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Bulletin 30 







or THF ^ \ 

fVERsiTY } 



Government printing office 






Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, B. 0., July 1, 1905. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the manuscript of Bulletin 
30 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, entitled ''Handbook of 
American Indians,' 1 which has been in preparation for a number of- 
years and has been completed for publication under the editorship 
of Mr F. W. Hodge. The Handbook contains a descriptive list of 
the stocks, confederacies, tribes, tribal divisions, and settlements north 
of Mexico, accompanied with the various names by which these have 
been known, together with biographies of Indians of note, sketches of 
their history, archeology, manners, arts, customs, and institutions, and 
the aboriginal words incorporated into the English language. 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, B. C. 




During- the early exploration and settlement of North America, a 
multitude of Indian tribes were encountered, having diverse customs 
and languages. Lack of knowledge of the aborigines and of their lan- 
guages led to many curious errors on the part of the early explorers and 
settlers: names were applied to the Indians that had no relation what- 
ever to their aboriginal names; sometimes nicknames were bestowed, 
owing perhaps to personal characteristics, fancied or real; sometimes 
tribes came to be known by names given by other tribes, which were 
often opprobrious; frequently the designation by which a tribal group 
was known to itself was employed, and as such names are oftentimes 
unpronounceable by alien tongues and unrepresentable by civilized 
alphabets, the result was a sorry corruption, varying according as the 
sounds were impressed on Spanish, English, French, Dutch, German, 
Russian, or Swedish ears. Sometimes, again, bands of a single tribe 
were given distinctive tribal names, while clans and gentes were often 
regarded as independent autonomous groups to which separate tribal 
designations likewise were applied. Consequently, in the literature 
relating to the American Indians, which is practically coextensive with 
the literature of the first three centuries of the New World, thousands 
of such names are recorded, the significance and application of which 
are to be understood only after much study. 

The need of a comprehensive work on the subject has been felt ever 
since scientific interest in the Indians was first aroused. Many lists of 
tribes have been published, but the scientific student, as well as the 
general reader, until the present time has been practically without the 
means of knowing any more about a given confederacy, tribe, clan, or 
settlement of Indians than was to be gleaned from casual references 
to it. 

The work of which this Handbook is an outgrowth had its inception 
as earl} 7 as 1873, when Prof. Otis T. Mason, now of t]ie United States 
National Museum, began the preparation of a list of the tribal names 
mentioned in the vast literature pertaining to the Indians, and in due 
time several thousand names were recorded, with references to the 
works in which they appear. The work was continued by him until 
after the establishment of the Bureau, when other duties compelled its 
suspension. Later the task was assigned to Col. Garrick Mallery, who, 
however, soon abandoned it for investigations in a field which proved 


to be his life work, namely, the pictography and sign language 
of the American Indians. Meanwhile Mr James Mooney was engaged 
in compiling a similar list of tribes, with their synonymy, classified 
chiefly on a geographic basis and covering the entire Western Hemi- 
sphere—a work begun in 1873 and continued for twelve years before 
either he or the members of the Bureau of American Ethnology knew 
of the labors of each other in this field. 

Soon after the organization of the Bureau in 1879, the work of record- 
ing a tribal synonymy was formally assigned to Mr Henry W. Henshaw. 
Up to this time a complete linguistic classification of the tribes north 
of Mexico, particularly in the West and Northwest, was not possible, 
since sufficient data had not been gathered for determining their lin- 
guistic affinities. Mr Henshaw soon perceived that a linguistic classi- 
fication of the Indian tribes, a work long contemplated by Major 
Powell, must precede and form the basis for a tribal synonymy, and to 
him, therefore, as a necessary preliminary, was intrusted the supervision 
of such a linguistic classification. By 1885 the Bureau's researches in 
this direction had reached a stage that warranted the grouping of prac- 
tically all the known tribes by linguistic stocks. This classification 
is published in the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau, and on it is 
based, with few exceptions, the present Handbook. 

Immediately on the completion of the linguistic classification, the 
entire force of the Bureau, under Mr Henshaw's immediate direction, 
was assigned to the work that had now grown into a Dictionary and 
Synonymy of the Indian Tribes North of Mexico. As his special field 
Mr Henshaw devoted attention to several of the Californian stocks, 
and to those of the North Pacific coast, north of Oregon, including 
the Eskimo. To Mr Mooney were given the great and historically 
important Algonquian and Iroquoian families, and through his wide 
general knowledge of Indian history and customs he rendered aid in 
many other directions. A list of Linguistic Families of the Indian 
Tribes North of Mexico, with Provisional List of the Principal Tribal 
Names and Synonyms (55 pp., octavo), was at once printed for use by 
the collaborators of the Bureau in connection with the complete com- 
pilation, and although the list does not include the Californian tribes, 
it proved of great service in the earlier stages of the work. The 
2,500 tribal names and synonyms appearing in this list were taken 
chiefly from Mr Mooney's manuscript; the linguistic classification was 
the result of the work that the Bureau had been conducting under 
Mr Henshaw's supervision. 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey assumed charge of the work on the Siouan, 
Caddoan, and Athapascan stocks; Dr W. J. Hoffman, under the per- 
sonal direction of Major Powell, devoted his energies to the Shoshonean 
family, and Mr Jeremiah Curtin, by reason of his familiarity with a 
number of the Californian tribes, rendered direct aid to Mr Henshaw 


in that field. Dr Albert S. Gatschet employed his time and long 
experience in the preparation of the material pertaining- to the Musk- 
hogean tribes of southeastern United States, the Yuman tribes of the 
lower Colorado drainage and of Lower California, and various smaller 
linguistic groups. To Col. Garrick Mallery were assigned the French 
authors bearing on the general subject. With such aid the work 
received a pronounced impetus, and before the close of 1885 a large 
body of additional material had been recorded. Four years later the 
elaboration of the material pertaining to the Yuman, Piman, Keresan, 
Tanoan, and Zunian stocks of the extreme Southwest was placed in 
charge of Mr F. W. Hodge, who brought it to completion. 

The work was continued under Mr Henshaw's supervision until, in 
1893, ill health compelled his abandonment of the task. This is the 
more to be regretted as Mr Henshaw had in course of preparation a 
classification and nomenclature of the minor divisions of the linguistic 
stocks, which is essential to a proper presentation and a clear under- 
standing of the subject. After Mr Henshaw's relinquishment of the 
work, Mr Hodge was given entire charge of it. But other official 
duties of members of the staff prevented the Handbook as a whole 
from making marked progress until 1899, when Dr Cyrus Thomas 
was intrusted with the task of revising the recorded material bearing 
on the Algonquian, Siouan, and Muskhogean families. 

In 1902 the work on the Handbook was again systematically taken 
up, at the instance of Secretary Langley, who detailed Mr Hodge, at 
that time connected immediately with the Smithsonian Institution, to 
undertake its general editorial supervision. The scope of the subject- 
matter was enlarged to include the relations between the aborigines and 
the Government; their archeology, manners, customs, arts, and indus- 
tries; brief biographies of Indians of note; and words of aboriginal 
i origin that have found their way into the English language. It was 
proposed also to include Indian names that are purely geographic, but 
'by reason of the vast number of these it was subsequently deemed advis- 
able to embody them eventually in an independent work. Moreover, it 
was provided that the work should be illustrated as adequately as time 
and the illustrative material available would admit, a feature not orig- 
inal^ contemplated. To fully cover this vast field at the present time 
is impossible, by reason of the fact that research among the native 
tribes, notwithstanding the extensive and important work that has 
been accomplished in recent years, has not advanced far beyond the 
first stage, even when is taken into account the sum of knowledge 
derived from the researches of the Bureau and of other institutions, 
as well as of individuals. 

The lack of completeness of our present knowledge of the tribes was, 
perhaps, never better shown than when an attempt was made to carry 
out the enlarged plan of the Handbook. With its limited force the 


Bureau could scarcely hope to cover the entire range of the subject 
within a reasonable time; consequently various specialists not directly 
connected with the Bureau were invited to assist — an invitation that was 
accepted in a manner most gratif}ang. It is owing to the generous 
aid of these students that a work so complete as the Handbook is 
intended to be was made possible, and to them the Bureau owes its deep 
appreciation. That the Handbook has many imperfections there is no ; 
doubt, but it is hoped that in future editions the weak points may be 
strengthened and the gaps filled, until, as researches among the tribes 
are continued, the compilation will eventually represent a complete 
summary of existing knowledge respecting the aborigines of northern 

The scope of the Handbook is as comprehensive as its function neces- 
sitates. It treats of all the tribes north of Mexico, including the Eskimo, 
and those tribes south of the boundary more or less affiliated with those 
in the United States. It has been the aim to give a brief description of 
every linguistic stock, confederac}^, tribe, subtribe or tribal division, 
and settlement known to history or even to tradition, as well as the origin 
and derivation of every name treated, whenever such is known, and to 
record under each every form of the name and every other appellation 
that could be learned. These synonyms, in alphabetic order, are assem 
bled as cross references in Part 2. 

Under the tribal descriptions a brief account of the ethnic relations 
of the tribe, its history, its location at various periods, statistics of 
population, etc., are included. Accompanying each synon} T m (the 
earliest known date always being given) a reference to the authority! 
is noted, and these references form practically a bibliography of thej 
tribe for those who desire to pursue the subject further. It is not: 
claimed that every spelling of every tribal name that occurs in print is, 
given, but it is believed that a sufficient number of forms is recorded 
to enable the student to identify practically every name by which any 
group of Indians has been known, as well as to trace the origin ofi 
many of the terms that have been incorporated into our geographic 

In many instances the treatises are satisfactorily illustrated; in 
others, much necessarily has been left to a future edition in order 
that the present publication may not be further delayed. The work 
of illustration was intrusted largely to Mr De Lancey Gill. 

The contributors to Part 1, in addition to those who have rendered 
valued assistance by affording information, correcting proofs, and in 
other ways, are as follows, the names being arranged in the alphabet-; 
ical order of the initials attached to the signed articles: 

A.. C. F. Alice C. Fletcher of Washington. 

A. F. C. Alexander F. Chamberlain of Clark University. 

A. H. A. Hrdlicka of the United States National Museum. 


A. L. D. Anna L. Dawes of Pittsfield, Mass. 

A. L. K. A. L. Kroeber of the University of/California. 

A. S. G. Albert S. Gatschet, formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

C. M. F. Cora M. Folsom of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, 

Hampton, Va. 

C. T. Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

E. G. E. Elaine Goodale Eastman of Amherst, Mass. 

E. L. H. Edgar L. Hewett of Washington. 

F. B. Franz Boas of Columbia University. 

F. H. N Frank Huntington, formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

F. H. C. The late Frank Hamilton Cushingof the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

F. V. C. F. V. Colville of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

F. W. H. F. W. Hodge of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

G. A. D. George A. Dorsey of the Field Museum of Natural History. 
G. B. G. George Bird Grinnell of New York. 

G. F. Gerard Fowke of Saint Louis. 

G. P. M. George P. Merrill of the United States National Museum. 

H. E. B. Herbert E. Bolton of the University of Texas. 

H. W. H. Henry W. Henshaw, formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

J. C. The late Jeremiah Curtin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

J. D. M. Joseph D. McGuire of Washington. 

J. H. D. Josiah H. Dortch of the Office of Indian Affairs. 

J. M. James Mooney of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

J. McL. James McLaughlin of the Office of Indian Affairs. 

J. N. B. H. J. N. B. Hewitt of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

J. O..D. The late J. Owen Dorsey of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

J. R. S. John R. Swanton of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

J. W. F. J. Walter Fewkes of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

L. F. Livingston Farrand of Columbia University. 

M. E. G. Merrill E. Gates of the Board of Indian Commissioners. 

M. K. S. M. K. Sniffen of the Indian Rights Association. 

0. T. M. Otis T. Mason of the United States National Museum. 

P. E. B. Paul Edmond Beckwith of the United States National Museum. 

P. E. G. P. E. Goddard of the University of California. 

R. B. D. Roland B. Dixon of Harvard University. 

R. H. L. Robert H. Lowie of New York. 

S. A. B. S. A. Barrett of the University of California. 

S. C. Stewart Culin of the Brooklyn Institute Museum. 

S. M. B. S. M. Brosius of the Indian Rights Association. 

W. E. Wilberforce Eames of the New York Public Library. 

W. H. Walter Hough of the United States National Museum. 

W. H. H. William H. Holmes of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

W. J. William Jones of the Field Museum of Natural History. 

W. M. The late Washington Matthews, United States Army. 

F. W. Hodge. 
Bureau of American Ethnology, ' 

December^ 1906. 

or thf 
iJ MVtRsiTY 




AANETUN. An extinct village of the 
Tututni, a Pacific Athapascan group 
formerly living on the Oregon coast. 
1 A'a-ne'-tun — Dorse v in Journ. Am. Folk-lore, III, 
286, 1890. 

Aatsosni ( ' narrow gorge ' ) . A Navaho 
Aatsosni.— Matthews, Navaho Legends, 30, 1897. 

Ababco. An eastern Algonquian tribe 
or subtribe. Although mentioned in the 
original records of 1741 (Bacon, Laws of 
Maryland, 1765) in connection with the 
Hutsawaps and Tequassimoes as a dis- 
tinct tribe, they were probably only a 
division of the Choptank. This name is 
not mentioned in John Smith's narrative 
of his exploration of Chesapeake bay. 
The band lived on Choptank r., Md., and 
in 1741 the Colonial government con- 
firmed them in the possession of their 
lands on the s. side of that stream, in Dor- 
chester co., near Secretary cr. By 1837 
the entire tribe to which they belonged 
had dwindled to a few individuals of 
mixed Indian and African blood. ( J. m. ) 
Ababeves.— Bozman, Hist. Maryland, i, 115, 1837. 

Abascal. A Diegueno rancheria near 
San Diego, s. Cal.— Ortega (1795) quoted 
by Bancroft, Hist. Cal., i, 253, 1886. 
Abuscal.— Ibid. Aguscal.— Ibid. 

Abayoa. A Tequesta village at the s. 
extremity of Florida pen., mentioned in 
connection with the expedition of Ponce 
deLeon (1512).— Barcia, Ensayo, 2, 1723. 

Abbatotine ( 'bighorn people' ). A Na- 
hane tribe living in upper Pelly, Mac- 
millan, and Stewart r. valleys, Yukon T. 

Abbato-tena'.— Dall in Cont, N. A. Ethnol., I, 32, 
1877. Abba-to-tenah.— Dall in Proc. A. A. A. S., 
271, 1870. Abbato-tinneh.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, 
in, 587, 1882. Affats-tena.— Ibid., 1, 149 (misprint). 
Ah-bah-to din-ne.— Hardisty in Smithson. Rep. 
1866, 311, 1872. Ambahtawoot.— Priehard, Phys. 
Hist., V, 377, 1847. Ambah-tawut-dinni.— Latham in 
Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 69, 1856 (trans. ' moun- 
tain sheep men'). Amba-ta-ut' tine.— Richard- 
son, Arct. Exped., II, 7, 1851. Am-ba-ta-ut' tine. — 
Petitot, Diet. Dene Dindjie, xx, 1876. Ambataw- 
woot.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, n, 28, 1852. Am- 
bawtamoot.— Ibid., Ill, 525, 1853. Ambawtawhoot- 
dinneh.— Franklin, Narr., n, 81, 1824. Ambawta- 
whoot Tinneh.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, v, 640, 1882. 
Ambawtawoot.— Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. 
Soc, II, 19, 1836. Ambawtowhoot. — Balbi, Atlas 
Ethnog., 821, 1826 Mountain Sheep Men.— Latham 
in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 69, 1856. Sheep In- 
dians.— Franklin, Narr., n, 84, 1824. Sheep Peo- 
ple.— Richardson, op. cit. 

Abbigadasset. An Abnaki sachem whose 
residence was on the coast of Maine near 
the mouth of Kennebec r. He conveyed 
tracts of land to Englishmen conjointly 

with Kennebis. In 1667 he deeded Swans 
id. to Humphrey Daw. — Drake, Bk. 
Incls., bk. 3, 101, 1837. 

Abechiu (a Tewa onomatope represent- 
ing the screech of an owl. — E. L. Hew- 
ett). A prehistoric Tewa pueblo at a 
place called La Puente, on a bluff close to 
the s. bank of Rio Chama, 3 m. s. e. of the 
present town of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba co., 
N. Mex.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
iv, 56, 58, 1892. 

Abe-chiu.— Bandelier, op. cit., 39 (aboriginal 
name). Oj-po-re-ge.— Ibid., 58 (Santa Clara name: 
' place where metates are made rough.' ) 

Abercronk. A former (Potawatomi?) 
village on L. Michigan, in n. e. Porter 
co., Ind.— Hough, map in Indiana Gepl. 
Rep. for 1882-3; 1883. 

Aberginian. A collective term used 
by the early settlers on Massachusetts 
bay for the tribes to the northward. 
Johnson, in 1654, says they consisted of 
the "Massachuset," "Wippanap," and 
"Tarratines." The name may be a cor- 
ruption of Abnaki, or a misspelling for 
"aborigines." The Wippanap are evi- 
dently the Abnaki, while the Tarratines 
are the same Indians, or a part of them. 

(J. M.) 

Abarginny.— Johnson (1628) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll.. 2d s., n, 66, 1814. Abergeny.— Williams 
(1643), ibid., 1st s., Ill, 204, 1794. Aberginians. — 
Wood (lb34) quoted bv Schoolcraft, Pers. Mem., 
644, 1851. Aberieney.— Levett (1628) in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll.. 3d s., VIII, 174, 1843. Aborginny.— 
Humphrey's Acc't, 281, 1730 (incorrectly quoting 
Johnson, 1628). 

Abibka. One of the oldest of the Upper 
Creek towns; exact location unknown, 
but it was near upper Coosa r., Ala. 
Abacoes.— ten Kate, Reizen in N. A., 462, 1885. 
Abchas.— McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 
79, 1854 (probably a misprint of Abekas). Abe- 
caes.— Coxe, Carblana, 25, 1741. Abecas.— Ibid., 
map. Abecka.— Romans, Florida, 309. 1775. Abei- 
cas.— Alcedo, Dice. Geografiea, i, 3, 1786. Abei- 
kas.— Penicaut (1708) in French, Hist. Coll. La., 
n. s., i, 101, 1869. Abekas.— Bossu (1759), Travels in 
Louisiana, I, 229, 1771. Abicas.— La Harpe (1703) 
in French, Hist. Coll. La., in, 29, 1851. Abi'hka.— 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 124, 1884. Abikas.— 
La Harpe (1707) in French, Hist. Coil. La., in, 
36, 1851. Abikaws.— Rivers, Early Hist. So. Car., 
94,1874. Albikas.— La Harpe (1714) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., in, 43, 1851. Apiscas.— Williams, 
Florida, 75, 1837 (same?). Au-be-cuh.— Hawkins 
(1799), Sketch of Creek Country, 42, 1848. 
Aubocoes.— Macomb (1802) in Am. State Papers, 
Ind. Aft'., I, 680, 1832. Becaes.— Coxe, Carolana, 
25, 1741. Beicas.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 
125, 1884. Obekaws.— Von der Reck in Urlsperger, 
Ausfuhrliehe Nachricht von den Saltzburgischen 
Emigranten, 871, 1735. Obika.— Gatschet, Creek 
Migr. Leg., 1, 125, 1884. Sak'hutka.— Gatschet, in- 

Bull. 30—05- 


[B. A. B. 

formation (symbolic name, sig. 'door,' as the 
town was situated at the N. limits of the Creek 
country, and thus defended it against hostile 

Abihka. A town of the Creek Nation 
on the s. side of North fork of Canadian 
r., Tp. 11 n., E. 8e., Ind. T. 
Abi'hka.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., n, 185, 1888. 
Arbeka.— U. S. P. O. Guide. 366. 1904. 

Abikudshi ( ' Little A bihka' ). A former 
Upper Creek town in n. Talladega co., 
Ala., on the right bank of Tallahatchee 
cr., 5 m. e. of Coosa r. It was settled 
by Abihka Indians and some of the 
Natchez. Bartram (1775) states that 
the inhabitants spoke a dialect of Chick- 
asaw 7 , which could have been true of 
only a part. 

Abacooches.— Bartram, Travels, 461, 1791. Aba- 
couchees.— U. S. Ind. Treaties (1797), 68, 1837. 
Abbacoochees.— Swan (1791) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, v, 262, 1855. Abecoche.— JefYerys, Am. 
Atlas, 5, 1776. Abecochi.— Alcedo, Dice. Geog., I, 
3; 1786. Abecoochee.— U. S. Ind. Treaties (1814), 
162, 1837. Abecothee.— Lattre, Carte des Etats- 
. Unis, 1784. Abecouechis, — Baudrv de Lozieres, 
\ Vov. Louisiane, 241, 1802. Abucboc'hu.— H. R. Ex. 
Doc. 276, 24th Cong., 1st sess., 315, 1836. Arbic- 
coochee.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 425, 24th Cong., 1st sess., 
301,1836. Au-ba-coo-che.— Hawkins (1814) in Am. 
State Papers, Ind. Aff., I. 837, 1832. Au-be-coo- 
che.— Hawkins (1798-99), Sketch, 41, 1848. 

Abikudshi. A town of the Creek Nation 
on Deep fork of Canadian r. , above Ocmul- 
gee, Ind. T. 

Abi'hkudshi.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., II, 185, 

Abiquiu ( from .1 bechiu, q. v. ) . A pueblo 
founded by the Spaniards prior to 1747 
at the site of the prehistoric Tewa pueblo 
of Fejiu, on the Rio Chama, Ri6 Arriba 
co., N. Mex. In Aug., 1747, it was raided 
by the Ute, who killed a number of the 
inhabitants and compelled its abandon- 
ment. It was resettled soon afterward, 
and in 1748 contained 20 families, but, 
owing to further depredations by the Ute 
and Navaho, was again abandoned, and 
in 1754 reoccupied. In 1765 the settle- 
ment (the mission name of which was 
Santa Rosa, later changed to Santo 
Tomas) contained 166 persons, and in the 
vicinity were 612 others. In 1779 the 
pueblo had 851 inhabitants, and at least 
as early as 1794 it was peopled in part by 
Genizaros, or Indian captives and fugi- 
tives, chiefly Hopi, whom the Spaniards 
had rescued or purchased. In 1808 Abi- 
quiu contained 122 Indians and 1,816 
whites and mestizos. The town was 
thoroughly Mexicanized by 1854. See 
Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 280, 1889; 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 54, 
1892. (f. w. h.) 

Abequin.— Kern in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 39, 
1854. Abicu.— Arrowsmith, Map of N. A., 1795, 
ed. 1814. Abicui.— Humboldt,. Atlas Nouv. Es- 
pagne, carte 1, 1811. Abiguin.— Ward in Ind. 
Aff. Rep. 1867, 210, 1868. Abiquico.— Lane (1854) 
in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 689, 1855. Abi- 
quieu.— Escudero, Noticias Nuevo-M6x., 14, 1849. 
Abiquin.— Hezio (1797-98) in Meline, Two Thou- 
sand Miles, 260, 1867. Abiqufri.— Muhlenpfordt, 
Mejico, II, 533, 1844. Abiquiu.— Ms. of 1750 cited 
by Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 174, 1890. 
Abricu. — Pike. Exped., map, 1810. Abuquin. — 

Johnston in Emory, Recon., 569, 1848. Albi- 
quin.— Simpson, Rep., 2, 1850. Aluquia.— Busch- 
mann, N. Mex., 245, 1858. Jo-so-ge.— Bandelier 
in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 54, 1892 (Tewa name; 
from Jo-so, their name for the Hopi, because 
most of the inhabitants were of that tribe). 
Santa Rosa de Abiquiu.— Dominguez y Escalante 
(1776) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 2d s., i, 378, 1854. San 
Tomas de Abiquiu— Ward in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1867, 
213, 1868. Santo Tomas de Abicui.— Orozco y Berra 
in Anales Minis. Fom., vi, 255, 1882. Santo Tomas 
de Abiquiu.— Alencaster (1805) in Meline, Two 
Thousand Miles, 212, 1867. Sta Rosa Abiquiu.— 
Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 252, 1889. 

Abittibi (abi'ta, 'half,' 'middle/ 'in- 
termediate'; &?, a secondary stem refer- 
ring to a state or condition, here alluding 
to water j -g, a locative suffix: hence ' half- 
way-across water,' referring to the situa- 
tion of Abittibi lake.— W. Jones). A little 
known Algonkin band w^hose habitat has 
been the shores of Abittibi lake, Ont. 
The first recorded notice of them is in the 
Jesuit Relation for 1640. It is said in the 
Relation of 1660 that the Iroquois had 
warred upon them and two other tribes 
of the same locality. Du Lhut (1684) 
includes them in the list of nations of the 
region n. of L. Superior whose trade it 
was desirable should be turned from the 
English of Hudson bay to the French. 
Chauvignerie (1736) seems to connect 
this tribe, estimated at 140 warriors, with 
the Tetes de Boule. He mentions as 
totems the partridge and the eagle. They 
were reported by the Canadian Indian 
Office to number 450 in 1878, after which 
date they are not officially mentioned. 

(.1. M. C. T. ) 

Abbetikis.— Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 556, 1853. Abbitibbes.'— Keane 
in Stanford, Compendium, 498, 1878. Abitibis.— 
Harris, Voy. andTrav., I, map, 1705. Abittibbes.— 
Walch, map, 1805. Abittibis.— Chauvignerie (173&) 
in N. Y. Doc. Hist., ix, 1054, 1855. Outabitibek. — 
Jesuit Rel. 1660, in, 12, 1858. Outabytibis. — Bac- 
quevillede la Potherie, n, 49, 1753. Outatibes.— 
Harris, Vov. and Trav., I, map, 1705. Tabitibis.— 
Du Lhut (1684) in Margry, Dec, vx, 51, 1886. Ta- 
bittibis.— Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Y. Doc. Hist., 
ix, 1053, 1855. Tabittikis.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 555, 1853. Tibitibis.— Hennepin, New 
Disc, map, 1698. 

Abmoctac. A former Costanoan village 
connected with Dolores mission, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 
18, 1861. 

Abnaki. ( Wdbunaki, from wdbun, a 
term associated with 'light,' 'white,' and 
refers to the morning and the east; a hi 
'earth,' 'land'; hence Wdbunaki is an 
inanimate singular term signifying ' east- 
land,' or 'morning-land,' the elements 
referring to animate dwellers of the east 
being wanting. — Jones). A name used 
by the English and French of the colonial 
period to designate an Algonquian con- 
federacy centering in the present state of 
Maine, and by the Algonquian tribes to 
include all those of their own stock resi- 
dent on the Atlantic seaboard, more par- 
ticularly the "Abnaki" in the Nand the 
Delawares in the s. More recently it has 
been applied also to the emigrant Oneida, 

BULL. 30J 


Stockbridges, and Munsee about Green 
bay, Wis. By the Puritans they were 
generally called Tarrateens, a term appar- 
ently obtained from the southern New 
England tribes; and though that is the 
general conclusion of modern authorities, 
there is some doubt as to the aboriginal 
origin of this term. In later times, after 
the main body of the Abnaki had re- 
moved to Canada, the name was applied 
more especially to the Penobscot tribe. 
The Iroquois called them Owenunga, 
which seems to be merely a modification 
of Abnaki, or Abnaqui, the name applied 
by the French and used by most modern 
writers. The form Openango has been 
used more especially to designate the 
eastern tribes. Maurault (Hist, des 
Aben.,2, 1866) says: "Some English au- 
thors have called these savages Waba- 
noaks, 'those of the east'; this is the 
reason they are called 'Abenakis' by some 
among us. This name was given them 
because they were toward the east with 
reference to the Narragansetts. " 

Ethnic relations. — In his tentative ar- 
rangement Brinton (Len. Leg., 11, 1885) 
brings into one group the Nascapee, Mic- 
mac, Malecite, Etchimin, and Abnaki, 
but this is more of a geographic than a 
linguistic grouping. Vetromile (Abnakis, 
20, 1866) , following other authors, says 
that we should ' ' embrace under this term 
all the tribes of the Algic [Algonquian] 
family, who occupy or have occupied the 
e. or N. e. shore of North America; thus, 
all the Indians of the seashores, from 
Virginia to Nova Scotia, were Abnaki." 
Maurault gives the following as the prin- 
cipal tribes of the Abnaki confederacy: 
Kanibesinnoaks (Norridgewock in part; 
see Kennebec and Norridgewock); Pat- 
suikets (Sokoki in part) ; Sokouakiaks 
(Sokoki) ;Nurhantsuaks( Norridgewock ) ; 
Pentagoets (Penobscot); Etemankiaks 
( Etchimin ) ; Ouarastegouiaks ( Malecite ) , 
the name Abnaki being applied in the 
restricted sense to the Indians of Kenne- 
bec r. All these tribes spoke substantially 
the same language, the chief dialectal 
differences being between the Etchimin 
and the other tribes of the group. The 
Etchimin, who formed a subgroup of the 
Abnaki confederacy, included the Passa- 
maquoddy and Malecite. Linguistically 
the Abnaki do not appear to be more 
closely related to the Micmac than to the 
Delaware group, and Dr William Jones 
finds the Abnaki closely related to the 
central Algonquian languages. In cus- 
toms and beliefs they are more nearly 
related to the Micmac, and their ethnic 
relations appear to be with the tribes n. 
of the St Lawrence. 

History. — The history of the Abnaki 
may be said to begin with Verrazano's 
visit in 1524. The mythical accounts of 

Norumbega (q. v.) of the early writers 
and navigators finally dwindled to a 
village of a few bark-covered huts under 
the name Agguncia, situated near the 
mouth of Penobscot r., in the country of 
the Abnaki. In 1604 Champlain ascended 
the Penobscot to the vicinity of the pres- 
ent Bangor, and met the ' ' lord ' ' of No- 
rumbega, doubtless an Abnaki chief. 
From that time the Abnaki formed an 
important factor in the history of the 
region now embraced in the state of Miane. 
From the time of their discovery until 
their partial withdrawal to Canada they 
occupied the general region from the St 
Johns to the Saco; but the earliest English 
accounts indicate that about 1605-20 the 
s. w. part of the coast of Maine was occu- 
pied by other Indians, whose chief seat 
was near Pemaquid, and who were at war 
with the Abnaki, or Tarrateen, as the 
English termed them, who were more to 
the n; but these other tribes were finally 
conquered by the Abnaki and probably 


absorbed by them. Who these Indians 
were is unknown. The Abnaki formed 
an early attachment for the French, 
chiefly through the influence of their 
missionaries, and carried on an almost 
constant war with the English until the 
fall of the French power in America. 
The accounts of these struggles during 
the settlement of Maine are familiar 
episodes in American history. As the 
whites encroached on them the Abnaki 
gradually withdrew to Canada and settled 
chiefly at Becancour and Sillery, the 
latter being afterward abandoned by 
them for St Francis, near Pierreville, 
Quebec. The Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, 
and Malecite, however, remained in their 
ancient homes, and in 1749 the Penobscot, 
as the leading tribe, made peace with the 
English, accepting fixed bounds. Since 
that period the different tribes have 
gradually dwindled into insignificance. 
The descendants of those who emigrated 


Jli. A. E. 

from Maine, together with remnants of 
other New England tribes, are now at 
St Francis and Becancour, in Quebec, 
where, under the name of Abnaki, they 
numbered 395 in 1903. At the same 
time the Malecite, or Amalicite, were 
numbered at 801 in several villages in 
New Brunswick and Quebec, with about 
625 Penobscot and Passamaquoddy in 
Maine. The present Penobscot say they 
number between 300 and 400, while the 
Passamaquoddy claim as many as 800 

Cu4orns and beliefs. — According to the 
writers on early Maine, the Abnaki were 
more gentle in manners and more docile 
than their western congeners. Yet they 
were implacable enemies and, as Maurault 
states, watched for opportunities of re- 
venge, as did other Indians. Notwith- 
standing Vetromile's statement to the 
contrary, if Maurault's assertion (Hist. 
Abenakis, 25, 1866) applies to this tribe, 
as seems evident, they, like most other 
tribes, were guilty of torturing their pris- 
oners, except in the case of females, who 
were kindly treated. Although relying 
for subsistence to a large extent on hunt- 
ing, and still more on fishing, maize was 
an important article of diet, especially in 
winter. Sagard states that in his day 
they cultivated the soil in the manner of 
the Huron. They used the rejected and 
superfluous fish to fertilize their fields, 
one or two fish being placed near the roots 
of the plant, Their houses or wigwams 
were conical in form and covered with 
birch-bark or with woven mats, and sev- 
eral families occupied a single dwelling. 
Their villages were, in some cases at least, 
inclosed with palisades. Each village had 
its council house of considerable size, 
oblong in form and roofed with bark; 
and similar structures were used by the 
males of the village who preferred to 
club together in social fellowship. Po- 
lygamy was practised but little, and 
the marriage ceremony was of the sim- 
plest character; presents were offered, 
and on their acceptance marriage was 
consummated. Each tribe had a war 
chief, and also a civil chief whose duty it 
was to preserve order', though this was 
accomplished through advice rather than 
by command. They had two councils, 
the grand and the general. The former, 
consisting of the chiefs and two men from 
each family, determined matters that 
were of great importance to the tribe, 
and pronounced sentence of death on 
those deserving that punishment. The 
general council, composed of all the tribe, 
including males and females, decided 
questions relating to war. The Abnaki 
believed in the immortality of the soul. 
Their chief deities were Kechi Niwaskw 
and Machi Niwaskw, representing, re- 

spectively, the good and the evil; the for- 
mer, they believed, resided on an island 
in the Atlantic; Machi Niwaskw was the 
more powerful. According to Maurault 
they believed that the first man and 
woman were created out of a stone, but 
that Kechi Niwaskw, not being satisfied 
with these, destroyed them and created 
two more out of wood, from whom the 
Indians are descended. They buried 
their dead in graves excavated in the soil. 

Tribal divisions. — The tribes included 
in the confederacy as noted by Maurault 
have already been given. In a letter 
sent by the Abnaki in 1721 to the gov- 
ernor of New England their divisions are 
given as follows: Narantsouuk (Norridge- 
wock), Pentugouet (Penobscot), Nara- 
kamigou (Rocameca), Anmissoukanti 
(Amaseconti), Muanbissek, Pegouakki 
(Peq-uawket, N. H.),Medoktek (Medoc- 
tec), Kwupahag, Pesmokanti (Passama- 
quoddy), Arsikantegou (Arosagunta- 
cook), Ouanwinak (Wewenoc, s. edge of 
N. H.). The following is a full list of 
Abnaki tribes: Accominta, Amaseconti, 
Arosaguntacook, Etchimin, Malecite, 
Missiassik, Norridgewock (the Abnaki 
in the most limited sense), Passama- 
quoddy, Penobscot, Pequawket, Roca- 
meca, Sokoki, and Wewenoc. The bands 
residing on St Croix and St Johns rs. 
spoke a different dialect from those to 
the southward, and were known collect- 
ively as Etchimin. They are now known 
as Passamaquoddy and Malecite. Al- 
though really a part of the Abnaki, they 
were frequently classed as a distinct body, 
while on the other hand the Pennacook 
tribes, although distinct from the Abnaki, 
were often classed with them on account 
of their connection during the Indian 
wars and after their removal to Canada. 
According to Morgan they had fourteen 
gentes: 1, Mals'-sum, Wolf; 2, Pis-sub 7 , 
Black Wildcat; 3, Ah-weh / -soos, Bear; 
4, Skooke, Snake: 5, Ah-lunk-soo, Spotted 
Animal; 6, Ta-ma'-kwa, Beaver; 7, Ma- 
guh-le-loo', Caribou; 8, Ka-bah'-seh, Stur- 
geon; 9, Moos-kwa-smV, Muskrat; 10, 
K'-che-ga-gong'-go, Pigeon Hawk; 11, 
Meh-ko-aA Squirrel; 12, Che-gwa'-lis, 
Spotted Frog; 13, Koos-koo 7 , Crane; 14, 
Mii-da'-weh-soos, Porcupine. According 
to Chauvignerie their principal totems 
were the pigeon and the bear, while they 
also had the partridge, beaver, and otter 

The Abnaki villages, so far as their 
names have been recorded, were Amase- 
conti, Ammoncongan, Aquadocta (?), 
Arosaguntacook, Asnela, Aucocisco, Bag- 
aduce, Becancour, Calais (Passama- 
quoddy) Gunasquamekook (Passama- 
quoddy), Imnarkuan (Passamaquoddy), 
Kennebec, Ketangheanycke, Lincoln 
Island, Masherosqueck, Mattawamkeag 

BULL. 30] 


(Penobscot), Mattinacook (Penobscot), 
Mecadacut, Medoctec (Malecite), Mee- 
combe, Missiassik (Missiassik ) , Moratig- 
gon (?), Moshoquen, Muanbissek (?), 
Muscongus, Negas, Negusset (?), Nor- 
ridgewock, Norumbega, Okpaak (Male- 
cite), Olamon (Penobscot), Old Town 
(Penobscot), Ossaghrage, Ouwerage, 
Pasharanack, Passadumkeag (Penob- 
scot), Passamaquoddy (village?), Pan- 
huntanuc, Pemaquid, Penobscot, Pequaw- 
ket, Pocopassum, Precaute, Rocameca, 
Sabino, Sagadahoc, Sainte Anne (Male- 
cite), St Francis, Satquin, Sebaik (Passa- 
maquoddy), Segocket, Segotago, Sillery, 
Sokoki (village?), Taconnet, Tobique 
(Malecite), Unyjaware, Viger (Malecite), 
Wabigganus, Waccogo, Wewenoc (vil- 
lage?). (J. M. C. T. ) 

Abanakees.— Ross, Fur Hunters, 1, 98, 1865. Aban- 
akis.— Doe. of 1755 in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., x, 
342, 1858. Abanaquis.— Report of 1821, Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., 2d s., x, 127, 1823. Abanaquois.— Vetro- 
mile in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 214, 1859 (old 
form). Abenaguis.— La Potherie, Hist. Am., i, 199, 
1753. Abenaka.— Ibid. Abena'kes.— Boyd, Ind. 
Local Names, 1, 1885. Abenakias.— Boudinot, 
Star in the West, 125, 1816. Abenakis.— Du Lhut 
(1679) in Margry, Decouvertes, vi, 22, 1886 (men- 
tioned as distinct from the Openagos). Aben- 
a'kiss.— Boyd, Ind. Local Names, 1, 1885. Aben- 
akkis. — Jefterys, French Dominions, pt. i, map, 
118,1761. Abenaques.— Buchanan, N. Am. Inds., 

I, 139, 1824. Abenaquioicts.— Champlain (1632), 
(Euvres, v, pt. 2, 214, 1870. Abenaquiois.— Cham- 
plain (1632), (Euvres, v, pt, 2, 233, 1870. Abena- 
quioue.— Sagard (1636), Canada, IV, 889, 1866. 
Abenaquis.— French document (1651) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 5, 1855 (the same form is used 
for the Delawares by Maximilian, Travels, 35, 
1843). Abenati.— Hennepin, Cont. of New Disc, 
95, 1698. Abenequas.— Hoyt, Antiquarian Re- 
searches, 90, 1824. Abenquois.— Hind, Labrador 
Pen., I, 5, 1863. Abernaquis.— Perkins and Peck, 
Annals of the West, 680, 1850. Abinaqui.— School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 174, 1857. Abinohkie.— Dalton * 
(1783) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 123, 1809. 
Abnakis.— Vetromile in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., 
vi, 208, 1859. Abnaquies.— Willis in Maine Hist, 
Soc. Coll., iv, 95, 1856. Abnaquiois. -Jesuit Rela- 
tion, 1639, 25, 1858. Abnaquis.— Historical Mag., 
2d s., I, 61, 1867. Abnaquois.— Vetromile in Maine 
Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 214, 1859. Abnaquotii. — Du 
Creux, map (1660) in Maine Hist, Soc. Coll., vi. 
210, 1859. Abnasque.— Vetromile, Abnakis, 26, 
1866 (possible French form). Abnekais.— Albanv 
conference (1754) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 
886, 1855. Abonakies. — Croghan (1765) in Monthly 
Am. Jour. Geol., 272, 1831. Abonnekee.— Allen 
in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., i, 515, 1831. Agua- 
noxgi.— Gatschet, Cherokee MS., B. A. E., 1881 
(Cherokee name for one Delaware; plural, Ana- 
guanoxgi). Akotsakannha.— Cuoq in Brinton 
Lenape Leg., 255, 1885 (Iroquois name: 'for- 
eigner'). Ak8anake.— Le Jeune (1641) in Jes. 
Rel., i, 72, 1858 (Huron pronunciation of Waba- 
naki or Abanaki, 'east land'). Albenaquioue.— 
Sagard (1636), Canada, IV, 889, 1866. Albenaquis.— 
Du Pratz in Drake, Book of Inds., bk. iv, 40, 1848. 
Alnanba'x.— Vassal in Can. Ind. Aff. 1884, 27, 1885 
(own name: 'Indians' or 'men'). Anagonges.— 
Bayard (1689) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 621, 1853. 
Anaguanoxgi.— Gatschet, Cherokee MS., B. A. E., 
1881 (Cherokee name for the Delawares: see 
Aguanoxgi above). Annogonges.— Bavard (1689) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 611, 1853. Anogon- 
gaars.— Livingston (1730) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist,, 
v, 912, 1855. A-pa-nax'-ke.— ten Kate, Svnonymie, 

II, 1884 (given as Choctaw name for the Pawnee, 
but really for the Delawares). Aquannaque.— 
Sagard (1626), Voyage du Hurons, pt. 2, Diet., 
"nations," 1865 (Huron pronunciation; qu=b of 
'Abnaki' or ' Wabanaki.'and applied by them to 

the 'Algoumequin' or Algonkin). Aubinaukee.— 
Jones, Ojebway Inds., 178, 1861. Bashabas.— 
Gorges (1658) in Maine Hist, Soc. Coll., n, 62. 1847 
(plural form of the name or title of the ruling 
chief about Pemaquid; used by Gorges as the 
name of his tribe) . Benaquis. — Gatschet, Caugh- 
nawaga MS., B. A. E., 1882 (name used bv 
French Canadians). Cannon-gageh-ronnons. - 
Lamberville (1684) in Doc. Hist. N. Y., I, 142, 
1849 (Mohawk name). Eastlanders.— School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 353, 1853 (given as mean- 
ing of ' Wabanakis'). Moassones.— Popham (1607) 
in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 357, 1857 (Latin 
form, from Moasson, Mawooshen, or Moasham, 
used by early English writers for the Abnaki 
country. Ballard, U. S. Coast Survey Rep. 252, 
1871, thinks it is the Penobscot word Maweshe- 
nook, 'berry place'). Moassons.— W'illis (?) in 
Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 359, 1857 (from Pop- 
ham's form, Moassones) . Narankamigdok epitsik 
arenanbak.— Vetromile, Abnakis, 23, 1866 ('men 
living on the high shores of the river': given 
as collective term used by Abnaki to designate 
all their villages; real meaning 'villages of the 
Narankamigdog'). Natio Euporum. — Du Creux, 
map (1660) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 211, 
1859 (misprint of the following). Natio Lu- 
porum.— Same in Vetromile, Abnakis, 21, 1866 
(' wolf nation'). Natsagana. — Gatschet, Caugh- 
nawagaMS., B. A. E., 1882 (Caughnawaga name; 
singular, RutsAgana). 6-ben-aki.— O. T. Mason, 
oral information, 1903 (name as pronounced by 
a native). Obenaquiouoit.— Champlain (1629), 
(Euvres, v, pt. 2, 196, 1870. Obinacks.— Clinton 
(1745) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 276, 1855. 
Obunegos.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 196, 1855 
( = Delawares). Olinacks.— Clinton (1745) in N. 
Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 281, 1855 (misprint). Ona- 
gongues.— Bellomont (1701) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., iv, 834, 1854. Onagonque.— Schuyler (1693), 
ibid., 64. Onagunga.— Colden (1727) quoted by 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 174, 1857. Ona- 
gungees.— Johnson (1750) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., vi,>592, 1855. Onconntehocks.— La Montagne 
(1664), ib^L, xin, 378, 1881 (same?). Ondiakes.— 
Albany treaty (1664), ibid., in, 68, 1853. One- 
jages.— Document of 1664, ibid., xin, 389, 1881 
(same?). Onnagonges.— Bayard (1689), ibid., in, 
621, 1853. Onnagongues.— Document of 1688, 
ibid., 565, 1853. Onnagongwe.— Bellomont (1700), 
ibid., iv, 758, 1854 (used as the Iroquois name 
of one of the Abnaki villages). Onnagonques.— 
Schuyler (1687), ibid., in, 482, 1853. Onnogonges.— 
Ft Orange conference (1664), ibid., xin, 379, 
1881. Onnogongwaes, — Schuvler (1701), ibid., iv, 
836, 1854. Onnongonges.— Bayard (1689), ibid., in, 
611, 1853. Onoconcquehagas.— Schelluyne (1663), 
ibid., xin, 309, 1881. Onoganges.— Dareth (1664), 
ibid., 381. Onogongoes.— Schuvler (1724) in Hist. 
Mag., 1st s., x, 116, 1866. Onogonguas.— Stoddert 
(1753) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 780, 1855. 
Onogungos.— Governor of Canada (1695), ibid., 
IV, 120, 1854. Onokonquehaga.— Ft Orange con- 
ference (1663), ibid., xin, 298, 1881. Onongongues. — 
Bayard (1689), ibid., in, 621, 1853. Openadyo.— 
Williamson in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., ix, 92, 
1846. Openagi.— Sanford, U. S., exxiv, 1819. 
Openagos.— Du Lhut (1679) in Margry, Dec, 
VI, 22, 1886. Openangos. — La Hontan, New Voy., 
i, 230, 1703 (sometimes used specifically for the 
Passamaquoddy) . 0-po-nagh-ke.— H. R. Rep. 299, 
44th Cong.. 1st sess., 1, 1876 (Delawares). Oppen- 
ago. — Cadillac (1703) in Margry, Dec., v, 304, 
1883 ('Oppenago ou Loups,' near Detroit, prob- 
ably the Delawares). O-puh-nar'-ke.— Morgan, 
Consanguinity and Affinity, 289, 1871 ('people 
of the east': the Delawares). Ouabenakiouek.— 
Champlain (1629), GEuvres, v, pt, 2, note, 196, 
1870. 8abenakis.— Lusignan (1749) in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., vi, 519, 1855. Ouabenaquis. — La Salle 
(1683) in Margry, Dec, n, 363, 1877. Ouabna- 
quia.— Ibid., n, 157, 1877 (used in collective 
sense). Oubenakis. — Chauvignerie (1736) in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 553, 1853. 8bena- 
kis.— Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., ix, 1052, 1855. Owenagungas. —Colden (1727), 
Five Nat,, 95, 1747 (so called by Iroquois). 
Owenagunges.— Boudinot, Star in the West, 99, 
1816. Owenagungies.— Macauley. N. Y., n, 174, 


[b. a. e. 

1829. Owenungas.— Sell ool craft, Ind. Tribes, ill, 
513, 1853 (Iroquois name for the Abnaki, Mic- 
mac, etc.). Panax ki.— Gatschet, Tonkawe and 
Caddo 'MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (Caddo name 
for Delawares), Pen'ikis.— Hewitt, oral infor- 
mation, 1886 (Tuscarora name for Abnaki 
living with the Tuscarora). Skacewanilom.— 
Vassal in Can. Ind. Aff., 28, 1885 (so called by 
Iroquois). Taranteens.— Shea, Mississippi Val., 
165,1852. Tarateens. — Barstow, Hist. New Hamp., 
13, 1853. Tarenteens.— Godfrey, in Maine Hist. Soc. 
Coll., vii, 99, 1876. Tarentines.— Mourt (1622) in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll.,2ds.,ix.57, 1822. Tarentins.— 
Bradford (1650?) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., in, 
104, 1856. Tarranteeris.— Hist. Mag., 1st s., x, 116, 
1866 (misprint). Tarrantens.— Levett (1628) in 
Maine Hist. Soc. Coll.,n, 93, 1847. Tarrantines.— 
Smith (1616) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., vi, 117, 
1837. Tarrateens.— Smith (1631) in Maine Hist.Soc. 
Coll., vn, 101, 1876. Tarratines.— Wonder-working 
Providence (1654) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, 
66, 1814. Tarratins.— Keane in Stanford, Compen., 
537, 1878. Tarrenteenes.— Wood (1639) in Barton, 
New Views, xix, 1798. Tarrenteens.— Richardson, 
Arctic Exp., II, 38, 1851. Tarrentens. —Levett 
(1628) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. , 3d s., vin, 175, 1843. 
Tarrentines.— Smith (1629) Virginia, II, 192, reprint 
1819. Terentines.— Smith (1631) in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., 3d s., Ill, 22, 1833. Terentynes. —Smith 
(1616), ibid., VI, 131, 1837. TJnagoungas.— Salis- 
bury (1678) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xin, 519, 1881. 
Vnnagoungos.— Brockhols (1678) in Maine Hist. 
Soc. Coll., v, 31, 1857 (old style). Wabanackies. - 
McKennev, Memoirs and Travels, i, 81, 1846. 
Wabanakees.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 304, 1853 
(used collectively). Wabanakis.— Ibid., in, 353, 
note, 1853. Wabamka. —Dorsey, MS. (pegiha Diet. , 
B. A. E., 1878 (Omaha and Ponka name for Dela- 
wares). Wabanike. —Dorsey , MS. Kansas vocab., 
B. A. E., 1882 (Kansa name for Delawares). 
Wabanoaks.— Maurault, Hist, des Aben., 2, 1866 
(English form). Wabanocky,— McKenney (1827) 
in McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 134, 1854 
• (used for emigrant Oneida, Munsee, and Stock- 
bridges at Green bay, Wis.) . Wabenakies.— Ken- 
dall, Travels, in, 61, 1809. Wabenaki senobe.— Gat- 
schet, Penobscot MS., B. A. E., 1887 (Penobscot* 
name). Wabenauki. — McKenney and Hall, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 97, 1854 (applied by other Indians to 
those of Hudson r.). Wab-na-'ki.— Hist. Mag., 1st 
s., iv, 180, 1860. Wampum-makers.— Gale, Upper 
Miss., 166, 1867 (said to be the French name for 
the Delawares in 1666:_evidently a corruption of 
Wapanachki). Wanbanaghi. — Vetromile, Abna- 
kis, 19, 1866 (proper form). Wanbanaghi.— Ibid., 
27 (proper form, the first an being strongly nasal). 
Wanbanaki.— Vetromile, Abnakis, 27-42, 1866 
(proper form; an in first syllable strongly nasal). 
Wanbanakkie.— Kidder in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., 
vi, 231, 1859 (given as a correct form). Wanb-na- 
ghi.— Vetromile in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 214, 
1859. Wapanachk.— Hecke welder .quoted by Vet- 
romile, Abnakis, 23,1866 (given by heckewelder 
forDelawares). Wapanachki. — Barton, New Views, 
xxvii, 1798 (name given to Delawares by western 
tribes). Wapanaki.— Vetromile, Abnakis, 27-42, 
1866 (Delaware form). Wapa'na'ki 8 .— Wm. Jones, 
inf'n, 1905 (sing. anim. form of the name in Sauk, 
Fox, and Kickapoo; Wdpqna'Mhqgi, pi. anim. 
form). Wapanakihak.— Gatschet, Sac and Fox 
MS., B. A. E., 1882 (Fox name for Delawares; sin- 
gular, Wapanaki). Wapana^ki ha-akon. — Gat- 
schet, Tonkawe and Caddo MS. vocab., B. A. E., 

1884 ( Tonka wa name for Delaware man). Wapa- 
nends.— Rafinesque, Am. Nations, r, 147, 1836. 
Wapaniq'kyu. — Dorsey, MS. Osage vocab., B. A. 
EL 1883 (Osage name for Delawares). Wapen- 
acki.— Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 51, 1872 
(applied to all the eastern tribes). Wappen- 
ackie.— Ibid., 355 (used either for Delawares or 
for Wappingers). Wappenos.— Ibid., 51 (applied 
to all eastern tribes). Wa-pu-nah-ki'.— Grayson, 
MS. Creek vocab., B. A. E., 1885 (Creek name ap- 
plied to the Delawares). Wau-ba-na-kees.— Wis. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 182, 1868 (Stockbridges and 
Oneidas at Green bay, Wis.), waub-un-uk-eeg.— 
Warren (1852) in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 32 

1885 (Chippewa name for Delawares). Waw-, 
bunukkeeg.— Tanner, Narrative, '315, 1830 (Ottawa 

name for Stockbridge Indians in Wisconsin). 
W'Banankee.— Kidder in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., 
vi, 244, 1859 (name used by themselves, as nearly 
as can be represented in English, accenting last 
syllable). Whippanaps.— Humphrey, Acct., 281, 
1730 (after Johnson). Wippanaps.— Johnson (1654) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, 66, 1814 (men- 
tioned as part of the "Abarginny men" and 
distinct from the "Tarratines'"'). Wo-a-pa- 
nach-ki.— Macauley,N. Y., n, 164, 1829 (used as 
synonymous with Lenni Lenape for tribes of 
eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, 
Delaware, and Connecticut). Wobanaki. — Kid- 
der in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 243, 1859 (title of 
spelling book of 1830). 

Abo (A-bo'). A former pueblo of the 
Tompiros division of the Piros, on the Ar- 
royo del Empedradillo, about 25 m. e. of 
the Rio Grande and 20 m. s. of Manzano, 
in Valencia co., N. Mex. Whether the 
pueblo was built on both sides of the 
arroyo, or whether there were two pue- 
blos successively occupied, has not been 
determined. It was first mentioned in 
1598 by Juan de Onate; it became the 
seat of the mission of San Gregorio, 
founded in 1629 by Fray Francisco de 
Acevedo, who erected a large church and 
monastery, the walls of which are still 
standing, and died there Aug. 1, 1644. 
Tenabo and Tabira were the visitas of 
Abo mission. Considering the ruins now 
on both banks of the arroyo as those of 
a single pueblo, the population during 
the early mission period was probably 
2,000. Owing to Apache depredations 
many of the inhabitants fled to El Paso 
as early as 1671, and prior to the Pueblo 
insurrection of 1680 the village was en- 
tirely abandoned for the same cause. The 
Piros of Senecu del Sur claim to be the 
last descendants of the Abo people. See 
Vetancurt ( 1697 ) , Cronica, 325, repr. 1871 ; 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 270, 
1892; Abert in Emory, Recon., 488, 
1848. (f. w. h.) 

Abbo.— Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 
Abio. — Abert in Emory, Reconnoissance, 490, 1848. 
Abo.— Onate, op. cit., 123. Ako.— Simpson in 
Smithson,Rep. 1869, map, 1872 (misprint). Ave — 
Wislizenus, Memoir, 24, 1848. San Gregorio Abbo. — 
Vetancurt, Cronica, 325, repr. 1871. S. Gregoio de 
Abo.— Senex, map, 1710 (misprint). S. Gregoria.— 
Giissefeld, Charte America, 1797 (wrongly located 
on Rio Grande). S. Gregorio de Abo.— De l'lsle, 
Carte Mexique et Floride, 1703. S' Gregory.— 
Kitchin, Map N. A., 1787. 

Abon. See Pone. 

Aboreachic. A small Tarahumare pueblo 
not far from Norogachic, in Chihuahua, 
Mexico. The name is apparently a cor- 
ruption of aoreachir ' where there is moun- 
tain cedar,' but should not be con- 
founded with that of the village of 
Aoreachie. — Lumholtz, inf'n, 1894. 

Abrading Implements. In shaping their 
numerous implements, utensils, and orna- 
ments of stone, wood, bone, shell, and 
metal, the native tribes were largely de- 
pendent on abrading implements, of 
which there are many varieties. Of first 
importance are grinding stones and whet- 
stones of more or less gritty rock, while 

BULL. 30] 


less effectual are potsherds and rasp-like 
surfaces, such as that of the skin of the 
dogfish. Of the same general class are all 
sawing, drilling, and scraping tools and 
devices, which are described under sepa- 
rate heads. The smoothing and polish- 
ing implements into which the grinding 
stones imperceptibly grade are also sepa- 
rately treated. The small- 
er grinding stones were 
held in the hand, and were 
usually unshaped frag- 
ments, the arrowshaft rub- 
ber and the. slender ne- 
phrite whetstone of the 
Eskimo being exceptions. 
The larger ones w T ere slabs, bowlders, or 
fragments, which rested on the ground or 
were held in the lap 
while in use. In many 
localities exposed sur- 
faces of rock in place 
were utilized, and these 
as well as the movable 
varieties are often covered with the 
grooves produced by the grinding work. 
These markings range from narrow, shal- 

Abrading Stone, New 

3 1-2 INCHES.) 

Arrowshaft Rubber, 
california. (length, 



low lines, produced by shaping pointed 
objects, to broad channels made in shap- 
ing large imple- 
ments and uten- 
sils. Reference 
to the various 
forms of abrad- 
ing implements 
is made in nu- 
merous works 


I LENGTH, 21 INCHES,! ,. - ,, 

treating of the 
technology of the native tribes. The 
more important of these are cited under 
Archeology, Bonework, Stonework, Shell- 
work, (w. h. h. ) 

Abraham, also called Little Abraham. 
A Mohawk chief of considerable orator- 
ical pow r er who succeeded the so-called 
King Hendrick after the battle of L. 
George in 1755, in which the latter was 
killed. He espoused the English cause 
in the American Revolution, but was of a 
pacific character. He was present at the 
last meeting of the Mohawk with the 
American commissioners at Albany in 
Sept., 1775, after which he drops from no- 
tice. He was succeeded by Brant, (c. t. ) 

Absayruc. A COstanoan village men- 
tioned as formerly connected with the 
mission of San Juan Bautista, Cal. — 

Engelhardt, Franciscans in Cal., 398, 

Absentee. A division of the Shawnee 
who about 1845 left the rest of the tribe, 
then in Kansas, and removed to Ind. T. 
In 1904 they numbered 459, under the 
Shawnee school superintendent in Okla- 
homa, (j. M.) 

Ginetewi Sawanogi.— Gatschet, Shawnee MS., 
B. A. E., 1879 (so called sometimes by the other 
Shawnee; Ginetewi is derived from the name 
of Canadian r., on which they live). Pepua- 
hapitski Sawanogi.— Ibid. (' Away -from- here 
Shawnee,' commonly so called .by the other 

Acacafui. Mentioned by Juan de Onate 
(Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871), in connec- 
tion with Puaray, apparently as a pueblo 
of the Tigua of New Mexico in 1598. 

Acacagua. An unidentified pueblo of 
New Mexico in 1598.— Onate (1598) in 
Doc. Ined., xvi, 103, 1871. 

Acachin. A Papago rancheria in s. 
Arizona; pop. 47 in 1865. — Ind. Aff. Rep., 
135, 1865. 

1 Acadialite. A reddish chabazite ( Dana, 
Text-book of Mineral., 458, 1898), so called 
from Acadia, an early and still a literary 
name of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick: 
a latinization, helped out by analogy w< ith 
the classical Arcadia, of a word formed 
by the early French explorers on the 
basis of a suffix of many place names, 
which in the Micmac dialect of Algon- 
quian signifies 'where a thing is plenti- 
ful.' The lite represents the Greek AzGoc, 
stone, (a. f. c. ) 

Acapachiqni. An unidentified town in 
s. Georgia, visited by De Soto in March, 
1540.— Biedma in French. Hist. Coll. La., 
11, 99, 1850. 

Capachiqui.— Gentleman of Elvas (1557) in French, 
op. cit., 137. 

Accohanoc. A tribe of the Powhatan 
confederacy that formerly lived on the 
river of the same name, in Accomac and 
Northampton cos., Va. They had 40 
warriors in 1608. Their principal village 
bore the name of the tribe. They be- 
came mixed* with negroes in later times, 
and the remnant was driven off at the 
time of the Nat Turner insurrection, 
about 1833. (j. m.) 

Accahanock.— Herrman, map (1670) in Maps to 
Accompany- the Rep't of the Com'rs on the 
B'nd'ry Line bet. Va. and Md., 1873. Acco- 
hanock.— Strachey Cm. 1612), Virginia, 41, 1849. 
Accotronacks.— Boudinot, Star in the West, 125, 
1816. Acohanock.— Smith (1629), Virginia, I, 120, 
repr. 1819. Aquohanock.— Ibid., II, 61. Occa- 
hanock.— Beverlv, Virginia, 199. 1722. Ochahan- 
nanke.— Strachey (ca. 1612), Virginia, 62, 1849. 

Accomac. (According to Trumbull the 
word means 'the other-side place,' or 
'on-the-other-side-of-water place.' In 
the Massachuset language ogkome or 
akaivine means 'beyond'; and ac, aki, 
or ahki in various Algonquian dialects 
means 'land.' According to Dr Win. 
Jones (inf'n, 1905) the term is probably 
akin to the Chippewa ugaming, 'the other 


[b. a. e. 

shore,' and to the Sauk, Fox, and Kicka- 
poo ugdmdheg *, ing in the one case and -gi 
in the other being variations Of the same 
suffix expressing 'place where' ) . A tribe 
of the Powhatan confederacy of Virginia 
that formerly lived in Accomac and 
Northampton cos., e. of Chesapeake bay, 
and according to Jefferson their principal 
village, which bore the tribal name, was 
about Cheriton, on Cherrystone inlet, 
Northampton co. In 1608 they had 80 
warriors. As they declined in numbers 
and importance they lost their tribal 
identity, and the name became applied to 
all the Indians e. of Chesapeake bay. Up 
to 1812 they held their lands in common 
and were known under the names of Ac- 
comacs, living chiefly in upper Accomac 
co.,andGingaskins (see Gangasco) , living 
near Eastville, Northampton co. They 
had become much mixed with negroes, 
and in the Nat Turner insurrection, about 
1833, were treated as such and driven off. 

(J. M.) 

Accawmacke.— Smith (1629), Va., I, 133, repr. 
1819. Accomack.— Ibid., 120. Accowmack.— Ibid., 
map. Acomack. — Ibid., II, 61. Acomak.— Drake, 
Book of Indians, v, 1848. 

Accominta (possibly related to the Chip- 
pewa akukumigak, a locative expression 
referring to the place where land and 
water meet, hence, specifically, 'shore,' 
'shore-line.' — Wm. Jones. The name 
was given by the Indians to York r. ). 
A small tribe or band of the Pennacook 
confederacy, commonly called Agamen- 
ticus or Accominticus, that occupied a 
village of the same name at or near the 
site of the present York, York co., Me., 
to which the name "Boston" was given 
on some early maps. Capt. John Smith 
(Virginia, n, 183, repr. 1819) says that 
the people of this place were allied to 
those immediately n. of them, and were 
subject to the bashabees of Penobscot, 
which would seem to place them in the 
Abnaki confederacy, though they are 
now generally and apparently correctly 
included in the Pennacook confederacy. 
Schoolcraft (Ind. Tribes, v, 222, 1856) 
includes this area in the Pennacook do- 
minion. Under what name the Acco- 
minta people were subsequently recog- 
nized is not known, (j. m. c. t. ) 
Accomentas.— Hoyt, Antiquarian Res., 90, 1824. 
Accomintas. — Gookin (1674) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 1st s, i, 149, 1806. Accominticus.— Smith 
(1616), ibid., 3d s., VI, 97, 1837. Accomintycus.— 
Smith (1629), Virginia, n, 195, repr. 1819. Ac- 
comynticus.— Ibid., 183. Agamenticus— Ballard in 
Coast Surv. Rep., 246, 1871. An-ghem-ak-ti-koos.— 
Ibid, (given as proper name). 

Acconoc. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, situated between 
Chickahominv and Pamunkey rs., New 
Kent co., Va'.— Smith (1629), Virginia, 
i, map, repr. 1819. 

Accoqueck ( probably cognate with Chip- 
pewa a kukwag, 'whirlpool,' or 'turn in 

the bend' of a river or road. — Wm. 
Jones). A Powhatan village, situate in 
1608 on Rappahannock r., above Seco- 
bec, Caroline co., Va.— Smith (1629), 
Virginia, i, map, repr. 1819. 

Accossuwinck (possibly cognate with 
the Chippewa a kosowing, ' point where 
the tail and body meet' ; or with akosink, 
'as far up as the place rises.' — Wm. Jones). 
A Powhatan village, existing in 1608 on 
Pamunkey r., King William co., Va.— 
Smith (1629), Virginia, i, map, repr. 1819. 

Acela. A small village in w. central 
Florida, visited by De Soto in 1539. 
Ocilla r. derives its name from the place. 
See Gentleman of Elvas (1557) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n, 129, 1850. 

Achasta. A former village of the Rum- 
sen division of the Costanoan family, on 
the spot now occupied by the town 
of Monterey, Cal. The Rumsen were 
sometimes called Achastliens from the 
name of this settlement. — Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 20, 1860. 
Achiesta. — Taylor, ibid. 

Acheha. A Timucua phratry which in- 
cluded the Hiyaraba, Cayahasomi, Efaca, 
Hobatinequasi, and Chehelu clans. — 
Pareja (1612-14) quoted byGatschetin 
Am. Philos. Soc. Proc, xvn, 492, 1878. 

Achepabecha ( ' prairie dog ' ) . A Crow 

Ache-pa-be'-cha.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 159, 1877. 
Rich Prairie Dog.— Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 
1850, 144, 1851. 

• Achigan (ii'shigun, sing. anim. noun. — 
Wm. Jones). A French-Canadian name 
of the small-mouthed black bass (Mir 
cropterus dolomieu), occasionally found in 
English writings. The word is old in 
French, Hennepin using it in 1688. Ashi- 
gan is the name of this fish in Chippewa 
and closely related Algonquian dialects. 
(a. f. c.) 

Achiligouan. A tribe or band living be- 
tween 1640 and 1670 on the N. shore of L. 
Huron, about the mouth of French r. 
and westward nearly to Sault Ste Marie. 
In 1670 they were attached to the mission 
at the Sault. In the Jesuit Relation of 
1640 their position is given on the n. shore 
of L. Huron, at the mouth of French r. 
The Amikwa are mentioned in the same 
connection as residing on this stream. 
In the Relation of 1658 they appear to be 
placed farther n. on the river, and it is 
stated that they traded with the Cree. 
In the Relation of 1670 they are said to 
have been attached to the mission of 
Sault Ste Marie, but only as going there 
to fish. It is probable that they were a 
Chippewa or a Ni pissing band. (j. m. 

C. T.) 

Achiligouans.— Heriot, Travels, 194, 1807. Achili- 
goiiiane.— Jesuit Rel.. 1670, 79, 1858. Achiri- 
gouans.— Ibid., 1646, 81. Archirigouan. — Ibid., 
1643. 61, 1858. Atchiligouan. — Ibid., 1640, 34. 1858. 

BULL. 30] 



Achilla. A Costanoan village of Santa 
Cruz mission, Santa Cruz co., Cal., in 
1819.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 5,1860. 

Achillimo. A Chumashan village for- 
merly existing near Santa Inez mission, 
Santa Barbara co., Cal. — Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct, 18, 1861. 

Achois. A native place in Encina val- 
ley, s. Cal., at which the mission of San 
Fernando was established, Sept. 8, 1797. 

Achoic Comihavit.— Coues, Garces Diary, 266, 1900. 
Achois. — Ibid. 

Achomawi (from adzdma, or ach&ma, 
'river.' — Dixon). A division of the 
Shastan family formerly occupying the 
Pit r. country of n. e. Cal., except Burney, 
Dixie, and Hat cr. valleys, which were 
inhabited by the Atsugewi. A principal 
village was near Fallriver Mills, Shasta 
co. The languages of the Achomawi and 
the Atsugewi, while unquestionably re- 
lated, are strikingly unlike. The term 
Achomawi Avas also employed by Powers 
to denote all the Indians of the Palaihni- 
han family of Powell, popularly known 
as Pit River Indians. See Shastan Family. 
Achomawes.— Powers in Overland Mo., XII, 412, 
1874. A-cho-ma'-wi.— Powers in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., in, 267, 1877. Adzumawi. — Curtin, Ilmawi 
vocab., B. A. E., 1889. Ko'm-maidiim. — Dixon, 
inf'n, 1904 ('snow people': Maidu name). 
Shawash. — Kroeber, inf'n, 1903 (Yuki name for 
the Achomawi taken to Round Valley res.). 

Achougoula (probably 'pipe people,' 
from Choctaw ashunga, 'pipe'). One of 
the 9 villages constituting the Natchez 
confederacy in 1699. — Iberville in Mar- 
gry, Dec, iv, 179, 1880. 

Achpoan. See Pone. 

Achsinnink (cognate with the Chip- 
pewa akusining, 'at the place of rough 
rock,' meaning a place where many 
bowlders lie scattered about, or a rocky 
place hard to travel through. — Wm. 
Jones). A village of the Unalachtigo 
Delawares existing about 1770 on Hock- 
ing r., Ohio. — Hecke welder in Trans. Am. 
Philos. Soc, iv, 390, 1834. 

Achusi. The port on the n. coast of 
|he Gulf of Mexico, within the Muskho- 
gean area, in which the fleet of De Soto 
wintered in 1539-40. It took its name 
from a neighboring town and is com- 
monly identified with Pensacola bay. 
Achusi.— Garcilasso de la Vega, Fla., 299, 1723. 
Achusse.— Shipp, De Soto and Fla., 682, note, 1881. 
Achussi. — Ibid., 334. Acusy.— Margrv, Dec., IV, 
310, 1880. Chuse.— Biedma (1540) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., ii, 102, 1850. Ochus.— Gentleman of 
Elvas (1557), ibid., 136. Ocus.— Ibid., 145. 

Achyarachki (Ach-ga-rach'-kl; ' where 
there is an old man,' in allusion to a 
stone pinnacle resembling a human 
form). A Tarahumare rancheria 16 m. 
s. of Rekorichic, Chihuahua, Mexico, 
about lat. 27° 5', long. 106° 45 / .— Lum- 
holtz, inf'n, 1894. 

Ackia. A Chickasaw village in n. Mis- 
sissippi, attacked by the French and 

Choctaw in 1736. — Gayarrc, Louisiana, 
i, 480, 1851. 

Aclutoy. A village supposed to be of the 
Patwin division of the Copehan family 
which formerly lived in Napa and Yolo 
cos., Cal. Its inhabitants concluded a 
treaty with Gov. Vallejo in 1836. — Ban- 
croft, Hist. Cal., iv, 71, 1886. 

Acnagis. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Acochis (evidently from the Wichita 
ha-kwi-chis, 'metal,' interpreted 'gold' 
by the Spaniards). Given by an Indian 
nicknamed "Turk," q. v., as the name 
for gold in the language of the people of 
Quivira or Harahey, identified as the 
Wichita and Pawnee, respectively. By 
misinterpretation the name has been 
given to Quivira itself. See Castaneda 
and Jaramillo in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 493, 
510, 1896; Davis, Span. Conq. N. Mex., 
226, 1869; Hodge in Brower, Harahev, 
70, 1899. (f. w. h.) 

Acolapissa. An indefinite group, of 
Choctaw lineage, formerly living on L. 
Ponchartrain, about the coast lagoons, 
and on the Mississippi, in Louisiana. 
Early French writers derived the name 
fr6m the Choctaw haklo pisa, 'those who 
listen and see.' Allen Wright, governor 
of the Choctaw nation, suggests okla pisa, 
' those who look out for people' ; that is, 
watchmen, guardians, spies, which prob- 
ably refers to their position, where they 
could observe entrance into or departure 
from the lake and river. The name 
appears to have been made by early 
authors to include several tribes, the 
Bayogoula, Mugulasha, and others. Ac- 
cording to Iberville the Acolapissa had 7 
towns; but one of their villages was occu- 
pied by the Tangiboa, who appear to have 
been a different tribe. The Acolapissa 
are said to have suffered severely from an 
epidemic about 1700, and Iberville says 
they united with the Mugulasha; if so, 
they must have been included in those 
massacred by the Bayogoula, but this is 
rendered doubtful by the statement of 
Penicaut (French, Hist. Coll. La., n. s., i, 
144, 1869) that in 1718 the Colapissa, who 
inhabited the n. shore of L. Ponchartrain, 
removed to the Mississippi and settled 13 
leagues above New r Orleans, (c. t. ) 
Aqueloa pissas.— Jefferys, French Dom. Am., 1, 162, 
1761. Aquelon Pissas. — Bossn (1751). Travels. 1, 34. 
1771. Aquelou pissas. — Dn Pratz, Hist. La., n, 
219, 1758. Calopissas.— Penicaut (1713) in Mar- 
gry, Dec, v, 507, 1883. Cenepisa.— La Salle, ibid., 
i, 564, 1875. Colapessas.— Gravier in Shea, Earlv 
Voy., 159, 1861. Colapissas.— Penicaut (1699) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., n. s., i, 38, 1869. Coli- 
pasa.— Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Collapissas.— 
Bossu (1751), Travels, I, 34, 1771. Coulapissas.- 
Sauvole (1700) in Margrv, Dec, iv, 462, 1880. 
Equinipichas.— Sauvole in French, Hist. Coll. La., 
in, 225, 1851. Goulapissas, — B. des Lozieres, Voy. 



[b. a. b. 

a la Le., 242, 1802. Kinipissa.— Tonti in Margry, 
D6c, i, 604, 1875. Kolapissas.— Gravier (1700) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 88, 1875. Nipissa.— 
Iberville in Margry. Dec., iv, 101, 1880. Pinis- 
cas.— Sauvole (1700) in French, Hist. Coll. La., 
in, 235, 1851 (probably the same). Quenipisa.— La 
Salle in Margry, D6c, I, 564, 1875. Quinipisas.— 
French, Hist. Coll. La.,n, 23, 1875. Quinipissa.— 
Tonti (1682), ibid., i, 63, 1846. Quiniquissa.— Hen- 
nepin (1680), ibid., 206. Quinnipissas. — La Me- 
lairie (1682), ibid., n, 50, 1875. 

Acoli. Mentioned by Ofiate ( Doc. Ined. , 
xvi, 114, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico 
in 1598. Probably situated in the Salinas, 
in the vicinity of Abo, and in all proba- 
bility a Tigua or Piros village. 

Acoma (from the native name Akome, 
'people of the white rock,' now com- 
monly pronounced A'-ko-ma. Their 
name for their town is A'ko). A tribe 
and pueblo of the Keresan family, the 
latter situate on a rock mesa, or penol, 
357 ft. in height, about 60 m. w. of the 
Eio Grande, in Valencia co., N. Mex. 
Acoma is mentioned as early as 1539 by 
Fray Marcos de Niza, under the name 
Acus, a corruption of Hakukia, the Zuni 
name of the pueblo; but it was first 
visited the following year by members 
of Coronado's army, who recorded the 
name as Acuco. The strength of the po- 
sition of the village, which has the dis- 
tinction of being the oldest inhabited 
settlement in the United States, is re- 
marked by the early Spanish chroniclers, 
who estimated its houses at 200 and its 
warriors at the same number. Antonio 
de Espejo also visited Acoma in 1583, 
designating it by the name under which 
it is now known, attributing to it the ex- 
aggerated population of 6,000, and men- 
tioning its dizzy trail cut in the rock and 
its cultivated fields -"two leagues away," 
probably those still tilled at Acomita 
(Tichuna) and Pueblito (Titsiap), their 
two summer, or farming, villages, 15 m. 
distant. Juan de Ofiate, the colonizer of 
New Mexico, visited Acoma in 1598, 
when, during his governorship, Fray 
Andres Corchado was assigned a mission 
field which included that pueblo, but no 
mission was actually established there at 
so early a date. The Acoma had been 
hostile to the surrounding village tribes 
during this period, and as early as 1540 
are mentioned as "feared by the whole 
country round about." Juan de Zaldi- 
var, of Onate's force, visited Acoma in 
Dec, 1598, with 30 men; they were sur- 
prised by the Indians, who killed 14 of 
the Spaniards outright, including Zal- 
divar and 2 other captains, and caused 
4 others to leap over the cliff, 3 of whom 
were miraculously saved. In Jan., 1599, 
an avenging party of 70 Spaniards were 
dispatched under Zaldivar's brother Vi- 
cente, who, after a battle which lasted 
3 days, succeeded in killing half the tribe 
of about 3,000 and in partly burning the 
town. The first missionary labor per- 

formed at Acoma was by Fray Geronimo 
deZarate-Salmeron, priorto 1629; butFray 
Juan Ramirez, who went to Acoma in the 
spring of 1629, and remained there many 
years, was its first permanent missionary 
and the builder of the first church, which 
was replaced in or after 1699 by the pres- 
ent great structure of adobe. The Aco- 
ma participated in the general Pueblo 
revolt against the Spaniards in 1680 (see 
Pueblos), killing their missionary, Fray 
Lucas Maldonado; but, largely on account 
of their isolation and the inaccessibility 
of their village site, they were not so se- 
verely dealt with by the Spaniards as 
were most of the more easterly pueblos. 


An attempt was made to reconquer the 
village by Gov. V T argas in Aug., 1696, but 
he succeeded only in destroying their 
crops and in capturing 5 warriors. The 
villagersheld out until July 6, 1699, when 
they submitted to Gov. Cubero, who 
changed the name of the pueblo from San 
Estevan de Acoma to San Pedro; but the 
former name was subsequently restored 
and is still retained. The population of 
Acoma dwindled from about 1,500 at the 
beginning of the revolt to 1,052 in 1760. 
In 1782 the mission was reduced to a 
visita of Laguna, and by the close of the 
century its population was onlv a few 
more than 800. The present (1902) 
number is 566. The Acoma are agricul- 

r.ur.L. 30] 



turists, cultivating by irrigation corn, 
wheat, melons, calabashes, etc., and rais- 
ing sheep, goats, horses, and donkeys. 
In prehistoric and early historic times 
they had flocks of domesticated turkeys. 
They are expert potters, but now do lit- 
tle or no weaving. The villages which 
they traditionally occupied after leaving 
Shipapu, their mythical place of origin 
in the n., were Kashkachuti, Washpa- 
shuka, Kuchtya, Tsiama, Tapitsiama, and 
Katzimo (q. v. ), or the Enchanted mesa. 
Heashkovva and Kowinawere also pueblos 
occupied by Acoma clans in prehistoric 
times. The following are the clans of the 
tribe, those marked by an asterisk be- 
ing extinct: Tsits (Water), Kochinish 
(Yellow corn), Kukanish (Red corn), 
*Kuishkosh (Blue corn), * Kuishtiti 
(Brown corn), Kusesh (White corn), 
Tyami (Eagle), Shawiti (Parrot), Osach 
(Sun), Shask (Road-runner), Hapanyi 
(Oak), Shquwi (Rattlesnake), Kuwhaia 
(Bear), Tsina (Turkey), Tanyi (Cala- 
bash), Kurts (Antelope), Huwaka (Sky), 
*Moshaich (Buffalo), *Haka_(Fire), Sii 
( Ant ) . The land grant of the tribe, made 
by Spain and confirmed by the United 
States, comprises 95,792 acres. See Win- 
ship, Coronado Exped. , 14th Rep. B. A. E. , 
1896; Espejo (1583) in Doc. Ined. de In- 
dias, xv, 100, 151, 1871; Villagran, Hist. 
Nueva Mexico, 1610, repr. 1900; Vetan- 
curt, Cronica, and Menologia, repr. 1871 ; 
Bandelier, (1) Hist. Introd., 1881, (2) 
Contributions, 1890, (3) Final Report, 
1890-92; Bancroft, Hist. Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 1889; Lummis, Land of Poco 
Tiempo, 1893; Hodge, (1) Katzimo the 
Enchanted, 1898, (2) Ascent of the En- 
chanted Mesa, 1898. (f. w. h. ) 
Aacus.— Barcia, Ensavo, 21, 1723. Abucios.— Duro, 
Don Diego de Pefialos'a, 23, 1882 (the Acus of Niza). 
Acmaat.— Evans (1888) in Compte Rendu Cong. 
Int. Am., vii, 229, 1890. A-co.— Bandelier in 
Arch. Inst. Papers, in, pt. 1, 132, 1890 (or Aco- 
ma). Acoeiya.— Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 
102, 1871 (from Zufli name Hakukia). Acoma.— 
Espejo (1583), ibid., xv, 116, 1871. Acoma.— Onate 
(1598), ibid., xvi, 127, 1871. Acoman.— Ilakluyt, 
Vov., 469, 1600 (or Acoma; Citing Espejo, 1583). 
Acomas.— Alcedo, Die. Geog., n, 523, 549, 1787 
("pueblo de Acomas"). Acome. — MS. of 1764 in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 304, 1853. Acomen- 
ses.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 145, 1889. 
Acomeses.— Villagran, Hist. Nueva Mexico, 158, 
1610. Acomo.— Mota-Padilla, Hist, de la Con- 
quista, 169, 1742. Acona.— Emory, Recon., 133, 
1848.. Aconia.— Ward in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1864, 191, 
1865. Acquia.— Benavides (1630) misquoted in 
Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th ser., xxvn, 307, 1851. 
Acu.— Ogilby, America, 392, 1671. Acuca.— Ramu- 
sio, Nav. et Viaggi, in, 1, 1565. Acucans.— Whip- 
ple in Pac. R. R. Rep. , in, pt. 3, 90, 1856. Acuco.— 
Castafieda (1540) in Winship, Coronado Exped., 
519, 1896. Acucu.— Coronado (1540), ibid., 560. 
Acus.— Nica (1539) in Hakluvt, Voy., in, 440. 
1600. Acux.— Mota-Padilla, Hist, de la Conq., 
Ill, 1742. Ago.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
i, 14, 1881 (proper Queres name). Ah-co.— Lum- 
mis, Land of Poco Tiempo, 63, 1893. Ah -ko.— Lum- 
mis, Man Who Married the Moon, 207, 1894. 
A'ikoka.— Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 30, 1891 
(Hopi name of pueblo). Aioma.— Linschoten, 
Descrip. de l'Amerique, 336, map, 1638. Aiomo.— 
Ogilbv, America, map, 1671. Ako.— Loew (1875) 

in Wheeler Surv. Rep., vu, 339. 345, 1879. 
Akokovi.— Voth, Traditions of the Hopi, 145, 1905 
(Hopi name of pueblo). Ako-ma.— Bandelier 
in Arch. Inst. Papers, v. 173, 1890 (tribal name). 
Akome.— Hodge, field notes, B. A. E., 1895 (own 
name: 'people of the white rock'). Alcuco.— 
Barcia, Ensavo, 21, 1723. Alomas.— Mota-Padilla, 
Hist, de la Conq., 515, 1742 (probably the same). 
A-qo.— Bandelier in Mag. West. Hist., 668, Sept., 
1886 (native name of pueblo). Aquia.— Jefferys, 
Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776 (doubtless the same, but 
he locates also San Estevan de Acoma). Atla- 
chaco.— Mota-Padilla (1742), op. cit., 159. Coco.— 
Alvarado (1540) in Winship, Coronado Exped., 
594, 1896. Hab-koo-kee-ah.— Domenech, Des. N. 
A.,'n, 53, 1860. Hacu.— Bandelier in Mag. West. 
Hist., 668, Sept., 1886 (Navaho name of pueblo). 
Hacuqua.— Bandelier, Gilded Man, 149, 1893 (given 
as Zuni name of pueblo; should be Hakukia). 
Ha-cu-quin.— Bandelier in Mag. West. Hist., 668, 
Sept., 1886 (Zuni name of pueblo). Hacus.— Nica 
(1539) cited by Coronado (1540) in Doc. Ined., xiv, 
322, 1870(sameasNica'sAcus). Hah-koo-kee-ah.— 
Eaton quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 220, 
1854 (Zuni name of pueblo). Hak-koo-kee-ah.— 
Simpson in Smithson. Rep. 1869, 333, 1871. Ha- 
ku.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, v, 173, 1890 
(given as Zuni name of pueblo). Ha-kuKue.— 
Ibid., in, pt. 1, 132, 1890 (improperly given as 
Zuni name of pueblo). Ha-kus.— Ibid., v, 173, 
1890 (Navaho name of pueblo; see Hacu, above). 
Penol.— Alcedo, Die. Geog., iv, 149, 1788 (so named 
from the mesa). Pexioles.— Perea, Verdadera 
Rel., 3, 1632. Quebec of the Southwest.— Lummis, 
Land of Poco Tiempo, 57, 1893. Queres Gibraltar.— 
Ibid., 57. San Esteban de Acoma.— Vetancurt, 
Teatro Mex.. in, 319, 1871 (mission name). San 
Esteban de Asoma.— Orozco y Berra in Anales 
Minis. Fom., VI, 255, 1882 (misprint s for c). 
San Pedro. — Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 
221, 1889 (mission name after July, 1699). 
S. Estevan de Acoma.— Jefferys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 
1776. S. Estevau de Acama.— Brion de la Tour, 
map l'Amer., 1779 (misprint). St Estevan.— 
Kitchin, map N. A. (178S) in Raynal, Indies, vi, 
1788. S* Estevan Acoma.— De l'lsle, Carte Mex. et 
Floride, 1703. St Estevan Queres.— Ibid., Atlas 
Nouveau, map 60.' 1733. Suco.— Galvano (1563) in 
Hakluyt Soc. Pub., xxx, 227, 1862 (misquoting Ac : 
uco, of Coronado; also applied to Cicuic = Pecos). 
Ti'lawehuide.— Gatschet,IsletaMS.vocab.,B.A.E., 
1885 (Isleta name of the people; pi. Ti'lawehun). 
Ti'lawei.— Ibid. (Isleta name; compare Tuthla- 
huay). Tu'hlawai.— Hodge, field-notes, B. A. E., 
1895 (Sandia name; probably refers to a tree or 
plant). Tu"hlawe\— Ibid. (Isleta name). Tiila- 
wei. — Gatschet, Isleta MS. vocab., B. A. E., 
1885 (another Isleta name). Tuthea-uay.— Ban- 
delier, Gilded Man, 211, 1893 (Tigua name of 
pueblo). Tuthla-huay.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. 
Papers, iv, 235, 1892 (Tigua name). Tuth-lanay.— 
Bandelier, Gilded Man, 149, 1893 (misprint n for 
u). Vacus.— Nica, Relation, in Ramusio, Nav. 
et Viaggi, in, 357, 1565. Vsacus.— Ibid. Yacco.— 
Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871 (Span- 
ish y Acco => 'and Acco'). Yaco. — Columbus 
Memorial Vol., 155, 1893 (misprint of Onate's 

Acomita. An Acoma summer village 
about 15 m. n. of the pueblo of Acoma, 
near McCartys station on the Santa Fe 
Pacific railroad, Valencia co., N. Mex. 
Aconista.— Pullen in Harper's Weekly, 594, Aug. 
2, 1890. Tichuna.— Hodge, field notes, B. A. E., 
1895 (native name). 

Aconchi. An Opata pueblo on the e. 
bank of Rio Sonora, about lat. 29° 45', 
n. w. Mexico. It was the seat of the Span- 
ish mission of San Pedro, founded in 
1639. Pop. 580 in 1678, 285 in 1730. 
(Orozco y Berra, Geog., 344, 1864.) 

San Pedro Aconchi. —Zapata (1678) quoted by 
Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 246, 1884. 

Acoomemeck. A town, perhaps Nip- 
muc, in e. Massachusetts in the 17th cen- 



[b. a. b. 

tury.— Winthrop (1638) in Drake, Book 
oflnds., bk. n, 27, 1848. 

Acoti. A locality, apparently Indian, 
on a w. branch of the Rio Grande, w. of 
Taos, in n. N. Mex., and indicated as the 
' ' birth place of Montezuma' ' on an Indian 
map reproduced in Whipple, Pac. R. R. 
Rep., in, pt. 3, 10, 1856. See Shipapn- 

Acota.— Meline, Two Thousand Miles, 202, 1867. 
Acbti. — Whipple, op. eit. 

Acous. The principal village of the 
Chaicclesaht, situate on Battle bay, 
Ououkinish inlet, w. coast of Vancouver 
id.— Can. Ind. Aff , 264, 1902. 

Acpactaniche. A town, probably Musk- 
hogean, located on De 1' Isle's map of 
1703 on the headwaters of Coosa r., Ala. 

Acquack (possibly related to the Chip- 
pewa akwa kwayag, a locative term ex- 
pressing the line between cover and open; 
its particular sense is ' at the edge of the 
woods,' the point of view being from the 
open; the idea of woods is expressed by 
the secondary stem -ak-. — Wm. Jones). 
A village of the Powhatan confederacy 
of Virginia in 1608, on the n. bant of 
Rappahannock r., Richmond co. — Smith 
(1629), Virginia, i, map, repr. 1819. 
Atquacke.-— Ibid., n, 91. 

Acquaskac. A village situated in 1608 
on the w. bank of Patuxent r., St Marys 
co., Md. The word may be related to 
Aquascogoc and Weckquaesgoek. 

Acquaseack.— Bozman, Hist. Md., i, 141, 1837. 
Acquaskack,— Smith (1620), Virginia, I. map, repr. 

Acquera. An Utina tribe or £>and in n. 
Florida. — Laudonniere (1564) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n. s., i, 243, 1869. 
Acuera.— Garcilasso de la Vega, Florida, 47, 1723. 
Aequeya. — Barcia, Ensayo, 48, 1723 (given as the 
cacique's name) . 

Acquintanacsuak. A tribe or subtribe 
which Capt. John Smith (Virginia, i, 
118, 1629; Arber ed., 53, 1884) locates 
on the w. bank of Patuxent r., St Mary's 
co., Md. They were near to and in 
friendship with the Patuxent and Mat- 
tapanient, the 3 tribes numbering 200 
warriors. The principal village bore the 
tribal name and is supposed by Bozman 
to have been situated at the mouth of 
a small creek about 2| m. above Cole's 
inspection house. Smith describes them 
as "the most civill to give entertaine- 
ment," Although this people had their 
werowance, or chief, it is doubtful whether 
they formed a distinct tribe; it is not 
impossible that they were a band or divi- 
sion of the Patuxent. A number of local 
names mentioned by early writers as 
those of Indian tribes of Maryland sub- 
sequently dropped from notice without 
indication of the extinction of the peo- 
ple, very likely because subsequent and 
more correct information showed that 
these referred merely to divisions of well- 
known tribes, (j. m. c. t. ) 

Ac-quin-a-nack-su-acks.— Macauley, N. Y., II, 168, 
1829. Acquintanacksuah. — Bozman, Hist. Md., I, 
140, 1837. Acquintanacksuak.— Smith (1629), Va., 
i, 118, repr. 1819. Acquintanacsuck.— Ibid., map. 
Acquintunachsuah.— Bozman, Hist. Md\, II, 467, 
1837. Acquitanases.— De Laet, Hist, du Nouv. 
Monde, 85, 1640. 

Actinolite. A variety of amphibolite 
much used for implements by the ancient 
Pueblos of Arizona and NewMexico. It 
occurs in small bodies in connection with 
various crystalline formations, especially 
serpentine, and is much diversified in 
color, the mottlings of various hues of 
red, yellow, green, and gray giving very 
pleasing effects. Analysis shows silica, 
60; magnesia, 21; lime, 14; specific grav- 
ity, 3 to 3.1. Illustrations are given by 
Nordenskiold, Cliff Dwellers, 1893; Put- 
nam in Surv. W. 100th Merid., vn, 1879; 
Wilson in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1896, 1898. 

(W. H. H.) 

Acubadaos. A tribe known to Cabeza 
de Vaca (Smith transl., 84, 1851) during 
his sojourn in Texas, 1527-34, as living 
"■ in the rear" of or more inland than the 
Atayos (Adai). The region indicated 
would seem to be Caddoan country. 

Acuragna. A former Gabrieleno vil- 
lage in Los Angeles co., Cal., at a place 
later called La Presa. — Ried ( 1852) quoted 
by Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 8, 1860. A village of Praying In- 
dians in 1698, probably about Acushnet, 
Bristol co., Mass. "Acchusnutt" is said 
to have been the Indian name of New 
Bedford.— Rawson and Danforth (1698) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., lsts., x, 129- 
134, 1809. 

Acynm. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal.— Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct, 18, 1861. 

Adac. A Cochimi rancheria belonging 
to Santa Gertrudis mission, e. side of 
Lower California, about lat. 27° 58'. — 
Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Jan. 17, 1862. 

Adai. A tribe of the Caddo confed- 
eracy, speaking a dialect closely related 
to that of the Kadohadacho, Hainai, and 
Anadarko. The tribe was first encoun- 
tered in 1529 by Cabeza de Vaca, who 
speaks of them, under the name Atayos, 
as living inland from the Gulf of Mexico. 
When Iberville ascended Red r. of Louis- 
iana in 1 699 he heard of the people and 
called them Natao, stating that their vil- 
lage was on the river near that of the 
Yatasi. According to La Harpe (1719) 
the tribe was very useful to the French 
traders and explorers, particularly when 
making portages. At that time the vil- 
lages of the Adai extended from Red r. 
southward beyond the Sabine, in Texas, 
known in the 18th century as Rio de los 
Adiais. The trail which from ancient 
times had connected the Adai villages 
became the noted "contraband trail" 

BULL. 30] 



over which traders and travelers jour- 
neyed between the French and Spanish 
provinces, and one of the villages was a 
station on the road between the French 
fort at Natchitoches and the Spanish fort 
at San Antonio. As the villages of the 
tribe were scattered over a territory one 
portion of which was under the control 
of the French and the other under that of 
the Spaniards, the Indians were subjected 
to all the adverse influences of the white 
race and suffered from their wars and 
from the new diseases and intoxicants 
which they introduced, so that by 1778 
they were reported by Mezieres (Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, i, 661, 1886) as al- 
most exterminated. About 1792, 14 fami- 
lies of the tribe, together with a number 
of Mexicans, emigrated to a region s. of 
San Antonio de Bejar, but they soon 
melted away and were lost among other 
Indians. Those who remained numbered 
about 100. In 1805 Sibley reported a 
small settlement of these Indians on Lac 
Macdon, near an affluent of Red r. ; it 
contained only 20 men, but a larger num- 
ber of women. This Adai remnant 
had never left their ancient locality, but 
they had not escaped the vicissitudes of 
their kindred. In 1 715 Domingo Ramon, 
with a company of Franciscans, traversed 
the Adai territory and started settle- 
ments. In 1716 the mission of San Miguel 
de Linares was founded among them, and 
there were Adai also in the mission of San 
Francisco de los Tejas, established in 1690. 
About 1735 a military post called Nuestra 
Senora del Pilar was added, and 5 
years later this garrison became the Pre- 
sidio de los Adayes. Later, when the 
country was districted for the jurisdic- 
tion of Indians, the Adai tribe was placed 
under the division having its official head- 
quarters at Nacogdoches. In all essentials 
of living and ceremony they resembled 
the other Caddo, by whom the remnant 
was finally absorbed. (a. c. p.) 

Adaes.— Rivera, Diario, leg. 2,602, 1736. Adses.— 
Bollaert in J. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., n, 265, 1850. 
Adage.— Tanner, Nar., 327, 1830. Adahi.— Latham, 
Elem. Comp. Philol., 467, 1862. Ada'-i.— Mooney, 
Caddo MS., B. A. E., 1891. Adaices.— Ann. de la 
Prop, de la Foi, in, 508, 1828. Adaics.— Boudinot, 
Star in the West, 125, 1816. Adaies.— Penicaut 
(1701) in French, Hist. Coll. La., n. s. i, 73, 1869. 
Adaihe.— Latham, Elem. Comp. Philol., 469, 1862. 
Adais.— Mota-Padilla (1742), Hist, de la Conq., 
177, 1870. Adaisses.— Bollaert in J. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., II, 280, 1850. Adaize.— Sibley, Hist. 
Sketches, 67, 1806. Adayes.— La Harpe (1719) in 
Margry, Dec., vi, 303, 1886. Adays.— La Harpe in 
French. Hist. Coll. La,, in, 47. 1851. Addaise.— 
Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist, Coll., 2d s., n, 
24, 1814. Addaize.— Brackenridge, Views of La., 
81, 1814. Addees.— U. S. Ind. Treaties, 465,- 1826. 
Addies.— Clark and Cass (1829) quoted by School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 596, 1853. Adees.— Keane 
in Stanford, Compend., 499, 1878. Adeyches.— 
Martin, Hist. La., i, 202, 1827. Adiais. — Jefferys, 
Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. Adoses.— Villa-Senor, 
Theatro Am., n, 329, 1748. Adyes.— Pike, Exped., 
277, 1810. Andayes.— Baudry des Lozieres, Voy. 
Louisiane, 241, 1802. Atayos.— Cabeca de Vaca 
(1529), Smith transl., 121, 1871. Atoyos.— Davis, 

Span. Conq., N. Mex., 82, 1869. Azadyze.— Wood- 
ward, Reminis., 78, 1859. Hadai.— Gatschet, Creek 
Migr. Leg., I, 43, 1884. Hadaies.— Doc. of 18th 
century quoted bv Smith, Cabeca de Vaca, 127, 
note, 1871. Natao.— Iberville (1699) in Margry, 
Dec, IV, 178, 1880. 

Adario. A Tionontate ch ief , known also 
as Kondiaronk, Sastaretsi, and The Eat, 
He had a high reputation for bravery and 
sagacity, and was courted by the French, 
who made a treaty with him in 1688 by 
which he agreed' to lead an expedition 
against the Iroquois, his hereditary ene- 
mies. Starting out for the war with a 
picked band, he was surprised to hear, on 
reaching Cataracouy, that the French 
were negotiating peace with the Iroquois, 
who were about to send envoys to Mont- 
real with hostages from each tribe. Con- 
cealing his surprise and chagrin, he 
secretly determined to intercept the em- 
bassy. Departing as though to return 
to his own country in compliance with 
the admonition of the French comman- 
dant, he placed his men in ambush and 
made prisoners of the members of the 
Iroquois mission, telling the chief of the 
embassy that the French had commis- 
sioned him to surprise and destroy the 
party. Keeping only one prisoner to 
answer for the death of a Huron who 
was killed in the tight, he set the others 
free, saying that he hoped they would 
repay the French for their treachery. 
Taking his captive to Michilimackinac, 
he delivered him over to the French com- 
mander, who put him to death, having 
no knowledge of the arrangement of 
peace. He then released a captive Iro- 
quois whom he had long held at his village 
that he might return to inform his people 
of the act of the French commander. 
An expedition of 1,200 Iroquois fell upon 
Montreal Aug. 25, 1689, when the French 
felt secure in the anti ipation of peace, 
slew hundreds of the settlers and burned 
and sacked the place. Other posts were 
abandoned by the French, and only the 
excellent fortifications of others saved 
them from being driven out of the country. 
Adario led a delegation of Huron chiefs 
who went to Montreal to conclude a 
peace, and w T hile there he died, Aug. 1, 
1701, and was buried by the French with 
military honors. (f. h. ) 

Adirondack (Mohawk: Haiir oil' titles, 
'they eat trees', a name given in allusion 
to the eating of the bark of trees in time 
of famine. — Hewitt). The Algonquiah 
tribes n. of the St Lawrence with which 
the Iroquois were acquainted, particu- 
larly those along Ottawa and St Maurice 
rs., who were afterward settled at Three 
Rivers and Oka, Quebec. Jefferys in 
1761 seems to apply the term to the Chip- 
pewa. (.1. M.) 

Adirondacs.— Barton, New Views, xxxviii, 1798. 
Adirondack*.— Garangula (1684) quoted by Wil- 
liams, Vermont, I, 504, 1809. Adirondaks.— Ho- 
mann heirs map, 1756. Adirondax. — Livingston 



[B. a. k. 

(1701) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 899, 1854. Adi- 
rontak. — Vetromile, Abnakis,51, 1866. Adisonkas. 
—Martin, North Carolina, I, 76, 1829. Adnon- 
decks.— McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 79, 
1851. Arundacs.— Johnson (1763) in N. Y. Doe. 
Col. Hist., vn, 582, 1856. Arundax.— Ft Johnson 
conference (1756), ibid., 233. Honanduk.— Coxe, 
Carolana, map, 1741 (on e. shore of L. Hu- 
ron; same?). Iroondocks.— Carver, Travels, 120, 
1778. Latilentasks.— King, Jour, to Arctic Ocean, 
I, 11, 1836 (at Oka). Orendakes.— Martin, North 
Carolina, n, 65, 1829. Orondacks.— Johnson (1751) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., VI, 729, 1855. Orondocks.— 
Stoddart (1750), ibid., 582 (at Oka). Orondoes.— 
Imlay, Western Ter., 292,1797. Oroondoks.— Stod- 
dart (1753)' in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 780, 1855. 
Oroonducks. — Lindesay (1749), ibid., 538. Orun- 
dacks.— Dinwiddie (1754), ibid.. 827. Raron- 
daks.— Vater, Mithridates, pt. 3, sec. 3, 309, 1816. 
Ratiruntaks.— Gatschet.Caughnawaga MS., B. A. 
E., 1882 (Mohawk name; sing. Raruntaks). 
Rondax.— Glen (1699) in N. Y.Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 
559, 1854. Rondaxe.— Von der Donck (1656) in 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., i, 209, 1841. 

Adjuitsuppa. An Eskimo settlement 
and Danish trading station in s. w. Green- 
land, lat. 60° 27 / .— Meddelelser om 
Gronland, xvi, map, 1896. 
Siidprbven.— Koldewey, German Arct. Exped., 
182,1874. Sydproven.— Meddelelser om Gronland, 
xvi, map, 1896. 

Adlet. A fabulous people that the 
Eskimo believe to be descended from a 
dog. A woman married a red dog and 
bore five dogs, which she cast adrift 
in a boat, and also five children of mon- 
strous shape. The dogs reached the other 
side of the ocean and begot the white 
people. The monsters engendered the 
Adlet, terrible beings, identified by the 
Labrador Eskimo with the Indians, of 
whom they formerly lived in dread, also 
by the Eskimo of the western shores of 
Hudson bay, who, however, called this 
misbegotten and bloodthirsty race Er- 
qigdlit. The Eskimo of Greenland and 
Baffin land, having no Indian neighbors, 
pictured the tribe of monsters with hu- 
man heads, arms, and trunks joined to the 
hind legs of dogs. See Boas ( 1 ) in Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Can., v., sec. 2,35,1888; (2) in 
6th Rep. B. A. E., 640, 1888. 

Adla.— Boas in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., op. cit. 
(sing, form of Adlat). Adl&hsuin.— Stein in Peter- 
manns Mitt., no. 9, map, 1902. Adlat.— Boas, op. 
cit. Adlet.— Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 640, 1888. 
Erqiglit.— Ibid. 

Adobe (a word traceable to an Egyptian 
hieroglyph signifying 'brick,' thence to 
Arabic at-tob, al-tob, whence the Spanish 
adobar, * to daub, ' ' to plaster' ; adopted 
in the United States from Mexico) . 
Large sun-dried bricks, much used by the 
Pueblo Indians of New Mexico in build- 
ing houses and garden walls. The pro- 
cess of molding adobes in a wooden frame 
was not employed by the aborigines of 
the United States before the advent of 
the Spaniards in the 16th century. In 
1540 the Pueblo method of preparing 
the material and of erecting masonry, 
when stone was not available, is thus de- 
scribed by Castaneda (14th Rep. B. A. E., 
520, 1896): " They gather a great pile of 
twigs of thyme [sagebrush] and sedge 

grass and set it afire, and when it is half 
coals and ashes they throw a quantity of 
dirt and water on it and mix it all 
together. They make round balls of 
this, which they use instead of stones 
after they are dry, fixing them with the 
same mixture, which comes to be like a 
stiff clay." After the introduction of 
wheat by the Spaniards the straw crushed 
by the hoofs of horses in stamping out 
the grain on a threshing floor was sub- 
stituted by the Indians for the charred 
brush. The character of much of the 
soil of the arid region is such that no for- 
eign admixture, excepting the straw, is 
required. A requisite of adobe-making 
is a good supply of water; conse- 
sequently the industry is conducted gen- 
erally on the banks of streams, near 
which pueblos are usually built. When 
molded, the. adobes are set on edge to 
dry, slanted slightly to shed rain. Adobes 
vary in size, but are generally about 18 
in. long, 8 to 10 in. wide, and 4 to 6 in. 
thick. In setting them in walls mortar 
of the same material is used, as is the 
case with stone masonry. In the S. W., 
where the average precipitation is not 
great, structures built of adobes last 
indefinitely with reasonable repair, the 
greatest amount of disintegration being 
at the base of the walls during seasons of 
rain, although prolonged sand storms 
also erode the surfaces. For the sake of 
appearance, as well as to aid in protect- 
ing it against weathering, adobe masonry 
is usually plastered (the Indian women 
using their hands as trowels), when it 
presents a pleasing appearance, varying 
in color from gray to a rich reddish 
brown, according to the color of the 
earth of which the plaster is made. 
The interior walls and sometimes also the 
borders of the windows and doors are 
sometimes whitewashed with gypsum. 
Away from streams, as at Acoma, stone 
is usually employed for house masonry; 
but a noteworthy exception is the im- 
mense adobe church at this pueblo, built 
by the Indians about 1699, under the 
direction of the Spanish fathers, of mate- 
rial carried from the plain below, the 
summit of the Acoma mesa being bare 
rock. Another kind of earth-masonry in 
the arid region is that known as pise. 
This was made by erecting a double frame- 
work of poles, wattled with reeds or 
grass, forming two parallel surfaces as 
far apart as the desired thickness of the 
wall, and into the enclosed space adobe 
grout was rammed. In the celebrated 
ruin of Casa Grande (q. v.) the frame- 
work was evidently built about 5 ft. long 
and 3 or 4 ft. wide, and when the grout 
became dry the frame was moved side- 
ways or upward to receive the next 
course (see Mindeleff in 13th Rep. B, 

BULL. 30 | 



A. E. 309, 1896; Cushing, ibid., 360). 
Houses constructed of adobes are very 
comfortable, being warm in winter and 
cool in summer. "For this reason, and 
owing to the availability and cheapness 
of the material, adobe forms an impor- 
tant factor in the domestic economy of 
both white and Indian inhabitants of the 
S. W. (f. w. h.) 

Adoeette {ado 'tree,' e-et 'great,' te per- 
sonal suffix: 'Big Tree'). A Kiowa 
chief, born about 1845. In consequence 
of Custer's vigorous campaign on the 
Washita in the fall of 1868 the Kiowa 
and confederated tribes had been com- 
pelled to come in upon their reservation, 
in what is now s. w. Oklahoma, but still 
kept up frequent raids into Texas not- 
withstanding the establishment of Ft 


Sill in their midst. In May, 1871, a 
large party of warriors led by Satanta 
( properly Set-t'ain-te, White Bear), q.v., 
and accompanied by Satank (properly 
Set-iingya, Sitting Bear), q. v., and Big 
Tree, attacked a wagon train, killing 7 
men and taking 41 mules. For their 
part in this deed, which they openly 
avowed, the three chiefs named were 
arrested at Ft Sill to stand trial in Texas. 
Setiingya made resistance and was killed 
by the guard. The other two were 
confined in the Texas penitentiary 
until Oct., 1873, when they were released 
on promise of good behavior of their tribe. 
Satanta was subsequently rearrested 
and committed suicide in prison. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the outbreak of 
1874-75 Big Tree, with other ehiefs be- 
lieved to be secretly hostile, were con- 
fined as prisoners at Ft Sill. Since that 

time the tribe has remained at peace. 
Big Tree is still living upon his allotment 
on the former reservation and is now a 
professed Christian. See Mooney, Cal- 
endar Hist. Kiowa Inds., 17th B,ep. B. 
A. E., 1898. 

Adoption. An almost universal politi- 
cal and social institution which originally 
dealt only with persons but later with 
families, clans or gentes, bands, and 
tribes. It had its beginnings far back in 
the history of primitive society and, after 
passing through many forms and losing; 
much ceremonial garb, appears to-day in 
the civilized institution of naturalization. 
In the primitive mind the fundamental 
motive underlying adoption was to defeat 
the evil purpose of death to remove a 
member of the kinship group by actually 
replacing in person the lost or dead mem- 
ber. In primitive philosophy, birth and 
death are the results of magic power; 
birth increases and death decreases the 
orenda (q. v.) of the clan or family of the 
group affected. In order to preserve that 
magic power intact, society, by the exer- 
cise of constructive orenda, resuscitates the 
dead in the person of another in whom is 
embodied the blood and person of the 
dead. As the diminution of the number of 
the kindred was regarded as having been 
caused by magic power— by the orenda of 
some hostile agency — so the prevention 
or reparation of that loss must be accom- 
plished by a like power, manifested in 
ritualistic liturgy and ceremonial. From 
the view pointof the primitive mind adop- 
tion serves to change, by a fiction of law, 
the personality as well as the political 
status of the adopted person. For ex- 
ample, there were captured two white 
persons (sisters) by the Seneca, and in- 
stead of both being adopted into one clan, 
one was adopted by the Deer and the 
other by the Heron clan, and thus the 
blood of the two sisters was changed by 
the rite of adoption in such wise that 
their children could intermarry. Fur- 
thermore, to satisfy the underlying con- 
cept of the rite, the adopted person must 
be brought into one of the strains of 
kinship in order to define the standing 
of such person in the community, and 
the kinship name which the person re- 
ceives declares his relation to all other 
persons in the family group; that is to 
say, should the adopted person be named 
son rather than uncle by the adopter, his 
status in the community would differ ac- 
cordingly. From the political adoption 
of the Tuscarora by the Five Nations, 
about 1726, it is evident that tribes, fam- 
ilies, clans, and groups of people could 
be adopted like persons. A fictitious age 
might be conferred upon the person 
adopted, since age largely governed the 
rights, duties, and position of persons in 



[B. A. E. 

the community. In this wise, by the ac- 
tion of the constituted authorities, the age 
of an adopted group was fixed and its 
social and political importance thereby 
determined. Owing to the peculiar cir- 
cumstances of the expulsion of the Tus- 
carora from North Carolina it was deemed 
best by the Five Nations, in view of their 
relation to the Colonies at that time, to 
give an asylum to the Tuscarora simply 
by means of the institution of adoption 
rather than by the political recognition 
of the Tuscarora as a member of the 
League. Therefore the Oneida made a 
motion in the federal council of the Five 
Nations that they adopt the Tuscarora as 
a nursling still swathed to the cradle- 
board. This having prevailed, the Five 
Nations, by the spokesman of the Oneida, 
said: "We have set up for ourselves a 
cradle-board in the extended house," 
that is, in the dominions of the League. 
After due probation the Tuscarora, by 
separate resolutions of the council, on 
separate motions of the Oneida, were 
made successively a boy, a young man, 
a man, an assistant to the official woman 
cooks, a warrior, and lastly a peer, hav- 
ing the right of chiefship in the council 
on an equal footing with the chiefs of the 
other tribes. From this it is seen that a 
tribe or other group of people may be 
adopted upon any one of several planes 
of political growth, corresponding to the 
various ages of human growth. This 
seems to explain the problem of the al- 
leged subjugation and degradation of the 
Delawares by the Iroquois, which is said 
to have been enacted in open council. 
When it is understood that the Five Na- 
tions adopted the Delaware tribe as men 
assistants to the official cooks of the 
League it becomes clear that no taint of 
slavery and degradation was designed to 
be given by the act. It merely made the 
Delawares probationary heirs to citizen- 
ship in the League, and citizenship would 
be conferred upon them after suitable 
tutelage. In this they were treated with 
much greater consideration than were 
the Tuscarora, who are of the language 
and lineage of the Five Nations. The 
Delawares were not adopted as warriors 
or chiefs, but as assistant cooks; neither 
were they adopted, like the Tuscarora, as. 
infants, but as men whose duty it was to 
assist the women whose official function 
was to cook for the people at public as- 
semblies. Their office was hence well 
exemplified by the possession of a corn 
pestle, a hoe, and petticoats. This fact, 
misunderstood, perhaps intentionally 
misrepresented, seems to explain the 
mystery concerning the "making women" 
of the Delawares. This kind of adoption 
was virtually a state of probation, which 
could be made long or short. 

The adoption of a chiefs son by a fel- 
low chief, customary in some of the 
tribes of the N. W. coast, differs in mo- 
tive and effect from that defined above, 
which concerns persons alien to the 
tribe, upon whom it confers citizen- 
ship in the clan, gens, and tribe, as this 
deals only with intratribal persons for 
the purpose of conferring some degree of 
honor upon them rather than citizenship 
and political authority. 

The IroqUois, in order to recruit the 
great losses incurred in their many wars, 
put into systematic practice the adoption 
not only of individuals but also of entire 
clans and tribes; The Tutelo, tlie Saponi, 
the Nanticoke, and other tribes and por- 
tions of tribes were forced .to incorporate 
with the several tribes of the Iroquois 
confederation by formal adoption. 

After the Pequot war the Narragan- 
set adopted a large body of the Pequot. 
The Chickasaw adopted a section of the 
Natchez, and the Uchee were incorpo- 
rated with the Creeks. In the various 
accounts of the American Indian tribes 
references to formal adoption and incor- 
poration of one people by another are 
abundant. It is natural that formal 
adoption as a definite institution was 
most in vogue wherever the clan and 
gentile systems were more or less fully 
developed. ( j. n. b. h. ) 

Adornment. The motive of personal 
adornment, aside from the desire to 
appear attractive, seems to have been to 
mark individual, tribal, or ceremonial 
distinction. The use of paint on the face, 
hair, and body, both in color and design, 
generally had reference to individual or 
clan beliefs, or it indicated relationship 
or personal bereavement, or was an act 
of courtesy. It was always employed in 
ceremonies, religious and secular, and 
was an accompaniment of gala dress 
donned to honor a guest or to celebrate 
an occasion. The face of the dead was 
frequently painted in accordance with 
tribal or religious symbolism. The prac- 
tice of painting was widespread and was 
observed by both sexes. Paint was also 
put on the faces of adults and children 
as a protection against w T ind and sun. 
Plucking the hair from the face and body 
was generally practised. Deformation, 
as head flattening, and tattooing, accord- 
ing to some writers, were personal embel- 
lishments. Fats were used to beautify 
the hair and to ceremonially anoint the 
face and body. Sweet grass and seeds, 
as those of the columbine, served as per- 

Ear ornaments were a mark of family 
thrift, wealth, or distinction, and indi- 
cated honor shown to the wearer by his 
kindred. Ceremonies, occasionally re- 
ligious in character, some of which seem 

BULL. 30] 





to relate to sacrificial rites, usually at- 
tended the boring of the ear. Each per- 
foration cost the parent of 
the child or the kindred of the 
adult gifts of a 
standard value, 
and sometimes 
these perfora- 
tions extended 
round the entire 
rim of the ear. 
The pendants 
were of haliotis 
or other valued 
shell, or were made of metal 
or bone, or were long woven 
bands of dentalium which 
reached nearly to the waist. 
Labrets were used by the 
Eskimo, the n. Pacific coast 
tribes, and some of the 
Gulf coast Indians. Among 
some the lahret was worn 
only by men, in some by 
women, and where worn by 
both sexes it was of two dif- 
ferent styles. At puberty an 
incision was made in the 
lip or at the corner of the 
mouth, and a slender pin 
was inserted, which was re- 
placed by larger ones until 
the opening could admit a pendant of denta- 
stud of the size desired, uumanoabalone 
The Eskimo, when travel- 
ing, removed his labret to prevent freez- 
ing of the lip, but inserted it when en- 

tering a village. Among some of the 
northern and southern tribes the septum 
of the nose was pierced, and feathers, 
bark, or rings were inserted. 


Elaborate ornamentation of garments 
was reserved for the gala dress. The 
Eskimo combined bits of fur of different 
colors and quality in a pleasing pattern 
for trimming their garments, and tishskin 
dyed in brilliant colors and the plumage 
of birds were also used for the same pur- 
pose. Outer garments were made of 
the breasts of sea birds skilfully joined 
together. Among the inland tribes the 
earlier designs for porcupine and feather 
quillwork were reproduced later in beads 
of European manufacture. Feathers were 
widely used to decorate the robes and 
garments of warriors and other distin- 
guished persons, and were woven into 
mantles by the cliff-dwellers and by 
tribes formerly living near the Gulf of 
Mexico. Among the Plains Indians the 
milk teeth of the elk were the most 
costly of adornments. They were fast- 
ened in rows on a woman's tunic, giving 
the garment a value of several hundred 

Headbands, armlets, bracelets, belts, 
necklaces, and garters, of metal, seeds, 




Bull. 30—05 2 

embroidered buckskin, peculiar pelts. or 
woven fiber, had their practical use, But 



[B. a. e. 

were made decorative, and often were 
symbolic. Archeological testimony shows 
that sea-shell beads, worn as necklaces or 
woven into belts, were widely used, and 
they probably found their way into the 


interior through barter or as ceremonial 
or friendly gifts. Wampum belts figured 
largely in the official transactions be- 
tween the early settlers and the eastern 
tribes. Disks cut from the conch shell 
were worn as ornaments and were also 
offered in certain religious rites; they 
ranked among the northern tribes as did 
the turquoise among the people of the 
S. W. With the Plains Indians a neck- 
lace of bear's claws marked the man of 
distinction. The headdress varied in dif- 
ferent parts of the country and was gen- 
erally significant of a man's kinship, 
ceremonial office, rank, or tocemic de- 



pendence, as was also the ornamentation 
upon his weapons and his shield. 

In the S. W. blankets bordered with 
a design woven in colors were used on 
ceremonial occasions, and with the broad 

belts, white robes, and fringed sashes worn 
at marriage are interesting specimens of 
weaving and color treatment. The bril- 
liant Navaho blankets with their cosmic 
symbols are well known. The most re- 
markable example of the native weaver's 
skill is the ceremonial blanket and apron 
of the Chilkat tribe of Alaska; it is made 
of the wool of the mountain goat, dyed 
black, yellow, and green with native 
dyes over a warp of cedar-bark strings. 
A design of elaborate totemic forms cov- 
ered the entire space within the border 
lines, and the ends and lower edge were 
heavily fringed. According to Boas these 
garments probably originated among the 
Tsimshian. In the buffalo country 
women seldom ornamented their own 
robes, but embroidered those worn by 
men. Sometimes a man painted his 
robe in accordance with a dream, or pic- 
tured upon it a yearly record of his own 


deeds or of the prominent events of the 
tribe. Women wore the buffalo robe 
differently from the uieii, who gathered 

BULL. 301 



it about the person in a way that empha- 
sized their action or the expression of 

It was common for a tribe to have its 
peculiar cut and decoration of the moc- 
casin, so that a man's tribe was pro- 
claimed by his foot gear. The war shirt 
was frequently painted to represent the 
wearer's prayer, having the design on 
the back for protection and one on the 
breast for victory. The shirt was occa- 
sionally decorated with a fringe of human 
hair, locks being generally contributed 
by female relatives; it rarely displayed 
war trophies. The most imposing article 
of the warrior's regalia was the bonnet 
with its crown of golden-eagle feathers. 
Before the introduction of the horse the 
flap at the back rarely extended below 
the waist, but when the warriors got to 
be mounted "the spine," with its ruff of 
feathers, was so lengthened as to equal or 
exceed the height of the man. Song and 
ceremony accompanied the making of. a 
war bonnet by warriors of the tribe, and 
a war honor was recounted upon each 
feather before it was placed in position. 
A bonnet could not be made without the 
consent of warriors, and it stood as a 



n \ Hi 

B Mm K ** 



a distinc- 
iis fellow- 

record of tribal valor as well i 
tion granted to a man by 

The gala and ceremonial dress of the 
Pueblo tribes of the S. W., of those for- 

merly dwelling on the plains, and of those 
of the Pacific coast, was replete with 
ornamentation which, either in design or 
material, suggested rites or past experi- 
ences and thus kept alive beliefs and his- 
toric memories among the people. Such 


were the woman's dress of the Yurok of 
California; the fringe of the skirt was 
wrapped with the same vegetal materials 
as she used in her basketry, and her 
apron was an elaborate network of the 
same on which depended strands of shells 
with pendants cut from the abalone. In 
the same connection may be mentioned 
the manner of dressing the hair of a Hopi 
maiden; the "whorl on each side of her 
head symbolizes the flower of the squash, 
a sacred emblem of the tribe. The horses 
of warriors were often painted to indicate 
the dreams or the war experiences of 
their riders. Accouterments were some- 
times elaborately ornamented. 

Consult Abbott, Prim. Indus., 1881; 
Beauchamp (1) in Bull. N. Y. State Mus., 
no. 41, 1901, (2) ibid., no. 73, 1903; Boas 



IB. A. E. 

(1) in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 1897, (2) in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Anthr. i, pt. 
l, 1898; Dall in 3d Rep. B. A. E., 1884; 
Fewkesinl9thRep. B. A. E.,1900; Fletch- 
er in Pubs. Peabody Mus. ; Matthews (1) 
in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., vi, 1903, (2) 
in 3d Rep. B. A. E., 1884; Mooney in 19th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1900; Moorehead, Prehist. 
Impls., 1900; Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. 
E., 1899; Putnam in Peabody Mus. Rep., 
in, no. 2, 1882; Voth in Am. Anthrop., 
ii, 1900; Wissler in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., xviii, pt. 3, 1904. See Art, Artificial 
Head Deformation, Beadwork, Clothing, 
Dyes and Pigments, Featherwork, Hairdress- 
ing, Labrets, Painting, Ornament, Qnill- 
work, Shellwork, Tattooing, (a. c. f. ) 

Adshusheer. A tribe associated with 
the Eno and Shakori in North Carolina 
in 1701. Mooney ( Bull. 22, B. A. E., 1894) 
says: " It is doubtful if they, at least the 
Eno and Shoccoree, were of Siouan stock, 
as they seem to have differed in physique 
and habit from their neighbors; but as 
nothing is left of their language, and as 
their alliances were all with Siouan tribes, 
they can not well be discriminated." 
There is but a single mention of the 
Adshusheer. Lawson (1701) tells of 
"the Shoccorie Indians, mixed with the 
Enoe and those of the nation of the 
Adshusheer, ruled by Enoe Will, a Sho- 
corrie," the latter residing at Adshusheer, 
14 m. from Achonechy, and ruling as 
far w. as Haw, or Reatkin, r. (Hist. 
Carolina, 96, 97, 1860). The village of 
the 3 tribes was called Adshusheer, 
which Mooney locates near the present 
town of Hillsboro, Durham co., N. C. 
Nothing is known of their subsequent 
history. The Adshusheer were probably 
absorbed by one of the tribes with which 
they were associated, (c. t. ) 

Adzes. Cutting, scraping, or gouging 
implements in prehistoric and early his- 
toric times, made usually of stone, but 
not infrequently of shell, bone, or cop- 
per. Iron and steel are much used by 



the tribes at the present day. The blade 
resembles that of a celt, although often 
somewhat curved by chipping or by grind- 
ing at the proper angle to make it most 
effectual. Some are grooved for hafting, 
after the manner of the grooved ax, but 
the groove does not extend over the fiat 
face against which the handle is fastened. 

The hafting takes various forms accord- 
ing to the shape and size of the blade. 
The adz is primarily a wood- working 
tool, but it serves also for scraping, as in 
the dressing of ,skins and in other arts, 
and, no doubt also on occasion, for digging. 
The edge of the primitive adz was prob- 
ably not sharp enough to make it effec- 
tual in working wood save in connection 
with the process of charring. The dis- 
tribution of this implement was very gen- 
eral over the area north of Mexico, but it 
probably reached its highest develop- 
ment and specialization among the wood- 


working tribes of the n. Pacific coast. 
The scraper and the gouge have many 
uses in common with the adz. 

For various examples of the adz, an- 
cient and modern, consult Beauchamp 
in Bull. N. Y. State Mus., no. 18, 1897; 
Fowke in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 1896; 
Moorehead, Prehist, Impls., 1900; Mur- 
doch in 9th Rep. B. A. E., 1892; Nelson 
in 18th Rep. B. A. E., 1899; Niblack in 
Rep. Nat, Mus. 1888, 1890; Ran in Smith- 
son. Conk, xxil, 1876. (w. h. h. g. f. ) 

Aegakotcheising ( Aegakotcheising).— An 
Ottawa village in Michigan in 1851. — 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 478, 1851. 

Aepjin (Dutch for 'little ape'). A 
Mahican village, known as Aepjin's 
castle, from the name of the resident 
chief, situated in the 17th century at or 
near Schodac, Rensselaer co., N. Y. — 
Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 86, 1872. 

Aestaca. A Costanoan rancheria con- 
nected with Santa Cruz mission, Cal., in 
1819.— Olbez quoted by Tavlor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860. 

Afegua ( ' bird island ' ). An island off 
the \v. coast of Lower California, about 
lat. 31°, on which was once a Cochimi 
rancheria. — Venegas, Hist. Cal., n, 436, 

Afognak. A Kaniagmiut settlement 
consisting of 3 villages on Afognak id., s. 
of Cook inlet, Alaska (Bruce, Alaska, 
map, 1895). Pop. 339 in 1880, 409 in 
1890, 307 in 1900. 

Agacay. A former Timuquanan town 
on St Johns r., Florida, about 150 m. 
from the mouth. — Fontaneda (1565) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., 2d s., 264, 1875. 

Agaihtikara ('fish-eaters'). A divi- 
sion of the Paviotso living in 1866 in the 
vicinity of Walker r. and lake and Car- 

Btlii. .°»oi 



son r. and lake, Nev. They were under 
-Chief Oderie and numbered about 1,500. 

A-gai-du-ka.— Powell, PaviotsoMS.,B. A. E.,1881. 
Aga'ih-tika'ra.— Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1051, 
1896. A'-gai-ti-kut-teh.— Powers. Inds. W., Nev., 
MS B, A. E., 1876. Ahgy-tecitteh.— Powers in 
Smithson. Rep. 1876, 452. 1877. Ahgyweit.— Ibid. 
Ocki Pah-Utes.— Campbell in Ind. Aff. Rep., 113, 
1870. Ocki-Pi-TJtes.— Ibid., 119, 1866. Octi.— Ibid. 
Walker River Pi-Utes.— Ibid. 

Agaivanuna ( A-gai-va-nu' '-no) . A Pavi- 
otso division formerly living at Summit 
lake, w. Nevada.— Powell, Paviotso MS., 
B. A. E., 1881. 

Agamagus. See Moxus. 

Aganustata. See Oconostota. 

Agate. See Chalcedony. 

Agawam (' fish-curing' [place] '.—Hew- 
itt). A name of frequent occurrence in 
s. New England and on Long Island, and 
by which was designated at least 3 Indian 
villages or tribes in Massachusetts. 

The most important was at Ipswich, 
Essex co. , Mass. The site was sold by the 
chief in 1638. Its jurisdiction included the 
land on Newbury r. , and the tribe was a 
part of the Pennacook confederacy. It 
was almost extinct in 1658, but as late as 
1726 there were still 3 families living near 
Wigwam hill. 

The second tribe or band of that name 
had its chief town on Long hill, near 
Springfield, Hampden co., Mass. Spring- 
field was sold in 1635 and the Indian town 
was in existence in 1675. This tribe was 
commonly classed with the Pacomtuc. 

The third was about Wareham, Ply- 
mouth co., Mass., the site of which was 
sold in 1655. It was probably subject to 
the Wampanoag, but joined in the plot 
against the English in 1621. (j. m.) 
Agawaam.— Records (1672) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., IV, 86, 1816. Agawam.— Pynchon (1663) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., xm, 308, 1881. Agawom.— 
Smith (1629), Virginia, n, 174, repr. 1819. Aga- 
womes.— Gookin (1674) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
1st s., I, 149, 1806. Aggawam.— Smith (1616), ibid., 
3d s., VI, 97, 1837. Aggawom.— Smith (1629), Vir- 
ginia, II, 177, repr. 1819. Agissawamg. — Johnson 
(1654) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., n, 66, 1814. 
Agbwaun.— Williams (1638), ibid., 4th s., VI, 248, 
1863. Agowaywam,— Mount (1622), ibid., 1st s., 
vin, 262, 1802. Aguwom.— Underhill (1638), ibid., 
3d s., VI, 1, 1837. Angawom.— New Eng. Mem. 
quoted by Drake, Ind. Wars, 95, note, 1825. An- 
goum.— Mourt (1622) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
2ds.,lX, 37, 1822. Anguum.— Ibid. Augawam. — 
Dee in Smith (1629), Virginia, n, 235, repr. 1819. 
Augawoam.— Smith (1631) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
3d s., in, 22, 1833. Augoam.— Smith (1616), ibid., 
VI, 97, 1837. Augoan.— Smith (1629), Virginia, II, 
193, repr. 1819. Auguan.— Smith (1631) in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., in, 37, 1833. 

Agawano (A-ga'-wa-no). A prehistoric 
pueblo of the Nambe, situated in the 
mountains about 7 m. e. of the Rio 
Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz, lat. 36°, New 
Mexico. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
iv, 84, 1892. 
A-ga Uo-no. — Bandelier, op. cit. 

Agawesh. A Modoc settlement and 
camping place on Lower Klamath lake, 
n. Cal., and on Hot cr. The name is 
primarily that of Lower Klamath lake, 
and the people of the settlement were 
called Agaweshkni. (l. p.) 

Agawesh.— Gatschet in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., n, pi. 
i, xxxii, 1890. Agaweshkni. —Ibid., 19 ('people of 
Agawesh'). Agaweshni,— Ibid. Aka-ush.— Ibid., 
16. Aka-uskni.— Ibid., 19. Hot creek Indians.— 
Meacham, Wigwam and Warpath, 577, 1875. Ok- 
kowish.— Steele in Ind. Aff. Rep., 121, 1864 (said 
erroneously to be the Modoc name for them- 

Agdluitsok. An Eskimo village and 
Danish post in s. w. Greenland, lat. 60° 
31'.— MeddelelseromGronland, xvi, map, 


Lichtenau.— Koldewev, German Arct. Exped., 

182, 1874. 

Agency System. Indian affairs are con- 
ducted under the administrative bureau 
in Washington by local Indian agents. 
This agency system was gradually devel- 
oped to meet the various exigencies aris- 
ing from the rapid displacement of Indian 
tribes by white settlers. 

History.— During the colonial period 
the spread of trade brought a large num- 
ber of tribes in contact with the French 
and the English, and each nation strove 
to make allies among the natives. Their 
rivalry led to the French and Indian war, 
and its effects were felt as late as the first 
half of the 19th century. When the Rev- 
olution began the attitude of the Indians 
became a matter of importance, and plans 
were speedily devised to secure their 
friendship for the colonists and to thwart 
English influence. One of the means 
employed was the appointment of 
agents to reside among the tribes liv- 
ing near the settlements. These men 
were charged to watch the movements of 
the Indians and through the mainte- 
nance of trade to secure their good will 
toward the colonists. As the war went 
on the western trading posts of the Brit- 
ish became military camps, which drew 
the colonial troops into a hitherto un- 
known country. Conditions arose which 
necessitated new methods for the control 
of Indians, and in 1786 Congress, to 
which the Articles of Confederation gave 
exclusive right and power to manage 
Indian affairs, established two districts — 
a northern district, to include all tribes 
n. of Ohio r. and w. of Hudson r., and a 
southern district, to include all tribes s. 
of Ohio r. A bonded superintendent 
was placed over each, and power was 
given to him to appoint two bonded depu- 
ties. Every tribe within these districts 
laid claim to a definite tract as its own 
territory, and these tribal districts came 
to be recognized as tribal lands. The 
old trading posts became in time indus- 
trial centers, and the Indians were 
called on to cede the adjoining lands. 
The right of way from one post to an- 
other was next acquired. As settlers 
advanced more land was secured, and so 
rapidly were the tribes constrained to 
move westward that it became necessary 
to recast the districts established in 1786. 
The plan of districting the country under 
bonded officers was continued, but on a 



[B. a. e. 

new basis — that of tribal holdings, or, as 
they came to be called, reservations, 
which were grouped geographically into 
superintendencies, each presided over by 
a bonded superintendent, who was di- 
rectly responsible to the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs at Washington. The 
reservations were in charge of bonded 
agents, who reported to the district su- 
perintendents. This plan continued in 
force until about the middle of the 19th 
century, when the office of superintend- 
ent was abolished and agents became 
directly responsible to the Commissioner. 
For more than 80 years the office of agent 
had been almost exclusively filled by ci- 
vilians. The powers of the agents had ex- 
panded until both life and property were 
subject to their dictum. While many 
men filled the difficult position with 
honor and labored unselfishly for the 
welfare of the Indians, others abused 
their trust and brought discredit upon the 
service. President Grant, in 1868-69, 
sought to remedy this evil by the appoint- 
ment of army officers as Indian agents, 
but Congress, in 1870, prohibited "the 
employment of army officers in any civil 
capacity. ' ' The President then appealed 
to the religious denominations to suggest 
candidates for Indian agencies, and to 
facilitate this arrangement the reserva- 
tions were apportioned among the vari- 
ous denominations. The plan led to the 
amelioration of the service through the 
concentration of the attention of religious 
bodies upon particular tribes, thus awak- 
ening an intelligent interest in their wel- 
fare. About this time commissioners 
were appointed to visit and report on the 
various tribes, and in this way many 
facts and conditions hitherto unknown 
were brought to the knowledge of the 
Government authorities and the public. 
As a result new forces were evoked in 
behalf of the natives. Industrial schools 
were multiplied both on and off the res- 
ervations; Indians became agency em- 
ployees; lands were allotted in severalty; 
and through citizenship legal rights were 
secured. These radical changes, brought 
about within the two decades following 
1873, led up to the act of Mar. 3, 1893, 
which permits the abolishment of agen- 
cies, where conditions are suitable, giv- 
ing to the bonded superintendent of the 
reservation school the power to act as 
agent in the transaction of business be- 
tween the United States Government and 
the tribe. 

Administrative department. — The adop- 
tion of the Constitution in 1789 brought 
about changes in the administration of 
Indian affairs at Washington. On the 
organization of the War Department the 
management of the Indians passed from 
a standing committee of Congress to the 

Secretary of War. By the act of Mar. 1, 
1793, the President was authorized to 
appoint "temporary agents to reside 
among the Indians. ' ' The act of Apr. 16, 
1818, inaugurated the present policy: the 
President nominates and the Senate ap- 
proves the appointment of all Indian 
agents. The office of Indian Commis- 
sioner was created by the act of Congress 
of July 9, 1832, and "by an act of June 30, 
1834, the office of Indian Affairs was 
created. On the institution of the De- 
partment of the Interior, in accordance 
with the act of Mar, 3, 1849, the office 
of Indian Affairs was transferred from the 
War Department to the Interior Depart- 
ment, where it still remains. 

Congress established the office of in- 
spector by the act of Feb. 14, 1873. 
There are 5 inspectors, nominated by the 
President and confirmed by the Senate. 
They hold their office for 4 years and 
report directly to the Secretary of the 
Interior. They are charged with the 
duty of visiting and reporting on agen- 
cies, and have power to suspend an agent 
or employee and to enforce laws with the 
aid of the United States district attor- 
ney. The salary is $2,500, with neces- 
sary traveling expenses. In 1879 Con- 
gress provided for special agents. These 
are appointed by the Secretary of the 
Interior. Their duties are similar to 
those of the inspectors, but they may be 
required to take charge of agencies, and 
are bonded sufficiently for that purpose. 
They report direct to the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs. The salary is $2,000. 
Special agents are also detailed by the 
Indian Bureau to investigate special mat- 
ters or to transact special business. Spe- 
cial allotting agents, whose duties are to 
allot, on specified reservations, the land 
in severalty to the Indians, are appointed 
by the President. The inspectors and 
special agents are the intermediaries 
between the Indian Bureau at Washing- 
ton and its field organization. 

Field organization. — The Indian agent 
holds his office for 4 years or until his 
successor is appointed and qualified. He 
must give a bond with not fewer than two 
sureties, and the several sums in which 
the sureties justify must aggregate at [mi 
double the penalty of the bond. If re- 
quired, an agent shall perform the duties of 
two agencies for one salary, and he shall 
not depart from the limits of his agency 
without permission (see U. S. Stat. L., 
xxn, 87; xviii, 147; iv, 736). Cessions 
of lands by the tribes to the United States 
were always made for a consideration, to 
be paid to the Indians in money or mer- 
chandise. Most of these payments ex- 
tended over a series of years, and the dis- 
bursing of them devolved on the agent. 
He was also charged with the preservation 

: LL. 30 I 



of order on the reservation, the removal 
from the Indian country of all persons 
found therein contrary to law, the over- 
sight of employees, the protection of the 
rights of the Indians in the matter of 
trade, the suppression of the traffic in in- 
toxicating liquors, the investigation of 
depredation claim's, the protection of 
the Indians on their land held in sever- 
alty, the care of all Government prop- 
er ty,, the care of agency stock, the proper 
receipt and distribution of all supplies 
received, the disbursement of money re- 
ceived, and the supervision of schools 
(see U. S. Stat. L., iv, 564, 732, 736, 
738; x, 701; xi, 80, 169; xn, 427; xm, 
29; xviii, 449; xix, 244, 293; xxm, 94). 
In addition to the correspondence and 
other clerical work incident to the cur- 
rent business of his office, each agent is 
required to keep a book of itemized 
expenditures of every kind, with a record 
of all contracts, together with receipts of 
money from all sources, of which a true 
transcript is to be forwarded quarterly to 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (see 
U. S. Stat. L., xviii, 451). The salaries 
of Indian- agents range from $1,000 to 
$3,000 per annum. The employees un- 
der the agent are clerks, interpreters, 
police, farmers, carpenters, blacksmiths, 
millers, butchers, teamsters, herders, la- 
borers, watchmen, engineers, and physi- 
cians, besides the school employees. A 
large proportion of these employees are 
provided in accordance with treaty stipu- 
lations. The salaries range from $200 to 
$1,200 per annum. 

Interpreters. — This class of employees 
stood between the Indian and the white 
race, between the tribe and the Govern- 
ment, and have exercised a far-reaching in- 
fluence on Indianaffairs. Thetranslations 
of these men were the sole means by which 
the two races understood or misunder- 
stood each other. Until recently most 
interpreters picked up colloquial English 
from trappers, traders, and other adven- 
turers in the Indian country. They were 
generally mixed-bloods whose knowledge 
of the language and the culture of both the 
white and the Indian races was necessarily 
li mited. It was impossible for them, with 
the best intentions, to render the dignified 
and thoughtful speech of the Indian into 
adequate English, and thus they gravely 
prejudiced the reputation of the native's 
mental capacity. The agency interpre- 
ter received his salary from the Gov- 
ernment through the agent, and, as was 

atural, he generally strove to make him- 
jfclf acceptable to that officer. His posi- 

on was a responsible and trying one, 
since questions frequently arose between 
the Indians and the agent which de- 
manded courage, prudence, and unswerv- 
ing honesty on the part of the interpreter, 

who was the mouthpiece of both parties. 
Of late years the spread of English .jnong 
the younger people through the medium 
of the schools, while it has not done 
away with the official interpreter, has 
lessened his difficulties and, at the same 
time, diminished the power he once held. 
Indian police. — This force was author- 
ized by act of Congress of May 27, 1878. 
Its duties are to preserve order on the res- 
ervation, to prevent illegal liquor traffic 
and arrest offenders in this matter, to act 
as guards when rations are issued and an- 
nuities paid, to take charge of and pro- 
tect at all times Government property, to 
restore lost or stolen property to its right- 
ful owners, to drive out timber thieves 
and other trespassers, to return truant 
pupils to school, and to make arrests for 
disorderly conduct and other offenses. 
Such a force is organized at all the agen- 
cies, and the faithfulness of the Indian 
police in the discharge of their duties is 
well attested. The pay is from $10 to $15 
a month, usually also with a small house 
and extra rations. 

Annuities. — Although the right of emi- 
nent domain over all territories of the 
United States is vested in the Govern- 
ment, still the Indians' "right of occu- 
pancy" has always been recognized. 
The indemnity paid by the United 
States to the Indians when these made 
cessions of land was intended to extin- 
guish this right. These payments were 
made in money or merchandise, or both. 
The entire amount to be paid to a tribe 
was placed to its credit in the United 
States Treasury. In some instances only 
the interest on this sum was paid an- 
nually to the tribe; in other cases the 
principal was extinguished by a stated 
annual payment. These annuities (an- 
nual payments under treaty obligations) 
had to be voted each year by Congress 
and were distinct from the sums appro- 
priated as special gratuities to be used for 
cases of peculiar need. During the early 
part of the 19th century cash annuities 
were handed over by the agents to the 
chief, who receipted for the money and 
distributed it among the tribe, but for the 
last fifty years or more an enrolment of 
the tribe has been made by the agent 
prior to each payment, and the money 
has been divided pro rata and receipted 
for individually. 

A large* proportion of the payments 
made to Indians was originally in mer- 
chandise. This mode of payment was 
abused, and inured to the advantage of 
white manufacturers and traders, but was 
injurious to the tribe, as it tended to kill 
all native industries and helped toward 
the general demoralization of the Indian. 
Payments in goods are now made only in 
cases where an. isolated situation or other 




conditions make this method suited to 
the interests of the Indians. 

Rations. — These were a part of the mer- 
chandise payments. They were at first 
urged upon the tribes in order to keep 
them confined within the reservations 
instead of wandering in the pursuit of 
game. After the destruction of the buf- 
falo herds the beef ration became a neces- 
sity to the Plains Indians until they were 
able to raise their own stock. Except in 
a few instances, where treaties still re- 
quire this method of payment, rations 
are not now issued unless great poverty 
or some disaster makes it necessary. 

A movement is now on foot for the 
division of all tribal money held in the 
United States Treasury, an arrangement 
that would do away with many disad- 
vantages that are connected with pay- 
ments in annuities and rations. 

See Governmental Policy, Reservations, 
Treaties. (a. c. f. ) 

Aggavacaamanc ('arroyo of the 
gulls' (?)). A rancheria, probably Co- 
chimi, connected with Purisima (Cade- 
gomo) mission, w. Lower California, in 
the 18th centurv.— Doc. Hist, Mex., 4th 
s., v, 189, 1857. 

Aggey. Mentioned by Onate (Doc. 
Ined., xvi, 113, 1871) as a" pueblo of New 
Mexico in 1598. Doubtless situated in 
the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, e. of 
the Rio Grande, and in all probability 
occupied at that time by the Tigua or the 

Agiukchuk. A Kaialigamiut village 
opposite the s. shore of Nelson id., Alas- 
ka; pop. 35 in 1880, 81 in 1890. 
Agiukchugumut. — Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., 
map, 1899. Ighiakchaghamiut. — 11th Census, 
Alaska, 110, 1893. 

Agivavik. A Nushagagmiut village on 
Nushagak r., Alaska; pop. 52 in 1880, 
30 in 1890. 

Agivarik.— Post route map, 1903. Agivavik.— 
Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, map, 1884. 

Aglemiut. An Eskimo tribe inhabit- 
ing the n. w. coast of Alaska from the 
mouth of Nushagak r. s. w. to the valley 
of the Ugashik, extending e. to the high- 
lands (Dall inCont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 19, 
1877). They numbered only 767 in 1890. 
They dwell on the coast, hunting the 
walrus and occasionally putting out to 
sea in pursuit of whales. Although 
Christians, they retain their native be- 
liefs and customs, resembling their neigh- 
bors in dress, except that thej* use rein- 
deer skins for winter garments. They 
carve ivory as skilfully as the northern 
tribes. Subdivisions are the Kiatagmiut, 
Ugagogmiut, and Ugashigmiut. The vil- 
lages are Igagik, Ikak, Kingiak, Paug- 
wik, Ugashik, and Unangashik. 
Achkugmjuten.— Holmberg. Ethnol. Skizz., 4, 1865 
(applied to Aglemiut and Kaniagmiut by the 
people of Norton sd.) Aglahmutes.— Eiliott, 
Cond. Aff. in Alaska. 29, 1*74. Aglaxtana.— Doros- 
chin in Radloff, Worterb. d. Kinai-Spr., 29, 1874 

(Knaiakhotana name). Aglegmguten.— Holm 
berg, Ethnol. Skizz.. 4, 1855. Aglegmiut. — Wor 
man quoted by Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i 19 
1877. Aglemiit.— Radloff, Worterb. d. Kinai-Spr.', 
29, 1874. Agolegmiut.— Turner quoted bv Dall, 
op. cit., 19. Agolegmutes.— Latham (1845) in J. 
Ethnol. Soc. Lond., i, 183, 1848. Agolemiiten.— 
Wrangell. Ethnog. Nachr., 121, 1839. Agool- 
mutes.— Elliott, Cond. Aff. in Alaska, 29, 1874. 
Aguljmjuten. -Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., 5, 1855. 
Agulmuten.— Wrangell, Ethnog. Nachr., 122. 1839. 
Dog-drivers.— Petroff, 10th Census Alaska, 164, 
1884. Oglemut.— Dall, op. cit., 19. Oglemutes.— 
Dall in Proc. A. A. A. S., 267, 1869. O'gulmut.— 
Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 19, 1877. Sewer- 
nowskije.— Radloff, Worterb. d. Kinai-Spr., 29, 
1 874 ( ' northerner ' : Russian name) . Svernofftsi. — 
Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 19, 1877. Tchouktchi 
americani.— Balbi quoted by Dall, ibid. Tindi 
suxtana.— Dawydof quoted by Radloff, Worterb. 
d. Kinai-Spr., 29. 1874 (Kinai name) . Tuntu sux- 
tana.— Doroschin quoted, ibid. Tyndysiukhtana.— 
Petroff, Alaska, 164, 1884. 

Aglutok. An Eskimo settlement in 
s. w. Greenland. Ruins found there are 
supposed to be those of former Norse set- 
tlers.— Crantz, Hist. Greenland, i, 18, 

Agomekelenanak. An Eskimo village 
in the Kuskokwim district, Alaska. Pop. 
15 in 1890. 

Ahgomekhelanaghamiut. — 11th Census, Alaska, 
164, 1893. 

Agomiut ( ' people of the weather side ' ) . 
A tribe of Eskimo inhabiting a region of 
n. Baffin land bordering on Lancaster 
sd., consisting of two subtribes— the 
Tununirusirmiut in the w. , about Admi- 
ralty inlet, and the Tununirmiut in the 
e., about Eclipse sd. They hunt the 
narwhal and the white whale in Eclipse 
sd., and in search of seals sometimes 
cross the ice on sledges to North Devon, 
there coming in contact with the natives 
of Ellesmere land. 

Agreements. See Governmental Policy, 
Reservations, Treaties. 

y. Agriculture. An opinion long prevailed 
in the minds of the people that the In- 
dians n. of Mexico were, previous to and 
at the time Europeans began to settle 
that part of the continent, virtually 
nomads, having no fixed abodes, and 
hence practising agriculture to a very 
limited extent Why this opinion has 
been entertained by the masses, who 
have learned it from tales and traditions 
of Indian life and warfare as they have 
been since the establishment of European 
colonies, can be readily- understood, but 
why writers who have had access to the 
older records should thus speak of them 
is not easily explained, when these rec- 
ords, speaking of the temperate regions, 
•almost without exception notice the fact 
that the Indians were generally found, 
from the border of the western plains to 
the Atlantic, dwelling in settled villages 
and cultivating the soil. D_g Soto found all 
the tribes that he visited, from the Florida 
peninsula to the western part of Arkan- 
sas, cultivating maize and various other 
food plants. The early voyagers found 
the same thing true along the Atlantic 

BULL. 301 



from Florida to Massachusetts. Capt, 
John Smith and his Jamestown colony, 
indeed all the early colonies, depended 
at first very largely for subsistence on the, 
products of Indian cultivation. Jacques 
Cartier, the first European who ascended 
the St Lawrence, found the Indians of 
Hoehelaga (Montreal id. ) cultivatinathe 
soil. "They have," he remarks, "good 
and* large fields of corn." Champlain 
and other early French explorers testify 
to the large reliance of the Iroquois on 
the cultivation of the soil for subsistence. 
La Salle and his companions observed 
the Indians of Illinois, and thence south- 
ward along the Mississippi, cultivating 
and to a large extent subsisting on maize, 
igard, an eyewitness of what he re- 
ports, says, in speaking of the agriculture 
of the Hurons in 1623-26, that they dug 
a round place at every 2 feet or less, where 
they planted in the month of May in each 
hole nine or ten grains of corn which 
the? had previously selected, culled, and 
soaked for several days in water. And 
every year they thus planted their corn 
in the same places and spots, which they 
renovated with their small wooden shov- 
els. He indicates the height of the corn 
by the statement that he lost his way 
quicker in these fields than in the prairies 
or forests (Hist, du Canada, i, 265-266, 
1636, repr. 1866). 

Indian corn, the great American cereal, 
"was found in cultivation from the south- 
ern extremity of Chile to the 50th parallel 
of n. latitude" (Brinton, Myths of the New 
World, 22, 1868). "All the nations who 
inhabit from the sea as far as the Illinois, 
and even farther, carefully cultivate the 
maize corn, which they make their prin- 
cipal subsistence" (Du Pratz, Hist. La., 
ii, 239, 1 763 ) . " The whole of the tribes 
situated in the Mississippi valley, in 
Ohio, and the lakes reaching on both 
sides of the Alleghenies, quite to Massa- 
chusetts and other parts of New England, 
cultivated Indian corn. It was the staple 
product" (Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 80, 

The great length of the period previous 
io the discovery during which maize had 
been in cultivation is proved by its differ- 
entiation into varieties, of which there 
were four in Virginia; by the fact that 
charred corn and impressions of corn on 
burnt clay have been found in the mounds 
and in the ruins of prehistoric pueblos in 
the S. W. ; by the Delaware tradition (see 
Walam Olum); and - by the fact that the 
builders of the oldest mounds must/have 
been tillers of the soil. y 

Some idea of the extent of-fch-ecultiva- 
tion oi maize by some of the tribes may 
be gained from the following estimates: 
The amount of corn (probably in the ear) 
of the Iroquois destroyed by Denonville 

in 1687 was estimated at 1,000,000 bushels 
(Charlevoix, Hist.Nouv. Fr., n, 355, 1744; 
also Doc. Hist. N. Y., i, 238, 1849). Ac- 
cording to Tonti, who accompanied the 
expedition, they were engaged seven days 
in cutting up the corn of 4 villages. Gen. 
Sullivan, in his expedition into* the Iro- 
quois country, destroyed 160,000 bushels 
of corn and cut down the Indian orchards; 
in one orchard alone 1,500 apple trees 
were destroyed ( Hist, N. Y. During the 
Revolutionary War, n, 334, 1879). Gen. 
Wayne, writing from Grand Glaize in 
1 794, says: "The margins of these beauti- 
ful rivers — the Miami of the Lake and the 
Au Glaize — appear like one continuous 
village for a number of miles, both above 
and below this place; nor have I ever 
before beheld such immense fields of 


corn in any part of America from Canada 
to Florida" (Manypennv, Ind. Wards, 
84, 1880). 

If we are indebted to the Indians for 
maize, "without which the peopling of 
America would probably have been de- 
layed for a century, it is also from them 
that the whites learned the methods of 
planting, storing, and using it. The ordi- 
nary corncribs, set on posts, are copies 
of those in use among the Indians'which 
Lawson described in 1701 (Hist, Car., 35, 
i-epr. 1860). { 

Beans, squashes, pumpkins, sweet pota- 
toes, tobacco, gourds, and the sunflower 
were also cultivated to some extent, espe- 
cially in what are now r the southern states. 
According to Beverly (Hist. Va., 125-128, 
1722), the Indians had two varieties of 
sweet potatoes. Marquette, speaking of 
the Illinois Indians, says that in addi- 




tion to maize, "they also sow beans and 
melons, which are excellent, especially 
those with a red seed. Their squashes 
are not of the best; they dry them in 
the sun to eat in the winter and spring" 
( Voy. and Discov., in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., iv, 33, 1852). 

The foregoing applies chiefly to the 
region e. of the Rocky mts., but the 
native population of the section now em- 
braced in New Mexico and Arizona not 
only cultivated the soil, but relied on 
agriculture to a large extent for subsist- 
ence. No corn was raised or agriculture 
practised anywhere on the Pacific slope 
n. of the lower Rio Colorado, but frequent 
mention is made by the chroniclers of 
Coronado's expedition to New Mexico of 
the general cultivation of maize by the In- 
dians of that section, and also of the cul- 
tivation of cotton. It is stated in the 
Relacion del Suceso (Winship in 14th 
Rep. B. A. E., 575, 1896) that those who 
lived near the Rio Grande raised cotton, 
but the others did not. The writer, 
speaking of the Rio Grande valley, adds: 
(*" There is much corn here." 

"From the earliest information we have 
of these nations [the Pueblo Indians] 
they are known to have been tillers of 
the soil, and though the implements 
used and their methods of cultivation 
were both simple and primitive, cotton, 
corn, wheat [after its introduction], 
beans, with many varieties of fruits were 
raised in abundance" (Bancroft,. Nat. 
Rac, i, 538, 1882). Chile and onions are 
extensively cultivated by the Pueblo 
tribes, as also are grapes and peaches, but 
these latter, like wheat, were introduced 
by the Spaniards. 

The Indians of New Mexico and Ari- 
zona had learned the art of irrigating 
their fields before the appearance of the 
white man on the continent. This is. 
shown not only by the statements of early 
explorers, but by the still existing re- 
mains of their ditches. "Imfche valleys 
of the Salado and Gila, in s. Arizona, 
however, casual observation is sufficient 
to demonstrate that the ancient inhabi- 
tants engaged in agriculture by artificial 
irrigation to a vast extent. . . . Judg- 
ing from the remains of extensive ancient 
works of irrigation, many of which may 
still be seen passing through tracts culti- 
vated to-day" as well as across densely 
wooded stretches considerably beyond 
the present nonirrigated area, it is safe 
to say that the principal canals constructed 
and used by the ancient inhabitants of 
the Salado valley controlled the irriga- 
tion of at least 250,000 acres" (Hodge 
in Am. Anthrop., July, 1893). Remains 
of ancient irrigating ditches and canals 
are also found elsewhere in these terri- 


The sunflower was cultivated to a limi- 
ted extent both by the Indians of the 
Atlantic slope and those of the Pueblo 
region for its seeds, which were eaten 
after being parched and ground into 
meal between two stones. The limits of 
the cultivation of tobacco at the time of 
the discovery has not yet been well de- 
fined. That it was cultivated to some 
extent on the Atlantic side is known; 
it was used aboriginally all over Cali- 
fornia, and indeed a plant called tobacco 
by the natives was cultivated as far n. as 
Yakutat bay, Alaska. 

Although it has been stated that the 
Indians did not use fertilizers, there is 
evidence that they did. The Plymouth 
colonists were told by the Indians to add 
fish to the old grounds (Bradford, Hist. 
Plym. Plant., Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th 
s., in, 100, 1856). It is also stated that the 
Iroquois manured their land. Lescarbot 
says the Armouchiquois, Virginia Indians, 
and others "enrich their fields with sheiiM 
and fish." The implements they usee 
in cultivating 
the ground 
are described 
, s "wooden 
howes" and 
"spades made 
of hardwood.' 
"Florida In- 
dians dig their ground with an instru- 
ment of wood fashioned like a broad 
mattock," "use hoes made of shoulder 
blades of animals fixed on staves," "use 
the shoulder blade of a deer or a tortoise 
shell, sharp- 
ened upon 
a stone and 
fastened to 
a stick, in- 
stead of 
hoe;" "a 
piece of wood, 3 inches broad, bent ;it 
one end and fastened to a long handle 
sufficed them to free the land from weeds 
and turn it up lightly." Mention is also 

hoe, from an Engraving in De Bry, 
Sixteenth Century 


Flint Spade, Middle Mis- 
sissippi Valley 

Flint Hoe, Middle Mi; 
sissippi Valley " 

made of shells used as digging imple- 
ments, and Moore and Cushing have 
found in Florida many large conchs that 
had served this purpose. 




Such are some of the earlier statements 
in regard to the agricultural implements 
used by the Indians; however, certain 
stone implements have been found in vast 
lumbers which are generally conceded to 
have been used in breaking the soil. Of 
these the most characteristic are the hoes 
and spades of the middle Mississippi 

Formerly the field work was generally/ 1 
done by the women. Hariot (Hakluyt, 
Voy., in, 329, 1810) says, "The w T omen, 
with short pickers or parers (because they 
use them sitting) of a foot long, and about 
5 inches in breadth, do only break the 
upper part of the ground to raise up the 
weeds, grass, and old stubs or cornstalks 
with their roots." It was a general cus- 
tom to burn over the ground before plant- 
ing in order to free it from weeds and 
rubbish. In the forest region patches 
were cleared by girdling the trees, thus 
causing them to die, and afterward burn- 
ing them down. 

Though the Indians as a rule have been 
somewhat slow in adopting the plants 
and methods introduced by the whites, 
this has not been wholly because of their 
dislike of labor, but in some cases has 
been due largely to their removals by the 
< rovernment and to the unproductiveness 
of the soil of many of the reservations 
assigned them. Where tribes or portions 
of tribes, as parts of the Cherokee and 
[uois, were allowed to remain in their 
original territory, they were not slow in 
bringing into use the introduced plants 
and farming methods of the whites, the 
fruit trees, livestock, plows, etc. 

According to the Report of the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs for 1904 the 
following is a summary of the agricultural 
industries of the Indians, exclusive of the 
Five Civilized Tribes, during that year: 

Land cultivated .'acres 365, 469 

Land broken tm " 30,644 

Land under fence (1903) " 1,83g',245 

Fencing built .....rods 269,578 

Families living on and cultivating 

lands in severalty 10, 846 

Crops raised: 

Wheat bushels 750, 788 

Oats and barley " 1,246,960 

<'«"! .' " 949J815 

Vegetables : " 606,023 

Flax " 26,290 

vflky tons 405, 627 

Miscellaneous products of Indian 

Butter made pounds 157, 057 

Lumber sawed feet 5, 563, 000 

Timber marketed " 107, 032 000 

Wood cut cords 118, 493 

Stock owned by Indians: 

Horses, mules, and burros 295 466 

£at. tle 497,611 

g^ ine 40, 898 

*"»<?ep 792, 620 

.Goats ..... . 135> 417 

Domestic fowls 267, 574 

Freight transported by Indians with 

i heir own teams pounds 23, 717, 000 

■mount earned by such freighting . . $113 641 

"Value of products of Indian labor sold 
by Indians; 

To Government $456, 026 

" Otherwise $1,878,462 

Roads made miles 570 

Roads repaired " 3,045 

Days' labor expended on roads 125, 813 

Much additional information regarding 
agriculture among the Indians may be 
found in the Annual -Reports of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology. See also Food, 
Gourds, Irrigation, Maize, Tobacco, Wild 
Rice, etc., and for agricultural imple- 
ments see Hoes, Implements and Utensils, 
Spades, (v. t. ) 

~~Agtism. Mentioned as a Costanoan 
village near Santa Cruz mission, Cal., in 
1819.-01bez quoted by Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 5, 1860. 

Agua Caliente (Span.: ' warm water ') . 
A small Shoshonean division on the head- 
waters of San Luis Rey r., s. Cal., form- 
ing one linguistic group with the Kawia, 
Luiseno, and Juaneno. Villages: Gupa 
and Wilakal. The people of Wilakal are 
included in Los Coyotes res. (see Pacha- 
wal). By decision of the U. S. Supreme 
Court the title of the Indians in the other 
village and in several small Diegueno 
rancherias, collectively better known as 
"Warner's Ranch Indians," was dis- 
proved, and under act of Congress of 
May 27, 1902, a tract was added to Pala 
res., and these and neighboring Indians 
were removed thereto in 1903 (Ind. Aff. 
Reps., 1902, 1903). At that time they 
aggregated about 300. 

Agua Caliente.— Kroeber, inf'n, 1905. Hekwach.— 
Ibid, (so called by Dieguenos of San Felipe). 
Warner's Ranch Indians.— Popular name for in- 
habitants of Gupa and some Diegueno rancherias 
in the neighborhood. Xagua'tc— Boas in Proc. 
Am. Asso. Adv. Sci., xliv, 261,1895 (so called by 
Dieguenos of Tekumak). 

Aguacay. A large village, probably be- 
longing to a division of a southern Cad- 
doan tribe, formerly in the vicinity of 
Washita r., Ark., where salt was man- 
ufactured both for home consumption 
and for trade. It was visited by the De- 
Soto expedition in 1542. See Gentl. of 
Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. Coll. La., 
ii, 194, 1850; Hakluyt Soc. Pub., 197, 
1851; Harris, Voy. and Trav., i, 810, 
1705. (A. c. F.) 

Aguachacha. The Yavapai name of a 
tribe, evidently Yuman, living on the 
lower Colorado in Arizona or California 
in the 18th century.— Garc^s (1776). 
Diary, 404, 1900. 

Aquachacha.— Jose Cortez (1799) quoted in Pa'c. 
R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3. 126, 1856. 

Agua Escondida (Span.: 'hidden wa- 
ter'). Apparently a Pima or Papago 
rancheria s. w. of Tubac, s. Arizona, in 
1774.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 389, 

Agua Fresca ( Span. : ' fresh water ' ) . A 
Timuquanan district in n. Florida about 
the year 1600.— Pareja (1614), Arte Tim., 
xxi, 1886. 



fR. A. E. 

Agua Fria (Span.: 'cold water'). A 
village, probably Piman, on Gila River 
res., s. Arizona; pop. 527 in 1863. Bailey 
makes the pop. 770 in 1858, and Browne 
gives it as 533 in 1869. 

Agua Bias.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 19, 1863 
(misprint). Aqua Baiz.— Browne, Apache Coun- 
try, 290, 1869. Arizo del Aqua.— Bailev in Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 208, 1858. 

Aguama. A former Chumashan village 
near Santa Inez mission, Santa Barbara 
co.,- Cal. — Tavlor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 
18, 1861. 

Agua Nueva (Span.: ' new water ') . A 
former pueblo, doubtless of the Piros, on 
the Rio Grande between Socorro and 
Sevilleta, N. Mex. It was apparently 
abandoned shortly before Gov. Otermin's 
second visit in 1681, during the Pueblo 
revolt. — Davis, Span. Conq. N. Mex., 
313, 1869. 

Aguaquiri. An Indian village, prob- 
ably in central N. Car. or n. e. Ga., visited 
by Juan Pardo in 1565. — Vandera (1567) 
in Smith, Coll. Docs. Fla., i, 17, 1857. 

Agua Salada (Span.: 'salt water'). A 
Xavaho division in 1799, mentioned as a 
village bv Cortez (Pac. R. R. Rep., in, 
pt. 3, 119^ 1856). As theNavaho are not 
villagers, the Thodhokongzhi (Saline 
water, or Bitter water) clan was prob- 
ably intended. 

Agua Salada. A district in Florida 
where one of the various Timuquanan 
dialects was spoken. — Pareja ( 1614), Arte 
Tim., 88, 1886. 

Aguas Calientes ( Span. : ' warm waters' ) . 
A province with 3 towns visited by Ooro- 
nado in 1541 ; identified by J. H. Simp- 
son with the Jemez ruins at Jemez Hot 
Springs, near the head of Jemez r. , San- 
doval co., N. Mex. 

Aguas Calientes.— Castaned a (1596) in 14th Rep. 
B. A. E., 525, 1896. Aquas-Calientes.— Castaneda 
(1596) misquoted by Ternaux-Compans, Voy.,ix, 
182, 1838. Oji Caliente.— Bell in J. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., N. s., I, 262, 1869 (misprint). 

Aguastayas. A tribe, possibly Coahuil- 
tecan, mentioned by Rivera (Diario, leg. 
1,994, 2,602, 1736) in connection with the 
Mesquites and Payayas, as residing s. s.e. 
of San Antonio presidio, Tex. The three 
tribes mentioned numbered 250 people. 

Aguile. A town in n. Florida, visited 
by DeSoto in 1539, possibly in the neigh- 
borhood of Ocilla r. — Biedma in Smith, 
Coll. Docs. Fla., i, 48, 1857. 

Aguin. A Chumashan village w. of the 
Shuku village at Ventura, Ventura co., 
Cal., in 1542; placed by Taylor (Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863) on the beach of 
Las Llagas. 

Agulakpak. An Eskimo village near* 
Kuskokwim r., Alaska. Pop. 19 in 1890. 
Ahgulakhpaghamiut.— llth Census, Alaska, 164, 

Aguliak. A Kuskw r ogmiut village on 
the e. shore of Kuskokwim bav, Alaska. 
Pop. 120 in 1880, 94 in 1890. 

Aguliagamiut.— llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 
Aguliagamute.— Petroff, Rep.onAlaska. map,1884. 
Aguligamute.— Petroff, ibid., 17. 

Agulok. A former Aleut village on Un- 
alaskaid., Alaska. — Coxe, Russ. Discov., 
159, 1787. 

Agulukpuk. An Eskimo village in the 
Nushagak district, Alaska; pop: 22 in 
Agulukpukmiut. — llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 

Agumak. A Kuskwogmiut village in 
Alaska; pop. 41 in 1890.— llth Census, 
Alaska, 164, 1893. 

Ahachik (' moving lodges' ). A Crow 

Ah-Ea-chick.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 159, 1877. 
Lodges charged upon.— Culbertson in Smithson. 
Rep. 1850, 144, 1851 . 

Ahadzooas. The principal village of the 
Oiaht, on Diana id., w. coast of Vancou- 
ver id.— Can. Ind. Aff., 263, 1902. 

Ahaharopirnopa. A division or band of 
the Crows. 

Ahah-ar-ro'-pir-no-pah.— Lewis and Clark, Disc., 
41, 1806. 

Ahahpitape (aah'-pun 'blood,' tuppe 
'people': 'bloody band'). A division 
of the Piegan tribe of the Siksika. 

Ah-ah'-pi-ta-pe.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 171, 1877. 
Ah'-pai-tup-iks.— Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, 209, 1892. A'-pe-tup-i.— Havden, Ethnog. 
andPhilol. Mo.Val., 264, 1862. Bloody Piedgans.— 
Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850. 144, 1851. 

Ahahswinnis. The principal village of 
the Opitchesaht, on the e. bank of So- 
mass r., Vancouver id. — Can. Ind. Aff., 
263, 1902. 

Ahahweh (a'hawe, 'a swan.' — Wm. 
Jones). A phratry of the Chippewa. 
According to Morgan it is the Duck gens 
of the tribe. 

A-auh-wauh.— Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 83, 1850. 
Ah-ah-wai.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, I, 304, 1853. 
Ah-ah-wauk.— Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc Coif., 
v, 44, 1885. Ah-ah'-weh.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 166, 
1877. Ah-auh-wauh.— Ramsey in Ind Aff. Rep., 
91, 1850. Ah-auh-wauh-ug.— Warren in Minn. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 87, 1885 (plural). Ahawh- 
wauk. -Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, II, 142, 1852. 

Ahalakalgi (from dha 'sweet potato', 
algi 'people'). One of the 20 Creek 

Ah'-ah— Morgan. Anc. Soc. 161, 1877. Ahala- 
xalgi.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 155, 1884. 

Ahantchuyuk. A division of the Kala- 
pooian family on and about Pudding r., 
an e. tributary of the Willamette, empty- 
ing into it about 10 m. s. of Oregon City, 

Ahandshiyuk.— Gatschet. Calapooya MS. vocab., 
B. A. E. (own name). Ahandshuyuk amim.— 
Gatschet, Lakmiut MS., B. A. E., 1877(Lakmiut 
name). Ahantchuyuk amim. — Gatschet, Atfalati 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1877 (so called by the Cala- 
pooya proper). French Prairie Indians. — So called 
by early settlers. Pudding River Indians. — So 
called by various authors. 

Ahapchingas. A former Gabrieleno 
rancheria in Los Angeles co., Cal., be- 
tween Los Angeles and San Juan Capis- 
trano. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Mav 11, 

Ahapopka ('eating the ahi,' or bog 
potato) . A former Seminole town, prob- 

BULL. 30] 



ably on or near the lake of the same 
name and near the head of Ocklawaha r., 
x. central Florida. 

Ahapapka.— H. R. Ex. Doc. 74 (1823), 19th Cong., 
1st, sess., 27, 1826. Ahapopka.— Bell in Morse, 
Rep. to Sec. War, 306, 1822. Hapapka.— Jesup 
(1837) in H. R. Doc. 78, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 65, 

Ahasimus (possibly related to the Chip- 
pewa animush, 'dog' ; the Sauk, Fox, and 
Kickapoo word for dog is unemo a , and for 
a puppy, unemoha a , but when the word 
becomes the name of a boy of the Wolf 
gens, it assumes another form of the 
diminutive, unimbs a . — W. Jones). A 
village in n. New Jersey in 1655, probably 
of the Unami Delawares (N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., xiii, 55, 1881). As the name of a 
later white settlement the word occurs in 
a number of forms. 

Ahchawat. A summer village of the 
Makah at C. Flattery, Wash. — Swan in 
Smithson. Cont., xvi, 6, 1870. 
Hatch-ah-wat.— Gibbs, MS. 248, B. A. E. 

Ahdik (udi'fc, 'caribou' — W. Jones). 
A gens of the Chippewa, often translated 
' reindeer. ' 

Addick.— Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 44, 
1885. Ad-dik.— Tanner, Narrative, 314, 1830. Ad- 
dik'.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 166, 1877. Atik'.— 
Gatschet^de Tomazin, Indian informant. 

Ahealt. A Koluschan division in the 
neighborhood of Pt Stewart, Alaska. 
The name can not be identified, but a 
clan called Hehlqoan, q. v., now living 
at Wrangell, formerly occupied this 
region, (.i. r. s. ) 

A-he-alt.— Kane, Wand, in N. A., app., 1859. Ahi- 
alt.— Petrorf in Tenth Census, Alaska, 36, 1884 
(quoted from a Hudson Bay Co. census taken in 
1S39). Port Stuart Indians.— Kane, op. cit. 

Ahehouen. A former village or tribe 
between Matagorda bay and Maligne 
(Colorado) r., Tex. The name was told 
to Joutel in 1687 by the Ebahamo In- 
dians, who lived in that region, and prob- 
ably applied to a tribe or division closely 
affiliated to the Karankawa. Tribes be- 
longing to the Tonka wan family also 
roamed in this vicinity, and those of the 
Caddoan family sometimes visited the 
country. See Gatschet in Peabody Mu- 
seum Papers, i, 35, 46, 1891. (a. c. f. ) 
Ahehoen.— Joutel (1687) in French, Hist, Coll. 
La., I, 137, 1846. Ahehoenes.— Barcia, Ensayo, 
271, 1723. Ahehouen.— Joutel (1687) in Margry, 
Dec, in, 288, 1878. Ahekouen.— Joutel (1687) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., I, 152, 1846. 

Ahkaiksumiks. A subtribe or gens of 
the Kainah. 

Ah-kaik'-sum-iks. — Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, 209, 1892. 

Ahkaipokaks (ah-kai-lm' l many', po-ka' 
'child': ' many children.' — Grinnell). A 
subtribe or gens of the Kainah. 
Ah -kai'-po-kaks. -Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, 209, 1892. 

Ahkaiyikokakiniks ( ' white breasts ' ) . 
A band or gens of the Piegan. 

Ahrkai-yi-ko-ka'-kin-iks.— Grinnell, Blackfoot 
Lodge Tales, 209, 1892. Kai'-it-ko-ki'-ki-naks.— 
Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 264, 1862. 
Ahkotashiks ('many beasts [horses] ' ) . 
A subtribe or gens of the Kainah. 

Ahk-o'-tash-iks.— Grinnell, Blackfoot LodgeTales, 
209, 1892. 

Ahkwonistsists ('many lodge poles'). 
A subtribe or gens of the Kainah. 
Ah-kwo'-nis-tsists.— Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, 209, 1892. 

Ahlunksoo ( ' spotted animal.' ) . A gens 
of the Abnaki. 

Ah-lunk'-soo.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 174, 1877. 
^ Ahmeekkwun - eninnewug (Chippewa: 
UmVkuivl/riinlwug, 'beaver people'). A 
tribe living, according to Tanner (Narr., 
316, 1830), among the Fall Indians, by 
which name he seems to mean theAtsina 
or, possibly, the Amikwa. 

Ahmik ( ' beaver ' ) . A gens of the Chip- 

Ah-meek.— Tanner, Narrative, 314, 1830. Ah- 
mik'.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 166, 1877. Amik.— War- 
ren in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 45, 1885. TJmi'k.— 
Jones, inf'n, 1905 (correct form). 

Ahnahanamete (supposed to indicate 
some ani mal ) . A Hidatsa band, regarded 
by Matthews as possibly the same as the 

Ah-nah-ha-na'-me-te. — Morgan, Anc Soc, 159, 

Ahome. (Buelna says the aboriginal 
name is Jaomeme, 'where the man ran.' 
In Cahita, ho-me means 'to inhabit,' 
'to live,' and in Nahuatl ahome might 
be derived from all water, ome two, ' two 
waters,' referring to the ocean tide which 
ascends the river to this point; but after 
all the word may be of Vacoregue origin. ) 
A subdivision of the Cahita, speaking 
the Vacoregue dialect, and the name of 
its pueblo, situated 4 leagues above the 
mouth of Rio del Fuerte, x. w. Sinaloa, 
Mexico. The tradition exists among 
them that they came from the n. ; in 
that country they fixed paradise and the 
dwelling place of the souls of their dead. 
They were of agreeable disposition and of 
larger size than the other inhabitants of 
the river valley. They are said to have 
uttered cries and lamentations for their 
dead during one entire year, for an hour 
at sunrise and another at sunset. Al- 
though speaking the same language as 
the inhabitants of a number of neighbor- 
ing pueblos, the Ahome formed a dis- 
tinct organization. The pueblo of Ahome 
became the center of the Batucari settle- 
ment under the Jesuit missionaries. 
(f. w. h.) 

Ahome. — Kino, map (1702) in Stocklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 1726. Hoomi.— Doc Hist, Mex., quoted 
by Buelna, Peregr. Aztecas, 123, 1892. Jaomeme.— 
Buelna, ibid. Omi.— Hardy. Trav. in Mex., 438, 

Ahosulga. A former Seminole town 5 
m. s. of New Mickastiky town, probably 
in Lafayette co., Fla. — H. E. Ex. Doc. 
74 (1823), 19th Cong., 27, 1826. 

Ahouerhopihein (probably a combina- 
tion of Ahouergomahe and Kemahopi- 
hein of Joutel's list; see Margry, Dec., 
in, 288, 289, 1878) . A village or possibly 
two villages in Texas. The people are 
mentioned by Joutel as living in 1687 be- 



[b. a. b. 

tween Matagorda bay and Maligne (Colo- 
rado) r., Tex. The region was inhabited 
by Karankawan tribes, and the name was 
given by the Ebahamo, who were probably 
closely affiliated to that group. See Gat- 
schet, Karankawa Indians, 35, 46, 1891. 
(a. c. p.) 

Abonerhopiheim.— Joutel (1687) in French, Hist. 
Coll, La., i, 152, 1846. Ahonerhopiheim. — Ibid., 
137. Ahouerhopiheim.— Shea, note in Charlevoix, 
New France, iv, 78, 1870. 

Ahousaht. A Nootka tribe about Clay- 
oquotsd., w. coast of Vancouver id. ; pop. 
273 in 1902. Their principal village is 
Mahktosis. (j. e. s. ) 

Ahhousaht.— Can. Ind. Aft, 188, 1883. Ahosett.— 
Swan in Smithson. Cont., xvi, 56, 1870. Ahou- 
saht.— Sproat, Sav. Life, 308, 1868. Ahouset.— 
Mayne, Brit. Col., 251, 1862. Ahowartz.— Arm- 
strong, Oreg., 136, 1857. Ahowsaht.— Powell in 
7th Rep. B. A. E., 130, 1891. Ah-owz-arts.— Jewitt, 
Narr., 36, 1849. Arhosett.— Swan, MS., B. A. E. 
Asonsaht.— Can. Ind. Aff., 7, 1872. 

Ahoyabe. A small town, possibly Musk- 
hogean, subject to the Hoya, and lying be- 
tween them and the Coosa, on the coast 
of s. S. C, in 1567. — Vandera in Smith, 
Coll. Docs. Fla., i, 16, 1857. 

Ahpakosea ( ' buzzard ') . A gens of the 
Ah-pa'-kose-e-a.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 168, 1877. 

Ahseponna ( ' raccoon ' ) . A gens of the 

Ah-se-pon'-na.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 168, 1877. 
A'sepun a . — Wm. Jones, inf'n., 1905 (Sank, Fox, 
and Kickapoo form). 

Ahtena ( ' ice people ' ). An Athapascan 
tribe occupying the basin of Copper r., 
Alaska. Their permanent villages are 
situated 100 m. or more from the sea, on 
Copper r., the mouth of which Nagaieff 
discovered in 1781. An expedition in 
1796 under Samoylof failed on account 
of the hostility of the natives, as did a 
second under Lastochkin in 1798, and 
one under Klimoffsky in 1819. Gregorief 
in 1844 renewed the attempt with like 
result. In 1848 Serebrdnnikof ventured 
up the river, but his disregard for the 
natives cost the lives of himself and 3 of 
his party (Dall, Alaska, 343, 1877). Dall 
met a trading party of Ahtena in 1874 at 
Port Etches, and in 1882 a trader named 
Holt ascended the river as far as Taral, 
but on a subsequent visit was murdered 
by the natives. Lieut. Abercrombie in 
1884 explored a part of the river, and in 
the following year Lieut. Allen made an 
extended exploration, visiting the Ahtena 
villages on Copper r. and its chief tribu- 
taries. The natives strongly resemble 
the Koyukukhotana in appearance, the 
men being tall, straight, of good phy- 
sique, with clear olive complexion, arched 
eyebrows, beardless faces, and long, 
straight, black hair, worn loose or in a sin- 
gle scalp-lock. Petroff ( 10th Census, Alas- 
ka, 164, 1884) states that prior to 1880 the 
women had never been seen by any white 
man who lived to describe them. On 
account of the hostile nature of these 

people but little is known of their cus- 
toms and beliefs. Their clothing ordi- 
narily consists of two garments, trousers 
and boots forming one, a parka the 
other. The clothing is decorated with 
beads or, more commonly, with fringe 
and porcupine quills, since beads are used 
in trade with the tribes on Tanana r. 
They have a cap of skin detached from 
the parka. The chief occupation of the 
men is hunting and fishing, supplemented 
by a yearly trading trip as middlemen 
between the coast tribes and those of the 
interior. In visiting the coast they travel 
in large skin-covered boats purchased 
from traders or from the coast tribes. 
The chief articles of trade are beads, 
cotton prints, and tobacco, which are 
exchanged for furs and copper. Their 
chief weapon is the bow and arrow, 
although a few old-fashioned guns are 
occasionally found. The men have both 
nose and ears pierced, the women the 
latter only. The houses are of two kinds, 
permanent, for use in winter, and tem- 
porary, used only as shelters during hunt- 
ing trips. To the permanent dwellings 
are attached subterranean bath-rooms, in 
which steam is created by pouring water 
on red-hot stones. They live in small 
villages, of one or two houses; the head- 
man is called a tyone, arid his near rela- 
tives, the next in rank, are called skillies. 
There is usually a shaman in every vil- 
lage, and slaves of varying degrees of 
servitude are kept. Polygamy is prac- 
tised to a limited extent; it is said that 
the women are treated with very little 
consideration and valued in proportion 
to their ability to work (Allen, Rep. on 
Alaska, 266, 1887). According to Allen 
(ibid., 259) the Ahtena are divided into 
two branches: those on Copper r., from 
its mouth to Tazlina r., and on Chitina 
r. and its branches he calls the Midnusky ; 
those above the Tazlina, Tatlatan. Pe- 
troff in 1880 stated that the Ahtena did 
not number more than 300. Allen in 
1 885 gave the entire number of natives on 
the river and its branches as 366, of whom 
128 were men, 98 women, and 140 chil- 
dren, distributed as follows: On Chitina 
r. and its branches, 30; on Tazlina r. and 
lake, 20; on Copper r., between Taral 
and the Tazlina, 209; Tatlatans, 117. 
According to Hoffman (MS. vocab., B. 
A. E., 1882) the tribe consists of six divi- 
sions: Ikherkhamut, Kangikhlukhmut, 
Kulushut, Shukhtutakhlit, Vikhit, and 
he includes also the Kulchana. The 
census of 1890 makes the total number of 
Ahtena 142, consisting of 89 males and 53 
females. Their villages are: Alaganik, 
Batzulnetas, Liebestag, Miduuski, Ska- 
talis, Skolai, Slana, Titlogat, Toral. (f.h. ) 

Ah-tena.— Dall, Alaska, 429, 1870 (own name). 
Ahtna-khotana.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 164, 
1884. Artez-kutchi.— Richardson, Arct. Exped., 

BULL. 30] 



I, 397, 1851. Artez-kutshi.— Latham, Nat. Races 
Russ. Emp., 293, 1854. Artez-Kuttchin.— Petitot, 
Diet. Dene-Dind j ie, xx, 1876. Atakhtans. — Erman 
quoted by Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 34, 1877. 
Atenas.— Harmon, Journ., 190, 1820. Athnaer.— 
Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., 7,1855. Atnachtjaner.— 
Erman, Archiv, Vii, 128, 1849. Atnaer.— Richard- 
son, Arct. Exped., I, 402, 1851. Atnahs.— Pinart 
in Rev. de Philol. et d'Ethnol., no. 2, 1, 1875. 
Atnans.— Petitot, Autour du lac des Esclaves, 362, 
1891. Atnas.— Scouler in Jonrn. Geog. Soc. Lond., 
I 218, 1841. Atnatana.— Allen, Rep., 62, 1887. 
Atnatena.— 11th Census, Alaska, 67, 1893. Atnax- 
thynne.— Pinart, Sur les Atnahs, 1, 1875. Copper 
Indians.— Mahoney in Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1869, 575, 
1870. Copper River Indians.— Colyer, ibid., 535. 
Intsi Dindjich.— Petitot, Autour du lac des Es- 
claves, 165, 1891 ( ' men of iron ' : Kutchin name). 
Ketschetnaer.— Wrangell, quoted by Baer and 
Helmersen, Beitrage, 1, 98, 1839 '( ' ice people ' : Rus- 
sian name). Kolshina.— Dall, Alaska, 429, 1870 (so 
called by Russians). Madnussky.— Mahoney in 
Ind. Aff. Rep. 1869, 575, 1870 (corruption of Russian 
Miednovski, from miednaia, 'copper,' the name 
given to the river). Maidnorskie.— Elliott, Cond. 
Aff. Alaska, 29, 1874. Mednoftsi.— Hoffman, MS. 
vocab., B. A. E., 1882 ( ' Copper r. people ' : Russian 
name). Mednovtze.— 11th Census, Alaska, 156, 1893. 
Midnooskies. —Allen, Rep. , 22. 1887 ( Russian name ) . 
Midnovtsi.— Ibid., 128 (Russian name). Mied- 
noffskoi.— Worman quoted by Dall in Cont. N. 
A. Ethnol., I, 34, 1877. Miednofskie.— Pinart in 
Rev. de Philol. et d'Ethnol., no. 2, 1 , 1875. Minoo- 
sky.— Allen, Rep., 128, 1887. Minusky.— Ibid. 
Nehannes.— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 525, 
1878. Nehaunee.— Dall, Alaska, 429, 1870. Nehau- 
nee Indians.— Ross, MS. map quoted by Dall in 
Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 34, 1877 (Yellovvknife or). 
Neine Katlene.— Doroschin in Radloff, Worterbuch 
d. Kinai-Spr., 29, 1874 (own name). Onossky.— 
Mahony in Sen. Ex. Doc. 68, 41st Cong., 2d sess., 
19, 1870. Otno-khotana.— Petroff in 10th Census, 
Alaska, 164, 1884 (so-called by Knaiakhotana). 
Otnox tana.— Dawydow quoted by Radloff, Wor- 
terbuch d. Kinai-Spr., 29, 1874. TJtunx tana.— Do- 
roschin, ibid. Yellowknife Indians.— Ross, MS. 
map cited by Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 34, 
1877 ( Nehaunee or; so called bv English ) . Yullit. — 
Petroff in 10th Census, Alaska, 165, 1884 (Ugalak- 
miut name). 

Ahuamhoue. A former Chumashan 
village near Santa Inez mission, Santa 
Barbara co., Cal. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Oct. J8, 1861. 

Ahuanga. A Luiseno settlement, con- 
sisting of 2 villages, about 30 m. from 
the coast, lat. 33°, 25', in San Diego co., 
Cal. — Hayes (ca. 1850) quoted bv Ban- 
croft, Nat. Kaces, i, 460, 1882. 

Ahulka (A-hul-qa). A village of the 
Ntlakyapamuk, on Fraser r., British Co- 
lumbia, just below Siska; pop. 5 in 1897, 
the last time the name appears. 
Ahulqa.— Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 5, 
1899. Halaha.— Can. Ind. Aff. for 1885, 196 (prob- 
ably the same). 

Ahwaste. A division of the Costanoan 
family formerly living near San Francisco 
bay, Cal., and connected with Dolores 

Aguasajuchhun.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 
1861 (Aguasa and Juchium [Uchium] com- 
bined). Aguasto.— Ibid. Ah-wash-tes. — School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, II, 506, 1852. Ahwastes.— 
Latham in Proc. Philol. Soc. Lond., vi, 79, 1854. 
Apuasto.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 
Habasto.— Ibid. 

Ahwehsoos ( ' bear ' ) . A gens of the Ab- 

Ah-weH'-soos.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 174, 1877. 
Awasos.— J. D. Prince, infn, 1905 (modern St 
Francis Abnaki form). 

Aiachagiuk. A Chnagmiut village on 
the right bank of the Yukon, near the 
head of the delta. 

Aiachagiuk.— Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. 
Ayachaghayuk.— Coast Surv. map, 1898. 

Aiacheruk. A Kaviagmiut Eskimo vil- 
lage near C. Nome, Alaska; pop. 60 in 

Ahyoksekawik.— llth Census, Alaska, 162, 1893. 
Aiacheruk. — Jackson, Reindeer in Alaska, map, 
1894. Ayacheruk.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 59, 

Aiaktalik. A Kaniagmiut village on 
one of the Goose ids. near Kodiak, Alas- 
ka; pop. 101 in 1880, 106 in 1890. 
Aiakhatalik.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, map, 
1884. Aiaktalik.— Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 
1901. Anayachtalik.— Sauer, Exped., 1802. Ayak- 
talik.— llth Census, Alaska, 163, 1893. Ayakhta- 
lik.— Petroff, op. cit„ 29. 

Aiapai. Mentioned by Powers (Cont. 
N. A. Ethnol., in, 370, 1877) as a division 
of the Yokuts at Soda Spring, on Tule r., 
Cal., but it is merely the name of a local- 
ity at which the Yaudanchi or perhaps 
other divisions once lived, (a. l. k.) 

Aicatum. A Maricopa rancheria on the 
Rio Gila, Ariz., in 1744 — Sedelmair(1774) 
quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 
366, 1889.' 

Aigspaluma ( Shahaptian : ' people of the 
chipmunks'). The Klamath, Modoc, 
Shoshoni, and Paiute living on Klamath 
res. and its vicinity in Oregon. — Gatschet 
in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., n, nt. i, xxxiii, 

Aigspalo.— Gatschet, ibid, (abbreviated form). 
Aikspalu.— Ibid. I-uke-spi-ule.— Huntington in 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 466, 1865. 

Aika. A former Shasta village near 
Hamburg Bar, on Klamath r., Siskiyou 
co., Cal. (r. b. d. ) 
Ika.— Steele in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1864, 120, 1865. 

Aimgua. A former Chnagmiut village 
near the mouth of Yukon r., Alaska. — 
Zagoskin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th s., 
xxi, map, 1850. 

Aingshi ( ' bear ' ). A Zufii clan. 
Ain'shi-kwe.— Cushing in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 368, 
1896 (kwe = ' people'). Aiijshi-kwe.— Ibid., 386. 
An-shi-i-que. — Stevenson in 5th Rep. B. A. E., 
541, 1887. 

Ainslie Creek. A band of Ntlakyapa- 
muk on Fraser r., above Spuzzum, Brit. 
Col.— Can. Ind. Aff., 79, 1878. 

Aiodjus ( i: ai n odjus, 'all fat [meat]'). 
A Skittagetan town on the w. side of the 
mouth of Masset inlet, Queen Charlotte 
ids. It was occupied by the Aokeawai 
before they moved to Alaska. — Swanton, 
Cont. Haida, 281, 1905. 

Ais. A rude tribe of unknown affinity 
formerly occupying the e. coast of Florida, 
from about Cape Canaveral s. to about 
Santa Lucia inlet, or about the present 
Brevard co. They planted nothing, but 
subsisted entirely on fish and wild fruits, 
and were more or less subject to the 
Caloosa. (j. m. ) ~-<i> 

Ais.— De Canzo Rep. (1600) in Brooks Coll. MS., 
Lib. Cong. Ais. — Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 
12, 1884. Aisa.— Romans, Florida, I, 281, 1775 (the 



[B. A. E. 

lagoon). Ays.— Mexia Report (1586) in Brooks 
Coll. MS., Lib. Cong. Chaas.— Peniere (1821) as 
quoted by Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 311, 1822. 
Chiaas.— Peniere, ibid., 150. Chias.— Peniere, 
ibid., 149. Is.— Barcia, Ensayo, 95, 1723. Jece.— 
Dickenson (1699), Narr., 47, 1803. Ys.— Fairbanks, 
Florida, 175, 1871. 

Aisikstukiks ( ' biters ' ) . A band of the 

Ai-sik'-stuk-iks.— Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, 209, 1892. 

Aitacomanes. Mentioned with the Oto- 
comanes as a people occupying a province 
that had been visited by the Dutch 
and "where the abundance of gold and 
silver is such that all the vessels for their 
use are of silver, and in some cases of 
gold." The locality is not given, and 
the province is probably as imaginary as 
the expedition in connection with which 
it is mentioned. See Freytas, Exped. of 
Penalosa (1662), Sheatransl., 67, 1882. 

Aivilik ( ' having walrus' ). An Eskimo 
village on Kepulse bay, Franklin dist., 
Brit. Col., the principal winter settle- 
ment of the Aivilirmiut. — Boas in 6th 
Rep. B. A. E., 449, 1888. 
A'-wee-lik.— McClintock, Voy. of Fox, 163, 1881. 
Ay- wee-lik.— Lyons, Priv. Journ., 161, 1825. 
Eiwili.— Klutschak.Unterd. Eskimo, map, 48, 1881. 
Iwillichs.— Gilder, Schwatka's Search, 294, 1881. 
Iwiliie.— Ibid., 304. Iwillik.— Ibid., 181. 

Aivilirmiut ('people of the walrus 
place' ) . A Central Eskimo tribe on the n. 
shores of Hudson bay from Chesterfield 
inlet to Fox channel, among whom Rae so- 
journed in 1846-47, C. F. Hall in 1864-69, 
and Schwatka in 1877-79. They kill 
deer, muskoxen, seal, walrus, trout, and 
salmon, caching a part of the meat and 
blubber, which before winter they bring 
to one of their central settlements. Their 
chief villages are Akudlit, Avilik, Iglulik, 
Maluksilak, Nuvung, Pikuliak, Ugluriak, 
Ukusiksalik; summer villages are Inugsu- 
lik, Kariak, Naujan, Pitiktaujang. — Boas 
in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 445, 1888. 
Ahaknanelet.— Petitot in Bib. Ling, et Ethnol. 
Am., m, xi, 1876 (so called by the Chiglit of 
Liverpool bay: sig. 'women'). A-hak-nan-helet. — 
Richardson, Arct. Exped., I, 362, 1851. Ahaknan- 
helik.— Richardson, Polar Regions, 300, 1861. 
Ahwhacknanhelett.— Franklin, Journey to Polar 
Sea, ii, 42,1824. Aivillirmiut.— Boas in 6th Rep. 
B. A. E., 445, 1S88. Eivillinmiut. — Boas in Trans. 
Anthrop. Soc. Wash., in, 102, 1885. Eiwillik!— 
Boas in Zeitschr. Ges. f. Erdk., 226, 1883. 

Aivino. A division of the Nevome in 
a pueblo of the same name on the w. 
tributary of the Rio Yaqui, lat. 29°, s. 
central \Sonora, Mexico. The inhabi- 
tants spoke a dialect differing somewhat 
from the Nevome proper, and their cus- 
toms were similar to those of the Sisibo- 

Aibina.— Balbi quoted by Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
852, 1864. Aibinos.— Kino et al. (1694) in Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., i, 399, 1856. Aivino.— Ribas, 
Hist. Trium. Sa. Fee, 370, 1645. Aybino.— Kino 
et al., op. cit. 

Aiwanat (Aiwanat, pi. of Aiwan). The 
Chukchi name for the Yuit Eskimo re- 
siding at and near the vicinity of Indian 
point, n. e. Siberia, as distinguished from 
those who speak the dialect of the vil- 

lage of Nabukak on East cape and that 
of Cherinak near C. Ulakhpen. — Bogoras, 
Chukchee, 20, 1904. 

Aiyaho (a red-topped plant). A Zuhi 
clan, by tradition originally a part of the 
Asa people who afterward became Hopi. 

Aiwahokwe.— Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 606, 
1900. Aiyaho-kwe.— Cushing in 13th Rep. B. A. 
E., 368, 1896 (kwe = 'people'). Aiyahokwi.— 
Stephen and Mindeleff in 8th Rep.B. A. E., 30-31, 
1891. Olla-jocue.— Cushing misquoted by Don- 
aldson, Moqui Pueblo Inds., 88, 1893 (incorrectly 
given as "Blue seed grass " people). Petaa- 
kwe.— Ibid., 386 (former name). 

Aiy ansb. ( ' eternal bloom . ' — Dorsey ) . 
A mission village on the lower course 
ofNass r., British Columbia, founded in 
1871, its inhabitants being drawn from 
Niska villages. Pop. 133 in 1901. 

Aiyansh.— Can. Ind. Aff., 271, 1889. Aiyaush.— 
Dorsey in Am. Antiq., xix, 281, 1897 (misprint). 

Akachumas. A former Chumashan vil- 
lage near Santa Inez mission, Santa Bar- 
bara co., Cal. — Gatschet in Chief Eng. 
Rep., pt. in, 553, 1876. 

Akachwa ( 'pine grove' ). ATarahumare 
rancheria near Palanquo, Chihuahua, 
Mexico. — Lumholtz, inf n, 1894. 

Akaitchis. A tribe said to have resided 
on Col mbia r. not far from the mouth 
of the Umatilla, in Oregon (Nouv. Ann. 
des Voy., x, 78, 1821). Their location 
would indicate a Shahaptian division, 
but they can not be identified. 

Akaitsuk. A former Chumashan vil- 
lage about Santa Inez mission, Santa Bar- 
bara co. , Cal . 

A-kai't-suk.— Henshaw, Santa Inez MS. vocab., 
B. A. E., 1884. 

Akak. An Eskimo settlement in the 1 
Nushagak district, Alaska, of only 9 peo- 
ple in 1890. 
Akakhpuk.— llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 

Akamnik. A tribe of the Upper K utenai 
living around Ft Steele and the mission 
of St Eugene on upper Kootenai r., Brit. 

Aqk'amnik.— Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 
10, 1889. Aqk'a'mnik.— Chamberlain in 8th Rep. 
N. W. Tribes Can., 6, 1892. 

Akanaquint ( ' green river ' ) . A Ute divi- 
sion formerly living on Green r., Utah, 
belonging probably to the Yampa. 
Akanaquint.— Beckwit'h in Pac. R. R. Rep., II, 61, 

1855. Chaguaguanos.— Escudero, Not. NuevoM6x., 
83, 1849. Changuaguanes.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
59, 1864 (given as Faraon Apache). Green river 
band.— Cummings in Ind. Aff. Rep., 153, 1866. 
Green river Utahs.— Beckwith in Pac. R. R. Rep., 
ii, 61, 1855. Sabaguanas.— Dominguez and Esca- 
lante (1776) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 2a s., I, 537, 1854. 
Sabuagana Gutas.— Escalante (1776) misquoted by 
Harry in Simpson, Rep. of Explor. across Utah 
in 1859, 494, 1876. Sabuaganas.— Dominguez and 
Escalante, op. cit., 421. Saguaguana.— Escudero, 
Not. Estad. de Chihuahua, 231, 1834. Yutas 
sabuaganas.— Dominguez and Escalante (1776) in 
Doc. Hist. Mex., 2a s., I, 415, 1854. Zaguaganas.— 
Cortez (1799) in Pac. R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3, 120, 

1856. Zaguaguas.— Villa Sefior, Theatro Am., II, 
413, 1748. 

Akanekunik ( ' Indians on a river ' ). A 
tribe of the Upper Kutenai on Kootenai 
r. at the Tobacco plains, Brit. Col. 
Aqk'anequnik.— Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes 
Can., 10, 1889. Aqk'anequ'nik.— Chamberlain in 
8th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 6, 1892. • Tobacco 

BULL. 30 J 



Plains Kootanie.— Tolmie and Dawson, Comp. 
Vocabs., 124b, 1884. Tobacco Plains Kootenay.— 
Chamberlain, op. cit., table opp. 41. Yaket-ahno- 
klatak-makanay.— Tolmie and Dawson, op. cit. 
Ya'k'et aqkinuqtle'et aqkts'ma'kinik.— Chamber- 
lain, op. cit., 6 ('Indians of the Tobacco plains,' 
from ya'k'et tobacco, aqkinuqtle'et plain, 
aqkts'md'kinik Indians). 

Akatlik. A Yuit village on Plover bay, 

Akatlak.— Krause in Deutsche Geogr. Blatter, v, 
80, map, 1882. Akatlik.— Nelson in 18th Rep. 
B. A. E., map, 1899. 

Akasquy. An extinct tribe, probably 
Caddoan, visited by La Salle in Jan., 
1687, when its people resided between 
the Palaquesson and the Penoy in the 
vicinity of Brazos r., Tex. They made 
cloth of buffalo w^ool and mantles deco- 
rated with bird feathers and the " hair 
of animals of every color. ' ' See Cavelier 
in Shea, Early Voy., 39, 1861.^ (a.c.f.) 

Akawenchaka (Onondaga: A-ka-we n ch- 
ha-kd). A small band that formerly 
lived in North Carolina, now numbering 
about 20 individuals, incorporated with 
the Tuscarora in New York. They are 
not regarded as true Tuscarora. — Hewitt, 
Onondaga MS., B. A. E., 1888. 
Kauwetsaka.— Cusick (1825) quoted byMacauley, 
N. Y., ii, 178, 1829 (mentioned as a settlement in 
N.C.). Kauwetseka.— Cusick, Sketches Six Na- 
tions, 34, 1828. 

Akawiruchic ( ' place of much fungus ' ). 
A Tarahumare ranch eria near Palanquo, 
Mexico. — Lumholtz, inf'n, 1894. 

Akchadak-kochkond. A coast village 
of the Malemiut in Alaska. — Zagoskin 
in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th s., xxi, map, 

Akerninak. A settlement of East Green- 
land Eskimo on Sermilik fiord; pop. 12 
in 1884.— Holm, Ethnol. Skizze af Ang- 
magsalikerne, 14, 1887. 

Akgulurigiglak. An Eskimo village in 
the Nushagak district, Alaska; pop. 61 in 
1890.— Eleventh Census, Alaska, 164, 

Akhiok. A Kaniagmiut village on Ali- 
tak bay, Kodiak id., Alaska; pop. 114 in 
1880, slightly more than 100 in 1900. 
Achiok.— Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., map. 142, 1855. 
Akhiok.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 29, 1884. 
Alitak.— 11th Census, Alaska, 5, 1893. Kaschjuk- 
•wagmjut.— Holmberg, op. cit. Kashukvagmiut. — 
Russ. Am. Co., map, 1849. Oohaiack.— Lisianski, 
Voy. (1805), quoted by Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 
1901. Uhaiak.— Baker, ibid. 

Akiachak. A Kuskwogmiut village on 
Kuskokwim r., Alaska; pop. 43 in 1890, 
165 in 1900. 

Akiakchagmiut.— llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 
Akiatshagamut. — Spurr and Post quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. 

Akiak. A Kuskwogmiut village on 
Kuskokwim r., 30 m. above Bethel; pop. 
175 in 1880, 97 in 1890. 

Ackiagmute.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, map, 1884. 
Akiagamiut.— llth Census, Alaska, 104, 1893. Aki- 
agamute. -Hallock in Nat. Geog. Mag., IX, 1898. 
Akiagmut.— Spurr and Post quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Akkiagamute.— Petroff, 
op. cit., 53. Akkiagmute.— Ibid., 17. 

Akiskenukinik ( ' people of the two 
lakes'). A tribe of the Upper Kutenai 

Bull. 30—05—3 

living on the Columbia lakes, having 
their chief settlement at Windermere, 
Brit. Col. They numbered 72 in 1902. 
Akiskinookaniks.— Wilson in Trans. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., 304, 1866. AqkiskanukEnik.— Boas in 5th 
Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 10, 1889. Aqki'sk-Enu'- 
kinik.— Chamberlain in 8th Rep. N. W. Tribes 
Can., 6, 1892. Columbia Lakes.— Ibid., 7. 

Akiyenik (Aqkiye'nik, 'people of the 
leggings ' ) . A tribe of the Upper Kutenai 
living on L. Pend d' Oreille, Idaho. — 
Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 10, 

Aklut ( ' provisions ' ) . A Kuskwogmiut 
village on Kuskokwim r. at the mouth 
of the Eek, Alaska; pop. 162 in 1880, 106 
in 1890. 

Ahguliagamut.— llth Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 
Aklukwagamut.— Spurr and Post quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Akooligamute.— Petroff, 
Rep. on Alaska, 17, 1884; Nelson (1878) quoted by 
Baker, op. cit. 

Akmiut. A Kuskwogmiut village on 
Kuskokwim r., 10 m. above Kolmakof, 

Akmute.— petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, map, 1884. 

Akol (A'kol). An organization among 
the Pima, apparently gentile, belonging 
to the Suwuki Ohimal, or Red Ants, 
phratral group. — Russell, Pima MS., 
B. A. E., 313, 1903. 

Akonapi (possibly related to the Chip- 
pewa akunabawM, ' he is good at getting 
game ' ; -nap- is a secondary stem refer- 
ring to a human person. Another form 
is a'kuwhilrii; Iritnl refers to 'man.' — 
Wm. Jones). A people mentioned in the 
ancient Walam (Mum record of the Dela- 
wares (Brinton, Lenape Legends, 190, 
231, 1885), with whom they fought dur- 
ing their migrations. Brinton, w r ho iden- 
tifies them with the Akowini of the same 
tradition, thinks it probable that they 
lived immediately n. of Ohio r. in Ohio or 
Indiana. He regards Akowini as "corre- 
spondent" with Sinako, and Towakon 
with Towako; the latter he identifies 
with the Ottawa, called by the Delawares 
Taway. If this identification be correct, it 
is likely that the Akonapi were the Sinago 
branch of the Ottawa, (c. t. ) 
Ahkonapi.— Walam 01 um (1833) in Brinton, Len- 
ape Leg., 190, 1885. Akhonapi.— Ibid. Akowini.— 
Ibid., 198. 

Akonye ('people of the canyon'). An 
Apache band at San Carlos agency and 
Ft Apache, Ariz., in 1881; probably coor- 
dinate with the Khonagani clan of the 
Navaho. — Bourke in Journ. Am. Folk- 
Lore, in, 111, 1890. 

Nar-go'-des-giz'-zen. — White, Apache Names of 
Ind. Tribes, MS., B. A. E. 

Akominarmiut. A village of the south- 
ern group of East Greenland Eskimo, be- 
tween lat. 63° and 64°; pop., with three 
other villages, 135. — Rink in Geog. Blat- 
ter, viii, 346, 1886. 

Akpaliut. A Kaviagmiut village w. of 
Golofnin bay, on Norton sd., Alaska; pos- 
sibly the same as Chiukak. 
Acpalliut.— W. U. Tel. map, 1867, cited by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. 



[B. a. e. 

Akpan ('auks'). An Ita Eskimo set- 
tlement on Saunders id., n. Greenland. 
The name is applied to many bird cliffs 
in e. Arctic America. 

Akbat.— Haves, Arct. Boat Journ., 241, 1854. Akpa- 
ni.— Peary, My Arct. Jour., 80, 1893. 

Aktayatsalgi. One of the 20 Creek 
clans. — Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 
155, 1884. 

Aktese. A village of the Kyuquot on 
Village id., Kyuquot sd., w. coast of 
Vancouver id.— Can. Ind. Aff., 264, 1902. 

Akuch. The extinct Ivy clan of the 

A'kiich-hano.— Hodge in Am. Anthrop., ix, 351, 
1896 (hdno= i people'). 

Akuchiny. A former Pima village s. w. 
of Maricopa station, s. Arizona. — Rus- 
sell, Pima MS., B. A. E., 16, 1902. Cf. 

Akudnirmiut ( ' people of the interven- 
ing country'). An Eskimo tribe of e. 
Baffin land, on the shore of Home bay 
and northward. They migrate between 
their various stations, in winter as well 
as in summer, in search of deer, bear, 
seal, walrus, and salmon, having ceased 
to capture whales from the floe edge 
since the advent of whaling ships; pop. 
83 in 1883 (Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 
440, 1888) . Their w r inter settlements are 
not permanent. Their villages and camp-, 
ing places are: Arbaktung, Avaud jelling, 
Ekalualuin, Ijelirtung, Idiutelling, Idni- 
teling, Karmakdjuin, Kaudjukdjuak, Ki- 
vitung, Niakonaujang, Nudlung, Sirmil- 

Akugdlit. A village of the Aivilirmiut 
at the s. end of the Gulf of Boothia, on 
Committee bay. — Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. 
E., 445, 1888. 

Akuli. An Iglulirmiut village on the 
isthmus of Melville peninsula; pop. 50. 

Ac-cool-le.— Ross, Sec. Voy., 316, 1835. Aeculee.— 
Ibid., map facing p. 262. Ackoolee.— Ibid., 254. 
Akkoolee.— Parry, Sec. Voy., 449, 1824. 

Akuliak. An Akuliarmiut winter vil- 
lage on the n. shore of Hudson str., where 
there was an American whaling station; 
pop. 200. 
Akuliaq.— Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Akuliarmiut ( ' people of the point be- 
tween two large bays' ) . An Eskimo tribe 
settled on the n. shore of Hudson strait 
(Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 421, 1888). 
They go to Amakdjuak through White 
Bear sd. to hunt, where they meet the 

Akkolear.— Gilder, Schwatka's Search, 181, 1881. 
Akudlianniut.— Boas in Trans. Anthrop. Soc. 
Wash., in, 96, 1885. Akuliak-Eskimos.— Boas in 
Petermanns Mitt., 68, 1885. 

Akuliukpak ('many provisions'). A 
Nushagagmiut Eskimo settlement on Pa- 
miek lake, Alaska; pop. 83 in 1880. 

Akuliakhpuk.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 17, 1884. 

Akulivikchuk. A Nushagagmiut village 
on Nushagak r., Alaska; pop. 72 in 1880. 
Akulvikchuk.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska. 17, 1884. 

Akun ( ' distant ' ) . A former Aleut vil- 
lage on a small island of the same name 

between Unalaska and Unimak, Aleutian 
group, Alaska; pop. 55 in 1880. The 
inhabitants have deserted it for Akutan. 
Akoon.— Schwatka, Mil. Recon. in Alaska, 360, 


Akuninak (d'Artm* 'bone,' -naw e 'town,' 
' country, ' -k *> l place where' : ' at the bone 
place ' ) . A group of Sauk and Foxes who 
lived together in a village near where 
some huge bones, probably of a mastodon, 
lay imbedded in the ground. — Wm. Jones, 
inf n, 1905. 

Ah-kuh'-ne-nak. — Morgan, Anc. Soc, 170, 1877 
(given as the Bone gens). 

Akutan. An Aleut village on a small 
island of the same name adjacent to Un- 
alaska, Alaska; pop. 65 in' 1880, 80 in 
Akutanskoe.— Veniaminoff, Zapiski, n, 203, 1840. 

Akvetskoe ('lake town'). A summer 
village of the Huna division of the Kolu- 
schan family, on Lituya bay, Alaska; 
pop. 200 in 1835.— Veniaminoff, Zapiski, 
ii, pt. 3, 29, 1840. 

Ahkvaystkie.— Elliott, Cond. Aff. Alaska, 227, 
1875 (irom Veniaminoff). Akwetz. — Holmberg, 
Ethnol. Skizz., map, 1855. 

Akwech. A Wichita subtribe. — J. O. 
Dorsey, inf'n, 1892. 

Ala ( 'horn' ) . A phratry of the Hopi, 
consisting of the Horn, Deer, Antelope, 
Elk, and probably other clans. They 
claim to have come from a place in s. 
Utah called Tokonabi, and after their 
arrival in Tusayan joined the Lengya 
(Flute) phratry, forming the Ala-Lengya 
group. — Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 
583, 587, 1901. 

Ala. The Horn clan of the Hopi. — 
Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 583, 1901. 
Aaltu.— Voth, Trad, of the Hopi, 38, 1905.— Ala 
winwu.— Fewkes, op. cit. (wmwft=clan). 

Alabaster. See Gypsum. 

Alachua. A former Seminole town in 
what is now Alachua co., Fla. It was 
settled by Creeks from Oconee, on Oco- 
nee r., Ga., about 1710. The name was 
subsequently extended so as to cover other 
small villages in the district, which col- 
lectively are frequently mentioned as a 
tribe, whose principal town was Cus- 
cowilla. The Alachua Indians offered 
lively resistance to the encroachments of 
the white colonists in 1812-18 and took a 
prominent part in the Seminole war of 
1835-42. (a. s. g. h. w. h.) . 
Alachees.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, n, 32, 1852. 
A-lack-a-way-talofa.— Bell in Morse, Rep. to Sec. 
War, 306, 1822. Alacua.— Romans, Florida, I, 280, 
1775. Aulochawan Indians.— Hawkins (1812) in 
Am. State Papers, Ind. Aff., I, 813, 1832. Au-lot- 
che-wau.— Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 25, 1848. Lach- 
aways.— Seagrove (1793) in Am. State Pap., Ind. 
Aff., I, 378, 1832. Lackaway.— Brown (1793), ibid., 
374. Latchione. — Brinton, Florida Penin., 145, 
1859. Latchivue.— Peniere in Morse, Rep. to Sec. 
War, 311, 1822. Lotchnoay.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, VI, 360, 1857. Lotchway towns.— Flint, Ind. 
Wars, 173, 1833. Sotchaway,— Seagrove, op. cit., 

Alacranes ( Span. : ' scorpions ' ) . A part 
of the Apache formerly living in Sonora, 
Mexico, but according to Taylor (Cal. 

BULL. 30] 



Farmer, June 13, 1862) roaming, with 
other bands from Texas, to the Rio Colo- 
rado and n. of Gila r. in Ariz, and N. 
Mex. They were apparently a part of 
the Chiricahua. 

Alacupusyuen. A former Chumashan 
village near Purisima mission, Santa 
Barbara co., Cal. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Oct. 18, 1861. 

Alafiers (ala= l buckeye tree ' ) . A Semi- 
nole town near Alalia r., an affluent of 
Tampa bay, Fla. Its inhabitants, few in 
number, appear to have been led by Chief 
Alligator, and the "Alligators" may 
have been the same people. They took 
part in the Seminole war of 1835-42. 
(h. w. h.) 

Alafia.— Drake, Ind. Chron., 209, 1836. Alafiers.— 
Drake, Bk. of Inds., bk. 4, 77, 1848. 

Alaganik. An Ahtena and Ugalakmiut 
village near the mouth of Copper r., 
Alaska. Pop. in 1880, with Eyak, 117; 
in 1890, 48. Serebrenikof visited the vil- 
lage in 1848, but Allen in 1885 found it 
on what he supposed to be a new site. 

Alaganik.— Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, map, 
1877. Alaganuk.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 29, 
1884. Alagnak.— Serebrenikof quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Anahanuk.— Alien, ibid. 
Lookta-ek.— 11th Census, Alaska, 161, 1893. 

Alaho-ateuna ('those of the southern- 
most'). A phratry embracing the Tona- 
shi (Badger) and Aiyaho (Red-topped- 
shrub) clans of the Zuni.— Cushing, inf n, 

Alahulapas. A former Chumashan vil- 
lage near Santa Inez mission, Santa Bar- 
bara co., Cal. — Gatschet in Chief Eng. 
Rep., pt. 3, 553, 1876. 

Ala-Lengya ('horn-flute'). A phra- 
tral group of the Hopi, consisting of the 
Ala (Horn) and Lengya (Flute) clans. 
Ala-Lenya.— Fewkesin 19th Rep. B. A. E.,583, 1901. 

Alali. A former Chumashan village on 
Santa Cruz id., off the coast of California. 
A-la'-li. — Henshaw, Buenaventura MS. vocab., 
B. A. E., 1884. 

Alameda (Span. : ' cotton wood grove ' ). 
A ruined pueblo on the e. side of the 
Rio Grande, about 10 m. above Albu- 
querque, Bernalillo co., N. Mex. It was 
occupied by the Tigua until 1681, and was 
formerly on the bank of the river, but is 
now a mile from it, owing to changes in 
the course of the stream (Bandelier in 
Arch. Inst. Rep., v, 88, 1884). It was the 
seat of a Spanish mission, with 300 inhab- 
itants about 1660-68, and a church ded- 
icated to Santa Ana which was doubt- 
less destroyed, in the Pueblo revolt of 1680- 
96 (Vetancurt (1697), Teatro Mex., in, 
311, 1871 ). The settlement was afterward 
reestablished as a mission visita of Albu- 
querque, (f. w. h. ) 

Alamada. --Abert in Emory, Recon., map, 1848. 
Alameda de Mora.— Villa Sefior, Theatro Am., pt. 
2,415,1748. Alemada.— Abert in Emorv Recon., 
464, 1848. Alemeda.— Gallegas (1844) misquoted, 
ibid., 479. 

Alamillo. (Span.: ' little cotton wood ' ). 
A former pueblo of the Piros on the Rio 
Grandeaboutl2 m. n. of Socorro, N. Mex., 

the seat of a Franciscan mission, estab- 
lished early in the 17th century, which 
contained a church dedicated to Santa 
Ana, The in habitants did not participate 
in the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and most of 
them joined the Spaniards in their flight 
to El Paso, Chihuahua. In the following 
year, however, on the return of Gov. 
Otermin, the remaining inhabitants of 
the pueblo fled, whereupon the village 
was destroyed by the Spaniards. The 
population in 1680 was 300. See Vetan- 
curt (1697), Teatro Mex., in, 310, repr. 
1871 ; Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 
239, 1892. (f. w. h.) 

Alamingo. A village of hostile Dela- 
wares(?) in 1754, probably on Susque- 
hanna r., Pa.; possibly the people of Al- 
lemoebi, the "king" of the Delawares, 
who lived at Shamokin about 1750 
(Drake Trag. Wild., 153, 1841). 

Alamo. See San Antonio de Valera. 

Alamo Bonito (Span.: 'beautiful Cot- 
tonwood'). A small settlement of Mis- 
sion Indians on Torres res., 75 m. from 
Mission Tule River agency, s. Cal. 

Alimo Bonita.— Ind. AfF. Rep., 170, 1904. Alimo 
Bonito.— Ibid., 175, 1902. 

Alamos (Span.: 'cotton woods'). A 
pueblo of the Eudeve division of the 
Opata, the seat of a Spanish mission estab- 
lished in 1629; situated on a small tribu- 
tary of the Rio Sonera, in Sonora, Mex- 
ico. Pop. 165 in 1678, 45 in 1730 (Rivera 
quoted by Bancroft, Mex. No. States, i, 
513, 1884). 

Asuncion Alamos.— Zapata (1678) quoted by Ban- 
croft, op. cit., 246. Los Alamos. — Orozco y Berra, 
Geog., 344, 1864. 

Alamos. A former rancheria, probably 
of the' Sobaipuri, on Rio Santa Cruz, s. 
Ariz.; visited and so named by Father 
Kino about 1697.— Bernal (1697) quoted 
by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 356, 1889. 

Alamucha. A former Choctaw town in 
Kemper co., Miss., 10 m. from Succar- 
nooche cr., an affluent of Tombigbee r. 

Allamutcha Old Town.— Gatschet, Creek Migr 
Leg., I, 109, 1884. 

Alapaha. A former Seminole town in 
Hamilton co., Fla., on Allapaha r. It 
was once under Chief Okmulgee, who 
died before 1820. (h. w. h.) 
A-la-pa-ha-tolafa. — Bell in Morse, Rep. to Sec. 
War, 306, 1822. 

Alaskaite. A mineral, according to 
Dana (Text-book Mineral., 420, 1888), so 
called from having been found in the 
Alaska mine, Poughkeepsie gulch, Colo.; 
primarily from Alaska, the name of the 
territory of the United States, and the 
English suffix -He. Alaska, according to 
Dall, is derived from Aldkshak, or Ala- 
yekm, signifying ' mainland,' the term by 
which the Eskimo of Unalaska id. desig- 
nated the continental land of n. w. Amer- 
ica, (a. f. c. ) 

Alawahku. The Elk clan of the Pecos 
tribe of New Mexico. — Hewett in Am. 
Anthrop., vi, 431, 1904. 



[b. a. e. 

Alberdozia. A province of Florida, prob- 
ably Timuquanan. — Linschoten, Descr. 
del' Am., 6, 1638. 

Albivi. Given by Hervas in 1785 ( Va- 
ter, Mith., pt. 3, sec. 3, 347, 1816) as a 
division of the Illinois, but that is doubt- 

Alcalde (Span. : a mayor of a town who 
also administers justice). A Papago vil- 
lage, probably in Pima co., s. Ariz.; pop. 
250 in I860.— Poston in Ind. Aff. Eep. 
1863, 385, 1864. 

Alcash. A former Chumashan village 
at La Goleta, or, as stated by a Santa 
Barbara Indian, on Moore's ranch, near 
Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Alcax.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863. 
Al-ka-a/c — Henshaw, Buenaventura MS. vocab., 
B. A. E., 1884. 

Alchedoma. A former .Yuman tribe 
which, according to Father Garces, spoke 
the same language as the Yuma proper, 
and hence belonged to the same closely 
related Yuman division as the Yuma, 
Maricopa, and Mohave. As early as 
1604-05 Juan de Onate found them in 8 
rancherias (the northernmost with 2,000 
people in 160 houses) below the mouth 
of the Gila on the Rio Colorado, but by 
1762 (Rudo Ensayo, 130, 1894) they occu- 
pied the left bank of the Colorado be- 
tween the Gila and Bill Williams fork, 
and by Garces' time (1776) their ran- 
cherias were scattered along the Colorado 
in Arizona and California, beginning 
about 38 m. below Bill Williams fork and 
extending the same distance downstream 
(Garces, Diary, 423-428, 450, 1900). At 
the latter date they were said to number 
2,500, and while well disposed toward 
other surrounding tribes, regarded the 
Yuma and Mohave as enemies. Garces 
says of them: " These Jalchedun [Alche- 
doma] Indians are the least dressed, not 
only in such goods as they themselves 
possess, but also in such as they trade 
with the Jamajabs [Mohave], Genigue- 
ches [Serranos], Cocomaricopas [Mari- 
copa], Yabipais [Yavapai], and Moquis 
[Hopi], obtaining from these last mantas, 
girdles, and a coarse kind of cloth (sayal), 
in exchange for cotton . ' ' This statement 
is doubtless an error, as the Alchedoma 
raised no cotton, while the Hopi were 
the chief cultivators of this plant in the 
entire S. W. According to Kroeber the 
Alchedoma were absorbed by the Mari- 
copa, whom they joined before fleeing 
from the Rio Colorado before the Mohave. 
Asumpcion, Lagrimas de San Pedro, San 
Antonio, and Santa Coleta have been 
mentioned as rancherias. ( f. w. h. ) 
Achedomas.— Venegas, Hist. Cal., n, 185, 1759. 
Alchedomes.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Dec. 6, 1861. 
Alchedum.— Garces (1775-6), Diary, 488, 1900. 
Alchedumas.— Consag (1746) quoted by Bancroft, 
Nat. Races, 1, 588, 1882. Alchidomas.— Alcedo, Die. 
Geog., i, 48, 1786. Algodomes.— Heintzelman 
(1853) in H. R., Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 42, 1857 
(seems to be local name here). Algodones. — 
Blake in Pac. R. R. Rep., v, 112, 1856. Algodon- 

nes.— Derby, Colorado R., map, 1852. Chidumas.— 
Garces (after Escalante, 1775) , Diary (1775-76), 474, 
1900. Halchedoma.— Zarate-Salmeron (ca. 1629), 
ReL, in Land of Sunshine, 106, Jan., 1900. Hal- 
chedumas. — Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 156, 348, 
1889. Halchidhoma.— A. L. Kroeber, inf'n, 1905 
(Mohave name). Hudcoadamas. — Rudo Ensayo 
(1762), 24, 1863 (probably the same). Hudcoadan.— 
Rudo Ensayo (1762), Guiteras transl., 130, 1894. 
Hudcoadanes.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 59, 353, 1864. 
Jakechedunes.— Hinton, Handbook to Ariz., 28, 
1878. Jalchedon. — Arricivita (1792) quoted by 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, v, 100, 1890. 
Jalchedum.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 38, 1864, (mis- 
quoting Garces). Jalchedunes.— Garc6s (1775-76), 
Diary, 308, 1900. Talchedon.— Forbes, Hist. Cal., 
162, 1839 (misprint). Talchedums. — Domenech, 
Deserts, I, 444, 1860. Yalchedunes. — Pac. R. R. 
Rep., in, pt. 3, 124, 1856. 

Alcoz. A former village of the Kalin- 
daruk division of the Costanoan family 
in California. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Apr. 20, 1860. 

Aleksashkina. A former Kaniagmiut 
Eskimo settlement on Wood id. in St. 
Paul harbor, Kodiak id., Alaska. 
Aleksashkina. — Tebenkof quoted by Baker, Geog. 
Diet. Alaska, 1901 (called a Chiniak settlement). 
Tanignag-miut.— Russ. Am. Co. map quoted by 
Baker, ibid, (called an Aleut settlement). 

Aleta. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Aleytac. — Ibid. 

Aleut. A branch of the Esquimauan 
family inhabiting the Aleutian ids. and 
the n. side of Alaska pen. , w. of Ugashik r. 
The origin of the term is obscure. A 
reasonable supposition is given by Engel 
(quoted by Dall in Smithson. Contrib., 
xxn, 1878) that Aliut is identical with 
the Chukchi word aliat, 'island.'. The 
early Russian explorers of Kamchatka 
heard from the Chukchi of islanders, 
aliuit, beyond the main Asian shore, by 
which the Chukchi meant the Diomede 
islanders; but when the Russians found 
people on the Aleutian ids. they supposed 
them to be those referred to by the 
Chukchi and called them by the Chukchi 
name, and the Chukchi often adopt the 
Russian name, Aleut, for themselves, 
though asserting that it is not their own. 
According to Dall, TJnung'un, 'people,' is 
the generic term which the Aleut apply 
to themselves, it being probably a form 
of the Eskimo Innuin, plural of Inung, 

It is stated by various authorities that 
the Aleut differ markedly from the Es- 
kimo in character and mental ability as 
well as in many practices. According to 
Dall the Aleut possess greater intellect- 
ual capacity than the Eskimo, but are far 
inferior in personal independence, and 
while the Aleuts' physiognomy differs 
somewhat from that of the typical Es- 
kimo, individuals are often seen who 
can not be distinguished from ordinary 
Innuit. Notwithstanding the differences, 
there is no doubt that the Aleut are 
an aberrant offshoot from the great 
Esquimauan stock, and that however 

BULL. 30] 



great their distinguishing traits these 
have resulted in the lapse of time from 
their insular position and peculiar en- 
vironment, Dall considers the evidence 
from the shell heaps conclusive as to 
the identity with the continental Es- 
kimo of the early inhabitants of the 
islands as regards implements and weap- 
ons. The testimony afforded by language 
seems to be equally conclusive, though 
perhaps less evident. The Aleut lan- 
guage, though differing greatly from the 
dialects of the mainland, possesses many 
words whpse roots are common to the 
Eskimo tongues. The Aleut are divided, 
chiefly on dialectal grounds, into Un- 
alaskans, who inhabit the Eox ids., the 
w. part of Alaska pen., and the Shu- 
magin ids., and Atkans who inhabit the 
Andreanof, Rat, and Near ids. When 
first visited by the Russians the Aleutian 
ids. had a much larger population than 
at present. As compared with the main- 
land Eskimo and the Indians the Aleut 
are now unwarlike and docile, though 
they fought well when first discovered, 
but had only darts against the Russian 
firearms and were consequently soon 
overpowered, and they speedily came 
under the absolute power of the Russian 
traders, who treated them with great 
cruelty and brutality. This treatment 
had the effect of reducing them, it is said, 
to 10 per cent of their original number, 
and the survivors were held in a condition 
of slavery. Later, in 1794-1818, the Rus- 
sian Government interfered to regulate 
the relations between traders and natives 
with the result of somewhat ameliorat- 
ing their condition. In 1824 the mis- 
sionary Veniaminoff began his labors, and 
to hm is largely due most of the im- 
provement, moral and mental. Through 
his exertions and those of his colabor- 
ers of the Greek church all the Aleut 
were Christianized and to some extent 

The population of the Aleutian ids., 
which before the arrival of the Russians 
was by their own tradition 25,000 (which 
estimate, judging by the great number of 
their village sites, Dall does not think 
excessive), in 1834, according to Veniami- 
noff, was 2,247, of whom 1,497 belonged 
to the e. or Unalaskan division and 750 
to the w. or Atkan division. Accord- 
ing to Father Shaiesnekov there were 
about 1,400 on the Aleutian ids. in 1848. 
After the epidemic of smallpox in that 
year some 900 were left. In 1874 Dall 
estimated the population at 2,005, includ- 
ing mixed bloods. According to the cen- 
sus of 1890 there were 968 Aleut and 734 
mixed-bloods, total 1,702; in 1900 the 
statistics of the previous decade were 

The following are Aleut villages: Aku- 

tan, Attn, Avatanak, Belkofski, Biorka, 
Chernofski, Eider, Iliuliuk, Kasheega, 
Korovinski, Makushin, Mashik, Mor- 
zhovoi, Nateekin, Nazan, Nikolaief, Nik- 
olski, Pavlof, Pogromni, Popof , St George, 
St Paul, Sannak, Unga, Vossnessenski. 
The following villages no longer exist: 
Agulok, Akun, Alitak, Artelnof, Beaver, 
Chaliuknak, Ikolga, Imagnee, Itchadak, 
Kalekhta, Kutchlok, Riechesni, Seredka, 
Sisaguk, Takamitka, Tigalda, Totchikala, 
Tulik, Ugamitzi, Uknodok, Unalga, Ve- 
selofski. The following ruined places 
have been discovered on a single island, 
Agattu, now uninhabited: Agonakagna, 
Atkulik, Atkigyin, Hachimuk, Hamnu- 
lik, Hanilik, Hapkug, Higtiguk, Hilk- 
suk, I bin, Imik, Iptugik, tsituchi, Ka- 
kuguk, Kamuksusik, Kaslukug, Kig- 
sitatok, Kikchik, Kikun, Kimituk, Ki- 
tak, Kuptagok, Magtok, Mukugnuk, 
Navisok, Siksatok, Sunik, Ugiatok, Ugti- 
kun, Ugtumuk, Ukashik. 
Aleouteans.— Drake, Bk. of Inds., bk. I, 16, 1848. 
Aleuten.— Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., 7, 1855. 
Aleuts.— Dall in Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iv, 35, 
1873. Aleyut.— Coxe, Russ. Disc, 219, 1787. Alla- 
yume.— Powell in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., Ill, 553, 1877 
(Olamentke name). Cagatsky.— Mahoney (1809) 
in Senate Ex. Doc. 68, 41st Cong., 2d sess., 19, 
1870 ('easterners': Russianized form of Aleut 
name). Kagataya-Koung'ns. — Humboldt, New 
Spain, ii, 346, 1822 (own name: ' men of the east'; 
refers only to the Aleut living e. of Umnak 
str. in contradistinction to the tribes w. of it.— 
Dall, inf'n, 1905). Kataghayekiki. — Coxe, Russ. 
Disc, I, 219, 1787. Khagan'-taya-khun'-khin.— 
Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 22, 1877 (sig. ' east- 
ern people'). KxagantaianounRin. — Pinart in 
Mem. Soc. Ethnol. Paris, xi. 157, 1872 (name of 
natives of Shumagin ids. and of. Aleut of Alaska 
pen: ' men of the east'). Oonangan. — Veniami- 
noff quoted by Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 146, 
1884. Taiahounhins.— Pinart in Mem. Soc. Ethnol. 
Paris, xi, 158, 1872 (own name: 'men'). Takha- 
yuna.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 146, 1884 
(Knaiakhotana name). Taxeju-na. — Davidof in 
Radloff, Worterb., d. Kinai-Spr., 29, 1874. Tax- 
emna.— Doroschin in Radloff, Worterb., d. Kinai- 
Spr., 29, 1874 (Knaiakhotana name). Tiyakh'u- 
nin. — Pinart, op. cit. XTnangan^Applegate in 
11th Census, Alaska, 85, 1893. TJ-nung'un.— Dall 
in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 22, 1877 (own national 

Alexandrovsk. A Kaniagmiut village 
and trading post on Graham harbor, 
Alaska; pop. 88 in 1880, 107 in 1890. 

Alexandrousk. — Post route map, 1903. Alexan- 
drovsk.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 29, 1884. 
English Bay.— 11th Census, Alaska, 163, 1893. Port 
Graham.— Ibid., 68. 

Alexeief. A Chnagmiut village in the 
Yukon delta, Alaska; pop. 16 in 1880. 
Alexeief's Odinotchka. —Petroff , 10th Census, 
Alaska, 12, 1884 ('Alexeief's trading post'). 

Algic. A term applied by H. R. School- 
craft to the Algonquian tribes and lan- 
guages, and used occasionally by other 
writers since his time. Algique is em- 
ployed by some Canadian French essay- 
ists. Schoolcraft himself (Ind. Tribes, v, 
536, 1855) includes the term in his list of 
words of Indian origin. The word seems 
to be formed arbitrarily from Alg, a part 
of Algonkin, and the English adjectival 
termination ic. (a. f. c. ) 



[b. a. e. 

Algonkian. A geological term used to 
designate an important series of rocks 
lying between the Archean and the Pale- 
ozoic systems. These rocks are most 
prominent in the region of L. Superior, a 
characteristic territory of the Indians of 
the Algonquian family, whence the name. 
Geologists speak of the "Algonkian pe- 
riod." (a. f. c.) 

Algonkin (a name hitherto variously 
and erroneously interpreted, but Hewitt 
suggests that it is probably from (Micmac) 
algoomeaking, or algoomaking, 'at the 
place of spearing fish and eels [from the 
bow of a canoe] ' ) . A term applied origi- 
nally to the Weskarini, a small Algon- 
quian tribe formerly living on the present 
Gatineau r., a tributary of Ottawa r., e. 
of the present city of Ottawa, in Quebec. 
Later the name was used to include also 
the Amikwa, Kichesipirini, Kinonche, 
Kisakon; Maskasinik, Matawachkirini, 
Missisauga, Michacondibi,- Nikikouek, 
Ononchataronon, Oskemanitigou, Ouaso- 
uarini, Outaouakamigouk, Outchougai, 
Powating, Sagahiganirini, and Sagnitao- 
unigama. French writers sometimes 
called the Montagnais encountered along 
the lower St Lawrence the Lower Algon- 
quins, because they spoke the same lan- 
guage; and the ethnic stock and family of 
languages has been named from the Algon- 
kin, who formed a close alliance with the 
French at the first settlement of Canada 
and received their help against the 
Iroquois. The latter, however, afterward 
procured firearms and soon forced the 
Algonkin to abandon the St Lawrence 
region. Some of the bands on Ottawa r. 
fled w. to Mackinaw and into Michigan, 
where they consolidated and became 
known under the modern name of Ot- 
tawa. The others fled to the n. and e., 
beyond reach of the Iroquois, but gradu- 
ally found their way back and reoccupied 
the country. Their chief gathering place 
and mission station was at Three Rivers 
in Quebec. Nothing is known of their 
social organization. The bands now rec- 
ognized as Algonkin, with their population 
in 1900, are as follows. In Ottawa: Golden 
Lake, 86; North Renfrew, 286; (Tib- 
son (Iroquois in part), 123. In Quebec: 
River Desert, 393; Temiscaming, 203; 
Lake of Two Mountains (Iroquois in 
part), 447; total, 1,536. As late as 1894 
the Canadian Indian Office included as 
Algonkin also 1,679 "stragglers" inPon- 
tiac, Ottawa co., Champlain, and St Mau- 
rice, in Quebec, but these are omitted 
from subsequent reports. In 1884 there 
were 3,874 Algonkin in Quebec province 
and in e. Ontario, including the Temis- 
caming. Following are the Algonkin vil- 
lages, so far as they are known to have 
been recorded: Cape Magdalen, Egan, 
Hartwell, Isleaux Tourtes (Kichesipirini 

and Nipissing), Rouge River, Tangouaen 
(Algonkin and Huron), (j. m. c. t.) 
Abnaki.— For forms of this word as applied to the 
Algonkin, see Abnaki. Akwanake.— Breboeuf 
quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 207, 1854. 
Alagonkins.— Croghan (1765) in Monthly Am. 
Jour. Geol., 272, 1831. Algokin.— McKenzie 
quoted by Tanner, Narr., 332, 1830. Algomeequin.— 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 306, 1851. Algome- 
quins.— Ibid., v, 38, 1855. Algommequin. —Cham- 
plain (1632), CEuv., V, pt. 2, 193, 1870. Algom- 
quins.— Sagard (1636), Canada, I, 247, 1866. Al- 
goncains.— Hennepin, New Disc, 95, 1698. Algon- 
gins.— Tracy (1667) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., in, 
153,1853. Algonguin.— Morse, N.Am., 238, 1776. 
Algonic Indians.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, I, 38, 
1851. Algonkins.— Hennepin (1683) in Harris, 
Voy. and Trav., u, 916, 1705. Algonmequin.— 
Martin in Bressani, Rel. Abregee, 319, 1653. Algo- 
novins.— Alcedo, Die. Geog., v, 120, 1789. Algon- 
quains.— Jes. Rel. 1653, 3, 1858. Algonquens.— 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, II, 358, 1852. Algon- 
quin.— Jes. Rel. 1632, 14, 1858. Algoomenquini.— 
Keane in Stanford, Compend., 500, 1878. Algo- 
quins.— Lewis and Clark, Trav., I, map, 1817. Al- 
goquois.— Audouard, Far West, 207, 1869. Algou- 
inquins.— Gorges (1658) in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
II, 67, 1847. Algoumekins.— Gallatin in Trans. Am. 
Antiq. Soc, n, 24, 1836. Algoumequini. — De Laet 
(1633) quoted by Vater, Mithridates, pt. 3, sec 
3, 404, 1816. Algoumequins.— Champlain (1603), 
CEuv., II, 8, 1870. Algumenquini.— Kingslev, 
Standard Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 147, 1883. Alincon- 
guins.— Nicolls (1666) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., m, 
147,1853. Alkonkins.— Hutchins (1778) quoted by 
Jefferson, Notes, 141, 1825. Alquequin.— Lloyd in 
Jour. Anthrop. Inst. G. B., iv, 44, 1875. Alten- 
kins.— Clinton (1745) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 
281, 1855 (misprint). Attenkins. —Clinton (1745), 
ibid., 276. 

Algonquian Family (adapted from the 
name of the Algonkin tribe). A lin- 
guistic stock which formerly occupied a 
more extended area than any other in 
North America. Their territory reached 
from the e. shore of Newfoundland to 
the Rocky hits, and from Churchill r. to 
Pamlico sd. The e. parts of this territory 
were separated by an area occupied by Iro- 
quoian tribes. On the e. Algonquian 
tribes skirted the Atlantic coast from 
Newfoundland to Neuse r. ; on the s. they 
touched on the territories of the eastern 
Siouan, southern Iroquoian, and the 
Muskhogean families ; on the w. they bor- 
dered on the Siouan area; on the n. w. on 
theKitunahan and Athapascan; in Labra- 
dor they came into contact with the Es- 
kimo; in Newfoundland they surrounded 
on three sides the Beothuk. The Chey- 
enne and Arapaho moved from the main 
body and drifted out into the plains. 
Although there is a general agreement as 
to the peoples which should be included 
in this family, information in regard to the 
numerous dialects is too limited to justify 
an attempt to give a strict linguistic clas- 
sification; the data are in fact so mea- 
ger in many instances as to leave it 
doubtful whether certain bodies were 
confederacies, tribes, bands, or clans, es- 
pecially bodies which have become ex- 
tinct or can not be identified, since early 
writers have frequently designated set- 
tlements or bands of the same tribe as 
distinct tribes. As in the case of all In- 
dians, travelers, observing part of a tribe 

BULL. 30] 



settled at one place and part at another, 
have frequently taken them for different 
peoples, and have dignified single vil- 
lages, settlements, or bands with the title 
"tribe" or "nation," named from the 
locality or the chief. It is generally im- 
possible to discriminate between tribes 
and villages throughout the greater part 
of New England and along the Atlantic 
coast, for the Indians there seem to have 
been grouped into small communities, 
each taking its name from the principal 
village of the group or from a neighboring 
stream or other natural feature. Whether 
these were subordinate to some real tribal 
authority or of equal rank and interde- 
pendent, although still allied, it is im- 
possible in many instances to deter- 
mine. Since true tribal organization is 
found among the better known branches 
and can be traced in several instances in 
the eastern division, it is presumed that 
it was general. A geographic classifica- 
tion of the Algonquian tribes follows: 

Western division, comprising three 
groups dwelling along the e. slope of the 
Rocky mts: Blackfoot confederacy, com- 
posed of theSiksika, Kainah, andPiegan; 
Arapaho and Cheyenne. 

Northern division, the most extensive 
one, stretching from the extreme n. w. 
of the Algonquian area to the extreme 
e., chiefly n. of the St Lawrence and the 
great lakes, including several groups 
which, on account of insufficient knowl- 
edge of their linguistic relations, can only 
partially be outlined: Chippewa group, 
embracing the Cree (?),. Ottawa, Chip- 
pewa, and Missisauga; Algonkin group, 
comprising the Nipissing, Temiscaming, 
. Abittibi, and Algonkin. 

Northeastern division, embracing the 
tribes inhabiting e. Quebec, the Mari- 
time Provinces, and e. Maine: the Mon- 
tagnais group, composed of the Nascapee, 
Montagnais, Mistassin, Bersiamite, and 
Papinachois; Abnaki group, comprising 
the Mic'mac, Malecite, Passamaquoddy, 
Arosaguntacook, Sokoki, Penobscot, and 

Central division, including groups that 
resided in Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan, and Ohio: Menominee; the 
Sauk group, including the Sauk, Fox, and 
Kickapoo; Mascouten; Potawatomi; Illi- 
nois branch of the Miami group, com- 
prising the Peoria, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, 
Tamaroa, and Michigamea ; Miami branch , 
composed of the Miami, Piankashaw, and 

Eastern division, embracing all the 
Algonquian tribes that lived along the 
Atlantic coast s. of the Abnaki and in- 
cluding several confederacies and groups, 
as the Pennacook, Massachuset, Wam- 
panoag, Narraganset, Nipmuc, Montauk, 
Mohegan, Mahican, Wappinger, Dela- 

wares, Shawnee, Nanticoke, Conoy, Pow- 
hatan, and Pamlico. 

As the early settlements of the French, 
Dutch, and English were all within the 
territory of the eastern members of the 
family, they were the first aborigines 
n. of the Gulf of Mexico to feel the 
blighting effect of contact with a superior 
race. As a rule the relations of the 
French with the Algonquian tribes were 
friendly, the Foxes being the only tribe 
against whom they waged war. The 
English settlements were often engaged 
in border wars with their Algonquian 
neighbors, who, continually pressed far- 
ther toward the interior by the advancing 
white immigration, kept up for a time a 
futile struggle for the possession of their 
territory. The eastern tribes, from 
Maine to Carolina, were defeated and 
their tribal organization was broken up. 
Some withdrew to Canada, others crossed 
the mountains into the Ohio valley, while 
a few bands were located on reservations 
by the whites only to dwindle and ulti- 
mately become extinct. Of many of the 
smaller tribes of New England, Virginia, 
and other eastern states there are no liv- 
ing representatives. Even the languages 
of some are known only by a few words 
mentioned by early historians, while 
some tribes are known only by name. 
The Abnaki and others who fled into 
Canada settled along the St Lawrence 
under the protection of the French, 
whose active allies they became in all the 
subsequent wars with the English down 
to the fall of the French power in Canada. 
Those who crossed the Allegheny mts. 
into the Ohio valley, together with the 
Wyandot and the native Algonquian 
tribes of that region, formed themselves 
into a loose confederacy, allied first with 
the French and afterward with the Eng- 
lish against the" advancing settlements 
with the declared purpose of preserving 
the Ohio r. as the Indian boundary. 
Wayne's victory in 1794 put an end to the 
struggle, and at the treaty of Greenville in 
1795 the Indians acknowledged their de- 
feat and made the first cession of land w. 
of the Ohio. Tecumseh and his brother, 
Ellskwatawa, instigated by British in- 
triguers, again aroused the western tribes 
against the United States a few years later, 
but the disastrous defeat at Tippecanoe in 
1811 and the death of their leader broke 
the spirit of the Indians. In 1815 those 
who had taken part against the United 
States during the War of 1812 made peace 
with the Government; then began the 
series of treaties by which, within thirty 
years, most of the Indians of this region 
ceded their lands and removed w. of the 

A factor which contributed greatly to 
the decline of the Algonquian ascendency 



[b. a. e. 

was the power of the Iroquoian confed- 
eracy, which by the beginning of the 
17th century had developed a power 
destined to make them the scourge of 
the other Indian population from the 
Atlantic to the Mississippi and from 
Ottawa r. in Canada to the Tennessee. 
After destroying the Huron and the Erie, 
they turned their power chiefly against 
the Algonquian tribes, and ere long Ohio 
and Indiana were nearly deserted, only 
a few villages of Miami remaining here 
and there in the northern portion. The 
region s. and w. they made a desert, 
clearing of native inhabitants the whole 
country within 500 m. of their seats. 
The Algonquian tribes fled before them 
to the region of the upper lakes and the 
banks of the Mississippi, and only when 
the French had guaranteed them protec- 
tion against their deadly foes did they 
venture to turn back toward the e. 

The central Algonquians are tall, aver- 
aging about 173 cm.; they have the typ- 
ical Indian nose, heavy and prominent, 
somewhat hooked in' men, flatter in 
women; their cheek bones are heavy; 
the head among the tribes of the great 
lakes is very large and almost brachy ce- 
phalic, but showing considerable varia- 
tion; the face is very large. The type of 
the Atlantic coast Algonquians can hardly 
be determined from living individuals, as 
no full-bloods survive, but skulls found 
in old burial grounds show that they 
were tall, their faces not quite so broad, 
the heads much more elongate and re- 
markably high, resembling in this respect 
the Eskimo and suggesting the possibility 
that on the New England coast there may 
have been some mixture with that type. 
The Cheyenne and Arapaho are even 
taller than the central Algonquians; their 
faces are larger, their heads more elon- 
gate. It is worthy of remark that in the 
region in which the mound builders' re- 
mains are found, rounded heads pre- 
vailed, and the present population of the 
region are also more round-headed, p'er- 
haps suggesting fusion of blood (Boas, 
inf'n, 1905). See Anatomy, Physiology. 

The religious beliefs of the eastern" Al- 
gonquian tribes were similar in their lead- 
ing features. Their myths are numerous. 
Their deities, or manitus, including objects 
animate and inanimate, were many, but 
the chief culture hero, he to whom the 
creation and control of the world were 
ascribed, was substantially the same in • 
character, although known by various 
names, among different tribes. As Man- 
ibozho, or Michabo, among the Chippewa 
and other lake tribes, he was usually 
identified as a fabulous great rabbit, 
bearing some relation to the sun; and 
this identification with the great rabbit 
appears to have prevailed among other 

tribes, being found as far s. as Maryland. 
Brinton (Hero Myths, 1882) believes 
this mythological animal to have been 
merely a symbol of light, adopted be- 
cause of the similarity between the 
Algonquian words for rabbit and light. 
Among the Siksika this chief beneficent 
deity was known as Napiw, among the 
Abnaki as Ketchiniwesk, among the 
New England tribes as Kiehtan, Woo- 
nand, Cautantowit, etc. He it was who 
created the world by mag'ic power, peo- 
pled it with game and the other ani- 
mals, taught his favorite people the arts 
of the chase, and gave them, corn and 
beans. But this deity was distinguished 
more for his magical powers and his 
ability to^overcome opposition by trick- 
ery, deception, and falsehood than for 
benevolent qualities. The objects of 
nature were deities to them, as the sun, 
the moon, fire, trees, lakes, and the va- 
rious animals. Respect was also paid to 
the four cardinal points. There was a 
general belief in a soul, shade, or immor- 
tal spiritual nature not only in man but 
in animals and all other things, and in 
a spiritual abode to which this soul went 
after the death of the body, and in which 
the occupations and enjoyments were 
supposed to be similar to those of this 
life. Priests, or conjurers, called by the 
whites medicine-men, played an impor- 
tant part in their social, political, and 
religious systems. They were supposed 
to possess influence with spirits or other 
agencies, which they could bring to their 
aid in prying into the future, inflicting 
or curing disease, etc. 

Among the tribes from s. New England 
to Carolina, including especially the Mo- 
hegan, Delawares, the people of the 
Powhatan confederacy, and the Chippe- 
wa, descent was reckoned in the female 
line; among the Potawatomi, Abnaki, 
Blackfeet, and probably most of the 
northern tribes, in the male line. Within 
recent times descent has been paternal 
also among the Menominee, Sauk and 
Fox, Illinois, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 
and, although it has been stated that it 
was anciently maternal, there is no satis- 
factory proof of this. The Cree, Arapaho, 
and Cheyenne are without clans or gentes. 
The gens or clan was usually governed by 
a chief, who in some cases was installed 
by the heads of other clans or gentes. 
The tribe also had its chief, usually se- 
lected from a particular clan or gens, 
though the manner of choosing a chief 
and the authority vested in him varied 
somewhat in the different tribes. This 
was the peace chief, whose authority was 
not absolute, and who had no part in 
the declaration of war or in carrying it 
on, the leader in the campaign being one 
who had acquired a right to the posi- 

BULL. 30] 



tion by noted deeds and skill. In some 
tribes the title of chief was hereditary, 
and the distinction between a peace chief 
and a war chief was not observed. The 
chief's powers among some tribes, as the 
Miami, were greater than in others. The 
government was directed in weighty mat- 
ters by a council, consisting of the chiefs 
of the clans or gentes of the tribe. It 
was by their authority that tribal war 
was undertaken, peace concluded, terri- 
tory sold, etc. 

The Algonquian tribes were mainly 
sedentary and agricultural, probably the 
only exceptions being those of the cold 
regions of Canada and the Siksika of the 
plains. The Chippewa did not formerly 
cultivate the soil. Maize was the staple 
Indian food product, but the tribes of 
the region of the great lakes, particularly 
the Menominee, made extensive use of 
wild rice. The Powhatan tribes raised 
enough maize to supply not only their 
own wants but those of the Virginia 
colonists for some years after the found- 
ing of Jamestown, and the New England 
colonists were more than once relieved 
from hunger by corn raised by the na- 
tives. In 1792 Wayne's army found a 
continuous plantation along the entire 
length of the Maumee from Ft Wayne 
to L. Erie. Although depending chiefly 
on hunting and fishing for subsistence, 
the New England tribes cultivated large 
quantities of maize, beans, pumpkins, 
and tobacco. It is said they under- 
stood the advantage of fertilizing, using 
fish, shells, and ashes for this purpose. 
The tools they used in preparing the 
ground and in cultivation were usually 
wooden spades or hoes, the latter being 
made by fastening to a stick, as a handle, 
a shell, the shoulder blade of an animal, or 
a tortoise shell. It was from the Algon- 
quian tribes that the whites first learned 
to make hominy, succotash, samp, maple 
sugar, johnnycake, etc. Gookin, in 1674, 
thus describes the method of preparing 
food among the Indians of Massachusetts: 
"Their food is generally boiled maize, 
or Indian corn, mixed with kidney beans, 
or sometimes without. Abo, they fre- 
quently boil in this pottage fish and flesh 
of all sorts, either new taken or dried, 
as shad, eels, alewives, or a kind of her- 
ring, or any other sort of fish. But they 
dry mostly those sorts before mentioned. 
These they cut in pieces, bones and all, 
and boil them in the aforesaid pottage. 
I have wondered many times that they 
were not in danger of being choked with 
fish bones; but they are so dexterous in 
separating the bones from the fish in 
their eating thereof that they are in no 
hazard. Also, they boil in this frumenty 
all sorts of flesh they take in hunting, 
as venison, beaver, bear's flesh, moosei 

otters, raccoons, etc., cutting this flesh 
in small pieces and boiling it as afore- 
said. Also, they mix with the said pot- 
tage several sorts of roots, as Jerusalem 
artichokes, and groundnuts, and other 
roots, and pompions, and squashes, and 
also several sorts of nuts or masts, as oak 
acorns, chestnuts, and walnuts; these 
husked and dried and powdered, they 
thicken their pottage therewith. Also, 
sometimes, they beat their maize into 
meal and sift it through a basket made for 
that purpose. With this meal they make 
bread, baking it in the ashes, covering the 
dough with leaves. Sometimes they make 
of their meal a small sort of cakes and boil 
them. They make also a certain sort of 
meal of parched maize. This meal they 
call 'nokake.'" Their pots were made 
of clay, somewhat egg-shaped; their 
dishes, spoons, and ladles of wood; their 
water pails of birch bark, doubled up 
so as to make them four-cornered, with 
a handle. They also had baskets of va- 
rious sizes in which they placed their 
provisions; these were made of rushes, 
stalks, corn husks, grass, and bark, often 
ornamented with colored figures of ani- 
mals. Mats woven of bark and rushes, 
dressed deerskins, feather garments, and 
utensils of wood, stone, and horn are 
mentioned by explorers. Fish were taken 
with hooks, spears, and nets, in canoes 
and along the shore, on the sea and in 
the ponds and rivers. They captured 
without much trouble all the smaller 
kinds of fish, and, in their canoes, often 
dragged sturgeon with nets stoutly made 
of Canada hemp (De Forest, Hist. Inds. 
Conn., 1853). Canoes used for fishing 
were of two kinds — one of birch bark, 
very light, but liable to overset; the other 
made from the trunk of a large tree. 
Their clothing w r as composed chiefly of 
the skins of animals, tanned until soft 
and pliable, and was sometimes orna- 
mented with paint and beads made from 
shells. Occasionally they decked them- 
selves with mantles made of feathers 
overlapping each other as on the back of 
the fowl. The dress of the women con- 
sisted usually of two articles, a leather 
shirt, or undergarment, ornamented with 
fringe, and a skirt of the same material 
fastened round the waist with a belt and 
reaching nearly to the feet. The legs 
were protected, especially in the winter, 
with leggings, and the feet with mocca- 
sins of soft dressed leather, often embroid- 
ered with wampum. The men usually 
covered the lower part of the body with 
a breech-cloth, and often wore a skin 
mantle thrown over one shoulder. The 
women dressed their hair in a thick 
heavy plait which fell down the neck, 
and sometimes ornamented their heads 
with bands decorated with wampum 



or with a small cap. Higginson (New 
England's Plantation, 1629) says: ''Their 
hair is usually cut before, leaving one 
lock longer than the rest." The men 
went bareheaded, with their hair fan- 
tastically trimmed, each according to 
his own fancy. One would shave it 
on one side and leave it long, on the 
other; another left an unshaved strip, 
2 or 3 in. wide, running from the fore- 
head to the nape of the neck. 

The typical Algonquian lodge of the 
woods and lakes was oval, and the conical 
lodge, made of sheets of birch-bark, also 
occurred. The Mohegan, and to some ex- 
tentthe Virginia Indians, constructed long 
communal houses which accommodated a 
number of families. The dwellings in the 
N. were sometimes built of logs, while those 
in the S. and parts of the W. were con- 
structed of saplings fixed in the ground, 
bent over at the top, and covered with 
movable matting, thus forming a long, 
round-roofed house. The Delawares and 
some other eastern tribes, preferring to 
live separately, built smaller dwellings. 
The manner of construction among the 
Delawares is thus described by Zeisber- 
ger: "They peel trees, abounding with 
sap, such as lime trees, etc., then cutting 
the bark into pieces of 2 or 3 yards in 
length, they lay heavy stones upon 
theih, that they may become flat and 
even in drying. The frame of the hut is 
made by driving poles into the ground 
and strengthening them by cross beams. 
This framework is covered, both within 
and without, with the above-mentioned 
pieces of bark, fastened very tight with 
bast or twigs of hickory, which are re- 
markably tough. The roof runs up to a 
ridge, and is covered in the same manner. 
These huts have one opening in the roof 
to let out the smoke and one in the side 
for an entrance. The door is made of a 
large piece of bark without either bolt or 
lock, a stick leaning against the outside 
being a sign that nobody is at home. 
The light enters by small openings fur- 
nished with sliding shutters." The cov- 
ering was sometimes rushes or long reed 
grass. The houses of the Illinois are de- 
scribed by Hennepin as being "made 
like long arbors" and covered with 
double mats of flat flags. Those of the 
Chippewa and the Plains tribes were cir- 
cularorconical, aframework covered with 
bark among the former, a frame of mov- . 
able poles covered with dressed skins 
among the latter. The villages, especially 
along the Atlantic coast, were frequently 
surrounded with stockades of tall, stout 
stakes firmly set in the ground. A num- 
ber of the western Algonquian towns are 
described by early explorers as fortified 
or as surrounded with palisades. 

In no other tribes n. of Mexico was 
picture writing developed to the advanced 

stage that it reached among the Delawares 
and the Chippewa. The figures were 
scratched or painted on pieces of bark or on 
slabs of wood. Some of the tribes, especi- 
ally the Ottawa, were great traders, acting 
as chief middlemen between the more dis- 
tant Indians and the early French settle- 
ments. Some of the interior tribes of 
Illinois and Wisconsin made but little use 
of the canoe, traveling almost always afoot; 
while others who lived along the upper 
lakes and the Atlantic coast were expert 
canoemen. The canoes of the upper lakes 
were of birch-bark, strengthened on the 
inside with ribs or knees. The more 
solid and substantial boat of Virginia and 
the western rivers was the dugout, made 
from the trunk of a large tree. The man- 
ufacture of pottery, though the product 
was small, except in one or two tribes, 
w T as widespread. Judged by the number 
of vessels found in the graves of the re- 
gions occupied by the Shawnee, this tribe 
carried on the manufacture to a greater 
extent than any other. The usual method 
of burial was in graves, each clan or gens 
having its own cemetery. The mortuary 
ceremonies among the eastern and central 
tribes were substantially as described by 
Zeisberger. Immediately after death the 
corpse was arrayed in the deceased's best 
clothing and decked with the chief orna- 
ments worn in life, sometimes having the 
face and shirt painted red, then laid on 
a mat or skin in the middle of the hut, 
and the arms and personal effects were 
placed about it. After sunset, and also 
before daybreak, the female relations and 
friends assembled around the body to 
mourn over it. The grave was dug gen- 
erally by old women; inside it was 
lined with bark, and when the corpse was 
placed in it, 4 sticks were laid across, 
and a covering of bark was placed over 
these; then the grave wasfilled with earth. 
An earlier custom was to place in the 
grave the personal effects or those indic- 
ative of the character and occupation of 
the deceased, as w-ell as food, cooking uten- 
sils, etc. Usually the body was placed 
horizontally, though among some of the 
western tribes, as the Foxes, it was some- 
times buried in a sitting posture. It was 
the custom of probably most of the tribes 
to light fires on the grave for four nights 
after burial. The Illinois, Chippewa, and 
some of the extreme western tribes fre- 
quently practised tree or scaffold burial. 
The bodies of the chiefs of the Powhatan 
confederacy were stripped of the flesh 
and the skeletons were placed on scaf- 
folds in a charnel house. The Ottawa 
usually placed the body for a short time 
on a scaffold near the grave previous to 
burial. The Shawnee, and possibly one 
or more of the southern Illinois tribes, 
were accustomed to bury their dead in 
box-shaped sepulchers made of undressed 



stone slabs. The Nanticoke, and some of 
the western tribes, after temporary burial 
in the ground or exposure on scaffolds, 
removed the flesh and reinterred the 

The eastern Algonquian tribes probably 
equaled the Iroquois in bravery, intelli- 
gence, and physical powers, but lacked 
their constancy, solidity of character, 
and capability of organization, and do 
not appear to have appreciated the power 
and influence they might have wielded 
by combination. The alliances between 
tribes were generally temporary and 
without real cohesion. There seems, in- 
deed, to have been some element in their 
character which rendered them incapa- 
ble of combining in large bodies, even 
against a common enemy. Some of their 
great chieftains, as Philip, Pontiac, and 
Tecumseh, attempted at different periods 
to unite the kindred tribes in an effort 
to resist the advance of the white race; 
but each in turn found that a single great 
defeat disheartened his followers and 
rendered all his efforts fruitless, and the 
former two fell by the hands of deserters 
from their own ranks. The Virginia 
tribes, under the able guidance of Pow- 
hatan and Opechancanough, formed an . 
exception to the general rule. They 
presented a united front to the whites, 
and resisted for years every step of their 
advance until the Indians were practically 
exterminated. From the close of the 
Revolution to the treaty of Greenville 
(1795) the tribes of the Ohio valley also 
made a desperate stand against the Amer- 
icans, but in this they had the encour- 
agement, if not the more active support, 
of the British in Canada as well as of other 
Indians. In individual character many 
of the Algonquian chiefs rank high, and 
Tecumseh stands out prominently as one 
of the noblest figures in Indian history. 

The present number of the Algonquian 
family is about 90,000, of whom about 
40,000 are in the United States and 50,000 
in Canada. The largest tribes are the 
Chippewa and the Cree. (j. m. c. t. ) 

>Algonkin-Lenape.— Gallatin in Trans. Am. 
Antiq. Soc, II, 23, 305, 1836. Berghaus (1845), 
Phvsik. Atlas, map 17, 1848. Ibid,, 1852. Algon- 
quin. -Bancroft, Hist, U. S., in, 237, 1840. Pnch- 
ard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v, 381, 1847 (follows 
GallatinK >Algonkins. — Gallatin in Trans. Am. 
Ethnol. Soc, ir. pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848. Gallatin in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 401, 1853. >Algon- 
kin.— Turner in Pac. R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3, 55, 
1856. Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 232, 
1862 (treats only of Crees, Blackfeet, Shyennes). 
Hale in Am. Antiq., 112, April, 1883 (treated with 
reference to migration). <Algonkin.— Latham 
in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 1856 (adds to Galla- 
tin's list of 1836 the Bethuck, Shyenne, Blackfoot, 
and Arrapaho). Latham, Opuscula, 327, 1860 (as 
in preceding). Latham, Elem. Comp. Philol., 
447, 1862. <Algonquin, — Keane in Stanford, 
Compend., Cent, and S. Am., 460, 465, 1878 (list in- 
cludes the Maquas, an Iroquois tribe). >Saskat- 
schwainer. — Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848 
(probably designates the Arapaho). >Arapa- 
hoes.— Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852. 

x Algonkin und Beothuk, — Berghaus, Phvsik. Atlas, 
map 72, 1887. 

Algonquins of Portage de Prairie. A 
Chippewa band formerly living near L. 
of the Woods and e. of it in Manitoba. 
They removed before 1804 to the Red r. 
country through persuasions of the trad- 
ers. — Lewis and Clark, Disc, 55, 1806. 

Alibamu (said to be from the Choctaw 
alba ayamule, 'I open or clear the thick- 
et'). A Muskhogean tribe of the Creek 
confederacy that formerly dwelt in s. Ala- 
bama. It is clear that the Alibamu and 
Koasati were closely related, the language 
of the two being practically identical. 
When first found by the whites the 
home of the tribe was on Alabama r. a 
short distance below the junction of the 
Coosa and Tallapoosa. Their early his- 
tory, owing to confusion in the use of the 
name, is uncertain, but according to tra- 
dition they had migrated from a westerly 
locality. In the Creek legend, as given 
by Gatschet, they are mentioned, under 
the name Atilamas, as one of 4 tribes con- 
tending for the honor of being considered 
the most ancient and valorous. The 
chroniclers of I)e Soto's expedition in 
1541 locate the "province" or "town" 
of Alibamo a short distance n. w. of the 
Chicasa, in n. w. or central Mississippi. 
According to the Gentleman of Elvas they 
found a strongly fortified town, named 
Ullibahali, on Alabama or lower Coosa r. 
Coxe (French; Hist. Coll. La., n, 235, 
1850) says that below the Coza, or Coussa, 
on the same river, are the Ullibalies, 
or Olibahalies, according to the French 
the Allibamons. The identification with 
the Ullibahali would be complete if this 
statement could be accepted, but Gatschet 
is inclined to doubt its correctness. The 
history of the tribe recommences with the 
appearance of the French in Mobile bay in 
1701-02. Bienville found "on the banks 
and many adjacent islands, places aban- 
doned by the savages on account of war 
with the Conchaques [Conshac] and Ali- 
bamons" (Hamilton, Colon. Mobile, 41, 
1897 ) . The French soon became in vol ved 
in war with the tribe, who, joining the 
Cherokee, Abihka, and Catawba in 1708, 
descended Alabama r. to attack Ft Louis 
and the Mobile Indians in that vicinity, 
but retired after burning some villages. 
In 1713 the French established Ft Tou- 
louse in their country to hold them in 
check and to protect French traders. 
The site of the fort was occupied in 1812 by 
Ft Jackson. After the cession in 1763 by 
France to Great Britain the fort was 
abandoned, and at that time a part of the 
tribe removed to the banks of the Mis- 
sissippi and established a village 60 m. 
above New Orleans. This band num- 
bered about 120, including 30 warriors. 
Subsequently the tribe removed to w. 
Louisiana, and in 1890 some were still 



[B. a. b. 

living in Calcasieu parish, others in the 
Creek Nation in Indian T., and a party 
of about 200 in Polk co., Tex. 

Little has been recorded in regard to 
the character and customs of the Ali- 
bamu, but that they were warlike in dis- 
position is evident from their early his- 
tory. One singular custom mentioned 
by Penicaut seems to apply to the Ali- 
bamu as well as to the Mobile Indians. 
They caused their children, both boys 
and girls, to pass in array at a certain 
festival and receive a flogging of such 
severity as to draw blood, after which 
they were lectured by one or more of the 
elders. Hawkins states: "They did not 
conform to the customs of the Creeks, 
and the Creek law for the punishment of 
adultery was not known among them. 
They cultivated the soil to some extent 
and had some hogs, horses, and cattle. 
Though hospitable, it was their custom 
when a white person visited them, as 
soon as he had eaten, what was left was 
thrown away and everything which had 
been used [by the white j:>erson] was 
washed. ' ' The 4 Alibamu towns situated 
on Alabama r. are given by Hawkins 
(Sketch of Creek country, 1799) as Kan- 
chati, Tawosa, Pawokti, and Atagi. 
Others give Nitahauritz as one of the 
four. (a. s. g. c. t. ) 

Aibamos.— Barcia, Ensayo, 313, 1723. Ala.— H. R. 
Ex. Doc. 276, 24th Cong., 310, 1836 (probably an 
abbreviation.) Alabama. — Bartram, Travels, 463, 
1791. Ala Bamer.— Weatherford (1793) in Am. 
State Pap., Ind. Aff., i, 385, 1832. Albamas.— N. C. 
Col. Records (1721), n, 422, 1886. Alebamah.— 
Charlevoix, New France, VI, 25, 1872. Alebamons.— 
Bondinot, Star in West, 125, 1816. Alibam.— 
McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 80, 1854. 
Alibamas. — Nuttall, Journal , 287, 1821. Alibamies. — 
Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. Coll., 2d s., 
152, 1814. Alibamo.— French, Hist. Coll. La., II, 
104, .1850. Alibamons.— Dumont, La., I, 134,1753. 
Alibamous.— Smyth, Tour in U. S., I, 348, 1784. 
Alibamus.— Brackenridge, Views of La., 82, 1814. 
Alibanio.— Smith, Coll. Docs. Hist. Florida, I, 56, 

1857. Alibanons.— N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., x, 156, 

1858. Alimamu.— Gentleman of Elvas (1539) in 
Hakluyt Soc. Pubs., ix, 87, 1851. Allibama.— 
Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Allibamis.— Sibley, 
Hist. Sketches, 81,1806. Allibamons. — Bossu (1758), 
Travels La., i, 219, 1771. Allibamous.— Coxe, Caro- 
lana, 24, 1741. Atilamas. — Gatschet, Creek Migr. 
Leg., n, 13, 1888 (Creek name). Aybamos.— 
Barcia, Ensayo, 333, 1723. Ewemalas.— Coxe, Caro- 
lana, 25, 1741. Habbamalas.— Spotswood (1720) in 
N. C. Col. Records, II, 383, 1886. Halbama.— Vau- 
gondy, map of America, Nancy, 1778. Holbamas. — 
Rivers, Early Hist. So. Car., 97, 1874. Limanu. — 
Ranjel (1541) in Bourne, Narr. De Soto, n, 136, 
1904. Ma'-mo a"-ya-di. — Dorsey, Biloxi MS. Diet., 
B. A. E., 1892 (Biloxi name). Ma'-mo ha n -ya. 
Ibid, (another Biloxi name). Ma'-mo ha-ya n -di'. — 
Ibid, (another Biloxi name). Oke-choy-atte.— 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 1, 266, 1851. Olibahalies. — 
Coxe, Carolana, 24, 1741. (See Ullibahali.) 

Alibamu. A town of the Creek Nation, 
on the n. fork of Canadian r., Ind. T. — 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., n, 185, 1888. 

Alican. A former Chumashan village 
at Canada Maria Ignacio, near Santa 
Barbara, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Apr. 24, 1863. 

Alimacani. A Timuquanan village on 
the Florida coast, n. of St Johns r., in 1565. 
Alimacani.— Fontaneda in Ternaux-Compans, 
Voy., xx, 24, 1863. Alimacany.— French, Hist. 
Coll. La., 2d s., 264, 1875. Allicamany.— Bassanier, 
Histoire Notable, 57, 1586. Allimacany. — Laudon- 
niere in French, Hist. Coll. La., n. s., 257, 1869. 
Halianacani. — Gourgues quoted in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., 2d s., 275, 1875. Halmacanir.— Laud on - 
mere," ibid., n. s., 349, 1869. 

Alimibegouek^ (probably cognate with 
the Chippewa Urtimibigog, ' they that live 
by the river'. — Wm. Jones). Mentioned 
as one of the four divisions of the 
Cree, living on L. Alimibeg (Nipigon?), 
which discharges into L. Superior, Onta- 
rio. Creuxius places them immediately 
n. of the lake, near the s. end of Hudson 
bay. What part of the Cree of modern 
times these include is not determinable. 

(.1. M. C. T. ) 

Alimibegoueci.— Creuxius, map New France, 1664. 

Kilistinons Alimibegouek. — Jes. Rel. 1658, 21, 1858. 

Alipconk ( ' place of elms ' ) . A village 
of the Wecquaesgeeks on the site of Tar- 
rytown, Westchester co., N. Y. It was 
burned by the Dutch in 1644. 
Alipconck.— Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 78, 
1872 ('place of elms'). Alipkonck. — Von der 
Donck (1656) quoted, ibid., 72. 

Alipoti. Apparently a pueblo of the 
Queres in New Mexico in 1598. — Oiiate 
(1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 

Alizway. A former Chumashan vil- 
lage near Santa Inez mission, Santa Bar- 
bara co., Cal.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Oct. 18, 1861. 

Alkali Lake. A Shuswap village or 
band near Fraser r. and opposite the mouth 
of Chilcotin r. , Brit. Col. ; pop. 158 in 1902. 
Alkakalilkes.— Brit. Col. Map, Ind. Aff., Victoria, 
1872 (probably identical). Alkali Lake.— Can. 
Ind. Aff., 269, 1902. 

Alkehatchee. A former Upper Creek 
town on Tallapoosa r., Ala. 
Alkehatchee.— Brahm (18th cent.) quoted by Gat- 
schet, Creek Migr. Leg., n, 214, 1888. Elkatcha.— 
Robin, Voy., n, map, 1888. 

Alki. The motto on the official seal of 
the State of Washington, taken from alki 
in the Chinook jargon, which signifies ' by- 
and-by', 'in the future', 'soon'. The word 
came into the jargon from the Chinook 
proper, a dialect of the Chinookan stock, 
in which it has a like meaning, (a. f. c. ) 

Alkunwea (A'Wunweu, 'lower cor- 
ner'). A subdivision of the Laalaksen- 
taio, a Kwakiutl gens. — Boas in Kep. 
Nat. Mus. 1895, 332, 1897. 

Allagasomeda. A Chimmesyan village 
on upper Skeena r., British Columbia.— 
Downie in Jour. Rov. Geog. Soc, xxxi, 
253, 1861. 

Allakaweah (Al-la-kd'-we-dh, 'Paunch 
Indians ' ) . The name applied by a tribe 
which Lewis and Clark (Trav., 25, Lond., 
1807) located on Yellowstone and Big- 
horn rs., Mont., with 800 warriors and 
2,300 souls. This is exactly the country 
occupied at the same time by the Crows, 
and although these latter are mentioned 

BULL. 30] 



as distinct, it is probable that they were 
meant, or perhaps a Crow band, more par- 
ticularly as the Crows are known to their 
cousins, the Hidatsa, q. v., as the "people 
who refused the paunch." The name 
seems not to have reference to the Gros- 
ventres, q. v. (j. m. ) 

Al-la-ka-we-ah.— Lewis (1805) quoted by Coues, 
Lewis and Clark Exped., i, 199, 1893. Gens de 
Panse.— Ibid, (given as their French name). 
Panneh.— Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. x, 1848 (misprint 
for Paunch). Paunch (Indians). —Lewis quoted 
by Coues, op. cit., I, 199, 1893. Ponch Indians.— 
Prescott quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 
251, 1853. 

Allapata. An unidentified town for- 
merly on Hillsboro r., e. Fla. — Brion de 
la Tour, War map, 1782. 

Allaquippa. A Delaware woman sachem 
of this name lived in 1755 near the 
mouth of Youghiogheny r.,. Allegheny 
co., Pa., and there may have been there 
a small Delaware settlement known by 
her name. (j. m.) 

Allaquippas.— La Tour, map, 1779. Alleguipes.— 
Esnauts and Rapillv, map, 1777. Allequippe.— 
Lattre, U. S. map, 1781. 

Alle. A pueblo of New Mexico in 1598, 
doubtless situated in the Salinas in the 
vicinity of Abo, and evidently occupied 
by the Tigua or the Piros.— Ofiate (1598) 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 

Alleghany Indians. A geographical 
group, comprising Delawares and Shaw- 
nee, residing on Alleghany r. in the 
18th century. — Rupp (1756), Northamp- 
ton, etc., 106, 1845. 

Allegany Indians.— Post (1758), Journ., 147, repr. 
1867. Allegheny.— Lotter, map, about 1770. Alli- 
gany. — Homann Heirs, map, 1756. Attegheny.— 
Esna-uts and Rapilly, map, 1777 (misprint). 

Allh. A body of Salish e. of Che- 
manis lake, Vancouver id. — Brit. Col. 
map, Ind. Aff., Victoria, 1872. 

Alligator. A former Seminole town in 
Suwannee co., Fla. 

Alligator Hole. — Bartram, Voy., I, map, 1799. Al- 
ligator Indians. — Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 360, 

Alloc. A Chumashan village w. Of 
Pueblo de las Canoas (San Buenaven- 
tura), Ventura co., Cal., in 1542 (Cabri- 
llo, Narr., 1542, in Smith, Coll. Doc, 
181, 1857). Placed by Taylor on the 
rancho Orteaga, near the beach. 

Alloonloanshaw. A town on the head- 
waters of Pearl r., Neosho co., Miss., 
occupied by the Oklafalaya Choctaw. — 
West Fla. map, ca. 1772. 

Allu. The Antelope clan of the Pecos 
tribe of New Mexico. — Hewett in Am. 
Anthrop., vi, 431, 1904. 

Almotu. A Paloos village on the n. 
bank of Snake r., about 30 m. above the 
mouth of Palouse r., Wash. — Mooney in 
14th Rep. B. A. E., 735, 1896. 

Alouko. A former Seminole town on 
the e. side of St Marks r., 20 m. n. 
of St Marks, Wakulla co., Fla.— H. R. 
Ex. Doc. 74 (1823), 19th Cong., 27, 1826. 

Alpincha. A former Chumashan vil- 
lage near the center of the present town 
of Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Al-pm-tca.— Henshaw, Santa Barbara MS. vocab., 
B. A. E , 1884. 

Alpowna. A former Nez Perce village 
at the mouth of a creek that flows into 
Snake r. from the n., below Lewiston, 
Idaho. At this point the people mixed 
with the Paloos, hence more than one 
language was spoken in the village. 

(A. C. Fv) 

Alpawa.— Gatschet, Nez Perce MS., B. A. E.. 1878 
(given as the village name, but really the name 
of the creek). Elpawawe. — Ibid . 

Alsea (corruption of Alzi', the aborigi- 
nal name). A Yakonan tribe formerly 
occupying a small territory at and about 
the mouth of Alsea r., w. Oreg. Little is 
known of the early history of the tribe, 
of which there are now only a dozen sur- 
vivors on the Siletz res., Oreg. Ac- 
cording to Dorsey (Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 229, 1890) the following are the former 
Alsea villages: Kutauwa, Kyamaisu, 
Tachuwit, Kaukhwan, Yukhais, Kakhts- 
hanwaish, Shiuwauk, Khlokhwaiyutslu, 
Mekumtk, n. of Alsea r. ; Yahach, Chi- 
ink, Kauhuk, Kwulisit, Kwamk, Skha- 
khwaiyutslu, Khlimkwaish, Kalbusht, 
Panit, Thlekushauk, and Thlekuhweyuk, 
on the s. side of the river. Milhau (in 
letter to Gibbs)gave Neahumtuk as an 
Alsea village at the mouth of Alsea r., 
which has not been identified. See Far- 
rand in Am. Anthrop., in, 240, 1901. 


Alcea.— Sikes in Ind. Aff. Rep., 215, 1860. Aleya.— 
Gairdner (1835) in Jour. Geog. Soc. Loud., xi, 
255, 1841. Alsea.— Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
in, 229, 1890. Alseya.— Duflot de Mofras, Explor., 
ii, 104, 1844. Al-si'.— Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk- 
lore, in, 229, 1890 (own name). Alsiias.— Duflot 
de Mofras, Explor., n, 335, 1844. Alsi'-me junne.— 
Dorsey, MS. Naltunne tunnC vocab., B. A. E.,-1884 
(Naltunne name). Alsiya.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 253, 
1877. Ku-nis' :uinne. — Dorsey, MS. Chasta Costa 
vocab.. B. A. E., 1884 (Chastacosta name). Pa- 
ifan amim.— Gatschet, Lakmiut MS., B. A. E., 105 
(Lakmiutname). Sini'-te-li tunne.— Dorsey, MS. 
Naltunne tunnC vocab. , B. A. E. , 1884 ( ' flatheads ' : 
Naltunne name). Tcha yaxo amfn.— Gatschet, 
op. cit. (Lakmiutname). Tehayesatlu. — Gatschet, 
MS. Nestucca vocab., B. A. E. (Nestucca name). 
TJlseah.— Lewis and Clark, Exped., n, 118, 1814. 

Altahmos. A division of the Costanoan 
family formerly living on San Francisco 
bay, Cal., and connected with Dolores 
mission, San Francisco. 
Al-tah-mos.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, n, 506, 1852. 
Altajumi.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 
Altajumo.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, I, 452, 1874. 
Altatmos.— Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 
82, 1856. 

Altamaha. A ' ' province " in e. Georgia 
in 1540, mentioned in the narratives of 
De Soto's expedition. The name is pre- 
served in Altamaha r. The word seems 
to be of Timucua origin, the last part, 
-paha, signifying ' town, ' ' home. ' ( j. m. ) 
Alatamahas.— Baudry des Lozieres, Voy. La., 241, 
1802. Altamaca.— Gentleman of El vas in Hakluyt 
Soc. Pubs., ix, 49,1851. Altamaha.— La Harpe( 170*7) 
in French, Hist, Coll. La., in, 36, 1851. Altapaha.— 



[B. a. e. 

Biedma (1540) in Smith, Coll. Doc. Fla., 50, 1857. 
Attapaha.— Biedma (1544) in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., ii, 100, 1850. Ilatamaa.— De l'lsle, map (1707) 
in Winsor, Hist. America, n, 294, 1886. 

Altar. Using the term in its broadest 
sense, an altar, on which sacrifices were 
made or offerings laid or around which 
some other act of worship was performed, 
was a feature of the performance of every 
ceremony of the American Indians. Some 
of these altars are so simple that their 
nature is not easily apprehended: an ex- 
cavation in the earth, a pile of rocks, a 


fire, a buffalo skull serving the purpose. 
Others, presenting a complex assemblage 
of parts, are definitely recognizable as 
altars and in some cases resemble in form 
the altars of civilized people, for exam- 
ple, those of the Hopi and the Sia. The 
altar, on account of its universal distribu- 
tion, thus renders important aid to the 
comparative study of religions. The ef- 
fect of the altar is to localize the worship 
and to furnish a place where the wor- 
shiper can convey to the deity his offer- 
ing and prayers. Altar-shrines are often 
placed by springs, rivers, caves, rocks, 
or trees on mountains and near spots 
which certain deities are supposed to 
inhabit, in the belief that the roads of 
these deities extend from these localities. 
In pursuance of a like idea the Haida de- 
posit certain offerings in the sea, and 
many tribes throw offerings into springs, 
lakes, and rivers. Some of the tempo- 
rary altars of the eastern and southern 
Indians, so far as may be learned from 
the illustrations of early writers, consisted 
of an oval or circular palisade of carved 
stakes surrounding an area in the center 
of which was a fire or a mat on which 
were laid various symbolic cult apparatus. 
Lafitau (Mceurs des Sauvages, n, 327, 1724) 
regards as a fire altar the pipe in the calu- 
met ceremony of the Illinois described by 
Marquette. Such altars are more primi- 
tive than the temporary altars erected for 
the celebration of a ritual or a portion 
of a ritual, and the distinction should 

be noted. In this connection the cloud- 
blowing tubes and pipes of the ancient 
and modern Pueblos may also be men- 
tioned. The widespread connection of 
fire with the altar is an important fact. 
The disposition of logs in cruciform pat- 
tern for the kindling of new fire by the 
Creeks suggests an altar. Interesting ex- 
amples of the use of fire in ceremony are 
the Iroquois white-dog rite and the night 
chant of the Navaho. Among the Sik- 
sika every tent contains an altar — a small 
excavation in the earth — where sweet 
gum is burned daily (Wissler). Prehis- 
toric altars consisting of blocks of fire- 
hardened clay or, in rare cases, boxes of 
stone form the essential characteristic of 
many mounds and belong to the class of 
fire altars (Thomas, Putnam, Moorehead, 
Mills, Fowke). Among the altars that 
survive in the ceremonies of tribes of the 
United States may be cited the fire 
altar of the Kwakiutl cannibal ceremony 
(Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. for 1895); the 
holy place of the Pawnee Hako ceremony 
(Fletcher in 22d Rep. B. A. E., 36, 1904) ; 
the altars of the Sioux (Fletcher in 
16th Rep. Peabody Mus., 1883) ; the sun- 
dance altar of the Arapaho (Dorsey in 
Field Columb. Mus. Pub., no. 75, ph lxi, 
1903); and altars of various ceremonies 
of the Navaho (Matthews in 5th Rep. B. 
A. E., 1887; Stevenson in 8th Rep. B. A. 
E., 1891), the Zuni (Stevenson in 23d 
Rep. B. A. E., 1905), and the Hopi 
(Fewkes in recent reports B. A. E., and 
articles in Am. Anthrop. and Jour. Am. 
Folk-lore; Dorsey and Voth in Field Col. 
Mus. Pubs. ) . Temporary altars are char- 
acteristic of the Pueblos and consist, as in 
the flute ceremony, for example, of a rere- 
dos formed of one horizontal and two ver- 
tical slats painted with symbols of rain 
and clouds, lightning, corn, cult figures, 


animals, etc. In front of the reredos stand 
figurines, sticks representing corn, the 
tiponi, or palladium bundle, flower 
mounds, netted gourds, ears of corn, fig- 
ures of birds, and a row of eagle feathers. 
Connected with the altar are bowls, bas- 
kets, rattles, prayer-sticks, pipes, stone 
implements, and other paraphernalia, 
and a characteristic feature of some of 
them is the dry-painting. During the 
progress of some ceremonies a direction' 
altar, or cloud altar, consisting of a medi- 

BULL. 30] 



cine bowl surrounded with ears of corn 
pointed toward the cardinal points, is 
temporarily used. The construction of 
the altar, the rites performed before it, and 
its destruction form interesting features 
of Hopi ceremonies and date back to an- 
cient times. Numerous shrine altars are 
mentioned, some near, others distant 
from, the present pueblos, and many have 
been observed which w r ere the worship- 
ing places of inhabitants of the ancient 
pueblos, (w. h.) 

Altinin (from Altau, the native name 
of a place in their territory). A Yokuts 
tribe formerly living near the upper end 
of the Tulare basin, Cal. They are said 
to have ranged as far s. as Kern r. A 
few survivors now reside on Tule Kiver 
res. They may be the same as the Paleu- 
yami. (a. l. k.) 

Aluenchi. A former village, presuma- 
bly Costanoan, connected with Dolores 
mission, San Francisco, Cal.— Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Aluik. A former Eskimo village on 
the e. coast of Greenland, about lat. 64° 
15'; pop. 130 in 1829.— Graah, Exped., 
map, 1837. 

Aluk. An Eskimo settlement in s. e. 
Greenland, lat, 60° 10'.— Meddelelser om 
Gronland, xxv, map, 1902. 

Alwathalama. A former Chumashan 
village at the marsh Of Goleta, near Santa 
Barbara, Cal.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Apr. 24, 1863. 

Allvatalama.— Bancroft. Nat. Races, I, 459, 1874. 
Alwaththalam.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, May 4, 1860. 
Aswalthatans.— Gatschet in Chief Eng. Rep., pi. 
3, 553, 1876. 

Alyeupkigna. A former Gabrieleno 
rancheria in Los Angeles co., Cal., at a 
place later called Santa Anita. 

Aleupkigna.— Ried (1852) quoted by Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, Jan. 11, 1861. Almpquig-na.— Ried 
misquoted bv Hoffman in. Bull. Essex Inst., 
xvn, 2, 1885. * 

Amacalniri. Mentioned as a clan of 
the Apohola phratry of the Timucua. — 
Pareja (ca. 1612) quoted by Gatschet in 
Am. Philos. Soc. Proc, xvn, 492, 1878. 

Amahami (ama 'land,' khami 'broken': 
'mountainous country' ). A former dis- 
tinct Siouan tribe, long since incorporated 
with the Hidatsa; also the name of their 
Tillage. Along with the Hidasta they 
claimed to have formerly constituted one 
tribe with the Crows. Their language, 
however, indicated closest affinity with 
the Hidatsa, differing but slightly from 
it, although they occupied a separate vil- 
lage and long maintained separate tribal 
organization. They were recognized as a 
distinct tribe by Lewis and Clark in 1804, 
but had practically lost their identity 30 
years later. Tn Lewis and Clark's time 
their village was at the mouth of Knife r., 
N. Dak., and was one of three, the other 
two being Hidatsa, which for many years 
stood on the banks of that stream. Their 

strength was estimated at 50 warriors. 
After the epidemic of 1837 all or the 
greater part of the survivors joined the 
Hidatsa and were merged with that tribe. 
Lewis and Clark state that they had been 
a numerous and prosperous agricultural 
tribe which once divided the upper Mis- 
souri valley, w. of the Dakota group, with 
the Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa, the 
remains of the old towns of these four 
tribes being visible on every prairie ter- 
race along the river for 600 miles. The 
remnants of all four were found by Mat- 
thews (Ethnog. Hidatsa, 13, 1877) at Fort 
Berthold, numbering fewer than 2,500. 
Ahahawa.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 522, 1853. 
Ahahaway.— Ibid., 250. Ah'-e-o-war'.— Lewis and 
Clark, Disc, 28, 1806 (own name). Ahnahaways.— 
Lewis and Clark, Exped., I, 115, 1814. Ahwaha- 
was.— Brown, West. Gaz., 212, 1817. Ahwaha- 
ways.— Lewis and Clark, Exped., II, 452, 1814. 
Ah-wah-ha-way.— Lewis and Clark, Disc, 25, 1806. 
Amahami.— Matthews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 15, 1877. 
Amasi.— Ibid., 36 ('earthen lodges': Crow name). 
A-ma'-te-wat-se'.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. 
Mo. Val., 402, 1862. A ma tiha mi.— Matthews, 
Ethnog. Hidatsa, 133, 1877. Anhawas.— McKen- 
nev and Hall, Ind. Tribes, III, 80, 1854. Anna- 
hawas.— Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc, 
II, 125, 1836. Arwacahwas.— Lewis and Clark, 
Exped., I. 120, 1814. Arwachaon.— Ibid., map. 
A wachawi.— Maximilian, Travels, 178, 1843. 
A-wa-ha-was. — Schermerhorn in Mass. Hist. Coll., 
2d s., II, 35, 1814. A-waha-ways.— Brackenridge, 
Views of La., 85, 1815. Corneille.— Balbi, Atlas 
Ethnog., 56, 1826. Gens des Soulier.— Lewis and 
Clark, Disc, 25, 1806. Les Souliers.— Maximilian, 
Travels, 323, 1843. Mahaha.— Lewis and Clark, 
Exped., I, 130, 1814. Maharhar.— Lewis and 
Clark, Coues ed., I, 183, 1893. Mahawha.— Max- 
imilian, Travels, 335, 1843. Mattasoons.— Keane 
in Stanford, Compend., 521, 1878. Sauliers.— 
Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. Coll., 2d s., 
II, 35, 1814 (misprint) . Shoe Indians.— Lewis and 
Clark, Exped., i, 130, 1814. Soulier Noir.— Ibid. 
(French: 'black shoe'). Watasoons. — Gass, Jour- 
nal, 59, 1807. Wattasoons.— Lewis and Clark, 
Exped., I, 130, 1814 (so called by the Mandan). 
Wetersoon.— Lewis and Clark Exped.. Coues ed., 
I, 204, note, 1893. 

Amaikiara. A former Karok village on 
the w. bank of Klamath r., at the rapids 
a mile or two below the mouth of Salmon 
r., n. w. Cal. Though not a large village, 
it was of importance because an annual 
salmon ceremony and the jumping dance 
were held here. Together with most of 
the villages near the mouth of the Salmon 
it was burned by the whites in the sum- 
mer of 1852. (A. L. K.) 

A-mi-ke-ar-rum.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Mar. 23, 
1860. Eh-nek.— Gibbs (1851) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, ill, 151, 1853. Enek.— Kroeber, inf'n, 1903 
(Yurok name of the lower part of the village). 
Ihnek.— Meyer, Nach dem Sacramento, 236, 1855. 
In-neck.— McKee (1851) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d 
Cong., spec sess., 164, 1853. Mik-iara.— Gibbs, 
MS. Misc., B. A. E., 1852. Tumitl.— Kroeber, inf'n, 
1903 (Yurok name for the upper part of the vil- 

Amakalli. A former Lower Creek town 
established by Indians from Chiaha town 
on Amakalli cr., the main branch of 
Kitchofuni cr., an affluent of Flint r., 
Ga. It had 60 warriors in 1799. ( a. s. g. ) 
Au-muc-cul-le.— Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 64, 1848. 
Amalahta. A Chickasaw town in n. 
Mississippi, which, according to Adair 



Lb. a. b. 

(Hist. Inds., 354, 1775), stood at some dis- 
tance from the other Chickasaw towns. 
They met the French there in a sanguin- 
ary battle during the first Chickasaw war 
of 1736. (a. s. g.) 

Melattaw.— Romans, East and West Fla., 63, 1775. 

Amalgua ( 'island of the mists'). An 
island off the w. coast of Lower California, 
about lat. 30°, on which was a Cochimi 
rancheria. — Venegas, Hist. Cal., n, 437, 

Huamalgua.— Clavigero quoted by Tavlor in Cal. 
Farmer, Jan. 17, 1862. 

Amani-ini ( ' mescal corner ' ) . A ranch- 
eria, probably Cochimi, connected with 
Purisima mission, Lower California, in 
the 18th century. 
Amani ini.— Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857. 

Amaseconti ('abundance of small fish' 
[herring]). A small division of the Ab- 
naki formerly residing in part at Farm- 
ington falls, on Sandy r., Franklin co., 
Me., and partly near the present New 
Sharon, a few miles distant. They took 
part with the other Abnaki in the early 
Indian wars against the English and 
joined in the treaty made at Portsmouth, 
N. H., in 1713. Some of them lingered 
in their old homes until about 1797, when 
the last family removed to St Francis, 
lower Canada, where they retained their 
distinctive name until 1809. (j. m. ) 
Amasaconticook. — Ballard in U. S. Coast Snrv. 
Rep., 251,1871 (given as the correct name of Sandy 
r). Amasacontoog.— Portsmouth treaty (1713) in 
Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 250, 1859. Amasaguanteg. — 
Gyles (1726), ibid., in, 357, 1853. Amasconly.— 
Niles (1761?) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., vi, 247, 
1837. Amascontie.— Niles (1761?), ibid., 4th s., v, 
335, 1861. Amasconty.— Pen hallow (1726) in N. H. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., i, 21, 1824. Amasecontee.— Ibid., 
82. Amassacanty.— Niles (1761?) in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., 3d s., vi, 246, 1837. Amassaconty. — Pen- 
hallow, op. cit. Amosequonty. — Map of 1719 cited 
by Ballard in U. S. Coast Survey Rep., 251, 1871. 
Aiimesoukkanti.— Rasles quoted by Ballard, ibid. 
Anmessukkantti.— Rasles (1722) quoted by Vetro- 
mile, Abnakis, 23-27, 1866. Anmiss8kanti. — 
Abnaki letter (1721) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d 
s., viii, 262-3, 1819. Aumesoukkantti.— Rasles, in 
Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., IV, 102, 1856. Meesee Contee.— 
Allen, ibid., 31 (trans, 'herring place'). Meesu- 
contu.— Willis, ibid., 105. 

Amatidatahi. A former Hidatsa village 
on or near Knife r., N. Dak. 
A mati data hi.— Matthews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 133, 
1877. A ma ti nata&i.— Ibid. 

Amatiha. A former Hidatsa village on 
the s. bank of Knife r., half a mile above 
its mouth, in N. Dak. 

AmatiKa.— Matthews, Ethnog. and Philol., 35, 38, 
1877. Awaticha'i-Echpou.— Maximilian, Voy. dans 
l'Int. de l'Am., in, 2, 1843. Awatichay.— Maxi- 
milian, Trav., 178, 1343. 

Amatpan. A former Chitimacha vil- 
lage on Bayou Gris, in St Marys parish, 
La., 3 m. e. of Charenton, on the shore of 
Grand lake. 

Amatpan namu. — Gatschet in Trans. Anthrop. 
Soc. Wash., ii, 151, 1883 (ndmu=' village '). 

Amaxa. A pueblo of New Mexico in 
1598, doubtless situated in the Salinas in 
the vicinity of Abo, and evidently occu- 
pied by Tigua or Piros. — Onate (1598) in 
Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 

Amber Beads, Alaska ( 

Amaye. A town and province visited 
by the De Soto expedition in 1542; situ- 
ated probably in extreme s. w. Arkan- 
sas.— Gentl. of Elvas (1557) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n, 195, 1850. 
Amay.— Harris, Voy. and Trav., I, 810, 1705. 

Amber. A fossilized vegetable resin 
occurring in small quantities in the more 
recent geological formations in many 
parts of the continent. So far as known 
it was little used by the aborigines, ex- 
cepting the Eskimo of 
Alaska, who valued it 
for beads and other 
small ornaments. 
These people obtained 
it' from the alluvium of 
the Yukon delta and 
from the Tertiary for- 
mations of the Fox ids. Murdoch (9th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1892) illustrates a string of 
four small amber beads obtained from the 
Pt Barrow Eskimo. See also Kunz, Gems 
and Precious Stones, 1890. (w. h. h.) 

Amdowapuskiyapi ( ' those who lay meat 
on their shoulders to dry it during the 
hunt'). A Sisseton band or subtribe. — 
Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 217, 1897. 
Amediche. A tribe, probably Caddoan, 
that lived about 68 leagues w. of Natchi- 
toches, in e. Texas. La Harpe stated that 
in 1714-16 they w r ere at war with the 
Natchitoches, and that the Spaniards had 
established a settlement among them a 
few years previously, but soon aban- 
doned it. (a. o. f. ) 

Amedichez. — La Harpe (1719) in Margry, Dec, vi, 
266, 1886. 

Amen {A' men). A village or a group of 
3 adjacent villages of the Yurok on the 
coast 6 m. n. of the mouth of Klamath 
r., Cal., their northernmost habitation. 

(A. L. K.) 

Amerdlok ('the smaller one,' referring 
generally to a bay near a larger one) . An 
Eskimo village in w. Greenland, lat. 67°. — 
Nansen, First Crossing, map, 1890. 

American Horse. An Oglala Sioux chief, 
known in his tribe as Wasechun-tashunka. 
He was probably the son or nephew of 
the American Horse w T ho went out w r ith 
Sitting Bull in the Sioux w T ar and was 
killed at Slim buttes, S. Dak., Sept. 29, 
1875. As speaker for the tribe he signed 
the treaty secured by the Crook commis- 
sion in 1887, by which the Sioux reserva- 
tion in Dakota was reduced by one-half. 
Nearly half the tribe objected to the ces- 
sion, alleging that the promises of the 
commissioners could not be depended on, 
and the malcontents, excited by the mes- 
sianic craze that had recently reached the 
Sioux and by the killing of Sitting Bull, 
its chief exponent among them, in 1890, 
withdrew from the council and prepared 
to tight the Government. The expected 
benefits of the treaty proved illusory. 

BULL. 30] 



While the tribe were gathered at the 
agency to treat with the commissioners, 
their great herds of cattle destroyed their 
growing crops and were subsequently 
stolen. The signers expected that the 
rations, of beef that had been cut off by 
the Government would be restored, and 
the agent began to issue the extra rations. 
In the following year, when drought had 
ruined the new crop, authority to increase 
the rations having been withheld, they 
were reduced at the most unseasonable 
time. The Sioux were actually starving 
when the malcontents took their arms 
and went out to the bad-lands to dance 
themselves into the exalted state neces- 
sary for the final struggle with the whites. 
American Horse and other friendlies in- 
duced them to submit, and the episode 
would have been concluded without fur- 
ther bloodshed had not a collision occurred 
between some raw troops and Big Foot's 
band after its surrender. In 1891 Ameri- 
can Horse headed the delegation from 
Pine Ridge to Washington, composed of 
leaders of both the friendly and the lately 
hostile party, and the conferences resulted 
in the issue of living rations and in fairer 
treatment of the Sioux, (f. h.) 

Amerind. A word composed of the 
first syllables of "American Indian," 
suggested in 1899 by an American lexi- 
cographer as a substitute for the inap- 
propriate terms used to designate the 
race of man inhabiting the New World 
before its occupancy by Europeans. 
The convenience of such derivatives as 
Amerindic, Amerindize, Amerindian, 
proto-Amerind, pre-Amerindic, pseudo- 
Amerind, etc., argues in favor of the new 
word. The introduction of "Amerind" 
was urged by the late Maj. J. W. Powell, 
and it has the support of several anthro- 
pologists. A plea by Dr W J McGee for 
its general adoption appeared in 1900 in 
the Journal of the Anthropological In- 
stitute of Great Britain. The use of 
"Amerind" at the International Con- 
gress of Americanists in New York, Oct., 
1902, occasioned a discussion (Science, 
n. s., xvi, 892, 1902) in which it was sup- 
ported by some and attacked by others. 
The name, nevertheless, has found its 
way into both scientific and popular litera- 
ture, (a. f. c. ) 

Ametzilhacaamanc ( ' mouth of the sandy 
arroyo'). A rancheria, probably Coch- 
imi, connected with Purisima mission, 
Lower California, in the 18th century. — 
Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 190, 1857. 

Amicoa. Mentioned by Coxe ( Carolana, 
14, 1741) as a tribe on the Honabanou, 
an imaginary river entering the Missis- 
sippi from the w., 15 leagues above the 
mouth of the Ohio. It is probably an 
imaginary tribe. 

Bull. 30—05 4 

Amikwa ( from amik, ' beaver ' ) . An 
Algonquian tribe found by the French on 
the n. shore of L. Huron, opposite Mani- 
toulin id., where they were located in the 
Jesuit Relations at various dates up to 
1672. Bacqueville de la Potherie (Hist. 
Am. Sept., 1753) says that they and the 
Nipissing once inhabited the shores of 
L. Nipissing, and that they rendered 
themselves masters of all the other na- 
tions in those quarters until disease made 
great havoc among them and the Iroquois 
compelled the remainder of the tribe to 
betake themselves, some to the French 
settlements, others to L. Superior and to 
Green bay of L. Michigan. In 1740 a 
remnant had retired to Manitoulin id. 
Chauvignerie, writing in 1736, says of the 
Nipissing: ' ' The armorial bearings of this 
nation are, the heron for the Achague or 
Heron tribe, the beaver for the Ame- 
ko8es [Amikwa], the birch for the Bark 
tribe. ' ' The reference may possibly be to 
a gens only of the Nipissing and not to the 
Amikwa tribe, yet the evidently close re- 
lation between the latter and the Nipis- 
sing justifies the belief that the writer 
alluded to the Amikwa as known to his- 
tory. They claimed in 1673 to be allies 
of the Nipissing. (j. m. c. t. ) 

Amehouest.— Heriot, Travels, 197, 1807. Ame- 
ko8es.— Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., ix, 1053, 1855. Amicawaes. — Bovd, Ind. Local 
Names, 3, 1885. Amicois.— Doc. of 1693 in N.Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., ix, 566, 1855. Amicoues.— Jes. Rel. 1671, 
25,1858. Amicoures.— Jes. Rel. 1670, 79, 1858. Ami- 
cours.— Heriot, Trav., 194, 1807. Amic-ways. — Boyd, 
Ind. Local Names, 3, 1885. Amihouis.— Colden 
(1727) , Five Nations. 86, 1747. Amikois. —N.Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., ix, 722, 1855. Atnikones. — McKennev and 
Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 81, 1854. Amikoiiai.— Jes. 
Rel. 1640, 34, 1858. Amikoiias.— Perrot (ca. 1700), 
Mem., 20, 1864. Amikouek.— Jes. Rel. 1648, 62, 1858. 
Amikoiies.— Gallinee (1669-70) in Margry, Dec, i, 
162, 1875. a Mikouest. — La Potherie, Hist. l'Am6r., 
II, 48, 1753 (misprint). Amikouest.— Ibid., 58. 
Amikouets.— Neill in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 403, 
1885. Amikouis.— Jefferys, Fr. Doms., pt. 1, 47,1761. 
Amikouys.— Charlevoix (1743), Voy.. II, 47, 1761. 
Beaver (Indians). — Shea, Catholic Missions, 366, 
1855. Castor.— McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 81, 1854. Naiz Percez.— Jes. Rel. 1636, 92, 1858. 
Nation du Castor.— Ibid. Nation of the Beaver. — 
Jefferys, French Doms. Am., pt, 1, 47, 1761. Neds- 
percez.— Jes. Rel. 1657, 11, 1858. Nez-Perces.— 
Charlevoix, Hist. New France, Shea ed., in, 130, 
1872. Nez Percez. — Ibid., 119. Omikoues.— Rasles 
(ca. 1723) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., vm, 251, 
1819. Ounikanes.— Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 554, 1853 (misprint.) 

Amilcou. Mentioned by Iberville in 
connection with the Biioxi, Moctobi, 
Huma, Paskagula, etc., as a small tribe 
e. of the lower Mississippi in 1699 (Mar- 
gry, Dec, iv, 155, 1880) ; not identified. 

Aminoya. A province or village, possi- 
bly Siouan, situated in 1542 on the w. 
bank of the Mississippi, probably a short 
distance below the mouth of Arkansas r. 
It was here the remnant of De Soto's fol- 
lowers, under the leadership of Moscoso, 
embarked for Mexico (Garcilasso de la 
Vega, Florida, 222, 1723). The people 



[B. a. e. 

were probably related to the Quapaw; if 
not, they may have been Caddoan. 
Aminoia.— La Salle (1679) in Margry, Dec, II, 41, 
1877. Daminoia.— Hennepin (1683), Shea trans., 
163, 1880. Minoia.— Coxe, Carolana, 22, 1741. Mi- 
noya.— Gentleman of Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., II, 206, 1850. 

Amitok ( 'narrow' ) . A winter settlement 
of the Amitormiut on the e. coast of Mel- 
ville peninsula. 

Amitigoke.— Gilder, Schwatka's Search, 181,1881. 
Amitioke.— Parry, Second Voy., 206, 1824. Amit- 
tioke.— Ibid., map, 197. Amitoq.— Boas in 6th 
Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. Amityook.— Lyon, Pri- 
vate Jour., 406, 1825. 

Amitormiut ( ' inhabitants of the nar- 
row place. ' —Boas ) . An Eskimo tribe on 
the e. coast of Melville penin. Their 
principal village is Amitok, from which 
they take their name. — Gilder, Schwat- 
ka's Search, 181, 1881. 

Amivik. An Angmagsalingmiut settle- 
ment on Angmagsalik fiord, e. Green- 
land.— Holm, Ethnol. Skizze af Angmag- 
salikerne, 14, 1887. 

Ammoncongan. A village, probably be- 
longing to the Abnaki, on the n. e. side of 
Presumpscot r. , at Saccarappa falls, Cum- 
berland co., Me.— Deed of 1657 in Me. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., i, 118, 1865. 
Aumoughcawgen.— Smith (1616) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 3d s., VI, 97, 1837. Aumuckcawgen.— Ibid., 
117. Aumughcawgen.— Smith (1631), ibid., in, 22, 

Amo. A pueblo of the province of 
Atripuy in the region of the lower part 
of the' Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598.— 
Ofiate (1598) in Doc. Ined.,xvi, 115, 1871. 

Amolomol {A mo'lomol). A former Chu- 
mashan village at the old wharf at Santa 
Barbara, Cal. — Henshaw, Buenaventura 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Amonces. A tribe or division, presum- 
ably of the Yokuts, said to have lived on 
Sau Joaquin r., Cal., in 1854. — Henley in 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 512, 1854. 

Amonokoa. A band of the Illinois 
about 1680.— Hennepin, New Disc, 310, 

Amanakoa.— La Salle (1680) quoted in Hist. Mag., 
1st 8., V, 197, 1861. 

Amoque. A former Maricopa rancheria 
on Gila r., s. Ariz. — Sedelmair (1744) 
quoted b>y Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 
366, 1889. 

Amoskeag (namos 'small "fish,' kkig 'to 
take': 'one takes small fish'). A small 
tribe or band of the Pennacook confed- 
eracy, living about 1675 in a village of 
the same name at Amoskeag falls, on Mer- 
rimac r., in Hillsboro co., N. H. This 
village was the residence of Wannalanset, 
head chief of the Pennacook confederacy, 
son of Passaconnaway. 

Amoskeag.— Hubbard (1680) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., v, 32, 1815. Naamhok.— Gookin (1677) 
in Trans. Am. Antiq, Soc, ir, 462, 1836. Naam- 
keeks.— Gookin (1674) in Mass. Hlrt. Soc. Coll., 1st 
s., I, 149, 1806. Namaoskeags.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, v, 221, 1855. Namaschaug.— Owaneco (1700) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 614, 1854. Namaske.— 
Eliot (ca. 1650) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., 
iv, 123, 1834. Namekeake.— Gookin (1677) quoted 
by Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 2,115,1848 (near Chelms- 

ford, Mass.; same?). Namkeake— Gookin (1677) in 
Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc, II, 518, 1836 (same?). 

Ampalamuyu. A Lakmiut band near 
Luckiamute r., Oreg. — Gatschet, Lakmiut 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1877. 

Ampishtna. The Lakmiut name of a 
band of the Calapooya proper, resid- 
ing e. of Upper Willamette r., Oreg. — 
Gatschet, Lakmiut MS., B. A. E., 1877. 

Amu (AmiV). The Ant clan of the 
Pecos tribe of New Mexico. — Hodge, field 
notes, B. A. E., 1895. 

Amulet. See Fetish. 

Amusaya. Mentioned as a Timucua 
clan of the Apohola phratry. — Pareja 
{ca. 1612) quoted bv Gatschet in Am. 
Philos. Soc. Proc, xvn, 492, 1878. 

Amusements. When not bound down 
by stern necessity, the Indian at home 
was occupied much of the time with 
dancing, feasting, gaming, and story-tell- 
ing. Though most of the dances were 
religious or otherwise ceremonial in 
character, there were some which had 
no other purpose than that of social 
pleasure. They might take place in the 
day or the night, be general or confined 
to particular societies, and usually were 
accompanied with the drum or other 
musical instrument to accentuate the 
song. The rattle was perhaps invariably 
used only in ceremonial dances. Many 
dances were of pantomimic or dramatic 
character, and the Eskimo had regular 
pantomime plays, though evidently due 
to Indian influence. The giving of pres- 
ents was often a feature of the dance, as 
was betting of all athletic contests and 
ordinary games. The amusements of the 
Eskimo and extreme northern tribes were 
chiefly athletic, such as racing, wrestling, 
throwing of heavy stones, and tossing in a 
blanket. From Hudson bay to the Gulf 
of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the 
border of the plains, the great athletic 
game was the ball play, now adopted 
among civilized games under the name 
of lacrosse. In the N. it w T as played with 
one racket, and in the S. with two. Ath- 
letes were regularly trained for this game, 
and competitions were frequently in- 
tertribal. The wheel-and-stick game in 
one form or another was well-nigh uni- 
versal. As played in the E. one gamester 
rolled forward a stone disk, or wheel, 
while his opponent slid after it a stick 
curved at one end in such a way that the 
wheel, when it fell to the ground, rested 
within the crook of the stick. On the 
plains and in the S. W. a wooden wheel, 
frequently netted, took the place of the 
stone disk. Like most Indian institu- 
tions, the game often had a symbolic sig- 
nificance in connection with a sun myth. 
A sacred variant of the game was played 
by the priests for divinatory purposes, or 
even as a sort of votive ceremony to pro- 
cure the recovery of a patient. Target 

BULL. 30] 



practice with arrows, knives, or hatchets, 
thrown from the hand, as well as with the 
bow or rifle, was also universal among 
the warriors and boys of the various 
tribes. The gaming arrows were of 
special design and ornamentation, and 
the game itself had often a symbolic 
purpose. Horse races, frequently inter- 
tribal, were prominent amusements, 
especially on the plains, during the warm 
season, and foot races, often elaborately 
ceremonial in character, were common 
among the sedentary agricultural tribes, 
particularly the Pueblos and the Wichita. 

Games resembling dice and hunt-the- 
button were found everywhere and were 
played by both sexes alike, particularly 
in the tipi or the wigwam during the long 
winter nights. The dice, or their equiva- 
lents, were of stone, bone, fruit seeds, 
shell, wood, or reed, variously shaped and 
marked. They were thrown from the 
hand or from a small basket or wooden 
bowl. One form, the awl game, confined 
to the .women, was played around a 
blanket, which had various tally marks 
along the border for marking the prog- 
ress of the game. The hunt-the-button 
games were usually accompanied with 
songs and rhythmic movements of the 
hands and body, intended to confuse the 
parties whose task was to guess the loca- 
tion of the button. Investigations by 
Culin show a close correspondence be- 
tweea these Indian games and those of 
China, Japan, Korea, and northern Asia. 

Special women's games were shinny, 
football, and the deer-foot game, be- 
sides the awl game already noted. In 
football the main object was to keep the 
ball in the air as long as possible by kick- 
ing it upward. The deer-foot game was 
played, sometimes also by men, with a 
number of perforated bones from a deer's 
foot, strung upon a beaded cord, having a 
needle at one end. The purpose was to 
toss the bones in such a way as to catch 
a particular one upon the end of the 

Among the children there were target 
shooting, stilts, slings, and tops for the 
boys, and buckskin dolls and playing- 
house for the girls, with "wolf" or 
"catcher," and various forfeit plays, in- 
cluding a breath-holding test. Cats'-cra- 
dles, or string figures, as well as shuttle- 
cocks and buzzes, were common. As 
among civilized nations, the children 
found the greatest delight in imitating 
the occupations of the elders. Numerous 
references to amusements among the va- 
rious tribes may be found throughout the 
annual reports of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. Consult especially Games of 
the American Indians, bv Stewart Culin, 
24th Rep. B. A. E., 1905" See Ball play, 
Dance, Games, (.t. if.) 

Amushungkwa. A former pueblo of the 
Jemez on a mesa w. of the Hot Springs, 
about 12 . m. n. of Jemez pueblo, N. 
Mex. It was abandoned prior to the 
revolt of 1680. See Patoqua. 
Amo-shium-qua.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
in, pt. 1, 127, 1890. Amo-xium-qua.— Bandelier 
(1888) in Proe. Internat. Cong. Am., vn, 452, 1890. 
Amoxunqua.— Zarate-Salmeron (ca. 1629) in Land 
of Sunshine, 183, Feb., 1900. Amoxunque.— Ban- 
delier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, pt. 1, 127,1890. 
Amushungkwa.— Hodge, field -notes, B. A. E., 1895. 

Amutaja. A former village, presuma- 
bly Costanoan, connected with Dolores 
mission, San Francisco, Cal. — Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Ana. The Tobacco clan of the Zuni. 
Ana-kwe.— Cushing in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 368, 1896 
(fcwe=' people'). 

Ana. A village of 70 Papago in 1865, 
probably in Pima co., s. Ariz. — Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 135, 1865. 

Anacbuc. A Chumashan village w. of 
Pueblo de las Canoas (San Buenaven- 
tura), Ventura co., Cal., in 1542. — Ca- 
brillo (1542) in Smith, Coll. Doc. Fla., 

Anacarck.— Cabrillo quoted bv Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863. Anacbuc— Ibid. 

Anacharaqua. A village in Florida, 
subject to Utina, chief of the Timucua, in 
1564. The De Bry map places it e. of 
lower St Johns r. 

Anacharaqua.— Laudonniere (1564) in French. 
Hist. Coll. La., n. s., 243, 1869. Anachatagua.— 
Barcia, Ensayo, 48, 1723. Onachaquara.— De Bry, 
map (1591) in Le Moyne, Narr., Appleton trans., 
1875 (transposed?). 

Anachorema. A village visited by La 
Salle in 1687. According to Douay ( Shea, 
Discov. Miss., 210, 1852) it was on the 
"first Cane r." n. e. of LaSalle's Ft St 
Louis on St Bernard (Matagorda) bay, 
Texas. Thwaites (Hennepin, New Dis- 
cov., ii, 420, 1903) regards the stream as 
probably the Rio Colorado of Texas. 

Anacoac. A Chumashan village be- 
tween Goletaand Pt Conception, Cal., in 
1542.— Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, Coll. Doc. 
Fla., 189, 1857. 

Almacoac— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863.— 
Anacoat.— Cabrillo, op. cit., 183. 

Anacot. A Chumashan village between 
Goleta and Pt Conception, Cal., in 1542 
(Cabrillo (1542) in Smith, Coll. Doc, 183, 
1 857) ; evidently distinct from Anacoat. 

Anadarko (from Nada'ko, their own 
name ) . A tribe of the Caddo confederacy 
whose dialect was spoken by the Kado- 
hadacho, Hainai, and Adai. The earliest 
mention of the people is in the relation of 
Biedma ( 1544 ) , who writes that Moscoso in 
1542 led his men during their southward 
march through a province that lay e. of 
the Anadarko. The territory occupied 
by the tribe was s. w. of the Kadohadacho. 
Their villages were scattered along Trin- 
ity and Brazos rs., Tex., higher up than 
those of the Hainai, and do not seem to 
have been visited so early as theirs by the 
French. A Spanish mission was estab- 



[B. a. e. 

lished among the Anadarko early in the 
18th century, but was soon abandoned. 
La Harpe reached an Anadarko village in 
1719, and was kindly received. The peo- 
ple shared in the general friendliness for 
the French . During the contention s of the 
latter with the Spaniards and later with 
the English, throughout the 18th century, 
the Anadarko suffered greatly. They be- 
came embroiled in tribal wars; their vil- 
lages were abandoned; and those who 
survived the havoc of war and the new 
diseases brought into the country by the 
white people were forced to seek shelter 
and safety with their kindred toward the 
n. e. In 1812 a village of 40 men and 200 
souls was reported on Sabine r. The Ana- 
darko lived in villages, having fixed habi- 
tations similar to those of the other tribes 
of the Caddo confederacy, to whom they 
were evidently also similar in customs, 
beliefs, and clan organization. Nothing 
is known definitely of the subdivisions 
of the tribe, but that such existed is prob- 
able from the fact that the people were 
scattered over a considerable territory and 
lived in a number of villages. They are 
now incorporated with the Caddo on the 
allotted Wichita res. in Oklahoma. The 
town of Anadarko perpetuates the tribal 
name. (a. c. f. ) 

Ah mau dah kas.— Parker (1855) quoted by 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 682, 1855. Ah-nan- 
dah-kas. —Parker, Texas, 213, 1856. Ahnaudahkas. — 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 712, 1855. Ahnauda- 
kas. — Keane in Stanford, Comp., 499, 1878. Aman- 
daiooes.— Neighbors in H. R. Doc. 100, 29th Cong., 
2d Bess., 3, 1847. Ana-da-ca.— Sen., Ex. Conf. Doc. 

13, 29th Cong., 2d sess., 1, 1846. Anadaghcoes.— 
Alvord in Sen. Ex. Doc. 18, 40th Cong., 3d sess., 
7, 1869. Anadahcoe.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 1856, 184, 1857. 
An-a-dah-has.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, I, 518, 
1851. An-a-dah-kas.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 28, 1848. 
Anadahkoes.— Ibid., 177. Anadahkos.— Ibid., 1856, 

14, 1857. Anadakas.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 
686, 1857. An-a-dak-has. — Marcy quoted by 
Schoolcraft, ibid., v, 712, 1855. Anadakkas.— 
Ibid. Anadako.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., 1, 43, 

1884. Anadako's. — ten Kate, Reizen in N. Am., 
460, 1885 (name of agency). Anadaku.— Gatschet, 
Caddo and Yatassi MS. , 42, B. A. E. Anadarcos. — 
Bollaert in Ethnol. Soc. Lond. Journ., n, 283, 1850. 
Anadarko.— Dorsey, Caddo MS., B. A. E., 1882. 
Anadarko 1 s.— ten Kate, Reizen in N. Am., 460, 

1885. Anadogheos.— Alvord in Sen. Ex. Doc. 18, 
40th Cong., 3d sess., 6, 1869. Anadorkoes.— H. R. 
Rep. 82, 44th Cong., 2d sess., 2, 1877. An-ah-dah- 
koes.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 1859, 267, 1860. An-ah-dah- 
kos.— Ibid., 310. Anahdakas.— Marcy, Army Life, 
171, 1866. Anandarkoes. — Smithson. Misc. Coll., 
II, 49, 1862. Andaieos.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 261, 1851. 
Andarcos. — Latham, Essays, 401, 1860. And-dai- 
coes.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 263, 1851. Anduico. —School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 403, 1853. Annadahkoes. — 
Ind. Aff. Rep. 1854, 367. 1855. Anna-darcoes.— 
Ibid., 1849, 33, 1850. Anndggho's.— Alvord (1868) 
in Sen. Ex. Doc. 18, 40th Cong., 3d sess., 9, 1869. 
An-no-dar-coes. - Butler and Lewis (1846) in H. 
R. Doc. 76, 29th Cong., 2d sess., 7, 1847. Madaha.— 
Schoolcraft., Ind. Tribes, vi, 686, 1857. Mon- 
daque.— Philippeaux, Map of Eng. Col., 1781 
(misprint). Nadaco.— Joutel (1687) in Margry, 
Dec., n, 410, 1878. Nadacoc— Jefferys (1763), 
Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. Nadacoe.— De l'Isle, 
map in Winsor, Hist. Am., n, 294, 1886. Nada- 
cogs. — Mezieres (1778) quoted by Bancroft, 
No. Mex. States. I, 661, 1886. Nadaho.— Joutel 
(1687) in Margry, Dec, in, 409, 1878. Nada'ko.— 
Mooney, MS. Caddo notes, B. A, E., 1891. 

Nadako's.— ten Kate, Reizen in N. Am., 374, 
1885. Nadaku. — Gatschet, Caddo and Yatassi 
MS., 65, B. A. E. Nadaku hayanu.— Gatschet, 
Caddo MS., B. A. E. (Caddo name)'. Na- 
datcho.— Joutel (1687) in Margry, Dec, ,111, 409, 
1878 (probably the Anadarko). Nadocogs.— Morfi 
quoted by Charlevoix, New Fr., iv, 80, 1870. 
Nandacaho. — Biedma in Hakluyt Soc Pubs., ix, 
197, 1851. Nandako.— Latham, Essays, 402, 1860. 
Nandakoes.— Penicaut (1701) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., n. s., i, 73, 1869. Nandaquees.— Scher- 
merhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. Coll., 2d 8., II, 24, 1814. 
If andaquies. — Brown, W. Gaz., 214, 1817. Nando- 
quies, — Ibid., 215. Narako's. — ten Kate, Reizen 
in N. Am., 374, 1885. Naudacho.— Biedma (1544) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 108, 1850. Nau-do-ques.— 
Brackenridge, Views of La., 81, 1815. Nondaeao.— 
Gentl.of Elvas (1539) in Hakluvt Soc Pubs., ix, 
135, 1851. Nondaco.— Joutel (1687) in Margry, 
Dec, in, 409, 1878. Nondaque.— Jefferys (1763), 
Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. Onadahkos.— Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 903, 1846. Onadaicas.— Butler and Lewis 
(1846) in H. R. Doc. 76, 29th Cong., 2d sess., 4, 1847. 
Onadakoes. —Ind. Aff. Rep. , 894, 1846. Unatagua. — 
Latham, Varieties of Man, 350, 1850. TJnatagu- 
ous.— Le Branche (1839) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 14, 32d 
Cong., 2d sess., 27, 1853. TJnataquas.— Bonnell, 
Texas, 140, 1840. 

Anagnak. An Eskimo village of the 
Nushegagmiut on Wood r., Alaska; pop. 
87 in 1880.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., 
map, 1899. 
Anaknak.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 47, 1884. 

Anagok. An Eskimo village of the 
Kuskwogmiut tribe, Alaska, on the coast 
near C. Avinof ; pop. 75 in 1880. 

Anogogmute.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 
1899. Anogokmute.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 54, 


Anaham. A band of the Tsilkotin, 
numbering 216 in 1901, occupying a val- 
ley near Chilcotin r., 60 m. from its 
mouth in British Columbia. — Can. Ind. 
Aff., 162, 1902. 

Amahim.— Can. Ind. Aff., 271, 1889. Anahem.— 
Ibid., 415, 1898. Anahim.— Ibid., 314, 1892. Ana- 
him's tribe.— Ibid., 190, 1884. 

Anakwaikona. An outcast element for- 
merly existing among the Zufii who were 
the servants, if not in many cases the 
slaves, of the intramural or city popula- 
tion. — dishing in Froc. Internat. Cong. 
Am., vn, 176, 1890. 
A-wa-na-kwai-k'ya-ko-na. — Cushing, ibid. 

Analao. A tribe, possibly Caddoan, 
formerly residing on Washita r., Ark. 
Deputies from the Analao and Tanico 
(Tonica) came to the village of Cahayno- 
houa in 1687, when Joutel and the other 
survivors of La Salle's party were there 
while on their way from the Red r. of 
Louisiana to the Mississippi. See Joutel 
in French, Hist. Coll. La., i, 172, 1846; 
Pouay quoted by Shea, Discov. Miss. 
Val., 223, 1903. (a. c. f.) 
Analac— Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741. 

Analco. A prehistoric pueblo of the 
Tewa at the place where there is now 
the so-called "oldest house," adjacent to 
San Miguel chapel, in Santa Fe, N. Mex. 
According to Bandelier this name was 
first applied in the 18th century. Ritch 
(N. Mex., 153, 196, 1885) asserts that 
the house referred to formed part of the 
old pueblo, and that two of the old wom- 
en then living therein claimed to be 

BULL. 30] 



lineal descendants of the original occu- 
pants (p. 113). Bandelier, however, in- 
clines to the opinion (Arch. Inst. Papers, 
i, 19, 1881; iv, 89, 1892) that the struc- 
ture dates from Spanish times, a belief 
substantiated by E. L. Hewett, in 1902, 
when the building was partly dismantled 
and found to be of Spanish construction, 
excepting about 18 inches of the founda- 
tion walls which were of Pueblo work. 

Anamas. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Anamic. A former rancheria, probably 
Papago, visited by Father Kino in 1701 ; 
situated in n. w. Sonora, Mexico, between 
Busanic and Sonoita. See Bibiana. 
Sta Ana Anamic— Kino (1701) quoted by Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, I, 497, 1884. 

Anamiewatigong ( ' at the tree of prayer, ' 
i. e., the cross, from a large wooden cross 
planted by one of the early missionaries 
on the bluff where the village now 
stands. — Kelton). An Ottawa village in 
Emmet co., lower Michigan. It is called 
La Croix by the French, and Cross Village 
by the Americans, both conveying the 
same idea as the Indian name. 

Cross Village.— Detroit treaty (1855) in U. S. 
Ind. Treaties, 614, 1873. La Croix.— Kelton, Ft. 
Mackinac, 146, 1884. 

Anamis. A village visited by La Salle 
in 1686 on his first journey from Ft St 
Louis, on Matagorda bay, Tex., to search 
overland for the Mississippi, and again in 
1687 on his last journey northward. The 
people seem to have lived in the vicinity 
of the Caddoan tribes, but their ethnic 
relationship is uncertain. See Cavelier 
in Shea, Early Voy., 40, 1861. Cf. Ara- 
nama. (a. c. f. ) 
Anames.— Rivera, Diario, leg. 2,602, 1736. 

Anamon. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. — Tavlor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Anarnisok ('having smell [of walrus 
dung]'; old dialect). A former Eskimo 
village in e. Greenland, about lat. 63° 
10'; pop. 20 in 1829.— Graah, Exped., 
map, 1837. 

Anarnitung ( ' having smell [of walrus 
dung] ' ). A winter village of the Kingua 
branch of Okoiniut in Baffin land at the 
head of Cumberland sd. (Boas in 6th 
Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888); pop. 43 in 

Annanatook.— Howgate, Cruise of Florence, 33, 
1877 . Annanetoote. — Wareham in Jour. Geog. Soc . 
Lond., xn, 24, 1842. 

Anasitch. A Kusan village or tribe on 
the s. side of Coos bay, coast of Oregon. — 
Milhau, MS. Coos Bay vocab., B. A. E. 

Hau-nay-setch.— Milhau, MS. Letter to Gibbs, B. 
A. E. (Haunaysetch and Melukitz are names 
given to Coos bay). 

Anaskenoans. A village of the Powha- 
tan confederacy of Virginia, situated in 
1608 on Rappahannock r., in the present 

Caroline co. — Smith (1629), Virginia, 
map, repr. 1819. 

Anatichapko (Andti-chdpko 'long thick- 
et'). A former Creek village on a n. trib- 
utary of Hillabee cr., a branch of Talla- 
poosa r., Ala. A battle occurred there 
during the Creek or Red Stick war, Jan. 
24, 1814.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 
126, 1884. 

Anati tchapko.— Gatschet, op. cit., i, 126, 1884. 
Au-net-te chap-co.— Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 43, 
1848. Enitachopko.— Pickett, Hist Ala., II, 330, 
1851. Enotochopco.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 
371, 1857. Enotochopko.— Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 
4, 59, 1848. Long Swamp.— Gatschet, op. cit. 

Anatomy. While the American Indians 
show many minor and even some im- 
portant physical variations, and can be 
separated into several physical types, 
they present throughout the continent so 
many features in common that they may 
properly be regarded as one great race, 
admitting of a general anatomical de- 
scription. The Eskimo form a distinct 
sub-race of the Mongol o-Malay and must 
be treated separately. 

The Indian, in many of his anatomical 
characters, stands between the white and 
the negro. His skin is of various shades 
of brown, tinged in youth, particularly 
in the cheeks, with the red of the circu- 
lating blood. The term "red Indian" 
is a misnomer. Very dark individuals oi 
a hue approaching chocolate or even the 
color of some negroes are found in more 
primitive tribes, especially in the S. and 
among the old men, who often went 
nearly naked. Most women and school 
children or others who wear clothing and 
live a more, civilized life are lighter in 
color. Prolonged exposure to the ele-' 
ments tends, as with whites, to darken 
the skin. The darkest parts of the skin 
are ordinarily the back of the hands, 
wrists, and neck, the axilla?, nipples, 
peritoneal regions, and the exposed parts 
of the feet. A newborn infant is of vary- 
ing degrees of dusky red. 

The color of the hair is generally black, 
with the luster and slight bluish or 
brownish tinge that occurs among whites, 
not the dull grayish black of the Afri- 
can negro. With many individuals of 
all ages above early childhood who go 
much with bare head the hair becomes 
partly bleached, especially superficially, 
turning to a rusty hue. 

The color of the eyes varies from hazel- 
brown to dark brown. The conjunctiva 
in the young is bluish; in adults, espe- 
cially the old, dirty-yellowish. The iris 
is often surrounded with a narrow but 
clearly marked ring. 

The skin appears to be slightly thicker 
than that of the whites. The • normal 
corrugations on the back of the hand and 
wrist are from childhood decidedly more 
pronounced in Indians of both sexes. 



[b. a. a. 

The hair of the head is straight, almost 
circular in cross-section, slightly coarser 
than in the average white, rather abun- 
dant and long. The range of variation 
in natural length is from 40 to 100 cm., or 
18 in. to 36 in. Most male Indians would 
have a slight to moderate mustache and 
some beard on .the chin if they allowed 
the hair to grow; but side whiskers in 
many are absent, or nearly so. Both 
mustache and chin beard are scarcer and 
coarser than with the whites, straight, 
of the same black as the hair, and in 
length 4 to 7 cm., or 1^ in. to 2| in. 
The hair in the axilla? and on the pubis 
is moderate in quantity, in some instances 
nearly absent, and on the rest of the body 
hairs are shorter and less abundant than 
with the average white person. The 
nails are dull bluish in hue and moder- 
ately tough. 

The face is well rounded and agreeable 
in childhood, interesting and occasionally 
handsome during adolescence and earlier 
adult life, and agreeable but much 
wrinkled in old age. The forehead in 
adults with undeformed skulls is some- 
what low and in males slopes slightly 
backward. The eyebrows, where not 
plucked, are frequently connected by 
sparser hair above the nose. The eye- 
lashes are moderately thick and long. 
The apertures of the eyes are slightly 
oblique, the outer canthi, especially the 
right one, being the higher. In children 
the fold called Mongolic is general, but 
not excessive. The root of the nose is 
usually depressed, as in most whites. 
The size and shape of the nose vary 
much, but it is commonly slightly 
shorter at the base and relatively wider 
than in whites, with an aquiline bridge 
predominating in men. In many men 
the point of the nose is lower than the 
base of the septum, the distal length 
exceeding the proximal. This peculiarity 
is especially frequent in some tribes. In 
women the nasal depression is wider and 
oftener shallower, and the bridge lower. 
Thin noses are not found. The lips are 
well formed and, barring individual 
exceptions, about as thick as in average 
whites. Prognathism is greater than in 
whites. The malars are in both sexes 
somewhat large and prominent; this 
becomes especially apparent in old age 
when much of the adipose tissue below 
them is gone. The chin often appears 
less prominent than in whites, but this 
effect is due to the greater alveolar pro- 
trusion. The ears are well formed and 
of good size, occasionally somewhat thick. 
The neck is of fair dimensions, never 
very long or thin. 

The body as a rule is of good propor- 
tions, symmetrical, and, except in old age, 
straight and well nourished. The chest 

is of ample size, especially in men. The 
abdomen, which in children is often 
rather large, retains but slight fulness 
in later life. The pelvis, on account of 
the ample chest, appears somewhat small, 
but is not so by actual measurement. 
The spinal curves are only moderate, as 

are the size and prominence of the but- 
tocks. The thighs are rather shapely; 
the calves are usuallv smaller than in 

whites. The upper limbs are of good 
shape and medium musculature. The 
feet and hands are well molded and in 
many tribes smaller than they ordi- 
narily are in whites. The toes are rather 
short, and, where the people w r alk much 
barefoot or in sandals, show more or less 
separation. The proximal parts of the 
second and third toes are often confluent. 
In the more sedentary tribes the women, 
and occasionally also the men, are in- 
clined to corpulence. The breasts of 
women are of medium size; in the child- 
less the conical form predominates; the 
nipple and areola are more pronounced 
than in whites; in later life the breasts 
become small and flaccid. The genital 
organs do not differ essentially from those 
of the whites. 

The Indian skull is, on the average, 
slightly smaller than that of wmites of 
equal "height. Cranial capacity in men 
ranges from 1,300 to 1,500 c. c. ; in women 
from about 1,150 to 1,350 c. c. The 
frontal region in men is often low and 
sloping, the sagittal region elevated, the 
occipital region marked with moderate 
ridges and, in the dolichocephalic, pro- 
truding. Sutures are mostly less serrated 
than in whites; metopism, except in some 
localities, is rare, and occipital division is 
uncommon, while malar division is very 
rare and parietal division extremely so. 
Intercalated bones are few x in undeformed 
crania; in deformed crania they are more 
numerous. The glabella, supraorbital 
ridges, and mastoids in male skulls are 
well-developed and sometimes heavy; in 
women they are small or of medium size. 
The nasal bridge is occasionally low, the 
nasal spine smaller than in whites; the 
lower borders of the nasal aperture are 
not often sharp, but nasal gutters are 
rare; subnasal fossa? are rather common. 
Orbits are of fair volume, approaching 
the quadrilateral, with angles rounded. 
Malars are often large, submalar depres- 
sions medium or shallow. The upper 
alveolar process, and occasionally also the 
lower, shows in both sexes a degree of 
prognathism greater than the average in 
whites, but less than in the negro. The 
protrusion on the whole is somewhat 
greater in the females. The face is meso- 
or ortho-gnathic. The lower jaw varies- 
greatly. The chin is of moderate promi- 
nence, occasionally high, sometimes 

BULL. 30] 



square in form. The prominence of the 
angles in full-grown males is not infre- 
quently pronounced. 

As to base structures, the foramen mag- 
num is seldom large, and its position and 
inclination are very nearly the same as 
in whites; the styloid process is mostly 
smaller than in whites and not infre- 
quently rudimentary; petrous portions 
on the average are less depressed below 
the level of neighboring parts than in 
whites; anterior lacerated foramina are 
smaller; the palate is well formed and 
fairly spacious, mostly parabolic, occa- 
sionally U-shaped. 

The teeth are of moderate size; upper 
incisors are ventrally concave, shovel- 
shaped; canines not excessive; molars 
much as in whites; third molars rarely 
absent when adult life is reached. The 
usual cuspidory formula, though varia- 
tions are numerous, is 4, 4, 3, above; 
5, 5, irregular, below. A supernumerary 
conical dental element appears with some 
frequency in the upper jaw between, in 
front of, or behind the middle permanent 

The bones of the vertebral column, the 
ribs, sternum, clavicles, and the smaller 
bones of the upper and lower limbs pre- 
sent many marks of minor importance. 
The pelvis is well formed, moderately 
spacious, approaching the European in 
shape. The humerus is rather flat, at 
times very much so; the fossa in 31 
per cent is perforated; but vestiges of 
a supracondyloid process are much rarer 
than in whites. The humero-radial in- 
dex of maximum frequency in adult males 
is 77 to 80 (in whites 71 to 75) ; humero- 
femoral index, 71 to 75 (in whites 70 to 
74). The femur is quite flat below the 
tuberosities; the tibia, often flat (platyc- 
nemic) . 

Of the brain and other soft organs but 
little is known. Two adult male Apache 
brains, collected by Dr W. Matthews 
and now preserved in the U. S. National 
Museum, weighed after removal 1,191 
and 1,304 grams, respectively. Both 
show good gyration. 

The Eskimo differs anatomically from 
the Indian in many important features. 
His hair and eyes are similar in shade, 
though the eyes are more obliquely set; 
but his skin color on the whole is lighter, 
being yellowish or light brown, with a 
pronounced redness of the face. The 
Eskimo skull is high, normally scaphoid, 
and usually spacious. The face is large 
and flat, and the nasal bones are narrower 
than in any other people. The bones of 
the body are usuallv strong. There is 
less flattening of the shaft of the humerus, 
of the upper part of the shaft of the femur, 
and of the tibia. The superior border of 
the scapula shows often an angular in- 
stead of a curved outline. 

In anthropometric differentiation the 
native tribes n. of Mexico are primarily 
separable into Indians and Eskimo. Some 
of the adjacent Indian tribes show Es- 
kimo admixture. 

The Indians among themselves vary 
considerably in stature, in form of the 
head and face, and of the orbits, the 
nose, and the nasal aperture. Low 
stature, from 160 to 165 cm. in males, 
is found among some of the Califor- 
nian tribes (as the Yuki of Round 
Valley agency), many of the Pueblos, 
and some of the tribes of the N. W. 
coast, as the Salish of Harrison lake 
and Thompson r., and others. Among 
the Tigua, Tewa, Apache, Navaho, Co- 
manche, northern Ute, Paiute, and Sho- 
shoni, among the majority of Califor- 
nia, Washington, and Oregon tribes, and 
among the eastern Cherokee, Chick- 
asaw, Kiowa, and Iowa the height in 
male adults ranges between 165 and 170 
cm., while among the Yuma, Mohave, 
Maricopa, Pima, Nez Perces, Sioux, 
Crows, Winnebago, Cheyenne, Arapaho, 
Iroquois, Osage, Chippewa, and eastern 
Algonquians the prevalent stature of 
adult men is from 170 to 175 cm. The 
range of variation in the majority of 
tribes and in both sexes is within 30 
cm. The stature does not regularly 
follow the geographic or climatic fea- 
tures, nor does it agree wholly with 
the distribution of the other principal 
physical characteristics. The women are 
on the average about 12.5 cm. shorter 
than the men; the difference is greater 
among the tall than among the short 

The distribution of the Indians accord- 
ing to cephalic index is of much interest. 
Excluding tribes that are known to be 
much mixed, there are found in the 
territory n. of Mexico all the three prin- 
cipal classes of cranial form, namely, 
dolicho-, brachy-, and meso-cephalic. 
Among the extremely dolichocephalic 
w r ere the Dela wares and the southern 
Utah cliff-dwellers. Moderate dolicho- 
cephaly, with occasional extreme forms, 
was and is very prevalent, being found 
in the Algonquian and the majority of 
the Siouan and Plains tribes and among 
the Siksika, Shoshoni, some Pueblos 
(e. g., Taos), and the Pima. Pure bra- 
chycephaly existed in Florida, and pre- 
vailed in the mound region and among 
the ancient Pueblos. It is best repre- 
sented to-day among the Apache, Wala- 
pai, Havasupai, Nez Perces, Harrison lake 
Salish, Osage, and Wichita, and in a less 
degree among the Hopi, Zuni, most of the 
Rio Grande Pueblos, Navaho, Mohave, 
Yuma, California Mission Indians, Co- 
manche, Winnebago, many of the north- 
western tribes, and Seminole. Mesoceph- 
aly existed principally among the Cali- 



[b. a. e. 

fornia Indians, the Cherokee, and some of 
the Sioux and Iroquois. There are numer- 
ous tribes in North America about whose 
cephalic form there is still much uncer- 
tainty on account of the prevailing head 
deformation. As to the height of the 
head, which must naturally be considered 
in connection with the cephalic index, 
fair uniformity is found. In the Apache 
the head is rather low, among most other 
tribes it is moderate. 

The form of the face is generally allied, 
as among other peoples, to the form of 
the head, being relatively narrow in nar- 
row heads and broad in the brachy ce- 
phalic. Orbits show variations, but the 
prevalent form is mesoseme. The nose 
and the nasal aperture are generally 
mesorhinic; the principal exception to 
this is found on the w. coast, especially 
in California, where a relatively narrow 
nose (leptorhinic) was common. The 
projection of the upper alveolar region 
is almost uniformly mesognathic. 

The Eskimo range in height from short 
to medium, with long and high head, rela- 
tively broad flat face, high orbits, and 
narrow nose, showing alveolar progna- 
thism like the Indians. 

Consult Morton, ( 1 ) Crania Americana, 
1839, (2) Distinctive characteristics, 1844; 
Retzius, Om foramen af hufvudets ben- 
stomme, 1847; Meigs, Observations, 1866; 
Gould, Investigations, 1869; Wyman, (1) 
Observations on crania, 1871, (2) Fresh 
water shell mounds, 1875; Verneau, Le 
bassin suivant les sexes, 1875; Eleventh 
and Twelfth Reps. Peabody Museum, 
1878; Quatrefages and Hamy, Crania eth- 
nica, 1878-79; Flower, Catalogue of speci- 
mens, 1879; Carr, (l)Observationson cra- 
nia from Tennessee, 1878, (2) Measure- 
ments of crania from California, 1880, (3) 
Observations on crania from Santa Barbara 
Ids., 1879, (4) Notes on crania of New 
England Indians, 1880; Otis, List of speci- 
mens, 1880; Langdon, Madisonville pre- 
historic cemetery, 1881 ; Chudzinsky, Sur 
les trois encephales des Esquimaux, 1881 ; 
Virchow (1) in Beitnige zur Craniologie 
der Insulaner von der Westkiiste Norda- 
merikas, 1889, (2) Crania Ethnica Amer- 
icana, 1892; ten Kate, Somatological 
Observations, 1892; Matthews and Wort- 
man, Human bones of Hemenway collec- 
tion, 1891; Boas, (1) Zur anthropologic 
der nordamerikanischen Indianer, 1895, 
(2) A. J. Stone's measurements of natives 
of the N. W., 1901, (3) Anthropometri- 
cal observations on Mission Indians, 1896; 
Boas and Farrand, Physical characteris- 
tics of tribes of British Columbia, 1899; 
Allen, Crania from mounds of St. John's 
r., Fla., 1896; Sergi, Crani esquimesi, 
1901; Duckworth, Contribution to Eskimo 
craniology, 1900; Hrdlicka, (1) An Es- 
kimo brain, 1901, (2) The crania of Tren- 

ton, N. J., 1902, (3) The Lansing skeleton, 

1903, (4) Notes on the Indians of Sonora, 

1904, (5) Contributions to physical anthro- 
pology of Cal., 1905; Spitzka, Contribu- 
tions to encephalic anatomy of races, 1902; 
Tocher, Note on measurements of Eskimo, 
1902; Matiegka, Schadel und Skelette 
von Santa Rosa, 1904. See Artificial 
head deformation, Physiology. (a. h.) 

Anawan. See Annawan. 

Ancalagresses. A small tribe mentioned 
by Milfort (Memoire, 106, 1802) as resid- 
ing w. of Mississippi r. and near the Ka- 
kias (Cahokia) in 1782. 

Ancavistis. A division of the Faraon 
Apache. — Orozco y Berra, Geog. , 59, 1864. 

Ancestor worship. See Mythology, Reli- 

Anchgnhlsu ('town they abandoned'). 
The chief town of the Auk, situated op- 
posite the n. end of Douglas id., Alaska. — 
Swanton, field notes, 1904. 
Ak! an.— Swan ton, op. cit.( 'lake town'). Ak'an. — 
Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 116, 1885. AntcgEitsu.— 
Swanton, op. cit. 

Anchin. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. — Tavlor in Cal. 
Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Anchor stones. The native tribes n. of 
Mexico used bark and skin boats, dug- 
outs, and, in the extreme S. W. and on the 
California coast, balsas; and in the use 
of these frail craft for purposes of travel, 
transportation, fishing, hunting, and war- 
fare, the necessity for some means of 
anchorage was felt. In shallow waters 
with soft bottoms poles were often used; 
but of most general availability were 
stones that could be secured with a line 
and dropped from the vessel at any point. 
Commonly the stones thus used were 
simply bowlders or 
fragments of rock of 
proper weight, but 
in some cases the 
form was modified 
to facilitate attach- 
ment of the cord. 
A simple encir- 
cling groove, mere 
notches in the mar- 
gins, or a rude per- 
f oration, sufficed 
for the purpose; the 
former treatment gave to the utensil the 
appearance of a grooved hammer. In- 
deed, it probably often happened that 
these anchor stones were used as hammers 
or as mauls or sledges for heavy work when 
occasion required. It is observed also 
that some specimens have served as mor- 
tars or anvil stones, and no doubt also for 
grindingand shapingimplements of stone. 
Stones of all available varieties were used, 
and the weight, so far as observed, rarely 
exceeds 40 or 50 pounds. The grooves 


BULL. 30] 



BY CHIPPEWA (l2 1-2 


or marginal notches were usually rudely 
pecked or chipped; but some show care- 
ful treatment, and in a number of cases a 
part or the whole of the surface of the 
stone has been worked 
down, probably for safety 
and convenience in han- 
dling, and in some cases 
as a result of the habit of 
reducing articles in com- 
mon use to symmetrical 
and somewhat artistic 
shapes. Snyder records one case of the 
discovery of an anchor stone in an Indian 
grave. These stones are still used by In- 
dians as well as by white people. Consult 
Snyder in Smithson. Rep. 1887, 1889; Ran 
in Smithson. Cont., xxv, 1884. (w. h. h. ) 

Anchu. A Cochimi rancheria of San 
Juan de Londo mission, Lower Califor- 
nia. — Picolo in Stocklein, Neue Welt- 
Bott, no. 72, 36, 1792. 

Andacaminos (Span.: 'wanderers,' 
probably referring to their roving char- 
acter). One of the tribes of w. Texas, 
some at least of whose people were neo- 
phytes of the mission of San Jose y San 
Miguel de Aguayo. — Texas State Ar- 
chives, Nov., 1790. 

Andeguale. A Niska town inhabited 
by two Chimmesyan families, the Lak- 
seel of the Raven clan and the Gitgigenih 
of the Wolf clan.— Boas in 10th Rep. N. 
W. Tribes, 48-49, 1895. 

Anderson Lake. A band of Upper Lil- 
looet on a lake of the same name in 
British Columbia (Can. Ind. Aff., 415, 
1898); pop. 66 in 1902. 

Anderson's Town. A former Delaware 
village on the s. side of White r., about 
the present Anderson, Madison co., Ind. 
(Hough, map in Ind. Geol. Rep., 1883). 
Named from the principal chief of the 
Delawares of Indiana about 1810-20. 

Andesite. An eruptive rock, varying 
from light gray of several hues to black, 
belonging to the Tertiary and post-Ter- 
tiary lavas, and much used by the Indians 
for implements and utensils. It was 
shaped mainly by the pecking and grind- 
ing processes. Its distribution is very 
wide, especially in the W. (w. h. h.) 

Andiata. A former Huron village in 
Ontario. — Jes. Rel. of 1636, in, 1858. 
Andiatae.— Jes. Rel. of 1637, 134, 1858. 

Andreafski. A Chnagmiut village on 
the n. bank of the Yukon, Alaska, 5 in. 
above the former redoubt of that name, 
for the murder of whose inmates in 1855 
the Russians wreaked such vengeance 
that the rivernati ves neveragain molested 
the whites. Pop. 14 in 1880; 10 in 1890. 

Andreaffsky.— Dall, Alaska, 119, 1870. Andreaf- 
sky.— Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Andreiev- 
sky.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, map, 1884. An- 
dreivsky.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1899. 
Andshankualth. The Lakmiut name of 
a Yamel band on a w. tributary of the 

Willamette, in Oregon. — Gatschet, Cala- 
pooyaMS., B. A. E., 1877. 

Andshimmampak. The Lakmiut name 
of a Yamel band on Yamhill cr., Ore- 
gon. — Gatschet, Calapooya MS. , B. A. E., 

Anegado (Span, 'overflowed,' referring 
to the country ) . A tribe of which Cabeza 
de Vaca heard while in Texas in 1529-34. 
They lived not far from the Yguases. 
Anagados. — Cabeza de Vaca, Smith trans., 60, 1851 . 
Anegados.— Ibid., 114, ed. 1871. Lanegados.— 
Ibid., 112. 

Anejue. A former Chumashan village 
near Santa Barbara, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 24, 1863. 
Anijue.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, 1, 459, 1874. 

Anektettim {AnExWVtim, 'stony little 
hollow ' ). A village of the Lytton band 
of Ntlakyapamuk, situate on the e. side 
of Fraser r., 3 m. above Lytton, British 
Columbia. — Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist, 11, 172, 1900. 

Anelo. A Kaviagmiut Eskimo settle- 
ment at Port Clarence, Alaska. — 11th 
Census, Alaska, 162, 1893. 

Anemuk. An Unaligmiut Eskimo vil- 
lage on Anvik r., Alaska. — Sen. Ex. Doc. 
12, 42d Cong., 1st sess., 25, 1871. 

Anepo ('buffalo rising up.' — Hayden). 
A division of the Kainah tribe of the 

A-ne'-po.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 171, 1878 (said to be 
the name of an extinct animal). I-ni'-po-i.— 
Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 264, 1862. 

Angakok. A magician or conjurer 
among the Eskimo, the word for shaman 
in the eastern Eskimo dialects, now much 
used especially in American anthropo- 
logical literature, (a. f. c. ) 

Angmagsalingmiut (' with-capelins peo- 
ple.' — Boas). A tribe of Eskimo on the 
e. coast of Greenland, between lat. 65° 
and 68°, inhabiting the fiords of Ang- 
magsalik, Sermilik, and Sermiligak. 
According to Rink the total population 
was 413 in 1886. A Danish mission and 
commercial station on Angmagsalic fiord 
is the most northerly inhabited place on 
the e. coast. Each Angmagsalingmiut 
village consists of a single house, which 
has room for 8 or 10 families. Holm 
(F^thnol. Skizz. af Anmagsalikerne, 1887) 
names 8 villages on the fiord, with a total 
population of 225. Notwithstanding their 
isolation the people, according to Nansen 
(First Crossing of Greenland, 1, 211, 1890), 
are among the most vigorous of the Es- 

Angmagsalink.— Rink in Geog. Blatt., viii, 350, 

Angmalook (Eskimo name). A species 
of salmon (Salmo nitidus) found in the 
lakes of Boothia. — Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 
122, 1872-73. 

Angmalortuk ('the round one'). A 
Netchilirmiut winter village on the w. 
coast of Boothia bay, Canada. 

Angmalortoq.— Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 



[B. a. e. 

Angnovchak. An Eskimo village in the 
Nushagak district, Alaska; pop. 16 in 1890. 
Angnovchamiut. — 11th Census, AlasKa, 164, 1893. 

Angoutenc. A former Huron village 
situated between Wenrio and Ossossane, 
about 2 m. from the latter place, in On- 

Angoutenc— Jes. Rel. for 1638, 34, 1858. Ang8iens — 
Ibid., 1636, 116 (misprint). Ang8tenc— Ibid., 35. 

Angun. A Hutsnuwu village N. of 
Hood bay, Admiralty id., Alaska; pop. 
420 in 1880. The greater part of the peo- 
ple have since removed to Killisnoo, a fish- 
ing village established by the whites. 

Angoon. — Emmons in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
in, pi. vii, 1903. Angun. — Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 
105, 1885. Augoon.— Petroff, Tenth Census, 
Alaska, 32, 1884. 

Angwassag. A Chippewa village near 
St Charles, Saginaw co., Mich., with per- 
haps 50 inhabitants in 1894. 
Angwassag.— Smith quoted bv Mason in Nat. Mus. 
Rep. 1902, 385, 1904. Angwasug.— Wm. Jones, inf n, 
1905 (sig. 'snags floating in the water'). 

Angwusi. The Raven clan of the Ka- 
china phratry of the Hopi. 
Ang-wush-a.-Dorsey and Voth, Mishongnovi 
Ceremonies, 175, 1902 (Crow clan). Afiwuci 
winwu.— Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 584, 1900 
(ivinwu = i clB,n' ) . ArL-wu'-si wiin-wii. — Fewkes in 
Am. Anthrop., VII, 404, 1894 (w»n-w» = 'clan '). 
TJn-wu'-si.— Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 39, 1891. 

AnibiminanisiMwininiwak. ( ' Pembina 
(cranberry) river men,' from nibimina 
' high -bush cranberry,' slbiw 'river,' ini- 
niwak 'men'). A Chippewa band liv- 
ing on Pembina r. in extreme n. Min- 
nesota and the adjacent part of Manitoba. 
They removed from Sandy lake, Minn., 
to that region about 1807, at the solici- 
tation of the Northwest Fur Company. — 
Gatschet, Ojibwa MS., B. A. E. 

Chippewas of Pembena River —Lewis, Travels, 
178, 1809. Pembina band.— Events in Ind. Hist., 
suppl., 613, 1841. 

Anicam. A Papago rancheria, probably 
in Pima co., s. Ariz.; pop. 96 in 1858. — 
Bailey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 208, 1858. 

Anilco. A village, probably Quapaw, 
presumably on the s. side of Arkansas r., 
and said to contain 5,000 people when 
visited by De Soto's army in 1542. 
Anicoyanque.— Biedma (1544) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., ii, 107, 1850. Anilco.— Garcilasso de la 
Vega, Florida, 201, 1723. Anileos.— Rafinesque, 
introd. Marshall, Ky., i, 34, 1824. Ilicos.— Ibid., 
36. Nilco.— Gentleman of Elvas (1557) quoted by 
French, Hist. Coll. La., II, 184, 1850. 

Anilukhtakpak. A Kaiyuhkhotana vil- 
lage on Innoko r., Alaska; pop. 170 in 

Anilukhtakkak.— Zagoskin,Desc. Russ. Poss. Am., 
map, 1844. 

Animas (Span, 'souls'). An Apache 
settlement, apparently near Gila r., Ariz., 
in 1769.— Anzain Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., 
ii, 114, 1856. 

Animikite. An impure massive mineral, 
according to Dana (Text- book Mineral., 
420, 1888) supposed to be a silver anti- 
monide, found at Silver islet, L. Superior; 
derived from Animiki, a local place name 
which in the Chippewa and closely re- 

lated Algonquian dialects signifies ' thun- 
der.' (a. f. c. ) 

Animism. See Religion. 

Animpayamo. A former village of the 
Kalindaruk, a division of the Costanoan 
Indians, connected with San Carlos mis- 
sion, Cal. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 
20, 1860, 

Aniyak. A village of the Nunatogmiut 
Eskimo on the Arctic coast just n. of 
Kotzebue sd., Alaska; pop. 25 in 1880. 
Aniyak.— Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Ani- 
yakh.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 4, 1884. 

Ankachagmint. A local subdivision of 
the Chnagmiut Eskimo living on Yukon 
r. above Andreafski, Alaska. 
Angechag'emut. — Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 
17, 1877. 

Ankachak. A Chnagmiut village, the 
home of the Ankachagmiut, on the right 
bank of the lower Yukon, Alaska; per- 
haps identical with Kenunimik. 
Ankachagamuk.— Raymond in Sen. Ex. Doc. 12, 
42d Cong., 1st sess., 25, 1871. Ankatchag-miout. — 
Zagoskin in Nouv, Ann. Voy., 5th ser., xxi, 
map, 1850. Ankatschagmiut.— Holmberg. Ethnol. 
Skizz., map, 1855. Ankochagamuk.— Post route 
map, 1903. 

Ankakehittan ('people of the house in 
the middle of the valley' ). A Kolusch- 
an division at Killisnoo, Alaska, belonging 
to the Raven clan; they are said to have 
separated from the Deshitan on account 
of some domestic trouble. 
Am-khark-hit-ton'.— Emmons in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., in, pi. vii, 1903. Anq!a'ke hit tan.— 
Swanton, field notes. B. A. E., 1904. Nanch- 
agetan.— Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 118, 1885. Q!a'ke- 
tan.— Swanton, op. cit. 

Anlik. A Kaviagmiut village on Go- 
lofnin bay, Alaska. 
Anlygmjuten.— Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., 6, 1855. 

Annaooka. A Tuscaroratown in North 
Carolina at the beginning of the 18th cen- 

Anna Ooka.— Lawson (m. 1701) , Hist. Car., 383,1860. 

Annapolis. One of the 7 districts of the 
territory of the Micmac, as recognized 
by themselves. It includes the s. w. 
part of Nova Scotia. — Rand, First Mic- 
mac Reading Book, 81, 1875. 

Annas. An unidentified tribe men- 
tioned by Rivera (Diario y Derrotero, 
leg. 2,602, 1736) as living in s. Tex. 

Annawan. A Wampanoag sachem, the 
chief captain and counselor of Philip, 
who under that chief's father had won a 
reputation for prowess in wars with many 
different tribes. When King Philip fell 
Annawan rallied the warriors and safely 
extricated them from the swamp where 
they were surrounded. Afterward he 
ranged through the woods, harrying the 
settlers of Swansea and Plymouth, until 
Capt. Benjamin Church raised a new ex- 
pedition to hunt the Indians as long as 
there was one of them in the woods. Some 
were captured by Capt. Church's Indian 
scouts, but Annawan eluded pursuit, never 
camping twice in the same spot. Having 
learned from a captive where the old 

BULL. 30] 



chief was, Church went with his Indian 
soldiers and only one white companion to 
capture him. When he reached the re- 
treat, a rocky hill in the middle of a 
swamp, he sent the captives forward to 
divert the attention of Annawan's peo- 
ple. Church and his scouts then stole 
up, the noise they made being drowned 
by the sound of a pestle with which a 
woman was pounding corn, and jumped 
to the place where the arms were stacked. 
Annawan and his chief counselors, thus 
surprised and ignorant of the fewness 
of their assailants, gave themselves up 
and were bound. The fighting men, who 
were encamped near by, surrendered 
when they were told that the place was 
surrounded by English soldiers. Anna- 
wan brought the wampum belts and 
other regalia of King Philip, which he 
gave to Capt. Church as his conqueror, 
who had now overcome the last company 
that stood out against the English. An- 
nawan's captor interceded to have his 
life spared, but the authorities at Ply- 
mouth, extracting from him a confession 
that he had put to death several English 
prisoners, some of them with torture, 
beheaded him in 1676 while Capt. Church 
was absent, (p. h.) 

Anne. See Queen Anne. 

Annugamok. A Nushagagmiut village 
on an e. tributary of Nushagak r., Alaska; 
pop. 214 in 1880. 

Annugannok.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 17, 
1884. Annuganok.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., 
map, 1899. Anoogamok.— Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 
49, 1884. 

Annuities. See Agency System. 

Anoatok ( ' windy ' ) . An Ita settlement 
atC. Inglefield, n. Greenland, the north- 
ernmost human habitation, lat. 78° 31'. 

Anatoak.— Markham in Trans. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., 
129, 1866. Anoreto'.— Stein in Petermann's Mit- 
theil., ix, map, 1902. Aunatok.— Kane, Arctic Ex- 
plor., n, 107, 1856. Rensselaer Harbor.— Ibid., 1, 12. 

* -Anoginajin (anog 'on both sides,' i- 
prefix, na- 'with feet,' zing 'to stand 
erect': 'he stands on both sides'). A 
band of the Wakpaatonwedan division 
of the Mdewakanton, named from its 

A-nog-i-na jin.— Neill, Hist. Minn., 144, note, 1858. 
He-stands-both-sides. — Ibid . 

Anoixi. A village or division, probably 
of a southern Caddoan tribe, formerly 
situated near the Hot Springs country of 
Arkansas. Through this region De Soto' s 
troops passed in the winter of 1541 on 
their way toward the place where De 
Soto later met his death. See Gentleman 
of Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., ii, 182, 1850. Cf. Annocchy, a syn- 
onym of Biloxi. (a. c. p.) 

Anonatea. A Huron village situated a 
league from Ihonatiria, in Ontario in 
1637.— Jesuit Relation for 1637, 143, 1858. 
Anenatea.-— Ibid., 141. Anonatra. — Ibid., 166 (mis- 

Anoritok ('without wind'). An Es- 
kimo settlement in e. Greenland, lat. 61° 
45'. — Meddelelser om Gronland, xxv, 23, 
Aneretek.— Ausland, 162, 1886. 

Anouala. According to Le Moyne (De 
Bry, map, 1591) a village in 1564 on a w. 
branch of St Johns r. , Fla. , in the territory 
occupied generally by tribes of the Timu- 
quanan family. 
Novola.— Jeffreys, Am. Atlas, 24, 1776. 

Anovok. A Magemiut Eskimo village 
on a small river n. of Kuskokwim bay, 
Alaska; pop. 15 in 1890. 

Annovokhamiut.— 11th Census, Alaska, 109, 1893. 

Anpanenikashika ( ' those who became 
human beings by the aid of the elk ' ) . A 
Quapaw division. 

A»'pa n e'nikaci'sia.— Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 
230,1897. Elk gens.— Ibid, 229. O n phu« enikaci^a.— 

Ansactoy. A village, probably of a 
part of the Patwin division of the Cope- 
han family which formerly lived in Napa 
and Yolo cos. , Cal. It concluded a treaty 
of peace with Gov. Vallejo in 1836. — Ban- 
croft, Hist. Cal., iv, 71, 1886. 

Ansaimes. A village, said to have been 
Costanoan, in California; situated in the 
mountains 25 m. e. of the Mutsun, whom 
the inhabitants of this village attacked in 
1799-1800. — Engelhardt, Franciscans in 
Cal., 397, 1897. 

Absayme.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Nov. 23, 1860. 
Ansaimas. — Ibid. 

Anskowinis ( Anskdwlnts, ' narrow nose- 
bridge'). A local band of the Chey- 
enne, taking its name from a former 
chief, (j. m.) 

Antap. A former Chumashan village 
at the mill near San Pedro, Ventura co., 
Cal. — Henshaw, Buenaventura MS. vo- 
cab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Antigonishe. Mentioned as an Indian 
settlement on a river of the same name 
which rises in a lake near the coast of the 
Strait of Canso,in "the province and col- 
ony of New Scotland." It was probably 
on or near the site of the present Antigo- 
nishe, in Antigonishe co., Nova Scotia, 
and perhaps belonged to the Micmac. 

Artigoniche.— Alcedo, Die. Geog., I, 161, 1786. 

Antiqnity. The antiquity of man on 
the American continent is a subject of 
interest to the student of the aborigines 
as well as to the historian of the human 
race, and the various problems that arise 
with respect to it in the region n. of Mex- 
ico are receiving much scientific atten- 
tion. As the tribes were without a sys- 
tem of writing available to scholars, 
knowledge of events that transpired be- 
fore the Columbian discovery is limited 
to the rather indefinite testimony fur- 
nished by tradition, by the more defi- 
nite but as yet fragmentary evidences of 
archeology, and by the internal evidence 
of general ethnological phenomena. The 
fact that the American Indians have ac- 



[b. a. e. 

quired such marked physical characteris- 
tics as to be regarded as a separate race 
of very considerable homogeneity from 
Alaska to Patagonia, is regarded as indi- 
cating a long and complete separation 
from their parental peoples. Similarly, 
the existence in America of numerous cul- 
ture groups, measurably distinct one from 
another in language, social customs, reli- 
gion, technology, and esthetics, is thought 
to indicate a long and more or less exclu- 
sive occupancy of independent areas. 
But as a criterion of age the testimony 
thus furnished lacks defmiteness, since to 
one mind it may signify a short time, 
while to another it may suggest a very 
long period. Native historical records of 
even the most advanced tribes are hardly 
more to be relied on than tradition, and 
they prove of little service in determin- 
ing the duration of occupancy of the con- 
tinent by the race, or even in tracing the 
more recent course of events connected 
with the historic peoples. No one can 
speak with assurance, on the authority of 
either tradition or history, of events dat- 
ing farther back than a few hundred years. 
Archeology, however, can furnish definite 
data with respect to antiquity; and, aided 
by geology and biology, this science is 
furnishing results of great value, although 
some of the greater problems encountered 
remain still unsolved, and must so remain 
indefinitely. During the first centuries 
of European occupancy of the continent, 
belief in the derivation of the native 
tribes from some Old World people in 
comparatively recent times was very gen- 
eral, and indeed the fallacy has not yet 
been entirely extinguished. This view 
was based on the apparently solid foun- 
dation of the Mosaic record and chronol- 
ogy as determined by Usher, and many 
works have been written in the attempt 
to determine the particular people from 
which the American tribes sprang. (See 
Popular Fallacies, and for various refer- 
ences consult Bancroft, Native Races, 
v, 1886; Winsor, Narrative and Critical 
History, i, 1884). The results of re- 
searches into the prehistoric archeology 
of the eastern continent during the last 
century, however, have cleared away 
the Usherian interpretation of events 
and established the fact of the great an- 
tiquity of maa in the world. Later, in- 
vestigations in America were taken up, 
and the conclusion was reached that the 
course of primitive history had been 
about the same on both continents. Ob- 
servations that seemed to substantiate 
this conclusion were soon forthcoming 
and were readily accepted; but a more 
critical examination of the testimony 
shows its shortcomings and tends to hold 
final determinations in abeyance. It is 
clear that traces of early man are not so 

plentiful in America as in Europe, and 
investigations have proceeded with pain- 
ful slowness and much halting along the 
various lines of research. Attempts have 
been made to establish a chronology of 
events in various ways, but without defi- 
nite result. The magnitude of the work 
accomplished in the building of mounds 
and other earthworks has been empha- 
sized, the time requisite for the growth and 
decay upon these works of a succession of 
forests has been computed (see Mounds). 
The vast accumulations of midden depos- 
its and the fact that the strata composing 
them seem to indicate a succession of oc- 
cupancies by tribes of gradually advanc- 
ing culture, beginning in savagery and 
ending in well-advanced barbarism, have 
impressed themselves on chronologists 
(see Shell-heaps). Striking physiographic 
mutations, such as changes of level and 
the consequent retreat or advance of the 
sea and changes in river courses since man 
began to dwell along their shores, have 
been carefully considered. Modifications 
of particular species of mollusks between 
the time of their first use on the shell- 
heap sites and the present time, and the 
development in one or more cases of new 
varieties, suggest very considerable antiq- 
uity. But the highest estimate of elapsed 
time based on these evidences does not 
exceed a few thousand years. Dall, after 
carefully weighing the evidence collected 
by himself in Alaska, reached the conclu- 
sion that the earliest midden deposits of 
the Aleutian ids. are probably as much 
as 3,000 years old. Going beyond this 
limit, the geological chronology must be 
appealed to, and we find no criteria by 
means of which calculations can be made 
in years until we reach the close of the 
Glacial epoch, which, according to those 
who venture to make estimates based on 
the erosion of river channels, was, in the 
states that border the St Lawrence basin, 
not more than 8,000 or 10,000 years ago 
(Winchell). Within this period, which 
in middle North America may properly 
be designated post-Glacial, there have 
been reported numerous traces of man so 
associated with the deposits of that time 
as to make them measurably valuable in 
chronological studies; but these evidences 
come within the province of the geologist 
rather than of the archeologist, and find- 
ings not subjected to critical examination 
by geologists having special training in 
the particular field may well be placed 
in the doubtful category. 

Post-Glacial rivers, in cutting their 
channels through the various deposits 
to their present level, have in some 
cases left a succession of flood-plain ter- 
races in which remains of man and his 
works are embedded. These terraces af- 
ford rather imperfect means of subdivid- 

HULL. 30] 



ing post-Glacial time, but under discrimi- 
nating observation may be expected to 
furnish valuable data to the ehronologist. 
The river terraces at Trenton, N. J. , for ex- 
ample, formed largely of gravel accumu- 
lated at the period when the southern 
margin of the ice sheet was retreating 
northward beyond the Delaware valley, 
have been the subject of careful and pro- 
longed investigation. At the points where 
traces of man have been reported the sec- 
tion of these deposits shows generally be- 
neath the soil a few feet of superficial 
sands of uncertain age, passing down 
rather abruptly into a more or less uni- 
form deposit of coarse gravel that reaches 
in places a depth of 30 feet or more. 
On and near the surface are found vil- 
lage sites and other traces of occupancy 
by the Indian tribes. Beneath the soil, 
extending throughout the sand layers, 
stone implements and the refuse of 
implement-making occur; but the testi- 
mony of these finds can have little value 
in chronology, since the age of the de- 
posits inclosing them remains in doubt. 
From the Glacial gravels proper there 
has been recovered a single object to 
which weight as evidence of human pres- 
ence during their accumulation is at- 
tached; this is a tubular bone, regarded 
as part of a human femur and said to 
show glacial stria 1 and traces of human 
workmanship, found at a depth of 21 feet. 
On this object the claim for the Glacial 
antiquity of man in the Delaware valley 
and on the Atlantic slope practically rests 
(Putnam, Mercer, Wright, Abbott, II rd- 
licka, Holmes). Other finds e. of the 
Alleghenies lacking scientific verification 
furnish no reliable index of time. In 
a post-Glacial terrace on the s. shore 
of Lake Ontario the remains of a hearth 
were discovered at a depth of 22 feet 
by Mr Tomlinson in digging a well, ap- 
parently indicating early aboriginal oc- 
cupancy of the St Lawrence basin (Gil- 
bert). From the Glacial or immediately 
post-Glacial deposits of Ohio a number 
of articles of human workmansrfip have 
been reported: A grooved ax from a 
well 22 feet beneath the surface, near 
New London (Claypole); a chipped ob- 
ject of waster type at Newcomerstown, 
at a depth of 16 feet in Glacial gravels 
(Wright, Holmes); chipped stones in 
gravels, one at Madison ville at a depth of 
8 feet, and another at Loveland at a depth 
of 30 feet (Metz, Putnam, Wright, 
Holmes). At Little Falls, Minn., flood- 
plain deposits of sand and gravel are 
found to contain many artificial objects of 
quartz. This flood plain is believed by 
some to have been finally abandoned by 
the Mississippi well back toward the close 
of the Glacial period in the valley 
(Brower, Winchell, Upham), but that 

these finds warrant definite conclusions 
as to time is seriously questioned by 
Chamberlin. In a Missouri r. bench near 
Lansing, Kans., portions of a human 
skeleton were recently found at a depth 
of 20 feet, but geologists are not agreed 
as to the age of the formation ( see Lan- 
sing Man). At Clayton, Mo., in a de- 
posit believed to belong to the loess, at a 
depth of 14 feet, a well-finished grooved 
ax was found (Peterson). In the Basin 
Range region between the Rocky mts. and 
the Sierras, two discoveries that seem to 
bear on the antiquity of human occupancy 
have been reported: In a silt deposit in 
Walker r. valley, Nev., believed to be of 
Glacial age, an obsidian implement was 
obtained at a depth of 25 feet (McGee); 
at Nampa, Idaho, a clay image is reported 
to have been brought up by a sand pump 
from a depth of 320 feet in alternating 
beds of clay and quicksand underlying a 
lava flow of late Tertiary or early Glacial 
age (Wright, Emmons; see Nampa Im- 
age) . Questions are raised by a number 
of geologists respecting the value of these 
finds (McGee). The most extraordinary 
discoveries of human remains in connec- 
tion with geological formations are those 
from the auriferous gravels of California 
( Whitney, Holmes) . These finds are nu- 
merous and are reported from many local- 
ities and from deposits covering a wide 
range of time. So convincing did the evi- 
dence appear to Whitney, state geologist 
of California from 1860 to 1874, that he 
accepted without hesitation the conclu- 
sion that man had occupied the auriferous 
gravel region during pre-Glacial time, and 
other students of the subject still regard 
the testimony as convincing; but consid- 
eration of the extraordinary nature of the 
conclusions dependent on this evidence 
should cause even the most sanguine ad- 
vocate of great human antiquity in Amer- 
ica to hesitate ( see Calaveras Man ) . Geolo- 
gists are practically agreed that the grav- 
els from which some at least of the relics of 
man are said to come are of Tertiary age. 
These relics represent a polished-stone 
culture corresponding closely to that of 
the modern tribes of the Pacific slope. 
Thus, man in America must have passed 
through the savage and well into the 
barbarous stage while the hypothetical 
earliest representative of the human race 
in the Old World, Pithecanthropus erectus 
of Dubois, was still running wild in the 
forests of Java, a half-regenerate Simian. 
Furthermore, the acceptance of the aurif- 
erous-gravel testimony makes it necessary 
to place the presence of man in America 
far back toward the beginning of the Ter- 
tiary age, a period to be reckoned not in 
tens but in hundreds of thousands of 
years. (See Smithson. Rep. for 1899. ) 
These and other equally striking consid- 



[b. a. e. 

erations suggest the wisdom of formulating 
conclusions with the utmost caution. 

Caves and rock shelters representing 
various periods and offering dwelling 
places to the tribes that have come and 
gone, may reasonably be expected to con- 
tain traces of the peoples of all periods of 
occupancy; but the deposits forming their 
floors, with few exceptions, have not 
been very fully examined, and up to the 
present time have furnished no very 
tangible evidence of the presence of men 
beyond the limited period of the Ameri- 
can Indian as known to us. The Uni- 
versity of California has conducted exca- 
vations in a cave in the n. part of the 
state, and the discovery of bones that 
appear to have been shaped by human 
hands, associated with fossil fauna that 
probably represent early Glacial times, 
has been reported (Sinclair); but the re- 
sult is not decisive. The apparent ab- 
sence or dearth of ancient human remains 
in the caves of the country furnishes one 
of the strongest reasons for critically ex- 
amining all testimony bearing on antiq- 
uity about which reasonable doubt can 
be raised. It is incredible that primitive 
man should have inhabited a country of 
caverns for ages without resorting at 
some period to their hospitable shelter; 
but research in this field is hardly begun, 
and evidence of a more conclusive nature 
may yet be forthcoming. 

In view of the extent of the researches 
carried on in various fields with the object 
of adducing evidence on which to base a 
scheme of human chronology in America, 
decisive results are surprisingly meager, 
and the finds so far made, reputed to 
represent a vast period of time stretching 
forward from the middle Tertiary to the 
present, are characterized by so many de- 
fects of observation and record and so 
many apparent incongruities, biological, . 
geological, and cultural, that the task of 
the chronologist is still largely before him. 

For archeological investigations and 
scientific discussion relating to the an- 
tiquity of man within the limits of the 
United States, see Abbott (1) in Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,xxm, 1888, (2) in 
Proc. A. A. A. S., xxxvn, 1888; Allen, 
Prehist. World, 1885; Bancroft, Native 
Races, iv, 1882; Becker in Bull. Geol. 
Soc. Am., ii, 1891; Blake in Jour. Geol., 
vn, no. 7, 1899; Brower, Memoirs, v, 
1902; Chamberlin (1) in Jour. Geol., x, 
no. 7, 1902, (2) in The Dial, 1892; Clay- 
pole in Am. Geol., xviii, 1896; Dall (1) i in 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, (2) in 
Cont. N. Am. Ethnol., i, 1877; Emmons 
in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, 
1889; Farrand, Basis of Am. Hist., 1904; 
Foster, Prehist. Races, 1878; Fowke, 
Archeol. Hist. Ohio, 1902; Gilbert in Am. 
Anthrop., n, 1889; Haynes in Winsor, 

Narr. and Crit. Hist. Am., i, 1889; 
Holmes (1) in Rep. Smithson. Inst. 1899, 
1901, (2) ibid. 1902, 1903, (3) in Jour. 
Geol., i, nos. 1, 2, 1893, (4) in Am. Geol., 
xi, no. 4, 1893, (5) in Science, Nov. 25, 
1892, and Jan. 25, 1893; Hrdlicka (1) in 
Am. Anthrop., n. s., v, no. 2, 1903, (2) in 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xvi, 1902; 
Kummel in Proc. A. A. A. S., xlvi, 1897; 
Lapham in Smithson. Cont., vn, 1855; 
Lewis, ibid., xxix, 1880; McGee (1) in 
Am. Anthrop., n, no. 4, 1889; v, no. 4, 
1892; vi, no. 1, 1893, (2) in Pop. Sci. 
Mo., Nov., 1888, (3) in Am. Antiq., 
xiii, no. 7, 1891; Mercer (1) in Proc. A. 
A. A. S., xlvi, 1897, (2) in Am. Nat., 
xxvii, 1893, (3) in Pubs. Univ. of Pa., 
vi, 1897; Morse in Proc. A. A. A. S., 
xxxin, 1884; Munro, Archgeol. and False 
Antiq., 1905; Nadaillac, Prehist. America, 
1884; Peterson in Records of Past, n, pt. 
1, 1903; Powell in The Forum, 1890; Put- 
nam (1) in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
xxi, 1881-83; xxm, 1885-88, (2) in Pea- 
bodv Mus. Reps., ix-xxxvii, 1876-1904, 
(3) in Proc. A. A. A. S., xlvi, 1897, (4) 
in Rep. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 1899, 1900; 
Salisbury (1) in Proc. A. A. A. S., xlvi, 
1897, (2) in Science, Dec. 31,1897; Shaler 
in Peabody Mus. Rep., n, no. 1, 1877; 
Sinclair in Pub. Univ. Cal., n, no. 1, 
1904; Skertchley in Jour. Anthrop. Inst., 
xvn, 1888; Squier and Davis, Smithson. 
Cont., i, 1848; Thomas (1) Hist. N. Am., 
ii, 1904, (2) in 12th Rep. B. A. E., 1894, 
(3) Introd. Study of N. Am. Arch., 1903; 
Upham in Science, Aug., 1902; Whitney, 
Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada, 
1879; Williston in Science, Aug., 1902; 
Winchell (1) in Am. Geol., Sept., 1902, 
(2) in Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., xiv, 1903; 
Wright, (1) Man and the Glacial Period, 
1895, (2) Ice Age, 1889, (3) in Pop. Sci. 
Mo., May, 1893, (4) in Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., xxm, 1888, (5) in Rec. of the 
Past, ii, 1903; iv, 1905; Wyman in Mem. 
Peabody Acad. Sci., i, no. 4, 1875. 

The progress of opinion and research 
relating to the origin, antiquity, and early 
history of the American tribes is recorded 
in a vast body of literature fully cited, 
until within recent years, by Bancroft in 
Native Races, iv, 1882, and Haynes in 
Winsor' s Narrative and Critical History, 
i, 1884. (w. h. h.) 

Antler. See Bone-ivork. 

Ami. The Red-ant clan of the Ala 
(Horn) phratry of the Hopi. 
An-iiamu.— Voth, Traditions of the Hopi, 37, 1905. 
A'-nii wun-wii.— Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., vu, 
401, 1894 {wun-wii^' clan'). 

Anuenes (Anue'nes). A gens of the 
Nanaimo. — Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. 
Tribes, 32, 1889. 

Anvik. A Kaiyuhkhotana village at 
the junction of Anvik and Yukon rs., 
Alaska. Pop. in 1844, 120; in 1880, 95; 

BULL. 30] 



in 1890, 100 natives and 91 whites; in 
1900, 166. An Episcopal mission and 
school were established there in 1887. 

Anvic— Whymper, Alaska, 265, 1869. Anvig.— 
Zagoskin quoted bv Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 
37, 1884. Anvik.— Petroff, ibid., 12. 

Anvils. Primitive workers in metal 
were dependent on anvil stones in shap- 
ing their implements, utensils, and orna- 
ments. Anvils were probably not espe- 
cially shaped for the purpose, but con- 
sisted of bowlders or other natural masses 
of stone, fixed or movable, selected ac- 
cording to their fitness for the particular 
purpose for which they were employed. 
Few of these utensils have been identi- 
fied, however, and the types most utilized 
by the tribes are left to conjecture. The 
worker in stone also sometimes used a 
solid rock body on which to break and 
roughly shape masses of flint and other 
stone. These are found on many sites 
where stone was quarried and wholly or 
partially worked into shape, the upper 
surface showing the marks of rough usage, 
while fragments of stone left by the work- 
men are scattered about, (w. h. h.) 

Anyukwinu. A ruined pueblo of the 
Jemez, situated n. of the present Jemez 

Sueblo, n. central N. Mex. 
nu-quil-i-gui.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
IV, pt. 2,-207, 1892. Anyukwinu.— Hodge, field 
notes, B. A. E., 1895. 

Aogitunai {^Ao-gitAna'-i, 'Masset inlet 
gi tuns'). A Masset subdivision residing 
in the town of Yaku, opposite North id., 
and deriving their name from Masset in- 
let, Queen Charlotte ids., British Colum- 
bia.— Swanton, Cont. Haida, 275, 1905. 

Aogni. A former Chumashan village in 
Ventura co., Cal.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
July 24, 1863. 

Aokeawai (*Ao-qe'awa-i, 'those born in 
the inlet'). A division of the Raven 
clan of the Skittagetan family which re- 
ceived its name from Masset inlet, Queen 
Charlotte ids., British Columbia, where 
these people formerly lived. Part of 
them, at least, were settled for a time at 
Dadens, whence all finally went to Alaska. 
There were two subdivisions: Hling- 
wainaashadai and Taolnaashadai. — Swan- 
ton, Cont. Haida, 272, 1905. 

Kao-ke'-owai.— Boas, 12th Rep. N. W. Tribes, 22, 
1898. Keo Haade. — Harrison in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Can., sec. n, 125, 1895. 

Aondironon. A branch of the Neutrals 
whose territory bordered on that of the 
Huron in w. Ontario. In 1648, owing to 
an alleged breach of neutrality, the chief 
town of this tribe was sacked by 300 Iro- 
quois, mainly Seneca, who killed a large 
number of its inhabitants and carried 
away many others in captivity. — Jes. 
Eel. for 1640, 35, 1858. 

Ahondihronnons.— Jes. Rel. for 1656, 34, 1858. Aon- 
dironnons.— Jes. Rel. for 1648, 49, 1858. Ondi- 
ronon.— Ibid., in, index, 1858. 

Aopomue. A former Maricopa ranche- 
ria on Rio Gila, s. w. Arizona. — Sedel- 

mair (1744) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz. 
andN. Mex., 366, 1889. 

Aoreacbic ( { where there is mountain 
cedar'). A small rancheria of the Tara- 
humare, not far from Norogachic, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. Also called Agorichic; 
distinct from Aboreachic. — Lumholtz, 
inf'n, 1894. 

Aostlanlnagai { f, Ao SL/an lnagd'%, 'Mas- 
set inlet rear-town people'). A local 
subdivision of the Raven clan of the 
Skittagetan family. Masset inlet gave 
them the separate name. — Swanton, Cont. 
Haida, 271, 1905. 

Stl'EngE la' nas.— Boas, 12th Rep. N. W Tribes, 
22, 1898. 

Aoyakulnagai ( 2 Ao yd' ku Inaga'i, 'mid- 
dle town people of Masset inlet'). A 
branch of the Yakulanas division of the 
Raven clan of the Skittagetan family, 
which received the name from Masset 
inlet, where its town stood. — Swanton, 
Cont. Haida, 271, 1905. 

G'anyakoilnagai.— Boas, 12th Rep. N. W. Tribes, 
23, 1898 (probably a misprint for Gauyakoilnagai, 
its name in the Skidegate dialect). Ou yaku 
Ilnige.— Harrison in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 125, 

Apache (probably from dpachu, 'en- 
emy,' the Zufii name for the Navaho, 
who were designated "Apaches de Na- 
baju" by the early Spaniards in New 
Mexico). A number of tribes forming 
the most southerly group of the Athapas- 
can family. The name has been applied 
also to some unrelated Yuman tribes, as 
the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and 
Apache Yuma. The Apache call them- 
selves N* de, Dine, Tinde, or Inde, 'people.' 
(See Athapascan. ) 

They were evidently not so numerous 
about the beginning of the 17th century 
as in recent times, their numbers appar- 
ently having been increased by captives 
from other tribes, particularly the Pue- 
Jblos, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful 
Indians, as well as from the settle- 
ments of northern Mexico that were 
gradually established within the territory 
raided by them, although recent meas- 
urements by Hrdlicka seem to indicate 
unusual freedom from foreign admix- 
ture. They were first mentioned as 
Apaches by Ofiate in 1598, although Cor- 
onado, in 1541, met the Querechos (the 
Vaqueros of Benavides, and probably the 
Jicarillas and Mescaleros of modern 
times) on the plains of e. N. Mex. and w. 
Tex. ; but there is no evidence that the 
Apache reached so far w. as Arizona until 
after the middle of the 16th century. 
From the time of the Spanish colonization 
of New Mexico until within twenty years 
they have been noted for their warlike 
disposition, raiding white and Indian 
settlements alike, extending their dep- 
redations as far southward as Jalisco, 
Mexico. No group of tribes has caused 



[B. a. e. 

greater confusion to writers, from the fact 
that the popular names of the tribes are 
derived from some local or temporary hab- 
itat, owing to their shifting propensities, 
or were given by the Spaniards on ac- 
count of some tribal characteristic; hence 
some of the common names of apparently 
different Apache tribes or bands are syn- 
onymous, or practically so; again, as em- 
ployed by some writers, a name may 
include much more or much less than 
when employed by others. ' Although 
most of the Apache have been hostile 
since they have been known to history, 
the most serious modern outbreaks have 
been attributed to mismanagement on the 
part of civil authorities. The most im- 
portant recent hostilities were those of the 
Chiricahua under Cochise, and later Vic- 
torio, who, together with 500 Mimbrenos, 
Mogollones, and Mescaleros, were as- 
signed, about 1870, to the Ojo Caliente 
reserve in w. N. Mex. Cochise, who had 
repeatedly refused to be confined within 
reservation limits, fled with his band, but 
returned in 1871, at which time 1,200 to 
1,900 Apache were on the reservation. 
Complaints from neighboring settlers 
caused their removal to Tularosa, 60 m. 
to the n. w., but 1,000 fled to the Mesca- 
lero reserve on Pecos r., while Cochise 
went out on another raid. Efforts of the 
military agent in 1873 to compel the res- 
toration of some stolen cattle caused the 
rest, numbering 700, again to decamp, 
but they were soon captured. In com- 
pliance with the wishes of the Indians, 
they were returned to Ojo Caliente in 
1874. Soon afterward Cochise died, and 
the Indians began to show such interest 
in agriculture that by 1875 there were 
1,700 Apache at Ojo Caliente, and no 
depredations were reported. In the fol- 
lowing year the Chiricahua res. in Arizona 
was abolished, and 325 of the Indians 
were removed to the San Carlos agency; 
others joined their kindred at Ojo 
Caliente, while some either remained 
on the mountains of their old reserva- 
tion or fled across the Mexican border. 
This removal of Indians from their an- 
cestral homes was in pursuance of a 
policy of concentration, which was tested 
in theChiricahua removal in Arizona. In 
April, 1877, Geronimo and other chiefs, 
with the remnant of the band left on the 
old reservation, and evidently the Mexi- 
can refugees, began depredations in s. 
Arizona and n. Chihuahua, but in May 
433 we're captured and returned to San 
Carlos. At the same time the policy was 
applied to the Ojo Caliente Apache of 
New Mexico, who were making good 
progress in civilized pursuits; but when 
the plan was put in action only 450 of 
2,000 Indians were found, the remainder 
forming into predatory bands under Vic- 

torio. In September 300 Chiricahua, 
mainly of the Ojo Caliente band, escaped 
from San Carlos, but surrendered after 
many engagements. These were returned 
to Ojo Caliente, but they soon ran off 
again. In February, 1878, Victorio sur- 
rendered in the hope that he and his 
people might remain on their former 
reservation, but another attempt was 
made to force the Indians to go to San 
Carlos, with the same result. In June 
the fugitives again appeared at the Mes- 
calero agency, and arrangements were at 
last made for them to settle there; but, as 
the local authorities found indictments 
against Victorio and others, charging 
them with murder and robbery, this 
chief, with his few immediate followers 
and some Mescaleros, fled from the reser- 
vation and resumed marauding. A call 
was made for an increased force of mili- 
tary, but in the skirmishes in which they 
were engaged the. Chiricahua met with 
remarkable success^ while 70 settlers were 
murdered during a single raid. Victorio 
was joined before April, 1880, by 350 
Mescaleros and Chiricahua refugees from 
Mexico, and the repeated raids which 
followed struck terror to the inhabitants 
of New Mexico, Arizona, and Chihuahua. 
On April 13 1,000 troops arrived, and 
their number was later greatly aug- 
mented. Victorio's band was frequently 
encountered by superior forces, and 
although supported during most of the 
time by only 250 or 300 fighting men, 
this w r arrior usually inflicted severer 
punishment than he suffered. In these 
raids 200 citizens of New Mexico, and as 
many more of Mexico, were killed. At 
one time the band was virtually sur- 
rounded by a force of more than 2,000 
cavalry and several hundred Indian 
scouts, but Victorio eluded capture and 
fled across the Mexican border, where 
he continued his bloody campaign. 
Pressed on both sides of the international 
boundary, and at times harassed by 
United States and Mexican troops com- 
bined, Victorio finally suffered severe 
losses and his band became divided. In 
October, 1880, Mexican troops encoun- 
tered Victorio's party, comprising 100 
warriors, with 400 women and children, 
at Tres Castillos; the Indians were sur- 
rounded and attacked in the evening, the 
fight continuing throughout the night; 
in the morning the ammunition of the 
Indians became exhausted, but although 
rapidly losing strength, the remnant re- 
fused to surrender until Victorio, who 
had been wounded several times, finally 
fell dead. This disaster to the Indians 
did not quell their hostility. Victorio 
was succeeded by Nana, who collected 
the divided force, received reenforce- 
ments from the Mescaleros and the San 

BULL. 30] 



Carlos Chiricahua, and between July, 
1881, and April, 1882, continued the raids 
across the border until he was again 
driven back in Chihuahua. While these 
hostilities were in progress in New Mex- 
ico and Chihuahua the Chiricahua of San 
Carlos were striking terror to the settle- 
ments of Arizona. In 1880 Juh and Ge- 
ronimo with 108 followers were captured 
and returned to San Carlos. In 1881 
trouble arose among the White Moun- 
tain Coyoteros on Cibicu cr., owing to a 
medieine-mannamedNakaidoklini (q.v.) , 
who pretended power to revive the dead. 
After paying him liberally for his services, 
his adherents awaited the resurrection 
until August, when Nakaidoklini avowed 
that his incantations failed because of the 
presence of whites. Since affairs were as- 
suming a serious aspect, the arrest of the 
prophet was ordered; he surrendered 
quietly, but as the troops were making 
camp the scouts and other Indians opened 
fire on them. After a sharp tight Nakai- 
doklini was killed and his adherents were 
repulsed. Skirmishes continued the next 
day, but the troops were reenforced, and 
the Indians soon surrendered in small 
bands. Two chiefs, known as George 
and Bonito, who had not been engaged 
in the White Mountain troubles, surren- 
dered to Gen. Wilcox on Sept. 25 at 
Camp Thomas, but were paroled. On 
Sept. 30 Col. Riddle was sent to bring 
these chiefs and their bands back to 
Camp Thomas, but they became alarmed 
and fled to the Chiricahua. 74 of whom 
left the reserve, and, crossing the Mexi- 
can border, took refuge with the late 
Victorio's band in Chihuahua. In the 
same year Nana made one of his bloody 
raids across the line, and in September 
Juh and Nahchi, with a party of Chirica- 
hua, again fled from the reservation, and 
were forced by the troops into Mexico, 
where, in April, 1882, they were joined 
by Geronimo and the rest of the hostile 
Chiricahua of San Carlos, with Loco and 
his Ojo Caliente band. The depredations 
committed inN. Chihuahua under Geron- 
imo and other leaders were perhaps even 
more serious than those within the limits 
of the United States. In March, 1883, 
Chato with 26 followers made a dash into 
New Mexico, murdering a dozen persons. 
Meanwhile the white settlers on the 
upper Gila consumed so much of the 
water of that stream as to threaten the 
Indian crops; then coal was discovered 
on the reservation, which brought an in- 
flux of miners, and an investigation by 
the Federal grand jury of Arizona on Oct. 
24, 1882, charged the mismanagement of 
Indian affairs on San Carlos res. to local 
civil authorities. 

Gen. G. H. Crook having been reassigned 
to the command, in 1882 induced about 

Bull. 30—05 5 

1,500 of the hostiles to return to the reser- 
vation and subsist by their own exertions. 
The others, about three-fourths of the 
tribe, refused to settle down to reservation 
life and repeatedly went on the warpath; 
when promptly followed by Crook they 
would surrender and agree to peace, but 
would soon break their promises. To this 
officer had been assigned the task of bring- 
ing the raiding Apache to terms in co- 
operating with the Mexican troops of 
Sonora and Chihuahua. In May, 1883, 
Crook crossed the boundary to the head- 
waters of the Rio Yaqui with 50 troops 
and 163 Apache scouts; on the 13th the 
camp of Chato and Bonito was discovered 
and attacked with some loss to the Indians. 
Through two captives employed as emis- 
saries, communication was soon had with 
the others, and by May 29 354 Chiri- 
cahua had surrendered. On July 7 the 
War Department assumed police control 
of the San Carlos res., and on Sept. 1 
the Apache were placed under the sole 
charge of Crook, who began to train them 
in the ways of civilization, with such suc- 
cess that in 1884 over 4,000 tons of grain, 
vegetables, and fruits were harvested. 
In Feb., 1885, Crook's powers were cur- 
tailed, an act that led to conflict of au- 
thority between the civil and military offi- 
cers, and before matters could be adjusted 
half the Chiricahua left the reservation in 
May and fled to their favorite haunts. 
Troops and Apache scouts were again sent 
forward, and many skirmishes took place, 
but the Indians were wary, and again 
Arizona and New Mexico were thrown 
into a state of excitement and dread by 
raids across the American border, re- 
sulting in the murder of 73 white people 
and many friendly Apache. In Jan., 
1886, the American camp under Capt, 
Crawford was attacked through misun- 
derstanding by Mexican irregular Indian 
troops, resulting in Crawford's death. 
By the following March the Apache 
became tired of the war and asked for a 
parley, which Crook granted as formerly, 
but before the time for the actual sur- 
render of the entire force arrived the 
wily Geronimo changed his mind and 
with his immediate band again fled be- 
yond reach. His escape led to censure of 
Crook's policy; he was consequently re- 
lieved at his own request in April, and 
to Gen. Nelson A. Miles was assigned 
the completion of the task. Geronimo 
and his band finally surrendered Sept. 4, 
1886, and with numerous friendly Apache 
were sent to Florida as prisoners. They 
were later taken to Mt Vernon, Ala., 
thence to Ft Sill, Okla., where they have 
made progress toward civilization. Some 
of the hostiles were never captured, but 
remained in the mountains, and as late 
as Nov., 1900, manifested their hostile 



[b. a. e. 

character by an attack on Mormon set- 
tlers in Chihuahua. Apache hostility in 
Arizona and New Mexico, however, has 
entirely ceased. (See Hodge in Encvc. 
Brit, "Indians," 1902.) 

Being a nomadic people, the Apache 
practised agriculture only to a limited ex- 
tent before their permanent establishment 
on reservations. They subsisted chiefly 
on the products of the chase and on roots 
(especially that of the maguey) and ber- 
ries. Although fish and bear were found 
in abundance in their country they were 
not eaten, being tabued as food. They 
had few arts, but the women attained 
high skill in making baskets. Their 
dwellings were shelters of brush, which 
were easily erected by the women and 
were well adapted to their arid environ- 
ment and constant shifting. In phys- 
ical appearance the Apache vary greatly, 
but are rather above the medium 
height. They are good talkers, are not 
readily deceived, and are honest in pro- 
tecting property placed in their care, 
although they formerly obtained their 
chief support from plunder seized in 
their forays. 

The Apache are divided into a num- 
ber of tribal groups which have been so 
differently named and defined that it 
is sometimes difficult to determine to 
which branch writers refer. The most 
commonly accepted divisions are the 
Querechos or Vaqueros, consisting of the 
Mescaleros, Jicarillas, Faraones, Llaneros, 
and probably the Lipan; the Chiricahua; 
the Pinalenos; theCoyoteros, comprising 
the White Mountain and Pinal divi- 
sions; the Arivaipa; the Gila Apache, 
including the Gilenos, Mimbrenos, and 
Mogollones; andtheTontos. The present 
official designation of the divisions, with 
their population in 1903, is as follows: 
White Mountain Apache (comprising the 
Arivaipa, Tsiltaden or Chilion, Chirica- 
hua, Coyoteros, Mimbrenos, Mogollones, 
Finals, ''San Carlos," andTontos), under 
Ft Apache agency, 2,058; Apache con- 
sisting of the same divisions as above, 
under San Carlos agency, 2,275; Apache 
at Angora, Ariz., 38; Jicarillas under 
school superintendent in New Mexico, 
782; Mescaleros under Mescalero agency, 
N. Mex., 464; Chiricahua at Ft Sill, 
Okla., 298; Kiowa Apache, under Kiowa 
agency, Okla., 156. Besides these there 
were 19 Lipan in n. w. Chihuahua, some 
of the survivors of a tribe which, owing 
to their hostility, was almost destroyed, 
chiefly by Mexican Kickapoo cooperating 
with Mexican troops. This remnant was 
removed from Zaragoza, Coahuila, to 
Chihuahua in Oct., 1903, and a year later 
were brought to the TJ. S. and placed 
under the Mescalero agency in New Mex- 
ico. Until 1904 there lived with, the 

Apache of Arizona a number of Indians 
of Yuman stock, particularly "Mohave 
Apache," or Yavapai, but these are now 
mostly established at old Camp McDow- 
ell. The forays and conquests of the 
Apache resulted in the absorption of a 
large foreign element, Piman, Yuman, 
and Spanish, although captives were 
treated with disrespect and marriages 
with them broke clan ties. The Pinal 
Coyoteros, and evidently also the Jica- 
rillas, had some admixture of Pueblo 
blood. The Tontos (q. v.) were largely 
of mixed blood according to Corbusier, 
but Hrdlicka's observations show them 
to be pure Apache. Tribes or bands 
known or supposed to be Apache, but 
not otherwise identifiable, are the follow- 
ing: Alacranes, Animas, Bissarhar, Cha- 
falote, Cocoyes, Colina, Doestoe, Goolkiz- 
zen, Janos, Jocomes, Tejua, Tremblers, 

The Apache are divided into many 
clans which, however, are not totemic 
and they usually take their names from 
the natural features of localities, never 
from animals. Like clans of different 
Apache tribes recognize their affiliation. 
The Juniper clan found by Bourke among 
the White Mountain Apache at San Carlos 
agency and Ft Apache (Jour. Am. Folk- 
lore, in, 112, 1890), called by them Yogo- 
yekayden, reappears as Chokonni among 
the Chiricahua and as Yagoyecayn among 
the Pinal Coyoteros. The W T hite Moun- 
tain Apache have a clan called Destchin 
(Red Paint), which is correlated to the 
Chie clan of the Chiricahua and appears 
to have separated from the Satchin (Red 
Rock ) clan, both being represented among 
the Navaho by the Dhestshini (Red 
Streak). The Carrizo clan, Klokada- 
kaydn, of San Carlos agency and Ft 
Apache, is the Klugaducayn (Arrow 
Reed) of the Pinal Coyoteros. Tutzose, 
the Water clan of the Pinal Coyoteros, 
is found also among the White Moun- 
tain Apache, who have a Walnut clan, 
called Ohiltneyadnaye, as the Pinal Co- 
yotero have one called Chisnedinadi- 
naye. Natootzuzn ( Point of Mountain) , a 
clan at San Carlos agency, corresponds to 
Nagosugn, a Pinal Coyotero clan. Tizses- 
sinaye (Little Cottonwood Jungle of the 
former) seems to have divided into the 
clans Titsessinaye of the Pinal Coyotero, 
of the same signification, and Destcheti- 
naye (Tree in a Spring of Water). Kay- 
hatin is the name of the Willow clan 
among both, and the Navaho have one, 
called Kai. Tzisequittzillan (Twin Peaks) 
of the White Mountain Apache, Tziltadin 
(Mountain Slope) of the Pinal Coyotero, 
and Navaho Dsilanothilni (Encircled 
Mountain), and Tsayiskidhni (Sage-brush 
Hill), are supposed by Bourke to have 
had a common origin. And there are 

BULL. 30] 



many others traceable in the various 
Apache divisions and in the Navaho. 
Ai-a'-ta.— Henshaw, MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1883 
(Panamint name). Apacci. — Clavijero, Storia 
della Cal., i, 29, 1789. Apachas.— Hardy, Trav. in 
Mex., 438, 1829. Apache. — Benavides, Memorial, 
50, 1630. Apacherian. — Biff elow in Pac. R. R. Rep. , 
iv, 7, 1856. Apaches.— Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., 
xvi, 114, 1871. Apachis.— Humboldt, Kingd. N. 
Sp., II, 271, 1811. Apachu.— N. Y. Nation, xlii, 
397, May 13, 1886. Apaci.— Clavigero, Storia della 
Cal., map, 1789. Apades.— Onate (1598) in Doc. 
Ined., xvi, 114, 303, 1871 (misprint). Apaehe.— 
Beckwith in Pac. R. R. Rep., n, 28, 1855 (mis- 
print). A-pa-huache. — Tbomas, Yuma vocab., 
B. A. E., 1868 (Yuma name). Apatch. — Latham 
(1853) in Proc. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., VI, 74, 1854. 
Apatches. — Derbanne (1717) in Margry, Dec., vi, 
206, 1886. Apats.— Gatschet, MS., B. A. E. (Seri 
name). Apatschees.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, v, 
641, 1882. Apatsh.— Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. 
Lond., 105, 1856. Apedes.— Columbus Mem. Vol., 
155, 1893 (misprint). Apiches.— Onate (1599) in 
Doc. Ined., xvi, 308, 1871 (misprint). Apichi.— 
Espejo misquoted by Bourke, On the Border 
with Crook, 122, 1891. Apoches. — Perea, Segunda 
Rel., 4, 1633. Appachees.— Ind. Aft Rep., 593, 
1837. Appaches.— Sibley, Hist. Sketches, 110, 1806. 
Appeches. — Schermerhorn in Mass. Hist. Coll., n, 
29, 1814. A-pwa'-tci. — Dorsey, MS. Kansa vocab., 
B. A. E., 1883 (Kansaform). Atokuwe.— ten Kate, 
Synonymie, 10, 1884 (Kiowa name). Awatch. — 
Ibid., 8 (Ute name). Awatche. — Ibid. Awp.— 
Grossman, Pima and Papago vocab., B. A. E., 1871 
(Pima name). Chah'-shm.— Whipple, Pac. R. R. 
Rep., in, pt. 3, 89, 1856 (Santo Domingo Keres 
name). Chishye'. — Hodge, field notes, B. A. E., 
1895 ( Laguna name ) . Ha-ma-kaba-mitc kwa-dig. — 
Corbusier, MS. Mojave vocab., B. A. E., 1885 
(Mohavename: 'farawavMohaves'). H'iwana. — 
Hodge, field notes, B. A. E., 1895 (Taos name: 'filthy 
people'). Igihua'-a. — Gatschet, Yuma-Spr.,m, 86, 
1886 (Havasupai name). Inde. — Bourke in Jour. 
Am. Folk-lore, II, 181, 1889 (own name). Jaro- 
soma.— Kino (1700) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th ser., i, 
346, 1856 (Pima name). Mountain Comanche. — 
Yoakum, Hist. Texas, I, map, 1855. Muxtsuhin- 
tan. — Gatschet, MS. Cheyenne vocab., B. A. E. 
(Cheyenne name). N'day. — Bandelier in Arch. 
Inst. Papers, in, 175, 1890 (original tribal name). 
'Nde.— ten Kate, Reizen in N. Am., 196, 1885 (a 
form of Tinneh: 'people'). N'De. — Bandelier in 
Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 259, 1890. Oop.— ten Kate, 
Reizen in N. Am., 26, 1885 (Papago name). Op.— 
Gatschet, Yuma-Spr., in, 86, 1886 (Pima name). 
Orp.— Whipple, Pac. R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3, 94, 1856 
(Pima name). Paches.— Parker, Jour., 32, 1840. 
Patchisagi.— Gatschet, Shawnee MS., B. A. E. 
(Shawnee name). Petchisagi. — Ibid, (alterna- 
tive Shawnee form) . Poan'in. — Hodge, field 
notes, B. A. E., 1895 (Sandia and Isleta name). 
P'onin. — Gatschet, MS. Isleta vocab. (Isleta 
name). Red Apaches.— Vargas (1692) transliter- 
ated by Davis, Span. Conq. N. Mex., 371, 1869. 
Shis-Inday.— Cremony, Life among Apaches. 243. 
1868 ('men of the woods': so called by them- 
selves because their winter quarters are* always 
located amidst forests). Ta-ashi.— Gatschet, Co- 
manche MS., B. A. E. (Comanche name for. 
Apache in general: ' turned up,' referring to their 
moccasins). Tagui.— Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. 
E., 1081, 1896 (old Kiowa name). Tagukeresh.— 
Hodge, Pueblo MS. notes, B. A. E., 1895 (Pecos 
name; see Querecho). Tashin. — Mooney in 17th 
Rep., B. A. E., 245, 1898 (Comanche name). 
Taxkahe.— Gatschet, MS.. Arapaho vocab. (Arap- 
aho name; cf. Tha'kahinZ'na, 'saw-fiddle men,' 
under Kiowa Apache). ThaK-a-i-nin'.— Hayden, 
Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 326, 1862 ('people 
who play on bone instruments,' that is, a pair 
of buffalo ribs, one notched, over which the 
other is rubbed: Arapaho name). Tinde.— Bourke 
in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, n. 181, 1889 ('people': 
own name). Tinna'-ash.— Gatschet, MS. Wichita 
vocab., B. A. E., (Wichita name: cf. Glna's under 
Kiowa Apache) . Tokuwe.— ten Kate, Synonymie, 

10,1884 (Kiowaname). Tshishe. — Ibid., 7 (Laguna 
name). TJtce-ci-nyu-muh. — Fewkes in Jour. Am. 
Folk-lore, v, 33, 1892 (Hopi name). tftsaamu— 
Voth, Traditions of the Hopi, 59, 1905 (Hopi 
name). Xa-he'-ta-iio'.— Gatschet, inf'n, 1891 
(Cheyenne name: 'those who tie their hair 
back'). Y apaches.— Robin, Voy. a la Louisiane, 
in, 14, 1807. Yostjeeme.— ten Kate, Reizen in N. 
Am., 259, 1885 (Hopi name). Yotche-eme. — ten 
Kate, Synonymie, 7, 1884 (Hopi name). Yu- 
ittcemo.— Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 35, 1891 
(Hopi name). Yute-shay. — Bourke, Moquis of 
Ariz., 118, 1884 (Hopi name). 

Apaches del Perrillo (Span.: 'Apaches 
of the little dog'). A band of Apache 
occupying, in the 16th and 17th centuries, 
the region of the Jornada del Muerto, 
near the Eio Grande, in s. N. Mex., where 
a spring was found by a dog, thus saving 
the Spaniards much suffering from thirst. 
They were probably a part of the Mesca- 
leros or of the Mimbrenos of later date. 
(f. w. h. ) 

Apaches del perillo. — De l'Isle, map Am. Sept., 
1700. Apaches del Perrillo. — Benavides, Memo- 
rial, 14, 1630. Apaches de Peryllo.— Linschoten, 
Desc. de l'Am., map 1, 1638. 

Apaches del Quartelejo. A band of 
Jicarillas which in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies resided in the valley of Beaver cr., 
Scott co., Kans. The district was called 
Quartelejo by Juan Uribarri, who on tak- 
ing possession in 1706 named it the prov- 
ince of San Luis, giving the name Santo 
Domingo to the Indian rancheria. See 
Quartelejo. (f. w. h.) 

Apaches del Cuartelejo. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. 
Papers, in, 181, 1890. Apaches del Quartelejo.— 
Rivera (1736) , quoted by Bandelier, op. cit., v, 184, 
1890. Apaches of Cuartelejo.— Bancroft, Ariz, and 
N. Mex., 236, 1889. 

Apaches Mansos ( Span. : 'tame Apaches' ) . 
An Apache band of Arizona consisting of 
100 persons (Browne, Apache Country, 
291, 1869). Apparently so called by the 
Mexicans in contradistinction to the more 
warlike Apache. 

Apahiachak. An Eskimo village in the 
Kuskokwim district, Alaska; pop. 91 in 

Apahiachamiut.— 11th Census, Alaska, 164. 1893 
(here referring to the inhabitants). 

Apalachee. One of the principal native 
tribes of Florida, formerly holding the 
region n. of the bay now called by the 
name, from about the neighborhood of 
Pensacola e. to Ocilla r. The chief towns 
were about the present Tallahassee and 
St Marks. They were of Muskhogean 
stock, and linguistically more nearly re- 
lated to the Choctaw than to the Creeks. 
The name is of uncertain etymology, but 
is believed by Gatschet to be from the 
Choctaw A'palachi, signifying '(people) 
on the other side.' The Apalachee were 
visited by the expeditions under Narvaez 
in 1528 and DeSoto in 1539, and the lat- 
ter made their country his winter head- 
quarters on account of its abundant re- 
sources for subsistence. The people were 
agricultural, industrious and prosperous, 
and noted above all the surrounding 



[B. a. e. 

tribes for their fighting qualities, of which 
the Spanish adventurers had good proof. 
They continued resistance to the Spanish 
occupancy until after the year 1600, but 
were finally subdued and Christianized, 
their country becoming the most import- 
ant center of missionary effort in Florida 
next to the St Augustine (Timucua) dis- 
trict. In 1655 they had 8 considerable 
towns, each with a Franciscan mission, 
besides smaller settlements, and a total 
population of 6,000 to 8,000. Their pros- 
perity continued until about the year 
1700, when they began to suffer from the 
raids by the wild Creek tribes to the n., 
instigated by the English government of 
Carolina, the Apalachee themselves being 
strongly in the Spanish interest. These 
attacks culminated in the year 1703, when 
a powerful expedition under Gov. Moore 
of Carolina, consisting of a company of 
white troops with a thousand armed sav- 
age allies of various tribes, invaded the 
Apalachee country, destroyed the towns 
and missions, with their fields and orange 
groves, killed the Spanish garrison com- 
mander and more than 200 Apalachee 
warriors, and carried off 1,400 of the tribe 
into slavery. Another expedition about 
a year later ravaged the neighboring ter- 
ritory and completed the destruction. 
The remnants of the Apalachee became 
fugitives among the friendly tribes or fled 
for protection to the French at Mobile, 
and although an effort was made by one 
of the Christian chiefs in 1718 to gather 
some of them into new mission villages 
(Soledad and San Luis) near Pensacola, 
the result was only temporarily success- 
ful. A part of the deported Apalachee 
were colonized by the Carolina govern- 
ment on Savannah r., at a settlement 
known as Palachoocla (Palachi-okla), or 
Apalachicola, but were finally merged 
into the Creeks. Those who settled under 
French protection near Mobile crossed 
the Mississippi into Louisiana after the 
cession of Florida to England in 1763, and 
continued to preserve their name and 
identity as late, at least, as 1804, when 14 
families were still living on Bayou Rapide. 
Among the principal Apalachee towns or 
mission settlements of certain identifica- 
tion are Apalachee (1528-39 and later, 
believed to have been near the present 
Tallahassee), Ayavalla, Ivitachuco, San 
Marcos, San Juan, Santa Cruz, San Luis 
(1718), and Soledad (1718). Consult 
Barcia, Ensayo, 1723; Sibley, Hist. 
Sketches, 1806; Shea, Catholic Missions, 
1855; Gatschet, Creek Migr. Legend, i, 
1884. (j. m.) 

Abalache.— Fontaneda (ca. 1559) in Doc. Ined., v, 
537, 1866. Abalachi.— Fontaneda in Ternaux Corn- 
pans. XX, 19, 1841. Abolachi.— French, Hist. Coll., 
II, 256, 1875. Apahlahche.— Brinton, Florida, 92, 
1859. Apalaccium.— Morelli, Fasti Novi Orbis, 20, 
1776. Apalacha— Quesada (1792) in Am. State 

Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 303, 1832. Apalache.— Biedma 
(1544) in Smith, Colec. Doc. Fla., 47, 1857. Apa- 
lachen.— Cabeza de Vaca (1528), Smith trans., 35, 
1871. Apalachia.— Linschoten, Description de 
l'Amer., 6, 1638. Apalachians.— Harris, Voy. and 
Trav., II, 275, 1706. Apalachias.— McKenney and 
Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 80, 1854. Apalachinos.— Bar- 
cia, Ensayo, 329, 1723. Apalachins.— Jefferys, Fr. 
Doms. Am., pt. 1, 161, 1761. Apalachis.— Rafin- 
esque, introd. to Marshall, Ky., I, 23, 1824. Apa» 
lachita.— Hervas, Idea dell' Universo, xvn, 90, 
1784 (name of language). Apalachites.— Old- 
mixon, Brit. Emp., n, 229, 1708. Apalans.— Rafin- 
esque, introd. to Marshall, Ky., i, 23, 1824 (gen- 
eral term, used for several unrelated tribes). 
Apalatchees. — Rivers, Hist. S. C, 94, 1856. Apa- 
latchia.— Carroll, Hist. Coll. S. C, n, 575, 1836. 
Apalatchy.— Coxe, Carolana,22, 1741. Apalatci.— 
De Bry, Brev. Narr., n, map, 1591. Apalchen. — 
Mercator, map (1569), quoted in Maine Hist. Coll., 
I, 392, 1869. Apalehen. — Rafinesque in introd. to 
Marshall, Ky., I, 23, 1824. Apallachian Indians.— 
Mills, S. C, 222, 1826. Apelash.— Woodward, 
Reminiscences, 79, 1859. Apeolatei.— Brinton, 
Florida, 92, 1859. ApilacheB.— Woodward, op. cit., 
25. Apilashs.— Ibid., 39. Apolacka.— Holden 
(1707) in N. C. Col. Records, i, 664, 1886. Apo- 
lashe.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 585, 1853. 
Appalaches. — Dumont, La., I, 134, 1753. Appala- 
chians.— Mills, S. C, 107, 1826. Appalachites.— 
Schoolcraft in N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., 79, 1844. 
Appalachos.— Boudinot, Star in West, 125, 1816. 
Appallatcy.— French, Hist. Coll., n, 256, 1875. Ap- 
pallatta.— Brinton, Florida, 92, 1859. Appela- 
thas.— Moll, map in Humphreys, Hist. Acct., 1730. 
Appellachee.— Humphreys, Hist. Acct., 98, 1730. 
Asphalashe. —Clarke and Cass in H. R. Ex. Doc. 1 17, 
20th Cong., 100, 1829. Palache.— Cabeza de Vaca 
(1527), Smith trans.. 25, 1871. Palachees.— Coxe, 
Carolana, 22, map, 1741. Palatcy.— French, Hist. 
Coll., II, 256, 1875. Palaxy.— Brinton, Florida, 92, 
1859. Peluches.— N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist, VII, 641, 
1856. Tlapans. — Rafinesque, introd. to Marshall. 
Ky., i, 23, 1824 (given as an "Apalahan" prov- 
ince). Valachi.— Fontaneda in Doc. Ined., v, 
538, 1866. 

Apalachicola (possibly 'people on the 
other side'). A Hitchiti town formerly 
situate on the w. bank of lower Chatta- 
hoochee r., Ala., a short distance below 
Chiaha, nearly opposite the present Co- 
lumbus, Ga. Formerly one of the most 
important Hitchiti settlements, it had lost 
its importance by 1799. It was a peace 
town and received the name Talua-hlako, 
'great town.' Bartram states that about 
1750 it was moved up the river, and that 
the people spoke the Hitchiti dialect. In 
the abbreviated form Palatchukla the 
name is applied to part of Chattahoo- 
chee r. below the junction with Flint r. 
Hodgson (introd. to Hawkins, Sketch) 
states that "Palachookla," the capital of 
the confederacy, was a very ancient Uchee 
town, but this statement may be due to 
confusion with the later Apalachicola 
(q. v. ) on Savannah r., S. C. The name 
Apalachicola was also frequently used by 
both Spaniards and French in the 18th 
century to include all the Lower Creeks 
then settled on Chattahoochee r. (j. m.) 

Apalachecolo.— Barcia (1718), Ensayo Cron., 336, 
1723. Apalachicoloes. — Archdale in Carroll, Hist. 
Coll. S. C, n, 107, 1707. Apalachicoly.— Iberville 
(1701) in Margry, Dec, iv, 594, 1880. Aimlachi- 
coulys.— Ibid.. 551. Apalachoocla.— U.S. Ind. Treat. 
( 1814 ) , 162, 1 837. Apalachucla. —Bartram , Travels, 
387, 1791. Apalatchukla.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. 
Leg., i, 68, 1884. Apalatchy-Cola.— Coxe, Carolana, 
29, 1741. Appalachicolas.— Gallatin, Arch. Am., 96, 

BULL. 30] 



1836. Conchaques.— Iberville in Margry, Dec., 
IV, 594, 1880. English Indians.— Arch dale in Car- 
roll, Hist. Coll. S. C, II, 107, 1707. Italua 'lake — 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 145, 1881 ('great 
town': popular Creek name). Pahlachocolo. — 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, IV, 578, 1854. Pah-lo- 
cho-ko-los.— Drake, Bk. Inds., iv, 94, 1848. Pala- 
chicolas.— Jeffervs, French Dom., map, 134, 1761. 
Palachocalas.— Stevens, Hist. Ga., 117, 1847. Pala- 
choocla.— Hodgson in Hawkins, Sketch (1799), 
17, 1848. Pa-la-chooc-le.— Hawkins, ibid., 65. 
Palachuckolas.— McCall, Hist. Georgia, i, 363, 1811. 
Palachuola.— Swan (1791) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, v, 262, 1855. Parachuctaus.— Boudinot, 
Star in West, 128, 1816. Paracpoocla. — Hodgson 
in Hawkins, Sketch, 17, 1848. Polachucolas.— 
Drake, Bk. of Inds., 29, 1848. Poollachuchlaw.— 
Moll, map in Humphrevs, Hist. Acct., 1730. 
Tallawa Thlucco.— U. S. Ind. Treat. (1827), 420, 

1837. Tal-lo-wau thlucco.— Hawkins, Sketch (1799), 
65, 1848. Talua 'lako.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. 
Leg., I, 145, 1884. Tolowarch. -H. R. Ex. Doc. 276, 
24th Cong. 308, 1836. Tolowar thlocco.— School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 578, 1854. 

Apalachicola. A town on Savannah r., 
in what is now Hampton co., S. C, where 
was settled a remnant of the Apalachee 
from the towns about Apalachee bay, 
which were carried thither as captives 
when the tribe was destroyed by Gov. 
Moore in 1703. (a. s. g.) 

Apalou. An unidentified village near 
the mouth of St Johns r., Fla., in 1564.— 
Laudonniere in French, Hist. Coll. La., 
n. s., 315, 1869. 
Appalou.— De Bry, Brev. Nar., map, 1591. 

Apangasi. A former Miwok village on 
Tuolumne r., Tuolumne co., Cal. 
Apangape.— McKee et al. (1851) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 
4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 74, 1853 (misprint). 
Apangasi.— Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 
81, 1856. Apangasse.— Barbour et al/(1851) in Sen. 
Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 70, 1853. 
A-pang-assi.— Johnston (1851) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 
61, 32d Cong., 1st sess., 22, 1852. Apoung-o-sse.— 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 222, 1851. Ap-yang-ape.— Barbour 
(1852) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 
252, 1853 (misprint). 

Apannow. See Epanow. 

Apap (A' pap) . A social division of the 
Pima, belonging to the Stoamohimal, 
or White Ants, phratral group. — Russell, 
Pima MS., B. A. E., 313, 1903. 

Apaqssos ('deer'). A subphratry or 
gens of the Menominee. — Hoffman in 
14th Rep. B. A. E., pt. 1, 42, 1896. 

Apatai ('a covering,' from apatayas, 
1 1 cover ' ) . A former subordinate village 
of the Lower Creek town Kasihta, on a 
creek 20 m. e. of Chattahoochee r., Ga., 
probably on the site of the present town 
of Upatoie, on a creek of the same name 
in Muscogee co., Ga. 

Au-put-tau-e.— Hawkins, Sketch (1799), 59, 1848. 
Apatsiltlizhihi ( ' black [tlizhi"] Apache' ). 
A division of the Jicarilla Apache who 
claim the district of Mora, N. Mex., as 
their former home. ( J. m. ) 
Apa'tsil-tli-zhi'hi. — Moonev, field notes, B. A. E., 

Apeche. A Luiseno village w. of San 
Luis Bey mission, San Diego co., Cal. — 
Jackson and Kinney, Rep. Miss. Inds., 
29, 1883. 

Apena. A pueblo of New Mexico in 
1598; doubtless situated in the Salinas, 

in the vicinity of Abo, and occupied by 
the Tigua or the Piros. — Ofiate (1598) in 
Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 

Aperger. The Yurok name of a Karok 
village on the w. bank of Klamath r., sev- 
eral miles below Orleans Bar, said to con- 
sist of 10 houses in 1852. (a. l. k. ) 
Sogorem.— Kroeber, infn, 1903 (said to be the 
Karok name). 

Apewantanka (ape 'leaf,' 'fin,' apehin 
'mane,' tangka 'large': 'large manes 
[of horses]'). A division of the Brule 

Apewan tanka.— Dorseyin 15th Rep. B. A. E., 218, 
1897. Apewa n -tanka.— Ibid. 

Apichi. A "family" or division of the 
Cuyuhasomi phratry of the Timucua.— 
Pareja (ca. 1612) quoted by Gatschet in 
Am. Philos. Soc. Proa, xvn, 492, 1878. 

Apikaiyiks ( ' skunks ' ) . A division of 
the Kainah and of the Piegan. 
Ah-pe-ki'.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 171, 1877 (Kainah). 
Ah-pe-ki'-e. — Ibid. (Piegan). Ap'-i-kai-yiks.— 
Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, 209, 1892 (Kai- 
nah and Piegan). A-pi-kai'-yiks.— Hayden, Eth- 
nog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 264, 1862 (Piegan). _ 

Apil. A Costanoan village, containing 
neophytes in 1819 according to Friar 
Olbez; situated near the mission of Santa 
Cruz, Cal.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer. Apr. 
5, 1860. 

Apish, Apisha. See Pishaug. 

Apishamore. A saddle blanket, made 
of buffalo-calf skins, used on the great 
prairies (Bartlett, Diet. Americanisms, 
15, 1877). An impossible derivation of 
this word from the French empechement 
has been suggested. Meaning and form 
make it evident that the term is a cor- 
ruption of apishimon, which in the Chip- 
pewa and closely related dialects of 
Algonquian signifies ' anything to lie 
down upon.' (a. p. c.) 

Apishaug. See Pishaug. 

Apistonga. An unidentified tribe ap- 
parently in n. Ala.; marked on Mar- 
quette's map of 1673 (Shea, Discov., 268, 

Aplache. Given as the name of a band 
and its village on upper Tuolumme r., 
Tuolumne co., Cal., in 1850. According 
to Adam Johnson (Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, iv, 407, 1854) the people could 
not speak the Miwok language; neverthe- 
less, judging by their location and the 
bands with which they are mentioned, it 
is probable that they belonged to the 
Moquelumnan family. 

Ap-la-che.— Barbour (1852) in Sen. Ex. Doc.4,32d 
Cong., spec, sess., 252, 1853. 

Apohola ( ' buzzard ' ) . A Timucua 
phratry which included the Nuculaha, 
Nuculahaqus, Nuculaharuqui, Chorofa, 
Usinaca, Ayahanisino, Napoya, Amaca- 
huri, Hauenayo, and Amusaya clans. 
They were prohibited from marrying 
among themselves. — Pareja (ca. 1612) 
quoted by Gatschet in Proc. Am. Philos. 
Soc, xvii, 492, 1878. 



[b. a. e. 

Apoholythas. A Creek town in Indian 
Ter. , 10 m. from the n. fork of Canadian 
r.— Raines (1838) in H. R. Doc. 219, 
27th Cong., 3d sess., 110, 1843. 

Apokak. A Kuskwogmiut Eskimo vil- 
lage near the mouth of Kuskokwim r., 
Alaska; pop. 94 in 1880, 210 in 1890. 
Ahpokagamiut.— 11th Census, Alaska, 164, 1893. 
Apokachamute. — Hallock in Nat. Geog. Mag., 88, 
1898. Apokagmute. — Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 
153, 1884. 

Aponitre. A pueblo of the province of 
Atripuy in the region of the lower Rio 
Grande, N. Mex., in 1598.— Onate (1598) 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871. 

Apontigoumy. An Ottawa village, at- 
tacked by the Seneca in 1670. — Courcelles 

(1670) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 788, 

Apoon. A Chnagmiut village on Apoon 
pass, the n. mouth of Yukon r., Alaska. 
Aphoon.— Post- route map, 1903. 

Aposon. See Opossum. 

Apoya. The extinct Sky clan of the 

Apoya-kwe.— Gushing in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 368, 
1896 (kwe= i people' ). 

Apozolco. A former pueblo of the Col- 
otlan division of the Cora and the seat of 
a mission, situated on the Rio Colotlan, 
a tributary of the Rio Grande de Santiago, 
Jalisco, Mexico. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
280, 1864. 

Appeelatat. A Montagnais village on 
the s. coast of Labrador. — Stearns, Labra- 
dor, 271, 1884. 

Appoans. See Pone. 

Appocant. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608 on the n. bank of 
Chickahominy r., New Kent co., Va. — 
Smith (1629), Virginia, map, repr. 1819. 

Appomattoc. A tribe of the Powhatan 
confederacy formerly living on lower Ap- 
pomattox r., Va. They had 60 warriors 
in 1608, and were of some importance as 
late as 1671, but were extinct by 1722. 
Their principal village, which bore the 
same name and was on the site of Ber- 
muda Hundred, Prince George co., was 
burned by the English in 1611. Appo- 
matox was also one of the terms applied 
to the Matchotic, a later combination of 
remnants of the same confederacy. 

(J. M.) 
Apamatica. — Percy n Purchas, Pilgrimes, iv, 1,688, 
1626. Apamaticks.— Lawson (1701), Hist. Carolina, 
163, 1860. Apamatuck.— Smith quoted by Drake, 
Bk.Inds.,bk.4,10,1848. Apamatuk.— Smith (1629), 
Virginia, II, 12, repr. 1819. Apomatock.— Batts 

(1671) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., m, 193, 1853. Ap- 
pamatox.— Beverly, Virginia, 199, 1722. Appamat- 
tocs.— Jefferson, Notes, 179, 1801. Appamattucks. — 
Strachey (1612 ?), Virginia, vi, 35, 1849. Appa- 
matucks.— Smith (1629), Virginia, 1, 116, repr. 1819. 
Appomatocks.— Macauley, N. Y., n, 166, 1829. 
Appomattake.— Doc. of 1643 in N. C. Col. Rec, i, 
17, 1886. Appomatuck.— Doc. of 1728, ibid., II, 784, 
1886. Appomotacks. — Boudinot, Star in the West, 
125, 1816. 

Apukasasocha (apoka= 'settlement' ). A 
former Seminole town of which Enehe- 
mathlochee was chief in 1823, situated 20 

m. w. of the head of St Johns r., centra? 
Fla.— H. R. Ex. Doc. 74, 19th Cong., 27, 

Apuki {A'puM). A social divison of 
the Pima, belonging to the Stoamohimal, 
or White Ants,phratral group. — Russell, 
Pima MS., B. A. E., 313, 1903. 

Aputitek. A ruined Eskimo village in 
e. Greenland, lat. 67° 47 / .— Meddelelser 
om Gronland, xxvn, map, 1902. 

Aputosikainah ( ' northern Bloods ' ) . A 
band of the Kainah division of the Sik- 

Ap-ut'-o-si-kai-nah. — Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, 209, 1892. 

Apyu. The Yurok name of the north- 
ern part of the important Karok village 
of Katimin, on Klamath r. , Cal. , a mile 
above the mouth of the Salmon, (a.l.k.) 

Aqbirsiarbing ( ' a lookout for whales' ). 
A winter settlement of Nugumiut at C. 
True, Baffin land. — Boas in 6th Rep. 
B. A. E., 422, 1888. 

Aquacalecuen. A Timuquanan village 
near Suwannee r., n. w. Fla., visited by 
De Soto in 1539.— Biedma (1544) in 
French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 98, 1850. 

Caliquen. — Gentl. of Elvas (1557) in French, op. 
cit., 131. 

Aquackanonk (from ach-quoa-k-kan- 
nonk, 'a place in a rapid stream where 
fishing is done with a bush-net. ' — Nelson ) . 
A division of the Unami Delawares 
which occupied lands on Passaic r., N. J., 
and a considerable territory in the in- 
terior, including the tract known as Dun- 
dee, in Passaic, just below the Dundee 
dam, in 1678. In 1679 the name was used 
to describe a tract in Saddle River town- 
ship, Bergen co., as well as to designate 
"the old territory, which included all of 
Paterson s. of the Passaic r. , and the city 
of Paterson." The Aquackanonk sold 
lands in 1676 and 1679. See Nelson and 
Ruttenber, below. 

Achquegenonck.— Doc. of 1714 quoted by Nelson, 
Inds. N. J., 122, 1894. Achquickenoungh.— Doc. of 
1696, ibid. Achquickenunck.— Doc. of 1698, ibid. 
Achquickenunk.— Doc. of 1696, ibid. Achquika- 
nuncque. — Doc. of 1698, ibid. Ackquekenon. — Doc. 
of 1679, ibid. Acquackanonk. —Ruttenber, Tribes 
Hudson R., 91, 1872. Acquicanunck. — Doc. of 
1692 quoted by Nelson, op. -cit. Acquiggenonck.— 
Doc. of 1693, ibid. Acquikanong.— Doc. of 1706, 
ibid. Amakaraongky.— DeLaet (ea. 1633) in N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., I, 315, 1841 (same?). Aquach- 
onongue. — Doc. of 1696 quoted by Nelson, op. cit. 
Aquackanonks.— De Laet, op. cit. Aquaninoncke.— 
Doc. of 1683 quoted by Nelson, op. cit. Aquaqua- 
nuncke. — Doc. of 1684, ibid. Aqueckenonge.— Doc. 
of 1696, ibid. Aqueckkonunque.— Doc. of 1698, ibid. 
Aquegnonke.— Doc. of 1679, ibid. Aqueyquinunke — 
Doc. of 1682, ibid. Aquickanucke.— Doc. of 1678, 
ibid. Aquickanunke.— Doc. of 1685, ibid. Aquoe- 
chononque. — Doc. of 1698, ibid. Hackquickanon.— 
Doc. of 1694, ibid. Hacquickenunk. — Doc. of 1696, 
ibid. Haghquagenonck. — Doc. of 1736, ibid. 
Haquequenunck. — De Laet, op. cit. Haquicquee- 
nock. —Doc. of 1678, ibid. Hockquackanonk.— Doc. 
of 1707, ibid. Hockquackonong. — Ibid. Hock- 
quecanung.— Doc. of 1683, ibid. Hockquekammg. — 
Doc. of 1680, ibid. Hockquickanon. — Doc. of 
1693, ibid. 

Aquadocta. The dwelling place of "a 
tribe of Indians" in 1690, living westward 

BULL. 30] 



from Casco and Saco, Me. , and seemingly 
allied with the Abnaki. — Niles (ca. 1761) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. , 3d s. , vi, 217, 1837. 
Aquascogoc. An Algonquian village on 
the coast of Hyde co., N. C, at the time 
of the first visit of the English. It was 
burned by them in 1585. 

Agnascoga.— Martin, N. C, I, 30, 1829. Aguasco- 
sack.— Bozman, Maryland, I, 60, 1837. Aquasco- 
goc— Lane (1586) in Smith (1629), Virginia, I, 86, 
repr. 1819. Aquascogoke.— Strachey (ca. 1612), 
Virginia, 145, 1849. Aquoscojos.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, VI, 93, 1857. Aqusoogock.— Dutch map 
(1621) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., I, 1856. 

Aquebogue (the word suggests the Chip- 
pewa akupiyag, a locative term referring 
to the place where land and water meet; 
it has the meaning 'shore,' but the spe- 
cific use is for ' the edge of the water,' the 
point of view being from the land; aku 
refers to the 'end,' 'edge,' pi to ' wa- 
ter.'— Wm. Jones). A village, probably 
of the Corchaug, about the year 1650, on 
a creek entering the k. side of Great 
Peconic bay, Long Island (Ruttenber; 
Thompson). In 1905 R. N. Penny (in 
Rec. of Past, iv, 223, 1905) discovered the 
remains of an ancient village " of 12- wig- 
wam size" in a thick wood near Aque- 
bogue, inland from Peconic bay, w. of the 
w. branch of Steeple Church cr. and be- 
tween that -stream and a large tributary 
of Peconic r. These may be the remains 
of the ancient Aquebogue. 
Accopogue.— Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 365, 
1872. Aquebogue.— Thompson, Long Id., 181, 1839. 

Aquetnet (aquetn-et, 'at an island.' — 
Trumbull). A village in 1655 at Skau- 
ton neck, Sandwich tp., Barnstable co., 
Mass., under chief Ackanootus, in the 
territory of the Nauset. The word 
seems to be the same as Aquidneck 
(Quidnick), R I., which Trumbull thinks 
means 'place at the end of the hill,' com- 
pounded from ukque-adene-auke; or pos- 
sibly 'place beyond the hill,' ogque-adene- 
auke. Mentioned by a writer of 1815 in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., iv, 293, 
1816. (j. m.) 

Aqui. A former Maricopa rancheria on 
the Rio Gila, s. w. Ariz. — Sedelmair 
(1744) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 366, 1889. 

Aquicabo. A pueblo of the province of 
Atripuy in the region of the lower Rio 
Grande, N. Mex., in 1598.— Onate (1598) 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871. 
Aquicato. — Ofiate misquoted by Bancroft, Ariz, 
and N. Mex., 135, 1889. 

Aquile. A village in n. w. Fla. on the 
border of the Apalachee territorv, visited 
by De Soto in 1539,-Biedma (1544) in 
French, Hist. Coll., n, 98, 1850. 

Aquimundurech. A former Maricopa 
rancheria on the Rio Gila, s. w. Ariz. — 
Sedelmair (1744) quoted by Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 366, 1889. 

Aquimuri ( probably from Pima, a kimurl, 
'river'). A rancheria of one of the 

Piman tribes, probably Papago, visited 
by Father Kino about 1700; situated in 
Sonora, on the headwaters of the Rio 
Altar, just s. of the Arizona boundary. 
It was later a visita of the mission of 
Guevavi. Consult Rudo Ensayo (1763), 
150, 1863; Kino, map (1701) in Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 360, 1889. 
Akimuri. — Kino, map (1701) in Stocklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. Aquimuricuca. — Cancio (1768) 
in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., Ii, 270, 1856. S. Ber- 
nardo Aquimuri. — Kino quoted bv Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, I, 501, 1884. 

Aquinsa. Mentioned by Onate in 1598 
as one of 6 villages occupied by the 
Zuni in New Mexico. In the opinion of 
Bandelier (Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 338, 
1892) it is identical with Pinawan, a 
now ruined pueblo 1J m. s. w. of Zuni 
pueblo. Cushing (in Millstone, ix, 55, 
1884) regarded Ketch ina, 15 m. s. w. of 
Zuni, as the probable Aquinsa of the 
Spaniards, and in 1888 (Internat. Cong. 
Amer., vn, 156, 1890) the same authority 
gave Kwakina in connection with Pina- 
wan as the pueblo to which Onate referred. 

Aquitun (Akuchiny, 'creek mouth' — 
Russell). A former Pima rancheria 5 
m. w. of Picacho, on the border of the 
sink of Rio Santa Cruz, s. Ariz., visited 
by Father Garces in 1 775. It was aban- 
doned about the beginning of the 19th 
century. A few Mexican families have 
occupied its vicinity for many years. 
The present Pima claim that it was a vil- 
lage of their forefathers. See Akuchiny. 
Akutciny.— Russell, Pima MS., B. &. E., 16, 1902 
(Pima name: tc=ch). Aquitun. — Arricivita, Cron. 
Seraf., II, 416, 1792. Bajio de Aquituno.— Anza and 
Font (1780) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 392. 1889. Equituni.— Garces (1776), Diarv, 
65, 1900. 

Aquixo. A town visited by De Soto's 
army in 1541, situated on the w. bank of 
the Mississippi, not far from the mouth 
of St Francis r., Ark., and perhaps be- 
longing to the Quapaw. (Gentl. of Elvas, 
1557, quoted in French, Hist. Coll. La., 
ii, 169, 1850.) 

Aquouena. An unidentified town w. of 
upper St Johns r., Fla., in 1565. — De Bry, 
Brev. Nar., n, map, 1591. 

Aracuchi. An unidentified village ap- 
parently in n. w. S. C, visited by Juan 
Pardoin 1565.— Vandera (1567) in Smith, 
Colec. Docs. Fla., i, 17, 1857. 
Arauchi.— Vandera, op. cit. 

Aragaritka. The name given by the 
Iroquois to the tribes, including the Huron 
and Tionontati, which they drove out 
from the peninsula between L. Huron 
and L. Erie and from lower Michigan. — 
Iroquois deed (1701) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., iv, 908, 1854. 

Arahasomi ( ' bear gens,' from ara ' black 
bear, ' hasomi ' family ' ) . A Timucua clan 
of the Chulufichi phratry. — Pareja (ca. 
1612) quoted by Gatschet in Proc. Am. 
Philos. Soc, xvn, 492, 1878. 



[b. a. e. 

Aramay. A former village, presuma- 
bly Costanoan, connected with Dolores 
mission, San Francisco, Cal. — Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Aranama. A small agricultural tribe 
formerly living on and near the s. coast 
of Texas; later they were settled for a 
time at the mission of Espiritu Santo de 
Zuniga, opposite the present Goliad, 
where some Karankawa Indians were 
also neophytes. It is reported that they 
had previously suffered from an attack 
by the Karankawa. Morse located them 
in 1822 on San Antonio r. and estimated 
them at 125 souls. In 1834 Escudero 
(Not. Estad. de Chihuahua, 231) spoke 
of them as follows: "The same coast 
and its islands are inhabited by the 
Curancahuases and Jaranames Indians, 
fugitives from the missions. The larger 
portion have lately settled in the new 
mission of Nuestra Sefiora del Refugio, 
and to-day very few rebellious families re- 
main, so that the injuries caused by these 
cowardly but cruel Indians have ceased." 
As a tribe the Aranama were extinct bv 
1843. (a. c. p.) 

Anames.— Rivera, Diario y Derrot., leg. 2,602, 1736. 
Aranamas.— Thrall, Hist. Texas, 446, 1879. Ara- 
names. — Rivera, op. cit. Arrenamuses. — Morse, 
Rep. to Sec. War, 374, 1822. Aurananeans. — Bou- 
dinot, Star in the West, 125, 1816. Hazanames.— 
Robin, Voy. a la Louisiane, III, 14, 1807. Jara- 
names. — Escudero, Not. Estad. de Chihuahua, 231, 
1834. Juranames.— Morfi quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, I, 631, 1886. Xaramenes.— Bollaert 
in Ethnol. Soc. Lond. Jour., n, 265. 280, 1850. 
Xaranames.— Texas State Archives, MS. no. 83, 
1791 92. 

Aranca. The name of two Pima vil- 
lages in s. Ariz., one with 208 inhabi- 
tants in 1858, the other with 991. — Bailey 
in Ind. Aff. Rep., 208, 1858. 

Aranimokw. The Yurok name of a 
Karok village near Red Cap cr., an 
affluent of Klamath r., Cal. (a. l. k.) 

Arapaho. An important Plains tribe of 
the great Algonquian family, closely asso- 
ciated with the Cheyenne for at least a 
century past. They call themselves Inu- 
naina, about equivalent to 'our people.' 
The name by which they are commonly 
known is of uncertain derivation, but it 
'may possibly be, as Dunbar suggests, 
from the Pawnee tirapihu or larapihu, 
'trader.' By the Sioux and Cheyenne 
they are called "Blue-sky men" or 
"Cloud men," the reason for which is 

According to the tradition of the Arap- 
aho they were once a sedentary, agricul- 
tural people, living far to the n. e. of their 
more recent habitat, apparently about 
the Red r. valley of n. Minn. From 
this point they moved s. w. across the 
Missouri, apparently about the same 
time that the Cheyenne (q. v. ) moved 
out from Minnesota, although the date 
of the formation of the permanent alli- 
ance between the two tribes is uncertain. 

The Atsina (q. v.), afterward associated 
with the Siksika, appear to have sepa- 
rated from the parent tribe and moved 
off toward the n. after their emergence 
into the plains. The division into North- 
ern and Southern Arapaho is largely 
geographic, originating within the last 
century, and made permanent by the 
placing of the two bands on different res- 
ervations. The Northern Arapaho, in 
Wyoming, are considered the nucleus or 
mother tribe and retain the sacred tribal 
articles, viz, a tubular pipe, one ear of 
corn, and a turtle figurine, all of stone. 

Since they crossed the Missouri the drift 
of the Arapaho, as of the Cheyenne and 
Sioux, has been w. and s., the Northern 
Arapaho making lodges on the edge of 


the mountains about the head of the 
North Platte, while the Southern Arap- 
aho continued down toward the Arkan- 
sas. About the year 1840 they made 
peace with the Sioux, Kiowa, and Co- 
manche, but were always at war with the 
Shoshoni, Ute, and Pawnee until they 
were confined upon reservations, while 
generally maintaining a friendly attitude 
toward the whites. By the treaty of 
Medicine Lodge in 1867 the Southern 
Arapaho, together with the Southern 
Cheyenne, were placed upon a reserva- 
tion' in Oklahoma, which was thrown 
open to white settlement in 1892, the 
Indians at the same time receiving allot- 
ments in severalty, with the rights of 
American citizenship. The Northern 
Arapaho w r ere assigned to their present 

BULL. 30] 



reservation on Wind r. in Wyoming in 
1876, after having made peace with their 
hereditary enemies, the Shoshoni, living 
upon the same reservation. The Atsina 
division, usually regarded as a distinct 
tribe, is associated with the Assiniboin on 
Ft Belknap res. in Montana. They 
numbered, respectively, 889, 859, and 535 
in 1904, a total of 2,283, as against a total 
of 2,638 ten years earlier. 

As a people the Arapaho are brave, but 
kindly and accommodating, and much 
given to ceremonial observances. The 
annual sun dance is their greatest tribal 
ceremony, and they were active propa- 
gators of the ghost-dance religion (q. v. ) 
a few years ago. In arts and -home life, 
until within a few years past, they were 
a typical Plains tribe. They bury their 
dead in the ground, unlike the Cheyenne 
and Sioux, who deposit them upon scaf- 
folds or on the surface of the ground in 
boxes. They have the military organiza- 
tion common to most of the Plains tribes 
(see Military societies), and have no trace 
of the clan system. 

They recognize among themselves five 
main divisions, each speaking a different 
dialect- and apparently representing as 
many originally distinct but cognate 
tribes, viz: 

(1) Ndkasing'na^aachinena, or North- 
ern Arapaho. Nakasinena, ' sagebrush 
men,' is the name used by themselves. 
Baachinena, 'red willow men (?),' is 
the name by which they were com- 
monly known to the rest of the tribe. 
The Kiowa distinguished them as Tii- 
gyiiko, 'sagebrush people,' a translation 
of their proper name. They keep the 
sacred tribal articles, and are considered 
the nucleus or mother tribe of the Arap- 
aho, being indicated in the sign language 
(q. v.) by the sign for "mother people." 

(2) Nawungna, 'southern men,' or 
Southern Arapaho, called Nawathingha, 
' southerners,' by the Northern Arapaho. 
The Kiowa know them as Ahayiidal, the 
(plural) name given to the wild plum. 
The sign for them is made by rubbing the 
index finger against the side of the nose. 

(3) Aii'ninena, Hitiinena, Atsina, or 
Gros Ventres of the Prairie. The first 
name, said to mean 'white clay people,' 
is that by which they call themselves. 
Hitiinena, or Hitunenina, 'begging men,' 
'beggars,' or more exactly 'spongers,' is 
the name by which they are called by the 
other Arapaho. The same idea is in- 
tended to be conveyed by the tribal sign, 
which has commonly been interpreted as 
' big bellies,' whence the name Gros Ven- 
tres applied to them by the French Cana- 
dians. In this way they have been by 
some writers confused with the Hidatsa, 
the Gros Ventres of the Missouri. See 

(4) Biisawunena, ' wood-lodge people,' 
or, possibly, ' big lodge people. ' These, 
according to tradition, were formerly a 
distinct tribe and at war with the Arap- 
aho, but have been incorporated for at 
least 150 years. Their dialect is said to 
have differed considerably from the other 
Arapaho dialects. There are still about 
50 of this lineage among the Northern 
Arapaho, and perhaps a few with the 
other two main divisions. 

(5) Hanahawunena ('rock men' — 
Kroeber) or AaniVnhawa\ These, like 
the Basawunena, lived with the Northern 
Arapaho, but are now practically extinct. 

The two main divisions, Northern and 
Southern, are subdivided into several 
local bands, as follows: (a) Forks of 
the River Men, (b) Bad Pipes, and (c) 
Greasy Faces, among the Northern Arap- 
aho; (d) Waquithi, bad faces, (e) Aqti- 
thing'na, pleasant men, (f) Gawun£na, 
Blackfeet, said to be of Siksika admix- 
ture; (g) Haqihana, wolves, (h) Siisd- 
baithi, looking up, or looking around, 
i. e., watchers. 

Consult Mooney, Ghost Dance Religion, 
in 14th Rep. B. A. E., n, 1896; Clark, Ind. 
Sign Language, 1885; Havden, Ethnog. 
and Philol. Mo. Val., 1862;" Kroeber, The 
Arapaho, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
xvin, 1900; Dorsey and Kroeber, Tradi- 
tions of the Arapaho, Field Columb. Mus. 
Pubs., Anthrop. ser., v, 1903; Dorsey, 
Arapaho Sun Dance, ibid., iv, 1903. 

(J. M.) 
Aarapahoes.— Blackmore, quoting Whitfield (1855) 
in Jour. Ethnol. Soe. Lond., I, 315, 1869. Ahya'to.— 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 953, 1896 (Kiowa 
name). Anapaho.— Garrard, Wahtoyah, 119, 1850 
(given as Cheyenne form). A'nipahu.— Gatschet, 
Kaw vocab., B. A. E., 1878 (Kansa name). 
Ano's-anyotskano. — Mooney in 14th Rep. B.A. E., 
953, 1896 (Kichai name). Arapahas. — Drake, Bk. 
Inds.. vi, 1848. Arapahays. — Ross, Adventures, 
232,1849. Arapaho.— Ruxton, Adventures, 220, 
1848. Arapahoos.— Mitchell in Ind. Aff. Rep., 59, 
1842. Arapakata.— Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 
953, 1896 (Crow name, from 'Arapaho '). Arapha- 
hoe.— Wyeth in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 219, 
1851. Araphas. — Bollaert in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., II, 279, 1850. Araphoes.— Ibid. Arapohaes.— 
Audouard, Far West, 182, 1869. Arapoho.— Hav- 
den, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 321, 1862. A*r- 
apohose. — Ibid., 402 (Crow name). Arbapaoes. — 
Orozco y Berra, Geog., 40, 1864. Arepahas.— Cass 
(1834) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, ill, 609, 1853. 
Aripahoes.— Hildreth, Dragoon Campaigns, 153, 
1836. Aripohoes.— Ind. Aff. Rep., app., 241, 1846. 
Ar-rah-pa-hoo.— Lewis and Clark, Travels, 15, 1807 
(wrongly applied by them to a body of Pawnee). 
Arrapahas.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 594, 1837. Arrapaho.— 
Long, Exp. Rocky Mts., II, 192, 1823. Arrapahoes.— 
Dougherty (1837) in H. R. Doc. 276, 25th Cong., 
2d sess., 16, 1838. Arrapaoes. — Gallatin in Trans. 
Am. Ethnol. Soc, II, cix, 1848. Arraphas.— Am. 
Pioneer, I, 257, 1842. Arraphoes.— Bollaert in Jour. 
Ethnol. Soc. Lond., n, 265, 1850. Arrapohoes.— 
Cumming in H. R. Ex. Doc. 65, 34th Cong., 1st 
sess., 13, 1856. Arrepahas.— Porter (1829) in School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 596, 1853. Arripahoes.— Fitz- 
patrick in Ind. Aff. Rep., 74, 1851. Arspahas.— Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 425, 1842. A'-ya-to.— ten Kate, Synon- 
ymie, 10, 1884 (Kiowa name). Betidee.— Mooney 
in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 953, 1896 (Kiowa Apache 
name). Big Bead.— Bradbury, Travels, 124, 1817. 



[b. a. a. 

Chariticas.— Doc. of 1828 in Soc. Geogr. Mex., 265, 
1870 (see SarZtika, below). Detseka'yaa.— Mooney 
in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 953, 1896 (Caddo name: 
' dog eaters ') . Dog-eaters.— Kingsley, Stand. Nat. 
Lib., pt. 6, 153, 1883. Eirichtih-Aruchpahga.— Maxi- 
milian, op. cit., ii, 213 (Hidatsa name, German 
form). E-tah-leh.— Long, Exp. Rocky Mts., II, 
192, 1823 (Hidatsa name: 'bison-path Indians' 

icf. adi, path; mite, bison— Matthews] ). Gens 
es vach.— Clark (1804) in Lewis and Clark Jour- 
nals, 1, 190,1904 (given as synonymous with " Kun 
na-nar-wesh ' ' ; the name is the French for ' buffalo 
people'). Hitaniwo'iv. — Mooney in 14th Rep. 
B. A. E., 953, 1896 (Cheyenne name: ' cloud men ' or 
'sky men'). Hi-tan-ng-wo'-i-e. — ten Kate, Syn- 
onymie, 8, 1884 (Cheyenne name: 'people with 
teats,' peuple aux tetons, mistaking the 'mother' 
sign ; the name means ' cloud men ' ) . Inuna-ina. — 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 953, 1896 (tribal 
name: 'our people'). Ita-Iddi. — Maximilian, 
Travels, II, 284, 1839-1841 (Hidatsa name). I-tun- 
i-wo.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 290, 
1860 (Cheyenne name: 'shy-men', for 'skymen'). 
Kaninahoic. — Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A* E., 953, 
1896 (Chippewa name). Kaninahoich.— Senate 
Ex. Doc. no. 72, 20th Cong., 104, 1829. Kanina/- 
vish.— Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 953, 1896. 
Komseka-Ki'nahyup. — Ibid., 954 ('men of the 
worn-out leggings': former Kiowa name). Kun 
na-nar-wesh. — Clark (1804) in Lewis and Clark 
Journals. I, 190, 1904 (given as synonymous with 
"Gens des vach"). Lapahogi.— Gatschet, MS. 
Shawnee vocab., B. A. E., 1879-80 (Shawnee name; 
singular, Lapaho). Mahpiyato.— Riggs, Dakota 
Diet., 2d ed., 305, 1890 (Sioux name). Manhpi- 
yato.— Cook, MS. Yankton vocab., B. A. E., 1882 
(Yankton name). Maqpi'ato. — Mooney in 14th 
Rep. B. A. E., 954, 1896 ( ' blue cloud ' : Sioux name) . 
Nia'rhari's-kurikiwa'shuski. — Ibid. (Wichita 
name). Rapahos. — De Smet, Missions, 253, 1848 
(Garrard, Wahtoyah, 120, 1850, gives this as the 
Spanish name for them). Rappaho. — Long, Exp. 
Rocky Mts., II, 192, 1823. Sani'ti'ka.— Mooney in 
14th Rep. B. A. E., 954, 1896 (Pawnee name, from 
the Comanche name). Saretika.— Ibid, ('dog 
eaters': Comanche and Shoshoni name). Sare- 
tika.— Ibid. (Wichita name, from the Comanche 
name). Saritch-ka-e.— ten Kate, Synonymie, 8, 
1884 (Southern Ute name). Sa-ritc'-ka-e.— Ibid. 
(Ute name). Sa-ri-te'-ka. — Ibid., 9 (Comanche 
and Caddo nam e ) . Sarritehca. — Re j on quoted in 
Pimentel, Cuadro Descr., n, 347, 1865 (given as 
Comanche division). Schaha'.— Maximilian, 
Travels, n, 247, 1841 (Arikara name, German form; 
seemingly an error for Cheyenne). Seraticks. — 
Burnet (1847) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, I, 239, 
1853. Seratics.— Bollaert in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond., II, 265, 1850. Sharetikeh.— Burton, City of 
the Saints, 176, 1861 (Shoshoni name). Tocani- 
nambiches. — Perrin du Lac, Voy. Louisianes, 260, 
1805 (seemingly the Arapaho). 

Araste. An Iroquoian village in 1535 on 
or near St Lawrence r. , below the site of 
Quebec.— Cartier (1545), Bref Kecit, 32, 

Arathcoon. See Raccoon. 

Arawakan Colony. In addition to the 
many proofs of constant communication 
between the tribes of Florida and those 
of the West Indian ids. from the earliest 
period, it is definitely known that a colony 
of Indians from Cuba, in quest of the 
same mythic fountain of youth for which 
Ponce de Leon afterward searched, landed 
on the s. w. coast of Florida, within the 
territory of the Calusa (q. v.), about the 
period of the discovery of America, and 
that they were held as prisoners by the 
chief of that tribe and formed into a set- 
tlement whose people kept their separate 
identity as late at least as 1570. This tra- 
dition of a wonderful spring or stream 

upon the mainland of Florida or on one 
of the adjacent Bahama ids. was common 
to all the tribes of the larger islands as far 
south as Porto Rico, and it is probable 
that more than one party of islanders made 
a similar attempt. According to Brinton 
and other investigators the Indians of 
Cuba, as well as of the Bahamas and the 
larger islands, were of the great Arawakan 
stock, which extends in South America 
as far as s. Brazil and Bolivia. For the 
Cuban settlement in Florida see Fonta- 
neda, Memoir, Smith trans, 1854; Barcia, 
Ensayo, introd., 1723; Herrera, Hist. 
Gen., i, 1720. (j. m.) 

Arbadaos. A tribe that Cabeza de Vaca 
(Smith trans., 76, 1851) met during his 
sojourn in Texas (1527-34) in the vicinity 
of the Avavares. He describes the people 
as "lank and weak," owing to scarcity 
of food; and although they seem to have 
lived in a fertile country they did not 
cultivate the soil. Their ethnic relations 
are not known. 

Acubadaos. — Cabeza de Vaca, Smith trans., 84, 1851. 
Arbadaos.— Ibid., 76. Arbadoes. — Harris, Voy. and 
Trav., I, 803, 1705. 

Arbaktung. A subdivision of the Akud- 
nirmiut; they winter generally on C. 
Bisson, Home bay, Baffin land. — Boas in 
Deutsche Geog. Blatt., vm, 34, 1885. 

Archeology. Archeological researches 
are applied to the elucidation of three 
principal departments of inquiry : (1 ) The 
history of the race and the sub-races; (2) 
the history of the separate families, tribes, 
and inferior social groups; (3) the history 
of culture in its multifarious forms. Ques- 
tions of origin and antiquity are necessa- 
rily considered in connection with inves- 
tigations in each of these departments. In 
the present article all that can be included 
is a brief review of the salient features of 
the archeology of northern America. 

In no part of America are there re- 
mains of man or his works clearly in- 
dicating the presence of peoples distinct 
from the Indian and the Eskimo, or hav- 
ing culture markedly different in kind 
and degree from those characterizing the 
aborigines of historic times. Archeolog- 
ical researches serve to carry the story of 
the tribes and their culture back indefi- 
nitely into the past, although the record 
furnished by the various classes of remains 
grows rapidly less legible as we pass be- 
yond the few well-illumined pages of the 
historic period. It is now known that 
the sedentary condition prevailed among 
the aborigines to a much larger extent 
than has been generally supposed. The 
more advanced nations of Middle and 
South America have I een practically sta- 
tionary for long periods, as indicated by 
the magnitude of their architectural 
achievements, and even such primitive 
groups as the Iroquois, Algonquians, and 

BULL. 30] 



others of northern America have occupied 
their general historic habitat for unnum- 
bered generations. The prehistoric re- 
mains of the various regions thus pertain 
in large measure to the ancestors of the 
historic occupants, and the record is thus 
much more simple than that of prehis- 
toric Europe. 

Within the area of the United States 
pre-Columbian progress was greatest in 
two principal regions: (1) The Mississippi 
valley, including portions of the South- 
ern states farther eastward, and (2) the 
Pueblo country, comprising New Mexico, 
Arizona, and parts of Colorado, Utah, 
and Texas. The first-mentioned area is 
characterized by remains of extensive 
fixed works, such as mounds and fortifi- 
cations; the second by its ruined pueblos 
of stone and adobe. In the remainder of 
the area, as on the Atlantic and Pacific 
slopes and in the regions of the Great 
Lakes, the n. Rocky mts., and the Great 
Basin, there is comparatively little save 
minor movable relics and kitchen deposits 
to mark earlier occupancy. The fixed 
works which occur in the first-mentioned 
region are very numerous, and are ex- 
tremely important to the student of na- 
tive history. In the Mississippi valley 
and the Southern states these works con- 
sist of mounds of diversified shapes, built 
mainly of earth and devoted to a variety 
of purposes, such as dwelling, observation, 
defense, burial, and ceremony. Some of 
these are of great size, as the Cahokia 
mound (q. v. ) in Illinois, and the Etowah 
mound (q. v. ) in Georgia, which compare 
well in bulk with the great pyramids of 
middle America. There are also fortifica- 
tions and inclosures of extremely varied 
form and, in many instances, of great ex- 
tent. These are well illustrated by Ft 
Ancient (q. v. ), Adams co., Ohio, and the 
earthworks at Newark, Ohio (q. v. ). The 
animal-shaped mounds, occurring princi- 
pally in the Ohio and upper Mississippi 
valleys, are a striking variety of these re- 
mains. Well-known examples are the 
Serpent mound (q. v.), Adams co., Ohio, 
and the so-called Elephant mound (q. v.) , 
Grant co., Wis. The materials used in 
these structures include earth, clay, sand, 
and, along the coast, shells. Stone en- 
tered into the construction where it was 
readily available, but rarely as well- 
built walls or as masonry. These works 
indicate the former presence in the region 
of a numerous sedentary population rely- 
ing mainly on agriculture for subsistence. 
It is now known, as a result of the more 
recent archeological investigations, that 
these people, often called the "Mound- 
builders," were no other than Indians, 
and in some cases at least the ancestors 
of tribes occupying the general region 
within historic times. ( See Fortifications, 
Mounds. ) 

In the Pueblo region the fixed works 
consist of villages and dwellings of stone, 
and, in the southern Pueblo area, of adobe. 
Of unusual interest are the cliff -dwellings, 
built of stone in rifts and shelters in the 
canyon walls and along the faces of the 
table-lands or excavated in friable cliffs. 
The advanced condition of the earlier 
occupants of the region is indicated not 
only by these remains but by the pres- 
ence of traces of extensive irrigating 
ditches. A careful study of these various 
remains, including the skeletal parts, 
demonstrates the fact that they pertain 
in large measure to the ancestors of the 
present occupants of the Pueblo towns 
and that no antecedent distinct people or 
culture can be differentiated. (See Casa 
Grande, Cliff-dwellings, Irrigation, Pueblos. ) 

In the districts lying outside of the areas 
referred to above are encountered occa- 
sional burial mounds and earthworks, as 
well as countless refuse deposits marking 
occupied sites. The most notable of the 
latter are the shell mounds of the Atlantic 
and Pacific shore lines, which offer a rich 
reward for the labors of the archeologist. 
(See Shell-heaps. ) 

Among fixed works of somewhat wide 
distribution are the quarries where flint, 
soapstone, mica, quartzite, obsidian, and 
other varieties of stone were obtained 
for the manufacture of implements and 
utensils. Such are the extensive work- 
ings at Flint Ridge, Ohio; Hot Springs, 
Ark.; and Mill Creek, 111., the sites 
being marked by numerous pittings sur- 
rounded with the refuse of manufacture. 
Their lesson is a most instructive one, 
demonstrating especially the great enter- 
prise and perseverance of the tribes. 
There are also numerous copper mines in 
theL. Superior region, marked by excava- 
tions of no great depth but of surprising 
extent, indicating the fulness of the 
native awakening to the advantages of 
metal in the arts. (See Mines and Quar- 
ries. ) Caverns formerly occupied by the 
tribes also contain deposits of refuse, and 
their walls display numerous examples of 
pictography. In connection with fixed 
works may also be mentioned the petro- 
glyphs, or rock inscriptions, found in 
nearly every part of the country. These 
give little aid, however, to the study of 
aboriginal history, since they can not be 
interpreted, save in rare cases where 
tradition has kept the significance alive. 
(See Pictographs.) 

Knowledge of native history in post- 
Columbian as well as in pre-Columbian 
times is greatly enhanced by a study of 
the minor remains and relics — the im- 
plements, utensils, ornaments, ceremonial 
and diversional objects and appliances — 
great numbers of which are now pre- 
served in our museums. (See Arts and 
Industries, Stone-work, Bone-work, Shell- 



[b. a. e. 

work, Wood-work, Metal-work, Pottery, 
Problematical Objects, Weaving. ) 

A study of the archeological remains 
contained in the area n. of the Rio Grande 
as a whole supplements the knowledge 
gained by investigations among the living 
tribes in such a way as to enable us not 
only to prolong the vista of many tribal 
histories buttooutline, tentatively at least, 
the native general history somewhat as 
follows: An occupancy of the various re- 
gions in very early times by tribes of low 
culture; a gradual advance in arts and in- 
dustries, especially in favorable localities, 
resulting in many cases in fully sedentary 
habits, an artificial basis of subsistence, 
and the successful practice of many arts 
and industries, such as agriculture, archi- 
tecture, sculpture, pottery, weaving, and 
metallurgy — accomplishments character- 
izing a well-advanced stage of barbarism, 
as defined by Morgan; while in the less 
favored regions, comprising perhaps 
three-fourths of the area of the United 
States and a larger proportion of the 
British possessions, the more primitive 
hunter-fisher stage mainly persisted down 
to historic times. (See Agriculture, Arts 
and Industries, Fishing, Hunting. ) 

Efforts have been made to distinguish 
definite stages of culture progress in 
America corresponding to those estab- 
lished in Europe, but there appears to be 
no very close correspondence. The use 
of stone was universal among the tribes, 
and chipped and polished implements 
appear to have been employed at all 
periods and by peoples of every stage of 
culture, although the polishing processes 
seem to have grown relatively more im- 
portant with advancing culture, being 
capable of producing art works of the 
higher grades, while flaking processes are 
not. Some of the more advanced tribes 
of the S. were making marked headway 
in the use of metals, but the culture was 
everywhere essentially that of polished 
stone. (See Stone-work, Metal-work.) 

The antiquity of man in America has 
been much discussed in recent years, but 
as yet it is not fully agreed that any great 
antiquity is established. Geological for- 
mations in the United States, reaching 
well back toward the close of the Glacial 
period, possibly ten thousand years, are 
found to include remains of man and his 
arts; but beyond this time the traces are 
so meager and elements of doubt so 
numerous that conservative students hesi- 
tate to accept the evidence as satisfactory. 
(See Antiquity, Calaveras Man, Lansing 
Man, Cares and Rock-shelters.) 

The literature of the northern arche- 
ology is very extensive and can not be 
cited here save in outline. Worthy of 
particular mention are publications by 
(1) Government Departments. U. S. 

Interior Dept. : Reps. Survey of Terri- 
tories, with papers by Bessels, Holmes, 
Jackson; Contributions to N. Am. Eth- 
nology, papers by Dall, Powers, Rau, 
and others. U. S. War Dept.: Reps, of 
Surveys, papers by Abbott, Ewbank, 
Loew, Putnam, Schumacher, Yarrow, and 
others. Education Department, Toronto, 
Canada: Reps, of Minister of Education, 
papers by Boyle, Hunter, Laidlaw, and 
others. (2) Institutions: Smithsonian 
Institution Annual Reports, Contribu- 
tions to Knowledge, Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, containing articles by Abbott, 
Dall, Fewkes, Holmes, Jones, Lapham, 
Rau, Squier and Davis, Whittlesey, Wil- 
son, and others (see published list); 
National Museum Reports, Proceedings, 
Bulletins, containing papers by Holmes, 
Hough, Mason, McGuire, Wilson, and 
others (see published list); Bureau of 
American Ethnology Reports, Bulletins, 
containing articles by dishing, Dall, 
Fewkes, Fowke, Henshaw, Holmes, 
Mindeleff, Thomas, and others (see 
list under article Bureau of American 
Ethnology); Peabody Museum Reports, 
Memoirs, Archeol. and Ethnol. Papers, 
containing articles by Abbott, Putnam, 
Willoughby, Wyman, and others; Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, Mem- 
oirs, Bulletins, containing articles by 
Hrdlicka, Smith, and others (see pub- 
lished list); Museum of Arts and Science 
University of Pennsylvania, Publications, 
containing articles by Abbott, Culin, 
Mercer, and others; Field Columbian 
Museum, Publications, containing papers 
by Dorsey, Phillips, and others; N. Y. 
State Museum Reports; University of 
the State of New York, Bulletins, con- 
containing papers by Beauchamp; Uni- 
versity of California, Publications, con- 
taining papers by Sinclair and others. 
(3) Academies, Societies, and Associa- 
tions: Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Phila., Journal, with numerous mem- 
oirs by Moore; American Ethnological 
Society, Transactions, with papers by 
Schoolcraft, Troost, and others; Daven- 
port Academy of Science, Proceedings, 
with papers by Farquharson, Holmes, 
and others; American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, Proceed- 
ings, with numerous papers; Archaeolog- 
ical Institute of America, Papers, con- 
taining articles by Bandelier and others; 
National History Society of New Bruns- 
wick, Bulletins; International Congress of 
Americanists; Washington Anthropolog- 
ical Society; Wyoming Historical and 
Geological Society; Ohio Archaeological 
and Historical Society; Canadian Insti- 
tute; American Antiquarian Society; Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History. (4) Peri- 
odicals: American Geologist; American 
Journal of Science and Art; American An- 

BULL. 30] 



thropologist; American Antiquarian; The 
Archeologist; Popular Science Monthly; 
Science; American Journal of Science; 
American Naturalist; Journal of Geology. 
(5) Separate individual publications: 
Abbott, Primitive Industry, 1881; Allen, 
Prehist. World, 1885; Bancroft, Native 
Races, 1882; Brower, Memoirs of Explora- 
tions, 1898-1903; Clark, Prehist. Remains, 
1876; Dellenbaugh, North Americans of 
Yesterday, 1901; Fewkes, Journal of 
American Ethnology and Archeology, 
i-iv, 1891-94; Foster, Prehist. Races, 1878; 
Fowke, Archeol. Hist. Ohio, 1902; Jones, 
(1) Monumental Remains of Georgia, 
1861, (2) Antiquities of the Southern 
Indians, 1873; McLean, Mound Builders, 
1879; Moorehead, (1) Prehistoric Imple- 
ments, 1900, (2) Fort Ancient, 1890, (3) 
Primitive Man in Ohio, 1892; Morgan, 
League of Iroquois, 1854, 1904; Munro, 
Archeology and False Antiquities, 1905; 
Nadaillac, Prehist. Am., 1884; Nordens- 
kidld, Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, 
1893; Read and Whittlesey in Ohio Cen- 
tennial Rep., 1877; Schoolcraft, Indian 
Tribes, vols, i-iv, 1851-57; Short, North 
Americans of Antiquity, 1880; Starr, First 
Steps in Human Progress, 1895; Squier, 
Antiquities of New York and the West, 
1851; Terry, Sculp. Anthr. Ape Heads, 
1891; Thruston, Antiq. of Tenn., 1897; 
Warden, Recherches sur les antiquites 
de l'Amer. Sept., 1827. Wilson, Prehis- 
toric Man, 1862; Winsor, Narrative and 
Critical History of America, i, 1884; 
Wright, Man and the Glacial Period, 
1895. For archeological bibliography of 
Ontario, Canada, see 9th Archeological 
Report of Minister of Education, Ontario, 
1897. (w. h. h.) 

Architecture. The simple constructions 
of the tribes n. of Mexico, although al- 
most exclusively practical in their pur- 
pose, serve to illustrate many of the ini- 
tial steps in the evolution of architecture; 
they are hence worthy of careful consider- 
ation by the student of culture history. 
Various branches of the building arts are 
treated separately under appropriate 
heads (see Adobe, Cliff-dwellings, Earth- 
lodge, Fortifications, Grass-lodge, Habita- 
tions, Kivas, Mounds, Pile-dwellings, Pue- 
blos, Tipis), but as these topics are there 
considered mainly in their ethnologic as- 
pects, they will here be briefly treated as 
products of environment and as illustra- 
tions of the manner in which beginnings 
are made and the higher architectural 
forms are evolved. The kind and char- 
acter of the buildings in a given district 
or region depend on a number of condi- 
tions, namely: (a) The capacity, habits, 
and characteristics of the people; (6) the 
cultural and especially the social status of 
the particular peoples; (c) the influence 
of neighboring cultures; (d) the physi- 

ography of the district occupied; (e) the 
resources, animal, vegetal, and mineral, 
and especially the building materials 
available within the area; (/) climate. 
These in the main are the determining 
factors in the art development of all peo- 
ples in all times, and may be referred to 
somewhat at length. 

(1) In these studies it is necessary that 
the man himself and especially his men- 
tal capacities and characteristics should 
be considered as essential elements of the 
environment, since he is not only the 
product, as is his culture, of present and 
past environments, but is the primary 
dynamic factor in all culture develop- 

(2) The culture status of the people — 
the particular stage of their religious, so- 
cial, technical, and esthetic development — 
goes far toward determining the charac- 
ter of their buildings. The manner in 
which social status determines the char- 
acter of habitations is dwelt on bv Mor- 
gan (Cont. N. A. Ethnol., iv, 1881 ), to the 
apparent exclusion of other criteria. 
Within the area n. of Mexico the various 
phases characterizing the culture of nu- 
merous tribes and groups of tribes are 
marked by more or less distinctive habi- 
tations. People of the lowest social 
grade are content w T ith nature's cano- 
pies — the sky, the forest, and the over- 
hanging rocks — or construct simple 
shelters of brush or bark for protec- 
tion against sun, w T ind, and rain. Some 
build lodges of skins and mats, so 
light that they may be carried from 
place to place as the food quest or the 
pressure of foes requires; while others, 
higher in the scale, construct strong 
houses of timber or build fortress-like 
pueblos of hewn stone or adobe. Along 
with the succession of steps in culture 
progress there goes progressive differen- 
tiation of use. The less advanced tribes 
have only the dwelling, while the more 
cultured have, in addition, fortifications, 
temples, civic structures, tombs, storage 
houses, observation towers, dams, canals, 
reservoirs, shelters for domestic animals, 
and various constructions employed in 
transportation. Social customs and re- 
ligion play each a part in the results ac- 
complished, the one acting on the habi- 
tation and the other giving rise to a sepa- 
rate and most important branch of the 
building arts. 

(3) The building arts of the tribes n. 
of Mexico have been little affected by 
outside influence. In the N. there is 
only a limited contact with the Siberian 
tribes, which have little to give; and in the 
S. nearly a thousand miles separate the 
tribes of our s. border from the semicivil- 
ized Indians of central Mexico. So slowly 
did intertribal influence act within the 



[B. A. E. 

area here included, and so fully does en- 
vironment control culture, that in many 
cases where the conditions have remained 
reasonably stable distinct styles of build- 
ing exist almost side by side, and have 
so existed from time immemorial. 

(4) It is apparent at a glance that the 
physiographic characters of a country ex- 
ercise strong influence on aboriginal 
building arts, and at the same time have 
much to do with the trend of culture in 
general and with results finally achieved 
in civilization. Dwellings on the open 
plains necessarily differ from those in the 
mountains, those of a country of forests 
from those of an arid region, and those 
of rich alluvial bottoms from those of the 
land of plateaus and cliffs. Even the 
characteristics of the particular site im- 
press themselves strongly on the build- 
ings and the building group. 

(5) In any area the natural resources 
have much to do with determining the 
economic status of the people and, ac- 
cording as they are favorable or unfa- 
vorable, foster or discourage progress in 
the arts. The building materials availa- 
ble to a people exercise a profound influ- 
ence on the building arts. The presence 
of plentiful, easily quarried stone, well 
adapted to building purposes, permits and 
encourages rapid development of these 
arts, while its absence may seriously re- 
tard their development, and in fact may 
be accountable for the backward condi- 
tion of a people not only in this activity 
but in the whole range of its activities. 
The highest development is not possible 
without stone, which alone of the mate- 
rials available to uncivilized man for 
building purposes is. sufficiently perma- 
nent to permit the cumulative growth 
necessary to the evolution of the higher 
forms of the art of architecture. 

(6) Climate is an element of the high- 
est significance in the history of building. 
In warm, arid districts shelter is not often 
a necessity, and a primitive people may 
have no- buildings worthy of the name; 
but in the far N. carefully constructed 
dwellings are essential to life. The hab- 
itations of an arid region naturally differ 
from those of a region where moisture 

The conditions thus outlined have op- 
erated in the various culture areas n. of 
the Rio Grande to produce the diversi- 
fied results observed; and these results 
may now be passed briefly in review. 
Among the most clearly defined and char- 
acteristic of these environments are (1) 
the Arctic area, (2) the North Pacific 
area, (3) the middle Pacific area, (4) the 
arid region of the S. W., (5) the Basin 
range and Rocky mtn. highlands, (6) the 
Mississippi lowlands and the middle S., 
(7) the woodlands of the N. and E., and 

(8) the Gulf coast and Florida. Within 
some of these the conditions are practi- 
cally uniform over vast areas, and the re- 
sults are uniform in proportion, while in 
others conditions are greatly diversified, 
numerous more or less distinct styles of 
house construction having developed al- 
most side by side. As with the larger 
areas, each inferior division displays re- 


suits due to the local conditions. It may 
be observed that of the various condition- 
ing agencies of environment one may 
dominate in one district and another in 
another district, but with our present 
imperfect knowledge of the facts in a ma- 
jority of cases the full analysis of condi- 
tions and effects is not yet possible. 
It is not to be expected that the build- 


ing arts can flourish within the Arctic 
circle. Along the many thousands of 
miles of n. shore line agriculture is out 
of the question. Wood is known only 
as it drifts from the s. along the icy 
shores, and save for the presence of 
oil-producing animals of the sea primi- 
tive man could not exist. Snow, ice, 
stone, bones of animals, and driftwood 


are the materials available for building, 
and these are utilized for dwellings and 
storage places according to the require- 
ments and capacities of the tribes. The 
house is depressed beneath the surface of 
the ground, partly, perhaps, better to 
withstand the cold, and partly, no doubt, 
because of the lack of necessary timbers 
to build walls and span the space re- 

BULL. 30] 



quired above ground. The large winter 
houses are entered by a long underground 
passage, the low walls of which are 
constructed of whale bones, stones, or 
timbers, while the house has a frame- 
work of timbers or wliale-ribs covered 
with earth. The ground-plan and inte- 
rior arrangement are simple, but well per- 
fected, and remarkably uniform over the 
vast extent of the Arctic shore line. The 
snow house is particularly a product of 
the N. Snow and ice, available for the 
greater part of the year, are utilized in 
the construction of dwellings unique on 
the face of the earth. These are built 
of blocks of compacted snow held in po- 
sition, not by utilizing any of the ordinary 
principles of construction, but by permit- 
ting the blocks to crystallize by freezing 
into a solid dome of ice— so solid that the 
key block may be omitted for a window 
or for the passage of smoke without dan- 
ger to the structure. This house lasts 
during the winter, and in the summer 



melts away. The summer houses are 
mere shelters of driftwood or bones cov- 
ered with skins. There is no opportunity 
for esthetic display in such houses as 
these, and clever as the Eskimo are in 
their minor art work, it is not likely that 
esthetic effect in their buildings, interior 
or exterior, ever received serious consid- 
eration. The people do not lack in ability 
and industry, but the environment re- 
stricts constructive effort to the barest 
necessities of existence and effectually 
blocks the way to higher development. 
Their place in the culture ladder is by no 
means at the lowest rung, but it is far 
from the highest. 

The houses of the N. W. coast derive 
their character largely from the vast for- 
ests of yellow cedar, which the enter- 
prising people were strong enough to 
master and utilize. They are substantial 
and roomy structures, and indicate on 
the part of the builders decided ability 
in planning and remarkable enterprise 
in execution. They mark the highest 
achievement of the native tribes in wood 
construction that has been observed. 
The genius of this people applied to 
building with stone in a stone environ- 
ment might well have placed them 

among the foremost builders in America. 
Vast labor was expended in getting out 
the huge trunks, in hewing the planks, 
posts, and beams, in carving the house 
and totem poles, and in erecting the 


massive structures. The facade, with its 
mythological paintings and huge her- 
aldic columns, is distinctly impressive. 
In early days the fortified towns, de- 
scribed by Vancouver and other pioneer 
explorers, were striking and important 

Stone Construction 

Highest Type 

constructions. It is indeed a matter of 
regret that the genius of such a people 
should be expended upon a material of 
which no trace is left, save in museums, 
after the lapse of a few generations. 
The contrast, due to differences in en- 



[B. A. E. 


vironment, between the buildings of the 
N. W. coast and those of the Pueblo re- 
gion is most striking. With greater abil- 
ity, perhaps, than the Pueblos, the north- 
ern peoples labored under the disadvan- 
tage of employing materials that rapidly 
decay, while 
with the Pueblos 
the results of the 
skill and effort 
of one genera- 
tion were sup- 
plemented by 
those of the 
next, and the 
cumulative re- 
sult was the 
great pueblo. 
The lot of the 
Pueblo tribes 
fell in the midst 
of a vast region 
of cliffs and plateaus, where the means of 
subsistenceadmitted of the growth of large 
communities and where the ready-quar- 
ried stone, with scarcity of wood, led inevi- 
tably to the building of houses of masonry. 
The defensive motive being present, it di- 
rected the genius of the people toward con- 
tinued and united effort, and the dwelling 
group became a great stronghold. Cumu- 
lative results encouraged cumulative 
effort; stronger and stronger walls were 
built, and story grew on story. The art of 
the stone mason was mastered, the stones 
were hewn and laid in diversified courses 
for effect, door and window openings 
were accurately and symmetrically 
framed with cut stone and spanned with 
lintels of stone and wood, and towers of 
picturesque outline in picturesque situa- 
tions, now often in ruins, offer suggestions 
of the feudal castles of the Old World. 
(See Cliff-dwellings, Pueblos.) 

Standing quite alone among the build- 
ing achievements of the tribes n. of Mex- 
ico are the works of the ancient mound- 
building Indians of the Mississippi valley 
and the Southern states. Earthworks, 
grand in proportions and varied in char- 
acter, remain as a partial and imperfect 
index of the extent and nature of the 
architeccure of these people. The great 
embankments probably inclosed thriv- 
ing villages, and the truncated pyramids 
must have supported temples or other 
important structures. But these, built no 
doubt of wood or bark, have wholly dis- 
appeared. The nearest approach to per- 
manent house construction observed in e. 
United States is found in the clay-covered 
wattle-work walls of the more southerly 
tribes ( Thomas ; Adair) . The people had 
acquired only partial mastery of the build- 
ing materials within their environment. 
Earth, sand, and clay, indestructible and 
always at hand, were utilized for the sub- 

structures and embankments, and the 
cumulative growth gave massive and en- 
during results, but the superstructures 
were of materials difficult to utilize in an 
effective manner by a stone-age people 
and, being subject to rapid decay, were 
not cumulative. 
Had the envi- 
ronment fur- 
nished to this 
group of vigor- 
ous and talented 
tribes the mate- 
rials for adobe 
cement or plen- 
tiful deposits of 
readily quarried 
stone, the re- 
sults might have 
been very differ- 
ent: the mound- 
builders' culture 
and the mound-building people might 
have been no mean factor in the Ameri- 
can nation to-day. 

The primitive habitations of the Pa- 
cific slope from the Straits of Fuca to the 
Gulf of California afford a most instruct- 
ive lesson. In the N. the vigorous tribes 
had risen to the task of utilizing the vast 
forests, but in the S. the improvident and 
enervated natives were little short of 
homeless wanderers. In the N. the 
roomy communal dwellings of the Co- 
lumbia valley, described by Lewis and 
Clark, were found, while to the S. one 
passes through varied environments 
where timber and earth, rocks and caves, 
rushes, bark, grass, and brush in turn 

Terraced Pyramid 
high. restored 

FE RY.) 

played their part in the very primitive 
house-making achievements of the 
strangely diversified tribesmen. 

In the highlands of the Great Divide 
and in the vast inland basins of the N. 
the building arts did not flourish, and 
houses of bark, grass, reeds, the skins of 
animals, and rough timbers covered with 
earth gave only necessary shelter from 
winter blasts, in the whole expanse of 
the forest-covered E. the palisaded for- 

BULL. 30] 



tress and the long-house of the Iroquois, 
in use at the beginning of the historical 
period, mark the highest limit in the 
building arts. On the Gulf coast the 

tural details are utilized freely for pur- 
poses of embellishment. A people that 
could carve wood and stone and could 
decorate pottery and weave baskets of 
admirable pattern could not mold the 
unwieldy elements of the building into 
esthetic form. But esthetic suggestions 
and features did not pass entirely unap- 
preciated. Some of the lower types of 
structures, such as the grass lodge and 
the mat house, partaking of textile tech- 
nique, were characterized by elements of 
symmetry, grace, and rhythmic repeti- 
tion of details. The wooden house of 


Made of Skins or 

simple pile dwellings set in the shallow 
waters were all that the conditions of 
existence in a mild climate required. 



It is probably useless to speculate on 
what might have been in store for the 
native builders had they been permitted 
to continue unmolested throughout the 
ages. The stone- 
builders had the 
most promising 
outlook, but they 
were still in 
the elementary 
stages of the arte 
of construction. 
They had not 
made the one 
essential step to- 
ward great build- 
ing — the discov- 
ery of the means 
of covering large 
spaces without 
the use of wood. 
Although they 
were acquainted 
with many essential elements of construc- 
tion, they had devised neither the offset 
span of stone nor the keystone arch. 

In none of these areas had the tribes 
reached the stage in the building arts 
where constructive features or architec- 

Bull. 30—05 6 



the N. W. had massiveness of form and 
boldness of outline, and the sculptured 
and painted details lent much esthetic 
interest; while in the arid region the 
stone-builders had introduced a number 
of features to relieve the monotony of 
walls and to add to the pleasing effect of 
the interiors. In these things the native 
mind certainly took some pleasure, but 
probably little thought was given to ar- 
chitectural effect as this is known to the 
more civilized 
tribes, such as 
the Maya of Yu- 
catan, who spent 
a vast amount of 
time and energy 
on the purely 
decorative fea- 
tures of their 
stone buildings. 
Numerous au- 
thors dwell more 
or less on the 
buildings of the 
tribes n. of Mex- 
ico, but only the 
more important 
publications will 
here be cited. 
See Boas, Dorsey, Fewkes, Hoffman, 
the Mindeleffs, Nelson, Mrs Stevenson, 
Thomas, and Turner in various Reports, 
B. A. E.; Adair, Hist. Amer. Inds., 1775; 
Bandelier, various reports in Papers Arch. 
Inst. Am., 1881-92; Beauchamp, Iroquois 



[b. a. e. 

Trail, 1892; Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 
1895, 1897; Catlin, N. Am. Inds., 1841, 
1866; Dawson in Proc. and Trans. Royal 
Soc. Can., ix, 1891; De Bry, Collectiones 
Peregrinationum, 1590-1628; Dellen- 
baugh, North Americans of Yesterday, 
1901; Du Pratz, Hist. Louisiane, in, 1758; 
Eells in Smithson. Rep. 1887, 1889; Fos- 
ter, Prehist. Races, 1878; Goddard in 
Univ. Cal. Pubs., i, no. 1, 1903; Hariot, 
Narr. First Plant. Virginia, repr. 1893; 
Hrdlicka in Am. Anthrop., vu, no. 3, 
1905; Jackson in Metropol. Mag., xxn, 
no. 3, 1905; Lewis and Clark, Exped. 
(1804-06), Coues ed., 1893; MacLean 
Mound Builders, 1879; Moore, various 
memoirs in Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1894-1905; Morgan in Cont. N. Am. 
Ethnol., iv, 1881; Morice in Trans. Can. 
Inst., iv, 1895; Niblack in Nat. Mus. 

n. w. of them. The women are supposed 
to be of ordinary stature. They hunt in 
kaiaks and provide for their husbands, 
who are covered with hair and are so tiny 
that they carry them about in their 
hoods.— Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 640, 

Areitorae. A Papago village s. of So- 
norita, Sonora, Mexico. — Box, Adven- 
tures, 262, 1869. 

Arekw. A Yurok village on the coast 
at the mouth of Redwood cr. , n. w. Cal. 
The town of Orick, 2 m. up the stream, 
takes its name therefrom, (a. l. k. ) 
Oruk.— Gibbs in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, ill, 139, 

Arenal (Span.: 'sandy ground,' 'des- 
ert'). A village, presumably Piman, on 
the Pima and Maricopa res. , Gila r. , Ariz. ; 
pop. 557 in 1860 (Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 


Rep. 1888, 1890; Nordenskiold, Cliff 
Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, 1893; Pow- 
ers in Cont. N. Am. Ethnol., in, 1877; 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i-vi, 1851-57; 
Smith, Hist. Va., repr. 1819; Squier, 
Antiq. N. Y. and West, 1851; Squier and 
Davis in Smithson. Cont., i, 1848; Starr, 
First Steps in Human Progress, 1895; 
Swan in Smithson. Cont., xxi, 1874; 
Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., n, 
1900; Thruston, Antiq. of Tenn., 1897. 
See Habitations, (w. h. h.) 

Ardeco. A small tribe or village, prob- 
ably Caddoan, indefinitely described as 
on a s. w. branch of Arkansas r. in the 
18th century.— La Harpe (1719) in Mar- 
gry, Dec, vi, 299, 1886. 

Adero.— La Harpe, op. cit. Ardeco. — Beaurain in 
Margry, op. cit. (mentioned with the Touacaro= 

Ardnainiq. A mythical people believed 
by the Central Eskimo to live far to the 

June 19, 1863), and 616 in 1869 (Browne, 
Apache Country, 290, 1869). 

Arendahronon ( ' rock people ' ) . One of 
the four chief tribes of the Huron, having 
the most easterly situation and claiming 
to be the first allies of the French, who 
founded among them the missions of St 
Jean Baptiste, St Joachim, and Ste Elisa- 
beth. In 1639 they were said to have 
been resident of the Huron country for 
about 50 years. In 1649, on the political 
destruction and expulsion of the Huron 
tribes by the Iroquois, the inhabitants of 
St Jean Baptiste submitted in a body to 
the Seneca, who adopted them. They 
constituted the Stone, or Rock, tribe of 
the Huron. See Jesuit Relation for 1639, 
40,1858. (j. n. b. h.) 

Ahrenda.— Shea, Cath. Miss., 182, 1855. Ahrendah- 
ronons.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 522, 1853. 
Ahrendaronons.— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 61, 1858. Aren- 
da.— Charlevoix (1635), New France, n, 72, 1872. 

BULL. 30] 



Arendacronons.— Jes. Rel. for 1641, 67, 1858. Aren- 
daehronons. — Ibid., 83. Arendaenhronons. — Jes. 
Rel. for 1642, 82, 1858. Arendarhononons.— Jes. 
Rel. for 1635, 24, 1858. Arendaronnons.— Jes. Rel. 
for 1644, 99, 1858. Arendaronons.— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 
90, 1858. Arendarrhonons.— Jes. Rel. for 1637, 109, 
1858. Arendoronnon.— Jes. Rel. for 1636, 123, 1858. 
Avendahs.— Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 154, 
1883. Enarhonon.— Sagard, Gr. Voy., I, 79, 1865. 
Nation d' Atironta.— Ibid. Nation de la Roche.— 
Jes. Rel., in, index, 1858. Nation du Rocher.— 
Jes. Rel. for 1657, 23, 1858. Renarhonon.— Sagard, 
Hist, du Can., I, 234, 1865. 

Arendaonatia. A Huron village in On- 
tario about 1640.— Jes. Rel. for 1637, 159, 

Anendaonactia. — Ibid., 165. 

Arente. A Huron village in Ontario 
about 1640.— Jes. Rel. for 1637, 150, 1858. 

Argillite (slate). This material, which 
is much diversified in character, was in 
very general use by the tribes x. of 
Mexico for the manufacture of utensils, 
implements, and ornaments, and for 
carvings in general. The typical slates, 
characterized by their decided foliate 
structure, were used to some extent 
for implements; but the more massive 
varieties, such as the greenish striped 
slates of the Eastern states, the argillite 
of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the 
states to the s., and the black slate of 
the N. W. coast were usually preferred 
for polished implements and carvings. 
Argillite was much used by the tribes of 
the Delaware and Susquehanna valleys, 
and an ancient quarry of this material, 
situated at Point Pleasant, Pa., has been 
described by Mercer (see Mines and Quar- 
ries). Material from this and other quar- 
ries in the Appalachian region was used 
mainly for flaked implements, including 
leaf-shaped blades, knives, and arrow and 
spear heads, and these are widely dis- 
tributed over the Middle Atlantic states. 
The fine-grained greenish and striped 
slates of the Eastern and Middle states 
and Canada were extensively used in the 
manufacture of several varieties of ob- 
jects of somewhat problematic use, in- 
cluding so-called banner-stones, bird- 
stones, and perforated tablets. It is 
probable that, like the green agates and 
jadeites of Mexico, some varieties of this 
stone had special significance with the 
native tribes. The tribes of the N. W. 
coast employ a fine-grained slate in their 
very artistic carvings, which the Haida 
obtain chiefly from deposits on Slate 
cr., Queen Charlotte ids. This slate has 
the desirable qualities of being soft and 
easily carved when freshly quarried, and 
of growing harder with time. It is 
black and takes an excellent polish 
(Niblack). See Sculpture and Carving, 

References to the use of argillite and 
slate occur in many works relating to eth- 
nologic and archeologic subjects, but are 
not sufficiently important to be given in 

full. Worthy of special mention are Ab- 
bott, Prim. Industry, 1881; Holmes in 
15th Rep. B. A. E., 1897; Mercer in Pubs. 
Univ. Penn., vi, 1897; Niblack in Rep. 
Nat. Mus. 1888, 1890; Rau in Smithson. 
Rep. 1872, 1873; Squier and Davis in 
Smithson. Cont., i, 1848. (w. n. h. ) 

Arhau. A village or tribe formerly 
between Matagorda bay and Colorado r., 
Texas; mentioned to Joutel in 1687 by 
the Ebahamo Indians. The region was 
the domain of the Karankawan tribes, 
with whom the Arhau people were possi- 
bly affiliated. See Gatschet, Karankawa 
Inds., Peabody Mus. Papers, i, 35, 46, 
1891. (a. c. f.) 

Arhan.— Joutel (1687) in Freneb, Hist. Coll. La., 
I, 137, 1846. Arhau.— Joutel (1687) in Margry, Dec. 
in, 288, 1878. 

Aribaiba. A former rancheria of the 
Sobaipuri, on the Rio San Pedro, not far 
from its junction with the Gila, in s. Ari- 
zona. It was visited by Father Kino 
about 1697. See Ariraipa. 

Aribabia.— De l'lsle, Map Am., 1703. S. Pantaleon 
Aribaiba.— Kino (1697) quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, I, 265, 1884. 

Aridian. A term applied to the early 
occupants of the desert region of the 
S. W., particularly of s. Arizona, whose 
culture, as exemplified by their art and 
other remains, was similar to that of the 
Zufii. — Gushing in Proc. Int. Cong. Am., 
vn, 157, 1890. See Pueblos. 
Original Pueblo. — Ibid. Shiwian.— Ibid, (so called 
from the similarity in the "Aridian" and the 
Shiwi or Zufii cultures). 

Arikara (Skidi: ariki 'horn,' referring 
to the former custom of wearing the hair 
with two pieces of bone standing up like 
horns on each side of the crest; ra, pi. 
ending). A tribe forming the northern 
group of the Caddoan linguistic family. 
In language they differ only dialectically 
from the Pawnee. 

When the Arikara left the body of 
their kindred in the S. W. they were asso- 
ciated with the Skidi, one of the tribes 
of the Pawnee confederacy. Tradition 
and history indicate that at some point 
in the broad Missouri valley the Skidi 
and Arikara parted, the former settling 
on Loup r., Neb., the latter continuing 
N. e., building on the bluffs of the Missouri 
the villages of which traces have been 
noted nearly as far s. as Omaha. In their 
northward movement they encountered 
members of the Siouan family making 
their way westward. Wars ensued, with 
intervals of peace and even of alliance 
between the tribes. When the white 
race reached the Missouri they found the 
region inhabited by Siouan tribes, who- 
said that the old village sites had once 
been occupied by the Arikara. In 1770 
French traders established relations with 
the Arikara, below Cheyenne r., on the 
Missouri. Lewis and Clark met the 
tribe 35 years later, reduced in num- 



[B. A. E. 


bers and living in three villages between 
Grand and Cannonball rs. , Dak. By 185 1 
they had moved up to the vicinity of 
Heart r. It is not probable that this 
rapid rate of movement obtained during 
migrations prior to the settlement of the 
Atlantic coast by the English. The 
steady westward pressure of the colonists, 
together with their policy of fomenting 
intertribal wars, caused the continual dis- 
placement of many native communities, 
a condition that bore heavily on the 
semisedentary tribes, like the Arikara, 
who lived in villages and cultivated the 
soil. Almost continuous warfare with ag- 
gressive tribes, together with the ravages 
of smallpox during the latter half of the 


18th and the beginning of the 19th cen- 
turies, nearly exterminated some of their 
villages. The weakened survivors con- 
solidated to form new, necessarily com- 
posite villages, so that much of their an- 
cient organization was greatly modified or 
ceased to exist. It was during this period 
of stress that the Arikara became close 
neighbors and, finally, allies of the Man- 
dan and Hidatsa. In 1804, when Lewis 
and Clark visited the Arikara, they were 
disposed to be friendly to the United 
States, but, owing to intrigues incident 
to the rivalry between trading companies, 
which brought suffering to the Indians, 
they became hostile. In 1 823 the Arikara 
attacked an American trader's boats, kill- 

ing 13 men and wounding others. This 
led to a conflict with the United States, 
but peace was finally concluded. In con- 
sequence of these troubles and the fail- 
ure of crops for 2 successive years the 
tribe abandoned their villages on the 
Missouri and joined the Skidi on Loup 
r., Neb., where they remained 2 years; 
but the animosity which the Arikara dis- 
played toward the white race made them 
dangerous and unwelcome neighbors, so 
that they were requested to go back to 
the Missouri. They did so, and there 
they have remained ever since. Under 
their first treaty, in 1825, they acknowl- 
edged the supremacy of the National 
Government over the land and the people, 
agreed to trade only with American citi- 
zens, whose life and property they were 
pledged to protect, and to refer all diffi- 
culties for final settlement to the United 
States. After the close of the Mexican 
war a commission was sent by the Gov- 
ernment to define the territories claimed 
by the tribes living n. of Mexico, between 
the Missouri and the Rocky mts. In the 
treaty made at Ft Laramie, in 1851, with 
the Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa, the 
land claimed by these tribes is described 
as lying w. of the Missouri, from Heart 
r. , N. Dak. , to the Yellowstone, and up the 
latter to the mouth of Powder r., Mont. ; 
thence s. e. to the headw r aters of the- 
Little Missouri in Wyoming, and skirt- 
ing the Black hills to the head of Heart 
r. and down that stream 1o its junction 
with the Missouri. Owing to the non- 
ratification of this treaty, the landed rights 
of the Arikara remained unsettled until 
1880, when, by Executive order, their 
present reservation was set apart; this in- 
cludes thetradingpost, established in 1845, 
and named for Bartholomew Berthold, a 
Tyrolese, one of the founders of the Amer- 
ican Fur Company. The Arikara, Man- 
dan, and Hidatsa together share this land, 
and are frequently spoken of, from the 
name of their reservation, as Ft Berthold 
Indians. In accordance with the act of 
Feb. 8, 1887, the Arikara received allot- 
ments of land in severalty, and, on ap- 
proval of the allotments by the Secretary 
of the Interior, July 10, 1900, they became 
citizens of the United States and subject 
to the laws of North Dakota. An indus- 
trial boarding school and 3 day schools 
are maintained by the Government on 
Ft Berthold res. A mission board- 
ing school and a church are supported 
by the Congregational Board of Mis- 
sions. In 1804 Lewis and Clark gave 
the population of the Arikara as 2,600, 
of whom more than 600 were warriors. 
In 1871 the tribe numbered 1,650; by 
1888 they were reduced to 500, and the 
census of 1904 gives the population as 380. 
As far back as their traditions go the Ari- 

BULL. 30] 



kara have cultivated the soil, depending 
for their staple food supply on crops of 
corn, beans, squashes, and pumpkins. 
In the sign language the Arikara are des- 
ignated as "corn eaters," the movement 
of the hand simulating the act of gnawing 
the kernels of corn from the cob. They 
preserved the seed of a peculiar kind of 
small-eared corn, said to be very nutri- 
tious and much liked. It is also said that 
the seed corn was kept tied in a skin and 
hung up in the lodge near the fireplace, 
and when the time for planting came 
only those kernels showing signs of ger- 
mination were used. The Arikara bar- 
tered corn with the Cheyenne and other 
tribes for buffalo robes, skins, and meat, 
and exchanged these with the traders for 
cloth, cooking utensils, guns, etc. Early 
dealings with the traders were carried on 
by the women. The Arikara hunted the 
buffalo in winter, returning to their village 
in the early spring, where they spent the 
time before planting in dressing the pelts. 
Their fish supply was obtained by means 
of basket traps. They were expert swim- 
mers, and ventured to capture buffaloes 
that were disabled in the water as the 
herd was crossing the river. Their wood 
supply was obtained from the river; when 
the ice broke up in the spring the Indians 
leaped on the cakes, attached cords to 
the trees that were whirling down the 
rapid current, and hauled them ashore. 
Men, women, and the older children en- 
gaged in this exciting work, and although 
they sometimes fell and were swept down- 
stream, their dexterity and courage gen- 
erally prevented serious accident. Their 
boats were made of a single buffalo skin 
stretched, hair side in, over a frame of 
willows bent round like a basket and 
tied to a hoop 3 or 4 feet in diameter. 
The boat could easily be transported by 
a woman and, according to Hayden, 
"would carry 3 men across the Mis- 
souri with tolerable safety." Before the 
coming of traders the Arikara made their 
cooking utensils of pottery; mortars for 
pounding corn were made with much labor 
from stone; hoes were fashioned from the 
shoulder-blades of the bufialo and the elk ; 
spoons were shaped from the horns of the 
buffalo and the mountain sheep; brooms 
and brushes were made of stiff, coarse 
grass ; knives were chipped from flint, and 
spears and arro wh eads f rom h orn and flint ; 
for splitting wood, wedges of horn were 
used. Whistles were constructed to imi- 
tate the bleat of the antelope or the call 
of the elk, and served as decoys; pop- 
guns and other toys were contrived for 
the children and flageolets for the amuse- 
ment of young men. Garments were 
embroidered with dyed porcupine quills; 
dentalium shells from the Pacific were 
prized as ornaments. Matthews and 

others mention the skill of the Arikara 
in melting glass and pouring it into molds 
to form ornaments; they disposed of the 
highly colored beads furnished by. the 
traders in this manner. They have pre- 
served in their basketry a weave that has 
been identified with one practised by for- 
mer tribes in Louisiana — a probable sur- 
vival of the method learned when with 
their kindred in the far S. W. The Ari- 
kara were equally tenacious of their lan- 
guage, although next-door neighbors of 
Siouan tribes for more than a century, 
living on terms of intimacy and inter- 
marrying to a great extent. Matthews 
says that almost every member of each 
tribe understands the language of the 
other tribes, yet speaks his own most 
fluently, hence it is not uncommon to hear 
a dialogue carried on in two tongues. 
Until recently the Arikara adhered to 
their ancient form of dwellings, erecting, 
at the cost of great labor, earth lodges that 
were generally grouped about an open 
space in the center of the village, often 
quite close together, and usually occupied 
by 2 or 3 families. Each village gener- 
ally contained a lodge of unusual size, 
in which ceremonies, dances, and other 
festivities took place. The religious cere- 
monies, in which each subtribe or village 
had its special part, bound the people 
together by common beliefs, traditions, 
teachings, and supplications that centered 
around the desire for long life, food, and 
safety. In 1835 Maximilian of Wied 
noticed that the hunters did not load on 
their horses the meat obtained by the 
chase, but carried it on their heads and 
backs, often so transporting it from a 
great distance. The man who could 
carry the heaviest burden sometimes gave 
his meat to the poor, in deference to their 
traditional teaching that "the Lord of 
life told the Arikara that if they gave to 
the poor in this manner, and laid burdens 
on themselves, they would be successful 
in all their undertakings." In the series 
of rites, w r hich began in the early spring 
when the thunder first sounded, corn 
held a prominent place. The ear was 
used as an emblem and was addressed as 
"Mother." Some of these ceremonial 
ears of corn had been preserved for gen- 
erations and w r ere treasured with rever- 
ent care. Offerings were made, rituals 
sung, and feasts held when the ceremo- 
nies took place. Rites were observed when 
the .maize was planted, at certain stages 
of its growth, and when it was harvested. 
Ceremonially associated w T ith maize were 
other sacred objects, which were kept in 
a special case or shrine. Among these 
were the skins of certain birds of cosmic 
significance, also 7 gourd rattles that 
marked the movements of the seasons. 
Elaborate rituals and ceremonies attended 



[b. a. e. 

the opening of this shrine and the exhi- 
bition of its contents, which were sym- 
bolic of the forces that make and keep 
all things alive and fruitful. Aside from 
these ceremonies there were other quasi- 
religious gatherings in which feats of 
jugglery were performed, for the An- 
kara, like their kindred the Pawnee, 
were noted for their skill in legerdemain. 
The dead were placed in a sitting posture, 
wrapped in skins, and buried in mound 
graves. The property, except such per- 
sonal belongings as were interred with 
the body, was distributed among the 
kindred, the family tracing descent 
through the mother. A collection of 
Arikara traditions, by G. A. Dorsey, has 
been published bv the Carnegie Institu- 
tion (1903). 

The Arikara were a loosely organized 
confederacy of subtribes, each of which 
had its separate village and distinctive 
name. Few of these names have been 
preserved. Lewis and Clark (Exped., i, 
97, 1814) mention Lahoocat, a village 
occupied in 1797, but abandoned about 
1800. How many subtribes were includ- 
ed in the confederacy can not now be de- 
termined. Lewis and Clark speak of the 
Arikara as the remnant of 10 powerful 
Pawnee tribes, living in 1804 in 3 villages. 
The inroads of disease and war have so re- 
duced the tribe that little now remains 
of their former divisions. The following 
names were noted during the middle 
of the last century: Hachepiriinu ('young 
dogs'), Hia ('band of Cree'), Hosuk- 
haunu ( 'foolish dogs' ), Hosukhaunukare- 
rihu ('little foolish dogs'), Sukhutit 
('blackmouths' ),Kaka( 'band of Crows') , 
Okos ( 'band of bulls'), Paushuk ('band 
of cut-throats'). Some of these may re- 
fer to military and other societies; others 
seem to be nicknames, as "Cut-throats." 

(a. c. p.) 
A da ka' da ho. — Matthews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 125, 
1877 ^ Hidatsa name). Ah-pen-ope-say.— Anon.MS. 
Crow vocab., B. A. E. (Crow name). Ai-dik'-a-da- 
hu.— Hoffman in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 294, 1886 
( = 'people, of the flowing hair'). Ankora. — Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 63,1851. A-pan-to'-pse.— Hayden, Ethnog. 
and Philol. Mo. Val., 402, 1862 (Crow name). Ara- 
caris.— Gass, Voy., 400, 1810. A raka 'da ho. —Mat- 
thews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 125, 1877 (Hidatsa name). 
Archarees. — Morgan in No. Am. Rev., 493, 1869. 
Aricaras. — Beaurain (ra. 1720) in Margry, D6c, 
VI, 289, 1886. Aricarees.— Saxton quoted by 
Stevens, Rep. on Pac. R. R., 239, 1854. Aricarie.— 
Schermerhorn in Mass. Hist. Coll . , 2d s. , n, 34, 1814. 
Aricaris. — Gass, J*our., 48, 1807. Aricas. — Carte 
des Poss. Ang., 1777. Ariccarees.— Culbertson in 
Smithson. Rep. 1850, 115, 1851. Aricharay.— Sen. 
Doc. 47, 16th Cong., 1st sess., 4, 1820. Arichard.— 
Sen. Ex. Doc. 90, 22d Cong., 1st sess., 63, 1832. 
Arickara. — Clark and Cass in H. R. Ex. Doc. 117, 
20th Cong., 2d sess., 99, 1829. A-rick-a-ra-one.— 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., n, lxxxiv, 1823 
(Hidatsa name). Arickaraws.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 
94, 34th Cong., 1st sess., 13, 1856. Arickare.— 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 297, 1835. Arickarees.— Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 403, 1836. Arickera.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 245, 
1846. A-rik'-a-hu.— Hoffman in Proc. Am. Philos. 
Soc, 294, 1886 (Hidatsa form). Arikara.— 
Matthews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 13, 1877 (Mandan 

name). A'-ri-ka'-ra.— Hoffman in Proc. Am. 
Philos. Soc, 294, 1886 (abbreviation of the Man- 
dan Ai-dlk'-a-da-hu). Arikare.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 
247, 1877. Arik'-are.— Hoffman in Proc. Am. 
Philos. Soc, 294, 1886 (name of Hidatsa ori- 
gin). Arikarees.— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 
533, 1878. Arikari.— Burton, City of Saints, 119, 
1861. Arikera.— Sen.Ex.Doc.90, 22d Cong., lstsess., 
29, 1832. Arikkaras.— Maximilian, Trav., 143, 
1843. Arrekaras.— McCoy, Ann. Reg., 52, 1836. 
Arricara.— LaHarpe (1719) in Margry, Dec,vi, 293, 
1886. Arricarees.— Warren (1855), Nebr. and Dak., 
50, 1875. Arrickaraws.— Dougherty (1837) in H. R. 
Doc. 276, 25th Cong. , 2d sess., 16, 1838. Arrickaree. — 
Ind. Aff. Rep. 1856, 67, 1857. Arrickora.— Webb, Al- 
towan, I, 83, 1846. Arriekaris.— Domenech, Des. 
N.Am., i, map, 1860. Auricara.— U. S. Ind. Treaties, 
447, 1837. Aurickarees.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
I, 523, 1851. Biccarees.— Domenech, Des. N. Am., 
I, 431, 1860. Black Pawnee.— Prichard, Phys. Hist. 
Mankind, v, 408, 1847 (applying properly to the 
Wichita, the Black-bear Pawnee of the Omaha). 
Corn Eaters.— Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 
130, 1851 (given as their own name). Eokoros.— 
Lahontan, New Voy., I, 110, 1703. Eskoros.— La- 
hontan, misquoted by Schoolcraft,Trav.,viii, 1821. 
Ka'-nan-in. — Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. 
Val., 326, 1862 (Arapaho name: 'people whose jaws 
break in pieces'). Kees.— Terry in Rep. Sec. War, 
pt 1, 35, 1869 (misprint). Kicaras.— Lewis, Trav., 
15, 1809 (misprint), la Ree.— Lewis and Clark, 
Disc, 22, 1806. Okoro.— Lahontan, New Voy., I, 
120, 1703. O-no'-ni-o.— Havden, Ethnog. and 
Philol. Mo. Val., 290, 1862 (Cheyenne name). 
Padani. — For forms of this name as applied to the 
Arikara, see Pawnee. Pa'^i"-diza.— Dorsey, MS. 
Cegiha Diet., B. A. E., 1878 (Omaha and Ponka 
name: 'Sand Pawnee'). Panis ricaras. — Jefferys, 
Fr. Dom. Am., pt. 1, 143, 1761. Panyi puda.— Dor- 
sey, MS. Tciwere vocab., B. A. E., 1879 (Iowa, Oto, 
and Missouri name: 'Sand Pawnee'). Pawnee- 
Rikasree.— Nuttall, Jour., 81, 1821. Pucaras. — 
Alegre, Hist. Comp. Jesus, 1,336,1841. Racres.— 
Lewis, Trav., 15, 1809. Recars.— Ibid. Ree.— Pow- 
ell in 7th Rep. B. A. E., 60, 1891. Re-ka-ras.— Bon- 
ner, Life of Beckwourth,255, 1856. Re-ke-rahs. — 
Ibid., 162. Rhea.— Hallam in Beach, Ind. Misc., 
134, 1877. Ric'-aras.— PerrinduLac, Vov. Louisi- 
ane, 257, 1850. Ricaree.— Snelling, Tales of Trav., 
35, 1830. Ricaries.— Domenech, Des. N. Am., I, 
443,1860. Ricaris.— Gass, Jour., 82, 1810. Ricars.— 
Lewis and Clark, Disc, 24, 1806. Ric-ca-ras. — Hun- 
ter, Captivity, 87, 1823. Riccaree.— Boiler, Among 
Inds. in the Far West, 210, 1868. Riccarrees.— 
Catlin, O-kee-pa, 40, 1867. Richara.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 
90, 22d Cong. , 1st sess. , 12; 1832. Rickaras. —Lewis 
and Clark, Discov., 30, 1806. Rickarees.— Gass, 
Jour., 48, 1807. Rickerees. — Ibid., 53. Rickrees.— 
Ibid., 48. Ricora.— Boudinot, Star in West, 128, 
1816. Rikaras.— Irving, Astoria, 199, 1849. Rik- 
kara.— Maximilian, Trav., 167, 1843. Ris.— Ibid. 
(so called by the Canadians). Sa-nish'. — Hav- 
den, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val,, 356, 1862, 
Satrahe.— Balbi, Atl. Ethnog., 54, 1826. S'qmes'- 
tshi.— Hoffman in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 371, 
1886 (Salish name) . Starrahe.— Bradbury, Trav., 
iii, 1817. Star-rah-he'.— Lewis and Clark, "Discov., 
22, 1806 (own name). Ta-nish'.— Hayden, Ethnog. 
and Philol. Mo. Val., 356, 1862 ('the people': own 
name) . Tsa'-nish.— Hoffman in Proc. Am. Philos. 
Soc, 294, 1886. Wakinas.— Hildreth; Dragoon Cam- 
paigns, 164. 1836 (probably the same). Wa-zi'- 
ya-ta Pa-da'-nin.— Cook, MS. Yankton vocab., 
B. A. E., 184, 1882 ('northern Pawnee': Yank- 
ton name). 

Ariswaniski. A Chnagmiut village on 
the right bank of the lower Yukon, 
Alaska. — Coast Surv. map, 1899. 

Aritutoc. A former Maricopa rancheria 
on the n. side of Rio Gila at or near the 
present Oatman flat and the great bend of 
the river, in s. Arizona. It was visited by 
Father Sedelmair in 1744, and by Anza, 
Font, and Garces in 1775. 

Aritoac— Garces, Diary, 117, 1900. Aritutoc.— 
Sedelmair cited by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 

BULL. 30] 



366, 1889. Rinconada.— Anza and Font (1780), 
ibid., 392. 

Arivaca. A former Piman village w. of 
Tubac, s. Ariz., dating from prior to 1733. 
It was abandoned during the Pima revolt 
of 1751, before which time it was a visita 
of the mission of Guevavi. (Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 385-6, 1889.) 
Aribac. — Anon. rep. (1777) in Bancroft, Ariz, and 
N. Mex., 385, 1889. Aribaca.— Rndo Ensayo (1763) , 
161, 1863. 

Arivaipa (Nevome Pima: aarivapa, 
'girls,' possibly applied to these people 
on account of some unmanly act). An 
Apache tribe that formerly made its 
home in the canyon of Arivaipa cr., a 
tributary of the Rio San Pedro, s. Ariz., 
although like the Chiricahua and other 
Apache of Arizona they raided far south- 
ward and were reputed to have laid 
waste everj r town in n. Mexico as far as 
the Gila prior to the Gadsden purchase in 
1853, and with having exterminated the 
Sobaipuri, a Piman tribe, in the latter 
part of the 18th century. In 1863 a com- 
pany of California volunteers, aided by 
some friendly Apache, at Old Camp Grant, 
on the San Pedro, attacked an Arivaipa 
rancheriaat the head of the canyon, kill- 
ing 58 of the 70 inhabitants, men, women, 
and children — the women and children 
being slain by the friendly Indians, the 
men by the Californians — in revenge for 
their atrocities. After this loss they sued 
for peace, and their depredations practical- 
ly ceased. About 1872 they were removed 
to San Carlos agency, where, with the 
Pinalenos, apparently their nearest kin- 
dred, they numbered 1,051 in 1874. Of 
this number, however, the Arivaipa 
formed a very small part. The remnant 
of the tribe is now under San Carlos and 
Ft Apache agencies on the White Moun- 
tain res., but its population is not sep- 
arately enumerated, (f. w. h. ) 
Apache Arivapah. — Hoffman in 10th Rep. Hayden 
Surv., 461, 1878. Araivapa.— White, MS. Hist. 
Apaches, B. A. E., 1875. Aravaipa.— Ind. Aff. 
Rep. 1873, 342, 1874. Aravapa.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1871, 54, 1872. Aravapai.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 246, 1877. 
Aravapa Pinals.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 1871, 54, 1872. 
Aravipais.— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 501, 1878. 
Aribaipa.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 306, 1877. Aribapais.— 
Ind. Aff. Rep., 175, 1875. Arivapa. — Ind . Aff. 
Rep., 292, 1886. Arivapa Apaches.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 
141, 1868. Arivapais.— Haines, Am. Ind., 135, 1888. 
Arivaypa Apaches.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 1871, 3, 1872. 
Arrivapis. — Colver (1871) quoted in Ind. Aff. Rep., 
299,1886. Avipa Apache.— Palmer, Pinella and 
Avipa MS. vocab., B. A. E. 

Arivechi. A pueblo of the Jova and the 
seat of a Spanish mission founded in 1627; 
situated in e. Sonora, Mexico, about lat. 
29° 10'. Pop. 466 in 1678, 118 in 1730. 
It is no longer an Indian settlement. 
Aribechi.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 56, 
1890. Arivetzi.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 345, 1864. 
San Francisco Javier Arivechi. — Zapata (1678) 
quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 245, 1884. 

Ariziochic. A Tarahumare settlement 
on the e. bank of one of the upper tribu- 
taries of Rio Yaqui, lat. 28° 25', long. 107°, 

Chihuahua, Mexico. — Orozco y Berra, 
Geog., 323, 1864. 

Arizonac (prob. 'small springs' or 'few 
springs'). Evidently a former Papago 
rancheria situated between Guevavi and 
Saric, in Sonora, Mexico, just below the 
present s. boundary of Arizona, not far 
from the site of Nogales. In 1736-41 
the finding in its vicinity of some balls of 
native silver of fabulous size caused a 
large influx of treasure seekers, and 
through the fame that the place thus 
temporarily acquired, its name, in the 
form Arizona, was later applied to the 
entire country thereabout, and, when 
New Mexico wa^s divided, was adopted 
as the name of the new Territory. In 
1764-67 Arizonac was a visita of the mis- 
sion of Saric, on the upper waters of 
Eio Altar, Sonora. See Bancroft, Ariz, 
and N. Mex., 362, 371, 1889. (p. w. h.) 

Arizpe (according to Bandelier a cor- 
rupted abbreviation of Huc-aritz-pa, the 
native name, while Hardy says it is from 
the Opata aripa, ' the great congrega- 
tion of ants'). A former Opata pueblo 
on Rio Sonora, about lat. 30° 25', Sonora, 
Mexico. It became the seat of a Spanish 
mission in 1648, and was afterward the 
capital of the state, but its importance as 
a town decreased after the removal of the 
capital to Ures, in 1832, and subsequent 
Apache depredations. Arizpe is identical 
with the Arispa of Castafieda and the 
Ispa of Jaramillo, visited by Coronado in 
1540. The population of the mission was 
416 in 1678, 316 in 1730, and 359 in 1777 
(Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th ser., i, 469, 1856, 
and authors quoted below). It is no 
longer an Indian town. There are ruins 
N. w. of the village, (f. w. h. ) 
Aripa.— Hardy, Trav. in Mex., 442, 1829 (Opata 
name: 'the great congregation of ants'). Arispa.— 
Castafieda (1540) in 14th Rep. B. A. E. 515, 1896. 
Arispe.— Kino (1696) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th ser., 
1,265,1856. Asuncion Arizpe. — Zapata (1678) quoted 
by Bancroft, No. MeX. States, I, 246, 1884. Guaga- 
rispa.— Castafieda (1540) in Ternaux-Compans, 
Voy., ix, 158, 1838. Huc-aritz-pa.— Bandelier, 
Gilded Man, 175, 1893 (Opata name). Ispa.— 
Jaramillo (1540) in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 585, 1896. 
Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion Arizpe. — Orozco y 
Berra, Geog., 343, 1864 (mission name). 

Arkansite. A variety of the mineral 
brookite, so called from having/been dis- 
covered at Magnet Cove, Ark. (Dana, 
Text-book Mineralogy, 278, 1888) ; from 
the place and ethnic name Arkansas and 
the English suffix -ite. (a. f. c. ) 

Arkokisa. A people formerly living in 
villages chiefly along lower Trinity r., 
Tex. The Spanish presidio of San Agus- 
tin de Ahumada was founded among 
them in 1756, and 50 Tlascaltec families 
from s. Mexico were settled there, but 
the post was abandoned in 1772. They 
were allied with the Aranama and the 
Attacapa, and were on friendly terms also 
with the Bidai, but their linguistic affin- 
ity is not known. According to Sibley 



t_B. A. El. 

they numbered about 80 men in 1760-70 
and subsisted principally on shellfish and 
fruits, and in 1805 their principal town 
was on the w. side of Colorado r. of Texas, 
about 200 m. s. w. of Nacogdoches. They 
had another village n. of this, between 
the Neches and the Sabine, nearer the 
coast than the villages of the Adai. 
Sibley speaks of the Arkokisa as migra- 
tory, but they could not always have been 
entitled to that characterization. It is 
probable that, owing to the conditions 
incident to the intrusion of the white 
race, the people became demoralized; 
their tribal relations were broken up, 
their numbers decimated by disease, and 
the remnant of them was finally scat- 
tered and disorganized. Of their habits 
very little is known; their language seems 
to have been distinct from that of their 
neighbors, with whom they conversed by 
signs, (a. o. f.) 

Accocesaws. — Lewis, Travels, 191, 1809. Accocke- 
saws.- Fisher, Int. Ace., 201, 1812. Accokesaus.— 
Brackenridge, Views of La., 81, 1814. Accoke- 
saws.— Sibley, Hist. Sketches, 71, 1806. Aco-ke- 
sas.— Brackenridge, op. cit., 87. Acossesaws. — 
Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 103, 1856. 
Arkokisa. — Yoakum, Hist. Tex., map, 1855. En- 
quisacoes.— Clarke in Tex. Hist. Assn. Quar., ix, 
53, 1905. Horcaquisacs. — MS. of, 1770 quoted by 
Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 656, 1886. Horcon- 
citos. — Bancroft, ibid., 643. Horcoquisa. — Tex. 
State archives, Aug. 26, 1756. Horcoquisaes. — Doc. 
of 1793 in Tex. State archives. Naquizcoza. — 
Gentl. of Elvas quoted by Shea, Early Voy., 149, 
1861 (same?). Ocosaus.— Soc. Geog. Mex., Bui., 
266, 1870. Orcoquisa.— Doc. of 1805 in Tex. State 
archives. Orcoquisacs. — Mezieres (1778) quoted by 
Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 661, 1886. Orco- 
quizas. — Doc. of 1791 in Tex. State archives. 
Orquisaco. — Yoakum, Hist. Tex., i, 49, 1855. Ox- 
quoquiras. — Robin, Vov. a la Louisiane, ill, 14, 

Arksutite. According to Dana (Text- 
book Mineralogy, 265, 1888) a fluorine 
mineral whose exact nature is not yet 
known, named from the Eskimo Arksut, 
a fiord in Greenland where it was discov- 
ered, (a. f. c.) 

Arlagnuk. An Iglulirmiut Eskimo vil- 
lage near Melville pen., on Iglulik id., 
lat. 69° IV 33".— Parry, Second Voy., 
355," 1824. 

Arliaktung. An Eskimo village of the 
Akudnirmiut, n. of Home bay, e. Baffin 
land. — Boas in Deutsch. Geog. Blatt., viii, 
34, 1885. 

Armor. Shields and body armor appear 
to have been in more or less general use 
among the Indian tribes n. of Mexico. 
The Eskimo are said not to employ the 
shield, but it was in use among the tribes 
of the plains, the S. W. , and British Colum- 
bia, and occasionally among the Iroquois 
and other eastern Indians. The Plains 
Indians made their shields of buffalo hide, 
covered with buckskin or elk skin; others 
used basketry (Pueblo) , cedar rods (Nav- 
aho), osiers or bark (Virginia Indians, 
Iroquois). With the exception of a sort 
of oblong armor-shield 4 to 5 ft. long, made 

of elk hide by the Ntlakyapamuk (Teit in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Anthrop. ser., 
i, 1900 ) , the Indian shield is circular. The 
decoration of the shield, the ceremonies 
connected with its acquisition, its use in 
ritual, etc., constitute important chapters 
in the art and religion of the aborigines. 
The shield ceremony of the Hopi and the 
heraldry of the shield among the Kiowa 
have respectively been specially studied 
by Dr J. Walter Fewkes and Mr James 
Mooney of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology. Helmets and head defenses are 
found among some of the tribes of the 
North Pacific coast, and are often orna- 
mented with the crest of the owner. North 
of Mexico body armor presents at least 
five types: Rows of overlapping plates of 
ivory, bone, and, since contact with the 
whites, iron (Eskimo, Chukchi) ; twined 
wooden slats (N. W. coast, Shasta, Iro- 
quois, Virginia Indians); twined wooden 
rods (Aleut, N. W. coast, Columbia r. 
tribes, Klamath, Hupa, Iroquois, Pow- 
hatan, etc.); bands of skin arranged in 
telescoping fashion 
(Chukchi); coats, 
etc. , of hardened hide 
(Tlingit, Haida, Chi- 
nook, Hupa, Sho- 
shoni, Navaho, Paw- 
nee, Mohawk, etc.). 
The ivory plate ar- 
mor is believed by 
Boas to be an imita- 
tion of the iron armor 
of the Chukchi, and 
the other plate armor 
may also be of n. e. 
Asiatic (Japanese) body armor of wood 
origin. The presence 
of the buffalo in the Mississippi region, 
and of the elk, moose, etc., in other parts 
of the country, had much to do with the 
nature of armor. The data concerning 
armor among the Indians are summarized 
bv Hough (Primitive American Armor, 
Rep. Nat. Mus. 1893, 625-651) . One sort 
of defensive armor did the early English 
adventurers in Virginia good service on 
oue occasion. At the suggestion of Mosco 
and the friendly Indians, Capt. John 
fimith, when fighting a tribe on the Ches- 
apeake, made use of the " Massawomek 
targets," or shields (Smith, Va., i. 185, 
1819; Holmes in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 18, 
1896) . These the English set ' ' about the 
forepart of our Boat, like a forecastle, 
from whence we securely beat back the 
Salvages from off the plaine without any 
hurt. ' ' And so, protected by ' ' these light 
Targets (which are made of little small 
sticks woven betwixt strings of their 
hempe, but so firmly that no arrow can 
possibly pierce them ) , " the English drove 
back the enemy. In general, it may be 
said that the shield and lance were used 

BULL. 30] 



chiefly by the equestrian tribes of the 
open country, while body armor, with the 
knife and tomahawk, were more in favor 
with those of the timber and coast region. 
See Shields, (a. p. c. ) 

Armouchiquois (apparently a French cor- 
corruption of Alemousiski, 'land of the lit- 
tle dog,' from allum 'dog,' ousis diminu- 
tive, ac or auk 'land,' " for there were 
many little dogs in the prairies of this terri- 
tory."— Maurault). The name given by 
the Abnaki to the country of the Indians 
of the New England coast s. of Saco r. , Me. 
Williamson (Hist. Maine, i, 477, 1832) 
says they were the Marechites (Malecite) 
of St Johns r., but Champlain, who vis- 
ited the Armouchiquois country, says that 
it lies beyond, that is, s. of, Chouacoet 
(Sokoki), and that the language differed 
from that of the Souriquois (Micmac) and 
the Etchimin. Laverdiere affirms that 
"the French called Almouchiquois sev- 
eral peoples or tribes that the English 
included under the term Massachusetts." 
According to Parkman (Jesuits in N. Am., 
xxi, 1867 ) the term included the Algon- 
quian tribes of New England — Mohegan, 
Pequot, Maseachuset, Narraganset, and 
others "in a chronic state of war with the 
tribes of New Brunswick and Nova Sco- 
tia." (c. T.) 

Allemouchicois .— Champlain (ca. 1635),(Euvres, v, 
pt., 2, 33, 1870. Almauchicois.— Vetromile, Abna- 
kis, 50, 1866. Almonchiguois.— Champlain (1616), 
CEuvres, IV, 73, 1870. Almouchicoisen. — Dutch map 
of 1616 in N. Y. Col. Doe. 1, 1856. Almouchiquois.— 
Maurault, Hist. Abenakis, 4, 1866. Almouchi- 
quoise.— Champlain (1605), CEuvres, III, 62, 1870. 
Armouchicois.— Champlain (1603), ibid., II, 58, 
1870. Armouchiquois.— Jes. Bel. for 1611, 33, 1858. 
Armuciceses. — Alcedo, Die. Geog., I, 158, 1786. 

Arocoum. See Raccoon. 

Arontaen ('it is a lying log.' — Hewitt). 
A Huron village situated near Pt. Cock- 
burn, on the n. shore of Nattawasaga bay, 
Ontario, in 1636. — Jesuit Relation for 1636, 
133, 1858. 

Arosaguntacook. A tribe of the Abnaki 
confederacy, formerly living in Androscog- 
gin co. , Me. Their village, which bore the 
same name, was on Androscoggin r., prob- 
ably near Lewiston. The various names 
used indiscriminately for the tribe and the 
river may be resolved into the forms Am- 
moscoggin and Arosaguntacook, which 
have received different interpretations, all 
seeming to refer to the presence of fish in 
the stream. The name seems to have been 
used only for the part of the river in An- 
droscoggin co. between the falls near Jay 
and those near Lewiston. The present 
name was obtained by changing the first 
part of the word to Andros in compliment 
to Gov. Andros. The Arosaguntacook 
lived on the edge of the first English settle- 
ments in Maine, and consequently suffered 
much in the various Indian wars'in which 
they took a prominent part from 1675 until 
their removal to Canada. Their town was 

burned by the English in 1690. As the 
settlements pushed into the interior the 
Wawenoc, at the mouth of the river, 
moved up and joined the Arosaguntacook, 
and at a later period the combined tribes 
moved still farther up and joined the 
Eocameca. These movements led to 
much confusion in the statements of 
writers, as the united tribes were com- 
monly known by the name of the lead- 
ing one, the Arosaguntacook or Andros- 
coggin. These tribes, together with the 
Pigwacket, removed to St Francis, Canada, 
soon after the defeat of the Pequawket by 
Lovewell in 1725. Here the Arosagun- 
tacook were still the principal tribe and 
their dialect (Abnaki) was adopted by 
all the inhabitants of the village, who 
were frequently known collectively as 
Arosaguntacook. (j. m. ) 
Adgecantehook. — Doc. of 1709 in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., v, 86, 1855. Alsigantegwi.— Gatschet, Penob- 
scot MS., B. A. E., 1887 (Penobscot name for the 
St Francis Indians; pi. Alsigantegwiak). Ama- 
rascoggin.— Stoughton (1695) in N. Y. Doc. Col. 
Hist., ix, 613, 1855. Amarascogin.— La Potherie, 
Hist. Am., iv, 40, 1753. Amarescoggin. — Trum- 
bull, Conn., II, 77, 1818. Amariscoggins. — School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, V, 223, 1855. Amaroscoggen. — 
Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 108, 1848. Amasagunti- 
cook.— True in N. Y. Hist. Mag., 238, 1864. Amer- 
ascogen.— Pike (1690) in Drake, Ind. Wars, 152, 
1825. Amerescogin. — Douglass, Summary, I, 185, 
1755. Ameriscoggins. — Gallatin in Trans. Am. 
Antiq. Soc, II, 32, 1836. Amerriscoggin. — Maine 
Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 357, 1853. Amircankanne. — 
Vaudreuil (1721) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 904, 
1855. Amireaneau. — Doc. of 1693 in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., IX, 571, 1855 (misprint). Ammarascog- 
gin.— Georgetown treaty (1717) in Maine Hist. Soc. 
Coll., vi, 261, 1859. Ammarescoggin.— SameinN.H. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., II, 242, 1827. Ammascoggen.— 
Church (1690) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s., v, 
271, 1861. Amonoscoggan. — Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 
3, 104, 1848. Amonoscoggin. — Mather, Magnalia 
(1702) quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 150, 1848. 
Amoscongen.— Sagadahoc treaty (1690) in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d s., 1, 113, 1825. Amresscoggin.— 
Casco conference (1727) in N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
II, 261, 1827. Anasaguntacooks. — Sullivan in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., lsts., ix, 210, 1804. Anasagunta- 
kook. — Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Anasagunti- 
cooks.— Williamson in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 
475, 1855. Anasuguntakook. — Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 527, 1853. Androscoggins. — Sullivan in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., ix, 210, 1804. An- 
moughcawgen. — Smith (1629), Virginia, n, 177, 
repr. 1819. Annirkakan.— La Potherie, Hist. Am., 
ill, 189, 1753. Aresaguntacooks.— Colman (1726) 
in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., vi, 115, 1800. 
Arisaguntacooks. — Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 152, 
1848. Arosagantakuk. — Keane in Stanford, Com- 
pend., 500, 1878. Arosaguntacook.— Drake, Trag. 
Wild., 144, 1841. Arosaguntakuk.— Vater, Mith- 
ridates, pt. 3, sec. 3, 390, 1816. Arouseguntecook.— 
Douglass, Summary, I, 185, 1755. Arrasagunta- 
cook.— Falmouth conf. (1727) in Maine Hist. Soc. 
Coll., in, 438, 1853. Arreaguntecooks.— Falmouth 
treaty report ( 1726) , ibid . , 386. Arreguntenocks. — 
Penhallow (1726) in N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., I, 129, 
1824. Arreraguntecook. — Falmouth treaty report, 
op. cit. Arreruguntenocks. — Niles {ca. 1761) in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th s.,v,365, 1861. Arresagon- 
tacook.— Casco conf. (1727) in N.H. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
11,261,1827. Arresaguntacooks. — Falmouth conf. 
report (1727) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 413, 
1853. Arresaguntecook. — Falmouth treaty report 
(1726), ibid., 386-390. Arreseguntecook.— Ibid. 
Arreseguntoocook.— Falmouth treaty journal 
(1749), ibid., iv, 157, 1856. Arresuguntoocooks. — 
Ibid., 155. Arseguntecokes. — Document of 1764 in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 641, 1856. Arsikanteg8.— 



[b. a. e. 

French letter (1721) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d 
s., vill, 262, 1819. Arunseguntekooks.— La Tour, 
map, 1779. Aruseguntekooks. — Jefferys, French 
Dom., pt. 1, map, 1761. Assagunticook. — Record 

il755) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vn, 186, 1876. 
Irsegontegog.— Gyles (1726), ibid., in, 357, 1853. 
Massakiga.— Purchas (1625), ibid., v, 156, 1857. 

Aroughcond, Aroughcun. See Raccoon. 

Arpik. An Eskimo village in w. Green- 
land, lat. 73°. — Meddelelser om Gron- 
land, viii, map, 1889. 

Arrohattoc (cf. Delaware allahattek, 
'empty,' 'all gone.' — Heckewelder). A 
tribe of the Powhatan confederacy, form- 
erly living in Henrico co. , Va. They had 
30 warriors in 1608. Their chief village, 
of the same name, was on James r., 12 m. 
below the falls at Richmond, on the spot 
where Henrico was builtin 1611. (j. m. ) 

Arrohateck.— Smith (1629), Virginia, I, 142, repr. 
1819. Arrohattock.— Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 4, 7, 
1848. Arrowhatocks.— Smith, op. cit., I, 116. Ar- 
rowhatoes.— Boudinot, Star in the West, 125, 1816. 
Arsahattock.— Smith, op. cit., II, 10. Irrohatock.— 
Ibid., I, 117. 

Arrowheads. The separate tips or points 
of arrow-shafts. Among the Indian tribes 


many were made of flint and other varie- 
ties of stone, as well as bone, horn, antler, 
shell, wood, and copper. Copper was 
much used by such tribes as were able to 
obtain a supply from theL. Superior region 
and to some extent by those of British 
Columbia and Alaska. Iron has largely 
taken the place of these materials since 
the coming of the whites. In stone im- 
plements of this class the only line of dis- 

Arrowhead Embedded in a Skull, (from a Mound 

tinction between arrowheads and spear- 
heads is that of size. Very few flint 
arrowheads are as much as 2 inches long, 
and these are quite slender; thick or 
strong ones are much shorter. Solid 
flesh, being almost as resistant as soft 
rubber, could not be penetrated by a 
large pro- 
jectile un- 
less it fi%*M Wk 

were pro- __/-- Mb. ■# - 

pelled by 
g reater 
than can 
be ob- 
from a 
bo w with- 
out artifi- IN ,LLIN0,s) 
cialaid which is not at the command of a 
savage. The shapeof thestone arrowhead 
among the Indian tribes is usually triangu- 
lar or pointed-oval, though some have 
very slender blades with expanding base. 
Many of them are notched. These were set 
in a slot in the end of the shaft and tied 
with sinew, rawhide, or cord, which passed 
through the notches. Those without 
notches were secured by the cord passing 
over and under the angle at the base in a 
figure-8 fashion. It is said that war ar- 
rows often had the head loosely attached, 
so that it would 

remain in the ^ 

wound when the 
shaft was with- 
drawn, while 
the hunting 
point was firmly 
secured in order 
that the arrow 
might be recov- 
ered entire. 
Glue, gum, and 
cement were 
used in some sec- 
tions for fixing 
the point or for 
rendering the 
fastening more 
secure. The ac- 
companying dia- 
gram will ex- 
plain the differ- 
ent terms used with reference to the 
completed arrow head. A specimen which 
has the end rounded or squared instead 
of flattened is known as a "bunt." As 
a rule both faces are worked off equally 
so as to bring the edge opposite the middle 
plane of the blade, though it is sometimes 
a little on one side. For the greater 
part these seem to be redressed ordinary 
spearheads, knives, or arrowheads whose 
points have been broken off, though some 
appear to have been originally made in 

Arrowhead Nomenclature, (a, Point; 
b, Edge; c, Face; d, Bevel; e, 
Blade; f, tang; g, Stem; h, Base; 
i, Notch; k, Neck; m, Barb or 

BULL. 30] 



this form. A few are smooth or polished 
at the ends, as if used for knives or scrap- 
ers; but most of them have no marks of 
use except occasionally such as would re- 
sult from being shot or struck against a 
hard substance. It is probable that their 
purpose was to stun birds or small game, 
in order to secure the pelt or plumage free 
from cuts or blood stain. They are rela- 
tively few in number, though widely dis- 
tributed in area. The Eskimo employ 
arrowheads of stone of usual forms. 

Consult Abbott (1) Prim. Indus., 1881, 
(2) in Surv. W. 100th Merid., vn, 1879; 
Beauchamp in Bull. N. Y. State Mus., 
no. 16, 1897, and no. 50, 1902; Fowke in 
13th Rep. B. A. E., 1896; Moorehead, Pre- 
hist. Impls., 1900; Morgan, League of the 
Iroquois, 1904; Nordenskiold, Cliff Dwell- 
ers of Mesa Verde, 1893; Rau in Smithson. 
Cont, xxn, 1876; Wilson in Rep. Nat. 
Mus. 1897, 1899; the Reports of the Smith- 
sonian Inst ; the Am. Anthropologist; the 
Am. Antiquarian; the Archaeologist; the 
Antiquarian, (g. f. w. h. h. ) 

Arrows, Bows, and Quivers. The bow 
and arrow was the most useful and uni- 

typical quiver; navaho 

versal weapon and implement of the 
chase possessed by the Indians n. of 
Mexico for striking or piercing distant 

Arrows. — A complete Indian arrow is 
m ade up o f si x parts : Head , shaft, f oresh aft, 
shaftment, feathering, and nock. These 
differ in material, form, measurement, 

decoration, and assemblage, according to 
individuals, locality, and tribe. Arrow- 
heads have three parts: Body, tang, and 
barbs. There are two kinds of arrow- 
heads, the blunt and the sharp. Blunt 
heads are for stunning, being top-shaped. 
The Ute, Paiute, and others tied short 
sticks crosswise on the end of the shafts 
of boys' arrows for killing birds. Sharp 


arrowheads are of two classes, the lance- 
olate, which can be withdrawn, and the 
sagittate, intended for holding game or 
for rankling in the wound. The former 
are used on hunting, the latter on war or 
retrieving arrows. In the S. W. a sharp- 
ened foreshaft of hard wood serves for the 
head. Arctic and N. W. coast arrows 
have heads of ivory, bone, wood, or cop- 
per, as well as of stone;. elsewhere they are 
more generally of stone, chipped or pol- 
ished. Many of the arrowheads from 
those two areas are either two-pronged, 
three-pronged, or harpoon-shaped. The 
head is attached to the shaft or foreshaft by 
lashing with sinew, by riveting, or with 
gum. Among the Eskimo the barbed 
head of bone is stuck loosely into a socket 
on the shaft, so that this will come out 
and the head rankle in the wound. The 
barbs of the ordinary chipped head are 
usually alike on both sides, but in the 
long examples from ivory, bone, or wood 
the barbing is either bilateral or uni- 
lateral, one-barbed or many-barbed, alike 
on the two sides or different. In addition 
to their use in hunting and in war, arrows 
are commonly used in games and cere- 
monies. Among certain Hopi priesthoods 
arrowheads are tied to bandoleers as or- 
naments, and among the Zuni they are 
frequently attached to fetishes. 

Arrowshafts of the simplest kind are 
reeds, canes, or stems of wood. In the 
Arctic region they are made of driftwood 
or are bits of bone lashed together, and 
are rather short, owing to the scarcity of 
material. The foreshaft is a piece of 
ivory, bone, or heavy wood. Among the 
Eskimo foreshafts are of bone or ivory on 
wooden shafts; in California, of hard 
wood on shafts of pithy or other light 
wood; from California across the conti- 
nent to Florida, of hard wood on cane 



[b. a. e. 

shafts. The shaftments in most arrows 
are plain ; but on the W. coast they are 

Ivory Arrowshaft Straight- 
ener; Eskimo. (length, 



painted with stripes for identification. 
The Plains Indians and the Jicarillas cut 
shallow grooves lengthwise down their 
arrowshafts, called "lightning marks," 
or " blood grooves," and also are said by 
Indians to keep the shaft from warping 
(Fletcher) or to direct the flight. The 
feathering is an important feature in the 
Indian arrow, differing in the species of 
birds, the kind and number of feathers 
and in their form, 
length, and manner 
of setting. As to the 
number of feathers, 
arrows are either 
without feathering, 
two-feathered, or 
three-feathered. As to form, feathers are 
whole, as among most of the Eskimo and 
some S. W. tribes, or halved or notched 
on the edges. In length they vary from 
the very short feathering on S. W. arrows, 
with long reed shafts and heavy fore- 
shafts, to the long feath- 
ering on Plains arrows, 
with their short shafts of 
hard wood. The feath- 
ers are set on the shaft- 
ment either flat or radi- 
ating; the ends are lashed 
with sinew, straight or 
doubled under, and the 
middles are either free or glued down. In 
some arrows there is a Slight rifling, due 
perhaps to the twist needed to make a tight 
fit, though it is not said that this feature is 
intentional. The nocks of arrows, the 
part containing the notch for the string, 
are, in the Arctic, flat; in the S., where 
reed shafts were employed, cylindrical; 
and in localities where the shafts were 
cut, bulbous. Besides its use as a piercing 

Stone Arrowshaft Rub- 
ber; Massachusetts, 
(length, 4 1-2 IN.) 

BER; Indian Grave, British 
Columbia. (h. I. Smith) 

or striking projectile, special forms of the 
arrow were employed as a toy, in gaming, 
in divining, in rain- 
making, in ceremony, 
in symbolism, and in 
miniature forms with 
prayer -sticks. The 
modulus in arrow- 
making was each 
man's arm. The 
manufacture of ar- 
rows was usually at- 
tended with much 

The utmost flight, 
the certainty of aim, 
and the piercing pow- 
er of Indian arrows 
are not known, and stories about them 
are greatly exaggerated. The hunter or 
warrior got as near to his victim as possi- 
ble. ^ In shooting he drew his right hand 
to his ear. His bow register scarcely ex- 
ceeded 60 pounds, yet arrows are said 
to have gone quite through the 
body of a buffalo (Wilson in Rep. 
Nat. Mus. for 1897, 811-988). 

Bows. — The bows of the 
North Americans are quite 
as interesting as their ar- 
rows. The varied envi- 
ronments quickened the 
inventive faculty and pro- 
duced several varieties. 
They are distinguished by 
the materials and the 
parts, which are known as 
back, belly, wings, grip, 
nocks, and string. The 
varieties are as follow : 
(1) Self-bow, made of one 
piece; (2) compound bow, 
of several pieces of wood, 
bone, or horn lashed to- 
gether; (3) sinew-backed, 
bow, a bow of driftwood or 
other brittle wood, rein- 
forced with cord of sinew 
wrapped many times 
about it lengthwise, from 
wing to wing; (4) sinew- 
lined bow, a self-bow, the 
// 9 back of which is further 
M ff strengthened with sinew 
, ^ ff glued on. In some cases 
9 bows were decorated in 

The varieties character- 
izing the culture areas are 
distinguished as follow: 

1. Arctic. — Compound 
bows in the E., very 
clumsy, owing to scarcity of material; 
the grip mav be of wood, the wings 
of whale's ribs or bits of wood from 
whalers. In the W. excellent sinew- 


compound bow, 
Eastern Eskimo 
(boas) ; b, Sinew- 
lined Bow, Navaho 
( Mason ) 

BULL. 30] 



backed bows were made on bodies of 
driftwood. Asiatic influence is apparent 
in them. ( See Boas in 6th Rep. B. A . E. , 
399-669, 1884; Murdoch in 9th Rep. 
B. A. E., 133-617, 1887, and Rep. Nat. 
Mus. for 1884, 307-316. ) 

2. Northern Athapascan. — Long, straight 
bows of willow or birch, with wooden 
wrist-guards projecting from the belly. 

3. St Lawrence and Eastern United 
States. — Self-bows of ash, second-growth 
hickory, osage orange (bois d'arc), oak, 
or other hard wood. 

4. Gulf States. — Long bows, rectangu- 
lar in section, of walnut or other hard 

5. Rocky mts. — (1) Self-bow of osage 
orange or other hardwood; (2) a com- 
pound bow of several strips of buffalo 
horn lashed together and strengthened. 

6. North Pacific coast. — Bows with 
rounded grip and flat wings, usually 
made of yew or cedar. 

7. Fraser- Columbia region. — Similar to 
No. 6, but with wings much shorter and 
the nocks curved sharply outward. 

8. Interior basin. — A long slender stick 
of rude form; many are strengthened by 
means of a sinew lining on the back and 
cross wrappings. 

9. California. — Like No. 7, but neatly 
lined with sinew and often prettily deco- 

10. Southwest. — Like No. 8, but seldom 
sinew-lined (Navaho). Small painted 
bows are used much in ceremony, espe- 
cially by the Pueblos, who deposit them 
in shrines. In the s. part of this area 
long cOttonwood bows with cross lashing 
are employed by Yuman and Piman 
tribes. The Jicarillas make a cupid's 
bow, strengthened with bands of sinew 

The bows e. of the Rockies have little 
distinction of parts, but the w. Eskimo 
and Pacific slope varieties have flat wings, 
and the former shows connection with 
Asia. The nocks are in some tribes alike, 
but among the Plains Indians the lower 
nock is cut in at one side only. Bow- 
strings are of sinew cord tied at one end 
and looped at the other. 

Wrist-guard. — When the bowman's 
left arm was exposed he wore a wrist- 
guard of hide or other suitable material 
to break the blow of the released string. 
Wrist-guards were also decorated for cere- 
monial purposes. 

Arrow release. — Arrow release is the 
way of holding the nock and letting loose 
the arrow in shooting. Morse describes 
four methods among the tribes k. of Mex- 
ico, the first three being Indian: (1) Pri- 
mary release, in which the nock is held 
between the thumb and the first joint of 
the forefinger; (2) secondary release, in 

which the middle and the ring fingers 
are laid inside of the string; (3) tertiary 
release, in which the nock is held be- 
tween the ends of the forefinger and the 
middle finger, while the first three fin- 
gers are hooked on the string; (4) the 
Mediterranean method, confined to the 
Eskimo, whose arrows have a flat nock, 
in which the string is drawn with the 
tips of the first, second, and third fingers, 
the nock being lightly held between the 
first and the second fingers. Morse finds 



that among the North American tribes, 
the Navaho, Chippewa, Micmac, and Pe- 
nobscot used the primary release; the 
Ottawa, Chippewa, and Zuni the second- 
ary; the Omaha, Arapaho, Cheyenne, 
Assiniboin, Comanche, Crows, Siksika^ 
and some Navaho, the tertiary. 

Quivers. — The form of the quiver de- 
pended on the size of the bow and ar- 
rows; the materials, determined by the 
region, are skin or wood. Sealskin quiv- 
ers are used in the Arctic region; beauti- 
fully decorated examples of deerskin are 
common in Canada, also e. of the Rock- 
ies and in the Interior basin. On the 
Pacific coast cedar quivers are employed 
by the canoe-using tribes, and others 
make them of skins of the otter, moun- 
tain lion, or coyote. 

In addition to the works cited under 
the subject Arrowheads, consult Cushing 
(1) in Proc. A. A. A. S., xliv, 1896, (2) 
in Am. Anthrop., vm, 1895; Culin, Am. 
Indian Games, 24th Rep. B. A. E., 1905; 
Mason, N. Am. Bows, Arrows, and Quiv- 



[B. A. E. 

ers, in Rep. Smithson. Inst. 1893, 1894; 
Murdoch, Study of Eskimo Bows, Rep. 
Nat. Mus. 1884, 1885; Morse, Arrow Re- 
lease, in Bull. Essex Inst., 1885; Arrows 
and Arrow-makers, in Am. Anthrop., 45- 
74, 1891 ; also various Reports of the Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology, (o. t. m. ) 
Arroyo Grande. A Pima settlement in 
s. Arizona with 110 inhabitants in 1858. 
Del Arroyo Grande. — Bailey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 208, 

Arseek. A tribe living in 1608 in the 
vicinity of the Sarapinagh, Nause, and 
Nanticoke (Smith, Hist. Va., i, 175, 
repr. 1819). They are not noted on 
Smith's map, but the Nause and Nanti- 
coke are, by which their location is in- 
dicated as on Nanticoke r., in Dorches- 
ter or Wicomico co., Md. (j. m.) 
Aroeck.— Bozman, Maryland, 1,12, 1837 (misprint). 
Arsek.— Purchas (1625), Pilgrimes, IV, 1713. 

Arsuk. An Eskimo village in s. Green- 
land, w. of Cape Farewell, lat. 61°. — 
Nansen, First Crossing of Greenland, 
map, 1890. 

Art. The term "art" is sometimes ap- 
plied to the whole range of man's cultural 
activities, but as here employed it is in- 
tended to refer only to those elements of 
the arts which in the higher stages of cul- 
ture come fully within the realm of taste 
and culminate in the ornamental and 
fine arts (see Ornament) . Among primi- 
tive peoples many of these esthetic ele- 
ments originate in religious symbolism. 
Among the tribes n. of Mexico such 
elements are exceedingly varied and im- 
portant, and extend in some degree to 
all branches of the arts in which plastic, 
graphic, sculptural, constructional, and 
associative processes are applicable, as 
well as to the embellishment of the hu- 
man person. These symbolic elements 
consist very largely of natural forms, es- 
pecially of men and beasts, and of such 
natural phenomena as the sun, stars, 
lightning, and rain; and their introduc- 
tion is probably due largely to the general 
belief that symbols carry with them some- 
thing of the essence, something of the 
mystic influence of the beings and poten- 
cies which they are assumed to represent. 
In their introduction into art, however, 
these symbo's are subject to esthetic in- 
fluence and supervision, and are thus 
properly classed as embellishments. In 
use they are modified in form by the va- 
rious conventionalizing agencies of tech- 
nique, and a multitude of variants arise 
which connect with and shade into the 
great body of purely conventional deco- 
ration. Not infrequently, it is believed, 
the purely conventional designs originat- 
ing in the esthetic impulse receive sym- 
bolic interpretations, giving rise to still 
greater complexity. Entering into the 
arts and subject to similar influences are 
also many ideographic signs and repre- 

sentations which contribute to embellish- 
ment and to the development of purely 
esthetic phases of art. These elements, 
largely pictographic, contribute not only 
to the growth of the fine art, painting, 
but equally to the development of the 
recording art, writing. The place occu- 
pied by the religious, ideographic, and 
simply esthetic elements in the various 
arts of the northern tribes may be briefly 

(1) The building arts, employed in 
constructing dwellings, places of worship, 
etc., as practised n. of Mexico, although 
generally primitive, embody various re- 
ligious and esthetic elements in their non- 
essential elaborations. As a rule, these 
are not evolved from the constructive fea- 
tures of the art, nor are they expressed 
in terms of construction. The primitive 
builder of houses depends mainly on 
the arts of the sculptor and the painter 
for his embellishments. Among Pueblo 
tribes, for example, conventional figures 
and animals are painted on the walls of 
the kivas, and on their floors elaborate 
symbolic figures and religious personages 
are represented in dry-painting (q. v. ) ; at 
the same time nonsignificant pictorial sub- 
jects, as well as purely decorative designs, 
occur now and then on the interior walls, 
and the latter are worked out in crude pat- 
terns in the stonework of the exterior. 
Though the buildings themselves present 
many interesting features of form and pro- 
Xxxrtion, construction has not been brought 
to any considerable degree under the super- 
vision of taste. The dwellings of primitive 
tribes in various parts of the country, con- 
structed of reeds, grass, sod, bark, mats, 
and the like, are by no means devoid of 
that comeliness which results from care- 
ful construction, but they show few defi- 
nite traces of the influence of either sym- 
bolism or the esthetic idea. The skin tipis 
of the Plains tribes present tempting sur- 
faces to the artist, and are frequently taste- 
fully adorned with heraldic and religious 
symbols and with graphic designs painted 
in brilliant colors, while the grass lodge 
is embellished by emphasizing certain 
constructive features in rhythmic order, 
after the manner of basketry. The 
houses of the N. W. coast tribes, built 
wholly of wood, are furnished within 
with carved and painted pillars, whose 
main function is practical, since they 
serve to support the roof, while the to- 
tem-poles and mortuary columns outside, 
still more elaborately embellished, are 
essentially emblematic. The walls both 
within and without are often covered 
with brilliantly colored designs embody- 
ing mythologic conceptions. Although 
these structures depend for their effect 
largely on the work of the sculptor and 
the painter, they show decided archi- 

BULL. 30] 



tectural promise, and suggest the possibil- 
ities of higher development and final es- 
thetic control, as in the great architectu- 
ral styles of the Old World. (See Archi- 
tecture, Dry-painting, Habitations. ) 

(2) Theartof sculpture, which includes 
also carving, had its birth, no doubt, in 
the fashioning of implements, utensils, 
ornaments, and sacred objects; and em- 
bellishments, symbolic; and esthetic, 
which were at first entirely subordinate, 
were gradually introduced as culture ad- 
vanced, and among some of the north- 
ern tribes acquired great prominence. 
The sculpture elaborations consist of life 
elements, such as men and beasts, exe- 
cuted in relief and in the round, and hav- 
ing an esthetic as well as a religious func- 
tion. This strong sculptural tendency is 
w T ell illustrated by the stone pipes, orna- 
ments, and images of the mound-builders 
of the Mississippi valley, the carvings of 
the pile-dwellers of Florida, the masks, 
utensils, and totem poles of the N. W. 
coast tribes, and the spirited ivory carv- 
ings of the Eskimo. Sculpture, the fine 
art, is but a higher phase of these ele- 
mentary manifestations of the esthetic. 
( See Sculpture and Carving. ) 

(3) The plastic art was practised with 
much skill by all the more advanced 
American tribes. North of Mexico the 
potter's art had made exceptional progress 
in two great specialization areas — the 
Pueblo country of the S. W. and the 
Mississippi valley — and symbolic ele- 
ments, derived mainly from the animal 
kingdom, were freely introduced, not 
only as modifications of the fundamental 
shapes of vases, but as embellishments 
variously and tastefully applied. The 
supervision of taste extended also to the 
simple forms of vases, the outlines being 
in many cases highly pleasing even to 
persons of culture. ( See Pottery. ) 

(4) Closely allied with the plastic art is 
the metallurgic art, which had made 
sufficient progress among the tribes N. of 
Mexico to display traces of the strong 
aboriginal bent for the esthetic. From 
the mounds of Ohio, especially from the 
Chillicothe district, many implements, 
ornaments, and symbolic objects of cop- 
per have been obtained, certain highly 
conventional ornamental figures in sheet- 
copper being especially noteworthy. 
From mounds of the Etowah group, in 
Georgia, numerous repousse images exe- 
cuted in sheet-copper have been recovered 
which, as illustrations of artistic as well 
as of mechanical achievement, take prece- 
dence over most other aboriginal works 

.n. of Mexico. (See Copper, Metal-work.) 

(5) The textile art, which for present 
purposes may be regarded as including, 
besides weaving proper, the arts of bas- 
ketry, needlework, beadwork, quillwork, 

featherwork, etc., as practised by the 
northern tribes, abounds in both sym- 
bolic and purely decorative elements of 
embellishment. The former have their 
origin, as in the other arts, in mythology, 
and the latter arise mainly from the tech- 
nical features of the art itself. No branch 
of art practised by the primitive tribes 
calls so constantly lor the exercise of taste 
as does this, and probably none has con- 
tributed so greatly to the development of 
the purely geometric phases of decorative 
art. Illustrations may be found in the 
weaving of the Pueblo and Navaho tribes 
of the arid region and the Chilkat of the 
N. W., in the basketry of numerous tribes 
of the far W. and S. W., and in the bead- 
work, quillwork, embroidery, and feather- 
work of tribes of the great plains, the up- 
*per Mississippi valley, and the region of 
the great lakes. ( See Basketry, Beadwork, 
Featherwork, Needlework, Quillwork, Weav- 
ing. ) 

(6) Primitive phases of the art of paint- 
ing and other related branches, such as 
engraving and tattooing, appear in the 
handiwork of all of the northern tribes. 
Colors were employed in decorating the 
human body, in embellishing manufac- 
tured articles of all kinds, and in ideo- 
graphic delineations on bark, skins, rock 
surfaces, etc. A branch of much impor- 
tance was, and is, the decoration of earth- 
enware, as among the Pueblo tribes; and 
allied to this was the paintingof masks and 
other carvings, as among the Haida and 
Kwakiutlof the N. W., and the painting of 
skins, as among the Plains tribes. In only 
a few cases had considerable progress been 
made in pictorial art; perspective, lightand 
shade, and portraiture were unknown. 
Engraving and stamping were favorite 
means of decorating pottery among the 
ancient tribes of e. United States, and 
tattooing was common among many 
tribes. (See Adornment, Dry-painting, En- 
graving, Painting, Pictographs, Pottery, 
Tattooing. ) 

Besides those branches of art in which 
taste manifests itself in elaborations of 
color, form, proportion, and arrangement 
there are other arts coming less within 
the range of the practical and having a cor- 
respondingly greater proportion of the 
symbolic and esthetic elements, namely, 
music, poetry, and drama. All of these 
have their root deep down in the substrata 
of human culture, and they take a promi- 
nent place in the ceremonial and esthetic 
life of the primitive tribesmen. ( See Dra- 
matic representations, Music, Poetry. ) 

For papers dealing with the primitive 
art of the northern tribes, see various re- 
ports of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy, the (J. S. National Museum, and the 
Smithsonian Institution; publications of 
the Peabody Museum, the American Mu- 



[B. a. e. 

seum of Natural History, the Field Colum- 
bian Museum, the University of California, 
and the Annual Archeological Reports of 
Ontario. Consult also the American An- 
thropologist; the American Antiquarian; 
the Journal of American Folk-lore; Bal- 
four, Evolution of Decorative Art, 1893; 
Boas in Pop. Sci. Month., Oct., 1903; 
Haddon, Evolution of Art, 1895; Dellen- 
baugh, North Americans of Yesterday, 
1901;, and the various works cited under 
the articles above referred to. (w. h. h.) 
Artelnof. A former Aleut village and 
Russian post on Akun id., Alaska; pop. 
32 in 1834. 

Artaylnovskoi. — Elliott, Cond. Aff. Alaska, 225, 
1875. Arteljnowskoje. — Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., 
map, 142, 1855. Artelnovskoe.— Veniaminoff, Zap- 
iski, ii, 202, 1840. 

Arthur, Mark. A full-blood Nez Perce % 
born in 1873. His mother being captured* 
with Chief Joseph's band in 1877, Mark 
became a wanderer among strange tribes 
until about 1880, when he found his way 
back to the Nez Perce res., Idaho, where 
he entered the mission school of Miss 
McBeth and soon began to prepare for 
the ministry. When the Nez Perce cap- 
tives sent to the Indian Territory were 
returned to their northern home, Mark 
found his mother among them and cared 
for her until her death . About 1900 he was 
ordained by the Walla Walla presbytery 
and became pastor, at Lapwai, Idaho, of 
the oldest Presbyterian church w. of the 
Rocky mts. , in which charge he has met 
with excellent success. In 1905 he was 
elected delegate to represent both whites 
and Indians at the general assembly of the 
Presbyterian church, (a. c. f.) 

Artificial Head Deformation. Deforma- 
tions of the human head have been 
known since the 
writings of He- 
rodotus. They 
are divisible into 
two main classes, 
those of patho- 
logical and those 
of mechanical or 
artificial origin. 
The latter, with 
which this ar- 
ticle is alone con- 
chinook woman with child in head- cerned, are again 



divisible into un- 

intentional and intentional deformations. 
One or the other of these varieties of 
mechanical deformation has been found 
among numerous primitive peoples, as the 
ancient Avars and Krimeans, some Tur- 
komans, Malays, Africans, etc., as well 
as among some civilized peoples, as the 
French and Wends, in different parts of the 
Old World, and both varieties existed from 
prehistoric through historic time to the 
present among a number of Indian tribes 
throughout the Western hemisphere. Un- 

intentional mechanical deformations of 
the head present but one important, widely 
distributed form, that of occipital compres- 
sion, which results from prolonged con- 
tact of the occiput of the infant with a re- 
sistant head support in the cradleboard. 


Intentional deformations, in all parts of 
the world and in all periods, present 
two important forms only. In the first of 
these, the flat-head form, the forehead is 
flattened by means of a board or a variety 
of cushion, while the parietes of the head 
undergo compensatory expansion. In 
the second form, known as macrocepha- 
lous, conical, Aymara, Toulousian, etc., 
the pressure of bandages, or of a series 
of small cushions, applied about the 
head, passing over the frontal region 
and under the occiput, produces a more 
or less conical, truncated, bag-like, or 
irregular deformity, characterized by low 
forehead, narrow parietes, often with a 
depression just behind the frontal bone, 
and a protruding occiput. All of these 
forms present numerous individual varia- 
tions, some of which are sometimes im- 
properly described as separate types of 

Among the Indians n. of Mexico there 
are numerous tribes in which no head 
deformation exists and apparently has 
never existed. Among these are included 
many of the Athapascan and Californian 
peoples, all of the Algonquian, Shosho- 
nean (except the Hopi), and Eskimo 
tribes, and most of the Indians of the 
great plains. Unintentional occipital 
compression is observable among nearly 
all the southwestern tribes, and it once 
extended over most of the Ufflted States 

BULL. 30] 



(excepting Florida) s. of the range of the 
tribes above mentioned. It also exists 
in ancient skulls found in some parts of 
the N. W. coast. 

Both forms of intentional deformation 
are found in North America. Their geo- 
graphical distribution is well defined and 
limited, suggesting a comparatively late 
introduction from more southerly peo- 
ples. The flat-head variety existed in 
two widely separated foci, one among the 
Natchez and in a few other localities along 
the northeast coast of the Gulf of Mexico, 
and the other on the N. W. coast from s. 
Oregon as far n. as s. Vancouver id., but 
chiefly w. of the Cascades, along Colum- 
bia r. The Aymara variety existed, and 
still exists, only on and near the n. w. 
extremity of Vancouver id. 

The motives of intentional deformation 
among the Indians, so far as known, are 
the same as those that lead to similar 
practices elsewhere; the custom has be- 
come fixed through long practice, hence 
is considered one of propriety and duty, 
and the result is regarded as a mark of 
distinction and superiority. 

The-effects of the various deformations 
on brain function and growth, as well as 
on the health of the individual, are ap- 
parently, insignificant. The tribes that 
practise it show no indication of greater 
mortality at any age than those among 
which it does not exist, nor do they show 
a larger percentage of imbeciles, or of in- 
sane or neuropathic individuals. The 
deformation, once acquired, persists 
throughout life, the skull and brain com- 
pensating for the compression by aug- 
mented extension in directions of least 
resistance. No hereditary effect is per- 
ceptible. The custom of head deforma- 
tion among the Indians, on the whole, is 
gradually decreasing, and the indications 
are that in a few generations it will have 
ceased to exist. 

Consult Morton, Crania Americana, 
1839; Gosse, Essai sur les deformations 
artificielles du crane, 1855; Lunier, De- 
formations artificielles du crane, Diet, de 
Medic, et de Chirurg., x, 1869; Broca, 
Sur la deformation Toulousaine du crane, 
1872; Lenhossek, Die kunstlichen Scha- 
delverbildungen, 1881; Topinard, Elem. 
d'anthrop. gener., 739, 1885; Brass, Bei- 
trage z. Kenntniss d. kunstlichen Schadel- 
verbildungen, 1887; Porter, Notes on 
Artificial Deformation of Children, Rep. 
Nat. Mus., 1889; Bancroft, Native Races, 
i, 180, 226, et seq., 1874; Hrdlicka, Head 
deformation among the Klamath, Am. 
Anthrop, vn, no. 2, 360, 1905; Catlin, 
North American Indians, i-ij, 1841. See 
Flatheads. (a. h. ) 

Arts and Industries. The arts and in- 
dustries of ^he North American aborig- 
ines, including all artificial methods of 

Bull. 30—05 7 

making things or of doing work, were nu- 
merous and diversified, since they were 
not limited in purpose to the material con- 
ditions of life; a technic was developed to 
gratify the esthetic sense, and art was an- 
cillary to social and ceremonial institutions 
and was employed in inscribing speech on 
hide, bark, or stone, in records of tribal 
lore, and in the service of religion. 
Many activities too, existed, not so much 
in the service of these for their own sake 
as for others. After the coming of the 
whites, arts and industries in. places were 
greatly improved, multiplied in number, 
and rendered more complex by the intro- 
duction of metallurgy, domestic animals, 
mechanical devices, and more efficient 
engineering. Great difficulties embarrass 
the student in deciding whether some of 
the early crude inventions were aboriginal 
or introduced. 

The arts and industries of the Indians 
were called forth and developed for utiliz- 
ing the mineral, vegetal, and animal prod- 
ucts of nature, and they were modified 
by the environmental wants and re- 
sources of every place. Gravity, buoy- 
ancy, and elasticity were employed me- 
chanically, and the production of fire 
with the drill and by percussion was 
also practised. The preservation of fire 
and its utilization in many ways were 
also known. Dogs were made beasts of 
burden and of traction, but neither beast 
nor wind nor water turned a wheel n. of 
Mexico in pre-Columbian times. The 
savages were just on the borders of ma- 
chinery, having the reciprocating two- 
hand drill, the bow and strap drills, and 
the continuous-motion spindle. 

Industrial activities were of five kinds : 

(1) Going to nature for her bounty, the 
primary or exploiting arts and industries; 

(2) working up materials for use, the sec- 
ondary or intermediary arts and indus- 
tries, called also shaping arts or manufac- 
tures; (3) transporting or traveling de- 
vices; (4) the mechanism of exchange; 
(5) the using up or enjoyment of finished 
products, the ultimate arts and industries, 
or consumption. The products of one art 
or industry were often the material or 
apparatus of another, and many tools 
could be employed in more than one; for 
example, the flint arrowhead or blade 
could be used for both killing and skin- 
ning a buffalo. Some arts or industries 
were practised by men, some by women, 
others by both sexes. They had their 
seasons and their etiquette, their cere- 
monies and their tabus. 

Stone craft. — This embraces all the op- 
erations, tools, and apparatus employed 
in gathering and quarrying minerals and 
working them into paints, tools, imple- 
ments, and utensils, or into ornaments and 
sculptures, from the rudest to such as ex- 



hibit the best expressions in fine art. 
Another branch is the gathering of stone 
for building. 

Water industry. — This includes activi- 
ties and inventions concerned in finding, 
carrying, storing, and heating water, and 
in irrigation, also, far more important 
than any of these, the making of vessels 
for plying on the water, which was the 
mother of many arts. The absence of the 
larger beasts of burden and the accom- 
modating waterways together stimulated 
the perfecting of various boats to suit 
particular regions. 

Earth work, — To this belong gathering, 
carrying, and using the soil for construc- 
tion purposes, excavating cellars, build- 
ing sod and snow houses, and digging 
ditches. The Arctic permanent houses 
were made of earth and sod, the tem- 
porary ones of snow cut in blocks, which 
were laid in spiral courses to form low 
domes. The Eskimo were especially in- 
genious in solving the mechanical prob- 
lems presented by their environment of 
ice. The St Lawrence, Atlantic, and 
Canadian tribes undertook no earth-build- 
ing that required skill; but those of the 
Mississippi valley, the Gulf states, and 
the far S. W., in their mounds and earth- 
works developed engineering and cooper- 
ative ability of no mean order. In some 
cases millions of cubic feet of earth were 
built up into geometric forms, the mate- 
rial often having been borne long dis- 
tances by men and women. The tribes 
of the Pacific coast lived in partly subter- 
ranean houses. The Pueblo tribes were 
skilful in laying out and digging irrigat- 
ing ditches and in the builder's art, erect- 
ing houses and walls of stones, pise, or 
adobe. Some remains of stone structures 
show much taste in arrangement. 

Ceramic art. — This industry includes all 
operations in plastic materials. The Arc- 
tic tribes in the extreme W., which lack 
proper stone, kneaded with their fingers 
lumps of clay mixed with blood and hair 
into rude lamps and cooking vessels, but 
in the zone of intense cold besides the 
ruder form there was no pottery. The 
tribes of Canada and of the n. tier of states 
w. of L. Superior and those of the Pacific 
slope worked little in clay; but the Indi- 
ans of the Atlantic slope, of the Missis- 
sippi valley, and especially of the S. W. 
knew how to gather and mix clay and 
form it into pottery, much of which has 
great artistic merit. This industry was 
quite generally woman's work, and each 
region shows separate types of form and 

Metal craft. — This included mining, 
grinding of ores and paint, rubbing, cold- 
hammering, engraving, embossing, and 
overlaying with plates. The metals were 
copper, hematite and meteoric iron, lead 

in the form of galena, and nugget gold 
and mica. No smelting was done. 

Wood craft. — Here belongs the felling of 
trees with stone axes and fire. The soft- 
est woods, such as pine, cedar, poplar, and 
cypress, were chosen for canoes, house 
frames, totem poles, and other large ob- 
jects. The stems of smaller trees were 
used also for many purposes. Driftwood 
w T as wrought into bows by the Eskimo. 
As there were no saws, trunks were split 
and hewn into single planks on the N. 
Pacific coast. Immense communal dwell- 
ings of cedar were there erected, the tim- 
bers being moved by rude mechanical ap- 
pliances and set in place with ropes and 
skids. The carving on house posts, totem 
poles, and household furniture was often 
admirable. Jn the S. W. underground 
stems were carved into objects of use and 

Root craft. — Practised for food, basketry, 
textiles, dyes, fish-poisoning, medicine, 
etc. Serving the purposes of wood, the 
roots of plants developed a number of 
special arts and industries. 

Fiber craft. — Far more important than 
roots for textile purposes, the stems, 
leaves, and inner and outer bark of 
plants and the tissues of animals, having 
each its special qualities, engendered a 
whole series of arts. Some of these mate- 
rials were used for siding and roofing 
houses; others yielded shredded fiber, 
yarn, string, and rope; and some were 
employed in furniture, clothing, food re- 
ceptacles, and utensils. Cotton was ex- 
tensively cultivated in the S. W. 

Seed craft. — The harvesting of berries, 
acorns and other nuts, and grain and oth- 
er seeds developed primitive methods of 
gathering, carrying, milling, storing, cook- 
ing, and serving, with innumerable ob- 
servances of days and seasons, and multi- 
farious ceremony and lore. 

Not content with merely taking from 
the hand of nature, the Indians were 
primitive agriculturists. In gathering 
roots tkey first unconsciously stirred the 
soil and stimulated better growth. They 
planted gourds in favored places, and re- 
turned in autumn to harvest the crops. 
Maize was regularly planted on ground 
cleared w T ith the help of fire and was 
cultivated with sharpened sticks and hoes 
of bone, shell, and stone. Tobacco was 
cultivated by many tribes, some of which 
planted nothing else. 

Animal industries. — Arts and industries 
depending on the animal kingdom in- 
clude primarily hunting, fishing, trap- 
ping, and domestication. (See Hunting. ) 
The secondary arts involve cooking and 
otherwise preparing food; the butchering 
and skinning of animals, skin-dressing in 
all its forms; cutting garments, tents, 
boats, and hundreds of smaller articles 

BULL. 30] 



and sewing them with sinew and other 
thread; working claws, horn, bone, teeth, 
and shell into things of use, ornaments, 
and money; and work in feathers, quills, 
and hair. These industries went far be- 
yond the daily routine and drudgery 
connected with dress, costume, recepta- 
cles, and apparatus of travel and trans- 
portation. Pictographs were drawn on 
specially prepared hides ; drums and other 
musical instruments were made of skins 
and membranes; for gorgeous headdresses 
and robes of ceremony the rarest and finest 
products of animals were requisite; em- 
broiderers everywhere most skilfully used 
quills and feathers, and sometimes grass 
and roots. 

Evolution of arts. — Much was gathered 
from nature for immediate use or con- 
sumption, but the North Americans were 
skilful in secondary arts, becoming man- 
ufacturers when nature did not supply 
their demands. They built a different 
kind of house in each environment— in 
one place snow domes and underground 
dwellings, in another houses of pun- 
cheons hewn from the giant cedar, and 
in other regions conical tents made of 
hides of animals, pole arbors covered 
with matting or with cane, and houses of 
sods or grass laid on a framework of logs. 
The invention of house furniture and uten- 
sils, such as cooking vessels of stone, pot- 
tery, or vegetal material, vessels of clay, 
basketry, worked bark or hide for serv- 
ing food, and bedding, developed the 
tanner, the seamstress, the potter, the 
wood-worker, the painter, the dyer, and 
the stonecutter. The need of clothing the 
body also offered employment to some of 
these and gave rise to other industries. 
The methods of preparing food were bak- 
ing in pits, roasting, and boiling; little in- 
vention was necessary therein, but utensils 
and apparatus for getting and transport- 
ing food materials had to be devised. 
These demands developed the canoe- 
maker and the sled-builder, the fabricator 
of weapons, the stone-worker, the wood- 
worker, the carvers of bone and ivory, 
the skilful basket-maker, the weaver, 
the netter, and the makers of rope and 
babiche. These arts were not finely 
specialized; one person would be skilful 
in several. The workshop was under 
the open sky, and the patterns of the 
industrial workers were carried in their 

The arts and industries associated with 
the use and consumption of industrial 
products were not specially differentiated. 
Tools, utensils, and implements were 
worn out in the using. There was also 
some going about, traffic, and luxury, 
and these developed demands for higher 
grades of industry. The Eskimo had fur 
suits that they would not wear in hunting; 

all the deer-chasing tribes had their gala 
dress for festal occasions, ceremony, and 
worship, upon which much time and skill 
were expended; the southern and western 
tribes wove marvelously fine and elegant 
robes of hemp, goat's hair, rabbit skin 
in strips, and skins of birds. The artisans 
of both sexes were instinct with the es- 
thetic impulse; in one region they were 
devoted to quillwork, those of the next 
area to carving wood and slate; the ones 
living across the mountains produced 
whole costumes adorned with bead work; 
the tribes of the central area erected elab- 
orate earthworks; workers on the Pacific 
coast made matchless basketry; those of 
the S. W. modeled and decorated pottery 
in an endless variety of shapes and colored 
designs. The Indians n. of Mexico were 
generally well advanced in the simpler 
handicrafts, but had nowhere attempted 
massive stone architecture. 

Consult the Annual Reports and Bulle- 
tins of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
which are replete with information re- 
garding Indian arts and industries. See 
also Bancroft, Native Races, i-v, 1886; 
Boas in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xv, 
1901; Dellenbaugh, North Americans of 
Yesterday, 1901 ; Goddard, Life and Cul- 
ture of the Hupa, 1903; Hoffman in Nat. 
Mus. Rep. 1895, 739/1897; Holmes (1) in 
Smithson. Rep. 1901, 501, 1903; (2) in 
Am. Anthrop., in, 684, 1901; Hough (1) 
in Nat. Mus. Rep. 1888, 531, 1890; (2) 
ibid., 1889, 395, 1891; McGuire, ibid., 
1894, 623, 1896; Mason, (1) ibid., 1889, 
553, 1891; (2) ibid., 1890, 411, 1891; (3) 
ibid., 1894, 237, 1896; (4) ibid., 1897, 725, 
1901; (5) ibid., 1902, 171, 1904; (6) in 
Am. Anthrop., i, 45, 1899; Moore, Mc- 
Guire, Willoughby, Moorehead, et al., 
ibid., v, 27, 1903; Ni black in Nat. Mus. 
Rep. 1888, 1890; Powers in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., in, 1877; Rau (1) in Smithson. 
Rep. 1863; (2) in Smithson. Cont. Knowl., 
xxv, 1885; Willoughby in Am. Anthrop., 
vn, nos. 3, 4, 1905; Wilson in Nat. Mus. 
Rep. 1897, 1899 ; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, 
i-vi, 1851-57; also the Memoirs and Bul- 
letins of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, and the Memoirs and Papers 
of the Peabody Museum. See also the 
articles on the subjects of the various in- 
dividual arts and industries and the 
works thereunder cited, (o. t. m. ) 

Arukhwa ( ' cow buffalo ' ) . A gens of the 
Oto and of the Iowa. The subgentes of 
the latter are Chedtokhanye, Chedtoyine, 
Cheposhkeyine, Cheyinye. 
Ah'-ro-wha.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 156, 1877 (Oto). 
A-ru-qwa.— Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 240, 1897 
(Oto). A'-ru-qwa.— Ibid., 239, (Iowa). Cow Buf- 
falo.— Morgan, op. cit. (Oto). 

Asa ('tansy mustard'). A phratral 
organization of the Hopi, comprising the 
Chakwaina (Black Earth kachina), Asa 



[B. a. e. 

(Tansy mustard), Kwingyap (Oak), Hos- 
boa ( Chapparal cock) , Posiwu (Magpie), 
Chisro (Snow bunting), Puchkohu 
(Boomerang hunting-stick), and Pisha 
(Field-mouse) clans. In early days this 
people lived near Abiquiu, in the Chama 
r. region of New Mexico, at a village called 
Kaekibi, and stopped successively at the 
pueblos of Santo Domingo, Laguna, 
Acoma, and Zufii before reaching Tusa- 
yan, some of their families remaining at 
each of these pueblos, except Acoma. 
At Zuni their descendants form the 
Aiyaho clan. On reaching Tusayan the 
Posiwu, Puchkohu, and Pisha clans set- 
tled with the Hopi Badger clan at 
Awatobi, the remainder of the group 
continuing to and settling first at Coyote 
spring near the e. side of Walpi mesa, 
under the gap, and afterward on the mesa 
at the site of the modern Hano. This 
village the Asa afterward abandoned, on 
account of drought and disease, and went 
to Canyon de Chelly, about 70 m. n. e. 
of Walpi, in the territory of the Navaho, 
to which tribe many of their women were 
given, whose descendants constitute a 
numerous clan known among the Navaho 
as Kinaani (High-standing house). Here 
the Asa lost their language, and here they 
planted peach trees in the lowlands; but 
a quarrel with the Navaho caused their 
return to Hano, at which pueblo the 
Tewa, from the Kio Grande, in the mean- 
time had settled. This was probably be- 
tween 1700 and 1710. The Asa were 
taken to Walpi and given a strip of 
ground on the e. edge of the mesa, where 
they constructed their dwellings, but 
a number of them afterward removed 
with some of the Lizard and Bear people 
to Sichumovi. See the works cited be- 
low, also Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 
610, 1900; Mindeleff, ibid., 639. (f.w. h. ) 

Asa.— Stephen and Mindeleff in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 
30-31,1891. Asanyumu. — Ibid, (nyu-mu = ' phra- 
try ' ) .— Tca'-kwai-na nyu-mu.— Fewkes in Am. 
Anthrop., vn, 404, 1894 (nyu-mu — 'vhmtry'; like- 
wise called A'-sa-nyu-mu). 

Asa. The Tansy Mustard clan of the 
Asa phratry of the Hopi. 
A'-sa.— Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 39, 1891. 
As-wiin-wu. — Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., vn, 404, 
1894 (wiin-wil = ' clan '). 

Asahani. One of the 7 clans of the 
Cherokee. The name can not be inter- 
preted, but it may have archaic connec- 
tion with sa'kani, sa'Jcanigel, 'blue.' It 
does not refer to cutting of the ears, as 
has been asserted, (j. m. ) 

A-sa-ha'-ni.— Mooney, Cherokee MS. vocab., 
B. A. E., 1885 (Cherokee form; pi., A'-ni'-sa-ha'-nl). 
Nesonee.— Haywood, Tenn., 276, 1823. 

Asao. An unidentified town formerly 
on Amelia id., Nassau co., n. e. Fla. A 
mission was established there about 1592 
by Spanish Franciscans, but it was de- 
stroyed by the natives in their revolt 

against the missionaries in 1597. — Shea, 
Cath. Miss., 66, 1855. 

Asapalaga. A former Seminole village 
located on some maps on the e. bank of 
St Marks r., Fla., below Yapalaga. Tay- 
lor's war map places it, probably cor- 
rectly, on theE. bank of Apalachicola r., 
in Gadsden co., where Appalaga now is. 
Asapalaga.— Jefferys, French Dom. Am., i, map, 
135, 1761. Aspalaga.— Roberts, Fla., 14, 1763. 

Ascahcutoner. Mentioned by Balbi 
(Atlas Ethnog., 33, 1826) as a tribe be- 
longing to his Sioux-Osage family, appa- 
rently associating them with the Teton. 
Not identified. The final part of the 
term suggests Kutenai. 

Aseakum. A Samish village in n. w. 
Washington. — Gibbs, MS. Clallam vocab., 
no. 38, B. A. E. 

Aseik {Ase'ix). One of the three 
Bellacoola towns of the Talio division at 
the head of South Bentinck arm, British 
Columbia. — Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., ii, 49, 1898. 
A'seQ.— Boas in 7th Rep. N. W. Tribes, 3, 1891. 

Asenane (AsE'nane). A former Bella- 
coola town on Bellacoola r., British 
Columbia. — Boas in 7th Rep. N. W. 
Tribes, 3, 1891. 

Ashamomuck. Probably a Corchaug vil- 
lage whose name was later attached to a 
white settlement on its site in Suffolk co., 
Long id., N. Y. — Thompson, Long Id., 
181, 1839. 

Ashbochia. A band or division of the 

Ash -bot-chee-ah.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 159, 1877. 
Treacherous lodges. — Culbertson in Smithson. 
Rep. 1850, 144, 1851. 

Ashegen. A Yurok village on the coast 
of California, 5 or 6 m. s. of the mouth 
of Klamath r. (a. l. k.) 
Osse-gon.— Gibbs in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 
133, 1859. 

Ashihi ( ' salt ' ) . A Navaho clan. 
Acihi. — Matthews in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 
104, 1890. Acihi^ine.— Ibid. Asihi.— Matthews, 
Navaho Legends, 30, 1897. Asihidlne'.— Ibid. 

Ashimuit (from ashim, 'a spring,' in 
the Nauset dialect). A village in 1674 
at a large spring in Barnstable co., Mass., 
near the junction of Falmouth, Mashpee, 
and Sandwich townships. It probably 
belonged to the Nauset. (j. m. ) 

Ashimuit.— Bourne (1674) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
1st ser., I, 197, 1806. Shumuit.— Ibid. 

Ashinadea ( ' lost lodges ' ) . A band or 
division of the Crows. 

Ah-shin'-na-de'-ah.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 159, 1877. 

Ashipak ('in the basket'). A Karok 
village on Klamath r., a few miles above 
the mouth of Salmon r., in Siskiyou co., 
n. w. Cal. 
Hakh-kutsor.— Kroeber, inf n, 1904 (Yurok name). 

Ashipoo. An unidentified village on a 
stream between Edisto and Combahee r., 
S. C, about 12 m. from the coast. — Brion 
de la Tour, map U. S., 1784. 

Ashivak. A Kaniagmiut village near 
C. Douglas, Alaska; pop. 46 in 1880. — 
Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 28, 1884. 

BULL. 30] 



Ashkanena ('Blackfoot lodges'). A 
band of the. Crows. 

Ash-kane'-na.— Morgan," Anc. Soc., 159, 1877. 

Askkum. A Potawatomi village, named 
from its chief, on the n. side of Eel r., 
about Denver, Miami eo., Ind. The res- 
ervation, including the village, was sold in 
1836. (j. m.) 

Ashnola. A body of Okinagan in s. w. 
British Columbia; pop. 54 in 1901.— Can. 
Ind. Aff. for 1901, pt. 2, 166. 

Askukkuma ( ' red grass ' ) . A Chickasaw 
town mentioned by Romans (East and 
West Fla. , 63, 1775) . It was probably in 
Pontotoc or Dallas co. , Miss. 

Asidakeck. A Wichita subtribe. — J. O. 
Dorsey, inf'n, 1881; Mooney, infn, 1902. 
Ci-da'-hetc— Dorsey, op. cit. (pron. Shi-da'-hetch, 
or She-dar'haitch)". 

Asilao. A Helatl town on lower Fraser 
r., above Yale, British Columbia. 

Asila'o.— Boas in Rep. Brit. A. A. S., 454, 1894. 

Asimina. The American papaw ( As'im- 
ina triloba ) . In Louisianian and Canadian 
French the word assiminier or asiminier, 
papaw tree, first occurs in the latter part 
of the 17th century, and it is through this 
source that the term has entered English. 
The origin is from the Illinois or some 
closely related dialect of Algonquian. 
Trumbull (Am. Philol. Assoc, 25, 1872) 
considers that the " older i orm, " racemina, 
used in 1712 by Father Marest, is etymo- 
logically more correct, representing the 
Illinois rassimina, from rassi, 'divided 
lengthwise in equal parts'; mina, plural 
of win, 'seed,' 'fruit,' 'berry.' (a. f. c.) 
Asimu. A Chumashan village w. of 
Pueblo de las Canoas (San Buenaventura ) , 
Ventura co. , Cal. , in 1542. — Cabrillo ( 1542) 
in Smith, Colec. Doc, 181, 1857. 

Asisufuunuk. A Karok village on Kla- 
math r. at Happy Camp, at the mouth of 
Indian cr., n. w. Cal. (a. l. k.) 
As-sif-soof-tish-e-ram.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Mar. '23, 1860. 

Asiukuil. A former Chumashan vil- 
lage near Santa Inez mission, Santa Bar- 
bara co., Cal. — Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Oct. 18, 1861. 

Askakep. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608, near Pamunkey r., 
in New Kent co., Va.— Smith (1629), Va., 
i, map, repr. 1819. 

Askimimkansen. A village, perhaps con- 
nected with the Nanticoke, formerly on 
an upper e. branch of Pocomoke r. , prob- 
ably in Worcester co., Md. — Herrman, 
map (1670) in Rep. on Boundary Line 
between Va. and Md., 1873. 

Askirmk. A Kaialigmiut Eskimo vil- 
lage on Hooper bav, near C. Romanzoff, 
Alaska; pop. 175 in 1880, 138 in 1890. 
Askeenac. — Hooper, Cruise of Corwin, 6, 1880. 
Askinaghamiut. — 11th Census Rep. on Alaska, 164, 
1893. Askinak.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 54, 
1884. Askinuk.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 

Asko. An' Ikogmiuti village, oit the 
right bank of the Yukon, below Anvik, 
Alaska; pop. 30 in 1880. 
Askhomute.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 
1899 (the people). 

Asnela. A small island in Penobscot 
r., Me., occupied by the Penobscot. The 
name is derived from that of an Indian 
called Assen or Ossen. — Gatschet, Pe- 
nobscot MS., B. A. E., 1887. 

Asomoches. A division of the New 
Jersey Delawares formerly living on the e. 
bank of Delaware r. , between Salem and 
Camden. In 1648 they were estimated 
at 100 warriors. 

Asomoches.— Evelin (1648) in Proud, Pa., I, 113, 
1797. Asoomaches.— Sanford, U. S., cxlvi, 1819. 

Asopo. A former village, perhaps on 
Amelia id., n. e. Florida, the site of a 
Spanish Franciscan mission destroyed in 
the Indian revolt of 1597. 

Aspasniagan. A former village of the 
Chalones, of the Costanoan family, near 
Soledad mission, Monterey co., Cal. 
Aspasniaga. —Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Apr. 20, 1860. 
Aspasniagan. — Ibid. Aspasniaquan. — Ibid. Aspas- 
niaques.— Galiano, Relac. del Sutil y Mexieana, 
164, 1802. 

Aspenquid. An Abnaki of Agamenti- 
cus, Me., forming a curious figure in New 
England tradition. He is said to have 
been born toward the end of the 16th 
century and converted to Christianity, to 
have preached it to the Indians, traveled 
much, and died among his own people 
at the age of about 100 years. Up to 
1775-76 Aspenquid's day was celebrated 
in Halifax, Nova Scotia, by a clam din- 
ner. He is said to be buried on 
the slope of Mt Agamenticus, where he 
is reported to have appeared in 1682. 
He is thought by some to be identical 
with Passaconaway. In Drake's New 
England Legends there is a poem, "St 
Aspenquid," by John Albee. See Am. 
Notes and Queries, n, 1889. (a. f. c.) 

Asphaltum. See Cement. 

Aspinet. A sachem of Nauset on C. Cod, 
Mass. He was known to the Plymouth 
colonists as early as 1621, and is noted 
chiefly for his unwavering friendship for 
the English. He kindly treated and re- 
turned to his parents a white boy who 
had lost his way in the w r oods and w r as 
found by some of Aspinet' s people. In 
the winter of 1622, when Thomas Wes- 
ton's men saw famine staring them in the 
face, and the Plymouth people were but 
little better off, Aspinet and his people 
came to their relief with corn and beans. 
It was his firm stand in favor of peace 
with the colonists, and his self-restraint 
when provoked almost beyond forbear- 
ance by Standish's hasty temper, that pre- 
served the friendly relations of the sur- 
rounding Indians with the Plymouth 
colony during its early years. He was, 
however, finally driven into the swamps 



[B. A. B. 

by< thi eats of attacks by the English, and 
died in his unhealthful hiding place 
probably in 1623. (c. t.) 

Assabaoch. A band, probably of the 
Assiniboin or Chippewa, in the vicinity of 
Eainv lake, Ontario, in 1874; pop. 152. — 
Can. Ind. Rep., 85, 1875. 

Assacomoco. A village about 1610, 
probably near Patuxent r., Md. (Pory 
in Smith (1629), Virginia, n, 63, repr. 
1819 ) . The name is Algonquian and con- 
tains the word comoco, 'house,' common 
in names of Virginia settlements. 

Assacumbuit. An Abnaki ("Tarra- 
tine") chief who appeared in history 
about 1696. He was a faithful adherent 
of the French and rendered important 
aid to Iberville and Montigny in the re- 
duction of Ft St Johns, N. B., Nov. 30, 
1696. With two other chiefs and a few 
French soldiers A ssacumbuit attacked the 
fort at Casco, Me., in 1703, then defended 
by Capt. March, which was saved by the 
timely arrival of an English vessel. He 
assisted the French in 1704-5 in their 
attempt to drive out the English who 
had established themselves in Newfound- 
land, and in 1706 visited France, where 
he became known to Charlevoix and was 
received by Louis XIV, who knighted 
him and presented him an elegant sword, 
after boasting that he had slain with his 
own hand 140 of the King's enemies in 
New England (Penhallow, Ind. Wars, i, 
40, 1824). Assacumbuit returned from 
France in 1707 and in the following year 
w r as present with the French in their at- 
tack on Haverhill, Mass. From that time 
until his death in 1727 nothing further in 
regard to him is recorded. He is some- 
times mentioned under the name Nes- 
cambioiiit, and in one instance as Old 
Escambuit. (c. t.) 

Assameekg. A village in 1698, proba- 
bly near Dartmouth, Bristol co., Mass., in 
Wampanoag territory. Mentioned in 
connection with Acushnet and Assa- 
wompset by Rawson and Danforth (1698) 
inMass.Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 129-134, 

Assaomeck. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy, in 1608, situated about Al- 
exandria, Va. — Smith (1629), Virginia, 
i, map, repr. 1819. 

Assapan. A dictionary name for the 
flying squirrel (Sciuropterus volucella), 
spelt also assaphan, evidently cognate with 
Chippewa a/sipun, Sauk and Fox a'se- 
pan®, 'raccoon.' (a. f. c. w. j. ) 

Assawompset. A village existing as late 
as 1674 in Middleborough tp., Ply- 
mouth co., Mass, probably within Wam- 
panoag territory. 

Assawampsit. — Rawson and Danforth (1698) in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 129-134, 1809. Assa- 
wanupsit.— Ibid. Assoowamsoo. — Bourne (1674), 
ibid., I, 198, 1806. Assowamsett.— Records (1671) 
quoted by Drake, Bk. Inds., bk. 3, 20, 1848. 

Assegun (probably from Chippewa 
u'shigun 'black bass.' — W. J.). A tradi- 
tional tribe said to have occupied the 
region about Mackinaw and Sault Ste Ma- 
rie on the first coming of the Ottawa and 
Chippewa, and to have been driven by 
them southward through lower Michigan. 
They are said, and apparently correctly, 
to have been either connected w T ith the 
Mascoutin or identical with that tribe, 
and to have made the bone deposits in 
N.Michigan. See Mascoutin. (j. m. ) 

Asseguns.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 202-4, 1857. 
Assigunaick.— Brinton, Lenape Legend, 228, 1885. 
Assigunaigs.— Schoolcraft, op. cit., I, 191, 1851. 
Bone Indians. — Ibid., 307. 

Asseheholar, Asseola. See Osceola. 

Assilanapi ( ' yellow or green leaf tree ' ) . 
A former Creek town, probably on Yel- 
lowieaf cr. , a tributary of Coosa r. , Ala. 
There is a township of the same name in 
the Creek Nation, Indian Ter. — Gatschet, 
Creek Migr. Leg., i, 128, 1884. 

Arselarnaby.— H. R. Ex. Doc. 276, 24th Cong., 250, 
1836. Ossalonida.— Ibid., 325. 

Assi-luputski. See Black drink. 

Assiminehkon. By the treaty of Prai- 
rie du Chien in 1829 the Ottawa, Pota- 
watomi, and Chippewa reserved "one 
section at the village of the As-sim-in-eh- 
Kon, or Paw-paw Grove." Probably a 
Potawatomi village in Leeco., 111. — Prai- 
rie du Chien treaty (1829) in U. S. Ind. 
Treaties, 163, 1873. 

Assiminier. See Asimina. 

Assinapi (Chippewa: usi'napa, 'stone 
person.' — W. J.). A people, mentioned 
in the Walam Olura ( Brinton, Lenape, 190, 
1885), with whom the Delawares fought 
during their migration toward the e. 
Assinipi.— Rafinesque, Am. Nations, I, 146, 1836. 

Assiniboin (Chippewa: u'sini 'stone,' 
u'pw'dw <* ' he cooks by roasting ' : ' one 
w r ho cooks by the use of stones. ' — W. J. ) . 
A large Siouan tribe, originally constitut- 
ing a part of the Yanktonai. Their sepa- 
ration from the parent stem, to judge by 
the slight dialectal difference in the lan- 
guage, could not have greatly preceded the 
appearance of the whites, but it must 
have taken place before 1640, as the Jesuit 
Relation for that year mentions the As- 
siniboin as distinct. The Relation of 
1658 places them in the vicinity of L. 
Alimibeg, between L. Superior and Hud- 
son bay. On Jefferys' map of 1762 this 
name is applied to L. Nipigon, and on 
De 1' Isle's map of 1703 to Rainy lake. 
From a tradition found in the widely 
scattered bodies of the tribe and heard 
by the first Europeans who visited the 
Dakota, the Assiniboin appear to have 
separated from their ancestral stem while 
the latter resided somewhere in the region 
about the headwaters of the Mississippi, 
whence they moved northward and joined 
the Cree. It is probable that they first 
settled about Lake of the Woods, then 

5ULL. 30] 



drifted northwestward to the region 
about L. Winnipeg, where they were liv- 
ing as eariy as 1670, and were thus lo- 
cated on Lahontan's map of 1691. Chau- 
vignerie (1736) place them in the same 


region. Dobbs (Hudson Bay, 1744) lo- 
cated one division of the Assiniboin some 
distance n. w. of L. Winnipeg and the 
other immediately w. of an unidentified 
lake placed n. of L. Winnipeg. These 
divisions he distinguishes as Assiniboin 
of the Meadows and Assiniboin of the 
Woods. In 1775 Henry found the tribe 
scattered along Saskatchewan and Assini- 
boine rs., from the forest limit well up to 
the headwaters of the former, and this 
region, between the Sioux on the s. and 
the Siksika on the w., was the country 
over which they continued to range 
until gathered on reservations. Hayden 
(Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Yal., 1862). 
limits their range at that time as fol- 
lows: "The Northern Assiniboins roam 
over the country from the w. banks of 
the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin rs., in 
a w. direction to the Woody mts., n. and 
w. amongst some of the small outliers of 
the Rocky mts. e. of the Missouri, and on 
the banks of the small lakes frequently 
met with on the plains in that district. 
They consist of 250 or 300 lodges. - The 
remainder of the tribe, now [1856] re- 
duced to 250 lodges, occupy the dis- 
trict defined as follows: Commencing at 
the mouth of the White Earth r. on the 
e., extending up that river to and as far 
beyond its source as the Grand Coulee 
and the head of La Riviere aux Souris, 

thence N. w. along the Coteau de Prairie, 
or divide, as far as the beginning of the 
Cypress mts., on the n. fork of Milk r., 
down that river to its junction with the 
Missouri, thence down the Missouri to 
White Earth r. , the starting point. Until 
the vear 1838 the tribe still numbered 
from* 1,000 to 1,200 lodges, trading on the 
Missouri, when the smallpox reduced 
them to less than 400 lodges. They were 
also surrounded by large and hostile 
tribes, who continually made war upon 
them, and in this way their number was 
diminished, though at the present time 
they are slowly on the increase. ' ' 

From the time they separated from the 
parent stem and joined the Cree until 
brought under control of the whites, they 
were almost constantly at war with the 
Dakota. As they have lived since the 
appearance of the whites in the N. W. 
almost wholly on the plains, without per- 
manent villages, moving from place to 
place in search of food, their history has 
been one of conflict with surrounding 

Physically the Assiniboin do not differ 
materially from the other Sioux. The 
men dress their hair in various forms; it 
is seldom cut, but as it grows is twisted 
into small locks or tails, and frequently 
false hair is added to lengthen the twist. 
It sometimes reaches the ground, but is 


generally wound in a coil on top of the 
head. Their dress, tents, and customs 
generally are similar to those of the Plains 
Cree, but they observe more decorum in 
camp and are more cleanly, and their 



[B. a. e. 

hospitality is noted by most traders who 
have visited them. Polygamy is com- 
mon. While the buffalo abounded their 
principal occupation consisted in making 
pemmican, which they bartered to the 
whites for liquor, tobacco, powder, balls, 
*>* knives, etc. Dogs are said to have been 
sacrificed to their deities. According to 
Alexander Henry, if death happened in 
winter at a distance from the burial 
ground of the family, the body was car- 
ried along during their journeying and 
placed on a scaffold, out of reach of dogs 
and beasts of prey, at their stopping 
places. Arrived at the burial place, the 
corpse was deposited in a sitting posture 
in a circular grave about 5 feet deep, 
lined with bark or skins; it was then 
covered with bark, over which logs were 
placed, and these in turn were covered 
with earth. 

The names of their bands or divisions, 
as given by different writers, vary con- 
siderably, owing to the loose organiza- 
tion and wandering habit of the tribe. 
Lewis and Clark mention as divisions in 
1805: (1) Menatopa (Otaopabine of Max- 
imilian), Gens de Feuilles [for filles] 
(Itscheabine), Big Devils (Watopach- 
nato), Oseegah, and another the name 
of which is not stated. The whole peo- 
ple were divided into the northern and 
southern and into the forest and prairie 
bands. Maximilian (Trav., 194, 1843) 
names their gentes as follows: (1) Itsche- 
abine (gens des filles); (2) Jatonabine 
(gens des roches); (3) Otopachgnato 
(gens du large) ; (4) Otaopabine (gens des 
canots); (5) Tschantoga (gens des bois); 
(6) Watopachnato (gens de l'age); (7) 
Tanintauei (gens des osayes) ; (8) Chabin 
(gens des montagnes). A band men- 
tioned by Hay den (op. cit, 387), the 
Minishinakato, has not been identified 
with any named by Maximilian. Henry 
(Jour., ii, 522-523, 1897) enumerated 11 
bands in 1808, of which the Red River, 
Rabbit, Eagle Hills, Saskatchewan, Foot, 
and Swampy Ground Assiniboin, and 
Those - who - have - water- for- themsel ves- 
onlycan not be positively identified. This 
last may be Hayden' s Minishinakato. 
Other divisions mentioned, chiefly geo- 
graphical, are: Assiniboin of the Mead- 
ows, Turtle Mountain Sioux, Wawaseeas- 
son, and Assabaoch (?). The only Assin- 
iboin village mentioned in print is Pas- 
quay ah. 

Porter (1829) estimated the Assiniboin 
population at 8,000; Drake at 10,000 be- 
fore the smallpox epidemic of 1836, dur- 
ing which 4,000 of them perished. Galla- 
tin (1836) placed the number at 6,000; the 
U. S. Indian Report of 1843, at 7,000. In 
1890 they numbered 3,008; in 1904, 2,600. 

The Assiniboin now (1904) living in 

the United States are in Montana, 699 
under Ft Belknap agency and 535 under 
Ft Peck agency; total, 1,234. In Can- 
ada there were in 1902 the Mosquito 
and Bears Heads' and Lean Man's bands 
at Battleford agency, 78; Joseph's band 
of 147, Paul's of 147, and 5 orphans at Ed- 
monton agency; Carry-the-Kettle band 
under Assiniboin agency, 210; Pheasant 
Rump's band, originally 69, and Ocean 
Man's, 68 in number, at Moose mtn.; 
and the bands on Stony res., Alberta, 
661; total, 1,371. See Powell in 7th Rep. 
B. A. E., Ill, 1891; McGee, Siouan In- 
dians, 15th Rep. B. A. E., 157, 1897; 
Dorsey, Siouan Sociology, ibid., 213; 
Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 
1862. (j. m. c. t.) 

Apinulboines.— Lloyd in Jour. Anthrop. Inst., v, 
246, 1876 (misprint). Arsenipoitis. — Barcia, En- 
sayo, 238, 1723. Arsenipoits.— McKenney and 
Hall, Ind. Tribes, III, 80, 1854. Asinbols.— Trum- 
bull, Ind. Wars, 185, 1851. Asiniboels.— Anville, 
Am. Sept. map, 1756. Asiniboines. — Morgan in 
N. Am. Rev., 44, Jan., 1870. Asi'-ni-bwa".— Am. 
Natur., 829, Oct., 1882 (wrongly given as Dorsey's 
spelling). Asinibwanak. — Cuoq, Lex. de la Lan- 
gue Algonquine, 77, 1886. A-si-ni-poi'-tuk. — Hay- 
den, Ethnog. and Philol., 381, 1862 (Cree and 
Chippewa name). Asinipovales. — Barcia, Ensayo, 
176, 1723. As-ne-boines.— Bonner, Life of Beck- 
wourth, 158, 1856. Asseenaboine. — Fran klin, Journ. 
Polar Sea, 168, 1824. Asseeneepoy tuck.— Ibid., 55 
(Cree name). Asselibois.— Doc. of 1683 in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 798, 1855. Assenepoils.— Henne- 
pin, New Discov., map, 1698. Asseniboines.— Per- 
rin, Voy. dans les Louisianes, 263, 1805. Asseni- 
boualak.— Du Lhut (1678) in Margry, Dec, VI, 21, 
1886. Assenipoels.— Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 1055, 1855. Assenipoils. — 
Hennepin, New Discov., map, 1698. Assenipoua- 
lacs.— Hennepin quoted by Shea, Disc, 131, 
1852 (trans, 'stone warriors'). Assenipoualak. — 
Shea, ibid., note. Assenipouals. — Radout (1710) 
in Margry, Dec, VI, 14, 1886. Assenipouel.— Ibid., 
11. Assenipoulacs. — Hennepin misquoted by 
Neill, Hist. Minn., 134, 1858. Assenipoulaes. — 
Hennepin (1680) in French, Hist. Coll. La., I, 212, 
1846. Assenipoulaks.— Du Lhut (1678) in Margry, 
Dec, VI, 22, 1886. Assenipouvals. — Coxe, Carolana, 
43,1741. Assenipovals.— Alcedo,Dict.Geog.,lv,557, 
1788. Assenniboins.— Schoolcraft, Trav., 245, 1821. 
Assenpoels.— N. Y. Doc Col. Hist., index, 289, 1861. 
Assilibouels.— Iberville (1702) in Margry, Dec, 
iv, 600, 1880. Assimpouals. — Lahontan, New Voy., 
I, 231, 1703. Assinaboes.— Smith, Bouquet's Ex- 
ped., 69, 1766. Assinaboil.— Boudinot, Star in the 
West, 125, 1816. Assinaboine.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 498, 
1839. Assinaboins. — Ibid., 297, 1835. Assina- 
bwoines.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 99, 1855. As- 
sineboes.— Hutchins (1765), ibid., in, 556, 1853. As- 
sineboin. —Brackenridge, Views of La., 79, 1815. 
Assineboines.— Richardson, Arct. Exped., I, map, 
1851. Assinebwannuk. — Jones, Ojebway Inds., 
178,1861. Assinepoel.— Chauvignerie (1736)quoted 
by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 556, 1853. Assine- 
poils. — Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Valley, 
380, 1862. Assinepoins. — Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1849, 70, 1850. Assinepotuc— Balbi, Atlas Ethnog., 
55, 1826. Assinepoualaos.— Coxe, Carolana, 43, 
1741. Assiniboelle.— Beauharnois and Hocquart 
(1731) in Margry, Dec, VI, 568, 1886. Assini- 
boels.— Frontenac (1695) , ibid., v, 63, 1883. Assini- 
boesi.— Capellini, Ricordi, 185, 1867. Assiniboile. — 
Vaudreuil and Begon (1716) in Margry, Dec,vi, 
496, 1886. Assiniboils. —Carver, Travels, map, 1778. 
Assiniboines.— West, Jour., 86, 1824. Assiniboins.— 
Gass, Jour., 69, 1807. Assinibois.— Denonville 
(1685) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 286, 1855. As- 
siniboleses.— Alcedo, Dice Geog., i, 165, 1786. As- 
siniboualas.— Perrot in Minn. Hist. Coll., n, pt. 2, 
24, 1864. Assinibouane.— Pachot (1722) in Margry 

BULL. 30] 



Dec, VI, 517, 1886. Assinibouels.— Vaudreuil 
(1720^ ibid., 510. Assinibouets.— Du Chesneau 
(1681) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist,, ix, 153, 1855. As- 
siniboiiles.— Perrot, Mem., 91, 1864. Assinib'wans. — 
Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1849, 77, 1850. Assini- 
poals.— Proc. verb. (1671) in Margry, Dec., i, 97, 
1876. Assinipocls.— Du Lhut (1678), ibid., VI, 19, 
1886. Assinipoile.— Vaudreuil and Begon (1716), 
ibid., 500. Assinipoileu.— Balbi, Atlas Ethnog., 
55,1826. Assinipoils.— Le Sueur (1700) in Mar- 
gry, Dec, VI, 82, 1886. Assiniponiels.— Gallatin in 
Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc, n, 123, 1836. Assinipo- 
tuc— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 501, 1878. As- 
sinipoual.— Lahontan, New Voy., 1, 207, 1703. As- 
sinipoualac— Jes. Rel., 1665, in, 23, 1858. Assifli- 
poualaks.— Ibid., 21, 1658. Assinipoiiars.— Ibid., 
1670, 92. Assinipoulac— Du Lhut (1684) in Margry, 
Dec, vi, 51, 1886. Assinipour.— Le Jeune in Jes. 
Rel., 1640, in, 35, 1858. Assinipovals.— Harris, Coll. 
Voy. and Trav., n, map, 1705. Assini-poytuk.— 
Richardson, Arct. Exped., 51, 1851. Assinipwa- 
nak.— Gatschet, MS., B. A. E. (Chippewa name). 
Assinnaboin.— Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Assinna- 
boines.— Ibid. Assinneboin.— Tanner, Nar., 50,. 
1830. Assinnee-Poetuc— Me.Hist.Soc.Coll., vi, 270, 
1859. Assinnibains.— Lewis and Clark, Disc, 23, 
1806. Assinniboan.— Coues, Lewis and Clark Ex- 
ped., 1, 193, note, 1893 (Chippewa name). Assinni- 
boine.— Hind, Labr. Pen., n, 148, 1863. Assinniboine 
Sioux.— Can. Ind. Rep., 77, 1880. Assinniboins. — 
Lewis and Clark, Disc , 30, 1806. Assinopoils.— La 
Harpe (1700) in French, Hist. Coll. La., in, 27, 1851. 
Assinpouele.— Anon. Carte de l'Am. Sept., Paris, 
n. d. Assinpoulac— Bowles, map of Am., after 
1750. Assinpouls.— Lahontan, quoted by Ram- 
sey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 72, 1849. Ausinabwaun. — 
Parker, Minn. Handb., 13, 1857. Chiripinons.— 
Perrot J1721) in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., n, pt. 2, 24, 
1864. Essinaboin.— Ex. Doc 90, 22d Cong., 1st 
sess., 64, 1832. E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua.— Long, Exped. 
Rocky Mts., II, lxxxiv, 1823 (Hidatsa name, from 
i-ta-ha-tski, 'long arrows'). Fish-eaters.— Hayden, 
Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 381, 1862 (Hohe or; 
Dakota name). Guerriers de la Roche.— Perrot, 
Mem., 232, 1864. Guerriers de pierre.— Jes. Rel., 
1658, in, 21, 1858. Haha.— Coues, Pike's Exped., I, 
348, 1895. Ho-ha.— Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. 
Soc, ii, 123, 1836 ('rebel': sometimes applied by 
other Sioux tribes). Hohays.— Snelling, Tales of 
N. W., 21, 1830. Hohe.— Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. 
A. E., 222, 1897 (Dakota name: 'rebels'). Ho'-he.— 
Harden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 381, 1862 
(trans, 'fish-eaters'). Hoheh.— Williamson in 
Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., I, 296, 1872. Ho-he'-i-o.— 
Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 290, 1862 
(Cheyenne name). Hoh-hays.— Ramsey in Minn. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., I, 48, 1872. Indiens-Pierre. — Balbi, 
Atlas Ethnog., 55, 1826. Issati.— Henry, Travels, 
286, 1809 (erroneous identification for San tee). 
Left hand. — Culbertson in Smithson. Rep, 1850, 
143, 1851 (translation of the French name of their 
chief). Mantopanatos.— Keane in Stanford, Com- 
pend., 470, 1878. Nacota.— Maximilian, Trav., 193, 
1843 (own name, same as Dakota: 'our people'). 
Nation of the great Water.— Dobbs, Hudson Bay, 
20, 1744. Osinipoilles.— Henry. Trav., 273, 1809. 
Ossineboine.— Coues, Lewis and Clark Exped., I, 
178, note 58, 1893. Ossiniboine.— Ibid., 59. Ossno- 
bians.— Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., in, 24, 1794. Sioux 
of the Rocks.— Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 77, 1850. 
Stone.— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 536,1878. 
Stone Indians.— Fisher, New Trav., 172, 1812. 
Stone Roasters.— Tanner, Nar., 51, 1830. Stone 
Sioux.— Lewisand Clark, Disc, 46, 1806. Stoney. — 
Keane in Stanford, Compend., 536, 1878. Stoney 
Indians.— Can. Ind. Rep., 80, 1880. Stonies.— Inf'n 
of Chas. N. Bell, of Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1886 
(the common name used by English in Canadal. 
Thickwbod.— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 536, 
1878 (applied to the Assiniboin of the Rocky 
mts.)." Tlu'tlama'Eka.— Chamberlain, inf'n, 1903 
( ' cutthroats ' : Kutenai name) . TJssinebwoinug. — 
Tanner, Nar., 316, 1830 (Chippewa name). Weep- 
ers.— Henry, Trav., 286, 1809. 

Assiniboin of the Plains. A division of 
the Assiniboin described by Dobbs (Hud- 
son Bay, 35, 1744) as distinguished from 
that portion of the tribe living in the 

wooded country. On his map they are 
located w. of L. Winnipeg. De Smet 
(Miss, de 1' Oregon, 104, 106, 1848) esti- 
mated them at 300 lodges, and in the 
English edition of his work (Oregon 
Miss., 156, 1847) the number given is 600 
lodges. He says they hunt over the 
great plains between the Saskatchewan, 
Red, Missouri, and Yellowstone rs., and 
as compared with the Assiniboin of the. 
woods "are more expert in thieving, 
greater topers, and are perpetually at 
war," but that in general the men are 
more robust and of commanding stature. 
They include the Itscheabine, Wato- 
pachnato, Otaopabine, and Jatonabine. 
Assiniboels of the South.— Jeff erys, French Dom. 
in Am, pt. I, m;ip, 1741. Assiniboins des Plaines.— 
Smet, Miss, de 1' Oregon, 104, 1848. Assinibouels 
of the Meadows.— Dobbs, Hudson Bay, 35, 1744. 
Plain Assineboins.— Hind, Red River Exped., II, 
152, 1860. 

Assonet. A river and village in Bristol 
co., Mass., and probably the name of a 
former Indian village in the vicinity. 
Schoolcraft (Ind. Tribes, i, 117, 1851) 
uses the name " Assonets" to denote the 
probable Indian authors of the inscrip- 
tions on Dighton rock. (j. m. ) 

Assuapmnshan. A Montagnais mission 
founded by the Jesuits in 1661 about 300 
m. up Saguenay r., Quebec, probably at 
the entrance of Ashuapmouchouan r. into 
L. St John. A trading post of the same 
name was on that river in 1832. — Hind, 
Labrador, n, 25, 26, 38, 1863. 

Assumption. A mission established in 
1728 at the Wyandot village near the 
present city of Detroit, Mich., and re- 
moved soon afterward to the opposite 
shore. It continued until 1781. — Shea, 
Cath. Miss., 202, 1855. 

Assunpink ( ' at the stone stream ' ) . A 
division of the Delawares formerly on 
Stony cr., on the Delaware, near Trenton. 
Probably from the Indian name of Stony 
cr. (j. m. ) 

Assanpinks.— Boudinot, Star in the West, 125, 
1816. Asseinpinks.— Sanford, U. S., cxlvii, 1819. 
Assunpink.— Proud, Pa., II, 294, 1798. Stony Creek 
Indians.— Ibid. 

Assunta. A former village, presuma- 
bly Costanoan, connected with Dolores 
mission, San Francisco, Cal. — Taylor in 
Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Assuti. A small Nez Perce band for- 
merly living on Assuti cr., Idaho. They 
joined Chief Joseph in the Nez Perce 
war of 1877.— Gatschet, MS., B. A. E., 

Assnweska. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy in 1608 on the n. bank of 
the Kappahannock, in King George co., 
Va. — Smith (1629), Va., i, map, repr. 

Astakiwi (es-ta-ke', 'hot spring.' — 
Powers ) . A Shastan village near Canby, 
in Warm Springs valley, Modoc co., Cal., 
whose people were described by Pow- 



[B. a. e. 

ers (Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 267, 1877) 
as most miserable and squalid, having 
been brutalized not only by their scanty 
and inferior diet, but also by the loss of 
their comeliest maidens and best young 
men, who were carried off into slavery 
by the Modoc. 

Astakaywas.— Powers in Overland Mo., xn, 412, 
1874. Astakywich.— Ibid. Astaqkewa.— Curtin, 
MS. Ilmawi vocab., B. A. E., 1889. Es-ta-ke'- 
wach.— Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol. , f in, 267, 
1877. Hot Spring Valley Indians.— Ibid, (includes 
also the Hantewa) . 

Astialakwa. A former pueblo of the 
Jemez, on the summit of a mesa that 
separates San Diego and Guadelupe can- 
yons at their mouths. It was probably 
the seat of the Franciscan mission of San 
Juan, established early in the 17th cen- 
tury. Distinct from Ostyalakwa. 
Asht-ia-la-qua.— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers. 
Ill, 126, 1890. Ash-tyal-a-qua.— Ibid., IV, 206, 1892. 
Asht-ya-laqua. —Bandelier in Proc. Cong. Internat. 
Am., vii, 452, 1890. Astialakwa.— Hodge, field 
notes, B. A. E., 1895. Ateyala-keokva.— Loew in 
Wheeler Survey Rep., vii, 343, 1879. 

Astina. A village in n. Florida in 1564, 
subject to Utina, head chief of the Tim- 
ucua (Laudonniere in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., n. s., 298, 1869). De Bry's map 
(1590) places it w. of St Johns r. 

Astouregamigoukh. Mentioned as one 
of the small tribes n. of St Lawrence r. 
(Jes. Rel. 1643, m, 38, 1858). Probably 
a Montagnais band or settlement about 
the headwaters of Saguenay or St Mau- 
rice r. 

Asumpcion. A group of Alchedoma 
rancherias on or near the Rio Colorado, 
in California, more than 50 m. below the 
mouth of Bill Williams fork. They were 
visited and so named by Fray Francisco 
Garces in 1776.— Garces, Diary, 426, 1900. 

Asystarca. A former Costanoan village 
of central California attached to the mis- 
sion of San Juan Bautista. — Engelhardt, 
Franciscans in Cal., 398, 1897. 

Ataakut. A village of the Tolowa for- 
merly situated on the coast of n. Cal. — 
Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 236, 

A'-ta-a-kut'. — Dorse v in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, ill, 
236, 1890 (Tutu name). A'-ta-a-kut'-ti.— Ibid. 
(Tutu name). A-ta-ke-te tun'-ne.— Dorsey, MS. 
Chetco vocab.. B. A. E., 1884. Ni-yank'-ta-ke'-te 
te'-ne.— Dorsey, MS. Smith R. vocab., B. A. E., 
1884. Yah-nih-kahs.— Hamilton, MS. Hay-narg- 
ger vocab., B. A. E. Yantuckets. — Bancroft, Nat. 
Races, I, 445, 1874. Yatuckets.— Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, June 8, 1860. Yau-tuck-ets.— Ibid., Apr. 
12, 1861. Yon-tocketts.— Hamilton, MS. Hay-narg- 
ger vocab., B A. E. 

Ataakwe ('seed people' ). A people 
encountered by the Zufii before reaching 
their final residing place at Zuni, N. Mex. 
They joined the Seed clan of the Zuni, 
whose descendants constitute the present 
Taakwe, or Corn clan, of that tribe. — 
Cushing in The Millstone, ix, 2, 23, 1884. 
A'-ta-a.— Cushing, ibid. 

Ata-culculla. See Attakullakulla. 

Atagi. One of the 4 Alibamu towns for- 
merly situated in what is now Autauga co. , 

Ala., extending 2 m. along the w. bank 
of Alabama r., a short distance w. of 
the present Montgomery. Autaugaville, 
Autauga cr. , and Autauga co. are named 
after it. Hawkins (1798) speaks of it as 
a small village 4 m. below Pawokti, and 
says that the people have little inter- 
course with the whites but are hospitable. 
Schooler (Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 
578, 1854) states that it contained 54 
families in 1832. (a. s. g. ) 
At-tau-gee.— Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 36, 1848. 
Autallga.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 425, 24th Cong., lstsess., 
331, 1836. Autauga.— Campbell (1836) in H. R. 
Doc. 274, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 20, 1838. Autobas.— 
Swan (1791) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 262, 
1855. Dumplin Town.— Woodward, Reminis- 
cences, 12, 1859. 

Atalans. An imaginary prehistoric 
civilized race of North America (Rafin- 
esque, introd. to Marshall, Ky., i, 23, 
1824); probably based on the Atlantis 

Atamasco lily. The name of a plant 
{Amaryllis atamasco), defined by Bart- 
lett (Diet, of Americanisms, 20, 1877) 
" as a small one-flowered lily, held in like 
esteem, in Virginia and North Carolina, 
with the daisy in England." Parkinson 
(Paradisus, 87, 1629) says that "the In- 
dians in Virginia do call it Attamusco." 
Gerard {Sun, N. Y., July 30, 1895) states 
that the word means ' stained with red,' 
in reference to the color of the flowers. 
In this case the chief component would 
be the Algonquian radical misk, signi- 
fying 'red.' (a. f. c. ) 

Atana {Ata'na). A Haida town on 
House, or Atana, id., e. coast of Moresby 
id., Queen Charlotte group, British Colum- 
bia. According to Skidegate legend, 
House id. was the second to appear above 
the waters of the flood. At that time 
there was sitting upon it a woman who 
became the ancestress of the Tadjilanas. 
The Kagialskegawai also considered her 
as their "grandmother," although saying 
that they were not descended directly 
from her but from some people who 
drifted ashore at the same place in a 
cockleshell. The town was occupied by 
the Tadjilanas. As the name does not 
occur in John Work's list, it would seem 
to have been abandoned prior to 1836- 
41.— Swanton, Cont. Haida, 277, 1905. 

Atanekerdluk. An Eskimo settlement 
on Nugsuak pen., w. Greenland. — Peary, 
My Arct. Jour., 208, 1893. 

Atangime. A settlement of Eskimo in 
e. Greenland. — Meddelelser om Gron- 
land, xxv, 24, 1902. 

Atanumlema. A small Shahaptian tribe 
living on Yakima res., on Atanum cr., 
Wash. They are said to speak a dia- 
lect closely related to the Yakima and 
Klikitat— Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 
738, 1896. 

Atanus {eata'riAS, 'bilge- water'). A 
Skittagetan town, occupied by the Do- 

BULL. 30] 



gitunai, on the n. e. coast of Hippa id., 
British Columbia — Swanton, Cont. Haida, 
281, 1905. 

Ataronchronon. One of the minor 
tribes of the Huron confederation, among 
whom the Jesuit mission of Sainte Marie 
was established. — Jes. Eel. for 1640, 61, 

Andoouanchronon.— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 35, 1858. 
Andowanchronon.— Jes. Rel., index, 1858. Atacon- 
chronons,— Jes. Rel. for 1637, 114, 1858. Ataronch. — 
Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 154, 1883. 

Atarpe. A former village, presumably 
Costanoan, connected with Dolores mis- 
sion, San Francisco, Cal. 
Atarpe.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 
Oturbe. — Ibid. TTturpe. — Ibid. 

Atasi (Creek: a'tassa, 'warclub.' — Gat- 
schet) . An ancient Upper Creek town on 
the s. side of Tallapoosa r., in Macon co., 
Ala., adjoining Calibee cr., 5 m. above 
Huthliwathli town. In 1766 it contained 
about 43 warriors, and when seen by 
Hawkins, about 1799, it was a poor, 
miserable-looking place. On Nov. 29, 
1813, a battle was fought there between 
the Creeks and Jackson's troops. The 
name was later applied to a town in the 
Creek Nation, Indian Ter., the people of 
which are called Atasalgi. See Jefferys, 
French Dom. Am., 135, map, 1761; Bar- 
tram, Trav., 454, 1791; Gatschet, Creek 
Migr. Leg., i, 128, 1884; n, 185, 1888. 
Allasis.— Bartram, Voy., I, map, 1799 (errone- 
ously placed on the Chattahoochee). Altasse. — 
Boudinot, Star in the West, 260, 1816. Atases.— 
Jefferys, French Dom., i, 134, map. 1761. Atasi.— 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Legend, I, 128, 1884. 
Atassi. — Ibid. Atesi. — Ibid, (in Indian Ter.). 
Attases.— Roberts, Florida, 13, 1763. Attasis.— 
Phelipeau, Carte G6n6rale, 1783. Attasse. — Bar- 
tram, Travels, 448, 1791. Autisees.— Woodward, 
Reminiscences, 24, 1859. Autossee. — Drake, Ind. 
Chron., 198, 1836. Aut-tos-se.— Hawkins (1799), 
Sketch, 31, 1848. Auttotsee.— Hawkins (1813) in 
Am. State Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 849, 1832. Citasees.— 
Romans, Florida, i, 280, 1775. Gitases.— Jefferys, 
French Dom. Am., i, 134, map, 1761 (mislocated, 
but probably the same). Olasse. — Bartram, Voy., 
I, map, 1799. Otasee.— Thomas (1793) in Am. 
State Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 407, 1832. Otasse.— Bar- 
tram.Travels, 394, 461, 1791. Otisee.— Carley (1835) 
in H. R. Doc. 452, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 75, 1838. 
Otissee.— Ibid., 31. Otoseen.— H. R. Ex. Doc. 276, 
24th Cong., 1st sess., 131, 1836. Ottasees.— TJ. S. Ind. 
Treat. (1797), 70, 1837. Ottersea.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 
425, 24th Cong., 1st sess., 152, 1836. Ottesa.— 
Campbell (1836) in H. R. Doc. 274, 25th Cong., 2d 
sess., 20, 1838. Ottessa.— Crawford (1836), ibid ,24. 
Ottisse.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 578, 1854. 
Ottissee.— Wvse (1836) in H. R. Doc. 63, 25th 
Cong., 2d sess., 63, 1838. 

Atastagonies. An unidentified tribe 
mentioned by Rivera (Diario y Derro- 
tero„leg. 2,602, 1736) as formerly living in 
s. Texas. 

Atcbaluk. An Eskimo village in the 
Kuskokwim district, Alaska; pop. 39 in 

Atchalugumiut.— 11th Census, Alaska, 164, 1890 
(the inhabitants). 

Atchatchakangouen (from atchitchak, 
'crane'). The principal division of the 
Miami. On account of the hostility of the 
Illinois they removed w. of the Missis- 
sippi, where they were attacked by the 

Sioux, and they afterward settled near the 
Jesuit mission at Green Bay, and moved 
thence into Illinois and Indiana with the 
rest of the tribe. In 1 736 Chauvignerie 
gave the crane as one of the two leading 
Miami totems, (j. m. ) 

Atchatchakangouen. — Perrot (ca. 1721) M6moire, 
222, 1864. AtchatchaKangouen.— Jes. Rel., LVIII, 
40. 1899. Chacakengua. — Coxe, Carolana, map, 
1741. Chachakingua.— Ibid., 12. La Grue.— La 
Salle (1680) in Margry, Dec, II, 216, 1877. Miamis 
de la Grue.— Perrot, op. cit., 154. Outichacouk. — 
Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741. Outitchakouk.— Jesuit 
Rel., 1658, 21, 1858. Tchatchakigoa.— La Salle 
(1680) in Margry, Dec, II, 216, 1877. Tchatcha- 
king.— Ibid. (1683), 320. Tchiduakouingoues.— 
Bacqueville de la Potherie, Hist. Am., n, 261, 
1753. Tchiduakouongues.— Baqueville de la Poth- 
erie misquoted by Shea in Wis. Hist. Soc Coll., 
in, 134, 1856. 

Atchaterakangouen. An Algonquian 
tribe or band living in the interior of 
Wisconsin in 1672, near the Mascouten 
and Kickapoo. 

AtchateraKangouen.— Jes. Rel., LVIII, 40, 1899. 

Atchialgi (atchi 'maize,' dlgi 'people'). 
One of the twenty Creek clans. 
Atchialgi.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., 1, 155,1884. 

Atchinaalgi ('cedar grove people'). A 
former small village of the Upper Creeks, 
on a tributary of Tallapoosa r. , probably in 
Tallapoosa co., Ala. It was their north- 
ernmost settlement in the 18th century, 
and was destroyed by Gen. White, Nov. 
13, 1813. (a. s. g.) 

Atchina-algi.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 128, 
1884. Au-che-nau-ul-gau.— Hawkins (1799), Sketch 
of Creek country, 47, 1848. Genalga.— Pickett, 
Hist. Ala., ii, 299, 1851. 

Atchinahatchi ( ' cedar creek ' ) . A for- 
mer branch settlement of the Upper 
Creek village of Kailaidshi, on a small 
stream of the same name* a tributary of 
the Tallapoosa, probably in Coosa co., 
Ala. (a. s. g. ) 

Ahcharalar.— H. R. Ex. Doc 276, 24th Cong., 1st 
sess.. 322, 1836 (a doubtful synonym). Atchina 
Hatchi.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 128, 1884. 
Au-che-nau-hat-che.— Hawkins (1799), Sketch, 49, 

Atcb.itcb.iken (Atci'tcikEn, sig. doubtful, 
or Nkaitu'sus, ' reaches the top of the brow 
or low steep,' because the trail here passes 
on top of a bench and enters Spapiam 
valley). A village of the Spences Bridge 
band of the Ntlakyapamuk on the n. side 
of Thompson r., 3 m. back in the moun- 
tains from Spences Bridge, British Colum- 
bia. — Teit in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, 
ii, 173, 1900. 

Ateacari. A branch of the Cora divi- 
sion of the Piman family on the Rio de 
Nayarit, or Eio de San Pedro, in Jalisco, 

Ateacari.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 59, 1864. Atea- 
kari.— Pimentel, Lenguas de Mex., n, 83, 1865. 
Ateanaca.— Orozco y Berra, op. cit. (name of lan- 

Atepua. A pueblo of the province of 
Atripuy, in the region of the lower Rio 
Grande, N. Mex., in 1598.— Onate (1598) 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871. 
Atepira.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N, Mex., 135, 1889 



[B. a. e. 

Atfalati (Atfdlati). A division of the 
Kalapooian family whose earliest seats, 
so far as can be ascertained, were the 
plains of the same name, the hills about 
Forest Grove, and the shores and vicin- 
ity of Wappato lake, Oreg. ; and they are 
said to have extended as far as the site 
of Portland. They are now on Grande 
Ronde res. and number about 20. The 
Atfalati have long given up their native 
customs and little is known of their 
mode of life. Their language, however, 
has been studied by Gatschet, and our 
chief knowledge of the Kalapooian 
tongue is from this dialect. The follow- 
ing were the Atfalati bands as ascer- 
tained by Gatschet in 1877: Chacham- 
bitmanchal, Chachanim, Chachemewa, 
Chachif, Chachimahiyuk, Chachimewa, 
Chachokwith, Chagindueftei, Chahelim, 
Chakeipi, Chakutpaliu, Chalal, Chalawai, 
Chamampit, Chapanaghtin, Chapokele, 
Chapungathpi Chatagithl, Chatagshish, 
Chatakuin, Chatamnei, Chatilkuei, Cha- 
w T ayed. (l. f. ) 

Atfalati.— Gatschet in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, xn, 
212, 1899. FaUatahs.— Slocum in H. R. Rep. 101, 
25th Cong. , 3d sess. , 42, 1839. Fallatrahs. —Slocum 
in Sen. Doc. 24, 25th Cong., 2d sess., 15, 1838. 
Follaties.— Hale in U. S. Expl. Exped., vi, 569, 
1846. Jualati.— Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., vni, 
256, 1882. Snalatine.— Lane (1849) in Sen. Ex. 
Doc. 52, 31st Cong., 1st sess., 172, 1850. Sualatine.— 
Lane in Ind. Aff. Rep., 160, 1850. Tualati.— Gat- 
schet in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, xn, 212, 1899. Tua- 
latims.— Taylor in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 40th Cong., 
spec, sess., 27, 1867. Tualatin.— Palmer in Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 260, 1854. Tuality.— Tolmie in Trans. 
Oreg. Pion. Assn., 32, 1884. Tuhwalati.— Hale in 
U. S. Expl. Exped., VI, 569, 1846. Turlitan.— 
Huntington in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1867, 62, 1868. Twala- 
ties.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 221, 1861. Twalaty.— Pres. 
mess., Ex. Doc. 39, 32d Cong., 1st sess., 2, 1852. 
Twalites.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 1864, 503, 1865. Twal- 
lalty.— Ibid., 205, 1851. Twaltatines.— Meek in 
H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 30th Cong., 1st sess., 10, 1848. 
Wapato Lake.— McClane in Ind. Aff. Rep., 184, 
1887. Wapatu.— Gatschet in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, 
iv, 143, 1891. Wapatu Lake.— Gatschet in Cont. N. 
A. Ethnol., ii, pt. 1, xlvi, 1890. Wapeto.— Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 492, 1897. Wapoto Lake.— McClane in Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 269. 1889. Wappato.— Smith in Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 56, 1875. Wappatoo.— Victor in Overland 
Mo., vii, 346, 1871. Wapto.— Meacham, Wigwam 
and Warpath, 117, 1875. 

Athabasca (Forest Cree: aihap 'in suc- 
cession,' -askaw 'grass,' 'reeds'; hence 
' grass or reeds here and there. ' — Hewitt ) . 
A northern Athapascan tribe, from which 
the stock name is derived, residing around 
Athabasca lake, Northwest Ter., Canada. 
Ross (MS., B. A. E. ) regards them as a 
part of the Chipewyan proper. They do 
not differ essentially from neighboring 
Athapascan tribes. In 1902 (Can. Ind. 
Aff., 84, 1902) 326 were enumerated at 
Ft Chipewyan. 

Arabaskaw,— Lacombe, Diet, des Cris, 1874 
("Athabasca" Cree name). Athabaskans.— Peti- 
tot, Diet. Dene-Dindjie\ xx, 1876. Athapascow. — 
Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Athapuscow. — Hearne, 
Journ. N. Ocean, 177, 1795. Ayabaskau.— Gatschet, 
MS., B. A. E. (Cree name). Kkpay-tpele-Ottine. — 
Petitot, Autour du lac des Esclaves, 363, 1891 
('people of the willow floor,' i. e., of Ft Chipe- 

wyan). Kkpest'ayle-kke ottine.— Petitot, Diet. 
Dene-Dindpe, xx, 1876 ('people of the poplar 
floor'). Yeta-Ottine.— Petitot, Autour, op. cit. 
('people from above'). 

Athapascan Family. The most widely 
distributed of all the Indian linguistic 
families of North America, formerly ex- 
tending over parts of the continent from 
the Arctic coast far into n. Mexico, from 
the Pacific to Hudson bay at the n., and 
from the Rio Colorado to the mouth of 
the Rio Grande at the s. — a territory ex- 
tending for more than 40° of latitude and 
75° of longitude. 

The languages which compose the Atha- 
pascan family are plainly related to each 
other and, because of certain peculiari- 
ties, stand out from the other American 
languages with considerable distinctness. 
Phonetically they are rendered harsh and 
difficult for European ears because of 
series of guttural sounds, many continu- 
ants, and frequent checks and aspirations. 
Morphologically they are marked by a 
sentence verb of considerable complexity, 
due largely to many decayed prefixes and 
to various changes of the root to indicate 
the number and character of the subject 
and object. Between the various lan- 
guages much regular phonetic change, 
especially of vowels, appears, and while 
certain words are found to be common, 
each language, independently of the 
others, has formed many nouns by com- 
position and transformed the structure 
of its verbs. The wide differences in 
physical type and culture and the differ- 
ences in language point to a long separa- 
tion of the family, certainly covering 
many centuries. Geographically it con- 
sists of three divisions: Northern, Pacific, 
and Southern. 

The Northern division, known as the"A 
Tinneh, or Dene, the name they apply to 
themselves, consists of three groups: The / 
eastern, the northwestern, the south w r est- / 
ern. The eastern group occupies a vast { 
extent of continuous territory, bounded 
on the W. by the Rocky mts. and lower 
Mackenzie r., on the s. by the watershed I 
between the Athabasca and lower Peace 
rs., Athabasca lake, and Churchill r. To 
the e. and n. a narrow but continuous 
strip of Eskimo territory bars them from 
Hudson bay and the Arctic ocean. Their 
neighbors on the s. are members of the' 
Algonquian family. This group seems to 
constitute a culture area of its own, 
rather uniform and somew T hat limited on 
its material side. Very little is known 
of the folklore and religion of the people 
of this region. The principal tribes are 
the Tatsanottine or Yellowknives, e. of 
Yellowknife r., the Thlingchadinne or 
Dogribs, between Great Slave and Great 
Bear lakes; on Mackenzie r., beginning 

BULL. 30] 



at the n., the Kawchodinneh or Hares, 
and the Etchaottine or Slaveys; the 
Chipewyan on Slave r., the Tsattine or 
Beavers on Peace r. ; and some 500 m. to 
the s. beyond the area outlined, the 
Sarsi, a small tribe allied with their 
Algonquian neighbors, the Siksika. The 
northwestern group occupies the interior 
of Alaska and adjacent portions of British 
territory as far as the Rocky mts. The 
shore lands to the n. and w. are held by 
the Eskimo, except at Cook inlet and 
Copper r. The people seem to have been 
too much occupied with the severe strug- 
gle with the elements for a bare existence 
to have developed much material culture. 
They are usually distinguished into three 
principal divisions: The Kutchin of Por- 
cupine and Tanana rs.,the middle course 
of the Yukon, and the lower Mackenzie 
(where they are often spoken of as 
Louchoux); the Ahtena of Copper r.; 
and the Khotana of the lower Yukon, 
Koyukuk r., and Cook inlet. The south- 
western group occupies the mountainous 
interior of British America from the 
upper Yukon to lat. 51°. 30', with the 
Rocky mts. for their e. barrier, and with 
the Skittagetan, Koluschan, Chimmes- 
yan, and Wakashan families between 
them and the Pacific. Their s. neighbors 
are the Salish. They are said to show con- 
siderable variety of physical appearance, 
culture, and language. The tribes com- 
posing this group are, according to Morice, 
beginning at the n., the Nahane; the 
Sekani; the Babine (Nataotin), on the 
shores of a lake ..bearing that name; the 
Carriers (Takulli), who occupy the terri- 
tory from Stuart lake southward to Alex- 
andria on Fraser r., and the Chilcotin 
(Tsilkotin), who live in the valley of the 
river to w T hich they have given their 

The Pacific division consisted formerly 
of a small band in Washington and of 
many villages in a strip of nearly contin- 
uous territory about 400 m. in length, 
beginning at the valley of Umpqua r. in 
Oregon and extending toward the s. along 
the coast and Coast Range mts. to the 
headwaters of Eel r. in California. Their 
territory was cut through at one point 
by the Yurok on Klamath r. These vil- 
lages were in many cases separated by 
low but rugged-mountains, and were sur- 
rounded by, and here and there sur- 
rounded, the small stocks characteristic 
of the region. The culture throughout 
this territory w 7 as by no means uniform, 
partly on account of the great differences 
between the conditions of life on the sea- 
coast and those of inland mountain val- 
leys, and partly because there was little 
intercourse between the river valleys of 
the region. For the greater part, in lan- 
guage there was a gradual transition 

through intermediate dialects from one 
end of the region to the other. There 
were probably 5 of these dialects which 
were mutually unintelligible. There were 
no tribes in this region, but groups of 
villages which sometimes joined in a raid 
against a common enemy and where the 
same dialect was spoken. The following 
dialectic groups made up this division: 
The Kw r alhioqua in Washington; the 
Umpqua and Coquille (Mishikhwutme- 
tunne) , formerly on rivers of these names; 
the Taltushtuntude, Chastacosta, and 
Tututunne on Rogue r. and its tributa- 
ries, and the Chetco on Chetco r. in Ore- 
gon; the Tolowa on Smith r. and about 
Crescent City ; the Hupa and Tlelding on 
the lower portion of Trinity r. ; the Hoil- 
kut on Redwood cr. ; the Mattole on the 
river of that name; the Sinkyone, Las- 
sik, and Kuneste in the valley of Eel r., 
in California. But few of the members 
of this division now remain. The Ore- 
gon portion has been on the Siletz and 
Grande Ronde res. for many years; those 
of California still reside near their an- 
cient homes. 

The Southern division held sway over 
a vast area in the S. W., including most 
of Arizona and New Mexico, the s. por- 
tion of Utah and Colorado, the w. bor- 
ders of Kansas and Texas, and the n. part 
of Mexico to lat. 25°. Their principal 
neighbors were the members of the Sho- 
shonean family and the various Pueblo 
tribes in the region. So far as is known} 
the language and culture of this division/ 
are quite uniform. The peoples compos- 
ing it are the Navaho s. of San Juan r. in 
n. e. Arizona and n. w. New Mexico, the 
Apache (really a group of tribes) on all\ 
sides of the Navaho except the n. , and the 
Lipan formerly in w. Texas but now living 
with the Mescaleros in New Mexico. 

Not included in the three divisions^ de"^ 
scribed above are the Kiowa Apache, a 
small band which has maintained its 
own language while living on intimate 
terms with the Kiowa. They seem never 
to have been connected w r ith the South- 
ern division, but appear to have come 
from the n. many years ago. 

The tendency of the members of this 
family to adopt the culture of neighbor- 
ing peoples is so marked that it is diffi- 
cult to determine and describe any dis- 
tinctive Athapascan culture or, indeed, to 
say whether such a culture ever existed. 
Thus, the tribes of the extreme N, espe- 
cially in Alaska, had assimilated many of 
the customs and arts of the Eskimo, the 
Takulli had adopted the social organiza- 
tion and much of the mythology of the 
Tsimshian, the western Nahane had 
adopted the culture of the Tlingit, the 
Tsilkotin that of the Salish, while the 
Sarsi and Beavers possessed much in com- 



[b. a. e. 

mon with their Algonquian neighbors to 
the s. and e. Passing to the Pacific 
group, practically no difference is found 
between the culture which they presented 
and that of the surrounding tribes Of 
other stocks, and it is evident that the" 
social organization and many of the rites 
and ceremonies of the Navaho, and even 
of the Apache, were due to Pueblo influ- 
ences. Although in this respect the 
Athapascan resembles the Salishan and 
Shoshonean families, its pliability and 
adaptability appear to have been much 
greater, a fact noted by missionaries 
among the northern Athapascans up to 
the present day. 

If a true Athapascan culture may be 
said to have existed anywhere, it was 
among the eastern tribes of the Northern 
group, such as the Chipewyan, Kaw- 
chodinne, Stuichamukh, Tatsanottine, 
and Thlingchadinne, although differing 
comparatively little from that of the 
northernmost Algonquian tribes and the 
neighboring Eskimo. Although recog- 
nizing a certain individuality, these tribes 
had little coherence, and were subdi- 
vided into family groups or loose bands, 
without clans or gentes, which recog- 
nized a kind of patriarchal government 
and descent. Perhaps the strongest au- 
thority was that exercised by the leader 
of a hunting party, the difference be- 
tween success and failure on such a quest 
being frequently the difference between 
the existence or extinction of a band. 

Clothing was made of deerskins in the 
hair, and the lodges of deer or caribou 
skins, sometimes replaced by bark far- 
ther s. Their food consisted of caribou, 
deer, moose, musk-ox, and buffalo, to- 
gether with smaller animals, such as the 
beaver and hare, various kinds of birds, 
and several varieties of fish found in the 
numerous lakes and rivers. They killed 
deer by driving them into an angle formed 
by two converging rows of stakes, where 
they were shot by hunters lying in wait. 
The man was complete master in his own 
lodge, his wife being entirely subservient 
and assuming the most laborious duties. 
Infanticide, especially of female children, 
was common, but had its excuse in the 
hard life these people were obliged to 
undergo. In summer transportation was 
effected in birch-bark canoes; in winter 
the dogs carried most of the household 
goods, except in so far as they were as- 
sisted by the women, and on the barren 
grounds they were provided with sledges. 
The bodies of the dead were placed on 
the ground, covered with bark and sur- 
rounded by palings, except in the case of 
noted men, whose bodies were placed in 
boxes on the branches of trees. Shamans 
existed, and their sayings, were of much 
influence with some of the people, but 

religion does not seem to have exerted as 
strong an influence as in most other parts 
of America. At the same time they had 
absolute faith in the necessity and effi- 
cacy of certain charms which they tied 
to their fishing hooks and nets. Nearly 

I all have now been Christianized by Ro- 
man Catholic missionaries and seem to 
be devout converts. For an account of 
the culture of the remaining Athapascan 
tribes, see the special articles under the 
tribal names and articles dealing with 
other tribes in the same localities. 

For the Northern division of Athapas- 
cans see Hearne, Travels, 1795; the nu- 
merous writings of Emile Petitot; Morice 
(1) in Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, (2) 
Trans. Canadian Inst., and elsewhere; 
Richardson, Arct. Searching Exped., 
1851; Bancroft, Native Races, i, 1886; 
Russell, Explor. Far North, 1898; Hard- 
esty and Jones in Smithson. Rep., 1866, 
1872. For the Pacific division: Powers 
inCont, N. A. Ethnol., m, 1877; God- 
dard in Pubs. Univ. Cal. , i, 1903. For the 
Southern division: Matthews (1) in 5th 

•Rep. B. A. E., 1887, (2) Memoirs Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., vi, Anthrop. v, 1902, 
(3) Navaho Legends, 1897; Bourke (1) 
in Jour. Am. Folk-lore, in, 1890, (2) in 
9th Rep. B. A. E., 1892. 

In the synonymy which follows the 
names are not always to be accepted as 
true equivalents. The Northern Atha- 
pascan or Dene* are usually meant. 

(P. E. G. J. R. S.) 
Adene.— Petitot, Diet. Dene-Dindjie, xix, 1876 
(Kawchodinne name). Arabasca.— Petitot in 
Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc., 641, 1883. Arathapes- 
coas.— Boudinot, Star in the West, 125, 1816. 
Athabasca.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, I, 38, 1874. 
Athabascan. -Richardson, Arct. Exped., n, 1, 1851. 
Athapaccas.— Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 401 , 1853. Athapaches. —Petitot, Autour du lac 
des Esclaves, 98, 1891. Athapascan.— Turner in 
Pac.R. R. Rep., in, pt. 3, 84, 1856. Athapascas.— Gal- 
latin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc, n, 17, 1836. Athap- 
asques.— Kingsley, Standard Nat. Hist., pt. 6, 147, 
1883. Ayabasca. — Petitot in Jour. Roy. Geog. 
Soc, 641, 1883. Chepewyan.— Richardson, Arct. 
Exped., II, 1, 1851. Chepeyans.— Pntchard, Phys. 
Hist. Man., v, 375, 1847. Chippewyan.— Dall, Alas- 
ka, 428, 1870. Dane.— Petitot, Diet. Dene-Dindji6, 
xix, 1876. Danites.— Petitot, Autour du lac des 
Esclaves, 99, 1891. Dendjye.— Petitot, MS. B. A. 
E., 1865 (used by Kutchin). Dene.— Petitot. Au- 
tour du lac des Esclaves, 363, 1891 (used by Chipe- 
wyan). Dene-Dindjie.— Petitot, Diet. Langue 
Dene-Dindjie\ passim, 1876. Deneh-Dindschieh.— 
Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt, 6, 143, 1883. Di- 
nais.— Cox. Columbia R., n, 374, 1831. Dindjie.— 
Petitot, Diet. Dene-Dindjie, xix, 1876 (usedbyTuk- 
kuthkutchin). Dindjitch.— Ibid, (used by Kutch- 
akutchin). Dine.— Morice in Proc Can. Inst., 3d 
s., VII, 113, 1889 (used by Etagottine). Dinne.— 
Keanein Stanford, Compend., 512, 1878. Dinnee.— 
Cox, Columbia R., n, 374, 1831. Dinneh.— Frank- 
lin, Nar., I, 241, 1824. Dinni.— Rafinesque, Am. 
Nations, 1, 146, 1836. Dnaine. —Petitot, Diet. Dene- 
Dindjie, xix, 1876 (used by Knaiakhotana) . 
'Dtinne.— Richardson, Arct. Exped., n, 1, 1851. 
Dune. — Morice in Proc Can. Inst., 3d s., vn, 
113, 1889 (used by Thlingchadinne). Gunana.— 
Swanton, inf'n (Tlingitname: ' strange people ') . 
Irkpeleit'.— Petitot, Diet. Dene-Dindjie, xix, 1876 
(Eskimo name: 'larvae of lice'), xtynai.— Dall 

BULL. 30] 



in Cont. N. A. EthnoL, I, pt.1,25, 1877 (misprint). 
Kenaians.— Halleck (1868) quoted by Petroff, 10th 
Census, Alaska, 40, 1884. Kenaizer.— Holmberg 
quoted by Dall, Alaska, 428, 1870. Northern.— 
Schouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond., xi, 
218, 1841 (partial synonym). Tanai.— Zagoskin 
quoted by Dall in Cont. N. A. EthnoL, 
I, 25, 1877. Tannai.— Corbusier in Am. Antiq., 
276, 1886. Tede.— Dorsey, MS. Applegate Cr. 
vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (used by Dakubetede). 
Tene.— Dorsev, MS. Smith R. vocab., B. A. E., 
1884 (used by Tolowa). Tennai.— Corbusier in 
Am. Antiq., 276, 1886. Thnaina.— Holmberg 
quoted by Dall, Alaska, 428, 1#70, Thynne.— Pin- 
art in Rev. de Philol. et d'Ethnol., no. 2, 1, 
1875. Tinai.— Zagoskin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5th 
s., XXI, 226, 1850. Tinnatte.— Wilson in Rep. 
on N. W. Tribes Can., 11, 1888 (used by Sarsi). 
Tinne.— Richardson, Arct. Exped., II, 1, 1851. Tin- 
neh.— Hardisty in Smithson. Rep. 1866, 303, 1872. 
Tinney.— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 539, 1878. 
Toene.— Morice in Proc. Can. Inst., 3d s., VII, 
113, 1889 (used by Takulli) . Toeni.— Ibid, (used by 
Tsilkotin). Ttynai.— Zagoskin, quoted by Schott 
in Erman, Archiv., vil, 480, 1849. Ttynai-chota- 
na.— Zagoskin quoted by Bancroft, Nat. Races, 
ill, 589, 1882. Ttynnai.— Zagoskin (1842) quoted 
by Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 37, 1884. Tude.— 
Dorsev, MS. Galice Creek vocab., B. A. E., 1884 
(used byTaltushtuntude). Tumeh.— Butler, Wild 
N. Land, 127, 1873. Tunne.— Dorsev, MS. Tutu 
vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (used by Tututunne). Wa- 
basca.— Petitot in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc , 641, 1883. 

Ati. A former Papago rancheria, vis- 
ited by Kino about 1697-99, and the seat 
of a mission established about that date; 
situated on the w. bank of Rio Altar, be- 
tween Uquitoa and Tubutama, just s. of 
the Arizona boundary. Pop. 56 in 1730. 
The mission was evidently abandoned 
within the following 40 years, as Garces 
(Diary, 1775-76, 455, 1900) speaks of Ati 
as a favorable site for one. v Not to be 
confounded with San Francisco Ati. 

(P. W. H. ) 
Addi.— Venegas, Hist. Cal., i, map, 1759. At.— 
Font, map (1777), in Coues, Garces Diary, i, 1900. 
Ati. — Font, map (1777), in Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 393, 1889. Atic— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 347, 
1864. Axi.— Venegas, Hist. Cal., I, 303, 1759. 
Siete Principes Ati.— Rivera (1730) quoted by Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, I, 514, 1884. 

Atiahigui. A former Maricopa ranche- 
ria on the Rio Gila, s. w. Ariz. — Sedel- 
mair (1744) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, 
and N. Mex., 366, 1889. 

Atica. An unidentified pueblo of New 
Mexico in 1598.— Onate (1598) in Doc. 
Ined., xvi, 103, 1871. 

Atiga. A village formerly on the w. 
bank of Allegheny r., below French cr., 
according to Bellin's map, 1755. It may 
have belonged to the Delawares or the 
Mingo. Marked distinct from Attigua, 
q. v. (j. m.) 

Atisawaian. See Savoyan. 

Atka (native name of the largest of the 
Andreanof ids., called Atchu by Coxe, 
Atchka by Cook in 1778, and by various 
waiters Atchgi, Atchka, and Alcha, ac- 
cording to Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 
1901 ) . One of the two dialectic divisions 
of the Aleut, occupying Andreanof, Rat, 
and Near ids. (Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., 
1855). The Atka are great hunters of 
the sea otter, and the furs they sold dur- 
ing the Russian occupancy made them 

wealthy. About half of them learned to 
read and write their own language, of 
which Russian missionaries made a gram- 
mar. With Christianity and civilization 
the Russians introduced alcohol, for 
which the natives developed an inordi- 
nate craving, making their own liquor, 
after the importation of spirits was for- 
bidden, by fermenting sugar and flour. 
Their diet of fish and occasional water- 
fowl is supplemented by bread, tea, and 
other imported articles that have become 
indispensable. The native dress, consist- 
ing of a long tight-sleeved coat of fur or 
bird skins, overlapping boots that reached 
above the knee, has been generally dis- 
carded for European clothing, though 
they still wear in wet weather a water- 
proof shirt of intestines obtained from 
the sea-lion. All are now Christianized, 
and nearly all live in houses furnished 
with ordinary things of civilization. — 
Schwatka, Mil. Recon., Compil. of Ex- 
plor. in Alaska, 358, 1900. 

Andrejanouschen Aleuten.— Holmberg, Ethnol. 
Skizz., 8, 1855. Atchaer.— Ibid. Atkan.— Dall, 
Alaska, 386, 1870. Atkhas.— Keane in Stanford, 
Compend., 502, 1878. Kighigufi.— Coxe, Russian 
Disc, 219, 1787. Kigikhkhun.— Dall in Cont. N. 
A. Ethnol., I, 22, 1877 (sig. ' northernwestern 
people'). Namikh'-hun'. — Ibid. (sig. 'western 
people'). Nihouhins. — Pinart in Mem. Soc. Eth- 
nol. Paris, xi, 157, 1872. Nikhu-khnin. — Dall in 
Cont. N. A. Ethnol., op. cit. 

Atkigyin. A former Aleut village on 
Agattu id., Alaska, one of the Near id. 
group of the Aleutians, now uninhabited. 

Atkulik. A former Aleut village on 
Agattu id., Alaska, one of the Near id. 
group of the Aleutians, now uninhabited. 

Atlalko. A Hahuamis village at the 
head of Wakeman sd., British Columbia. 
A-tl-al-ko.— Dawson in Can. Geolog. Surv., map, 

Atlantis. The theory of the lost island 
of Atlantis can be traced back to the 
Timseus of Plato. It was mentioned by 
many subsequent ancient historians, some 
of whom considered it a myth while 
others believed it to be true. The dis- 
covery of America revived interest in the 
subject, and by many theorists the con- 
tinent itself was believed to be the lost 
island, while others, as the Abbe Brasseur 
de Bourbourg (Quatre Lettres sur le 
M6xique, 1868; Manuscrit Troano, i, 
1869) held that Atlantis was the exten- 
sion of America which stretched from 
Central America and Mexico far into the 
Atlantic, the Canaries, Madeiras, and 
Azores being the only remnants which 
were not submerged. Rafinesque (Ameri- 
can Nations, 1836) devotes a chapter to 
the subject of the Atlantes. He finds 
three routes by which the ancient nations 
of the Eastern and Western hemispheres 
could communicate, namely, the north- 
ern, tropical, and southern paths, " with- 
out taking into account the probable con- 
nection of North America with Asia and 



[B. a. e. 

many islands in the Atlantic." His ar- 
gument, if such it can be called, is inco- 
herent and fantastic in the extreme. The 
theory is probably better known to 
Americans through the writings of Don- 
nelly (Atlantis, the Antediluvian World) , 
who undertakes to prove the case by 
modern scientific methods, and locates 
the Atlantis of Plato as an island opposite 
the mouth of the Mediterranean, a rem- 
nant of the lost continent. The mere 
statement of a few of the postulates which 
Donnelly endeavors to prove is a suffi- 
cient characterization, if not refutation, 
of his theory: 

( 1 ) That Atlantis was the region where 
man first rose from a state of barbarism 
to civilization. (2) That its inhabi- 
tants became, in the course of ages, 
a populous and mighty nation, from 
whose overflowings the shores of the Gulf 
of Mexico, the Mississippi r., the Amazon, 
the Pacific coast of South America, the 
Mediterranean, the w. coast of Europe 
and Africa, the Baltic, the Black sea, and 
the Caspian were populated by civilizedna- 
tions. (3) That it was the true antediluvian 
world; the Garden of Eden; the Gardens 
of the Hesperides; the Elysian Fields; 
the Gardens of Alcinous; the Mesam- 
phalos; the Olympos; the Asgard of the 
traditions of the ancient nations, repre- 
senting a universal memory of a great 
land where early mankind dwelt for 
ages in peace and happiness. (4) That 
the oldest colony formed by the At- 
lanteans was probably in Egypt, whose 
civilization was a reproduction of that 
of the Atlantic island. (5) That the 
Phenician alphabet, parent of all European 
alphabets, was derived from an Atlantis 
alphabet, which was also conveyed from 
Atlantis to the Mayas of Central America. 

(6) That Atlantis was the original seat 
of the Aryan or Indo-European family of 
nations, as well as of the Semitic peoples, 
and possibly also of the Turanian races. 

(7) That Atlantis perished in a terrible 
convulsion of nature, in which the whole 
island sank into the ocean with nearly 
all its inhabitants. (8) That a few per- 
sons escaped in ships and on rafts, and 
carried to the nations e. and w. the 
tidings of the appalling catastrophe, 
which has survived to our own time in 
the Flood and Deluge legends of the (lif- 
erent nations of the old and new worlds. 

Among modern scholars there are very 
few who regard Atlantis in any other 
light than as a myth. See Winsor, Nar- 
rative and Critical History of America, i, 
141, 1884, for an excellent summary of the 
subject and for many references to the 
literature. The term Atlantic (ocean) is 
not derived from Atlantis, but from the 
Atlas mts. in n. Africa. (h. w. h. ) 

Atlatl. See Throwing stick. 

Atlklaktl (Alqla'xL). A Bellacoola vil- 
lage where the present mission is situ- 
ated, on the N. side of Bellacoola r. , near 
its mouth, British Columbia. It was one 
of the 8 villages called Nuhalk. — Boas in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., n, 48, 1898. 

Atlkuma ( A-tl-kuma ) . A Tlauitsis village 
on the n. side of Cracroft id., Brit. Col. — 
Dawson in Can. Geol. Surv., map, 1887. 

Atnik. A village of the Sidarumiut 
Eskimo near Pt Belcher, Alaska; pop. 
34 in 1890. 

Ataniek. — Tikhmenief (18611 quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Atinikq.— Zagoskin, 
Descr. Russ. Poss. Am., pt. 1, 74, 1847. Atnik.— 
Baker, op. cit. Attanak.-llth Census, Alaska, 
map, 1893. A'tune.— Murdoch in 9th Rep. B. 
A. E., 44, 1892. Kuik.— Zagoskin, op. cit. 

Atnuk. An Eskimo village of the 
Kaviagmiut tribe at Darby cape, Alaska; 
pop. 20 in 1880, 34 in 1890. 
Atnikmioute. — Zagoskin in Nouv. Ann.Voy., 5th 
s., xxi, map, 1850. Atnikmut.— Zagoskin, Descr. 
Russ. Poss. Am., pt. I, 73, 1847. Atnuk. — Nelson in 
18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1899. 

Atoko. The extinct Crane clan of the 
Chua (Snake) phratry of the Hopi. 

A-to-co.— Bourke, Snake Dance, 117, 1884. Atoko 
winwu.— Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 583, 1901 
(wifi-wii = ' clan ' ) . — A'-to-ko wun-wii. — Fewkes in 
Am. Anthrop., VII, 403, 1894 (wun-vni = clan). 

Atotarho. See Wathatotarho. 

Atotonilco ( from Nahuatl : ail ' water, ' 
totonilli 'warm.' — Buelna). A former 
Tepehuane pueblo in lat. 25° 30', long. 
107°, e. Sinaloa, Mexico. It was the seat 
of the mission of San Juan. 

San Juan Atotonilco. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 324, 

Atotonilco. A former Tepehuane pueblo 
in lat. 24° 35', long. 104° 10', s. e. Du- 
rango, Mexico. It was the seat of the 
mission of San Andres. 

San Andres Atotonilco. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
318, 1864. 

Atquanachuke. A tribe or band residing 
early in the 17th century in s. or cen- 
tral New Jersey. All references to them 
are indefinite. Smith, who did not visit 
them, says they were on the seacoast 
beyond the mountains northward from 
Chesapeake bay, and spoke a language 
different from that of the Powhatan, 
Conestoga, Tocwogh, and Cuscarawaoc. 
Most of the early authorities put them in 
the same general locality, but Shea, evi- 
dently misled by the order in which Smith 
associates this name with names of e. shore 
tribes, says they lived in 1633 on the e. 
shore of Maryland and were allies of the 
Conestoga. (.i. m. ) 

Aquaauchuques. — Keane in Stanford, Compend., 
501, 1878. Aquamachukes.— Map ca. 1614 in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., 1, 1856. Aquamachuques. — De Laet, 
Novus Orbis, 72, 1633. Aquanachukes.— Dutch 
map (1621) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., i, 1856. 
Atquanachuck. — Simons in Smith (1629), Virginia, 
I, 183, repr. 1819. Atquanachukes.— Ibid., 120. At- 
quanachuks. — Ibid. ,183. Atquanahuckes. — De Laet, 
Hist. Nouv. Monde, 93, 1640. Atquinachunks. — 
Shea, Cath. Miss., 486, 1855. 

Atrakwaye (probably 'at the place of 
the sun,' or ' south ' ). A palisaded town 
of the Conestoga, situated in 1608 on the 

BULL. 30] 



e. side of Susquehanna r. , below the forks 
at Northumberland, in Northumberland 
co., Pa. Probably identical with the 
Quadroque of Smith's map of Virginia, 
whereon it is placed from information 
derived by Smith directly from the Sus- 
quehanna (Conestoga). The Journal of 
the Jesuits for 1651-52 states that during 
the winter of 1652 this town was taken 
by 1,000 Iroquois warriors who, with a 
loss of 130 men, carried away 500 or 600 
captives, chiefly men. Atrakwaye was 
the seat of the Akhrakouaeronon, a divi- 
sion of the Conestoga. (j. n. b. h. ) 

Akrakwae.— Jes. Rel., Thwaites' ed., xxxvi, 248, 
note, 49, 1899. Atra'K8ae.— Ibid., Jour, for 1650- 
51,140. Atra'kwae.— Ibid. ,141. Atra'KSa^.— Ibid., 
xxxvn, 110, 1899. Atra'kwa.e.— Ibid. ,111. Quad- 
roque. — Smith (ca. 1608), Va., map,repr. 1884. 

Atripuy. Mentioned by Onate (Doc. 
Ined., xvi, 114-116, 1871) in 1598 as a 
province containing 42 pueblos in the 
region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex. 
The name was probably derived from 
that of a village of the n. branch of 
the Jumano. The first pueblo of this 
province, journeying northward, was 
Trenaquel; the second Qualacu, both of 
which Bandelier identifies as villages of 
the Piros who occupied the Rio Grande 
valley from below Isleta to San Marcial, 
N. Mex. It may therefore be inferred 
that Atripuy was the name applied to the 
country inhabited at that time by the 
Piros. (p. w. h.) 

Atripuy. A large pueblo of the Jumano 
of New Mexico in 1598.— Onate (1598) 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 

Atselits. An insignificant Chilliwack 
settlement in s. British Columbia, with 
only 2 adults in 1902. 

Aitchelich.— Can. Ind. Aff., 357, 1895. Aitchelitz.— 
Ibid., 413, 1898. Assyletch.— Ibid., 78, 1878. Assy- 
litch.— Ibid., 316, 1880. Assylitlh.— Brit. Col. Map, 
Ind. Aff., Victoria, 1872. Atchelity.— Can. Ind. 
Aff., 276, 1894. A'tsElits.— Hill-Tout in Ethnol. 
Surv. Can., 4, 1902. 

Atsep. A Yurok village on lower Kla- 
math r., 5 m. below the mouth of Trinity 
r., n. Cal. 

Atsepar. The uppermost village of the 
Yurok on Klamath r., Cal., situated at 
the mouth of Bluff cr., 6 m. above the 
junction of Trinity r. 

Atshuk. A Yaquina village on the s. 
side of Yaquina r. , Oreg. 
A'-tciik.— Dorsey in Jour. Am. Folk- lore,x,229, 1890. 

Atsina (Blackfoot: dt-se'-na, said to 
mean ' gut people. ' — Grinnell. Cf . Aa'ni- 
nena, under Arapaho). A detached 
branch of the Arapaho (q. v.), at one 
time associated with the Blackfeet, but 
now with the Assiniboin under Ft Belk- 
nap agency, Mont., where in 1904 they 
numbered 535, steadi ly decreasing. They 
called themselves Aa/ninena, said to mean 
'white clay people,' but are known to 
the other Arapaho as Hitungna, 'beg- 
gars,' or 'spongers,' whence the tribal 
sign, commonly but incorrectly rendered 

Bull. 30—05 8 

'belly people,' or 'big bellies,' the Gros 
Ventres of the French Canadians and now 
their popular name. The Atsina are not 
prominent in history, and in most re- 
spects are regarded by the Arapaho proper 
as inferior to them. They have been con- 
stantly confused with the Hidatsa, or 
Gros Ventres of the Missouri, (j. m. ) 
Aa'ninena. — Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 955, 
1896. Acapatos.— Duflot de Mofras, Explor., n, 
341, 1844 (a similar name is also applied to 
the Arapaho). Achena. — De Smet, Missions, 253, 
note, 1848. Ahahnelins. — Morgan, Systems of 
Consang., 226, 1871. Ahnenin.— Latham, Essays, 
276, 1860. Ahni-ninn.— Maximilian, Travels, I, 
530,1839. A-lan-sar.— Lewis and Clark, Travels, 56, 
1806. Alesar. — Keane in Stanford, Compend., 470, 
1878. A-re-tear-o-pan-ga. — Long, Exped. Rocky 
Mts.,n, lxxxiv, 1823 (Hidatsa name). At-se'-na. — 
Grinnell, inf'n, 1905 (Blackfoot name, said to 
mean 'gut people'). Atsina.— Latham in Proc. 
Philol. Soc. Lond., vi, 86, 1854. Azana.— Maxi- 
milian, Travels, I, 530, 1839 (Siksika name, 
German form). Bahwetego-weninnewug. — Tan- 
ner, Narr., 63, 1830 ('fall people': Chippewa 
name). Bahwetig. — Ibid., 64. Bot-k'iii'ago. — 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 955, 1896 ('belly 
men'). Bowwetegoweninnewug.— Tanner, op. 
cit., 315 (Ottawa name). Bowwetig.— Ibid., 
83. E-ta-ni-o.— Hayden,Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. 
Val., 290, 1862 ('people:' one Cheyenne name 
for them, the other and more common being 
Histuitanio). Fall Indians.— Umfreville (1790) 
in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 270, 1859. Gros 
ventre of the Fort prairie.— Long, Exped. Rocky 
Mts., II, lxxxiv, 1823. Gros Ventres,— See under 
that name. Gros Ventres des Plaines. — De Smet. 
Missions, 253, note, 1848. Gros Ventres des Prai- 
ries.— Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 2d s., II, 36, 1814 (French name). Gros 
Ventres of the Falls. — Latham in Trans. Philol. 
Soc. Lond., 62, 1856. Gros Ventres of the Prairie.— 
Brackenridge, Views of La., 79, 1815. Grosventres 
of the Prairie.— McCoy, Ann. Reg. Ind. Aff., 
47, 1836. Hahtz-nai koon.— Henry, MS. vocab., 
1808 (Siksika name). His-tu-i'-ta-ni-o. — Hayden, 
Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 290, 1862 (Cheyenne 
name: etanio =' people ') . Hitu'nena. — Mooney 
in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 955, 1896 ('begging men': 
Arapaho name). Hitunenina. — Ibid. Minetares of 
the Prairie. — Gallatin in Trans. Am. Ethnol. Soc, 
ii, 21, 1848 (by confusion with "Gros Ventres"). 
Minitares of the Prairie. — Latham in Proc. Philol. 
Soc. Lond., vi, 85, 1854. Minnetarees of Fort 
de Prairie.— Lewis and Clark, Trav., i, 131, 1814. 
Minnetarees of the Plains. — Ibid. Minnetarees of 
the Prairie. — Havden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. 
Val., 344, 1862. Minnitarees of Fort de Prairie.— 
Lewis and Clark, quoted by Hayden, ibid., 
422, Pawaustic-eythin-yoowuc. — Franklin, Journ. 
Polar Sea, 169, 1824. Paw-is-tick I-e-ne-wuck.— 
Harmon, Jour., 78, 1820. Pawistucienemuk. — 
Drake, Bk. Inds., x, 1848. Pawistuck-Ienewuck. — 
Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 332, 1822. Prairie 
Grossventres. — Gass, Jour., 245, 1807. Rapid In- 
dians.— Harmon, • Jour., 78, 1820. Sa'pani.— 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 955, 1896 (' bellies ': 
Shoshoni name). Sku'tani.— Ibid. (Sioux name). 
To-i-nin'-a.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. 
Val., 326, 1862 ('people that beg': Arapaho 
name for Hitunena). 

Atsina- Algo. An adjective invented by 
Schoolcraft (Ind. Tribes, i, 198, 1853) to 
describe the confederate Atsina and Sik- 

Atsmitl (Chilians name for Shoalwater 
bay). Chinookan divisions living around 
Shoal water bay, Wash. — Boas, field notes. 

Arts-milsh.— Swan, N. W. Coast, 210, 1857. Kar- 
wee-wee. — Ibid. Shoalwater Bay Indians. — Ford 
in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1857, 341, 1858. 

Atsugewi. A Shastan tribe formerly re- 
siding in Hat Creek, Burney, and Dixie 



[B. A. E. 

valleys, Cal. Their language is quite di- 
vergent from that of the Achomawi, from 
whom they regard themselves as distinct. 
Very few of them survive, (r. b. d. ) 
Adwanuqdji.— Curtin, MS. Ilmawi vocab., B. A. 
E., 1889 (Ilmawi name). Atsugei. — Powell in 6th 
Rep. B. A. E., xxxvii, 1888. Atsuge'wi. — Dixon, 
inf'n, 1905. Chenoya. — Curtin, MS. vocab., B. A. 
E., 1885 (Yana name). Chenoyana.— Ibid. Chu- 
noiyana. — Dixon, inf'n, 1903 (Yana name). Hat 
Creek Indians.— Hanson in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1862, 
311, 1863. Tcunoiyana.— Dixon, inf'n, 1903 (Yana 
name; tc=ch). 

Attacapa (Choctaw: hatak 'man,' apa 
'eats,' hence 'cannibal': a name applied 
by the Choctaw and their congeners to 
different tribes inhabiting s. w. La. and s. 
and s. e. Tex. ; see Cannibalism). A tribe 
forming the Attacapan linguistic family, 
a remnant of which early in the 19th 
century occupied as its chief habitat the 
Middle or Prien lake in Calcasieu parish, 
La. It is learned from Hutchins (Geog. 
U. S., 1784) that "the village de Skun- 
nemoke or Tuckapas" stood on Vermil- 
ion r. , and that their church was on the 
w. side of the Tage (Bayou Teche). The 
Attacapa country extended formerly to 
the coast in s. w. Louisiana, and their 
primitive domain was outlined in the 
popular name of the Old Attacapa or 
Tuckapa country, still in use, which com- 
prised St Landry, St Mary, Iberia, St 
Martin, Fayette, Vermilion, and, later, 
Calcasieu and Vernon parishes; in fact 
all the country between Ked, Sabine, and 
Vermilion rs. and the Gulf (Dennett, 
Louisiana, 1876) . Charlevoix states that 
in 1731 some Attacapa with some Hasi 
nai and Spaniards aided the French com- 
mander, Saint Denys, against the Nat- 
chez. Penicaut (Margry, Dec, v, 440) 
says that at the close of 1703 two of the 
three Frenchmen whom Bienville sent by 
way of the Madeline r. to discover what 
nations dwelt in that region, returned and 
reported that they had been more than 
100 leagues inland and had found 7 dif- 
ferent nations, and that among the last, 
one of their comrades had been killed and 
eaten by the savages, who were anthropo- 
phagous. This nation was called Attacapa. 
In notes accompanying his Attacapa vo- 
cabulary Duralde says that they speak 
of a deluge which engulfed men, ani- 
mals, and the land, when only those 
who dwelt on a highland escaped; 
he also says that according to their law 
a man ceases to bear his own name as 
soon as his wife bears a child to him, 
after which he is called the father of such 
and such, a child, but that if the child 
dies the father again assumes his own 
name. Duralde also asserts that the 
women alone were charged with the la- 
bors of the field and of the household, 
and that the mounds were erected by the 
women under the supervision of the 
chiefs for the purpose of giving their 

lodges a higher situation than those of 
other chiefs. Mil fort (Mem., 92, 1802), 
who visited St Bernard bay in 1784, be- 
lieved that the tribe came originally from 
Mexico. He was hospitably received by 
a band which he found bueanning meat 
beside a lake, 4 days' march w. of the 
bay; and from the chief, who was not an 
Attacapa, but a Jesuit, speaking French, he 
learned that 180, nearly half the Attacapa 
tribe, were there, thus indicating that at 
that time the tribe numbered more than 
360 persons; that they had a custom of 
dividing themselves into two or three 
bodies for the purpose of hunting buf- 
falo, which in the spring went to the w. 
and in the autumn descended into these 
latitudes; that they killed them with 
bows and arrows, their youth being very 
skilful in this hunt; that these animals 
were in great numbers and as tame as 
domestic cattle, for "we have great care 
not to frighten them;" that when the 
buffaloes were on the prairie or in the 
forest the Attacapa camped near them 
' ' to accustom them to seeing us. ' ' Sib- 
ley (Hist. Sketches, 82, 1806) described 
their village as situated "about 20 m. w. 
of the Attakapa church, toward Quelque- 
shoe;" their men numbered about 50, 
but some Tonica and Huma who had in- 
termarried with the Attacapa made them 
altogether about 80. Sibley adds: "They 
are peaceable and friendly to everybody; 
labor, occasionally for the white inhabit- 
ants; raise their own corn; have cattle 
and hogs. They were at or near where 
they now live, when that part of the coun- 
try was first discovered by the French." 
In 1885 Gatschet visited the section for- 
merly inhabited by the Attacapa, and 
after much search discovered one man 
and two women at Lake Charles, Calca- 
sieu parish, La., and another woman 
living 10 m. to the s. ; he also heard of 5 
other women then scattered in w. Texas; 
these are thought to be the only survivors 
of the tribe, (j. n. b. h.) 

Atacapas.—*Berquin-Duvallon, Trav. in La. and 
Fla., 97, 1806. Atac-Apas.— Le Page du Pratz, 
Hist. Louisiane, II, 231, 1758. Atacapaz.— Mez- 
ieres (1778) quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, 
I, 661, 1886. Atac-assas. — Jefferys, French Dom., 
I, 163, 1761. Atakapas.— Robin, Voy., map, 1807. 
Attacapacas. — Keane in Stanford, Compend., 502, 
1878. Attacapas.— Brown in West. Gazetteer, 
152, 1817. Attacappa.— Hutchins, Hist. Nar., 43, 
1784. Attakapas.— Penicaut (1703) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n. s., 87, 1869. Attakapo.— Lewis, 
Trav., 193, 1809. Attaquapas.— Butel-Dumont, 
M6m. sur la Louisiane, 1, 134, 1753. Attencapas, — 
Gallatin in Trans. Am. Ethnol. Soc, II, 76, 1848. 
Attuckapas.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, VI, 35, 1857. 
Hattahappas.— McKeuney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 81, 1854. Hattakappas.— Romans, Hist. Fla., I, 
101, 1775. Man eaters.— Penicaut (1703) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., n. s,, 87, 1869. Skunnemoke.— 
Hutchins (1784) in Imlay, West. Ter., 421, 1797. 
Takapo ishak. — Gatschet, Attakapa MS.,B. A. E., 
(adopted from whites; with ishak 'people'). 
Tuckapas.— Hutchins (1784) in Imlay, West. Ter., 
421,1797. Tuckapaus.— Ker, Trav., 300, 1816. Tuk- 
pa'-han-ya-di.— Dorsey, Biloxi MS. Diet., B. A. E., 

BULL. 30] 



1892 (Biloxi name). Yuk' hiti ishak. — Gatschet, 
MS., B. A. E. (own name: 'our people'). 

Attacapan Family. A linguistic family 
consisting solely of the Attacapa tribe, 
although there is linguistic evidence of 
at least two dialects. Under this name 
were formerly comprised several bands 
settled in s. La. and n. e. Tex. Although 
this designation was given them by their 
Choctaw neighbors on the e. , these bands, 
with one or two exceptions, do not appear 
in history under any other general name. 
Formerly the Karankawa and several 
other tribes were included with the Atta- 
capa, but the vocabularies of Martin Du- 
ralde and of Gatschet show that the At- 
tacapa language is distinct from all oth- 
ers. Investigations by Gatschet in Cal- 
casieu parish, La., in 1885, show that 
there were at least two dialects of this 
family spoken at the beginning of the 
19th century — an eastern dialect, repre- 
sented in the vocabulary of Duralde, re- 
corded in 1802, and a western dialect, 
spoken on the 3 lakes forming the outlet 
of Calcasieu r. See Powell in 7th Rep. 
B. A. E., 56, 1891 v 

Attakullaculla (Ata'-gutMW, from oio/ 
'wood,' giitkaW a verb implying that 
something long is leaning, without suffi- 
cient support, against some other ob- 
ject; hence 'Leaningwood.' — Mooney). 
A noted Cherokee chief, born about 1700, 
known to the whites as Little Carpenter 
(Little Cornplanter, by mistake, in Hay- 
wood). The first notice of him is as one 
of the delegation taken to England by Sir 
Alexander Cumming in 1730. It is stated 
that he was made second in authority un- 
der Oconostota in 1738. He was present 
at the conference with Gov. Glenn, of 
South Carolina, in July, 1753, where he 
was the chief speaker in behalf of the In- 
dians, but asserted that he had not su- 
preme authority, the consent of Oconos- 
tota, the war chief, being necessary for 
final action. Through his influence a 
treaty of peace was arranged with Gov. 
Glenn in 1755, by which a large cession 
of territory was made to the King of Eng- 
land; and it was also through his instru- 
mentality that Ft Dobbs was built, in the 
year following, about 20 m. w. of the pres- 
ent Salisbury, N. C. When Ft Loudon, 
on Little Tennessee r., Tenn., was cap- 
tured by the Indians in 1760, and most of 
the garrison and refugees were massacred, 
Capt. Stuart, who had escaped the toma- 
hawk, was escorted safely to Virginia by 
Attakullaculla, who purchased him from 
his Indian captor, giving to the latter, 
as ransom, his rifle, clothes, and every- 
thing he had with him. It was again 
through the influence of Attakullaculla 
that the treaty of Charleston was signed 
in 1761, and that Stuart, after peace had 

been restored, was received by the Chero- 
kee as the British agent for the southern 
tribes; yet notwithstanding his friend- 
ship for Stuart, who remained a steadfast 
loyalist in the Revolution, and the fact 
that a large majority of the Cherokee es- 
poused the British cause, Attakullaculla 
raised a force of 500 native warriors which 
he offered to the Americans. He is de- 
scribed by William Bartram (Travels, 482, 
1792), who visited him in 1776, as* 'a man of 
remarkably small stature, slender and of a 
delicate frame, the only instance I saw in 
the nation, but he is a man of superior 
abilities." Although he had become 
sedate, dignified, and somewhat taciturn 
in maturer years, Logan (Hist. Upper 
So. Car., i, 490, 515, 1859) says that in 
his younger days he was fond of the bot- 
tle and often inebriate. The date of his 
death has not been recorded, but it was 
probablv about 1780. See Moonev in 19th 
Rep. B."A. E., 1900. 

Attamtuck. A village of the Powhatan 
confederacy, in 1608, situated between the 
Chickahominy and Pamunkey rs., in New 
Kent co., Va. — Smith (1629), Virginia, 
i, map, repr. 1819. 

Attamusco. See Atamasco. 

Attaock. A Conestoga village existing 
in 1608 w. of Susquehanna r., probably in 
what is now York co. , Pa. — Smith (1608), 
Virginia, i, map, repr. 1819. 

Attapulgas (Creek: atap'halgi, 'dog- 
wood grove ' ). A former Seminole town 
on a branch of Oklokonee or Yellow- 
water r., Fla. A town of the name is 
now in Decatur co., Ga. 

Taphulgee.— Roberts, Florida, 1763. Top-hulga.— 
Bell in Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 307, 1822. Top- 
kegalga.— Ibid., 306. Topkelake.— Peniere, ibid. 
Tuphulga.— H. R. Ex. Doe. 74 (1823), 19th Cong., 
27, 1826. 

Attenmiut. A division of the Malemiut 
Eskimo whose chief village is Atten, near 
the source of Buckland r., Alaska. 

Attenmut.— Dall, Alaska, 284, 1870. At'tenmut.— 
Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., i, 16, 1877. 

Attenok. A Sidarumiut Eskimo village 
on Seahorse ids. , Alaska. 

Atten okamiut. — 11th Census, Alaska, 162, 1893. 

Attignawantan (Huron: hati 'they,' 
annionnie 11 ' bear' : ' bear people ' ) . One 
of the largest tribes of the Huron confed- 
eracy, comprising about half the Huron 
population, formerly living on Nottawas- 
aga bay, Ontario. In 1638 they were set- 
tled in 14 towns and villages (Jes. Rel. 
1638, 38, 1858). The Jesuit missions of 
St Joseph and La Conception were es- 
tablished among them. (j. n. b. h. ) 

Atignaouantan.— Jes. Rel. for 1642, 61,1858. Atin- 
gyahointan.— Sagard (1632), Hist. Can., iv, 1866. 
Atingyahoulan. — Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741. Atin- 
niaoenten.— Jes. Rel. for 1649, 12, 1858. Atin- 
nia8enten.— Jes. Rel. for 1644, 77, 1858. Atinouaen- 
tans.— Champlain (1618), (Euvres, iv, 140, 1870. 
Attignaoouentan.— Kingsley, Stand. Nat. Hist., pt. 
6, 154, 1883. Attigna8antan.— Jes. Rel. for 1639, 50, 



[b. a. e. 

1858. Attignaouentan.— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 61, 1858. 
Attignawantan.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 204, 
1854. Attignouaatitans.— Champlain (1616), CEu- 
vres, iv, 58, 1870. Attigouantan. — Ibid. (1632), 
v, pt. 1, 247, 1870. Attigouantines.— Alcedo, Die. 
Geog., ii, 174, 1786. Attigouautan.— Champlain 
(1615), op. cit, IV, 23, 1870. Bear nation.— School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, III, 544, 1853. Nation de l'Ours.— 
Jes. Rel. for 1632, 14, 1858. Nation des Ours.— Jes. 
Rel. for 1636, 81, 1858. 

Attigneenongnahac. One of the four 
tribes of the Huron confederation, living 
on L. Simcoe, Ontario, s. e. of the others. 
In 1624 they were said to have 3 villages. 
The Jesuit mission of St Joseph was estab- 
lished among them. 

Altignenonghac— Jes. Rel. for 1636, 123, 1858. 
Atigagnongueha. — Sagard (1632), Hist. Can., iv, 
234, 1866 (Huron name). Atignenongach.— Jes. 
Rel. for 1637, 127, 1858. Atignenonghac— Ibid., 109. 
Atingueennonnihak. — Jes. Rel. for 1644, 87, 1858. 
Attigneenongnahac. — Jes. Rel. for 1639, 50, 1858. 
Attigneenonguahac— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 
204, 1854. Attigueenongnahac— Jes. Rel. for 1638, 
42, 1858. Attiguenongha.— Jes. Rel. for 1635, 28, 
1858. Attingneenongnahac— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 73, 
1858. Attingueenongnahac— Jes. Rel. for 1641, 67, 
1858. Attinquenongnahac— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 61, 
1858. Attiquenongnah. — Kingsley, Stand. Nat. 
Hist., pt. 6, 154, 1883. Attiquenongnahai.— School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 544,1853. Nation d'Entaua- 
que.— Sagard, Gr. Voy., 79, 1865. 

Attikamegue (Chippewa: Xidik 'cari- 
bou,' mag 'fish': 'whitefish.' — W. J.). 
A band of the Montagnais residing, when 
first known, in Quebec province, n. of the 
St Maurice basin (Jes. Eel. 1636,37,1858), 
and accustomed to ascend the St Lawrence 
to trade with the French. Charlevoix 
says their chief residence was on a lake 
connected with the St Maurice. They 
were so harassed by the attacks of the 
Iroquois that a part at least fled to the 
vicinity of Tadoussac. They were so 
nearly destroyed by smallpox in 1670 that 
they became extinct as a tribe. They 
were esteemed by the missionaries as a 
quiet, inoffensive people, readily disposed 
to receive religious instruction, (j. m. ) 
Altihamaguez. — McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in, '81, 1854. Altikamek. — Hervas quoted by 
Vater, Mithridates, pt. 3, sec. 3, 347, 1816. Altika- 
meques.— Charlevoix (1743), Voy., I, 152, 1766. 
Atikamegues.— Jes. Rel. for 1643, 8, 1858. Atte- 
kamek. — Richardson, Arct. Exped., n, 39, 1851. 
Attibamegues. — Boudinot, Star in the West, 125, 
1816. Atticameoets. — La Tour, map, 1779. Atti- 
cameouecs.— Bellin, map, 1755. Atticamiques. — 
Keane in Stanford, Compend., 502, 1878. Attica- 
moets. — La Tour, map, 1784. Attikamegouek. — Jes. 
Rel. for 1643, 38, 1858. Attikamegs.— La Tour, 
map, 1784. Attikameguekhi.— Jes. Rel. 1636, 37, 
1858. Attikamegues.— Jes. Rel. 1637, 82, 1858. 
Attikamek.— Lahontan, New Voy, I, 230, 1703. 
Attikameques. — Drake, Ind. Chfon., 161, 1836. 
Attikamigues. —Drake, Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Atti- 
kouetz.— Jefferys, French Doms., pt. I, map, 1761. 
Outakouamiouek.— Jes. Rel. 1640, 12, 1858. Outa- 
kouamiwek. — Jes. Rel., in, index, 1858. Poissons 
Wanes.— Jes. Rel. 1639, 19, 1858. White Fish In- 
dians. — Winsor, Cartierto Frontenac, 171, 1894. 

Attikiriniouetch (udi kwininiwug 'cari- 
bou people.' — W. J.). A Montagnais 
tribe formerly living northward from 
Manicouagan lake, Quebec. 

Attiklriniouetchs.— Bellin, map, 1755. Attikoulri- 
niouetz.— La Tour, map, 1779. Gens du Oaribon. — 
La Tour, map, 1784 (misprint ) . Gens du Caribou. — 
Bellin, map, 1755. Les Caribou.— Lotter, map, ca. 

Attique. A village, probably of the 
Seneca, that stood in 1749 on the present 
site of Kittanning, Pa. 

Attigne.— Celoron (1749) in Margry, Dec, vi, 685, 
1886. Attigua.— Bellin, map, 1755. Attique.— 
Celoron in Margry, op. cit., 693. 

Attoughcomoco (Algonquian: aM k 'deer,' 
komoko ' house, ' ' hence ' deer enclosure ' ) . 
An unidentified village of one of the Al- 
gonquian tribes, situated, about 1608, 
probably near Patuxent r., Md. Not 
given by Capt. John Smith nor marked 
on his map. Mentioned by Pory in Smith 
(1629), Virginia, n, 62, repr. 1819. 

Attu (native name, variously written 
At, Atako, Ataka, Attak, Attou, and 
Otma by explorers). An Atka Aleut 
settlement at Chichagof harbor, Attu id., 
the westernmost of the Aleutians, 173° 
e. from Greenwich. Pop. 107 in 1880; 
101 in 1890. Once very prosperous, the 
settlement has decayed owing to the 
gradual disappearance of the sea otter. 
Attoo.— Elliott, Our Arct. Prov., 179, 1886. Chi- 
chagov.— Schwatka, Mil. Recon. Alaska, 359, 1900. 

Attucks, Crispus. An Indian-negro half- 
blood of Framingham, Mass., near Bos- 
ton, noted as the leader and first person 
slain in the Boston massacre of Mar. 
5, 1770, the first hostile encounter be- 
tween the Americans and the British 
troops, and therefore regarded by histo- 
rians as the opening fight of the great 
Revolutionary struggle. In consequence 
of the resistance of the people of Boston 
to the enforcement of the recent tax laws 
a detachment of British troops had been 
stationed in the town, to the great irrita- 
tion of the citizens. On Mar. 5 this feel- 
ing culminated in an attack on the troops, 
in front of the old State House, by a crowd 
made up largely of sailors, and said to have 
been led by Attucks, although this asser- 
tion has been denied by some. The 
troops retaliated by firing into the party, 
killing four men, of whom Attucks was 
the first to fall. A monument to his mem- 
ory was erected in Boston Common by the 
commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1888. 
Although the facts in regard to his per- 
sonality are disputed, the evidence goes 
to show that Attucks was a sailor, almost a 
giant in stature, the son of a negro father 
and an Indian mother of Framingham, 
or the neighboring village of Natick, 
formerly the principal Indian mission 
settlement of Massachusetts. The name 
Attucks, derived from his mother, ap- 
pears to be the Natick (Massachuset) 
ahtuk, or attuks, 'small deer.' See G. 
Bancroft, Hist. IT. S. ; Appleton's Ency- 
clop. Am. Biog. ; Am. Hist. Rec, i, Nov., 
1872. (j. m.) 

Atuami. A Shastan tribe formerly liv- 
ing in Big valley, Lassen co., Cal. 
A-tu-a'-mih. — Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 
267, 1877. Hamefcutellies.— Powers in Overland 
Mo., xn, 412, 1874. Ha-mef-kut'-tel-h.— Powers in 

BULL. 30] 



Cont. N. A. Ethnol., Ill, 267, 1877. Tuqteumi.— Cur- 
tin, MS. Ilmawi vocab., B. A. E., 1889 (Ilmawi 

Atuyama. A pueblo of New Mexico in 
1598; doubtless situated in the Salinas, 
in the vicinity of Abo, and evidently oc- 
cupied by the Tigua or the Piros.— Ofiate 
(1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 

Auarkat. A settlement of East Green- 
land Eskimo, lat. 59°.— Meddelelser om 
Gronland, xxv, map, 1902. 

Aubbeenaubbee ( Wdbdnaba, ' morning 
person,' a mythic being. — W. J.). A Pot- 
awatomi chief of this name occupied a 
village, commonly known as Aubbee- 
naubbee' s village, on a reservation in the 
present Aubbeenaubbee tp., in Fulton co., 
Ind. The tract was sold by the treaty of 
Tippecanoe r. in 1836. Other forms of the 
name are Aubbanaubba, Aubbanaubbee, 
Aubeenaubee, Aubinaubee. (j. m.) 

Aubomesk (probably 'white beaver'). 
A village of the Powhatan confederacy, 
in 1608, on the n. bank of the Kappa- 
hannock, in Kichmond co., Va. — Smith 
(1629), Virginia, i, map, repr. 1819. 

Aucheucaula. A former Creek town 
situated on the e. bank of Coosa r., in the 
extreme n. w. corner of Coosa co., Ala. — 
Rovce in 18th Rep. B. A. E., Ala. map, 

Aucocisco. The name of the territory 
about Casco bay and Presumpscot r. , in the 
area now included in Cumberland co. , Me. 
It was also sometimes applied to those 
Abnaki Indians by whom it was occu- 
pied. Since the section was settled at an 
early date by the whites, the name soon 
dropped out of use as applied to the In- 
dians, or rather it was changed to 
" Casco," but this was a mere local desig- 
nation, not a tribal distinction, as the In- 
dians referred to were Abnaki. The proper 
form of the word is given by Willis as 
Uh-kos-is-co, 'crane' or 'heron,' the first 
syllable being guttural. These birds still 
frequent the bay. It is said by Willis to 
have been the Indian name of Falmouth 
(Portland), Me. 

Ancocisco.— Smith (1629), Virginia, II, 177, repr. 
1819 (misprint). Aucasisco.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 545, 1853. Aucocisco.— Smith (1629), 
Virginia, n, 193, repr. 1819. Aucosisco.— Drake, 
Bk. Inds., vi, 1848. Casco.— Sullivan in Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., 1st s., ix, 210, 1804 ("Casco Indians"). 
"Quack.— Levett (1628) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d 
s., vni, 168, 1843 (same?). TJh-kos-is-co. — Willis in 
Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., I, 31, 1831, repr. 1858. 

An Glaize. Mentioned by Drake (Bk. 
Inds., bk. 5, 63, 1848) as if a Delaware vil- 
lage on the s. w. [s. e.] branch of the 
Miami of the Lake (Maumee r.), Ohio. 

Augpalartok ( ' the red one,' designating 
a cliff. — Boas) . An Eskimo village in w. 
Greenland, lat. 72° 53'.— Meddelelser om 
Gronland, vm, map, 1889. 

Augustine. A rancheria and reserva- 
tion of 615 acres of desert land occupied 
by Mission Indians; situated 75 m. from 

the Mission Tule River agency, s. Cal. — 
Rep. Ind. Aff., 175, 1902. 

Auk. A Koluschan tribe on Stephens 
passage, Douglas and Admiralty ids., 
Alaska; pop. 640 in 1880-81, 279 in 1890. 
Their chief town was called Anchguhlsu. 
The other settlements mentioned by 
Petroff were probably summer camps. 
One such camp was Tsantikihin, now 
called Juneau. The social divisions are 
Tlenedi and Wushketan. (j. r. s. ) 
Ahkootskie.— Elliott, Cond. Aff. Alaska, 227, 1875 
(transliterated from Veniaminoff). Ak-kon.— 
Krause, Tlinkit Ind., 116, 1885. Akutskoe.— Ve- 
niaminoff, Zapiski, II, pt. 3, 30, 1840. Armos. — 
Scott in Ind. Aff. Rep., 309, 1868 (probably misprint 
for Awks). Auke. — Kane, Wand, in N. Am.,app., 
1859. Auke-qwan.— Emmons in Mem. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., in, 233, 1903. Awks.— Halleck in Rep. 
Sec. War, pt. 1,38,1868. 

Aukardneling. A village of the Talir-' 
pingmiut division of the Okomiut Eskimo 
on the w. side of Cumberland sd. 
Auqardneling. — Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Aukpatuk ('red'). A Suhinimiut Es- 
kimo village onUngava bay, Labrador. — 
Hind, Lab. Pen., n, map, 1863. 

Aukumbumsk. A Pequot village in the 
center of their country and the residence 
of their chief before the coming of the 
English, in 1636; probably in New Lon- 
don co., Conn. 

Aukumbumsk. — Trumbull, Ind. Names Conn., 7, 
1881 (Mohegan form). Awcumbucks. — Ibid. (Nar- 
raganset form). 

Aulintac. A Costanoan village at Santa 
Cruz mission, Cal. The name has been 
taken for a dialectic division of the Costa- 
noan family. 

Aureuapeugh. A village of the Pow- 
hatan confederacy, in 1608, on Rappahan- 
nock r., in Essex co., Va. — Smith (1629), 
Virginia, i, map, repr. 1819. 

Auriferous gravel man. See Calaveras 

Ausion. A former Chumashan village 
near Purisima mission, Santa Barbara 
co., Cal. — Tavlor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 
18, 1861. 

Ante. An Apalachee (?) town on the 
coast of Apalachee bay, Fla., first visited 
by Narvaez in 1528. It has been identi- 
fied in location with St Marks. 

Ante.— French, Hist. Coll. La., u, 246, 1875 (mis- 
print). Aute. — Cabeza de Vaca, Smith trans., 38, 
1871 (Smith identifies it with Ochete). Autia. — 
Linschoten,Desc.derAmer., 6, 1638. Haute.— Gal- 
latin in Trans. Am. Ethnol. Soc, n, lyi, 1848. 

Antiamqne. The town, possibly Cad- 
doan, where De Soto's troops went into 
winter quarters in 1541-42. It had an 
abundance of maize and provisions, and 
lay on the same river as Cayas, appar- 
ently Arkansas r. 

Autiamque.— Gentl. of Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., II, 181, 1850. Utiangue.— Rarinesque, 
introd. Marshall, Ky., I, 35, 1824. TJtianque.— 
Shipp, De Soto and Fla., 683, 1881. Vicanque.— 
Biedma in French, op. cit., 107. Viranque.— 
Biedma in Smith, Collec. Docs. Fla., 61, 1857. 
Vtiangue.— Garcilasso de la Vega, Fla., 193, 1723. 

Avak. A Yuit Eskimo village near Cape 
Chukotsky, n. e. Siberia; pop. 101 in 16 



[B. a. e. 

houses about 1895; 98 in 12 houses in 
1901. The people are of the Aiwan di- 

Agvan.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1899. 
A'vak.— Bogoras, Chukchee, 29, 1904 (Eskimo 
name). Awan. — KrauseinDeutscheGeog. Blatter, 
v, 80, map, 1882 (Chukchi name for Eskimo about 
Indian pt) . Eu'nmun. — Bogoras, op. cit. ( Chukchi 

Avatanak. An Aleut village on a small 
island of the same name, between Una- 
laska and Unimak ids., Alaska; pop. 19 
in 1880. 

Aiaialgutak. — Krenitzin and Levashef (1768), 
quoted by Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. Avata- 
nak.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 22, 1884. Avata- 
nakskoi.— Elliott, Cond. Aff. Alaska, 225, 1875. 
Avatanovskoe. — Veniaminoff, Zapiski, n, 203,1840. 
Awatanak. — Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., map, 152, 

Avaudjelling. A summer settlement of 
Akudnirmiut Eskimo at the n. end of 
Home bay, Baffin land. — Boas in 6th 
Kep. B. A. E., map, 1888. 

Avavares. A former tribe of Texas, 
possibly Caddoan, which lived ' ' behind ' ' 
the Quintoles toward the interior, and to 
which Cabeza de Vaca, in 1527-34, fled 
from the Mariames. Their language was 
different from that of the Mariames, 
although they understood the latter. 
They bartered bones, which the Mariames 
ground and used for food, and also traded 
in bows. While staying with the Ava- 
vares Cabeza de Vaca and his companion 
became noted for their successful treat- 
ment of the sick. The people seem to 
have been kindly disposed and different 
in habits from the coast tribes, (a. c. f. ) 
Ananares.— Harris, Voy. and Trav., I, 803, 1705. 
Anavares.— Linschoten, Desc. de l'Amerique, 6, 
1638. Avaraes.— Cabeca de Vaca (1534) quoted by 
Barcia, Ensayo, 13, 1723. Avares.— Herrera, Hist. 
Gen., dec. v, 94, 1725. Avavares.— Cabeza de Vaca, 
Smith trans. , 58, 84, 1851 . Chavavares. —Cabeza de 
Vaca, Smith trans., 137, 1871. 

Avendaughbough. A former village, 
probably of the Sewee, in South Carolina 
in 1701.— Lawson, Hist. Car., 24, 1860. 

Avnulik. A Chnagmiut village in the 
Yukon district, Alaska; pop. 30 in 1890. 

Avnuligmiut.— llth Census, Alaska, 165, 1893. 

Avolabac. A rancheria, probably Co- 
chimi, connected with Purisima mission, 
Lower California, about lat. 26° 20'.— 
Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 189, 1857. 

Avoyelles (Fr. dim. of avoie, 'small 
vipers' ). A tribe spoken of in the 18th 
century as one of the nations of the Red 
r. , having their villages near the mouth 
of that stream, within what is now 
Avoyelles parish, La. They probably 
belonged to the Caddoan family, the tribe 
representing a group that had remained 
near the ancient habitat of its kindred. 
The country occupied by the Avoyelles 
was fertile and intersected by lakes and 
bayous, one of the latter being still called 
by their name. The tribe lived in vil- 
lages, cultivated maize and vegetables, 
and practised the arts common to the 

tribes of the Gulf region. Nothing defi- 
nite is known of their beliefs and cere- 
monies. Like their neighbors, they had 
come into possession of horses, which 
they bred, and later they obtained cattle, 
for Du Pratz mentions that they sold 
horses, cows, and oxen to the French 
settlers of Louisiana. During the general 
displacement of the tribes throughout the 
Gulf states, which began in the 18th cen- 
tury, the Avoyelles country proved to be 
attractive. The Biloxi settled there and 
other tribes entered and took possession. 
Under the influences incident to the 
advent of the white race the Avoyelles 
mingled with the newcomers, but through 
the ravages of wars and new diseases the 
tribe was soon reduced in numbers. 
Before the close of the century their vil- 
lages and their tribal organization melted 
away, their language became extinct, and 
the few survivors were lost in the float- 
ing Indian population. In 1805, accord- 
ing to Sibley, the tribe had become re- 
duced to two or three women, (a. c. f.) 
Ajouelles. — Homann, Indian Occidentalis, map, ca. 
1740. Aouayeilles.— Margry, Dec., 230, 1886. Avo- 
gall.— Schermerhorn in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d 
s., ii, 26, 1812. Avovelles.— Jefferys, Am. Atlas, 5, 
1776. Avoyall.— Brackenridge, Views of La., 83, 
1814. Avoyellas.— Dumont, La.,i, 134, 1753. Avo- 
yelles.— Sibley (1805) in Am. State Papers, iv, 725, 
1832. Avoyels.— Jefferys, French Dom. Am., i, 
165, 1761. 

Awaitlala ( ' those inside the inlet ' ) . A 
Kwakiutl tribe on Knight inlet, Brit. Col. 
Their town is called Kwatsi. 

A'wa-iLala.— Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 332, 1897. 
A e wae'LEla.— Boas in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
v, pt. 1, 122, 1902. Oughtella.— Brit. Col. map, 
Ind. Aff., Victoria, 1872 (given as name of town). 

Awalokaksaksi ('at the little island'). 
A Klamath settlement on Williamson r., 
s. w. Oreg. — Gatschet in Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., ii, pt. 1, xxix, 1890. 

Awani. A division of the Miw T ok living 
in Yosemite valley, Mariposa co., Cal. 
Powers states that the name Yosemite is a 
distorted form of the Miwok uzumaiti, 
'grizzly bear,' a term never used by the 
Indians to designate the valley itself or any 
part of it. Awani, the name applied by 
the natives of the valley, was the principal 
village, which by extension was given to 
the whole valley and its inhabitants, w r ho 
occupied it when snow permitted. The 
Awani had 9 villages, containing 450 peo- 
ple, when the whites first came, and they 
seem: to have had a larger number at an 
earlier period . At present the population 
is unknown, but small. The 9 villages 
were Awani, Hokokwito, Kumaini, Les- 
amaiti, Macheto, Notomidula, Sakaya, 
and Wahaka. (h. w. h.) 

Ahwahnachee.— Hittell, Yosemite, 42, 1868. Ah- 
wahnechee. — Ibid. ,35. Awalache.— Johnston (1851) 
in Sen. Ex. Doc. 61, 32d Cong., 1st sess., 22, 1852. 
Awallache.— McKee et al. (1851) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 
4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 74, 1853. Awanee.— Pow- 
ers in Overland Monthly, x, 333, 1874. Oosemite.— 
Hittell, Yosemite, 35, 1868. Oosoomite.— Ibid., 36. 

BULL. 30] 



Sosemiteiz.— Lewis in Ind. Aff. Rep. 1857, 399, 
1858. Sosemity.— Ibid., 252, 1856. Ya-seem-ne.— 
Barbour in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4. 32d Cong., spec, sess., 
256, 1853. Yoamity.— Hittell, Yosemite, 42, 1868. 
Yohamite.— Ibid. Yosahmittis.— Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, June 8, 1860. Yo-sem-a-te. — Wessells 
(1853) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 1st sess., 
30, 1857. Yosemetos.— Barbour (1851) in Sen. Ex. 
Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 61, 1853. Yo-sem- 
ety.— Johnston in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 
222, 1854. Yosemites.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, 
Dec. 7, 1860. Yosimities.— Ind. Com'rs (1851) in 
Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 88, 1853. 
Yosoomite.— Hittell, Yosemite, 36, 1868. 

Awash ( ' buffalo ' ) . A Tonka wa clan or 
gens.— Gatschet, MS., B. A. E., 1884. 

Awashlaurk. A former Chumashan 
village near Santa Inez mission, Santa 
Barbara co., Cal. 

A-wac-la'-urk. — Henshaw, Santa Inez MS. vocab., 
B. A. E., 1884. 

Awashonks. The woman chief of Se- 
conet, R. I., whose fame obscured that 
of Tolony, her husband (Drake, Inds. of 
N. Am., 249, 1880). Her name is signed 

until 1680, when, in the Pueblo rebellion, 
which began in August, the Awatobi 
missionary, Father Figueroa, was mur- 
dered. At this time the Awatobi people 
numbered 800. Henceforward no Span- 
ish priests were established among the 
Hopi, although in 1700 Father Garay- 
coechea visited Awatobi, where he bap- 
tized 73 natives, but was unsuccessful in 
his attempt to reestablish missions among 
them. In November of the same year, 
owing to the friendly feeling which the 
Awatobi are said to have had for the 
Spanish friars, their kindred, especially 
of Walpi and Mashongnovi, joined in 
an attack on Awatobi at night, setting fire 
to the pueblo, killing many of its inhabi- 
tants, including all the men, and carrying 
off women and children to the other 
pueblos, chiefly to Mashongnovi, Walpi, 
and Oraibi. Awatobi was never again in- 


:~ -*.^--~ 



to the Plymouth agreement of 1671. She 
was drawn into King Philip's war in sup- 
port of that chief, but afterward made 
her peace with the English. One of her 
sons is said to have studied Latin in prep- 
aration for college, "but succumbed to the 
palsy, (a. f. c. ) 

Awata. The Bow clan of the Hopi. 
Aoat.— Voth, Oraibi Summer Snake Ceremony, 

283, 1903. A-wa'-ta Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., 

Vii, 367, 1894. Awata win wu.— Fewkes in 19th 
Rep. B. A.E., 584, 1900 {winwO, = 'clan'). A-wata 
wun-wu. — Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., vn, 404, 1894. 

Awatobi ('high place of the bow,' re- 
ferring to the Bow people). A former 
pueblo of the Hopi on a mesa about 9 m. 
s. e. of Walpi, n. e. Ariz. It was one of 
the original villages of the province of 
Tusayan of the early Spaniards, being 
visited by Tobar and Cardenas of Coro- 
nado's expedition in 1540, by Espejo in 
1583, and by Oiiate in 1598. It became 
the seat of the Franciscan mission of San 
Bernardino in 1629, under Father Porras, 
who was poisoned by the Hopi in 1633; 
but the endeavor to Christianize the Hopi 
at this and other pueblos was continued 

habited. The walls of the old Spanish 
church are still partly standing. See 
Mindeleff in 8th Kep. B. A. E., 1891; 
Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., Oct., 1893; 
Fewkes in 17th Kep. B. A. E., 592 et 
seq., 1898. (p. w. h.) 

Aguato.— Espejo (1583) in Doc. Ined., xv, 120, 182, 
1871. Aguatobi.— Doc. of 1584 cited by Bande- 
lier in Arch. Inst. Papers, I, 15, 1881; Vetan- 
curt (1693), Menolog. Fran., 275, 1871. Agua- 
tubi.— Ayeta (1680) quoted by Bandelier in 
Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 369, 1892. Aguatuby. — Jef- 
ferys, Am. Atlas, map 5, 1776. Aguatuvi.— Busch- 
mann, Neu-Mexico, 231, 1858. Aguatuya.— Ban- 
delier in Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., in, 85, 1892 
(misquoting Onate following). Aguatuyba.— 
Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 137, 1871 (erro- 
neously given as name of chief). Aguitobi. — 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 115, 1890. 
Ahuato.— Hakluyt (1600), Voy., 470, 1810. Ahu- 
atu. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, m, 115, 
135, 1890. Ahuatuyba.— Ibid., 109, and iv, 368, 1892. 
Ahuzto.— Hakluyt (1600), Voy., repr. 1891. Ah- 
wat-tenna. — Bourke, Moquis of Ariz., 195, 1884. 
Aoatovi.— Voth, Traditions of the Hopi, 47, 1905. 
Aquatasi. — Walch, Charte America, 1805. Aqua- 
tubi.— Davis, Span. Conq. N. Mex., 368, 1869. 
Atabi-hogandi.— Bourke, Moquis of Ariz., 84, 1884 
( Navaho name ) . Aua-tu-ui. —Bandelier in Arch . 
Inst. Papers, iv, 368, 1892. A-wa-te-u.— Cushing 
in Atl. Monthly, 367, Sept., 1882. A-wa'-to-bi.— 
Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., v, 10, 1892. Awatubi.— 



[b. a. b. 

Bourke, op. cit.,-91. A wat u i. — Cushing in 4th 
Rep. B. A. E., 493, 1886. A wat u ians.— Ibid., 494. 
San Bernahdino de Ahuatobi.— Bandelier in Arch. 
Inst. Papers, IV, 369, 1892 (misprint). San Bernardi- 
no.— Fewkes in Am. Anthrop., VI, 394, 1894. San 
Bernardino de Aguatuvi. — Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mpx., 349, 1889. San Bernardino de Ahuatobi.— Ve- 
tancurt (1693) , Teatro Mex., in, 321, 1871. S. Ber- 
nardo de Aguatuvi, — Vargas (1692) quoted by Ban- 
croft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 201, 1889. Talla-Hogan. — 
Mindeleff, quoted by Powell, 4th Rep. B. A. E., 
xxxix, 1886 ('singing house': Navaho name). 
Talla-hogandi. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
IV, 368, 1892. Tally-hogan.— Powell, 3d Rep. B. 
A. E., xxi, 1884. Tolli-Hogandi.— Bourke, Moquis 
of Ariz., 84, 1884. Zagnato.— Brackenridge, Early 
Span. Discov., 19, 1857. Zaguate.— Prince, N. 
Mex., 34, 1883. Zaguato.— Espejo (1583) in Hak- 
luvt, Voy., 463, 470, 1810. Zuguato.— Hinton, 
Handbook to Ariz., 388, 1878. 

Awausee (awasisi, ' bullhead, ' a fish ) . A 
Chippewa phratry or gens. According to 
Warren a phratry including all the fish 
gentes of- the Chippewa. According to 
Morgan and Tomazin it is a gens in it- 
self. Cf. Ouassi. 

Ah-wah-sis'-sa. — Morgan, Anc. Soc, 166, 1877. 
Ah-wa-sis-se.— Tanner, Narr., 315, 1830 ('small cat- 
fish'; given by Tanner as a gens; headds: "some- 
times they call the people of this totem 'those 
who carry their young,' from the habits of the 
small cattish"). Awassissin. — Gatschet, Ojibwa 
MS., B. A. E.,1882. A-waus-e.— Warren in Minn. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 44, 1885. A-waus-e-wug.— 
Ibid. , 87. A-waus-is-ee. —Ramsey in Ind. Aft . Rep. , 
91 , 1850. 

Awenanish. See Ouananiche. A former Chuma- 
shan village on the coast between Pt 
Conception and Santa Barbara, Cal., in 
the locality now called Punta Capitan. 
A-wha-whi-lac'-mu.— Henshaw, Buenaventura 
MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884. 

Awhut. A Diegueno rancheria in n. 
Lower Cal. whose inhabitants spoke the 
Hataam dialect. — Gatschet, Yuma Spr., 
107, 1886. 

Awighsaghroone. A tribe, probably 
Algonquian, that lived about the upper 
great lakes and which sent a friendly 
message to the Seneca in 1715. Perhaps 
identical with the Assisagigroone, orMis- ( 

Awighsaghroene. — Livingston (1715) in N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., v, 446, 1855. Awighsaghroone.— Ibid. 

Awigna. A former Gabrieleno ranche- 
ria in Los Angeles co., Cal., at a place 
later called La Puenta. 

Awigna.— Ried (1852) quoted by Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, June 8, 1860. Awiz-na. — Ried quoted by 
Hoffman in Bull. Essex Inst.,xvn, 2, 1885. 

Awls. The aboriginal American awl is 
a sharpened stick, bone, stone, or piece 
of metal, used as a perforator in sewing. 
It was universal among Indians from the 
earliest times, and is one of the familiar 
archeologic objects recovered from exca- 
vations in prehistoric sites. For tempo- 
rary use awls were improvised from 
splinters of flint, wood, and bone, cac- 
tus spines, agave needles, thorns, etc. 
Before the introduction of iron, bone was 
the most serviceable material. Rude 
awls, formed by grinding to a point a 
long-bone or sliver of bone, are frequently 
encountered in graves and on the sites of 

early habitations, and with them may be 
found others that are elaborately finished 
and decorated with carving and etching. 
Perhaps most Indians preferred deer bone 
as a material for awls, but bear and tur- 
key bones and antler were also exten- 
sively employed, those of turkey bone 
being especially common in New Mex- 
ico. The fibula of the deer merely 
needed sharpening to produce the tool, 
while the articular extremity formed a 
convenient and ornamental handle. 
Ivory from the walrus, narwhal, and fos- 
sil elephant was valued for making awls 
in regions where it could be procured. 
Awls of chipped or ground stone, shell, 
hard wood, and copper have been found 
on ancient sites. Awls of bone or of wood 
were not usually hafted, but stone and 
copper awls were often mounted and per- 
haps served also for drills (q. v.). The 
modern awl of iron is always hafted with 
wood, bone, dried tendon or gristle, 
or horn, and the hafts are often carved, 
painted, or otherwise decorated. 

The awl was used to make perforations 
through which thread of sinew or other 
sewing material was passed when skins 
for moccasins, clothing, tents, etc., were 
sewed, and in quillwork, beadwork, and 
basketwork. Other uses for awls were for 
making holes for pegs in woodwork, as a 
gauge in canoe-making, for shredding 
sinew, for graving, etc. Various awl-like 
implements that were used by the In- 
dians in weaving and making pottery, as 
pins for robes, as head-scratchers, pipe- 
picks, blood pins for closing wounds in 
game to save the blood, marrow-extract- 
ors, forks, corn-huskers, etc., have some- 
times been classed as awls. The Alaskan 
Eskimo have an awl with a small barb 
near the end which was used like a cro- 
chet hook. 

The awl was so indispensable in every- 
day work that it was usually carried on 
the person, and many kinds of sheaths 
and cases were made for holding it. 
These were formed from joints of cane 
or hollow bones, or wrought out of bone, 
wood, metal, or leather, and were orna- 
mented by etching, carving, or painting, 
or with beadwork, quillwork, or other 
decorative devices. See Drills and Drill- 
ing, Needles. 

Consult Stephen, The Navajo Shoe- 
maker, Proc. Nat. Mus., xi, 131, 1888; pa- 
pers in Reps. B. A. E. by Nelson, Mur- 
doch, Boas, Turner, Hoffman, and 
Fewkes; and Mason, Basketry, Rep. Nat. 
Mus., 1902. (w. h.) 

Awluhl (d'Whl). A clan of Taos pueblo, 
New Mexico. The meaning of the name 
is indefinite, but it is said to bear some 
reference to transformation from human 
beings into animals. — Hodge, field notes, 
B. A. E., 1899. 

BULL. 30] 



Axacan. A place in Virginia, some- 
where w. from Chesapeake bay, at 37° 
or 37° 3CK, in which the Spaniards at- 
tempted to establish a Jesuit mission in 
1570. Through the treachery of their 
Indian guide, brother of the chief of the 
tribe, the entire party of missionaries, 7 
in number, was massacred and the tem- 
porary mission building destroyed. Two 
years later Menendez revenged their 
death by hanging 8 of the principal mur- 
derers, (j. m.) 

Aixacan.— Shipp, De Soto and Fla., 560, 1881. 
Axacan.— Barcia, Ensayo, 142, 1723. 

Axauti. A pueblo of New Mexico in 
1598; doubtless situated in the Salinas, in 
the vicinity of Abo, and evidently occu- 
pied by the Tigua or the Piros. — Ofiate 
(1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871. 
Axanti. — Columbus Memorial Vol., 155, 1893 (mis- 
print) . 

Axes. The grooved ax takes a promi- 
nent place among the stone implements 
used by the northern tribes. The normal 
form is that of a thick wedge, with rounded 
angles and an encircling 
groove near the top for 
securing the handle; but 
there is great variation 
from the average. Usu- 
ally the implement is 
made of some hard, tough 
stone, as trap, granite, 
syenite, greenstone, or 
hematite, where such can 
be procured; but when 
these are not available 
softer material is utilized, 
as sandstone or slate. 
Copper axes are of rare 
occurrence. Among the 
stone specimens there is 
a very wide range in 
size, the largest weigh- 
ing upward of 30 pounds 
and the smallest scarcely an ounce. As 
these extreme sizes could serve no eco- 
nomic purpose, they were probably for 
ceremonial use ; the smaller may ha ve been 
amulets or talismans. The majority range 
from 1 pound to 6 pounds, which mark 
close to the limits of utility. As a rule the 
groove is at a right angle to the longer 
axis, though sometimes it is oblique, and 
it may extend entirely or only partially 
around the ax. In the latter case it is 
always one of the narrow sides that is left 
without a groove, and this is frequently 
flattened or hollowed to accommodate the 
handle better. Ordinarily the complete 
or entire groove is pecked in a ridge encir- 
cling the ax, leaving a protuberance 
above and below, while the partial groove 
is sunken in the body of the implement. 
Axes with two or more grooves are rare 
excepting in the Pueblo country, where 
multiple grooves are common. The haft 
was placed parallel with the blade and 

Ax with Simple Groove; 
District of Columbia 
(length, 7 IN.) 


Ax with Diagonal Groove 
And lateral Ridges; 

was usually a withe doubled around the 
groove and fastened securely with cords 
or rawhide, but heavier T-shape sticks 
were sometimes used, the top of the T 
being set against the „_„.^ 

flattened or hollow side y"'^ 'T? 1 ** 
of the implement and '\k%^-^ 
firmly lashed. Axes 
with holes drilled for 
the insertion of a handle 
are common in Europe, 
but this method of halt- 
ing was of very rare 
occurrence among the 
American aborigines. 
When not made from 
bowlders closely ap- 
proximating in shape 
the desired implement, 
the ax was roughed out by chipping and 
was reduced to the desired shape by peck- 
ing with a hard stone and by grinding. 
Axes of rude shape, made by flaking a 
flattish bowlder along one end and break- 
ing notches in the sides for hafting, are 
found in some sections. Axes are well 
distributed over the country wherever 
good material is readily available, ex- 
cepting in the Pacific states, British Co- 
lumbia, and Alaska, where specimens are 
exceedingly rare. Few are found in 
Florida, and although plentiful in the 
mound region are seldom found in 
mounds. The shapes vary with the 
different regions, examples from the 
Atlantic slope, for example, being quite 
unlike those of the Pueblo country. 

It is probable that the ax served vari- 
ous purposes in the arts, and especially in 
war and in the chase. Numerous badly 
fractured specimens are found in the soap- 
stone quarries of e. United States, where 
they were used for cutting out masses of 
this rock. The grooved ax is said to have 
been used in felling trees and in cutting 
them up, but it is manifestly not well 
suited for such work; it would serve, 
however, to assist in cutting wood in 
conjunction with charring. The hafted 
stone ax passed immediately out of use 
on the introduction by Europeans of 
the iron ax, which w T as the first and 
most obviously useful tool that the 
Indians saw in the hands of the white 

See Abbott, Prim. Indust., 1881; Fowke 
(1) in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 1896, (2) Arch. 
Hist. Ohio, 1902; Holmes in 15th Rep. B. 
A. E., 1897; Jones, Antiq. So. Inds., 1873; 
Jones in Smithson. Cont., xxn, 1876; 
Moorehead, Prehist. Impls., 1900; Put- 
nam in Surv. W. 100th Merid., vn, 1879; 
Squier and Davis in Smithson. Cont., i, 
1848; Stevenson in 2d Rep. B. A. E., 1883; 
Thruston, Antiq. Tenn., 1897; Wilson in 
Smithson. Reps. 1887 and 1888. 

(g. f. w. h. h.) 



[B. a. e. 

Axille. A former fortified village of 50 
houses in n. w. Florida. , visited by De Soto 
in 1539. It was on a river, doubtless the 
one which still retains the name Ocilla. 
The same root may appear in the name 
of the province, Uzachil. It was on the 
frontier of the territory of the Apalachee 

Asila.— French, Hist. Coll. La., 2d s., 255, 1875. 
Axille.— Gen tl. of Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., II, 134, 1850. Ochile.— Garcilasso de la 
Vega, Florida, 51, 1723. 

Axion ( 'the muddy place,' from assiscu 
'mud'). A division of the New Jersey 
Delawares, formerly living on the e. bank 
of Delaware r., between Rancocas cr. and 
the present Trenton. In 1648 they were 
one of the largest tribes on the river, 
being estimated at 200 warriors. Brinton 
thinks the name may be a corruption of 
Assiscunk, the name of a creek above 
Burlington. See Evelin (1648) in Proud, 
Pa., i, 113, 1797. 

Axol. A Tewa pueblo in New Mexico 
in 1598.— Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., 
xvi, 116, 1871. 
Axoytre.— Onate, ibid., 102 (probably the same). 

Ayabaskawininiwug. A division of the 
Cree ( q. v. ) , commonly known as Wood 

Ayahanisino. A clan of the Apohola 
phratry of the Timucua. — Pareja (ca. 
1612) quoted by Gatschet in Am. Philos. 
Soc. Proc, xvn, 492, 1878. 

Ayak. A Kaviagmiut Eskimo village 
on Sledge id., Alaska. 

Ahyak.— llth Census, Alaska, 162, 1893. 

Ayanabi ( ' ironwood ' ) . A former Choc- 
taw village on Yannubbee cr., 2 m. above 
its confluence with Petickfa, about 8 m. 
s. w. of Dekalb, Kemper co., Miss. Ac- 
cording to tradition it was the scene of a 
conflict between the Creeks and the 
Choctaw in the 18th century, and being 
a neutral town was selected as the place 
for negotiating peace. In 1811 the town 
was visited by Ellskwatawa, the Shawnee 
Prophet, in the interest of Tecumtha, and 
2 years later a band of about 30 of its 
warriors joined the Creeks in the British 

Aianabe.— Alcedo, Die. Geog., I, 36, 1786. Aya- 
nabe.— D'Anville, map (1732), in Miss. Hist. Soc. 
Pub., in, 367, 1900. Ayanabi.— West Fla. map, ca. 
1772. Iyanabi.— Halbert in Miss. Hist. Soc. Pub., 
op. cit., 368 (given as proper Choctaw form). 
Yanabi.— Ibid, (alternative form). Yannubbee 
Town.— Halbert in Ala. Hist. Soc. Pub., 77, 1899. 
Yanubbee. — Ibid. 

Ayanamon. A village formerly situated, 
according to old maps, on a lake about 
the sources of Tuscarawas r., Ohio. 

Ayanamon. — Lattre, map, 1784. Ayououtou. — 
Esnauts and Rapilly, map, 1777. 

Ayanemo. See Ninigret. 

Ay a valla. An i m portant Apalachee ( or 
Timacua?) town and mission about 1700. 
It was destroyed by the English and their 
Indian allies under Gov. Moore in 1704, 
or, according to Shea, in the later inva- 
sion of 1706. Fairbanks locates it "near 

the St Mark's r.," w. Fla., while Shea in- 
correctly makes it a town of the Atimucas 
(Timucua) on Apalachicola r. (j. m.) 

Ayavala.— Jefferys, French Dom. Am., map, 135, 
1761. Ayavalla.— Shea, Cath. Miss., 74, 1855. Aya- 
ville.— Carroll, Hist. Coll. S. C, n, 574, 1836. 

Aycate. A former Maricopa rancheria 
on the Rio Gila, s. w. Ariz.— Sedelmair 
(1744) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 366, 1889. 

Aycbini. An unidentified pueblo in 
New Mexico in 1598.— Onate (1598) in 
Doc. In6d., xvi, 103, 1871. 

Aymay. A village in e. Georgia, visited 
by De Soto in 1540 and called by the Span-, 
iards Socorro, 'Relief.' — Gentl. of Elvas 
(1557), Hakluyt trans., 54, 1851. 

Ayotl. A Yurok village 1 m. above 
the mouth of Blue cr., on Klamath r., n. 

Oiyotl.— Gibbs in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 138, 

Ayqui. A pueblo of the province of 
Atripuy, in the region of the lower Rio 
Grande, N. Mex., in 1598 (Onate, 1598, 
in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871). Proba- 
bly the same as the pueblo at Ayquiyn, 
attributed by the same authority (p. 102) 
to the "Trios." 

Ayquiyu.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 136, 1889 

Azavay. A former Timuquanan village 
on St Johns r., Fla., 50 or 60 leagues 
upstream.— Fontaneda (ca. 1570) in Ter- 
naux-Compans, Voy., xx, 35, 1841. 

Azcapotzalco (Nahuatl name). Proba- 
bly an ancient settlement of the Tepe- 
cano or of a related tribe, but occupied 
since the early part of the 18th century 
by Tlaxcaltecs originally introduced by 
the Spaniards for defense against the 
Chichimecs; situated about 10 m. e. of 
Bolaiios, in Jalisco, Mexico. — Hrdlicka 
in Am. Anthrop., v, 425, 1903. 

Aziagmiut. The inhabitants of Sledge 
or Aziak id., Alaska, a subdivision of the 
Kaviagmiut, numbering 67 in 1890. — 
llth Census, Alaska, 154, 1893. 
Aziagmut. — Zagoskin, Descr. Russ. Poss. Am., pt. i, 
73, 1847. 

Aziak. The village of the Aziagmiut 
on Sledge id., near C. Nome, Alaska; 
pop. 50 in 1880.— Petroff, 10th Census, 
Alaska, 11, 1884. 

Aziavik. A town of the Chingigmiut 
Eskimo near C. Peirce, Alaska; pop. 90 
in 1890. 

Aziavigamut.— Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A. E., map, 
1899. Aziavigamute. — Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 
vin, map, 1884. Aziavigiokhamiut.— Schanz in 
llth Census, Alaska, 93, 1893. 

Azqueltan (Nahuatl: 'where there are 
small ants,' referring to the former num- 
erous population ) . The most important 
Tepecano settlement, consisting of about 
40 dwellings, situated on the Rio de 
Bolanos, about lat. 22° 12', long. 104°, 
Jalisco, Mexico. In 1902 a Mexican 
trader was permitted to settle among 
them for the first time. 

BULL. 30] 



Alquestan.— Lumholtz, Unknown Mex., II, 16, 
map, 123, 1902 (popular name, properly pro- 
nounced Asqueltan). Askeltan.— Hrdhcka in 
Am. Anthrop., V, 387, 1903. Ki-dagh-ra.— Ibid., 
420 (Tepecano name). San Lorenzo.— Ibid., 410 
(early Spanish name). Totonaltam.— Lumholtz, 
op. cit. (Tepecano name: same meaning). 

Azucsagna. A former Gabrieleno ranch - 
eria in Los Angeles co. , Cal. , at the locality 
now called Azusa.— Hoffman in Bull. 
Essex Inst., xvn, 2, 1885. 

Asucsagna.— Ried (1852) quoted by Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, June 8, 1860. Azucsagna.— Ried quoted 
by Hoffman in Bull. Essex Inst., xvn, 2, 1885. 

Baada. A former Makah village on 
Neah bay, Wash. According to Swan it 
was abandoned in 1863, its inhabitants 
moving to Neah. 

Baada.— Swan in Smithson. Cont., xvi, 2, 1870. 
Behda.— Gibbs, MS. no. 248, B. A. E. 

Babacomero. A former rancheria, prob- 
ably of the Papago, on the w. branch of 
Rio San Pedro, between Tombstone and 
Camp Huachuca, s. Ariz.— Box, Adven- 
tures, 322, 1869. 

Babasaqui. A ruined village, probably 
of the Papago, 3 m. above Imuris, be- 
tween Cocospera and Magdalena, Sonora, 

Babasaqui.— Kino (1706) quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, 1,501,1884. Babesagui.— Box, Adven- 
tures, 278, 1869. 

Babbyduclone. See Nakaidoklini. 

Babesakundiba, Babesigaundibay. See 
Curly Head. 

Babiacora. A pueblo of the Teguima 
Opata and the seat of a Spanish mission 
established in 1639; situated on the Rio 
Sonora, Sonora, Mexico, 110 m. s. of the 
Arizona boundary; pop. 445 in 1678, 294 
in 1730. 

Babiacora.— Kino, map (1702), in Stocklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. Babicori.— Orozco y Berra, 
Geog., 343, 1864. Batacora.— Escudero, Noticias 
Sonora y Sinaloa, 101, 1849 (probably the same). 
Batacosa.— Cancio (1767) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., 
ii, 224, 1856 (probably the same). Baviacora.— 
Davila, Sonora Hist., 317,1894. Concepcion Babia- 
cora.— Zapata (1678) quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. 
States, I, 246, 1884. Concepcion Babicora. — Rivera 
(1730), ibid., 514. Purisima de Babicora. — Orozco y 
Berra, Geog., 343, 1864. 

Babiche. A thong of skin, particularly 
of eel skin. The word is derived through 
Canadian French, in which the term is 
old, occurring in Hennepin (1688), from 
one of the eastern dialects of Algonquian. 
The original source is probably the old 
Micmac ababich, 'cord,' 'thread' (Lescar- 
bot, Hist. Nouv. France, 666, 1612). A 
cognate word is the Chippewa assababish, 
'thread.' For the manufacture and use 
of babiche, see Rawhide, (a. f. c. ) 

Babine ('big lips'). A branch of the 
Takulli comprising, according to Morice 
(Trans. Can. Inst., 27, 1893), the Natao- 
tin, the Babine proper, and the Hwotso- 
tenne tribes living about Babine lake, 
British Columbia, with a total population 
of 610 in 7 villages. The name was given 
to them by French Canadians from the 
custom of wearing labrets, copied from 
the Chimmesyan; and indeed their entire 

culture was greatly affected by that of the 
coast tribes. 

Babisi. A former rancheria, probably 
of the Sobaipuri, at the s. boundary of 
Arizona, near Suamca, of which it was a 

Sta Cruz Babisi.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 371, 

Babispe (from babipa, 'the point where 
the river takes a new course.' — Hardy). 
An Opata pueblo and the seat of a Spanish 
mission founded in 1645; situated on an 
e. branch of Rio de Babispe, in n. e. 
Sonora, Mexico, near the Chihuahua 
boundary. Pop. 402 in 1678, 566 in 1730. 
The town was destroyed by an earthquake - 
in May, 1887. (p. w. h.) 
Babispe. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 343, 1864. Bapis- 
pes. — Ribas (1645) quoted in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
in, 58, 1890 (referring to the inhabitants). S. 
Miguel Babispe.— Zapata (1678) quoted by Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, I, 246, 1884. S. Miguel de 
Vavispe.— Rivera, Diario, leg. 1,444, 1736. 

Baborigame. A former Tepehuane pue- 
blo, situated in a plain 1£ m. in diameter, 
in lat. 26° 40', long. 107°, s. w. Chihuahua, 
Mexico. The settlement is now Mexican- 
ized, but it is surrounded by Tepehuane 
ranch erias. 

Baborigame.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 324, 1864. 
Baborigami. — Lumholtz in Scribner's Mag., xvi, 
303, Sept., 1894. Vawulile.— Lumholtz, Unknown 
Mex., 1, 420, 1902 ( ' where there is a large fig tree ' : 
native name). 

Babuyagui. A pueblo founded in 1670 
by Father Alvaro Flores de la Sierra with 
some converted Varohio of Yecarome; 
situated on or near the headwaters of the 
upper Rio Fuerte, in n. Sinaloa, Mexico. 
It was given a resident priest in 1673, but 
on the death of Sierra in that year it soon 
became a mere visita of the mission of 
Taro (Tara), whence- many of the con- 
verts removed 3 years later. — Bancroft, 
No. Mex. States, 247, 1886. 

Baca (abbr. of bacapa, 'reed grass.' — 
Buelna). A Mayo settlement near the 
e. bank of Rio del Fuerte, about lat. 26° 
50', in the northernmost corner of Sina- 
loa, Mexico. 

Baca. — Hardy (1829) quoted by Bancroft, Nat. 
Races, I, 608, 1882. Bacabachi.— Hrdlicka in Am. 
Anthrop., vi, 59, 1904 (probably the same). Vaca.— 
Orozco y Berra; Geog., 332, 1864. 

Bacaburiacbic. A Tarahumare settle- 
ment of Chihuahua, Mexico; definite lo- 
cality unknown. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
323, 1864. 

Bacadeguacbi. A Coguinachi Opata 
pueblo and the seat of a Spanish mission 
founded in 1645; situated on the Rio de 
Batepito, or Babispe, in e. Sonora, Mexico; 
pop. 370 in 1678, 272 in 1730. In 1884, 
when visited by Bandelier, it contained 
about 500 Mexicans and Mexicanized In- 
dians, but the town was much neglected 
and dilapidated on account of Apache 

Bacadeguachi. — Rivera, Diario, leg. 1,444, 1736. 
Bacadeguatzi.— Ribas (1764) quoted by Bandelier 
in Arch. Inst. Papers, IV, 508, 1892. Baca de 
Huachi. — Hamilton, Mexican Handbook, 47, 1883. 



[B. a. e. 

Bacatu de Guachi.— Mange {ca. 1700) quoted by 
Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 233, 1884. San Luis 
Bacadeguachi. — Rivera (1730), ibid., 514. San Luis 
Gonzaga de Bacadeguatzi. — Doe. of 1764 quoted by 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, ill, 56, 1890. S. 
Luis Gonzaga Bacadeguachi. — Zapata (1678), ibid., 

Bacanora. A pueblo of the Eudeve di- 
vision of the Opata and the seat of a 
Spanish mission founded in 1627; situated 
in e. Sonora, Mexico, on Kio Batepito, 
lat. 29° 10', long. 109°. Pop. 253 in 1678, 
116 in 1730. 

Bacanora.— Rivera (1730) quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, i, 513, 1884. Basacora.— Allegre 
quoted by Bancroft, ibid., 523 (probably the same). 
S. Ignacio Bacanora.— Zapata (1678), ibid., 245. 

Bacanuchi. A rancheria, apparently of 
the Opata, on the e. bank of the Eio 
Sonora, Sonora, Mexico, in lat. 30° 40'. 
It was visited by Father Kino in Oct., 
1706, and was the seat of a mission with 
266 inhabitants in 1777 (Doc. Hist. Mex., 
4th s., i, app., 1856). Distinct from Ba- 

Bacanuchi.— Kino, map (1702) in Stocklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. Real de Bacanuchi.— Kino 
quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 501, 1884. 

Bacapa (said by Buelna to signify 'reed 
grass' (carrizo), but the term bac, or vac, 
in Pima signifies ' house, ' ' ruined house ' ) . 
A Papago rancheria in n. w. Sonora, Mex- 
ico, located slightly s. e. of Carrizal on 
the map of Father Kino (1701) , by whom 
it was visited in 1700, and by Anza and 
Font in 1 776. Not to be confounded with 
Matape in any of its various forms, but 
identical with the later Quitobac in lat. 
31° 40', long. 112° 45'. (p. w. h.) 
Quitobac— Font, map (1777) in Bancroft, Ariz, and 
N. M., 393, 1889. San Louis de Bacapa. -Venegas, 
Hist. Cal., II, 176, 1759. San Luis Bacupa.— Ban- 
croft, op. cit., 359. San Luis Beltran de Bacapa.— 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, v, 123, 1890. 
S. Ludlov de Bacapa.— Kino, map (1702) in Stock- 
lein, Neue Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. S. Luis Bacapa.— 
Kino, map (1701) in Bancroft, op. cit., 360.— S. 
Luis de Bacapa. — Venegas, Hist. Cal., I, map, 
1759. S. Luis Quitobac— Anza and Font (1774) 
quoted by Bancroft, op. cit., 393. St. Ludlovic de 
Vacapa. — Bandelier, op. cit., 122. 

Bachipkwasi (a species of lizard). A 
clan of the Lizard (Earth or Sand) phra- 
try of the Hopi. 

Ba-tci'p-kwa-si. — Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 
39, 1891. 

Backhook. One of the small tribes for- 
merly living on lower Pedee r. and its 
branches in South Carolina. Almost 
nothing is known of it. With the Hook 
tribe they are mentioned by Lawson as 
foes of the Santee and as living in 1701 
about the mouth of Winyah bay, S. C. 

(J. M.) 
Backbook.— Lawson (1714), Hist. Car., 45, 1860. 
Back Hook.— Rivers, Hist. S. C, 35, 1856. Black 
Hook.— Ibid., 36. 

Bacoburito. A rancheria, apparently 
occupied by one of the Cahita tribes of 
the Piman family, situated on the Rio 
Petatlan, or Rio Sinaloa, in lat. 26°, n. w. 
Sinaloa, Mexico. Christianized early in 
17th century, the natives rebelled about 
1604 and burned their church, but the up- 

rising was soon quelled by Gov. Hurtaide 
who- put the leading rebels to death and 
compelled the others to rebuild the 
edifice.— Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 
213, 1886. 

Bacuachi. A former pueblo of the Tegui- 
ma Opata and the seat of a Spanish mission 
founded in 1650; situated on the head- 
waters of the Rio Sonora, in Sonora, Mex- 
ico, below latitude 31°. It still existed as 
a mission in 1777 (Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., 
i, app., 1856). Pop. 195 in 1678, and 51 
in 1730, but Bartlett (Personal Narr., i, 
278, 1854) found it almost depopulated in 

Bacatzi. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 530, 
1892 (misprint). Bacoachi.— Orozcoy Berra, Geog., 
343, 1864. Bacoaiz.— Ibid. Bacoatzi.-Rudo En- 
sayo (1763), 160, 1863. Bacouiz.— Rivera (1730) 
quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, 514, 1884. 
Bacuachi.— Kino, map (1702) in Stocklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 74, 1726. Biquache.— Hrdlicka in Am. 
Anthrop., vi, 72, 1904. S. Miguel Bacuachi. —Za- 
pata (1678) quoted by Bancroft, op. cit., 246. 

Bacuancos. A Pima rancheria visited 
by Father Kino about 1697; situated 7 
leagues s. of the mission of Guevavi in 
Pimeria Alta, n. w. Sonora, Mexico. 
Probably the later Buenavista. See Qui' 

Bacuancos.— Bernal (1697) quoted by Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. M., 356, 1889. Bacuanos.— Mange, 
ibid., 356. S. Antonio (?).— Ibid. S. Luis Bacuan- 
cos.— Ibid., 358. 

Bacum. A Yaqui settlement on the s. 
bank of the lower Rio Yaqui, s. w. So- 
nora, Mexico, with an estimated popula- 
tion of 4,000 in 1849. 

Bacum.— Velasco, Noticias de Sonora, 84, 1850. 
Bahium.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 355, 1864. Santa 
Cruz Bacum. — Ibid. 

Bacuvia. Mentioned as an early settle- 
ment apparently within the province of 
Apalachee, Fla. 

Bacutia. — Barcia, Ensayo, 339, 1723. Bacuvia.— 
Ibid., 336. 

Bad Arms. A Brule band. — Cuibertson 
in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 141, 1851. 

Badeuachi. A former Opata village, 
now in ruins, a short distance w. of Rio 
Sonora, about lat. 30°, near Huepacaand 
Aconchi, n. central Sonora, Mexico. — 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 71, 

Badwisha. A Mariposan tribe on Ka- 
weah r., Cal., said to have lived near the 
Wikchamni. Mentioned by Hoffman in 
1886 as formerly on Kaweah r., but then 
at Tule agency. 

Badwis'ha. — Hoffman in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 
xxin, 301, 1886. Balwisha.— Kroeber, inf'n, 1905. 
Pal-wish-a.— Barbour (1852) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d 
Cong., spec, sess., 255, 1853. Pat-wish-a.— Johnston 
(1851) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 61, 32d Cong., 1st sess., 23, 
1852. Pol-we-sha.— Wessells (1853) in H. R. Ex. 
Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 32, 1857. 

Bagaduce. The name of the peninsula 
in Hancock co., Me., on which Castine 
is situated. Purchas mentions Chebegna- 
dose (n should probably be u) as a town 
in 1602-1609 on Penobscot r. in Abnaki 
territory, with 30 houses and 90 men, 
which may be connected with the more 

BULL. 30] 



modern name. It is also', according to 
Willis (Coll. Me. Hist. Soc.,iv, 103, 1856), 
under the form Abagadusset (from a 
sachem of that name), the name of a 
tributary of the Kennebec. It is intro- 
duced here for the reason that Sullivan 
(Hist, Me., 95, 1795) applies the name, 
under the plural form Abagadusets, to 
a body of Indians which, in 1649, resided 
in this immediate section. Vetromile, 
however, says: "We are sure there was 
no Indian village at Castine, called at 
present Bagaduce, a corruption for 
matchibignadusek, 'water bad to drink.' " 
Ballard (Rep. U. S. Coast Surv., 1868, 
248) gives as the full form matche-be-gua- 
toos, ' bad bay, ' referring to a part of Cas- 
tine harbor, and this is the meaning 
commonly given. Rasles gives bagadas- 
sek as meaning 'to shine.' Dr William 
Jones suggests that the Chippewa paguda- 
sink, 'windward side,' may be a related 

Abagadusets.— Sullivan, Hist. Maine, 95, 1795. 
Chebegnadose.— Purchas (1625) quoted in Maine 
Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 156, 1857. 

Bagiopa. A tribe of whom Fray Fran- 
cisco Garces (Diary, 1900) heard in 1776, 
at which time they lived n. of the Rio 
Colorado, where they are located on 
Font's map of 1777. The fact that Padre 
Eusebio Kino, while near the mouth of 
the Rio Colorado in 1701, heard of them 
from other Indians and placed them on the 
gulf coast of Lower California on his map 
of that date, has created the impression 
that the Bagiopa were one of the Lower 
Colorado Yuman tribes; but because they 
were never actually seen in this locality 
by the Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries 
of the period, they are regarded as prob- 
ably having belonged to the Shoshonean 
family. The name is apparently of Pi- 
man origin (opa, 'people'), (f. w. h. ) 
Acquiora.— Garces (1775-6), Diary, 489, 1900 (ap- 
parently a misprint of Baquiova). Bagiopas. — 
Venegas, Hist. Cal., i, map, 1759. Bagopas. — 
Gussefeld, map, 1797. Bajiopas.— Venegas, Hist. 
Cal., II, 171, 1759. Baquioba.— Garces (1776), Diarv, 
405-6, 1900. Baquiova.— Ibid., 444. Raguapuis.— 
Mayer, Mexico, n, 38, 1853 (possibly intended for 


Bagoache. Given by La Chesnaye in 
1697 (Margry, Dec, vi, 6, 1886) as the 
name of a country about the n. shore of 
L. Superior, with a people of the same 
name numbering from 200 to 300 men. 

Bags and Pouches. Many varieties of 
bags and pouches were made by the Indi- 
ans of the United States and were used for 
a great number of purposes. The costume 
of the aborigines was universally desti- 
tute of pockets, and various pouches 
served in their stead. On occasion arti- 
cles were tucked away in the clothing or 
were tied up in bits of cloth or skin. 
The blanket also served at times for a 
bag, and among the Eskimo the woman's 
coat was enlarged over the shoulders and 

at the back to form a pouch for carrying 
the baby. The pouch was a receptacle 
of flexible material for containing vari- 
ous objects and substances of personal 
use or ceremony, and was generally an 
adjunct of costume. The bag, larger and 
simpler, was used for the gathering, trans- 
portation, and storage of game and other 
food. The material was tawed leather of 
various kinds, tanned leather, rawhide, 
fur skins, skins of birds; the bladder, 
stomach or pericardium of animals; cord 
of babiche, buckskin or wool, hair, bark, 
fiber, grass, and the like; basketry, cloth, 
beadwork, etc. Rectangular or oval 
pouches were made with a flap or a gath- 
ering-string and with a thong, cord, or 
strap for attaching them at the shoulder 
or to the belt. The Eskimo had pouches 
with a flap that could be wrapped many 
times around and secured by means of 
a string and an ivory fastener. The 
Zufli use, among others, crescent-shaped 
pouches into the horns of which objects 
are thrust through a central opening. 
Bags showed less variety of form. They 
were square or oblong, deep or shallow, 
flat or cylindrical. Many of these were 
provided with a shoulder band, many 
with a carrying-strap and a forehead 
band. The Eskimo bag was provided 
with an ivory handle, which w T as fre- 
quently decorated with etching. Small 
pouches were used for holding toilet arti- 
cles, paint, medicine, tobacco, pipes, am- 
munition, trinkets, sewing tools, fetishes, 
sacred meal, etc. Large pouches or bags, 
such as the bandoleer pouch of the Chip- 
pewa, held smaller pouches and articles 
for personal use. 

Bags were made for containing articles 
to be packed on horses, frequently joined 
together like saddlebags. The tribes of 
the far N. made use of large sleeping bags 
of fur. Most bags and pouches were orna- 
mented, and in very few other belong- 
ings of the Indian were displayed such 
fertility of invention and such skill in 
the execution of the decorative and sym- 
bolic designs. Skin pouches, elaborately 
ornamented with beadwork, quillwork, 
pigments, and dyes, were made by various 
tribes. Decorated bags and wallets of 
skin are characteristic of the Aleut, Salish, 
Nez Perces, the northern Athapascan and 
Algonquian tribes, and the Plains Indi- 
ans. Bags of textiles and basketry are 
similarly diversified. Especially note- 
worthy are the muskemoots of the 
Thlingchadinne, made of babiche, the 
bags of the Nez Perces, made of apocynum 
fiber and corn-husks, the woven hunting 
bags of northern woodland tribes, and the 
painted rawhide pouches and bags of the 
tribes of the great plains. 

Consult Mason (1) Aboriginal Ameri- 
can Basketry, Rep. Nat. Mus., 1902, 1904, 



[B. a. e. 

(2) Primitive Travel and Transportation, 
ibid., 1894, 1896; Boas, Holmes, Hoff- 
man, Nelson, and Turner, in Keports of 
the B. A. E. ; Kroeber, The Arapaho, Bull. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xvin, 1902; Boas in 
Jour. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, iv, no. 3, 
suppl., 1904; Willoughby in Am. An- 
throp., vn, nos. 1, 4, 1905; Teit in Mem. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., i, no. 4, 1900; Lum- 
holtz, Unknown Mexico, 1902. (w. h.) 

Baguacat. An unidentified pueblo of 
New Mexico in 1598.— Onate (1598) in 
Doc. Ined., xvi, 103, 1871. 

Baguiburisac. A rancheria, probably 
Maricopa, visited by Kino and Mange in 
1699; apparently near the Rio Gila in 
s. w. Ariz.— Mange (1699) quoted by 
Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 358, 1889. 

Bagwanageshig. See Hole-in-the-day. 

Bahacecha. A tribe visited by Onate in 
1604, at which time it resided on the 
Rio Colorado in Arizona, between Bill 
Williams fork and the Gila. Their lan- 
guage was described as being almost the 
same as that of the Mohave, whose ter- 
ritory adjoined theirs on the n. and with 
whom they were friendly. Their houses 
were low, of wood covered with earth. 
They are not identifiable with any pres- 
ent Yuman tribe, although they occupied 
in Onate' s time that part of the Rio Col- 
orado valley inhabited by the Alche- 
doma in 1776. See Zarate - Salmeron 
(ca. 1629) in Land of Sunshine, 105, 
Jan., 1900; Garces (1775-76), Diary, 1900; 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, in, 110, 
1890. (f. w. h.) 

Bahekhube. A village occupied by the 
Kansa after they left the mouth of Big 
Blue r. , near a mountain s. of Kansas r. , 

Bahe'qube. — Dorsey, MS. Kansas vocab., B. A. E., 

Bahohata ('lodge'). A Hidatsa band. 
Matthews says it may be Maohati. 
Ba-ho-Ha'-ta.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 159, 1877. 

Baicadeat. A former rancheria, evi- 
dently of the Sobaipuri, on Rio San Pedro, 
s. Ariz. ; it was visited by Father Kino 
about 1697, and became a visita of the 
mission of Suamca about 1760-67. 

Baicadeat.— Mange (1697) quoted by Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 358, 1889. S. Pablo Baibcat.— 
Bancroft, ibid., 371. 

Baidarka. The sealskin boat of the 
Alaskan Eskimo. The Russian adapta- 
tion of paithak, or paithalik, in the Kaniag- 
miut dialect, applied to a three-paddle 
boat of this kind. (a. f. c. ) 

Baimena ( possibly from bahime, pi. of 
bahi, 'a species of locust,' la 'continu- 
ance,' 'habit,' hence 'a place where locusts 
habitually live.' — Buelna). A former 
small tribe and pueblo, evidently Piman, 
6 leagues s. e. of San Jose" del Toro, Sina- 
loa, Mexico. According to Zapata the 
people spoke a dialect related to that of 
the Zoe, who lived next to them on the 

n. in 1678. These two tribes traditionally 
came with the Ahome from the n. They 
are now extinct. 

Baimena. — Orozco y Berra, Geog. , 336, 1864. Santa 
Catalina Baimena.— Ibid., 333. Santa Catalina de 
Baitrena.— Zapata (1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th 
s., in, 396, 1857. 

Baipia. A former settlement of either 
the Soba or the Papago proper, situated 
slightly n. w. of Caborca, probably on the 
Rio Altar, n. w. Sonora, Mexico. 
Aribaipia.— Anza (1774) quoted bv Bancroft, 
Ariz, and N. Mex., 389, 1889. Aribaycpia. — Font 
map (1777), ibid., 393. Ari vac— Orozco v Berra, 
Geog., 347, 1864 (probably the same). Baipia.— 
Kino, map (1701), in Bancroft, Ariz. andN. Mex., 
360, 1889. SanEdvardo de Baipia.— Venegas, Hist. 
Cal., ii, 176, 1759. S. Eduard de Baipia.— Kino, 
map (1702) in Stocklein, Neue Welt-Bott, 74, 
1726. S. Eduardo.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N. M., 359, 
1889. S. Eduardo Baipia. —Kino (1701) quoted by 
Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 495, 1884. S. 
Eduardo de Aribacpia.— Anza and Font (1776) 
quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. M., 393, 1889. 
S. Edward.— Venegas, Hist. Cal., I, map, 1759. 

Bajio (Span.: 'shoal,' 'sand-bank'). A 
Papago settlement with 150 inhabitants 
in 1858. 
Del Bajio.— Bailey in Ind. Aft. Rep., 208, 1858. 

Bakihon ('gash themselves with 
knives'). A band of the Upper Yank- 
tonai Sioux. 

Bakiho n .— Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 218, 1897. 
Bakihorj. — Ibid. 

Baking stones. A name applied to a 
numerous class of prehistoric stone relics 
found principally on 
inhabited sites in s. 
California. They 
are flattish, often 
rudely rectangular 
or somewhat oval 
plates, som etimes 
convex beneath and 
slightly concave 
above, and rare spec- 
imens have obscure 
rims. Usually they 
are made of soapstone, and often show 
traces of use over fire. They rarely ex- 
ceed a foot in length, are somewhat less 
in width, and perhaps an inch in average 
thickness. The characteristic feature of 
these plates is a roughly made perforation 
at the middle of one end, giving the ap- 
pearance of a huge pendant ornament. 
This perforation served, no doubt, to aid 
in handling the plate while hot. Some 
of these objects may have been boiling 
stones to be heated in the fire and sus- 
pended in a pot or basket of water for 
cooking purposes. This utensil passes 
imperceptibly into certain ladle- like 
forms, and these again into dippers, cups, 
bowls, and globular ollas in turn, the 
whole group forming part of the culinary 
outfit. A remarkable ladle-like object of 
gray diorite was obtained from the aurif- 
erous gravels 16 feet below the surface in 
Placer co., Cal. It is superior in make to 
other kindred objects. The baking stones 

Prehistoric Baking Plate; 
California (1-10) 

BULL. 30] 



of the Pueblo Indians, employed in mak- 
ing the wafer bread, are smooth, oblong 
slabs set over the fireplace. See Abbott 
in Surveys West of the 100th Merid., vn, 


1879; Cushing, Zuni Breadstuff, in Mill- 
stone, Nov. 1884; Holmes in Smithson. 
Rep. 1899, 1901; Mindeleff in 8th Rep. 
B. A. E., 1891. (w. h. h.) 

Balcony House. A cliff house, compris- 
ing about 25 rooms, situated in Ruin can- 
yon, Mesa Verde, s. Colo. It derives its 
name from a shelf or balcony which ex- 
tends along the front of two of the houses, 
resting on the projecting floor beams. 
See H. R. Rep. 3703, 58th Cong., 3d sess., 

Bald Eagle's Nest. A Delaware (?) vil- 
lage, taking its name from the chief, Bald 
Eagle, formerly on the right bank of Bald 
Eagle cr., near the present Milesburg, 
Center co. , Pa. It is marked on La Tour' s 
map of 1784 and described by Day, Penn- 
sylvania, 201, 1843. 

Ballokai Porno ('Oat valley people.' — 
Powers). A subtribe or division of the 
Porno, formerly living in Potter valley, 
Mendocino co., Cal. 

Bal-lo' Kai Po-mo. — Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., 
111,155,1877. PoamPomo.— Ibid., 156. Pomapoma.— 
Kroeber, infn, 1903. Poma pomo.— Ibid. Po- 
mas.— McKee (1851) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d 
Cong., spec, sess., 144, 1853. Pome Pomos. — Pow- 
ers in Overland Mo., ix, 504, 1872. Pone 
Pomos.— Hittell, Hist. Cal., I, 730, 1885. 

Ball play. The common designation of 
a man's game, formerly the favorite ath- 
letic game of all the eastern tribes from 
Hudson bay to the Gulf. It was found 
also in California and perhaps elsewhere 
on the Pacific coast, but was generally 
superseded in the W. by some form of 
shinny. It was played with a small ball 
of deerskin stuffed with hair or moss, or 
a spherical block of wood, and with 1 or 
2 netted rackets, somewhat resembling 
tennis rackets. Two goals were set up at 
a distance of several hundred yards from 
each other, and the object of each party 
was to drive the ball under the goal of the 
opposing party ■ by means of the racket 
without touching it with the hand. After 
picking up the ball with the racket, how- 
ever, the player might run with it in his 

hand until he could throw it again. In 
the N. the ball was manipulated with a 
single racket, but in the S. the player 
used a pair, catching the ball between 
them. Two settlements or two tribes 
generally played against each other, the 
players numbering from 8 or 10 up to 
hundreds on a side, and high stakes were 
wagered on the result. Preceding and 
accompanying the game there was much 
ceremonial of dancing, fasting, bleeding, 
anointing, and prayer under the direction 
of the medicine-men. The allied tribes 
used this game as a stratagem to obtain 
entrance to Ft Mackinaw in 1 764. Numer- 
ous places bearing the name of Ball Play 
give evidence of its old popularity among 
the former tribes of 
the Gulf states, who 
have carried it with 
them to their pres- 
ent homes in In- 
dian Ter., where it 
is still kept up with 
the old ceremonial 
and enthusiasm. 
Shorn of its cere- 
monial accompani- 
ments it has been 
adopted by the Ca- 
nadians as their na- 
tional game under 
the name of la 
crosse, and by the 
Louisiana French 
Creoles as raquette. 
The Indians of 
many tribes played 
other games of ball, noteworthy among 
which is the kicked ball of the Tarahu- 
mare, which, it is said, gave the name to 
the tribe. Consult Adair, Hist. Am. 
Inds., 1775; Bartram, Trav., 1792; Catlin, 
N. A. Inds., 1841; Mooney, Cherokee 
Ball Play, Am. Anthrop., in, 1890; Culin, 
Games of*N. Am. Inds., in 24th Rep. 
B. A. E., 1905. Lumholtz, Unknown 
Mexico^ 1902. See Games, (j. m.) 

Balsa.' See Boats. 

Bamoa (ba ' water, ' moa ' ear ' or ' spike ' 
( of corn ) : ' spike in the water ' ; or prefer- 
ably ba, and maioa ' bank ' : ' on the bank 
of the river.' — Buelna). According to 
Orozco y Berra, a pueblo "founded by 
the Pima who came with Cabeza de Vaca 
and his companions on that famous ex- 
pedition which gave rise to the story of 
the Queen of Qui vira and the Seven Cities. 
Settled on the shore of the river [Sina- 
loa] , they received in after times a goodly 
number of their compatriots who, drawn 
by the fame of the missionaries before 
the latter reached their country, placed 
themselves in the way of receiving Chris- 
tianity. They speak the Pima and gen- 
erally the Mexican, being also well ac- 
customed to the Castilian tongue." 


a, Iroquois; 6, Passamaquoddy; 
c, Chippewa; d, Cherokee 



[B. A. E. 

Bamoa.— Cabeza de Vaca, Rel. (1529), Smith 
trans., 225, 1871. Baymoa.— Alegre, Hist. Comp. 
Jesus, I, 340, 1841. La Concepcion Bamoa. — Orozco 
y Berra, Geog., 333, 1864. 

Bamom ( ' salt water ' ) . A former Maidu 
village at the site of the present Shingle, 
Eldorado co., Cal. (k. b. d.) 

Banamichi. A pueblo of the Teguima 
Opata and the seat of a Spanish mission 
in 1639; situated below Arizpe, on the 
Rio Sonora, Sonora, Mexico; pop. 338 
in 1678, 127 in 1730. Not to be con- 
founded with Remedios, q. v. 
Banamiche. — Hrdlicka in Am. Anthrop., VI, 72, 
1904. Banamichi.— Rivera (1730) quoted by Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, I, 514, 1884. Banamitzi.— 
Orozco y Berra, Geog., 343, 1864. Nuestra Senora 
de los Remedios de Beramitzi. — Ibid. Remedios 
Banamichi.— Zapata (1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th 
s., Ill, 372, 1857. 

Band that Don't Cook. A band of Yank- 
ton Sioux under Smutty Bear (Matosa- 
hitchiay). — Culbertson in Smithson. 
Rep. 1850, 141, 1851. 

Band that Eats no Geese. A band of 
Yankton Sioux under Padaniapapi. — 
Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 141, 

Band that Wishes the Life. A band of 
Yanktonai Sioux of which Black Catfish 
was the principal chief in 1856. — H. R. 
Ex. Doc. 130, 34th Cong., 1st sess., 7, 1856. 
Bankalachi (Yokuts name). A small 
Shoshonean tribe on upper Deer cr., 
which drains into Tulare lake, s. Cal. 
With the Tubatulabal they 
form one of the lour major 
linguistic divisions of the 
family. Their own name is 
unknown, (a. l. k. ) 
Bo"galaatshi. — Hoffman in Proc. 
Am. Philos. Soc, xxm, 301, 1886. 
Banner stones. A name 
applied to a group of pre- 
historic objects of polished 
stone, which, for lack of defi- 
nite information as to their 
use, are assigned to the prob- 
lematical class (see Problem- 
atical objects) . Their form is 
exceedingly varied, but cer- 
tain fundamental features of 
their shape are practically 
unvarying, and are of such a 
nature as to suggest the use 
of the term ' ' banner stones ' ' 
in classifying them. These 
features are the axial perfo- 
rations and the extension of 
the body or midrib into two 
wing-like projections. Of 
the various forms the most 
typical is that which suggests 
a two-bladed ax, the blades 
passing on the one hand from the type in to 
pick-like points, and on the other into 
broad wings, suggesting those of the bird or 
butterfly. The name "butterfly stones" 
is sometimes applied to the latter variety. 
In some of their features these stones are 

Sioux Ceremonial 
Wand, Suggesting 
Manner of using 
Banner Stones, 

related to pierced tablets, and in others, 
respectively, to boat stones, bird stones, 
spade stones, tubes (see articles on these 
several topics), and plat- 
form pipes, and there 
can be little doubt that 
all of these classes of ob- 
jects were related to one 
another in symbolism 
or use. Nothing is defi- 
nitely known, however, 
of the-particular signifi- Green ^one ; iowa 0-.) 
cance attached to them, or of the manner 
of their use, save by inference from their 
form and the known customs of the 
tribes. It appears probable, from the 
presence of the perforations, that they 



Syenite; District of Columbia 


were mounted for use on a staff, on a 
handle as a ceremonial weapon, or on the 
stem of a calumet, but the appearance of 
similar winged forms as parts of the head- 

Banded Slate; Ohio 

Banded Slate; Canada; 1-6. (.BoyleJ 

Banded Slate; Ohio 

dress in sheet-copper figures from Georgia 
mounds (see Copper) suggests connection 
with the headdress. 

' These objects are usually made of varie- 
ties of stone selected for their fine 
grain and pleasing color, and are 
carefully shaped and finished. In 
Florida, and perhaps elsewhere, 
examples made of shell are found. 
The perforation is cylindrical, 
and is bored with great precision 
longitudinally through the thick 
portion or midrib, which may 
symbolically represent the body 
of a bird. Numerous unfinished 
specimens are found, some of which, partly 
bored, show the depressed ring and ele- 
vated core that result from the use of the 
tubular drill. They are found in burial 
mounds and on formerly inhabited sites 
generally, and were probably as a class 
the outgrowth of the remarkable culture 
development which accompanied and 
resulted in the construction of the great 
earthworks of the Mississippi valley. 


BULL. 30] 



For record of discovery and illustra- 
tions of banner stones see especially Boyle, 
Prim. Man in Ontario, 1895; 
Fowke (1) in 13th Rep. B. 
A. E., 1896, (2) Archseol. 
Hist. Ohio, 1902; Moore, 
various memoirs in Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,1894- 
1905; Moorehead, Prehist. 
Impls., 1900; Rau in Smith- 
son. Cont., xn, 1876; Read, 
Rep. Ohio Centen. Man- 
agers, 1877; Squier and 
Davis in Smithson. Cont., i, 1848; Thomas 
in 12th Rep. B. A. E., 1894. (w. n. h.) 

Bannock ( from Pana'UI, their own name) . 
A Shoshonean tribe whose habitat pre- 
vious to being gathered on reservations 
can not be definitely outlined. There 
were two geographic divisions, but refer- 

Related Form with 
Single Wing and 
Oval perforation. 
Banded Slate ; 
michigan 0-6) 





' **4N? } 




m m 





ences to the Bannock do not always 
note this distinction. The home of the 
chief division appears to have been s. e. 
Idaho, whence they ranged into w. Wyo- 
ming. The country actually claimed 
by the chief of this southern division, 
which seems to have been recognized by 
the treaty of Ft Bridger, July 3, 1868, lay 
between lat. 42° and 45°, and between 
long. 113° and the main chain of the 
Rocky mts. It separated the Wihinasht 
Shoshoni of w. Idaho from the so-called 
WashakibandofShoshoni of w. Wyoming. 
They were found in this region in 1859, 
and they asserted that this had been 
their home in the past. Bridger (Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 363, 1859) had known them in 
this region as early as 1829. Bonneville 

Bull. 30—05 9 

found them in 1833 on Portneuf r., imme- 
diately n. of the present Ft Hall res. 
Many of this division affiliated with 
the Washaki Shoshoni, and by 1859 had 
extensively intermarried with them. Ft 
Hall res. was set apart by Executive 
order in 1869, and 600 Bannock, in addi- 
tion to a large number of Shoshoni, con- 
sented to remain upon it. Most of them 
soon wandered away, however, and as late 
as 1874 an appropriation was made to en- 
able the Bannock and Shoshoni scattered 
in s. e. Idaho to be moved to the reserva- 
tion. The Bannock at Ft Hall were said 
to number 422 in 1885. The northern 
division was found by Gov. Stevens in 
1853 (Pac. R. R. Rep., i, 329, 1855) living 
on Salmon r. in e. Idaho. Lewis and 
" Clark, who passed through the country 
of this n. division in 1805, may have in- 
cluded them under the general term Sho- 
shoni, unless, as is most likely, these are 
the Broken Moccasin Indians they men- 
tion (Expd., Coues ed., n, 523, 1893). In 
all probability these Salmon River Ban- 
nock had recently crossed the mountains 
from the eastward owing to pressure of 
the Siksika, since they clain'ied as their 
territory s. w. Montana, including the 
rich areas in which are situated Virginia 
City, Bozeman, and other towns (Ind. 
Aff. Rep., 289, 1869). Stevens (1853) 
states that they had been more than deci- 
mated by the ravages of smallpox and 
the inroads of the Siksika. It is proba- 
ble that at no distant time in the past, 
perhaps before they had acquired horses, 
the various groups of the entire Bannock 
tribe were united in one locality in s. e. 
Idaho, where they were neighbors of the 
Shoshoni proper, but their language is 
divergent from the latter. The Bannock 
were a widely roving tribe, a character- 
istic which favored their dispersal and 
separation into groups. Both the men 
and the women are w T ell developed; and 
although Shoshonean in language, in 
physical characters the Bannock resem- 
ble more closely the Shahaptian Nez 
Perces than other Shoshonean Indians. 
Kroeber reports that the language of the 
Fort Hall Bannock connects them closer 
with the Ute than with any other Sho- 
shonean tribe. At the same time Powell 
and Mooney report that the tribes of w. 
Nevada consider the Bannock very nearly 
related to themselves. 

The loss of hunting lands, the diminu- 
tion of the bison herds, and the failure of 
the Government to render timely relief 
led to a Bannock outbreak in 1878, the 
trouble having been of long standing. 
During the exciting times of the Nez Perce 
war the Bannock were forced to remain on 
their inhospitable reservation, to face the 
continued encroachment of the whites, 
and to subsist on goods provided from an 



[B. A. E. 

appropriation amounting to 1\ cents per 
capita per diem. During the summer a 
drunken Indian of the tribe shot and 
wounded two teamsters; the excitement 
and bitter feeling caused by his arrest, Nov. 
23, 1877, resulted in the killing of an 
agency employee. Troops were called for, 
and the murderer was pursued, captured, 
tried, and executed. This episode so in- 
creased the excitement of the Indians 
that, fearing what was assumed to be 
threatening demonstrations, the troops 
surrounded and captured two Bannock 
camps in Jan., 1878; but most of the In- 
dians were afterward released. On ac- 
count of insufficient food the Bannock 
left the reservation in the spring and went 
to Camas prairie, where they killed sev- 
eral settlers. A vigorous campaign under 
Gen. Howard resulted in the capture of 
about 1,000 of them in August, and the 
outbreak came to an end after a fight on 
Sept. 5, at Clark's ford, where 20 Bannock 
lodges were attacked and all the women 
and children killed. 

Bridger states that when he first knew 
them (ab^ut 1829) the southern Bannock 
numbered 1,200 lodges, indicating a popu- 
lation of about 8,000. In 1869 they were 
estimated as not exceeding 500, and this 
number was probably an overestimate as 
their lodges numbered but 50, indicating a 
population of about 350. In 1901 the tribe 
numbered 513, so intermixed, however, 
with the Shoshoni that no attempt is made 
to enumerate them separately. All the 
Bannock except 92 under Lemhi agency 
are gathered on Ft Hall res. , Idaho. Prac- 
tically nothing is known of the former 
organization of the Bannock or of their 
divisions. The names of four divisions 
were obtained by Hoffman, and a fifth is 
given by Schoolcraft. These are Kut- 
shundika, or Buffalo -eaters; Penointi- 
kara, or Honey-eaters; Shohopanaiti, or 
Cottonwood Bannock; Yambadika, or 
Root -eaters; Waradika, or Rye -grass- 
seed-eaters, (h. w. h. c. t. ) 

Banac— Smet, Letters, 129, 1843. Ban-acks.— For- 
ney in Ind. Aff. Rep., 213, 1858. Banai'ti.— Hoff- 
man in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, xxm, 298, 1886 
( Shoshoni name ) . Banani. — Gatschet, Chippewa 
MS., B. A. E. (Chippewa name). Ban-at-tees. — 
Ross, Fur Hunters, I, 249, 1855. Banax.— Mullan 
in Pac. R. R. Rep., I, 329, 1855. Bannach Snakes.— 
Wallen in H. R. Ex. Doc. 65, 36th Cong., 1st sess., 
223, 1860. Bannacks.— Irving, Rocky Mts., I, 71, 
1837. Banneck.— Ibid., 159. Ban'-ni-ta.— Stuart, 
Montana, 25, 1865. Bonacks.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 

Tribes, VI, 697, 1857. Bonak Farnham, Travels, 

76, 1843. Bonarch Diggers.— Meek in H. R. Ex. 
Doc. 76, 30th Cong. , 1st sess. , 10, 1848. Bonarchs. — 
Ibid. Bonarks.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 1, 31st Cong., 2d 
sess., 198, 1850. Bonnacks. — Dennison in Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 371, 1857. Bonnaks.— Hale, Ethnog. and Phi- 
lol., 218, 1846. Bonnax. —Parker, Jour., map, 1842. 
Bonochs.— Prichard, Phys. Hist., V, 430, 1847. Boo- 
nacks. — Irving, Astoria, map, 1849. Broken-Moc- 
casin.— Lewis and Clark, Exped., 1,330,1842 (prob- 
ably the Bannock). Diggers. — Many authors. 
Moccasin-with-Holes. — Lewis and Clark, op. cit. 
Ogoize.— Giorda, Calispel Diet., I, 439, 1877 (Calis- 
pelname). Panack. — Townsend, Nar., 75, 1839. 

Panai'ti. — Hoffman in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 
xxm, 299. 1886 (own name). Panak.— Gebow, 
Snake Vocab., B. A. E. (Shoshoni name). Pan- 
asht. — Hale, op. cit. Pannacks.— Lander in Sen. 
Ex.Doc. 42,36th Cong., lstsess., 121, 1860. Pannah.— 
Ibid. Pannakees. — Ibid. Paunaques. — Wyeth 
(1848) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, I, 206, 1851. 
Pohas.— Robertson (1846) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76,30th 
Cong., 1st sess., 9, 1848. Ponacks.— Schoolcraft, 
Ind. Tribes, vi, 697, 1857. Ponashita.— Ibid., 1, 521, 
1853. Ponashta.— Lane (1849) in Sen. Ex. Doc. 52, 
31st Cong-. , 1st sess. , 169, 1850. Ponishta Bonacks. — 
Schoolcraft, op. cit., vi, 701, 1857. Pun-ush.— 
Long, Exped. Rocky Mts., n, lxxix, 1823 (Sho- 
shoni name). Punashly.— Fremont, Geog. Mem. 
Upper Cal., map, 1848. Pun-naks.— Bonner, Life 
of Beckwourth, 93, 1856. Robber Indians. —Ross, 
Fur Hunters, 1, 249, 1855. Tannockes.— Audouard, 
Far West, 182, 1869. TJsh-ke-we-ah.— Crow MS. 
vocab., B. A. E. (Crow name). 

Bantam. According to Trumbull, a for- 
mer village at Litchfield, Litchfield co., 
Conn. Part of the Indians there were 
converted by the Moravian missionaries 
about 1 742-45, and followed them to Beth- 
lehem, Pa., where many died, and the 
remnant returned to Scaticook, in Kent 
co., Conn. 
Bantom.— Trumbull, Conn., n, 82, 1818. 

Bantas. A village of the Cholovone 
e. of the San Joaquin and n. of the Tuol- 
umne r., Cal. — Pinart, Cholovone MS., 
B. A. E., 1880. 

Baqueachic ( bdkd ' bamboo reed, ' chik 
'place of.' — Lumholtz). A Tarahumare 
settlement on or near the Rio Conchos, 
lat. 27° 4(X, long. 106° 50', Chihuihua, 
Mexico. • 

Baqueachic. — Lumholtz, Unknown Mex., I, 320, 
1902. Baquiachic— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 323, 1864. 
Baquiarichic. A Tarahumare settle- 
ment on or near a branch of the s. tribu- 
tary of the Rio Conchos, lat. 26° 55', long. 
106° 30', Chihuahua, Mexico. — Orozco v 
Berra, Geog., 322, 1864. 
/ Baquigopa ( baqui-go 'cane'; Buelnasays 
the name means 'plain of the canes'). 
A former Opata village on the upper 
Yaqui, locally known as the Rio Babispe, 
e. of Guachinera, n. e. Sonora, Mexico. 
Its abandonment was the result of attacks 
by Indians of w. Chihuahua, the inhab- 
itants finally settling at Guachinera, 
See Batesopa. ( f. w. h. ) 
Bacayopa.— Buelna, Pereg. Aztecas, 123, 1892. 
Baquigopa. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Pap., in, 59, 
64, 1890; IV, 518, 1892. 

Bar-du-de-clenny. See Nakaidoklini. 

Bark. Among the resources of nature 
utilized by the tribes of North America 
bark was' of prime importance. It was 
stripped from trees at the right season by 
hacking all around and taking it off in 
sheets of desired length. The inner bark 
of cedar, elm, and other trees was in some 
localities torn into strips, shredded, 
twisted, and spun or woven. The bark of 
wild flax (Apocynum) and the Asclepias 
were made into soft textiles. Bark had 
a multitude of functions. In connection 
with the most important of wants, the 
necessity for food, it supplied many tribes- 
with an article of diet in the spring, their 

BULL. 30] 



Eskimo Bark Basket 
and Draw-string 

period of greatest need. The name Adi- 
rondack, signifying 'they eat trees,' was 
applied by the Mohawk to certain Al- 
gonquian tribes of Canada in allusion to 
their custom of 
eating bark. 
The N. Pacific 
and some S. W. 
tribes made 
cakes of the soft 
inner bark of 
spruce; those 
living about the 
great lakes 
chewed that of 
the slippery 
elm, while many 
Indians chewed 
the gum that ex- 
uded from trees. 
Drink was made from bark by the Arap- 
aho, Winnebago, and Mescaleros. Wil- 
low bark and other kinds were smoked 
in pipes with or in- 
stead of tobacco, 
and the juices of 
barks were em- 
ployed in medi- 

For gathering, 
carrying, garner- 
ing, preparing,' 
and serving food, 
bark of birch, elm, 
pine, and other 
trees was so handy 
as to discourage the 
potter's art among nonsedentary tribes. 
It was wrought into yarn, twine, rope, 
wallets, baskets, mats, canoes, cooking 
pots for hot stones, dishes for serving, ves- 
sels for storing, and many textile utensils 
connected with 
the consumption 
of food in ordi- 
nary and in so- 
cial life. Both 
men and women 
were food gath- 
erers, and thus 
both sexes were 
refined through 
this material; 
but preparing 
and serving were 
women's arts, 
and here bark 
aided in devel- 
oping their skill 
and intelligence. 

Habitations in Canada, e. United States, 
and s. e. Alaska often had roofs and sides 
of bark, whole or prepared. The conical 
house, near kin of the tipi, was fre- 
quently covered with this material. Mat- 
ting was made use of for floors, beds, and 

partitions. Trays and boxes, receptacles 
of myriad shapes, could be formed by 
merely bending large sheets and sewing or 

menominee bark bucket, 


simply tying the joints. Bast could be 
pounded and woven into robes and blan- 
kets. The Canadian and Alaskan tribes 

ceremonial use of bark 
collar; kwakiutl. 



carried their children in cradles of birch 
bark, while on the Pacific coast infants 
were borne in wooden cradles or baskets 
of woven bark on beds of the bast shredded, 
their foreheads being of- 
ten flattened by means of 
pads of the same material. 
In the S. W T . the baby- 
board had a cover of mat- 
ting. Among the Iro- 
quois the dead were 
buried in coffins of bark. 
Clothing of bark was 
made chiefly from the in- 
ner portion, which was 
stripped into ribbons, as 
forpetticoats in the S. W. , 
shredded and fringed, as 
in the cedar-bark coun- 
try, where it was also woven into garments, 
or twisted for the warp in weaving articles 
of dress, with woof from other materials. 
Dyes were derived from bark and certain 
kinds also lent 
themselves to 
embroidery with 
quills and over- 
laying in bas- 
ketry. Bark was 
also the material 
of slow-matches 
and torches, 
served as pad- 
ding for the car- 
rier's head and 
back and as his 
wrapping mate- 
rial, and fur- 
nished strings, 
ropes, and bags 
for his wooden 
hunter made all sorts of 
bark, even his bow- 


canoes. The 

apparatus from 

string. The fisher wrought implements 

out of it and poisoned fish with its 

juices. The beginnings of writing in some 

localities were favored by bark, and car- 



[B. a. e. 

tography, winter counts, medical formu- 
las, and tribal history were inscribed 
thereon. Finally it comes into the service 
of ceremony and religion. Such a series 
of masks and dance regalia as Boas and 
others found 
among the 
Kwakiutl illus- 
trates how 
bark lends 
itself to coop- 
erative activi- 
ties, whether 
in amusement, 
social func- 
tions, or ado ra- 
tion of the 
spirit world. 
There are also 
rites connected 
with gathering 
and working 
bark. See 
Boas in Nat. 
M u s . Rep. 
1895, 1897; in 

Hoffman in 14th Rep. B. A. E. 

Holmes in 3d and 13th Reps. B. A.E 

1896; Jenks in 19th 

Rep. B. A. E., 1900; 

Jones in Smithson. 

Rep. 1867, 1872; Ma- 

Collar of Bark; Kwakiutl. 
( boas) 




son (1) in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1887, 1889, (2) 
ibid., 1894, 1896, (3) ibid., 1902, 1904; 
Niblack, ibid, 1888, 1890; Turner in 11th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1894. (o. t. m.) 

Barnard. See Timpoochee Barnard. 

Barrancas ( Las Barrancas, Span. : ■ the 
ravines ' ). Formerly a small village, ap- 
parently of the Piros, on the Rio Grande, 
near Socorro, N. Mex; evidently aban- 
doned during the Pueblo revolt of 1680. 

La Barrancas.— Kitchin, map N. A., 1787. Las 
Barancas.— D'Anville, map N. A., Bolton's ed., 
1752. Las Barrancas.— Davis, Span. Conq. New 
Mex., 314, 1869. 

Basalt. A widely variable class of lavas 
of a prevailing dark color and, in the com- 
pact varieties, with a dull conchoidal frac- 
ture. The rock is often more or less pu- 
miceous and scoriaceous. The larger su- 
perficial flows of the W. are often known 
as ' ' the lava beds. ' ' The basalts occur in 
large bodies in many parts of the coun- 
try,, especially in the far W., and were 
extensively used by the aborigines for im- 
plements and utensils, (w. h. ii. ) 

Basaseachic. A Tarahumare settlement 
of Chihuahua, Mexico; definite locality 
unknown. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 323, 

Basawunena (Ba' 'sawune' 'na, 'wood- 
lodge men ' ) . Formerly a distinct though 
cognate tribe that made war on the Arap- 
aho (q. v.), but with whom they have 
been incorporated for 150 years. "About 
100 are still recognized in the northern 
and a few in the southern group. — 
Mooney in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 955, 1896. 

Basdecheshni ( ' those who do not split 
the buffalo ' ). A band or division of the 
Sisseton Sioux. 

Basdece-sni.— Dorsey in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 217, 
1897. Basdetce-cni.— Ibid. 

Baserac ( ' place where the water is 
seen,' because up to this point the river 
is so deep among the mountains that in 
most places it is invisible. — Rudo Ensa- 
yo). An Opata pueblo, and the seat of 
a Spanish mission founded in 1645, on an 
e. branch of Rio de Batepito, a tributary 
of the Yaqui, in n. e. Sonora, Mexico. 
Population 399 in 1678, 839 in 1730. 
There are many descendants of the Opata 
in the modern town, but only a few of 
them speak their native tongue. ( f. w. h. ) 
Bacerac. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 343, 1864. Base- 
rac— Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, IV, 527, 1892. 
Baseraca. — Mange (ca. 1700) quoted by Bancroft, 
No. Mex. States, I, 233, 1884. Santa Maria Bace- 
raca.— Zapata (1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., Ill, 
366, 1857. Santa Maria Vaseraca. — Rudo Ensavo 
(1762), Guiteras transl., 217, 1894. Sta Maria *de 
Uasaraca. — Rivera, Diario. leg. 1,444, 1736. Vace- 
raca.— Kino et al. in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., I, 
401, 1856. 

Basigochic ('sandbank,' 'flat'). A 
Tarahumare rancheria near Achy arachki, 
Chihuahua, Mexico. — Cubas, Mexico* 74, 

Basiroa. A Nevome division, doubtless 
in s. central Sonora, Mexico; definite lo- 
cality unknown. The name is probably 
that of their settlement. — Orozco y Berra, 
Geog., 58, 1864. 

Basketry. Basketry, including wat- 
tling, matting, and bagging, may be de- 
fined as the primi- 
tive textile art. Its 
materials include 
nearly the whole 
series of North 
American textile 
plants, and the In- 
dian women ex- 
plored the tribal 
habitat for the best. 
Constant digging in 
the same favorite 
spot for roots and 
the clearing away of useless plants about 
the chosen stems constituted a species of 
primitive agriculture. They knew the 
time and seasons for gathering, how to 
harvest, dry, preserve, and prepare the 
tough and pliable parts for use and to re- 
ject the brittle, and in what way to com- 



BULL. 30] 



bine different plants with a view to the 
union of beauty and strength in the prod- 
uct. The tools and apparatus of the bas- 
ket maker, who 
was nearly always 
a woman, were 
most skilful fin- 
gers, aided by fin- 
ger nails for gauge, 
teeth for a third 
hand or for nip- 
pers, astone knife, 
a bone awl, and 
polishers of shell 
or gritty stone. 
She knew a multitude of dyes, and in some 
instances the bark was chewed and the 
splint drawn between the lips. In later 

Three-Strand Braiding 

g h i 


coils; c, single-rod foundation; cl, two-rod founda- 
tion; e, rod-and-splint foundation; /, two-rod-and- 
splint foundation; g, three-rod foundation; h, splint 
foundation; i, grass-coil foundation 

times knives, awls, scissors, and other 
utensils and tools of steel were added. 
In its technic basketry is divided into two 
species — woven and coiled. Woven bas- 

Hupa Food Tray ( 

ketry has warp and weft, and leads up to 
loom work in softer materials. Of this 
species there are the following varieties: 
work, in 
which the 
warp and 
weft pass 
over and 
under one 

singly and are indistinguishable; twilled 
work, in which each element of the weft 
passes over and then under two or more 
warp elements, producing by varying 
width and 
color an end- 
less variety 
of effects; 
in which the 
warp of one 
larger or two 
or more 
smaller ele- 
ments is in- 
flexible, and 
the bending 

is done in H0P| W|LL0W TRAY (l . lo) 

the w r eft; 

wrapped work, wherein the warp is not 
flexed, and the weft in passing a warp 
element is wrapped once around it, varied 
by drawing both warp and weft tight so 
as to form half of 
a square knot; 
twined work, in 
which the warp is 
not bent and the 
weft is made up of 
two or more ele- 
ments, one of them 
passing behind each 
w T arp element as the 
weaving progresses. 
Of this last variety 
there are many styles — plain twined, 
twilled twined, crossed or divided warp 
with twined work, wrapped, or bird-cage 
weaving, three-strand twining after sev- 
eral methods, 
and three -strand 
braid. Coiled 
basketry is not 
weaving, but sew- 
ing, and leads up 
to point lace. The 
work is done by 
eewing or whip- 
ping together, in 
a flat or ascending coil, a continuous 
foundation of rod, splint, shredded fiber, 
or grass, and it receives various names 
from the kinds of foundation employed 
and the manner of applying the stitches; 
or the sewing may form genuine lace 
work of interlocking stitches without 

hupa Storage Basket (1- 




[B. A. E. 

foundation. In coiled work in which a 
foundation is used the interlocking stitch- 
es pass either above, through, or quite 
under the foundation. Of coiled basketry 
there are the following 
varieties: Coiled work 
without foundation; 
simple interlocking 
coils w T ith foundation; 
single-rod foundation; 
two-rod foundation; 
rod-and-splint founda- 
tion; two-rod-and- 
splint foundation; 
three-rod foundation; 
splint foundation; 
grass-coil foundation ; 
and Fuegian stitches, 
identical with the buttonhole stitch. By 
using choice materials, or by adding pitch 
or other resinous substance, baskets were 



g h 


wicker; d, wrapped; e, twined; /, cross-warp twined, 


made water-tight for holding or carrying 
water for cooking. 

• The chief use of baskets is as recep- 
tacles, hence every activity of the In- 
dians was associated with this art. Basket 
work was employed, moreover, in fences, 
game drives, weirs, houses, shields, cloth- 

Paiute Gathering Basket ( 

ing, cradles, for harvesting, and for the 
disposal of the dead. This art is inter- 
esting, not only on account of the tech- 
nical processes* employed, the great deli- 
cacy of technic, and the infinite number 
of purposes that it serves, but on account 
of the ornamentation, which is effected 
by dyeing, using materials of different 
colors, overlaying, beading, and plaiting, 
besides great variety in form and technic. 
This is always added in connection with 
the w r eaving or 
sewing, and is fur- 
ther increased 
with decorative 
beads, shells, and 
feathers. In 
forms basketry 
varies from flat 
wattling, as in 
gambling and 
bread plaques, 
through trays, 
bo wis, pots, cones, 
jars, and cylin- 
ders, to the ex- 
quisite California 
art work. The 
geometric forms of decussations and 
stitches gave a mosaic or conventional ap- 
pearance to all decoration. The motives 
in ornamentation were various. No doubt 
a sense for beauty in articles of use and a 
desire to awaken admiration and envy in 
others were uppermost. Imitation of 
pretty objects in nature, such as snake 
skins, and designs used by other tribes, 
were naturally suggested. Such designs 
pass over into the realms of symbolism 
and religion. This is now alive and in 
full vigor among 
the Hopi of Ari- 
zona. The Indian 
women have left 
the best witness of 
what they could 
do in handiwork 
and expression in 
their basketry. 
In e. United States 
almost all of the 
methods of basket 
making have 
passed away, but 
by taking impressions of pottery Holmes 
has been able to reconstruct the ancient 
processes, showing that they did not 
differ in the least from those now extant 
in the tribes w. of the Rocky mts. In 
the southern states the existence of plia- 
ble cane made possible twilled weaving, 
which may still be found among the 
Cherokee and the tribes of Louisiana. 
The Athapascan tribes in the interior of 
Alaska made coiled basketry from the 
roots of evergreen trees. The Eskimo 

Arikara Carrying Basket (1-10 

BULL. 30] 



Twined Basket with Deer- 

about Bering str. manufactured both 
woven mattings and wallets and coiled 
basketry of pliable grass. The Aleutian 
islanders are now among the most refined 
artisans in twined work. South of them 
the Tlingit and the Haida also prac- 
tise twined work only. 
From British Colum- 
bia, beginning with the 
Salishan tribes, south- 
ward to the borders of 
Mexico, the greatest 
variety of basket mak- 
ing in every style of 
weaving is practised. 

Consult Mason, Abo- 
riginal American Bas- 
ketry, Eep. Nat. Mus. 
1902, 1904, and the bib- 
liography therein; also 
Barrett in Am. Anthrop., vn, no. 4, 1905; 
Dixon in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xvn, 
pt. 1, 1902; Kroeber in Univ. Cal. PubtTn, 
1905; Goddard, ibid; Willoughby in Am. 
Anthrop., vn, no. 1, 1905. See Art, Arts 
and Industries, Weaving, (o. t. m. ) 

Basonopa. A Tepehuane pueblo in the 
Sierra Madre, on the headwaters of the Rio 
del Fuerte, s. w. Chihuahua, Mexico. — 
Orozco y Berra, Geog., 324, 1864. 

Basosuma. A rancheria, seemingly of 
the Sobaipuri, 12 Sp. leagues e. of the mis- 
sion of Suamca, probably in the vicinity 
of the s. boundary of Arizona, s. of Ft 
Huachuca; visited by Kino and Mange in 

San Joaquin de Basosuma.— Kino (1697) in Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., I, 276, 1856. S. Joaquin.— Ber- 
nal (1697) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 
356, 1889. 

Basotutcan. Apparently a former ran- 
cheria of the Papago, visited by Kino in 
1701; situated on the Rio Salado, 28 in. 
below Sonoita, n. w. Sonora, Mexico. 
Basotucan.— Kino (1701) quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, I, 495, 1886. J. Jose Ramos Ayodsu- 
dao.— Ibid. 

Basque influence. The Basque fisher- 
men who frequented the fishing grounds 
of the n. e. Atlantic in the 16th and 
17th centuries influenced to some ex- 
tent the Indians of New France and 
Acadia. But such influence was only of 
a temporary character, and the relations 
of the Indians with the Basques were 
only such as naturally came from the 
industry pursued by the latter. Les- 
carbot (Hist. Nouv. France, 695, 1612) 
states that a sort of jargon had arisen 
between the French and Basque fisher- 
men and traders and the Indians, in 
which ' l a good deal of Basque was mixed, ' ' 
but does not give examples of it. (See 
Reade, The Basques in North America, in 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 1888, sec. n, pp. 
21-39.) Attempts have been made to 
detect pre-Columbian influences through 
alleged lexical and other resemblances 

between Basque and Indian languages, 
but without success, (a. f. c. ) 

Bastita. A Huichol rancheria and re- 
ligious place, containing a temple; situ- 
ated about 12 m. s. w. of San Andres 
Coamiata, q. v. — Lumholtz, Unknown 
Mex., in, 16, 72, map, 1902. 

Baston. La Salle in 1681 speaks of the 
Indians of Baston, by which he means 
those adjacent to Boston and that part of 
New England.— La Salle (1681) in Mar- 
gry, Dec, n, 148, 1877. 

Batacosa. A Mayo settlement on a 
small independent stream w. of the Rio 
de los Cedros, an arm of the Rio Mayo, 
s. w. Sonora, Mexico. 

San Bartolome Batacosa. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
356, 1861. 

Batawat. A division of the Wishosk 
formerly living about the lower course of 
Mad r., n. w. Cal. In 1851 McKee said 
of them: " This band has been permitted 
to live at their present rancheria only 
upon condition that they confine them- 
selves to the immediate neighborhood of 
the mouth of the river, and not come 
into the town." 

Mad river Indians. — McKee in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 
32d Cong., spec, sess., 155, 1853. Pat-a-wat.— 
Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 96, 1877. 

Batepito ( ' where the water turns ' (Rudo 
Ensayo) , doubtless in allusion to the bend 
of the river). An Opata pueblo in n. w. 
Sonora, Mexico, about lat. 31°, on the 
upper waters of the Rio Babispe, a tribu- 
tary of the Rio Yaqui. 

Batepito.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 343, 1864. Vate- 
pito.— Rudo Ensayo (1762), Guiteras trans., 219, 

Batequi ('a well.' — Buelna). Appar- 
ently a rancheria of the Soba or the Papago 
proper; placed e. of the Rio Altar in n. w. 
Sonora, Mexico, on early Spanish maps, 
as that of Kino (1701) in Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, i, 499, 1884. Not to be con- 
founded with the Tadeo Baqui of the 
Maricopa, which bears also a similar 
name. (f. w. h.) 

Batesopa. A former Opata village on 
the Rio Babispe, e. of Guachinera, in 
n. e. Sonora, Mexico. Repeatedly at- 
tacked by Indians from Chihuahua, it 
was abandoned, its inhabitants finally 
settling at Guachinera. — Bandelier in 
Arch. Inst. Pap., in, 59, 1890; iv, 519, 
1 892. See Baquigopa. 

Bat House. A ruined pueblo of the 
Hopi, probably so named from its hav- 
ing been built and occupied by the 
Bat clan; situated on the n. w. side of 
Jeditoh valley, n. e. Ariz., on part of 
the mesa occupied by the Horn House. 
See 8th Rep. B. A. E., 52, 1891. 

Batista (Span.: Bautistal) Mentioned 
as one of the former two principal vil- 
lages of the Koasati, on lower Trinity r., 
Tex. — Bollaert in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. 
Lond.. ii, 282, 1850. 



[B. a. e. 

Batni (a gourd vessel in which sacred 
water is carried; also the name of a 
spring where sacrificial offerings are de- 
posited. — Fewkes). According to Ste- 
phen the site of the first pueblo built by 
the Snake people of the Hopi; situated 
in Tusayan, n. e. Ariz., but the exact 
location is known only to the Indians. 
It is held as a place of votive offerings 
during the ceremonv of the Snake dance. 
Batni.— Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 18, 1891. 

Baton Rouge ( French transl. of Choctaw 
itu-uma 'red pole.' — Gatschet). A point 
on the high banks of the Mississippi, in 
Louisiana, at which the natives planted 
a painted pole to mark the boundary be- 
tween the Bayogoula below and the Hu- 
ma who extended for 30 leagues above. 
See Penicaut in Margry, Dec, v, 395, 1883. 
The place is now occupied by the capital 
of Louisiana. See Bed Stick. 

Batons. As emblems of authority or 
rank, batons were in common use among 

Cal., i, no. i, 1903; Ni black in Rep. Nat. 
Mus. 1888, 1890; Powers in Cont. N. A. 



the more advanced northern tribes, and 
probably the most conspicuous modern' 


representatives are the carved wooden 
batons of the Haida and other northwest- 
ern tribes. Here they are 
carried in the hands of chiefs, 
shamans, and song leaders on 
state occasions, and are per- 
mitted only to such person- 
ages. Weapons of various 
kinds were similarly used and 
probably had kindred signifi- 
cance. In prehistoric times 
long knives of stone, master- 
pieces of the chipping art, 
seem to have been a favorite 
form of ceremonial weapon, 
and their use still continues 
among some of the Pacific 
slope tribes, especially in Cali- 
fornia. Batons used in mark- 
ing time are probably without 
particular significance as em- 
blems. Among the Kwakiutl 
and other tribes the club- 
shaped batons, carved to rep- 
resent various animals, are 
used by the leaders in cere- 
monial dances and serve for 
beating time. Consult Boas in Rep. Nat. 
Mus. 1895, 1897; Goddard in Publ. Univ. 

Baton of Flint, 


Ethnol., in, 1877; Rust and Kroeber in 
Am. Anthrop. , vn, no. 4, 1905. See Clubs, 
Knives, (w. h. h.) 

ivory baton for beating time on a stick; eskimo, 

Batture aux Fievres (French: ' Malarial 
flat'). One of four Dakota (probably 
Mdewakantonwan) villages near St Pe- 
ters, Minn., in 1826.— Minn. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., 1, 442, 1872. 

Batucari (batuhue 'river,' cari 'house': 
' houses in the river ' ; or batui ' dove, ' arid 
cari: 'dove houses.' — Buelna). A sub- 
division of the Cahita, speaking the Va- 
coregue dialect and formerly subsisting 
by hunting in the vicinity of a large la- 
goon 3 leagues from A home, n. Sinaloa, 
Mexico. They afterward united with 
the Ahome people under the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries and abandoned their wandering 
life.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 58, 322, 1864. 
Batuearis.— Century Cyclopedia, 1894 (misprint). 

Batuco ('shallow water.' — Och). A 
former pueblo of the Eudeve division of 
the Opata, on the Rio Oposura, a w. 
branch of the Rio Yaqui, a league n. of 
Santa Maria Batuco, about lat. 29° 
30 / , Sonora, Mexico. It became the seat 
of the Jesuit mission of San Javier 
about 1629. Pop. 480 in 1678, 188 in 

San Javier de Batuco. — Zapata (1678) in Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., in, 357, 1857. S. Francisco 
Javier Batuco.— Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 246, 
1886. Vatuco.— Och (1756),Nachrichten, 1, 72, 1809. 

Batuco. A former pueblo of the Opata 
on the Rio Oposura, a w. tributary of the 
Yaqui, 8 leagues e. of San Jose Matape, 
in Sonora, Mexico. It was apparently 
the Batuco that was visited by Coronado's 
army in 1540-42, and was the seat of the 
Jesuit mission of Santa Maria founded 
in 1629. Population 428 in 1678, 212 in 

Asuncion Batuco.— Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 
246, 1884. Batuco.— Castaneda (1596) in 14th Rep. 
B. A. E., 537, 1896. Santa Maria Batuco.— Zapata 
(1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., ill, 356, 1857. 
Sta Maria Tepuspe.— Doc. of 1730 cited by Ban- 
croft, op. cit., 513 (same?). 

Batza. A Koyukukhotana village on 
Batzar., Alaska, long. 154°. 
Batzakakat. — Allen, Rep. on Alaska, 123, 1877. 

BULL. 30] 



Batzulnetas. An Ahtena village near 
upper Copper r., where the trail starts 
forTanana r., Alaska; lat. 62° 58', long. 
145° 22 / (post route map, 1903). Pop. 31 
men, 10 women, and 15 children in 1885. 
Batzulneta's village.— Allen, Rep. on Alaska, 121, 

Bauka. .A former Maidu village on the 
right bank of Feather r., near Gridley, 
Butte co., Cal. (r. b. d.) 

Bogas.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 124, 1850. Boka.— Powers 
inCont. N. A. Ethnol. , in, 282,1877. Booku.— Curtin, 
MS. vocab.,B.A.E. 1885. 

Bawiranachiki ( ' red water place ' ) . A 
Tarahumare rancheria in Chihuahua, 
Mexico.— Lumholtz, infn, 1894. 

Bayberry wax. A product of the bay- 
berry, or wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), 
the "method of extracting which was 
learned from the Indians by the New 
England colonists whose descendants 
probably still use it. It was esteemed 
for the manufacture of candles and tal- 
low on account of its fragrance. See 
Kasles in Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc, 2d ser., 
viii, 252, 1819; Alice Morse Earle, Customs 
and Fashions of Old New England, 126, 
1893. (a. f. c.) 

Bay du Noc. A Chippewa (?) band 
mentioned in the Detroit treaty of 1855 
(U. S. Ind. Treaties, 614, 1873). They 
probably lived on Noquet bay of L. 
Michigan, in upper Michigan. 

Bayogoula (Choctaw: Bdyuk-okla 'bayou 
people' ). A Muskhogean tribe which in 
1700 lived with the Mugulasha in a village 
on the w. bank of the Mississippi, about 64 
leagues above its mouth and 30 leagues 
below the Huma town. Lemoyned' Iber- 
ville (Margry, Dec, iv, 170-172, 1880) 
gives a brief description of their village, 
which he says contained 2 temples and 107 
cabins; that a fire was kept constantly 
burning in the temples, and near the 
door were kept many figures of animals, 
as the bear, wolf, birds, and in particular 
the choucoiiacha, or opossum, which ap- 
peared to be a chief deity or image to 
which offerings were made. At this time 
they numbered 200 to 250 men, probably 
including the Mugulasha. Not long after 
the Bayogoula almost exterminated the 
Mugulasha as the result of a dispute be- 
tween the chiefs of the two tribes, but 
the former soon fell victims to a similar 
act of treachery, since having received the 
Tonica into their village in 1706, they 
were surprised and almost all massacred 
by their perfidious guests (La Harpe, 
Jour. Hist. La., 98," 1831). Smallpox 
destroyed most of the remainder, so 
that by 1721 not a family was known to 
exist, (a. s. g. c. t. ) 

Babayoulas. — Baudry des Lozieres, Voy., 241, 1802. 
Baiagoulas.— de Sauvole (1700) in French, Hist. 
Coll. La., in, 224-240. 1851. Baiougoula.— Gravier 
(1701) in Shta, Early Voyages. 150, 159, 1861. Baya- 
gola.— Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741. Bayagoubas.— 
JefTerys, French Dom. Am., I, 147. 1761. Baya- 
goulas.—d' Iberville in French, Hist. Coll. La., 

II, 67. 1875. Baya-Ogoulas.— Penicaut (1703), ibid., 
n. s., I, 85, note, 1869. Bayogola.— Coxe, Caro- 
lana, 7, 1741. Bayogoulas.—d' Iberville in Margry, 
Dec., IV, 169, 1880. Bayonne Ogoulas.— Jefferys, 
French, Dom. Am., 1, 164, 1761. Bayouc Agoulas. — 
•McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, in, 80, 1854. Bay- 
ouc Ogoulas. — Le Page du Pratz., La., I, 271, 1774. 
Bayuglas.— N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vn, 641, 1856. 

Bayou. A sluggish stream forming the 
inlet or outlet of a lake or bay, or con- 
necting two bodies of water or a branch 
of a river flowing through a delta. The 
generally accepted etymology from the 
French boyau 'gut', is wrong (Chamber- 
lain in Nation, lix, 381, 1894). Accord- 
ing to Gatschet (Creek Migr.,-Leg., i, 113, 
1884) the Choctaw word for a smaller 
river, or a river forming part of a delta, 
is bayuk, and the word comes into Eng- 
lish through the French, from this or a 
closely related Muskhogean dialect. The 
same word appears in another form in the 
bogue of such Louisiana and Mississippi 
place-names as Boguechito, Boguefalala, 
Boguelusa, representing in a French form 
the contracted bok, from bayuk. (a. f. c. ) 

Bayou Chicot (Creole French: cJiicot, 
'snag,' 'tree-stump'). A former Choctaw 
village s. of Cheneyville, St Landry par- 
ish, La. 

Bayacchito.—d' Iberville (1699) in Margry, Dec, 
iv, 155, 1880. Bayou Chico.— Claiborne (1808) in 
Am. State Pap., Ind. Aff., I, 755, 1832. 

Bayu. A former Maidu village at Sandy 
gulch, Butte co., Cal. It was located by 
Powers on Feather r., and there may 
possibly have been a second village of 
the same name at that- place, (r. b. d. ) 

Bai'-yu.— Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 282, 
1877. Bayu.— Powell in 7th Rep. B. A. E., 100, 1891. 
Biyous. —Powers in Overland Mo., xn, 420, 1874. 
Bazhi. An Ikogmiut village on the 
Yukon at the upper mouth of Innoko r., 

Bazhigagat.— Tikhmenief (1861) quoted by Baker, 
Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901. 

Beadwork. Attractive and precious 
objects, perforated usually through the 
middle and strung for various purposes, 
constitute a class of ornaments univer- 
sally esteemed, which the Indians of 
North America did not fail to develop. 
Akin to beads, and scarcely separable 
from them, were objects from the same 
materials called pendants. They were 
perforated near the end or edge and hung 
on the person or on garments. All were 
made from mineral, vegetal, or animal 
substances, and after the discovery the 
introduction of beads of glass and porce- 
lain, as well as that of metal tools for mak- 
ing the old varieties, greatly multiplied 
their employment. Mineral substances 
showing pretty colored or brilliant sur- 
faces, from which beads were made, were 
copper, hematite, all kinds of quartz, ser- 
pentine, magnetite, slate, soapstone, tur- 
quoise, encrinite sections, pottery, and, in 
later times, silver and other metals, porce- 
lain, and glass. They were of many sizes 
and shapes. Among vegetal substances 



[b. a. e. 

seeds and, especially along the southern 
tier of states from Florida to California, 
nuts were widely used for beads, and here 
and there steins and roots of pretty or 
scented plants were cut into sections for 
the same purpose. But far the largest 
share of beads were made from animal 
materials — shell, bone, horn, teeth, claws, 
and ivory. Beads of marine or fresh- 
water shells were made by grinding off the 
apex, as in the case of dentalium, or the 
unchanged shells of bivalves were merely 
perforated near the hinge. Pearls were 
bored through the middle, and shells 
were cut into disks, cylinders, spheres, 
spindles, etc. In places the columella? of 
large conchs were removed and pierced 
through the long diameter for stringing. 
Bone beads were usually cylinders pro- 
duced by cutting sections of various 
lengths from the thigh or other parts of 


vertebrate skeletons. When the wall of 
the bone was thick the ends were ground 
to give a spherical form. The milk teeth 
of the elk, the canine teeth of the bear, 
and the incisors of rodents were highly 
valued, and in later times the incisors of 
the horse were worn. The beaks of the 
puffin, the talons of rapacious birds, and 
bears' claws were wrought into ceremonial 
dress and paraphernalia. A great deal of 
taste and manual skill were developed in 
selecting the materials, and in cutting, 
grinding, and rolling them into shape and 
uniform size, as well as in polishing and 
perforating substances, some of them very 
hard, as jasper. Many of the cylinders are 
several inches long. The tribes of n. w. 
California wrap dentalia with snake skin 
glued on in strips, while the Porno and 
their neighbors make large cylinders of a 
baked mineral (Kroeber). 

The general uses to which beads were 
put are legion. They were tied in the 
hair, worn singly or in strings from the 
ears, on the neck, arms, wrist, waist, and 
lower limbs, or were attached to bark and 
wooden vessels, matting, basketry, and 
other textiles. They were woven into 
fabrics or wrought into network, their 
varied and bright colors not only enhanc- 
ing beauty but lending themselves to her- 
aldry. Glass beads thus woven produce 
effects like those of cathedral glass. Again, 
they were embroidered on every part of 
ceremonial costume, sometimes entirely 
covering headdress, coat, regalia, leggings, 
or moccasins, and on all sorts of recep- 
tacles. The old-time technic and de- 
signs of quillwork are closely imitated. 
They were largely employed as gifts and 
as money, also as tokens and in records 
of hunts or of important events, such as 
treaties. They were conspicuous acces- 
sories in the councils of war and peace, in 
the conventional expression of tribal 
symbolism, and in traditional story-tell- 
ing, and were offered in worship. They 
were regarded as insignia of functions, 
and were buried, often in vast quantities, 
with the dead. 

In each of the ethnic areas of North 
America nature provided tractable and 
attractive material to the bead-maker. 
In the Arctic region it was walrus ivory 
and the glossy teeth of mammals. They 
served not only for personal adornment, 
but were hung to all sorts of skin recep- 
tacles and inlaid upon the surfaces of 
those made of wood and soft stone. The 
Danes brought glass to the eastern Eski- 
mo, the whalers to the central, and the 
Kussians to the western tribes. In the St 
Lawrence-Atlantic area whole shells were 
strung, and cylinders, disks, and spindles 
were cut from the valves of the clam ( Ve- 
nus mercenaria). In Virginia a cheap kind, 
called roanoke, were made from oyster 
shells. In the N. small white and pur- 
ple cylinders, called wampum, served for 
ornament and were used in elaborate 
treaty belts and as a money standard, also 
flat disks an inch or more in width being 
bored through their long diameters. The 
Cherokee name for beads and money is 
the same. Subsequently imitated by the 
colonists, these beads received a fixed 
value. The mound-builders and other 
tribes of the Mississippi valley and the 
Gulf states used pearls and beads of shell, 
seeds, and rolled copper.' Canine teeth 
of the elk were most highly esteemed, 
recently being worth 50 cents to $1 each. 
They were carefully saved, and a garment 
covered with them was valued at as much 
as $600 or $800. The modern tribes also 
used the teeth of rodents, the claws of bears 
and carnivores, and the de wclaws of rumi- 
nants. Nuts and berries were univer- 

BULL. 30] 



sally strung and worn, and the Mandan 
and other Missouri r. tribes pounded and 
melted glass and molded it into beads. 
After the colonization cradles and articles 
of skin were profusely covered with bead- 
work replete with symbolism. The Yu- 
kon-Mackenzie tribes were most skilful 
in quillwork, but later decked their gar- 
ments and other useful things with glass 
beads. All along the Pacific slope den- 
talium, abalone, and clam shells fur- 
nish the most valuable materials. The 
length of the wrought bead represented a 
certain amount of work and established 
the money value. The price of dehtalium 
shells increased rapidly after a certain 
length was exceeded. These beads were 
decorated with grass, skin, and feathers 
to enhance their worth. The California 
coast tribes and the ancient peoples of 
Santa Barbara ids. were rich in the little 
flat-shell disks as well as the stone drill, 
and they knew how to reduce them to 
uniform diameter by rolling long strings 
of them between slabs or through grooves 
in sandstone. The tribes of the n. part 
of the interior basin were not well sup- 
plied with bead material, but early 
made the acquaintance of the trader. A 
series of Ute costumes made before the 
advent of glass shows much pretty deco- 
ration in dewclaws, bits of goat and sheep 
horn, and perforated seeds. The Pueblo 
Indians string the yellow capsules of Sola- 
num, sections of woody stems of plants, 
seashells, turquoise and other varieties 
of bright-colored stones, of which they 
have great store. The Hyde Expedition 
found more than 30,000 turquoise beads in 
a single room at Pueblo Bonito, N. Mex. 
The Huichol, with colored beads of glass, 
using wax as an adhesive, make pretty 
mosaic figures on gourds, carved images 
of wood, etc. . 

Consult Beauchamp in Bull. N. Y. State 
Mus., no. 73, 1903; Catlin, N. A. Inds., 
1841; Hoffman in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 
1896; Mason in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1899, 485- 
510, 1901; Matthews, Ethnog. and Philol. 
Hidatsa, 18, 1877; Nelson in 18th Rep. 
B. A. E., 1899; Holmes, Annals, i, 271, 
1829; Sumner, Hist. Am. Currency, 4, 8, 
1874; Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., in, 
1877; Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico, 1902; 
Pepper in Am. Anthrop., vn, no. ,2, 1905. 
See Adornment, Art, Arts and Industries, 
Basketry, Copper, Quillwork, Shellwork, 
Turquoise, Wampum, and articles on the 
various raw materials mentioned above 
as having been used for beads, (o. t. m. ) 

Bear River. A tribe mentioned by 
Lawson (N. C, 383, 1860) as living in 
North Carolina in 1701, and having then 
a single village, Raudauquaquank, with 
50 warriors. According to Hawks (Hist. 
N. C, 1858-59) they lived in Craven co., 
probably on a branch of the Neuse. 

Beauhassin. A (Micmac?) mission es- 
tablished by the French in the 17th cen- 
tury.— Shea, Disco v. Miss. Val., 86, 1852. 

Beauport. A village established in 1650 
in Quebec co., Canada, by fugitive Huron, 
who removed in the next year to the 
island of Orleans. — Shea, Cath. Miss., 
196, 1855. 

Beaver. A former Aleut village on 
Unalaska, Aleutian ids. ; pop. 41 in 1834. 
Bobrovo.— Sarichef (1792) quoted by Baker, Geog. 
Diet. Alaska, 1901 ( = ' sea otter ' ) . Bobrovskoe. — 
Veniaminoff, Zapiski, n, 202, 1840. Bobrovskoi.— 
Elliott, Cond. Aff. Alaska, 225, 1875. XJguiug.— 
Baker, op. cit. (native name). 

Beaver Island Indians. A Chippewa 
band formerly residing on the Beaver 
ids. of Michigan, at the outlet of L. 
Michigan. — Washington treaty (1836) in 
U. S. Ind. Treaties, 607, 1873. 

Beaversville. A Delaware settlement 
in 1856 near the junction of Boggy cr. 
and Canadian r. in Indian Territory.— 
Whipple, Pac. R. R. Rep., in, 18, 1856. 

Beavertown. A village, probably be- 
longing to the Delawares, situated in 
1766 on the e. side of the extreme e. 
head branch of Hocking r., at or near 
the present Beavertown, in Morgan co., 
Ohio. Beaver, or King Beaver, was at 
that time chief of the Unami tribe of 
Delawares. (j. m. ) 

Beaver Town. — Hutchinsmapin Bouquet, Exped., 
1766. King Beaver's Town. — Bouquet, ibid., 67. 

Becancour. A village on St Lawrence 
r., in Quebec province, settled by Ab- 
naki who removed from Maine in 1713 
when that state was ceded to England 
by the treaty of Utrecht. In 1736 they 
were estimated at about 300; in 1858 
they numbered 172, with French admix- 
ture, and in 1884 they were reduced to 
39, but in 1902 numbered 51. They are 
members of the Roman Catholic church. 

(J. M.) 
Bacandee. — King, Jour, to Arctic Ocean, 1,11,1836 
(incorrectly given as an Iroquois village at Lake 
of Two Mountains, but distinct from " Kangsatar- 
kee"). Beauancourt. — Vaudreuil (1710) in N. Y. 
Doc. Col. Hist., IX, 849, 1855. Becancour. —Vau- 
dreuil (1724) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 240, 1859. 
Becancourians. — Rasles (1724) trans, in Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., vill, 246, 1819. Becancourt.— 
Vaudreuil (1721) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 904, 
1855. Becquancourt. — La Tour, map, 1784. Bec- 
quencourt. — Ibid., 1782. Becuncourt. — Clinton 
(1745) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 281, 1855. 
Bekancourt. — DeLancey (1754) in Ruttenber, 
Tribes Hudson R., 216, 1872. Besancon.— Chau- 
vignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 553, 1853. 

Bece. An abandoned village of the 
Koskimo, 6 m. e. of Koprino harbor, in 
n. Quatsino sd., Vancouver id. 
Bece.— Dawson in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 7, 1888. 

Beds. See Furniture. 

Beech Creek. A former Seminole town 
on Beech cr., Fla., settled by Chiaha In- 
dians from lower Chattahoochee r. , Ga. ; 
exact location unknown. — Bell in Morse, 
Rep. to Sec. War, 308, 1822. 

Bejnituuy ('village of the rainbow'). 
A former pueblo of the Tigua near the s. 



[b. a. e. 

limit of their habitat, on the Rio Grande, 
at the present Los Lunas, N. Mex. 
Be-jui Tu-uy. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, 
III, 130, 1890. Be-juij Tu-aij.— Bandelier in Jour. 
Am. Eth. and Arch., in, 61, 1892. Be-Jui Tu-ay.— 
Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 218, 1892. 
Be-juy Tu-ay.— Bandelier in Jour. Am. Eth. and 
Arch., op. cit. San Clemente.— Bandelier in Arch. 
Inst. Papers, rv, 219, 1892. Village of the Rain- 
bow. — Bandelier in Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., 
op. cit. 

Beku (Be'-ku) . Given by Powers ( Cont. 
N. A. Ethnol. , in, 393, 1877 ) as the name of 
a tribe related to the Paiute, but identified 
by Kroeber (infn, 1903) as a form of 
Bekiu, the Yokuts name of a locality on 
Poso cr., Cal., within the territory of the 
Paleuyami Yokuts. 

Beldom. A Missisauga village in On- 
tario in 1855. — Jones, Ojebway Inds., 
229, 1861. 

Belen. A village on the w. bank of the 
Rio Grande in Valencia co., N. Mex., 
and the seat of the Spanish mission of 
Nuestra Senora, with 107 inhabitants in 
1805 and 133 in 1809. Like Abiquiu and 
Tome it was apparently established as a 
refuge for Genizaros, or redeemed captive 
Indians, of whom a few were at Belen in 
1766. It is now a ' ' Mexican ' ' settlement. 
The ruins of the old Spanish church may 
still be traced, (f. w. h. ) 

Belem.— Alencaster (1805) quoted by Princp, N. 
Mex., 231, 1883. Belen.— Moise in Kan. Cy. Rev., 
481, Dec. 1881. Neustra Senora de Belem.— Alen- 
caster (1805) quoted by Meline, Two Thousand 
Miles, 212, 1867 (misprint). N. S. de Belem.— Ban- 
croft, Nat, Races, I, 599, 1882 (after Meline). N. 
S. de Belen.— Alencaster (1805) quoted by Prince, 
N. Mex., 37, 1883. Nuestra Senora de la Belen.— 
Ward in Ind. Aff . Rep. for 1867, 213, 1868. Belue.— 
Ibid., 210 (misprint). 

Belen. A settlement of the Yaqui, in- 
cluding some members of the Seri and 
Guayma tribes, on the x. bank of Yaqui 
r., about 20 m. above its mouth, in s. 
Sonora, Mexico. It was the seat of an 
important mission founded about 1678, 
and in 1849 its population was estimated 
at 3,000. 

Belem.— Velasco in Bol. Soc. Mex. Geog. Estad., 
vni, 226, 1860. Belen.— Velasco, Noticias de So- 
nora, 84, 1850. Nuestra Senora de Belem. — Orozco 
v Berra, Geog., 355, 1864. Nuestra Senora de 
Belen.— Zapata (1678) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., 
in, 379, 1857. 

Belkofski (Russian: Bielkovskoie, 'squir- 
rel village ' ) . An Aleut village near the 
end of Alaska pen.; pop. 102 in 1833, 268 
in 1880, 185 in 1890, 147 in 1900. 
Bailkovskoe.— Veniaminof, Zapiski, n, 203, 1840. 
Belkovsky. — Schwatka, Mil. Recon. Alaska, 116, 
1885. Bellkovskoi.— Elliott, Cond. Aff., Alaska, 
225, 1875. Bjelkowskoje.— Holmberg, Ethnol. 
Skizz., map, 142, 1855. 

Bellabella ( an Indian corruption of Mil- 
bank taken back into English) . The pop- 
ular name of an important Kwakiutl 
tribe living on Milbank sd., Brit. Col. 
Their septs or subtribes are Kokaitk, 
Oetlitk, and Oealitk. The following clans 
are given: Wikoktenok (Eagle), Koete- 
nok (Raven), Halhaiktenok (Killer- 
whale). Pop. 330 in 1901. 

The language spoken by this tribe and 
shared also by Ihe Kitamat, Kitlope, 
China Hat, and Wikeno Indians is a pe- 
culiar dialect of Kwakiutl, called Heil- 
tsuk from the native name of the Bella- 


(Am. Mus. Nat. hist. ) 

bella. These tribes resemble each other 
furthermore in having a system of clans 
with descent through the mother — de- 
rived probably from their northern neigh- 


bors — while the Bellacoolaand Kwakiutl 
to the s. have paternal descent. An- 
ciently the Bellabella were very warlike, 
a character largely attributable to the 
fact that they were flanked on one side 

BULL. 30] 



by the Tsimshian of Kittizoo and on the 
other by the Bellacoola, while war par- 
ties of Haida from the Queen Charlotte 
ids. were constantly raiding their coasts. 
For this reason, perhaps, the peculiar se- 
cret societies of the n. w. coast, the most 
important of which evidently had their 
origin in war customs, first arose among 
them. When voyagers first began fre- 
quenting the n. Pacific coast, Milbank id., 
which offers one of the few good open- 
ings into the inner ship channel to 
Alaska, was often visited, and its inhab- 
itants were therefore among the first to 
be modified by European contact. To- 
gether with the other Heiltsuk tribes 
they have now been Christianized by 
Protestant missionaries, and most of their 
ancient culture and ritual have been 
abandoned, (j. e. s. ) 

Belbellahs.— Dunn, Oregon Ter., 183, 1845. Bella- 
Bella.— Can. Ind. Aff., 361, 1897. Elk-la'sumH.— 
Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 9, 1889 (Bel- 
lacoola name). Haeeltruk,— Scouler in Jour. 
Geog. Soc. Lond., I, 224, 1841. Haeeltsuk.— 
Scouler in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., l, 233, 
1848. Haeeltz. -Latham, ibid., 164. Haeeltzuk.— 
Scouler in Jour. Geog. Soc. Lond., i, 223, 1841. 
Haeetsuk.— Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., 
64, 1856. Haeltzuk. — Latham in Jour. Ethnol. 
Soc. Lond., i, 155, 1848. Hailtsa.— Hale in U. S. 
Expl. Expd., vi, 221, 1846. Hailtzuk.— Tolmie and 
Dawson, Vocabs. Brit. Col., 117b, 1884. Ha-ilt- 
zukh. -Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 145, 1877. 
He'iltsuk.— Boas in Petermanns Mitt., pt. 5, 130, 
1887. He'iltsuq.— Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. for 1895, 
328 (own name). Hiletsuck.— Can. Ind. Aff., 252, 
1891. Hiletsuk.— Ibid., 191,1883. Iletsuck.— Powell, 
ibid., 122,1880. Ilet Suck.— Ibid., 315. Millbank 
Indians.— Dunn, Hist. Oreg., 271, 1844. Millbank 
Sound Indians.— Ibid., 358. Witsta.— Tolmie and 
Dawson, op. cit. (Chimmesvan name). Wut- 
sta'.— Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 9, 1889. 
Bellacoola [BVlxula). A coast Salish 
tribe, or rather aggregation of tribes, on n. 
' and s. BentinCk arm, Dean inlet, and Bel- 
lacoola r., Brit. Col. This name is that 
given them by the Kwakiutl, there being 
no native designation for the entire peo- 
ple. They form the northernmost divi- 
sion of the Salishan stock, from the re- 
maining tribes of which they are sepa- 
rated by the Tsilkotin and the Kwakiutl. 
In the Canadian reports on Indian af- 
'fairs the name is restricted by the separa- 
tion of the Tallion (see Talio) and the 
Kinisquit (people of Dean inlet), the 
whole being called the Tallion nation. 
The population in 1902 was 311. The 
chief divisions mentioned are the Kinis- 
quit, Noothlakimish, and Nuhalk. The 
gentes of the Bellacoola without reference 
to the tribal divisions are: Hamtsit, Ialos- 
timot, Kookotlane, Smoen, Spatsatlt, 
Tlakaumoot, Tumkoaakyas. The follow- 
ing are mentioned as gentes of the Nuhalk 
division: Keltakkaua, Potlas, Siatlhelaak, 
Spukpukolemk, and Tokoais. The .Bel- 
lacoola villages (chiefly after Boas) are: 
Aseik, Asenane, Atlklaktl, Koapk, Koatl- 
na, Komkutis, Noutchaoff, Nuiku, Nuka- 
akmats, Nukits, Nusatsem, Nuskek, Nus- 

kelst, Nutltleik, Osmakmiketlp, Peisela, 
Sakta, Satsk, Selkuta, Senktl, Setlia, 
Slaaktl, Snutele, Snutlelatl, Sotstl, 
Stskeitl, Stuik, Talio, Tkeiktskune, 
Tskoakkane, Tsomootl. (j. r. s. ) 
Belhoola.— Gibbs in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 267, 1877. 
Bellacoola.— Can. Ind. Aff., 315, 1880. Bellagh- 
choolas.— Dunn, Hist. Oregon, 267, 1844. Bella- 
hoola.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 488, 1855. 
Bell-houla.— Mayne, Brit. Col., 146, 1862. Belli- 
choola.— Scouler in Jour. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., i, 
234, 1848. Bilhoola.— Tolmie and Dawson, Vocabs. 
Brit. Col., 122b, 1884. Billechoola.— Scouler in 
Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc, I, 224, 1841. Billikula.— 
Gibbs quoted by Dall in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., I, 
241, 1877. Bilqula.— 7th Rep. N. W. Tribes of 
Can., 2, 1891. Bi'lxula. — Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 
for 1895, 320. Ilghi'ml.— Tolmie and Dawson, 
Vocabs. Brit. Col., 122b, 1884. Tallion Nation.— 
Can. Ind. Aff., 417, 1898. 

Bells. Metal bells were in common use 
in middle America in pre-Columbian 
times, but they are rarely found n. of the 
Rio Grande, either in possession of the 
tribes or on ancient sites; but bells were 
certainly known to the Pueblos and pos- 
sibly to the mound-builders before the 
arrival of the whites. The 
rattle made of shells of vari- 
ous kinds or modeled in clay 
passed naturally into the bell 
as soon as metal or other par- 
ticularly resonant materials 
were available for their manu- 
facture. Occasionally copper copper bell from 
bells with stone tinklers are a Tennessee 
found on ancient sites in New " t °homasS 
Mexico and Arizona, where 
examples in baked clay are also found; 
these are usually quite small and are of the 
hawk-bell or sleigh-bell type, and doubt- 
less served as pendant ornaments. Rare 
examples of copper bells have been col- 
lected in the southern states, but. it is not 
certain that they were of local origin, since 
many specimens must have reached Flor- 
ida from Mexico and Central America in 
early Columbian times; and it is well 
known that bells of copper or bronze 
were employed in trade with the tribes 
by the English colonists, numerous ex- 
amples of which have been obtained from 
mounds and burial places. 

Consult Fewkes (1) in 17th Rep. B. A. 
E., 1898, (2) in 22d Rep. B. A. E., 1903; 
Hough in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1901, 1903; 
Moore in Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1894-1905; Thomas in 12th Rep. B. A. E., 
1894. See Copper, (w. h. h.) 

Beothukan Family (from the tribal or 
group name Beothuk, which probably 
signifies 'man,' or 'human being,' but 
was employed by Europeans to mean ' In- 
dian,' or 'Red Indian'; in the latter case 
because the Beothuk colored themselves 
and tinted their utensils and arms with 
red ocher). So far as known only a single 
tribe, called Beothuk, which inhabited 
the island of Newfoundland when first dis- 
covered, constituted this family, although 



[B. a. e. 

existing vocabularies indicate marked dia- 
lectic differences. At first the Beothuk 
were classified either as Eskimauan or as 
Algonquian, but now, largely through the 
researches of Gatschet, it is deemed best 
to regard them as constituting a distinct 
linguistic stock. It is probable that in 1497 
Beothukan people were met by Sebastian 
Cabot when he discovered Newfoundland, 
as he states that he met people "painted 
with red ocher," which is a marked char- 
acteristic of the Beothuk of later observ- 
ers. Whitbourne(Chappell, Voy. to New- 
foundland, 1818), who visited Newfound- 
land in 1622, stated that the dwelling places 
of these Indians were in the n. and w. parts 
of the island, adding that ' ' in war they use 
bows and arrows, spears, darts, clubs, and 
slings." The extinction of the Beothuk 
was due chiefly to the bitter hostility of 
the French and to Micmac invasion from 
Nova Scotia at the beginning of the 
18th century, the Micmac settling in 
w. Newfoundland as hunters and fish- 
ermen. For a time these dwelt in am- 
ity with the Beothuk, but in 1770, quar- 
rels having arisen, a destructive bat- 
tle was fought between the two peoples 
at the n. end of Grand Pond. The Beo- 
thuk, however, lived on friendly terms 
with the Naskapi, or Labrador Montag- 
nais, and the two peoples visited and 
traded with each other. Exasperated by 
the petty depredations of these tribes, the 
French, in the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, offered a reward for every head of 
a Beothuk Indian. To gain this reward 
and to obtain the valuable furs they 
possessed, the more numerous Micmac 
hunted and gradually exterminated them 
as an independent people. The English 
treated the Beothuk with much less 
rigor; indeed, in 1810 Sir Thomas Duck- 
worth issued a proclamation for their pro- 
tection. The banks of the River of Ex- 
ploits and its tributuaries appear to have 
been their last inhabited territory. 

DeLaet(NovusOrbis, 34, 1633) describes 
these Newfoundland Indians as follows: 
"The height of the body is medium, the 
hair black, the face broad, the nose flat, 
and the eyes large; all the males are 
beardless, and both sexes tint not only 
their skin but also their garments with a 
kind of red color. And they dwell in 
certain conical lodges and low huts of 
sticks set in a circle and joined together 
in the roof. Being nomadic, they fre- 
quently change their habitations. They 
had a kind of cake made with eggs and 
baked in the sun, and a sort of pudding, 
stuffed in gut, and composed of seal's fat, 
livers, eggs, and other ingredients." He 
describes also their peculiar crescent- 
shaped birch-bark canoes, which had 
sharp keels, requiring much ballast to 
keep them from overturning; these were 
not more than 20 feet in length and they 

could _bear at most 5 persons. Remains 
of their lodges, 30 to 40 feet in circumfer- 
ence and constructed by forming a slender 
frame of poles overspread with birch bark, 
are still traceable. They had both sum- 
mer and winter dwellings, the latter often 
accommodating about 20 people each. 
Jukes (Excursions, 1842) describes their 
deer fences or deer stockades of trees, 
which often extended for 30 miles along 
a river. They employed pits or caches 
for storing food, and used the steam bath 
in huts covered with skins and heated 
with hot stones. Some of the charac- 
teristics in which the Beothuk differed 
from most other Indians were a marked 
lightness of skin color, the use of trenches 
in their lodges for sleeping berths, the 
peculiar form of their canoes, the non- 
domestication of the dog, and the dearth 
of evidence of pottery making. Bonny- 
castle (Newfoundland in 1842) states that 
the Beothuk used the inner bark of Finns 
balsamifera as food, while Lloyd (Jour. 
Anthrop. Inst., iv, 1875) mentions the fact 
that they obtained fire by igniting the 
down of the bluejay from sparks produced 
by striking together two pieces of iron 
pyrites. Peyton, cited by Lloyd, declares 
that the sun was the chief object of their 
worship. Carmack's expedition, conduct- 
ed in behalf of the Beothic Society for the 
Civilization of the Native Savages, in 1827, 
failed to find a single individual of this 
once prominent tribe, although the island 
was crossed centrally in the search. As 
they were on good terms with the Nas- 
kapi of Labrador, they perhaps crossed 
the strait of Belle Isle and became incor- 
porated with them. ( j. n. b. h. a. s. g. ) 
Beathook.— Leigh quoted by Lloyd in Jour. 
Anthrop. Inst., IV, 38, 1875. Behatho'ok.— Gatschet 
in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 410, 1885 (quoting older 
form) . Beothics.— Lloyd in Jour. Anthrop. Inst., 
IV, 33, 1875. Beothik.— Gatschet, op. cit. (quoting 
old form). Beoths.— Vetromile, Abnakis, 47, 1866. 
Beothucs.— Lloyd in Jour. Anthrop. Inst., iv, 21, 

1875. Beothues.— Jour. Anthrop. Inst.,iv, pi. facing 
p. 26, 1875. Beothugs.— Ibid., v, pi. facing p. 223, 

1876. Beothuk.— Gatschetin Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 
408, 1885. Bethuck.— Latham in Trans. Philol. 
Soc. Lond., 58, 1856. Boeothick. — Mac Dougall in 
Trans. Canad. Inst., n, 98, 1890-91. Boeothuk.— 
Gatschet in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 410, 1885 (quot- 
ing older form). Good-night Indians. — Lloyd, 
following blunder of Latham, in Jour. Anthrop. 
Inst., v, 229, 1876. Macquaejeet.— Gatschet in Proc. 
Am. Philos. Soc, 410, Oct., 1885 (Micmac name: 
'red man,' evidently a transl. of the European 
'Red Indian'). Red Indians of Newfoundland.— 
Cartwright (1768) quoted by Lloyd in Jour. 
Anthrop. Inst., iv, 22, 1875. Shawatharott.— King 
quoted by Gatschet in Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 410, 
1885_( = ' Red Indian man ' ). Shawdtharut. —Ibid. 
TJlnobah.— Latham quoted by Gatschet, ibid., 411 
(Abnaki name). TJlno mequaegit.— Ibid, (said to 
be the Micmac name, sig. 'red man,' but evidently 
a trader's or fisherman's rendering of the Euro- 
pean ' Red Indians'). 

Beowawa. Incorrectly given as the 
name of a Hopi village; it seems to be 
the name of a man. 

Beowawa.— Beadle, Western Wilds, 227, 1878. 
Beowawe.— Beadle, Undeveloped West, 576, 1873. 

Berlin tablet. See Notched plates. 

BULL. 30] 



Bersiamite. One of the small Algon- 
quian tribes composing the eastern group 
of the Montagnais, inhabiting the banks 
of Bersimis r. , which enters St Lawrence 
r. near the gulf. These Indians became 
known to the French at an early date, 
and being of a peaceable and tractable 
disposition, were soon brought under the 
influence of the missionaries. They were 
accustomed to assemble once a year with 
cognate tribes at Tadoussac for the pur- 
pose of trade, but these have melted away 
under the influence of civilization. A 
trading post called Bersimis, at the mouth 
of Bersimis r., had in 1902 some 465 In- 
dians attached to it, but whether any of 
them were Bersiamite is not stated, (j. m. ) 
Baisimetes.— McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 79, 1854. Bersamis.— Stearns, Labrador, 263, 

1884. Bersiamites.— Jes. Rel. for 1640, 34, 1858. 
Bersiamits.— Hind, Labrador Penin., i, 125, 1863. 
Bersiamitts.— McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 81, 1854. Bertiamistes.— Iroquois treaty (1665) 
in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., Ill, 122, 1853. Bertiam- 
ites.— Memoir of 1706, ibid., IX, 786, 1855. Beth- 
siamits.— Can. Ind. Aff. Rep., 38, 1880. Betsiam- 
ites.— Le Clercq quoted by Champlain (1632), 
GEuvres, IV, 105, 1870. Betsiamits.— Can. Ind. Aff. 
Rep. 1884, pt 1, 185, 1885. Bussenmeus.— McKen- 
ney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, III, 81, 1854. Notre Dame 
de Betsiamits.— Boucher in Can. Ind. Aff. Rep. 
for 1884, pt. 1, 36, 1885 (mission name). Oubestami- 
ouek.— Jes. Rel. for 1643, 38, 1858. Oumamiois.— 
Albanel (1670) quoted by Hind, Labrador Penin., 
1, 126, 1863. Oumamioucks. — McKenney and Hall, 
Ind. Tribes, in, 79, 1854. Oumamiwek.— Hind, 
Labrador Penin., i, 224, 1863. 

Besheu {bijl u 'lynx'). A gens of the 
Be-sheu. — Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 44, 

1885. Pe-zhew.— Tanner, Narrative, 315, 1830 
(trans, 'wild cat'). Pishiu. — Gatschet, Ojibwa 
MS., B. A. E., 1882. 

Beshow. The black candle-fish (Ano- 
plopoma fimbria) of the Puget sd. region; 
from bishowk, in the Makah dialect of the 
Wakashan stock. (a. f. c. ) 

Bethel. An Eskimo mission, founded 
in 1886 by Moravian brethren from Penn- 
sylvania, on Kuskokwim r., close to 
Mumtrelek, Alaska. Pop. 20 in 1890. 

Bethlehem. A Moravian settlement es- 
tablished in 1740 at the present Bethle- 
hem, Northampton co., Pa. Although a 
white settlement, the Moravians drew to- 
ward it many of the Indians, and in 1746 
the Mahican converts from Shecomeco 
resided there for a short time before set- 
tling at Friedenshuetten. (j. m.) 

Betonukeengainubejig ( Pi'tona'kingkain- 
iiplchig, 'they who live in the neighbor- 
hood of [L. Superior on the s.].' — W. J. ). 
An important division of the Chippewa 
living in n. Wisconsin, between L. Su- 
perior and Mississippi r. The Munom- 
inikasheenhug, Wahsuahgunewininewug, 
and Lac Court Oreilles Chippewa are 
incorporated with them. Their principal 
villages were at Desert lake (Vieux Des- 
ert), Flambeau* lake, Pelican lake, Lac 
Court Oreilles, Lac Chetec, Pukwaawun, 
and Mononimikau lake. ( j. m. ) 

Be-ton-auk-an-ub-yig.— Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 
85, 1850. Be-ton-uk-eeng-ain-ub-e-jig.— Warren in 
Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 38 1885. Pi'tona'king- 
kainapitcig. — W. Jones, inf'n, 1905 (correct form). 

Betty's Neck. A place in Middleboro, 
Plymouth co., Mass., where 8 Indian 
families lived in 1793, and took its name 
from an Indian woman (Drake, Bk. Inds., 
bk. 3, 10, 1848). The people seem to have 
been Nemasket and subject to the Wam- 
panoag. (j. m.) 

Biara. A subdivision or settlement of 
the Tehueco, formerly on the lower Rio 
Fuerte or the Fuerte-Mayo divide, n. w. 
Sinaloa, Mexico. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 
58, 1864. 

Biauswah (payaswa, 'dried,' as when 
meat is hung over fire until smoked and 
dried; it may also refer to meat hung on 
a pole to dry in the sun. — W. J.). A Chip- 
pewa chief, also known as Byianswa, son 
of Biauswah, a leading man of the Loon 
gens which resided on the s. shore of L. 
Superior, 40 m. w. of La Pointe, n. w. Wis, 
He was taken prisoner by the Fox In- 
dians when a boy, but was saved from 
torture and death by his father, who 
became a voluntary substitute. After the 
death of his father he moved with his 
people to Fond du Lac. Being made 
chief he led the warriors of various bands 
in an expedition against the Sioux of 
Sandy lake and succeeded in driving the 
latter from their village, and later the 
Sioux were forced to abandon their vil- 
lages on Cass and Winnipeg lakes and 
their stronghold on Leech lake, whence 
they moved westward to the headwaters 
of Minnesota r. The Chippewa under 
Biauswah were those who settled in the 
country of the upper Mississippi about 
1768 (Minn. Hist. Coll., v, 222, 1885). 
The date of his death is not recorded, but 
it probably occurred not long after the 
date named. ' (c. t. ) 

Bihiana. A former rancheria, probably 
of the Papago, in n. w. Sonora, Mexico, 
between Busanic and Sonoita, near (or 
possibly identical with) Anamic. It was 
visited "by Kino in 1702. 
Sta Bibiana.— Kino (1706) quoted bv Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, I, 502, 1886. 

Bible translations. The Bible has been 
printed in part or in whole in 32 Indian 
languages n. of Mexico. In 18 one or 
more portions have been printed; in 9 
others the New Testament or more has 
appeared; and in 5 languages, namely, the 
Massachuset, Cree, Labrador Eskimo, 
Santee Dakota, and Tukkuthkutchin, the 
whole Bible is in print. 

The Norwegian missionaries, Hans and 
Paul Egede, were the first to translate 
any part of the Bible into Greenland 
Eskimo, their version of the New Testa- 
ment being printed in part in 1 744, and 
as a whole in 1766. A revision of this 



[B. A. E. 

translation, by Otto Fabricius, was twice 
printed before the close of the 18th cen- 
tury; and in 1822 the Moravian Brethren 
brought out a new translation, which ran 
through several editions. Nearly three- 
quarters of the Old Testament was printed 
in the same language between 1822 and 
1836, when the work was discontinued. 
In Labrador Eskimo the earliest printed 
Bible text was the Harmony of the Gos- 
pels, which appeared in 1800. This was 
followed by the Gospel of St John in 
1810, the complete New Testament in 
1840, and all of the Old. Testament be- 
tween 1834 and 1867. In other Eskimo 
languages there were printed : In Labrador 
Eskimo some New Testament extracts in 
1878 and the Four Gospels in 1897, trans- 
lated by E. J. Peck; in the Aleutian 
Unalaska dialect, with adaptation also to 
the Atka dialect, John Veniaminoffs 
translation of St Matthew's Gospel in 
1848; and in Kaniagmiut, EliasTishnoff's 
translation of the same Gospel, also in 1848. 

Four languages of the Athapascan fam- 
ily have been provided with Bible trans- 
lations. The Gospels were translated by 
Robert McDonald and printed in the 
Tukkuthkutchin language of Mackenzie 
r. in 1874, and the whole Bible in 1898. 
In the Chipewyan Archdeacon Kirkby's 
translation of the Gospels appeared in 
1878 and the whole New Testament in 
1881; in the Etchareottine, Kirkby's trans- 
lation of St John's Gospel in 1870, and 
Bishop Bompas's of the New Testament 
between 1883 and 1891; and in the Tsat- 
tine, A. C. Garrioch's version of St Mark's 
Gospel in 1886. 

Translations have been made into 13 
languages of the Algonquian family. In 
the Cree, William Mason's work com- 
prises several editions of the Gospel of 
St John made between 1851 and 1857, 
the complete New Testament in 1859, 
and the whole Bible in 1861-62. Arch- 
deacon Hunter's version of three of the 
Gospels in the same language appeared 
in 1853-55 (reprinted in 1876-77). Bishop 
Horden's Four Gospels in Cree was 
printed in 1859, and his complete New 
Testament in 1876. In the Abnaki, St 
Mark's Gospel, translated by Wzokhi- 
lain, was printed in 1844; in the Micmac, 
beginning with the printing of St Mat- 
thew's Gospel in 1853, Mr Rand con- 
tinued at work until the whole New 
Testament was published in 1871-75, 
besides the books of Genesis, Exodus, 
and the Psalms; and in the Malecite, St 
John's Gospel, also translated by Rand, 
came out in 1870. The Massachuset lan- 
guage, which comes next in geographical 
order, was the first North American In- 
dian language into which any Bible trans- 
lation was made; John Eliot began his 

Natick version in 1653 and finished it 
in 1661-63, with a revised edition in 
1680-85. In 1709 Experience Mayhew 
published his translation, in the Wampa- 
noag dialect of Martha's Vineyard, of 
the Psalms and St John's Gospel. In 
the Delaware, Dencke's translation of the 
Epistles of St John was printed in 1818, 
Zeisberger's Harmony of the Gospels in 
1821, and Luckenbach's Scripture Narra- 
tives in 1838. In Chippewa, the earliest 
translations were those of the Gospels of 
St Matthew and St John, by Peter and 
John Jones, printed in 1829-31. There 
are three complete translations of the 
New Testament in this language: One 
by Edwin James in 1833, another by 
Henry Blatchford in 1844 (reprinted in 
1856 and 1875), and a third by F. A. 
O'Meara in 1854 (reprinted in 1874). 
O'Meara also translated the Psalms ( 1856) 
and the Pentateuch ( 1861 ), and McDonald 
translated the Twelve Minor Prophets 
(1874). In the Shawnee language, St 
Matthew's Gospel, by Johnston Lykins, 
was printed in 1836 and a revision in 
1842, and St John's Gospel, by Francis 
Barker, in 1846. In the Ottawa, Meeker's 
translation of St Matthew and St John 
appeared in 1841-44; in the Potawatomi, 
St Matthew and the Acts, by Lykins, in 
1844; in the Siksika, St Matthew, by 
Tims, in 1890; in the Arapaho, St Luke, 
by Roberts, in 1903; and in the Cheyenne, 
the Gospels of St Luke and St John by 
Petter, who has published also some other 
portions of the Bible. 

Three languages of thelroquoian family 
possess parts of the Bible. In Mohawk, 
extracts from the Bible were printed as 
early as 1715; the Gospel of St Mark, 
by Brant, in 1787; and St John, by Nor- 
ton, in 1805. Between 1827 and 1836 
the rest of the New Testament was trans- 
lated by H. A. Hill, W. Hess, and J. A. 
Wilkes, and the whole was printed in 
successive parts. A new version of the 
Gospels, by Chief Onasakenrat, was 
printed in 1880. The only part of the 
Old Testament in Mohawk is Isaiah, 
printed in 1839. In the Seneca language, 
St Luke, by Harris, was printed in 1829, 
and the Four Gospels, by Asher Wright, 
in 1874. In the Cherokee language St 
Matthew's Gospel was translated by 
S. A. Worcester and printed in 1829, the 
other Gqspels and the Epistles following, 
until the complete New Testament was 
issued in 1860. Genesis and Exodus, 
also by Worcester, were printed in 1856 
and 1853, respectively, besides some por- 
tions of the Psalms, Proverbs, and Isaiah. 

The two languages of the Muskhogean 
family that come into our record are the 
Choctaw and the Creek. In Choctaw, 
three of the Gospels, translated by Al- 

BULL. 30] 



fred Wright, were printed as early as 
1831, and the complete New Testament, 
by Wright and Byington, in 1848. The 
Pentateuch, the historical books of the Old 
Testament, and the Psalms, by Wright, 
Byington, and Edwards, came out between 
1852 and 1886. In Creek, St John's Gos- 
pel, translated by Davis and Lykins, was 
printed in 1835; another version, by 
Buckner, in 1860; and the whole New 
Testament, by Mrs Kobertson and others, 
between 1875 and 1887; and Genesis and 
the Psalms, by the same, in 1893-96. 

Only two languages of the Siouan fam- 
ily, the Santee Dakota and the Mandan, 
are represented in scriptural translations. 
Portions of the Bible were translated into 
the former by Renville and printed as 
early as 1839; the whole New Testament, 
bv Biggs and others, was published in 
1865; the Old Testament, by Williamson 
and Riggs, was finished in 1877; and a re- 
vised edition of the complete Bible was 
issued in 1880. A small volume of 
hymns and scriptural selections, trans- 
lated into Mandan by Rev. C. F. Hall, 
was published in 1905. 

The Caddoan language is represented 
by a small volume of Bible translations 
and hymns in Arikara, by Rev. C. F. 
Hall (1900; 2ded., enlarged, 1905). 

In the Nez Perce language, of the Sha- 
haptian family, St Matthew's Gospel, by 
Spalding, was twice printed (in 1845 and 
1871); and St John, by Ainslie, appeared 
in 1876. In the Kwakiutl language, of 
the Wakashan family, A. J. Hall's trans- 
lation of the Gospels of St Matthew and 
St John came out in 1882-84 and the Acts 
in 1897. In the Tsimshian language, of 
the Chimmesyan family, the Four Gos- 
pels, translated by William Duncan, were 
printed in 1885-89; and in the Niska lan- 
guage J. B. McCullagh began work on 
the Gospels in 1894. In the Haida lan- 
guage, of the Skittagetan family, trans- 
lations of three of the Gospels and of the 
Acts, by Charles Harrison and J. H. Keen, 
were printed in 1891-97. 

Consult the various bibliographies of 
Indian languages, by J. C. Pilling, pub- 
lished as bulletins by the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology. See Books in Indian 
languages, Dictionaries, Eliot Bible, Peri- 
odicals, (w. e. ) 

Bicam. A Yaqui settlement on the s. 
bank of the lower Rio Yaqui, s. w. Sono- 
ra, Mexico, with an estimated population 
of 9,000 in 1849. 

Bicam.— Velasco, Noticias de Sonora, 84, 1850. 
Bican.— Muhlenpfordt quoted by Bancroft, Nat. 
Races, I, 608, 1882. Santfsima Trinidad Vicam.— 
Orozco y Berra, Geog., 355, 1864 (or Bicam). 

Bichechic. A Tarahumare settlement 
on the headwaters of the Rio Conchos, 
lat. 28° 10', long. 107° 10', Chihuahua, 
Mexico. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 323, 

Bull. 30—05 10 

Bidai (Caddo for 'brushwood,' proba- 
bly referring to the peculiar growth char- 
acteristic of the region )'. An extinct tribe, 
supposed to have belonged to the Caddoan 
stock, whose villages were scattered over 
a wide territory, but principally about 
Trinity r. , Texas, while some were as far n. 
as the Neches or beyond. A creek empty- 
ing into Trinity r. between Walker and 
Madison cos., Tex., bears the name of 
the tribe, as did also, according to La 
Harpe, a small bay on the coast N. of 
Matagorda bay. A number of geographic 
names derived from this tribe survive in 
the region. The tribal tradition of the 
Bidai is that they were the oldest inhabi- 
tants of the country where they dwelt. 
This belief may * have strengthened 
tribal pride, for although the Bidai 
were surrounded by tribes belonging 
to the Caddo confederacy, the people 
long kept their independence. They 
were neighbors of the Arkokisa, who 
lived on lower Trinity r. and may have 
been their allies, for accordingto LaHarpe 
(1721) they were on friendly terms with 
that tribe while they were at war with the 
people dwelling on Matagorda bay. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the 18th century 
the Bidai were reported to be the chief 
intermediaries between the French and 
the Apache in the trade in firearms; later 
they suffered from the political disturb- 
ances incident to the controversy between 
the Spaniards and the French, as well as 
from intertribal wars and the introduc- 
tion of new diseases. As a result rem- 
nants of different villages combined, and 
the olden tribal organization was broken 
up. Little is known of their customs and 
beliefs, which were probably similar to 
those of the surrounding tribes of the 
Caddo confederacy. They lived in fixed 
habitations, cultivated the soil, hunted 
the buffalo, which ranged through their 
territory, and were said by Sibley in 1805 
to have had " an excellent character for 
honesty and punctuality." At that time 
they numbered about 100, but in 1776-7 
an epidemic carried off nearly half their 
number. About the middle of the 19th 
century a remnant of the Bidai were living 
in a small village 12 m. from Montgom- 
ery, Tex., cultivating maize, serving as 
cotton pickers, and bearing faithful alle- 
giance to the Texans. i The women were 
still skilled in basketry of ''curious de- 
signs and great variety. ' ' The few sur- 
vivors were probably incorporated by the 
Caddo. (a. c. f. ) 

Badies.— Ker, Travels, 122, 1816. Beadeyes.— Ed- 
ward, Hist. Tex., 92, 1836. Bedajs.— French, Hist. 
Coll. La., II, 11, 1875. Beddies.— Brackenridge, 
Viewsof La.,81,1815. Bedees.— Ibid., 87. Bedies.— 
Sibley (1805), Hist. Sketches, 71, 1806. Bidais.— Rob- 
in, Voy. Louisiane, in, 14, 1807. Bidaises.— Soc. 
Mex. Geog., 266, 1870. Biday.— Doc. of 1719-21 in 
Margry, Dec, VI, 341, 1886. Bidayes.— La Harpe 
(ca. 1721), ibid., 341. Bidias.— Latham in Trans. 



[B, a. e. 

Philol. Soc. Lond., 103, 1856. Quasmigdo.— Ker, 
Trav., 122, 1816 (given as their own name). 
Redais. — Foote , Texas, 1 , 299 , 1841 . Spring Creeks. — 
Ibid. Vidaes.— Mezieres (1778) quoted by Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, I, 661, 1886. Vidais.— 
French, Hist. Coll. La.,n, 11,1875. Vidays.— Doc. 
503 (1791-92) in Texas State archives. Vivais.— 
Doc. of Aug. 26, 1756, ibid. 

Bidamarek. An indefinite division of 
the Pomo of California, the name being 
applied by the Pomo of upper Clear lake 
to the inhabitants of the region w. of them 
on Russian r., as distinguished from the 
Danomarek, or hill people, of the same 
region. Gibbs, in 1851, mentioned the 
Bedahmarek as living with the Shanel- 
kayain a valley apparently at the source of 
the e. fork of Russian r. ; and McKee, in 
the same year, gave the Medamarec, said 
to number 150, as inhabiting with the 
Chanetkai the hills dividing the waters 
of Clear lake from Eel {sic) r. (a. l. k.) 
Bedah-marek. — Gibbs (1851) in Schoolcraft, Iud. 
Tribes, in, 109, 1853. Me-dama-rec— McKee (1851) 
in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 136, 1853. 

Big Bill. A Paiute chief. He led the 
Indians who aided the notorious Mormon 
John D. Lee in the Mountain Meadow 
massacre in s. w. Utah on Sept. 11, 1857. 

Big Canoe. A Kalispel war chief who 
acquired considerable notoriety as a 
leader in battle. He was born in 1799 
and died in 1882 at the Flathead agency, 
Mont. (c. t.) 

Big Chief. An Osage village 4 m. from 
the Mission in Ind. T. in 1850; pop. 300. 
Big-chief.— Smet, West. Missions, 355, 1863. 

Big Cypress Swamp. A Seminole set- 
tlement, with 73 inhabitants in 1880, sit- 
uated in the '-Devil's Garden" on the n. 
edge of Big Cypress swamp, 15 to 20 m. 
s. w. of L. Okeechobee, Monroe co., 
Fla.— MacCauley in 5th Rep. B. A. E., 
478, 1887. 

Big Foot (Si-tanka). A Hunkpapa 
Sioux chief, of the Cheyenne River res., 
S. Dak., leader of the band of about 300 
men, women, and children who fled from 
the reservation after the killing of Sitting 
Bull in the autumn of 1890, intending to 
join the hostiles in the Bad-lands. They 
were intercepted by troops on Wounded 
Knee cr. and surrendered, but in at- 
tempting to disarm the Indians a conflict 
was precipitated, resulting in an engage- 
ment in which almost the entire band, 
including Big Foot, was exterminated, 
Dec. 29, 1890. See Moonev in 14th Rep. 
B. A. E., 1896. 

Big Hammock. The most populous 
Seminole settlement in central Florida in 
1821; situated n. of Tampa bay, probably 
in Hillsboro co. — Bell in Morse, Rep. to 
Sec. War, 307, 1822. 

Big-island (translation of the native 
name Amciyel-e' 'gwa) . A former Chero- 
kee settlement on Little Tennessee r., at 
Big island, a short distance below the 
mouth of the Tellico, in Monroe co., 

Tenn. ; not to be confounded with Long- 
island town below Chattanooga. — Mooney 
in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 508, 1900. 

Amaye'l-e'gwa.— Mooney, op. cit. Big Island.— 
Royce in 5th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1887. Miala- 
quo.— Timberlake, Memoir, map, 1762. Nila- 
que.— Bartram, Travels, 372, 1792. 

Big Jim. The popular name of a noted 
full-blood Shawnee leader, known among 
his people as Wapameepto, ' Gives light 
as he walks.' His English name was 
originally Dick Jim, corrupted into Big 
Jim. He was born on the Sabine res., 
Texas, in 1834, and in 1872 became chief 
of the Kispicothaband, commonly known 
as Big Jim's band of Absentee Shawnee. 
Big Jim was of illustrious lineage, his 
grandfather being Tecumseh and his 
father one of the signers of the "Sam 


Houston treaty" between the Cherokee 
and affiliated tribes and the Republic of 
Texas, Feb. 23, 1836. He was probably 
the most conservative member of his 
tribe. In the full aboriginal belief that 
the earth was his mother and that she 
must not be wounded by tilling of the 
soil, he refused until the last to receive 
the allotments of land that had been 
forced upon his band in Oklahoma, and 
used every means to overcome the en- 
croachments of civilization. For the 
purpose of finding a place where his peo- 
ple would be free from molestation, he 
went to Mexico in 1900, and while there 
was stricken with smallpox in August, 
and died. He was succeeded by his only 
son, Tonomo, who is now (1905) about 
30 years of age. 
Big Kettle. See Sonojowauga. 

BULL. 30] 



Big Mouth. A chief of the Brule - Sioux, 
though an Oglala by descent. A contem- 
porary of Spotted Tail, and as highly re- 
garded by his tribe for his manly and 
warlike qualities as the latter, though of 
less historical note. He is spoken of 
(Ind. Aff. Kep., 316, 1869) as one of the 
principal chiefs at Whetstone agency on 
the Missouri, where most of the Brule 
and Oglala bands had gathered. The 
stand taken by Big Mouth in reference to 
the relations of the Sioux with the whites 
caused him to gain steadily in influence 
and power. Spotted Tail, having visited 
Washington and other cities, where he 
was much feted, returned with changed 
views as to the Indian policy, a fact 
seized upon by Big Mouth to disparage his 
rival. Realizing that the tide was turn- 
ing against him, Spotted Tail, in 1873 or 
1874, called at the lodge of Big Mouth , who 
on appearing at the entrance was seized 
by two warriors and held by them while 
Spotted Tail shot him dead. (c. t. ) 

Big-mush. A noted western Cherokee, 
known to the whites also as Hard-mush 
and among his people as GatvuVwa'li 
( ' bread made into balls or lumps ' ) , killed 
by the Texans in 1839.— Mooney in 19th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1900. See Bowl. 

Big Neck. See Moanahonga. 

Big Rock. A point on Shiawassee r., 
in lower Michigan, at which in 1820 the 
Chippewa had a reservation. — Saginaw 
treaty (1820) in U. S. Ind. Treaties, 142, 

Big Swamp Indians. A name applied 
to Seminole, principally of the Mikasuki 
division, near Miccosukee lake, Leon co., 
Fla.— McKenney and Hall, Ind. Tribes, 
ii, 157, 1854. 

Long Swamp Indians. — Ibid. 

Big Tree. See Adoeette. 

Bihi Konlo. One of the 5 hamlets com- 
posing the Choctaw town of Imongal- 
asha.— Halbert in Miss. Hist. Soc. Publ., 
vi, 432, 1902. 

Biktasatetuse ('very bad lodges': a 
Crow name) . A subtribe or band of the 
Crows or of some neighboring tribe; ap- 
parently the same as Ashiapkawi. 

A-shi-ap'-ka-wi.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. 
Mo. Val., 402, 1862. Bik-ta'-sa-te-tu'-se.— Ibid. 

Biloxi. A name of uncertain meaning, 
apparently from the Choctaw language. 
They call themselves Taneks haya, 'first 
people.' A small Siouan tribe formerly 
living in s. Mississippi, now nearly, or quite 
extinct. The Biloxi were supposed to 
belong to the Muskhogean stock until 
Gatschet visited the survivors of the tribe 
in Louisiana in 1886 and found that many 
of the words bore strong resemblance to 
those in Siouan languages, a determination 
fully substantiated in 1 892 by J. Owen Dor- 
sey. To what particular group of theSiou- 
an family the tribe is to be assigned has not 

been determined ; but it is probable that 
the closest affinity is with Dorsey' sDhegi- 
ha group, so called. The first direct notice 
of the Biloxi is that by Iberville, who 
found them in 1699 about Biloxi bay, on 
the gulf coast of Mississippi, in connection 
with two other small tribes, the Paska- 
gula and Moctobi, the three together 
numbering only about 20 cabins (Margry, 
Dec, iv, 195, 1880). The Biloxi removed 
to the w. shore of Mobile bay in 1702. 
In 1761 Jefferys spoke of them as having 
been n. e. of Cat id., and of their subse- 
quent removal to the n. w. of Pearl r. 
Hutchins, in 1784, mentions a Biloxi vil- 
lage on the w. side of the Mississippi, a 
little below the Paskagula, containing 
30 warriors. According to Sibley (1805) 
a part of the Biloxi came with some 
French, from near Pensacola, about 1763, 
and settled first in Avoyelles parish, La,, 
on Red r., whence they "moved higher 
up to Rapide Bayou, and from thence to 
the mouth of Rigula de Bondieu, a divi- 
sion of Red r., about 40 m. below Natchi- 
toch, where they now live, and are reduced 
to about 30 in number. ' ' Berguin-Duval- 
lon (1806) mentions them as in two vil- 
lages, one on Red r., 19 leagues from the 
Mississippi, the other on a lake called 
Avoyelles. He also refers to some as being 
wanderers on Crocodile bayou. School- 
craft said they numbered 55 in 1825. In 
1828 (Bui. Soc. Mex. Geog., 1870) there 
were 20 families of the tribe on the e. bank 
of Neches r. , Tex. Porter, in 1829 (School- 
craft, Ind. Tribes, in, 596), gave the num- 
ber as 65 living with the Caddo, Paska- 
gula, and other small tribes on Red r., 
near the Texas frontier, and in 1846 But- 
ler and Lewis found a Biloxi camp on 
Little r., a tributary of the Brazos in 
Texas, about two days' journey from the 
latter stream. After this little was heard 
of them until 1886. According to Gat- 
schet there were in that year a few Biloxi 
among the Choctaw and Caddo, but he 
visited only those in Avoyelles parish, 
La. In 1892 Dorsey found about a dozen 
of the tribe near Lecompte, Rapides 
parish, La., but none remained at Avo- 
yelles. From the terms they used and 
information obtained Dorsey concluded 
that prior to the coming of the whites the 
men wore thebreechcloth, a belt, leggings, 
moccasins, and garters, and wrapped 
around the body a skin robe. Feather 
headdresses and necklaces of bone, and 
of the bills of a long-legged redbird (fla- 
mingo?) w y ere worn, as also were nose- 
rings and earrings. The dwellings of the 
people resembled those found among the 
northern tribes of the same family, one 
kind similar to the low tent of the Osage 
and Winnebago, the other like the high 
tent of the Dakota, Omaha, and others. 
It is said they formerly made pottery. 



[B. A. E. 

They made wooden bowls, horn and bone 
implements, and baskets. Tattooing was 
practised to a limited extent. Descent 
was through the female line, and there 
was an elaborate system of kinship. The 
charge of cannibalism was made against 
them by one or two other tribes; this, 
however, is probably incorrect. Dor- 
sey recorded the following clan names: 
Itaanyadi, Ontianyadi, and Nakhotod- 
hanyadi. See Dorsey in Proc. A. A. A. S., 
xlii, 267, 1893; Mooney, Siouan Tribes of 
the East, Bull. 22, B. A. E., 1894; McGee 
in 15th Rep. B. A. E., 1897, and the au- 
thorities cited below. 

Ananis.— Doe. of 1699 in French, Hist. Coll., n, 99, 
1875. Anaxis.— Margry. Dec., IV, 113, 1880. An- 
nocchy.— Iberville (1699) in Margry, Dec, iv, 172. 
1880. Baluxa.— Brown, West. Gazett., 133, 1817, 
Baluxie. — Woodward, Remin., 25, 1859. Belochy. — 
Neill, Hist. Minn., 173, 1858. Belocse.— Bull. Soc. 
Mex. Geog., 267, 1870. Beloxi.— Sen. Ex. Doc. 72, 
20th Cong., 104, 1829. Beluxis.— Doc. of 1764 in 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., VII, 641, 1856. Beluxy.— 
Biog. and Hist. Mem. N. W. La., 526, 1890. 
Bilexes.— Berquin-Duvallon, Trav. in La., 97, 
1806. Billoxie.— Ex. Doc. 21, 18th Cong., 2d 
sess., 5, 1825. Billoxis.— Butel-Dumont, Louisi- 
ana I, 134, 1753. Bilocchi.— Gravier (1701) in 
French, Hist. Coll., n, 88, 1875. Bilocchy.— Iber- 
ville (1699) in Margry, Dec, iv, 172, 1880. Bil- 
occi.— Ibid., 473. Biloccis.— Ibid. Bilochy.— Ibid. 
184. Bilocohi.— Coxe, Carolana, 31, 1741. Bilo- 
cohy. — Ibid., 30. Biloui.— Berquin-D u vallon, 
Trav. in La., 91, 1806. Biloxi.— Sauvole (1700) in 
Margrv, Dec, IV, 451, 1880. Biloxis.— Penicaut 
(1699) in French, Hist, Coll., n. s., 38, 1869. Bil- 
oxy.— Iberville (1700) in Margry, Dec, iv, 425,1880. 
Bilusi.— Michler in Rep. Sec. War, 32, 1850. Bil- 
uxi.— Michler (1849) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 67, 31st 
Cong. , 1st sess. , 5, 1850. Binuxsh. — Gatschet, Caddo 
and Yatassi MS., B. A. E., 66 (Caddo name). 
Binu'xshi.— Ibid., 73. Blu'-kci. — Dorsey, inf'n, 
1881 (Caddo name). B'luksi.-— Gatschet, MS., 
B. A. E., 1886 (Choctaw name). Bolixes.— Parker 
(1854 ) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 702, 1855. Bo- 
lixies.— Schoolcraft, ibid., iv, 561, 1854. Boluxas.— 
Sibley, Hist. Sketches, 80, 1806. Boluxes.— Keane 
in Stanford, Compend., 503, 1878. Boluxie.— But- 
ler and Lewis (1846) in H. R. Doc. 76, 29th Cong., 
2d sess., 3, 1847. Boluxies.— Bonnell, Texas, 140, 
1840. Paluxies.— Parker (1854) in Schoolcraft, 
Ind. Tribes, v, 702, 1855. Paluxsies.— Parker, Un- 
explored Texas, 221, 1856. Poluksalgi.— Gatschet, 
Creek MS., B. A. E. (Creek name). Poutoucsis. — 
Berquin-Duvallon, Trav. in La., 94, 1806 (mis- 
print). Taneksay n a.— Dorsey in Proc. A. A. A. S., 
xlii, 267, 1893 (own name; varients are Tantks 
anyadi, TanSks hanyadi, ' first people '). 

Biorka (Swed. : Bjork 6. = Birch id.). 
An Aleut village on Biorka id. near Una- 
laska, Alaska. Pop. 44 in 1831, 140 in 
1880, 57 in 1890. ' 

Borka.— Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 20, 1884. 
Saydankooskoi.— Elliott, Cond. Aff. Alaska, 225, 
1875 (from Siginak, written "Sithanak" bySauer, 
quoted by Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901; Aleut 
name of the island, sig. 'curled'). Sedankov- 
skoe.— Veniaminof, Zapiski, n, 203, 1840. Sida- 
nak.— Holmberg, Ethnol. Skizz., map, 1855. Si- 
dankin.— Sauer quoted by Baker, Geog. Diet. 
Alaska, 1901. TJgiu-ug. — Veniaminof quoted by 
Baker, ibid, (own name). 

Birch River. A local name applied to 
the Maskegon (Swampy Cree) res., near 
lower Saskatchewan r., Saskatchewan, 
Canada, and to the Indians gathered on 
it. — Can. Ind. Aff., passim. 

Bird-stones. A name given to a class of 
prehistoric stone objects of undetermined 

purpose, usually resembling or remotely 
suggesting the form of a bird. In many 
cases the resemblance is so slight that 
without the aid of a series of specimens, 
grading downward from the more real- 
istic bird representations through succes- 
sive simplifications, the life form would 
not be suggested. In its simplest form 
the body is an almost featureless bar 
of polished stone. Again, the ends are 
curved upward, giving a saddle shape; but 
usually the head, tail, and eyes are differ- 
entiated, and in 
the more graphic 
forms the tail is 
expanded and 
turned upward 
to balance the 
head. The most 
remarkable fea- 
ture is the pair of 
projecting knobs, 
often on rather 
slender stems, 
representing the 
eyes, giving some- 
what the effect of 
a horned animal. 
These objects are 
most plentiful in 
the Ohio valley 
and around the 
great lakes, and 
occur sparingly in 
the S. and to the 
westward beyond 
the Mississippi. 
Although many 
kinds of stone 
were used in their 
manufacture, the 
favorite material 
was a banded 
slate which oc- 
curs over a wide 
areain the North- 
ern states and in 
Canada. They 
are shaped with 
much care, being 
symmetrical and 
highly polished. 
The under side is flat or slightly concave, 
and there are two perforations at the ex- 
tremities of the base intended to serve in 
attaching the figure to the surface of some 
object, as a tablet, a pipe stem, a flute, or a 
staff or baton, or to some part of the cos- 
tume, or to the hair. There is good reason 
to believe that these and the various re- 
lated objects — banner stones, boat-stones, 
etc. — had kindred uses in religious cere- 
mony or magic (see Problematical objects). 
Gillman (Smithson Rep. 1873, 1874) was 
informed by an aged Chippewa " that in 
olden time these ornaments were worn on 
the heads of Indian women, but only after 

bird-shaped Stores, a, Epidote; 


Slate; Pennsylvania, d, Argil- 
lite; Ohio (1-4). e, Banded 
Slate; Ontario (1-3). /, Bar- 
like form; Banded Slate; Ohio 

BULL. 30] 



marriage," and suggests that the bird- 
stones may have symbolized the brooding 
bird. Abbott (Primitive Industry, 370) 
published a statement originating with Dr 
E. Stirling, of Cleveland, Ohio, that ' ' such 
bird effigies, made of wood, have been no- 
ticed among the Ottawa of Grand Trav- 
erse bay, Mich., fastened to the top of 
the heads of women as an indication that 
they are pregnant." The probability, 
however, is that these bird-stones were 
used or worn by the men rather than by 
the women, and Cushing's theory that 
they were attached to a plate and fixed to 
the hair is plausible. 

See Abbott, Primitive Industry, 1881; 
Beauchamp in Bull. N. Y. State Mus., 
1897; Boyle in Rep. Minister of Educa- 
tion, Ontario, 1895; Fowke (1) in 13th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1896, (2) Archa5ol. Hist, 
Ohio, 1902; Gillman in Rep. Smithson. 
Inst. 1873, 1874; Moorehead, (1) Bird- 
stone Ceremonial, 1899; (2) Prehist. 
Impls., 1900, (3) in Am. Anthron., n, 
1900; Ran in Smithson. Cont, xxn/l876; 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i-vi, 1851-56; 
Squier and Davis in Smithson. Cont., i, 
1848. (w. h. h.) 

Birdwoman. See Sacagawea. 

Bis. A Chumashan village w. of Pue- 
blo de las Canoas (San Buenaventura), 
Ventura co., Cal., in 1542. — Cabrillo 
(1542) in Smith, Col. Docs. Fla., 181, 1857. 

Bisani. A Pima settlement 8 leagues s. 
w\ of Caborca, in the present Sonora, 
Mexico, of which it was a visita in Span- 
ish colonial times. Pop. 178 in 1730. 

Bisani.— Rudo Ensayo (1762) . 152,1863. Jesus Maria 
Basani.— Doc. of 1730 quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. 
States, i, 514, 1886. 

Bishkon. One of the towns forming 
the noted "Sixtowns" of the Choctaw, 
situated a few miles frorn the 4 present 
Garlandsville, in the n. part oi Jasper 

co., Miss. 

Bishkon.— Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., I, 109,1884. 
Bishkun Tamaha. — Halbertin Ala. Hist. Soc. Publ., 

Bissarhar ('Indians with many bri- 
dles ') . A division of the Apache under 
chiefs Goodegoya and Santos in 1873- 
75. — White, Apache Names of Indian 
Tribes, MS., B. A. E. 
_ Bissasha ( Bissa-asha, ' blackberries are * 
ripe there). A former Choctaw town on 
the w. side of Little Rock cr., Newton 
co., Ga. Judging from the stone imple- 
ments and other debris lying scattered 
over its site, the town covered an area of 
about 10 acres, making it a rather small 
town as Choctaw towns were generally 
built.— Brown in Miss. Hist. Soc. Publ., 
vi, 442, 1902. 

Bishapa.— Romans, Florida, map, 1772 (probably 

Bistchonigottine. A division of the 
Etchaottine on Bistcho lake, Mackenzie 
Ter., Canada. 

Bes-tchonhi-Gottine.— Petitot, Autour du Lac des 
Esclaves, 339, 1891. 

Bithahotshi (Navaho: 'red place on 
top,' referring to the color of the sand- 
stone rocks; the second It — German ch.) 
The name of a mesa, and, by extension, 
of a valley in which a trading store is 
situated, about half-way between Hol- 
brook and the Ho pi villages in n. e. Ari- 
zona. The name is sometimes employed 
to designate a group of ancient pueblo 
ruins in and near the valley. 
Biddahoochee. — Hongh in Rep. " Nat. Mus. 1901, 
326, 1903. Bitahotsi.— Matthews, Navaho Le- 
gends, 153, 1897 (correct .Navaho name: t = th, 
h = German ch,s = sh). 

Bithani ('folded arms'). A Navaho 

Bi9a'ni. — Matthews in Jonr. Am. Folk-lore, ill, 
103, 1890(f=th). Bita'ni.— Matthews., Navaho Leg- 
ends, 30, 1897 (fc=th). 

Bitumen. See Boats, Cement. 

Black Beaver. A Delaware guide, born 
at the present site of Belleville, 111., in 
1806; died at Anadarko, Okla., May 8, 
1880. He was present as interpreter at 


the earliest conference w r ith the Co- 
manche, Kiowa, and Wichita tribes, held 
by Col. Richard Dodge on upper Red r. in 
1834, and from then until the close of his 
days his services were constantly required 
by the Government and were invaluable 
to military and scientific explorers of the 
plains and the Rocky mts. In nearly ev- 
ery one of the early transcontinental ex- 
peditions he w^as the most intelligent and 
most trusted guide and scout. 

Blackbird. A Chippewa village, com- 
monly known as Black Bird's town from 



[B. a. b. 

a chief of that name, which formerly 
existed on Tittibawassee r., Saginaw co., 
lower Michigan, on a reservation sold in 
1837. (j.m.) 

Blackbird (Mukatapenaise). A Pota- 
watomi chief who lived in the early part 
of the 19th century. He was conspicuous 
at the massacre of the garrison at Ft 
Dearborn, Chicago, in Aug., 1812. 

Black Bob. The chief of a Shawnee 
band, originally a part of the Hatha- 
wekela division of the Shawnee, q. v. 
About the year 1826 they separated from 
their kindred, then living in e. Missouri 
on land granted to them about 1793 by 
Baron Carondelet, near Cape Girardeau, 
then in Spanish territory, and removed 
to Kansas, where, by treaty with their 
chief, Black Bob, in 1854, they were given 
rights on the Shawnee res. in that state. 
Under Black Bob's leadership they re- 
fused to remove with the rest of the tribe 
to Indian Ter. in 1868, but are now 
incorporated with them, either in the 
Cherokee Nation or with the Absentee 
Shawnee. See Shawnee, and consult 
Halbert in Gulf States Hist. Mag. , i, no. 
6, 1903. (j. m.) 

Black Dog. An Osage village, named 
from its chief, 60 m. from the Mission, in 
Indian Ter., in 1850; pop. 400.— Smet, 
West. Miss, and Missionaries, 355, 1863. 

Black drink (" Carolina tea " ; Catawba 
yaupon; Creek dssi-luputski, 'small leaves,' 
commonly abbreviated dssi). A decoc- 
tion, so named by British traders from 
its color, made by boiling leaves of 
the Ilex cassine in water. It was em- 
ployed by the 
tribes of the 
adjacent re- 
gion as "medi- 
cine" for cere- 
monial purifl- 
fication. It 
was a power- ^ 
ful agent for * 
the produc- 
tion of the 
nervous state 
and disordered imagination necessary to 
' ' spiritual' ' power. Hall ( Rep. Nat. Mus. , 
218, 1885) says that among the Creeks 
the liquid was prepared and drank before 
councils in order, as they believed, to in- 
vigorate the mind and body and prepare 
for thought and debate. It was also used 
in the great "busk" or annual green-corn 
thanksgiving. The action of the drink in 
strong infusion is purgative, vomitive, and 
diuretic, and it was long thought that this 
was the only effect, but recent investiga- 
tion has shown that the plant contains 
caffeine, the leaves yielding a beverage 
with stimulating qualities like tea and 
coffee, and that excessive indulgence 

Preparing black Drink 

produces similar nervous disturbance. 
The plant was held in great esteem by the 
southern Indians, and the leaves were 
collected with care and formed an article 
of trade among the tribes (Griffith, Med. 
Bot. , 1847 ) . The leaves and tender shoots 
were gathered, dried, roasted, and stored 
in baskets until needed. According to 
Gatschet the Creeks made three potions 
from cassine of differing strength for 
different uses. In its preparation the 
leaves, having been roasted in a pot, were 
added to water and boiled. Before 
drinking, the Indians agitated the tea to 
make it frothy. Tea made from the Ilex 
cassine is still sometimes used by white 
people in localities where the shrub 
grows. Personal names referring to the 
black-drink ceremony were very com- 
mon, especially among the Creeks and 
Seminole. The name of Osceola (q. v.), 
the noted Seminole chief, is properly 
Asi-yahola, 'Black-drink Singer.' The 
drink was called dssi-luputski by the 
Creeks. C. C. Jones (Tomochichi, 118, 
1868) calls the drink "foskey." See 
Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., n, 56, 1888, 
and works therein cited; Hale, Ilex Cas- 
sine, Bull. 14, Div. Botany, U. S. Dept. 
Agriculture, 1891. (w. h.) 

Blackfoot, Middle, Nortb, and South. Di- 
visions of the Siksika proper, q. v. 

Black Fox (Indli). A principal chief 
of the Cherokee who, under the treaty 
of Jan. 7, 1806, by which the Cherokee 
ceded nearly 7,000 sq. m. of their lands 
in Tennessee and Alabama, was given a 
life annuity of $100. He was then an old 
man. In 1810, as a member of the na- 
tional council of his tribe, he signed an 
enactment formally abolishing the cus- 
tom of clan revenge hitherto universal 
among the tribes, thus taking an impor- 
tant step toward civilization. — Mooney 
in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 87, 1900. 

Black Hawk (Ma'katawimesheka'ktia, 
from ma'katawi 'it is black, mishi 'big,' 
ka'ka a 'chert,' the name referring to the 
description of a bird, or sparrow hawk. — 
W. J. ). A subordinate chief of the Sauk 
and Fox Indians and leader in the Black 
Hawk war of 1832. . He was born at the 
Sauk village at the mouth of Rock r., 111., 
in 1767, and belonged to the Thunder 
gens of the Sauk tribe. When only 15 
years of age he distinguished himself in 
war; and before he was 17, at the head 
of a war party of young men, he attacked 
an Osage camp of 100 persons and came 
away safely with the scalp of a warrior. 
The next party that he led out, however, 
he brought to a deserted village, on ac- 
count of which all except 5 of his party 
left him; but with these he kept on and 
brought away 2 scalps with which to 
efface his disgrace. At the age of 19 he 
led 200 Sauk and Foxes in a desperate 

BULL. 30] 



engagement with an equal number of 
Osage, destroying half of his opponents, 
killing 5 men and a woman with his own 
hands. In a subsequent raid on the 
Cherokee his party killed 28, with a loss 
of but 7; but among the latter was his own 
father, who was guardian of the tribal 
medicine, hence Black Hawk refrained 
from war during the 5 years following 
and endeavored to acquire greater super- 
natural power. At the end of that time 
he went against the Osage, destroyed a 
camp of 40 lodges, with the exception of 
2 women, and himself slew 9 persons. 
On a subsequent expedition against the 
Cherokee in revenge for his father's 
death he found only 5 enemies, 4 men 
and a woman. The latter he carried off, 
but the men he released, deeming it no 
honor to kill so few. 

On the outbreak of the war of 1812 
Black Hawk, with most of his people, 
joined the British and fought for them 
throughout, committing many depreda- 
tions on the border settlements. After- 
ward, in opposition to the head chief, 
Keokuk, who cultivated American friend- 
ship, he was leader of the British sympa- 
thizers who traded at Maiden in prefer- 
ence to St Louis. 

By treaty of Nov. 3, 1804, concluded at 
St Louis, the Sauk and Foxes had agreed 
to surrender all their lands on the e. side 
of the Mississippi, but had been left un- 
disturbed until the country should be 
thrown open to settlement. After the 
conclusion of the war of 1812, however, 
the stream of settlers pushed westward 
once more and began to pour into the 
old Sauk and Fox territory. Keokuk 
and the majority of his people, bowing 
to the inevitable, soon moved across the 
Mississippi into the present Iowa, but 
Black Hawk declined to leave, maintain- 
ing that when he had signed the treaty 
of St Louis he had been deceived re- 
garding its terms. At the same time he 
entered into negotiations with the Win- 
nebago, Potawatomi, and Kickapoo to 
enlist them in concerted opposition to the 
aggressions of the whites. 

By the spring of 1831 so much friction 
had taken place between the settlers and 
Indians that Gov. Reynolds, of Illinois, 
was induced to call out the militia. Gen. 
Gaines, desiring to avoid the expense of 
a demonstration, summoned Black Hawk 
and his friends to a convention at Ft 
Armstrong, but a violent scene followed 
and the convention came to nothing. 
On June 15 the militia left their camp at 
Eushville and marched upon Black 
Hawk's village. Finding that Black 
Hawk and his people had effected their 
escape shortly before, they burned the 
lodges. Immediately afterward Gaines 
demanded that all the hostile warriors 

should present themselves for a peace 
talk, and on June 30 Black Hawk and 27 
of his followers signed a treaty with Gov. 
Reynolds by which they agreed to abstain 
from further hostilities and retire to the 
farther side of the Mississippi. 

During the following winter Black 
Hawk, like his great Shawnee predeces- 
sor, Tecumseh, sent emissaries in all 
directions to win various tribes to his 
interest, and is said to have endeavored, 
though unsuccessfully, to destroy the au- 
thority of his own head chief, Keokuk, 
or commit him to a war against the 
whites. On Apr. 1, 1832, Gen. Atkinson 
received orders to demand from the Sauk 
and Foxes the chief members of a band 
who had massacred some Menominee the 


year before. Arriving at the rapids of 
Des Moines r. on the 10th, he found that 
Black Hawk had recrossed the Missis- 
sippi 4 days previously at the head of a 
band estimated at 2,000, of whom more 
than 500 were warriors. Again the mili- 
tia were called out, while Atkinson sent 
word to warn the settlers, and collected 
all the regular troops available. 

Meantime Black Hawk proceeded up 
Rock r., expecting that he would be 
joined by the Winnebago and Potawat- 
omi, but only a few small bands re- 
sponded. Regiments of militia were by 
this time pushing up in pursuit of him, 
but they were poorly disciplined and 
unused to Indian warfare, while jealousy 
existed among the commanders. Two 
brigades under Isaiah Stillman, which 
had pushed on in close pursuit, were met 
by 3 Indians bearing a flag of truce; but, 
other Indians showing themselves near 
by, treachery was feared, and in the con- 



[B. A. E. 

fusion one of the bearers of the flag was 
shot down. A general but disorderly 
pursuit of the remainder ensued, when 
the pursuers w T ere suddenly fallen upon 
by Black Hawk at the head of 40 warriors 
and driven from the field (May 14, 1832) 
in a disgraceful rout. Black Hawk now 
let loose his followers against the frontier 
settlements, many of which were burned 
and their occupants slain, but although 
able to cut off small bands of Indians the 
militia and regulars were for some time 
able to do little in retaliation. On June 
24 Black Hawk made an attack on Ap- 
ple River fort, but was repulsed, and 
on the day following defeated Maj. De- 
ment' s battalion, though with heavy loss 
to his own side. On July 21, however, 
while trying to cross to the w. side of 
Wisconsin r. he was overtaken by volun- 
teers under Gen. James D. Henry and 
crushingly defeated with a loss of 68 
killed and many more wounded. With 
the remainder of his force he retreated 
to the Mississippi, which he reached at 
the mouth of Bad Axe r., and was about 
to cross when intercepted by the steamer 
Warrior, which shelled his camp. The 
following day, Aug. 3, the pursuing 
troops under Atkinson came up with his 
band and after a desperate struggle 
killed or drove into the river more than 
150, while 40 were captured. Most of 
those who reached the other side were 
subsequently cut off by the Sioux. 
Black Hawk and his principal warrior, 
Neapope, escaped, however, to the north- 
ward, whither they were followed and 
captured by some Winnebago. Black 
Hawk was then sent E. and confined 
for more than a month at Fortress Mon- 
roe, Va., when he was taken on tour 
through the principal E. cities, every- 
where proving an object of the greatest 
interest. In 1837 he accompanied Keo- 
kuk on a second trip to the E., after 
which he settled on Des Moines r. near 
Iowaville, dying there Oct. 3, 1838. His 
remains, which had been placed upon the 
surface of the ground dressed in a mili- 
tary uniform presented by Gen. Jackson, 
accompanied by a sword also presented 
by Jackson, a cane given by Henry Clay, 
and medals from Jackson, John Quincy 
Adams, and the city of Boston, were stolen 
in July, 1839, and carried away to St 
Louis, where the body was cleaned and 
the bones sent to Quincy, 111. , for articu- 
lation. On protest being made by Gov. 
Lucas of the territory of Iowa, the bones 
were restored, but the sons of Black 
Hawk, being satisfied to let them stay in 
the governor's office, they remained there 
for some time and were later removed to 
the collections of the Burlington Geolog- 
ical and Historical Society, where they 
were destroyed in 1855 when the building 

containing them was burned. See Auto- 
biography of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, 
edited by J. B. Patterson, 1882, a life by 
Snelling, and The Black Hawk War, by 
Frank E. Stevens. ( j. e. s. ) 

Black Hawk. .A village marked on 
Royce's map (First Rep. B. A. E., 1881) 
about Mount Auburn, Shelby co., Ind., 
on land sold in 1818. Probably a Del- 
aware settlement, (j. M.) 

Black Hoof. See Catahecassa. 

Black Indians. Mentioned by Bonte- 
mantel and Van Baerlein 1656 (N. Y. Doc. 
Col. Hist., i, 588, 1856). They and 
"the Southern Indians, called Minquas," 
are spoken of as bringing furs to trade 
with the Dutch on Schuylkill r. Pos- 
sibly the Nanticoke, who were said to be 
darker than their neighbors. ( j. m. ) 

Black Kettle. An Onondaga chief, 
called by the French Chaudtire Noire. 
When in the first French war the gov- 
ernor in Montreal sent one of his officers 
with 300 men to attack the Iroquois at 
Niagara, Black Kettle, with 80 warriors, 
gave the invaders a long running fight, 
from which the latter were the chief suf- 
ferers, although his force was in the end 
wiped out. In the following season he laid 
waste the French settlements in w. Can- 
ada. In 1691 the Iroquois planned the 
destruction of the French settlements and 
trading posts w. of Montreal. Their 
plans were revealed to the French com- 
mander by captive Indian women who 
escaped, and after the defeat of the ex- 
peditions the French destroyed parties 
that were encamped in their hered- 
itary hunting grounds between the 
Ottawa and St Lawrence rs. Black 
Kettle retaliated by killing Indians who 
traded with Montreal and the French 
escort sent to guard them. On July 15, 
1692, he attacked Montreal and carried off 
many prisoners, who were retaken by a 
pursuing party; and in the same season he 
attacked the party of de Lusignan and 
killed the leader. In 1697 he arranged a 
peace with the French, but before it was 
concluded he was murdered by some 
Algonkin while hunting near Cattarau- 
gus, although he had notified the French 
commander at the fort of the peace ne- 

Black Kettle. A Cheyenne chief and 
famous warrior whose village on Sand 
cr., Colo., was attacked by a force of 
Colorado militia under Col. Chivington 
in 1864 and a large number of innocent 
men, women, and children massacred 
and their bodies mutilated. Black Kettle 
had come in by direction of Gov. Evans, 
of Colorado, and surrendered to Maj. 
Wynkoop, U. S. A., who had promised 
him protection (Ind. Aff. Rep., 1865, and 
Condition of Indian Tribes, Rep. Joint 
Spec. Com., 1865). On Nov. 27, 1868, 

BULL. 30] 



United States troops under command of 
Gen. P. H. Sheridan attacked Black Ket- 
tle's village on the Washita, and de- 
stroyed it, Black Kettle being killed in 
the fight. He was a brother of Gentle 
Horse. (g. b. g.) 

Black Leg's Village. A former settle- 
ment, probably of the Delawares, on the 
n. bank of Conemaugh r., in s. e. Arm- 
strong co., Pa. — Koyce in 18th Rep. B. 
A. E., pi. clx, 1900. 

Black Lodges. According to Grinnell 
(Soc. Org. Cheyennes, 144, 1905), a local 
designation for a part of the Northern 

Black Muscogees. A term applied to 40 
to 60 Indians at Parras, Coahuila, Mexico, 
at the close of 1861. To what particular 
branch of the Creeks these refugees be- 
longed is not known. — Rep. Mex. Bndy. 
Comm.,410, 1873. 

Blacksnake ( Thaonawyuthe, l needle or 
awl breaker'). A chief, about the close 
of the 18th century, of the Seneca Indians, 
who lived on their reservation along the 
Alleghany r. in Cattaraugus co., N. Y. 
His residence was a mile above the vil- 
lage of Cold Spring. The date of his 
birth is not known, but is supposed to 
have been about 1760, as it is stated that 
in 1856 he had reached the age of 96 years. 
He was present on the English side at the 
battle of Oriskany, N. Y., in 1777, and it 
is said that he participated in the Wyo- 
ming massacre of 1778, but he fought on 
the American side in the battle of Ft 
George, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1813. He died 
in 1859. (c. t.) 

Black-tailed Deers. A Hidatsa band or 
secret order. — Culbertson in Smithson. 
Rep. 1850, 143, 1851. 

Black Thunder (also called Makatanan- 
amaki, from makata 'black,' nenemeki® 
'thunder.'— W. J.). A Fox chief. He 
was the patriarch of the tribe when, at a 
council held at Portage, Wis., in July, 
1815, he replied to charges of breach of 
treaties and of hostile intentions, made by 
the American commissioners, with a burst 
of indignant eloquence, claiming the pro- 
tection of the Government for his tribe, 
that, having smoked the peace pipe, had 
remained faithful throughout the war, 
and respect also for their title to ancestral 
lands. He signed the treaty at St Louis 
on Sept. 14, 1815.— Drake, Bk. Inds., 631, 

Black Tiger. A Dakota band of 22 
lodges, named from its chief; one of the 
bands not brought into Ft Peck agency 
in 1872.— H. R. Ex. Doc. 96, 42d Cong., 
3d sess., 15, 1873. 

Black Tortoise. A mythical tribe alleged 
to have lived in the Mississippi valley and 
to have been conquered and driven away 
by the Elk Indians. — Pidgeon, Traditions 
of Decoodah, 162, 1858. 

Blaesedael (Danish: 'windy valley'). 
An Eskimo village and Danish post on 
Disko bay, w. Greenland, containing 120 
people. — Mrs Peary, Journ., 14, 1893. 

Blanchard' s Fork. By the treaty of Mau- 
mee Rapids, in 1819, a part of the Ottawa 
living in Ohio were given a reservation on 
Blanchard' s fork of the Auglaize, in Ohio, 
and became known officially as the Ottawa 
of Blanchard' s Fork. They sold their 
land in 1831 and removed to Kansas, and 
later to Indian Territory, where, with 
some others of the same tribe, they num- 
bered 179 in 1904. 

Ottawas of Blanchard's Creek.— Greenville treaty 
(1795) in U. S. Ind. Treat., 1033, 1873. Ottawas of 
Blanchard's Fork. — Present official name. 

Blankets. In the popular mind the 
North American Indian is everywhere 
associated with the robe or the blanket. 
The former was the whole hide of a large 
mammal made soft and pliable by much 
dressing; or pelts of foxes, wolves, and 
such creatures were sewed together; or 
bird, rabbit, or other tender skins were 
cut into ribbons, which were twisted or 
woven. The latter were manufactured 
by basketry processes from wool, hair, fur, 
feathers, down, bark, cotton, etc., and 
had many and various functions. They 
were worn like a toga as protection from 
the weather, and, in the best examples, 
were conspicuous in wedding and other 
ceremonies; in the night they were both 
bed and covering; for the home they 
served for hangings, partitions, doors, 
awnings, or sunshades; the women dried 
fruit on them, made vehicles and cradles 
of them for their babies, and receptacles 
for a thousand things and burdens; they 
even then exhausted their patience and 
skill upon them, producing their finest 
art work in weaving and embroidery; 
finally, the blanket became a standard 
of value and a primitive mechanism of 

In s. e. Alaska originated what is popu- 
larly called the Chilkat blanket — a mar- 
vel of spinning, weaving, fringing, and 
mythic designs. The apparatus for this 
seems inadequate. The woman hangs 
her warp of mountain goat's wool mixed 
with shredded cedar bast from a horizon- 
tal bar. The long ends are made into 
balls and covered with membrane to keep 
them clean. Weft is not even wound on 
a stick for shuttle, nor is there even the 
rudest harness or batten. The details of 
the great mythic design are carefully 
wrought in by the woman in twined 
weaving at the same time that a dainty 
lacework is produced on the selvage. 
The process ends with a long heavy fringe 
from the unused warp. Farther south- 
ward on the N. W. coast cedar bast finely 
shredded served for the weaving of soft 
blankets, which were neatly trimmed 
with fur. 



[b. a. e. 

The Nez Percys and other tribes in the 
Fraser-Columbia area were extremely 
skillful in producing a heavy and taste- 
fully decorated blanket in twined weav- 
ing from mountain goat's hair with warp 
of vegetal fiber, and among the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific coast tribes generally 
soft barks, wild hemp, rabbit skins, the 
down of birds, and the plumes of feathers 
were put to the same use. Blankets of 
cords wound with feathers were pro- 
duced, not only by the Pueblos and cliff- 
dwellers but quite extensively in the E. 
as well as in the N. W. These were all 
woven with the simplest possible appa- 
ratus and by purely aboriginal technical 
processes. They were the groundwork 
of great skill and taste and much my- 
thology, and were decorated with strips 
of fur, fringes, tassels, pendants, bead- 
work, featherwork, and native money. 
After the advent of the whites the blan- 
ket leaped into sudden prominence with 
tribes that had no weaving and had 
previously worn robes, the preparation 
of which was most exhausting. The 
European was not slow in observing a 
widespread want and in supplying the 
demand. When furs became scarcer blan- 
kets were in greater demand everywhere 
as articles of trade and standards of value. 
Indeed, in 1831 a home plant was estab- 
lished in Buffalo for the manufacture of 
what was called the Mackinaw blanket. 
The delegations visiting Washington dur- 
ing the 19th century wore this article 
conspicuously, and in our system of edu- 
cating them, those tribes that were un- 
willing to adopt modern dress were called 
" blanket Indians." In art the drapery 
and colors have had a fascination for 
portrait painters, while in citizen's gar- 
ments the red man ceases to be pictur- 

In the S. W. the coming of Spaniards 
had a still more romantic association with 
the blanket. Perhaps as early as the 
16th century the Navaho, in affiliation 
with certain Pueblo tribes, received sheep 
and looms from the conquerors. These 
were the promise of all that is wrapped 
in the words "Navaho blanket." The 
yarn for the finest was procured by un- 
raveling the Spanish bayeta, a sort of 
baize, and the specimens from this ma- 
terial now command high prices. For 
coarser work the Navaho sheared their 
own sheep, washed the wool, colored it 
with their native dyes, and spun it on 
rude spindles consisting of a straight 
stick with a flat disk of wood for a fly- 
wheel. This coarse and uneven yarn 
was set up in their regular but primitive 
loom, with harness for shifting the warp, 
a straight rod for shuttle, a fork of wood 
for adjusting the weft, and a separate 
batten of the same material for beating it 

home. Only the hands of the weaver 
managed all the parts of the operation 
with phenomenal patience and skill, pro- 
ducing those marvelous creations which 
are guarded among the most precious 
treasures of aboriginal workmanship. 
The popularity of this work proved its 
worst enemy. Through the influence of 
traders and greatly increased demands 
for blankets the art has deteriorated. 
Native products were imitated by ma- 
chinery. To the Indians were brought 
modern dyes, cotton warp, factory yarns 
and worsted, and utterly depraved pat- 
terns, in place of native wool, bayeta, 
and their own designs so full of pathos 
and beauty. At present a reformation in 
such matters is being encouraged, both 
by the Government and by benevolent 
organizations, for the purpose of restoring 
the old art. In this connection should 
be mentioned the interesting variety of 
effects produced in the Indian blankets 
by simple native contrivances. There 
are all the technical styles of native hand- 
work superadded to the machine work 
of the loom, including coiled, twined, and 
braided technic. Two-faced fabrics are 
produced, having intricate patterns en- 
tirely different on the two sides. Differ- 
ent Pueblos had their fancies in blankets. 
Among these must not be overlooked the 
white cotton wedding blanket of the Hopi, 
ceremonially woven by the groom for his 
bride, afterward embroidered with sym- 
bolic designs, and at death wrapped about 
her body in preparation for the last rites. 
In the same tribe large embroidered 
cotton blankets are worn by woman im- 
personators in several ceremonies; also a 
small shoulder blanket in white, dark 
blue, and red, forming part of woman's 
"full dress" as well as a ceremonial gar- 
ment. From this list should not be 
omitted the great variety of Navaho prod- 
ucts, commencing with the cheap and 
ubiquitous saddle paddings, personal 
wrappings, house furnishings, and ending 
in competitions with the world's artistry. 
There were also the dark embroidered 
and white embroidered blanket of Na- 
vaho legend. They also wove blankets 
with broad bars of white and black 
called "chief's pattern," to be worn by 
the head-men. The Zuni, too, wove a 
blanket for their priest-chiefs. But they, 
as well as the Hopi, had plenty of the 
serviceable kinds, of cotton and of wool, 
which they made into skirts and tunics; 
coarse kinds likewise for domestic use, 
robes of rabbit skin, and finer work for 
ceremony. The Pima and Maricopa have 
abandoned the art lately, but their con- 
geners — the Yaqui, Taraiiumare, Mayo, 
and Opata — weave characteristic styles. 

Consult Boas in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 
1897; Hodge in Am. Anthrop., viii, no. 

BULL. 30] 



3, 1895; Holmes in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 
1896; Matthews (1) in 3d Rep. B. A. E., 
1884, (2) Navaho Legends, 1897; Pepper 
in Everybody's Mag., Jan. 1902; Stephen 
in Am. Anthrop., vi, no. 4, 1893; Voth 
in Am. Anthrop., n, no. 2, 1900. See 
Adornment, Clothing, Dyes and Pigments, 
Receptacles, Weaving, (o. t. m. w. h.) 

Blewmouths. Mentioned in a Georgia 
tract of 1740 (Force Tracts, i, 3, 1836) ap- 
parently as a tribe w. of the Choctaw. 
''According to the French Indians [Choc- 
taw] there is a large city where a blue- 
lipped people live, of whom they have 
often heard it said that if any one tries to 
kill them he becomes insane" (Brinton, 
Nat. Leg. Chahta-Muskokee Tribes, 10, 
1870 ) . Nothing further is known of them. 
Bloody Knife. A famous Arikara war- 
rior and chief, who was long in the Gov- 
ernment service. His father was a Hunk- 
papa Sioux and his mother an Arikara. 
He was born on the Hunkpapa res., 
N. Dak., but as he approached manhood 
his mother determined to return to her 
people and he accompanied her. Prior 
to the building of the Northern Pacific 
R. R. the mail for Ft Stevenson, N. Dak., 
and other Missouri r. points, was carried 
overland from Ft Totten. The high 
country e. of the Missouri was at that time 
a hunting ground for hostile Sioux who 
had been driven w. from Minnesota 
after the massacre of 1862, and so often 
were the mail carriers on this route killed 
that it became difficult to find anyone to 
carry the mails. Bloody Knife under- 
took the task, and traversing the country 
with Indian caution almost always got 
the mail through on time. Soon after 
the establishment of Ft Abraham Lin- 
coln, N. Dak., a number of Arikara scouts 
were engaged for service at the post, and 
of these Bloody Knife was the chief. He 
was with Gen. Stanley on the Yellow- 
stone expedition of 1873 and took part 
in the fighting of that trip; he also accom- 
panied Custer to the Black-hills in 1874, 
and was one of the scouts with Custer and 
Terry's expedition in 1876. On the day 
of the Custer fight he was with the other 
scouts with Reno's command, took part 
in the effort made by them to check the 
Indians who were charging Reno's force 
while crossing Renocr., and was killed 
there, fighting bravely. (g. b. g.) 

Blount Indians. A Seminole band, num- 
bering 43, under John Blunt, or Blount, 
for whom a reserve, 2 by 4 m. on Apa- 
lachicola r., Fla., was established in 1823 
by the Moultrie Creek treaty (U. S. Ind. 
Treaties, 307, 1837 ) . They went to lower 
Chattahoochee r., Ala., before the Semi- 
nole war of 1835-42, and after it removed 
with the Alibamu to Polk co. , Tex. , where 
28 of them survived in 1870 (Ind. Aff. 
Rep., 327, 1870). 

Blunt Indians. — Ibid. 

Blowgun. A dart-shooting weapon, con- 
sisting of a long tube of cane or wood from 
which little darts are discharged by blow- 
ing with the mouth. The darts are slen- 
der splints or weed stems, pointed at one 
end and wrapped at the butt with cotton, 
thistle down, or other soft material. This 
implement was common in the more 
southerly parts of the United States, the 
habitat of the fishing cane of which it 
was made. The Cherokee, Iroquois, and 
Muskhogean tribes made use of it. In 




the National Museum is an example from 
Louisiana made of four cane stems lashed 
together side by side. The Cherokee, 
who call the little darts by the same 
name as that of the thistle, gather the 
heads of thistles at the proper season and 
pack them together in the form of a wheel 
which they hang in their houses to be 
made into darts (Mooney). The north- 
ern Iroquois substituted elder stalks for 
cane (Hewitt). The Hopi, in certain 
ceremonies, blow feathers to the cardinal 
points through tubes of cane (Fewkes). 

(o. T. M. ) 

Bluejacket ( Weyapiersenwah) . An in- 
fluential Shawnee chief, born probably 
about the middle of the 18th century. 
He was noted chiefly as the principal 
leader of the Indian forces in the battle 
with Gen. Wayne of Aug. 20, 1794, at 
Presque Isle, Ohio. In the fight with Gen. 
Harmer in 1790 he was associated in 
command with Little Turtle, but in the 
battle with Wayne Bluejacket assumed 
chief control, as Little Turtle was opposed 
to further warring and urged the accept- 
ance of the offers of peace, but was over- 
ruled by Bluejacket. After the defeat of 
the Indians, Bluejacket was present at 
the conference at Greenville, Ohio, and 
signed the treaty of 1795 made with Wayne 
at that place. He also signed the treaty 
of Ft Industry, Ohio, July 4, 1805. It is 
probable that he died soon after this 
date, as there is no further notice of him. 
Later descendants of the same name con- 
tinue to be influential leaders in the tribe 
in the W. (c. t.) 

Boalkea. A Porno village, speaking the 
northern dialect, in Scott valley, w. of up- 
per Clear lake, Cal. Gibbs, in 1851, gave 
them, under the name Moalkai, as one 
of the Clear lake groups, w. of the lake, 
with a population of 45. (a. l. k. ) 

Mbal-kai.— Gibbs (1851) in Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, in, 109, 1853. 



[B. a. e. 

Board of Indian Commissioners. See 
United States Board of Indian Commission- 

Boat Harbor. A Micmac village near 
Pictou, Nova Scotia.— Can. Ind. Aff. 
Rep. 1880, 46, 1881. < 

Boats. Under this general term are 
included various kinds of water craft used 
throughout North America wherever 
waters favored. The Eskimo have two 
forms — the man's boat (kaiak, Russian 
baidarka) and the woman's boat {umiak, 
Russian baidarra) — made by stretching 
a covering of seal hide over a framework 
of whale ribs or of ' driftwood. The 


umiak, or woman's boat, is an open scow 
with little modification of bow and stern, 
propelled with large oars and a sail made 
of intestines; but the man's boat is one 
of the most effective devices for water 
travel in the world. The man sits in a 
small hatch, and, in the lighter forms, 
when his w T ater-tight jacket is lashed to 
the gunwale he is practically shut in, so 
that though the water may pass entirely 
over him, scarcely a drop enters the craft. 
He moves himself through the water by 


means of a paddle, in most cases a double 

Immediately in touch with the skin- 
boat countries all around the Arctic, from 
Labrador to Kodiak in Alaska and south- 
ward to the line of the white birch, east- 
ward of the Rocky mts. , and including the 
country of the great lakes, existed the 
birch-bark canoe. With framework of 
light spruce wood, the covering or sheath- 
ing of bits of tough bark sewed together 


and made water-tight by means of melted 
pitch, these boats are interesting subjects 
of study, as the exigencies of travel and 
portage, the quality of the material, and 
traditional ideas produce different forms 

in different areas. Near the mouth of the 
Yukon, where the water is sometimes tur- 
bulent, the canoe is pointed at both ends 
and partly decked over. On the e. side of 



Canada the bow and the stern of the 
canoe are greatly rounded up. A curious 
form has been reported by travelers 
among the Beothuk of Newfoundland. 
On the Kootenai, and all over the pla- 
teaus of British Columbia and n. Wash- 
ington, the Asiatic form, monitor-shaped, 
pointed at either end under the water, is 
made from pine bark instead of birch 

From the n. boundary of the United 
States, at least from the streams empty- 


ing into the St Lawrence southward 
along the Atlantic slope, dugout canoes, 
or pirogues, were the instruments of navi- 
gation. On the Missouri r. and elsewhere 
a small tub-shaped craft of willow frame 
covered with rawhide, with no division 
of bow or stern, locally known as the bull- 
boat, was used by Sioux, Mandan, An- 
kara, and Hidatsa women for carrying 
their goods down or across the rivers. It 
was so light that when one was emptied a 


woman could take it on her back and make 
her way across the land. On the w. coast, 
from Mt St Elias southward to Eel r. , Cal. , 
excellent dugout canoes were made from 
giant cedar and other light woods, some 
of them nearly 100 ft. long. The multi- 
tude of islands off the n. coast rendered 
it possible for the natives to pass from 
one to the other, and thus they were in- 
duced to invent seagoing canoes of fine 
quality. Here also from tribe to tribe 
the forms differ somewhat as to the shape 
of the bow and stern and the ornamenta- 
tion. On the California coast and navi- 

BULL. 30] 



gable streams n. of C. Mendocino, well- 
made wooden dugout canoes were used ; 
wooden canoes, made chiefly of planks 
lashed together and calked, were used 
in the Santa Barbara id. region; both 
were important elements in influencing 
the culture of the people of these sections. 
Everywhere else in California, barring 
the occasional use of corracles and rafts 
of logs, transportation by water was con- 
ducted by means of balsas, consisting of 
rushes tied in bundles, generally, if not 
always, with more or less approximation 
to a boat of cigar shape. In certain spots 
in California, as on Clear lake among the 
Pomo and Tulare lake among the Yokuts, 
these tule balsas were important factors 
in native life; elsewhere in the state 
much less so (Kroeber). On the lower 
Eio Colorado and in s. central California 
the Indians made immense corracle-like 
baskets, called by the Spaniards coritas, 
which were coated with bitumen or other 
waterproofing and used for fording the 
streams, laden with both passengers and 

Consult Boas, The Central Eskimo, 6th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1888; Coues, Garces Diary, 
1900; Hoffman, The Menomini Indians, 
14th Rep. B. A. E., 1896; Murdoch, Eth- 
nological Results of the Point Barrow Ex- 
pedition, 9th Rep. B. A. E., 1892; Nel- 
son, The Eskimo about Bering Strait, 
18th Rep. B. A. E., 1899; Niblack, The 
Coast Indians of Southern Alaska and 
Northern British Columbia, Rep. Nat. 
Mus., 1888; Powers in'Cont. N. A. Ethnol., 
in, 1877; Simms in Am. Anthrop., vi, 
191, 1904; Winship in 14th Rep. B. A. E., 
407, 1896. See Commerce, Fur trade, Trails 
and Trade routes, Travel. (o. t. m.) 

Boat-stones. Prehistoric objects of pol- 
ished stone having somewhat the shape 
of a canoe, the use of which is unknown. 
Some have straight 
parallel sides and 
square ends; in oth- 
ers the sides con- 
verge to a blunt 
point. A vertical 
section cut length- 
wise of either is 
approximately tri- 
angular, the long 
face is more or less 
hollow, and there is 
usually a perfora- 
tion near each end; 
some have a groove 
on the outer or convex side, apparently to 
receive a cord passed through the holes. 
Sometimes there is a keel-like projection 
in which this groove is cut. It is sur- 
mised that they were employed as charms 
or talismans and carried about the person. 
They are found sparingly in most of the 
states e. of the Mississippi r. as well as 

NESSEE (1-3). a, Side; b, 



in Canada. Those in the Northern 
states are made principally of slate, in 
the S. and W. steatite is most common, 
but other varieties of stone were used. 
In form some of these 
objects approach the 
plummets (q.v. ) and are 
perforated at one end 
for suspension; others 
approximate the cones 
and hemispheres (q. v.). Analogous 
objects are found on the Pacific coast, 
some of which are manifestly modeled 
after the native canoe while others resem- 
ble the boat-stones of the E., although 
often perforated at one end for suspen- 
sion. See Problematical objects. 

Consult Fowke (1 ) in 13th Rep. B. A. E., 
1896, (2) Archgeol. Hist. Ohio, 1902; 
Moorehead (1) Prehist. Impls., 1902, 
(2) The Bird-stone Ceremonial, 1899; 
Moore, various memoirs in Jour. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894-1905; Rau in Smith- 
son. Cont., xxii, 1876. (g. p. w. h. h.) 

Bobbydoklinny. See Nakaidoklini. 

Bocachee. See Tomochichi. 

Boca del Arroyo (Span.: 'mouth of the 
gulch '). A Papago village, probably in 
Pima co., s. Ariz., with 70 inhabitants in 

La Boco del Arroyo. —Bailey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 208, 

Bocherete. The name of a village given 
to Joutel in 1687 by an Ebahamo Indian 
and described as being n. or n. w. of the 
Maligne (Colorado) r., Tex. The re- 
gion designated was at that time occupied 
chiefly by Caddoan tribes. The village 
can not be definitely classified. See Gat- 
schet, Karankawalnds.,46, 1891. (a. c. f. ) 
Bocrettes.— Joutel (1687) in French, Hist. Coll. 
La., 1, 138, 1846. Tserabocherete.— Joutel (1687) in 
Margry, Dec., in, 289, 1878 (= Tsera and Boch- 
erete combined). Tserabocretes. — Joutel (1687) 
in French, Hist. Coll. La., 1, 152, 1846. 

Bocootawwonauke ('fire people'?). A 
tribe mentioned by Powhatan in 1607 as 
living n. w. of the falls of James r. at 
Richmond, Va., in the highland country, 
and as being workers of copper and other 
metals (Strachey, Hist. Va., 27, 1849). 

Bocootawwanaukes. — Strachey, op. cit.,27. Bocoo- 
tawwonaukes. —Ibid. Bocootawwonough. —Ibid. ,49. 
Bocootowwonocks. — Ibid., 27. Pocoughtaonack. — 
Smith,Works, 25, 1884. Pocoughtronack.— Ibid., 20. 
Bocoyna (6c6 'pine,' ina '.drips,' hence 
'turpentine.' — Lumholtz). A pueblo of 
civilized Tarahumare on the e. slope of 
the Sierra Madre, in lat. 28° 25', long. 
107° 15', w. Chihuahua, Mexico. 
Bocoyna.— Lumholtz in Scribner's Mag., xvi, 32, 
1894. Ocoina.— Lumholtz, Unknown Mex., 1, 134, 
1902 (aboriginal name). 

Bodkins. See Awls, Needles. 

Boeuf, Nation dn. Mentioned in the 
Jesuit Relation of 1662 as a tribe against 
which the Iroquois that year sent out an 
expedition. The name signifies 'Buf- 
falo Nation,' but to what people it refers 
is unknown; it may have designated 



[b. a. b. 

either the Buffalo clan or gens of some 
tribe or one of the buffalo-hunting tribes 
of the W. (j. m.) 

Bogan. A marshy cove by a stream; 
called also hogan hole (Ganong in Proc. 
and Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 209, 1896). 
In a letter (Apr. 8, 1908) Ganong says 
further: "A word very much used by 
guides and others who go into the New 
Brunswick woods is bogan, a still creek 
or bay branching from a stream. Ex- 
actly the same thing the Indians call a 
pokologan.^ He thinks bogan, like logon, 
probably the common name in Maine 
for the same thing, a corruption of poko- 
logan. Both words, Ganong notes, are 
in good local use and occur in articles 
on sporting, etc. It is possible that 
"bogan hole " may be a folk etymologiz- 
ing of pokologan. In the Chippewa lan- 
guage a marsh or bog is to'togun. 

(a. p. c.) 

Boguechito ( ' big bayou ' ) . A Choctaw 
band formerly residing in Neshoba co., 
Miss., in a district known by the same 
name. — Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 108, 

Bogue Chittos.— Claiborne (1843) in Sen. Doc. 168, 
28th Cong., 1st sess., 91, 1844. 

Bogue Toocolo Chitto {Boh tuklo chitto 
'two big bayous'). A former Choctaw 
town, which derived its name from its 
location at the confluence of Running 
Tiger and Sukenatcha crs., about 4 m. 
n. w. of De Kalb, Kemper co., Miss. — 
Halbert in Miss. Hist. Soc. Publ., vi, 424, 

Bohnapobatin. (Bohnapo-batin, 'western 
many houses'). The name applied by 
the Porno living in the region of Clear 
lake, Cal., to those living along the upper 
course of Russian r. — Gibbs (1851) in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 11.0, 1853. 

Bokea. A former Porno village situ- 
ated in what is known as Rancheria val- 
ley, on the headwaters of Navarro r., 
Mendocino co., Cal. (a. l. k. s. a. b. ) 
Boch-heaf.— Gibbs in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
in, 112, 1853. 

Bokninuwad ( in part from bok, ' to find ' ) . 
A Yokuts tribe formerly living on Deer 
cr., Tulare co., Cal. They ceded lands to 
the United States by treaty of May 30, 
1851, and went on a reservation on Kings 
r. (a. l. k.) 

Go-ke-nim-nons.— Wessells (1853) in H. R. Ex. Doc. 
76, 34th Cong., 32, 1857. Po-ken-well.— Royce in 
18th Rep. B. A. E., 782, 1900. Po-ken-welle.— Bar- 
bour in Sen. Ex. Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 
255, 1853. Pokoninos.— Bancroft, Nat. Races, I, 
456, 1874. Po-kon-wel-lo.— Johnston in Sen. Ex. 
Doc. 61, 32d Cong., 1st sess., 23, 1852. 

Bokongehelas. See Buckongahelas. 

Bolas (Span.: 'balls'). A hunting 
weapon consisting of two or more balls 
of heavy material attached to the end of 
a cord by means of shorter cords. The 
type weapon is that used by the tribes 
of the pampas of South America to en- 

Eskimo Bird Bo- 
las. (Mur- 

tangle the legs of animals. The only 
weapon of this character found in North 
America is that used by the western Es- 
kimo for hunting birds^ especially water- 
fowl. It consists of from 4 to 10 blocks, 
or shaped pieces of bone or ivory, about 
the size of a walnut, each attached to a 
sinew or rawhide cord 24 to 30 in. long, 
and gathered and secured to a short 
handle made of grass stems or feathers, 
forming a grip. In throwing 
the bolas it is swung around 
the head once or twice, then 
released like a sling. During 
the first part of their course 
the balls remain bunched, but 
when they lose speed or come 
in contact with an object they 
diverge and entangle. In the 
bands of the Eskimo the 
weapon is effectual at 40 to 50 
yds. The bolas is analogous 
to the slungshot, to the casse- 
tete of the Plains Indians, 
and to the cast-net of s. e. Asia. Zuni 
children have a toy which resembles the 
bolas. Consult Murdoch in 9th Rep. 
B. A. E., 245, 1892; Nelson in 18th Rep. 
B. A. E., 134, 1899. (w. n.) 

Bolbone. A subdivision of the Cholovone, 
the northernmost group of the Mariposan 
family, residing e. of San Joaquin r. and 
n. of Tuolumne r., Cal. (a. l. k.) 

Bolbon.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 
Bolbones.— Chamisso in Kotzebue, Voy., Ill, 51, 
1821. Bulbones. ^Bancroft, Nat. Races, I, 453, 
1874 (misquoted from Chamisso). Pulpenes.— 
Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Mar. 30, 1860. Pulpones.— 
Ibid. Volvon.— Ibid., Oct. 18, 1861. 

Boleck. — See Bowlegs. 

Bolinas. A name formerly applied to 
the people living in the region of Bolinas 
bay, s. of Pt Reyes, Marin co., Cal. Tav- 
lor (Cal. Farmer, Mar. 30, 1860) gives 
Bollanos, an incorrect spelling of Bolinas, 
as the name of a small division of the 
Olamentke (Moquelumnan stock) for- 
merly "near Bollenos bay, Tamales bay, 
Punto de los Reyes, and probably as far 
up as Bodega bay." (s. a. b. ) 

Bolshoigor. A Koyukukhotana village 
on Yukon r., 25 m. above the mouth of 
Koyulsuk r., Alaska.— Petroff (1880), 
10th Census, Alaska, map, 1884. 

Bolshoiger.— Baker, Geog. Diet. Alaska, 1901 
(after Petroff). 

Bomazeen. A chief or sachem of the 
Kennebec tribe whose residence was at 
Norridgewock, Kennebec r., Me., the an- 
cient capital or principal village of the 
tribe. He is mentioned as early as 1693 
and is known to have died in 1724. 
He made a treaty with Gov. Phips in 
1693; wenttothefortatPemaquid,Me.,in 
1694 under a flag of truce, and was treacher- 
ously seized and cast into prison in Bos- 
ton. After his release he waged war for 
a time on the settlements, attacking 

BULL. 30] 



Chelmsford, Sudbury, and other towns in 
Massachusetts in 1706, and Saco, Me., 
in 1710. A treaty of peace to which 
his name was signed was made at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., July 13, 1713. He was 
killed by a party under Capt. Moulton 
near Taconnet, Me., in 1724; about the 
same time his family at Norridgewock 
was fired upon, his daughter being killed 
and his mother taken prisoner, (c. t. ) 

Bones. See Anatomy. 

Bone-work. The use of bone and re- 
lated materials, including antler, ivory, 
horn, whalebone, turtle-shell, and the 
teeth, hoofs, beaks, and claws of many crea- 
tures, was almost universal among Indian 
tribes. The hardness and toughness of 
these materials made them desirable for 
many kinds of implements and utensils, 
and their pleasing color and capacity for 
high polish caused them to be valued for 
personal ornaments. Since both man 
and beasts of various kinds have an im- 
portant place in aboriginal mythology, it 
is to be expected that in numerous in- 
stances their bones had a special sacred 
significance and use, as when, for example, 
the skulls and paws of small animals were 
used for mixing medicine. 

Not uncommonly the small bones, 
teeth, and claws of various animals, the 
beaks of birds, etc., were strung as beads, 
were perforated or grooved to be hung as 
pendant ornaments or rattles, or were 
sewed on garments or other objects of 
use. These uses are illustrated in the 
necklaces of crab claws and the puffin 
beak ceremonial armlets of the Eskimo, 
by the bear-tooth necklaces of many of 
the tribes, by the elk tusk embellish- 
ments of the buckskin costumes of the 
women among the Plains Indians, and 
by the small carved bone pendants at- 
tached to the edge of the garments of 
the ancient Beothuk (see Adornment). 
Teeth and small bones, such as the meta- 
carpals of the deer, as well as worked bone 
disks and lozenges, were used as dice in 
playing games of chance, and gaming 
sticks of many varieties were made of 
bone. In precolonial times bone had to 
be cut, carved, and engraved with imple- 
ments of stone, such as knives, scrapers, 
saws, gravers, drills, and grinding stones, 
and with some of the tribes the primitive 
methods still prevail. Although indis- 
pensable to primitive tribes everywhere, 
this material occupies a place of excep- 
tional importance in the far N. beyond 
the limits of forest growth, where the only 
available wood is brought oversea from 
distant shores by winds and currents. 
The Eskimo have the bones of the whale, 
seal, walrus, bear, wolf, moose, reindeer, 
muskox, and a wild sheep, and the antlers 
of the moose and deer, the horns of the 
sheep and ox, the teeth of the bear, wolf, 

and reindeer, the ivory of the walrus 
and narwhal, fossil ivory, the whalebone 
of the right-whale, and the bones of the 
smaller quadrupeds and various birds, 
and their skill in shaping them and adapt- 
ing them to their needs in the rigorous 
arctic environment is truly remarkable. 
The larger bones, as the ribs of the whale, 
are employed in constructing houses, 
caches, and shelters; for ribs of boats, 
runners for sleds, and plates for armor 
(Nelson). Bone, ivory, and antler were 
utilized for bows, arrows, spears, har- 
poons, knives, scrapers, picks, flint-flak- 
ing implements, clubs, boxes, and a 
great variety of appliances and tackle 
employed in rigging boats, in fishing, 
in hunting, in transportation, in pre- 
paring the product of the chase for 
consumption; for weaving, netting, and 
sewing implements, household utensils, 
tobacco pipes, gaming implements, toys, 
dolls, fetishes, amulets, and artistic 
carvings of many kinds. Personal orna- 
ments and toilet articles of bone and 
kindred materials are more numerous in 
Alaska, where beads, pendants, hair- 
pins, combs, labrets, belt clasps, belt 
ornaments of reindeer teeth, etc., are 
largely made and ingeniously applied. 
The artistic work of these northern 
peoples is shown in their extremely 
clever carvings in ivory and their engrav- 
ings of various ornamental and pictorial 
designs upon objects of use and ornament, 
but there seems to be sufficient ground 
for the opinion that these particular 
phases of their art are largely of recent 
development and are due to association 
with white men and as a result of the 
acquisition of metal tools and perhaps 
also to some extent to contact with Indian 
tribes which in their turn have been 
influenced by the whites. The wide 
range and vast numbers of the objects of 
art shaped from these materials by the 
arctic peoples of the present period will 
be more fully appreciated by reference 
to the works of Boas, Murdoch, Nelson, 
and Turner, in the annual reports of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, and by 
a visit to the ethnologic museums. 

Bone and the allied substances have 
been and are favorite materials with the 
tribes of the Pacific coast. The uten- 
sils, implements, ornaments, and to- 
temic and symbolic carvings of the N. W. 
coast tribes are often admirable and dis- 
play esthetic appreciation of a high order 
( Niblack, Boas ) . Their carvings in bone, 
ivory, and antler, often inlaid with aba- 
lone, and the graceful and elaborately 
carved cups, ladles, and spoons of horn, 
are especially noteworthy. The art of 
the tribes of the Frazer basin and the 
Pacific slope s. of Puget sd. is much 
more primitive, though bone was in 



[B. A. 

general use for implements, utensils, 
musical instruments, gaming articles, 
and ornaments (Abbott, Goddard, Pow- 
ers, Smith), great numbers being pre- 
served in our museums. Many of the 
tribes of the arid region, the great divide, 
the Mississippi valley, and the E. still 
employ bone, horn, antler, and turtle- 
shell to a large extent, but metal has 
largely usurped their place, especially for 
implements, hence finds from village sites, 
cemeteries, and burial mounds must be 
depended on largely for knowledge of the 
aboriginal bone-work of these regions. 
The ancient Pueblos inlaid some of their 
implements and ornaments of bone with 
bits of turquoise and other bright stones 
(Fewkes, Pepper). Among the tribes of 
many sections bones of deer and the 
larger birds w r ere used for flutes and 
whistles, and shells of turtles for rattles, 
and the latter were often made also of 
beaks of birds and hoofs and dewclaws 
of deer and other animals, or by attach- 
ing these articles to parts of the costume, 
or to bands for the wrists and ankles. 
Champlain illustrates a game drive in 
which the drivers appear to be beating 
with bones upon clavicles of some large 
animal, and among the Plains tribes and 
the Pueblos a sort of saw-fiddle in which 
sometimes a scapula is drawn over a 
notched stick, or over another scapula, 
for keeping time in ceremonial dances, is 
employed. The mounds of the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio valleys and the Southern 
states have yielded a wide range of ob- 
jects, both useful and ornamental. Of the 
former class, awls, fish-hooks, pins, arrow- 
points, cutting tools made of beaver 
teeth, and scraping tools are the most 
important. Of the latter class, beads, 
pendants, gorgets, pins, wristlets, etc., 
are worthy of note. There are also bone 
whistles and flutes, engraved batons, and 
various carvings that would seem rather 
to be totemic and symbolic than simply 
useful or ornamental; horns of the buf- 
falo and mountain sheep were made into 
dippers and cups, and were also, as were 
the antlers of deer, utilized in head- 
dresses by the ancient as well as by the 
present peoples. The scapulae of large 
animals formed convenient hoe blades 
and as such were probably universally 
employed by the native agriculturists. 
A novel use of bones is that of plating 
them with copper, illustrated by the 
plated jawbone of a wolf obtained by 
Moore from a Florida mound. In the 
wonderful collection of objects from the 
Hopewell mound, near Chillicothe, Ohio, 
is a human femur engraved with intri- 
cate and finely executed symbolic figures 
(Putnam and Willoughby). 

The literature of this topic is volumi- 
nous, though much scattered, and is em- 

bodied mainly in reports on field re- 
searches published by the Smithsonian 
Institution, the National Museum, the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, the 
Reports of the Minister of Education, 
Ontario, the leading museums and acade- 
mies, and in works of a more general 
nature, such as Moorehead's Prehistoric 
Implements and Fowke's Archaeological 
History of Ohio. (w. h. h. ) 

Bonfouca. A former Muskhogean set- 
tlement, a short distance n. of L. Pont- 
chartrain, La. 

Bonifoucas.— Baudry des Lozieres, Vov. Louisiane, 
241, 1802. 

Bonne Espe'rance. A Montagnais settle- 
ment on the islands and mainland at the 
mouth of Esquimaux r., on the s. coast of 
Labrador. Some Nascapee are probably 
there also. — Stearns, Labrador, 264, 293, 

Bonostac. Mentioned as a Pima settle- 
ment on the upper Rio Santa Cruz, below 
Tucson, Ariz., in 1764; but from the loca- 
tion it would seem more likely that it was 
a Papago rancheria. 

Bonostac. — Orozco y Berra, Geog., 347, 1864. 
Bonostao. — Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, IV, 
472, 1892. 

Booadasha ( ' fish-catchers ' ) . A band of 
the Crows. 
Boo-a-da'-sha.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 159, 1877. 

Booctolooee. A former Choctaw village 
pertaining to the "Sixtowns," situated 
on Boguetulukusi cr., a w. affluent of 
Chicasawhay r., probably in Jasper co., 
Miss.— W. Fla. map, ca. 1775. 

Books in Indian languages. In addi- 
tion to dictionaries, versions of the Bible 
and the Prayer Book, whole and in part, 
Bible stories complete and summarized, 
catechisms, and cognate works, the litera- 
ture translated into Indian languages 
embraces some interesting volumes. In 
Greenlandic Eskimo there is an abridged 
version of Stoud-Platon's Geography, by 
E. A. Wandall (1848); a translation of 
Thomas a Kempis' Imitation of Christ, 
by Paul Egede (1787, revised 1824); a 
History of the World, by C. E. Janssen 
(1861), and another by S. P. Klein- 
schmidt (1859). Peter Kragh's transla- 
tions of Ingemann's Voices in the Wilder- 
ness, and The High Game, Krumma- 
cher's Parables and Feast Book, the Life 
of Hans Egede, and other books circu- 
lated in manuscript. In the Labrador 
dialect a geography, by A. F. Eisner, was 
published in 1880. Under the title Mahpiya 
ekta oicimani ya, l Sky to traveling he 
went,' Rev. S. R. Riggs published in 1857 a 
translation of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress 
into the Dakota language of the Siouan 
stock. This same book was translated 
into Cree by Archbishop Vincent (1886), 
and into Cheyenne by Rev. R. Petter 
(1904). In 1879 Rev. D. W. Hemans pub- 
lished a Santee version of Rev. R. New- 

BULL. 30] 



ton's The King' s Highway. Into the Mas- 
sachuset dialect of the Algonquian stock 
Rev, John Eliot translated in 1664 Baxter's 
Call to the Unconverted, in 1665 Baylv's 
Practice of Piety, about 1687 the Rev. W. 
Perkins' Six Principles of Religion, and 
in 1689 Shepard's Sincere Convert. A 
Geography for Beginners was published 
in Chippewa in 1840, and in Santee Da- 
kota in 1876. In 1839 the Rev. C. A. 
Goodrich's Child's Book of the Creation 
was translated into Choctaw by the Rev. 
L. S. Williams. The civilized tribes of 
Indian Territory, with the aid of the 
Cherokee and adapted alphabets, have 
published many laws, text-books, etc., in 
the native languages. 

Exclusive of occasional texts, more or 
less brief, in native languages, to be found 
in the periodical literature of anthropol- 
ogy, in ethnological and linguistic mono- 
graphs, books of travel and description, 
etc., there is accumulating a considerable 
literature of texts by accredited men of 
science and other competent observers. 
The Chimmesyan stock is represented by 
Boas' Tsimshian Texts (Bull. 27, B. A. E., 
1902); the Chinookan by Boas' Chinook 
Texts ( Bull. 20, B. A . E. , 1904 ) , and Kath- 
lamet Texts (Bull. 26, 1901) ; the Salishan 
by Teit and Boas' Traditions of the 
Thompson River Indians (1898); the 
Wakashan (Kwakiutl-Nootka) by Boas 
and Hunt's Kwakiutl Texts (Mem. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 1902-05) ; the Skittagetan 
by Swanton's Haida Texts (Bull. 29, B. 
A. E., 1905); the Athapascan by God- 
dard's Hupa Texts (Publ. Univ. Cal., Am. 
Archaeol. and Ethnol., i, 1904), and his 
Morphology of the Hupa Language (1905) 
perhaps belongs here also, likewise Mat- 
thews' Navaho Legends (1897) and The 
Night Chant (1902) ; the Siouan by Riggs' 
Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnogra- 
phy (Cont. N. A. Ethnol., ix, 1893), 
Dorsey's (fegiha Language (Cont. N. A. 
Ethnol., vi, 1890), Omaha and Ponka 
Letters (Bull. 11, B. A. E., 1891), and 
Osage Traditions (6th Rep. B. A. E., 
1888) ; the Iroquoian by Mooney's Sacred 
Formulas of the Cherokee (7th Rep. B. 
A. E., 1891), Hewitt's Iroquoian Cosmol- 
ogy (21st Rep. B. A. E., 1903), and Hale's 
Iroquois Book of Rites ( 1883) — the second 
records cosmologic myths, the last the 
great national ritual of the northern Iro- 
quois. The Algonquian is represented 
by scattered texts rather than by books, 
although there are to be mentioned 
Brinton's Lenape and Their Legends 
(1885), which contains the text of the 
Walum Olum, and the Cree and Siksika 
Legends in Petitot's Traditions Indiennes 
du Canada Nord-ouest (1887), the scat- 
tered texts in the works of Schoolcraft, 
Hoffman, etc.; the Eskimo best by the 
texts in Boas' Eskimo of Baffin Land and 

Bull. 30—05 11 

Hudson Bay (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat Hist., 
xv, 1901), and other writings on the 
Eskimo, Thalbitzer's Phonetical Study of 
the Eskimo Language (1904), and Bar- 
num's Grammatical Fundamentals of the 
Innuit Language (1901), the last relating 
to the Tununa dialect of Alaska. The 
monographs of Miss Alice C. Fletcher on 
the ceremonies of the Pawnee (22d Rep. 
B. A. E., 1903), of James Mooney on the 
Ghost Dance Religion (14th Rep. B. A. 
E., 1896), the numerous monographs of 
Dr Franz Boas on the Bellacoola, the 
Kwakiutl, etc., contain much textual 
material. The manuscript collection of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology is 
rich in texts of myths, legends, etc. As 
a whole, the body of linguistic material, 
here briefly noticed, is of increasing mag- 
nitude and value. The literature in the 
Chinook jargon also furnishes some 
titles, e. g., the stenographic periodical 
Kamloops Wawa, by Father Le Jeune, 
who is also the author of several pamph- 
lets. Worthy of mention is Rev. Myron 
Eells' Hymns in the Chinook Jargon 
Language (1878-89), which is not merely 
a translation of English verse. See Bible 
translations, Dictionaries, Periodicals. 

(a. f. c.) 

Boomerangs. See Rabbit sticks. 

Boothroyd. A body of Ntlakyapamuk 
Indians of Salishan stock on Fraser r., 
Brit. Col. The name seems to have been 
employed to include the towns of Spaim, 
Kimus, Tzaumuk, Suk, and Nkattsim. 
Pop. 159 in 1902 (Can. Ind. Aff. for 
1902, 238) . 

Borego ('sheep'). An ancient settle- 
ment of the Tepecano, now in ruins, situ- 
ated on the. e. bank of the Rio de 
Bolanos, approachable from Monte Es- 
cobedo, in Jalisco, Mexico. There is a 
native tradition that its people warred 
against those of Azqueltan after the first 
coming of the Spaniards. — Hrdlicka in 
Am. Anthrop., v. 409, 1903. 

Boring. See Brills and Brilling, Shell- 
work, Stone-work. 

Borrados (Span. : ' painted in stripes or 
blotches'). A tribe which, according to 
Orozco y Berra (Geo~, 300, 308, 1864), 
formerly resided in Tamaulipas, Nuevo 
Leon, and Coahuila, n. Mexico. There 
is evidence that the tribe or a portion of 
it lived at one time in Texas, as the same 
authority (p. 382) says that the country of 
the lower Lipan Indians joined on the e. 
that of the Karankawa and Borrados in 
the province of Texas. The relationship 
of this tribe to the Coahuiltecan group is 
expressly affirmed by Bartolome Garcia. 

Bosomworth, Mary. A noted Creek 
Indian woman, also known as Mary 
Mathews and Mary Musgrove, who cre- 
ated much trouble for the Georgia colonial 
government about 1752, nearly rousing 


[B. a. e. 

the Creek confederacy to war against the 
English. She seems to have been of high 
standing among her own people, being 
closely related to leading chiefs both of 
the Upper and Lower Creeks, possessed 
of unusual intelligence and knowledge of 
English, for which reason, and to secure 
her good will, Oglethorpe, the founder of 
the colony, made her his interpreter and 
negotiator with the Indians at a salary 
of $500 per year. About 1749 she mar- 
ried her third white husband, the Rev. 
Thomas Bosomworth, who, by reason of 
his Indian marriage, was given a com- 
mission from the colony of South Caro- 
lina as agent among the Creeks, and 
within a few months had nearly pre- 
cipitated civil war among the Indians 
and rebellion among the licensed traders. 
Being deeply in debt, he instigated his 
wife to assume the title of "Empress of 
the Creek Nation," and to make personal 
claim, first to the islands of Ossabaw, St 
Catharine, and Sapelo, on the Georgia 
coast, and afterward to a large territory 
on the mainland. Notifying Gov. Ogle- 
thorpe that she was coming to claim her 
own, she raised a large body of armed 
Creeks and marched against Savannah. 
The town was put in position for defense 
and a troop of cavalry met the Indians 
outside and obliged them to lay down 
their arms before entering. The proces- 
sion was headed by Bosomworth in full 
canonical robes, with his "queen" by his 
side, followed by the chiefs in order of 
rank, with their warriors. They were 
received with a military salute and a 
council followed, lasting several days, 
during which the Indians managed to 
regain possession of their arms, and a 
massacre seemed imminent, which was 
averted by the seizure of Mary and her 
husband, who were held in prison until 
they made suitable apologies and promises 
of good behavior, the troops and citizens 
remaining under arms until the danger 
was over, when the Indians were dis- 
missed with presents. Nothing is re- 
corded of her later career. See Appleton' s 
Cyclopaedia of Am. Biog. ; various histo- 
ries of Georgia; Bosom worth's MS. Jour., 
1752, in archives B. A. E. (j. m.) 

Boston Indian Citizenship Committee. 
An association for the protection of the 
rights of Indians; organized in 1879 on 
the occasion of the forcible removal of 
the Ponca. The tribe returned to their 
old home in South Dakota from the 
reservation in Indian Territory. Chief 
Standing Bear, released on a writ of ha- 
beas corpus, went to Boston, and, on 
the plea that most of the signatures in 
favor of removal were fraudulent, enlisted 
the sympathy of Hon. John D. Long, then 
governor of Massachusetts, and other or- 
ganizers of this committee, who finally 

secured the rescission of the edict and the 
restoration of the Dakota reservation. The 
committee undertook next to secure citi- 
zenship for Indians on the basis of the 
payment of taxes, a principle that was 
finally denied by the United States Su- 
preme Court. When the Dawes bill 
granting land in severalty and citizenship 
was enacted, the committee devoted its 
attention to securing honest allotment. 
Since the organization of the Indian 
Rights Association in Philadelphia the 
Boston committee has confined itself to 
securing fair allotments of fertile lands, 
with adequate water supply, protecting 
homesteads, and especially to defending 
and generally promoting the interests of 
the more progressive bands of tribes that 
were backward in taking allotments. To 
safeguard the rights of such and prevent 
the sale or lease of the best Indian lands 
to whites at nominal prices, the com- 
mittee has sought to obtain the dismissal 
of corrupt Government agents and in- 
spectors whenever such were detected. 
Joshua W. Davis is chairman and J. S. 
Lock wood secretary (P. O. Box 131, 
Boston, Mass.). 

Bottles. See Pottery, Receptacles. 
Boucfouca. A former Choctaw town 
on the headwaters of Pearl r., Miss. 
Bouc-fouca. — Jefferys, French Dom. Am., i, 135, 
map, 1761. Bouc-fuca.— Lattre, map U. S., 1784. 
Bouk-fuka.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 562, 1854. 
Boudinot, Elias (native name Galti- 
gi'na, ' male deer ' or ' turkey ' ) . A Cher- 
okee Indian, educated in the foreign mis- 
sion school at Corn well, Conn., founded 
by the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, which he entered 
with two other Cherokee youths in 1818 
at the instance of the philanthropist 
whose name he was allowed to adopt. 
In 1827 the Cherokee council formally 
resolved to establish a national paper, and 
the following year the Cherokee Phoenix 
appeared under Boudinot's editorship. 
After a precarious existence of 6 years, 
however, the paper was discontinued, and 
not resumed until after the removal of 
the Cherokee to Indian Ter., when its 
place was finally taken by the Cherokee 
Advocate, established in 1844. In 1833 
Boudinot wrote "Poor Sarah; or, the 
Indian Woman," in Cherokee characters, 
published at New Echota by the United 
Brethren's Missionary Society, another 
edition of which was printed at Park 
Hill in 1843; and from 1823 to the time 
of his death he was joint translator with 
Rev. S. A. Worcester of a number of the 
Gospels, some of which passed through 
several editions. Boudinot joined an 
insignificant minority of his people in 
support of the Ridge treaty and the sub- 
sequent treaty of New Echota, by the 
terms of which the Cherokee Nation sur- 

BULL. 30] 



rendered its lands and removed to Indian 
Ter. This attitude made him so unpopu- 
lar that on June 22, 1839, he was set upon 
and murdered, although not with the 
knowledge or connivance of the tribal 
officers. See Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. 
E., 1900; Pilling, Bibliography of the 
Iroquoian Languages, Bull. B. A. E., 1888. 
Bouscoutton. The northernmost divi- 
sion of the Cree, living in 1658-71 about 
the s. shores of Hudson bay. According 
to Dr William Jones the Chippewa refer 
to the northernmost dwelling place of the 
Cree as Ininiwitoskwuning, 'at the man's 
elbow,' and Antawat-otoskwuning, 'they 
dwell at the elbow.' This antawat is 
probably the term usually prefixed, in 
one form or another, to the name Bous- 

Ataouabouscatouek.— Jes.Rel.,1658, 21,1858. Outao- 
uoisbouscottous.— Tailhan, Perrot, 293, note, 1864. 
Outaouois, Bouscouttous. — Prise de possession 
(1671) in Margry, Dec., i, 97, 1875 (comma evi- 
dently inserted by mistake). 

Boutte' Station. A village in St Charles 
parish, La., at which lived a camp of 
Choctaw who manufactured cane bas- 
ketry and gathered the okra which was 
ground into gumbo file. — Harris, La. 
Products, 203, 1881. 

Bowl, The (a translation of his native 
name, Diwa /l U), also called Col. Bowles. 
A noted Cherokee chief and leader of one 
of the first bands to establish themselves 
permanently on the w. side of the Mis- 
sissippi. At the head of some hostile 
Cherokee from the Chickamauga towns 
he massacred all of the male members of 
a party of emigrants at Muscle shoals in 
Tennessee r. in 1794, after which he re- 
tired up St. Francis r. on the w. side of 
the Mississippi, and, his act being dis- 
owned by the Cherokee council, who 
offered to assist in his arrest, he remained 
in that region until after the cession of 
Louisiana Territory to the United States. 
About 1824 so much dissatisfaction was 
caused by delay in adjusting the boun- 
daries of the territory of the Western 
Cherokee in Arkansas and the withhold- 
ing of their annuities that a party headed 
by Bowl crossed Sabine r. into Texas, 
where they were joined by bodies of 
refugees from a number of other eastern 
tribes and began negotiations with the 
Mexican government for a tract of land 
on Angelina, Neches, and Trinity rs. , but 
were interrupted by the outbreak of the 
Texan war for independence in 1835. 
Houston, who had long been a friend of 
the Cherokee, entered into a treaty to 
assign them certain lands along Angelina 
r., but it was rejected by the Texas senate 
in 1837, and Houston's successor, Lamar, 
declared his intention to drive all the 
Indians from Texas. On the plea that 
they were entering into a conspiracy with 
the Mexican inhabitants, a commission, 


ir mosaics 

A ■ J 






Bowlder Outline Representing 
a Quadruped; South Dakota; 


supported by several regiments of troops, 
was sent to the Cherokee town on Ange- 
lina r. to demand that they remove at 
once across the border. On their refusal 
they were attacked, July 15-16, 1839, and 
defeated in two engagements, Bo wl and his 
assistant chief, Hard-mush, being among 
the many killed. See Mooney in 19th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1900. (j. r. s.) 

Bowlder outlines. Certain outline sur- 
face figures, probably of Siouan origin, 
usually formed of bowlders a foot or less in 
diameter, though a few consisted of buffalo 
bones. The name l " 
was first applied to 
them by Todd. Ac- 
cording to Lewis, 
structures of this 
type have been found 
from w. Iowa and Ne- 
braska to Manitoba, 
and from w. Minne- 
sota through North 
and South Dakota to 
Montana; but they 
appear to be, or rather 
to have been, more 
frequent in South 
Dakota than in any 
other section. These remains consist of 
animal, human, and other figures out- 
lined upon the surface of the ground, 
usually on elevated sites, the human, 
turtle, and serpent figures being by far 
the most numerous. In Dakota the out- 
lines are generally accompanied with 
small stone circles, known to be old 
tipi sites. In some instances long lines 
of bowlders or buffalo bones and small 
stone cairns have been found associated 
with them or occurring in their immedi- 
ate neighborhood. Like the bowlder 
circles these are more or less embedded 
in the ground, but this does not necessa- 
rily indicate great antiquity; indeed, 
their frequent association with tipi cir- 
cles seems to denote that they are com- 
paratively recent. The accompanying 
turtle figure illustrates the type. Among 
the Crows of Montana a bowlder outline 
figure is made in the form of a woman to 
commemorate the unfaithfulness of a wife. 
Consult Lewis in Am. Anthrop., n, 
Apr., 1889, in, July, 1890; Simms, ibid., 
n. s., v,374, 1903; Thomas in 12th Rep. 
B. A. E., 534, 1894; Todd in Am. Natural- 
ist, Jan., 1884. (c. t.) 

Bowlegs ( probably corrupted from Bo- 
lek). An inferior Seminole chief who 
was brought temporarily into notice in 
1812 during the Indian war on the Geor- 
gia frontier. When early in that year 
King Paine, also a Seminole chief, at the 
head of sundry bands of Seminole and 
negroes, started on a mission of blood and 
plunder, Bowlegs joined him. A small 
force under Capt. Williams was met and 



[B. a. e. 

defeated Sept. 11. Their force being 
considerably increased, they soon there- 
after marched from the Alachua towns 
to attack Gen. Neuman, who had been 
sent against them with orders to destroy 
their towns. After 4 severe charges in 
which King Paine was killed and Bow- 
legs wounded, the Indians were driven 
back. With this occurrence Bowlegs 
drops from history, though he probably 
lived several years longer. In a docu- 
ment exhibited in the trial of Arbuthnott 
and Ambrister his name is signed Bo- 
leck. (c. t.) 

Bowlegs Town. A former Seminole 
town on Suwannee r., w. Fla. ; named 
after an influential Seminole chief early 
in the 19th century. — Woodward, Rem- 
iniscences, 153, 1859. 

Bowles, Colonel, see Bowl, The. 

Bowls. With the Indian the bowl 
serves a multitude of purposes: it is as- 
sociated with the supply of his simplest 
needs as well as with his religion. The 
materials employed in making bowls are 
stone, especially soapstone, horn, bone, 
shell, skin, wood, and bark. Bowls are 
often adapted natural forms, as shells, 
gourds, and concretions, either unmodi- 
fied or more or less fully remodeled; and 
basket bowls are used by many tribes. 
The use of bowls in the preparation and 
serving of food is treated under Dishes 
(q. v. ). Bowls are also used in primitive 
agriculture for gathering, winnowing, 
drying, and roasting seeds, and in con- 
nection w r ith milling. With many tribes 
bo wis are made from large knots, being hol- 
lowed out with fire and the knife. InTexas 
and Indian Territory plate-like bowls 
were made from the wood of the pecan 
tree, while poplar, oak, and other woods 
furnished others. Some bowls designed 
for practical use are no larger than drink- 
ing cups, while others, made by or for 
children as toys, are not much larger than 
a thimble. Some of the smaller ones, 
used for mixing medicine, had a small 
projection from the edge which served as 
a handle, while the typical Pueblo medi- 
cine bowl has terraced edges symbolizing 
rain clouds, a basket-like handle, and 
painted figures of sacred water animals, 
such as the tadpole and the frog. The 
most ancient permanent cooking utensil 
of the Plains tribes was a bowl made by 
hollowing out a stone. The Blackfeet 
and Cheyenne say that in very early 
times they boiled their meat in bowls 
made of some kind of soft stone. The 
Omaha and others had excellent wooden 
bowls, the standard of beauty being sym- 
metry of outline and the grain of the 
gnarled roots from which they were made. 
Among many Indians bowls were used 
in games of chance and divination. 
In certain ceremonies of the Wahpeton 

and Sisseton Sioux and of other tribes a 
game w T as played with plum-stone dice 
thrown from a wooden bowl, in the mak- 
ing of which great skill and care were 
exercised. In some cases the kind of 
wood was prescribed. Bowls that had 
been long in use for these games acquired 
a polish and color unattainable by art, 
and were prized as tribal possessions. 
The Micmac accorded supernatural pow- 
ers to certain of their bowls, and thought 
that water standing over night in gaming 
bowls would reveal by its appearance 
past, present, and future events. Some 
bowls were supposed to have mysterious 
powers which would affect the person 
eating or drinking from them. Bowls 
and trays of basketry were used by the 
Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and other 
Plains tribes, though not by the Siksika, 
in the familiar seed game. These appear 
to be the only baskets made by these 
tribes (Grinnell). 

Among the Pueblo tribes the pottery 
bowl, like the basket-bowl drum of the 
Navaho and the Panamint, is frequently 
a cult vessel employed in religious cere- 
monies, the medicine bowl with its nature 
symbols and the sacred meal bow T l fur- 
nishing familiar examples. Such vessels 
are sacrificed to springs or are deposited 
in shrines and caves. The ancient Hopi 
evidently regarded the concave of the 
bowl as the vault of the sky, and pictured 
on it stars, birds, and celestial beings. 
The food bowls in animal forms, like 
those of the N. W. coast, were apparently 
associated primarily with the nourish- 
ment derived from animals. Wooden 
bowls used for religious purposes were 
often decorated by the Plains tribes w T ith 
incised figures of sacred animals, whose 
supposed spiritual power had relation 
to the uses of the vessel; and like expla- 
nation may be made of the life-form 
decorations sculptured and modeled in 
relief and engraved and painted on bowls 
of many tribes, ancient and modern. See 
Basketry, Dishes, Food, Games, Pottery, 

Bows. See Arrows. 

Boxelder Indians. A branch . of the 
Shoshoni formerly in n. w. Utah. — Lynde 
in Sen. Ex. Doc. 42, 36th Cong., 1st sess., 
38, 1860. 

Boxes and Chests. The distribution of 
tribes using boxes and chests illustrates 
in a striking manner the effect of environ- 
ment on arts and customs. Thus wood- 
land tribes made boxes of suitable tim- 
ber, and the culmination of their manu- 
facture is found among the tribes of the 
N. W. coast. The Eskimo had a great 
variety of small boxes of bone, wood, 
whalebone, and ivory, and displayed 
extraordinary skill and inventiveness in 
their manufacture. This was in large 

BULL. 30] 



Ivory box for Small Articles; Eskimo; 
1-3. (Murdoch) 

measure due to their damp and freezing 
environment, in which, though wood was 
scarce, boxes were better than pouches 
for keeping the contents dry. It ap- 
pears that to the introduction of tobacco, 
percussion caps, and powder is due the 
great number 
of small boxes 
by the Eskimo, 
although they 
had previously 
many boxes for 
trinkets, lance- 
heads, tinder, 
etc. Eskimo 
boxes are pro- 
vided with 
cords for fasten- 
ing them to the 
person to pre- 
vent loss in the 
snow. Boxes and chests, being difficult 
of transportation even on water, must be 
looked for chiefly among sedentary tribes 
living in a wooded country. Tribes that 
moved freely about stored and transported 
their goods in bags, rawhide cases, and 
basket wallets. Boxes and chests of wood 
are practically 
u n known 
among the 
Plains tribes, 
which had 
skins of large 
animals out of 
which to make 

receptacles for W00DEN Box for Whaling amulet; Eskimo; 

their posses- ** (murdoch) 

sions, and the horse and the dog as pack 
and draft animals. Some of the Plains 
tribes, however, made box-like cases or 
trunks of rawhide similar in shape to the 
birch-bark boxes of the eastern tribes, 


household chests with carved and painted designs; 

HAIDA; 1-18. (nIBLACk) 

and the Sioux made plume boxes of 
wood. Objects and materials that could 
be injured by crushing or by damp- 
ness usually required a box, the most 
widespread use of which was for the stor- 
ing of feathers. The Plains tribes and 
some others made parfleches, or cases of 
rawhide, almost as rigid as a wooden box, 
for headdresses, arrows, etc.; the Pima, 
Papago, and Mohave made basket cases 
for feathers; and the Pueblos employed a 


1-15. (j. Stevenson) 

box, usually excavated from a single piece 
of cottonwood, solely for holding the 
feathers used in ceremonies. The Yurok 
of California made a cylindrical wooden 
box in two sections for storing valuables. 
The eastern w T oodland tribes made boxes 
of birch bark. The N. W. coast tribes as 
far s. as Washington made large chests 
of wood for storing 
food, clothing, etc. ; 
for cooking, for rip- 
ening salmon eggs, 
for the interment 
of the dead, for 
drums and other 
uses, and these were usually decorated 
with carving or painting, or both. These 
tribes also made long boxes as quivers for 
arrows, but smaller boxes were not so 
common among them as among the Es- 

Consult Boas, Decorative Art of the 
Indians of the North Pacific Coast, Bull. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., ix, no. 10, 1897; 
Kroeber in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
xviii, pt. 1, 1902; Nelson, Eskimo about 
Bering Strait, 18th Rep. B. A. E., 1899; 
Niblack, Coast Indians, Rep. Nat. Mus. 
1888, 1890; Stevenson in 2d Rep. B. A. 
E., 1883; Swan, Indians of Cape Flattery, 
Smithson. Cont., xvi, 1870; Swanton in 
Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v, pt, 1, 1905. 
See Bags and pouches, Basketry, Parjfeche, 
Receptacles, Wood-work, etc. (w. h.) 

Brain. See Anatomy. 

Brant, Joseph. See Thayendanegea . 

Breastworks. See Fortifications. 

Breche-dent. See Broken Tooth. 

Breech-cloth. See Child life, Clothing. 

Bridge River Indians. A band of Upper 
Lillooet occupying the village of Kanlax, 
on Bridge r., w r hich flows into the upper 
Fraser above Lillooet, Brit, Col.; pop. 
108 in 1902.— Can. Ind. Aff., pt. n, 72, 

Briertown. A former Cherokee settle- 
ment on Nantahala r. , about the mouth 
of Briertown cr., in Macon co., N. C. — 
Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 524, 1900. 
Kanu'gu'layi. — Mooney, ibid, ('brier place'). 
Kanu'gu'luii'yi. — Ibid. See Nantahala. 

Bright Eyes. True name, Susette La 
Flesche. The eldest child of Eshtamaza, 
or Joseph La Flesche, a former head-chief 
of the Omaha. She was born in Nebraska 
about 1850 and attended the Presbyterian 
mission school on the Omaha res. 
Through the interest of one of her teach- 
ers, Susette w T as sent to a private school 
in Elizabeth, N. J., where she made rapid 
progress in her studies. After her return 
home she taught in a Government day 
school on the Omaha res. and exercised a 
stimulating influence on the young people 
of the tribe. In 1877-78 the Ponca were 
forcibly removed to Indian Territory from 



[B. a. e. 

their home on Niobrara r., S. Dak. Not 
long afterward Susette accompanied her 
father to Indian Territory, where he went 
to render such help as he could to his sick 
and dying relatives among the Ponca. 
The heroic determination of the Ponca 
chief, Standing Bear, to lead his band back 
to their northern home; their sufferings 
during their march of more than 600 m. ; 
his arrest and imprisonment; and, after 
a sharp legal struggle, his release by 
habeas corpus, in accordance with Judge 
Dundy's decision that "an Indian is a 
person" (U. S. v. Crook, 6 Dillon, 453), 
led to steps being taken by a committee of 
citizens to bring the matter of Indian re- 
movals before the public. Arrangements 
were made to have Standing Bear, accom- 
panied by Susette La Flesche and her 
brother, visit the principal cities of the 
United States under the direction of Mr 
T. H. Tibbies, and tell the story of the 
Ponca removal. The name "Bright 
Eyes" was given Susette, and under that 
cognomen she entered upon her public 
work. Her clear exposition of the case, 
her eloquent appeals for humanity toward 
her race, her grace and dignity of diction 
and bearing aroused the interest of the 
thousands who listened to her. As a re- 
sult, a request was urged on the Govern- 
ment that there be no more removals 
of tribes, and this request has been re- 
spected when practicable. In 1881 Bright 
Eyes married Mr T. H. Tibbies. Later 
she and her husband visited England 
and Scotland, where she made a number 
of addresses. After her return to this 
country she lived in Lincoln, Neb., and 
maintained activity with her pen until 
her death in 1902. (a. c. f.) 

British Band. A former band of the 
Sauk and Foxes. See Sauk. 

Broken Arrows. A hunting band of 
Sioux found on the Platte by Sage ( Scenes 
in Pocky Mts., 68, 1846); possibly the 

Broken Tooth. The son of Biauswah 
and chief of the Sandy Lake Chippewa, 
also referred to as Kadewabedas and Cat- 
awatabeta (strictly Ma'kadewabidis, from 
ma'kade 'black,' wdbidis 'tooth'), and by 
the French Breche-dent. He is spoken of 
as a little boy in 1763, and is mentioned 
in 1805 by Lieut. Z. M. Pike, who be- 
stowed on him a medal and a flag, and 
according to whom his band at that time 
numbered but 45 men. Broken Tooth 
was one of the signers of the treaty of 
Prairie du Chien, Aug. 19, 1825; his 
death occurred in 1828. His daughter 
was the wife of Ermatinger, a British 
trader. (c. T.) 

Brotherton. The name of two distinct 
bands, each formed of remnants of various 
Algonquian tribes. The best-known band 
was composed of individuals of the Ma- 

hican, Wappinger, Mohegan, Pequot, 
Narraganset, etc., of Connecticut and 
Rhode Island, and of the Montauk and 
others from Long Island, who settled in 
1788 on land given them by the Oneida 
at the present Marshall, Oneida co., N. Y., 
near the settlement then occupied by the 
Stockbridges. Those of New England 
were mainly from Farmington, Stoning- 
ton, Groton, Mohegan, and Niantic 
( Lyme ) , in Connecticut, and from Charles- 
town in Rhode Island. They all went 
under the leadership of Samson Occum, 
the Indian minister, and on arriving in 
Oneida co. called their settlement Broth- 
erton. As their dialects were different 
they adopted the English language. They 
numbered 250 in 1791. In 1833 they re- 
moved to Wisconsin with the Oneida and 
Stockbridges and settled on the e. side of 
Winnebago lake, in Calumet co., where 
th ey soon after abandoned their tribal rela- 
tions and became citizens, together with 
the other emigrant tribes settled near 
Green Bay. They are called Wapanachki, 
"eastern people," by the neighboring 
Algonquian tribes. 

The other band of that name was com- 
posed of Raritan and other divisions of the 
Delawares who, according to Ruttenber 
(Tribes Hudson River, 293, 1872), occu- 
pied a reservation called Brotherton, in 
Burlington co., N. J., until 1802, when 
they accepted an invitation to unite with 
the Stockbridges and Brothertons then 
living in Oneida co., N. Y. In 1832 they 
sold their last rights in New Jersey. They 
were then reduced to about 40 souls and 
were officially recognized as Delawares 
and claimed territory s. of the Raritan as 
their ancient home. Their descendants 
are probably to be found among the 
Stockbridges in Wisconsin. (j. m.) 

Brotherton.— Ft Schuyler treaty (1788) quoted by 
Hall, N. W. States, 66, 1849. Brothertown.— Kirk- 
land (1795) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., iv, 
67-93, 1795. Nien'tkgn.— J. N. B. Hewitt, inf'n, 
1886 ('they two are brothers': Tuscarora name) . 
Wapanachki. — See Abnaki. 

Brownstown. A former Wyandot vil- 
lage in Wayne co., Mich., included in a 
reservation of about 2,000 acres granted to 
the Wyandot, Feb. 28, 1809, and ceded 
to the United States by treatv of Sept. 20, 

Brul6 ( 'burned,' the French translation 
of Sichdngxu, 'burnt thighs,' their own 
name, of indefinite origin). A subtribe 
of the Teton division of the great Dakota 
tribe. They are mentioned by Lewis 
and Clark (1804) as the Tetons of the 
Burnt Woods, numbering about 300 men, 
"who rove on both sides of the Missouri, 
White, and Teton rs." In 1806 they 
were on the e. side of the Missouri from 
the mouth of the White to Teton r. 
Hayden (Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val- 
ley, 372, 1862) describes the country 

BULL. 30] 



inhabited by them in 1856 as on the 
headwaters of the White and Niobrara, 
extending down these rivers about half 
their length, Teton r. forming the n. 
limit. He also says they were for a num- 
ber of years headed by a chief named 


Makatozaza, very friendly to the whites, 
who by uniformly good management and 
just government kept his people in order, 
regulated their hunts, and usually avoided 
placing them in the starving situations 
incident to bands led by less judicious 
chiefs. They were good hunters, usually 
well clothed and supplied with meat, and 
had comfortable lodges and a large num- 
ber of horses. They varied their occupa- 
tions by hunting buffalo, catching wild 
horses, and making war expeditions 
against the Arikara, then stationed on the 
Platte, or the Pawnee, lower down on that 
river. Every summer excursions were 
made by the young men into the Platte 
and Arkansas country in quest of wild 
horses, which abounded there at that 
time. After emigrants to California and 
Oregon began to pass through the Dakota 
country, the Brules suffered more from 
diseases introduced by them than any 
other division of the tribe, being nearest 

to the trail. The treaty of Apr. 29, 1868, 
between the Sioux bands and the Gov- 
ernment was in a large degree brought 
about through the exertions of Swift 
Bear, a Brule chief. Nevertheless, it 
was about this time or shortly after that 
a band of Brules took part in the attack on 
Maj. Forsyth on Republican r. Hayden 
gives 150 as the number of their lodges in 
1856. In 1890 the Upper Brules on Rose- 
bud res., S. Dak., numbered 3,245; the 
Lower Brules at Crowcreek and Lower 
Brute agency, S. Dak., 1,026. Their pres- 
ent number as distinct from the other 
Teton is not given. 

The group is divided geographically 
into the Kheyatawichasha or Upper 
Brules, the Kutawichasha or Lower 
Brutes, and the Brules of the Platte. 


The subdivisions are given by different 
authorities as follows: 

Lewis and Clark (Discov., 34, 1806): 1 
Esahateaketarpar (Isanyati?), 2 War- 
chinktarhe, 3 Choketartowomb (Choka- 
towela), 4 Ozash (see Wazhazha), 5Mene- 
sharne (see Minisala). 

In 1880 Tatankawakan, a Brute, gave to 
J. O. Dorsey the names of 13 bands of the 
Brules, Upper and Lower: 1 Iyakoza, 2 



[B. a. e. 

Chokatowela, 3 Shiyotanka, 4 Homna, 
5 Shiyosubula, 6Kanghiyuha,7 Pispizawi- 
chasha, 8 Waleghaunwohan, 9 Wach- 
eunpa, 10 Shawala, 11 Ihanktonwan, 12 
Nakhpakhpa, 13 Apewantanka. 

Eev. W. J. Cleveland (MS. list, 1884) 
enumerates the modern divisions as: 1 
Sichanghu, 2 Kakegha, 3 (a) Hinhan- 
shunwapa, (b) Shunkahanapin, 4 Hihak- 
anhanhanwin, 5 Hunkuwanicha, 6 Minis- 
kuyakichun, 7 (a) Kiyuksa, (b) Tiglabu, 
8 Wacheunpa, 9 Waglukhe, 10 Isanyati, 
11 Wagmezayuha, 12 (a) Waleghaonwo- 
han, (b) Wakhna, 13 Oglalaichichagha, 14 
Tiyochesli, 15 Wazhazha, 16 Ieskachin- 
cha, 17 Ohenonpa, 18 Okaghawichasha. 

The Brules of the Platte, not included 
in the above lists, are a part of the Brules 
(Stanley in Poole, Among the Sioux, 232, 
1881) formerly connected with Whetstone 
agency, S. Dak. (j. o. d. c. t.) 

Babarole.— Gass, Jour., 49, 1807. Bois brule'.— 
Lewis and Clark, Discov., 21, 1806 (name applied 
by the French and commonly used by the whites; 
sig. 'burnt wood'), bois Ruley. — Clark, MS. co- 
dex, quoted by Coues, Lewis and Clark Exped., i, 
101, note, 1893. Broule Sioux.— Schoolcraft, Ind. 
Tribes, v, 494, 1855. Brucellares.— Ind. Aff. Rep., 
296, 1846 (probably the Brules). Brule Dakotas.— 
Hay den, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., map, 1862. 
Brulees.— Ind. Aff. Rep. 1854, 295, 1855. Brule- 
Sioux.— Smithson. Misc. Col., xiv, 19, 1878. Brul- 
ies.— Hoffman (1854) in H. R. Doc. 36, 33d Cong., 
2d sess., 3, 1865. Burned.— Smet, Letters, 37, 1843. 
Burnt Hip Brule. — Robinson, Letter to Dorsey, 
B. A. E., 1879. Burnt Thighs.— Havden, Ethnog. 
and Philol. Mo. Val., 290, 1862. Burnt-woods.— 
Ruxton, Life in Far West, 111, 1849. Ceet- 
shongos. — Corliss, Dak. yocab., 106, 1874. Checher 
Bee. — Clark, MS. codex, quoted by Coues, Lewis 
and Clark Exped., I, 101, note, 1893. Ishango.— 
Brackett in Smithson. Rep., 466, 1876. Se-cang'- 
cos.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 371, 
1862. Sicangu.— Riggs, Dakota Gram, and Diet., 
xvi, 1852 (' burnt thighs' : own name). Sicaugu. — 
Hind, Red River Exped., II, 154, 1860. Sichan- 
gus. — Warren, Dacota Country, 16, 1856. Si-chan- 
koo. — Jackson (1877) quoted by Donaldson in 
Nat. Mus. Rep. 1885, 62, 1886. Sitcan-xu.— Coues, 
Lewis and Clark Exped., I, 130, 1893. Tetans 
of the Burnt Woods. — Ramsey in Ind. Aff. Rep. 
1849, 85, 1850. Teton (Bois brule).— Lewis and 
Clark, Discov., 34, 1806. Teton (Bois rule).— Amer. 
St. Paps., IV, 714, 1832. Tetons (Bois brule').— Lewis 
and Clark, Discov., 21, 1806. Tetons Brules.— Farn- 
ham, Trav., 32, 1843. Tetons of the Boise Brule.— 
Lewis and Clark, Exped., I, 146, 1814. Tetons of 
the Burnedwood. — M'Vickar, Hist. Exped. Lewis 
and Clark, 1, 148, 1842. Tetons of the Burnt-Wood.— 
Lewis and Clark, Exped . , I, map, 1814. Wo-ni-to'- 
na-his.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 
290, 1862 (Cheyenne name). Yankton.— Clark, 
MS. codex, quoted by Coues, Lewis and Clark 
Exped., 1, 101, note, 1893. 

Bruits of the Platte. A part of the Brule 
Sioux formerly connected with Whet- 
stone agency, S. Dak. Stanley in Poole, 
Among the Sioux, app., 232, 1881. 

Bruneau Shoshoni. A band of Wihi- 
nasht Shoshoni formerly living on Bru- 
neau cr., s. e. Idaho; pop. 300 in 1868. — 
Powell in Ind. Aff. Rep., 201, 1868. 

Bruno's Village. A former village in San 
Diego co., Cal., said to be Luiseno, but 
possibly Dieguefio or Agua Caliente. — 
Hayes quoted by Bancroft, Nat. Races, 
i, 460, 1882. 

Brushes. See Painting. 

Buckaloon. A former Seneca village on 
the n. side of Allegheny r., Warren co., 
Pa. , above the mouth of Oil cr. , near the 
site of the present town of Irvine. It 
was destroyed by Col. Broad head of the 
Continental troops in 1781. 
Baccaloons.— Giissefeld, map, 1784. Baccatoons. — 
Esnauts and Rapilly, map, 1777. Baccatous.— 
Lattre, U. S. map, 1784. Buckaloon.— Day ,. Penn., 
653, 1843. Buckaloons. — Butterfield, Washington- 
Irvine Corr., 43, 1882. Buffaloons. — Lotter, map, 
ca. 1770. Buffler' s Town. — Homann Heirs' map , 1756. 
Gachimantiagon. — Bellin, map, 1755. Kachuida- 
gon.— Marshall in Mag. Am. Hist., II, 139 (= 'cut 
or broken reed'). Kachiriodagon. — Joncaire 
(1749) in Margry, Dec, VI, 675, 1886. Paille Cou- 
pee. — Ibid. 

Bucker Woman's Town. A former Semi- 
nole settlement e. of Big Hammock town, 
near Long swamp, central Fla. — Bell in 
Morse, Rep. to Sec. War, 307, 1822. 

Buckongahelas ( ' breaker in pieces ' ) . A 
Delaware chief who lived during the Rev- 
olutionary period; born in the first half of 
the 18th century. He was the son of We- 
wandochwalend, apparently a chief of a 
Delaware band in Ohio. Buckongahelas 
became the head warrior of all the Dela- 
ware Indians then residing on Miami and 
White rs. Although he took part with 
the English against the colonists, he does 
not appear to have been cruel to non- 
combatants; and Drake (Biog. and Hist. 
Inds., 63, 1837) says he was not only a 
great, but a noble warrior, who took 
no delight in shedding blood. The 
conduct of the English at the battle of 
Presque Isle, Ohio, in 1794, so disgusted 
him that his sympathies were diverted to 
the United States. He was present at Ft 
Mcintosh, where Beaver, Pa., now stands, 
when the treaty of 1785 was made, but 
his name is not among the signers. He 
was a signer, however, of the treaty of 
Greenville, Ohio, Aug. 3, 1795; of Ft. 
Wayne, Ind., June 7, 1803, and of Vin- 
cennes, Ind., Aug. 18, 1804. Soon after 
signing the last his death occurred, proba- 
bly in the same year. His name appears 
in print in various forms. (c. t. ) 

Buckskin. See Skin-dressing. 

Buckstown. A Delaware (?) village 
marked onRoyce's map ( 1st Rep. B. A. E. , 
1881 ) as on the s. e. side of White r. , about 
3 m. e. of Anderson, Madison co., Ind., 
on land sold in 1818. 

Buena Vista (Span. : ' pleasant view ' ). 
A descriptive name applied to one or more 
Shoshonean or Mariposan tribes living on 
Buena Vista lake, in the lower Kern r. 
drainage, California. By treaty of June 10, 
1851, these tribes reserved a tract between 
Tejon pass and Kern r. and ceded the re- 
mainder of their land to the United 
States. See Barbour (1852) in Sen. Ex. 
Doc. 4, 32d Cong., spec, sess., 256, 1853. 

Buena Vista. A prehistoric pueblo ruin 
on a high bluff near Solomonsville, on 
Gila r. , a few miles n. e. of San Jose, Gra- 

BULL. 30] 



ham co. , s. e. Ariz. It is probably the ruin 
which gave the name Pueblo Viejo (q. v. ) 
to this part of Gila valley. — Fewkes in 
22d Kep. B. A. E., 172, 1904. 
Pueblo Viejo.— Bandelier quoted in Arch. Inst. 
Kep., v, 44, 1884. 

Buena Vista. A pueblo of the Nevome 
on the Rio Yaqui, about lat. 28°, in So- 
nora, Mexico. — Orozco v Berra, Geog., 
351, 1864. 

Buesanet. Mentioned in connection 
with Choinoc (Choinok) as a rancheria 
n. of Kern r., Cal., in 1775-76. It evi- 
dently belonged to the Mariposan family 
and lay in the vicinity of Visalia, Tulare 
co. See Garces, Diary, 289, 1900. 

Buffalo. Remains of the early species 
of the bison are found from Alaska to 
Georgia, but the range of the present type 
(Bison americanus)' was chiefly between 
the Rocky and Allegheny mts. While 
traces of the buffalo have been found as 
far e. as Cavetown, Md., and there is doc- 
umentary evi- 
dence that the 
animal ranged 
almost if not 
quite to the 
Georgia coast, 
the lack of re- 
mains in the 
shell-heaps of 
the Atlantic 
shore seems to 
indicate its ab- 
sence gener- 
ally from that 
region, al- 
though it was 
not unknown 
to some of the 
tribes living 
on the rivers. 
The first au- 
thentic knowledge of the bison or buf- 
falo by a European was that gained 
about 1530 by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de 
Vaca, who described the animal living 
in freedom on the plains of Texas. At 
that time the herds ranged from below 
the Rio Grande in Mexico n. w. through 
what is now e. New Mexico, Utah, Ore- 
gon, Washington, and British Columbia; 
thence crossing the mountains to Great 
Slave lake they roamed the valleys 
of Saskatchewan and Red rs., keeping 
to the w. of L. Winnipeg and L. Superior 
and s. of L. Michigan and L. Erie to the 
vicinity of Niagara; there turning south- 
ward to w. Pennsylvania and cross- 
ing the Alleghenies they spread over the 
w. portion of Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and 
n. Mississippi and Louisiana. All the 
tribes within this range depended largely 
on the buffalo for food and clothing, and 
this dependence, with the influence of 


the habits of the animal, profoundly af- 
fected tribal customs and religious rites. 
This is more clearly seen in the tribes w. of 
the Mississippi, where the people were in 
constant contact with the buffalo during 
the summer and winter migrations of the 
great northern and southern herds. These 
great herds were composed of innumera- 
ble smaller ones of a few thousand each, 
for the buffalo w r as never solitary except 
by accident. This habit affected the 
manner of hunting and led to the organ- 
ization of hunting parties under a leader 
and to the establishment of rules to insure 
an equal chance to every member of the 

Early writers say that among the tribes 
e. of the Missouri the hunting party, 
dividing into four parts, closed the se- 
lected herd in a square, then, firing the 
prairie grass, pressed in upon the herd, 
which, being hedged by flame, was 
slaughtered. The accuracy of this state- 
ment is ques- 
j tioned by Indi- 
ans, for, they 
say, the only 
time the grass 
would burn 
well was in the 
autumn, and at 
that time the 
animal was 
hunted for the 
pelt as much 
as for food, and 
fire w T ould in- 
jure the fur. 
Fire was some- 
times used in 
the autumn to 
drive the deer 
from the prairie 
into the woods. 
In the N. pens were built of tree 
trunks lashed together and braced on the 
outside, into which the herds were driven 
and there killed. Sometimes, as on the 
upper Mississippi, a hunter disguised in a 
buffalo skin acted as a decoy, leading the 
herd to a precipice w T here many were 
killed by the headlong plunge. Upon 
the plains of Kansas and Nebraska the 
hunters formed a circle around the herd 
and then, rushing in, shot the animals 
with arrows. 

The annual summer hunting party gen- 
erally consisted of the entire tribe. As the 
main supply of meat and pelts was to be 
obtained, religious rites were observed 
throughout the time. "Still hunting" 
was forbidden under penalty of flogging, 
and if a man slipped away to hunt for 
himself, thereby scattering a herd and 
causing loss to the tribe, he was punished, 
sometimes even to death. These severe 
regulations were in force during the tribal 



[B. A. E. 

or ceremonial hunt. This hunt occurred 
in June, July, and August, when the ani- 
mals were fat and the hair thin, the flesh 
being then in the best condition for food 
and the pelts easiest to dress on both sides 
for the making of clothing, shields, packs, 
bags, ropes, snowshoes, tent and boat 
covers. The meat was cut into thin sheets 
and strips and hung upon a framework of 
poles to dry in the sun. When fully 
"jerked" it was folded up and put into 
parfleche packs to keep for winter use. 
A cow was estimated to yield about 45 
pounds of dried meat and 50 pounds of 
pemmican, besides the marrow, which 
was preserved in bladder skins, and the 
tallow, which was poured into skin bags. 
The sinew of the animal furnished bow- 
strings, thread for sewing, and fiber for 
ropes. The horns were made into spoons 
and drinking vessels, and the tips were 
used for cupping purposes; the buffalo 
horn was also worn as insignia of office. 
The hair of the buffalo was woven into 
reatas, belts, and personal ornaments. 
The dried droppings of the animal, known 
among plainsmen as "buffalo chips," 
were valuable as fuel. 

Tribal regulations controlled the cut- 
ting up of the animal and the distribution 
of the parts. The skin and certain parts 
of the carcass belonged to the man who 
had slain the buffalo; the remainder was 
divided according to fixed rules among 
the helpers, which afforded an opportu- 
nity to the poor and disabled to procure 
food. Butchering was generally done by 
men on the field, each man's portion be- 
ing taken to his tent and given to the 
women as their property. 

The buffalo was hunted in the winter 
by small, independent but organized par- 
ties, not subject to the ceremonial exac- 
tions of the tribal hunt. The pelts se- 
cured at this time were for bedding and 
for garments of extra weight and warmth. 
The texture of the buffalo hide did not 
admit of fine dressing, hence was used for 
coarse clothing, moccasins, tent covers, 
parfleche cases, and other articles. The 
hide of the heifer killed in the fall or 
early winter made the finest robe. 

The buffalo was supposed to be the 
instructor of doctors who dealt with 
the treatment of wounds, teaching them 
in dreams where to find healing plants 
and the manner of their use. The mul- 
tifarious benefits derived from the animal 
brought the buffalo into close touch with 
the people: It figured as a gentile totem, 
its appearance and movements were re- 
ferred to in gentile names, its habits gave 
designations to the months, and it be- 
came the symbol of the leader and the 
type of long life and plenty; ceremonies 
were held in its honor, myths recounted its 
creation, and its folktales delighted old and 

young. The practical extinction of the 
buffalo with the last quarter of the 19th 
century gave a deathblow to the ancient 
culture of the tribes livingwithin its range. 

Consult Allen in Mem. Geol. Survey of 
Kentucky, i, pt. n, 1876; Chittenden, Fur 
Trade, 1902; Hornaday in Rep. Nat. Mus. 
1887, 1889; Relation of Alvar Nunez Ca- 
beca de Vaca, B. Smith trans., 1871; Win- 
ship, Coronado Expedition, 14th Rep. B. 
A. E., 1896. (a. c. p.) 

Bukongehelas. See Buckongahelas. 

Buldam. A former Pomo village on 
the n. bank of Big r. and e. of Mendocino, 
Mendocino co., Cal. (s. a. b.) 
Bul'-dam Po'-mo.— Powers in Cont. N. A. Ethnol., 
Ill, 155, 1877. 

Buli. The Butterfly clan of the Hopi. 
Boli.— Bourke. Snake Dance, 117, 1884. Buli win- 
wu.— Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 584, 1900 (win- 
i/;#='clan'). Bu'-li wiin-wii. — Fewkes in Am. 
Anthrop., vn, 405, 1894. Povoli.— Voth, Hopi 
Proper Names, 102, 1905. 

Buli. The Butterfly phratry of the Hopi. 
Bu-li'-nya-mu.— Fewkes"m Am. Anthrop., vi,367, 
1893 (nya-mH= i people'). 

Buliso. The Evening Primrose clan of 
the Honani (Badger) phratry of the 
Bu-li'-so.— Stephen in 8th Rep. B. A. E., 39, 1891. 

Bulitzequa. A former pueblo of the 
Jemez, in New Mexico, the exact site of 
which is not known. — Bandelier in Arch. 
Inst. Papers, iv, 207, 1892. 

Bull Dog Sioux. A Teton Dakota divi- 
sion on Rosebud res., S. Dak. — Donaldson 
in Nat. Mus. Rep. 1885, 63, 1886. 

Bullets Town. Marked on Hutchin's 
map in Bouquet's Exped., 1766, as in 
Coshocton co., Ohio, on both sides of 
Muskingum r., about half way between 
Walhondingr. and Tomstown. Probably 
a Delaware village. 

Bullroarer. An instrument for pro- 
ducing rhythmic sound, consisting of a 
narrow, usually rectangular slat of wood, 
from about 6 in. to 2 ft. long and J in. to 2 
in. wide, suspended by one end to a cord, 
the latter often being provided with a 
wooden handle. The bullroarer, which 
is often painted with symbolic designs, is 
whirled rapidly with a uniform motion 
about the head, and the pulsation of the 
air against the slat gives a characteristic 
whizzing or roaring sound. The instru- 
ment has also been called whizzer, whiz- 
zing stick, lightning stick, and rhombus, 
and its use was quite general. In North 
America it has been found among the 
Eskimo, Kwakiutl, Arapaho, and most 
western tribes, including the Navaho, 
Apache, Ute, the central Californian 
tribes (where, among the Pomo, it is 
nearly 2 ft. long), Pueblos, and in the an- 
cient cliff-dwellings. The Hopi, who re- 
gard the bullroarer as a prayer-stick of 
the thunder and its whizzing noise as 
representing the wind that accompanies 
thunderstorms, make the tablet portion 

BULL. 30] 




from a piece of lightning-riven wood and 
measure the length of the string from the 
heart to the tips of the fingers of the out- 
stretched right hand (Fewkes). The 
Navaho make the bullroarer of the same 
material, but regard 
it as representing the 
voice of the thunder- 
bird, whose figure 
they often paint upon 
it, the eyes being in- 
dicated by inset 
pieces of turquoise 
(Culin). Bourkewas 
led to believe that 
the rhombus of the 
Apache was made by 
the medicine men 
from the wood of pine 
or fir that had been 
struck by lightning 
on the mountain tops. 
Apache, Hopi, and 
Zufii bullroarers bear 
lightning symbols, 
and while in the 
semi-arid region the 
implement is used to invoke clouds, 
lightning, and rain, and to warn the initi- 
ated that rites are being performed, in 
the humid area it is used to implore the 
wind to bring fair weather. The bull- 
roarer is a sacred implement, associated 
with rain, wind, and lightning, and among 
the Kwakiutl, according to Boas, with 
ghosts. By some tribes it retains this 
sacred character, but among others it has 
degenerated into a child's toy, for which 
use its European antitype also survives 
among civilized nations. 

Consult Bourke, Medicine-men of the 
Apache, 9th Rep. B. A. E., 1892; Fewkes, 
Tusayan Snake Ceremonies, 16th Rep. 
B. A. E., 1897; Haddon, Study of Man, 
219, 1898; Lang, Custom and Myth, 39, 
1885; Mooney, Ghost Dance Religion, 14th 
Rep. B. A. E., 1896; Murdoch in 9th Rep. 
B. A. E., 1892; Schmeltz in Verh. d. Ve- 
reins f. naturw. (Internal tung zu Ham- 
burg, ix, 92, 1896. (w. h.) 

Bulls. A Hidatsa band or society; 
mentioned by Culbertson ( Smithson. Rep. 
1850, 143, 1851) as a clan. For a similar 
society among the Piegan, see Stumiks. 

Bulltown. A Shawnee or Mingo vil- 
lage of 5 families on Little Kanawha r. , 
W. Va.; destroved by whites in 1772. — 
Kaufmann, W.'Penn., 180, 1851. 

Buokongahelas. See Buckongdhelas. 

Buquibava. A former Pima rancheria 
of Sonora, Mexico, visited by Kino about 
1697-99; situated on San Ignacio r., below 
San Ignacio (of which mission it was sub- 
sequently a visita), at the site of the 
present town of Magdalena. Pop. 63 in 
1730, probably including some Tepoca. 

(f. w. H. ) 

Magdalena. — Doc. of 1730 quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, i, 494, 514, 1884. Magdalena de Buvuiba- 
va.— Bancroft, Ariz, and N. M., 358, 1889 (quoting 
Mange, 1699). Santa Madalena. — Hardy, Travels, 
422, 1829. Santa Magdalena de Buquibava. — Kino 
(1694) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th ser., I, 248, 1856. 
S[anta] M[aria] Magdalen. — Venegas, Hist. Cal., 
I, map, 1759. S. Magdalena. — Kino, map (1701) 
in Bancroft, Ariz, and N. M., 360, 1889. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. The 
Bureau of (American) Ethnology was 
organized in 1879 and was placed by Con- 
gress under the supervision of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. It was directed that 
all the archives, records, and materials 
relating to the Indian tribes collected by 
the Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region 
under the auspices of the Interior Depart- 
ment should be transferred to the Insti- 
tution for use by the Bureau. Prof. 
Spencer F. Baird, Secretary of the Insti- 
tution, recognizing the great value of Maj. 
J. W. Powell's services in initiating re- 
searches among the western tribes, 
selected him as the person best qualified 
to organize and conduct the work. 

The National Government had already 
recognized the importance of researches 
among the tribes. As early as 1795 the 
Secretary of War appointed Leonard S. 
Shaw deputy agent to the Cherokee with 
instructions to study their language and 
home life and to collect materials for 
an Indian history. President Jefferson, 
who planned the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion of 1804-06, "for the purpose of ex- 
tending the internal commerce of the 
United States," especially stipulated, in 
his instructions to Lewis, the observa- 
tions on the native tribes that should be 
made by »the expedition for the use of 
the Government. These were to include 
their names and numbers; the extent and 
limits of their possessions; their relations 
with other tribes or nations; their lan- 
guage, traditions, and monuments; their 
ordinary occupations in agriculture, fish- 
ing, hunting, war, arts, and the imple- 
ments for these; their food, clothing, and 
domestic accommodations; the diseases 
prevalent among them and the remedies 
they use; moral and physical circum- 
stances which distinguish them from 
known tribes; peculiarities in their laws, 
customs, and dispositions; and articles of 
commerce they may need or furnish, and 
to whatextent; "and considering the in- 
terest which every nation has in extend- 
ing and strengthening the authority of 
reason and justice among the people 
around them, it will be useful to acquire 
what knowledge you can of the state of 
morality, religion, and information 
among them, as it may better enable 
those who endeavor to civilize and in- 
struct them to adapt their measures to 
the existing notions and practices of those 
on whom they are to operate." During 
much of his life Jefferson, like Albert 



[b. a. e. 

Gallatin later on, manifested his deep in- 
terest in the ethnology of the American 
tribes by publishing accounts of his ob- 
servations that are of extreme value 
to-day. In 1820 Rev. Jedidiah Morse 
was commissioned by the President to 
make a tour for the purpose of "ascer- 
taining, for the use of the Government, 
the actual state of the Indian tribes 
of our country." The Government also 
aided the publication of Schoolcraft's 
voluminous work on the Indians. The 
various War Department expeditions 
and surveys had reported on the tribes 
and monuments 
encountered i n 
the W.; the 
Hayden Survey 
of the Territo- 
ries had exam- 
ined and de- 
scribed many of 
the cliff-dwell- 
ings and pue- 
blos, and had 
published p a - 
person the tribes 
of the Missis- 
sippi valley, and 
Maj. Powell, as 
chief of the Sur- 
vey of the Rocky 
Mountain Re- 
gion, had ac- 
complished im- 
portant work 
among thetribes 
of the Rio Colo- 
rado drainage in 
connection with 
his geological 
and geographic- 
al researches, 
and had com- 
menced a series 
of publications 
known as Con- 
tributions to 
North American 
Ethnology. The 
Smithsonian In- 


stitution had al- 
so taken an ac- 
tive part in the publication of the results 
of researches undertaken by private stu- 
dents. The first volume of its Contribu- 
tions to Knowledge is The Ancient Monu- 
ments of the Mississippi Valley, by Squier 
and Davis, and up to the founding of the 
Bureau of Ethnology the Institution had 
issued upward of 600 papers on ethnology 
and archeology. These early researches 
had taken a wide range, but in a some- 
what unsystematic way, and Maj. Powell, 
on taking charge of the Bureau, began 
the task of classifying the subject-matter 
of the entire aboriginal field and the 

selection of those subjects that seemed to 
require immediate attention. There w r ere 
numerous problems of a practical nature 
to be dealt with, and at the same time 
many less strictly practical but none the 
less important problems to be considered. 
Some of the practical questions were 
readily approached, but in the main they 
were so involved with the more strictly 
scientific questions that the two could not 
be considered separately. 

From its inception the Government has 
had before it problems arising from the 
presence within its domain, as dependent 
wards, of more 
than 300,000 ab- 
origines. In the 
main the diffi- 
culties encoun- 
tered in solving 
these problems 
arose from a lack 
of knowledge of 
the distribution, 
numbers, rela- 
tionships, and 
languages of the 
tribes, and a real 
appreciation of 
their character, 
culture status, 
needs, and possi- 
bilities. It was 
recognized that 
a knowledge of 
these elements 
lies at the very 
foundation of in- 
telligent admin- 
istration, and 
thus one of the 
important ob- 
jects in organiz- 
ing the Bureau of 
Ethnology was 
that of obtaining 
such knowledge 
of the tribes as 
would enable 
the several 
branches of the 
Government to 
know and ap- 
preciate the aboriginal population, and 
that at the same time would enable the 
people generally to give intelligent ad- 
ministration sympathetic support. An 
essential step in this great work w r as that 
of locating the tribes and classifying them 
in such manner as to make it possible to 
assemble them in harmonious groups, 
based on relationship of blood, language, 
customs, beliefs, and grades of culture. It 
w 7 as found that within the area with which 
the nation has to deal there are spoken 
some 500 Indian languages, as distinct from 
one another as French is from English , and 


BULL. 30] 


that these languages are grouped in more 
than 50 linguistic families. It was found, 
further, that in connection' with the dif- 
ferences in language there are many other 
distinctions requiring attention. Tribes 
allied in language are often allied also in 
capacity, habits, tastes, social organiza- 
tion, religion, arts, and industries, and it 
was plain that a satisfactory investigation 
of the tribes required a systematic study 
of all of these, conditions. It was not 
attempted, however, to cover the whole 
field in detail. When sufficient progress 
had been made in the classification of the 
tribes, certain groups were selected as 
types, and investigations among them 
were so pursued as to yield results appli- 
cable in large measure to all. Up to the 
present time much progress has been 
made and a deeper insight has been gained 
into the inner life and character of the 
native people, and thus, in a large sense, 
of primitive peoples generally, than had 
been reached before in the world's his- 
tory. Many of the results of these re- 
searches have already been published 
and are in the hands of all civilized 

Some of the more directly practical re- 
sults accomplished may be briefly men- 
tioned: (1) A study of the relations, 
location, and numbers of the tribes, and 
their classification into groups or families, 
based on affinity in language — a necessary 
basis for dealing with the tribes practi- 
cally or scientifically; (2) a study of the 
numerous sociologic, religious, and in- 
dustrial problems involved, an acquaint- 
ance with which is essential to the 
intelligent management of the tribes in 
adjusting them to the requirements of 
civilization; (3) a history of the relations 
of the Indian and white races embodied 
in a volume on land cessions; (4) investi- 
gations into the physiology, medical 
practices, and sanitation of a people who 
suffer keenly from imperfect adaptation 
to the new conditions imposed on them; 

(5) the preparation of bibliographies em- 
bodying all works relating to the tribes; 

(6) a study of their industrial and eco- 
nomic resources; (7) a study of the an- 
tiquities of the country with a view to 
their record and preservation; and (8) a 
handbook of the tribes, embodying, in 
condensed form, the accumulated infor- 
mation of many years. 

The more strictly scientific results re- 
late to every department of anthropologic 
research— physical, psychological, lin- 
guistic, sociologic, religious, technic, and 
esthetic — and are embodied in numerous 
papers published in the reports, contribu- 
tions, and bulletins; and the general re- 
sults in each of these departments, com- 

*' or thf 

piled and collated by the higrtest available 
authorities, have now begun to appear in 
the form of handbooks. 

Maj. Powell, director, died Sept. 23, 
1902, and on Oct. 11 W. H. Holmes was 
appointed to succeed him, with the title 
of chief. In addition to the chief the 
scientific staff of the Bureau comprises 
(1906) 7 ethnologists, an illustrator, an 
editor, a librarian, and 7 other employees. 
Besides the regular scientific members 
of the Bureau there are numerous asso- 
ciates or collaborators, including many 
of the best-known ethnologists of the 
country, who contribute papers or who 
engage at intervals in research work 
under the Bureau's auspices. The li- 
brary contains about 12,000 volumes 
and 7,000 pamphlets, accumulated largely 
through exchange of publications. There 
are about 1,600 linguistic manuscripts, 
and 15,000 photographic negatives illus- 
trating the aborigines and their activities. 

The publications consist of Contribu- 
tions to North American Ethnology, An- 
nual Reports, Bulletins, Introductions, 
and Miscellaneous Publications. The 
series of contributions was begun by the 
Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region 
before the organization of the Bureau, 3 
volumes having been completed, and 
was discontinued after 8 volumes had 
been issued. Twenty-three annual re- 
ports, comprising 28 volumes, 30 bulle- 
tins (including the present Handbook) , 4 
introductions, and 6 miscellaneous pub- 
lications have appeared. The present 
edition of the annual reports and bulle- 
tins is 9,850 copies, of which the Senate 
receives 1,500, the House of Representa- 
tives 3,000, and the Bureau 3,500 copies. 
Of the Bureau edition 500 are distributed 
by the Smithsonian Institution. From 
the remaining 1,850 copies are drawn the 
personal copies of members of Congress, 
and 500 for distribution to Government 
libraries and other libraries throughout 
the country, as designated by Congress; 
the remainder are sold by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office. With the exception of the few 
disposed of by the Superintendent of 
Documents, the publications are distrib- 
uted free of charge; the popular demand 
for them is so great, however, that the 
editions are soon exhausted. The quota 
allowed the Bureau is distributed to 
libraries, to institutions of learning, and 
to collaborators and others engaged in 
anthropologic research or in teaching. 
The publications are as follows: 

Contributions to North American Eth- 
nology.— Published in part under the auspices 
of the Department of the Interior, U. S. Geo- 
graphical and Geological Survey of the Rocky 
Mountain Region, J. W. Powell in charge. Vols, 
i-vn and ix. 



[B. A. E. 

Vol. I, 1877: 
Part I.— Tribes of the extreme Northwest, by 
W. H. Dall. 
On the distribution and nomenclature of 
the native tribes of Alaska and the adja- 
cent territory. 
On succession in the shell-heaps of the 

Aleutian islands. 
On the origin of the Innuit. 
Appendix to part I. Linguistics. 
Notes on the natives of Alaska, by J. Furu- 

Terms of relationship used by the Innuit: a 
series obtained from natives of Cumber- 
land inlet, by W. H. Dall. 
Vocabularies, by George Gibbs and W. H. 

Note on the use of numerals among the 
T'sim si-an', by George Gibbs. 
Part ii. Tribes of western Washington and 
northwestern Oregon, by George Gibbs. 
Appendix to part II. Linguistics. 
Vocabularies, by George Gibbs, Wm. F. 

Tolmie, and G. Mengarini. 
Dictionary of the Niskwalli, by George 
Vol. ii, 1890: 
The Klamath Indians of southwestern Oregon, 
by Albert Samuel Gatschet. Two parts. 
Vol. in, 1877: 
Tribes of California, by Stephen Powers. 
Appendix. Linguistics, edited by J. W. 
Vol. iv, 1881: 
Houses and house-life of the American aborig- 
ines, bv Lewis H. Morgan. 
Vol. V, 1882: 
Observations on cup-shaped and other lapida- 
rian sculptures in the Old World and in 
America, by Charles Rau. 
On prehistoric trephining and cranial amulets, 

by Robert Fletcher. 
A study of the manuscript Troano, by Cyrus 
Thomas, with an introduction by D. G. 
Vol. vi, 1890: 

The (fegiha language, by J. Owen Dorsey. 
Vol. vn, 1890: 
A Dakota- English dictionary, by Stephen R. 
Riggs, edited by J. Owen Dorsey. 
Vol. vin : 

[Not issued] . 
Vol. ix, 1893: 
Dakota grammar, texts, and ethnography, by 
Stephen R. Riggs, edited by J. Owen Dorsey. 
Annual Reports of the Bureau of (Ameri- 
can) Ethnology to the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 23 vols. roy. 8°. 
First Report (1879-80) , 1881. 
Report of the Director. 

On the evolution of language, as exhibited 
in the specialization of the grammatic processes; 
the differentiation of the parts of speech, and 
the integration of the sentence; from a study of 
Indian languages, by J. W. Powell. 

Sketch of the mythology of the North American 
Indians, by J. W. Powell. 
/ Wyandot government: A short study of tribal 
/ society, by J. W. Powell. 

On limitations to the use of some anthropologic 
data, by J. W. Powell. 

A further contribution to the study of the mor- 
tuary customs of the North American Indians, by 
H. C. Yarrow. 

Studies in Central American picture-writing, 
by Edward S. Holden. 

Cessions of land by Indian tribes to the United 
States; Illustrated by those in the State of In- 
diana, by C. C. Royce. 

Sign language among North American Indians, 
compared with that among other peoples and 
deaf-mutes, by Garrick Mallery. 

Catalogue of linguistic manuscripts in the 
library of the Bureau of Ethnology, by J. C. 

Illustration of the method of recording Indian 
languages. From the manuscripts of J. Owen 
Dorsey, A. S. Gatschet, and S. R. Riggs. 

Second Report (1880-81), 1883. 

Report of the Director. 

Zuni fetiches, by F. H. Cushing. 

Myths of the Iroquois, by Erminnie A. Smith. 

Animal carvings from mounds of the Mississippi 
valley, by H. W. Henshaw. 

Navajo silversmiths, by Washington Matthews. 

Art in shell of the ancient Americans, by W. 
H. Holmes. 

Illustrated catalogue of the collections obtained 
from the Indians of New Mexico and Arizona in 
1879, by James Stevenson. 

Illustrated catalogue of the collections obtained 
from the Indians of New Mexico in 1880, by James 

Third Report (1881-82), 1884. 

Report of the Director (including On activital 

Notes on certain Maya and Mexican manu- 
scripts, by Cyrus Thomas. 

On masks, labrets, and certain aboriginal cus- 
toms, by W. H. Dall. 

Omaha sociology, by J. Owen Dorsey. 

Navajo weavers, by Washington Matthews. 

Prehistoric textile fabrics of the United States, 
derived from impressions on pottery, by W. H. 

Illustrated catalogue of a portion of the collec- 
tions made by the Bureau of Ethnology during 
the field season of 1881, by W. H. Holmes. 

Illustrated catalogue of the collections obtained 
from the pueblos of Zuni, N. Mex., and Wolpi, 
Ariz., in 1881, by James Stevenson. 

Fourth Report (1882-83), 1886. 

Report of the Director. 

Pictographs of the North American Indians. 
A preliminary paper, by Garrick Mallery. 

Pottery of the ancient Pueblos, by W. H. 

Ancient pottery of the Mississippi valley, bv 
W. H. Holmes. 

Origin and development of form and ornament 
in ceramic art, by W. H. Holmes. 

A study of Pueblo pottery as illustrative of Zuni 
culture growth, by F. H. Cushing. 

Fifth Report (1883-84) , 1887. 

Report of the Director. 

Burial mounds of the northern sections of the 
United States, by Cyrus Thomas. 

The Cherokee Nation of Indians: A narrative 
of their official relations with the Colonial and 
Federal Governments, by C. C. Royce. 

The mountain chant: A Navajo ceremony, by 
Washington Matthews. 

The Seminole Indians of Florida, by Clay 

The religious life of the Zuni child, by Matilda 
C. Stevenson. 

Sixth Report (1884-85), 1888. 

Report of the Director. 

Ancient art of the province of Chiriqui, Colom- 
bia, by W. H. Holmes. 

A study of the textile art in its relation to the ( 
development of form and ornament, by W. H. 

Aids to the study of the Maya codices, by Cyrus 

Osage traditions, by J. Owen Dorsey. 

The central Eskimo, by Franz Boas. 

Seventh Report Q885-8£), 1891. 

Report of the Director. 

Indian linguistic families of America north of 
Mexico, by J. W. Powell. 

The Mide'wiwin or "grand medicine society " 
of the Ojibwa, by W. J. Hoffman. 

The sacred formulas of the Cherokees, by James 

Eighth Report (1886-87), 1891. 

Report of the Director. 

A study of Pueblo architecture: Tusayan and 
Cibola, by Victor Mindeleff. 

Ceremonial of Hasjelti Dailjis and mythical 
sand painting of the Navajo Indians, by James 

Ninth Report (1887-88) 1892. 

Report of the Director. 

Ethnological results of the Point Barrow expe- 
dition, by John Murdoch. 

BULL. 30] 



The medicine-men of the Apache, by John G. 

Tenth Report (1888-89), 1893. 

Report of the Director. 

Picture writing of the American Indians, by 
Garrick Mallery. 

Eleventh Report (1889-90), 1894. 

Report of the Director. 

The Sia, by Matilda C. Stevenson. 

Ethnology of the Ungava district, Hudson bay 
territorv, by Lucien M. Turner. 

Astudvof Siouan cults, by J. Owen Dorsey. 

Twelfth Report (1890-91), 1894. 

Report of the Director. 

Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, by Cyrus Thomas. 

Thirteenth Report (1891-92), 1896. 

Report of the Director. 

Prehistoric textile art of eastern United States, 
by W. H. Holmes. 

Stone art, by Gerard Fowke. 

Aboriginal remains in Verde valley, Arizona, 
by Cosmos Mindeleff. 

Omaha dwellings, furniture, and implements, 
by J. Owen Dorsey. 

Casa Grande ruin, by Cosmos Mindeleff. 

Outlines of Zufii creation myths, by F. H. 

Fourteenth Report (1892-93), 1896. 

Report of the Director. 

The Menomini Indians, by Walter J. Hoffman. 

The Coronado expedition, 1540-42, by G. P. 

The Ghost-dance religion and the Sioux out- 
break of 1890, by James Mooney. 

Fifteenth Report (1893-94), 1897. 

Report of the Director (including On regimen- 

Stone implements of the Potomac-Chesapeake 
tidewater province, by W. H. Holmes. 

The Siouan Indians: A preliminary sketch, by 
W J McGee. 

Siouan sociology: A posthumous paper, by 
J. Owen Dorsey. 

Tusayan katcinas, by J. Walter Fewkes. 

The repair of Casa Grande ruin, Arizona, in 
1891, by Cosmos Mindeleff. 

Sixteenth Report (1894-96), 1897. 

Report of the Director, and list of publications 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Primitive trephining in Peru, by M. A. Muniz 
and W J McGee. 

The cliff ruins of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, 
by Cosmos Mindeleff. 

Day symbols of the Maya year, by Cyrus 

Tusavan snake ceremonies, by J. Walter Fewkes. 

Seventeenth Report (1895-96), 1898. 

Report of the Director, and list of publications 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

The Seri Indians, by W» J«McGee, with Com- 
parative lexicology, by J. N. B. Hewitt. 

Calendar history of the Kiowa Indians, by 
James Mooney. 

Navaho houses, by Cosmos Mindeleff. 

Archeological expedition to Arizona in 1895, by 
J. Walter Fewkes. 

Eighteenth Report (1896-97), 1899. 

Report of the Director. 

The Eskimo about Bering strait, by E. W. 

Indian land cessions in the United States, com- 
piled by C. C. Royce, with an introduction by 
Cyrus Thomas. 

Nineteenth Report (1897-98). 1900. 

Report of the Director (including Esthetology, 
or the science of activities designed to give 
pleasure) . 

Myths of the Cherokee, by James Mooney. 

Tusayan migration traditions, by J. Walter 

Localization of Tusayan clans, by Cosmos 

Mounds in northern Honduras, by Thomas 

Mayan calendar systems, by Cyrus Thomas. 
Primitive numbers, by W, J.McGee. 

Numeral systems of Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica-, by Cyrus Thomas. 

Tusayan flute and snake ceremonies, by J. 
Walter Fewkes. 

The wild-rice gatherers of the upper lakes, a 
study in American primitive economics, by A. E. 

Twentieth Report (1898-99) 1903. 

Report of the Director (including Technology, 
or the science of industries; Sociology, or the 
science of institutions; Philology, or the science 
of activities designed for expression; Sophiology, 
or the science of activities designed to give in- 
struction; List of publications of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology). 

Aboriginal pottery of the eastern United States, 
by W. H. Holmes. 

Twenty-first Report (1899-1900), 1903. 

Report of the Director. 

Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by 
J. Walter Fewkes. 

Iroquois cosmogony, by J. N. B. Hewitt. 

Twenty-second Report (1900-01), 1903. 

Report of the Acting Director. 

Two summers' work in pueblo ruins, by J. 
Walter Fewkes.' 

Mayan calendar systems — II, by Cyrus Thomas. 

The Hako, a Pawnee ceremony, by Alice C. 

Twenty-third Report (1901-02), 1904. 

Report of the Acting Director. 

The Zufii Indians, by Matilda C. Stevenson. 

Twenty-fourth Report (1902-03), 1905. 

Report of the Chief. 

American Indian games, by Stewart Culin. 

Bulletins.— Thirty volumes, 8°. 

(1) Bibliography of the Eskimo language, by 
J. C. Pilling, 1887. 

(2) Perforated stones from California, by H. W. 
Henshaw, 1887. 

(3) The use of gold and other metals among 
the ancient inhabitants of Chiriqui, Isthmus of 
Darien, by W. H. Holmes, 1887. 

(4) Work in mound exploration of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, by Cyrus Thomas, 1887. 

(5) Bibliography of the Siouan languages, by 
J. C. Pilling, 1887. 

(6) Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages, 
by J. C. Pilling, 1888. 

(7) Textile fabrics of ancient Peru, by W. H. 
Holmes, 1889. 

(8) The problem of the Ohio mounds, by Cyrus 
Thomas, 1889. 

(9) Bibliography of the Muskhogean languages, 
by J. C. Pilling, 1889. 

(10) The circular, square, and octagonal earth- 
works of Ohio, by Cyrus Thomas, 1889. 

(11) Omaha and Ponka letters, bv J. Owen 
Dorsey, 1891. 

(12) Catalogue of prehistoric works east of the 
Rocky mountains, by Cyrus Thomas, 1891. 

(13) Bibliography of the Algonquian languages, 
by J. C. Pilling, 1891. 

(14) Bibliography of the Athapascan languages, 
by J. C. Pilling, 1892. 

(15) Bibliography of the Chinookan languages 
(including the Chinook jargon) , by J. C. Pilling, 

(16) Bibliography of the Salishan languages, 
by J. C. Pilling, 1893. 

(17) The Pamunkey Indians of Virginia, by 
J. G. Pollard, 1894. 

(18) The Maya year, by Cyrus Thomas, 1894. 

(19) Bibliography of the Wakashan languages, 
byJ.C. Pilling, 1894. 

(20) Chinook texts, by Franz Boas, 1894. 

(21) An ancient quarry in Indian Territory, by 
W. H. Holmes, 1894. 

(22) The Siouan tribes of the East, by James 
Mooney, 1894. 

(23) Archeologic investigations in James and 
Potomac valleys, by Gerard Fowke, 1894. 

(24) List of the publications of the Bureau of 
Ethnology with index to authors and subjects, 
by F. W. Hodge, 1894. 

(25) Natick dictionary, by J. H. Trumbull, 

(26) Kathlamet texts, by Franz Boas, 1901. 

(27) Tsimshiam texts, by Franz Boas, 1902. 

(28) Mexican and Central American antiquities 
and calendar systems, twenty-nine papers, by 



[b. a. e. 

Eduard Seler, E. Forstemann, Paul Schellhas, 
Carl Sapper, and E. P. Dieseldorff, translated 
from the German under the supervision of Charles 
P. Bowditch. 

(29) Haida texts and myths, Skidegate dialect, 
by J. R. Swanton. 

(30) Handbook of the Indians north of Mexico, 
Parts I and n. 

Introductions. — Four volumes, 4°. 

(1) Introduction to the study of Indian lan- 
guages, by J. W. Powell, 1877. 

(2) Introduction to the study of Indian lan- 
guages, 2d edition, by J. W. Powell, 1880. 

(3) Introduction to the study of sign language 
among the North American Indians, bv Garrick 
Mallery, 1880. 

(4) Introduction to the study of mortuary cus- 
toms among the North American Indians, bv 
H. C. Yarrow, 1880. 

Miscellaneous Publications: 

(1) A collection of gesture-signs and signals 
of the North American Indians, by Garrick Mal- 
lery, 1880. 

(2) Proof-sheets of a bibliography of the lan- 
guages of the North American Indians, bv J. C. 
Pilling, 1885. 

(3) Linguistic families of the Indian tribes 
north of Mexico [by James Mooney, 1885J . 

(4) Map of linguistic stocks of American In- 
dians north of Mexico, by J. W. Powell, 1891. 

(5) Tribes of North America, with synonomy: 
Skittagetan family [by Henrv W. Henshaw, 

(6) Dictionary of American Indians north of 
Mexico [advance pages] , 1903. 

(W. H. H.) 

Bureau of Indian Affairs. — See Office of 
Indian Affairs. 

Burges' Town. A Seminole town, the 
exact location of which is unknown, but 
it was probably on or near Flint or St 
Marys r., s. w. Ga. — Connell (1793) in 
Am. State Papers, Ind. Aff., i, 384, 1832. 

Burial. See Mortuary customs, Urn 

Burnt Woods Chippewa. A former Chip- 
pewa band on Bois Brule r., near the w. 
end of L. Superior, n. Wis. 
Chippeways of the Burnt Woods.— Schoolcraft, 
Travels, 321, 1821. 

Burrard Inlet No. 3 Reserve. The name 
given by the Canadian Department of 
Indian Affairs to one of 6 divisions of 
the Squawmish, q. v. ; pop. 30 in 1902. 

Burrard Saw Mills Indians. The local 
name for a body of Squawmish of Fraser 
Eiver agency, Brit. Col.; noted only in 
1884, when their number was given as 
232.— Can. Ind. Aff., 187, 1884. 

Busac. A former rancheria, probably 
of the Sobaipuri, visited by Kino about 
1697; situated, apparently, on Arivaipa 
cr., a tributary of the San Pedro, e. of 
old Camp Grant, s. Ariz., although Bernal 
(Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 356, 1889) 
states that the settlement was on a creek 
flowing e. 

Busanic. A Pima settlement s. w. of 
Guevavi, near the Arizona-Sonora bound- 
ary, in lat. 31° 10', long. 111° 10', visited 
by Kino in 1694 and by Kino and Mange 
in 1699. It was made a visita of Guevavi 
mission at an early date; pop. 253 in 1730, 
41 in 1764. See Kino (1694) in Doc. 
Hist. Mex., 4th s., i, 252, 1856; Rudo 
Ensayo (1763), 150, 1863; Mange quoted 

by Bancroft, Ariz, and K Mex., 358, 

Bisanig.— Bancroft, No. Mex. States, I, 524, 1884. 
Busani.— Villa-Senor,Theatro Am., pt. 2, 408, 1748. 
Busanic— Kino, op. cit. Busnio.— Venegas, Hist. 
Cal., i, map, 1759. Busona.— Box, Adventures, 
270, 1869. Bussani.— Orozco y Berra, Geog., 347. 
1864. Cinco Senores Busanic— Sonora materiales 
(1730) quoted by Bancroft, No. Mex. States, i, 514, 
1884. Ruzany.— Land Office map, U. S., 1881. S. 
Ambrosio Busanic— Kino (1699) quoted bv Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, I, 270, 1884. San Ambrosio 
de Busanic— Venegas, Hist. Cal., I, 300, 1759. 
Susanna.— Kino, map (1702) in Stdcklein, Neue 
Welt-Bott, 74, 1726 (misprint). 

Bushamul. A Nishinam village for- 
merly existing in the valley of Bear r., 

Bashonees.— Taylor in Cal. Farmer, June 8, 1860. 
Booshamool.— Powers in Overland Mo., XII, 22, 
1874. Bu'-sha-mul. -Powers in Cont. N. A. Eth- 
nol., in, 316, 1877. Bushones.— Bancroft, Nat. 
Races, I, 450, 1874. Bushumnes.— Hale, Ethnog. 
and Philol., 631, 1846. 

Bushy Head. See Unaduti. 

Businausee ('echo maker,' from biiswa- 
wag, 'echo,' referring to the achichak, 
crane). A phratry of the Chippewa. 
Bus-in-as-see. — Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
V, 46, 1885. Bus-in-aus-e. — Ibid., 44. Bus-in-aus-e- 
wug.— Ibid., 88 (plural). 

Busk (Creek: puskita, 'a fast'). A fes- 
tival of the Creeks, by some early writers 
termed the green-corn dance. According 
to Gatschet (Creek Migr. Leg., i, 177, 
1884) the solemn annual festival held by 
the Creek people of ancient and modern 
days. As this authority points out, the 
celebration of the puskita was an occasion 
of amnesty, forgiveness, and absolution 
of crime, injury, and hatred, a season of 
change of mind, symbolized in various 

The day of beginning of the celebra- 
tion of the puskita, which took place 
chiefly in the "town square," was de- 
termined by the rniko, or chief, and his 
council; and the ceremony itself, which 
had local variations, lasted for 4 days in 
the towns of less note and for 8 days in 
the more important. Hawkins (Sketch, 
75, 1848) has left a description of the 
busk, or " boos-ke-tau, " as it was carried 
out in the white or peace town of Kasihta 
in 1798-99. The chief points are as 

First day: The yard of the -square is 
cleaned in the morning and sprinkled 
with white sand, while the black drink 
is being prepared. The fire maker, spe- 
cially appointed, kindles new fire by 
friction, the 4 logs for the fire being ar- 
ranged crosswise with reference to the 
cardinal points. The women of the Tur- 
key clan dance the turkey dance, while 
the very strong emetic called passa is 
being brewed; this is drunk from about 
noon to the middle of the afternoon. 
Then comes the tadpole dance, performed 
by 4 men and 4 women known as "tad- 
poles." From evening until dawn the 
dance of the hiniha is performed by the 

BULL. 30] 



men. The "old men's tobacco" is also 
prepared on the first day. 

Second day: At about 10 o'clock the 
women perform the gun dance, so called 
from the men firing guns during its con- 
tinuance. At noon the men approach 
the new fire, rub some of its ashes on the 
chin, neck, and belly, and jump head- 
foremost into the river, and then return 
to the square. Meantime the women 
busy themselves with the preparation of 
new maize for the feast. Before the 
feast begins, the men as they arrive rub 
some of the maize between their hands 
and then on the face and chest. 

Third day: The men sit in the square. 

Fourth day: The women, who have 
risen early for this purpose, obtain some 
of the new fire, with which they kindle 
a similarly constructed pile of logs on 
their own hearths, which have previously 
been cleaned and sprinkled with sand. 
A ceremony of ash rubbing, plunging 
into water, etc., is then performed by 
them, after which they taste some salt 
and dance the "long dance." 

Fifth day: The 4 logs of the fire, which 
last only 4 days, having been consumed, 
4 other logs are similarly arranged, and 
the fire kindled as before, after which 
the men drink the black drink. 

Sixth and seventh days: During this 
period the men remain in the town square. 

Eighth day: In the square and outside 
of it impressive ceremonies are carried 
on. A medical mixture concocted by 
stirring and beating in water 14 kinds of 
plants (the modern Creeks use 15), sup- 
posed to have virtue as physic, is used by 
the men to drink, to rub over their joints, 
etc., after the priests have blown into it 
through a small reed. Another curious 
mixture, composed chiefly of the ashes 
of old corncobs and pine boughs, mixed 
with water, and stirred by 4 girls who 
have not reached puberty, is prepared 
in a pot, and 2 pans of a mixture of white 
clay and water are likewise prepared after- 
ward by the men. The chief and the 
warriors rub themselves with some of 
both these mixtures. After this 2 men, 
who are specially appointed, bring flow- 
ers of old men's tobacco to the chief's 
house, and each person present receives 
a portion. Then the chief and his coun- 
selors walk 4 times around the burning 
logs, throwing some of the old men's 
tobacco into the fire each time they face 
the e, and then stop while facing the w. 
When this is concluded the warriors do 
the same. The next ceremony is as 

At the miko's cabin a cane having 2 
white feathers on its end is stuck out. 
At the moment when the sun sets a 
man of the Fish clan takes it down and 
walks, followed by all spectators, toward 

Bull. 30—05 12 

the river. Having gone half way, he 
utters the death-whoop, and repeats it 4 
times before reaching the water's edge. 
After the crowd has thickly congregated 
at the bank each person places a grain 
of old men's tobacco on the head and 
others in each ear. Then at a signal re- 
peated four times they throw some of it 
into the river, and every man at a like 
signal plunges into the water to pick up 
4 stones from the bottom. With these 
they cross themselves on their breasts 
4 times, each time throwing 1 of the stones 
back into the river and uttering the death 
whoop. They then wash themselves, 
take up the cane with the feathers, return 
to the square, where they stick it up, 
then walk through the town visiting. 
After nightfall comes the mad dance, 
which concludes the puskita. 

The 4 days' busk, as performed at Od- 
shiapofa (Little Talasse), as witnessed 
by Swan, whose account seems to have 
been really made up by McGillivray 
(Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 181, 1884), 
adds some details concerning the dress of 
the fire maker, the throwing of maize and 
the black drink into the fire, the prepa- 
ration and use of the black drink, and the 
interesting addition that any provisions 
left over are given to the fire maker. 
Other travelers and historians, as Adair, 
Bartram, and Milfort, furnish other items 
concerning the ceremony. Bartram says : 
" When a town celebrates the busk, hav- 
ing previously provided themselves with 
new clothes, new pots, pans, and other 
household utensils and furniture, they 
collect all -their worn-out clothes and 
other despicable things, sweep and cleanse 
their houses, squares, and the whole town, 
of their filth, which with all the remain- 
ing grain and other old provisions, they 
cast together into one common heap and 
consume it with fire. After having taken 
medicine, and fasted for 3 days, all the 
fire in the town is extinguished. Dur- 
ing this fast they abstain from the grati- 
fication of every appetite and passion 
whatever. A general amnesty is pro- 
claimed, all malefactors may return to 
their town, and they are absolved from 
their crimes, which are now forgotten, 
and they are restored to favor." Ac- 
cording to Gatschet (op. cit., 182) it 
appears that the busk is not a solstitial 
celebration, but a rejoicing over the first 
fruits of the year. The new year begins 
with the busk, which is celebrated in 
August, or late in July. Every town cel- 
ebrated its busk at a period independent 
from that of the other towns, whenever 
their crops had come to maturity. In 
connection with the busk the women 
broke to pieces all the household utensils 
of the previous year and replaced them 
with new ones; the men refitted all their 



[b. a. e. 

property so as to lool^ new. Indeed the 
new fire meant the new life, physical and 
moral, which had to begin with the new 
year. Everything -had to be new or re- 
newed — even the garments hitherto worn. 
Taken altogether, the busk was one of the 
most remarkable ceremonial institutions 
of the American Indians. (a. f. c. ) 

Butterfly-stones. See Banner stones. 

Buzzard Roost. A Creek town "where 
Tom's path crosses Flint r.," Ga. ; exact 
locality not known. There was another 
Creek town of this name on upper Chat- 
tahoochee r., w. of Atlanta. See Ur- 
quhart (1793) in Am. State Papers, Ind. 
Aff., 11, 370, 1832. 

Byainswa. See Biauswah. 

Byengeahtein. A Nanticoke village in 
1707, probably in Dauphin or Lancaster 
co., Pa. — Evans (1707) in Day, Penn., 
361, 1843. 

Caacat. A Chumashan village between 
Goleta and Pt Concepcion, Cal., in 1542. 
Caacac— Cabrillo, Narr., in Smith, Coll. Doc, 189, 
1857. Caacat.— Ibid. Cacat.— Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, Apr. 17, 1863. Cuncaae.— Ibid. 

Caamancijup (.'narrows of the arro- 
yos'). A rancheria, probably Cochimi, 
connected with Purfsima (Cadegomo) 
mission, Lower California, in the 18th cen- 
tury.— Doc. Hist. Mex., 4ths.,v, 189, 1857. 

Cabbasagunti. A small body of Indians 
dwelling in 1807 in the village of " Saint- 
Francais," on St Francis r., Quebec, in 
which they were named Cabbassaguntiac, 
i. e., 'people of Cabassaguntiquoke, ' signi- 
fying ' the place where sturgeon abound.' 
The form Cobbisseconteag has been re- 
placed by the modern Cobbosseecontee 
as the name of what formerly was Win- 
throp pond and outlet which flows into 
Kennebec r. , in Kennebec co. , Me. These 
Indians, it is reported by Kendall, re- 
garded themselves not only as inhab- 
itants of Cabbassaguntiquoke, but also as 
true cabassas, or sturgeons, because one of 
their ancestors, having declared that he 
was a sturgeon, leaped into this stream 
and never returned in human form. They 
related a tale that TTelow the falls of 
Cobbosseecontee r. the rock was hewn by 
the ax of a mighty manito. (.1. n. b. h. ) 
Cabbassaguntiac— Kendall, Travels, in, 124, 1809. 
Cabbassaguntiquoke. -^Ibid. (their former place of 

Cabea Hoola. Given b) r Romans as a 
former Choctaw village on the headwaters 
of Chickasawhay cr., probably in Lau- 
derdale co., Miss. 

Cabea Hoala.— West Florida map., ca 1775. Cabea 
Hoola.— Romans, Florida, 1772. 

Caborca. A rancheria of the Soba divi- 
sion of the Papagoand the seat of amission 
established by Kino about 1687; situated 
on the s. bank of the Rio Asuncion, lat. 
30° 30', long. 112°, Sonora, Mexico. It 
had 4 subordinate villages in 1721 (Ven- 
egas, 11, 177, 285, 1759) and a population of 

223 in 1730, but it was totally destroyed in 
the Pima rebellion of 1751. It is now a 
white Mexican village. (p. w. h. ) 

Cabetka.— Kino, map (1702) in Stocklein, Neiie 
Welt-Bott,76,1726. Cabona.— Box, Ad ventures, 267, 
1869. Caborca.— Kino (1696) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th 
s., 1, 267, 1856. Catorea.— Hardy, Travels, 422, 1829. 
Concepcion Caborca.— Rivera (1730) quoted bv Ban- 
croft, No. Mex. States, 1, 514, 1884. Concepcion de Ca- 
borca.— Venegas, Hist. Cal., 1,285, 1759. Concepcion 
del Cabetca.— Kino, map (1701) in Bancroft, Ariz, 
and N. Mex., 360, 1889 (misprint). Concepcion del 
Caborca.— Kino (1694) in Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., 
1, 243, 1856. Concepcion del Cabotea.— Writer of 
1702?, ibid., v, 139, 1857. 

Caborh. A former Maricopa rancheria 
on the Rio Gila, s. Ariz. (Sedelmair, 1744, 
quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., 
366, 1 889 ) . Mentioned as distinct from the 

Caborica. A former Maricopa rancheria 
on the Rio Gila, s. Ariz. — Sedelmair 
(1744) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and N. 
Mex., 366, 1889. 

Cabusto ( possibly from oka ' water, ' ish- 
to 'great.' — Halbert). A town, probably 
of the Chickasaw, in n. e. Mississippi, vis- 
ited by De Soto in 1540; situated between 
Taliepatava and Chicaca, and 5 days' 
march from the latter, near a great river, 
possibly the Tombigbee. — Gentleman of 
Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. Coll. La., 11, 
160, 1850; Halbert in Trans. Ala. Hist. 
Soc, in, 67, 1899. 

Caca Cbimir. A Papago village, probably 
in Pima co., s. Ariz., with a population of 
70 in 1858, and 90 in 1865. 
Caca Chimir. — Davidson in lnd. Aff. Rep., 135, 
1865. Del Caca.— Bailey in Ind. Aff. Rep., 208, 1858. 

Cacaria. A former Tepehuane pueblo 
on the upper waters of the Rio San Pedro, 
central Durango, Mexico. — Orozco y 
Berra, Geog., 319, 1864. 

Cachanegtac. A former village, pre- 
sumably Costanoan, connected with Dolo- 
res mission, San Francisco, Cal. — Tavlor 
in Cal. Farmer, Oct. 18, 1861. 

Cachanila. A village, probably Pima, 
on the Pima and Maricopa res., Gila r., 
Ariz.; pop. 503 in 1860 (Taylor in Cal. 
Farmer, June 19, 1863), 438 in 1869 
Cachunilla.— Browne, Apache Country, 290, 1869. 

Cachaymon. A village or tribe, possibly 
Caddoan, mentioned by Iberville (Mar- 
gry, Dec, iv, 178, 1880), in the account of 
his voyage up the Mississippi in 1699, as 
being on or near Red r. of Louisiana. 
Possibly identical with Cahinnio. 

Cache disks and blades. The term cache 
is applied to certain forms of storage of 
property (see Storage), and in archeol- 
ogy it is employed to designate more 
especially certain deposits of implements 
and other objects, mainly of stone and 
metal, the most noteworthy consisting 
of flaked flint blades and disks. These 
caches occur in the mound region of the 
Mississippi valley and generally through- 
out the Atlantic states. Verv often thev 

BULL. 30] 



are associated with burials in mounds, but 
in some cases they seem merely to have 
been buried in the ground or hidden 
among rocks. The largest deposit re- 
corded contained upward of 8,000 flint 
disks (Moorehead), a few exceed 5,000, 
while those containing 
a smaller number are 
very numerous. It is 
probable that many of 
these caches of flaked 
stones are accumula- 
tions of incipient im- 
plements roughed out 
at the quarries and car- 
ried away for further 
specialization and use. 
But their occurrence 
with burials, the uni- 
formity of their shape, and the absence of 
more than the mostmeager traces of their 
utilization as implements or for the maki ng 
of implements, give rise to the conjecture 
that they were assembled and deposited for 
reasons dictated by superstition, that they 
were intended as memorials of important 
events, as monuments to departed chief- 
tains, as provision for requirements in the 
future world, or as offerings to the mys- 
terious powers or gods requiring this par- 
ticular kind of sacrifice. If in the nature 
of a sacrifice they certainly fulfilled all re- 

Discoidal Flint Blade From 
a Cache of 1 10 Specimens; 



quirements, for only those familiar with 
such work can know the vast labor in- 
volved in quarrying the stone from the 
massive strata, in shaping the refractory 
material, and in transporting the prod- 
uct to far distant points. In the Hope- 
well mound in Ohio large numbers 
of beautiful blades of obsidian, ob- 
tained probably from Mexico, had been 
cast upon a sacrificial altar and partially 
destroyed by the great heat; usually, 
however, the deposits do not seem to 
have been subjected to the altar fires. 
See Mines and Quarries, Problematical ob- 
jects, Stone-work. 

Consult Holmes in 15th Rep. B, A. E., 
1897; Moorehead (1) Primitive Man in 
Ohio, pp. 190, 192, 1892, (2) in The Anti- 
quarian, i, 158, 1897; Seever, ibid., 142; 
Smith, ibid., 30; Snvder (1 ) in Smithson. 
Rep 1876, 1877, (2)" in Proc. A. A.A.S., 

xlii, 1894, (3) in The Archaeologist, i, no. 
10, 1893, (4) ibid., in, pp. 109-113, 1895; 
Squier and Davis in Smithson. Cont., i, 
1848; Wilson in Nat. Mus. Rep. 1897, 
1899; and various brief notices in the 
archeological journals. (w. h. h. ) 

Caches. — See Receptacles, Storage and 

Cachopostales. Mentioned by Orozco y 
Berra (Geog., 304, 1864), from a manu- 
script source, as a tribe living near the 
Pampopa who resided on Nueces r., Tex. 
They were possibly Coahuiltecan. 
Cachapostate.— Powell in 7th Rep. B. A. E., 69, 1891. 

Caddehi ('head of the reedy place'). 
A rancheria, probably Cochimi, connected 
with Purisima (Cadegomo) mission, 
Lower California, in the 18th eenturv. — 
Doc. Hist. Mex., 4th s., v, 190, 1857. 

Caddo ( contracted from Ka'dohada'cho, 
'Caddo proper,' 'real Caddo,' a leading 
tribe in the Caddo confederacy, extended 
by the whites to include the confederacy ) . 
A confederacy of tribes belonging to the 
southern group of the Caddoan linguistic 
family. Their own name is Hasinai, 
'our own folk.' See. Kadohadaclw. 

History. — According to tribal traditions 
the lower Red r. of Louisiana was the 
early home of the Caddo, from which 
they spread to the N., w., and s. Several 
of the lakes and streams connected with 
this river bear Caddo names, as do 
some of the counties and some of the 
towns which cover ancient village sites. 
Cabeza de Vaca and his companions in 
1535-36 traversed a portion of the terri- 
tory occupied by the Caddo, and De 
Soto's expedition encountered some of 
the tribes of the confederacy in 1540-41, 
but the people did not become known 
until they were met by La Salle and his 
followers in 1687. At that time the 
Caddo villages were scattered along Red 
r. and its tributaries in what are now 
Louisiana and Arkansas, and also on the 
banks of the Sabine, Neches, Trinity, 
Brazos, and Colorado rs. in e. Texas. 
The Caddo were not the only occupants 
of this wide territory ; other confederacies 
belonging to the same linguistic family 
also resided there. There were also frag- 
ments of still older confederacies of the 
same family, some of which still main- 
tained their separate existence, while 
others had joined the then powerful 
Hasinai. These various tribes and con- 
federacies were alternately allies and 
enemies of the Caddo. The native pop- 
ulation was so divided that at no time 
could it successfully resist the intruding 
white race. At an early date the Caddo 
obtained horses from the Spaniards 
through intermediate tribes; they learned 
to rear these animals, and traded with 
them as far n. as Illinois r. (Shea, Cath. 
Ch. in Col. Days, 559, 1855). 



[B. a. e. 

During the 18th century wars in Europe 
led to contention between the Spaniards 
and the French for the territory occupied 
by the Caddo. The brunt of these con- 
tentions fell upon the Indians; the trails 
between their villages became routes for 
armed forces, while the villages were 
transformed into garrisoned posts. The 
Caddo were friendly to the French and 
rendered valuable service, but they suf- 
fered greatly from contact with the white 
race. Tribal Mars were fomented, villages 
were abandoned, new diseases spread 
havoc among the people, and by the close 
of the century the welcoming attitude of 
the Indians during its early years had 
changed to one of defense and distrust. 
Several tribes were practically extinct, 
others seriously reduced in numbers, and 


a once thrifty and numerous people had 
become demoralized and were more or 
less wanderers in their native land. 
Franciscan missions had been established 
among some of the tribes early in the 
century, those designed for the Caddo, 
or Asinais, as they were called by the 
Spaniards, being Purfsima Conception de 
los Asinais and (for the Hainai) San 
Francisco de los Tejas ( q. v. ) . The segre- 
gation policy of the missionaries tended 
to weaken tribal relations and unfitted 
the people to cope with the new difficul- 
ties which confronted them. These 
missions were transferred to the Rio San 
Antonio in 1731. With the acquisition of 
Louisiana by the United States immigra- 
tion increased and the Caddo were pushed 
from their old haunts. Under their first 

treaty, in 1835, they ceded all their land 
and agreed to move at their own expense 
beyond the boundaries of the United 
States, never to return and settle as a tribe. 
The tribes living in Louisiana, being thus 
forced to leave their old home, moved 
s. w. toward their kindred living in Texas. 
At that time the people of Texas were 
contending for independence, and no 
tribe could live at peace with both op- 
posing forces. Public opinion was di- 
vided as to the treatment of the Indians; 
one party demanded a policy of extermina- 
tion, the other advocated conciliatory 
methods. In 1843 the governor of the 
Republic of Texas sent a commission to 
the tribes of its n. part to fix a line be- 
tween them and the white settlers and 
to establish three trading posts; but, as 
the land laws of the republic did not 
recognize the Indian's right of occupancy, 
there was no power which could prevent a 
settler from taking land that had been cul- 
tivated by an Indian. This condition led 
to continual difficulties, and these did not 
diminish after the annexation of Texas 
to the United States, as Texas retained 
control and jurisdiction over all its public 
domain. Much suffering ensued; the 
fields of peaceable Indians were taken and 
the natives were hunted down. The more 
warlike tribes made reprisals, and bitter 
feelings were engendered. Immigration 
increased, and the inroads on the buffalo 
herds by the newcomers made scarce the 
food of the Indians. Appeals were sent 
to the Federal Government, and in 1855 
a tract near Brazos r. was secured and a 
number of Caddo and other Indians 
were induced to colonize under the 
supervision of Agent Robert S. Neigh- 
bours. The Indians built houses, tilled 
fields, raised cattle, sent their chil- 
dren to school — lived quiet and orderly 
lives. The Comanche to the w. con- 
tinued to raid upon the settlers, some of 
whom turned indiscriminately upon all 
Indians. The Caddo were the chief suf- 
ferers, although they helped the state 
troops to bring the raiders to justice. In 
1859 a company of white settlers fixed a 
date for the massacre of all the reserva- 
tion Indians. The Federal Government 
was again appealed to, and through the 
strenuous efforts of Neighbours the Caddo 
made a forced march for 15 days in the 
heat of July; men, women, and children, 
with the loss of more than half of their 
stock and possessions, reached safely the 
banks of Washita r. in Oklahoma, where 
a reservation was set apart for them. 
Neighbours, their friend and agent, was 
killed shortly afterward as a penalty for 
his unswerving friendship to the Indians 
(Ind. Aff. Rep. 1859, 333, 1860). Dur- 
ing the civil war the Caddo remained 
loyal to the Government, taking refuge 

BULL. 30] 



in Kansas, while some went even as far 
w. as Colorado. In 1872 the boundaries of 
their reservation were denned, and in 
1902 every man, woman, and child re- 
ceived an allotment of land under the 
provisions of the severalty act of 1887, by 
which they became citizens of the United 
States and subject to the laws of Okla- 
homa. In 1904 they numbered 535. 

Missions were started by the Baptists 
soon after the reservation was established, 
and are still maintained. Thomas C. 
Battey, a Quaker, performed missionary 
work among them in 1872. The Episco- 
palians opened a mission in 1881, the 
Roman Catholics in 1894. 

Customs and beliefs. — In the legend which 
recounts the coming of the Caddo from 
the underworld it is related: " First an 
old man climbed up, carrying in one hand 
fire and a pipe, and in the other a drum; 
next came his wife with corn and pump- 
kin seeds." The traditions of the people 
do not go back to a time when they were 
not cultivators of the soil; their fields 
surrounded their villages and furnished 
their staple food ; they were semisedentary 
in their habits and lived in fixed habita- 
tions. Their dwellings were conical in 
shape, made of a framework of poles 
covered with a thatch of grass, and were 
grouped about an open space which 
served for social and ceremonial gather- 
ings. Couches covered with mats were 
ranged around the walls inside the house 
to serve as seats by day and beds by 
night. The fire was built in the center. 
Food w r as cooked in vessels of pottery, and 
baskets of varying sizes were skilfully 
made. Vegetal fibers were woven, and 
the cloth was made into garments; their 
mantles, when adorned with feathers, 
were very attractive to the early French 
visitors. Living in the country of the buf- 
falo, that animal and others were hunted 
and the pelts dressed and made into 
clothing for winter use. Besides having 
the usual ornaments for the arms, neck, 
and ears, the Caddo bored the nasal septum 
and inserted a ring as a face decoration — 
a custom noted in the name, meaning 
"pierced nose," given the Caddo by the 
Kiowa and other unrelated tribes, and 
designated in the sign language of the 
plains. Tattooing was practised. De- 
scent w r as traced through the mother. 
Chieftainship was hereditary, as was the 
custody of certain sacred articles used in 
religious ceremonies. These ceremonies 
were connected with the cultivation of 
maize, the seeking of game, and the de- 
sire for long life, health, peace, and pros- 
perity, and w r ere conducted by priests 
who were versed in the rites and who led 
the accompanying rituals and songs. 
According to Caddo belief all natural 
forms were animate and capable of ren- 

dering assistance to man. Fasting, 
prayer, and occasional sacrifices were ob- 
served; life was thought to continue after 
death, and kinship groups were supposed 
to be reunited in the spirit world. Truth- 
fulness, honesty, and hospitality were 
inculcated, and just dealing was esteemed 
a virtue. There is evidence that canni-, 
balism w T as ceremonially practised in con- 
nection with captives. 

Divisions and totems. — How many tribes 
w T ere formerly included in the Caddo 
confederacy can not now be determined. 
Owing to the vicissitudes of the last 3 
centuries only a remnant of the Caddo 
survive, and the memory of much of their 
organization is lost. In 1699 Iberville 
obtained from his Taensa Indian guide a 
list of 8 divisions ; Linares in 1716 gave the 
names of 11; Gatschet (Creek Migr. Leg., 
i, 43, 1884) procured from a Caddo Indian 
in 1882 the names of 12 divisions, and the 
list was revised in 1896, by Mooney, as 
follows: (1) Kadohadacho, (2) Hainai, 
(3) Anadarko, (4) Nabedache, (5) Nacog- 
doches, (6) Natchitoches, (7) Yatasi, (8) 
Adai, (9) Eyeish, (10) Nakanawan, (11) 
Imaha, a small band of Kwapa, (12) 
Yowani, a band of Choctaw (Mooney in 
14th Rep. B. A. E. , 1092, 1896) . Of these 
names the first 9 are found under varying 
forms in the lists of 1699 and 1716. The 
native name of the confederacy, Hasinai, 
is said to belong more properly to the first 
3 divisions, w T hich may be significant of 
their prominence at the time when the con- 
federacy w r as overlapping and absorbing 
members of older organizations, and as 
these divisions speak similar dialects, the 
name may be that which designated a 
still older organization. The following 
tribes, now extinct, probably belonged to 
the Caddo confederacy: Doustionis, Na- 
caniche, Nanatsoho, and Nasoni (?). The 
villages of Campti, Choye, and Natasi w r ere 
probably occupied by subdivisions of the 
confederated tribes. 

Each division of the confederacy was 
subdivided, and each of these subtribes 
had its totem, its village, its hereditary 
chieftain, its priests and ceremonies, and 
its part in the ceremonies common to the 
confederacy. The present clans, accord- 
ing to Mooney, are recognized as belong- 
ing equally to the whole Caddo people and 
in old times were probably the chief bond 
that held the confederacy together. See 
Nasoni. (a. c. f.) 

Acinay.— Tex. St. Arch., Nov. 17, 1763. Ascanis.— 
La Harpe (1719) in Margry, Dec, vi, 289, 1886. 
Asenys.— Iberville (1699), ibid., iv, 316, 1880. 
A-Simaes.— French, Hist. Coll., n, 11, note, 1875. 
Asimais.— Kennedy, Repub. Texas, i, 217, 1841 
A-Simais.— Yoakum, Hist. Texas, i, 28, note, 1855 
Asinaes.— Kennedy, Repub. Texas, i, 217, 1841 
Asinais.— Mezieres (1778) quoted by Bancroft, No. 
Mex. States, I, 661, 1886. Asinay.— Teran (1691) 
ibid., 391. Asoni.— Barcia, Ensayo, 278, 1723. As 
seni.— Charlevoix, New France, iv, 78, 1870. Assi 



[b. a. e. 

nais.— Penicaut (1712) in Margry, Dec, V, 499, 
1883. Assinay.— La Harpe (ca. 1717) in French, 
Hist. Coll. La., in, 48, 1851. Assine.— Gatschet, 
Creek Migr. Leg., 1, 43, 1884. Assinnis.— Boudinot, 
Star in the West, 125, 1816. Assoni.— Joutel (1687) 
in Margry, Dec., ill, 311, 1878. Assony.— Joutel, 
ibid., I, 147, 1846. Assynais.— Penicaut (1716) in 
Margry, Dec.,v, 539, 1883. Ceneseans.— Boudinot, 
Starinthe West, 126, 1816. Cenesians.— Hennepin, 
New Discov., pt.2, 25, 1698. Cenis.— Joutel (1687) 
in French, Hist. Coll. La., 1, 148,1851. Cenys.— Jou- 
tel (1687) in Margry, Dec, III, 266, 1878. Ceries 
Assonys.— French, Hist. Coll. La., n, 11, note, 
1875. Cneis.— Drake, Bk. Inds., vii, 1848. Ooeni.— 
Hennepin, New Discov., map, 1698. Coenis.— 
De l'lsle, map, 1700. Couis. — Morse, N. Am., map, 
1776 (misprint). Hasinai.— ten Kate, Reizen in 
N. Am., 374, 1885 (own name). Iscanis. — Bull. 
Soc. Geog. Mex., 504, 1869. Nasoni.— For forms of 
this name, see Nasoni. Senis. — Cavelier (1687) 
quoted by Shea, Early Voy., 31, 1861. Tiddoes.— 
Keane in Stanford, Compend., Cent, and So. Am., 
539, 1878 (same?). Yscanes.— Tex. State Arch., 
Nov. 15, 1785. Yscanis. — Census of Nacogdoches 
urisdiction, ibid., 1790. 

I Caddoan Family. A linguistic family, 
first classified by Gallatin (Trans, and 
Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc, n, 116, 1836), who 
regarded the Caddo and Pawnee lan- 
guages as distinct, hence both names ap- 
pear in his treatise as family designations. 
Although now regarded as belonging to 
the same linguistic stock, there is a pos- 
sibility that future investigation may 
prove their distinctness. The Caddoans 
may be treated in three geographic groups : 
The Northern, represented by the Arikara 
in North Dakota; the Middle, comprising 
the Pawnee confederacy formerly living 
on Platte r. , Neb. , and to the w. and s. w. 
thereof; and the Southern group, includ- 
ing among others the Caddo, Kichai, and 
Wichita (Powell in 7th Rep. B. A. E., 58, 
1891 ) . The tribes included in the Southern 
group were scattered throughout the re- 
gion of the Red r. of Louisiana and its trib- 
utaries, in Arkansas and s. Oklahoma, 
where their names survive in the Washita 
r., the Wichita mountains and river, 
Waco city, Kichai hills, etc.; they also 
spread along the Sabine, Neches, Trinity, 
and Brazos rs. of Texas, and in part con- 
trolled the territory as far as the Colorado 
r. of Texas and the Gulf of Mexico. 

From cultural and other evidence the 
Caddoan tribes seem to have moved 
eastward from the S. W. The advance 
guard was probably the Caddo proper, 
who, when first met by the white race, 
had dwelt so long in the region of the Red 
r. of Louisiana as to regard it as their 
original home or birthplace. Other 
branches of the Caddoan family followed, 
settling along the rivers of n. e. Texas. 
Whether they drove earlier occupants of 
the region to the Gulf or at a later day 
were forced back from the coast by intru- 
sive tribes is not clear, but that some dis- 
placement had occurred seems probable, 
as early Spanish and French travelers 
found tribes of different families on the 
Gulf coast, while the Caddoans held the 
rivers but were acquainted with the coast 

and visited the bays of Galveston and 
Matagorda. The last group to migrate 
was probably the Pawnee, who kept to 
the n. and n. e. and settled in a part of 
what is now Kansas and Nebraska. 

The tribes of n. e. Texas being in the 
territory over which the Spaniards, 
French, and English contended for su- 
premacy, were the first to succumb to 
contact with the white race and the in- 
roads of wars and new diseases. Those 
dwelling farther inland escaped for a 
time, but all suffered great diminution 
in numbers; the thousands of 2 centuries 
ago are now represented by only a few 
hundreds. The survivors to-day live on 
allotted lands in Oklahoma and North 
Dakota, as citizens of the United States, 
and their children are being educated in 
the language and the industries of the 

From the earliest records and from tra- 
ditions the Caddoan tribes seem to have 
been cultivators of the soil as well as 
hunters, and practised the arts of pottery 
making, weaving, skin dressing, etc. 
Tattooing the face and body was common 
among those of the Southern group. 
Two distinct types of dwellings were 
used — the conical straw house among 
the Southern group and the earth lodge 
among the Pawnee and Arikara. Their 
elaborate religious ceremonies pertained 
to the quest of long life, health, and 
food supply, and embodied a recogni- 
tion of cosmic forces and the heavenly 
bodies. By their supernatural and social 
power these ceremonies bound the people 
together. The tribes were generally 
loosely confederated; a few stood alone. 
The tribe was subdivided, and each one 
of these subdivisions had its own village, 
bearing a distinctive name and sometimes 
occupying a definite relative position to 
each of the other villages of the tribe. A 
village could be spoken of in three ways: 
(1) By its proper name, which was gen- 
erally mythic in its significance or re- 
ferred to the share or part taken by it in 
the religious rites, wherein all the vil- 
lages of the tribe had a place; (2) by its 
secular name, which was often descrip- 
tive of its locality; (3) by the name of 
its chief. The people sometimes spoke 
of themselves by one of the names of 
their village, or by that of their tribe, or 
by the name of the confederacy to which 
they belonged. This custom led to the 
recording, by the early travelers, of a mul- 
tiplicity of names, several of which might 
represent one community. This confusion 
was augmented when not all the tribes of 
a confederacy spoke the same language; 
in such cases a mispronunciation or a 
translation caused a new name to be record- 
ed. For instance, the native name of the 
Caddo confederacy, Hasinai, ' our own 

BULL. 30] 



people,' was translated by the Yatasi, and 
"Texas" is a modification of the word 
they gave. Owing to the fact that a large 
proportion of the tribes mentioned by the 
writers of the last 3 centuries, together 
with their languages, are now extinct, 
a correct classification of the recorded 
names is no longer possible. The fol- 
lowing list of confederacies, tribes, and vil- 
lages is divided into 4 groups: (1) Those 
undoubtedly Caddoan; (2) those proba- 
bly so; (3) those possibly so; (4)^ those 
which appear to have been within the 
Caddoan country. 

(1) Arikara, Bidai, Caddo, Campti, 
Choye, Kichai, Nacaniche, Nacici, Nana- 
tsoho, Nasoni (=Asinai=Caddo?), Na- 
tasi, Pawnee, Wichita. 

(2) Aguacay, Akasquy, Amediche, 
Anoixi, Ardeco, Avoyelles, Cahinnio, 
Capiche, Chacacants, Chaguate, Chaquan- 
tie, Chavite, Chilano, Coligoa, Colima, 
Doustioni, Dulchanio, Harahey, Palla- 
quesson, Penoy, Tareque. 

(3) Analao, Autiamque, Avavares, 
Cachaymon, Guaycones, Haquis, Irru- 
piens, Kannehouan, Naansi, Nabiri, Toxo. 

(4) Acubadoas, Anamis, Andacaminos, 
Arkokisa, Bocherete, Coyabegux, Judosa, 
Kuasse, Mallopeme, Mulatos, Onapiem, 
Orcan, Palomas, Panequo, Peinhoum, 
Peissaquo, Petao, Piechar, Pehir, Sala- 
paque, Serecoutcha, Taraha, Teao, To- 
haka, Tohau, Tsepcoen, Tsera, Tutel- 
pinco, Tyacappan. (a. c. f.) 
>Caddoes. — Gallatin in Trans. Am. Antiq. Soc, ir, 
116, 306, 1836 (based on Caddo alone); Prichard, 
Phys. Hist. Mankind, V, 406, 1847; Gallatin in 
Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 402, 1853 [gives as 
languages Caddo, Red River (Nandakoes,Tachies, 
Nabedaches)] . >Caddokies. — Gallatin in Trans. 
Am. Antiq. Soc, II, 116, 1836 (sime as his Cad- 
does); Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v, 406, 1847. 
>Caddo, — Latham in Trans. Philol. Soc. Lond., ir, 
31, 1846 (indicates affinity with Iroquois, Muskoge, 
Catawba, Pawnee) ; Gallatin in Trans. Am. Ethnol. 
Soc, II, pt.