in a suc 
cessful campaign against the "Canoha- 
tinno." The Yojuanes sometimes invaded 
the country of the Neche and their neigh 
bors; relations with the Bidai and Eyeish 
seem to have been ordinarily unfriendly; 
but chief of all the enemies were the 
Apache. 

Between the Neche and Nacachau the 
Queretaran friars, in 1716, established 
San Francisco de los Neches mission, and 
at the same time Ramon stationed a gar 
rison there. In 1719 the missionaries, 
fearing a French attack incident to the 
outbreak of war between France and 
Spain, deserted this as well as the other 
E. Texas missions, and left it to be plun 
dered by the Indians. In 1721 Gov. 
Aguayo rebuilt the mission; but in 1731 
it was removed to San Antonio, where 
it was known as San Francisco de la 
Espada (Ramon, Derrotero; Repre 
sentation by the Missionary Fathers, 
1716, MS.; Peiia, Diario; Espmosa, 
Chronica Apostolica, 418, 153, et seqA 

The Neche tribe, like all of its neigh 
bors, was insignificant in numbers. In 
1721 Aguayo, while at the mam .Necne 
village, made present* to 188 men, 
women, and children, which was con 
sidered an unusually "general distribu 
tion" of gifts (Peiia, Diary of Aguayo s 
expedition, 1721, MS.). The aggregate 
of Indians of this and the neighboring 



r>o 



NECHIMUASATH NEEDLES 



[B. A. E. 



tribes dependent on the Net-lies mission 
ipn>l>ably including the Nabedache, Na- 
eono, Xechaui, and Xacaehan) was esti 
mated by Kspinosa, former president of 
the missions, at about one thousand (see 
Francisco de Jesus Mari a, Relacion; Ra 
mon, I >errotero;Kspinosa,Chronica Apos 
tolica, 4:51* ). This estimate must have had 
a good foundation, for the missionaries 
kept lists <>f all the hamlets and house 
holds. If Rivera be correct, it would 
seem that by 1727 part of the Net-lie tribe 
had moved across the Rio Neches and 
occupied the Nabedache site of San Pedro 
( Rivera, Diario, leg. 2140, 1736). Before 
the end of the ISth century the tribe 
apparently became merged with the 
Nabedache and Ilainai tribes, for in the 
reports of Soli s (1707), Barrios. (1771), 
Me/.ieres (177S-7U), and others, it was 
not separately distinguished. 

In its main features the social organiza 
tion of this tribe was similar to that of all 
the tribes of the group. They lived in 
agricultural hamlets or single house 
holds scattered around a main village. 
A household consisted of several families 
living in a large conical grass lodge. The 
scmicommunal households seem to have 
been organized on the basis of paternal 
right; but an elder woman served as the 
economic head. An exogamous clan or 
ganization existed, thedetailsof which are 
not evident. The outlines of the tribal 
organization are clear. There was an 
hereditary civil chief (caddi wciiiVdi} who 
also had priestly functions. lie ruled 
through a council composed largely <tf 
elder and distinguished men, and was 
assisted by several grades of administra 
tive functionaries or public servants, such 
as the rtintih<tK and the tttiiniin. The lat 
ter were messengers and overseers, and 
inflicted the lesser corporal punishments. 

The confederate relations of this tribe 
with its neighbors were more religious 
than governmental. The caddi of the 
Ilainai tribe ranked as head chief of the 
group, but of greater authority than any 
caddi was the head- priest, called r/,fm,sv, 
or shimi, who kept the central lire 
temple, situated on the edge of the 
Ilainai domain. From this temple all 
tin- households of the surrounding 
tribes kindle,! their lires, directly or 
indirectly. For lesser religions and social 
functions the Xecheandthe Ilainai tribes 
(together with the Nabedache, perhaps) 
formed one group, while the Nasoni and 
the Nacogdoche were the leading tribes of 
another subgroup for religions purposes 
(see 1-ranciscodr Jesus Maria, Relacion, 
; Tenin, Description \ Diaria 
I emarcacion, HUH, MS.; Kspinosa, 
( hromca Apostolica, 421, 4: ,0, 1746). 

Agriculture, semicom, ,| U , K ,l j,, method 
was an important source of food supply. 



The chief crops raised were corn, beans, 
sunflowers, melons, calabashes, and to 
bacco. Besides hunting the deer and 
small game abounding in the vicinity, the 
Neche hunted buffalo in season beyond 
the Brazos, and bear in the forests toward 
the N. (Francisco de Jesus Marfa, Rela 
cion; Joutel, Relation, inMargry, Dec., in, 
311, 1878; Pena, Diario, 1721, MS.; Espi- 
nosa, Chron. Apostolica, 422). (ir. E. 15. ) 
Naches. Linares (1710) in Margry, Dec., vi, 217, 
1886. Naicha. Espinosa, Chronica Apostolica, 
430,174(5. Naicha s. I bid., 424, 425, 430. Nascha. 
Representation of Missionary Fathers, 1716, MS. 
Necha. Francisco de Jesris Maria, Relacion, MS. 
Nechas. Ibid.; Rivera, Diario, leg. 2140, 1736; 
Rivera, Proyecto, 1728, MS.; Pena, Diario of 
Aguayo s entrada, 1721. Neita. Francisco dc 
Jesus Maria, op. eit. (probably identical). 

Nechimuasath (NEtcimu asath). A sept 
of the Seshart, a Nootka tribe. Boas in 
6th Re]). X. YV. Tribes Can., 32, 1890. 

Necoes. A town, perhaps of the Cape 
Fear Indians, in 1(563, about 20 m. up Cape 
Fearr., probably in the present Brunswick 
co., X. C. 

Nachees. La \vson, Voy., 115, repr. 18(iO. Necoes 
Long et al. (1663) in N. C. Col. Rec., 1,68, 1886; 
Martin, Hist. N. C., I, 131, 1829. 

Neconga. A former village, probably 
of the Miami, in Miami co., I nd. Hough 
in Ind. Geol. Rep., map, 1883. 

Necootimeigh. A tribe formerly living 
at the Dalles of the Columbia in Oregon 
(Ross, Fur Hunters, i, 186, 1855). It was 
probably Chinookan, as it was within 
Chinookan territory; but the name may 
have been that of a temporary village of 
a neighboring Shahaptian tribe. 

Necotat. A former Clatsop village at 
the site of Seaside, Clatsop co., Greg. 

Nakotla t. Boas, Chinook Texts, 140, 1894. Ne- 
co-tat. Lyman in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., i, 321, 
1900. 

N-ecpacha. The tribal name assigned 
to an Indian baptized at mission San 
Antonio de Valero, Tex., Apr. 12, 1728 
(Valero Bantismos, partida 221, MS. in 
the custody of the Bishop of San Antonio). 
He died shortly after, and the burial 
record gives his tribal name as Nacpacha. 
The name may mean Apache; but this 
latter form was quite well known at San 
Antonio at the date named, (ir. E. B.) 
Nacpacha. Fray Salva de Amaya in Valero En- 
tierros, partida 79, MS. in the custody of the 
Bishop of San Antonio. 

Nedlung. A Talirpingmiut fall village 
of the Okomiut Eskimo tribe near the s. E. 
extremity of L. Netilling, Bailin land. 
Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. K., map, 1888. 

Neecoweegee. An unidentified Dakota 
band, possibly of the Mhmeconjou. 
Nee-cow-ee-gee. Catlin, X. Am. Inds., i, 222, 1841. 

Needles. The true needle with an eye 
was extremely rare among the Indians, 
the awl (<). v. ) being the universal imple 
ment for sewing. The needle and needle 
case came to be generally employed only 
after the advent of the whites, although 
bone needles 3 to 5 in. long are common in 
Ontarioand the Iroquoisareaof New York. 



BULL. 30] 



NEEECHOKIOON NEGRO AND INDIAN 



51 



The few needles that have been found in 
western archeological sites are large and 
clumsy and could have been employed 
only in coarse work, such as the mats of 
the Quinaielt, who in making them use a 
wooden needle to tie the rushes together 
with cord. A similar needle is used in 
house building by the Papago. The Es 
kimo, however, possessed fine needles of 
ivory, suitable for many of the uses to 
which the steel needle is put, and the 
metal thimble was imitated in ivory. 
Among them the needle case, artistically 
and in other respects, reached its highest 
development, like all the objects that were 
subjected to the ingenuity of this people. 
Eskimo needle cases were usually carved 
of ivory or formed from hollow bones 
(Nelson in 18th Rep. P>. A. E., 1899). In 
the S. W. the sharp spine of the yucca fur 
nished a natural needle, the thread being 
formed of the attached fiber. Wooden 
knitting needles were used among the 
Pueblos. The N. W. coast tribes some 
times made needle cases of copper and 
later of iron. (w. n.) 

Neerchokioon. A Chinookan tribe, said 
to number 1,340, found by Lewis and Clark 
in 1806 on the s. side of Columbia r., a few 
miles above Sauvies id., Oreg. A division 
of Lewis and Clark s "Shahala nation." 
Ne-er-che-ki-oo. Grig. Jour. Lewis and Clark, iv, 
236, 1905. Neerchokioo. Lewis and Clark Exped., 
11,217, 238, 1814. 

Neeskotting. Thegaffing of fish in shal 
low water at night with the aid of a lan 
tern. A long pole with a hook at the end 
is used (Starr, Amer. Ind., 51, 1899). 
The -ing is the English suffix, and neeskot 
is probably the equivalent in the Mas- 
sachuset dialect of Algonquian of the 
Micmac nigog, harpoon (Ferland, Foy. 
Canad., Ill, 1865), which appears as 
nigogue in Canadian French. (A. v. c. ) 

Neeslous. Given as a division of Tsim- 
shian on Laredo canal, x. w. coast of 
British Columbia. The Haida speak of 
Ni slas as a Tsimshian chief living in this 
district. 

Neecelowes. Gibbs after Anderson in Hist. Mag., 
74, 1862. Neecelows. Cones and Kingsley, Stand. 
Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 136, 1885. Nees-lous . Kane, . 
Wand, in N. A., app., 1859. 

Negabamat, Noel. A converted Mon- 
tagnais chief, who lived at Sillery, 
Quebec; born about the beginning of the 
17th century. He was baptized, with his 
wife Marie and his son Charles, in 1639. 
Although generally peaceful after embrac 
ing Christianity, he frequently engaged 
in war with the Iroquois, always enemies 
of the Montagnais. In 1652 he was a 
member of a delegation sent by his tribe 
to solicit aid from Gov. .Dudley, of New 
England, against the Iroquois. He also 
appeared in behalf of his people and 
acted on the part of the French during the 
convention at Three Rivers, Quebec, in 
1645, where a treaty of peace was made 



with the Iroquois and other tribes. He 
was selected by Pere Druillettes to ac 
company him on his visit to the Abnaki 
in 1651, at which time he was alluded to 
by the French as "Captain Sillery." It 
was through his efforts that peace was 
made by the French with one of the tribes 
on the coasts, of Quebec, neighbors of the 
Abnaki, seemingly the Malecite or Nor- 
ridgewock. On his death, Mar. 19,1666, 
his war chief, Negaskouat, became his 
successor. Negabamat was a firm friend 
of the French, and after his conversion 
was their chief counsellor in regard to 
their movements on the lower St Law 
rence. ( c . T.) 

Negahnquet, Albert. A Potawatomi, the 
first full-blood Indian of the United States 
to be ordained a Roman Catholic priest. 
Born near St Marys, Kans , in 1874, he 
moved with his parents to the Potawatomi 
res. (nowPottawatomieco., Okla. ), where 
he entered the Catholic mission school 
conducted by the Benedictine monks at 
Sacred Heart Mission, making rapid prog 
ress in his studies and gaining the friend 
ship of his teachers by his tractable char 
acter. Later he entered the College of the 
Propaganda Fide in Rome, and was there 
ordained a priest in 1903. The same year 
he returned to America and has since 
engaged in active religious work among 
the Indians. 

Negaouichiriniouek ( people of the fine 
sandy beach. A. F. C. ). A tribe or band 
living in 1658 in the vicinity of the mis 
sion of St Michel near the head of Green 
bay, Wis. ; probably a part of the Ottawa 
tribe, possibly the Nassauaketon. They 
are located by the Jesuit Relation of 1648 
on the s. side of L. Huron in the vicinity 
of the Ottawa. In 1658, fleeing before 
the Iroquois, they came to the country of 
the Potawatomi "at Green bay precisely 
as the Ottawa did and at the same time. 
Negaouich. Tailhan in 1 errot, Mem., 221, 1861 
( les I llinois Negaouich " ) . Negaouichiriniouek. 
Jes. Rel. 1658,21, 1858. Negaouichirinouek. IVrrot 
(ca. 1720), Mem., 221, 1861. Nigouaouichirinik. 
Jes. Rel. 1648,62, 1858. 

Negas. A former Abnaki village in Pe- 

nobscot co. , Me. 

Negas Willis in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., IV, 108, 1856. 

Nique. Alcedo, Die. Geog., m, 335, 1788 

(identical?). 

Negro and Indian. The first negro 
slaves were introduced into the New 
World (1501-03) ostensibly to labor in 
the place of the Indians, who showed 
themselves ill-suited to enforced tasks 
and, moreover, were being exterminated 
in the Spanish colonies. The Indian- 
negro intermixture has proceeded on a 
larger scale in South America, but not a 
little has also taken place in various parts 
of the northern continent. Wood (New 
England s Prospect, 77, 16.34) tells how 
some Indians of Massachusetts in 1< 
coming across a negro in the top of a tree, 



NKCiRO AND INDIAN 



were frightened, surmising that "he was 
Abamaeho, r tlu devil." Nevertheless, 
iiiterinixture of Indians and negroes has 
occurred in New Kngland. About the 
middle of the ISth century the Indians of 
Marthas Vineyard began to intermarry 
with negroes, the result being that "the 
mixed race increased in numbers and im 
proved in temperance and industry." A 
like intermixture with similar^ results is 
reported about the same time from parts 
of C. Cod. Among the Mashpee in 1802 
very few pure Indians were left, there be 
ing a number of mulattoes (Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., i, 2(H>; iv, 200; ibid., 2ds., in, 
4: cf. Prince in Am. Anthrop., ix, no. 
3, 1907). Robert Rantoul in 1833 (Hist. 
Coll. Kssex Just., xxiv, 81) states that 
"the Indians are said to be improved by 
the mixture." In 1890, W. H. Clark 
(Johns Hopk. I niv. Circ., x, no. 84, 28) 
says of the (Jay Head Indians: "Although 
(die observes much that betokens the 
Indian type, the admixture of negro and 
white blood has materially changed 
them. The deportation of the Pequot 
to the Bermudas after the defeat of 1638 
may have led to admixture there. The 
Pequot of Proton, Conn., who in 1832 
numbered but 40, were reported as con 
siderably mixed with white and negro 
blood, and the condition of the few rep 
resentatives of the Paugusset of Milford 
in 1849 was about the same (De For 
est, Hist. Inds. Conn., 356, 1853). Of 
the Indians in Led yard we read (ibid., 
445): "None of the pure Pequot race are 
left, all being mixed with Indians of 
other tribes or with whites and negroes." 
Long Island presents another point of 
Indian-negro admixture. Of theShinne- 
cock < in t lie s. shore, ( Jatschet in 1889 ( Am. 
Antiq., xi, 390, 1SS9) observes: "There 
are 150 individuals now going under this 
name, but they are nearly all mixed with 
negro blood, dating from the times of 
slavery in the Northern states." Still 
later M. K. Harrington (Jour. Am. 
Folk-Ion 1 , xvi, 37, 1903) notes the occur 
rence in many individuals of both Indian 
and neirro somatic characters. These 
Shinnecock evidently have not been so 
completely Africani/ed as some authori 
ties believe. The remnant of the Mon- 
tauk in Kast Hampton are reported by 
W. \V. Tookcr ( Ind. Place-names, iv, 
1SS9) to I.e mixed \ v itli negroes, though 
still recogni/able by their aboriginal fea- 
The region of Chesapeake bay 
furnishes evidences of Indian-negro inter 
mixture. The fact, pointed out by Hrin- 
ton i Am. Antiq., i\, 352, 1887), that the 
-t of the numerals 1-lOgiven as Nanti- 
coke in u manuscript of Pyrheus, the 
missionary to the Mohawk, dating from 
17SO, is really Mandingo or a closely 
related African language, indicates con 



tact or intermixture. Of the Pamunkey 
and Mattapony of Virginia, Col. Aylett 
(Rep. Ind., r/S. Census 1890, 602) states 
that there has been a considerable mix 
ture of white and negro blood, principally 
the former. Traces of Indian blood are 
noticeable, according to G. A. Townsend 
(Scribner s Mag., no. 72, 518, 1871), in 
many of the freeborn negroes of the E. 
shore of Maryland. According to Mooney 
(Am. Anthrop., in, 132, 1890), "there 
is not now a native full-blood Indian 
speaking his own language from Dela 
ware bay to Pamlico sound," those who 
claim to he Indians having much negro 
blood. We rind not only Indian-negro 
intermixture, but also the practice of 
negro slavery among the Indians of the 
s. Atlantic and Gulf states. The Melun- 
geons of Hancock co., Tenn., but form 
erly resident in North Carolina, are said 
to be " a mixture of white, Indian, and 
negro" (Am. Anthrop., n, 347, 1889). 
The so-called Croatan (q. v. ) of North 
Carolina and Redbones of South Carolina 
seem to be of the same mixture. The 
holding of negro slaves by the tribes of 
the Carolinas led to considerable inter 
marriage. There has been much negro 
admixture among the Seminole from an 
early period, although the remnant still 
living in Florida is of comparatively pure 
Indian blood. Of the other Indians of 
Muskhogean stock the Creeks seem to have 
most miscegenation, fully one-third of the 
tribe having perceptible negro admixture. 
In the time of De Soto a "queen" of 
the Yuchi ran away with one of his 
negro slaves. Estevanico, the famous 
companion of Cabe/a de Vaca, the ex 
plorer, in 1 528-36, was a negro, and the im 
portance of negro companions of Spanish 
explorers has been discussed by Wright 
(Am. Anthrop., iv, 217-28, 1902). Of 
Algonquian peoples the Shawnee, and 
the Chippewa of Minnesota, etc., furnish 
some cases of Indian-negro intermar 
riage the fathers negro, the mothers 
Indian. The Canadian Tuscarora of the 
Iroquoian stock are said to have some 
little negro blood amongthem, and Grin- 
nell reports a few persons of evident negro 
blood among the Piegan and Kainah. 
Some of the Indian tribes of the plains 
and the far \V. have taken a dislike to the 
negro, and he often figures to disadvantage 
in their myths and legends. Marcy, in 
1853, reports this of the Conianche, and 
in 1891 the present writer found it true 4 
to a certain extent of the Kutenai of 
s. K. British Columbia. Nevertheless, 
a few cases of intermarriage are reported 
from this region. The Caddo, former 
residents of Louisiana and E. Texas, ap 
pear to have much negro blood, and on 
the other hand it is probable that many 
of the negroes of the whole lower Atlantic 



BULL. 30] 



NEGRO TOWN NKHOL< >HAWKE 



53 



and Gulf region have much of Indian 
blood. Lewis and Clark reported that 
some of the N. W. Indians, for mysterious 
reasons, got their negro servant to consort 
with the Indian women, so much were 
they taken w r ith him. According to 
Swanton the richest man among the Skid- 
egate Haida is a negro. In the Indian- 
negro half-breed, as a rule, the negro 
type of features seems to predominate. 
The relation of the folklore of the negroes 
in America to that of the American abo 
rigines has been the subject of not a little 
discussion. In regard to the "Uncle 
Remus" stories, Crane (Pop. Sci. Mo., 
xvm, 324-33, 1881) and Gerber (Jour. 
Am. Folk-lore, yi, 245-57, 1893) assume 
the African origin of practically all these 
myths, and hold that such borrowing as 
has taken place has been from the negroes 
by the Indians. Powell ( Harris, Uncle 
Remus, introd., 1895) and Mooney (19th 
Rep. B. A. E., 232-34, 1900) entertain 
the opinion that a considerable portion 
of the myths in question are indigenous 
with the Indians of s. E. United States. 
The latter points out that "in all the 
southern colonies Indian slaves were 
bought and sold and kept in servitude 
and worked in the fields side by side 
with negroes up to the time of the Revo 
lution." The conservatism of the In 
dian and his dislike or contempt for the 
negro must have prevented his borrowing 
much, \vhile the imitativeness of the lat 
ter and his love for comic stories led him, 
Mooney thinks, to absorb a good deal from 
the Indian. lie also holds that the idea 
that such stories are necessarily of negro 
origin is due largely to the common but 
mistaken notion that the Indian has no 
sense of humor. 

In addition to the writings cited, con 
sult a special study by Chamberlain in 
Science, xvn, 85-90, 1891. See Mixed 
bloods, Race n<imes, Slavery. (A. F. c. ) 

Negro Town. A village mentioned in 
1836 as near Withlacoochee r., Fla., and 
burned in that year by the Americans 
(Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 4, 135, 1848). It 
was probably occupied by runaway slaves 
and Seminole. 

Negusset. A former village, probably 
of the Abnaki, about the site of Wool 
wich, Me. The site was sold in 1639. 
Nassaque. Smith (1(51(5) in Mass. Hist. Soe. Coll., 
3d s., in, 22, 1833. Nauseag. Sewall (1*33) in Me. 
Hist. Soe. Coll., II, 207, 1847. Neguascag. Sewall 
(1833), ibid., 190 (misprint.) Neguaseag. Willis, 
ibid., 233. Neguasseag. Deed of 1648 quoted by 
Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3 100, 1848. Neguasset. 
Bewail (1833) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., II, 207, 1847. 
Negusset. Deed of 1648 quoted by Drake, Bk. 
Inds., bk. 3, 100, 1848. 

Negwagon. A chief of the Ottawa of the 
Michilimackinac region of Michigan, com 
monly known as Little Wing, or Wing, 
and also called Xingweegon. Although 
the United States had declined the proffer 



of Indian services in the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Xegwagon espoused the 
American cause and lost a son in battle, 
whereupon he adopted Austin K. Wing 
When the British took possession of 
Michilimackinac, Xegwagon retired with 
his people to their hunting grounds, hoist 
ing the American flag over his Vamp. 
Happening to be alone, he was visited by 
British soldiers, who ordered him to 
strike his flag. Obeying the command, 
he wound the emblem around his arm, 
and, drawing his tomahawk, said to the 
officer, " Englishmen, Negwagon is the 
friend of the Americans. He has but one 
flag and one heart; if you take one you 
shall take the other!" " Then sounding a 
war cry he assembled his warriors and 
was allowed to remain in peace and to 
hoist the flag again. After the close of 
the war he annually visited Detroit with 
his family in two large birchbark canoes 
with an American flag flying from the 
stern of each. Lewis Cass, then stationed 
at Detroit, never failed to reward him on 
the occasion of these visits with two new 
flags. By treaty of Mar. 28, 1836, he was 
granted an annuity of $100, payable in 
money or goods. Xegwagon is described 
as having been very large in stature. A 
county of Michigan was named in his 
honor, but the name was subsequently 
changed. Consult Wis. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
in, 1S57. (c. T.) 

Nehadi ( Xe.r.Vd/, people of Nex ) . A 
Tlingit division living at Sanya, Alaska, 
peculiar as being outside of both Tlingit 
phratries and able to marry into any 
other group. It is said to be of Tsim- 
shian origin. (.T. u. s.) 

Nehalem. ASalish tribe formerly living 
on ornearXehalemr. , in x. w. Oregon, but, 
now on Grande Ronde res. Pop. 28in 1871. 

Naalem. Sen. Ex. Doc. 39, 32d Cong.. 1st sess., 2, 
1852. Na6lim. Framboise quoted by Gairdner 
(1835) in Jour. Geog. Soc. Loud., M, 255. l,s41. 
Na-e -lum Dorsey, Naltunnetunne MS. voeab., 
B.A.K.,1884. Nahelem. DuflotdeMofras, Oregon, 
n 104,1844. Nehalems.PalmerinH.R.Kx.Doc. 
93 34th Cong., 1st sess., Ill, 1S5C,. Nehalim. 
Victor in Overland Mo., VII, 346, 1S71. Nehalins. 
Geary in Ind. ArT. Rep., 171. 18(10. Ne-i lem. 
Gatschet, MS..B.A.K. (Nestueca name. ) 

Nehaltmoken. A body of Salish under 
the Fraser superintendency, British Co 
lumbia. Can. Ind. Aff., 79, 1S7S. 

Nehemathla. See Neamathla. 

Nehjao (Ne-lV-jit-o, wolf )- A clan^of 
the Mahican. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 174, 
1877. 

Nehogatawonahs. A band of the Dakota 
near St Croix r., in Minnesota or Wis 
cousin, in 1778. It was one of the three 

river bands. 

Nehogatawonaher.-Balbi, Atlas Kthnog 

<i 774, 1S20. Nehogatawonahs. Carver, I rav., f.O. 

1778. 

Neholohawee. Given by Hay wood 
( Hist. Tenn., 270, 1828) as the name <>t u 



54 



NKHOWMKAN NENOOTHLECT 



[B. A. E. 



Cherokee clan, signifying blind sa 
vanna*. No such clan name or meaning 
exists in the tribe, and the name is evi 
dently a bad eorruption either of Ani - 
kilahi or of AniMiatagewi, Cherokee clan 
names, the latter having a slight resem 
blance to the word for swamp or sa 
vanna . ( M - ) 

Nehowmean ( X.i- oml n, meaning doubt 
ful). A village of the Lytton band of 
Ntlakyapamuk, on the w. side of Fraser 
r., H in. above Lytton, Brit. ( 1 ol. 

Nehowmean. Can. Ind. AIT., 79, 1*78. N homi n. 
Hill-Tout in Kep. Kthnol. Snrv. Can., 4, 1899. 
Nhumeen.-ran. I ml. A IT. 1892, 1512. 1893. 
Nohomeen. Brit. Col. Map, Ind. AfT., Victoria, 
1^72. Nx omi n. Teit in Mem. Am. Mas. Nat. 
Hist., II. 172, 1900. 

Neihahat. An unidentified village or 
tribe mentioned by Jontel in 1689 (Mar- 
gry. Dee., m, 409/1878) as an ally of the 
Kadohadacho. 

Neiuningaitua. A settlement of the 
Aivilirmiut Fskimoon an island x. of the 
entrance to I, yon inlet, at the s. end of 
Melville penin., ( 1 anada. 

Neyuning Eit-dua. Parry, Second Voy., 1H2, 1824. 
Winter Island. Ibid. 

Nekah (Xfka, goose ). A gens of the 
Chippewa. 

Nekah. Warren, Hist. Ojibways, 45, 1885. 
Ni ka. Win. Jones, inf n, 1906. 

Nekoubaniste. A tribe, probably Mon- 
tagnais, formerly living x. w. of L. St John, 
Quebec. 

Neconbavistes. Lattre, map, 1784 (misprint). 
Nekoubanistes. Bellin, map, 175"); Ah-edo, Die. 
<n-og., in, 2S 290: IV, 210, 178S. Neloubanistes. 
Ksnaiits and Rapilly, map, 1777 (misprint). 

Nekunsisnis ( round isle ). A former 
Chitimacha village opposite lie anx Ois- 
eaux, in Lac de la Fausse Pointe, La. 

Ne kun si snis. (iatschet in Trans. Anthrop. Roe. 
Wa-h., ii, K>2, 1*S3. 

Nekun-stustai (\rkii/n xt.-ixta -l, the 
Stustas of Naikun ). A subdivision of 
the Stustas, a family of the Eagle elan of 
the Haida (q. v. ). As their name implies, 
they lived near the great sand point called 
Naikun, or Hose spit. (.1. R. s. ) 

Naeku n stastaai . Boas in 12th Kep. X. W. Tribes 
Can., j:5, 1S98. Neku n st.\sta -i. Swanton, Cont. 
I la id a, 27i. 1905. 

Nelcelchumnee. (liven as one of the 
tribes on Fresno res., Cal., in 1861, num 
bering sr> (In,l. Aff. Rep., 219, 1861). 
Apparently the only mention of the tribe, 
which is presumablv Moquelumnan. 

Nellagottine ( people at the end of the 
world ). A division of the Kawcho- 
dinne, occupying the country on L. Simp 
son and along Anderson r. /Canada, next 
to the Fskimo. Anderson and others 
(Hind, Labrador Penin., n, 2(10, 1X63) 
called them half Kawchodinne and half 
Kutrhin. Macfarlane( ibid., 259) said they 
erect lodges of turf on poles. Ross said 
in 1859 that the Kawchodinne residing in 
the country around Ft < iood Hope ex 
tended beyond the Arctic circle on Mac- 
ken/ie r.. coming into contact with the 
Kutrhin, with whom, by intermarriage, 



they have formed the tribe Bastard 
Loueheux. 

Batard Loueheux. Hind, Labrador Penin., n.260, 
18(13. Batards-Loucheux, Petitot, Diet. Dene-Din- 
djie, xx, 187(1. Loucheux-Batards. lioss, MH.,B. A. 
E., 1859. Nne-la-gottine. Petitot in Bui. Soc. 
Geoff. Paris, eliart, 1875. Nne lla-Gottine. Petitot, 
Autour dn lae des Esclaves, 3(12, 1891. Tpa-pa-Got- 
tine. Ibid. (= ocean people ). Vieux de la Mer. 
Ibid. 

Nellmole. A. rancheria belonging to the 
former Dominican mission of San Miguel 
de la Frontera, w. coast of Lower Cali 
fornia, about 30 m. s. of San Diego, Cal. 
Its inhabitants spoke a Diegueno dia 
lect. Taylor in Cal. Fanner, May 18, 
1860. 

Neluste (Ne-lus-te, the hollow leaf). 
Given by Hay wood (Tenn., 276, 1823) as 
a clan of the Cherokee. No such clan 
now exists, but there is some evidence of 
the former existence of a Cherokee clan 
taking its name from the holly (usftstl) , 
the clan name would probably have been 
AniMVtis.tr. (.1. M.) 

Nemah. A former Chinook village on 
the site of the present town of the same 
name, on the E. side of Shoalwater bay, 
Wash. 

Mar hoo. Swan, X. W. Coast, 211, 1857. Max. 
Boas, inf n, 1905 (Chehalisname). Ne ma. Ibid, 
(own name). TctEma x. Ibid. (Chehalis name 
for the villagers). 

Nemalquinner. A Chinookan tribe, be 
longing to the Cushook division (q. v. ) of 
Lewis and Clark, which lived in 1806 at 
the falls of the Willamette, in Oregon, but 
also had a temporary house on the N. end 
of San vies id., where they went occasion 
ally to collect wappatoo. They num 
bered 200, in 4 houses. Lewis and Clark 
Exped., n, 219, 1814. 

Nemalquinner. Lewis and Clark Exped., II, 219, 
181 1. Ne-mal-quin-ner s. Orig. Jour. Lewis and 
Clark, vi, 11G, 1905. 

Nemoy. Noted as a Snake band at the 
head of Madison r., Mont., one of the 
head forks of the Missouri. This would 
place the band in Tukuarika territory, 
though the name is not identified with 
any known division. 
Ne-moy. Lewis and Clark Exped., I, map, 1814. 

Nenabozho. See Nanabozho. 

Nenekunat. See Ninigret. 

Nenelkyenok (Ne / nelk / enox, people 
from the headwaters of the river ). A 
gens of the Nimkish, a Kwakiutl tribe. 
Boas in Kep. Nat. Mtis. 1S95, 331, 1897. 

Nenelpae (Xc / ni lp(i(^ those on the up 
per end of the river ). A gens of the 
Koeksotenok, a Kwakiutl tribe. Boas in 
Rep. Nat. Mus. 181)5, 330, 1897. 

Nennequi. A former village connected 
with San Carlos mission, Cal., and said 
to have been Ksselen. Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 20, 1860. 

Nenohuttahe. See I alJi Killer. 

Nenoothlect ( Xc-iiooDi-lect}. A former 
Chinookan tribe living 28 in. from The 
Dalles, on Columbia r., Oreg. Lee and 
Frost, Oregon, 176, 1844. 



BULL. 30] 



NEODAKHEAT NEPHRITE 



Neodakheat (Ne-o -dak-he -at, head of 
the lake ) . Given by Morgan as a former 
Cayuga village at the head of Cayuga lake, 
on "the site of Ithaca, N . Y. In 1750, Carn- 
merhoff, Zeisberger s companion, called 
the lake there Ganiataregechiat, with the 
same meaning. In 1 766 Zeisberger again 
visited the place and said a Delaware vil 
lage existed at the end of the lake. Three 1 
or 4 in. off was a Tutelo village with a 
Cayuga chief. The Tutelo had been 
placed there by the Iroquois. (w. M. B. ) 
Ne-6- dak-he-at. Morgan, League Iroq., 470, 1851. 
Oeyendehit. Pouchot map (1758) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., X, 694,1858 (possibly identical). O-nya -de- 
a -ka -hyat. Hewitt, inf n, 1886 (Seneca form). 

Neokautah. (Four Legs). The Meno- 
minee name of a Winnebago chief whose 
village, commonly known as Four Legs 
Village, was situated at the point where 
Fox r. leaves L. Winnebago, on the site 
of the present Neenah, Winnebago co., 
Wis. According to Draper (Win. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., x, 114, 1888) , while living here 
Neokautah for a time claimed tribute from 
Americans who passed his village. With 
Dekaury and other Winnebago chiefs he 
joined in the war against the United 
States in 1812-13, reaching the seat of 
hostilities in time to join Tecumseh in 
the fighting at Ft Meigs, Ohio, and later 
engaged in the attack on Ft Sandusky, 
so ably defended by Croghan (Grignon s 
Recolfections in \Vis. Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 
269, 1857). Neokautah was one of the 
representatives of his people at the peace 
conference at Mackinaw, Mich., June 3, 
1815, and was a signer of the treaty of 
Prairie du Chien, Wis. , Aug. 1 9, 1 825, under 
the French name " Les quatres jambes," 
as leading representative of his tribe. 
His Winnebago name is given as Hoot- 
shoapkau, but it seems to have been sel 
dom used. (c. T. ) 

Neolithic age. A term, signifying new 
stone age, applied originally in Europe to 
the culture period that folio wed the Paleo 
lithic ( old stone ) age and preceded the 
Bronze or Metal age, the separation, as 
the name implies, being chronologic. In 
northern America at the period of dis 
covery the native culture was that of the 
Stone age in general, all stages of stone 
art being represented at one and the same 
time. It is thus not possible to separate 
the culture as a whole on a time basis, 
and the terms Neolithic and Paleolithic 
are not applicable save in a theoretical 
sense, i. e., on the assumption that each 
tribe or group of tribes that had achieved 
the higher stone culture had necessarily 
at an earlier period passed tli rough the 
lower. See Antiquity. (w. n. IT.) 

Neomaitaneo (neoina*, sand piled in 
hills ; heta neo, men, people : sand-hill 
people ). A band of the Heviqsnipahis 
division of the Cheyenne, so called from 
having formerly ranged chiefly in the 



"sand-hill country" of x. E. Colorado. 
Not identical with the Cheyenne tribe as 
a whole, as has been stated. (.1. M.) 

Neomai-taneo. Mooney, Cheyenne MS., B A K 
1906. Sand-hill people. Grinnell in Internal! 
Cong. Americanists, AIM, 139, 1905. 

Neomonni ( Rain-cloud). Anlowachief, 
of inferior grade, during the early half of 
the 19th century. He claimed to have 
taken scalps from Kansa, Omaha, Mis 
souri, Sioux, Osage, and Sank Indians, 
and Catliii (Fourteen Iowa Indians, 3, (i, 
1844), who writes his name "New- 
mon-ya, Walking rain," says he was 
much more distinguished as a warrior 
than White Cloud (under whom he was 
third chief), one of the most remarkable 
and celebrated men of the Iowa tribe. 
CatHn gives Neomonni s age, about 1843, 
as 54 years, and describes him as nearly 
6 ft tall. He was one of the 14 Iowa 
who visited England with Melody in 
1843, Catlin, who painted his portrait, 
acting as interpreter. His name appears 
among the signers to the treaties of Prairie 
du Chien, Wis., July 15, 1830, as " Niayoo 
Manie, Walking rain"; Ft Leaven worth, 
Kans., Sept. 17, 183(5, as "Ne-o-mo-na, 
Raining cloud"; and St Louis, Mo., Nov. 
23, 1837, as Ne-o-mon-ni. His portrait 
was also painted in Washington for the 
War Department by C. B. King, and is 
reproduced in McKenneyand Hall, Ind. 
Tribes, n, 1858. 

Nepanet, Tom. A Christian Nipmuc, 
the faithful and valued friend of the 
Massachusetts colonists during the King 
Philip war in the 17th century. The 
English, desirous of negotiating with the 
enemy for the release of certain white 
captives, chose Nepanet as their emissary, 
and although confined with others on an 
island in Boston harbor, he consented to 
undertake the mission. He started for 
the Indian camp, Apr. 12, 1076, and 
although unsuccessful m the first attempt, 
it was chiefly through his initiative and 
subsequent efforts that the family of Mr 
Rowlandson and other prisoners were 
finally released. It was also through his 
aid that a party of Englishmen under 
(apt. Henchman were enabled to sur 
prise a body of the enemy at Weshakom 
ponds, near Lancaster, Mass., in May, 
1676. (") 

Nepawtacum. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, situated on the x 
bank of the Rappahannock, in Lancaster 
( . ()tj Va. Smith (1629), Va., i, map, repr. 

1819. 

Nephrite. This semiprecious stone, 
called also jade, was employed by the 
native tribes of British Columbia and 
Alaska in the manufacture of implements. 
Deposits of the stone were found in 1< V 
by Lieut. Stoney in what is now called 
the Jade in ts., which lie N. of Kowak 
r Alaska, 150 m. above its mouth; and 



NEPONSET NESAQUAKE 



[B. 



bowlders and erratic fragments have been 
discovered in lower Fraser valley and 
at other points in British Columbia and 
Alaska facts indicating a wide distribu 
tion of the material. Nephrite has not 
been found, however, so far as known, 
within the area of the United States 
proper, with the exception of an erratic 
bowlder of mottled leek-green color, 
weighing 47 Ibs., obtained by a prospector 
in auriferous gravels in s. Oregon, and a 
small pebble from the shores of I uget sd. 
(Terry). It is usually found associated 
with metamorphic rocks, but the exact 
manner of its occurrence is not under 
stood. It is not quite as hard as quart/, 
but on account of its compact, fibrous 
structure it is extremely tough and there 
fore makes very serviceable implements. 
Though not always fine-grained, nephrite 
takes a high polish and presents a very 
handsome appearance. The colors range 
through various shades of gray, grayish, 
and olive greens, bright greens, to brown- 
ishand blackish hues. It is of ten streaked 
and mottled, and is sometimes more or less 
translucent. Before the introduction of 
iron in theN. W. nephrite- was much em 
ployed for hammers, adzes, drills, knives, 
whetstones, etc., but it seems rarely to 
have been used for ornaments; and there 
is no reason for believing that, as in the 
S., it had any special or mythologic sig- 
uncance As the stone is too tough to 
lily shaped by fracturing, it was 
divided by sawing usually, it is believed, 
with strips of w ,,,,d used in conjunction 
with sharp sand. Many of the specimens 
mir museums show traces of such treat- 
nt I l u . implements were finished by 
Tim ing, and sometimes were highly 
polished. Specimens have been obtained 
mainly Iron, the coast tribes between 
u<retsd. m the s. and Point Barrow in 
j >ut many are not fully identified 
as nephrite, and aconsiderablenumber are 
ablypectolite^.v.). Thesourcesof 
nephrite and related minerals found in use 
he natives has been much discussed 
since unt, recently no deposits had been 
< --ve- d n, \merica, and it was surmised 
it the northern specimens might have 
light Irom Siberia, and theMexi- 
entra American from China; 
" J th.s view is now practically aban- 
1 " Analysis ol the northern n<>.->i, 



in Science, Jan. 3, 1890; Wilson in Rep 
Nat. Mus. 1896, 1898. (w. H. H. ) 

Neponset. A former important Massa- 
chuset village on Neponset r. about the 
present Stoughton, Norfolk co., Mass. 
John Eliot labored there as a missionary 
in 1646, and it was one of several tem 
porary residences of Chickataubut, chief 
of the Massachuset. 

Chickatawbut. Hoyt, Antiq. Researches 32 1824 
(sachem s name). Naponsett. Mas*. Hist/Soc 
Coll 4th s., m, 325, note, 1856. Narponset. -Hub- 
bard (1680) ibid., 2d s., v, 32, 1815. Neponcett 1 
Holmes, ibid., 1st s., vii, 9, 1801 Neponset 
Pineheon (1633), ibid., 2d s., vm >39 1819 N> 
ponsitt. Gookin (1674), ibid., 1st s., 1/148, 1806. 

Nererahhe. A civil or peace chief of 

that part of the Shawnee living on the 
Scioto in Ohio, present at the conference 
between Sir Win. Johnson and the repre 
sentatives of the Six Nations at Johnson s 

Hall, N. Y., in Apr., 1774. He appears 
to have possessed considerable oratorical 
power, and at this conference made a 
strong appeal to the Miami representa 
tives to follow 7 Johnson s advice and re 
main friendly to the English. Kuttenber 

Tribes Hudson K., 306, 1872) mentions 
him as one of the two or three more 
prominent chiefs of the Shawnee at that 
period. Sowanowane, who, Kuttenber 
thinks, was Cornstalk, was head or war 
chief of the Shawnee, and when a belt 
was given to Nererahhe in 1774, he sent 
it to Sowanowane. ( c T \ 

Neron. The "captain general " of the 
iroquois, taken near Montreal in 1663 
and so called by the French because of 
his great cruelty. In memory of his 
brother he had burned 80 captives, be 
sides killing 60 men with his own hand 
( Jes. Kel., 1656, 1663) . He wasan Onon- 
(iaga named Aharihon, suggesting his 
trench name. (W.M.B.) 

Nesadi (NesA di, salt-water people ) 
A division of the Wolf phratry of the 
Llmgit, living at Kake, Alaska, (j. R. s .) 



, 

". "e, H to 14; oxide of i ron 5 to 8 . 

ah " llin " m .Ito3; specific gravitv/2.9 to 3 

- an amount of the nephrites and 



W 



": Clark and M , rril in 
?/"M * ! = NHHon i 

V.t I U S<1<: ^ " ^ 

St., iv, Anthrop. , n , ] 9(W: T( 



. living at Kake, Alaska, "(j. R. s .) 
Nesaquake. (From Neetc-saqn-auke 
land of the second outlet, i. e., Nesa 
quake r Kuttenber). A settlement to 
winch theMatinecoc retired after the war 
of 1643, at the i>resent Nisseqnague, and 
Nesaquake r., about Smithtown, Suffolk 
co., Long id., N. Y. 

Missaquogues. Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R. 74 
LK12. Massaquakes. Clark, Onondaga, I, 18 1849 
Necceaquake. Doc. of 1669 quoted bv Thompson 
LOUR Id., r, 255, 1843. Neersaquake.-Ibid Nesa- 

?Tl8^ All N 8 (1(i7 Z )i1 ^- X; Doc - Co1 Hist. XI? 
<-J, I8,s, . Nesaquak. Nicolls (1666), ibid., 576 

lfirrTS%~f J1 w 575 Nesa ^anke. -Doc. of 
. ibid., 5/6. Nesequake. Doc. of 1650 quoted 
> Ruttenber, Ind. Geotf. Names, 93, 1906 Nes- 

non aC no-> )<K - v 1 ? 1 ibi<1 - ^ssequauke.-Skul 

nore (1(, 7;) , m N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xiv, 702, 

Nip-a-qua-ugs -Macau ley, N. Y., n,164, 1829 

Y h , i f r lsl " ck( l ue & h acky.-Doc. of 1645 in N. 

Wood n ! l > \f XIV (i0 lm - Nissaquague.- 
wooa quoted by Macauley N Y n Vy-> 18 xi 
pson, Loiitf Id i 94 184S 
- 



2di8S 
"V , i w Nlsse quogue. -Thompson, 

Ll i p 6 Vf 18 1 3 Wiss iquack.-D<,c. of 1704 
T oted by Kuttenber, Ind. GCOR. Names, 93, 1906. 



BULL. 30] 



NESCAMBIOUIT NESTUOCA 



Nescambiotiit. See Asaacumbuit. 

Nescopeck. A mixed Iroquois, Shaw- 
nee, and Delaware village formerly at 
the mouth of Nescopeck r., in Luzerne 
co., Pa., where a town of the same name 
now stands. It had been abandoned by 

1779. (.1. N. B. H.) 

Neshamini. A Delaware tribe or band 
formerly living on Xeshaminy cr., Bucks 
co., Pa. 

Neshamani. Clay quoted by Day, Penn., 485, 
1843. Neshaminas. Boudinot, Star in the West, 
127, 1816. Ne-sham-i-nes. Macauley, N. Y..II. 166, 
1829. Neshaminies. Proud, Penn., n, 294, 1798. 
Nishamines. Sanford, U. S., cxlvii, 1819. 

Nesh.ann.ock. A white-fleshed variety 
of potato; from the name of the place 
in Pennsylvania, where it was first pro 
duced. Neshannockj the name of a village 
and stream in Mercer co., comes from a 
word in the Delaware dialect of Algon- 
quian, signifying place of two rivers , 
from nisha two , -hanne flowing stream , 
-ock locative suffix. (A. P. c. ) 

Neshasath (NE c asath}. A sept of the 
Seshart, a Nootka tribe. Boas in 6th 
Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 32, 1890. 

Neshaw. A local word for eel in Mas 
sachusetts. Trumbull (Natick Diet., 80, 
1903) says: "The name of neshaw eel 
is yet retained by the fishermen of Mar 
thas Vineyard and perhaps elsewhere 
in Massachusetts for the silver eel (Mu- 
rsenaargentea). " The derivation is from 
Narraganset iieesltat tog eels , literally 
pairers, from nees two , a nog they go 
to . This Algonquian name, Trumbull 
thinks, may have belonged originally to 
the lamprey. (A. F. c.) 

Nesheptanga. An ancient ruined puel >lo 
situated in Jeditoh valley, in the Hopi 
country, N. E. Arizona. It seemingly was 
one of the group of villages built and oc 
cupied by the Kawaika people, who were 
of Keresan stock from the Rio Grande. 
It was first described, but not named, by 
V. Mindeleff in 1885 as a ruin between 
the Bat House (Chakpahu) and the Horn 
House (Kokopnyama), and was partially 
excavated by Dr Walter Hough for the 
National Museum in 1901. See Mindel 
eff in 8th Rep. B. A. K., 50-51, 1891; 
Fewkes in 17th Rep. B. A. E., 590, 1898; 
Hough in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1901, 333 et 
seq., 1903. 
Neshepatanga. Hough, pp. cit., pi. 82. 

Neshta. An extinct subgens of the 
Wa/ha/he gens of the Ponca. 
Necta. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 229, 1897 
(c=s/t). 

Nesietsha. A Naskotin village at the 
confluence of Blackwater and Fraser rs. , 
Brit. Col. 

Black-Water. Morice, Notes on W. Denes, 24, 1893. 
Nasietcah. Morice in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 109, 
1892. 

Nesikeep ( little deep hollow or cut , ac 
cording to Teit; destroyed , referring to 
the incidents of a story, according to Hill- 
Tout) . A village belonging to the Upper 



Fraser band of Xtlakyapamuk, on the w. 
side of Fraser r., 38 in. above Lvtton 
Brit, Col. Pop. 12 in 1901, the last time 
the name was officially reported. Daw- 
son gives this as a Lillooet town. 
N cek p t. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol.Surv Can 4 
1899. Nesikeep. Can. Ind. AIT., ]>t. n. Hit; him 
Nes-i-kip. l)a\vsou in Trans. Roy Soc Can sec 
n, 44, 1X91. Nesykep. Can. Ind. An". ixy> ",1" 
1893. Nisucap.-Ibid., 78, 1878. NsE qip.-Teit in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 172, 1900. 

Neskollek. A Nataotin village on Ba- 
bine lake, Brit. Col. 

Nas qollak. Morice in Trans. Rov Soc Can \ 
109, 1892. 

Nespelim. A Salish tribe on a creek of 
same name, a x. tributary of Columbia r., 
about 40 in. above Ft Okinakane, Wash! 
Ross speaks of them as one of the ( )kina- 
gan tribes, while \Vinans classes them as 
part of the Saupoil. The hitter two to 
gether numbered <>53 on Col vi lie res 
Wash., in 1906. 

Tn-as-petsum. Ross, Fur Hunters, i, ],s5, ixr>5. 
In-spellum. Ross, Adventures, 290, 1849. Nepee- 
lium. Ind. AIT. Rep., 253, 1877. Nespectums. 
Keane in Stanford, Compend., 525, 1878. Nes-pee- 
lum. Winans in Ind. Aff. Rep., 22, 1870. Nespe 
lim. Ind. All. Rep. 1901, pt. 1, 702 1902 Nespi 
lim. Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. K., pi. ss. ls%. 
Sin-spee-lish. Gibbsin 1 ac. R. R. Rep., i, 414, 1*55. 

Nesquehonite. A variety of magnesium 
carbonate, from Xesqnehonvig, the place 
in Pennsylvania where it was found, and 
-itc, representing the Creek /roc. Nes- 
quehoning, the name of a stream and vil 
lage in Carbon co., signifies, in the Dela 
ware dialect of Algonquian, at the black 
deer lick, from ni^fjue black , iiin/ioni 
deer lick, -hig locative suffix. ( A. K. c. ) 

Nestucca. A branch of the Tillamook, 
formerly living on and near Nestugga r., 
N. w. Oreg., no\v on the Grande Koude 
and Si let/ res. Their popular name is 
derived from that of theircountry; their 
own name is Staga/ush ( people of 
iStaga ). Pop. 46 in 1881. They are no 
longer separately enumerated. 
Apafan. Gatschet, Kalapnya MS., H. A. K.. 30 
(Atfalati name for the Oregon Salish; perhaps 
from t< li<ii>uj <rn, on the coast ). Nas-tu -km me 
}unne. Dorsey, MS. Tutu vocal)., 1884 (Tutntimne 
name). Naz-tuk -e-me junng. Dorsey, Naltunne- 
tunne MS. vocal)., B. A. E., 1884 (Naltunnetunne 
name). Nestackee. Condon in Ind. AIY. Rep. 
18C.3, 83, 1861. Nestockies. Palmer in H. R. Kx. 
Doc. 93, 34th Cong.. 1st scss.. Ill, 1S5C,. Nestuca 
lips Keaiie in Stanford, Compend., 525,187s. Nes- 
tucals. H. R. Rep- 98,42.1 Cong., 3d sess., 374. 18 
Nestuccas. Huntington in Ind. Air. Rep. 18ti/, 71, 
186*. Nestucka. Ibid.,62. Nestuckah. Victor in 
Overland Mo., vn, 346, 1871. Nestuckers. Ind. AH. 
Rep 221, 1S61. Nestuckias. Taylor in Sen. Kx. 
Doc. 4, 40th Cong., spec, sess., 26, 1N!7. Nextucas.- 
Keane in Stanford, Compend., 525, isTs. Neztruc- 
ca. Ind. AtY. Rep., 71, 1871. NezTucca_ : - 
41- 1872 Neztucca. Ibid., :?-Ki, 1*75. Nikaas. 
Framboise (1835) quoted by Gairdner in Jour. 
Geoir Soc. Loud.. -M, 255,1811 (probably identi 
cal) Nikas.-Dutlot de Mofras, Kxpl., u, 33;. 1S44 
(probably identical). NistokiAmpafaamim. < 
schet, Lakmiut MS., 15. A. K.. 105 ( Lakm.nt uameK 
Shibalta Gatschet, Shasta vocab., B. A. E., 18/< 
(YnS [Kikatsik] name). Si ni -te-lL-l ; .rsey, 
Coquille MS vocab.. B. A. K., 18M ( Hat- 
heads - Conuillename). Staga ush.-Boas. in! n, 
1906. Tagahosh.-Gatschet.Nestncca MS. 
B A K 1884 (own name). Tcqe -k qu. Dorsey, 
Alsea MS vocab., B A. K., 1884 (Alsea name). 



58 



NKSTTAN NETPINUNSH 



[B. A. E. 



Nesutan. Job. One of the Indians chosen 

hv.Iohn Eliot to assist liini, as interpreter, 
in translating the Scriptures into the 
Natick language of Massachusetts. Goo- 
kin (Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., n, 444, 1836) 
thus speaks of him: " In this expedition 
[July, l<>7-">] one of our principal soldiers 
of the praying Indians was slain, a val 
iant and stout man named Job Xesutan; 
lie \\asa very good linguist in the English 
tongue and was Mr Eliot s assistant and 
interpreter in his translations of the Bible, 
and other books of the Indian language." 
Fliot wrote, Oct. I l, 1(>50: "I have one 
[Indian interpreter] already who can 
write, so that I can read his writing well, 
and with some pains and teaching, can 
read mine" (Pilling, Algonq. Bib., 127, 
ISiH ). 

Neswage. A Delaware chief who, com 
manding a band of 1*3 warriors, about 
1S-41, was attacked by the Sioux at a point 
ju.-t N. of the present Adel, Dallas CO., 
la., while on their way to visit the Sank 
and Foxes, then holding a war dance 
within the limits of the site of J)es 
Moines. The Delawares offered a brave 
defense, killing 2<> of the Sioux before 
aUJmt one of their own number fell. 
This survivor bore the news to the camp 
of the Sank and Foxes, a short distance 
away, among whom were Keokuk and 
1 ashapahs. With <>()() warriors they fol 
lowed the Sioux, inflicting on them severe 
punishment. Those who visited the 
scene of the attack on the Delawares 
found the body of Xeswage lying by a 
tree, his tomahawk at his side and the 
bodies of four of his warriors immediately 
about him. Consult Fulton, Red Men of 
Iowa, 2s:;, 1SS2. 

Netawatwees. A Delaware chief, born 
about Hi77, died at Pittsburg, Pa., in 
177i. Xetawatwees was one of the signers 
of the treatyof Conestogain 1718. As he 
belonged to the important I nami, or Tur 
tle division of the tribe, he became chief 
ol this division according to usage and in 
consequence thereof head chief of the 
tribe. To him were committed all the 
tokens of contracts, such as wampum 
-, obligatory writings, with the sign 
manual o! William Perm and others, down 
to the time that he and his people were 
forced to leave Pennsylvania and retire 
to Ohio, where they settled on ( 1 ayuga r. 
He failed to attend the treaty with Bou- 
M let m I :;:{, and \vtien this officer and 
.radstreet with their 1 roops approached 
his settlement he attempted to escape 
but was captured and deposed from his 
hiettancy until the conclusion of peace 
when he was reinstated by his tribe 
became a convert to Christianity in 
later years and urged other leaders to 
m.H example. On hj s ,|,, at |, lu , 
ucceeded by White Eyes, (r. T ) 



Netchilik. A spring settlement of the 
Netchilirmiut Eskimo, on the w. side of 
Boothia land, Canada. 
Netchillik. Boas in (5th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Netchilirmiut ( people of the place pos 
sessing seal ). A large tribe of the Cen 
tral Eskimo, occupying Boothia Felix, 
Canada, and the adjoining mainland, in 
lat. 70. They have become mixed with 
the Ugjulirmiut. Their villages are Ang- 
malortuk, Netchilik, North Ilerndon, 
and Sagavok. In recent years a large 
part of the tribe has moved to Hudson 
bay and lives in the region between C. 
Fullerton and Repulse bay. 
Boothians. Ross, Second Voy., app., x, 1835. 
Nachillee. Schwatka quoted in Science, 543, 1884. 
Natsilik. Rink, Eskimo Tribes, i, 33, 1887. 
Nechjilli. Amundse in Geog. Jonr.. xxix, 505, 
May 1907. Neitchillee. McClintock, Voy. of Fox, 
253,1881. Neitchilles. Hall, Second Arct Kxped 
277, 1879. Neitschillik. Boas in Zt-itschr. d. (Jes. 
f. Krdk., 18S3. Neitschillit-Eskimos. Ibid. Neit- 
teelik. Hall, Second Arct. Kxped., 256, 1879. 
Netchillik. Schwatka in Century Mag., xxn, 76, 
1881. Netchillirmiut. Boas in trans. Anthrop. 
Soc. Wash., nr, 101, 1885. Netidli wi. Stein in 
Petermanns Mitt., 198, 1902. Netschilluk Innuit. 

Schwatka in Science, iv, 543, 1884. Net-tee-lek. 

McClintock, Voy. of Fox, 1(53, 1881. 

Netlek ( sealing place ). An Ita Es 
kimo village on Murchison sd., x. w. 
Greenland; pop. 11 in 1892. 
Natilivik. Kroeber in Bull. Am. Mns Nat Hist 
xii, 269, 1899. Netchiolumi. Heilprin, Peary Re 
lief Exped., 104, 1893. Nejchiolumy. Peary, My 
Arct. Jour., 30, 1893. Netelik. Kane Arct Ex- 
plor., n, 107, 1856. NetidliwL Stein in Peter- 
maims Mitt., no. 9, map, 1902 ( young seal ). 
Netiulume. Peary, My Arct. Jour., 129, map, 
1893. Netiulumi. Peary in (Jeog. Jour n 224 
1898. Netlek. Markham in Trails. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., 129, 1866. Netlik. Hayes, Arct. Boat 
Journ., 130, 1860. 

Netop. The word aetop, used by the 
English, according to Roger Williams, in 
saluting the Indians, is a slight corruption 
of Narraganset netoinp (=nita f >p for ni- 
ta"peti), cognate with Abnaki ni(la"b& 
and southern Renape i/i(d/>cn (nctoppew, 
Smith ), usually interpreted my friend, 
but meaning, literally, my with-man, 
i. e., my companion. The words are 
contracted, respectively, from nt my + 
wit with (which loses its n< in compo 
sition) + -ap(e<i) man ; nc + vid + 
a" be; and nc + irit + -<1/><>u. (Contrac 
tions of this kind an not uncommon in 
Algonquian; for example: Nipissing nil- 
sltikire, my female companion, lit, my 
co-woman , from ni my + -H-itxh with 
+ ikire woman ; Chippewa nidji my 
comrade , from ni + ir nlj + /, my co as-I 
(or as myself) ; Delaware nilix my friend 
or companion , from ni + -irit + y.s-; Oee 
nitjiwdm my companion, lit. my with- 
goer. Cf. Lat. coinex, companion, lit. 
with-goer. ( w . u . G .) 

Netpinunsh ( red earth ). A former 
Chitimacha village, 2m. \v. of Charenton, 
on Bayou Teche, La. 

Net Pinu nsh. Gatsehot in Trans. Anthrop. Soc. 
Wash., n, 151, 1883. Terre Rouge. Ibid. 



BULL. 30] 



NETS NETTOTALIS 



59 



Nets, Netting, and Network. In every 
part of the United States and north 
ward the Indians and the Eskimo used 
some kind of nets, netting, or network. 
These were made from animal tissues and 
vegetal fibers wool and hair, hide, sine w r , 
and intestines; roots, stems, bast, bark, 
and leaves. Animal skins were cut into 
long delicate strips, \vhile sinew and 
vegetal fibers were separated into fila 
ments and these twisted, twined, or 
braided and made into openwork meshes 
by a series of technical processes ranging 
from the simplest weaving or coiling 
without foundation to regular knotting. 
The woman s hands were the most use 
ful implements in net making; but the 
seine needle, or shuttle, exhibits a variety 
of forms from the mere stick for wind 
ing, as on a bobbin, to the elaborately 
ornamented needles of the Eskimo. The 
meshing also shows a variety of processes, 
through more and more intricate loop- 
ings, as in the Maidu netted caps, to the 
world- wide netting knot (Dixon). 

Netting was used for the capture of ani 
mals, for the lacings of snowshoes and 
lacrosse sticks, for carrying-frames and 
wallets, for netted caps, for the founda 
tion of feather work in short, for what 
ever had meshes. Nets for the capture 
of animals differed with the creatures 
caught, as bird net, fish net, seal net, crab 
net; with the form, as rectangular net, cir 
cular net, conical net, bag net, or purse 
net; with the function, as inclosing net, 
drag net, casting net, dip net, gill net, ar 
resting net, drift net, and hand net. 

Beginning at the far N. with the Es 
kimo, the question of tribal distribution 
may be considered. Not all the Eskimo 
used nets for fishing. Boas never saw 
any among the Central Eskimo, but men 
tions them as existing in Labrador and 
westward of Hudson bay; while Mur 
doch s account of netting at Pt Barrow, 
Alaska, is full. Netting needles of antler 
and walrus ivory, and mesh sticks of bone 
or antler were employed, both of peculiar 
patterns. The materials are sinew twine 
(generally braided), rawhide thong, and 
whalebone. The knot is the usual becket 
hitch. Small seal are caught in large 
meshed nets of rawhide, 18 meshes long 
and 12 deep, with length of mesh 14 in. 
These nets are set under the ice in winter 
and in shoal water in summer. Seals are 
enticed into the nets by whistling, by 
scratching on the ice, or with rattles. 
Whitefish are taken in gill nets set under 
the ice in rivers. A specimen in the Na 
tional Museum, made of fine strips of 
whalebone, is 79 meshes long by 21 deep, 
with meshes 3} in. deep. Murdoch, who 
figures a conical dip net, or fish trap, made 
of twisted sinew, also gives the spread of 
various kinds of fish nets, and surmises 



that the American Eskimo learned the 
use^of the net from the Siberians. 

From native two-strand twine of milk 
weed and wild hemp fiber the Maidu of 
California made their nets and netted 
caps. Fishing nets varied in size, shape, 
fineness of twine, and in mesh. The 
Maidu of Sacramento r. used seines, those 
< >f the mountains the conical dip net. The 
knitting was done with a shuttle com 
posed of two slender sticks. The first 
two or three fingers of the left hand served 
for mesh stick, and the so-called weaver s 
knot joined the meshes. Dixon figures 
and describes the several ways of making 
the Maidu netted caps, the simplest be 
ginning with the plain coil without foun 
dation, passing through the same coil 
with a twist or two in it, to the openwork 
single knot. 

(ioing southward to the California 
tribes nearer the Mexican bonier, abo 
riginal netting is found in both clothing 
and basketry. In nets of the simplest 
structure the courses merely hook into 
oneanotherand resemble coiled basketry, 
if the foundation be removed. By 
taking additional half turns and by vary 
ing the knotting, artistic patterns are pro 
duced. From the simple meshes the 
work becomes more elaborate and the 
knots more intricate. 

An interesting use of netting has been 
brought to light by Holmes in his studies 
of ancient American pottery. In many 
places have been found vessels and sherds 
that show net impressions on the surface. 
In some parts of the Atlantic slope ves 
sels of clay were molded in network, 
taking the impressions of the texture. 
In the description of ancient garments, 
especially those in which feathers bore a 
conspicuous part, precisely the same 
methods of netting are described. This 
furnishes to archeologists an excellent 
check-off in their studies, since in later 
times all other forms of textile work, ex 
cepting the figure weaving, were aban 
doned. 

Consult Boas (1) in 6th Rep. B. A. R, 
1888, (2) in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist, 
xv, 1901; Dixon in Hull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist,, xvn, pt. 3, 1905; Goddard in I niv. 
Cal. Pub., Am. Arch;eol. andEthnol., i, 
1903; Holmes (1) in 3d Rep. B. A. I-:., 
1884, (2) in Am. Anthrop., i\, no. 1, 
1907; Murdoch in 9th Rep. B. A. R, 
1892; Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
n, 1900; Turner in llth Rep. B. A. R, 
1894; Willoughby in Am. Anthrop., vn, 
no. 1, 1905. (<> T. M.) 

Netsekawik. A Kaviagmiut 
village on Golofnin bay, Alaska. Elev 
enth Census, Alaska, K> r 2, 1893. 

Nettotalis. Given as an Indian village 
between Yale and Hope, on the w. hank 
of Fraser r., Brit. Col. (Brit. Col. map, 



fiO 



XKTSIOK NKl TKALS 



[P.. A. E. 



Jn.l. Aff., Victoria, is?! ). This would 
he in the country of the Cowichan. 

Neusiok. An unclassified tribe, per 
haps of Iroquoian stock, found in 1">84 
occupying the country on the s. side of 
lower Neuse r.. within the present Craven 
andCarteretcos., Y. ( 1 . They were at war 
with the more southerly coasttrihes. In 
the later colonial period the Indians of 
the same region were commonly known 
as Neuse Indians and had dwindled by 
the year 1700 to lo warriors in two towns, 
Chat tooka and Rouconk. They probably 
disappeared by incorporation with the 
Tuscarora. (.r. M. ) 

Neuses. Martin, Hist. X. Car.. 1 JT. 1829. Neus 
Indians. La \vson, Hist. Car. 1711, SSl, repr. I860. 
Neusiok Mooiiry. Sioimn Tribes of the East, 7, 
l.v.M. Neuusiooc. De Hry map in Harlot. Brief 
and True Hep.. 1 ."> .<>. Nusiok. Ainadas (l. r iS4) in 
Smith s Works, Arlx-r ed., ;>(., 1SS4. Nustoc. I)e 
Hry map i 1~>W >, ihid.. ; .(_ (misprint. ) 

Neutrals. An important confederation 
of Iroquoian tribes living in the 17th cen 
tury N. of L. Frie in Ontario, having four 
villages K. of Niagara r. on territory ex 
tending to the (ienesee watershed; the 
western hounds of these tribes were in 
definitely w. of Detroit r. and L. St (. lair. 
They were called Neutrals by the French 
because thev were neutral in the known 
wars between the Iroquois and the Hu 
mus. The 1 lurons called them Attiwan- 
daronk, denoting they are those whose 
lam. r ua _re is awry , and this name was 
also applied by the Neutrals in turn to 
the I lurons. The Iroquois called them 
Atirhagenrat ( Atirhaguenrek) and Rha- 
gcnratka. The Aondironon, the AVen- 
rehronon, and the Ongniaahraronon are 
names of some of the constituent tribes 
of the Neutrals. Champlain, reporting 
what he saw in 161(5, wrote that the "Na 
tion Nentre" had 4,000 warriors and in 
habited a country that extended SO or 100 
leagues K. and \v.. situated westward from 
the lake of the Seneca; they aided the 
Ottawa (Cheueiix releuex. ) against the 
Maseoutens or Small Prairie people," 
and rai-ed a great <|uantity of good to 
bacco, the surplus of which was traded 
for skin<. furs, and porcupine quills and 
quillwork with the northern Alironquian 
peoples. This writer said that the In 
dians cleared ih,. |;,iid "with great pains, 
though thev had no proper instruments 
to do this. They trimmed all the limbs 
trom the trees, which they burned at the 
toot of tint trees to cause them to die. 
Then they thoroughly prepared the 
ground between the trees ami planted 
their grain from step to step, putting in 
each hill about 10 grain-, and so contin 
ued planting until they had enough for 
. ! or } years provisions, lest a bad vear 
sterile and fruitless, befall them." 

The Rrv. Father .Joseph de la Roche 
Daillon, a Recollect, spent the winter of 
H ) - > among this people for the purpose 



of teaching them Christianity. The first 
village, Kandoucho, or All Saints, wel 
comed him. He then went through four 
other villages, meeting with a friendly 
reception, and finally reached the sixth, 
where he had been told to establish- him 
self, lie had the villagers call a council 
of the tribe for the purpose of declaring 
to them his mission. He was adopted 
by the tribe, being given to Tsohahissen 
(Souharissen?), the presiding chief. 
Daillon says of the Neutrals: "They 
are inviolable observers of what they 
have once concluded and decreed." 
His "father and host," Tsohahissen, had 
ever traveled among all neighboring 
tribes, for he was chief not only of his 
own village, but even of those of the 
whole tribe, composed of about 28 vil 
lage s, villas, and towns, constructed like 
those of the Hurons, besides many ham 
lets of 7 or 8 lodges for fishing, hunting, 
or for the cultivation of the soil. Daillon 
said that there was then no known in 
stance of a chief so absolute; that Tso 
hahissen had acquired his position and 
power by his courage and from having 
been at war many times against 17 tribes, 
and bad brought back heads (scalps?) 
and prisoners from all. Their arms were 
only the war club and the bow and arrow, 
but tb,ey were skilful in their use. Dail 
lon also remarked that he had not found 
in all the countries visited by him among 
the Indians a hunchback, one-eyed, or 
deformed person. 

l>nt the Hurons, having learned that 
Father Daillon contemplated conducting 
the Neutrals to the trading place in the 
harbor of C. Victory in L. St Peter of St 
Lawrence r., approximately 50 m. below 
Montreal, spread false reports about him, 
declaring to the Neutrals that he was a 
great magician, capable of tilling the air 
of the country with pestilence, and that 
he had then already taken off many Hu 
rons by poison, thus set king to compass 
his death by fomenting suspicions against 
him. The bearing of the accusation may 
be judged when it is known that sorcerers 
were regarded as public enemies and out 
laws and were remorselessly slain on 
the slightest pretext. 

The father declared that there were an 
incredible number of deer in the country, 
which they did not take one by one; but 
by making a triangular "drive," com 
posed of two convergent hedges leading 
to a narrow opening, with a third hedge 
placed athwart the opening but admitting 
of egress at each end of the last one, 
they drove the game into this pen and 
slaughtered them with ease. They prac 
tised toward all animals the policy that, 
whether required or not, they must 
kill all they might find, lest those which 
were not taken would tell the other beasts 



NEUTRALS 



that they themselves had been pursued, 
and that these latter in time of need 
would not permit themselves to be taken. 
There were also many elk, beaver, wild 
cats, black squirrels, "bustards, turkeys, 
cranes, bitterns, and other birds and 
animals, most of which were there all 
winter; the rivers and lakes were abun 
dantly supplied with fish, and the land 
produced good maize, much more than 
the people required; there were also 
squashes, beans, and other vegetables in 
season. They made oil from the seeds 
of the sunflower, which the girls reduced 
to meal and then placed in boiling water 
which caused the oil to float; it was 
then skimmed with wooden spoons. The 
mush was afterward made into cakes and 
formed a very palatable food. 

Daillon said that the life of the Neutrals 
was " not less indecent" than that of the 
Hurons, and that their customs and 
manners were very much the same. 
Like those of the Hurons, -the lodges of 
the Neutrals were formed like arbors or 
bowers, covered with the bark of trees, 25 
to 30 fathoms long and 6 to 8 in breadth, 
and had a passage running through the 
middle, 10 or 12 ft wide, from one end to 
the other. Along the sides was a kind 
of shelf, 4 ft from the ground, whereon 
the occupants lay in summer to avoid 
the fleas. In winter they lay on mats on 
the ground near the fire. Such a lodge 
contained about 12 fires and 24 firesides. 
Like the Hurons they removed their 
villages every 5, 10, 15, or 20 years, from 
1 to 3 or more leagues, when the land 
became exhausted by cultivation; for as 
they did not make use of manure to any 
great degree, they had to clear more new 
and fertile land else\vhere. Their gar 
ments were made from the skins of 
various wild beasts obtained by the chase 
or through trade with the Algonkin, 
Nipissing, and other hunting tribes, for 
maize, meal, wampum, and fishing tackle. 

The Seneca attacked and destroyed a 
town of the Aondironon in 1647. " This 
seemingly unprovoked invasion was un 
dertaken to avenge the capture among 
the Aondironon by the Hurons and the 
subsequent death of a Seneca warrior 
who had been among the Tionontati for 
the purpose of committing murder. This 
seeming rupture of the traditional neu 
trality existing between the Iroquois 
and the Neutrals caused the latter to pre 
pare for war, and for a time both sides 
were on the alert and stood defiant. Fi 
nally the Neutrals decided to attempt to 
recover their captives by some peaceable 
means, and to await a more favorable op 
portunity to avenge themselves for this 
loss. But the sudden and complete de 
struction of the political integrity of the 
Hurons by their several defeats in 1648- 



49 by the Iroquois caused the Neutrals 
now to fear the rising power of the Iro 
quois tribes, and they vainly sought to 
gain their good will by committing an act 
of hostility against their unfortunate 
Huron neighbors. When the Iro M uois 
had sacked the most strongly palisaded 
towns of the Hurons, the Huron fugitives 
sought asylum in all directions, and many 
of them, placing their trust in the long 
standing neutrality existing between the 
Iroquois and the Neutrals, which neither 
had yet sought to rupture, lied to the 
Neutral towns for refuge; but instead of 
affording them protection, the Neutrals 
seized them as prisoners, and also that 
portion of the Hurons still remaining in 
their own country, and led them into 
captivity (Jes. Rel. 1(>59-(>0). 
_ Immediately after the political destruc 
tion of the Hurons by the Iroquois. the 
latter again attacked the Neutrals. The 
entire conquest of the Neutrals in 1 050-51 
w r as the result of this war, and some rem 
nants of the Neutral tribes were incorpo 
rated chiefly with the Seneca villages in 
New York. * 

The Neutrals we re visited in 1 040-41 by 
Fat hern lirebeuf and Oiaunionot. The 
tribe was then engaged in vigorous war 
against the western tribes, especially 
the Mascoutens. These two missionaries 
visited 18 villages or towns, stopping in 
10 of them and expounding their own 
religious faith whenever they could as 
semble an audience. In these 10 settle 
ments they estimated about 500 fires and 
3,000 persons. On their return journey 
the fathers remained at Teotongniaton, 
situated midway between the chic 1 ! town, 
Ounontisaston, and the town nearest the 
Huron country, Kandoucho, where they 
were compelled to remain on account of 
snow. While there their hostess was at 
great pains to shield them from the abuse 
to which they were constantly subjected; 
she also aided them to learn the lan 
guage and to harmonize it with that 
of these Neutrals. The Awenrehronon, 
who had formerly lived eastward of 
the Erie or Panther tribe, took refuge in 
Khioetoa, or St ^Michel, a few years be 
fore this visit of the two fathers, and they 
were disposed to listen to the teachings 
of the missionaries. 

As a sign of mourning for their friends 
and kin the Neutrals customarily black 
ened not only their own but also the 
faces of the dead. They tattooed tin- 
corpse and adorned it with feathers and 
other trinkets; if the person died in war, 
a chief delivered an address over the 
body, around which were assembled the 
friends and kin of the dead, who were 
urged by the orator to hasten to avenge 1 
the death. The Neutrals figuratively 
resurrected the dead, especially great 



NEUTUBVIG NEVOME 



chieftains ainl persons noted for valorand 
wisdom, by tin 1 substitution of sonic per 
son \\lio they thought was like the 
deceased in person, age. and character. 
Tlie selection \vas made in council, by 
the clan of the deceased person; then all 
the people except the one chosen arose, 
and the master of ceremonies, gently 
lowering: his hand to the earth, feigned 
to raise the illustrious dead from the 
tomb and to give life to him in the per 
son of the chosen one, on whom he then 
imposed the name and dignity of the 
dead chieftain, and the newly made chief 
tain then arose amid -the ceremonial ac 
claim of the people. 

In 1>4.S the Neutrals sent an expedi 
tion of 2, 000 warriors against the "Nation 
du feu, some of whom they attacked in 
a palisaded village defended" by 900 men, 
who bravely withstood the first assaults; 
but after a siege of 10 days the Neutrals 
carried the palisade and killed on the 
split many of its defenders and took 
about SUM captives. After burning 70 of 
the best warriors of the Nation du feu, 
they put out the eyes and girdled the 
mouths of the old men, whom they 
afterward abandoned to starve (Jes. 
lu-l. l)4:>-44). The same authority also 
says that the Nation du feu alone was 
more populous than all the Neutral na 
tion, all the Ilurons, and all the Iro- 
quois, showing that the term had not yet 
become restricted to those now called 
Mascoiitens, or Small Prnirie people," 
but included all the so-called Illinois 
tribes as well. 

From the .Journal des PP. Jesuites for 
HJ52- 5:5 it is learned that the portions of 
the Tobacco Nation and of the Neutral 
Nation then remaining independent 
bodies of people were assembling with 
all neighboring Algonquian tribes at 
A otonatendie (. \kotonatendike?), sit 
uated . ! days journey southward from 
^kia e (Sault Sainte Marie); that the To 
bacco Nation wintered in HJ53 at Tea on- 
to rai, and the Neutrals, numbering 800, 
at Sken chio e (i. e., Fox place) in the 
direction of Te o chanontian, probably 
Detroit; that these two tribes would ren 
dezvous in the autumn of Hio. i at A oto 
natendie, where they had assembled 
more than 2,<>i>0 warriors. This is per 
haps the last historical mention of the 
Neutrals as an independent body. It is 
these Neutrals, apparently, whom IVr- 
n>t (Memoire, chap, xfv, 1SI>4) calls 
" Huron de la nation neutre" and " Ilu 
rons neiltres. " 

In Kiln the I lurons offered a present of 
hatchets (costly articles at that time) 
to the chieftains of the Neutral council, 
111 tin- hope of inducing it to order 
the assassination of Fathers P.rebeuf 
and Chaumonot, but after deliberat 



ing on the proposal all night the council 
refused to accept the gift. 

As has been seen, Daillon said the 
Neutrals occupied 28 villages in 1626. 
In K>40 Brebeuf ascribed to them 40 
villages with a minimum population of 
12,000 persons, including 4,000 warriors. 
Only a few of the names of these have 
been preserved, among them being Kan- 
doucho or Tons les Saints, Khioetoa or 
Saint Michel, Ongniaahra ("Ouaroro- 
non," probably on the site of Youngs- 
town, N. Y. ; a form of Niagara) , Ounon- 
tisaston, and Teotongniaton or Saint 
(itiillaume. (.1. x. B. n. ) 

Aragaritkas. X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IV, 90S, 1854 
(said to be composed of 7 tribes). Atiaonrek. Jes. 
Rel. 1656, 34. 1858. Atiouandaronks. Ibid., 1(185,83, 
185S. Atioiiendaronk. Ibid., 1644, 97, 1858. Atira- 
guenrek. Ibid., 1656,31, 185S. Atirhagenrenrets. 
.les. RH. quoted by Parkman, Jesuits, xliv, 1867. 
Ati-rhagenrets. Shea in Sohooleraft, Ind. Tribes, 
IV, 208. 1851. Atiwandaronk. Shea, Cath. Miss., 
24, 1855. Attenonderonk. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
IV, 201, 1854. Attihouandaron. Sagard (1632), Hist. 
Can., iv, 186(1. Attinoindarons. Sagard (1626), 
Can., 11, 408, 186(1. Attionandarons. Gallatin in 
Trans. Am. .Kthnol. Soe., IT, eiii, 1818 (misprint). 
Attionidarons. Sagard i 1626) quoted by Parkman, 
Jesuits, xliv, 18(17. Attiouandaronk. .les. Rel. 
1(141, 72, 1858. AttiSandarons. Ibid., 1(189, 88, 1858. 
Attiouendarankhronon. Ibid., 1640,35, 1858. Atti- 
ouendaronk. Ibid. Attiuoindarons. Hazard 
(1(12(1), Hist. Can., II, 384, 1866. Attiwandaronk. 
Sliea, Miss. Val., iix, 1852. Attiwondaronk. 
Hoyee in Smithson. Misc. Coll., xxv, art, 5, 
95, 1883. Hatiwata-runh. Hewitt, infn, 1886 
( = their speech is a wry ; from luiti they , <ni ata 
voices , run /i. is awry : Tuscarora name). 
Nation Neuht. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 81, 1854. Neuter Nation. Morgan, League 
Ini( 1 ., 9, 1851. Neuters. Shea, Miss. Val, Ix 
1S52. Neutral Nation. Ibid., Iix. Neutre 
Nation. Champlain (1616), CEnvres, iv, 58,1870. 
Neutrios. Duro, Don Diego de Peiialosa, 43. 1882. 
Rhagenratka. Shea in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
IV, 208, 1S54. 

Neutubvig. An unidentified tribe, said 
to have inhabited the extreme x. end of 
Whitneys ( Whidbey) id., and the country 
"between Skagit r. and Bellingham bay, 
Wash., in 1852. This territory isSalishan. 
Ne-u-lub-vig. Starling in Ind. Aff. Rep., 171, 1852. 
Ne-u-tub-vig. Ibid., 170. 

Nevantin. A former village of the 
Nacogdoehe (q. v. ) on the site of the pres 
ent Nacogdoches, Texas. 

Nevome. A name applied to the Lower 
Pima, or Pimas Itajos, living chiefly in 
Sonora, Mexico, including the middle 
Yaqui r. region and extending K. some 
what into Chihuahua. They are now 
almost completely assimilated with the 
whites, the Nevome (" Pima ") popula 
tion in Sonora and Chihuahua being offi 
cially given as only 52,8 in 11*00. Under 
the same term may be included also one 
or two small colonies; one known as the 
Bamoa (q. v. ) and the other a former set 
tlement in the Tepehuane territory. The 
language of the two divisions of the Pima 
tribe, Upper and Lower, is substantially 
the same, and there are no marked dif- 
erences in their physical characteristics; 
they are generally tall, robust, and well- 



BULL. 30] 



NEWARK WORKS 



formed. Their skulls are dolichocephalic. 
According to Bandelier (Arch. lost. Pa 
pers, in, 54, 1890) their social organization 
and their religious beliefs and practices 
were analogous to those of the Yaqui. 
They were described by Ribas, a mis 
sionary of the 17th century, as "on the 
banks of creeks with good running water, 
their houses better and more durable than 
those of neighboringtribes, the walls being 
formed of large adobes and the roofs flat 
and covered with earth. Some of their 
houses were much larger than others and 
furnished with loopholes like forts, in 
which the people could take refuge in 
times of danger." Lumholtz (Unknown 
Mexico, i, 127, 1902) says they often have 
connected with their houses a kind of 



pueblos of Huexotitlan, Magnina To^.n-i- 
chic, Tutuaca, and Yepachic contained a 
mixed population of Xevonie, Tarahu- 
mare, and Tepehuane. ( F. w . H .) 

Coras. Bandelier in Arch. lust I aj.erx , 
1890(Xebomes,or). Ncbome.-liibas Hist. Tri um 
phos, 361 1645. Nebomes Baxos.-Ibid . ; 7 o. P mas 
Bajos.-0rom> y Bern,, Geog., 68, 1864. Pimas de 
el Sur. Rivera, Diario, leg. if.M, 17HH. Southern 
Pimas. Bandelier, op. cit., 7(1. 

Newark works. The most elal >< irate ami 
complicated group of ancient works K. of 
the Rocky nits., situated at the junction 
of South and Raccoon lurks of Licking r., 
near Newark, Licking (<>., Ohio. They 
are on a plain elevated . 50 to 50 ft above 
the bottom land bordering the stream, 
and consist of an extensive series of 
square, circular, and octagonal inclosures, 




outside cellar, covered with a conical roof 
of dry grass, which serves both as a work 
room and as a storeroom for their stock 
in trade. Like all the converted Indians 
of this section it is common at the 
present day for them to fix small crosses 
in a log and plant them in front of their 
houses. Their chief and most formid 
able enemies in former times were the 
Apache. The divisions of the Nevoine, 
usually so called from the names of the 
villages at various periods, are: A i vino, 
Basiroa, Buena Vista, Cumuripa, Ecata- 
cari, Hecatari, ?Iios, Huvaguere, Maicoba, 
Moicaqui, Movas, Nuri, Onavas, Onopa, 
Ostimuri, San Antonio de la Huerta, San 
Jose de los Pimas, Sibubapa, Sisibotari, 
Soyopa,Suaqui,Tecoripa Tehata,Tehuizo, 
Tonichi, Ures (in part), and Yecora.. The 



with mounds, ditches, and connecting 
avenues spreading over nearly 4 sq. in. 
A number of the minor structures have 
been obliterated and a large portion of 
the remaining walls considerably reduced 
by the plow. Fortunately, an accurate 
survey and plat were made by Col. Wliit- 
tlesey in 1836 while the works were yet 
comparatively uninjured; and other sur 
veys and plats were made by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology in 1888 and a partial 
survey by the T. S. Geological Survey in 
1891. The works consist of two groups, 
nearly 2 m. apart, connected by two wall- 
lined avenues. The western group consists 
of a large circle connected with an octagon. 
Outside the latter, near the K. corner, there 
is a small circle, and near the middle ot 
the s. side there is another. From the 



NKWASTARTON NEWCHEMASS 



[B. A. E. 



latter point of the octagon a walled ave 
nue, now almost obliterated, extended 
directly s. 2 m. or more. From near the 
K. corner of the octagon two avenues ex 
tend east ward wit ha low wall on each side, 
one connect ing with the square of the east 
ern irroup, the other running directly east 
ward to the descent to the lowland x. of 
the square. Along these avenues, at one 
or two points, are small circles. The east 
ern irroiip consists of a large circle con 
nected with a square by a broad avenue 
and several adjoining lines of walls. The 
circle of the western group, which is the 
westernmost structure of theentire works, 
is still distinct, being H ft high at_ the 
lowest point, and averaging 4 to 5 ft, 
apart from an enlargement on the s. w. 
side, where for about 170 ft it rise s to the 
height of 14 ft. This enlargement has 
been called the "observatory," while 
the circle has been named "the observa 
tory circle." At the x. E. side, directly 
opposite this observatory, is a gateway 
leading into an avenue :>00 ft long and 
8d ft wide, which 
terminates in 
one of the gate- 
nays of the oc 
tagon. The lat 
ter, which is 
s y m met rical , 
has a jatewav 
at each of the 

5 corners, oppo 
site which, 60 ft 
within, is a 
small in o u n d 
v a r y i n g in 
height from . ! to 

6 ft. The mean 
diameter of the 

circle, measured from the middle line of 
the wall, is 1,054 ft. The circumference, 
measured along the middle of the wall, 
deviates at no point more than 5 ft from 




a tine crcle. The area, including the 
inner half of the wall, is 20 acres; that of 
rior, 18.6 acres. The parts 



the level 

and angles of the octagon are quite sym 
metrical. The length of the walls between 
the centers of the gates averages 621 ft, 
trom which t he greatest variation is only 4 
ft, except in one-wall that fallsSft short of 
the average. The opposite angles do not 
vary from one a not her more than 2 degrees 
in any instance, and the opposite sides do 
not vary from the same direction more 
than 2 degrees. The large circle of the 
eastern group embraces within its circuit 
the fair grounds of the Licking County 
Agricultural Society. The wall, in thisin- 
stance. is accompanied with an inside 
ditch, varying in width from 28 to 40 ft 
and in depth from S to l. 5ft. The width 
"f the \\all at the base is from M5 to 55 ft 
and its height from 5 to 14 ft. Then- 



is one gateway at the x. E. with Hanking 
extensions of the wall into the avenue 
leading to the square. The square of 
the eastern group is partially obliterated, 
yet most of the walls could be distinctly 
traced in 1888, when the survey on be 
half of the Bureau of American Ethnol 
ogy was made. From this survey it is 
learned that the sides varied in length 
from 926 to 951 ft and that the angles at 
the corners did not in any instance vary 
from a right angle more than 1 degree. 
There are now no indications of the inner 
mounds of the square observed by Whit- 
tlesey; but the three-pointed mound in 
the center of the fair-grounds circle is 
still visible. There were also, at the 
time of Whittlesey s survey, 4 or 5 cir 
cles that were smaller than those above 
described. The two or three of these 
that remain vary from 125 to 200 ft in 
diameter and have an inside ditch and a 
semicircular earthen platform on one 
side. There were also in Whittlesey s 
time several still smaller circles, which 
may have been 
lodge sites. The 
avenues, except 
the one con 
nected with the 
fair-grounds cir 
cle, which was 
wider, were gen 
erally about 200 
ft wide. Their 
walls at present 
do not exceed 
at any point 2 
ft in height, and 
in many places 
are almost ob 
literated. 

Consult Harris, Tour to N. W. Ter., 
1805; Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., i, 1820; 
Smuckerin Am. Antiq., in, 261-267,1881; 
Thomas, (1) Circular, Square, and Octag 
onal Earthworks, Hull. B. A. E., 1894, 
(2) Mound Explorations, 12th Rep. B. 
A. E., 458-468, 1891. See, also, for list of 
references, Thomas, Cat. Prehist. Works, 
Bull. B. A. E., 178. 1891. (r. T.) 

Newastarton (V big \vaters town ). A 
Dakota tribe, according to Clark, which 
roved on the Mississippi above the St 
Peter s (Minnesota r.), in the present 
Minnesota. Probably the Mdewakanton. 
Newastarton. Lewis and Clark Exped., Cones 
ed., i, 101, note, 1X93. Ne Was tar ton. Ori?, r . 
Jour. Lewis and Clark, I, 133, 1904. 

Newcastle Townsite. The local name 
for a body of Salish of Cowichan agency, 
Brit. Col. Pop. 26 in 1896, the last time 
the name occurs. 

Newcastle Toronsite. Can. Ind. AIT. Rep. 1891, 
J~>0, 1X9 J (misprint). Newcastle Townsite. Ibid., 
133. ls%. 

Newchemass. An unidentified tribe 
mentioned by Jewitt (Narr., 77, repr. 



OR MOAT, NEWARK WORKS 



BULL. .*{()] 



NEWCOMERSTOWN NKZ PKKCKS 



1849) as living far to the N. of and inland 
from Nootka sd., early in the 19th cen 
tury. Their language differed from that 
of the Nootka, but was understood by 
the latter. Their complexion was said 
to be darker, their stature shorter, and 
their hair coarser than those features of 
other nations. The locality assigned to 
them corresponds with that of the Nim- 
kish. 
Nuchimases. Galiano, Relacion, 94, 1802. 

Newcomerstown. The village of the 
Delaware chief Newcomer in 1766-81, 
about the site of the present New Comers- 
town, on Muskingum r., Tuscarawas co., 
Ohio. The chief s Indian name was 
Noatwhelama. 

New Camero Town. La Tour, map, 1784 (mis 
print). New Comers Town. Hutehins, map in 
Smith, Bouquet s Exped., 1766. Ville des nouveaux 
venus. La Tour, map, 1784 (New Camero town, 
or). 

New Credit. A Missisauga settlement 
in Tuscarora township of the Six Nations 
res. on Grand r., Ontario. These Mis 
sisauga formerly lived on Credit r., but 
removed to their present location about 
the year 1850 by invitation of the Six 
Nations. They numbered 218 in 1884, 
263 in 1906. 

New England Company. See English 
influence, Missions. 

New Euf aula. A former colony of Upper 
Creeks from PZufaula, Ala., established in 
1767 in N. Florida, lat. 28. 
New Yufala. Romans, Fla., 280, 1775. 

Newhuhwaittinekin. A Shuswap vil 
lage 4 m. above Cache cr., Bonaparte r., 
Brit. Col. ; pop. 160 in 1906. 

Bonaparte Indians. Gun. Ind. Aff. 1885, 91, 1886 
(so called by whites). Ne-whuh-wait -tin-e-kin. 
Dawson in Trans. Roy. Roc. Can., sec. n,44, 1S91. 
Tluh-ta-us. Can. Ind. Aff. 1885, 196, 1886. 

Newichawanoc. A tribe or band of the 
Pennacook confederacy living on upper 
Piscataqua r. Their village, of the same 
name, was situated about the site of 
Berwick, Me. They were neighbors of 
the Piscataqua and probably intimately 
related to them. Their chief is said to 
have joined in the deed of 1629 to 
Wheelwright, the genuineness of which 
is still a mooted question. The tribe 
early became extinct. 

Neahawanak. Walton (1704) in Me. Hist. Soc. 
Coll , in, 349, 1853. Nekekowannock. Potter, ibid., 
iv, 190, 1856. Newchawanick. Niles (ra. 1761) in 
Mass. Hist, Soc. Coll., 4th s., V, 334, 1861. New- 
geawanacke. Rishworth (1656) in Me. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., I, 397, 1865. Newgewanacke. Ibid. New- 
ichawanick. Penhallow (1726) in N. H.Hist. Soc. 
Coll., i. 81, 1824. Newichawannicke. Hubbard 
(1680) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., v, 224, 1815. 
Newichawannock. Pike (1692) in N. H. Hist, Soc. 
Coll., in, 44, 1832. Newichawanocks. Sullivan 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., ix, 210, 1804. 
Newichewannock. Gorges (1678) in Me. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., n, 257. 1847. Newichuwenoq. Moodey (1683) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., vm, 362, 1868. Ne- 
wichwanicke. Gibbins (1633) in N. H. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., i, 311, 1824. Newichwannock. Potter in Me. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., iv, 190, 1856. Newickawanacks. 
McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in. 80, 1854. 

3456- -Bull. 30, pt 2 07 5 



Nuch-a-wan-acks.-Maeauley, N. Y., n, 162 1* >9 
Nuwichawamck. Potter in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll. , 

Newicb.um.ni. A division of the Miwok 
formerly living between Cosumnes and 
Mokelumne rs., Cal. 

Nevichumnes.-Hale.Kthno^andPhilol.,<130,lM6 
Newatchumne. Bancroft, Nut. Races, i, 4. >0, 1874J 

New Mikasuky. A former Sem inole 
town, 30 in. w. of Suwannee r., in Lafay 
ette co., Fla., of which Tuskain ha was 
chief in 1823. H. R. Ex. Doc. /4, 19th 
Cong., 1st sees., 27, 1826. 

New Kiver Indians. A subsidiary branch 
of the Shasta who occupied the "forks of 
Salmon r., Siskiyou cu., Cal., from a few 
miles above the junction (the lower parts 
of those streams being inhabited by the 
I-onomihu), and also the head of New r. 
They have no names for themselves. 
Their language is much closer to that of 
the Shasta proper than is that of the 
Konomihu, but it is clearly a separate 
dialect. See Dixon in Am. Anthrop., vn, 
no. 2, 1905. (R. B. D. ) 

Amutakhwe. A. L. Kroeber, inf n, 1903 (Hupa 
name). Djalitason. ibid. (Chimariko name). 

Newspapers. See Periodicals. 

Newtown. A former village, probably 
of the Seneca, on Chemung r., near El- 
mira, Chemung co., X. Y. It was de 
stroyed by Gen. Sullivan in 1779. 

Newton. Livermorei 1779 jin N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
VI, 325, 1850. New Town. Jones (1780) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., vm, 785, 1857. Newtown. Pem- 
berton (cu. 1792) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., n, 
176, 1810. 

Newtown. A former village, probably 
of the Delawares and Iroquois, on the x. 
bank of Licking r., about the site of the 
present Zanesville, Ohio. 

Newtown. A former village, probably of 
the Delawares and Iroquois, on Mus- 
kinguin r., about the site of the present 
Newton, Muskingum co., Ohio. 

Newtown. A former village, probably 
of the Delawares and Iroquois, on the w. 
side of Wills cr., near the site of the pres 
ent Cambridge, Guernsey co., Ohio. 

Newtychanning. A mixed Iroquois vil 
lage, built in 1778 on the w. bank of Sus- 
quehanmir. and on the x. side of Sugar er., 
in the vicinity of the present North To- 
wanda, Bradford co., Pa, It was de 
stroyed Aug. 8, 1779, by Colonel Proctor 
of Sullivan s army, at which time it con 
tained 15 or 20 houses. Near this site 
was formerly situated the village of Os- 
calui. (J. N . i ? . H.) 

Nez Perces ( pierced noses ). A term 
applied by the French to a number of 
tribes which practised or were supposed 
to practise the custom of piercing the 
nose for the insertion of a piece of denta- 
lium. The term is now used exclusively 
to designate the main tribe of the Sha- 
haptian family, who have not, however, 
so far as is known, ever been given to the 
practice. 



NKZ PKKCK8 



[B. A. JE. 



Tin Ne/ Perces, or Sahnptm of later 
writers, tin Chopunnish (corrupted from 
Tsutpeli) of Lewis and Clark, their dis 
coverers, were found in 1805 occupying a 
large area in what is now w. Idaho, x. E. 
Oregon, and s. K. Washington, on lower 
Snake r. and its tributaries. They roamed 
between the IHue nits, in Oregon and the 
Bitter Root nits, in Idaho, and according 




CR JASON NEZ PERCE 

!" Lewis and Clark sometimes crossed 
i<- range to the headwaters of the Mis 
souri. |Jy certain writers they have 
been classed under two geographic divi 
sions, I pperNex Pern s and Lower \e/ 
The latter were found by I .onne- 
yille n, KM to the x. and \v. of the 
Blue mts. on several of the branches of 
Snake r., where they were neighbors of 
the ( ayuse and Wallawalla. The Upper 



Xcz Perec s held the Salmon r. country in 
Idaho in 1834, and probably also at the 
same time the Grande Konde valley in E. 
Oregon, but by treaty of 1855 they cedid 
a large part of this territory to the United 
States. 

The reservation in which they were 
confined at that time included the Wal- 
lowa valley in Oregon, as well as a large 
district in Idaho. With the discovery of 
gold and the consequent influx of miners 
and settlers the Oregon districts were in 
demand, and a new treaty was made by 
which the tribe was confined to the reser 
vation at Lapwai, Idaho. The occupants 
of Wallowa valley refused to recognize 
the treaty, and finally, under their chief, 
Joseph (q. v.), took active measures of re 
sistance, and the Nez Perce war of 1877 
resulted. Several severe defeats were in 
flicted on the United States troops who 
were sent against the Indians, and finally, 
when forced to give way, Joseph con- 
dueled a masterly retreat across the Bit 
ter Root mts. and into Montana in an 
attempt to reach Canadian territory, but 
he and his band were surrounded and 
captured when within a few miles of the 
boundary. Joseph and his followers to 
the number of 450 were removed to In 
dian Ter., where their loss from disease 
was so great that in 1885 they were sent 
to the Colville res. in x. Washington, 
where a remnant still resides. 

Under the collective name Chopunnish, 
Lewis and Clark estimated the population 
to be 7,850. Deducting from this total 
1,()00 for the Pelloatpallah (Paloos) band, 
now treated as distinct from the Xez 
Perces, and 250 for the Yeletpo ( Wailetpti, 
i. e.,Cayuse), now supposed to belong to a 
distinct stock, the t< >tal of the Nez Perces in 
1805 according to those authors was about 
,000. Wilkes estimated the Chopunnish 
at about 3,000 in 1841), and Gibbs gave 
them a population of more than 1.700 in 
185: ,. In 1885 they were estimated offi 
cially at 1,437. There are now (1906) 
somewhat more than 1,000, 1,534 being 
on the reservation in Idaho and 83 on the 
Colville res. in Washington. 

In general habits of life the Ne/ Perces 
as well as the other Shahaptian tribes 
conform to the inland type of Indians 
and differ sharply in most respects from 
their western neighbors, the Chinook. 
At the time of Lewis and Clark s visit 
they are reported as living in communal 
houses, said to contain about 50 families 
each. There is evidence, however, that 
the Ne/ IVrces used the typical under 
ground lodge, and that these seldom con 
tained more than 3 or 4 families. A 
much larger dancing house was built at 
each permanent winter camp. Salmon 
constituted their most important food in 
early times, and with roots and berries 



BULL. 301 



NKZ PKRCES 



made up their entire food supply until 
the introduction of horses facilitated hunt 
ing expeditions to the neigh boring moun 
tains. The tribe seems to have been 
divided into a number of bauds or vil 
lages, named according to the place where 
the permanent winter camp wa-- made. 
Owing to the precarious nature of the 
food supply the greater portion of the 
inhabitants of any one of these villages 
would often be absent for a large part of 
the year, consequently it is impossible to 
determine with accuracy the location and 
population of these divisions in early 
times. There was no head chief of the 
tribe, but each band had several chiefs, of 
whom one was regarded as the leader, 
and these chiefs were succeeded by their 
sons as a rule. Expeditions for hunting 
or war were led by chiefs chosen for the 
occasion. There are no signs of a clan 
system in the social organization of the 
Nez Perces, and marriage is apparently 
permitted between any couple except in 
the case of recognized relationship. 

The religious beliefs of the Nez Perces, 
previous to the introduction of Christi 
anity, w r ere those characteristic of the 
Indians of the interior, the main feature 
being the belief in an indefinite number 
of spirits. The individual might procure 
a personal protecting spirit in the usual 
way by rigorous training and fasting. 

The Nez Perces have always borne a 
high reputation for independence and 
bravery, and have been particularly 
noted for their almost constant friend 
liness to the whites. Practically the only 
rupture in these relations was the Nez 
Perce war of 1877, mentioned above. 

The bands and divisions of the Nez 
Perces are known only approximately. 
The following are the best defined: Al- 
powna, on a small branch of the Clear- 
water, below Lewiston, Idaho; Assuti, on 
Assuti cr., Idaho; Kamiah, at the town 
of that name on the Clearwater, Idaho; 
Laintama, so called from a branch of 
Salmon r. , Idaho; Lapwai, near the junc 
tion of Lapwai cr. and the Clearwater; 
Willewah, formerly occupying Wai Iowa 
valley, Oreg., and now for the greater 
part on Colville res., Wash. (Joseph s 
band). In addition a number of bands 
have been recorded by the names of their 
chiefs or their supposed places of resi 
dence. (H. w. ir. L. F.) 
A dal-k ato igo. Mooney in 1 1th Rep. B. A. E., 
744, 1896 ( people with "hair cut across the fore 
head :Kio\va name). Anipbrspi. Gatschet, Kala- 
puya MS., B. A. E. (Calapooya name) . a-pa-6 pa. 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., 11, Ixxxiv, 1823 (Gros 
Ventre name). A-pu-pe . Hayden, Ethnog. and 
Philol. Mo. Vul., -102, 1SG2 ( to paddle , paddles : 
(Crow name). Asahaptin. Gatschet, Kalapuya 
MS., B. A. E., 31 (Calapooya name). Blue Earth 
Indians. Coues, Henry and Thompson Jour., 
712, 1897. Blue Mud Indians. Orig. Jour. Lewis 
and Clark (1805) . vi, 106, 1905 (probably identical). 
Blue Muds. Ibid, (name applied by traders). 



Chappumsh.-Ross, Fur Hunters, i, sue 1x55 
Cheaptin. Townsend, Narr., 233, 1839 Chipun- 
ish. Kip in Oreg. Hist. Sot:. Sources i pt > 11 
1897. Chipunnish. Kip, Army Life, 33 is5<i "6ho- 
cp-msh -Gass, Journal, 215, 1807. Chohoptins.- 
U)x Columbia R., n, 125, 1*31. Chopannish - 
Minto in Oreg. Hist. Soc. Quar., i, 30:5. 1900 (i,,N- 
pnnt from Lewis and Clark). Chopemnish. Ind 
Aff. Rep., 460, 1854. Choponiesh -Orig .lour 
Lewis and Clark (1805;, vii, 115, mof, Chopon- 
ish-Ibid., iv, 318. 1905. Choponnesh.-Ibid in 
103. 1905. Chopunish. Kelley, Oregon w 1x30 
Chopunmohees. Robertson, Oregon i >9 isitf 
Chopunnish. Lewis and Clark Exped i 455 
1X14; ii, 587, 1S17. Flathead. Gass, Journal 13" 
1807. Green Wood Indians. Cotic< Henrv-Thomp- 
son Jour.. 712, 1897. I -na-cpe.-Dorscv, Kwapa 
MS. vocab., B. A. K., 1891 (Quapaw name,. Kamu - 
mu. Hoffman, MS., B. A. E., 1884 (own name) 
Ko-mun -i-tup -i-o. Hayden, Ethnog. and 1 hilol 
Mo. Val., 264, 1862 (Siksika nainei La-ap- 
tin. Stevens in Ind. AIT. Rep., 425. 1*54 (mis 
print/, for > ). Mikadeshitchishi. Gatschet, Naisha 
Apache MS., H. A. E. (Kiowa Apacbe name). 
Nazpercies. Hastings, Guide to Oreg., 59, 1S45. 
Neckpercie. Lane (1849) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 52 31st 
Cong., 1st sess., 171, 1850. Neepercil. Lane in 
hid. Aff. Rep., 159. 1850. Nenpersaas. Meek in 
H.R. Ex. Doc. 76, 30th Cong., 1st sess., 10. ]81S. 
Nepercy. Irving, Bonneville s Advent., 115, 1868 
(name as pronounced by trappers). Ner Per 
cees. Scouler (1846) in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. Loud., 
r, 237, 184X. Nes Perces. Wilkes. Hist. Oregon. 4 i[ 
1845^ Nezierces. Farnham, Travels, 69, 1x43. Nez 
Perce. Parker, Journal, 100, 1840. Nez Perce Flat- 
Heads. Barrows, Oregon, 121, 1884. Nezperces 
Wyeth (1848) in Schoolcrnft, Ind. Tribes, i, 221, 
1851. Nez Perec s. Latham in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. 
Loud., i, 158, 1848. Nez percez. McKeuney and 
Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 79, 1x54. Nezpercies. Hast 
ings, Guide to Oreg., 59. 1845. Nezperees. Kane, 
Wanderings in X. A.. 290, ls59. Nez Perse. Hines, 
Oregon, 133. 1851. Nezpesie. Hastings, Guide to 
Oreg., 59, 18-15. Nez Pierces. Coyner. Lost Trap 
pers, 135, 1817. Nimipu. Lyinan in Oreg. Hist. 
Soc. Quar., n, 288, 1901 ( the people : own name). 
Numepo. Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. vi, 
140, 1885. Nu-me-poos. Mattoon in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1905, 199. 1906. Numipu. Mowry, Marcus Whit 
man, 259, 1901. Pe ga -zan-de. Dorsey, Kansa 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1882 (Kausa name). Pe i(a - 
san-^se. Dorsey, Osage MS. vocal)., B. A. F. 
( plaited hair over the forehead : Osage name). 
Perces. Dunn, Hist, Oregon, 326, 1845. Piercd 
Noses. Orig. Jour. Lewis and (Mark (1805), 
ill, 128, 1905. Pierced-nose. Lewis and Clark 
Exped., I, 455. 1M4. Pierced Noses. Orig. Jour. 
Lewis and Clark (1805), in, 78, 1905. Pierce 
Noses. Ibid., 112. Po -ge-hdo-ke. Riggs, Dak.- 
Fng. Diet., 423, 1890 (Dakota name). Sa ap- 
tin. Lane (1819) in S-n. Ex. Doc. 52. 31st 
Cong., 1st sess., 170. 1850. Sa-aptin. Gatschet, 
Okinagan MS., B. A. E. (Okinagan name: pi. 
Sa-aptinix). Saaptins. Schoolcraft. Ind. Tribes, 
in, map, 200. 1853. Sahapotins. Gallatiu in Trans. 
Am. Antiq. Soc.. n, map, 1X36. Sahaptain. Ross, 
Advent., 217, 1849. Sahaptan, Gatschet mis 
quoted in Congres des Amer., iv, pt. 1, 285, 1883. 
Sahaptanian. Brinton, Am. Race, 108, 1891. Sa 
haptin. Dart in Did. Aff. Rep.. 216. 1851. Sah hap- 
tinnay. Featherstonhaugh, Canoe Voy.. n. 62, 
1817. Saiduka. Gatschet, MS.. B. A. F. (I aiute 
name). Sapetan. Smet, Oregon Mi.-s.. 210, 1X17. 
Sapetens. Cones, Henry-Thompson Jour., 709, 
1897 Sapotans, Smet. Reisen /.\\ den Felsen- 
(Jebirgen, 205, 1865. Saptans. Armstrong. Ore 



gon, ill, 1857. Sap tin. Wilkes, West. Am.. 97, 
is i;t. Sha-ap-tin. Farnham, Trav., 69, is- 



Sha- 



haptain Ross. Advent.. 217. 1x19. Shahaptan. 
Scouler in Jour. Gcog. Soc. Lond.. XI, 225, 1811. 
Shahaptanian. Dorsey in Am. Anthrop., n, ;v>, 
1889. Sha-haptemish. (iairdner in Jour. Roy. 
Geog Soc Lond., XI, 256, 1811. Shahapts. Deni- 
ker Races of Man, 5:52. 1900. Shaw-ha-ap-ten. 
Ross Fur Hunters, I, 185, 1855. Shaw Haptens. 
Ross, Advent., 127, 1X49. Shi wanish. Mooney in 
14th Rep. B. A. F.,744. 1896 ( strangers from up 
the river : Tenino name: applied also to tl 
Cayuse). Shopumish. Kingsley, Standard I 



NHA1IKEN NIAIMTIC 



[B. A. E. 



Hi-t.. 1 t. vi. 1(0. 18X5. Tcha\sukush. Gatschet, 
MS., 15. A. K. iCaddo namei. Tchiitpelit. Ibid. 
o\\ n nainr >. Thoig a-rik-kah. Stuart. Montana. 
76. 1865 ( kouse-enters : Shoshoni name). Tsoi - 
gah. -Ibid.. 77. Tsoo-ah gah rah. (iebow, Shos- 
hoiiay Voeab.. 16. 1868 (Shoshoni name). Tsuharu- 
kats. (intsehet. MS.. 15. A. K. (Pawnee name). 
Tsiitpeli. Ibid, (own name). TJp-pup pay. Anon. 
Crow MS. voeab.. 15. A. K., n.d. (Crow name). 

Nhaiiken (X fm.i ikE)i). A Ntlakyapa- 
imik village near Spences Bridge, Thomp 
son r., Brit. Col. Hill-Tout in Rep. 
Kthnol. Surv. Can., 4, ISM. 

Niagara. Being of Iroquoian origin, 
one of the earliest forms of this place- 
name is that in the .Jesuit Kelation for 
H141. in which it is written Oitgniaahru, 
evidently a misprint for Ongniualwci, and 
it is there made the name of a Neutral 
town and of the river which to-day bears 
this designation, although Ougmctrahronon 
of the Jesuit Relation for the year 1640 ap 
pears to l>e a misprint for 0)igniarahronon, 
signifying people of Ongniarah. The 
Iro.juois and their congeners applied it to 
the place whereon the village of Youngs- 
town, Niagara co., N. Y., now stands. 
< >u the Tabula Nova 1 Franci;c, in Historic 
Canadensis, sev Nova -Franci;e (bk. 10, 
Paris, 1H<>4, but made in itWO by Francis- 
cus Creuxius, S. J.), the falls of Niagara 
are called "Ongiara cutarractes." Much 
ingenuity has been exercised in attempts 
to analy/e this name. The most probable 
derivation, however, is from the Iroquoian 
sentence-word, which in Onondaga and 
Seneca becomes < > hnuV <j<V ,><\\\(\ in "Tnsca- 
n.ra l -hn m hV i; signifying bisected bot 
tom- lan<l. Its first use was perhaps by the 
Neutral or Huron tribes. (.1. x. n. ii.) 

Niagara. A species of grape, well known 
in the \. i:. portion of the Tinted States; 
so called from its cultivation in the Nia 
gara peninsula. Aisothe nameof a variety 
of tomato, recorded in Tracv (Am. Var 
of Veget. for !()] 2, \Vash.," 1903); from 
the place-name .\n//f<trn, (|.v. (A. F. c. ) 

Niakewankih. A former village of the 
Clatsop on the Pacific coast, s. of Pt Ad 
ams at the mouth of Ohanna cr., Clatsop 
co.,()reg. (Boas, Kathlamet Texts, 236, 
Mini i. 

Neahkowin. -Lynian in <>re^. Hist. Soc. o,,nr I 
i IMU Nia k I ewan( l ix -- H())ls - KathlametTexts! 

Niakla (Xl-atf-ln). A former Chuma- 
shan village on Santa Crux id., Cal.. K. of 
the harbor. Henshaw, Buenaventura 
MS. vocal.., 15. A. K., ]SS4. 

Niakonaujang. An . \kudnirmiut Ks- 
kimo settlement on Padli fjord Baffin 
land. 
Niaqpnaujang. Boas in fith Rep. B. v K .141 ixxx. 

Niantic (contr. of \uinntnkfj-nt, at a 
I""" "1 hind on a [tidal] river or estu- 
Inimbulh. An Algon<inian tribe 
v occupying the coast of Rhode 
"in Narragansett bay to about 
the ( onnecticiit state line, their prin 
cipal village, \\Ykapaug, was on the great 
I">"d near Charlestown. Thev were 



c-losely connected with the Narraganset, 
forming practically one tribe with them. 
By refusing to join in King Philip s war 
in 1<>75 they preserved their territory 
and tribal organization, and at the close 
of the war the Narraganset who submit 
ted to the English were placed with 




NIANTIC WOMAN. ( F. G. SPECK. PHOTO.) 

the Niantic under Ninigret, and the 
whole body thenceforth took the name of 

Narraganset, (,j. M.) 

Naantucke. Patrick (1637) in Mass. Hist. Soc.Coll., 
1th s., vn, 324, 1865. Nahantick. Charter of 1663 
in R. I. Col. Rec.. n, 18, 1857. Nahanticut. Under 
bill (16:58) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., vi, 1, 1837. 
Naiantukq-ut. Trumbull, Ind. Names Conn., 3(5, 
1881 (Narraganset and Mohegan form) Nan- 
teqets. Co(l<liiiKton(1640)in Mass. Hist, Soc.Coll., 
1th s., vi, 318, 1863. Nantequits. Ibid. Nayanta- 
cott. Doe. of 166:5 in R. 1. Col. Rec., i, 513, 1856. 
Nayantakick. Williams (1(537) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 4th s., vi, 200, 1863. Nayantakoogs. Ibid., 
203. Nayantaquist. Williams (16-18), ibid., 3d s., 
IX, 275, 1846. Nayantaquit. Williams (ctt 1636), 
ibid., i, 160. 1825. Nayanticks. Williams (1638), 
ibid., 4th s., vi, 248, 1863. Nayantiks. Williams 
(1670), ibid., 1st s., i, 278, 1806. Nayantuk. 
Pynchon (1645), ibid., 4th s., vi, 374, 1863. Nayan- 
tuqiqt. Williams (1648), ibid., 3d s., ix, 275, 1846. 
Nayantuquit. Williams (1637), ibid., 4th s., vi,217, 
1863. Nayhantick. Charter of 1663 in R. I. Col. 
Rec.. iv, 371, 1859. Nayhautick. Ibid., 304 (mis 
print). Neantick. Protestof 1662, ibid. ,1,454, 1856. 
Neanticot. Parsons. R. I. Local Names, 19, 1861. 
Neanticutt. Hopkins (1646) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 4th s., vi, 334, 1*63. Neantucke. Patrick 
(1637), ibid., VII, S25, 1865. Nehanticks. Holmes, 
ibid., Ists., ix, 71), 1804. Neyantick. Eaton (1647), 
ibid., 4th s., vi, 347, 1863. Niantaquit. Williams 
(163(5) quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds.,bk 2 102 1848. 
Niantecutt. Doc. of 1659 in R. I. Col. Rec., I, 424, 

1856. Niantic. Doc. of 1(547 quoted by Drake, Bk. 
hids.. bk. 2, 109, 1818. Nianticut. Doe. of 1660 in 

t. I. Col. Rec., i, 450, 1856. Niantique. Katon 
(1652) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1th s., vil, 468, 1865. 
Niantuck. Writer after 1686, ibid., 3d s., I, 210, 
182."). Niantucuts. Ili^Lrinson ( 1637), ibid., 4th s., 
vu, 396. 1865. Nihantick. Tinker (1659), ibid., 
Ninantics. Schooler.-! ft. Did. Tribes, VI, 112, 

1857. Nocanticks. Ibid.. 150. Nyantecets. Vin 
cent ( 1638 i in Mass. Hist. Soc Coll 3d s vi, 35, 
1837. Nyantecutt. Doc. of 1659 in R. I. Col. Ree., 



BULL. 30] 



NIANTIC KICOTOWANCE 



I, 418, 1856. Nyanticke. Vincent (1G38) in Mass 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., VI, 37, 1837. Nyhantick. 
Tinker (1660), ibid., 4th s., vn, 241, 1865. 

Niantic. An Algonquian tribe formerly 
occupying the coast of Connecticut from 
Niantic bay to Connecticut r. De Forest 
concluded that they once formed one tribe 
with the Rhode Island Niantic, which 
was cut in two by the Pequot invasion. 
Their principal village, also called Niantic, 
was near the present town of that name. 
They were subject to the Pequot, and had 
no political connection with the eastern 
Niantic. They were nearly destroyed in 
the Pequot war of 1637, and at its close 
the survivors were -placed under the rule 
of the Mohegan. They numbered about 
100 in 1638, and about 85 in 1761. Many 
joined the Brotherton Indians in New 
York about 1788, and none now exist 
under their own name. Kendall (Trav., 
1809) states that they had a small village 
near Danbury in 1809, but these were 
probably a remnant of the western Con 
necticut tribes, not Niantic. According to 
Speck (inf n, 1907) several mixed Niantic- 
Mohegan live at Mohegan, Conn., the 
descendants of a pure Niantic woman from 
the mouth of Niantic r. Their voices are 
commonly said to have been high-pitched 
in comparison with those of their neigh 
bors. (,r. M.) 
Naihantick. Early form cited by Trumbull, Ind. 
Names Conn., 86, 1881. Na-ticks. Macauley, 
N. Y., ir, 164, 1829 (incorrectly so called) . Nayan- 
tiaquct. Williams (1648) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 
3d s., ix, 272, 1846. Nianticks. Winthrop (ca. 
1642) quoted by Drake. Bk. Inds., bk. 2, 67, 1848. 
Niantigs. Cobbet (1645) , ibid., 83. Pequot Nayan- 
taquit. Williams (1637) quoted by Trumbull, Ind. 
Names Conn., 36, 1881. Pequt Nayantaquit. Wil 
liams (1637) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., vi, 
220, 1863. 

Niantilik ( with the gulls ) . An Oko- 
mitit Fskimo village of the Kinguamiut 
subtribe, on Cumberland sd., Canada. 
Naintilic. Howgate, Cruise of Florence, 50, 1877. 
Niantilic. Kumlien in Bull. Nat. Mas. no. 15, 15, 
1879. 

Nibakoa. A former village, mentioned 
in 1777-78, seemingly in the vicinity of 
Portage, Columbia co.,Wis. It contained 
a mixed population of Chippewa and ap 
parently of Sank and Foxes. 
Nabakoa. (Jautier (1777-78) in Wis. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
XI, 110, 18SS. Nibakoa. Ibid., 109. 

Nibowisibiwininiwak ( Death ri ver peo 
ple ). A subdivision of the Chippewa liv 
ing in Saskatchewan, x. of L. Winnipeg. 
Cf. Onepowesepewenewak. 

Lake Winnipeg band, Smithson. Misc. Coll., IV, 
art. 6, 35, 1878. Nibowi-sibi-wininiwak. Gatschet, 
OjibwaMS., B. A. E., 1882. 

Nicassias. A name applied by early 
writers (Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Mar. 30, 
1860) to a group of Moquelumnan Indians 
who formerly lived near the coast, in 
Marin co., Cal. (s. A. u. ) 

Nichewaug. A village, probably of the 
Nipmuc, about the present Nichewaug, 
near Petersham, Worcester co., Mass. 
The Indians remained until 1754, when 
they joined the French against the Fng- 



lish. Barber, Hist. Coll. Mass 597 1K",!>- 
Kizmicutt, Ind. Names, 30, 1905. 

Nichochi. A Chuma^han village ,.n 
Santa Cruz id., Cal., in 1542. 



Nicholas. See Orontony. 

Niciat. The local name for a body of 
Upper Lillooet around Seton lake inte 
rior of P>ritish Columbia. Pop. 5o j n 
1906. 



. 

Nickajack. A former important Chero 
kee town on the s. bank of Tennessee r 
in Marion co., Tenn. It was settled in 
1782 by Cherokee who espoused the Brit 
ish cause in the Revolutionary war, and 
was known as one of the Chickamauga 
towns. It was destroyed in the fall of 
1794. The meaning of the name is lost 
and it is probably not of Cherokee origin, 
although it occurs also in the tribe as a 
man s name. In the corrupted form 
"Nigger Jack" it is applied to a creek of 
Cullasagee r. above Franklin, in Macon 
co., N. C. See Royce in 5th Rep. I ,. A. 
F., ma]), 1887; Moonev in lith Rei. T, 
A. F., 527, 1900. 

Nicojack. Doc. of 1799 quoted by Royce in 5th 
Rep. B. A. E., 141, issT. Nflratseg. M ooney op 
cit.(abbr.form). NIkutse ei. Ibid. Nikwatse el 
Ibid. NukStse gi. Ibid. 
^ Nickomin. A former Chehalis town on 
North r., which Hows into Shoal water 
bay, Wash. 

Necomanchee, Swan, X. W. Coast, 211, 1*57. 
NExumE ntc. Boas, inf n, 1905, (correct native 
form). 

Nicola Band. One of four subdivisions 
of the Upper Ntlakyapamuk in the inte 
rior of British Columbia. 
Cawa xamux. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. His!., 
II, 170, 1900 ( people of the creek, i. e., Nicola 
r.)_ 1 _ Nicola band. Ibid. Tcawa xamux. Ibid. 
Tcua qamuq. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ktlinol. Surv. 
Can., 5, 1899. 

Nicola Valley Indians. The otlicial desig 
nation of a large number of local groups in 
British Columbia, principally Cowichan, 
Lillooet, and Ntlakyapamuk Indians, 
numbering 522 in 1878. Can. Ind. A ft ., 
74, 1878. 

Nicomen. ACowichan tribe on Nicomen 
slough and at the mouth of Wilson cr., 
lower Fraserr., Brit. Col. Their villages 
are Skweahm and Lahaui, but the name 
has become attached to the latter town of 
the tribe, which in 1906 had Hi inhabi 
tants. The aggregate population of Nico 
men and Skweahm was 44 in 190(5. 
LKk- a mKl. Boas in Rep. (Hth Meeting Brit. 
A.A.S., 454, 1891. Nacomen. Can. Ind. AfV., "X, 
1878. NeK- a mEn. Boas. op. cit. Nicoamen. 
("an. Ind. AfT.,309, 1S79. Nicoamin. Ibid., 7(i, 1S7S. 
Nicomen. Ibid., pt. I. 27C>. IS .U. 

Nicotowance. When the career of ( )pe- 
chanoanouffh (q. v. ) as chief of the Pa- 
mimkey tribe, as well as of the Powhatan 
confederacy, terminated on his death in 
1644, he was succeeded as ruler of the 
Pamunkey Indians by Nicotow;ince. 
This chief, desirous of obtaining rest for 



70 



NIOALFK 



his |>e-ople, entered into a treaty of peace 
with the colonial authorities ami was 
assigned. ly an act ol the Virginia as 
sembly, Oct. 10, 1>49, certain lands for 
himself ai,d his people. His control, 
however, appears to have been of short 
duration, as he soon disappears, from his 
tory. (C. T. ) 

Nigaluk. A Xunatogmiut Eskimo vil 
lage at the mouth of Colville r., Alaska. 
Nig-a-lek. Dull in Coin. N. A. Kthnol., i, map, 
]s77. Nigaluk. Bak IT, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1902. 

Nigco. The tribal name assigned to an 
Indian bai>ti/.ed in 17. JO at San Antonio 
de Valero mission, Texas. There were 
both Tonkawan and Coahuiltecan tribes 
there at the time, but the Xigco can not 
be identified with anv of those known. 
It may be Sinicu, some of which tribe 
had been baptized in 1728. and who were 
probably Coahuiltecan (Valero Ikuitis- 
mos. paftida :>25, .MS. in the custody of the 
bishop of San Antonio i. (H. E. K. ) 

Nighetauka ( Ijig belly ). A band of 
the Miniconjou Sioux. 

Nige-taijka. Dorsey in 15th Rrp. 15. A. E., 220, 
1*97. Nixe-tanka. Ibid. 

Nightasis. A I laida town of this name 
is given in John Work s list, 18M-41, 
with lf> houses and 280 inhabitants. It 
seems impossible to identify the name 
with that of any known town. On other 
grounds KuiiLr, in Xaden harbor, would 
appear to be the town intended. 
Nigh tan. -Work (ls::ti--IH in Srhoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes v. l- .<, ixVi. Nigh-tasis. Da wson, Queen 
Charlotte Ids. IT. .B, l^M). 

Night Cloud. Mentioned by Culbert- 
son (Smithson. Rep. lxf>(), I42,~18f>l) as a 
band of O-iaia Sioux. They probably 
took their name from the chief. 

Nigiklik. A former Eskimo village in 
Alaska at the head of the Yukon delta. 
Nigiklik miout. -/airoskin in Nonv. Ann. Yoy 
" tli s.. xxi. niiij). ls:,o. Nygykligmjut. Holiii- 
IMTLT, Kthiioy. Ski//., map. ]>..">.">. 

Nigottine ( moss people ). A part of 
the Kawchogottine division of the Kaw- 
Hiodinne living along the outlet of Great 
I Tear lake, Macken/ie Ter., Canada. 
Ni-gottine. IVtjtot in Bui. Sue. dc Grog. Paris, 
hart. Is;. ). Nnea-gottine. Petitot, MS. vocab., B! 
iMi. i. Nni Gottine. I etitot, . \ntour (In lac 
! Ksclavrs. :{<;:{, IS .U. Nni-ottine. I ctitot Diet 
[)eiu --Diii(ljir, xx, isTti. 

Nijuchsagentisquoa (probably it is very 
tall reeds. Hewitt). A Cayuga chief, 
one of the signers at Albaiiy, X Y 
July M. I7(H. of the "deed from the Five 
Nations to the Kin^h f Mnrl an ,i] O f their 
lea\er hunting irround." X. Y. Doe 
< ol. Hist , i\, 111 I ), lsr)4. 

Nikaomin ( .V^/,, , /,;, or AV//// //////, so 
named beeause the water comes from a 
lake called Xyinmn tkn, wolf lake or 
water ; iron, x r r//,//, wolf ). A Xtlak- 
yapamuk town on the s. side of Thomp- 
* " r -. l(l ". above Lytton, P.rit. Col 
s called Thompson by the whites 
Pop. 4 . in I .inti. 

NKqa umin. T.-ii in Mem. A in .M us . N,,t . Ili^t \\ 
Ni ca-o-min. Can. In<l. AIT. 18.S."), l)t; 



ISSti. Nicomen. I bid. ,309, 1879. Nicomin. Ibid., 
map, 1S91. Nikaomin. Ibid., }it. II, Ki6, 1901. 
N kau men. Hill-Tout in Rep. Kthnol. Snrv. Can., 
4. 1S<J9. Nqau min. Teit, op. eit. Thompson. 
Ibid, (modern name). 

Nikapashna ( bald head ). The third 
gens on the Chizhu side of the Ponca 
tribal circle. Its subgentes are Dtesin- 
deita/hi, Dtedhezedhatazhi, and J)takh- 
tikianpandhatazhi. 

Na-ko poz -na. Morgan, Ane.Soc.. 155, 1877 (trans, 
elk ). Nika-da-ona. Dorsey in 15th Rep.B.A.E., 
228, 1*97. 

Nikhdhitanwan. An ancient Osage vil 
lage at the junction of the Sac and Osage 
rs. in Missouri. 

Ni-q0i ta"-wa. Dorsey, Osage MS. vocab., B. A. 
E., 1888. Niqdhi ta"wa n . Ibid. 

Nikhkak. A Knaiakhotana village of 
about a dozen houses on L. Clark, Alaska. 
The people, most of whom are of Russian 
admixture, obtain clothing and other ar 
ticles of civilized comfort from the trading 
posts on Cook inlet. Their houses and. 
fish caches are built of hewn logs, floored 
with planks, and they make windows of 
parchment. Pop. 42 in 1891; about 25 
in 1904. 

Keeghik. Osgood in Nat. Geog. Mag., xv, 329, 
1904 (from their name for the lake). Keejik. 
Osgood (1902) quoted by Baker, Geog. Diet. 
Alaska, 364, 1906. Kijik. Baker, ibid. Nikhak. 
Osgood in Nat. Geog. Mag., op. cit. Nikhkak. 
("oast Survey map (189s) cited by Baker, op. cit. 

Nikiata. A Qua paw gens. Dorsey in 
loth Rep. B. A. E., 230, 1897. 

Nikie name. A term employed by Dor 
sey (8d Rep. P>. A. K., 22t, 1884) to 
designatea name "referring to a mythical 
ancestor, to some part of his body, to 
some of his acts, or to some ancient rite 
which may have been established by 
him"; derived from ii ikie, the word for 
such a name in the Omaha dialect of the 
Siouan stock. According to Francis La 
Flesche (inf n, 1907), i/i/:(<i-sfii-(/a}ie is 
derived from nikdshign people, and ie 
word or utterance, and a nUde name is 
one given by the people or by the word 
of the people a name conferred by the 
consent of the people. As the chief was 
the mouthpiece of the people, a nikie 
name is sometimes defined as spoken by 
a chief, but the primary meaning is that 
the name is conferred by the word of the 
people. (A. F. c. ) 

Nikikouek ( from the Chippewa or a 
cognate dialectic term nikiy otter , with 
anim. pi. sullix -ow/- otter people . 
1 errot says the form with initial ?//, Mik- 
ikonet, is from their own language; such 
is the case in the cognate Menominee 
tnikif/}. A little known Algonquian tribe 
that formerly dwelt E. of the Missisauga, 
among the rock caverns on the x. shore of 
L. Huron. They are described as lacking 
in courage, and haying much to do with 
the tribes northward. Twice a year, like 
the Missisauga, they deserted their village 
to hunt and fish along the lake for stur 
geon and other fish, and there obtained 
bark for constructing canoes and lodges. 



BULL. 30] 



NIMHAM 



71 



On the approach of winter they fre 
quented the lake shores to kill beaver and 
elk, whence they returned in the spring 
to plant and tend their corn. In 1653, 
jointly with the Saulteurs and the Missi- 
sauga, they so completely defeated an 
Iroquois war-party of 120 men that but 
few escaped. (,i. x. B. H.) 

Gens de la Loutre. Perrot (ca. 1724), Memoire 
83, 1864. Mikikoues. Ibid., 219. Mikikoiiet. 
Ibid., 83. Nation de la Loutre. Bacquevilledela 
Potherie, Hist. Amer. Sept., n, 48, 1753. Nation of 
the Otter. Heriot, Trav.. 209, 1807. Nigik. Kel- 
ton, Ft Mackinae, 20, 1881. Nikicouek. Jes. Rel., 
Ill, index. 1858. Nikikouek. Jes. Rel. 1658, 22, 
1858. Nikikoues. I errot, Memoire, index, 1864. 

Nikishka. A Knaiakhotana village, of 
57 inhabitants in 1880, near the head of 
Cook inlet, Alaska. Petroff in 10th Cen 
sus, Alaska, 29, 1884. 

Nikolaief (presumably named by the 
Russians after Tsar Nikolas) . An Aleut 
village N. of Belkofski, on Alaska penin., 
Alaska; pop. 43 in 1880. 
Nikolaievsky. Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 23, 
1884. 

Nikolski. An Aleut settlement and 
trading post for otter skins on Umnak id., 
Alaska. Pop. 83 in 1834, 127 in 1880, 94 
in 1890. 

Nikolskoje. Holmberg, Ethnog. Skizz., map, 1855. 
Nikolsky. Elliott, Our Arct. Prov., 184, 1886. 
Oomnak. Ibid., 179. Recheshnaia. Veniamhu>ff 
quoted by Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 35, 1884. 
Retchechnoi. Lutke quoted by Baker, Geog. 
Diet. Alaska, 462, 1906. Riechesnoe. Ibid., 1902. 
Rjatscheschnoje. Holmberg, op. cit. Rychesnoi. 
Veniaminoff (1833) quoted by Klliott, Cond. Aff. 
Alaska, 225, 1875. Umnak. Eleventh Census, 
Alaska, 163, 1893. 

Nikozliautin ( people of the river cov 
ered with the enemy s arrows ). A Ta- 
kulli clan or division on the s. half of 
Stuart lake and on Pintce r., Brit. Col. 
They inhabit two villages, Nakraztli and 
Pintce. The name comes from a legend 
of a tribe of dwarfs who once attacked 
their village in such numbers that the 
surface of Stuart r. was covered with float 
ing arrows (Morice in Trans. Can. Inst, 
188, 1891 ). The Nikozliautin are devout 
Catholics, sober, law-abiding, and hos 
pitable. Their main resources are hunt 
ing, trapning, and fishing. Pop. 234 in 
1906. 

Na-kas-le-tin. Dawson in Rep. Geol. Surv. Can., 
30B, 1881. Nakazeteo-ten. Smet, Miss, de 1 Oregon, 
63,1844. Na-ka-ztli-tenne. Morice, letter, 1890. 
Nakoozetenne. Can. Ind. AfT., 215, 1902. Na- kra- 
ztli- tenne. Morice, Notes on W. Dene\s, 26, 1893. 
Nancaushy Tine. Jour. Anthrop. Inst., vir, 206, 
1878. Nekaslay. McLean, Hudson s Bay, i, 262, 
1849. Nekaslayans. Ibid., 263. Nekasly. Ibid., 
269. Nikozliantin. Mac-donald, British Columbia. 
126,1862. Nikozliantins. Domenech, Deserts of 
N. Am., n, 62, 1860. Nikozliautin. Hale, Ethnog. 
and PhiloL, 202, 1846. Stewart s Lake Indians. 
Can. Ind. Aff., 79, 1878. 

Niktak. A Kaviagmiut Eskimo village 
on C. Prince of Wales, Alaska. 

Nikhtagmut. Zt-goskin, Descr. Russ. Poss. Am., 
1,73,1847 (the people). 

Nilakshi ( dawn ). A former Klamath 
settlement at or below Nilaks mtn., E. 
shore of Upper Klamath lake, Oreg. The 
name is now used to designate Modoc 



point, but it properly refers to Nilaks mtn. 
ridge only. Gatschet in Com. X. \ 
Ethnol., n, pt. i, xxx, 1890. 
Nilakskni mafclaks. Gatschet, op fit pt n 243 
(name of people). 

Nilalhuyu (Ni-M-hu -yu). A former 
Chumashan village on Santa Cruz id., 
Cal., the inhabitants of which are said to 
have been celebrated for the practice of 
sorcery. Henshaw, Buenaventura MS 
vocab., B.A. F., 1884. 

Nilestunne ( Xl-foii im* , people at the 
small dam in the river ). A former vil 
lage _of the Mishikhwutmetunne on 
Coquille r., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. 
Folk-lore, in, 232, 1S90. 

Niletunne. A former village of the 
Tututni on the Oregon coast, beingthelirst 
village s. of the Kusan village of Xasumi, 
s. of the mouth of Coquille r. 

Jake s people. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 
233. 1X90 (referring to si.me man on Siletx res.)! 
Ni-le lunne . Ibid. 

Nilsumack. A Salish l>and. probably 
Cowichan, under the Fraser superinten- 
dency, Brit, Col. Can. Ind. Aff., 78, 1878. 

Niltala. A Wikeno village on Rivers 
inlet, Brit. Col. Boas in Petermanns 
Mitt., pt. 5, 130, 1887. 

Nim (iietnn or i/i t/n, people ). A name 
adopted by Merriam (Science, xix, 916, 
1904) to designate a Mono-Paviotso divi 
sion on the N. fork of San Joaquin r. and 
the adjacent region in California Regard 
ing it, Kroeber (Univ. ( 1 al. Pub., Am. 
Arch;col. and Fthnol., iv, 1 19, 1907) says: 
"Xim is not a tribal name but the word for 
person, ti.i aii, which occurs also in other 
Mono dialects as far s. and E. a< Kings r. 
and Owens r., so that it cannot be re 
garded as distinctive of these people x. 
of the San Joaquin." In one or another 
form it is the common Shoshonean desig 
nation for men, people. 
Pa-zo-6ds. Merriam, op. fit. (Holkomah name). 

Nimatlala (Xt-mut-la -lu}. A former 
Chumashan village on Santa Crux id., 
E. of Prisoners harbor. Ilenshaw, Bu 
enaventura MS. vocab., B. A. F., 1S84. 

Nimham, Daniel. A YVappinger chief, 
noted not only for his active participation 
in the wars of 1746 and 1754, but espe 
cially for his efforts to recover for his tribe 
the lands lying along the E. side of Hud 
son r. that had been taken from it, while 
aiding the English. The earliest recorded 
notice of him is Oct. 13, 1730, the date of 
an affidavit in which it is slated that the 
deponent was "a River Indian of the 
tribe of the Wappinoes " ( Ruttenber, 
Tribes Hudson R., 51, 1S72). Nimham 
was made chief sachem in 1740; his resi 
dence after 1746 was at Westenhuck. In 
1755, with most of his fighting men, he 
entered the English service under Sir 
William Johnson, and about 1762, in 
company with some Mohegan chiefs of 
Connecticut, went to Fngland on a mis 
sion regarding their land claims. They 



NIMITAPAL NINIVOI8 



[B. A. E. 



received a favorable hearing, and on their 
return t> America their claim* \yere 
brought into court, but were lost to slight 
durini: the Revolution. Nimham was 
killed at the battle of Kingsbridge, N. 
Y., Aug. 31, 1778, while lighting bravely 
in the cause of the Americans. Near the 
entrance to IVlham s Nock, Westchester 
co., N. Y., were, according to Ruttenber 
(op. cit., SI ), two large mounds, pointed 
<ut as the sepulchers of Ann-IIoock and 
Nimham. The name of Daniel Nimham, 
as well as those of Aaron, John, and 
Isaac Nimham, appear in the rolls of New 
York men enlisted in the service of the 
Revolution. As Indians are included in 
the list, Daniel Nimham is doubtless the 
subject of this sketch. (c. T. ) 

Nimitapal. A former Chumashan vil 
lage on Santa Crux id. (the San Lucas of 
Cabrillo), Cal., in 1542. Possibly the 
same as Nimatlala. 

Nimetapal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863. 
Nimitapal. Cabrillo (1->12) in Smith, Colec. Dot . 
Flii.. 1M. 1S.-S7. 

Nimkish (^Xn mges}. A Kwakiutl tribe 
on and about the river of the same name 
in N. K. Vancouver id. According to Rev. 
A. .1. Hall they derived their name from 
that of a mythical halibut, called Nurn- 
hya-li-gi-yu, which caused a tide-rip off 
the point of the bay. The gentes, according 
to Unas, are < Jyigyilkam, Nenelkyenok, 
Sisintlae, Tlatlelamin, and Tsetsetloala- 
kemae. Pop. 151 in 1901, 134 in 1906. 
eNn mges. HUMS in Mem. Am. Mns. Nat. Hist., 
v. pt. i . I: -:!. I .to-j. Ni. mk ic. Boas in 6th Rcp.X.W- 
Tril.c>< ;m...M. Iv.H). NK-mqic. Boas in Hep. Nat- 
Mn<. ls<i."S, ;;;;i, i.v.ty. Nemqisch. Boas in I eter- 
maims Mitt., lit.."). i:H).lN<7. Nim-keesh. Can. Did- 
Atr.lsM.l .Mi.isx;,. Nimkis.Taylorin Cal. Farmer, 
.Inly I .t. ]N;-J. Nimkish. -Kane, Wand, in N.A., 
app.. is.v.t. Nimpkish. Mayne, Brit. Col., 17 .), 
Istii . Num kes. Hall (jnoicd hyDawson in Trans. 
Koy. S( ic. CM n., >(.<. ii. 72. 1S87. 

Nimoyoyo. A Chumashan village on 
San Miguel id. (the Isla de Juan Rod 
riguez of Cabrillo), Cal., in 1542. 
Nimilolo. Taylnr in CM!. Farmer, Apr. 17, 18(13. 
Nimollollo. Cabrillo (15-12) in Smith Colec Doc 
Fl.-i.. isii. ]s:>7. 

Nimsewi ( ))ig river ). A division of 
Maidu living on upper Buttecr., near the 
edgi- of the timber in P>utte co., Cal. 

Nemshan. I .ancn -it NM! . KMCCS. I, -I. H), 1S8 J Nem- 
shaw. -Hale. Kt lim <x. ;m<l I liilol., (131, is|i;. Nem- 
hoos. Bimcroft. op. cit. Nemshous. Taylor in 
CM!. Farmer, .Inm- ,\ ].st;o. Nim Sewi Curtin 
Ms. vonib., ] ,. A. I-:., issf). Nim -shu. Powers in 
Cont. N. A. KHinol.. in. L Mi. ]s77 (from -IK ni-xc-it, 
hiK river i. Nim-sirs. .lohnston (is.")()i in Sen 
x. Doc. I, :v_M Com;., spec. s ,. ss .. .|r,. 1853 . Nim ; 
Bi Mlr in Sen. Kx. Doc. .77. :;_ <! Con^.. i>d 
s<- , 1."), is.".:;. Nim-sus. .lohnston in Did MY 

i v p.. VI \. |S. r )(l. 

Ninchopan( bear ). A T.nka\va clan, 
now nearly extinct. 

Nintchopan. (Jatschct, Tonkawc MS vocab B 
A. !: , i.ssj. Nintropan. D)id. 

Ningweegon. See AV////-a//o//. 

Ninibatan ( A / /// /,,/-/-,///, keepers of the 
pipe ). A siibgens of the Mandhinka- 
gau lie gens of the Omaha. Dorsev in 15th 
Kep. P,. A. K., 22S, 1897. 



Ninibatan A subgens of the Tapa gens 
of the Omaha. 

Ninibatan. A subgens of the Inshta- 
sanda gens of the Omaha, consolidated 
prior to 1880 with another snbgens known 
as the Real Inshtasanda. 

Ninigret. A sachem of the Niantlc in 
the region about Westerly, R. I., and a 
cousin of Miantonomo. Besides the name 
Ninigret, Nenekunat, etc., he bore earlier 
that of Janemo or Ayanemo, by which 
he first became known to the English 
(Drake, Inds. of N. Am., 131, 1880). He 
visited Boston in 1637. After the death 
of Miantonomo he began war against the 
Mohegan, but the English interfered, 
and a treaty was signed at Boston in 1647. 
Contemporary chroniclers have left a de 
tailed account of the appearance of Nini 
gret before the commissioners and his 
conduct on that occasion, which was much 
to his credit. Later (1652) Ninigret vis 
ited the Dutch at Manhattan, arousing 
the suspicions of the English, which 
were groundless. The next year he made 
war upon the Long Island Indians. He 
abstained from personal activity during 
King Philip s w r ar, but had trouble in 
keeping terms with the English. He 
secured to himself and heirs the tribal 
land near Charlestown ; and after the cap 
ture of Nanuntenoo (Canonchet), the last 
chief of the Narraganset, that tribe was 
consolidated with the Niantic under Nini 
gret. The latter and Miantonomo were 
lifelong rivals of Uncas. Notwithstand 
ing his_ pacific tendencies, Ninigret was 
drawn into conflict with the Montauk of 
E. Long Island in 1659. Aptly called by 
Mather an old crafty sachem," beseems 
to have; preserved his pride, of which he 
possessed an inordinate amount, and his 
property as well, without being obliged 
to fight for either. Ninigret died full of 
years some time before the close of the 
century. He consistently opposed Chris 
tianity", and told Mayhew, the mission 
ary, to "go and make the English good 
first." (A. F. c. ) 

Ninilchik. A Knaiakhotana village of 
18 houses on the E. coast of Cook inlet, 
s. of the mouth of Kasilof r. , Alaska; 
inhabited in 1890 by 45 natives and 36 
Russian Creole descendants of the convict 
colony of 1793. 

Munina. Wosnesenski s map (ca. 1840) cited by 
Baker, (ieoff. Diet. Alaska, 463, 1906. Ninilchik. 
1 etrofT in Tenth Census, Alaska, 27, 1884. 

Ninivois. A Fox chief in command of 
the warriors of his tribe at the siege of 
Detroit by Pontiac, in 1763. Ninivois 
and Take, leader of the Hurons, appear 
to have been the most active aids of Pon 
tiac; at the commencement and during the 
early part of the siege (Mich. Pion. Coll., 
viu, 266-339, 1886), and next to Pontiac 
were the leaders in the councils of the 
besiegers and the first to begin the invest- 



BULL. 



NINNIPA8KULGEE NIPIS8TNO 



ment of the fort. Fulton (Red Men of 
Iowa, 477, 1882) writes his name Ninivay 
and says he was a Potawatomi. (c. T.) 

Ninnipaskulgee ( highroad people , 
from Creek nini-puski swept road , algi 
people ). A former band or tribe of 
Upper Creeks, probably near Tucka- 
batchi, Elmore co., Ala. 

Ninny-pask-ulgees. Woodward, Remin., 37, 1859. 
Road Indians. Ibid. 

Ninstints. A Haida town which for 
merly stood on Anthony id., at the s. 
end of Queen Charlotte ids., Brit. Col. 
The native name was SgA nguai ( Red- 
cod island ), Ninstints being the white 
man s corruption of the town-chief s 
name, Nungstins (iY.m sttns, he who is 
two ). All the people from this end of 
Moresby id. gathered there in compara 
tively recent times. The remnant have 
since abandoned the place and settled at 
Skidegate. It is impossible to identify 
absolutely the name of this town with 
that of any given in John Work s list of 
1836-41, but it is probably referred to as 
"Quee-ah," a town to which he assigned 
20 houses and a population of 308. At 
the present day there are probably not a 
dozen Ninstints people left. The family 
to which the chief of this town belonged 
was the Sakikegawai. See Swanton 
Cont. Haida, 105, 277, 1905. (j. R. s.) 
NEnsti ns. Boas, 12th Rep. N. \V. Tribes Can. ,25, 
1898. Ninstance. Dawson, Queen Charlotte Ids.] 
169, 1880. Ninstence. Poole, Queen Charlotte 
Ids., 195, 1872. Ninstints. Dawson, op. cit. 
Sg a nguai. Boas, op. cit. 

Ninumu. A Chumashan village on one 
of the Santa Barbara ids., Cal., probably 
Santa Rosa, in 1542. 

Ninimu. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863. 
Ninumu. Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, Colec. Doc. 
Fla., 186, 1857. 

Ninvok. A Chnagmiut Eskimo village 
near the delta of Yukon r., Alaska. 

Ninvaug. Zagoskin in Nonv. Ann. Voy., 5th s., 
xxi, map, 1850. 

Ninyuelgual. A former Chumashan 
village near Ptirisima mission, Santa 
Barbara co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Oct. 18, 1861. 

Nio. A small tribe, probably Piman, 
long extinct, which formerly resided in 
N. Sinaloa, Mexico, their village, the seat 
of the mission of San Ignacio de Nio, 
occupying the site of the present town of 
the same name. Zapata, in 1678 (Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., in, 404, 1854), said that 
a league and a half x. E. of San Pedro de 
Guazave was the pueblo of San Ignacio 
de Nio, in which the language spoken, 
called Nio, was particular unto itself, 
though the Mexican was also in common 
use. Alegre (Hist. Com p. Jesus, i, 294, 
1841) states that Father Mendez, who 
had entered Sinaloa as a missionary, 
recommended "the pueblos and lan 
guages of the Ocoroiri [Ocoroni], Nio, 
and some others which he had held, to 
the charge of Father Tapia." 



Niowe. Mentioned by Bartram (Trav 
els 3/1 1792) as a Cherokee settlement 
on the headwaters of Tennessee r about 

v* 6 >^ r 1 V 5 \ P sil)1 > " tonde.1 for 
Nayu h,, which signifies sand place 
Cf. Noewe. / , M \ 

Nipaguay. A Diegueno village" near 
ban Diego, s. Cal., about 6 m. from the old 
presidio to which, in 1774, the mission 
was removed. See San Dieao 
Nypagudy. -Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Feb. ,lStiO 
Nipigiguit. A former Micmac village 
on the site of Bathurst, at tin- mouth 
ot Nipisiguit r., New Brunswick. The 
trench mission of Sainte Magdalen wa< 
there in 1645. 

Nepegigpuit. Jes. RH. 1645, 35, ls5s Nipieieuit 
Aetromilo, Abimkis, 59. 18(16. Nipisiguit Mem - 
bre quoted by Shea, Miss. Val., 86 ]s.*> 

Nipinchen. (iiven by Bolton (Hist. 
^ estchester Co., 1881 ) as a former Indian 
fort on the N. side of Spuyten Dnyvil (or 
Papirinemen) cr., at its junction with 
Hudson r. from the E., in Westchester 
co., N. Y. Ruttenber (Ind. Geog. Names, 
22, 1906) says the name belongs on the 
w. side of the Hudson, at Konstable s 
Hook, and doubts that there was any 
real settlement there. CL Nipiniclwn. 

Nipinichsen. A former Manhattan vil 
lage on the E. bank of Hudson r., just 
above Spin-ten Duyvil, X. V. Ruttenber 
Tribes Hudson R. , 77, 1872. 

Nipissing ( at the little water or lake , 
referring to L. Xipissing; Xiplxii-inicii, 
little-water people ). A tribe of the 
Algonkin. Whenthey first became known 
to the French, in 1613, they were residing 
in the vicinity of I,. Nipissing, Ontario, 
which has been their home during most of 
the time to the present. Having been 
attacked, about 1(550, by the Iroquois, and 
many of them slain, they lied for safety to 
L. Nipigon (Mackenzie, Voy., xli, note, 
1802), where Allouez visited them in l(if>7, 
but they were again on L. Nipissing in 
1671. A part of the tribe afterward went 
to Three Rivers, and some resided with 
the Catholic Inxjuois at Oka, where they 
still have a village. Some of these as 
sisted the French in 1756. It is their dia 
lect which is represented in Cuoq s Lcx- 
ique de la Langue Algonquine. They 
were a comparatively unwarlike people, 
firm friends of the French, readily ac 
cepting the Christian teachings of the 
missionaries. Although having a fixed 
home, they were semi-nomadic, going 
s. in autumn to the vicinity of the liuroiis 
to fish and prepare food for the winter, 
which they passed among them. They 
cultivated the soil to a slight extent only, 
traded with the Cree in the N., and were 



ieu v^ uii me vn * in " ->, * 

ch given to jugglery and shamanistic 
ctices, on which account the Hurons 
and the whites called them Sorcerers. 
Their chiefs were elective, and their 
totems, according to Chauvignerie (X. Y. 



74 



NIPKY NIPMITC 



[B. A. fi. 



I)oc. Col. Hist., x, 1053, 1855), were the 
hcnm, heaver, birehbark, squirrel, and 
Mno.l. No reliable statistics in regard to 
their iiunihers have been recorded. The 
Indians now on a reservation on L. Nipis- 
sini; arc otlieially classed as Chippewa; 
they nnnihered HJL* in 1884, and 223 in 
ll0i>. A Nipissing division was called 
Miskouaha. (.1. M. ) 

AskicSaneronons. .les. Rel. 1(139. 8S, 1858 (-= sor 
cerers Ilt U itl). AskikSanehronons. Jcs. Rel. 
Kill, SI, is.58. Askikouaneronons. Ibi-1. Aweatsi- 
waenrrhonon. Jos. Kel., Thwaites ed., x, 83, 1X97. 
Bisserains. Champjain (f. 1624). (Knvres, v. 2d 
pt., Til. IvO. Bisseriniens. Sagard (1636). Can., I, 
190. INK .. Bissiriniens. .les. Rel. 1635.18,1858. Bys- 
siriniens. Charlevoix (1T44), Nr\v France, II. 95, 
ISM;. Ebicerinys. Sudani ( 1636). Can., i, 172, 1866. 
Epescngles. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in. MI. isiVJ. Epicerinyens. Pa sard (1636), Can., 
m, 727. 1N16. Epicerinys. Ibid., IV, Huron Diet., 
iNiii. Epiciriniens. Sagard (1636) quoted by Park- 
man. Pioneers, 351, 1883. Episingles. Duinont, 
Mem. of La.. VI, 13."), 1753. Epissingue. Writer of 
1756 in X. Y. Dor. Col. Hist., X. -lsf>. 1S58. Ilgon- 
quines. La Salic (1682) in French. Hist. Coll. La., 
i. 16, 1M6. Juskwaugume. Jones, Ojebway Inds., 
17.\ IN ,!. Kekerannon-rounons. Lamberville 
ililNii inN. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in. 489, 1853. Longs 
Cheveux. .les. Rcl.l6Tl, 35, 1858. Nation des Sor- 
ciers. .les. Rel. 1632, 11, 1858. Nebicerini. Cham- 
plain i 1613). (Kuvres, in. 295. 1870. Neperinks. 
Clinton i 1715) in X. Y. Doc. C>1. Hist., vi~ 276, 1855. 
Nepesangs. Pike, Kxped., pt. 1, app., 62, 1810. 
Nepesinks. Clinton (1745) in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
vi. 2*1 . ]s55. Nepessins. Buchanan, N. Am. Inds., 
I. 13 .i, ls2l. Nepicerinis, Lahontan, New Voy., 
i. 113. 1703. Nepicinquis. Chauvignerie (1736) 
quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, m, 554, 1853. 
Nepicirenians. llcriot, Trav., 195, 1807. Nepiciri- 
niens. -Kacqueville do la Potherie, n. 48, 1753. 
Nepiscenicens. Houdinot. Star in the West, 127, 
M6. Nepiseriniens. La Barre(1682) in N. Y.Doc. 
Col. Hi-i.. ix. I .i6. is.v>. Nepisin. Dobbs, Hudson 
Hay. map. 1711. Ncpisinguis. Mackenzie, Voy., 
xlii.lNii. Nepisirini. Lahontan, New Voy., 1, 231, 
1703. Nepisseniniens. Doc. of 1695 in N. Y Doc 
Col. Hist., ix, 599, 1855. Nepissens. Boudinot, Star 
in the West, 127. 1M6. Nepisseriens. Du Chesneau 
(1681) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 160, 1855. Nepis- 

seriniens. - Doe. of 1697, ibid., (169. Nepissings. 

Due. ,,f 1695, ibid., 599. Nepissingues. Ibid., 602. 
Nepissiniens. Ibid., 596. Nepissiriens. Du Ches 
neau (Itisli. ibi.l., I,;D. Nepissiriniens. Doc. of 
ibid., .->66. Nibissiriniens. I arkman. Pio 
neers, 351. Iss3. Nipeceriniens, < olden (1T27) 
Five Xations, 2s, 17 17. Nipercineans. School- 
craft Ind. Tribes i. 307, lsr.1. Nipicirinien.- 

s. Rel. 1639, 11, l:.s. Nipisierinij. Champlain 
HHir.i. (Kuvres, iv, 21, 1S70. Nipisings. Cox 
Columbia K.. n. 1 12. is:;]. Nipisineues. Henrv 
Tniy.. 3 >. 1^)9. Nipisinks. -German Flats con f 
117711,111 X. V. Doc. Col. Hist, VIII, 229, 1857 Nipi 
sinniens. .les. Rel. 1636, 69, 1858. Nipissings. Doc 
of 1741 in N. V. Doc. C,l. Hist.. ix. 10SO ]S55 Nipis- 
singues. Du Chesneau (1(579), ibid., 133. Nipis- 
ins. Smith, HoiK,in.f s Kxped., 69, 1766 Nipis- 
Siriniens.-Jes i:-l. 1641 81.1858. NipUsiHnioek.- 
Inimbnll, Aljjonk. Xames lor Man, is 1871 
- small hike men ). Nipistingues. Lettres 
I.. i.r,%. |s:{.s. Nippsingues.-Fn.ntcnac (168 >) 
m N. Y Doc. C,,l. Hist. .ix, 182,1855. Nipsang - 
L -;ir .1792) in Am. St. P,-,,,., I,,.|. A IV., I, 241. 1832 
Nypissings. Lamberville (16S6) in x Y Doc 
..Ml. 4S9, is;-,:;. Ny P sin 8 .-L( ,nK, Kxped! 

I I- -ters R., n, 15], iso, Odishk wagami.-Bar- 
nuii. Kntr.-<tcb. Diet., n, 1878 (Cbippeua name- 

ii .q renders it at tbe last water, but Chamber- 
jiin prefers- [peoplc-1 ontheotherside<,fthelake ) 
Odishkwa-Oamig. Trumbull. Al^onk. Xames 

"// "! 1 M 1 1S72( V" 10 - I)1< " )f thplnstlake ; from 

Mikii-n tit the end of. ,/,/ Make or water - 

bij.pewa iiiirm-). dish quag-urn eeg.-Scbool- 

Taft. Ind. Iribes, n. i: W , ]s52. dish quag- 

nT, l e " ~u RUniS<iy " " (1 - Afr - He,,., .,], ]S50 

Odishquahpumme. Wilson, Ojebway I mtr 157 

AlKon. ( uin Indians ). Otick-wa-mi! 

"" 1, Lex. Jroq., 42, 18M2. Outiskouagami.- 



.les. Rel. 1671, 35, 1858. Outisquagamis. Andre 
(1671) (juoted by Shea, Cath. Miss., 365,1855. 
Pisierinii. Clmmplain (1616), CEuvres. iv, 61, 1870. 
Pisirinins. Ibid., 63, 1870. Quiennontateronons. 
Sat, r ard (1636), Can., IV, index, 1866. Quieunonta- 
teronons. Ibid., Ill, 750, 1866. Skaghnanes. Mess. 
of 1763 in X. Y. Doe. Col. Hist . VII, 544, 1856. 
Skaghquanoghronos. Johnson (1763), ibid., 582. 
Skecaneronons. Sagard (1636), Can., in, 727, 1866. 
Skekaneronons. Ibid., I, 148, 1866. Skekwanen-hro- 
non. Cuoq, Lex. Iroq., 42, 1883 (Mohawk name). 
Skequaneronon. Sagard (1632), Can., iv, Huron 
Diet., 1866. Skighquan. Livingston (1701) in N. 
Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IV, 899, 1854. Sorcerers. Mae- 
lean, Can. Savage Folk, 359, 1896 (English ren 
dering of name -by which they were known to 
earlv French missionaries). Squekaneronons. 
Sagard (1636), Can., 1,172, 1.866 (Huron name). 
Tuskwawgomeeg. Tanner, Narr., 316,1830 (Ottawa 
name). 

Nipky. Probably a Lower Creek town, 
as "Appalya, beloved man of Nipky, " is 
mentioned among the Lower Creek chiefs 
in a document dated Frederica, Ga., in 
1747. McCall, Hist. Ga., i, 867, 1811. 

Nipmuc (from Nipamaug, fresh-water 
fishing place ). The inland tribes of 
central Massachusetts living chiefly in 
the s. part of Worcester co., extending 
into Connecticut and Rhode Island. 
Their chief seats were on the headwaters 
of Blackstone and Quinebaug rs., and 
about the ponds of Brookfield. Ilassana- 
mesit seems to have been their principal 
village in 1674, but their villages had no 
apparent political connection, and the 
different parts of their territory were sub 
ject to their more powerful neighbors, 
the Massachuset, Wampanoag, Narragan- 
set, and Mohegan, and even tributary to 
the Mohawk. The Nashua, dwelling far 
ther K., are sometimes classed with the 
Nipmuc, but were rather a distinct body. 
The New England missionaries had 7 
villages of Christian Indians among them 
in 1674; but on the outbreak of King 
Philip s war in the next year almost all 
of them joined the hostile tribes, and 
at its close fled to Canada or westward 
to the Mahican and other tribes on the 
Hudson. 

The following villages and bands prob 
ably belonged to the Nipmuc: Acoorne- 
ineck, Chabanakongkomun, Chachau- 
bunkkakowok, Hadley Indians, Hassa- 
namesit, Magunkaquog, Manchaug, Man- 
exit, Massomuck, Med field, Menemesseg, 
Metewemesick, Missogkonnog, Musketa- 
quid, Nashobah, Nichewaug, Okomma- 
kamesit, Pakachoog, Quabaug, Quahmsit, 
Quantisset, Quinebaug, Segunesit, Stjuaw- 
keag, Tatumasket, Totapoag, Wacuntug, 
Wenimesse.t, and Womntuek. (,r. M. ) 
Neepemut. Williams (1637) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 4th s.. vi, 190, 1863. Neepmucks. /bid., 3d 
s., ix, 300, 1846. Neepnet. Williams (en. 1636), 
ibid., 4th s., vi, 188, 1S63. Neipnett. Winthrop 
(1632) quoted by Barber. Hist. Coll., 570, 1841. 
Nepmets. Higginson (1637) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll. ,4th s., vii, 396, 1865 (misprint?). Nep mock. 
Stephens (1675), ibid., 3d s., X. 117, 1849. Nepnet 
Mck cnney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 82, 1854. 
Nibenets. Maura nit, Abenakis, 2, 1866. Nip- 
moog. Writer of 1675 quoted by Drake, Inn. 
Chron., 19, 1836. Nipmucks Williams (1660) in 
Iv. I. Col. Roc., i, 40. 1856. Nipmug. Letter of 
1675 in X. II. Hist. Soc. Coll., II, 6, 1827. Nipmuk. 



BULL. 30] 



NIPOMA KlSKA 



Eliot (1059) quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds bk 2 
80, 1848. Nipnet. Eliot (1649) quoted by Barber, 
Hist. Coll., 570, 1841. Nipnett. Dudley (1<>31) in 
N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., iv, 226, 1834. * Nopnat 
Writer of 1647 quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 2 
18, 1848. 

Nipoma. A former Chumashan village 
near Santa Inez mission, Santa Barbara 
co., Cal. (Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 4, 
1860) . Perhaps the same as Nipomo. 

Nipomo. A former village under San 
Luis Obispo mission, 8 m. inland from 
San Luis Obispo, Cal. Perhaps the same 
village (Nipoma) given by Taylor as near 
Santa Inez mission. 

Ni-po-mo. Schumacher in Smithson. Rep. 1874 
342, 1875. 

Niquesesquelua. A Chumashan village 
on one of the Santa Barbara ids., Cal., 

Erobably Santa Rosa, in 1542. 
iquesesquelna. Wheeler Surv. Re-])., vn, 311, 
1879. Nisquesesquelua. Cabrillo (1542) in Smith. 
Colec. Doc. Fla., 186, 1857. 

Niquipos. A Chumashan village on 
either Santa Rosa or Santa Cruz id., Cal., 
in 1542. 

Niquipos. Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, Colrc. Doc. 
Fla., 181, 1857. Nquipos. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Apr. 17, 1863. 

Nirdlirn. A summer settlement of the 
Kingnaitmiut subtribe of the Okomiut 
Eskimo on the x. coast near the head of 
Cumberland sd., Baffin land. Boas in 6th 
Rep. B. A. E.,map, 1888. 

Nisal (.VIw/). A division of the Chi 
nook tribe formerly residing on Nasal r., 
Pacific co., Wash. 

GiLa lelam. Boas, Chinook Texts, 260, 1894 (own 
name). Nasal. Swan, N. W. Coast, 211, 1S57. 
Nisal. Boas, op. cit. 

Niscak ( bustard ). A tribe or divi 
sion mentioned with other Algonquian 
tribes of the region between L. Superior 
and Hudson bay in the Prise de Possession 
( 1671 ) in Perrot, Mem., 293, 1864. They 
were perhaps a gens of the Ottawa. 

Nishinam (from nlseuani, our rela 
tions ). The southern branch of the 
Maidu, occupying the valley of Bear r., 
Cal. While this portion of the Maidu 
is in some ways distinct from the north 
ern branches, all of this family are so 
similar in every respect that even without 
the fact of the complete linguistic unity 
which they represent it would seem 
illogical to separate them. The Nishinam 
divisions and villages, which were once 
populous and numerous along Bear r., are 
as follows: Divisions Koloma, Pusune, 
Vesnak, and Wapumne. Villayc* I>ush- 
amul,Chuemdu, Hamitinwoliyu, Intanto, 
Kaluplo, Kapaka, Lelikian, Lidlipa, Mu- 
lamchapa, Opelto, Pakanchi, Pulakatu, 
Shokumimlepi, Shutamul, Solakiyu, Ta- 
lak,Toanimbuttuk, and Yokolimdu. See 
Maidu, Pujunan Family. (R. u. i>. ) 

Nishinam. Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 282, 
1877. Nis-se-non, Merriam in Science, N. a., 
xix, 914, 1904 (or, Nishinam). Tainkoyo. Cur- 
tin, MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1885. Tanko. Dixon, 
mf n, 1903 (northern Maidu name: probably 
from tai, west : Tai-nko having the west ). 
Tankum. Chever in Bull. Essex Inst. 1870, n, 28, 
1871. 



.- 

tun}. A former village of the Chastacosta 
on Rogue r., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour Am 
Folk-lore, in, 2:U, 1S90. 

Nisibourounik. Oneof the fonrdivision< 
of theCree. Jes. Rel. ltir)S,22, 1858. 

Niska. The dialectic name for one of 
the three Chimmesyan divisions, the 
other two being the Kitksan and the 
Tsimshian. In tradition, art, and manner 
of living these three divisions are closely 
allied, with such geographic differences 
as would naturally occur. In language 
less than one-third of the vocabulary is 
common to all, a like proportion varies 
in accent, while the remainder is different 
and more local in character. Dialectic 
differences are much less marked between 
the two interior river divisions than be 
tween either of them and the Tsimshian 
of the coast. 

The territory of the Xiska includes Ob 
servatory inlet, Nass bay, and the drain 
age basin of Nass r. and its tributaries, 
but those northern sources that interlock 
with the Iskoot and the Stikine rs. are 
claimed also by the Tahltan, and over this 
contention have occurred many wars that 
havealwayskeptthesepeopleapart. The 
Niska villages have always been on the 
main river and show evidence of consid 
erable size. The houses, in a single row, 
follow the contour of the shore; they are 
built of hewn timbers in the form of a 
parallelogram, with a central open lire- 
place of gravel, and a smoke-hole in the 
roof. Carved heraldic columns stand in 
front, in which the crest of the deceased 
is shown at the ba^e ar.d that of the suc 
cessor at the top, and in one old village 
grave-houses of logs surmounted by ani 
mal and bird forms in wood and stone, 
representing the totemic emblems of the 
dead, rest on the river bank in the midst 
of the columns. 

With the establishment of missions the 
older villages have generally been de 
serted and the people are being concen 
trated at three points, under the super 
vision of missionaries of the Church of 
England, and small modern dwellings 
are taking the place of the old communal 
house. Modern ideas prevail, and the 
condition of the people is a credit to 
both their teachers and themselves. 
The villages, past and present, together 
with the more important village sites, are: 
Kincolith, Kitaix, Lakkul/ap or (ireen- 
ville, ( Jwinwork, Laktmgidaor Ankeegar, 
Kisthenmwelgit or Willshilhtumwill- 
willgit,Qunahhair, Kitwinshilk,Sheaksh, 
Aiyansh, Kitlakdamix, and Kitwinlkole. 
Other town names have been given, as 
follows, but these, wholly or in part, may 
duplicate some of the above: Kitahon, 
Kitangata, Kitlakaous, and Andeguale. 

The Niska were divided geographically 
into the Kitkahteen ( people of the lower 



NISKAP NISSOWAQUET 



[B. A. E. 



valley ), including those Inflow the can 
yon, and the Kitanweliks ( people of the 
upper river ), comprising those above 
this point. 

Tradition tells that long ago when the 
principal village was across the river 
to the southward, some little hoys were 
aiMii.-inir themselves by catching salmon, 
rutting slits in their barks in which they 
inserted Hat stones, and then letting them 
g>, playing they were whales. This_ so 
incensed the guardian spirit that, rising 
from the mountain to the southward 
enveloped in a wide spreading black 
cloud that changed day into night, with 
eyes of tlame and voice of thunder, he 
rolled down the mountain side as a river 
of lire and swept the village away. The 
people tied across the river and took 
refuse on the hills until quiet was re 
stored, when they divided, some settling 
at Kitlakdamix and there retaining the 
old name of K itauwiliks, while the others, 
founding Kitwinshilk on the rocks over 
looking the rapids, we re ever afterward 
known by the name of their village as 
The people among the li/ards. 

The social organi/ation is founded upon 
matriarchy, and is dependent upon the 
existence of four exogamons parties, dis 
tinguished by their crests, who inter 
marry and who supplement one another 
on all occasions of ceremony. These 
parties are subdivided into families who 
are represented by minor crests but who 
still retain the party emblem. These 
four parties are: (1) Laghkepo, repre 
sented by the Wolf and having as its 
subdivisions the Brown-bear, Crow, 
Crane, and Red-wing flicker; ( 2) Lagh- 
keak, represented by the Eagle and hav 
ing as its subdivisions the Beaver, Owl, 
Dog-iish, and Squirrel; ( :>) Kanhadda, 
represented by the Raven and having as 
its subdivisions the Frog, Sea-lion, Scul- 
pin, and Star-fish; (4) Kishpootwada, 
represented by the Killer-whale and hav 
ing as its subdivisions the Osprey and 
the Hear-under- Water. (Boas gives the 
following subdivisions: (iyitkadok, Lak- 
seel. Laktiaktl, (iyitgyigyenik, (Jyitwul- 
nakyel, < iyi-kabenak, Laklonkst, Gy- 
itsaek, Laktsemelik, and (lyisgahast. 
lie assigns the first two to the Raven 
phratry, the next three to the Wolf 
phratry, the four following to the 
Kagle phralrv. and the last to the Bear 
phratry.) 

The Niska look to the river for their 
food supply, which consists principally 
of salmon and eulachon. Indeed it is 
owing to the enormous number of the 
latter fish that run in to spawn in the 
early spring that the name Nass, mean 
ing the stomach, or food depot , has been 
given to the river. 

In I .ML the population of the Niska 
towns was SlL ; in IWfi, si-|. ( ( j. T. K. ) 



Naas River Indians. Scott in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1869, 
563, 1870. Nascah. Brit. Col. map, Ind. Aff., Vic 
toria, 1872. Nascars. Horetzky, Canada on Pac., 
121), 1874. Nasqa. Dorsey in Am. Antiq., XIX, 
277, 1897. Nass. Dunn, Hist. Oregon, 279, 1844. 
Nasva. Boas in Zeit. t iir Ethnol., 231, 1888. 
Nishgar. Can. Ind. Aff. Rep., 432, 1896. Nishka. 
Horetzky, op. cit., 219. Niska. Tolmie and Daw- 
son Vocabs. Brit. Col., 113B, 1884. Nisk-a . 
Boas in 10th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 48, 1895. 
Nis-kah. Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., 1, 143, 1877. 
Nuss-ka. Kranse, Tlinkit Ind., 318, 1885. Old- 
nass. Scott in H.R. Ex. Doc. 65, 36th Cong., 1st 
sess., 115, 1860 (probably identical). 

Niskap. Mentioned with the Smulka- 
mish as bands residing on the Muckle- 
shoot res., Wash. Perhaps a subdivi 
sion of the Puyallup. 

Nooscope. Gosnell in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1857, 338, 1858. 
White River Indians. Gosnell in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1856, 338, 1857. 

Nisqualli. A Salish tribe on and about 
the river of the same name flowing into 
the s. extension of Puget sd., Wash. 
The Nisqualli res. is on Nisqualli r. be 
tween Pierce and Thurston cos. The 
name has also been extended to apply to 
those tribes of the E. side of Puget sd. 
speaking the same dialect as the above. 
Such are the Puyallup, Skagit, Snoho- 
mish, Snokwalmu, and Stilakwamish. 
Mitsukwic was a former Nisqualli village. 
The Nisqualli made a treaty with the 
United States at Medicine cr., Wash., Dec. 
26, 1854, ceding certain lands and reserv 
ing others. The Executive order of Jan. 
20, 1S57, denned the present Nisqualli res. 

Askwalli. Gatschet, Kalapuya MS., B. A. E.. 31 
(Calapooya name). Lts^eais. Gibbs, Nestucca 
vocab., B. A. E. (Kestucca name). Nasqually. 
White in Ind. Aff. Rep., 460, 1843. Nesquallis. 
Duflot de Mot ras, Expl., n, 335, 1844. Nesqually. 
LI. S. Stat. at Large, XI, 395, 1S67. Nez-quales. 
Smet. Letters, 231, 1843. Nez qually. Hines, 
Oregon, 29, 1851. Niskwali. Gatschet in True. 
A. A. A. S., xxxr, 577, 1882. Niskwalli. Gibbs in 
Cont. N. A. Ethnol. .1,178, 1877 (used collectively). 
Nisqualies. Domenech, Deserts X. A., I, 442, 1860. 
Nisquallis. Sterrett (1855) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 26, 
34th Cong., Istsess., 65, 1856. Nisqually. Hale in 
U.S. Expl. Exped., VI, 211, 1846. N squalli. Gibbs, 
MS. no. 248, B. A. E. (name strictly belongs to the 
village at the first dam on Nisqualli r.). Qual- 
liamish. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 688, 1857. 
Quallyamish. Lane quoted by Schoolcraft, ibid., 
r. 521, 1X51. Skwale. Hale in V. S. Expl. Exped., 
vi, 211, 1X46. Sk wa-le-ube. McCaw, Puyallup 
MS. vocal)., B. A. E.. 1X85 (Puyallup name). 
Skwali. Latham in Trans. Philo l. Soc. Lond., 
71, 1856. Skwalliahmish. Gibbs in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., i, 17x, 1X77. Skwalz. Gallatin (1846) in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 402, 1X53. Squalli- 
ah-mish. Gibbs in 1 ac. R. R. Rep., i, 435, 1X55. 
Squalli-a-mish. Tolmie, ibid., 434. Squally-ah- 
mish. Starling in Ind. Aff. Rep., 170, 1X52. 
Squallyamish. Scouler in. Tour. Geog. Soc. Lond., 
I. 224, 1X41. Squawlees. Meek in II. R. Ex. Doc. 
76, 30th Cong.. 1st sess., 10, 1X4X. Squiath. Ind. 
Aff. Rep. 1X56, 265. 1X57. Tse Skualli amim. Gat 
schet, Lakmiut MS., B. A. E., 105 (Ldkmiut- 
Kalapuya name). 

Nissowaquet. An Ottawa chief, known 
to the French as La Fonrche, who during 
most of his life resided at Michilimackinac, 
Mich. lie is said to have been made 
head chief of his tribe as early as 1721 
((rrignon in Wis. ilist. Coll., in, 198, 
1857), at which time Charles DeLanglade, 
his close friend and aid, married his sis 
ter Domitilde. Nissowaquet allied him- 



BULL. 30] 



NITAHAURITZ NIUYAKA 



i i 



self with the French in their war with the 
English, and it is said was present at Ft 
Duquesne at the time of Braddock s de 
feat. He is said to have been still living 
in 1780 (Draper in Wis. Hist. Coll. in 
_ 199, 1857; Mich. % Pion. Coll., x, 406, 
1888). His name is also spelled Nissaoua- 
kouad (Wis. Hist. Coll., vn, 125, 1876). 

Nitahauritz. One of the 4 Alibamu 
towns formerly existing w. of the con 
fluence of Cabo (Cahawba) and Alabama 
rs., in Dallas co., Ala. 

Nitahaurithz. Lattre, Carte des Etats-TTnis, 1784. 
Nitahauritz. Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. 

Nitak. A Knaiakhotana village on the 
E. side of Knik bay, at the head of Cook 
inlet, Alaska, containing 15 persons in 
1880. 

Nitak. Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Nitakh. 
Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska. 29, 1884. 

Nitakoskitsipupiks ( obstinate ). A 
band of the Piegan tribe of the Siksika. 
Ne-ta -ka-ski-tsi-pup -iks. Harden, Kthnog. and 
Philol. Mo. Val., 2(54, 1802 (trans, people that 
have their own way ) . Nit -ak-os-kit-si-pup-iks. 
Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, 209, 1892. Obsti 
nate. Ibid., 225. 

Nitawaliks. Given as a Chimmesyan 
tribe on upper Nass r., Brit. Col. Tolmie 
and Dawson, Vocabs. Brit. Col., 113u 
1884. 

Nitawyiks ( lone eaters ) . A band of 
the Piegan tribe of the Siksika. 

Lone Eaters. Grinnell, Blaekfoot Lodge Tales 
225, 1892. Ni-taw -yiks. Ibid., 209. 

Nitchequon. A small tribe or division 
living about Nicheku lake, Ungava, Cana 
da; probably a Nascapee band. 

Nitrhequon. Hind, Labrador Penin., n, 117, 18(53. 
Nitchik Irinionetchs. Bellin, map, 1755. Nitchik 
Irinionetz. La Tour, map, 1779. Nitchiks. Jef 
ferys, French Doni., pt. 1, map, 1761. 

Nitel. A Chumashan village on Santa 
Cruz id. (the San Lucas of Cabrillo), 
Cal. in 1542. Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, 
Colec. Doc. Fla., 181, 1857. 

Nith-songs. The nith-songs ( Norwe 
gian mth, contention ) of the Greenland 
Eskimo are a species of word duel in 
which the audience present has the de 
ciding voice, ? sort of decision by "song 
and dance" of private quarrels and dis 
putesprimitive arbitration, as it were. 
As described by Crantz (1767) and Egede 
(1746) this institution is as follows: When 
a Greenlander considers himself injured 
in any way by another person, he com 
poses about him a satirical song, which 
he rehearses with the help of his inti 
mates. He then challenges the offending 
one to a duel of song. One after another 
the two disputants sing at each other 
their wisdom, wit, and satire, supported 
by their partisans, until at last one is at 
his wit s end, when the audience, who are 
the jury, make known their decision. 
The matter is now settled for good, and 
the contestants must be friends again and 
not recall the matter which was in dis 
pute. Egede styled this song contest 
"the common mode of avenging one s 
self in Greenland." To make his oppo 



nent the laughing stock of the commu 
nity is a sweet morsel of revenge fur an 
Eskimo. The general opinion of trav 
elers and others is that the "son" dud 
was a very useful and even praiseworthy 
social institution, and Xansen expresses 
his regret that on the w. coast of Green 
land it has been abolished by the IHH- 
sionaries. On the E. coast it lingers as, 
Nansen reports, in the form of the so- 
called "drum dance," the only real judi 
cial institution of these Eskimo . The fear 
of public shame is very powerful as a fac- 
.tor in social betterment. This remark 
able restriction of vengeance and modifi 
cation of the duel has been largely over 
looked by sociologists. Boas reports the 
nith-song as still in vogue among the Es 
kimo of Baffin land, where "downright 
hostile feelings and personal grudges are 
settled by the opponents meeting on a 
fixed occasion and singing songs at each 
other"; and Swanton reports an analo 
gous custom among the Tlingit, entered 
into by opposing phratries. Brinton ( Es- 
. says of Anier., 287, 1890) gives a speci 
men of this poetic duel, furnished by 
.Rink. Consult also Egede, Descr. of 
Greenland, 158, 1745; Crant/, Hist, of 
Greenland, 1 78, 17*67; Xansen, First Cross 
ing, 8, J7, 1890; Steinmetz, Entwickl. der 
Strafe, ir, 67-7(5, 1S92. (A. F. <-. ) 

Nitikskiks ( Xlt -lk-xkik*, lone fight 
ers ). A band of the Piegan and also of the 
Kainah tribe of the Siksika. Grinnell, 
Blackfoot Lodge Tales, 209, 1S92. 

Nitinat. A Xootka, tribe on a tidal lake 
of the same name, near the s. w. coast of 
Vancouver id. Pop. 198 in 1906. Their 
villages are Carmanah, Clo-oose, Tso- 
oquahna, and Wyah. 

Nettinat. Taylor in Cal. Fanner. Au^. 1, lsfc>. 
Niten aht. Hrit. Col. map, Victoria. 1872. Niti- 
naht. Sproat, Savage Life, 80S, IM>S. Nitinat. 
Galiano.Viaje, 28, 1802. Ni tinath. Boas. f.th Rep. 
N. W. Tribes Can., :il, IS .tO. Nittanat. K.-lli-y. 
Oregon, (18, 1830 (given as a, village). Nitten-aht. 
Can. Ind. Aft .. 188. iss;i. Nittenat. Seouler ( ix-ir,) 
in Jour. Ethnol. Sor. Loud.. I 231. 1*48. Nitti- 
nahts. Whymper, Travels, 74, 18<;y. Nittinat. 
Mayne. Brit, Col. ,251. 18<i2. 

Nitotsiksisstaniks ( kill close by ). A 
band of the Piegan tribe of the Si ksika. 
Kill Close By. (irinnrll, Blarkfoot Lodge Tales. 
225, 1892. Ni-tot -si-ksis-stan iks. Il>i ]., 2(H>. 

Niudje (Xt-i 1j< , lower part of a 
stream ). A former village of the Kansa 
on Kansas r., about 4 in. above the site 
of Kansas City, Mo. ,T. O. Dorsey, Kansa 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1S82. 

Niueuomokai (nom signifies offspring 
of two sisters ). The Bu//anl clan of the 
Pi ma. 

Ni-ue-U6m 0-kai. Bandelier in Arcli. lust. Papers, 
in 254 1890. Nuey-kech-emk. ten Kate, Keizen 
in N. A., 155, 1S.S5. 

Niutang. A village of the Kingnait- 
mitit subtribe of the < >komiut Eskimo on 
Kingnait fjord, E. I.aHin land. P>oas in 
6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Niuyaka ( New York ). A subordinate 
settlement of the Upper Creek town Oak- 



7S 



NIUYAKA- NKUKAPKNAOH 



fn>kee. on tin K. bank of Tallapoosa r., 
I O in. above Oaktnskee, in Cleburne co., 
Ala. It was settled in 1777 byTukpafka 
Creeks from the Chattahoochee. It was 
first called by another name, but after 
the conclusion of the treaty between the 
Tnited States and the Creeks in New 
York. A lit:. 7. 1790, it received the above 
appellation. ( H. w. H. ) 

New Yarcau.8ch<K)lcTuft,Ind. Tribes, VI, 371, 1857. 
New Yaucaa. Pickett, Hist. Ala., n, 339. 1S">1. 
New yau-cau. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 45. 46, 1848. 
New Yauco. I . S. Ind. Treat. (1825), 326, 1837. 
New-yau-kau. Schoolcrnft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 381, 
1x51. New York. Hlount (1793) in Am. State Pap., 
Ind. All ., i, -HO. 1S32. New Youcka. Flint. Ind. 
Wars, 202. 1S33. Niuyaxa. Gatschet, Creek Migr. 
Leu r .. i. 139. issi. Nowyawger. Barnard (1793) 
in Am. State Pap.. Ind. Aft .. I, 382, 1832. Nuo 
Yaucau. Hawkins 1 1M 1), ibid.. 860. 

Niuyaka. A town of the ( reek Nation 
on New Yorker cr., as. branch of Deep 
Fork, about Tp. 13 X., K. 10 or 11 K., 
Okla. (iatschet, Creek Miur. Leg., n, 
lS(i, 1SSS. 

Niwanshike (\i -ir<ti -ci -ke, water per- 
son ). A subgens of the Pakhtha, the 
Beaver L ens of the Iowa. Dorsey in loth 
Rep. P.. A. K., L>:!J), 1897. 

Nixora (from nij<>i\ tiij or, said to mean 
captive ). A term said to have been 
applied liv the Pima of s. Arizona to 
"those Indians whom the nations beyond 
capture in their wars among themselves, 
and whom the Ynma and Papago after 
ward bring to Altar and other places to 
sell as captives or slaves, of whatever 
nation they may be" (Font, 1775-76, 
cited by Cones, Garces Diary, 446, 1900; 
Oro/co y Berra, Geog., 350/1864). Ac 
cording to ( iarees, the; term Nifores was 
one of the names which the Pima applied 
to the Yavapai. Cf. dfiihnrox. 
Nichoras. Miihlenpfordt, Mejico. II, 537. 1814. 
Niforas. Gunvs (1770) cited by Arrieivita, Chron. 
Scn itica. n. 155. 1792 ( here applied to Yavapai). 
Nifores. (Jurees (1775-76). Diary. 416, 1900 (ap 
plied to Ynvapnii. Nigoras. Raynal, Indies, vi, 
map, 178.x. Nijor. Kino . 1(199) in Doe. Hist. 
Mrx.. lib s.. i. 319, 1*56. Nijoras. Orozeoy Berra, 
<H-iu .. 35(1. 1 Mi I. Nijores. Ibid. Nijotes. Villa- 
Seiior. Thealro Am., pt. 2, 107. 17ls Niojoras, 
Ale. <!(.. I>ir. <;<.. iv. -J1S. 178s. Nizorse. Morelli, 
KnMj. Novi Orbis, Id. I77ti. Noraguas. (iarees 
i 1771 , cited by Cones, (lanvs Diarv (1775-76), 31, 
1900. 

Nkahlimiluh ( V-k<ilt-l t-,itil-ult}. A 
Ntlakyapamnk village near the month of 
upper Nicola r., P.rit. Col. Dawson in 
Trans, Roy. Soc. Can., sec. n, 44, 1891. 

Nkaih. A Ntlakyapamnk village not far 
from Stryne, in the interior of British Co 
lumbia. Pop. 4 in 1896, after which date 
it seems to have been confused with a 
town called Nkya. 

Nkaih -Can. Ind. AfT., 434, 1896. N-wa-ih Ibid 
!Hx5, ! . .. ISM;. 

Nkakim ( despised , because the people 
of this place were of low social status and 
much looked down upon by the Spu/- 
/<nm people). A villa^eof Xtiakyapanmk 
in the neighborhood of Spnx/.nm, Fraser 
r., P.rit. Col. 
N ka kim. Hill-Tout in Hep. Ktlni..]. surv. Can.. 



Nkaktko ( Xqa ktko,- little rotten water , 
or bad water ). A village of the Upper 
Fraser band of Ntlakyapamuk on the w. 
side of Fraser r., 28 in. above Lytton, 
Brit. Col. 

Nqa ktko. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., II, 
172, 1900. N ta -ko. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. 
Surv. Can., 4, 1899. 

Nkamaplix. A division of Okinagan 
under the Kamloops-( >kanagan agency, 
Brit. Col.; pop. 232 in 1900. 

En ke map-o-tricks. Can. Ind. AfT. 1883. pt. 1,191, 
188-1. Nkamaplix. Ibid., pt. II, 166, 1901. Okana- 
gan. Ibid., pt. II, 68. 1902. 

Nkamchin ( confluence , entrance ). 
A village of the Spences Bridge band of 
Ntlakyapamuk, on the s. side of Thomp 
son r., at its junction with the Nicola, 
about 24o in. above Lytton, Brit. Col. 
Pop. 81 in 1901, the last time the name 
apj tears. 

Nic-com-sin. Can. Ind. AfT. 1883, pt. I, 189, 1884. 
Nicola, Brit. Col. map, Ind. AfT.. Victoria, 1872. 
Nicola Mouth, Present white man s name. N - 
kam-sheen. Dawson in Trans. Roy. Soe. Can., see. 
n, 44, 1891. Nkamtci n. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., ii, 173. 1900. Nkumcheen. Can. Ind. 
AfT., pt. n, 166, 1901. N kum tcin. Hill-Tout in 
Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 4, 1899. 

Nkamip. An Okinagan division under 
the Kamloops-Okanagan agency, Brit. 
Col. Pop. 70 in 1904, 65 in 1906. 

En-ke-mip. Can. Ind. AfT. 1883, pt. I, 191, 1884. 
N-Kamip. Ibid., pt. n, 166. 1901. Osooyoos. Ibid., 
79, 1S78. Osoyoos. Ibid., 1882. 259, 1883. 

Nkattsim (Nkattst m, log bridge across 
stream. II ill-Tout). A Ntlakyapamuk 
village on the E. side of Fraser r., about 
38 m. above Yale, Brit. Col., near Keefer s 
station, but on the opposite side of the 
river. Pop. 87 in 1901, the last time the 
name appears. 

Ne-kat-sap. Can. Ind. AfT. 1883, pt. I, 189, 1884. 
Nkatsam. Ibid., pt. II, 166, 1901. Nkattsi m. 
Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,, n, 169, 1900. 
N ka tzam. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 
5, 1899. 

Nkoeitko (Nqu^itko, little lake or 
pond Teit; yellow water Hill-Tout). 
A village of the Spences Bridge band of 
Ntlakyapamuk on the s. side of Thompson 
r., 30 m. above Lytton, Brit. Col. 
N koakoae tko. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. 
("nn., 4, 1899. Nqoe itko. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., n, 173, 1900. 

Nkoiam (N ko lmn. , eddy ). A Ntlak 
yapamuk village on Fraser r., below Cisco, 
Brit. Col. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. 
Can., 5, 1899. 

Nkoikin ( Xqol khi, black pine ridge ). 
A village of the Lytton band of Ntlakya 
pamuk on the E. side of Fraser r., 8 in. 
above Lytton, Brit. Col. ; so-called because 
young tirs grew thickly there. Pop. 15 
in 1897, when last the name appears. 

Nkuaikin. Can. Ind. AfT. 1892, 312, 1893. 
N okoie kKn. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. 
Can., 1, 1899. Nqakin. Can. Ind. AfT. 1898, 418, 
1899 (in combination with " Stryne-Nqakin-*, 
Stryne bein^ another town). Nqoi kin. Teit in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 11,172. 1900. Nquakin. 
Can. Ind. AfT., 230, 1886. 

Nkukapenach (N k u kapenatc, canoes 
transformed to stone ). A Squawmish 
village community on the right bank of 



BULL. 30] 



NKUOOSAI 



Bquawmisht r., Brit. Col. Hill-Tout in 
Rep. Brit. A. A. S., 474, 1900. 

Nkuoosai (Nkud osai}. A Squaw mish 
gens living on Howe sd., coast of British 
Columbia. Boas, 1MB., B. A. E., 18S7. 

Nkuoukten ( Nkuo ukten}. ASquawmish 
gens living on Howe sd., coast of British 
Columbia. Boas, MS., B. A. E., 1887. 

Nkya ( AV///a, from nqa iEx, to swim ). 
A village of the Lytton band of Ntlak- 
yapamuk on the w. side of Eraser r., Brit. 
Col., 2 m. below Lytton. Pop. 71 in 1901, 
the last time the name appears. 

Macaiyah. Brit. Col. map, Ind. Aff., Victoria, 
1872. Macayah. Can. Ind. Aff., 79, 1878. Ni- 
kai -a. DJUVSOII in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., sec. II, 
44, 1891. N kai a. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. 
Surv. Can., 4, 1*99. Nkaih. Can. Ind. Aff., 363, 
1897 (confused with Ntedh, q. v.) . Nkya. Ibid., 
pt. II, 164, 1901. Nqa ia. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., It, 171, 1900. Nyakai. Can. Ind. All . 
1898, 418, 1899. 

Nma (xV -?//<//, sturgeon ). A gens of 
the Potawatomi. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 
167, 1877. 

Nmapena ( N -md-pe-nti, , carp ). A 
gens of the Potawatomi. Morgan, Anc. 
Soc., lf)7, 1877. 

No ( beloved town ). A Calusa vil 
lage on the s. w. coast of Florida in the 
latter part of the 16th century. 
No. Fontaneda (co. 1575), Mem. /Smith trans., 
19. 1854. Non. Fontaneda in Doc. Died., v, 538, 
1866. 

Noamlaki (Ilmawi: western dwell 
ers. Curtin). A Wintun tribe formerly 
living on Long, Thomes, and Elder crs., 
in the mountains and on the edge of the 
plains in Colusa and Tehama cos., Cal. 
Nomee Lacks. Taylor in Cal. Fanner, June 8, 
1860. Nome-Lacke es, Geiger in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1859, 438, i860. Numleki. Curtin, Ilmawi MS. 
vocab., B.A.E., 1889 ( west dwellers : given as 
Ilmawi name of the Wintun). Tehamas. II it tell, 
Hist. Cal., I, 731, 1898. Titkainenom. A. L. 
Kroeber, inf n. 1903 (Yuki nair.eV 

Noatak. A Nunatogmiut settlement on 
the lower part of Noatak r., in x. w. 
Alaska. 

Noatagamut^s. Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 
60, 1881. Noatak. Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 
464, 1906. 

Nobscusset. A village, perhaps of the 
Nauset, that was subject to the \Vampa- 
noag; situated near the present Dennis, 
Barnstable co., Mass. In 1685 it was a 
village of the Praying Indians. 
Nabsquassets. H oyt, Anti q. Res., 89, 1821. Nobs- 
cussett. Hinckley (1685) in Mass. Hist. Sue. 
Coll., 4th s., v, 133. 1861. Nobsqassit. Drake, 
Bk. Inds., bk. 2, 118, 1848. Nobsquasitt. C.ookin 
(1674) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., I, 148, 1806. 
Nobsquassit. Bourne (1674), ibid., 197. 

Nocake. Parched corn-meal, a dish 
which the English colonists adopted, with 
its name, from the Algonquian tribes of 
New England. Roger Williams (Key to 
Am. Lang., 11, 1643) defines the Narra- 
ganset tiokeJi ick as "parched meal, which 
is a readie very wholesome food, which 
they eat with a little water . " The Massa- 
chuset form as given by Eliot is nookhic, 
the same astiokldk. Wood, in 1634, uses 
the form nocake; Palfrey (New Eng., i, 



28, 1858) has iwokhik. The word signi 
fies it is soft . ( A . ,,, ,. ) 

Nochak. A Kuskwoginiut Kskiino vil 
lage on Chuiitna r., Alaska- non >s in 
1890. 

Noh-chamiut. Kleventh Census, Alaska, ir.J ls 
(the people). 

Nochpeem. A tribe or band of the 
Wappinger confederacy formerly occu 
pying the E. bank of the Hudson about 
the site of Matteawan, Dutchessco., X. Y. 
De Laet locates here the Paehami, but 
Ruttenber says these may have been the 
Tankitekes, and, indeed , a chief of the 
latter bore the name Pacham or Pachem. 
They had a village called Nochpeem, 
and others called Keskistkonk and Pas- 
quasheck, but their principal one seems 
to have been called Canopus, from their 
chief. (.1. M. ) 

Highlanders. Doc. of 1660 in N. Y. Doe ( ol Hist 
XIII, ]SL>, 18X1. Highland Indians. Doe. of Hi:,:,, 
ibid., 52. Hogelanders. Breedeu Raedt (ru. 1630) 
quoted by Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R , 80, 1*72 
(Dutch form). Noch-Peem. Van der Donek 
(1656) quoted by Ruttenber, ibid., 72. Nochpeem. 
Treaty of 1644 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.. AMI 17 
1881. Pachami. Map (co 1614). ibid., I, Isoii. 
Pachamins. De Laet (1633) in N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., I, 308, 1841. 

Nockay-Delklinne. See Xnht lnU ,ni. 

Nocos. A Chumashan village between 
Goletaand PtConcepcion, Cal.,in 1542. 
Cabrillo(1542) in Smith, ( olec. Doc. Ela., 
183, 1857. 

Nocto. A former Chumashan village 
near Purisima mission, Santa Barbara 
co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 
18, 1801 . 

Noewe. Mentioned by Bartram (Trav 
els, 371, 1792) as a Cherokee settlement, 
about 1775, on the upper waters of Ten 
nessee r., apparently in w. North Car 
olina. The form can not be certainly 
identified, but it may be intended for 
NayiYhT, sand place, or Nufiyn hl, 
rock place. Cf. Xiour. (.?. M.) 

Nogaie (Xo-ya -ie). A Paviotso tribe 
of four bands, formerly living in N. K. 
Nevada, in the vicinity of Robinson dis 
trict, Spring valley/ I)uckw;iter, and 
White r. valley; pop. 200 in 1873. 
Powell in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1873, 52, 1874. 

Nogal (Span. walnut ). A settlement 
of the Huichol to which emigrated those 
who once lived at Aguas A/ules; situated 
s. w. of Santa Catarina, in Jalisco, .Mex 
ico. The place was afterward taken pos 
session of by Mexican settlers, but now 
the Huichol are permitted to reside 
therein. Lumholtz, Unknown Mex., n, 
256, 1902. 

Nogales (Span.: walnuts ). A ruined 
pueblo s. of the malpais or lava beds in 
s. E. New Mexico. Bandelier in Arch. 
Inst. Rep., v, 88, 1884. 

Nogeling. A Kiatagmiut Kskimo vil 
lage on the outlet of L. Clark, Alaska; pop. 

Kiin 1890. 

Noghelingamiut. Eleventh Census, Alaski 

1893 (the people). 



so 



NOGGAI NONAPHO 



[B. A. E. 



Noggai. A former Yukonikhotana vil 
lage en Yukon r., Alaska, having 10 in 
habitants in 1844. Zagoskin quoted by 
Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 37, 1884. 

Nogwats ( .\\>-<}>i-nts ). A Paiute band 
formerly near Potosi, s. E. Nev. Pop. 
."ii> in IS?:!, including the Parumpats. 
IN. well in Ind. Aff. Kep. 1*73, 5 , 1S74, 

No Heart. See Nachcn mga. 

Nohioalli. A Costanoan village situ 
ated in 1819 within 10 in. of Santa Cm/ 
mission, ( 1 al. Taylor in Cal. Fanner, 
Apr. fi, 1860. 

Nohulchinta. Tlie highest Koyukukho- 
(ana village on Koyukuk r., on the s. 
fork. 3 in. above the junction. It con 
tained 6 families in 1885. 
Nohoolchfntna. Allen. Rep., 99. 1S87. 

Nohuntsitk ( Xo .rmtfx it.r}. A Kwa- 
kiutl tril>e living at the lower end of 
YVikeiio lake, coast of British Columbia. 
Bnas in Hep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 328, 1897. 

Noieltsi ( AW//.s-/, burnt body ). A 
Xtlakyapamuk village on the w. side of 
Fraser r. , about 23 in. above Yale, Brit. 
Col. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
II, KS9, 1900. 

Nok. A former Koyukukhotana village 
on the \v. bank of Koyukuk r., Alaska, 
near its mouth; pop. 50 in 1844. 
Nokhakate. Zairoskin in Noiiv. Ann. Voy., 5th s., 
xxi. iiuij.. is.M). Nok-khakat. Za^oskin quoted 
by IVtmlY in 10th Census, Alaska, 37, 1X84. 

Noka ( AV/r, bear foot ). A gens of 
the ( hippewa. 

Noka. Warn-n ilxrvj) in Minn. Hist. Soc Coll. 
v. !!. isx:,. No-kaig. Ibid. ,87 (plural). Nok e. 

Win. Junes, inf n, I .ioii. 

Noka. A chief of the western ( hippewa 
in the latter half of the 18th century, who 
attained some celebrity as a leader and 
hunter. The chief incident of his life 
relates to the war between the Mdewa- 
kanton and the Chippewa for possession 
of the banks of the upper Mississippi. In 
17(19, the year following the battle of 
Crow Wing. Minn. -where the Chip 
pewa, though maintaining their ground, 
were hampered by inferior numbers 
they determined to renew the attack on 
the Mdewakanton with a larger force. 
This war party, under the leadership 
of Noka. referred to as "Old Noka" 
evidently on account of his advanced age, 
attacked Shakopee s village on Minnesota 

, Minn., the result being adrawn battle, 
the Chippewa retiring to their own terri 
tory without inflicting material damageon 
their enemy. Regarding Noka s skill as 
" hunter, it is said that he killed in one 
* hunt, starting from the mouth of 
Wing r., Minn., W elk, 4 buffalo, 5 
> hears a lynx, and a porcupine. 
Hole-in-the-day was one of Noka s de 
scendants I Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc 
( oil., v, Jtiii, I,ss5). 

Nokehick. Sec .Yor,,/ r . 

Nokem ( .W,//.;,,,, f rom * ,//, < valley ) 
A village of the Spruces Bridge band of 



Ntlakyapamuk at a place called by the 
whites Drynoch, on thes. side of Thomp 
son r., 16 m. above Lytton, Brit. Col. 
Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 172, 
1900. 

Noketrotra. Mentioned as a tribe, seem 
ingly Moquelumnan, formerly on Fresno 
r., Cal. Weasels in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 
34th Cong., 3d sess., 30, 1857. 

Nokosalgi ( bear people , from tiokosi 
bear , alfjl people ). A Creek clan. 
Nokosalgi. Gatsehet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 155, 
1X84. No-kuse . Morgan, Anc. Soc., 161, 1877. 

Nokrot. A Chnagmiut Eskimo village 
near C. Romanof, s. coast of Norton sd., 
Alaska. 

Azachagyagmut. Zagoskin, Descr. Russ. T oss. 
Am., I, 73, 1847. Nokrotmiut. Coast Surv., 1868, 
quoted by Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. 

Nokyuntseleta. A former pueblo of the 
Jeme/ in New Mexico, the exact site of 
which is not known. 

No-cum-tzil-e-ta. Bandolier in Arch. Jnst. Pa 
pers, iv, 207, 1892. No-kyun-tse-le-ta . Hodge, 
iield notes, B. A. E., 1895. 

Nolcha ( Sun ). Given by Bourke 
(Jour. Am. Folk-lore, n, 181, 1889) as a 
clan of the Mohave, (j. v. 

Nomas (X<Ym<ix}. The ancestor of a 
Tlauitsis gens, after whom the gens itself 
was sometimes called. Boas in Peter- 
manns Mitt., pt. 5, 130, 1887. 

Nomasenkilis (Nomasen^ilis} . The 
ancestor of a Tlatlasikoala gens, after 
whom the gens itself was sometimes 
called. Boas in Petermanns Mitt., pt. 5, 
131, 1887. 

Nomkolkol (Nom-koV -kol) . A former 
Chumashan village on Santa Cruz id. 
(the San Lucas of Cabrillo), Cal., E. of 
the harbor. Henshaw, Buenaventura 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Nomoqois. The ancestor of a Nakomgi- 
lisalagens, after whom the gens itself was 
sometimes called. Boas in Petermanns 
Mitt., pt. 5, 131, 1887. 

Nonantum ( I rejoice, or I am well- 
minded. Trumbull). A Massachuset 
village on Nonantum hill, near Newton, 
Middlesex co., Mass. John Eliot began 
his missionary labors here in 1646, and it\ 
was soon after established by law as ai 
village for the converts. In 1650-51 they 
removed to Natick. 

Hoanantum. Hutchinson in Trans. Am. Antiq. 
Soe., u, 518, 1836. Nanitomen. Mass. Hist. Soc. : 
Coll., 1st s., x, 14, 1809. Nonandom. Harris, ibid., 
1st s., ix, 192, 1804. Nonantum. Gookin (11)74), 
ibid., I, 148, 1806- Kliot (1640) quoted by Pilling. 
Algonq. Bibliog. , 177, 1X91. Nonatum. Gookin 
(1677) in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soe., ir, 518, 1836. 
Noonanetum. Shepard (1(548) in Mass. Hist Hoc. 
Coll. ,3d s., iv, 38. 18:51. Noonatomen. Eliot (1(547), 
ibid., 20. 

Nonapho. A tribal name given in the 
book of burials at Mission San Antonio de 
Valero, Texas, in 1726. Only one entry 
was made under this name, which was 
for the burial of a child of a Mesquitc 
father and a Nonapho mother. The Mes- 
quites (there appear to have been dif 
ferent tribes by this name) were appar- 



BULL. 30] 



NONAWHAKITSE NOOTHLAKIM1SH 



ently Tonkawan. At this time there 
were also Coahuiltecan tribes at the mis 
sion, but the Nonapho can not be identi 
fied with any of the known tribes 
(Enherros, San Antonio de Valero MS 
in the custody of the Bishop of San 
Antonio). (H. E. B.) 

Nonawharitse. A Tuscarora village in 
JNortn Carolina in 1701, mentioned bv 
Lawson (1709), N. C., 383, 1860. 
Non-che-ning-ga. See Nacheninga. 
Nondas ( steep hill. Hewitt). A for 
mer Seneca village, visited in 1791 (Am 
State Pap., Ind. Aff., i, 151, 1832) by 
Col. Thomas Procter, who says it lay 8 m 
from Squakie hill, which would place it 
near the present Nunda, Livingston co 
N. Y. Mary Jemison, "the white 
woman," lived there then. (w. M. B.) 
Non-gee-ninga. See Nacheninga. 
Nongee s Village. A former settlement 
probably of the Chippewa, named after a 
resident chief, situated about the junc 
tion of Thornapple cr. with Grand r., 
Kent co., Mich., a few miles E. of Grand 
Rapids. The land on which it was situ 
ated was ceded to the United States by 
the treaty of Chicago, Aug. 29, 1821. 

Nonharmin (Nor-har -min, pulling up 
stream ) . A subclan of the Delawares 
Morgan, Anc. Soc., 172, 1877. 

Nonhdeitazhi ( those who touch no char 
coal ). A subgens of the Inkesabe gens 
of the Omaha. 



former Chehalis vill 



hahs na 



the s 



-^ M /0. Anuniden- 

ified village that anciently stood on the 
JV end of Harbledovvn id., Brit. Col i n 
Kwakiutl territory.-Dawson in Ca 
Geol. Surv., map, 1887 

Nookalthu ( \oo-Mlt-Jm) . The ito of a 
former Chehalis village x. of Gravs har 
bor, Wash. Gibbs, MS no <>48 B \ K 
Nookhick. See Nocake. 
_ Nooksak ( m< .untain men ) The n-une 
given by the Indians on the coast to a 
bahs h tribe, said to be divided into three 
small bands, on a river of the same name 
in Whatcom co., Wash. About <>()() 

?Qn? f\ ^ e ffidally enumerated in 
1906, but Hill-Tout says there are only 
about 6 true male Nooksak. They speak 
the same dialect as the Squawmish, from 
whom they are said to have separated 
Neuk-sacks. Fitzhugh in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1X57 3">8 
18o8. Nook-saak.-Stevens, ibid., 458 18 



^eit a-baji. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E 2*7 
. JNon-hde-i-ta-zhi. E. La Flesche, inf n, I90ti! 
Nonhdeitazhi. A subgens of the tapa 
gens of the Omaha. 

Naq^it aji. Dorsey in loth Rep. B. A. E 2 >s 
189 /. Non-hde-i-ta-zhi. F. La Flesche, inf n /lQOe! 
Nonoava (from nono, father. Lum- 
holtz) . A Tarahumare settlement on the 
headwaters of Rio Nonoava, s. w. Chi 
huahua, Mexico. The inhabitants, who 
numbered 335 in 1900, are becomino- 
completely civilized. Apache raids are 
still remembered here. 

in Doc. Hist, Mex., 4th s. 



Nonotuc. A village near the present 
Northampton, on Connecticut r., in 
Hampshire co., Mass. Its inhabitants 
seem to have been a part of the Pocomtuc. 
in 1653 they sold a considerable tract on 
me w. bank of the river, extending from 
Hatfield to the falls near Holvoke, but 
continued to live in the English settle 
ment until King Philip s war in 1675, 
when they joined the hostiles. (.T. M ) 

nC n 663) in N - Y - Doc - Co1 - Hist " 



K n l- 6 , 63) in - - - - " 
* Nonaticks. Hoyt, Antiq. Res., 91, 
Non tuck. Ibid., 74. Northampton Indi- 



Nonyishagi ( No-nyish -ii-gi ) . A former 
pueblo of the Jemez of New Mexico; 
lennite locality unknown. (F. w. n.) 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 



IT , -1 1S( 8 - No k;sahk. Stevens, ibid., 455 1*54" 
Nooksahk.-Gibbs in Pac. K. R. Rep., i, 433 1855 
Nooksaks. Keane in Stanford, Compend. fi->(; 
18,8. Nootsak. Hill-Tout in Ethnol. Surv Can 
\1 "^- Nugh-sahk. Mallet in Ind. Aff. Rep., 198"! 
IS//. Nuksahk. Gibb.s in Cont N A Ethnol i 
18<U*77. Nuk-sak.-Gibbs, Clallam and Lum^ 

Noolamarlarmo ( Xool-d - mar-lar -ino 
living in water ). A subclan of the 
Delawares. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 172, 1877. 

Noosiatsks ( Xoo-si-atxks). The ( hehalis 
name of an ancient village on the s. side 
of Grays harbor, Wash. Gibbs MS no 
48, B" A. E. 

Nooskoh (.YOOX-/-O/O. The Chehalis 
name of a former yillage on a creek- 
opposite Whishkah r., Wash. Gibbs 
MS. no. 248, B. A. E. 

Noot (X<Y<ti, or NKru t, allied to ri/it, 
sleep ). A village of the Lytton band 
of Ntlakyapanmk on the w. side of Eraser 
r., 12 in. above Lytton, Brit. Col. 
NKro t. Teit in Mein. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n 
172, 15)00. No ot. Ibid. Tent. Can Ind An" 
185)4, 277, 18D5 (misprint). Yent. Ibid., lS9S,.|ls, 
1899. YEo t. Hill-Tout in Rep. Kthnol. Surv. 
Can.. 4, 1899. Yeut. Can. Ind. All ., j.t. n, 1C.fi, 
1901. Yout. Ibid., 1886, 230, 1887. Ze-ut. Ibid 
1885, 19(5, 1885. 

Noota. One of the four bands into 
which Lewis (Trav., 17o, 180 1 J) divided 
the Crows. 

Noo -ta-. Oritr.Jour. Le\visand Clark, vi, 103,1905. 
Noo-taa. Lewis and Clark, Jour., lilt 1 ., ls-IO. 
Nootapareescar. Lewis and Clark K.\pe<l., O.ues 
ed., iv, index, 1339, 1893 (names of two divisions 
erroneously united). 

Noothlakimish. An unidentifiable Bel- 
lacoola division on North Bentinck Ann, 
Brit. Col.; mentioned by Tolinie and 
Dawson, Vocabs. Brit. CoL, 122n, 1SS4. 



NOOTKA NOQUKT 



Nootka. A name originally applied to 
the Moouehaht \. v. ) of Nootka sd., w. 
coast of Vancouver id., and to their 
principal town, Yu<|Uot (q. v.), but 
subsequently extended to all the tribes 
speaking a similar language. These ex 
tend from ( . Cook on the x. to beyond 
1 ort San Juan, and include the Makah of 
C. Mattery, Wash. Sometimes the term 
has been s used as to exclude the last- 
named tribe. The Xootka form one 
branch of the great Wakashan family and 
their relationship to the second or Kwa- 
kiutl branch is apparent only on close ex- 
ami nation. In 1906 there \vere4o5 Makah 
and -. iri<) Vancouver id. Nootka; total, 
LV>JM. They are decreasing slowly but 
steadily, the reduction in population of 
the Xootka of Vancouver id. alone having 
exceeded L .~><> between 1901 and 190(>. 




The Nootka 
clesaht, Cla 
Kkoolthaht, 
quiat, KelM-i 
extinct ), Kw 
Makah, .Man 



are: Ahousaht, Chaic- 
<|not, Cooptee, Ehatisaht, 
l:irhaath (extinct), Iles- 
aht. Klalm.sdit (probably 
neatsliatka ( . ), Kymjuof, 
aht, Mooachaht, Muchalat , 
Nitinat, Nudiatlit/, oiaht, Opitchesaht, 
I aeheenaht, Seshart, To,, U ;irt, lYhiiekle- 
sit, and 1 ehielet. i.i. K s ) 

Aht.-Sproat, Savage LiiV. :si2, istjs. Nootka.- 
!. K.xpl Kxpt-d , vi, 2-2(1 569. 1M6. 
Wootka Columbian. -Scouler in .lour Fov (}eoir 
So,- xi. 2_M, ISM. Noutka.-Dullot de kofras 
Kxpl., ii, Hll. 1M1. Nuqueno. (ialiano Rela- 
. Hrj. Nutka.-Il.id. O mene.-Boas in 
;>tli Rep. N. \v. Tribes Can., .) ]s,s (Coinox 
inuii.-.. Ouakicha. Duflot ,|,- M,,!n,s, 01 , ( -it 
34o. Southern. Seoul, T, op. cit ^ l Tc - 



. 

Nopeming (for \f>i> t 
people ot th- hush. W. J. ). A north 



ern branch of the Chippewa, living in 
Ontario, N. K. of L. Superior and w. of ]j. 
Nipissing, and sometimes ranging E. as far 
as Ottawa r. From their frequently 
resorting to Sault Ste* Marie they have 
often been confounded with the band at 
that place, and they have been likewise 
confused with the Tetes de Boule, q. v. 
Men of the woods. Maclean, Hudson Bay, I, 74, 
1819 (so i-alied by other tribes). Muskegoag. 
Tanner, Narr., 315, 1S30 (applied by the Ot 
tawa to them as well as to the Maskegon). Nca- 
peeming . Sfhoolcraft, Miss. Val., 299, 1825. Nope- 
men d Achirini. Lahontan, New Voy., I, 2151, 17U3. 
Nopemetus Anineeg. Tanner, Narr., 315, 1830 
(Ottawa name). Nopemings. Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, v, 145, 1855. Nopemin of Achirini. Rich 
ardson, Arct. Exped., II, 39, 1851. Nopemit Azhin- 
neneeg. Tanner, Narr., 315, 183U (Ottawa name). 
Nopimingdaje inini. Cuoq, Lex. Algonquine, 129. 
lS8t > ( men (>f the interior of the lands : Nipissing 
name). No pimingtashineniwag. Wm. Jones, 
iufn, 1906 (correct name). Nubenaigooching. 
Can. Ind. Aff., 16, 1875. Opemens d Acheliny. Du 
Lhut (1684) in Margry, Dec., vi, 51, 1886. 
O pimittish Ininiwac. Henry, Trav., 60, 1809. 
Wood Indians. Ibid. 

Noponne ( *\(/-pon-?ie, face , front ) . 
The name of the midmost mesa, directly 
s. of Znfii pueblo, N. Mex., so named be 
cause the face or front (no -jton) of Kolo- 
wissi, the mythical serpent of the sea, ap 
peared above the waters of the flood at 
that point, when the youth and maiden 
were sacrificed from the top of Thunder 
mtn. The southern of the 7 shrines of 
Ahaiytita and Matsailema, the twin war 
gods of the /ufii, is situated there, but no 
ruin of any kind. (F. n. c.) 

No-pone. Fewkes in Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., I, 
100. 1891. 

Noptac. A former village connected 
with San Carlos mission, Oal., and said to 
have been Ksselen. Taylor in Cal. Far 
mer, Apr. 20, I860. 

Nopthrinthres. A tribe mentioned by 
Arroyo de la Cuesta ( MS. , B. A . K. ) as set 
tled at the mission of San Juan Bautista, 
San Benito co., Cal., during the mission 
period. A vocabulary given by him 
shows it to have been Yokuts (Mari- 
posan). 

Nopochinches. Garcia MS. quoted by Bancroft, 
Hist. Cal.. n, 339, 1886. 

Noquet (Noke, bear foot ; another 
name for the Bear gens (see Nok<i] of the 
Chippewa. \V. J. ). An Algonquian tribe 
located by the earliest French writers 
about Xoquet bay, at the mouth of Green 
bay, extending \. across the peninsula to 
L. Superior. In 1(559 they were attached 
to the mission of St Michel, together with 
the Menominee, Winnebago, and others. 
In 17()1 Jefferys, ])robaV)ly on the author 
ity of some recent French writer, says 
they were on the islands at the mouth of 
Green bay, formerly occupied by the 
Potawatomi. They were never promi 
nent as a tribe, and were probably absorb 
ed by the Chippewa or the Menominee. 
Nikic! Coxe, Carolana, 48, 1741. Nikie. Ibid., 
map. Nocke. Du Lhut (1684) in Margry, Dec., 
vi, 41, l.ssr,. Noguets. Perrot. Mem., 295, 1864. 
Nokes. Lahontan (1703), New Voy., i,map, 1703. 
Nokets. Frontenac (1682) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 



BULL. 30] 



NOQUIQUAHKO NOKKIJJGEWOCK 



ix, 182, 1855. Noquai. Kelton, Ft Mackinac 
145, 1884. Noquets. Prise de Possession (1671) in 
Margry, Dec., I, 97, 1875. Notketz. Vaudreuil 
(1720), ibid., vi, 511, 1886. Noukek.-Jes. Rel. 1658 
21, 1858. Nouquet. Jes. Rel. 1670, 79, 1858 
Roquai. Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 1858. 

Noquiquahko. A former Salish band of 
Fraser superintendency, apparently on or 
near upper Fraser r., Brit. Col. 
No-qui-quahko. -Can. Ind. AfF., 78, 1878. 

Norajik. An East Greenland Eskimo 
village on an island in Angmagsalik fjord, 
lat. 65 51 ; pop. 47 in 1884. Meddelelser 
om Gronland, ix, 379, 1889. 

Norbos ( southern house ). A general 
name applied by the Daupom, or Cotton- 
wood Wintun, to the Nummuk, Noani- 
laki, Nuimok, Noyuki, and Puimuk tribes 
of the Copehan family. 

Norbos. Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 230, 
1877. Norboss. Powers in Overland Mo. xn 531 
1874. 

Norchean. A Maricopa rancheria on 
the Rio Gila in 1744. Sedelmair (1744) 
cited by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 366 
1889. 

Normuk ( southern ) . A Wintun tribe 
formerly living on Hay fork of Trinity 
r., Trinity co., Cal. Tliey were the most 
southerly Wintun tribe of the Trinity 
group, hence their name. See Kasha- 
ham. 

Noobimucks. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 8, 1860. 
Normoc. Powers in Overland Mo., ix, 499, 1872. 
Nor -mok. Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 231, 
1877. Nor-rel-mok. Ibid. 

Norogachic ( where there is a rock in 
front. Lumholtz). A Tarahumare set 
tlement on the headwaters of Rio Fuerte, 
in the middle of the Sierra Mad re, lat. 
27 20 , Ion. 107, Chihuahua, Mexico. 
Pop. about 3,850 Tarahumare in 1900. 
See Orozco y Berra, Geog., 323, 1864; 
Lumholtz in\Scri brier s Mag., xvi, 32, 
July 1894; Lumholtz, Unknown Mex., i 
205, 1902. 

Norridgewock (from Na n ra n t$/cak, peo 
ple of the still water between rapids ). 
A tribe of the Abnaki confederacy, the 
typical tribe of the group. Their closest. 
relationship was with the Penobscot, 
Arosaguntacook, and Wewenoc. Their 
territory embraced the Kennebec valley 
nearly to the river s mouth, Norridge 
wock, their principal village, being on 
the left bank just below the rapids, near 
:he present Norridgewock, Me. The 
French established a mission at their 
tillage in 1688. In 1695 the Jesuit 
Father Rasles took up his residence there 
md succeeded in attaching the tribes so 
varmly to the French cause that they 
loon came to be regarded as dangerous 
jnemies of the English colonists. In 1 724 
in expedition was sent against the Nor- 
idgewock, which resulted in the destruc- 
ion of their village, the dispersion of the 
rihe, and the death of Rasles. They fled 
n different parties to the Penobscot and 
assamaquoddy, and to St Francis in 
"anada. A number afterward returned 



and settled in their old home, but owim: 
to the continued unfriendly disposition 
of the whites, who again attacked their 
Village in 1 749, returned at the breaking 
out of the trench and Indian war in 1754 
to fet Francis. A few families that re 
mained behind for some years iinallv 
found their way also to Canada. See 
Abnaki, Missions. i , M \ 

Aridgevoak. Bellin, map, 1755 Aridgewoak - 
Homann Heirs map, 1756. Arransoak.-Montre- 
sor (ca. 1775) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., ,, 459 l ,;5 

f m i S f K>11IK y and Hal1 ]nd - Tribes, m 

79, 1854 (misprint). Canabas. Ibid. Canibas -- 
Doc. ol 1689 in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 433 ]sr,:, 
Cannabas. McKeen in Me. Hist. Soe. Coll v 
327,1857. Oannibas. Jes. Rel. 1611, 5, 1858 Cam 
bas. Aubery (1720) in N. Y. Doc. Col Hit , x 
895, 1855 (misprint). Kanibals.--Vetromiie Ab- 
" a , ki ? c ?2. MM. Kanibas-Drake, Bk. Inds., i>k.3 
lOo, 1818. Kanibats. Frontenac (1691) in N Y 
Doc. Col Hist., ix, 495, l,x.->5. Kanibesinnoaks.- 
Maurault, Hist, des Abenakis, 5, 1866. Kanibes- 
sinnoaks Ibid. Kenabeca. Smith (1631) in Mass 
Hist. Soe. Coll., 3d s., in, 22, 1833. Kenabes. Wil 
lis m Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., JV , 9(1. 1850. Kenebecke 
Indeans. Pateshall (1684), ibid., v 91 1*57 
Kenebeke. Purchas (1625), ibid., I5li. Kenne- 
beck Indians. Sewall (1721), ibid., in, 351, 1853 
Kennebecks. Gookin (1674) in Mass. Hist Soc 
Coll., 1st s., i, 162, 1806. Kennebeki. La Tour, map 
1779. Kinnebeck Indians. Doc. oflfM) in N V Due 
Col. Hist., xiii, 190,1881. Nalatchwaniak. Gat- 
schet, Penobscot MS., B. A. 1-1, 1887 (Penobscot 
name). Namgauck. Dudley in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
v,429, 1857. Nanrantsoak. Rasles (1712) in Mass 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 2(1 s., vin, 25s, 1^19. Nanrant- 
souak. Rasles (1721) ibid., 252. NanrantsSak.- 
Vandreuil( 1722) inN.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 910, 1855. 
Nanrantswacs. Kendall, Trav., in, 63, 1809. Nan- 
rantswak. Vetromile, Abnakis, 24, 1X66. Nantan- 
souak. Vaudreuil(1724)in N.Y.Doc. Col.Hist.jx, 
934, 1855 (misprint). Naragooe. Purchas (1625) in 
Me. Hist. Soc. ColL.V, 156,1857. Naranchouak. 
Jes. Rel. 1652, 24, 1858. Naranchouek. Ibid., 30. 
Narangawock. Gyles (172(1) in Me. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., Ill, 3 >7, 1853. Narangawook. Ibid. Narant- 
soak. Charlevoix (1744) (|iiotcd by Drake, Bk. 
Inds., bk. 3, 126, 1848. Narantsouak. Vandreuil 
(1724) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., VI/24U. 1859. Narant- 
s8ak. Beauharnois (1744) in N. Y. Doe. Col. Hist., 
ix, 1107, 1855. Narantsouans. Vandrenil (1724), 
ibid. ,937. NarantsSuk. Rasles (1721) in Mass. Hist 
Soc. (-oil., 2d s., vin, 262, 1819. Narantswouak. 
Beauharnois (1744) in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 1107, 
1855. Narautsouak. Vaudreiiil (1721), ibid., 903. 
Narauwings. Boudinot, Star in the West, 127, 1816. 
NarentchSan. CbanviKiierie (1736) in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist,, IX, 1052, 1855. Narent Chouan, Cbau- 
viffiierie quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in 



V IgllClic (J UUICU I V ^< I 1UOH I HI I , J IH 1. Ill ICS, -III, 

553,1853. Naridgewalk. Penhallow (1726) in N. 
H. Hist. Soc. Coll. 1,20,1824. Naridgwalk. Fal- 




Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 934, 1855. Naurautsoak. 
Doc. of 1718, ibid., 880. Naurautsouak. Ibid. 
881. Navidgwock. Niles (m. 17(11) in Ma<s. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., vi, 235. 1837 (misprint). 
Neridgewalk. Niles (ca. 1761). ibid., 4th s., v,335, 
1861. Neridgewok. Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 128, 
1848. Neridgiwack. Church (1716) quoted by 
Drake, Ind. Wars. 201. 1825. Neridgwock. Casco 
conf. (1727) in N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll.. n, 261, 1827. 
Neridgwook. Ibid. Nerigwok. 1) rake. Ind. 
Chron.,175, 1836. Nerridgawock. Falmouth conf. 
(1727) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., m, 407, 1853. Ner- 
ridgewock. Ibid.. 445. Nolongewock. Pynchon 
(1663) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xiil, 308, 1881. 
Noridgawock. Oakman (ca. 1690) quoted by 
Drake Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 109, 1848. Noridgewalk. 
Kendall, Trav., in. 48, 1809. Noridgewoc. Ibid. 
Noridgewock. Church (1689) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 4th s., V. 222. 1861. Noridgwoag. Jef- 
ferys Fr. Doms.. pt. 1, 123, 1761. Noridgwock. 



84 



NORSEMEN NOEUMBEG A 



[B. A. E. 



I emaniiid treaty (1693) queued by Drake, Bk. 
hid- bk 3 121 "1848. Norredgewock. McKenney 
and llall, Ind. Tribes, in, 82, 1854. Norrideg- 
wock Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 357. 1853 (mis 
print Norridgawock. Doc. of 1752. ibid., iv, 170, 
isxi. Norridgewalk. Column (1726) in N. H. 
HM Soc Coll I 17 1824. Norridgewocks. Dum- 
mer (1726)in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s.,vi, 111, 
isoo. Norridgowock. Treaty jour. (1749) in Me. 
Hi-t. soe. Coll., iv, 11"). 1S56. Norridgwak. Gusse- 
I dd mai>. 17M. Norridgwalk. Hornann Heirs 
man 17">6. Norridgwocks. IVnhallow (1726) in 
N. H. Hi.-t. Soc. Coll.. I. 129. 1824. Norridgwog. 
Kaslcs (,-a. 1720) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 1st s.. X, 
137. 1809. Norridgwogg. CotVm (J796) in Me. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., iv. 313, 1856. Norrigawake, I orts- 
moutli treaty (1713i, ibid., vi, 250. 1859. Norrige- 
wack. Dudley (1701) (inoted by Drake, Ind. 
Wars 220 1825 . Norrigewock. Xiles (r. 1761 ) in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 3d s., vi, 217, 1837. Nor- 
rigwock. Cburcli (1716i quoted by Drake, Ind. 
\Vars. 217. 1825. Norrijwok. .letl erys, Fr. Doms., 
pt.l.map, 119.17(11. Norriwook. La Tour, map, 
17v_>. Norrywok. .lefYerys, Kr. Doms.. pt.l.map, 
17iil. Norwidgewalks. Doc. of 1761 in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., vil, 641. 1S56. Nurhantsuaks. Man- 
rault. Ilistoire des Alenakis, 5, ]S66. Quenebec 
Indians. Douglass, Summary. I, 181, 1755. Waw- 
rigweck. --Smith (1616) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
3d s.. VI. 107, 1N37. Wawrigwick. Smith (1631), 
ibid., in. 22. 1833. 

Norsemen. See ftcandinui ian influence. 

Norsit. An Mast ( Jreenland Eskimo vil 
lage on an island at ttie mouth of Ang- 
magsalik fjord, lat. (io ,\(V; pop. 25 in 
1SS4. Meddelelserom Gronlaml, ix, 379, 
I SHU. 

Northern Assiniboin. A division of the 
Assiniboin as recognized about the mid 
dle ( .t the 19th century and earlier. Per 
haps the same as the Tschantoga (<]. v.), 
or < iens des Bois of .Maximilian, and the 
\Vo<>d Stoneys or Stonies of northern 
Alberta of the present day, although 
Denig ils.">4) says they were so called 
because they came from the x. in 1839. 
In I >enig s time they numbered 60 lodges 
under Le Robe de Vent. 

Assiniboels of the North. .lefTerys, Am. Atlas, 
map 8, 177(1. Assiniboins of the North. Jefferys, 
French Dom. Am., pt. 1, map. 1761. Gens du 
Nord. -Haydcn, Ktlnio-. and I hilol. Mo. Val., 
3*7. |M >_ . Northern People. Denitf quoted by 
horsey in 15th Rep. H. A. K.. 223. 1897. To 
kum pi. -Hayden. op. cit. Wah ze-ah we-chas-ta. 
hciiiu . op. cit. Wah zi-ah. Hayden. op. cit. 

Northern Comanche. The name 1 >v which 
the Kuahari, I)itsakana,an<i Detsanayuka 
wen- sometimes designated collectively 
to distinguish them from the Penateka, 
who were known as Kasteru or Southern 
( "maiiche. Moouey in 14th Rep. B. A 
Iv. 104."), ]s<)(i. 

North Fork. A village in the Canadian 
district of the Creek Nation, Ind. T.. in 
IS5H (Smith in hid. A ft . Rep., 149, hSoS). 
The name doubtless refers to the x. fork 
of ( anadian r. 

North Herndon. A Xetchilirmiut Es 
kimo village at Felix harbor, Boothia, 
Can. R..SS, Second Voy., 249, 1835. 

Norumbega. A name used by explor 
ers and cartographers of the Kith and the 
tn>t hall of the 17th century to designate 
th<- 1 enobscot r. in Maine, a fabulous 
:it nty upon its banks, and a province 
kingdom, 1 including the adjacent 



New England coast, and sometimes ex 
tended in its application to include the 
whole coast region from Nova Scotia to 
Virginia. It occurs as Aranbega on the 
map of Hieronimus Verrazano of 1529, as 
Auorobagra on a Jomard map of 1543, 
and as Nurumbega on the (iastaldi map 
of 1550. With better knowledge of the 
region the province disappeared and the 
great city dwindled to a few wigwams at 
a place called by the Penobscot Indians 
Aggnncia, supposed (Godfrey in Me. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., vn, 1876) to have been 
about the present site of Brewer, oppo 
site Bangor, on Penobscot r., Ale. 

The derivation of the name has been 
much disputed, but it is generally ad 
mitted to be of Indian origin, although 
attempts have been made to give it a 
Norse meaning. According to Vetroniile, 
the best recent authority on the Abnaki 
language, the correct Abnaki form is 
Nolumbeka, meaning a succession of 
falls and still water , used by the In 
dians to designate certain parts of Penob 
scot r., and not the river itself. Father 
Sebastian Rasles, author of the great 
Abnaki dictionary, gives the form as 
Aranmbeg8k, an fond de Peati , from 
ariiinn, ati fond ; but which Hewitt 
thinks means at the clay inlet . Accord 
ing to Gatschet (Nat, Ge og. Mag., vm, 23, 
1897), Penobscot nalambiyl and Passama- 
quoddy it<il<ibegik both refer to the still, 
quiet (nala-) stretch of a river between 
two riffles, rapids, or cascades; -bcyik, for 
nipeyik, means at the water. A manu 
script authority quoted by Winsor (Hist. 
Am., in, 184, 1884) gives the Penobscot 
form as Nah-rah-be-gek. De Costa, in 
the same volume, inclines to a European 
origin for the name, which Beauvois 
(1880) derives from Norroenbygda, Nor 
way country , and Horsford (Discov. 
Anc. City Norumbega, 1890) from Nor- 
bega, an ancient name for Norway, claim- 
Ing also to identify the river as Charles 
r. , Mass., and the town site as at the 
present Watertown. (,i. M.) 

Aggoney. De Costa in Winsor, Hist. Am., in, LS4, 
18S4. Agguncia. Heylin in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
vi I, 99. 1876. Agoncy . Tlievet (1556) quoted by 
Kohl, Discov. of Me., 416, 1869. Arambeck. Otfilby 
(1671) in Me. Hist, Soc. Coll.. vu. 99. 1S76. A.r- 
ampec. Heylin, ibid., 99. Aranbega. Map of 
Hieronimus Verrazano (1529) noted by Kohl, 
op. cit.. 291. AranmbegSk. Rasles, "-Abnaki 
Diet., 1691. Auorobagra. Jomard, map (1543), as 
reproduced by Kohl, op. cit., 351. Nah-rah-be- 
gek. Winsor, Hist. Am., in, 184, 1884. Nolum- 
beghe. Ibid. Nolumbeka. Vetiomile, Abnakis, 
45, 1866. Norambegue. ,!es. Rel. 1611, 2, 18-58. 
Norembega. Blaeu, map (1642), reproduced by 
Kohl, op. cit., 315. Norembegua. Oldmixon, Brit. 
Kmpire, n, 363, 1708. Norembegue. Champlain 
(1604), CEuvres, in, 26, 1870. Norimbegue. Jef 
ferys, Fr. Doms., I, 98, 1761. Norombega. Mer- 
eator, map (1569), reproduced by Kohl, op. cit., 
381. Norumbega. Champlain (1605) in Me. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., vn. 93. 1876: also Hondiusmap (m. 1590) 
reproduced by Kohl, op. cit., 315. Norumbegua. 
Heylin in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 2d s.. i. 99, 1869. 
Norumbegue. Champlain (1636), ibid., vil, 253. 



BULL. SO] 



NORWALK NOTCHED PLATES 



Nurumberg. Ruscelli, map (1561), ibid., 2d s., I, 
233, 1869 (evidently a form suggested by the name 
of the German city Nuremberg). Nvrvmbega. 
Gastaldi, map (1550), as reproduced by Kohl, op. 
cit., 226. 

Norwalk. A band holding lands on 
Norwalk and Saugatnck rs., s. w. Conn., 
which they sold in 1640 and 1641, Ma- 
hackemo being then the principal chief 
(De Forest, Inds. Conn., 177, 1851). No 
tribal name is given this people, but they 
were probably closely connected with the 
Paugnsset, about Stratford, or with the 
more important Quinnipiac about New 
Haven. (j. M. ) 

Norwootuc. An Algonquian tribe or 
band whose possessions extended from 
the "great falls" at South Hadley to 
Mt Sugar Loaf, in the Connecticut val 
ley, Mass^ They were attacked by the 
Mohegan about 1656, and were at war 
with the Montauk and Narraganset. 
They were probably a part of the In 
dians who took part in King Philip s 
war of 1675 and afterward tied the coun 
try, as " Norwootuck plantations" arc 
mentioned in 1678 as if a new English 
settlement. The Norwootuc were prob 
ably the "Nowonthewog or the East 
ward Indians," who in 1700 combined 
with the Mohawk against the English 
colonists. (,T. M. ) 

Nalvotogy. Pynchon (1677) in X. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., XIII, 511, 1881. Kalwetog. Pynchon (1663), 
ibid., 308. Narwootuek. Leete (1675) in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., vu, 579, 1S65. Norwoo 
tuck. Bishop (1678), ibid., vin, 306, 1S6S. Nor- 
wottock. Doc. (ra. 1657) in N. II. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., in, 96, 1832. Norwottucks. White, Old-time 
Haunts, 7, 1903. Norwuthick. Quanapaug (1675) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 1st s., vi, 207, 1800. No 
wonthewog. Doc. of 1700 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.. 
IV, 614, 1854. 

Noscaric. A Maricopa rancheria on the 
Rio (Hla, Arizona, in 1744. Sedelmair 
(1744) cited by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 366, 1889. 

Nostic. A former settlement of the 
Tepecano or of a related tribe who may 
have been replaced by Tlaxcaltec intro 
duced by the Spaniard s in the 18th cen 
tury as a defence against the "Chichi- 
mecs." Situated on the Rio de Bolanos, 
about 4| in. s. of Mezquitic, in Jalisco, 
Mexico. Hrdlicka in Am. Anthrop., v, 
388, 409, 1903. 

Nastic. Mota Padilla (1742), Hist, de la Oonq., 
354, 1870. 

Notaloten. A Koyukukhotana village 
on Yukon r., Alaska, 20 in. above the 
mouth of Koyukuk r. Pop. 37 in 1844; 
15 in 1890. 

Natulaten. Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, map, 
1884. Nohtalohton. Post-route map, 1903. Notag- 
lita. Zagoskin quoted by PetrolY. op. cit,, 37. No 
taloten. Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. 

Notched plates. Stone plates of discoidal 
or rectangular form obtained mainly from 
ancient mounds in the Ohio valley and 
I the Southern states. Heretofore these 
plates have been classed with problemat- 
ical objects (q. v.), and the significance 



of some specimens remains yet in doubt; 
but Moore has shown that those obtained 
in Alabama were undoubtedly used in 
grinding pigments. It is also observed that 
a close analogy exists between these tablets 
and the pigment plates employed by the 
Pueblos and other Southwestern tribes, 
and also frequently encountered among 
the ancient ruins of the S. W. ( Fewkes, 
Russell). The rectangular specimens 
rarely exceed 10 in. in width by about 15 
in length, and the discoidal variety ranges 
from 6 to 15 in. in diameter. The thick 
ness does not exceed 1\ in. The central 
portion of one face is of ten slightly concave, 
a few are quite flat on both faces, while a 
smaller number are doubly convex in a 
slight degree. The margins are square < >r 
roundish in section. With rare excep 
tions the periphery of the discoidal plates 
is notched or scalloped. In many cases one 
or more engraved lines or grooves encircle 
the face of the plate near the margin, and 
not infrequently the marginal notches 
extend as shallow grooves inward over 




the surface of the plate, terminating 
against the outer encircling band, or con 
nect as loops forming what may be re 
garded as reversed scallops. The most 
striking feature of these plates, occurring 
perhaps in one case in ten, is certain 
engraved designs occupying the reverse 
ide of the plate, the grinding surface 
being regarded as the obverse. These 
subjects are undoubtedly of mythologie 
origin and include highly conventional 
representations of the human hand, the 
open eye, the rattlesnake, death s-head 
symbol s, etc. The rectangular plates have 
notches or scallops at the ends only, and 
the surface, excepting in the Ohio speci 
mens (which are tentatively included in 
this group), has no embellishment other 
than simple engraved lines extending 
across the plate near the ends or continu 
ing around the four sides just inside the 
border. 

The most noteworthy of the rectangu 
lar plates are the Cincinnati tablet, from 
a mound in Cincinnati, Ohio, described by 



NOTCHED PLATES 



[B. A. a. 



Clark, and by Putnam and Willoughby; 
the Hurst tablet, found in Pike co., 
Ohio; the Purlin tablet, found in Jack 
son co., Ohio, and a number of other 
decorated specimens from Southern 
mounds, described by Ran, Moore, and 
others. Interesting examples of the dis- 
eoidal plates are the Naples, 111., speci- 




men, described by Henderson, and the 
Arkaiii-as Po>t specimen, described by 
Stoddard. These two disks are without 
marginal notches. Numerous discoidal 
tablets obtained from mounds in Missis 
sippi and Alabama are described by Moore 
and Holmes. The feathered serpent tab- 
Jet from Issaquena co., Miss., the knotted 
serpent tablet from Monndville, Ala., 
-pecimens from the 
latter locality, de 
scribed by the 
same authors, arc; 
deserving of spe 
cial mention. 

Jt is observed 
that these plates 
arc; made of sand 
stone and kindred 
gritty materials, 
and this fact con 
firms Moore s con 
clusion that they 
were used in grinding pigments. That 
they were held in exceptional esteem 
by their owners is shown by their 
burial \\ith the dead. These facts in 
dicate clearly that the plates were not 
intended to serve an ordinary purpose, 
but rather that thev filled some impor 
tant sacred or ceremonial olliee, as in 
preparing colors for shamanistic use or 
lor ^ religion-; ceremonies. The; engraved 
designs on these plates naturally give rise 
to speculation, and it is not surprising 




that the very general presence of notched 
and scalloped margins should suggest the 
theory that the plates were sun symbols. 
But a critical examination of the various 
markings and figures leads to the convic 
tion that all are representative, in a more 
or less conventional fashion, of animal 
originals and that all were probably em 
ployed because of their peculiar esoteric 
significance and relationship with the 
functions of the tablets. It is observed 
that the notches cut in the edges of the 
plates are in many instances carried in 
ward over the plate 
in such a way as to 
suggest feathers, as 
these are often form 
ally treated in native 
art, and this leads to 
the surmise that the 
animal original might 
have been a duck a 
symbol of wide dis 
tribution among the KNOTTED SERPENT^ PLATE, ALA- 

Indian tribes in the *, : TY D OF A^i 
S. ; but recalling the 

occurrence of the feathered-serpent de 
sign engraved on the obverse of the 
Mississippi tablet, the idea is suggested 
that the original concept in the mind of 
the makers of these plates was, at least 
in some cases, the feathered serpent, a 
northern form of Quetzalcoatl, a chief 
deity of the middle American peoples. 

A noteworthy feature of the engravings- 
of the 1 serpents and other figures on thest 
mound tablets is the apparent maturity 





(OH 



of the art, the intricate forms being skil 
fully disposed and drawn with a certaii 
hand. The designs are not mere ran 
dom products, but, like the copper orria 
ments, the earthenware decorations, am 
the shell engravings of the (inlf states- 
were evidently made by skilled artist 
practising a well-matured art which die 



BL LL. 30] 



NOTCH-KE-NING-A NOWE 



87 



tinctly suggests the work of the semiciv- 
ilized nations of Mexico and Central 
America. These plates may be regarded 
as furnishing additional proof that the in 
fluence of the culture of middle America 
has been felt all along the northern shores 
of the Gulf of Mexico and has passed with 
diminished force still farther to the N. 

Consult Clark, Prehist. Remains, 1876; 
Farquharson in Proc. Davenport Acad. 
Sci., n, 1877-80; Fewkesin22d Rep. B. A. 
E., 1904; Fowke, Arclueol. Hist. Ohio, 
1902; Henderson in Smithson. Rep. 1882, 
1884; Holmes (1) in 2d Rep. B. A. E., 
1883, (2) in Am. Anthrop., viu, no. 1, 
1906; Jones, Antiq. So. Inds., 1873; Mc 
Lean, Mound Builders, 1879; Moore in 
Jour. Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila., xin, 1905; 
Moorehead in Pub. Ohio State Archteol. 
and Hist. Soc., v, 1897; Putnam and Wil- 
loughby in Proc. A. A. A. S., XLIV, 1896; 
Ran in Smithson. Cont., xxn, 1876; Rus 
sell in 26th Rep. B. A. E., 1907; Short, 
N. Am. Antiq., 1880; Squier and Davis in 
Smithson. Cont., i, 1848; Stoddardin Am. 
Antiq., xxiv, no. 3, 1904; Thomas in 12th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1894; Thruston, Antiq. 
Tenn., 1897; Wilson in Rep. Nat. Mus. 
1896, 1898. (w. H. ir.) 

Notch-ee-ning-a. See Nacheninga. 

Notha ( Ute ). A Navaho clan. 
Nopa. Matthews in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 103, 
1890. Nofa^ine. Ibid. Nota. Matthews, Navaho 
Legends, 30,1897. No^aWine . Ibid. 

Notomidula. A former village of the 
Awani, about 400 yds. E. of Machito, in 
Yosemite valley, Mariposa co., Cal. 
Notomidoola. Powers in Overland Mo., x, 333, 
1874. No-to-mid-u-la. Powers in Cont, N A 
Ethnol., ill, 365, 1877. 

Notre Dame de Foye. A former mission 
village near Quebec, settled by some 
Hurons from Huronia, who removed to 
Lorettein 1693. Shea, Cath. Miss., 198, 
1855. 

Nottoway. An Iroquoian tribe formerly 
residing on the river of the same name in 
a. E. Virginia. They called themselves 
Cheroenhaka, and were known to the 
neighboring Algonquian tribes as Man- 
goac (Mengwe) and Nottoway, i. e., Na- 
dowa (q. v. ), adders, a common Algon 
quian name for tribes of alien stock. 
Although never prominent in history they 
kept up their organization long after the 
other tribes of the region were practically 
extinct. As late as 1825 they still num 
bered 47, with a "queen," on a reserva 
tion in Southampton co. Linguistically 
they were closely cognate to the Tusca- 
rora. (j. M .) 

Che-ro-ha-ka. Morgan in N. Am. Review, 52, 1870. 
Mandoages. Lane (1586) in Smith (1629), Va.. I, 
9Lrepr. 1819. Mandongs. Strarhey (ca. 1612), Va., 
147, 1849 (misprint). Mangoacks. Lane (1586) in 
Smith, Va., i, 87, repr. 1819. Mangoags. Smith 
(1629), ibid., 75. Mangoako. Lane (1586) in Hak- 
lyt, Voy., in, 314, 1810. Mangoan^s. Slrachey 
(ca.1612), Va.,41, 1849. Moyoacks. Martin, North 
Carolina, I, 15, 1829 (misprint). Na towewok. 
Gerard in Am. Anthrop., vi, 319, 1904 (Cree name; 



sing. Xu toii eu). Notowegee. Logan, 

bk. 3, 63, 1705. Nottoway. Luwson ( 17U )i North 
Carolina, 3S3, 1860. Ontationoue -N Y Do, r, 
Hist., ix, 1057, 1855. Tciruen-haka.-Hewitt inf n 
1889 (common name as given bvthe IroquoN- ,,: 
sibly fork of a stream ). Wanjoacks.-MaV.in 
North Carolina, i. 14, ]82y (misprint). 

Nouista. An unidentified village or 
tribe in alliance with the Kadohadaeho 
in 1(>87. Joutel in Margrv, Dec in 41 o 
1878. 

NoutchaofF. An unidentified Bellacoola 
town on a river of the same name in 
British Columbia. 
Nout-chaoff. Mayne, Brit. Col., 117, isu-j. 

Novaculite. A very line-grained and 
compact chalcedonic (quartz) rock, ordi- 
dinariiy white or whitish in color, and 
often distinguished by the archeoloj-ist 
by its somewhat translucent waxen ap 
pearance. It occurs in vast bodies in 
connection with Ordovician (Lower Silu 
rian) strata in Arkansas, especially in the 
vicinity of Hot Springs, where "it was 
extensively quarried by the aborigines. 
The ancient excavations here cover many 
hundreds of acres of the mountain ridge s 
and are surrounded by large bodies of 
refuse the result of roughing-out imple 
ments by flaking processes. As with the 
great quarries of Flint Ridge, Ohio, and 
other localities, the principal product was 
the leaf-shaped blade, from which arrow- 
and spear-heads and knives were to be 
specialized, but the material was used also 
for axes, celts, ceremonial objects, and 
ornaments, in the manufacture of which 
the flaking work was supplemented by 
pecking and grinding. See Chalcedony, 
M^ines <nid Quarries, (Jnart~, Sloneiuork. 

Consult Griswold in Rep. Geol. Surv. 
Ark., in, 1890-2; Holmes in Am. An 
throp., v, Oct. 1891; Kunz, (jemsand Pre 
cious Stones, 1890; Merrill,, Rocks, Rock- 
weatherinsj: and Soils, 1S97. (w. n. n.) 

Novaia. An Ingalik village on the lower 
Yukon, Alaska; pop. ;~2 in 18SO. IV- 
troff, Rep. on Alaska, (12, 1881. 

Novoktolak. A Kuskwogmiut Eskimo 
villageinthe Kuskokwim district, Alaska; 
pop. 55 in 1890. 

Novokhtolahamiut. Eleventh Census, Alaska, 
164, 1893. 

Nowadaga. A former Mohawk vil 
lage on the s. bank of Mohawk r.. at the 
mouth of Xowadagacr. , on < he site of Dan 
ube, HoT-kimor co., X. V. It was the 
principal Mohawk settlement about 1750. 
A part of the band here had another vil 
lage a little lower down the stream, oppo 
site the mouth of East Canada cr. No- 
wadaga was long the home of Joseph 
Brant (Thayendanegea). 
Nowadaga. Macaulcy, N. Y., n, 226, 1*29. No- 
wodaga. Ibid., 181. 

Nowe. Mentioned by Bartram ( Trav 
els, 371, 1792) as a Cherokee settlement, 
about 1775, one of four towns "inland on 
the branches of theTanase [Tennessee]." 
It can not be certainlv identified. 



S8 



NO\VI NTLAKYAPAMUK 



Nowi. A Yukonikhotana village on 
the s. side of Yukon r., at the mouth of 
Xowikakat r., Alaska, having 107 inhabi 
tants in 1SSO. 

Newi-cargut. Wymper, Trav. and Advent., map, 
isc. .t. Newikareut. Raymond in Sen. Ex. Doe. 12, 
42dCon^., l>t sess., 2H. 1871. Nowikakat. PetrofT, 
ifri. on Alaska, C.2. 18S1. Noya-kakat. 1 etrofT, 
map of Alaska, ISsO. Noyokakat. PetrotY in 10th 
Census. Alaska, 12, 1884. 

Noxa. Mentioned by Oviedo (Hist, 
(Jen. Indies, in, H28, 1853) as one of the 
pro\inces or villages visited by Ayllonin 
1/J20; probably on the South Carolina 
coast. 

Noyuki ( southern aliens ). The name 
applied by their northern neighbors to a 
Maidu tribe formerly occupying the ter 
ritory about the junction of Yuba and 
Feather rs., Yuba co., Cal. Oneof their 
villages, Ynpu, was on the site of the 
present Yuba city. 
Noi-Yucans. Giegerni Ind. AIT. Rep. 18r>9, 438, 1860. 

Npapuk ( S i>d jilr}. A Squawmish vil 
lage community on the K. side of Howe 
sd.. I .rit. Col. Hill-Tout in Rep. Brit. 
A. A. S., 474, 1900. 

Npiktim ( white hollow ). A village of 
the Ntlakyapamuk, so called, according 
to Hill-Tout, because it was the place 
where the Indians obtained the white 
clay they burnt and used for cleaning 
wool, etc. Pop. 19 in 1S97, the last time 
the name ollicially appears. 

Mpaktam. Can. Ind. AIT. issd. 230, 1887. N pi.k - 
tKm. Hill-Tout in Kcp. Kthnol. Snrv.Can., 5, 1899. 
Npikti m. Trit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 
Iti .i. I .HK). S inpukti m. Ibid. 

Npokwis (.\"i>u!rn-ix). A Squawmish 
village community on the right bank of 
Squawmisht r., Brit. Col. Hill-Tout in 
Hep. I .rit. A. A. S., 474, 1900. 

Npuichin (\)n< tt<- i n, low ridge shore ). 
A village of the Lytton band of Xtlakya- 
pamuk on the w. side of Fraser r., s m. 
above Lytiori; Brit. Col. Teit in .Mem. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 172, 1900. 

Nra Sra. For all references beginning 
with this abbreviation, or with X. S., see 

Nsisket ( AW*///;/, the little split or di 
vide , perhaps because near a deep or 
rocky gulrh). A village of the Nicola 
band of Ntlakyapamuk near Nicola r., 
a few miles from the w. end of Nicola 
lake, I .rit. Col. Pop. L l i n 1901, the 
last, time the name is given. 

Hun ka sis-ket. - < an. Ind. AIT. I8,s;; lit 1 I ll 1881 
N cickt. Hill-Tout in R.-p. Ktlmol. Surv. Can. A 
lyt .t. Neyiskat. Can. Ind. AIT. iv.U, 277 1895 
Nsi sqKt. Teit in Mem. Am. Mns. Nat. Hist n, 
171, I .HIO. Nyiskat. Can. Ind. AIT., Ml Ix .if. 
Nzis-kat Ibid., ISM;, pt. 1, 2:52.1887 Nzvshat 
Ibid., pt. ii, n;t;. pun. 

Nskakaulten ( \x<iu ,j<intti-:n, little look 
ing-for-game place ). A village of the 
Ntlakyapamuk on the s. side of Thomp 
son r.. 2:5 m. above Lytton, and ), m. below 
Spences Bridge, Brit. ( ol. 
Nsqa qaulti;n. Trit in Mnn. Am Mns Nat Hist 
M 172. I .MMi. Spences Bridge [Indians] .Can. Ind . 



Ntekem (Xtc qRm, to make muddy , or 
muddy creek ). A village of the Spences 
Bridge band of Ntlakyapamuk on the N. 
side of Thompson r., about 1 m. back 
from the stream and 39 in. above Lytton, 
Brit. Col. 

N tai kum. Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 
4, 1899. Nte qF.m Teit in Mem. Am. Mns. Nat. 
Hist., ir, 173, 1900. Oregon Jacks. Name given by 
whites. 

Nthaich ( X qai tc}. A Squawmish village 
on the right bank of Squawmish t r., Brit. 
Col. Hill-Tout in Kep. Brit. A. A. S., 
474, 1900. 

Ntlaktlakitin ( Xuifj La kfttn, the cross 
ing place , place for crossing the river ). 
A village of the Lytton band of Ntlakya 
pamuk at Kanaka Bar, Fraser r., about 
11 m. below Lytton, Brit. Col., with 55 
inhabitants in 1906. Some Indians class 
it with the Lower Ntlakyapamuk. 
Hlakklaktan. Can. Ind. Aff. 1892, 312, 1893. Hlu- 
hlu-natan. -Ibid., pt. n, 164, 1901. Hlukhluka- 
tan. Ibid., 280, I88fi. Hluk-kluk-a-tan. Ibid., 
1885, pt. 1, 196, 18S6 Kanaka Bar. Ibid., 1897, 
363, 1898. NLaqLa kitin. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat, Hist., II, 171, 1900. 

Ntlakyapamuk. One of the four great Sal- 
ish tribes inhabiting the interior of British 
Columbia and popularly called Thompson 
Indian;- 1 , from the river on which a large 




NTLAKYAPAMUK MAN. (AM. Mus. N 



part of them live. Internally they are 
divided into the Lower Thompsons, liv 
ing from a short distance below Spuz/uii) 
on Fraser r., nearly to the village of Cisco, 
and the Upper Thompsons, whose towns 
extend from the latter point nearly tc 
Lillooet on the Fraser, to within a short 
distance of Ashcroft on the Thorn pson, 
and overall of Nicola valley. The Upper 
Thompsons are subdivided by Teit intc 



BtTLL. 30] 



NTLIPPAEM NTSTLATKO 



4 minor bands, the Lyttoii band, the 
Nicola band, the Spences Bridge band, 
and the Upper Fraser band. In addition 
the following subdivisions are mentioned : 
Ainslie Creek, Boothroyds, Canoe Lake 
Indians, Cooks Ferry, Rhaap, Skowtous, 
and Snakaim. Total population 1,826 in 
1902, 1,776 in 1906. The following list of 
villages was obtained principally from 
Teit: 

Villages of the Lower Thompson*: Che- 
tawe, Kalulaadlek, Kapachichin, Kapas- 
lok, Kimus, Kleaukt, Koiaum, Nkakim, 
Nkattsim, Nkoiam, Noieltsi, Npiktim, 
Ntsuwiek, Sintaktl, Skohwak, Skuzis, 
Skwauyik, Spaim, Spuzzum, Stahehani, 
Suk, Taqwayaum, Tikwalus, Tliktlak- 
etin, Tzauamuk. 

Villages of the Lytton band: Anektettim, 
Cisco, Kittsawat, Natkelptetenk, Nchek- 
chekokenk, Nehowmean, Nikaomin, Nko- 
ikin, Nkya, Noot, Npuichin, Xtlaktlak- 
itin, Staiya, Stryne, Tlkamcheen, Tuh- 
ezep. 

Villages of the Upper Fraser band : Ahul- 
ka, Nesikeep, Nkaktko, Ntli]->paem, Skek- 
aitin, Tiaks. 

Villages oj tJte Spences Bridge band: At- 
chitchiken,Klukluuk, Nkamchin, Nkoeit- 




NTLAKYAPAMUK WOMAN. (AM. MUS. NAT. HIST. ) 

ko, Nokem, Nskakaulten, Ntekem, Xu- 
kaatko, Pekaist, Pemainus, Semehau, 
Snapa, Spatsum, Stlaz, Tlotlowuk, Zak- 
hauzsiken. 

Villages of the Nicola band: Hanehe- 
wedl, Huthutkawedl, Koiskana, Kwil- 
chana, Naaik, Nchekus, Nsisket, Ntstlat- 
ko, Pettitek, Shahanik, Tsulus, Zoht. 

To these the following names must be 
added, although one or two of them 



may possibly be synonyms: Cheuek, K,,- 
koiap, Nhaiiken, Nkahlimiluh, Xkaih 
Nzatzahatko Paska, Sc-hac-ken, Shkuet 
bhkuokem Shuimp, Skappa, Snakaitu 
Saium 



Spapium, Timetl, . 

For detailed information consult IVit in 
Mem. Am. .Mus. Xat. Hist n ,,t Iv 
1900, and Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv! 
Can., Brit. A. A. S., 1889 f.j. K s 

n lfeTgnnTrn 1 in t Mem - Al11 Mu^Kat*. liist., 
ii, 167. 1900 (Lillooet name, fn^n naineof Thomp- 

?H r-) P . Clun8US -- Ban croft, Nut. Races I 311 
}* ?- ut ? aux --Taylor in Cal. Farmer, .Juiv ly 
1862. Klackarpun.-Survey niup, Ily.lrog. (>iH ( . t . 
U.&.N 1882. Knife Indians. Tt-it, on. c-it fn-iiiu 
given )>y employees Hudson BayCo. . Knives - 
Anderson quoted by Gibbs in JJist. i\ HK vu 7,; 

1803 lukatimu x. Teit,op.cit.(0kinagannaim-), 
Neklakapamuk. Can. Ind. Ail ., 15 ]s?y Nekla 
kussamuk Brit. Col. maj). Ind. Air.. Victoria 
18/2. Xf-nla-kapm-uh. Mackayquoti-d by Dawson 
in 1 rans. Roy. Soc. Can., see. ir. <;, lsl. Nicouta- 
meens. Mayne Brit. Col., 2U6, iMi J. Nicouta- 
much. Il)id. Nicute-much. Anderson op ( -it 
^t laka Pamuk. Good, Ottices in Xitlakapann.^ 
1880. Nko atamux. Teit, op. eit 10 



. , . 

wap name). N-ku-tam-euh. Mackay, op. cit . r > 
Nkutemivu. Gatschet, MS., 15. A. K . (okinaga 
name). NLak a pamux. Teit.op. cit. (<>\vn name 
sometimes given to Lytton band alone). N tlaka - 
pamuQ. Hill-Tout in Rej). Ethnol. Surv. Can., lu, 
1889. N-tla-ka-pe-mooh. Dawson in Trans. Roy! 
Soc. Can., see. n, 0, 181)1. Ntlakya pamut^. P.oas 
in 5th Rep. N.W. Tribes Can., 10. IMS<J. Sa lic. 
Teit, op. cit. (Okinagan name). Saw-meena. _ 
Anderson, op. cit., 71 (so called bytbeTait, a Cowi- 
chan tribe). Si-.ma mila. Teit, op. cit. (so called 
by the Cowichan of Fraser delta). Ske-yuh. 
Mackay, op. cit. ( the peoj)le : own name). So- 
mena. Ibid, ( inland hunters : Cowiclian 
name). Thompson River Indians. Dawson, ibid., (i 
(name given by whites). Thompsons. 1 hid. 

Ntlippaem (NLip pa Em, Mo extract 
marrow , according to Teit; ck cp , ac 
cording to Hill-Tout). A village of flu- 
Upper Fraser band of Ntlakyapamuk on 
the w. nide of Fraser r., "2 2 in. above Lyt 
ton, Brit. Col. 

Nick-el-palm. Brit. Col. map., ind. AIT., Victoria, 
1872. Nitlpam. Can. Ind. Aff., 78, 1878. N k lpan. 
Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., I. l.s,H. 
Niip pa Em. Teitin Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 
172, 1900. 

Ntlkius (XLki -us). An Okinagan town 
on Similkameen r., .Brit. Col. Teit in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,, n, 174, 1900. 

Ntshaautin ( ])eople down against the 
island ). A Takulli sept dwelling along 
Blackwater r. and n])|>er Xcchaco r., F>rit. 
Col., in the villages of Tluskex, Ilkatsho, 
and Peltkatchek. Former villages were 
Tsitsi and llrak, now abandoned. Pop. 

135 in 1893. 

Natcotetains. Domenech, Deserts X. Am., i, 112, 
18(iO Nazeteoten. Smet, Oregon Miss., UK), 1M7. 
Nechao-tin. Brit. Col. map, Ind. AIT., Victoria, 
1X72. Neguia Dinais. Mackenzie, Voy., SOU, 1x01. 
Neotetain. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, ,">9, 1855. 
Ntshaantin. Domeneeh, Deserts N. Am., n, _ , 
18(10. Ntshaautin. Hale, Killing, and Philol., 
202, 1816. Nu-tcah- tenne. Morice in Trans. Can. 
Just., IV, 25, 18915. Nu-tca- tenne. Ibid. 

Ntsiyamis (Nlsi-i/a -mlts). A former 
Kuitsh village on lower I mpMua r., 
Q re or._Dorsey in Jonr. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 231, 181)0." 

Ntstlatko ( Xtxui tL-o, cold water ). A 
village of the Xicola band of the Ntlak- 



XTSVWIKK NUESTRA SENOKA DE (IUADALUPE [B. A.M. 



yapainuk near Nicola r.. a few miles from 
the w. i-nd <f Nicola lake, Brit. Col. 
Coldwater. Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., II 
171, I .UO t, white man s name). Ntsa ia tko. Ibid. 
Ntsi.a tko. ll.i.l. 

Ntsuwiek ( A7x// /// <"). A village oi the 
Ntlakya]iaintik on the \v. side of Fraser r., 
27 m. above Yale, Brit. Col. Teit in Mem. 
Am. Mus. Nat. I list., n, H19, 1900. 

Nuaguntits (Xu-a -ynn-tit*). ^A Paiute 
hand formerly living near Las Vegas, s. K. 
Nevada: pop.* 1(51 in 1S73. Powell in Ind. 
Aft . Rep. 1873,50, 1874. 

Nualik. A ruined Kskimo village on 
the i-:. coast <rf (ireenland, lat. t>7 W. 
Meddclelser oin ( ironland, xxvn, map, 
IDOL . 

Nubviakchugaluk. A Malemiut Eskimo 
village on the x. coast of Norton sd., 
Alaska; ]>op. MO in 1SSO. 

Nubviakhchugaluk. IVtrolY in 10th Census, 
Alaska, 11, issi. 



Nucassee (X / kiraxI, or A7 /;// , sv 
ing lost ) . An important ancient Cherokee 
settlement on Little Tennessee r., where 
no\v is the town of Franklin, in Macon 
co.. X. C. A large mound marks the site 
of the townhouse. 

Nikwasi. Mooney in HUh Rep. B. A. K., 527, 1 .HK) 
(or Xik\v si ). Nucasse. Bartram, Travels, 371, 
IT .cj. Nuckasee. Doc. of 17.VS quoted by Royee in 
.">th Rep. H. A. K., 142. is,s7. Nukeza. Doc. of 179>.>, 

Nuchatl. The principal village of the 
Nnchatlitx on Fspcranza inlet, w. coast of 
Vancouver id. Can. Ind. Aff., 264, 1902. 

NuchatlitzC mountain house/ Sproat). 
A Nootka tril)e occupying the village of 
Nnchatl and others on Xuchalitz and 
Kspcranza inlets, w. coast of Vancouver 
id. Pop. 74 in 1902, 62 in 1904, 52 in 
1906. 

Neu-chad-lits. Jewitt, Xarr., 3(5, repr. 1S49. Neu- 
chalits. Armstrong, Oregon, 13(5, 1S57. Neuchal- 
let. Maync, Hril. Col., 2f>l, lS(i2. Noochahlaht. 
Sproat, Savage Life, MO*, isc.s. Nooch-aht-aht. 
an. In,!. A IV. iv.M, 3.-)7, 1*yr>. Nooch-ahtl-aht. 
lbi.1., ].s ( ;, i:;o, IV.IT. Nooch-alh-laht. Ibid., iss:?. 
ls>. lvx|. Noochartl-aht. Ibid., 1X91, 27(i. IS J.") 
Noochatl-aht. Ibid., r>2, 1*75. Nutca tlath. Boas 
in tith Rep. N.W. Tribes Can. ,31, ls<)(). 

Nuchawayi. The ]>lural of Nnta, the 
name applied hy the Yokuts in the plains 
to the Vokuts and Shoshonean tribes of 
the Sierra Nevada to the K. in California. 
The Xuchawayi are mentioned as a party 
t. the treaty of Apr. 2 .), 1S51. 
New-chow-we. Royce in 1Mb Rep. H. A. K., 7s J, 
IVJ. Nu-chow-we. Harbour in Sen. Ex. Doe 4 
:i 2d Cong., spec, sess., 2V), IN:,;}. 

Nuchek. A Chuuacliigmiut Eskimo 
village where the Russians established a 
stockade and trading ]>ost, about 179)!, 
kiiownas l- t Konstantine, at Port Etches, 
Hinchinbrook id., Prince William sd., 
Alaska. Pop. 74 in 18SO, 145 in LH90 
Natcheek. H.iker, (Jeog. Diet. Alaska 171 190!i 
Noocheek.-lbi.l. Nuchek. Ibid, (proper form)! 
Nuchig mut. Dsill in Coin. \. A. Kthnol., i, i>l. 
jx"7 (tin- jicoplei. Nuchusk. Mabony in In d AIV 
Rep. ixr. .t, -,7... IVTO. Nutechek. Baker, op. cit. 

Nuchschi ( descended from heaven ). 
A Knaiahkhotana clan of Cook inlet 



Alaska. Richardson, A ret. Exped., i, 
407, 1851. 

Nuchu. A Mi wok division on the s. 
fork of Merced r., Cal. 

Nut -chu. Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 349, 
1877. 

Nuchumatuntunne ( people in the tim 
ber country ). A former Tutntni village 
on the x. fide of Rogue r., Greg., near the 
mouth. 

Nu -tcu-ma -tun^un ne. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk 
lore, in, 2:5: , 1SHU. 

Nucliwugh. A band of Salish, perhaps of 
the Lummi, on L. Whatcom, Wash. 
Neuk-wers. Ind. Aff. Rep. 1857, 326.329, 1858. Nuch- 
wugh. Gibbs, MS. no. 248, 15. A. K. Sticks. Fitz- 
hngh in Ind. All . Rep., 32H, 1857. Wood Indians. 
Simmons, ibid., 224,1858. 

Nuculaha. A subdivision or clan of the 
Apohola or Bn/zard phratry of the an 
cient Timncua of Florida. Panja (ca. 
1613) quoted by Gatschet in Proe. Am. 
Philos. Soc., xvir, 492, 1878. 

Nuculahaquo. A subdivision or clan of 
the Apohola or Buzzard phratry of the 
ancient Timucua of Florida. Pareja (ca. 
1()13) quoted by Gatschet in Proc. Am. 
Philos. Soc., XVI i, 492, 1878. 

Nuculaharuqui. A subdivision or clan 
of the Apohola or Buzzard phratry of the 
ancient Timucua of Florida. Pareja (fa. 
1(U3). quoted by Gatschet in Proc. Am. 
Philos. Soc,, xvn, 492,1878. 

Nudlung. A summer settlement of the 
Akudnirmiut Eskimo on Howe bay, 
Baffin land. 

Noodlook. McDonald, Discov. of Hogarth sSd., 86, 
1S41. Nudlung. Boas in tith Rep. 15. A. E., 441, 
1 SS8. 

Nuestra Seliora de Guadalupe. A Fran 
ciscan mission established by order of 
the Viceroy of Mexico on Guadalupe r., 
Tex., about 1755, with the purpose of 
gathering the dispersed neophytes who 
had been at the San Xavier missions on 
San Gabriel r. Some of the Mayeye from 
San Xavier de Ilorcasitas mission were 
congregated there for a time and t\vo mis 
sionaries settled among them ; but it does 
not appear that any mission buildings 
were erected, nor is it certain that the 
mission was ever formally founded. Soon 
afterward the missionaries were ordered 
to San Saba and the place was abandoned 
( Inforrne de Misiones, 1762, MS. in Mem. 
de Nueva Espafia, xxvin, ISO; Bonilla, 
Breve Compendio, in Tex. Hist. Ass n 
Quar., vni, 50-51, 1905; Arridvita, Cron- 
ica, TI, 837, 1792). (n. E. B. ) 

N. S. de Guadalupe. Informe de Misiones, 17(12, 
MS., op. cit. 

Nuestra Seiiora de Guadalupe. A mis 
sion established by Padres Ugarte and 
Helen in 1720-21 on the w. coast of 
Lower California, lat. 27. It had 5 
visitas in the vicinity in 1720, and 4 in 
1745, the others no doubt having become 
a part of one of the missions founded in 
the meantime. In 17(>7 the mission 
counted 530 baptized natives, speaking a 



BULL. 30] 



NUESTRA SENORA DE LA CANDELARIA 



dialect of Cochimi, according to Hervas 

(Saggio, 79-80, 1787). 

Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe. Venegas, Hist. 
Cal., II, 198, 1759. Nuestra Seiiora de Guadelupe del 
g ur . Buschrnann. Spuren, 751, 1*59. Santa Maria 
de Guadelupe. Ibid. 

Nuestra Seiiora de Guadalupe de los Na 
cogdoches. A mission founded July 9, 
1716, by the Franciscans of Zacatecas, at 
the Nacogdoche village and for the Na- 
cogdoche and Nacao tribes. The site was 
evidently that of the present city of Xa- 
cogdoches, Tex. It was the head Zaca- 
tecan mission in E. Texas, being at first 
in charge of the president, Fray Antonio 
Margil de Jesus. After him, the most 
noted missionary there was Joseph Cal- 
ahorra y Saenz (cci. 1750-1770). In 1719 
the mission was abandoned, like the others 
of E. Texas, and when in 17:21 Aguayo 
and Margil de Jesus went to reestablish 
it, not a sign of church or dwelling re 
mained. On Aug. 18 the new church 
was dedicated; Fray Jose Rodriguez was 
put in charge, and 390 Indians were given 
presents, having promised to settle in a 
pueblo, a promise which they evidently 
never fulfilled. When in F730-31 the 
Queretaran missions near by were trans 
ferred to San .Antonio, this with the other 
Zacatecan missions was retained, but it 
was never successful. More than once it 
was in danger of destruction by the 
Indians, who were made hostile to the 
Spaniards by the influence of the French. 
By 1752 the Nacogdoche Indian village 
had been removed some 3 leagues north 
ward. In 1767 Rubi reported the mission 
to be without a single neophyte, either 
baptized or under instruction. The next 
year Solis reported that there were an 
adobe church and several wooden build 
ings at the mission, but found in the books 
the record of only 12 baptisms, 8 burials, 
and 5 marriages. With the cession of 
Louisiana to Spain in 1762 one of the 
chief reasons for the mission s existence 
was removed, and accordingly, on recom 
mendation by Rubi in 1767, its abandon 
ment, together with that of the neighbor 
ing establishments, was ordered in 1772 
and effected in 1 773. Part of the settlers 
who had been removed in the latter year 
from E. Texas settled in 1774 on the 
Trinity, at a place called Filar de Buca- 
reli; but, because of a flood and attacks 
by the Comanche, they migrated in 1779 
to the site of the Nacogdoche mission, 
apparently occupying some of its build 
ings, and became the founders of modern 
Nacogdoches. 

Besides the authorities cited below, see 
Ramon, Derrotero, 1716, MS. in Mem. de 
Nueva Fspafia, xxvn, 157; Hidalgo to 
Mesquia, Oct. 6, 1716, MS. in the Archivo 
General; De Soto Bermudex, Investiga 
tion, 1752, MS. in the Archivo General; 
Rubi, Dictamen, fi25, 1767, MS. in the 



Archivo General; Tex. Hist. Ass n 
ix, 67-137, 1906. (H. K . H . ) 

Guadalupe. Bancroft, X<>. Mex. States, i. til 1 issf, 
Guadalupe de los Nacogdoches. 1 hid , 025. Mision 
de Nacogdoches. Solis. Diano, I7to, Ms. in Mem 
de Xueva Kspafia, xxvn. il. Nacogdoches. 
Bancroft, op. cit.. f.i;r,. N. S. de Guarlalupe - 
Ramon, Represeiitacion, 171<i, in Mem. de Nncva 
Espana, op. cit., l.V.t. N. S. de Guadalupe de Albur- 
querque de los Nacogdoches Solis, ITiis, op. <-it. ? 
I M J. N. S. de Guadalupe dc los Nacogdoches 1 Vim 
Diario, 17iM, MS. in Mem. de Nueva Espafia, 
xx vin. 41. N. S. de Guadalupe de Nacogdoches. 
Ibid., 4 2. 

Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria. ( >ne 
of three Franciscan missions established 
about 1747-4S on San Xavier (no\v San 
Gabriel) r., Tex. For the circumstances 
of its founding, see Sun Fran<-iw<> <!, llnr- 
<-a><it<is and consult also Sun ffdfionxo. 
This was the last of these three missions 
to be put in operation, but it is not known 
exactly when the neophytes arrived. 
The principal tribe at the mission was 
the Coco from the lower Colorado (Ar- 
ricivita, Cronica, n, 336, 337, 1792). 
Some time before Mar. 11, 1751, ( apt. 
Joseph de Kca y Musquiz inspected the 
mission and reported at service 102 neo 
phytes (ibid., 328; Viceroy s decree, Mar. 
11, 1751, .MS. in Lamar papers). This 
mission had an unfortunate career. About 
Dec. 1751, ( apt. Rabago y Tenin reported 
the neophytes as already reduced to 25 
(Bonilla in Tex. lli>t. Ass n (,)uar., VIM, 
49, 1905). Early in 1752 the Coco took 
umbrage at the punishment of a slight 
offense and left in a body for their home 
on the Colorado ( Arricivita, op. cit., 333). 
A few days afterward Father Cun/abal, 
minister at San Ildel onso. who had quar 
reled with the captain of the presidio, 
was murdered in the door of the Cande 
laria mission by an unknown person. 
Later the Coco promised to return to their 
mission, but apparently they neverdid so, 
for the last of the three, San Xavier de 
Horcasitas, was soon abandoned (ilid.. 
333, 3.36). They were taken instead, it 
seems, to San Antonio de Valero mission, 
for, beginning in 1755, there were numer 
ous burials there of Coco who had been 
baptized at Candelaria on Rio San Xavier 
(Valero, MS. Fntierros, entries for the 
years 1755-1765). (H. K. n. ) 

Candelaria. Bancroft, No. Mex. 
ISSt). 

Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria. A mis 
sion founded Feb. 8, 17i2, by Capt. 
Phelipe Rabago y Teran and Fray Diego 
Ximine/, on the w. side of San Joseph r., 
now the upper Xueces (not the >NIM 
Antonio, as has been conjectured), near 
a site called El Canon. This mission and 
San Loren/o, which was 4 leagues away, 
were founded for the Lipan after they 
had been frightened from the San Pa ha 
mission by the^attack of the Comanche 
and others in 1758. The chief who as 



for this mission and was made 






NTKSTKA SKNORA 



1)K LA PURI8IMA CONCEPCION [B. A. E. 



HIT" of it was Texa. or Turnio, who had 
a foll.iwini: of nil n than .">00 people ( Re 
port of IMbago y Teran, Feb. 7 and 8, 
MS. in Aivhivo ( leneral; also Arricivita, 
Cro uica, n, :>S5, 386, 1792). The mis 
sion was attached to those of the Rio 
<irande. Before 1767 it was abandoned 
through the desertion of Tnrnio and his 
people (Arricivita, ibid. ,391). For fur 
ther details, Pee *S a Lorenzo, (n. E. K. ) 
Candelaria. Bancroft, N<>. Mox. States, i, 650, 
l>Mi. Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria. Rabagp y 
Ten in, Kt i"" 1 o1 I|K l "iiii(lini, r , 1-Vb. 7, S, 1702, 
MS. in Archivo (icnerai. 

Nuestra Senora de la Luz. A Franciscan 
mission established by the Zacatecan 
friars, among the Arkokisa, on the left 
Lank of lower Trinity r., Tex. A mis- 
sioir for the Arkokisa was proposed as 
early as 1747 by ( apt. Orobio y Basterra, 
who reported that this tribe, livingin live 
rancher-ias or pneblos and nunil)ering 300 
families, had expressed a desire to settle 
in a mission between the Sabine and the 
Trinity, "their fatherland." Some years 
afterward the plan was carried out, the 
miss mn beintr placed at a site known as 
( )rcoquisac, some distance below modern 
Liberty. Near it stood the presidio of 
San Agustin de Ahumada. Within a few 
years both were moved a short distance 
upstream to a place called Los Horcon- 
sitos. The mission, from the first unsuc- 
ces<ful. wasabandoned about 1 770, and in 
177 J the suppression of the presidio was 
ordered. ( II. E. H. ) 

Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concep- 
cidn. A Franciscan mission, founded July 
7. 17U). at the principal Ilasinai village, 
that of the I lainai, on t he K. side of Ange 
lina r. , Tex., and nearl v w. of modern Na- 
cogdoches. It was founded by, and re 
mained for several years in charge of, the 
president of the (^ueivtaran missions 
among the Ilasinai, Frav Ysidro Felis de 
Fspinosa, later author of the famous work 
on Franciscan missions, the ( /n l micn A }><<- 
t. tfirn ,f ,sv/-, ////,;,,, (1746). The Hainai 
settlement at the time the mission was 
founded consisted, it is said, of an in 
finite number of ranches, with their 
patches of mai/e, melons, watermelons, 
beans, tobacco," and sunflowers ( Ramon, 
henotero, 1716, MS. in Mem.de Nueva 
F-pana, xxvn, 15s i. This village was 
lorthe missionaries a strategic point in 
the Ilasinai country, for at the Hainai 
village was the chief temple of the con 
federacy, presided over by the high priest, 
the Lr, va t A //// x/ (Jesus Maria, Kelacion, 
1691 , MS. i, consequent ly ( oncepcion was 
made the head mission. Before its re 
moval to San Antonio the mission was 
sometimes called Nuestra Senora de la 
Purisima ( oncepciori de los Aynais. 
The lir>t church and dwellings were built 
by the Indians of wood and grass, after 
the manner of the Ilasinai grass lodges, 



but soon the soldiers and the mission 
aries, with their own hands, constructed 
more commodious ones (Ramon, op. cit., 
159; Espinosa, Diario, 1716, MS.; and 
(Ti ronica, 4 IS, 419, 1746). 

The Ilasinai Indians were friendly, but 
they refused to settle permanently in 
pueblos, and, through the strong influ 
ence of their priesthood, were slow to ac 
cept baptism. However, within a year 
Kspinosa succeeded in baptizing, on his 
deathbed, the Hainai chief, which, be 
cause of this person s exalted position in 
the confederacy, presumably made other 
conversions easier (Kspinosa, Chronica, 
440). But success was slight. Supplies 
for this and tne neighboring missions 
failed to come, some of the soldier guard 
deserted, and finally, in 1 719, the mission 
aries and soldiers, unaided by home au 
thorities and fearful of a French attack 
from Natchitoches incident to the rup 
ture between France and Spain, retired 
with the church ornaments to San An 
tonio, much to the regret of the Indians 
( Espinosa, Chronica, 451-453; see also 
docs, in French, Hist. Coll. La., in, 67- 
72, 1851). 

In 1721 the Marques de San Miguel de 
Aguayo was sent, w T ith Espinosa and 
Father Margil, to reestablish the missions 
and to erect presidios for their defense. 
Espinosa was again put in charge of Con 
ception, which reoccupied the old church 
after some repairs were made. On Aug. 
8, 1721, the mission was formally re 
established, and to Cheocas, chief of the 
Hainai and head civil chief of the Ilasi 
nai, Aguayo gave "the best suit that he 
had blue, heavily embroidered with 
gold, with waistcoat of gold and silver 
lace." Cheocas collected the Hainai 
people, and Aguayo, after exhorting them 
to come and settle a pueblo, gave pres 
ents of clothing and trinkets to 400 per 
sons, including perhaps the 80 Kadoha- 
dacho visitors who chanced to be there 
(IVfia, Diario, 1721, MS. in Mem. de 
Nneva Espafia, \xvin, 42). Near by 
Aguayo established an ill-made presidio 
called Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de 
los Texas (IVna, ibid.; and Rivera, Di 
ario, leg. 2140, 173(5; also Rivera, Pro- 
yecto, 1728, MS.). 

Success was no greater now than for 
merly, and in 1731 Mission Concepcion, 
together with San Joseph de los Nasones 
and San Francisco de los Texas (or 
Neches), was reestablished on San Anto 
nio r. It was first planned to place them 
on the San Marcos, and there is some in 
dication that they may have been tem 
porarily located there (MS. in the city 
clerk s office, San Antonio, dated Aug. 
12, 1771 ). Concepcion was placed on the 
bank of San Antonio r., about 2 m. below 
San Antonio de Valero, which is now at 



BULL. 30] 



NUESTRA SENORA DE LA SOLKDAD 



the center of the city of San Antonio. 
According to the surviving book of mar 
riage records, it was founded May 5, 1731. 
The site selected was that which formerly 
had been assigned to the Ervipiame mis 
sion of San Xavier de Naxera (q. v. ). 
The pueblo was called Acuna, and of it 
the Pajalat chief was made the first gov 
ernor ( Testimonio de Asiento de Misiones, 
1730-31, MS.). The mission now some 
times took the name Nuestra Sefiora de 
la Purfsima Concepcion de Acuna. 

The tribes served by it were in the main 
of the Coahuiltecan stock. Their lan 
guage is preserved in the Manual of Bar- 
tolorne Garcia (1760), who was stationed 
at the neighboring mission of San Fran 
cisco de la Espada. The first marriage 
recorded was that of "Joseph Flores, of 
the Patumaco nation, present governor of 
this pueblo, and chief of the Pajalates, 
Siguipiles, Tilpacopales, and others." 
The marriage records show that about 30 
so-called tribes (naciones) were repre 
sented at this mission before 1790. They 
are here given, with the date of the lirst 
appearance of each new name or group of 
names following: Pajalat, Siquipil, Til- 
pacopal, Patumaco, Pachalaque, Patalca, 
Tiloja, Xarame (1733); Pamache (Pama- 
que?), Cujan (1734); Pacaba (Pacoa? 
1735); Guapica (Guapite?), Pausana 
1738); Payaya (1739); Pastia (1741); 
Pacao, Tacame; Orejon (1742); Chayopin 
(1745); A 7 enado (1746); Apache (1747); 
Lipan (1751); Sanipao (1755); Piguiqni, 




che (1770); Pamaque (1775). Of these 
the Pajalates, Orejones, Pacaos, Pacoas, 
Pausanas, Tacames, Venados, Pamaques, 
Pihuiques, Borrados, Sanipaos, and Ma- 
nos de Perro are named inGarci a s Man 
ual as among those speaking Coahuilte 
can, and several others are known to 
have been likewise Coahuiltecans. It is 
possible that two or three -pairs of the 
names given above are those of identical 
tribes. It is also to be noted that the 
Apache and the Yojuane in most cases 
were captives, while the Pacoa and Chay 
opin in the list represent neophytes of 
neighboring missions who intermarried 
witli the neophytes of Concepcion (Libro 
de Casamientos, MS. in the custody of 
the Bishop of San Antonio). 

By Feb. 20, 1740, 250 neophytes had 
been baptized; but at this date only 120 
remained, of whom all but 6 were un- 
baptized. The explanation is that in the 
latter part of 1739 a severe epidemic had 
ravaged all the missions, immediately 
after which a fresh supply of gentiles 
was brought in (Description de Mi- 
clones, Feb. 20, 1740, MS. in Mem. de 
Nueva Espana, xxvm, 203). By Mar. 6, 



1/6 there had been 792 baptisms and 
008 burials a commentary on mortality 
at the missions. At this time there were 
07 persons remaining, largely Pajalates, 
Tacames, and Sanipaos. There wen- now 
a substantial church, apparently the one 
still standing, a sacristy, cloisters, a work 
room where neophytes made cotton fab 
rics and a blacksmith simp. The Indian 
pueblo near by consisted of two rows of 
stone huts and jacales, surround, -<l by a 
wall. The fields were irrigated by means 
of an acequia leading from a reservoir. 
On the ranch were 200 marcs, 1 10 horses 
610 cattle, and 2,200 sheep and goats 
(Ynfprme de Misiones, Mar. 6, 17(52 
MS. in Mem. de JS ueva Espafia, xxvnij 
168-169). The acequia, known as the 
"Pajalache or Conception ditch," is said 
to have been in use until 1869 (Corner, 
San Antonio de Bexar, 43, 1890). 

Late in 1772 or early in 1773 the <,)uerc- 
taran friars transferred the mission to the 
Zacatecans, as was true also of the neigh 
boring missions (Libro de Casamientos, 
MS., first entry for 177:5). But tlieaetive 
period of the mission was now past, and 
the subsequent history was that of de 
cline. Neophytes were difficult to get, 
government support was withdrawn, and 
the citi/ens of San Fernando encroached 
upon the mission lands. In 1794 the 
mission was seculari/ed. By 1790 the 
total number of marriages had reached 
249, of which 210 had been contracted 
before 1 770 ( Libro de Casamientos). The 
mission church and vivienda are still 
fairly well preserved. (U.K. u.) 

Nuestra Sefiora de la Soledad. The thir 
teenth Franciscan mission founded in 
California. Father Lasuen himself had 
explored the region, already known to 
the Spanish as Soledad, and personally 
selected the site, which was situated in 
the Salinas valley, about 4 m. from the 
present town of Soledad, Monterey co. 
The native name was Chnttnsgelis. 
Some shelters were erected by neophytes 
from San Carlos, and on Oct. 9, 1791, the 
mission of Nuestra Sefiora de la Soledad 
was formally established. A few natives 
witnessed the ceremonv. I>v the end ol 
the year there were 12 converts, and -49. ) 
by 1800. In 1797 they had completed an 
adobe church with straw roof. The great 
est number of neophytes, 727. was reached 
in 1805. In 1810 there were 600, in 1820 
435, and about 300 in 1S34. The total 
number of natives bapti/ed was 3,09(5, of 
whom 1,306 were children. The total 
deaths were 2,502, of whom 1,137 were 
children. The mission was successful in 
its agricultural operations and well sup 
plied with stock. In 1810 it had nearly 
3,000 cattle, 286 horses, and 8,000 sheep, 
with an average crop for the last decade 
of 3,660 bushels. By 1820 the livestock 



NTKSTKA SKNOKA DKL ROSARIO 



had increased considerably, but the crops 
were smaller. Soledad did not decline so 
rapidly as some of the other California 
missions, and in 1834 it still had about 
<>,000 cattle and 5,000 sheep. The crops, 
however, were not very good, though 
there was a certain aim unit of irrigation. 
After secularization the decline was rapid, 
so that in 1840 there were only about 70 
natives left, and the livestock had almost 
entirely disappeared. In 18-H> the mis 
sion was sold for 8800, but its buildings 
were then in ruins. Portions of adobe 
walls, some of them 3 ft thick, still remain 
on the site. The Indians in the neigh 
borhood of Soledad were Chalones, be 
longing to the C ostanoan linguistic- stock. 
In 1817. or thereabouts, according to in 
formation given to Taylor (Cal. Farmer, 
Apr. 20, 18tiO), approximately a fourth of 
the neophytes were Chalones, one-fourth 
Ksselen, and one-half from the Tulare 
lakes. The latter were probably Yokuts 
( .Mariposan). See California Indians, 
Costano(tn j^annli/, Mission Indians of Cali 
fornia, J//X.S-/OJ/X. (.\. B. L. ) 

Nuestra Senora de la Soledad. An Apa- 
lachee mission settlement established in 
1718 near Pensacola, Fla., by Juan Mar 
cos, chief of the tribe, with refugees 
rescued from captivity among the Creeks, 
I>v whom they had been carried away on 
thedestruction of the Apalachee missions 
by < iov. Moore and his Indian allies in 
17d4. The effort seems to have been 
abandoned In-fore 1722. (.1. M.) 

Nuestra Seriora de la Soledad. ttarcia, Ensayo, 349, 
ITi lv Our Lady of Loneliness. Shea. Oath. Miss., 
7.">. 18.V). Soledad. Bareia, op. cit.. 842. 

Nuestra Senora de la Victoria. A Fran 
ciscan mission founded in 1()77 at Nada- 
dores, within the territory of the present 
state of Coahnila, Mexico. It was called 
also Santa Ro: a, and familiarly Nada- 
dores. Raids by the Toboso, a wild tribe 
of northern Mexico, compelled removal 
from its first site, 40 leagues x. E. of 
Coahuila, to a position near Nadadores r., 
7 leagues x. \v. of that city. The Indians 
collected here were the Cotzales and Manos 
Prietas, to which, at terthe removal, 8Tlas- 
caltec families \\creadded. (,i. R. s. ) 

Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de la Punta. 
A mission founded by the Queretaran 
fathers within the limits of the present 
Mexican state of Xueva Leon. The In 
dians gathered here were the Pitas and 
tin- Pasalves. 

Nuestra Senora de los Dolores del Norte. 
A .lesnit mission of Lower California, 
founded early in the 18th century. Ve- 
negas (Hist. Cal., n, HJ8-HM), 1759) says: 
"This mission was joined with that of San 
Fgnacio. Within its district, which lies 30 
leagues from S. Ignacio [San Ignacio de 
Kadakaman] ;,nd in the latitude of 29 , 
were already 548 bapti/ed Indians." 
Taylor states that this mission was "made 
as an adjunct to San Ignacio, but a few- 



years afterward seems to have been ab 
sorbed into this last and abandoned , as 
were two or three pioneer foundations of 1 
the same kind, before 1740." See also 
Browne, Res. Pac. Slope, app., 50, 18<>9. 
Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de los Ais. 
A Franciscan mission established in 1716 
by the Spaniards among the Eyeish, in 
the vicinity of Sabine r. , Tex., 37 leagues 
from Natchitoches, La, "well toward 
the E., and near the French settlements 
already established on Red r." of Loui 
siana. It was abandoned during the 
French-Spanish hostilities of 1719 aim the 
mission property destroyed by the In 
dians, but was reestablished in 1721 with 
180 natives. In 1768 it reported only 11 
baptisms, and in 1773 was abandoned, 
probably on account of the decimation of 
the Kyeish people. See Bancroft, cited 
below; Garrison, Texas, 1903. 

Dolores. Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i,615,666,188t % >. 
Dolores de los Adaes. Ibid . , 625. Santisima Virgen 
de los Dolores. Austin in Tex. Hist. Ass ri Quar., 
vin, 2S4, 1905. 

Nuestra Senora del Pilar de los Adaes. A 
presidio established in Sept. and Oct. 
1721 , by the Marques de Aguayo, close to 
the mission of San Miguel de Linares (or 
de los Adaes), in Texas, and about three- 
quarters of the way from the Sabine to 
Natchitoches, La. It was occupied until 
1773, when the whole eastern frontier was 
abandoned. In 1 774, however, part of the 
citizens returned from San Antonio to the 
Trinity and there founded a village which 
was called Pilar de Bucareli. ( n. E. H. ) 

Nuestra Seiioradel Pilar. IVfia, MS. Diario,1721,in 
Mem. de Xueva Kspana, x xvm. 52. Nuestra Se 
nora del Pilar de los Adaes. Bouilla, Breve Com- 
pendio, 1772, in Tex. Hist. Ass n Quar., vm, 34, 
1905. Pilar. Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 62(1, 1886. 

Nuestra Senora del Kefugio. A mission 
founded in 1791 by Fray Manuel de Silva, 
near the mouth of Mission r., flowing 
into Aransas bay, Tex. It had 62 Karan- 
kawa neophytes in 1793. It was main 
tained until 1828, but in 1824 the mission 
buildings were abandoned because of the 
hostility of the Comanche, the baptism of 
neophytes subsequent to this time being 
performed at the parochial church. Be-i 
tween 1807 and 1828 the missionaries 1 
laboring at Refugio were Fr. Jose Manuel | 
(iaitan, Fr. Juan Maria Zepulveda ( buried j 
there June 28, 1815), Fr. Jose Antonio 
Diaz de Leon, and Fr. Miguel Munoz. 
During this period the total number of 
baptisms was 204, the tribes represented 
being the Karankawa, Piguique, Copane, 
Coapite, Pamoque, Cujan, Malaguite, Pa- 
jalache, Toboso, Coco, Araname, and 
Li pan (Libro n de Bautismos, 1807-28, in 
the archives of the parochial church of 
Matamoros, Mexico). (n. E. B. ) 

Refugio. Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 6C6, 668, 

1886. 

Nuestra Seiiora del Rosario. A Francis 
can mission founded in the fall of 1754 
about 4 m. s. w. of Espiritu Santo de 



BULL. 30] 



NUESTRA SENORA DEL VALLE HUMHROSO 



yr> 



Zuiliga mission, nearly opposite modern 
Goliad and in. from San Antonio r., for 
the Karankawan tribes, particularly the 
Cujanes ( Kohani ) , of theTexas coast below 
this point. Early missionary efforts among 
the Karankawan tribes had been made at 
Espi ritu Santo, founded in 1722 by the 
Zacatecan Franciscans near the site of 
La Salle s settlement on Lavaca r. The 
hostility of these tribes soon caused the 
removal of the mission, and subsequently 
the neighboring presidio, Bahi a del Espi 
ritu Santo, to Guadalupe r. The site 
is now marked by ruins in Mission val 
ley, Victoria co. From this time until 
1750 the Karankawan tribes, except the 
Coco, some of whom before this were 
attracted to Candelaria mission, were al 
most unaffected by mission influence; but 
in the year named, in consequence of Jose 
de Escandon s plan to colonize the whole 
coast country from P;inuco, Mexico, to 
San Antonio r., renewed efforts were 
made to missionize them. At first the 
government ordered that an attempt l>e 
made to gather them into Espiritu Santo 
de Zuniga mission, which, at Escandon s 
instance, had been moved in 1749 with 
the presidio of Bahi a to San Antonio r. 
At the same time the Queretaran mis 
sionaries at San Antonio made an effort 
to gather them there. A quarrel ensued, 
with the result that Espiritu Santo mis 
sion, profiting by the efforts of the Que~ 
retarans, succeeded in 1751 in gathering 
temporarily a number of Karankawans, 
mainly Cujanes. They deserted in a few 
weeks, but the missionaries and Captain 
Ramirez de la Piszina of the presidio con 
tinued making efforts to win the Cujanes, 
Karankawa, Coapites, and Copanes (Ko- 
pano ) . 

It being found objectionable to attempt 
to put these tribes into the Espiritu Santo 
mission with the Aranames and Tami- 
ques, "since they are of different lan 
guages, incompatible dispositions, and do 
not like to be in their company," an 
effort was made and permission obtained 
to transfer mission Nuestra Sefiora de los 
Dolores de los Ais from E. Texas to the 
neighborhood of Espiritu Santo, there to 
reestablish it for the Karankawan tribes. 
Objections from E. Texas, however, re 
sulted in an order ( Apr. 7, 1755) to found 
a new mission for the Cujanes (Kohani), 
Coapites, and Karankawa. The Copanes 
(Kopano) do not seem to have been in 
cluded. Already, in consequence of the 
former plan, the founding of a new 
mission for these tribes had been begun 
(Nov. 1754) by Father Camberos and 
Captain Ramirez de la Piszina. Without 
waiting for the government to supply 
funds, work was begun with private do 
nations and borrowed means. The name 
*iven the mission was Nuestra Sefiora 
iel Rosario, with the addition, sometimes, 



of I de los Cujanes," the addition indi 
cating the prominence of the Cujan tribe 
in the mission, and also the prevalent 
usage of the name of this tribe as a generic 
term for the Karankawan group. As first 
constructed, the church was built of wood, 
and was surrounded by a stake palisade. 
Later this church was "replaced by one of 
stone. Conversions were slow, the total 
number of baptisms after four years work 
being only 21. The Cujanes in particular 
were hard to manage, and with difficulty 
were kept from deserting. Adequategov- 
ernment support for the mission was de 
layed until Apr. 1758, when the supplies 
that had been asked for were granted, and 
10 additional soldiers were added to the 
garrison at the neighboring presidio. 
With this aid the mission became more 
prosperous. In 1768 it was able to report a 
total of about 200 baptisms, and the indi 
cations are that at this time from 100 to 
200 Indians lived intermittently, at least, 
at the mission. Father Soli s inspected 
the mission in that year and reported it 
in good material condition, but said that 
the Indians were very hard to subdue, 
and that the Copanes, some of whom had 
joined the other tribes there, had en 
tirely deserted it. In the same year 
charges were made to the government 
that the Indians were being seriously 
mistreated by the missionary, Father 
Escobar, and for that reason were de 
serting. Soli s, however, gave a contrary 
report. (For a study of the history of 
Mission Rosario to this point, with eita- 
tation of authorities for the above state 
ments, see Boltoii in Texas Hist. Ass n 
Quar., Oct. 1906.) The subsequent his 
tory of this mission has never been in 
vestigated. Viceroy Revilla Gigedo tells 
us that it was completely abandoned in 
1781; that efforts were made at once to 
reestablish it, but without success until 
1791 (Carta dirigida a la Corte de Es- 
pana, Dec. 27, 1793). Portillo (Apuntes 
para la Historia Antigua de Coahuila y 
Texas, 310-1 1 ), an unreliable writer, who 
however had access to documents, says 
that in 1794 it had 62 neophytes (some of 
them apparently Coco), and that three 
years later 97 Coco and Karankawa 
from the mouth of the Colorado, after 
failing to gain admission to Espiritu 
Santo, entered Rosario mission Ruins 
of the latter are still to be seen, but little 
remains of its walls. 

Nuestra Seiiora del Kosario. A former 
Cora pueblo and seat of a mission which 
had Corapa as a visita. Situated near the 
w bank of Rio San Pedro, lat. 22 15 , Ja 
lisco, Mexico. Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
280, 1864. 

Nuestra Sefiora del Valle Humbroso. A 
Temoris pueblo in Chinipas valley, w 
Chihuahua, Mexico. Orozco y Berr 
Geog., 324, 1864. 



NUGSOAK NUKLUKAYET 



[B.A. 



Nugsoak. A missionary station and 
trading p">t opposite Disko id., w. Green 
land. 
Noogsoak. ( rant/. Hist. Greenland, I, 16, 1767. 

Nugumiut i inhabitants of the cape )- 
An Kskimo tribe occupying the peninsula 
between Frobisher bay and Cumberland 
sd., P.atlinland. Sealing on the noes with 
the harpoon, killing \valrns at the floe 
ed-je. and hunting deer in the summer are 
their occupations. Their permanent vil 
lages are Nugumiut, Operdniving,Tornait, 
Tuarpukdjuak, and Tkadlik. Other set 
tlements are Akbirsiarbing, Ekaluin, Kas- 
sigiakdjnak, Kekertukjuag, Kodlimarn, 
and Xnvuktualnng. Pop. about 80 in 
I SSM. 

New Gummi Lurk. Hrilish Admiralty chart. Nu- 
gumeute. Kumlien in Hull. Nat. Mus. no. 15, 15, 
l^TU. Nugumiut. Unas in fith Rep. B. A. E., 422, 
1SSS. 

Nugumiut. A winter village of Nugu 
miut Kskimo at the entrance to Frobisher 
bay, r.atlin land. Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. 
]].! map. 1SS8. 

Nuhalk ( Xii.ra lk: ). A Bellacoola divi 
sion, embracing the following 8 villages, 
at the month of Bellacoola r., Brit. Col.: 
At Iklaktl, Komkntis, ( )smakiniketlp, Pei- 
srla, Sakta. Selkuta, Stskeitl, and Tkeikts- 
kune. They include the Keltakkaua, 
Pot las. Siatlhelaak, Spukpukolemk, and 
Tokoais gentes. 

Nuchalkmx . Buns in I etermanns Mitt.,pt. 5, 130, 
KNI ,//x -people ). Nuqa lkH. Boas in 7th Rep. 
X. \V. Tribes Can., H. 18 Jl. Nuqa lkmn. Ibid. 
-tun people of). Nuxa lk !. Boas in Mem. 
Am. Mns. Nat. Hist., II, -lit, 1898. 

Nuiku ( .\i~i ikn } . A Bellacoola village at 
the head of South Bentinck arm, Brit, 
Col. It is one of the Talio towns. 
Nu ik . Boas in 7th Hep. N. W. Tribes Can.. 3,1891 
Nu iku. Boas in Mem. Am. Mns. Nat. Hist., tl, 49, 

Nuimok ( southern ). A Winttin tribe 
formerly living alony lower Stonv cr. 
Coln-a co., Cal. 

Kuronom. Krochcr, infn. ll03 (Vuki name for 
_ Creek Wintuin. Npi Mucks. Geigerin Ind. 
AIT. Rep., 288, 185X. Nu i-mok. Powers in ("out 
N". A. Ktlino].. in. _!;;(), 1S77. 

Nuk ( the point ). A village of the 
Kiiuijruniiut Kskimo at Port Clarence, 
Ala.-ka. the site of the reindeer station 
Teller. 

Nooke. -H..,...hi;\ (1*27) quoted by Baker, Geog. 

l i<-l. Ala>ka. i^O, p. ;. Nookmete. Jackson in 

V 11 : M l 1 .. map. 115. l.sy-i. Nookmut. 

I. Alaska, -Ins. 1*70. Nookmute. Klliott Our 

I n.v.. map. I.SNC,. The Nook. Baker, op. 

rit. name giv-n by "ihcold timers" j. 

Nukaakmats (Niia ti.rm<its}. A Bella- 
<-oola town on Bellacoola r., above A se- 
nan.-, P.rit. Col. 

Nuk a aqmats. B-,as in 7th Rep. N.W. TrihesCan 
Nuqa axmats. Boas in Mem. Am. Mus 
Nat. Hist., ii, -lit, l.v.tx. 

Nukaatko (.Y///,v/// //.-o, Nuknii tqo, or 
\Ekan tko, one little water ). A village 
"i the Spences Bridge band of Ntlak- 
yapamuk, on the N. side of Thompson r 
. > m. above Lytton, Brit. ( 1 ol. Teit, in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, n, 173, ]900 



Nukchu. Mentioned as a tribe of s. 
central California, apparently living be 
tween San Joaquin and Kings rs. There 
may be some confusion with a southern 
Moquelumnan tribe called Nuchu; or the 
term may be a synonym of Nuehawayi or 
Nutunntu (<j. v. ). The Nukchu entered 
into a treaty with the United States, Apr. 
29, 1851, and were placed on a reserve 
between Chowchilla and Kaweah rs. 
Nook-choo. Royee in 18th Rep. B. A. E., 7S2, 1899. 
Nook-choos. .Johnson ^1851) in Sen. Ex. Doe. 61, 
32d Cong., 1st sess., 22, 1852. 

Nukhe ( reddish-yellow buffalo ). A 
gens of the Ponca, q. v. 

Ice. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B.A. E., 229, 1897 (im 
properly so called). Nuqe. Ibid. Nuxe. Ibid. 

Nukhwhaiimikhl ( Nukh -whai-i-mikhl) . 
A Samish village on the s. w. side of 
Guemesid., N. w. coast of Washington. 
Gibbs, Clallam and Lnmmi, 38, 1863. 

Nukhwuchutun (Nu -q wtit-tcu -tun). A 
former village of the Chetco on the s. 
side of Chetco r., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. 
Am. Folk-lore, in, 236, 1890. 

Nukits (Xuk l ts). A Bellacoola village 
on Bellacoola r., above Snutele, Brit. 
Col. 

Nu kiiits. Boas in 7th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 3, 
1891. Nuk-rts. Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., ii, 49, 1900. 

ITukitsomk (Nuxitso mx}- A Wikeno 
village on Rivers inlet, Brit. Col. Boas 
in Petermanns Mitt., pt, 5, 130, 1887. 

Nukkehkummees. A village of Praying 
Indians, probably subject, to the Wam- 
panoag, near the site of Dartmouth, 
Mass., containing about 120 inhabitants 
in 1698. Kawson and Danforth (1698) in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 132, 1809. 

Nuklako. A Hankutchin village of 82 
inhabitants on Yukon r., near the mouth 
of Klondike r., just w. of the boundary 
line between Alaskaand British Columbia. 

FortReliance. PetroiTin 10th Census, Alaska, map, 

1884. Nu-kla-ko. Schwatka, Rep. on Alaska, 86, 

1885. Takon Indians. Ibid., 84. Tchi-car-gut-ko- 
tan. Ibid., 8f> Ungalik name). 

Nuklit. A Malemiut Eskimo village 
near C. Denbigh, Norton sd., Alaska. 
Noklich. /a,!, r oskin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th 8., 
xxi, map, 1850. Noocleet. Baker, Geog. Diet. 
Alaska, 473, 1906 (quoted form). Nucleet. Ibid. 
Nuklit. Zagoskin, Deser. Rnss. Poss. Am., i, 72, 
1847. 

Nukluak. An Ikogmiut Kskimo village 
on the left bank of the Yukon, opposite 
Ikogmiut mission, Alaska. 
Nuchljuagmjut. Holmberg, Ethnog. Skizz., map, 
1855. Nukluag-miout. Xagoskin in Nouv. Ann. 
Voy., 5th s., xxi, map, 1850. 

Nuklukayet. A Tenankutchin village, 
trading post, and mission on the N. bank 
of the Yukon, Alaska, just below the 
mouth of the Tanana. Pop. 107 in 1880, 
120 in 1890. It is visited for trade by 
people of various tribes. 
Nuclucayette. Raymond in Sen. Ex. Doc. 12, 42d 
Cong., 1st sess., 23, 1871. Nuclukayette. Whym- 
per, Alaska, map, 1869. Nu-klac-i-yat. Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska. 47:5, 190(5 (cited form). Nuklak- 
yet. Ibid. Nuklukahyet. Dall, Alaska, 57, 1870. 
Kuklukaiet. Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 12, 



BULL. 30] 



NUKLUKTAXA NUN ARIA 



1884. Nuklukayet. PetrofY, Rep. on Alaska, 62, 
1881. Nuklukoyet. Schwatka, Rep. on Alaska, 
97, 188"). Nuklukyet. Allen, Rep. on Alaska, 86, 
1887. Nuklukyeto. Bruce, Alaska, map, 1885. 

Nukluktana (Nukluk-t&na) . A Tenan- 
kutchin division on Tanana r., Alaska, 
below Tutlut r. Allen, Rep. on Alaska, 
86, 1887. 

Nukwatsamish. A small body of Salish, 
formerly on a branch of Skagit r., in 
Whatcorn co., Wash., now on Swinomish 
res. 

Do-qua-chabsh. Mallet in Incl. Aff. Rep., 198, 1877. 
Nook-na-cham-ish. Ind. All . Rep., 17,1870. N qua- 
cha-mish. Gibbs in Pac. R. R. Rep.. I, 4156, 1855. 
Nu-kwat-samish. Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I. 
180,1877. 

Nulaautin. A sept of the Takulli living 
in the village of Nulkreh, on Noolkelake, 
Brit. Col. ; pop. 56 in 1879. 
Nalo-tin. Brit. Col. map, 1872. Nool-ke-o tin. 
Dawson in Rep. Can. Geol. Snrv. 1879-80, 30B, 
1881. Nulaantins. Domenech, Deserts X. Am., II, 
62, 1860. Nulaautin. Hale, Ethnog. and Philol., 
202, 1846. Stony Creek band. Can. Ind. Aff., 214, 
1902. 

Nulato. A Kaiyuhkhotana village and 
trading station on the x. bank of Yukon 
r., Alaska, about 100 in. from Norton sd. 
and 550 m. by river from the ocean. In 
1838 the Russian Malakof built a block 
house and stockade near here, but shortly 
afterward, during his absence, it was 
burned by the Indians. It was rebuilt in 
1842 by Lieut. Zagoskin, who was suc 
ceeded by Yasili Derzhavin, whose many 
acts of cruelty led to the massacre of the 
entire garrison by the Koyukukhotana in 
1851. Later Xulato was moved 2 in. up 
the river to its present site. It is the seat 
of the Roman Catholic mission of St Peter 
Claver, and contained 168 inhabitants in 
1880, 118 in 1890. 

Halatos. Schwatka, Rep. on Alaska, 101, 1885. 
Noulato. Zagoskin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th s., 
xxi, map, 1850. Nulato. Zagoskin, Descr. Rnss. 
Poss. Am., map, 1842. Nula to-kho-tan a. Dall in 
Cont. X. A. Ethnol., I, 26, 1877. 

Nulatok. A Togiagamiut Eskimo village 
on Togiak r., Alaska; pop. 211 in 1880. 

Nulahtuk. Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 49, 1881. 
Nulatok. Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 17, 1884. 

Nulkreh. The Nulaautin village on 
Sbolke lake, s. of Nechaco r., Brit. Col. 
Morice in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., x, 109, 
1893. 

Nuloktolok. A Kaialigmiut Eskimo 
,-illage on the s. side of Nelson id., 
Uaska; pop. 25 in 1880. 

Tulakhtolagamute. Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 54, 
881. Nuloktolgamute. Nelson (1878) quoted by 
teker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 474, 1906. Nuloktolok. 
Jaker, ibid. Nulukhtulogumut. Nelson in 18th 
lep. B. A. E., pi. n, 23, 1899. 

Num (Num). The Earth or Sand clan of 
he Tigua pueblo of Isleta, N. Mex. 

famtamin. Gatschet, Isleta MS. vocab., B. A. E., 
385. Num-t ai nin. Lummis quoted by Hodge 
lAm. Anthrop.,ix, 350, 1896 (fm m = people ). 
Numaltachi. A village formerly on Tu- 
lumne r., Tuolumne co., Cal. Judg- 
ig from its geographic position, it was 
robably Moquelumnan. 
ul-lat-te-co. Johnson in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
\ 407, 1854 (probably identical). Mumaltachi. 



Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Loud., si, is5t;. Nu- 
mal-tachee. Johnson, op. cit. 

yfuma,wisowo.gi(Nqmdn t iswdqg i , they go 
by the name of the fish ). A phratryof 
the Sank and Eoxes, including the Stur 
geon, Bass, and Ocean gentes; also the 
name of the Sturgeon gens of this phra- 

tr y- (w. j.) 

Na-ma-we -so-uk. Morgan. Anc. Soc., 170, 1*77 
(the gens). Namawisowag 1 . \\ m. Jones, inf n 
1900 (the phratfyand the gens). 

Numeral systems. See ( omitiny. 

Numguelgar. A former Chiinmshan 
village near Santa Barbara, Cal. Ban 
croft," Xat. Paces, i, 45*), 1S74. 

Nummuk ( western ). A Wintun tribe 
that formerly lived on Ruin r., a tribu 
tary of Cottomvood r., Shasta co., Cal. 
Nommuk. Powell in 7th Rep. 15. A. K.. 70, 1S91. 
Num -mok. Powers in Cont. N. A. Kthnol., in, 2m 
1877. 

Numpali. A former division of the 
Olamentke that probably resided not far 
from the Olumpali of Marin co., Cal. 

Noumpolis. Choris, Voy. Pitt., fi, Is22. Numpali. 
Chamisso in Kotzebue, Voy., in, ">1, isiM. 

Nun (A fm). The name of an ancestor 
of one of the Koskimo gentes, sometimes 
applied to the gens itself. Boas in Peter- 
maims Mitt., pt. ">, ]. !1, 1SS7. 

Nuna ( land ). A Xunatogmiut Eskimo 
village at Pt Hope, Alaska; pop. 74 in 
1 880." 

Noo-na. Dall in Cont. X. A. Kthnol., I, 11, 1*77. 
Noona-agamute. Petroll in loth Census, Alaska, 4, 
1SS4. 

Nunaikak. An Ikogmiut Eskimo vil 
lage opposite Koserefski, on the lower 
Yukon, Alaska; perhaps identical with 
Ukak. 

Nunaikagumute. Raymond in Sen. K\. Doe. 12, 
42d Cong., 1st sess., 25, Is71. 

Nunakitit. The northernmost village of 
the Angmagsalingniiut , on an islet at the 
entrance of Sermiligak fjord, Greenland, 
in lat. 65 o. K; pop. 14 in 1884. Med- 
delelser om Gronland, AXVII, 22, 1902. 

Nunaktak. An Ikogmiut Kskimovillage 
above Anvik, on Yukon r., Alaska. 
Nunakhtagamute. Nelson (187S) quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1902. Nunaktak. Baker, ibid. 

Nunaktuau ( Nuna kluaii}. An Utkiavi- 
mint Eskimo summer village close to 
Refuge inlet, Alaska. Murdoch in 9th 
Rep. B. A. E., 8:5, 1S92. 

Nunamiut. A Kaniagmiut Eskimo yil- 
la e on Three Saints harbor, Kodiak id., 
Alaska; pop. 160 in 1880, 8t> in 1890. 
Nuniagmjut. Holmberg, Ethnog. Ski//., map, 1 12, 
1S55 Nunochogamute. Pet roll in 10th Census 
Alaska, 11, 1SSI. Old Harbor.-Ibid.. 1 >. Starui 
gavan. Eleventh Census, Alaska, 11, L S 
harbor : Russian name). 

Nunapithlugak. A Chnagmiut Eskimo 
village in the Yukon delta, on the right 
bank of Apoon ]>ass, Alaska. 

Fort Hamilton.-Haker, Geog. Diet Alas ka 1W 
Nonapeklowak. Co:t Survey quoted hy Baker, 
ibid., 262, 1 ..;. Nunapithlugak. Ibid. Old Fort 
Hamilton. Ibid. 

Nunaria. A deserted Eskimo village 
the Sidarumiut near Pt Belcher, Alask 
the occupants of which moved 



3456 Bull. 30, pt 20- 



MNAKSUAK NUNVOGULITKHLUGUK 



[B. A. 



Sedaru. Murdoch in 9th Uep. B. A. K., 
44, 1S92. 

Nunarsuak. An Kskiino settlement in 
s. i:. Greenland, lat. 6l )0 43 . Xansen, 
First Crossin.tr of Greenland, i, 389, 1S90. 

Nunatak. A crest or ridge of rock ap 
pearing above the surface of the inland 
ice in Greenland Century Dictionary. 
From the Kskiino language, in which the 
word has the same form. (A. F. c. ) 

Nunatarsuak. An Eskimo settlement 
in \v. Greenland, near Ameralik fjord. 
Nunatarsuak. Nansen. First Crossing of Green 
land, II, 430, 1890. Nunatochsoak. Peary, My 
Arctic Jour.. 1S8, 1893. 

Nunatogmiut ( mountain people ). An 
Kskiino tribe inhabiting the banks of 
Xoatak r., Alaska, who formerly ranged 
theinterior as farasColville r., and estab 
lished settlements on the Arctic coast. 
They subsisted by hunting ptarmigan, 
reindeer, and mountain sheep, and fishing 
in the mountain streams. The coast they 
visited only in summer to sell the furs they 
had trapped. They were a tall, vigorous, 
rugged people of remarkably fine phy 
sique. The tribe proper had 42 members 
in 1S90, while Pall in 1875 estimated them 
at 300. Their villages are or were Aniyak, 
I pnot, Nigaluk, Xoatak, Nuna, Shina- 
grua, and Tiki/at. 

Noatagamutes. Elliott, Our Arctic Prov.. map, 
ISM;. Nooatoka Mutes. Kelly, Arctic Eskimos, 
chart. IXtO ctiinl-er people ). Nooatoks. Ibid., 
1-1. Noonitagmioots. Stone in Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., xni. 3f>, 1900. Noyatagameuts. Hooper, 
Cruise of Cnnviu, J6, 1880. Nunatagmut. Nelson 
in 1Mb Rep. 15. A. K., map, 1*99. Nuna-tangme- 
un. Kiclianlson, Polar Regions, 300, 1861. Nuna- 
tahmiun. Murdoch in 9th Rep. B. A. K., 44, 1892. 
Nunato g-mut. Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 11. 
is". Nuna-tun g-meun. Simpson quoted by 
Dull. ibid. 

Nundawao ( great hill. Morgan). An 
ancient Seneca town near Naples, at the 
head of Canandaigua lake, Ontario co., 
X. V. The name would seem to make it 
identical with the ancient Seneca town 
known to the French as Tsonnontouan. 
Conover, however, thinks the latter was 
identical with Totiakto(q. v.), near Men- 
don, ( hitario co. 

Nun -da-wa-o. Morgan. League Iroq.. (1, 18. r >l. 
Onondowa . .!. N. B. Hewitt, iufn. 1889 (correct 
Seneca form). Tenaoutoua. Charlevoix (1744), 
New France, in, r_>2, isr>6. Tsonnontouan. For 
lorms, see .SVnmj. 

Nunemasekalis (Nu nEinEOSfjdlis, old 
t rom the beginning ). A gens, of the 
Tlauitsis, a Kwakiutl tribe. 
Nunemasek-a lis. \ ,<r.\< in (iih Kep. X. \V. Tribes 
Can., r.l, 1X1)0. Nu nKmasKqalis. Koas in Rep 
Nat. Mus. IKK"), 330, 1897. 

f Nung. The Karth or Sand clan of the 
Tewaof llano pueblo, Ari/ona. Its mem 
bers numbered 12 in IS ). ,. (, f. Xanri. 
Hue klic. stcplien in Hh Rep. B. A. E., 39 1891 
(Navahonarnc). Nan. Fewkesin Am. Anthrop., 
vii, 166, ix-.ti (Tewa name;. Kun. Stephen, op. 
(Town name). Tcu -kai. Ibid. (Hopi name) 

Nuniliak. A Kaniagmiut summer vil 
lage on the s. w. shore of Afognak id., 
Alaska. 

Malinovskie lietnik. Murasbef (]:{ .)) <niote<l b\ 
Maker, (Jeog. |,i,.,. Alaska, .17:,, 1906 ( raspberry 



summer village : Russian name). Nunalik. 
Tebenkof quoted by Baker, ibid. Nuniliak. 
Ibid, (native name). 

Nunivagmiut. A tribe of Kskiino in 
Alaska, occupying the main part of Xu- 
nivakjd. and a small district about C. 
Vancouver on the mainland. They are 
a trading people; polygamy is rare; the 
women are not fruitful and fade early; 
children are taught to work, and a youth 
is not considered a man until he has 
killed a deer, a wolf, or a beluga. The 
kaiak frames are fitted with the nicest 
skill and covered with the skins of the 
great niaklak seal. Kvery boy from the 
age of 10 has his own kaiak, and many 
maidens and widows have theirs. They 
make sealskin lines to barter with their 
neighbors on the continent. The tribe 
numbered 702 in 1890. The villages are 
Chulik, Inger, Root, Kwik, and Tanunak. 
Nunivagmut. Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E.,map, 
1899. Nunivagmute. Petroff in 10th Census, 
Alaska, 126, 1884. Nunivak people. Worman 
quoted by Ball in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 18, 1877. 

Nunkom. A term in local use in Massa 
chusetts in the youth of Rev. Kdward 
Everett Hale (according to his statement 
at a meeting of the American Antiquarian 
Society, at Worcester, Mass., Oct. 21, 
190, !), in the sense of boy. From inm- 
l-omp (Trumbull, Natick Diet., 96, 228, 
233, 1903), a young man , a boy , in the 
Massachuset dialect. (A , r. r.) 

Nuimahidihi. See Path Killer. 

Nunnepoag. A village, probably of the 
Wampanoag, on Marthas Vineyard, Mass., 
in 1(>98, containing about 84 inhabitants. 
Numpang. Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 2, 118, 1848. Nun 
nepoag. Rawson and Danforth (1698) in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 131, 1809. 

Nunni ( fish ). A clan of the Koi 
phratry of the Chickasaw. 
Nanni. Morgan misquoted by Gatschet, Creek 
Migr.Leg., 1,96.1884. Nun-ni. Morgan, Ano. Soc., 
1(53, 1877. 

Nunochok. A Magemiut Eskimo vil 
lage in the Big Lake region, Alaska; pop. 
40 in 1880, 135 in 1890. 

Nunachanaghamiut, Eleventh Census, Alaska, 
111, 1893. Nunachara gamut. Baker, Geog. Diet. 
Alaska, 475, 1906 (quoted from). Nunachogumut. 
Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map. 1899. Nunoch- 
ogamute. Tenth Census, Alaska, 11, 1884. Nuno 
chok. Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 475, 1906. 

Nuntaneuck. An unidentified tribe, but 
possibly Siouan, mentioned by Lederer 
(Discov., 2, 1672) as speaking the com 
mon language of the Monacan, Nahyssan, 
Saponi, and others, and as having occu 
pied the piedmont country of Virginia- 
Carolina jointly with those tribes after the 
extinction of the Tacci. 
Nuntaly. Lederer, op. cit. 

Nununyi ( XnniYTtyl, wild-potato place, 
from inmu wild potato ). A former 
Cherokee settlement, sometimes known 
as Potato Town, on Oconaluftee r., near 
the present Cherokee, Swain co., N. C. 
A large mound marks the site. (.r. M. ) 
Nuanha. Hart ram, Travels, 371, 1792. 

Nunvogulukhluguk ( big lake ). An 
Kskimo village of the Kaialigamiut in the 



BULL. ,30] 




NUOKAN NUTRKCHO 



<H> 



Big Lake region, Alaska. Nelson in 18th 
Rep. B. A. K, map, 1899. 

Nuokan. A Yuit Eskimo village at 
East cape, Siberia. 

Nukan. Humboldt, New Spain, n, 344, 1822. Nu 
okan. Krause in Deutsche Geog. Bliitt., v, 80, 
map, 1882. 

Nuquiage. A Cay uga village in 1750 at 
the N. E. corner of Seneca lake, on the out 
let, in Seneca co., N. Y. 

Nuqiage. Conover, Kan. and Geneva MS.,B. A. E. 
Nuquiage. Cammerhoff (1750) quoted byConover, 
ibid. 

Nurata. A settlement of the Sikosuil- 
armiut, E. of King cape, Baffin land. 
Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 421, 1888. 

Nuri. A pueblo of the Nevome and 
seat of a Spanish mission founded in 1622; 
situated on a tributary of the Rio Yaqui, 
lat. 28, Ion. 109, Sonora, Mex. Pop. 
180 in 1678, 41 in 1730. The inhabitants, 
also called Nuri or Nure, probably spoke a 
dialect slightly different from the Nevome 
proper. 

Nures. Orozco y Berra. Geog., 351,1864 ("habita- 
dores del pueblo de Nuri " ) . Nuri. Rivera (1780) 



quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 514, 1884. 
S. Joaquin y Sta Ana (N 
by Bancroft, ibid., 246. 



, . . , , , . 

quin y Sta Ana (Nuri j. Zapata (.1678) quoted 



Nursoorooka. A Tuscarora village in 
North Carolina in 1701. Johnson, a 
Tuscarora, thinks the word may be from 
Xasurakie, where there are wild pars 
nips ; Hewitt thinks the termination 
ooka refers to a fork of a stream. 

Nursoorooka. Lawson (1709), North Carolina, 
383, I860. Nyu -sa-ru -kan. Hewitt, inf ii, 1886 
(Tuscarora form). 

Nusatsem (Nusa tsEm}. A Bellacoola 
settlement at the j unction of Nusatsem and 
Bellacoola rs., Brit. Col. Boas in Mem. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, n, 49, 1898. 

Nusehtsatl. A division of Salish for 
merly around South bay (Henderson in 
let), Wash., now on Nisqualli res. Pop. 
30 in 1879. 

Noo-seh-chatl. Stevens in Ind. AfT. Rep., 458, 1854. 
Nov-seh-chatl. Gibbs in I ac. R. R. Rep., I, 435, 
1855. Nusehtsatl. Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol.. i, 
178, 1377. South Bay. Ind. Aff. Rep., 242, 1879. 

Nushagagmiut. An Eskimo tribe of 
Alaska, inhabiting the banks of Igushik, 
Wood, and Nushagak rs. and the shores 
of Nushagak bay. Their villages are 
near together and have large structures in 
which great festivals are held. Women 
as well as men perform in the masques. 
The men are skilful hunters and good 
ivory carvers. In the interior they build 
comfortable houses of wood and use 
birchbark canoes. The tribe numbered 
170 in 1890. The villages are: Agivavik, 
Agulukpuk, Akak, Akuliukpak, Akuli- 
nkchuk, Anagnak, Angnovchak, Annu- 
^amok, Ekuk, Golok, Igivachok, Igushik, 
[nsiachak, Kakuak, Kalignak, Kanaka- 
lak, Kanulik, Mulchatna, Napai, Nusha 
gak, Stugarok, Tikchik,Trinichak,Yuikh- 
ulik, and Yaoherk. 

fushagagmut. Rink, Eskimo Tribes, 32, 1887. 
fushegagmut. Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. K., map, 
899. Nushergagmutes. Dall in J roc. A. A. A. 

., 267, 1869. 



Nushagak. A Nushagagmiut , 

Russian Orthodox mission, and trading 
post at the mouth of Nushagak r., 
Alaska. The redoubt and trade station 
of Alexandrovsk was founded then by 
Alexander Baranof in Is 19, and the Mo 
ravian mission of Carmel was established 
by Americans in 1886 at Kanulik, 1^ m. 
above. Pop. 178 in 1S80, 268 in ISM), 
excluding Bradford (pop. K>t>), Carmel 
(pop. 189), and MillertoM (pop. 165); in 
cluding these, 788 in 1900. 
Meshagak. Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska 47(1 1906 
(quoted form). Nushagak. Ibid, (proper form). 
Nushegak. 1 etroir, Rep. on Alaska, 4(1. ]sxi. 

Nushaltkagakni ( spring people ). 
A division of the Modoc at the head 
waters of Lost r., s. w. Greg., near Bo- 
nan/a. 

Nushaltxagakni. Gatschet in Cont. X. A. Kthnol., 
n, pt. I, xxxv, 1890. Spring-people. Ibid. 

Nushekaayi ( people back of the fort ). 
A Tlingit division among the Chilkat, be 
longing to the Raven clan. They are said 
to be closely related to the Hlukahadi. 

Nucekaa yi. Swanton, field notes, B. A. K., I . Ol. 
Nusche-kaari. Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 11(1, I,\s5. 

Nushemouck. An Algonquian village in 
1608 about the mouth of Xanjemoy cr., 
Charles co., Md. Smith (1629), Ya., i, 
map, repr. 1819. 

Nuskek ( Xns.cc ij!). A Bellacoola town 
on North Bentinck arm, Brit. Col. Boas 
in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 48, 189S. 

Nuskelst ( Xusq. K lxt ) . A Bellan >< >la vil 
lage on Bellacoola r. above Tskoakkane, 
Brit. Col. The people of this place were 
subdivided into 3 gentes, 2 of which were 
called Tlakaumoot and Kookotlane. 

Nu sk- Elst. Boas in 7th Rep. N. \V. Tribes Can., 
3,1891. Nusk- E lstEmH. Ibid. (-zA= people ). 
NusqlF/lst. Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
II, 49, 189S. 

Nussamek. A village, probably Algon- 
(juian, on Potomac r., about Doncaster, 
Charles co. , Md. , in 1 608. 1 1 was leagued 
with the Nacotchtank and Moyawance in 
a war against the Potomac. 

Nazatica. Smith (1(129), Ya., II, 8(1, repr. 1M9. 
Nussamek. Ibid., I, map. Pazaticans. Ibid., II. 78. 

Nutltleik ( XniM~ tj). A Bellacoola vil 
lage on Bellacoola r. above Nuskelst, Brit. 
Col. 

NuLi.e ix Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 
49,189s. Nutltle iq. Boas in 7th Rep. N. W. Tribes 
Can. ,3, 1891. 

Nutnur. A former village of the Kalin- 
daruk division of the Costanoan family 
of California, Taylor in Cal. 1-anner, 
Apr. 20, 1860. 

Nutonto. A former Chumashan village 
near Santa Inez mission, Santa Barbara 
co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Ivinncr, Oct. IS, 
1861. 

Nutqiu (Nu tqiu, warriors 
nn taq). The warrior organization of 
the Cheyenne (q. v.), consisting of < r 
more societies. 

Nutrecho. Mentioned as a tribe, seem 
ingly Moquelumman, formerly on Fresno 



100 



NUTRIA NYACK 



,. C a l.__\\Y>sells in II. R. Kx. Doc. 7H, 
:>4th Cong., 3d sess., 150, 1857. 

Nutria (Span.: otter ; also L# Af- 
///</>, theotters ; native name Td uiku in, 
seed (corn) place, or planting place ). 
A /Aim farming village at the headwaters 
of an upper branch ot /nni r., about 23 in. 
N. K. of Zuni, Valencia co., X. Mex.; occu 
pied only during the season of planting 
ami harvesting except by one or two fami 
lies. In the vicinity there are prehis 
toric ruins, also popularly known by the 
same name. For plan and description 
of the pueblo, see Mindeleff in 8th Rep. 
B. A. K., D4, 1891. 

Natrias. Loe\v in Ann. Rep. Wheeler Sury.,app. 
1. 1., ITS. I,s7") (misprint ). Neutrias. Klett in Pop. 
Sri. M<>.. f>ss. Sept. ISTI. Nutria. Common map 
form also Las Nutrias i. Ta -ia-kwe. Gushing in 
Mill>toiic. ix..V>, Apr. 1 S M ( people of the planting 
town : Xuni namei. Tai -ya. Ibid. ,225, Dec. 1884. 
Tola. Fewkes in Jour. Am. Eth.and Areh.,i, 100, 
Is .U (probably identical). To-ya. Bandelier in 
Revne d Ethnog., 202. issti. To-y-a. Bandelier 
in Arch. lust. Papers, iv. 310, 1S92. 

Nutun (XutiYn). An Ita Eskimo set 
tlement on the s. shore of Jngleiield gulf, 
x. (ireenland. Stein in Petermanns 
Mitt., no. 9, map, 1902. 

Nutunutu. A Y ikuts (Mariposan) tribe 
formerly living on lower Kings r. , Cal. 
They \\ereon the Fresno reserve in 1861, 
and with the AVimilchi numbered 180. 
Subsei|iiently they were almost extermi 
nated by white settlers, but two or three 
Nutunutu survive among neighboring 
tribes. The name is also pronounced 
Xntuntu, and in the plural is Nutantisha. 
Mon-to-tos. Wessells i ls.V>) in II. K. Kx. Doc. 7(5, 
3ith ron.ir.. 3d sess., 32. 1X57 (probably identical). 
Na-too -na-ta. Merriamin Science, xix, 916, 1904 
i or. N: i -tooii a-t.-i I. No-toan -ai-ti. Powers inCont. 
N. A.Etlmol., in. 370. 1*77. Notonatos. Bancroft, 
Nat. Races, i, 4 .">(-;, Is71. No-ton-no-tos. Johnston 
KM i in Sen. Kx. Doc. ill, ;>/_><! Cong-., 1st sess., 23, 
K~>2 (mentioned as distinct from No-ton-toos, but 
apparently the snnic i. No-to-no-tos. McKee et al. 
in Ind. AiT.Kep.,223, 1S51. No-ton-toos. Johnston, 
op. cit., -_"J (see Notonnotosi. Notoowthas. Hen 
ley in ind. All . Rep., 511, ls:,i. Notototens. Tay 
lor inC.il. Fanner. June 22, 1S60. No-tow-too. 
Harbonr (1S52) in Sen. K\. Doc. 4, 32d Con.tr., spec. 
. J.i I, Is.i:!. Nutonetoos. I aylor in Cal. Far 
mer. Junes. IN;O. Nutuntu. A. L.Kroeber, inf n, 
I .o6. Nutunutu. Krocbrr in t niv. Cal. Pnb Am 
Archa-ol. and Kthno]., n, :; t ,0, 1907. 

Nutzotin. A band of the Tenankutcliin 
li\ ing near the headwaters of Tanana r., 
Alaska. They occupy the villages of Nan- 
dell and Tetling. Allen, Hei). on Alaska 
]:;<", l.ssr. 

Nuvujalung. A fall settlement of Talir- 
pingmiut (>koiniut Mskimo, on the s. w. 
shore of ( uml.erlaud sd., P.allin land. 
Boas intith Rep. B. A. K., map, bsss. 

Nuvujen ( the capes ). An Okomiut 

;kimo winter village of the Talirping- 
miut on the w. shore of ( umberland s<C; 
I o|.. IT, i n | ss:;. 

Newbpyant.K urn lien in Bull. Nat. Mus no 15 
. Nuvujen. Boas in c,th It.-].. B. A.K.,42(>| 

Nuvuktualung. A summer village of 
th.- Xnguniint I lskimo , n Krobisher bay, 



s. E. BatHn land. l>oas in (5th Rep. 
B. A. K.,map, 1888. 

Nuvung. An Aivilirmint Eskimo win 
ter village on Melville penin., N. K. of the 
entrance to Lyon inlet. 

Noowook. Lyons, Priv. Jour., 345, 1S24. Nuvuk. 
Boas in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xv, 6, 1901. 
Nuvukdjuaq. Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 188s. 
Nuvung. Ibid., 449. 

Nuwuak. A Kanginaligmiut Eskimo 
village at Manning pt, Alaska. Dall in 
Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, map, 1877. 

Nuwuk ( i)oint ). The principal vil 
lage of the Nuwnkmiut at Pt Barrow, 
Alaska. Pop., according to Dr Simpson, 
309 in 1853; according to Petroff, 200 in 
1880; according to Murdoch, 150 or 160 
in 1883; according to Kelly, less than 100 
in 1890; 152 in 1900, including Ongove- 
henok, a winter village on Kugrua r., and 
the refuge and whaling station. 
Kokmullit. Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, map, 
1884 (corrupted from Kunmndlin, distant ones , 
used by the Eskimo of Norton sd.). Noowoo. 
Kelly, Arct. Eskimos, 14, 1890. Noo wooh. Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 476, 1906 (quoted form). 
Noowook. U. S. Coast Surv. map, 1898. Nuwuk. 
Murdoch in 9th Rep. B. A. E., 43. 1892. 

Nuwukmiut ( people of the point ). 
An Eskimo tribe of Pt Barrow, Alaska. 
They belong in race and language to the 
pure Eskimo stock, and are small in stat 
ure, robust and muscular, with full faces, 
spare bodies, shapely hands and feet, low, 
broad foreheads, narrowing toward the 
crown; short, broad noses, high cheek 
bones, full lips, especially the under one; 
cheeks often ruddy, and a skin of yel 
lowish brown, varying in some to a bru 
nette almost European, in some to a 
coppery hue. Their eyes are brown, of 
various shades, often bright and hand 
some. The hair is black, perfectly 
straight, and thick, but short; beards 
scanty. They are not prolific, and are 
dying out. Gray hair is uncommon, but 
wrinkles appear* early. The large, regu 
lar teeth are worn away by the various 
uses to which the Eskimo put them, and 
few of either sex reach the age of 60. 
Pop. 43 in 1900. Their villages are 
Jsutkwa, Nuwuk, Pernyu, Ongovehenok, 
and Sinaru. 

Kokmalect. Kelly, Arct. Eskimos, 14, 1890 (given 
as the name of the old Eskimo dialect of the 
Aretie coast tribes from Icy cape to Pt Barrow). 
Noowoo Mutes. Kelly, ibid., chart. Nugumut. 
Zagoskin, Descr. Kuss. POSH", in Am., I, 74, 1847. 
Nuwukmut. Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 11, 
1*77. Nuwung-me-un. Richardson, Polar Re 
gions. 300, 1861. Nuwu nmiun. Murdoch in 9th 
Rep. B. A. K., i3, 1,S!2. 

Nyack (Xa lay, point , corner ). A 
former village, probably of the Unaini 
division of the Delaware^, on the w. bank 
of Hudson r. about the present Nyack, 
inRockland co., N. Y. The tract was sold 
and the Indians were removed in 1652. 
Naiack. Sehoolcraft in Proc. X. Y. Hist. Soc., 107, 
1844. Naieck. Doc.ofl652inN.-Y.DOC. Col. Hist, 
xiv. T.tO, 18s:5. Najack. Doc. of 1660, ibid., XIII, 
167, issi. Najeck. Treaty of 1660, ibid., 148. 
Najeek. Doc. of 16">6, ibid"., xiv, 365, 1883. Nay- 



BULL. 30] 



NYACK OBODEUS 



101 



ack. Deed of 1657, ibid., 394. Nayeck. Treat v 
of 1645, ibid., xui, IS, 1881. Neyick. Doc. of 1649, 
ibid., 25. Nyacks. Clark, Onondaga, i, 18, 1843. 
Nyeck. Treaty of 1645 quoted by Ruttenber, 
Tribes Hudson R., 118, 1872. 

Nyack. A settlement in 1680, presum 
ably of the Canarsee, about the present 
site of Ft Hamilton, Kings co., w. Long 
id., N. Y. At a later period the occu 
pants removed to Staten id. , near by. See 
Ruttenber, Ind. Geog. Names, 92/1906. 

Nyhatta. An unidentified tribe of Lou 
isiana, apparently populous, met three 
days journey up Tassenocogoula (Red) r. 
from the Huma village in 1699. Iberville 
in Margry, Dec., iv, 179, 1880. 

Ny Herrnhut. An Eskimo settlement 
and German Moravian missionary post 
near Godthaab on the w. coast of Green 
land. 

New Hernhut. Kane. Arct. Explor., I, 453, 1856. 
New Herrnhut Thompson, Moravian Miss., 203, 
1886. Ny Herrnhut. Nansen, First Crossing, u, 
172, 1890. 

Nyhougoulas. One of the 7 Taensa vil 
lages in the 17th century. Iberville (1699) 
in Margry, Dec., iv, 179, 1880. 

Nyuchirhaan ( openings ) . The pres 
ent Tuscarora village near Lewiston, 
Niagara co., N. Y. (j. x. K. H.) 

Ga-a-no -ga. Morgan, League Iroq., 428, 1851 ( on 
the mountains : Seneca name). Ga -a-no-geh. 
Ibid., 469. Ga-a-non-ge . J. N. B. Hewitt, inf n, 
1886 (Seneca form). Ga-o-no -geh. Morgan, op. 
cit., 432. Nyu-tcir-ha"a n . Hewitt, inf n, 1886 (Tus 
carora name; tc=ch}. 

Nzatzahatko (N* zatzahatko, clear 
water ). A village of the Ntlakvapamuk 
on Fraser r. , Brit. Col., just below Cisco. 
Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 5, 
1899. 

Oahgwadaiya (Hot Bread). A Seneca 
chief who signed the deed to the Tusca 
rora, Mar. 30, 1808, being then called 
Captain Hot Bread. The name of another 
Hot Bread appears on this deed. Oah- 
gwadaiya was short and dark, a leading 
man and orator, and was chief of a village 
opposite Avon, N. Y., in 1790, when he 
was called Gwakwadia. In 1797 his name 
appears as Ahquatieya. He died of 
smallpox. (w. M. B.) 

Oakfuskee. A former Upper Creek town 
on both sides of Tallapoosa r., Ala., about 
35 m. above Tukabatchi, possibly on the s. 
boundary of Cleburne co., where a village 
of the same name now stands. The Oak- 
fufekee Indians on the E. bank of the river 
came from 3 villages: Chihlakonini, Hu- 
hlitaiga, and Chukahlako. In 1799 Oak 
fuskee, with its 180 warriors and 7 branch 
villages on the Tallapoosa (with 270 war 
riors) , was considered the largest commu 
nity of the Creek confederacy. The 7 
villages w r ere Atchinaalgi, Imukfa, Ipi- 
sogi, Niuyaka, Sukaispoka, Tallahassee, 
Tukabatchi, and Tukhtukagi. (A. s. G. ) 

Akfaski.-Gatsehet, Creek Migr. Leg., I. 139. 1884; 
II, 185, 1888. Lower Oakfuske. Bartram, Trav., 
461, 1791. Oakbusky. Finnclson (1792) in Am. 
State Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 289, 1832 (misprint). 
Oakfuskies. Durouzeaux (1792), ibid., 312. Oak- 



fusky. Flint, Ind. Wars, 202, 1X33. Oakiuskees 
Niles (1-760) in Mass. Hist. Coll., 4th s v 555 IN;I 
Oakpuskee. U. S. Ind. Treat. (1827), 420 1837 
Oc-fus-kee. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 45 1*48 
Ockfuskee. Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 5 1776 Oek 
fusaet.-Lattre, map U. S., 178-1. Okfuskl-Gat- 
schet. Creek Migr.Leg., i, 139, 1884; u. 1x5 iwx 
Ok-whus-ke. Adair, Am. Inds.. 257 1775 TJ D Der 
Oakfuske. Bartram, Travels, 461, 1791. 

Oakfuskee. A Creek town on Deep fork 
of Canadian r., Okla. 

Akfaski.Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg i ri .i ISM- 
n, 1X5, isss. Okfuski. Ibid. 

Oakfuskudshi ( little Oakfuskee ). A 
former small Upper Creek village on Tal 
lapoosa r., 4 m. above Niuyaka and 1 4 in. 
above Oakfuskee, in E. Ala. The town 
was destroyed by (Jen. White in LS13. 
It is probable that the people were colo 
nists from Little Oakfuskee (Chihlako 
nini) on Chattahoochee r., which was 
destroyed by the Georgians in 1 793. See 
Chihlakonini. 

Little Ockfuske. Piekett, Hist. Ala., 557 ls.96 
Little Okfuski. I ickett, Hist. Ala., n. 299. 1X51. 
Oc-fus-coo-che. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 51, 1848! 
Okfusku dshi. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg i 140 

18S4. 

Oapars. A former Papago rancheria be 
tween San Navier del Bac and the ( Jila r. 
ins. Arizona; visited by Father (iarces in 
1775, and by An/a and Font in 1780. 
Ditt-pax. An/a and Font (17x0 1 quoted by Ban 
croft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 392, 18X9. Oapars. Arri- 
civita, Cronica Serafica, II, 416, 1792. Oitapars. 
Anza and Font (1780) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz. 
andX. Mex., 392, 18X9. Oytapars. Garccs (1775), 
Diary. 64, 1900. Oytapayts. Anzaand Font ( 17X0) 
quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 392. 18X9. 
Pueblo viejo. Ibid. 

Oat (Out). The Kaccoon clan of the 
Caddo. Mooney in 14th Rep. P>. A. F., 
1093, 1S96. 

Oatka ((/-at-k) . A former small Seneca 
village on the site of Scottsville, on the w. 
bank of Genesee r., Monroe co., N. Y. 
Morgan League Iroq., 434, 468, 1851. 

O Bail. See Cornpf (inter. 

Obaldaquini. A mission village, prob 
ably on the lower Georgia coast, which 
was among those that revolted against the 
Spaniards in 1(>S7. Barcia, Fnsayo, 2S7, 
1723. 

Obayos. A tribe formerly living in the 
province of Coahuila, x. E. Mexico, and 
gathered into the mission of San Francisco 
de Coahuila a quarter of a league x. of 
Monclova (Oroxco y Rerra, Geog., 
1864). It was probably of Coahniltecan 
speech. 

O Beal, O Beel. See Cornphtnter. 

Obidgewong. A Chippewa and Ottawa 
settlement on the w. shore of L. Wolseley, 
Manitoulin id. in L. Huron, Ontario, con 
taining 17 inhabitants in 1884, but red nce(i 
to 7 in 1906. Their reserve consists ot 4C 
acres. They cultivate the soil, are good 
buhmen, and in winter cut ties and post 
which tliev peel and sell in summer. 

SSpSS-^JFrSiJ 

Obodeus. ("Jiven by Ker (Travels, 
1816), as the name of a tribe living on 



OBOZI (K ANA 



[B. A. E. 



inm-r. l\ ; Vl. r., .aopHivi.iU- ; n w. Texan. 
N ( . t identified, and probably imaginary. 

Obozi. One of the 3l> tribes of Texas 
said by Juan Sabeata,a Jumano Indian, to 
have Hved in lt>S3 on "Xueces" r., 3 days 
journey eastward from the mouth of the 
Coiiclu is (Crn/ate in Mendoza, Yiage, 
MS. in Archive General). It has not been 
identified, although some of the others in 
his list have been! The Nueees r. men 
tioned by him was not necessarily the 
modern Nueces. (n. E. H. ) 

Obsidian. A volcanic glass much used 
by the Indian tribes for implements and 
ornaments. It is generally black or 
blackish in color, but some varieties are 
brownish, reddish, and greenish in hue, 
and sometimes display mottled effects. 
Occasionally it is translucent, and in rare 
instances fully transparent. It is not 
found in the United States K. of the 
Rocky mts., but occurs in enormous 
bodies in Yellowstone Park, in Califor 
nia and Oregon, and to a lesser extent in 
Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, 
and in other western states. The. more 
homogeneous masses of obsidian are easily 
broken up, and are flaked into desired 
shapes with less difficulty than any other 
kind of stone. Considerable evidence of 
the shaping of implements is observable 
in Yellowstone Park, especially in the 
vicinity of Obsidian canyon, where a 
body of nearly solid glass 100 ft or more 
in thickness, isexposed (Holmes). More 
extensive workings have been located in 
New Mexico, Arizona, and California, 
but no quarries of importance are known. 
Implements of obsidian are rare E. of the 
Rocky mts. Occasional flaked specimens 
have been found in the mounds, and a 
remarkable deposit of implements was 
discovered in a burial mound on Hope- 
well farm, near Chillicothe, Ohio. This 
deposit, unearthed by Moorehead in 
1892 and now preserved in the Field 
Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 
consists of several hundred beautifully 
shaped blades of large si/eand remarkable 
conformation, as well as many smaller ob 
jects, not a few of which have been injured 
by exposure to lire on an earthen altar. 
The material is black throughout, though 
slightly translucent when seen in thin 
section. Its origin can not be determined. 
The nearest deposit of similar character 
in place is in the Yellowstone Park, 1,500 
miles away; but as no trace of the manu 
facture of implements of this character 
has been found i n that section, it seems 
probable that the material was brought 
from Mexico or from the Pacific coast, 
the known deposits in the former coun 
try, in the stateof Hidalgo, being 1,600 
m., and in the latter, Napaand other cos 
in California, 2,000 m. away. Along with 
the obsidian implements were found man v 



implements and ornaments made of cop 
per, shell, and other substances obtained 
from distant localities. 

Many exceptionally interesting objects 
made of obsidian are found in the Pacilic 
states. These include beautifully shaped 
blades, probably used as knives (q. v. ), 
obtained mostly from the living tribes, the 
larger measuring more than 80 in. in 
length and 5 in. in width; knife blades 
of sickle or hook shape from mounds 
near Stockton, Cal. (Meredith, Holmes), 
and large numbers of delicately shaped 
arrowpoints from the valley of the Co 
lumbia. The larger knives were in 
tended for ceremonial rather than for 
ordinary use. Of these, Powers says: 
"There are other articles paraded and 
worn in this and other ceremonial dances 
which they will on no account part with, 
at least to an American, though the} r 
sometimes manufacture them to order 
for one another. One of these is the 
flake or knife of obsidian or jasper. I 
have seen several which were 15 in. or 
more in length and about 2.} in. wide 
in the widest part. Pieces as large as 
these are carried aloft in the hand in 
the dance, wrapped with skin or cloth to 
prevent the rough edges from lacer 
ating the hand, but the smaller ones are 
mounted on w r ooden handles and glued 
fast. The large ones can not be purchased 
at any price, but I procured some about 
6 in. long at 2.50 apiece. These are 
not properly knives, but jewelry for 
sacred purposes, passing current also as 
money." More recent and detailed ac 
counts are given by Goddard, Kroeber, 
and Rust. Kroeber describes at some 
length the use of the knives in ceremonies 
and refers to them as .primarily objects of 
wealth. On account of its brittleness 
implements of obsidian were shaped 
usually by flaking, but rare specimens 
have been produced, or at least finished, 
by pecking and grinding. (See Stone 
work. 

Consult Goddard in Univ. Cal. Pub., 
Am. Arch;eol. and Ethiiol., I, no. 1, 1903; 
Holmes (1) in Rep. Nat, Mus. 1902, 1903, 
(2) in Am. Nat., xm, 1879, (3) in Am. 
Anthrop., n, 1900; Kroeber, ibid., vn, 
1905; Kunz, Gems and Precious Stones, 
1890; Meredith (l)in Moorehead, Prehist. 
Impls., 1900, (2) in Land of Sunshine, 
n, no. 5, 1899; Moorehead in The An 
tiquarian, i, pts. 10 and 11, 1897; Powers 
inCont, N. A. Kthnol., nr,1877; Ralston in 
The Arch;eologist, n, 1898; Rust in Am. 
Anthrop., vn, 1905. (w. n. n.) 

Ocaboa. A former Papago village in 
s. Arizona. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 
19, 1863. 

Ocana. A tribe or subtribe, perhaps 
Coahuiltecan, met by Massanet (I)iario, 
in Mem. Nueva Kspafia, xxvn, 92, MS.) a 



BULL. 30] 



OCANAHOWAN OCCOM 



103 



shortdistance s. of Nueces r. , Tex. , in 1691, 
in a rancheria of Chaguan ( Siaguan ) , Pas- 
tulac, Paae, and Querns Indians. In 1 706 
this tribe was represented at San Francisco 
Solano mission, near the Rio Grande. 
About the same time they were entering 
San Bernardo mission, near by, with the 
Canuas, Catuxanes, Pazchales, and Po- 
mulumas (Morfi, Yiage de Indies, 1777, 
in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4 a s., in, 442). In 
their gentile state they intermarried with 
the Zeiiizos (Baptismal Kec. of Mission 
Solano, 1706, partida 226, MS.). For 
their affiliation, see Terocodame, the lead 
ing tribe of the locality of the Mission So 
lano, with whom the Ocana were associ 
ated. An Ocana was baptized in 1728 at 
San Antonio de Valero mission, the suc 
cessor of San Francisco Solano (ibid., 
1728, partida 230). (H. E. n. ) 

Ocanes. Rivera, Diario, leg. 2763, 1736. 

Ocanahowan. A village where Span 
iards are said to have been in 161 1 ; situated 
five days journey s. of Jamestown, Ya. 
Perhaps identical" with Occaneechi, q.v. 

Ocanahowan. Smith (1629), Va., ir. 11, repr. 1819. 
Ochanahoen. Strachey (ra. 1612), Va., 26, 1849. 

Ocatameneton ( village of the gens who 
dwell at the foot of the lake ). An un 
identified eastern Dakota band. 

Ocatameneton. Le Sueur (1700) in Margry, Dec., 
VI, 86, 1886. Ouatemanetons. Xeill, Hist. Minn. 
170, 1858. 

Occaneechi. A small tribe of the eastern 
Siouan group formerly residing in s. Yir- 
giniaandx. North Carolina. Their history 
is closely interwoven with that of the Sa- 
poni and Tutelo, and there is historical 
evidence that their language was similar. 
The first known notice of the Occaneechi is 
that of Lederer, w r ho visited them in 1670. 
They then dwelt on the middle and larg 
est island in Roanoke r., just below the 
confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, 
near the site of Clarksville, Mecklenburg 
co. , Ya. Their fields were on the x. bank 
of the river, where they raised large crops 
of corn, having always on hand as a re 
serve a year s supply!! Between the date 
of this visit and 1676 they were joined by 
the Saponi and Tutelo, who settled on two 
neighboring islands. In 1676 the Cones- 
toga sought shelter with them from the 
attacks of the Iroquois and English. They 
were hospitably received, but soon at 
tempted to dispossess their benefactors, 
and, after a battle, were driven out. Be 
ing harassed by the Yirginians and Iro 
quois, they left their island and fled s. 
into Carolina. In 1701 Lawson found 
them in a village on Eno r., about the 
present Hillsboro, Orange co., N. C. They 
combined later with the Saponi, Tu 
telo, and others. They were cultivators 
of the soil and traders. We are assured 
by Beverley that their dialect was the 
common language of trade and also of 
religion over a considerable region. They 
divided the vear into the five seasons of 



budding or blossoming, ripenin^ mid 
summer, harvest, and winter." Thev 
were governed by two chiefs, one pre 
siding in war, the other having charge 
ot their hunting and agriculture. Cere 
monial feasting was an important feature 
of their social life. Their tribal totem 
was a serpent. Consult Moonev Siouan 
Tribes of the East, Bull. B. A. ]<]., 1K<4. 
See Pcttshenin. (I M ) 

fe , n e ^ chy i~L Map (1711) iu Winsor, Hist. AnV v 
QA iS 4 Achon ^hy.-La\vson (1701), Hist. Cur.; 
96,1860. Aconeche. Moll, map, 104, 1720. Acone- 
chos. Lawson (1701), Hist. Car., 384, 1860. Aconee- 
chy.Mortier and Covens, KtutsUnis Ainer main 
n, map 177. Aeonichi.-Alcedo, Die. Geog. i 19. 
ii Ac . ooned y- ViiUtfondy, map, ]75f,i misprint). 
Akenatzie. Lederer quoted by Hale in Proc \m 
I hilos. Soc., xxi, 10, Mar. ]Ks:i. Akenatzy. Led 
erer, Discov. (1669-70), 17, repr. 1879. Ako- 
nichi. Lotter, map, ca. 1770. Botshenins. Hale 
in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., xxi, lo. lss:5 Oca- 
meches. Drake, Abor. Race, 13, ISM) Occaane- 
chy. Bynl (1728), Hist. Dividing Line, i ]S7 
1866. Occaneches. Ibid. Occaneeches. Bevrrlcv 
Hist. Va., bk. 3, 24, 1705. Occoneachey. Fry and 
Jefferson (1755)inJefferys,Am. Atlas,map 21, 1776 
Ochineeches. Spotswood (1702) quoted by Hale 
in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., xxi, 10, 1883. Ockina- 
gees. Doc. of 1676 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1th s. 
IX, 167, 1871. Okenechee. Batts (1U71) in N. V 
Doc. Col. Hist., in, 193, l,Sf>3: same in Am 
Anthrop., ix. 46, 1W7. Oscameches. Domenech, 
Deserts N. Am., I, 442, 1860. Patshenins, Hale 
in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., xxi, 10, 1S83. 

Occoni, Samson. A Christian convert, 
called "the pious Mohegan," born in 
1723.^ Converted to Christianity under 
the influence of Rev. E. Wheelock in 
1741, he received in the family of that 
minister a good education, learning to 
apeak and to write English and obtaining 
some knowledge of Latin and (ireek, 
and even of Hebrew. Owing to ill 
health he did not complete the collegiate 
instruction intended for him. lie was 
successively a school teacher in Xew Lon 
don, Conn. (1748); preacher to the In 
dians of Long id. for some ten years; 
agent in England (1766-67) lor Mr 
Wheelock s newly established school, 
where he preached with great acceptance 
and success; minister of the Brotherton 
Indians, as those Mahican were called 
who removed to theOneida country in the 
stateof New York (1786). Oiihisdeath at 
New Stockbridge, N. Y., in ITJ^, Occoin 
was greatly lamented, lie is said to 
have been an interesting and eloquent 
speaker, and while in England delivered 
some 300 sermons. A funeral sermon on 
Moses Paul, a Mahican executed for mur 
der in 1771, has been preserved in printed 
form. Occoni was theauthorof the hymn 
beginning "Awaked by Sinai s Awful 
Sound, "and of another, "Now the Shades 
of Night areUoiu ." which gave Bishop 
Huntington delight that the thought of 
an Indian was made part of the worship 
of the Episcopal Church; but it was 
omitted from the present hymnal. It 
was through his success in raising funds in 
England that Mr Wheelock s school was 
transferred from Lebanon, Conn., to New 



104 



< >cr< >\v < >CL A WAH A 



[B. A. E. 



Hampshire, where it was incorporated as 
Dartmouth College. As a man, ( >ccom 
exhibited the virtues and the failings of 
his race. He was a regularly ordained 
minister, having been examined and 
licensed to preach by the clergymen of 
Windham co., Conn., and inducted in 
17")!) by the Suffolk presbytery, Long id. 
His later years were marred by drunken 
ness and other vices, but on the whole 
his life way one of great benefit to his race, 
though Schoolcraft (Ind. Tribes, v, 518, 
1855) praises him perhaps too highly. 
See -I. Edwards, Observations on the 
Language of the Mnhhekaneew Indians, 
178l>; W. De Loss Love, Samson Occom 
and the Christian Indians of New Eng 
land, 1SW. (A. F. c.) 

Occow, Okow. The yellow pike perch 
(LiH iujH rr<t (tnicricdiHt) of the northern 
great lakes, mentioned by Richardson in 
Franklin s: Narrative (1823) and again in 
the Fauna Hor. Ainer., n, 1836. The 
name has since been adopted in ichthyo- 
logical works. It is from Cree oka-ir, 
cognate with Chippewa oA a. (w. K. G.) 

Ocha ( rain-cloud ). Given by Bourke 
(Jour. Am. Folk-lore, ir, 181, 1889) as a 
clan of the Mohave, q. v. 

Ochechote (Tenino: hind dorsal tin [of 
a salmon] ). A small Shahaptian tribe, 
speaking the Tenino language, formerly 
living on the \. side of Columbia r., in 
Klickitat co., Wash. They were included 
in the Vakiina treaty of Camp Stevens, 
Wash., June 9, 1855, by which, with 
other tribes, they ceded their lands to the 
Tinted States. Jf any survive they are 
probably incorporated with other tribes 
on the Yakima res. Their name has 
reference to a rock on the x. side of 
Columbia r.. opposite the upper end of 
an island near the mouth of the Des 
Chutes. 

OchechoJes. F. S. Stat., xu. 9.">1, 18t>3 Uchi - 
chol. Mooney in lltli Rep. J{. A. K., 740, 1896. 

Ocheese ( people ). A former Semi- 
nole town on the w. side of Apalachicola 
r., at Ocheese bluff, the site of the present 
town ,,f Ocheese, Jackson co., Fla. Pop. 
220 in ISL 2, 2:>0 in 182(5. 

Ocheeses.-Morse. Re,,, to Sec. War, 364, 18L>2. 
Ochesos. Drake, Bk. Inds., ix, 1848. 

Ocheese. A former Lower Creek town 
on the i;. bank of Chattahoochee r., w. 
central ( ieorgia. 
Okesez. JefTrcys, Am. Atlas, map"., 1771;. 

Ochete. A town visited by De Soto in 
15.7.MO. appan-iitlv in x. \v. Florida at 
the head of St Marks bay, 4 leagues from 
the gulf. Buckingham Smith identifies 
t with the Ante of Xarvae/, It is not 
the Ocute of Biedma. See Gentleman of 
Klvas (1557) in French, Hist. Coll L a 
n, 135, is5<). 

Ochiakenen. A tribe or band mentioned 
l>y Hennepm (New Diseov., 313, 1698)as 



living al)out 1675 in the same village with 
the Miami and Maseoutens. See Ocliiata- 
gonga. 

Ochiatagonga. An unidentified tribe 
mentioned by La Salle, in 1682 (Margry, 
Dec., n, 237, 1877) in connection with 
Islinois (Illinois), Chaouanons (Shaw- 
nee), and others, as among those living 
s. w: from L. Erie and destroyed (?) by 
the Iroquois. Cf. Ochiakenen. 

Ochionagueras. An Onondaga war 
chief, called also Achiongeras, baptized 
by Father Le Moyne, Aug. 15, 1654, as 
Jean Baptiste, that being the name of 
Le Moyne s companion. He successfully 
led the Iroquois against the Erie. lie 
headed Dablon s escort in Mar. 1656, and 
the next year was at Montreal in time to 
refute some Mohawk slanders. Ochion 
agueras was then described as an Onon 
daga captain, who "procured by his 
influence the peace which we have with 
the upper Iroquois." (w. M. B.) 

Cchoyos. A Costanoan village situated 
in 1819 within 10 m. of Santa Crux mis 
sion, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer. Apr. 
5, 1860. 

Ochuceulga. A former Seminole town 
of 250 inhabitants E. of Apalachicola r., 
x. w. Fla. Cothrin was chief in 1822. 
The name is a form of Ochisi-algi. Cf. 
Ocheese. 

O-chuce-ulga. Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 307, 1822. 

Ochupocrassa. A former Seminole town 
on "East Florida point," with about 30 
warriors in 1820, who had moved down 
from the Upper Creeks. Bell quoted by 
Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 307, 1822. 

Ocilla. A former Seminole town at the 
mouth of Ocilla r., once called Assilly cr., 
on theE. bank, in Taylorco., Fla. Latti- 
fixico was its chief in 1823. 
Oscillee. H. R. Ex. Doc. 74, 19th Cong., 1st sess . 
27, 1826. 

Ockneharuse. An unidentified tribe 
mentioned in 1747 as living in the Ohio 
valley, and said to number 1,500 or 2,000, 
exceeding both the Wea and the Missi- 
sauga in population (Doc. of 1747 in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 391, 1855). 
They were possibly the Miami. 

Oclackonayahe. A former Seminole 
village "above Tampa bay," w. Fla.; 
probably on or near Okliakonkonhee 
lake, Polk co. Bell quoted by Morse, 
Rep. to Sec. War, 306, 1822. 

Oclawaha. A former Seminole town on 
Oclawaha r. in N. central Florida. The 
Oclawaha division of the Seminole, de 
scended from the Yamasi, betray their 
origin by the dark color of the skin 
(McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, i, 272, 
1854). Coe Iladjos Town (q. v. ), which 
appears on Taylor s war map of 1839 just 
K. of Oclawaha r., mav be the same. 
Ochlewahaw. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
I, 272,1854. Oclawahas. Williams Florida, 231, 
1837. Oc-la-wa-haw. Bell quoted by Morse, Rep. 



BULL. 30] 



OCMULGEE OCONOSTOTA 



05 



to See. War, 307, 1822. Oc-le-wau-hau-thluc-co. 
Hawkins (1799), Sketch. 25, 1848. Oklevuaha.- 
Peniere quoted by Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 311, 
1822. Oklewaha. Brinton, Floridian Penin., 145, 
1859. 

Ocmulgee (Hitchiti: oki water , iiu dyis 
it is boiling : boiling water ) . A former 
Lower Creek town at the " Ocmulgee 
old fields," along the E. bank of Oc 
mulgee r., probably in Pulaski co., Ga., 
which, according to Adair (Am. Ind., 36, 
1775), the South Carolinians destroyed 
about 1715. According to Creek tradi 
tion (Bartram, Trav., 52, 1792) Ocmulgee 
old fields was the site of the first per 
manent Creek settlement after the migra 
tion of the tribe from the w. The Indian 
trading road passed through this settle 
ment. The "old fields," on which are 
a number of artificial mounds, terraces, 
and earthen inclosures, extended along 
the river for 15 in. The people of the 
town, who are sometimes mentioned as a 
tribe, joined those of other settlements in 
Oct. 1738m tendering to Oglethorpe their 
assurances of friendship. (A. s. G. ) 

Caiomulgi. Alcedo, Die. Geog., I, 310, 1780. Oak- 
mulge. Rafinesaue, introd. to Marshall, Ky., i, 
42, 1824. Oakmulgee old fields. Hawkins (1804) in 
Am. State Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 691, 1832. Oakmulgee 
old towns. Am. State Pap. (1802) , ibid.. 609. Oak 
mulge fields. Bartram. Travels, 53, 1792. Oak- 
mulgis. Romans, Florida, 90, 1775. Oakmulgos. 
Ibid., 280. Ocmulgee. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 
83, 1848. Okmulge. Adair, Am. Inds., 36, 1775. 
Oxmulges. Harris, Voy., n, 335, 1764. 

Ocmulgee. The capital and most im 
portant town of the Creek Nation, situa 
ted on the N. fork of Canadian r., Okla. 
Okmulgee. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg.,n, 185,1888. 

Ocmulgee. A former Lower Creek town 
on the E. side of Flint r., Dougherty co., 
Ga.; pop. 200 in 1834. 

Oakmulges. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 72, 1884. 
Oakmulgo. Jefferys, French Dom. Am., I, 134, 
map, 1761. Ockma lgo. J efferys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 
1776. Ocumlgi. Philippeaux, Map English Col., 
1781. Okmulgi. Gatschet, op. cit., 140. 

Ocoee (Uwagd M, apricot-vine place ). 
A former important Cherokee settlement 
on Ocoee r., near its junction with the 
Hiwassee, about the present Benton, 
Polk co., Tenn. Mooney in 19th Kep. 
B. A. E., 544, 1900. 

Acohee. -Doc. of 1799 quoted by Royce in 5th Rep. 
B. A. E., 144, 1887. 

Ocon. A town, probably of the Hitchiti, 
formerly on St Marks r., x. w. Fla. 
Jefferys, French Dom. Am., 135, map, 
1761. 

Oconaluftee (from EgwdnuFfi, by the 
river ; from egwd rit river , nul&ti or 
infti near , beside ). Mentioned by 
Bartram as a Cherokee town existing 
ibout 1775, probably on the lower course 
)f the river of the same name, at the pres- 
mt Birdtown, on the East Cherokee res., 
^. C. , where was formerly a considerable 
nound. (j. M.) 

Sgwanul ti. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 517, 
900 (correct form)! Oconaluftee. Present map 
orm. Ocunnolufte. Bartram, Travels, 371, 1792. 



Oconee. A small tribe of the Creok con 
federacy, probably of the Hitchiti di 
vision, formerly living on Oconee r., (ia. 
Oconee, their chief town, was situated, 
according to Hawkins, about 4 m. below 
the present Milledgeville. Weekachumpa 
their chief, known to the English as 
Long-king, and one of his warriors were 
among the Indians assembled to welcome 
Oglethorpe when he arrived in Georgia 
in 1732. The Oconee formed one of the 
parties to the treaty between the I;. S. and 
the Creeks at Colefain, Ga., June 2!, 17%. 
Occouys. Harris, Voy. and Trav., n, 3:>.\ ITtil. 
Oconas. Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 4. 29, 18 is. Oco- 
nees. U.S. Ind. Treat. (1797), ti9, 1837. Oconery s. 
Moll, map in Humphrey, Acct., 80, 1730. 

Oconee. A former small town on the K. 
bank of Chattahoochee r., in Georgia, 
according to Hawkins, and on the w. 
bank, in Alabama, according to Bartram. 
It was settled about 1710 by the Oconee 
who abandoned their old habitat on Oco 
nee r., ( ia. Later they estal dished Cusco- 
willa town on a lake in Alachua co., Fla. 
According to Bartram, they spoke the 
" Stincard " language, and were there 
fore akin to the Hitchiti. 
Occone. Bartram, Travels, 462. 1791. Ocones. 
Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 7, 177(1. Oconis. Ro 
mans, Florida, 90, 1775. Okonee. Jefferys, op. cit., 
map 5. Okoni. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 67, 
1884. 

Oconee (Ukw& rii). A former Cherokee 
settlement on Seneca cr., near the pres 
ent Walhalla, in Oconee co., 8. C. 
Mooney in 19th Kep. B. A. E., 541, 1900. 
Acounee." Mouxon s map quoted by Royce in 5th 
Rep. B. A. E., 143. 1887. Oconnee. Royce in 18th 
Rep. B. A. E., pi. clxi, 1900. 

Oconi. A district (subtribe?) in Flor 
ida, about 1612, speaking a Tinmcuan 
dialect, according to Pareja ( Arte Leng. 
Timuqua, 1886). An ancient Creek town 
in E. Georgia had the same name. See 
Oconee. (.1. M.) 

Oconostota (A ganu-std ta, Groundhog- 
sausage ). A Cherokee war chief in the 
17th century. In the French war the 
Cherokee were at iirst allies of the Eng 
lish, but the spread of the Britisli settle 
ments and unfair and contemptuous 
treatment changed their sentiments. 
When they began to take reprisals for 
barbarous acts committed by American 
frontiersmen, and refused to surrender to 
the perpetrators, Gov. Littleton, of South 
Carolina, in Nov. 1759, cast into jail a 
delegation headed by Oconostota that had 
come to treat for the continuance of peace, 
saying that he would make peace in the 
Cherokee country. Attacullaculla ob 
tained the exchange of Oconostota for 
one of the murderers demanded, and 
after the return of Littleton from a futiJ 
expedition the young war chief laid siege 
to Ft Prince George in upper South Caro 
lina. He called out the commander, 
Lieut. Cotymore, for a parley and shot 



106 



OCOTA OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 



[B. A. E. 



him, whereon the garrison butchered the 
Cherokee chiefs confined as hostages. 
Oeonostota then fell upon the frontier 
settlements of Carolina, while the Cher 
okee warriors over the mountains cap 
tured Ft Louden in Tennessee. Col. 
Montgomery at the head of 1,600 men re 
lieved Ft Prince George and destroyed 
the lower Cherokee towns, then marched 
to the succor of Ft Louden, but was 
routed in a tierce battle. After the war 
Oconostota became civil chief of the na 
tion. The ancient war between the 
Cherokee and the Iroquois was termi 
nated by a treaty which Oconostota went 
to New York to sign in 176S. The con 
test for their ancestral land, which caused 
their sympathies to swerve from the 
English* to the French in the earlier war, 
made the Cherokee eager allies of the 
British against the Americans in the war 
of the Revolution. The tribe suffered 
severely in the contest and at its close 
Oconostota resigned the chiefship to his 
son. Tuksi, The Terrapin. lie died 
about 178:5. See Mooney, Myths of the 
Cherokee, 19th Rep. P>. A. K. , 1900. 

Ocota (contraction of Okotxali, where 
there is resinous pine wood ). A small 
;iL ri _ r relation of Huichol ranches, contain 
ing a temple, situated near a small branch 
of the Rio Chapalagana, about 12 in. E. of 
the main stream, in Jalisco, Mexico 
( Lumholtx, Unknown Mex., ir, 16, map, 
25S, 1902). It is distinct from Guadalupe 
Ocotan. 

Okotsali. Luinlioltx, ibid., 258 (proper Huichol 

Ocotan. A former Tepehuane pueblo 
in Durango, Mexico, and seat of a Spanish 
mission. 

Huk-tyr. A. Hrdlicka, inf n. 190(1. Santa Maria de 
Ocotan. Ibid, (present name of town). Santa 
Maria Ocotan. Lumbolt/, Tnkiiown Mex., I, -169, 
I .tUL . S. Francisco Ocotan. Orozco v Berra Geotr 
31 s. IN; |. 

Octashepas. A tribe of the lower Mis 
sissippi, mentioned by Bossu in connection 
with the Taskiki (Tuskegee), Tonica 
(Tunica), Alibamu, etc. Possibly in 
tended for Okchayi, (j. v. 
Oaktashippas. Romans, Fl a ., 101 1775 Octashe- 
pas. Bossu ( 175-.ii. Travels La., i. 229, 1771. 

Ocuca. A former rancheria of the Pinia 
in Sonora, Mexico, near Rio San lifiiacio, 
x. \\. of Santa Ana. 

Occuca. Oroxcoy Brrra, <ieog.. : ,I7. ISM. Ocuca. 
Knsayo (<. 176MI. Hi], lsi;;$. Oocuca. 



Ocute. A town, probably in southern 
Georgia, entered b\ De Solo s troops on 
April 10, ir,40. It was situated between 
Altamaha and Cofaqui. 

Cofa. Oan-ilasso dr l ;l \>ua. Florid;,, 112 17 3 
Ocute. .,,.,,il. of Klvus 0557) in Frv,,,.), inV 

rub V.\"i"i rx V" " 10 Hi( (llni1 in ii ikiuyt sod 
Odanah. A Chippe\\- ;l settlement on 
Had Kiver res., Ashland co., WiH. Brown 
in \\ is. Archeol., v, L><>:;, J<06; Ind. Aff 
Rep., : J >94, ]<06. 



Odiserundy. A prominent warrior in 
the Revolution, often called John the 
Mohawk, and in chief command of a war 
party in 1777. The name is now written 
Deseronto, The lightning has struck. 
In the New York State Library at Albany 
is a letter from John Deserontyon, dated 
Bay of Quinte, Nov. 1796, where he headed 
a band of Mohawk. He was present at a 
treaty with the United States after the 
Revolution. A place in Canada bears his 
name. (w. M. B.) 

Odoesmades. A tribe, evidently Coa- 
huiltecan, living in 1690 a short distance s. 
of the Rio Grande, on the way from cen 
tral Coahuila to E. Texas. In the year 
named many of this tribe were seen in 
that locality, together with Mescaleros 
(evidently not the Mescalero Apache) 
and Momones, but when Tenin went 
through the same country in 1691 he saw 
none. Many buffalo were seen here by 
Teran ( Bescripcion y Diario Demarcacion, 
1691-92, in Mem. de Nueva Espafia, xxvn, 
25, MS.). (H. E. B.) 

Odshiapofa ( hickory ground ) . A town 
of the Creek Nation, on the North fork of 
Canadian r., below the mouth of Alabama 
cr., Okla. (Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., 
n, 1S6, 1888). TJie name was formerly 
applied to a Creek town in Alabama, 
otherwise known as Little Taiasse. See 
Talaxse. 

Odshisalgi ( hickory-nut people ) . One 
of the extinct clans of the (/reeks. Some 
have regarded the name as representing 
simply the people of Ocheese, a former 
town of the Lower Creeks in central 
Georgia. 

0-che. Morgan, Am-. Soc., 161, 1878. Odshisalgi. 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg.. I, 156, 1<S84. 

Odukeo s band (0-duk-e-o, Tall man ). 
The name of a Paviotso chief, applied also 
to his band formerly around Carson and 
Walker lakes, w. Nev. In 1861 they were 
said to number 1,261, including the Petod- 
seka band. 

Odakeo. Burton, City of Saints, 576, 1861. 0-duk- 
e-o s (Tall Man) band. Dodge in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1859, !374, 1860. 

Oealitk ( (ycnlttjr) . A sept of the Bella- 
bella, a Kwakiutl tribe inhabiting thes. 
shore of Millbank sd., Brit. Col. 
O ealitq. Boas in 6th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 52, 
1890. 6 ealitx. Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 328, 
1897. Onie-le-toch. Kane, Wand, in N. A., app., 
1859. Owia-lei-toh. Tolmieand Dawson, Vocabs, 
Brit. Col., H7B, 1881. Oyelloightuk. Brit. Col. 
map, Ind. AIT., Victoria, 1872. 

Oetlitk ( Oe Lits). A sept of the Bella- 
bella, \vhich, according to Tolmie and 
Dawson. occupied the middle section of 
Millbank sd., British Columbia. 

Oe iitx. Boas in Rep. Nat. Mns. 1895, 328,1897. 
Oe tlitq. Boas in 6th Rep. N. \V. Tribes Can. ,52, 
1890. Okatlituk. Brit. Col. map, Ind. Aff., Vic 
toria, 1872. Owit-lei-toh. Tolmie and Dawson, 
Vocabs. Brit. Col., 117H, 1884. Weetle-toch. Kane, 
Wand, in N. A., app., 1859. Weitle toch. School- 
craft, Fnd. Tribes, v, 487, 1855. 

Office of Indian Affairs. When the War 
Department was created by Congress 



OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 



10 






under the act of Aug. 7. 1789, among 
the duties assigned to it were those "rela 
tive to Indian affairs." In 1824 a Bureau 
of Indian Affairs was organized in the 
War Department, with Thomas L. Mc- 
Kenney as its chief. The place w T as offered 
him at a salary of $1,600, but with the 
assurance that the President would recom 
mend the organization of an "Indian de 
partment" with a salary for its head 
equal to that paid the auditors. The 
functions of the bureau were thus defined 
in the letter of appointment addressed 
to Col. McKenney by John C. Calhoun, 
Secretary of War, dated Mar. 11, 1824: 
4 To you are assigned the duties of the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs in this depart 
ment, for the faithful performance of 
which you will be responsible. Mr 
Hamilton and Mr Miller are assigned to 
you, the former as chief, the latter as as 
sistant clerk. You will take charge of 
the appropriations for annuities and of the 
current expenses, and all warrants on the 
same will be issued on your requisitions 
on the Secretary of War, taking special 
care that no requisition be issued, but in 
cases where the money previously re 
mitted has been satisfactorily accounted 
for, and on estimates in detail, approved 
by you, for the sum required. You will 
receive and examine the accounts and 
vouchers for the expenditure thereof, and 
will pass them over to the proper audi 
tor s office for settlement, after examina 
tion and approval by you; submitting 
such items for the sanction of this de 
partment as may require its approval. 
The administration of the fund for the 
civilization of the Indians is also com 
mitted to your charge, under the regula 
tions established by the department. You 
ire also charged with the examination of 
lie claims arising out of the laws regu- 
ating the intercourse with Indian tribes, 
ind will, after examining and briefing the 
iame, report them to this department, 
ndorsing a recommendation for their 
Ilowance or disallowance. The ordi- 
lary correspondence w r ith the superin- 
endents, the agents, and sub-agents, will 
>ass through your bureau." 
Col. McRenney had had large respon- 
ibility in connection with Indian affairs 
g superintendent of Indian trade from 
.pr. 2, 1816, until the United States In- 
ian trading establishment was abolished 
y act of May 6, 1822. His connection 
iththe Bureau terminated Sept. 30, 1830, 
y his dismissal, according to his Memoirs, 
i political grounds. Samuel S. Hamil- 
>n held the position for about a year, 
id was succeeded by Elbert Herring. 
By the act of July 9, 1832, there was 
eated in the War Department the office 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, at a 
lary of $3,000, who, subject to the 



Secretary of War and the- President 
should have "the direction and manage 
ment of all Indian affairs and of all mat 
ters arising out of Indian relations. M r 
Herring received appointment as Com 
missioner July 10, 1832. Up to the 
present time (1907) there have been 2S 
Commissioners of Indian Affairs, the long 
est term of office being a little less than S 
years. 

On June 30, 1834, an act was passed 
" to provide for the organization of the 
Department of Indian Affairs." Under 
this enactment certain agencies wen- 
established and others abolished, and 
provision was made for subagents, inter 
preters, and other employees, the pay 
ment of annuities, the purchase aiid 
distribution of supplies, etc. This may 
be regarded as the organic law of the 
Indian department. 

When the Department of the Interior 
was created by act of Mar. 3, 1S49, the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs was transferred 
thereto, and hence passed from military 
to civil control. As now organized there 
is a Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
(salary $5,000), an Assistant Commis 
sioner ($3,000), a Chief Clerk ($2,250), 
a Superintendent of Indian Schools 
($3,000), a private secretary to the Com 
missioner ($1,800), and a force of 175 
clerks, including financial clerk, law clerk, 
chiefs of divisions, bookkeepers, archi 
tect, and draftsmen; besides 13 messen 
gers, laborers, and charwomen. 

The Finance division has charge of all 
financial affairs pertaining to the Indian 
Bureau. It keeps ledger accounts, under 
nearly 1,000 heads, of all the receipts and 
disbursements of appropriationsand other 
funds for the Indian service, aggregating 
in late years more than $10,000,000 annu 
ally; remits funds to agents and other 
disbursing officers; attends to the pur 
chase and transportation of supplies for 
the Indians and the work of the ware 
houses where these supplies are received 
and shipped; advertises for bids and pre 
pares estimates for appropriations by 
Congress. The Treasury Department has 
estimated that between Mar. 4, 1789, and 
June 30, 1907, government expenditures 
on account of the Indian service aggre 
gated $472,823,935. The Indian Office 
fs trustee for more than $35,000,000 in the 
Treasury of the United States belonging to 
Indians^ on which interest accrues at 
percent and 5 percent. 

The Field Work division has charge o 
all matters relating to irrigation; prosecu 
tions for sale of liquor to Indians; assist 
ing Indians in obtaining employment, and 
kindred subjects. 

The Land division ot the ofluv I 
chanre of everything pertaining to the 
landed interests of the Indians allot- 



IDS 



OFOGOULA 



[>. A. E. 



ments, patents, leases, sales, conveyances, 
cessions of land, or reservation of land 
tor Indian nse, railroad rights of way and 
damages; contracts with Indians for the 
paynu-nt of money; guardianship of mi 
nors; settlement of estates; trespassing on 
Indian reservations and the removal of 
white persons therefrom; taxation; citi 
zenship and adoption into tribe, and all 
letral questions growing out of relations 
between Indians and whites. 

The Education division has supervision 
of Indian school matters, records of school 
attendance, making plans for school build 
ings, including their lighting, heating, and 
sewerage; the selection of school sites, and 
the issuance of regulations as to the gen 
eral management of the schools; prepares 
and supervises bonds of disbursing officers, 
and has charge of all matters relating to 
the appointment, transfer, promotion, 
etc. . < >f employees in the agency and school 
service. 

The Indian Territory division super 
vises all matters relating to the Five 
Civili/ed Tribes in Indian Ter., except 
railroads, telephones, and pipe-lines; also 
all timber matters except in the case of 
the Menominee res., which is in charge 
of the Land division. 

The Accounts division audits the cash 
and property accounts of agents, school 
superintendents, and other disbursing 
otiicers; has the disposal of unserviceable 
property; the collection and expenditure 
of funds coming into the hands of agents 
from sales of agency property or produce 
or from other sources; the issuance of live 
stock, implements, and other supplies to 
the Indians; sanitary statistics; census; 
and the preparation and issuance of reg 
ulations for all branches of the service. 

The Superintendent of Indian Schools 
inspects the schools personally, super 
vises methods of instruction, prepares the 
course of study, both literary and in 
dustrial, recommends text-books, and ar 
ranges for general and local Indian school 
institutes. 

The Files division briefs, registers, in 
dexes, and liles all incoming and indexes 
all outgoing correspondence. 

The Miscellaneous division has charge 
of business connected with Indian traders 
and field matrons, leaves of absence 
granted clerks, the printing required by 
the office, including the annual report, 
and the stationery and other supplies 
needed. 

Five special agents and seven school 
supervisors report to the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs their inspections of the 
work in the field. The employees under 
the jurisdiction of the office number 
ahout f>, 000. The annual reports of the 
Commissioner to the Secretary of the 
Interior, with reports of agents , inspect 



ors, and school superintendents, and with 
population, industrial, and other statistics 
pertaining to the Indians, are published 
by authority of Congress, and contain 
much valuable information respecting the 
various tribes. 

For the organization of methods of the 
Indian service in the field through the 
agencies and schools, see Agency system, 
Education, Governmental policy, Reserva 
tions, Treaties. (M. s. c. ) 

Ofogoula (Choctaw: ofi dog , okla peo 
ple : dog people ). A small tribe 
which formerly lived on the left bank of 
Yazoo r., Miss., 12 m. above its mouth 
and close to the Yazoo, Koroa, and 
Tunica. They are not mentioned in any 
of the La Salle documents nor, by name 
at least, in the relations of the priest mis 
sionaries De Montigny and La Source who 
first visited the Yazoo tribes. In 1699 
Iberville learned of them and recorded 
their name from a Taensa Indian among 
the Huma, but he did not reach their 
village either on this or on his subsequent 
expedition. It was probably during the 
same year that Davion established him 
self as missionary among the Tunica and 
necessarily had more or less intercourse 
w r ith the tribes dwelling with them, i. e., 
the Yazoo and Ofogoula. Early in 1700 
Le Sueur, with whom was the historian 
Penieaut, stopped at the village of the 
combined tribes on his way to the head 
waters of the Mississippi, and in Novem 
ber of that year Father Gravier spent 
some days there. He mentions the Ofo 
goula under their Tunica name, Ounspik 
(properly TJshpi), and states that they 
occupied 10 or 12 cabins. In 1729 Du 
Prat/ gave the number of cabins in the 
united village of the Ofogoula, Yazoo, and 
Koroa, as 60. On the outbreak of the 
Natchez war the Yazoo and Koroa joined 
the hostiles, murdered their missionary, 
and destroyed the French post. The 
Ofogoula were off hunting at the time, 
and on their return every effort was made 
to induce them to declare against the 
French, but in vain, and they descended 
the Mississippi to live with the Tunica. 
There they must have continued to reside, 
for Hutching, in 1784, states that they 
had a small village on the w. bank of the 
Mississippi, 8 m. above Pointe Coupee, La. 
Although the name afterward disappears 
from print, the living Tunica remember 
them as neighbors to within about 4C 
years. Their language being similar tc 
that of the Choctaw, it is probable that 
the remnant has become confused with 
that tribe. (j. R. s. ) 

Affagoula. Ilntchins (1784) inlmlay, West. Terr. 
119, 1797. Nation du Chien. Du Pratz, La., II. 
226, 1758. Nation of the Dog. Boudinot, Star in 
thi West, 128, 1816. Ofagoulas. Shea, Cath. Miss. 
147, 1855. Ofegaulas. Latin- , Map of U. S., 1784 
Offagoulas. La Hiirpe (1721) in French, Hist 
f-oll. La., in, 110, 1851. Offegoulas. Dumont 



CULL. 30] 



OGEECHEE OGLALA 



101) 



ibid., v, 43, 1853. Offogoulas. Penicaut (1700) 
ibid., i, 61, 1869. Ofogoulas. Charlevoix, Voy to 
Am., n, 250, 1761. Ofugulas. N. Y. Doc Col 
Hist., vir, 641, 1856. Oofe-ogoolas. Keane in 
Stanford, Compend., 527, 1878. Opocoulas. Iber- 
ville (1699) in Margry, Dec., iv, ISO, 1S80 Oufe 
Agoulas. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in 
80, 1854. Oufe Ogoulas. Du Pratz, La , n 2^0 
1758. Oufe Ogulas. Boudinot, Star in the West , 
128, 1816. Oufe-ouglas. Jeffreys, French Dom 
Am., i, 163, 1761. Oufi-Ougulas. Schermerhoru 
(1812) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, 15, 1814 
Ouispe. Iberville (1699) in Margry, Dec iv ISO* 
1880. Ounspik. Gravier (1700) quoted bv Shea 
Early Voy., 3, 133, 1861. Ouspie. French Hist 
Coll. La. ,m, 106, 1851. Oussipes. Penicaut (1700), 
ibid., n. s., 61, 1869. TJshpi. Swanton, field notes 
B. A. F., 1907 (Tunica name). 

Ogeechee. A town or subtribe of the 
Yuchi, formerly situated at some point 
on lower Ogeechee r., Ga. The Creeks 
and other tribes made war on them, and 
according to Bartram they were finally 
exterminated by the Creeks and Caro 
lina settlers (?) on Amelia id., Fla., where 
they had taken refuge after having been 
driven from the mainland. (j. M. ) 

How-ge-chu. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 61 1848 
0-ge-chee. Ibid. Ogechi. Alcedo, Die. Geog., 
Ill, 368, 17*8. Ogeeche. Bartram, Travels 64 1792 
Oghiny-yawees. Johnson (1747) in X. Y. Doc. Col 
Hist., vi, 359, 1855 ("Senecas, Chenondadees, and 
the Oghiny-yawees"). 

Oghgotacton. See OnocJcatin. 
Oglala ( to scatter one s own ). The 
principal division of the Teton Sioux. 
Their early history is involved in com 
plete obscurity; their modern history re 
counts incessant contests with other 
tribes and depredations on the whites. 
The first recorded notice of them is that 
of Lewis and Clark, who in 1806 found 
them living above the Brule Sioux 
on Missouri r., between Cheyenne and 
Bad rs., in the present South Dakota, 
numbering ] 50 or 200 men. In 1825 they 
inhabited both banks of Bad r. from the 
Missouri to the Black hills, and were 
then friendly with the whites and at 
peace with the Cheyenne, but enemies to 
all other tribes except those of their own 
nation. The y were then estimated at 
1,500 persons, of whom 300 were warriors. 
Their general rendezvous was at the 
mouth of Bad r., where there was a trad 
ing establishment for their accommoda 
tion. In 1850 they roamed the plains be 
tween the N. and s. forks of Platte r. and 
w. of the Black hills. In 1862 they oc 
cupied the country extending x. E. from 
Ft Laramie, at the mouth of Laramie r., 
on North Platte r., including the Black 
hills and the sources of Bad r. and reach 
ing to the fork of the Cheyenne, and 
ranged as far w. as the head of Grand r. 
De Smet (Ind. Aff. Rep., 277, 1865) says: 
"The worst among the hostile bands are 
the Blackfeet, the Ogallalas, the Unkpa- 
pas, and Santees." The Oglala partici 
pated in the massacre of Lieut. Grattan 
and his men at Ft Laramie in 1854. 
From 1865 they and other restless bands 
3f western Sioux were the terror of the 



frontier, constantly attacking emigrant 
trams on the plains and boats on the H ver 
fighting soldiers, and harassing the forN 
and stations during several years- un 
der the leadership of Sitting Hull and 
Crazy Horse. The invasion of the Blnek 
hills by gold seekers led to the war of 
1876, in which Custer and his command 
were destroyed. For several months pre 
vious thereto stragglers from other tribe< 
had been flocking to Sitting Hull s stand 
ard, so that according to the best esti 
mates there were at the battle of Little 




OGLALA I AMERICAN HORSE, WAHIT 



Bighorn 2,500 or 3,000 Indian warriors. 
The victor and his band were soon there 
after defeated by (Jen. Miles and tied 
to Canada. Crazy Horse and more than 
2,000 followers surrendered at Ked Cloud 
and Spotted Tail agencies in the May 
following. These different parties were 
composed in part of Oglala, of whom 
the larger part probably surrendered with 
Crazy Horse. 

The Oglala entered into a treaty of peace 
with the United States at the mouth of 
Teton (Had) r., S. Dak., July 5, 1825, and 



110 



(XiLALA 



[B.A.E. 



alsoa treaty signed at Ft Sully, S. Dak., Oct. 
2S, 1M>.\ prescribing relations with the 
l/nited States and \\ithothertribes. An 
important treaty with theOglala and other 
tribes was made at FtLaramie.Wyo., Apr. 
29, isds in whicli t he v agreed to cease hos- 




OGLA L A I EPHAPA, DIRTY FACE) 

lit iesand which defined the limits of their 
tribal lands. An agreement, confmnintr 
the treaty of Istis, was concluded at lied 
Cloud agency, Xeb., Sept. 2<>, KS76, which 
was signed on behalf of the Oglala by Red 
Cloud and other principal men of the 
tribe. 

In 1900 the Oglala were ollieially re 
ported to number (>, 727, all at Pine Ride 
agency, S. Dak. 

Lewis and Clark (Orig. Jour., vi, 99, 
190.") i mention only twodivisions,the Sheo 
and the Okandandas. According to the 
Report of Indian Affairs for 1875 (p. 250), 
the Oglala were then divided into four- 
hands, "usually called Ogallallas, Kioc- 
sies [Kiyuksa],Onkapas [Oyukhpe], and 
\Vaxa/ies. The Kev. John Robinson in 
a letter to I>.,rse\ (1*79) names the fol 
lowing divisions: I ayabya, Tapishlecha, 
Kiyuksa,Wa/ha/ha, Iteshicha, Oyukhpe 
and Waglnkhe. These correspond with 
the seven hands of Red Cloud s picto- 
graphs. According to Rev. W. J. Ch-ve- 
lanil (1884) they consist of 20 bands, as 
follow: (1) Iteshicha; (2) I ayahva; (3) 
Oyukhpe; (4) Tapishlecha; (5) "Peshhr 
6) Chekhuhaton; (7) Wablenicha- (8) 
[eshlapteehela; (!>) Tashnahecha; (10) 
Iwayusota; (11) \Vakan; (12) (a) Igla- 



katekhila, (b) Iteshicha; (13) Iteshi- 
chaetanhan; (14) Kiyuksa; (15)Wache- 
onpa; (16) Wachape; (17) Tiyochesli; 
(IS) Waglukhe; (19) Oglala; (20) leska- 
cliincha. Unidentified bands are: 31ini- 
sha, Night Cloud, Old Skin Necklace, Red 
lodge, and the Shorthair band. See D- 
koto, Tfton. (,i. o. D. c. T.) 

Angallas. Son. Ex. Doc. 90, 22d Coiiff., 1st sess., 
(io, 1832. Arkandada. Krackenridge, Views La., 
7S, 181."). Augallalla. II. R. Ex. Doe. 117, 19th 
Cong., Istsess.. (i. 1826. Chayenne Indians. Morse, 
Rep. to Sec. War, 3ti5, 1822 (error). Ogablallas. 
I n< I . A IV. Ri-p. , 471 , 1838. Ogalalab Yokpahs. T wiss 
in II. R. Ex. Doc. 61, 36th Cong., Istsess., l!j, I860 
(the latter name probably intended for Oyukhpe, 
sometimes used to designate the whole people 1 ). 
Ogalala Dacotas. Warren, Dacota Country, 19, 
18:>6. O-ga-la -las. Hayden, Ethnog. andPhilol. 
Mo. Val., 371. 18(52. Ogalallahs.-M Vickar, Hist. 
Kxped. Lewis and Clark, T, 8C>, 1842. Ogalallas 
Ind. Rep. AfL, 296, 1846. O Galla. I". S. Ind 
Treat. (180")), Kappler ed., 092, 1903. Ogallah. 
Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 142, 18. )l. 
Ogallala. Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1849 80 1850 
O Gallala. Treaty of 1866 in U. S. Ind. Treat., 
901, 1873. Ogallalahs. Keane in Stanford, Com- 
pend., 527, 1878. Ogallallahs. Parker, Jour., 65, 
1840. Ogallallas. Sen. Ex. Doc. 56, 18th Cong 
1st sess., 9, 1824. Ogallallees. Do Smet, Letters, 
37, note, 1843. Ogeelala. Schoolcraft, Ind 
Tribes, v, 494, 1855. Ogellahs. Ibid., I, 523, 1851. 
Ogellalah. Ibid., iv, 252, 1854. Ogellalas. Ind. 
AIT. Rep., 59. 1842. Ogillallah. Parkman, Oregon 
Trail, 113, 1883. O-gla -la. Riggs, Dak. Grain, and 
Diet., 349, 1890. Oglallahs. Fremont, Explor. 




OGLALA ( 



Kxped., 57, 1854. Ogolawlas. Parker, Minn. 
Handbook, 141, 1857. O Gullalas. Treatyof 1867in 
U.S. Ind. Treat., 914, 1873. Ohdada. .1. O.Dorsey, 
inf n (San tee name i. Okadada. Robinson, letter 
to Dorsey, 1879. Okanandans. Bradbury, Trav., 
90, 1817. 0-kan-dan-das. Lewis and Chirk. Dis- 
cov., table, 34, 180(5 (oneof thetwodivisionsof the 
Teton Sioux). Okdada. Dorsey, inf n (so called 



OGLALA OIAUK 



111 



by Yankton). Oknaka. Williamson in School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, i, 249, 1851. Onkdaka. Ibid. 
O-toh -son. Harden, Ethnog. and Philol Mo 
Val., 290,1862 ( little stars : Cheyenne name). 
Oyer-lal-lah. Hoffman in H. R. Ex. Doc. 3i>, 33d 
Cong., 2d sess., 3, 1855. Te -ton,-o-kan-dan-das 
Lewis and Clark, Discov., table, 30, 1806. Teton 
Okandandes. Ramsey in Ind. AfT. Rep. 1849, 87 
1850. Tetons Okandandas. Lewis, Trav., 171, 1809! 
Ubchacha. Dorsey, Dhegiha MS. Dict.,B. A. E., 
1878 (Omaha and Ponca name) . 

Oglala. A subdivision of the Oglala 
Sioux. 

Ogallallas. Ind. Aff. Rep., 250, 1875 (one of the 
four divisions of the tribe). Oglala-hca. Dorsey, 
inf n, 1880 ( true Oglala ). Oglala proper. Robin 
son, letter to Dorsey, 1879. 

Oglalaichichagha ( makes himself an 
Oglala ). A band of the Brule Teton 
Sioux. 

Og-la -la. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 
376, 1862. Oglala-icicaga. Cleveland quoted by 
Dorsey in loth Rep. B. A. E., 219, 1897. Oglala-itc : - 
itcaxa. Ibid. 

Ohagi (0-ha-gi, it compressed it. - 
Hewitt). The Seneca name of a Tusca- 
rora (?) village formerly on the w. side of 
Genesee r., a short distance below Cuy- 
lerville, Livingston co., N. Y. Morgan, 
League Iroq., 434, 468, 1851. 

Ohaguames. A former tribe, probably 
Coahuiltecan, of the province of Coahuila, 
x. E. Mexico, members of which were 
gathered into the mission of San Juan 
Bautista on Sabinas r. Orozco y Berra, 
Geog., 303, 1864. 

Ohamil. A Cowichan tribe on the s. side 
of lower Fraser r., Brit. Col., just below 
Hope; pop. 55 in 1906. 

Channel. Can. Ind. Aff., 78, 1878. Ohamil. Ibid 
pt. n, 160, 1901. O Hamil. Ibid., SOU, 1879. Oha- 
mille. Ibid., 1889, pt. 1, 268, 1890. Omail. Brit. 
Col. map, Ind. Aff., Victoria, 1872 (given as the 
name of a town): 

Ohanhanska ( long reach in a river ) . A 
former band and village of the Magayu- 
teshni division of the Mdewakanton 
Sioux, on Minnesota r., consisting, in 
1836, of 80 people, under Wamditanka, 
3r Big Eagle, also known as Black Dog. 
Big Eagle s band. Gale, Upper Miss., 251, 1867. 
31ack-dog. Ind. Aff. Rep., 282, 1854. Black 
3og s. Long, Exped. St Peter s R., I, 380, 1824. 
Black Dog s band. Cullen in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1859, 
.8, 1860. Oanoska. Long, Exped. St Peter s R., i, 
5, 1824. Ohah-hans-hah. Prescott in School- 
raft, Ind. Tribes, II, 171, 1852. 0-hah-kas-ka-toh- 
-an-te. Catlin, N. Am. Inds., n, 134, 1844 (from 
hanhanska taoyate, long reach, its people ). 
hunkasapa. Williamson in Minn. Geol. Rep., 
10, 1884 ( Black Dog ). Wah ma dee Tunkah 
and. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 612, 1853 
Wanmditanka, Big Eagle ). 

Ohanoak. An important Chowanoc vil- 
age in 1586 on the w. side of Cho\van r., 
.ot far below Nottoway r., probably in 
lartford co., N. C. 

linde Towne. Lane (1586) in Hakluyt, Voy., Ill, 
12, 1810 (so called by the English). Ohanoak. 
aid. Ohanock. Lane in Smith (1629), Va., I, 87, 
jpr. 1819. Opanock. Martin, N. C., 1, 13,1829 (mis- 
rint). 

Ohathtokhouchy. A former Seminole 
)wn on Little r.,40m. E. of Apalachicola, 
i Gadsden co., Fla., in 1823. H. R. Ex. 
oc. 74, 19th Cong., 1st sess., 27, 1826. 

Ohdihe (fromohdiha n , to fall into an <>b- 
ct endwise ). A band of the Sisseton 



Sioux, an offshoot of the Witawa/i vata - 
Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. K, "if ISM; 
Ohenonpa ( two boilings ). A band of 
the Brule Teton Sioux. 

O-he-nom -pa. Hayden, Ethnog and Phil,,] \r ( , 
Dorse^n l?th R he B no 5P a Cleveland quoted by 

Oherokouaehronon ( people of the <>ras-< 
country. Hewitt). An unidentified 
tribe mentioned with many others in a 
list of peoples dwelling above the Sault 
St Louis of St Lawrence r. in 1(540 (Jes 
Rel. 1640, 35, 1858). The list is imper 
fect, containing duplicate names given as 
separate tribes. 

Ohetur ( OJiel ur). The Yurok name ,f 
a Karok village opposite and below Or 
leans Bar, Klamath r., x. w. Cal. A. L. 
Kroeber, inf n, 1905. 

Ohiyesa. See Xaxtmaii, Charles. 
Ohkonkemme. A village in 1698 near 
Tisbury, Marthas Vineyard, Mass. Doc. 
of 1698 in Mass. Hist, Soc. Coll., 1st s x 
131, 1809. 

Ohotdusha (0-hot-<ln -xha, antelope ). 
A band of the Crows. Morgan, Anc Soc 
159, 1877. 

Ohrante. A Mohawk warrior in 1776, 
called Oteroughyanento when he and 
Joseph Brant met Lord Germain in Lon 
don, Mar. 14 of the year named. lie 
seems to be the Artmtes whose name ap 
pears on one of the Montreal medals, sev 
eral of which have been connected with 
Indians of that period. (w. M. B. ) 

Ohuivo ( the place to which they re 
turned ). A Tarahnmare rancheria in a 
barranca of that name on the extreme 
headwaters of the Rio Fuerte, in w. 
Chihuahua, Mexico. The Indians live in 
both houses and caves, in one of the latter 
of which, containing the remains of 
ancient habitations, the Tubare are said 
once to have dwelt. Lumholtz, Unknown 
Mex., i, 187-192, 1902. 

Ohytoucoulas. One of the Taensa vil 
lages in the 17th century. Iberville 
(1699) in Margry, Dec., iv, 179, 1880. 

Oiaht. A Nootka tribe on Barclay sd., 
w. coast of Vancouver id., Brit. Col. 
Ahadzooas is their principal village. Pop. 
159 in 1902, 145 in 1906. 

Ho aiath. Boas in (Hh Rep. X. W. Tribes Can.. 
31 1*90. Ohey-aht. Can. Ind. Aff. 1880, 315,18*1. 
Ohiat. Miiyne, Brit. Col., . 51, l.sGl. Ohyaht 
Sproat, Savage Life, 308, istis. Ohyats. Mayne, 
op. cit., 270. Oiaht. Can. Ind. AfT. 188:5, INS, 1S84. 
Oiatuch. Grant in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc.. 1293, 1857. 
Oyty-aht. Brit. Col. Map. Ind. Aff., Victoria, 1872. 
Oiaur. A former rancheria of the So- 
baipuriorPapago, visited by Father Kino 
in 1697 and 1699, and named by him San 
Agustin. Situated on the Rio Santa Cruz, 
5 or 6 leagues x. of San Xavier del Bac, s. 
Ariz., of which mission it was a visita in 
1732. At the latter date the two settle 
ments had 1,300 inhabitants. 
Oiaur. Mange (1699) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, 
and X Mex., 35S, 1889. S. Agustin. Kino, map 
(1701) ibid 360. S. Agustin Oiaur. Bernal (1697), 



( >rD< UNGKO YO < >K A 



[B. A. E. 



il,j,l ;;:,(,. S. Augustin. Venegas, Hist. Gal.. I, 
mill). 175 1 - 1 S. Augustinus. Kino, map (1<02) in 
Sto e klein.Nene Welt-Bolt, 71. 172(i. 

Oidoingkoyo. A former Maidu village 
near the headwaters of Feather r. and 
about 10 m. x. of Prattville, Plumas co., 
(/ ;l | . Dixon in Hull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
xvn, pi. 3S, 1905. 

Ointemarhen. A village or tribe said to 
have been in the region between Mata- 
gorda bay and Maligne (Colorado) r., 
Tex. The name was given to Joutel in 
1687 by the Khahamo Indians who dwelt 
in that country and who were probably 
Karankawan. See Gatschet, Karankawa 
I n. Hans, i, 35, 46, 1891. (A. C. F.) 

Ointemarhen. .lontel (U .s7) in Margry, Dec., in, 
2N\ 1S7S. Otenmarhem. .loutel ( 1(587) in French, 
Ili-t. Coll. La., l, 137, 1816. Otenmarhen, Ibid., 

"Oitac. A Marieopa rancheriaonthe Rio 
(iila in 1744. Sedelmair (1744) cited by 
Bancroft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 366, 1889. 

Oivimana ((r/r ninnxt, scabby people ; 
sinir. Oli imdn). A principal division of 
the ( hryenne; also a local nickname for 
a part of the Northern Cheyenne. 
Hive. Dorsey in Field Colnmb. Mus. Pub. 103, 
rrj, 19(15. Ho "iv I ma nan. Grinnell, Social Org. 
Cheyennes, 13f>, 1905. 6 ivima na. Mooney in 
llth Hep B. A. E., 1025, 1896. Scabby band. Dor- 
sey in Field Golnmb. Mus. Pub. 99. 1:5, 1905. 

Ojageght (Hodjage de t he is carrying 
a fish by the forehead strap. Hewitt). 
A Cayuga chief, commonly called Fish 
Carrier, whose name appears on the treaty 
of 1790. A tract of land a mile square 
had been reserved for him ill 1789, and 
in that year a letter from Buffalo Creek 
was signed by ( )jageghte or Fish Carrier, 
and 10 other Cayuga chiefs. In 1792 he 
had a silver medal from Washington, long 
preserved. In 1795 his name appears as 
Ojageghti, and in 1807 as Ilojawgata. He 
was venerated and brave. The later Fish 
Carriers are Canadian Cayuga, preserving 
the name. (w. M. H. ) 

Ojai. A former Chumashan village 
about 10 m. up Buenaventura r. , Ventura 
co., Cat. 

Au-hai . Henslia\v, Buenaventura MS. voeab., 
B. A. I- ... lvs(. Aujay. Taylor in Gal. Farmer, 
.Inly 21, lx t ;:{. Ojai. Ibid. 

Ojana. A former Tano pueblo s. of the 
hamlet of Tejoti, about lat. 35 20", San- 
doval co., N. Mex. It was inhabited 
when visited by Ofiate in 159S, and prob 
ably as late as 1700. Bandelier in Arch. 
In-t. Papers, in, ll 5, lx<)0; iv, 109, 1892. 
Ojana. Oiiate (159*) in Doc. IinVl.. \vi. 111, ]s7i. 
0-ja-na. Bundelier, op. eit., m, 125 (aboriginal 

Ojeegwyahnugi fisher-skins ). A tribe, 
probably Athapascan, known to the Ot 
tawa. 
Ojeeg Wyahnug. Tanner, Narr., illti, 1,"\ ,(). 

Ojeejok C I rltirhnl.-, crane ). Agensof 
the ( hinjx-wa. 

Ad-je-jawk. Tanner, .\Mi-r., 315, ls:;n. Attoch- 
ingochronon. .li-v lie]. Kill), 155, is.">s (Huron 
name i. Aud-je-jauk. -Kamseyin Ind. AIY. Kep.. 91 
!s")M. Ojee-jok . Morgan, Ane. Sue., ItiC,, 1S77. 



Ui-e-jauk. Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc.Coll., v.44, 
l,s<So. Utcitcak. Win. Jones, infn, 1900 (proper 
form; trdi). 

Ojiataibues. A Maricopa ranc-heria on 
CJila r., Ariz., in the 18th century. 
Ojia-taibues. Rudo Ensuyo (ca. 1763), 22, 1863. Ox- 
itahibuis. Sedelmnir (1744) quoted by Bancroft. 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 366, 1889. S. lacobus de Oiadai- 
buisc. Kino, map (1702), in Stocklein, Xeue Welt- 
Bott, 74, 1726. 

Ojio. A former Sobaipuri rancheria vis 
ited by Father Kino in 1697; situated on 
the E. bank of San Pedro r. near its junc 
tion with the Gila, s. Arizona, not far 
from the present Dudleyville. 
Ojio Bernal (1697) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and 
N. Mex., 356, 1889. Victoria. Ibid. Victoria de 
Ojio. Kino (1697) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., i, 
2SO, 1856. 

Ojiopas. The Piman name of appar 
ently a Yuman tribe, members of which 
visited Father Kino while among the 
Quigyuma of the lo\ver Rio Colorado in 
1701. In all probability they are not the 
Bagiopa. 

Giopas. Kino (1701) cited in Rudo Ensayo (ca. 
1763), Guiteras trans., 132, 1894; Coues, Garees 
Diary, 551,1900: Bancroft, Xo. Mex. States, i. 497, 
1884. Ojiopas. Ibid. 

Ojistatara. An Oneida chief in 1776, 
popularly called The Grasshopper. His 
name appears as Peter Ojistarara in 1785, 
andamongthe Kirkland papers isa speech 
of The Grasshopper, addressed to Gov. 
Clinton of New York, Jan. 27, 1785. He 
was then principal chief, but died that 
year. There was a later chief of the same 
name. (w. M. .) 

Ojito de Samalayuca. A mission estab 
lished among the Suma (q. v.),in 1683; 
situated 8 leagues below El Paso, in 
Chihuahua, Mexico. Escalante (1775) 
quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 
192, 1889." 

Ojo Caliente (Span.: warm spring ; 
native name, K iapkwainakwin, place 
whence flow the hot waters ). A Zufii 
summer village about 14m. s. w. of Znni 
pueblo, N. Mex., not far from the ruined 
town of Hawikuh. See Mindeleff in 8th 
Rep. I>. A. E., 96, 1891. 

AguasCalientes. Bandelier quoted inArch.Inst. 
Rep., V, 43, 1884. Caliente. Donaldson, Moqui 
Pueblo Inds., 127, 1893. Hos Ojos Calientes. 
Cashing in Millstone, ix, 19, Feb. 1884 (misprint 
Hos forJ.ux). K iap-kwai-na. Gushing, ibid., ix, 
55, Apr. 1884 (Znfii name). K iap -kwai-na-kwe. 
Ibid. ( = people of the town whence flow the hot 
waters ). K iap kwai na kwin. Gushing in 4th 
Rep. B. A. E., 494, 1886. Ojo Caliente. Common 
map form. Ojos Calientes. Gushing in Mill 
stone, ix, 225, Dec. 1884. Tkap-que-na. Steven 
son in 5th Rep. B. A. E., 542, 1887. 

Oka. A modern village of Iroquois, 
Nipissing, and Algonkin, on L. of the 
Two Mountains, near Montreal, Quebec. 
Cuoq says oka is the Algonkin name 
for goldfish or pickerel (see Ocrow). 
The Iroquois name, Kanesatake, signifies 
on the hillside , from onesata slope or 
mountainside, ke at or on. 

The village was settled in 1720 by 
Catholic Jroquois, who were previously at 
the Sault au liecollet, ar.d who numbered 



BULL. 30] 



OKAALTAKALA OKALUSA 



118 



about 900 at the time of removal. Soon 
after they were joined by some Nipissing 
and Algonkin, who removed from a 
mission on Isle aux Tourtes, the latter 
place being then abandoned. The two 
bodies occupy different parts of the vil 
lage, separated by the church, the Iro- 
quois using the corrupted Mohawk lan 
guage, while the others speak Algonquian. 
The total number of both was 375 in 1884, 
and 461 (395 Iroquois, 66 Algonkin) in 
1906. In 1881 a part of them removed to 
Watha (Gibson), Ontario, where they are 
now established, numbering 140, making 
the total number at both settlements 
about 600. For an account of these In 
dians see Life of Ilev. Amand Parent, 
Toronto, 1886, in which the religious 
troubles are related from a Protestant 
point of view. (j. >i. J. x. B. n. ) 

Canaghsadagaes. Johnson (1767) in N. Y. Doe. 
Col. Hist., VII, 958, 1856. Canasadagas. Johnson 
(1763). ibid., 582. Canasadauga. Eustburn (1758) 
quoted by Drake, Trag. Wild., 283, 1S41. Canasa- 
dogh. La Tour, Map, 1779. Canasadogha. Ibid., 
1782. Canasatauga. Smith (1799) quotedby Drake, 
Trag. Wild., 181, 1841. Canassadaga. Golden 
(1727), Five Nat., 172, 1747. Canassategy. Weiser 
(1753) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., yi, 795, 1855. 
Caneghsadarundax. Messageof 1763, ibid., vn. 544, 
1856 (should be Canasasaga, Arundax [Adiron- 
dacks] ). Canessedage. Governorof Canada 1 1695), 
ibid., IV, 120, 1854. Cannusadago. Petition of 1764, 
ibid., vn, 614, 1856. Canossadage. Romer (1700), 
ibid., iv, 799, 1854. Conaghsadagas. Canajoharie 
Conf. (1759), ibid., vn, 393, 1856. Conasadagah. 
Stoddert (1750), ibid., vi, 582, 1855. Conasadago. 
Murray (1782) in Vt. Hist. Soc. Coll., n, 357, 1871. 
Conasadauga. Eastburn (1758) quoted by Drake, 
Trag. Wild., 271, 1841. Conessetagoes. Clinton 
(1745) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 276, 1855. Cones- 
tauga. Smith quoted by Day, Penn., 118, 1843. 
Conissadawga. Hale in N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., n, 
93, 1827. Connasedagoes. Bouquet ( 1764) quoted 
by Jefferson, Notes, 147,1794. Connecedaga. Long, 
Voy. and Trav., 25, 1791. Connecedegas. McKen- 
ney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 80, 1854. Connefe- 
lagoes. Hutchins (1778) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, vi, 714, 1857. Connesedagoes. Croghan 
[1765) in Monthly Am. Jour. Geol., 272, 1831. Con- 
aosedagoes. Thompson quoted by Jefferson, 
Sotes. 282, 1825. Connosidagoes. Boudinot, Star 
n the West, 126, 1816. Connossedage. Hansen 
1700) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IV, 805, 1S54. Gan- 
igsadagas. German Flats Conf. (1770), ibid., vin, 
!29, 1857. Ganesatague. Doc. of 1741, ibid., IX, 
079, 1855. Kanassatagi lunuak. Gatschet, Pen- 
bscotMS., B.A.E., 1887 (Penobscotname). Kan- 
satake. Cuoq, Lex. Iroq., 10, 1883 (Mohawk 
tame). Kanesatarkee. King, Journ. Arc. Ocean, 
,11, 1836. Kanossadage. Freerman ( 1704) in N. Y. 
>oc. Col. Hist., IV, 1163, 1854. Lac de deux Mon- 
agne. Stoddert (1750), ibid., vi, 582, 1855. Lac 
edeux Montagnes. Johnson (1763), ibid., vn, 582, 
356. Lake of theTwoMountains. Shea.Cath.Miss., 
S3, 1855. Oka. Can. Ind. Aff., 31, 1878. Scawenda- 
eys. Johnson (1747) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
1, 359, 1855. Scenondidies. Stoddert (1753), ibid., 
$0. Schawendadies. Ft Johnson Conf. (1756), 
)id., vii, 239, 1856. Shoenidies. Lindesay (1749), 
)id., vi, 538, 1855. Shouwendadies. Ft Johnson 
onf. (1756), ibid., vii, 233, 1856. Skawendadys. 
anajoharieConf. (1759), ibid.. 392. Two-Mountain 
oquois. Morgan, Systems Consang., 153, 1871. 
illage of the Two Mountains. Jeffervs, Fr. Dom., 
:. 1,14, 1761. 

Okaaltakala ( between the waters ) . A 
rmer Choc-taw village that probably 
ood at the confluence of Petickfa and 
annubbee crs., in Kemper co., Miss. 



Oka Altakala. Halbert in 1 ub. MN* HJM s,,c 
vi, 424. 1902. Oka-altakkala. West Florida nun - 
en. 17/5. Oka attakkala. Romans, Florida 310 
17/o. 

Okachippo. A former Choctaw town in 
Mississippi. It was evidently in Neshoba 
co., but the exact location is not known. 
The name may lie intended for nfoi- 
shippa, water run down. Halhert in 
Pub. Miss, Hint. Soc., vi, 480, 15)02. 
Oka chippo. West Florida map, en. 1775. 

Okacoopoly. A former Choctaw town 
on Ocobly cr., Neshoba co., Miss., from 
which it probably derived its name. 
The name may have been <)kn-<ikobli, 
water where the luting is. referring to 
good fishing there. Halbert in Pub. 
Miss. Hist. Soc., vi, 429, 1902. 
Oka Coopoly. West Florida map. en. 1775. 

Okaghawichasha ( man of the south ) . 
A band of the Brule Teton Sioux. 
Okaga-wicasa. Dorse y (after Cleveland) in 15th 
Rep. B. A. E., 219, 1897. Okaxa-witcaca. Ibid. 

Okahoki (perhaps M okahoki-, people 
of the pumpkin place ). A Delaware 
band or subclan formerly living on Ridley 
and Cram crs. in Delaware co., Pa. lii 
1703 they were removed to a small res 
ervation near \Villistown Inn. 
M okahoki. Brinton, Lenape Leg., 39, lss, r >. 0-ka- 
ho -ki. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 172, 1877 (said to mean 
ruler ). 

Okahullo ( mysterious water ). A 
former scattering Choctaw town on and 
near the mouth of Sanotee cr., Neshoba 
co., Miss., and extending into Newton 
co. Halbert in Pub. Miss. Hist. Soc., vi, 
425, 1902; Brown, ibid., 445. 
Oka Hoola. West Florida map, ca. 1775. Oka 
Hoolah. Romans, Florida, 310, 1775. Okha 
Hullo. Brown, op. cit. 

Okak. A Moravian Eskimo mission on 
an island in Okak bay, coast of Labrador, 
established in 1776." The first Christian 
Eskimo convert in Labrador was baptized 
here in the same year. In 1851 the 
natives of the vicinity suffered severely 
from famine. It is st ill a nourishing sta 
tion and the seat of an orphan asylum. 

Okak. Thompson, Moravian Miss., 229, 1S90. 
Ok-kak Hind, Labrador Penin., n, 199, 1st 53. 
O Kok. McLean, Hudson Bay, n, 157, 1849. 

Okakapassa. A former Choctaw town 
that environed the present Pinkney Mill 
in Newton co., Miss. Brown in Pub. 
Miss. Hist. Soc., vi, 443, 1902. Cf. 
A colapissa. 

Little Colpissas.- Jeffervs, French Dom. Am., map, 
148, 1761. Oka Lopassa. West Florida map, ca. 
1775 

Okalusa ( black water ). The name 
of a settlement or of settlements of the 
Choctaw. On d Anville s map of 1732 
one is laid down on the s. side of Black- 
water cr., Kemper co., Miss. There are 
the remains of several other villages 
along the same stream which may have 
borne this name at one time or another. 
The Oaka Loosa of Romans map (1775) 
is not on this stream, however, but on 
White s branch, in the same county, 






3456 Bull. 30, pt 207 8 



OKA X AG AN LA K E OKINAGAN 



[B. A. E. 



\\hnv are still the remains? of a town. 
It is possible that White s branch was 
also called Okalusa in Romans tune. 
This writer represents the Black Water 
warriors as predatory in their habits, 
often making inroads into the territory 
of the Creeks. In 1831 the Black Water 
people numbered 78. Halbert in Pub. 
Miss. Hist. Soe., in, 367-36S, 1900; vi, 

4"0, 1902. 

Black Water. .U-iYerys. French Dom., 1, 165,1761. 
Oaka Loosa. Romans, Florida, map, 1775. Ogue 
Loussas.-.MYrrvs, French Dom., 1, 1(54. 1761. Oka 
Loosa Romans, Florida, 310, 1775. Okecoussa. 
lattre Map U.S., 7784. Oke Lousa. Pub. Miss. 
Hist. Soc.. vi, -120, 1902 (misquotation of d An- 
ville). Oke Loussa. d Anville s map in Hamil 
ton Colonial Mobile, 15S, 1897. Oque-Loussas. 
Du Pratz, La., n. 241, 1758. 

Okanagan Lake. The local name fora 
body of Okinagan on the w. shore of 
Okanagan lake ins. w. British Columbia; 
pop. 37 in 1901, the last time the name 
appears. 

Helowna. Can. Ind. Aff., pt. II, 166, 1901. 

Okapoolo. A former Choctaw village 
probably in the present Newton co., 
Miss. Romans, Florida, map, 1775. 

Okatalaya (Oka-talma, spreading 
water ). One of the Choctaw Sixtowns 
which controlled a large extent of terri 
tory in the present Jasper and Hmith cos., 
Miss., but centered on Oka Talaia cr. 
Halbert in Pub. Ala. Hist. Soc., Misc. 
Coll., i, 3S3, 1901. 

Okawasiku ( coot ). A stibphratry or 
gens of theMenominee. Hoffman in 14th 
Rep. B. A. K., 42, 1896. 

Okchayi. A former Upper Creek town 
on Oktchayi cr., a w. tributary of Talla- 
poosa r., 3 in. below Kailaidshi, in Coosa 
co., Ala. Its inhabitants were of Aliba- 
mu origin, as were also those of Okchay- 
ndshi. Milfort gives a tradition concern 
ing their migration. Another Creek set 
tlement of the same name was situated on 
the E. bank of Tombigbee r., at the ford 
of the trail to the Creek Nation, which 
was in a bend of the stream a few miles 
below Sukanatchi junction, probably in 
Sumter co., Ala. This was probably the 
mother town of the other Okchayi and 
of Okchayudshi. (A. s! <;.) 

Hook-choie. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 37, 1848. 
Hootchooee. Hawkins (1813) in Am. State Pap., 
Iinl. All ., I, s. r >2, 1832. Oakchog. Sen. Ex. Doc. 
12.">, 21th Cong.. 1st sess., 302, 1836. Oakchoie. 
Pickett, Hi-t. Ala., n.l .-ll, ls:>l. Oakchoys. Swan 
(1791) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 262, 1855. 
Oakgees. (ialpliin (17*7) in Am. State Pap., Ind. 
AIT., 1.32. 1*32. Oakjoys.Blonnt (1792), ibid., 270. 
Occha. .IrttVrys, French Dom. Am., i, 134, map, 
17til. Occhoy. Romans, Florida, 327, 1775. Ocka. 
Alrcdo, Die. Geog., ill, 361. 1788. Ockha. JelTerys, 
Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. Ockhoyg. McKenney and 
Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 80, isf>l. Ok-chai. Adair, 
Am. I nds., 257, 273, 177;"). Okchoys. Romans, Flor 
ida, .MI, 177."). Oke-choy-atte. Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, i, 266. 1851. Okohoys. Carroll, Hist. Coll. 
S.c.. i, I .K). 1x36. Oukehaee. Sohermerhorn (1X12) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, 18, 1814. Oxiail- 
le. Milfort, M. moirc, 266, 1802. Ozeailles. 
I ickctt, Hist. Ala., i. X8, 1x51. 



Okchayi. A town of the Creek Nation, 
on Canadian r., near Hillabi, Okla. 
Oktchayi. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., n, 186, 1888. ; 

Okchayudshi ( little Okchayi ). A 
former small Upper Creek town in the 
present Elmore co., Ala., on the E. bank 
of Coosa r., between Odshiapofa (Little 
Talassee) and Tuskegee. The village was: 
removed to the E. side of Tallapoosa r. on 
account of Chickasaw raids. 

Hook-choie-oo-che. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 37, 
1848. Hookchoiooche. Hawkins (1813) in Am. 
State Papers, Ind. Aff., I. 854, 1832. Little Oak- 
choy. ( reek paper (1836) in H. R. Rep. 37, 31st 
Cong., 2d sess., 122, 1851. Little Oakjoys. U. S. 
Ind. Treat. (1797), 68, 1837. Oakchoieooche. Pick 
ett, Hist. Ala., II, 267, 1851. Oktchayu dshi. 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I. 141, 1884. 

Oke. The principal village of the Ehat- 
isaht (q. v.), 011 Eperanza inlet, w. coast, 
of Vancouver id., Brit. Col. Can. Ind. 
Aff., 264, 1902. 

Okechumne. A former Moquelumnan 
group 011 Merced r., central Cal. 
Ochekhamni. Kroeber in Arn. Anthrop.. vm, 659, 
1906. Okechumne. Wessells (1853) in H. R. Ex. 
Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 30, 1857. 

Okehumpkee (probably lonely water ). 
A former Seminole town 30 m. s. w. from 
Volusia, and N. E. of Dade s battle ground, 
Volusia co., Ela. Mikanopy was chiei 
in 1823, between which date" and 1836 it 
was abandoned. 

Ocahumpky. Gadsden (1836) in H. R. Doc. 78, 25th 
Cong., 2dsess., 407, 1838. Okahumky. Scott s map, 
ibid., 408-9. Okehumpkee. -H. R. Doc. 74, 19th 
Cong., 1st sess., 27, 1826. 

Oketo. The Yurok name of Big lagoon 
on the x.w. coastof Cal., 10 m. N. of Trini 
dad, as well as of the largest of the several* 
Yurok villages thereon. ( A. L. K. ) 

Okhatatalaya (Okhata-talaia, spreading 
pond ) . A former Choctaw town in the 
westernmost part of the present Newtoc 
co., Miss. It was named from a pond 
several acres in extent, near the center ol 
the town, which was a great resort foi 
wild fowl. Brow r ii in Pub. Miss. Hist. 
Soc.. vi, 445, 1902. 

Okilisa (0-W-li-sa}. An extinct Greet 
clan. Gatsehet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 155. 
1884. 

Okinagan (etymology doubtful). A 
name originally applied to the confluence 
of Similkameen and Okanogan rs. , but ex 
tended iirst to include a small band anc 
afterward to a large and important division 
of the Salishan family. They formerly 
inhabited the w. side of Okanogan r.. 
Wash., from Old Ft Okanogan to the Ca 
nadian border, and in British Columbia 
the shores of Okanagan lake and the sur 
rounding country. Later they displaced 
an Athapascan tribe from the valley oi 
the Similkameen. In 1906 there were 527 
Okinagan on Colville res., Wash., and 824 
under the Kamloops-Okanagan agency, 
British Columbia; total, 1,351. (Jibbsm 
1855 gave the following list of Okinagan 
bands on Okanogan r. : Tkwuratum, Ko- 



BULL. 30] 



OKINOYOKTOKAWIK OKLAFALAYA 



115 



nekonep, Kluckhaitkwu, Kinakanes, and 
Milakitekwa. The Kinakanes appear to 
be the Okinagan proper. He also classed, 
the Sanpoil with them, but says "these 
are also claimed by the Spokans," and in 
fact they are still oftener placed by them 
selves. To Gibbs list should be added 
the Iiitietook band of Ross. The follow 
ing villages or bands are enumerated in 
the Canadian Keports of Indian Affairs: 
Ashnola, Chuchunayha, Keremeus, Nka- 
maplix, Nkamip, Okanagan Lake, Pentic- 
ton, Shennosquankin, and Spahamin. 
Teit gives four others: Kedlamik, Kom- 
konatko, Ntlkius, and Zutsemin. Dawson 
adds Whatlminek. See also Skamoynu- 
tnctchs. 

Kank- utla atlam. Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes 
Can. ,10, 1889 ( flatheads : Kutenai name) . Kina 
kanes. Gibbs in Pac. R. R. Rep., I, 412, 1855. 
KokEnu k ke. Chamberlain in 8th Rep. X. W. 
Tribes Can., 7, 1892 (Kutenai name). Oakana- 
gans. Ross, Fnr Hunters, I, 44,1855. Oakinacken. 
Ross, Adventures, 287, 1847 (used collectively and 
also as applying to a subdivision). Oakinagan. 
Cox, Columb. R., II, 86, 1831. Oehinakein. Giorda, 
Kalispel Diet,, I, 439, 1877-79. Okanagam. Duflot 
de Mofras, Oregon, n, 100, 1844. Okanagan. Par 
ker, Journal, 298, 1840. Okanagon. Teit in Mem. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n. 167, 1900. 0-kan-a-kan. 
Morgan, Consang. and Affin., 290, 1871. Okana- 
kanes. De Smet, Letters, 230, 1843. Okanaken. 
Boas in 6th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., map, 1890. 
O Kanies-Kanies. Stevens in H. R. Doc. 48, 34th 
Cong., 1st sess., 3, 1856. Okenaganes. Shea, Cath. 
Miss., 477, 1855. Okenakanes. De Smet, Letters, 
224, 1843. Okiakanes. Stevens in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1856, 190, 1857. Okinaganes. De Smet, op. cit., 37. 
Okinagans. M Vickar, Exped. Lewis and Clark, 
II, 386, 1842. Okinahane. Stevens in Sen. Ex. Doc. 
66, 34th Cong., 1st sess., 12, 1856. OKinakain. Gal- 
latin in Trans. Am.Ethnol. Soc., II, 27, 1848. Oki- 
nakan. Hale in U. S. Expl. Exped., vr, 205, 1846. 
Okinakanes. Stevens in Ind. Aff. Rep., 392, 1854. 
O Kinakanes. Taylor in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 40th Cong., 
spec, sess., 26, 1867. Okina k en. Boas in 5th Rep. 
N. W. Tribes Can., 10, 1889. O kina k en. Cham 
berlain in 8th Rep. X. W. Tribes Can., 7, 1892. 
Okinekane. De Smet, Letters, 215, 1843. Okin-e- 
Kanes. Craig in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 
3d sess., 171, 1857. 0-kin-i-kaines. Shaw in H. R. 
Ex. Doc. 37, 34th Cong.. 3d sess., 113, 1857. Okino- 
kans. Watkins in Sen. Ex. Doc. 20, 45th Cong., 
2d sess., 5, 1878. 0-ki-wah-kine. Ross in Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 27, 1870. Oknanagans. Robertson (1846) in 
H. R. Ex. Doc. 76. 30th Cong., 1st sess., 9, 1848. 
Okonagan. Wilkes, U. S. Expl. Exped., IV, 431, 
1845. Okonagon. Dart in Ind. Aff. Rep., 216, 1851. 
Okonegan Wilkes, ibid., 461, 1854. Omahanes. 
Stevens in Sen. Ex. Doc. 66, 34th Cong., 1st sess., 
10, 1856. Onkinegans. Lane in Sen. Ex. Doc. 52, 
ilst Cong., 1st sess.. 170, 1850. Oo-ka-na-kane 
Dawson in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., sec. u, 6, 1891 
Ntlakyapamuk name). Oukinegans. Lane in 
[nd. Aff. Rep., 159, 1850. Schit-hu-a-ut. Maekay 
uioted in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., sec. n, 6, 1891. 
5chit-hu-a-ut-uh. Ibid. Sinkuafli. Gatschet, MS., 
3. A. E. (properly Isonkuaili, our people : own 
lame) . Ske-luh. Maekay quoted by Dawson in 
Trans._Roy. Soc. Can., sec. n, 7, 1891 (own name). 
Soo-wan -a-mooh. Dawson, ibid., 5 (Shuswap 
lame). Su-a-na-muh. Maekay quoted by Daw- 
on, ibid. TcitQua ut. Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. 
Tribes Can., 10, 1889 (Xtlakyapamuk name). 
J-ka-nakane. Mackav quoted bv Dawson, op. 
it,, 6. 

Okinoyoktokawik. A small Kaviagmiut 
Eskimo village on the coast opposite 
Pledge id., Alaska. llth Census, Alaska, 
62, 1893. 

Okiogmiut. A name sometimes given 
ollectivelv to the Eskimo of St Lawrence 



and the Diomede ids., Alaska. The 
former belong properly to the Yuit of 
Asia; for the latter, see Imaklimiut and 
Inguklimiut. 

Island Innuit. Dull in _Proc. A. A. A. S., xxxiv, 




in 10th Census, Alaska, map, 1884. 

Okiosorbik. A former Eskimo village 
on Aneretok fjord, E. Greenland; pop 50 
in 1829. 

Okkiosorbik. Graah, Exped. E. Coast Greenland, 
114, 1837. 

Okisko. A chief of the Weapemeoc of 
Virginia, in 1585-86, who with Menatonon 
gave to Kalfe Lane most of the informa 
tion communicated to Sir Walter Kaleigh 
respecting the surrounding region. Al 
though independent, Okisko was domi 
nated to some extent by Menatonon, who 
induced him to acknowledge subjection to 
the English queen. Nevertheless Lane 
accused him of beingtheleaderin the plot 
formed by his tribe, theMandoag (Xotto- 
way), and other Indians, to massacre the 
colonists. (c. T. ) 

Okitiyakni (Hitchiti: Oki-tiyakni, prob 
ably whirlpool or river bend ). A 
former Lower Creek village on the E. 
bank of Chattahoochee r., 8 m. below 
Eufaulc., in Quitman co., Ga. Pop. 580 
in 1822. 

Octiyokny. Woodward, Reminis., 107, 1859. 
0-he-te-yoe-on-noe. Hawkins (1814) in Am. State 
Pap., Ind, Aff., I, 859, 1832. Oka-tiokinans. 
Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 364, 1822. Oketayocenne. 
Hawkins, op. cit., 860. Okete Yocanne. Ibid., 
845. 0-ke-teyoc-en-ne. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 
66, 1848. Oki-tiyakni. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., 
I, 140, 1884. 

Oklafalaya ( the long people ). One 
of the three great divisions into which 
the Choetaw (q. v.) were divided for at 
least a third of a century prior to their re 
moval to Indian Ter. Originally it may 
have been the name of a town, extended 
in time to include all the settlements in 
the region in which it was situated. Un 
like those in the eastern divisions, the 
Indians of this section were scattered in 
small settlements over a great extent of 
territory. The boundary line separating 
this from the northeastern district began 
in the vicinity of the present little town 
of Cumberland, in Webster co. [.Miss.]; 
thence ran southwesterly on the dividing 
ridge separating the headwaters of Tibbee 
(Oktibbeha) on the E. from the Big Black 
waters on the w. down to the vicinity of 
Dido, in Choetaw co.; thence in a xig/ag 
"course on the dividing ridge between the 
Noxubee and the Yokenookeny waters to 
the vicinity of New Prospect; thence it 
zigzagged more or less easterly between 
the headwaters of Pearl r. and the >o\-u- 
bee waters to a point on the ridge not far 
s. of Old Singleton (not the present Sin 
gleton); thence southerly on the ridge 
between the Pearl r. waters on the w. and 



OKLAHANNALI OKOWVINJHA 



[B. A. E. 



the Xoxubeeaud Sukenatcha waters on 

tin K. : thence somewhat westerly by Ya- 
7.00 Town, in Xeshoba eo. ; thence more 
or U-ss southerly on the ridge between, 
the headwaters of Talasha and the head 
waters of Oktibbi ha. (there are two Ok- 
tibl>eha crs. in Mississippi) to the ancient 
town of Kunshak-bolnkta, which was sit 
uated in the s. w. part of Kemper co., 
some - m. from the Neshoba and about 
a mile and a half from the Lauderdale 
eo. line. The line separating the western 
from the southeastern began at Kunshak- 
bolukta, iirst going a short distance north 
westerly between the Talasha and Oktib- 
beha waters; thence it y.ig/agged more or 
U-ss southwesterly on the dividing ridge 
between the Pearl and the Chickasawhay 
waters until it came to the vicinity of 
Lake Station, in Scott co. Mokalusha 
Town i Imoklasha), situated on the head 
waters of Talasha cr., in Neshoba co., 
though somewhat s. of the regular line, 
belonged to the western district, From 
the vicinity of Lake Station the line ran 
southward on the dividing ridge between 
West Tallyhaly and Leaf r. down to the 
confluence of these two streams. Leaf r. 
from tliis confluence down to where it 
struck the Choctaw boundary line formed 
the remainder of the line separating the 
western district from the southeastern. "- 
Hall>ert in Tub. Ala. Hist, Soc., Misc. 
Coll.. i, 375-376, 1901. 

Hattack-falaih-hosh. Ri-c(l in Sturm s Statehood 
Ma-.. I. 85, Nov. 190.".. Oaklafalaya. U. S. Ind. 
Treat. (1*37), 698, 1837. Okla falaya. Gatschet, 
Civ.-k Migr. Leg., I. 101, 1*84. Olilefeleia. Wright 
in Ind. A IT. Rep., 3 is. 1843. Oocooloo-Falaya. 
Romans. Fla., 73, 1775. Ukla falaya. West Florida 
map. i n. 1775. 

Oklahannali ( six towns ). Originally 
given to 6 closely connected Choctaw 
towns on several tri))utaries of Chicasaw- 
hay r., in Smith and Jasper cos., Miss., 
this name finally came to be applied to 
one of the three principal divisions of 
the Choctaw which included, besides the 
"Sixtowns" proper, the districts of 
Chickasawhay, Yowani, Coosa, and per 
haps some others, the names of which 
have become lost. The towns were also 
called Knglish towns" because they 
espoused the Knglish cause in the Choc 
taw civil war of 174S-50. Adair (Hist. 
Inds., 2t)S, 1775) mentions "seven towns 
that lie close together and next to New 
Orleans," possibly meaning these. The 
six towns were liishkon, Chinakbi, Tnkil- 
lis Tamaha, Nashwaiya, Okatalaya, and 
Talla. They spoke a peculiar dialect of 
Choctaw, and in the Choctaw Nation, 
where they removed in 1845, they are 
still known as Sixtown Indians/ Al 
though the name "Six Towns" was 
usually applied to this group, Oskelagna 
(<! v.) was also mentioned as one of 
them, which would make a seventh, thus 
agreeing with Adair s statement. The 



population in 1846 (Rutherford in Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 877, 1847) was 650. For the 
boundaries of this division, see Oklafalaya 
and Oi/patoorooloo. (n. w. H. ) 

Bay Indians. Rutherford in Ind. Aff. Rep., 877, 
1847. English Towns. Gatsehet, Creek Migr. Leg., 
i, 108, 1884. Oklahaneli. Wright in Ind. Aff. Rep., 
348, 1843. dkla hannali. Gatsehet, Creek Migr. 
Leg., i, 104, 1881. Okla-humali-hosh. Reed in 
Sturm s Statehood Mag., I, 85, Nov. 1905. Six- 
towns. Rutherford in Ind. Aff. Rep., 877, 1847. 
Six Towns Indians. Claiborne (1843) in Sen. Doc. 
168, 28th Cong., 1st sess., 192, 1844. 

Oknagak. A Kuskwogmiut Eskimo vil 
lage and seat of a Roman Catholic mis 
sion on the N. bank of Kuskokwim r., 
Alaska. Pop. 130 in 1880, 36 in 1890. 

Oh-hagamiut. llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 
Okhogamute. Nelson (1879) quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1902. Oknagamut. Baker, 
ibid. Oknagamute. Bruce, Alaska, map, 1885. 
Ookhogamute. Hallock in Nat. Geog. Mag., ix, 
90, 1898. 

Okomiut ( people of the lee side ). 
An Eskimo tribe dwelling on Cumber 
land sd., Baffin land. They embrace the 4 
Talirpingmiut, Kinguamiut, Kingnait- 
miut, and Saumingmiut. When whalers 
first visited them, about 1850, the popu 
lation amounted to 1,500, but it was re 
duced to 245 in 1883. Their villages and 
settlements are: Anarnitung, Aukard- 
neling, Ekaluakdjuin, Ekaluin, Ekaluk- 
djuak, Idjorituaktuin, Igpirto, Imigen, 
Kangertloaping, Kangertlung, Kangert- 
Inkdjuaq, Karmang, Karsukan, Kara- 
suit, Katernuna, Kekertaujang, Keker- 
ten, Kimissing, Kingaseareang, Kingua, 
Kitingujang, Kordlubing, Koukdjuaq, 
Naujateling, Nedlung, Niantilik, Nird- 
lirn, Niutang, Nuvujalung, Nuvujen, Pu- 
jetung, Sakiakdjung, Saunutung, Tiker- 
akdjung, Tuakdjuak, Tupirbikdjuin, Ug- 
juktung, I kiadliving, Umanaktuak, and 
Utikimiting. 

Oqomiut. Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 424, 1888. 
Oxomiut. Boas in Petermanns Mitt., no.80,69, 1885. 

Okommakamesit. A village of praying 
Indians in 1674 near the present Marl- 
borough, Mass. It was in the territory 
of the Nipmuc. 

Okkokonimesit. Gookin (1677) in Trans. Am. 
Antiq. Soc., II, 435, 1836. Okommakamesit. 
Gookin (1674) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., I, 
185, 1806. Okonhomessit. Gookin (1677) in Trans. 
Am. Antiq. Soc., n, 455, 1836. 

Okopeya ( in danger ) . A band of the 
Sisseton Sioux, an offshoot of the Tizap- 
tan. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 217, 
1897. 

Okos ( band of bulls ). A former 
Arikara band under Kunuteshan, Chief 
Bear. 

Bulls. Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 143, 
1851. 0-kos . Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol., 357, 
1862. 

Okossisak. An Eskimo village on Sal 
mon r., w. Greenland. Kane, Arctic 
Explor., n, 124, 1856. 

Okow. See Occow. 

Okowvinjha. A former Gabrieleno 
rancheria near San Fernando mission, 
Los Angeles co., Cal. (Taylor in Cal. 



BULL. 30] 



OKPAAK OLAGALE 



117 



Farmer, May 11, 1860) . Probably identi 
cal with Kowanga or with Cahuenga. 

Okpaak. A Malecite village on middle 
St John r., N. B., in 1769. 
Ocpack. La Tour, map, 1784. Okpaak. Wood 
(1769) quoted by Hawkins, Miss., 361, 1845. Oug- 
pauk. Jefferys, Fr. Doms., pt. 1, map, 119,1761. 

Okpam. A former Maidu village on the 
w. side of Feather r., just below the vil 
lage of Sesum, Butter co., Gal. Dixon in 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, xvn, pi. 38, 
1905. 

Oktahatke ( white sand ). A former 
Seminole town 7 m. N. E. of Sampala, 
probably in Calhoun co., Fla. Meno- 
homahla was chief in 1823. H. R. Ex. 
Doc. 74, 19th Cong., 1st sess., 27, 1826. 

Oktchunualgi ( salt people ). An ex 
tinct Creek clan. 

Ok-chun -w^. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 161, 1878. Ok- 
tchunualgi. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 156, 
1884. 

Okuwa. The Cloud clans of the Tewa 
pueblos of San Juan, Santa Clara, San 
Ildefonso, Tesuque, and Nambe, N. Mex., 
and of Hano, Ariz. 

Kus. Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 39, 1891 
JNavaho name). O -ku-wa. Fewkes in Am 
A.nthrop., vn, 166, 1894 (Hano). Okuwa-tdoa. 
Hodge in Am. Anthrop., ix, 349, 1896 (Hano and 
?an Ildefonso forms; tdoa = people ). O -ku- 
xun. Stephen, op. cit. (Hnno). O -mau. Ibid. 
Hopi name). Oquwa tdoa. Hodge, op. cit. 
Santa Clara form; qGer. ch). Owhat tdoa. 
bid. (Tesuque form). Owhii tdoa. Ibid. (Nambe 
orm ) . 

Okwanuchu (Ok-wa -nu-chu). A small 

Shasta tribe formerly occupying the upper 

>art of McCloud r., Cal., as far down as 

5alt cr., the upper Sacramento as far 

lown as Squaw cr., and the valley of the 

atter stream. Their language is in part 

lose to that of the Shasta proper, but it 

ontains a number of totally distinct 

rords, unlike any other surrounding 

mguage. (R. B. D.) 

Ola (O -la). A former village of the 

laidu on Sacramento r. , just above 

Inight s- Landing, Sutter co., Cal. The 

ame has also been applied to the inhab- 

ants as a tribal division. If they were 

le same as the Clashes, who in 1856 

ved near Hock farm, Sutter co., there 

ere 20 survivors in 1856. (R. B. D. ) 

ashes. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Nov. 9, 1860 

robably identical). Ol -la. Powers in Cont. N. 

Ethnol., in, 282, 1877. 

Olabalkebiche ( Flabalkebixh, l Tattooed 
;rpent, in French Serpent Pique, usually 
it erroneously translated Stung Ser- 
;nt ). A noted Natchez chief and the 
te oftenest referred to by French 
riters. He was not the Great Sun, or 
ad-chief of the nation, but occupied the 
cond position of dignity, that of head 
ir-chief, and was so deeply loved by his 
perior that he was sometimes, as by 
imont s informant, supposed to have 
en the head-chief himself. He and the 
eat Sun are usually called brothers, and 
ry likely they were, though it is possi- 
3 they were brothers only in the Indian 



sense i. e., as children of women beloixr- 
mg to one social group. The first that Is 
heard ot Olabalkebiche is in the Natchez 
war of 1716, when he with his brother 
and a number of other persons were 
seized by Bienville and held in captivity 
until they had agreed to make reparation 
for the murder of some traders and assist 
the French in erecting a fort near their 
villages. From this time until his death 
Olabalkebiche appears as the friend of 
the French and peacemaker between his 
own people and them, lie was on inti 
mate terms with all the French officers 
and the principal settlers, including the 
historian LePage Du Pratz. At his death, 
in 1725, the grief of the Great Sun knew 
no bounds, and it was with the utmost 
difficulty that the French could restrain 
him from committing suicide. They 
could not, however, avert the destruction 
of his wives and officers who were killed 
to accompany his soul into the realm of 
spirits. Before this took place his body 
lay in state in his own house for some 
time surrounded by his friends, the in 
signia of his rank, and the marks of his 
prowess, including the calumets received 
by him, and 46 rings, to indicate the num 
ber of times he had counted coup against 
his enemies. Detailed descriptions of the 
mortuary ceremonies are given by Du 
Pratz and Dumont, though the latter, or 
rather his anonymous informant, is in 
error in speaking ot him as the (ireat 
Sun. From all the accounts given of this 
chief it is evident that he was a man of 
unusual force of character combined with 
an equal amount of sagacity in the face of 
new conditions, such as "were brought 
about by the settlement of the French in 
his neighborhood. Whether from policy 
or real regard he was one of the best 
friends the French possessed among the 
Natchez, and his death and that of his 
brother two years later paved the way 
for an ascendancy of the English party 
in the nation and the terrible massacre 
of 1729. (j. R. s.) 

Olacnayake. A former Seminole village 
situated about the extreme N. E. corner of 
Hillsboro co., Fla. H. R. Doc. 7S, L 5th 
Cong., 2d sess., map, 768, 183S. 

Olagale. A "kingdom," i. e. tribe, 
mentioned by Fontaneda as being, about 
1570, somewhere in x. central Florida, E. 
of Apalachee. By consonance inter 
change it appears "to be identical with 
Etocale (Biedma), Ocale (Ranjel), and 
Gale (Gentl. of Klvas), a "province" 
through which De Soto passed in 1539 en 
the road to Potano (q. v. ), and is probably 
also the Eloquale of the De Bry map ol 
1591, indicated as westward from middle 
St John r., perhaps in the neighborhood of 
the present Ocala, Marion co. , Fla. Bied 
ma speaks of it as a small town, probably 



118 



OLAGATANO OLHON 



[B. A. E. 



confusing the tribe with one of _its vil 
lages, hut all the others speak of it as an 
independent province or kingdom. Ran- 
jel names rqneten as the first town of 
the province entered by the Spaniards 
coining from the s. ( . M. ) 

Cale Ranjel vi 1516) in Bourne. DC Soto Narr., 
ii ti7. U>04: Gentl. of Klvas U557), ibid., I, 35, 1904. 
Eloquale. I>e Bry map (1591) in Le Moyno Narr., 
Applrton trans., 1875. Etocale. Biedma (1544) in 
Bouriu-,op.cit.,n.5. Ocala. Brinton, Flor. Penin., 
iy, IS.V.i. Ocale. Ranjel (m. 1546) in Bourne, op. 
cit n 65- Do Soto (1539), ibid., 162. Ocali. Gar- 
eilassode la Vega (1591) inHakluytSoc. Pub., IX, 
xxxii. 1S51. Ocaly. Garcilasso de la Vega (1591) 
in sliipp. De Soto and Fla., 281, 1881. Olagale. 
FontaiH-da (<-<t. 1575), Memoir, B. Smith trans., 
IS- JO. 1^54. 

Olagatano. Named with Otopali by 
Fontaneda, about 1575, as a village re 
ported to be inland and x. from the coast 
provinces of Chieora," about the pres 
ent Charleston, S. 0. Distinct from Ona- 
giitano, which he names as a mountain 
region farther away. (f. M. ) 

Olacatano. Fontaneda (1575) quoted by French, 
Hist. Cull. La., n. 257, 1875. Olagatano. Fonta 
neda Mem.. -Smith trans., 16, 1854. Olgatano. 
Fontaneda quoted byShipp, De Soto and Fla., 585, 
issi. Olocatano. Fontaneda in Ternaux-Com- 
pans, Voy., xx, 24, 1841. 

Olamentke. A name first applied by 
some of the earlier writers to a so-called 
division of the Moquelumnan family in 
habiting the country immediately N. of 
the < iolden Gate and San Francisco bay, 
in Marin, Sonoma, and Napa cos., Cal. 
The people of this region were among the 
later neophytes taken to Dolores mission 
at San Francisco, and among the first of 
those at San Rafael and San Francisco 
Solano missions, both of wdrich were in 
their country. Very few of these so-called 
( Mamentke now survive. See Moquelum- 

/" ". (s. A. B.) 

Bodega. Ludewig, Am. Aborig. Lang., 20, 1858. 
O -lah-ment ko. Merriam in Am. Aiithrop., ix, 
339, 1907. Olamentke. Bacr cited by Latham in 
I ror. Pliil,,]. Soc. Loud., 79, 1854. 

Olamon ( paint, usually referring to red 
paint. Gerard). A Penobscot village 
occupying an island in Penobscot r. near 
< Ireenbush, Me. 

Olamon. Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., vii, 104, 1876. Olle- 
mon Indiana. Vetromile, ibid., vi, 211, 1*59. Ul- 
amanusek. Gatschet, Penobscot MS., B. A. E., 1887 
i Prliolisrot Iiiimo. 

Olanche. Supi)osed to he a Mono-Pa- 
viotso band of s. K. California, and evi 
dently the people of Olancha, s. of Owens 
lake. 
Olanches. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 8 I860 

Old Dogs. A society of the Ilidatsa. 
Cuibertson in Sniithson. Rep. 1850, 143, 
1851. 

Old King. See HaijenqiieragJita. 

Old Knife. A prominent chief of the 
>kidi 1 aw nee, known among his people as 
l^ataleshaC Knife Chief), first brought to 
public jioti;-eat St Louis when he signed, 
asSettulushaa, the treaty of .June 18, and, 
as Letereeshar, the treaty of June 22, 1818. 
Maj. S. 1 1. Long ,,,,-t him at his camp on 
Loup fork of IMatte r., Nebr., in 1819. 



He was the father of Petalesharo (q. v.) 
and to him is attributed the cessation of 
the religious custom of burning prisoners. 
He also signed the treaty of Ft Atkinson, 
Council Bluffs, la., Sept. 30, 1825. An 
oil portrait, painted by John Neagle in 
1821, is in possession of the Historical So 
ciety of Pennsylvania. 

Old Mad Town. A former village, proba 
bly of the Upper Creeks, on an upper 
branch of Cahawba r., hear the present 
Birmingham, Ala. Royce in 18th Rep. 
B. A. E. , Ala. map, 1900. 

Old Queen. See Magnus. 

Old Shawnee Town. A village of the 
Shawnee, situated before 1770 on Ohio r. 
in Gallia eo., Ohio, 3 m. above the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha. Washington 
(1770) quoted by Rupp, West Penn., 
app., 401, 1846. 

Old Sitka. A summer camp of the Sitka 
Indians on Baranof id., Alaska; pop. 73 
in 1880. Petroff in Tenth Census, Alaska, 
32, 1884. 

Old Skin Necklace. A former Oglala 
Sioux band, under Minisa, or Red Wa 
ter. Cuibertson in Sniithson. Rep. 1850, ; 
142, 1851. 

Old Smoke. See Sayenqueraghta. 

Oldtown. A village of the Penobscot 
on an island in Penobscot r., a few m. 
above Bangor, Me. It contained 410 in 
habitants in 1898. 

Indian Oldtown. Little (1788) in Me. Hi 4. Soc. 
Coll., vn, 13, 1876. Nganudene. Gatschet, Penob 
scot MS., B. A. E., 1887 (Penobscot name). Old- 
town. Conf. of 1786 in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., vn, 10, 
1876. Panawanscot. Ballard (ca. 1830), ibid., 1, 466, 
1865. Panawapskek. Gatschet, Penobscot MS., 
B. A. E., 1887 (native form of Penobscot). 

Olegel. The Yurok name of a Karok 
village on Klamath r., N. w. Cal., at the 
mouth of Camp cr., 1m. below Orleans 
Bar. A. L. Kroeber, inf n, 1905. 

Oleharkarmekarto ( Ole-har-kar-me -kcvr- 
to, elector ). A subclan of the Dela- 
wares. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 172, 1877. 

Olemos. A former rancheria connected 
with Dolores mission, San Francisco, , 
CaL Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, ( 
1861. 

Oler. The Yurok name of a Karok vil- 
lage between Orleans Bar and Red Cap | 
cr., Klamath r., N. w. Cal. A. L. Kroeber, i 
inf n, 1905. 

Olesino. A Chumashan village between 
Goleta and Pt Concepcion, Cal., in 1542. 
Olesina. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863. 
Olesino. Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, Colec. Doc. 
Fla., 183, 1857. 

Olestura. A former rancheria connected 
with Dolores mission, San Francisco, 
Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 
1861. 

Olhon. A division of the Costanoan 
family, formerly on San Francisco penin 
sula and connected with mission Dolores, 
San Francisco, Cal. The term Costanos, / 
also made to include other groups 01 



BULL. 30] 



OL1TASSA OMAHA 



tribes, seems to have been applied origi 
nally to them. A. L. Kroeber, infn, 
1905. 

Alchones. Beechey, Voy., i, 400, 1831. Ohlones. 
Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 31, 1861. Olchone. 
Beechey, op. cit., 402. 01-hones. Schoolcraft, 
Ind. Tribes, n, 506, 1852. Oljon. Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Olitassa (Holihtasha, fort is there ). 
A former important Choctaw town, noted 
by Romans in 1775 on the site of the 
present De Kalb, Miss. It had two chiefs 
and more than 100 cabins, and was a kind 
of capital for the neighboring towns for 
20 m. or more around. Once a year dele 
gates from all these towns met there to 
make new laws. H albert in Pub. Miss. 
Hist. Soc., vi, 426, 1902. 
Ollas. See Pottery, Receptacles. 
Olmolosoc. A former rancheria con 
nected with Dolores mission, San Fran 
cisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 
18, 1861. 

Ololopa ( (/-lo-lo-pa, related to </-lo-lo- 
ko, smoke-hole ). A division or village 
of the Maidu near Oroville, on Feather r., 
Butte co., Cal. They numbered between 
100 and 150 in 1850, but are now nearly 
extinct. (R. B. D. ) 

Holilepas. Johnson in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
vi, 710, 1857. Holil-le-pas. Day (1850) in Sen. 
Ex. Doe. 4. 32d Cong., spec, sess., 39. 1853. Ho-lil- 
li-pah. Ind. Aff. Rep., 124, 1850. Holoaloopis. 
Powers in Overland Mo., xn, 420, 1874. Hololipi. 
Chever in Bull. Essex Inst. 1870, n, 28, 1871. 
Hol-6-lu-pai. PowersinCont.N.A.Ethnol.,lii,282, 
1877. Jollillepas. Day, op. cit. Oleepas. Delano, 
Life on Plains, 293, 1854. 0-lip-as. Day, op. cit. 
0-lip-pas. Johnston (1850) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 
32d Cong., spec, sess., 45, 1853. Ololopai. Curtin, 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1885. 

Olotaraca. A young chief who led the 
Indian force which accompanied De 
Gourges in the destruction of the Spanish 
forts at the mouth of St John r., Fla., in 
1568, and distinguished himself by being 
the first man to scale the breastwork, kill 
ing the gunner who had fired on the ad 
vancing French. He was the nephew of 
the chief of the Saturiba (Satourioua) 
tribe, which held lower St John r. and 
had welcomed the French under Ribaut 
in 1562 and Laudonniere in 1564. The 
name occurs also as Olotoraca, Olotacara, 
Dtocara, etc., and according to Gatschet 
;he proper form is Hola taraca, holata 
*3eing the title for a subchief in the Timu- 
, iia language. (?. M.) 

Olowitok (Ol-o -wi-tok, from olowin, 
west ). A general name applied by the 
:>eople of the Miwok (Moquelumnan) 
stock of California to all people living w. 
)f the speaker. (s. A. B.) 

)l-o -wi-dok. Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., m, 
49, 1877. Ol -o-wit. Ibid, (identical, although 
riven asdistinct). Olowitok. S. A. Barrett, infn, 
906. Ol-o-wi -ya. Powers, op. cit. (identical, al- 
hongh given as distinct). Olwiya. S. A. Bar- 
ett, infn, 1906 (alternative form). 

Olpen. A former rancheria connected 
vith Dolores mission, San Francisco, 
M. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 
861. 



Olposel. A name applied to one of the 
villages or small divisions of the south 
ern Wintun or Patwin Indians living on 
the upper course of Cache cr., in Lake 
co., Cal. (s. A. 15.) 

Ol -po-sel. Powers in Cont.X. A. Ethnol., in, 219 
1877. 

Olulato ( above , on high ). A Pat- 
win tribe formerly living on Ulatns cr. 
and about Vacaville, Solano co., Cal. 
Hallapootas. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Mar. 30, 18tiO 
Ol-u-la -to. Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in. 
218, 1877. Ouloulatines. Choris, Voy. Pitt., ti, 1822. 
Ullulatas. Taylor, op. cit. Ululato. Chamisso in 
Kotzebue, Voy., m, 51, 1821. 

Olumane ( O-lum -a-nc, vermilion ). A 
subclan of the Delawares. Morgan, Anc 
Soc., 172, 1877. 

Olumpali. A former large Moquelnm- 
nan village in the present Marin co., Cal., 
at a point about 6 m. s. of the town of 
Petal uma. (s. A. n. ) 

Olompalis. Choris, Voy. Pitt., 6, 1822. Olumpali. 
Chamisso in Kotzebue, Voy., in, 51, 1821. 

Omaha ( those going against the wind 
or current ) . One of the 5 tribes of the s< >- 
called Dhegiha group of the Siouan family, 
the other 4 being the Kansa, Qnapaw, 
Osage, and Ponca. Hale and Dorse y con 
cluded from a study of the languages and 
traditions that, in the westward migration 
of the Dhegiha from their seat on Ohio and 
Wabash rs. after the separation, at least 
as early as 1500, of the Qnapaw, who went 
down the Mississippi from the month 
of the Ohio, the Omaha branch moved 
up the great river, remaining awhile near 
the mouth of the Missouri while war and 
hunting parties explored the country to 
the N. w. The Osage remained on Osage r. 
and the Kansa continued up the Missouri, 
whiletheC hnaha, still includingthePonca, 
crossed the latter stream and remained 
for a period in Iowa, ranging as far as the 
Pipestone quarry at the present Pipestone, 
Minn. They were driven back by the 
Dakota, and after the separation of the 
Ponca, who advanced into the Black 
hills, which occurred probably about 
1650 at the mouth of Niobrara r., the 
Omaha settled on Bower., Nebr., and may 
have already been there at the date of 
Marquette s map ( 1673). Jefferys ( 1 761 ) 
located the Omaha on the K. side of Mis 
souri r., beyond the Iowa, immediately 
above Big Sioux r. In 1766 they appear 
to have had friendly relations with the 
Dakota, as Carver mentions having met 
both tribes together on Minnesota r. 
They were at their favorite resort near 
Omadi, Dakota co., NYbr., in 1SOO. Lewis 
and Clark (1804) found them on the * 
side of Missouri r. opposite Sioux City, 
S Dak., but learned that the tribe in 
1802, while living at a point farther up 
the Missouri, was visited by smallpox, 
which had greatly reduced their number 
and caused their removal. Then, as in 
later years, they were at constant war 



I JO 



OMAHA 



[K. A. E. 



ux. They were on the w. 
Missouri u short distance 
atte in 1S45, but in 1855 re- 
uit is now Dakota co., Nebr. 
with other tribes in the 
Iv 1"). 1830, and Oct. 15, 1836, 




and by tin; treaty of Washington, D. C., 
Mar. it), 1854, ceded all their lands w. of 
the Missouri and s. of a line running due 
w. from the point where Iowa r. leaves 
the bluffs, retaining their lands x. of this 
line fora reservation. By treaty of Mar. 
6, 1S(55, they sold part of their reservation 
tothe TnitedStates for the use of the Win- 
nebago. Many of them learned to culti 
vate grain and raise stock, and in 1882, 
through theeffort of Miss AliceC. Fletcher, 
a law was enacted granting lands in sev 
erally and prospective citi/enship. 

The primitive dwellings of the Omaha 
were chiefly lodges of earth, more rarely 
of hark or mats, and skin tents. The 
earth lodges, similar in construction to 
those of the Mandan, were intended prin 
cipally f..r summer use. when the people 
were not hunting. The bark lodges were 
usually elliptical in form, occasionally 
having hvo fireplaces and two smoke 
holes. The skin tent was used when the 
people were traveling or hunting the 
buffalo. Tottery was made by the ( hnaha 
before 1850, but the art has been for 
gotten. Their mortars were made by 
burning a hollow in u knot or round 
piece ot wood, and spoons were made of 
horn, wood, and pottery. Polygamy was 



practised, but the maximum number of 
wives that any one man could have was 
three. Until 1880 there were two prin 
cipal chiefs, usually selected from the 
Hangashenu subtribe, though there was 
no law or rule forbidding their selec 
tion from other divisions. In addition to 
these there were subordinate chiefs. 
Their religion, according to Dorsey (3rd 
Rep. B. A. E., 1884), was associated with 
the practice of medicine, mythology, and 
war customs, and with their gentile sys 
tem. 

The population of the Omaha since their 
recovery from the great loss by smallpox 
in 1802, when they were reduced to about 
300, has greatly increased. In 1804, ac 
cording to Lewis (Statist. View, 16, 1807), 
they numbered 600, including 150 war 
riors. In 1829 they were estimated at 
1,900, and in 1843 at 1,600, both of which 
estimates were probably excessive. 
Schoolcraft gives 1,349 in 1851, Bur 
rows 1,200 in 1857, and the same num 
ber is given by the census of 1880. In 
1906 the population of the tribe was 
1,228. 

The Omaha gentes as given by Dorsey 
(15th Rej). B. A. K., 226, 1897) are : A. 
Hangashenu. half tribe: 1, Wezhinshte; 2, 




OMAHA WOMAN 



Jnkesabe; 3, Hanga; 4, Phatada; 5, Kanze. 
B. Inshtasanda half tribe: 6, Mandhink- 
agaghe; 7, Tesinde; 8, Tapa; 9, Ingdhez- 
hide; 10, Inshtasanda. (j. o. D. c. T. ) 
Eromahas.W. Reserve Hist. Soc. Tracts, i, no. 5, 24, 
1*71. Ho -ma-ha. Dorsey, Winnebago MS., B. 
A. E., 1886 (Winnebago name). Hu-umui. Gat- 



BL LL. 30] 



OMAMIWININ1WAK OXAGHEK 



121 



sehet, MS., B. A. E. (Cheyenne name) . La Mar 
Lewis and Clark, Discov., 20, 1806 (so called by 
the French). Maha. Marquette, autograph map 
(1673) in Shea, Discov., 1852. Mahaer. Balbi 
Atlas Ethnog., 33, ?774, 1826. Mahagi. Gatschet, 
MS., B. A. E. (Shawnee name). Mahahs 
Carver, Trav., 109, 1778. Mahan. Lewis, Trav., 
14, 1809. Maharha. Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark 
(1804), I, 203, 1904. Mahars. Whitehouse (1804) 
in Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark, vn, 49, 1905. Ma 
ha s.Brackenridge, Views La., 70, 1814. Mahas 
Iberville (1701) in Margry, Dc., iv, 587, 1880. 
Mahaws. Pike, Exped , pt. 2, app., 9, 1810. 
Makah. U. S. Ind. Treaties, Kapplered., n, 115, 
1904 (misprint). Mama. Gale, Upper Miss., 217, 
1867 (misprint). Mawhaws. Carver, Trav., 80, 
1778. Mazahuas. Ratinesque in Marshall, Hist. 
Ky., I, 28, 1824. O -ma -ha. Lewis and Clark 
Discov., 20, 1806. Omaha hcaka.Iapi Gave, xm, 
33, Sept. 1884 ( real Omaha : Yankton name). 
Omahahs. U. S. Ind. Treat., 639, 1826. Omahaws. 
Drake, Ind. Chron., pi., 1836. Omahuas. Rafin- 
esque in Marshall, Hist. Ky., i, 30, 1824. Omalia 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in. 386. 1853 (misprint). 
O-marj -ha. Cook, Yankton MS. vocab., B. A. E 
184, 1882. O-maij -ha-hca. Ibid. ( true Omaha ). 
Omans. Jefferys, Fr. Doms. Am., i, 135, 1761. 
Omaonhaon. Toussaint, Carte de 1 Amer., 1839. 
Omau -hau. M Coy, Ann. Reg., no. 4, 84, 1838. 
Omawhaw. Sehoolcraft, Trav.. 309, 1821. Omaw- 

hawes. Tanner, Narr., 313, 1830. Omouhoa. 

La Salle (1681) in Margry, Dec., n. 134, 1877 
(identical?). Omowhows. Tanner, Xarr., 146, 
1830. Omuhaw. Hurlbert in Jones, Ojibway 
Inds., 178, 1861. O-ni -ha-o. Hayden, Ethnog. and 
Philol. Mo.Val., 290, 1862 ( drum-beaters : Chey 
enne name). Om ha . Mooney, Cheyenne Inds., 
423, 1907 (Cheyenne name). Oo-ma-ha. Bracken- 
ridge, Views La,, 76, 1814. Otomie. Schoolcraft, 
Ind. Tribes, 11, 335, 1852 (misprint). Owaha. Gat 
schet, MS., B. A. E. (Pawnee inme). Owahas. 
Sen. Ex. Doc. 72, 20th Cong., 2d se ss., 101, 1829. 
Puk-tis. Grinnell, Pawnee Hero Tales, 230, 1889 
(Pawnee name) . U -aha. Gatschet, MS., B. A. E. 
(Pawnee name), tj -ma-ha. Gatschet, Kaw vo- 
oab.,B.A.E.,27,1878(Kansaname). TJ-ma "-ha". 
Do^sey in Am. Antiq., 313, Oct. 1883 (misprint). 
U-ma -ha n . Dorsey in Bull. Philos. Soc. Wash., 
128, 1880 ( upstream people : Osage name). 
U-manhan. Ibid., 129 (misprint). Uwaha. Gat 
schet, MS., B. A. E. (Pawnee name). 

Omamiwininiwak ( people of lower part 
of the river ). The Nipissing name for 
the Algonkin, properly so called, survi 
vors of whom still live at Becancour and 
at Three Rivers, Quebec. Cuoq, Lexique 
Algonquine, 193,, 1886. 

Omanitsenok (Omanits enox, the people 
of Omanis, a place on Klaskino inlet, 
Brit. Col.). A gens of the Klaskino, a 
Kwakiutl tribe. Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 
1895, 329, 1897. 

Omaskos ( elk ) . A subphratry or gens 
of theMenominee. Hoffman in 14th Rep. 
B. A. E., 42, 1896. 

Omatl (Oma^/). The name of an an 
cestor of a Tlatlasikoala gens, sometimes 
applied to the gens itself. Boas in Peter- 
manns Mitt, pt. 5, 131, 1887. 

Omaxtux. A former Chumashan village 
near Purisima mission, Santa Barbara 
co., Cal. Tavlor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. ^8, 
1861. 

Omegeeze ( Miglzl, bald eagle ) . A gens 
of the Chippewa. See Migichihiliniou. 

Me-giz-ze. Tanner, Narr., 314, 1830. Me-gizzee. 
^yarren in Minn. Hist, Soc. Coll., v, 44, 1885. Mi - 
gisi. Gatschet, Ojibwa MS., B. A. E., 1882. 
Migizi. Wm. Jones, inf n, 1907 (correct form). 
0-me-gee-ze . Morgan, Anc. Soc., 166, 1877. 

Omenaosse. A village or tribe men 
tioned by Joutel in 1687 as being between 



Matagorda bay and Maligne (Colorado) 
r., Jexas. Ihe name was given him bv 
the Ebahamo Indians who lived in that 
region and who were probably Karan- 
kawan. See Gatschet, Karankawa Inds 
i, 35, 46, 1891. 

Omeaoffe. Joutel (1(5S7) in French, Hist. C,,ll I a 
i, 167, 1846 (misprint.). Omeaosse Ibid r/> 
Omeaotes -Barcia. K nsayo.271. 1723. Omenaosse.- 
Joutel (168/) in Margry, Dec., in, 2ss, isvs 

Omik. A former Aleut village on Agattu 

id., Alaska, one of the Near id. group ,,f 
the Aleutians, now uninhabited. 

Omisis (O mYfts, eaters ; sing., <>,! - 
slsts). A principal division of the Chey 
enne. The name is frequently used as 
synonymous with Northern Cheyenne, 
because the dominant division in "the N. 
Before the division of the Cheyenne 
the Omisis occupied that portion of the 
camp circle immediately x. of the E. en 
trance. (.1. M.) 
Eaters. Dorsey in Field Columb. Mus. Pub. 103, 
62. 1905. Hmi sis. Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A K 
1026,189(1. mi sis. Hayden, Ethnog. and 1 hilol. 
Mo. Val., 290, 1862. missis. Grinnell Social 
Org. Cheyennes, 136, 1905. 

Omitiaqua. A village ( "king" ) in Flor 
ida subject to Utina, chief of the Timucua 
in 1564, according to Landonniere. The 
De Bry map places it E. of lower St John r. 
Omitaqua. DeBry, map (1591) in LeMoyne, Narr., 
Appleton trans., 1875. Omitiaqua. Laudonniere 
(1564) in French, Hist. Coll. La., n. s., 213, istiy. 

Ommunise (Om&rilse, he gathers lire- 
wood. \V. J. ) . A Chippewa or ( )ttawa 
band formerly living on Carp r., Mich.; 
also a place between Lake of the Woods 
and Winnipeg, so called because of the 
scarcity of wood. 

Carp River band. Smith in Ind. AIT. Rep., 53. 1851. 
Omanise. Wm. Jones, infn, 1905 (correct form). 
Ommunise. Smith, op.cit. 

Omowuh. The Rain-cloud clan of the 
Patki (Water-house) phratry of the Hopi. 
Oma-a. Bourke, Snake Dance, 117,1884. O -mau. 
Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 39, 1S91. Omawuu. 
Dorsey and Voth, Mishongnovi Ceremonies, 175, 
1902. O -mow-uh wiin-wu. Fewkes in Am. An- 
throp.,vn,402, 1894 (icun-u u=cl&n) . 

Ompivromo. A former village, presum 
ably Costanoan, connected with Dolores 
mission, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, Oct. IS, 1861. 

Ona. The third village of the Cliilula 
on Redwood cr., Cal. 

Oh-nah. Gibbs in Schoolcrnft. Ind. Tribes, in, 
139, 1853 (Yurok name). Ono. Ibid. Unuh. 
Powers in Overland Mo., vu, 530, 1872. 

Onackatin. See Onockcttin. 

Onagatano. A former province x. of 
Florida peninsula, in snow-clad moun 
tains, where, in the lo th century, it was 
said the Apalachee obtained their gold. 
Distinct from Olagatano, q. v. (Fonta- 
neda Mem., ca. 1575, Smith trans., L O, 
1854) . 

Onaghee. An ancient Seneca settle 
ment on the s. side of Fall brook, at 
Hopewell, Ontario co., N. Y. Before 
1720 a number of the inhabitants settled 
near Montreal, and in 1750 the place had 
been long deserted. 



ONAHKLI ONDOUTAOUAKA 



[B. A. E. 



Onachee. rainmerhofF 1 1750) quoted by Conover, 
Kan and (Jeneva MS. Onaghee. Schuyler 
(17"0.in N Y Doc.Col. Hist., V, 543. 1855. Onane. 
!)>, of 17H). ibid..52S. Onahee. Doc.of 1726, ibid., 
7>i7 Onahie. Kvans. Map, 1755. Onnachee. 
rammrrhoiT quoted by ronover, op. cit. Onna- 
ghee. Conover. ibid. Onnahee. Riggs (1720) m 
N. V. Doc. Col. Hist., v. 570. 1855. 

Onaheli. Our of live hamlets compos 
ing the former Chocta\v town of Imon- 
galasha in Xeshoba co., Miss. Halbert 
in 1 nl.. Miss. Hist. Soc., vi, 432, 1902. 

Onancock. A village of the Powhatan 
ennt ederacy in 160S, about the site of the 
present Onancock, in Accomack co., Va. 
Four or five families were still therein 



Oanancock. Beverley, Va., 199, 1722. Onancock. 
Ho/man. M<1.. I. 149, 1837. Onancoke. Ibid., 148. 
Onankok. Herrman (1670), Maps to accompany 
Kcp. on the Line between Va. and Md., 1873. 
Onaucoke. Pory in Smith (1629),Va., n, 61, repr. 
1H19. 

Onapiem. A village or tribe mentioned 

liy .Inutcl in 16S7 as being N. or x. w. of 
Maligne (Colorado) r., Tex. The region 
was oreupied and controlled largely by 
Caddoan tribes, and the name seems to 
have been given to Jontel by Ebahamo 
Indians, who were probably Karanka wan. 
Set- (iatschet, Karankawa Indians, 35, 
1S91. (A. c. F.) 

Onapiem. Jontel (16X7) in Margry, Dec., in, 289, 
1^7v Onapien. .lontel (11)87) in French, Hist. 
Cull. I.;i.. i. l:;7, 1M6. Onapienes. Barcia, Ensayo, 

Onasakenrat ( White Feather ) , Joseph. 
A Mohawk chief, noted for his transla 
tions of religious works into his native 
laniruage. lie was born on his father s 
farm, near Oka, Canada, Sept. 4, 1845; at 
14 years of age he was sent to Montreal 
College to be educated for the priest 
hood, remaining thereabout 4 years. He 
was afterward converted to Protestantism 
and became an evangelical preacher. On 
June 15, 1S77, the Catholic church of 
Oka was burned, and Chief Joseph was 
tried for the offense, but was not con 
victed. He died suddenly, Feb. 8, 1881, 
at Canghnawaga. Among his transla 
tions into the Mohawk dialect are the 
Oospels (1K80) and a volume of hymns. 
At the time of his death he was engaged 
in translating the remainder of the Bible, 
having reached in the work the Epistles 
to the Hebrews. 

Onathaqua (possibly intended for Ou.a- 
/h K/ini). A tribe or village about C. 
Canaveral, K. coast of Florida, in con 
stant alliance with the Calusa (q. v.) 
in 1564 (Laudonniere). Probably iden 
tical in whole or in part with the Ais 
tribe. Not to be confounded with Ona 
theaqua, <|. v. (.1. M.) 
Oathkaqua. De Hry map (ir> .)i)in Le Moyne 
Niirr.. Appleton trans.. 1875. Onathaqua. Lau- 
(loiini.-re ( i:,i;i, in K r( . n rh, Hist Coll L (1 n s 

*6 .M possibly f,,r <>untlin.|iiu). Onothaca.- 
BrackenndKe, L u ., M isl (. Otchaqua De 1 Isle 
map, I7(K). 

Onatheaqua. A principal tribe in 15f)4, 
described as living near the high moun 



tains, apparently in upper Georgia, and 
equal in power and importance to the 
Timucua, Potano, Yustaga, and Saturiba, 
according to Laudonniere. Not to be 
confounded with Onathaqua (q. v. ), near 
C. Canaveral, Fla. (.1. M.) 

Onatheaqua. Luudonniere (1564) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., n. s., 244, 1869; De Bry, map (1591) in 
Le Moyne, Xarr., Appleton trans., 1875 (indicated 
w. of St John r. and beyond Oustaca=Yustaga). 

Onava. A former Nevome pueblo and 
seat of a Spanish mission founded in 1 622; 
situated in lat. 28 W, Ion. 109, on the 
Rio Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico. Pop. 875 in 
1678, 457 in 1730. The inhabitants prob 
ably spoke a dialect slightly different 
from the Nevome proper. The town is 
now completely Mexicanized. 

Hare-eaters. ten Kate in Jour. Am. Eth. and 
Arch., 142. 1892 (Tchoofkwatam, or: Pimaname). 
Ohavas. Escudero quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. 
States, I, 101, 1884. Onabas. Kino map (1702) in 
Stocklein, Neue YVelt-Bott, 74, 1726. Onava. Bal- 
bi (1826) quoted by Orozco y Berra, Geog., 352, 
1864. San Ignacio Onabas. Zapata (1678) in Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., m, 359, 1857. Tchoofkwatam. 
ten Kate, op. cit. ( hare-eaters : Pimaname). 

Onaweron (prob. [there] are springs of 
water ). A traditional Iroquois town of 
the Bear clan; so enumerated in the list 
of towns in the Chant of Welcome of the 
Condolence Council of the League of the 
Iroquois. Nothing definite is know r n of 
its situation or of the particular tribe to 
which it belonged. See Hale, Iroq. Book 
of Rites, 120, 1883. (j. N. B. H. ) 

Onawmanient. A tribe of the Powhatan 
confederacy on the s. bank of the Poto 
mac in the present Westmoreland co., 
Va., numbering about 400 in 1608. Their 
principal village, of the same name, was 
probably on Nominy bay. 

Anawmanient. Bozman" Md., I, 188, 1837. Nomi- 
nies. Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 4, 9, 1848. Onauma- 
nient. Smith (1612), Works, Arber ed., 52, 1884 
(the village). 

Onbi. A Costanoan village situated in 
1815 within 10 m. of Santa Cruz mission, 
Gal. Taylor in Gal. Farmer, Apr. 5, 
1860. 

Onchomo (Ontcomo}. A former Maidu 
village at Mud Springs, about 5 m. dues, 
of Placerville, Eldorado co., Cal. Pixon 
in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xvn, pi. 38, 
1905. 

Ondachoe. A Cayuga village mentioned 
by Cammerhoff, the Moravian, in 1750, 
as situated on the w. shore of Cayuga 
lake, N. Y., apparently opposite Aurora. 
He said it was larger than Cayuga. Gen. 
Clark placed it at Sheldrake point, but 
this is too far s. ( w. M. B. ) 

Ondatra. A name for the muskrat 
( Filx f zibet hints), derived from one of the 
Huron dialects of the Troquoian language 
early current in the Hochelaga region of 
Canada. A more common name is mus- 
<]v<tsJt, of Algonquian origin. (A. F. c. ) 

Ondoutaouaka. An Algonquian tribe 
or division, probably a part of the Mon- 



BULL. 30] 



ON ECHS AGERAT ONEIDA 



tagnais, living in 1644 about 100 leagues 
above "Saguene," Quebec. 

Ondoutaoiiaheronnon. Jes. Rel. 1644, 99, 1858 On- 
doutaouaka. Ibid., 1642, 10, 1858. 

Onechsagerat. The "old chief" of 
Cayuga, mentioned by Cammerhoff in 
1750. He was also styled Teiyughsara- 
garat, the principal chief, when he re 
ceived Sir Wm. Johnson s belts and went 
to Canada in 1756. Weiser called him 
Oyeaghseragearat in 1754, and Oyuch- 
seragarat in 1752. His name appears 
in 1762 and 1774, the latter year at 
Onondaga, in November, when "a Cay 
uga chief named Oyeghseragearat spoke. 
This may possibly have been a young 
er man. (w. M. H.) 

Oneida (Anglicized compressed form of 
the common Iroquois term tiiontn iote , 
there it it-rock has-set-up (continu- 
ative), i. e. a rock that something set up 
and is still standing, referring to a large 
sienite bowlder near the site of one of 
their ancient villages). A tribe of the 
Iroquois confederation, formerly occu 
pying the country s. of Oneida lake, 
Oneida co., X. Y., and latterly including 
the upper waters of the Susquehanna. 
According to authentic tradition, the 
Oneida was the second tribe to accept the 
proposition of Dekanawida and Hiawatha 
to form a defensive and offensive league 
of all the tribes of men for the promotion 
of mutual welfare and security. In the 
federal council and in other federal as 
semblies they have the right to represen 
tation by 9 federal chieftains of the highest 
rank. Like the Mohawk, the Oneida 
have only 3 clans, the Turtle, the Wolf, 
and the Bear, each clan being represented 
by 3 of the 9 federal representatives of 
this tribe (see Clan and Gens}. Insofar as 
eldership as a member of a clan phratry 
can give precedence in roll-call and the 
right to discuss first in order all matters 
coming before its side of the council fire, 
the Oneida are the dominant tribe within 
the tribal phratry, called the Four (origi 
nally Two) Brothers and "Offspring," 
to which they belong. In tribal assem 
blies the Turtle and ^the Wolf constitute 
a clan phratry, and the Bear another. 
The Oneida have usually been a conserva 
tive people in their dealing with their 
allies and with other peoples. In 1635 
they, with the Onondaga, Cayuga, and 
Mohawk, sought to become parties to the 
peace concluded in the preceding year 
between the Seneca and the Hurons. At 
this period they were called sedentary 
and very populous, but only from Indian 
reports. 

The Jesuit Relation for 1646 (p. 3,1858) 
says that with the exception of the Mo 
hawk there was no treaty, properly 
speaking, then in existence between the 
Iroquois tribes inclusive of the Oneida and 
the French. From the same Relation it 



is learned that "Onnieoute" (Oneniote) 
the principal Oneida village of that time 
having lost the greater portion of its men 
m a war with the "upper Algonquin " 
was compelled to request the Mohawk 
to lend aid in repeopling the village by 
granting thereto a colony of men, and that 
it was for this reason that the Mohawk 
ceremonially and publicly call the Oneida 
their daughter or son. This story is 
probably due to a misconception of the 
fictitious political kinships and relation 
ships established between the several 
tribes at the time of the institution and 
organization of the League (see Coiifctle ra 
tion) . The Cayuga and the Tuscarora are 
likewise called "Offspring," but not for 
the reason above given. The Jesuit Rela 
tion for 1648 (p. 46) first definitely locates 
the Oneida. From the Relation for 1641 
(p. 74) it is gathered that the Jesuit 
fathers had learned that the Oneida had 




THROWING UP PINS 



a peculiar form of government in which 
the rulership alternated between the two 
sexes. This statement is likewise appar 
ently due to a misconception of the fact 
that among Iroquois tribes the titles to the 
chiefships belonged to the women of cer 
tain clans in the tribe and not to the men, 
although men were chosen by the women 
to exercise the rights and privileges and 
to perform the duties pertaining to these 
chiefships, and that there were, and indeed 
still are, a numberof women filling federal 
chiefships bearing the name of the 
highest class. These women chieftains 
have approximately the same rights, priv 
ileges, and immunities as the men chiefs, 
but exercise them fully only in emergen 
cies; they, too, maintain the institutions 
of society and government among the 
women. 

The Jesuit Relation for 1667 (ui, 145, 
1899) declares that the Oneida were at 



ONEIDA 



[B. A. E. 



that time the least tractable of the Iro 
quois tribes. It was at this period that 
Father I .ruyas was stationed at the mis 
sion of St "Francois Xavier among the 
Oneida. It is also learned from this 
source that the Mohegan and the Cones- 
toira menaced the Oneida. While on this 
mission Father Brnyas suffered for food 
for a part of the year and was compelled 
to sustain life oil a diet of dried frogs. 
By the end of the year 1669 he had bap- 
ti/ed MO persons, "in 1660 the Oneida 
with the Mohawk were the least populous 
of the Iroi[iiois tribes. The Jesuit Rela 
tion for 16W-70 speaks of the Oneida be- 
in i: present at a " feast of the dead " held 
at the Mohawk village of Canghnawaga, . 
showing that in a modified form at least 
the decennial ceremony of the so-called 
head Feast was practised among the 
Iro(|iiois when iirst known. On Jan. 
HO, i<>71, the Oneida began the torture of 
a captive Conestoga woman, and the tor 
ture was -prolonged through 2 days and 2 
nights because he in whose stead she had 
hem given was burned at Conestoga for 
that length of time. It is held by some 
that the town defended by four lines of 
palisades, closely fastened together and 
attacked by Champlain in 1615 with his 
Huron and Algonquian allies, was an 
< Mieida village, although other authorities 
place it elsewhere, in Onondaga territory. 
In fact. the wars of the Oneida were those 
of the League, although like the other 
tribes they seem to have put forth most 
energy against the tribes who in some man 
ner had given them the greatest offense. 
The ( atawba and the Muskhogean tribes, 
as well as the Susquehanna r. Indians, 
the Conestoga, gave most occupation to 
the Oneida warriors. 

After the conquest of the tribes on the 
Susquehanna and its tributaries and those 
on the Potomac, chiefly by the warriors 
of the Oneida, the Cayuga, and the 
Seneca, and those tribes which had sub 
mitted to Iroqnois rule, a question arose 
as to the propriety of the Mohawk, who 
had not given any aid in subduing these 
peoples, sharing in the income arising 
from land sales there. Hence for a time 
the Mohawk received no emolument 
from this source, until the Iroquois tribes 
became divided and the Mohawk sold 
the lands in the Wyoming Valley region 
of Pennsylvania to the Susquehanna 
Land Co. of Connecticut. This, then, in 
172s, moved the great federal council of 
the league at Onondaga to send Shikel- 
laniy, an Oncida chief, as a superinten 
dent, to the forks of the Susquehanna for 
the purpose of watching over the affairs 
and the interests of the Six Nations of 
Iroquois in Pennsylvania. At first Shi- 
kellamy exercised a general supervision 
over only tin; Shawnee and the Dela- 



wares, who thereafter were required to 
consult him in all matters arising be 
tween them and the proprietary govern 
ment. So well did he perform his duty 
that in 1745 Shikellamy was made full 
superintendent over all the dependent 
tribes on the Susquehanna, with his resi 
dence at Shamokin. He showed great 
astuteness in the management of the af 
fairs intrusted to his care, seeking at all 
times to promote the interests of his peo 
ple. Such was the influence which the 
Oneida exercised on the Susquehanna. 

In 1687 the Oneida were included in 
the warrant of the King of Great Britain 
to Gov. Dongan of New r York, authoriz 
ing him to protect the Five Nations as 
subjects of Great Britain. In 1696 Count 
Frontenac burned the Oneida castle, de 
stroyed all their corn, and made prison 
ers of 30 men, women, and children. 

In 1645-46 the Oneida were at war 
with the Nipissing, and one band of 17 
warriors from "Ononiiote" defeated an 
Algonkin party under Teswehat, the 
one-eyed chief of this people, killing the 
chief s son and taking 2 women prison 
ers. This Iroquois party was afterward 
defeated by 30 Hurons and the 2 women 
were recaptured. 

In the Jesuit Relation for 1666-68 
Father Bruyas writes that the Oneida 
were reputed the most cruel of all the Iro 
quois tribes; that they had always made 
war on the Algonkin and the Hurons, and 
that two-thirds of the population of their 
villages \vere composed of the people of 
.these two tribes who had become Iroquois 
in temper and inclination. This mission 
ary adds that the nature of the Oneida 
was then altogether barbarous, being 
cruel, sly, cunning, and prone to blood 
shed and carnage. 

In 1655 a party of 60 Oneida warriors 
was sent against the Ainikwa, or Beaver 
Indians. This war was still in progress 
in 1661, for in that year 2 bands, one of 
24 and the other of 30 warriors, were 
encountered on their way to fight the 
Amikwa. 

Chauchetiere (letter in Jesuit Relations, 
Thwaites ed., LXII, 185, 1900) says that 
"war is blazing in the country of the 
Outaouaks," that the Iroquois, especially 
the Oneida, continued their hatred of the 
Outagami (Foxes) and the Illinois, and 
so have slain and captured many Illinois. 
In 1681 they killed or captured about 
1,000 of these unfortunate people. 

In 1711, about half of the Tuscarora 
tribe, then dwelling in North Carolina, 
seems to have conspired with several 
alien neighboring tribes and bands to 
destroy the Can >lina settlers. The colon 
ists, however, recollecting the ancient 
feud between the Southern and the North 
ern Indians, allied themselves with the 



BULL. 30] 



ONEIDA 



125 



Catawba and some Muskhogean tribes. 
The Tuscarora, sustaining several severe 
defeats, were finally driven from their 
homes and hunting grounds. This act of 
the Southern Indians made the hatred 
of the Iroquois against the Catawba more 
bitter and merciless. 

The Oneida were at times friendly to 
the French and to the Jesuit missionaries, 
while the other Iroquois were their de 
termined enemies. A great part of the 
Oneida and the Tuscarora, through the 
influence of Rev. Samuel Kirk land, re 
mained neutral in the Revolutionary war, 
while the majority of the confederation 
of the Iroquois were divided and did not 
act as a unit in this matter. Early in 
that struggle the hostile Iroquois tribes 
attacked the Oneida and burned one of 
their villages, forcing them to take refuge 
near the Americans in the vicinity of 
Schenectady, where they remained until 
the close of the war. Shortly after the 
main body of the tribe returned to their 
former homes. At a later period a con 
siderable number emigrated to Canada 
and settled on Grand r. and Thames r., 
Ontario. Another small band, called 
Oriskas, formed a new settlement at 
Ganowarohare, a few miles from the 
main body in Oneida co., N. Y. At dif 
ferent earlier periods the Oneida adopted 
and gave lands to the Tuscarora, the 
Stockbridges, and the Brothertons. The 
Tuscarora afterward removed to land 
granted by the Seneca in w. New r York. 
In 1846, having sold most of their lands 
in New T York, the greater part of the 
Oneida, together with their last two 
adopted tribes, removed to a tract on 
Green bay, Wis., where they now reside. 
Among those living in New r York at 
the time of removal were two parties 
known respectively as the First Chris 
tian, and the Second Christian or Orchard 
party. 

The Oneida entered into treaties with 
the United States at Ft Stanwix, N. Y., 
Oct. 22, 1784; Ft Harmar, O., Jan. 9, 
1789; Canandaigua, N. Y., Nov. 11, 1794; 
Oneida, N. Y., Dec. 2, 1794; Buffalo 
Creek, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1838; and Wash 
ington, I). C., Feb. 3, 1838. They also 
held no fewer than 30 treaties with the 
State of New York between the years 
1788 and 1842. 

The estimates of Oneida population at 
different periods are no more satisfactory 
than those relating to the other Iroquois 
tribes. The earliest account (1660) gives 
them 500. They are placed at 1 , 000 in 1 677 
md 1721. In 1770 they were estimated 
it 410, in 1776 at 628, and in 1795 at 660, 
md were said to have been decreasing for 
i long time. They number at present 

1906) about 3,220, of whom 286 are still 
n New York, 2,151 under the Oneida 



School Superintendency in Wisconsin 
783 on Thames r., Ontario, besides those 
settled among the other Iroquois on (i rand 
r., Ontario. There are no means of learn 
ing the number of Oneida who joined the 
several colonies of Catholic Iroquois. 

The Oneida towns, so far as known, 
were: Awegen, Brothertown, Cahun- 
ghage, Canowdowsa, Cowassalon, Chitte- 
nango, Ganadoga, Hostaynntwa, Oneida, 
Opolopong, Oriska, Ossewingo, Ostoge- 
ron, Schoherage, Sevege, Soloeka, Stock- 
bridge, Tegasoke, Teseroken, Teiosweken, 
and Tkanetota. (j. x. H . n.) 

Anayints. Pa. Col. Rec., IV, 5x4, 1851. Anayot 
haga. Pyrla-us (ca. 17.50) quoted in Am. Antiu., 
IV, 75, 1881. Annegouts. Bac.nieville de la 
Potherie, Hist. Amer. Septent., in, 3, 1753. 
Anoyints. Mallery in Proc. A. A. A. S., xxvi, 
352, 1877. Hogh-na-you-tau-agh taugh caugh. Ma- 
cauley, N. Y., u, 176, 1829. Honnehiouts. Hen- 
nepin, New Discov., map, 1698. Huniedes. Doc. 
of 1676 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xm, 500, 1x81. 
Janadoah. Morse, Am. Geog., I, 454, 1819 (here 
used for Iroquois generally). Janitos. Lawson 
(170W) quoted by Schoolcfaft, Ind. Tribes, vi. 
326, 1857 (incorrectly given as Lavvson s form). 
Jennitos. Lawson (1709), Hist. Car., 82. 1X60. 
Nation de la Pierre. Jes. Kel. 1669, 7, 1X5X. 
Ne-ar-de-on-dar-go -war. Morgan, League Iroq., 
98, 1851(councilname). Neharontoquoah. Weiser 
(1750) in Pa. Col. Rec., v, 477, 1x51. Ne-haw-re- 
tah-go. Macauley, N. Y., n, 185, 1829. Ne-haw- 
re-tah-go-wah. Beauchamp in Bull. 78. N. Y. 
State Mus., 161, 1905. Ne-haw-teh-tah-go. Cusick, 
Six Nations. 16, 1828. Ne yutka. Gatschet, Sen 
eca MS., B. A. E., 1X82 (Seneca name). Ne yutka- 
nonu ndshunda. Ibid, (another Seneca name). 
Niharuntagoa. Pyrlanis (m. 1750) in Am. Antic)., 
IV, 75, 1881. Niharuntaquoa. Weiser (1743), op. 
cit., IV, 664, 1851. Nihatiloendagowa. J. X. B. 
Hewitt, infn, 1907 ( they are large trees : politi 
cal name). Nihorontagowa. Benson quoted by 
Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 5. Ill, 1848. Niondago a. 
Gatschet, Seneca MS., B. A. E., 1882 ( large trees : 
Seneca name). Niunda-ko wa. Gatschet, Seneca 
MS 1882 ( large trees ). Onayauts. Writer 
quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds.. bk. 5,4, 1848. Ona- 
yiuts. Golden (1727), Five Nat., app., 58, 1747. 
. O-na-yote -ka-o-no. Morgan, League Iroq., 52, 1X51. 
Oncidas. Keane in Stanford, Compend., 527, 1878 
(misprint). Oncydes. Humphreys, Acct., 294, 
1730 (misprint). 0-nea-yo-ta-au-cau. Barton. New 
Views, app., 6, 1798. Onedes. Albany Con f. (1737) 
in NY Doe. Col. Hist., VI, 98, 1855. Onedoes. 
Golden (173X), ibid., 123. Oneiadas. Writer of 
1792 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., I, 2S7, 1806. 
Oneiadds Doc. of 16X7 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
in 432, 1853. Oneiades. Allyn (1666) in Mass. 
Hist Soc Coll. ,3d s., X, 63,1849. Oneidaes. -Dud 
ley (1721) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.,2ds., VIII, 244, 
18.19 Oneidas. Doc. of 1676 in N. Y. Doc. ( ol. 
Hist xm 502, 1881. Oneides. Andros 11679) 
ibid" in, 277, 1853. Oneidoes. Colhoun (1753), 
ibid VI 821,1855. Oneids. Vernon (1697), ibul., 
IV 289 1854. Oneijdeg.Wessels (1693), ibid., 60. 
Oneiochronon.-Jes. Kel. 1640, 35. 1858. Oneiotch 
ronons Ibid., 1646, 34, 1858. OneiSchronons. 
Ibid 1639 67, 1858. Oneiouks. Coxe, Carol 
56, 1741. Oneiouronons. Courcelles , 1670) in Mar 
ST\ Dec , i, 178, 1875. Oneiout. Jes. Kel. 1656, 
12, 1858 (village). OneiStcheronons. Jes. Kel. 
1646 34 1858. Oneioutchronnons. mm.. It).*, i< 
1858! 6nei-yu-ta-augh-a.-Macauley N. V, II, 

V> 1829 Oneiyutas. Edwards (1751) in Mass. 

list. Soc. Coll.. 1st s., x. 146, 1849. Onejda^-W rax- 

11 ^17541 in N Y Doc. Col. Hist.. VI, 8;V7, 1855. 

nedef-Cortland (1687), ibid., in, 435. 185? 



185 
Hi 
all 



touis XIV71699), ibid., .x. 



1-J6 



ON KID A 



[B. A. E. 



l,sM Oneydays. Albany Conf. (1748), ibid., vi.44/, 
l.x:>.V Oneyders. Markham (\m\, ibid., in, 807. 
1 .<>:;. Oneydes. Livingston (1677 1, ibid., xin, 510, 
IxM Oneydese. Livingston 07-0), ibid., V. 56;>, 
ls.v> Oneydeys. Albany Conf. (1751), ibid., VI, 719, 
IVY/ Oneydoes. Marshe (1741) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll ;;d s vn,lW. 1838. Oneydos. Clarkson (1H91) 
in N V. Doe. Col. Hist., Ill, 814, 1853. Oneyds. 
Kleteher (1 ):<), ibid.. IV. 55, 1S54. Oneyede. 
Don tan (1688), ibid.. 521. Oneyonts. Boudinot, 
Star in tin- West. 100. 1816. Oneyoust. Denon- 
ville i 16S5) in N. V. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 282, 1855. 
Oneyuts.Maeauley.N.Y., 11,176, 1829. Oniadas. 
Carver Travels. 172, 177S. Oniades. Coursey 
(168 Ji in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xni, 557, 1881. 
Onids Ilomann Heirs map, 1756. Oniedas. 
Vctcb < 17HH in X. Y. Ioc. Col. Hist., V, 531, 1855. 
Oniedes. Albany Conf. (174(1), ibid., VI, 317, 1855. 
Onioets. Coxe, " Carolana, 56, 1741. Onioutche- 
ronons Jes. Kel. 1646. 3. 1S58. Oniouts. School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, v, 154, 1855. Oniyouths. Bou 
dinot. Star in tbe West, 128, 1816. 0-ni-yu-ta. 
Macanlcy. X. Y.. II, 176, I,s29. Oniyutaaugha. 
Ibid "71 Onneiochronnons. Jes. Kel. 1648, 46, 
lx.-,s. Onneiotchronnons. .Ics. Kel. 1658, 3, 1858. 
Onneioust. Krnyas (1673) in Margry, Dec., I, 242, 
1x75. Onneiout. Yandrenil (1712), ibid. .41. Onnei- 
outchoueronons. Jes.Rol. 1656,14, 1858. Onneioute. 
,les. Kel. 1664, 34, 185,s. OnneiStheronnon. Jes. Kel. 
1660, 6, lx-\x. Onneiouthronnons. .k s. Kel. 1657, 34, 
Is.Vv Onnejioust. Hellin, map, 1755. Onnejochro- 
nons. Jes. Kel. 1652, 35, 1858. Onnejoust. Louis 
XIV (16 l .iy) in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 697, 1855. 
Onnejouts. Jos. Kel. 1669, 7. 1858. Onneydes. 
Dongan U6S7) in X. Y. Doe. Col. Hist., ill, 438, 1853. 
Onneyotchronon. .les. Kel., index, 1858. Onne- 
youth. Charlevoix, Voy to X. Am., n, 25, 1761, 
Onnogontes. Charlevoix (1736) in Schoolcraft, 
Ind. Tribes, IIF, 555. 1853. Onnoyotes. Lahontan. 
Xcu- Yoy., i. 157, 1703. Onnoyoute. Ibid., map. 
Onodos. Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741. Onoiochrho- 
nons..les. Kel. 1635, 34,1858. Onojake. La Mon 
tague i 1661) in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xin, 355, 1881. 
Onoyats. Mallery in Proo. A. A. A. S., xxvi, 352, 
1877. Onoyauts. Greenhalgh (1677) in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., in, 252. 1853. Onoyote. Pouehot, map 
(1758i, ibi<l.. \. il .U, 1858. Onoyouts. Lahontan, 
Xo\v Voy.. i, 23, 1703. Onoyuts. La Tour, map, 
177 . . Onyades. Greenhalgn (1677) in X. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., in. 250, 1853. Onydans. Harris, Voy. 
and Trav.. n. 311,1764. Onyedauns. Loisler (1690) 
in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist. ,in, 700, 1853. Otatsightes. 
Macauloy, X. Y., n, 176, 1X29 (chiefs name). 
Ouiochrhonons. Jes. Rol. 1635, 34, 1858 (misprint). 
Ouneyouths. Baudry des Lo/iores, Yoy. a la Le., 
213, 1M)2. Tau-hur-lin-dagh-go-waugh. Maeauley, 
X. Y., n. 185, 1S29. T wa -ru-na. Hewitt, inf n, 
1886 (Tuscarora name). Unlades. Coursey (1682) 
in X. V. Doc. C,>1. Hist., xm, 558, 1881. Uniu- 
taka. (latschet, Tuscarora MS., 1885 (former 
Tuscurora nainoi. Wtassone. Heckewelder, 
Hist. Inds., yy. 1876 ( makers of stone pipes : 
Delaware name; applied also to other Indians 
who excelled in that art). 

Oneida. One of the chief and first 
known villages of the Oneida people, and 
which within historical times has been 
removed to several new situations. It 
seems to have been originally a town of 
the Wolf clan, for it is so enumerated in 
the Chant of Welcome of the Condolence 
Council of the League of the Iroquois; 
the Wolf clan constituted one of the two 
phratries in the tribal council of the 
Oneida. Arent Van Curler, who visited 
this town in 16.TJ. wrote that it was situ 
ated on a high hill and defended by two 
rows of palisades; in the ramparts were 
two grates, one on the w. side, over which 
were standing ". 5 wooden images, of cut 
(carved /) wood, like men," adorned with 
M scalps, and the other, on the E. side 
adorned with only one scalp; the western 
gate was :i\ ft wide, while the other was 



only 2 ft. He wrote that this palisade 
was 767 paces in circumference, and that 
within it were 66 lodges, "much better, 
higher, and more finished than all those 
others we saw." Those seen by Van 
Curler and his companions were the Mo 
hawk castles. Of the first Mohawk cas 
tle Van Curler wrote: "There stood but 
36 houses, in rows like streets, so that 
we could pass nicely. The houses are 
made and covered with bark of trees, 
and mostly fiat at the top. Some are 
100, 90, or" 80 paces long, and 22 or 23 ft 
high. . . . The houses were full of corn 
that they lay in store, and we saw inai/e; 
yes, in some houses more than 300 
bushels." His description of the third 
Mohawk castle, then called Sohanidisse, 
or Rehanadisse, follows: "On a very high 
hill stood 32 lodges, like the other ones. 
Some were 100,^90, or 80 paces long; in 
every lodge we saw 4, 5, or 6 fireplaces 
where cooking went on." Some of the 
lodges were finished with wooden fronts, 
painted with all sorts of beasts, and in 
some of them were found very good axes, 
French shirts, coats, and razors, and 
lodges were seen where "60, 70 and more 
dried salmon were hanging." While in 
the Oneida castle Van Curler witnessed 
the conclusion of a temporary peace com 
pact between the Oneida and the French 
Indians for purposes of trade for four 
years. To this he gave the name Cas 
tle Knneyuttehage, or Sinnekens. The 
Oneida, the Onondaga, and the Cavuga 
were named respectively Onnevatte, On 
ondaga, and Koyockure (forKoyockwe), 
which indicates that the tribal divisions 
of the Iroquois \vere well known to the 
narrator at this period. This town was 
probably on one of the early Oneida village 
sites in the upper valley of Oneida cr., 
not far from Oriskany cr., and according 
to Van Curler s estimate, 75 or 80 m. w. 
of the Mohawk castle of Tenotoge (Tio- 
nontogen?) ; it was situated on the E. side 
of Oneida cr., and Van Curler saw x. w. 
of it, on the left bank of the creek, " tre 
mendously high land that seemed to lie 
in the clouds." Just before reaching the 
castle he saw three graves, "just like our 
graves in length and height; usually their 
graves are round." These graves were 
surrounded with palisades, nicely closed 
up, and painted red, white, and black. 
The grave of a chief had an entrance, and 
at the top there was " a big wooden bird, 
and all around were painted dogs, and 
deer, and snakes, and other beasts." 
Such was the chief Oneida town of 1634. 
While with the Oneida Van Curler wit 
nessed apparently a part of the New Year 
ceremonials of the Iroquois, which he re 
garded as so much "foolery." 

According to Greenhalgh, who visited 
the Oneida in 1677, they had only one 
town, "newly settled, double stock- 



BULL. 30] 



ONEIDA ONEKA 



127 



adoed," containing about 100 houses and 
200 warriors, situated 20 (sic) in. from 
Oneida cr. and 30 ni. s. of Mohawk r. ; it 
had but little cleared land, "so that 
they are forced to send to ye Onondago s 
to buy corne." This village, therefore, 
was not situated on the site visited bv 
Van Curler. In Aug. 1696 a principal 
town of the Oneida was burned by Vau- 
dreuil, a lieutenant of Count Frontenac. 
In 1756 Sir William Johnson (N. Y 
Doc. Col. Hist, vn, 101, 1856) employed 
the name Onawaraghhare to designate a 
place regarded as suitable for the erec 
tion of a fort, thus showing that at that 
time there was a village called "Cano- 
waroghere." In 1762 Lieut, Guy John 
son, starting from German Flats, visited 
the Oneida (N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn 
512, 1856). The first town reached he 
called " Upper Oneida Castle," and also 
simply "Oneida." Thence he went to 
" Canowaroghere, a new village of the 
Oneidas." On Sauthier s map of Jan. 1, 
1779, 3 Oneida villages are placed in the 
valley of Oneida cr.: (1) Old Oneyda 
Cast(le), placed E. of the headwaters 
of Oneida cr. and x. of the junction of 
the trails from Ft Schuyler and from Ft 
Herkermer; (2) Canowaroghare, lower 
down the valley at the junction of the 
trails from Ft Schuyler and Ft Stanwix, 
and on the left bank of Oneida cr.; 
(3) New Oneyda. Castle, on the right 
bank of Oneida cr., at the junction of 
the trails from his Canowaroghare and 
from Ft Stanwix, and on the trail lead 
ing from Canowaroghare to the Royal 
Blockhouse on Wood cr. Two of these, 
if not all of them, were contemporary. 
In 1 774 the Montauk Indians were to be 
settled at Canowaroghare. At Oneida in 
1667 was founded the mission of Saint 
Francois Xavier. 

In a note attached to the original of a 
Paris document of 1757 (N. Y. Doc. Hist 
i, 526, 1849) the "great Oneida village" 
is said to be " two leagues from the Lake, 
and that within it the English had con 
structed a "picket Fort with four bas 
tions," which however had been de 
stroyed by the Oneida in pursuance of a 
promise made by them to the Marquis de 
Vaudreuil. This note adds that a second 
3neida village, called "the little village," 
vvas situated "on the bank of the Lake." 
It is thus seen that the site and the name 
lave shifted from place to place, but were 
estricted to tne valleys of Oneida cr. and 
ipper Oriskany cr. The name Canowa- 
oghare is the modern name of the city 
>i Oneida and of the Indian settlement 
ituated about 2 m. s., in Madison co., 
*. Y. In 1666-68 (Jes. Eel., Thwaites 
d., LI, 121, 1899) Father Bruyas wrote 
hat "Onneiout" was situated on au 
minence whence a great portion of the 



were 
that 



surrounding country ,-ould be seen 
the environing forest cut away 

there is no river or lake, except a 
leagues distant from the town- that 
more than half the population was com- 
posed of "Algonquins and Ilurons " and 
that the Oneida had never spoken of 
peace until within two years. The 
Oneida have settlements in Canada and 
m Wisconsin at Green Bay, but these are 
not towns. * (., N H ,, \ 

, neida, not Tuscarora town). Canawa- 



(176^) ibid ->r> 

, s no " te -- k s - Rel - J 6, Thwaites ed./xxix, 
228, 1898 Enneyuttehage.-Van Curler 1634-5) 
n Rep. Am. Hist. Ass n 189:,, 94, 1890. Gano-a- 

X Y i^ ion- n 111 Abori K- H W-e Names of 
N. Y.,108, 190/. Onawaraghhare. X.Y Doe Co] 
Hist., VII, 101, 1856. Oneiout.-Jes. Rel. 1655! 
Inwaites ed., XLII, 81, 1899. Oneioust P-iris 
Doe. (1696) in N. Y. Doe. Hist i 330 184 One 
out. Jes. Rel. 1655, Thwaites ed., xi n 77 isn t 
Oneyote. Jes. Rel., index, 1858. Onieoute. Jes! 
Rel., index, 1858. Onneiou. Ibid., Thwaites ed 
LXVI, 187, 1900. Onneioute. Ibid ., index 190] 
Onneyatte. Van Curler (1634-5) in Rep \in Hist 
Ass n 1895, 95, 1896. OnnieSte. Jes. Rel. 1646 4 
1858. Onnoniote. Jes. Rel.. index, 1858 Onon 
iiote. Jes. Rel. 1646. 5], 1858. Ononiote. Jes 
Rel. 1647, 9, 1858. Ononjete. Jes. Rel. 1645 3l> 
1858. Ononjote. Ibid., 33. Ouneiout. Jes Rel. 
Thwaites ed., LXI, 165, 1900. Ounejout. Ibid! 
164. Ounneiout. Ibid., 165. Sinnekens Castle. 
Van Curler (1634-5) in Rep. Am. Hist. Ass n 1895 
92, 1896. Tkanoeoha . Hewitt, infn, 1907 
(Onondaga name). Tkano waru ha r. Hewitt 
infn, 1907 (Tuscarora name). 

Oneidas of the Thames. A body of 
Oneida, numbering 783 in 1906, residing 
on a reservation of 5,271 acres on Thames 
r., in Delaware tp., Middlesex co., near 
Strathroy, Ontario. Their principal oc 
cupation is day labor, and a few of them 
are good farmers. They are industrious 
and law-abiding, and while some of them 
are progressing well, on the whole their 
progress is slow. 

Oneka. A Mohegan chief of Connect 
icut, eldest son and successor of the 
celebrated Uncas; born about 1640, died 
1710. In 1659, under the name Owa- 
necco, he joined with his father and his 
brother, Attawenhood, in deeding a 
tract 9 in. square for the settlement of 
the town of Norwich, Oneka signing 
with the totem of a bird. In 1(561 he 
made an attack, with 70 men, on one of 
Massasoit s villages, killing 8 persons and 
taking 6 prisoners. In 1675, at the in 
stance of Uncas, he went to Boston, with 
two brothers and 50 warriors, to offer 
their services to the English against the 
Wampanoag under King Philip, which 
were- accepted, and shortly after his 
party almost captured this noted leader. 
In 1679 Uncas and Oneka made a grant 
of 600 acres to the county for rebuilding 
the jail, and two years later the General 
Court gave its consent that Urn-sis should 
deed his lands to Oneka. The latter had 
a son named Mahomet, or Mawhomott. 






ONKKAOONTKA ONNIGH8IESANAIRONE 



[B. 



Onekagoncka. A former Mohawk town, 
situated on the left bank of Mohawk r., 
at its continence with Schoharie r., near 
the site of the present Fort Hunter, 
Montgomery co., X. Y. It was visited 
in l;34 by A rent Van Curler (Corlaer), 
who referred to it as the tirst castle, built 
onahighhilland consisting of "36 houses, 
in rows like streets. . . The houses were 
made and covered with bark of trees, 
and mostly are flat at the top. Some 
are UK i, 9() , or 80 paces long and 22 and 
23 ft. high. . . The houses were full of 
corn that they lay in store, and we saw 
mai/e; yes, in some of the houses more 
than .".DO bushels. . . We lived a quarter 
of a mile from the fort in a small house, 
because a good many savages in the castle 
died of smallpox." Speaking of Adri- 
ochten. the principal chief of the One 
kagoncka castle, Van Curler adds: "The 
chief showed me his idol; it was a head, 
with the teeth sticking out ; it was dressed 
in red cloth. Others have a snake, a 
turtle, a swan, a crane, a pigeon, or the 
like lor their idols, to tell the fortune; 
they think they will always have luck in 
doing so." (.1. x. B. n.) 

Oneniote ( projecting stone. Hewitt). 
A former Cayuga village, on the site of 
the present Oneida, on Cayuga lake, 
N. V. It became greatly reduced in the 
war with the Hurons in the middle of 
the 17th century, and resorted to a com 
mon Iroquois expedient in perpetuating 
its people ti\- sending to the Mohawk, 
their neighbors, "for some men to be 
married to the girls and women who had 
remained without husbands, in order 
that the nation should not perish. This 
is why the Iroquois (Mohawk) name this 
village their child." ( w. M. B. ) 

Onneiote. Jes. Rel. 165:{, 18. 1H5S. Onneiout. Ibid. 
Onniebte. .Ic-. Kel. 16-16. 4, 1S5S. Ononiiote. Jes. 
Rel. 16-16, 51 . 1858. Ononiote. .les. Rel. 1647,9, 1858. 
Onpnjete. Jes. Rel. 16-15, 31i. LS5S. Ononjote. 

Onentisati. A Huron village in Tiny 
township, Ontario, first mentioned in 
(w. M. B.) 

Onentisati. Jes. Rel. 1635, 159, 1X58. Onnentissati 
Il)i<!. 

Onepowesepewenenewak ( Onlpo/^sibi- 
irlirfirfii iif/, people of death river ). A 
former Ohippewa band in Minnesota. Gf. 

Onepowe Sepe Wenenewok. Lonp, Kxped. St 
IVter- 11., n. 15:5, is-ji. Onipowisibiwininiwae:. 
U in. .lone-, jnfn, ]yor, (correct form). 

Oneronon. An unidentified tribe living 
s. of St Lawrence r. in 1640. Jes. Rel. 
lt>4((, . )."), 1X58. 

Onextaco. A former rancheria, presum 
ably Costanoan, connected with San Juan 
Bautista mission, Cal. Bancroft, Hist. 
Cal., i, JWiT, note, iXHfi. 

Oneyana. Alias Beech Tree. An Oneida 
chief at the treaty of 17SH,and called Peter 
Oneyana at the treaty of 1785. l u 1792 



Beech Tree was the principal chief and 
quite influential, witnessing the Cayuga 
treaty of 1789 and the Onondaga treaty 
of 1790, and signing the letters of 1786 
and 1787. As Onyanta, or Beech Tree, 
he signed Col. Harper s deed. He prob 
ably died before 1795. (w. M. B. ) 

Ongniaahra ( bisected bottomland ) . 
A village of the Neutrals, situated in 1626- 
50 on Niagara r., one day s journey from 
the Seneca. This is the French spelling 
of the ancient Huron pronunciation of the 
name, which, written by English writers 
from J roquois utterance, has become 
"Niagara." (,T. N. B. H.) 

Ongmarahronon. Jes. Rel. 1640, 35,1858 (m misprint 
for -ii i; name of the people). Onguiaahra. Jes. 
Rel. 1641, 75, 1858 (i misprint for0- Ouaroronon. 
De la Roche Dalh on in Sagard, Hist, du Canada, 
in, 804, 1866 (u misprint for n, and second o 
for o ) . 

Ongovehenok. A Nuwukmiut Eskimo 
settlement near Pt Barrow, Alaska. llth 
Census, Alaska, 162, 1893. 

Onia. A former village of the Papago, 
probably in Pima co., Ariz., containing 8 
families in 1865. Davidson in Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 135, 1865. 

Onismah. A settlement in Port San 
Juan, s. w. coast of Vancouver id., Brit. 
Col., probably inhabited by the Pa- 
cheenaht. Brit, and U. S. Survey Map, 
1882. 

Onixaymas. A former village, presum 
ably Costanoan, connected with San Juan 
Bautista mission, Cal. 

Onextaco. Engelhardt, Franc, in Cal., 398, 1897. 
Onixaymas. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Nov. 23, 1860. 

Onkot ( On -ko? } . A former Chumashan 
village in Ventura co., Cal. Henshaw, 
Buenaventura MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Onktokadan. A tribe, not identified, 
said to have been exterminated by the 
Foxes. According to Sioux tradition they 
lived on the St Croix r. in Wisconsin and 
Minnesota (Neill, Minn., 144, 1858). 

Onkwe lyede ( a human being one is 
standing ). A traditional Iroquois town 
of the Tortoise clan; so enumerated in the 
list of towns in the Chant of Welcome of 
the Condolence Council of the League of 
the Iroquois. Nothing is known defi 
nitely as to its situation. See Hale, Iroq. 
Book of Rites, 118, 1883. (j. N. B. H. ) 

Onnahee. A former Seneca town, placed 
by Conover (Seneca Villages, 3, 1889) on 
the E. side of Fall brook, in the w. part of 
lot 20, town of Hopewell, Ontario co.,N.Y. 
In 1719 this was one of the "furtherest 
castles of the Cenecas," i. e. farthest west 
ward, (j. N. B. H. ) 
Onaghee. Sohuylorand Livingston (1719) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., V. 5-1-2. 1855. Onahe.-Doc. of 1719, 
ibid., 528. Onnachee. Cammerhoff quoted by 
Conover, Seneca Villages, 3, 1889. 

Onnighsiesanairone. One of the 6 "cas 
tles" of the Denighcariages (Amikwal 
near Michilimackinac, Mich., in 1723. 
Albany Conf. (1723) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., V, 693, 1855. 



BULL. 30] 



ONNONTARE ONONDAGA 



Onnontare (Mohawk: it mountain is 
present. Hewitt). A Cayuga town in 
1670 (Jes. Rel. 1670, 63, 1858). From 
remains found there it seems to have been 
B. of Seneca r., and at Bluff point, near 
Fox Ridge, Cayuga co., N. Y. It may 
have derived its name from the moderate 
elevation above the marsh, or from Fort 
hill, which is plainly in sight. In 1670 it 
was the seat of the mission of Saint Rene 
and adjoined the marshes by whose name 
the river was often known. ( w. M. B. ) 

Onnontare. Jes. Rel. 1670, 63, 1858. Saint Rene. 
Ibid, (mission name). 

Onnontioga ( people of Onontio, i. e. 
French Indians, Montreal Indians, Quebec 
Indians). A people, conquered by the 
Iroquois, living in 1670 among the Seneca 
in the village of Kanagaro, which was 
made up almost entirely of incorporated 
remnants of the conquered Onnontioga, 
Hurons, and Neutrals. Gen. J. S. Clark 
placed them at Waverly, N. Y., at or 
near Spanish hill, and this seems prob 
able, (j. x. B. n.) 

Onnontioga. Jes. Rel. 1670, 69, 1858. Onnon-Tio- 
gas. Shea in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 208, 1854 
Onontiogas. Conover, Kanadesaga and Geneva 
Mb., B. A. E. 

Onoalagona ( big head. Hewitt). A 

Mohawk village, about 1620, on the site of 

Schenectady, Schenectady co., N. Y. A 

band, taking its name from the village, 

Dccupied the immediate vicinity in more 

nodern times. It is said by Macauley, 

>vith little foundation in fact, that the vil- 

age was builton the site of a still older one, 

vhich had been the principal village of the 

ribe and was railed Connoharriegoharrie 

( Kano u waro lift re ? ) . ( j. M. ) 

!on-no-harrie-go-harrie. Schoolcraft quoted by 

luttenber, Tribes Hudson R.. 398, 1872. Con-nugh- 

arie-gugh-harie. Macauley, N. Y.. II, 96 1S >9 

hno-wal-a-gantle. Ibid. O-no-a-la-gone -na. 

lorgan, League Iroq., 474, 1851 (Mohawk name) 

ron-nygh-wurrie-gughre. Ruttenber.TribesHud- 

>n R., 398, 1872 (quoted form). _ 

Onockatin. An Esopus chief who signed 

n agreement with Gov. Nicolls in 1665. 

Ie was a chief in the preceding year and 

ne of the five Esopus sachems present at 

ie treaty of 1669. Ruttenber calls him 

nackatin or Oghgotacton. (w. M. B. ) 

Onomio (O-no -mi-o). A former Chu- 

lashan village between Pt Concepcion 

id Santa Barbara, Cal., at a locality 

3W called La Gaviota. Henshaw, Bue- 

iventura MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Ononchataronon (Huron name). An 

Igonkin tribe or band that occupied the 

strict near Montreal, Canada, between St 

iwrence and Ottawa rs. , and wintered 

iar the Hurons. In 1642 they were but 

remnant. They claimed to have been 

e original occupants of Montreal id. and 

a large territory on both sides of the St 

iwrence. They said they had been con- 

iered and dispersed by the Hurons, who 

ire then their enemies, and that the 

rviyors of the war had taken refuge 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 207 9 



with the Abnaki or the Iroquois or had 
joined the Hurous, Hochelaga, the vil 
lage found on the island by Vartier in 
1535, was occupied by an Iroquoian tribe 
but, according to Gatschet, the remain< 
oi a second village about 2 m i r , m jt< 
site have been discovered. This would 
clear the contusion as to the stock of the 
lormer occupants of the island. Shea 
suggests that the names Huron and Iro 
quois have been transposed, which is 
likely. Charlevoix says that there was 
a tradition that the Ononchataronon were 
atone time at war with the Algonkin, and 
that they were drawn into an ambuscade 
and entirely destroyed. He adds that 
at the time of his visit (1721) they had 
ceased to exist. This tradition, however, 
seems doubtful. According to the Jesuit 
Relations, at the general peace of 1646 the 
French induced the Ononchataronon to 
settle again on the island, but they soon 
scattered on account of the Iroquois. 
It seems they were met with as early as 
1609 by Champlain, as Iroquet,oneof their 
chiefs, was with him at this time. The 
missionaries described them as arrogant, 
given to superstition and debauchery, and 
very cruel. (J. .M.) 

Nation d Iroquet. Jes. Rel. 1633, 29, 1858. Onnon- 
charonnons. Jefferys, Fr. Dom. Am., pt. 1, 9, 1761. 
Onnontcharonnons. Charlevoix, Jour. Voy., i, 174, 
1761. Onontchataranons. Jes. Rrl. 164(5, 34, 1858. 
Onontchataronons. Jes. Rd. 1641, 57, 1858. Onon- 
tchateronons. Jes. Rel. 1643, 61, 1858. Snatchatazo- 
nons. Jes. Rel. 1641, 29, 1858. Ounontcharonnous. 
McKenney and Hall, lud. Tribes, m, 81, 1854. 
Ounountchatarounongak. Jes. Rel. 1658, 22, 1858. 
Ountchatarounounga. Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 1858. 
Yroquet. Champlain (1615), QEuvres, iv,56, 1858. 
Onondaga (Onontd / ge f , on, or on top of, 
the hill or mountain ). An important 
tribe of the Iroquois confederation, 
formerly living on the mountain, lake, 
and creek bearing their name, in the 
present Onondaga co., N. Y.,and extend 
ing northward to L.Ontario and south 
ward perhaps to the waters of the Sus- 
quehanna. In the Iroquois councils they 
are known as Hodisennageta, they (are) 
the name bearers. Their principal vil 
lage, also the capital of the confederation, 
was called Onondaga, later Onondaga 
Castle; it was situated from before 1654 
to 1681 on Indian hill, in the present town 
of Pompey, and in 1677 contained 140 cab 
ins. It was removed to Butternut cr., 
where the fort was burned in 169(>. In 
1720 it was again removed to Onondaga 
cr., and their present reserve is in that 
valley, a few miles s. of the lake (Beau- 
champ, inf n, 1907). 

The Onoudaga of Grand River res., 
Canada, have 9 clans, namely: Wolf, 
Tortoise (Turtle?), Bear, Deer, Eel, Bea 
ver, Ball, Plover (Snipe?), and Pigeon- 
hawk. The Wolf, Bear, Plover, Ball, 
and Pigeonhawk clans have each only one 
federal chief ship; the Beaver, Tortoise, 



130 



ONONDAGA 



[B. A. E. 



and Kel clans have each two federal 
chiefships, while the Deer clan has three. 
The reason for this marked difference in 
the quotas of chiefships for the several 
clans is not definitely known, hut it may 
he due to the adoption of groups of per 
sons who already possessed chiefship 
titles. In federal ceremonial and social 
assemblies the Onondaga hy rightof mem 
bership therein take their places with the 
tribal phratry of the "Three Brothers," 
of which the* Mohawk and the Seneca are 
the other two members; but in federal 
councils those in which sit the federal 
representatives of all the live (latterly 
six) Iroqiiois tribes the Onondaga tribe 
itself constitutes a tribal phratry, while 
the Mohawk and the Seneca together 
forma second, and the Oneida and the 



the Onondaga must show that it is in 
flict with established custom or with 




OTOGDAIENDO. ONONDAGA CHIEF AND FIRE-KEEPER 

Cayuga originally, and latterly the Tus- 
carora, a third tribal phratry. The fed 
eral council is organi/ed on the basis of 
these three tribal phratries. The func 
tions df the Onondaga phratry are in 
many respects similar to those of a judge 
holding court with n jury. The question 
before the council is discussed respectively 
liy the Mohawk and Seneca tribes oil 
the one side, and then by the Oneida, 
the Cayuga, and, latterly, the Tuscarora 
tribes on the other, within their own 
phratries. When these two phratries 
have independently reached the same or 
a differing opinion, it is then submitted to 
the Onondaga phratry for confirmation or 
rejection. The confirmation of a com 
mon opinion or of oneof the two differing 
opinions makes that the decree of the 
council. In refusing to confirm an opin 



ion 

conflict 

public policy; when two differing opin 
ions are rejected the Onondaga may sug 
gest to the two phratries a course by 
which they may be able to reach a com 
mon opinion; but the Onondaga may 
confirm one of two differing opinions 
submitted to it. Each chieftain has the 
right to discuss and argue the question 
before the council either for or against its 
adoption by the council, in a speech or 
speeches ad dressed to the entire body of 
councilors and to the public. 

Champlain related that in 1622 the 
Montagnais, the Etchemin, and the Hu- 
rons had been engaged for a long time in 
seeking to bring about peace between 
themselves and the Iroquois, but that up 
to that time there was always some serious 
obstacle to the consummation of an agree 
ment on account of the fixed distrust 
which each side had of the faith of the 
other,, Many times did they ask Cham- 
plain himself to aid them in making a 
firm and durable peace. They informed 
him that they understood by making a 
treaty that the interview of the ambas 
sadors must be amicable, the one side 
accepting the words and faith of the 
other not to harm or prevent them from 
hunting throughout the country, and 
they on their side agreeing to act in 
like manner toward their enemies, in this 
case the Iroquois, and that they had no 
other agreements or compacts precedent 
to the making of a firm peace. They 
importuned Champlain many times to 
give them his advice in this matter, 
which they promised faithfully to follow. 
They assured him that they were then 
exhausted and weary of the wars which 
they had waged against each other for 
more than fifty years, and that, on account 
of their burning desire for revenge for the 
murder of their kin and friends, their an 
cestors had never before thought of peace. 
In this last statement is probably found 
approximately the epoch of that historic 
feud mentioned in the Jesuit Relation for 
1660 (chap, ii ) and by Nicholas Perrot, 
which made the Iroquois tribes, on the 
one hand, and the Algonkin on the 
Ottawa and St Lawrence rs., on the 
other, inveterate enemies, although this 
may have been but a renewal and widen 
ing of a still earlier quarrel. In 1535 
Cartier learned from the Iroqtioian tribes 
on the St Lawrence that they were con 
tinually tormented by enemies dwelling 
to the southward, called Toudamani 
(probably identical with Tsonnontouan, 
or Seneca, a name then meaning Tpper 
Iroquois ), who continually waged war 
on them. 

In Sept. 1655 the Onondaga sent a 
delegation of 18 persons to Quebec to 
confer with Governor de Lauson and 



BULL. 30] 



ONONDAGA 



131 



with the Algonkin and Hurons. The 
Onondaga spokesman used 24 wampum 
belts in his address; the first 8 were pres 
ents to the Hu*ons and the Algonkin, 
whose leading chiefs were there; each 
present had its own particular name. 
The Onondaga professed to speak for the 
" four upper Iroquois nations," namely, 
the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, and Onon 
daga, thus leaving only the Mohawk, the 
"lower Iroquois," from this peace con 
ference, but the Onondaga speaker prom 
ised to persuade the Mohawk to change 
their minds and to make peace. The 
Onondaga asked for priests to dwell 
among them and for French soldiers to 
aid them in their war against the Erie. 

In May 1657, 19 years after the dis 
persion of the Hurons from their mother 
land, the Onondaga sought by the giv 
ing of numerous presents and by covert 
threats of war to persuade the Hurons 
who had fled to the vicinity of Quebec 
to remove to their country and to form 
with them a single people. The Mohawk 
and the Seneca also \vere engaged in this 
business. Finally, the Hurons were 
forced to submit to the persistent demands 
of the Iroquois tribes. 

In 1686 the Onondaga were at war 
against the Cherermons (Shawnee?). 
They were divided into two bands, one 
of 50 and another of 250, 50 of the latter 
being from other tribes. But in 1688 the 
Onondaga were much under French 
influence and were regarded as the chief 
among the Iroquois tribes. 

In 1682, at Albany, the Onondaga, with 
the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Cayuga, 
and the Seneca, entered into a treaty of 
peace with the commissioners from the 
colony of Maryland, who contracted not 
only for the white settlers, but also for 
the Piscataway Indians. 

With the exception of a part of the 
Seneca, the Onondaga were the last of 
the five tribes originally forming the 
League of the Iroquois to accept fully the 
principles of the universal peace pro 
posed by Dekanaw r ida and Hiawatha. 

Early in 1647 a band of Onondaga on 
ipproaching the Huron country was de- 
eated by a troop of Huron warriors, the 
Jnondaga chief being killed and a num- 
)er taken prisoners. Among the latter 
vas Annenraes, a man of character and 
tuthority among the Onondaga. In the 
ollowing spring lie learned that some of 
he Hurons who had been bitterly dis- 
-ppointed because his life had been 
pared intended to kill him. To some 
f his Huron friends he related what he 
iad heard, and that he intended to 
scape to his own country. His resolu- 
ton, with the reason for making it, hav- 
ig been reported to the leading Huron 
hiefs of the council, they concluded to 
id him in his purpose, trusting that he 



would.render them some.valuable service 
in return. Giving him some presents 
and provisions, they sent him off secretly 
at night. Crossing L. Ontario, he un 
expectedly encountered 300 Onondaga 
making canoes to cross the lake for the 
purpose of avenging his death (believing 
he had been killed by the Hurons), and 
awaiting the arrival of 800 Seneca and 
Cayuga reenforcements. His country 
men regarded Annenraes as one risen 
from the dead. He so conducted him 
self that he persuaded the 300 Onondaga 
to give up all thought of war for that of 
peace, whereupon the band, without 
waiting for the expected reenforceinents, 
returned to Onondaga, where a tribal 
council was held, in which it was re 
solved to send an embassy with presents 
to the Hurons for the purpose of com 
mencing negotiations for peace. The 
chief of this embassy was by birth a 
Huron named Soiones", so naturalized in 
the country of his adoption that it was 
said of him that "no Iroquois had done 
more massacres in these countries, nor 
blows more wicked than he." He was 
accompanied by three other Ilurons, 
who had not long been captives at Onon 
daga. The embassy arrived at St Ig- 
nace July ,9, 1647, finding the Hurons 
divided as to the expediency of acquies 
cing in the Onondaga proposals, the Bear 
tribe of the Hurons justly fearing the du 
plicity of the enemy even though bear 
ing presents. But the Rock tribe and 
many villages desired the conclusion of 
peace in the hope that a number of their 
kin, then captive at Onondaga, would be 
returned to them. After many councils 
and conferences it was found expedient 
to send an embassy to Onondaga in order 
the better to fathom this matter. For 
presents the Hurons took valuable furs, 
while the Iroquois Onondaga used belts 
of wampum. The Huron embassy was 
well received at Onondaga, wherea month 
was spent in holding councils. Finally 
the Onondaga resolved to send back a 
second embassy, headed by Skanawati 
( Scandaouati ) , a federal chieftain, 60 years 
of age, who was to be accompanied l>y 
two other Onondaga and by 15 Huron 
captives. One of the Huron embassy 
remained as a hostage. This embassy 
was 30 days on the way, although it was 
in fact only 10 days journey. Jean 
Baptiste, the returning Huron delegate, 
brought back 7 wampum belts of the 
largest kind, each composed of 3,000 or 
4,000 beads. By these belts the Onon 
daga sought to confirm the peace, assur 
ing the Hurons that they could hope for 
the deliverance of at least 100 more of 
their captive kin. The Onondaga desired 
this peace not only because the life of 
Annenraes had been spared, but also 
because they were jealous lest the 3 



132 



ONONDAGA 



[B. A. E. 



hawk, who had become insolent from 
their victories anil were overbearing even 
to their allies, might become too much 
so should the Hurons fail to unite all 
their forces against them, and further be 
cause of fear of the power of the Cones- 
toga. In this Onondaga project of peace 
the CayugaandOneida showed favorable 
interest, but the Seneca would not listen 
to it, and the Mohawk were still more 
averse to it as they were jealous of \vhat 
had been done by the Onondaga. Hence 
these last two tr ibes sent forces to assail 
the village of St Ignace at the end of the 
winter of 1647-48. The following inci 
dents show the character of some of the 
chief men and statesmen of the Oiion- 
daga: 

Early in Jan. 1648 the Hurons decided 
to send another embassy to Onondaga. 
THey sent 6 men, accompanied by one 
<>f the 3 Onondaga ambassadors " then 
in their country, the other two, includ 
ing Skanawati, the head of the Onon 
daga embassy, remaining as hostages. 
But unfortunately the new Huron em 
bassy was captured and killed by a 
force of 100 Mohawk and Seneca who 
had come to the borders of the Huron 
country. The Onondaga accompanying 
this embassy was spared, and two II u- 
rons escaped. Marly in April, when the 
distressing news reached the ears of 
Skanawati, tin 1 proud Onondaga ambas 
sador remaining with the Hurons as a 
hostage, lie suddenly disappeared. The 
Hurons believed that he had stolen away, 
but. a few days after his disappearance, 
his corpse was found in the forest lying 
on a bed of lir branches, where he had 
taken his own life by cutting his throat. 
His companion, who was notified in order 
to exonerate the Hurons, said that the 
cause of his despair was the shame he felt 
at the contempt shown for the sacredness 
of his person by the Seneca and the Mo 
hawk in going to the Huron country and 
massacring the Huron people while his 
life was in pledge for the keeping of the 
faith of his people. Of such men was 
the great federal council of the Iroquois 
composed. 

The Onondaga had good reason for 
fearing the Conestoga, for the Jesuit Re 
lation for 1647-48 states that in a single 
village of the latter people there were at 
that time 1,300 men capable of bearing 
arms, indicating for this village alone a 
population of more than 4,500. 

At this time the Conestoga chiefs, 
through two messengers, informed the 
Hurons that if they felt too weak to de 
fend themselves they should send the 
Conestoga word by an embassy. The 
Hurons eagerly seized this opportunity 
by Bending on this mission 4 Christian 
Indians and 4 "infidels," headed by one 



Charles Ondaaiondiont. They arrived at 
Conestoga early in June 1647. The I luron 
deputies informed their Conestoga friends 
that they had come from a land of souls, 
where war and the fear of their enemies 
had spread desolation everywhere, where 
the fields were covered with blood and 
the lodges were rilled with corpses, and 
they themselves had only life enough left 
to enable them to come to ask their friends 
to save their country, which was drawing 
rapidly toward its end. This spirited but 
laconic address moved the Conestoga to 
send an embassy into the Iroqirois country 
to urge on the Iroquois the advantage of 
making a lasting peace with their Huron 
adversaries. Jean Baptiste, a Huron am 
bassador mentioned before, being at Onon 
daga at the end of summer, learned that 
this embassy of the Conestoga had reached 
the Iroquois country, as he even saw some 
of the Conestoga presents. It was the 
purpose of the Conestoga to bring about 
firm peace with the Hurons and the Onon 
daga, the Oneida and the Cayuga, and, if 
possible, the Seneca, and to renew the 
war against the Mohawk, should they 
then refuse to become parties to it. The 
Conestoga did not fear the Mohawk. The 
Jesuit Relation for 1660 states that about 
the year 1600 the Mohawk had been 
greatly humbled by the Algonkin, and 
that, after they had regained somewhat 
their former standing, the Conestoga, in 
a war lasting 10 years, had nearly ex 
terminated the Mohawk, who since, how 
ever, had partially recovered from the 
defeat, 

Many of the Onondaga joined the 
Catholic Iroquois colonies on the St 
Lawrence, and in 1751 about half the 
tribe was said to be living in Canada. 
On the breaking out of the American 
Revolution in 1775 nearly all the Onon 
daga, together with the majority of the 
other Iroquois tribes, joined the British, 
and at the close of the war the British 
government granted them a tract on G rand 
r., Ontario, where a portion of them still 
reside. The rest are still in New York, the 
greater number being on the Onondaga 
res., and the others with the Seneca and 
Tuscarora on their several reservations. 

The Onondaga made or joined in treat 
ies with the state of New York at Ft 
Schuyler (formerly Ft Stanwix), Sept. 
12, 1788; Onondaga, Nov. 18, 1793; Ca 
yuga Ferry, July 28, 1795; Albany, Feb. 
25, 1817, Feb. 11, 1822, and Feb. 28, 1829. 
They also joined in treaties between the 
Six Nations and the United States at Ft 
Stanwix, N. Y., Oct. 22, 1784; Ft Har- 
mar, O., Jan. 9, 1789; Canaridaigua, N. Y., 
Nov. 11, 1794, and Buffalo Creek, N. Y., 
Jan. 15, 1838. 

In 1660 the Jesuits estimated the Onon 
daga at about 1,500 souls, while Green- 



BULL. 30] 



ONONDAGA 



133 



halgh in 1677 placed them at 1,750, proba 
bly their greatest strength. Later author 
ities give the numbers as 1,250 (1721), 
1,000 (1736), 1,300 (1765), and 1,150 
(1778), but these figures do not include 
those on the St Lawrence. In 1851 Mor 
gan estimated their total number at about 
900, including 400 on Grand r. In 1906 
those in New York numbered 553, the 
rest of the tribe being with the Six 
Nations in Canada. 

The Onondaga towns, so far as known, 
were Ahaouete, Deseroken (traditional), 
Gadoquat, Gannentaha (mission and fort, 
Kaneenda),Gistwiahna, Onondaga, Onon- 
daghara, Onondahgegahgeh, Onontatacet, 
Otiahanague, Teionnontatases, Tgasunto, 
Touenho (Goienho), Tueadasso, and 
some transient hunting and fishing ham 
lets. (J. N. B. n.) 
Anandagas. Audouard, Far West, 178, 1869. Des- 
onontage. Macauley, N. Y., n, 190, 1829 (quoted 
from some French "source; evidently the name 
Onondaga with the French article dcs). Ho-de - 
san-no-ge-ta. Morgan, League Iroq., 97, 1851. 
Honnontages. Hennepin, New Discov., 18, 1698. 
Hutchistanet Gatschet, Seneca MS., 1882 (Seneca 
form of council name). Jenondages. Markham 
(1691) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 808, 1853. La 
Montagne. Greenhalgh (1677), ibid., 252 (French 
name for Onondaga Castle). Let-tegh-segh-nig- 
egh-tee. Macauley, N. Y., n, 185, 1829 (an official 
name). Montagneurs. Greenhalgh (1677) in N. 
Y. Doc. Col. Hist, in, 252, 1853 (so called by 
French). Montagues. Vaudreuil (1760), ibid., x, 
1093, 1858 (misprint?). Mountaineers. Henne 
pin, Cont. of New Discov., 92, 1698 (English 
translation). Nation de la Montagne. Jos. Rel. 
1669, 8, 1858. Nondages. Writer of 1673 in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., II, 594, 1858. Nontagues. Beau- 
harnois (1727), ibid., ix, 968, 1X55. Nontaguez. 
Beauharnois (1734), ibid., 1041. Omates. Nar 
rative of 1693, ibid., 567 (misprint for Onontae ). 
Onadago. Deed of 1789 in Am. St. Papers, Ind. 
Aff.,1,513, 1832. Onandaga. Albany Conf.( 1746) in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 319, 1855. Onandagers. 
Weiser (1748) quoted by Rupp., W. Pa., app., 16. 
1846. Onandages. Vernon (1697) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., IV, 289, 1854. Onandago. Rupp. Northamp 
ton, etc., Cos., 49, 1845. Onandagos. Procter (1791 ) 
in Am. St. Papers, Ind. Aff., I, 156, 1832. Onando- 
gas. Chalmers in Hoyt, Antiq. Res., 159, 1824. 
Qnantagues. Chauvignerie (1736) in Schoolcraft. 
Ind. Tribes, in, 555, 1853. Ondages. Louis XIV 
(1699) in N.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 697,1855. Ondion- 
dago.Lordsof Trade (1754), ibid., vi, 846, 1855 (vil 
lage). One-daugh-ga-haugh-ga. Macauley, N. Y., 
II, 185, 1829. Onendagah. Doc. of 1719 in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., V, 528, 1855. 0-nen-ta-ke. Hewitt, 
inf n, 1887 (correct form). Onnandages. Deed of 
1701 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 910, 1854. Onnata- 
gues. Lahontan (1703) quoted by Drake, Bk. 
Inds., bk. 5, 5, 1848. Onnentagues. Hennepin, 
Cont. New Discov. , 93, 1698. Onnondaga. French 
Doc. (1666) trans, in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 125, 
1853. Onnondages. Livingston (1677), ibid., XIII, 
510, 1881. Onnondagoes. Doc. of 1688, ibid., ill; 
565, 1853. Onnondagues. Schuyler (1702), ibid., 
IV, 983, 1854. Onnonlages. Hennepin, Cont. of 
New Discov., 95, 1698 (misprint). Onnontae. Jes. 
Rel. 1654, 8, 1858 (village). Onnontaehronnons. 
Jes. Rel. 1648, 46, 1858. Onnontaeronnons. Jes. 
Rel. 1647, 46, 1858. Onnontaghe. Jes. Rel. 1658, 8, 
1858 (village). Onnontagheronnons. Jes. Rel. 
1657, 15, 1858. Onnontagk. Narrative of 1693 in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 572, 1855 (village). On- 
nontague. Jes. Rel. 1670, 75, 1858 (village). On- 
nontaguehronnons. Jes. Rel. 1656, 30, 1858. Onnon- 
tagueronnons. Jes. Rel. 165f>, 17, 1858. Onnonta- 
guese. Macauley, N. Y., II, 185, 1829. Onnon- 
taguez. Jes. Rel. 1670, 6, 1858. Onnontatae. De- 
nonville? (1688) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 377, 



1855 (village). Onnontoeronnons. Jes. Rel. 1(157 
8,1858. Onnotagues. Lahontan, New Voy., i 231* 
1/03. Ononda-agos. Vater, Mith., pt. 3, 314 1816 
Onondades. Leisler (1690) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist 
III, 700, 1X53. Onondaeronnons. Jes. Rel. 1646 It; 
1858. Onondagaes. Doc. of 1765 in N. Y. Doc Col 
Hist., VII, 719, 1856. Onondagah. Doc. of 17iy 
ibid., V, 529, 1855. Onondages. Dongan (1684) iii 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th a., ix, 187, 1X71. Onond,v 
gez. Bacqueville de la Potherie, Hist. Am., iv 
128, 1753. Onondaghas. Burnet (1720) in N. Y. Doc 
Col. Hist., V, 577, 1855. Onondaghe. Jes. Kel 1647 
9, 1858 (village). Onondagheronons. Ibid. Ononda 
goes. Ind. Problem N. Y., 196, 1889. Onondagos. 
Greenhalgh (1677) inN. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 25o, 
1853. Onondagues. Doc. of 1676, ibid., XIII, 500, 
18X1. Onondajas. Johnson Hall Conf. (1765), ibid., 
VII, 719, 1856. Onondakes. La Montague (1664) , 
ibid., xin, 355, 1881. Onondawgaws. JelTerys, Fr. 
Dorns., pt. 1, map and note, 1761. Onondegas. 
Johnson (1757) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 278, 
1856. Onontae. Jes. Rel. 1642, 83, 1858 (tribe; in 
the Relation for 1656, p. 7, it is used as the name 
of the village). Onontaehronon. Jes. Rel. 1637, 
111, 1858. Onontaerhonons. Jes. Rel. 1635, 34, 1X5X. 
Onontaeronons. Jes. Rel. 1656, 2, 1858. Onontaer- 
rhonons. Jes. Rel. 1635, 34, 1858. Onontaez. La 
Salle (m. 1682) in Hist. Mag., 1st s., v, 19X, 1X61. 
Onpntager. Weiser (1737) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, IV, 325, 1854, Onontages. Humphreys, 
Acct., 305, 1730. Onontaghes. Doc. of 1695 in N.Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 596, 1855. Onontago. Weiser 
in Pa. Col. Rec., IV. 778, 1X52-56 (village). Onon- 
tague. Jes. Rel. 1656, 7, 1858 (village). Ononta- 
gueronon. Sagard (1632), Hist. Can., IV, 1866 
(Huron name). Onontaguese. Harris, Toy. and 
Trav., ir, 928, 1705. Onontahe. Writer of 1695 in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 599, 1x55 ( village). Onon- 
taheronons. Jes. Rel. 1656, 10, 1X58. Onontake. 
Hennepin, New Discov., 316, 169X. Onontatacet. 
Bellin, map, 1755. Ononthagues. Doc. of 1695 in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 612, 1X55. Onoontaugaes. 
Edwards (1751) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 
146, 1x09. Onoundages. Doc. of 16X4 in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., in, 347, 1853. Ontagues. Frontenac 
(1682), ibid., IX, 1X6, I,x55. O-nun-da -ga-o-no. 
Morgan, League Iroq., 5^. 1X51. Onundagega. 
Gatschet, Seneca MS., 1882 (Seneca name). 
Onundagega-non6"dshunda. Gatschet, ibid. ( large 
mountain people : a Seneca name). Onundaw- 
goes. Dudley (1721) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d 
s., VIII, 244, 1X19. Oonontaeronnons. Jes. Rel. 1647, 
46, 1X5X. Sagosanagechteron. Weiser in Pa. Col. 
Rec., V, 477, 1X52-56 (council name). Seuh-nau- 
ka-ta. Cusick, Five Nat., 21, 1S4S (council name). 
Seuh-no-keh te. W. M. Beauchamp, inf n. 1907 
( bearing the names : own name). Seuh-now- 
ka-ta. Macauley, N. Y., n, 185, 1X29 (an official 
name). Tha-to- dar-hos. Ibid., 176 (given as a 
name for the tribe, but evidently another form 
of Atotarho, the hereditary title of a chief). 
Unedagoes. Coursey (1682) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
HM xm, 558, 1881. Yagochsanogechti. Pyrla-us 
(ca. 1750) quoted by Gatschet in Am. Antiq., iv. 
75, 1881. 

Onondaga. The former chief Onondaga 
town of central New York, whose site 
and name were shifted from time to time 
and from place to place. Within its lim 
its formerly lay the unquenched brands 
of the Great Council Fire of the League of 
the Iroquois. During the American Rev 
olution, Washington found it necessary to 
send an army under ( Jen. Sullivan to pun 
ish the Iroquois tribes for their cruel and 
bloody work in pursuance of their alliance 
with Great Britain. The chastisement 
was so thoroughly administered by the 
total destruction of more than 40 Iroquois 
villages and the growing crops surround 
ing them, that the integrity of the League 
was disrupted and the scattered remnants 
forced to seek shelter in Canada and els< 



ONONDAGA 



[B. A. E. 



where. Finally, on Grand r., Ontario, 
the brands of the (treat Council Fire of 
the League were rekindled by the allied 
portions of all the tribes of the Six Na 
tions, and here the lire is still burning. 
The portions of the tribes which elected 
to remain in New York relighted a fire 
at Onondaga and sought to reestablish 
the ancient form of their government 
there, in order to formulate united action 
on questions affecting their common in 
terests; but this attempt was only partly 
successful, since the seat of government 
had forever departed. The establishment 
at < hiondaga of the seat of federal power 
I >y tin 1 founders of the League of the Iro- 
<|iiois. made Onondaga not only one of 
the most important and widely known 
towns of the Iroquois tribes, but also of 
North America x. of Mexico. At the 
/enith of the power of the Iroquois it was 
the capital of a government whose do 
minion extended from the Hudson r. on 
then, to the falls of the Ohio and L. Mich 
igan on the w., and from Ottawa r. and L. 
Simcoe on the x. to the Potomac on the 
>. and the Ohio in the s. w. 

Around the Great Council Fire of the 
League of the Iroquois at Onondaga, 
with punctilious observance of the parli 
amentary proprieties recognized in Indian 
diplomacy and statecraft, and with a 
decorum that would add grace to many 
legislative- assemblies of the white man, 
the federal senators of the Iroquois tribes 
devised plans, formulated policies, and 
defined principles of government and 
political action which not only strength 
ened their state and promoted their 
common welfare, but also deeply affected 
the contemporary history of the whites in 
North America. " To this body of half-clad 
federal chieftains were repeatedly made 
overtures of peace and friendship by two 
of the most powerful kingdoms of Europe, 
whose statesmen often awaited with ap 
prehension the decisions of this senate of 
North American savages. 

The sites with their approximate dates 
here ascribed to Onondaga are those 
identified by Clark, Beauchamp, and 
others, and listed by Beauchamp in the 
notes to his map (Jes. Kel., Thwaitesed.. 
i.i, 2D4, 1SW): The site in 1600 was 
probably 2 in. \v. of Ca/enovia and E. of 
West Limestone cr., Madison co., X. Y. 
Two sites of towns are accredited to 1620, 
the one 2J m. s. w. and the other 1 m. s! 
of Delphi, Onondaga co., N. Y. The 
site of HJ30 was \\ m. \. w. ,,f Delphi; 
that of 1640 was about 1 m. s. of Pompey 
Center, Onondaga co., on the K. bank of 
West Limestone cr. That of 1(555, i n 
which was established the mission of 
Saint Jean Baptiste, was about 2 m. s. of 
the present Manlius, in the same county, 
-n what is culled Indian hill; the Jesuit 



Relation for 1658 says that this town was 
large and was called "Onnontaghe 
. . because it was on a mountain." 
This town, with its site, is probably 
identical with that visited by Greenhalgh 
in 1677, and described as large, un- 
palisaded, consisting of about 140 houses, 
and situated on a very large hill, the 
bank on each side extending at least 2 in., 
all cleared land and planted with corn. 
Greenhalgh learned that there was 
another village of 24 houses situated 2 in. 
westward; he estimated the Onondaga 
warriors at about 350. The site of 1696 
was 1 in. s. of Jamesville, E. of Butternut 
cr., Onondaga co. Count Frontenac 
burned this town in 1696. The site of 
1743 was E. of the creek and N. of the 
present reservation in Onondaga co., 
while that of 1756 was w. of the creek. 
The site of 1779 was that of one of the 3 
towns plundered and burned in April by 
the troops of Col. Van Schaick; they 
were situated within 2 m. of one another 
and contained 30 to 40 houses. In 1655 
the mission of Saincte Marie de Gannen- 
taa was founded, on the shore of L. 
Onondaga, 12m. N. of the mission of St 
Jean Baptiste; it was also called Saincte 
Marie du Lac de Gannentaa. To this 
mission village, which was abandoned in 
1658, the Jesuits brought 5 small can 
non. For the use of the mission the 
French Governor Lauson, Apr. 12, 1656, 
granted to the Jesuit fathers "10 leagues 
of space in every direction, to wit, 10 
leagues of front and 10 leagues in depth 
and in the place where they shall choose 
to establish themselves in the country of 
the U^pper Iroquois called Onondageoro- 
nons, be it in the town or near the town 
of Onondage, or at Gannentae, . . . 
the said place and extent of 10 leagues 
square is to be possessed by the said rev 
erend Jesuit fathers, their successors and 
assigns, in freehold forever." This grant 
was made evidently without the knowl 
edge or consent of the Onondaga and 
without any compensation or emolument 
to them, a course of procedure quite in 
contrast with that of the Dutch and the 
English colonists in New Y ork, but on 
the other hand in close accord with the 
policy of Gov. Winthrop of Massachusetts, 
tersely expressed in the formula that "if 
we leave them sufficient for their use, we 
may lawfully take the rest, there being 
more than enough for them and us." 
This doctrine was embodied into law by 
the General Court of Massachusetts in 
1633, justifying its action by Biblical 
citation. 

From the Jesuit Relations it is learned 
that under the operation of the principle 
of conferring citizenship by adoption into 
some definite stream of kinship common 
to the Iroquois state, there were colo- 



BULL. 30] 



ONONDAGHARA ONTONAGON 



185 



nized at Onondaga persons and families 
from at least 7 different tribes. Accord 
ing to the same authority (Thwaites ed., 
LXVI, 203, 1900) the Jesuit missions to the 
Onondaga and the Seneca were aban 
doned in 1709, and in 1711 a French ex 
pedition built a blockhouse at Onondaga, 
2-H ft long and 18 ft wide, which Peter 
Schuyler ordered destroyed along with 
other building material as "there was 
other wood ready to build a chappell " 
(X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist, v, 249, 1855). 

Of the Onondaga of 1682, Father Jean 
de Lamberville (Jes. Rel., Thwaites ed., 
LXII, 1900) wrote the following interesting 
facts: "I found on my arrival the Iro- 
quois of this town occupied in transport 
ing their corn, their effects, and their 
lodges to a situation 2 leagues from their 
former dwelling-place where they have 
been for 19 years. They made this 
change in order to have nearer to them the 
convenience of firewood, and fields more 
fertile than those which they aband oned. 
This was probably the town visited by 
Greenhalgh in 1677. (j. N. B. n.) 

Arnoniogre. Lamberville, letter, in N, Y. Doc 
Col. Hist., in, 488, 1853 (misprint for Onnontague). 
Kanatagb wa. Morgan, League Iroq., ir, 87,1904. 
Onendagah. N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., Index, 1861. 
Onnondage. Jes. Rel., Thwaites ed., XLI, 245, 1899. 
Onnondague. Ibid., xxx, 259,1898. Onnondaque. 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., Index, 1861. Onnontae 
Jes. Rel., Thwaites ed., XL, 163, 1899. Onnonta e. 
Jes. Rel. 1653, Thwaites ed., xxxvin, 183, 1899. 
Onnontaghe. Jes. Rel. 1657, 44, 1858. Onnon- 
tagk. N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist,, Index, 1861. Onnon- 
tagu6. Jes. Rel., Thwaites ed., xur, 179, 1899. 
Onontae. N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., Index, 1861. 
Onontague, De la Barre (1684) in N. Y. Doc Col 
Hist., IX, 263, 1855. Oynondage. N. Y. Doc. Col . 
Hist., Index, 1861. Saint Jean Baptiste. Jes. Rel 
Thwaites ed., LII, 153, 1899. Tagochsanagechti. 
De Schweinit/, Life of Zeisberger, 56, 1870 (name 
of "lower town"). 

Onondaghara ( it-mountain top ) . A 
former Onondaga village which, accord 
ing to Macauley, was the largest of five 
"in the extent of 8 miles." It was situ 
ated on Onondaga r., 3 m. E. of Onondaga 
Hollow, N. Y., and contained about 50 
houses in 1829. (j. N. B. H. ) 

Onondagharie. Macauley, Hist. X Y u 177 
1829. 

Onondahgegahgeh ( place of the Onon 
daga ). A former Onondaga village w. 
of Lower Ebenezer, Erie co., N. Y. Part 
of the Onondaga lived there after the 
American Revolution until the Buffalo 
Creek res. was sold in 1838. (w. M. B.) 

Onondakai ( Destroy Tow T n ). A Sen 
eca chief who signed the treaty of 1826. 
His name is also given as Gonondagie, 
and, more exactly, as Oshagonondagie. 
He Destroys the Town, written "Straw 
Town" in the treaty of 1815, Oosaukau- 
nendauki in 1797. He was one of those 
whose remains were reinterred at Buffalo 
in 1884. The name was a favorite one, 
but, as applied to George Washington and 
some French governors, has a slightly 
different form. (w. M. B.) 



Onondarka ( on a hill ). A Seneca 
town N. of Karaghyadirha, on Guv 
Johnson s map of 1771 (Doc. Hist. N. Y 
iv, 1090,1851). (w. M. H.)" 

Onontatacet ( one goes around a hill or 
mountain ). A former Onondaga village 
located on the Charlevoix map of 1745 on 
Seneca r., N. Y. It was not a Cavuga 
village, as some assert. (j. \. . H. j 

Onepa ( salt houses. Och ) . A former 
Nevome pueblo 9 leagues \v. of Bacanora, 
at the present Santa Rosalia, Sonora, 
Mexico. It was the seat of a Spanish 
mission dating from 1677. Pop 171 i n 
1678, 76 in 1730. 

Santa Rosalia de Onopa. Zapata (1678) in Doc 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., in, 346, 1857. Sta. Rosalia 
Onapa. Zapata (1678) cited bv Bancroft No 
Mex. States, I, 245, 1886. 

Onowaragon. An Onondaga who suc 
ceeded a chief of the same name. The 
latter was a French partisan and was 
condoled in 1728. The former attended 
a council with Gov. Beauharnois in 1742, 
being the Onondaga speaker. Weiser, 
who lodged in his house in 1743, calls 
him Annawaraogon. He may have born 
the Kayenwarygoa \vh<> attended the 
Boston council of 1744, but this is doubt 
ful. (\ v . M. H. ) 

Ontarahronon ( lake people. Hewitt). 
An unidentified sedentary tribe probably 
living s of St Lawrence r. in 1640. Jes. 
Rel. 1640, 35, 1858. 

Ontariolite. A mineral; according to 
Dana (Text-book Mineralogy, 435, 1888), 
"a variety of scapolite occurring in 
limestone at Gal way, Ontario, Canada. 
Formed with the suffix -lite, from Greek 
AzOos, a stone, from Ontario, the name 
of a lake and a Canadian province. The 
w r ord is of Iroquoian origin, signifying, 
according to Hale (Iroq. Hook of 
Rites, 176, 1883) the great lake, from 
Huron ontara or the Iroquois onidtaru, 
lake, and -Id, a suffix meaning great, 
or later, beautiful, hence perhaps 
beautiful lake. (A. F. c. ) 

Ontianyadi (0"n-(t"y<idl, grizzly-bear 
people ). A Biloxi clan. Dorsey in 
15th Rep. B. A. E., 243, 1897. 

Ontikehomawck. An early village of the 
Stockbridge tribe in Rensselaer co., 
N. Y. (w. M. H.) 

Ontonagon. AChippewaband formerly 
living on Ontonagon r. in upper .Michi 
gan. Regarding the origin of the name, 
Baraga (Otchipwe Diet., 295, 1882) says: 
"The proper meaning of this word is 
my dish. An Indian tradition says that 
a squaw once came to the river, now 
called Ondonagan, to fetch water with 
an Indian eartl en dish, but the dish 
escaped from her hand and went to the 
bottom of the river, whereupon the poor 
squaw began to lament: nid nhxt ondgan, 
nind ondgan! Ah, my dish, my dish! 



ONTPONE A OOHEN ON P A 



[B. A. E. 



And the river was ever since called after 
this exclamation." 

Nantunagunk. Win. Jones, infn, 1905 (correct 
formi. Octonagon band. I . S. Stat. at Large, X, 
220, 18f>4 (misprint . Ontonagon band. La Pointe 
treaty (l.s.Vl) in V. S. Ind. Treat., 224, 1S73. 

Ontponea. A tribe of the Manahoac con 
federacy, formerly livingiuOrangeco., Ya. 
Ontponeas. Smith (1629), Va., I, 134, repr. 1819. 
Ontponies. Jefferson, Notes, 134, 1794. Outpan- 
kas. Strachey (en. 1612), Va., 104, 1849. Outpo- 
mes.Boudinot, Star in the West, 128, 1816. 

Ontwaganha. An Iroquois term, having 
here the phonetics of the Onondaga dia 
lect, and freely rendered one utters un 
intelligible speech, hence approximately 
synonymous with alien, foreigner. 
Its literal meaning is one rolls (or gulps) 
his \v>rds or speech. This epithet was 
originally applied in ridicule of the speech 
of the Algonquian tribes, which to Iro- 
liiois ears was uncouth, particularly to 
the northern and western tribes of this 
stock, the Chippewa, Ottawa, Miami or 
T \vightwigh, Missisauga, Shawnee, the 
"Far Indians" including the Amikwa 
(<>r Neghkariage (of two castles), the 
Ronowadainie, Onnighsiesanairone, Sika- 
jienatroene or "Eagle People," Tionon- 
tati (only by temporary association with 
the foregoing), Chickasaw (?), Masco f u- 
tens (?), Konatewisichroone, and Awigh- 
sichroene. Thus the term was consist 
ently applied to tribes dwelling in 
widely separated localities. Sometimes, 
but rarely, it may have been confounded 
in use with Tsaganha (q. v.), or Agotsa- 
iranha. which had a similar origin but 
was applied to a different group of Al- 
gonquian tribes. (,r. N. H. H.) 

AtSagannen. Hruyas, Radioes, 40, 180H ( to speak 
a foreign language : Mohawk name). Atwagan- 
nen. Brnyas as quoted by Shea in Hennepin, 
pescr. La.. Ml, Isso. Dawaganhaes. Letter (1(195) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hi>t., iv, 124, 1x54. Dawagan- 
has. -Doc. (1C.95), ibid.. 128. Dewaganas. Ibid., 



(H 



Dewogannas. Nanfan X 



. 

ilts,, ibid., iv. 407, I,s51. Douaganhas. Cortland 
> *!). ibid., in, |:>1, 1*5:$. Douwaganhas. Ibid. 
Dovaganhaes. Doc. i 1(191). ibid.. 77S. Dowagan- 
haas. Livingston (170(1), ibid., iv, tils, 1X51. Do- 
waganhaes. Doc. (1693), ibid., 23. Dowaganhas.^ 
Cortland, op. cit. Dowaganhoes. N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Jen. Index, iMll. Dowanganhaes. Doc. 
. ibid., in. 776. ls.-)H. Hontouagaha. Henne- 
pm, Dcscr. La., so. IXM). Houtouagaha. Henne- 
pin, Ne\v Discov.,59, 1698 (for Ontwaganha; proba 
bly SJiawnee). Onkouagannha, .les. Rel. lf,70, 
1< V 5<S. Ontoagannha. Lalement (1661-<i3) in 
.les. Kcl., Thwaites ed., xi.vil, 115, 1*99. Ontoa- 
gaunha. Jes. Kel. ir,r,2, 2, lX5s. Ontoouaganha, 
S. lt;79 in .les. Rel., Thwaites ed., i.xi, 27, 1900 
Ontouagannha. Le Mercier (1670) in .les. Rel 
Thuaitesed. ,1.111, is, 1X .I. OntSagannha. .les Rel 
0, 7, 1X5.S (,_ Nation dn Feu") Ontouagenn- 
. ltd. 1(192. 25. 1X5X, Ontwagannha. Shea, 
. M iss. .285, 1X55. Takahagane. La Salle (1682) 
in Margry, Dec., n, 1U7, 1X77. Taogarias. Senex, 
I 1 N. Am., 1710. Taogria. (iravier (1701) 
quoted by Shea, Karly Voy., 124, 1.S61 ( .---Shavv- 
nee; evidently another form for Ontwaganha) 
Toagenha. (iallinee ( 1670) in Margry Dec I 130 
H/.,. Toaguenha. Ibid., 136. Tongarois. La 
Harp,- M7u:n in French, Hist. Coll. La., in, 30, 
]*.)!. Tongoriaa. Rafinesque in Marshall. Kv. i 
nitrod.. 3.1, ISLM. Touagannha. -.les. Rel. 1(17o 
0, 7(1. |s:,s. Touguenhas. (iallinee (1670) in 
Margry, Dec., ,, ];, 187r)- Towaganha.-Message 



of 1763 in X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist, VII, 544, 1856. 
Twa ga ha . Hewitt, infn, 1907 (Seneca form) 
Waganhaers. Doc. (1699) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
iv, 565, 1854. Waganhaes. Livingston (1700), 
ibid . , 691 . Wagannes. Schuy ler and Claese (1701 ) , 
ibid., 891. Wahannas. Romer (1700), ibid., 799. 

Onuatnc. An Algonquian village in 
1608 on the E. bank of Patuxent r. in 
Calvert co., Md. The inhabitants were 
probably afterward merged with the Co- 
no y. 

Onnatuck. Bo/man, Md., I, 141, 1837. Onuatuck. 
Smith (1629), Va., I, map, repr. 1819. 

Onuganuk. A Chnagmiut Eskimo vil 
lage at the Kwikluak mouth of the Yu 
kon, Alaska. 

Onug -aniigemut. Dall. Alaska, 264, 1870. 

Onugareclury. A Cay uga village located 
on Kite-bin s map of 1756 between Cay uga 
and Seneca lakes, N. Y. Other towns were 
mentioned there a little earlier, but their 
names do not resemble this. (w. M. B. ) 

Onwarenhiiaki. See Williams, Elect zer. 

Onyanti. See Oneyana. 

Onyx. See Marble. 

Oochukham (Oo-chuW-ham). Given by 
Morgan (Anc. Soc., 172, 1877) as a sub- 
clan of the Delaw-ares, and said to mean 
ground-scratcher. 

Oohenonpa ( tw r o boilings ) . A division 
of the Teton Sioux, commonly known as 
Two Kettle Sioux, or Two Kettles; also a 
subdivision thereof. No mention of it is 
made by Lewis and Clark, Long, or other 
earlier explorers. It is stated in a note 
to De Smet s Letters (1843) that the band 
was estimated at 800 persons. Culbertson 
(1850) estimated them at 60 lodges, but 
gives no locality and says they have no di 
visions. Gen. Warren (1856) found them 
much scattered among other bands and 
numbering about 100 lodges. Gumming 
(Rep. Ind. Aff. for 1856) places them on 
the s. side of the Missouri. Hayden (1862) 
says they passed up and down Cheyenne 
r. as far as Cherry cr. and Moreau and 
Grand rs., not uniting w T ith other bands. 
Their principal chief then was Matotopa, 
or Four Bears, a man of moderate capacity 
but exercising a good influence on his 
people. They lived entirely on the 
plains, seldom going to war, and were 
good hunters and shrewd in their deal 
ings with the traders. They treated with 
respect \v hite men w r ho came among them 
as traders or visitors. They were on the 
warpath in 1866 at the time of the Ft 
Phil. Kearney massacre, yet it is not cer 
tain that they took an active part in this 
attack. P>y treaty made at Ft Sully, Dak., 
on Oct. 19, 1865, they agreed to cease 
attacking whites or Indians except in 
self defense and to settle permanently 
on designated lands. This treaty was 
signed on their behalf by chiefs Chatan- 
skah ( White Hawk) , Shonkahwakkonke- 
deshkah (Spotted Horse), Mahtotopah 
(Four Bears), and others, and was faith 
fully observed by them unless thev were 



BULL. 80] 



OOK WOLIK OP AMENT 



137 



in the Sitting Bui) uprising of 1876, which 
is doubtful. 

Neither contagion nor war materially 
reduced the number of the Oohenonpa, 
which seems to have remained compara 
tively stationary up to 1887, when it was 
reported as 642, the last separate official 
enumeration. They reside on Cheyenne 
River res., S. Dak., with Sihasapa, Mini- 
conjou, and Sans Arcs. 

Only two subdivisions were known to 
Dorsey, theOohenonpah and Mawakhota. 
Kettle band. Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850 
142,1851. Kettle band Sioux. Camming in H R 
Ex. Doc. 65, 34th Cong., 1st sess., 4, 1856. NiK - 
a-o-cih -a-is. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo 
Val., 290, 1862 (Cheyenne name). Ohanapa 




AN OOHENONPA, OR TWO-KETTLE SIOUX 

Brackett in Smithson. Rep. 466, 1876. Ohenonpa 
Dakotas. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 
map, 1862. Ohenonpas. Keane in Stanford, Com- 
pend., 527, 1878. Oohenoijpa. Riggs, Dakota 
Gram, and Diet., xvi, 1852. Oohe-no n pa. Dorsey 
in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 220, 1897; McGee, ibid., 161. 
Oohenoupa. Hind, Red R. Exped., n, 154, 1860. 
Three Kettles. Ind. Aff. Rep. 1856, 68, 1857. Two 
Cauldrons. De Smet. Letters, 37, note, 1843. Two 
Kettle. Gale, Upper Miss., 226, 1867. Two Ket 
tles. Riggs, Dak. Gram, and Diet., xvi, 1852. Two 
Rille band. Ind. Aff. Rep., 296, 1846. Wo-he- 
nom -pa. Hayden, op. cit., 371. 

Ookwolik. A tribe of Eskimo about 
Sherman inlet in the Hudson Bay re 
gion. Gilder. Schwatka s Search. 199, 
1881. 



Oolachan. See Eularhon. 

Ooltan. A former rancheria, probably 
??m . ? f a P^, visited by Father Kino in 
1 I! 1 Ua ed i n . N - w ,Sonora v Mexico, 3 



. . 
leagues N. w. of Busanic (n v ) 

. Bancroft No M 



S. Estani 



Ooltewah (corruption of rithrrt l, of un 
known meaning). A former CheroKee 
settlement about the present Ooltewah 
on the creek of the same name in James 
co Tenn. Mooneyin 19th Rep. B. A. E , 
542, 1900. 

Oomiak. The large skin boat or "wo 
man s boat" of the Eskimo; spelled also 
umiak; from the name of this vessel in the 
eastern Eskimo dialects. (A. F. c. ) 

Oonilgachtkhokh. A Koyukukhotana 
village, of 17 persons in 1844, on Koyu- 
kuk r., Alaska. Zagoskin quoted by Pe- 
troff in 10th Census, Alaska, 37, 1884. 

Oonossoora ( poison hemlock ) . A Tus- 
carora village in North Carolina in 1701. 
Lawson, Hist. Car., 383, 1860. 

Oony. A former Choctaw town on an 
affluent of upper Chickasawhay r., s. of 
the present Pinkney Mill, Newton co., 
Miss. Brown in Pub. Miss. Hist Soc 
vi, 443, 1902. 

Oosabotsee. A band of the Crows. 
Butchers. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 159, 1877 Oo-sa- 
bot-see. Ibid. 

Oosaukaunendauki. See Onondakai. 
Oothcaloga ( Uy yild gl, abbreviated from 
Tsuyngild gl,, i where there are dams, i. e. 
beaver dams). A former Cherokee set 
tlement on Oothcaloga (Ougillogy) cr. 
of Oostanaula r., near tl.e present Cal- 
houn, Gordon co., Ga. M coney in 19th 
Rep. B. A. E., 545, 1900. 

Ootlashoot. According to Lewis and 
Clark a tribe of the Tushepaw nation 
(q. v.) in 1805-06, residing in spring and 
summer on Clarke r. within the Rocky 
nits., and in the fall and winter on the 
Missouri and its tributaries. Pop. 400 in 
33 lodges. 

Cutlashoots. Robertson, Greg., 129, 1846 (mis 
print). Eoote-lash-Schute. Orig. .lour. Lewis and 
Clark, in, 54, 1905. Oate-lash-schute. Ibid., vi. 
114, 1905. Oat-la-shoot. Le\vis and Clark Kx- 
ped., I, map, 1814. Oat-lash-shoots. Orig. .lour. 
Le\visand Clark, v, 112, 219,1905. Oat-lash shute. 
Ibid., VI, 120, 1905. Oleachshoot. Gass. Journal, 
132, 1807. Olelachshook. Clark in Jaiison, Stran 
ger, 233. 1807. Olelachshoot. Lewis, Travels, 22 
1809. Oote-lash -shoots. -Orig. Jour. Lrui< nn< 
Clark, III, 103, 1905. Oote-lash-shutes. Ibid.. 55 
Ootlashoots. Lewis and Clark Kxpcd., i. lid. 1M! 
Ootslashshoots. Orig. Jour. Leuis and Clark, v 
180, 1905. Shahlee. Lewis and Clark Exped.. n 
333, 1814. Shalees. Ibid., 329. Shallees. Ibid. 
324 (Chopnnnish name). 

Opa. The fourth Chilula village on 
Redwood cr., Cal. 

Oh-pah. Gibbs in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, ni, 
139, 1853 (Ynrok name). 

Opament. An Algonqnian village in Kilts 
on the E. bank of the Patuxent, in Cal vert 
co., Md. The inhabitants were probably 
absorbed by the Conoy. Smith (1629), 
Ya., i, map, repr. 1819. 



138 



OPASSOM OPATA 



[B. A. E. 



Opassom. See Opossum. 

Opata ( Pima: o-op enemy , o-otam peo 
ple ). A division of the Piman family, 
formerly inhabiting the country between 
the \v. boundary of Chihuahua and the 
Hio San Miguel in Sonora, Mexico, and 
extending from the main fork of the Rio 
Yaiui, about lat. 1*8 30 , to 31 , just below 




OPATA MAN. (AM. Mus. MAT. HIST.) 

the s. boundary of Arizona, most of them 
being settled about the headwaters of 
Yaqui and Sonora rs. They cull them 
selves Joyl-ra-ua, village people. 

Physically the Opata may be consid 
ered good specimens of the Indian race. 
They are not large in stature, but are 
well-proportioned; their complexion is 
not so dark as that of the Yaqui; their 
features an- regular and agreeable. 

Prior to the advent of the Spanish mis 
sionaries, to whose efforts they readily 
yielded, the habits and customs of the 
( >pata were generally akin to those of the 
Pima and 1 apugo \. and w. They are 
described as of a submissive disposition, 

ith much regard for honesty and moral 
ity, and have always been friendly to the 
Mexican (joyernment in all the "revolu 
tions and civil dissensions, except in 1820, 
when a portion of them rebelled in conse 
quence of the injustice of a government 
After several engagements in 
which the natives displayed great bravery 
they were compelled to submit, owin<* to 

H- exhaustion of their ammunition and 
the great superiority in number of the 
opposing Mexican forces. The humanity 
and justice shown their prisoners in this 
rebellion have been the subject of praise. 
Opata houses were formerly mu 
lcted oj mats and reeds, with founda- 
; <-t st., ne. and were more durable 
than those of mo<t of their neighbors 
Caves were also inhabited to some ex 



tent by both the Opata proper and the 
Jova, even in historic times. Owing to 
the ruggedness of the country they in 
habited, the tribe was divided into petty 
isolated communities, among which dis 
sension frequently arose, sometimes end 
ing in actual hostility. Thus, the inhabit 
ants of Sinoquipe and Banamichi, in the 
Sonora valley, were once confederated 
against those of Huepac and Aconchi, 
immediately s. This led to the construc 
tion outside the villages of defensive 
works of volcanic rock, where an entire 
settlement or several allied settlements 
could resort in event of intertribal irrup 
tion. Besides this hostility, the tribe 
was constantly harassed in former times 
by the Jano, Jocome, and Suma warlike 
tribes believed to have been subsequently 
absorbed by the Apache. AVhile, as a 
result of such invasions, a number of 
Opata villages near the Sonora-Chihua- 
hua frontier w T ere abandoned by their in 
habitants, the inroads of these bands 
made no such lasting impression as those 
in later years by the Apache proper. 
When unmolested, the Opata cultivated 
small garden patches in the canyons, 
which were nourished by water from 
the mesas, the drift therefrom being ar 
rested by rows of stones. Hrdlicka (Am. 
Anthrop., vi, 74, 1904) says there remain 
no apparent traces of tribal organization 
among them. They have lost their lan 
guage, as well as their old religious beliefs 
and traditions, dress like the Spanish 
Mexicans, and are not distinguishable in 




appearance from the laboring classes of 
Mexico. Their chief occupation is agri 
culture, their crops consisting principally 
of maize, beans, melons, and chile. Some 
of the men are employed as laborers. 
The Jesuit census of 1730 (Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, i, 513-14, 1883) gives the 
population, including the Eudeve and 



LL. 30] 



OPECHANCANOUGH OPELOUSA 



139 



Jova, as nearly 7,000. Hardy (Trav. in 
Mex., 437, 1829) estimated them at 10,000. 
They are now so completely civilized that 
only 44 Qpata were recognized as such by 
the national census of 1900. 

The chief tribal divisions were Opata 
proper, Eudeve, and Jova. Other divi 
sions have been mentioned, as the Segui 
(Tegui), Teguima, and Coguinachi (Ve- 
lasco in Bol. Soc. Mex. Geog. Estad., 1st s., 
x, 705, 1863); and Orozco y Berra ((Jeog., 
343, 1864) adds a list of villages included 
in each. As the divisions last named are 
merely geographic, without linguistic or 
ethnic significance, they soon dropped 
from usage. 

The villages of the Opata proper, so 
far as known, were: Aconchi, Arizpe, Ba- 
bispe, Bacuachi, Baquigopa, Baseraca, 
Batepito, Batesopa, Cabora, Comupatrico, 
Corazones, Corodegiiachi ( Fronteras ) , Cu- 
chuta, Cuchuveratzi, Distancia, Guepaco- 
matzi, Huachinera, Huehuerigita, Hue- 
pac, Jamaica, Los Otates, Metates, Mary- 
siche, Mochilagua, Motepori, Xacofi, 
Nacosari, Naideni, Oposura, Oputo, Pi vipa, 
Quitamac, Sahuaripa, Suya, Tamichopa, 
Tepachi, Terapa, Teras, Teuricachi, Tizo- 
nazo, Toapara, Urea, Vallecillo, and Ye- 
cora. For the villages belonging to 
the other divisions mentioned above, see 
under their respective names. See also 
Civoudroco. The principal authority on 
the Opata during the mission period is the 
Rudo Ensayo, an anonymous account 
written by a Jesuit missionary about 1763 
and published in 1863. (F. w. H.) 

jJoyl-ra-ua. Bandolier in Arch. Inst. Papers in 
57, 1890; Gilded Man, 176, 1893 (own name) . Opa- 
la. Ladd, Story of N. Mex., 34, 1891 (misprint). 
Opate. Bartlett, Pers.Narr., 1, 444, 1854. Opauas. 
MS. of 1655 quoted by Bandelier, op. cit., iv, 521, 
1892. Ore. Orozco y Berra, Geog.. 338, 18(54 ( =Ure, 
used for Opata). Sonora. Ibid. Tegiiima. Ibid, 
(really an Opata dialect). Tire. Ibid, (doubtless 
so named because Opata inhabited the greater 
portion of the partido of Ures). 

Opechancanough. A Powhatan chief, 
born about 1545, died in 1644. He cap 
tured Capt. John Smith shortly after 
the arrival of the latter in Virginia, and 
took him to his brother, the head-chief 
Powhatan (q. v. ). Some time after his 
release, Smith, in order to change the 
temper of the Indians, who jeered at the 
starving Englishmen and refused to sell 
them food, went with a band of his men 
to Opechancanough s camp under pre 
tense of buying corn, seized the chief by 
the hair, and at the point of a pistol 
marched him off a prisoner. The Pa- 
munkey brought boat-loads of provisions 
to ransom their chief, who thereafter en 
tertained more respect and deeper hatred 
for the English. While Powhatan lived 
Opechancanough was held in restraint, 
but after his brother s death in 1618 he 
became the dominant leader of the nation, 
although his other brother, Opitchapan, 



was the nominal head-chief. He plotted 
the destruction of the colony so secretly 
thatonlyoneIndian,theChristianChanco 
revealed the conspiracy, but too late to 
save the people of Jamestown, who at a 
sudden signal were massacred, Mar >> 



, 

1622, by the natives deemed to beentirely 
friendly. In the period of intermittent 
hostilities that followed, duplicity and 



treachery marked the action* of both 
whites and Indians. In the last year of 
his life, Opechancanough, taking advan 
tage of the dissensions of the English, 
planned their extermination. The aged 
chief was borne into battle on a litter 
when the Powhatan, on Apr. 18, 1(>44, fell 
upon the settlements and massacred 300 
persons, then as suddenly desisted and 
fled far from the colony, frightened per 
haps by some omen. Opechancanough 
was taken prisoner to Jamestown, where 
one of his guards treacherously shot him, 
inflicting a wound of which he subse 
quently died. 

Opegoi. The Yurok name of the Karok 
village opposite the mouth of Red Cap 
cr., on Klamath r., N. w. Cal. It was 
the Karok village farthest downstream. 
A. L. Kroeber, inf n, 190n. 
Oppegach. Gibbs (1851) in Schooleraft I mi 
Tribes, in, 148, 1853. Oppegoeh. Gibbs, MS. 
Misc., B. A. E., 1852. Op pe-o. McKee (1x51) in 
Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 164, 1853. 
Oppe-yoh. GibbsinSchoolcraft.op. cit.,151. Red 
caps. Gibbs, MS., op. cit. Up-pa-goine. McKee, 
op. cit., 194. Up-pa-goines. Meyer, Nacb dein Sac 
ramento, 282, 1855. Up-pah-goines. McKee op 
cit., 161. 

Opelousa (probably black above , i. e. 
black hair or black skull ). A small 
tribe formerly living in s. Louisiana. It 
is probable that they were identical with 
the Onquilouzas of La Harpe, spoken of 
in 1699 as allied with the Washa and 
Chaouacha, wandering near the seacoasts, 
and numbering with those two tribes 200 
men. This would indicate a more south 
erly position than that in which they are 
afterward found, and Du Pratz, whoso in 
formation applies to the years between 
1718 and 1730, locates the Oque-Loussas, 
evidently the same people, westward and 
above Poi nteCoupee, rather too far to the N. 
He says that they inhabited the shores of 
two little lakes which appeared black from 
the quantity of leaves which covered their 
bottoms, and received their name, which 
means Black- water people in Mobilian, 
from this circumstance. It these were 
the same as the Opelousas of all later 
writers it is difficult to understand how 
the change in name came about, but it is 
not likely that two tribes withsuch similar 
designations occupied the same region, 
especially as both are never mentioned 
by one author. When settlers began to 
push westward from the Mississippi, the 
district occupied by this tribe came to lx> 
called after them, and the name is still 



140 



OPELTO OPONA YS 



[B. A. E. 



retained by the parish seat of St Landry. 
Of their laterhistory little information can 
IK- gathered, but if would seem from the 
frequency with which thisname is coupled 
with that of the Attacapa that they were 
closely related tothat people. This is also 
t he opinion of those Chitimacha and Atta 
capa who remember having heard the 
tribe spoken of, and is partially confirmed 
by Sibley, who states that they understood 
Attacapa although having a language of 
their own. It is most probable that their 
proper language, referred to by Sibley, 
was nothing more than an Attacapa dia 
lect, though it is now impossible to tell 
how closely the two resembled each other. 
In 1777 Attacapa and Opelousa are re 
ferred to at the mouth of the Sabine r. 
(BoltoninTex. Hist. Assn. Quar., ix, 117- 
1S, 1905), but the latter are usually located 
in the s. part of St Landry parish, Sibley 
stating that in 1S06 their village was 
"about 15 ni. from the Appelousachurch." 
At that time they numbered about 40 
men. but they have since disappeared 
completely, owing to the invasion of the 
whites and theMuskliogean Indians from 
K. of the Mississippi. (.T. K. s. ) 

Apalousa. Schoolcnift, Ind. Tribes, 111,529,1853. 
Apalusa. KIT. Travels, 301, 1816. Apeloussas. 
Haudry des Lo/ieres. Voy. Louisianes, 241, 1802. 
Apeluaas. Perrin du Lac, Voyage, 379, 1805. Ap- 
palousas. Sihlt-y, Hist. .Sketches, 83, 1806. Appe- 
lousas. Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 
lit:. IMit ). Asperousa. Brion de la Tour, Map, 
17M. Black Water. JefTerys, French Dom., 1, 165, 
ITt .l. Loupelousas. French, Hist. Coll. La., II, 70, 
Iv iti. Loupitousas. Kaudry des Lozieres, Voy. 
Louisianes, 2-13, 1802. Obeloussa. 1 hilippeaux, 
Map of Kngl. ( <>].. 17X1. Ogue Loussas. Jeil erys, 
Fivnrh Dom., I, 1C.5, 1761. Opalusas. Kafinesque 
in Marshall. Ky., i. inlrod., 21. 1824. Opelousas. 
Sil.lry i lxof>) in Am. St. Pap., Ind. AIT., I, 724.1832. 
Opeluassas. Ann. dc la Propagation de la Foi, I. 
4 . . lxf>3. Oppelousas. Brackenridge, Views of 
Lu.,x-_>, ISM. Oque Loussas. Du Prat/. Louisiana 
317. 1771. 

Opelto ( <> f -])el-t<>, tlie forks ). A former 
Xishinam village in the valley of Bear r., 
which is the next stream \. of Sacramento, 
( 1 al. Powers in ( out. X. A. Ethnol.,m, 
::!<, is77. 

Operdniving ( spring place ). A Nu- 
gnmiut Eskimo spring village in Countess 
! Warwick sd., near Frobisher bay, Balh n 
land. 

Oopungnewing Hall quoted hy Xourse, Am. 

Kxplor., I ll. issi. Operdniving. Boas in 6th Rep. 

!. Oppernowick.- Ross, Voy., 164, 

Opia. A Chnmashan village between 

(oletaand I t Concepcion, Cal., in 1542. 

Cabrillo. Narr. ( 1542 j in Smith, Colec 
Doc. Kin., is:}, 1S57. 

Opichiken. A Salish band <,r village 
under the Fraser siiperintendencv Brit 
Col. Can. Ind. AIT., 79, ls7s. 

Opiktulik. A Kaviagmiut Eskimo vil 
lage on the x. shore of Norton sd., Alas 
ka: pop. 12 in 1SSO. 

OkpikUhk.- IVtrolf in Kith Census, Alaska, map, 

Okpiktolik. Ibiil.. 11. Opiktulik. -Baker 

*. Diet. Alaska. 1W2. Oukviktoulia. Zagos- 



kin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 6th s., xxi, map, 1850. 
Upiktalik. llth Census, Alaska, 162, 1893. 

Opilhlako (Opil - ldko, big swamp ). 
A former Upper Creek tow r n on a stream 
of the same name which flows into Pakan- 
Tallahassee cr., x. E. Ala,, 20 in. from 
Coosa r. 

Opilika. H. R. Doc. 452, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 93, 
1838. Opilike. Ibid., 49. Opil - lako. Gatschet 
Creek Migr. Leg., I, 141. 1884. 0-pil-thluc-co. 
Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 50, 1848. 

Opinghaki ( 0-ping-ha -ki, white -face 
land, i. e. opossum land ). A subclan 
of the Delawares. 

Opinghaki. W. R. Gerard, inf n, 1907 (correct 
form). O-ping -ho -ki, Morgan, Anc. Soc., 172 
1877. 

Opiscopank. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1 608, on the s. bank of the 
Rappahannock in Middlesex co., Va. 
Smith (1629), Va., i, map, repr. 1819. 

Opistopia. A Chumashan village be 
tween Goleta and Pt Concepcion, Cal., in 
1542. 

Opistopea. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863. 
Opistopia. Cabrillo, Narr. (1542) in Smith, Colee. 
Doc. Fla., 183, 1857. 

Opitchesaht. A Xootka tribe on Al- 
berni canal, Somass r., and neighboring 
lakes, Vancouver id. , Brit. Col. Anciently 
this tribe is said to have spoken Nanaimo 
(q. v. ). The septs, according to Boas, are 
Mohotlath, Tlikutath, and Tsomosath. 
Their principal village is Ahahswinnis. 
Pop. 62 in 1902, 48 in 1906. 
Hopetcisa th. Boas, 6th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 
31, 1890. Opechisaht. Sproat, Savage Life, 308, 
1868. Opecluset. Mayne, Brit, Col., 251, 1862. 
Ope-eis-aht. Brit. Col. map., Ind. AIT., Victoria, 
1872. Opet-ches-aht. Can. Ind. Aft ., 308, 1879. 
Opitches-aht. Ibid., 187, 1884. Upatsesatuch. 
Grant in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc., 293. 1857. 

Opitsat. The permanent village of the 
Clayoquot (q. v.), on the s. w. shore of 
Meares id., w. coast of Vancouver id., 
Brit. Col.; pop. 245 in 1902, 261 in 1906. 
Opetsitar. Gray and Ingraham (1791) quoted in 
II . R. Doc. 43, 26th Cong., 1st sess., 3, 1840. 
Opisat. Can. Ind. Aft ., 263/1902. Opisitar. Ken- 
driek deed (1791), ibid., 10. 

Opodepe. A former pueblo of the Eu- 
deve and seat of a Spanish mission 
founded in 1649; situated on the E. bank 
of Rio San Miguel, Sonora, Mexico; pop. 
820 in 1678, 134 in 1730. Of a population 
of 679 in 1900, 26 were Opata and 56 
Yaqui. 

Asuncion de Opodepe. Zapata (1678) in Doc. Hist. 
Mex., 4th s., in, 351, 1857. Opodepe. Kino, map 
(1702) in Stocklein, Neue Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. 
Opoteppe. Och, Journey to the Missions (1756), 
i, 71, 1809. 

Opok (O pok}. A former Maidu settle 
ment on the N. fork of Cosumnes r., near 
Nashville, Eldorado co., Cal. (K. H. j>.) 

Opolopong. A former town with a mixed 
population under Oneida jurisdiction, sit 
uated, according to the Evans map of 
1756, in Luzerneco., Pa., on the K. branch 
of the Susquehanna, about 30 m. above 
Shamokin, at the forks, and about 10 in. 
below Wyoming. (.1. N. B. n.) 

Oponays. A former Seminole village 
" back of Tanipabav." probably in Hills- 



13CLL. 30] 



OPONOCHE OPOTHLEYAHOLO 



141 



boro co., w. Fla. Bell in Morse, Rep. to 
Sec. War, 306, 1822. 

Oponoche. A tribe, probably Yokuts 
(Mariposan), mentioned as living on 
Kings r., Cal., in 1853. Wessells (1853) 
in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d 
sess., 31, 1857. 

Opossian. An unidentified tribe living 
in the neighborhood of Albemarle sd., 
N. C., in 1586. 

Opossians. Hakluyt (1600), Voy., in, 312, repr 
1810. Opposians. Lane (1586) in Smith (16 ^9) 
Va., I, 87, repr 1819. 

Opossum (Renape of Virginia dpasum, 
white beast , cognate with Chippewa 
wdbaslm, applied specifically to a white 
dog). A North American marsupial, 
Didelphys virginiana, about the size of the 
domestic cat, with grayish-white hair, 
with face pure white near the snout, and 
with black ears. When captured or 
slightly wounded, it has the habit of 
feigning death, and by this artifice often 
escapes from the inexperienced hunter. 
The name, which was first mentioned in 
a brief account of Virginia published in 
1610, has, with various adjuncts, since 
been extended to species of the genera 
Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Belideas, Micour- 
eus, ChironecteSjSiudAcrobates. The name 
enters into several compounds, as: "Opos 
sum mouse," Acrobatespygmseus, a pygmy 
species of opossum of New South Wales; 
" opossum rug," a commercial name for 
the skin of an Australian species of Pha- 
langer; "opossum shrew," an insectivor 
ous mammal of the genus Soledon; opos 
sum shrimp," a crustacean, the female of 
which carries its eggs in pouches between 
its legs. Possum, " the common aphre- 
retic form of the name, is often used as 
an epithet with the meaning of "false," 
deceptive, " " imitative, " as in the name 
"possum haw" (Viburnum nudum], the 
berries of which counterfeit the edible 
fruit of the black haw (V. prunifolium), 
but differ therefrom in being very insipid; 
and "possum oak" (Quercus aquatica), 
from the deceptive character of its leaves, 
which vary in shape and size and often 
imitate those of Q. imbricaria, and thus 
lead to a confusion between the two spe 
cies. Used as a verb, the word means "to 
pretend," "feign," "dissemble," this 
sense, as well as that of the attributive, 
being derived from the animal s habit of 
throwing itself upon its back and feign 
ing death 011 the approach of an enemy; 
and hence the expression "playing pos 
sum" or "possuming." The opossum of 
English-speaking people of the West In 
dies and South America is DidelpJn/s opos 
sum, (w. E. G.) 

Oposura. A former Opata pueblo and 
seat of a Spanish mission -founded in 1644; 
situated on the w. bank of Rio Soyopa, 
x. central Sonora, Mexico. Pop. 334 in 
1678, 300 in 1730. The town, now known 



as Moctezuma, once suffered greatly from 
Apache raids. 

Opasura. Bandelier, Gilded Man 179 ixr? 

Pr^i^s ^^ 769 1 11 * 1 **- ^ Me 1 ! 9 ; 4?hi ; 

ibid ; m? 36?i n 8.? 7 ! SUel Po^a.-Zapata (1678;! 

Opothleyaholo (properly Hupuehelth 
Yaholo; from hupuewa child, he hie 
good , yaholo, whooper, halloer 
an initiation title. G. W. Urayson) \ 
Creek orator. He was speaker of the 
councils of the Upper Creek towns, and 
as their representative met the Gov 
ernment commissioners in Feb., 1825, 
at Indian Springs, Ga., where they 
came to transact in due form the ces 
sion of Creek lands already arranged 
with venal Lower Creek chiefs. Opoth- 
leyaholo informed them that these chiefs 
had no authority to cede lands, which 
could be done only by the consent of the 
whole nation in council, and Macintosh he 
warned ominously of the doom he would 
invite by signing the treaty. ( )pothleya- 
holo headed the Creek deputation that 
went to Washington to pro test against 
the validity of the treaty. " Bowing to 
the inevitable, he put his name to the 
new treaty of cession, signed at Wash 
ington Jan. 24, 1826, but afterward 
stood out for the technical right of the 
Creeks to retain a strip that was not 
included in the description because it was 
not then known to lie within the limits 
of Georgia. After the death of the old 
chiefs he became the leader of the nation, 
though not head-chief in name. When 
in 1836 some of the Creek tolvns made 
preparation to join the insurgent Seini- 
nole, he marched out at the head of his 
Tukabatchi warriors, captured some of 
the young men of a neighboring village 
who had donned war paint to start the 
revolt, and delivered them to the I nited 
States military to expiate the crimes they 
had committed on travelers and settlers. 
After holding a council of warriors he led 
1,500 of them against the rebellious 
towns, receiving a commission as colonel, 
and when the regular troops with their 
Indian auxiliaries appeared at Jlatrhe- 
chubbee the hostiles surrendered. The 
United States authorities then took ad van 
tage of the assemblage of the Creek war 
riors to enforce the emigration of t he t ri 1 >e. 
Opothleyaholo was reluctant to take his 
people to Arkansas to live with the Lower 
Creeks after the bitter contentions that 
had taken place. He bargained for a 
tract in Texas on which they could settle, 
but the Mexican government was unwill 
ing to admit them. After the removal 
to Arkansas the old feud was forgotten, 
and Opothleyaholo became an important 
counselor and guide of the reunited tril>e. 
When Gen. Albert Pike, at the beginning 
of the Civil war, visited the Creeks in a 
great council near the present town of 



142 



OPTUABO OKAIBI 



Kufanla and urged them to treat with the 
Confederacy, Opothleyaholo exercised 
all his influence against the treaty, and 
when the council decided, after several 
days of debate and deliberation, to enter 
into the treaty, he withdrew with his 
following from the council. Later he 
withdrew from the Creek Nation with 
about a third of the Creeks and espoused 
the cause of the Union. Hghting his 
way as he went, he retreated into Kan 
sas! and later died near the town of Leroy, 
Cuffey co. (F. n. (i. w. G. ) 

Optuabo. A former rancheria, probably 
of the Sobaipuri, near the present Ari- 
/ona-Sonora boundary, probably in Ari- 
xoiia, which formed a visita of the mis 
sion of Suamca (q. v. ) about 1760-64. 
Santiago Optuabo. Bancroft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 
371. INVJ (after early docs. . 

Oputo. A pueblo of the Opata and seat 
of a Spanish mission established in 1645; 
situated on Rio de Batepito, about lat. 
:;o IKY, Sonora, Mexico. Pop. in 1678, 
424; in 1730, 24S. 

Opoto. Bandolier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 507, 
l.v.t J. Oputo. Oroxco y Berra, Geog., 343, 1864. 
S. Ignacio Opotu. Zapata (1678) quoted by Ban 
croft, No. Mex. States, i. 246, 1884. 

Oqtogona ( Otjtot/ona, bare shins ?; sing. 
<><lt< nj< ni}. A principal division of the 
< licyeime. (.1. M. ) 

Ohk to unna. Grinnell, Social Org. Cheyennes, 
136, 1915 (variously given as meaning no leg 
gings, or as a Sutaio word meaning people 
drifted away ). O tu gunu. Mooney in 14th Rep. 
H. A. K., 1026. 18%. Prominent Jaws. Dorsev in 
Field Cohmih.-Mus. Pub. 103, 62, 1905. 

Oquaga ^.M < >haw k : j >lace < >f wild grapes, 
from oiu-KiutkinV , wild grape. Hewitt). 
An Iroquois village, probably under Tus- 
carora jurisdiction, formerly on the E. 
branch of the Susquehanna, on both sides 
of the river, in the town of Colesville, 
Broome co., N. Y. It was destroyed by 
the Americans in 177S. According to 
Kuttenber^a band of Tuscarora settled 
there in 1722 and were afterward joined 
by some .Mahican and Ksopus Indians 
who had been living among tin; Mohawk; 
but from the records of the Albany Con 
ference in 1722 it appears that they were 
already at ( Jquaga at that time. In 1778 
it was one of the neatest Indian towns 
on the Susquehanna r."; it contained the 
ruinsofan "old fort." O Callaghansays 
the inhabitants were Iroquois and chiefly 
Mohawk. They numbered about 750 in 
1765. Cf. fteqnake. (.1. x. H. jj.) 

Anaquago. Hutterlield. Washington-Irvine Cor- 
rc-p.. U7, ls,vj. Anaquaqua. Drake, Hk Inds 
l<k. .,, ..,, IMS. Aughguagey. Ft Johnson conf 
I,..*-) in N. V. i),,,-. Col. Hist., vii, lot 1856 
Aughquaga.-lbi,]., 1*7. Aughquagahs. -Hutehins 
./N in .l.-lTcrson, Notes, 142, is-.-:,. Augh- 
quagchi. Boudinot, Star in the Wrt 1-5 1816 
Aughquages.Mt. Johnson conf. (1755) in N Y Doc 
Col Hist., VI, %4, 1X5.-,. Augh-quag-has.-Macaulev 
N.Y, I, 1*7, 1,V2 .. Aughwick.-.lohnson (1757) 

v V Do.;. (,,i. Hist. , vii, 331, 1856 (it may refer 
to a place o| that name in Huntingdon co.. Pa ) 
-Franklin M755i () uotcd i n \. Y. Doc! 
, yi. KHS, 1855. Auquaguas. Rnttenber! 
Hudson R., 200, 1872. Ochquaqua. N. Y! 



In 



Doc. Col. Hist., V, 675, note, 1855. Ochtaghquanawic- 
roones. Albany conf. ( 1722) , ibid. Ochtayhquana- 
wicroons. Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 200, 
1872 ( moccasin people Hewitt). Ocquagas. 
Clark, Onondaga, 1,223, 1849. Oghguagees. John 
son (1750) inN. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 91, 1856. Ogh- 
guago. Johnson (1747); ibid., vi, 361, 1855. Ogh- 
kawaga. Rnttenber, Tribes Hudson R.. 272, 
1872. Oghkwagas. Stone, Life of Brant, n, 422 
1864. Oghquaga. N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 
49, note, 1856. Oghquago. Albany conf. (1746), 
ibid., VI, 324, 1855. Oghquaj as. Johnson (1756), 
ibid., vn, 42, 1856. Oghquuges. Albany conf. 
(1748), ibid., vi, 441, 1855. Ohguago. Colden 
(1727), Five Nat., app., 185, 1747. Ohonoguaga. 
Coffin (1761) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., IV, 271, 1856. 
Ohonoguages. Ibid. Ohonoquaugo. Strong (1747) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 56, 1809. 
Ohquaga. Johnson (1764) in N.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
vii, 628.1856. Oneachquage. Esnautsand Rapilly, 
Map U. S., 1777. Onehohquages. Rnttenber 
Tribes Hudson R., 200, 1872. Onenhoghkwages. 
Ibid. Onehokwa ge. J. N. B. Hewitt, inf n, 1888 
( place of wild grapes : Mohawk form). Ono- 
aughquaga. Tryon (1774) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
vm, 452, 1857. Onoghguagy. Map of 1768, ibid., 
VIII, 1857. Onoghquagey. Johnson (1767), ibid., 
vn, 969,1856. Onohoghquaga. N.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
Vii, 49, note, 1856. Onohoghwage. Hawley (1794) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Ists., iv, 50, 1795. Onoho- 
quaga. Hawley (1770), ibid., 3d s., i, 151, 1825. 
Onohquauga. Edwards (1751), ibid., 1st s., x, 146, 
1809. Ononhoghquage. Crosby (1775) in N.Y". Doc. 
Col. Hist., vm, 551, 1857. Onoquage. Shea, Cath. 
Miss., 21 1, 1855. Onoquaghe. N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
Viil, 551, note, 1857. Oonoghquageys. German 
Flats conf. ( 1770) , ibid. , 229. Oquacho. Ruttenber, 
Tribes Hudson R., 315, 1872. Oquago. Macauley, 
N. Y., II, 177, 1829. Otakwanawerune . He win, 
inf n, 1888 ( moccasin people : correct Mohawk 
form of Ochtaghquanawicroones). Oughquaga. 
Guy Park conf. (1775) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
vni, 549, 1857. Oughquageys. Ibid. Oughqugoes. 
Ibid., 554. Ouoghquogey. Johnson (1764), ibid., 
Vii, 611, 1856. Ouquagos. Goldthwait (1766) in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Ists., x, 121,1809. Skawagh- 
kees. Morse, System of Modern Geog., i, 164, 
[1814]. Susquehannah Indians. Albany ccnf. 
(1746) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 323, 1855 (so 
called here because living on the upper Susque 
hanna). 

Oquanoxa. An Ottawa village, named 
from the resident chief, that formerly 
existed on the w. bank of the Little Au- 
glai/e, at its mouth, in Paulding co. , Ohio. 
The reservation was sold in 1831. 

Oquitoa. A former Pima rancheria on 
Rio del Altar, N. w. Sonora, Mexico, and 
a visita of the mission of Ati (q. v. ) dating 
from about 1694. Pop. 104 in 1730. It is 
now a civilized town. 

Conception del TJkitoa. Kino, map, 1702, in Stock- 
lein, Neue Welt-Bott, 76, 1726. Ognitoa. Kino, 
map, 1701. in Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex.. 360, 1889 
(misprint ). Oguitoa. Orozco y Berra, Geog.. 347, 
1864. Oquitod. Qnijano (1757) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 
4th s., I, 53, 1856 (misprint). San Antonio de 
Uquitoa. Kino (1694), ibid., 244. San Diepo de 
Uquitoa. Venegas, Hist. Cal., I, 303, 1759 (mis 
print). S. Antonio Oquitoa. Rivera (1730) quoted 
by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i. 514, 1884. 
Uquiota. Kino (1696) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., 
I, 263, 1856 (misprint). 

Oquomock. A former village of the 
Powhatan confederacy on the x. bank of 
the Rappahannock, in Richmond co., 
Va. Smith (1(529) ,Va., i, map, repr. 1819. 

Oraibi (owa roek, O/>i place : place 
of the rock ) . The largest and most im 
portant of the villages of the Hopi (q. v. ), 
in N. E. Ari/ona. Jn 1629 it became the 
seat of the Spanish Franciscan mis- 



BULL. 30] 



ORAPAKS ORATAMIN 



143 



sion of San Francisco, which was de 
stroyed in the Pueblo revolt of 1680, the 
church being reduced to ashes and the 
two Spanish missionaries killed. During 
this time the pueblo of Walpi was a visita 
of Oraibi. Before the mission period 
Oraibi was reported to contain 14,000 in 
habitants, but its population was then 
greatly reduced, owing to the ravages of a 
pestilence. Present population about 
750. The people of Oraibi are far more 
conservative in their attitude toward the 
whites than the other Hopi, an element 
in the tribe being strongly opposed to civ 
ilization. Refusal to permit their chil 
dren to be taken and entered in schools 
has been the cause of two recent upris 
ings, but no blood was shed. As a result 
of the last difficulty, in 1906, a number 




ORAIEI MAN 



of the Oraibi conservatives were made 
prisoners of war and confined at Camp 
Huachuca, Ariz. Moenkapi is an Oraibi 
farming village. For a description of the 
architecture of Oraibi, see Mindeleff in 
8th Rep. B. A. E., 76, 1891. 

Areibe. McCook (1891) in Donaldson, Moqui 
Pueblo Inds., 37, 1893. Craybe. Hodge, Arizona, 
map, 1877 (misprint). Espeleta. Alcedo, Dic.- 
Geog., ii, 92, 1787 (doubtless in allusion to Fray 
Jose de Espeleta, killed at Oraibi in 1080). 
Muca. Garces (1776), Diary, 395, 1900 (given 
as the Zuni name). Musquins. Ten Broeck 
in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 87, 1854 (Mexi 
can name for). Musquint. Ten Broeck mis 
quoted by Donaldson, Moqui Pueblo Inds., 
14, 1893. Naybe. Onate misquoted by Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 137, 1889. Naybi. Ofiate (1598) 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 137,1871. Olalla. Ibid., 207 
(doubtless Oraibi; mentioned as the largest 
pueblo). Orabi. Keam and Scott in Donaldson, 
Moqui Pueblo Inds., 14, 1893. Oraiba. Browne, 
Apache Country, 290, 1869. Oraibe. Cortez (1799) 



in Pac. R. R. Rep., ni, pt. 3, 121, 1856 Oraibi - 
Vetencurt (1692), Menolog. Fran., 212 1871 
Oraiby.-Powell in H. R. Misc. Doc. 173, 42dConi. 
r? S6S 1Q iVf 2 n . rai -Taylor in Cal. Fanner; 
June 19, 1803 Oraivaz.-Ten Broeck in School: 
", Ind. Tribes, iv, 87, 1851. Oraive.-Garces 
1*7 ^S ( S n by Bam roft - Ariz, and N. Mex., 
? W 889 Oraivi --I>e ITsle, Carte Mexique 
et Flonde, 1/03. Orambe. Bandolier in Arch 
Inst. Papers, iv, 369, 1892 (misprint). Orante - 
Escudero, Not. de Chihuahua, 231, 1834 (prob 
ably identical). Orawi. -Senex, Map, 1710. 
Oraybe. Villa Sefior, Theatip Am., n, 425, 1718 
Oraybi. Vargas (1692) quoted by Davis, Span. 
Cq. N..Mex., 367, 1809. Orayha. Disturnell, 
Map Mejico, 1816. Orayve. Aleedo, Dic.-Geog.| 
111,246, 1788. Orayvee. Fast man, map in School- 
craft, Ind. Tr., iv, 24, 18.54. Orayvi.-D Anville, 
Map Am. Sept., 1746. Orayxa. Ruxton, Adven 
tures, 195, 1848. Orehbe. Keane in Stanford. Com- 
pend., 527, 1877. Oreiba. Goodman in Ind AfT 
Rep., 997, 1893. 0-rey-be. Palmer, ibid., 133, 187(! 
Oriabe. Clark and Zuck in Donaldson, Moqui 
Pueblo Inds., 14, 1893. Oribas. Vandever in Ind 
Aff. Rep., 2(12, 18S9. Oribe. I hitt, Karte Nord- 
America, 1861. Oribi. Carson (1863) in Donaldson, 
Moqui Pueblo Inds., 34, 1893. Oriva. Schoolcraft 
Ind. Tribes, i, 519, 1853. Orribies. Irvine in Ind. 
Aff. Rep.. 160, 1877. Oryina. French, Hist. Coll., 
La., n, 175, 1*75. Osaybe. Bourke in Proc Am 
Antiq. Soc., n. s., i, 241. 1881 (misprint). Osoli. 
Arnnvsmith, M;ip X. A., 1795, ed. 1814 (possibly 
identical). 0-zai. Stevens, MS., B. A. E., 1X79 
(Xavaho name; corrupted from Oraibi). Ozi. 
Eaton in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 220. 1X54 (Xav- 
aho name). Rio grande de espeleta. Villa-Senor, 
Tbeatro Am., 11, 425, 1748. San Francisco de 
Oraibe. Bancroft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 319, 1889. 
San Francisco de Oraybe. Vetancurt (1692) in 
Teatro Am., m, 321. ls71. San Miguel Oraybi. 
Bancroft, Ariz. and X. Mex., 173, 18X9. U-le-b-wa. 
Wliipple, Pac. R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3, 13, 1856 (Zuni 
name). Yabipai Muca. Garces (1776), Diary, 414, 
1900 (or Oraibe). Yavipai muca oraive. Garces 
(1775-6) quoted by Orozco y Berra. Geog.,41, 1S64. 

Orapaks. A former village of the Pow- 
hatan confederacy, between the Chicka- 
hominyand Pamunkeyrs., in Xe\v Kent 
co., Va. Powhatan retired thither about 
1610 when the English began to crowd 
him at AYerowacomoco. 

Orakakes. Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 4. 7, 1848 (mis 
print). Orapack. Strachey -(t. 1612), Va., map, 
1849. Orapakas. Drake, op. cit,, 9. Orapakes. 
Smith (1629), Va., I, 112, repr. 1819. Orapaks. 
Strachey, op. cit., 36. Oropacks. Harris, Voy. and 
Trav.. li 848, 1705. Oropaxe. Ibid.. 831. 

Oratamin. A Hackensack chief in the 
17th century, prominent in the treaty re 
lations between the Hackensack and 
neighboring tribes and the Dutch. After 
the butchery of the Indians at Pavonia, 
N. J., by the Dutch in Feb. 1643, 10 or 
11 of the surrounding tribes arose in 
arms against the latter to avenge the 
outrage, but concluded a treaty of peace 
Apr. 22 of the same year, Oratamin, 
sachem of the savages "living at Achkin- 
heshacky [Uackensack], who declared 
himself commissioned by the savages of 
Tappaen [Tappan], Kechgawavvanc 
[Manhattan], Kichtawanc [Kitcha- 
wank], and Sintsinck [Sintsink]," acting 
on their behalf. This treaty was imme 
diately followed by a new outbreak on 
the part of the Indians, but peace \yas 
restored and another treaty, in which 
Oratamin took a prominent part, was 
made at Ft Amsterdam [New York], 



144 



ORATORY ORDEALS 



[15. A. E. 



Auir. 30, 1645 (X. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
xiu, IS, 18S1). On July 19, 1649, a num 
ber of leading Indians, including Ora 
tamin, made further proposals for a last 
ing peace. At the close of the confer 
ence, held at Ft Amsterdam, a special 
irift of tobacco and a gun was made to 
Oratamiu, while "a small present worth 
20 guilders was then given to the com 
mon savages" (ibid., 25). He also took 
part in the treaty of Mar. 6, 1660, in be 
half of his own tribe and of the chief of 
the Highlands, X. Y., and was present 
May 18, 1(>60, when peace was concluded 
with the YVappinger. A few weeks later 
he interceded for the Esopus Indians, 
and had the satisfaction of being present 
at the conclusion of peace with them 
1 Nelson, Inds. X. J., 106, 1894). In 1662 
Oratamin complained to the Dutch au 
thorities of the illicit sale of brandy to 
his people, and on Mar. 30 of that year 
was authorized to seize the liquor brought 
into his country for sale, as well as those 
bringing it. On June 27, 1663, Oratamin 
was again called into consultation by the 
whites in an effort to limit the Esopus 
war. Two weeks later chiefs of several 
tribes N. of the Hackensack appeared 
and ratilied all that had been said and 
done by the aged chief, primarily through 
whose efforts the Esopus war was brought 
to a close and peace declared May 16, 
lf)t)4, Oratamin and three other chiefs 
becoming security therefor. He was 
asked by G<>v. Carteret, in 1666, to at 
tend a conference regarding the purchase 
of the site of Xewark, N. J., but was then 
so old and feeble that he could not un 
dertake the journey from Hackensack to 
that place. He probably died in 1667. 
His name is also written Oratam, Ora- 
tamy, Oratan, Oraton (Nelson, Names of 
Inds. X. .!., 44, 1904). (c. T. ) 

Oratory. In Indian tribal life the ora 
tor held a distinguished place. Tobeable 
to state dearly and to urge eloquently 
one s views on a question before a council 
ot the tribe raised a man to power and in 
fluence among his fellows. The govern 
ment of a tribe was generally vested in a 
council composed of the chiefs of the 
lifferent bands or clans, or of the elders 
>t the tribe, and, as unanimous con- 
ent to any proposition was usually re- 
inired before it could be accepted, much 
irgumentation was characteristic of their 
leliberations. In the higher circle of 
hiefs, as well as in the societies of war 
riors or leading men, the orator had his 
function. To speak well, to plead well, 
to tell a story effectively was accounted 
a desirable gift for a man. Many occa 
sions arose when facility in address was 
required, as in formal tribal negotiations 
or visits, in certain parts of religious cere 
monies, or in purely social intercourse. 



Some of the Eastern tribes had an official 
orator for state occasions, which office 
was hereditary in certain Western tribes. 
The native languages lent themselves to 
oratory. A picture full of detail and 
movement could be given in compara 
tively few words, while the symbolism 
inherent in the Indian s outlook upon 
nature gave poetry to his speech. His 
vivid conceptions seemed often to thrill 
his frame, governing his attitude, the 
folds of his robe, his glance, and his ges 
tures. The Indian s oratory early im 
pressed the white race, and scattered 
through the historical records of our 
country are bits of powerful native utter 
ance. We have the speeches of Corn- 
planter, Red Jacket, Big Elk, Logan, and 
a host of others, all of which have the 
ring of true eloquence. This gift still 
lingers, but now, as in the past, it is 
most often heard in protest against un 
fair dealing. Standing before a commis 
sion the members of which had been 
using many arguments in favor of their 
project, the Wichita chief who had lis 
tened in silence stooped, and gathering a 
handful of the dry soil of his reservation, 
straightened himself and said, as he 
threw the myriad particles into the air, 
"There are as many ways to cheat the 
Indian!" Consult Mooney in 14th and 
17th Rep. B. A. E. (A. c. F. ) 

Orcan. A village mentioned by Joutel 
in 1687 as situated N. or x. w. of the Mal- 
igne (Colorado) r., Texas, the name 
seemingly having been given him by Eba- 
hamo Indians, who were probably of 
Karankawa affiliation. In some editions 
of Joutel s relation the name is combined 
with Piou, or Peinhoum. The two names 
may have belonged to one village or to 
two closely related villages. (A. c. F. ) 

Orcamipias. Barcia, Ensayo, 271, 1723. Orcam- 
pion. Joutel (1687) in French, Hist. Coll. La., I, 
138, 1846. Orcampiou. Shea, note in Charlevoix, 
New France, iv, 78, 1870. Orcan. Joutel (1687) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., I, 152, 1846. 

Orchard Party. A part of the Oneida 
as recognized by the treaty of Albany, 
Feb. 2, 1827. Indian Problem, 301, Al 
bany, 1889. 

Ordeals. An ordeal is strictly a form 
of trial to determine guilt or innocence, 
but the term has come to be applied in a 
secondary sense to any severe trial or test 
of courage, endurance, and fortitude. In 
accordance with these two usages of the 
term, ordeals among the North American 
tribes may be divided into ( 1 ) those 
used to establish guilt and to settle dif 
ferences, and (2) those undergone for 
the sake of some material or supernat 
ural advantage. 

The ordeals corresponding closest to 
the tests to which the name w r as origi 
nally applied were those undertaken to. 
determine witches or wizards. If it was 



BULL. 30] 



ORDEALS 



145 



believed that a man had died in conse 
quence of being bewitched, the Tsim- 
shian would take his heart out and put a 
red-hot stone against it, wishing at the 
same time that the enemy might die. If 
the heart burst, they thought that their 
wish would be fulfilled; if not, their suspi 
cions were believed to be unfounded. 
A Haida shaman repeated the names of 
all persons in the village in the presence 
of a live mouse and determined the guilty 
party by watching its motions. A Tlin- 
git suspected of witchcraft was tied up 
for 8 or 10 days to extort a confession 
from him, and he was liberated at the 
end of that period if he were still alive. 
But as confession secured immediate lib 
erty and involved no unpleasant conse 
quences except an obligation to remove 
the spell, few were probably found inno 
cent. This, however, can hardly be con 
sidered as a real ordeal, since the guilt 
of the victim was practically assumed, 
and the test was in the nature of a tor 
ment to extract confession. 

Intimately connected with ordeals of 
this class were contests between individ 
uals and bodies of individuals, for it was 
supposed that victory was determined 
more by supernatural than by natural 
power. " A case is recorded among the 
Comanche where two men whose enmity 
had become so great as to defy all at 
tempts at reconciliation were allowed to 
tight a duel. Their left arms having 
been tied together, a knife was placed in 
the right hand of each, and they fought 
until both fell. A similar duel is re 
corded in one of the Teton myths, and it 
is probable that the custom was almost 
universal. Resembling these were the 
contests in vogue among Eskimo tribes. 
When two bodies of Eskimo met who 
were strangers to each other, each party 
selected a champion, and the two struck 
each other on the side of the head or the 
bared shoulders until one gave in. An 
ciently Xetchilirmiut and Aivilirmiut 
champions contested by pressing the 
points of their knives against each other s 
cheeks. Such contests were also forced on 
persons wandering among strange people 
and are said to have been matters of life 
and death. Chinook myths speak of 
similar tests of endurance between super 
natural beings, and perhaps they were 
shared by men. Differences between 
towns on the N. Pacific coast were often 
settled by appointing a day for lighting, 
when the people of both sides arrayed 
themselves in their hide and wooden 
irmor and engaged in a pitched battle, 
:he issue being determined by the fall of 
)ne or two prominent men. Contests 
Between strangers or representatives of 



different towns or social groups were also 
settled by playing a game. At a feast on 
the N. Pacific coast one who had used 
careless or slighting words toward the 
people of his host was forced to devour 
a tray full of bad-tasting food, or perhaps 
to swallow a quantity of urine. Two 
persons often contested to see which 
could empty a tray the more expediti- 
ously. 

Ordeals of the second class would cover 
the hardships placed upon a growing 
boy to make him strong, the fasts and 
regulations to which a girl was subjected 
at puberty, and those which a youth 
underwent in order to obtain supernat 
ural helpers (see Child life), as well as 
the solitary fasts of persons who desired 
to become shamans, or of shamans who 
desired greater supernatural power. 
Finally, it is especially applicable to the 
fasts and tortures undergone in prepara 
tion for ceremonies or by way of initia 
tion into a secret society. 

The first of these may best be consid 
ered under Education and Puberty cus 
toms, but, although some of the cere 
monies for the purpose of initiating a 
youth into the mysteries of the tribe 
took place about the time of puberty, 
their connection therewith is not always 
evident, and they may well be treated 
here. Thus Pueblo children, when old 
enough to have the religious mysteries 
imparted to them, went through a cere 
monial flogging, and it is related of the 
Alibamu and other Indian tribes of the 
Gulf states that at a certain time they 
caused their children to pass in array 
and whipped them till they drew blood. 
The JriiskitHaw (q. v. ), or Jtiixfonn/, was an 
ordeal among Virginia Indians under 
taken for the purpose of preparing youths 
for the higher duties of manhood. It 
consisted in solitary confinement and the 
use of emetics, "whereby remembrance 
of the past was supposed to be obliterated 
and the mind left free for the reception 
of new impressions." Among those 
tribes in which individuals acquired 
supernatural helpers a youth was com 
pelled to go out alone into the forest or 
upon the mountains for a long period, 
fast there, and sometimes take certain 
medicines to enable him to see his guar 
dian spirit. Similar were the ordeals 
gone through by chiefs among the Haida, 
Tlingit, Tsimshian, and other x. Pacific 
coast tribes when they desired to increase 
their wealth, or success in war, or to 
obtain long life, as also by shamans who 
wished increased powers. At such times 
they chewed certain herbs supposed to 
aid them in seeing the spirits. The use 
of the "black drink" (q. v. ) by Mus- 



3456 Bull. 30, pt 2 0; 



-10 



OREGON JARGON OREJONES 



IB. A. E. 



khogean tribes was with similar intent, 
as also were the emetics just referred to 
in use among the Virginian peoples. 

While undergoing initiation into a 
secret society on the x. Pacific coast a 
youth fasted, and for a certain period 
disappeared into the woods, where he 
was supposed to commune with the spirit 
of the society in complete solitude. Any 
one discovering a Kwakiutl youth at this 
time could slay him and obtain the secret 
society privileges in his stead. On the 
plains the principal participants in the 
Sundance (tj. v.) had skewers run through 
the fleshy parts of their backs, to which 
thongs were attached, fastened at the 
other end to the Sun-dance pole. Some 
times a person was drawn up so high as 
barely to touch the ground and afterward 
would throw his weight against the 
skewers until they tore their way out. 
Another participant would have the 
thongs fastened toaskull, which he pulled 
around the entire camping circle, and no 
matter what obstacles impeded his prog 
ress, lie was not allowed to touch either 
thongs or skull with his hands. During 
the ceremony of Dakhpike, or Nakhpike, 
among the Hidatsa, devotees ran arrows 
through their muscles in different parts 
of their bodies; and on one occasion a 
\\arrior is known to have tied a thirsty 
horse to his body by means of thongs 
passed through holes in his flesh, after 
which he led him to water, restrained 
him from drinking without touching his 
hands to the thongs, and brought him 
back in triumph. The special ordeal of 
a Cheyenne society was to walk with 
I tare feet on hot coals. A person initi 
ated into the Chippewa and Menominee 
society of the Midewiwiu was "shot" 
with a medicine bag and immediately 
fell on his face. By making him fall 
on his face a secret society spirit or the 
guardian spirit of a N. W. coast shaman 
also made itself felt. When introduced 
into the Omaha society, called Wash- 
ash ka, one was shot in the Adam s apple 
by something said to be taken from the 
head of an otter. As part of the cere 
mony of initiation among the Hopi a man 
had to take a feathered prayer-stick to 
a distant spring, running al i the way, 
and return within u certain time; and 
chosen men of the /ufii were obliged to 
walk to a lake 45 m. distant, clothed only 
in the breech-cloth and so exposed to the 
rays of the burning sun, in order to de 
posit plume-sticks and pray for rain. 
Among the same people one of the or 
deals to which an initiate into the Priest 
hood of the How was subjected was to sit 
naked fur hours on a large ant-hill, his, 
flesh exposed to the torment of myriads 
ot ants At thctimeof the winter solstice 
the Hopi priests sat naked in a circle and 



suffered gourds of ice-cold water to be 
dashed over them. Ordeals of this kind 
enter so intimately into ceremonies of 
initiation that it is often difficult to dis 
tinguish them. 

Certain regulations were also gone 
through before war expeditions, hunting 
excursions, or the preparation of medi 
cines. Medicines were generally com 
pounded by individuals after fasts, absti 
nence from women, and isolation in the 
woods or mountains. Before going to 
hunt the leader of a party fasted for a 
certain length of time and counted off so 
many days until one arrived which he 
considered his lucky day. On the N. W. 
coast the warriors bathed in the sea in 
winter time, after which they whipped 
each other with branches, and until the 
first encounter took place they fasted 
and abstained from water as much as 
possible. Elsewhere warriors were in 
the habit of resorting to the sweat-lodge. 
Among the tribes of the E. and some 
others prisoners were forced to run be 
tween two lines of people armed with 
clubs, tomahawks, and other weapons, 
and he who reached the chief s house or a 
certain mark in safety was preserved. 1 n- 
asmuch as the object behind most tor 
tures w r as to break down the victim s 
self-command and extort from him some 
indication of weakness, while the aim of 
the victim was to show an unmoved coun 
tenance, flinging back scorn and defiance 
at his tormentors until the very last, 
burning at the stake and its accompany 
ing horrors partook somewhat of the 
nature of an ordeal. (j. K. s. ) 

Oregon jargon, Oregon trade language. 
See Chinook jargon. 

Orehaoue. A Cayuga chief who opposed 
the Jesuits and caused Father Carheil s 
withdrawal. He aided the English of 
Albany in preventing Penii s purchase of 
Susquehanna lands, and visited De la 
Barre in 1684. In 1(587 Denonville seized 
him and sent him to France. He was then 
called (Joiguenha [Cayuga] -Oreouahe,and 
often Taweeratt; also Wahawa by the 
Onondaga. In 1688 the Cayuga wished 
for "Taweeratt, the chief warrior of 
Cayouge, who is lamented amongst them 
every day." Returning in 1689, Oreha 
oue became attached to Count Frontenac 
and fought for the French. He died in 
1698 and was buried with high honors 
as "a worthy Frenchman and good 
Christian." (w. M. B. ) 

Orejones (Span.: big-eared people ). 
Indians of the N. W. coast. As the wear 
ing of lip, nose, and ear ornaments is 
common among Indians on the northern 
coasts, Taylor (Cal. Farmer, Aug. 24, 
1863) believes there can be little doubt 
that the word Orryoii is derived from 
the Spanish nickname, used to distin- 



BULL. 30] 



OREJONES ORENDA 



147 



guish them from the California Indians. 
Carver (Trav., ix, 76, 1778) seems, how 
ever, to be the first to employ the term 
Oregon to designate his great " River of 
the West" the Columbia of which he 
learned from the Sioux, Assiniboin, and 
Cree Indians. 

Orejones. A former division of the 
Faraon Apache. Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
59, 1864. 

Orejones. A former Coahuiltecan tribe 
dwellingnearthecoast between the Nueces 
and San Antonio rs., Texas. Their resi 
dence between these rivers was made the 
basis of a claim to them and their rela 
tives by San Juan Capistrano mission in 
a quarrel, in. 1754, with Vizarron mission 
(Ynforme of the College of Queretaro to 
the Commissary General, 1754, MS.). 
That they lived near the coast is evident. 
In 1760 the San Antonio missionaries re 
ported them in a list of coast tribes 
(Ynforme de Misiones, 1762, MS.). In 
1780 Governor Cabello included them in 
the tribes along the coast between the 
Nueces and Ysla de los Copanes (Cabello 
toCroix, May 28, 1780, MS.). But that 
they were not the tribe nearest to the 
gulf appears from the statement that 
when, in 1754, their very near neighbors, 
the Pamaques, deserted their mission, 
Father A rrici vita sought them first in their 
native country, but, failing to find them, 
"he went in to the islands inhabited by 
the barbarous and uncultured tribes, of 
which the best known are those named 
Manos de Perro ( Ynf orme, 1 754, op. cit. ) . 
That they were Coahuiltecan rests on 
the enumeration, on the title-page of 
Garcia s Manual (1760), of tribes in the 
San Antonio and Rio Grande missions 
speaking the same language. Of their 
intimate affiliation with some of these 
tribes there is other evidence. They were 
closely bound by intermarriage with the 
Pamaques, and in 1731 each spoke "both 
languages so perfectly that they were not 
distinguished" (Ynforme, 1754, op. cit.). 
According to Garcia they spoke the same 
language, with only minor differences. 
They lived "almost together" and went 
;ogether to the missions (Ynforme, 1754). 
They seem also to have been closely re- 
ated to the Piguiquesand Panasc;ines (or 
Pasnadanes), likewise close neighbors. 

The Orejones were the basis of the 
oundation of San Juan Capistrano mis- 
ion in 1731, but with them came nu- 
nerous Pamaques (Ynforme, 1754, op. 
it.). Testimony given by Andres, a 
^ayopin (Chayopin), in a manuscript 
lated May 13, 1752, states that there were 
)rejones at Candelaria mission on San 
Javier r. (Bexar Archives), but other 
vidence shows that they were neophytes 
rom San Antonio serving as interpreters, 
time before 1754 the mission of 



Vizarron, s. of the Rio Grande, asserted 
a claim to the Orejones, but this was dis 
puted by San Juan Capistrano mission 
(Ynforme, 1754). 

In 1762 a total of 203 "Orejones, Sayo- 
pines, Pamaques, andPiguiques" wasVe- 
ported at San Juan Capistrano mission 
(Ynforme, 1762) . It was said in 1754 that 
the Pamaques and their neighbors, re 
moved from their native soil to the mis 
sions, had become almost extinct. It 
is probable that this assertion applied 
also to the Orejones (Camberos, mission 
ary at Bahfa, letter to the Viceroy, MS. ), 
although Cabello s report of 1780 indi 
cates that some were still living near the 
coast between the San Antonio and the 
Nueces. ( H. E. u. ) 

Orenda. The Iroquois name of the iic- 
tive force, principle, or magic power 
which was assumed by the inchoate rea 
soning of primitive man to be inherent in 
every body and being of nature and in 
every personified attribute, property, or 
activity, belonging to each of these and 
conceived to be the active cause or force, 
or dynamic energy, involved in every 
operation or phenomenon of nature, in 
any manner affecting or controlling the 
welfare of man. This hypothetic princi 
ple was conceived to be immaterial, oc 
cult, impersonal, mysterious in mode of 
action, limited in function and efficiency, 
and not at all omnipotent, local and not 
omnipresent, and ever embodied or im 
manent in some object, although it was 
believed, that it could be transferred, 
attracted, acquired, increased, suppressed, 
or enthralled by the orenda of oc 
cult ritualistic formulas endowed with 
more potency. This postulation of a 
purely fictitious force or dynamic energy 
must needs have been made by primitive 
man to explain the activities of life and 
nature, the latter being conceived to be 
composed of living beings, for the con 
cept of force or energy as an attribute or 
property of matter hud not yet been 
formed, hence the modern doctrine of 
the conservation of energy was unknown 
to primitive thought. As all the bodies 
of the environment of primitive man were 
regarded by him as endowed with life, 
mind, and volition, he inferred that his 
relations with these environing objects 
were directly dependent on the caprice of 
these beings . So to obtain his needs man 
must gain the goodwill of each one of a 
thousand controlling minds by prayer, 
sacrifice, some acceptable offering, or pro 
pitiatory act, in order to influence the ex 
ercise in his behalf of the orenda or magic 
power which he believed was controlled 
by the particular being invoked. Thus it 
came that the possession of orenda or 
magic power is the distinctive character 
istic of all the gods, and these gods in 



148 



ORKSTACO ORIENTATION 



[B. A. E. 



earlier time wore all the bodies and be 
ings <>f nature in any manner affecting 
the weal or woe of num. So primitive 
man interpreted the activities of nature 
to l>o due to the struggle of one orenda 
against another, put forth by the beings 
or bodies of his environment, the former 
possessing orenda and the latter life, 
mind, and orenda only by virtue of his 
own imputation of these things to lifeless 
objects. In the stress of life, coming into 
contact or more or less close relation with 
certain bodies of his environment, more 
frequently and in a more decided manner 
than with the other environing bodies, 
and learning to feel from these relations 
that these bodies through "the exercise 
of their orenda controlled the conditions 
of his welfare and in like manner shaped 
his ill fare," man gradually came to re 
gard these bodies as the masters, the 
arbiters, the gods, of the conditions of 
his environment, whose aid, goodwill, 
and even existence were absolutely nec 
essary to his well-being and to the pres 
ervation of his life. In the cosmogonic 
legends, the sum of the operations of this 
hypothetic magic power constitutes the 
story of the phenomena of nature and the 
biography of the gods, in all the planes 
of human culture. From the least to the 
greatest, there are incomparable differ 
ence- in strength, function, and scope of 
action among the orendas, or magic pow 
ers, exercised by any group of such 
fictitious beings. Therefore it is not re 
markable to lind in many legends that 
for specific purposes man may sometimes 
possess weapons whose orenda is superior 
to that possessed by some of the primal 
beings of his cosmology. It is likewise 
found that the number of purposes for 
which a given orenda may be efficient 
varies widely. 

TheAlgonquianmamto, theShoshonean 
/"//,<////, theSiotian nialio/x t, X" 1 " or rather 
Im/H tili, correspond approximately, if not 
exactly, with this Iroquois term or< in! 
in use and signification. Those who in 
terpret these terms as denotive simply of 
what is expressed by the English words 
mystery, immortal, magic, sor 
cery. or wonderful, fail to appreciate 
tin- true nature and functions of the as 
sumed po\ V er denoted by these terms as 
conceived by the Indians who devised 
these terms. 

The following are compound terms oc 
curring in the Jesuit Relations, in which 
iri inl i is the noun element: Arendio- 
wane, ArendioSane, Arendioguanne, 
Arendioauanne, . \rendiouane, Arendi- 
wane, Arendaonatia. See Miftholoyif, Ot- 
/. <i, (>i/<iroii, Ri liijiini. 

Consult Powell, introd. to Cushing s 
Xufii Folk Tales, 1901; Hewitt in Am. 
Anthrop., iv, . i. MO, 1902. (.1. x. n. H.) 



Orestaco. A former village, probably 
Costanoan, situated to the E. of San Juan 
Bautista mission, Cal. Bancroft, Hist. 
Cal., i, 559, 1886. 

Orientation. The entrance way of In 
dian dwellings in the open country gen 
erally faced the E. When a tribal cere 
mony was to take place, the Indians of the 
plains camped in a circle and the line of 
tents was broken on the E. side so as to 
leave an open space. If, within this circle, 
a smaller one was constructed of boughs 
and for the special rites, this also had its 
opening to the E. Articles used for sacred 
purposes in ceremonies were arranged so 
as to conform to the idea of orientation, 
and their ornamentation was made to serve 
that thought. For instance, the colored 
band on the basket drum used in the 
Night Chant of the Navaho was "not 
continuous but intersected at one point 
by a narrow line of uncolored wood" in 
order "to assist in the orientation of the 
basket at night in the medicine lodge" 
when the light was dim. The placing 
of prayer-sticks and other symbolic de 
vices, as well as their colors, referred 
to the points of the compass (see Color 
symbolism}. Even the drumstick used 
iii the Navaho Night Chant ceremony 
must be made of four yucca leaves, which, 
while on the plant, pointed to the four 
quarters; that which was toward the E. 
must first be plucked, and with that from 
the w. forms the core of the drumstick. 
Again, during the initial acts of a religious 
ceremony the priest and his assistants 
must face the E. In the busk ceremony 
of the Creeks the four logs with which 
the new fire was kindled were laid 
crosswise with reference to the cardinal 
points. Tents and dwellings, except on 
the seacoast, generally face the E. 
Among the Pueblos the communal dwell 
ings usually face the sun, and additions 
are rarely made toward the N. ; in the 
older pueblos the kivas (q. v.) also were 
oriented. In burials orientation was not 
universally observed, although it was 
common among some of the tribes. 
Among the Tlingit of Alaska it was re 
garded as of importance, for it was be 
lieved that if the dead were not placed 
with their heads to the E. they could not 
be "reborn." In myths, legends, and 
rituals the E. was spoken of as "the place 
where dwelt the dawn and the sun." 
These two, the dawn and the sun, were 
regarded as distinct and unrelated. The 
dawn was the child of "mother dark 
ness," or night, and the animating power 
which pervades all things; it was born 
anew each day, while the sun came into 
existence once for all in the ancient days, 
and was one of the lesser and visible gods. 
He was always the same, and was ap 
pointed to make his daily journey through 



BULL. 30] 



ORKUA ORNAMENT 



149 



the sky. In the mythical region of the 
sun s abode the house wherein he dwelt 
was oriented, so that the sun itself faced a 
mysterious E. , whence came to it potency 
from the all-pervading power. From the 
customs of the people, from their myths 
and rituals as well as from their language, 
it is learned that the E. not only stood for 
the gift of physical light but symbolized 
the region whence men received supernat 
ural help and guidance (Matthews, Na- 
vaho Legends; C. Mindeleff in 17th Rep. 
B. A. E.; Fletcher in 22d Rep. B. A.E.). 
As the point where the sun appeared on 
the E. horizon shifted with the seasons, 
some of the tribes set up marks to assist 
in observing the time of the winter or 
the summer solstice, when important rites 
took place and orientation was closely 
observed (see Fewkes in 15th Rep. B. 
A. E. ) . In ceremonial processions, either 
when entering or when within the lodge, 
kiva, or the field to be consecrated, the 
start was usually from a point facing the 
E., and the movement was from left to 
right. This "ceremonial succession" has 
been traced by Gushing (Am. Anthrop., 
v, 1893) as resulting in part from "hand 
usage in left and right finger counting." 
Among peoples where the orientation of 
dwellings, etc., was not observed, as on 
the x. Pacific coast and in mountainous 
and forest regions, traces of orientation 
are found in some of their ceremonies. 
Where the custom was closely observed, 
consciousness of the E. seemed to have 
been deeply seated in the native mind, 
and they observed an abstract orientation 
when not outwardly practising it. For 
instance, the Omaha tribal circle was com 
posed of 10 gentes, 5 occupying the half x. 
of the eastern opening and 5 the southern 
half. When camping on the annual tribal 
hunt, the opening was in the direction 
they were going, which might be w. of 
their camping site, in which case the circle 
would be as if it had turned on a hinge 
at the western part, and the 5 gentes of the 
northern half would still be on the x. and 
in the same order as if the opening were 
at the E., and the 5 gentes at the s. would 
preserve their old relative position. The 
orientation of the tribal circle was thus at 
all times preserved, although the camp 
might not actually be so placed upon the 
prairie. See Cross. 

For further information, consult 
Mooney in 15th and 17th Reps. B. A. E. ; 
J. O. Dorsey in 3d and 15th Reps. B. A. E; 
DuBois in Am. Anthrop., ix, no. 1, 178, 
1907; Fletcher in Pubs. Peabody Museum; 
Hawkins, Sketch (1799), 75, 1848; Hewett 
in Am. Anthrop., vi, no. 5, 1904; Lewis in 
Mem. Internat. Cong. Anthrop., 1894; 
McGee in 19th Rep. B. A. E. ; Matthews in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, vi; Mindeleff 
n 8th Rep. B. A. E. ; Mooney in Mem. Am. 



Anthrop. Ass n, i, no. 6, 1907; Speck, 
ibid., n, no. 2, 1907, and the writings of 
Fewkes in the Reports of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology and the American 
Anthropologist. (A. c. F. ) 

Orkua. A settlement of East Greenland 
Eskimo, now deserted. Meddelelser <>m 
Gronland, xxv, 23, 1902. 

Orlova (Russian: Orlof s ). A Kaniag- 
miut Eskimo settlement at Eagle harbor, 
Ugak bay, Kodiak id., Alaska; pop. 147 
in 1880, 77 in 1890. 

Eagle harbor. llth Census, Alaska, 76, 1893. Or- 
lova. Coast Surv. map, 1898. St. Orloff. Coast 
Surv. maps. 

Ormejea. The name of two former 
Pima villages in s. Arizona; pop. of one 
in 1858, 212; of the other, 643. Bailey 
in Ind. Aff. Rep., 208, 1858. Cf. Hermho, 
Hormiguero. 

Ornament. In treating of the decora t i ve 
art of the tribes of northern North America 
it may be briefly stated at the outset that 
the earliest manifestations of the phe 
nomena of embellishment were probably 
of instinctive kinds in which design, as 
we understand it, had no part. These 
manifestations consisted rather in the 
assembling of attractive objects for the 
pleasure they gave, the attachment of 
such objects to the person, or the addi 
tion of colors to the skin, the motives be 
ing to please the savage fancy, to attract 
the attention of others, or to simulate 
animals by imitating their markings. 
These forms of esthetic activity were sup 
plemented in time by the application 
of embellishments to the dress, when 
that came into use, and to all kinds of 
possessions having close relations with 
the person or which were otherwise inti 
mately associated with the life and thought 
of the people. Among the tribes the per 
son was subject to varied decorative treat 
ment. The skin \yas tattooed, colors 
were applied in various ways, and orna 
mental objects were attached in every 
possible manner. Feathers and other 
articles were added to the hair; pins, 
plugs, and pendants to the ears; labrets 
to the lips; and encircling bands to the 
waists, arms, and legs. The costume was 
elaborated for decorative effect and the 
headdress especially became a marvel 
of gaudy display, well illustrated in the 
so-called war bonnet of the Plains tribes 
and the still more highly developed head 
dresses shown in the paintings and sculp 
tures of the middle Americans (see .1 <fant- 
ment). But it is the embellishment of 
things made and used that calls for par 
ticular attention in this place, and in this 
field the American aborigines, and more 
especially the semicivilized peoples of 
middle America, were hardly excelled by 
anv other known people of corresponding 
culture grade. Nothing with which they 
had to deal was left without some kind 



150 



ORNAMENT 



[B. A. K. 



of decorative treatment, and their appre 
ciation of the esthetic values of form and 
line compares favorably with that of the 
eastern Asiatics. 

The native ornament may first be con 
sidered with respect to the several meth 
ods of execution or utilization of the ele 
ments: 

( 1 ) The sculptor s art (see Sculpture and 
Carrhuj) was employed in shaping and 








decorating objects of stone, wood, bone, 
horn, and shell, and in some sections 
this branch is still practised with excep 
tional skill. Among the N.W. coast tribes 
totem poles, house posts, mortuary col 
umns, masks, batons, pipes, and various, 
implements and utensils represent the 
forms of beasts, men, and monsters, in 



relief and in the round. Although these 
motives usually have primarily a sym 
bolic or other special significance and 
rarely take wholly conventional forms, 
they are employed with remarkable skill 
and appreciation of their decorative 
values. The carvings in stone, bone, and 
ivory of the Eskimo are particularly 
noteworthy, and taste is exercised in the 
shaping of objects of every class. The 
motives employed are apparently not so 
generally symbolic as among the Indian 
tribes, and life-forms are executed with 
the simply artistic idea more definitely 
in view. The excellence of this far-north 
ern work is no doubt due in part to the 
introduction of implements of steel and 
to the influence of the art of the whites. 
Among the tribes of middle North Amer 
ica sculptural embellishment of minor 
works was common, and the mound- 
building tribes, for example, showed 
decided cleverness, especially in the deco 
ration of their tobacco pipes, carving the 
forms of birds and beasts and even men 
with excellent taste. Sculpture and 
sculptural embellishment deal largely 
with symbolic and ceremonial subjects, 
and are almost exclusively the work of 
the men. 

(2) Plastic ornament, the work of the 
modeler (see Pottery), is confined to pot 
tery-making tribes, such as the mound- 
builders and the Pueblos. In pottery, as 
in sculpture, various beasts, as well as men 
and fanciful beings, were rendered in the 
round and in all degrees of relief in con 
nection with utensils, implements, and 
other objects, and their utilization is prob 
ably due largely to the association of reli 
gious notions with the creatures repre 
sented. All were introduced under the 
supervision of taste, and are thus properly 
classed as embellishments. Formal geo 
metric decorations were rarely executed 
by plastic methods, save the simple in 
cised varieties, better classed with en- 
graying, and the impressed or stamped 
varieties, which bear somewhat the same 
relation to the plastic art proper that en 
graving bears to sculpture. The potter s 
art, relating primarily to household af 
fairs, is practised almost exclusively by 
the women. Ornamental designs worked 
out in the native metals, excepting where 
the methods of the whites have been in 
troduced, are essentially plastic in charac 
ter and execution. North of Mexico the 
work of the early days was confined very 
largely to repousse figures executed in 
sheet metal. The working of metal, so 
far as known, is a man s art (see Metal- 
work). 

(3) Engraved ornament (see Engrav 
ing) is executed with pointed tools on 
surfaces of various kinds, and has charac 
teristics in common with both sculpture 



BULL. 30] 



ORNAMENT 



and painting. In certain branches of 
art it deals principally with geometric 
figures, but in others life motives are em 
ployed with considerable freedom, the 
representations running through the en 
tire scale of convention. The work of 
the Eskimo executed on bone and ivory 
illustrates the more decidedly pictorial 
phases of this branch, although there are 
apparent traces of an earlier geometric 
stage of engraved design. That of the 
N". W. coast tribes, executed on wood 




ENGRAVED DESIGNS 



bone, stone, and metal, embodies animal 
forms almost exclusively, and is always 
highly conventional though never fully 
geometric in style. That of the mound- 
builders, while employing life forms to 




ANIMAL FIGURES. (NIBLACK.) 

some extent, is largely geometric. The 
Pueblos relied on the brush rather than 
on the graver for their ornament. Picto- 
graphic inscriptions executed in incised 
lines on rock, birchbark, and other sur 
faces, are not properly classed as orna 
ment. Engraved decoration has closely 
associated with it in the potter s art a 
range of imprinted and stamped figures 
which are usually quite formal, as in 
the ancient pottery of the Southern and 
Eastern states and in the coil ware of the 
ancient Pueblos. Engraved design em 
ployed in heraldic, totemic, and religious 
art is usually the work of the men ; applied 
to domestic art, as in ceramics, it is the 
work of the women. 

(4) Embellishments in color (see Paint 
ing, Dry-painting, Dyes and Pigments, 



151 

Tattooing] are applied to objects or sur 
faces by means of a great variety of im 
plements and devices, and in the form 
of paints, dry pigments, stains, and dyes 
or are pricked into the skin. They take 
a prominent place in the art of the 
northern aborigines. Color ornament, in 
its simplest form, consists in the appli 
cation of plain colors to the person and 
to the surface of objects, but more com 
monly it takes the form of pictorial and 
conventional designs of wide range; and, 





ARCHAIC ZuSi OLL 



not infrequently, sculptured and modeled 
life forms, as in masks, totem poles, earth 
en vases, etc., are colored in imitation of 
nature, although generally in formal 
fashion. By far the most important 
branch of color decoration embraces con 
ventional delineations of life forms on 
manufactured articles and constructions. 
These decorations, usually symbolic, are 
characteristically displayed on articles of 
skin among the hunter tribes, as the 
Sioux; on the pottery of the more seden 




tary peoples, as the Pueblos; and on 
houses, utensils, and ceremonial objects 
among the X. W. coast tribes. Although 
the free-hand methods employed in the 
painter s art are favorable to flowing lines 
and the graphic reproduction of life 
forms, the color ornament of some of the 
tribes is almost exclusively geometric, 
good illustrations appearing on the pot 
tery of the ancient Pueblos and in the 
decoration of articles of skin by some of 
the Plains tribes. It is probable that the 



152 



ORNAMENT 



[B.A. 




geometric character in the first of these 
instances is in a measure due to copyism 
from textile designs, and, in the second, 
to the use of rigid coloring implements 
instead of brushes. The mound-builders, 
skilful with the graver s point, seem to 
have had slight mastery of the brush, 
although some good examples of their 
work in this branch have been obtained 
from the ancient key settlements of the 
Florida coast. In painting, as in engrav 
ing, symbolic designs seem to originate 
largely with the men and the nonsymbolic 
with the women, although the distinctions 
between the work of the sexes probably 
vary with the social organization and 
state of culture. A peculiar method of 
color decoration practised by some of the 
tribes consisted in the cutting or scrap 
ing away of portions of the surface col 
oring of an object, 
developing the 
design in the con 
trasting color be 
neath. It has 
often been as 
sumed that native 
taste in the use of 
colors was in 
stinctive and that 
harmonious re 
sults were a mat 
ter of course; but 
there is appar 
ently little evi 
dence on this 
point, and it is 
probable that the 
pleasing combina 
tions ob 
served are 
in large 
m c as ure 
due to the 
fact that- 
the colors 
a v a i 1 a - 
ble to the 
tribes are 

generally quiet in tone rather than bril 
liant^ Colors were often symbolic, being 
associated with particular concepts: as, for 
example, green with summer; white with 
winter; blue with death; yellow with the 
east, and red with the west (see Color 
xyiHbolixm ). 

(">) Textile ornament (see Weaving], 
elaborated in the constructive features or 
units of the art and in colors associated 
with these, is displayed to good ad 
vantage in the weaving of the ancient 
and modern Pueblos and the Navaho of 
to-day, and also arnorigsomeof the tribes 
oi the N. W., the Shoshoni, Shahaptin, 
and Chilkat, for example. It is usually 
highly geometric in style as a result of 
the peculiar technic. In this art even 
life forms take on characteristics of the 




PAINTED DESIGNS OF THE HAIDA 



construction or combination of parts, and 
geometric characters necessarily prevail. 
The same is true in general of the decora 
tions in the allied arts of basketry, 
featherwork, beadw r ork, quillwork, net 
ting, and embroidery (q. v.). The last 
named, although assuming some of the 
characteristics of the textile foundation 




on which it is superposed, frequently ex 
presses its designs in flowing graphic 
forms, and the same is true to a lesser 
degree in the Gobelin style of weaving 
practised by the N. \V. coast tribes. As 
already stated, the decorative motives of 
the last-mentioned tribes are in the main 
representative of life forms, but, with the 
exception of the Nootka and other of 
the more southern tribes, their basketry 
decoration is almost exclusively geo 
metric. Featherwork had a prominent 
place in native art and is still common in 
the W., the feather-decked baskets of 
some of the Pacific coast tribes being mar 
vels of tasteful and brilliant ornament. 
The basketry designs of the western 
tribes furnish striking illustrations of the 
native genius for 
decoration. So far 
as k n o w n the 
mound-building 
tribes had made 
no considerable 
progress in this 
branch. Textile 
art of all forms 
is largely the work 
of the women. 

( (> ) Inlaying 
(see Mosaic] was 
employed by the more advanced tribes in 
the decoration of objects of wood, stone, 
and bone, but these decorations were usu 
ally of a very simple nature and are of no 
particular importance in the discussion 
of the native ornament of the N.; the 
ancient Mexicans, however, executed 
many superb works by this method. 




(POWERS) 



BULL. 30] 



ORNAMENT 



153 



Associated ornaments are appended or 
otherwise attached to articles of dress, 
accouterments, utensils, etc., and consist 
of tassels, fringes, beads, feathers, but 
tons, bells, and the like (see Adornment). 
They are, however, not usually employed 
in the elaboration of designs, though ef 
fective as ornaments. 

The embellishments introduced by the 
various methods described above into the 
native arts include or represent several 
classes of motives which, although not 
always readily distinguished from one 
another, may be grouped in a general 
way, as follows: 

(1) The technic, having its immedi 
ate origin in technic features of the arts 
themselves and primarily nonideographic; 
(2) the simply esthetic, introduced from 
various sources solely for the purpose of 
adornment and also primarily nonideo 
graphic; (3) the simply ideographic, por 
traying pictorially some scene, object, or 
incident, or expressing in more or less 
formal manner some ordinary or non- 
sacred idea, as a name, a number, pur 
pose, ownership, title, rank, achievement, 
a personal or tribal device, etc. ; (4) the 
sacred, expressive of some religious con 
cept, very generally delineative, and 
present because the concept has a signifi 
cant relationship with the person or the 
object decorated. Employed in the va 
rious arts these diversified elements are 
subject to many mutations of form and 
meaning. Applied to objects of art or to 
the person, the forms of all classes of 
motives, significant and nonsignificant, 
.are, to a greater or less degree, under the 
supervision of taste, and undergo modifi 
cations to satisfy the esthetic sense. The 
simplest denotive signs, for example, are 
not cut on an implement or utensil with 
out attention to spacing, uniformity of 
outline, and neatness of finish, while 
realistic representations are adapted to 
or brought into harmony with the vary 
ing conditions under which they are 
employed. Motives of all classes take on 
different forms or receive distinct treat 
ment in each of the arts with which they 
are associated, on account of differences 
in technic and in the material, shape, 
and size of the objects to which they are 
applied. These changes are in the direc 
tion of elaboration where this is called 
for, as in the filling of large spaces, and 
in the direction of simplicity as influenced 
by restricted spaces, by haste in execu 
tion, or by defective skill; and when 
the shapes or available spaces demand 
it, figures are distorted and divided with 
out regard to representative consistency. 
Representations of natural forms intro 
duced into embellishment have, in gen 
eral, a tendency to become more conven 
tional with repetition, and under the 
influence of the technic of some of the 



arts, as in weaving, they pass readily 
into purely conventional forms. It does 
not follow, however, that geometric 
forms necessarily originate in this way. 
It appears that with many primitive 
tribes geometric ornament comes into 
general use at a very early stage of cul 
ture progress, arising in technical features 
of the arts, in suggestions of fancy, and 
possibly in other ways. Graphic deline 
ations of life forms coming into use later 
combine with or take the place of the 
conventional decorations, and in so doing 
are forced into the conventional mold, 
assuming various degrees of simplification 
andgeometricity. There is also, no doubt, 
a reciprocal elaboration of the geometric 
forms to ^ineet the requirements of the 
new associations. That highly geometric 
phases of decoration in many cases come 
into use quite early is apparent from 
a glance at the work of the northern 
tribes. In the Pueblo region the hand 
some earthenware of the olden time dis 
plays mainly nonrealistic geometric 
phases of embellishment; that of the 
middle period has a considerable percent 
age of representative elements, while that 
of the later time is rich in realistic mo 
tives. In the Mississippi valley and the 
Atlantic woodlands simple geometric dec 
orations seem to prevail more fully among 
the more primitive tribes and the realis 
tic among the more cultured. The 
change from the formal to the realistic 
is no doubt due somewhat to the gradual 
adaptation of decorated articles at first 
purely practical in function to sacred 
ceremonial uses. The ideas associated 
with ornament are greatly diversified in 
derivation and character, and subject to 
profound changes with lapse of time, with 
advance in culture, and with tribal mu 
tations. The simple technic and esthetic 
motives are without particular ideo 
graphic associations, although ideas may 
be attached to or read into them at any 
stage of their utilization by the imagina 
tive, symbol-loving aborigines. With all 
tribes devoted to the embellishing arts 
there is necessarily a large body of non- 
ideographic motives which had no sig 
nificance originally or which have lost it, 
but it is a common practice to give to the 
figures names suggested by their form, 
often perhaps for convenience of refer 
ence merely; thus a triangular figure 
woven in a basket or painted on a leather 
case may be called a "tipi" by one people, 
a mountain by another, and an arrow 
head" by a third; a simple cross may be 
come the morning star, a mythic animal, 
or a sign of the four quarters of the world. 
And these simple designs employed in 
basketry or beadwork may be so associ 
ated as to tell or suggest a story, which 
may be elaborated indefinitely by the 
primitive fancy. Again, any simple mo- 



154 



ORNAMENT 



[B. A. E. 



tive may suggest some symbol or sacred 
creature; thus a mere crooked line previ 
ously meaningless may become a serpent 
with" a whole train of superstitions at 
tached; or it may be made to stand for 
lightnin.il, the shaft of the gods; or it may 
he assumed to represent a river about 
which the fathers have fabricated a 
myth. Ornament belonging to or de 
rived from religious and other symbolic 
forms of art, however, is originally fully 
burdened with associated ideas. The art 
of a highly religious people is thus es 
pecially rich in ideographic elements, and 
the character of these elements is in a 
large measure determined by the nature 
of the particular environment. An agri 
cultural people, for example, occupying 
an arid region and devoting much atten 
tion to the ceremonial bringing of rain, 
employs a great number of symbols rep 
resenting clouds, lightning, rain, water, 
and water animals, and these are intro 
duced freely into its decorative art. A 
maritime people, depending on the prod 
ucts of the sea for subsistence, embodies 
in its mythology the creatures of the sea 
and the birds and the beasts that prey 
upon them, and symbols depicting these 
have a prominent place in its ornamental 
art. The dominant thought of a people 
in other than the religious realm rinds 
expression in pictography and in this 
form passes into ornament. It is observed 
that warlike peoples, as the tribes of the 
plains, devoted to military achievement, 
are wont to embody in their art, in asso 
ciation more or less intimate with their 
religious symbols, the signs and emblems 
of daring deeds, and with some of these 
tribes a system of military devices has 
arisen which constitutes a primitive phase 
of heraldry (q. v. ). These devices, ap 
plied to shields, costumes, and dwell 
ings, take their place in the decorative 
arts of the people. 

Considerable diversity in the ideas as 
sociated with decoration arises from differ 
ences in the spheres of activity of the men 
and the women. Delineative elements 
having their origin in myth and cere 
mony, in military occupations and the 
chase, and in pictography generally, are 
largely the creations of the men; the ac 
tivities of the women are connected in a 
great measure with the domestic estab 
lishment, and embellishments employed 
in the strictly domestic arts consist in 
large part of designs derived from non- 
symbolie sources or those which have as 
sociated meanings obtained traditionally, 
or from dreams, or such as are invented 
to please the fancy. However, articles 
made by the women for the men, as 
clothing and certain ceremonial objects, 
may be embellished with subjects per 
taining to masculine activities. So differ 
ent is the point of view of the two sexes 



that designs identical in origin and ap 
pearance, used by the men and the 
women respectively, have wholly dis 
tinct interpretations. It would seem 
that where a marked difference exists 
between the decorative work of the men 
and the women, especially among the 
more primitive tribes, that of the women 
is less distinctly symbolic than that of 
the men, less graphic in character, and 
more fully dominated by simple esthetic 
requirements. 

Generally speaking it may be said that 
each tribe employs in its ornament a 
group of elements or motives, ideographic 
and nonideographic, more or less dis 
tinctly its ow r n and variously derived, and 
having characteristics determined largely 
by the grade and kind of culture and the 
nature of the immediate environment. 
The ornament of one tribe acts upon that 
of a neighboring tribe and is reacted 
upon according to the degrees of tribal 
intimacy and culture relationship, and 
the motives with or without their associ 
ated significance pass from one to the 
other, undergoing changes more or less 
radical and giving rise to endless variants. 
The ornamental art of any tribe is thus, 
as a rule, highly composite in style and 
significance, being derived through a 
plexus of channels and conditioned at all 
times by the particular environment. 

In view of these facts it behooves the 
student of ornament to approach the sub 
jects of origin and significance with due 
caution. He should remember that iden 
tical or closely analogous conventional 
forms may have diverse origins, and that 
the exact significance of a given ornament, 
formal or graphic, must be sought, not 
in analogous devices of other peoples and 
not in explanations previously obtained, 
but from the particular tribe, clan, soci 
ety, or individual found using it, and 
that a search for ultimate meanings, if not 
necessarily futile, is fraught with peculiar 
difficulties. 

Consult Balfour, Evolution of Decora 
tive Art, 1893; Barrett in Am. Anthrop., 
vn, no. 4, 1905; Beaucharnp, Metallic 
Ornaments of N. Y. Inds., 1903; Boas (1) 
in Pop. Sci. Mo., LXIII, no. 6, 1903, (2) in 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., ix, 1897; Culin 
in Bull. Free Mus. Univ. Pa., n, 235, 1900; 
dishing in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., xxxv, 
189(5; Dixon in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., xvn, pt, 3, 1905; Emmons in Mem. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., in, Anthrop. n, 
pt. 2, 1903; Farrand, ibid., n, Anthrop. 
i, pt. 5, 1900; Haddon, Evolution in Art, 
1895; Hamlin in Am. Architect, LIX, no. 
1160, 1898; Holmes (1) in 4th Rep. B. 
A. E., 1886, (2) in Am. Anthrop., in, 
no. 2, 1890, (3) in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 1888, 
(4) in Am. Anthrop., v, no. 1, 1892; 
Kroeber (1) in Am. Anthrop., n. a., in, 
no. 2, 1901, (2) in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 



BULL. 30] 



ORONHYATEKEA ORONO 



155 



Hist., xvin, pt. 1, 1902, (3) in Univ. Cal. 
Pub., Am. Archseol. and Ethnol., n, no. 
4, 1905; Laufer in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., vii, pt. 1, 1902; Lnmholtz, (1 ) ibid., 
in, Anthrop. n, pt. 1, 1900, (2) ibid., pt. 

3, 1904, (3) Unknown Mexico, 1902; 
Schmidt, Indianer-studien in Zentral- 
Brasilien, 1905; Schurtz, Das Augenorna- 
ment, Abh. Phil. Hist., 11, K. Siichsische 
Ges. der Wissenschaften, xv, no. 11; 
Stolpe, Studier i Amerikansk Ornamen- 
tik, 1896; Swanton in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., vin, 1905; Teit, ibid., n, An 
throp. i, pt. 4, 1900; Von den Steinen, 
Unter den Natur-Volkern Zentral Brasil- 
iens, 1894; Wissler in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., xvm, pt. 3, 1904. ( w. H. H. ) 

Oronhyatekha ( It [is a] burning sky ). 
A noted Mohawk mixed-blood, born on 
the Six Nations res., near Brantford, On 
tario, in 1841; died at Augusta, Ga., Mar. 

4, 1907. In his childhood he attended a 
mission industrial school near his home, 
and later entered the Wesleyan Academy 
atWilbraham, Mass., and Kenyon College 
at Gambler, Ohio, where he remained two 
years, fitting himself for Toronto Univer 
sity, which he afterward entered. To 
cover expenses during his college vaca 
tion, he hired some white men, whom he 
dressed in Indian garb and exhibited with 
himself ina "Wild West" show. While 
a student at Toronto, in 1860, the chiefs 
of the Six Nations deputized Oronhyate- 
khato deliver an address to the Prince of 
Wales (King Edward VII ) on the occasion 
of his visit to America, the Prince invit 
ing him to continue his studies at Oxford, 
which he entered under the tutelage of 
Sir Henry Acland, regius professor of 
medicine. Returning to America a 
graduated physician, he practised for a 
time in Toronto. He married a grand 
daughter of Joseph Brant (Thayendane- 
gea), the celebrated Mohawk, by whom 
he had a son and a daughter. Oronhya- 
tekha w 7 as an enthusiast in secret society 
work. He was a prominent member of 
the Good Templars and of the Masonic 
fraternity, and in 1902, at Chicago, was 
elected president of the National Fra 
ternal Congress. He was founder of the 
Independent Order of Foresters and held 
the office of Grand Ranger from 1881 
until the time of his death. He delivered 
an address at the Indian centennial at 
Tyendinaga, Canada, Sept. 4, 1884. One 
who knew him personally described Oron- 
hyatekha as "a man of extraordinary 
parts. He impressed all with his remark 
able refinement. The stranger would take 
him for a high-class Englishman, were it 
not for those racial marks which betrayed 
his Indian origin. He was an expert par 
liamentarian, of dignified and suave yet 
forceful address. He was a keen debater, 
poignant and witty when occasion de 
manded, could tell a good story, and had 



a faculty of withdrawing from any situa 
tion without leaving behind him rancor or 
injured feelings" (New Indian, Stewart 
Nev., Mar. 1907). Oronhyatekha was the 
author of an article on the Mohawk lan 
guage, printed in the Proceedings of the 
Canadian Institute (n. s., x, 182-194 18(55- 
xv, 1-12, 1878). 

Orono. A Penobscot chief, born, ac 
cording to tradition, on Penobscot r. , Me. , 
in or about 1688. According to one tra 
dition he was a descendant of Baron de 
Castine, and although Williamson, w T ho 
seems to have seen him and was familiar 
with his later career, is disposed to reject 
this story (Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., 
ix, 82-91, 1846), yet from Orono s own 
admissions it is possible that he was a son 
of Castine s daughter, who married a 
Frenchman, and with her children was 
taken captive in 1704. Nickolar, who 
was related to Orono by marriage, as 
serted, according to Williamson, that 
Orono was in some way related to old 
Castine; moreover he asserts that Orono 
was not of full blood, but part white "a 
half breed or more." Orono informed 
Capt. Munsell (Williamson, op. cit,, 83) 
that his father was a Frenchman and his 
mother half French and half Indian. He 
had none of the physical characteristics 
of an Indian save that he was tall, straight, 
and well proportioned. Very little is 
known of him until he had passed his 
50th year. That he embraced the Ro 
man Catholic faith while comparatively 
young, and that he was only a subordi 
nate chief until he had reached his 75th 
year, are confirmed by the scanty records 
of his history. Until 1759 Tomasus, or 
Tomer, was head-chief of the Penobscot, 
when he was succeeded by Osson, who 
in turn was succeeded by Orono about 
1770 or 1774. These three were ardent 
advocates of peace at the commencement 
of the French and Indian war in 1754, 
and until war was declared against the 
tribe by the English colonists. In 1775 
Orono and three of his colleagues went, 
with one Andrew Gilman as interpreter, 
to profess their friendship and to tender 
their services to the Massachusetts gov 
ernment. They met the Provincial Con 
gress at Watertown on June 21, where 
they entered into a treaty of amity with 
that body and offered assistance, and 
afterward proved faithful allies of the 
colonists during their struggle for inde 
pendence. Orono was held in as high 
esteem after the war as before; and in 
1785 and 1796 entered into treaties with 
Massachusetts, by which his tribe ceded 
certain portions of their lands and fixed 
permanent limits to the parts reserved. 
At the time of the latter treaty Orono is 
said to have reached his 108th year. He 
died at his home at Oldtown, Me., Feb. 
5, 1802. His wife, who was a full blood 



156 



OROYSOM OSAGE 



Indian and his almost lifelong companion, 
survived him a few years. Orono had a 
son. who was accidently shot about 1774, 
aged 25 years; and a daughter who mar 
ried ( apt. Niekolar. Orono was buried 
in the cemetery at Still water, Penobscot 
co., Me., in the vicinity of the town that 
bears his name. (c. T.) 

Oroysom. Said to have been the native 
name of the site of San Jose mission, Cal. 
The territory was Costanoan. 
Oroysom. Kngelhardt, Franc, in Cal., 390, 1897. 
Oroyson. Ibid. 

Osacalis. A Costanoan village situated 
in isll) within 10 in. of Santa Cruz mis 
sion, Cal. 

Osacalis. Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860. 
Souquel. Ibid. 

Osachile. An inland town of w. Florida, 
apparently belongingto the Yustaga tribe, 
situated probably not far E. from Ocilla r., 
and visited by De Soto in 1539. (.1. M. ) 



ever, and the Osage recogni/e three 
more closely amalgamated divisions 
which seem, from the traditional account 
of them, to represent as many formerly 
independent tribes. According to this 
account, as gathered by J. O. Dorsey, the 
beings which ultimately became men 
originated in the lowest of the four upper 
worlds which Osage cosmology postulates 
and ascended to the highest where they 
obtained souls. Then they descended 
until they came to a red-oak tree on 
which the lowest world rests and by its 
branches reached our earth. They were 
divided into two sections, the Tsishu, or 
peace people, who kept to the left, living 
on roots, etc.; and the Wazhazhe (true 
Osage) , or war people, who kept to the 
right and killed animals for their food. 
Later these two divisions exchanged com 
modities, and after some time the Tsishu 




GROUP OF OSAGE. (ELEVENTH CENSUS) 



Ossachile. (iarei lasso do la Vega (1591) quoted 
Shipp, I)o Soto and Florida, 299, 18S1. TT9a- 
chile. Kanjel (en. 15-H5) in Bourne, Do Sotoftarr., 
i. 7: ,, I .ioi. Uzachil. Gentl. of Klvas (1557) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 133, 1850. Uzela 
ientl. of Klvas quoted in Hakluyt Soc. Pub., ix, 
xxxii, 1851. 

Osage (corruption by French traders of 
\\ (izli(i:Jip, their own name). The most 
important southern Siouan tribe of the 
western division. Dorsey classed them, 
under the name Dhegiha, in one group 
with the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, and Qua- 
pa\v, with whom they are supposed to 
have originally constituted a single body 
living along the lower course of the 
Ohio r. 

Geographically speaking, the tribe con- 
ts ot three bands: the Pahatsi or Great 
Osage, L tsehta or Little Osage, and Sant- 
sukhdhi or Arkansas band. These ap 
pear to be comparatively modern, how- 



people came into possession of four kinds 
of c orn and four kinds of pumpkins, 
which fell from the left hind legs of as 
many different buffaloes. Still later the 
tribe came upon a very warlike people 
called Hangka-utadhantse, who lived on 
animals, and after a time the Tsishu peo 
ple succeeded in making peace with 
them, when they were taken into the 
nation on the war side. Originally there 
were seven Tsishu gentes, seven Wazh- 
azhe gentes, and seven Hangka gentes, 
but, in order to maintain an equilibrium 
between the war and peace sides after 
adopting the Hangka, the number of 
their gentes was reduced to five and the 
number of Wazhazhe gentes to two. In 
camping the Tsishu gentes are on the left 
or N. side of the camping circle, and the 
Hangka or Wazhazhe gentes on the right 
or s. side, the entrance to the circle being 



BULL. 30] 



OSAGE 



157 



eastward. Beginning at this entrance 
the arrangement of gentes is as follows: 
Tsishu gentes (from E. to w. ): 1, Tsishu- 
sintsakdhe; 2, Tsedtukaindtse; 3, Minkin; 
4, Tsishu washtake; 5, Haninihkashina; 
6, Tsetduka; 7, Kdhun. Hangka gentes 
(from E. to w.): 8, Washashewanun; 9, 
Hangkautadhantsi; 10, Panhkawashtake; 
11, Hangkaahutun; 12, Wasapetun; 13, 
Upkhan; 14, Kanse. 

The gentile organization appears to 
have been very similar to that of the 
Omaha and other southern tribes of this 
division, involving paternal descent, pro 
hibition of marriage in the gentes of both 
father and mother, and probably gentile 
taboos. The functions of the various 
gentes were also differentiated to a cer 
tain extent. Matters connected with war 
were usually undertaken by the war 
gentes and peace-making by* the peace 
gentes, while it was the duty of the chief 
of the Tsishuw T ashtake gens to defend 
any foemari who might slip into the 
camp-circle and appeal to him for protec 
tion. The Tsishu gentes are also said to 
have had the care and naming of chil 
dren. Heralds were chosen from certain 
special gentes, and certain others monopo 
lized the manufacture of moccasins, war 
standards, and war pipes. On the death 
of a head-chief the leading man called a 
council and named four candidates, from 
whom the final selection was made. 
Seven appears as a sacred number in the 
social organization of the Osage, but from 
the war and other customs of the tribe it 
appears that the sacred ceremonial num 
ber was usually four (Dorsey in Am. Nat., 
Feb. 1884). 

The first historical notice of the Osage 
appears to be on Marquette s autograph 
map of 1673, which locates them ap 
parently on Osage r., and there they are 
placed by all subsequent writers until 
their removal westward in the 19th cen 
tury. Douay (1686) assigns them 17 
villages, but these must have been noth 
ing more than hunting camps, for Father 
Jacques Gravier, in a letter written in 
1694 from the Illinois mission, speaks of 
but one, and later w r riters agree with 
his statement, though it must be under 
stood as applying only to the Great 
Osage. Gravier interviewed two Osage 
and two Missouri chiefs who had come 
to make an alliance with the Illinois, 
and says of them: "The Osage and 
Missouri do not appear to be so quick 
witted as the Illinois; their language 
does not seem very difficult. The former 
do not open their lips and the latter 
speak still more from the throat than 
they" (Jes. Rel., LXIV, 171, 1900). 
Iberville in 1701 (Margry, Dec., iv, 599, 
1880) mentions a tribe of 1,200 to 1,500 
families living in the region of Arkansas 
r., near the Kansa and the Missouri, 



and, like these, speaking a language that 
he took to be Quapaw. The name ot 
this tribe through errors in copying and 
printing became Crevas, but the descrip 
tion indicates the Osage. In 1714 they 
assisted the French in defeating the 
Foxes at Detroit. Although visits of 
traders were evidently quite common b - 
fore 1719, the first official French visit 
appears to have been in that year by I)u 
Tisne, who learned that their village on 
Osage r. then contained 100 cabins and 
200 warriors. The village of the Missour 
was higher up, and a short distance s. w, 
of the latter was another Osage village 
which from later maps is shown to have 
been occupied by the Little Osage. Then, 




as always, the tribe was at war with most 
of the surrounding peoples, and La Harpo 
witnesses to the terror in which they were 
held by the Caddoan tribes. The Illinois- 
were also inveterate enemies, though at 
one time, when driven w. of the Missis 
sippi by the Iroquois, they fled to il 
Osage for protection. Charlevoix iru-t a 
party of Osage at the Kaskaskia village 
on Oct. 20, 1721. Regarding them 1 it- 
wrote : They depute some of their pec pie 
once or twice every year to sing the calu 
met among the Kaskasquias, and they are 
now actually here at present." 
French officer Bossu met some Osage at 
Cahokia (q. v.) in 1756. About 18" 
according to Lewis and Clark, nearly half 



lf>8 



USAGE 



[B. A. E. 



of the Great Usage under a chief named 
Big-track migrated to Arkansas r., thus 
constituting the Arkansas band. The 
same explorers (1804) found the Great 
Osaire, numbering about 500 warriors, in 
a village on the s. bank of Usage r., the 
Little Usage, nearly half as numerous, 
(i m. distant, and the Arkansas band, 
numbering 600 warriors, on Vermilion r., 
a branch of the Arkansas. 

On Nov. 10, 1808, by a treaty with the 
United States concluded at Ft Clark, 
Kans., near Kansas City, Mo., the Usage 
ceded to the I nitcd States all their lands 
K. of a line running due s. from Ft Clark 
tj Arkansas r., and also all of their 
lands w. of Missouri r., the whole com 
prising the larger part of what is now 
the state of Missouri and the N. part of 
Arkansas. The territory remaining to 
them, all of the present state of Okla 
homa x. of Canadian and Arkansas rs., 
was still further reduced by the provisions 
of treaties at St Louis, June 2, 1825; Ft 
Gibson, Ind. T., Jan. 11, 1839; and Can- 
ville, Kans., Sept. 29, 1865; and the lim 
its of their present reservation were estab 
lished by act of Congress of July 15, 1870. 
This consisted (1906) of 1,470,058 acres, 
ami in addition the tribe possessed funds 
in the Treasury of the United States 
amounting to $8,562,690, including a 
school fund of $119,911, the whole yield 
ing an annual income of $428,134. Their 
income from pasturage leases amounted 
to $9S,: ) ,7ti in the same year, and their 
total annual income was "therefore about 
$265 per capita, making this tribe the 
richest in the entire U^ted States. By 
act of June 28, 1906, an equal division of 
the lands and funds of the Usage was 
provided for. 

Estimates of Usage population later 
than that of Lewis and Clark are the fol 
lowing: Sihley, 1,250 men (including 400 
< ireat Usage, 250 Little Usage, and 600 of 
the Arkansas band); Morse (1821 ), 5,200 
including 4,200 Great Usage and 1,000 
Little Usage) ; Porter (1829), 5,000; U.S. 
Indjan Ullice ( 1843), 4,102; Schoolcraft 
(1*5:5), 3,758 (exclusive of an important 
division known as Black Dog s band). 
According to the Indian Ullice census of 
1*77, they numbered 3, 001; in 1884, 1,547- 
1SS6, 1,5S2; 1906 (after the division of 
the tribal lands and trust funds had been 
provided for), 1,994. 

The following villages were occupied by 
the Usage at different times: Big Chief, 
I .lack Dog, Heakdhetanwan, Intapup- 
she, Khdhasiukdhin,Little()sage Village, 
Manhukdhintanwan, Nan/ewaspe, Nikh- 
mntaiiwan, Pasukdhin, Paghuukdhinpe. 
Santsepasu, Santsukdhin, Takdheskaut- 
siupshe, Tan wakan \\akaghe, Tanwan- 
shinka, Wakhakukdhin, and White Hair 
\illage. The following bands and divi 
sions have not been identified: Shapei- 



nihkashina, Petkhaninihkashina, and 
Tatseinihkashina. (j. R. s. ) 

A-ha-chae. Hamilton in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
iv, 406, 1854. A laho. Mooney in 17th Rep. B. 
A. E., 394, 1898. Anahons. La Harpe (1719) in 
Margry, Dec., vr, 261, 1886 (probable misprint for 
Anahou). Anahous. Ibid., 284. Ani -Wasa si. 
Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 509, 1900 (Cherokee 
name). Annaho. .loutel( 1687) in Margry, Dec., Ill, 
410, 1878. Assenjigun. Sehoolcraft, Ind.Tribes.IV, 
304, 1854 (error). Assigunaigs. Ibid., 592 (error; 
see Asaegun). Autrechaha. Thevenot quoted by 
Shea, Discov., 268, 1852. Bone Indians. Schoolcraft, 
Ind. Tribes, I v, 592, 1854. Crevas. Iberville (1702) 
in Margry, Dec., IV, 599, 1880 (misprint). Guasa- 
chis. Escudero, Noticias Nuevo Mex., 83, 1849. 
Huashashas. Rafinesqne in Marshall, Ky., I, 
28, 1824. Huzaas. Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., II, 
311, 1823. Huz-zau. Penicaut (1719) in French, 
Hist. ("oil. La., n. s., I, 151, 1869. Huz-zaws. 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., n, 244, 1823. Opages. 
Barcia, Ensayo, 242, 1723. Orages. Coxe, Caro- 
lana, 15, 1741. Osage. Hennepin, New Diseov., pt. 
1, 141, 1698. Osarge. Orig. Jour. Lewis and Clark 
(1804), I. 36,1904. Osasi gi. Gatschet, Shawnee 
MS., B. A. E. (Shawnee name). 0-saw-ses. 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., u, 244, 1823. Osayes. 
Morse, N. Am., map, 1776 (misprint?). Osedshi 
maA-laks. Gatschet, MS.. B. A. E. (Modoc name). 
Ossage. Scliermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., ii, 31, 1814. Ouasoys. Croghan (1759) 
in Rupp, West. Penna., 146, note, 1846. Ouchage. 
Marqnette map (1673) in Shea, Discov., 268, 1852. 
Ouichaatcha. Bowles, Map of America, ca. 1750. 
Ous. Penicaut (1719) in French, Hist. Coll. La., m 
s., I, 151, 1869. Ousasons. Boudinot, Star in the 
West, 128, 1816. Ousasoys. ( roghan (1759) in Jef 
ferson, Notes, 145, 1825 (probably a French corrup 
tion of Washashe). 0-iixtxitan. Gatschet, Chey 
enne MS., B.A. E.( hair cropped short : Cheyenne 
name). Ozages. Hennepin, New Discov., pt. II, 
47, 1698. Ozajes. Barcia, Ensayo, 298, 1723. 
Ozanges. Hennepin, New Discov.. pt. n, 47, 1698. 
Ozas. Amer. Pioneer, n, 190, 1843. Tsiwiltzha-e. 
Gatschet, Na-isha Apache MS., B. A. E. (Kiowa 
Apache name). TJzajes. Barcia, Ensayo, 299, 
1723. Waoaoe. Dorsey,Osage MS.vocab., B. A. E., 
1883 (own name). Wahashas. Rafinesque in Mar 
shall, Hist. Ky.,i. 30, 1824. Wahsash. Keane in 
Stanford, Compend., 542, 1878. Wajaje. Dorsey, 
(pegiha MS. Diet., B. A. E., 1878 (Ponca, Omaha, 
Kansa.andQuapawname). Waraye. I bid. (Iowa, 
Oto, and Missouri name). Wasaazj. ten Kate, 
Rei/en in N. A., 383, 1885. Wasage. Hunter, Cap 
tivity, 18, 1823. Wasashe. Brackenridge, Views 
of La., 72, 1815. Wa sassa. Gatschet, MS., B. 
A. E. (name given by Foxes and many 
other tribes). Wasawsee. Gale, Upper Miss., 
map facing 49, 1867. Wasbasha. Lewis and 
Clark Exped., i, 9, 1814. Washas. Balbi, Atlas 
Ethnog., 56, 1826. Wa-sha-she. Pitchlynn (ca. 
1828) quoted by Smith, Cabeca de Vaca, 171, 
note, 1871. Washbashaws. Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, vr, 689, 1857. Wash-sashe. Marcy, Explor. 
Red R., 273, 1854 (Comanche and Wichita name). 
Wassash. Gatschet, Arapaho MS., B. A. E. (Ara- 
paho name). Wassashsha. Brown, West. Gaz., 
193, 1817. Wausashe. Gallatin in Trans. Am. 
Antiq. Soc., n.126,1836. Wa-wha. Penicaut (1719) 
in French, Hist. Coll. La., n.s., 1,151, 1869. Waw- 
sash. Balbi, Atlas Ethnog., 56, 1826. Waw-sash-e. 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., i. 328, 1823. Wazaza. 
Riggs, MS. letter to Dorsey (Dakota name). 
Wa-zha-zhe. Dorsey in A in. Naturalist, 113, 
note, Feb. 1884. Wos-sosh-e. M Coy, Annual Reg 
ister, no. 2, 17, 1836. Wu-sa-si. Grayson, MS. 
vocab., B. A. E.,1885 (Creek name). Zages. Har 
ris, Coll. Voy. and Trav., i, map of America, 685, 
1705. 

Osage. A former Miami village on 
Wabash r., just w. of the Mississinewa, in 
Miami co., Ind. It was so called from 
its being the residence of an Usage Indian 
domiciliated among the Miami, and 
whose name appears in treaties as Usage 
and Usage the Neutral (J. P. Dunn, inf n, 
1907). In 1838 the site was included in 



BULL. 30] 



OSAGE ORANGE OSGUAGE 



159 



an individual reserve granted to Rich- 
ardville, the Miami chief. 
Osaga. Hough, map in Indiana Geol. Rep., 188 2 
(misprint). Osage town. Royce, map in 1st Rep. 
B. A. E., 1881. Osage village. Treaty of 1838 in 
U. S. Ind. Treat , ">08, 1873. 

Osage orange. The bois d arc ( Toxyl&n 
pomiferum), native in the Osage mts. ; 
from the ethnic term Omge, applied in 
particular to a people of Simian stock. 
The wood was commonly used by western 
tribes for making bows, hence the French 
name. Cf. Ozark. (A. v. c. ) 

Osamekin. See Massasoit. 
Osanalgi ( Os&n-algi, otter people ) . A 
Creek clan. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., 
i, 155, 1884. 

Osass ( O v sa.ss, rnuskrat ). A sub- 
phratry or gens of the Menominee. Hoii- 
man in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 42, 1S96. 

Oscalui. A former town of the Cones- 
I toga, probably situated near the mouth of 
Sugar cr., on the rio^ht bank of Susque- 
hanna r., in Bradford co., Pp. 
Ogohage. Hendrickson s map (1-Tfi) i-u >> Y. 
D<H-. Co). Hist., i, IS.. Oscalui. Jour. Mil. Tv- 
ped. (Jen. Sullivan, 1779, 124, 1887. 

Osceola (also spelled Oseola, Asseola, As- 
seheholar, properly Asi-yaholo, B^ck- 
drink halloer, from <m, the black drink 
(q. v.), yaholo, the long drawn-out cry 
Fung by the attendant while each man 
in turn is drinking). A noted Se;:iinole 
leader to whom the name Pow.H was 
sometimes applied from the fact that 
after the death of his father his mother 
married a white man of that name. 
He was born on Tallapoosa r. ,- in 
the Creek country, about I8u3 His 
paternal grandfather was a Scotchman, 
and it is said the Caucasian strain was 
noticeablein his features and complexion. 
He was not a chief by descent, nor, so 
far as is known, by formal election, but 
took his place as leader and acknowledged 
chieftain by reason of his abilities as a 
warrior and commander during the mem 
orable struggle of his people with the 
United States in the Seminole war of 1835. 
Secreting the women, children, and old 
men of his tribe in the depths of a great 
I swamp, where the white troops were for 
i along time unable to find them. Osceola 
i turned his energy to the work of harass- 
i ing the Government forces. Maj. Dade 
I and his detachment, the first to attack 
j him, were cut off, only two or three 
: wounded men escaping. * Beginning with 
; Gen. Games, one after another officer 
i was placed in charge of the army sent 
against thin intrepid warrior and his fol 
lowers. These were successively baffled, 
owing largely to the physical difficul 
ties to be overcome on account of the 
i nature of the Seminole country, until Gen. 
jJesup, maddened by the public cry for 
more energetic action, seized Osceola and 
bis attendants while holding a confer- 
under a flag of truce- an act con 



demned as inexcusable treachery by the 
same public that had urged him on. The 
loss of freedom, and brooding over the 
manner in which he had been betrayed, 
broke the spirit of the youthful chief, 
who died a prisoner in Ft Moultrie, Fla., 
in Jan. 1838. In physique Osceola was 
described as tall, slender, and straight, 
with a countenance pleasing, though of 
somewhat melancholy cast. See Sketch 
of the Seminole War, by a Lieutenant, 
1836; Barr, Narr. Ind." Wars in Fla., 
1836; McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
1854: Potter, The War in Florida, 1836; 
Ellis, Indian Wars of the United States, 
1892. (c. T.) 




Oschekkamegawenenewak 
gawlnl.nlwug. i people of the transverse 
ridge. W. J. ). A former Chippew a 
band in Minnesota,, living in 1753 near 
Rainy lake. The name is applied also to 
some* Chippewa once living E. of Mille 
Lac but now at Whito Earth. 

Oschekkamega Wenenewak, Long. Expert. St 
Peter s R., n. 153, ItL t ("or those of the cross or 
transverse ric.^e" ). Osha kamigawininiwag. Win. 
Jones, inf n, 2W)6. 

OscouarahroBon. The Iroquois name of 
an unidentified but probably Algonquian 
tribe s. of St Lawrence r. in the 17th 
century. Jes. Eel. 1640. 35, 1858. 

Osetchiwan ( place of the headless ). 
An ancient Zuni pueblo, now in ruins, 
situated N. w. of Hawikuh (q. v. ) in w. 
New Mexico. 

O setchi wan. dishing, inf n, 1891. Osh-a-che- 
wan. Fewkes in Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., I, 
101, 1891. O shetchi wan. -dishing, op. cit. 

Osguage. A former village of the 
Mohawk, consisting in 1634, when it was 
visited by Van Curler, of 9 houses. For 
a description of these, see Onekagoncka. 



100 



OSHACH OSKELAGNA 



[B. A. B. 



It was situated near a large confluent of 
Mohawk r., between the third and fourth 
castles of the Mohawk, E. of the village 
of Cawaoge, which was about 1 in. E. of 
the fourth castle of that date. This may 
have been a town of the Wolf clan, as 
Van Curler learned that the principal 
chief of this village was known as Oguoho, 
i. e. Wolf. It was probably distinct 
from Osquake. (.1. N. B. H. ) 

Ohquage. Van Curler (1634-35) in Rep. Am. Hist. 
Ass n 1S95, 98, 1S96. 

Oshach. The Sun clans of the Keresan 
pueblos of Laguna, Acoma, Sia, San 
Felipe, and Cochiti, N. Mex. The Sun 
clan of Laguna claims to have come origi 
nally from San Felipe; that of Acoma 
forms a phratry with the Iluwaka (Sky) 
clan. (F. w. H. ) 

Hano Oshatch. Lnmmis, New Mex. David, 48, 
1891 (evidently applied here to the Acoma in 
general). Ohsliahch-hano 1 11 . Hodge in Am. An- 
throp., ix, 3")2, 18% (Lagnna form; lu\no^>= 
people ). Osach-hano. Ibid. (Sia form). Osach- 
hanoq rh . Ibid. (Acoma form). O shach-hano. 
Ibid. (San Felipe form). O shach-hanuch. 
Ibid. (Cochiti form). O -sharts. Stevenson in 
llth Rep. B. A. E., 19, 1894 (Sia form). Oshatsh. 
Bnndelier, Delight Makers, 243, 1800 (Cochiti 
form ). 

Oshagonondagie. See Onondakai. 




Oshkosh ( his hoof, or his nail ; cf. 
()*hknxhi}. \ lead-chief of theMenominee 
in the first half of the 19th century; born 
7! !." d ied Aug. 81 , ] 850. 1 1 e was of th e 
Owawse gens, and grandson of Chakau- 
chokama, called "The Old King," long 
head-chief of the tribe. Oshkosh became 
a warrior when 17 years of age, being one 
of the hundred of his tribesmen, under 



Tomah who joined Col. Robert Dickson 
of the British army and participated in 
the capture of Ft M ackinaw, Mich., from 
the Americans in July, 1812. He was 
with the party who in 1813 made an un 
successful attack on Ft Sandusky, Ohio, 
then in charge of Maj. Geo. Croghan. It 
was at the treaty of Butte des Morts, 
Mich. Ter. (now Wisconsin), Aug. 11, 
1827, that he was first officially recog 
nized as chief of the Menominee, when, 
in fact, he was named as chief by 
Cass and McKenney, the United States 
commissioners, in order that he might 
representhis tribe. Oshkosh is described 
as having been of medium size, possess 
ing good sense, ability, and bravery, but 
a slave to strong drink, which led him, 
at least in one instance, deliberately to 
murder, without provocation or excuse, 
an inoffensive Indian. His name is also 
written Oiscoss, Oskoshe, and Oskashe. 
His portrait, painted by Samuel M. 
Brookes, i in possession of the State His 
torical Society of Wisconsin. See Hoff 
man in 14th Rep. B. A. E. , 1 896. ( c. T. ) 

Oshkuohi ( Uskash** ) . The animate form 
of an inanimate word referring to hoof, 
claw, nail ; applied to a member of 
the social divisions of the Sank, Foxes, 
and Kickapoo. The division is irrespec 
tive of clan and is the cause of intense 
rivalry in sport. Their ceremonial color 
is black. (w. j.) 

Oshonawan ( musty town ) . An ancient 
Zufii settlement, now in ruins, situated 
E. of Ojo Caliente, N. Mex. (F. n. c. ) 
0-sho-na. Fewkes in Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., I, 
101, 1891. 

Oshtenuhlawan ( Osh -ie-nii? -Ma-wan, 
dwelling piace of the rock or cave shelter 
surrounded ). A companion ruin to 
Illauhla, which is situated 10 in. N. N. E. 
of Zufii, K". Mex. (F. n. c. ) 

Osiquevede. Mentioned by Fontaneda, 
about 1575, in connection with Mogoso, 
Tocobaga, Carlos (Calusa, ) A is, and Son- 
sobe, as a village or tribe of Florida below 
(s. from) Apalachee, Fla. (.T. M. ) 

Osiguevede. Fontaneda in Ternaux-Compans, 
Voy., xx, 40, 1841. Osiquevede. Fontaneda Mem 
oir, Smith trans., 27, 1854. 

Oskakumukchochikam ( ()s Kd kumiik 
Tcotcikiiui, arrow-bush standing ). A 
former Pima village in s. Arizona. Rus 
sell, Pima MS., B. A. K,l<>, 1902. 

Oskawaserenhon ( dead branches have 
fallen ). A traditional Iroquois town of 
the Wolf clan; so enumerated in the list 
of towns in the Chant of Welcome of the 
Condolence Council of the League of the 
Iroquois. Nothing definite is known as 
to its situation or to what tribe it be 
longed. See Hale, Iroq. Book of Rites, 
1883. (j. N. B. H.) 

Oskelagna (yagena^ 1 land ). Recorded 
on the West Florida map (ca. 1775) as one 
of the former Choctaw "Sixtowns," situ 
ated probably in Jasper co., Miss. It is 



BULL. 30] 



, 

OSKENOTOH OSSOSSA N" K 



not, however, one of the Sixtowns re 
corded by Gatschet. See Oklahannali. 

Oskenotoli (Os-keri -o-toh] . The Deer 
clan of the Hurons. Morgan, Anc. Soc., 
153, 1877. 

Oskquisaquamai. A fish-eating people 
mentioned in connection with Assini- 
boin, Cree, and Maskegon, in the middle 
of the 18th century; probably a band of 
Cree. 

Oskquisaquamai. Baequeville de lu, I otherie, 
Hist. Am., I, 176, 1753. Osquisakamais Dobbs, 
Hudson Bay, 25, 1744. 

Oskuk ( Os ki ik, tree standing ). A 
. small Pima village on Gila r., s. Arizo 
na. Russell, Pima MS., B. A. E., 18, 
1902. 

Osmakmiketlp ( Osmaxmik e lp ) . A Bel 
lacoola village on th-j N. side of Bella- 
coolar., at its mouth, in British Colum 
bia; it was one of the eight Nuhalk 
towns. Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist, n, 49, 1898. 

Osonee. A former village, probably of 
the Upper Creeks, on Cahawba r., in 
Shelby co., Ala. 

Old Osonee. Royee in 18th Rep. B. A. E., Ala. 
map, 1900. 

Osotchi. A former Lower Creek town 
on the w. bank of Chattahoochee r., Rus- 
sell co., Ala., 2 m. below Uchee town and 
adjoining Chiaha. It was settled prior 
to 1791 by people frvin Flint r., Ga., and 
in 1832 had 168 heads of families. In 
Oklahoma the descendants of the people 
of Osotchi and Chiaha are settled in one 
village. 

Hooseehe. Bartram, Travels, 462, 1791. Hoosi- 
tchi. Bartram as cited by Gatschet, Creek Migr. 
Leg., i, 142, 1884. Oesachees. Harris, Voy., u, 
335, 1764. Odsinachies. McKenney and Hall, lad. 
Tribes, in, 80, 1854 (probably identical). Oosoo- 
oches. Hawkins (1813) in Am. gfcite Pap., Ind. 
Aff., I, 854, 1832. Oosechu. Adair, Am. Inds., 
257,1775. Oo-se-oo-che. Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 
25,63, 1848. Ooseoochee. I". S. Ind. Treat. (1814), 
163, 1837. Oscoochfre. Gallatin in Trans. Atn. 
Aritiq. Soc., II, 95, 1836. Oseooche. Wilkinson 
(1802) in Am. State Pap., Ind. Aff., i, 677, 1832. 
OBitchy. Pickett, Hi*t. Ala., II, 104, 1851. Oso- 
chee. Am. State Papers Ind. Aff., n, 837, 1834- 
I Owtohi. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i. 142, 1884. 
Ossuchees. Am. State Papers, Ind. Aff., T, 383. 
1832. Ostretchees. H. R. Ex. Doc. 276, 24th Cong. , 
1st sess., 308, 1836. 6"sudshi. Gatschet, Creek, 
f Migr. Leg., i, 142, 1884. 6sutchi. -Ibid. Oswi 
; chees. Woodward, Reminis., 38, 1859. Oswich,;?.-- 
U. S. Ind. Treat. (1827), 419, 1837. Oswitcha. -H. 
R. Ex. Doc. 276, 24th Cong., 1st sess., 300, 1836. 
Oswitche. H. R. Doe. 452, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 49-, 
1838. Oswitchee. Sehoolrraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 
578, 1X54. Ousauches. Barnard (1793) in \m. 
State Pap., Ind. Aff., i, 382, 1832. Owitchees. 
MeCall, Hist. Georgia, I, 364. 1811. Owseecheys.- 
Harris, Voy., li, 327, 1764. TJsechees. Kinnard 
(1793) in Am. State Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 388, 1*32. 
UBuchees. Seagrove (1793), ibid., 387. TJsu 
tchi. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 142, 1884. 

Osotchi. A town of the Creek Nation, 
on Deep fork, below Ocmulgee, Okla. 
O udshi. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., 11,186,1888. 
Ospo. A village and mission station, 
possibly of the Yamasee, on or near Guale 
( Amel ia) id. , x. E. Fla. , in the latter part of 
the 16th century. In 1597, in a general 
attack on the missions, the church was 
destroyed and the priest in charge, Father 

3456 Bull. 30, pt 207 11 



Avila, taken prisoner, but he was anally 
rescued after having once been condemned 
to the stake. See Tolemato. (.r. M.) 
Ospa. Slu-a, Oath. Miss., 70, 1855. Ospo. Barcia, 
Ensayo, 171, 1723. 

Qsquake (from Otsquago, under the 
rock, Mohawkname of the creek. Hew 
itt) . A Mohawk band and village fur- 
merly at Ft Plain and on Osquake cr., 
Montgomery co., N. Y. (Macauley, N. Y., 
n, 296, 1829). Cf. Osyuage. 

Ossaghrage (Iroquois: place of beaver 
dams. Hewitt) . An Abnaki village in 
1700. Bellomont (1700) in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., TV, 758, 1854. 

Ossahinta ( Frost ) . The principal cl lief 
of the Orioiidaga from 18. >0 until hi^ 
death in 1846; he was born in 1760 and 
belonged to the Turtle clan. Ossahinta 
was of high character and an eloquei.it 
speaker, and was commonly known as 
Captain Frost. (w. M. B. ) 

Osse ( (V-sf, old squaw d a- *k ) . A su b- 
phrutry or gensoftheMenominee. Hoff 
man in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 42, 5896. 

Ossewiugo. A town with a mixed popu 
lation under Oneida jurisdiction, formerly 
situated, according to the Kvans map of 
1756, a few miles above Chennngo, Broorne 
co., N. Y. The report of Thompson and 
Post in 1758 (Pa. Archives, in, 413, 1853) 
says, with reference to Chenango, that it 
is a "town of the Nanticokes, 011 Susquo 
hanna, about hnlf way between Owegey 
and Ossewingo," whicli indicates appar 
ently that Chenango lay between the 
two towns mentioned and is not identical 
with Ossewingo, as some writers assert. 
See Halsey, Old N". Y. Frontier, 276, 

1901. (J. N. B. H.) 

Ossi.ngsi.Tig 1 (Delaware: assinesink, at 
the little stone, probably referring to 
the heaps of small stones tliat the Indians 
were accustomed to form at certain places, 
especially at -the foot of a hill. Gerard). 
A former village of theSintdink (q.v. ) on 
the site of Ossining, N. Y. Ruttenber, 
Tribes Hudson R., 79, 1872. 

Ossipee ( lake formed by the enlarge 
ment of a river. Maurauit). A small 
tribe of the Pennacook confederacy for 
merly living on Ossipee r. and lake in Car 
roll co., N. H., and Oxford co., Me. 
Their village, of the same name, WUH prob 
ably on 4- he lake. ( r. M. ) 
Osipees. Kendall, Trav., in, 45, 1809. Gssepe. 
Treaty of 1690 in Mass. Hist. Soe. Coll., 3d s., j, 11^, 
1825. Ossipec.Penhallow (1726) in N. H. Hist. 
Soc. Coll.., i, 71, 1824. 

Ossossan6 ( a mound ). A former im 
portant Huron village, belonging to the 
Bear clan, situated between L. Simcoe 
and Georgian bay, Ontario. It was 
known under various nanes at different 
periods. In 1639 the mission of La Con 
ception was removed there from Ihona- 
tiria. (J. N. B. H.) 

Immaculate Conception. Shea, Cath. Miss., 177, 
1855. La Conception. Jes. Rel. 1610, 63, 1868. 
LaRochelle. Je. Rel. 1636, 123, 1858. Oasonane. 



162 



OSSUARY OS W EGO TEA 



[B. A. E. 



Jes Rel 1G3V>. 38. 1858 (changed in errata to Ossos- 
sane) Ossos ndue. Jes. Kel. 1637, 70, 1858. Osso- 
sane Thiil ,31. Ossossandue. Ibid., 70. Ossos- 
sane .le>. Rol. 1636, 123, 1858. Ossossarie. Jes. 
Kol 1640 > 1858 (misprint). Quevindoyan. 
Mem, in- o<" 1(537 in Margry, Doc., I, 4, 1875 
(sie. HC the baso of the mountain. Hewitt). 
Quleuindohain. Sagard (1686), Can., n, 422, 1866. 
Guiftuimlohian. Ibid., 1,200. iMitl. Sainct Gabriel. 
II .id -p.te. T; quenonquiaye. Champlain (1615), 
i En v res, i\, -!-, 1870. Tequeunoikuaye. Sagard 
(1636,, ( an., I, _ , 0, 1866. Tequeunonkiaye. Sagard 
misquoted in (, hamplain, CEuvres, iv, 28, note, 
1870. 

Ossuiry. . k ---e Mortuary customs. 

Osswf. hgadu!<aah ( hawk ). A clan of 

the Seneca. 

Canonchahonron^-. French writer (1666) in N. Y. 
. IT-IS, 1S55. Os-sweh-ga-da-ga - 
ah. Murgjtn, L , t.ue Iroq., 80, 1851. 

Ostimuri. A pueblo of the Nevome, 
with 57 inhabUants in 1730; apparently 
situated in S v ; ora, Mexico, E. of Ion. 
109 ami x. of hit, 29. It seems to have 
been a visita of md near the mission of 
(Santa Rosalin Onopa, q. v. 

S. Ildefonso Os luiu-i. Rivera (1730) quoted by 
Bancroft, Nc Me.\. States, i, 514, 1884. 

Ostogero L. .. former Iroquois village, 
ap])arently im. >r Oiieida jurisdiction, 
situated, accor ,ng to the Brion de la 
Tour map of 17.- , ahove Tuskokogie, on 
the K. bank of ti e E. branch of the Sus- 
quehanna r. T is is probably an error 
)" Cru-nango r. ;ti X. Y. (.1. N. B. IT.) 

Oetageron. -l.ii ttn , Map, 1784. Ostogeron. Es- 

:i]>iily. iap, 1777. 

Ostonwackin. V village occupied by 
Delaware, Ca\ > . a, Oneida, and other 
Indians under I . quois contrcl on the w. 
branch of the S |uehanna, ai, the mouth 
of Loyalsock ei it the site of the present 
Montoursville : coming co., Pa. Itwas 
at one time th.- iiome of the celebrated 
Madam Mont< r, q. v. 

Fre::"h Town. L.- ngton, Christopher Gist s 
Osu,nghaes. Albany conf. (1722) 
><. Col. Hist., v, 675,1855 (the inhabit- 
iwackui -Loskiel (1794) quoted by 
. 25, --13. Ots-on-wacken. Da.ling- 
Otstonwackin. Loskiel, Hist. Miss. 
pt.2, .ii>, 179-1. Otstuago. Darling- 
si in: little islands ). A 
-Ki; no village on Kachemak 
oast of Kenai penin., Alaska; 
sSU. Petroff in 10th Census, 
Alaska, 2 .. 1884. 

\ former pueblo of the 
v Mexico; definite location 
iknoun. Asserted to be distinct from 
\siialakwa. 

Osht-ya) . IJnn-lelier in Arch. lust. Papers iv 
: Ost yal-a-kwa. Hodge, lield notes, B . 
A. I ... IS . >. 

( Oxak-tnldiid, hickory 
rmcr Chdctaw town of 
the Oklafalaya, or "Western party, on 
headwaters of Chickasawhay r., in 
lioba .r K. inperco., Miss. See Hal- 
l)eit in Pub. Misa. Hi H t. Soc., vi, 427 
1902. 

Osuukhirhine, Pierre Paul. An Ab- 
naki Indian of St Francis, near Pierre- 
Quebec, noted for his translations, 
eligioiiH wcjrks, into the 



Penobscot dialect of the Abiiaki lan 
guage, published from 1830 to 1844. He 
received a good education at Moore s 
Charity School, Hanover, N. H., and 
returned to his home as a Protestant 
missionary. In some of his published 
works (Pilling, Bibliog. Algonq. Lang., 
539-40, 1891) his name appears as Wzok- 
hilain, because it could not be more ex 
actly transliterated into the Abnaki 
language. 

Oswegatchie ( at the very outlet ) . A 
former village of Catholic Iroquois under 
French influence, on the site of Ogdens- 
burg, St Lawrence co., N. Y., at the mouth 
of the Oswegatchie. In 1748 Father Pic- 
quet began there La Presentation mis 
sion, which grew so rapidly, mainly by 
recruits from the Onondaga and Cayuga, 
that three years later the settlement num 
bered 3, 000. The French fort La Gallette 
was built there about the same time. In 
spite of the opposition of the Iroquois con 
federation the mission prospered, and at 
the breaking out of the French and In 
dian war in 1754 the Oswegatchie and 
other Catholic Iroquois sided with the 
French against their former brethren. 
The settlement was invaded the next year 
by smallpox, which carried off nearly 
half the population. In 1763 they were 
estimated at about 400. They joined the 
British in the Revolution and at the close 
of the war the disorganized remnant was 
settled temporarily at Johnstown and 
later at Indian Point near Lisbon, not far 
from their old settlement. About the 
year 1806 the survivors finally joined the 
Onondaga and St Kegis. (.1. N. B. H.) 

La Gallette. Writer of 1756 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
1st s., vii, 99, 1801. La Gattell. Johnson (1763) in 
N.Y.Doc. Col. Hist., vii, 573, 1856 (transposed). La 
Presentation. Quebec conf. (1751), ibid., X, 237, 
*33C.\ mission name). Osevegatchies. Imlay, West. 
Ter., 293, 1797 (misprint). Osswegatche. Johnson 
(17G3) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist,, vii, 573, 1856. Oswa- 
gatches. Bondinot, Star in the West, 128, 1816. 
Oswagatic. Writer of 1756 in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 1st ft., vii, 99, 1801 . Osweatchies. Jefferson, 
Notes, 282, 1825. Osweegachio. Albany conf. 
(1754) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 862, 1855. Os- 
weegchie. Ibid., 887. Oswegachys. Johnson 
(1763) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 270, 1857. 
Oswegatches. Croghan (1765) in Monthly Am. 
Jour. Geol., 272, 1831. Oswegatchie. Wraxall( 1754) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., v, 23, 1836. Oswe- 
gatchy. Eastburn (1758) in Drake. Trag. Wild., 
270, 1841. Oswegatsy. Ft Johnson conf. (1756) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vii, 47, 1856. Soegatzy. 
Document of 1749, ibid., x, 203, 1858. Sweega- 
chie. Mt Johnson conf. (1755), ibid., vi, 968, 1855. 
Sweegassie. Albany conf. (1754), ibid. ,856. Swee- 
gochie. Wraxall (1756), ibid., vii, 20, 1856. Swe- 
gaachey. Johnson (1753), ibid., VI, 779, 1855. Swe- 
ga -che. Morgan, League Iroq., 26, 1851. Swega- 
chee. Johnson (1756) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 
90, 1856. Swegachey. Mt Johnson conf. (1753), 
ibid., vi, 811, 1855. Swegachie. Johnson (17M), 
ibid., vii, 132, 1856. Swegachy. Canajoharieconf. 
(1759), ibid. ,382. Swegatsy. Stoddert (1753), ibid., 
vi, 780, 1855. Swetgatchie. JefTerys, Fr. Doms, 
pt. 1, 141, 1761. Usuoke-haga. Gntschet, Mohawk 
MS., 1877 (Mohawk name). 

Oswego tea. A name applied to Mo- 
iiarda didyma, a plant used for medicinal 
purposes by Indians, and after them 



BULL. 30] 



OTACITE OTHERDAY 



103 



by the whites, particularly the Shakers 
of New York state. From the place name 
Oswego. (A. r. c. ) 

Otacite. See Outacity. 

Otaguottouemin. An Algonquian tribe 
mentioned by Champlain (CEuvres, iv, 
20, 1870) , who heard of them during his 
passage up the Ottawa r. in 1615. They 
dwelt in a sparsely inhabited desert 
and lived by hunting, and by fishing in 
rivers, ponds, and lakes. The Jesuit Re 
lation of 1640 describes them as dwelling 
N. of the Kichesipirini. They seldom de 
scended to trade with the French. 

Kotakoutouemi. Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 1858. Otoko- 
touemi. Jes. Rel., in, index, 1858. 8ta8kot8em- 
i8ek. Jes. Rel. 1650,34, 1858. 

Otai. A former Diegueno rancheria 
near San Diego, s. Cal.~ Ortega (1775) 
quoted by Bancroft, Hist. Cal., i, 254, 
1884. 

Otaki ( (y-tcirki) . A former Maidu vil 
lage between Big and Little Chico crs., 
in the foothills of Butte co., Cal., a few 
miles E. of Michopdo. (R. B. D. ) 

0-ta-ki. Powers in Coiit. N. A. Ethnol., in, 282, 
1877 (the people). O-ta-kum -ni. Ibid, (the vil 
lage). 

Otakshanabe. A former Choctaw vil 
lage of the "Sixtowns" district; proba 
bly in Jasper co., Miss. West Fla. Map, 
ca. 1775. 

Otassite. See Outaciti/. 

Otat. A former Diegueno settlement, 
tributary to the mission of San Miguel 
de la Frontera, on the gulf coast of Lower 
California, about SO in. s. of San Diego, 
Cal. (A. S.G.) 

Otates (from Aztec otatU, a species of 
cane ) . A ruined pueblo of the Opata, near 
Guachinera, E. Sonora, Mexico, about 
lat. 30. 

Los Otates. Band-elier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 
517, 1892. 

Otatshia ( crane ). A phratry of the 
Menominee; also a subphratry or gens. 

Ota tshia wi dishi anun. Hoffman in 14th "Rep. B. 

A. E., 42, 18%. 

Otchek, Otchig. See Pekatt. 

Otekhiatonwan ( village in the thick 
et ). A band of the Wahpeton Sioux. 
0-ta-har-ton. Lewis and Clark, Discov., 34, 1806. 
Otefiatoijwag. Riggs, letter to Dorsey,1882. OteHi- 
atonwarj. Dorsey (after Ashley) in 15th Rep. 

B. A. K., 216, 1897. Oteqi-atowa n . Ibid. 

Otenashmoo. A former Chumashan vil 
lage at "Las Possas," about 2 in. from 
Santa Barbara mission, Cal. Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, May 4, 1860. 
Oteroughyanento. See Ohrante. 
Otherday, John (Angpetu-tokecha). A 
Wahpeton Sioux, son of Zitkaduta, or 
Eled Bird, and nephew of Big Curly, 
hief of the Wahpeton at Lac qui Parle, 
vlinn.; born at Swan lake, Minn., in 
801. It is said that when a young man 
ie was "passionate and revengeful, and 
rithal addicted to intemperance, and he 
ived to lament that he had slain three or 
3ur of his fellows in his drunken orgies" 



(Sibley). Yet at times he manifested 
the same devotion to his tribesmen as he 
afterward showed to the whites, on one 
occasion, in a battle with the Chippewa 
at StCroixr., bearing from the field "One- 
legged Jim," who had been severely 
wounded, and, during the same action, 
saving the life of another Indian culled 
Fresniere s Son. But he early became 
desirous of following the ways of the 
white men, adopting their dress, later 
becoming a devoted member of Dr Wil 
liamson s church, and abandoning his 
intemperate habits. When in 1857 the 
wily Inkpaduta, "too vile to be even 
countenanced by the Sioux," fell upon 
and massacred the settlors at Spirit lake, 
in the present South Dakota, and carried 
Miss Abigail (iardner and Mrs Noble into 




captivity, Othenlay and Paul Ma/aku- 
teniani "volunteered to follow the out 
law s trail, rescuing Miss (iardner, but 
arriving too late to save llu^ life of the 
other captive. At the time of the Sioux 
outbreak of lSt>2, Othenlay. who had 
married a white woman, resided on the 
reservation near Minnesota r. , in a com 
fortable dwelling built tor him by the 
agent. When he learned that hostilities 
were imminent, he hastened to the upper 
agency and there gathered r>2 of the 
whites, whom he guided in safety through 
the wilderness to St Paul, then hastened 
back to the frontier to save other lives 
and to aid in bringing the murderers to 
justice. To him and the other Christian 
Indians who aided in the rescue the 



104 



OTIAHANAGUK OTO 



[ B. A. K, 



missionary party of 4.S were indebted for 
their escape to an extent not then known 
(Riggs). In the military campaign or 
ganized to quell the outbreak Otherday 
was employed by Gen. Sibley as a 
scout, in which capacity he rendered 
valued service. He participated in the 
battles of Birch Coolie and Wood lake, 
taking with his own hands two horses 
from the enemy and slaying their riders. 
"He was often in their midst and so far 
in advance of our own men that they 
fired many shots at him in the belief that 
he was one of the foe. No person on the 
field compared with him in the exhibition 
of reckless bravery. He was clothed en 
tirely in white: a belt around his waist, 
in which was placed his knife; a hand 
kerchief was knotted about his head, and 
in his hand he lightly grasped his rifle" 
(Heard). Otherday signed the Sisseton 
and Wahpeton treaty at Washington, 
Feb. 19, 1867. Congress granted him 
$2,500, with which he purchased a farm 
near Henderson, Sibley co., Minn.; here 
he resided for three or four years, but 
not being successful as a farmer he sold 
his land at a sacrifice and removed to the 
Sisseton and Wahpeton res., S. Dak., 
where the agent built a house for him. 
He died of tuberculosis in 1871, and was 
buried in a pasture on the N. side of Big 
Coule cr., 75 ft from the stream, about 
12 in. x. w. of Wilmot, Roberts co., S. 
Dak. 

Consult Heard, Hist. Sioux War, 1863; 
Riggs in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 1880; 
Doane Robinson (1) in Monthly South 
Dakotan, in, Oct. 1900, (2) in "s. Dak. 
Hist. Coll., n, 1904; De Lorme W. Rob 
inson in S. Dak. I list. Coll., i, 1902; 
Bryant and Murch, Hist. Massacre by 
Sioux Inds., 1872. (c. T. ) 

Otiahanague. An Onondaga village at 
the month of Salmon r., Oswego co., 
N. Y., in the 18th century, (w. M. n. ) 

Otituchina (prob. three islands ). A 
former I pper Creek town on Coosa r., 
probably in or near Talladega co., 
Ala. 

tee toochinas. Swan (1791) in Schoolcraft Ind 
Trilu-s. v, 2(12, ixiV). 

Otkialnaas-hadai ( K ot k!i<il mia* xa <la-i, 
Kagle s-legs-house people ). A subdi 
vision of the Yadus, a branch of the 
Stustas, one of the greatest of the Ilaida 
families. It belonged to the Eagle clan. 
Swanton, Cont. Ilaida, 27(5, 1905. 

Otkon. The common I roquoin descrip 
tive epithet and name applied to any 
object or being which performs its func 
tions and exercises its assumed magic 
{lower or omula (q. v. ) in such manner 
as to be not only inimical to human wel 
fare, hut hostile to and destructive of 
human life; it is the name in common 
use for all ferocious and monstrous beings, 
animals, and persons, especially such as 



are not normal in size, power, and cun 
ning, or such things in which there i; 
marked incongruity between these prop 
erties of beings. The term is often ap 
plied to fetishes and to similar things 
As a qualifier it is equivalent to tin 
English mysterious, monstrous, devilish 
or rather demoniac; but as a noun, 01 
name, to monster, demon, devil, gob 
lin, witch, wizard. The term has founc 
a peculiar use in a translation of tin 
Gospels by one Joseph Onasakenrat intx 
the Iroquois tongue (Montreal, 1880) 
where it is employed to translate Spirr 
and Holy Spirit; this is done also in 
Mohawk Catechism by the Abbe F 
Piquet (Paris, 1826). In both it is made 
the equivalent of the English spirit 
and in both works Holy Spirit or Hoi) 
Ghost is rendered Rotkon, he, a humar 
being, is an otkon , i. e. a demon, 01 
spirit, modified either by Roiatatokenti. 
his body is holy, or by Ronikonrato- 
kentl, his mind is holy. The initial o- ir 
otkon is a pronominal affix, denotive o: 
number, person, and gender, and mean 
ing here the singular number, third per 
son, and zoic gender. When the term is 
to be used with reference to persons 01 
anthropic beings, the affix changes tc 
ro-, ago-, honna-, or kofina-, signifying 
respectively, he, one, they (mascu 
line), and additionally to every one oi 
these last definitions, the anthropic gen 
der. So that Rotkon denotes he, a hu 
man being, is an otkon, i. e. a demon 01 
spirit. Jn grammatic form the term otkort 
is an adjective or attributive; its correct 
nominal form requires the suffix -tcera, 
-tsera, or -tchii , according to dialect, de 
noting state of being; w hence otkontcera, 
etc., usually written otkonsera, is formed; 
by missionary influence, the latter, modi 
fied by the attributive -kseii, bad , 
evil , wicked , ugly , is the common 
name for the Devil of Christian belief. 
The following are some of the forms oi 
this term found in the Jesuit Relations 
(Thwaites ed.): ocki, okhi, oki, otikcMjui 
(pi.), o</ui, oski, otkis; and in Lafitau s 
Mttnirs des Sauvages Ameriquains, 1724, 
okki, and otkon occur. Preceded by an 
expression denoting verily the term 
otkon is used as an expletive, or, perhaps, 
mild curse. (.T. N. B. H.) 

Otnaas-hadai ( K ot naas xa da-i, Eagle- 
house people ). A subdivision of the 
Yadus, a J laida family on the Eagle side, 
which was in turn a branch of the Stus 
tas. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 276, 1905. 

Oto (from ]V<ifota, lechers ). One of 
the three Siouan tribes forming the Chi- 
were group, the others being the Iowa 
and Missouri. The languages differ but 
slightly. The earliest reference to this 
tribe is found in the tradition which 
relates to the separation of the Chi were 
group from the Winnebago. This tradi- 



BULL. 30] 



OTO 



tion is given by Maximilian, who states 
that it was communicated to Maj. Bran, 
the Indian agent, by an old Oto chief. 
He related that, before the arrival of 
the whites a large band of Indians, the 
Hotonga ( fish-eaters ), who inhabited 
the lakes, migrated to the s. w. in pursuit 
of buffalo. At Green bay, Wis., they di 
vided, the part called by the whites Winne- 
bago remaining, while the rest contin 
ued the journey until they reached the 
Mississippi at the mouth of Iowa r., 
where they encamped on the sand beach 
and again divided, one band, the Iowa, 
concluding to remain there, and the rest 
continuing their travels reached the Mis 
souri at the mouth of Grand r. These gave 
themselves the name of Neutache ( those 
that arrive at the mouth ), but were 




CHIEF GEORGE ARKEKETAH OTO 

Called Missouri by the whites. The two 
hiefs, on account of the seduction of 
:he daughter of one by the son of the 
>ther, quarreled and separated one from 
he other. The division led by the father 
)f the seducer became known as Wagh- 
ochtatta, or Oto, and moved farther up 
he Missouri. While the Winnebago 
ettled in Wisconsin, the Iowa, after they 
eded to the United States all the lands 
>n which they first settled, moved w. 
Between Missouri r. and the Little Platte. 
?he Missouri, having been unfortunate in a 
rar with the Osage, divided, and a part of 
hem lived with the Iowa and a part with 
he Oto. The Oto continued up the Mis- 
ouri until they crossed the Big Platte and 
wed for some time a short distance above 
ts mouth ; later they resided on Platte r. , 



about 80 m. by water from the Missouri. 
irie same tradition was obtained bv Mai 
Long several years before Maximilian s 
visit. Dorsey was informed by the Iowa 

cniefswho visited Washington in 1883that 
tneir people once formed part of the Win 
nebago. The Oto seem to have been most 
intimately associated with the Iowa. 
Ihat they were ever at the mouth of 
Missouri r., where, according to one tra 
dition, they were with the Missouri is 
not likely. The fact that they were with 
the Iowa in the vicinity of Blue Larth 
r., Minn., immediately* preceding Le 
Sueur s visit in 1700, indicates that their 
movement was across the Mississippi into 
s. Minnesota instead of down that stream. 
Le Sueur was informed bv some Sioux 
whom he met that "this river was the 
country of the Sioux of the West, of the 
Ayavois [Iowa] and the Otoctatas [Oto]." 
Messengers whom he sentto invite the Oto 
and Iowa, to settle near his fort at the 
mouth of Blue Earth r. found that they 
had moved w. toward the Missouri r. , 
near the Omaha. Mar<|iiette, in ll>7S, ap 
parently locates the tribe on his auto 
graph map on upper l)es Moines or 
upper Iowa r. Membre (lf>so) places 
them 130 leagues from the Illinois, almost 
opposite the mouth of the Wisconsin. 
Iberville (1700) said that the Otoand Iowa 
were then with the Omaha between the 
Missouri and Mississippi rs., about 100 
leagues from the Illinois. The last two 
statements agree substantially with that of 
Le Sueur. It is therefore not probable, as 
given in one statement, that the Oto were 
on Osage r. in 1087. That t hey were < 1 riven 
farthers, by the northern tribes at a later 
date will appear from the list of localities 
given below. Lahontan claims to have 
visited their village in 1690onthe"< Hentas 
[Iowa or Des Moines] river at its junction 
with the Mississippi," perhaps referring 
to a temporary camp. In 1721, accord 
ing to Charlevoix, the Oto were below 
the Iowa, who were on the E. side of Mis 
souri r., and above the Kansa on the w. 
side. Le Page du Prat/ (17">8) mentions 
the Oto as a small nation on Missouri 
r. Jefferys (1761) placed them along the 
s. bank of "Panis river," probably the 
Platte between its mouth and the Paw 
nee country; but in another part of 
his work lie locates them above the 
Kansa on the w. side of Missouri r. 
Lewis and Clark (1S04) locate the tribe 
at the time of their expedition on the s. 
side of Platte r., about SO in. from its 
mouth, but state that they formerly lived 
about 20 m. above the Platte, on the s. 
bank of the Missouri. Having dimin 
ished, probably through wars and small 
pox, they migrated to the neighborhood 
of the Pawnee, under whose protection 
thev lived, the Missouri being incorpo 
rated with them. From 1817 to 1841 they 



OTO OTOACTE 



[B. A. E. 



were on I Matte r. near its month. In the 
latter year they consisted of 4 villages. 
In 1880 a part of the tribe removed to the 
lands of the Sank and Fox Indians in In 
dian Ter., and in 1882 the remainder left 
their home in Nebraska and went to the 
same reservation. 

The Oto tribe has never been impor 
tant, their history being little more than 
an account of their struggles to defend 
themselves against their more powerful 
enemies, and of their migrations. That 
they were not noted for their military 
prowess, notwithstanding Long s state 
ment of the deeds of bravery of some of 
their warriors, seems evident from their 
inability to cope with their enemies, 
although, according to Lewis and Clark, 
they were once "a powerful nation." 
They were cultivators of the soil, and it 
was on this account, and because they 
were said to be industrious, that Le Sueur 
wished them and the Iowa to settle near 
his fort. Lewis and Clark speak of those 
they saw, at or near Council Bluffs, as 
almost naked, having no covering except 
a sort of breechcloth, with a loose blanket 
< >r painted buffalo robe thrown over their 
shoulders. Their permanent villages con 
sisted of large earthen lodges similar to 
those of the Kansa and Omaha; when 
traveling they found shelter in skin tipis. 
One of their musical instruments was a 
stick notched like a saw, over the teeth 
of which a smaller stick was rubbed 
forcibly backward and forward. 

The Oto and Missouri made a treaty of 
peace with the United States, June 24, 
1817. They joined with other tribes in the 
treaty of Prairie du Chien, Wis., July 15, 
18:;o, by which were ceded all rights to 
lands K. of Missouri r. up to the mouth of 
BigSioux r. By the treaties of Oto village, 
Xebr., Sept. 21, 1833; Bellevue, Nebr.,Oct. 
15, ls;!(i; Washington, Mar. 15, 1854, and 
Nebraska City, Nebr., Dec. 9, 1854, they 
ccMcd to the United States all their lands 
except their reservation on Big Blue r., 
Nebr. Here they remained until about 
ISSL , when, with the Missouri, they were 
removed to Indian Ter. and placed under 
the Ponca, Pawnee, Oto, and Oakland 
agency. Their reserve contained 129,113 
acres. 

Morgan gives the Oto and Missouri 
gentes together, as follows: Mejeraja 
(Wolf), Mooncha (Bear), Ahrovvha 
Cow Buffalo), Ilooma (Hlk), Khaa 
( Kagle), Luteja (Pigeon), Waka (Snake), 
Makotch (Owl). Do rsey obtained the fol 
lowing list of Oto gentes: Patha( Beaver), 
Tnnunpi (Black Bear) or Munchirache 
Arukhwa (Buffalo), Rukhcha (Pigeon), 
Makache (Owl), Wakan (Snake), Che- 
ghita ( Kagle). 

Lewis and Clark gave their number in 
181(5 as r>o<); Cntlin, in 1.833 (including 
the Missouri), as 1,200; Burrows, in 1849, 



900; the Indian Report of 1843 (includ 
ing the Missouri), as 931. In 1862 the 
two tribes numbered 708; in 1867, 511 ;* in 
1877, 457; in 1886, 334; in 1906, 390. 
Anthoutantas. Hennepin, New Discov., 132, 1698. 
Authontantas. Shea, Early Voy., 101, note, 1861. 
Che-wae-rse. Hamilton in Trans. Neb. State Hist. 
Soc., I, 75, 1885 (own name). Hoctatas. Le Sueur 

(1700) in Margry, Dec., vi, 91, 1886. Hotos. 
Bourgmont (1724), ibid., 396. Houatoctotas. Bicn- 
ville (1721) , ibid. , 386. Huasiotos. Rafinesque in 
Marshall, Ky., I, in trod., 28, 1824. Huatoctas. 
Ibid. La Zoto. Lewis and Clark, Discov.. 14, 1806. 
Mactotatas. Jefferys, French Com. Am., pt. 1, 
139, 1761. Malatautes. McKenney and Hall, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 82, 1854. Matokatagi. Gatschet, MS., 
B. A. E. (Shawnee name). Matontenta. LaSalle 
Exped. (1680) in Margry, Dc., n, 95, 1877. Mato- 
tantes. Hennepin, New Discov., n, 47,1698. Ma- 
toutenta. La Salle (1682) in Margry, Dec., I, 487, 

1876. Metotonta. Hennepin, New Discov., ir, 309, 
1698. Motantees. La Metairie (1682) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n, 25, 1875. Motutatak. Gatschet, 
MS., B. A. E. ( Fox name). Octata. Del Isle,map 

(1701) in Neill, Hist. Minn., 1858. Octoctatas. 
Iberville (1702) in Margry, Dec., IV, 598, 1880. Octo- 
lacto. Adelung, Mithridates, in, 271, 1816. Octo- 
latas. Jefferys (1763), Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. 
Octootatas. Minn. Hist. Coll., I (1850-56), 342, 1872. 
Octotales. McKenney and Hall, Iiid. Tribes, in, 
82, 1854. Octotas. Doc. of 1701 in Margry, Dec., 
IV, 587, 1880. Octotata. De 1 Isle, map of La. 
(1701) in Neill, Hist. Minn., 1858. Octotota. 
Vaugondy, Map, 1778. Olio s. Brackenridge, 
Viewsof La,, 70, 1815. Ontotonta. Cavalier (1687) 
in Shea, Early Voy., 28, 1861. Otenta. Hennepin, 
New Discov., map, 1698. Ote-toe. Donaldson in 
Smithson. Rep. 1885, n, Catlin Gallery, 75, 1886. 
Otheues. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 
80, 1854. Otho. Bonrgmont (1723) in Margry, Dec., 
VI, 402, 1886. Othoe. Smithson. Misc. Coll., XIV, 
art. 6, 29, 1867. Othonez. Dunbar in Mag. Am. 
Hist., IV, 248, 1880. Othoues. Jefferys, French 
Dom. Am., pt. 1, 139,1761. Othouez. Le Page du 
Pratz, Hist., n, 251, 1758. Othoves. Alcedo, Die. 
Geog., in, 410, 1788. Otoctatas. Le Sueur (1700) 
in Neill, Hist. Minn., 162, 1858. Otoctotas Margry, 
Dec., vi, 396, 1886. Otoe. Irving, Sketches, 10,1835. 
Otoetata. Long, Exped. St Peter s R., n,320, 1824. 
Otontanta. Marquette, autograph map, 1673, 
in Shea, Discov. Miss., 1852. Otopplata. Margry, 
Dec., vi, 747, 1886 (misprint). Otoptata. Bruyere 
(1742), ibid. ,449. Ototantas. Margry, Dec., li, 191, 

1877. Ototata. Crepy, Carte del Am. Sept. Otou- 
tanta. LaSalle (1682) in Margry,Dec., n, 215, 1877. 
Otoutantas Paote. Margry, ibid., 249. Otto. 
Arrowsmith, Map, 1795. Ottoas. McKenney in 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 90, 1825. Ottoes. Lewis and 
Clark, Discov., 14, 1806. Ottoos. Schermerhorn 
(1812) in Mass. Hist. Coll., 2d. s., n, 10, 1814. 
Otto s. Ibid. Ottotatocs. Du Lac, Voy. dans les 
Louisianes, vii, 1805. Ottotatoes. Du Lac (1802), 
ibid., map. Ottowas. Hunter, Captivity, 24, 1823, ; 
Otutaches. Adelung, Mithridates, in, 271, 1816., 
Outantes. Harris, Coll. Voy. and Trav., I, map, 
685, 1705. Outentontes. Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741, 
Toctata. Iberville (1702) in Margry, Dec., iv, 601, 
1880. War/utada. Dorsey in Cont. N. A. Ethnol./ 
vr, pt. 1 420, 1892 (Omaha and Ponca name), 
Wad-doke-tah-tah. Lewis and Clark, Discov., 14, 
1806. Wa-dook-to-da. Brackenridge, Viewsof La., 
75, 1815. Wa-do-tan. Long, Exped. Rocky Mts.. 
i, 338, 1823. Wadotata. Dorsey, Kansa MS. vocab. 
B. A. E., 1882 ( Kansa name).. Wagh-toch-tat-ta. 
Maximilian, Trav., 507, 1843. Wah teh-ta-na. 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., I, 338, 1823. Wahtoh 
tanes. Keane in Stanford, Compend., 542, 1878. 
Wahtohtata. Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., I, 338, 
1823. Wah-tSk-ta-ta. Ibid., n, Ixxx. Wah-toob 
tah-tah. Ibid., 363. Washo xla. Gatschet, Kaw 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 27, 1878 (Kansa name). 
Watohtata. Dorsey, Tciwere MS. vocab., B. A. E., 
1879 (Dakota name). Watota. Ibid, (own name). 
Wa^utata. Dorsey, Osage MS. vocab., B. A. E.,1882 
Osage (name). 

Otoacte. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 



BULL. 30] 



OTOCARA OTTAWA 



sion, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

"Otocara. See Olotaraca. 

Otocomanes. Mentioned with the Aita- 
comanes as a people occupying a province 
which had been visited by the Dutch, 
where gold and silver was abundant. 
The locality is not given, and the province 
is probably as imaginary as the expedi 
tion in connection with which it is men 
tioned. See Freytas, Exped. of Pefia- 
losa (1662), Shea trans., 67, 1882. 

Otontagan. An Ottawa band living be 
fore 1680 on Manitoulin id., L. Huron, 
Ontario, whence they were driven out by 
the Iroquois. 

Otontagans. Lahontan, New Voy., i, 93, 1703. 
Outaouas of Talon. Ibid. 

Otopali. A village mentioned by Fon- 
taneda, about 1575 (Memoir, Smith trans., 
16, 1854) , as reputed to be inland and 
northward from the coast province of 
Chicora (q. v. ) , which was about the pres 
ent Charleston, S. C. 

Otowi. An extensive prehistoric pueblo 
situated on a mesa about 5 m. w. of the 
point where the Rio Grande enters White 
Rock canyon, between the Rito de los 
Frijoles and Santa Clara canyon, in the 
N. E. corner of Sandoval co., N. Mex. 
The pueblo consisted of a cluster of live 
houses situated 011 sloping ground and all 
except one connected by a wall. They 
were terraced structures, each house group 
having from two to four stories, altogether 
containing about 450 rooms on the ground 
floor and probably 700 rooms in all. The 
settlement was provided with ten subter 
ranean circular kivas, all except two de 
tached from the walls of the dwellings. 
A reservoir was placed so as to receive 
the drainage from the village. Accord 
ing to the traditions of certain clans 
of the present Tewa of San Ildefonso, 
Otowi was the oldest village occupied by 
their ancestors. They hold in an indefi 
nite way that prior to the building of 
Otowi their clans occupied small scattered 
houses on the adjacent mesas, and they 
claim that, owing to the failure of the 
mesa water supply, removal to the valley 
eventually became necessary, a detach 
ment of the Otowi people founding. Perage 
on the w. side of the Rio Grande about a 
mile w. of the present San Ildefonso. 
Associated with Otowi are numerous cliff- 
dwellings excavated in the soft volcanic 
walls of the adjacent canyons. These 
consist of two types: (1 ) open-front dwell 
ings, usually single-chambered, in most 
cases natural caves enlarged and shaped 
artificially; (2) wholly artificial dwell 
ings with closed fronts of the natural rock 
in situ, usually multi-chambered, witli 
floors, always plastered, below the level 
of the entrances; crude fireplaces beside 
the doorway; rooms commonly rectan 
gular and well-shaped. From about m. 



to 1 m. above Otowi is a cluster of conical 
formations of white tufa, some . 50 ft hi h- 
they are full of caves, both natural and 
artificial, some of which have been util 
ized as habitations. See Hewett (l)in 
Am. Anthrop., vi, 641, 1904- (2)Bull T> 
B. A. E., 1906. 

Otreouati. See (iranyula. 

Otshpetl. The second Chilula village on 
Redwood cr. , x. w. Cal. 
Ot-teh-petl. Gibbs in Sclioolrraft. Iiul. Trib^ 
ill, 139, 1853 (Yurok name). 

Otsinoghiyata ( The Sinew ). An old 
and prominent Onondaga chief, com 
monly called The Bunt, a man of strong 
yet genial character. Ziesberger iirst 
mentioned him, in 1752, as the principal 
chief, living in the upper town. He was 
called O/inoghiyata in the Albany treaty 
of 1754, and was mentioned almost yearly 
afterward. In 1762 he was called chief 
sachem of Onondaga, and was at the Pon- 
tiac council at Oswego in 176(1. He signed 
the Fort Stanwix treaty in Oct. 176S, and 
was at conferences at German Flats in 
1770 and Onondaga in 1775. In 1774 In- 
retired from the chieftaincy on account of 
his advanced age, and was succeeded by 
Onagogare. ( w. M. i?. ) 

Otsiquette, Peter. An Oneida chief who 
signed the treaty of 1788. He was a well 
educated man and had visited Lafayette 
in France, but returned to savage life. 
He was a member of the delegation of 
chiefs to Philadelphia in 1792, where he 
died and was buried with military honors. 
He is also called Peter ( )t/agert and Peter 
Jaquette. Elkanah Watson described him 
at the treaty of 1788. Peter ( >tsiequette, 
perhaps the same Indian, witnessed the, 
Onondaga treaty of 1790. ( w. M. B.) 

Otskwirakeron ( a heap or collection of 
twigs ). A traditional Iroquois town of 
the Bear clan; so enumerated in the list 
of towns in the ( hunt of Welcome of 
the Condolence Council of the League 
of the Iroquois. Nothing definite is 
known of its situation or to what tribe 
it belonged. See Hale, Ir<>q. Hook of 
Rites, 120, 1883. (j. x. H. H. ) 

Ottachugh. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, on the x. bank of 
Rappahannock r., in Lancaster co., Ya. 
Smith (1629), Va., i, map, repr. 1S19. 

Ottawa (from addnr, to trade , to buy 
and sell, a term common to the Cree, 
Algonkin, Nipissing, Montagnais, ( )ttawa, 
and Chippewa, and applied to the ( >ttawa 
because in early traditional times and 
also during the historic period they 
were noted among their neighbors as 
intertribal traders and harterers, deahm 
chiefly in corn-meal, sunflower oil, furs 
and skins, rugs or mats, tobacco, and 
medicinal roots and herbs). 

On French r., near its mouth, on Geor 
tnaii bav, Champlain in 1615 met H 
men of a tribe which, he said, "we call 



OTTAWA 



[B. A. E. 



lex cln-neiu- relcncz." Of these he said 
that their arms consisted only of the bow 
and arrow, a buckler of boiled leather, 
and the club; that they wore no breech- 
clout, and that their bodies were much 
tattooed in many fashions and designs; 
that. their faces were painted in diverse 
colors, their noses pierced, and their ears 
bordered witli trinkets. The chief of 
this band gave Ohamplain to understand 
that they had come to that place to dry 
huckleberries to be used in winter when 
nothing else was available. In the fol 
lowing year Champlain left the Huron 
villages and visited the "Cheueux re- 
leuez" (Ottawa), living westward from 
the Hurons, and he said that they were 
very joyous at "seeing us again." This 
last expression seemingly shows that 
those whom he had met on French r. in 
ilintr vear lived where he now 




OTTAWA MAN 



visited them, lie said that the Cheueux 
releue/ waged war against the Mascou- 
tens ( here erroneously called by the 
Huron name Asistagueronon), dwelling 
10 davs journey from them; he found 
this tribe populous; the majority of the 
men were great warriors, hunters, and 
fishermen, and were governed by many 
chiefs who ruled each in his own coun 
try or district; they planted corn and 
other things; they went into many re 
gions 400 or 500 leagues away to trade; 
they made a kind of mat which served 
them for Turkish rugs; the women had 
their bodies covered, while those of the 
men were uncovered, saving a robe of 
fur like a mantle, which was worn in 
winter but usually discarded in summer; 
the women lived very well with their 
husbands; at the catamenial period the 



women retired into small lodges, where 
they had no company of men and where 
food and drink were brought to them. 
This people asked Chaniplain to aid them 
against their enemies on the shore of 
the fresh-water sea, distant 200 leagues 
from them. 

In the Jesuit Relation for 1667, Father 
Le Mercier, reporting Father Allouez, 
treated the Ottawa, Kiskakon, and 
Ottawa Sinago as a single tribe, be 
cause they had the same language and 
together formed a common town. He 
adds that the Ottawa (Outaoiiacs) claimed 
that the great river (Ottawa?) belonged 
to them, and that no other nation might 
navigate it without their consent, It 
was, for this reason, he continues, that 
although very different in nationality all 
those who went to the French to trade 
bore the name Ottawa, under whose aus 
pices the journey was undertaken. lie 
adds that the ancient habitat of the Ot 
tawa had been a quarter of L. Huron, 
whence the fear of the Iroquois drove 
them, and whither were borne all their 
longings, as it were, to their native coun 
try. Of the Ottawa the Father says: 
"They were little disposed toward the 
faith, for they were too much given to 
idolatry, superstitions, fables, polygamy, 
looseness of the marriage tie, and to all 
manner of license, which caused them to 
drop all native decency." 

According to tradition (see Chippewa) 
the Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi 
tribes of the Algonquian family were 
formerly one people who came from some 
point N. of the great lakes and sepa 
rated at Mackinaw, Mich. The Ottawa 
were located by the earliest writers and 
also by tradition on Manitoulin id. and 
along the N. and s. shore of Georgian bay. 

Father Dablon, superior of the mis 
sions of the Upper Algonkin in 1670, 
said: "We call these people Upper Algon 
kin to distinguish them from the Lower 
Algonkin who are lower down, in the 
vicinity of Tadousac and Quebec. People 
commonly give them the name Ottawa, 
because, of more than 30 different tribes 
which are found in these countries, the 
first that descended to the French settle 
ments were the Ottawa, whose name 
remained afterward attached to all the 
others." The Father adds that the Sault- 
eurs, or PahoiiitlngSach Irini, whose 
native country was at the Sault Sainte 
Marie, numbering 500 souls, had adopted 
three other tribes, making to them a ces 
sion of the rights of their own native 
country, and also that the people who 
were called Noquet ranged, for the pur 
pose of hunting, along the s. side of L. 
Superior, whence they originally came; 
and the Chippewa (Outcibous) and the 
Marameg from the N. side of the same 
lake, which they regarded as their native 



BULL. 30] 



OTTAWA 



169 



Jand. The Ottawa were at Chagaouami- 
gong or La Pointe de Sainte Esprit in 
1670 (Jes. Rel. 1670, 83, 1858). 

Father Le Mercier (Jes. Eel. 1654), 
speaking of a flotilla of canoes from 
the "upper nations," says that they 
were "partly Ondataouaouat, of the Al- 
gonquine language, whom we call les 
Cheueux releuez. And in the Relation 
for 1665 the same Father says of the 
Ottawa that they were better merchants 
than warriors. 

In a letter of 1723, Father Sebastien 
Rasles says that he learned while among 
the Ottawa that they attributed to them 
selves an origin as senseless as it was 
ridiculous. They informed him that they 
were derived from three families, each 
composed of 500 persons. The first was 
that of Michabou (see Nanabozho),orthQ 
Great Hare, representing him to be a 
gigantic man who laid nets in 18 fathoms 
of water which reached only to his arm 
pits and who was born in the island of 
Michilimackinac, and formed the earth 
and invented fish-nets after carefully 
watching a spider weaving its web for 
taking flies; among other things he 
decreed that his descendants should burn 
their dead and scatter their ashes in the 
air, for if they failed to do this, the snow 
would cover the ground continuously and 
the lakes would remain frozen. The 
second family was that of the Namepich, 
or Carp, which, having spawned its eggs 
on the shore of a river and the sun cast 
ing its rays on them, a woman was thus 
formed from whom they claimed descent. 
The third family was that of the Bear s 
paw, but no explanation was given of the 
manner in which its genesis took place. 
But when a bear was killed a feast of its 
own flesh was given in its honor and an 
address was made to it in these terms: 
"Have thou no thoughts against us, be 
cause we have killed thee; thou hast 
sense and courage; thou seest that our 
children are suffering from hunger; they 
love thee, and so wish to cause thee to 
enter their bodies; and is it not a glorious 
thing to be eaten by the children of 
captains?" The first two families bury 
their dead (Lettres Edif., iv, 106, 
1819). 

It has been stated by Charlevoix and 
others that when they first became known 
to the French they lived on Ottawa r. 
This, however, is an error, due to the 
twofold use of the name, the one generic 
and the other specific, as is evident from 
the statements by Champlain and the 
Jesuit Relations (see Shea in Charlevoix, 
New France, n, 270, 1866); this early 
home was N. and w. of the Huron territory. 
No doubt Ottawa r., which they fre- 
juently visited and were among the first 
western tribes to navigate in trading ex- 
aeditions to the French settlements, 



was named from the Ottawa generic-ally 
so called, not from the specific people 
named Ottawa. There is unquestioned 
documentary- evidence that as early an 
1635 a portion of the Ottawa lived on 
Manitoulin id. Father Vimont, in the 
Jesuit Relation for 1640, ,>4, 1858, says that 
"south of the Amikwa [Heaver Nation] 
there is an island [Manitoulin] in that 
fresh water sea [L. Huron], about 30 
leagues in length, inhabited by the Outa- 
ouan [Ottawa], who are a people come 
from the nation of the Standing Hair 
[Cheueux Releuez]." This information 
he received from Nicolet, who visited the 
Ottawa there in 1635. On the DuCreux 
map of 1660, on a large island approxi 
mating the location of Manitoulin id., the 
" natio surrectoruincapillorum," i. e. the 
Cheveux Releves, or Ottawa, is placed. 
They were allies and firm friends of the 
French and the Hurons, and conducted an 
active trade between the western tribes 
and the French. After the destruction 
of the Hurons, in 1648-49, the Iroquois 
turned their arms against the Ottawa, who 
fled with a remnant of the Iluronsto the 
islands at the entrance of Green bay, 
where the Potawatoini, who had preceded 
the Ottawa and settled on these islands, 
received the fugitives with open anus and 
granted them a home. However, their 
residence here was but temporary, as they 
moved westward a few years afterward, a 
part going to Keweenaw bay, where they 
were found in 1660 by Father Menard, 
while another part fled with a band of 
Hurons to the Mississippi, and settled on 
an island near the entrance of L. IVpin. 
Driven away by the Sioux, whom they 
had unwisely attacked, they moved x. to 
Black r., Wis., at the head of which the 
Hurons built a fort, while the Ottawa 
pushed eastward and settled on the 
shore of Chaquamegon bay. They wore 
soon followed by the missionaries, who 
established among them the mission of 
St Esprit. Harassed by the Sioux, and 
a promise of protection by the French 
having been obtained, they returned in 
1670-71 to Manitoulin id. in L. Huron. 
According to the records, Father Allouez, 
in 1668-69, succeeded in converting the 
Kiskakon band at Chaquamegon, but the 
Sinago and Keinouche remained deaf to 
his appeals. On their return to Mani 
toulin the French fathers established 
among them the mission of St Simon. 
There is a tradition that Lac Court 
Oreilles was formerly called Ottawa lake 
because a band of the Ottawa dwelt on it; 
shores, until they were forced to move by 
the attacks of the Sioux ( Brunson in \\ is. 
Hist Coll., iv). Their stay on Manitou 
lin id. was brief; by 1680 most of them 
had joined the Hurons at Mackinaw, 
about the station established by 3 
quette in 1671. 



170 



OTTAWA 



[ B. A. E. 



The two tribes lived together until 
about 1700, when the Hurons removed 
to the vicinity of Detroit, while a portion 
of the Ottawa about this time seems to 
have obtained a foothold on the w. shore 
of L. Huron between Saginaw bay and 
Detroit, where the Potaw T atomi were 
probably in close union with them. Four 



divisions of the tribe were represented 
by a deputy at the treaty signed at Mon 
treal in 1*700. The band which had 
moved to the s. E. part of the lower 
Michigan peninsula returned to Macki 
naw about 1706. Soon afterward the 
chief seat of a portion of the tribe was 
fixed at Waganakisi (L Arbre Croche), 
near the lower end of L. Michigan. 
From this point they spread in every 
direction, the majority settling along the 
K. shore of the lake, as far s. as St Joseph 
r., while a few found their way into s. 
Wisconsin and x. E. Illinois. In the x. 
they shared Manitoulin id. and the N. 
shore of L. Huron with the Chippewa, 
and in the s. E. their villages alternated 
with those of their old allies the Hurons, 
now called Wyandot, along the shore of 
1>. Krie from Detroit to the vicinity of 
Beaver cr. in Pennsylvania. They took 
an active part in all the Indian wars of 
that region up to the close of the War of 
1S12. The celebrated chief Pontiac was 
a member of this tribe, and Pontiac s 
war of 1763, waged chiefly around De 
troit, is a prominent event in their his 
tory. A small part of the tribe which 
refused to submit to the authority of the 
United States removed to Canada, and 
together with some Chippewa and Pota- 
watomi, is now settled on "Walpole id. in 
L. St Clair. The other Ottawa in Cana 
dian territory are on Manitoulin and 
Cockburn ids. and the adjacent shore of 
L. Huron. 

All the Ottawa lands along the w. 
shore of L. Michigan were ceded by va 
rious treaties, ending with the Chicago 
treaty of Sept. 26, 1833, wherein they 
agreed to remove to lands granted them 
on Missouri r. in the N. E. corner of 
Kansas. Other bands, known as the Ot 
tawa of Blanchard s fork of Great Au- 
glai/e r., and of Roche de Ku uf on 
Maumee r., resided in Ohio, but these 
removed w. of the Mississippi about 1832 
and are now living in Oklahoma. The 
great body, however, remained in the 
lower peninsula of Michigan, where they 
are still found scattered in a number of 
small villages and settlements. 

In his Histoiredu Canada (r, 190, 1836), 
Fr Saganl mentions a people whom he 
alls "la nation du hois." He met two 
canoe loads of these Indians in a village 
of the Xipissing, describing them as be 
longing to a very distant inland tribe, 
dwelling he thought toward the "sea of 
the south," which was probably L. On 



tario. He says that they were depend 
ents of the Ottawa (Cheueux Keleuez) 
and formed with them as it were a single 
tribe. The men were entirely naked, at 
which the Hurons, he says, \vere appar 
ently greatly shocked, although scarcely 
less indecent themselves. Their faces 
were gaily painted in many colors in 
grease, some with one side in green and 
the other in red; others seemed to have 
the face covered with a natural lace, per 
fectly w r ell-made, and others in still dif 
ferent styles. He says the Hurons had 
not the pretty work nor the invention of 
the many small toys and trinkets which 
this Gens de Bois had. This tribe has 
not yet been definitely identified, bub it 
may have been one of the three tribes 
mentioned by Sagardin his Dictionnaire de 
la Laitgre Hrronne, under the rubric "na 
tions," as dependents of the Ottawa (An- 
datahouat), namely, the Chiserhonon, 
Squierhonon, and Hoindarhonon. 

Charlevoix says the Ottawa were one 
of the rudest nations of Canada, cruel and 
barbarous to an unusual degree and some 
times guilty of cannibalism. Bacqueville 
de la Potherie (Hist. Am. Sept., 1753) 
says they were formerly very rude, but 
by intercourse with the Hurons they have 
become more intelligent, imitating their 
valor, making themselves formidable to 
all the tribes w T ith whom they were at 
enmity and respected by those with 
whom they w r ere in alliance. It w r as said 
of them in 1859: "This people is still ad 
vancing in agricultural pursuits; they 
may be said to have entirely abandoned 
the chase; all of them live in good, com 
fortable log cabins; have fields inclosed 
with rail fences, and own domestic ani 
mals." The Ottawa were expert canoe- 
men; as a means of defense they some 
times built forts, probably similar to 
those of the Hurons. 

In the latter part of the 17th century 
the tribe consisted of 4, possibly 5, divi 
sions. It is repeatedly stated that there 
were 4 bands, and no greater number is 
ever mentioned, yet 5 names are given, 
as follows: Kishkakon, Sinago, Keinou- 
che, Nassauaketon,and Sable. La Mothe 
Cadillac says there were 4 bands: Kis- 
kakon, Sinago, Sable, and Nassauake- 
ton (Verwyst, Miss. Labors, 210, 1886). 
Outaoutiboy, chief of the Ottawa, speak 
ing at the conference with Gov. de Cal- 
lieres, Sept. 3, 1700, said: "I speak in 
the name of the four Outaouais nations, 
to wit: The Outaouaes of the Sable, the 
Outaouaes Sinago, the Kiskakons, and 
the people of the Fork" (Nassawaketon). 
In addition to these chief divisions there 
were minor local bands, as Blanchard s 
Fork, Kajienatroene, Maskasinik, Nega- 
ouichiriniouek, Niscak, Ommunise, Oton- 
tagan, Talon, and Thunder Bay. Chau- 
vignerie in 1736 distinguished the Ottawa 



BULL. 30] 



OTTAWA 



171 



of Grand River, L. Nipissing, Michili- 
mackinac, Detroit, and Saginaw. Accord 
ing to Morgan the names of the Ottawa 
gentes are unknown, but Chauvignerie 
in 1736 mentioned the bear, otter, gray 
squirrel, and black squirrel as the totems 
of different bands of the tribe. Accord 
ing to Charlevoix the Ottawa signed 
with a hare the provisional treaty con 
cluded at Montreal in 1700. At the 
great conference on the Mauinee in 1 793 
they signed with the otter totem. In 
Tanner s Narrative is given a list of 18 
totems among the Ottawa and Chippewa, 
but there is nothing to indicate which are 
Ottawa and which Chippewa. 

The Ottawa entered into numerous 
treaties with the United States, as fol 
lows: Ft Macintosh, Jan. 21, 1785; FtHar- 
mar, Ohio, Jan. 9, 1789; Greenville, Ohio, 
Aug. 3, 1795; Ft Industry, July 4, 1805; 
Detroit, Mich., Nov. 17, 1807; Browns- 
town, Mich., Nov. 25, 1808; Greenville, 
Ohio, July 22, 1814; Spring Wells, Mich., 
Sept. 8, 1815; St Louis, Mo., Aug. 24, 
1816; on the Miami, Ohio, Sept. 29, 1817; 
St Mary s, Ohio, Sept. 17, 1818; L Arbre 
Crocheand Michilimackinac, Mich., July 
6, 1820; Chicago, 111., Aug. 29, 1821; 
Prairie du Chien, Wis., Aug. 19, 1825; 
Green Bay, Wis., Aug. 25, 1828; Prairie 
du Chien; Wis., July 29, 1829; Miami 
Bay, Ohio, Aug. 30, 1831; Maumee, Ohio, 
Feb. 18, 1833; Chicago, 111 , Sept. 26, 1833; 
Washington, D. C., Mar. 28, 1836; Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, June 5 and 17, 1846; Detroit, 
Mich., July 31, 1855, and Washington, 
D. C., June 24, 1862. 

The population of the different Ottawa 
groups is not known with certainty. In 
1906 the Chippewa and Ottawa on Mani- 
toulin and Cockburn ids., Canada, were 
1,497, of whom about half were Ottawa; 
there were 197 Ottawa under the Sen 
eca School, Okla., and in Michigan 
5,587 scattered Chippewa and Ottawa in 
1900, of whom about two-thirds are Otta 
wa. The total is therefore about 4,700. 

The following are or were Ottawa 
villages: Aegakotcheising, Anamiewati- 
gong, Apontigoumy, Machonee, Manistee, 
Menawzhetaunaung, Meshkenmu, Mich 
ilimackinac, Middle Village, Obidgewong 
(mixed) , Oquanoxa, Roche de Banif, Saint 
Simon (mission), Shabawywyagun, Tush- 
quegan, Waganakisi, Walpole Island, 
Waugau, Wolf Rapids. 

(.1. M. .1. X. B. H. ) 

Ahtawwah. Kane, Wanderings of an Artist, 23, 
1859. Algonquins Superieurs. Jes. Rel. 1(570, 78, 
1858. Andata honato. McKenney and Hall, Ind. 
Tribes, m, 79,1854. Andatahouats. Sagard(1632), 
Hist, du Can., i, 192, 1866 (Huron name). Anda- 
tohats. Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741. Atawawas. 
Golden (1727), Five Nations, 29, 1747. Atowas. 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 143, 1855. Attawas. 
Askin (1812) in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 460, 1885. 
Attawawas. Parkman, Pioneers, 347, 1883. Auta- 
wa. Abnaki Speller (1830) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
VI, 247, 1859. Autouacks. Clark, Onondaga, i, 204, 
1849, Cheueux ou polls leue. Sagard, Hist, du 



n n\ A? 2 lm Cheuei releues.-Champlain 
(1616), CEuvres, iv, 58, 1*70 Oourterrie lies 
Lapham, Inds. Wis., n, 1X70. Dewagamas M~ 
Kenney and Hall, Ind. Tril.es, in, 79 fs Dewa" 
ganas.-Colden (1727), Five Nations 42 1747 
( mum biers : Iroquois name). Ku tato 1-Gat- 
schet. Fox MS. , B. A . K. ( Fox name, i . Oadauwaus - 
Parkman, Pioneers, 347, 1X83. Octogymists -Fort 

rs m i ssToH (1 f 8) J 11 ? v " D(H - ( ^- Htat., x.v 

liri ni" v, 0dahwah -- J<>nes, Ojcbway Inds., 17s 
1863 Odahwaug. Warren (1X52) in Minn HM 
Soc Coll., v, 31, 1X85. Odawas.-Schook-raft Ind 
Tribes, v, 145, 1X55. Ondataouaouat.-Jes. ReL 
lt)f)4, 9, 1X58. Ondataouatouat. Charlevoix New 
France, n, 270, note, 1st;.;. Ondatauauat-Bres 
sani quoted in note to Charlevoix, ibid Ondata- 
wawat Jes. Kel. 1(156, 17, 1X5X (Huron name prob 
ably derived from the Algonkin). Ondatoua- 
tandy .-Jes. Rel. 1648, 62, 1858 (probably identical 
though Lalement supposed them to be a division 
Of the WinnebagO). Ondoutaouaheronnon .Jes 
Rel. 1644, 99, 1858. OndStaSaka. Jes. Rel. KJ42 10 
1S58. Onontakaes. Doe. of K195 in N. V. Doc Col 
Hist., ix, 596, 1X55 (confounded with the Onon 
daga). Ontaanak. Jes. Kcl. 1648 6 1X5X Ontao- 
natz. Hennepin (16X3), La., Shea ed., 276 ixxo 
Ontdwawies. Clarkson (1766) in Schoolcraft Ind 
Tribes, iv, 269, 1X54. Onttaouactz. Heniiepin 
(1683), La., Shea ed., 52, 1XXO. Otahas. Smith 
(1785) quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, m 55 1 
1853. Otaoas. Denonville (1687) in X V Doc 
Col. Hist., ix, 336, 1855. OtaSais. Conf. of 1751 
ibid., X, 232, 1858. Otaoiiaks. Jes. Kel. 1670. (i IsfyS. 
Otaous. Denonville (16x7) in N. V. Doe. Col. Hist.. 
IX, 336. 1855. Otauas. Doe. of 166.sin French, Hist. 
Coll. La., ii,138, 1X75. Ota wa. Gatschet, Ojibwa 
MS., B. A. E., 1882 (Chippewa name). O-ta -wa 
Hewitt, Onondaga MS., B. A. K., 1XX8 (Onondaga 
name). Otawas. Denonville (16X7) in N. V. Doc. 
Col. Hist., in, 466. 1X53. Otawaus. Albany conf. 
(1726), ibid., V, 791, 1X55. Otawawas. Ibid., 795. 
Otoways. Pike. Kxped., pt. 1, app.. 6:;. ls]o. 
Ottah-wah. Warren (1852) in Minn. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., V, 193, 18X5. Ot-tah-way. Ibid., 2X2. Otta- 
ouais. Doc. of 1759 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., x, 
9X2, 1X5X. Ottaouets. Perkins and Peck, Annuls 
of the West, 33, 1X50. Ottauwah. Macauley, N. Y., 
n, 174, 1829. Ottawacks. Albany conf. (172(5) in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., v, 791, 1X55. Ottawacs. Cour- 
celles (1671), ibid., ix, 85, 1X55. Ottawaes John 
son (1763), ibid., VII, 525, 1X56. Ottawagas. 
Goldthwait (1766) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.. 1st 
s., x, 122, 1X09. Ottawaies. Croghan (1760), 
ibid.. 4th s., TX, 249, 1X71. Ottawak. Long, Kxped. 
St. Peter s K., n, 151, 1X21. Ottawas. Writer of 
1684 quoted by Uuttenber, Triln-s Hudson K., 
171, 1X72. Ottawawa. Doc. of 1695 in N. Y. Dee. 
Col. Hist., IV, 122,1X54. Ottawawaas. Livingston 
(1687), ibid., in, 413, 1853. Ottawawe. Dongan 
(1687), ibid.. 476. Cttawawooes. Doc. of 16XS, 
ibid., 565. Ottawaws. Croghan (1760) in Mass. 
Hist Soe. Coll., 4th s., IX, 250, 1X71. Ottaway. 
Schuyler (1698) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv. 406, 
1X54. " Ottawwaws. Tanner. Narr., 36,1830. Ottaw 
wawwag. Ibid., 315 (Ottawa name). Ottawwaw- 
wug. Parkman, Pioneers, 317, 1XX::. Ottewas. 
Lang and Taylor, Kep., 23, 1X13. Ottoawa. 
Livingston (16X7) inN. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., m.413, 
1853. Ottova. Mark ham (1691). ibid., sox. Otto- 
waes. Johnson (1761), il)id., vn, 671. 1>.">6. Otto- 
wais. Dongan (m. 16X6), ibid., in. 395. 1x53 
Ottowas. Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by School- 
craft Ind. Tribes, in. 554, 1853. Ottowata. 
Treaty of 1829 in U. S. Ind. Treat., 161, 1X7:! 
Ottowaus. Edwards (178X) in Mass. Hist. Soc 
Coll 1st s ix, 92, 1X04. Ottowauways. Doc. of 
1717 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 391. 1x55. Otto- 
wawa.-Lamberville (16X6), ibid., in, 490, 1X53. 
Ottowawe. Valiant (16XX), ibid., 522. Otto- 
wawB. Carver, Trav., 19, 1778. Ottowayer. Yatcr 
Mith pt. 3, sec. 3, 406, 1816. Ottoways.- Lords of 
Trade (1721) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., v, 622, 1X55. 
Ottowose. Valiant (168X), ibid., in, 522, 
Ottwasse. Dongan (16X6), ibid., ix, 3 
Ouatawais, JefFerys, Fr. Doms., pt. 1, map, 1/bl. 
Ouatouax. LaBarre (1683) in X. Y.Doc.Col.] 
ix "O 4 1X55 Outaois. Yaudreuil (1/03), ibid., 
743. "Outaoise. Doc. of 174X, ibid.. X. 151 IS 
Outaonacs. Warren (1852) in Minn. Hist. Soc. < 
V, 407, 1885. Outaouacs, Jes. Rel. 16/1, -\ l*- 



172 



OTTER TAIL OUACHITA 



[B. A. E. 



OutaSacs. Doe. of 1693 in N.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 
562 1S55. BtaSacs. Doc. of 1695, ibid., 604. Outaou- 
aes. Frontenae (1673), ibid., 95. StaSaes. Mon 
treal conf. (1100), ibid. ,719. OutaSaes. Ibid., 720. 
Outaouagas. La Galissoniere (1748), ibid., x, 182. 
INKS. Outaouaies. Denonville (1687), ibid., ix, 
365, 1855. Outaouais. Talon? (1670) quoted by 
Xeill, Minn., 120. 185*. OutaSais. Doe. of 1695 in 
N V Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 698, 1855. StaSais. Doc. 
of 1(195, ibid., 601. Outaouaks. Jos. Rel. 1656, 38, 
18. >8. Outaouan. Jos. Kel. 1640, 34, 1858. Outaou- 
aos. Frontonac (16M) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 
146. 185."). Outaouas. Writer of 1660 in Margry, 
Dec., i, 55, 1S75. OutaSas. Doc. of 1746 in N.Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., x, 51, 1858. 8ta8as. Denonville 
(168S), ibid., ix, 384, 1855. Outaouats. Doc. of 1757, 
ibid., x. 630, 1S58. Outaouaus. Doc.of 1691, ibid., 
ix. 521. 1S55. Outaouax. LaBarre ( 1683), ibid., 201. 
Outaouays. Writer of 1690 in Margry, Dec., I, 
59, 1S75. Outaoues. Frontenac (1682) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., IX. 176. 1855. Outaouois. Couroel- 
les (1670), ibid., 788. OutaSois. Doc. of 1695, ibid., 
611. Outaoutes. Lamberville (1684), ibid., 259. 
OutaSuas. Beauharnois (1744), ibid., 1112. Outao- 
vacs. Crepy, Map. nt.1755. Outaovas. Hennepin 
(16*3) in Harris, Yoy., n, 917, 1705. Outaowaies. 
Bondinot. Star in the West, 212, 1816. Outarwas. 
Lords (if Trade (1721) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., v, 
621, 1S55. Outauaes. Frontenac (1682), ibid., IX, 
180, ls55. Outauas. Denonville (1686), ibid., 295. 
Outauies. Parkman, Pioneers, 347, 1883. Outau- 
ois. Frontenac (1682) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 
182, 18S5. Outavis. Writer of 1761 in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll. ,4th s., IX, 428, 1871. Outavois. Tonti 
(1694) in Margry, Dec., IV, 4, 1880. Outawacs. 
Courcelles (1671) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist, ix, 79, 
1*55. Outawais. JefTerys, Fr. Doin., pt. 1, 47, 1761. 
Outawas. Talon (1670) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
i\, 65. 1*55. Outawase. Doc. of 1671, ibid., IX, 
M. 1855. Outawawas. Writer of 1756 in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., VII, 117, 1801. Cutaway. 
Charlevoix, Yoy. to N. Am., n, 47, 1766. Outa- 
wies. Boudinot, Star in the West, 100, 1816. 
Outawois. Doc. of 1746 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
x. 34, ls5.s. Outduaois. Bouisson (1699) quoted 
by Shea, Early Yoy., 45, 1861. Outeonas. Chau- 
vignerie (1736) quoted by Sehoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 554, 1853. Outi macs. Imlay, West. 
Tor., 292, 1797. Outontagans. Lahontan (1703) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 606, note, 1855. Out- 
ouacks. Coxe, Carolana, 46, 1741. Outouacs. 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ill, 489, note. 1853. Out- 
ouais. Parkman, Pioneers, 347, 1883. Outoua- 
ouas. St Cosine (en. 1700) in Shea, Early Yoy., 
47, 1861. Outouvas. Perkins and Peck, Annals 
of the West, 33, 1850. Outowacs. Jefferys, Fr. 
Dom., pt. 1. map, 1761. Outtamacks. Croghan 
(1765) in Monthly Am. Jour. Geol., 272. 1831. 
Outtaois. Vaudrenil (1703) inX.Y. Doc. Col. Hist., 
rx, 743, 1855. Outtaouacts. Hennepin, Cont. of 
New Discov., 129, 1698. Outtaouatz. Ibid.,85. Out- 
taSes. Do Callieres (1700) inN. Y T . Doc. Col. Hist., 
ix, 70H, 1*55. Outtaouis. Yaudreuil (1707), ibid., 
810. Outtauois. Vaudreuil (1704), ibid., 760. Out- 
tawaats. Parkman, Pioneers, 347, 1883. Outta- 
waa. Denonville (16X6) in N. Y.l)oc.Col.Hist.,ix, 
300,1855. Outtoaets. Parkman, Pioneers,347, 1883. 
Outtouatz. Hennepin, New Diseov.,87,1698. Son- 
taouans. Doe. of 1691 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 

51, \ 1855 (con founded with the Seneca). Tawaa. 

Campbell (1760) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll , 4th s 
IX, 357, 1871. Tawas. Bouquet (1760), ibid., 322. 
Tawaws. Trader of 1778 quoted by Schoolcraft 
Ind. Tribes, in, 560, 1853. Taways. Croghan 
(1760) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., ix, 275 
1*71 (Delaware form). Touloucs. Lamberville 
(1686) in N*. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in. 4*9, 1853 (mis 
print). Towako. Walarn ( Hum ( 1 *:;:;) in Brinton 
Lenane Leg., 206, 1885 (old Delaware name) 
Towakon. Ibid., 198. Traders. Schoolcraft Ind 
Tribes, v, 145, 1X55. Uda wak.-Gatschet, Penob- 
scot MS..B. A. \-:., 1887(Penobscot name) Ukua - 
yata. (iatschct, Wyandot MS.. E. A. E. 1877 
(Huron name;. Utaobaes. Barcia Ensavo 
297, 1723. Utawas. La Tour, Map, 1779. Utawa- 
was. Colden (1727), Five Nations. 22, 1747 Uto- 
vau*es. Biircia. Ensayo, 236, 1723. Uttawa 
Colden (176|j in N. y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 667 
18o6. Waganhaers. Doc. of ]<;<)9, ibid iv 565 
18.5-1. Waganhaer Livingston (1700), ibid., 691 



Waganha s. Hunter (1710), ibid., V, 168, 1855 
( stammerers : Iroquois name). Waganis. 
Markham (1691), ibid., ill, 808, 1853. Wagannes. 
Bleeker (1701), ibid., iv, 891, 1854. Wagenhanes. 
Wessels (1693). ibid., iv, 61, 1854. Wagunha. Col 
den (1727), Five Nations, 108, 1747. Wahannas. 
Homer (1700) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 799, 1854. 
Watawawininiwok. Baraga, Eng.-Otch. Diet., 300, 
1878 (trans.: men of the bulrushes ; so called 
because many rushes grew in Ottawa r.). 
Wdowo. Abnaki Spelling Book (1830) quoted in 
Me. Hist, Soc. Coll., vi, 247, 1859 (Abnaki name). 
Wtawas. Heckewelder in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
2d s., X, 128, 1823. 

Otter Tail. A band of the Pillager 
Chippewa on White Earth res., Minn., 
numbering 726 in 1906. 

Otusson ( probably from utasun, bench 
or platform in the lodge. W. J.) A 
former Chippewa village, taking its name 
from a chief, on upper Huron r. in Sanilac 
co., Mich., on a reserve sold in 1837. 

Otzagert, Peter. See Otsiqw tte. 

Otzenne ( intermediate people ). A 
Sekani tribe living between the Saschut- 
kenne and the Tselone on the w. side of 
the Kocky mts., Brit. Col. 
Otzen-ne. Morice in Trans. Can. Inst., 29, 1893. 

Ouabanghirea. One of several towns 
situated close together, apparently on 
Ohio r. cr one of its tributaries, on Mar- 
quette s map of 1673 a^ given by Theve- 
not (but not on the true map as given 
by Shea, Discov. and Expl. Miss. Val., 
1852). It is possible that the name refers 
to the Ouabano; but the way in which 
these towns are located on the map 
shows that their situation is mere guess 
work. 

Ouabano ( Algonquian : eastern ; cf. A !>- 
naki). An unidentified tribe or band, 
probably Algonquian, encountered by La 
Salle in 1683. They traded with the 
Spaniards, and at La Salle s solicitation 
visited Fort St Louis on Illinois r. in 
company with the Shawnee and Chaskpe. 
They appear to have come from the S. 
Oabano. La Salle (1683) in Margry, Dec.. 11. 314, 
1877. Ouabans. Memoir of 1706 in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., ix, 799, 1855. 

Ouachita. A former tribe, apparently 
Caddoan, residing on Black or Ouachita 
r., in N. E. Louisiana. Bienville in 1700 
encountered some of them carrying salt 
to the Taensa, with whom he says they 
were intending to live. Later he reached 
the main Ouachita village, which he found . 
to comprise about 5 houses and to con 
tain about 70 men. It would seem that 
the tribe subsequently retired before the 
Chickasaw and settled among the JS atch- 
itoch, their identity being soon after 
ward lost. They are not to be con 
founded with the Wichita. (.1. K. s. ) 
Ouachibes. Boudinot, Star in the West, 128, 1816. 
Ouachita. La Harpe (1719) in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., in, is, 1851. Ouachites. Du Pratz, Hist. Lou- 
isiane, 318, 1774. Ouasitas. Tonti (1690) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., I, 72, 1846. Ouassitas. 
Penicaut (1712) in Margry, De.c., v, 497. 1883. 
Ouatchita. Iberville (1700), ibid., IV, 414, 1880. 
Quachita. Royce in 18th Rep. B.A.E., La. map, 
1900. Wouachita. Ann. de la Prop, de la Foi, 
IT, 384, ca. 1825. 



BULL. 30] OUADAOUGEOUNATON OUQHETGEODATONS 



173 



Ouadaougeounaton. Mentioned by Al- 
cedo (Die. Geog., in, 416, 1788) as an 
Indian settlement of Louisiana, "in the 
territory of the Sioux of the west." The 
name is possibly a synonym of Wea. 

Ouade. A village in Georgia, about 
1564, near the coast, apparently on or 
near lower Altamaha r. De Bry (Brev. 
Narr., n, map, 1591) locates it* on the 
coast of South Carolina, s. of Ft St Helena. 
The name may be a dialectic form of 
Guale, q. v. 

Oualeanicou. A tribe mentioned by 
Coxe (Carolana, 48, 1741), in connection 
with the Foxes and Menominee, as living 
on Wisconsin r. , Wis. The word may be 
a corrupted form of Iliniouec (Illinois) 
or may possibly refer to the Winnebago. 

Oualuck s Band (Ou-a-luck). The local 
name of a Snake band formerly in Eureka 
valley, E. Oreg. Drew in Ind. Aff. Rep., 
59, 1863. 

Ouanakina. Mentioned by Smith (Bou 
quet s Exped., 70, 1766) as a tribe prob 
ably associated with the Creeks and num 
bering 300. Schoolcraft includes them 
under the heading "Upper, Middle, and 
Lower Creeks." It is possible that they 
are identical with the Wewoka (q. v.) 
who lived on Wenoka cr., Elmore co., 
Ala. (c. T.) 

Onanikins. Boudinot, Star in the West, 128, 1816. 
Ouanikina. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, m, 557,1853. 

Ouananiche. A species of salmon (S(tl- 
mo salar ouananiche) found in the waters 
of E. Quebec and part of Labrador. Cham 
bers (The Ouananiche, 50, 1896) cites 26 
different spellings, literary and popular, 
French Canadian and English, including 
wananish, ouininiche, wininish, and win- 
anis, all of them corruptions of the 
French Canadian ouananiche, which form 
appears in the documents of the old 
Jesuit missionaries. An English vinanis 
dates back to the first decade of the 19th 
century; aweuanish is used by Bouchette 
somewhat later. The source of the 
word is wananish in the Montagnais dia 
lect of Algonquian, which seems to be a 
diminutive in -ish of wanans or cmunans, 
one of the words for salmon in the older 
language. Dr Wm. Jones suggests a cog 
nate form of theChippewa wimnlsh, un 
pleasant fat (ish referring to unpleasant 
ness), and says the same language has wi- 
rilsi (animate), is unclean. (A. F. c. ) 

Ouapou. A tribe mentioned by La 
Sallein 1680 (Margry, Dec., n, 60, 1877) 
as living in lower Michigan. Probably 
Pones, or Poux, i. e. Potawatomi, with 
.the demonstrative prefix ona. (.1. M.) 

Ouasouarini (probably for Awas1.-siw1.nl- 
rilwug, people of the Bullhead clan. 
W. J.) . A Chippewa tribe living in 1640 
on Georgian bay, Ontario, N. of the Hu- 
rons (Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 1858). They are 
probably identical with the Ouassi, found 



m the vicinity of Nipigon r. in 1736; also 
with the Ouasaouanik, spoken of in 165s 
as a well-known tribe living near the 
Sault Ste Marie. The Ouassi were found 
by J. Long in 1791, mixed with other 
Chippewa, on the N. shore of L. Superior, 
almost exactly in the locality assigned 
them by Dobbs in 1744. Chauvignerie 
estimated their number in 1736 at about 
300 souls, and stated that the cat (ish 
(bullhead) was their totem, which was 
also the totem of the Awausee (q. v. ), one 
of the Chippewa bands at Sault Ste Marie. 
Aouasanik. Jes. Rel. 1648, 62, 1H58. Awasatci" 
Wm.^Jones inf n, 1905 (correct Chippewa form, 
Ouace. Chauvignerie ( 1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.! 
ix, 1054, 1855. Ouali. Chauvignerie (1736) quoted 
by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, m. 556, 1853< misprint i 
Ouasaouanik. Jes. Rel. 1658, 22, 1858 Ouasou- 
arim. Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 1X88 Ouassi I )obbs 
Hudson Bay, 32, 1744. Wasawanik. Ji-s. Rel., in 
index, 1858. Wasses. Long, Voy. and Trav., 45, 

Ouenrio. A Huron village, situated, ac 
cording to the Jesuit Relation for 1635, 
about 1 league from Ossossane. Father 
Jones (Jes. Rel., xxxiv, 255, 1898) places 
it in Tiny tp., about 3 m. N. E. of La Fon 
taine, Ontario. Its people had previously 
been a part of those of Toanche and I hona - 
tiria. In 1635 three feasts were held here 
to satisfy a dream, the description of the 
accompanying ceremonies giving a fair 
idea of such performances (Jes. Rel., x, 
201, 1897). In 1637 an epidemic caused 
great distress to the inhabitants of Ouen 
rio, carrying off many and creating a 
desire to have the Jesuit missionaries 
dwell among them. In his Relation for 
1635 Le Jeune says their cabins were 
better than the hovels of the Montagnais 
and were constructed like bowers, or 
garden arbors, of which, instead of 
branches and grass, some were covered 
with cedar bark, others with broad strips 
of ash, elm, fir, or spruce bark; and al 
though those of cedar were regarded as 
best, they were very inflammable, where 
fore so many similar villages had been 
burned. (.J. N. . ".) 

Oueschekgagamiouilimy (possibly for 
Ushasha tagamivtirtiriLivtiQ, people of the 
ridge ). TheCaribou gens of theChippe 
wa of Rainy r., Minn. St Pierre in 1753 
(Margry, Dec., vi, 649, 1886) spoke of them 
as near Rainy lake, Ontario. (w. .1. ) 

Oughetgeodatons ( dung village ). A 
village or subdivision of one of the western 
Sioux bands. 

Oiudachenaton. Jefferys (1763), Am. Atlas, map 5. 
1776. Onghetgechaton. Pe 1 Isle, map Of La. 
(1700), in Neill, Hist. Minn. ,164, 1*5*. Onghetgeo- 
datons Le Suenr (1700) in Margry, Dec., VI. s/, 

J7. Oughetgeodatons.-Lc Suenr (1700) in NYill. 

st. Minn., 170, 1858. Ouidachenaton. De 1 Isle, 



dato 

188 

Hi 

op. 

Ouidaougeou 



oit. Ouidaougeouaton. JeiTerys, op. cit. 
__ougeoumaton.-Pe In Tour, map, 1779 (mis 
print of m for ). Ouidaougeounaton. ( arte 4CH 
Poss. Angl., 1777. Ouidaugeounaton. TV 1 



Foss. Angl 
op. cit 



174 



OUHEYWICHKINGH OUNNASHATTAKAU 



[B. A. B. 



Ouheywichkingh. An Algonquian vil 
lage on Long id., X. Y., probably neajr 
the western end. Doc. of 1645 in X. Y. 
Hoc. Col Hist., xiv, 00, 1883. 

Ouiatenon (abbr. of wavmatanong, at 
n-awi mtmi, i. e. the current goes round : 
whence the name of the Wea tribe. 
(Jerard). Tlie principal village of the 
Wea, situated on the s. E. bank of the 
Wabash, just below the mouth of Wea 
cr., in what is now Tippecanoe co., Ind. 
It was headquarters for the French traders 
in that section, the French Ft Ouiatenon 
having been nearly opposite the mouth of 
the creek. It is described as extending 
3 in., though the number of houses it 
contained was but 70, exclusive of the 
French dwellings. In 1777 this was the 
principal Indian center on the Wabash, 
Ouiatenon and a Kickapoo town on the 
opposite side of the river together con 
taining 1,000 fighting men. It was de 
stroyed by the United States troops under 
(Jen. Scott in 1791. For forms of the 
name, see II en. (.T. M. J. r. D. ) 

Ouikaliny (misprint of Onlkaliny). A 
tribe x. of L. Superior in 1697, who some 
times traded with the French, but gen 
erally with the English on Hudson bay. 
They may have been the Maskegon. 
Gens de 1 Outarde. La Chcsnaye (1697) in Margry, 
Doc., vi. 7. 1^86. Ouikaliny. Ibid., 7. 

Ouinebigonhelini (probably for Wliii- 
bigoirlnlnlwi Hj, people of the unpleasant 
water. \V . J.). A tribe or band, doubt 
less of the Maskegon, living on Hudson 
bay at the mouth of Nelson r. in the 
middle of the ISth century. 
Ouenebegonhelinis. Dobbs, Hudson Bay, 2-1, 1744. 
Ouinebigonhelini. Ibid., 23. 

Ouininiche. See Ouananiche. 

Oujatespouitons. A band of one of the 
Dakota tribes w. of Mississippi at the close 
of the 17th century. 

Oujalespious. La Harpe (1700) in French. Hist. 
Coll. La., in. 27,1851. Oujalespoitons. Le Sueur 
i 17(10) in Ncill, Hist. Minn., 170, 1858 (sig.: vil 
lage divided into many small bands ). Oujales- 
poitous. Lc Sucur quoted by Shea, Early Voy- 
ag<-s, ID |, isi;i. Oujatespouetons. Shea, ibid., Ill 
isig.: village dispersed in several little bands ). 
Oujatespouitons. Le Sucur (1700) in Margry, Dec., 
vi. so, l.ssi;. Ouyatespony. I eiiicant in "Minn. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., II, pt. 2. (i, 1861. 

Oukesestigouek (Tree: nlcl .<?? xtl givek, 
swift-water people. (Jerard). A Mon 
tagnais tribe or band, known to the 
French as early as 1643. They lived about 
the headwaters of Manicouagan r., N. of 
the I apinachois, with whom they appear 
to have been in close relation. They are 
spoken of as a quiet and peaceable peo 
ple, willingly receiving instructions from 
the missionaries. (.1. > r .) 

Ochessigiriniooek. Ream- in Stanford, Compend., 
526, I.VTS. Ochessigiriniouek. Albanel (ca. 1670) 
quoted by Hind, Lab. IVnin., n, 22, 1803. Ochest- 
gooetch. -Kcanc in Stanford, Coinpend., 526 1878 
Ochestgouetch. -Hind. Lab. IVnin., n JO 1863. 
Ochestigouecks. -Crepy, Map. m. 1705 Ouch essigi- 
riniouek. .Ics. KH. Ki7(), 1:5, lxr>x. Ouchestigouek 
Jes. Rel. 1665, 5, ]X5x. Ouchestigouetch ,Ies Rel 
16<il, ]:;. 1X5.K. Ouchestigouets. Bellin, Map, 1755 
Oukesestigouek. .b--. Krl. ir,!3 3* 1858 



Oukiskimanitouk (probably for Okiski- 
inanisiwog, whetstone-bird people , i. e. 
kingfisher people ). A clan of the 
Chippewa of L. Superior. Chauvignerie 
in 1736 noted the Oskemanettigons, an 
Algonquian tribe of 40 warriors on Win 
nipeg r., having the fisher as its totem. 
This may be identical. 

Oskemanettigons. Chauvignerie (1736) in X. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 1054, 1855. Oskemanitigous. 
Chanvignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 556, 1853. Oukiskimanitouk. Jes. Rel. 
1658, 22, 1858. Ushkimani tigog. Wm. Jones, inf n, 
1906. 

Oukotoemi. A Montagnais band, part of 
whom gathered at Three Rivers, Quebec, 
in 1 641 (Jes. Rel. 1641 , 29, 1858) . Doubt 
less a part of the Attikamegue. 

Oumamiwek (Montagnais: umamiwek, 
down - stream people. Gerard). A 
tribe or band of Montagnais, closely 
related to, if not identical with, the 
Bersiamite. It is possible that the 
two were members of one tribe, each 
having its distinct organization. Shea 
(Charlevoix, New France, n, 248,1866), 
following the Jesuit Relations, says 
the Bersiamite were next to Tadoussac 
and the Oumamiwek inland in the N. E. 
The Relation of 1670 places them below 
the Papinachois on the St Lawrence. It 
is, however, certain that the Papinachois 
were chiefly inland, probably about the 
headwaters of Bersiamite r. From a 
conversation with an Oumamiwek chief 
recorded by Father Henri Xouvel (Jes. 
Rel. 1664) it is learned that his people and 
other tribes of the lower St Lawrence 
were in the habit at that early day of 
visiting the Hudson Bay region. The 
people of this tribe were readily brought 
under the influence of the missionaries. 

Oumamiois. Jes. Rel. 1670, 13, 1858. SmamiSek. 
Jes. Rel. 1650, 41, 1858. SmamiSekhi. Jes. Rel. 
1641,57,1858. Oumamiwek. Bail loquet (1661) in 
Hind, Lab. Tenin., II, 20, 1863. Oumaniouets. 
Homann Heirs map, 1756 (located about head of 
Saguenay r. , and possibly a distinct tribe) . Ouma- 
nois. Hind, Lab. Penin., n, 21, 1863 (perhaps 
quoting a writer of 1664). Ouramanichek. Jes. 
Rel. 1644, 53, 1858 (identical?). 

Oumatachi. An Algonquian band liv 
ing between Mistassini and Abittibi lakes, 
Quebec, in the 18th century. 
Oumatachi. JefTerys, French Dom., pt. 1, map, 
1761. Oumatachiiriouetz. La Tour, Map, 1779 
(should be Oumatachiriniouetz). 

Ounnashattakau. A Seneca chief, usu 
ally called Ouimeashataikau, or Tall 
Chief, born in 1750. He signed the 
treaties of 1797 and Aug. 31, 1826, his 
name appearing as Auashodakai in the 
latter. He lived alternately at Squakie 
hill (Dayoitgao), near Mt Morris, N. 
Y., and at the latter place. He died and 
was buried at Tonawanda in 1828, but 
his remains were removed, June 11, 1884, 
to Mt Morris, where a monument bearing 
his name in the form A-wa-nis-ha- 
dek-ha (meaning burning day ) has 
been erected to his memory. He is de 
scribed as having been a graceful and 
fine-looking man. (w. M. B.) 



BULL. 30] 



OUNONTTSASTON ( HTTCHOUGAI 



175 



Ounontisaston ( at the foot of the 
mountain. Hewitt). An important 
Huron village visited by De la Roche Dai- 
lion in 1626 (Shea, Cath. Miss., 170, 1855) 
and mentioned by Sagard (Can., ur, 805, 
1866) in 1636. Its location is uncertain, 
but it was probably not far from Niagara 
r., and the name may refer to its situation 
on the ridge facing the N. (w. M. B. ) 

Ouray (said by Powell to be the Ute 
attempt to pronounce the name Willie, 
given him by the white family to which 
he was attached as a boy; other authori 
ties give the meaning The Arrow ). A 
chief of the Uncompahgre Ute, born in 
Colorado in 1820. He was engaged in a 
fierce struggle with the Sioux in his early 
manhood, and his only son was captured 
bv his enemies, never to be restored. His 




relations with the United States govern 
ment, so far as recorded, began with the 
reaty made by the Tabeguache band at 
I!onejos, Colo.", Oct. .7, 1863, to which his 
lame is signed " U-ray, or Arrow." He 
ilso signed the treaty of Washington, 
Vlar. 2, 1868, by the name U-re; though 
o the amendment, Aug. 15, 1868, it is 
vritten Ou-ray. He is noted chiefly 
or his unw r avering friendship for the 
vhites, with whom he always kept faith 
nd whose interests he protected as far as 
>ossible, even on trying occasions. It was 
nail probability his firm stand and the re 
train t he imposed upon his people that 
revented the spread of the outbreak of 
he Ute in Sept. 1879, when agent N. C. 
leeker and others were killed and the 
romen of the agency made captives. 



As soon as Ouray heard of this outbreak 
he commanded the cessation of hostilities 
which the agent claimed would have 
stopped further outrage had the soldiers 
been withheld. Ouray at this time 
signed himself as "head chief" of the 
Ute, though what this designation im 
plied is uncertain. For his efforts to 
maintain peace at this time he was 
granted an annuity of $1,000 as long as 
he remained chief of the Tte. Ouray 
had a fair education, speaking both Fng- 
lish and Spanish. His death occurred 
Aug. 24, 1880, at which time he was re 
siding in a comfortable, well-furnished 
house on a farm which he owned and 
cultivated. (c. T. ) 

Ousagoucoula (Choctaw: hickory peo 
ple, from osxak, hickory ). One of the 
9 Natchez villages in 1699. 
Noyers. Richebourg in French. Hist. Coll. La., 
in, 218, 1851. Ousagoucoula. Iberville (1C>99) in 
Margry, Dee., iv. 179, 1880. Walnut Village.-- 
(iayarre, La., i, 156, 1851. 

Ousint. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. is, isr.l. 

Outacity. Given in documents as the 
name or title of a prominent Cherokee 
chief about 1720; also spelled Otacite, 
Otassite, Outassatah, Wootassite, Wrose- 
tasatow. Mooney in 19th Kep. B. A. F., 
529, 546, 1900. 

Outaouakamigouk (probably for [lain i- 
kiimlguk, people of the open country or 
land. Gerard). .A tribe or band on the 
x. E. coast of L. Huron in 1(548; probably 
a part of the Ottawa. 

Ouraouakmikoug. Jes. Rel. If.SS. 22, is-ix. Outa- 
ouakamigouk. Jes. Kel. lt>48, G2, 1858. 

Outassatah. See Outacitif. 

Outaunink (corrupted spelling of He- 
ninJ:, from id en, or idi tv, town, a - ink, 
at/ Gerard). A former Munsee vil 
lage, commonly called Old Town, situated 
on the N. bank of Whiter., opposite Mun- 
cie, Delaware co., Ind., on land sold in 
1818. The Indians have called the place 
"site of the town," or "place where the 
town was," and whites have mistaken 
this for the name of the town when it was 
there. (.1. r.n.) 

Old Town. J. P. Dunn, iiifn. 1W7. Ou-tau- 
nink. Hough, map, in Indiana Geol. Kep.^, J 

Outchichagami (Montagnais: > 
garni, people near the water. Gerard). 
The name of a small tribe living N. of 
Albany r., in Keewatin, Canada, 
speak a Chippewa dialect fairly well 
understood by the Chippewa ot the ? 
shore of L. Superior. 

Otcitcakonsag.-Wm. Jones infn, 1. Outchi- 
chagami.-.IeiTrcys, Freneh Doin. Ani I. in P 
1761 Outchichagamiouetz.-La Four. Map, 1- 

Outchougai. A band that lived in K 
on then, side of Georgian bay, Ontario r., 
and probably s. of French r. Thevwer 
connected with the Amikwa. In 1735 the) 



OUTIMAGAMI OVENS 



[B. A. B. 



were living at Oka, Quebec, and were de 
scribed by Chauvignerie as a elan of the 
Nipissing* with the heron as their totem. 

Achague. (Mmuvignerie (1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hi*t ix 1053, 1855. Achaque. Chauvignerie 
(1736) quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 554, 
1853. Archouguets. Jes. Rel. 1613, 61, 1858. Atch- 
ougek. Jes. Rel. 1658, 22, 185S. Atchoughe. Jes. 
Rel 1618 6" 1858 Atchouguets. Jes. Kel., Ill, 
index, 1858. Outchougai. Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 1858. 
Outchouguets. Jes. Kel., in, index, 1858. 

Outimagami(Xipissing: deep-water peo 
ple ). An unidentified Algonquian tribe 
or band formerly living x. of L. Nipissing, 
toward Hudson bay (Jes. Kel. 1640, 34, 
1858). The name appears to be identical 
with that of L. Temagami. (A. F. c.) 

Outurbi dfurihi, turibi [Coregonus <ir- 
tfdii, a congener of the white-fish] people. 
Gerard ) . A former Algonquian tribe or 
band in Ontario, living x. of L. Nipissing 
and wandering to the region of Hudson 
bay. 

Otaulubis. Bacquevillede la Potherie, Hist. Am., 
n, 49, 1753. Outouloubys. Du Lhnt (1684) in Mar- 
Kry. Dec.. VI, 51. 1886. Outurbi. Jes. Rel. 1640, 34, 
1858. 

Ou werage ( Iroquois name ) . One of the 
5 Abnaki villages in 1700. Bellomont 
(1700) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist, iv, 758, 
1854. 

Ovens. The pit oven, consisting of a 
IK tie excavated in the ground, heated with 
fire, and then filled with food which was 
covered over and allowed to cook, was 
general in America, though as a rule it was 
employed only occasionally, and princi 
pally for cooking vegetal substances. This 
method of cooking was found necessary 
to render acrid or poisonous foods harm- 




less and starchy foods saccharine, and as 
a preliminary in drying and preserving 
food tor winter use. Rude camp devices, 
such as baking in a cavity in the ashes, 
sometimes incasing in clay the substance 
to be cooked, were in common use; sim 
ple pit ovens, charged according to a defi 
nite plan, and ovens with a draft hole, 
the latter occurring among the Pueblos, 
comprise the varieties of this invention 
in northern America. 



The Taculli cook roots in a pit oven, 
placing a layer of heated stones in the 
bottom, then a layer of food, and finally 
a covering of earth. Powers says the 
Porno extract the toxic principle from 
buckeyes by steaming them underground 
for two or three days; they first excavate 
a large hole, pack it watertight around 
the sides, burn a fire therein for a space 
of time, then put in the buckeyes with 
water and heated stones, and cover the 
whole with a layer of earth. The Hupa, 
Maidu, Yurok, and perhaps most of the 
acorn-consuming Indians of California, 
cooked acorn mush in small sand pits, 
and the Tlelding made soap-root ( Chlo- 
rogalum pomeridianum) palatable by cook 
ing it in an earth-covered heap. The 
Hupa cook the same plant for about two 
days in a large pit, lined with stones, in 
which a hot fire is maintained until the 
stones and surrounding earth are well 
heated; the fire is then draw r n, the pit 
lined with leaves of \vild grape and wood 
sorrel to improve the flavor of the bulbs, 
and a quantity of the bulbs thrown in; 
leaves are then placed on top, the whole 
is covered with earth, and a big fire built 
on top (Goddard). The Indians of Brit 
ish Columbia, including Vancouver id., 
roasted clams in a pit oven, in much the 
same \vay as the New England Indians 
followed in the well-known "clambake " 
early adopted by the whites. Wherever 
capias (q. v. ) is found, the Indians roasted 
it in pits. A cavity is made in the ground 
large enough to hold 10 to 20 bushels, 
and lined with pebbles; the pit is ther^ 
filled in order with roots, pebbles, and 
grass, upon which is formed a hearth ol 
wet clay, over which a fire is kept up foi 
about seventy hours; if the fire burns 
through the hearth, which is indicated by 
steam rising through the camas, the over 
is again covered with clay (Gibbs). 

Speaking of the Powhatan Indians. 
Capt. John Smith says: "The chie; 
root they have for food is called Tocka- 
whoughe. It groweth like a flagge ir 
Marishes. In one day a Salvage will I 
gather sufficient for a weeke. Thest 
roots are much of the greatnesse anc 
taste of Potatoes. They use to cover ? 
great many of them with Oke leaves anc 
Feme, and then cover all with earth ir 
the manner of a Cole-pit; over it, on eacl 
side, they continue a great fire 24 houra 
before they dare eat it. Raw it is nc 
better then poyson, and being rested, 
except it be tender and the heat abated, 
or sliced and dryed in the Sunne, mixec 
with sorrell and meale or such like, i^ 
will prickle and torment the throat ex 
treamely, and yet in sommer they use thif 
ordinarily for bread." 

The Panamint Indians of California 
roasted cactus joints in pits, also mescal, 
and the Paiute and Siksika cooked poi- 



BULL. 30] 



OWAISKI OYAK 



177 



son root (tobacco root) in the same way 
(Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 697, 1857; 
Maximilian, Trav., 252, 1843); the Kut- 
chin cooked roots in the same fashion, 
and even the Alaskan Eskimo roasted 
roots of the wild parsnip in underground 
ovens. Some tribes, as the Pawnee, Ka- 
rankawa, and Sioux, simply roasted 
small portions of corn and meat in ashes; 
and the Yuma, Zmli, and others encase 
a dead rat or a rabbit in clay and then 
put the ball in the fire until the meat is 
roasted. 

The Pueblos carried the art of cooking 
in pit ovens much farther than any other 
Indians. They had large community 
ovens consisting of a bottle-shaped cav 
ity excavated in the ground and provided 
with a draft-hole; in these great quanti 
ties of green corn ears are roasted. Sim 
ilar ovens, 12 to 15 ft in diameter, 
found among the ancient ruins of the 
Salt River valley in Arizona, show the 
effect of great heat; the Apache employ 
such ovens for roasting maguey. Small 
family ovens with draft hole, and others 
consisting merely of a jar set in the 
ground and covered with a stone, are 
still used by the Hopi. These are heated 
with a fire of twigs; a jar of mush is set 
in them, the orifice of the oven covered 
with a stone luted down with clay, and 
a fire built over the top and kept burning 
for about 12 hours. The Zuiii had such 
ovens lined with stone slabs but without 
draft hole, and also a pit oven in which 
mush was baked between slabs of heated 
stones. The dome-shape ovens of stone 
plastered with clay are in common use 
among the Pueblos (except the Hopi), 
and the Mexicans of the Southwest, but 
this form of cooking apparatus was intro 
duced from Spain by way of Mexico. 
Some of the Pueblos had an oven cult, 
in Zufli represented by the demon in 
spector of ovens. See Food. 

Consult Boas in Proc. Brit. A. A. S. 
1890, 15, 1891; Chesnut in Coiit. Nat. 
Herb., vii, no. 3, 1902; Gushing in The 
Millstone, ix, 1884; Coville in Am. 
Anthrop., v, 354, 1892; Dixon in Bull. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xvn, pt. 3, 1905; 
Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 194, 
1877; Goddard in Univ. Cal. Pub., 
Am. Arcrueol. and Ethnol., i, no. 1, 
1903; Hudson in Am. Anthrop., rr, 775, 
1900; Loskiel, Hist. Miss. United Breth., 
pt. 1, 108-9, 1794; Maximilian, Travels, 
252, 1843; Mindeleff in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 
1891; Morice in Proc. Canadian Inst., 
135, Oct. 1889; Powers in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., m,49-50, 89, 150, 1877; School- 
:raft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 697, 1857; Smith, 
Works, Arbered., 1884. (W.H.) 

Owaiski. A former Seneca village near 
he site of Wiscoy, on the w. bank of 
^enesee r., in Allegany co., N. Y. 

3456-Bull. HO, pt. 2-07 12 



Hishhue.-Procter (1791) in Am. State Papers, Ind 
Aff., i, 158, 1832. Ohhisheu.-Proetcr ibid l ,-/ 
O-wa-is -ki. Morgan, League Iroq., 467, 185L 

Owasse ( bear ). A phratry and also a 
subphratry or gens of the Menominee. 

Owa sse wi dishi anun. Hoffman in llth Rep B 
A. E., 42, 1896 (wi dishi anun ^ phratry ). 

Owassissas. A former Scminole town 
on an K. branch of St Marks r., N. w. Fla. ; 
pop. 100 in 1822. Morse, Rep. to Sec 
War, 364, 1822. 

Owego. A former town with a mixed 
population, under Cayuga jurisdiction, 
situated on the right bank of Owego cr., 
about 2 in. from the Susquehanna, in 
Tiogaco., N. Y. In 1779 the village con 
sisted of about 20 houses, which were 
burned by Gen. Poor of Sullivan s army, 
Aug. 20 of that year. (,j. N. u. n. ) " 

Awegen. Esnauts and Rapilly Map, 1777. Owa- 
go. Livermore (1779) in N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
VI, 322, 1850. Owege. Map of 1768 in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., vin, 1857. Owegey. Guy Park 
conf. (1775), ibid., 561. Owegi. Giissefeld Map, 
1784. Owego. Johnson Hall conf. (1765) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., VII, 728, 1856. Owegy. Honiann 
Heirs Map, 1756. Oweigey. Mt Johnson conf. 
(1755) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 984, 1855. 

Owendos ( an island , or possibly for 
Ouendat, liurons ). A village marked 
on early maps on the headwaters of 
Tuscarawas or Beaver cr., in Ohio or 
Pennsylvania. 

Ovvendoes. -Alcedo, Die. Geog., Ill, 274, 1788. 
Owendoes. Ksnauts and Rapilly Map, 1777. 
Owendos. Homann Heirs Map, 1756. 

Owhyhee. Mentioned by Ross ( Fur 
Hunters, i, 83, 130, 1855), with Iroquois 
and Abnaki, as if the name of an Indian 
tribe, members of which formed a party 
of voyageurs on Columbia r., Oregon. 
The name however, is simply an early 
form of Hawaii, Kanakas having made 
their influence felt on the N. W. coast in 
the early half of the 19th century and 
later. The name, spelled Owyhee, sur 
vives as that of a river in Nevada, Ore 
gon, and Idaho, and a range of moun 
tains, a county, and a postoffice in the 
state last mentioned. See Hawaiian in 
fluence. 

Owiyekumi (Ow -l-ye-kunii). The prin 
cipal town of the Quatsino on Forward 
inlet, Quatsino sd., x. w. coast of Van 
couver id. Dawson in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Can. for 1887, sec. n, <>5, 1888. 

Owl s Town. A former village, prob 
ably of the Delaware*, on Mohican r. in 
Coshocton co., Ohio. Hutchins map in 
Smith, Bouquet s Exped., 17(><>. 

Oxidoddy. An Indian name, of uncer 
tain origin, preserved by herbalists and 
"herb doctors" for black-root, Culver s- 
root, or Culver s-physic, Veronica rm/n>- 
icn. ^ I{ * (l 

Oyak. A Kuskwogmiut Eskimo village 
on the E. shore of Kuskokwiin bay, 
Alaska, just N. of the mouth of Kant 

Oyliglmut.-Spurr and Post quoted by Baker. 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1902. 



178 



OYAEON 



[B. A. B. 



Oyaron (o-i-a / -ro" J } . The common Iro- 
quois name of the personal, and some 
times the gentile and tribal, tutelary, 
guardian genius, or guiding spirit believed 
to protect and watch over the destiny 
and welfare of every person or kindred. 

The doctrines connected with the con 
cept of the oimron lie at the base of the 
activities comprehended under the rubric 
totemism, the key to which is the idea of 
guardianship or* voluntary protection, 
based on the concept of primitive man 
that the earth and all that it contains 
was brought into being by the primal 
beings of his cosmogony solely for the 
welfare and glory of man, and that there 
fore these owed to him the duty of vol 
untarily making provision for his welfare. 
It was a dogma of this early philosophy 
that the oijaron was revealed or mani 
fested itself to the subject in a vision or 
dream, either before or after birth. After 
birth it could be ceremonially acquired 
in the following general manner: At the 
age of puberty, the boy under the tutor 
ship of an old man, usually a diviner or 
prophet, and the girl under that of a 
matron, withdrew to some secluded spot, 
in which tutor and pupil lived in a lodge 
built for the purpose, from which all 
persons except the novice and the tutor 
were rigidly excluded. During this 
period of strict seclusion, the novice was 
subjected to a rigorous fast and dosed 
with prescribed powders and decoctions, 
and his face, shoulders, and breast were 
blackened to symbolize the mental dark 
ness in which the novice or initiate then 
was and also his physical want of occult 
power. The initiate was directed care 
fully to observe his or her dreams or 
visions during this fast and to report 
them in minutest detail to his tutor, 
whose duty it was to give attention to 
the behavior of his charge. In the ful 
filment of his duty, the tutor frequently 
conferred with the ancients, the elders 
and chief women of the clan and tribe, 
concerning his charge, in order the better 
to choose from the occult hints embodied 
in the dreams and visions what should 
be selected, or rather what had been 
suggested in the dreams as the tutelary 
or guardian genius of the initiate, on 
which would in the future depend the 
welfare and security of his life, his oyaron, 
and, lastly, what* vocations he should 
choose to be successful in after life. The 
oi/aron revealed in one of these mysteri 
ous dreams or visions consisted usually 
of the first trifle that impressed the 
imagination of the dreamer a calumet, 
a pipe, a knife, a bow or an arrow, a 
bearskin, a plant, an animal, an action, a 
game: in a word, anything might become, 
if suggested in a dream or vision, a tute 
lary or an o//<m,//. But what is funda 
mental and important is that it was not 



believed that the object itself was in fact 
a spirit or genius, but that it was its em 
bodiment, the symbol or outward sign of 
the union subsisting between the soul 
and its tutelary or guardian genius, 
through the guidance and potency of 
which the soul must know and do every 
thing; for, by virtue of the oyaron a per 
son could transform himself in shape 
and size, and could do what he pleased, 
unless checked by a more powerful 
orenda (q. v.) guided by a more astute 
oyaron; it was the subjective being which 
was the means of his metamorphoses, 
his enchantments, whether he regarded 
these changes real or whether he was 
persuaded that it was the soul alone that 
detached itself, or the genius that acted 
in conformity with his ow r n intention and 
according to his will. 

Tutelaries had not the same efficiency, 
nor the same scope of action. There were 
persons more favored, more enlightened, 
than the common people, through the 
guidance of genii of superior potency, 
enabling the souls of such persons to feel 
and to see not only what concerned their 
possessors personally, but to see even into 
the very bottom of the souls of other 
persons, to pierce through the veil which 
covered them, and there to perceive the 
natural and the innate desires and 
promptings which those souls might have 
had, although these souls themselves 
had not perceived them, or at least had 
not expressed them by dreams and vi 
sions, or although so expressed in this 
peculiar manner, those revelations had 
been entirely forgotten. It was this 
ability of seeing into the bodies of men j 
that gave these persons the name saiot- 
katta (Huron), or shagotgaihwas (Onon- 
daga), or agotsinnachen (by both Hurons 
and Iroquois), the first signifying One 
who examines another by seeing, liter 
ally, one customarily looks at another. 
But beyond this occult knowledge of 
hidden things, they professed the fur 
ther ability to perform still other won 
ders by means of certain chants, songs, 
and dances, through which they were 
enabled to put forth their own orenda. 
In this capacity, a person of this class - 
received the name arendiouanen (for ha- 
rendiowanen) , a compound of the noun 
orenda and the qualifier -wane-n, large, 
great, powerful, together signifying 
his orenda is powerful, or one whose 
orenda is powerful. Lastly, the inter 
course of the persons having potent 
orenda and superior oyaron, with spirits, 
especially those regarded as monstrous 
in form and disposition and as hostile to 
the welfare of man, gave them the name 
of agotkon, one who is an otkon (q. v.). 

Those having powerful orenda and 
possessing the protection of a potent 
and resourceful oyaron were regarded as 



BULL. 30] 



OYARON 



ITU 



wise men, knowing both human and di 
vine things, the efficacy of plants, rocks, 
ores, and all the occult virtues and se 
crets of nature; not "only could they 
sound the depths of the hearts of other 
persons, but they could foresee what 
would come to pass in the future, read 
the fate of men in the signs, wonders, 
and omens of the earth, claiming to main 
tain intimate intercourse with the gods, 
a favor of which less -gifted persons 
were quite unworthy. These reputed 
favors of the gods added to an austerity 
of life and a well-regulated code of man 
ners, at least in appearance, and a con 
duct above suspicion, or at least censure, 
gained them the respect if not the fear of 
all persons, w r ho consulted them as ora 
cles, as sources of truth, and the favored 
mediators between man and the gods. 
They could foresee the success or failure 
of war or a journey, could divine the se 
cret source or cause of illness, could sug 
gest what would make a hunting or a 
fishing trip successful, could discover 
things lost by theft, the source of evil 
and of spells and enchantments, and they 
could apply their art to exorcise them, 
to drive them away and to apply the 
proper remedies to thwart their purposes. 
They were also adepts in making their 
calling one of power and authority, and a 
source of profit and remuneration. 

The person whose life was regarded as 
being under the protection of some being 
embodied in a material thing, in thin 
occult manner, had less reason for appre 
hension than he whose life w r as so pro 
tected by some particular animal, for 
should the animal die, it was a foregone 
conclusion that he himself incurred the 
risk of a like fate. This belief was so 
strong that many seemingly proved its 
truth by dying soon after the known 
death of the tutelary animal. This con 
nection of things, which, although alien 
to man, had nevertheless such an intimate 
relation to his life, sprang from a motion, 
an innate impulse, or from a natural de 
sire of the soul, which drew it toward 
the object and established a moral union 
oetween the two, upon the maintenance 
:>f which depended the welfare of the 
person and the peace of his soul. This 
lesire or longing for something seen in a 
Iream or vision w r as very different from 
he momentary or voluntary craving 
vhich sprang from a knowledge of the 
>bject toward which the mind was di- 
ected; for it was innate, intrinsic, to the 
oul, and did not rest on any knowledge 
>f the need of the thing by the mind 
tself, although it had so much interest in 
:nowing what the soul desired or needed; 
nd, indeed, it would not be strange that 
he mind should not know anything about 
5, should the tutelary fail to express itself 
hrough dreams or visions. 



The unfortunate consequences to which 
it was believed, one would be exposed 
should he or she fail to provide the soul 
with what it desired or required as in 
dicated in a dream or vision, compelled 
the people scrupulously to observe all 
dreams with the utmost care and dili 
gence, and engaged not only the dreamer 
but all his tribesmen to obtain for him all 
the satisfaction that he could desire in 
the fulfilment of his dream. This was 
done in such manner that, on these occa 
sions, not only did they not refuse any 
thing asked of them (a refusal being" a 
stigma of the utmost infamy), but they 
went even farther than that which would 
have given satisfaction, and sacrificed 
their most precious possessions. 

In addition to those tutelaries belong 
ing to every person, there were oi/aron 
common to the family, the gens, or the 
clan, and probably to the tribe, which 
were placed in the lodge. Sacrifices and 
offerings were made to them of dogs, 
other animals, and various articles of 
food, raiment, and adornment. Warriors 
carried their personal <njrnn carefully 
wrapped in some sacred skin, and they 
did not cease from, invoking it to give 
them victory over their enemies. The 
oyaron. was an efficient aid to the shaman 
in all things: in making medicines, in 
healing wounds, in performing the mira 
cles of his art, and in exorcising the spells 
cast by other shamans and in thwarting 
their enchantments. The sacrifice or 
offering was a very important part of the 
cult of the oyaron, for should one have 
failed to make in its honor a feast, an 
offering, or a sacrifice, to feed it, keep it 
alive, and give it renewed strength, at 
stated periods, the oi/aron would have be 
come angry, and, if too long neglected, 
would have turned on its owner < r owners 
and caused him or them troubles, illness, 
and probably death. It was a doc-trine 
of this philosophy of the ot/r<>n that if it 
suggested the prohibition of anything 
during the treatment of a patient by a 
shaman and this prohibition was neg 
lected or disregarded, the patient would 
invariably have .a relapse. Of such a 
patient the Tuscarora say "one is l>e- 
oyaron-ed" (if such a hybrid be permit 
ted for illustration), and is in origin and 
application like the English "bewitched. 
These prohibitions are what are com 
monly called taboo. This transgression 
of the dictum of some oi/nrfm, or god, 
becomes sin in the higher cults of man, 
and this fact leads to the understanding 
of the nature and genesis of the concept 
of the taboo. 

There was a class of shamans ( 
sexes who cast spells and enchantments 
solely for the purpose of doing evi 
the intent of executing private vengeai 
or for the gratification of malice, and 



180 



OYATESHICHA OZETTE 



justly were they regarded with awe and 
fear." In Iroquois, they received the 
name ayotkon, or honnatkon i. e. they 
are otknus, or persons having the magic 
power of monstrous beings. There were 
also shamans of both sexes who exerted 
their magic power under the guidance of 
their several oifuron to secure and pro 
mote tire welfare of their cotribesmen by 
consenting to attempt to correct and undo 
the wrongs and evils devised and perpe 
trated by the other class. In either class 
the ability to do what was not normal 
sprang from the same principle, the con 
jectured possession of orenda, or magic 
power. 

By the combined astuteness and po 
tency of the oyaron of persons added to 
that of their own inherent orenda, some 
highly favored individuals became im 
mune to all powers and influences belong 
ing to the earth, since they knew all 
things, saw all things, and could do all 
things. Such personages or beings were 
naturally shunned and feared, because of 
this imputed invulnerability and immu 
nity from all causes having their origin 
on the earth. (.T. x. B. H.) 

Oyateshicha ( bad nation ). A band 
of the Mdewakanton Sioux. Neil! gave 
their habitat as on Rice cr., Minn., 7 m. 
above the falls of St Anthony. In 1853 
their village was on Minnesota r., 7 m. 
from the agency in Minnesota. In 1858 
they removed to Oak Grove, and subse 
quently to Nebraska with other Santee 
Sioux. 

Bad. Preseottin Schooleraft, Ind. Tribes, 11, 171, 
lvvj. Goodroad s band. Ind. AfY. Rep., 282, 1854. 
Goodrod s band. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 613, 
1853 1 misprint i. 0-ya-tay-shee-ka. Xeillin Minn. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., i, 263, 1872. Oyate-citca. Dorsey 
in loth Rep. B. A. K., 216, 1897. Oyate sica. 
Ibid. Tab-chunk wash taa. Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, MI.612. 1x53 (correctly, Tachanku washte, 
(Jood road , tlieir chief in 1836). Wa-kpa-a-ton- 
we-dan. Neill, Hist. Minn., 144, 1858 ( = those 
who dwell on the creek ). 

Oyateshicha. A hand of the Yankton 
Sioux. 

Oyate-citca. Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 217, 
1897. Oyate-iica. Ibid. 

Oydican. A tribe or subtribe, possibly 
Coahuiltecan, represented in 1706 and 
later at San Francisco Solano mission, 
near the lower Rio Grande. For their 
affiliation, see Terocodoini , a tribe of the 
same locality with whom they intermar 
ried and with whom they were associated 
at the mission. The Oydican seem to have 
belonged to what was called the Teroco- 
dame band (MS. Baptismal Rec., 1706-07, 
r>artidaHl81, 239, 261, 271, 3U>). (H.E. B.) 
Oydica. MS. Baptismal Rec., op. cit., purtida 261. 

Oyeghseragearat. See Omchsagerat. 

Oyike (fty ,-kf; winter people , from 
Tewa di/i, frost ). One of the two 
branches into which each well-regulated 
Tewa village is divided in consequence 
of certain traditional beliefs regarding the 
religious organization of that people. 



Oyi-ke. Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 304, 
1890. Qyique. Bandelier in Century Cyclop, of 
Names, 1894. 

Oypatukla (Ahepat-okla, potato-eating 
people , referring to the native hog- 
potato). The northeastern of the three 
divisions into which the Choctaw were 
distinguished for some time previous to 
their removal w. of the Mississippi. By 
Romans the name is mistranslated small 
nation. For the dividing line between 
this district and that to the w., see Okla- 
falaya. For about 9 m. the dividing line 
between it and the southeastern district 
was formed by a trail running from Con 
cha to Ayanabi, i. e. from the former 
place to the dividing ridge between the 
x. E. prong of Chickasawhay and Yanub- 
bee crs., about 1 m. from Ayanabi, in 
Kemper co., Miss. "From this point in 
the trail on the dividing ridge, the line ran 
southerly on the ridge some 3 m. until it 
struck the divide between Petickfa and 
Black Water. It kept this divide easterly 
down to the confluence of these two 
creeks. From this point to Ponta cr. the 
line was continued by a trail leading to Coo- 
sha. "Ponta cr. from the trail-crossing, 
downward and eastward, constituted the 
remainder of the line separating the two 
districts." Halbert in Pub. Ala. Hist. 
Soc., Misc. Coll., i, 378-79, 1901. 

Ahepat Okla. Halbert, op. cit. Oy-pat-oo-coo-la. 
Pickett, Hist. Ala., I, 137, 1851. Oypat oocooloo. 
Romans, Fla., 74, 1775. 

Oyuchseragarat. See Onechsagerat. 

Oyukhpe ( unloaded ). A band of the 
Oglala Sionx. 

Oiyurpe. Robinson, letter to Dorsey, 1879 (r 
= h; trans, where they put down their packs ). 
Onkapas. Ind. AfY. Rep., 250, 1875. Oyuh pe. 
Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 220, 1897. 
Oyuqpe. Ibid. Yokpahs. Twiss in Sen. Ex. 
Doc. 35, 36th Cong., 1st sess., 7, 1860 (probably 
identical). 

Ozanbogus. A tribe formerly living on 
lower Mississippi r. , seen by Tonti in 1 688. 
They were probably the Uzutiuhi(q. v. ). 
Ozanbogus. Dcmay in Shea, Discov., 226, 1852. 
Ozembogus. McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
III, 81, 1854. Zembogu. Barcia, Ensayo, 261. 1723. 

Ozark. A term at one time applied to 
a local band of Qtiapaw, from their resi 
dence in the ()/ark mountain region of 
Missouri and Arkansas. The spelling 
Ozark is an American rendering of the 
French Aux Arcs, intended to designate 
the early French post among the Arkansa 
(Quapaw) about the present Arkansas 
Post, Ark. (.1. M.) 

Osark tribe. Ker, Tray., 40, 1816. Ozark. Nuttall 
in Jour. Phil., 61, 1821. 

Ozatawomen. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy, situated in 1608 on the s. 
bank of the Potomac in King George co., 
Va. Smith (1629), -Va., i, map, repr. 1819. 

Ozenic. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy, situated in 1608 on Chicka- 
hominy r. in New Kent co., Va. 

Ozenick. Smith (1629), Va., I, map, repr. 1819. 
Ozinieke. Ibid., n, 91. 

Ozette. A Makah village and reserva 
tion 1 m. square at Flattery Rocks, coast 



BULL. 30] 



OZINIES PABAKSA 



181 



of Washington. The reservation, com 
prising 23,040 acres, created under the 
provisions of the Neah Bay treaty of Jan. 
31, 1855, and by Executive orders of Oct. 
26, 1872, and Jan. 2 and Oct. 21, 1873, 
contained 44 Indians in 1901, 35 in 1906. 
Hosett. Swan, Indians of C. Flattery, Smithson. 
Cont., xvi, 6, 1870. Osett. U. S. Ind. Treat., 461, 
1873. Osette. Land Office map of Washington, 
1891. Ozette. Ind. Aff. Rep., pt. I, 385, 1901. 

Ozinies. A former tribe or village, 
probably a part of the Nanticoke, living 
on the s. side of Chester r., Md., about 
15 m. from its mouth. Smith estimated 
them at the time of his visit, in 1608, 
at 60 warriors, or about 220 souls. They 
were allies of the Conestoga in 1633. 

Osinies. Bozman, Md., I, 127, 1837. Ozenies. 
Smith (1629), Va., n, 77, repr. 1819. Ozimies. 
Drake, Bk. Inds., x, 1848 (misprint). Ozinies. 
Smith, op. cit., i, map. 
Ozinoghiyata. See Otsmoghiyata. 
Pa. The Fire clan of the Tewa pueblos 
of San Ildefonso and Nambe, N. Mex. 
Pa-tdoa. Hodge in Am. Anthrop., ix, 350, 1896 
(tdoa= people ). 

Pa (Pa ). The extinct Deer clan of the 
former pueblo of Pecos, N. Mex. 
Pa + . Hodge in Am. Anthrop., ix, 350, 1896 
( + =ash, people ). 

Paac. A tribe or subtribe, probably 
Coahuiltecan, met by Massanet in 1691 
on an arroyo 6 leagues s. w. of Nueces r., 
Texas, which the Spaniards called San 
Lucas, or Arroyo del Oarmichael, and 
which the Indians called Guanapacti 
(Massanet, Diario, in Doc. Hist. Texas, 
i, 92, MS. ) . This tribe was in a rancheria 
together with Querns, Pachules, Ocanas, 
Chaguanes, and Pastalucs (Pastalacs?). 
Cf. Pakawa. (H. E. B. ) 

Paachiqui. A tribe, apparently Coa 
huiltecan, mentioned in 1690 by Massa 
net in a list of tribes met by him between 
the presidio of Coahuila in Mexico and 
the Hasinai country of Texas. In the 
same list he named Parchaques, which 
would indicate theirdistinctness ( Velasco, 
Dictamen Fiscal, 1716, in Mem. de Nueva 
Espana, xxvii, 183, MS.). On his expe 
dition in 1691 from San Salvador del Valle 
mission, Massanet found them on the 
right bank of "Rio Hondo," 11 leagues 
E. of the Nueces, with the Patchal, 
Papanaca, Pacuachiam, Aguapalam, Sam- 
imp;ic, Vanca, Payavan (Payaban), and 
Patavo (Pataguo) tribes. At the same 
)oint, a few hours later, he was visited 
)y the Pitahay, Apaysi, and Patsau. 
These Indians called Rio Hondo " Puan- 
.papac" (Massanet, Diario, 1691, in 
dem. de Nueva Espana, xxvn, 94, MS.). 
Several of the tribes named above were 
ater gathered at San Francisco Solano 
nd San Antonio de Valero missions, 
"exas, but the name of Paachiqui does 
ot appear among them. (H. E. . ) 

archiquis. Massanet, op. cit., 1690. 
Paako. A former pueblo, evidently of 
le Tanps, s. of the mining camp of San 
edro, in lat. 35 15 X , Santa Fe co., N. 



central N. Mex. The village was of the 
compact communal type, and its houses, 
which were generally of 2 stories, were 
apparently constructed of rubble. It 
contained 3 circular kivas and as many 
stone inclosures which doubtless had been 
corrals for nocks, and which in them 
selves, if not of modern origin, would 
point to the occupancy of the pueblo in 
historic times. From its situation and the 
available evidence there is doubt as to 
whether the pueblo was the home of the 
Tigua or Tanos people. Regarding this 
Bandelier has learned that Paako was the 
term applied to the pueblo by the Tanos 
of Santo Domingo (the same name also 
haying been used by Ofiate in 1598), who 
claim that it was a village of their people, 
while the early Spanish documents refer 
to it as a Tigua settlement with the addi 
tional Spanish designation "San Pedro." 
Having been situated on the borderland 
of these two tribal divisions it is not 
improbable that the village was made up 
of members of both, and was referred to 
at various times as pertaining to the 
Tigua. Since the ruins are claimed by 
the Tanos to be those of one of the pueblos 
of their ancestors, however, and since it 
was separated from the nearest Tigua vil 
lages to the southward by the lofty and 
densely wooded Sierra de Canine at a 
time when intertribal disturbances were 
common, the settlement is classed as that 
of the Tanos people. According to Ban 
delier the pueblo was inhabited at least 
as late as 162(5, but was abandoned prior 
to 1670. Shea (Oath. Missions, S2, 1855} 
states that a mission was founded at San 
Pedro del Cuchillo (which seems to be 
the same) in 1661. See Bandelier in 
Arch. I net. Papers, iv, 112 et seq., 1892. 
Paaco. Onate (1598) in Doc. Intnl., xvi, 118,1871. 
Pa-a-ko. Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 112. 
1892 (Tanos name). Pa-qu. Bandelier, Gilded 
Man, 221, 1893. San Pablo. Zarate-Salmeron 
(ca. 1629) quoted by Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Pa 
pers, iv, 113, 1892 (apparently the original Saint 
name). San Pedro. Niel (ca. 1629) quoted by 
Bandelier, ibid, (so changed from "San Pablo 1 
by Niel). San Pedro del Cuchillo. Shea, Cath. 
Miss., 82, 1855. 

Paauwis ( Pa-mi -wlx). A former Siuslaw 
village on Siuslaw r., Oreg. Horsey in 
Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 230, 1S1M). 

Pabaksa ( cut heads ). A division of 
the Upper Yanktonai Sioux, formerly 
roaming, with other bands, the country 
from L. Traverse, Minn., to Devils lake, 
N. Dak. They are now with the Sisseton 
and Wahpeton on Devils Lake res., N. 
Dak., where, under the designation Devil s 
Lake Sioux, the three bands numbered 
985 in 1906. 

Cut Beards.- Ind. AIT. Rep., 109, isTK). Cut 
heads Cnlbertson in Smithson. Hep. l.vrtt, H 
1851. PabaskaSioux.-Ind.ArT. Rep., 482 1900. Pah 
Baxa.-Ind. Aff. Rep.. 109. IKf*). Pah bax^ahs.- 
Schoolcraft. Ind. Tribes, n, 169. 1S52. Tete Couj>.- 
Sen. Kx. Doc. 90, 22d Cong.. 1st scss 615 1S32. Tcte- 
Coupees Harden, Kthnog. and Philol. Me. \jil.. 
371,1862. TetesCoupes.-Culbertson.op.cn. Wan- 



182 



PA BOB PACHALAQUE 



[B. A. E. 



naton. Sen. Ex. Doe. 90. 22d Cong., 1st sess., 63, 
18o2. Yanctonnais Cutheads. Ind. Aft. Rep., 53, 

Pabor. A tribe or subtribe, possibly 
Coahuiltecan, members of which were at 
San Francisco Solano mission, near the 
Rio Grande, in 1706-07. They seem to 
have belonged to the Terocodame (q. v.) 
band (r confederacy, for a Pabor was 
interpreter for this band at the mission 
(MS. Baptismal Rec., 1706-07, partidas 
161, 210. IMS, 249, 291, 301). (n. E. B. ) 
Babor. Ibid., partida 210. Bobor. Ibid., partida 
161. 

Pac. See Shoe-pack. 

Pacana. A small tribe of unknown af 
finity, but probably belonging to the 
same group as the Alibamu and Koasati, 
mentioned by Adair in 1775 as one of 
those incorporated with the Muscogee or 
Creek confederacy. Their town may have 
been that known as Pakan-tallahassee 
(q. v. ), i. e. Pacana old town, on the E. 
side of Lower Coosa r., Ala. In connec 
tion with several other small tribes in 
the French interest they crossed the Mis 
sissippi on the withdrawal of the French 
from the Alabama region in 1764, and in 
1805 were described by Sibley as living 
on Calcasieu r., La., having then about 
80 men and speaking a language different 
from those around them, but using also 
the Mobilian trade jargon. The various 
renderings of the name are all guesses, 
ranging from pecan, mayapple, and 
peach orchard, to high/ superior, 
and upper ones. (.1. M.) 

Panamas. Warden, Account U. S. A., ill, 551, 1819 
(misprint m for n). Pacanas. Sibley, Hist. Sketch, 
62, 18(H>. Pakanas. Romans. Florida, I, 90, 1775. 
Pak-ka -na. Adair, Am. Inds., 257, 1775. Pana- 
cas. Cones and Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. 
vi. lf>6, 1S83. Pasquenan. d Anville, Map Mex. 
and Florida, 1703 (misprint?). 

Pacane. See Pecan. 

Pacaruja. Mentioned by Uhde (Lan 
der, 121, 1861) as a tribe living in the 
isth century on the Texas coast between 
the Nueces and the Rio Grande. 

Paccamagannant. An unidentified In 
dian village probably near Patuxent r., 
Md., about 1610. 

Paccamagannant. 1 ory in Smith (1629), Va., II, 
62. repr. ISI J. Paccamagannat. Bozman, Md., 151, 
1837. 

Pachade. A village of Christian Indians 
near Middleboro, Mass., in 1703, probably 
connected with the Wampanoag. Cotton 
i 17o:;) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., n, 
244, ls:;o. 

Pachal. A tribe, apparently Coahuil- 
tecan, which in the latter part of the 17th 
century ranged on both sides of the Rio 
Grande below the present Eagle Pass, 
Texas. Massanet met some of them at 
rancherias 10 and 6 leagues s. w. of 
Nueces r. with Querns, Ocana, Chaguan 
(Siaguan), Pastaluc, and Paac Indians, 
and at " Rio Hondo", 11 leagues x. E. of 
the Xueces, with Sanpanal, Vanca, Pay- 
avan, Aguapalam, Samampdc, Patavo 



(Pataguo), Pitahay, Apaysi, and Patsau 
Indians (Massanet, Diario, 1691, in Mem. 
de Nueva Espana, xxvii, 92, 94, MS.). 
In 1699 Fray Diego de Salazar founded 
San Juan Bautista mission on Sabinas r. 
with Pachal and Chaguan (Siaguan), 
Mescal, and Xarame Indians from near 
the Sabinas (Portillo, Apuntes para la 
Historia Antigua de Coahuila y Texas, 
278-79, 1888). Shortly afterward the 
mission was reestablished on the Rio 
Grande near Presidio del Rio Grande, 
with the same and other tribes (Morn, 
Viagede Indies, 1778, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 
3d s., iv, 440-41, 1856). In 1703 mem 
bers of the tribe were connected with 
San Bernardo mission (Portillo, op. cit., 
288 ) . In 1 728 Rivera reported Pachoches 
(Pachules?), then a fragmentary tribe, at 
Caldera mission, s. of Sabinas r. (Diario, 
leg. 2763, 1736). The name Pachal is 
much like Patzau, but since Massanet 
mentions both in the same list, they are 
probably distinct. (11. E. B.) 

Pachales. Diego de Salazar y San Buenaventura, 
1691, in Portillo, op. cit. " Pachoches. Rivera 
(1728), Diario, leg. 2763, 1736 (identical?). Pa 
chules. Massanet, op. cit., 92, 1691. Patchal. 
Massanet, 1691, op. cit. Paxchales. Orozco y 
Berra. Geog., 303, 1864. 

Pachalaque. A Coahuiltecan tribe at 
Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concep- 
eion de Acuna mission, Texas, in the 
18th century. That these people be 
longed to the Coahuiltecan family is evi 
denced not only by the form of the name 
and the fact that members thereof were 
taken to the mission with tribes unques 
tionably Coahuiltecan, but by more direct 
testimony. A missionar) r , in doubt, re 
corded one convert as either "Pachalaque 
or Orejona" (Librode Casamientos, par 
tida 62, MS. ) . Both of these tribes were 
well know r n at the mission, and must 
have spoken the same language, or this 
doubt would not have arisen. That the 
Orejones were Coahuiltecan is proved by 
the fact that they are contained in the 
Garcia list of 1760 as among the tribes 
speaking that language. That the Pacha 
laque were distinct from the Pajalat is 
also clear, for they are frequently dis- i 
tinguished on the same page of the records 
by a single missionary, and even in a 
single entry one party to a marriage is 
entered as a Pajalat and the other a 
Pachalaque (Libro de Casamientos, par 
tidas 1-62, MS. ). That they were distinct 
from the Pastaluc (q. v. ) is not so cer 
tain. They entered Nuestra Senora de la 
Purisima Concepcion de Acuna mission 
as early as 1733 with the Pajalat, Til pa- 
copal, Patumaco, Patalca, Tiloja, Siquipil, 
and Xarame tribes (ibid.), and there is 
evidence that before this time they in 
termarried with the Patumaco particu 
larly (ibid., partida 2). While at the 
mission they intermarried most frequently 
with these and the Tilpacopal. A Pacha- 



BULL. 30] 



PACHALOCO PADSHILAIKA 



183 



laque was married to a Tilpacopal at this 
mission as late as 1773 (ibid., partida 
214). Orozco y Berra (Geog., 304, 1864) 
locates the Pajalaques, who may be the 
same, on San Antonio r. (H. E. B.) 

Pachalaca. Morfi, Hist., bk. n. ca. 1781, MS. 
Pachalate. Lihro de Casamientos, partida 214, 
1773, MS. Pachalgagu. Ibid., partida 61, 1743 
(perhaps a miscopy). Pajalache. Ibid., partidas 
162, 163, 1759; and testimony, May 13, 1752, Bexar 
Archives, 1751-69. MS. (identical?). Pajalaques. 
Orozco y Berra, Geog., 304, 1864. 

Pachaloco. A former tribe of x. E. Mex 
ico, probably Coahuiltecan, which was 
gathered into the mission of San Juan 
Bautista, Coahuila, at its second founda 
tion in 1701 (Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
303, 1864). Evidently a division of the 
Pachal. Cf. Pachalaqne. 

Pachawal. A Kawia village in the San 
Jacinto mts., s. Cal. Los Coyotes, a 
name which appears to have been applied 
to this place, is now a reservation of non- 
arable mountainous land, comprising 
22,640 acres, 85 m. from Mission Tule 
River agency, transferred in 1903 to the 
Pala agency. It contains also the Agua 
Caliente settlement of San Ysidro or Wila- 
kal, and the Diegueno settlement of San 
Ignacio. The total population of the res 
ervation in 1903 is given as 106. 
Cayote. Heintzelman (1853) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 
76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 41, 1857. Coyotes. Lovett 
in Ind. Aff. Rep., 124, 1865. Los Coyotes. Ind. Aft". 
Rep., 175, 1902. Pa-cha-wal. Barrows, Ethno- 
Bot. Coahuilla Ind., 34, 1900. San Ignacio. Ibid. 

Pacheenaht. A Nootka tribe on San 
Juan harbor, Vancouver id. Their vil 
lage is Pacheena, at the mouth of San 
Juan r. Pop. 71 in 1897, 54 in 1906. 
Pacheena. Can. Ind. Aff., pt. n, 158, 1901. Pa 
cheenaht. Sproat, Savage Life, 308. 1868, Pachee- 
nett. Mayne. Brit. Col., 251, 1862. Pachenah. 
Whymper, Alaska, 79, 1869. Patcheena. Grant in 
Jouv. Roy. Geog. Soc., 293, 1857. Patcina ath. 
Boas in 6th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 31, 1890. 

Pachera. A small division of the Tara- 
humare, and the name of their principal 
village at the extreme headwaters of the 
N. branch of the Rio Nonoava, under the 
municipality of Guerrero, w. Chihuahua, 
Mexico. According to Orozco y Berra 
(Geog., 34, 1864) they spoke a dialect 
slightly different from that of the Tara- 
humare proper. 

Pachera. Zapata (1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th 
s., Ill, 333, 1857. Santa Rosa de Santa Maria. Ibid. 

Pachgantschihilas. See Buckongahelas. 

Pachhepes. A former village in Cali 
fornia, said to have been Esselen. Tay 
lor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 20, 1860. 

Pack. See Shoe-pack. 

Pacohamoa ( trout ). A society or 
gens of the Sauk. 

Pa-co-ha-mo-a. Long, Exped. St Peter s R., n, 231, 
1824. 

Pacpul. A Coahuiltecan tribe at Cal- 
dera mission, Coahuila, in 1689. It was a 
chief of this tribe, called Juan, who as 
sisted in taking one of the survivors of 
La Salle s party from N. of the Rio Grande 
to the presidio of Coahuila (Massanet in 
Texas Hist. Ass n Quar., n, 284, 1899). 



In 1691 Massanet had with him a Pactml 
guide who explained to the Payaya In 
dians at San Antonio the meaning of tin- 
mass and interpreted Massanet s dis 
course ( Diario, Mem. do hi Nueva Kspafia 
* xv . 96, MS.). This indicates that 
the toahmltecan language extended to 
the San Antonio, at least. (n v n > 

Pacpoles. Rivera, Diario, leg. 2763. 1736. " 

Pacsiol. A former Chumaslian village 
near Purisima mission, Santa Barbara 
co., Cal. Taylor in Cal. Farmer ( >rt 18 
1861. 

Pacuaches. A former tribe of x. E. Mex 
ico or s. Texas, probably Coahuiltecan, 
members of which were gathered into 
San Bernardo mission on the lower Rio 
Grande, although their proper habitat 
was 15 leagues distant. 

Paachiquis. Massanet (1690), Dictamen Fiscal 
Nov. 30, 1716, MS. cited by H. E. Bolton, inf n! 
1906 (probably identical). Pachagues. Revillu- 
gigedo (1793) cited by Bancroft, Nat. Races i 611 
1886. Pachaques. Fernando del Bosqiie ( 1675 1 in 
Nat. Geog. Mag., xiv, 347, 1903. Pachoches. IV 
dilla quoted by Orozco y Berra, Geog.. 306, 1*64. 
Pacuaches. Revillagigedo, op. cit. Paguaches. 
Orozco y Berra, op. cit., 307. Paguachis. Ibid., 
304. Parchaques. Massanet (169(h, op. cit. 

Pacuachiam. A tribe <>r subtribe, prob 
ably Coahuiltecan, met by Massanet in 
1691 on Rio Hondo, Texas, which was 
called by the Indians Guanapajac. They 
w r ere with other tribes or bands which 
Massanet called Sanpanal, Patchal, Papa- 
naca, Parchiquis, Aguapalam, Samampac, 
YYmca, Payavan, and Patavo. At the 
same point Massanet was visited by the 
Pitahay, Apaysi, and Patsan or Pat/.au 
(Diario, in Doc. Hist. Tex., i, 94, MS. ). 
The Colton map of Texas (1878) gives 
"Paguache crossing" just above Presidio 
San Juan Bautista, on the Rio Grande. 
Cf. J aciHtche*. ( H. K. H. ) 

Pacuchianis. Massanet (1690) in Dictamen Fiscal, 
Nov. 30, 1716, MS. (identical?). 

Paddle tablets. See Dnrk tablet*, I rob- 
lematicnl objects. 

Padjegadjin (Pa-dje -ga-dji" , forest 
extending across ). A former Kansa 
village on Kansas r., Kan. (.1. o. i>. ) 

Padli. A Padlimiut Eskimo settlement 
at the head of the fjord of the same name 
where the Akudnirmiut and Padlimiut 
gather in summer to catch salmon. Boas 
in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Padlimiut. A tribe of Central Eskimo 
occupying the E. coast of Baffin land from 
Exeter to C. Hooper and numbering 43 
in 1883. Their villages arc Ekaloaping, 
Idjuniving, Itijarelling, Karmakdjuin, 
Kekertakdjuin, Kingnelling, Padli, and 
Siorartijung. Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 
441, 1888. 

Padshilaika ( Creek : pigeon roost ) . A 
former Yuchi town at the junction ot 
Patchilaika cr. with Flint r., Macon co., 
Ga. According to Hawkins the Yuchi 
moved there from Savannah r. soon after 

1729. 

Pad-gee-li-gau. Hawkins (1799), Sketch. f>: 



184 



PAFALLAYA PAHATSI 



[B. A. E. 



Padshilaika. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 142, 
ISM. Pigeon Roost. Ibid. 

Pafallaya. A province traversed by De 
Soto and his army in Nov. 1540, after 
the battle of Mauvila and before reaching 
Taliepatava, Cabusto, and Chicaea. It 
was probably in K. Mississippi, Picket! 
places it m Green, Marengo, and Sumter 
cos., w. Ala., and considers its people to 
have been Choetaw. See Gentl. of Elvas 
(1557) in French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 160, 
1850. 

Pagaichi. A former Tarahumare set 
tlement on the head waters of Rio Nonoava, 
s. w. Chihuahua, Mexico, 6 leagues N. of 
Carichic, and near Nonoava. 
Pagaichi. Zupa ta (1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th 
s., in. 329, 1857. Paguichic. Orozco y Berra, 
Geog., 323, 1864. Paguichique. Censo del Estado 
de Chihuahua, index, 11, 1904 (name of present 
pueblo). 

Pagaits ( Pa-ga -its, fish-creek people ). 
A Paiute tribe formerly near Colville, 
s. E. Nevada; pop. 34 in 1873. Powell in 
Ind. Aff. Hep. 1873, 50, 1874. 

Pagantso ( Pa -gan-tso). A Paviotso di 
vision of :> 1 lands formerly living in Ruby 
valley, x. K. Nevada; pop. 172 in 1873. 
P., well in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1873, 5L>, 1874. 

Pagatsu( I ii gatxfi, head of the stream ). 
Mentioned by Mooney ( 14th Rep. B. A. E., 
1045, 1896) as an extinct division of the 
Comanche. Cf. Parkewium. 

Pagayuats (PcP-ga-yu-ats] . One of the 
tribes, known under the collective term 
Gosiute, formerly on Otter cr., s. w. 
rtah. Powell and Ingalls in Ind. Aff. 
Rep. 1873, 51, 1874. 

Paghuukdhinpe (jaxu -vqfin -de, where 
they dwelt on a mountain ). A San- 
tsukdhin Osage village on the E. side of 
Verdigris r., Ind. T. (.T. o. D. ) 

Pagmi. Described in 1554 ( Ibarra cited 
by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 73, 1889) 
as a most beautiful city adorned with 
very sumptuous edifices, extending over 
3 leagues, with great houses of 3 stories, 
and with extensive plazas, and the houses 
surrounded with walls that appeared to 
be of masonry. The imaginary town was 
also represented as abandoned, the inhab 
itants having gone eastward. The local 
ity was seemingly in what is now s. w. 
I nited States or x. w. Mexico. 

Paguan. A tribe reported byMassanet 
(Dictamen Fiscal, Nov. 30, 1716, MS.) on 
the road from Coahuila to the Tejas 
(Texas) country in 1690, and probably 
affiliated with the Coahuiltecan stock. Cf. 
Pdf/ntiiifin. 

Paguanan. A tribe or subtribe, mem 
bers of which were baptized at, San Anto 
nio de Valero mission, Texas, in 1743-48. 
They may have been the same as the 
Payuguan (<|. v. ), as the, two names are 
not found to have been used by the same 
writer. They were associated with the 
Caguas, Ton, /ana, Sijame, Tjuiape, and 
llierbipiamo i Krvipiame) tribes, and 



their language, some words of which are 
preserved, seems to have been the same 
as that of most of these other tribes (MS. 
Baptismal Rec., partidas 653, 681, 711, 
782). (H. E. B.) 

Pahuanan. Baptismal Reo., op. cit., 852, 1751. 

Paguate (native name Kivistyi, take it 
down, referring to an ancient tradition). 
A former summer village of the Lagunas, 
now a permanently occupied pueblo of 
that tribe; situated 8 m. N. of Laguna, 
Valencia co. , N. Mex. Next to the parent 
pueblo it is said to be the oldest and larg 
est of the Laguna villages, the population 
numbering 350 or 400. Not to be con 
founded with Pojoaque, although authors 
have confused the tw 7 o names. See Kere- 
san Family, Laguna, Pueblos. ( F. w. H. ) 
Kvishti. Loew (1875) in Wheeler Survey Rep., 
vn, 345, 1879. Kwistyi. Hodge, field-notes, B. 
A. E., 1895. Pagnati. Calhoun (1849) in Cal. 
Mess, and Corresp., 218, 1850. Paguate. G. H. 
Pradt, letter to B. A. E., 1891. Pahuata. Gwyther 
in Overland Mo., 262, Mar. 1871. Pahuate. Collins 
in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1902, 255, 1903. Pajuate. Don 
aldson, Moqui Pueblo Inds., 94, 1893. Pogouate. 
Gallatin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th s., xxvii, 297, 
1851. Poguaque. Gallegas (1844) in Emory, Re- 
con., 478, 1848. Poguate. Gallatin in Trans. Am. 
Ethnol. Soc., II, xciv, 1848. Pohanti. Ten Broeck 
in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 77, 1854. Pojnati. 
Simpson in Smithson. Rep. 1869,328, 1871. Pojua- 
que. Parke, Map New Mexico, 1851. Pojuate. 
Abert in Emory, Ret-on., 469, 1848. Pojuato. 
Emory, ibid., 133. Poquate. Latham, Var. of 
Man, 395. 1850. Povate. Loew (1875) in Wheeler 
Survey Rep., vn, 339, 1879. Povuate. Ibid., 418. 
Provate. Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., VI, 183, 
1883. Pujuaque. Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 64, 
1889. Queesche. Pradt quoted by Hodge in Am. 
Anthrop., IV, 346, 1891. 

Paguemi. Described by Ibarra in 1554 
(Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 72, 1889) 
as an abandoned pueblo whose houses 
were of several stories, and where there 
were traces of metals having been smelted. 
Situated in a great plain "adjoining those 
of the vacas the buffalo plains." It is 
apparently imaginary. 

Paguits ( Pa-cju -its, fish people ) . A 
Paiute band about Pagu ( Fish ) lake, s. w. 
Utah; pop. 68 in 1873. Powell in Ind. 
Aff. Rep. 1873, 50, 1874. 

Pagwiho (Pa-ffiri -ho). A Paviotso tribe 
formerly living in the adobe meadows 
near Mono lake, E. Cal. Powell, Pavi 
otso MS., B. A. E., 1881. 

Pahatsi ( campers at the mountain top ) . 
One of the three principal divisions of 
the Osage tribe, commonly known as 
Great Osage. 

Bar-har-cha. P<inicaut (1719) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., 1, 151. note, 1869. Elder Osages. Dorsey 
in Am. Nat., 114, Feb. 1884. Grand Eaux. Boudi- 
not, Star in the West, 126, 1816. Grandes eaux. 
French trader in Smith, Bouquet Exped.,70, 1776. 
Grand Osage. Lewis and Clark, Discov., 11, 1806. 
Grand Tuo. Croghan (1759) quoted by Jefferson, 
Notes, 145, 1825. Grand Zo. Lewis and Clark, 
Discov., 11, 1806. Grand Zue. Croghan (1759) in 
Hupp, Hist. W. Pa., 146, note, 1846. GreatOsage. 
Fisher, New Trav.,15, 1812. Great Ossage. Srtier- 
merhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., II, 
31,1814. Great Ozages. .!efferys(1763). Am. Atlas, 
map 5, 1776. Pa-ha sea. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
vi, 540, 1857. jaha^si. J. O. Dorsey, inf n (own 



BULL. 30] 



PAHKANU PAINTING 



185 



name), jahe^si. Dorsey, Osage MS. voeab. B 
A. E.,1883. 

Pahkanu. A band of Indians, probably 
Moquelumnan, formerly frequenting the 
banks of Stanislaus and Tuolumne rs., 
central California. Wessells (1853) in 
H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 
30, 1857. 

Paho. See Prayer-sticks. 

Pahoc. Mentioned by Oviedo (Hist. 
Gen. Indies, m, 628, 1853) as one of the 
provinces or villages, probably on the 
South Carolina coast, visited by Ay lion 
in 1520. 

Pahosalgi. An extinct Creek clan, the 
name of which can be traced only in war 
titles, asPahos -hadsho. Gatschet, Creek 
Migr. Leg., i, 155, 1884. 

Pahquetooai ( rainbow town ) . A vil 
lage of the ancestors of the present Tigua 
pueblo of Isleta, N. Mex. 

P ah-que-too -ai. Lummis, Man who Married the 
Moon, 161, 1894. Piaqui. Onate (1598) in Doc. 
Ined., xvi, 102, 1871 (possibly identical). 

Pahshapaha. See Pashipaho. 

Pahuirachic. A former rancheria of the 
Tarahumare in the district and munici 
pality of Guerrero, Chihuahua, Mexico, 
but now a civilized rancho, with 662 in 
habitants in 1900. 

Pahuirachic. Censo del Estado de Chihuahua, 12, 
1904. Paquirachic. Orozco y Berra, Geog., 323, 
1864. 

Pahvant. A Ute division occupying a 
considerable territory in w. central Utah, 
their chief seat being Corn cr. According 
to Powell they speak the same language 
as the Uintah, arid socially affiliate and 
intermarry with them. Some are now on 
Uintah res., and are classed officially with 
the Ute. There were said to be 134 in 
Utah in 1885, not under an agent. 
Pagampache. Escalante (1776) quoted by Duro, 
Penalosa, 142, 1882 (probably identical). Pagam- 
pachis. Dominguez and Escalante (1776) in Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 2d s., I, 537, 1854. Paguampe. Esca 
lante quoted by Simpson (1859), Expl. Across 
Utah, 494, 1876. Pah-Vantes. Simpson, ibid., 459. 
Pahvants. Remy and Brenchley, Jour, to Great 
Salt Lake, n, 349,1841. Pah Vauts. Morris (1853) 
in H. R. Doc. 18, 33d Cong., 1st sess., 5, 1854 (mis 
print). Pah Vents. Head in Ind. Aff. Rep., 149, 
1868. Pahvontee. Doty, ibid., 1864, 175, 1865. 
Parant Utahs. Wilson in Ind. Aff. Rep., 67, 18,50. 
Paravan Yuta. Burton, City of Saints, 677, 1861. 
Parvain. Carvalho, Travels, 187, 1857. Parvan. 
Simpson, op. cit., 51. Par Vans. Hatch in Ind. 
Aff. Rep. 1863, 116, 1864. Pauvans. Call (1856) in 
H. R. Ex. Doc. 29, 37th Cong., 2d sess., 40, 1862. 
Pauvante. Bradley (1856), ibid., 36. Pavant 
Utahs. Wilson (1849) in Cal. Mess, and Corresp., 
185,1850. Pavant Yuta. Burton, City of Saints, 
577, 1861. Pohbantes. Hurt in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1855, 200, 1856. Poyantes. Collins, ibid., 125, 1861. 
Puaguampe. Dominguez and Escalante (1776) in 
Doc. Hist. Mex., 2d s., I, 468, 1854 (trans, hechi- 
ceros, i. e. sorcerers ). 

Paiinkkhwutthu ( Pai -in-kqwu -t gu } . A 
former Yaquina village on the s. side of 
Yaquina r., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. 
Folk-lore, in, 229, 1890. 

Paimiut ( mouth-of-ri ver people ) . A 
Kuskwogmiut Eskimo village on Kusko- 
iwim r., 25 m. above Bethel, Alaska; pop. 
iO in 1880. 



Paimut -Russian form cited bv Baker Geni? 

"* p i ""*- I - "{: 



Paimiut. An Ikognriut Eskimo village 
on the s. bank of Yukon r., 38 m. above 
Russian Mission, Alaska, lat. 62 10 
Ion. 160 W. Pop. 89 in 1880, 65 in 189o! 
Paimiut. llth Census, Alaska, 165, ix p a i- 
mjut.-Holmberg, Ethnog. ski//., map lx5 
Paimut. Zagoskin in Nouv. Ann. Vov., 5th s 
xxi, map, 1850. Paimute. Petroff in loth Census 
Alaska, map, 1884. 

Painting. The tribes x. of Mexico, as 
well as those of every part of the conti 
nent except, perhaps, the higher arctic 
regions, delighted in the use of color. It 
was very generally employed for embel 
lishing the person and in applying deco- 
rative and symbolic designs to habitations, 
sculptures, masks, shields, articles of bark, 
skin, pottery, etc., in executing picto- 
graphs upon natural surfaces of many 
kinds, as on cliff sand the walls of caverns, 
and in preparing the symbolic embellish 
ments of altars and sacred chambers (see 
Dry-painting, Graphic art}. Color was 
applied to the person for decorative pur 
poses as an 
essential 
feature of 
the toilet: 
for impress 
ing behold 
ers with ad 
miration or 
fear; for 
purposes of 
obscuritv 



and decep- \ 
tion; in ap- ^-^ 




bal, person 
al, or other denotive devices; in the appli 
cation of symbolic designs, especially on 
ceremonial occasions; and as a means of 
protection from insects and the sun (see 
Adornment}. The native love of color 
and skill in its use were manifested espe 
cially in decorative work. This is illus 
trated by the wonderful masks and totem 
poles of the N. \\ . coast tribes (Boas), 
and in the artistic polychrome pottery 
(q. v.) of the Pueblos (Fewkes). Little 
advance had been made in representative 
or pictorial art, yet some of the produc 
tions are noteworthy, as illustrated in the 
Hopi hitcina work (Fewkes) and in the 
Kiowa ceremonial paintings on skins de 
scribed by Mooney, although some ot the 
latter show unmistakable evidence of the 
influence of the whites. 

The pigments were derived troin many 
sources, but were mainly of mineral ori 
gin (see DUCK and Pigments), especially 
the oxides of iron (see Hematite) and car 
bonate of copper. The aborigines were 
skilled in preparing the mineral j 
which were usually ground in small i 
tars or rubbed down on a flat stone, and 



PAINT T( )WN PAIUTE 



[B. A. B. 



in extracting stains and dyes from vegetal 
substances. The colors were applied with 
a dry point or surface, as with a piece of 
chalk, charcoal, or clay; or, when mixed 
with water or oil, with the fingers or hand, 
or a stick, brush, or pad, and also sprayed 
on with the mouth, as in Pueblo mask 
painting. Brushes were rude, consisting 
often of fibrous substances, such as bits 
of wood, bark, yucca, or reeds, chewed, 
beaten, or rubbed at one end until suf 
ficiently pliable to deliver the color; and 
irmit skill was shown by many of the 
tribes in the use of these crude tools. 
Hair was not in general use, although ex 
cellent brushes are now made by the 
more advanced tribes. The brushes used 
by the tribes of the X. W. coast were 
often provided with beautifully carved 
handles. Very interesting painting imple 
ments are seen in some sections. Paddle- 
shaped or spatnlate bits of wood are 
used, applied edgewise for thin lines and 
flatwise for covering spaces; and striping 
tools having t\vo or three points and 
neatly carved of bone and ivory are in 
use by the Eskimo (Turner). The Plains 
t ri 1 >es employed a fiat piece of spongy bone 
from the knee joint of a buffalo or an ox; it 
has a sharp edge of rounded outline which 
serves for drawing lines, while the fiat 
side serves for spreading the color over 
large areas. These tools, being porous, 
have the advantage of holding a quantity 
of liquid color. Shells were frequently 
used for paint cups, while for this pur 
pose the Pueblos made miniature jars 
and bowls of pottery, sometimes in clus 
ters. Colors in the form of powder, sand, 
clay, and meal were used, and are still 
used, by several tribes in preparing dry- 
paintings (q. v. ) for ceremonial purposes 
which are executed on the floors of cere 
monial chambers or altars (Matthews, 
Stevenson, Fewkes). See Art, Ornament. 
Consult Boas (1) inGth Rep. B. A. E., 
1888, (2) in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
n, Anthrop. i, 1898; Dorsey in llth Rep. 
B. A. E., 1894; Fewkes in 17th, 21st, and 
22d Reps. B. A. F,; Hoffman in 7th Rep. 
15. A. E.. 1891; Holmes in Smithson. 
Rep. 1908, 1904; Mooney in 17th Rep. 
A. K., 1898, Xiblack in Nat, Mus. 
Rep. 1SS8, 1890; Stevenson (1) in 5th 
Rep. P>. A. F,, 1887, (2) in llth Rep. B. A. 
F., 1*94; Turner in llth Rep. B. A. E., 

(W. II. IT.) 

Paint Town. A Cherokee settlement on 
lower Soco cr., within the reservation in 
.Jackson and Swain cos., N. C. Mooney 
in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 509, 1900. 
Ani -Wadihl . -Mooney, ibid, ( place of the Paint 
people or elan : native name). 

Paisin. A former Kalindaruk village 
near Monterey bay, Cal., whose inhab 
itants were connected with San Carlos 
and San Juan Bautista missions. 
Pagnines. T.-iylor in Cal. Fanner, Nov. 23, 18>0. 
PagoBines. Kngelhurdt, Franc, in Cal., 398, 1897. 



Pagsin. A. L. Kroeber, inf n, 1903. Paycines. 
Engelhard t. op. eit. Paysim. Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 20, 18(30. 

Paiuiyunitthai ( Pai -u-i-yu -vttt-V gai) . 
A former Kuitsh village on lower limp- 
qua r., Oreg. Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk 
lore, in, 231, 1890. 

Paiute. A term involved in great con 
fusion. In common usage it has been 
applied at one time or another to most of 
the Shoshonean tribes of w. Utah, N. 
Arizona, s. Idaho, E. Oregon, Nevada, and 
E. and s. California. The generally ac- 




PAIUTE MAN 

cepted idea is that the term originated 
from the word pah, water, 1 and Ute, 
hence water Ute ; or from;m, true, and 
Ute true Ute ; but neither of these 
interpretations is satisfactory. Powell 
states that the name properly belongs ex 
clusively to the Corn Creek tribe of s. w. 
Utah, but has been extended to include 
many other tribes. In the present case 
the term is employed as a convenient 
divisional name for the tribes occupying 
s. w r . Utah from about the locality of 
Beaver, the s. w. part of Nevada, and the 



BULL. 30] 



PAIUTE 



187 



N. w. part of Arizona, excluding the 
Chemehuevi. 

With regard to the Indians of Walker 
River and Pyramid Lake reservations 
who constitute the main body of those 
commonly known as Paiute, Powell 
claims that they are not Paiute at all, but 




PAIUTE WOMAN 

another tribe which he calls Paviotso. 
He says: "The names by which the 
tribes are known to white men and the 
department give no clue to the relation 
ship of the Indians. For example, the 
Indians in the vicinity of the reservation 
on the Muddy and the Indians on the 
Walker River and Pyramid Lake reserva 
tions are called Pai "or Pah Utes, but the 
Indians know only those on the Muddy 
by that name, while those on the other 
two reservations are known as Paviotsoes, 
and speak a very different language, but 
closely allied to, if not identical with, that 
of the Bannocks" (Powell and Ingalls 
in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1873). The Indians of 
Walker r. and Pyramid lake claim the 
Bannock as their cousins, and say that 
they speak the same language. The dif- 
erent small bands have little political co 
herence, and there is no recognized head- 
chief. The most influential chiefs among 
them in modern times have been Winne- 
mucca, who died a few years ago, and 
Natchez. As a rule they have been peace 
able and friendly toward the whites, al 
though in the early sixties they several 
times came into collision with miners and 



emigrants, hostility being frequently p ro . 
,1 y T, the white themselves The 

"ho" e 6 7 tl ai l? t0 W T m<Jre warlik " 
those of the S., and a considerable num- 

be i of them took part with the Bannock 
in the war of 1878. Owing to the fact that 

the great majority of the Paiute (includ- 
mg the Paviotso) are not on reservations 
many of them being attached to the 
ranches ot white men, it is impossible to 
determine their population, but they may 
be safely estimated at from 6,500 to 7,000 
in l.H)b those on reservations in alLXevada 
were reported to number, at Walker River 
res 486; at Moapa res., 121); at Pvramid 
Lake res., 554; at Duck Valley (Western 
bnosnoni agency), 2(i7; not under an 
agency ( 1900), 3,700. In Utah there were 
/b Kaibab, 154 Shivwits, and 370 Paiute 
not under an agency; in Arizona 350 
Paiute under the Western Nevada School 
Superintendent. 

As a people the Paiute are peaceable, 
moral, and industrious, and are highly 
commended for their good qualities by 
those who have had the best opportuni 
ties for judging. While apparently not 
as bright in intellect as the prairie tribes, 
they appear to possess more solidity of 
character. By their willingness and effi 
ciency as workers they have made them 
selves necessary to the white fanners and 




GROUP OF PAIUTE 



have been enabled to supply themselves 
with good clothing and many of the com 
forts of life, while on the other hand they 
have steadily resisted the vices of civiliza 
tion, so that they are spoken of by one 
agent as presenting the "singular anom 
aly " of improvement by contact with the 



188 



PAIUTE SNAKES PAJARITO 



[B. A. B. 



whites. Another authority says: "To 
these habits and excellence of character 
may be attributed the fact that they are 
annually increasing in numbers, and that 
they are strong, healthy, active people. 
Many of them are employed as laborers 
on the farms of white men in all seasons, 
but they are especially serviceable during 
the time of harvesting and haymaking." 
Aside from their earnings among the 
whites, they derive subsistence from the 
lish of the lakes, jackrabbits and small 
game of the sage plains and mountains, 
and from piiion nuts and other seeds, 
which they grind into flour for bread. 
Their ordinary dwelling is the wikiup, or 
small rounded hut, of tule rushes over a 
framework of poles, with the ground for 
a floor and the fire in the center, and al 
most entirely open at the top. Strangely 
enough, although appreciating the ad 
vantages of civilization so far as relates to 
good clothing and to such food as they 
can buy at the stores, they manifest no 
desire to live in permanent houses or to 
procure the furniture of civilization, and 
their wikiups are almost bare of every 
thing excepting a few wicker or grass 
baskets of their own weaving. 

Following are the Paiute bands so far 
as known: llok waits, Ichuarumpats, 
Kaibab, Kwaiantikwokets, Kwiengo- 
mats, Kwiumpus, Moapariats, Moquats, 
Movwiats, Xauwanatats, Nogwats, Nuag- 
untits, Pagaits, Paguits, Paraniguts, 
Paruguns, Parumpaiats, Parumpats, Pas- 
pikaivats, Pawipits, Pintiats, Sauwon- 
tiats, Shivwits, Timpashauwagotsits, 
Tsuwarits, Uainuints, Uinkarets, Unka- 
kaniguts, Tnkapanukuints, Utumpaiats, 
and Yagats. (n. w. n. .T. M.) 

Auolasus. ten Kate, Reizen in X. A., 160, 1885 
( = Mezcal-Schoenen : Pima name). Ca-hual- 
chitz. Whipple, Pac. R. R. Rep., m, pt. 3, 16, 
1x56 (this and the various forms by Garces are 
from Kohoaldje, the Mohave name of the Virgin 
r. Paiute. Kroeber). Cajualas. Garces quoted 
by Escudero, Not. Estad. de Chihuahua, 228 1834 
Cajuales. Garces(1776) ,Diary,472, 1900. Chemebet 
Quajala. I bid. ,303. Chemegue cajuala. Orozco y 
Berra, G^eog., 349, 1864 (misprint from Garces). 
Chemegue Cuajala. Garces, op. cit., 444. Cheme- 
guet Cajuala. Ibid., 475. Chemeque-caprala 
Cortex (1799) quoted in Pac. R. R. Rep., m, pt. 3, 
126, 1856 (misprint of Garces Chemegue Cuajala) 
Da-da -ze ni -ka-ci" -ga. Dorsey, Kansas MS. 
vocab. B. A. E., 18X2 ( = grasshopper people : 
Kansa name). Diggers. Howe, Hist, ("oil., 419, 
1X51. Hogapa goni. Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. 
E., 10.18, 1896 ( rush-arrow people : Shoshoni 
name). Kohoaldje. Kroeber, inf n, 1905(Mohave 
name of Virgin r. Paiute). Niima. Mooney in 
14th Hop. B. A. E., 1048,1896 ( people , Indians - 
own name). Pa gonotch. Gatschet, MS. B A E 
(Southern Tte name). Pah-Edes Head in Ind 
Atf. Rep., 122, 1X116. Pahmetes. Wilson ibid 
1X19,67, 1X50. Pahnutes Utahs. Wilson (1X49) ii! 
Ciil. Mess, and Corresp., 185, 1X50. Pah-rri-sa- 
pah. Whipple in I ac. R. R. Rep., m, p t 3 K; 
1856(Chemchueviname). Pah Touts. Sen Misc 
Doc. 53, 15th Cong., 3d sess., 78, 1879. Pahusitahs. 
Remyand Hreiichley.Journ. toGreatSalt L-ike IT 
3X8, 1811. Pah-Utah .-Mollhausen .Toiirn to Pa- 
cific, i. 46, 1X5X. Pah-Utes. Forney in Ind Aff 
Rep. 1X59, 366, 1X60. Paia ti. Ilcnshaw Pana- 
inint MS. vocab., H. A. E. (Panamint name) 
Pai-Ides. Audouard, Far West IX 1869 Pai- 



uches. Farnham, Mexico, map, 1846. Paiulee. 
Remy and Brenchley, op. cit., I, 38. Paiutes. 
Poston in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1863, 387, 1864. Pai- 
yu chimu. Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1048, 1896 
(Hopiname). Pai-yudshi. Corbusier, inf n ( all 
eyes : Yavapai name; corrupted from "Paiute"). 
Pai-yu tsi. Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1048, 
1896 (Navaho name). Pan-Utahs. Domenech, 
Deserts N. Am., n, 64, 1860. Parusi. Escalante 
etal. (1775) in Duro, Penalosa, 142, 1882 (probably 
identical). Pasuchis. Escudero, Not. Nuevo 
Mex., 83, 1849. Pa-uches. Collins in Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 125, 1861. Pa-u-da. Ibid. Pa-utes. Hin- 
ton, Handbook Ariz., 361, 1871. Paynutes. Wilson 
(1849) in Cal. Mess, and Corresp., 185, 1850. 
Payoche. Ten Broeck (1852) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, iv, 82, 1854. Payuchas. Garces (1776), 
Diary, 405,1900. Payuches. Ibid., 351. Payukue. 
Gatschet, MS., B. A. E. (Znni name). Payutas. 
Platt, Karte Nord-Am., 1861. Payutsin dinne. 
Gatschet, MS., B. A. E. (Navaho name). 
Pazuchis. Orozco y Berra, Geog., 59, 1864. (Pey) 
metes Utahs. Wilson in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1849, 67, 
1850. Pey-ute. Forney, ibid., 1859, 364, 1860. 
Piedes. Carvalho, Travels, 213, 1857. Pi-Edes. 
Beadle, Undeveloped West, 658, 1873. Pie Edes 
Hatch in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1863, 116, 1864. Pi-eeds. 
Simpson (1859), Rep. of Expl. Across Utah, 
35, 1876. Pieutes. Barney (1857) in H. R. Ex. 
Doc. 29,37th Cong., 2d sess, 78, 1862. Pi-u-chas. 
Graves in Ind. Aff. Rep., 386, 1854. Piute. 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1048, 1896 (popular 
name, Eng. pron.). Py-eeds. Simpson, Rep., op. 
cit., 35. Pyentes. Palmer, Travels, 35, 1847. 
Snake Diggers. Simpson, op. cit., 460 (Pah-Utahs 
or). TJte Diggers. Ibid. Yabipai Cajuala. Garces 
(1776), Diary, 444, 1900. Yavipai cajuala. Garces 
misquoted by Orozco y Berra, Geog., 41, 1864. 
Yavipais-caprala. Garc es misquoted by Cortez 
(1779) in Pac. R. R. Rep., m, pt. 3, 126, 1856. 

Paiute Snakes. Given as a Shoshoni 
band on Klamath res., Oreg. 

Piute Snakes. Ind. Aff. Rep., 344, 1873. 

Pajalat. One of three tribes mentioned 
by Espinosa (Chronica Apostolica, i, 459, 
1746) as living near San Antonio r., 
Texas, when the Franciscan missions 
were removed thither in 1730-31. The 
other two were the Pacao and Pitalaque 
(probably the same as the Pachalaque). 
There were numerous Pajalat in Concep- 
cion mission before 1748, and they inter 
married there freely with the Patumacas, 
Pujanes (Cu janes?), Patalcas, and Tilpa- 
copales (MS. records of the mission). 
They are given as a tribe distinct from 
the Pachalaque in the records of Con- 
cepcion mission ; for instance, one mis 
sionary records marrying a Pajalat and 
a Pachalaque, which is evidence that 
these were not considered merely two 
forms of the same name, though they w r ere 
probably closely related. According to 
Gatschet there was a Tonkawa gens or 
subtribe bearing the same name (Paja- 
latch, mouth open ). (H. E. B. ) 

Paalat. Espinosa, Chronica Apost., I, 459, 1746. 
Pajalaches. MS., May 13,1752, in Bexar Archives, 
Texas. Paialames. Orozco y Berra, Geog., 384, 
391, 1864. Pajalaques. Ibid.; 304. Pajalat. Ri 
vera, Diario.leg. 2602, 1736. Pajalatames. Padilla 
quoted by Orozco y Berra, op. cit,, 306. Paja- 
lites. Informe, 1762, in Mem. de Nueva Espana, 
xxvili, 167, MS. Pallalat. Uhde, Lander, 121,. 
1861. Paxalatch A. S. Gatschet, Tonkawe MS. 
vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (given as a Tonkawa gens). 

Pajarito(Span.: little bird ). Atribe, 
evidently Coahuiltecan, at Camargo, on 
the Rio Grande, in 1757, with Venados, 
Tejones, Tareguanos, and Cueros Que- 



BULL. 30] 



PAJARITO PARK 



mados. Of the Pajaritos, 56 individuals 
were in the mission (Joseph Tienda de 
Cuervo, Revista ot Camargo, July 13, 
1757, in Archive Gen., Hist,, LVI). The 
Venados were given by Garcia in 1760 as 
one of the tribes speaking the language 
of his Manual, i. e. Coahuiltecan. In 
1780 Gov. Cabello reported the Paxa- 
hitos, evidently the same as the Paja 
ritos, as a coast tribe s. of the mouth of 
the Rio Grande. With them he enumer 
ated the Comecrudos, Texones, Guiana- 
paquefios (sic), Manyateilos, Cotanans, 
Aguichachas, and Cueros Quemados ( Rep. 
on coast tribes, May 28, 1780, Bexar Ar 
chives, Province of Texas). (H. E. B.) 

Pajarito Park (Span.: little bird , 
adapted from the Tewa Tshirege, bird , 
the name of an important ruin within the 
limits of the tract ) . Geographically, this 
term stands for a high, park-like table 
land about 40 m. in length and from 15 
to 25 m. in width, on the w. side of the 
Rio Grande in x. New Mexico. It is 
limited on the x. by the Rio Chama, on 
the w. by the Jemez mts., and on the s. 
by the Canada de Cochiti. It forms the 
E. side of the Jemez plateau. The table 
land is of volcanic origin, its surface from 
the base of the mountains eastwar