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HAND-BOOK 



OK 



A N G L O - S A X O xN 



AND 



Early English 



BY 



Hiram Corson, M.A. 

Pfqf€«*or of AngkhSaxon^ Englinh HUratvrt, and Oraiarif^ iA ths 

Cornea UhivergUp. 



NEIV EDITION, REVISED 



WITH A SUPPLEMBNTARY GLOSSARY 




">«LIB- 



i >^AP? 



n ' 



# . 



w 



NEW YORK 
HENRY HOLT & COMPANY. 



• . . • - J : 

* • J ■ • • 



# « 1^ 






• . ' 



• • « »•• • 



LBIPOUW. I 
b tba Oa» I* the Ubni 



ti(nM, In tlu jw 1871. In 

■k WILLUUl^ 

Bf Concmi. ■« WuliliiECiuiL 



TO 



S. S. HALDEMAN, M.A., 



PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, WHOSE "TREVELYAN 

PRIZE ESSAY" AND "ENGLISH AFFIXES" RANK 

AMONG THE MOST VALUABLE EXPOSITIONS 

MADE IN THIS GENERATION, OF THE 

LAWS OF SPEECH AND THE PHYSIOLOGY AND 

PHYSIOGNOMY OF WORDS, THIS VOLUME IS 

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 



I 



PREFACE. 



The present work is an attempt to furnish the student 
with such reading material and accompanying aids as will 
enable him to trace the growth of the English language 
from the purest existing form of the Anglo-Saxon or Ang- 
lish down to the end of the fourteenth century, when it 
had become, with the exception of a few lingering remains 
of the old inflections, essentially the same as the unin- 
flected language of the present day. The selections are 
sufficiently abundant, if thoroughly mastered, to serve as 
a basis for the fullest course of English philology that can 
be made practicable in our High -Schools and Colleges, as 
they are at present constituted. The aim has been, in 
making up the book, to choose such passages from the 
works represented as are both interesting in matter and in 
manner, and philologically valuable. A greater variety of 
selections might easily have been made from the carefully 
edited material that has accumulated the last twenty years, 
but the real purposes of an educational text-book of this 
kind are better subserved by fewer extracts of considerable 
length, and, as far as possible, by complete productions, 
representing the best form of the language at different 
periods, than by tid-bits that give but a faint idea of the 
general style of a work. The Anglo-Saxon version of the 
Gospel according to St. John has been given entire, as 
aflfording, by reason of the simplicity of the language and 
the familiarity of all with the subject-matter, the easieol 
reading for the beginner, for whom the book is meant. 

iElfric's Homily on the Birthday of St Gregory'has been 



■ tl_.« ■ -f - 



vi PREFACE. 

printed in the so-called Anglo-Saxon character, that the 
student may not be at a loss when he meets with any work 
or cited passage in which that character is used. 

Kemble designates the old letters as '*the silly charac- 
ters which people call Saxon ;" and Jacob Grimm, in a 
review of Cardale's Boethius, Gottingische gclchrte An- 
zeigen, October 5th, 1833, remarks: **It is time to re- 
nounce the use of the so-called Anglo-Saxon letters. With 
equal justice ought Old High Dutch and many other types 
to be introduced, and editions thereby made diflicult. 
The most accurate representations of the Anglo-Saxon 
peculiarities of language require no other signs than the 
simple beautiful Latin characters (from which the train of 
Anglo-Saxon manuscript proceeded and was altered for 
the worse), with only the addition of two, for the ih ami 
dh (f and t5). The simple v is quite sufficient to express 
the Anglo-Saxon w ; only at a later period did the Eng- 
lish lose it and become obliged to use their w for it. All 
besides these are trifling, and stand in the way. One 
could even disj^nse with the contractions for and and )>(//. 
Much more important and profitable would it be to intro- 
duce into the printed texts the signs of quantity in vowels, 
which are partly founded upon the practice of manuscripts, 
partly deduced from an accurate grammatical comparison 
of the value of sounds (in different languages). Wc want 
for this, in order to secure uniformity, only a settled con- 
cert, whatever difficult inquiries the use of them in par- 
ticular instances may bring with itself." This view of the 
great philologist must be accepted by every Anglo-Saxon 
scholar. But in a text-book, designed to prepare students 
for independent study, every requisite preliminary aid 
should be afforded ; and as the monkish and clerical 
modifications of the Roman letters are generally used in 
the early editions of Anglo-Saxon works, a specimen of 
them has been accordingly given. In recent editions of 



PREFACE. 



VII 



Anglo-Saxon works they have been wisely rejected, with 
the exception, of the two characters representing, — the one 
the initial sub-tonic of the word /^<r«, the other the initial 
atonic of the word /4in ; and corresponding, respectively, 
with 6 and 6, as pronounced in the Romaic or modern 
Greek. 

Great care has been used to have the accents conform 
with the best authorities on the subject. The ** Bibliolhck 
der Angelsachsischen Poesie" and "Glossar" of Grein, 
Ettmuller's "Engla and Seaxna Sc6pas and Boceras," 
and **Vorda vealhstdd Engla and Seaxna," Grimm's 
"Deutsche Grammatik," "Cajdmon's des Angelsachsen 
biblische Dichtungen^ herausgegeben von Bouterwek," 
and the grammars of Rask and Loth have been chiefly 
consulted. 

The analysis of the Anglo-Saxon strong verbs, is that 
of Loth, the clearest and fuU'est that has yet been made, 
contained in his "Etymologische angelsajchsischeng- 
lische Grammatik." Brock's valuable analysis of the 
grammatical forms of the Ancren Riwle, contained in the 
Transactions of the Philological Society, 1865, has been 
given as generally applicable to the Southern English of 
the period. The Grammatical Outlines and the Glossary 
will enable the student to make a thorough preparation of 
the lesson assigned him, while, at the same time, the aid is 
not too ready at hand, in the shape of explanatory notes, 
to forestall wholesome effort With a knowledge of the 
Anglo-Saxon inflections and syntax, and of a few philolog- 
ical principles in regard to letter-change, he can be, to a 
great extent, an independent observer of the forms pre- 
sented by the vocabulary and phraseology of the subse- 
quent jxjriods of the language; and the more he is 
encouraged in independent observation the better. 

The Latin of the Vulgate has been given along with the 
selections from the Wycliffite versions of the Scriptures, 



viii PREFACE. 

that the student may readily see to what extent their pecu^^ 
liaritiesof diction, especially those of the earlier text, ar^ 

' doe to what appears to have been an over conscientious 
regard for the literal sense of the original. 

The work, it is hoped, whatever may be its defects, will 
do something towards putting the study of English upon a 
sonnd basis. This study cannot be pursued with success, 
upon the basis of the modem forms of the language, as is 
evidenced by the unsatis&ctory results reached by the best 
schoolmaster grammarians. To the study of the literature 
of the age of Elizabeth, the goodliest heritage of every 
educated Englishman and Anglo-American, a respectable 
knowledge of the previous language and literature from 
the age of Alfred must be brought, before it can be pur- 
sued with anything more than a half success; and the 
earnest student who shrinks from no labor that is neces- 
sary for the realization of the highest standard of excel- 

. lence, and who would grow up to the fullest appreciation 
and enjoyment of which he is capable, of the great 
masterpieces of English literature, must *'seek out the 
ancient Mother/' The opinion expressed one thousand 
years ago, by the good and great king Alfred, of blessed 
memory, in the celebrated Epistle which he addressed to 
each of his Bishops, and which forms the introduction to 
his Anglo-Saxon translation of the Pastorale of Pope 
Gregory the Great, is as applicable to our own time, and 
especially to this country, as it was to his time and coun- 
try, and is one of the many proofs we have that he was 
in the highest sense the father of his people. In that Epis- 
tle he expresses his deep sense of the importance of culti- 
vating the vernacular tongue, as one of the most effective 
means for the intellectual and moral advancement of the 
deigyand the laity. One short passage is worthy the 
attention of all educators of the present day. Here it is 
in the king's own good mother English : 



I 



rREFAci:. i, 

*'Me J>inc(5 belere, gif cuw sw.i j)!!^^, \k\:[ \vc . . . 
ge-don, swa we swi6e eatJe magon mid Godcs fultume, 
gif we fi stilnesse habbaS, fact eall se6 gedgu^ fenu is on 
Angel-cynne fredra manna, fdra fe fd sf)^*da hjebbon, . . . 
s^Ti t(5 Icornunga 6^-faeste, pi hwile J>e hi ndnre <5€re note 
ne maegon, 6t$ fyrst )>e hi wel cunnon Englisc gewrit 
Ir^dan. Ldere man si^San furSor on Leden-ge]>e(5de, yi. 
fe man furtJor Ideran wille, and td hedran hdde ddn wille." 

That is, '* To me it scemeth better, if to you so itseem- 
eth, that we . . . cause, as we full easily may with God's 
help, if we the repose have, that all the youth that now is 
in the Angle-stock of free men, of those that the means 
have, ... be to learning put, the while that they none 
other business ne can, till first that they well can English 
writing read. Let one teach afterward further in Latin 
speech those that one further teach will, and to higher 
hood advance will." 

The importance, moral and intellectual, to the individ- 
ual, to society, and to the state, of a thorough cultivation 
of the vernacular tongue, will soon, it is hoped, be fully 
and practically recognized by all educators and institutions 
of learning. What Thomas De Quincey, the greatest mas- 
ter of English prose that this century has produced, the 
greatest, perhaps, produced by any century, has said in 
regard to the young /oe/j obligation to attain to purity, 
precision, compass, and idiomatic energy of diction, is 
scarcely less applicable to every young man who would 
reach the highest culture of which he is capable. *' If," 
he says, in his somewhat ungenerous essay on the poet 
Keats, "there is one thing in this world that, next after 
the flag of his country and its spotless honour, should be 
wholly in the eyes of the young poet, — it is the language 
of his country. He should spend the third part of his 
life in studying this language and cultivating its total 
resources." 



X PREPACK 

This would hardly be an extravagant assertion with re- 
spect to any one's native language which possesses a liter' 
ature embodying, in art forms, the highest and deepest 
thought and senuraent of the people who speak it, and 
exhibiting their progress from ignorance to knowledge, 
from rudeness to refinement ; and least of all is it extrav- 
agant with respect to the English language, whose litera- 
ture is the grandest embodiment of what man, in his 
Gtmggles, his secret questionings, his aspirations, and his 
hopes, has thought and felt. 

The author does not "crave" for his work, in the hack- 
neyed language of prefaces, "the indulgence of a gener- 
ous public," but hopes thai it will receive such criticism 
from true scholars that "would gladly learn and gladly 
teach," as will help him to correct its mistakes and fill out 
its short-comings in another edition, if one be called for. 

To W. G. Medlicott, Esq., of Long Meadow, Mass., 
he is under a great obligation, in common with many 
other students of English in this country, for the long use 
of valuable books from his extensive Anglo-Saxon and 
early English library. 

HisAH Corson. 

CaKadilU PUce, 

The Cornell (JniTenitf, 
December, 1870. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Gospel accord- 
ing TO St. John . . i 

Selections from the Homiues of i^LFRic : 

Preface 57 

Homily on the Good Shepherd 59 

Homily on the Miracle of the Loaves and the 

Fishes 62 

Homily on the Birthday of St. Gregory 68 



Selections from King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Ver- 
sioN OF THE History of Paulus Orosius : 



Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan 77 

Exploits of Alexander (called) the Great 82 

The Reign of Augustus ; Universal Peace ; Ad- 
vent of the Saviour 9c 

Selections from King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Ver- 
sion OF Boethius de Consolations Philosophic : 

Preface 95 

The desires of a good King 95 

God governs all creatures with the bridles of 

his power; every creature tends towards its 

kind 97 

A king's favour and friendship not desirable ; 

friends come and go with wealth and poyer ; 

self-conquest the highest of all conquests 98 



xii CONTENTS. 

True nobility has its seat in the mind, and is 
not adventitious lor 

The mind instructed by Wisdom to seek for 
truth within itself, and not outwardly; the 
fable of Orpheus 102 

Of proud and unjust rulers; the good never 
withotA their reward ; man's nature degraded 
by vice and sensuality to thai of beasts 105 

SSLECTIONS FROM THE ANGtO-SAXOfI ChrOHICLE : 

Conflict at Glastonbury between the Norman 
Abbot Thurstan and the Saiton Monks no 

William the Conqueror's despotic sway ; llie 
rapacity of ihe king and his nobles ; oppres- 
sion of the poor ; William invades France ; 
burns Mantes ; dies ; his character drawn liy 
a contemporary who had sojourned in liis 
court Ill 

Death of Henry I. ; Stephen of Blois conse- 
crated King of England ; the sad state of the 
times during his reign 1 1 6 

Selections from Lajamon's Brut, or Chronicle ok 
Britain : 

The author's account of himself i ? r 

Childric's flight to the forest of Caledon ; his 
submission to Arthur ; the outrages commit- 
ted by ihe Danes in Lincolnshire ; descriprion 
of Arthur's armour; Childric's flight over the 
Avon ; Arthur's combat with Colgrim ; strat- 
egem of Cador; defeat and death of Childric. 123 

Selections from the Ancren Riwle: 

Division of the Treatise into eight parts 155 

False and true Anchoresses 156 



CONTENTS. xiii 

yj\ lx>ve ; a pure heart essential to Love ; a 
paiable of the love of Christ ; the cross of 

Cbrist our shield i6o 

An m}unction not to keep cattle ; traflfic forbid- 
den ; clothing and discipline ; caution against 
finery in dress, and against idleness; epis- 
tolary correspondence ; blood-letting 165 

The author's concluding benediction and prayer 167 

Selections from the Ormulum : 

The author's dedication of the work to his 
brother 169 

Homily on the Temptation in the Wilderness. . 179 

Proclamation of King Henry HI., 18 Oct., 

A. D. 1258 200 

Selections from Robert of Gloucester's Chron- 
icle : 

The story of Lear and his daughters 202 

Harold's succession to the throne of England 
on the death of Edward the Confessor ; the 
Battle of Hastings, and death of Harold ; 
Reign of William the Conqueror 209 

Selections from Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, 
OR Remorse of Conscience : 

pe Uore-speche 228 

pe uerste Codes Heste 228 

pe ofer Codes Heste 229 

pe fridde Codes Heste 230 

pe uerfe Codes Heste 230 

pe vifte Codes Heste 231 

pe zixte Codes Heste 232 

pe zeuende Codes Heste 232 



xiv CONTENTS. 

pe ejtendc Codes Heste 232 

pe nejende Codes Heste 233 

pe tende Codes Heste 233 

pe zennes of fe tonge 234 

,Of the zenne of yelpinge 236 

SXLKCTION FROM "ThE VoiAGE AND Tra¥AILZ OF SlR 

John Maumdevile, Kt. :" 

The river Nile; Egypt, its geography, produc- 
tions, etc 238 

Extracts from Trevisa's Translation of Ralph 
Hicden's Folvchronicon : 

The corruption of the English tongue, and the 
preference had fi r the French, in the XlVth 
century 246 

Selections from the Vision of William concern- 
ing Piers Plowman : 

The Vision of ihe Deadly Sins and of Pers the 
Plouhmon 248 

The Penitents set out in search of Truth; the 
way described by Piers tlie Ploughman 256 

Hunger enjoins upon Piers teinpeiance in eat- 
ing ; the various foods of the poor enumer- 
ated ; the discontent caused by prosperity . . , z6o 

" Do-well " is better than the Pope's pardons 
and indulgences 262 

Selections from Pierce the Ploughmans Crede : 
Description of a Dominican Convent and a fat 

friar 264 

The poor ploughman and his family; his opin- 
ion of the friars 267 



CONTENTS. XV 



SeLECI IONS FROM THE WyCLIFFITK VERSIONS OF THE 

Bible : 

Genesis xxxvii. (Earlier text) 270 

Genesis xli. (Purve/s revision) 273 

Psalm xlv. (Earlier text and Purvey's revision). 278 

P^lm Ivii. (Earlier text and Purvey's revision). 279 

Ecclesiastes xii. (Purvey's revision, with Gloss.) 281 

Isaiah xxi. (Earlier text) 282 

Isaiah Hi. (Earlier text) 284 

Isaiah liii. (Earlier text) 285 

Isaiah Iv. (Earlier text) 287 

Luke XV. (Purvey's revision) 288 

Chaucer's Prologue to the Canterbury Tales.. 291 

Selections from Gower's Confessio Amantis : 

The story of Ceix and Alceon 316 

The story of Rosiphele 322 

Glossary 329 

Notices of Works represented 493 

Outlines of Anglo-Saxon Grammar 515 

Grammar of La^mon 543 

Old South Engush Grammar 551 



; 



■A L.'j.r 



I- ■ & P R 



# O 






/ » 



ANGLO-SAXON VERSION 



OF 



THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 



ST. JOHN. 



I. On fruman waes Word, and I>aet Word waes mid 
Code, and God waes faet Word, tpaet waes on fruman 
mid Code. sEalle fing wderon geworhte furh hyne ; and 
nin f ing naes geworht biitan him. ^Daet waes lif fe on 
him geworht waes, and faet lif waes manna ledht. »And 
paet ledht Ij^ht on f^strum ; and p^tro faet ne gendmon. 
• Man waes fram Code dsend, faes nama waes lohannes. 
T pes com td gewitnesse, )>aet he gewitnesse cy*8de be fam 
Ledhte, faet ealle men )>urh hyne gel^fdon. bNxs he 
Ledht, ac )>aet he gewitnesse fortJ-bdere be fam Ledhte. 
tSdt5 Ledht waes, faet onl^ht selcne cumendne man on 
J>ysne middan-eard. loHe waes on middan-earde, and 
middan-eard waes geworht furh hine, and middan-eard 
hine ne gecnedw. iiTd hys dgenum he com, and hig 
hyne ne underf(6ngon. itSdtJlice swd hwylce swd hyne 
underf(6ngon, he sealde hym anweald )>aet hig w^ron 
Codes beam, |?am |>e gel^'fa^ on his naman : \%\i. ne synd 
dcennede of blddum, ne of fldesces willan, ne.of weres 
willan ; ac hig synd of Code dcennede. m And j>2et Word 
waes fldesc geworden, and eardode on iSs, (and we ge- 



2 JOHN I. 

sJwon liys wuldor, swylce in-ccnnedes wuldor of Fader, ) 
(raet vnes ful mid gj'fe and st^Sfxstnyssc. 



u loliannes c^ gewitnesse be him, and cl)'paS, f us cwej*- 
endc : pes vims ]>e ic sfede, Se fe l6 cumenne ys ^fter 
me, WES geworden beforan me : forfam he wass &i fonne 
ic. nAnd of his gefyUednesse we ealle onfengon gyfe for 
gj-fe. iiForfam fe Se wses gescald purh Moyscn, and gj-fu 
and siSfiestnes ys geworden purh H&Iend CrisL «Ne 
geseah n£fre n^n man God ; bilton se <ln<enneda Sunu 
hit c^de, se ys on hys'Fseder beanne, «And pxt ys 
lohannes gewiines. 

BYS GEBYBAD OK DONE SUNNAN-DIG JER HYDDAN-WYNTRA. 

Di 'pi ludeas sendon heora sacerdas and heora diaconas 
fram lerusalem td hym, fst hig icsodon hine, and jius 
cw&don : Hwjet eart fii ? » And he C)'i5de, and ne wiStiijc, 
and pus cwseS : Ne eom ic ni Crist nAnd hig dcsodon 
hine, and )>us cw&don : Earl fii Elias ? And he cwaaS : 
Ne eom ic hit. Da cwifedon hig : Eart pii witega ? And 
he andwyrde, and cw^iS : Nic nHig cwSedon t6 him ; 
HwBEt eart ]>i3? JiKt we andwyrde bringon fdm fe 6s Co 
(« sendon. HwKt segst fii be fe sj'lfum f » He cw^tS : 
Ic eom clypiendcs stefn on w^stene, GerihtaS Dryhtnes 
weg, swd se witega Isaias cwkB. « And fi 8e ^i dsende 
wSeron, pd w&ron of sundor-hdlgon. u And hig icsodon 
hine, and cw^don t(5 him : Hwi fullast )>il, gif pu ne 
eart Crist, ne Ellas, ne witega? k lohannes him and- 
Stt'arode : Ic fullige on wjetere; t(5-myddes edw stcid fe 
ge ne.cunnon. nHe ys pe Eeiler me t<Sweard ys, se wass 
geworden befoian me ; ne eom ic wyriSe post ic unbinde 
his sceo-pwang. iiDis ping wdbron gewordene on Betha- 
nla begeondan lordanen, pser lohannes fullode. 



\ 



JOHN I. 



DYS GEBYRAD ON DONE VIII. DMG GODES JETYWEDNTSSE. 

» Ofre daege lohannes geseah J>one Hdelend td hym cum- 
ende, and cwaetS : Her ys Codes Lamb ; h6r ys se f e d^C 
dweg middan-eardes synne. wpes ys be )>am ic s&de, 
i^fter me cymC wer fe beforan me geworden ^^-a^ : 
forfam fe he waes ^r )>onne ic. « And ic hyne nyste : ac 
ic com and fullode on waetere, id }>am faet he wdbre ge- 
swutelod on Israhela folce. wAnd lohannes cytJde ge- 
witnesse, cwefende : Daet ic geseah nyfer-cumendne Gdst 
of heofenum, swd sw^ culfran, and wunode ofer hyne. 
wAnd ic hyne ne cdtSe : ac se fe me sende id fullianne 
on waetere, he cwaj^ to me, Ofer fone fe )>u gesyhst nyj>er- 
stigendne GiCst, and ofer hyne wuniendne, fxt ys se fe 
fullatS on Hdlgum Gdste. m And ic geseah, and gewitnesse 
cy^de }net fes is Codes Sunu. 

DYS SCEAL ON S~ ANDREAS M-ESSE-.KFEN. 

Si Eft (5t5re da^e sx6d lohannes, and twegen of his leom- 
ing-cnyhtum ; seand he cwaetS, yi he geseah fone Hdelend 
gangende : Her ys Codes Lamb ! n Di geh^rdon hine 
twegen leominjj-cnyhtas specende, and fylidon fam Hjfel- 
ende. ssDi beseah se Hifelend, and geseah hig hym fyli- 
ende, and cwdd^ i6 hym : Hwaet s6ce gyt ? Hig cwdedon 
t6 hym : Rabbi, (foet ys gecweden and gereht, Ldreow) 
hwar eardast fu ? » He cwaetS t(5 hym : CumatS and ge- 
se6t5. Hig c(5mon and gesdwon hwar he wunode, and 
mid hym wunodon on fam daege : hit waes fd sed teo^e 
tid. 40 Andreas, Simones brdtJer Petres, waes dtSer of )>aih 
twam, )>d geh;^rdon act lohanne, and him fyligdon. 4iDes 
gemette Merest Simonem his brd^er, and cwae« to him : 
We gem^tton Messiam, pst is gereht, Crist 4sAnd hig 
geldeddon hine td Jam Hdelende. D.l beheold se H&l- 
end hine, and cwatS : pd eart Simon, Idnan sunu : pu 



4 JOHN II. 

bj-st genemned CephSs, pset js gereht, Pelrus. «Oii 
mergen he wolde faran on Galilea, and he gem^tie Phil- 
ippus ; and se Hiblend cw.-c8 to him : Fylig me. «Si58- 
llce Philippus nses Tram Betlisaida, Andreas ceastre, and 
Petres. « Philippus gemelie Naihanahel, and cwxlS to 
hym: We gem^tton pone HSelend, losepes sunn, of 
Nazareth, pone writ Moyses and pd witegan on piere ie. 
• And Naihanahel cvixi to hym : Mceg fenig ping g6des 
beiJn of Nazareth ? Philippus cwkJS to hym : Cum and 
geseoh. nOi geseah se Hfeknd Naihanahel to h)-m 
cumendoe, and cwa;5 be hym: H^r ys Israhelisc wer, 
on para nis nin fdcn. wDicwaiS Naihanahel to him: 
Hwanon cdpest pU me? Di andswarode se Hielend, 
and c\\xi to him : Ic geseah pe pi pU w^re under pam 
fic-treowe, irpam pe Philippus pe clypode. wHyra and- 
swarode pd Nathanahel, and pus cwaeS : Rabbi, pii eart 
Codes Sunu, and pii eart Israhela Cining. m'Di cw»8 se 
HEelend to hym : pii gcsyhst mdre ponne pis s^ ; forpam 
pe pii geiyfdesi, p4 ic cw'aet! piet ic gesdwe pe under pam 
fic-treowe. tiAnd he sSede him : SdC ic secge eow, ge 
geseiiS opene heofenas, and Codes englas up-stlgende and 
nyper-stigende ofer mannes Sunu. 



II. 1 On pam pryddan dsege wieron gifta gewordene on 
Chanii Galileas ; and pa^ H&lendes m6der wass faer : 
<s<5«lice se HSelcnd and hys leorning-cnyhtas wibrongela- 
pode to pam giftum. i And pi paet win geteorode, pi 
cwaeS pjea Hfeiendes mdder to him ; Hig nabbaB win. 
tBd cwaeS se HSblend to hyre : Li wif, hwset ys me and 
pef gyt min tima ne com. iD.t c\vk8 pas HSelendes 
m6der to pam pinum: DiJS swi hwa;t swi he edw secge. 
• Dar wferon soHlIce iset syx stienene wEter-fatu, aefter 
ludea geclibnsunge, selc webs on twcgra sestra gemcte. 



JOHN II. 5 

otJ^e on freora, iDi bead se Hdelend fxt hig fa fata 
mid >*-aBtere gefyldoa And hig gefy Idon J>a 6^ fone brerd, 
sDd cwaetS se Hdblend. HIadatS nu, and berat5 |>3ere 
diy-hte-ealdre. And hig ndmon. •Dd se dryhte-ealdor 
Jwes wines onbyrgde, |>e of )>am ^^tcre geworden wses, he 
nyste hwanon hit com : (fa )>^nas s<5tSlice wiston, fe fa?t 
waster hlddon ;) se dryhte-ealdor clypode fone br^d- 
guman, lo and cwa;t$ to him : JE\c man sylt5 ^rest g($d 
win ; and fonne hig druncene be<5f5, yxt fe wyrse b}15 : 
J>d geheolde fact g<5de win 66 f ys. n Dys wxs faet forme 
tdcn J>e se Hdelend worhte on Chand^ Galil6de, and ges- 
wutelode hys wuldor : and hys leorning-cnyhtas geiy'fdon 
on hine. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON D-ERE FEORDAN WUCAN INNAN 

LENCTENE, ON MONAN-DJEG. 

isi^fter fysum he, and his m<5der, and his gebrdtJru, and 
his leorning-cnyhtas, fdron to Capharnadm, and wunedon 
Jiaer feawa daga, is And hyt waes ncah ludea Easlron, 
and se H^lend fdr to Hierusalem, uand gem^tte on fam 
temple fa iSe sealdon oxan and scedp and culfran, and 
siitende myneteras. u And he worhte swipan of strengon, 
and hig ealle of fam temple ddrdf, ge scedp, ge oxan ; 
and he igedt faera mynetera fedh, and tdwearp heora 
my*san ? wand sdede fam fe t$a culfran c^pton : D66 fds 
fing heonon ; ne wyrce ge mines Faeder hiis to mangung- 
htise. 17 D6, gemundon his leorning-cnyhtas faet 6e dwriten 
ys, pines hilses anda me et. leDd andswarcdon him fa 
ludeas, and cwdedon : Hwylc tdcn setj^wst f\i lis, forfam 
fe tJii fds f ing dest ? w Se Hdelend him andswarode, and 
cwaetS : Toweorpa^ f is tempel, and ic hit iirdbre binnan 
frym dagum. toDi ludcas cw^don to him : pis tempel 
waes getimbrod on six and feowertigum wintrum, and 
dr&rst f \i hit on f r^m dagum ? si Scj^Kce he hyt cwoe« be 
his lichaman temple. mD^ heof dea^e drds, fa gemundon 



>:?*» 



6 JOHN III. 

his leorning-cnyhtas fact he hit be him sylfum cwaeC : 
and hig gclyfdon hdlgum gewrite, and faere spraece pe 
se Hdelend spnec. wDa he wxs on Hierusalem on Ea- 
stron, on freols-dajge, mancga gelyfdon on his naman, fi 
hig gesdwon fa tdcna pe he worhte. u Se Hdelcnd ne ge- 
swutelode hine sylfne him, forfam he cut5e hig ealle, 
ttand for)>am him noes ndn ]>earf ]7£t sbnig man sdede 
gewitnesse be men : he wiste witodllce hwaet waes on men. 

DYS GODSPEL MAN SCEAL REDAN OEER EAST RON, BE D£BE 
RODE, AND EFT OFER PENTECOST EN, ON DONE 
FORMAN-SUNNAN-DJEG. 

III. 1 S6t5lice sum Phariseisc man waes, gencmned Ni- 
chod^mus, se waes ludea caldor. t pes com to him on 
niht, and cwajtS to him : Rabbi, (J)3et is, Ldreow) we 
witon foet pd c(5me fram Gode: ne macg ndn man J?ds 
tdcn wyrcan pe t$d wyrcst, biiton God bed mid him. aSe 
H^lend him andswarode, and cwa^S : S6t5 ic pe secge, 
Bdton hwd bed edniwan gecenned, ne maeg he gesedn 
Codes rice. 4 D4 cwae^ Nichoddmus to hym : Hd mxg 
man bedn eft dcenned, ponne he by-tS eald ? cwyst pd 
maeg he eft cuman on hys mdder inno^, and bedn eft 
dcenned ? 6 Se Hdelend hym andswarode, and c\vset5 : 
Sd^ ic pe secge, Bdton hwd bed ge-edcenned of waetere 
and of Hdlgum Gdste, ne maeg he in-faran on Codes 
rice. flDset pe dcenned is of fl^sce, paet is fldesc; and 
paet pe of Gdste is dcenned, pa^t is gdst. 7 Ne wundra pd, 
forpam pe ic sdede pe, Edw gcbyratJ pxt ge bedn dcen- 
nede endnlwan. 8 Gdst ord'Sa'S pxr he wile, and pd gehyrst 
his stefne, and pd ndst hwanon he cymtS, ne hwydcr he 
g^^ : swd is aelc pe dcenned is of Gdste. Da andswarode 
Nicoddmus, and cwseS : Hd mdgon pds ping pus ge- 
weorSan ? 10 Sc H^lcnd andswarode, and cwaciS to him : 
Dd eart Idredw Israhcla folce, and pd ndst pds ping ? 
11 Sd^ ic pe secge, paet we spreca^ paet wc witon, and we 



JOHN III. 7 

c>^at5 Jwet we gesdwon ; and ge ne underf<5^ lire cytJ- 
nesse. w Gyf ic edw eorClice fing s^de, and ge ne ge- 
lyfa^, hdmeta gel^l^fe ge, gif ic edw heofenllce fing secge ? 

13 And ndn man ne dstihtS to heofenum, bdton se )>e nytSer 
com of heofenum, mannes Sunu, se fe com of heofenum. 

14 And swd swd Moyses J>a naeddran up-dhdf of )>am 
w^ene, swd gebyratS faet mannes Sunu bed up-dhafen : 
i* pxi nin faera ne forweorSe f e on hyne gel^'fiJ, ac haebbe 
fact ^e lif. 

DYS SCEAL ON ODERNE PENTECOSTENES MJESSE-D^G. 

uGod lufode middan-card, swd ^t he sealde bis dn- 
cennedan Sunu, faet ndn ne forweorSe J>e on bine ge- 
lyfi5, ac haebbe faet ^ce lif n Ne sende God his Sunu on 
middan-eard, faet he demde middan-earde ; ac faet mid- 
dan-eard sy gehaeled purh bine, u Ne bi^ fam ged(!iraed 
ye on bine gelyfiJ : se J>e ne gelyR$, him bltS gcdemed ; 
forj^am fe he ne gel^fde on fone naman ))xs dn-cen- 
nedan Godes Suna. w Daet is se ddm, )>aet ledht com on 
middan-eard, and men lufedon f^stro sw]^or ))onne faet 
ledht: heora weorc wjferon yfele. «Alc )>aera J?e yfele 
^^•5, batatJ faet ledht ; and he ne cym^ to ledhtc, fxt liis 
weorc ne s^n gerihtldehie. « Witodlice se ]>e wyrcfS sdfS- 
faestnysse cymtS to fam ledhte, }>aet his weorc syn i?e- 
swutelode, forf am f e big synd on Gode geddne. « ^fter 
]>yssum com se Hdelend and his leorning-cnyhtas to 
ludea-lande, and wunede )>aer mid hym, and fullode. 
sa And lohannes fullode on Endn witS Salim, forfam fe 
JKEF wderon manega waetro. And big togaedere cdmon, 
and w^ron gefullode. « I>i gyt naes lohannes geddn on 
cwedrtem. 

DYS SCEAL ON WODNES-DJEG, ON DJERE DRYDDAN WUCAN 

OFER EAST RON. 

ssDa smeadon lohannes leoming<nyhtas and fa ludeas 
be }>xre clsensunge : wand cdmon to lobanne, and cwifedon 



S JOHN IV. 

to him r Rabbi, se ¥e mid Jte waes begeondan lord^n^, 
be pam pil cj'ISdest gewitnesse, iiU he fuUafi, and ealle 
hig cumaB lo him. n lohannes andwyrde, and cwk8 : Ne 
mseg man nSn fing underfdn, bdton hit be<3 him of hcof- 
enum geseaid. uGe sj-lfe me sjnd to gewitnesse, faet ic 
sSede : Neom ic CrisI, ac ic com dsend beKran hine, 
nSe Se bryde hajiS, se is br^d-guma r se i5e is jrass br^d- 
guman fretJnd, and stent and geliyrS hjne, mid gefean 
he geblissaS for yxs brjM-guman stefne: pes min gefea 
is gefylled. mMil gebyraji fxl he weaxe, and fast ic 
wanige. iiSe fe ufenan com. se ys ofer ealle : se pe of 
eor(ian ys, se sprjcS be corfan : se pe of heofone com, 
se ys ofer ealle. nAnd he cyS pxt he geseah and ge- 
h;^rde ; and nan man ne undcrfehS his c)^5nessc. aSdiS- 
lice se ]ie his cy'Sntsse underfehS, he gei^cnaK l>a?t God 
ys s(5tSf:esines. >< Se pe God sende sprycB Godcs ivord ; 
ne syl? God )>one Gast he gemete. « Feeder lufaS Jione 
Sunu, and sealde ealle ping on his hand. uSe pc gelJ^fiS 
on Sunu, se hsefB ^ce lif : se pe Jiatn Suna is ungcleaffull, 
ne gesyhS he lif; ac Godesyrre wtinaSofer hine. 

IV. iDd se Hifelend wyste pxt pa Pharisei gehyrdon 
J«et he hsefde mS leorning-ctiyhta ponne lohannes, ■ (peah 
se Hafelcnd nefullode, ac hys leorning-cnyhlas. ) jpi foriet 
he ludea-land, and (6i eft on Galileii. iHvm gebyrede 
pEet he sceolde faran purh Samdria-land. tWitodlice he 
com on Samdrian cestre, pe ys genemned Sychir, neah 
pam tiine fe lacob sealde Idsepe his suna. ■ pier n-xs 
lacobes wyll. 

DVS SCEAL ON rRIGE-D*G, ON D«RE III. LENOTEN-WUCAN. 

Se Hfelend sat xt pam wylle, pi he wass w^rig gcgin : 
and hit waes mid-da?g. iDi com pxr An wif of Sama- 
ria, wolde wfeter feccan : yd co.'xi se Hslend to byre : 
Syle me drincan. i(Hys leoming-cnyhias fmlon p.i lo 
p;ere ceastre, woldon him mete bicgan. ) « Di cwasS p;et 



JOHN IV. 9 

Samaritanisce wif to hym : Humeta bitst fii aet me drinc- 
an, )K)nne fd eart ludeisc, and ic eom Samaritanisc wIf? 
ne brdcaiJ ludeas and Samaritanisce metes aetgaedere. 
10 Dd andswarode se H&lend, and cwaetJ to hyre : Gif 
f d wistest Codes gyfe, and hwaet se is fe cwytJ to 
fe, Syle me drincan ; wftodlice fd bdede hine ]fxl he 
sealde f e lifes waeter. n Da cwae^ Jjaet wif to hym : Leof- 
ne, }>d naefet ndn fing mid to hladenne, and fes pytt ys 
dedp ; hwanon haefst )>d lifes waeter ? n Cwyst fa pact 
fu sig mderra J?onne dre fseder lacob, se f e ds fisne pytt 
sealde, and he, and his beam, and his n^tenu of ))am 
druncon ? uDi andswarode se Hdelend, and cwactS to 
hyre : iEIcne faera fyrst eft )>e of fysum wseter drinctJ : 
Hwitodlice aeic }>aera tSe drindJ of fam waetere )>e ic him 
sylle, bitJ on him will forS-raesendes waeteres on ^ce lif. 
IS Dd cwae^ jnet wif to him : Hldford, syle me faet waeter, 
J>aet me ne fyrste, ne ic ne furfe h^r feccan. uDi cwaeC 
se H^lend to hyre : Gd, clypa f inne ceorl, and cum 
hider. n Di andwyrde faet wif, and cwaefi : Naebbe ic 
n^nne ceorl. Di cwae^ se H^lend to hyre : Wei fd 
cw^de, f aet fd naefst ceorl : w Witodlice |>d haefdest fif 
ceorlas, and se ^e f d nd hsefst nis fin ceorl : aet f am f d 
s^dest S(5t5. m Di cwaetS faet wif to him : Ledf, f aes ^e 
me finctJ, fd eart witdga. » XTre faederas hig gebaedon 
on fyssere ddne ; and ge secga^, faet on Hierusalem s^ 
sed st6w faet man on gebidde. nJ>i cwaetJ se H^lend to 
hyre : Ld wif, gel^f me faet sed tid cym^, f onne ge ne 
gcbidda^ Faeder, ne on fissere ddne, ne on Hierusalem. 
« Ge gebidda^ faet ge nyton : we gebiddati fact we witon : 
forfam fe hjfel is of ludeum. sa Ac sed tid cym^, and nd 
ys, fonne sdt5e gebed-men gebiddatJ Faeder on gdste and 
on sdtSfaestnysse : witodlice Faeder sec6 swylce f e hyne 
gebiddon. u Gdst ys God : and fam f e hyne gebidda'6, 
gebyratJ fact hig gebiddon on gdste and on sdtSfaestnysse. 
wDaet wif cwx« to hvm : Ic wdt fxt Messias cymtS, fe is 

I* 



i JOHN IV. 

g-TiLUincd Cris: ; t>>.nui; Ijl- lmuS, Ic ^y^ ii- r.ille I'ing. 
»Se Hxlend cwaefS to hyre : Ic hit eom, ]'e ui6 |il' t| rcco. 
Si And jKcr-rilile ci5mon his leorning-cnjhias, anO hig wun- 
dredon Jist he wiS ftei wif sprajc ; peali heora nin ne 
c".x:B, HwKt s^est l>i5 ? otifSe, Hwart sprj*cst piS wiC hig! 
siWi'tgdlice [laet wif forHl hyre wasler-fet, and code irf 
\'xre bj'rig, and cwa:£ 1<1 |>am inannum : uCumaS, and 
pe^eda (lone man, fe me sibde ealle Jra fing )?e ic dyde : 
cweSe ge _vs he Crist ? h D4 eodon liig lit of fibre byrig, 
and cximon to him. uOn-gcmang fam his ! coming -en ihlas 
hine biedon, and pus cwSedon : Lirei5w. et, a Dd cwafi 
lie 10 him : Ic hsebbe fone meie l;3 elanne J>e ge nyton. 
aDi cwtfedon his Icorning-cnyhtas him bctweonan, Hwaa- 
fcT ibnig man him meie brohte f » Di cwajf se HEblend 
lo hym : Win mete ys piet ic wj'rce yxs willan J>e nic 
sende, past ic fullfreirme his weorc. » Hd ne secge ge, 
p£i!t nil gyl synd fedwer mdntSas fer man rj'pan msge? 
nii ic ciiw seege, HebbaB up edwre edgan, and gese68 
piis eardas. fSHl hig synd scire id rypanne. h And se fe 
rypB nytnB mfide, and gaderaS wacstm on ^cum li'lc : p^t 
a;tgsedere geblission, se pe sa;wi5 and se fe rj'P*'- "On 
Jiyson ys wllodlke stiS word, Forpam dfier ys se fe s&wtS, 
<i8er ys se fe rj^pB. n Ic sende etSw t6 i^-panne fast pa 
ge ne beswuncon : 6iitt swuncon, and ge eodon on heota 
geswinc. wWrtodticemanega Samariianisce of fsfereceastiB 
greljffdon on hine, for fxs wifes worduni, fe be him cysde, 
D»I he sdbde me ealle fa fing fe ic dyde. toBi fa Sama- 
ritaniscan cdmon to hym, hig gebfcdon hj-ne fKt he wun- 
ode ffir : and he wunodc fKr twegen dagas, •! And my- 
cele mi gelj'fdon for his spice ; a and cwidon to fam 
wife : Ne gelj^fe we ni for flnre spr{fece : we sylfc gehj'r- 
don, and we witon fret he is s6ti middan-eardes Hfclend. 
wSdfillce iEfter iwdm dagon he f^rde Jianone. and ftSr to 
Galilea. wSe HSblend sylf cy-Kdc gewitnesse, fst aia 
w!tcga nceflS ninne weortSscype on hys igenum earde. 



JOHN V. I, 

««K he com to Galileam, yi underfengon hig hine, pa liig 

ges^won ealle yi ping pe he worhte on Hierusalem on 

fi^ls-daege: and hig cdmon to pam freols-daege. 4«And 

lie com eft to Chanai Galileae, paer he worhte paet win of 

waeiere. 

^YS GODSPEI* GEBTRAD OFER PENTECOSTEN, ON DiERB AN 
AND TWENTYGODAN WUCAN ON SUNNAN-DiEG. 

Sum under-cyning waes paes sunu vfvcs gesyclod on Ca- 

ptamaum. 47 Dd pa se geh^de paet se Hdelend fdr fram 

^Qdea to Galil^, he com to him, and baed hine paet he 

fi^re, and geh^lde his sunu : S(5t51ice he laeg aet for8-f(5re. 

«i)^ cwaetJ se H^lend to him : Bdton ge tdcna and f(5re- 

beacna gesedn, ne gel^^fe ge. 4»Di cwaeC se under-cing 

to hjm : Diyhten, far der min sunu swelte. wAnd se 

Hjfelend cwsetJ : Gd, pin sunu leofatJ. Di code he, and 

gel^de p^re spruce pe se Hdblend him s^de. siDi he 

fdr, pd umon his peowas ongean hine, and saedon, paet his 

sunu lyfode. nDi dcsode he to hwylcum timan him bet 

wdere. And hig s^don him, Gyrstan-daeg, td p^re seo- 

fet$an ti(ie, se fefer hyne forl6t. &s Di ongeat se fseder paet 

hjt waes on p^re tide pe se Hselend cwae^, pin sunu leofa^. 

And he gei^fde, and eal his hiw-rdbden, 64 Se H^lend 

worhte pys tdccn eft dtJre sitJe, pd he com fram ludealande 

to Galilea. 

BYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON ERIGE-D^G, ON D^RE FORMAN 

LENCTEN-WUCAN. 

V. 1 iEfter pyssum waes ludea fre6ls-daeg, and se Hdel- 
cnd fdr to Hierusalem. «0n Hierusalem ys dn mere, se 
is genemned on Ebreisc Betzaida ; se mere hoefiS fif por- 
ticas. I On pam porticon laeg mycel maenigeo geddledra, 
blindra, and healtra, and forscruncenra, and ge-anbide- 
don paes waeteres styrunge. 4Dryhtenes engel com to his 
timan on pone mere, and paet waeter waes dstyred : and 



i 



12 JOHN V. 

se fe raSost com on pone mere, asfter fass waeteres styr- 
unge, wears geh&ied frani swi hwylcere untrumnysse 
swi he on waes, tpEcr wcs sura naan eahta and prittig 
wintra on his unlrumni-ssc. tDi se Hfelend geseah pj-sne 
licgan, and wisle f^t he lange hw^le par wes, pd c»ie« 
he to him : Wjli pU Ml bc^in ? iDd andswarocJc se scdca 
him, and cwecB ; Dryhicn, ic n<cbbe niennc man pa;t mc 
dd on pone mere, ponne piet wseter dslyred biB : {lonne 
jc cume, ponne biS tSSer befdran me. iDi cwsetS se H&l- 
end to him : Aiis, nim pin bed, and gd. lAnd sc man 
M'a^s suna hdl ; and be nam his bed, and code. Hyi vrxs 
TCste-dxg on pam dsge. loDa cw£don pi ludeas to pam 
pe pa;r geh&led wses : Hit is reste-dxg : nis pe iiljTed p£t 
pii pin bed bere. n He andswarode him, and cwaetS : Sc 
pu mc gebfelde, se cwxi to me, Nim pin bed, and gi. 
uDi icsedon big hine, Hwiel se man wferc, pe 8e s&de, 
Nim pin bed, and giP uSc pe paer gehfeled wses. nyste 
hwi hyi WiCS : se Hiblend soSlice bedh fram piere ge- 
gadcrunge. uJEfter pam se H^lend hine gem^tte on 
pam temple, and cwaeS to hym : Nii, pu eart hdl geword- 
en, ne synga pd, py-laes pe on sumum pingum wyrs getide. 
uD.i f(5r se man, and cj^dde hit pam ludeum, pat hit wses 
se H*lend pe hyne hjelde. wForpam pa lud^ ehton 
jKine Hfelend, forpam pe he dyde pds ping on resle-dsege. 



uDi andswarode se HSelend hym, and cwasti : Min Fx- 
der wyrdS 68 pis nd gyt, and ic wyrce. iipses pe mi Jra 
ludeas stJhton hine t<5 ofsleanne, nxs ni for pam dnum pe 
he pone resle-d<eg bnec, ac for pam pe he cwe8 pat 
God wfcre his Fader, and hine syirne dyde Gode ge- 
licne. nWitodlice se H&lend andswarode, and cwieS l(^ 
him : S6S ic e:5w secge, Ne mceg se Sunn ndn ping dda 
biilon pa;t he gcsj'hS his Fjeder d6n : pa ping 15e I^^ 




I 



JOHN V. 13 

w^TcC, se Sunu wyrct$ gelice. «Se Faeder lufa^ fone 
Sunu, and geswutelat5 him ealle )>a )?ing t5e he wj-rcS, 
and mdran weorc )?onne fds syn he geswutelat5 him, fact 
ge wundrion. n Swd se Faeder dwec^ fa deddan, and ge- 
liflfaest, swd edc se Sunu geliffaest fa tJe he w}'le. uNe se 
Fa&der ne d^mC ndnum menn, ac he sealde aelcne ddm 
J^am Suna ; «faet ealle drwurCion fone Sunu, swd swd hig 
dmurCiatS fone Faeder. Se fe ne drwurCa^ fone Sunu, 
nc dn\ur6at5 he fone Faeder fe hine sende. uS6iS ic 
secge edw, faet se tSe min word gehy^rtJ, and fam geiy-fiJ f e 
me sende, se haefiS ^e lif, and ne cymtJ aet fam ddme, ac 
faertS fram ded^e to life. » SdtJ ic secge e<5w, paet se<5 lid 
cj-mtJ and nu ys, fonne fa deddan gehyratJ Codes Suna 
stefne : and fa lybbatJ fe hig gehy-ra^. «Swd se Faeder 
haefiS lif on him sylfum, swd he sealde fam Suna fact h^ 
haefde lif on him sylfum; wand sealde him anweald faet 
he mdste d^man, forfam fe he is mannes Sunu. «Ne 
wundrion ge faes, faet se6 tid cymtJ, faet ealle gehyra^ his 
stefne f e on byrgenum synd : » and fd t$e g(5d worhton, 
farat$ on lifes ^reste; and fd t5e yfel dydon, on d(5mes 
^reste. 

DYS SCEAL ON DURS-DiG, ON DiERE ODRE LENCTEN-WUCAN. 

80 Ne maeg ic ndn fing d(5n fram me sylfum : ic d^me swd 

s^'i ic gehy-re ; and min d6m is ryht ; forfam ic ne s6ce 

minne willan, ac faes f e me sende. n Gif ic gewitnesse 

be me c^-tSe, min gewimes nis s6t5. ssQSer is, se ^e c^tS 

gewitnesse be me, and ic wdt faet sed c^lSnes is sut5 fe 

^e c^ be me. tsGe sendon to lohanne, and he c^'^'Sde 

sotifaestnesse gewitnesse. mIc ne onfd gewitnesse fram 

™en; ac fds fing ic secge, faet ge s^n hdle. »6He 

^^ byrnende le6ht-faet, and lyhtende : ge woldon sume 

hwlle geblissian on his ledhte. mIc haebbe mdran gewit- 

^^sse fonne lohannes : witodlice fa weorc fe Faeder me 

^^Me, faet ic hig fullfremme, fa weorc «e ic wyrcc, 



14 JOHN VI. 

cvftaS gewitnesse be me, ]>xt Fxder me dsende : wand se 
FllhIcf )>o me sende cy5 gewitnesse be me. Ne ge ndbfre 
his stefne no t^chyrdon, nege his hiw ne gesdwon. stAnd 
gc nubbaJS liis word on eow wunigende ; forfam tJe ge 
ne geiyraS )>am )>e he sende. wSmeageatS hibge gewritu ; 
for|'am )>e gc wcnatS ))a:;t ge habbon cce lif on fam : and 
big synd fc gewitnesse cySa^ be mc. 4oAnd ge nclIalS 
cunian to mc, )»a.'t ge habbon llf. 4iXe underfcj ic ndne 
beorliincsso a:;t mannum. 43 Ac ic gecneow edw, faet ge 
nabbatS Codes lufe on cuw. 43lccom on mines Faeder 
naman, and ge me ne underfengon : g}'f o'6er cj'mtS on 
his ligenum naman, hyne ge underfutJ. 44 Hu mage ge 
gelylan, fe euw betwconan wuldor underfotJ, and ne secatS 
fict wuldor fc ys fram Gode sylfiim ? 45 Ne wene ge fact ic 
cow wregc to Fxder : se ys ])e C(')\v wregS, ^loyses, on 
pone ge gehyhia'5. 4«WiLodlice gif ge gelyfdon Moyse, 
ge gelyfdon eac me : soSKce he wnii be me. 47Gif ge his 
stafiim ne gelyfaS, hu gclyfe ge mmum wordum? 

DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON MID-LEN'CTEXES SUNNAN-D-EG. 

VI. i/Efter fyssum for sc Hielend ofer fa Galileiscan 
sje, sc6 vs Tiberiddis. 2 And him fvlidc mvcel folc, for- 
fam fe hig gesdwon ])a tacna J>e he worhte on fam Ue 
wreron geuntrumodc. aWitodlico sc Ilabiend dstdh on 
dnnc milnt, and sx-t ]>xr mid hys Icorning-cnyhtum. 4Hyt 
wees gehcnde Easiron, liidea frcols-dacge. sDd se Haelend 
his edgan up-dh6f, and geseah J>xt miccl folc com to him, 
he cwx-^ to Philippe : Ilwcer bicge we hkifas, jnet pds 
eton ? eDoct he cwx-JS, his fandigcndc : he wiste hwaet he 
d(5n wolde. 7 Da andwyrde Pinlip[)iis, and cwx'S : NabbaiS 
hig gcnoh on twegra hundred jjcncga weorSe hldfes, 
foet jclc sumne dsel nymc. a Da andwyrde him dn hys 
leorning-cnyhta, Andreas, Simoncs broiScr Pctres : oH<Sr 
is an cnapa, fe haefS f.f berene hlafas, and twegcn fixas ; 



1 



I 



i6 JOHN VI. 

ge me forfam fe ge ticnu gesiwon, ac forfam fe ge &ton 
of f am hldfon, and synd fiille. 

DYS SCEAL ON FRIGE-DJEG, ON DiERE FORMAN WUCAN 
JEFTER EPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

jtNc wyrcat5 aefter fam mete pe forwyiiS, ac aefter )>am He 
furhwuna^ on 6ce 11 f, fone mannes Sunu edw sylC : )>one 
God Faeder getdcnode. saHig cw^don to him : Hwaet 
66 we faet we w}Tceon Codes weorc? «Da andswarode 
se H^lend, and cwae^ to him : Daet is Codes weorc, paet 
ge gel^fon on f one J>e he sende. so Di cw^don hig : Hwa^t 
d6st fd t(5 tdcne, faet we gesedn, and gelffon })aet fd hit 
wyrce. «i Ure faederas deton heofonlicne mete on w6stene ; 
swd hit dwriten is, He sealde him etan hldf of heofone. 
[ wSe Hdelend cwaelS to him : Sd^ ic secge edw, ne sealde 

Moyses edw hMf of heofenum, ac min Faeder edw syltJ 
sd^ne hldf of heofenum. ssHit is Codes hldf fe of heofene 
com, and syl^ middan-earde lif. aiHig cwdedon to him : 
Dryhten, syle us fysne hldf. ssSe H^lend cwaeS to him : 
Ic eom lifes hldf : ne hingraS fone )>e to me cymtS ; and 
ne fyrst fone n^fre fe on me gelj^fiJ. wAc ic edw saede, 
Daet ge gesdwon me, and ne gel^fdon. wEall faet F^der 
me syltJ cymS td me ; and ic ne weorpe ut fone fe id 
me cym^. m Forfam fe ic ne com of heofenum faet ic 
f: minne willan dd, ac faes willan fe me sende. asDaetys 

faes Faeder willa fe me sende, faet ic ndn fing ne for- 
ledse of fam fe fe me sealde, ac dwecce fa^t on fam 
yiemestan daege. 4oDis is mines Faeder willa f e me sende, 
faet selc fe fone Sunu gesyh^, and on hine gelyR5, haebbe 
^e lif: and ic hine dwecce on fam y-temestan daege. « Dd 
murcnodon fa ludeas be him, forfam fe he cwac^, Ic 
eom hldf fe of heofenum com. 42 And hig cw^don : Hil 
nys fys se Hjfelend, losepes sunu, we cunnon his faeder 
and his nidder? hdmeta seg^ fes, Ic com of heofonum? 



I 



JOHN VI. 17 

4a Se H^lend him andswarode, and cwaet$ to him : Ne 
murcniafS e<5w betweonan. 

E»YS SCEAL ON WODNES-D^G, ON D£RE PENTECOSTENES 

WUCAN. 

44 Ne mseg n^n man cuman to me, buton se Faeder fe 
me sende hyne ted : and ic hine jlr^re on f am ytemesian 
daege. «0n f^ra witegena bdcum is dwriten, Ealle 
eat$l&re bedtS Codes. iT)lc fe geh}'rde aet Feeder, and 
leomode, cymC to me. 4«Ne geseah ndn man Faeder, 
bdton se J>e is of Code, se gesyhtJ Faeder. 47Sdt5 ic secge 
edw, Se haeRS 6ce lif, fe on me gelyfiS. mIc eom llfes 
hlif. muve faederas ^ton heofonlicne mete on westene, 
and hig synd deide. m Dis is se hidf J>e of heofonum com, 
faet ne swelte se fe of him ytt. « Ic eom lybbende hldf 
fe of heofonum com : swd hwd swd ytt of f yson hldfe, he 
leofa^ on 6cnysse : and se hldf f e ic sylle is min fldesc, for 
middan-eardes life. wDd ludeas fliton him betweonan, 
and o^'jfedon : HtS maeg f es his fl^sc us syllan td etanne ? 
wDd cwaetJ se Hdelend to him : 

DYS SCEAL ANUM DiEGE ^R PALM-SUNNAN-DJEGE. 

SdtS ic secge edw, Naebbe ge lif on edw, biiton ge cton 
mannes Suna fl^sc, and his bldd drincon. mSc hseftS dee 
lif, fe ytt min fl^sc, and drincS min bldd ; and ic hine 
dr^re on fam ^temestan daege. ssSdtJlice min fldesc is 
mete, and min bldd is drinc. wSe fe ytt min flifcsc, and 
drindS min bldd, he wuna^ on me, and ic on him. cTSwa 
swi lybbende Faeder me sende, and ic lybbe f urh Fa;der, 
and se t$e me ytt, he leofa^ furh me. 68 pis is se blaf fe 
of heofonum com : nd swd swd lare faederas &ton heofon- 
licne mete, and dedde wderon ; se f e ytt fysnc hldf, he 
leofa^ on ^cnysse. soDds fing he s^de on gcsamnunge, 
yi he l^rde on Caphamaum. wManega his leorning- 
cnyhta cwsfedon, fd hig f is geb^Tdon : Heard is feds 



i8 JOHN VII. 

sprdec ; h\\'i maeg hig geh^ran ? n Di wiste se Hdblend 
J)3et his leoming-cnyhtas murcnedon betweox him sylfum 
be fysum, and he cwoetJ to him : Daet edw beswIciS? «gif 
ge gesedS mannes Sunu dstigendne faer he der waes? 
esGdst is se Se geliffaest ; fldesc ne fremaS ndn ping: fa 
word t5e ic edw sdede, synd gast and lif. «4 Ac sume ge ne 
gelyfatJ. Witodlice se H^lend wiste fram fruman h>^-aet 
fa gelyfendan w^ron, and hwd hin^ bel^wan wolde. 
65 And he cwx'5 : Forfig ic edw s&de, faet nin man ne 
maeg cuman to me, bdton min Faeder hit him sylle. 
wSySSan manega his leorning-cnyhta cyrdon on-baec, and 
ne eodon mid him. er Dd cwaet5 se Hdelend to fam twelf- 
um : CweSe ge wylle ge fram me? eaDd andwyrde him 
Simon Petrus, and cwaeS : Drjhten, to hwam gi we? 
fu haefst 6ces lifes word. wAnd we gel^faS, and witon 
f oet f u eart Crist, Godes Sunu. roSe Haelend him and- 
swarode, and cwaeS : Hd ne geceds ic edw twelfe, and 
edwer in ys dedfol ? 71 He hyt cwseS be luda Scariot5e ; 
fes hine belaewde, fd he waes dn faera twelfa. 

DYS SCEAL ON TYWES-DJEG, ON DJERE FIFTAN WUCAN INNAN 

LENCTENE. 

VII. iSySSan fdr se Hselend to Galil^d : he nolde faran 
to ludea, forfam tJe fa luddds hyne sdhton, and woldon 
hyne ofsledn. 2 Hit waes gehende ludea fredls-daege. 
t His brdtSro cwdedon to him : Far heonon, and gi on 
ludea-land, fxt fine leoming-cnyhtas gesedn fa weorc')>e 
f d wyrcst. 4 Ne d6^ ndn man ndn f ing on diglum, ac 
s6d6 fast hit open s^'. Gif f d fas f ing dest, geswutela 
fe sylfne middan-earde. 6 Witodlice ne his magas ne 
gelyfdon on hyne. «Dd cwaeS se Hdelend to hym : Gyt 
ne com min tid : edwer tid ys syrale gearu. 7 Ne maeg 
middan-eard edw hatian : ac he hata'S me, forfam ic cyt$e 
gewitnesse be him, faet his weorc synd yfele. s Fare ge 
td f ison frqdls-daege : ic ne fare td f ison fredls-daege ; 



JOHN VII. 19 

foryam min tid nys gyt gefylled. t He wunode on Gali- 
16d, fihefis fing sjede. wEft yi his brdiSru fdron, fd 
f<5r he edc to fam fredls-dsegc, naes ni openlice, ac dl- 
gollice. uI>S. ludeas hyne s<5hton on fam fredls-daege, 
and cvdedon : Hwar ys he ? 11 And mycel gehiy^d wa^s 
on }>aere maenio be him : sume cwdedon : He ys g6d : 
dUre cwdedon : Nese ; ac he beswict5 f is folc. n peah- 
hwaeCere ne space ndn man openlice be him, for )>dera 
Iud6d ege. 

DYS SCEAL ON MYD-LENCTENES WUCAN, ON TYWES-DJEG. 

14 Di hit waes mid-daeg })»s fredls-daeges, yi code se H&l- 
end into )?am temple, and l&rde. m And yi ludeas wundre- 
don, and cwdedon : Hdmeta can yes stafas, yonne he 
ne leoraode? wSe H&lend him andswarode, and cwaei5 : 
Min \ij nis nd min, ac faes f e me sende. n Gyf hwd wyle 
his willan ddn, he gecn&wtS be faere Idre, hwaetJer hed 
sig of Gode, hwaetJer ye ic be me sylfum spece. i« Se fe 
be him sylfum spryctJ s^ctJ his dgen wuldor : se pe s6d$ 
l^aes wuldor fe hyne sende, se is sdtJfaest, and nis ndn un- 
rihtwisnys on him. i» Hd ne sealde Moyses edw de, and 
e6wer ndn ne healt yi &? Hwi s6ce ge me td ofsleanne ? 
t» Dd andswarode sed maenio, and cwaetJ : Dedfol f e stica^ 
on : hwd s^cfJ ye \6 ofsleanne? nDi. andswarode se 
Hablend, and cwaetJ to him : dn weorc ic worhte, and 
ealle ge wundriatS. ss ForJ>^ Moyses edw sealde ymb- 
sn^denysse ; naes nd foryig ye hed of Moyses s^, ac of 
fedcron ; and on reste-daege ge ymb-sni^a'5 mann ; ss f xt 
Moyses ^ ne s^ toworpen ; and ge belgatJ wiS me, for- 
f3Lin ye ic geh^lde ^nne man on reste-daege. f4 Ne d6me 
ge be ansyne, ac d^ma'5 rihtne ddm. ss Sume cwdbdon, yi 
tJe w^ron of Jerusalem : Hii nis yis se tSe hig s6cat5 td 
ofsleanne? «And nd he spyctS openlice, and hig ne 
cwetJatS ndn fing td him. Cwe)?e we hwaetSer yi ealdras 
ongyton yxi yis is Crist ? « Ac we witon hwanon f es ys : 



8 JOHN IV. 

tohitn: Rabbi, se *e mid fe wecs begeoiidan lording, 
be fam J>d cj^dest gewitnesse, nu he fullaS, and ealle 
hig cumaS to him. « lohanncs andwvrde, and cn^eS : Ne 
mffig man ndn fing underfcJn, biiton hit betf him ofbcof- 
enum geseald. »Ge sjlfe mc sjnd to gcwimcsse, pxt ic 
Siede : Neom ic Crist, ac ic com dsend beftJran hine, 
■ Se 8e br^de hxfS, se is br/'d-guma : se 8e is pass br^d- 
guman fretSnd, and stent and gehy-rS hync, mid gefean 
he gebiissa* for pass brj^d^uman stefne: pes min gefea 
is gefylled. mHit gebyra)> Jta:t he weaxe, and JiKt ic 
wanige. nSe fe ufenan com, se ys ofcr ealle : se )>e of 
eor)>an ys, se sptycS be eor|>an : se fe of heofone com, 
se y's ofer ealle. u And he cj^ \>xi he geseah and ge- 
hj^rde ; and nin man ne underfehS his cj'Snesse. h SdS- 
Iice se Jie his cySnessc underfchS, he gctacnaS fa;t God 
ys sdBfEsmes. «Se fe God sende spn'c8 Godes word : 
ne sylB God fone Gist be gemete. wFieder iiifa8 pone 
Sunu, and sealde ealle fing on his hand. aiSe |)e gelj'fii 
on Sunu, se hsfiS 6ce lif : se fe pam Suna is ungeieaffull, 
ne gesyhS he lif; ac Godes yrre wunaSofer hine. 

IV. iDi se H&lend wyste I>Kt fa Pharisei gehyrdon 
fset he haefde mi Icorning-cnyhta ponne lohannes, i (jieah 
se Hdelend ne fullode, ac hys leorning-cnyhtas, ) i jri forlet 
he ludea-land, and fdr eft on Galiled. t Hym gebyrecie 
yxt he sceolde faran furh Samaria-iand. tWitodlicc he 
com on Samdrian cestre, )>e ys gencmned Sychdr, ncah 
)iam tilne )>e lacob sealde Idsepe his suna. o par mks 
lacobes wyll, 

DVS SCEAL ON FRIGE-DSG, ON BiRE III. LENGTEK-WUCAN. 

Se H&Iend SEet xl )>am wylle, y.i he wa;s wdrig gegdn : 
and hit wjes mid-da;g, j Dd com pxr in wif of Samd- 
ria, wolde waster fcccan : \d cwseB se H&lend to h)TC : 
Syle me drincan. «{Hys Icorning-cnyhlas ferdon Jia to 
|>3ere ceastre, woldon him mete bicgan. ) t Di cwa;ti ]ia;t 



JOHN IV. 9 

Samaritanisce wif to hym : Humeta bitst fd aet me drinc- 
an, }K)nne fu eart ludeisc, and ic eora Samaritanisc wIf? 
ne brticafJ ludeas and Samaritanisce metes aetgsedere. 
10 Di andswarode se Hdelend, and cwse^ to hyre : Gif 
fd wistest Codes gyfe, and hwaet se is fe cwyiS to 
j>e, Syle me drincan ; witodlice fd b^de hine fxt he 
sealde J>e lifes waeter. u Di cwae'5 yxt wif to hym : Ledf- 
ne, )?d meki ndn fing mid to hladenne, and fes pytt ys 
de<5p ; hwanon haefst fd lifes waeter ? la Cwyst pu fxt 
J>d sig m^rra }>onne dre faeder lacob, se fe ds f isne pytt 
sealde, and he, and his beam, and his nytenu of fam 
dnincon ? u Dd andswarode se Hdelend, and cwx'5 to 

r 

hyre : JElcne paera fyrst eft fe of fysum waeter drinctJ : 

14 witodlice aelc J?aera t5e drincS of fam waetere fe ic him 

sylle, bi^ on him will forS-rdesendes wa^teres on 6ce lif. 

15 Dd cwaetJ l>aet wif to him : Hldford, syle me f aet waeter, 

J«et me ne fyrste, ne ic ne f urfe h^r feccan. w Dd cwaetJ 

se H^lend to hyre : Gd, clypa ])inne ceorl, and cum 

hider. n Dd andwyrde faet wif, and cwae^ : Naebbe ic 

n^nne ceorl. Di cwaetl se H^lend to hyre : Wei J>d 

cwdede, faet f d naefst ceorl : is Witodlice pd haefdest fif 

ceorlas, and se i$e fd nd haefst nis fin ceorl : aet fam pd 

s^dest s6t5. i» Di cwaelS faet wif to him : Le(5f, paes ^e 

me finc^, fd eart witdga. « XJre faideras hig gebsedon 

on fyssere ddne ; and ge secgatJ, fact on Hierusalem s^ 

se6 st6w faet man on gebidde. «iDd cwaeS se H^Iend to 

hyre : Ld wif, gel^f me faet sed tid cym^, f onne ge ne 

gebiddatJ Faeder, ne on fissere ddne, ne on Hierusalem. 

« Ge gebidda^ faet ge nyton : we gebiddati f aet we witon : 

forfam J>e hdel is of ludeum. 23 Ac se6 tid cymt$, and nd 

ys, ponne S(jt5e gebed-men gebiddatJ Faeder on gaste and 

on s6t5faestnysse : witodlice Faeder sec^ swylce fe hyne 

gebiddon. u Gist ys God : and fam fe hyne gebiddaiS, 

gebyratS faet hig gebiddon on gdste and on soSrxstnysse. 

ts Etet wif cwac^ to hvm : Ic wdt fjet Messias cymt5, fc is 

I* 



ic JOHN IV. 

gcnomned Crist : fonne he cymtJ, he cy^ iis ealle f ing. 
16 Se Hjfelend cwae^ to hyre : Ic hit eom, f e wit$ )?e sprece. 
tr And pser-rihte cdmon his leorning-cnyhtas, and big wun- 
dredon past he wit5 faet wif spraec ; feah heora nin ne 
cwae5, Hwoet s6cst fd ? o^^e, Hwaet sprycst J? d wit5 big? 
taWItodlice past wif forl6t hyre waeter-faet, and code 1(5 
f^re byrig, and cwas^ i6 ])am mannum : wCumatS, and 
gesedS pone man, )>e me sdede ealle pa ping pe ic dyde : 
cweSc ge ys he Crist ? wDi eodon big lit of pdere byrig, 
and cdmon to him. nOn-gemang pam his leorning-cnibtas 
bine baedon, and pus cwdedon : Laredw, et. » Di c^w^fS 
he to him : Ic hasbbe pone mete t(5 ctanne pe ge nyton. 
IS Di cwdedon his leorning-cnyhtas him betweonan, Hwae- 
per ^nig man him mete brohte? 84 Di cwaep se H^lend 
to hym : INIin mete ys paet ic vryrce paes willan pe me 
sende, paet ic fuUfremme his weorc. »« Hd ne secge ge, 
paet nd gyt synd fedwer mdnSas der man r^'pan moege ? 
nd ic edw secge, HebbaS up e6wre edgan, afnd gesedtS 
pds eardas, p?Dt big synd scire td r^panne. m And se pe 
ryptS nym^ m^de, and gaderat5 waestm on ^ura life : paet 
aetgaedcre geblission, se pe saiwi5 and se pe r^p^. st On 
pyson ys witodlice S(5t5 word, Forpam cj'Ser ys se pe saevvtS, 
dlSer ys se pe r^'p^. ss Ic sende edw td rypanne paet paet 
ge ne beswuncon : d5re swuncon, and ge eodon on beora 
geswinc. s© Witodlice manega Samaritanisce of paere ceastre 
gel^fdon on hine, for paes wifes wordum, pe be him c^-^de, 
^ Daet he s^de me ealle pa ping pe ic dyde. 40 Da pa Sama- 

ritaniscan cdmon to hym, big geb^don hyne paet he wun- 

ode paer : and he wunode paer twegen dagas. 41 And my- 

i cele mi gel^fdon for his spdece ; 43 and cwdedon to pam 

wife : Ne gel^^fe we ni for pinre sprdece : we sylfe gehyr- 
don, and we witon paet he is sdS middan-cardes Hcelend. 
4»Sd^lice aefter twdm dagon he f(6rde panone, and for to 
Galilea. 44 Se Hdelend sylf c}'^de gewitnesse, paet ndn 
witega naef^ ndnne weorSscype on hys dgenum eardc. 



JOHN V. ,, 

tf Da he com to Galilean, pi underfengon hig hinc, pa hig 
gesdwon ealle yi fing fe he worhte on Hierasalem on 
freols-daege: and hig cdmon to J>am freols-daege. 4«And 
he com eft to Chanai Galileae, fxr he worhte faet win of 
waetere. 

DYS GODSPEL GEB7RAD OFER PENTECOSTEN, ON DiERB AN 
AND TWENTYGODAN WUCAN ON SUNNAN-D-EG. 

Sum under-cyning wa^s faes sunu waes gesyclod on Ca- 
phamaum. 47 Dd p4 se geh^rde fast se Hdelend fdr fram 
ludea to Galil^, he com to him, and baed hine faet he 
f(jre, and geh^lde his sunu : sdClice he laeg aet forC-fdre. 
48 Dd cwaet5 se H^lend to him : Bdton ge tdcna and fdre- 
beacna gesedn, ne gel^fe ge. 4»Di cwaeC se under-cing 
to hjTn : Diyhten, far ^r min sunu swelte. wAnd se 
H^lend cwxfJ : Gd, fin sunu leofatJ. Dd code he, and 
gel;^de ))^re spruce fe se H^lend him sdede. nDi he 
fdr, fd umon his feowas ongean hine, and saedon, pact his 
sunu lyfode. uDi dcsode he to hwylcum timan him bet 
w^re. And hig s^don him, Gyrstan-daeg, td fdere seo- 
fetSan tide, se fefer hyne forl6t. »s Di ongeat se faeder f aet 
h)t waes on f dere tide f e se Haelend cwae^, pin sunu leofa^. 
And he gel^fde, and eal his hiw-rabden, 64 Se Hifelend 
worhte fys tdccn eft dtJre si^e, fd he com fram ludealande 
to Gal ilea. 

DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON ERIGE-D^G, ON D^RE FORMAN 

LENCTEN-WUCAN. 

V. 1 iEfter fyssum waes ludea fre6ls-daeg, and se Hdel- 
end fdr to Hierusalem. «0n Hierusalem ys dn mere, se 
is genemned on Ebreisc Betzaida ; se mere haeRS fif por- 
ticas. I On fam porticon laeg raycel maenigeo geddledra, 
blindra, and healtra, and forscruncenra, and ge-anbide- 
don faes waeteres styrunge. 4Dryhtenes engel com to his 
timan on fone mere, and faet waeter waes dstyrcd : and 



ti 



12 JOHN V. 

se t>e raCost com on )K)iie mere, rcftcr )>xs wicteres styr- 
unge, weartS gchSbletl frani s\\& hwylcere unirumnysse 
swi he on wxs. (pa.'r wa;s sum man eahia and |>rittig 
wintni on his untrumnyssc. iDa se H&lencl gcscah fysne 
licgan, and wiste fx-t he langc hw^-le ]»ar wxs, ]t.i cwasIS 
he to him r Wylt pii hd! bcun ? iDd ands\*-aroUc se seiJca 
him, and cwsetS : Dij-htcn, ic na;bbe nSbnne man fxt mc 
d6 on )>one mere, ponne |Kct waeier dstyred biS ; )>onnc 
ic cume, fonne biB liSer befiJran me. ■ Di cwxS se H&l- 
end to him : Aris, nim )>in bed, and gS. tAiid se man 
wxs suna hdl ; and he nam bis bed, and eode. Hyt wa^ 
reuie-dseg on J>am daege. w&i cwfeJon fi ludeas to fam 
pe pxi geh&led y-xs : Hit is resle-da;g : nis pe iljled pat 
pd y.n bed bere. n He andswarode him, and cwa;15 : Se 
pe mc geh&lde, sc CMa;S lo mc, Nim pin bed, and gi. 
itDi dcsedon big hinc, Hwret se man wsere, pe He sifede, 
Nim pin bed, and gd? uSe pe p^r gehSeled wies, nyste 
hwi hyt wjEs ; se Hielend soSlice beih fram psfere ge- 
gaderunge. itJEhtT pani se Hielend hine gemdtle on 
pam temple, and cv-xS to hym : Nii, pii eart hil geword- 
cn, no synga pu, py-lss pe on sumum pingum wyrs getlde. 
uDd {6r se man, and cydde hit pam ludeum, pxt hit wses 
se H£Iend pe hyne hSclde. i.Forpam fa lud&s ehlon 
pone Hfclend, forpam pe he dyde piis ping on resie-dajge. 

I DXRZ PEORDAK 

irDd andswarode se Hiblend hym, and cweeS : Mln Fas- 
der wyrdS (X pis nii gyl, and ic vryice. itpses pe md pa 
ludeas si5hton hine 16 ofsleannc, n^s nd for pam dnum pe 
he pone resie-dreg brace, ac for pam pe he cwacS JiKt 
God wire his Frcdcr, and hine sylfne dydc Gode ge- 
licne. wWilodlice se H&Iend andswarode, and c\va:t5 to 
him : S(i8 ic cdw secge, Ne nia;g se Snnu ndn ping ddn, 
bdton pajt he gesyhS his Faidcr ddn ; pa ping Be he 



JOHN V, 13 

w}Tct5, se Sunu wyrd5 geUce. loSe Faeder lufa8 fone 
Sunu, and geswutelatS him ealle )>a )>ing tSe he wyrctJ, 
and mdran weorc fonne pds syn he geswutelatS him, fxt 
ge wundrion. « Swd se Faeder dwecC ))a deddan, and ge- 
liffaest, swd edc se Sunu geliffaest )>a tSe he w\'le. « Ne se 
Faeder ne d^mtJ ndnum menn, ac he sealde aelcne d6m 
)>am Suna ; »)>aet ealle drwurtJion )>one Sunu, swd swd hig 
drwurCia^ }>one Faeder. Se fe ne drwurt5at5 fone Sunu, 
ne irwurOatS he fone Faeder fe hine sende. «4S(j"8 ic 
secge e(5w, }>aet se tJe min word geh^rS, and |>am gel^'ftS fe 
me sende, se haeRS 6ce llf, and ne cymtJ aet fam ddme, ac 
fertJ fram dedlSe to life. i«S<5'5 ic secge e(5w, paet se6 lid 
cjTntS and nu ys, fonne pa deddan geh^ratJ Codes Suna 
stefne : and fa lybbatS f e hig geh^ra'5. m Swd se Faeder 
haefS Hf on him sylfum, swd he sealde fam Suna fact hq 
haefde lif on him sylfum ; rand sealde him anweald faet 
he mdste d^man, forfam fe he is mannes Sunu. wNe 
wundrion ge faes, faet sed tid cym^, faet ealle gehyrat5 his 
stefne fe on byrgenum synd : » and fd t5e g6d worhton, 
faratS on lifes ^reste ; and fd tJe yfel dydon, on d(5mes 
dereste. 

DYS SCEAL ON DURS-D-EG, ON D^RE ODRE LENCTEN-WUCAN. 

»Ne maeg ic ndn fing ddn fram me sylfum : ic d^me swd 
s^'d ic geh-fre ; and min d6m is ryht ; forfam ic ne s6ce 
minne willan, ac faes J>e me sende. «Gif ic gewitnesse 
be me cf^e, min gewimes nis sd'S. wOtJer is, se t5e c^^iS 
gewitnesse be me, and ic wdt faet sed cj(^nes is s6i5 fe 
he c^ be me. wGe sendon to lohanne, and he c^'^de 
sitjfJfaestnesse gewitnesse. »4lc ne onfd gewitnesse fram 
men ; ac fds f ing ic secge, faet ge s^n hdle. m He 
waes byrnende ledht-faet, and lyhtende : ge woldon sume 
hwile geblissian on his le6hte. mIc haebbe mdran gewit- 
nesse fonne lohannes : witodlice fa weorc fe Faeder me 
sealde, faet ic hig fullfremme, fa weorc te ic wyrcc, 



14 JOHN VI. 

cj'CaS gctt'ilnesse be me, f>Kt Fieder me isende : nand se 
Faxler J>e me sende c^tS gewitnesse be me. Ne ge nSefre 
his siefne ne gchyrdon, ne ge his hiw ne gesawon, nAnd 
ge nabbaS his word on euw wunigende ; forfam 8e ge 
ne gel jfaS pam >e he sende. » SmedgeaS hilige gewrilu ; 
for)>3m ^e ge wcnaS fxt ge habbon 6ce lif on frna : and 
hig synd fe gewitnesse cySafi be me. «And ge nellaS 
cuman to me, ))3et ge habbon lir. 4iNe underfci ic ndne 
bcorhincsse aet mannum. «Ac ic gecnedw e<3w, fset ge 
nabbaS Codes lufe on edw, «lc com on mines Faeder 
naman, and ge me ne underf^ngon : gyf i5Ser cjm8 on 
his dgenum naman, hyne ge underfdfi. «Hu mdge ge 
gel^ian, fe edw betweonan wuldor underfdtS, and ne s6ca8 
j>set wuldor fe ys fram Code sylfum? «New6nege]^t ic 
edw wrdge id Fsdcr ; se ys J>e edw wr^8, Moyses, on 
(lone ge gehylitaS. «\Viiodlice gif ge gel^fdon Moj-se, 
ge gel^fdon eic me : sdSlIce he writ be me. «Gif ge his 
siafum ne gelj'fatS, hii geiyfe ge minum wordum i 

BTS GODSPEL SCEAL ON MIO-LEKCTENES SUNKAN-D£G. 

VI. jJEder fyssum Tor se Hfelend ofer J>a Galileiscan 
sSe, sed ys Tiberiddis. lAnd him Tylide mycel folc, for- 
J»am fe hig gesdwon pa tdcna pe he worhte on pam Re 
w&ron geuntrumode. iWiiodlke se Hielend dsfdh on 
dnne miint, and sa:t p^r mid hys Icorning-cnyhtum. 4Hyl 
woes gehcnde Easiron, ludea frcdls-dcegc. iDd se Hfelend 
his eigan up-dhdf, and gescah pM micel folc com to him, 
he cwKti to Philippe : HwEcr bicge we hldfas, pat pds 
eton ? iDset he cweR, his fandigende : he wiste hwfet he 
ddn wolde. iDi andwyrde Philippus, and cwxfi : NabbaS 
hig gendh on twegra hundred pencga weorSe hldfes, 
pEet tele sumne d£el nyme. iD,t andwyrde him dn hys 
leorning-cnyhla, Andreas, Simones brdScr Petres r »H^r 
is dn cnapa, pe hasRi (.( berene hldfas, and Iwegen fisas ; 



JOHN VI. 15 

ac hvvaet S} nd fa fing betweox swd manegum mannum ? 
10 JM cwae^ se H^lend : Dd^ faet fas men sitton. On 
f^re st6we wxs mycel gxrs. paer s^ton )>a swylce fif 
fusendo manna. nSe H^Iend nam fa hlafas, and fanc- 
yryr6Vice dyde, and hig tdd^lde fam siitendum ; and eall- 
swa of fam fixum, swd mycel swd hig woldon. uDd hig 
fulle wderon, fd cwaetJ he to his leoming-cnyhtum : 
GaderiaS fa brytsena fe far to Idfe wderon, fast hig no 
losion. 18 Hig gegaderodon, and fyldon twelf wylian fulle 
faera br}'tsena of fam tJe fa l^fdon, fe of fam Hf beren- 
an hldfon ^ton. 14 Da men cw^don, fd hig gesdwon faet 
he fact tdcen worhte, Daet fes ys sdSlige witega fe on 
middan-eard c\'mt5. isDi se H^lend wiste faet hig woldon 
cuman, and hvne geldeccan, and to cynge d(5n, fd fleah 
he dna up on fone munt. w* * * n And fa hig eodon 
on scyp, hig cdmon ofer fa s^ to Capharnaum. Hyt 
wear8 fd f^'stre, and se Hdelend ne com to him. w Mycel 
wind bledw, and hyt waes hredh sjfe. w Witodlice fd hig 
haefdon gerdwen swylce twentig furlanga ot55e f ryttig, 
fd gesdwon hig fone Hdblend uppan faere sse gdn, and 
faet he waes gehende fam scype : and hig him ondr6don. 
M He cwaet$ fd lo him : Ic hyt eom ; ne ondr^datS e6w. 
SI Hig woldon hyne niman on faet scyp : and s6na f set scyp 
waes aet fam lande fe hig woldon to faran. aaSdtSlice dSre 
daege, sed maenegeo, f e stdd begeondan fam mere, geseah 
faet faer naes buton dn scyp, and faet se H^lend ne code 
on scyp mid his leoming-cnyhtum, ac his leorning- 
cnyhtas sylfe dna fdron ; lad^re scypu cdmon fram Tiberi- 
ide wits fa stdwe far hig fone hldf dbton, Dryhtne 
^^fanciende : «4fd sed maenigo geseah faet se H^lend far 
\mbs, ne his leoming-cnyhtas, fd eodon hig on scipu, and 
^mon to Capharnaum, sdhton fone H^lend. 25 And fd 
^em^tton hyne begeondan fam mere, hig cwdedon to 
T Ldredw, hwasnne com fii hider? wSe Htelcnd 
* andswarode, and cwaetS : Sd^ ic secpe edw, ne s<5cc 




i6 JOHN VI. 

ge me forfam fe ge licnu gesdwon, ac for)>am }>e ge ^ton 
of I>am hldfon, and synd fiiUe. 



DYS SCEAL ON FRIGE-DiEG, ON DiERE FORMAN WUCAN 
iEFTER EPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

IT Ne wyrcat5 aefter fam mete ^q forwyrtJ, ac aefter )>am t5e 
furhwunatS on ^ce llf, fone mannes Sunu e6w syltS : )>one 
God Faeder getdcnode. wHig cw^don to him : Hwaet 
d(5 we faet we wyrceon Codes weorc ? » Dd andswarode 
se H^lend, and cwae^ to him : Daet is Codes weorc, )?aet 
ge gelj^fon on fone fe he sende. so Da cw^don hig : Hwaet 
d^st f li t(5 tdcne, faet we gesedn, and gelyfon )>aet I>d hit 
wyrce. n Ure faederas ^ton heofonlicne mete on w6stene ; 
swd hit dwriten is, He sealde him etan hldf of heofone. 
8sSe H^lend cwae^ to him : S6C ic secge edw, ne sealde 
Moyses edw hldf of heofenum, ac min Faeder eow syltJ 
sd^ne hldf of heofenum. 33 Hit is Codes hldf fe of heofene 
com, and syl^ middan-earde lif. s4Hig cwdedon to him : 
Drj'hten, syle us fysne hldf. ssSe Hjfelend cwcet5 to him ; 
Ic eom lifes hldf: ne hingratS fone ]>e to me cymtJ ; and 
ne fyrst fone n^fre fe on me geiyfi5. mAc ic edw sdede, 
Daet ge gesdwon me, and ne gelyfdon. srEall pact Faeder 
me syl^ cym^ td me ; and ic ne weorpe lit pone )>e id 
me cymtJ. ssForfam fe ic ne com of heofenum ]>aet ic 
minne willan dd, ac faes willan fe me sende. 8»Daet ys 
i ^ fses Faeder willa fe me sende, J>aet ic ndn ping ne for- 

ledse of ]>am pe J>e me sealde, ac dwecce faet on )>am 

ytemestan dsege. 4oDis is mines Faeder willa pe me sende, 

paet selc pe pone Sunu gesyht5, and on hine gelyfS, haebbe 

I ; 6ce lif: and ic hine dwecce on pam ytemestan daege. « Dd 

murcnodon pa ludeas be him, forpam pe he cwaeS, Ic 
eom hldf pe of heofenum com. 42And hig cwdedon : Hii 
nys pys se Hdelend, losepes sunu, we cunnon his faeder 
and his nadder ? hiimeta segS pes, Ic com of heofonum ? 



[ 



\ 



JOHN VI. 17 

a Se H^Iend him andswarode^ and cvrxH to him : Ne 
murcniat$ edw betweonan. 

DYS SCEAL ON WODNES-DJEG, ON D£RE PENTECOSTENES 

WUCAN. 

44 Ne maeg ndn man cuman to me, biSton se Faeder )>e 
me sende hyne ted : and ic hine ^r^re on fam ytemestan 
daege. 4»0n )>^ra witegena bdcum is dwriten, Ealle 
eatSl^re bedC Codes. -Ale fe geh^Tde aet Faeder, and 
leomode, cymtS to me. 4eNe geseah ndn man Faeder, 
bdton se )>e is of Code, se gesyhtJ Faeder. 47 S6iS ic secge 
edw, Se haeRJ ^e lif, ye on me ge\fP6. 48lc eom llfes 
hldf. 4iUre faederas deton heofonlicne mete on w6stene, 
and hig synd dedde. wDis is se hldf fe of heofonum com, 
faet ne swelte se pe of him ytt 61 Ic eom lybbende hldf 
fe of heofonum com : s^-d hwd swd }'tt of fyson hldfe, he 
leofetS on 6cnysse : and se hldf J?e ic sylle is min fldesc, for 
middan-eardes life. uDi, ludeas fliton him betweonan, 
and cw^don : Hd maeg fes his fldesc us syllan td etanne ? 
uiyi cwae^ se Haelend to him : 

DYS SCEAL ANUM DJEGE MR PALM-SUNNAN-D^GE, 

SdtS ic secge edw, Naebbe ge lif on edw, biiton ge eton 
mannes Suna fl^sc, and his bldd drincon. m Se haefiS 6ce 
lif, )>e ytt min fl^sc, and drinctS min bldd ; and ic hine 
dr^re on fam ;;^temestan daege. wSd^lice min fl^sc is 
mete, and min bldd is drinc. wSe fe ytt min fl^sc, and 
drinct$ min bldd, he wuna^ on me, and ic on him. it Swa 
swd lybbende Faeder me sende, and ic lybbe furh Faeder, 
and se "Re me ytt, he leofatS furh me. wpis is se hldf fe 
of heofonum com : nd swd swd lire faederas deton heofon- 
licne mete, and dedde w^ron ; se fe ytt fysne hldf, he 
leofatS on 6cnysse. wDds fing he sjfede on gesamnunge, 
fi he l^rde on Caphamaum. wManega his leorning- 
cnyhta cwlfedon, fd hig fis gehyrdon : Heard is feds 



/ 



i8 JOHN VII. 

sprtec; h^-d maeg hig gehy'ran? «iE)d wiste se Hdelend 
)>aBt his leoming-cnyhtas murcnedon betweox him sylfum 
he fysum, and he c\voe"8 lo him : Daet edw bcswIctJ? «gif 
ge gesedtJ mannes Sunu dstigendne )>aer he ^r waes? 
uGisi is se tJe geliffaest ; fldesc ne fremat$ nan fing : )» 
word ^e ic e(5w s^de, synd gast and llf. m Ac sume ge ne 
^ ' gelyfat$. Witodlice se Hdblend wiste fram fruman hwaet 

fa gelyfendan w^ron, and hwd hin^ belabwan wolde. 
ttAnd he cwo£*5 : Forfig ic edw s^de, fact nin man ne 
maeg cuman lo me, bdton mm Fa&der hit him sylle. 
M SytSCan manega his leorning-cnyhta cyrdon on-baec, and 
ne eodon mid him. «7 Di cwaet5 se H^lend to )>am twelf- 
um : Cwet5e ge wylle ge fram me? 6a Dd andwyrde him 
Simon Petrus, and cwae^ : Dryhten, to hwam gd we ? 
fii haefst 6ces lifes word. wAnd we gelyfa^, and witon 
faet fd eart Crist, Codes Sunu. roSe H^lend him and- 
swarode, and cwaeS : Hd ne geceds ic ecSw twelfe, and 
edwer dn ys dedfol ? n He hyt cwaeC be luda ScariotSe : 
fes hine bel^wde, fd he waes in faera twelfa. 

DYS SCEAL ON TYWES-DiEG, ON D^RE FIFTAN WUCAN INN AN 

LENCTENE. 

VII. iS^-tJtSan fdr se H^lend to Calildd : he nolde faran 
to ludea, forfam ^e fa Iud6ds hyne sdhlon, and woldon 
hyne ofsledn. s Hit waes gehende ludea fredls-daege. 
» His brdtSro cw^don to him : Far heonon, and gd on 
ludea-land, faet fine leoming-cnyhtas gesedn fa weorc fe 
^ f d wyrcst. 4 Ne 66^6 ndn man ndn f ing on diglum, ac 

s6c6 f»t hit open s^'. Cif f d fds fing dest, ges^yutela 

fe sylfne middan-earde. » Witodlice ne his magas ne 

i geiyfdon on hyne. tiyi cwae^ se Hselend to hym : Gyt 

ne com min tid : edwer tid ys syrale gearu. 7 Ne maeg 
middan-eard e6w hatian : ac he hatatS me, forfam ic cy^e 
gewitnesseXbe him, foet his weorc synd yfele. sFare ge 
t(5 f ison fr^ls-daege : ic ne fare td f ison fredls-daege ; 




I 



JOHN VII. 19 

foT]Fam min tid nys gyt gefylled. • He wunode on Gali- 
\6i, yi he fis )>ing siede. 10 Eft fi his brcjtJru fdron, f ji 
fdr he edc to fam fredls-daege, naes nd openlice, ac di- 
gollice. 11 Dd ludeas hyne S(5hton on fam fredls-da?ge, 
and cwdedon : Hwar ys he? wAnd mycel gehiyd waes 
on paere maenio be him : sume cwdedon : He ys gdd : 
d6re cwdbdon : Nese ; ac he beswicS fis folc. w peah- 
hwaetJere ne spaec ndn man openlice be him, for )>dera 
lud^ ege. 

DYS SCEAL ON MYD-LENCTENES WUCAN, ON TYWES-D^G. 

wDd hit waes mid-daeg }>aes fredls-daeges, fi eode se H^l- 
end into )^m temple, and Idbrde. » And fi ludeas wundre- 
don, and cw^don : Hiimeta can ]>es stafas, ])onne he 
ne leomode ? w Se H^lend him andswarode, and cwaetJ : 
Min Mr nis ni min, ac I>aes fe me sende. n Gyf hwd wyle 
his willan ddn, he gecn^wiS be Jiaere Idre, hwae^er hed 
sig of Gode, hwae^er fe ic be me sylfum spece. wSe J?e 
be him sylfum spryctJ s^cIS his dgen wuldor : se fe s6dS 
)>aes wuldor pe hyne sende, se is sdSfxst, and nis nin un- 
rihtwisnys on him. i» Hd ne sealde Moyses edw de, and 
e<5wer ndn ne healt J>d de ? Hwi s6ce ge me td ofsleanne ? 
so Dd andswarode sed maenio, and cwseS : Dedfol J?e stica^ 
on : hwd s^cS 'pe td ofsleanne? nDi andswarode se 
Hdblend, and cwaet5 to him : an weorc ic worhte, and 
ealle ge wundriaC. m Forfjr Moyses edw sealde ymb- 
sn^^denysse ; naes ni forf ig fe hed of Moyses s^, ac of 
federon ; and on reste-daege ge ymb-sni^a^ mann ; «» faet 
Moyses ^ ne s^ toworpen ; and ge belgatJ wiiS me, for- 
]wim )>e ic gehdelde ^nne man on reste-daege. {« Ne d6me 
ge be ansyne, ac d^ma^ rihtne ddm. u Sume cw^don, yS, 
t$e w&ron of Jerusalem : Hii nis fis se "Se hig secat5 td 
ofeleanne? »And nd he spyctJ openlice, and hig ne 
cwetSaC nin fing td him. Cwefe we hwaetSer fd ealdras 
ong}'ton faet yis is Crist ? tr Ac we witon hwanon fes ys : 



i 



i 



20 JOHN VII. 

fonne Crist cymtS, J>onne niX nin man hwanon he blU. 
isSe Iljelond clypode and liferde on |>am temple, and cw-aeU: 
Me ge cunnon, and ge witon hwanon ic eom : and ic ne 
com fram me sylfum, ac se is soC )>e me sende, }>one ge 
ne cunnon. m Ic hyne can : and gif ic secge yxi ic hine 
ne cunne, ic bec5 leds, and edw gelic. Ic hyne can, and 
ic eom of him, and he me sende. m Hig hine sdhton td 
nimanne, and heora nin hys ne aethnin ; for)>am fe his 
tid ne com yd g>t. si Manega of f^re maenego gelyfdon 
on hine, and cw^don : CweCe ge wyrctJ Crist mi ticna, 
f onne he cym^, fonne fes d^6 ? »% Di Pharisei geh^Tdoa 
fi maenego fas murcnigende be him. 

DYS SCEAL ON MONAN-D^G, ON D^RE FYFTAN WUCAN INNAS 

LENCTENE. 

pi ealdras and fd Pharisei sendon heora fdnas, |>aet hig 
woldon hine gefon. 83 Di cwa^^ se Haelend : Gyt ic be6 
sume hwile mid cow, and ic gange to fam "Re me sende. 
uGe sdcaS me, and ne HndatJ : and ge ne mdgon cuman 
faric eom. « Da ludeas cwjfedon betweonan him sylfum: 
Hwydcr wyle pes faran, fait we hine ne findon? ovysl 
fu wyle he faran on peoda todrsefednysse, and hig Iseran? 
S6 Hwait ys feus sprdcc fe he spr)ct5, Ge seca"8 me, and ne 
fmdatS : and ge ne miigon cuman far ic eom ? n On fam 
ffiftemcstan mjferan freols-dajge, stod se Hdelend and clyp- 
ode : Cume to me se "Se hine fyrste, and drince. ssSe 
fe gelyftJ on me, swd fa^t gewrit cwyS, lybbendes wae- 
teres flod fldwaC of his innot5e. 39 Da3t he cwcc^ be fara 
Gdste, f e ^a sceoldon underfon fe on hyne gelyfdon : fd 
gyt na^s se Gdst geseald ; forfam fe se Hzfelcnd naes fa 
gyt gewuldrod. 

DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON DUNRES-D.EG, ON D.F.RE FII-TAN 

WUCAN INN AN LENCTENE. 

4oOf fdere tide sod ma^nio cwa^S, fa hod gehfrde fas his 
sprdece : pes is sdS witcga. 4iSume cwdbdon : He is Crist. 



JOHN VIIL 21 

CKfedon : C'weCe ge cymtS Crist fiam Galilea ? 
i\e cwytS ya^t gewrit, paet Crist cymtJ of Dauides 
i, 3LT\d o? "BetVileem ceastre, )>ar Dauid waes ? u Wit- 
e ungcYw^rnes wses geworden on f^re maenio for 
44Sume big \voldon hine niman ; ac heora ndn his 
5t-hrdn. i» DA l>cnas c6mon to )>am bisceopum and to 
Phariseum, and hig cwdedon to him: For hwi ne 
iton ge hine hider ? 4»Di andwyrdon fa J>6nas, and 
jdon : Ne sprsec n^fre ndn man s^'a fes man spr}*ct5. 
i cw^don yi Pharisei to him : Synd ge beswicene ? 
velJe ge gelyfde ^nig f^ra ealdra o'StSe fdbra Pharisea 
byne ? «* Ac feds maenio fe ne ciStJe fd de, hig synd 
rgcde. M Dd cwae5 Nichodemus to hym, se Ce com to 
1 on nyht, se waes heora dn : si Cwyst f d d^mC dre db 
gne man, biiion hyne man ^r geh^re, and wite hwset 
Id ? 61 Hig andswaredon, and cwdedon to him : Cwyst 
faet fd s^ Galileisc? Smed, and geseoh, faet ndn 
'ga cyTntJ fram Galilea. u And hig cyrdon ealle hdm. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ANUM D£GE JER MYD-F.ESTENE. 

III. iSe Hdblcnd fdr on Oliuetesddne ; land com eft 
laeg-rdd to fam temple, and eall fat folc com to him ; 

he saet, and l^rde hig. s Di, Iseddon fd Pharisei and 
>dceras to him dn wif sed waes dparod on unriht-h&- 
le, and setton hig td-middcs heora, 4 and cw&don to 

: Ldredw, f is wif waes dfdnden on unrihton h^mede. 
>yses us bebead, on f dere db, faet we sceoldon f us gerade 
1 stdnum oftorfian : hwaet cwysi fd ? «Dis hig cwded- 
his fandiende, faet hig hine wr^hton. Se Hdelend 
4h nytSer, and wrdt mid his fingre on fsere eorfan. 
I hig f urhwunedon hine dcsiende, fd drds he upp, and 
tiS to him : Ldca, hwylc edwer sig S}'nlcas, weorpe 
St stdn on hig. sAnd he dbedh eft, and wrdt on fdere 
fan. 9i>6. hig fys geh^rdon, fd eodon hig dt, dn aefter 
im : and he gebdd far sylf, and faet wif stdd faer on 



22 



JOHN VIII. 



middan. lo Se H^lcnd dris up, and cwxB to hyre : Wif, 
hwajr synd Jni f5e fe wrep^don ? ne fordemde |>e nin man ? 
11 And hed cwxtJ : Nd, Drj-hten. And sc Haelend cwaeU; 
Nc ic )>c nc ford^me : dd gd, and ne sj-nga I>ii n^fre mi. 



DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON DJERE MYD-FiSTENES WUCAN, 

ON S-ETERNES-DJEG. 

11 Eft se H^lend spncc )»as f'mg to hym, and c^'aetJ : Ic 
eom middan-eardes leoht : se )>e me fyli^, ne gae^ he ni 
on fystro, ac he haefS lifes ledht. w Dd Pharisei cwaedon 
to hym : pd cy"5st gewitnesse be ))e sylfum ; nis fin g^ 
witncs s6t$. 14 Se H^lend andswarode, andcwaetJ to hym: 
Gyf ic cy6e gewitnesse be me sylfum, mln gewitnes ya 
s<55 ; forfam fe ic wdt h\vanon ic com, and hwyder ic 
gi : ge nyton hwanon ic com, ne hwyder ic gi. u 
d6ma^ oefier fldbsce, ic ne deme ndnum men. le And gi 
ic d<5me, min ddm is soS ; forfam fe ic ne eom dna, a 
ic and se Fa^der fe me scnde. n And on edwre db is dwrit^ — 
en, fait twegra manna gewitnes is sd^. la Ic eom fe c^ 
gewitnesse be me sylfum, and se Fa^der fe me sendecf 
gewitnesse be me. i» Witodlice hig cwdedon to him : Hwau 
is ))in fxder? Se Hd^lend him andswarode, and cvae5 
Ne cunne ge me, ne minne Fa?der : gyfge me cii^o; 
w6n is fxt ge ciitJon minne Feeder. soDas word he s 
a;t c^p-sceamele : and ndn man hyne ne nam ; for' 
fe hys tid ne com fd gyt. ai Witodlice eft se Hjfeleni 
cwae^ to him ; 



DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON MONAN-D.^G, ON D£RE ODRB 

LENCTEN-W^UCAN. 

Ic fare, and ge me s^catJ, and ge sweltatJ on edwr 
synne : ne mage ge cuman fyder ic fare. 22 I>d cwisdo 
fd ludeas : Cwe'Se ge ofslyh*6 he hinc sylfne ? forfai^^^ 
he segi$, Ge ne magon cuman fyder ic fare 23 Da cwx 
he to him : Ge synd nyfane, and ic eom ufane : ge sp 



JOHN VIII. 23 

^ ^ysum middan-earde : ic ne eom of )7ysum middan- 
iTde. S4 Ic eow sifede, yxi ge sweltatf on edwnim syn- 
lum : gif ge ne gelyfaC yxi ic hit s^, ge sweltaC on 
^wre synne. » Da cwsedon hig to him : Hwaet eart fd ? 
Se H&lend cwaeC to him : Ic eom fruma )>e to edw sprece. 
*lc haebbe fela be edw td sprecanne and td d6menne : ac 
^l>e me sende is sdtJfaest; and ic sprece on middan- 
^e fa f ing "Se ic aet him gehyrde. « And hig ne un- 
^^^^ton fajt he iealde him God td Faeder. n Se Hifelend 
'^fi to him : ponne ge mannes Sunu up-dhebbat$, 
H)iine gecndwe ge fast ic hit eom, and ic ne dd ndn f ing 
' Die sylfum : ac ic sprece fis J^ing swd Faeder me 
^'■^e. t» And se Ce me sende is mid me, and he ne forl^t 
^ ^nne ; forfam fe ic wyrce symie ))a )>ing "fie him 
^d gecw^me. » Dd he fds )>ing spaec, manega gelyfdon 
hine. 

5 SCEAL ON DUNRES-DJEG, ON D-ERE FORMA N LENCTEN- 

WUCAN. 

*i Witodlice se Hdelend cwaetJ to I>am ludeum fe hym 
>'fdon : Gif ge wuniatS on minre spruce, sdtSlice gebedt$ 
tie leorning-cnyhtas ; w and ge oncndwa^ sdSfaestnysse, 
^ sdCfaestnys edw i\fst. u I>i andswaredon hig hym, 
d cw^don : We synd Abrahames cynnes, and ne pedw- 
c>xi we ndnum men nsefre : humeta cwyst f d, Ge bedtS 
5« ? »4 Se H^lend him andswarode, and cwaetS : SdtS ic 
>^ secge, ]>aet ^Ic fe synne wyrct5 ys pdere synne fedw. 
'^''iiodlice se f edw ne wunaS on hdse on 6cnysse : se Sunu 
Mia^ on ecnysse. m Gif se Sunu edw dlyst, ge bedtJ sdtSlice 
Se. 87 Ic wdt faet ge synd Abrahames beam ; ac ge s^ca^S 
^ t(5 ofsleanne, forfam mln spr^c newuna^ on edw. sale 
''^e fact fe ic mid Faeder geseah : and ge ddS l>a )?ing fe 

^'id edwrum fxder gesdwon. » Di andswaredon hig, 
*^ cw^don to him : Abraham ys lire faeder. Dd cwae« 

Hdblend to hym: Gif ge Abrahames beam synd, 



»4 JOHN VIII. 

wyrcaB Abrahames weorc, *tNu ge st-caC me Id ofsleanni^ 
(^nc man fe c<Jw ssede soSfsestnj ssc, fi Ke ic gchj^de of 
Godc : ne dytie Abraham sn'a, n (jc wyrcaS euwres feder 
weorc. ilig cwdcdoa wiiodlJce to him : Ne synd we 
or forlire dcennede ; we habbaS dnne, God, td F^der. 
iiWiiwilice se H&lend cvrxH to him: Gif God wire 
cuwrc fedcr. wiiodlicc ge lufedon me: ic com of Gode; 
nc com ic ni fram me sylfon, ac he me sende. « Htrj ne 
gecnSwe ^e mine sprsece ? forpam f e ge ne magon ge- 
hyran mine spfece, « Ge sjxd deofles beam, and ge nillifi 
\17rcan eijwrcs faider will an. He wies fram fr-mfc 
man-slaga, and he ne wunode on suSfa;stnesse. forJiaiD 
Jie S(j8fa;stnys nis on him. ponne he sprj'cC leUunga. 
he spn-cS of hiin sylfum ; forfam |)c he is le;is, and his 
fa:der eac. « WilodliL-e ge ne gel^fafi me, fot)ram fc ic 
secge ciiw siii!fa;stnysse. 



«Hwylc cower dscunatS me forsinne? Gif ic sd6 seege»- 
hwi ne gelj'fe ge me? «Se pe _vs of Gode, gch^rtS Gode^^ 
word : forjjig ge ne gL-hj'raS, for|jam (le gc ne synd of Godet^^ 
aWiiodlice [va ludcas andswaredon, and cwsfedon to him 5 
Hwi ne cweiSe we wel, fraet fii eart Samariianisc, and eitC^ 
w(jd.' «SeH«.'lundandswarodc, andcwastS ; Neeomicw6dS 
ac ic arweorSigc minne Fa;der, and ge uninveortedon rae. -- 
w Witodlice nc si5ce ic min wuldor : se ys fe s6cS and demC. — 
11 Si5S ic secge eiiw, Gif hwi mine spricce geheaU, ne ge--^ 
syhS hedcaS na-'fre. «Di cw&don fi Judcas : Nu me^ 
wilon |ix't )iii earl w6d. Abraham wais de;id, and Ja^ 
wliegan ; and fd cwtsi, Gif hivd mine sprrfece gehealt, -- 
ne b;S he n&fre deild. a Cwj'st j-i'i ).a;t (.li sy mi-rra t>onne^ 
Ure fa;der Abraham, se wa;^ dc.id i* and fS. witcgan w£cro[*- 
dciide : hwKt JiincS |>e paM fa sy? hSc llfelend hym* 
andswarodo : Gif ic wuldrige me sylfne, nys min woldor 



JOHN IX. 25 

niht : min Faeder is, )>e me wuldraS ; be )>am ge cwetJa* 
Jwet he sy liwre God ; »and ge ne cdtSon hyne : ic hyne 
cann ; and gif ic secge J>aet ic hyne ne cunne, ic bed 
leds, and e<5w gelk : ac ic hyne cann, and ic healde his 
sprdece. »« Abraham, eower faeder, geblissode faet he gesdwe 
minne daeg : and he geseah, and geblissode. «7Da ludeas 
cwdedon lo hym : Gyt fiS ne eart fiftig wintre, and ge- 
sdwe )>u Abraham? wSe Hdelend cwae'S to hym : Ic ^^'aes 
dbr]>am )>e Abraham wdere. m Hig niimon stdnas, to )>am 
faet hig woldon hyne torfian : se Hdelend hine bediglode, 
and eode of J>am temple. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON WODNES-DJEG, ON MYD-F^STENES 

WUCAN. 

IX- I Dii se Hdelend for, yi geseah he denne man pe waes 
blind geboren. sAnd his leorning-cnyhtas hyne dcsedon, 
and csvaedon : Laredw, hwaet syngode, fes, o"5tSe his ma- 
gas, yxi he wsere blind geboren.^ sSe Hdelend andswar- 
ode, and c\^'oetS : Ne syngode he, ne his magas : ac J>xt 
Codes weorc wsere geswiitelod on him. 4 Me gebyra'S t(5 
^yrcanne fxs wcorc fe me scnde, fd hw^le fe hyt daeg 
ys : nyht cym€, fonne ndn man wyrcan ne maeg. s Ic 
^om myddan-eardes le6ht, )>d hwyle fe ic on myddan- 
^arde eom. «Da he fds fing ssede, J?i sprite he on fi 
^orfan, and worhte fenn of his spdtle, and smyrcde mid 
)>ani fenne ofer his edgan, rand cwaeC lo him : Gd, and 
}>weh )>e on Syloes mere. He f6r, and fwdh hine, and 
com geseonde. sWitodlice hys neah-geburas, and fd Ce 
liine gesdwon, fi he waedla waes, cw^don : Hd nis fis se 
j>e saet and waedlode ? »Sume cwjfedon : He hyt is : 
sume cw&don : Nese, ac is him gelic. He cwae^ s6tS- 
llce : Ic hyt eom. 10 Dd cwsedon hig to hym : Hd wderon 
yine edgan geopenede ? n He andswarode. and cwxtJ : Se 
man, fe is genemned Hdblend, worhte fenn, and smyrede 
mine eagdn, and cwaetS to me, Gd to Syloes mere, and 

2 



26 JOHN IX. 

fweh fe : and ic code, and fwdh me, and geseah. uDd 
cwdedon hig to him ; Hwar is he ? Di. o^-aetS he : Ic 
ndt uHig Ideddon to fam Phariseon J>one fe )>ar blind 
waes. 14 Hit waes reste-da^g, fd se Hdelend worhte yxt fenn, 
and his edgan untj^nde. w Eft pa Pharisei hyne dcsedon 
hu he gesdwe. He cwx^ to him : He dyde fenn ofer 

"""^ mine edgan, and ic fwoh, and ic gese6. wSume J>d Pha- 

risei cwdedon : Nis fes man of Code, )>e reste-daeg ne 
hylL Sume cwjfedon : Hu mseg synful man fds tdcn 
wyrcan ? And hig fliton him betweonan. n Hig cw^don 
eft to J?am blindan : Hwset segst fd be fam fe pine edgan 
unty^nde? He cwae^ : He is witega. isNe gelyfdon fi 
ludeas be him, faet he blind w^re, and gesdwe, der)^m 
fe hig clypedon his magas fe gesdwon, wand dcsedon hig, 
and cw^don : Is fis edwer sunu, fe ge secgatJ faet blind 
w^re dcenned? hiimeta gesyhtS he nd? wHys magas 
him andswaredon, and cw^don : We witon )>aet fes ys 
lire sunu, and foet he wxs blind dcenned: si we n}lon 
hdmeta he nd gesyhS, ne hwd his edgan unt^nde : dcs- 
ia^ hine sylfne ; ylde he ha^RJ : sprece for hyne sylfne. 
MHis magas sp^con fds fing, forfam fe hig ondr6don }«£ 
ludeas : fd gedihton fd ludeas, gif hwd Crist andelte, 
fxthe wdere, bdtan heora geferrsedene. tsForfam cwsedon 
his magas, He haefiS ylde, dcsiatJ hine sylfne. S4 Dd, clype- 
don hig eft fone man J?e der blind waes, and cw^don to 
him : Sege Code wuldor : we witon faet he is synful. 
^^^ «6And he cwxtJ : Gif he synful is, faet ic ndt : dn J>ing ic 

wdt, J?aet ic waes blind, and faet ic nu gesed. t^Di cwsedon 
hig to him : Hwaet dyde he f e ? hd ont^nde he fine 
edgan ? 27 He andswarode him, and cwaetS ; Ic edw s^de 

^ ^r, and ge gehyrdon : hwi wylle ge hyt eft geh^^-ran ? 

cwe"5e ge wylle ge bedn his Icorning-cnyhtas? leDa wyrg- 
don hig hine, and cwdedon : Sig pd his leorning-cnyht : 
we synd Moyses leorning-cnyhtas. »We witon faet God 
space wi8 Moysen : nyte we hwanon fes ys. aoSe man 



JOHN X. 27 

andswarode, and cwae^ to him : paet is wundorlfc, fast ge 
n}^on hwanon he is, and he untynde mine edgan. si We 
witon S(5t51ice ysdt God ne geh^rfi synfulle : ac gif hwd 
is Gode gecoren, and his willan wyrcS, ])one he geh^TtJ. 
wNe geh^rde we ndefre on worulde, faet denig ont^de faes 
edgan fe wdere blind geboren. wNe mihte )>es nin fing 
ddn, gif he n^re of Gode. MHig andswaredon, and 
cwdedon to him : Eall )>d eart on synnum geboren, and 
]>d Idbrst us. And hig drifon hine dt. wDd se H^lend 
geh}T-de faet hig h}Tie drifon ut, fi cwaB"8 he to him, fd 
he hine gemitte : Gel^-fst fd on Godes Sunu ? m He and- 
swarode and cwae^ : Hwylc is, dryhten, faet ic on hine 
geiyfe? wAnd se H^lend cwae^ to him : pd hine gesdwe, 
and se Ce wit5 fe spr}c8, se hit is. n Di cwaetJ he : Dr)'ht- 
en, ic geiyfe. And he fe61I nyCer, and geedtJmddde 
hyne. t9 And se Haelend cwseC to him : Ic com on fysne 
middan-eard, t<5 demenne, faet J?a sceolon gesedn, fe ne 
gese66 ; and bedn blinde, fa "Se geseo^. « Di fact geh^rdon 
}>d Pharisei fe mid him wseron, fd cwdbdon hig to hym : 
Cwyst fd synd we blinde? 4iAnd se Hdblend cwaetJ to 
him : Gif ge blinde wjferon, naefde ge ndne synne : nu ge 
secgaC f aet ge gesedn ; fact is edwre syn. 

DYS SCEAL ON TYWES-D^G, ON D^RE PENTECOST EN FS WUCAN. 

X. 1 S6^ ic secge c(5w, Se fe ne ^^"6 aet fam geate in to 
scedpa falde, ac styhtJ elles ofer, he is fedf and sceat5a. 
9 Se f c in-gdetS aet fam geate, he is scedpa hyrde, s fxne 
se geat-weard l^t in, and fa scedp gehyratS his stefne : 
and he nemtS his dgene scedp be naman, and Idet hig ut. 
4 And f onne he his dgene scedp Ijfet dt, he g^6 beforan 
him, and fd scedp him fyliat5 ; forfam fe hig gecndwatJ 
his stefne. s Ne fyliatJ hig uncdfum, ac fle6t5 fram him ; 
forJ>am fe hig ne gecneowon uncdfra stefne. e Dis big- 
spel se Hdelcnd him s^de : hig nyston hwaet he spraec to 
him. I Eft se H^lend cwse« to him : S6« ic eow secge : 



i8 



JOHN X. 



Iceom sceipa geaL lEalle |>i «e cJmoD w±ron (letiEu 
and sceaCan ; ac fi scedp hig ne geh^rdon. • Ic eom 
gcat : av.-i hwylc swi |>urh me g&t, bj6 hdl, and g&C in 
and ut, and fint Ixse. Mpe<jf ne c}!!)^!, bulon ^t he 
side, and sled, and fordit : ic com, to )>am fxt big hab- 
bon lif, and hablmn gendh. 



II Ic eom giid hyrde : giJd hyrde syliS his llf for his scdp- 
urn. II Se hjra, se Se nis hyrde, and se pe ndh yi sceip, | 
|>onnc he fone wulf gesyhS, ponne flyhS he, and forlil 
fi scc^p r and se wulf nimS, and tiidrifB ]fi sceip. aSt 
hyra (lyliJS, forfam J>e he bi8 dh^rod, and hym ne gebji- 
aS to ^am sccdpum. u Ic eom god hyrde, and ic gecnin 
mine scedp, and hig gecndwaS me. »Swi min Fsdei 
can me, ic can minne Fider : and ic sj!le min dgenUf 
for rainum sccSpum. i< And ic hasbbe <5Cre sceip, fi ne 
synt of j)isse heorde ; and hyt gebyraS fxt ic l&de )^ 
and hig geh^raS mine stcfne ; and h)t hytS dn heord, 
and dn hyrde. it Forjiam Feeder me lufaB, foTt>jm J>e ic 
sylle mine sdwie, and hig eft nime. uNe nimS hig nin 
man set me, ac libie hig fram me sylfum. Ic hsebbe an- 
weaM mine sdwle to dlifeianne, and ic hsebbe anweald hig 
eft id nimanne. pis bcbod ic nam tet minum Fasder, 
It Eft wies ungejtwfernes geworden beiweox fam ludeum, 
for Jjysum spr:ecum. wManega heora cwsfedon, Dedfol 
ys on hym, and he wdl ; liwi hlysie ge hym ? n Sume 
cwffedon, Ne synd nd fys M(Jdcs manncs word, Cwyst 
J>ii mKg wdd man blindra manna eagan onlj'nan ? 



nDi w*ron templ-hrflgunga on Hicrusalcm, and. hyt 
wffis winter, saAnd sc H&lend eode on )'ani temple, on 
Salomones poruce. i.D4 besttJdon fa ludcas lijne lilan. 



JOHN X. 29 

and cwdedon to hym : Hd lange gaelst fu dre llf ? Sege us 
openlice, hwaeCer )>u Crist sj?. tsSe H^lend hym and- 
swarode, and cwae6 : Ic spece to eow, and ge ne ge- 
VffaC : J>d weorc )>e ic wyrce on mines Faeder naman, yi 
cj^atS gewitnesse be me. m Ac ge ne geiy-fatJ, forfam )>e 
ge ne synd of minum scedpum. « Mine scedp geh^ratS 
mine stefne, and ic gecndwe hig, and hig folgiatJ me : 
nand ic hym sylle ^ce lif, and hig ne forweorSatS ndefrc. 
and ne nimtS hig ndn man of minre handa. » Daet "Se miii 
Faeder me sealde ys mjferre fonne denig (5^er fing ; and ne 
maeg hit nin man niman of mines Faeder handa. ao Ic 
and Faeder synd in. n Di ludeas ndmon stdnas, }>aet hig 
woldon hyne torfian. » Se Haelend hym andswarode, and 
cwaetJ : Manega gdde weorc ic eow aetywde be minum 
Faeder ; for hwylcum faera weorca w}'lle ge me haenan ? 
n Di ludeas hym andswaredon, and cwdedon : Ne haene 
we }>e for g(5dum weorce, ac for finre bysmer-spdece ; 
and for)>am fe fd eart man, and wyrcst fe t6 Code. 84 Se 
Haelend him andswarode, and cwaetS: Hd nys hyt d- 
writen on e(5wre de, Daet ic sdede, Ge synd godas? asGif 
he fi tealde godas, J>e Codes sp^c to waes geworden, and 
f t halige gewrit ne maeg be6n dwend ; sefe Faeder 
gehdlgode, and sende on middan-eard, ge secgatS, Da^t 
fu bysmer spycst ; forf am ic sdede : Ic eom Codes Sunu. 
trCif ic ne wyrce mines Faeder weorc, ne gel^'fatS me. 
M Cif ic \\7rce mines Faeder weorc, and gif ge me nellatS 
geiyfan, ge\f(a!6 fam weorcum ; faet ge oncndwon, and 
gel^fon faet Faeder ys on me, and ic on Faeder. 89 Hig 
smeadon witodlice ymbe faet hig woldon hyne gefon, 
and he code dt fram hym, 40 and he for eft ofer lordanen, 
to f^re stdwe fe lohannes waes, and aerest on fullode : 
and he wunode fcer. 41 And manega c(5mon to him, and 
cw^don : Witodlice ne worhte lohannes ndn tdcn : calle 
fa f ing fe lohannes s&de be fyssum, wderon s6tSe. 4a And 
manega gel^fdon on hyne. 



JO JOHN XI. 

DVS SCEAL ON FRYGE-DIG, ON MYD-FiESTENES WUCAK. 

XI. iWitodlice sum se<5c man wtes, genemned Lazarus, 
of Bethania, of Marian ceastrc, and of Marthan, bys 
swustra. ■ Hjt wks seci Maria fe sm^rede Di^'hten mid 
(liere sealfe, and drigde his fit mid hyre loccum, Imzh- 
rus hjre briJSer wses ge-yflod, • Hys swustra sendon to 
hym, and cwffidon : Dryliien, nu ys sedc se Jte fti lulast. 
t Di se H&lend fst gehj'rde, (Ki cwseB he to him : Kys 
peds untrumnys ni for dedfie, ac for Codes wiildre ; (laet 
Codes Sunu sig gewuldmd furh hyne. iStSfilice se H&l- 
end lufode Marthan and hyre swustor Marian, and Laza- 
rum heora briiSer. ■Witodllee he wjes twegen dagas 
I on ji^ere sylian strfwe, fd he geh^rde faet he sedc was. 
y^fler liyssum he cwjcS to hys icoming-cnyhtum : Uion 
feran eft to ludea-lande. e Hys leoming-cnyhtas cw^don 
to hym : Laretiw, nu pa ludeas sihton fe, Jjffit hig woldon 
ye hanan; and wyll fii eft faran pydcr? tSe HSblend 
hym andswarode, and cw:e8 : Hti ne synd Iwelf tida 
pajs dsgesf Gif hwi g^5 on daeg, ne setspymS he, 
forpam he gesyhS pyses middan-eardes ledht mCif he 
gie8 on nihi, he letspyrnti, forpam pe pa;t IciJht nys on 
hyre. ii pis ping he cw»8 : and s; 8San he cwx8 lo him : 
Lazarus ure fre6nd sl*p8 ; ac ic wylle gdn, and iwrec- 
can hyne of slsepe. «His leorning-cnyhtas cwEedon ; 
Dr)-hten, gif he sl2ep«, he, he by8 hill. i>Se Hilend hit 
cweS be his deiSe : hig wiSndon stjSKce pset he hyt sJbde 
be swefnes sliepe. it Dd cwkS se Hfelend openlice to 
him : Lazarus js deM ■ it and ic com bllSe for edwrura 
pingum, p I ge geljTon, forpam ic na;s para; ac u!on 
gdn lo him. itD;t cwodS Thomas to hj-s gefOrum : Uton 
gin, and sweltan mid him, nDi fur se Il&lend, and gc- 
m^tle p^t he wis forS-faren, and for feower dagum be- 
byrged. iiBcihauIa ys gehendc H Jerusalem ofer fyftyne 
furlang. IB Mancga fxra Iu<lca cOmon to Marthan and 



JOHN XI. 31 

o Marian, J^aet hig woldon hig frdfrian for heora brd^oi 
ingon. ioDi Martha geh^rde faet se H^lend com, J>d 
am he6 ongean hyne : and Maria scet act hdm. « Dd cwx6 
^lartha to J>am H^lende : Dryhten, gif fii w^re h<5r, n&re 
^xnln brdfor dedd. tiAnd edc ic wit niifd fxt God fc 
syltS s>*'d hwaet swd )>ii hyne bitst. « Dd o^-ae^ se Hdelend 
td hjrre : pin brd^or drist. u And Martha cwaeiS to hym : 
Ic wdt Jnct he drist on )>am ytemestan da*ge. « And se 
H^Iend cwae^ to hyre : Ic eom ^ryst and lif : se fe ge- 
ly-ftj on me, )>edh he dedd s^, he leofaS : «eand ne swylt 
nan J^sera fe leofa^ and ge\ff6 on me. Gciyfst fd fyses ? 
wHed cwaetS to him: Witodlice, Drvhten, ic gelyfe faet 
}j^ eart Crist, Codes Sunu, fe on middan-earde cdme. 
St And JkI hed fds )>ing s^de, hed eode, and clypode dIgolKce 
Marian hyre swustor, )>us cwefende : Hdr is ure Ldrcdw, 
and clypatS )>e. »iyi hed faet gehyrde, hed drds ra*5e, and 
com to him. to Dd gyt ne com se Htelend binnan fd 
ceastre, ac waes fd gyt on fdere stdwe |>cer Martha him 
ongean com. ti Dd ludeas J>e wderon mid hyre on hiise, 
and hig frc^frodon, fa hig gesdwon pxt Maria drds, and 
mid dfeste dt-eode, hig fyh'gdon hyre, fus cwet5ende : 
Hed g^t5 to his byrgene, )>aet hed w^pe fara, tsDd Maria 
com far se Hselend wncs, and hed hyne geseah, hed fcdll 
t6 his fdtum, and cwxtS td him : Dryhten, gif fu w^re 
her, n&re min brdtSor dedd. S3J>S, se H^lend geseah fxt 
hed wedp, and feet fa ludeas wedpon, fe mid hyre cdmon, 
he geomrode on hys gdste, and gedr^fdc hyne sylfnc, 
Mand cwae^ : Hwar lede ge hine ? Hig cwifedon td him : 
Dryhten, gd and geseoh. tsAnd se H&icnd wedp. saAnd 
yd ludeas cwd;don : Ldca nu hu he hyne lufode. 57 Some 
hig cwdedon : Ne mihte fes, fe ontynde blindes cigan, 
ddn edc fxt fes n^re dedd ? saEft se H&lend geomrode 
on him sylfum, and com to f^re byrgene. Hit woes dn 
Fcrxf, and far wees dn stdn on-uppan geldd. so And se 
H&lend cwx« : Dd« dweg fone stdn. B6, cwxIS Martha 



JOHN- XI, 



to him, pxs swustcr)>e |>ar il^.ul ",i.: l"i:>Ii;.:n, nu be 
ihiicfi : he Wfcs for feower daeuin lie.id. .iSi; Ihikr.il 
twsS to hyre ; Ne s^ile ic fc, JiKi f u gcsvhst Codes 
wiililor, gif }>u geiy-fsl? «Di dydon hig dweg lK>ne btin. 
Sc Hfclend ihtif his cigan up, and cwasiS : FKder, ic dd 
ji:incas fc, for]ram fu gelijfrdest me. ale wdi f«et fii me 
symlc geh^l : ac Ic CwtctS for Jiatn folce fc her jtnb- 
Hnn stent, fast hig geljTon Ji.-el l»ii me isendest uDi he 
j'.is ("inj ssfede, he cljpode mycclre slefne : Lazarus, gd 
lit. «And sdna sli5p fortS se l^e dedd waes, gebiinden 
liandum and fOtuin : and b)'s neb wxs mid swJt-linc ge- 
biinden. Di cwk8 se HEfelend to liym ; UnblndaB hine, 
and l&taB gjn. it Manega jixra ludea t* ciSmon to Marian, 
and gesSwon f& fing fe he dyde, geiy-fdon on hine. "Hig 
sume fdron l<5 pam Phariseon, and sSedoii him }>3, fing fc 
se Hielend dydc 

FIVS SCEAL TWAM DAGUH XK PAt.H-Sl'KNAK-I>£G. 

iiWitodllce fi bisceopas and ]'i Pharisei gaderodon ge- 
m6t, and cw&don : Hwiet dd we ? forfiam fes man wyrcfi 
myccle tdcna. «Gif we hine forlifelaS, calle geljTaS on 
Ijinc ; and Romanc cumaS, and nimaS ijre land and dme 
]iciSd9Cypc. •Heora ia wss genemned Caiphas, se wks 
\4 on gcare bisceop, and cwxB to him : Ge nylon n5n 
l-ing, mUC ne gefencaS, fst lis j-s betere ]>xl dn man swclte 
for fo!ce, and eall )jei5d ne forweoiBe. « Ne cwa:S be 
|'a;l of him sylfum ; ac fd he wxs fact gear bisceop, he 
witgode jKct se H&iend sceoldc swcltan for fftre )>eC>de : 
wand ni synderlice for b&ic )'cdde, ac fxt he wolde ge- 
^omnian log^dere Codes bcarn fie irfdrifene w*roa. 
MOr)>3m daege hig )>ohton lis-t hig woldon h3'ne ofsleatL 
i>JM nc fdr se H&lend ai opcnllce geiMang J'am ludeum ; 
ac f(5r on fset land wiS ]Kct w&ten, on ]u burh J>e ys 
genemned Effrem, and wunodc pxt mid his leoming- 

-^■nro. uludca EJsiron w^jbron gchendc : and manega 



JOHN XII. 23 

fdron of )>am lande td Hierusalem ^r ]>ain Eastron, fset 
hig woldon hig sylfe gehdlgian. wHig sdhton fone H^I- 
end, and spr^con hym betw^an, }>aer hig stddon on fam 
temple, and fus cw^don : Hwaet w^ne ge, faet he ne 
cume to fredls-daege ? nDi bisceopas and yi Pharisei 
hsefdon beboden, gif hwd wiste hwar he wdere, faet he hyt 
c^dde, yxt hig mihton hine niman. 

DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON MONAN-DJEG, INNAN D^RE PALM- 

WUCAN. 

XII. 1 Se H^lend com syx dagum der fam Eastron l6 
Bethania, yzi Lazarus waes dedd, fe se Hdelend dwrehte. 
t Hig worhton him far gebedrscipe, and Martha f dnode. 
Lazarus waes in psera }>e mid him saet. • Maria nam in 
pdnd dedrwyrtSre sealfe, mid fam wyrt-gemange fe hig 
nardus hdta^, and sm^rede I>aes Hdelendes f6t, and drigde 
mid hyre loccum : and faet hds waes gefylled of f^re 
sealfe swaecce. 4Dicwaet$ in his leorning-cnyhta, ludas 
Scaridth, fe hine beldewde : 6 Hwl ne sealde hed fas sealfe 
wits f r^m hundred penegon, faet man mihte syllan fearf- 
um ? fNe cwaetJ he ni faet forf ig J>e him gebyrede to 
fam fearfon, ac forfam fe he was }fe6(, and haefde serin, 
and-baer fa fing fe man sende. t Di cwaetJ se Hselend : 
Ldet hig faet : hed healde fd otS f one dseg fe man me be- 
by rige. • Ge habbatJ symle f earfan mid edw ; ac ge nab- 
batS me symle. »Mycel maenigeo fjfera ludea gecnedw 
faet he waes far ; and hig cdmon, naes nd for faes H^l- 
endes fingon synderlice, ac faet hig woldon gesedn 
Lazarum, fe he dwehte of dedtSe. lopsera sacerda caldras 
fohton )>aet hig woldon Lazarum ofslean ; nforfam fe 
manega fdron fram fam ludcum for his fingon, and ge- 
Ijrfdon on fone Haelend. laOn mergen mycel maenigeo, 
fe com to fam fredls-dajge, fd hig geh^rdon fact se 
Hdblend com to Hierusalem, whig ndmon palm-treowa 
twigu, and eodon iit ongean hine, and clypodon : Sy 



34 JOHN XIL 

Israhela cing hdl, and gebletsod fe com on Dryhtnes 
naman. uAnd se Haelend gemdtte dnne assan, and rid 
on-uppan )>am, sw^ hyt awriten ys, u Ne ondrded f li, Sidnes 
d<5hter : nu pin cing cym'5, uppan assan folan sittende. 
wNe undcrgeton hys leoming-cnyhtas fas fing ^rest: ac 
J>d sc Haelend waes gewuldrod, J>i gemundon hig fset fds 
fing wjferon awriten e be him, and pis fing hig dydon 
him. 17 Se6 maenigeo, fe waes mid him fi he Lazarura 
clypode of psere byrgene, and hine dwehte of dedtJe, 
c^'^de gewilnesse. la And forfig him com sed maenio on- 
gean, forfam fe hi gehy-rdon fxt he worhte pset tdcn. 
wDd Pharisei cw^don betweox hym sylfum : We gesedti 
faet wc ndn fing ne fremiaS : nu wyle eall middan-eard 
a?fter him. toSume pe waeron Hdet5ene, J>e fdron foet hig 
woldon hig gebiddan on fam fredls-dasge, fifd genealaeh- 
ton t(5 Philippe, se wees of fsere Galileiscan Bethsaida, 
and hig bdedon hine, and cwsedon : Le6f, we wyllaS ge- 
se6n pone H^lend. « Da eodc Philippus, and s^de hyt 
Andreae ; and eft Andreas and Philippus hit s&don J>am 
H^lcnde. 23 Se Hdelend him andswarode, and cwaet5 : 
Sed tid cym'5, pact mannes Sunu byt$ geswdtelod. 

DYS SCEAL ON TYWES-D^G, ON DiERE PALM-WUCAN. 

24S(5t$licc ic secge edw, Daet hw^tenc corn wunat5 dna, 
bdton hyt feallc on eorpan, and s^^^ dedd : gif hyt hy^ 
dedd, hyt bringS mycelne wxstm. ssSe fe lufatS his 
sdwle forspilS hig ; and se tSe hatat5 his sdwle on fyson 
middan-earde, gehylt hig on 6con life. » Gif hwd )>6nige 
me, fylige me : and min J>6n b'r6 faer, faer ic eom. Gif 
me hwd ))6naf$, min Faeder hine weoi^a'S. «7 Nu min sdwl 
ys gedrefed ; and hwaet secge ic ? Faeder, gehifel me of 
pisse tide ; ac for pam ic com on J>ds tid. as Faeder, ge- 
wuldra Jnnne naman. Dd com stefn of heofone, pus 
cwepende : And ic gewuldrode, and eft ic gewuldrige. 
M Sed maenigo pe pa^r stdd, and pact gehy-rde, saedon pcet 



JOHN XII. 35 

|>unro<ie : sume s^don }>aet engel spdece wi« hyne. 

':C Hfelencl him andswarode, and cwae^ : Ne cx)m J>e<5s 

;Cn. for minon )>ingon, ac for edwrum fingon. ti Nu ys 

fiddan-eardes d<5m : nu b}i$ fyses middan-eardes ealdor 

,t-iworpen. w And gif ic bed iSp-ahafen fram eorf an, ic 

.c6eal\e "fing to me sylfum. wpset he sdede, and tdcnode 

be^wylcum dedtJe he wolde sweltan. wSed maenigo him 

andswarode, and cwaeS: We geh^rdon on faere de faet 

Cnst biS on 6cnysse : and hdmeta segst f d, Hit ge- 

byia^ l^aet mannes Sunu bed iSp-dhafen ? hwaet ys pes 

mannes Sunu ? w Dd cwaetJ se Hdelend : Nu gyt ys lytel 

le6ht on edw : gdtS pi hwile fe ge ledht habbon, faet 

f^ro edw ne befdn ; se pe gdetS on f^stron, he nit 

hwyder he g^t$. wDi hwile pe ge ledht habbon, ge- 

\fh^ on ledht, foet ge syn ledhtes beam, pds fing se 

Hablend him sjfede, and eode, and bediglode hine fram 

him. «T Di he swd mycele tdcn dyde befdran him, hig ne 

gel^fdon on hine : wfaet faes witegan word Isaias wdere 

gefylled, pe he cwaetS, Dryhten, hwd gelyfde faes pe we 

gehyrdon ? and hwam waes Diyhtnes strenctS geswutelod ? 

m Forfig hig ne mihton gelyfan, forlxim Isaias cwoetS eft, 

40 He dblende heora edgan, and dhyrde heora heortan, faet 
hig ne gesedn mid heora eagon, and mid heora lieortan 
ne ongyton, and s^n gecyrrede, and ic hig geh^le. 

41 Isaias sdede pis fing, pi he geseah hys wuldor, and 
spraec be him. 4iAnd fedh manega of fam ealdron ge- 
lyfdon on hine ; ac hig hyt ne c^^don for f^ra Pharisea 
)>ingon ; fy-laes hig man ilt-ddrife of hyra gesomnunge. 
4»Hi lufodon manna wuldor switJor fonne Codes wuldor. 
44 Se Hdelend clypode and cwae(5 to him : Se pe gel^'fS on 
me, ne gel^fiS he nd on me, ac on faene pe me sende ; 
4ft and se pe me gesyhtS, gesyhtS faene pe me sende. 4« Ic 
com td ledhte on middan-earde ; and ndn fjfera pe ge- 
I5?fi5 on me ne wuna« on f^strum. 4t And gif hwd ge- 
hyr6 mine word, and ne gehylt, ne deme ic hine : ne 



36 JOHN Xni. 

com ic middan-eard t(3 demannc, ac )>xt ic gchfble mid- 
dan-card. « Se J>e mc forhigfl, and mine word ne under- 
fuliB, he hasRS hwd htm di^-me : se<3 spic pe ic spsec, se6 
him di5m* on |>am }Hemeslan dKge. «For)>am (>e ic ne 
Eprecc of me itylfum ; ac se F^der J>e mc sende. he me 
buhcad hwa;t ic cweKe, and hwKt ic sprece. m And ic 
wdl fxt his bebod ys &e Hf ; fa fing fe ic sprece, ic 
sprece swi Fa,'dcr me s&de. 



D ON DVSRES-DSG JER EASTROX. 

XIII. i^r pam Easter-freiils-daege, se H^lend wiste 
[tKt his tid com, jKct lie wolde gewiun of )>>'sum middan- 
earde lo hys Feeder, Jfi he lufode hys leoming-cnyhtas 
}>e w&ron on middan-earde, 61i ende he hig lufode. lAnd 
)>a Diyhmes f6nung woes gemacod, pd fi5r sedeofol on 
ludas hcortan Scarioihes, feet he hine bel^wde. <He 
wiste fxt Fi'der sealde eallc ping on hys handa, snd 
(«et lie com of Gode, and cym8 to Gode. t He iris fram 
his pdnunge, and 16de hys reif, and nam linen hnegl, and 
bcgyrde hyne, t^fter I>am he dyde waiter on ftet, and 
pwuli his Icoming-cnyhta Kt, and drigde big mid pfere 
lin-wide pe he wies mid begyrd. iDicom he to Simone 
Petre, and Petrus cweS to him : Dryhten, scealt pd 
pwedn mine fit? tSc Hfelend andswarode, and c«e8 to 
him: pdnast nu pxt ic do ; ac pU wdst sj-SSan. iPeiras 
cwaiS lo him ; Ne [twyhst pu ndefre mine feL Se HJel- 
end him andswarode, and cwaiS : Gif ic pe ne pwed, 
HEef^t pii nsenne da^t myd me. > Da cwxS Simon Petrus lo 
him ; Dryhten, ne pweh pii nd mine iit dne, ac edc min 
heafod and mine handa. lo Da cvxt se H£lend to him : 
Se pc clifene b)*i5 ne bcpearf biiton paet man his f^t pwed, 
ac ys call clfune : and ge synd sume claine, na;snd ealle. 
11 He wiste witodlicc hvrS hyne sccolde beljfewan ; forpam 
he cwaeS, Ne synd ge ealle clEene. a SySSan he hacfde 
heora f6t dpwogene, he nam his redf ; and pd he sa::t, he 




I 



JOHN XIII. 37 

cwaeC eft to hym : Wite ge hwaet ic edw dyde ? u Ge 
clypiatS me L^redw and Dr}'bten ; and wel ge cweCatS ; 
swd ic eom soClice. wGif ic fwoh edwre f^t, ic fe eom 
ecSwer Ldre<5vv and edwer Hidford, and ge sceolon edc 
Jr^^•edn edwer dele dtJres fet is Ic edw sealde bysne, fxt 
ge ddn swd ic edw dyde. wSdtSlIce ic edw secge, Nys se 
}>edwa furtJra J>onne his hidford ; ne se derend-raca nys 
maerra fonne se J>e hyne sende. n Gif ge fds fing witon, 
ge bedtJ eddige gif ge hig dd6. u Ne secge ic be edw 
eallon : ic wdt hwylce ic geceas : ac faet faet hdlige ge- 
writ sy gefylled, fe cw}-t5, Se fe ytt hldf myd me, dheftJ 
hys hd ongean me. wNu ic edw secge, ^rfam fe hyt ge- 
weortSe, J>aet ge geiyfon, fonne hyt geworden b}i5, fact ic 
hyt eom. soSdtS ic edw secge, Se J>e underfehtJ faene J>e 
ic sende, underfcht5 me ; and se J>e underfehtJ me, under- 
feht5 J^aene fe me sende. nDd se H^lend pds fing sjfede, 
he was gedr^fed on gdste, and cytSde, and cwaetS: Sdt^ 
ic edw secge, faet edwer dn me beldewfj. « DS. leorning- 
cnyhtas beheold heora ^Ic dSerne, and hym tw^node be 
hwam he hit s^de. »An faera leorning-cnyhta hlinode 
on faes Haelendes bearme, pone se Hdelend lufode. »4 Si- 
mon Petrus bicnode to fyson, and cwae^ to him : Hwaet 
is se fe he hyt big segC ? »Witodlice ))d he hlinode ofer 
faes Haelendes bredsium, he cwaeS to him : Dryhten, 
hwaet ys he.? seSe Hdelend him andswarode, and cwaetS : 
He ys se fe ic rdece bedyppedne hldf. And pd t5d he 
bedypte fone hldf, he sealde hyne ludas Scaridihe. n And 
fi aefter fam bitan, Satanas code on hyne. DS, cwaeS se 
Hjfelend to him : Dd ratJe pact fd ddn wj'lt. t» Nysie ndn 
}>dera sittendra, td hwam he faet saede. «Sume wendon, 
forfam ludas haefde serin, J>3Ct se H&lend hit cwaede be 
hym, Bige fa fing f e us fcarf s^ to fam fredls-daege ; 
ot55e faet he sealde sum fingfearfendum mannum. toDl he 
nam j>one bitan he code ut faer-rihte : hit waes niht. sipa he 
dt-eode ; and se Hdelend cwaetS ; Nu ys mannes Sunu ge- 



38 JOHN XIV. 

swutelod, and God ys geswutelod on him. »Gif God ys ges- 
wutelod on him, and God geswutelatJ hine on hyra sylfum. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBRYAD ON FRIGE-D£G, ON D£R£ FEORDAN 

WUCAN OFER EAST RON. 

u Ld beam, nu gyt ic eom gehwdede tid mid e<5w. Ge 
me sdcatJ : and swd ic fam ludeum sdede, Ge ne migon 
faran fyder fe ic fare ; and nu ic edw secge. m Ic e<5w 
sylle niwe bebod, poet ge lufion e6\y betw^iian, swd ic e<5w 
lufode. M Be fam oncndwatJ ealle men )«et ge synd mine 
leoming-cnyhtas, gif ge habbatS lufe eow betwy^an. 
M Simon Petrus cwa^S to him : Dryhten, hwyder g^st fu.? 
Se Hablend hym andswarode, and cwaeS : Ne miht )>d me 
fylian pydcr ic nu fare : \>h fix^rst eft cefter me. « Petrus 
CW&6 to him ; Hwi ne maeg ic fe nu fylian ? ic sylle min 
lif for fe. 18 Se Haelend him andswarode, and cwaeC : pin 
lif fu sylst for me ? S65 ic fe secge, Ne cr^wtS se cocc, 
der f d wiCsaecst me friwa. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD TO D.ERE M.ESSAN PHILIPPI AND 

lACOBI. 

XIV. 1 And he cwae^ to hys leorning-cnyhtum : Ne s^ 
edwer heorte gedrefed : ge gel^fatS on God, and gel^'fatS 
on me. s On mines Fajder hiise synd manega eardung- 
st(5wa : ne sdede ic edw. Hyt ys lyiles wana J>3et ic fare, 
and wylle edw eardung-stdwe gegearwian. sAnd gif'ic 
fare, and edw eardung-stdwe gegearwige, eft ic cume, 
and nime edw to me sylfum ; p3et ge s^n faer ic eom. 
4 And ge witon hwyder ic fare, and ge cunnon fone weg. 
•Thomas cwa;"5 to hym : Diyhten, we nj-ton hwyder })d 
faerst ; and hd mage we fone weg cunnan ? « Se H^lend 
cwaetS to him : Ic eom weg, and so^fxstnys, and lif: 
ne cymS ndn to Faedcr, buion furh me. rGif ge cd'5on 
me, witodlice ge cdtJon minne Fa^der : and heonon-forS 
ge hyne gecndwaS, and ge hinc gesawon. aPhilippus 
cwae^ to him : Drj'hten, aetyw us fone Faeder, and we 




I 



JOHN XIV. 39 

habbaS gendh. »Se H^lend cwajt5 to him : Philippus, 
swd lange lid ic wxs mid ec5w, and ge ne gccneowon 
me : se J>e me gesyhtS, gesyh^ minne Faeder : hdmeta 
cwj'st fd, JEifw us finne Feeder? loNe gelyfst fii fact ic 
com on Faeder, and Fseder ys on me? )>a word pe ic to 
edw sprece, ne sprece ic hig of me sylfum : se Faeder 
pe wiinatS on me, he wyrctS pa weorc. iiNe gel^fe ge 
faet ic com on Faeder, and Faeder ys on me : gel^fatS for 
Jam weorcum. u S(5t$, ic edw secge, Se fe gelyR5 on me, 
he wyrc^ fa weorc fe ic wyrce, and he wyrc'5 mdran 
}>onne fa synd ; forfam fe ic fare td Faeder. u And ic 
dd swd hwaet s^^•d ge biddaS on minum naman, fit Fx*- 
der sig gewuldrod on Suna. uGif ge hwaet me biddatS 
on minum naman, faet ic dd. 

DYS SCEAL ON PENTECOSTENES M^ESSE-^FEN. 

M Gif ge me lufia"5, healda^ mine bebodu. w And ic bidde 
Faeder, and he sylt$ edw dSeme Frefriend, faet bed jfefre 
mid edw; nsdtSfxstnvsse Gdst, fe fes middan-eard ne 
maeg underfdn : he ne can hyne, forfam f e he ne gcsyh?5 
hyne : ge hyne cunnon, forfam fe he wunat5 mid edw, 
and bits on edw. wNe laete ic edw ste(jp-cild : ic cumc 
td edw. w Nu gyt ys dn lylel fyrst, and middan-eard me 
ne gesyh'5 : ge me gescdS ; forfam ic lybbe, and ge 
lybbatJ. »0n fam daege ge gecndwaiS faet ic eom on 
minum Faeder, and ge synd on me, and ic eom on edw. 
nSc fe haeR$ mine bebodu, and hylt fa, he ys f e me lufaS : 
min Faeder lufa« faene f e me lufa^, and ic lufige hyne, 
and geswutelige him me sylfne. » ludas cwaetJ to hym, 
(naes ni se Scarioth) : Dryhten, hwaet ys gewordcn, faet 
fd wylt fe sylfne geswutelian ds, naes middan-earde ? 
»Se H^lend andswarode, and cwaetS to him : 

DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON PENTECOSTENES MiESSE-DJEG. 

Gif hwd me lufaS, he hylt mine spr&ce, and min 
Fseder lufaS hine ; and we cuma« to him, and wc wyrca« 



40 JOHN XV. 

eardung-sidwa mid hira. mSc J>e me ne lu&S, ne hylt he 
mine sprreca : and nj-s hyt min spriec }e ge geh^-rdon, ac 
fxs I'arder pc me sende. upas ping ic euw ssede, fi 
ic mid eiJw wunode. uSe Hajga Frdfre-Gdst, J>e Fxdtr 
sent on minum naman, cdw IferS ealle |>ing; and he 
IrijriS eow calle J>ii fing fe ic etiw secge. n Ic I&fc eijw 
sibljc : ic sjlie edw mine sibbe : ne sylle ic e<Jw sibbe s*-i 
middan-eard sjl*. N'e sy eiSwer hcoite gedn5fed, ne ne 
furlitigu ge. mGc gcliv'rdon fxl ic e<5w sifede, Ic gi, 
and ic cume td euw. Witodlice gif ge me lufcdon, ge 
geblissodon ; forfam fc ic lare to Fteder ; forfam Freder 
ys nidra ))onne ic. sAnd nu ic eSv.- s^de, £er}iam )>e hit 
geweorBc, JiEt ge gclyfon, fonne hit geworden bi8. nXe 
sprece ic nu nd fcla wiS cuw : J>jscs middan-eardes ealdor 
cymii, and lie na;r8 ndn fing on me : Jiac jKEt middan- 
eani oncnawe J«et ic lufige Faeder, and ic di5 swi Facder 
me bcbead. ArisaS, uton gdn heonon. 



DVS GODSfEL u 



> TO See VITALIS H£SSAN. 



XV. lie com sdS win-card, and mIn Facder ys coriltilia. 
ille dL'5 a;lc twig aiveg on me fe bl^da ne byrtS ; and he 
foonnatS kIc jKeni Jic blsfeda byrS, Jiict hyt here bl&da 
^ swijior. iNu gc synd tla;ne for (>ifere sprfbce J>e ic lo 
cfjvv sprEC. 4 WiiniaS on rac, and ic on edw. Swa twig 
ne mxg blAda beran liim-sylf. billon hit wunige on win- 
eardo, swi ge ne magon cic, biitnn ge wunion on me. 
1 Ic com win-eard, and ge s)'nd iwigu : Se fe wunaS on 
nw, and ic on him, se byrtS mycle blieda : forj^m ge ne 
magon ndn )iing dun biiian me. (Gif hwd ne wunaS on 
me, lie biB dworpcn dt sw;! twig, and fordriSwaS ; and hig 
gadcriaS pa, and ddS on fyr, and hig forbymaiS. 



iGif ge wuniaii on me, and mine word wuniaK on edw, 
biddaB sw;i hwa;l swa ge wyllon, and liyt bj^ cdwer. »On 



JOHN XV. 41 

Jam ys min Faeder geswdtelod, }>3et ge beron mjcle bl^da, 
and bedn mine leorning-cnyhtas. tAnd ic lufode e<5w 
swd Faeder lufode me : wuniatS on minre lufe. loGif ge 
mine bebodu gehealdatS, ge wuniatS on minre lufe ; swd ic 
geheold mines Fseder bebodu, and ic wunige on hys lufe. 
11 Dis fing ic e6w sjfede, )net min gefea s^ on e(5w, and 
e<5wer gefea s^ gefullod. 

DYS GEBYRAD TO DJERA APOSTOLA MJESSE-DAGON. 

mDIs js min bebod, fxi ge lufion edw gem^nelice, swd 
ic e6w lufode. wNoeftJ ndn man mdran lufe J>onne feds 
ys, faet hwd sylle his lif for his fredndum. uGe synd 
mine fi^nd, gif ge ddS j>a fing fe ic edw bebeode. uNe 
telle ic edw td fed wan ; forfam se fedwa n^t hwaet se 
hliford d6t : ic tealde edw td fredndum ; forfam ic cfiSde 
edw ealle fa fing fe ic gehy-rde aet minum Faeder. wNe 
gecure ge me, ac ic geceds edw, and ic sette edw, faet 
ge gan and blifeda beron, and edwre bl^da geldeston ; 
feet Faeder sylle edw swd hwaet swd ge biddaS on minum 
naman. 

AND DYS GEBYRAD TO D^RA APOSTOLA MJESSE-DAGON. 

17 Dis fing ic edw beode, faet ge lufion edw gem^nelice. 
isGif middan-eard edw hatat5, wita^ faet he hatede me ^r 
edw. i»Gif ge of middan-earde w^ron, middan-eard 
lufode faet his waes : forfam f e ge ne synd of middan- 
earde, ac ic edw geceds of middan-earde, forfig middan- 
eard edw hata^. wGemunatS minre sprdece fe ic edw 
s^e, Nis se fedwa mderra fonne his hldford. Gif hig 
me ehton, hig wyllatS ehtan edwer : gif hig mine sprdbce 
heoldon, hig healdatS edc edwre. n Ac ealle fds fing hig 
dd^ edw for minum naman ; forfam fe hig ne cunnon 
fone fe me sende. aGif ic ne cdme, and to him ne 
sprdece, naefdon hig ndne synne : nu hig nabba^ ndne 
Idde be heora synne. »Se fe me hata«, hau« minne 



4» JOHN XVI. 

Fteder. «Gif ic nine weorc ne worhte on him, |>e nin 
<il5er ne woriite, mefdon hig nine synne : nu hig gesiwon, 
and hig hatedon jfegfler ge me, ge mlnne F^der. nAc 
ftet seci sprEfec sj' gefylled )>e on hj-ra ie dwriten ys, Djet 
hig hatedon me billon gewyrhtum. 

DYS GEBVKAD ON SUNNAN-D£G, OFER ASCENStO DOMINI. 

ttponne se Frdfriend cymS, ]ie ic e6w sende fram Feeder, 
sdtSfestnysse Gdsl, fe cym8 fram Faeder, he cj^ gewitnesse 
be me : n and ge cj^aS gcwiinesse, forfam ge wjferon fram 
fruman wid me. 

XVI. ipds l-ing ic edws&de, Jiset ge ne swicion. .Hig 
ddS eow of gesomnungum ; ac se6 tid cymS, Jraet selc fe 
e6w ofslyhS, w6n8 Jiiet he fenige Code. lAnd pis fing 
hig dijS, forf>am ye hig ne ciifion minne Fasder, ne me. 
lAc fds J)ing ic ei5w s&de, fast ge gemunon, fonne heora 
tid cymS, ])a;t ic hit edw sffede. Ne s*de ic etiw pis fing 
set fruman, forfam |>e ic wees mid edw. 



iNu ic fare to fam 8e me sende, and edwer nin ne 
dcsa8 me, Hwyder ic fare ? < Ac for)>am Ce ic spric pis 
fing t6 eiiw, unrotnys gefylde ecSwre hcortan. lAc ic edw 
sccge sd8fa:stnysse ; Edw frcmaB jKct ic fare ; gif ic ne 
fare, ne cym8 se Frcfricnd id edw : witodllce gif ic fare, 
ic hync sende to edw. lAnd ponne he cymS, he pfvV 
fysne middan-eard be synne, and be rihtwisnesse, and 
be ddme : tbe synne, forfam hig ne geljTdon on me; 
»be rihtwisnyssc, forfam ic fare to Fjedcr, and ge me ne 
gesc<j5 ; ube dime, forjiam Jiyses middan-eardes ealdor ys 
gedcmcd. wGyt ic hxbbe edw fela td secgenne, ac ge 
hyt ne magon nu icuman. uJJonne ffere sdSfEStnysse 
Gist cymtS, he l&rt! edw ealle si58fa;slnysse : ne spQ'cS he 
of him-sylfum, ac he sprycS fa fing fe he geh^riS : and 




I 



JOHN XVI. 43 

c^ edw }>a fing fe towearde synd. uHe me geswii- 
telaC; foTfam he nimt$ of minum, and cf^ edw. uEalle 
J>a fing Se min Faeder haeftJ synd mine ; forf ig ic cwaet$, 
faet he nimC of minum, and c^iS edw. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD OFER EASTRON, TWA WUCAN, ON 

SUNNAN-D^G. 

le Nu ymbe ^n lytel ge me ne gesedtJ ; and eft ymbe 
lytel ge me gesedC, forfam fe ic fare to Faeder. nDi 
cwdedon his leorning-cnyhtas him betw^nan : Hwaet ys 
)>aet he us segt5, Ymbe l^'tel ge me ne gesedS ; and eft 
ymbe lytel and ge me gesediJ : and faet ic fare to Faeder ? 
u Hig cw^don, witodlice : Hwaet ys faet he cwy8, Ymbe 
lytel? we nyton hwaet he spr)xi5, i»Se Hdblend wiste faet 
big woldon hyne ^csian, and he cwaetJ to hym : Be fam 
ge smeageaiS betwednan edw, forfam ic sifede, Ymbe lytel 
ge me ne gesediJ ; and eft ymbe lytel ge me gesedtS : »sdtS 
ic edw secge, Daet ge hedfia^ and w6pa'5, middan-eard 
geblissaiS ; and ge bediJ unrdte, ac edwer unrdtnys hf6 
gewend td gefedn. nDsenne wif ceniJ, hod haefC unrdt- 
nysse, for]>am fe hyre tid com : fonne hed cent5 cnapan, 
ne geman hed f^re hefinysse for gefedn, forfam man 
by^ dcenned on middan-eard. jsAnd witodlice ge hab- 
bat$ nu unrdtnysse : eft ic edw gesed, and edwer hcorte 
geblissat$ ; and nin man ne nimtJ edwerne gefedn fram 
e<5w. tsAnd on )>am daege ge ne biddaiS me ndncs 
)?inges. 

DYS GODSPEL SCEAL ON DONE FEORDAN SUNNAN-D-EG OFER 

EASTRON. 

SdtJ ic edw secge, Gif ge hwaet biddaC minne Faeder on 
minum naman, he hyt syltS edw. uO^ J>ys ne baede ge 
nin f ing on minum naman : bidda'8, and ge underfdS, fxt 
edwer gefed s^ full. ssDds fing ic edw sdede on bigspell- 
um : sed tid cymiJ, fonne ic edw ne sprece on bigspellum, 






44 JOHN XVIl. 

ac ic cy-^e edw openlice be mlnum Faeder. mOti J»ain daege 
ge biddatJ on minum naman ; and ic edw ne secge for- 
fam ic bidde minne Faeder be edw. trWitodlice se Faeder 
edw lufa^, forfam fe ge lufedon me, and geiy-fdon )wet 
ic com of Gode. « Ic fdr fram Faeder, and com on mid- 
dan card : eft ic forl^te middan-eard, and fare td Faeder. 
i»Hys leorning-cnyhtas cwdedon to hym : Nu, fd sprycst 
openlice, and ne segst nln bigspell. » Nu we witon Jnet 
fu wdst ealle f ing, and fe nys ndn fearf fxt denig |>e 
dcsie : on fysum we gclyfaS faet fiS cdme of Gode. nSe 
Hselend him andswarode, and cwcetS : Nu ge gelyfatJ. 
taNu, com tid, and cymt5, f.^t ge td-faron deghwylc to his 
dgenum, and forldeton me dnne : and ic ne eom ina, 
forfam min P'oeder ys mid me. n Dis fing ic edw s^de, 
fxt ge habbon sibbe on me. Ge habbaS hefige byriSene on 
middan-earde ; ac getrdwiatJ ; ic oferswi"5de middan-eard. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON WODNES-DiEG, ON D£R£ GANG- 

WUCAN TO DAM VIGILIAN. 

XVII, 1 pis fing se Hdelend spraec, and dhdf up his eigan 
td heofeiium, and cwa^S ; Faeder, tid ys cumen ; geswii- 
tela finne Sunu, faet fin Sunu geswuteh'ge fe : «and swd 
fii hym sealdest an weald aelces mannes, Jwet he sylle 6ce 
lif eallum fam "Se fu hym sealdest. sDis ys sddlice 6ce 
J^f, faet hig oncnawon fxt pd eart in sdi5 God, and se ]>e 
fd sendest, H&lend Crist. 4lc fe geswutelode ofer eor5- 
an ; ic geendode fxt we6rc feet fd me sealdest td ddn- 
ne. 8 And nu, pd Faeder, gebeorhta me mid fe sylfum 
p^re beorhtnysse pe ic haefde mid pe, &rpam pe middan- 
eard wdere. «Ic geswdtelode plnne naman pim mannum 
pe t5d me sealdest of middan-earde : hig wderon pine, 
and pd hig sealdest me ; and hig geheoldon pine spruce. 
tNu hig gecnedwon pcet ealle pa ping pe t5u me sealdest 
synd of pe. s Forpam ic sealde him pa word pe tJu seal- 
dest me ; and hig undcrf^ngon and oncnedwon sdtSlice 



JOHN XVII. 45 

I»3et ic com of fe ; and hig gel^^don jKCt M me sendest. 
• Ic bidde for hig : ne bidde ic for middan-earde, ac for 
fd ^e fu me sealdest ; forfam hig synd fine. loAnd ealle 
mine s\Tid fine, and fine synd mine ; and ic eom geswii- 
telod on him. u And nu ic ne eom on middan-earde, 
and hig sjTid on middan-earde, and ic cume lo fe. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON WODNES-DiflG, ON DiERE 
FEORDAN WUCAN OFER EAST RON. 

[On f&re tide se H^lend beheold his leoming-cnyhtas, 
and o^aetJ] : Hilga Faeder, heald on finum naman faet 
fu me sealdest, faet hig s^ dn, swd wyt synd. uDi ic 
waes mid him, ic heold hig on finum naman : ic heold 
fd t5e f d me sealdest, and ne forweartS heora ndn, bdton 
forspyllednysse beam ; faet faet hdlige gewrit sy gefylled. 
uNu ic cume to fe, and fds fing ic sprece on middan- 
earde, faet hig habbon minne gefedn gefylledne on him- 
sylfum. 14 Ic sealde him fine sprdece ; and middan-eard 
hig haefde on hatunge ; forf am hig ne synd of middan- 
earde, swd ic eic ne eom of middan-earde. wNe bidde ic 
faet f J hig nime of middan-earde, ac faet fiS hig gehealde 
of jrfele. leNe synd hig of middan-earde, swd ic ne eom of 
middan-earde. wGehdlga hig in s(5^faestnysse : fin spr^c 
ys s<5t5faestnys. wSwd fd me sendest on middan card, ic 
sende hig on middan-eard. wAnd for hig ic hdlgige me 
sylfne, faet hig s^n edc gehdlgode on sdtJfaestnysse. 20 Wiiod- 
lice ne gebidde ic for hig dne, ac edc for fd "Se gyt sceolon 
geiy'fan furh heora word on me ; nfaet ealle s^-n dn ; swd 
f d, Faeder, eart on me, and ic on f e, faet hig syn edc dn on 
unc : faet middan-eard gel^fe faet tSd me sendest. » And 
ic sealde him fd beorhtnysse f e t5d me sealdest ; faet hig 
s^-n dn, swd wyt s^ dn. «Ic eom on him, and fd eart on 
me, faet hig s^-n geendode on dn ; faet middan-eard on- 
cndwe faet fd me sendest, and lufodest hig, swd f u me 
lufodest, « Faeder, ic wylle fojt «a, fej^/i me sealdest, syn 



46 JOHX XVIII. 

mid me fxr ic com ; fxi iiig geseon ralnc bcorhinjise, 
jic iSii me sealdcst: Krf>am fU lufodest me xt middan- 
eard geset wifeie. uLi riliiwisa Fxder, middan-eard fe 
ne gecncuw : wilodlice ic fe gecneilw, and hig oncnedw- 
on yxl 6u me sendesl. wAnd ic him cySdc flnne namao, 
and g)t wjlle ci'6an ; fxl sei5 lufu, tie fu me lufodesi, s^ 
on him, and ic com on liim. 

BES PASSIO GEDVRAD OS LA.VGA-FRIGE-D£G. 

XVIII. 1 Di se Ilaelend pis fing cw^B, J>i eode he ofer 
J>d burnan Ccdron, fjcr wtes in w)-rt-tun, in lo )>am he 

eode, and his leorning-cnihias. i Witodlice ludas, J>e hyne 
belwwde, wibte fi stowc, forfam pe se H&Iend ofi-riedlic^ 
com fyder mid hj's leorning-cnvhlum. • Di underfeng 
ludas I>a;t folc and fi l>cgnas, a;t fim bisccopum and 
Eel I>dm Phariseon, and com }>yder mid Ictiht-fatum, and 
mid blasum, and mid wiibpnuni. 4Witodlice se H&lend 
wiatc ealle |)a ping Se him tdwearde wEeron : he eode fl 
foriS, and cwitS to him : Hwa;ne sece ge ? • Hig andsware- 
don him, and cwicdon : pone Nazareniscan H&lend. 
Se H&lcnd c«-a;fi : Ic hit com. SCitilice ludas, pe hyne 
bulfbwdc, stuij mid him. • D-i he openlice sfbde, ic hit 
com, ]>a eodon hig under-ba;c, and fetillon on pi eorSan. 
lEft he hig axodc r Hwx-nc sece ge f Hig cw£don : 
pone Nazareniscan Hifelcnd. iSe Hffelend hymandswaro- 
<lc : Ic sibdc cow peel ic hit com : gyf ge wilodlice me 
sc'caS, idbiai! pas faran : opa;t scd sprabc wibre gcfylled, pe 
he cw-a.'5, Da;t ic nftnnc pxra ne rorspille, pe pii me seal- 
dcst. 10 Wilodlice Simon Petrus iieah hyssweord, and s!<3h 
pEs bisceopes pedwan, and dcearf him of pit swytSre eire, 
pxs pcowan nama wa;s Malchu5. iiDi cwkK se HSblend 
td I'etrc : T>6 pin swcorti on his scfeSi; i pone calic pe 
min Fa;der me sealdc, ne drincc ic hinc ? iipKt folc, and 
se ealdor, and pdcra ludca pcgnas namon pone H^elend, 
and bundon bine, itand lileddon hine sbrest lo Annan, se 




I 



JOHN XVIII. 47 

Caiphas sweor; and se Caiphas waes foes gcares 

bisceop. wWitodlice Caiphas dihte )>ain ludeum, and 

CW3&C, faet hyt betere w^re }net ^n man swulte for folce. 

isSimdn Petjus fyligde Jmm Hdelende, and <5^er leorning- 

cnyht : se 66eT leoming-cnyht waes f am bisceope cii^S ; 

and he code in myd fam Hdelende on faes bisceopes 

cafer-tun. w Petrus stdd aet f ^re dura faer-ute. Dd eode 

se leoming-cnyht ut, fe waes faes bisceopes cu6a, and 

cwaet5 to faere dure-f Inene. and Ijfedde Petrum in. n Di 

cwaeS se<5 duru-finen td Petre: Cwyst fii eart fii of 

fyses leorning-cnyhtum ? Di cwajC he : Nice, ne eom 

ic i«Da}>e(5was and fd fegnas stddon aet fam gl6don, 

and w}rmdon hig ; forfam hit waes ceald : witodlice 

Petnis stdd mid him, and wyrmde hyne. w Se bisceop 

dcsode fone Hdelend ymbe hys leorning-cnyhtas, and 

vmbe hvs Idre. toDS. andswarode se H^lend, and cwae^ : 

Ic spraec openlice td middan-carde ; and ic Iderde symle 

on gesomnunge, and on temple, paer ealle ludeas tdgae- 

dere cdmon ; and ic ne spraec nan fing digelice. « Hwi 

dcsast fd me? dcsa fd tJe gchyrdon hwaet ic to hym 

spruce : hig witon J>a "Sing fe ic hym sjfede. nDd he fys 

c^»*aet5, fi sldh dn fdera fegna J>e far stddon fone Hselcnd 

mid his handa, and cwaitS : Andswarast fii swd fam 

bisceope? «Se Hdelend andswarode hym, and cwae5 : 

Gif ic yfele sprdece, cy^ gewitnysse be yfele : gif ic wel 

spruce, hwi beatst fii me? ul>S. sende Annas hyne to 

ysLTii bisceope gcbundenne. «And Simon Petrus stdd 

and wyrmde hine. D-i cw^don hig to hym : Cwyst pd 

eart fu of his leorning-cnyhtum ? He witJsdc, and cwaeS : 

Ic ne eom. soDd cwx^ dn foes bisceopes fedwena, his 

cdtJa faes edre sldh Petrus of: Hd ne geseah ic fe on 

fam wyrt-tdne mid him ? « Petrus f d eft wiSsdc : and 

sdna se cocc credw. m Da geljfeddon hig f one Hjfelcnd td 

Caiphdn on faet ddm-ern : hyt was fa morgen ; and hig 

sylfe ne eodon in to fam ddm-erne, faet hig n^ron be- 



4S JOHN XI S. 

sniiiene ; ac ]KCi hig jfcion heora Eistron. t.Da code Pila- 

tus lii lo him, and cwa;8 ; Hwvlce wrdhle bringe ge 
ongcan fysne man ? ■ H ig andswaredon, and cwfbdon to 
him : Gif he nAre yfd-d*de, ne sealde we hyne |>e. n Dl 
cu'xS I'ilalus to him : NimaS hine, and dfmaS him be 
cuwre ae. Di cttdedon (la ludeas lo him : Us nis diyfed 
feet we inigne man of:K-an : «J)a;t Jkcs Hielcndes sprtec 
wibrc gcfylied, |ie lie cwxB, fi he geswiitclode hwylcon 
dcdSe he swulle. uD;! code Pilatus eft in to )>am dtjm- 
erne, and clypode fone Hifelcnd, and cwecB to hym : 
Eart I>d ludea cining ? » Di andswarode se H&Iend hym. 
and cwarS ; Cwyst pd pis of fe sylfum, hwfeSer pe hyt 
|)e (ji5re sibdon ? » Pilatus hym- andswarode, and cwsB : 
Ovjst pii com ic ludeisc? Din feiSd and fine bi«:copas 
f e scaldon mc : hwast dydesl ]>i5 ? •• Di cw^ii se Hffelend ; 
Min rice nys of fysum middan-earde ; gif min rice wire 
of {>ysum middan-earde, witodlice mine pegnas fuhtoii, 
p-jet ic nifcre geseald ludcum : nys min rice of pysum 
middan-earde. nD.l cvcxi Pilatus to hym : Eart pii wit- 
odlice cyning? Se Hrelend hym andswarode, and 
cwccS : pu hyt scgst pa.'t ic eom cyng. On fam ic eom 
geboren, and tu pam ic com on middan-eard, )a;t ic cj'fie 
soCfsestnysse. vEIc fifcra pe ys on siiSfajstnysse geh^rti 
minestefne. uDicwxS Pilatus to hym-: HweeI ys silt!- 
fcstnys? And pd he pis cvv^d, pi code he eft dt t6 
pim ludeum, and cwa:5 to hym ; Ne funde ic n&nne 
gylt on pysum men- nHit ys eOwer gewuna, pat ic Tor- 
gife eow icnne man on Easlron ; wyllc ge pECt ic fotgife 
e(5w ludca cyning? «Hig clypedon ealle, and cw*d- 
on : Nd pysne, ac Barraban. Wiiodlice Barrabas v?S3 

XIX. >Di nam Pilatus pone Hfelend, and swang hyne. 
• And pa pegnas wundon pyrnenne cyne-helm, and ilsetton 
hyne on iiis hcdfod, and scrj^-ddon hyne mid purputan 
- rcdfe ; land hig cOmon l6 hym, and cw&don : Hil beiS 




I 



JOHN XIX. 49 

fd, ludea. cynmg ! and hi p]aetton hyne mid heora hand- 

um. 4l>i eode Pilatus eft lit, and cwaeiJ : Nu, ic hyne 

labde hyder tit to edw, )K3et ge ongiton Jwet ic ne funde 

n^nne gy\i on hym. » DS, eode se Hdelend lit, and bair 

}>yrnenne cyne-helm, and purpuran rcaf. And s&de 

him : H6r is man ! c Witodlice J>i t$i bisceopas and fd 

fegnas hine geaiwon, fi, clypodon hig, and cw&don: 

Huh hyne, hoh hyne. Dd cwaetS Pilatus to him : Nime 

ge hyne, and hdtS : ic ne funde n^nne gylt on hym. 

T Da ludeas him andswaredon, and cwjfedon : We habbatS 

^, and be lire ^ he sceal swelian ; for}>am f e he cvvx*t5 

jKBt he w^re Codes Sunu. »Dd Pilatus geh^rde yis 

sprsfece, )k1 ondr^d he him pajs J>e swl^or; »and eode eft 

in to fam ddm-erne, and cwai^S td fam Hdelende: Hwa- 

non eart fd ? Witodlice se Hdelend hym ne sealde ndne 

andsware. loDd cwaetS Pilatus to hym: Hvvi ne sprvcst 

fd wi*6 me? ndst fd faet ic hajbbe mihie fe td hdnne, 

and ic haebbe mihte fe td forldetenne? nSe Hdelend hym 

andswarode : Naefdest fd ndne mihte ongean me, bdion 

h)t wdbre fe ufan geseald : forpam se hxRJ mdran synne, 

se tJe me fe sealde. u And s} tStSan sdhte Pilatus hd he 

hine forl^te. Di ludeas clypodon, and cw^don : Gif 

fu hine forl^tst, ne eart fd fxs Caseres frednd : aelc 

]ydera fe hyne to cynge de"5, ys yzes Cascres wifer-saca. 

11 Dd Pilatus 'pis sprd^ce gehyrde, fd Idedde he dt fone 

Hdelend, and saet aet-foran f am ddm-setle, on fdere stdvve 

fe ys genemned Lithostrdtds, and on Ebreisc Gabbaiha. 

wHyt waes fd Eastra gegearcung-dajg, and hyt waes scd 

syxte tid : fd cwaetS he to fam ludeum : Hdr ys edwer 

Cyning 1 uHig clypodon ealle, and cw^don : Nim hyne. 

nim hyne, and hdh. Dd cwx^ Pilatus : Sceal ic hdn 

edwerne cyning? Him andswaredon fd bisceopas, and 

cw^don : Naebbe we naenne cyning, bdton Casere. i«Dd 

sealde he hyne hym td dhdnne. Da ndmon hig fone 

H&lend, and tugon hine dt ; n and baeron his rdde mid 



50 JOHN XIX. 

him, on ))d st»5we fe j-s genemned heafod-pannan atciw, 
and on Ebreisc, Golgoiha : u paer hig hyne dh^ngon, and 
iwegcn (58re mid him, on twi healfa, and fone HAlend 
on middan. itWitodlice Pilalus v/ti.1 ofer-gewrit, and 
sene ofer his rdde, prer webs on gewriten, Dis ts sr 
Nazarenisca Hxlknd, Iuhea Cvning. tg Manega f&a 
ludea rieddon pis gewril; for|>am )>e se<i siiSw waes ge- 
hende p&re ceastre p?ei se H&lend wxs dhangen. Hit 
wxs dwritcn Ebreiscon stafon, and Greciscon, and 
Leden siaron. n Dd cw±don |>d bisceopas t6 Pilate : Ne 
writ |)u ludea Cjning, ac («et he cwiede, Ic com ludea 
Cj-ning. aDd cwa^ Pilatus : Ic wrdt past ic writ. oDa 
yi cempan hyne dh^ngon, hig ndmon his redf, and 
worhlon fefiwer difelas, lelcon cctnpan ienne dffel ; and 
tunecan ; sed tunece wjes unusiwod, and wees eall dwef- 
en. itDi cwfedon hig him betwednan : Ne sliie we hig, 
ac uton hieoian, hwjlces Ure heii sj'*; pKt |>3;t halige 
gewrit s^ gefjlled, pe pus cwj-6, Hig todieldon hym mine 
redf, and ofer mine redf hig wurpon hlol. Wiiodlice 
f>us dydon )>d cempan. » Dd stiidon wi8 fd riide pees Hil- 
endcs mdder, and his mtSdcr swusler, Maria Cleophe, 
and Maria Magdalenisce. »Di se Hieknd geseah his 
mdder, and Jione leorning-cnyht siandendc, pe he lufode, 
)>d cwicS he to his m6Jer : Wif, h6r his piii sunu ! n Eft 
he cwkS lo pam leorning-cnyhte : Hi5r ys pin miSder I 
And of pifere tide se leorning-cnyhl hig nam to him. 
u /Tlfier p)-son, pd sc IIAlend wiste pat ealle ping wfferon 
geendode, fxl fxt hdlige gewrit wfere gefylled, pd cwaatS 
he ; Me pyrst. »Da siod an fsct full ecedes: hig bewund- 
on dne spingan myd ysopo, setj wa;s full ecedes, and 
setton to his miiSe. »DJ se Hfblend onfeng pass ecedes, 
pd c«a:8 he : Hyt ys geendod : and he aliylde his hedfod, 
and dgeaf his gdst. si Dd ludeas bfedon Pilatum pset man 
forbrfece heora sceancan, and lote hig nypcr ; forpam fe 
' ' w£s gegearcung-dseg ; pxt pa iichaman ne wunedon 



JOHN XX. 51 

^D rdde on reste-daege : se daeg waes m^re reste-daeg. 

**Di[ cdmon Jfd cempan, and br^con ^rcst faes sceancan, 

J>e mid him dhangen waes. • » Di hig to )>am H^lende 

c::<5mon, and gesiwon faet he dedd waes, ne br^con hig ni 

ills sceancan : tiac dn fdera cempena geopenode his sidan 

:>nid sp)^re, and hraedlice far fledw bl6d dt, and waeter. 

«And se tSe h)t geseah c^'^de gewitnesse, and his gewitnes 

is S(5t5, and he wit Jnet he s<5t$ s^de, )?aet ge gelyfon. m Dis 

fing w&ron gewordene, faet yxl gewrit w^re gefylled, Ne 

forbrdece ge ndn bdn on him ; n And eft 6^er gewrit segf, 

Hig gesedtJ on hwaene hig on-faestnodon. wWitodlice 

aefier tJam losep fram Arimathia baed Pilatus, foet he 

mdste niman faes Hsblendes lichaman, forfam fe he ^-aes 

faes Hdelendes leoming-cnyht : fys hedyde dearnunga, for 

y&TZ ludea ege : and Pilatus hym l^fde. Da com he, and 

nam faes H^lendes lichaman. » And Nichodemus com 

fyder, se fe ^rest com to )>am Hselendc on niht, and 

brohte wyrt-gemang and alewan, swylce hund-teoniig boxa, 

loHig ndmon faes H^lendes lichaman, and bewundon 

hyne mid linenam cld^e, mid wyrt-gemangum, swd ludea 

)>edw ys td bebyrgenne. 4iWitodlice faer W2es wyrt-tdn 

on )>dere stdwe )>ar se Hselend dhangen waes : and on )>am 

wyrt-tune waes niwe byrgen, on fabre Jni g>'t ndn man 

naes i\6d, «% SdlSlice )>ar hig l^don fone Hdelend, for}>am 

fdbra ludea gearcung waes wi6 fa byrgene. 

DYS SCEAL ON SJiTERNES-DJEG, ON BMKE EASTER-WUCAN. 

XX. iWitodlice on dnum reste-daege, sed Magdaleniscc 
Maria com on mergen, der hyt ledht wdere, td f dere byrg- 
ene ; and hed geseah faet se stdn dweg dnumen wses fram 
fdere byrgene. «Dd am hed, arid com to Simone Petre, 
and to fdm d'Srum leoming-cnyhte, fe se Hdelend lufode, 
and hed cwaetS to hym : Hig ndmon Diyhten of byrgene, 
and we nyton hwar hig hyne l<^don. sPetrus code dt, 
and se dtJer leoming-cnyht, and cdmon td f dbre byrgene. 



]( )IIX XX. 

I 

iWitodllce hig twegcn unit n .L:._rA.lcr..', uii 1 >j . .Nji ' 

Icorning-cnyht for-am Peirus forne, and cum raiS.'r w> 
f^re byrgenc. sAnd J>d he ny&er abeah, he gcseah Jm 
lin-\v^(ia licgan ; and ne code peah in. •Wiiodllce 
Simdn Petrus com aefter hym, and code into f^re byr- 
gene, and he geseah lin-wdeda licgan; land faet swddin, 
]>e waes uppan has heafde, ne laeg hit ni. mid )>am lin- 
wdbdum, ac on-sundron gefealdan on dnre stdwe. sDa 
code eac in se Loining-cnyht, fe ^rest com to fdere 
byrgenc, and geseah, and gclyfde. 9 Witodllce \i. gyt hig 
ne ciitSon lialige gewrit, faet hit gebyrede J>aet he sceolde 
fram deatSe drlsan. 10 Da foron eft pa leoming-cnyhtas td 
pam d^rum. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON DUNRES-DiEG, INNAN DiER£ 

EASTER-WUCAN. 

iiWitodlice Maria st(5d par lite aet pdere byrgenc and 
wedp : and fa hed wedp, hed dbeah n^iSer, and beseah 
innan pd byrgene, wand geseah twegen englas siltan mid 
hwitum redfe, dinne aet pam hcafdum, and dCeme aet pam 
fdtum, paer pxs Hdelendes lie dl6d waes. i»Hig cw^don 
to hyre : Wif, hwi wcpst pii ? Di cwaiiJ hed td h)Tn : 
Forpam hig ndmon nixnne Drihten, and ic ndt hwaer hig 
hine 16don. w'Di hed pds ping s&de, pd bewende hed hig 
on-baec, and geseah hwar se H^lend stdd ; and hed nysie 
pxt hyt se Hdelend waes. u'Di cwaetJ se H^lend to hyre: 
Wif, hwi w^pst pd ? hwaene s6cst pd ? Hed w6ndc paet 
hyt se wyrt-weard w^re, and cwactS to him : Ledf, gif pd 
hine ndme, sege me hwar pd hine l^dest, and ic hine 
nime, \*l>i cwaetJ se Hdelend to hyre: Maria. Hed 
bewende hig, and cwaetJ to hym : Rabboni, paet ys ge- 
cweden, Ldredw. n Di cwae'5 se Hselend to hyre : Ne aet- 
hrin pd mln ; nu gyt ic ne dstdh td minum Faeder. Gang 
td minum brdprum, and sege him, Ic dstige td minum 
Fader, and td edwrum Faeder ; and td minum Gode, and 
td edwrum Gode. wDd com sed Magdalenisce Maria, 



JOHN XX. 53 

a.T\d c^'tSde yim leorning-cnyhtum, and cwaetJ : Ic geseah 
DiyVileny and yis 'ping he me sdbde. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD SEOFON NYHT OFER EASXRON. 

19 Dd byt W2es ^fen, on dnon pdera reste-daga, and yi 

dura w^ron belocene, faer fa leorning-cnyhtas wdaron 

gegaderode, for fdbra ludea ege, se Hdelend com, and 

st6d tdmiddes heora, and cwaetS to him : Sig sibb mid 

edw- toAnd fd he J>aet cwaetS, he aet-^wde him his handa 

and his sldan. Di leorning-cnyhtas w^ron bli^e, \d hig 

haefdon Dryhten gesewen. nHe cwaetS eft to him : Sig 

sibb mid edw : swd swd Faeder me sende, ic sende edw. 

ta{>d he faet cwaetS, yi bledw he on hig, and cwaetJ to him : 

UnderfdtJ Haligne Gist »pdera synna fe ge forgyfatJ, 

hig bedtJ him forgifene ; and f dera f e ge healda^, hig bedC 

gehealdene. wWitodliceThomds, dn of )>am twelfum, pe 

ys gecweden Didimus, faet ys Gelicost, on lire gefe(5de, 

he naes mid him, fd se H^lend com. wDd cw^don fd 

cjtSre leorning-cnyhtas to him : We gesdwon Dr}'hten. 

Di cwaelJ he to him : Ne gel^fe ic, bdton ic gesed p^ra 

naegla faestnunge on his handa, and ic d<5 minne finger on 

p^ra naegla stede, and dd mine hand to his sidan. seAnd 

eft, aefter eahta dagum, his leorning-cnyhtas wdbron inne, 

and Thomds mid hym : se H&lend com, belocenura 

durum, and stdd td-middes hym, and cwaetJ : Sig edw 

sibb. ft Sy^^an he s&de Thom6 : Dd pinne finger hyder, 

and gesedh mine handa ; and nim fine hand, and dd on 

mine sidan : and ne bed pd ungeledfful, ac gcledfful. 

M Thomds andswarode, and cwsetJ to him : Du eart mm 

God, and min Dryhten. »Se Hdelend cwae^ to him : pd 

geiyfdest, forfam fd me gesdwe : fd synd eddige fe ne 

gesdwon, and gel^fdon. wWitodlice manega 6trc tdcen 

se H^lend worhteon hys leoming-cnyhta gesyhtSe, pe ne 

synd on pysse b^ dwritene. siWitodlice fds ping synd 

dwritene, |)aet ge gel^fon paet se Hdelcnd ys Crist, Codes 



54 JOHN XXI. 

Sunu ; and pa ge habboD 4ce life, )K>iuie ge gel^faS on 
hjs naman. 

&TS GODSFEL GEBYRAD ON W0DKES-D2G, IKNAN D£RE 

EASTER-WUCAN. 

XXI. 1 Eft Kfier j>am se Hielend hine geswiiielode fa% 
ret fJere Tiberiddiscan sJe. iSim6n Pelrus, and Thomis, 
pt )s gecweden Gelicost, tt'ibron setgiedere, and Natha- 
nah^l, se v.-xs of Chand Galileie, and Zebedeus suna, 
and (ifire twegen fira leorning-cnyhta. ■ Di cwfeK Simon 
Peirus lo him: Ic wjlle gdn on fixoS. £Xi cw^don hig 
t6 him : And we wyllaS gin mid )«. And hig eodon 
ijl, and codon on scyp ; and ne fiJngon nin fing on pjcre 
nihte. tWiiodlice on iernc mcrgen se H^lend stdd on 
Jiam slrande : ne gecnedwon fedh pi leoming-cnjhias 
{Oil hyt se Hifelend wa;s. tDi cwaS se Hfelend to him : 
Cnaf)an, cweSe ge, ha;bbe ge sufol i Hig andswarodon 
liim, and cwibdon : Nese. iHe cw-xS lo hym : LibtaB 
}>a;i nelt on )»a s«-)'-8ran healfe pais revvetles, and ge gemet- 
aS, Hig lelon wilodlice, and ne mihlon hit dteiin for 
Jjffini fixa niKnigeo. i Witodlice se leoming-cnyht fe se 
Hxlend lufode cwx-C to Pel re : Hyt ys Dryhien, Di 
Pclnis gehyrdc |>Kt hyt Dryhlen wies, fA dyde he on 
his lunecan, and begyrde hine, witodlice he was fer 
nacod, and sc^t innan sfe. iDd dKre leoming-cnyhtas 
reiiwon fir-to ; hig wCeron unfeor fram lande, swylcc 
hyt wEfere twd hund elna, and tugon heora fisc-nett, « Da 
hig on land eodon, hig gesdwon licgan gl6da, and fisc 
Jjar-ofcr, and hlaf! loDd cwTei se Heelend to him : Bring- 
a6 J>a lixas pe ge nu gcKngon. n Simi5n Petrus code up, 
and ich his nett on land, myceira fixa full, t>£ra wxs 
hund-leontig and freo and fiiflig : and yi heora swd Tela 
wxs, na;s fait nctt tObrocen. is D.i cw3;S se H&lend td 
him: Gd8 hider and ctaS. And ndn J':fera |ie far sait, 
ne dorste hine dcsian, hwa^t lie w&rc. Hig wiston |Ket 
hyt wa:s Dryhten. iiAnd sc H^lcnd com, and nam hidf 



JOHN XXI. 55 

and edc fisc, and sealde hym. u On ]>ysum waes se Hdel- 
end friwa geswdtelod his leorning-cnyhtum, yi he iris 
of deitSe. u Di hig ^ton. 

DTS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON PET RES M£SSE-JEFEN. 

Di cwaetJ se H^lend to Simdn Peire : Simdn lohannis, 

lufast fd me sw^iSor fonne fis? He cwaet5 to him : 

Gea, Dryhten ; f d wdst J>aet ic f e lufige. He cwae€ to 

him : Heald mine lamb, le He cwaetJ eft to him : Simdn 

lohannis, lufast f d me ? He cwaeS to him : Gea, Dnht- 

en ; fd wdst J>aet ic fe lufige. Di cwaetS he to him : 

Heald mine lamb, n He cwaeC f riddan sit$e to him : Si- 

xndn lohannis, lufast fd me? Di wajs Petrus sdrig, 

ror]»m tSe he cwaeiJ f riddan si^e to him, Lufast fd me ? 

And he cwaeiJ to him : Dryhten, J>d wdst ealle fing ; fd 

Vfist faet ic J>e lufige. Dd cwaeC he to him : Heald mine 

scedp. u S66 ic secge f e, Dd f d gingra w^re, J>d g}Tdest 

J>e, and eodest faer f u woldest : witodlice fonne )>d ealdst, 

}?d strecst fine handa, and 6i5er |>e gyrt, and l^t fyder 

ye }>d nelt i» Daet he witodlice s^de, and tdcnode hwylc- 

on dedt$e he wolde God geswdtelian. 

DYS GODSPEL GEBYRAD ON See lOHANNIS EUANGELISTA 

MiESSE-D£G. 

And fd he foet s&de, fd cwaet5 he to him : Fylig me, 
fo Dd Petrus hine bewende, fi geseah he pxt se leoming- 
cnyht him fyligde, f e se Hdelend lufode ; se fe hlinode 
on gebeorscype ofer his breost, and cwaet5, Dr}^hten, 
hwaet ys se fe €e beldbwtS ? n Witodlice \d Petrus fysne 
geseah, fl cwae^ he to )>am H blende : Dryhten, hwxt 
sceal fes? taDd cwaetJ se H^lend to hym : Ic wylle fxt 
he wunige f us 6^ ic cume : hwa^t to f e ? fylig fd me. 
« Witodlice feds sprdec com dt gemang brd^rum, faet se 
leoming-cnyht ne swylt : and ne cwaj^ se Haelend tc' 



50 JOHN XXL 

him, Ne sw)'lt he ; ac, Dus ic wylle, faet he wunige 6t 
ic Clime : hwaet to fe? »iDys ys se Icoming-cnyht fe c^ 
gewiinesse be fyson, and writ fis fing : and we witon 
(■(« hys gewimes ys s6ii. ■Wilodlice cSSre manega )iing 
synd t>e se Hilend worhCe : gif J>a ealle iwritcne w&ron, 
ic w£ne ne mihte )>es middan-eard ealle yi hie bef<5n. 
Ahen. 



SELECTIONS 



mOM THK 



HOMILIES OF iELFRIC 



PREFACE. 

Ic JEuFKiCy munuc and maessepre<5st, sw4 J>edh wdccre 
jKjnne swilcum hddum gebyrige, weai15 ^send on iEfel- 
redes daege q^ninges fram ^Elfeage biscope, AtJelwoldes 
aeftergengan, td sumum mynstre fe is Cernel gehdten, 
furh i^Selmceres bdne tSaes fegenes, his gebyrd and 
goodnys sind gehwaer ciitJe. pi beam me on mdde, ic 
triiwigc f urh Codes gife, faet ic tSds b6c of Ledenura 
gereorde i6 Engliscre sprabce dwende ; nd furh gebylde 
mycelre lare, ac forfan pe ic geseah and geh^rde mycel 
ged^yld on manegum Engliscum bdcum, J>e ungelaerede 
menn )>urh heora bilewiinysse t6 micclum wisddme teal- 
don ; and me oflircc'nv \>xt hi ne cufon ne naefdon fa 
godspellican Idre on heora gewritara, biiton fam mannum 
anum tSe foet Leden c ^on, :>nii buton fdm bdcum t5e 
Alfred q^ning snoterlice dwende of Ledene on Englisc, 
yS, synd i6 haebbenne. For fisum antimbre ic gedyrst- 
laehte, on Code trdwiende, faet ic Ms gesetnysse undcr- 
gann, and edc fort5am fe menn beh(5fiai5 gddre Idre 
switSost on fisum timan fe is geendung pyssere worulde, 
and bedtJ fela frecednyssa on mancynne ^i15an fe se ende 
becume, swa swd lire Drihten on his godspelle cwaitS t(5 
his leoming-cnihtum *' Donne be66 swilce ged recced- 

8* 




HOMILIES Of iELFRia 



nj'ssa swilce n£ron n£fre &i fram fiymSe roiddan^eardes. 
Manega ledse Cristas cumatS on miDum naman, cwetende, 
'Ic eom Crist,' and wyrcaS fela ticna and wundra, td 
bepoecenne mancynn, and e^c swilce fi gecorenan men, 
g:if hit gewur)ian mseg : and bdtan se ^Imihtiga God Hi 
dagas gescyrte, call mennisc forwurde ; ac for bis gecore- 
num he gescjrte fi dagas." Gewh4 niEg fe e^Celicor 
Hi tdweardan cosmungc dcuman, Surh Godcs fultum, gif 
he bits Jiurh bdcllce lire getrymmed ; fortian Se fi be<5iS 
gchealdene t>e (5S ende on geledfan jiurhwuniaQ. 

****♦•** m 
For wel fela ic wit on Jfisum earde gelxredran |K>nne ic 
G^, ac God geswuielati his wundra ]iurh tone )ie he wile. 
Swi swi ffilmihtig w)Thta, he wyrdS his weorc furh his 
gecorenan, n& swylcc he behdfige ilres fultumes, ac pxt 
we geearnion Jfjec £ce lif |>urh his weorces fremminge. 
Fauius se apostol cwseB, "We sind Codes gefylstan,"and 
swi 8edh ne do we nin Jfing l6 Code, bdton Codes ful- 
tume. Nu bidde ic and hdlsige on Codes naman, gif 
hwi fds b(ic iwritan wylle, fEt he hi geornlice gerihte be 
y&ve bysene, |>y-la;s J>e we f>urh gymeleise writeras geleaht- 
rode bcdn, Wyccl yfel deS setSe leds writ, bilton he hit 
gerihte ; swylce he gebringe yi s<5^San lire td leisum ge- 
dwylde: forpi sceal gehwd gerihllaecan fEel faet he (fer td 
wdge gebigde, gif he on Codes d(3me uns<^]dig bedn 
wile. . . . 



HOMILY ON THE GOOD SHEPHERD. 

DOMINICA II. POST PASCA. 

Dixit Icsus discipulis suis. Ego sum pastor bonus: et 

reliqua, 

pis godspel, ]>e nu gerted waes, cwyt$, faet se H^lend 
cw^de be him sylfum, **Ic eom gdd hyrde: se gdda 
hyrde syltJ his dgen llf for his scedpum. Se h^, set5e 
nis riht hyrde, he gesihtS )>one wulf cuman, and he forlast 
6a sc6p and flyht$ ; and se wulf sum gelaecS and ^i 66re 
t6stenc6," et reliqua. 

Crist is g<5d gecyndelice, and s<5t51ice nis ndn t5ing gdd 
bdtan Gbde dnum. Gif denig gesceaft is gdd, |)onne is 
se<5 g<5dnys of t$am Sq-ppende, set$e is hcillce g6d. He 
cwaetJ, "Se gdda hyrde sylt$ his dgen lif for his scedpum." 
Ure Aiysend is se gdda hyrde, and we cristene men sind 
his sc6p, and he sealde his dgen lif for dre dlysednysse. 
He dyde swd swd he manede, and mid fam he geswute- 
lode hwset he bebedd. Odd hyrde waes Petrus, and gdd 
wses Paulus, and gddc w^ron t5d apostoli, t$e hyra lif 
sealdon for Codes folce, and for rihtum geleifan ; ac 
heora gddnys waes of Cam heafde, }>aBt is Crist, Ce is heora 
heafod, and hi sind his lima. 

JE\c bisceop and aelc Id red w is td hyrde gcsett Codes 
folce, )>aet hi sceolon |»aet folc wit$ t$one wulf gescyldan. 
Se wulf is dedfol, fe synvt5 ymbe Codes gelaCunge, and 
c^ptS hii he mage cristenra manna sdwla mid leahirum 
forddn. ponne sceal se hyrde, paet is, se bisceop, oSSe 
dtJer Idredw, witJstandan fam retJan wulfe mid Idre and 
mid gebedum. Mid Idre he sceal him taecan, faet hi 
cunnon hwaet dedfol t&chtJ mannum td forwyrde, and 
hwaet Cod beby-t td gehealdenne, for begeate faes ecan 
lifes. He sceal him fore-gebiddan, }>ajt God gehealde fd 



'^«^-*fr 



60 HOMILY ON THE GOOD SHEPHERD. 

strangan, and gchsele iSi untruman. Se hit t6 strangum 
geteald, sefe wiCstent dedfles Idre ; se bliS untnim, setJe 
on leahirum fyY6, Ac se Idredw bitS unscyldig, gif he }wet 
folc mid Idre gewissatJ, and him wiC God get5ingat$. pa 
twa t5ing he sceal iSam folce don, and edc mid his igenum 
dCrum gehelpan ; and gif hit swi getimatJ, his dgen lif 
syllan for "Sses folces hreddinge. 

**Se hyra flihtJ }>onne he tSone wulf gesihtS." Se is 
hy-ra and nd hyrde, set$e bi6 begripen on woruld-tJingum, 
and lufatS fone wurSmynt and t$a ateorigendlican ediean, 
and nififS inweardlice lufe lo Godes scedpum. He c6p6 
fdera sceatta, and blissatS on tJam wur8mynte, and haeflS 
his mcde for 6isum Kfe, and bit5 bescyred ))aere ccan 
m6de. Ndst t5d hwd bit5 h^ra, hwd hyrde, ^rtSam tJe se 
wulf cume ; ac se wulf geswiStelatJ mid hwilcum m<5de he 
g^mde psera scedpa. Se wulf cymtS id t$dm scedpum, and 
same he dbitt, sume he l6stenct5, fonne se rdtJa dedfol 
tih^ }>d cristenan men, sume td forligre, sume he ontent 
t6 g>'tsunge, sume he draerS id mddignysse, sume he ))urh 
graman tdtwsem^, and mid misllcum costnungum gdstlice 
ofslih^. Ac se hyra ne hit natJor ne mid ware ne mid 
lufe dstyred, ac flyh^, forSan fe he smea5 em be t$a wor- 
uldlican hy^'Sa, and Idet i6 gj'meleaste ))^re scedpa lyre. 
Ne flyhtS nd mid lichaman, ac mid m6de. He flyhtJ, 
for^an fe he geseh unrihtwisnysse and suwade. He flyhtJ 
forSan tSe he is hyra, and nd hyrde, swilce hit swa ge- 
cweden s^', Ne maeg se standan ongean fraecednyssa ]>^ra 
scedpa, seSe ne gym^ pdera scedpa mid lufe, ac lylatJ his 
sylfes ; faet is, paet he lufatS fa eortJlican gestredn, and nd 
Godes folc. 

Wulf bi"5 eac se unrihtwisa rica, t$e beredfatS fa crist- 
enan, and t$a eddmddan mid his riccetere ofsitt : ac se 
hyra, o6^e se m^dg}lda ne gedyrst]a:ictS faet he his un- 
rihtwisnysse witJstande, feet he ne forlcose his wurtSmynt, 
and ^a woruldlican gestreon t$e he lufa'S swl^or t$onne fa 



HOMILY ON THE GOOD SHEPHERD. 6i 

cristenan menn. Be tSisum dwrdt se wiiega Ezccliiel, fus 
cwetJende, **Ge hyrdas, gehyratS Godes word : Mine seep 
sint tdstencte tJurh edwre gymeleasle, and sind dbitene. 
Ge cariatS embe eowerne bigleofan, and nd embe piera 
scedpa ; foriSi ic wille ofg-in Ca sc6p 3et eowrum handum ; 
and ic do faet ge geswica^ f ^re wican, and ic wyllc dhred- 
dan mine eowde wiS eow. Ic sylf vv}'lle gadrian mine seep 
J>e w^ron tdsiencte, and ic wylle hi healdan on geniht- 
sumere Ixse: faet }>a3t losode faet ic wylle sccan and 
ongean Isbdan ; fait Jntt dlefed woes, fa^t ic geh^Ie ; fa^t 
untrume ic wylle getrymman, and fseL strange gehealdan, 
and ic hi Iseswigc on ddme and on rihtwlsnysse." 

pis word spnec God }>urh t5one witegan Kzechiel, be 
idrcuwum and be his folce. Ge sceolon bec5n gcornfulle t(5 
cower dgenre Searfe, f edh hit swa getlmige fajt se lareuw 
gimcleas beo, and ddtS swd swd Crist iseliie, **Gif se 
Idredw wel tdece and yfele bysnige, du'6 swd swd lie tdicS, 
and nd be t$am pe he bysnatS. " Se Hjfelend cwaet5 be him, 
**Ic com god hyrde, and ic oncndwe mine scop, and hi 
oncndwa^ me." pajt is, ic lufige hi, and hi lufia5 mc. 
Se tJe ne lufatJ scjtJfaestnysse, ne oncneow he nd gyt God. 
Ac behealde ge hwx*t$er ge sind Godes sc(jp, hwxtier go 
hine gyt oncne6won, hwsetSer ge mid soSfacstnysse hine 
lufiad. He cwaetJ, **Swd swd min Fx*der oncndiwS me, 
and ic oncndwe hine, and ic sylle mIn dgen llf for minum 
scedpura." He oncn^w^ his Faedcr 6urh hine sylfne, and 
we oncndwatJ furh hine. Mid fj^re lufe fe he wolde 
for mancynne sweltan, mid f^re he cySde hu micclan 
he lufa"5 his Faeder. He cwx^, **Ic haebbe 66re seep fe 
ne sind nd of tJisre eowde, and i5a ic sceal lifedan, and hi 
gehyratS mine stemne, and sceal beon dn eowd, and dn 
hyrde." 

pis he spraec on ludea-lande : "Sxr wxs dn eowd of i5am 
mannum fe on God belyfdon on «am leodseipe. pa 
(S6re sc6p syndon J)a fe of eallum oSrum eardum Gode 



62 HOMILY OX THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 

bdgatS ; and Crist hi gebrinctJ ealle on dnre eowde on 
Cam ccan life. Manega sind hyrdas under Criste, and 
Cciih-hwx'tJere he is dna heora ealra Hyrde, setSe leofatS 
and rixat$ mid Faeder and mid Hdlgum Gdste, d on 
6cnysse. Amen. 



HOMILY ON THE MIRACLE OF THE LOAVES 

AND THE FISHES. 

DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIMA. 

Abiil lesus trans mare Galilece : d reliqua, 
'*Se H^lend fdrde ofer tJa Galileiscan s^, ))e is gchdten 
Tyberiddis, and him filigde micel menigu, forSon fe hi 
beheoldon c5a tdcna ))e he worhte ofer "Sa untruman men. 
pd dsidh se Hablcnd up on dne diine, and paer saet mid 
his leoming-cnihtum, and waes t5a swiCe gehende seo 
hdlige Eastertid. pd beseah se Hdelend up, and geseah 
fait tScer wses mycel mennisc toweard, and cwae5 to dnum 
his leorning-cnihta, se wajs gehdten Philippus, Mid hwam 
mage we bicgan hldf tJisum folce ? pis he cvvsetS tc5 fan- 
dunge faes leorning-cnihtcs : he sylf wiste hwaet he don 
wolde. Y>ii andwyrde Philippus, pedh h6r wderon ge- 
bohte twd hund pening^vur8 lildfes, ne mihte furSon hyra 
aclc dnne bitan of t5am gela^ccan. pd cwaet5 dn his leorn- 
ing-cnihta, se hdite Andreas, Petres brdCor, Her byr5 dn 
cnapa fif berene hldfas, and twegen fixas, ac t<5 hwan mxg 
fret to swd micclum werodc ? pd c\vdet5 se H&lend, D6C 
fa3t feet folc sitte. And fxr wajs micel gaers on tSifere 
si6\ve myrige on lu sittcnne. And hi Sa ealle s^ton, swd 
swd mihte bcun Hf (5uscnd wera. Da genam se Halend 
fa fif hlafas, and bletsode, and tobrdec, and todjfelde 
betwux 6am sittendum : Swd gelice edc fa fixas tdd^lde ; 



HOMILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 63 

and hi ealle gen<5h haefdon. piM hi ealle fulle wderon, 
tSd cwaetJ se H^lend to his leorning-cnihtum, GaderiaS fa 
life, and hi ne losion. And hi M gegaderodon tJa bricas, 
and gefyldon twelf wilian mid tJdere Idfe. paet folc, tSa t5e 
t5is tdcen geseah, c^^ae? faet Crist wdere s6b witega, setJe 
\^*aes tdweard td tJisum middangearde. " 

Se<5 sde, fe se H^lend oferfdrde, geticna^ fds and- 
weardan wonild, td tJdere com Crist and oferf(6rde ; faet is, 
he com to tJisre worulde on menniscnysse, and tSis lif 
oferf6rde ; he com td deitJe, and of ded^e drds ; and dstdh 
up on dne ddne, and fajr sajt mid his leorning-cnihtum, 
for5ont$e he istih up td heofenum, and j)3er sitt nutJa mid 
his hdlgum. Rihdice is sedsde witSmeten fisre worulde, 
forSon ^e hed is hwiltidum smylte and myrige on td row- 
enne, hwilon edc s\vit5e hredh and egefui on td bednne. 
Swd is peds woruld : hwiltidum hed is gcsundful and 
myrige on td wunigenne, hwilon hed is edc switJe styrnlic, 
and mid mislicum f ingum gemenged, swd pxi hed for oft 
bits swit5e unwynsum on td eardigenne. Hwilon we bcui5 
hlle, hwilon untrume ; nu blltJe, and eft on micelrc un- 
blisse ; foi^f is }>is lif, swi swd we ^r cwdedon, f dere sde 
witSmeten. 

pd se H^lend ges^t up on t5dere dune, t$d dhdf he up 
his edgan, and geseh fa^t tJa^r waes micel mennisc tdwearcl 
Ealle ))a t5e him td cumatS, )>ajt is t$a t$e bugat5 td rihtum 
gelcdfan, fa gesih"S se Hifelend, and fam he gemilisa'5, 
and hyra mdd onliht mid his gife, feet hi magon him td 
cuman butan gedwylde, and Mm he forgiRS t5onegcistlican 
fddan, faethi ne dteorian be wegc. pitSd he dxode Phil- 
ippum, hwanon hi mihton hlat" iSam folce gebicgan, "Sa 
geswutelode he Philippes nytennysse. Wei wistc Crist 
hwxt he don wolde, and he wiste f xt Philippus f aet nyste. 
Di cwaetS Andreas, fait dn cnapa faer bdere fif bcrcne 
hldfas and twegen fixas. pi cwx5 se Hdelend, *' DdS fxt 
faet folc sitte," and swd fortSon swd we edw der rehton. Se 




H HOMILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 

H*!cnd geseh fxi hungrige folc, and he hi mildheonlice 
fWde, Kg8er ge |>urh his goJnysse ge tSurh his mihte. 
Ilwset mihte seii gddnys ana, biilon Sa;r wsbre miht mid 
y±rc gudnysse ? His discipuli uoldon cdc ]>xt folc iedan. 
ac hi na:fdon mid hw.ini. Se Haileiid hicfdc Iwrie giidiii 
uilUn [o tSam fosire, and )).t mihte lu S;krc fremminge. 

l'\'la wundra worhte God, and dacghwamlicc wyrcS ; 
ac B.» wundra sind swJSc dwdcode on manna gesihlSe, 
forSon tic hi sind swISc gewunelicc. 3\Idre wundor is 
)>a;l God ^l-'lmihlig a,'lce da;g fet calne middangeafd, and 
gewissiS Jia g(')dan. Jionne fwi wundor wffere, J«et he pa 
gcfyldc fir Sdsend manna mid fif htdfum ; ac i5ais wun- 
dredon men, nd foriSi fxl hit mdre wundor w&re, ac 
foitii pa:t hit WKS ungcwunelic. Hwa sylB nu wsesim 
lirum X'cerum, and gemenigfylt ]<xl gerip of Teawum 
comum, biiion seSeiSa gemsenigfylde 5a Hf hld^? Seii 
miht wcDs 8a on Cristos handum, and pa fif hidfas wSbron 
swylcc hit sxd wfero, nd on coriSan besdwen, ac gemenig- 
fyld fram Sam ^ie eortSan gcworhte. 

pis wuniior is sw;i5e miccl. and dc6\> on geldcnungum. 
Oft gehwa gesihS fa'gre slafas dwritene, ponne heraiS he 
tSone writcre and |ia staf^is, and ndt hwaet hi m£enai5. Se 
tie cann i5d;ra stafa gescedd, he hL'raS heora fcgemysse, 
and ntd )>a staf:is, and understent hwKi hi gemdenaS, On 
(j5ro wisan we sccdwiaS metinge, and on dSre wisan 
sl:iliis. Ne g;eS na mdre l6 metinge biiton pxt pij hit 
gescii and hcrigc : nis na gcn<>h p.vt pii stafas scedwigc, 
biilon Si'i hi cdc r;tde, and pan andgit undcrntande. Swd 
is cac on Bam wutulre l>c God worhte mid pam fif hldfum : 
ne biB nd genijh )'xt we |>a;,-i tdcnes wundrian, oppe purh 
)>sct God hcrian, b(iton wc cdc pa:t g-.istlice andgit under- 

pa fif hldfiis Se sc cnajia ba;r gctdcniaS pa ITf bee *e 
Moyscs se hcrcloga sclle on 5Li:rc ealdaii m. Se cnapa 5e 
hi ba;r, and heora ne onbyrigde, wks pa-t ludcisce folc. 



ROISIILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 65 

%e ^a. Rf \y6c raeddon, and ne cdtSe )>aeron nin gdstllc 
andg\t, ferban tSe Crist com, and fa bee geopenode, and 
byra gasilice andgit onwreih his leorning-cnihtum, and hi 
si^iSan eallum cristenum folce. We ne magon nu ealle 
|>a fif b6c dreccan, ac we secga^ e(5w j)3et God sylf hi dihle, 
and Moyses hi dwrat, td stedre and td Idre iSam ealdan 
folce Israhel, and edc us on gdstlicum andgite. pa b^c 
w^ron dwritene be Criste, ac )>aet gdsdice andgit waes 
J>am folce dfgle, 6^ faet Crist sylf com td mannum, 
and geopcnede fdera bdca digelnysse, aefter gdstlicum 
andgiie. 

Alii euangeliste ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus 
discipulis distribuisset, discipuli autem ministrauerunt 
turbis. He tdbr^c t5a fif hldfas and sealde his leorning- 
cnihtum, and h^t b^ran t5am folce; forSon )>e he t^hte 
him tSa gdsllican Idre : and hi ferdon geond ealne mid- 
dangeard, and bodedon, swd swd him Crist sylf t^hte. Mid 
}>am Ce he idbrdec t5a hldfas, fa w^ron hi gemenigfylde, 
and wedxon him on handum ; fortJon 5e t5a (if bee wurdon 
gdstlice asmeade, and wise Idredwas hi trahtnodon, and 
setton of t5am bdcum manega d^re b6c; and we mid 
t^dera bdca Mre bedtS daeghwonlice gdstlice gereordode. 

pa hldfas w^ron berene. Bere is swit5e earib^e td 
gearcigenne, and )>eih-hwaet$ere f<6t Sonc mann, ponne he 
gearo bit$. Swd wses sed ealde ae swISe earfo^e and dfgle 
id understandenne ; ac Ceih-hwsefScre, fonne we cumafS 
td 6am smedman, faet is td 82ere getdenunge, f onne ge- 
reordatS hed dre mdd, and gestranga^ raid fjfere diglan 
lire. Fif hldfas "Soer wiferon, and Hf "Susend manna paer 
w^ron gereordode ; fortSan t5e pset ludeisce folc wxs un- 
derSeddd Codes de, t$e stdd on (if bdcum dwriten. patSa 
Crist dxode Philippum, and he his dfandodc, swd swd we 
dbr r^ddon, J>d getdenode he mid fdere dcsunge f a3S folces 
nytennysse, fe waes under Sdbre &, and ne cdSe faet 
gdstlice andgit, t5e on tSdere ^ bediglod wges. 



6+ HOMILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 

Hiiblcnd gesch J>aet hungrige folc, and he hi mildheortlice 
Ktlde, asgSer gc J>urh his giidnysse ge 5urh his mihte. 
H«*El mihte sei3 gijdnys dna, biiion Sjer wire mihl mid 
fxre gddnjsse? His discipuii woldon cic fxt folc fedan, 
ac hi nKfdon mid hwam. So H&leiid hsefde J>one gddan 
willan 10 Sam fosire, and J»a mihte tii S&fe fremminge, 

Fela wundra worhie God, and dseghwamlice wyrcB ; 
ac 8a wundra sind swiSe dwicode on manna gesihSe, 
foriSon 8e hi sind swiSe gewuneiice. IMdre wundor is 
fret God ^Imihtig a;lce dacg fct ealne middangcard, and 
gcwissaS j)a giidan. yonne |«.-t wundor wiere, (set he fa 
gefjlde fif 8i3send manna mid fif hlifum : ac Uses wun- 
(Iredon men, ni forSi pKt hit mire wundor w&re, ac 
forSi fxt hit w:es ungewuneiic. Hwa sjlS nu \westm 
drum Kcerum, and gemenigfylt ]KEt gerip of fedwum 
comum, biiton se 8e 5a gem:enigfylde 5a Rf hldfas? Sed 
miht wses «.i on Cristcs handum, and pa fif hldfas wdbron 
swylce hit said w&re, ni on eortSan besiwen, ac gemenig- 
fj'Id fram Sam 8e eorSan geworhte. 

pis wundor is swlSe micel, and de(5p on getdcnungum. 
Oft gchiva gesihiS fsegre slafas liwritene, Jwnne h^raS he 
Sone wriiere and fa stafas, and nit hwEt hi m&naS. Sc 
8e cann 8ifera stafa gescedd, he hi5raS heora fsegemj-sse, 
and rted fa stafas, and understent hw^t hi gemfenaS. On 
dSre wtsan we scedwiaS mctinge, and on dSre wisan 
stafas. Ne gafi nd mdre t6 meiinge bdton fxt fd hit 
geseo and hiirige : nis na genijh fxt pii stafas scedwige, 
buton Su hi edc rifede, and pset andgit understande. Swi 
is edc on Ram wundre ]'e God worhtc mid fam fif hldfum : 
ne biS nd gcn6h )>a!t we fses tdcncs wundrian, offc furh 
fa;t God horian, bilion we c;ic faM gastlice andgit under- 
stand on. 

pafifhlafas Sc se cnapa bier get;icnia5 fa fif bee Se 
Moyses sc iierctoga sette on Bfere ealdan k. Se cnapa Se 
hi ba;r, and heora ne onbyrigde, wees f^et ludeisce folc. 



HOMILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 65 

be t5a fif b6c raeddon, and nc cdt5e faeron ndn gdstllc 
andgit. seilSan tJe Crist com, and fa bee geopenode, and 
hyra gasdice andgit onwreih his leorning-cnihtum, and hi 
sit^San eallum cristenum folce. We ne magon nu ealle 
J?a flf b6c dreccan, ac we secgaS edw )>aet God sylf hi dihtc, 
and Moyses hi dwrat, t6 steore and id lare t5am ealdan 
folce Israhel, and edc us on gdstlicum andgile. pa bee 
w^ron dwritene be Criste, ac )>aet gdstlice andgit waes 
fam folce digle, 66 faet Crist sylf com tt5 mannum, 
and geopenede f&ra bdca digelnysse, aefter gdstlicum 
andgile. 

Alii euangeliste fenint, quia panes et pisces Dominus 
discipulis distribuisset, discipuli autem ministrauerunt 
turbis. He t6br^c tJa fif hldfas and sealdc his leorning- 
cnihtum, and h^t b^ran t5am folce; foilJon fe he tsehte 
him da g^lican Mre : and hi ferdon geond ealne mid- 
dangeard, and bodedon, swd swd him Crist sylf t^hte. Mid 
)>am t5e he tdbrdec tJa hlafas, fa waeron hi geraenigfykle, 
and wedxon him on handum ; fortJon 8e tJa fif h6c wurdon 
gdstlice asmeade, and wise Idredwas hi trahtnodon, and 
setton of t5am b(5cum manega (5t$re b^c; and we mid 
}>;fera b<5ca Idre be(5t5 daeghwonlice gdstlice gereordode. 

pa hldfas w^ron berene. Bere is swlt5e earfo^e t(5 
gearcigenne, and fedh-hwsetSere fet 5one mann, fonne he 
gearo bit$. Swd woes seo ealde ae swISe earfo'6e and dfgle 
id understandenne ; ac 6edh-hwx»6ere, fonne we cumaS 
t6 6am smedman, faet is to ftserc getiicnunge, fonne ge- 
reordad hed dre m<5d, and gcslrangaiS mid fee re diglan 
lare. Fif hldfas tJxr wieron, and fif tidsend manna focr 
wderon gereordode ; for8an tSe fait ludeisce folc wxs un- 
der5e<5dd Codes ^, ^e stod on fif b(5cum dwriten. patSa 
Crist dxode Philippum, and he his dfandode, swd swd we 
der rdeddon, fd gctdcnode he mid f acre dcsunge foes folccs 
nytennysse, fe waes under tJjfere di, and ne cdtSe fxt 
gdstlice andgit, tJe on Sdere {fe bediglod wses. 



66 HOMILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES. 



Di twegcn fixas geiJcnodon sealm-sang and 8&ra 
witegena cwj-das. An 8£era gecydde and bodode Cristes 
t<5-C)-iiic mid scalm-sange, and (j'Ser mid witegunge. Nu 
sind }ia twd gesetnyssa, ]>a:l is, sealm-sang and ivitegung, 
swylce hi syflinge wieron \6 Sam fif berenum hldfum, 
Jwet is, l6 Sdm fif ilicum bdcum. pact folc, J>e JSaer ge- 
reordode, sKt up on Sam giErse. pa;t gaera getdcnode 
flifesdice gewilnunge, swi swi se witega cwfeS, "jElc 
fljesc is gKrs, and |)a;s flaisces wuldor is swiice wyna 
blosim." Nu sccal gchvvd, seSe wile siltan xt Codes 
gcceorde, and brucan ftbre gisillcan lire, oflredan |>iet 
gsers and ofsiitan, ]>xt is, yxt he sceal Sa fldesclican lustas 
gewyldan, and his Ikhaman t<5 Codes fedwdiime symie 
gebigan. 

pffir wEeron getealde ret Sam gereorde fif tSiisend wera ; 
forSon fe 5a menn, Jie lo Sam gistlican gereorde belim- 
paS, sceolon bcijn wcrlice geworhte, swi sw4 se apostol 
cw'sS ; he cwa;8, " Bc65 wacole, and standaS on geledfan, 
and onginnaS werlice, and beiiS gchyrte." Dedh gif wif- 
mann biS werlice gcworhl, and Strang to Codes willan, 
he6 bis fonne geteald lo Sam werum fe set Codes m)'san 
siltaS. plisenri getcl biiS fulfremed, and ne istihS nin 
gctel ofer fxt. Mid |iam geiele bi6 geticnod se<j fulfrem- 
ednys SSera manna Se gereordiaS heora sdwia mid Gcxlea 
lire, 

"Se Ha;lcnd h^t fd gegadrian )>a life, J^t hi losJan ne 
sceoldon ; and hi Sa gefyldon twelf wilion mid l>am 
Da life Sass gereordes, fset sind Sa dedpnyssa 



SEcre lire ye worold-i 
sceolon Sa Idreciwas gega 
healdan on heora faitelsum, 
habban Kfre gearo, t(5 teu 
lire a:gScr ge K&re ealdan i 
derodon iwelf wilian fulle 
fealde gelel geiicnode fi 



idersiandan ne magon, pa 
lerian, foet hi ne losian, and 
|i!et is, on heora heortan, and 
me forS fone wisddm and Sa 
! ge Ktere niwan. Hi Hi gega- 
nid fam bricum. piet twelf- 
welf apostolas ; forSan fe hi 



HOMILY ON THE LOAVES AND FISHES, (i^ 

• 

underfengon )>a digelnyssa )>^re Idre, t$e )^t l;i6wede folc 
undergitan ne mihte. 

"paet folc, tJd fe faet wundor geseah, cwsedon be 
Criste, }>aet he w^re s<5^ witega, ^e t(5weard wxs. " So8 
hi sdedon, sumeratS inga: witega he wses, for8ant$e he wiste 
ealle tdwearde ]>ing, and edc fela t5ing witegodc, t5e becjtJ 
gefyllede butan twyn. He is witega, and he is ealra wit- 
egena witegung, forSan t5e ealle wltegan be him witegodon, 
and Crist gefylde heora ealra witegunga. paet folc geseah 
tSa J>aet wundor, and hi t5aes switJe wundredon. paet wun- 
dor is iwriten, and we hit geh^rdon. paet t5e him heora 
edgan gedydon, faet Ai% dre geledfa on us. Hi hit gesi- 
won, and we his gelyfatJ f e hit ne gesdwon ; and we sind 
fortSi beleran gelealde, swd swd se Hdblend be lis on (jtSre 
sldwe cwaeS, **Eddige beotJ fa }>e me ne gesecSS. and hi 
hwaeSere gelyfatJ on me, and mine wundra mjfersiaC." 

paet folc cwaetS t$a be Criste, )>aet he wdere s68 witega. 
Nu cwet5e we be Criste, faet he is t$aes Lifigendan Codes 
Sunu, setJc waes t6weard td diy-senne ealne middangeard 
fram deofles anwealde, and fram helle-wite. poet folc ne 
ciiCe tSsera g6da, paet hi cwdedon, faet he God wd^re, ac 
sdedon, faet he witega wdere. We cwe8at$ nu, mid fullum 
geledfan, faet Crist is s6t$ witega, and ealra witegena 
Witega, and paet he is s<5tSlice ^aes iElmihtigan Codes Sunu, 
ealswd mihtig swd his Faeder, mid t$am he leofatS and 
rixaS on dnnysse tJaes Halgan Gdstes, d bdtan ende on 
^nysse. Amen. 



HOMILY 



ON THK 



BIRTHDAY OF ST. GREGORY; 

GIVING AN ACCOUNT OF THE INTRODLXTION 

OF CHRISTIANITY INTO ENGLAND, 

UNDER THE AUSPICES 

or 

POPE GREGORY I., SURNAMED THE GREAT. 



/^REGORIUS re halja Papa. €n3;lircpe «eobe Spoptol 
^^ on tiifura anhpepban beeje. aepceji meni^pealbum jebe- 
oppum •] haljum jecnypbn\7j*um Ijobep pice j^rselijlicc 
apcah:- Pe ip pihclice t'njiircpe tSeobe Spojrol. popSan 
t5e he fuph hip prr^h "} panbe up ppam beoplep bijjenjfiuin 
?ec-bprcb. -j to Dobep ;^eleapan jebijbe:* GOane^a hali3e 
bee cj'^aS hip bpohcniinje ;] hip halij^e lip "j eac 'Ipropia 
Snjlopum.* ^a t5e -^^Ippeb cynmj op lebene on Gn^ipc 
apenbe :• 8eo boc pppecS ;^enoh ppucehce be t^ipim hal^an 
pepe :• Nu pylle pe pum ^mji; pcopdice eop be him jepeccan. 
poji^an ?5e peo popepnebe boc nip eop eallum cut5. )>eah tJe 
heo on Gnjhpc apenb py : • pep eabi^T;a Papa Lpejopiup paep op 
jeSelbopenpe macjKe ^ eappxpcpe acenneb:* Romanipce 
pican piepon hip majap. hip pebep hatce Dopbianup. j 
Felix pe eappcepca papa pxp hip pipca pxbep :• pe jKCy ppa ppa 
pe cpcebon. pop populbe ce^elbojien. ac he opepprah hip 

68 



BIRTHDAY OF ST. GREGORY. 69 

2c<5elbopennJ'iTe m\b haljum ^eapum -j mib jobum peop- 
cum jejlenbe:- Lpejopiup if jpecipc nama. ye fpei^t 
on lebenum jepeopbe. 'Vijilanciuf.' faec if on Gnjlifc. 'pa- 
colpe :•' Pe psef fpiSe pacol on Eobef bebobiim. tSa'fia he 
fylf hepijenblice leopobe. "] he pacoUice ymbe mane^ifia 
tSeoba J>eapFe hojobe. j him hpcf peij j^fpucelobe :• pe 
psef fpam cilbhabe on bochcum lapum jecyb. "^ he on 
tSaepe lape fpa jefsehjhce t5eah. f on ealpe Romana-bypij 
nsef nan hif jehca jetJuhc : • pe jecneopblcelice sepcep 
pifpa lapeopa ^ebifn unburn, -j naef popjyctol. ac j;;eF3efC- 
nobe hif lape on jsefchafelum jeraynbe : • Pe hlob ^a nub 
jjupfTijum bpeofce ^a flopenban lape. "Se he epc ocfcep 
pyjifte mib hunij-f pecrpe ppocan ))^flice bealcecte : • On 
jeonjlicum jeapum. t5a'5a hif jeojo^ aep'^ep jecjTibe populb- 
ftmj lufian fceolbe. fa on^ann he hine fylpne co Eobe 
jeSeoban. "3 co etJele paef upplican lipef mib eallum jepil- 
nun^m opSian :• UUicoblice sepcep hif paebep fop^pifte he 
ap3epbe fix munuc-lip on Sicilia-lanbe. ^ paec feopo^e bmnon 
Romana-buph jecimbpobe. on Sam he fylp pejollice unbep 
abbobef haefum bpohcnobe :• pa feopon mynpcpu he je- 
lenbe mib hif ajenum. "j jci^J^^runa^ce. co bccjhpomlicum 
bijleopan jejobobe : • pone opep-eacan hif sehca he afpenbe 
on Iiobef ))eappum. "3 ealle hif populblican aet5elbopennyffe 
CO heoponlicum pulbpe apenbe:* Pe eobe sep hip jecyp- 
pebnyffe jeonb Romana-buph mib psellenum jyjilum. ^ 
fcinenbum jymmum. "} peabum jolbe j^eppccrepob. ac 
sepcep hif jecjTipebnypfe he ^enobe Eobep Seappum. he pj'lp 
tSeappa. raib pacum paepelf e bepanjen : . 

8pa pilppemebhce he bpohcnobe on anjmne hip jecyp- 
pebnyff e fpa f he mihce "Sa jyu beon jecealb on pulppemebpa 
hal^ena jecele:. pe hipobe pophaepebnyppe on mecciim "3 
on bpence. "j pjeccan on pynbpijum jcbebum. faep-co- 
eacan he ^popabe pmjallice uncpumnyppa. j ppa he pci5- 
licop mib anbpepbiim uncpumnyppum oppecc pxp. fpa he 
jeopnpuUicop faep ecan lipep jepilnobe : . 



70 HOMILY ON THE 

pa UQbeji^^eac je papa, pe on Sam nman fxz apofcolice 
ferl xepec. hu r* eobtja Cpejoiiiuj- on haljum mxpiaia 
Seonbe pxj-. -] he 8a hme op Sspe munuclicon bpohcnunje 
jeniun. -j him co jefyliraa jerecce. on bjaconhabe i^eeabe- 
bj'|ibne :■ Da jekmp hic xz. fumum |^le. ]*pa fpa jyc pp 
ofc beS. {ixc Gnjhj-ce cj-pmenn bgiohcon heopsi T^P^ ^ 
Komana-bypi^. ^ npejopiuj* eobe be Sxpe jrpxc Co tSam 
Cnjlircuni mannum. heopa tiinj j-ceapijenbe :■ pa jcfcah 
he becpux Sam papum cype-cnihcaf jeretxe. |ia pasjion 
bpicer Iichamaa ;j pffijepej- anbplican menn. -j xHeihct 
■^tfesobei- lipe^opiuf Sa befaeolb Jrxpa cnapena pLce. -\ 
beppan op hpilceiie |ieobe hi jebpohce psepon:- pa ffcbe 
him man t hi of Cnjla lanbe p^pon. -j f Sxpe Seobe 
mennifc )-pa plicij pa;|ie:- €fc JSa ripejopmi- berpan. hpce- 
Sep pxf lanber pole cpifcen pxpe t!e hxSen:- ^im man 
fsbe. f hi hi£5ene p3e|ion :■ Epejopiup Sa oj: innpe«pbp« 
heojican lanjrume picceciinje ceaU. -J cfxS. ^alapa. ^ rpa 
fa;^eper hipej- menn pwf'on Snm j-peapcan beopie unbep- 
Si^ijbbe ;• epr he axobe. hu firepe Seobe nama psepe. fe hi 
Oi:-c'omon :■ Pim fXf jeanbpyiib, [>a:c hi "Kn^le ^enemnobs 
p^fion:- pa cpxS he. Rihclice hi pnb T^n^le seh&cenc. 
pojiflan 5e hi ensla phte habbaS. -} rpilcura jeb^enaS fxc 
hi on heoponum en^la jepepan beon:. Eye Sa Hipejopiaf 
bepiian. hu Sxpe fcipe nama pcepe. J>e 5a cnapan op-alasbbe 
pffipoti :■ Pim man pcbe. f Sa rcipmen pacpon Depe jeha- 
cene:- Ejiejopiur anbpypbe. f el hi pnb Depe jehacene. 
fopSan Se hi pinb fpam ^painan ;enepobe. ] Co Cpipref 
milbheopcnfrj-e jjecj-jehe;- Ej^ Sa he be|:pas. Dn ij- Ssepe 
leobe cymnj jehacen. pim yxf ^eanbrpapob. f pe c^m; 
jEiie jehaten pxpe ;- Ppsec Sa Cpei^opmr X«nenobe mitt 
hir pophum CO Sam naman, -} cpxH. pic ^ebapenaS f Kile, 
luia ry Ser'>";ien on Sam lanbe. Co lope fwp i^lmihcijao 
Scyppenhe]- ;. 

Cpesopiup Sa pna eobe Co Sam papan jKEp aporcolican 
j-eclef. ■) hine basb. f he Snselcjnne pume lapeopap apenbe. 



BIRTHDAY OF ST. GREGORY. 71 

Ce hi CO EpifCe ^ebi^bon. -^ cp&t$. jJ he fylp jeajio paepe f 
peopc CO jeppemmenne mib Irobef pultume. ^yf hic t5am pa- 
pan fpa jehcobe : • pa ne mihte je papa f je^apan. ))eah t$e he 
eall polbe. poptSan te t$a Romanifcan ceajxep-^epajmn nol- 
bon je^&F*^^ f FF^ S^^ojen mann. ^3 fpa jet$un^en lapeop 
J>a bujih eallun^e poplece. "} fpa jr^len ppaecfitJ Rename :• 
^Sfcep tSifum jehunp fast micel mann-cpeahn becom opep 
tSsepe Romanifcan leobe. "j aepefC $one papan Fela^ium 
jefcob. "} bucon Jrlbinje abybbe:- picobhce aepcep ^xf 
papan ^eenbunje fpa micel cpealm peapi5 pxy polcef . }>2ec 
^ehpaep fcobon apefce huf ^eonb fa buph. bucon bujijen- 
bum:* pa ne mihce fpa-t$eah feo Romana-bujih bucon 
Papan pnnian. ac eal pole t$one eabi^an lipe^opmm co t$8epe 
^e^mctSe anmobhce ^eceaf . ]7eah t$e he nub eallum mse^ne 
pi'Sepi^enbe paepe:- Epejopiuf tSa apenbe senne pifcol co 
Cam Eafepe GDaupictum. fe psef hif jepsebepa. *;) hine hal- 
fobe. "^ micclum baeb -p he nseppe J$am poke ne ^e^apobe 
•p he nub faep pup^myncef pulbpe jceupepob psepe. popSau 
t5e he onbpeb f he ^uph tSone micclan hab on pojiulbhcum 
pulbpe. fe he aep apeapp. sec pumum psele bepcehc pupbe :• 
Sc Csef Hapepep heah-jepepa Eepmanup jelaehce "Sone pip- 
col aec Epejopiep sepenbpacan. •;) hine cocaep. ;] pr65an 
cybbe Jwim Eapepe. jjxc foec pole lipejopium co papan 
^ecopen haepbe :• GDaupiciup tSa pe Eapepe fsep Eobe 6an- 
cobc. -3 hine jehabian hec:- Ppsec t5a Epejopiup pleamep 
cepce. "3 on bymhopon seclucobe. ac hine man jelsehce. -j 
Ceah CO Pecpep cypcan. faec he tSsep co papan jehaljob 
ptipbe:« Dpejopiup t5a aep hip habunj^ f Romanipce pole 
pop t$am onp^enbum cpealme tJipum pojibum co bepeop- 
pinje cihce:- 

ODine ^ebpoCjia |>a leopopcan. up jebapenatS f pe Eobep 
fpinjle. J>e pe on aep copeapbe onhpjeban pceolbon. f pe 
hupu nu anbpepbe -} apanbobe onbpaeban :• Eeopeni^e upe 
fapnyp tip mpaep p oCpe jecyppebnyppe. *] f pice Se pe ^po- 
pifklS tobpece npe.heopcan heapbnyppe :• €pne nu tSip pole 



72 HOMILY ON THE 

If niib rpupbe jjajp lieoFonlicuu ^^jiaiiiau opfltfjen. ^ je- 
l^>)lce aeiilipije pub iinb piojilicum fliLce apepre : • Ne feo 
abl Sam beai^e ne pojiepraipS. ac je jefeoS jj pe pylpa bea5 
f :cpe able ylbiiije pojihjiabaS : • 8e jeflajena bi<5 inib beatSe 
ji^jnpen. sejiSaii 'J5e he co lieopunjuiu foSjie behjieopfunje 
jecypjian mxje : • PojiaS pojitSi bpilc pe becuuie serpopan 
jepliSe fcep prjiecau Demaii. pe6e ne msej pxt ypel bepepan 
^e he jepjieraobe:- Eehpilce eop'dbuji^enbe pmb aecbpo- 
bene. "] heojm hup pcaiibaS apejTe : • Faebepap -3 mobbjm 
bei'caubaS lieopa beajiiia be. "j heojia yjipenuman him pjlpum 
Co pojipyjibe pojiepcaeppaS : • Ucou eopuopchce pleou co heo- 
puiije |o5jie baebboce. j>a hpile (5e pe mocou. aejrdau fe pe 
p^tjilica I'le^e up ajxpecce : • Ucou jemuuau ppa hpxc ppa 
pe bj»eli;^enbe ajylcon. -3 ucou mib pope 3epitmau p pxc pe 
umnpullice abpujon : • Ucou pojihpabian Dobep impyue on 
anbecnyjpe. ppa ppa pe picesa up mauai5 : • Ucou ahebban 
upe heopcan nub hanbum co Iiobe. ))3ec ip. ^ pe pceolon 
hii ;i;ecnyjibnyppe upe bene mib 2;eea]mun3e ^obep peopcep 
up-ajiaejiau : • pe popjipft cpupan ujie pophcuuje. petie 
))ujih hip pice^an clypaS. Nylle ic faep pynpullau bea5. ac 
ic pille f he jecyppe "j lybbe ; • 

Ne jeopcpupije nan man bme pylpne pop hip pynina 
micelnyjfe. picobhce '6a ealban jylcap Nmmeipcpe tSeobe 
tSpeojia baja bepeopfunj abilejobe. -} pe jecJTipeba pceat^a 
on liip beaSep cpybe fcep ecaii hpep mebe ^eeapnobe:- 
Ucou apenban upe heojican. hpxbhce bi5 pe Dema co 
upum beuum ^ebijeb. jip pe ppam upum t^pyjmyppum beotJ 
jepiliclochce : • Ucon pcanban mib ^ema^hcum popum 
oujean 6am onpijenbum ppupbe ppa micclep bomep:- 
8o6hce jemajnyp ip fam po6an Deman j^ecpeme. )>eah tSe 
heo maimum un6ancpup6e p\'. pop6au ^e pe app?epca "3 pe 
iiiilbheoiica Tiob pile ji pe mib ^ema;vhcum benum hip 
inilbbeojicnypfe opj.an. -3 he iu»le ppa micclum ppa pe ^eeap- 
niao up jeypfiaii : • Be 6ifum he cpaeb pujih hip pice^an. 
Elypa me on baeje 6mpe jebpepebnyppe. 3 ic t5e ahpebbe. 



BIRTHDAY OF ST. GREGORY. 73 

•} t5u maeprajT me : • Dob pjlp if bif jepica f he milcpan 
pile him CO clypi^enbum. ye^e manati j) pe him co clypian 
f ceolon : • Foji"6i mine ^ebpoSjia fa leof ojxan. ucou 2;ecu- 
nian on t$am peop'5an bse^e pyy]ie piican on rejme-mepi^eu. 
•3 mib efcpullum niobe -} ceajium fiu^aii feoponpealbe Lseca- 
niaf. fsec pe fCjieca Dema uf jeiijiije. ]H)nne he jefihtJ f 
pe ri'^pe upe Xyltap ppecatS : • 

€opnojxhce tJatia iiiicel meniju CEjtSep je ppeojxhabef 
je munuchabef menu. -} j)3ec Ijepebe pole, aepcep "Ksep 
eabi^an Epejopiei* hxfe. on j)one pobnef-boej co ^am 
feofonpealbum lecanium ^ecomon. co t^am fpit^e apebbe 
f e fopepeba cpealm. f hunb-eahcaci^ manna, on t5sepe anpe 
nbe peallenbe. op hpe ^epicon. t$a hpile pe fiet pole ^a. 
Lecaniap r"i^?OQ:- ^c pe halja pacepb ne jeppac -p pole 
to maiiijenne f hi tJaepe bene ne jeppicon. o5p Eobep 
milcfun^; J>one pet5an cpealm j^epcilbe : • 

Pp2cc tSa Eipej^opiup. p^t^^*^ lie papan-hab unbejipenj. 
2;emunbe hpaec he jepSpn Snjelc^nne jemynce. "j 'Soejijuhce 
•p lupcyme peojie jeppemobe : • Pe na co tJaep hpon ne milice 
}>one Romanipcan bipcop-icol eallunje pojilsecan. ac he 
apenbe o^jie bybelap. jeSiinjene Irobep tSeopan. co ^ypum 
i^lanbe. -} he pylp micclum mib hip benum -} cihcinjum 
pj'^lpce. )wec tSaepa bj'bela bobuii^ pop^jense. -] Eobe psepcm- 
baepe pipbe:- pacpa bybela naman pmb pup ^ecijebe. 
ffujupcmup. COellicup. Laupencjup. PeCpup. lohannep. lup- 
cup:- Dap lapeopap apenbe pe*eabija papa Epejojuup mib 
mane^um oSpum munecum co iVnjelcynne. -} hi Cipum 
popbuin CO tSsepe pape cihce. Ne beo je apy^ihce tiuph 
jeppmce )>sep lanjpuman pxpelbep o««e fuph 5T:eljia manna 
jTube-pppaeee. ae mib ealpe anpaebnyppe ^ pjlme jjsejie 
potSan lupe fap onjunnenan ftinj fuph Eobep pilcum 
2:eppemmaS : • -} pice je f eopep meb on t^am ecan ebleane 
ppa micele mape bit5. ppa micclum ppa je mape pop Eobep 
pillan ppinea^:. Eehyppumia^ eabmoblice on ealluui tSin- 
3um Sujupcine. )»one t5e pe eop co ealbpe jepeccon. hic 

4 



74 HOMILY ON THE 

fliemaS eopjium faplum fpa hpsec fpa je be Lif tn^epuije 
jefjiliiS:- 8e .^Imibcisa Dob fiiph hif Jifc eop jefcjltie. 
■] jeunne lue $ ic moce eope|ier jeppincer prercm on Sam 
ecan eSele jereon. ppa ji ic beo jemec famob on bL^re 
eopeper ehleaiief. Seab Se ic mifa eop fpmcan ne mx;e. 
f opiSon Se ic pille rpincan : ■ TSujuirmu]- *a mib hif ^epe- 
puiii. p rjnb jepehce peopepcij pepa fejibe be lipe^upier 
h^r^ oC|)tec hi CO Sipim ijlanbe jefunbpuUice becomon;- 

On Sum bajum pixobe jEjielbJ-phc cyniu; on Lan^pape- 
bjjiij pii'tice. -} liif P'ce ptef afcpehc {:pam txpe mic-cUn 
ea piimb|ie oiS fu6 pe:- Sujufcinup hiepbe jenumen 
pealhixobap of Fjmncena pice, fpa ppa Eijie^opiur him 
bebeab. ■) be Siiph B.-ejia pealhiroba muS. pam cj-niuje ■} 
bi]* leobe Cober popb bobabe. hu je milbbeopca paslenb mib 
hif njenpe Spopun^e Jiipie fcylbijan nubbaiieapb alj^be. 'j 
^eleappullum mannumheofouan picec inp^p 2eo|)eDobe : ■ pa 
anbpvpbe re cyninj ^Selbpihc TTjnfniie -j cpceS. ■f he 
pejepe popb ■) behac him cybbe ^ cpseS, fsec he ne mihre 
rpa hpxbbce fone eolban jepunan Se he mib ^njelcjnne 
heolb fopla;can. cpceS p he mop:e ppeolice Sa heoponLcan 
lape hip leobe bohian ^ ■f he him -j hip jejepan bi^leopan 
Seniai) pnlbe. -j popjeap him Sa pununje on Eaacpapeb^ij 
peo pKp eallep hip picep heapob-biiph :■ 

Onjiinn Sa I'^ujiipcinup mib hip munecum co-jeejrenhe- 
eenne \<xp& apoprola hp. mib pinjalum .^ebebum. -j pcscam. 
-} pEepceniim Eohe Seopijenbe. -j lipep popb )iam «e hi mihcon 
bobijenbe. ealle mibbaneapbhce iSmj. ppa ppa alppemebe. 
poph'ojijenbe. Sa J>mj ana ]te hi to bi^Ieopan behopebon 
unbepponbe. be i5am Se hi cwhcon pjlpe lybbenbe. -j pop 
ifepe poCpsepcnVpre 5e hi bobebon ;(eapope psepon ehcnjppo 
CO Sohjenne ^ bcaSe ppelcan jtp hi Soppron:- 

Pprec -fl-d ;tel(-pfn)n pojipel menije -j on Cobep naman 
jepullobe piipbon. piinbpijenbe [ta;pe bilepicn^ppe heopa 
unffjei^Ki^an hpep- "] fpecnyrrs heopa heoponlican lape:. 
Da ffiC nexcan jelupcpullobe Sam rynm^e ^Selbpihce 



BIRTHDAY OF ST. GREGORY. 75 

heops cheae lip ^ heojia p^pime behar. )>a foSlice pujiboa 
niib manejum cacuum jefeSbe. -j he Sa jelyfcnbe peHpS 
jepillob. J micclum ta cpifcenan jeappujiSohe. -j fpa rpa 
beofonlice ceajrep-jepapan luj:ub«. iiolbe j-pa-Seah Dienne 
CO cpifcenbome jeneabian. fopSun tSe he opaxobe £C Sam 
lajieopum hif hide, f E;ii[^ejr Seopbom ne fceal beon 
2eneabab. ac fylfpiUef :■ Ou^unnon ia bsejhponihce fop- 
pel tnenije epfran to jehjpenne Sa haljan bobunse. -j 
poplecon heopa hxSeufcipe. -j hi ri^je ^eSeobbon Ep[p:ej" 
^elaSunje. oa bine jelyfenbe:- fiecpux Sifum jepenhe 
vVujuftiuup Ofeji j^ CO 8am epcebifcope echepium. -j be 
hine 2^1'^''Of'^ iYnjelcynne co epcebircope. fpa ypa. him 
Iipejopiuj" xp jepjyobe:. Kujujrinur Sa jehabob eypbe 
CO bif bifcop-jToIe. ■] afenbe aipenbpucan co Rome, -j 
cj'bbe Sam eahijan Epe^ojiie pKC S'lijelpjnn cjiijirenbom 
unbepfenj. ] he eac mib x*^ppicum fela Sinja bepiian. hu 
him CO bpohcni^enne p^pe becpux Sam ni;i;-hp<>|tfeniim 
folce:- DpKc 6a Ejiejopiui" micclum Lobe Sancobe nub 
bhrpjenbum niobe. f SnjelcjTine |-pa jelumpeii Fa.j-. fF* 
fpa he rylp jeopnlice jepilnobe. anb [*"*'* *F^ oiijean 
sepepbpacao co Sam ^eleappillan cjnmje >K|)elbiiihte. mib 
jeppiciiro -] memjfealbum lacum. -j oSpe jeppicu co Ku- 
jufcine. mib anbrpapum ealpa5Ee|ia Bmja ]ie he bme beppan. 
■3 hine eac Sipmi popbum manobe. BpoSep mm fe leofofca. 
tc pac f pe .fElmihcija Cob pela punbpa |>uph Se |irc[ie 
t!ec^ Se he jeceap jeppucelaS. p^p Su miUt blippijHn ■} eac 
He onbpreban :■ pu mihc bliiri^Hn jepipflice f Stepe Beobe 
papla Jiuph Sa Jrcpan punbpa beoS jeco;^ene ro Sa:pe 
incunban ;iife. onbpffib Se ppa Seah f Sm mob ne beo ahajen 
mib hJ-piTiyntppe on Sam cacniim pe Tob Siiph Se jeppe- 
maS. -J ]>a Sonoii on iheliim pulbpe bepealle piSinnan. |>onon 
Se 8u piSucao on pupSmynce ahapen bipc ;. 

npejopiup apenbe eac iTHjuj-cine lialiye lac on mierpe- 
peapum -} on bocum. -} Ssepa apojrola ■] mapcypa pehqiiiap 
pamob. -J bebeab f hip sepcepjenjan pjmle Sone pallium -J 



76 



BIRTHDAY OF ST. GREGORY. 



Cone epcehab sec 5aro Sporcolican fecle Romanifcpe jela- 
Cunje pec'can fceolbon ;• Sujuixinuf jefecce Eepce]i aij-um 
bifcopaf Of hiy 5efe|ium jeUpilcum buiijuni on Gu^la 8eobe. 
-} hi on Lober jeleapm tSeoobe fiuphpunobon oiS Stfum 
bx;t(e|iticiiin bx^e :- 

Se eabija Epejopmr jebihce maiieja halije cpahc-bec. ^ 
mib micelpe jecnypbnj'fr^ Lobef folc Co 8am eran lipe 
gepiffobe. '] pela punbgia on Lif lipe jepojihce. -] pulbop- 
pullice Jter papan reclef jepeolb 6peorcj-ne seaji. ^ ja 
muhKiif. 3 cyn ba^f . -^ pSSan on Sipim bieje ^epac' co 
Sam ecMi fecle heojrenan picef. on Sam he leopaS mtb 
Hob* jlllmihcijum a on ecnyrre:- ^raen :• 



SELECTIONS 



rtoM 



KING ALFRED'S 

ANGLO-SAXON VERSION OF THE HISTORY 
OF PAULUS OROSIUS. 



VOYAGES OF OTHERE AND WULFSTAN. 

OiiTHERK s^de his hldforde, iElfrede kynincge, faet he 

calra NorCmanna noriSmest biide. He cwaet5 fxt he bude 

on )>aem iande nor^wcardum witS yi Wcst-s&. He sjfcde 

fcih yxi )>xt land sf swytSe lang notfS panon ; ac hit is 

eall wcsie, biiton on fedwum st(jwum, sticcemdelum wiciatS 

Finnas, — on huntatSe on wintra, and on sumera on fiscotJe 

be faere s^. He s^de faet he, set sumum cyrre, wolde 

£indian, hii lange fxt land nortJ-rihte Idegc ; ot5t$e hwa^fer 

^nig man be nortSan paem westene budc. pi (6t he 

nortS-rihie be faem Iande : let him ealne wcg fxt weste 

land on faet stedr-bord, and fd wid-sde on boec-bord, |>ry 

dagas. pa wajs he swd feor nortJ swd Ca hw-ael-hunian 

fyrrest faratS. pa for he pd-g}-t nor5-r}*hte, swd feor swd 

lie mihte, on p^m (56rum prim dagum, geseglian. pd 

beih foet land fxr edst-r)hte, otJtJe si<j s& in on faet lantl, 

he nyste hwaef er ; biiton he wiste J>aet he faer bdd westan 

windes, ot5t5e hw(5n norCan, and scglcde fanon east be 

iande, ^vrA swd he mihte on fedwer dagum geseglian. pi 

^eolde he bidan lyhte nortJan windes ; fortJan l>ait land 

P^^ bedh Slits rihte, ot56c sed sse m on faet land, he nyste 

^waej^r^ pd seglede he panon siift-rihie be Iande, swd swd 



78 VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WTJLFSTAN. 

he iiiihte on fif daguro gescglian. Di Lag f^r in mycel 
ei up in pxt land ; pi cyrJon h^ up in on Hi ed, foriixm 
hy ne dorston fortS be ffere ei seglian for unfriCc, ror)>sein 
(KCt land wees eail gebiin, on dtSre healfe fxre ed. Ne 
m6uc he Jer ndn gebdn land, sySSan lie Tram his agnum 
hitme Air ; ac liim was eahie weg w&te land on ^t sie<5t- 
b(>rd, biitan fisceran and fugelcran and huntan; and )^C 
wSbron calle Finnas ; and him waes i wid-SM on faet baec- 
b(5rd. 

DA Beocmas hxfdon su\Se well gebdn hyra land, ac lit 
ne dorsion ^iser-on cuman ; ac Sira Terfinna land wees eall 
w^ste, biJtan fXT huntan gewicodun, oS8e lisceras, o6Se 
fugeleras. Fela spella him sEedon )ii Bcoimas, aegtSer ge 
of hyra flgenum lande, ge of f&m landum )>e ymb hy dtan 
wJeron ; ac he nyste hw^t pses s6ties wees, for)ixm he hit 
sylf ne geseah. pi Finnas, him )>dhte, and pi Beormas 
spr&con nedh dn ge'Seude. 

SwitSost he fur JSyder, ttj-edcan frxs landes scedwunge, 
{oTpxm hors-hwxlum, forjiaem hi habbaS swy^e feSele 
bin on hyra tofium. pd H^S h^ brohton sume |>iEm cyn- 
incgc ; and hyra hyd biS switSe gcid t(S scip-rdpum. Se 
hwnil biS micle Ixssa ])Onne dtre hu-alas : ne h'lH he 
lengra Jionne syfan elna lang ; ac, on his dgnum lande, 
is se beisia h\va;l-hunia8 ; fi beiJS eahta and feiSwertiges 
elna lango, and pi mifestan, fiftiges elna lange ; ]>dra, he 
s£de, |>£t he sy\a sum ofsliJge syxiig on twdm dagum. 

He wa;s swiSe spcdig man on pfem £ehtum pz heora 
spdda on betjS, JiEt is, on wildrum. He hsefde |>a-gyt, pi 
he ))one cyning suhte, tamra det^ra unbebohtra syz hund. 
Da de(3r hi hataJS hrdnas : |idra w£eron syx stEel-hrdnas ; 
pa beo6 swy'iSc djre mid Finnum, forfaira hf idH pi wil- 
dan hranas mid. He wars mid |>fcni fyrslum mannum 
on Jixm lande, najfde he pc-dh md Jionne iweniig hr)'Scra, 
and tweniig sci^dpa, and iwcntig swyna ; and pxt lyile piei 
he ercde, he crede mid horsan ; ac hyra ar is mebst on {rsern 




I 



VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN. 79 

gafole |>e M Finnas him gyldatJ ; faet gafol bl« on deura 
fellum, and on fugcia fetSerum, and hwseles bdne, and on 
j>aera scip-rdpum |>e bedtJ of hwaeles h^de geworht, and of 
seoles. iEghwilc g}'li be his gebyrdum : se byrdesla sceal 
gildan fiftyne meartSes fell, and fif hranes, and dn beran 
fell, and ty-n ambra fctJra, and berenne kyrtel, otStSe yter- 
enne, and iwegen scip-rdpyas ; aegfer s^ syxtig elna lang, 
6j>er s^ of hwaeles hyde geworht, dtSer of sioles. 

He s^de tddi norS-manna land wdere sw^pe lang and 
switJe smael. Eal faet his man afer ot$t$e ettan o^tJe erian 
mxg, yxi litS wi^ ti sde ; and fdst is }>edh, on sumum 
stdwum, sw^Se clddig; and licgat$ wilde mdras wit$ 
edstan, and witS upp on emnlange yxm bynum lande. 
On y^m mdnim eardiat$ Finnas ; and fd&i byne land is 
edsteweard brddost, and symle swd nortJor swd smaelre. 
Edstewerd hit maeg bidn syxtig mila brdd, offe hwene 
braedre ; and middeweard J> ritig ot5t5e brddre ; and norCe- 
weard, he cwaetJ, J>aer hit smalost wdere, faet hit mihte 
be<5n )»reora mila brdd td )>aem mdre ; and se mdr sytJpan, 
on sumum stdwum, swd brdd swd man maeg on twim 
wucum oferf(6ran ; and, on sumum stdwum, swd brdd swd 
man maeg on syx dagum oferf^ran. 

Donne is td-emnes |>aem lande silt$eweardum, on d^re 
healfe faes mdres, Swedland, 6f faet land nor^eweard ; 
and t<5-emnes J>aem lande norSeweardum, Cwena land. 
pi, Cwenas hergiatJ hwilum on t5d nor5-men ofer tJone 
m<5r, hwilum fd nortJ-men on h^; and faer sint switJe 
micle meras fersce geond ];d mdras ; and beratJ fd Cwenas 
hyra scypu ofer land on t$d meras, and )>anon hergiat^ on 
tSd noit5-men. H^ habbatJ sw^Se lytle scipa, and swl^e 
ledhte. 

Ohthere sdede faet sid scir hdtte Hdlgoland, fe he on 
bilde. He cwae^ faet ndn man ne bude be norSan him. 
ponne is dn port on sutSeweardum faem lande, j)one man 
haet Sciringes-heal. pyder, he cwa^tS, faet man ne mihie 



8o VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND VVULFSTAN. 

geseglian on dnum monCe, g}'f man on niht wicode, and 
aelce daege haefde dmbyme wind ; and ealle tSi hwile, he 
sceal scglian be lande : — and, on pxt stedr-bdrd him, bi6 
&rest [Isaland], and fonne t5a igland }>e synd betwux 
[Isalande] and pissum lande. ponne is }>is land 61S he 
cymt5 t6 Scirincges heale ; and ealne weg, on Jxet bsec- 
bdrd NorCweg. WitJ sd^an }K)ne Sciringes heal fyltJ 
swy-tJe mycel s^ up in on faet land : se<5 is brddre I>onne 
&nig man ofersedn maege ; and is Gotland on <5t5re healfe 
ongean, and si^^a Sillende. Sed s^ lit$ maenig hund 
mila up in on ]>aet land. 

And of Sciringes heale, he cwaeC J>3et he seglode on Cif 
dagan, l<5 faem porte fe mon haet act H&pum, se stent 
betuh Winedum, and Seaxum, and Angle, and h]?r8 in 
on Dene. Di he fiderweard seglode fram Sciringes heale, 
^ waes him on fxt baec-b6rd Denamearc ; and, on fait 
ste6r-b6rd, wid sde frf dagas ; and, fi ttvegen dagas abr 
he i6 Haefum cdme, him waes on faet ste<5r-b<5rd Gotland 
and Sillende, and iglanda fela. On f&m landum eardo- 
don Engle, der hy hider pn land [c<5monJ. And hym 
waes M iwegen dagas, on €aet baec-b6rd, fa igland, fe in 
Denemearce hy-raS. 

Wulfstan sdede faet he gefdre of H^Cum, — )>aet he w^re 
on Truso on syfan dagum and nihtum, — )>aet fast scip 
waes ealne weg, yrnende under segle. WeonoCland him 
waes on stedr-bdrd ; and on baec-bdrd him waes Langa 
land, and Lteland, and Falster, and Scdn eg ; and J>ds 
land eall hyratJ td Dcnemearcan. And fonne Burgenda 
land waes us on baec-bdrd, and fi habbatS him sylf cyning. 
ponne aefier Burgenda lande, w^ron us fis land, )>a synd 
hdtene, derest Blecinga ^g, and Meore, and Eowland, and 
Gotland, on bcec-bdrd ; and yls land hj^ra^ td Sweon. 
And Weonodland wses us ealne weg, on stedr-bdrd, dC 
Wisle-muSan. Sed Wisle is swytSe mycel e^, and hid 
tdlicS Wiiland, and Weonodland ; and tet Witland be- 



VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN. 8i 

limpets td Estum ; and seo Wisle litJ lit of Weonodlande, 
and litJ in Estraere ; and se Estmere is hdru fiftene mila 
brid. ponne cymetS Ilfing edstan in Estmere of tJaem 
mere, ^e Trdso standetS in statJe ; and cumatS ut samod 
in Estmere, Ilfing eistan of Edstlande, and Wisle siiiSan 
of Winodlande ; and ]K)nne benimS Wisle Ilfing hire 
naman, and ligetS of |>aem mere west, and nor5 on s& ; 
foiiSf hit man haet Wisle-mdtSan. 

pajt Edstland is swyiSe mycel, and faer bitS swyfSe manig 
burh, and on aelcere byrig bltJ cyningc ; and }>aer bi8 
swy-^e mycel hunig, and fiscat$ ; and se cyning and 
yi ricostan men drincaS myran meolc, and yi unsp)^digan 
and fi fcdwzn drincatS m6do. paer bitJ swyfSe mycel 
gewinn betweonan him ; and ne bltS tSaer ndenig edlo 
gebrowen mid Estum, ac faer bitJ m6do gen<5h. And 
faer is mid Estum tJedw, fonne faer bi8 man dedd, }>aet 
he litJ inne unforbaemed, mid his mdgum and fredndum, 
mdnatS, — ^gehwilum twegen : and f i [cyningas] and yi 
<5t5re hedh-tSungene men, swi micle lencg swd hi mdran 
sp6da habba^, hwilum healf-gedr, faet hi beotJ unfor- 
baemed, and licga^ bufan eor^an on hyra hiisum. And 
ealle fd hwile fe J>xt lie bi^ inne, fser sceal bedn gedrync, 
and plega, 6^ tSone daeg fe hi hine forbaernatS. ponne, 
pf ylcan daeg hi hine i6 fscm dde beran w)'llat5, fonne 
tddselaS hi his fedh, faet faer to life bIS, aefter faem 
gediy-nce and faem plegan, on fif ot55e syx, hwylum on 
md, swd swd faes fe<5s andefn bi^. AlecgaS hit fonne 
fbrhwaga on dnre mile f one maestan ddel fram faem tune, 
fonne (jtSerne, fonne faene f riddan, of fe hyt call died bitS 
on f dere dnre mile ; and sccall be<5n se laesta dsel nyhst 
faem tiine, "5e se dedda man on lift. Donne sccolon beiSn 
gesamnode ealle tJd menn, 6e swyftoste hors habba^ on 
faem lande, fon\'haega on fif milum, ot5t5e on syx milum, 
fram faem feo. Donne aernatS hy ealle tdweard faem fed ; 
ISonne cymeS se man se faet swifte hors hafatS, td faem 

4* 



83 EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

fbresian d&le, and ti5 {ism mfbstan, and swd selc xfier 
dSrum, dS hit biC call genumen ; and se nimS ))one Ixstan 
dfei, se nyhst fxia tiine, ftet fe6h gciemeC. And jwnne 
rideSEelchys wegesmidtSanfe6, and hyt mt^tan habbaneall ; 
and fortSj' yxr bei56 pi swyftan hors ungefdhge d;^ And 
ponne his gesirerfn bedB fus call ispended, }fonne bjTtS 
man hine tit, and rorbeemeS mid his wfepniim and 
hrsegle; and swifiost ealle his speda hjf forspcnda8, mid 
fan langan legere pEes deidan mannes inne, and pass pe 
hy be p*m wegum ilecgati, pe «a fremdan tiS semaC and 
nimaS. 

And fxt is mid Estum pedw, pxt pxr sccal zlces ge- 
Seddes man be(5n forbsenied ; and gyf par man in bJn 
findeS unforbiemed, hi hit sceolan miclum gcb^tan. — 
And p<cr is mid Eastum ^n mxgS, pxC hi magon cyle 
gewyrcan ; and pj* pKr licgaiS pd deidan men swi lange, 
and ne fiiliaiS, pEt h^ wyrcaS pone cile hine on ; and, 
pcah man dsette twegen faeteis full ealaS, o88e waeteres, h^ 
gcd(iS p£et 6per biS oferfroren, sam hit s^ sumor, sam 



jEfter pam pe Rome burh getimbred was iiii hund 
wintra and xxvi, Kng Alexander t6 Macedonia rice 
aefter Philippuse, his fseder ; and his Jerestan pegnscipe on 
pon [gecj'pde], pa he ealle Crecas mid his snyttro on his 
geweald geniedde, — ealle pi pe wiS hine gewinn up- 
ihi^fon. 

pKt wearS Serest from Pcrsum, pd h^ sealdon De'most- 
andse pam PhiliJsophe licgende feoh, wiS pam pe he gel- 
Erilc ealle Crecas pxt hy Alexandre wiS socon. Athene 
budon gefeoht Alexandre. Ac lie hy sona forsldh and 



EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 83 

geflymde, yxi hj? syiJtJan ungemetlicne ege fram him 
haefdon ; and Thebana fassten ibiddc, and mid ealle 
tdwearp, faet der waes ealra Creca heafodstdl. And sit$8an 
eall ]>aet folc on ellSedde him wit$ feoh gesealde ; and ealle 
fd otSre }>e6da, )>e on Crecum wderon, he t6 gafol-gyldura 
gedyde buton Maecedoniam, yi him ^est td gecyrdon. 
And ]7anon waes farende fon Illirice], and on Thracii, 
and hy ealle i6 him gebigde. And si^tSan he gaderade 
fyrde wit5 Perse; and, J>d hwile J>e he h^ gaderodc, he 
ofsl6b ealle his magas ])e he geraecean mihte. On his 
feCe here wseron xxxii m, and faes gehorsedan fifte hcalf 
M, and scipa in hund and eahtatig. — "Ndi ic," cwaeS 
Orosius, " hwaefer mdre wundor woes, — j>e [)>aet] he, mid 
swd lytle fultume, ))one m^stan ddel ]7ises niiddangeardes 
gegin mihte, fe Jnset he mid swd [lytle] werode, swd micel 
anginnan dorste.'' 

On pam forman gefeohte, fe Alexander gcfeaht \vit5 
Darius an Persum, Darius haefde syx hund m folces ; he 
wear^ feh swi^or beswicen for Alexandres searewe, j>onne 
for his gefeohte. pa^r waes ungemetlic wxl geslagcn 
Persa ; and Alexandres naes ni ma fonne hund twelftig 
on pam nede here, and nigon on fam fcSan. pa df6r 
Alexander fanon on Fr'gam, Asiam land, and heora burh 
abraec and towcarp, fe mon hcet Sardis. pa saede him 
mon yxl Darius haefde eft fyrde gegaderod on Persum. 
Alexander him )>aet J>a ondrdd for fdere nearcwan stovvc, 
fe he pi on waes ; and hraedlice for fam ege fanon dfdr 
ofer Taurasan fone beorh ; and ungelyfedllcne micelne 
weg on fam daege gefdr, 65 he com {6 Tharsum, fjfere 
byrig, on Cilicium fam lande. 

On f am daege he gem^tte dne ed sed haefde ungemctlice 
ceald waeier, sed waes CitJnus hdten. pd ongan he hyne 
bat:>ian }>aeron swd swdtigne, yi for ))am cyle him gescrun- 
can ealle aedra, l>oet him mon fxs llfes ne wende. 

RatSe aeftcr pam com Darius mid fyrde td Alexandre. 



Ji-i&R- 



84 EXPLOn'S OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

He haefde iii hund )>usenda fefena and dn bund m gehor- 
sedra. Alexander Vi-aes yi him swI6e ondraedende foi 
p^re miclan maenige, and for fabre lytlan pe he sylf 
haefde ; feh f e der mid )>^re ilcan Darius mdran ofercdme. 
Dxt gefeoht waes gedon mid micelre geomfulnesse of fim 
folcum bam, and yxr wderon fd cyningas begen gewun- 
dod. pxr waes Persa x m ofslagen gehorsedra, and 
eahtatig m fetSena, and eahtatig m gefangenra ; and |?aer 
waes ungemetlice micel licgende feoh funden on fam wic- 
st6wum. Dxr waes Darius m6dor gefangen, and his wif, 
sed waes his sweoster, and his twd dcShtra. Dl beid 
Darius hcalf his rice Alexandre wiS fam wif-mannum ; ac 
him nolde Alexander )>aesgetifian. — Darius fd g}t )»riddan 
SiSe gegaderade fyrde of Persum, and eac of otSrum lan- 
dum, ]>one fultum, pe he him td dspanan mihte, and wi$ 
Alexandres for. pd hwile J>e Darius fyrde gaderade, yi 
hwile sende Alexander Parmenidnem, his Iddtedw, |7aet he 
Darius scip-hcre dfl^mde, and he sylf for in Sirium ; and 
hf him ongean cdmon, and his mid edtSmddnessan on- 
fcngan ; and he jjcah nd fe laes heora land oferhergade ; 
and J)aet folc, — sum faer sitlan let, — sume ))anon adnefde, 
— suine on ellpedde him witS fed gesealde. 

And TXrus, )>a ealdan burh and ]>i welcgan, he besaet, 
and tdbraec, and mid ealle tdwearp, forfon h^ him lustlice 
onfdn noldon. And sit$6an fdr on Cilicium, and Jwet 
folc td him genydde, and siftSan on RotSum )>aet igland, 
and faet folc td him genydde. And aefter )>am he fdr on 
Egypti, and hy td him genydde ; and faer he h6t fd burh 
dtimbrian, fe mon sitSCan be him het Alexandria. And 
siS6an he fdr td f am hearge f e Eg}'pti sdedon faet he w^re 
Amones heora godes, se waes Jobeses sunu, heora dCres 
godes, to fon jiaet he wolde belddian his raddor Nectan6- 
buses foes drys, fe mon sifede faet hed hy witS forldege, and 
pait he Alexandres fxder wdere. pd bebedd Alexander 
Vam hdefenan bisceope, faet he gecrupe on faes Amones 




I 



EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 8> 

dnlicnesse, fe inne on fam hearge \\-rBS, &t fam fe he 
and foet folc hy faer gaderade, and saede hu he him an his 
gewill beforan }>am folce andwyrdan sceolde, foes he hyne 
dcsade. Genuh sweotollce us gedyde nu td witanne Alex- 
ander, hwylce yl ha^fenan godas sindon to weorf ianne, 
)>aet hit swIt$or is of fdera bisceopa gehl66e and of heora 
igenre gew}Tde faei foet h^ secgaS, fonne of fdera goda 
mihte. 

Of fsere sldwe, for Alexander friddan si6e ongean 
Darius, and hy oet Tharse fare byrig hy gemettan. On 
l^am gefeohte, wderon Perse swd swi^e forslagcn, fxt hy 
heora miclan anwealdes and longsuman hy sylfe si56an 
wi6 Alexander td nahte [ne] bemxian. pa Darius geseah 
J>3et he oferwunnen bedn wolde, J>a woide he hine sylfne on 
J>am gefeohte forspillan, ac hine his fcgnas ofcr his wiilan 
fram itugon, faet he sifpan wx^s flednde mid |)&re fvrdc. 
And Alexander waes xxxiii daga on fsbre stuwe, iJer he Jra 
wlc-stdwa and Jnet wael bereafian mihte. And si66aii for an 
Perse, and ge-eode Persipulis fa burh, heora cyne-stol, sed 
is gyi welegast ealra burga. Dd sa^de mon Alexandre, pxt 
Darius haefde gebunden his agene magas mitl gyldenre 
raccentan. Da for he witS his mid syx m manna, and 
funde hine dnne be wege licgean, mid sperum ofsiicod, 
healf cucne. He yi Alexander him iinum deiidum lytic 
mildheortnesse gedyde, fxt he hine het bebyrigean on 
his yldrena byrig, j>e he si66an ndnum ende his cynne 
gedon nolde, ne his wife, ne his meder, ne his bearnum, 
ne yset ealra laest waes, his gingran ddhtor, he nolde buton 
haeft-nyde habban, sed wx*s lylel cild. 

Uneitie maeg mon to geleafsuman gesecgan, swa maen- 
igfeald yfel swd on fam frim gearuni gewurdon, on frim 
folc-gefeohtum, beiweox twdm cyningum ; J>vet waeron 
fiftyne hund fusend manna, )>xt binnan |um forwurdon ; 
and of )>am ilcan folcum forwurdon lytle ser, swd hit her 
beforan secg5, nigontyne hund fusend manna, biitan 



86 EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

michin hergungum, fe binnan ylm f rim ge^rum gewur- 
don on monigre f ecSde ; fxt is faet Asirie call se6 pe6d 
dwest weartJ fram Alexandre, and monega byrig on Asiam, 
and Tims se6 maere burh eal tdweorpenu, and [Cilicia] faet 
land call dwcst, and Cappadotia faet land, and eallc Egypti 
on feowote gebroht, and Rot5um faet igland mid ealle 
aw^st, and monig (Sf re land ymbe Tauros fa muntas. 

Ni laes fxt dn )>ait heora iwegra gewinn, J>a wsere on 
fam cst-ende f ises middangeardes ; ac, on emn }>am, 
Agif5is Spartana cyning, and Antipater, (jfer Creca cyninj^, 
wunnon him betweonum ; and Alexander Epiria cyning, 
)>acs miclan Alexandres edm, se wilnode J>aes west-dables, 
swd se 6fer dyde fajs edsl-ddeles, and fyrde gelaedde in 
Italiam, and fcer hnedlice ofslagen wearS. And on f^re 
ilcan tide, Zoflirion, Ponto cyning [in Sciffie], mid fyrde 
gefor, and he [and his] folc mid ealle faer forweartJ. Alex- 
ander aefter Darius dedfe, gewann ealle Mandos, and ealle 
Ircanian ; and, on [^^re] hwile f e he )>aBr winnende ^'aes, 
frefclice hine gesohte Minoth6o, seo ScitS^isce cwdn, mid 
fr/nv hund wif-nianna, to fon fa^t h^ woldan wiC Alex- 
ander and wits his mderestan cempan beama strynan. 

yEfter fam, wann Alexander wi'5 Parthim fam folce, 
and he hy nedh ealle ofsloh and fordyde, der he hy ge- 
winnan raihte. And aifter fam he gewonn Drancas fajt 
folc, and Eurgetas, and Paramomenas, and Assapias, and 
monega 6'5ra feoda, fe gesetene sind ymbe fd muntas 
Caucasus, and far het dne burh dtimbrian, fe mon sit$t$an 
het Alexandria. 

Nses his scinldc, ne his hergung on fa fremedan dne, ac 
he gel ice sloh and hynde fi, fe him on si ml w&ron mid- 
farcnde and winnende. ^Est he ofsldh Amintas, his mdd- 
rian sunu, and siSSan his brdSor, and fd Parmenion his 
fcgn, and fd Filiotes, and fd Catulusan, fd Eurilohus, fd 
Pausanias, and monege oSre, fe of IMaecedoniam ricoste 
w^ron ; and Clitus, se waes a^gSer ge his tSegn, ge der 



EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 87 

Philippuses, his faeder. pa hf sume sife druncnc xt heora 
symble s^ton, jwi ongunnon hy^ ireahtigean hwaeCcr mi 
m&rlicra ddeda gefremed haefde, fe Philippus, J>e Alexan- 
der, pd s^de se Clitus for ealdre hylde, Jwet Philippus mi, 
haefde geddn f onne he. He fi Alexander dhleijp for f dere 
saegene and ofsldh hine. T6-^can fam, fe he hy-nende 
^•aes aeg^er ge his dgen folc, ge <5t5era cyninga, he waes sin 
fyrstende mannes blddes. 

RaCe aefter J>am, he fdr mid fyrde on Chorasmas, and 
on Dacos, and him td gafol-g}'ldum h}^ genydde. Chali- 
sten ))one filosofum he ofsldh, his cmn-sceolere, ^e h^ 
aetgaedere gelaerede w^ron aet [Aristoiolese] heora ma- 
gistre, and monega menn raid him, forfon hy noldan td 
him gebiddan swd to heora gode. 

^fter j>am, he fdr on Indie, to fon I>aet [he] his rice 
gebr^dde d5 fone edst-gdrsecg. On fam si^e he ge-eode 
Nisan, India heafod-burh, and ealle J>d bcorgas pe mon 
D^dolas haett, and call faet rice Cl^offiles f^re cwene ; 
and hf td gel igre genydde, and for J>am hire rice eft dgeaf. 
iEfter J>am fe Alexander haefde ealle Indie him to gewyl- 
don geddn, btiton dnre byrig, scd waes ungemetan faiste, 
mid clddum ymbweaxen, ^d ge-dhsode he fxt Ercol se 
ent, }>aer waes tdgefaren on &r-dagum, to fon fset he hf 
dbrecan fohte ; ac he hit for fam nc dngann, f e fxr wx\s 
eor8-beofung on fxre tide. He )>d Alexander hit swISost 
for )>am ongann, fe he wolde, fxt his mdertJa wjfcron 
mdran fonne Ercoles ; f^h pe he hf [mid] micle forlore 
fxs folces begedte. 

yEfter fam, Alexander hxfde gefeoht witS Pdrose, ])am 
sirengestan Indea cyninge. On fam gcfeohte wxron )>d 
msestan blddg}'tas on xg^re healfe fdbra folca. On fam 
gefeohte Pdros and Alexander gefuhton dnwig [of] hor- 
sum. pa ofsldh Pdros Alexandres hors, J>e Bucofall wxs 
hdtcn, and hine sylfne mihte fxr, gif him his fegnas td 
fultume ne cdmon : and he hxfde Pdros monegum wun- 



88 EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

dum gewundodne, and hine edc gewildne gedyde siS- 
5an his )>egnas him l6 coraon ; and him eft his rice 
to forlet for his fegenscipe, f^ he swd switJe waes feoh- 
tende angean hine. And he Alexander him het siCtSan 
twa byrig dtimbrian : ofer waes hdtenu be his horse Bu- 
cefal, (5fer Nicea. 

Sit$6an he for on [Raestas] fd ledde, and on Cath6nas, 
and on Presidas, and on [Gangeridas] ; and wit5 hi ealle 
gefeaht, and ofenvonn. pd he com on India edst-gemdera, 
fa com him fser ongean twd hund fdsenda [monna] ge- 
horsades folces ; and h^ Alexander uned^e oferwonn, 
aigtSer ge for fdere sumor hdele, ge edc for )>am oftra&dlican 
gefeohtum. Sif5t$an sefter fam he wolde habban mdran 
wic-stowa, fonne his gewuna ^r wdere ; forfon he him 
sitJf5an xfter fam gefeohte switJor an scet, fonne he ^r 
dyde. 

JEher fam, he f6r ut on gdrsecg, of fam mdSan fe se<5 
ed wa^s hdtenu Eginense, on dn igland, faer Siuos fset 
folc and lersomas on eardodan ; and h^ Ercol faer aer 
gebrohte, and gcsette ; and he him fd td gewildum 
gedyde. iEfter fam he f6r to fam iglande fe mon fajt 
folc Mandras haet, and Subagros ; and hf him brohtan 
angean ehta hund m fefena, and lx m gehorsades folces ; 
and hy lange wjferon faet dreogende, ^r heora afer mihte 
on of rum sige gersecan, der Alexander late unweorClicne 
sige geraehte, 

ALhcr fam, he gefor t6 dnum faestene. pi he faer td 
com, fd ne mihton hf n^nne mann on fam faestene iStan 
gesedn. Di ^vundrade Alexander hwi hit swd demenne 
w^re ; and hnedlicc f one wcall self oferclomm, and he 
faer wearS fram fam burh-warum inn dbroden ; and hj? 
his si'6<5an wjferon swd swISe ehtende, swd [hit] is unge- 
liefedlic to secgenne, ge mid gesccotum, ge mid stdna 
torfungum, ge mid eallum heora wlg-cneftum, — faet swd 
f edh ealle fd burh-ware ne mihton hine &nne genydan. 




EXPLOITS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 89 

paet he him on hand gdn wolde. Ac fi him fset folc 
swiSost 6n Jrang, fi gestop he t(5 dnes wealles byge, and 
bine paer dwerede. And swd call faet folc weartJ mid him 
dnum dg^led, J>aet h^ }kes wealles ndne g}'man ne dydan, 
69 Alexandres f egnas t(5 emnes him fone weall dbnfecan, 
and faer inn cdmon. Dxr wearS Alexander furhscoten 
mid dnre fldn underneofan (j^er bredsL — Nyte we nu, 
hwaefer s^' swi)>or t(5 wundrianne, fe fxt hd he dna witJ 
ealle fa burhware hine dwcrede, — fe eft, fa him fultum 
com, hu he furh faet folc gefrang, fxt he fone ilcan 
ofsidh, fe hine der f urhsccdt ; fe efi f dera fegna onginn, 
fa hf ontwedgendiice wendon foet heora hldford w^rc on 
heora fednda gewealde, o85e cuca, o68e dedd, f ict hy swd 
feih noldan fa;s weallgebreces geswican, faet hy heora 
hldford ne gewr^con, f 6h f e hy hine m^Signe on [cnedw- 
um] sittende mitten. 

Sit^^an he fd burh haefde him td gewyldum geddn, fa 
fdr he td dtSre byrig, faer iEmbira se cyning on wunade. 
paer forwearS micel Alexandres heres for [ge-detredum] 
gescotum. Ac Alexandre wearS on fdere ilcan niht on 
swefne dn w)Tt dC^wed ; fd nam he fd on mergen, and 
sealde hy fdm gewundedum drincan, and hy wurdon mid 
f am gehdiled ; and si^San fd burh gewann. 

And he si85an hwearf hdmweard td Babylonia, pxr 
wdbron derendracan on anbide of ealre weorolde ; fxt 
wars fram Spdneum, and of Affrica, and of Gallium, and 
of ealre Italia. Swd egefull waes Alexander, fd fd he 
wajs on Indeum, on edste-weardum fisum midd^in- 
earde, faet fd fram him ddredan, fa wdiron on weste- 
weardum. Edc him cdmon derendracan ge of monegum 
f eddum, fe ndn mann Alexandres geferscipes ne wende, 
fxi mon his namon wiste ; and him fritScs to him wilnc- 
don. I>i git fd Alexander hdm com td Babylonia, fd 
git waes on him se m^sta f urst mannes blddes. Ac fa fd 
his geferan ongedtan faet he fxs gewinnes fa git geswican 



so THE REIGN OF AUGUSTUS. 

noIJc, ac he ssede J>jc; he on [African] faran wolde, fi 
gelcornedon his byrelas him betweonum, hii h^ him 
mihton )>xt lif (J8|iring<tn, and him gesealdan dttor diin- 
Can ; pi forlct he his Vi(. 

"[Edld] !" cweS OfosiuB, "on hu micehe dysigncsse 
menn nu sindon, on yyson Cristend^me ! Sv.-i )iedh )>« 
him Ijtlcs Jiwajl unefe sy, hii earfdiSUce hf hit gem&naS ! 
Ofer pa.n. is, o$5e hy hii nyton, o85e h^ hit vitan nyliati, 
an hu'ckan brucum )>^ lifdon pe &r him wferan. [N'uJ 
w6naS hy hil fam wsere J>e on Alexandres [onwalde] 
w&ran, pi him pi swd s^^'Sc hine andredan, )>e on weste- 
weardum |>ises middangeardcs w&ran, ^t h^ on svi 
micle nL'finge, and on swi micel ungewls, EcgiSer ge on 
s£fes fyrhto, gc on wustcnnum wildedra, and wynn-c)'nn3 
misscnUcra, ge on feuda gereordum, fraet hy hine sefter 
friSc sdhion on edsteweardum pysan middangearde. Ac 
we witan georne, I«et tiy nu mi for yrhfe, ndjier nedurran 
ne sw5 feor [friS] gcs^cean, ne furjjon hy selfe [set hdm], 
EcC beora coium wcrian, Jionne h^ mon xt hdm s^cH ; ac 
pcet [hie magon past] liy pas Uda leahtrien," 



THE REIGN OF AUGUSTUS.— UNIVERSAL 

PEACE.— ADVENT OF THE SAVIOUR. 

JEnzR pam Jie Romana burh getimbred wass vii bond 
wintrum and [xj. Kng Octauianus t6 Romana anwealde, 
heora un])ances, jefter luliuses siege, his mieges, forjMin 
pe hine ha;fde lulius him &t mid gewrilum gefasstnod, 
pa;t he Efier him td eallum his geslrednum fenge ; forpon 
pe he hine for migrfedcne gel&rde and gelyde. And he 
svbpon [v] gefeolit wel cynelice gefeabt and purhtedh, s\vi 
"Swdhilius his mfeg dvde &t : — dn \vi5 Pompeius, — dBer 
wiiS Antoniiis. pone consul, — pridtie wiS Cassius [ond wiS 
Brutus], — fcurSe wiS I.cpidus. peali pe he ra8e pies his 



TIELJL REIGN OF AUGUSTUS. 91 

fre6nd wyide ; and he edc gedyde fact Antonius his frednd 
wcart, \>3et lie his ddhtor sealde Octauiane td wife, and edc 
pal Ociauianus sealde his sweostor Antonidse. 

Si|>)K>n him geteih Antonius td gewealdum ealle 
Asiam. ^fter J?am, he forl^t Octauianuses sweostor 
and him sylfum onbedd gewinn and [openne] fedndscipe. 
And he him h^t td wife gefeccean Cleopatran, J?d cw6ne, 
fi haefde lulius ^r, and hire for)>am haefde gcseald eall 
Egypta. RatSe paes, Octauianus geldedde fyrde wit5 An- 
tonius; and hine raCe gefl^mde ))aes J?e hi tdgaedere 
cdman. paes ymbe fred niht, hi gefuhton tit on s^. 
Octauianus haefde xxx scipa, and cc fira micelra fr^rctJ- 
rena, on fim wdbron farende eahta legian. And An- 
tonius haefde hund eahtatig scipa, on ]>dm w^ran farende 
X legian ; for)>on swd micle sw£ he laes haefde, swd micle 
hi w^ron beteran and mdran ; forf on hi wderon swa ge- 
worht, faet hi man ne mihie mid mannum oferhlaestan, 
l>aBt hi [naerenj t^ fdta helge bufan waetere. paet ge- 
feoht wears switJe mdere ; feah fe Octauianus sige haefde. 
paer [Antoniuses] folccs woes ofslagen xii m, and Cleo- 
patra, his cw^n, wears [^cliymed, swd hi tdgaedere cdman, 
mid hire here. ^Efter fam, Octauianus gefeaht wiS An- 
tonius, and wis Cleopatran, and hi gefl^de. paet waes 
on f ^re tide [Calcndas] Agustus, and on fam daege f e we 
hitaS hldf-maessan. Siffon waes Octauianus Agustus 
hiten, forfon f e he, on faere tide, sige haefde. 

-^fter J?am, Antonius and [Cleopatra] haefdon gegaderad 
scip>-here on fam Readan s^ ; ac, 'pi him man sdede pcet 
Octauianus fyder[-weard] waes, fd gecyrde eall fact folc 
td Octauianusc, and hi sylfe dSflugon td dnum [luncj 
lytle werode. Hed pi Cleopatra h^t ddelfan hyre byri- 
genne, and faer on-innan code, pd hed faer on gclegen 
waes, fd h6t hed niman [ipnalis] pi naedran, and dun to 
hire earme, J>3et hed hi dbite, [forfon pQ hiere fuhte ))aet 
hit on ]>aem lime unsdrast waere], forf on fe p^re nuidran 






98 THE REIGN OF AUGUSTUS. 

gecynd is faet aelc uht fxs J?e he<5 abit, sceal his lif on 
sldepe ge-endian. And he(5 [J^aet] for J>am dyde [fe] hed 
nolde faet hi man drife beforan J?am triumphan wit$ Rome- 
weard. pi Antonius geseah )>ajt hed hi id deiCe gyrede, 
yi ofsticode he hine [selfne], and bebedd )>aet hine man 
on fa ilcan byrgenne td hire swi samcucre dlegde. pi 
Octauianus fyder com, "pi h6t he niman dtSres cynnes 
naedran, Uissillus is hdien, se<5 maeg dtedn aelces cynnes 
dttor lit of men, gif hi man lidlice to bringS ; ac he6 
waes forSfaren &r he fyder c6me. Siffon Octaaianus 
begedt Alexandriam Egypia heafod-burh, and mid hire 
gestredne he gewelgode Rome burh [swd] switSe, faet 
man aelcne cedp mihte be twdm fealdum bet [gecedpian], 
fonne man &r mihte. 

iEfter fam fe [Rome] burh getimbred waes vii hund 
wintrum and fif and xxx, gewear8 fxt Octauianus Ceasar, 
on his flftan consulato, bet^^de lanes duru ; and gewearC 
faet he haefde anweald ealles ipiddangeardes, fd waes swe- 
otole getdcnod, fd he cniht >**aes, and hine man witJ 
Romeweard laedde aefter luliuses siege, py ilcan daege, 
fe hine man td consule sette, [gewearS] faet man geseah 
ymbe fi sunnan swylce in gylden bring ; and, binnan 
Rome byrig, wedll in wylle ele [ealne] daeg. On fam 
hringe waes getdcnod, faet on his dagum sceolde weorfan 
geboren se, [se] fe ledhtra is and scinendra fonne sed 
sunne fd wsere ; and se ele geidcnode miltsunge eallum 
man-cynne. Swd he edc maenig tdcen sylf gedyde, fe eft 
gewurdon, fedh he [Octauianus] hi unwitende dyde on 
Codes bysene. 

Sum waes Merest, — faet he bebedd ofer ealne middan- 
geard, fact aelc maeg^ ymbe gedres ryne tdgaedere cdme, 
faet aelc man f^ gearor wiste [hwaer he gesibbe haefde]. 
paet tdcnode, faet on his dagum, sceolde bedn geboren se, 
[se] fe us ealle to dnum maeg-gemote gelatSof, faet bi€ 
on fam tdwerdan life. 



THE REIGN OF AUGUSTUS. 93 

Of er wses, — fact he bebeid, J>aDt call man-cyn dne sibbe 
haefdon, and in gdfol guidon, paet tdcnode, — faet we ealle 
[sculon denne geledfan habban], and denne willan gcSdra 
weorca. pridde wses, — faet he bebedd, fast a?lc fdra fe on 
aelfeddignisse w^re, c<5me td his dgenum gearde, and td 
his fxder ^f le, ge fedwe, ge frige ; and se f e faet nolde, 
he bebedd faet man fd ealle ofsldge, pdra wderon vi m, 
fd hi gegaderad w^ron. paet tdcnode, — ^faet us ealluni is 
beboden, faet we sceolon cuman of f isse worulde to lires 
faeder ^fle, faet is td [heofon-rice] ; and se fe faet nele, he 
wyrC dworpen and ofslagen. 

iEfter fam fe Rome burh getimbred waes vii hund 
wintrum and xxxvi, wurdon sume Ispaniae ledda Agus- 
tuse wit5en*^innan. pi ondyde he eft lanes duru, and 
wits hi fyrde Idedde, and hi gefl^mde, and hi siffon on 
dnum faestene besaet, faet hi siffon hi sylfe sume ofsldgon, 
— sume mid dttre dcwealdan, — [sume hungre dcwaelan]. 

i^fter fam, maenige fedda wunnon wit$ Agustus, — 
aegfer ge Ilirice, ge Pannonii, ge Sermenne, ge maenige 
dtSre fedda. Agustuses Idttedwas manega micle gefeoht 
wiiS him furhtugon, biiton Agustuse sylfum, ^r hi [hie] 
ofercuman mihtan. 

iEfter fam, Agustus sende Quintillus, fone consul, on 
Germanie mid f rim legian ; ac heora wearS aelc ofslagen, 
biiton fam consule dnum. For f&re d^de, weartS 
Agustus swd sdrig, faet he oft unwitende sldh mid his 
heafde on fone wah, f onne he on his setle saet ; and fone 
consul he h6t ofsledn : JEker fam, Germanie gesdhton 
Agustus ungenydde him td frife ; and he him forgeaf 
|K)ne nit5, fe he to him wiste. 

JEher fam, eall feds woruld geceds Agustuses friS and 
his sibbe ; and eallum mannum nanuht swd god ne 
fuhte, swd hi td his [hyldo] becdman, and faet hi his 
underfedwas wurdon. Ne forUon fxt dbnigum folce his 
[dgenu"] de gelicode td hcaldenne, biiton on fd s^isan fe 



9* 



THE REIGN OF AUGUSTUS. 



him Agustus bebeid. pi wurdon lanes duru eft betj"- 
and his loca msiigc, swd hi n^fre &i n^ron. On 
ilcan gedre ye fis call geweatfi, pxt wes on fam twam 
fcdwedigpin wintre Agustuses [rices], J>4 weartS se 
boren, se )>e )ri sibbe brohte ealre worulde; ftet is, 
Dribten H^leud Crist. 



SELECTIONS 



FBOIf 



KING ALFRED'S 

ANGLO-SAXON VERSION OF BOETHIUS DE 
CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIiE. 



PREFACL. 

iELFRED KuNiNG wsBS wcalhst 'd 8isse bdc, and hie of 
b^ Ledene on Englisc wende, swd hi(5 nu is geddn. 
Hwilum he sette word be worde, hwilum andgit of and- 
gite, swd swd he hit fa sweotolost and andgitfullicost ge* 
reccan mihte for f^m mistlicum and manigfealdum 
weoruld bisgum |>e hine oft aegfer ge on mdde ge on 
lichoman bisgodan. pa bisgu ds sint swife earfoj) rime f e 
on his dagum on ))d ricu becdmon fe he underfangen 
haefde, and f edh J>d he fds b<5c haefde geleomode and of 
Laedene td Engliscum spelle gewende, and geworhte hi 
eft t<5 ledfe, swd swd hed nu geddn is. And nu bit and 
for Codes naman hdlsaj? selcne ]>dra ^e fds bdc r^dan 
lyste, faet he for hine gebidde, and him ne wite, gif he 
hit rihtlicor ongite fonne he mihte, forfaem t5e aelc mon 
sceal be his andgites m&tSe and be his semettan sprecan 
tfeet he sprecf, and ddn faet faet he d6f. 



THE DESIRES OF A GOOD KING. 

Edld Cesceddwisnes, hwaet ^d wdst f me n^fre sed 
gitsung and sed gemaegf "5isses eorSlican anwealdes for 



96 THE DESIRES OF A GOOD KING. 

wel nc licode, ne ic ealles for swISe ne gjrnde fisses eoif- 
lican rices. Bdton li ic wilnodc ]iedh andweorccs l6 
I>ani weorce fe me beboden wses i6 wyrcanne ; f was ^ ic 
unVnicodlicc and gcrisenlice mihte steiiran and reccan 
fone anwcald fe me befiest wks, H«-Et Bd n-isl ^ nan 
mon ne mxg n&nnc crxft c)'11an, ne nEennc anweald 
reccan ne sietiran biSlan liilum and andweorce : f biU 
a;lces cneftes andweorc f tnon tSone craeft buion wvrcMi 
ne in^g;. pzet bif t>onne cyntnges andweorc and his i6\ 
niid l6 ricsianne : ^ he hxbbe his land full niannod ; he 
sceal hsbban gebedmen, and fyrdmen, and weorcraen. 
H\v<ct Jtu w-ist fxile biitan «isum liSlum ndn cjning his 
crxft ne mxg c^^San. D^et is edc his andweorc, f he habban 
soeal t6 pita t(51um, )>dm ^ritn gefer^ipum biwisle ; f is 
|)Onne heora biwist : land id biigia'nne, and gifia and 
wxpnu, and mete, and calo, and clijias, and ge-h»iel 
fxs ])e pd pred geferscipas behfjfiafi ; ne maeg he buian 
pisum |>ds t(5l gchealdan, ne biitan pisum tdlura oin 
jiira pinga wjican pe him beboden is td ivyrcenne. 
For py ic wilnode andweorces J>one anweald raid td ge- 
recccnne, f mine craefias and anweald ne wurden forgi- 
tene and forholene, for)>am sic cnefl and eelc anveald 
bip sona forealdod and forswdgod, gif he bip bdtan vis- 
ddme, forpam ne m^g non mon n&nne crreft forpbringan 
butan wisd<5me. Fotpam pe swd hwa;t swi purh dysige 
geikin biS, ne mag hit mon nffefre td creefte gerecan, 
Dfct is nu hraBosl td secganne, $ ic wilnode weorpfulJice 
t<5 libbanne pi hwUe pe ic lifede, and cefter minuro life, 
pini monnum to l^fanne, pe sefler me «&ren, mfn ge- 
mynd on g<idum weorcum. 



GOD GOVERNS ALL CREATURES WITH THE 
BRIDLES OF HIS POWER ; EVERY CREATURE 
TENDS TOWARDS ITS KIND. 

Ic [Wisddm] wille nu mid giddum gecyfan hu wun- 
dorlice Drihten welt eallra gesceafia mid t$dm bridlum his 
anwealdes, and mid hwilcere endebyrdnesse he gestal^olaf^ 
and gemetga)) ealle gesceafie, and hu he hi haeflS geheajj- 
orade and gehaefte mid his unanbindendlicum racentum, 
■p aelc gesceaft bij? heald on locen wif hire gecynde, 
fdere gecynde t$e he6 l6 gesceapen waes, bdton monnum 
and sumum englum, i$a weor]7a)> hwllum of hiora ge- 
cynde. Hwaet se6 leo, ^edh hi<5 wel tam se, and fx*ste 
racentan haebbe, ^nd hire magister swit5e lufige, and edc 
ondr^de ; gif hit ^fre gebyref ^ he6 blddes onbirigS, hc6 
forgit s(5na hire niwan taman, and gemont5 fa&s wildan 
gewunan hire eldrana, ongintJ fonne ly'n and hire racen- 
tan brecan, and dbit ^rest hire lddte6w, and siSSan 
aeghwaet ^aes |>e hed gefon maeg, ge monna ge ncdta. 
Swd d<5)? edc wudu fuglas : t5edh hi beon wel atemedc, 
gif hi on Mm wiida weorfaf , hi forse(5t5 heora laredwas 
and wuniaf on heora gecynde. pedh heora Idredwas him 
tJonne biodan fa ilcan mettas t5e hi ^r tame mid gewene- 
don, )>onne ne rdcaf hi }>dra metta, gif hi ))aes wuda be- 
nugon. Ac fincf him winsumre j) him se weald oncwefe, 
and hi gehiran <jf erra fugela stemne. Swd bitS eac )nim 
treowum t5e him gecynde bif up hedh to standanne ; 
Jedh Cii ted hwelcne b6h ofddne t(5 fdere eorfan, swelce 
Ju b^gan maege ; swd f li hine aldetst, swd sprincf he up, 
and wriga^ wif his gecyndes. Swd detS edc se6 sunne : f edh 
he<5 ofer midne daeg onsige and Idte t6 faere eorfan, eft 
he6 s^cf hire gecynde, and stigf on fd daeglan wegas wi)) 
hire uprynaes, and swd hie ufor and ufor, ot$5e hio cymp 
SA^-d up swd hire yfemest gecynde biS. Swd def aelc ge- 
sceaft ; wrigaf wif his gecyndes, and gefagen bif gif hit 

5 



98 A KING'S FAVOUR NOT DESIRABLE. 

defre t6 cuman maeg. Nis ndn gesceaft gesceapen J»dra fe 
ne wilnige f hit fider cuman maege )>onan fe hit ^r com, 
^ is, to rseste and to orsorgnesse. SecS raest is mid Code, 
and faet is God. Ac aelc gesceaft hwearfatJ on hire selfne 
sw£ sv,-^ hwedl ; and to fam hecS swd hwearfa]) f he<5 eft 
cume faer he<5 ^r >^-3es, and be<5 ^ ilce ^ he<5 &r waes, 
iSonecan f e hed litan behwerfeC sie ^ ^ hid der waes, and 
dd ^ ^ hed der d> de. 



A KING'S FAVOUR AND FRIENDSHIP NOT DESIR- 
ABLE; FRIENDS COME AND GO WITH WEALTH 
AND POWER ; SELF-CONQUEST THE HIGHEST 
OF ALL CONQUESTS. 

Dd ongan he [Wisddm] eft spelligan and J?us cwasf : 
Hwaefer f u nu wene f faes qninges geferraeden, and se 
wela and se anweald fe he g\^ his dedrlingum, maege 
denigne mon geddn weligne o^Se wealdendne. Dd and- 
sworede ic and cwaef : Forhwi ne magon hi ? Hwxt is 
on Sisse andweardan life wynsumre and betere tSonne faes 
cyninges folgaf and his nedwest, and si^t5an wela and an- 
weald ? Di andsworede se Wisddm and cwaet5 : Sege me 
nu, hwxf er j>ii defrc gehyrdest j) he ^ngum fdra, fe dbr 
us w^re, eallunga furhwunode, ot$t$e w6nst t5\i hwaefer 
hine ^nig fdra ealne weghabban maege fe hine nu haefl5 ? 
Hii ne wist f d ^te ealle b^c sint fulle fdra bisna fdra 
monna fe der us wderan, and aelc mon wit fdra iSe nu 
ledfoS 'P manegum cyninge onhwearf se anweald and se 
wela dS f xt he eft wearf wasdla ? Edld ed is ^ )>onne 
forweorf fullic wela f e nauf er ne maeg ne hine selfne ge- 
healdan, ne his hidford, td "Son ^ he ne f urfe maran ful- 
tumes, otSi$e hi bedf begen forhealden? Hii ne is ^ 
fedh sed edwre hdhste ges^lf, fdra cyninga anweald ? 
And fedh gif f am cyninge deniges willan wana bif , f onne 



A KING'S FAVOUR NOT DESIRABLE. 99 

lyl\2Lp f his anweald, and 6cf his ermj>a. For ff bif 
simle ti e<5wre ges^l}>a on sumum f ingum unges^lfa. 
H\v3Bt fd cyningas, fedh hi manegra tSedda wealdan, ne 
prealda)> hi )>edh eallra }>dra fe hi wealdan woldon, ac be<5f 
foryzm svfipe earme on hcora mdde, forf i hi nabbaf sume 
^ra fe hi habban woldon. Forfam ic wdt ^ se cyning 
fe gitsere bif, ^ he hajff mdran ermfe fonne anweald 
Forfam cwaef gtd sum cyning fe unrihtlice f6ng 16 rice : 
Edld hwaet ^ bi?J gesdelig mon t$e him ealneweg nc han- 
gatS nacod sweord ofer fam heafde be smalan f r^de, swd 
swd me simle git dyde I Hii fincf fe nu ? Hd fe se 
wela and se anweald licige, nu h^ ndefre ne bif bdtan ege 
and earfof um and sorgum ? Hwaet f d w^st f oet aclc caning 
wolde be(5n bdtan ^isum, and habban t$edh anweald gif 
he mihte. Ac ic wdt "f he ne m^g. D^ ic wundrige, 
forhwi hi gilpan swelces anwealdes. Hwef er iSe nu tJince 
^ se man micelne anweald haebbe and sie swife gesdelig. 
fe simle wilnatS tJaes t5e he begitan ne maeg ? Ot$t$e wdnst 
tSd 'P se se6 swIfe gesdelig, fe simle mid micelum werede 
faerf ? otJtSc eft, se f e aegf er ondr&t ge tJone tJe hine on- 
drabt, ge ^one fe hine nd ne ondraet? Hwsefer fe nu 
fince $ se mon micelne anweald hajbbe, tJe him selfum 
fincf f he ndenne na^bbe, swd swd nu manegum men 
fincf f he n^nne naebbe bdton he haebbe manigne man 
fe him here? Hwaet wille we nu mdre sprecan be fam 
cyninge and be his folgerum, bdton ^ aelc gesceadwis 
man maeg witan f hi bedf full earmc and full unmihlige ? 
Hd magan fd cyningas dfsacan o^tJe forhelan hiora un- 
mihte, fonne hi ne magan ndenne weorfscipe forfbringan 
bdton heora fegna fultume? 

Hwaet wille we nu elles secgan be t5am tJegnum, bdton 
^ f faer oft gebyref f hi wcorfaf beredfode aelcre dre, ge 
furf um faes feores, fram heora Icdsan cyninge ? Hwaet 
we witon f se unrihtwlsa cynin.c Neron wolde hatan his 
dgenne maegistre, and his fdslerfaeaer dcwellan, faes nama 



loo A KING'S FAVOUR NOT DESIRABLE. 

wses Seneca, se wxs ilSwita. Di he 6i oofunde f he 
dedd bcdn sceolde, 8i bedd he ealle his fbhta wi{i his 
fcorc ; f>J nolde se cyning )>xs onfon, ne him his feores 
geuniian. Di be ^ f ODgeat, fi geceis he him youQ 
dedji f him mon ofl^te blddes on pam earme ; and pi 
dyde mon swl Hwxt we edc geh^rdon f Fapinianus 
wa» Antoninuse 6am Kasere, eaira his de<5riinga besor- 
gost, and ealles his folces mSeslne anweald hiefde: Ac he 
hine h£t gebindan and siSSan orsledn. Hwxc ealle men 
witon ^ se Seneca waes Nerone, and Papinianus Antonie, 
fA wcor|)estan and )ia ledfestan, and mfeslne anweald hsf- 
don, ge on hiora hirede, ge bilton, and Sedh, bdtoD 
ulcere scjide. wurdon fordiine. Hwret hi wilnodon begen 
i-allon msegene ^ yi hlSfordas ndman swi hwast swi hi 
h^fdon, and leton h( libban, ac hi ne mihton ^ begiian ; 
for|)am |)dra cyninga wa^lhredwnes w£es l6 fam heard ^ 
heora edlimetto ne miblon nauht forsiandan, ne hiiru heoni 
ofermeila, dydon swi hwx'fier swd h^ dydon, ne dohie 
him Sa naw|)cr Sedh b! sceoldon fixl feorh dl^tan. For- 
pan se ]>e his ^rtide ne tiola)>, Sonne bij> his on tid un- 
tilad. Hii licap Si: nu se anweald and se wela, nu Sd 
geh^ed hxfsl pxi hine man nawt>er bdton ege habban ne 
mEEg. ne forlEfeian ne mdt fedh he wille? Opfe hwast 
forsliid sed menigu Jura fceiinda jdm deiSrlingum pdra 
cyninga, oSSe hwait forstent hed Ebngum men ? For|>am 
Sd friend cumap mid Sam welan, and eft mid )>am welan 
gcwitaS, biiion swi|ie fedwa. Ac pd fr^d pe hine &r for 
pam welan lufiap, pd gewitap eft mid fam weian. and 
weorpap Sonne t<5 fcondum, Biiton yi fedwan pe hine 
Sit for lufum and for tretjwum lufedon, pd hine woldon 
Sedh lufien pedb he earm wifere. Dd him wunia|>, 
Hwelc is wyrsa wtJl oSSe tengum men mdre daru ponne 
he haebbe on his geferriedenne and on his nSwesie, fednd 
on fretjndes anlicnesse ? 

Dd se Wisdom pis spell dreht hjefde, pd ongan he eft 



TRUE NOBILITY. loi 

singan and f us cw^df : De J>e wille fulllce anweald 
dgan, he sceal tilian ^rest f he haebbe anweald his dgenes 
incSJes, and ne sie td ungerisenlice under}»edd his unped- 
wum, and ddd of his mdde ungerisenlice ymbhogan, 
forlaete fi sedfunga his eorrnfa. Dedh he nu ricsigc ofer 
eallne middan geard, from edsteweardum 6iS weste- 
weardne, from Indeum, ^ is se sdfcdst ende fisses m id- 
dan eardes, 6p )?aet iland fe we hdta'S Thyle, J>aet is on fam 
norj^west ende hisses middaneardes, }>3er ne bif nawfer 
ne on sumera, niht, nc on wintra, daeg ; feih he nu ]>aes 
ealles wealde, naef)) he no fe mdlran anweald, gif he his 
inge)>ances anweald naef)>, and gif he hine ne warena}» wi)> 
fSL un)>cdwas ]>e we dbr ymbspr^con. 



TRUE NOBILITY HAS ITS SEAT IN THE MIND, 
AND IS NOT ADVENTITIOUS. 

Nin man ne bif mid rihte for dfres g<5de, ne for his 
craeftum no l^f mjjbrra ne no iSf geh6redra gif he hine self 
naef)'. Hwoefer tSii nu bc6 iff faegerra for 6prcs mannes 
fegere ? Bif men ful lytle ff bet fedh he godne fiedcr 
haebbe, gif he self t(5 nauhte ne maeg. Forfam ic l^re ji 
fJd fegenige (5ferra manna gddes and heora ai^felo to pon 
swife ^ tJu ne tilige €e selfum dgnes. Forfam Ce aelces 
monnes god and his aefelo bi(5j> rod on t$am mcSdc, tSonne 
on l>am fl^sce. Dxt An ic wdt f edh g(5des on J>am cefelo : 
^ manigne mon sccaraaj) ^ he wcorfe wyrsa ^onne his 
ealdran w^ron ; and forfiem higaf ealle majgne f he 
wolde )>dra betstena sumes tSedwes and his crxftas gef<5n. 

Da se Wisdom «d t$is spell drcht hxfde, M ongan he 
singan ymbe f ilce and cwaef : Hwaet eallc men haefdon 
gelicne fruman, forfam hi eallc coman of dnum fxder 
and of dnre m6der ; ealle hi bcdf git gclice dcennede. 
Nis f ndn wundor, forjam «e dn God is fajder callra ge- 



102 TRUTH TO BE* SOUGHT IN THE MIND. 

sceafia, for]>am he hi ealle gescedp and ealra welt 
self f dere sunnan le(5ht, and tJam mdnan, and ealle tunjp ^ 
.geset He gescedp men on eorfan, gegaderode t5a sail 
and ^one lichoman mid his ]>am anwealde, and ealle m( 
gescedp emn aefele on tJdere frunian gecynde. Hwl o f *-- -* 
mddige ge tJonne ofer dfre men for edwrum gebyrdun^a 
bdton anweorce, nu ge n^nne ne magon m^tan unxfeln -jm 
ac ealle sint emn aetSele, gif ge willaft J^one fniman scee^sia 
gej^encan, and Cone Scippend, and sil'J^an edwer aeh 
dcennednesse ? Ac l>a r)ht aefelo bit$ on J>am mdde, 
on J>am fljfesce, swi, swd we ^r s^don. Ac aelc mon &e 
allunga underfedded bit$ unfedwum, forldethis Sceppenc^ 
and his fruman sceaft, and his ae))elo, and tSonan wyrf 
anaifelad df f he w}t)» unaefele. 



THE MIND INSTRUCTED BY WISDOM TO SEEK 
FOR TRUTH WITHIN ITSELF, AND NOT OUT- 
WARDLY ; THE FABLE OF ORPHEUS. 

Di ongan he [Wisddm] eft singan, and J>us cwaef : 
Sw.i hwd swd wille didplice spirigan mid inneweardan mdde 
aefter ryhte, and nylle f hine ^nig mon ot5t$e denig Sing 
mage dmerran, onginne tJonne s^can oninnan him sel- 
fum, 'p he der ymbdton hine sdhte, and forl^te unnytte 
ymbhogan swil he swifost maege, and gegaederige td fam 
dnum, and gesecge tJonne his ^gnum mdde, ^ hit moeg 
findan on innan hine selfum ealle )>d gdd fe hit iSte s<!c)>. 
Donne maeg he swife rafe ongitan ealle ^ yfel and "p 
unnet, "J) he ^r on his mdde hxfde, swi sweotole s^-i )>u 
miht M sunnan gesedn. And \>u ongitst fin dgen ingc- 
fanc, ^ hit bij> miccle bedrhlre and ledhtre "Sonne sco 
sunne. Forfam nin haefignes "Soes lichoman, ne nan 
unfedw ne moeg eallunga dtidn of his mdde ]>d rihtwis- 
nesse, swd 'p he hire hwaethwegu nabbe on his mdde ; 



THE 1-A1)LE (ir OKPIlia.-. 1:3 

i5cih siu swiernos p.vs i.'thoinan, and ])d unj'ciwas oil 
dbisigien f mod mid ofergiotulnesse and mid fam ge- 
dwolmiste his foriio, f hit ne maege swd be(5rhte scinan 
swi hit wolde. And tJedh bif simle corn ^^re scjffxst- 
nesse s^d on faere sdwle wunigende, t$i hwile f e sid sdwl 
and se Iichoma gederode bedf. past com sceal bidn 
dweht mid dscunga and mid lire, gif hit growan sceal. 
Hd maeg tSonne ^nig man ryhtwisllce and gescc^d- 
wislice dcsigan, gif he ndn grot rihtwisnesse on him 
nxf)?? Nis ndn swd swife bed&led ryhtwisnesse, f 
he nin ryht andwyrde nyte, gif mon icssif. Yot- 
ysLTD. hit is swij^e ryht spell "p Plato se i!i)>wita sdede ; he 
cwaB}», Swd hwi swi ungemyndig sie rihtwisnesse, gecerre 
hine to his gemynde ; tSonne fint he t$aer yi. r^'htwlsnesse 
gehydde mid l^aes llchoman hsefignesse and mid his modes 
gedrefednesse and bisgunga. .... Ges&lig bif se mon, 
fe maeg gesedn Cone hluttran ^welm "Saes h6hstan gddes, 
and of him selfum dweorpan maeg ^i tSidstro his mddes ! 
We sculonget, of ealdum ledsum spellum, Ce sum bispell 
reccan. Hit gelamp gid, ^te dn hearpere waes, on Ssere 
j^de fe Thracia hdtte, sid waes on Cr^ca rice. Se hear- 
pere waes swife ungefrdeglice gdd, faes nama waes Orfeus. 
He haefde in swlfe ^nlic wif, sid waes hdten Eurydice. 
pi ongann monn secgan be pam hearpere, ^ he mihte 
hearpian "p se wudu wagode, and tJd stdnas hi sty redo n for 
^m swege, and wild dedr paer woldon td irnan, and 
standan, swilce hi tame w^ron, swd stille, fedh hi men 
ot5t$e hundas wit$ eodon, "p hi hi nd ne onscdnedon. l>i 
s^don hi^Caes hearperes wif sceolde dcwelan, and hire 
sdwle mon sceolde Idbdan td helle. Di sceolde sc hear- • 
pere weorjmn swd sdrig, "J) he ne mihte on gemong of rum 
mannum bidn, ac tedh td wuda, and saet on fdem mun- 
tum, aegfer ge daeges ge nihtes, wcdp and hearpode, ^ |»d 
wudas bifodon, and i5i ed stddon, and ndn heort ne on- 
scdnode n&nne leon, ne ndn hara ndbnne hund, ne ndn 



I04 THE FABLE OF ORPHEUS. 

ne^t nystc nifcnne aniJan, ne n&nne ege tii ofrum, for 
]>a;re mirhf fia;s stSncs. Di 8*m hearpere fi fuhie, ? 
tiiiie Jfi ndncs tSinges nc lyste on Sisse worulde. M 
)>ohti.' he 'p he wolde ges<k;an hellc goilu, a.iiil onginDan him 
6lcccan mid his henrpjn. and biddan ^ hi him dgeal^ 
eft liis wif. Da he )>a Sider com, J>d sceoldc cuman fire 
helle hund ongean hine, fws nama wses Cenierus, se 
sccolilc habban priii beafdu, and ongan fa;genian mid hJs 
stcortc, and plcgian wi]> hine for his hcarpunga. Da vss 
fxt cic swipe egcslic geat-weard, ixs nama sceolde beiSn 
Caron, se hxfde eac Sri(5 heafdu, and se wxs su'lje 
lireald. Dd ongan tie hrarpere hine biddan f he hine 
gemondbjrde fd hwlle So he fxt w*re, and hine ge- 
sundne eft )>anon brohlc. Dd gchet he him 'p, for)>£m 
he wa;s oflyst tia.'S seldciijian siincs. Dd code he furfor 
op he gem^lie 8d graman gydena Se folcisce men hdiati 
IVcas, Sd hi secgap f on ndnum men nyton nine arc, ac 
Qclcum menn wrccan be his gewyrhtiim; Sd hi secgap f 
wealdan xlces monnes wyrde. Di ongann he biddan 
liiora raillse ; pa ongunnon hi wdpan mid him. Dd code 
lie furpor, and him urnon calle hellwaran ongean, and 
l£ddon hine l6 hiora cyninge, and ongunnon callc spre- 
can mid him, and biddan ixs pe he ba^d. And f un- 
slille hweol Se Ixion v.xs lo-gebunden, Laiuia cyning, 
lor his scyldc, ^ opsliSd for his hcarpunga. And Tan- 
talus se cyning, So on pisse worulde ungi;metlice gifre 
wu'S, and iiim p^-r ^ iice yfel fyligdc p&re gifemesse, he 
gcstilde. And se uulior sceoldc forldiian, 'p he ne side pd 
lifre Tjties, 5a;s eyninges, l)c hine ier mid pj'^ witnodc. 
And eall hcllwara u'iiu ge^iiiidoii, pd hu'ile Se he bcforan 
pain C}-ninge hearpodc. Dd he pd lange and lange hear- 
jiodc, pd clipodc se hellwatena cyning. and cwa;p, "Uion 
iigifan pa;m esne his wif, forpam he hi ha;lp geearnod mid 
liis licarpunga." Bcbcad him 8a, 8a;t he gedra wisie, )> 
he hine nJefre underbKC ne besdwe, sippan he pononweard 



OF PROUD AND I'XIUST RUL1:R>. i 



D 



Vccre. and -lcJc. ,L;ii" he hine uiulcr})X'C be>awc, ji he 
sceolde forlaitan fjct wlf. Ac pa lufe mon mxg swife 
xineife, ot56e na, forbe<5dan ; wiM wei ! Hwa^t Orfeus 
ffi I^dde his wif mid him, dffe he com on f gemaere 
ledhtes and )>e(5stro ; J?d code f wif aefter him. Da he 
foTf on j) ledht com, yi, beseah he hine underbaec wif 
Udbs wifes ; fd losede he<5 him s(5na. Dds ledsan spell 
ldbra}» gehwilcne man, J?dra fe wilnaj? helle fidstra t(5 
flidnne, and t(5 )>aes sdfes g(5des lidhte t(5 cumenne, f he 
hine ne besed td his ealdum yfelum swd "^ he hi eft swd 
fullice fullfremme, swd he hi ^r dyde ; forfam swjC hwa 
swd, mid fullon willan, his mdd went td Mm yflum ]>e he 
dbr forl6t, and hi 9onne fulfreme}», and hi him J^onne 
fiillice licia)', and he hi n^fre forl^tan ne )>enc]>, ]>onne 
forl^ he eall his ^rran gdd, bdton he hit eft geb^te. 



OF PROUD AND UNJUST RULERS.— THE GOOD 
NEVER WITHOUT THEIR REWA RD.— MAN'S 
NATURE DEGRADED BY VICE AND SENSU- 
ALITY, TO THAT OF BEASTS. 

Geh^r nu in spell be yim ofermddum and fdm unriht- 
wisum cyningum, yi we gesidf sittan on yim h6hstan he- 
dhsetlum, yi scina)' on manegra cynna hraeglum, and bid|> 
dton ymbstandende mid miclon gef6rscipe hiora fegna, 
and yi bidf mid fetlum and mid gyldenura hyltsweor- 
dum, and mid manigfealdum heregeatwum gehyrste, and 
yreilmy eall moncynn mid hiora fry m me. And se, t5e 
hiora welt, ne mumf ndwfer ne frien^ ne fidnd, fe mi 
tSe w^ende hund, ac bidt$ swife ungefraeglice updhafen 
on his mdde forfam ungemetlican anwealde. Ac ^if 
him mon fonne dwint of yi cldfas, and him okihy fdni 
p^nunga and J>aes anwealdes, t$onne miht f d gesedn f he 
hi6y swij»e dnlic yim his fegna sumum t$e him I5ar f^niaf, 
bdton he forfra sle. And gif him nu weds gebyref -p him 

5* 



io6 OF PROUD AND UNJUST RULERS. 

w)Tj> sume hwile fin )ienunga of-toheD, and |>dra clifia, 
and Jnes anwealdes, fonne fincf him f he ^e on car- 
cerne gebroht, oBCe on racentum, forfam ol" f am unmeua 
and [^m ungemetlican gegerelan, of yam sw^tmectum, 
and of mistllcum dryncum [>ss li)ies, onw:ecna[> sid wiide- 
Jirag [lire wr&nnesse, and gtdiifp hioia mcid swife swiji- 
llce. ponne weaxaf edc pi ofetmetia and ungefwaemes ; 
and ponne hi weor|>aJj gebolgen, iSonne wyrp 'f mod be- 
swungen mid pam wdme ffere hil-heortnesse, (5ppaet hi 
weorpap gerecfte mid psEre unrdinesse, and swi gehasfte. 
SiSSan f Sonne geddn bif, Conne onginp him le»5gan se 
t<5-hopa ]>£ere wnece, and swd hnies swd his irsung willap, 
tSonne geh6t him pses his reccelesL Ic pe s&de gefjrn 
fbr on pisse ilcan b4c, f ealle gesceafta willnodon sumes 
godes, for gecjnde ; ac Sd unrihtwisan q'ngas ne magon 
nan gdd d6n, for pam ic pe nu siede, Nis f nSn wundor, 
forpam hi hi underpiOdap eallum p^m unpeiwum pe ic Se 
Efer nemde. Sceal fionne n^dc 16 pdra hiiforda ddme pe 
he bine fer underpeddde ; and f te wj-rse is, ^ he him nyle 
furpum wipwinnan. per he hit anginnan woide, and 
Bonne on pam gewinne purhwunian mihte, ponne naslde 
he bis nine scylde 

Di sc Wisdcim Hi pis ledp isungen haefde, pi ongan he 
eft spclban and pus cwxp : Gesihst H nu on bd miclum 
and on bd diopum and on hd Si(5strum horaseape pira 
unpcdwa pi yfcKvi lien dan sticiap, and hu Ci giidan scinnp 
be6rhior ponne sunne f Forjiam ]ii giidan n&fre ne beijp 
bedselde para ediedna hiora gudes, ne )>i j-relan nSefre pira 
wiia 8e bi gceamiap. ^Ic ping pe on Cisse worulde 
geddn'bip, ba^ff ediein. Wyrce hwi f f he wyrce, o65e 
dii^ f he dd, i he hxf^ f f he earnap, Nis f eic nauht 
unrcht, swi swi gio Romana pedw wxs, and get is on 
manegum tSeiidum, $ mon hchp fenne beafodbeih g>'l- 
denne jet sumes serneweges ende. Facrp ponne micel 
folc to, and irnap ealle cndemes, «a pe hiora leminge 



THE QOOD ALWAYS REWARDED. 107 

trewap ; and swd hwilc swi ^rest t<5 t5am beage cymp, 
]?onne mot se hine habban bim. JE\c wilna}» f he sc}le ^rest 
td cuman and hine habban, ac inum he t$edh gebyrap. 
Swd d6f call monc)'nn on pys andweardan life — imaf and 
onetta}», and willniaS ealles fzds h^hstan godes. Ac hit 
is ninum men getiohhod, ac is eallum monnum. For- 
yasm is selcum }»earf f he higie eallan maegnc a^fter }»dbre 
m^e. p^re m6de ne wyrp ndbfre ndn g6d man bed^led. 
Ne mseg hine mon no mid rihte hdtan se gooda, gif he 
bi)» y2es h^hstan goodes bed^led, for)n£m ndn g6d fedw 
ne hif biiton gddum edlednum. D6n ^a yfelan ^ ^ hi 
d6n, symle bif se bedh gddes edlednes fim g(5dum ge- 
healden on ecnesse. Ne maeg ))dra yfelena yfel fam 
gddan beniman heora goodes and hiora wlites. Ac gif 
hi ^ good bdton himselfum ha^fden, 9onne meahte hi 
mon his beniman ; oper twega o'SSe se tSe hit dbr sealde, 
o^te 6fer mon. Ac fonne forliest g<5d man his leanum 
9onne he his gdd forl^t. Ongit nu ^te selcum men his 
dgen g6d gif)> good edledn — ji gdd ^te oninnan him- 
selfum bif. Hwd wisra monna wile cwefan f jfenig god 
man sie beddbled t5£s h6hstan g6des? for]>am he simle 
aefter pam swincf. Ac gemun ^d simle t$aes miclan and 
paes faegran edlcdnes, /orfam f edledn is ofer ealle dpre 
ledn t6 lufienne. . . . Nis nu nin wis man "J) nyte fie 
gdd and yfel bi(5f simle ungefwsere betwux him, and 
simle on twd willaf. And swd swd t5aes g(5dan godnes bif 
his dgen g6d, and his dgen edledn, swd bif edc faes yfelan 
yfel his dgen yfel and his edledn, and his dgen wite. Ne 
twedf n^nne mon gif he wite haeff, 'p he naebbe yfel. 
Hwaet ! w^naf fd yfelan f he b6on beddelde t$dra wita and 
sint fulle aelces yfeles ? nallas no "p dn "p hi biof dfyldc. ac 
fomedh t<5 nauhte geddne. Ongit nu be fdm godum hii 
micel wite fd yfelan symle habbaf ; and gehy-r gyt sum 
bispell, and geheald fa wel fe ic fe der sdede. Eall f, 
^te dnnesse haff, f we secgaf fxUc sle, €d hwlle fe hit 



io8 VICE DEBASES MAN'S NAJURE. 

set somne hip ; and Hi samwrsednesse we hita)) g6d. Swi 
swa in man hip man iSi hwUe 6e sid sdwl and se licboma 
bi)> setsomne ; )K)nne hi }»onne gesindrede b\6f, t$onne ne 
bit$ he ^ ^ he dbr waes. paet ilce )>ti miht gepencan be 
t$am lichoman and be his limum ; gif pin lima hwilc of 
bi]), tSonne ne bi]> hit no fiill mon swi hit ^r was. Gii 
edc hwylc gdd man from gdde gewite,' t5onne ne b\} be 
pe mi fullice gdd, gif he eallunga from gdde gewite. 
ponan hit gebyraf j) ti yfelan forl&ta}» "p ^ hi der didon, 
ne bid)) "p "p hi ^r wderon. Ac f onne hi f gdd forldetaf and 
weor]>a)> yfele, tonne ne be6p hi nauhtas bdton dnlicnes ; 
f mon maeg gesidn f hi gid men wderon, ac hi habba)» 
pd^s mennisces Sonne )>one betstan ddbl forloren, and 
fonc forcd|>estan gehealden. Hi forldbtafy ^ gecyndelice 
gdd, "p sint mennisclice )>edwas, and habba}» )>edh mannes 
dnlicnesse t$d hwile pe hi libba}». 

Ac swd swd manna gddnes hi dhef)> ofer p2L menniscan 
gecynd to J>am f hi bedf godas genemnede, swi dc 
hiora yfclnes dwyrpf hi under t5a menniscan gecynd, td 
J>am f hi bidj> yfele gehdtene, f we cwej^af sie nauht For- 
pam gif td swd gewlsetne mon m6tst f he bip ^hwerfed 
from gdde td yfele, ne miht Sd hine ni mid rihte nemnan 
man ac nedt Gif p^ )>onne on hwilcum men ongitst f 
he bi]> gitsere and redfere, ne scealt p6. hine nd hdtan man, 
ac wulf And fone r^fan fe bip fweort^me, J>u scealt 
hdtan hund, nallas mann. And tone ledsan lytegan pu 
scealt hdtan fox, naes mann. And tone ungemetlice md- 
degan and yrsiendan, te td micelne audan hx()>, tu 
scealt hdtan leo, nses mann. And pouQ sdbnan, pe bi]> to 
sldw, td scealt hdtan assa md )>onne man. And )?one 
ungemetlice eargan, fe him ondr^t mdre }»onne he purfe, 
)>d miht hdtan hara, md tonne man. And J^am un- 
gestsejjfegan and tam ha^lgun, pu miht secgan "p hi bif 
winde gelicra otte unstillum fugelum, tonne gemet- 
faestum monnum. And bam ]>e td ongitst j) he li]» on 



SENSUALITY DEGRADES TO THE SWINE. 109 

his llchaman lustum, ^ he bi'8 inlicost fettum swinum, l^e 
simle willna}» licgan on ftilum solum, and hi nyllap is- 
pyligan on hluttram wteterum ; &c )>edh hi seldum 
bwonne beswemde weor)K)n, tSonne sleip he eft on ^ solu 
and bewealwia^ ^r on« 



SELECTIONS 



FftOlf THE 



ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



CONFLICT AT GLASTONBURY BETWEEN THE 
NORMAN ABBOT, THURSTAN, AND THE SAXON 
MONKS. 



MiLLEsiMa Lxxxiii. — On )>isum geare aras seo unge- 
J>w3ernes on Glaestingabyrig betwyx J>am abbode Durstane 
■^ his munecan. iErest hit com of paes abbotes unwisdome, 
'p he misbead his munecan on fela pingan, -] ]>a munecas 
hit msendon lufeliqe to him, •] beadon hine "p he sceolde 
healdan hi rihtlice, •] lufian hi, ^ hi woldon him beon 
holde •] gehyrsume. Ac se abbot nolde )>aBs naht, ac 
dyde heom yfele, •] beheot heom wyrs. Anes daeges fe 
abbot eode into capitulan, -] sprsec uppon fa munecas, 3 
wolde hi mistukian, -] sende aefter laewede mannum, -^ hi 
comon into capitulan on uppon ))a munecas full gewepn 
nede. And J>a waeron fa munecas switJe aferede of heom, 
nyston hwet heom to donne waere, ac toscuton, sume 
urnon into cyrcan ;) belucan fa duran into heom, j hi 
ferdon aefier heom into fam mynstre, ^ woldon hig ut 
dragan, fa fa hig ne dorsten na ut gan. Ac reowlic f ing 
faer gelamp on daeg, f fa Frencisce men braecen fone 
chor, •] torfedon towaerd fam weofode, faer fa munecas 
waeron, ;) sume of fam cnihtan ferdon uppon fone upp- 
flore, •] scotedon adunweard mid are wan toweard fam 
haligdome, swa "J) on faere rode, fe stod bufon fam weo- 
fode, sticodon on maenige arewan. And fa wreccan mun- 
ecas lagon onbuton fam weofode, 3 sume crupon under. 



WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR'S DESPOTISM, in 

•3 g^'me cleopedon to Gode, his miltse biddcnde, fa ])a hi 
ne mihton nane miltse aet mannum begytan. Hwact 
magon we secgean, buton ^ hi scotedon swiCe, ;) fa oftre 
pSL dura brsecon Jner adune, -^ eodon inn, -^ ofslogon sumc 
f2i munecas to dea^e, 3 maenige gewundedon )>aDrinne, 
swa ^ f et blod com of J>am weofode uppon fam gradan, ■) 
of pam gradan on fa flore. Dreo faer waeron ofslagene to 
deat$c, 3 eahtateone gewundade. And on faes ilcan geares 
forpferde Mahtild Willelmes cynges cwen, on fone daeg 
aefter ealra halgena maesse daeg. And oti fes ylcan geares 
setter midewinter, se cyng let beodan mycel g}id -^ hefelic 
ofer eall England, f >*-aes aet aelcere hyde twa 3 hundseo- 
fenti peanega. 



WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR'S DESPOTIC SWAY ; 
THE RAPACITY OF THE KING AND HIS NO- 
BLES ; OPPRESSION OF THE PdOR ; WILLIAM 
INVADES FRANCE; BURNS MANTES; DIES; HIS 
CHARACTER DRAWN BY A CONTEMPORARY 
WHO HAD SOJOURNED IN HIS COURT. 

MiLLESiMO. Ixxxvii. iEfter ure Drihtnes Ha^lendes 
Cristes gebyrtide an fusend wintra, ;) seofan -] hund- 
eahtatig wintra, on fam an -] twentigan geare faes J>e Wil- 
lelm weolde -^ stihte Engleland, swa him God u8e, 
geweartS switSe hefelic "3 switJe woldberendlic gear on 
l^issum lande. Swylc co^e com on mannum, f fulineah 
aefre fe otJer man weartS on f am wyrrestan yfele, f et is on 
J>am drife, "} fet swa stranglice ^ maenige menn swulton 
on fam yfele. Syt5t5an com f urh fa mycclan ungewid- 
erunga, fe comon swa we beforan tealdon, swi^e mycel 
hungor ofer eall Engleland, f manig hundred manna 
earmlice deaCe swulton furh fone hungor. Eala hu 
earmlice -^ hu reowlic tid waes fa. Da fa wrecc^ men 
laegen fordrifene full neah to deat5e, -3 si«5an com se 



113 OPPRESSION OF THE POOR. 

scearpa hungor ^ adyde hi mid ealle. Hwam ne maeg 
earmian swylcere tide ? o^tJe, hwa is swa heard heort f ne 
maeg wepan swylces ungelimpes? Ac swylce ping ge- 
wurCatS for folces sjuna f hi nellaB lufian God -j rihiwis- 
nesse, swa swa hit w^s fdi on )^m dagum, ^ litel riht- 
wisnesse wses on )>isum lande mid aenige menn, buton 
mid munecan ane, Jner faer hi waell ferdon. Se cyng -} 
fa heafod men lufedon switJe ^ ofer switJe gitsunge on 
golde •} on seolfre, "] ne rohtan hu synlice hit waere begy- 
tan, buton hit cdme to heom. Se cyng sealde his land 
swa deore to male swa heo deorost mihte, J^onne com 
sum otJer -^ beade mare J>onne fe otJer 3er sealde, -} se cyng 
hit lett )>am menn }»e him mare bead, }»onne com se }»ridde, 
■] bead geat mare, ■] se cyng hit let fam men to handa fe 
him eallra meast bead, 3 ne rohte na hu swit$e s}'nlice pa. 
gerefan hit begeatan of earme mannon, ne hu manige 
unlaga hi dydon. Ac swa man swy^or space embe rihte 
lage, swa mann flyde mare unlaga. Hi arerdon unrihte 
tollas, ;3 manige otJre unriht hi dydan, fe sindon earfef e 
to arecenne. Eac on fam ilcan geare xtforan haerfeste 
forbam f halige mynster See Paule, f e b. stole on Lun - 
dene, 3 maenige otJre mynstres, ^ f maeste dael ■] "p rotteste 
eall ])3ere burh. Swylce eac, on fam ilcan timan, forbam 
fullneah aelc heafod port on eallon Englelande. Eala 
reowlic •] wependlic lid waes )>aes geares, fe swa manig 
ungelimp waes forSbringende. Eac on fam ilcan geare, 
toforan Assumptio See Marie, for Willelm cyng of Nor- 
mandige into France mid fyrde, ■] hergode uppan his 
agenne hlaford Philippe fam cynge, •] sloh of his mannon 
mycelne dajl, 3 forbearnde pa burh mafante, -3 ealle pa 
halige mynstres pe wa^ron innon paere burh, -^ twegen 
halige menn, pe hyrsumedon Gode on ancer settle wuni- 
ende, paer waeron forbearnde. Dissum pus gedone, se 
cyng Willelm cearde ongean to Normandige. Reowlic 
ping he dyde, -} reowlicor him gelamp. Hu reowlicor? 



WILLIAM INVADES FRANCE— DIES. 113 

him geyfelade, ^ ^ him stranglice eglade. Hwaet maeg ic 
teollan ? Se scearpa deatJ, fe ne forlet ne rice menn ne 
heane, seo hine genam. He swealt on Normandige, on 
^ne nestan dseg asfter Natiuitas See Marie, -^ man bebyr- 
gede hine on Caipum, aet See Stephanes mynstre, aerer he 
hit araerde^ ^ sit$6an maenifealdlice gegodode. Eala hu 
leas ^ hu unwrest is (rysses middaneardes wela. Se pQ 
waes aerur rice cyng 'j maniges landes hlaford, he naefde 
Y2L ealles landes buton seofon fot mael, -^ se fe waes hwilon 
gescrid mid golde ;) mid gimmum, he laeg pa ofenvrogen 
mid moldan. He laefde aefter him )>reo sunan, Rodbeard 
het se yldesta, se waes eori on Normandige acfler him. Se 
oCer het Willelm, J>e baer aefter him on Engleland fone 
kinehelm. Se )>ridda het Heanric, ]>am se faeder becwaetS 
gersuman unateallendlice. Gif hwa gewilnigetJ to ge- 
witane hu gedon mann he waes, ot5t$e hwilcne wurtJscipe 
he haefde, ot5^e hu fela lande he waere hlaford, fonne 
wille we be him awritan swa swa we hine ageaton, J>e him 
on locodan, ;) ot5re hwile on his hirede wunedon. Se 
cyng Willelm fe we embe specat5 \i'aes swiCe wis man, •] 
switJe rice, ■] wurSfulre ;) strengere fonne aenig his fore- 
gengga \i'aere. He was milde fam godum mannum f e 
God lufedon, ;) ofer eall gemett stearc fam mannum J>e 
wiBcwaedon his willan. On fam ilcan steode j>c God him 
geutSe 'p he moste Engleland gegan, he arerde mxre myn- 
ster, ^ munecas faer gesaeite, f hit waell gegodade. On 
hi^lagan waes f maere mynster on Cantwarbyrig getym- 
brad, 3 eac swi"8e manig otJer ofer eall Englaland. Eac 
^s land waes swit$e afylled mid munecan, •] fa leofodan 
heora lif aefter Sai Benedictus regale, -] se Xf cndom waes 
swilc on his daege, "p aelc man hwaet his hade to belumpe 
folgade, se J>e wolde. Eac he waes swyt5e wurt5ful ; friwa 
he baer his qnehelm aelce geare, swa oft swa he waes on 
Englelande. On Eastron he hine baer on Winccastre, on 
Pentecosten on Westmynstre, on Midewintre, on Glea- 



r.]i.,.L3 — 



114 HIS CHARACTER. 

weceastre, -j ^nne wEeron mid him ealle )ia rice men ofet 
eall Englaland, arcebiscopas -j leodbiscopas, abbodas } 
eorlas, fcgnzs -j cnihtas. Swilce he vses eac 5«-)1ie 
stearc man •} ntSe, swa f man ne doiste nan jimg ongean 
his willan doD. He hsefde eorlas on his beadum, fe 
dydan ongean his willan. Biscopas he sKtte of heoia 
biscopricc, "J abbodas of heora abb. rice, -j {ncgnas on 
cweanem, -j xt nextan he ne sparode his agene broSor Odo 
hfiL He WES swiBe rice b. on Normandige, on Baius 
wxs his b. stol, -J u'xs manna fyimest to eacan )>am cyage, 
-J he hasfde eorldom on Englelande, -j fionne se cyng 
[wKs] on Normandige, fonne wjes he mjegeste on J>isum 
lande, -j hine he ssette on cweanem. Betwyx oSnim 
|)ingum nis na to forgytane f gode Trifi ^ he macode on 
fisan lande, swa f in man fe himsylf aht wsere mihle 
faran ofer his rice mid his bosum full goldes ungederad. 
And nan man ne dorste slean otteme man, naerdehenxrre 
swa mycel yfel geddn wi8 pone oSerne. And gif hwilc 
carlman hsmde wiK wimman hire unSances, sona he 
forlcas fa limu )ie he mid pleagode. He rixade orer 
Englxland, -j hit mid his geapscipe swa )>urhsmeade, f 
nscs in hid landus innan Englslande 'p he nysic hwa heo 
hxfde, o85e hwies heo wurtS waes, -j syMan on his gewrii 
gcKcit. Biyiland him wres on gewealde, -j he fsrinne 
casteles gewrohte, "j pet manncynn mid ealle gewealde. 
Swilce eac Scotland he him underJiiEdde, for his mj'ccle 
strengfe. Normandige ^ land wEes his gecjnde, -j ftfer 
pone eorldom Jte Hans is gehaien he rixade, ^ gif he 
mosie fa gyt iwa gear lihban he hafde Yrlande mid his 
werscipe gewunnon, ] wiSman selcon waepnon. Witod- 
licc on his timan liacfdon men mycel geswinc '] swifie 
manige teonan. Casielas he let wyrcean, ] earme men 
swiSc swencean. Se cjiig wtes swa swiSe siearc, -} benam 
of his undcrfeoddan manig marc goldes, -j mi hundred 
ptinda seolfres, fet he nam be rihte ^ mid mycelan un- 



HIS CHARACTER. 115 

rihte of his landleode for littelre neode. He wses on git- 
sunge befeallan, 3 graedinaesse he lufode mid ealle. He 
saette mycel deor fritS, ^ he laegde laga J>aerwit$, f swa hwa 
swa sloge heort o«t$e hindc, f hine man sceolde blendian. 
He forbead fa heortas, swylce eac fa haras ; swa switJe he 
lufode fa headeor, swilce he waere hcora feeder. Eac he 
saette be fam haran j) hi mosten freo faran. His rice men 
hit maendon, ^ fa earme men hit beceorodan. Ac he 
[waes] swa stitJ, f he ne rohte heora ealira nit5, ac hi 
xnoston mid ealle fes cynges wille folgian, gif hi woldon 
libban, oWe land habban, otS'Se eahta, o$t$e wel hissehta. 
Wala wa ^ aenig man sceolde modigan swa, hine sylf upp 
ahebban, -^ ofer ealle men tellan. Se aelmihtiga God 
cyfae his saule mildheortnisse, -} do him his synna forgi- 
fenesse. Das fing we habbat5 be him gewritene, aeg5er 
ge g(5de ge yfele, f fa godan men niman aefter heora god- 
nesse, ^ forfleon mid ealle yfelnesse, 'j gan on fone weg 
fe us leit to heofonan rice. Fela f inga we magon writan 
fe on fam ilcan geare gewordene waeron, Swa hit waes 
on Denmearcan, 'p fa Daenescan, fe wxs aerur geteald 
ealira folca getrcowust, wurdon awende to faere meste un- 
triwtSe, ;] to fam maesten swicddme fe aefre mihte gewur- 
tSan. Hi gecuron ^ abugan to Cnule cynge, ■] him a^as 
sworon, '^ syt$t$an hine earhlice ofslogon innan anre cyr- 
cean. Eac wear8 on Ispanie, ^ fa haetJenan men foran •] 
hergodan uppon fam cristenan mannan, ^ mycel abcgdan 
to heora anwealile. Ac se Xpena cyng, Anphos wa;s gc- 
haten, he sonde ofer eall into aelcan lande, •] g>rnde ful- 
tumes, "3 him com to fultum of aelcen lande f e Xpen wxs, 
^ ferdon, -^ ofslogon, ;) aweg adrifan eall bet hae^ena folc, 
^ gewunnon hcora land ongean,furh Codes fultum. Eac 
on fisan ilcan lande, on fam ilcan geare, for5 ferdon 
manega rice men, Siigand biscop of Ciceastre, •] se abb of 
See Agustine, ^ se abb. of Ba^on, ^ f e of Perscoran, -j fa 
heora ealira hlaford, Willelm Englaelandes cyng, fe wc x*r 



ii6 DEATH OF HENRY I. 

beforan embe spaecon. JEder his deaiSe, his sune, Willelm 
haet eallswa f e feeder, feng to fzm rice, ^ weartJ geblestod to 
c)'ngefram Lan d France arceb. on Westmynsire, f reom dagum 
aer Michaeles maessedaeg, "} ealle fa men on Englalande 
him to abugon, "j hira al5as sworon. Disum' Jius gedone, 
se cyng ferde to Winceastre, "} sceawode ^ madmehus, 3 
fa gersuman fe his faeder aer gegaderode, J>a waeron una- 
secgendlice aenie men hu mycel faer waes gegaderod, on 
golde, -} on seolfre, j on faton, 3 on paellan, -3 on gimman, 
■3 on manige ottre deorwuiUe f ingon, fe earfoCe sindon 
to ateallene. Se cyng dyde fa swa his feeder him bebead 
aer he dead wsere, daelde fa gersuman for his faeder saule to 
aelcen mynstre f e wes innan Englelande, to suman 
mynstre x. marc goldes, to suman vi., 3 to aelcen cyrcean 
uppe land lx. paen. And into aelcere scire man seonde 
hundred punda feos, to daelanne earme mannan for his 
saule. And aer he fortJferde he bead ^ man sceolde un- 
lesan ealle fa menn fe on haeftnunge waeron under his 
anwealde. And se cyng waes on fam midewintre on 
Lundene. 



DEATH OF HENRY I. ; STEPHEN OF BLOIS CON- 
SECRATED KING OF ENGLAND; THE SAD 
STATE OF THE TIMES DURING HIS REIGN 

MiLLEsiMo. cxxxv. On fis geare for se king H. 
ouer sae aet to Lammasse, j f ofer dei fa he lai an slep in 
scip, fa f estrede f c da^i ouer al landes, j uuard f e sunne 
suilc als it uuare thre niht aid mone, an sterres abuten him 
at middaei. Wurfen men suil5e ofuundred -) ofdred, 3 
saeden ^ micel fing sculde cumm herefter, sua dide, for 
fat ilc gaer warth fe king ded, f ofer daei efter S, Andreas 
massedaei on Norm, pa wes tre sona fas landes, for 
aeurjc man sone raeuede ofer fe mihte. pa namen his 

2 



STEPHEN OF BLOIS CONSECRATED KING. 1 1 7 

sune 3 his frend, ^ brohten his lie to Englel, and 
bebiriend in Redinge. God man he wes, •} micel aeie wes 
of him. Durste nan man misdon wi9 o9er on his time. 
Pais he makede men ^ daer. Wua sua bare his byrthen 
gold and. silure, durste nan man sei to him naht bute 
god. Enmang fis was his nefe cumen to Englel., Stephne 
de Blais, -} com to Lundene, -} te Lundenisce folc him 
underfeng, -3 senden efter fe aerceb. Willelm Curbuil, 
-} halechede him to kinge on midewintre daei. On fis 
kinges time wes al unfri^, "j yfel, "3 raeflac, for agenes him 
risen sona fa rice men })e waeron swikes. Al se fyrste 
Balduin de Reduers, "^ held Execestre agenes him, "^ te 
king it besaet, -} sit$l$an Balduin acordede. pa tocan fa 
oUre "2 helden her castles agenes him, ^ Dauid king of 
Scotland toe to uuessien him ; fa fohuuethere fat, here 
sandes feorden betwyx heom, -^ hi togaedere comen, -j 
wurtSe ssehte, fof it litel forstode. 

MiLLESiMO. c. XXXVI. f A^ record. ] 

MiLLEsiMo. c. XXXVII. Dis gaere foF f e k. Stcph. ofersae 
to Normandi, j ther wes underfangen, forSi ^ hi uuenden 
^ he sculde ben alsuic alse the eom waes, 1 for he hadde get 
his tresor, ac he todcld it •] scatered sotlicc. Micel 
hadde Henri k. gadered gold j syluer, -^ na god ne dide 
me for his saule tharof. pa f e king S. to Englal. com, fa 
macod he his gadering aet Oxeneford, •] far he nam f e b. 
Roger of Sereberi, j Alex. b. of Lincol, 1 te Canceler 
Roger hise neues, -^ dide aelle in prisun, til hi iafen up 
here castles, pa the suikes undergaeton ^ he milde man 
was, ;] softe, "j god, ;] na iustise ne dide, fa diden hi alle 
wunder. Hi hadden him manred maked -^ athes suoren, 
ac hi nan treuthe ne heolden, alle hi waeron forsworen, 3 
here treothes forioren, for aeuric rice man his castles 
makede "3 agaenes him heolden, j fylden fe land ful of 
castles. Hi suencten suySe f e uurccce men of fe land 
mid castelweorces. pa fe castles uuaren maked, fa 



ii8 THE SAD STATE OF THE TIMES. 

fylden hi mid deoules -} yuele men. pa namen hi ^ 
men fe hi wendcn ^ ani god hefden, bathe be nihtes -j 
be daeies, carlmen -j wimmen, ;] diden heom in prisun 
efter gold "2 syluer, 3 pined heom untellendlice pining, 
for ne uuxren nseure nan mart)TS swa pined alse hi 
waeron. Me henged up bi the fet 3 smoked heom mid 
ful smoke, me henged bi the )>umbes other bi the hefed, 
■3 hengen bryniges on her fet Me dide cnotted strenges 
abuton here haeued, ^ uurythen to f it gaede to fe haemes. 
Hi diden heom in quarteme, )>ar nadres ^3 snakes "^ pades 
waeron inne, "} drapen heom swa. Sume hi diden in 
cnicet hus, ^ is in an ceste pat was scort "} nareu •} unde[>, 
"2 dide scaerpe stanes ]>erinne, "^ fvtngde fe man )>aennne, 
^ him braecon alle ye limes. In mani of fe castles 
waeron lof -^ grim, ^ waeron rachenteges, ^ twa other thre 
men hadden onoh to baeron onne. pat was sua maced, 
^ is faestned to an beom, -^ diden an scaerp iren abuton )ia 
mannes f rote -^ his hals, ^ he ne myhte nowiderwardes 
ne sitten, ne lien, ne slepen, oc baeron al ^ iren. Mani 
|>uscn hi drapen mid hungaer. I ne canne i ne mai tellen 
alle fe wundes, ne alle fe pines ^ hi diden wrecce men 
on f is land, "^ f lastede fa xix. wintre, wile Stephne was 
king, •} aeure it was uuerse "^ uuerse. Hi laeiden gaeildes 
on the tunes aeureum wile, *] clepeden it tenserie. pa fe 
uurecce men ne hadden nan more to gyuen, fa raeuedan 
hi "3 brendon alle the tunes, ^ wel f u myhtes faren al a 
daeis fare sculdest thu neure finden man in tune sittende, 
ne land tiled, pa was com daere, "} flesc, -} caese, -} 
butere, for nan ne waes o fe land. Wrecce men sturuen 
of hungaer, sume ieden on aelmcs f e waren sum wile rice 
men, sum flugen ut of lande. Wes naeure gaet mare 
wreccehed on land, ne nseure hethen men werse ne diden 
fan hi diden, for ouer sithon ne forbaren hi nouther circe 
ne cyrceiaerd, oc namm al f e god ^ farinne was, -j bren- 
den sythen f e cyrce ;] altegaedere. Ne hi ne forbaren "5, 



THE SAD STATE OF THE TIMES. 119 

land, ne atfS. ne preostes, ac raeueden munekes, ^ clerekes, 
•3 aeuric man other J>e ouer myhte. Gif twa men ofei 
UL coman ridend to an tun, al fe tunscipe flugaen for 
heom, wenden f hi waeron raeueres. pe biscopes •} Icred 
men heom cursede aeure, oc was heom naht ))arof, for hi 
oneron al forcursaed, ^ forsuoren, 3 forloren. Was sae 
me tilede fe erthe ne bar nan com, for ye land was al 
fordon mid suilce daedes, -3 hi saeden openlice f Xrist 
slep, ^ his halechen. Suilc "^ mare )»nne we cunnen 
saein we ]K)lenden xix. wintre for ure sinnes. On al 
pis yuele time heold Martin abbot his abbotrice xx. win- 
tre, -} half gaer, ^ viii. daeis, mid micel suinc, •} fand fe 
mnnekes 3 te gestes al ]>at heom behoued, and heold 
mycel carited in the hus, -^ fof wethere wrohte on f e circc, 
3 sette farto landes -} rentes, -^ goded it suythe -^ laet 
it refen, and brohte heom into )>e neuuae mynstre on S. 
Petres maessedaei mid micel wurtscipe, ^ was anno ab in- 
camatione Dom. h. c. xl., a combustione loci xxiii. 
And he for to Rome, ;] faer waes w^l underfangen fram 
fe pape Eugenie, j begaet thare priuilegies, an of alle 
fe landes of fabbotrice, ;] an ofer of fe landes fe lien to 
fe circe wican, -} gif he leng moste liuen, alse he mint to 
don of f e horderw}xan. And he begaet in landes fat rice 
men hefden mid strengthe. Of Willelm Malduit, J>e 
heold Rogingham ]>ae castel, he wan Cotingham "^ Estum, 
J of Hugo of Walteuile he uuan Hyrtlingb. -3 Stanewig, •} 
LX- sob. of Aldewingle aelc gaer. And he makede manie 
munekes. "} plantede winiaerd, j makede mani weorkes, j 
wende fe tun betere fan it aer waes, -3 waes god munec ^ 
god man, -3 forf i him luueden God ^ gode men. Nu we 
willen saegen sum del wat belamp on Stephne kingcs time. 
On his time fe ludeus of Noruuic bohton an Xristen cild 
beforen Estren, •] pineden him alle fe ilce pining f ure 
Drihten was pined, •} on Lang Fridaei him on rode 
hengen, for ure Drihtines luue, j sythen byrieden him. 



i>o THE SAD STATE OF THE TIMES. 

Wenden f it sculde ben forholen, oc ore Drihten atywed 
^ he was hali martyr, ■) te munekes him namen, -} h( 
byried him heglice in J>e minstre, -j he makec pur ur 
Drifaiin wuDdeilice ] manifsldhce miracles, ^ hatte be E 
WUlelm. 



[\ 



i« AUTHOR'S ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF. 



buicn Noe & Sem^ 

Japhet & Cham. 

& hcorc Tour wiuesi 

^e mid heom wcren on 

a re hen. 
Lajamo gon liSen i 
wide jond )>as leode. 
& bi-won fi xSela boc) 
^a he lo bisne nom. 
He nom fa Englisca boc 1 
pa makcde seint Beds, 
an ojicr he nom on Latin* 
^ makede seinie Albin. 
& fe Teire Austin i i 

]>e fulluht broute hider in. 
boc he nom J>e friddei 
leide fer amidden. 
pa makede a French is 

clercl 
Wace wes ihoten. 
pc wel coupe writen! 
& he hoe jcf pare a^eleo. 
Alienor pe wes Henries 

quene 1 
pes hqes kinges. 
La^mon leide peos boc ! 

(6 pa leaf wende. 
he heom leofliche bi-heold 2 
lipe him beo drihten. 
feperen he nom mid fin- 

gren; 
& fiede on boc-relle. 
& pa sope word ! 
sette to-gadere. 



bote Noe and Semi 
JapheC and Cam. 
« and hire four wifes 1 
pat mid ham pere weren, 

Loweman gan wende ; 
so wide 50 was pat londe. 



and nom pe Englisse boc I 
pat makede seint Bedei 
anoper he nom of Latin * 
pat maked seint Aibin. 
: boc he nom pan pridde! 
an leide par amidde. 
pat makede Austin* 
pat foUoft brofte hider in. 



i Laweman pes bokes bi- 
eolde i 
an pe leues tomde. 
he ham loueliche bi-helde' 
fulsie god pe miptie. 
fepere he nom mid fingres : 

t and wrot mid his honde. 
and pe sope word ' 

sette togedere. 



CHILDRICS FLIGHT. 



123 



& ySLfTQ boc 1 

^nimde to are. 
Nu bidded La^mon ^ 
alcne aet$ele mon. 
for )>ene almite godd ^ 
f et j>eos boc rede. 
& leornia )>eos rtlnan ? 
•p he feos soSfeste word ^ 
segge to suznne. 
for his fader saule^ 
)ia bine ford brouhte. 
& for his moder saule ^ 
]7a hine to monne iber. 
& for his awene saule ^ 
fat hire f e selre beo. 

Ameiu 



and )>ane hiike bocl 
tock us to bisne. 
M Nu biddep Laweman^ 
echne godne mon. 
for J>e mistie godes loue ^ 
J>at pes boc redejj. 

w }»at he pis so))fast word ^ 
segge togadere. 
and bidde for pe saule ^ 



» ^zt hine to manne strende. 
and for his owene soule t 
fax hire )»e bet bifalle. 

Amen. 



CHILDRICS FLIGHT TO THE FOREST OF CALE- 
DON; HIS SUBMISSION TO ARTHUR; THE 
OUTRAGES COMMITTED BY THE DANES IN 
LINCOLNSHIRE; DESCRIPTION OF ARTHUR'S 
ARMOUR; CHILDRICS FLIGHT OVER THE 
AVON; ARTHUR'S COMBAT WITH COLGRIM ; 
STRATAGEM OF CADOR ; DEFEAT AND DEATH 
OF CHILDRIC. 

V. 20669^21642. 



Nis hit a nare boc idiht^ 
^t aeuere weore aei fiht. 
i/ie )>issere Bruttene^ 
}>at balu weore swa riue. 
for vol ken him wes aermest^ 
)«it aeuere com at ajrde. 
j>er wes muchel blod ^ute^ 
balu wes on folke. n 



Nis hit in none boke idiht ^ 
fat euere her were soch fiht, 
70 in fissere Brutaine 1 
fare sleaht were so riue. 



far was mochel blod i30te t 



CHILDRIC'S FLIGHT. 



dseB J-er «es rifei 

ft eoitte per dunede. 

Childricb fe ksisere! 

hsefcde snne casiel here. 

a Lincolnes felde* 

^r he \xi wit innen. 

fe we3 neouwen iworhtJ 

& switJe wel biwusl. 

A ftte weoren mid him * 

Balduir&CoIgrim. 

and ise^CD )at heore uolc* 

feie-sih frorhie. 

& hco foriS riht anon * 

on mid heore bumen. 

and llujen ut of castle* 

kenscipe bidaled. 

and flujen TorS riht anan i 

to fe wudc of Calidon. 

Heo hafden to ifercn' 

seouen pusend rideren. 

and ho bilafden of-slajen! 

& idon of lif-da;en. 

feowerti pusude i 

ifeollcd to pan grunde. 

Alemainisce me! 

mid xrntie fordemed. 

and pa Sexisce men: 

ibroht to pan gruden. 

pa isxh ArSur^ 

aSelest kingen, 

pal Childrich wes iflojenj 

into Calidonie itoje. 

and Colgrim & Baldulf; 

mid him ibojen weoren. 

into pil ha^e wudc* 



dea]i par was riue. 

Childrich pe kayseri 

hadde one castel her. 
I a Lyncolnes felde 1 

par he lay wip ioe. 

he was newene iwrohtl 

and swipe wel he was idihL 

and par weren mid hira! 
• Baldoif and Colgrim. 

and isehje pat hire folke! 

folic to grunde. 

And hii forp riht anon! 

an raid hire brunics. 
I and fio^en vt of ca^lef 

kensipe bi-dealed. 

and flo}en forpriht anon '. 

to pan wode of Calidon. 

And hadde to i-vere* 
I soue hundred rideres. 

and hii blefde of-slawel 

and idon of lif-dajes. 

fourtipusend: 

liggen on paic feldes. 



po iseh Arthur! 
• boldest aire ktnge. 
pat Cheldrich was a-flowe: 
and in to Calidoine itowe. 
and Colgrj'm and Baldolf f 
mid him fare were. 



ARTHUR'S PURSUIT. 



"5 



• 

**^ to fan haeje holme. 

^ -AriJur baeh after ^ 

^id sixli )>usend cnihten. 

^"'titiene leoden^ 

•^^Ue wude al bileien. 

^^d an are halfe hine feol- 
den^ 

* ^ lie seoue milen. 

^^eo uppen otJer * 

^''eoliche feste. 

^n ot$er halue he hine bilai ) 

tdid his leod-ferde. 

l>reo da^ & J>reo niht^ 

*^ wes heom muchel pliht 

pa isaeh Colgri ) 

alse he \xi per in. 

]>at yer wes buten mete t 

scarp hunger & hete. 

ne heo no heore horsen ^ 

haelp nefde nenne. 

And J>us deopede Colg- 

rim^ 
to )>an kaisere. 
Saeie me lauerd Childric t 
sottere worden. 
for whulches cunnes J>inge \ 
ligge we fus here, 
whi nulle we ut faren t 
& bonnien ure ferden. 
and big^'nnen fehtes t 
wits Ar5ur & wit$ his cnihtes. 
for betere us is on londe ) 
mid moscipe to liggen. 
f ene we fus here t 
for hungere to-wur6en. 



Arthur wende after ^ 
mid sixti )>usend cnihies. 
Bruttene leode ^ 
lu J>ane wode al bi-leie. 
in one half hii hine fulde ^ 

folle soue myle. 

treo vppe treo i 

kenliche swi)>e. 
ISO an o]^r half hine bi-leye ! 

mid gode his folke. 

)>reo dai3es and J^reo niht ! 

}>at was to heom god riliL 

po iseh Colgri m ^ 
uf ase lay )>ar in. 

)>at )>are was boute mete i 

scarp honger and hate. 

ne hii ne hire hors^ 

help nadde nanne. 
uo po saide Colgrym ^ 

to fan caysere Cheldrich. 
Sai me louerd Childrich ^ 
sofere wordes. 
for woche cunnes f inge \ 

Uf ligge we fus her ine. 
wi nole we vt fare t 
and banny oure ferde. 
and bi-ginne fihtes \ 
wif Arthurand his cnihtes. 

140 for betere vs his on londe ) 
mansipliche ligge. 
pane we fus here t 
mid honger forworfL 



i.-r. 



coij.KiM Anvi-]:< -ui)?.ii>.-io\. 



and ^eorne Arthur his grif 
and bidde him milce t 
and ^isles bi-take. 



OScr we senJcS \vi5 and Oper we sende him wif 

wi5 ^ 
and ^corncn ArtSurcs gri^. 
and bidden fus his milce t 
& ^isles him bitcchen. 
& wurche freondscipe 1 i«o 

wi^ fan freo kige. 
pis iherde Childric t 
f er he Ixi wil5 inne die. 
and he andswarede^ 
witt aermliche stefene. 
3ifhitwulleBaldulf^ 
pe is fin a^e broker, 
and ma of ur ifcren t 
f e mid us sundo here, 
fat we bidden Ardures 

gritJ^ 
& sahtnesse him wurchen 

wi^. 
after xuwer wille ^ 
do ich hit wulle. 
For ArSur is swi^e haeh 

mon t 
ihalden on leodcn. 
leof alle his monnen t 
& of kine-wur^e cunne. 
al of kingen icume ) 
he wes V^eres sune. 
& of hit ilimpe^ ^ 
a ueole cunne f eoden. 
f er gode cnihtes ^ 
cumetJ to stume fihte. 
fat hco aerest bijiteiS ^ 



pis ihorde Cheldrich ^ 
far he lai wif ine dich. 
and answerede^ 

lu mid cwickere stemne. 
3ef hit wole Baldolf^ 
fat his fin owe brofer. 
and mo of oure feres ^ 
fat mid vs beof here. 

i«o fat we bidde Arthurcs 

grip- 
and saehtnesse him werche 

wif. 

after oure wille t 

don ich hit wolle. 

For Arthur his wel heh 
man^ 
iM hi-holde in londe. 

leof alle his manne t 

and of kineworfe cunne. 

al of kinges icome^ 

he was Vther his sone. 
xTo And ofte hit bi-fallef ^ 

in manycunne leode. 

far f e gode cnihtes ^ 

comef to strange fihtes. 

fat faye fat her bi-^etef ? 




THEY PRAY ARTHUR'S MERCY. 127 



^^^r heo hit leoseti. 
7^ ^ swa us to-jere ^ 
^^ ilimpen here. 
^ 5eft us bet illppetJ t 
^ ^ we mote liuien. 
^^^nefoiU rihtes^ 
^^dswareden fa cnihtes. 
"^ lie us biluuied bisne raed^ 
*^r f u hafest wel isaeid, 

lleo nomen twaelf cnihtes ^ 
'i senden for8 rihtes. 
l>€r he wes on telde ) 
bi ]>as wudes ende. 
)>e an cleopieden anan t 
mid quickere stefne. 
* L.auerd ArSur fi grilS ^ 
we wolden speken fe witJ. 
hider Jie kaisere us set^ 
Childric ihaten. 
& Colgrim & Baldulf ^ 
beien to-some. 

Nu and seuere mare t 

heo bidded pine aere. 

}>ine men heo wulle^ bi- 
cumen t 

& Yme moscipe hae^en. 

& heo wulle^ ^iue fe ^ 

^isles inowe. 

& halden ]>e for lauer^ \ 

swa fe beol5 aire leofest 

^if heo moten li^e 1 

heonene mid Hue. 

into heor leoden ^ 

& latJ-spael bringen. 



i7f eft hii leose}'. 

and al so ous to-3ere ^ 
his i&lle here. 



uo Sone for]>rihtes \ 

answerede alle fe cnihtes. 

Alle we louief fane read ^ 

for fou hauest wisliche i- 
seid. 

Hii nemen twalf cnihtes t 
iM and sende forfrihtes. 

far Arthur w^ in telde ) 

bi fan wodes hcnde. 

and on cleopie agan t 

loudere stemne, 
iM Louerd Arthur fin grif ^ 

we wollen speke fe wif . 

hider fe kaiser vs sent^ 

fat Cheldrich his ihoie. 

Colgrym and Baldolf^ 
iM beyne to-gadere. 

Hii biddef fin ore ^ 

nou and euere more. 

fine men hii wollef bi- 
come? 

and treouf e to f e holde. 



jef hii mo libbe * 
and hire limes habbe. 
and hinene wende ^ 
in to hire londe. 



128 THEY PRAY TO LEAVE THE LAND. 



For her we habbeod ifun- 

den^ 
feole cunne screen. 
at Lincolne belaeued^ 
leofe ure maeies. 
sixti pusend monnen^ 
fa Jier bed6 of-slae^ene. 
And 3if hit fe weore ) 
wille an heorte. 
]^t we znosten ouer S3dt 
winden mid seile. 
nulle we nauere mare ^ 
aeft cumen here, 
for her we habbeod for- 

loro^ 
leoue ure raaeies. 
swa longe swa bid aeuere \ 
her ne cume we naeuer 
pa loh ArBur^ 
ludere stefene. 
Ifonked wurSe drihtene ^ 
J>e alle domes waldetJ. 
fat Child ric J>e stronge t 
is sad of mine londe. 
Mi lod he hafe^ to-daeled^ 
al his duje^e-cnihtes. 
me seoluo he fohte ) 
driuen ut of mire leoden. 
halden me for haene^ 
& habben mine riche. 
& mi cun al for-uaren t 
mi uolc al fordemed. 
Ah of hi bi^ iwurtSen t 
swa bi^ of fan voxe. 
fe/ie he bit5 baldest t 



For her we habbef i- 

funde ) 
fele cunnes sorewe. 
no at Lyncolnes feldes^ 
bi-Ieaued oure freondes. 
sixti fousend manned 
far liggef of-slawe. 
And 3ef hit were fin wille* 



tu 



fat we most away wende. 



nolde we neuere more t 
eft comen here, 
tio for he we habbef for-lore* 

oure leafue meyes. 
so lange so beof euere \ 
her ne come we neuere. 
po loh Arthur ) 

ttf loudere stemne. 

Ich fonki mine drihte t 
fat alle domes weldef. 
fat Childric f e stronge t 
his sad of mine londe. 

no Mi lond he hauef idealed ) 
amang his freo cnihtes. 
mi seolue he f ohte t 
driue vt of mine cuffe. 



Ac of him hit his iworfe ^ 
so his of fa foxe. 
MO wane he his boldest ) 



DESCRIPTION OF A FOX-CHASE. 129 



^fen an yam walde. 

*^ hafeC his'fulle plo3e^ 

^ fancies ino^e. 

'^i' wildscipe climbitS ^ 

^^d cluden iseched. 

^ l>an wildeme ) 

*^ol^ him wurchet$. 

*^re wha swa auere fare ) 

^^uetJ he naeuere nae^ie kare. 

*^e wene* to beon of du- 

baldest aire deoren. 
I>e;fe si^ciS him to ) 
segges vnder beor^en 
mid homen mid hunde t 
mid ha^re stefenen. 

liunten )>ar talieS ) 

liundes ]>er galietS. 

|>ene vox driueiS ) 

^eond dales & ^eond dunes. 
he ulih to pa holme t 

A his hoi isechetJ. 

' M uirste aende ^ 

' >an holle wendetS. 

f^^ne is fe balde uox ^ 

^^Jssen al bideled. 

* ^non him to-delueiS ^ 

°^ aelchere heluen. 

^He beoiS fer forcutJest^ 

"^Oren aire pruttest 

^^^wesChildriche^ 

P^U strongen & fan riche. 

^^ lK)hten al mi kinelod ) 

^Utten an his a^ere hond. 



ouenan fe wolde. 

and haue)> his folle pleay ^ 

and foweles inowe. 

for wildsipe clembef * 
Mf and dudes he seche)>. 

in yzn wilde cleues t 

holes he sechef. 

fare wo se far fare ) 

nauep neuere nanne care. 
«o he wene)> yzt he be ))anne I 

boldest aire deore. 

Ac wane sief him to ^ 

hontes onder borewe. 

mid homes mid hundes ^ 
m mid he^ere stemne 

hontes )>ar taliep t 

houndes )>ar galie]>. 

J>ane fox driuef ^ 

^eond dounes and dales. 
MO )>anne flicp he to ]>an 
cleoue ^ 

and his hoi sechef. 

in to fan forrest ende t 

of fan hole he wendef. 

fanne his f e bolde fox : 
MS blisse' al bi-dealed. 

and man him to-dealue]»^ 

in cuereche halue. 

fanne his forcoufist 

deor aire protest. 
2T0 So was Ghildriche t 

fe strange and J>e riche. 

he fohte al min kinelondt 

sette on his owe hond. 
6* 



I30 



ARTHUR'S RESOLVE. 



ah nu ich faabbe hine i- 

driuen ! 
to fan bare d^etSe. 
whasBer swa ich wulle don ' 
oBer slaen oBer ahon. 
Nu ich wulle jifen hIgriS? 

& leten hine me speckcn 

nulle ich hine slse no ahon ! 

ah his bode ich wnlle fd. 
;isles ich wuUe habb6' 
of hffixten his monnen. 
hors & heore wepnen ; 
XT heo heone wenden. 
and swa heo scullen wnec- 

chen' 
to heoren scipen liBen. 
sxilien ouersael 
10 sele heore londe, 
& fer wirdliche! 
wunien on riche, 
and tellcn tidende* 
of ArtSure lilnge. 
hu ich heom habbe ifre- 

for mines fader saule. 
& for mine freo-dome! 
ifrouered fa wrsecchen. 
Her wes AriSur fe king J 
ai5clen bidreled. 
nes ]>er nan swa rehj mon 1 
fe him dursie r^den. 
fet hiro of-fuhte saerel 



ac nou ich habbe bine 

T> to |>an bare deafe. 
wafer so ich wolle don 
ofer s!en ofer an-hon. 
Nou ich wolle jefiie him 

and lete hine speke me 
wif. 
m nolle ich bine slean ne an- 
hon i 

al his bede ich wolle don. 

ich wolle habbe jislesi 

offe hehtest of bismanne. 

hots and hire wepnel' 
u her hii wende ine. 

so hii solle wreccbes) 

to hire sipes wende. 
sayli oners^; 
to hire owe londe. 
g and far worflicei 
wonie on hire riche. 
and tellen tydinde! 
of Arthur fan king& 
hou ich hi ifroured ! 

t for mine fader saule. 

and for mine fredome! 

ifroured fe wrecches. 

Her was Arthur fe king; 

afele bi-dealed. 
1 nas far non so reh mon i 

fat him Jorste reade. 

fat him of-fobte* 



CHILDRIC GIVES HOSTAGES AND DEPARTS. 131 



sone per after. 
Childhc CO of comela t 

to AitSure ysm kinge. 

& he his moQ fer bi-com I 

mid bis cnihten alle. 
Feouwer and twenti jisles * 
Childric per biushte. 
alle heo weoren icorene t 
and liseh^e men iborenne. 
beo bi-tahten heo re hors I 
and beore burnen. 
scaftes & sceldes ^ 
& longe beore sweordes. 
al beo bi-laefden ^ 
fax heo fer haefden. 
Forts heo gunnen sijen ^ 
^t heo to sas comen, 
yeT beore scipen gode^ 
bi fere sse stoden. 
Wind stod on willed 
weder switJe murie. 
be scufen from ]7an stronde ^ 

scipen grete & longe. 
ysLi lond heo al bilaefden } 
Sc li^en after v6en. 
^t naene siht of londe ^ 
iseo heo ne mahten. 
pat ^-ater wes stille ) 
after beore iwille. 
beo lette to-somne^ 
saeiles gliden. 
bord wi9 borden^ 



sone far after. 

Cheldrich com of com- 
elan^ 
■M to Arthur J^an kinge. 

and he his man )>ar bi- 
com^ 

and his cnihtes alle. 

Four and tweti hostages ^ 

Childrich far bi-tahte. 
no alle hii weren i-core i 

and be^e men i-bore. 

hii bi-tahte hire hors^ 

and al hire wepne. 

scaftes and seldes^ 
tu and al hire sweordes. 

al hii bi-lefden^ 

fat hii far hadden. 

Forf hii gonne wende ^ 

fat hii to s6e come, 
tio far hire sipes gode ^ 

bi fare [s6^] stode. 



and hi hii souen fram fan 
londe ^ 
w hire sipes stronge. 

and wende forf so longed 
fat no lond hii ne seh3e. 

sM pat weder was stille ^ 
after hire wille. 
and gliden to-gaderes^ 
and wordes speke. 



U2 



ins TREACHERY. 



bcorncs per spiled en. 
sxklcn |>at hco wolden t 
eft to f issen londe. 
& wreken wurdliche^ 
heore wine-mxies. 
& westcn Allures lond^ 
& leoden aqucllcn. 
and castles biwinnen ^ 
& wilgome wurchen. 
Swa hco litJcn after sae ^ 
efne al swa longe. 
fat heo commen bir^'i3e J 
i^nglelonde & Normandie, 
lieo wenden heore lofes^ 
& liSen toward lode. 
fat heo comcn ful iwis ^ 
to Dcrte-mutJe at Totteneis. 
mid muchelere blissc^ 
heo bujen to fan londe. 
Sone swa heo a lond comen ^ 
fat fulc heo aslo^cn. 
fa cheorles heo ulojen^ 
fe tilcdc fa eor8en. 
heo hengen fa cnihtes ) 
fa biwustcn fa londcs. 
allc fa podc wiues^ 
heo stikeden mid cnifes. 
alle fa maidene^ 
heo mid morSe aqualden. 
and f aie iloerede men ^ 
heo laiiden on glede. 
Alle fa hcoreiio-cnauen t 
mid clibben hco a-qualden. 
heo vcUcdden fa casilesi 
fat lond heo a-wxster 



and saide fat hii wol 
eft to f isse londe. 



MO and westen Arthur loi 
and his folk cwelle. 



Hii wende hire loues^ 
and tornde to f isse londe 
uo fat hii come foliwis t 
to Dertemuf at Totenas. 



Sone so hii a lond corned 
ssf fat folk hii a-slowe. 

f e cherles hii hilden ^ 

fat telcde far erf e. 

fe cnihtes hii an-hong^ 

fat were in fan londe. 
MO alle fe gode wifes ^ 

hii stckede mid cnifues. 

alle f e maidene t 

mid morf re hii acwelde. 

and alle fe learedemen^ 
m hii caste in fore. 



n 



0\JI^\GE.S COMMITTED BY THE DANES. 133 



J>a chuecVien \ieo for-bam- 

den"*. 
l>aluw vres on folke. 
I>a sukcnde children ) 
lico adroien inne wateren. 
pal orf ]»at heo nomen^ 
a.1 heo sloven. 
to heore inne ladden^ 
and sude and bradden. 
al heo hit nom) 
]>at heo neh comen. 
Alle daei heo sungen^ 

of Ardure fan kinge. 

and saeiden fat heo haue- 
den ^ 

hames biwunnen. 

fae scolden heom i-halden ) 

in heore onwalden. 

& fer heo wolde wunien * 

wintres & su meres. 

And 3if AriSur weoren swa 
kene^ 

fat he cumen wolde, 

to fihten wi^ Childrichen ^ 

fan strongen & fan richen. 

heo wolden of his rugge ^ 

makien ane bnigge. 

and nimen fa ban alle^ 

l)f aCele fan kinge. 

and teien heom to-gadere^ 

mid guldene tejen. 

and leggen i fare halle- 
dure^ 

fer aech mon sculde uoi^ 
&ren. 



no pe cheorches hii for- 
bamde^ 
f e chastles hii afulde. 



fat horf fat hii nome ^ 
m al hii of-slowe. 

to hire ine hii hit ladde^ 

and sude hit and bradde. 

al hii hit neme ^ 

fat hii neh come, 
no Al day hii songe^ 

of Arthur fan kinge. 

and saide fat hii hadde t 

homes bi-wonne. 
woche hii wolde holde^ 

•SB 

wyntres and someres. 
and 3ef Arthur were so 

kene^ 
fat he comen wolde. 
too to fihte wif Childrich ^ 
fan strong and fe rich. 
We wollef of his rugge* 
makien one brugge. 
and nime f e bones alle ^ 



IM 



and tije heom to-gadere^ 

and legge heom in fare 

halle-dore t 
far ech man sal forf &rc. 



13* 



THEIR EXULTATIONS. 



to wuriSscipe Chil[dri]chei 
^an strongen & f^n riche. 
pis wes al heore gomel 
for ArtSures kinges sceome. 
ah al hit iwraB on oiSeri 
Bone fer after, 
heore jelp and heore g6e t 
ilomp heom seoluen to 

scSe. 
& swa deC wel iwiere! 
)>e mon J>c swa ibereS. 
Childric ]>e kaisere biwoni 
al )>at he lokede on. 

he nom Sumeiselel 
& he nom Dorseie. 
and al Deuene-scire ! 
fat vok al for-ferde, 
andhe Wiltun-scirel 
mid wiCere igrielte. 
be nom all efa. londes^ 
in to ]Kere sx strode. 
pa set fan lastei 
fa lette heo blaw5. 
homes 4 bemenl 
& bonni6 his ferden. 
& foriS he wolde bujen ' 
& BaSen al bili^en. 
and £0 firistouwe ! 
abuien birouwen. 
pis was heore ibeot 1 
aer heo to BaSe comen. 
To BaSe com J»e kseisere i 
& bilffii fene castel fere. 
& fa. men wiS innen ! 



pis was at hire game! 
for Arthur fe kinges same, 
ac al hit iwarf ofer) 
• sone ]>ar after. 

heore jeolpand hire game' 
ful jam seolue to grame. 

so dof> wel iware i 

fe man fat vuel wirchef. 
» Childrich al a-won ! 

fat he mid ehjene lokede 
on. 

he nam Somer[se]teJ 

he nam Dorsete. 

and in Deuenissire : 
It fat folk be for-ferde. 



he nam alle fe londesi 
to fare s6& strondes. 
s poatfan lastel 



he bannede his ferde. 

and saidefat he wolde! 
H Bafe bi-ligge. 

and eke Brustouwe! 

a-boute bi-rowe, 

pis was hire broc i 

are hii to Bafe come. 
m pider wende fe ca)-serl 

and bi-lay Bafe f er. 

and fe men wif inei 



ARTHUR LAMENTS HIS CLEMENCY. 135 



ohtliche agunnen. 
stepen uppen stanene wal ^ 
wel iwepned ouer al. 
& wereden fa riche ) 
wi5 fan stronge Childriche. 
per lai f e kaisere ^ 
& Colgrim his iuere. 
& Baldulf his brother ^ 
& moni an ot$er. 
ArSur wes bi norSe^ 
and noht her of nuste. 
ferde 3eod al Scotlond ^ 
& sette hit an his a3ere 

hond. 
Orcaneie & Galeweie ^ 
Man & Murene. 
and alle fa londes ^ 
fe f er to laiien. 
ArSur hit wended 
to iwisliche f inge. 
fat Childric ilitJen weoren^ 
to his a^cnc londc. 
and fat he^^aucre maere^ 
nolde cumen here. 
pa comen fa tidende^ 
to Arthure kinge. 
fat Childric fa koeisere ^ 
icumen wes to londen. 
and i fan su9 ende t 
screen f er worhten, 
fa Ar8ur seide^ 
aSelest kingen. 
Wala wa walawa ^ 
fat ich sparede mine iua. 
fat ich nauede on holte ) 



ahlice a-gonne. 
wen den vppe ston wal ^ 
i» wel iwepnid oueral. 
and werede fe richer 
wif fan stronge Childriche. 



«io 



Arthur was bi Norfe^ 
and noht her of nuste. 
he wende oueral Scotlond ) 
4tf and sette hit in his owe 
hond. 
Man and Organeye t 
Morayne and Galeweye. 



4M Arthur hit wended 

fat hit sof were. 

fat Childrich were ichord ) 

to his owe londe. 

and fat he neuere more ^ 
488 nolde comen here. 

po comen fe tidynge^ 

to Arthur fan kinge. 

fat Cheldrich fe cayser^ 

icome was to londe. 
4M in fan suf cande ^ 

harmes he wrohte, 

fo saide Arthur^ 

boldest aire kinge. 

Wolawo ^ 
4«s fat ich sparede mine fo. 

fat ich naddc on holte \ 



136 



HE RESOLVES ON VENGEANCE. 



mid htlgere hine adefed. 



otJer mid sweorde ^ 

al hine to-swugen. 

Nu he me ^ilt mede^ 

for mire god dede. 

ah swa me haelpen drihten t 

fx scop l^s daeies lihten. 

f er fore he seal ibiden * 

bitterest aire baluwen. 

harde gomenes^ 

his bone ich wulle iwurSen. 

Colgim & Baldulf^ 

beiene ich wulle aquellen. 

& al heore du3et$e ^ 

daet$ seal iSolien. 

3if hit wule ivnnen^ 

waldende hafnen. 

ich wulle wuriSliche wre- 

ken^ 
alle his wither deden. 
3if me mot ilasten ^ 
fat lif a mire breosten. 
& hit wulle me iunne^ 
fat i-scop mone & sunne. 
ne seal nauere Childric^ 
xft me bi-charren. 
Nu cleopede ArSur^ 
aSelest kingen. 
Whar beo ^e mine cnihtes ^ 
ohte men & witJte. 
to horse to horse ) 
he haletSes gode. 
and we sculled bu^en^ 
touward BatSe swit5e. 



mid honger hine a-cwell- 
ed. 

ofer mid sweorde^ 

al hine to-swonge. 
m Nou he me jelt mede ^ 

for mine god hede. 

al so me helpe drihte t 

fat sop f is dai3es lihte. 

he hit sal a-bugge ^ 
4TS 3ef ich mote libbe. 



and Colgrim and Baldolf ^ 
be}Tie ich wolle acwelle. 

iw and alle hire cnihtes ^ 
deaf soUe folic, 
jef hit wole drihte^ 
fat alle f inges dihtef . 
ich [wolle] worfliche a- 
wreke ) 

4M al his wifere deades. 
3ef hit mot i-laste ^ 
fat lif in mine breoste. 



MO ne sal neuere Cheldrich I 

eft me bi-chorre. 

Nou cleopede Arthur^ 

boldets aire kinge. 

Ware be je mine cnihtes ] 
«M ohte men and wihte. 



nou we mole wende t 
toward Baf es eande. 



HANGS THE HOSTAGES— GOES TO BATH. 137 



LetetS up fusen \ 

he^e forke. 

& bringetS her ya jaesles • 

bifore ure chihtes. 

and heo scullen hongien t 

on haeje treowen. 

per he lette fordon ^ 

feouwer and twe[n]ti chil- 

derren. 
Alemainisce me^ 
of swide h^e cunnen. 
pa come tidende t 
to Ar5ure yzn kinge. 
Jnit seoc wes Howel his 

maei^ 
per fore he wes sari, 
i Clud hgginde^ 
& per he hine bilaefde. 
Hi^nliche swi^e^ 
for8 he gon litJe. 
)»at he bihalues Bade^ 
beh to ane uelde. 
per he alihte ^ 
& his cnihtes alle. 
and on mid heore bumen t 
bcomes sturne. 
& he a fif da&le t 
dxlde his ferde. 
pa he hafde al iset^ 
and al hit isemed. 
ya. dude he on his burned 
ibroide of stele. 
fe makede on aluisc smil5^ 

mid atSelen his crafle. 



\eicf hongy ye jisles \ 
Mf yai hii ous bi-toke. 
par he lette for-don ^ 
four and twenti children. 

Alamainisse t 

of swi)>e h^e cunne. 
m po com tydinge t 

to Arthur y^m kinge. 

)>at seak was Howel his 
may^ 

far vore he was son. 

faste liggende ^ 
iu and so he hine bi-lefde. 

and he an hi^enge ^ 

toward Bafe wende. 

po he nehlehte ) 

bi-halues fan toune. 

910 

he hehte alle his cnihtes. 
an mid hire brunies^ 

and he a fif deale t 
nt to-deale to-dealde his ferde. 



And he warp on him * 
one brunie of stele. 
SM fat makede an haluis 
smif^ 
mid his wise crafte. 



138 DESCRIPTION OF ARTHUR'S ARMOUR. 



he wes ihMit Wygzi I 
fe witeje wurhte. 
His sconken he heledei 
mid hose of siele. 
Calibeome his sweortft 
he sweinde bi hb side. 
bit wes iworhc in Aualuni 

miS wijcle-fulle craflen. 
Halm he set on hafdei 

hseh or stele. 

^T owes moni jim-stonj 

al mid golde bi-gon. 

he wes Vderes * 

yas aSelen kinges. 

he wes ihaten Goswhit! 

ffilchen oiSere vnilic 

He heng an hissweore* 

Eenne sceld deore. 

his nome wes on Bruttisc! 



he was i-hote Wigar! 

Jie wittye wrohte. 

His le^es he belede^ 
• mid hosen of stele. 

Calibume his sweord! 

he sweinde bi his side. 

hit was i-wroht in Auy- 
lunl 

mid witfolle crafte. 
a One helm he sette on his 
beued^ 

heje of stele. 

{rar an was mani jemslonl 

al mid golde bi-gon. 



he was ihote Goswihtl 
alle ot>er onilich. 
He heng on bis swere^ 
one sceald deore. 
his name was in Brut- 



Pridwen ihaten. 

|>er wes innen igraueni 

mid rede golde siauen, 

an on-licnes deore i 

of drihtenes moder. 

His spere he nom an 

honde 1 
yn Ron wes ihaten. 
pa he hafden al his iwe- 

den' 
)ia leop he on hts steden. 
pa he mihte bihalden 2 
)ia bihalues sioden. 



Pridewyn ihote, 
]jat was bine igrauedl 
on aulichnisse of golde. 
J>at was mid isope '. 
u drihtene moder. 
His spere he nam ar 

)>at Ron was ihote. 

po he hadde al his wede' 

fo leop he on his siede. 

B po hii mihte bi-holde ; 

)iat par bi-halues were. 



HE INCITES HIS MEN TO THE ONSET. 139 



fene uaeireste cniht t 

^e verde scolde leden 

ne isaeh nseuere na man^ 

selere cniht nenne. 

^ene him wes Ar6ur. 

atSelest cunnes. 

pa cleopede ArSur^ 

ludere staefne. 

Lou war her biforen us t 

hetSene hundes. 

)>e slo^n ure aldere ^ 

mid ludere heore craften. 

and heo us beofS on londe t 

IsetSest aire "pige, 

Nu fusen we horn to ^ 

& staercliche heom leggen 

on. 
Sc wraeken wunderliche ^ 
ure c& & ure riche. 
& wreken ]>ene muchele 

scorned 
ysLt heo us iscend habbeoiS. 
)>at heo ouer vSen ) 
comen to Derte-muCen. 
& alle heo beotJ for-swor- 

ene^ 
& alle heo beo^ for-lorene. 
heo beol$ for-demed alle ^ 
mid drihttenes fulste. 
Fuse we nu forC ward • 
uaste to-some, 
sefne al swa softe \ 
swa we nan ufel ne ]>ohten. 
and l^enne we heo cumetS 



]>ane fairest cniht^ 
^i ferde sal leade. 



po cleopede Arthur ^ 

loudere stemne. 
•TO Lo war her bi-vore ous t 

heaj^ne hundes. 

)>at oure eld re slo^e t 

mid hire lu]>er craftes. 

and hi ous beo)> on londe ^ 
ITS lo)>est aire )>inge. 

Nou wende to heom ^ 

and starlige 3am legge an. 



MO and wreken )>ane mochele 
same^ 
f2i ous hii do habbe]>. 



for alle hii beo]> forswo- 

ren^ 
and alle hii beo)> for-loren« 



140 CHILDRICS MEN LEAP TO HORSE. 



mi seolf ic wullen on-fon. 

an aire freomeste ^ 

yzi fiht ich wulle bigin- 

nen. 
Nu we scullen riden ^ 
and ouer lond gliden. 
and na man bi his liue^ 
lude ne wurchen. 
ah faren Isestliche^ 
drihten us fulsten. 
pa riden agon ^ 
ArSur the riche mon. 
beh ou[er] waelde^ 
& Bat$e wolde iseche. 
pa tidende com to Child- 

riche ^ 
]^an strongen & )>an richen. 

'P Ar8ur mid ferde com \ 

al ^ru to fihte. 

Childric & his ohte men ) 

leopen heom to horsen. 
igripen heore wepnen ) 
heo wusten heom ifaeied. 
pis isaeh Art5ur^ 
a^elest kinge. 
isaeh he aenne hasiSene 

eorH 
haeldo him to-jeines. 
mid seouen hundred cnih- 

ten i 
al joerewe to fihten. 
pe orl him seolf ferden ^ 
bi-foren al his genge. 



Nou we solle ride^ 

nou we solle glide. 

and al ye formest^ 

J?at fiht ich wolle bi-gynne. 
•00 nou me helpe to dai^ 

drihte ]>at wel may. 

po riden agan ^ 

Arthur the riche man. 

wende ouer wolde ^ 
fof Ba|>e to seche. 

■^e tyding com to Child- 
rich^ 

fa,ne stronge and y^ne 
rich. 

J?at Arthur mid ferde ^ 

)aru c5 to fihte. 
tio Cheldrich mid his ohte 
men^ 

leopen heom to horse. 

and grepyen hire wepne * 

hii wisie 3am i-fei]>ed. 



nt 



po iseh Arthur an eorH 

holde him to-jenes. 

mid soue hundred cnihtes^ 

al jam to fihte. 
no pe eorl him seolf ferde ^ 
bi-vore al his genge. 



ARTHUR SMITES DOWN BOREL. 141 



& Ar5ur him seolf arnde, 

bi-uoren al his ferde, 

Ar8ur J>e raeie ) 

Ron nom an honde. 

hestrahtescaftstaercne^ 

stilSimoden king. 

his hors he lette irnen ^ 

}>at J?e eorSe dunede. 
Sceld he braid on breostn ^ 
}>e king wes abol^en. 
he smat Borel f ene eorl ) 
|>urh ut fa breosten. 
J>at f2e heorte to-cha ) 
and fe king cleopede anan. 

pe formeste is feie t 

nu fulsten us drihte. 

and ]>a hefenliche quene^ 

]ya drilitcn akcde. 

J)a cleopede ArCur ^ 

atSelest kinge. 

Nu heom to nu heo to ^ 

}>at formest is wel idon. 
Bruttes hom leiden on^ 
swa me seal a lut$ere don. 
heo bittere swipen jefuen ^ 
mid axes and mid sweordes. 
per feolle Cheld riches men t 
fulle twa fusend. 
sw-a neuere Ar8ur ne les^ 
naeuere aenne of his. 
fer weoren Saexisce men. 
folken aire aermest 



and Arthur him seolf ^ 
bi-vore al his ferde. 
Arthur J>e bolde ) 
his spere nam an honde. 



his hors he makede ear- 
nee^ 

)>at al fe erfe dunede. 
no Sceald he breid to breoste t 

pe king was a-bolwe. 

he smot yan eorl ) 

)»orh vt fe breoste. 

fat J>e heorte to-chon ^ 
m and fe king cleopede 
anon. 

pe formeste his oure ^ 

nou helpe ous drihte. 



Nou heom to nou heom 
to^ 

fe formeste his wel idon. 

Bruttus heom leide on t 
6i5 so me sal J>e lufer don. 

bitere swipes hii ^euen ^ 

mid axes and mid cniues. 

far folle Childreches men ) 

folle two fousend. 
«o so neuere Arthur ne leas ^ 

on of his manne. 



143 CHILDRIC'S FLIGHT OVER THE AVON. 



& )>a Alemainisce men^ 
^eomerest aire leodexu 
Ar8ur mid his sweorde^ 
faeie-scipc wurhte. 
al )>at he smat to ^ 
hit wes sone for-don. 
Al waes ye king abol3en t 
swa bi^ |>e wilde bar. 
|>ene he i yzxi maeste ^ 
monie [swyn] imete)'. 
pis isaeh Childric^ 
& gon him to charren. 
& beh him ouer Auene^ 
to burden him seoluen. 
And ArSur him laec to t 
swa hit a Hun weoren. 
& fusde heom to flode ^ 
monie f er weoren feie. 
J>er sunken to fan griide ^ 
fif & twenti hudred. 
fa al wes Auene stram ^ 

mid stele ibrugged. 
Cheldric ouer fat wate flaeh ^ 

mid fiftene hundred cnihten 

fohte for5 sitJen ^ 
& ouer sae li^en. 
ArSur isaeh Colgrim^ 
climben to munten. 
bu3en to pan hulled 
fa ouer BatSen stondetJ. 
& Baldulf beh him after ^ 
mid seoue f usend cnihtes. 



Arthur mid his sweorde \ 

bitere swipes swipte. 

al fat he smot to ^ 

hit was sone for-do. 
MO Al was f e king a-bolwe * 

so his f e wilde bor. 

wane he in fan masted 

many swyn i-metef. 

pis i-seh Cheldric ^ 
Mi and gan him to flende. 

and iwende ouer Auene ^ 

to bor^e him fram arme. 

And Arthur heom leop to ^ 

ase hit a lyon were. 
•70 and wende him to flode ^ 

and manie weren faeie. 

far sunke to fan grundel 

souene an twenti hundred. 

fat al was fe strem of 
Auene ^ 
m mid stele i-brugged. 

Childrich ouer fan water 
fleaf^ 

mid fiftene hundred cnih- 
tes. 

he f ohte forf wende "5 

and ouer see saily. 
•80 Arthur isah Colgrim t 

clembe to on hulle. 



and Bandolf wende after ^ 
•u mid soue f ousend cnihtes. 



COLGRIM AND BALDULF'S RETREAT. 143 



heo pohten i hulle t 

haehliche at-stondeiu 

weoxien heom mid wepnen. 

& AiiSur awaemmen. 

pa isseh Ar6ur^ 

atSelest kingen, 

whar Colgrim at-stod ^ 

Sl see stal wrohte. 

ysL clupede )>e king i 

kenliche lude. 

Balde mine I^eines^ 

buh^eS to )»a hulles. 

For ^erstendaei wes Colgrim ^ 



monnen aire kennest 

nu him is al swa ]>ere gat ^ too 

^r he l^ene hul wat 

hash uppen hulle ^ 

fehtelS mid homen. 

^enne comed f e wlf wilde ^ 

touward hire winden. roc 

peh pe wulf beon ane ^ 

bute aelc imane. 

& fer weoren in ane loken t 

fif hundred gaten. 

fe wulf heom to iwiteS 1 no 

and alle heom ahitet$. 

Swa ich wulle nu to daei ^ 

Colgri al fordemen. 

ich am wulf Sc he is gat ^ 

fe gume seal beon feie. m 

pa ^et cleopede Art$ur ^ 

atSelest kingen. 

jurstendaei wes Baldulf ^ 



hii ]>ohten o ysm halle ^ 
hehliche at-stonde. 



po cleopede )^ king ^ 

kenliche loude. 

Bolde mine cnihtes ^ 

boue]' to )>an hulle. 

For 3orstendai was Col- 
grim^ 

man aire kennest. 

nou hi his ase wo ase ft 
got^ 

]>ar he )>ane hulle wot 

heh vppen hulle ^ 

fihte)> mid homes 

wane comef fe wolf ^ 

wilde toward him winde. 

peh fe wolf be one ^ 

wi|) home heni imone. 

and far were on flockes ^ 

two hundred gotes. 

f e wolf to witef ^ 

and alle a-bitep. 

So ich wolle nou to dai • 

Colgrym for-deme. 

ieh ham wolf and he got \ 

fat sal deaf folic. 

3et him spekef Arthur ^ 

baldest aire kinge. 

jorstendai was Baldolf ^ 



■ 44 BALDULF AND CHILDRICS REVERSES. 



cnihten aire baldesL 

nu he stant on butle * i 

& Auene bi-haldeS. 

hu Hget i)>an stneme? 

stelenc ^sces. 

mid sweorde bi-georedeJ 

heore sund is awemmed. » 

hcore scalen wleoteS 1 

swulc gold-faje sceldes. 

yer fleoteB heore spiten i 

swulc hit sp^ren weoren. 

pis beofi seolcuSe }>ingi r. 

isijen to fisso londe. 

swulche deor an hulle! 

swulche fisces in walle. 

jurstendsei wes l>e kaisere ) 

kennesl aire kingen. i 

nu he is bicumen hunte i 

& homes him fulieS. 

flihS oucT bradne \ne\d \ 

beorkeK his hundes. 

he hafeS bihalues BaSeni i 

bis huntinge bilaefued. 

freom his deore he flictS i 

& we hit scullen &llen. 

and his balde ibeot! 

to nohie ibrigen. i 

and swa we scullS bnikien 1 

rihte bi-jKten. 

Efnefian wordei 

|>a pe kig seide. 

he bncid haeje ^is sceld 1 i 

forn to his breosten. 

be igrap his spere longe' 

bis hors he gon spurie. 



cniht alee baldest 
I nou he stond on hulle'! 
and Auene bi-ho1de^. 
hou liggef in fan streme! 
stelene fisces. 



pis wonderes beof * 
isije to londe. 
soch fis in wille : 
socb deor on huUc 
jorstenday was Cheldrich! 
ken nest aire kinge, 
nou he his bi-come hontel 
and homes him folwe|>. 
flicp ouer brodne feld ) 
borke)> his hundes, 
I he haue]) bi-halues Ba)>e ! 
his homynge bi-lefued. 
fram his deor he flicf i 
we hit solle falle. 



Efne ^n worde 1 

fat |>e kingsaide. 

he breid hehje his scelde? 

vp to his breoste, 

he grop his spere longe : 

and gan his hors sporie. 



THE ONSET UPON COLGRIM. 



Neh al swa swi i 
swa pe fujel flijeC n 

fuleden fgm kinge 1 
fifandtwenti }>u5cnd. 

wode under wepnen. 

hseldti to hulie' n 

mid hsehjere sirSglSe, 

and uppen Colgrime smiten ) 

mid swiSe smaerte biten. 

andColgrira heom |ierhente! 

and feolde )>a Bruttes togrilde. ii 

i pan uormeste r«se : 

fulle fif hundred. 

pat is£h ArSur! 

aSelesi kingcn. 

and wraS hi him iwrieSSed \ i 

wunder ane swiSe. 

and pus clcopien a-gon i 

Aifur )>e hxhje ma. 

War beo je Bruttes ; 

balde mine beomes. n 

her stondet us biuoreni 

vre ifan alle ieore. 

gamen mine gode 1 

le^Le ue heom to grunde. 

Artur igrap his sweord riht 1 » 
& he sraal Knne Sexise cniht 

^ ^ sweord f wes swa god 2 

Bet: pan topen al-stod. 

& he smat enne oter ) 

pat wes pas cnihtes broker, n 



Neh al so swipe ' 
I so pe fowel fliep. 
folwcde pan kinge! 
fif and twenii pousend. 



1 bii wende to pan huUel 

mid baldere strengpe. 

and vppe Colgri smite! 

swipe smorte bites. 

And Colgrim ^am hende ; 
1 and Tulde pe Bruttus. 

in pe forsie rease' 

foile fif hfldred. 

pis isah Arthur! 

IS and wrappede him swiped 

and cleopie agani 

Arthur pe hehje man. 

Ware be jeo Bruttes i 
t bolde mine cnihtes. 

here stondep vs bi-vore J 

oure Ton al icore. 

go we mid isunde ? 

and Icgge we heom to 
grundc. 
) Arthurgrophissweordriht! 

and smot ane Sasisse 
cniht. 

pal pe sneord pat was so 
god J 

at pe midilcl bit astod. 

and he smol on oper 1 
4 pes cnihtes broper. 



146 ARTHUR SMITES DOWN COLGRIM, 



y3t his halm & his haefd 1 

halden to gninde. 

J>ene J^ridde dunt he sone jaf ^ 

& enne cniht atwa claef. 

J)a weoren Bruttes^ w 

swil$e i balded. 

& leiden o )>an Saexen ^ 

lae^en swi stronge. 

mid heore speren longe t 

and mid sweoreden swil$e 

stroge. m 

Sexes fer uullen ^ 
& feie-sih makeden. 
bi hundred bi hundred^ 
haelden to ]>an grunde. 
bi )>usend and bi l^usend^ no 
J?er feollen aeuere in pene 

grund, 
pa iseh Colgrim t 
waer Ar8ur com touward him. 

ne mihte Colgri for J>an 

waele^ 
fleon a nare side. 
J>er faeht Baldulf ^ 
bi-siden his broker. 
pa cleopede ArtJur^ 
ludere stefne. 

Her ich cume Colg>m t >io 

to cut5t5en wit scullen raechen. 
nu wit scullen fis lond dalen^ 
swa fe bitJ aire latJ^est 



)»at his helm and his 

heued t 
wende in ]^n felde. 
J^ane ]>ridde dunt he sone 

^eaf) 
and one cniht he al to- 

cleof. 
po weren Bruttus ^ 
swife ibolded. 
and leiden on fe Saxisse. 
mid hire stronge mihte. 



yaX Saxisse ]>ar folle t 
manie to grunde. 



po iseh Colgri^ 

war Arthur com toward 

him. 
ne mihte he fliht makie t 

•M in neuere one side. 



po saide Arthur^ 
to Colgrim }>an kene. 



Nou we solle })is kinelond » 
deale ous bi-twine. 



AND STRIKES OFF BALDULFS HEAD. 147 



JEfne fan worde \ Efne fan word ) 

fa f e king saeide, m fat fe king saide. 

his brode swaerd he up ahof ^ his brode sweord he vt 

droh^ 
and haerdliche adun floh. 
and smat Colgimes haelm. 



f be amidde to-claef. 
and fere bur§ hod^ 

fat hit at fe breoste at-stod. 
And he sweinde touward 

Baldulfe^ 
mid his switJre hode 
& swipte fat haefued of J 
foiiS mid fan helme. 
pa loh ArSur t 
fe ali^ele king. 
and f us ^eddien agon t 
mid gomenfulle worden. 
Lien nu fere Colgim ^ 
f u were iclumben ha3e. 
and Baldulf fi brother ^ 
liU bi fire side. 
nu ich al fis kine-lond^ 



and vppe Colgrim his helm 
smot. 

no and to-cleof fane brunie 
hod^ 
fat hit at fe breoste. 
And he a wifer sweynede^ 



to Baldolf his brofer. 
and swipte fat heued of ^ 
forf mid fan helme. 
po loh Arthur fe king^ 

and f es word saide. 



no Li nou far Colgr>'m ^ 
f e were iclemde to he3e. 
and Baldolf fin brofer^ 
lif bi fine side, 
nou ich al fis kinelond t 



sette an eorwer ah^ere bond. 8S5 sette in ^oure tweire bond. 

dales & dunes t 

& al mi drihtliche uolc. 

pu clumbe a f issen hulle ^ 

wunder ane hae^e. 

swulc fu woldest to haeu- 

ene^ 
nu f u scalt to haelle. 
fer fu miht kenned 
muche of fine cunne. 



3e clemde to heh^e^ 
vppen fisse hulle. 
840 ase feh ^e wolde to heu- 
ene^ 
ac nou ^e mote to helle. 
and fare ^eo mawe kenne \ 
moche of ^oure cunne. 



148 CADOR IS SENT AGAINST CHILDRIC. 



And gret I>u fer Henges:; 

J>e cnihton wes fajerest. 

Kbissa & Ossa 1 

Octa & orpine cflne ma. 

jml hide heom fer wunie; 

wintres & sumcres. 

& we sculien on londc^ 

libben in blisse. 

bidden for eower saulen ! 

pat sel ne wurt:>en beom 

& sculien her xuwer ban * 

biside Bade ligen. 

AiiSur fe king cleopede ! 

Cador (tene kene. 

of Comwale he wes eorl i 

fe cniht wes swiSe kene, 

Hcrcne me Cador i 

ya xn min aje cun. 

Nu is Childric iulo^en! 

& awsiward itohjen. 

he JwncheS mid isundel 

ajcn cumcn liiSen. 

Ah nim of mire uerde ! 

fifpusend monncn. 

& fareS fortS rihics i 

bi dteie & bi nihte. 

[Kit fu cumrae to pare sec i 

bi-foren Childriche. 

and al pal |iu miht biwl- 

bruc hit on wunnen. 

4 jif J>u miht fene kaiserei 



And grelep fare Hengest 
M( pat v.as cniht Tairest 
Ebissa Octa and Ossa! 
and of pine cunne rao, 
and bide heom pare woni^ 
wyntres and someres. 
(u and we sollen here 
londe i 
libbe in blisse. 



Arthur po saide? 

to Cador pe kene, 

of Cornwale he was eor-^ ' 

pat was a cniht kene. 
m Hercne me Cadorl 

pou hart min eorl deore. 

Nou hisChildrich a-floje? 

and a-weiward itowe, 

andpenchep mid isunde' 
11 ajein hider wendo. 

Acnimofmineferdel 

Jif pousend manne. 

and farpe forp riht! 

bi daie and bi nihL 
ra pal pou come to pares^! 

bi-vore Childriche. 

and al pat pou miht bi- 

brouket hit mid wonne. 
and jcf pou miht pan 
ca)*ser' 



IZ ADVANCES TOWARDS TOTNES u) 



uellen fere. 


•II eniwise a-cwelle far. 


ifue (o tnede^ 


ihcfejefelomedeJ 


>ete. 


al Dorsete. 


leaSele kingi 


Onnefe hadde fe klg^ 


1 hafede issid. 


pat word ibroht to pc 




hende. 


jrong to horse i 


n> pat Cador ne spanig to 




horse i 


re himdoh of fure. 


ase spare dop of fure. 


.uel-usendi 


follesouepusend! 


j>aH eorle. 


folwede pan eorle. 


ekene? 




elofhiscunne. 


m 


ouer woldesl 


hii wende ouer feldesi 




and ouer wildemes. 


esand ouerdunesi 




jpe wateres. 




u8e |tene wxi i 


m Cador coufe pane way! 


■d his cunde laei. 


pat touward his cufpe lay ; 


te he wende fuli- 


and an hijenge wende fo- 




il wis ^ 


ard Toteneis. 


riht touward Totenas. 


id nihics^ 


daijesandnihtes; 


}>ere forii rihles. 


■• forte he com per forp 




rihtes. 


ere Childric nuste 1 


Childrich nofing nuste! 


jrae nane custe. 


of his come no custe. 


om to cu«i5e ! 


Cador com to cuppe i 


1 Childriche. 


bi-fore Cheldriche. 


ihi fusenbiforen; 


•M he lette wende him bi- 




vore : 


indes folc. 


al pat londes folk. 


) ful jepe : 


cheorles fol )epe! 


bben swiSe gnete. 


mid clubbes wel grete. 


;ren and mid gnete 





'SO 



cADOR's stratage:w. 



to fan anc iroren. 

anddudenticomailecbne^ •« and dude jam alle deanc: 

into |>an scipen ^unde. into pan sipes grGde. 

9l hxbte heom |>ere lutie and hehte heom lotie wcr 

fat Childric of heom neore fat Cheldrich nere nc=: 



& fenne his fok come* ■» 
A in wolden dimben. 
heore botten igripen* 
and ohlliche on smite n. 
mid heore wajen and mid 

heore speren i 
murtSren Childriches heren. m 
Al duden fa cheorles! 
swa Cador heom txhte. 
To fan scipen wenden 1 
witSer-fulle cheorles. 
in £uer xlche scipe* » 

oder hair hundred. 
And Cador fe kene baehl 
in toward ane wude ha;h. 
fif mile from fan studei 
fEer fas stoden fa scipen. m 
and huddc hine on willeJ 
wader ane siille. 
Childric com soel 
ouer wa!d liSen. 
waldc to fan scipen flcon i tm 
and fuscn of loden, 
Sone swa Cador isffih! 
fal wes fc l:ene corl. 
fat Childric wes an corSf^ni 
bilweonenhIardl';"icln;orlcn.w 
fa dupedc Cador i 



ac wane his roltccome* 
and in wolde clembe. 
Nimef joure badtes* 
and habtliche jou storitrrj*. 



AI dude fe cheorles? 
ase Cador jam tahte. 
To fan sipes wend \ 
wiferfoUe cheorles. 
in euereche sipei 
ofer half hundred. 
And Cador fe lene behl 
and toward one wode leh, 
fif mile frS fan stude* 
far fe sipes stode. 
and hudde him an wile ! 
wonderHche stille. 
And Cheldrich com sone) 
ouer dounes wende. 
wolde to fan sipes fleoni 
and stelcn vt of londe. 
Sone so Cador pis iseh ' 
fat was fe eorl kene. 
fatChildrich wasbi-twixe! 
him and fe cheorles. 
fo saide Cador) 



HE EXHORTS HIS MEN TO THE ONSET. i;i 



ludere slefne. 

^Vser beo je cnihCes* 

ohte men & wihie. 

I|»enched what Arduri « 

fre is ore a8ele king. 

at BaVen us bi-sohte i 

^r -we wenden from hirede. 

I-eou war fuseS Childric I 

&■ fleo wule of [onde. >* 

and )>encheS lo Alemaine : 

^r beo6 his Ecldren, 

and wule bi-;i[en ferdei 

and Kfi cumen hidere. 

md wule faren hider in i •• 

iQd j>eocheCawnekoColgrim, 

»nd Biltiuirhisbro«er. 

^ li BkCen resieS. - 

Ah DO abide he nEuere fxre 

dajenl 
"^acalhenojifwemajen. m 
-Efne fere spaeche ; 
f* spac |)e eor! riche. 
**^*^ On uest he gon rid§ I 
f^ 'eh wes on modeo. 



loudere stemne. 
Ware beo je cnihles! 
oh:e men and wihEe. 
IfencheC »-al Anhurl 
^t his oure aire touerd. 
at Bape vs bi-sohte. 
are we fram him wendc. 
Lo war wende|> Cbildrich ) 
and l^re wole of londe. 
and Jienchep to Alemaine ! 
ware wonief hia eldre. 
and wole a-winne ferde i 
and e(i pis lend sec he. 

for to a-wreke Colgrim. 
and Baldolf his bro)>er. 

Ac ne abide we neuere 

^ne day \ 
ne sal he no ^f ich mav. 
Efne )ian speche ? 
pat spac |>e eorl riche 



'^'denutofwudescajel 
^^'kes swiSe kene. 
f^'i after Cheldriche; 
■C** strongcn & )ran nchcn. 

, ^Idriches cnihtes J 

. '"^hjen heom baften. 

_ "5n ouer wolden J 

l^den heore-msrken. 

^ftnicn ouer ueldesi 

^ l»u;M sceldes. 



1 hii teopen vt of wodc ; 

ase hit lyons were. 

and after Cheldnch! 

|>an kcne and fan riche 

Cheldreches cnihtes^ 
ii'isehje bi-hinde. 



hearne ouer feldes! 

fif jKiuscnd scealdes. 

i« fariwarfChcldrichl 



152 CHILDRICS KNIGHTS FLEE TO THE SHIPS 



•Tf 



MO 



chxrful an heorten. 
and |)as word saeide • 
pe riche kaisere. 
pis is AdSur ye kingt 
ye alle us wule aquellen. 
flco we nu biliue t 
& in to scipen fusen. 
and litSen forS mid watered 



ne recchen we nauere wudere, 
pa Childric pe kaisere^ 
j>as worde haeuede isaeid. 
fa gon he to fleone \ 
feondliche switte. 
& Cador ye kene t 
com him after sone. mi 

Childric and his cnihtes \ 
to scipe comen fortS rihtes. 
heo wenden fa scipen stronger 
to sculuen from fan londe, 
pae cheorles mid heore hot- wo 

ten^ 
weoren f er wi"5 innen. 
fa botten heo up heouen t 
& adun riht slojen. 
f er wes sone isla^en ^ 
moni cniht mid heor wah^- ms 

en. 
wis heore pic-forcken \ 
heo ualden heom to grunde. 
Cador & his cnihtes ^ 
sloven heo baften. 
pa isah Childric ) 
j) heo ilomp liCerlic. 
fa al his folc mucle ^ 



sorf folic in heorte. 
and fes word saide^ 
f e riche cayser. 
pis his Arthur fe king* 
fat al vs wole a-cwelle. 
fleo we nou swif e t 
and in to si[p]e wende. 
and wende forf mid wed- 



ere* 



1000 



ne reche we neuere wodere. 
po Childrich fe cayscre^ 
f is word hadde isaid fare. 
fo gonne hii to fleonde^ 
feondeliche swif e. 
and Cador fe kene^ 
com 3am after sone. 
Childrich and his*cnihtes* 
to sipe come forf rihies. 
hii wende f e si pes stronge^. 
seue fram fan londe. 
pe cheorles mid hire bat- 

tes^ 
weren far wif ine. 
f e battes hii vp houen ^ 
and a-dun rihttes slowen. 
far was sone isla^e ^ 
mani cniht mid hire wa- 

wes. 
mid hire pic-forken* 
feolde heom to grtlde. 
Cador and his cnihtes. 
slowen heom bi-hinde. 
po iseh Cheldrich. 
fat him bi-fullc luferlich. 



THEY ARE SLAIN BY THE CHURLS. 153 



'an grude. 
1 he fer bilalues I 
nte mare hul. 
r lit$ per under ^ 
le is ihate. 
ihaten Teinnewic ) 
ird flaeh Childric 
5e swa he mihte ^ 
iwer & twenti cnihten. 
Cador^ 
a uerde fer. 
aisere flaeh ^ 
rde l>ae hulle taeh. 
lor him after ^ 
5e swa he mahte. 
; to tuhte ^ 
•f-toc sone. 
Cador t 
iwiSe kene. 
id Childic^ 
e fe 3efen Teincwic. 



lOM 



he fleoI> to one hulle 1 
}>at Teyne his i-hote. 
to fan hul of Teyniswich ^ 
swij>e fleoh Cheldrich. 
1010 so swipe so he mihte ^ 
mid four and twenti cnihtes. 
pat iseh Cador I 
ou hit fo ferde fSLT. 



lOU 

he him went after ^ 

so swi)>e so he mihte. 

and him of-tok sone^ 

in lutele tyme. 

po saide Cador fe eorl * 
loso pat cnih was swipe kene. 

Abid abid Cheldrich ^ 

ich wole jeue pe Teynes- 
wich. 

Cador his sweord a-hof^ 
lotf and he Cheldrich of-sloh. 

Many f o far flo^en ^ 

and to fan watere tojen. 

and far hi a-dreinte ^ 

for Cador his hei^e. 
low al Ca[dorJ a-fulde^ 

fat he CMS'ik funde. 



is sweord an-hof ^ 
i^^hildric of-sloh. 
•e f er flu3en ^ 
atere heo tub3en. 
ne fan watere t 
for-wurtJen. 
• awxlde t 
lie funde. 
ime heo crupen ito 
ude^ 

he heo f er for-dude. 
>r hcom haueden alle po Cador fat fiht hadde 



:umen 



ouercome t 



"54 



CADOR ESlABLlSiliiS PEACE. 



and sec al )>at lond inumen. im and fM lond to him 

nome, 
be sette git swiSe god* 
fat |>er after longe stod. 
Jieh selc mon beere an honde 1 



beh^es of golde. 

ne duiste naucre gauie nan } 

oKeme ufele igten. 



he sette grif swif e god i 
Jat par after longe stod. 
feh ech man bere s 

bonde i 
bejes of golde. 
I ne dorste no gome * 
oJ»[er] vuele igiete. 



SELFXTIONS 



FROM 



THE ANCREN RIWLE. 
Division of the treatise intoeight parts. 



l^u mine leoue sustren, feos boc ich to dele on eihle 
^^stinctiuns, )>et ^e clepietJ dolen, & euerich dole wii5ute 
^onc^lunge speketS al bi himsulf of sunderliche f incges 

* ta.uh euch on vallet$ riht efter oj>er & is f e latere euer 
*^icd to tJe vorme. 

J>e vorme dole speketJ al of ower seruise. 
J>e oj^er is, hu ^e schulen J>urh ower vif wiltes witen 
^^"cr heorte }>et ordre, & religiun, & soule lif is inne. 

* l^isse distinctiun beoC fif cheapitres alse vif stucchenes 
^^r }>e vif wittes, yet wite^ fe heorte alse wakemen 
^'^'^rse heo beoC treowe, & speked of euerich wit sunder- 
*^^4ie areawe. 

J>e )>ridde dole is of ones kunnes fuweles fet Dauid 
'^"^ sauter efnetJ himsulf to, alse he were ancre^ & hu feo 
^'^'* nde of )>eo ilke fuweles beotJ ancren iliche. 

J)e veor8e dole is of fleschliche vondungesA of gostliche 

& kunfort a3eines ham, & of hore saluen. 
pe vifte dole is of schrift, 
pe sixte dole is of penitence. 

pe seouentSe dole is of schir heorte, hwi me ouh, & 
i me schal I&u Crist luuien ) & hwat binimetS us his 
ue, & let us to luuien him. 

pe eihtutSe dole is al of fe uttre riwlel erest of mete & 

drunc & of oCer finges J>et falletJ t5cr abuten ; f er efter 

^^ffeo )»inges fet je muwen underuon ^ & hwat |>inges ^e 



156 FALSE AND TRUE ANCHORESSES. 

muwen witen & habben ; |>erefter, of ower cloSes 4 of 
swuche ^inges ase 6er abuien ualleS i tier efter of ower 
doddunge, & of ower werkes, & of ower blod letungc'. 
ower meidenes riwle a last hu je bam scbuUen luueliche 



FALSE AND TRUE ANCHORESSES. 

Two cunne ancren beotS pet ure Louerd spekcS of, & 
sei8 in pe gospelle! of false, & of treowe. "Vulpes 
foveas habeni, & volucresceli nidos :"petis, '■ voxeshabbeB 
Iiore holes, & briddes of beouene here nestes. " pe uoses, 
pet beo6 pe valse aacren, ase vox is best wisest, peos habbe<5 
he seiiS ure Louerd, hore holes inward ter eortk-, mid 
eorSliche unCeauwes, 4 diaweiS al imo hore holes, pet heo 
tnuwcn arepen & arechen. pus beoS pe gederinde ancreD 
of god, iSe gospelle to uoxes iefned. pe uox is ec a 
wrecche urcch best, & fret swu8e wel mid allei & te 
vaUe ancre drauhB imo hire hole & fret, ase pe uox deS, 
boSe ges & henhen, am habbeS after pe uoxe a simple 
semblaunt sume cherrc, & beoS pauh ful of gile, & makiett 
ham oCre pen ha l>eo8, ase uox de8 ! is ipocrite & wene8 
fone gilen God, ase heo bidweolieS simple men, & gileS 
mest ham suluen, GelstreS, ase pe uox de6, & ^IpeS of 
hore god, hwar se heo durren & muwen 2 & cheflefi of 
idel, & so swuSe worldlicb iwurfieS, pel, anont hore 
nome, ha stinkeS, ase pe uox deS per he ge8 forCi vor 
jif heo doS vuele me seiS bi ham wurse, 

peos eoden into ancre huse ase dude Saul imo hole! 
nout ase Dauid pe gode. BoSe pauh heo wenden into 
hole, Saul & Dauid, ase hit telle? ine Regum. Auh 
Uauid wende [in him for lo clensen! ach S?ul wcnde] 
pider in vorte don his fulSe perinne, ase de5, among moni 
mon, sum uniseii ancre, went into hole of ancre huse 
vortc bifulcn pene stude, & don dcrneluker perinne lies- 



FALSE ANCHORESSES LIKE FOXES. 157 

liche fulCcn, J>en heo muhte jif hec weie amidde J>e 
worlde. Uor hwo haueS more eise te don hire cwead' 
schipes jwn haueS fe ualse anere? pus wende Saul into 
hole uort te bidon Jiene stude 2 auh Dauid wcnde fider in 
one uor to huden him urom Saul pet him hatede, & 
souhte uorte s^enne^ & so deC ye gode ancre. Saul, J>et 
is )>c ueond, hateS & hunteS efter hire! & heo deS hire 
into hire bole, uorte huden hire vrom his kene dokes. 
Heo hut hire in hire hoie, boJSe vrom worldliche men & 
worldliche sunnen \ & forSi heo is gosiliche Dauid \ yet h, 
strong to jein ye ueond, and hire lire lufsum to ure 
Lonerdes eien. Vor al so muchel sci8 J>is word Dauid, on 
Ebreuwische leodene, as strong tojcin J>e ueond, pe 
ualse ancre is Saul, efier fet his name seift' Saul, abu- 
lens, siue abusio, Vor Saul, on Ebreuwisch, is mis- 
notinge an Engliscbi ant le valse ancre mis-note8 
ancre nome. Vor heo witeti unwurftliche ancre nome 1 
& al {let heo euer wurchcS. Auh J>e gode ancre is 
ludil, as we er seiden, fet is bitund, ase heo was 2 & 
also ase heo dude, vesteS and wakiet!. swinketS & wercJS 
bere. Heo is of pe briddes pet ure Louerd spekeS of, 
efter pe uoxes! pc mid bore lustes ne holiefi nout adune- 
ward, ase do8 pe uoxes, pet beoS false ancren * auh hab- 
heS up an heih, ase briddes of heouene, iset bore nest, 
fet is hore teste. Treowe ancren beoK briddes bitocnd 1 
vor heo leaueS pe eortte, pet is, pe luue of alle eorSliche 
finges, & purah jirnunge of heorte to heoucnliche pinges, 
vleoS upward, touivard heouene. Ant tauh heo vleon 
heie, mid heih lif & holi, heo holdeS pauh pet hcaued 
lowe puruh milde edmodnesse, ase brid vleoindc buhtS pet 
hcaued lowe, ant lete8 al nouht wurS pet heo wcl doS, & 
wel wurcheC; & siggeS ase ure Louerd lerede alle his, 
"Cum omnia bene fecerilis, diciie quod ser\'i inutiles 
estis:" "Hwon je habbctS al wel idon," be sei8, ure 
Louerd, " siggeC f je beoS unnute prelles." FleoC heie, 



158 TRUE ANCHORESSES LIKE BIRDS. 

& holdeS (lauh fet heaued euer lowe, pe hwingen fel 
bercS hara upward, Jwt beo8 gode peauwes I>el heo luoteD 
Sturien into gode werkes, ase brid hwon hit wule vieon 
siare$ his hwingen. Auh |>e treowe ancren J^t we efneS 
to briddeai nout we )>auhl auh deS God. Heo spredeS 
hore hwingen, ant makieS a creoiz of ham suluen, ase 
brid de8 hwon hit flihfi, («t is, ine )>ouhte of heone, & 
ine bitlernesse of fiesche, bereS Codes rode, peo briddes 
fleoS we] |>et habbeS Intel flesch, ase ]ie pellican hauet, 
4 monie uederen. pe sieorc uor his tnuchele flesche 
makeS a semblaunt uorte vIeon, & beateS fe hwingen! 
auh fet fette drauhB euer to per eortie. Al riht so, flesch- 
lich ancre fet luueiS flesches lusles & foluweS hire eise, J>e 
heuinesse of hire flesche & flesches unfieawcs binimeS 
hire hire vluht? & tauhheo makie semblauni, and muchel 
noise mid te hvringen, )>et is, lelen of a.se |iaub heo fluwe 
& were an holi ancre. Hwo se jeorne bihalt, he lauhweS 
hire to bisemareJ for hire uette euer, ase deB Jie sCrorkes, 
(>et beoB hire lustes, draweS hire to }>cr eortSe. peos ne 
beo* nout iliche Jie pellican J>e leane, ne ne vIeoiS nout an 
heihi auh beoU eori5 briddes, & oestej o l>er eoriSe. Auh 
God cleope8 pe gode ancren briddes of heouene, ase ich 
er seide ; " Vutjjes foveas habent, & volucres celi nidos." 
Voxes habbeS hore holes, & briddes of heouene hore 
nestcs. Treowe ancren beoJS ariht briddes of heouene (>et 
fleot( an heih, ant sitteti singinde murie oCe grene bowes! 
pet is, pencheS uppand, of pe blisse of heouene, pet 
neuer ne valeweS, auh is euer grene, & sitleS o pisse 
grene, singinde swuSe murie i pet is, resteB ham inne 
Bwuehe pouhie, & habbeS muruhtSe of heorte, ase peo 
pet singeS. Brid pauh, o8er hwule, vorte sechen his mete 
uor pe vlesches neode, lihteS adun to per eorfie* auh peo 
hwule pot hit sil o per eorJSe, nis hit neuer siker, auh bi- 
went him ofte, & bilokeS him euer jeorneliche al abuten. 
Alriht so, pe gode anrre, ne vleo beo neuer so heie, heo 



A RELIGIOUS HOUSE, A BIRD'S-NEST. 159 

mot lihten oSer hwules adun to fer eortSe of hire bodie, 
eien, drinken, slepen, wurchen, speken, iheren of pet 
neodeS to, of eoriSliche pjnges. Auh )>coDne, as J>e brid 
dee, heo mot wel biseon hire, & biholden hire on ilchere 
half, fet heo nouhwar ne misnime, lesie heo beo ikeiht 
|iunih summe of pe deofles gronen, oCer ihurt summes 
weis, yt hwule f heo sit so lowe. peos briddes habbeS 
nestes, he seiiS, ure Louerd, " Volucres celi habent 
nidos." Nest is herd, of prikinde pomes wiSuten, & 
wifiinnen nesche & sofie : & so schal ancre wifiuten polien 
herd in hire viesche, & prikinde pinen. So wisliche heo 
schal pauh swenchen pet flesch, pet. heo muwe sigen, mid 
te psalm wuruhte, " Fortiludinera meam ad te cuslodiam V 
j>et is, ichuUe witen mine sCrencBe, Louerd, lo pine bi- 
houe * & forSi beo^ flesches pinen eftcr euerich ones efne. 
pet nest schal beon herd wiSuten <& sofie \vi4tinnen, & te 
heorte swete, peo pet beo* of bitiere, oScr of horde 
heorte, & nesche to hore viesche, heo makiefi frommard 
hore nest — sofie wi^ulen, & porni wiKinnen, pis beoS 
pe weamode & te estfule ancren, bilire wiSinnen, ase pet 
Bwete schulde beon, & estfule wiSuten, ase pet herde 
schulde beon. peos ine swuche neste mmven habben 
herde restc bwon heo ham wel biiSencheS. Vor to leate 
heo schulen bringen vortS briddes of swuche ncslei pet 
beoK gode wcrkes, vorte vieon louwa:ii heouene. lob 
cleopeS per ancre hus nest i 4 seifi ase pauh he were ancre. 
"In nidulo meo moriari" pet is, ichuUe deien imine 
neste, A beon as dead perinnei vor fet is ancre rihte; & 
wunien uort heo deie perinne, pet is nultich neuerslakien, 
pe hwale pet mi soule is imine buke, to drien herd witS- 
aten, al so ase nest is, & sofie beon wiSinnen. 

Of dumbe bestes & of dumbe fueles leomeS wisdom & 
lore, pe earn de8 in his neste enne deorewurSe jimston 
pet hette achate. Vor non attri pine ne mei pene ston 
neihen, ne peo hwule pet he is in his neste hennen hie 



i6o 



OF LOVE. 



briddes. pes deorcwuriSe sion, fel is lesu Crist, ase slon 
lreowe& ful of alle mihten, Duer alle }irastoneR. He is 
fe achate fei alter of sunne ne neihede neuere. Ho hine 
iSine nesie, Jtet is, i8ine heone, penc hwuch pincn he 
folcde on his flesche wifiuten, & hu swete he was iheoned, 
& hu softe witinnen ! & so )iu schalt driuc ut eucrich atier 
of fine heone, 4 biLtemesse of pine bodie. Vor ine swuch 
(K)uhie, ne beo hit neuer so bitter pine fet fu folest uor 
)>e luue of him fet dreih more uor )>e, hit schal [luiidie |>e 
sweie. pes ston, ase ich er seide, avleieS aiiri finges. 
Habbc )m [lesne ston wiJSine fine heorte, pet is Codes nest. 
ne fcr tu nout dreden (« attrie neddre of helle. pine 
briddes, f bcoC fine gode werkes, beofl al sker of his atter. 



OF LOVE— A PURE HEART ESSSENTIAL TO LOVE 
—A PARABLE OF THE LOVE OF CHRIST— THE 
CROSS OF CHRIST OUR SHIELD. 

Seint Powel witne8 )>et alle utlre herdschipcs, & alle 
vlesshes pinun^^e, & alle licomes swinkes, al is a.se nout 
a^ean luue, fct scliireB & brih:eS fc heorte. " Excr- 
citatio corporis ad modicum ualetJ pietas autcm ualei 
ad omnia:" pet is, "'Licomliche bisischipie is lo iuu-1 
wurfi; auh suotc & schir heorte is god lo alle fingcs." 
"Si iradidero corpus mcum iia u*. ardeam ; si lingwis 
hominum loquar et angcloruml et si distribuero omiics 
facuiiates meas in cibos |>auperura, caritatem auicm non 
habcam, nichil milii prode;,!," "pauh ich kuSe," heseiS, 
"alle monneledenc Jcenglenei and pauh ich dude o mine 
bodie alle pe pinen, and alle fe jassiuns pet bodi muhte 
pollen i and pauh ich jcfde pouru men al pet ich hefdei 
but jif ich hcfde luue per mide lo God & lo alle men. In 
him & for him, al were .ispillcdV' vor, ase pe holi abbod 
Moiscs seide, " Al pet wo & al pet herschipe pel we pulieS 



A PURE HEART ESSENTIAL TO LOVE. i6i 

of flesche, & al (»e god (tet we euer doB, alle swuche pinges 
ne beoS buten ase lomen uortc tilien mide ^ heorte. 
Gif eai DC kurue, ne pe spade ne dulue, ne fe suluh ne 
ercde, hwo kepte ham uorte holden ?" Al so asc no 
mon ne luuct lomen uor ham suluen, auh deS for ]>c 
)iinges |»et me wurcheS mid ham, rihl al so, no vlcsshes 
derf nis forte luuien buie uoriSi |>et God pe raBer lokc 
)>ideward mid his grace, and makie pe hcorie schir & of 
brihte sihtSe! |>et non ne mei habben mid monglunge of 
nnSeanwes, ne mid eortSlich luue of worldliche pingesi 
uor pis mong woreS so fe eien of pe heorte pet hco ne mei 
iknowen God, ne gledicn of his sihfie. "Schir heone," 
ase Seint Bernard seitS, "makcK two pingesi pet tu, al 
fet pu dest, do hit oiSer uor luue one of God, o8er uor 
oSres god, & for his bihene," Haue, in al pel tu dcsi, on 
of peos two ententes, oSer bo logederesl uor pe latere 
ualleC into pe uorme. Haue euer sihir heorlc fus, & do 
al pet tu wilt. Haue won heorte & al pe sit vuele. ' 'Omnia 
mnnda mundis, coinquinaiis uero nichil est mundum. " 
Apostolus. St. Angustinus! " Habe caritaiem et fnc quic- 
quid uis! uolunlate, uiddicet, rationis." VortSi, mine 
leoDC subtren, ouer alle ping beoS biMC uortc habben 
scbii heorte. Hwat is schir heorte? Ich hit habbe 
iseid er : pet is, pet je no ping ne wilnen, ne ne luuien 
bnte God one, and peo ilke pingcs, uor God, pet helpc8 
on tonward him. Uor God, ich sigge, luuien ham, & 
nont for hara suluen — ase mete, & cloiS, and mon oSer 
wummon pet je beoS of igoded. Uor, ase Seint Auslin 
seiiS, Aspeket pus to ure Louerd, "Minus te amat qui 
preter le aliquid amat quod non propter le amat :" pet is, 
" Louerd, lesse heo luuiciS pe pet luuieS out buie pe, butc 
jif heo luuien hit for pe." Schirnesse of heorte is Codes 
luue one. I pissen is al fe strcncBc of alle religiuns, and 
fe ende of alle ordres. "Pleniiudo legis est dileetio." 
"Lune fbllefpe lawe," he seitS, Seinie Powel. "Quicquid 



i6a WHAT GOD HAS DONE TO GAIN OUR LOVE. 

precipilur m sola cariiaic solidatur." "Alle Godes hesten," 
ase Scint Grcgorie seiK, "beo8 ine luue iroted." Luueone 
schal bcon ileid ine Seinte Miheles weie. peo fei mest 
luuiei, feo schullen beon mest iblisced? nout feo )»et 
ledefi herdest lif! uor luue ouerweiS hiL Luue is 
beouene stiward, uor hire muchele ureoschipe, uor lieo 
ne eihalt no )>ing, auh heo ;iuctS at )>et hco haueS, & ec 
hire suluen! elles GoS ne kepte nout of al ))at hire were. 

God liaueS ofgon ure luue on alle kunne wisen. He 
hauetS muchel idon us, & more bihoten. Muchel 
jeoue of-draweS luuel me muchel )ef he us. AI (>ene 
world he jef us in Adam ureUeder! and al Jiet is iSe 
worlde he werp under ure uet — besies 4 fueles, ear we 
weren uorgulte. "Omnia subjecisti sub pedibus eju^ cues 
et boues uniuersas, insupcr et pecora campi, volncres 
ceii et pisccs maris, " &c. And jei al Jjet is, ase is Jieruppe 
iseid, serue8 ]je gode, lo f>e souk biheuei jeie pe vuck 
seruetS eorS, seea, and sunne [viz. sol]. Get he dude 
more : he jcf us noul one of his, auh dude al him 
suluen. So heih jeouc nes neuer i;iuen to so louwewrec- 
ches. Apostolus: " Christus dilexit ecclesiam et dedil se- 
melipsum pro ea." Seinte Powel seit!, "Crist luuede 
so his leofraon pet he jef for hire |>e pris of him suluen." 
NimeS god jcme, mine Icoue sustren, uor hwi we ouh 
him to luuicn. Erest, ase a mou l>ei wowe8 — ase a king 
fet luuede one kfJi of feorreno londe, and sende hire 
his sondesmen biforen, pet wtren |ie patriarkes & fe 
prophctes of fe Olde Tegument, mid kttres isealed. A 
last he com him suluen, and brouhte ]>et gospel ase leurcs 
iopencd, and wrot mid his owune blode saluz to his 
leofmon, of luue gretunge uorte wowen hire mide, & forie 
welden hire luue. Herto uallcS a lale, and on iwrien 
uorbisne. 

A lefdi was |>et was mid hiie uoan biset al abuten, and 
hire lond al deslrued, & heo al poure, wifiinncn one 



A PARABLE OF THE LOVE OF CHRIST. 163 

eortSene castle. On mihti kinges luuc was pauh biturnd 
upon hire, so vnimcte swutSe pet he uor wouhlecchunge 
sende hire his sonden, on cfter otSer, and ofte somed 
monie^ & sende hire beaubelet botSe ueole & feire, and 
sukurs of liuenetS, & help of his heie hird to holden hire 
castel. Heo underueng al ase on unrecheleas )>ing ]>et 
was so herd iheorted fet hire luue ne mihte he neuer beon 
|>e neorre. Hwat wult tu more? He com himsulf a last, 
and scheawede hire his feire neb, ase )>e )>et was of alle 
men ueirest to biholden, and spec swuCe sweteliche & so 
murie wordes ]>et heo muhtcn |)e deade arearen urom 
deaSe to line. And wrouhtc ucole wundres, and dude 
aeole meistries biuoren hire eihsiht5e^ & scheawede hire 
his mihten t tolde hire of his kinedome t and bead for to 
makien hire cwene of al pet he ouhte. Al ]>is ne help 
noQt Nes pis wunderlich hoker ? Vor heo nes neuer 
wurt5e uorte beon his schelchine. Auh so, puruh his 
debonert^yluue hefde ouerkumen hine pet he seideon ende, 
•* Dame, pu ert iweorred, & pine uon beot5 so stronge pet 
tu ne meiht nonesweis, wi'5uten sukurs of me, etfleon 
hore honden, pet heo ne don pe to scheomefule deatJ. 
Ich chulle uor pe luue of pe nimen pis fiht upon me, and 
aredden pe of ham pet schechet$ pine dea^. Ich wot 
pauh for sotSe pet ich schal bitweonen ham underuongen 
deat$es wunde^ and ich hit wulle heorteliche uorto of-gon 
pine heorte. Nu, peonne, biseche ich pe, uor pe luue pet 
ich kutSe pe, pet tu luuie me, hure & hure, efier pen ilke 
dead deatJe, hwon pu noldes Hues." pes king dude 
al pus : aredde hire of alle hire uon, and was himsulf to 
MTundre ituked, and isleien on ende. puruh miracle, pauh, 
he aros from deat5e to Hue. Nere peos ilke lefdi of vuelc 
kunnes kunde, ^if heo ouer alle ping ne luue him her 
efter ? 

pes king is lesu Crist, Codes sune, pet al o pisse wise 
wowude ure soule, pet pe deoflen heueden biseL And he. 



i64 THE CROSS OF CHRIST OUR SHIELD. 

ase noble woware efter monie messagers, & fcole god 
dcden, com uorto preoucn his luue, and scheawede puruh 
knihtschipe Jwt he was luue-wuide^ aseweren sumewhule 
knihtes iwuned for to donne. He dude him ine tnme- 
roem, & hefde uor his leofmonnes luue, hisscheldc ine 
uihce, ase kene kniht, on eueriche half i-)>ur1ed. pis 
scheld )>et wrcih his Godhed was his leoue licomc )>et W3s 
ispred o rode, brod ase scheld buuen in his i-sireibt ear- 
mes, and neruh bincotfen, ase |>eon uot, efter )>et me 
weneC, sete upon |re oSer uote. pet pis scheld nauet! none 
siden is forto biiocnen f«t his deciples, pet schulden 
stonden bi him, and i-beon his siden, vluwen alio urom 
him & bilefden him ase ureomedel as pe gospel sei4S, 
"Relicto eo, omnes fugerunt." pis scheld is i-jiuen 
us ajean alle tcmptaciuns, ase Jeremle witneS* " Dabis 
scutum cordis, laborem tuura," & Psalmista, " Scuto bone 
uolunta-.is tue coronasli nos." pis scheld ne schilt us nout 
one urom alievuelesi auh delt jet more^ hit kruneC us in 
heouene. "Scuto bone uoluntatis tue," Louerd, heseJ, 
Dauid, mid pe scheld of pine gode wille, Vor, wllles he 
polede al pet he polcde. Ysaias. "Oblatus est quia 
uoluit." Me, Louerd, pu seist, hwarto? Ne muhle he 
mid lesse gref habben ared us? Ge siker, ful lihtliche! 
auh he nolde. Hwareuore? Vorte binimen us euerich 
biEellunge ajean him of ure luue, pet he so deore bouhie. 
Me buS lihtliche a ping pet me luueS lutel. He bouhte 
us mid his heorte blode* deorre pris nes neuer, uoite of- 
drawen of us ure luue touward him pel kostnede him so 
deorre. Ine schelde beotS preo pinges, pet treo, and pet 
leCer, & pe peintunge. A) so was ifiisse schelde — pet treo 
of pe rode, & pet letSer of Codes licome, and pe peintunpc 
of pe reade blode fet heowede hire so ueire. Eft, V\i 
pridde reisun. Efier kene knih:es deaBe me hongett heie 
ine chirche his scheld on his muncgunge. Al so is bis 
scheld, pet is, pet crucifix iset ine chirche, ine swucbe 



i66 CLOTHING AND DISCIPLINE. 

UortSi fei no mon ne i-sihK ou, ne je i-seo8 nenne 
mon, wel mei don of ower clones, beon heo hwite, beon 
heo blake' bule t>cl heo beon unome & varme, & wel i- 
wrouhte — uelles wel i-tauwed J & habbefi ase monie asc 
ou lo-neodc6, to bedde and eke to ruggc. 

Nexst fleshe ne scha! mon werien no linene cloS, bute 
jifbit bco of berde and of greate heorden. Stamin habbe 
hwose wule! and hwose ^vule mei beon buten. Ge schU' 
Icn liggen in on heater, and i-gurd. Ne bere je non iren, 
ne here, ne irspiles fellcsi ne ne beate ou fer mide, ne 
mid schurge :-lc$creij nei-leadcdi nemidhoHe, ne mid 
breres ne ne biblodge hire sulf wiJSulen schriftes leaue! ne 
ne nime, et enes, to ueole disceplines. Ower schone beon 
greate and warme. Inc sumer je babbcB leaue uorio gon 
and siiien baruoL^ and hosen wituten uaumpez! and 
ligge ine ham hwoso like*. Sum wummon inouhreaSe 
wcreB fe brech of beare fill wel i-knoiled, and pe sirap- 
eles adun to hiri; uel, i-iaced ful ueste. Gif je muwcn 
beon wimpcl-leas, beo6 bi warme keppen and |)eTuppon 
blake ueiles. Hwose wule beon i-scien, )>auh heo atiffe 
hire nis nout muchel wundcri auh to Codes eien heo is 
Infsumere, Jiet is, uor fe luue of him, uniiffed wiSuten. 
Ring, ne brochc nabbe je \ ne gurdel i-menbred, nc 
glouen, ne no swuch ping pet ou ne deih forto habben. 

Euer me is leoucre so je don gretlure werkes. Ne makie 
none purses, uorte ureonden ou mide! ne blodbendes of 
seolkel auh schepicS, and seouweC, and amendeB chirche 
cloties, and pourc monne clo'Ses, No ping ne schule je 
jiuen wiSuten schriftes icaue. Heljiefi mid ower owunc 
swinke, so uori5 so )c muwcn, to schruden ou suiuen and 
pco pet ou serueS, ase Seint Jerome lereiS. Ne beo 



je neuer i 



.rihtcs pe ueond bcot hir< 



were pel ine Codes werke ne wurchcSJ and he tuteleS 
anonrihtes touward hire. Uor, pco hwule pet he isihtl 
hire bisi, pencheS pus : vnr nnut ich schulde nu kume.i 



BLOOD-LETTING, ETC. 167 

neih hire^ ne mei heo nout i-hwulen uorto hercnen mine 
lore. Of idelnesse awakeneC muchel flcsshes fondunga 
" Iniquiias Sodome saluritas panis el ociura :" {wt is, al 
Sodomes cweadschipe cxim of idelnesse & of ful wombe. 
Iren yet liC stille gedereS sone rust! and water J>et ne 
stute9 nout readliche stinkeS. Ancre ne scbal nout for- 
wuifien scolmeisire, ne curnen hire ancre hus to childrene 
scolc Hire meiden mei, |>auh, techen sum lutei meiden, 
fet were dute of fono leomen among gromes! auh ancre 
ne oub forto jemen buie God one. 

Ge ne schulen senden lettres, ne underuon lettrcs, ne 
writenbuteo leaue. Ge schulen beon i-dodded foursiScn 
iCe jere, uorto lihten ower heauedi and ase ofie i-lelen 
blod* and oftere }if neod is! and hwoso mei bcon per 
wiSuten, ich hit mei wel i-Solien. Hwon je beo8 i- 
leten blod, je ne schulen don no ping, peo freo dawes, 
yei ou greuei auh lalkeS mid ouer meidenes and mid 
feaufule talen schurtetS ou to-gederes. Ge muwcn don so 
ofte hwon ou )>uiiche8 heuio, oKer beoS uor suinc world- 
liche pinge sorie oSer seke. So wislicbe wittS ou in our 
blod-leiunge i and holdeB 00 inc swuche reste pet je longe 
^refter muwen ine Codes seruise pe monluker swinken I 
and also hwoD je i-uele* eni secnessei vor muchel sot- 
schipe hit is uorto uorleosen, uor one deic, lene oSer 
tweolue. Wascbet ou hwarse je habbcS neode, ase ofte 
asc je wulteS. 



BENEDICTION 

O pisse boc redeS eueriche deie hwon jc beo8 cise — 
cacriche deie lesse oSer more. Uor ich hopie pel hit scbal 
beon ou, yf se je redeK ofte, swuSe biheue puruh Godea 
grace! and clles ich heuede vuele bilowen muchel of 



i6S 



THE AUTHOR'S BENEDICTION". 



mine hwule. God hit wol, mc were leouere uorto don me 
touward Rome pen uorto bigiiinen hit eft forto donne. 
And jif je iuindeB pel jedoB al so ase je redciS, ponte* 
God jeomei and jif je ne doS nout, biddeB Godcs oro, 
and beoC umbe fer abulen pet jc hit bet hoi holden, clier 
ower mihle. Vedcr and Sune and Holi Gost, and on Al- 
mihti God, he wite ou in hisw-ardel He glcdie ou, 
and fronre ou, mine leoue suslren I and, for al pet ^e uor 
him drieS and sulfreS, he ne jiue ouneuer lesse huire pen 
al-togedere him suluen ! He beoeuer i-beied from worlde 
to worlde, euer on ecchenesse 1 Amen. 

Ase ofte ase }e readeS out o pisse boc, gretciS pe lefdi 
mid oneAue Marie, uor him pet maked peos riwie, and 
for him pet hire wrot and swonc her abutetL Inouh me»- 
ful ich am, pet bidde soluicl. 



SELECTIONS 

TMOfd 

THE ORMULUM 



THE AUTHOR'S DEDICATION OF THE WORK TO 

HIS BROTHER. 

Nu, broferr Wallterr, broferr min 

Affterr fe flaeshess kinde; 

J bro|>err min i Crisstenndom 

purrh fulluhht ^ furrh trowwfe ; 

^ broferr min i Godess bus, • 

^t o f e fride wibC, 

purrb l^tt witt bafenn takenn ba 

An re3hellboc to foll3henn, 

Unnderr kanunnkess had j lif, 

Swa summ Sannt Awwstin settc ; lo 

Ice hafe don swa summ pu badd, 

"2 forJ)edd te fin wille, 

Ice hafe wennd inntill Ennglissh 

Goddspelless hall3he lare 

Afifterr )>att little witt tatt me u 

Min Drihhtin hafep)' lenedd. 

pu fohhtesst tatt itt mihhte wel 

Till mikell frame turrnenn, 

^iff Ennglissh follk, forr lufe off Crist, 

Itt woUdc 3erne Icmenn, n 

■3 foll^henn itt, ^ iillenn itt 

Wiff fohht, wifj) word, wiff dede. 

■3 forrfi ^ermdesst tu fatt ice 

piss werrc fe shollde wirrkenn; 

-} ice itt hafe forfedd te, • 

8 



ORMULUM. 

Ace all purrh Crisless hclipe ; 

■J unnc birrjt bape Jiannkenn Crist 

patt ilt iss brohht till ende. 

Ice hafe sammnecid o )>iss boc 

pa Goddspelless neh alle, 

patt sinndenn o }>e messeboc 

Inn all )>e }er att roessc. 

•^ m affterr )>e Goddspell stannt 

patt tatt le GcHJdspell raeDe]>|>, 

patt mann birr]) spellenn to )>e folic 

Offt«j)re sawlc cede; 

■J jet tier tekenn mare inoh 

pu shallt txronne findenn. 

Off ))att latt Cristess halljbe fed 

Birr)) trowwenn wet ■} foll}benn. 

Ice hafe sett her o |>ias boc 

Amang Goddspellcss wordcss, 

All )iurrh me scllfenn, manij word 

pe rime swa to fillenn ; 

Ace )>u shallt Rndenn )ratt min word, 

£);wh£er fxt itt iss ekedd, 

Majj hellpenn pa pM redenn itt 

To sen -} [unndorrsLannJenn 

All pess le betire hu Iwjjm birf]> 

pe Goddspcli unnderrsianndenn ; 

■J forTpi Irowwe ice pait te birrp 

Wei Jiolenn mine wordess, 

I^wh:er (ser pu shallt findeon hemm 

Amang Goddspelless wordess. 

For whase mot lo iKwedd folic 

Larepell off Goddspell tellenn. 

He mot wel ekenn manij word 

Amang Goddspelless wordess. 

•J ice ne mihbte nohht min ferrs 

A J) wifp Goddspelless wordess 



THE DEDICATION. 171 

Wei fillenn all, ^j all forrfi 

Shollde ice wel offte nede 

Amang Goddspelless wordess don 

Min word, min ferrs to fillenn. 

"} te bilseche ice off ]>iss boe, « 

Heh wikenn alls itt seme]>]>, 

All to t^urrhsekenn illc an fens, 

•] to purrhlokenn offle 

patt upponn all ]>iss boc ne be 

Nan word ^n Cristess lare, to 

Nan word tatt swife wel ne be 

To trowwenn j to folljhenn. 

Witt shulenn tredenn unnderrfot 

3 all fwent ut forrwerrpenn 

pe dom off all )>att la)^e flocc t* 

patt iss furrh nif forrblendedd, 

patt ta^lQpf fait to lofcnn iss, 

purrh nipfull iDodi3nesse. 

pe^^ shulenn l&tenn haepelij 

Off unnkerr swinnc, lef broferr ; m 

"] all ]>e33 shulenn takenn itt 

Onn unnitt ■] onn idell ; 

Ace nohht ))urrh skill, ace all ]>urrh n\p, 

3 all furrh pe^^re sinne. 

J unnc birr]> biddenn Godd tatt he » 

Fori^ife hemm h6re sinne ; 

•] unnc birrp bafe lofenn Godd 

Off ]>att itt wass bigunnenn, 

3 )>annkenn Godd tatt itt iss brohht 

Till ende, purrh hiss hellpe ; to 

Forr itt ma3j hellpenn alle fa 

patt blifelike itt herenn, 

"3 lufenn itt, -3 folljhenn itt 

WiJ>J> fohht, wijjf word, wij>)> dede. 

^ whasc wilenn shall f iss boc n 



ORMULUM. 

Effi open sipe wriienn, 

Himm bidde ice jiatt het write rihht, 

Swa summ fiss boc himm txcheff. 

All (iwem ut affierr )>att iu iss 

Uppo piss firrste bisne ; 

Wipp all swillc rime alls heir iss sett, 

Wipp all se fele wordess ; 

-] talt he loke wel palt he 

An bocstaff write twijjess, 

EjjwhKr prer itt uppo piss boc 

Iss wriicnn o patt wise. 

Loke he well patt het write swa, 

Forr he ne ma^j nohht elless 

Onn Ennglissh wriienn rihhlt te word, 

patt wite he wel to sope, 

■J jiff mann wile wltenn whi 

Ice hafe don piss dede, 

Whi ice till Ennglissh hafe wennd 

Goddspelless halljhe lare ; 

Ice hafe itt don forrpi patt all 

Crisstene follkess berrhless 

Iss lang uppo patt an, patt te^ 

Goddspelless halljhe lare 

Wipp fuUe mahhie rolljhe rihht 

purrh pohhi, purrh word, punh dede. 

Forr all palt sfre onn erpe iss ned 

Crisstene folic to folljhenn 

I trowwpe, i dede, all tiechepp hemm 

Goddspelless halljhe lare. 

^ forrpi whase Icrncpp itt 

•J folljhepp itt wipp dede, 

He shall onn ende wurrpi ben 

purrh Godd to wurrpenn bon^henn. 

"J tairfore hafe ice turmedd itt 

Inntill Ennglisshe spa^che, 



THE DEDICATION. 173 

Forr yaxt I wollde blifelij 

patt all Ennglisshe lede 

Wi]>]> aere shollde lisstenn itt 

Wipjj herrte shollde itt trowwenn, 

Wifp tunge shollde spellenn itt ui 

Wi|>|> dede shollde foll^henn, 

To winnenn unnderr Crisstenndom. 

Att Godd s6f sawle berrhless. 

"} 3iff J>e33 wilenn herenn itt, 

•] foll3henn itt wiff dcde, u* 

Ice hafe hemm hollpenn unnderr Crist 

To winnenn fe^^re berrhless. 

-} 1 shall hafenn forr min swinnc 

God laen att Godd onn ende, 

jiff fatt I, for )>e lufe off Godd i« 

■3 forr fe mede off heffne, 

Hemm hafe itt inntill Ennglissh wennd 

Forr pt^Tc sawle nede. 

•3 jiff fejj all forrwerrpenn itt, 

Itt turrne)))) hemm till sinne, im 

3 I shall hafenn addledd me 

pe Laferrd Cristess are, 

purrh ]>att ice hafe hemm wrohht tiss hoc 

To pejjre sawle nede, 

pohh ]>att tejj all forrwerrpenn itt im 

purrh pejjre modijnesse. 

Goddspell onn Ennglissh nemmnedd iss 

God word, 3 god ti)>ennde, 

God ermde, forrf i fatt itt wass 

purrh halljhe Goddspcllwrihhtess i«c 

All wrohht 3 writenn uppo boc 

Off Cristess firste come, 

Off hu so)) Godd wass wurrfenn man 

Forr all mannkinne nede, 

3 off l^att mannkinn Jiurrh hiss dxy w 



ORMULUM. 

Wass lesedd ut off helle, 

^ off fM he wissUke ras 

pc ^ridde da}j off dx)>e, 

■J off l>alt he wisslike stah 

pa si|)))enn upp till heffne, 

■J off ^tt he shall cumenn cBt 

To decnenn alle |iede, 

■J forr to ;cldenn iwhillc man 

Affterr hiss ajbenn dede. 

Off all )iiss god uss brinnge)>|> word 

■J ermde ^ god tijjennde 

Goddspell, -j forrfi ma^ itt wel 

God ermde ben jehatenn, 

Forr mann maj; uppo Goddspellboc 
Godnessess findenn seffne 

patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

Uss hafefji don onn er]>e 

purrh fatt he comm to roanne, ■] purrb 

patt he warrf mann onn er}>e. 

Forr an godnesse uss hafe^]) don 

pe Laferrd Crist onn erfe, 

purrh fatl he comm to wurrpenn manir 

Forr all mannkinne nede. 

Oferr godnesse uss hafe)!)) don 

pe Laferrd Crist onn erjie, 

purrh )>3tt he ^-ass i dumm Jordan 

Fullhinedd forr ure nede; 

Forr Jialt he wollde uss waterrkinn 

Till ure fulluhhthalljhenn, 

purrh fait he wollde ben hirom sellf 

Onn erfe i watert fullhinedd. 

pe pridde god uss hafeff don 

pe Laferrd Crist onn erfc, 

purrh |>alt he jaff hiss a^henn lif 

Wipjf all hiss fulle wille. 



THE DEDICATION. 175 

To folenn daepf o rodetre 

Sacclaes wi|>]>utenn wrihhte, 

To lesenn mannkinn ]>uiTh hiss dae)> 

Ut oflf |>e defless walde. 

pe krfe god uss hafe)>]> don m 

pe Laferrd Crist onn erfe, 

purrh ]>att hiss hal^he sawie stah 

Fra rode dun till helle, 

To t&kenn ut off helle wa 

pa gode sawlcss alle, no 

patt hafifdenn cwemmd himm i 'piss lif 

purrh so]> unnsha]>i^nesse. 

pe fifte god uss hafe))]) don 

pe Laferrd Crist onn erfe, 

purrh )^tt he ras forr ure god m 

pe ]>ridde da^ off daefe, 

•^ let te posstless sen himm wel 

Inn hiss mennisske kinde ; 

Forr yM he wollde fesstnenn swa 

So)> trowwfe i f e^re brestess m 

Oflf fatt he, wiss to fulle so)>, 

Wass risenn upp oflf daepe, 

"3 i l^tt illke flsesh )^tt wass 

Forr uss o rode na^^Iedd ; 

Forr )>att he wollde fesstenn wel Ǥ 

piss trowwfe i fe^^re brestess, 

He let te posstless sen himm wel 

Well oflfte si)>e onn er)>e, 

Wiff innenn dajjess fowwerrti^ 

Fra yM he ras oflf dae)>e. m 

pe sexte god uss hafeff don 

pe Laferrd Crist onn er]>e, 

purrh fatt he stah forr ure god 

Upp inntill heflfness blisse, 

"} sennde sippen Hali3 Cast w 



ORMULUM. 

Till hise Lcminngcnihhtess, 

To frofrenn ■} to beldenn hemm 

To stanndenn ^n fe defell, 

To gifenn hcmm god witt inoh 

Off all hiss haJljhe lare. 

To gifenn hemm god lusst, god mahht. 

To )>olenn alle wawenn. 

All forr pe lufe off Godd, ^ nohht 

Fon cr)>li} loff to winnenn. 

pc scffnde god uss shall ^et don 

pe L^ferrd Crist onn ende, 

puirh |>alt he shall o Domess daj) 

Uss gifenn heffness blisse, 

)iff |>att we shulenn wurr^i ben 

To findenn Godess are. 

puss hafe|){) ure Laferrd Crist 

Uss don godnessess seflne, 

puirh }>att tatt he to manne comm. 

To wur(|»enn mann onn erfe^ 

•J o )>att hall)he boc faxt iss 

Apokalj-psis nemmnedd 

Uss wrat te posstell Sannt Johan, 

purrh Halij Gastess lare, 

patt he sahh upp inn heiTne an boc 

Bisett wi|>]) seffne innsejjless, 

■J spcrrd swa swi)>e wel fatt itt 

Ne mihhte nan wihht oppnenn 

Wi)i))utcnn Godess halljhe Lamb 

patt he sahh ec inn heffne. 

■J jiurrh ))a seffne innsejjiess wass 

Rihht swipe wel biiacnedd 

patt sefennfald goddlejjc Jiatt Crist 

Uss dide l>ur[h hiss come ; 

-} tatt nan wilihl ne mihhle nohht 

Oppnenn fa seffne inns^less 



THE DEDICATION. 177 

Wi]>]?utenn Godess Lamb, )^tt comm, 
Forr |>att itt shoilde tacnenn 
patt nan wihht, nan enngell, nan mann, 
Ne naness kinness shaflfte, 

Ne mihhte l^urrh himm sellfenn ]>a m 

Sefifne goddnessess shswenn 
O mannkinn, swa (^att itt mannkinn 
Off helle mihhte lesenn, 
Ne gifenn mannkinn lusst, ne mahht, 
To winnenn heffness blisse. m 

^2 all all swa se Godess Lamb 
All purrh hiss a3henn mahhte 
Lihhtlike mihhte "} well inoh 
pa seffne innse33less oppnenn, 
All swa fe Laferrd Jesu Crist, m 

All )>urrh his a^henn mahhte, 
Wiff Faderr '} wiff Hali3 Gast 
An Godd -} all an kinde, 
All swa rihht he lihhtlike inoh 
"2 wel wiff alle mihhte no 

O mannkinn )>urrh himm sellfenn )>a 
Seffne godnessess sh^wenn, 
Swa |>att he mannkinn wel inoh 
Off helle mihhte lesenn, 

2 gifenn mannkinn lufe "3 lusst, ns 

^ mahht ■;) witt ^ wille, 
To stanndenn inn to cwemenn Godd, 
To wlnenn heffness blisse. 
■3 forr )>att halij Goddspellboc 
All piss godnesse uss shaeweff, •» 

piss sefennfald godle33C fatt Crist 
Uss dide furrh hiss are, 
Forrfi birrf all Crisstcne folic 
Goddspelless lare fol^hcnn. 

"J taerfore hafe ice turrnedd itt «• 

8* 



ORMULUM. 

Inntill Ennglisshe spseche, 

Forr )^U I wollde bli)>eii} 

patt all Knnglisshe lede 

Wipf aere shollde liasienn ilt, 

Wiff heme shollde in trowwcnn, 

Wi|>t> lunge shollde spelleno iU, 

Wiff deile shollde it folljhenn. 

To winncnn unndcrr Crisstenndom 

Alt Crist soy sawle bcirhless. 

3 Godd Allmahhtij jife uss mahht 

•J lussl -J witt -J wille 

To folljhcnti piss Ennglisshe boc 

patLall iss hall] lare, 

Swa yrnt we motenn wurrpi ben 

To brukeun hefTness bliss«. 

Am[a2n] Am[jen] Am[Kn 
Ice patt tiss Enngtissh hafe sett 
Ennglisshc menn to iare, 
Ice «-ass yxt fxi I crisstnedd wass 
Orrmin bi name nemmnedd. 
*] ice Orrmin full innwairdiij 
Wipprauji -J cc wipp heme 
Her biddc pa Crisstene menn 
patt hercnn ol^err redenn 
piss boc, hemm bidde ice her patt teji 
Forr me piss bede biddenn, 
patt broperr patt tiss Ennglissb wriU 
Allnercsst wrat ■} wrohhte, 
patt broperr forr hiss swianc to hen 
So}> blisse mote findenn. 

Am [sen]. 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION IN THE WILDER- 

NESS. 

Secundum Matheum, xx. 

Ductus est IHC in dcserium a spirUu ul templar etur a dtabolo, 

Forr)>rihht se Jesuss fullhtnedd wass, 

He wennde himm inntill wesste. 
pe Goddspell se^)) |>att he was ledd 

purrh Cast inntill )>e wesste, 
Annd tatt forr )>att he shollde ]^r 

Beon fandedd )>urrh )»e deofelL 
•3 Crist bilaef i wcssteland, 

Forr )>att he wollde fasstenn, 
"3 he toe I>a to fasstenn faer 

paer he wass i ];e wesste. 
•] all wi)>)>utenn mete "j drinnch 

Heold Crist hiss fasste )^re ium 

Fowwerrtij da^hess a^^ onnan 

Bi da^hess, 3 bi nahhtess. 
"3 whanne hiss fasste for)>edd wass 
pa lisste himm affterr fode ; 
"3 forr)>i comm )>e la)^ gast, um 

Forr I>att he wollde himm fandenn^ 
"3 let himm staness seon anan, ' 

"3 se33de fuss wipf worde ; 
)iff )>att tu Godess Sune arrt wiss, 

Mace bned off )>ise staness. iitM 

^ ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

jaff sware onn^sen 3 se33de ; 
Boc 8633]? ]>att nohht ne ma^^ )>e mann 

Bi braed all ane libbenn, 
Ace bi }>att word tatt cume}>|> ut iia<i 

Off Godess mu)>ess lare. 
3 tanne toe )^ deofell himm 



3 ORMULUM. 

iDDtill |>att halljhe cbessire 
patt iss jehatenn jerrsalsem, 

3 brohhl himm o fe temmple, 
•J sette himm hejhe uppo fe rbof 

Wi|i|iutenn att ce wajhe. 
■] tasre he sejjde fuss till Crist, 
' Swa summ pe Goddspell ki[>et>t> i 
jifT )iatt tu Godess Sune ant wiss 

Cumm ska]>el£es till eor)«, 
Do |>e nu ])urrh )>e sellfenn duD 

■J )>urrh ])in Goddcunndnesse, 
jiff fAit tu Godess Sunc ant wiss 

patt cumenn am to manne ; 
Forr writenn iss o boc fatt he 

Wei hafepp sejjd -j cwiddedd 
Forrlannge till biss enngle|jeod 

Off fe, f>atl arrt himm dere. 
Off — (att te^} shulenn jemenn fe 

Att alle fine nede, 
■) tatt tc)} shulenn t&kenn (>« 

Bitwenenn hemm wi)i{> hande, 
Swa )>ait tu nohht ne shallt tin ibt 

Uppo |ie slancss hirrtenn. 
■y ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

jaff sware onnjasn ] se^e ; 
Boc sejjl' ; fe hirrjt wel jemenn J>e 

patt tu fin Godd ne fande. 
^ jet te deordl woUde )iar 

pe fridde sife fan den n 
pe lefe Laferrd Jesu Crist, 

•J brohhle himm onn an lawe 
patt wass wel swijie st^p -j heb, 

Swa summ )>e Goddspell kifeff, 
•] let himm seon fe middellsrd 

■J allekinedomess, 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 

■J sejjde ; all piss ice jife J>e, 

jiff )iu to me willl cnelenn, 
jiff pu willt lerenn npponn me, 

■J bujhenn lo min late. 
-J lire Lafernl Jesu Crist 

jaff sware onnjsn, ■] sejjdc ; 
Ga, wipeiT gast, o bacch fra me. 

For writenn stannt o boke ; 
pe birrp bifoir fin Lafeird Godd 

Cneolenn meoclike ^ lutenn, 
3 feowwienn wcl vriff all J>in mahbt 

AllwiCldennd Drihhiin ane. 
■J sone anan affierr patt word 

Himm wennde awejj fe deofell, 
■J enngless comenn sone anan 

■J tokenn Crist to peowwtenn. 
Her endepp nu piss Goddspcil puss, 

■] us birrp itt purrhsekenn. 
To lokeno whait itt lacrepp uss 

Off ure sawlcss nede. 

patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist, 

Forrprihht summ he wass fullhtnedd, 
Wass iedd ut inntill wcssttland 

punh Gast, forr patt he shollde 
Beon fandedd puirh pe lapc gast 

p<er p^r he wollde fasslenn. 
All patt wass don purrh Jesu Crist, 

Forr mikell ping to tacnenn ; 
Ace juw birrp witenn witerrlij 

■J sikerrlike Irowwenn 
patt he wass Iedd purrh Halij Gast 

-J purrh his ajhcnn wilte 
Ut inntill wiide -j wessteland, 

To beon purrh deofell fandedd ; 



I ORMULUM. 

Forr («tt he wolldc shaswenn swa 

All inannkinn (lurrh his bisne 
Hu Cristess bird— Crisstene folic 

Birrf fihhienn jain ye deofell. 
To winnenn sije -} oferrhannd 

Off himm furrh Cristess hellpe. 
Crist for ut inntill wesstclanct 

ForT|trihht summ he wass fullhtnedd. 
To lacnenn swa Jiatt Cristess feoww, 

Forxfrihht summ he beoj> fullhtnedd; 
Birrf weorelldshipess seoll|« flen, 

■J flseshess lusst forrwerrpenn, 
All swa summ wessteland iss all 

Forrworipenn ^ forrtetenn, 
Crist comm ut inniill wessteland, 

Forr )>atl he wollde iasstenn, 
To shajwenn swa J>ait Cristess )>eoww 

Affterr fait he beo)) fullhtnedd, 
Birrf slanndenn inn to ]>cowwtenii Crist 

Wifli fasstinng •) wiff beness, 
Wi|j)i wecchcss,'] v/lff melt -y mvef 

I clapess ^ i fodc, 
■] Crist comm inntill wessteland 

To beon ))urrh deofell fandedd, 
To shiewenn swa jiatt Cristess feoww 

Affterr fait he beoji fullhtnedd 
Shall hafenn rihht inoh to don 

To stanndenn jsen )>e deofell, 
jiff he shall mujhenn jemenn himm 

Fra deofless dxme wtless ; 
Forr affterr fatl te mann iss shadd 

All l)weorrt ul fra pe deofell 
purrh fuUuhht, -j furrh Crisstenndom, 

-} I'urrh fe rihhie lasfc, 
Jterafftcrr iss fe lafe gast 



HOMILY ON THE TElAPTATION. 

jermfull viyf all hiss malihte. 
To winnenn efft latt illke mann 

purrh hise iafe wiless, 
purrh )>att he shall himm brinngenn onn 

To don snmm hEefedd sinne, 
All hise Jiannkess, all unnnedd, 

All att hiss dxshess wille. 
] laerfurrh iss jiatt crisstncdd folic 

Iss swijte full off swilike 
palt folljhenn efTt te la)>e gast, 

purrh jjait lejj deope sinness 
Unnderr fe naihe off Crisstenndom 

All Jiejjre |7annkcss foiljhenn ; 
palt ciime}>li all la Fulijwiss 

Off — l-att te deofell nsefre 
Ne blinnepii off to skrennkenn fa 

patt haffdenn himm forrworrpenn, 
] forr fatt wc ne sianndenn rohht 

Swa summ uss birrde stanndenn 
Onnjxness himm wipp halij lif, 

Ne v/iyp ]>e rihhie Isefe. 
Uss birrde all eorpli) [ting fonseon 

To winnenn itt |)urrh sinne, 
3 3^ USS birrde beon forrlisst 

Affterr )ie blisse off heoffne, 
"] xfre fihhtenn ^n |>e Hxsh 

3 jaen fe flseshcss lusstess. 
pa mihhte we pe lafe gast 

Wiflistanndenn -] wipfseggenn, 
■J winnenn slje ;] oferrhannd 

Off himm wipp Cristess hellpe, 
Crist comm ut inntill wesstcland, 

Forr )>all he woUde fasstcnn 
Fowwenti] da^hess all onn an 

Wip|>utenn iwhillc fode. 



I ORMULUM. 

Forr J>alt te tale oS towentij 

Full wel bitacncnn shollde 

patt ail )>iss middellxrd, tatt iss 

fowwre dalcss dieledd, 

Onn ,^t, o VVesst, o Suf, o Norrf, 

Birr|> lefenn uppo Criste, 
■J lufcnn Crist, -} dr^denn Crist, 

*} foll^henn Crisiess lare 
patt all t>wcrrt ut bilokenn iss 

1 tene bodewordcss, 

Swa patt te manness bodij beo 

Buhsumm forrji wifp pe sawlef 
Tocwemenn ivel Allmahbtij Godd 

Onn alle kinne wise. 
Forr tnanness bodij fejedd iss 

Off fowwre kinue shaffte, 
Oil heoffncss fir, ^ off pe lifft, 

Offwaterr, ^ offeorjie. 
3 sawle iss shapenn all off nohht, 

•J hafcp]! prinnc mahhiess ; 
Forr sawle onnfop ait Drihtitin Godd 

Innsihhi ^ minndijnesse, 
■J wille iss hire priddc niahht 

purrh whait menn immess jeoraenn, 
Forr sume jeorncnn corptij P'lg. 

■J sume ill all forrwerrpenn, 
■J jeomcnn heofennlike ping' 

To winnenn ■] to brukenn, 
■J ureGodd, AllmahhlijGodd, 

Iss an Godd -j preo hadess, 
Faderr, -j Sune, ■] Halij Cast, 

An Godd ail unntodx'ledd. 
Her uss biiacnenn fowwre ^ preo 

pe bodij -} te sawle. 
-J Godd iss her lacnedd purrhpreo. 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 185 

Forr Godd iss i ^reo hadess. 
■J jiff fu fejesst (>reo wiff preo, 

pa findessi tu )iaer sexe, 
■J jiff }a fowwre dost ixrto, uim 

pa findesst tu ^i tene, 
•J fowwre ~} freo wiff ofre freo 

Full opennli; bitacnenn 
pe bodij. -J te sawle, -j Godd, 

■J tene bodewordess, in» 

Forrjii )>att manness bodi} binj> 

Forrf vipf fe manness sawle 
Rihht lufenn Godd, rihht drscdenn Godd, 

Rihht rolljheim Godess lare 
patt all fweorit ut bilokenn is3 nut 

I tene bodewordess. 
patt ure Lafeird Jesu Crist 

Himm droh fia mete i wesste 
patl ttme ))att himm jet wass ned 

To metess -j to drinnchess, nw 

patt vass alls iff he sejjde )>US3 

Till ail mannkinn onn eor)« ; 
Whatt mann se wile cwemenn me, 

To winnenn eche blisse, 
patt illke mann birr)) drajhenn himm luw 

Fra glutermessess essiess, 
■J lUkenn forr |)e lufe off me 

Unnorne fode -} litell. 
-y tatt he si)){>enn et -} drannc 

Wi|>p hise Leominngcnihhtess, luu 

Afilerr fan be wass deed forr uss 

■J risenn upp off dajie, 
patt time ]>att himm nass nann ned 

To metess, ne to drinnchess, 
patt wass alls iff he se^de fuss iuh 

Till hise deore |)eowwcss ; 



i86 ORMULUM. 

Ice shall beon 033 occ a^j wiff juw 

Whil fait tiss weorelld lasstcff. 
To fedenn ^uw, to frofrenn 3UW, 

To wissenn juw, to gaetenn lu*: 

purrh Hali3 Gastess hellpe j hald 

Onn^xness la)>e gastess. 
"3 I shall tiikenn 3UW till me 

Alt 3ure lifess ende, 
'2 3ircnn 3UW inn heoffness acrd lua 

pe fode off eche blisse. 
patt Jesu Crist forrhunngredd wass, 

Swa summ J>e Goddspell kifeff, 
Afterr ]>att all hiss fasste wass 

Forfedd -} brohht till cnde, mio 

patt hunngerr wass fatt hall3he lusst 

patt wass i Crisstess heme, 
patt mannkinn shoUde lesedd beon 

Ut off fe deoffless walde, 
-} turmedd till fe Crisstenndom, um 

•3 till fe rihhte laefe, 
To winnenn lott furrh hali3 lif 

Oflf heofennrichess blisse. 
•3 he wass ec forrhunngredd ta, 

Forr patt he wollde shsewenn luao 

patt he wass mann o moderr hallf 

patt haffde ned to fode. 
-) he wass ec forrhunngredd ta 

For I>att te deofell shollde 
Wei wenenn )>att he waere mann, um 

Swa patt he Godd ne woere. 
] forrfi toe pe lape gast 

To fandcnn Crist i wesste, 
Forr patt he warrp orrtrowwe off Crist 

purrh nipfuU modi3nessc, nm 

Forr patt he sahh himm uscU wihht 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 187 

Inn ure mennisscnesse, 
Forr whatt he let full haefeli^ 

To lefenn -^ to trowwenn 
patt swillc an shollde mu3henn beon ium 

Sbippennd off alle sbaffte ; 
"3 foiT)>i wollde he fandenn himm, 

To cunnenn jiff he mihhte 
Onn anij wise wurr)>enn wis 

To witenn whatt he waere. um 

J be comm I>a biforenn Crist 

Inn aness weress heowe, 
^ let bimm staness seon anan, 

•3 sejjde puss wif J> worde ; 
3iff )>att tu Godess Sune arrt wiss, luot 

Mace braed off pise staness. 
purrh I>att te lape gast badd Crist 

paer makenn braed off staness, 
jiff patt he waere witerrlij 

Crist Godess Sune, off heoffne, luio 

paerpurrh he wollde warrpenn wis 

Off Crist — ^whatt wihht he waere. 
Forr jiff he wrohhte braed off stan, 

pa munnde he seon patt mahhte, 
"2 munnde trowwenn wel patt he um 

Crist Godess Sune waere. 
"2 jiff he wollde makenn braed, 

-^ makenn itt ne mihhte, 
pa waere he purrh pe lusst off braed 

I gluterrnesse fallenn, into 

•3 waere pa bikahht -} lahht 

purrh fandinng off pe deofell 
patt illke wise patt Adam 

Wass lahht purrh gluterrnesse. 
;] jiff pe Laferrd haffde poer hms 

patt wise makedd lafess 



iSs ( l^Ml'Ll'M. 

pa.L l.-IMii j!i;:':. v;'><'!v.» bci'Ielili w.i.>S, 

pa wxTc lie I'.L-r l)ik.L'cheJd. 
pc dcofcll b.ulJ liimm makenn brxJ, 

Forr |)alt he wass forrhunngredd, il^ 

Swa patt he sholldc )>urrh fc broed 

Fallenn i gluierrnesse. 
•3 ^iff |>e Lafcrrd haiTde wrohht 

Himm fode onnjx^n liiss hunngerr, 
pa wxre he furrh fe deofless croc is. 

I gluierrnesse fallenn, 
•3 nohht ne wxre he fanne Godd, 

Forr Godd ne gilllef }> na^fre. 
All swa summ Adam allre firrst 

Biswikenn wass liurrh sete, is« 

All swa bigann fe deofell firrst 

To fandenn Crist furrh aete. 
;] forrfi wass fe Laferrd tacr 

To fasstenn, forr to shaewenn 
patt tu ne mahht nohht cwennkenn rihht hm 

Nan oferr hxfedd sinne, 
^iff pu ne mahht nohht habbenn mahht 

To cwennkenn glutermesse. 
"3 forrfi birrp us allre firret 

Offtredcnn glutermesse, iiw 

Swa ])att we mu^henn habbenn mahht 

To cwennkenn ofre sinness ; 
Forr glutermesse waccneff all 

Galnessess lafe sircnncfe, 
^ all f e flaeshess kaggerrlejjc imm 

"3 alle fule lussless 
Biginnenn fiere -3 springenn ut 

Off gluterrnessess rote, 
'2 forrfi birrf mann allre firrst 

Offtredenn glutermesse, imk 

Swa |>att mann mu3he pess te bett 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 189 

Offtredenn ofre sinness ; 
Forr son se glutermesse iss da&d, 

Sone iss )>e bodi^ bridledd, 
"] si]>]>enn iss itt lasse swinnc um 

To cwennkenn ofre sinness. 
"] tatt te Lafenrd Jesu Crist 

jaff sware onn^n ■] se^de, 
Boc se^)> )>att nohht ne ma^^ pe mann 

Bi braed all ane libbenn, um 

Ace bi |>att word tatt cume)>)> ut 

Off Godess mu]>ess lare, 
patt wass alls iff he se33de )>uss 

Wifp all full openn spaeche ; 
pin egginng iss off flaeshess lusst, luri 

•3 nohht off sawless fode, 
purrh whatt ice unnderrstanndenn ma^j 

patt tu me willt biswikenn. 
Nu, laferrdinnges;*, nime]>)> gom 

Off I'iss }>att her iss trahhtnedd. ii«o 

pe deofell space off eorpli^ braed 

Off eorfli^ lifess fode, 
Forr deofell eggcff a^^ fe mann 

To foll^henn glaterrnesse. 
"] ure Laferrd Jesu Crist iims 

Space off fe sawless fode ; 
"3 3UW birrf witcnn witerrli^ 

patt jure sawless fode 
Iss i )>e lare off halij boc 

patt 3UW iss sett to folljhenn, iioio 

"] jure sawless fode iss ec, 

jiff fatt je Drihhiin ewemenn, 
1 Cristess flaesh ■] inn hiss blod 

patt jure preosless halljhenn ; 
pejj halljhenn Cristess floesh off braed, nw 

3 Cristess blod tejj halljhenn 






I90 ORMULUM. 

Off win, furrh Cristess a3henn word 

patt hafeff mahht j slrennc}»e 
To turmenn bafe breed ^ win 

Ut all off )?e33re kinde, un 

■3 inntill Cristess flaesh j blod, 

Inntill pe sawless fode, 
Off alle fa f att lufenn Crist 

■3 hise la^hcss haldcnn. 
-) whase itt iss f att nohht niss off mo^ 

To taken n wiff f iss fode 
Swa suram himm takenn birrf yadrsiff, 

Wifp dene lif ^ la^fe, 
patt mann iss fwerrt ut shadd fra Crist, 

^ dsed inn all hiss sawle. unt 

■3 whase in iss fatt nohht niss off 

To takenn wipf fatt lare 
patt cumeff ut off Godess muf, 

patt Godess fcowwess spellenn 
patt sinndenn nemmnedd Godess muf, nm 

Forr fatt ie^ Godess lare 
O Godess hallf, i Godess hus 

Till Godess leode spellenn, 
Nu — whase itt iss fatt nohht niss off 

To takenn wiff fatt lare, iit« 

patt mann iss all swa shadd fra Godd, 

■J daed inn all hiss sawle. 
Forr 3UW birrf herrcnenn Godess word 

3 haldenn itt "j foll^henn, 
;] 3arrkenn juw ■) clennsenn juw uns 

Wei ^eorne onn alle wise, 
Swa fatt 3e Cristess flaesh "3 blod 

Swa motenn unnderrfanngenn, 
patt itt 3UW mu3he berr^henn her 

pe lif "3 ec fe sawle. una 

•3 forrfi f att te Laferrd Crist 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 191 

Swillc sware ^afT fe deofell, 
patt he ne wisste nohht te bett 

Ne nohht te mare off Criste, 
pe deofell brohht himm, alls uss se^^l^ utm 

Maf f ew fe Goddspellwrihhte, 
Inntill )>e burrh off ^eirsalaem, 

-} brohhte himm o fc temmple^ 
;j sette himm he^he uppo fe rof 

Wiffutenn bi fe wa^he, imo 

Forr l^att he wollde himm fandenn ]^r, 

To wltenn whatt he waere. 
Ace juw birrj) wltenn, alls uss se^f 

Lucas |>e Goddspellwrihhte, 
patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist mia 

Wass brohht uppo fe lawe 
paer i J>e wesste Jner he wass 

Himm ane j haffde fasstedd, 
JEt }ninn he )>urrh fe la];e gast 

Wass brohht uppo ]>e temmple. utm 

Porr affterr fatt te laj>e gast 

Himm haffde twi33ess fandedd 
paere i |>e wesste faer he wass 

Himm ane -} haffde fasstedd, 
paeraffterr comm fe Laferrd Crist wu 

Till jerrsalaemess chesstre, 
^ taer wass efft te lafe gast 

Raedi^ forr himm to fandenn, 
•3 brohhte himm o J>e temmfle Jner, 

Swa summ ]ye Goddspell ki)>e)>)>, utm 

To cunnenn jiff he mihhte faer 

Ohht wltenn whatt he waere. 
Ace affterr )>att, uss Goddspell wrat 

Ma|>|>ew fe Goddspellwrihhte, 
pe laferrd Crist wass allre lattst uw 

Uppo fe lawe fandedd ; 




-y lail foiTfi forr fait Ma()]icw 

Onn hiss Goddsjieiless lare 
Uss wrileJ'J' fan te Lafcrrd Crist 

W'ass fandedd Jtinh Jic deofell 
patt illke wise (latt Adam 

I Paradys uass fandedd, 
■J brohht to grund ■] unndcrrfot 

■] i J>e deofless walde. 
Forr allre firrst wass Adam fier 

purrh gluteimesse wundcdd, 
-J aJTicrr fatt furrh idcll ^cllp 

patt i$s purrh modi^ncsse, 
■J allrc lattst he wundcdd »-ass 

purrh gredijncssi.'ss wffipenn. 
■J all pait illke wise wass 

Crist Go<!ess Sune fandedd 
Affierr patl tatt itt writepf' uss 

Majij-ew pe Goddspcllwrihhte. 
Forr allre firrst he fandedd wass 

purrh fodess glutcrrncssc, 
purrh fatt le h^ gast liimm badd 

Off staness makonn iafess. 
•J sippenn affierr pait he wass 

purrh moUijncssc fandedd, 
purrh patt tc lajte gast himm badd 

Dun Isepenn off pe lemmple. 
Forr jiff patt Crist itt haffde don 

Hiss mahhte forr to sh%wenn, 
Het haffde don purrh idei) jellp 

■} all purrh mod ijn esse. 
■J allre latist wass Jcsu Crist 

purrli gredijncsso fandedd, 
purrh pan te lape gast himm ba;d 

All weorelldrici.ess ahhte. 
Forr patt he shollde lulcnn himm 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 193 

-3 bu^henn till hiss wille. 
Ace ure Laferrd Crist ne wass 

purrh nan fandinge wundedd, 
Forr}>i ]>att he forrsoc to don nm 

pe la]>e gastess wille. 
Ne Jyinnke 3UW nan wunnderr off 

patt deofell haffde mahhte 
To brinngenn ure Laferrd Crist 

Uppo ]7att he3he temmple ; imo 

3iff Crist itt nollde J^olenn himm 

Ne dide he nohht tatt dede. 
J her ice unnderrstanndenn ma^^, 

^iff itt ice ummbe|'ennke, 
patt I me sellf all ah itt wald nm 

patt deofell ma33 me scrennkcnn, 
purrh ]7att I do min lusst taerto, 

To don summ hefi3 sinne 
patt he me ma33 wel eggenn to, 

3 nohht ne ma33 me nedenn. nm 

patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

Swa folede fe deofell 
To brinngenn himm he3he upp o lofft, 

patt dide he forr to shaewcnn 
patt uss birr]> takenn wel )^rwi]>|', iioi 

3ifirani3 mann uss laere}>|', 
To sti3henn upp till hali3 lif 

-3 upp till he3he mahhtess ; 
Forr uss birrf sone ]>annkenn himm 

Hiss wissing "3 hiss lare, um 

3 uss birrf sone f ess te bett 

"2 tess te mare uss godenn, 
"} ieehenn uppwarrd a33 summ del 

Inn alle gode dedess, 
Forr swa to cwemenn bett -3 bett um 

Drihhtin 3 mare ^ mare. 

9 



t ORMULUM. 

^ latt te Laferrd nollde nohht 

pe deofiess nillc fbrrfenn 
Off fau he badd iiiram lapenn dun, 

patt dide he forr to shaswenn 
palt uss ne birr|i nohht ukenn wip)i, 

jilT ani; mann uss egge)>)>, 
To don ohht orr to spekenn ohht 

Ofr ifdl -J ofT sinne, 
To werrsenn -j to ni|))>renn uss 

Biforenn Godess ehne. 
-J witc tu )ratt te la{>e gast 

Ajj eggepp hisc [leowwess, 
To drajhenn hemm a^ upp o lofft 

purrhnit>^ modi^nesse. 
To jeomenn affierr lafcrrddom 

•J affterr modi) wikenn, 
To beon abufenn ofre mfinn 

I stalless -J i SiGtess, 
Forr )>att he wile werrpenn hemm 

Dun inniill depe sinncss, 
To Tallenn inntill helkpiil 

■3 intill hellepine. 
Forr he dop hise )>eowwess ajj 

To climbenn upp full hejhe, 
Fofr )>alt he wile scrennkenn hemm, 

Full hefi; fait to fallenn. 
■J Crist dop hise peowwess aj) 

To meokenn hemm ] lajhenn, 
Forr |iatt he wile hemm hefcnn upp 

Inn heofennrichessblisse, 
Swa ))att tc)5 shulenn wurrpenn far 

Wipft enng-less efennrike. 
piss Godflspell sej;}! fatt Crist wass led 

Inntill fatt halljhe chesstre 
pait wass jeliatenn jerrsatem, 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 195 

To don uss tunnderrstanndenn, 
patt itt wass Godess hall^he burrh, 

Forr fXT wass Godess temmple, 
"3 taer wass Godd hehlike ^ wel nni 

Wurrfedd onn eorfe ^ feowwtedd, 
^ forrfi wass itt nemmnedd ta 

Diihhtiness hall^he chesstre ; 
-2 tatt te deofell brohhte Crist 

Uppo ]>att hall3he temmple, uwo 

patt do)y uss tunnderrstanndenn wel 

patt deofell hafe)']' mahhte 
To cumenn inntill Godess bus 

-^ inntill ball^bedd kirrke, . 
•3 forrfi birrf fe waepnedd beon n«M 

^a^n himm e^^whaer onn eorfe, 
To shildenn )>e wifp all hiss Ia]> 

punrh soffasst hope 3 trowwpe. 
•3 f urrh )nitt tatt te lafe gast 

Till ure Laferrd se^^de, um 

Do fe nu furrh fe sellfenn dun, 

paerfurrh ice unnderrstannde 
patt a33 fe deofell eggcff menn 

Dunnwarrd 3 towarrd eorfe, 
3 towarrd eorpli^ f ingess lusst, nm 

3 towarrd alle sinness. 
3 purrh f att tatt he se^jde fuss 

Till Crist uppo fe temmple. 
Do fe nu purrh fe sellfenn dun 

•3 f urrh pin Goddcunndnesse, hmo 

3iff patt to Godess Sunearrt wiss 

patt cumenn arrt to manne, 
paerpurrh mann unndcrrstanndenn ma^^ 

patt himm wass wa33 3 ange 
Off patt he nohht ne wisste off Crist, nwe 

Noff hiss goddcunnde kindew 



196 ORMXn-UM. 

■J |>urth pati tatt he drohh yxr forf 

pe bokess lare -j se^^dc, 
Forr wrilcnn iss o boc fatt he 

Wei hafefji sejjd -j cwiddedd 
Forrlange lill hiss ennglejieod 

Off }« fatt arrl himm deore. 
Off Jiait tej] shulenn jemenn )>g 

Alt alle fine nede, 
;) tatt tej3 shulenti takenn jjc 

Bitwencnn hcmm wifji hande, 
Swa })alt lu nohlit ne shalh tin fot 

Uppo t>e staness hiritenn, 
piTjmrrli mann unnderrslanndenn majj 

pall all iii;s j.ohln iss xtie 
Annd all hiss lussl lo brinngenn menn 

Ut off fe rihhie wejje. 
To don liemm lunnderr^ianndcnn wrang 

pe bokess halljhe lare. 
FoiT >a;r he loc biforenn Crist 

All wrang pe bokess lare, 
Forr fall wass sqjd off Cristess |)coww 

purrh Davl)> pe profete 
patt he droh ror|> all ails itt off 

Crist sellfenn wriienn wsere. 
Forr Drihhtin hafep]i scjjd -} sett 

Onn ennglcjteod latl wikenn. 
To jcmeun 3 10 frofrenn her 

pe Laferrd Crisless peowwess, 
Swa pall tc)) shulenn risenn wel, 

jiff pall iss )>atl tejj Tallenn 
Onn ani; wise inn ani; woh 

purrh flaeshess unntruratnnesse. 
•} nollde nohht te lafe gasl 

pa:f tlrajliunii forp, ne mailcnn 
Off pait irenffterr sone iss sejjd 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 197 

^ writenn off himm sellfenn ; 
Forr )>aer iss sett an open ferrs 

patt speke)')> off j>e deofell 
patt Godess J^eowwess gan onn himm umi 

^ tredenn himm wiff fote, 
purrh )>att 1633 stanndenn stallwurrl^li^ 

^aen all pe deofless wille 
I fe^^re fohht, i pe^rc word, 

I pc^To bodig dede, noso 

Wi))|> Cristess hellpe, -} mpp pM lif 

patt Crist iss lef ^ cweme ; 
Ace nollde nohht te la]>e gast 

patt dra3henn for)y ne shaewenn, 
Forr pzti wass, alls he wisste itt wel, nm 

Hiss a3henn shame ^ shande. 
pe deofell brohhte Jesu Crist 

Wiffutenn o pe temmple 
Upponn an saete uppo pe rof 

All alls he shollde spellenn, um 

Forr faer wass gre33|>edd s^te o lofft 

Till fa fatt sholldenn spellenn. 
^ forrfi fatt te lafe gast 

paer haffde don well offte 
patt fiocc off Issraaele f eod um 

patt laeredd wass o boke 
To fellenn unnderr idell ^ellp 

"2 unnderr modi^nesse, 
Off fatt te33 cufenn tellenn spell 

Off deop "3 dserne lare, uno 

paerfore he brohhte Jesu Crist 

Uppo fatt illke saete, 
Forr fatt he wollde don himm faer 

Inn idell 3ellp to fallenn, 
purrh fatt he shollde cumenn dun ura 

purrh hiss goddcunnde mahhte, 



I (.8 ORMULUM. 

Swa )>att he nohht ne shollde hiss fot 

Uppo )>e staness hirrleiin. 
patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

jaff sware onnjxn, -j sejjde, 
Boc sejjp, l>e birr)> wel jemenn fe 

patt tu |)in Godd ne fande, 
patt ina^ uss alle samenn beon 

God lare off ure nede, 
Forr (le ne binf nohh; fandenn Godd, 

^iff he fe wile ohht gengenn 
Off nan fing fail tu mahht te sellf 

Onn ani) wise rafenn. 
Ace fatt tu furrh fe sellfenn nohht, 

Ne jiurrh nan manness hellpe, 
Kc mahht nohht habbenn eorpli) witt 

To brinngenn itt till ende, 
patt birrl" peleggenn upponn Godd, 

Ace nohht forr himm to fandenn, 
Ace forr to sekenn arc att himm 

•J hellpe att swillke nede, 
To for|ienn |)alt furrh Godd f.itt lu 

purrh mann ne mahht nohht forfenn. 
'] mann ma;; uunderrstanndcnn |)iss 

Anndswcre o twinne wise, 
Alls iff fe Laferrd se^jde faer 

All till fe deofL-ll ane, 
patt himm ne birrde nohht hisii Godd, 

Ne nohht hiss Laferrd fandenn, 
Alls iff he sejjde [>uss to himm, 

Ne birrji pe me nohht fandenn, 
Forr ice amm Godess Sune Crist 

pin Shippennd -j tin Laferrd, 
Forr I )>e shopp off nohht, -j tu 

Am all i mine walde, 
"J nohht ne birrp )>e fandenn me 



HOMILY ON THE TEMPTATION. 199 

purrh yme la)>e wiless. 
"} mann ma^^ unnderrstanndenn itt 

3et onn an oJ>err wise, 
Alls ifif |>e Laferrd ^fe J^uss laou 

Anndsware onn33en fe deofell ; 
Ne wile I nohht, tu la}>e gast, 

Don affterr f att tu laeresst, 
Ne wile I nohht fandenn min Godd 

patt amm hiss mann, hiss shaffte, isoao 

Forr all mannkinn forrbodenn iss 

To fandenn Godess mahhte. 
•3 wel f e Laferrd mihhte fuss 

Anndswerenn off himm sellfenn, 
Forr )>urrh ]>att he wass wurrfenn mann 12025 

Off ure laffdi^ Mar^e, 
paerfurrh wass alle shaffte Godd 

Hiss Godd, -3 ec hiss Laferrd, 
•3 nollde he nohht fandenn hiss Godd, 

Forr ^iff he wollde laepenn i««o 

Dun off fe temmple he munnde faer 

Tobrisenn all himm sellfenn, 
Butt iff fatt Godd himm hullpe faer, 

3 helde himm )>aer to life, 
3 nollde he nohht swa fandenn Godd \vm 

To don )>e deoflcss wille ; 
3 efft, ^iff fatt he lupe dun 

All skafelaes till eorfe 
purrh fait he wass Allmahhti; Godd, 

patt waere modi^nesse lawo 

3 idell 3ellp to shaewenn swa 

Hiss Goddcunndnessess mahhte 
Onn idell, "3 wiffutenn ned. 

Alls iff he wollde le^^kenn, 
"J tanne waere he witerrli^ i«04i 

Biswikenn furrh fe deofell. 



IM^OCLAMATION OF KING HENRY III. 



^ ii*'liht ne w.Lrc he ['anne GoJd 
Ace sinnfull mann "3 wrecche ; 

Ace fatl nass nohht, forr he vvass Godd, 
■3 all wipf utenn sinne. 



UOIC 



PROCLAMATION OF KING HENRY TIL, 18 OCTO- 

BER, A. D., 1258. 

Henr* fur3 godes fultume King on Engleneloande. 
Lhoauerd on Yrloand*. Duk on Norm' on Aquitain' and eorl 
on Aniovv Send igretinge to alle hise halde ilaerdeand ileaw- 
ede on Huntendon* schir' jnet witen 30 wel alle foet we 
willen and vnne« faet. fxt vre raedesmen alle ofer fQ 
moare dael of heom fact beof ichosen furj us and fuT^ 
))L\it loandes folk on vre kuneriche. habbef idon and 
schullew don in J>e worfnesse of gode and on vre treo\v|>e. 
for fe freme of fe loande. fur^ fe besi3te of fan to foren- 
iscide rcdesmen ^ beo stedefacst and ilestinde in alle f ingc 
abuten a^nde. And we hoaten alle vre treowe in fe tre- 
owfe faet heo vs o^en. faet heo stedefestliche healden 
and swerien to healden and to werien fo isetnesses faet 
bcon imakede and beon to makien fur^ fan to foren iseide 
rx'desmen ofer fur^ f e moare dael of heom alswo alse hit 
is biforen iseid. And fset ajhc ofer helpe faet for to done 
bi fan ilche ofe agencs alle men. Ri^t for to done and to 
foangen. And noan ne nime of loande ne of e^te. wher- 
f ur3 fis besi^te mu3e beon ilet ofer iwersed on onie wise. 
And 3if oni ofer onie/» cumen her ongenes ^ we willen 
and hoaten foet alle vre treowe heom healden deadliche 
ifoan. And for foet we willen fa^t fis beo stedefaest and 
lestindc^ we senden 3ew fis writ open iseined wif vre seel. 
to halden a manges 3ew inehord. Witnesse vs seluen 
ddi Lunden*. fane E3tetentfe day. on fe Monfe 



PROCLAMATION OF KING HENRY III. 201 

of Octobr' In fe Twoandfowerti^fe ;eare of vre cru- 
ninge. And fis wes idon aetforen vre isworene redes- 
men. Bonefac' Archebischop on Kant' bur'. Walt' of 
Cantelow. Bischop on Wirechest*. Sim' of Muntfort. 
Korl on Leirchestr'. Ric* of Clar'eorl on Glowchestr' and 
on Hurtford. Rog' Bigod corl on Northfolk'and Marcscal 
on Engleneloand'. Perres of Sauueye. Will' of Fort 
^orl on Aubem'. loh' of Plesseiz. eorl on Warewik' 
loh' Geffrees sune. Perres of Muntfort. Ric' of Grev. 
^og' of Mortemer. lames of Aldithcl and aetforen ofre 

And al on )>o ilche worden is isend in to aeurihce of re 
^hcire ouer al Jnaere kuneriche on Engleneloande. And 
^i in tel Irelonde. 



ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER'S 
CHRONICLE. 



THE STORY OF LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS. 

Aftur kyng Bafulf, Leir ys sone was kjng. 
And rcgned sixti jer wel |K)m alle Ymg. 
Up pe water of Soure a city of grel fame 
He endtde, and clepede yt Leiceslre, aftur ys owne name, 
pre doj'.ren fis kyng hadde, |te eldeste Gomorille, i 

pc mydmost hatte Regan, f>e jongosl Cordeille. 
pc fader hem louedc alle ynoj, ac J>e jongost mesl : 
For heo was best and fairest, and to hautenesse drew lest, 
po pe kyng to elde com, alle |>re he brojie 
Ilys dojiren tofore hym, to wyte of here jKiHjle. h 

For he Jiojie hj's kyndom dele among hem fre, 
And lete hem ferwith spousi wel whare he myjte bi-se. 
To fe eldest he seide iirsr, "Dojter, ich bidde fe, 
Sey me al clene fin herte, how muche fou louest me." 
"Myn hcye Codes," quoffis mayde, "to wjinesse 1 take 

pal y loue more in myn herte J>i Icue bodi one, 
p.in myn soule and my lyf pat in mi bodi ys." 
po fader was fo glad ynow whan he herde jiis, 
"My !eue dojter," he seide po, " for pou hast in Ioue]'do 
Myn olde lyf byforc pin, and biforc pi soulc also, « 

Ych wol J* marie we! with Jie priddc part of my londe 
To pe noblest bachclcr pal pyn bene wol to sionde." 
po oper dojter he aschede po pal same askyng. 



STORY OF LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTER& 203 

•* Sire," quod heo, ** bi hye Codes, Lordes of alle ping, 
Y loue more fi leue lif ]>an al fat in fe world ys. u 

And pei al fe world were myn, and al fe rich esse ywys, 
Al and eke rayn owne lyf leuer ich hadde lese, 
pan pi lyf fat me is so lef, 3efy my3te chese." 
pe fader was fo glad ynow, and bad hire understonde, 
To whom heo wolde ymaried be with pe f ridde del ys 
londe. K 

pe 3ongost he askede fo as he hadde fo of er ydo. 
Heo no kouf e of no fikelyng and ne onswerede not so. 
** Sire," heo seyde, "y leue not fat my sustren al sof seide. 
Ac for me myself, ich wol sof seggeof fis dede. 
Ych the loue as fe mon that my fader ys, u 

And euer habbe yloued as my fader, and euer wole yw}s. 
And 3ef f ou wok ^et f er uppe more asche and w}^e of me, 
Al fe ende of loue and f e grond ich wol segge f e. 
As muche as fou hast, as muche fou art worf yw^'s. 
And as muche ich loue fe : fo ende of love ys fis." 40 
pe kyng was fo wrof ynow, for heo seide al fat sof. 
For he seide, '*fou ne louest me no^t as fi sostren dof, 
Ac despisest me in myn old Hue, fou ne schalt never 

ywis 
Part habbe of my kyndom, ne of land fat myn ys. 
Ac fyn sustren schulle habfie al, for here herte ys kyndc, a 
And fou for fyn unkyndenesse be out of al my mynde. 
Ac y ne segge no3t for fan, 3ef y mai 10 mariage f e brynge, 
pat y ne wol withoute lond with som lytel f inge. 
For fou art my do3ter, and ich habbe more fan f i sostren 

bofe 
Yloued fe one, and fou 3eldest now my loue wrofe." « 
per aftur euene a two he delede hys kyndom, 
And 3ef hys twei do3tren half, and half hym self nom. 
And fe eldest do3ter mid hire del he 3af withoute faile 
pe kyng of Scotlond, and fe of er f e kyng of Cornewale, 
To haue half ys lond myd hem at fe bigynnyng, m 



ao4 ROBERT OF GU)UCESTER. 

And se)>t>e al }'s kyndom afcur ys endyng. 

And )>e gode Cordeitle unmaried was so. 

For heo nolde fikele. as hire sustren hadde ydo. 

Ac God |)ou]tc on hire for hire trewncsse. 

For fc kyng of France herde telleof hire godnesse, > 

And bad hire fader graunt liyin J>e gode Cordeille. 

pe kyng send word ajeyn, fat it was ys wiUe : 

Ac lie nolde with hire jeue tresour, ny lond. 

For ys two ofer dojtren hadde il al on hond. 

po I>e kyng of France herde fis, he answerede Jier to, ■ 

pat he hadde hymself lond ynow, and tresour also, 

Ne fat he ne kepte bule hire one, withoute ofer |>ing, 

pjt heo myjte som eyres bilwene hem forf brynge. 

So fat at fe lasie fis maide yspoused was 

To fis kyng of France, as God jaf fat cas. n 

po fis kyng Leir eldore was, heo bigan to lofe. 

For he so longe liuede, hys leue dojlren bofe. 

Here lordes heo enlisede, to gedere to holde Taste, 

And Wynne al fis lond to hem, and here fader out casie. 

pis twei kynges nome here ost, and endcde fis dede, n 

And binome fys o!de mon ys lond, as here wyves bcde : 

Ac Jie kyng of Scotlond, for rewfe and kunilede, 

Hym nom to him inlo his hows, ajeyn ys wyves rede, 

Sixii knyjtes, with honour to fj'nde hym al ys lyf, 

As wose>'J>, for ys kyndom, and for honour of )-s wyf. ■ 

Withinne two ^r fer afiur it jioujle fe Infer quene, 

pal hire fader hadde to inuche, andwolde tomuchespene. 

Heo made, fat of sixii knyjtes hire lord wiihdroj, 

And made him holde to fritti, and fat was, hire fojie, yno). 

pis Leir was aschamed fo, and in wraf]>e, at fe ende, m 

To his ofer dojier, fe quene of Cornewail, he gan wende. 

And playnodc of fe unkyndedede of his dojter Gomorille, 

And wcnde pere amendement to habbe aftur ys owne wille. 

pilke do)ter hym lofonge with honour, as he wende, 

Ac heo was al f ul of hym er f e jeres ende. k 



STORY OF LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS. 205 

For heo entiscde hire lord fo, fat he ys kny^tes echone 

For cost bynyme hym alle, bute a fyue men one, 

Wuche so it were to serve hym, and fat was ynowe. 

po fis seli mon fis herde, to son^e ys herte drovve. 

He nuste to wafer do3ter beter truste f o, m 

And nofeles he wende a^eyn to fe ofer with muche wo, 

And hopede for to fynde of here beter menske and grace. 

And heo swor bi hire hye Codes anon in f e place, 

pat he ne schulde mid hire be, bute it one were, 

And on kny^t withoute mo, fe while he hym wel here. 100 

And askede, wad sorwe hym were, wan he nadde hym self 

no god 
To wylne so gret cost, and be of so gret mod ? 
pis word dude much sorwe fis seli olde kyng, 
pat atwytede him and ys stat, fat he nadde hymself nof ing. 
pat word brak ne3 ys herie, and longe heyt understod, im 
pat ys child atwisie ys pouerte, fat hadde al is god. 
Nas nofer kyng ny queue glad, when heo hym seyc, 
Ac to f e joiful day hopede, that heo my^te dye. 
He bileuede, as he node mostc, forf mid on kny3t, 
And fe queue ys do3ter alle wo hym dude bof e day and 

ny3i, 110 

So fat he moste for fyn myseise awei at f e ende. 
pe oferdo3ter he hadde asayed, fat he ne durstc to hire 

wynde. 
pe queue of France, fe fridde, him f03te, mid unry3t 
He misdude hire, fat he ne durste come in hire sy3t. 
Ac at fe laste fo he sei, fat he moste nede at fe ende u& 
For pore miseise, (for fare leuer he hadde wende, 
And bidde ys mete, 3ef he schulde, in a strange lond, 
pan fer he hymself kyng was, and such f ing hadde on 

honde) 
At f e laste in sorwe ynow in to f c see he wende, 
To do ys beste yn mescise were so God hym sonde. im 

In fo schip as ofer prynces in gret pruyde he bihulde. 



2o6 ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

And he naddc mid hym bute twei men, hym J^ojle ys 

herte fold ; 
He }ofe on fe noblei, Jmt he hadde in ybe: 
He wep, fe terus roune doun, pat deol it %vas to se. 
Mid 3oxing and mid gret wop fus bigan ys mono. m 

** Alas ! alas ! fou lufur wate, ]>at lyfest me fus one, 
pat f us clcne me bryngust adoun, ^yder schal y be bro^*. ? 
For more sorwe )t dof me, when it comef in my fo^i 
pe noblei fat ich habbe yhad, fat ich was wond to wynde 
Mid so mony hondred kny^tes aboute in eche ende, no 
And casteles nyme and tounes, and myn fon brynge to 

gronde, 
pan do al fe miseise, fat ich am in ibonde. 
Lcue do3ter Cordeille, to sof e f ou seidest me, 
pat as muche as ych hadde y was worf , ]>ei y ne leucde f e. 
po wyle ich 031 hadde ich was worf, and now it ys agon, m 
Mi childeren, fat ich 3v.rmy god, bef myne meste fon. 
For my god heo loucde me, and now he habbef euery del. 
He nul not 3eue me of myn owne myd god herte a meL 
A wcy 1 do3lcr Cordeille, wyder schal ich now fle ? 
So much ich habbe f e mysdo, fat y ne dar f e yse. im 

Mid wuche bodi dar y come in f i si3t ene, 
pat binom fe myn frenschipe for fi sofnesse al clcne ?'' 
pis men mowe here cnsample nime,to late heresones wyue, 
And 3eue hem up here lond al bi here lyve. 
For wel may a symple francoleyn in mysese hym so 

bringe lu 

Of lutel lond, wan fer fcl such of a kyng. 
po f is kyng hadde go aboute in such sorwful cas, 
At f e last he com to Caric, fere ys do3ier was. 
He bileuede withoute f e toun, and in wel gret fere. 
He sende f e quene ys do3ter word, muche is antre^j were, uc 
And fat pur meseise liym f ider drof, and defaut of biliue : 
And bed liire, for the loue of God, hire wraffe hym for3eue. 
pe quene f o heo horde f is, nei yswounyng was. 



STORY OF LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS. 107 

" Alas!" heo seyde, " ys my fader ybrojt in such deolful 

cas?" 
"Mid how mony knyjtes js he come?" )>e o|>er ajcyn 

seyde, ut 

" Madame, bute mid o mon, and jet Jiillce in feble wede," 
' ' Alas !" quo)» fe quene fenne, ' ' ys it now mid him so r 
" Nyme(> anon tresour ynowj, fat he haji nede to, 
And clofc|i hym myd pe best cIoJj, Jml je mowe ysc. 
And fourti kny;tes mid hym, fat of hys siwte be ; im 

And dof hem alle wcl an horse, as a kyng bicomc|i to. 
And whan no defaute nys, f>at al J>is nj's wel ydo, 
Sendef my lord word and me, fat my fader in londeys." 
Wat halt it to telle longe ? Ydo wes a) f is. 
po kyng Lfir arayed was, and men hem worde sende, ■« 
pe kyng and f e quene faire ynow ajcyn f e ofer kyng wende, 
And with gret honour hym fongon, fo he to hem com. 
And token hym to j's o«-ne wiljc al dene the kyndom. 
pis was, lo ! fe gode dojter fat nolde fikcle nojt. 
Ofie f ing )>at is fikeled to worse cnde is brojt. ito 

pe king of France afiur fulc wide aboute sende, 
To awreke hym of pe lufer men, fat ys frend so schende. 
po he hadde power ynow, fe kyng Leir he nom 
And fe quene ys dt^ter, and to fis loncl com. 
Mony kynde men of fis lond with kyng Lcir huld also, iw 
For fe unkynde suikedom fat his dojtren hadde ydo. 
So fat of France and of fis lond poer he hadde ynow. 
Toward hys fon with hem alle with god herte he drow. 
And ouetcom fis false kynges and here wyves also. 
And ajeyn in his kyndom mid gret honour was ydo. iie 
Cordeille, ys leue dojter, eir ofal ys lond 
Aftur ys day he made, f o fat he so kynde fond. 
By fis tale me may yse, fat men trewest we sef. 
And best me may to hem truste, fat of lest wordes bef. 
Withinnc fre jcr fe kyng of France dyede and pe kyng 

Lqr, 



io8 



ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 



And Cordeille fe kyndom Tong as fe rj-jl eyr. 

And lei!e Iiire fadur buric wiili gtei prude and honour 

And Lcicelre, fat he made hymself beside )>e water of Sour. 

pis gtidc quene Cordoille as kjng and quene J>o 

Uileuedc hire in )iis lond fyue }er, and no mo, m 

Er hire iwei susier sones, sialworfc men pat were, 

Hennin and Morgan, werre hire gonne arere. 

And hadden despit, yu wommon kyng schulde be. 

And napeles wjjt alle-rj-ye hy were nere J>an heo. 

Hco gcderede up here aunie here ost aboute wyde, ih 

And destruydu hire londes ejfer in his syde, 

So )>at at J« laste to bataile heo come. 

pere fa quene here aunte in bataile heo nome. 

And dude in s;rong prison, and pe kyndom 

De'dcn bilwcne hem, and ejper ys part nom. ._ ■• 

Morgan, kyng of Scollond, as heo dele koupc, 

Hadde al t>at lond bi Norjt, and fe ofor bi Sou|>e. 

Wahinnc two jer Iter afmr somme to Morgan come. 

And, for he of |>e elder sosier was, bed hyin njme gome. 

And scidc hym it was gret despit, (tat per wer in pis lond s* 

Twei kynges, wan ryjl w'as, fat he it hadde al on hond. 

pis kyng was cniiccd so, pat he nom atte laste 

Ys ost, and up hys cosyn bigan lo werri faste, 

And bigan to brenne and quelle, and atte laste ywys 

pe other bigan to turneajcyn, anddrof hym into Walls, m 

And per heo smyte a batail in the Soup half of pe londe. 

And per was Morgan yslawc, fat longe was underslonde. 

pe stude pat he was at yslawe, me clepu)* jet Morgan, 

And cuere wole aftur hym, for he was so wcrpi man, 

Cunedag was po al one kyng, and pe kyndom to hym 



And noblidie pre and pritti jer held pe kyndoi 
pe twey holy prophctcs were Osee and Ysaie 
pilke lime in Israel, and dude here prophccie 
Komulus and Remus pe uvei brtperen ywys 



HAROLD CROWNED KING OF ENGLAND. 309 

Bigonne yo first Rome, [«t noble ciiie ys. •■ 

Four hundred jer h was, and founi cuene also, 
Aftur yt balail of Troie, fat a! pis was ydo. 
And Rome was fyue hundred jer ]>us ymad bifore. 
And fre and fyiiy jer eke, er God were ybore. 
Aflur pis kyng Cunedag, liys sone ttiat haite Rivil, w 

Kyng was mad afiur hym, a. wys mon )>orjout al ; 
Aftur hym'GurgusC ys sone, and iefpe ano|)er Sisille, 
■ And mony on seppe afturward, of warn we mote be stille. 
So fat aue laste Gurguont was kyng, 
Stalwor)ie man and hardy, and wys ]>oi^ alle ])yng. m 

Muche ping pal ys eldore loren porw fcyntyse, 
pofu strengpe he wann sep)>e ajeyn, and poru ys koyntise. 
pe kyng of Denemark ber eche jer with lawe 
Truttge to Engelond, and bigan hym lo wypdrawc. 
pe kyng Gurguont hym porueyede of power ynow, bi 
And perwyp in gode schippes to Denemark he drow, 
And pe kyng of Denemark in baiaile he sloj, 
And wan ajeyn pe truage pat he at-held with woj. 



HAROLD'S SUCCESSION TO THE THRONE OF 
ENGLAND ON THE DEATH OF EDWARD THE 
CONFESSOR— THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS AND 
DEATH OF HAROLD— REIGN OF WILLIAM THE 
CONQUEROR. 
Hantld, pys false eri, po Seynt Edwarde dcde lay, 
Hym sulue he let crouny kyng pulke solue day ■« 

Falslyche, vor Seynt Edward so wcl to hym truste, 
pal he bytoc hym Engelond, pat he yt we! wusle 
To Wyllammes byof>c bastard, due of Normandye. 
Ac hym sulf he made kyng mj-d such trccherye. 
Ac pegode try w men of pelond woldeabbcymade kyngw 
pe kunde eyr, pe jonge chyld, Edgar ApcSyng : 
Wo so were next kyng by kunde, meciupephym Apelyng: 



2 10 Kr)IU-:RT OF (^iLOUCESTKR. 



^ 



\y ;ii' ; III'- c.upciv In in -.>. \i'rl-y kiiruic :i'.- wm^ licM k'.r:;^;. 
Ac Harald mailc livs wev bvuore. as mvd >uvkc\l()m, 
Myd 3)11} s ^ myd vayre hyhesic, ^ auong |>e kyncdom m 
So fat somme hym chose al out, -j somme hem huMe 

stylle, 
And soffrede, as hii no^t ne my^te, al ofcrcs wylle, 
So fat Harald was kyng, to wrofe hele fe kynedora, 
And Seynt Edwardes sy3te by hym to sofe come. 
Vor J)o bygan J>e wow vorst, as me myjte yse, 
pat ssolde, as Seynt Edward seyde, by |>re kynges day be. 
Vor Toste, Harald brof er, -fat he drof er into Flaundrc 

By kynges day Edward hym sulue to gret sclaundre, 

He com anon f o uppen hym myd gret poer and eye, 

Myd Harald Arfager, kyng of Norfwey, 

And myd gret poer of Norfomber to Euerwyk hii com, 

And muche folc in fe Souf syde bofe slowe j norae. 

Kyng Harald com a^en hym myd poer strong ynou 

Bysyde Euerwyk hys ost a^en hym he drou, 

In a stude, fat me clupede Stamfoidbrugge fo, 

And nou me clupef yt Bataylcbruggc, vor fe batayle f; 
was f o. 

per hii smyte to gadere, j made a sory pley. 

Vor fere was Tost aslawe, ■] fe king of Norfwey, 

And her syde al byncf e ; to ende yt com so 

pat Seynt Edward byuore seyde of felke breferen tuo, 

pat hii ssolde to gadere fy3te, j Harald aboue be : 

per mc my^tc of f ulke word fat sof nesse yse. 

Fram anon amorwe vorte myd oucrnone, 

po batayle laste strong, ar he were ydon, 

pe Englysse ouer fe brugg droue fe ofer at laste, ^ 

Ac f o fat water was bytuene, hii stode a^en vaste. 

On body f er was of Norfwey, betere nas fer non ; 

Vor he atstode up f e brugg myd an ax al on, 

And drof fe Englysse men a3en, hym ne myjte r^<^»i 
atstonde, 




f 



ni.< r.ROTIIKR RAI-SKS WAR Ai^AIN-T ilLM. :i i 

^■^^d ilou ino ihan fuuny e>lhcm in\i.l iiys owe ludulc, 
^ind wuste him so, vorte after none, vorte on niyd g} le 
nome 
^ ssyp, ■] ar he were ywar under fe brugg com, 
•^^d smot hym ar he were ywar under j)e foundemcnt lowc 
^^yd a sper, j so an hey, fat he deyde in a frowe. 
^ stalwarde pcce pat was, nou God cuj)e hys soule lou2. sm 
P^^ J>03le l?e Englysse vor hys def |?at hii were al above, 
•^licl passede fe brugge anon, ;] slowe to grounde, 
^^ J>«it l?e ofer partye bynefe was in a stounde. 
P^^ X-^arald ysey hys brofer aslawe, -} pe kyng Arfager 
^^ Norfwey, "] her folc, he ne huld non hys pere. »o 

^'-^ He ^eld no^t wel her mede, fat wyf hym liys fon slowe, 
™^ •'VI ore hys men fe lasse her herte to hym drowe ; 
'^*^<i |>at hii kudde hym afterwarde, a^en Willam bastard, 
'^^ 3^ ssole sone yhure, vor he was euere a ssreward. 
^ ^-*c^he aj) fe sorwe ibe ofte in Engelonde, w* 

^ ■"" moweher"] er ihure "] understonde, 



-^ Xitioni bataile fat af ibe, 3 fat men fat lond nome, 
^■'^t, as je abbef ihurd, fe emparours of Rome, 



e Saxons and Engiisse mid baiayles strongc, 
^ ^^^Jfe hii of Danemarch.fat hulde it al so'longe, wo 

-^^^ laste hii of Normandie, fat maistcrs bef 3ut here, 
*'^*:ine hit •] holdef ^ut, ichoUe telle in wuch manere. 



> 



^iVillam bastard hurde telle of Haraldes suikelhede. 



,-^^ — . he adde ymad him king, and mid such falshede, 
*"^ fat lond him was bitake, as he wel wuste, ms 



^ Xvite hit to him wel, ■] he wel to him truste. 

w^ ^^ hende he dude verst, and messagers him sende, 

^^ he understode him bet is dede vor to amende, 
"^jte on f c grete of, fat he him adde er ydo, 



>¥ite him wel Engelond, -} to spousi is dopier also ; »i» 
^^ Vilde him fer-of vorewarde, as he bihet ek fe kinge, 



>te he dude bi-iime, he wolde sende him ofer lidinge, 
^^che him out ar tuelf monf e, •] is rijtes winne. 



31 J ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

pat he ne ssoldc abbe in al Engelond, an hurne to wile 

him inne. 
Harald him sende worde, " Jiat folic it was lo trnste u 
To such of, as was ido raid strengjie, as he wel wuste ; 
Vor jif a maide treufe ipliji, to do an fole dede 
Al one priveliche, wifoute hire frendes rcdc, 
pulke vorewarde were uor noj-, ^ watlokcr it ajte her, 
pat ich suor an oy, |>al was al in pi poer, m 

WiJ>-owte conseil of al fe lond, of ping (tat min no;t 

per-uore ncde of isuore, iiede ibroke was. 
-} jif fou me uolc seche in Engeloi 



; be )>ou nojl so 



Sikcr yoa be pou ne ssalt me fmde in none hurnc." 
po Wiltam hurde pat he wolde susieini is trecherie, i 

He let of-sende is knijtes of al Normandie, 
To conseili liim in pis cas, '] to helpe him in such ncde ; 
And he gan of hor porchas largeliche horn bode. 
As hii founde suppe in Engelond, po it i»'onnc was, 
pe betere was toward him hor herte uor pis cas. ■ 

pe due Willam is wille among horn alle sedc, 
pat four pinges him made mest biginne pulke dede. 
pat Godwine, Haraldcs fader to depe let do 
So villiche Alfred, is cosin, -j is felawes also, 
] uor Harald addc Is op ibroke, pat he suor mid is ri: 
hond, ■ 

pat he wolde to is biol)>e, wilie Engelond, 
J uor Seint Edward him jef Engelond also. 
And uor he was next of is blod, ] best wu^ per to, 
] uor Harald nadde no rijt bole in falshede. 
pes pinges him made mest biginne pulke dedo. ■ 

] uor he wolde pat alle men iseye is trewehede. 
To pe jiope Alisandre he sende in such cas him to rede, 
Haraldes falshede fo pe pope yscy pere, 
] parauntre me him tolde more pan sop were. 



WILLIAM SETS SAIL FOR ENGLAND. 213 

pe pope asoilede j blessede Willam, -^ aik his m 

pat into ]>is bataile mid him ssolde iwis, 

;3 halwede is baner pat me at-uore him here. 

po was he •] alle his gladdore fan hii er were. 

So J^at )>is due adde a^en heruest al 3are 

His barons "j kni3tes, mid him uor to fare. m 

To fe hauene of Sein Walri fe due wende fo 

Mid )>e men fat he adde^ abide mo. 

After heruest fo hor ssipes ■] hii al preste were, 

3 [wynd] hom com after wille, hor seiles hii gonne arere, 

3 hiderward in fe se wel glad fen wei nome. m 

So fat bi-side Hastinge to Engelond hii come, 

Hom fo^te f o hii come alond, fat al was in hor bond. 

As sone as f e due Willam is fot seite alond, 

On of his kni^tes gradde, ** hold vaste Willam nou 

Engelond, uor f er nis no king bote f ou, sw 

Vor siker fou be, Engelond is nou fin iwis." 

pe due Willam anon uorbed alle his, 

pat non nere so wod, to robby, ne no maner harm do 

fere, 
Vpe fe lond, fat is was, bote hom fat a^en him were. 
Al an fourtene ni3t hii bileuede f er aboute, mc 

•3 conseilede of batayle, •] ordeinede hor route. 
King Harald sat glad ynou at Euerwik atte mete. 
So fat f er com a messager, ar he adde i^ete, 
•3 sede, fat due Willam to Hastinges was icome, 
•3 is baner adde arerd, ^ f e contreie al inome. wo 

Harald, anon mid grete herte corageus ynou. 
As he of no mon ne tolde, f uderward uaste he drou, 
He ne let no^t clupie al is folc, so willesfol he was, 
^ al for in fe ofer bataile him vel so vair cas. 
po due Willam wuste fat he was icome so nei, m 

A monek he sende him in message, -} dude as fe sley, 
pat lond, fat him was ijiue, fat he ssolde him vp3elde, 
Ol>er come, ■] dereyni fe ri3ie mid suerd in fe vclde. 



214 ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

^if he scJe, fat he naddc none rijte fer-to, 

pat vpc pc popes lokinge of Rome he ssolde it do, ac 

-} he wolde fer-io stondc, al wifoute fijte, 

Wer Seint Edward hit him ^af, ■] wer he adde )^er-to rl^ e. 

Harald scnde him word a^en, fat he nolde him take no 

lond, 
Ne no lokinge of Rome, bote suerd ^j ri^t bond, 
po hit ofer ne mi^te be, eifer in is side m 

Conscilede j ^arkede hom, bataile uor to abide. 
pe englisse al fe ni^t biuore uaste bigonne to singe, 
"3 spendc al fe ni^t in glotonie "] in drinkinge. 
pe Normans ne dude nojt so, ac criede on God uaste, 
And ssriue hom ech after ofer fe wule fe ni3t ylaste, m 
-) amonve hom let hoseli mid milde herte ynou. 
■] su|)fe fe due wif is ost toward fe bataile drou. 
An stoundc he gan abide, ^ is kni^tes rede : — 
** ^e knijtes," he sede, *' fat bef of so noble dede, 
pat ncTc neuere ouercome, ne joure elderne naf emo, k 
Understondef of the kunde of France fat ^oure eldemc 

dude so wo, 
IIou mi fader in Paris amidde is kinedom, 
Mid prowcsse of ^oure faderes mid strengf e him ouercom- 
Understondef hou 30ure elderne f e king nome also, 
-} held him uorte he adde amended fat he adde misdo, 
-} Richard, fat was fo a child, ijolde Normandie, 
pat was due herbiuore, j fat to such maistrie, 
pat at eche parlement fat he in France were, 
pat he were igurd wif suerd, f e wule he were fere, 
Ne fat fe king of France ne his so[n] hardi nere, 
Ne non aite parlement fat knif ne suerd bere. 
Understondef ek fe dedes, fat f ulke Richard dude also, 
pat he ne ouercom no^t kinges alone, ac wel more fer-to, 
Ac he ouercom f e deuel, j adoun him caste, 
To-gadere as hii wrastlede, 3 bond in honden vastc 4n 

Bihinde at is nigge ; of such prowesse ^e f enche, 



WILLIAM'S STRATAGEM. 21s 

•Je ssatne je nojt fat Harald, fat euere was of lu|»er wrenche, 
I biuore jou was oorsuore, fat he wolde mid is taile 
Fume is wombe toward vs, -j is (ace in bataile, 
Jnder^tonde]) )>e suikedom, fat is Fader -j he wrojte, lu 
J hii fat mid him here bef, J>o hii to defe brojte 
5o villiche Alfred mi cosin, -j my kunesmen also. 
Hou mi)te in eny wise more ssame be ido ? 
Monie, fat dude f ulke dede, je mowe her [to day] ise. 
Hou longe ssolle hor lufer heucd abouc hor ssoidrcn be ? 
Adrawep joure suerdes, ~j loke wo may do best, w 

Pat me ise joure prowesse fram est to f e west, 
^or to awreke fat getitil blod, fat so villiche was inome 
Of vr kunesmen, vor we mowe wel, vr time is nou icome." 
Pe due nadde nojt at ised, fat mid eraest gret «■ 

*Jis foic quicliche to fe baiaile sscet. 
A suein, fat het Taylefer, smot uorf biuore fer, 
I slou anon an EngHss mon, fat a baner ber, 
efl^ne anofer haneur, ■] fe fridde almest also, 
'C hitn-sulf he was aslawe, ar fe dede were ydo. m 

c uerst ende of is ost biuore Harald mid such ginne 
o l^kke setle, fat no mon ne mijte come wif inne, 
'i^stronge targes hom biuore, fat archers nc dude horn 

** fat Normans were uei to grounde ibrojt. 

V'illan] bifo^te an queintise, -] bigan to fle uaste. m 

»s foic uorf mid him, as hii were agaste, 

flowe ouer an longe dale, and so vp an-hey. 
^ -Eoglisse ost was prout ynou, fo he fis isey, 

**'6onne hom to sprede, ■] after fen wey nome. 
® Normans were aboue fe hul, fe othcre upward come, 

"'turnde hom aboue al eseliche, as it wolde be don- 
ward, <ti 
P^ othere binefe ne mijte no^l so quicliche upward, 
^'i were biuore al to-sprad, fat me mijte biiwene hom 
wende. 



2i6 ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

pe Normans were Jk) wel ponieid aboute in eche endc, 

-J stones adonward slonge vpe horn ynowe, m 

■J mid speres -j mid flon vaste of hom slowe, 

J mid suerd ■} mid ax, uor hii ))at upward nome, 

Ne mijtc no wille abbe of dunt, as hii fat donward come, 

■} hor vant-warde was to-broke, |>al me mijte wi]>inne h"T:i 

So t>at ]>e Normans uaste slowe in ech ende. « 

Of l>e F.nglisse al uor nojt fat pe valeie was nei, 

As hcie ifuld mid dede men, as fe doune anhei. 

pe ssetare donw'ard al uor nojt vasle slowe lo grounde. 

So fat Harald foru fen eie issote was defes wounde. 

•J a kni^t pat isei, fat he was to dcfe tbrojt, w 

-) smot him, as he lay binefe, 'j slou him as uor nojl. 

Fram fat it was amorwe fe bataile ilaste strong, 

Vorte it was hei mid ouernon and fat was somdel long. 

Moni was fe gode dunt fat due Willam jef a day, 

\'0T f re stedes he slou vnder him, as me say, m 

Vor-prikcd, and uor-arnd aboute, ^ uor-wounded also, 

■] debrused a^en dedemen, ar fe bataile were ido. 

-J jut was Willames grace fulke day so god, 

pat he nadde no wounde warfont he ssedde an drope 

blod. 
pus lo 1 fe Englisse folc vor nojt to grounde com m 

Vor a fals king, fat nadde no rijt to fe kinedom, 
■} come to a nywe louerd, fat more in rijle was. 
Ac hor nofer, as me may ise, in pur rijte nas. 
■J f us was in Normannes hon<' fat lond ibro^t iwis, 
pat an-aunter jif euermo keueringe f cr-of is. a* 

Of f e Normans bef neye men, fat bef of Engelonde 
-3 fc lowe men of Saxons, as ich underslonde. 
So fat jc sef in eifer side wat rijte je abbcf ferto ; 
Ac ich understonde, fat it «-as foru Codes wille ydo. 
Vor fe wulc fe men of fis lond pur hefene were, m 

No lond, nc no folc ajen hom in armes nere ; 



HAROLD'S BURIAL AT WALTHAM. 217 

Ac nou su]>)>e fat J>et folc auenge cristendom, 
•3 wel lute wule hulde fe biheste fat he nom, 
•3 turade to sleufe, -} to prute, 3 to lecherie, 
To glotonie, 3 heye men muche to robberie, m 

As )>e gostes in a uision to Seint Edward sedc, 
\Vu )>er ssolde in Engelond come such wrecchede ; 
Vor robberie of heie men, vor clerken hordom, 
Hou God wolde sorwe sende in fis kinedom. 
Bituene Misselmasse and Sein Luc, a Sein Calixtes 
day, «« 

As vel in J>ulke ^ere in a Saterday, 
In fe 3er of grace, as it vel also, 
A f ousend and sixe 3 sixti, f is bataile was ido. 
Due Willam was fo old nync 'j fritti ^er, 
3 on 3 thritti 3er he was of Normandie due er. m 

po fis bataile was ydo, due Willam let bringe 
Vaire is folc, )>at was aslawe, an erfe foru allc J)inge. 
Alle fat wolde leue he ^ef, fat is fon anerf e bro^te. 
Haraldes moder uor hire sone wel ^erne him biso^te 
Bi messagers, ^ largeliche him bed of ire finge, m 

To granti hire hire sones bodi anerf e vor to bringe. 
Willam hit sende hire vaire inou, wif oute eny thing ware- 

uore: 
So fat it was f oru hire wif gret honour ybore 
To fe hous of Waltham, -j ibro3t anerfe fere. 
In fe holi rode chirche, fat he let him-sulf rerc, mc 

An hous of religion, of canons ywis. 
Hit was f er vaire an erf e ibro3t, as it ^ut is. 
Willam fis noble due, f o he adde ido al f is, 
pen wey he nom to Londone he *] alle- his, 
As king and prince of londe, with nobleye ynou. m 

A3en him wif uair procession fat folc of toune drou 
3 vnderueng him vaire inou, as king of fis lond. 
pus com, lo 1 Engelond, in to Normandies bond. 
3 fe Normans ne coufe spckc f o. bote hor owe speche, 

10 




■J spcke freiicii as hii dude at om -} hor children liuJe alsiJ 

tethe. •* 

So J«it heiemcn of fis lond, thai of hor blod come, 
Holdtl" alle pulke speche pat hii of horn nome. 
Vor bote a man conne frenss, me telj) of him lute. 
Ac lowe men holdef to engliss ■} to hor owe speche ^uC- -^ 
Ich wene )>er ne bcf in al fe world conlreyes none, 
pal ne holde|) to hor owe speche bote Engelond one. 
Ac wel me wot nor to conne bofe wel it is, 
Vor fe more fat a mon can, ihe more wurfe he is. 
pis noble due WiHam him let crouny kinj 
Al Londone a mid winter day nobliche poru alio fing^ 
Of fe erchebissop of Euerwik, Aldred was is name, 
per nas prince in al |>e world of so noble fame. 
Of pe heyemen of |»e lond, fat hii ne ssolde ajen bi-lur"^ 
He essie ostagc strong inou -j hii ne solde nojl wurne, 
Ac loke him ostage god at is owe wille, 
So that jif eny a^en him was, huld him po slille : 
)if toward Edgar Atheling eni is herte diou, 
pat was kunde eir of fis lond, him huld j>o stille ynoii. 
So fat fo fis Edgar wuste al hou it was, 
pat him nas no ping so god as lo seky cas, i" 

His moder -j is soslren luo mid him sone he nom, 
To wendc ajen lo pe lond fram wan he er com. 
A wind per com po in pe se ^ drof horn to Scotlonde, 
So pat after beiere wind hii raoste pere at-stonde. 
Macolom king of pe lond to him sonc hom drou, m 

■J vor pe kunne Tram wan hit come, honoured hom ynou. 
So pat pe gode Margareie as is wille to [him ] com, 
pe eldore soster of pe tuo in spoushod he nom. 
Bi hire he adde an dojtcr suppe pe gode quene Mold, 
pal quene was of Engclond, as me ap er )told, ■« 

pat godcrhele al Engelond was heo euere ybore. 
Vor porn hire com suppe Engclond into kundc more. 
In pe jer of grace a pousend -j sixli perlo 






iLI.IAM FiJUXD- AllBEVS IX KXCr.AXD. 2i.y 



ft 



^ir* 



■'^'Hg Maci'loni spouscdo .ALrr.^^ircle so. 
-^^ ^"^ng Willam |>er biuore aboiiic an tuo 3er su 

*» onde a^en to Normandie fram wan he com er, 
-^"S in fe verste ^ere fat he ueng is kinedom. 
'^^ sone a3en to Engelond a sein Nicolas day he com, 
^ •^iii3tes of bi^onde se, and ofer men also, 
^^ 9^f londes in Engelond, patli^tliche come perto, m 
"*-^ 3xite hor eirs holdej? alonde moni on ; 
^^seritede moni kunde men, fat he huld is fon. 
^ l>^-t )>e mestedel of heye men, fat in Engelond bef , 
^ J* icome of fe Normans, as ^e nou isef. 
*^*^^ii of religion of Normandie also m 

^ ^^effede here mid londes, & mid rentes also. 
^^ ^"^^t vewe contreies bef in Engelonde, 

x^onekes nab bef of Normandie sorawat in hor honde. 
^ Willam bif ojie him ek of f e folc, fat was uorlore, 
^ ^-^lawe ek foru him in fe bataile biuore. m 

^ l^^re as fe bataile was, an abbeye he let rere 

* Sein Martin, uor hor soulen, fat fere aslawe were, 
J ^^ monekes wel inou feffede wifoute fayle, 
P^^ is icluped in Engelond, abbey of fe batayle. 
V^ abbeye also of Cam he rerde in Normandie us 

^^ Seinte Steuene, fat is nou, ich wene, a nonnerye. 
He bro^te vp moni of er hous of religion also, 
To bete f ulke robberie, fat him f ojte "he adde ydo. 
"] cries eke ^ barons, fat he made here also, 
pojte fat hii ne come no^t mid gode ri^te f erto, »to 

Hii rerde abbeis j priories vor hor sunnes f o. 
At Teoskesburi ■] Oseneye, and aboute of er mo. 
King Willam was to milde men debonere ynou, 
Ac to men, fat him wifsede, to alle sturnhede he drou. 
In chirche he was deuout inou, vor him ne ssolde no day 
abide, bu 

p3i he ne hurde masse "3 matines, -3 euesong an ech tide. 
So varf monye of f is heye men, in chirche me may yse 



j:.. KmI:KRT uV GUjUCESTKR. 

Kncly to God, as hii wolde al quic to him fle, 
Ac be hii arise, -3 abbef iturnd framfe weued hor \vombc> 
Wolues dede hii nimef vorf, fat er dude as lombe. *"* 

Hii to-drawcf fe sely bonde-mcn as hii wolde horn hul <-^ 

ywis. 
pey me wepe j crie on hom, no mercy fer nis. 
Vnnefc was fer eni hous in al Xormandie 
Of religion, as abbey o)>er priorie, 
pat King Willam ne feffedc here in Engelondc, 
Mid londes, ofer mid rentes, fat hii abbcf here an hon 
As me may wide aboute in moni contreye i^e, 
Ware-f oru f is lond nede mot fe pouerore be. 
King Willam adde ispoused, as God ^cf fat cas, 
pc erles do3ter of Flaundrcs, INIold hire name was. 
Soncs hii adde to-gadere •] do^tren bof e tuo, 
As Roberd fe Courtehese, 3 Willam fe redo king alsOj 
Henry f e gode king was ^ongost of cchon. 
Do^iren he adde also Cecile het fat on 
pe eldosie, fat was at Cam nonne ■] abbusse. 
Constance f e of er was, of Brutayne coniesse, 
pe erles wif Alein, Adele ^ongoste was, 
To Steuone Blcis ispoused, as God 3ef fat cas, 
J bi him adde ek an sone, Sieuene was is name, 
pat suf fe was king of Engelond, .•] endede mid ssamc. « 
Macolom king of Scollond, and Edgar Afeling, 
pat best kunde in Engelond adde to be king, 
Hulde hom euere in Scotlond, ^ poer to hom nome, 
To worri vpe king W^illam, wanne god time come. 
3 gret compainie of heye men here in Engelondc m 

pat ne louede nojt king Willam, were f o in Scotlonde, 
Vor King Macolom [alle] vnderueng, fat a^en king 

Willam were, 
•3 drou hom to him in Scollond, •) susteinede hom fere. 
Vor Edgar-is wiues brofer, was kunde eir of fis londe. 
So fat hii adde of bof e fe londes gret poeir sone an honde. 






THE DANES INVADE ENGLAND. 221 

•4r king Willam adde ibe king volliche f re ^er, m 

P^t folc of Denemarch, fat fis lond worrede er, 

i"e//>ede hom mid gret poer, as hii dude er ilome, 
'^id fre hondred ssipuol men to Engelond hii come. 
'^ ariuede m f e north contreye, ;j Edgar Afeling «» 

fe iiig Macolom were fo glade fom alle fing. 
^ ^om hii come at Homber mid poer of Scotlond, 
''^'^re alle at o conseil to worri Engelond. 
^1 w-orrede al Norfhomberlond, ;j uorf euere as hii come, 

I^^t fe toun of Euerwik, -3 fe castel ek hii nome, mo 
^ <^iiye heye men also of fe contreie aboute, 

l*^t fet folc binorfe ne dorste no u[e]r at-route, 
i*^ hii adde al iwonne )>e contreie fer biside, 
^* ^e come no uer Soufward, ac fer hii gonne abide 
^^^ne fe water of Trente -} of Ouse also. •» 

^^^ hii leuede in hor poer vorte winter were ido. 
^ ^ing Willam abod is time vorte winter was al oute, 
^ 1^0 com he mid gret p)oer -} mid so gret route, 
>^^ Tiii nadde no poer ajen him uorto stonde, 

^^ lete fe king )>e maistrie, ■;) flowe to Scotlonde, o» 

1 bom to hor owe lond fe Deneis flowe a^^. 

P^ king destruede f e contreie al aboute fe se, 

Offrut ^ of corne fat fer ne bileuede no^t 

Sixti mile fram fe se, fat nas to grounde ibro3t. 

"] al fat fe Deneis no mete ne founde fere cm 

Wanne hii come to worri, ■] so f e feblore were. 

So fat 3ute to f is day muche lond fer is 

As al wast "3 vntuled, so it was f o destrued ywis. 

King Willam adauntede that folc of Walis, 

•J made hom here him truage, ;] bihote him -3 his. ew 

pe seuefe ^er of is kinedom, an alle soule day, 

pe queue Mold is wif deide, fat er longe sik lay, 

In fe ^er of grace a fousend ■] seuenti ^ fre. 

Anon in f ulke sulue ^ere, as it wolde be, 

pe king Willam, uorto wite f e wurf of is londe, mi 



/ 




222 ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

Let cnqueri sireitliche foru al Engelondc, 

Hou moni plou lond, ^ hou moni hiden also, 

Were in eucrich ssire, ■] wat hii were wurp ferto ; 

■] fe rentes of ech toun ; "3 of fe wateres cchone 

pet vvorj), J of wodes ek, j>at per ne bileucde none * 

pat he nuste wat hii were worj) of al Engclonde, 

'2 wite al clene fat worf ferof, ich vnderstondc, 

J let it write clene ynou, ^ fat sent dude iwis 

In fe tresorie at Westminstre, fere it jut is, 

So fat vre kinges suffe, wanne hii raunson toke, * 

I-redy wat folc mijte jiue, hii founde fere in hor boke. 

per was bi king Willames daye worre ■] sor\ve inou, 

Vor no mon ne dorste him wif-segge, he wrojte muck 

wif wou. 

To horn, fat wolde is wille do, debonere he was 3 railde, 
•3 to hom fat [him] wif-sede, strong tirant -} wilde. « 
Wo-so come to esse him rijt of eni trespas. 
Bote he payde him fe bet, fe wors is ende was, 
3 f e more vnrijt me ssolde him do : ac among of ere naf eles 
poru-out al Engelond he huld wel god pes, 
Vor me mijte here bi is daye, -} lede hardeliche lai 

Tresour aboute ^ of er god oueral ap)ertcliche, 
In wodes -} in ofer^r studes, so fat no time nas 
pat pes bet isusteined, fat [f]ar bi his lime was. 
Game of houndcs he louede inou, ■] of wilde best, 
^ is forest 3 is wodes, ^ mest fe niwe forest, no 

pat is in Souf-hamtessire, vor f ulke he louede inou, 
•] astorede wel mid bestes 3 lese mid gret wou. 
Vor he caste out of house *] hom of men a gret route, 
•] bi-nom hor lond, je fritti mile 3 more fer aboute, 
•] made it al forest 3 lose, fe bestes uorto fcde. m 

Of poucre men descritcd he nom lutel hede. 
yOeruore f crinnc vel mony mis-chcuing, 

sone was forinne issoie Willam fe rede king, 
o sone, fat het Richard, cajte fer is dcf also. 



DESCRIPTION OF WILLIAM'S PERSON. 223 

ichard, is o neueu, brec fere is nekke far to •«• 

he rod an homing, 3 parauntre is hors spurnde. 
vnrijt ido to pouere men to such mesauntere turnde. 
*'So hi king Willames daye slou hert ofer hind, 
ssolde pulte out bofe is eye, ■} makye him pur blind. 
■>e men ne dorste bi is day wilde best nime no3t, m» 
^re ne wilde swin, fat hii nere to ssame ybro^t 
-^ nas so hey mon non, fat him enes wif-sede. 
^t me ne ssolde him take anon, 3 to prison lede. 
•^onye heye men of f e lond in prison he huld strong, 
^ )>at muchedel Engelond f o^te is lif to long. wo 

^issopes 3 abbodes were to is wille echon, 
1 jif fat eni him wraffede, adoun he was anon, 
pre sife he ber croune ajer, to Midewinter at Gloucestre, 
To Witesonetid at Westminstre, to Ester at Wincestrc. 
pulke festes he wolde holde so nobliche, cm 

Wif so gret prute 3 wast, ■] so richeliche, 
pat wonder it was wenene it com, ac to susteini such 

nobleye. 
He destruede fat pouere vole 3 nom of hom is preyc, 
So fat he was riche him-sulf, ■] fat lond pouere al out. 
Stume he was foru-out al, ■] heiuol 3 proui. too 

Suif e f ikke mon he was, -3 of grete strengf e, 
Gret wombede 3 ballede, 3 bote of eucne lengf e. 
So stif mon he was in armes, in ssoldren, 3 in lende, 
pat vnnefe eni mon mi^te is bowe bende, 
pat he wolde him-sulf vp is fot, ridinge wel vaste to* 

Lijtliche, 3 ssete al-so mid bowe 3 arblaste. 
So hoi he was of body ek, fat he ne lay neuere uaste 
Sik in is bed vor non vuel, bote in is def vuel atie laste. 
As he wolde sometime to Normandie wende, 
Al fat a^t was in Engelond he let somony in ech endc tio 
To Salesburi touore him, fat hii suore him alle fere 
To be him triwe 3 holde, fe wule he of londe were. 
per-lo he nom gret peine of hom, -j fram Salesburi to Wi^t 



334 ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

He wcndc, ^ fram )»anene to Nonoandie rijl. 

] fc wule he was out of Engclond, Edgar A[ie1ing 

(pal rijt eir was of Engelond -j kunde to be king) 

Made is jonge soster, as God jef fat cas, 

NoDne in fc hous of Romeseye, Cristine hire name w^is. 

pal folc com po of Dcnemarch lo Engelond sone, 

•J Tobbedc ■J destriiede, as hii were iwoned to done. ■** 

pal word into Normandie lo king Willam com. 

So grcl pocr of thulke lond -j of France he nom 

Mid him into Engelond, of knijtes ■} squiers, I 

Speremcn auote & bowemen, ■] also arblasters, 1 

pat hom ]iO}tc in Engelond so muche folc neuere nas. m 

pal it was wonder ware-lhoru isousteinetl it was. 

Hii of Dcnemarch flowe sone, vor hii nadde no poer, 

Ac pel folc of bijondc se bileuede alle her, 

pal vnnclic al fai londc sustenance hom vond. 

^ fe king hom sendc her -j per aboate in Engelond tu 

Tu diuerse men, lo findc hom mete, more pan hor poci 

So pat in cch manere pat lond deslrued was : 

Frut -J corn per failede, tcmpestes per come, 

pondringe -j lijtinge ck, pat slou men ilomc. 

Manne orf dcide al agrounde, so gret qualm per com po. 

Orf failede -j eke com, hou mi]le be more wo ? m 

Seknesse com ek among men, pal aboute wide, 

Wat vor honger, wat uor wo, men deide in ech side. 

So pat sorwes in Engelond were wel mony volde, 

pe king -j oper richcmen wel lute pcr-of tolde, tm 

Vor hii wolde euerc abbe y-nou, wanne pe pouere adtle 

wo. 
Soin Poules chirehe oF Londone was ek vorbamd po. 
King Willam lo Normandie pojte siippc alle iaste. 
He sette is tonnes ■] is londes to ferroc wel \'aste, 
Wo-so niest bode per-uorc ; -j pei a lond igt^nted were m 
To a man lo here peruore a certein rente bi }ere, 



\villia:\i burns .AIAXTK: 



s 



""^ -^^'''I'cr come and bode more, he were innc anon, 
Va.t hii that bode mest bro3te out moni on. 

pe vorewarde no so strong, me bo^te is out wip wou, 



N^re 



V^t )>e king in such manere suluer wan ynou. tm 

^^ be adde iset is londes so mid such tricherye 
^ Vieye, "3 al is ofer thyng, he wende to Norman die, 
^ l*ere he dude wo we y-nou mid sla3t ;] robberye, 
^ ^ameliche vpe fe king of France ■} vpe is compainie, 
I ^ fat in ]>e toun of Reins king Willam atte laste, tss 

■ ^ or eld 3 uor trauail, bigan to febli vaste. 
^ Pe king Phelip of France fe lasse fo of him tolde, 
] drof him to busemare, as me ofte def fan olde. 
"pe king," he sede, " of Engelond halt him to is bedde, 
■] Up mid is grete wombe at Reins, a child-bedde. " tw 
po king Willam hurde f is, he made him somdel wrof, 
Vor edwit of is grete wombe, j suor anon fis of : 
** Bi fe vprisinge of Jhesu Crist ; ^if God me wole grace 

sende, 
Vorto make mi chirchegong, 3 bringe of this bende, 
Suchewiues ichoUe mid me lede, "3 such lijt atten endc.rw 
pat an hondred fousend candlen 3 mo icholle him tendc 
Amidde is lond of France, 3 is prute ssende, 
pat a sori chirchegong ichcholle him make ar ich panne 

wende. " 
Vorewarde he huld him wel inou, vorto heruest anon, 
po he sey fat feldes were vol of corne echon, tto 

Al fe contreie vol of frut, wanne he mi^te mest harm do, 
He let gadery is kni^tes 3 is squiers also, 
And fat were is wiues, )>at he wif him ladde. 
He wende him into France, "3 fe contreie ouerspradde, 
■3 robbede 3 destruede ; him ne mi^te no-fing Ictte. m 
pe grete cite of Mcdes suf f e afure he sette, 
Vor me ne mi^te no chirchegong wif-oute li3te do. 
pe cite he barnde al clene, 3 an chirche also 
Of vr leuedi, fat ferinne was, -3 an auncre godes spouse, 

10* 



«6 ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. 

pat nolde vor no thing fle out of hire house. n 

■J moni mon and womman ek [lervel in raeschaunce, 

So fal a son chirchegong hit was to J>e king of France. 

King Willam wende ajen, fo al |iis was ido, 

-^ bigan sone to grony and to febly also, 

Vor trauail of fc voul asaut, •} vor he w.is feble er, i 

■] patauntrc vor wreche also, vor he dude so vuele per. 

po he com to Reins ajen, sik he lay sone. 

His leches lokede is stal, as hor rijt was to done, 

■J iseye ] sede also, fat he ne mijie ofscapie nojt 

pere was sone sorwe ynou among is men ybrojt, j 

-J he him-sulf deol ynou -j sorwe made also. 

-] nameliche uor fe muche wo fwt he adde anerjie ydo. 

He wep on God vasle ynou, -\ criede him milce 3 ore, 

■y bihet, jif he moste libbe, fiat he nolde misdo nan mon 

Er he fsolde fat abbe ydo, vor it was po late ynou, 1 

Aite laste, fo lie isei )i3t toward is ende he drou. 

His biquide in fis manere he made biuore is dep, 

Willam, fe rede, al Engelond is sone he biqne|>, 

pe jongore al is porchas ; ac, as lawe was -} wone, 

Normandie is eriiage he jef is ckioste sone ■ 

Roberd ye Coartehess ; ~j Henry Jie jongoste Jto 

He biquef is tresour, vor he nadde sones nanmo. 

He hei dele ek pouere men muche of is tresorie, 

Vor he adde so muche of hom inome in robberj'e. 

Phirchen he let rere also, -j tresour he jef ynou, k 

To rcre vp Jie chirche of France, fat he barade wif wou. 

pe prisons he lei of Engelond deliuery echone, 

■J of Normandie also, fat pet ne leuede none. 

po dcidc he in pe jer of grace a fousend, as it was. 

And four score and seuene, as God jef fat cas. a 

He was king of Engelond four ■} tuenli jcr also, 

■5 due ek of Normandie vifiy jer & two. 

Of elde he was nyne -j fifty jer, fo God him jef such cas. 

pe morwe after Seinle Man day fe later ded he was. 




WM. RUFUS SUCCEEDS TO THE THRONE. 127 



In fe abbey of Cam iburred was pis king ; 

•y Henry is jonge sone, was at is buriing. 

Ac nofer of is ol>er sones ; vor in France fo 

Roberd Courtehese was in worre and in wo ; 

•J Willam anon so is fader Engelond him biquel", 

He nolde no)t abide voite is fader de|>, 

Ac wende him out of Normandic anon to Eugelonde, 

Vono nirae hastiliche seisine of islonde. 

pat was him yo Icuere, pan is &der were, 

So ^t per nas of is sooes bote J>c jonge Henry pere. 



DAN MICHEL'S AYENBITE OF INWYT, OR 
REMORSE OF CONSCIENCE. 



pE UORE-SPFCHE. 

At-mTTi GOD yaf ten hcstes ine )>e la^ of iewes, )>ei 
Moj-ses ondeniing ine f>e hclle of Synay, ine tuo tables of 
ston, )wt were i-write mid godes vingrc ; and him-zelf, eflei 
his beringe, ine his spelie het hisc hcalde and loki to ech 
man pet wile by y-borjo ; and huo fet agelt ine eiiic of ft 
ilkc hcstes, him ssel perof uor|>enchc. and bim ssriue, 
and bidde god metci, yef he wyle by yborje. 

pis boc is jwrite 
uor englisse men, pet hi wyte 
hou hi ssolle ham-zclue ssriue, 
and maki bam klenc inc|>ise liue^ 
pis boc haite huo pel writ 

AVE.NfllTE OF InWYT. 

auersl byep pe hestes ten, 
pet loki ssollc alle men. 

pE UERSTK Codes Heste. 
pe ucnste heste pet god made and het is pis : " pou ne 
ssdt habile uele godes." pet is to ziggc : " pou ne sselt 
babhe got! boie me, ne worssipie. ne serui. And pou ne 
ssclt do pine hope bote ine me." Vor pe iike pet dep his 
hope he^licbe ine sseppe, zenejep dyadliche, and dep aye 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 229 

^ise hcsle. Zuiche byep pe ilke fet wotssipef )>e momcnes, 
and make}' hire god of ssepjie, huich fet hit by. 

Aye pischestezenqcp J>o pel lo moche louiej" hircguod, 
gold ofer zeluer, ojier opre (>inges erfliche. Huo pet ine 
pise pinges agelcep, zettep zuo moche hire herte and hire 
hope, pet hi uoiyeiep hire ssepere, an letep him pet alle 
fise guodes ham lenp. And peruore hi ssolden him 
serai and fonki, and loppe alle pinges louie and worssipie, 
fUzuo pe tek|) pis uerste heste. 

pE opER Codes Heste. 
pe oper heste ys pellich ; "pou ne sselt nime Codes 
name in ydel. " pet is lo zigge : "pou ne sselt zueric 
nor najt and H7p-ouie guode scele." pet oure Ihord him- 
zclf ous uorbyet ine his spelle, pet me ne zuerie ne by )>e 
beuene, ne by pe erpe, ne by opre sseppe. pajles ine 
guode skele me may zuerie wyp-ouie zennc. ase ine dome 
huer me oksef op of zope, oper out of dome in o|ire 
guode skele, and clenliche and skeluolliche. Ine non 
opre manyere ne is no riji to zuerie. And peruofL', liuo 
pet zuerep wip oute skele pane name of oure lliordc, and 
uor na^l, yef he zuerep uals be his wytinde, he liim uor- 
zuerep, and dep toayans pise heste, and zuerp dyadliche, 
uor he zuerp ayens inwyi, pet is lo onderstonde, huannc 
he him uorzuerp be pojte and be longe penchinge. Ac 
pe ilke pet auerep zop be his wytinde, and aJneway uor 
na)!, oper uor some skele kueade, najt kueaditche ake 
lijthche, and wyp-oute sclondre, zuetep lijiliche, pajles pe 
wone is kueaduol, and may wel wende to zenne dyadliche, 
bote yef [he] him ne loki. Ac pe ilke pet zuerep hidous- 
liche be God oper by hts haljen, and him to-brejp, and 
zayp him sclondres pel ne byep najt to ziggo, pe ilke 
zenejep dyadliche, ne he ne may habbe skele pet he him 
mc^ escosi. And pe ilke pet mest him wonep to zuerie, 
mest zenejep. 





230 DAN MICHEL'S AYENBITE OF INWTT. 

pE fRIDDE GODES HeSTE. 

pe fridde heste is fellich : " Loke fet fou hal^i )>ane 
day of |>e sabat [Zeterday]." pet is to zigge : **pou a« 
sselt do ine |>e daye of fe sabat [Zeterday] fine nyedes n* 
fine workes f et f ou mi3t do ine ofre dayes ; ac fou sse^' 
fe resti, uor beiere f e yeme to bidde and to serui l»ii 
sseppere fet him restede, fane zeuende day, of workes 
he hcdde ymad ine f e zix dayes beuore, in huichen t^^^^^ 
made the wordle, an ordaynede [diate]." pis hes**^ 
uoluelf gostliche him fet lokef be his mijte fe pays of hc^ 
inwyt, God uor to serui more holylaker. pawne f is wor» 
zeterday, fet f e Jurie clepef sabat, is ase moche worth as^ 
reste. 

pis heste ne may non loki gostliche, fet by ine inw}^ 
of d^'adliche ze/fne. Vor zuich inwyt ne may by ine resu 
fer huyle fet hi is ine zuich state. And ine fe stede of 
f e sabat fet wes straytliche y-loked ine f e yalde la^e, viC^^ 
holi cherche fane sonday to loky ine f e newe la^e ; vor 
oure Ihord aros uram dyafe to lyue fane zonday. An 
feruore me ssel hine loky and uref ie zo holyliche, and by 
ine reste of workes ope f e woke, and more of workes of 
ze«ne, and yeue \i\m more to gostliche workes and to 
Godes seruise, and f enche ane his sseppere, and hiwi bidde, 
and f onky of his guode. And huo fet brekf fane zonday 
and fe of re he3e festes fet byef y-zet to loky ine holy 
cherche, zene^ef dyadliche, uor he def aye f e heste of God 
to-uore yzed, and of holi cherche, bote yef hit by uore zome 
nyede fet holi cherche grantef. Ac more zene3ef fe ilke 
fet dispendef fane zonday and fe festes ine ze«ne, and 
ine hordom, and in of re ze«nes aye God. pise f ri hestes 
di3tef ous to Gode specialliche. 

pE UKRfE GoDES IIeSTE. 

pe uerfe heste is fellich: ''Worfssipe fine uader and 
fine moder, uor fu sselt libbe fe lenger ine yerfe." pis 



Ll\^:c f)U:> ariioiiol'. {' ]uj[ wc (>u> IcivX- ]"..:l \vc lie. \vi\|)|)i 

z;ac/er ne moder wytindeliche. And huo ))ct on\vorfcJ> his 

uacler and his modcr be his wytinde, o])er ham missayp 

opGr wrcfep mid kueade, zcne3e}) dyadliche an brekpfise 

Ii-ic fise like heste is onderstonde fa worfssipe fet we 
solle here to oure uaderes gostliche, fet is to ham fet 
ia.l>t>cl> V^ lokingge ous to leche and ous to chasti, ase 
>yej> fe ouerlinges of holy cherche, and fo fet habbef fe 
okinge of oure zaules and of oure bodyes. And huo pet 
nel^ "bou^e to ham fet habbcf fe lokinge of him, huanne 
^i t<^c:hef fet guod f et me is y-hyalde to done, zcnejef 
Kuesiciliche, and zuych may by f e onbo^samnesse fet hit is 
dyad 1 ich zenne. 

pE VIFTE GODES HeSTE. 

J^^ vifte heste is pell ich ; '*pbu ne ssclt sla^e nenne 
tnan . " p js heste uorbyet pet non ne ssel sla3e opren, uor 
a-wr-^ljinge^ ne uor his guodesoper uor oprewyckedeskele, 
uor ^et is zenne dyadlich ; paries uor to sla^e pe misdoeres, 
ri^t Xior to done and loki, and uor opre guode skele, hit is 
guc^d ri^t by pe la3e to him pet ssel hit do and yhyealde is 

^^e pis heste ys uorbodc zenne 'of hate and of wrepeand 
of grat ire. Vor alse zayp pe writinge : pe ilke pet hatep 
bis broper, he is mansla^pe as to his wylle, and zene3ep 
dy^liche ; and pe ilke pet berep lo«ge wrepe ayens opren, 
vor zuich wrepe lo«ge yhyealde and byuealde ine herte, is 
ine wrepe and ine hate, pet is dyadlich zewne, and aye pise 
heste. And yet zene3cp he more pet dep oper porchacep 
ssame oper harm to opren wrongliche, oper is ine rede and 
ine helpe uor to do harmi opren, him to awreke ; pa3les 
wrepe oper onworpnesse pet gep li3tlichc, wypoute greate 
wille an willinge uor to harmi opren, ne is najt dyadlich 
iennc. 



«3a DAN MICHEL'S AYENBITE OF INWYT. 

pE ZIXIE GODES HeSTE. 

pe zixte heste is fellich : "pou ne sselt do non hor- 
dom." pet is to zigge, " fov ne sselt najtwylni aelajrcde 
ulesslich wyf ofre mawne wjC" 

Ine |)ise heste ous is uoi-bodc alle zenne of ulesse fil me 
clepep gcncralliche lecherie, pet is on of fe zeuen dyad- 
liche ze«nes, faj J«r by zome bronches ft't ne byef naf 
dyadlicli zenne, ase byeji inaoie arizinges of vlesse pal me 
ne may najt al [l]e bevly. And po me ssel najii and vry}- 
dra^e ase moche ase me may, najt nor lo norici his ne 
porchaci, oper be to moche mete, oper drinke, oper be 
euele pontes to longe yhycalde, oJ>er be kueade takingcs. 
Vor ine zuiche pinges me may habbe harm of zaule. Ine 
pise hesie is uotbode alle zennen a-ye kende, ine huel 
manere hy byep y-do, oper ine his bodie oper in opren. 

pE zEUENDz GoDES Heste. 

pe zeuende heste is pellich : "pou ne sselt do none 
piefpe." pis heste ous uorbyet to nimene and of-hyealde 
oprc Dianne ping, huet pet hit by, be wyckede skele, aj-e 
pe wyl of him pet hit ojp. 

Ine pise heste is uorboderoberie, piefpe, stale, and gauel, 
and bargayn wj'p opren uor his ojen to habbe. And pe 
like pet dep aye pis heste is yhyalde to yelde pet he hep of 
opre manne kueadlichc, yef he wot to huam ; and yef he 
not, he is yhyalde to yeue hit uor Codes lone, ofer to done 
by pe rede of holi cherche. Vor he pet wj'phalt opre 
manne ping mid wrong be kueade skele, zene^p dyadlicbe, 
bote yef he hit yelde per ha ssel, yef he hit wot and moje 
hit do, oper yef he ne dep by pe rede of holi chcrcbe. 

pE BjTENDE GoDEs Heste. 
pe ejtende heste is pellich : " pou ne sselt zigge none 
nalse wytnesse aye pine emcristen." Ine pise heste onsys 
Horbode pet we ne lyeje ne ous uor-zueric, ne ine domc^ 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 23: 



ne wy|>-oute dome, uor todoharaii )iine emc/-isten, and )ict 
me ne lede nenne in wytnesse nor to ampayri his guode 
los o|>er his grace yet he he]i, uor )wt is dyadlich zennc. 
To-ayens pise heste doji )>o pet misziggep guodc men bc- 
hinde ham, be hire wjtinde, and by kueadnessc, pet me 
clepep pe ze«ne of detraccion, and po also pet hcriep pe 
kueade and hire dedes, of hire kueadnesse and of hire 
folies ywjte ofer yzoje opcr yherd. pet is zcnne of blon- 
di[njgge oper of lozengerie, huanne ine hit zayp to-uore 
ham, oper nalshede oper iyesinges, huanne he pet me 
spekp of ne is najt present ; vor alle pes byep ualse wyt- 
nesses. 

pE KBJBNDE GoDES HesTE. 

pe nqende heste is pellich : " pou ne sselt najt W7lni 
pine neyjbores wyf, ne his wylni ine pine herte." pet isio 
z>gS^> "pounesseit na^t ccnsenti to do zenne mid pine 
bo dye. " 

pis heste uorbyet lo wylni mid wyl of herle to habbe 
uelajrede ulesslich mid alle wyfmen, out of spoushod, and 
pe kueade tocnen wip-oute, pet byep ymad, uor 10 draje 
ze«ne, ase byep kueade wordes of zuychc mancre, oper 
ye()»es, oper kueade takinges. And pe difference of pise 
heste mid pe zixte aboue y-zed zuo is, pet pe zixte heste 
uorbyet pe dede wyp-ouie, ac pis uorbyet pe granlinge wyp- 
inne. Vor pe graminge to habbe uelajrede ulesslich mid 
wyfmen pel ne is najt his be spouse, ys zenne dyadlich be 
pe dome of Codes spelle pet zayp, " Huo pet zijp ane 
wyfman, and wylnep his ine herie, he hep y-zenejed ine 
hyre ine his herte," pet is tozigge, wypaperie wylni [njgge 
and mid po;ie. 

pE TEKDE CjODKS HeSTE. 

pe tende heste is pellich : "pou ne sseh najt wylni 
jiing pet is pine nixte." pis hcsie uorbyet wyl to habbe 
opre mawne ping by wyckcde scele. 



t34 DAN MICHEL'S AYENBITE OF DJWYT. 

Ine J)is heste is uorbode enuie of o^re Di»ne gnode, 
o|>€r of ofre manoe grace. Vor J>e iike enaie comj of 
kueade couaytise aor to habbe{)et guod o)>er fe ilkegrne 
I>c( he )'-zi))> ine ot>rcn. And fe iIke coaaytise, haMoe^ 
fonsentemenl and pt fojtes [byej>] pcno, is dj-adlich iemit, 
and a-ye pise hesle ; pajles lijte couajiise lo habbe ofre 
mannc fing by guode scele ne is no ze«ne, and yef fer is 
eni kuead arizinge w)-|>-oule wylle and wj f-oute grontinp 
to harmi opren, hit ne is no zenne, and yef fei h zeme, 
hit is lijt zcnne. 

pis byep pe ten hcstes, huer-of pe pri uerete oiis diji "cl 
to God, pe opre zeuen ous dijt to oiire nixte. pise im 
hcstes byep to echen pet hop stele and e!de yhyealde w 
conne and to done. Vor huo pet dep perteyens be his 
wylinde, zenejep dyadliche. 

Pk ZENNES of ]•« TOKGE. 

Huo pet wyle conne and wcje pe zennes of pe (onge, Ml 
behouep pet he conne wcje and ayenweje pel word, hujch 
pet hit by, and huer-of hit conip, and huet kiiead hit def, 
Vor hit y-ualp pet fet word is ze«ne ine hym, uor pet hitis 
knead, and yef hit by-ualp pet hit byze/ine, uor pet byl 
gep out of kueade herte and of heauede, hit biualp Y^ 
pe speche is grat zenne, uor pet hi dep grat kuead, paj hj 
by uayrcand ysraoped. Nou sseltpouywj'le pet pe kueade 
longe is pet trau pet God acorsede in his spelle, uor pet he 
ne uand najt bote leaues, pet ine holy writ byep onde[r]-' 
slonde wordes. And alsuo ase hit is Strang ping to telle 
alle pe lyeaues of pe trauwe, alsuo hit is Strang ping uor 
lo telle pe zennes pet of pe tonge comep. An pise ten 
bojes we moje alsuo newni ; ydelnessc, yelpinge, blon- 
dingc, todrajinge, lyesjuges, vorzueriingcs, stiyfinge, 
groc hinge, wj'pslondinge, blasfemye. 

pe ilke pat ham yeuep to moche to ydele worddes, hi 
zechep grat hairn pet hi ne aparccyuep najt. Vor hy 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 235 

• J>ane time pr«:ious huer-of hi ssolden habbe eftsone 
, and uorlyesc}) pe guodes fet hi fcnchef to done 
jsolden do, and nimef fe tresor of the herte, and 
elf a-ycn mid ydelencsse. Hi onwrif fane pot, and 
'3en vlyefferin. Hi hise clepief ydele wordes, ac hi 
cf, ac hi byef of grat cost, and harmuolle, and 
us, ase fo fet emtef fe herte of hire guode, and 
lis ayen mid ydelnesse, as fo huer of behouef yelde 
inge of echen beuor God ate daye of dome, ase 
:ay|) ine his spelle. Hit ne is na^t lite fing ne ydele- 
huer-of hit behouef rekeni and yelde scele ine fe 
ort, ase beuore God and al f e baronage of heuene. 
fo ydele wordes me zene3ef ine vif manures. Vor 
ref zome wordes ydele huer of fe tonges byef zuo 
fet spekej) beuore and behynde, fet byef ase fe 
of fe melle, fet ne may him najt hyealde stille. 
ef hi spekf bisye wordes of ham fet zuo blefeliche 
Lidyinges, f et zettef ofte hare herte to mesayse of ham 
J yheref, and makef f e efter-telleres ofte by yhyea [1] de 
and uor lye^eres, Eft^rward byef fe tales and fe 
zigginges, huer-of hi habbef moche of ydele blisse 
hise conne sotilliche zigge, uor f e herkneres do wel 
. Eft^rward byef fe bourdes and fe trufles uol of 
and of leazingcs, fet me clepef ydele wordes ; ac 
|>e hit ne byef, ac hy byef wel stinkinde and wel 
, EfttTward byef fe bisemeres and J>e scornes fet 
jef ope fe guode men and ope alle ham fet wyllef 
I, feruore f et hi mitten his dra^e to hare corde, and 
J>e guode fet hi habef y-conceyned wy)>dra3e. pet 
2f na^t ydele wordes ; vor f ou art ase i3nansla3f e, 
»u be pine tonge wyf drajst ane man ofer a child wel 
tie, and God fe can ase moche fank ase wolde f e 
yef fe heddest 3rslaje his zone, ofer his iresor 



■36 DAN MICHEL'S AYENBITE OF INWYT. 



Op fE ZE!<NE OF YELPISGE. 

Efienrani comp yc zcn ne of yeliijugc pet is wel grat and 
wel uoul, wcl uals and wcl vilcyn. Hi is wcl grat, vol 
huo pel yelpp he is apetleiiche Codes ]>ye(, and him v,Tle 
benyme his blisse ase we zede hjer beuore. pel is a wel 
aals zewne. Vor pe guodcs huerof he mijte wynne pe 
hcuene, hi yeuep uor a liiel wynd. And ?,uo hit is a wel 
uoul zenae. Vor pc wordle zcif ham halt uor fot, and uor 
vilayn, and uor nice, 

Ine pise boje byep vif leaues, pet byep vif manure of 
yelpinges. On is preterit, pe[t] is to zigge, of pinge ypased. 
pet is pe zcnne of pan pet 7,uo hiepetiche recordt-p bare 
dedes and hare prowesses, and pet hi wencp habbe oper 
wel ydo oper wcl yzed. pe oper is of prwcnt, pet is to 
ziggc, of nou. pel is pe zcnne of po pet uaji ne dup 
gledliche, ne ham ne paycp we! to done ne wcl ziggc. bo:c 
ase me his yzyjp oper yhcrp. pise ine dcde opur ine spec!ie 
and ine zinginge hi yeipep and zellop uor naji al pel hi 
dol>. To pan belongef pe ze«ne of zuicheu pet yeljiep of 
pe guodcs pel hi habbcp oper pet hi wencp habbe, of hare 
noblesse, of hare richesse. of hare prouesse. Ilybycpase 
pc coccou pet ne can zinge bote of himzeluc. pe pridde 
is pe zenne of pise ouerweneres |iei ziggep, " Ich willc do 
pel and pet, ich W7IIC awreke, forre ich wille maki pe holies 
and pe dancs." pe ucrpe is more sotil, pel is of pan pet 
nc mojc uor ssame ham-zcluepraysi, acal pctoprc dopand 
ziggep, altogiderc uayrlichc blamye]' ase tiji naji, ne liim 
prayscp 10 pel hi conne do and z'^e. pe vific is yet more 
soiil of hsm pel, huanne hi willcp pet me hise praysi, and 
hi nollep ziggc aperleliche, hi hit makep a na;-., and 
makfp zuo moche ham milde. and ziggep pel hi byep zuo 
kucade, and zuo zciiuol, and zuo onconnyndc, pri sipe 
more panne hi by, vor pel tne ham licrep and hvealdc uor 
«-el bojsam, "Alias," zayp saynt liernard, " huet per is 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 



237 



hier zor^uolle yelpinge." Hy make)> ham dyeulen, uor 
pei me halt ham uor angles, hy make]> ham kueade, vor 
|>et me ssolde his hyealde uor good ; ne more me ne may 
ham wre]>i )>a/fne uor to zigge, **Uorzo)>e, fou zaystzof." 
To J>an belongep fe ze«ne of ham fet zechif spekemen 
ham uor to praysi, and uor to grede hare noblesse, be huas 
mou|^ hi speke)>, and fe more hardyliche. 



SELECTION 

"THE VOIAGE AND TRAVMLE 

SIR JOHN HAUNDEVILE, Kt." 



THE RIVER NILE— EGYPT, ITS GEOGRAPHY. 
PRODUCTIONS, ETC. 

That ryvere of Nyle, alle the jeer, whan itic 

Sonne entreihe in lo the signc of Cancer, it begi-nnethcW 
we\c, and it wexethe alle weys, ais longe as the sonne is 
in Cancro, and in the signe of Lvoune. And it weseLht 
in suche manere, that it is somt>*nie so gret, that it is :o 
cuhyies or more of depncsse ; and ihanne k doche gret 
harm to the godes that ben upon the lond. For thanne 
may no man travaylle to ere the londes, foe the grete 
moystnesse : and therfore is there dere tyme in that 
conirec. And also whan itwexethe Ij-tylle, it is dere tyme 
in that contree, for dcfaute of moysture. And whan the 
Sonne is in the signe of Virgo, thanne begynnethe the 
ryvere for to wane and to decrece tytyl and lytyllc ; so that 
whan the Sonne is entred in to the signe of Libra, thanne 
ihci entrcn bctwene theise ryveres. This ryvere comethe 
rcnnjngc from I'aradys terrestre, bctwene the desertes of 
Ynde ; and afire it smytt unto londe, and rennethe longe 
tyme many grete contrees undre erthe. And aftre itgothe 
out undroan highehille, that men cicpcn Alothe, that is 
bctwene Yndc and Ethiope, the distance of five moneths 
journeyes fro the entree of Etliiope. And afire it envy- 




EGYPT, ITS GEOGRAPHY, ETC 139 

.he alleEthiope and Klorekane, and gothe alle along 
e lond of Zgipie, unto the cytee of Alisandre, to the 
of Egipie ; and there it fallethe into the see, Aboute 
[}verc ben manye briddes and foulcs, as sikonyes, 
ihei clcpcn ibes. 

-g)pi is a long coniree, but it is streyt, that is to seye, 

ow ; for thei may not cnlargen it toward the desert, for 

aoie of watre. And the contree is sett along upon the 

«fe of Kyle, be als moche as that tyvere may serve be 

xles or otherwise, that whanne it flowethe, it may 

•reden abrood thorghe the contree : so is itie contree 

'fie of lengthe. For there it reyneth not but lilylle in 

'at conirce, and for thai cause they have' no watre, but 

'f it be of that flood of that ryvere. And for aU moche 

'S it ne reynclhe not in that contree, but the eyr 

'S alwey pure and deer, therfore in that coniree ben 

-lie ^ode astrooomyeres, for thei fynde there no cloudes 

-o Icllen hem. Also the cytee of Cayre is righte gret, 

and more huge than that of Babyloyne the lesse, and it 

Sjtt ahoven toward ihe desert of Svrye, a lyiitle aboven 

ihe lyvere aboveseyd. In Kgipt there ben 2 patties ; the 

ii^hie, that is toward Ethiope, and the lowenessc, thai is 

owardes Arabye. In Egypt is the lond of Ramasses and 

be lond of Gessen. Egipt is a strong contree, for it haihe 

nanye schrewe<le havenes, because of the grcte roches, 

hat ben stronge and daungerouse to passe by. And at 

^gipt, toward the est, is the Rede See, that durclhe unto 

he cytee of Coslon ; and toward the west, is the contree 

if Lybye, that is a fulle drj-e lond, and litylle of frujt, for 

t is over moche plentee of hete. And that lond is clcjit 

'usthe. And toward the partie meridionallc is Eihiope ; 

.nd toward Ihe norihe Is the desart, that durcihc unto 

SyryCi And so is the coniree strong on alle sydes. And 

t is well a 15 journeyes of lengthe, and more than two so 

noche of desert ; and it is but two journeyes in large- 



^^■■GriHl^^ 


' 140 SIR JOHN MAUNDEVIIj; Ki. 



ncxm. And betwene Egipt and Nubye, it hathe wel a 11 
jouriRCS of deseit And men of Nubye ben cristeDc, 
but [iici ben blakc as the Mowres, for grete hete of the 

In Egipt there ben 5 proiynces : that on highte 
Sahyihc, that other highte Demescer, another Re^ihe, 
that is an ile tn Nyte, another Alisandre, and another the 
lond of Damiete, That C)tee w-as wont to be righie 
sirong, but it was twyes wonnen of the crislene men ; and 
therfore after that the Sarazines beten down the valles. 
And with the wallcs and the tour thereof, the Sarazines 
maden another cytee more fer from the see, and clepeden 
it the newe Damyete, so that now no man duellethe at the 
raihcre toun of Damyete. And that cytee of Damyete is 
on of itie havenos of Egj'pt ; and at Alisandre is that 
other, tliat is a fulle strong cytee. But there is no i-alre 
to dtynke, but jif it come be condjt from Kyle that en- 
trcthe in to here tistemcs, and who so slopped that watre 
from hem, theimyghte not endure there. In Egipt there 
ben but fewe forceiettes or castelles, be cause that ibe 
contree is so strong of him self. At the desertes of 
Kgypte was a worthi man, that was an holy heremyte ; 
and there mette with hym a monstre (that is to set'ne, a 
monstre is a thing dilformed ajen kynde both of man 01 
of best or of ony thing elles, and that is cleped a mon- 
stre). And this monstre, that mette with this holy 
heremj-tc, was as it hadde ben a roan, that hadde 2 homes 
trenchant on his forhedc, and he hadde a body lyk a 
man, unto the nabele, and bencthc he hadde the body 
lyche a gnot. And the heremyte asked him, what he was. 
And the monstre answerde him, and seyde, he was a dedly 
creature, suche as God hadde tbrmed, and duelled in tho 
desertes, in purchasynge his sustynanco ; and besonghie 
the heremyte, that he wolde preye God for him, the whiche 
that (.am from hevenc for to saven alle mankynde, and 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENIX. 241 

was bom of a mayden, and suffred passioun and dethe 
ySLS we well knowen), be whom we lyven and ben. And ^it 
is the hede with the 2 homes of that monstre at Alisandre 
for a marveyle. 

In Egypt is the cytee of Elyople, that is to seyne, the cytee 
of the Sonne. In that cytee there is a temple made round, 
•ftre the schappe of the temple of Jerusalem. The presles 
of that temple han alle here wiytynges, undre the date of 
the foul that is clept Fenix ; and there is non but on in 
alle the world. And he comethe to brenne him self upon 
the awtere of the temple, at the ende of 5 hundred 3eer : 
for so longe he lyvethe. And at the 500 ^eres ende, the 
prestes array en here awtere honestly, and putten thereupon 
spices and sulphur vif and other thinges, that wolen brenne 
lightly. And than the brid Fenix comethe, and brenncthe 
him self to ashes. And the first day next aftre, men fynden 
in the ashes a worm ; and the secunde day next aftre, men 
funden a brid quyk and perfyt ; and the thridde day next 
aftre, he fleeihe his wey. And so there is no mo briddes of 
that kynde in alle the world, but it allone. And treuly that 
is a gret myracle of God. And men may well lykne that 
bryd unto God, be cause that there nys no God but on, and, 
also, that oure lord aroos fro dethe to lyve, the thridde day. 
This bryd men seen often tyme fleen in tho contrees. 
And he is not mecheles more than an egle, and he hathe 
a crest of fedres upon his hed more gret than the poocok 
hathe ; and his nekke is jalowe, aftre colour of an oriellc, 
that is a ston well schynynge ; and his bek is coloured blew 
as 3'nde ; and his wenges ben of purpre colour, and the 
lay He is ^low and red, castynge his taylle a^cn in travers. 
And he is a fulle fair brid toloken upon, a3enstthesonne : 
for he schynethe fully gloriously and nobely. 

Also in Egj'pt ben gardyns, that han trees and hcrbes, the 
whiche beren frutes 7 tymes in the ^ecr. And in that lond 
men fynden many fayre enieraudes and ynowe. And there- 

II 



143 SIR JOHN MAUNDEVILE, Kt. 

fore thei ben there grtttere cheep. Also whan ii rejudte 
ont-s in the somer, in the lond of Egipi, ihanne isalleihe 
coniree fuDe of grete myrs. Also at fayrc, that I spafc of 
before, sellen men comounly boihe men and woramen of 
other laue, as we don here besies in the marka;. And 
there is a comoun hows in that mee, thai is allc fulle of 
smale furneys ; and thidre br)-ngen womrnen of the toun 
here eyren of hcnni.'S, of gees, and of dokes, for to ben 
put in 10 iho furncyses. And thei that kepcn that hciii 
covercn hem with heie of hors dong, with oulen hcniie, 
goos or doke or ony other foul ; and at the cnde of 3 wekci 
or of a monethe, thei comen ajen and taken here chjckeiies 
and norissche hem and br)-ngen hem fonhe, so thai a!1e 
the coniree is fulle of hem. And so men don there 
bothc wyntre and somer. 

Also in that contree, and in othere also, men fynden 
longe apples to selle, in hire cesoun : and men clepen hem 
apples of paradj-s ; and thei ben righte swete and of goJe 
savour. And ihoghe jce kutte hem in never so many go- 
bettes or panics, ovenhwart or endlonges, everemore lee 
schulle f)iiden in the raj'ddes the figure of the holv cros 
of oure Lord Icsu. But thei wil rolen within 8 days, and 
for that cause men may not carye of the apples to no fer 
contrees. And thei han grete le\'es, of a fote and a half 
of lengthe, and ihei ben covcnably large. And men fynden 
there also the appulletreeof Adam, that han a byte at on 
of the sjdcs. And there ben also fyge trees, that beren no 
levcs, but fygcs upon the smale braunches ; and men 
clepen hem figes of Pharoon. Also bcsyde Cayre, wiih- 
outen that c}-tee, is the feld where bawme groweihe. And 
it comcthe out on smale trees, that ben non hyere than a 
manncs brcek girdille ; and ihei semen as wode that is of 
the wyldc vyne. And in that feld ben 7 welles, that oute 
Lord lesu Crist made with on of his feet, whan he wente 
to plcyen with other children. That feld is not so well 



BALSAM— ITS PREPARATION, ETC. 243 

closed, but that men may entren at here owne list. But 
in that ceso[u]ne, that the bawme is growynge, men put 
there to gode kepynge, that no man dar ben hardy to entre. 
This bawme growethe in no place, but only there. And 
thoughe that men bryngen of the plauntes, for to planten in 
other contrees, thei growen wel and fayre, but thei br>'ngen 
forthe no fructuous thing. And the leves of bawme ne fallen 
noughte. And men kutten the braunches with a scharp 
flyntston or with a scharp bon, whanne men wil go to 
kutte hem ; for who so kutte hem with iren, it wolde de- 
stroye his vertue and his nature. And the Sarazines clepen 
the wode enonch balse ; and the fruyt, the whiche is as 
quybybes, thei clepen abebissam ; and the lycour, that 
droppethe fro the braunches, thei clepen guybalse. And 
men maken alle weys that bawme to ben tyled of the 
cristene men, or elles it wolde non fructifye, as the Sara- 
zines seyn hem self ; for it hathe ben often tyme preved. 
Men seyn also, that the bawme growethe in Ynde the more, 
in that desert where the trees of the sonneand of themone 
spak to Alisaundre ; but I have not seen it, for I have not 
ben so fer aboven upward, because that there ben to many 
perilouse passages. And wyte ^ee wel, that a man oughte 
to take gode kepe for to bye bawme, but ^if he cone knowe 
it righte wel ; for he may righte lyghtely be disceyved. For 
men sellen a gome, that men clepen turbentyne, in stede 
of bawme ; and they putten there to a littille bawme for to 
^ven gode odour. And sume putten wax in oyle of the 
wode [and] of the fruyt of bawme, and seyn that it is 
bawme ; and sume destyllen clowes of gylofre and of 
spykenard of Spayne and of othere spices, that ben 
well smellynge ; and the lykour that gothe out there of, 
thei clepe it bawme ; and thei wenen, that thei han 
bawme, and thei have non. For the Sarazines countre- 
feten it be sotyltee of craft, for to disceyven the cristene 
men, as I iiave seen fulle many a tyme ; and aftre hem. 



344 SIR JOHN XIAUNDEVILE, Kt. 

themarchauntUand theapotecariescountrereteu iteftsones, 
and than it is lasse wonhe, and a gret del worse. Bui jif 
it Ij'kejou, I Echalle shewe, how jee schuMe knowe and 
preve, to the ende that jee schulle not ben discevveJ. 
First, jee schulle we! kno*e, that the naturelle bawme is 
fuUe cleer, and of c)irine colour, and sironge smellynge ; 
and jif it be thykke or reed or blak, it is sophisticate, that 
is to seyne, conlrefeted and made lyke it, for discejt. 
And undrestondethe, that jif jee wil puite a iitvlie bawme 
in the pawme of joure hond, ajen the Sonne, jif it be fya 
and gode, jee ne schulle notsuffre joure hand ajenst the 
hete of the sonne. Also lakeihe a lytille bawme, with the 
p)0}*nt of a knif, and louche it to the fuyr, and jif it brenne, 
it is a gode signe. Afire take also a drope of bawme, and 
put it in (o a dissche or in a cuppe with mylk of a goot ; 
and 5if it be naturelle bawme, anon it wole take and be- 
clippe the m)lk. Or put a drope of bawme in clere watre, 
in a cuppe of sylvcr or in a clere bacyn, and slcre it wel 
with the clere watre ; and jif that the bawme be fyn and of 
his owne kynde, (he watre schalle nevere trouble ; and ^if 
the bawme be sophisticate, that is to sejne, countrcfeied, 
the water schalle become anon trouble. And also, jif the 
bawme be fyn, it schalle falle to the botme of the vesselle. 
as thoughe it were quyksylver ; for the fyn bawme is more 
hevy twyes, than is the bawme that is sophisticate and 
counirefeted. Now I have spoken of bawme, and now 
also I schalle spcke of an other thing, that is bejonde Baby- 
loyne, above the flofJc of Ny!e, toward the desert, betwene 
Affrik and Egj'pt : thatisto seyn, of the gcnieres of Joseph, 
that he leet make, for to kepe the greynes for the perile 
of the dere jeres. And ihei ben made of ston, fulle wel 
made of masonnes craft ; of the whiche two ben merveyl- 
ouse grete and hye, and the tolhere ne ben not so grele. 
And every gerncr hathe a jate, for to entrewith innc, a 
lytille hyghe fro the erthe. For tlie lond is waslcd and 



THE PYRAMIDS. 



245 



fallen, sithe the gemeres were made. And with inne thei 
ben alle fulle of serpentes. And aboven the gerneres with 
outen ben many scriptures of dyverse langages. And sum 
men seyn, that thei ben sepultures of grete lordes, that 
weren somtyme ; but that is not trewe, for alle the comoun 
rymour and speche is of alle the peple there, bothe fer and 
nere, that thei ben the gameres of Joseph. And so 
fynden thei in here scriptures and in here cronycles. 
On that other partie, ^if thei werein sepultures, thei schol- 
den not ben voyd with inne. For jee may well knowe, 
that tombes and sepultures ne ben not made of suche 
gretnesse, ne of suche highnesse. Wherfore it is not to be- 
leve, that thei ben tombes or sepultures. In Egypt also 
there ben dyverse langages and dyverse lettres, and of 
other manere condicioun, than there ben in other parties. 
As I schalle devjrse 30U, suche as thei ben, and the names 
how thei clepen hem, to suche entent, that ^ee mowe 
knowe the difference of hem and of othere : Athoimis, 
Bunchi, Chinok, Durain, Eni, Fin, Gomor, Heket, 
Janny, Karacta, Luzanim, Miche, Naryn, Oldache, Pilon, 
Quyn, Yron, Sichen, Thola, Urmron. Ypp and Zarm, 
Thoit 



EXTRACTS 



TREVISA'S TRANSLATION OF 
RALPH HIGDEN'S POLYCHRONICON. 



THE CORRUPTION OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE, 
AND THE PREFERENCE HAD FOR THE FRENCH, 
IN THE XIVTH CENTURY. 

^Also. englische men. . , by commistioun. & med- 
lynge. first wi|) danes. & afterward wi|> Normans, in mcnyi 
)>e contray langage is apaired. & somme vsif strange 
wlaffynge, chiterynge. harrj-nge & garrynge. grysbittinge. 
fiis apairynge of fe birpe tonge is by cause of twei 
Jjtngis oon. is for children, in scole scenes ye vsagc & 
maner of al!e o))er naciouns be)> compelled forto leue 
her owne langage. & forio constrewe here lessouns & 
here |>ingis a frensche. and haucp sipfc pal pe Normans 
come first into Englond. ^ Also gentil mennes children 
be)> y laujt forto spcke frensche. from fe tyme fat |)ei 
bel> rokked in her cradel. & kunne|) speke & playe with 
achildes brooche. ^ And vplondische men wole likne 
hem self to gentil men, & fondep wip grcie bisynesse. forto 
speke frensche. forto be J>e more ytold of. If i r e u i s a. 
fis maner was myche y vsed to fore pe first morej-n. 
[1348.] & is sipjie somdel ychaungide. for lohnn Com- 
wail, amaister of gramer chaungide fe lore in gramer 
Ecole. & constructioun of frensche into Englische. & 
Richard Pencriche lerned fat maner techynge of hym 



CORRUPTION OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE. 247 

& ojwr men of Pencriche. so J>at now pe jere of cure 
lord, a )>ousand. fre hundred foure score and fyue J of 
fe secunde kynge Ricbard after Jie conquest njne. in alle 
pe gramer scoles of Englond. children leuep frensche & 
constnie)) & leme)> an Englische. . . . 

R. Also . . . pe forseid saxon tonge ... is abide scars- 
liche wip fewe vplondische men . , , Alle pe langages of 
pe norphumbres & specialiche at jorke is so scharp slittinge 
& frotynge & vnschape ! pat we souperen men may pat 
langage vnnepe [uneasily] vnderstonde. 



SELECTIONS 



THE VISION OF WILLIAM CON- 
CERNING PIERS PLOWMAN. 



THE VISION OF THE DEADLY SINS AND OF PERS 
THE PLOUHMON. 

pE kyng and his knihtes ■ to Jw Churche wenten 
To hcere Matyns and Masso ■ and to pc Mele aftor, 
pe«ne Wakede I of my wink ■ me was wo witA aile 
pat I nedde sadloker. I-slept -and I-seje more. 
Er I a Furlong hedde l-fare ' A Feynlise me hente, i 

pat For(jer mihti not a-fote • for delaute of Sleep. 
1 sat Sofleliche a-doun 'and seide my beo-leeuc. 
And so I blaberde on my Beodes * fat brouhte me a-Slepc. 
pen sauh I mucbe more ■ fen I beofore lolde. 
For I sauh fe Feid ful of Folk ■ fal ich of bi-fore 
schewede, n 

And Concience wiU a Crois • com for to preche. 
He preide fe peple ■ haue pite of hem-selue. 
And preuede JwC pis pestilences ■ weore for puire synne. 
And pis soup-Westeme wynt ■ on a Seterday at euen 
Was a-perteliche for pniide ■ and for no poynl elles. u 

Piries and Plomlres' weore passchetto pe grouwde. 
In ensauwpie lo Men ■ pal we scholde do pe bellre. 
Beches and brode okes • weore btowen to pe eorpe. 
And turned vpward pe tayl ' In toknyng of drede 



CONSCIENCE PREACHES A SERMON. 249 

pat dedly Synne or domesday • schulde fordon hem alle. « 
Of pis Matere I mihte • Momele ful longe, 
Bote I sigge as I sauh • (so me god hclpc) I 
How Concience wii/t a Cros • Comsede to preche. 
He bad wastors go worche * what )>ei best coupe, 
And wy«ne fat pei wasteden • w/U sum maner craft. is 
He prei^ede Pemel ' hire Porfil to leue, 
And kepen hit in hire Cofre * for Catel at neode. 
Thomas he tau^te • to take twey [staues], 
And fette hom Felice * From wyuene pyne. 
He wamede watte • his wyf was to blame, w 

pat hire hed was worp a Mark • and his hod worji A Grote. 
He chargede Chapmen • to Chasten heore children ; 
Let hem wonte non ei^e • while pat pei ben :}onge. 
He preyede Preestes • and Prelates to-gedere, 
pat pei prechen pe peple • to preuen hit in hem-selucn — k 
'* And libben as ^e lerep vs * we wolen loue ow pe betere." 
And Seppc he Radde Religioun • pe Rule for to holde — 
** Lestc pe kyng and his Cou«seil • 3or Comunes apeire, 
And beo stiward in oure stude • til ^e be stouwct betere. 
And ^e fat sechep seynt lame • and scintes at Roome, 40 
Sechep Seint Treupe * for he may sauen ow alle ; 
Qui cum patre et filio ' feire mote you falle. " 
penne Ron Rcpentaunce • and Rehersed pis teeme, 
And made William to weope • wat«r wn/5 his c^en. 
Pemel proud-herte • platte hire to grounde, 45 

And lay longe ar heo lokede * and to vr ladi cricde, 
And beo-hi3te to him • pat vs alle maade, 
Heo wolde vn-souwen hire smok 'and setten per an here 
Forte fayten hire Flesch • fat Frele was to synne : 
"Schal neuerliht herte me hente • bote holde me lowe, k 
And suffre to beo mis-seid — • and so dude I neu^re. 
And nou I con wel meke me • and Merci be-seche 
Of al pat Ichaue I-had • cnvye in myn heric." 
Lechour seide "Alias !" • and to vr ladi cricde 

II* 



150 DESCRIPTION OF ENVY. 

To maken him han Merci • for his mJsdede, , 

ISitwene go<i nlmihti ■ and his pore soule, 

Wifi-fat he schulde pe seterday ■ senen ^er after 

Drinken bote wiU fe Doke 'and [dynen] but ones. 

Envj'e wip heui herte • asket aflur schrifi. 

And gretliche his gukns ■ bi-ginne}> lo schewe, • 

As pale as a pelet ' In a palesye he seemede, 

I-clo(>ed in A Caurimauri ■ I coupe him not discreue ; 

[A kertil & a couitepy ■ a knyf be his side ; 

Of a Freris frokke ■ were fe fore sleuj-s]. 

As a leek pat hedde I-Ieijen ■ longe In pe sonne, m 

So loked he wiiA lene chekes ; ■ lourede he foute. 

His Bodi was Boiled ■ for wrafpe he hot his lippes, 

Wropliche he wrong his fust ■ he poujte hiw a-wreke 

Wip werkes or wilA Wordes • whon he seij his Ijme. 

"Venim or vernisch ■ or vin^re, I trouwe, n 

VVallef in my wombe ■ or waxep, ich wene. 

I ne mihte mony day don ' as a mon ouhte, 

Such wynt in my wombe 'wasep, er I dy[n]e. 

Ichaue a neihjebor me neih ' I haue anuyjcd hiw of:e, 

Ablamed him be-hyndc his bak ' Eo bn'nge him in disclaun- 

dre, 
And peired him bi my pouwer" I-punissched him ful oftc, 
Bi-lowen him to lordes " to make him leose Seluer, 
I-don his Frendes ben his fon ' wi'tA my false longe ; 
His grase and his good hap ■ greuep me ful sore. 
Bitwene him and his Meyne ■ Ichaue 1-Mad wrappe, m 
Bope his IjTand his leome • was lost porw my tonge, 
Whon I mette him in pc Market • pat I most hate, 
Ich hcilcde him as hendely ■ [as I his frend] weore. 
He is doujiiore pen I ■ i darnon harm don him. 
Bote hcdde I maystrie an/J mihc ■ I Morpcfde hiwi foi 

eufre ! a 

Whon I come to pe churche ■ and kncle bi-forc pe Roode, 
And scholde preije for pe peple ■ as pe presi vs icchep. 



I)K>CRIPT10X OF AX'ARIcK. 2^1 



D 



P^''';nc 1 die \ppon my knes * J'U crist ^iue hem bcrwc 
^*it haj) I-bore a-wei my Bolle • and my brode schete. 
^'"om the Auter I iurne ' myn ei^e, and bi-holde k 

'^ou heyne haJ? a newe Cote* and his wyf anofer; 
P^«ne I wussche hit weore myn • and al fc web aftwr. 
^f his leosinge I lauhwe • hit likep me in myn herte ; 
"^c for his wynnynge I wepe * and weile ]>e tyme. 
*- deme men }>at don ille • and 3it I do wel worse, m 

^or I wolde fat vch a wiht • in fis world were mi knaue, 
lAnd who-so haf more panne I • fat angrij? myn herte]. 
pus I Hue loueles • lyk A Infer dogge, 
pat al my breste Bollef * for bitter of my galle ; 
May no Suger so swete • a-swagen hit vnnef e, 100 

Ne no Diopendion • dryue hit from myn herte ; 
3if schri[f]t schulde hit J>e«ne swopen out 'a gret wonder 

hit were." 
"3US, rediliche," q«od Repentauwce 'and Radde him to 

goode, 
* * Serw for heore suwnes * sauef men ful Monye. " 
" Icham sori," quod Envye * **I ne am but seldene 
ofer, iM 

And fat Makef me so mad • for I ne may me venge. " 
penne com Couetyse ' I couf e him not discreue, 
So hungri and so holewe • sire herui him loked. 
He was bitel-brouwed * w/b4 twei blered ei^en, 
And lyk a lef erne pors • lullede his chekes ; no 

In A toren Tabart • of twelue Wynter Age ; 
But ^if a lous coufe lepe • I con hit not I-leue 
Heo scholde wandre on fat walk * hit was so f red-bare. 
'*Ichaue ben Couetous," q«od fis caityf* **I beknowe hit 

heere ; 
For sum tyme I Seruede • Simme atte noke, \u 

And was his pliht prenlys • his profyt to loke. 
Furst I leornede to Lyje 'A lessun or tweyne, 
And wikkedliche for to weie • was myn of er lessun. 



/ 

^ 



252 GLUTTON STARTS TOCHURCH TO CONFESS. 

To Winchesire and to Wych ■ Ich wente to fc Feire 
Wii^ mony maner marchaundise ■ as my mayster hihle ; ui 
Bote nedde fe grace of g>'le ■ I-gon a-mong my ware, 
Hit hedde ben vn-so)d J>is seuen jer -so me god helpcl 
penne I drouj me among pis drapers ■ my Donet to ieorne, 
To drawe <pe lysie wel along ■ fe lengore hit semede ; 
Among )>i3 Riche Rayes ' lemde I a Lessun, m 

Brochede hem viitA a pak-neelde * arid pletede hem to- 

gedere, 
Putte hem in a pressour ■ and pinnede hem |)er-Inne 
Til ten jerdes o(>ertwelue ■tolden out fretlene. 
And my Wyf at Westmunsire ■ pat WoDene clop made, 
Spak to pe spinsters ■ for to spinne hit softe. » 

pe pound pat heo peysede [by] ■ peisede a quarfrun more 
pen myn Auncel dude ■ whon I weycde ireufe, 
I Bouhie hire Bariy ■ heo breuh hit to suUe ; 
Peni Ale and piriwhit ■ heo pourede to-gedere 
For laborers and louh folk ■ pat liuen be hem-seluen. ut 
pe Beste in pe Ucd-chaumbre ■ lay bi pe wowe, 
Hose Bummede pirof • Boujte hit per-after, 
A GalouK for a Grote ■ God woi, no iassc, 
Whon hit com in Cuppemel ; ■ such crafies me vsede. 
Rose pe Regraiour ■ Is hire rihte name ; i« 

Heo hap holden hosterj'e ■ pis Elleucne wynter. 
Bote I swcre nou [sopely] ■ pat sunne wel I Icie, 
And atuem wikkedliche weye ■ ne fals chaffare vsen, 
Bote weende lo Walsyngham ■ and my wyf a!se, 
And bidde pe Rode of Bromholm 'brmge me out of 

deile. " M 

Nou ginnep pe Gloion ■ for to go to schrifte, 
And cariep him lochircheward ■ his schrift forte telle. 
penne Beiun pe Breusicre 'bad him gode morwe, 
And seppen heo asked of him • ' ' Whoder pat he wolde ?" 
'■ To holi chirche," quod he ■ '■ for to here Masse w 

And seppen 1-chule ben I-schriuen -aWsunge no more." 



INTERIOR OF A BEER-HOUSE. J53 

" Ichaue good ale, goasib," qiwd heo ■ "gloteo, woltou 

asaye ?" 
*' Hastou oujt I fi pons," quod he * " eny hole spices ?" 
" je, glotun, gossip," quod heo ■ " god wot, ful goode ; 
I haue peper and piane ' aod a pound of garlek, ui 

A Ferpi>^-wor^ of Fenel-seed ■ for (>is Fasi>'ng dayes." 
pene gef Gloton in ■ and grete ofus after ; 
Sesse )« souters wyf ■ sat on fe Benche, 
Watie pe warinar ■ and his wyf bofe, 
Tomkyn j>e Tinkere ■ and tweyne of his knaues, mo 

Hikke )ie hakeney mon ■ and hogge feneldere, 
Clarisse of Cokkes lone * and |ie Clerk of |>e churche, 
Sire Pers of pridye ' and pernel of Flaundres, 
Dauwe ye disschere ■ and a doseyn o]>ere, 
[AJ Ribibor, [a] Ratoner ■ a Rakere of chepe, ut 

A Ropere, a Redyng-kyng ■ and Rose J>e disschere, 
Godfrei of Garlesschire • and GriCBn pe walschc, 
And of vp-holders an hep ■ erly bi fe morwe 
}iue |>e gloton wiiA good wille ' good ale to honsel. 
penne Clement fe Cobelere ■ caste of his cloke, i» 

And aiie newe Feire ■ he leyde hire to sulle ; 
And Hikke |>e Osliler • hutlc his hod aftur. 
And bad belle ft Bocher* ben on his bi-syde. 
per weore chapmen I-chose ■ pe chatfate 10 preise ; 
Hose hedde pe hod ■ schulde haue Amendes. m 

pei Risen vpRaply ■ and Rouneden to-gedere, 
And preiseden fe peniworpus ■ and parteden bi hem- 

seluen ; 
per weoren opes an hep ■ hose pal hit herde. 
pei coupe not bi heore concience ■ a-corde to gedere, 
Til Robyn pe Rop^z-e ■ weore Rad forte a-ryse, i« 

And nempned for a nourapere ■ pat no de-bat neore, 
[for he schulde preise pe penyworpes ■ as hym good 

poujt]. 
penne Hikke pe Ostiler - hedde pe cloke. 



AND REPENTS ; SLOTH CONFESSES HIS SINS.25S 

And gon to grede grimliche 'and gret deol to make 
For his wikkedc lyf ■{•at he I-liued hedde. 
For hungur ofer for Furst ■ I make myn A-vou, 
Schal neuer [fysch] on Frydai ■ defyen in my mawe, 
Er Abstinence myn Aunte 'haue I-jiue me leue ; at 

And ^it Ichaue I-hated hire 'al my lyf lyme." 
Sleufe for serwe ■ fel doun I-swowene 
Til vigi/ale fe veil ■ Teite water at his eijen, 
And flatte on his face ■ and fasle on him crijede, 
And seide, "war fe for wonhope ■{•at Wol |)ebi-traye. m 
' Icham sori for my sunnes' ■ sei 10 Jii-seluen, 
And bet fi-self on pe Breste 'and bidde god of grace. 
For nis no gult her so gret ■ his Merci nis wei more." 
penne sat sleufe vp ■ and sikede sore, 
And made a-vou bi-fore god ■ for his foule sleujie ; tu 

''Schal no sonendaypisseuen )er "{bote seknesse hit make), 
pal I ne schal do me ar day ■ to [te d[e]ore churche. 
And here Matins and Masse ■ as I a Monk were. 
Schal non ale after mete ■ holde me pennes. 
Til ichaue Euensong herd ■ I beo-hote to pe Rode. » 
And lit I-chuUe jelden ajeyn ■ jif I so muche haue, 
Al pat I wikkedliche won ■ sefpe I wit hade. 
And pauh my Ifylode lakke -lelten I nulle 
pat vche mon schal habben his ■ er ich he«ne wcnde : 
And vAA pe Residue andfe remenau»t ■ (bi pc Rode of 
Chester 1) w. 

I schal seche seynt Treupe ■ er I seo Rome !" 
Robert je Robbour ■ on ReddiU he lokede, 
And for per nas not Wher-w(l4 ■ he weple ful sore. 
But jit pe sunfol schrewe ■ seide to him-seluen r 
"Crist, pat vppon Caluarie 'on pe Cros dijedesi, iw 

po Dismas my broper • bi-sou)te pe of i,'race, 
And heddesl Mcrci of pat mon ■ for Memento sake, 
pi will worp vppon me ■ as Ich haue wol dcseruct 
To haue helle for eu*re ■ jif pat hope neore. 



256 THE PENITENTS SET OUT TO FIND TRUTH. 

So rewe on me, Robert • |)at no Red haue, ■• 

Ne neuere weene lo wjnne ■ for Craft |>it I knome. 

Bole for f'l muchel Merci ■ mitigacion I be-seche ; 

Dampne me not on domes day for I dude so ille." 

Ak what fel of fis Feloun ■ I con not feire schewe, 

But wel Ich wot he wepte Taste • walwr w/W his eijen, lu 

And knouhlechede his gult ■ to Crist jit efl-sones, 

pat Feniltncia is [pike ■ he] schulde polissche newe. 

And lepe wi'tA him ouerlond ■ al his lyf tyme, 

For he haf leijen bi lalro • lucifers brother. 

A fousent of Men [)o ■ prongen to-geders, m 

Weopyng and weylyng ■ for heore wikkede dedes, 

Crijinge vpward to Crist ■ and to his clenc moder 

To haue grace to seche seintlreul>e -godlene |iei sotaote I 



THE PENITENTS SET OUT IN SEARCH OF TRUTH 
—THE WAY DESCRIBED BY PIERS THE PLOUGH- 
MAN. 
[Now riden ))is folk *& walken on fote 
To seche fat seint ■ in setcou])e londis], m 

Bote Jwr were fewe men so wys ■ Jwt coujie (le wei |iider. 
Bote buslelyng forf as besies 'oaer valeyes and hulles, 
[for while fei wente her* owe« wille-fei wente a)le amys]. 
Til [hit] was late and longe ■ fat [lei a Leod metten, 
Apparayled as a Palmere ' In pilgrimes wedes. t» 

He bar a bordun I-bounde "wilj a brod lysie. 
In A wej^-bondes wyse ■ I-wrifcn aboule. 
A Bagge and a Bolle ■ he bar bi his s)'de ; 
An hundred of ampolles ' on his hat sceten, 
Signes of Sjmay • and Schelles of Galys ; m 

Moni Cros on his cloke ■ and keijes of Rome, 



THEY MEET A PALMER ; PIERS APPEARS. 257 

And fe vernicle bi-fore • for men schulde him knowe, 
And seo be his signes * whom he souht hedde. 
pis Folk fraynede him feire • (rom whewne fat he coome ? 
** From Synay," he seide, • ** and from the Sepulcre ; mo 
From Bethleem and Babiloyne • I haue ben in bofe, 
In Ynde and in Assye • and in mony ofer places. 
^ mouwe seo be my Signes * fat sittep on myn hat, 
pat I haue walked ful wyde • In weeie and in druye, 
And souht goode seyntes • for my soule hele." tae 

** Knowest fou ouht A Corseynt • Men callef Seynt 

Treufe ? 
Const j><?u wissen vs fe wey • wher fat he dwellef ?" 
'* Nay, so God glade me !" • seide fe gome fenne, 
*' Sauh I neuere Palmere • mtk pyk ne wzW schrippc 
Such a seint seche • bote now in f is place. " sm 

"Peter r' q«od a Plou^-Mon* and puttc forf his hed, 
** I knowe him as kuyndeliche • as Clerk dof his bokes ; 
Clene Concience and wit * [kende] me to his place, 
And dude enseure me seffe • to serue him for eutrre. 
Bof e to sowen and to setten • while I swynke mihte, »& 
I haue ben his felawe • f is fiftene wynter ; 
Bof e I-sowed his seed • and suwed his beestcs, 
And eke I-kept his Corn • I-caried hit to house, 
1-dyket and I-doluen • I-don what he hihte, 
W/U-Innen and wzUouten • I-wayted his profyt ; too 

per nis no laborer in f is leod * fat he louef more, 
For fauh I Sigge hit my-self • I seruc him to paye. 
I haue myn hure of him wel * and ofcrwhile more ; 
He is fe presteste pay ere • fat pore men habbef ; 
He wil^-halt non hyne his huire • fji he hit naf at euen. 
He is as louh as A lomb * loueiich of speche, m 

And 3if je wollef I-wite • wher fat he dwellef, 
I wol wissen ow f e wey • hom to his place. " 
'*Ye, leue pers," qwod fis palmers •««(/ pr^frede» him 
huire. 



358 HE DESCRIBES THE WAY TO TRUTH. 

"Nai, bi \>e peril of my soule,"q«od pere 'and bigon to 
swere, •» 

" I Dolde fonge a ferfing ■ for seynt Thomas schrine I 
Treu|>e wolde loue me pe lassc ■ a gret while after ! 
Bote ;e yal veadep to him ' )>is is ^ wei pider: 
je mote go forw mekenesse ■ bo{>e Mon and wyf. 
Til }e come in-lo Coneience ■ jiat crist knowc fe sofie w 
pat )e louep him leucre ■ pen fe lyf in oure hettcs. 
And fenne cure neihcbore next ■ In none wyse apeire 
Operweys pen pou woldest ■ men wroujlen to pi-seluen. 
So Bouwep forp bi a brok* beo-bo\um-of-speche, 
[Forp til )e fynde a forde ■ joar-fadres-honourelh] ; » 
Wadep in pat water ■ wasschep ow wel pcre, 
And )e schul lepe pe lihtloker- al oure lyf tyme. 
Sone schahon penne I-seo ■ swere-not-but-pou-haue-neode- 
And-nomebche-In-Idel- ■ pe-nome-of-God-Almihti. 
penne schul ^ come bi a Crofl ' but cum ^e not \vr- 
Inne ; » 

pe Croft hctie coucyte-not- • Me«nes-catel-ne-heore-wyues- 
Ne-non-of-heore-seruauns- ' pat-nuyjen-hem-mihte ; 
Loke pou breke no Bouj pwe ' but jif hit beo pin owne. 
Twei siokkes per stondcp ■ but stunt pou not fere, 
pei hetten. sic-not, ne-stei-not • stryk forp bi hem hope ; » 
Lef hem on piluft half- loke hem not aftur, 
And hold wel pin haly-day ' euere til euen. 
penne schaltou Blenchcn at a brok • ber- no-fa Is- witnesse, 
He is frettet w(fc4-InneB wilA Floreyns • and opes wel 

monye ; 
Loke pou plokke no plonte per ■ for perW of pi soule. ■■ 
penne schallou [se] sei-sop- ■ so-hit-beo-lo-done- 
And-Ioke-pal-pou-lyje-noi- ■ for-no-monnes-bidyng. 
penne schaUou come to a Court ■ Clcer as pc Sonne, 
pe Mot is of Merci ■ pe maner al abouten, 
And allc pe waMes bcp of wit ' to holde wil p^routc ; >■ 
pe Camels bep of Cristendam ■ pe kujnde to saue, 



DESCRIPTION OF THE TOWER OF TRUTH. 159 

Bnitaget wAA fe bileeue ■ wher-porw we molen beo sauet. 

Alle pe houses beo)) I-hulet ■ Hailes and Chaumbres, 

Wipno led bole witA loue- • as-Bre^ren-of-o-wombe. 

pe Tour fer treu|>e is Inne ■ I-set Is aboue ft sonne, w 

He may do wAA (« day-sterre • what him deore lykep ; 

Deth dar not do ■ frng )>at he delendep. 

Grace hette fe jate-ward ■ A good mon forsof*. 

His moD hette a-Mende-pou ■ for mony men him knowef ; 

Tel him J>is tokene • for tieupe wot pe sope : •» 

'1 pfHbnnede penaunce ' pot pe prest me en-Ioynede ; 

I am son for my sunnes ' and so schal I euere 

WhoD I penke per-on ■ pau) I weore a pop<.' 

Bidde a-Mende [-pou] Meken hiM ■ to bis Mayster ones, 

To wynne vp pe wiket-jat • fat pe wey schutle, w 

po pat Adam and Eue " eeten heore bone ; 

For he hap fe keye of pe cliket • pau) pe kyng slepe. 

And jif grace pe graunte ■ to gon in in pis wyse, 

pou schall seo treupe him-self ' sitten in pin hcrte. 

pernie loke put pt>u loue him wel ■ and his lawc holde ; w 

Bole beo wel I-war of wrappe • [pat wykkide] Schrenc, 

For he hap Envye to him ■ pal [in pyn herte sittep ;] 

And puitep forp pruide no preisen pi-seluen. 

pe boldnessc of pi benfes ■ blendep pin eijen. 

And so worpeslou I-driuen out ' and pe dore I-closet, m 

I-keijet and I-k1ikeled ■ to [kepe] pe per-oute ; 

Haptiche, an Hundred jer • er pcu elt entre. 

pus maihtou leosen his loue * to letcn wel bi pi-seluen, 

Bote gete hit ajeyn bi grace ■ and bi no jift elles. 

Ak frr beop seuen suslren ■ pat serucn treupe eu^re, no 

And ben porters at posternes • pat to pe place longen. 

pat on hette Abstinence - And Humilitie a-noper. 

Charite And Chasliie ■ beop tweyne ful Choyse Maidenes, . 

Pacience and Pees ■ Muche peple helpen, 

Largesse pe ladi ' ledep in ful monye. m 

Bote hose is sib to pis F;tislren ' so me god helpe I 



26o TEMPERANCE IN EATING ENJOINED. • 

Is wonderliche wcl-comen * and feire vnderfoDge. 
And bote je ben sibbe • to summe of feos seuene. 
Hit is ful hard, bi myn hed I ■ eny of ow alle 
To gete ingoynge at |iat ^t ■ bote grace beo fe more." m 
"BiCrisi," qua|t a Cuite-pors ■ "I haue no kun |>ere 1" 
"No," quaf an Apeward ■ "for nout )>at I knowe !" 
" I-wis," quaf a waferer • " wust I fis for sofe, 
Schulde I neu^re forpere a foie ■ for no freres prrt:hinBe." 
"jus," quap pera Jjc ))Iou]-mon ■ and prechtde hire to 
goode, m 

' Merci is a Hayden fer • and haf mihl oaer bem alle ; 
Heo is sib to alle synful men ■ an hire sone alse ; 
And forw |ie help of hem two ■ (hope )>ou non ofer), 
pou maijt gete grace fer • so fat (lou [go] bi-tyrae." 



Passus \ii. V. 240-311 
HUNGER ENJOINS UPON PIERS, TEMPERANCE IN 
EATING— THE VARIOUS FOODS OF THE POOR 
ENUMERATED— THE DISCONTENT CAUSED BY 
PROSPERITY. 

"I preye|>e," q«od pers- "par Charite, jiffouConne nc 
Eny lyf of leche Craft ' lere hit me, my deore. 
For summe of my seruauns ■ bcof seke of>er-w[iile, 
Of alle |ie wike heo Worcheji not ■ so heor wombe akef. " 
" I wot wel," qwod Hungur ■ "What seknesse henn eilef, 
pei han I-Mau»get ouar muche ' fat makef hem grone 
ofie. iM 

Ac Ich hole pe," quud Hungur ■ "and}>ou pin hele wylne, 
pat pou drynke no dai ■ til pou haue dynet sumwhat ; 
Etc not, Ich bote pe 'til hunger pe take, 
And sende pe sum of his sauce ■ to sauer pe pe betere ; 
Keep sum til soper tyme ' And [sit] pou not to Longe, «t 
A-Rys vpar appetyt • habbe I-jeten his Fulle: 



THE VARIOUS FOODS OF THE POOR. 261 

Let not sir Surfet * sitten at ]>i Bord ; 

Loue him not, for he is a lechour • and likerous of Tonge, 

And aftur mony Metes • his Mawe is a-longet. 

And 3if )>ou di^ete fe fus • I dar legge bofe myn Eres, 401 

pat Fisyk schal his Forred hod * for his [foode] sulle. 

And eke his cloke of Calabre • m\h knappes of Gold, 

nd beo Fayn, be my Feif • his Fisyk to lete, 
,vnd leorae to labre wif lond * leste lyflode Faile ; 
per beof mo lyjers fen leches • vr lord hem amende ! «# 
pei don men dy^en ]7oru3 heor drinke • er desienye wolde." 
** Bi seint Poul 1" q«<xi pers ' "feos beof prtjphitable 

wordes ! 
pis is a loaeli lesson • vr lord hit fe for-3elde ! 
Wend nou whon fi wille is • Wei fe beo for eu^re !" 
** I beo-hote )>e," (\uod hungur • ** heonnes nul I wende 415 
Er I haue I-dynet bi f is day • and I-dronke bof e." 
**I haue no peny," quod pers • ** Poletes to bugge, 
Nou)>er gees ne grys • bote twey grene cheeses, 
And a fewe Cruddes and Craym • and a ferf Cake, 
And a lof of Benes and Bren • I-Bake for my Children. 490 
And I sigge, bi my soule • I haue no salt Bacon, 
Ne no Cokeneyes, bi Crist * Col opus to maken. 
Bot I haue porettes and percyl 'and moni Colplontes 
And eke a Cou, and a Calf • and a Cart-Mare 
To drawe a-feld my donge * Whil fe drouhfe laste)>. 42* 
Bi fis lyflode I mot lyuen • til lammasse tyme : 
Bi fat, Ich hope forte haue • heruest in my Cro^t ; 
pe«ne may I dihte f i dyner • as fe deore lykep." 
Al f e pore peple • pese-coddes fetten. 
Bake Benes in Bred • f ei brouhten in heor lappes, m 

Chibolles, Cheef mete • and ripe chiries monye, 
And proferde pers f is pr«ent • to plese wAh hungur. 
Honger eet fis in haste • and asked aftur more 
pewne fis folk for fere • fetten him monye 
Poretes, and Peosen • for fei him plese wolden ; 4m 



26a THE WELL-FED DEMAND HIGH WAGES. 

From fat lyme )>at Jmlke weore eteu ■ lake he scbulde his lene 
Til hit lo herucsl hijede" fat newe corn com to chepj-nge. 
penne was fal folk fajn ■ and fedde hunger jeorne 
WiiA good Ale, and glotonye ■ and gart him to slepe. 
And fo iiolde pe waslor worctie ' but wandren aboute, w 
Ne no Beggerc eten Bred • jiat Benes inne coome. 
Bole Coket and Cler Matin • an of dene whete ; 
Ne non halfpeny Ale ■ In none wjse diynke, 
Bole of ]ic Bcsie and fe Brouneste • ym Brewesters sullen. 
Laborers fiat hauc no lond ■ to liuen on Bote heore honden. 
Devne not lo djne a day • nihl-olde wortes. (■■ 

Mai no peny Ale hem paye ■ ne no pece of Bacun, 
Bote hit weore Fresch Flesch' or elles Fisch I-Frijei, 
Bo)>e chaud and pluschaud- for chele of heore Mawe. 
Bote he beo heihliche I-huret -elles wol he chide, » 

pat he was werkmon 1-wroujt • warie ft tyme. 
And Corse jeine pc kyng-and al his Counseil aftur, 
Suche lawes to loke* laborers to chaste. 
Ac while hunger was Mayster hecr'wolde per non chyde, 
Ne st^jue ajeyn |ie statues'so sieomeliche he lokede. ui 
I warne jou, alle werk-men • winnef> while je mowe, 
Hunger hiderward ajeyn ■ hijcfi him jeorne. 
He wolea-wake Jiorw watur*|te wasloors alle, 
Fr Fyue jcr ben folfult ■ such Famyn schal a-Ryse 
porw Flodes and foul weder • Fruites schul fayle ; m* 

And so scif [Satumc] -and sent vs to warne. 



Passus viti. vv. 160-187, 



Now hap pe pope pouwer ■ pardoun to graunte, 
pe peple wiU-ouie penau«ce ■ to passe to loye. 



"DO-WELL" IS BETTER THAN PARDONS. 263 

pis is a lef of vre bileeue ■ as Icttret men vs teclief, 

Quodamqut ligatttris super terram, erii ligalum el in eelis. «• 

And so bileeue I lelty * (vr lord forbeode hit dies !) 

pat pardonn and penaunce * aud prcyers don saucn 

Soules fat ban sunget ■ seuen sifes dedlich. 

Bote tnistene to Trienals ■ treuly me |>inkep 

Is not so sj'ker for fe soule ' series, as dowel. m 

For-fi I rede jow Renkes ■ |)al Riche ben on eorfe, 

Vppoo trust of oure tresour ■ Trienals 10 haue, 

Beo je neuer fe Baldore ■ to Brekc pe ten hesles ; 

And nomeliche, je Meires ■ and je Maisler luges, 

pat ban ^ weljie of fis world ' [&] for wyse men ben 

h olden. 
To purchasen pardoun ■ and pe popes Bulles. r.t 

At y^ dredful day of dom ■ ^er dede schullen a-rj-sen, 
And comcn alle hi-fore crist ■ and a-Countes jcldcn. 
How )k>u laddest )ij lyf ' and bis lawe kcptc^t, 
What jiou dudest day bi day ■ J)e Doom )>e ivol rebersen ; iw 
A powhe ful of pordoufl J>*r • vixJi Pf:>uincials lettres, 
pauh Jwu be founden in Frattrrniie ■ a-mong pe foure Or- 

And habbe Indulgence I-doubled ' bote Dowel ))e hcl]>i:, 

I nolde jeue for ^i pardoun ■ one pye bcle I 

Forfi I counseile alle c/-Btene ■ to crie crist merci, m 

And Marie his Modcr ■ to beo raene bi-twene, 

pat God jiue vs grace ■ er we gon hennes, 

Such werkes to worche • while )iat wc ben here, 

pat aftur vr def day • Dowel reberce, 

pat atte day of dom * we duden as he us hijte. «• 



It."*^ 



SELECTIONS 



KKOM 



PIERCE THE PLOUGHiMANS CREDR 



DESCRIPTION OF A DOMINICAN CONVENT AND 

A FAT FRIAR. 

(w. 153-267.) 

pANNE f oajt y to frayne f e first ' of f is foare ordirs. 

And presede to )>e prechoures • to proven here wille. 

f Ich] hijede to her house • to herken of more ; 

And whan y cam to \oX court * y gaped aboute. 

Swich a bild bold, y-buld • opon erfe heijte 1 

Say i nou^t in certeine * si]>]>e a longe t3ane. 

Y ^emede vpon \a\. house • & jeme feron loked, 

Whouj fe pileres weren y-peynt • and pulched ful dene. 

And queynteli i-coruen ' wi]> curiouse knottes, 

Wi)) wyndowes well y-wroujt • wide vp o-lofte. 1 

And )>anne y entrid in • and even-forf went, 

And all was walled \aX wone ' |>ou3 it wid were, 

Wi)> postemes in pryuytie * to pasen when hem liste ; 

Orche^ardes and erberes • euesed well dene. 

And 2. curious cros * craftly entayled, % 

Wip tabernacles y-ti^t * to toten all abou mi 

pe pris of a plou^-lond * of penyes so rounde 

To aparaile }>at pyler • were pure lytel. 

panne y munte me for)y' * }>e mynstre to knowen. 

And a-waytede a woon • wonderlie well y-beld, 1 

Wi]» arches on eueriche half * & belliche y-corven. 



^ 



^^^ISCRIPTION OF A DOMINICAN CONVENT. 265 

^^ycrochetes on corners • wij> knottes of golde, 

^Vdewyndowes y-wroujt • y-written full )>ikke, 

Schjnen wif schapen scheldes • to schewen aboutc, 

Wif merkes of marchauntes ' y-medled bytwene, u 

Mo Jan twenty and two • twyes y-no«mbred. 

per is none heraud fai hdf * half swich a rolle, 

Rif as a rageman * ha|» rekned hem newe. 

Tombes opon tabernacles • tyld opon lofte, 

Housed in himes * harde set abouten, sc 

Of armede alabaustre * clad for J^e nones, 

[Made vpon marbel • in many maner wyse, 

Knyght« in her conisant^x • clad for fe nones, ] 

All it semed seyntes • y-sacred opon erf e ; 

And louely ladies y-wrou^t • leyen by her sydes u 

In many gay garments • fat weren gold-beten. 

P0U3 fe tax of ten ^er • were trewly y-gadered, 

Nolde it nou^t maken fat hous • half, as y trowe. 

panne kam I to fat cloister • & gaped abouten 

Whou3 it was pilered and peynt • & portred well clene, 4« 

All y-hyled wif leed • lowe to f e stones, 

And y-paued wif peynt til • iche poynte after of or ; 

Wif kundites of clene tyn • closed all aboute, 

Wif lauoures of latun • louelyche y-greithed. 

I irowe fe gaynage of fe ground • in a gret schire 43 

Nolde aparaile fat place • 00 poynt til other ende. 

panne was fe chaptire-hous wrou^f as a greet chirche, 

Coruen and couered • and queyntliche entayled ; 

Wif semlich selure * y-set on lofte ; 

As a parlement-hous • y-peynted aboute. w 

panne ferd y into fraytour • and fond f^re an ofer, 

An halle for an hey^ kinge • an housholde to holden, 

Wif brode hordes aboute • y-benched wel clene, 

Wif windowes of glas • wrou3t as a Chirche. 

panne walkede y ferrer • & went all abouten, u 

And sei) halles fuU hy3e * & houses full noble, 

12 



zf^r, 



A FAT DOMINICAN FRIAR. 



("LaTniu'i- w'.j' t l.\niiicye> * c-c I'ii.ipcils i^aio ; 

And kychons for an hy^e kingc * in caslells to holdcn, 

And her dortour y-di^ic • wip dores ful stronge ; 

Fcrmery and fraitur • with fele mo houses, « 

And all strong ston wall * sternc opon hcife, 

Wip gaie garites & grete * <& iche hole y-glased ; 

[And oJ>^re] houses y-nowc ' to herbcrwe )>e qucene. 

And ^et J>ise bilderes wilne bcggen • a bagg-ful of wheate 

Of a pure pore man * \a\. maie onepe paie « 

Half his rente in a ^er • and half ben behynde 1 

panne turned y a^en • whan y hadde all y-totcd. 

And fond in a freitour • a frere on a benche, 

A greet cherl & a grym • growen as a tonne, 

Wif a face as fat • as a full bledder, « 

Blowen bretfull of bref • & as a bagge honged 

On bofen his chekes, & his chyn • wif a chol lollede. 

As greet as a gos eye • growen all of grece ; 

pat all wagged his fleche • as a quyk myre. 

His cope f(Zt biclypped him • wel clene was it folden, ri 

Of double worstede y-dy3t • doun to J>e hele ; 

His kyrtel of clene whijt • clenlyche y-sewed ; 

Hyt was good y-now of ground • grcyn for to beren. 

I haylsede ]yai herdeman ' & hendliche y saide, 

**Gode syre, for Codes loue • canstou me graif tellcn m 

To any worpely wij^t • )wt [wissen] me coupe 

Whou y schulde conne my Crcdc • Crist for to folowe, 

pat leuede lelliche him-self • & lyuede p^rafter, 

pat feynede non falshede • but fully Crist suwede? 

For sich a certeyn man • syker wold y trosten, m 

pat he wolde telle me pe trewpe • and turne to none opcr. 

And an Aust}'n pis ender daie • egged me faste ; 

pat he wolde techen me wel • he ply^t me his treupe. 

And seyde me, * serteyne • sypen Crist died 

Oure ordir was [euellesj ' & erst y-founde.' " m 

'* Fyrst, felawe V quap he • ** fy on his pilche I 



niK POOR PLOUGHMAN AND IIIS FA:\IILV. 267 

^^^ is but abonijf • eked wij> cloutes ! 

^^ holdej) his ordynaunce ' wipe hores and feues, 

*^^d purchase)) hem pryuileges * wif penyes so rounde ; 

^ ^ a pur pardoners craft • proue & asaye I w 

^i* haue J>ei pi money • a monef f^rafter, 

^^ites, feij J>ou come ajen • he nyl fe nou^t knowen. 

"^^t, felawe, our foundement ' was first of fe ofere, 

"^ **</ we ben founded fulliche • wif-outen fayntise ; 

'^''k/we ben clerkes y-cnowen • cunnynge in scole, m 

"toued in procession • by processe of lawe. 

Of oure ordre per bef • bichopes wel manye, 

Sejmtes on sundiy stedes • fat suffreden harde ; 

And we ben proued f e prijs • of popes at Rome, 

And of gretest degre • as godspelles tellef ." los 

" A ! sjrre," quaf y )>anne • " fou seyst a gret wonder, 

Sifen Crist seyd hym-self ' to all his disciples, 
' W^ich of 50U fat is most • most schal he werche, 

Attd who is goer byfome ' first schal he seruen.' 

And seyde, ' he sawe satan * sytten full hey^e no 

And ful lowe ben y-leyd ;' • in lyknes he tolde, 

pat in pouemesse of spyrit * is spedfullest hele, 

And hertes of heynesse • harmef fe soule. 

And ferfore, frere, fare well • here fynde y but pride ; 

Y preise nou3t f i preching • but as a pure myte." m 



THE POOR PLOUGHMAN AND HIS FAMILY— HIS 
OPINION OF THE FRIARS. 

w. 418-471. 

panne turned y me forf e • and talked to my-selue 

Of ]>e falshede of fis folk • whou feiples they [weren] 

And as y wente be fe waie • wepynge for sorowe, 

[I] seij a sely man me by • opon f e plow hongen. 

His cote was of a cloute 'fat cary was y-called, m 



i68 THE POOR PLOUGHMAN AND HIS FAMILY. 

His hod was full of holes • & his heer oute, 

Wip his knopped schon • clouted full fykke ; 

His ton toteden out ■ as he fe londe treddcde. 

His hoscn ouerhongen his hokschynes ' on eueriche a 

side, 
AI beslumbred in fen - as he )re plow folwede ; at 

Twey myteynes, as mete ■ maad all of cloutes ; 
pe fyngers weren for-werd ■ & ful of fen honged. 
pis whit wasclede in fe [fen] ■ almost to fe ancle, 
Foure roperen hym by-fom ■ fat feble were [worpen] ; 
Men myjte reken ich a ryb ' so reufuU )>ey weren. m 

His wijr walked him wi{> ' v/'if a longe gode, 
In a cutted cote * cutted full heyje, 
Wrapped in a wynwe Scheie ■ to weren hire fro weders, 
Garfote on )>e bare ijs ' fat fe blod folwcde. 
Ami at )>e londes ende laye - a litell crom-bollc, ■» 

Ami jwron lay a litell childe ■ lapped in clouies, 
And tweyne of tweie jcres olde ■ opon a-nop^r sjde. 
And alle fey songen o songe ■ l«ii sorwe was lo hcren ; 
pey crieden alle o cry * a carefull note. 
pe sely man sijede sore, & seide ■ " children, bep stille 1" uo 
pis man loked opon me ' & leet pe plow stonden. 
And seyde, " sely raan, why syjcst pou so harde P 
jirpe lakke lijflode ' lene pe ich will 
Swich good as God hap sent • go we, leue broper." 
Y saide panne, " naye, sire ■ my sorwe is wel more ; w 
For y can noujl my Crede ■ y kare well harde ; 
For y can fynden no man ■ pat fully bylcuep. 
To techcn mc pe heyje weie • & p^rfore I wepe. 
Fory haue [fonded] pe freers • of pe foure orders, 
For pere I wende haue wist • but now my wil lakkep ; u> 
And all my hope was on hem ' & myn bene also ; 
But pei ben fully feiples ■ and pe fend suep," 
"A! broper," quap he po ■ " beware of po foles ! 
For Crist seyde him-selfe ■ ' of swiche y jou wame,' 



HIS OPINION OF THE FRIARS. at 

Ami raise profetes in )>e rei)> ■ he TuUiche hem calde, i 

' /it vatimattit ouium ' bat onlie wi)>-inne 

pei ben wilde wer-wolues ' fat wiln )>e folk robben.' 

pe fend founded hem first • Jie feiji to dcstroie. 

And by his craft ]>ei comen in ' to combien pe chirche. 

By ^ coneiteise of his craft * ^ curates to helpen ; i 

But now ^ey hanen an hold ' ^ey harmen full many. 

pei don noajt after Domynick ' but drecchep )>e puple, 

Ne folwen nonjt Fiaunces ■ but felslyche lybben. 

And Austynes rewle - )wi rekne)> but a &ble, 

But purchase)) hem prynylege ■ of popes at Rome, i 

pei coaeten confessions ' to kachen some hire. 

And sepultures also * some wayten to cacchen ; 

But o^r cures of Cristen ■ ^i coveten noujt to haue. 

Bat ytn as wynnynge lijp ' he loke)> none o^r." 



SELECTIONS 



riOM TMB 



WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS OF THE 

BIBLE. 



GENESIS XXXVn.—{Ear/ier Text.) 



IlABiTAYrr an- 
tem Jacob In ter- 
ra Gbanaan, in 
qua pater snos 
peregrlnatna est. 
t. Bt bae sunt 
ir e n e r a tinnes 
C(|u8: Joseph cam 
sedticlm e « s e t 
annomm, pasce- 
bat pvfpem cum 
fratribas suls ad- 
hue puer;eterat 
cum fillls Balie 
et Zelphs uxo- 
i\im patrls snl; 
ar^usaTltqne fra- 
troa snot apnd 
patrem crimlno 
peiislmo. S. 1»- 
rael autom dlll- 
gebat JiMeph su- 
per oranes flllna 
8u<H>, oo quod In 
senectnto genu- 
Isaet eum; feclt- 
qne el tunlcam 
p<»lyniltam. 4. 
Videutes antem 
fratresejna, quod 
a p a t r e plus 
en nctis flllis ama- 
retur, oderaut 
euro, nee poto- 
rantet quldquam 
paciflce U>qul. 
6. Accldlt qnoquo 
ut visum 8(>m- 
nlum referret 
fratribns s u 1 s ; 
que causa ma- 
Jnris odU Reml- 
narlum fnik • 
Dlxltqne ad eos: 
Antllte somnlnm 
menmqnod vkll: 
T. Pntabam nos 
Ilirare manipa- 
Khi In agm: ot 
quasi ronsurKO- 
re manlpnlnm 
monm, et stare, 



Jacob forsothe dwelte in the loond of Cha- 
naan, in the which his fader pilgrimagide ; 
t. and thes ben the generaciouns of hym. 
Joseph whanne he was of sextene 3eer fedde 
a flok with his bretheren, 3it a childe, and he 
was with the sones of Bale and of Zelphe, 
w)'ues of his fader ; and he accusidehis breth- 
eren anentis the fader of the werst synne. 
«. Yrael forsothe louede Joseph ouer alle his 
sones, ther thur^ that in elde he hadde getun 
hym ; and he made hym a coote of dyuerse 
colours, i. And the brelheren of hym seynge 
that of the fader more than alle the sones was 
loued, haliden hym, and my3ten not to hym 
eny thing pesebli speken. •. And it felle, that 
a seen sweuen he tolde to his britheren, the 
which cause was seed of more haat. e. And 
Joseph seide to his britheren, Here ^e my 
sweuen that Y sawj, t. I wenede vs to bynden 
hondfullis in the feelde, and myn hondful as 
to ryse, and stonde, and 30ure hondfullis 
stondynge al aboute to loute myn hondful. 



GENESIS XXXVri. 



271 



a. And the britheren of hym answeriden, 
Whedier thow shalt be oure kyng, oither we 
shal be vndirloute to thi bidding? This 
thanne cause of sweuenes and of word is 
mynystride norishynge of enuye and of haate. 
». And another sweuen he saw^, that tellynge 
to his britheren, seith, I sawe bi dreem as the 
sunne, and the mone, and the elleuen sterrys 
to lowtun me. 10. That whan to his fader and 
britheren he hadde tolde, blamede hym his 
fader, and seide, What to it silf wole this 
sweuen that thow hast seen ? Whether Y, and 
thi moder, and thi britheren shulen lowt thee 
vpon erthe ? n. Thanne enuyeden to hym his 
britheren. The fader forsothe the thing stilli 
bihelde, m. and whanne the britheren of hym 
in the flockis of the fader to ben fedde dwelli- 
den in Sichem, it, Yrael seide to hym, Thi 
britheren feden sheep in Sichemys ; come, Y 
shal sende thee to hem. Who answerynge, 
14. Y am redi, he seith. Go, and se if alle 
thingis be welsum anentis thi britheren, and 
beestis, and a3en tel thow to me what is doon. 
He, sent fro the valey of Ebron, cam into 
Sichym ; is. and a man fonde hym in the 
feelde errynge, and askide, what he sou^te. 
le. And he answeride. My bretheren Y seche, 
shew thow to me where thei feden the flockis. 
17. And the man seide to hym, Thei wenten a 
wey fro this place, forsothe I herde hem 
seiynge. Go we into Dothaym. And Joseph 
3ede after his britheren, and fonde hem in Do- 
thaym. It. The whiche whanne thei seyen 
hym a ferre, or he neijede to hem, thoujten to 
sleen hym, it. and togidere thei speken. Loo I 



Testmsqna ma- 
nlpulos circum- 
stantes adorare 
manlpalam mo- 
urn. 8. Kespon- 
derunt fratrea 
e)aa : Mamquid 
rex QoMer eiis ? 
aut sulOI*:l<'niur 
d i 1 1 o n 1 tan ? 
Hec orKo caa»a 
somnlumm ai- 
que TOrmonnra, 
inTldiiD et odil 
fomlUim mlnl- 
■travlt. 9. Allud 
qattqao vltfltsonv 
ninin, uuud nar- 
rails fratrlbus, 
alt: Yld I per coin- 
niam. quiuil m>- 
lom, ot lunam, et 
Btollas uudeclm 
adorare mo. lo. 
Quod cum patrl 
Kiio, et fratrtbuM 
rotullBi«et^ Incro- 
pavlt oum iMt«)r 
anus, et dixit : 
Quid slbl vult 
hoc soninlum 
quod vKllRtl ? 
Num ego et ma- 
tor tua, et fra- 
tros tul adornbl- 
ra u s Ud Ruper 
torram ? 11. Iiiri- 
debant el Igltur 
fratros sul ; pa- 
tor vero rem ta- 
cltus connldera- 
bat IS. Cuuiquo 
fratros lUluo In 

Eai»<;cndls gregl- 
iia patrlA mora- 
rutiturtnSlchuni, 
13. dixit ad oum 
iHriiul : Fratros 
tul nuMCunt orus 
111 Sichlmls : ve- 
iil, niUtum to ad 
eoi«. Qijn rospon- 
dento, 14. PrKMU) 
sum, alt ol : Va- 
do, et vide si 
cuncta prospera 
■int erga fratrvs 
tuoe, et pecora. 
et ronuncia mlhl 
quid a g a t u r. 
Missus do vallo 
Ilebron, vonlt In 
Bichera : 15. hi- 
vonitquo e n m 
▼Ir erraiitem In 
agrro, ot Intorro- 
gavlt, quid qiui>- 
roret. 16. At lUo 
rospondlt : Fra- 
tros meoflau»«n>, 
indlca nilhl ubi 
pascant Krcgcs. 

17. Dlxltqiio vl 
vir: Uoco^ccnint 
do loco Lbto ; uii- 
divl antom eos 
dlcontvs : Eanius 
In Dothaln. Vor- 
rexit eriru Jo< 
seph post ftntrea 
Baos, ot Invonit 
on« In Dothaln. 

18. Qui cam vl 




«L go ve, and sle vc 
hym, and putte we hym in an olde sisteni, and 

—■fiB^"^^ *'* shulen seye, The werst wiylde beest hath 

■jMrniworir- (jgyowrid hym ; and thanne it shal apere 

STbiiiS™"""; what profiten to hym hys dremes. n, Thes 

mS'i'vi^pJt thingis foreolhe heryng-e Ruben, enforsideto 

SS?; ri^i^'.e delyuerchymofthe hondisof hem, and seide, 

S^^™1™^ **■ S'*^ ^^ "°' ^^^ ''J'^ '^'^ ^y^i ne shede we 

Sn^n'oiubiM^ blood, but throw ^e him into the olde sisleme, 

mSM^t'i^m. that is in wildemes, and kepe ;e joure hondes 

JStal3!^)'?U vngilti. That foreolhe be seide, wilnynge lo 

^p.i'™''^ delyuer hym fro the hondes of hem, and » 

S»JIi™ Jijhn- 5^''^^ '" ^'* fader, a. Thanne anoon as he 

SMc»r"™r?.» cam to his briiheren, thei nakiden hym the 

Kmu'^iiuMi'; side coote lo ihe hele, and of manye colowis, 

"*mT!^ "- ^^^ puttiden into an olde sisterne, that 

oiStMm'igiw hadde no watyr. n. And stttynge for to eet 

^w« moj, ou- breed, thei seen Ysmaelitis welegoere to cotnen 

JJPj^Sulw'^o" fro Galaad, and camels of hem berynge swcte 

S^t2?^n°v^ spyces, and swete gumme, and myrre, into 

w!*'b'iJ3°"m Egipte. tt. Thanne Judas seide to his brith- 

nuD^^^'Pini eren. What shal it profit vs if we sleen oure 

i^K^'Sa ^"^^^^'' ^""^ ^"^ hiden the blood of hym ? 

SJSSS^"!^ n. It is belere that he be sold to Ismaelitis, 

taZ^pnfll!^ and our hondes ben not defoulid ; forsothe the 

^jw^t^r brother and oure flesh he is. The britheren 

^ ?[™!Tn assenliden to thes wordes ; n. and the mar- 

!li!!h?H'Mii'i^i- chaundes Madyanytes goy^ge bisides, thei, 

"JilldM? "lit drawyngc hym oute of the sisterne, solden hym 

SSl*'™^"' to Ysmaclytis for thrctti siluer pens ; the whichc 

bMbAi'i^'^ ladden hym into E^ipte. a. and Ruben turned 

ElSiiIjr*Tiiil°iIt 2jcn to the sisterne, fondc not the child ; u. 

uhf^'^i^luiVi and the clothis to-rent goynge to his bretheren, 

K«1i1.'?1I!^7jT seith, The childe not aperith, and whider Y 

£SiiVi1iio shal go ? n. Forsothe thei token the coote of 



GENESIS XLI. 



273 



hym, and in the blood of a kyde that thei JSifil* Am 

hadden slayn steyneden : n. the which send- ju>ver»u»qu« ru* 

' ' ' b u ad cUtf r- 

ynge shulden here to fader, and seyn, This we JSr;'?^'^? 

ban foandun, loke whether the coote of thi ^"SSig^S^nl" 

sone It be or noon. ». The which whanne the Jj;i'^Jt" ^Ji 

fader knowith, seith, The coote of my sone it ^„J "i,tom tS*- 

• t i«iii 11.1 nleam qjoa, t>t In 

IS, the moost yuel wiylde beest hath etun hym, a sangumo hoodi. 

beest hath deuowrid Joseph. m. And the 2"i;,ViItS^'„i 

clothis to-rent, was clothid with an heyr, weil- uJS"*er'di?5^ 

• ront:IIano 

ynge his sone myche tyme. u. And alle his |5JJSJ™°Vuui« 

free children gedered togideres, that thei Si."»s'*Qu«ra 

myaten swa£:e the sorow of the fiider, he nolde pa2r.*St7 tu- 

^7 ''O » nlca mil mel est, 

coumfortyng take, but seith, Y shal descende SiHSn" bSS^ 

to my sone weilynge into helle. And hym jiiph-^^srSIi- 

stedfastli dwellynge in wepyng, m. Madeny- |;;J'jJ"„^J„*;JJJ,' 

tis solden Joseph in Egepte, to Putiphar, the ■lije^^ifl}^!: 

geldyng of Pharao, tlie mayster of chyualrye. cJn^tS* utSl 

doloreDi patii», 
iwintt eoBMdatlonem aoclpmo, aed alt : Deacendam arl flllam menm lafcon* In Inforuuin. 
Bt lllo peneverante In fletii, 3«. Madlanltte vendlderunt Joaeph In Aogypto Putlpharl ou- 
nncbo Fhanouis maglitFO mUltam. 



GENESIS XU,—(Purvifys revision,) 

1. Aftir twei 3eer Farao seij a dreem ; he 
gesside that he stood on a flood, «. fro which 
seuene faire kiyn and ful fatte stieden, and 
weren fed in the places of mareis ; t. and 
othere seuene, foule and leene, camen out of 
the flood, and weren fed in thi Ik brenke of 
the watir, in grene places ; 4. and tho deuou re- 
den thilke kien of whiche the faimesse and 
comelynesse of bodies was wondurful. t. Farao 
wakide, and slepte eft, and sei3 another dreem ; 
seuen eeris of com ful and faire camen forth 
in o stalke, «. and othere as many eeris of 

12* 



1. Post d n o 8 
annoHjTidIt Pha- 
rao Romninro. 
PutHbat BO Htaro 
super duvlum, 3. 
do qno aaoondo- 
bant ftcptom bo- 
VCB, pulchno et 
erasMe nhnls ; et 

fmscobantiir In 
iiclHpHlustrlbus. 
8. Alim quoquo 
iieptera emeri(0< 
bant do fluniine, 
fcRdas, confectie- 
quo maclo ; et 

ftascobantur In 
pxa amnls rlpa 
In locls Tlrcntl' 
bu« ; 4. devora- 
vonintquo o a a, 
quanim ra I r a 
ii|H>cleB, et habi- 
tude corponim 
©rat. ExiK»rgo- 
fartus Pharan, S. 
nirmim domilvit, 
•t Tldlt altonira 



«74 WVCLIFFITZ VERSIONS. 

tSS^iliaipSj com, ihinne and smylun with cormpcioon o( 
ll£?!H™«''t<'" brennynge wynd, camen forth t. deuour^'Oge 
EI3?'u™'''°i ^' '''^ fairenesse of the firste. Farao wakide 
oT-riiSM^i. aftir resie, •. and whanne morewlid was maad, 
fHH^^rM^ hewasaferd bi inward drcde, and hesenlelo 
SiS^i^Sr^ alle the expowneris of Egipt. and to alle nix 
^•SS^^^ini' men ; and whanne thci weren cicpid, he tdde 
^wL'&'iS '^"^ drcem, and noon was that exponnedt 
^?1^^SS'^"S^ •■ Thanne at the laste the maisiir of boteleris 
SJ"»™^BUi"K bithoujte, and seide, Y knowleche my sjnoe; 
EiIltalfi"''?i'S^ lo-the kyng was wrooth to hise seniauntis, sad 
ri"^" tTi": comaundide mc and the maislerof bakeristo 
i™iJ?w«'»nl ^^ *^*' doun in to the prisoun of the prinw 
EiBT'tbiSSl^ of knyjtis, ii. where we bothe saien a dreem 
SSiwipJiuc" in o nyjt, biforc-schewynse of thinsris 10 
Sl'i™."ti,i'Kf" comynge. it An Ebrew child, scniaunt of ihe ] 
ESTtT.™* same duk of kni^tis was there, to whom ve 
iwirn>, !||t^ teldcn the dremes, ii. and herden what euet 

drm •Mela luiu- 

KSSilMl.'°wm- thing the bifalljng of thing preuedeafterwanJ; 

S^.'^iJuhuki for Y am rcstorid to myn office, and he «-as 

Il^m'Sliii'M '■^ng'*' '° ''■ ^'°^- "■ Anoon at the co- 

MTite1Ilir«,!^"l maundcment of the kyng [he! polliden Joseph 

i5«iiiS?IEr"rti'; led out of prisoun, and whanne the clooth was 

tmptirLiun (nlu4> ^ 

1"!^^" tiUm^ chaungid, thci broujlen Joseph to the kyng. 
Smu*'°ot*ulJ u.To whomihekyngscidc,Ysei5e dremes, and 
iiij "'! vi^'i noon is that expowneih tho thingis that Y sei), 
Sili'M.m'Ti.'lS I haue herd that thou expownest moost pru- 
]i™^. ^"'S^ dentli. v,. Joseph answerde, With out me, 
^STiSeS God schal answere prosperilecs to Karao. 
Jt.TiMJJSI^ "■ Therfor Farao lelde that that he seij ; Y ges- 
^M^uomm side that Y stood on the brenkc of the flood, 
ilrti'B-inSi'te "■ ^^"^ seucnc kiyn, ful faire and with fleischis 
•JJiiifcjrVol^ able to ctyng, slieden fro the watir, whichc 
^;;j'i'„'^j[^ kiyn gadcriden grcne scggis in ihe pasture of 
^bllATL'ii^ the maricis ; u. and 1o I scuenc othere kiyn, so 



(iKXKSIS XLI. 



foule anil leene, sucdcii ihcsc, ihal Y sci; 
neuere siche in the lond of Egipt; so. and 
whanne the formere kien weren deuourid and 
^^asiid, tho secounde ^auen no steppe of ful- 
B€sse, n. but weren slowe bi lijk leenesse and 
palenesse. I wakide, and eft Y was oppressid 
W sleep, and Y sei^ a dreem ; n. seuene eeris of 
^orn, ful and faireste, camen forth in o stalke, 
^d othere seuene, thinne and smytun with 
corrupcion of brennynge wynd, camen forth of 
^'^o stobil, »4. whiche deuouridcn the fairenesse 
^f the formere ; n, Y telde the dreem to ex- 
Powneris, and no man is that cxpowneth. 
Joseph answerde. The dreem of the kyng is 
Oon ; God schewide to Farao what thingis he 
Schal do. te. Seuene faire kiyn, and seuene ful 
eeris of com, ben seuene 3eeris of plentee, and 
tho comprehenden the same strengthe of 
dreem ; 17. and seuene kiyn thinne and leene, 
that stiedenaftir tho, and seuene thinne eeris 
of com and smytun with brennynge wynd, ben 
seuene 3eeY of hungur to comynge, aa. whiche 
schulen be fillid bi this ordre. ». Lo I seuene 
3eer of greet plentee in al the lond of Egipt 
schulen come, ». and seuene othre ;eer of so 
greet bareynesse schulen sue tho, that al the 
abundaunce bifore be ^ouun to for^etyng ; for 
the hungur schal waste al the lond, si. and the 
greetnesse of pouert schal Icese the grecincsse 
of plentee. ««. Forsothe this that thou si9est 
the secunde tyme a dreem, perteynyngc to the 
same thing, is a schewyng of sadnesse, for the 
word of God schal be doon, and schal be fillid 
ful swjfdi. M. Now therfor puruey the kyng 
a wijs man and a redi, and make the kyng 



r 1 ' . i , ; I ^ ^ 1 ■ 1 ' I ' ' ' in. 
tin .lli.f '. I I, .;i 

I) II V i' K ill tan- 
t 11 m (li Inriiiivs 
ft iiiafiU>nl««, ut 
nunquHni ihI**4 
ill torru Angjptli 
V I d e r 1 III : a). 
quo:, doT«)rHtlit 
o t coiuuiiipila 

ftrlorlbtimsi. iiul- 
uin BHiuritti-U 
deduro vo»<tlt'l- 
urn : soil BliiitU 
inack'etsqualora 
ton>ebaiit. Kvl- 
t;llHii8, nintusHo- 
poro (lopivHou-i, 
tt. V 1 (1 1 Konml- 
om : i»(>|iu>in *\\- 
ric piiJlulMtiaiit 
In ruItiKi u II u 
plena* utquu pul- 
cluTTlnm'. 2 3 . 
Alla^ qiioqiu; Mcp. 
U'ln UiuiicH ot 
percnKMaj uro«ii- 
iiv, orlobtiutur o 
HtipulA : 'i\. qute 
prioriini jiulclirl- 
tudliu-ni di>vora- 
vorunt. Nfiritt- 
vl rt»ii>vot»)r",l)U!» 
■omnium, et no- 
niuPMt <]iii (mUkmo- 
ral. 2J. K^^spoiidit 
J(»aoph : S«»iHnl- 
um rogis untin 
est. nua*ractniiis 
est Ui-us, <Riton- 
dU Phanuini. so. 
SeptcMi) b V o fl 
piilchnr), ot nr-p- 
t«ni splcu; pla- 
na; : H u p t u ni 
nburtutls a n n i 
uuiit : eaiidem- 
qiie vim 9<nui>ii 
coinprehondunt. 
27. M<"pt«iii qtio- 
queb<»rfb t4-iities 
atqiu< niucllcii- 
tn, qiiio HM-tiii. 
dt'runt jxist oas, 
et Hopttiiii Kpi«tt) 
teiiut'it, 01 vi;nlo 
utunto pun-iiN- 
«JC, «i>pt<ni an- 
nl veiitiinc sunt 
fHIIlid. £8. Qui 
h«K; nriliiie c«»iu- 

Iilubuiitur : 29. 
tt'fo M-ptoni aii- 
nl vonl«.-nl fortl- 
litutiH ma^nu.' in 
uulMirna torra 
A K y p t i : 30. 
quoH Hcqut-ntur 
Kptoni Hiiiil hUI 
tMiit.v htfrllltJi- 
tiN. lit oblivloiil 
trudutur cuncla 
retru abnndau- 
tia : c(>ii.>'iiint li- 
ra I'.it eniii) la- 
m « !i u ni 11 e in 
terram. 3 1. ft 
uboiiatiii niu^il- 
taiiliiem p<>nli- 
tura ^bt Inopiw 
maKnitudu. 33. 

auod aotem vL 
isU wcundoa<i 



276 WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 

uIIIlV^IiJSSiE^ i^yta souereyn to itie loud of Egipt, h. whicb 

S™'S."I.."!S man ordeynegouernouris bi alle cuntreis, aiid 

JL^ttNiw gadere he in to bernj-s the fyuethe pan of fni)iis 

m'^mm'SS^ bi seucne jeer of pleniee, v. that schulea 

tri™ K pr^it^ come now ; and al the wheete be kept vnder 

w'SCu'iir-! the power of Farao, and be it kept in citees, 

^^^""w w. and be it maad redi to the hungur to 

fnicinnni ^per coHiynge of scuene jeer [hat schal opprcsse 

K2"'mm Niurt Egipt, and the lond be not waslid bi pouerL 

vTboSSIT''^ n. The counsel pleside Farao, and alle his 

LTi'°'p«wIw mynystris, and he spak to hem, Wher we 

»l^1^''i~ u.it moun fynde sich a man which is ful of 

ESUr^.Sl.nS G'^'^'^'s spirit? B. Therfor Farao seide to 

J^utS^iZ: Joseph, For God hath schewid to thee alle 

SSuSwurw? thingis whiche thou hast spoke, wher Y mai 

S^uiwSr^ fyide a wiscrc man and lijk thee ? «, Therfor 

^"^."'^'"'i;^'^ thou schalt be ouer rayn hous, and al the 

BIO : Num inv^ puple schal obcie to the comaundement of 

^^^u^'S^ ihi mouth ; Y schal passe thee onejy by o 

""y'" j'Si trone of the rewme. «. And efl Farao seide to 

v't'H'i' oiinK Jossp'^i Lo ! Y haue ordeyned thee on al the 

nSSqS^Si^ lond of Egipt. <t. And Farao look the ryng fro 

BwSi^'.i'"^ '''^ hond, and jaf it in the hond of Joseph, 

^"'"i."iS''« ^^^ ''^ clolhidc Joseph with a stoole of bij^ 

Humc^'i!l!i'pSl and putiide a goldun urcthe aboutc the necke; 

S"'.'I»'"»p'S- "■ ^"'' Farao made Joseph to stic on his se- 

winJiS miifi counde chare, while a bidele criede, that alle 

•mhi:hm«,w«. men schulden knele bifore hym, and scbulden 

™mAJSi«L'M! knowe that he was souereyn of al the lond of 

K'm^" "«n> Egipt. 44. And ihc fc)ng seide to Joseph, V am 

S™'™"'.." Farao, without thi comaundement no man 

^^J'^'to'iTi shal slire hond ether foot in al the lond of 

rimi™Jli"«'! Egipt. <i. And he tnrneile the name of Joseph, 

mnm .JTio ^^'^ clepidc him bi Egipcian langage, the 

K.w™,^iw sauyour of the world; and he )af to Joseph 



GENESIS XLI. 277 

a wijf, Asenech, the doujterof PoUfar, preest 3^„^"S 

of Heliopoleos. And so Joseph jede out to «''°i™iK-™i 

the lond of Egipt «•. Forsolhe Joseph was of 1^"^*"^™ 

thretti jeer, whanne he stood in the sijt of « JiSSh". £» 

kyng Farao, and cumpasside alle the cuntreis i-^wo inilwria 

of Egipt B.And theplenie of seuencjeer cam, Xll?"'"i»,EII; 

and ripe com weren bounden into handfuls, It./rpti".? 

and weren gadertd into the bernys of Egipt, ^•. ^^*™ 

•tatsoallheaboundaunceofcornesweren kept 6™'^„"^jt 

in al)e citeis, •- and so greet aboundaunce was iii*Dn'm''AK*aiih 

of wbeete, that it was maad euene to the JIS^K;™!;', 

grauel of the see, and the plente passide u'"'I^m™*f 

mesure. m. Solheli twei sones were born to '»,„"^;;j' •;;;'^;; 

Joseph bifor that the hungur came, whiche iT'tl.'Ji';'i'll«Efp^ 

Aseneeh, doujtir of Putifar, preest of HeH- "ii1>^ n"i"iK~ 

opoleos, childide to hym. n. And he clepide ^|;j;f^ '■"ITiI'll!? 

the name of the firsle gcndrid sone, Manasses, ™,',"h™"wli,l"B 

and seide, God hath maad me to forjeie alle ^^"""{i';''^- 

my tiaueilis, and the hous of my fadir; tt.and ^""'loilXl^i 

he clepide the name of the secunde sone n" ' !«l,iii."t.u 

Effraym, and seide, God hath maad me to S;'!,';'';^"!'^^ 

encreesse in the lond of my pouert. u. Therfor u^ii"'"!^^'- 

whanne seuene jeer of plentee that weren in j;;,,'';^^"!;"^!;; 

Egipt weren passid, h. seuene ;ieer of pouert t",;irc""S^;^" 

bigunnen to come, whiche Joseph bifore l-">.ikKtai-!i- 

seide, and hungur hadde the maislri in al the ['j 'i'«i'Cll^; 

world; also hungur was in al the lond of ^,r"^™^ 

Egipt ; a. and whanne ihai londhungride, the "<■• <«» »'<" 

puple criede to Farao, and axide metis ; to "l';;'p',Vi"ni^ 

whiche he answeride. Go je lo Josejih, and aii* ■i^i"n'ii''lll^ 

do )e what euer thing heseith to }ou. m. For- ;||^;;;,'!,;'i;j;;'"];; 

sottie hungur encrcesside cch dai in al ihe n.^.'-u^ililu"; 

lond, and Joseph opcnydc alle the the bcrnys, t^^^ "'^,'^ 

and seelde to Egipcians, for also hungur op- ^f^'fj^f^ 

pressidebem;«.andalleprouyncescamenin to u^iuvi^?!)!^ 



»78 



WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 



Kb'"nii u'Sk Egipt lo bie metis, and to abate the yuel of 

qii4i(lillB bDhd In iiDinlHn: 4|vrutfHine Jowpli udIvufm hrttru*. »E y^Ddabu AtnpMls : 
nam BE Ubw ivPiHHnl niiueL b1. Oiiji'H»qu« pcvTlui:!* vu&WbuiE Id At*ii:>'pliuiii, ul «iiia. 



PSALM XLV.—{Con. 

EARLIER TEXT. 

t Oure God refut, and 
verlue; helpere in tribula- 
ciouns, that foundea vs ful 
myche. i. Therfore wee shul 
not drede, whil the erthe 
shal be disturbid ; and hillis 
shul be bom ouer in to the 
herte of the se. t. Ther 
sounedcn, and ben disturbid 
the watris orhem; thehillis 
* ben disturbid in ihestrengthe 
of it I. The bure of the 
flod gladith the cite of God ; 
the althcr hejist halcwide 
his tabernacle. •. God in 
the myddel of it shal not be 
stirid ; God shal helpen it erli 
fro the morutid. j. Jentilis 
ben disturbid, and reumes 
ben inbowid ; he jaf his 
vois, moued is the erthe. 
t The Lord of vertues with 



(. Oure God, /Aou arj 
refuyt, and vertu ; helj>cre 
in tribulacions, that han 
founde vs greetly. l Ther- 
for we schulen not drede, 
while the erthe schal be 
troblid ; and the hilJis 
schulen be borun ouer in 
to the herte of the see. 
4. The watris of hem sowne- 
den, and weren troblid; 
hillis weren troblid lo- 
gidere in the sirengthe of 
hym. 1. The feersnesse of 
flood makith glad the cilee 
of God ; the hijesie God 
hath halewid his tabernacle. 
t God in the myddis therof 
schal not be moued ; God 
schal helpe it eerii in the 
grey morewtid. i. Helhcne 
men weren disturblid to- 



vs; onre vndeitakcre God 
of Jacob. *. Cometh, and 
seeth the weikis of the Lord ; 
the whiche he sette wndris 
vp on erth. w. Takende 
awei batailis vnto the ende 
of the erthe j the bowe he 
sha] to-brose, and co-breke ; 
armys and sheeldis he shal 
to-brenne with fyr. ii.Taketh 
heede, and seeth, for I am 
God ; I shal ben enhanncid 
in Jentilis, and I shat ben 
hauncid in the erthe. ii. 
The Lord of vertues with 
vs ; oure vadertikere God 
of Jacob. 






LVIL «79 

gidere, and rewmes weren 
bowiddoun; G(»/jaf hisvois, 
the erthe was moued. •, The 
Lord of vertues w with 
vs; God of Jacob is oure 
vptakere, », Come je, and 
ite the werkis of the Lord ; 
whiche wondrts he hath set 
on the erthe. u. He doynge 
awei batels til to the cnde 
of the lond ; schal al to- 
brese bouwe, and schal 
breke togidere armuris, and 
schal brcnnescheldisbi ficr. 
11. jyue )e tent, and se je, 
that Y am God ; Y schal be 
enhaunsid among heihene 
men ; and Y schal be en- 
haunsid in erthe. «. The 
Lord of vertues is with vs ; 
God of Jacob is oure 
vptakere. 



PSALM hWl.— (Common y^nion LVIII.) 

EARLIER TEXT. PURVEV'S REVISION. 

1, If vereli also rijtwisnesse t Forsothc if je spoken 

jee speke ; euenli demeth, rijtfulnesse verili ; je sones 

jecsonesofmen. i, Forsothc of men, deme ri^ifuli. i. For 

in the herte wickidncssis jee in herte le worchen wickid- 

werken in the erthe; vn- ncsse in erthe ; jourehondis 

rijtwisnesscs joure hondis maken red! vnri^tfulnessis. 

menge togidere. < Synneres t. Synnciis weien maad aliens 



283 



WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 



K?- ihlitS^^ ^"^ '""J '^^fi spirit tume a^en to God, that jaf it, 

u."^^ih« fcThevanjieofvanytees, seide Ecclesiastes, the 

SSK^nn'^M ™n>''c of ranytees, and alle thingis dm vanyle. 

m'^ibm % •■ And whanne Ecclesiastes was moost wijs, he 

Mru. aMM^ I tau jte the puple, and he tclde out the thingis 

JS^ITmS" aUx whiche he dide, and he sou^ out wisdom, 

wkw!r"n'r' Ti" and made many paiablis; m. he sou ^e profitable 

u.u'iMi^tt'*! *o'^'8, and he wroot moost rijlful wordis, and 

ub"iu;°i'bi^ ful of Ireuthe, h. The wordis of wise men Stn 

M ibg piiwBiH as prickis, and as nailis fastned deepe, whiche 

t^!^1SS!Sti he jouun of o scheepherde bi the counsels of 

u'V^u'ti^ maistris. u. My sone, seke thou no more than 

b^'i.^nw'e'S! these ; noon ende is to make many bookis, 

tei'!"ihl.''taJ and ofie ihenkyng is turment of fleisch, u. Alle 

Tn^,»K^iiiiinr we heretogyderethe endeof spekyng. Drede 

bllli."'.'bii 'tis thou God, and kepe hise heestis ; that is /o mk, 

i!l'''i»'';»?h'i<^M ech man. u. (7w/schal brynge alle thingis in to 

Vak!"^"^ dom, that ben don; for ech thing don bi er- 

'""' "" ; rour, whether it be good, ether yucl. 




ISAIAH XXI.— (Earlier Text.) 

il'rta!"»=oMilJ-' '■ '^^^ chaise of the desert se. As whirle- 

"itSnt,'' a*"" W)ndus fro Affrich comen, fro the desert cam, 

If^ "iSJribUL fro the orrible lend, t An hard viseoun told 

""qS'iIilwii '^ '" ^^ '• ''"'' vnleeuende is, vnfcithfully doth ; 

drM'"imi"*r and lie that is distrojere, waslelh. Siecjh vp, 

'^m *^wl Elam, and bisege, Medeba ; al his weilyng I 

^m«uiii""J>l made to cesen. i. Thcrfore ben fulfild my 

^i^n^'piou Icnilys with sorewe ; anguysh wcldide me, as 



ISAIAH XXI. 2 S3 

anguysh of the trauailende with child ; I fel SJ.Tniu.Ta 

• 1 Ti_j T j»»t_'j i_ T poi»i>odit rae Blent 

doun, whan I herde : I am disturbid, whan I kngu-tiaparturj- 

entls: corral cam 

sa^ i. Myche languysshede myn herte, derc- JJtIlrTum "am 

nesses stoneid maden me ; Babilon, my loou- li^^^meam; 

, . . * 1 n L tenebra stape- 

ed, put IS to me m to myracle. t. Sett the fecorantme: 

*^ ' Babylon dUlcta 

bord, bihold in a tooihil ; etende and drink- Sfw rttJ!' 

ende riseth, tee princes, taketh to the terget me^m.*' ^&m. 

«. These thmgns forsothe seide the Lord to me, *?\f, "'T***"'** 

Go, and put a tootere ; and what euere thing fiiJpiuJdJ^SS 

,,, 111 A % t 1 r ^ H.KC ontra dlx* 

he shal see, telle he. 7. And he sa; a char of itmibiDomiTms: 

' Tade, ot pone 

two horse men, a stejere of an asse, and a «?Sdc!rSlirJ°'Ju 

steiere vp of a camayle ; and he behecld bisily r.^'lct v"dit"car. 

mm d n o r n m 

by myche looking, s. and he criede as a leoun, 2;^'^"^;,;;*^;^ 

Vp on the toothil of the Lord I am stondende STtTni/,^ 

contynuelly bi day, and vp on my warde I am genuTr mm to 

stondende alle ny^tus. ». Lo 1 this cam, a gu^rSUc'uiam 

man ste^ere of the carte of horse men. And ftTni^^TagfSr 

por dlsni, et bu- 

he answerde, and seide. Is falle, is falle Babi- p*"" cuirtodi»m 

' ' ' meam ecu unm^ 

Ion ; and alle grauen thingus of hys godus SI!?*»^bS<5*££ 

ben to-brosid in to the erthe. 10. My thressing, ^" w^'^^i 

' "^' turn, et r«ip<in- 

and the do9ter of my comflor, the thingus that oS^idll, *"cScwu 

I herde of the Lord of ostes, God of Irael, I SSficuiptiui uSl 

tolde to jou. lu The charge of Duma. To ;j"Vr!tnJr^' 

me he crieth fro Seir, O 1 kepere, what of Se«,'cii»Vutiu 

the nyit? 01 kepere,. what of the nyjt? IxcereimuS iJmI 

' ■' "^ ' ^ Israel, annuntla- 

11. The kepere seide, Ther cometh morutid, SumS^^id^mJ 

andnyjt; if jee sechen, secheth, and beth con- c^'Storq^fd 

. « - , m, , . . , denocte? cn»- 

uertid, and cometh. u. The charge m Araby. i^'toJIjl^Jit 

In the wilde wode at euen ^ee shul slepen, m^JtLx" bi 

in the sties of Dodanym. 14. Aaencomende tS^i^rtil^ni* 

•^ ^ renlte. 18. Onua 

to the thristi berth water, that dwellen the lond [J^JJ^'^JS^i 

of the south ; with loeues a^enccmeth to the S'^SSdlni^ 

f% 1 T^irr" ^ r s t • !*• Occurenteii »1- 

fleende. u. Frothe face forsothe of swerdesthei tie mi rerte 

aqnam, qai habU 

fledden, fro the face of the swerd stondende on, ft'!*c,?,?nrnfbui 

fro the face of the bowe bend, fro the face STa Scii ©ulm 



284 



WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 



fim'Tf2iI"Sl o^ ^^^ greuous bataile. w. For these thingus 
i'L il" an"2?«- seith the Lord to me, 3it in o ^er, as in the jer 
vN'nJ*m i«. of an hirid man, and ther shal ben take awey 

qnontam h « c ' ^ 

mi'l^ASSc'tJ al the glorie of Cedar, n. And the relikis of 
urrniomirSJM- thc noumbre of the stronge archeres fro the 
dIir*'*i7^Et'iSr- son US of Cedar shul be mvnusht ; the Lord 
?«?u"uriorSm forsothc, God of Israel, spac. 

fortlum de flUU 

Cedar Immlnaeatur: Dominas enim Deiu Iara«l locatos est. 



1. Conmirfro, 
cuMurtfi', iiidu- 
ore f«>rtltndlno 
turn, 81<m : Indu- 
ere vcstlmentls 
jtlorUs tujF. Jo- 
miMlpin clvltas 
FanrtI, quia non 
HdJlck't altra, 
ut pertranseat 
I>Hr te luclrcnin- 
rtsuH et itnraan* 
duH. 9. Exrutero 
de pulvere, con- 
•urRe, Mde, Je- 
ruMUem : Holve 
vlnciila cnill tuL, 
c«|»tlvaflllaSlon. 
S. tjuia h«c diolt 
Doininus: Gratia 
Tenundatl estis, 
et sine arjrento re- 
dlinornlni. i.Qula 
htBC dicit Doml- 
nna Deiis : In 
A<'i7ptum de- 
pcfiidlt poptiluii 
uu>u« in prlncl- 
plo, nt colonns 
esMit Ibi, et As- 
anr absqao ulla 
caasA ralumnla- 
tiiN eNt eura. 6. 
Et niimquld nilhl 
c«t hic, dlclt Do- 
mInuH, qiioniain 
ablatUH c»t pnnii- 
lUH nu>u« Knit Is ? 
IhimlitHtomtcJiis 
Inlque aKunt, di- 
cit D«>itiluuB. et 
JiiKlter tota die 
noinvn m e a tn 
biavphematur. 9. 
Propter hoc w-lot 
IM>pulii!inK>anno- 
nien UH'iinilndie 
Ilia, quia of^ ip- 
no. qui Itxiuebar, 
I'cce adfum. 7. 
Qua in pulrhrl 
»uperni<intos« \h'- 
di>H aniiuntlnntit 
ft prwdlcnntia 
liacciu : anDt:nti- 
A u 1 1 H lioTinni, 
praBdicantis sa- 



ISAIAH Lll.^Ear/ter Tfxf.) 

I. Rys, ris, be clad, thou Sion, with thi 
strcngthe ; be thou clad with the clothis of thi 
glorie, thou Jerusalem, cite of the hoeli ; for 
he shal not lei to more, that ther passe by thee 
an vncircumcidid and vnclene. «. Be thou 
shaken out of the pouder ; ris, sit thou, Jeru- 
salem ; loose the bondis of thi necke, thou 
caitif dojtir of Sion. t. For these thingus seith 
the Lord, Freeli ^ee ben sold, and withoute 
siluer ^ee shul be ajeen bojt. 4. For these 
thingus seith the Lord God, In to Egipt cam 
doun my puple in the bigynnyng, as a comeling 
tiliere he was there, and Assur withoute any 
cause chalengede hym. •. And now what to 
me is this ? seith the Lord ; for taken awei is 
my puple withoute cause ; his lordshiperes 
wickidli diden, seith the Lord, and bisili aldai 
my name is blasfemed. e. For that wite shal 
my puple my name in that dai, for I the selue 
that spac, lo ! I am ny3. t. Hou faire vp on 
mounteynes the feet of thc tellende, and pre- 
chende pes, tellende good, prechendc helthe, 
seiende, Sion, regncn shal thi God. •. Thc 
vois of thi tooteres ; thei rereden a vois, to- 



ISAIAH LIII. 



285 



gidere thei shul preisen ; for with c^ to eje s^JfitolE^rblt 
thei shul see, whan conuerte shal the Lord to? b^^i^ 

niin taorum, le- 

Sion. i. lojeth, and preiseth togidere, 306 jr^sairS; 

desertes of Jerusalem ; for coumfortid hath the uSm^^SiSe'SiS.' 

Lord his pupie, a9eenbo3t he hath Jerusa- J*gJi^j,,f[;'J 

lem. Mw Redi made the Lord his hoeli arm 2Si je™B;u«ni; 

in the eaen of alle Jentiles, and seen shul alle Sn'oo^nus*^'^ 

uluiQ »uuni,rado* 

coestes of erthe the helthe ^yuere of oure God. S^VaS^/tiiSro- 
11. Goth awei, goth awei, goth out thennes ; the ilSJtum^uilI'S 
defoulid thing wileth not touche, goth out fro Sntium"et v"™. 

^ ^ bunt omnes fines 

the myddel of it ; be je clensid, that bern the ^Sli^no^^u. 

vesseles of the Lord. u. For not in noise ^ee £!2rl'iat« imit 

shul gon out, ne m ni3t 3ee shul gon forth ; f^s^\„ "gi"* 

forsothe gon bifor 30U shal the Lord, and Srt'taJ2ir'b<??. 

sredere togidere aou shal the God of Irael. iTon^n tumuTtS 

° 07 exhlbltlB, noc In 

IS. Lo ! vnderstonde shal my seruaunt, and ben SlJ*prT^?ot 

enhauncid, and rered, and ful hee:^ he shal Sul^ et*c({JS-* 

be gretly. 14. As stone3eden vp on hym {■JJfil^i^-g^'^Jj 

manye, so vnglorious shal ben among men S?"%t*'Se^b!* 

his siate, and the foorme of hym among the IritvHuiJI'u'sr 

son US of men. m. He shal sprmge manye jfpjf^ KpulJiJi 

Jentiles ; vp on hym togidere holden shuln winjllil^ini!'^ 

kingis ther mouth : for to whom is not told of fi»S* hi!m\mmx. 

^ ' Ift. lute a8|>«n];ut 

hym, shul see, and that herden not, beheelden. KjS'p^Sn c^i 

tlnebunt re^oa 
o« Buum, quia 
qnuras aon est nanatumde eo, Tldenmtf et qui non aadlomnt, oontempUtl lunt 



ISAIAH Ull,^{Earli€r Text,) 

Who leeuede to oure hearing ? and the arm 
of the Lord to whom is it shewyd ? «• And it 
shal ste3en vp as a quyk hegge biforn hym, 
and as a roote fro the threstende erthe. Ther 
is not shap to hym, ne faimesse ; and wee 
se3en hjon, and he was not of si3te ; and wee 



1. Qnts credldit 
Audltal nnstro ? 
et brachluic 
Domini cnl rero- 
latum ost 7 t. 
Bt a»con<iot Bl- 
eat ▼In^tatn 
coram oo, et «1- 
cut radix do tor- 
ra Bltlenil : non 
e«t BpecicB oL 
oeone decor, et 
Tidlmua enm, ct 
non orat aspoo- 



z85 WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 

"h.uV 'iirm."": dcsircden lij'in, •. dispisid, and the lasts of men, 

?w.»J™"li'ri^ man of sorewes, and wilende infirmyte. And 

«*■'■" iSa^SSL ^^ 'i''^ '''^ chere and dispisid ; wherfbre oe 

IJS<"iS°Si™ wee setteden by hym. i. Vereli oure sicnesses 

•MnwTrfiKi" he tooc, and oure sorewes he bar; and wee 

IwiJTIS"™ hecldcn hym as leprous, and smyten of God, 

n^tr."ii«'p™ and mekid. >. He forsoihe wo undid is for oure 

S!2ij'"i™!iS w'ckidnesses, defoiilid is for oure hidons 

S«'«"h™iii giUes ; the discyplyne of oure pes vp on hym, 

'^ L'Sii^ and with his wannesse we ben heled. <. Al!e 

it-inM^t^S^ wee as shep erreden, eche in to his weie bow- 

w^:*^i^yim!ti ede doun, and the Lord putte in hym the 

u"l!^4»BDUi w'ckidncsse of vs alle. i. He is offrcd, for he 

™"r™'flSSi wolde, and he openede not his mouth ; as a 

mJI^iSm™! shop to sleyng he shal be lad, and as a lomb 

Mii'Kii.iRii.Ttl ^^^OT the clippere itsel f he shal become doumb, 

1^01™°"*^!^!! and he opened not his tnouih ■. Fro angU)-sh 

«, ouui ipw »n- and fro dom he is take awei ; the ieneracioun 

^".^"■^"'rat of hym who shal tellen out? For kut awci 

«'°q^l'°S'; he is fro the lond of lyueres. For ihc hidous 

«no?'I!ilSi«^ Silte of my puple I smot hym. «. And jyucn 

I^MtaHrtFjl!^ he shal vnpiious men for biriyng, and richc 

j;^ j»n™j^ men for his dcih ; for thi that wickenesse he 

Kri'»t'''iS dide not, ne treccherie was in his mouth; ia.and 

pniii'r''"iciS the Lord wolde to-trede hym in infirmytee, 

S'd.butapiil ^^ ^^ s**^' P'^'"^ ^''s soule for synne, he shni 

JTai-luCpm seen sed of long age, and the wil of the Lord 

il^'i™'°fl£''l?' '" '''^ hond shal be rijt reulid. u. For thi that 

KT'S'm'^St ^^ trauailede, his soule shal seen, and ben ful- 

iSiuS'™'™" fyld. In his kunnyng he my rijlwis seruaunt 

mpmSTiiu ^^^' ■'istefien manye, and the wickidnesses of 

vrT^"^^. hem he shal bem. 11. Therforc I shal dele to 

iam»"i*™tai*in hym manye, and of sironge men he shal de- 

^' uihiSIr'ii ">'*^^ spoiles ; for thi that he toe in to doth his 

w° MHilir^imu lif, and with hidous giliercs is bolden ; and he 



ISAIAH LV. 



2S7 



the syime of manye toe, and for trespaseres !j«tiflc«bit* \^ 

___-_ j_ Ju«tu» Mrvns 

prC26QC. nitius uiultutt, ut 

IniqulUituH oiv 

rum l)Mie ptina- 

bit. It. Ideo dtoperttam el plnrimos, ot fortlam dlrldet RpoUa, pro eo quod tradidlt Ui raortom 

anlnuun muun, et com aeetenUs reputetus eet : et ipso poccata multuruui tullt, et pru 

tranagiworibtta rogavit. 



ISAIAH lN,—{EarlUr Text.) 

Alle 3ee thristende, cometh to watris, and 
^ee that ban not silaer, goth forth, bieth, and 
eteth ; cometh, bicth, withoute siluer and with- 
oute any chaffaring, wyn and mylc. «. Whi 
poote 3ee vp siluer, not in loeues, and 30ure 
trauailing, not in filling ? Hereth ^ee heren- 
de me, and eteth good thing, and delite shal 
in fetnesse 30ure soule. •. Bowith in 30ure 
ere, and cometh to me ; hereth, and lyucn 
shal 30ure soule ; and I shal smyte with 30U 
euere lastende couenaunt, the feithful mer- 
cies of Dauid. 4. Lo I witnesse I 3af hym to 
puples, duke and comaundere to Jentiles. 
*. Lo I the folc of kinde, that thou kncwe not, 
thou shalt clepen ; and the folc of kinde, that 

thee kne3 ^^^» ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ rennen ; for the 
Lord thy God, and the hoeli of Israel, for he 
glorifiede thee. «. Secheth the Lord, whil he 
mai be founde ; inwardli clepeth hym, whil he 
is ny3. t. Forsake the vnpitous his weie, and 
the wicke man his tho3tes ; and turne a3een 
lo the Lord, and he shal haue mercy of hym, 
and to oure God, for myche he is to for3yue. 
a. Forsothe not my thenkingus 30ure thenking- 
us, ne my weies 30ure weies, seith . the Lord. 
t. For as enhauncid ben heuenus fro erthe, so 
enhauncid ben my weies fro 30ure weyes. 



1. Omnes %\i\- 
entes venlte Ad 
aqnaM, ot qui uon 
habotls Hrgoii- 
tum, pruporHtc, 
cnilte, et conio- 
dltu: venltc,ouii- 
te abaquo ar- 
gnnto ot abtiquo 

Ulla CtllUDIUtH- 

ttone, vltium ot 
lac. S. QuaruHp- 
ponditlB argiifi- 
tum non In pMul- 
bus, et lab<irctn 
roHtniiTi nun In 
BRtarltato? Au- 
dita Hiidlontcs 
nio, et rometiito 
bonnm, et d«loc- 
tabltur in crasfil- 
tudine aiiima 
vo«tra. 8. Incll 
nato aurom vos- 
tram, ct vctiite 
ad rno: audlto, ot 
•vlvet anima ve»- 
tra, ot furlain 
voblacnm imc- 
turn Mmpitor- 
num, mlwrlcor- 
dias David fido- 
1©8. 4. Ecce, to»- 
tcm populls tlo- 
dl cum, duc^m 
ac pnecoptoruin 
gontibua. 6. Eo- 
CO, Kent o n>, 
quiim nosciobas, 
vwabls. et gen- 
tes, qute to non 
cognovonint, lul 
to current pwp- 
ter IKimfnum 
I)cum tuura et 
Sanctum iHrael, 
quia gluriOcavtt 
te. 0. (jnterito 
Dnminum, dnm 
invenlro potest: 
Invocato oum, 
dum prope chU ■ 
7. Derolinquat 
Implns viam su- 
am, ot vlr int- 
quus cognitiv- 
tlones Fuai), ot 
revurtatur ad 
P o m 1 n u ni, ot 

mlsen'.bUur <"J"S 
et ad Di!um nos- 
trum, quonlam 
multus oHt ad Ig- 
noscunduiu. 8. 




WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 

^^tSm. andmylhojiusfro joure tho^us. ». Aad « 

Lt'di douii wedtr anJ snoj (to heu- 

!S.' *» 'i-uM^ enc, and thidcr do mor is turned a^een, but 

"u ."w^'^ drunkneth the enhe, and heeldelh in to it, 

littiiTt' '"u *"'' "-■ t^<iriowne maketh it, and j>ueth sed to 

"^''ui'uiM.iU! the sowcre, and bred to the ctere, lu so dial 

sH»ii- be my w[o]rd, that shal gon out of my mouth. 

nm- ^' ^''^' ""^^ ^ turned a^u voide to me, but 

'^"i?^ shal do what euere thingus I wolde, and shal 

jMB be wdsum in tho thingus to whiche I sende 

;^„J it ; It. for in gladnesse jee shut gon oute, and 

Muiu.' in pes jee shul be lad thcnnus. Mottnleynes 

iia^ and hilles shul singe bifor jou preising, and 

m.'^ alle the trees of the legioun shal flappc for ioje 

Ti^ with bond. u. For the thorny crbe that is 

li^' clepid saliunfca, shal steepen vp a firr tree, and 

»'^£rr'n^ for the nettic shal grawe the trc that is clepid 

"taiS^'S ""J" ' ^"'^ ^'^ Lord shal be nemned in to an 

ni '^d^ euer lastende tocnc, that shal not ben don awei. 



LUKE XV.—iPunfeys Reuisum.) 1 
And pupplicans and synful men weren nfeijynge to 
him, to here h}m. t. And the Farisees afid scribis 
grutchiden, seiynge. For this resseyueth synful J men, and 
etith with hem. t. And he spak to hem this patiable, and 
seide, i. What man of ;oa that hath an hundrKtb scbeep, 
And if be hath lost oon of hem, wbetfair he lAieeueth not 
nynti and nyne in desert, and goith Co it that fiwrischide, 
til he fynde it ? •. And whanne he hath founVlan it, he 
ioicth, and leyith it on hise schuldris ; •. and 1* xt cometh 
boom, and clepith togidir hise freendis and nei^ boris, and 
seith to hem. Be je glad with me, for Y haue P iMnde my 



LUKE XV. 289 

scheep, that hadde perischid. t. And Y seie to 30U, so ioye 
schal be in heuene on o synful man doynge penaunce, 
more than on n3n[iti and nyne iuste, that han no nede to 
penaunce. •. Or what womman hauynge ten besauntis, 
and if sche hath lost 00 besaunt, whether sche teendith 
not a lanteme, and turneth vpsodoun the hows, and sekith 
diligentli, til that sche fynde it? ». And whanne sche 
hath foandun, sche clepith togidir freendis and nei3boris, 
and seith, Be ^e glad with me, for Y haue founde the 
besaunt, that Y hadde lost. 10. So Y seie to 30U, ioye 
schal be bifor aungels of God on o synful man doynge 
penaunce. u. And he seide, A man hadde twei sones ; 
11. and the 3onger of hem seide to the fadir, Fadir, ^yue 
me the porcioun of catel, that fallith to me. And he de- 
partide to hem the catel. i». And not aftir many daies, 
whanne alle thingis weren gederid togider, the ^onger sone 
wente forth in pilgrymage in to a fer cuntre ; and there 
he wastide hise goodis in lyuynge lecherously. m. And 
aftir that he hadde endid alle thingis, a strong hungre was 
maad in that cuntre, and he bigan to haue nedc. is. And 
he wente, and drou3 hym to oon of the citescyns of that 
cuntre. And he seme hym in to his toun, to fedc swyn. 
16. And he coueitide to fille his wombe of the coddis that 
the hoggis eeten, and no man 3af hym. n. And he turnede 
a3en to hym silf, and seide, Hou many hirid men in my 
fadir hous han plente of looues ; and Y perische here 
lhorou3 hungir. w. Y schal rise vp, and go to my fadir, 
and Y schal seie to hym, Fadir, Y haue synned in to 
heuene, and bifor thee ; w. and now Y am not worthi to 
be clepid thi sone, make me as oon of thin hirid men. 
JO. And he roos vp, and cam to his fadir. And whanne 
he was 3it afer, his fadir sai3 hym, and was stirrid bi mercy. 
And he ran, and fel on his necke, and kisside hym. 
n.^nd the souq seide to hym, Fadir, Y haue synned in to 
heuene, and bifor thee ; and now Y am not worthi to be 

13 



ago WVCLIFFITE VERSIONS. 

cicpid thi sonc. ». And the &dir seidc to hjse seruaunli!. 
Swilhe biyogt je forth the firsie stoole, and clothe ^ 
hym, and jyuc jc a n'ng' in his hoond, and schoon on 
hise feet ; n. and brynge }e a fat calf, and sle je, and cie 
we, and make we feeste, m. For this my sone was deeil, 
and haih lyucd ajen ; he perischid, and is foundun. And 
alle men bigunnen Co etc. u. But his eldere sone ivis in 
ihe feeld ; and whannc he cam, and ncijcde to the hou^ 
he herde a symfonye and a croude, m. And he ctepide 
oon of the seruauniis, and axide, what these thingiswerea 
ti. And he seide to hym, Tlii brother is comon, and thi 
fadii slewc a fat calf, for he resseyucdc hym saaf! b. And 
he was wrooth, and wolde not come in. Thcrfor his feiiit 
wente out, and bigan to preye hym. ». And he answerde 
to his fadir, and seide, Lo ! so many jeeris Y serue thee, 
and Y neuer brak thi com aun dement ; and thou neuer 
jaf to me a kidde, that Y with my freendis schuUle haoe 
eie. ». But afiir that this thi sone, that hath dcuourid 
his substaunce with horis, cam, thou hast slaj'n to hym a 
fat cair )!. And lie seide to hym, Sone, (hou art cuer 
more with me, and alle my thingis ben thina tt. But it 
bihoftc for to make feeste, and to hauc ioye ; for this ihi 
brother was deed, and lyuede ajen ; he periscbide, and is 
foundun. 



CHAUCER'S PROLOGUE TO THE 
CANTERBURY TALES. 

Whan that Aprille with his schowres swoote 

The drought of Marche hath perced to the roote, 

And bathud every veyne in swich licour, 

Of which vertue engendred is the flout; 

Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth[e] s 

Enspirud hath in every holte and heeth [e] 

The tendre croppes, and the ^onge sonne 

Hath in the Ram his halfe cours i-ronne^ 

And smale fowles maken melodie, 

That slepen al the night with open yhe, lo 

So prikeih hem nature in here corages : — 

Thanne longen folk to gon on pilgrimages. 

And palmers for to seeken straunge strondes, 

To feme halwes, kouthe in sondry londes ; 

And specially, from every schires ende u 

Of Engelond, to Canturbury they wende, 

The holy blisful manir for to seeke, 

That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. 

Byfel that, in that sesoun on a day. 
In Southwerk at the Tabbard as I lay, » 

Redy to wendcn on my pilgrimage 
To Canturbury with ful devout corage, 
At night was come into that hostelrie 
Wei nyne and twenty in a companye, 
Of sondry folk, by aventure i-falle « 

In felawschipe, and pilgrj'ms were thei alle. 
That toward Canturbury wolden ryde. 



292 THE KNIGHT. 

The chambres and the stables weren wyde, 

And wel we weren esud atte beste. 

And schortly, whan the sonne was to rcste, 

So hadde I spoken with hem everychon, 

That I was of here felawschipe anon, 

And made forward erly to aryse, 

To take oure weye ther as I yow devyse. 

But natheles, whiles I have tyme and space. 

Or that I ferlhere in this tale pace, 

Me thinketh it acordant to resoun, 

To telle yow alle the condicioun 

Of eche of hem, so as it semed[e] me, 

And which they weren, and of what degre ; 

And eek in what array that they were inne : 

And at a knight than wol I first bygynne. 

A Knight ther was, and that a worthy man, 
That from the tyme that he ferst bigan 
To ryden out, he lovede chyvalrj-e, 
Trouthe and honour, fredom and curtesie. 
Ful worthi was he in his lordes werre. 
And therto hadde he riden, noman ferre. 
As wel in Cristendom as [in] hethenesse, 
And evere honoured for his worthinesse. 
At Alisandre he was whan it was w^onne, 
Ful ofte tyme he hadde the bord bygonne 
Aboven alle naciouns in Pruce. 
In Lettowe hadde reyced and in Ruce, 
No cristen man so ofte of his degre. 
In Gernade atte siege hadde he be 
Of Algesir, and riden in Belmarie. 
At Lieys was he, and at Satalie, 
Whan thei were wonnc ; and in the Greete see 
At many a noble arive hadde he be. 
At mortal batailles hadde he ben fiftene. 
And foughten for our fcith at Tramassene 



THE YOUNG SQUIRE. 293 

In lystes thries, and ay slayn his foo. 

This ilke worthi knight hadde ben also 

Somtyme wiih the lord of Palatye, « 

Ageyn another hethene in Turkye : 

And everemore he hadde a sovereyn prys. 

And though that he was worthy he was wys, 

And of his port as meke as [is] a mayde. 

He never ^it no vilonye ne sayde 10 

In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 

He was a verray perfijt gentil knight. 

But for to telle you of his array, 

His hors was good, but he ne was nou^t gay. 

Of fustyan he wered a gepoun u 

Al by-smoterud with his haburgeoun. 

For he was late comen from his viage. 

And wente for to doon his pilgrimage. 

With him ther was his sone, a ^ong Squyer, 
A lovyer, and a lusty bacheler, so 

With lokkes cralle as they were layde in presse. 
Of twenty ^eer he was of age I gesse. 
Of his stature he was of evene lengthe, 
And wondurly delyver, and gret of strengthe. 
And he hadde ben somtyme in chivachie, te 

In Flaundres, in Artoys, and in Picardie, 
And bom him wel, as in so litel space. 
In hope to stonden in his lady grace. 
Embrowdid was he, as it were a mede 
Al ful of fresshe floures, white and reede. ac 

Syngynge he was, or flowtynge, al the day ; 
He was as fressh as is the moneih of May. 
Schort was his goune, with sleeves long and wyde. 
Wel cowde he sitte on hors, and faire ryde. 
He cowde songes make and wel endite, m 

Justne and eek daunce, and wel purtray and write. 
So bote he lovede, that by nightertale 



294 THE YEOMAN AND THE PRIORESS. 

He sleep nomore than doth a nightyngalb 
Curteys he was, lowly, and servysable, 
And carf byfom his fadur at the lable. 

A jEMAN had he, and scrvantes nomoo 
At that lyme, for him lust ryde soo ; 
And he was clad in coote and hood of grene. 
A shef of pocok arwes bright and kene 
Under his belte he bar fu! thriftily. 
Wei cowde he dresse his take! jomanly ; 
His arwes drowpud nought with feiheres lowe. 
And in his bond he bar a mighty bowe. 
A not-heed hadde he with a broun visage^ 
Of woode-craft cowde he wel al the usage. 
Upon his arme he bar a gay bracer. 
And by his side a swerd and a bokeler, 
And on that other side a gay daggere, 
Hameysed wel, and scharp as poynt of spere ; 
A Cristofre on his brest of silver schene. 
An horn he bar, the bawdrik was of grene ; 
A forster was he sothely, as I gesse. 

Ther was also a Nonne, a Prioresse, 
That of hire smylyng was ful symple and coy ; 
Hire grettest ooth [e] nas but by seynt Loy ; 
And sche was clept mad.ime Engle[n] tyne. 
Ful wel sche sang the servise devyne, 
Entuned in hire nose ful semyly ; 
And Frensch sche spak ful faire and fctysly, 
Aftur the scole of Stratford altc Bowe, 
For Frensch of Parys was to liire unknowe. 
At mele wel i-laught was sche withalle ; 
Sche leet no morsel from hire lippes falle, 
Ne wette hire fyngres in hire sauce dcepe. 
Wel cowde sche carie a morsel, and wel keepe, 
That no drope [nc] til uppon hire brest[e]. 
In cuitesie was sett al hire lestfe]. 



THE NUN AND THE THREE PRIESTS. 295 

Hire overlippe wypud[e] sche so clene, 

That in hire cuppe was no ferthing sene 

Of grees, whan sche hadde dronken hire draught m 

Ful semely afiur hire mete sche raught. 

And sikurly sche was of gret disport, 

And fill plesant, and amyable of port, 

And peyned hire to counterfete cheere 

Of court, and ben estatlich of manere, 140 

And to ben holden digne of reverence. 

But for to speken of hire conscience, 

Sche was so charitable and so pi to us, 

Sche wolde weepe if that sche sawe a mous 

Caught in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde. i«6 

Of smale houndes hadde sche, that sche fedde 

With rostud fleissh, or mylk and wastel breed. 

But sore wepte sche if oon of hem were deed, 

Or if men smot it with a ^erde smerte : 

And al was conscience and tendre herte. ico 

Ful semely hire wymple i-pynched was ; 

Hire nose streight ; hire eyen grey as glas ; 

Hire mouth ful smal, and therto softe and reed ; 

But sikurly sche hadde a fair forheed. 

It was almost a spanne brood, I trowe, im 

For hardily sche was not undergrowe. 

Ful fetys was hire cloke, as I was waar. 

Of smal coral aboute hire arme sche baar 

A peire of bedes gaudid al with grene ; 

And theron heng a broch of gold ful schene, im 

On which was first i-writen a crowned A, 

And after that. Amor vincil omnia, 

Anothur Nonne also with hire hadde sche, 

That was hire chapelleyn, and Prestes thre. 

A Monk ther was, a fair for the maistrie, i« 

An out-r}'dere, that loved [ej venerye ; 
A manly man, to ben an abbot able. 



2(j6 THE MONK. 

Fu! many a deynl^ hors hadde he in stable : 

And when he rood, men might his bridel heere 

Gyngle in a whistlyng wj-nd so cleere. 

And eek as lowde as doth the chapel belle. 

Thcr as this lord was keper of ihe selle, 

The rculc of scjnt Maure or ofseynt Beneyt, 

Bycause that it was old and somdel streyt. 

This ilke monk leet [him] forby hem pace. 

And held aftur the newe world ihe space. 

He )3f nat of thai text a pulled hen, 

That seith, that huntere been noon holy men ; 

Ne that a monk, whan he is cloysierlcs. 

Is likncd lo a fisschc thai is watirles. 

That is to seyn, a monk out of his cloystre. 

But thilke text hild he not worth an oystre. 

And I seidc his opinioun was good. 

What schulde he studie, and make himselven wood, 

Uppon a book in clojstre alway to powre. 

Or swynkc with his handes, and laboure. 

As Austin byi? How schal the world be served ? 

Lat Austyn have his swynk to him reserved. 

Therforc he was a pricasour aright ; 

Greyhoundes ho hadde as swifte as fowel in flight ; 

Ofprikyng and of huntyng for (he hare 

Was al his lust, for no cost wolde he spare. 

1 saugh his sieves purliled atte hond[e]. 

With grys, and that the fynest of a Iond[c] 

And for to festne his hood undur his chyn[ne] 

He hadde of gold y-wrought a curions pyn[ne] : 

A love-knoUe in the grctter ende iher was. 

His heed was ballid, and schon as eny glas, 

And eek his face as he hadde be aooynL 

He was a lord ful fat and in good poynt ; 

His eyen steep, and roUyng in his heed[e]. 

That siemcd as a forneys of a leed[e] ; 



THE FRIAR. 297 

His bootes souple, his hors in gret estat 

Now certeinly he was a fair prelat ; 

He was not pale as a for-pyned goost tu 

A fat swan loved he best of eny roost. 

His palfray was as broun as eny berye. 

A Frerk ther was, a wantoun and a merye, 
A lymytour, a ful solempne man. 

In alle the ordres foure is noon that can no 

So moche of daliaunce and fair langage. 
He hadde i-mad many a fair mariage 
Of 3onge wymmen, at his owne cost. 
Unto his ordre he was a noble post. 
Ful wel biloved and femulier was he us 

With frankeleyns overal in his cuntre, 
And eek with worthi worn men of the toun : 
For he hadde power of confessioun. 
As seyde himself, more than a curat, 
For of his ordre he was licenciat t» 

Ful sweet[e]ly herde he confessioun. 
And plesaunt was his absolucioun; 
He was an esy man to 3eve penance 
Ther as he wiste han a good pitance ; 
For unto a povre ordre for to ^eve m 

Is signe that a man is wel i-schreve. 
For if he jaf, he dorste make avaunt, 
He wiste that a man was repentaunL 
For many a man so hard is of his herte. 
He may not wepe though him sore smerte. tM 

Therfore in stede of wepyng and prayeres, 
Men mooten 3iven silver to the pore freres. 
His typet was ay farsud ful of knyfes 
And pynnes, for to jive faire wyfes. 

And certayn[li] he hadde a mery noote. « 

Wel couthe he synge and pleye[n] on a rote. 
Of jeddynges he bar utturly the prys. 

13* 



398 THE FRIAR. 

His nekke whit was as the floin-de-h's. 
Theito he strong was as a champioun. 
He knew wel the lavemes in every toun, 
And every ostillcr or gay tapstere. 
Bet than a lazer, or a beggere. 
For unlo such a worthi man as he 
Acorded not, as by his faculty, 
To have with sike lazare aqueyntaunce. 
It is not honest, it may not avaunce. 
For to delen with such poraile, 
But al with riche and sellers of vitaille. 
And overal, ther eny profj-t schulde arise, 
Curtcj-s he was, and lowc[ly] of servysc 
Ther was no man nowhcr so vertuous. 
He was the beste begger in a) his hous, 
[And jaf a certe)-n ferme for thegraunie 
Non of his bretheren cam in his hannte] 
For though a widcwe hadde bnt oo schoo. 
So plesaunt was his In prinapia. 
Yet wolde he have a ferthing or he wente. 
His purchace was bcilur than his rente. 
And rage he couthc and pleye[n] as a whelpe. 
In love-davs ther couihe he mochil helpe. 
For ther was he not like a cloystcrer. 
With a ihredbare cope as a pore scoler. 
But he was like a maister or a pope. 
Of double worstede was his scmy-cope, 
That rounded was as a belle out of presse. 
Somwhat he lipsede, for[his] wantounesse, 
I'o make his Englissch swete upon his tunge ; 
And in his harpyng, whan that he hadde snnge, 
His eyjcn twynkelcd in his heed aright. 
As don the sterres in the frosty night. 
This worthi lymytour was called Huberd. 
A Marchaukt was ther with a forked berd, 



THE MERCHANT AND THE CLERK. 299 

In motteleye, and high on horse he sat, 

Uppon his heed a Flaundrisch bever hat ; 

His botus clapsud faire and fetously. m 

His resons he spak ful solempnely, 

Sownynge alway the encres of his wynnynge. 

He wolde the see were kepud for eny thinge 

Bitwixe Middulburgh and Orewelle. 

Wei couthe he in eschange scheeldes selle. sao 

This worthi man ful wel his witte bisette ; 

Ther wiste no man that he was in dette, 

So estately was he of governaunce, 

With his bargayns, and with his chevysaunce. 

For sothf he was a worthi man withalle, us 

But soth to say, I not what men him calle. 

A Clerk ther was of Oxenford also, 
That unto logik hadde longe i-go. 
Al-so lene was his hors as is a rake. 
And he was not right fat, I undertake ; too 

But lokede holwe, and therto soburly. 
Ful thredbare was his overest courtepy. 
For he hadde nou^t geten him jit a benefice, 
Ne was not worthy to haven an office. 
For him was lever have at his beddes heed m 

Twenty bookes, clothed in blak and reed. 
Of Aristotil, and of his philosophie. 
Then robus riche, or fithul, or [gay] sawtrie. 
But al-though he were a philosophre, 
^t hadde he but litul gold in cofre ; aoo 

But al that he might [e] gete, and his frendes sende 
On bookes and his lernyng he it spende, 
And busily gan for the soules pray[e] 
Of hem that jaf him wherwith to scolay[e] 
Of studie took he most[c] cure and heede. an 

Not 00 word spak he more than was neede ; 
Al that he spak it was of heye prudence, 



joo THE SERGEANT-AT-LAW AND FRANKLIN. 

And schorl and quyk, and fill of gret sentence. 

Sownynge in moral manere was his speche, 

And gladly wolJe he Jeme, and gladly lechc. m 

A Sergeant of Laive, war and ivys. 
Thai often hadde ben atte par\ys, 
Ther was also, ful riche of excellence. 
Discrel he was, and of gret reverence : 
He semed such, bis wordes were so wise, u 

Justice he was ful often in assise, 
By patent, and by plcyn commissioun ; 
For his science, and for his heih renoun. 
Of fees and robes had he many oon. 
So gret a purchasour was ther nowher noon, m 

Al was fee symple to him in effecte, 
His purchasyng might[e] nought ben to him suspecte. 
Nowher so besy a man as he ther nas, 
And jit he semed [e] besier than he was. 
In termes hadde [he] caas and domes alle, at 

Tiial fro the tyme of kyng [^Vill] were falle. 
Therto he couthe endiie, and make a thing, 
Ther couthe no man pynche at his writyng. 
And every statute couthe he pleyn by roote. 
He rood but hoomly in a mcdled coote, ■• 

Gird with a seynt of silk, with barrcs smale ; 
Of his array telle I no leugor tale, 

A Frankeleyn ther was in his companye ; 
Whit was his berde, as [is] the dayesye. 
Of his complexioun he was sangwyn. m 

Wcl loved he in the morn a sop in wyn. 
To lyve[n] in delite was a) his wone 
For he was Epicurius owne sone, 
That hceld opynyour. thai pleyn delyt 
Was verraily felicile perfyt m 

An househaldere, and that a gret, was he ; 
Seynt Julian he was in his countr^. 



THE HABERDASHER, CARPENTER, ETC. 301 

His breed, his ale, was alway after oon ; 

A bettre env)'ned man was nowher noon. 

Withoute bake mete was never his hous, mi 

Of fleissch and fissch, and that so plentyvous. 

It snewed in his hous of mete and dr)*nk[ej, 

Of alle deyntees that men cowde thynk[e]. 

Afiur the sondry sesouns of the 3eer, 

He chaunged hem at mete and at soper. »m 

Ful many a fat partrich had he in mewe, 

And many a brem and many a luce in stewe. 

Woo was his cook, but if his sauce were 

Poynant and scharp, and redy al his gere. 

His table dormant in his halle alway ku 

Stood redy covered al the longe day. 

At sessions ther was he lord and sire. 

Ful ofte tyme he was knight of the schire. 

An aulas and a gipser al of silk 

Heng at his gerdul, whit as morne mylk. mu 

A schirreve hadde he ben, and a counter ; 

Was nowher such a worthi vavaser. 

An Haburdasshkr and a Carpenter, 

A Webbe, a Deyer, and a Tapicer, 

Weren with us eeke, clothed in 00 lyver^, m 

Of a solempne and gret fraternity. 

Ful freissh and newe here gere piked was ; 

Here knyfes were i-chapud nat with bras, 

But al with silver wrought ful clene and wel, 

Here guidles and here pouches every del. m 

Wel semed eche of hem a fair burgeys. 

To sitten in a 3eldehalle on the deys. 

Every man for the wisdom that he can. 

Was schaply for to ben an aldurman. 

For catel hadde they inough and rente, mr 

And eek here wyfes wolde it wel assente ; 

And elles certeyn hadde thei ben to blame. 



3o» THE COOK AND THE SAILOR. 

It is right lair for lo be clept madaau. 
And for to go to vigilies al byfore, 
And han a mantel rially i-borc. 

A Cook thci hadde *iih hem for the nones, 

To boyle chiknes and the mary bones, 
And poudre marchauni, lart, and galyngale. 
Wei cowdc he knowe a dtaujt of Londone ale. 
He cowJe rosic, seihe, broiile, and frie. 
Make mortreux, and wel bake a pye. 
But gret ham) n'as it, as it scmcde me, 
That on his schyne a monnal hadde he ; 
For blankmanger he made with the beste. 

A ScHiPMA.v was ther, wonyng fer by weste : 
For ought I wool, he was of Dertemouthe. 
He rood upon a rouncy, as he coulhe. 
In a gowne of faldyng to the kne. 
A dagger hang\-ng on a laas hadde he 
Aboute his nekke under his arm adoun. 
The hooCe somer had[de] maad his hew al broun ; 
And certeinly he was a good felawe. 
Fnl many a draught of wyn had he [y-]drawe 
From I3urdeux-ward, whil that the chapman sleep. 
Of nyce conscience took he no keep. 
If that he foughte, and hadde the heijer hand. 
By water he sente hem hoom to eveiy land. 
But of his craft to rikne wel the tydes, 
His stremes and his dangers him bisides, 
His herbergh and his mone, his lodemenage, 
Ther was non such from Hulle to Cartage. 
Hardy he was, and wys to undertake ; 
With many a tempest hadde his berd ben schake. 
He knew wel alle the havenes. as thei were, 
From Scotlond to the cape of Fyneslere, 
And every cryk in Breiayne and in Spayne ; 
His barge y-clepud was the Magdelayne. 



THE DOCTOR OF PHYSIC. 303 

Ther was also a Doctour of Phisik, 
In al this world ne was ther non him lyk 
To speke of phisik and of surgerye ; tu 

For he was groundud in astronomye. 
He kepte his pacient wondurly wel 
In houres by his magik naturel. 
Wel cowde he fortune the ascendent 
Of his ymages for his pacient. m 

He knew the cause of every maladye, 
Were it of cold, or hete, or moyst, or drye, 
And where thei engendrid, and of what humour ; 
He was a verrey perfi^t practisour. 

The cause i-knowe, and of his harme the roote, isi 

Anon he 3af the syke man his boote. 
Ful redy hadde he his apotecaries, 
To sende him dragges, and his letuaries. 
For eche of hem made othur [for] to wynne ; 
Here frendschipe was not newe to begynne. «io 

Wel knew he the olde Esculapius, 
And Deiscorides, and eeke Rufus ; 
Old Ypocras, Haly, and Galien ; 
Serapyon, Razis, and Avycen ; 

Averrois, Damescen, and Constantyn ; m 

Bernard, and Gatisden, and Gilbertyn. 
Of his diete mesurable was he, 
For it was of no superfiuit6. 
But of gret norisching and digestible 
His studie was but litel on the Bible. ms 

In sangwin and in pers he clad was al, 
Lined with tafifata and with sandal. 
And ^it he was but esy in dispence ; 
He kepte that he wan in pestilence. 
For gold in phisik is a cordial, m 

Therfore he lovede gold in special. 

A good WiF was thei- of byside Bathe, 



304 



THE WIFE OF BATH. 



But schc vas sonidel deer, and that was skathe. 
Ofclotli mnkyng she hadde such an haunt, 
Eche passed hem of Ypris and of Gaunt, 
In ix\ ihe parisshe wjT ne was ther noon 
That to the offn-ng byfom hire schulde goon. 
And irther dide, certejn so wroth was sche. 
That schc was thannc out ofalle chaiitd. 
Hire keverchefs weren ful fyne ofgrounde ; 
I durste swere they wey^ede ten pounde 
That on a Sonday were upon hire heed. 
Hire hosen were oFfyn[e] scarleit reed, 
Ful stre)-te y-te}ed, and schoos ful moyste and newe. 
Bold was hir face, and fair, and reed of hewe. 
Schc was a worthy womman al hire lyfc, 
Housbondes atie chirche dore hadde sche fyfe, 
Wiihouten othur companyc in jouthe ; 
But thereof necdcth nought to speke as nouthe. 
And ihries hadde sche ben at Jerusalem ; 
Sche hadde passud many a straunge streera ; 
Al Rome sche hadde ben, and at Boloyne, 
In Galice at seynt Jame, and at Coloyne, 
Sche eowde moche of wandryng by the weye. 
Gattoihud was sche, solhly for to sej'e. 
Uppon an amblere esely sche sat, 
Wymplid ful wcl, and on hire heed an hat 
As brood as is a bocler or a targe ; 
A foot-mantel aboute hire hupes large. 
And on hire feet a paire of spores scharpe. 
In felawschipe wel cowde [schc] lawghe and carpe. 
Of remedyes of love sche knew percliaunce, 
of that art sche knew the olde daunce. 
,s ther of religioun, 
a pore Persouk of a toun ; 

was of holy thought and werk. 

a lerned man, a clerk 




THE GOOD PARSON. 305 

That Cristes Gospel gladly wolde preche ; 

His parischens devoutly wold he teche. 

Benigne he was, and wondur diligent, m 

And in adversit6 ful pacient ; 

And such he was i-proved ofte sithes. 

Ful loth were him to curse for his tythes, 

But rather wolde be ^even out of dowte, 

Unto his pore parisschens aboute, m 

Of his offrynge, and eek of his substaunce. 

He cowde in litel thing han suffisance. 

Wyd was his parisch, and houses fer asondur, 

But he ne lafte not for reyne ne thondur, 

In siknesse ne in meschief to visite 4m 

The ferrest in his parissche, moche and lite, 

Uppon his feet) and in his hond a staf. 

This noble ensample unto his scheep he ^af, 

That ferst he wroughte, and after that he taughte, 

Out of the gospel he tho wordes caughte, la 

And this figure he addid [e] ^it therto, 

That if gold ruste, what schulde yren doo ? 

For if a prest be foul, on whom we truste, 

No wondur is a lewid man to ruste ; 

And schame it is, if that a prest take kepe, m 

A schiten schepperd and a clene schepe ; 

Wei oughte a prest ensample for to ^ive, 

By his clennesse, how that his scheep schulde lyve. 

He sette not his benefice to huyre, 

And lefte his scheep encombred in the myre, no 

And ran to Londone, unto seynte Poules, 

To seeken him a chaunterie for soules, 

Or with a brethurhede be wilhholde ; 

But dwelte at hoom, and kepte wel his folde, 

So that the wolf ne made it not myscarye. ni 

He was a schepperde and no mercenarie ; 

And though he holy were, and vertuous. 



3o6 THE PLOUGHMAN AND THE MILLER. 

He was to senful man nought dispitous, 
Ne of his spcche daungerous ne digne. 
But in his teching discret and benignc. 
To drawe folk to hcvcn by fairnesse, 
By good ensample, [this] was his busynesse : 
But it were eny personc obsiinal. 
What so he were of high or lowe eslat, 
Him wolde he snjbbe scharply for the nones. 
A beiire prccst I trowe ther nowher non is. 
He waytud after no pompe ne reverence, 
Ne maked him a spiced conscience, 
Hut Cristes lore, and his apostles twelve. 
He taught, and fersl he followed il himselve. 

With him ther ivas a Ploitghman, his brothur. 
That hadde i-lad of dong ful many a fothur. 
A trewe swynker and a good was hee, 
Lj-vynge in pees and perfijt charilee. 
God loved he best with al his trewe herte 
At alle tymes, though him gamed or smerte. 
And thanne his neighebour right as himselve. 
He wolde threisshe, and iherto dyke and delve. 
For Crisles sake, with every pore wight, 
Withouten huyre, if it layc in his might. 
His Ijthes payede he ful faire and wel, 
Bathe of his owne swynk and his calel. 
In a tabbard [hej rood upona mere. 

Ther was also a reeve and a mcllcrc, 
A sompnour and a pardoner also, 
A maunciple, and my self, ther was no mo. 

The Mellere was a stout carl for the nones, 
Ful big he was of braun, and eck of boones ; 
That prevede wel, foroveral ther he cam. 
At wrasllynge he wolde here awey the ram. 
He was schort schuldrcd, broodc, a tliikke knaire, 
Ther nas no dore lliat he nolde heve of harre, 



THE MANCIPLE. 307 

Or breke it with a rennyng with his heed. 
His herd as ony sowe or fox was reed, 
And therto brood, as though it were a spade. m 

Upon the cop right of his nose he hade 
A werte, and theron stood a tuft of heres, 
Reede as the berstles of a souwes eeres. 
His nose-thurles blake were and wyde. 
A swerd and a bocler baar he by his side, seo 

His mouth as wyde was as a gret forneys, 
He was a jangler, and a goiyardeys, 
And that was most of synne and harlotries. 
Wei cowde he stele corn, and tollen thries ; 
And 3et he had a thombe of gold pard6. m 

A whit cote and [a] blewe hood wered he. 
A baggepipe cowde he blowe and sowne, 
And therwithal he brought us out of towne. 
A gentil Maunciple was ther of a temple. 
Of which achatours mighten take exemple am 

For to be wys in beyying of vitaille. 
For whethur that he payde, or took by taille, 
Algate he wayted [e] so in his acate, 
That he was ay biforn and in good state. 
Now is not that of God a ful faire grace, m 

That such a lewed mannes wit schal pace 
The wisdom of an heep of lernede men ? 
Of maystres hadde [he] moo than thries ten, 
That were of lawe expert and curious ; 
Of which ther were a doseyn in an house mc 

Worthi to be stiwardz of rente and lond 
Of any lord that is in Engelond, 
To make him lyve by his propre good, 
In honour detteles, but if he were wood, 
Or lyve as scarsly as he can desire ; mi 

And able for to he! pen al a schire 
In any caas that mighte falle or happe ; 



3o8 THE REEVE. 

And 3it this maunciple sette here aller cappe. 

The Reeve was a sklcndre colerik man, 
His herd was schave as neigh as ever he can. 
His heer was by his eres neighe i-schorn, 
His top was dockud lyk a preest biforn. 
Ful longe worn his leggus, and ful lene, 
Al like a staff, ther was no calf y-sene. 
Wei cowde he kepe a gerner and a bynne ; 
Ther was non auditour cowde on him wynne. 
Wei wiste he by the drought, and by the reyn, 
The ^eeldyng of his seed, and of his greyn. 
His lordes scheep, his nete, his dayerie, 
His swyn, his hors, his stoor, and his pultrie. 
Was holly in this reeves governynge, 
And by his covenaunt ^af the rekcnynge, 
Syn that his lord was twcnti ^eer of age ; 
Ther couthe noman bringe him in arrerage. 
Ther nas ballif, ne herde, ne other hyne, 
That they ne knewe his sleight and his covyne; 
They were adrad of him, as of the deth[e]. 
His wonyng was ful fair upon an heth[e], 
With grene trees i-schadewed was his place. 
He cowde bettre than his lord purchace. 
Ful riche he was i-stored prively, 
His lord wel couthe he plese subtilly, 
To ^eve and lene him of his owne good, 
And have a thank, a cote, and eek an hood. 
In ^outhe he lerned hadde a good mestcr ; 
He was a wel good wright, a carpenter. 
This reeve sat upon a wel good stot, 
That was a pomely gray, and highte Scot. 
A long surcote of pers uppon he hadde, 
And by his side he bar a rusty bladde. 
Of Northfolk was this reeve of which I telle, 
Bysidc a toun men callen Baldeswelle. 



THE SOMPNOUR. 309 

Tukkud he was, as is a frere, aboute, 

And ever he rood the hynderest of the route. 

A SoMPNOUR was ther with us in that place, m 

That hadde a fyr-reed cherubyn[e]s face, 
For sawceflem he was, with ey3en narwe. 
As hoot he was, and leccherous, as a sparwe. 
With skalled browes blak, and piled berd ; 
Of his visage children weren aferd. eeo 

Ther nas quyksilver, litarge, ne bremstone, 
Boras, ceruce, ne oille of tartre noon, 
Ne oynement that wolde dense and byte. 
That him might helpen of his whelkes white, 
Ne of the knobbes sittyng on his cheek es. m 

Wei loved he garleek, oynouns, and ek leekes. 
And for to drinke strong wyn reed as blood. 
Thanne wolde he speke, and crye as he were wood. 
And whan that he wel dronken hadde the wyn. 
Than wolde he speke no word but Latyn. m» 

A fewe termes hadde he, tuo or thre, 
That he hadde lemed out of som decree ; 
No wondur is, he herde it al the day ; 
And eek ye knowe wel, how that a jay 
Can clepe Watte, as wel as can the pope. mb 

But who so wolde in othur thing him grope, 
Thanne hadde he spent al his philosophie. 
Ay, Quesiio quid juris ^ wolde he crye. 
He was a gentil harlot and a kynde ; 
A bettre felaw schulde men nowher fynde. ieo 

He wolde suffre for a quart of wyn 
A good felawe to han his concubyn 
A twelve moneth, and excuse him atte fulle. 
And prively a fynch eek cowde he pulle. 
And if he fond owher a good felawe, m 

He wolde teche him to have non awe 
In such a caas of the archedeknes curs, 



3'o 



THE PARDONER. 



But if a marines soule were in his purs ; 

For in his purs he scholde punyssched ba 

' Purs is the ercedeknes helle,' quod he. 

But wcl I wool he lyeili right in dede ; 

Of cursyng oweth ech gulty man to drede ; 

For curs wol slee right as assoill)'ng saveth ; 

And also ware him of a Hgnificavit. 

In daunger hadde he at his own assise 

The jonge gurles of the diocise. 

And knew here counseil, and was al here red. 

A garland had he set up on his heed. 

As gret as it were for an ale-stake ; 

A bokeler had he maad him of a cake. 

With him ther rood a gentil Pardoxer 
Of Rouncival, his frend and his comper. 
That slreyt was comen from the court of Rome. 
Ful lowde he sang, Com hider, love, lo me. 
This sompnour bar to him a stif burdoun, 
Was nevere trompe of half so grct a soun. 
This pardoner hadde hecr as jclwe as wes. 
But smoihe it heng, as doth a strike of flex ; 
By unccs hynge his lokkes that he hadde. 
And therwith he his schuldrcs oveis]>rad<ie, 
Ful thenne it lay, by culpons on and oon. 
But hood, for jolitee, nc wered he noon. 
For it was trussud up in his walel. 
Him thought he rood al of the newe gel, 
Dischevele, sauf his cappe, he rood al bare. 
Suchc glaryng eyjen hadde he as an hare, 
A vemicle hadde he sowed on his cappe. 
His walet lay byfom him in his lappe, 
Bret-ful of pardoun come from Rome al hooL 
A voys he hadde as smale as eny goot. 
No herd ne hadde he, ne never schoide have, 
As sroothc it was as it were late i-schave ; 



THE PARDONER. 311 

3 were a geldjrng or a mare. 

5 craft, fro Berwyk unto Ware, 

er such another pardoner. m 

male he hadde a pilwebeer, 
lat he saide, was oure lady veyl : 

he hadde a gobet of the seyl 
t Petur hadde, whan that he wente 
s see, til Jhesu Crist him hente. too 

a cros of latoun ful of stones, 
glas he hadde pigges bones. 
;hise reliq[u]es, whanne that he fand 
rsoun dwellyng uppon land, 
ly he gat him more moneye w 

the person n gat in monthes tweye. 
with feyned flaterie and japes, 
the persoun and the people his apes. 
y to tellen atte laste, 

I churche a noble ecclesiaste. no 

e he rede a lessoun or a stor}'e, 
best he sang an offertorie ; 
e wyst[e] whan that song was songe, 

prcche, and wcl affyle his tungc, 
i silver, as he right wel cowde ; m 

he sang ful mcriely and lowde. 
ive I told 30U schortly in a clause 
harray, the nombre, and eek the cause 
assembled was this companye 
verk at this gentil ostelrie, no 

ite the Tabbard, faste by the Belle. 
is tyme to 30W for to telle 

we bare us in that ilke night, 

were in that ostelrie alight ; 

wol I telle of oure viage, t« 

e remenaunt of oure pilgrimage. 
[ pray you of your curtesie, 



$12 



THE HOST OF THE TABARD INN. 



That j-e ne relte it nat my vilanye, 
Though that I spcke al pleyn in this materc. 
To tcUc j'ou here wordes and here chcere ; 
Ne though I speke here worHes propurly. 
Eor this yc knowen al so wel as I, 
Who-so schal telle a tale afiur a man, 
He moste reherce, as neigh as ever he can, 
Evet^' word, if it be in his charge, 
Al speke he never so rudely ne large ; 
Or elles he moot telle his tale untrewe, 
Or feyne thing, or fynde wordes ncwe. 
He may not spare, tho he were his brothur ; 
He moste as wcl say oo word as anothur. 
Crist spak himself ful broodc in holy writ. 
And wel ye woot no vilanye is it. 
Eke Plato scith, who so that can him rede, 
The wordes mot be cosyn to the dede. 
Also I pray you to foi^eve it me, 
Al have I folk nat set in here dcgre 
Here in this tale, as that ihei shulde stonde ; 
My witt is thynne, ye may wcl undurstonde. 
Greet cheere made oure ost us everichon, 
And to the souper sctte he us anon ; 
And served us wiih vitaiUe atte beste. 
Strong was the wyn, and wel to drynke us leste. 
Asemely man our ooste was withalle 
For to han been a marchal in an haile ; 
A large man was lie with eyjen stepe, 
A fairere burgej-s is ther noon in Chepe : 
Bold of bis speche, and wys and wel i-taught. 
And of nianhede lakkede he right naught. 
Eke thcrto he was right a mef)' man. 
And after soper playen he bygan. 
And spak of myrihe among oihur thinges, 
Whan that we hadde maad our rekenynges ; 



HE PROPOSES TO SHORTEN THE WAY. 313 

And sayde thus : ' Lo, lordynges, trewely 
Ye ben to me right welcome hertily : 
For by my trouthe, if that I schal not lye, m 

I ne saugh this ^eer so meiy a companye 
At oones in this herbergh as is now. 
Fajm wold I do yow merthe, wiste I how, 
And of a mert!ie I am right now bythought. 
To doon you eese, and it schal coste nought m 

Ye goon to Caunturbury ; God you speede, 
The blisful martir qujrte you youre meede I 
And wel I woot, as ye gon by the weye, 
Ye schapen yow to talken and to pleye ; 
For trewely comfort ne merthe is noon m 

To ryde by the weye domb as a stoon ; 
And therfore wol I make you disport, 
As I seyde erst, and do you som conforL 
And if yow liketh alle by oon assent 
Now for to standen at my juggement, no 

And for to werken as I schal you seye. 
To morwe, when ye riden by the weye, 
Now by my fed res soule that is deed, 
But ye be merye, smyteth of myn heed. 
Hold up youre bond withoute more speche.' nn 

Oure counseil was not longe for to seche ; 
Us thoughte it nas nat worth to make it wys. 
And graunted him withoute more avys, 
And bad him seie his verdite, as him leste. 
* Lordynges,' quoth he, 'now herkeneth for the beste ; m 
But taketh not, I pray you, in disdayn ; 
This is the poynt, to speken schort and playn, 
That ech of yow to schorte with youre weie, 
In this viage, schal telle tales tweye. 
To Caunturburi-ward, I mene it so, m 

And hom-ward he schal tellen othur tuo. 
Of aventures that ther han bifalle. 

14 



3U BY TELUNG TALES OF ADVENTURE. 

And which of yow that bercth him best of alle. 

That is to seye, that tclleth in this caas 

Tales or best sentence and of solas, 

Schal han a soper at your althei cost 

Here in this place sittynge by this post. 

Whan that we comen ageyn from Canturbery. 

And for to malie you the more meiy, 

I wol myselven gladly with you lyde. 

Right at myn owen cost, and be youre gyde. 

And whoso wole my juggcment witbseie 

Schal paye for al we spenden by the weye. 

And if ye vouchesauf that it be so, 

Telle me anoon, withoutcn wordes moo, 

And I wole erely schappe me therfore.' 

This thing was graunted, and oure othus swore 

With ful glad hene, and prayden him also 

That he wolde vouchesauf for to doon so. 

And that he wolde ben oure goveinour, 

And of our laics jugge and reportour. 

And selte a soupcr at a ccneyn prya ; 

And we wolde rewied be al his devys, 

In heygh and lowe ; and thus by oon assent 

We been acorded to his juggemenL 

And iherupon the wyn was fet anoon ; 

We dronken, and to reste wente echoon. 

Withouten eny lengere taiyinge. 

A morwe whao that the day bigan to spiynge. 

Up roos oure ost, and was oure althur cok, 

And gaderud us togider alle in a Sok, 

And forth we riden a litel more than paas, 

Unto the waterynge of seint Thomas. 

And there oure ost bigan his hors areste, 

And seyde, ' Lordus, herkeneih if yow lesEe. 

Ye woot youre forward, and I it you records. 

If eve-song and morwe-song accorde. 



THE KNIGHT TO TELL THE FIRST TALE. 315 

Let se now who schal telle ferst a tale. 

As evere I moote diynke wyn or ale, 

Who so be rebel to my juggement m 

Schal paye for al that by the weye is spent 

Nor draweth cut, er that we forther twynne ; 

Which that hath the schortest schal bygynne.' 

*Sire knight/ quoth he, '[my] maister and my lord, 

Now draweth cut, for that is myn acord. m* 

Cometh ner,' quoth he, * my lady prioresse ; 

And ye, sir clerk, lat be your schamfastnesse, 

Ne studieth nat ; ley hand to, every man.' 

Anon to drawen every wight bigan. 
And schortly for to tellen as it was, mi 

Were it by aventure, or sort, or cas, 
The soth is this, the cut fil to the knight, 
Of which ful glad and blithe was every wight ; 
And telle he moste his tale as was rcsoun, 
By forward and by composicioun, iso 

As ye han herd ; what needeth wordes moo? 
And whan this goode man seigh that it was so. 
As he that wys was and obedient 
To kepe his forward by his fre assent, 
He seyde : ' Syn I schal bygynne the game, en 

What, welcome be thou cut, a Goddus name ! 
Now lat us r}'de, and herkneth what I seye.' 

And with that word we ridden forth oure weye ; 
And he bigan with right a merie chere 
His tale, and seide right in this manere. «o 



SELECTIONS 



GOWER'S CONFESSIO AMANTIS. 



THE STORY OF CEIX AND ALCEON. 

This finde I writen in poesy 
Ceix the king of Troceny 
Hadde Alceon to his wife. 
Which as her owne hertes life 
Him loveth. And he had also 
A brother, which was cleped tho 
Dedalion, and he par cas 
Fro kinde of man forshape was 
Into a goshauke for likenesse, 
Wherof this king great hevinesse 
Hath take and thought in his corage 
To gone upon a pelrinage 
Into a straunge region. 
Where he hath his devocion 
To done his sacrifice and prey, 
If that he might in any wey 
Toward the goddes finde grace 
His brothers hele to purchace, 
So that he mighte be reformed 
Of that he hadde be transformed. 
To this purpose and to this ende 
This king is redy for to wende 
As he, which wolde go by ship. 



CEIX AND ALCEON. 317 

And for to done him felaship 

His wife unto the see him brought m 

With all her herte and him besought, 

That he the time her wolde sain, 

Whan that he thoughte come ayein. 

Within, he saith, two monthes day. 

And thus in alle haste he may te 

He toke his leve and forth he saileth 

Wepend, and she her self bewaileth 

And tometh home there she cam fro. 

But whan the monthes were ago, 

The which he set of his coming, » 

And that she herde no tiding. 

There was no care for to seche, 

Wherof the goddes to beseche. 

Tho she began in many a wise 

And to Juno her sacrifice 40 

Above all other most she dede 

And for her lord she hath so hcde 

To wite and knowe how that he ferd. 

That Juno the goddesse her herde 

Anone, and upon this matere 45 

She badde Yris her messagere 

To Slepes hous that she shal wende 

And bid him, that he make an ende 

By sweven and shewen all the cas 

Unto this lady, how it was. so 

This Yris fro the highe stage, 
Whiche undertake hath the message, 
Her reiny cope did upon, 
The which was wonderly begone 
With colours of diverse he we « 

An hunderd mo than men it knewe, 
The heven liche unto a bowe 
She bende and she cam downe lowe, 




The god of slepe where that she fond 
And that was in a slraunge lond. 
Which marcheth upon Chimeiy. 
For there, as saith the poe^, 
The god of slepe haih made his hous, 
Whiche of entailc is merveilous. 
Underan hill Ibere is a cave. 
Which of the sonne may nought have. 
So that no man may knowe aright 
The point betwene the day and night. 
There is no fire, there is no sparke, 
There is no dore, which may charke, 
Wherof an ej'e shnlde nnshet. 
So that inward there is no let 
And for to speke of that withoute. 
There stant no great tie nigh aboute, 
Wheron there mighte crowe or pie 
Alighte for to clepe or crie. 
There is no cock to crowe day 
Ne beste none, which noise may 
The hille, but alt aboute round 
There is growend upon the ground 
Popy, which bereth the sede of slepe. 
With oiher herbes suche an hepe. 
A Stille water for the nones 
Rennend upon the smalle stones. 
Which hight of Lethes the river, 
Under that hille in such maner 
There is, which yiveth great appetite 
To slepe. And thusfnl of delite 
Slepe hath his hous, and of his couche 
Within his chambre if I shall louche 
Of hebenus that slcpy tre 
The bordes all aboute be. 
And for heshulde slepe sofie 



CEIX AND ALCEON. 319 

Upon a fether bed alofte 

He lith with many a pilwe of doun, m 

The chambre is strowed up and doun 

With swcvenes many a thousand fold. 

Thus came Yris into this holde 

And to the bed, whiche is all black, 

She goth, and ther with Slepe she spake, 100 

And in this wise as she was bede 

The message of Juno she dede, 

Full ofte her wordes she reherceth, 

Er he his slepy eres percelh 

With mochel wo. But ate laste 10s 

His slombrend eyen he upcaste 

And said her, that it shal be do, 

Wherof amonge a thousand tho 

Within his hous, that slepy were. 

In speciall he chese out there no 

Thre, whiche shulden do this dede. 

The first of hem, so as I rede, 

Was Morpheus, the whose nature 

Is for to take the figure 

Of that persone that him liketh, its 

Wherof that he ful ofte entriketh 

The life, which slepe shal by night. 

And Ithecus that other hight. 

Which hath the vois of every soune, 

The chese and the condicioun lao 

Of every life what so it is. 

The thridde suend after this 

Is Panthasas, which may transforme 

Of every thing the righte forme 

And chaunge it in another kinde. ui 

Upon hem thre, so as I finde. 

Of swevens stant all thapparence, 

Which other while is evidence 



CEIX AND ALCEON. 



And other while but a jape. 
But nethelcs it is so shape, 
That Morpheus by night alone 
Apperelh onto Alceone 
In likenesse of her husbonde 
Al naked dcde upon the stronde. 
And how he dreint in spieciall 
These other t«'o it shewen alL 
The tempest of ihe blacke cloude. 
The wode see, the windes loude, 
All this she met, and sigh him deicn, 
Wherof that she began to crien 
Slepend a bedde there she lay. 
And with that noise of her affray 
Her women sterten up aboute, 
Whiche of her lady were in double 
And axen her, how that she ferde. 
And she right as she sigh and herde 
Her sweven hath tolde hem every dele. 
And tliey it halsen alle wele 
And sain, it is a token of good. 
Bat til she wist how that it stood. 
She hath no comfort in her bene. 
Upon the morwe and up she sterte 
And to the see, where as she met. 
The body lay, wiihoute lete 
She drough, and whanne she cam nigh 
Starke dcde his armes sprad she sigh 
Her lord, fletend upon the wawe, 
Wherof her wittes be withdrawe. 
And she, which toke of deth no kepc, 
■Anone forth lepie into the depe 
And wold have caught him in her anne. 
This infortnne of double harme 
The goddes from the heven above 



CEIX AND ALCEON. 32 ^ 

Beheld and for the trouthe of love, 

Whiche in this worthy lady stood, im 

They have upon the salte flood 

Her dreinte lorde and her also 

Fro deth to life tomed so, 

That they ben shapen into briddes 

Swimmend upon the wawe amiddes. m 

And whan she sigh her lord livend 

In likenesse of a bird swimmend 

And she was of the same sort, 

So as she mighte do disport 

Upon the joie, which she hadde, wc 

Her winges both abrode she spradde 

And him so as she may sufBse 

Beclipt and kist in suche a wise. 

As she was whilome wont to do. 

Her winges for her armes two vn 

She toke and for her lippes softe 

Her harde bille, and so ful ofte 

She fondeth in her briddes forme. 

If that she might her self conforme 

To do the plesaunce of a wife, is6 

As she did in that other life. 

For though she hadde her power lore 

Her will stood, as it was to-fore, 

And scrveth him so as she may. 

Wherof into this ilke day 100 

To-gider upon the see they wone, 

Where many a doughter and a sone 

They bringen forth of briddes kinde. 

And for men shulden take in minde 

This Alceon the trewe queue, vx 

Her briddes yet as it is sene 

Of Alceon the name bere. 



14' 



THE STORY OF ROSIPHELE. 
Of Armenie I rede thus. 
There was a king whiche Herupns 
Was hole, and he a lusty matde 
To doughter had, and as men saide 
Her name was Rosiphele, 
Which tho was of great renome. 
For she was bothe wise and faire 
And shulde ben her ^ders heire. 
But she had o de^nhe of slouthe 
Towardes love, and that was routbc. 
For so well couthe no man say. 
Which migbtc set her in the way 
Of loves occupacion 
Through none ymaginacion. 
Thai scole wolde she nought knowc. 
And thus she was one of the slowe 
As of suche hcrtcs besinesse, 
Till whanne Venus the goddesse, 
Which loves court hath for to reule. 
Hath brought her into better rcule 
Forth with Cupide, and with his might. 
For they merveile of suche a wight. 
Which tho was in her lusty age 
Desireth nouther mariage 
Ne yet the love of paramours. 
Which ever hath ben thecomun cours 
Amonges hem, that lusty were. 
So was it shewed after there. 
For he, that highe hertes lowcth. 
With fiiy dartes whiche he throweth, 
Cupide, whiche of love is god. 
In chaslisinge hath made a rod 
To drive away her wanlonnessc. 



THE STORY OF ROSIPHELE. 3^3 

So that within a while I gesse, 

She had on suche a chaunce spomed, 

That all her mod was overtomed, 

Which first she had of slowe manere. 

For thus it felle, as thou shalt here. ssi 

Whan come was the month of May, 
She wolde walke upon a day, 
And that was er the sonne arist. 
Of women but a fewe it wist. 
And forth she wente prively aio 

Unto the park was ^te by, 
All softe walkend on the gras, 
Till she came there the launde was, 
Through which ther ran a great rivere. 
It thought her faire and saide : Here sm 

I woll abide under the shawe, 
And bad her women to withdrawe 
And there she stood alone stille 
To thenke what was in her wille. 
She sigh the swote floures springe, sm 

She herde gladde foules singe, 
She sigh the bestes in her kinde. 
The buck, the doo, the hert, the hinde, 
The male go with the femele. 
And so began there a quarele au 

Betwene love and her owne herte. 
Fro which she couthe nought asterte. 
And as she cast her eye aboute, 
She sigh clad in one sute a route 
Of ladies, where they comen ride m 

A longe under the wodes side. 
On faire amblende hors they set. 
That were all white, faire and great. 
And eveiychone ride on side. 
The sadels were of suche a pride m 



THE STORY OF ROSIPHELE. 

With perle and gold so well begone. 

So richc ?i;^)i she never none, 

In ki.lka 

They wei 

Departed even of white and blewe 

With alle lustes, that she knewe. 

They were etnbronded over all. 

Her bodies wcren longe and small 

The beaute fair upon her face 

It may none erthly thing deface, 

Corounes on her hedc they here. 

As eche of hem a quene wmc, 

That alle the goMe of Cresos halle 

The lesle coronal! of alle 

Ne might have bought after the worth. 

Thus comen they ridende forth. 

The kinges doughter, which this sigh, 

For pure abasshe drewe her adrigh 

And helde her close under a bough 

And let hem passen stille inough. 

For as her thought in her avise. 

To hem that weren of suche a price 

She was nought worthy to axen there. 

Fro whcnne they come, or what they were, 

But lever than this worldes good 

She wolde have wist how that it stood 

And put her hede a litet out. 

And as she loked her aboute. 

She sigh comend under the linde 

A woman upon an hors bchinde. 

The hors, on which she rode, was black. 

All tene and galled upon the back 

And halted, as he were cncloied, 

Wberof the woman was annoied. 

Thus was the hors in soiy plight. 



THE STORY OF ROSIPHELE. 3^5 

But for all that a sterre whit 

Amiddes in her front she hadde. 

Her sadel eke was wonder badde, 

In which the wofuU woman sat 

And netheles there was with that aoi 

A riche bridel for the nones 

Of golde and preciouse stones ; 

Her cote was somdele to-tore, 

About her middel twenty score 

Of horse halters and well mo m 

There hingen ate time tho. 

Thus whan she came the lady nigh, 

Than toke she better hede and sigh 

The woman fair was of visage, 

Fresh, lusty, yong and tendre of age. su 

And so this lady, there she stood. 

Bethought her well and understood, 

That this, which came ridende tho, 

Tidinges couthe telle of tho, 

Whiche as she sigh to-fore ride, im 

And put her forth and praide abide 

And said : Ha suster, let me here, 

What ben they, that riden now here 

And ben so richly arraied ? 

This woman, which came so esmaied, xa 

Answerde with full softe speche 

And said : Madame, I shall you teche, 

These are of tho, that whilom were 

Servaunts to love and trouthe bore, 

There as they had iheir hertes sette. t» 

Fare well, for I may nought be lette. 

Madame, I go to my service, 

So must I haste in alle wise 

Forthy, Madame, yif me leve, 

I may nought longe with you leve. m 



THE STORY OF ROSIPHELE. 

Ha, gode suster, yet I prey, 

Tell me, why ye be so besey. 

And with these haitera thus begone ? 

Madame, whilom I was one. 

That to my fader hadde a king. 

But I was slowe and for no thing 

Me liste nought to love obey. 

And that 1 now full sore abey. 

For I whilom no love hadde, 

My bors is now feble and badde 

And all to-tore is min array. 

And every yere tliis fresshe May 

These iusty ladies ride aboute, 

And I must ncdcs sue her route 

In this mancr, as ye now sc 

And trusse her haiteis forth with me 

And am but as her horse knave. 

None other oiEce I ne have, 

Hem thcnkclh I am worthy no more. 

For I was slowe in loves lore, 

Whan I was able for to lere 

And woldc nought the tales here 

Of hem, that couthen love tech& 

Now tell me than, I you beseche, 

Wherof that riche bridel serveth ? 

With that her chere a\vay she swerveth. 

And gan to wepe and thus she lolde : 

This bridel, which j-e now beholde. 

So riche upon min horse hcd, 

Madame, afore cr I was dede. 

Whan I was in my lusty life. 

There fell into min hert a strife 

Of love, which me overcome. 

So that theraftcr hcde I nome 

And thought I wolde love a knight. 



THE STORY OF ROSIPHELE. 327 

That laste well a fourtenight, 

For it no lenger mighte laste, 

So nigh my life was ate laste. 

But nowe alas to late ware 

That I ne had him loved ere, n 

For deth cam so in haste byme, 

Er I therto had any time, 

That it ne mighte ben acheved. 

But for all that I am releved 

Of that my will was good therto an 

That love suffreth it be so, 

That I shall such a bridel were. 

Nowe have ye herd all min answcre, 

To god, Madame, I you betake, 

And wameth alle for my sake, m 

Of love that they be nought idel 

And bid hem ihenke upon my bridel. 

And with that worde all sodeinly 

She passeth as it were a skie 

All clene out of this ladies sight. am 

And tho for fere her herte aflight 

And saide to her self: Helas ! 

I am right in the same cas. 

But if I live after this day, 

I shall amende it if I may. ne 

And thus homward this lady went 

And chaunged all her first entent 

Within her herte and gan to swere, 

That she no halters wolde bere. 



GLOSSARY. 



Aebbxyiations, etc.— JbA., A. 8. Gospel of John ; JSl, Homiliei 
of -^Ifric ; 0»., Orosius ; J5j., Boethius ; 8. C, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ; 
2i., La^amon's Brut ; A, R,^ Ancren Riwle ; 0., Onnulum ; H. III., 
Proclamation of Henry III. ; if., Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle ; A. /., 
Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt ; if., Sir John Maundevile's Voiage ; 
H. P., Hiffden's Polvchronicon ; P. P., Piers Plowman ; PC'., Picra 
Plowman s Creed ; frl, Wyclifflte Versions ; 61, Chaucer ; O., Gower. 

a. or «&'., adjective ; adv., adverb ; pron., pronoun ; prep., preposition ; 
pr, or pre9., present ; «., singular ; pi., plural ; p. 8., past tense singular ; 
p, pl.y past tense plural ; pr. or pres. p., present participle ; imp., impera- 
tive ; *^., infinitive ;fut. inf., future, or dative, infinitive, or gerund ; g. or 
ffen., genitive ; d., dative ; aec., accusative ; obi, al)lative or instrumental ; 
def., aefinlte ; indrf., indefinite ; Ip., 2p,, dp., Ist, 2d, 3d, person. 

The three decienfions of A. 8. nouns are designated as Im., If., In., 
Ist dec!., masculine, Ist decl., feminine, 1st dec!., neuter; 2m., 2n., 2d 
decl., masc., 2d decl., neuter; 8/., 8d. decl. fern. 

Of the weak verbs, the infinitive, the past tense singular, and the past 
participle, are given; of the strong verbs, the infinitive, tlic 3d person 
singular of the present indicative, when tlierc is a vowel change in tlic 
2<l and 8d persons, the p. «., p. pi., and pp., and the number of the class 
to whicii a verb belongs, is put in parenthesis immediately after the 
heading. From the p. pi., the student will Icnow Uie vowel change, if 
any, which takes place in the 2d person singular of the past indicative, 
and which extends through the plural indicative and through the 
singular and plural of the past subjunctive. 

References are made to chapter and verse of the A. S. version of 
John (all other Scriptural references are to the Wyclifflte versions) ; to 
page and line of the other prose selections, and to the line alone of 
those in verse; e. g., bOcere, a bookman, scribe, Joh. viii. 3; spedig, 
pro9perou$, 78 : 27, the numl)er designating the page being followed by 
a colon (:) ; tellan, p. tenlde, pp.goieM, to tell, etc., GO : 2 ; 66 : 15 ; C7 : 14 ; 
Aisles, hostages, L. 149; 201; 282; 308 j m\^i\i\\, envious, O.l^-, brid, 
bird ; Eccl. xii. 4 ; pi. briddes, A. R. 158 : 5 ; M. 241 : 10 ; G. 169 ; etc. 

In the alphabetic arrangement, k, t, and y (vocal), whether initial or 
occurring within wortls, are entered as c, u, and t, respectively. In this 
way, identical words like cining, cyning, and kyning, cniht and kniht, 
eouthe and koutJie, idel and ydel, tic and ylc, brid and bryd, acende and 
akende, which, otherwise, would be separated, are brought together. 

Words witli the prefix ye and its residuals y and i, are generally 
entered under their stems. 

F, consonant, is put in its usual place. 



"] 



GLOSSARY. 



330 



p p, D 8. BH'l 1. wlietlicr inilinl or ctccnrring within wordi, in 
liniujflii in at tlm end of the sipliabelical arraagcmeat ; t. g., fonfa m 
UDlcn'il uflur »r<--uoung, oS. uIIit oiraiiie. 

I'urc AnKlu-Siixon wuitla urc iiuvrkeil in the Qlossaiy with a *. 

The lijpbun pl:icud between tliu ending -en of a word rrom Ia^ums. 
■ * — " i e.s.,a6uigge-n Btaoda for abuggt ud 



indicates tbat iwu runiu o 



d* ayt, ever, aheays, conslanlly ; 
i. on 6cnjsse, ever la elernilv, 
forever and ever ; 62:4; i bd- 
tan etide on &nysse, ever wi/A- 
out end to elernilv; 67:26. 

a, an, w. {A. i'.'an, on. ) Z, 68, 
171, 487, 524; R. 485. a 
Goddus name. C. 856. 

abbe, to Aave ; pi. abbe|>. R, 

abbod,* abbot, im, ahbot. 

dbedh.* .SVedbdgan. 

abcbissam, Ike fruit of Ike bal- 
sam tree. M. 243:11- 

abcdde, abed. G. 141. 

abey, tfi. s, ahy, pay for, expi- 
ate. G. 343- 

abid, imp. s. abide. L. [022. 

abide, lo await ; abide mo, lo 
wait for more (men.") R. 

ibysean,* abysgan, dbysgcan, 
to occupy, preoccupy, prepossess; 
•sub/. pr.p/.ahistgien.Bs. 103:2 

^bitan* (20), lo bile, devour; he 
dbltt ; p. t. dbdi ; pi. dbilon ; 
/^. ibilen. 60:17; 61:3. 

abitet, bitetA. L. 711. 

iblendan,* dblendian, lo blind, 
make blind; p. dblende ; pp. 
ablend, dblended. foh. xii. 
4a 

abod, /. s. bided, awaited. R. 

aboljen, abolwe, pp. incused. 



enraged. L. 631, 66a (A.S. 

f^belgan (18)). 
dbnecan,* /. pt. ink dmu. 

Os. See dbrecau. 
dbrecan* (15), lo irmi, da^; 

capture by assault ; p. jlIUmbc; 

//. dbr^con ; pp. abrocea. Ot. 
ibredan* (17), lo drau> 1 p.s. 

dbrsed ; pp. dbrudon ; pp. 

dbroden. Sh dbr^duL 
dbregdan* (17}, lo JIair onh^, 

snalch ; draw (a tworij ; p. 

s. dbnegd ; pi. dbniRdoa; jf. 

dbrogden (dbregden). 
abufenn, prep, abase. O, 
dbugan* (tp), lo boat, iati 

dawH,yield, submit; p, t. abcdli ; 

//. dbugon ; pp. dbugen, dbo- 

gen. fob. viii. 6. 
abu^e-n, to P^ for, ify dear; 

p. abohte ; fip. aboht L. 

474. 
a buien, ever without; abutcn 

Eende. H. III. 
abuten, adv. aboul. Z. 
ac,* bul.for. 

ac, ak, but. P. P. 94, 254. 
acan* {^), toacbe ; p. s.6c; pi 

6con ; pp. acen. 
acult, purchase. C. 573. 
acc, but. 0. 
accesse, stupor; lie dog-sUtp ruc' 

ece.lins- drunkenness. P. P. no 
akc {A. S. ac), bml. A. J. 



GLOSSARY. 



[dddne 



/. s. childedy bore, Z. 
{A. S. dcennan). 
k,* io produce, bring 
begel ; p. dcende ; pp, 
jd. Joh. iii. 4. 
Ines,"* \f, birih, genera- 
Bs. 

1* (18), lo cut off : he 
; /. J. dcearf ; pi. acurf- 
'. aoorfen. Joh, xviii. 10. 
r. ^. /?. 
agate . A, R, 
IS, purchasers, C, 570. 
ieciswn. C. 840. 
it, »» accordance with, 
bii to ; acordant to re- 

C. 37' 

*dxian,^^xian,dscian, to 

fuire/ be t'n/brmed, hear 
ando accipere ; /. -ode ; 
I ; govs, gen. of thing. 

* U) askf inquire. See 
Bs, 

* dscung, 3f, an asking, 
K JEl. mid ascunga, 
\iries. Bs. 

* (16), to come to, to 
niffer, endure, Joh, xvi. 
^ee cwiman, cuman. 

J, /. s, killed. L, 1030 ; 
i reads awaelde. 

* (15), io die, perish; 
yyi^ ; /. s. dcwael ; //. 
3n ; //. dcwolen (Jc- 
I. 

, /. pi. killed, L. See 

2-n. 

J, pp. killed, destroyed. 

7. 

1,* to kill, destroy ; p. 

de ; pp. dcweald. 

!. a heap, a pile, funeral 

1:24. 



adauntede, subdued, R. 
a day, on {that) day. R, 
adde, had. R, 
addlenn, to earn ; pp. addledd. 

O, 151. 
adefed (adrefed ?),//. destroyed, 

L. 467. 
ddelfan* (18), to dig; p, s. 

ddealf ; //. ddulfon ; pp. ddol- 

fen. 91:31. •S'^^ del fan. 
ddydan,* ddyddan, to kill, de- 
stroy ; p. -yde ; pp. -yd. /El, 
ddylegian,* to destroy, abolish, 

expiate ; p, -ode ; pp, -od. ^l, 
ddilgian,* to destroy, obliterate, 

eradicate ; p, -ode ; //. -od. 
^dl,* 3f, ail, ailment, disease, 
^^-ddled,* diseased. See ddlian. 
Idlian,* to ail, be sick. 
dddn, * to do, put away, destroy ; 

remove, banish, Bs. See don. 
ddrdefan,* to drive out, expel, 

banish ; p. -de ; pp. -ed. 
adrawef , imp. pi. draw. R, 
dd redan,* /. //. dreaded, Os. 

See ondraedan. 
a-dreinte, p. pi. drowned. L, 

1028. .S"^^ adrenche. 
adrenche, to drown ; p. s, 

adrengte, adrente ; pi, adren- 

ten. L. 373. 
ddredgan* (19), to bear, suffer, 

tolerate, lead ( life ) ; p. s, 

ddredg, ddredh ; //. ddrugon ; 

pp. ddrogen. 
ddrifan* (20), to drive away ; 

p. s, ddrdf ; //. ddrifon ; pp. 

ddrifen. 
adrenten, p, pi. drowned. Set 

adrenche. 
adrigh, aside, G. 283. 
adun, adorum. A, R. 
ddiine,* dotvn. 



33 



GLOSSARY. 



M'\rht 



rest* (est), yf/-.5/, ers/; superl. 

of ^x, 

rest* See derist, deiyst 
^rist*, ^ryst, im, risings res- 

urreciion. 
Ar-merigen,* &me-mergen, 

20S. early morn, dawn, 
aennest, mosimiserable, wretched, 

L. 72. 
sermliche, d. sorrowful; wiS 

sermliche stefene, with sor- 

rawftd voice, Z. 155. 
'aerm^ d. x. harm, mischief Z. 

lOi. text reads semSe. 
4Bnian.* See yraan. 
^ftteman,* A? get by running. 
-weg,* 2/w. a course^ way. 



Bs. 

torntSe, d. s, probably an error 

for aermCe, q. v. 
leming,* 3/! a running, Bs, 
^nz,* former. 
lert, 2p. s, art, Z. 
dbitide,* Aiw^/y, i« Z/iw^. ^j. 
iferjmm,* ^rSan, ^rfon, ^r^ 

/A^i/, before; antequam. 57 : 20 ; 

60:14* 
test, east, O. 
aet,* a/, 3y, near, from, of, 
aetbredan* (15), to withdraw, 

take away; p, s. aetbraed ; //. 

aetbr&don ; //. aetbroden. 

68:6. 
sete, food. O. 
aetforan,* aetfore, before; in the 

presence of 
aetforen^ before. H. IIL 
SBlgsedere,* together; at the 

same time. 
sthrinan* (20), to touch; p, s, 

aethrdn. 20:8; 21:6. //. aeth- 

rinon ; //. aethrinen. Joh, xx. 

17. See hrinan. 



X'lywan,* /o sh'^:i\ nuvii/isi , 
p. aetywde ; pp. x'ty-wed. Joh. 
XX. 20. See dte6wan. 

aetlutian,* to lurk, lie hidden. 

aet-somne,* together, Bs, 

aetspeornan* (18),/^ spurn, kick; 
to stumble, dash, or kick against ; 
he aetspyrn"6 ; ps. -spearn ; //. 
-spurnon ; //. -spornen. Joh, 
xi. 10. .S"^^ speoman. 

^^aettred, ^poisoned, envenomed. Os. 

aeuer, seuere, ever, L, 

aeuer-aelc, euerech, every; g, 
aeuer-aelches ; d, m. n. aeuer- 
aelche ; f aeuer-alchere ; ace, 
m, aeuer-aelcne. L, 920. 

aeuere,.«/^r. Z. 73, 222. 

aeurihce, every, H. III. 

dduwcT,your. L, 162. 

^wellm,* dewylm, 2m, well, 
spring, fountain, 

ae^el-e, aSele, noble; a^ele-n, 
aSeles. Z. 545. d, aetJelen, 
atSele-n. Z. 6. f aetJelere. 

aefelboren,* noble-horn. 

aefelborcnnys,* 3/! nobility of 
birth, 69:1, 23. 

aefele,* noble, distinguished, 

aetSellice,* nobly, 

aefelo,* aefelu, 3/I nobility. Bs, 

^fandian,* to prove, try, experi- 
ence ; p. -ode ; //. -od ; govs, 
gen. 65:32. 

dfaran,* (9), to go forth. See 
faran. 

dfered,* afraid, affrighted. 

affyle, to file, polish; applied 
metaphorically to the tongue. 

C, 714. 
dr^lan,* to foul, defile; p. -ede ; 

//. -ed. Bs, 

dtindan,* (21). *S'^<? findan. 
dfy rht,* affrighted^ afraid. 



aflighi] GLC 

aflisht. w.n dishirf:^'!. G. 391. 
aflyman,* lo put to flight, torout ; 
p. -de ; pp. -ed. 

i-&o^e, pp! flimn, fled. L. 861. 
aftur, bisida. P.P. 91. 
a-fuldc, p.s.aml pi. /clUd. L. 

371 ; 1030. 

afure, on fire. R. 

igdblan, * lo hinder, retard, delay ; 

p. dgiblde ; pp. dgSbled. Os. 
agan, p.s. began. L. 188. 
Sgan,* {prcliriihx), to oam, 

possess, luive ; ic dh, f>ii ige 
(iihst), he dh ; pi. dgon ; «*^'. 

/r«. dgc ; pi. dgon (-en) ; p.i. 

dhtc ; //. ahton ; pres. pari. 

igonOe ; pp. dgen. 
dgdii,* ^()«i;. 
dgelan. * See dgSelan, 
agaste, frightened, lerror-sirielc- 

en. R. 
agch (^. ^. dgylian ),;>/■. j. jaw,- 

/>/. agc[tc)> ; agclt inc, f»M 

agaittst. A. J. 
^un,* dgan, dgn, awit, private. 

proper, peculiar ; ittdc/, deel. 

Joh. vii. 18; X. is; 59:3. 
agones, against. H. III. 
dge(itaii,* (19), lo shed, pour 

out, exhaust, drain ; he agj't ; 

p. !. dgedt, dgec ; pi. aguton ; 

pp. dgoien. See gedtan. 
dgifan,* (14), to giae, give up, 

deliver ;p. i. dgcaf; pi. agedfon ; 

pp. dgifen. See gifan, 
dgyhan,* lo sin, delinquere ; /, 

dgylte; pp dgylL 
ago, pp. gone, passed. G. 34. 
agon, agan, p. s. gan, began, 

L. 6oz. pi agunnen, a-gonne. 

^- 433- 
ah, ac, but. L. 238, 374. 
all, pr. s. \p. mix. O. 



BARY. B) 

iheardiaD,* to harden, w^ 

hard; p. dhyrde, dhyne;/fi 

dhcardod, ahyrd. /oi 
dhebban,* (11), lo heast,^ 

raise; he ahcfB ; p db(if;/t 

dhdfon ; pp. dhafen, 63:1} 
ahhtc, goods. O. 
dhyldan,* ^ ineline, Imd, Im; 

p. dhylde ; pp. dhylded. 
ihfrig^,* lo hire ; p. -od(;jl|t 

-od. 
dhledpan* (3), to leap, l/af/kii 

or dmvn, rush on ; p. t. ibla%J 

pl. dhle<5pon ; pp. dbldpoL I 
ahlice, liravefy, nobly. L 4J}I 

See ohiliche. 
i\x6t* ill), p. s. Ii/Hr^^ 

See dhebban. 
ahof, p. s. heaved, raiuJ. L 

1 014. 
dh(3n (8),* lo hang, erm^:^^, 

dheng;//. dhengon ;/ji 

gen. Joh. x'lx. 16, li. 

hdn. 

ahon, an<-hon, lohiing. I- T^ 
dhreddan,*/^ rid, set flu.* 

liver, rescue, redeem; f- '' 

pp. ahrcded. 61:6, 
dhsian,* dxian, ^idhsian,!"* 

ian. See dcsian, 
dht,* conlr. 0/ awiht, a*"* 

aught; g. dhles. Su i^ij*: . 
ahtliche, hahiliche, i<^ 

noblv. L, 913. . 

dhwerfed,* pp. turned. Si. *! 

hweorfan. 
ahjcre, d./. awn. L. Ljj. . 
al, although; al spcke be,*' 

though he speak. C. 73S. ■!■ 

have I. a 746. 
a] a, a whole ; a.] a. schiic, amm 

county. C. 586, 
alabaustre, alabaster. P. C, 



GLOSSARY. 



[an 



to Id go, sdfreCy lay 
:ease ; he i\^i ; p. 
et ; //. dl6ton ; //. 

t, lastly. A. R. 

"-otighly, R, 

I of aU. (^A. S. 

frs, ancestors. L. 

• ale-house sign. C. 

lay, place, put dawn, 

'Stray ; p. ilegde ; 

; //. dl^d, dlegd, 

cd, maimed, crippled. 

aloe. Joh. xix. 39. 
^'J. C. 573. 

G, 269. 
ive leave, allow, per- 
diy-fde ; pp dl^fed. 
alighted, L. 520. 
edeem, free'; p, dl^s- 
'sed. 67:19. 

3/! redemption. 

%. redeemer. 59:11. 
/ g' P^- alle, allre. 

of all ; here aller, 
/, eorum omnium. 

ilmighty. O. 
rstofall. O. 332. 

together. Bs. 
I, all-ruling, O, 
, S. ealne weg), 
/ 

md. L. 
e land. R. 



a-longet, craving, hungry. P. P. 
aire, g. pi. of all. L. 105, 

203, 475» ^99- 
alriht so, even so, A. R, 
alse, also. P. P. 387. 
alse, as, as f. A, R. ; L, 125. 
alswo alse, even as. H. III. 
alther, g. pi. of all. at your 

alther cost, cU the cost of you 

all. C. 
altherbest, best of all. C. 712. 
alther he3ist, highest of all, most 

high. Ps. xlv. 5. 
althur, g. pi. of all ; ourc 

althur coky cock of us cdl^ 

aroused us all. C. 825. 
aluisc, elfish. L. 530. 
amang, prep, among. O. 42. 
a manges, among. H. Ill, 
amber,* im. a certain vessel, or 

measure. 
^mhyi^nQ* favorable {wind). 
amblende, pr. p. ambling. G. 
amendetS, imp. pi. mend. A. R. 
dmerran. * See amyrran. 
amidde, ad. in the midst. L. 
dmyrran,* dmerran, to hinder, 

impede, obstruct, mislead ; p. 

-de ; pp. -ed. Bs. 
amoneste]), admouishts. A. I. 
amorwe, on the morrow. R. 
ampayri, to impair, injure. A. I. 
ampolles {Lat. ampulla), small 

vessels, for holy water or oil. 

P.P. 274. 
dn,* one, a, only, alone. Joh. 

xvi. 32; viii. 9; 57:14. foi 

dn, onfyy tantum, duntaxat. 
an, in, on. L. 116; A. R,, 

H. P. 247:2. 
an, and. A. I. 
an,* i. q. on. Os. 
an, one^ an, a; g. aness. O. 



ana] GLOS 

ina,* niih, alone. Sfein. 

anan, onnan, anon, otnoards, 

fortlnvith, eonlinuaUw O. 

anaunicf, in doubt, doublfuL R. 
an = on or in ; aunter = a- 
vtniure. aiivittturt, chance. 

ana;|'elj(i,* dishonoured, degrad- 
ed Bs. 

anbid,* 2 «. wailing ; on abide, 
in laiiiing. Os. 

inliiiian,* ^dnbidan (lo), /" 
aOiJe, auMii/, expect ; p. s. Sn- 
bdJ;/t/, aiibidon ; //>. inbiden. 

anbidun,*^4.'anbidian. Set an- 
bidan. 

dn-cenned, * only-begotlm, un- 
igcniims. Joh. i. 14, 18. 

ancre, anchoress, anchoret; pi. 
ancien. A. R. 

ancru-huse, nunnery. A. R. 

and,* and, also. 

and, o/ien inlroduud hy Gawer 
within tin stnleiui which it con- 
nects with a preceding om. 

and, if. P. P. 396. 

anda,* im. eiwy, jcahm^, ran- 
cour, vtalia, hale, scai. 

anJ;i:ltan,* andctian, ^fandct- 
tan, to confess, acknowledge ; p. 
andetie. 

andefn,* equality, proportion, 
measure, amount, worth. 

andutnys,* J/C confession. 

andgyt,* in. sense, s^nificatibn, 
undcrstamling. 64:28, 

andgitfullicc, • cUarly, disHmtly. 
lis. 

andr&dan,* i'. g. ondrfedan. 

andrcdan,* »' g. ondredon, p. t. 
pl. Os. 

andswarian,* to answer; p. 
-ode ; pp. -od. 

andweard,* andwerd, present ; 






and, against or be/ore, weorts^ 

to be. 63:7 ; 68;z ; 69:34. 
andweorc,* 211. makrial, 

staiue, cause. 96:2. 
andwyrdan,* jfa ansaier ; f.: 

andw3Tde. 
andwyrdc,* 2n, answer. 
andwiita,* im. face, nwifr 

nance. (Go-, antlitz.) 70:1a 
ane, d. m. n. of an, out, aa, 

ane, alone. O. 

ane, on ; fenche ane his ssep- 

peie, think on his Creator. A.I. 
anentis, w^. Gen. xxsvii 
anerfe, on earth. R. 
ange, sorrow. 0. 
angean.* See on^ean. 
Angel-cynn,* 2n. English iuHm. 
angin,* angyn, in. enlcrpriit, 

act, conduct, beginning ; pL 

anginnu. 69:29, 
anginnaii* (zi), to 

upon, attempt ; p. s. angann; 

^. angunnon ; pp. angunnea 

Bs. See onginnan. 
anhei, anhey, oh high, abone. R. 
an heih, on high, alofi. A. R, 
an-hof, /. J. heaved, raised. 

I0Z4- 

an-hon, an-ho, an-hongen, * I 

hang ; p. s. an-heng ; /^. an- 1 

hcnge, an-hong. L. 277, 358. . 
anig,* any. Bs. See xnig. 
iniman* (16), Jb Aiie oumv, n- 

viaae ! p. s. inam;//. dnimon; 

pp. an u men. 
anlAS, a sort of knife or snud 

dagger, worn ai the girdle. C 

359- 
anVic,* like. Bs. 
ffanlician,* io iHun; p. -ode; 

pp. -od. 



337 



GLOSSARY. 



[^rfaest 



aiilichnissc, likeness^ image, L, 

553. 
anlicnys,* anlicnes, anl^cnes, 

3/r likeness, Bs,; Os. 
dntnodlice,* unammouslyf simply. 
ann,*/. j". granted. See unnan. 
anndsware, anndswere, an- 

siuer, O. 
anndswerenn, /o answer, O. 
^nys,* dnnis, dnnes, ^^ one- 

ness, unify, 67:26. 
^on,^ = dnum, d. pL of dn. 
anourihtes, immediately. A. R, 
anont, in regard to, as to. A, R, 
an-oueste, quickly, L, 892. 
dnraednys,* 3/I constancy , firm- 
ness, steadfastness. 
ans^,* 3/1 face, countenance, 

external appearance ; mediation. 

( Ger, ange-sicht. ) 19:29. 
dnsittan* (13), to stay, or keep 

oneself in a place ; p. s. dnsaet ; 

//. dnsdeton; pp. dnseten. Os. 

See sittan. 
ant, and, A. R. 
dntimber,* 2n, matter, cause; 

for fisum dntimbre, for this 

matter or cause, 57:16. 
antres, auntres, adventures, mis- 
fortunes, R. 150. 
anuy^ed, //. annoyed. P.P. 74. 
an weald,* zm. power, dominion, 

67:20; 95:18. 
anweorc,* 2n. cause ; bulon an- 

weorce, without cause. Bs, 

See andweorc. 
dnwig,* 2 m. a single combat, a 

duel. Os, d>'j:i2. 
an wile, awhile. L, 
apaired, //. impaired. H. P. 

246:3. 
apairynge, an impairing. H. P. 

246:5. 



aparceyucj), pr.pl. perceive. A. I. 

234:33- 
dparod,* pp. apprehended, taken, 

found. Joh. viii. 3. 
apeire, to impair, lessen, diminish, 

injure. P.P. 38, 317. 
aperlelichc, openly, manifestly, 

A, I, ; R, ; P.P. 15. 
ape ward, a keeper of apes. P.P. 

382. 
aposlol, 2m. apostle, 58:16. 
apostolic,* apostolic. 
aqualden, p. pL kUled. L. 363, 

367. .Jf^ aquellen. 
aquellen, a-cwelle, to kill, L. 

975. 4791341- 
^r,* 3/1 honour^ respect ; wealth ; 

mercy, pity ; dre witan, to have 

pity. 

ar, ere. P.P. 46, 232 ; R. 
ir^Tdin,* to rear, raise, I ft up, 

establish / /. drderdc ; pp. ardi- 

red. 60:19 ; 69:18. 
arblaste, crossbow. R. 
arblasters, cross-bowmen, arch- 
ers. R, 
are, ere. L. 
are {A. S. dr), grace, favour. 

O. 152, 250 ; L. 
are, d. f ^an, one. L. 6. an 

are halfe, on one side. L. 116. 
arcaren, to raise. A. R. 
dreccan. * See reccan. 
arechen, to reach, grasp. A. R. 
aredden, to rescue, deliver ; p. 

areddc ; pp. arcd. A. R. 
arepcn, to snatch. A. R. 
arere, to raise ; pp. arerd. R. 
arere, backwards. P.P. 
areste, to stop, to hold in, C, 829. 
arewe,* if arrow. 
drfaest, * honourable, righteous, 

holy, pious. 



15 



irianj GLOl 

4rian,* ^c.irian, to honour, com- 
ptiisii'iuU J p. dro Je ; //. ge- 
iroJ. 

ariht, truly, indt-td. A. Jl. 

drisan* (20), to ariu ; p.s. dris; 
pi. arisen ; pp. irisen, 

arise, pp. arisen. R. 

arivc, arrival, or disembarkation 
o/lrvops. C. 60. 

arizingcs, emolioni, Asires. A. I. 

anne, d. harm. L. 667. pi. 
harmes, L. 461. 

am.* 5i¥j'man. 

arnde, ran, rode. L. 622. 

^xos, p.%s. arose. A. R. 

array, outfit C. 73. 

irweoiSiao,* to hommr. See ge- 
arwurtian. 

arwes, arrows. C. 10+, 107. 

^carwuriSian,* !o hoiiuur, nvert. 
Joh. V. 23. 

as. (7.87,244.464; Czi4. "As, 
vjilh the /tin-lamenlal mean- 
ing o/^ considering, with respeetta, 
so far as comerns, is employed 
6v Chaucer in •■ariout shades 0/ 
diitiiutness ami strength, decnas- 
ing to insignifcance," Child. This 
use 0/-3S is found in Shakspeare. 

asAye, to try. P.P. 152. 

askes, ashes.M. (,1, S. asce, i/T) 

iscunaS,* accuses, rebukes. Joh. 
viii. 46. 

iscung.* See dcsunj. 

isciinian,* to shun, avoid; p. 
-ode; pp. -od. 

ase, as. A. R. 

dsccgan,* to express, tell; p.s, 
iisa;gde. See sccgan. 

asc mochc ivor)i asc, signifies. 
A. I. 

Ssendan,* to send ; p. iSscnde. 
57;^; 75:14- i'-asendan. 



3ARY. 33B 

isMtan, * h set, place ; p. s. dseue. 
pi. dseiton ; pp. dseted. 

dsingan* (21). ^ic singan. 

aslajn, astan, io slay ,■ /, pi. ai- 
lojen, a-slowe, L. 355. 

aslawe, pp. slain, R. 

aslowe, aslojen. Su aslsen. 

dsmedgan,* asmedn, to amlcm- 
plale, investigate, imagme, de- 
vise ; p. ismedde ; pp. ismeid ; 
tSa (if b& {ofMoses'l wurdon 
gdstlice asmeide, the five ioait 
locre spiritually daised. 65:20. 

asoilede, assailed, absolved. R. 

dspanan,* to entice, allure; p. 
dspedn, dsptin ; pp. isponen, 
dspanen. 

dspcndan,* to sficnd, distribute; 
p. dspende ; pp. dspended. 
69:22. 

dspyli^'an,* A) cleanse, uasi, 
purtfy. 109:3. 

aspilled, //. lost. A. R. 

assc,* \/. she-ass. 

assise, assae, court. C. 665. 

assoillyng, absolution. C. 663. 

astene, to escape. G. 257. 

dstigan* {20), to tty. go. proceed, 
ascend, mount; but generally 
to go, the direction heing design 
noted by the adverb ; he dstihS ; 
p.s. dstdh, asiag;//. dstigon;/;^ 
dsiigen. 18:4; 62:9; 63:10, 
12 : 68:4. ^«stigan. 

istyred,* pp. stirred, duturbed. 
See istirian, 

dstirian,* to stir, move, excite ; 
p. -ode, -de; pp. -ed. 60:22, 

astorede, p.s. stored, fitted. R. 

dstrcccaii,* to stretch, stretch out, 
or forth ; to prostrate ; p. ds- 
trchte ; pp. dstreht 



339 



GLOSSARY. 



[dweccan 



astronomye, astrology, C. 416. 
a-swagen, /? ojwwr^^. P.P, 
ale, at the, A. I, ; G. 105. 
dleraian,* to tame ; p. -cde ; pp, 

-ed. Bs, 
dte6n* (19), to draw from or 

out; pres. fd dt^hst; p,s, 

dteih, //. dtugon ; //. dtiht, 

itogen. Joh, 
^teorian, * tofaini, fail ; p, -ode ; 

pp, -od, -ed. 63:29. 
dteorigendlic,* defective^ lacking, 

perishable, 60 : i o. 
dtedwan,* dledwian, at^'^nan, 

to appear, reveal, disclose, show, 

manifest, 
atiffen, to adorn. A, R, 
dtimbrian.* See timbrian. 
dtidn, * to draw out, take away, 

Bs. See tedn. 
at- route, to make an incursion, ad- 
vance with troops, make raids, R, 
at-stod, astod, p.s, stopt, L, 

783. 
atstonde, to await, R, 

at-stonden, at-stonde, to resist, 

withstand ; p,s. atstod. Z. 687. 

att, at, by, of, in, to, O, 32, 

138, 144, 314. 
atte, at the ; A, S, aet fam, aet 
|nin ; Semi- Saxon, at fen, 
atten, atte ; atte was used be- 
fore m, and n, nouns beginning 
with a consonant; atten, before 
vowels ; the fern, form was alter 
= aet fdere. P.P, ; C; R, ; 
G, atte besle, at the best, in 
the best manner, C 29. 
atte noke, at the Oak. P.P, 11 5. 
the final n of alien = at fen, 
at the, has been carried aver to 
the following noun. So atte nale, 
at the ale. See nones. 



attor,*dtter, dler. in. poison. Os, 

alter, poison, venom. A, R. 

altri, attrie, poisonous. A, R, 

at-uore, before. R, 

atwa, atwo, in two. L, 789. 

atwydede, /. J. twitted, upbraided, 
R, 104. {A. S. aetwitan.) 

alwiste, p.s. twitted, upbraided, 
R, 106. {A, S. aetwitan.) 

auere, ever ; wha swa auere, 
whosoever. L, 

auerst, first. A. I, 

auh, but, also. A. R. 

auncel, a rude sort of balance for 
weighing. P. P. 132. The 
word may be another form of 
handsel. 

auncre, anchoress, nun. R, 

Auene, d. the Avon. L. 

auenge, took, received, adopted, R, 

avenlure, chance. C. 25. 

avvs, advice, consideration, C, 
788. 

avise, opinion. G. 286. 

avIeieS, drrveih away. A. R. 

aunler {Fr. avenlure), adven- 
ture, venture, chafue. R. 

auole, afoot. R. 

alitor, altar, P. P, 90. 

awakened, ariseth. A. R. 

i.\\ic\zn,* to weaken ; p. -ode; 
pp. -od. 64:8. 

awajiward, a-weiward, away- 
ward, L, 863. 

awaelde, a probable error for ac- 
waelde; p.s. killed. L. 1030. 

awa^ramen, to injure. L. 689. 

a-waestcn, p. pi. laid waste^ rav- 
aged. L, 369. 

a-waylede, p.s, perceived, belield, 
O. Pr. agaiter. P. C. 20. 

dweccan,* dweccean, to awaken, 
raise up; p, dwehte; //. dweht. 



dwedan] 



GLOSSARY. 



340 



dwedan,* to become mad, to rage ; 
p, dwedde. 

iyfekn,"^ pp. tvoven. Joh. 

dweg,* away, 

dweht,* dwehte. .S"^^ dweccan. 

a wey ! alas! 7?. 

awemmed, //. injured, destroyed, 
L, 725. See aw-aemmen. 

dwendan,* to go, turn, avert, 
translate, change; p,s. dwende ; 
//. dwend, dwended. 57:8,15; 
68:9 ; 69:24. 

dweorpan* (18), to cast, throw, 
cast away, or out, renounce, de- 
grade; he d\vyrpt$ ; p.s, dwearp, 
f li dwurpe ; pi. dwurpon ; pp. 
dworpen. 93:11. 

dwerian,* to defend, protect ; p. 
dwerede, dwerode; pp. dwerod. 
Os. 

dw^stan,* to waste^ lay waste, 
destroy, reduce, demolish, depopu- 
late ; dwest, deserted, desolate. 

awe33, away. O. 

dwiht,* dwuht, contr. jw/c? dwht, 
dht, aught, 

dwindan, * /<? strip off; he dwint. 
Bs. See windan. 

a-winne, to win, gain, obtain. L. 

dvvyrgian.* ^«?^ wyrian. 

dwyrged,* pp, atrsed, accursed. 
21:13. 

a-wifer, ad, contrary, opposite, 
across. L. 822. 

a-won, p.s. won. L. 410. See 
a-winne. 

dworpen.* See dweorpan. 

awraeken, awreke, to zvreak, 
avenge. L. 951. 

dwreccan, * to arouse, awaken, re- 
vive ; p. awrehte ; //. awreht. 

awreke, avaige. Z. 951 ; A. I.; 
R, 172; P,P. 68. 



awrekinge, vengeance, A. L 
dwritan,* to write, record, trcm- 

scribe, 58:19; 61:1. &«wn- 

tan. 
awtere, altar. M, 241:11. 
awper. See a}>er. 
axen, pr. pi ask, G, 145. 
dxian.* See dcsian. 
aye {A, S. agen), against. A. L 
ayenbite, remorse. A. L 
ayenwe3e, to weigh against, 

counterbalance. A, L 
af , hath ; pi, abbef. R, 
atJele, noble; superl. a^elest; 

atJelest kingen, noblest of hxngs. 

L. 105. 
atJelen, apele, d.s, honour, L, 

299. See aet5el-e. 
dfer, * dwj>er, either ; indcf decl 
dj/y,* therefore, on that account 

Bs, 
dfwdgen, *//. zoashed, foh. See 

fwcdn. 
a^e^own, L. 157. d,s./, Z. 273. 
a^^, again. R. 
a^ean, against. A. R, 
a^een bo3t, //. redeemed. Is. 

Hi. 3, 9. 
a3eines, against. A. R. 
a3en, a3ein, again. L, 
a3cn, against, opposed to, towards, 

by the time of, R,; Af, a3en 

heruest, by harvest time. R. 
a3er, a year, yearly, R. 
a3ere, d,s.f. own. L. 445. 
a3henn, aiim, O. 
a3t, noble. R, 710. i^A, S. ^hL) 
a3ie, ought. R, 
a33, aye^ always. O. 1 1 33 1 . 



bd.* See begen. 
ba, bafe, both, O. 



341 



GLOSSARY. 



[beate 



baar, /.J. bore^ wore, C, 158. 

bac, bacc, bacch, back; o 
bacch, aback. O, 41. 

bacan* (9), >5? baf& ; p,s, bdc ; 
//. b6con ; pp. bacen. 

bake, pp, baked ; earlier form^ 
baken. C. 345. 

badd. See biddenn. O. 

badtes, bats^ clubs, Z. 912. 
See botten. 

baecbord,* 2«. larboard, Os, 

baed. See biddenn. O, 

baeh, beh, p^, of bu^e-n, went^ 
passed, withdrew ; fled^ pursued, 
Z. 112,922. 

baften, prep, behind^ after, Z. 
965,999. .S"^^ bi-aeften. 

bald-e, bold-e, bold; pL balde-n, 
bold-e. Z. 

fbalded, 1 bolded, pp. emboldened, 
Z. 791. 

baldere, d,f, bold, L, 761. 

baldest, boldest, Z. 240, 719. 

baldore, bolder, P. P, 

ballede, bald, R. 

ballid, bald, C, 198. ''The origi- 
nal meaning seems to have been 
(i) shining, (2) white (as in 
boldfaced stag). A, S, bael, a 
funeral piky a burning," Alor- 
ris, Specimens of E,E. p, 414. 

balu, bale, mischief, Z. 71. 

baluw, bale, zw, sorrow, grief; 
g. pi, balu wen. Z. 371, 475. 

fcSm. * .S"^^ bd. 

bin,* 2«. bone ; pi, bdn. 

ban, bone; pLhTiVi, banes. Z.394. 

baner, banner, R. 

baneur, banyour, banner er, ban- 
ner-bearer, ensign-bearer, R, 

bannen, banny, bonnien, to 
assemble^ summon. Z. 137. 
/.J. bannede; Z. 423. 



bar, boar, L, 

bar, p.s, bore. P. P, 271, 273; 
C. 105, 108, III. 

barnde, p,s. burned. R. 

barres. C. 331. * * Barre of a gy r- 
dylle, or operharacys. Stipa,'* 
Profnpt, Parv, ' * The orna- 
ments of the girdle, which fre- 
quently were of the richest de- 
scription, were termed barres, 
and in French cloux ; they were 
perforated to cdlaiv the tongue of 
the buckle to pass through them J* 
Way, 

baruot, barefoot. A, R, 

bathe, both. C, 540. 

battes, pi. bats, clubs, L. 990. 

bavvdrik, baldric. C, 116. 

bawme, balm, balsam, iT/. 24 2 : 2 8. 

bafe, both. O. 

bat$ian,* /(? bathe; p. ba^ode, ba- 
tJede ; pp. batJod, bat5ed. Os. 

be,* by, at, of concerning, ac- 
cording to. 

be= be-en, pp.with the inflectional 
ending dropped, been, C. 60, 199. 

« be, pp. been. R, 

bedd.* See beddan. 

bead, p.s, offered. A, R, See 
beoden. 

bcdg,* bedh, 2m. ring, crcnxm, 
bracelet, Ds, 

bedh.* See bdgan. 

bealcettan,* to belch, give forth, 
pour forth ; p, bealcette. 69:13. 

bearm,* im. bosom, foh, i. 18. 

beam,* in, child ; pi, beam. 

beam,* p,s, occurred, 57:6. 
See be-yman. 

bedtan,* (3), to beat, strike ; p.s, 
bc(5t ; pi, bedton ; pp. bedtcn. 
foh. 

beate, imp, pi, beat. A, R, 



bcaubelct] 0L09 

beaubulel,yrTi>r/j, ,(. Ji. 
bebeiidan,* (nj). to command, 

fenimiiii/, inlrusl, commit; he 

bebjl ; p.s. -bciil ; }4. -budon ; 

pp. -bodon ; ]>d bebodenan, 

Ihoit itttnistcj, sy : 14. 17. 

■S'k rorlN:(3(lan. 
fib(t(lc,* /. dec. s. fonjidenct, 

U4,lmss. 57:8. 
bfbjTgcan,* bebjigian, bebjri- 

gcan, /(I i«^'y /. -de ; //. -ed. 

Ji}h. xii. 7. 
beboii,* zff. (ommanilmcnl, order; 

pl. bebudu, somc/imes bebdda. 
becHppe, lo embrace ; uaili with. 

M. 244:i-t. 
becuman,* (16), tocomt, arrivt, 

hippcn, seize on; p. s. becom ; 

pL beciimon ; pp. b<:cumen. 

Sci cuman. 
bccreiijian,* (19), to creep, creep 

about ; p.s. -ccci]Kpl. -crupon ; 

pp. -cropen. 86:35. ■S''' cru- 

(jpan. 
beknowe, /pffln/wj. P. P. m. 
bed,* 211. bei! ; pl. bed. 
bed, /.J, offered ;pl. bedden. R. 
i'.bed, 211. prayer ; pl. ^vbedu. 

59:25; 69:32. 
bedifetan,* to dkide, depriix, be 

dtslilute, bt exempt; p.s. -de; 

pp. -ed. 

bcdfeled, *pp. distitule. Bs. 
bede, to promise. R. 
bede, prayer. /.. z8i ; 0. 350. 
bediglian! to hide, keep secret, 

conceal ; p. -n>ic ; pp. -otl. 65:35. 
^rficd-man,* 2m. beadsman ; sup- 
plicant.^ uvr shipper, Joh. iv. 

23. Ps, 
bedypan,* h bcdip. dip; p. bc- 

dyplc ; pp. bedypjidi. 
bcere, su/'/. slioul'd/var. L. 1038. 



.\RY. 341 I 

beeren,^./^ bore, carried. P.P. 

\icbsxa.tx,* to commit, commc*d, \ 
put in trust. Bs. 

befangen.* See befun. 

beii5n,* (S), to contain, cim 
hcnd, embrace, clothe ; p.s. 
Kng ; pd. befcngon ; ^ be- 
ratigen. 69:28. See i^Ti, outdo. 

beforan,* be/oragcms. d.anda:s. 

befrinan* (21), to ask, inquire. 
interrogate ; p. s. befran ; fl 
befrunon ; pp. befiunen. 75: 
16,23. 

b6gan,* lobaw, bmd ; p. begde; 
pp. ji-b^ged, Bs. 

begeai,* in. attainment ; for bc- 
geaie fais 6can Ii'fes, 59:17. 

begen,* bi, M. m, f. n. boA, 
g. begra ; d. bam. 

begeondan,* beyond, on theelktr 
.fide. 

beginnan* (21). to bcgin;p. 1. 
begann;//. begun noa ; /^ be- 
gunnen. 

begjTdan,* /c ^^iVi/, surround; 
p. begyrde ; //. begjred, be- 
g;}Td. Jah. 

begitan,*bcg>'tan, (14), to gel, 
obtain, beget ; p.s. begeat, fil 
bcgete, beg&te ; pl. begeiion, 
beg^lon ; pp. begcten, begem. 
Os. 

begone, decked, adorned, rigged. 
G. 266, 338. begone with col- 
ours of diverse hewe. G. 5+. 

begripen, *//. clutched, laid hold 
of ; taken up jvith, engaged; 
begripen on woruld-Singnra, 
absorbed in ivorldh things. jEI. 
60:9. .S^gripan. 

beh, p. s. bent, went, passed, pro- 
ceeded, approached, retreated. L. 
5 1 9. See bu)e. 



343 



GLOSSARY. 



[beo-hote 



behdt,* 2n. promise ; pL behdt 

behealdan,* (i), io behold, see, 
obserDe, mind, consider ; he be- 
hylt ; p.s, behedld ; //. behe- 
dldon ; pp. behealden. 

beheot,*/. s. threatened, S.C, 
iio:8. 

behdfian,* to behave, be neces- 
sary, need, require ; govs, gen. 
of thing, 57:18. 

behre6wsung,* 3/I be-ruing, re- 
pentance, penitence, 

behweorfan,* behwerfan (18), 
to turn, return ; prepare ; p. s, 
behwearf;//. behwurfon; pp, 
behworfen. Bs, 

beh^es, be^es, rings, jewels, L, 
1039. (^. ^. bedg, bedh. ) 

beien, beiene, beyne, both. L, 

479» ^95- 
beyying, buying. C, 571. 

be-yman* (21), to run by ; oc- 
cur; p.s. -am ;/>/. -uraon ; //. 
-uraen. 57:6. 

belddian,* to unload^ excuse, ex- 
culpate ; p. -ode ; pp, -od. Os. 

bel^wan,* to betray ; p. -de ; 
pp. -ed. Joh. vi. 64, 74. 

>'-beld, pp. built, P, C, 20, 

beldenn, to embolden, encourage, 
O, 237. 

^^belgan* (18), to swell, enrage; 
to be enraged ; he gebylgtS ; p.s. 
gebealh ; pi. gebulgon ; pp, 
gebolgen. Joh, vii. 23. 

be\y [don, * p, pi, believed, j^l, 

belimpan* (21), to happen, he- 
long to, have reference to, con- 
duce; p.s, belamp ;//. belump- 
on ; pp. belumpen. 66:16. 

belliche, beautifully. P. C. 21, 

belocen,* pp, loc^d. •S'^'f belu- 
can. 



beliican* (19), to lock, shut up ; 

p.s. beledc ; pi. belucon ; pp. 

belocen. 
bel ucan, */.//. = bel ucon, locked, 

S, C, 110:14. 
bemen, //. trumpets, L, 422. 
bemetan* (12), to measure; 

esteem^ consider; p.s. bemoet ; pi. 

bemetan ; pp. bemeten. 85: 

13- 

b^n,* 3/C a prayer, petition, en- 
treaty ; pi. b^na. 

ben, to be, are, been, 

bendc, bond ; sickness. R, 

bene, prayer; pi, beness. O. 

beneah* {defective, preteritive), 
(/) enjoy; fu benuge ; //. be- 
nugon ; p.s, benohte; pi, be- 
nohton. Bs. 97 : 20. 

benfes, benefits, benefactions, 
good deeds. P, P, 364. 

beniman* (16), to take away, 
deprive of ; p.s. benam ;//. be- 
ndmon ; pp, benumen. See 
niman. 

benyme, to take away. A, I, 

benugan*. See beneah. 

be6,* imp. be. See wesan. 

beo, />r. subj. s., pr. pL, imp, s., 
and pi, L, ; A, R, ; H, III. ; 

P^P^ 39. 

beodan* (19), to bid, command, 

enjoin ; offer, announce, declare ; 

p. s. bedd ; //. budon ; pp, 

boden. 
bcoden, to offer, present ; pr. ^s, 

beodet5,beot; /. ^s, bead. A.R 
beodes, beads, P, P. 8. 
be6gan* (19), lo bow. See 

biigan. 
beo-hi^te, p. s, promised. P.P, 4 7. 
beo-hote, pr, s, ip. promise, vow. 

P. P. 235. 



beo-lceuej 



GLOSSARY. 



344 



beo-lecue, creed. P, P» 7. 
bedn,* io be. See wesan. t6 

beunnc. 63:15. 
beon, pi. are, H, III, 
bcon, stihj, pr, pi, he^ let he, 

A.R, ^ 
beorcan* (18), lo hark ; p, s. 

bearc ; pi. burcon; pp. borcen. 
beorketJ, borkcf, pr, pi, hark, 

L. 739. 
beorg,* beorh, biorg, 2m. 

mountain^ hill, 
beorgan,* ^cbeorgan (18), io 

protect^ save ; he byrgC ; p.s, 

bearh; //. burgon; pp. bor- 

gcn. 
beorht,* bright ; bearht-blow- 

ende, brightly blowing, 
beorhte,* brightly. Bs. 

^tfbeorhtian,* /(9^/<?r/J5v A -ocle; 

//. -od. Joh. xvii. 5. 
beorhtnys,* beorhtnes, j/I 

brightness, splendour, glory, 

Joh, xvii. 5. 
beom, man, warrior, baron; 

pi, beornes. L. 335, 775. 
beornan* (18), to burn; p.s, 

beam; //. bumon;^. bomen. 

See brinnan. 
^cbcorscipe,* 2m, {lit. beer- 

ship) convivial meeting, feast, 

entertainment, Joh, 
bcorjen, d. pi, hills, L, 253. 

See berh^e. 
beot, offers. See beoden. A, 

R, 
iT^eot, threat, boast, L, 428, 

744. 
beo«, //. be, are, L ; H, III, 
beoC, imp. pi be. A. R. 
bepdecan,* to deceive, seduce ; p, 

bepjfehte ; //>. bepjfeht. 58:4. 
ber, p^s, bore, R, 



bera,* \m, hear, 

beran* (15), to hear, carry, 

produce, bring forth ; he byrt ; 

p,s. baer, ^ baeron; ff, 

boren. 62:19; 64:33. 
bere,* 2m, baric^u 65:23. 
bere, to bear, wear. G, 
bere, imp. pi, wear. A.R. 
bere, p.s, bore, conducted, he- 

haved. R, 100. 
bere, sub/, should hear. L. 

1038. 
ber^fian,* to heream, deprive^ 

rob, plunder ; p. -ode ; pp. 

-od ; govs, ace. of the persam 

and gen. of the thing. 
beren , * of barley. 65:23; 66:5. 
beren, * of bearskin. 79 :6. 
beren, to bear^ prodtue, P. C 

78. 

berende,* hearing, fertile; pr, 
p, ^ beran. 

beredwsung,* ^f, he-ruing, re- 
pentance. See behrei5wsung. 

ibercS, acteth, L, 409. 

berr^henn (-^-1. S. beorgan), to 
save, preserve; pp. bornhenn. 

berh^c, borewe, d. s, hurg, hill; 
d. pi, beor3cn, borewe. L. 

253- 
beringe, bearing, hirth. A. I. 

berrhless, salvation. O. 116, 

138, 142, 314. 
berstan* (18), to hurst; p. s. 

bearst ; //. burston ; pp. bor- 

sten. 
berstles, bristles, C. 558. 
besaunt, a piece of money. Lk, 

XV. 8. 
besdwan* (2), to sow; p. s. 

besc(5w ; pi, bese<5won ; pp. 

besiiwen. 64:18. 



345 



GLOSSARY. 



[bewepan 



bescyred, *^. sheared or cut off^ 

deprived of, /EL 60:13. 
beseah.* See besedn. 
besey, pp. beseen^ decked, clad. 

G' 337. 

besedn,* to look about, see, be- 
hold ; he besedtJ ; /. besawe, 
beseah ; //. besawon ; imp. 
beseoh. See sedn. 

besid,* sub, pr. (Jhat he) look 
about. Bs. See beseon. 

besittan* (13), to beset, sur- 
round, besiege ; p,s. besaet ; //. 
bes^ton ; pp. beseten. 

hesi^iQi provision, ordinance. H. 
III. 

beslombred, beslomered, be- 
slobbered, bedaubed, P. C. 
125. 

besmitan* (20), to pollute, de- 
file ; p.s, besmdt ; //. besmi- 
ton ; pp. besmiten. Joh. xviii. 
28. 

besorg,* besorh, anxious, care- 
ful ; dear, beloved ; besorgost, 
most beloved, Bs. 

best, beast ; pi, bestes. A. R, 
165:7. 

bestandan* (9), /? stand on or 
by, occupy ; p.s. bestdd ; //. 
bestddon ; pp. bestanden. 

beswemde.* 109:4. seems to be 
used as abL of pres. p. of be- 
swimman, by swimming, 

beswican* (20), to deceive, en- 
trap, betray, circumvent; offend; 
p.s. beswdc; pi, beswicon ; 
pp. beswicen. foh. vi. 61 ; 
vii. 12, 47. 

beswimman* (21), to swim, 
swim about. See swim man. 

beswincan* {21), to labour. See 
swincan. 



15' 



beswingan* (21), to swinge, 
whip, scourge; p. s. beswang ; 
//. beswungon ; pp, beswun- 
gen. foh. xix. i. 

bet,* comp. better. See gdd. 

bet, adv. better. C, 242. 

bet, imp. s. beat. P. P. 227. 

betdecan, * to take, deliver, intrust, 
commit ; p. bet^hte ; pp. be- 
tdeht. 

betake, to commit. G, 

b6tan,* ^^b6tan, to make good, 
amend, repair, compensate; be- 
come better ; p. bdtte. 

bete, to make better, amend, rem- 
edy, atone for. R. 

beteldan* (18), to cover, tilt; 
p.s. beteald ; //. betuldon ; 
pp. betolden. 

betera,* comp. better. See gdd. 

bet;^nan,* to close^ enclose; p. 
betynde; //. betj^ned. 94:1. 
See tun. 

betst,* best, Os, 

bett, better, O, 

betuh,* between. Os. 

betwednan,* between, among; 
interim. 

betwednum,* between, among. 
Os, 

betweox,* betwix, betwux, be- 
twyx, betwixt, among, in the 
midst; betwux "Sisum, mean- 
while, interea. 75:10. 

betwinan,* betw^nan. .S"^^ 
betwednan. 

bevly {A. S. befledn), to befly, 
flee from, escape. A. I, 

bewealwian,* to wallow, Bs. 
See wealwian. 

bewend,* turned. See wen- 
dan. 

bew6pan* (5), to bewail; p.s. 



bcwindan] GLOS 

bewa'ip ; pi. bewcdpon ; pp. 

bewujien. Su wt;f>an. 
bcwimian* (21), /" wind about, 

trap, (nhvinc ; p.s. bewand ; 

pi. bewundon ; //. bewundcn. 

Sit windan. 
bef. are. R. imp. pi. be. 

P. a 140. 
be)iearf,* prdcriihx, (/) ne/d. 

Uti Oullines 0/ A. S. Gram. 
he\>ar{e,* iu/i/. s. mcd. Joh. iv. 

15. See ])urfan. 
bi^^r, concerning, A. R. 
bi, by, in ; bi Kinp; Willames 

daye, in King William's day ; 

bi is davo, in his day. R. 
by, be, may be. A. I. 
bi-Eftcn, biafien, ba-'fie-n, baf- 

te-n, prep, behind, after. L. 
biblodgc, imp. cause io bleed. 

A. R. 
bikaichcdd, bikahht, pp. caught, 

O. 
bicche, McA. P. P. 197. 
bicgan,* ^'tbicgan, bicgean, to 

btiy, pay for ; p.s. bo hie ; pi. 

bohlon ; pp. ^.boht ; imp. 

bygc or bige. Joh. xiii. 29; 

62:14. 
bi-charren, bi-chorre, lo deceive. 

L. 491, 
biclj-pped, pp. embraced, en- 

closed, surrounded. P. C. 75. 
^^bicniati,* lo beckon, shoiu, in- 
dicate; p. -ode ; pp. -od. 
bi-da!cd, bidieled, //. deprived 

of, bereft. L. 91, 299. 
bidan. ^fbidan* {20), lo abide, 

remain, await, enjoy ; hebideS, 

bit ; p.s. bad ; pi. bidon ; pp. 

biden, jfcbiden. Joh. viii. 9. 
biddan,*^fbiddan {1%"), to bid, 

pray, beg, beseech ; he bit ; 



lARY. 346 

p.s. bEcd ; pL b*don ; pp. be- 

den ; govs. gen. of thing; 

with reJL pron. , to pray to, wor- 
ship, 
bidde, lo bid, pray, beg, P.P. 

145. bidde ys mete, beg kh 

food. R. 
bidden, pr. pL pray, enlrenL 

L. 148. 
biddenn, U> command; p.s. 

badd ; pi. beodcnn. O. 
biddenn, to ask, pray, offer. 0. 

85. tp^rs. pr. bidde. 0. 97, 

327,329. pr.pl. bidden. 0. 

33a p.s. badd, bKd, 0. 

11787, 11799. 
bide. imp. s. bid. Z. 
bi-dealed, pp. deprived of . L 

91, 209. 
bydet,* 2m. beadle, cryrr, 

preacher, herald, messenger. 
bideled, pp. deprived of. L. 

265- 
bidon, A> befoul. A, R, 157:4. 

another MS. reads bifulc. 
bidweolie?, decerveth. A. R, 

156:20. {A. S. dwolian.) 
byfel, impers. it befell, happened. 

C 19. 
bi6an,* to tremble, shake; p. 

-ode ; //. -od. 
biforen, before. A. R.; L. 
biforeschewynge, foreshowing, 
foretelling, presaging. Gen. 



by-fom, prep, before. P. C. 
bifoiT, biforenn, prep, before. 

0. 
bifulcn, to befoul. A. R. 
bifulie, it befell, happened. L. 
bifi,*^ by. near. See be. 
bigan,* ^ifbigan, ^fbigean. ft 

bend, bow, inclim, turn, eon- 



347 



GLOSSARY. 



[biof)>e 



ivr/, subjed ; p, bigde ; pp. 

biged , ^<rbiged. 66:14; 68:6. 
o^e,* bige, zm, bending^ angk, 

Os, 89:2. 
bigeng,* biggeng, im, tillage, 

culture; worship, 68:5.- 
bi-georede, pp, hegtrl, arnied, 

L. 724. 
bi-gete-n. See bi-^iten. 
biginnenn, to begin. O, 
bigleofa,* im. that by which one 

Iwes, sustenance, support, 61:4; 

69:22. 
bi-gon, pp, covered, encompassed. 

^- 543. 
bigspel. * See bispel. 

hi halt, beholds, A. R, 

bihalues, ad and prep, beside, 

apart, L, 518, 1004. 
biheste, promise, R, 
bihct, p,s, promised, R, 
biheue, behoof, benefit, profit, 

A, R, 
biholde, pr.'^s, beholds, A. R, 
bihote, to promise, R, pp, bi- 

hoten. A. R, 
bijs, silk. Gen, xli. 42. 
bilaefde, bi-lefde, p,s. left, re- 
linquished ; pi, bi-Iaefden, bi- 

lefden. L. 316, 326. 
bilajfued, bilefued, //. left, 

abandoned, L, 741. 
bilsei, bilay, p.s. belaid, besieged, 

L, See biliggen. 
bi-Iaeuen, bi-leauen, to leave, 

Z. 210. 
bild, budding, P, a 
bilafden, /. //. left, L, 96. 
bilalues, a probable error for 

bihalucs. q. v. 
bilecue, belief faith, creed. P,P, 
bilai, p.s, surrounded, L, See 

bi-liggen. 



bilefden, p, pi, forsook. A, R, 

See bileauen. 
bilefenn {A, S, belifan), to re- 
main, dwell; p.s, bilaef. O, 

11325. 
bi-leie-n, /. //. belaid, surround- 
ed. L, 115. ^yt'^r bi-liggen. 
bileuede, /.J. and pi, remained 

R, 109, 149, 190. 
bilewitnys,* 3/I meekness, sim 

plicity. 
biliggen, to belay, besiege ; p.s 

bilaei, bilai, lii-Ieye ; //. bi 

leien. L, 115, 120, 425. 
biliue, adv. quickly, L. 976. 
biliue {A, S. bigleofa, bileofa), 

foody sustenance. R. 151. 
bilokenn. See bilukenn. O. 
biloke^, pr.^s, looketh. A, R, 
bi-lowen, to reuile, P. P, 'j'j, 
bilukenn, pr, pi, enclose, shut 

up ; pp. bilokenn. O. 
biluuien, to approrue ; pi. biluui- 

e^. L, 182. text reads\yC[M\i\t^, 
byme z:^ by me, G. 
hyn,^ cultrvated ; from biian. 
bindan, * ^^bindan {21), to bind, 

capture; p, band; //. bundon; 

pp, ^^bunden. 
bineo^en, beneath. A, R, 
bynyme, subj. pres. should take 

away, deprive of R, gz, 
binimen, to take away, deprive ; 

pr, pi. binimetJ. A. R. 
binnan,* binnon, within, under, 

69:18. 
bynne, bin {for grain), C. 595. 
bi-nom, p.s, took from, deprived 

of R, 142. 
binorpe, at the north. R, 622. 
biddan,* subj. pi. offer, Bs, 

97:19. See be6dan. 
biofpe, 2>ehoof, R, 



biuiij GLOS 

h\6a* Sa hc6n. 
bioJi.*/',J. is. Bs. 
I)ic]uc]i, bequcatliid. R. 
biquiiie, btqiust. R. 
ff«b)Td,*ffb>TJu, if. iirlh. 
bjT Jest, • o/higheiliirih or rani. 
byrele,* aw. buthr, cup-itanr. 

bj'rgan,* byrgian, bj'rigan, io 

bury ; p. bj'rigde, byrgde; pp. 

biTKud. 
bjrgen,* byrigen, J/i s^u/chre, 

grJK. 
^(byrian,*-byrigan, -biran, to be 

filling, bi-ioming, to beseem, Io 

concern, belong Io, to be (one's) 

duly; to happen, fall Io; p. 

-ode, -cde; pp. -ed. foh. sii.6, 
byrigen,* See byrgen. 
byman* (21), /3 turn, ardcre ; 

/. bam ; //. bumon. See 

brinnan. 
birouwen, birowe, to berow, row 

round. L. 427, 
birrde. See birrj>. O. 
birrf (A.S. ^ibyra8,^(:byrdc), 

impers. il becomes, concerns, ought; 

p.s. birrde. U. 27, 35, 40, 49. 

5", 85. 87. 
ffbyrttd,* 3/^ birlh-liJe, or -time. 

S. C. fl". 1087. 
hyrS,* bears, brings forth. Jo/i. 

XV. 2. See beran. 
bytiien,* 3/I burthen. 
bisceop,* biscop, tm. bishop, 

high or chief priist. 
biscop -stdl,* zm. episcopal see. 

7S;i4. 
bise, to beset, look after, praoiik 
for. R. 12. 
bisechen, 10 beseech ; p. bisouht, 

A. R. 
bi-sehjen, p.pl looked. L. 965. 



lARY. 34* 

bisemare (.4, S. bismer), seen, 

disgrace, contempt. A. R. 
bysen,* j/? txampie, cofrf,^t- 

cept ; imiiematt. Os. 
biseon, tosu to,laokafUr. A.R. 
bisct, pp. beset, besieged. A. R. 
bisett, p^. beset, enclosed. 0. 

260. 
bisettc, p.s. empifQftd, ttstd, C. 

281. 
biseg,* byscg. j/C oecupoliai, 

emptt^-menl ; pi. bisgu; d. ft. 

bisgum. Bs, 95:6, 7, 
bisgian,* to busy, occt^; p 

-ode; pi. odon, odan; if. 

-od. 95:7. 
bisgung,* 3/^ occupaUm, Bs. 
bisi, busy. A. R. 
bi-side, near ; biside Hastinge. 

R. 
bisic, busy, assiduous. A. R. 
bisye, busy. A. I. 
bisynesse, a being busy. 
bisischipe, busyship, adicity, dili- , 

gence. A. R. 
bysnier,*2a, disgrace, insidl, in- I 
famy, blasphemy. 

bismeres, mockings. A. I. \ 

bysmer-spdec,* 3f. disgratifd 

speech, blasphemy. 
by-smoterud, pp. smutted. C. 

76. {A. S. besmitan.) 
bysn,* bysen, bisn, j/T example, 

pallern. Bs. 

bisRS, example, pallern. O. 10a 
b)-snian,* Io gwe or set example ; 

p. -ode; pp. -od. 61:17, 18. 
gehisamt^,*^ ^. example. 69:10. 
bispel,* bigspel, bispell, in. 

proverb, parable, fable, example. 
biswikenn, to odray, decern , 

pp. beswikenn. O. 
byl, pr.s. biddelh. C. 18 7. 




349 GLOf 

bita,* 1171. a bit, morsel, a small 

mouthful, /oi. xiri. zj ; 62:18. 

' bitiike, pp. aiiigited, bequtaihtd. 

R. {A. S. betfccan.) 

Uiacnenn, tobetoken, signal. 0. 

bi-t»che-r, bi-iache-n {A. S. 

bel&can), to deliver, give up ; 

p. bi-ta;hte, bi-tahte ; pi. bi- 

uehlen, bi-tahtc-n. Z. 309, 312. 
bitsechenn, la entrust, lommit, 

give ! \pers, s. biiEche. O. 65. 
bltan* (io), to bile ; p.s. bit; 

// bilon ; pp. biten. 
bilel-brouwed, bcelU-brawed. P. 

P. 109. 
bi-techen, bi-lake, tr> deliver, 

gBK. L. 149. 

bitellunge, excuse. A. Ji. 164: 
35. {A. S. tealhn. ) 

biten, bites, pi. strokes, blmos. 
L. 763. 

bitokc, /.^. gave, delivered. L. 

bitocnen, to betoken, signify ; 
pp. bitocned. A. R. 

bitter (for), by reason of bitter- 
ness. P P. 99. 

bitund, shulup, shulin. A. R. 
{A. S. bety-nan.) 

bi-lurne, to turn from, or away ; 
p.pl. biturnL'de. R. pp. bi- 
tumd. A. R. 

hitvitne, prep, between. P.P.^6. 

bitweoDen, among. A. Ji. 

bitwije, prep, between. L. 346, 

byualf, befalls. Iiapptns. A. I. 
234:20. 

bi-vore, prep, before. L. 

biuoren, bi-vore, >r«>. and adv. 
Ufore. L. 

biwenden, to turn ; pr. y. bi- 
went. A.R. 158:33. 

biwinnen, biwinne, to win, ob- 
tain, conqmr. L. 



hiv\A,* '^. food, provisitm. Bs. 

96:14. 
bi-witen {A. S. bewitan). le 

guard, defend ; p.s. biwiste, 

biwuste ; //. biwuslen. Z.359, 
biwon, p.s. won. L. 
biwunnen, biwonne, pp. won. 

L. 
biwust, pp. guarded, defended, 

L. 83. See bi-witen. 
biCencheB, pr. pi. bethink. 

R. 
bi-}a;ten, pp. got, oblnimd, % 

gained. L. 747. 
bi-jiten, to get, obtain, win; 

pi. bijeteS, bijiieS. L. 1 

9+8. 
bijondc, beyond ; of bijonde se, 

from aver the sea. P. 549- 
blaberede, p.s. babbled. P.P. 
blifeJ,* ^. fruit, branch. 
blase,* blKse, if . a blaze, torch. 

Joh. xviii. 3. 
bldwan* (2), to blow; he 

blibwS ; p.s. bkdw ; pi. ble6- 

won; // blawen. Joh. vi. 18. 
blawen, to blow. L. 
blefde, /. pi. left. L. 96. 
blenchen, to draw back, turn 

aside. P.P. 333. 
bledw.* See biiwan. 
blered,//. Wcar«// bie red ei ten. 

P.P. 109. 
bletsian,* ^fbletsian, to bless; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od. 
h\Gah, p.s. blew. P.P. 193, 
blepeliche, blithely, cheerfully, 

blind,* blind. Joh. v. 3 ; is. i, 

39. 40, 41- 
blinnenn {A. S. blinnan), tc 

cease; pr. s. blinne|)|i off. O. 

1 1467. 



blisj CLOS 

Wis,* bliss, %f. I'liss, joy. 
fbliscci, /A ^■■■f^'*''- ■■'■ ^■ 
blisse./ bliss, j»y ; g. d. blissc. 

blissen. Z. 265. pi. blissen, 

blisses. L. 
blissian,* ^t-blissian, blissigan, 

to njaki, cxufi ; p. -oUe ; pp. 

-oil ; 60:12 ; 75:27. 
bliSe,* blithi. ghiil, jyful ; pro- 
pitious, kind. 
bli|>elii, \A\^t\\\.ii,Uilhih,sladfy, 

withjov. O. 92, 131, 307. 
blo,l,*"2n. Wod. 
blodbcndes. Idoodkinds, /i-r iind- 

ing tlu iirm in bloo-ikUing^ 

blodbcndes of seolke. A. R. 

166:26. 
bIods)-te,* zm. bloodsktdding, 

bloodshed, slaughter. Ot. 87:31. 
blod-ijole, blod-juic (^I. S. 

bludgjle). bloo,isLl. L. 
blod-letuiige. blood-letting. A .R. 
blondinge, biondin^"^e (ft Fr. 

blandir),_/f,j/ATr A. I. 233:9; 

234:29. 
blostm,* zm. blossom, 66:10. 
blolan* (4), to offtr, sacrifice, 

immolate; p.s. bleot (blet); //. 

blciiton (bleton) ; pp. blotcn. 
bo, both. A. R. 
h6c,*/. book ; g. bdce ; d. b6e; 

pi. n. ace. bi5c ; g. bdca ; d. 

biicum. 64:33; &5:i. 2. 5. 7. 

10, 21, zz ; 68:9. 
boc, book, bible ; o boke, in the 

bAk. O. 1 1 390. 
bock, bokes, pi. books. L. jo. 
bCicerc,* zm. a bookman, scribe. 

Joh. viii. 3. 

bocher. bnlih/r. P.P. 173. 
b<icllc,* bonkly, literary. 58:9. 
bocstaff, lel'ter of the alphabet. 

0. 104. 



,\RY. 3J0 

bode, p.s. and pi. hid, off.rel R. 
bode, prayer. L. 281. 
bodcword, commandm<ni. 0. 
bodian,* bodigean, I0 pr.-adi, 

announce; p. -ede, -ade, -ode; 

pp. -ed, -ad, -od, -ud, 65:17; 

66:2. 
bodi}, body. O. 
boduiig,* 3/^ preaching, proch- 

mation. 
boja, \m. baio, arch. 
buh,* zm. a bcatgh, bramh. 

Bs. 97:24. 
fi:boIgen, * pp. See f r-belgan. 
bolle, bmvl. P.P. 89. 273. 
boiled, pp. swelled. P.P. 67. 
bollejt, /n s. swills. P.P. yy. 
bond, ^.j. bound. R. 
bone, bane, ruin, destructi-M. 

L. 477- P'P- 356- 
bonnien, to assemble, get rea:h, 
'■■ 137. 423. &i 



booie, remedy. C. 426. 

bor, boar. L. 

bord, board, taile. C. 52. ta 
begin the board, seems lo hiipt 
been a common expression, meait- 
ing lo occupy the teat of hon- 
our at the head of the i/jm 
or high table; the meaning of 
bord, in this passage, ciia 
hardly be as Marsh suggests. 
Joust, toiirnameiU, from LafO 
Germ., boort, or bubuit. 
And he, which had the prise 

deserved 
After the kinges owne worde, 
Was made begin a iniddel 
borde. Gozver, vol. iii. 299. 

bordun, a staff. P. P. 271. 

yboxt. pp. born, andborne. R., 
P. P. 89. 



GLOSSARY. 



[brerd 



,* zboren. See beran. 
e, //. //. bo.nt, L, 
d. pi. hills, L. 253. 
t>p. borne; born him 
ondiutcd himself well, 

{A. S. beorgan) ; //. 

A. I. 

in,./>/. saved, 0, 128. 
r. bil. P, P. 67. 
//, exccpty unless, R. ; 
P.P. 50, 58, 231, ZJ%, 
\ unless. A, I, 
3, //. duller Sy Gen, xli. 9. 
battes, badtes, //. balSj 

L. 912, 990. 
:>/. bools. C. 275. 
'mp. pi. advance. L, 697. 
^e. 

bowe, botighy branch ; 
ves. A, R. 

p. y. boughl. A. R. ; 
133. ^ytvbuggen. 
; ((). Fr. hoMxde)y Jokes. 

brcp. withoul. L, 126. 
, imp. pi. lurn ; bouwcf 
>i a brok, lurn forlh by 
:. P. P. 319. 
if. box ; g. pi, boxa. 
X. 39, 

buxom, cheerful^ pleas- 
cdietil. P. P. 319. 
oth. A. R. 
I s. bough ; pi. bo^es. 

PP' gone, L. 109. 
buxom, obedienl. A, I. 

V 

apiece of armour for the 

'sed by archers, C. iii. 
Lvant-bras. ) See Sam- 
enisles, 1121. 



brdd,* broad. Os. 

bradden, bradde, p. pi, wasted, 

^- 377- 
bradne, brodne, ace, m. broad, 

L. 738. 
bned, bread, O, 
br^dan,* ^^brjfedan, to broaden , 

extend ; p. brsedde ; //. brde- 

ded, ^«?brjfedd. Os. 
brjfedre,* ^rtwi^t'r. Os. Seehrkdi. 
bneid, braid, breid, p. s. drew, 

L. 630, 750. 
brec, p. s, broke, R, 
brecan* (15), to break; p.s, 

brace ; //. brdecon ; pp, ge- 

brocen. 
breken {A, S. brucan), to use, 

be used ; pp. i-broken. A.R. 
brech, draivers, A. R. 166:17. 

{^A. S. broc ; //. brec. ) 
brek)), breaks, A. I, 
breek-girdille, breech-girdle, M, 

242:30. 
brcm, bream ; a fish so called, 

C. 352. 
brenk, brink. Gen. xli. 3. 
brennc, to burn, . R. 
bregdan* (17), to braid ; p.s, 

braegd ; //. brugdon ; //. 

brogden, bregden. 
brcngan,* to bring, bear, offer, 

proffer ; p.s. brohte ; //. broh- 

ton ; pp. broht. ^S*^^ bringan. 
bre<5st,* 3/C breast ; often used in 

the pi, as in f oh, xiii. 25. 
breoste, breost, breast ; d. ace, 

breoste-n. L, 487, 630. 
bredwan* (19), to brew ; p.s. 

bredw; pi, bruwon; //. browen. 
breotan* (19), to break; p.s. 

bredt ; pi. bruton ; pp, broten. 
brerd,* 2m, brim, edge, summit, 

Joh, ii. 7. 



breresj GLO£ 

breres, lin'urs. A. R. 

brcstess, pi. braits. O. 220, 
126. 

bret-ful. brelfull, brim-full. C. 
689; P. C. 71. {A. 6'. brerd.) 

brcuh, p.i. brttLtd. P.P. 133. 

brcustere, brtivsUr, a woman 
that bravs. P. P. 148. 

brico,* aw. fragmenl. 66:28, 
SI- 

brid, bird. Eccl. xii. 4 : ^f. 
pi. briddcs. A. S. 158:5 ; 
M. 241:19; G. 169. 

bry<l.* J/: briJi. 

bridet,* im. bridle. 

br^dguma,* im. bridtgroom. 

bridledd, //. bridled, restrained. 
0. 

brihteB, Irighlmeth. A. R. 

bringan,* ^I'bringan, to bring, 
reduce; he gebrindS. 62:1. /. 
brohte ; pp. gebroht ; aho, ac- 
cording to class 21 of strong 
verbs; p. I. brang; pL brungoi 
pp. brungen. 

brinnan* (21), lo burn; p.. 
brann ; pi, brunnon ; pp. 
brunncn. 

brinngenn, to bring; p.s. brohht, 
brohlile ; pi. brohhtenn. 0. 

br)1se,* \f. a broken pari, frag- 
ment ; g. pi. br)'tsena. Joli. 
vi 13. 

bnic,* 2m. misery, affliction. Os. 

hmc.llirejl. Z. 42S. "Tkisii 
the modern term brag, the mean- 
ing of which wat originally thi 
same jvilli threat. " Madden. 

brok, brooi. P.P. 

br6c,* breeches ; g. -e ; rf. brc'C ; 
ace. briic ; //, br^c ; g. brdca ; 
d. brdcum. 

broche, a brooch. A. R. 



.AKY. 352 

brochede, p.t. broached, pierced. 
P.P. 126. 
brodnc, ace. s. mas. broad. L, 

738. 

brohht, -e, -enn. Set brinn- 

broliian,*/. pi. hroughL Os. 
^fbfobtc* See bringan. 
(broidc, pp. woven, inttrwapm, 
embroidered. L. 529. 
bronches, pi. branches. A. I. 

broode, ttt^v, lirgaiiiy, piaaify: 

C. 741. 
^fbrowen,* brewed. See breti- 

broSor,* brdSer, brother, friar; 
g. aec. brdSor ; d. br6iSer ; pL 
broSru (a, o) ; g. brdSra; d. 
broSrum. fah. vit. 3, 10. 

^■.brciiSru* (-aj, brelhrcn ; g, -a; 

bruc, brouke,(m/. s. ^/"bruke-n, 
enjoy, possess. L. 873. 

bracan*(i9),/'ti brook, use, enjcv, 
partake of, eat ; he biycS ; p.t. 
bredc ; pi. bruOMi ; pp. bro- 
cen ; wilh gen. 66:II. 

brukenn t^A. S. brdcan), loen- 



joy, 1 



o. ■ 



brukien, to enjoy, possess. L. 

746. 
brugge, bridge. L. 393. 
t bragged, //. bridged. L. 

675. 
brunie, burny, cuirass. L. 529. 

brunie hod, bumys hood. L. 

820. d. pi. brunies. L. 89, 

522. See bume. 
brutaget, pp. buttressed. P.P. 

^U. 
b)3an,* to dwell in, cuUioafe ; he 

by8 ; p. biide ; pp. [fdjtin.J 

77:2. ^»biigian. 



353 



GLOSSARY. 



[cafer-tdn 



buke, body ; pi, buken. A, R, 

^59*30. (a, S. buce, dt//y.) 
budon, * /. pi. See beddan. 
bufan,* bufon, cdxme^from above; 

bufan cor8an, abcme ground, 

Os, 81:21. 
bijgan,*^^biSgan (19), io bmv^ 

bendy sioop, yields submity turn ; 

p, s, bedh ; //. bugon ; //. ge- 

bogen, bugen ; imp, bug, biih. 
62:1. 
buggen {A, S, bycgan), to buy ; 

pr, bu"6, bugged ; p.s, bouhie ; 

//. bouhten ; sub. pr. bugge ; 

pp, z'-bouht. A, R, 
bugian,* io inhabit ; p, -ede. 
biigiend,* 2m, inhabitant. 
buhsumm, buxom ^ obedient. O, 
buh'5, bcruodh. A, R. 
buh^etS, imp, pi, advance, L, 

697. See bu3e. 
^'-buld, //. built, P, C. 5. 
bummede, p.s, tasted y drank. 

P. P. 137.. 
^t biin , * cultivated y inhabited. See 

buan. 
burdoun, the bass in music, C. 

675. 
hxiTQy /orcey rush, impetus, Ps. 

xlv. 5. 
burgeys, burgess, citizen. C, 

371. 
burh,*y; burghy city ; g. burge ; 

d, byrig ; ace. burh ; //. n. 
ace, byrig ; g, burga ; d, bur- 
gum. 82:21 ; 86:3. 

burhwaru,*y! collective; the popu- 
lation of a city ; townspeople y 
inhabitants ; g, d, -e ; acCy -e, 
-u ; //. mm, ace, -e ; g, -a ; 
d. -um. 

buriowne, to germinatey produce. 
Is, Iv. 10. 



burne,* i/, abourny brook. Joh, 
xviii. I. 

burne,yi cuirass, L, 528. d, 
bume-hod ; //. burnen. Z. 
89, 522. The burnie seems to 
have been a kind of breast-plate y 
accommodated in the mail armour 
of the period. The word is con- 
stantly occurring in the Old 
English romances. Guest, 

/burred, //. buried. R, 

burrh, taivny city. 0, 

burden, borwe, bor^e, to save, 
shelter, L, 667. 

busemare (^A, S. bismer), j£:<?r«, 
mockeryy derision. R, 

bustelyng, wandering about with- 
out kno-iving whither, P.P. 267. 

but, unless. C, 784. 

but 3if, unless. A. R.; M, 

butan.* See buton. 

bute, buty except, A. R, 

bute 3if, unless. A, R, 166:6. 

buten, prep, without. A, R. 
166:8 ; Z. 126, 707. 

buton,* buty savCy except y unless y 
without y if not ; ge on hiora 
hirede ge bdton, both in their 
court and elsewhere, Bs. 100:12. 

butt iff, unli'sSy except. O, 

buuen, above. A. R. 

but5, buys. See buggen. A. R. 

bu3e, bu^en, to bendy go, come, 
approach, march, L. 424, 682. 
/. beh ; //. bu3en. Z. 353. 

bu3henn, to baiv to, submit. O. 



O. 



cacchen, kachen, to catch, P, 

C, 166, 167. 
koeisere, kaiser y emperor, L, 
cafer-tiin,* 2m. a large hall ^ 




kaggerrlcjjc] 



atrium, vestibulum. Jok. sviti, 

kaggcrrlejjc, lovt. O. 11655. 

(/«/. kxrleiki.) 
cayser, kaiser, emperor. I.. 
kaiserc, d.s. kiuer, emperor. 

L. 131. 
wlaljre, a species o/fur. P. P. 

407. 
calic,* zm. chalice, cup. Joh. 

caliz, chalice. A. R. 

ca.a, pr. s. knm's. C. 210,373. 

can (v) nouji, / know not. P. 

C. u6. 
cann,* knmvs. See cunnan. 
canstou, cansl thou. P. C. So. 
kanunnkcss, g.s. conon's. O. 

9- 
capitula, im. chapter-house. S. 

C. 110:9. 
capparis, the caper shrub. Eccl. 

xii. 5. 
carcem, carcsm, zm. prison; on 

carceme gebrohl, brought to 

prison. Bs. 106:2. 
ca.K{\x\\, full of eare, sorreniful. 

P. C. 139. 
kare, pr.s. ip. care, sorrow. P. 

a 146. 

carf, /.J. carved. C. 100. 
carj", a coarse stuff warn liy the 

poor. P. C. 120. 
■carian, * lo care, heed, be 

p. -ode; pp. -od. 61 
carl, a churl, a hardy country 

fllow. C. 547. 
carncls, ballkmcals. P.P. 341. 
cas, case, chance, hap, adventure. 

R.; G. 7, 49- 
cascrt, 2m. acsar, emperor. 
kal, cat. A. R. 165:8 
catel, momy, property, wealth. 



Lk. s 



P. P. zT,a 375 ; 



caurimauri ? P. P. 61. Wright, 
in his Glossary to P. P., dt- 
finei thiiword, "care, IriruhU^ 
which is certainly -wrong. Tie ■ 
context shot's it to mean the kind 
of stuff in which Ettiy wot 
clothed. The spellings of other 
MSS., given by Skeat, in his 
edition of the ''Vernon Text," 
£. K. T. S., are "cauiymau- 
ry," " cawrjmawry," with the 
article omitted, and, "cauiy- 
mawT)-.'' 
cawdel, caudle ; according U> 
Skinner, a warm drink, consist- 
ing of eggs, ■wine, bread, sugar, 
and aromatics. (Z^/. calidus: 
O. Fr. chaudel. ) In Caxi-m't 
Poke for Travellers occur at 
"Poiagcs. Caudell for ihe 
seke, chaudcl. Growell and 
viOiXts" in P.P. 20s it means 
■vomit. See Prompt. Parv. s. v. 
cawdeile. 
oajle, p.s. caught. R. 
ceald.* cold. Os. iy.$2. 
ceilp,* zm. possession ofanykind, 
especially cattle ; saleable article, 
priee,sale, bargain, business.Os. 
ceapian,*f£ceapian, tobargain, 
trade, buy ; p. ode ; pp. -od. 
Os. 
ccap-sccamul,* 2M. a toll-booth, 
aislom-house, tradesman's staU. 
Joh, viii. 20 ; Luke v. 27. 
^fceds.* See cetisan. 
ceasier,* 3/^ a'ty, lavm. {LaL 
castra.) /oh. \\. i, 
ceaster-waru,* 3/J {collectioe) 
citizens, townsmen ; pi. ceastcr- 



355 



GLOSSARY. 



[chefFare 



4. 

t 



keep, care, heed, 

ikeiht, //. caught. A, R, 

kei3es, keys. PJ^, 

r-kei^et, pp, keyed, locked, P. P, 

366. 
cempa,* im, champion, soldier, 
Vutn^Q, p, taughl, direcled, P,P, 

kende, kind, nature. A, I. 
kene, keen, eager, brave, valiant, 

A. R. 

kenlicbe, keenly, L, 119, 695. 
cennan,*^«:ennan, to bear, bring 
forth ; p, cende ; pp, canned, 
kennest, keenest, L, 699. 
kenscipe, kensipe {A, S. c^ne, 

keen, bold), d, s, courage, L, 

91. 
ceorfan* (18), to carve, cut; he 

cyrRS ; /. cearf ; pi. curfon ; 
pp, corfen. 
ceorl,* 2m. churl, freeman, laic; 

man, husband foh, iv. 16. 
ce(jsan,*^^ce<5san (19), to choose, 

elect, judge ; pd, he, c^st ; p.s. 

ceds. 18:17. f u cure, //. curon ; 
pp, gecoren ; \'k gecorenan, 

the elect. 92:31. 
c6pan,* to take, keep, take keep, ob- 
serve, hold; p. c($pte; govs. gen. ; 

fledmes cdpan, to take to flight, 

59:22 ; 60:11. 
kepe, care, heed ; to take gode 

kepe. M. 243:21; G, 159. 
kepynge, care, attention, M. 

242:35- 
keppen, capes. A, R, 

c^p-sccamul.*iS'^^ cedp-sceamul. 

kepte, cared for, would care, 

A. R, ; R. 67. 
kepud, //. guarded. C, 278. 

i.e. from pirates or privateers. 
cerran, * ^^cerran. See cyrran. 



certeyn, certainly, indeed, C 

111- 
kertil, kirile, frock, P,P, 63. 

ceruce, white lead. C, 632. 

cesoun, season, M, 242:15. 

cester. * See ceaster. 

kcverchefs, kerchiefs, lit. liead- 
cavers. C, 455. 

keucringe, recovering, recovery. 
R. O. E, cover is often med 

for recover. 

chaerful, a probable error for 
caerful, careful, full of care, 
sorrowful, L. 971. 

chafTare, traffic, dealing, mer- 
chandise, P,P, 143. 

chapel ley n, chaplain, C, 164. 

^chapud, having chapes {plates 
of metal at the point of the sheath 
or scabbard), C, 368. 

charke {A, S. cearcian, stri- 
dere), to creak. G. 70. *' ' char- 
kyn,' as a carte, or barow, or 
ofyr thynge lyke." Prompt, 
Parv, 

charren, to turn, flee. L, 665. 
/. chserde, charde, cherde ; 
//. /chord. L, 452. 

chasten, to chastise. P.P, 32. 

chastles, castles, L. 

chaunterie, chantry, an endow- 
nun t for the payment of a priest 
to sing mass agreeably to the ap- 
pointment of the founder, C, 
512. 

cheapetJ, pr, s. sells, A. R, 

cheapild, trafficker. A, R, 

cheep, cheap; grettcre cheep, 
cheaper, M, {Fr, meilleur 
marchd. ) 

cheere, entertainment. C. 730. 

cheffare, irafffic, bargaining 
A, R, 



atrium, vcsiibulum. Joh. xviii. 

kaggerrlcMC, /cw, O. 11655. 

{hd. kccrieiki.) 
cajser, kaiur, emperor. L. 
kaiserc, d.s. kaiser, emperor. 

L. 131. 
calabre, a species of fur, P. P. 

407- 
calic,* 2m. chalice, cup. Joh. 

caliz, chalice. A. R. 

can, pr. s. knows. C. 210,373. 

can (v) noujt, / know not. P. 

C. 1 4 6. 
cann,* huncs. See cunnan. 
cansiou, catisl Ihou. P. C. 80. 
kanunnkess, g.s. caiten's. 0. 

9- 
capilula, im. chapter-house. S. 

C. 110:9. 
capparis, /he caper shrub. Eccl. 

xii. 5. 
carcem, carcxm, zm. prison; on 

carceme gebroht, brought lo 

prison. £s. 106:2. 
cirefuH, full 0/" care, sorrtmful. 

p. C. ,39. 
kare, pr.s. \p. care, sorrmu. P. 

C. u6. 
carf, p.s. carved. C. 100. 
cary, a coarse stuff tvorn by the 

poor. P. C. izo. 
■carian,* to care, heed, ieatLvious; 

p. -ode; pp. -od. 61:4. 
carl, a churl, a hardy country 

fllmv. C. 547. 
camels, battlements. P.P. 341, 
ca.f, case, chance, hap, adventure. 

It; G. 7, 49. 
caserc, 2m. aesar, emperor. 
kat, cat. A. R. 165:8 
calel, monty, P'roperly, wealth. 



ARY. 354 

means. P. P. 27; C 375; 

Zk. XV. 12. 

caurimauri ? P. P. 61. Wr^H, 
in his Glossary lo P. P., de- 
fines this word, "care, irouHe/' 
which is certainly ■wrong. The • 
conle,xt shows illo mean the bad 
of stuff in which Etrw wet 
clothed. The spellings of other 
MSS., given by Skeat, in his 
edition of the •' Vcrncm Test' 
E. E. T. S., are ' ' caury mao- 
ly," " eawrymawiy," wilhiki 
article omitted, and, " cauiy- 
mawrj'." 
cawdel, caudle ; according la 
Skinner, a warm drink, consist- 
ing of eggs, wine, bread, sugar, 
and aramatics, {Lot calidus; 
O. Fr. chaurfel. ) In Cixl:m't 
Boke for Travellers ckcut as 
"Poiages. Caudell for the 
seke, chaudel. Growell and 
wones ;" in P. P. 205 it means 
vomit. See Prompt. Parv. s. v. 
cawJeilc. 
caye, p.s. caught. R. 
ccald,* cold. Os. 83:32. 
cedp,* 2m. possession of any kind, 
especially cattle ; saleable article, 
price,sale, bargain, business. Os. 
cedpian,*f<c^pian, toliargain, 
trade, buv ; p. ode ; //. -od. 
Os. 
ccdp-sceamul,*2ni. a loil-boolh, 
custom-house, tradesman's slaU. 
Joh. viii. 20 ; Luke v. 27, 
^^eds.* See cciJsan. 
ceastcr,* ^. city, tmvn. {Lai. 

castra. } Joli. xi. 1. 
ceaster-waru,* 3/^ {collective) 
citizens, tcnvnsnien ; pi. ceastcr- 
wara, -wi^ra, -^t'vvaran. 



355 



GLOSSARY. 



[chefFare 



keep, carcj heed. 

I keiht, pp. caught. A, JR. 

kei^es, ^tys. PJ^, 

r-keiset, pp. keyed, locked. P.P. 

366. 
cempa,* im. champion ^ soldier. 
kende, /. taught^ directed. P. P. 

293. 
kende, kind, nature. A. I. 

kene, keen, eager, brave, valiant. 

A. R. 
kenliche, keenly. L. 119, 695. 
cennan,*^^cennan, to bear, bring 
forth ; p. cende ; pp. cenned. 
kennest, keenest. L. 699. 
kenscipe, kensipe (u4. S. c6ne, 

keen, bold), d. s, courage. L. 

91. 

ceorfan* (18), to carve, cut; he 

cyrfi5 ; /. cearf ; //. curfon ; 

pp. corfen. 
ceorl,* 2m. churl, freeman^ laic; 

man, husband /oh. iv. 16. 
ce(5san, * ^^cedsan ( 1 9 ) , /(? choose, 

elect, judge ; pd, he, c^st ; p.s. 

ceas. x8;i7. pii cure,//, curon; 

pp. gecorcn ; fa gecorenan, 

the elect. 92:31. 
c^pan, * to take, keep, take keep, ob- 
serve, hold; p. cepte; g(ws. gen.; 

fledmes cepan, to take to flight. 

59:22 ; 60:11. 
kepe, care, heed ; to take gode 

kepe. M. 243:21 ; G. 159. 
kepynge, care, attention. M. 

242:35. 
keppen, capes. A. R. 
c^p-sceamul.*iS'^^ cedp-sceamul. 
kepte, cared for, would care. 

A. R. ; R. 67. 
kepud, //. guarded. C. 278. 

i. e. from pirates or privateers. 
cerran,* ^<?cerran. See cyrran. 



certeyn, certainly, indeed. C 

kertil, kir tie, frock. P.P. d^. 

ceruce, white lead. C. 632. 

cesoun, season. M. 242:15. 

cester.* *SV^ ceaster. 

kcvcrchefs, kerchiefs, lit. Juad- 
cavers. C. 455. 

keu cringe, recovering, recovery. 
R. O. E. cover is often used 

for recover. 

chairful, a probable error for 
caerful, careful, full of care, 
sorrcrjoful. L. 971. 

cha flare, traffic, dealing, mer- 
chandise. P.P. 143. 

chapel leyn, chaplain. C. 164. 

I'-chapud, having chapes {plates 
of metal at the point of tJu sheath 
or scabbard). C. 368. 

charke (^A. S. cearcian, stri- 
dere), to creak. G. 70. ** * char- 
kyn,' as a carte, or barow, or 
opyr thynge lyke." Prompt. 
Parv. 

charren, to turn, flee. L. 665. 
/. chaerde, charde, cherde ; 
pp. /'chord. L. 452. 

chasten, to chastise. P.P. 32. 

chastles, castles. L. 

chaunterie, chantry, an endow- 
ment for the paymmt of a priest 
to sing mass agreeably to the ap- 
pointment of the founder. C. 
512. 

cheapetJ, pr. s. sells. A. R, 

cheapild, trafficker. A, R. 

cheep, cheap; grettere cheep, 
cheaper. M. {Fr. meilleur 
marchd. ) 

cheere, entertainment. C. 730. 

cheffare, traffic, bargaining 
A. R. 



cleouieSj GLOE 

cleouieK, pr. s. el>\K<ih ; p. claef. 

L. Sit to-cla:f. 
cleper, clapfur ; clcper of the 

mcUc, cijpfitr of the mill. A. I. 
cleped, pp. called. G. 6, 
clepieth, pr. pi. call. A. R. 
clept, pp. called. 
^■■clepud, /yt. caUed. C. 412- 
clepuf, pr. pi. call. R. 
clcrken, g. pi, of clerks, men in 

orders. R. 
cleues, d. pi. clifft. L. 246. 
clibben, d. pi. clubi. L. 367, 
cliket, clickci. P.P. 3S7- 
t-klikcleti, ;*/. fastened with a 

clicket P. P. 366. 
ctifaii* (20), to cleave ; p.s, c\iS; 

pi. clifon ; pp. clifen. 
climban* (21), to climb; p.s. 

clarob ; pL clumbon ; //. 

dumber), 
climbenn, to climb. O. 
clypian,* jf«;Iypian. See cle- 

clokcs, clutches, hooks. A. R. 
157:8. 

cloiiled, patched. P. C. 133. 
{A. S. cleot, dijt. ) Clowte of 
a schoo. Pictasium. Prompt. 
Parv. "In Norfolk the terms 
chat and clout signify an iron 
plate with which a shoe is 
ilrengthemd. Palsgrave ghes the 
verb 'to cloule, carrdcr, rate- 
celler. I had nede go doute 
my shoes, they be broken at 
thehdes.'" Way. 

clowes of gylofre, clcwei. M. 
143:27. (J^>. dousdegirofle.) 

do8, //. doSes, clothing, clothes, 
vestments. A. R. 

clofeli, imp pi. clothe. R. 

clubbe, dull ; d. pi. dubben. 



dubbes. L. 903. 
diid,* zm. rock, cliff. 
dude, rock, cliff; pL dndoi. 

dudes. L. 245. 
ciiidig.* rocky. 

dumbe, /. zs. climbed. L. 838. 
pp. ("clumbcn, iclemda L. 
clapede, pj. coiled. L. 1 

dopie, /ow// ,-//>. (cluped. *. 
cnapa,* \m. knave, boy, sen\ml. I 

62:20. 
knappes, knaps, buttons. P.P. 
knarre, a knotted, thick-sel, ton^ 
fcUao). a 55'- 
knaue, servant. P.P. 96. 
gecnivan* (2), to irwui; pt. 

cnciSw ; //. cne6won ; /^. 

cndwcn. 19:15. SeeoncaivM. 
cnedan* (12), to knead; p.s. 

cnxA; pi. cn^don; pp. cneden. 
cndenn (^A. S. cnetjwian), * 

kneel. O. 
kncly, to kneel. R. 
^(cneordlBBcan,* to study, be stu- 
dious of, take care; p. -Iffihie. 

69:9. 
cne6w,* z«. knee ; pi. cneown. 
cnifes, cnifues, knives. L. 
cnihi,* im. knight, youth, foy, 
cnihl, knight; pi. cnihtes, 

cnihte ,■ g. pi. cnihien, cnih- 

tene, cnihtes ; d. cnihten. L. 

845- 
cnihian* = cnihtura. S. C 

110:19. 
knihtschipe, knightship, knight- 
hood. A. R. 
^rcnyrdnys,* ^fcneordnys, 3^ 

study, care, diligence ; fervency, 

sincerity. 68:3. 
cnipte, rf.j. knight. L. 6. 
knobbes, eruptions, pimples. C 

635. 



GLOSSARY. 



[counter 



. hiwifig knobs. P, C, 

, /icd. A, JR. 

:hcde, p,s, ackncfwledged, 

m. a cocky male fowl or 

h'h, xiii, 38 ; xviii. 27. 

cuckoo. A. I. 

"HklSy husks, Lk. XV. 16. 

= quoyntise, artj cun- 

R. 232. 

= comon, /. pL came. 

p. pi. came. L. 
.S. cyme), comings ad- 
0. 162, 268 ; Z. 897. 
L. 304. Madden trans- 
is word by conjecture, 

J, stranger. Is. Hi. 4. 
See cumenn. 

' P- P^' c^^^' Z. 
cioun, agreement. C. 

:ioun, a mixing together, 

246:1. 

;, p.s. commenced. P. P, 

5, commons, provisions. 

38. 

. P. P. 52. 

:e, estimation, valuation. 

179. 

»un, condition, rank, 

'r, C, 38. nature, dis- 
G. 120. other man- 

ndicioun, other state of 
M. 245:12 

conduit, water-pipe. M. 

es, badges of distinction. 
33. ''In their cogni- 
or sur coats of arms,'' 

I, 



conne, to kncnv, learn. R. • 
A. I; P. P. 390; P. a 82'. 

conseili, to couftsel, R. 

constructioun, construing, H. 
P, 246:19. 

consul, 2m, consul. Os, 

consulatu, consulship. Os, 

contray, country, H. P, 246:3. 

cop, top, end. C, 556. 

cope, a pries fs vestment, a cloak 

forming a semi-circle when laid 
flat ; the semi-cope was a short 
cloak or cape, C. 262 ; G. 53. 

corage, heart, spirit, courage, 
impulse, desire, C, li, 22 ; G, 
II. 

corageus, courageous, R, 

corde, accord. A. I. 

gecoren,* pp, chosen, electa de- 
cided. 58:4. See ce6san. 

/corc-n, pp. chosen ; pi, /corene. 
^. Z^o, 777. 

corn,* 2n, corn, seed, grain ; pi, 
corn. 

corseynt, lit, a holy body; a saint, 
P.P. 286. 

^-corven,//. carved, P,C, 21. 

kostnede, p.s, cost, A.R. 

costnung,* 3/I temptation, 60:20. 

cota,* im., cote, m. cot, cottage. 

coueitide, p. s, desired, Lk, xv. 
16. 

courtepy, a short, coarse cloak. 
P.P. 63 ; a 292. 

counter. C 361. '^A countour 
appears to have been one retained 
to defend a cause or plead for 
another, in old French, conter. 
^S"^^ the Stat. 3 Edw. I. c. 24, 
against deceit or collusion by 
pleaders, ' serjaunt, contour, ou 
autre,' who being convicted, 
should suffer imprisonment, and 



couth] GLOS 

nntr again U heard ' en la 
court le Rcy, a center pur 
nulluy.' // mm; however, be 
quesliimable whether Chaucer 
used the term in this lense, and 
if seems possible that esehealor 
may be meant; the office Hie 
thai of sheriff tvas held /or a 
limited time, anil ivas served only 
ly the gentry of name and station 
in Iha'r county. " Way. 

couth, could ; pi, couihen. G. 

kouihc, pp. pi. krnnvn. C. 14- 

co^X\.\\^:,p.s. kmm. C. 329. as 
he couihe (C 392), as he 
tnitv, i. e. , as well as he could. 

cou|>e, p. pi knew. P.P. i^, 
266. 

covenably large, proportionally 
large or broad ? M. ^^^•.^'i. 

covyne, deceit. C. 606. 

cowde, p.s. knew. C. no, 469. 

covihede.coughed, retched, spewed 
up. P.P. 205. 

craft,* 2m. craft, art, skill, 
power, endowment, excellence ; 
sometimes, artifice, cunning ; pi. 
facuHies, qualities, virtues. 

craften, d. pi. crafts. L. 

craftly, artfully, skilfully. P. 
C. 15. 

cris^^n*i2),iocrow{asacock); 
he crfen-fl, Joh. xiii. 38. p.s. 
crei5w. Joh. xviii, 27, //. 
cretiwon ; //. crdwen. 

creoiz, a cross. A. R. 

creupan* (lo), to creep, crawl; 
he crypB ; p.s. credp ; pi. cru- 
pon ; pp. cropen. 

crj-k, creek, harbour, port. C. 

crisstnenn, to ehristm; pp. crisst- 
ncdii. O. 323. 



Crist, am. Oirist ; pi. CtisOs. 

58:2. 

Cristen, Christian. 

crisicndc^m, * 2rn. Christendom, 
christiandv. 

Cristofre, a figure of St. Oris- 
topher, which jvas bought to 
shield the person who hokedmi 
from hidden danger. C IIS- 

croc, hook, device. O. 

crochetes, crockets. P. C. «. 
"Crockets, prelecting leaves, 
fiaavrs, etc., used in GatUc 
architecture lo decorate the angUt 
of spires, canopies, " etc. Oka 
of Arch. 

croppes {A. S. crop, im.), 
tops, the young and b/pmad 
shoots of plants ; buds. C 7. 

crom-bolle, crumb-bowl, scrap- 
bowl. P. C. 135. 

croude, a stringed musical in- 
strument. Lk. XV. 25, 

crounv, to crown. R. 

crulle, curled. C. 81, 

krunefi, pr. s. crmvns. A. R. 

cruninge, coronation, H. III. 

crupen, /. //, crept. L. \a\t. 

ku, cow. A. R. 

cue,* quick, alive. See cwic 

cucen,* cucu, quick, alive, lio- 
ing. 

kucad, wrong, bad. A. I. 

kueade, wickedness, sin. A. I, 

kueadrul, wrong/id. A. I. 

kueadlkhe, wrongly wickedly. . 
A. I. 

kues, g.s. cmvs. A. R. 

kuynde, the kind, mankind P. 

p. 34.. 

kuyndL-liche, kindly, nedurally 
P. P. 292. 
culfre,* 1/ culviT, dove. 



36i 



GLOSSARY. 



[cweartcm 



culpons {Fr, coupons), shreds, 

a 6Si. 

cuman* (i6), io come; he 
cym^. Joh. xvi. 13. p.s. com ; 
//. C(5mon ; pp, cumen. See 
cwiman. 

cumc, come, coming, arrival. 
L. 897. 

icume, /come, //. come. L. 

cumen, to come ; often used with 
an infinitive^ as cumen liSen. 
Z. 865. 

i-k u m e n , pp. come. A . R. 

cumen, sub. pi. come. H. III. 

cumenn, to come ; p.s. comm; 
imp. comm, cumm. O. 

cumetJ, pr. pi. come. L. 

cumme, pr. sub. s. come. L. 

cun, kin J race, lineage ; g, cun- 
nes, cunne ; d. cunne-n. Z. 
209, 509, 885 ; P.P. 381. 

cunde, heritage, territory, coun- 
try, kind, nature, race. Z. 
891. 

kunde, adj. natrue; kunde men, 
men native to the soil. R. 

kunde, natural, legitimate ; kun- 
de eir, legitimate luir (Jo the 
throne). R. 246. 

kunde, nature, natural right, le- 
gitimacy. R, 248. 

kunciede, kindness. R. 77. 

kundites, conduits. P.C. 4^. 

kuncriche, d. kingdom. U. III. 

kunesmen, kinsmtn. R. 

kunfort, comfort. A. R. 

kuning,* im. king. Ds. 

cunnan,* to know, be able ; ic 
cann (can), pu cunne or canst, 
he cann (can) ; //. cunnon ; 
subj. pres, s. cunne ; //. cun- 
non (-en) ; /. ic, he, cut$e, pd 
cutJest ; //. cdtJon ; //. cij6, 



gezvi^. Joh. i. 48; vii. 15, 

28, 29. 
cunne, d.s. kin, kindred. Z. 167. 
cunne, kunne, kind, sort, kin, 

kindred, race, nation, A,R.; R. 
kunneth, /r. //. know, can. H* 

P, 246:12. 
cunnenn, to know; p. pi. cufenn. 

0. 
kunnyng, knowledge. Is. liii. 11. 
cuppemel, cupmeal, cup by cup. 

PP. 139. 
^^curc.* ^ytr^ cet5san. 

curious, careful, nice, exact. C. 

579- 
curse, to excommunicate. C, 488. 

custe, custom, manner; pi. cus- 
ten-s. Z. 897. 

cutted, pp. cut short. P. C. 
132. ** cutty sark.'* Tarn 0' 
Shanter, 

cutte-pors, cut-purse. P.P. ^Si, 

kurue, sub. pr. cut. A. R. 

cii^, * known, certain, evident. See 
cunnan. 

cdfia,* im, one known, an ac- 
quaintance, a familiar, a kins- 
man, Joh. 

cut5e, coupe, p.s. knew. L. 

ku^en, to make known, show, 
manifest; pr. s. ku^c; p, ku^e; 
//. I'-kud, kudde. A. R. 

cupenn. See cunnenn. O. 

cut$t$e, f country, realm, land, 
race, kith^ kin, L, 811, 891, 
898. 

cwcadschipe, wickedness, iniqui- 
ty ; pi. cweadschipes. A. 
R. 

cwealm,* 2m. qualm, sickness, 
pestilence, destruction, deatli. 7 1 : 
10, 29, 

cweartern,* in. prison. 
16 



ffe-cwden] GL05 

gt-cv/edcn,'* pp. calttd. Hci 
CweBan. 

cwelle, h kill. L. 

cweme, agreeable, pleasing. 0. 

gecv/^me,* acceptaliU, agreeable, 
pleasing. 

cwemenn, to please ; pp. 
cwemmd. O. zii. 

cw™,« If. «»»a», wifi, wif, 
of a king, queen. 

cwene, queen. A. R. 

cweiSan,*|fecwe5an (12), to say, 
speak,- ic cwctie, Jiii cwyst, 
he cw)-J5; p,s. ic, he, cwaeS, 
fd cw&dc ; pi. cwfedon ; imp. 
cweS ;//. cweSatS, orcweS ge ; 
pp. ftcwcden. cv.>'st )fd i 
cweSe ge ? cwc8e we ? used as 
interrogaiwe parliiU-s, equhalenl 
to Lat. num or an. Joh. vii. 
41. 51 ; vi. 67; vii. 26, 31, 

cwic,* cwj-c, cwuc, cue, quick 

alive. 
cwik, quick, alroe. L. 1031. d.f. 

cwickere. L. 155, 
cwiddenn, lo declare, tell. O. 
cwyde,* 2OT. saying, speech, 

word, 66:2. 
cwiman,*cuman(i6), to come ; 

p.s. cwam, cam, com ; pi. 

cwdmon, cdraon, ccJmon ; pp. 

cumen, cymen. 
cwyst Jtl5?* sayesi thou i' See 

cweSan. 



dfcd,* %f. deed, action. 

daed, dead. 0. 

d&d-biit,* ^ amends-deed, re- 
pentance, retribution. 

dffig,* zm. day; dxges, ly day; 
pi. dagas. 



;ary. 361 

dieghwamllc,* esdj. daSy. 
da;ghwamlice,*ii<Af. daUy. 64:7. 
d^ghwomlic, * daily. 69:11. 
daeghwonlice.'dAi.iij^. 65:11. 
is^\,* secret, uninoum. Bl. Set 

digel. 
dffig-r^d,* 2«. day-red, doom. 

Joh. riii. 2. 
dEgJ»erlic,*/r«w(/, 
d£i, dai, day ; g. dieies, dates; 

d. daeie, daie ; pi. dseies. Z. 
dxies & nihtes, used adverbially, 

by day and night. L. 
d&I,* 2m. deal, pari. 
AxX.parl. H.IH. 
daelde, p.s. parted, divided. L 

5^5- 
doele, pi. pari, dimsion. L. S*4- 
dcelenn, to share, to have dealing 

with ; pp. dEetedd, divided, dis- 

tribuud. O. 
dsenie [^A. S. dym), rnrit, 

hidden. 0. 
daeS, death. L. "jS. d.s. dsefe. 

O. 212. ace. dx{>)). 0. zoi. 
dayesye, day's eye, daisy. C. 

334. 
jfrtlafenian, ^edafnian,* to ht 

fitting ; decere, opoitere, con- 
venire; go^s. d.; p. -ode; fe 

j^'fdafenaC, te decet 
dagon*=(kguiii, d. pi. days. 

Joh. iv. 43- 
daijes and nihtes, used adoerii- 

ally, by day and night L. 
dale, part, portion ; pi. daless. 

ft 
dalen, deale, lo part, divide. L. 

812,813. 
daliaunce, goss^. " Daly- 

aunce, confabulacio, collo 

cacio. " {Prompt. Pars. ) C 



s^s 



GLOSSARY. 



Ldeofell 



dampne, imp, s, condemn, PJ*, 

253- 
danes, valleys. A. L 

daru,* 3/1 injury, hurt. See 
derian. 

daunger, jurisdiction, control 
C. 665. O, Fr, dangier, da- 
minion, subjection,difficulfy ;{from 
Mid, Lat. damnum, (i) a 
legal jine, (2) territorial juris- 
iUction.) Estre en son danger, 
•=.to be in the danger of any one, 
to be in his power. In the Courts 
of Love, and the poetry which 
sprung from them, the husband 
is designated as an allegorical 
personage under the name of 
Danger, as being the person uuho 
has legal jurisdiction aver the 
wife. In the 1st scene of Julius 
Ccvsar, the cobbler says of old 
shoes, ** when they are in great 
danger, I recover them, *' playing 
on the two legal terms danger 
and recover, 

daungerous, imperious, domineer- 
ingy forbidding. C. 519. 

dawes, days. A, R, 

da^, day ; pL da33ess. O. 229. 

de*id,* dead, 

deades, //. deeds, L, 485. 

idealed, pp. divided. L, 

deale, //. parts^ divisions, L, 

524. 
dearnunga,* secretly, privately. 

Joh. 

dearnunge,* jor^/^, privately. 
dear.* .S*^^ durran, to dare. 
dedtJ,* 2m, death, 
dcboncre (/r. debonnaire), 

courteous, affable. R. 
debonert6, kindness, goodness, 

gentleness. A. R. 



debrused, pp, bruised, crushed. 
R, 
decrece, to decrease. L. 
dede, deed ; pi. dedess. O. 
dede, dead, the dead. P. P. 

Ml\ G, 
deden, //. deeds. A, R.; L. 

485. 
deef, deaf. C, 448. 
defaute, want, defect, R. 162 ; 

P.P. 6. 
derendeJ),y??r^/i/</<?/^ P,P. 347. 
^oS-y^n, to digest, P.P. 219. 
delless, g,s. diviTs. O, 204. 
dcie, day. A, R, 
deien, to die. G, ; A. R, 
deies, by day. A, R, 
deih, ought, must, debere. {A. 

S. dugan, q, v,) A, R. 166: 

24. 
deynt6, dainty, rare, valuable, of 

superior breed or quality, C. 

168. 
d ey s, dais, table of state, C 3 7 2 . 
del, part, portion, O,; R, 30. 
delden, p, pi, parted, divided, 
dele, to deal, divide, distribute. 

{A, S. d^lan. ) R 11. 
dele, apart. G, 
del fan* (18), to delve, dig; he 

dylfiS ; p,s, dealf ; //. dulfon ; 

pp, dolfen. 
delyver (/r. delivre, Lat. liber), 

quick, active, nimble, C. 84. 
d6man, * ^^d^man, to deem, doom, 

decide, judge, consider ; p. 

d^mde, ^«l^mde; pp. ^^^med. 
demende, demynge, pr, p.judg* 

ing, Ps, Ivii. 12. 
demeth, deme, imp, pi. judge. 

Ps. Ivii. 2. 
deofell, defell, devil, evU spirit. 

O. 



deonej GLO; 

deoUc, dcjil ; pi. deoflen. A. 

R. 
dcofdl.* deod, zm. d^sil. 
deo\, dole, grief. R.; P. P. 216. 
deijp,* ii/A ^l- 
deopiice,* i/ii-ply, prafoundly. 
dei'ipnjs, • ' 3/t dtepntss, pro- 

fundit\\ tnyskry. 
dciSr,* 21. beast, animal : deer ; 

pL nom. ace. detSr; g. dedra; d. 

dedrum. 
deor, der, beast, deer ; d. deore, 

deor ; pi. dcor, deores ; g. pi. 

deorcn, deore, deor. L. 251, 

269. 
deore, dear, precious. P.P.; 

L.; A. R. 
deore, adv. dearly. A. R.; P. 

p. 346. 

deorewurt5e, precious. A. R. 
gcdeori,* in. labour, tribulalicm, 

68:2. 
deiirling,* 3^ dcarling, darling, 

million, favourite. Us. 
deorre, dear, dearer. A. R. 
dedrwyrSc,* dearwor/i, valuable, 

precious. 

departed, dixtribuled. G. 
departede, p.s. druided. Lk. xv. 

dcrevni (/V. desniigner), tolry, 
prm: R. 

derf. labour, pain, hardship. A.R. 

derian,* derigan, to hurl, in- 
jure; annoy ; nocere, Isdere ; 
pr. s. dercS ; //. deriaS ; p. 
derede. 

dcrneluker, more secrelh: A.R. 

descritcd, pp., dcseritede, p.s., 
disinherited, dispossessed. R. 

desi, doesL A. R. 

devys, view, opinion, decision. C. 



iARY. 3S4 

devjse, pr.s.ifi. tell or spetdttf. 
C. 34. 

d;iS.« See don. 

de|), death ,- g. debes ; d. d^ 
R. 

diacon, zot. eleacon. 

di. icon hid, 2m. deaeonhood. 

dyadliche, deadly. A. 1. 

die, dich, ditch, dike. L. 153. 

i-dyket, pp- digged. P.P. 299. 

difforraed, deformed. M. 

digel,* 3/: a secret. 

digel,* digol, digle, deu-k, a- 
crct, obscure ; on digle, ondig- 
lum, in secret, secretly. JA. 
vii. 4 ; 65:9, 25, 28. 

dJgellice,* secretly, privify. 

digeln)-s,*3/ secret, secrecy, pri- 
vacy; obscurity, mvstery. 65:10; 
67: t. 

d;gol!;ce,* secretly, prrmh. Sa 
digellke. 

dihian,* ^c'dihtan, to sit in er- 
dcr, dispose, arrange, appoint, 
direct, prepare, compose, dictate; 
p. dihte ; pp. gediht. 65:5. 

dihic'f, pr. s. rules, disposes. L. 
483. 

dvm-liof,* 2ffl. hiding-place. 

d'idp,* deep. Bs. 

diopcndion, electuary. P. P. 

lOI. 

dii5pliee,* deeply. Bs. 
dj'r,* dear, precious, valuable. 
dyrsiignys,* ^.boldncss.presump- 

^aiirstlMcan,* to dare, presume ; 

p. tehie ; pp. \x\\\. 57:16. 
disccjdines, jlagelLilions. A.R. 
disclaundre, disgrace. P.P. 
di.screue, to describe, P.P. 62. 
disele (Fr. disetle), tvant, toth 

ert,: si. l. 



3^5 



GLOSSARY. 



[dragan 



dysig,* 2n. /oily, 

dysignes,* 3/I dkziness^ /olfy* 

delusion. Os. 
dispence, expense ; esy in dis- 

pence (C 443), l^^l, moderate^ 

in expenditure, 
dispilous, unpiiiful, unchari- 

iahle. C, 518. 
dispon, sporty diversion. C. 137. 
disschere, a maker of dishes? 

P. P. 166. 
disscbere, ditcher. P. P. 164. 
digt, direct. A. I. 
di^tep {A. S. ^^dihtan), pr. pi. 

direct. A. I. 
di^te, p.s. directed. A. I. 
di^edest, didst die. P. P. 245. 
dy^en, to die. P. P. 
di^ete, sub. s. 2p. diet. P. P. 

405. 
y-dyiji.prepared, made. P.C.'jd. 
^-do, pp. done, made. R. 
dockud, pp. docked^ cut short, 

C. 592. 
doke, duck; pi. dokes. M. 

242:6; P. P. 58. 
i-dodded, //. cropped^ shorn, 

A. R. 
doddungc, tonsure, A. R, 
doh, pr. s,^p, ^don, doth, L. 

881. 
dohtc. * See dugan. 
ddhtor,* dohter, nom. g. ace. 

daughter ; d, ddhtor, d6hter ; 

//. nom, ace, dohtor, ddhtra, 

d<5htru, ddhter ; g. ddhtra ; d, 

ddhtrum. 
i-doluen, pp, delved, P, P. 299. 
d<5m,* 2m, doom, judgment, Ju- 
risdiction, power, 
dom, judgnunt. Eccl. xii. 14. 
ddm-em,* 2n. a judgment-place. 

Joh. xviii. 28, 33. 



domess da^^, doomsday, O, 247. 
ddm-setl, * 2/1. judgment-seat, 

Joh, xix. 13. 
d(5n,* ge^6ii, to do, make, cause, 

bring to pass, put, apply, pour ; 

ic d(5, fd d(^t, be d^« ; //. 

d(j^ ; subj, s, d<5 ; //. ddn ; p, 

dyde ; pi. dydon ; pp, ge(\6xi ; 

imp, d6 fd ; //. ddtJ. 67:12. 
don, to do, make, cause, place ; 

do fe dun, cast thee down, O, 

11357, 11899. 
don, pr, pi, do, make, cause, 

P, P, 411. i-don, //. caused, 

P, P, yS. 
do net, grammar, jirst principles, 

elements. From Donatus, the 

Grammarian. P. P, 123. 
donne (to), dat, in/, to do, be 

done. A, R, 
dormant, ///. sleeping; met, 

jixed, stationary; table dormant, 

used perhaps as a side-board, 

and so called as opposed to the 

ordinary table which cotisisted 0/ 

planks laid on trestles, C, 355. 
dorstc. * .S*^^ durran. 
dorste, dared, R. 
dortour, dormitory, P. C, 59. 
doscyn, dozen, P. P. 164. 
doubte, y^ar. G. 144. 
doune, a down. R, pi, dounes. 

L, 259. 
dou^tiore, doughtier, stouter, 

braver, P, P, 84. 
dowte (out of), without doubt, 

doubtless, C, 489. 
dof, imp, pi, do, put. R, 
do fine hope, set thy hope. A, I. 
do'^ier, daughter ; //.do^tren. R, 
dragan* (9), to drag, draw ; 

he draeg8 ; p.s, drdg, drdh ; 

//. drdgon ; pp, dragen. 



dn^ges] GLO! 

dragges, ilrug!. C. 428. 
drauhS, dr,rd.\-lh. A. R. 
drawelli, imp. pi. draw ; draweih 

cut, draw tots. C. 837. 
draihcnn, to draw ; p.s. drohh, 

droh. 0. 
^i-drecced iiys, * j/t tribulation. 

57:22. 
drecchcp f^A. S. dreccan), pr. 

pi. Vix, grUvt, oppress. P. C. 

162. 
dreden, to dread. A. R. 
gntii^nn* to disturb, disquiet, 

/rouble, afflid, offend ; p. -de ; 

pp. -ed. 

ftxlr^fednes,* 3/^ trouble, dis- 
turbance. Bs. 
^.■drefednjs, ^ trouble, afflic- 

dreih. Sec drien. A. R. 

dreint, p.s. drenched, drowned. 
G. 137. pp. drcinie. G. 167. 

drenc,* 2m. drink, draught, po- 
tation. 69:32. 

drciigan,* drogcn (19), to do, 
stiffcr, sustain ; p.s. dreiih ; pi. 
drujfon ; pp. drogen. 

dr^,* 2m. wizard, magician, sor- 
cerer ; g. drj'es, drys. 86:33. 

drien {A. S. drcogan), to en- 
dure, suffer; pr. drie», drih8; 
p. dreih; pr. sub. drie. A. 
R. 

drifan* (20). to drive ; p.s. diif, 
fu drifc ; pi. drifon ; pp. dri- 
fen, ^fdrifen, 

drigan,* dr^gan, to dry, rub 
dry ; p. -de ; pp. -ed. Joh. 

drihhiin, lord ; g. -ess. 0, 
drihle, drihlen, lord. L. 4. 
dryhle-ealdor,* 2m. rultr 0/ a 
household, meeting, or feast. 



5ARY. 3« 

drihlen, *dr5-hten, 2m.AeLord, 
a lord, master. 

drihtenes, g. s. Lor^s. L. 555. 

drihtlicho, good, noble, Ivri^: 
L. 837. 

drihltenes, g. s. Lords. L. 

^mirinc,* ^rtJrj'nc, 2«. driiJi, 
drinking ; pi. drjncu. Bs. 

drincan* (zi), to drink; he 
drincS ; p. dranc; pL dnin- 
con ; pp. druncen, 

drinnc, drinnch, drink, draught; 
pi. drinnchess. O. 

drisie.yiir dniite? Lord. L.A. 

driue, imp. pi. drive. A. R. 

drof, p.s. drove. R. 

droh, p.s. -y'drajen, drew. L. 

droll, drojhenn. See drajhena 

drohtan,* drohlian, drohtnian, 
to live, pass {time), divell, con- 
verse, keep com/tarry with; p, 
-ode ; pp. -ed ; hii him \6 
drohtnigenne wiere, hmo it 
should live ; lit,, hmo it was Ui 
be lived by him. 75:17 ; 69:10. 

drohinung,* zf- 'y^. course ef 
life, conduct. 68:7. 

drough, p.s. drew {near), ap- 
proached. G. 155. 

drouh, p.s. drew; drouh lo, 
approached. P.P. 

drow, p.s. drew, turned, was 
disposed. R. 8. 

Arov.-\>\iA, p. pi. dro(^fd. C107. 

drunc, drink. A.R. 

druncen,* drunken, drunk. 

dude, p.s. did, put, placed. L.; 
A.R.; R. dude on, donned. L. 
zpers. dudesL P.P. 4S0. pi 
dude ; dude in strong prison. 
R. duden. L. 

dugan* {prelei-itioe), to projit, 
aiw'l, help, be good for {Ger. 



3^7 



GLOSSARY. 



[eande 



taugen) ; fd duge, he dedh; //. 

dugon ; /. dohte, )>u dohtest ; 

pi, dohton ; pres, part, du- 

gende. 
dalue, suhj. pi. dehcd. A, jR. 
ddn,* 3/1 a dawn, a mountain, 

63:23. 
dun, adv. down, O. 
dunes, dcwns. L, 259, 836. 
dunien, dunie {A, S, dynan), 

io din, resound; p. dunede. 

Z. 77, 625, 629. 
dunt, dint, blow, L. 788. no 

wille . . . of dunt, no power , . , 

of striking. R, 
durethe, pr, s. lasts, continues, 

extends, M, 239:25, 30. 
durran* = durron. Os, 
durran* {preteritrve), to dare; 

ic, he, dear, fd dearst ; pi. 

durron ; pres, subj, durre ; //. 

durron (-en); /. dorste ; //. 

dorston. 
durren, pr, suhj, dare. A, R, 
duru,* if, door ; g. -e (-a, -u, 

-anj; ace, -e (-a, -u);//. dura 

(-u). Joh. XX. 19, 26 ; 94:1. 
duru-finen, 3/! female door- 
keeper, foh, xviii. 17. 
dute, doM, A. R, 
du^e^e, power, L, 250. 
du^e^e-n, f, folk, people, L, 
du^e^e-cnihtes, knights, L, 231. 
dwelian,* dwolian, to err, mis- 
take ; trans, to cause to err, 

decdve, mislead ; p. dwealde ; 

pp, ^«iweled, ^^d weald ; also, 

p. -ode ; pp, -od. 
dwyld,* ^^dwild, ^^dwyld, 2n, 

error, heresy, sin, 63:28. 



eif* f water, river; indecl. in s. 



but sometimes, especially in com* 
pos. , gen, eds ; //. ed ; d, edm, 

edn. 
edc,* eke, also, moreover; edc 

swylce, also, likewise, in like 

manner, 
eadig,* blessed, happy, affluent, 
^^eddmddan,* to humble {one's 

self)y prostrate, worship, adore, 
eddm^dlic,* eddmdd, eddmdd- 

lic, humble, submissive, respect- 
ful, 

eddm<5dlice,* humbly, 
edge*, in. eye, Joh, ix. 6, 14, 

21,32; X. 21; xi. 37 ; xii. 40. 
edgon = edgum,* d.pl, eyes, foh, 
eahta,* eahte, eight; indecl, 
eahtateone, eighteen, S,C, 111:8. 
eahtalig,* eighty, Os, 
eal.* See eall. 
edld,* edld ed, O I alas I Bs. 

98:23 ; 99:9. 
ealat5,* tf^. Os, 82:18. 
eald,* <?/<// comp, yldra, -e, -e; 

super I, yldest. 
ealdian,* to grow old ; pres. 2s, 

ealdst. y^i^. xxi. 18. /.-ode; 

pp. Ige-eMen,'] 
eal dor,* 2 m. elder, chief, ances- 
tor, prince, 
ealdron* = ealdrum, d, pi, el- 
ders. Joh, xii. 42. 
eall,* all ; indef decl, mid ealle, 

totally ; ealra betst, best of all, 
ealles,* in all, altogether, totally, 
ealneweg,* ealneg, ahvay. Bs, 
eallunga,*' eallunge, totally, 

wholly, quite ; omnino. 
ealo,* ale. Bs. 
ealswd, * also, as, like as, 67:25 
ealu,* ale, 

earn,* 2m, uncle, Os, 
eande, end. L, 



ear] GLOS 

ear, tre, le/art. A. R. 

card,* im. nalrvi soil, country, 

iaMitiim ; pi. eardas, fidds. 

Joh. iv. 35. 
eardian,* to inhabit, dwell; p. 

-ode; pp. -od. 63:19. 
eardung-s[<5w, * 1/. dwelling- 

place. Joh. 

earfoS,* hard, difficult, trouile- 

somA' 65:23, 25. 
earfoS,* 2«. difficulti; trouile, 

Iri/iulatioii ; pi. earfofu. Bs. 
tiiid!&\\cc,*wilhdifficull};hardfy, 

earfoi5n)-s, • 3/ difficulfy, trouble, 

hardship, pain. 
earg,* earli, xoeak, timid. Bs. 
earm,* im. arm. 
tain\* poor, miserable, wretched. 
earm, ami ; pi. carmes. A.R. 
earn, eagle ; pi. earnes. A. R. 
earnec, to run. L. 628. 
^^eamian,* to earn, gala, merit, 

attain ; p. -ode ; pp. -od. 
^«arnung,* a/C an earning, 

merit, desert, benefit. 
edst,* east, eastwards. 
edslan,*_/>-i>/H the east; -an is 

added chiejly to other aiherbs, and 

denotes motion from a plate. 
edst-d&!,* im. the east. 
Edster,* E-istor, 2». Easter; pi. 

Edstra, Eilstro. 
Easter-dieg,* zm. Easter-dqy, 

Passaoer. 
Edster- fredU-daiB,* zm. /east of 

the Passover. Joh. xiii. i. 
'Eisi.e\-i\A,* if. Easter-liile. ^l. 
edsteweard,* edstweard, east- 

Fjstre,* 1/ Easter, the/east at 
Easter, the Passover. 



5ARY. ;68 

edst-ijhte,* due east. 
Edstron,"* nam. dat. pL Eastir. 

Joh. xi. 55 ; xviii. iS. 
eawra;s(,* e&vateSL, pinu, deaA 

68:13. 
eax, axe. A. H. 
edS,* easy; comp. edSra, Aire; 

superl. edSost. 
edS-ljfere,* easily taught, leaeh- 

able. 
edSe,* Ee8e, adv. easily ; eoif. 

66 ; superl edCost 
edKelicor,* more easily. 58:7. 
^fl^SmiMan,* to humHe; wilk 

ace. o/pron., to worship. Sa 

frtrfdtnedan. 
edSmdlto,* pi. n. humiliti', sti- 

mission ; gen. cdCm^tta. Bi. 
edCmiidnes,* j/T humdity. Os. 
cd6m<5dnessan = edSmttdDCS- 

sum.* 84:19. 
ec, eie, also. A. R.; O. 
ek, eke, also. H. III. 
icATt,* to eke, increase ; p. s. fete; 

pi. icton ; pp. geiccd. Bs. 
6ct,* eternal. 69:35, 
eccd, tn. acid, vinegar. Jok. 

xix. 29. 
eked, eked out. P. C 92. 
ekenn {A. S. edcan), to addle, 

increase. O. 57. pp. ekedd. 

O. 46. 
eche {A. S. &e), e&mal 0. 
echon, each one, each. R. 
&n)S,* denes, 3/; eternity; on 

^nesse, on ^nysse, forever. 

Joh. vi. 51, 
&on,* d.s. = £cum, eternal 

Joh 
ei\-,* a prefix equioalmt to Latat 

^^dcennan,* to bear or bring 
forth again. 



GLOSSARY. 



[elles 



adder y serpent, Ps, 

• 

* 2;;. reivard; retribution; 
lean. 60:10. 

nesse, humility. A, R, 

n,* anew, 

kvitiing, reproach, {^A. 

•witan.) R, 

ars. C. 558. 

t>. pL ate, P.P, 356. 

:an,* ^t'efenlaecan, to be 

!v, imitate ; p, efenl^hte ; 

eht. 

ke, equal in power, O, 

• 

\f, eaves {0/ a house) , 
brink. 

* to round as eaves ^ dip^ 
'p. -ode ; pp, -od. 

lin. O, 

lot behold I even, truly ; 
cce ! 

rwer^ ability. A, R, 
'en, even with. L. 
pp. compared, A. R, 
\pl. compare. A, R, 
soon after, R, 
' to hasten ; p, efste. 
ain, after ^ afterwards; on 
er hand. 

i*(i4), to give back, re- 
p.s. eftageaf; //. efta- 
i ; pp. efigifen. Os, 
\ proportion to. A, R, 
leres, after-tellers. A, I. 
n. awe, fear, dread, foh, 
: ; Os. 83:27. 
;, soon after, again, in 
iltera vice. M, 243:34. 

* aivful, terrible, 63:15. 

* aiiful, terrible. Os, 

* anuful. 

* awful, dreadful, terrible. 



egged, p.s, urged, P, C, 87. 
(a, S, eggian. ) 

eggenn, to urge, incite; pr, s, 
eggcj))). O, 

egginng, urging, O, 

ehne. See e^he. O, 

^htan, * to follow, persecute^ as- 
sail ; he dht ; f)L ^htatS ; /. 
6hte ; govs, g, or ace, foh, v. 
16. 

^hlnys,* ^htung. ^.persecution, 

eh^ene, d, pi, e}'es, L, 

t\Q,fear, A, R, {A. S, ege.) 

eie, eye. R, 

eye, egg, P, C. 73. 

eien, eyes, A. R. 

eihsiht5e, eyesight, sight. A.R, 

eihte, eight. A, R. 

eihte, cattle. A, R, 165:8. 

eihtu6e, eighth. A, R, 

eilen, to hurt, annoy ; pr. eilet5 ; 
pr, sub, eilie. A, R, i^A, S. 
ddlian, to ail, ) 

eir, heir ; pi, eirs. R. 181. 

eyren, />/. eggs, M, 242:6. 

eyres, heirs, R, 68. 

else, ease. A, R, 

ei^e, eye ; pi, ei^en. P,P. 44, 
90. 

ei^e, eye. P.P, 33. *'Let hem 
wonte non ei3e," let them uuint 
no eye, i, e, , keep an eye on them. 
The * ' Crowley '* tixt reads : 
** Late no wynnynge hem for- 
weny," i,e,y let no gain spoil 
them. 

elderne, elders, R, 

eldran,* elders, parents, ances- 
tors ; g, pi. eldrana. 97:13. 
Sec ealdor. 

eldre, elders, ancestors. L. 572. 

ele,* 2m, oil. 
' elles,* else^ otherwise, 
6* 



ellfetW] GLOS 

ell|)coii,* if. foreign country or 

nation, e.xile. Os. 
ein,* if. tit. foh. xxi. 8. 
ell>eiid,* if. foreign nation, for- 

emhe,* prep, about, for. 61:4. 
embrowJid, pp. tmbroidtred. C 

89. 
cmcristen {A. S. efencrislen), 

Okn, or fdlaw-christian A. I. 
cmerEudes, emeralds. M. [^Lat. 

smaragdi.) 
emn,* ait-n, level, plain; on 

emn, cvtn with, by the side of , 

coiwl with. 
emn,* equally. Bs, 
emnlange,* along, 
emn-sccolcre.* 2m. fellmjD-dis- 

cipli, schoolfdloio. Os. 87:11. 
encloied, hurl in the foot. G. 



ende,* 2m. end, extremify ; part, 
quarter ; feower endas fyses 
middangeardes, four endi 
{quarters) of this earth. 

f i-endcbyrdan, • endebyrdian, lo 
order, ordain, place, arrange ; p. 
f(rendebj-rde ; pp. ^^ndebyrd, 
-byred. 70:4. 

endebyrdnys* (-nes), if. ar- 
rangement, order, detail ; )>urh 
endebyrdnys, in turn, 

endede, p.s. ended, built. R. 4. 

endemes,* equally, in like man- 
ner, together. Bs. 

ender daie, last day, yesferdav, 
lately. P. C. S7. \A. S. ende 
dseg, dies moriis. Beda, 3, 8. 
Ca^itpon, 4196.) 

^eendian,* to end, finish, perfect; 
p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

endyng, ending, death. R. 



lARY. 370 

endlufon,* eleven; mdecl. 
ffendung,* ^. an ending, end. 
ene, alone, on/y. R. 
enes, on^e. It.; A. R. fit enei, 

at once. A. R. 
enforside, pj, enJeasoured, strtee. 

Gen. xxsvij. 31. 
engcl, 2m. angel; pi. engias, 
englcne, g. pi. of angels. A, R. 
enhauncid, enhaunsid, ^ ex- 
alted. Ps. xlv. II. 
eni, any. A. R. 
enne, ace. s. m. one, ait, m 

enneo8er, another. L. 
enngell, angel, messenger ; pL 

enngless. O. 
ennglet>eod, angel-host. 0. 
enonchbalse, wood of the balsam 

trees, M. 343:10. 
enqueri,/:) inquire, inpesligaU. R. 
enseure, to assure. P.P. 394. 
ent,* zm. giant ; pi. enlas. 
entaile, shape. G. 64. 
enUyled, pp. carved, cut. P. C 

15. sculptured P. C. 48. 
entriketh, deceives. G. 1 16. 
entuned, pp. intomd. C. 1 23. ■ 
envjned, supplied with wme. C 

344- 
eode,*/.x. went; pi. eodon, 

eodun ; used for the past of 

gangan or ^n, instead of 

gdng, vAich occurs chicfy n 

poetry. 69:24. 

coden, went, have gone. A.R. 
eorl, earl, man ; g. eorles ; d. 

eorle ; pi. eorles ; g. eorlene ; 

d. eorl en, L. 
I ormS. * See yrtnK. 
lOrnosilice,* earnestly; so, now, 

therefore, but. 
eorwer, apparently an error for 

cov/a,yvur. L. 835. 



371 



GLOSSARY. 



[elholdcn 



eori5-beofung,* 3/! an earth- 
quake, Os. 

Cor6-bugigend, * 2m, inhabitant 
of earth. See bugian. 

eortJe,* \f, earthy land, 

eor8e, eor8en, f, earth, land, 
ground, L. 357. d, an eor- 
tSen, in land, L. 934. 

eorjHJ, earth, O, 

eortSlic,* earthly, worldly, 

eorf li^, earthly, O, 

eortS-tilia, * im, earth-tiller, hus- 
bandman. 

eortJu,* 3/1 earth, land, 

e6w,* d, ace, pi, to you, you. 
Sec )»d. 

eowed,* eowde, flock, herd ; m, 
according to Rask, Grein, and 
Bosworth, but in ^l/ric's 
Homily on the Good Shepherd the 
limiting words are fern, : ic wylle 
dhreddan mine eowde. 61:7. 
ic haebbe dtSre sc^p fe ne sind 
na of tJisre eowde. 6 1 :30. Crist 
hi gebrindS ealle on dnre 
eowde on tSam 6can life. 62:1. 

edwer,* g, pi. of fd, of you, 
your ; used as a possessive adj. 
pron., and declined indefinitely, 
like uncer, q, v, 

er, before. A, R. 

er, hereafter, R, 296. 

erberes {O, Fr, berbier, Lat, 
herbarium), gardens, P. C, 

14. 

ercebisceop, 2m. archbishop, 
75:11. 

ercedeknes, archdeacon's. C. 
660. 

ercehdd, * 2m, archiepiscopal dig- 
nify, 

ere, to ear, plow, till, M, p, 
erede. A. R, 



eren, //. ears. P. P, 

eres, ears. C, 591. 

erest, first, A. R, 

erian,*/<? plow ; p, -ode, -ede ; 
//. -od, -ed. 78:35. 

ermtJ, 3/I pcverfy, misery, dis- 
tress, wretchedness, Bs, See 
yrmtS. 

erreden, /.//. have erred,strayed. 
Is. liii. 6. 

errynge, wandering. Gen, 
xxxvii. 15. 

errnde {A. S, aerend), errand, 
message, O, 159, 176, 178. 

ert, {thou) art, . A, R, 

erfe, earth ; bringe an erfe, 
bring into earth, burial, R, 

esmaied, astonished, G, 325. 

esne* {Goth, asneis), zm, man, 

young man, servant, - 

esse, to ask ; p.s, esste. R, 

essiess,pl. dainties, {A, S, est.) 
O, 1 1 546. 

estful,* kind, benignant, devout. 

estful, dainfy, delicate, fastidious; 
pi, estfule. A, R, 

esud, //. CKcommodated, enter- 
tained, C. 29. 

et enes, at once. A, R, 

etan,* ettan (12), to eat, con- 
sume; ic ete, )>d ytst, he }*t, 
ytt ; //. etatS, ete ; p.s. aet, et 
{foh, ii. 17); J>u &te ; //. 
deton ; sub, ete, eton ; p. dete, 
&ton ; imp, et ; //. etatS, ete ; 
pp. eten. foh, vi. 31, 49, 50, 

51, 52» 53. 54, 56, 57, 5S. 
etenn, to ecd ; p.s. et. O, 

etfleon, to flee away ; escape. A, 

R, {A, S, aetfleon.) 

ethalt See etholden. 

ether, or. Gen. xli. 44 

etholden, to retain, withhold; 



pr. eihall; pp. ctlioldcn. A. R. 
.61:7, 
fAXAw* lo pastun ^ 79:10. Eal 
fKt his man apcr o86e etlan 
oSSc erian mxg, a// thai of it 
(tht land ) one tUhcr pasture or 
plough can. Thorpe Iranslatti 
iHcornctly, "all thai hit man 
could tilhiir pasture or plough ; 
'his ' stands for *land. ' " SfC 

cuelliis, without evil, uncorrupted. 

P. a 90. 

even-forl', straight ahead. P. 
a II. 

cuensong, vespers. P. P. 190. 
// seems ta mean here midnight, 
the reading o/onc of the MSS. 

cuerich, cijcry. A. R.; R; 
L. 

eueriche a, each, P. C. 119. 

euesed, //. surrounded by dipt 
borders. P. C. 14. 

everychonc, every one. G. 

expounede, p.s. expounded, in- 
terpreted. Gen. xli. 8. 

espowneris, expounders, inter- 
preters. Gen. xli. 8. 

^fel, 2m. country, native coun- 
try, home. 69:16, nin witega 
n>s andfengc on his dpelc. 
Lk. iv. Z4. 

cjen, eyes. P.P. 

e^he(.i. i'. eage), yi'/ biibienn 
Godess cjhne, ehne, before the 
eyes of God, 

ejle, property. H. III. 0. 
11846. 

ejtende, eighth. A. I. 

ejtetentjfo, eighteenth. H. III. 

ejjwhasr (_A. S. Eeghvvier), 
tverywhere. O. 46, 53, 105, 



fdcn,* zn, fraud, guik. JA. l 

47. pi. facnu. 
faeder,* m. falAer; inJaL wr. 

but sometimes g. ftederes ; /i 

fedetas. 
gebed^TZ.,* i m. godfather, gaa^ 
l"Ederon*=f:ederum, d.pl./iiA- 

ers. foh. vii. 22. 
fegenian.* See fegnian. 
fegcr,* fair, beautiful, gooi 

64:21. 
fieger,* ^.fairness, beauty: 
fxs^ie,* frir/y, beatUifuUy. 
fKgcrnys,* '^.fairness, beaulf. 
fegnian,* to/aicn, rtjoia. 
fsehl, p.s. fought. L. S06. 
facie, fated, destined to die ; tlii'., 

dead {A. S. feg. ) L. 63*, 

7"5- 
iTfeied, haied, hateful. L. 613. 
fa;ie-Bcipe, destruction. L. 657, 
&eic-sih, death-lime, death, it- 

struetimi. I,. 87, 797, 
fcreld,* 2n. way, journey, pas- 
sage, progress. 
firlic,* sudden, fortuitous;/- 

firlicu. 
fiferlicc,* suddenly ; by chance. 
fierti.* See faran. 
fiesi, fast, strong, firm. Ot.; 

Bs. 
Sccsie,* ads. fast. 
festen,* tn. fast, fasting. 
laestcn, 2n. fastness, fortrttt, 

ciladd. Os. 
liesthafel,* fast-having or -hold- 
ing, tenacious. 69:11. 
issKMc'at, faslly, quickly. L. 
ftestnian,* ^^faestnian, to fasten, 

fix, confirm ; p. -ode; pp. -od. 

69:10. 



373 t'LUS 

festnung,* ^ afaslening. 

&t,* 2n. a vat, vessel, cup ; pi. 
n. ace. fatu; g. faia; d. fbtuin. 

fieteis,* 2m. bag, sack, purse, 
scrip; vessel. 66:31. £ete)s = 
feteisasi" vessels. Os. 82: 1 8. 

fiett, fett, /al, /ailed. Bs. 

gei^gnn.^/ain, glad, Joyful. Bs. 

fayntise, feigning, pretence, de- 
eeU. P. C. 99. 

lair ; a Hiir for the maistrie, a 
fair one for ecclesiastical prefer- 
ment i> C. 165. 

&imesse (C. 521), i.e. of Irving. 

faylen, to tame. P.P. 49. 

feld,* 2m^ a fold, skeepfoUl,stall, 
stable. Joh. k. i. 

feldyng, a coarse, rough-napped 
cloth. C. 393. 

fcile, many. L. 

felle, befatU P.P. 42. 

f-fal!c, pp. fallen, happened. C. 

follen, falle, to fall, happen; p.s. 

feol, ful; pi. feolen, futlen. L. 
&lkn, falle, to fell ; p.s. feolde, 

fulde ; p. pi fcoldcn. L. 
fitllenn, to fail, belong, happen ; 

pr. pi. and pp. fallenn. 0. 
hm\i]ier, familiar, homely. C. 

iTan./wTj. L. 777. 

fandcnn, to tempt, try. 0. 

1 1336. sub. zp. fande, O. 

"374, 11982; //. fandedd. 

0. 1 1324. 
fandiaii,*/b/9', prove, tempt; p. 

-ode ; pp. -od ; pres. p. fandi- 

endc. foh. viii. 6. 
fendinng, temptation ; ace. fan- 

dinnge. 0. 
(andung,* 3/? trial, temptation, 

probation, inquiry. 62:14. 



ARY. [feblore 

fengan* (8), to lake, receive i 
p.s. feng; pi ffingon ; pp. 
fangen. See ftSn. 

^^fangcn, pp. captured, taken 
prisoner. See fdn. 

far,* faru, 3/ fare, course, jour- 

far, imp. fare, go; pi. fareK. L. 
faran, frrfaran (9), to fare, go, 
jourmy, march ; pd fa;rst, he 

ix'^;pl. faraS;>.j. {6i ; pi. 

{6ton 'tpp. &ren, gehren. foh. 

i- 43- 
l%\t,far; hre \eaex, far rather. 

Ji. 
faren, to fare. L. 
farenn, to go ; p.s. for. O. 
&rsud, pp. stuffed. C. 332. 

(Za/. Tarsus. ) 
fessie i^A. S. fa;sten),y^i/. 0. 

1 1330- 
^ssicnn {^A. S. festaii), to fast. 

0. 11327. pp. fasstedd. O. 

11748. 
fasstinng. _/iM/(ii^. (?. 11436. 
fasiebi,y(M/i>', n^i/-. L. 9. 
fajeresl, faired. L. 
geiei,* \m. joy. 
fi^feahL* if? feohlan. 
feald, 2m. fold. Os. 
fealdan (i), to fold, wrap up; 

he fyh; p.s. lerild ; pi. feol- 

don ; pp. ^ifealdcn. J<A. 
featlan, ^rfeatlan ( 1 ),/o/J//^/7; 

he fyl«, feal« ; p.s. fc6ll ; pt. 

fe<jllon; //. feallen. 60:3. 
feaw, ■ fcawa, _/1w / d. feawum ; 

superl. feawosta ; used wilh gen. 

of the noun. 
feax,* zn. hair, the locks ; qqvqa, 



febli, lo become feeble. R. 
feblore, /frfAr. R. 



feccan] GLOI 

feccan, * :^rrrcg;\n, jifuccnn, to 
f.t,h, hrinir /", i-irry <-ff, laki. 

[/t. -fchiL- ? /'/'. li'ln'?] 
fedan.* toftcJ. niun'sh, iducali; 

he fei, fctt ; /. fwlde ; //. fed- 

ed. fodd. 6+:2. lo. 
fcdcnn, lofuJ. 0. 
fcfcr,* fefor, zm, fever. Jgh. 

iv. S3. 
feffede, p.s. enJmfetl, ^s/mvii. 

{Fr. ficffer, h co/avy the fief or 

fit h a »,iv owner. ) ^,556. 
fegesst, 2fi.s. jfines/. O. 11523. 
/p. fejcdd, eompoud. O. 11501. 

{A. 6: ft"p'an.) 
felitcB, filiief, fi^-fikth. L. 703. 
ftya<iAe,p.s.f,if;ned. P.C. 84. 
fcyntise, yaw/wcw. P. P. 5. 
feyntysc./lH/i/ffwj', cowardice. R. 
iein,fiir/t; hafipitv ; feire mote 

you falle'. P. P. \z. 
kite, fair. A. R. 
i-feifed, pp. haUd, halefal. L. 

613. 
fel,* 2n,///, Mn, hide. 
le\, p.s. fll, happened. P. P. 
fela,* many, muih ; videcl. and 

used wiih gen. of the n 

67:6. 
h\A,failed. R. 122. 
fele, numy ; fele mo, many 

more. P. C. 60. 
fell.* See fel. 
felles, skins. A. R. 
fen, murk, mire. P. C. 120. 
{enii,fiend.P. C. 152.158. 
■"^"g. if'feng. See fin. 
fenn,* 2m. mud, dirl, clay. Joh. 

ix. II. 
fcoh,* fe(5, 211. calth, herd, 

money, properly, weallh ; ii- 

cende feoh, lying property, all 
inanimate possessions, moitey, 



treasure, etc. 82:28. f. Erfs; 
d. fed. 
feohan,* feJn (14), tofm.le 
glad, rejoice ; p. s. feah ; /i 
fealion, fsegon ; pp. feohen. 
^■ffeoht, • 2tt. fighi, figkli^i, 
h<Ulle. 93:20; 83:17, 2a 
feotiian,* ^feoblan (18), k 
fight, gain ly fighting ; he hbt, j 
lilit ; p.s. feaht ; pi. fuhion ; ' 
pp. fohtcn, ^tfohten. 91:21: 
83117. 
fcol, pj. fell. L. 
^■■fetjl.* See feallan. 
feolde. fulde. p.s. felled ; p. pL 
feolden. L. 116. i'rtfaUen. 
feole. many. A. R. 
feolle-n, p. pi, fell. L. 
jTeolled, pp. filed. L. 99. 
fednd,* fitind, 2m. eiumy; ^. 
n.acc. ry-nd (fc<jndas. feund); 
g. fednda ; 1/. fedndum. 100:19. 
feondliche, feondeliche, fiend- 
ishly, fiercely, excecdiiigly. L. 
983. 
fedndscip,* 2m. hostility, enmity. 

91:6. 
feor,* adv. far ; comp. fym 
{adj.), fyr {adv.); superl. fji- 
rest {adj). 
feorh,* in. life; soul, spirit ; g. 

feorcs ; pi. feoru. 
feormesie, foremost. L. 
feormian,* to farm, take care of, 
cherish; entertain; J>rocure food; 
lo petrify, purge, cleanse. 
feorrene, foreign. A. R. 
iourSa,* fourth ,• def. decL 
ie6'«iij,* four ; g. fedwera ; d. 
fedwerura, fedwer; on ie<5- 
wer dagum. in four days. Os. 
{e6vitn\^,* forty; g. -tigra ; d 
-tigum. 



375 



GLOSSARY. 



[fiflyne 



fe<5wertigot5a,* fe<5wertig^a, for- 
ticih, Os. 

fer, adv. far, C. 493. 

^^f6ra,* \m. companion^ associ- 
ate. Joh. xi. 16. 

^^feraeden,* 3/I society^ fellow- 
ship, 

fi6ran,* to fare, go, set out, make 
a journey ; p.s, ferde ; //. f(6r- 
don. 

ferde, host, army ; ace, s. ferden, 
ferde. L, 423. 

ferde, p.s. fared, went. Z. 

iTeren, feres, //. companions, 
comrades, L, 94. 

ferme, rent, C, 253. {Fr, 
rente.) 

fermery, an infirmary, P, C, 60. 

feme, distant, C, 14. 

ferre, co?np. of fer, farther, C. 
48. 

ferrer, adv. farther. P, C, 55. 

ferrest, adj. farthest, most distant. 
C. 496. 

ferrs {A, S. fers), verse. O, 59, 

64, 67, 11943- 
fersc, *yr^f^, not salt. 
^^ferscipc,*^tfferscype, 2m. com- 
pany, society, class. 
ferlhing, lit., a small fourth; a 

small portion. C. 134. 
{QSsXeiiXi, to fasten, jix, O, 219. 
festne, to fasten. C, 195. 
fest See on -fast, on-feste. 
^€i,^ pr,s. feeds. See fddan. 
iti, pp, fetched, C. 821. 
fetel,* zm, girdle, belt ; d, pi, fet- 

lum. Bs. 105:20. 
fetys, feat, well-made, neat, 

fashionable. C157. {O. Fr, 

faictis ; Lat fact us. ) 
fetysly, fatly, neatly, hand- 

somely, C, 124 



fetously, neatlv. C. 275. 

f6tt. * See f^dan. 

fett,*///. Bs. Sce^il. 

fette, p.s. of fecchen, to fetch, 
bring. P.P. 29. fette water at 
his ei^en, threw water at his 
eyes, P,P, 223. 

fever,* fevor, im, fever. See 
fefer. 

^<ffexod,* haired, having a head 
of hair; comatus. 70:11. See 
feax. 

f(6t5a,* im, one on foot, foot-sol- 
dier ; a phalanx of infantry. 
83:22 ; 84:1. 

ft^t$e-here, * zm. foot-army, in- 
fantry. Os, 83:11. 

fetScna,*^. //. of foot, Os. 84:1. 
See f(6t$a. 

fefer, * fifer, in. father, wing ; 
pi. feperu. Grein makes it 3/I 

fikele, to flatter. R. 58, 169 ; 
pp. fikeled. R> 

fi kely ng, hypocrisy, flattering. R. 

32. 
fic-treow,* in. fig-tree ; pi. -tre- 

owu. joh. \. 48, 50. 
fiend,* enemy, foe, Bs. See 

fednd. 
Vi^* Jive ; g. sometimes fifa ; jCn 

fissa fifa, one of these five, Bs, 
{\{\7i* fifth; def decl. 
fifte healf,* yi>//r ^W a half; 

fifte healf m, four thousand 
five hundred, Os. 83:11. bealt 

placed after a numeral diminishes 

it a half; e.g., (5t$er healf, one 

and a half; pridde healf, two 

and a half; six healf, Jive and 

a half, etc. 
rifiig,* fifty ; g. fiftigra; d fif- 

tigum. 
fiflyne,* (yhyne, fifteen. 



fihhtcnn] GLOS 

fihhtenn, fo fight. 0. 11420, 

11477. 
fiht.fighl. A. R. 
fihten, lofiffhf. I.. 
fyligan,* fi'lian, fyiigcan, lo/ol- 

Imv; p. filigde, fylgde, filide ; 

imp. Mig. joh. i. 43 ; 627- 

fyilan,* ^^fjllan, to 01, satisfy, 
fulfil, finish ; p. fylde ; pp. ge- 

fylled. 63:4; 66:27; 67:7. 
frfyllcdnis, • ^. fulness, /ulfil- 

mtnl, completion. 
fillenn, to fill, fulfil, practise. O. 

21. 
filosofum, ace. philosopher. Os. 
fylstan,* to help, aid, support; 

p.s. fylste ; pi. fylston. 
frfylsta,* \m. hdfxr, assistant, 

supporter. 58:16. 
fylS,* falls, runs, fienvs. Os. 

80:7. See feallan. 
fyn, pure, sheer; for fyn mys- 

e\se,for pure maltreatment. R. 
fynch (--i. S. fine), a small bird. 

C. 654. "to pulle a fynch."a 

proverbial expression equivalent 

to plucking a goose, ie., triiking 

some rick silly fellow out if his 

findan* (21), to find ; ic finde, 
pd finst, he fynt ; //. findaS ; 
p.s. fand ; //. fundon ; //. 
funden ; the past tense some- 
times takes the uvak endings, ic, 
he, funde, fiS fundesl. Joh. 
xix. 38. Os. 85:23. 

finger,* 2m.finger. 

6T,fire. 0. 11503. 

^r,* zn. fire. 

fyrd,* 3/C army, march, military 
e.xpeditimt. 83:25, 

fyrd-man,* army-man, soUter, 
Us. See man. 



fyrhlo,* fyrhlu, f. indtcL m 1. 
far, horror, dread. 
fyrlen, *//»-, distant. 
'jmi*#^''j"''n, of old, long sauL 
fyrrest,* supcrl. furthest. & 

feor. I 

fasen, furze, gorse. P.P. 195. ] 
fyrst,* first, chief. 
fyrst,* zm. space, time, spaettf 

time, period. 69:13. 
fis, fish. See fisc, Z. 
fisc,* 2m. fish; pi. fixas if 

metathesis ofs and c Joh. iiL 

6, 9. ir. 
fisc, uisc, fis, Jish ; pi. fisces ; i. 

fiscen. L. 
fiscaS,* fiscoS, 2m. a fishing. 

the occupation if fishing. 77:6; 

See fixoS. 
fisceran* = fiscerum, d. pi 

fishermen. Os. 
fiscere,* im. a fisher. 
fisc-nett,* zn. fish-net. JtA. 

xt\. 8, 
Ui^, physic. P.P. 
fithul, fiddle. 

f\xas,* pi. fishes. See fisc. 
fixoS,* 2m. a fishing; gin on 

fixoS, to go a fishing. Joh. 

xxi. 3. 
fla," if, flin, 3/! and 2m. dart, 

llaih, ll'eoh, fleot>, /.r./caL Z. 
flresc,* 2n. fiah. 
flAscliC,*/tM/)'. 66:8. 
flfesh. flesh ; g.s. flseshess. 0. 
flappe, to clap, a^ilaud. Is. iv. 

12. 
flatle, p.s. shpt. P.P. 224. 
fleiim,* 2m. flight. 
flean,*yw- flahan (10), la flay; 

pj. flcih ; pi. fl<^on ; // 

fiagen. 



377 



GLOSSARY. 



[fdn 



flea)>, /.J. jkd, L. 
flende, inf.fuL to flee, L, 
fleo, imp, fly y flee ; fleo we, let 

us flee, Z. 
fledgan,* flidgan, fledn, flidn, 

(19), to flee, fly; he flj?h« ; 
/.J. fledh; //. flugon; pp, 

flogen ; imp, s. fleoh. 60: 8, 

22, 24, 25. 
fledn,* to flee, fly ; ic fled ; //. 

fledtJ. See fledgan. 
fleon, to flee, L. 
fleon, flen, to avoid, flee from, 

O, 
fleonde (to), dat, in/, ^ fleon ; 

a probable error for to fleonne. 

L, 982. 
fledtan* (19), to float ; p,5, fledt ; 

//. fluton ; //. floten. 
fleotetS, float. L, 
fleot5, imp. fly. A, R, 
fleschlich, fleshly ; pi, flesch- 

liche. A, R, 
fletend, pr, p. floating, G, 157. 
flicf, /r. s. flieth, L. 260, 742. 
fliht, flight. L, 
flyhtS.* •S'd^ fledgan. 
^ffl^man,* to put to flight, rout ; 

p. -de ; pp. -ed, -d. 91:23. 
flidn,* /(?yfif<?. Bs, iS*^^ fledgan. 
flitan* (20), to strive, contend ; 

he flit; p,s, Mt; pi, fliton ; 

pp. fliten. /oh. vi. 52 ; ix. 16. 
fl i 30^, pr. s. flieth. L, 
flocc, flock, O, 

^6(1, * in, and m, flood; a flaw- 
ing 0/ water, 
flon [A, S. fldn), arrows, R, 
^6v,* ^. floor, S. C. 111:7. 

floreyns, florins, P. P, 

fldwan* (4), to flow, issue; he 
flewC ; on ^ land fe fe fldwS 
meolece and hunie. Exodus, 



iii. 8. //. fldwaS. /oh, vii. 38. 
/.J. fledw. /oh. xix. 34. //. 

fledwon ; pp, fldwen. 
flowe, /. //. flew, fled. R. 
flowtynge, fluting, placing on a 
flute, C 91. 
flumm, river. O. 191. 
flu3en, flo3en, /. //. fled, L. 

90. 
j'foan, pi foes, H, III. 
foangen, to receive, H, III, 
fdda,* fddda, im. food, support. 

63:29. 
foddre, fodder. A, R. 
fode, food, O, 
folc,* 2m, folk, people ; pL folc. 

83:18. 
folke, d,s. folk ; on folke, 

among the people, L, g. pi, 

folk en. L, 
folc-gefeoht, * in. general battle ; 

on frim folc-gefeohtum be- 

tweox twdm cyningum. Os, 

85:32. 
folcisc,* popular, vulgar, com- 
mon ; folcisce menn, common 

people, 
io\Q, foolish ; fole dede, foolish 

deed, R, 
fo\es, fools. A, I. 
folga^,* folgotJ, 2m. service, 

lit, , that which follows, retinue, 

attendance. Bs. 98:15. 
folgere,* 2m, follower, Bs. 
foliwis, fully truly, surely, L. 

350- 
folle, /. //. fell L, 

foll3henn, to follow, O. 119. 

folwen, pr. pi, follow, P. C. 

163. 
folwef, pr. pi, follow ; p, pL 

folwede. Z. 
fdn,*^^fdn (8), to receive, take. 




leist, tunJirlakt; ic f(S, foh, ftj 
ftst, fehsl, he feS, feh» ; pi. 
foS ; A-'- '"'^"g; //. ffingon ; 
wi^ fu, foh ; pi. foS i /y>. 
tiingen, ^cfongen, ^efangen ; 
to (>am rice ftin, /o succeed to 
the kingdom, undertake the goo- 
ernment ; fen g to rice, came to 
empire. 99:8. togaedere fijn, 
to asstmble. 

fon, to recrive. L. 281. 

ion, foes. P.P. 78; R. 

fonded, pp. Iried. P. C. 149. 

fondc|>, pr. pi. try. H. P. 
246:14. {A. S. fandian.) 

fondeih, pr.s. tries. G. 183. 

fondunge, temptation. A. R. 

fonge, to take, reeeiv:. P. P. 3:1. 

fongon, p. pi. received. R. 167, 

for, /or, by reason of, through ; 
for bitter. P.P. 99. 

Kr.* See faran. 

(OT* /or, notwilhsliinding ; loo, 
very ; for rafie, too quickly ; for 
oft, for wel oft, very often. 
63:18, for in, only. 

for, in respect to. G. 9. 

for. See farenn. 0. 

for-arn,* p.s. ran before, /ok. 
XX. 4- St-e yrnan. 

forbrernan,* to burn up, con- 
sume ; be burned ; p. -iKcrnde ; 
pp. -bsracd. 

for-bamde-n, /. pi. burned up. 
L. 370. 

forbctidan* (19), to forbid, re- 
strath; p. s. foibeiil ; pi for- 
budon ; //. forboden. 
forbyrnan* (21), intrans. to 
burn; pres.pl forb3maS. /oh. 
XV. 6, p.s. forbarn;//. for- 
burnon ; />p. forbumen. 
forbodenn, pp. forbidden. 0. ; 



' C15), to break, inti 
up or in pieces ; p.s. fortaxc; 
pi, forbrdecon ; pp. forbiDcec 

j.h. 

forcelettes, fortresses, fer^d 

places. M. 

forken, //. gallnws. L. 501. 
forcfiS,* baJ,wicteJ,perBeru.Bi. 
fore utS est, forcou^ist, maU 

wretched. L.. 268. 
for-deman,* lo condemn ; p for- 

diSmde ; pp. for-d^naed. 
fortlemen, for-deme, to detlrt^; 

put to death ; pp. for-demed. 

L. >37. 
fordiin,* to fordo, ruin, destrm. 

See d(jn. 
fbrdon, to fordo, destroi: X.506. 
fordrafen, * pp. borne away; dead. 

Os. 
Ibrdruwian,* to dry up, wither. 

/oh. XV. 6. 
for-dude, p.s. fordid, deslrcyed. 

L. 1033. 
forealdian,* to grow old ; pp. 

forealdod. Bs. 
fore-^ebiddan, to pray for, in- 
tercede. 59:28. S<K biddan. 
fore-beacen,* zn. forebeacon, 
foreloktn, prodigy, 
forenJscide. See to foreniscidc 

H. III. 
hrtSEiX,* foresaid. See secgan. 
foresprecen,* before spoken of; 
f.s. foresprecen u. 
foresiKpan,* forcsiffippan (11), 

lo step or go before, precede ; p. 

foresidp. See steppan. 
for-ferde, ^J. destroyed. Z. 415, 
forgifan* (14), to forgive, remit, 

release, give, grant; p.s. foT- 

geaf; fil. forgcdfon-; pp. for- 

gifen. See giiiin. 



379 



(GLOSSARY. 



[forrwerrpenn 



forgitan,* forgytm (14), io for- 
get ; govs, gen. and ace, pres, 
^sing, forgil, forgytetJ ; p.s, 
forgeat ; //. fovgcdion ; pp, 
forgiten. Bs. 

f o rgy ttol , * forgci/ul. 6 9 : ro. 

forhaefednys,* 3/I resiraini^ ab- 
siinence, 69:31. 

forhealdan* (i), to withhold^ 
keep back; to lose; p.s, for- 
hedld ; pL forhedldon ; pp, 
forhealden. Bs, 

forhelan (i5)j to hidCy conceal ; 
he forhiltJ ; p.s, forhael ; pi. 
forhdblon ; pp, forholen. Bs, 

for-hicgan,* for-higan, to neglect^ 
rejecty despise ^ condemn ; pres, s, 
forhig^. Joh, xii. 48. 

forhogian,* to neglect^ despise; 
pres. s. -hogaC ; //. -hogia^ ; /. 
-ode ; pp. -od, -ed. 

forholen,*/*^. ^i/^<f«, concealed. 
96:22. See forhelan. 

forh radian,* to hasten or get be- 

fore, prevent^ anticipate. 

forhtian,* to fear, to frighten ; 
p. -ode, -ede ; //. -od. 

forhtung,* '^. fear, 

forhwaga,* forhwaega, at least, 
Os. 81:28. 

forldeLan* (7), to leave, let go, 
lose, leave off, forsake ; he for- 
Ijet ; p.s, forlet ; //. forl6ton ; 
pp. forideten ; in forlsetan, to 
let in. 

forleosan* (19), to lose, let go ; 
he forl^'st, forlicst ; p,s, tbr- 
leds, f d fori u re ; //. forluron; 
//. forloren. 

forlicgan* (13), to commit adul- 
tery. 84 :33. See licgan. 

forligere,* forligre, 2«. adultery. 
60:18. 



fo rl i re, * 2 w. fornicator, adulterer, 

Joh, viii. 41. 

forlyst,* forliest See forledsan. 
ioxXoi,^ 2m. loss, destruction, Os, 
forloren. * See forledsan. 
for-loren-e, pp, lost, destroyed, 

L, 
{oTm2i,* first ; def decl, 83:17. 

comp. furtJra ; superl, fyrmest. 
formest, first, beginning, Z. 

643- 
forn to, prep, before, L, 

forne;* before, sooner, Joh. xx. 4. 

forneih, * very near, almost^, Bs, 

foTueys, furnace, C. 202. 

for-pyned, much wasted away, 

C. 205. 
forr, conj. for, because, O. 
[oTTbeddtpp,forbiddeth; pp, for- 

bodenn. O, 
forrblendenn {A, S, blendian), 

to blind; pp, forrblendedd. 

a 76. 
forred, pp, furred, Br P. 
forrest, farrest, furthest, L, 
forrhunngredd, pp, an hungered. 

0. 1 1 567, 1 1 579. 
forrlaetenn, to forsake ; forsaken. 

O. 1 1430. 
forrlannge, long ago, long before, 

before, O, 11363, 11911. 
forrlisst {A. S, lystan), veryanx* 

ious, O. 1 1475. 
forrsakef f , forsaketh, shunneth ; 

p,s. forrsoc. O, 
forrseon, to avoid, scorn, O, 

"473- 
foxxsoc, p,s.forsook, shunned. O, 

forrwerrpenn {A, S, forweor- 

pan), to despise, reject, neglect. 

0. 1 1428. pr, pi. forn\'err- 

penn, O. 115 12. //. forrworr- 

penn. O. 11430, 11468. 



\ 



forr|Ji, lha\/uie ; forrjii \M, k-- 

cius,: O. 
forrjrihht, slrji^iihvay, viimcJi- 

alilv ; /vll<m.'cd by sc, as. U. 

11319, 
forscrincan* {21 )■ ''' ^/ifink, 

wilhif ; lie forscrincS ; p.s. 

forscmnc; pi. forscruncon ; 

pp. furscruncen, 
forsciin, * to marlook, m-glicl, 

liespisi ; ]iii forsihst. forsissl, 

he forsjliS ; p, forscali, for- 

sawe, fii forsoage ; pi. for- 

sawon ; imp. forsedh ; //, for- 

sewen. Sa %c6n. 
forshape, pp. Irans/ormed. G. 8. 
forslcan* (10), lo slay, hi/, 

&ea/, sirike ojf; he forslyS ; 

p.s. forsloli ;//. forslogon ;//. 

forslegon, forslagen. iVv 

forspcndan,* to forspend, coit- 

forspillan,* to spill, lose, dis- 
perse, destroy ; p. -de ; pp. -etl. 
Joh. 

forspyllcdnys, * j/T perdilim, 
destrtulion. Joh. 

forstandan* (9), lo stand up for, 
aid, avail ; he forstcnt ; p.s. 
ios&l6A ; //. forsttidon ; pp. 
forsiandcn. lis. 

Torster, a/orester. C. 117. 

rorswigian,* to pass over in si- 
kiice ; p. -ode, -ade, a/so, for- 
swfigode ; pp. forswigod, for- 
swtigod. 96:23. 

hnti,/or to. A. R.; P. P. 49. 

forte, until, L. 

iox \h\, beeause. Is.\'n\. 9, 11, 

fonhy, there/ore. G. 



fortio,* tuij. pr. pi. affright. 

103:3, i'ee forhiiao. 
for 10 speke of. in rcspecllc. G. 
foriune, to Ml the firlunt ■/ 
fate. C. 419. 
forward, promise, agnimint. C. 

33. US'- 
fur-uaren, to destroy. L. 136. 
forwe!,* very well, msi.h. 
for-werd, worn out. P. C. ill. 
forweoriSan.^forwyrfian (iS). A 

cease to be, tolc undone. p,rish ; 

be ruined; pd forwjTSt, lie fo7- 

wjriS ; p. forwearis ; //. for- 

wurdon : pp. forworden. 58:^. 

See wcorSan. 
fonvcorffullic.'ivrt'iwwMj', ii/i 

excdlenL lis. 
forwjTd,* j/: destruelion, ruin, 

dissolution. 59:26, 
for-worjti {A^ S. for-weot8an), 

pr, siibj. pi. perish, die. 1.. 

143. 
for wonilde,,* IB respect of thi 

loorld. B. t. 
forwurSen, to become, in a retro- 
grading sexmsi. A. JR. 
{or-'xarScHf:, p. pi. perisAed. L. 
foriS,*/'r/i,j, along. 
forjjjm,* fe/ktjan. forfon, fnr|«ni 

|>C, forjtav J«, for|wm«e, for 

that, for" At [reason) thai, k- 

cause thaifi, Dure/orr. 58:9. 
fort!bcran;n,» (iS). ''" *'■'"' Z"™- 
Joh. i. Sspi S« benin. 
fortS-brinin,Sn,* ''" hring forth, 

produce,r gi^ompHih. See brin- 

gan, bri. engan. 
forbcdd, fi. u. per/Briae-l.i-ompiet/ct. 

O. in*{M,.{A.S. foriSian.) 
forj-enn, ^J\hrther, help, effect, 
perforJ. . 0. 1 1838, l^l- 

pp. (of Si^ 0.11333- »'i7°' 



38i 



GLOSSARY, 



[frenss 



foT^ tie, further. P, P. 384. 
forts -faran* (9), to goforth^ de- 
part, die. See faran. 
'brtSfaren,*//. dead, deceased. 
fbriSferan,* to go forth ^ depart^ 

die; to bear forth; foiiSfered, 

borne forth, dead. 
fbrSfor,* 3/I departure, death ; 

he laeg aet fortJ-fdre, he lay at 

the point of death. Joh. iv. 47. 
for8genge,* successful, 
iox^f^x, further. P. C. 
forfi,* forf^, forfig, forj)^ fe, 
for that, on thai account, there- 
fore, wherefore, because. Joh. 

vii. 22 ; 63:21. 
forSon, * for that, therefore, be- 
cause, 
fotf^on,* forth ; and swd foriJon, 

and so forth, 
forf^TZ,* further, greater, worse. 

Bs. 
fort$-rdesan, * to rise, or rush 

forth ; p. -de ; pp. -ed. 
fortS-r^sende,* rising or rushing 

forth. 

for^ nhi^s, forthright, L. 
for6-si€, * 2m, departure, decease, 

death. 69:17. 
forts "Wd^xd, forward, L, 
faster, f(5stur,* 2«. fostering, 

nourishment, 64:6. 
f6^itx{2^(ltx* foster-father. Bs. 
fot,* m. foot ; g. fotes ; d, f(6t ; 

ace, fdt ; //. n. ace, f(6t ; g, fdta; 

d. fotum. 
fot, yiw/ / wiff fote. (?. 11946. 

//. fet. 
foihur, a load. {A. S, fot5er. ) 

a 532. 

j-founde, pp. founded, P.Cgo. 
foundement, foundation. P. C. 
98. 



fourtene ni^t, fortnight, R, 

fowwerr, (owv/xe, four. O. 

fowwerrti^, forty. O. 

foXy* 2m. fox. Bs. 108:27. 

fra, from. O. 

fraetwian,* ^rfraetewian, to fret, 

adorn ; p. -ode ; //. -od. 

69:26. 
fraecednys, * 3/I peril. 60 : 2 7. 
frayne, to ask, inquire. P. C. 

p.s. fraynede. P.P, 279. 
fraytour, a refectory; lit., a 
friar* s room. P. C. 51. 
fraitur, refectory, P. C. 60. 
[x3,xn,* from, by, away. 64:19. 
{x2inco\eyxi, franklin, R. 145. 
freds, * /. s. froze. See fredsan. 
frecednys,* 3/I danger, calamity', 

57:20. 
fredom, freedom, frankness, lib- 

eralify, C. 46. 
frefelice,* wantonly, lasciviously, 

Os, 
fr6frian,* ^^fr^^frian, to comfort, 

console. Joh.xi. 19. /. fr^frede; 

pp. ^rfrefred. 

fre friend,* 2m. consoler, com- 
forter. Joh. xvi. 7. 
freitour, refectory, P, C, 68. 
frele, frail, P, P, 49. 
fremde,* fremede, strange, for- 
eign, alien. 

freme, profit, good. H. III. 
frcmian,*^^fremian, fremigan, 

to profit, do well, prosper, ad- 
vance, avail, 

fremman,*^^fremman, to frame, 
form, make, do, effect, execute, 

benefit ; p. -de ; pp. -ed. 
fremming,* 3/I a framing, an 

effecting, performance. 58:15; 

64:6. 
frenss, french, R, 



frco-dome] GLO! 

frcrt-dotiie, d.s. fn-uhm. L. 
ifreoieil, fp./n.ii. L. 294, 
fri'Olke, •/r<v7r. likr,,Uy. 
frctjls,* am. afree-limt, holiday, 
faiivjl 
freijls-da;g,* zm. feast-day. foh. 

vii. 37. 
freom, from, L. 
frciJnii,* 2m. friend ; pi. mm. 

aa: frynd (fre.'.ndas) ; g. fre- 

(Inda ; d>U. freondum. foh. 

XV, 15 ; 100:27. 
Treosan,* fr^san {ii)),/ofrciSe; 

p.s, frcds ; //, fturou ; pp. 

froren. 82:19. 
frei, devours. A. Ji. 156:15. 
fretan* (12), lo frd, devour; 

p.s. frset ; pi. fr&lon ; pp. Ire- 
ten, 
fretewil, ravenous. A. R. 
freitet, //■ f'ellcd, adorned. P. 

P- 33-1- 
friend,* 2m. friend ; pi. rriend. 

Bs. 100:26. 
rriE,*/r«. Os. 
fninfi* m.f btginning, origin. 

\d. (r)Tn8e ; //. frjniSas ; g. 

fn-mSa. Gnin.') 58:1. 
fr^nd,* //. frUnJs. Bs. See 

freilnd. 
friS,* 2m. peace. 93:31. friSes, 

peaeefulh; in peaee. 
fcoffrcnn, frofrenn, to comfort, 

encourage. O. 237, 11559, 

i'933- 
frufor.* frorer, j/C g. frofrc, 

comfort, solace, consolation ; Se 

frtjfre-Gust. the eonfor/ing 

Spirit. Joh. xiv, 26. 
from.* i"^!- fram. 
froren, //. frozen. See freiisan, 
frommard, amiy from, on the 

contrary. A. R. 



frotynge, harsh, grating^ B. P. 

247: 9- I 

(Troured, ffi. comforted, iiKtimrti 1 

Z. 294. See uroefrien. 

from, *_/?/-//, original St. \ 

fnima,* im. beginning. Jci.l '] 

I, 2. 
{ue]es, fowls, birds. A, R. 
fugel,* fugol, fugl, IM. faai^ 

bird ; g. fugles, 
fugeleran* = fugelcnim, d. fl 
fut/ers. Os. 
fugclere,* im. /mi'ler. 
fuhton,* p. pi. fought. Jsk. 

See feohtan. 
SM\,*full, repkle. 

flll,*/0ft/. 

ful, p.s.fell, happened. L. 407. 

See falle. 
ful, fol, adi'./ull, very. L. 
M.full; hco was af ful of bim 

er |ie jeres ende, she nsu tirei 

of him before the aid of the year. 

R. 90. 
(Tuld, //. filled. R. 
Mde, p. pi. felled. Z. 
(M\Q,foul. 0. I 

fuleden, p. /d. followed. L. \ 
fulfremed,* full framed or 

formed, perfect. 66:z2; 69:3a 
fulfremed I ice, */i://;'iyA'. 69:29. 
fulfremednys,* {f. perfection. 

66:23. 
fulfremman,* to perfect, accom- 

/'lish; practise; p. -de ; pp. -«d. 
ftilian,* to become foul, putrefy, 

rot ; p. -ode ; //. -od. 
fulicB. pr. pi. follozv. I,. 737. 
ful-iwis, foliwia, full surely. 

Z. 892. 
fulijH'iss, certainly, truly. 0. 

1 1465. 
full, */«//, complete. 



383 



GLOSSARY. 



[galicS 



fall,* adv, ftdl^ vcry^ altogether, 

Bs, ; Os, ; O, 
faWe, adv. /u/t, very. iT/. 241:31. 
fulle, folle, adv//ullv, Z. 
fulle, folle, p. pL fell. Z. 
fulie, to fill. P.P. 184. 
iM\\z% fulfilkih. A. P. 
fullhtnenn, to baptize; p. //.fullht- 

nedenn ; //. fullhtnedd. O. 

192, 196, 11319. 
fullian,* ^ffullian, fulwian, to 

cleanse^ baptize; p. -odit, ; //>.-od. 

Joh. i. II ; iii. 22, 23 ; iv. 

I, 2 ; X. 40. 
fu 11 ice, * fully, entirely. 
fulluhht, baptism, O. 
ftilsten, fulste, to help, aid ; pr. 

sub. fulste, fulstcn ; /. fulste ; 

//. fulslen. Z. 
fulste, d.s. ht'lp, aid. L. 587. 
fultum,* 2 m. help, support ^ 

force. 58:8, 17. 
uiltume, d.s. help, support, H. 

III. 
fulSe, filth. A. P. 
fundt, p.s. foufid. L. 
(unde,* p. s. found. Os. 85:23; 

foh, xix. 38. See fmdan. 
fur, n. fire ; g. fures ; d. fure, 

furen. Z. 
furlang,* furlung, a furlong, 

foh. vi. 19; xi. 1 8. 
furneys, furnaces. M, 
furst, apparently an error ^ as oth- 
er texts show, for furst. P. P, 

218. 
fur8,* adv. forth ; comp, adj. 

fur8ra ; adv, furt5or, further ; 

supcrl. adj. fyrmcst, first. 
furpon,* furpum, ituleed, onfy, 

evcn, moreover. 
furdoT,* adv. further ; comp. of 

forC, fur8. 



fur8ra,* adj. further, more ad- 
vanced, greater, foh. xiii. 16. 

fusde, /. s. drove, phased. L. 

fusen, to proceed, go, depart, ad- 
vance. L. 576, 931. pr. s, 
fusetS. Z. 944. to rear, raise ; 
leteS up fusen heje forken, lei 
high gallows be up raised. Z. 
500. 

fust, fist. P. P. 

fuwel, fowl, bird ; g. fuweles ; 
pi, fuweles ; g. pi. fuwelene. 
A. R. 

fu^el, fowel, fowl ; pi. Alleles. 
Z. 243. 

a. 

gadery, to gather. R. 

gaderian,*^tgaderiun, gadrian, 
to gather, bring together ; p. 
-ode; pp. -od. Os. 83:9. 

^rj^aderung, * 3/C gathering, con- 
gregation, society. 

gadrian,* to gather. See gside- 
nan. 

gde Ian,* to hinder, delay, keep in 
suspense ; p. -de ; pp. -ed. 

^f^derian,* to gather together, 
join, resort. Bs. 

gaep, gep, crafty; pi. gcpe. Z. 

gajrs,* 2n.gr«s. 62:22; 66:7, 

gaetenn, to taticare of, look after, 

direct,, preserve., O. 11 560. 
gafol,* 2«. tribute^ tax, revenue. 
garol-g}ida, * im. ofie subject to 

tribute, Os. 83:5. 
gaynage, profit. P. G 45. 
galan* (9), /b gaU, sing ; p.s. 

gol ; pi. gdlon ; //. galen. 
galieS, pr, s. yells, yelps, A. P. 

pr. pi. galictS. Z. 257. {A. S. 

giellan, gyllan.) 



galyngalc] GLO£ 

galvngalc, the ro-it of the svxei 
Q'ptrus. C. 383. 

galne^c (.-I.S, galnes), wanlm- 
ness, /«j/,- f. galncsscss. 0. 
11654- 

gan)i:il, p.s, impen, ii phased. 
C. 536. 

gamcnian,* fogame, play, joke ; 
p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

g;tn.*i'.g;in, ^rgangan, logo, go 
aj^itinst, subdue, capture ; ic gd, 
|iu gJcst, lie ga;8 ; pi. gEfeS, 
gaS ; /. ciide ; pi. emiun ; pp. 
gdn, gangcn ; imp. ga, gang ; 
//. gx?i ; 64;26, be wa^ w^rig 
gegan. /■-}. iv. 6. gcgan 
setins to he used here as a gerund, 
limiting werip, and = eundo. 
A similar expression oeeurs in 
P.P., Wrigbfsed., V. 13, "1 
was wcry for-wandred." 

gan, to go ; pi. KiTi. 0. 119,45. 
imp. J. ga. O. 113S9. 

garites, garrets. P. C. 62. "Ga- 
r>-lle, liey solcrc. Spaula, "... 
Prompt. Parv. A gantie loas, 
in the original sense o/'lhe term, 
a wateh-tawer, or look-out, on 
the roof (/a house, or castle umll, 
called gAiitA, in French guerite. 
In the version 0/ Vegecius, . . . it 
is saij of the defatee of a camp, 
and keeping watch hy nighl, '■ it 
is nal possible algate to haue 
highegareit(js,ortourcs,orhigh 
placus for waicliu men, iherfor 
it nedoihc to haue out watchc. " 
B. iii. c. S. . . Cidgrave explains 
garitte, or guerite, /o & a place 
of refuge from surprise, made 
in a rampart ; a s,ntry, or walch- 
tawer ; and "tourel i cul de 
iampe.a small out-jutiying gar- 



ret, or tower like a garret, 00 

the lop of a walle." Way. 
gangan* (3), logo; p.s. geng; 

pi. gcngon ; pp. gangeu. & 

gan. 
garrj-nge, '^ chir^ng ;chaltirixg. 

'Garring and flijDg of bni 

dus,'^/o/. Lull.p. 95. " /W> 

liivdl. H. P. 246:4. 
girsecg,* -zm. ocean, arjai w. 

87:16; S8:i7. ■ 
gist,* 2w. wind. Joh. iij. S. 

ghost, spin'/. Joh. iii. 8. 
gast, ghos/, spirt/; pi. gasttSi 

gistUc,* ghos/ly, spirHual; f. 
gdstlEcu. 64:31. 

gisilice,* spiritually. 6o;20. 

gat. • See goaL 

g.lt,* tm. and ^. goat. 

gal, got, goal ; pi. gaien, goiei 
L. 700, 714, 

gatiothud. (7.470. Morris ex- 
plains "having teeth far apart. 
Uu. gal, a hole. 1/ is somdima 
written gaptothcd. Gagtix>lbc(l 
=-having projecting iceth." I'rn 
reads gap-toothed, Speghl cat- 
tooihcd; Siinner rem-iris [Etf- 
mologicon Ling. Angl.), 1. r. 
gal toihed, "nescio an ab J. 
a. Gat, Caper. & ToS, Dens, 
q. d. denle caprino prrediia, 
(|ui(i auicm per hoc sibi ^■cUl 
sane prorsus ignore. Vir, Rev. 
dictum puiai a Uelg, Gat, for- 
amen, vcl q. d. gapt looih'd 
((>. } cui multi denies esciiie- 
runt, adci) ut inter rcliquos 
magni hiatus sint & in;er%ai- 
la." If tlie word means goat- 
toothed, the riferettet is, perhaps, 
to her wantonness. 



385 



GLOSSARY. 



[gen<5g 



gaud id, having gaivJi^s or gau- 
dees, the larger beads in a roll 

for prayer, C. 159. 

gauel \A. S, gafol), usury, 
A, I. 

ge,*jv?. «SVi? fu. 

ge,* and, also ; ge — ge, boih — 
and {Lat. cum — turn); ge lare 
ge bysne, both by leaching and 
example ; ge mid wordum gc 
mid daedum, bolh by words and 
deeds; he bebyt ge windum 
ge sse, he cornmands boih 
winds and sea. Luke viii. 25. 
ge scedp gc oxan, bolh sheep 
and oxen. /oh. ii. 15. 

ge, >d*tf. A. R. 

gea, * yea, yes, so, also, verily, 
/oh. xxi. 15, 16. 

gedr,* 2n, year ; pi. gedr ; ^. 
geara ; d. gearum. 

gedra, * of yore, formerly ; well, 
accuratdy, 104:34. 

gcarcian,* ^fgearcian, to pre- 
pare, make ready ; p. -ade, 
-ode ; pp. -od ; dai, inf. 16- 
gearcigcnne. 65:24. 

geard,* 2m. yard, enclosure, re- 
gion; home, divclling. 

gearor,* more readily. Os. 

gearu,* gearo, gearow, yare, 
ready, prepared. 65:25. 

gegQ2iXVf\2iii,'^ lo prepare, procure, 
exhibit, /oh. xiv. 2, 3. 

geat,* gat, 2//. gate ; pi. gcatu, 
gatu. 

gcat-weard, * 2m. gate-ward, 
porter. 

gebed-man.* See under bed. 

gebyrian. * See under b. 

gebe(5rscype. * See under b. 

gederen, to gather, collect ; pr. 
gedere^ ; imp, gedere ; //. /*- 



gedered ; pr. p. gederinde. 

A, R. 
gederod, * //». united, joined. Bs. 

See gadcrian. 
gedwol-mist,* 2m. mist of error, 

Bs. 
gcfdc, p.s. gave. A. R. 
gefeccean,* A^yi'A//, brijig. Ox, 
gefeoht,* 2n, fight, battle, war. 

Os. 
gefcrrxden,* 3/] companionship, 

familiarity, societ}', company; 

compact, Bs. 
gcfyrn aer, * long before. Bs. 
gefuhton,* /. //. fought. See 

feohtan. 
gegaderad,* gegaderud, pp, 

gathered. Os. 
^d'gearcung, * 3/I <z preparation, 

preparing ; ^q^earcung-daeg, 

preparation-day. /oh. xix. 14, 

3I1 42. 

^fcgcarwian, * to prepare, procure, 
exhibit ; p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

gegcrela,* geyrgcla, gcgyrla, 
\7n. clothing. Bs. 106:4. 

gelden, to pay ; pr. ^clt , p. 
^ulde, gulden ; imp. ^cld ; 
gelden )>e hcrmes, to pay the 
damage. A. R, 165:13. 

geldyng,^w;;«^//. Gen. xxxvii. 36. 

gel Ian* (18), to yell ; p.s. geall ; 
//. gullon ; pp. gollen. 

gemx'gS,* ^.greatness. 95:18. 

gcmang,* among, /oh. xxi. 2'^, 

gendrid, pp. begotten. Gen. xli. 

51. 
genge, gang, host, retinue, forces, 

L. 621. 

gcngenn, to avail, assist, favour. 
O. 11986. 

genog,* genoh, enough, suffici- 
ently, abundantly, 63:1 ; 68:9. 



17 



gentil] GLOS 

gentil, tccll born or bnd. C. 

72. 
ge(5.* (•/ yore, formerly. See 

gi<5. 
geogoS,* if. youlh. 69:14. 
gcomerian.'geomrian, fogrUve, 
groan, mourn, htiviiil; p. -ode ; 
pp. -od. fob. xi. 33, 33. 
geond,* btyond, through, over, 

amongst. 65:16; 69:25. 
%ton)i,* young ; comp. gyngra; 

suptrl. gyngcst. 
^eom^^Mc,* young, youthful. 
georne,* tarnally, diligently, 
fervently, well ; we wiian ge- 
orne, it'e very iVill know. 
georaeliche, earnesllv, cautiously. 

A. li. 
geornful,*_/"in'i'ff/, zealous, ^l. 

61:14. 
geornfuUice.* geomllce, dili- 

genlly, fervenllv, zealously ; 

comp. geornfullicor. 69:35. 
geomfulncs,* 3/I earnestness, 

energy, zeal, fervour. Os. 
geornlice,* eanustly, diligently, 

carefully. 75:20. 
geornian,* gitnan, gj-rnan, to 

yearn for, desire ; p. -de. Bs. 
getitan* (19}, to pour, pour out; 

p.s. geai; pi. guton ; pp. go- 
ten. See ilgeoLan. 
geoue, gfl. A. R. 
gepe. See gaep. L. 
gepoun, dim. of gipe, a short 

cassoei. C. 75. 
gerdde.* Joh. viii. 5. See under 

rid. 
^friecean,*^(r&can. See under 

lEbcan. 
%NfX<i\,* girdle. C, 360. 
gerip,* 2«. reaping, harvest. 



;ary. 386 I 

gemer, garner. C. 595. fi \ 

gemeres. M. 244:^7- 1 

ges, geese. A. R. 
gesside, p.s. thought, ffo-ilii. ' 
gestredn. * See stredn. ' 

get,*_jv/, s/i'/l. 
get.fishiort, mode. C 684. 
ge[an,*gitan (14), to get ; p.i. 

geal ; pi. geatOD ; /^. geien. 
gelel. * ^V* under tcl. 
g^\,goelh. P.P. 157. 
gid,* gidd, gied, gj-d, i«. * 

song, poem. Bs. 
g}'dan.* See gildan. 
gyden,* ^ goddess. 104:16. 
g)'dene,* \f. goddess. 
gif,* R)f. if. 
gifan,* geofan {14), lo gke; 

he gifiS ; p.-s. geaf; y»/.geafoD; 

pp. giftn. 

gifernes,* 3/; rapacity, greedi- 

gifre,* rapacious, greedy. 

gift,* 3/1 gifl, dowry ; pL gifta, 

g)-fta, ^J'^J, nuptials, iivdding. 

Bs. 96:15 ; /t^. ii. I. 
gifu,* g)'fu, 3/^ ^j;^, grace, fa- 
vour. 63:27. 
gild,* gj'ld, 2«. tax, tribute, 

pay ; an equroalent. 
gildan,* gytdan (t8), toyteld, 

pay, requite, restore ; he g)-Il ; 

p.s. geald; pi. guidon;//, 

golden. 
^\Ae.n,* golden. 
gile, guile, deceit. A. R. 
gilen, to deceive ; pr. j. giletl, 

A.R. 
gilltenn, to be guilty, transgress; 

pr. is. giniel>f. ' O. 11638. 
gilofre; Clowes of g., f/iw¥f. M. 
243:29. Gr. xapvifuhyjKi, lit., 

nut-leaf; tht clove-tree; Fr. 



387 



GLOSSARY. 



[gdd 



clou de girofle ; in Chaucer, 
cloue gilofre ; corrupted into 
giUy-flvwer ^ and then ^ July flow- 
er. 

gilpan* (i8), to yelp, glory, 
vaunt, boast; p,s. gcalp ; //. 
gulpon ; //. golpen. Bs, 

gylt,* 2m. guilt, sin, debt. 

g}lt,* pr. s. pays. Os, See 
gildan. 

gym,* 2m. gem; d. pi. gym- 
mum. 69:26. 

gyman,* to take care of, have 
charge of, watch, guard ; p. 
g^^mde ; pp. gymed, ^e^^'med. 
60:16, 28. 

g^-meledsl, 3/I heedlessness, 
carelessness, mgligcnce. 60:23; 
61:3. 

gy-meleds,* gimeleds, heedless, 
careless, ncglige^it. 61:16. 

g>*ngle, to jingle. C. 170. 

gingra,* conip. younger. See 
geong. 

ginne, contrivance, skill. {JLat. 
ingenium. ) R. 

gi($,* ged, of yore, formerly ; 
olim. 

giong. * See geong. • 

gj'rdan,* to gird; he gyrt; /. 
g}'rdc ; pp. gyrded. 

gyrian,* ^^gyrian, to clothe, pre- 
pare ; p. gyrede. Os. 

g}Tla,* \m, vestment, garment. 
69:25. 

girnan,* to yearn, seek for ; p. 
girnde. Bs. See geomian. 

gyrne.* iScv geome. 

gyrstan-daeg,* 2m. yesterday. 

gyt,* yet, still, again, more- 
aver. 

gyt,* dual, ye {two). Joh. i. 1%, 
See f d. 



gitscre,* g^tsere, 2m. a miser, a 

rapacious man. Bs. 
gytsian,* to desire, covet, lust 

after. 
gytsiend,* covetous. 
gitsung,* gytsung, 7f. desire, 

covetousness, avarice. 60:18. 
giu.* See g\6. 
g}u,* already. 69:30. 
glade, to gladden, cause joy to. 

P.P. 
gladdore, more glad. R. 
glcd,* 3/1 gleed, hot glowing 

coal. Joh. xviii. 18; xxi. 9. 
gleden, pi. embers. L. 365. 
gledien, to gladden. A. R. 
gl(^don* = gl6dum, d. pi. See 

gl^d. 
glengan, glengcan, ^^lengan, 

^t'glengcan, to adorn, decorate; 

deck, compose, set in order ; p. 

-de ; pp. -ed. 69:2. 
gleo-monnes, g. s. glecman's. 

P.P. 197. 
glidan* (20), to glide; p.s. 

gliid ; //. glidon ; pp. gliden. 
gliden, /.//. glided. L. 
gloten, glolun, glutton. P.P. 
glouen, gloves. A. R. 
j'-gloupet, pp.. gulped down, guz- 
zled. * P.P. 191. 
glutcrmesse, ^/r///(7^. O. 11 63 2, 

1 1636, 1 1658. g.s. gluterr- 

nessess. O. 11 546, 11 654. 
gnagan* (9), to gnaw ; p.s. 

gndg; //. gn6gon;//>. gnagen. 
gobet, piece. C. 698. //. go- 

bettes. M. 242:17. 
God,* 2m. God. 
gdd,* 2n. pi. god, good, goods, 

property, 
gd^,"^ good ; comp. bet era ; su- 

perl. betst (betest). 



godj GLOS 

god, gixkl. 0. 144. 

goddcunnde, dhinc. 0. 11906, 

god dcunnJn esse, divinity, divine 

nature ; g. gfMJdcunndnessess. 
0. 12042. 

goddlejjc, bcmfit. good. O. 267. 

goddspell, gospel; g. godtlspel- 
les. O. \A-p2. -spcllcss. 0. 30. 

goddspellboc, gosp:l'l>ook. O. 
179, 299. 

goddspcllwrilihte, gosptl-writer ; 

pi. -wrihhicss. O. 160, 

gode, ace. s. good. A. R. 

gode, goad. P. C. 131. 

i-goded, pp. benefited. A. R. 
{A. S. gijdian.) 

godcnn, to improve, advance. 
0. 1 1832. 

goderhele, welfare, safely, good 
fortune. R. 

figtSdian,* to do good to, berufil, 
enrich, endow; p. -ode; pp. 
-od. 69:22. 

god]t^c. denejlt, good. 0. 301. 

gddnes,* giSdnjs, j/I goodness. 
59:17- 

godnesse, goodiitis. 0. 185, 
189. //.-nesses. ft 180, 252. 

godspel,* 2«. gosprl. 

gods^eWic,* aiinffe/ieal. 57:13. 

gold,* 2n. gold. 

gold-fiije, gold-colored. L. 727. 

golyardcys, a buffoon; one u<ho 

follaavd rich r/icn's taldcs, and 
told tales and made sport for the 
guests. C. 5^2. The word 
Tyrwkitt supposes la hiwe be 
derived from Golias, Ihe real 
assumed name of a man of wit 
tmtmrd the end of the tuxlfth 
century, ivho wrote the Apoca- 
lypsisGolio;, and olher pieces » 
burlesque Latin rhymes. ' ' Gol- 



RY. JSS 

ierdjes, exp, ravenously mialh'd. 
el Fr. G. goulard, heiluo, gou- 
larder, helluari. avide voiare, 
omnia d Lat. gula," Skinny. 
gom {A. S. gyman, to had), 
e, heed O. 



gome {A. S. guma), a man. 

L. 715; P. P. 288. 
gome, game. L. 
gome, gum. M. 243:23. 
gomenes, games. L. 476, 
gomenfuUe, sportful, gameseiKi, 

L. 829. 
gon, p.s. g.in, began ; pi. goane. 

L. 318; R. 
good,* ('. g. g<5d. Bs. 107:9, 

10, 19. 
gos eye, goose egg. P. C 73- 
gossih, gossip ; a friend tir 

familiar. P.P. 152, 
gosllich,j#/>i/n4i/,- pi. gosilichc. 

A.R. 
gostliche, spiritually. A, R. 
got, goal. L. 714- 
^KCt, favour, good luck. R. 4t'3- 
gradan. ace. pi. st.ps. S. C 

111:6. 
gradde, /,f. cried, exclaimed. R. 
graste, grele, rf. pi. great. L. 
I'grMlte, p.s. greeted. I.. 4 17. 
graish, readily. P. C. 80. 
grafan* (9), to grave, dig ; p.i. 

griif: pi. gr<jfon ; pp. grafen. 
gram,* angry, fierce, cruel, dire, 
grama,* im. anger, wrath. j£l. 
grame, d.s. grief. L. 407. 
granti, to grant. R. 
graminge, granting, consent. 

A. I. 233:23. 
jgrap, grop, ^.f. gr^Khd. I . 



389 



GLOSSARY. 



[guod 



grcate, great ^ thick ^ coarse, A,R, 
166:7. 

/grauen, zgraued, engraved, Z. 

greccy^/. P. C. 73. 

grede {A. S. grdedan), to cry, 
call, proclaim. A, I.; P, P, 
216. 

gredi^nesse, greediness, covetous- 
ness ; g. gredi^nesscss. O, 
1 1 780. 

Greete sec, Great sea ; the Med- 
iterranean, C. 59. 

gref, grie/. A, R, 

greyn, grain, P, C. 78. 

>^-grei)>ed, prepared, fitted, P. C, 

44. 
greifede, /. //. prepared. R. 
greue, pr, sub. may trouble, an- 
noy, A, R. 
grepen. Sec /gripen. L, 
gret, imp. s, greet ; pi. gretef.Z. 
gret, heav}', coarse; gret cherl, 

heavy churl. P.P. 204. 
igrete-n, to greet. L. 1041. 
^retinge, a greeting. H. III. 
^^retliche, greatly, fully. P.P. 

60. 
grettere cheep, cheaper, much 

cheaper, M, 241:34. 
gretture, coarser. A. R. 
gretunge, greeting, A. R. 
gre33|>enn {A. S. gemcd, hroed, 

ready), to prepare, furnish; pp. 

gre^^fedd. O. 11 961. 
gr}'m in the lyftynge, hard to 

I ft or raise up. P.P. 204. 
grimHche {A. S. gramlice), 

furiously, P.P. 216. 
gripan,*V^ripan (20), to gripe, 

seize ; p. s. grdp ; pi. gripon ; 

/A .'^'^oripen. 60:9. 
/'gripen, to gripe, grasp, seize; 

pr. Jgripe«; /. gnep, grap, 



grop, igraep, /greap, ;grap ; 
//. gripen, /'gripen, /grippen, 
grupen, grepen; pp. /gripen. 
Z. 
grys, a costly fur, supposed to bt 
that of the grey squirrel. C. 

194. 
grvsbitlinge, making a wry face P 

H. P. 246:4. 
gnt5, peace, protection, _ L, 147, 

278, 1036. 
grits fu In esse, peacefulness, A,R, 
grochinge, grudging, any, A.I, 
groinQS, boys, young men. A.R, 
grone, a snare; pi, gronen. 

A. R. 
grop, p.s. grasped. L, 752. 

See /gripen. 
grope, to try, test. C. 646, 
grot,* 2n. a pirticle, an atom; 

liixi grot rihtwisnesse, no par- 
ticle of justice. Bs. 103:9. ndn 

grot andgites, not a bit of sense, 

Bs. 
gr(5vvan* (4), to grow; he 

grew'^ ; p.s. gredw ; //. gre- 

dwun ; pp. grdwen. 
growend, pr. p. growing, G. 80. 
grand, ground, bottom, O, d, 

grunde. Z. 907. 
grutchiden, /. //. murmured. 

Lk. XV. 2. 
guybalse, the liquor that drops 

from the balsam trees, M, 

243:12. 
guidon.* See gildan. 
guldcne, golden. L, 
gult, guilt, crime, sin ; //. gul- 

tus. P.P. 60. 
gume, gome, man. warrior; pi. 

gumen, gomes. Z. 778, 1040. 
gunnen, p. pi. gan. L, 318. 
guod, good ; pi, guodes. A, I 



i:-gurd] GLOS 

i-gunl, pp. girl. A. R. 
guriicl, girdk. A. R. 
gurlcs, young persons c/ tUhtr 
SIX. a 666, 



ha, shi. A. R. 

habban,* to Am-e, hold, regard ; 
ic habbe, ha;bbe, [iii hajfsi, 
hafast, he hajfiS, hafaS ; f>l. 
habbaS, hafia8 ; /. haefcte-st ; 
pi. \ix.k\an ; suhj. habbe, 
haibbe;//. habbon {-an); ^. 
hxfde ■,pl. hajfiion; imp. hafa ; 
pi. habbaS, habbe ;_/«/. in/.\6- 
habbenne; //-./<//■/. haebbende; 
pp. haifd, ha: fed. 

habbe. sub. pr. lure,-, mav havi. 
A. R. 

habbenn, harenn, /o^.tw; \p.s. 
hafe. 0. 41- tp-s. hafussi, 
haffst; 3/J. hafe[>p;yi/. hafcnn; 
p.i. lialldc ; pi. haffdcn. O. 

habbcoS, pr. and imp. fi. have. 
L. : A. R. 

haburgeoun (.-I. S. heals, wci, 
and beorgan, lo Jefiiid), ha- 
bergeon. C 76. Haburyonc, 
or hawberk. . . Loric-i. Prompt. 
Parv. "The lerm habergeon 
appears properly to be a diminu- 
tive 0/ hawbcrk, although here 
{Prompt. Parv. ) given as syn- 
onmotts. ..it is Lvident thai the 
habei^eon was a defence of an 
in/iriur desenplion to the hiw- 
berk ; andtvlien the introductii'n 
0/ plate armour in the reign of 
Edward III. had supplied more 
convenient and cffeetual defences 
for the legs ami ihighs, the long 
skirl of the hawbcrk became sii- 
perfuKUs ; from Ihat period the 



ARY. 590 

habergeon teemt to haei ie/» 

worn." Way. 
hakencj mon, hackney-man, mi 

who lei out horses for hire. P. 

P. 161. 
hid,* zw. hood, slaie, c^i. 

order, degree, person. 
had, hood, rank, person. 0. 9. 

pL hadess. O. 11516. 
i-had, pp. liad. 
^(hidiaii,* lo ordain, comtcreie; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od, -ed. 75:11. 
hidung,* J/C ordination, ttmst- 

hasfd, heued, Aead. L. 
hKfedd, head, ehi,f. 0. 
hJDfede, p.s. had. Z. 
hxfignes,* ^f. heaviness. Bi. 

See heftgnes. 
ha;fnon, heaven. Z. 
ha;fian,*^ihiEfian, fy seise, bind, 

hold, detain ; p. \^{ge-)\i3i{xe\ ; 

pp. ha;rie<i, ^^hxfted, jf.hieft. 
^\xi\n<A* if. capthiitv, Ihraldom. 

Os. 
hsfucd, head. L. 
ha.'h, heh, high, noble. L. 164. 
ha;hliche,hehliche,A/^M', noUy. 

L. 

ha;htc, hehtc, p.s. ordered, com- 
manded. L. 
ha;h)e, hehje, pi. high, noble. 

L. 311. 
hcehjere, d.f. high,great, intense. 

h&lan,*f^hEfelan, lo heal, cure; 

to save, preserve, keep ; p. -de ; 

pp. -ed. 6o:I ; 61:10. 
hffilden, holde, lo hold, adoanee. 

Z. 617, ibo.p.pl. hxlden, held 

{their way), proceeded, fell. L. 

799- , 
hfelend,* am. the healer. At 



391 



GLOSSARY. 



[halwes 



Saviour. A, S. Gospels, pas- 
sim. 

haelga, * //j^^/ (levis), meL , fickle, 
Bs. 108:33. 

hdelu,* hdelo, hdel, 3/I health, 
salvation, safety. 

hdeman,* to lie with, commit for- 
nication or adultery ; p. -de ; 
pp. -ed. 

h^med,* m. a lying withy aduU 
tery, coitus, foh. viii. 3, 4. 

haene, bene, poor, base, abject. 
Z. 234. {A. S, hedn, abject, 
humble, vile, poor.) 

haenan,* to stone ; p. [haendej ; 
pp. [haened]. Joh. x. 32. 

haerdliche, hardily. L. 

hdesu,* 3/1 behest, order, com- 
mand, 69:20. 

hdete,* if heat, warmth. 

haetu,* 3/! heat, warmth, ardour. 

hoeuede, /. s. had. Z. 

haexten, d. pi. highest. Z. 283. 

haeVeli3, scornfully, derisively. O. 

"593- 
h^fen,* heathenish gentile, pa- 
gan ; f h^fenu. 
haeCene, heathen. L. 
haefenscipe,* 2m. heaihenship, 

heathenism. 
haeje, adv. high. Z. 
hae^en, to elevate, exalt. Z. 1 99. 
hafde, d.s. head. Z. 540. 
hafe. See habbenn. 
hafenn, to have. See habbenn. 
haffdenn, /. //. had. O. 211. 

See habbenn. 
hahtliche, bravely, nobly. See 

ahtliche. Z. 
haylsede, p.s. hailed, saluted. 

{A. S, healsian. ) P. C. 79. 
hal,*^^hdl, hale, whole, sound, 

63:20. 



hald, support. O. 11 561. 

halde {A, S. hold, faithful, 
true), liiges; to allc hise halde, 
to all his faithful. {Fr, a tuz 
ses feaus. ) //. ///. 

hald en, /. //. held {course), pro- 
ceeded, advanced, went, Z. 961. 

/halden. hi-hold, //. held, re- 
garded, esteemed. L. 165. 

haldenn, to hold, regard, observe. 
O. 1 1724. 

hale^es, warriors. L. 497. 

half, part, side. A. R.; P. P. 

hdlga,* \m. saint; ealle hdlgan, 

alihallaws, all saints. 
^^halgian,* to hallow, purify, 

sanctify, consecrate, dedicate. 
hdlig,* holy. 
halig, holy ; d.s. and def hall- 

3he. O. 14, 1 1870. 
hdligddm,* 2m. a sanctuary ; 

sacrament, relic ; holiness. 
halle-dure, d.s. hall-door. 
hallf, behalf side. O. 11 71 7. 

//. hallfe. 
hall^henn, to consecrate; pi. 

hall3henn. O. 11 694. //. 

hall^hedd. O. 11884. 
halm, helm, helm, helmet. L. 
halsen {A. S. hedlsian), to em- 
brace, lav hold of, understand. 

G. 148.' 
hdlsian,* hedlsian, to supplicate, 

beseech, implore ; p. -ode ; //. 

-od. 
halt, pr.s. holds. A. I. wat 

halt it to telle longe ? why de* 

Zij////^ /i^/^/' quid attinet? R. 

164. 
haluis, elfish. L. 530. 
halwede, p.s. haUiWucd. R. 
halwes, saints. C. 14. 



haljcn, saints. A. I. 
bilji. sulj. s. htiUaw. 

ham, d. ace. them. 



A.I. 



L.; A.R.. 
156:19. 



ham, her. A 

hanies, hoims. L. 383. 
ham sulucn, themselves. A. R. 
hdmweard,* homrojard. 
hamzcluc, themselves. A. I. 
han, byss-neopefor haven, to have, 

and'pr. pi. Iimv. P.P.; C. 
hand,* hond, j/! hand; g. 

hande ; d. handa ; ace. hand ; 

pl.nom.g. ace. handa; d. han- 

dum ; on hand gin, to yield. 



rrender. 
hangan* (S), to heing {Iran 

p.s. h^ng; //. h^ngon ; 

bangen. 
bangian,* iiilrans. to hang 



bardcliche, M,lfy. R. 

hardy, bold. C. 407; j1/ ?43:i. 

hardily, {to sjieai) boldly, plainly. 
C. 156. 

hardylichc, boldly. A. I. 

harlot, "lie o/easyvirlue o/tithtr 
se.x. C. 6+9. ' 

hare, their. A. I. 

hamcysed, pp. equipped. C. 

harre {A. S. hcor, beoru), a 
hinge. C. 552. 

harry nge, jumbling words to- 
gelher^ H. P. 24^:4. 

hart, tp.s. art. L. 861. 

haslou, hasi thou. P.P. 

\ii\nn* gehiun (_6), locommand; 
lo call, sumini'ii ; to ww, prom- 
ise ; to name ; he ha;t ; pi. hii- 
laS ; p. hcL 65:15 ; 66:26. pi. 



JARY. 391 

h^ton ; pp. (^/)hiien. 86:28; 

62:6. 
hitan,* ^chitan, fo higkl. In 

called. {Ger. heisscn. ) yV". 1 

and ^s. iiaxxe; p.s. hint; [i. 

hdtlon. 6S:i4. 
^r^haten,* culled. 
f'haten, pp. n^med. L. 
hdt-heortnes, * ^. kol-hiartid- 

ness, seal, anger, Jury. Bs. 
hatian,* to hale; p. -ode; pp. 

-od; /oh. iji. 20 ; vii. 7; liL 

25 ; XV. 19. 
haiie, is naiiud. A. I. 
hatung,* 2/; hating, hatred. 

Joh. 
haunt, custom, practice, skill. C. 

449. 
hautencssc, haughtiness. R. 
haucti, pr. y. has. A. R. 
baje, hajje, hcje, high. L. 1 10. 
hajere, d.f. high, loud. L. 255. 
he,*he<i, hit, A^, she, it ; g. his, 

hire (byre), his ; d. him. hire 

(byre), hira ; ace. hinc, hi, 

\^^\;pl.mm.acc. hi (big); ^. 

hira(heora);tirf.him (heom). 
he, they. Bs. ; L. 324 ; R. 

■37. "38- 
heafod,* zn. head ; g. heafdes; 

d. hcafde ; pi. hcafdu. Joh. 

siii. 9; 59:17, 18. 
heafod-bedh,* 2m. a crcewn, Bs. 

106:33, 107:1, 12. 
heafod-burh,* deel. likt burb, 

head or chief eify. Ot. 
heafod-panna* (-e), \m. and/. 

head-pan, skull; beafod-pannan 

sttSw, place of a skull. Joh. xix, 

17- 
bcafod-stdl,* 2m. chief seat, me- 
tropolis, capital. Os. 83:3. 
hedge,* adv. high. 



393 



GLOSSARY. 



[heh3e 



hedh, * high ; stormy ; comp. 
hy-ra, hy-rra (hedrra, hedhra); 
superL hyhst (hehst, hedhst, 
heahest, hedgost). 

heah-ger<5fa, * \m, chief minister, 

hedh-setl,* 2«. high seat, throne, 

heih^nngtn,* high jO/ high rank, 

heald,* pp. held, kept, Bs. 
97:16. 

hcaldan,*^^healdan (i),/? hold, 
observe y keepj retain; preserve; 
pii hylst, he hylt, healt. foh, 
vii. 19. p, he61d ; pi, hedldon; 
//. healden. 59:98. 

healde, to hold, keep; healde 
and loki, to keep and observe. 
A. I, 

healden, to hold ; sub. pi. heal- 
den, hold. H, III. 

healf,* 3/1 half^ side, division, 
part ; be healle, by side. 

healf,* half; indef, decL; placed 
after the ordinal, which it dimin- 
ishes by a half ; prydde healf, 
two and a half, 

healice,* highly, loftily, supreme- 
ly. 59:9. 

healt,* halt, lame, 

heard,* hard, severe, rugged, 
bold, 

heardnys,* 3/I hardness. 

heare, hair, haircloth. A, R, 

hearge,* 2m. temple. Os. See 
Kcmblcs Gloss, to Beowulf, vol. i. 

hearne = earne {A, S. yrnan), 
to run, ride. L, 968. 

hearpe,* if. harp. 

hearpere,* 2m. harper. 

hearpian,* to harp ; p, -ode; 
pp. -od. 

hcarpung,* if, harping, 

healer, a garment. A,R, 166:9. 
(.1. S, haetero (-u), hsetron. ) 



heaued, head. A. R. d.s, heau- 
ede. A. I, 

hedwan* (3), to hew ; p. hedw; 
//. heowon ; pp, hedwen. 

heaferian,* heaforian, to re- 
strain ; p, -ode (-ade) ; pp, 
-od (-ad) ; se godcunda fore- 
fonc heaferaf ealle gesceafta, 
the divine providence restraifis 
all creatures, Bs. c, 39, § 5. 

hebban* {11), for hafian, to 
heave, lift up, raise ; ic hebbe, 
fiS hefst, he hefi5 ; //. hebbatJ ; 

p.s, h(5f ; pi, hofon ; pp. hafen ; 
imper, hefe, hebbatS. foh, iv. 

35. 
hed, head. P. P, 31. 

hedde, had, P, P. 85. 

heddest, hadst, P. P, 

heer, hair. P, C, 121 ; C, 591. 

heestis, hests, behests, commands, 
Eccl. xii. 13. 

hefde, p.s, had. A, R, 

hefelic,* heavy, 

hefenn, to raise, exalt. O. 
1 1865. 

heffne, d,s, heaven. O, 259. 
g.s. heffness. O, 234, 320. 

hefig,* heavy, tedious, 

hefignes,* hefines, 3/I heavi- 
ness, pain, affliction. 

hegere, d,f, high, loud. L. 

heh, high ; pi. he^he ; cofnp, 
hehhre ; superl, heh^hesst, 
he^hesst. {A, S. hedh, hyrra, 
h^hst. ) O, 

heh like, chiefly, eminently, O. 
1 1875. 

hehst, * superl, highest. See hedlu 

hehte, p.s. ordered. L, 

hchtest, highest, L, 

\i€ci\,'*^ have? Bs. 106:33. 

heh 36, adv. high. L. 



hric] 



hey mnn, nobhman. R. 

heih, high, exalU. A. R. 

hcilede, p.s. hailed, saluUd. P. 
P. 83. 

heyncssc.iaut^Mmss. P.C. 113. 

heyre, Aiiir, hairchlh. P.P. 

hciuol, high/ut, haughty. R. 

hciward, kityiaird {i.e., ha/ge- 
ward; A. S. hege, heag. 
hasg, 2m. hedge), a lown't 
herdsman. A. R. 165:12. 
*' Hej-ward. Agellarius.", . 
Prompl. Parv. "The hcyward 
vxts the keeper o/eallle in a com- 
mon field, who prtBcnicd tress- 
pass on the cultivated ground. . . 
' Haiward, haward, qui garde 
au commun tout Ic bestiail 
d'un bourgade.' Sherwood." 
Way's note. 

heije, d.s. ozik, dread. Z. lozg. 

he3jc, ado. high ; cutted full 
heyje, ail very short. P. C. 
lit. 

heijer band, upper hand, advan- 
tage. C. 40.. 

helan* (15), lohele, conceal; p.s. 
hail ; //. liifclon ; pp. holen. 

helas, alas! G. 

hcle, health, salvation. P. P. 
285; P. a iiz; G. iS. 

helede {A. S. helan, helian), 
p.s. covered. L. 534, 

hell,* \f. hell ; the grave. 

hellc {A. S. hyll), d.s. hill;pl. 
helles. A. I. 

hellepiness, g. of hell-torment; 
ace. hellcpine. O. 

hellepitt, helfs pit. 0. 

hellc-wite,* in. hell-torment. 
67:20. 



ARY. 394 

hclipe, help, support. 0. 
hellpenn, to help; p. tui. hnll- 

pe. O. 12033. 
hell-wara,* im., hell-wani, ^f. 

inhabitant 0/ hell. 104:21, 

30. g. pi. helUwarena. 104:3!. 
helKvarena,*^. //. 0/ hells in- 

habitants. Bs. 104:33. 
^ihelpan* (18), to help; he 

hylp«;/..j. healp (heolp);/i 

hulpon ; pp. ^^holpen. 
helpen, to help ; p. help, halp, 

hulpe ; pp. i-holpen. A. R. 
hcipeS, imp. pi. help, assist. A. 

R. 
hclucn, haluc, d.s. side. L. 

167, 
hemm, d. ace. them. O. 
hencie,* ^(■hende, handy, nearat 

hind. Jofi. vii. 2 ; 62:10. 
hcnde, d. s. end, close. L. 879. 
hende, courteems. R. 
hendely, politelv, courteously. P. 

P. 83. 
heng, /.J. hung. C. 360 ; L. 
hengen, p. pi. hanged. L. 358. 

See an-hon. 
henhen, hens. A. R. 
heni, any. L. 
hendliche, handily, politelv. (J. 

S. ^(hende. ) P. C. 79. 
henne, hem-e. P.P. 239. 
hcntc, to take, receive, lay held 

of. P.P. 50. ps. heme. P. 

?. 5 ; C. 700. hende. L. 
heCi,* she; g.d. hire, hyre; aec. 

hi; //. hi (hig); g. hint 

(heora); d. him (heom); ace 

hi (hig). 
heo, she. P.P. 46. 
heo, he. L. A,zi ; R. 108. 
heo, they. A. R.; L. 94, 365; 

R. 71 ; P.P. 393. 



GLOSSARY. 



[here 



nnlike, hcfennlike, heaven- 
O. 

nnrichess, g. of heaven's 
i<mi, O, 1 1 578, 11866. 
ic, heaven ; g, heoflfness ; 
eolTness. O, 
n,* h mourn J lament ; p, 
; //. -od. Joh, xvi. 20. 
n,* 2m. heaven, 
ne,* i/I heaven, 
nlic,* heavenly, 
ng,* tJ", a viournini^, 
'ing^ groan, 

, p.s. held, kept, O, 1 1330. 
laUIcnn. 

en, /. //. held. P. P, 
, d, aec. pi. them, L, 
>n,* hence. 
ine, hence. L, 
le, hence. L. 
)n- forts,* henceforth, 
their, P.P. 393. 
, * 3/1 herd, flock; custody. 
e-monne, herdsmen's. A, 

en, canvas, A. R, 

, g.pl. their, L.; P.P.^i. 

de - cnauen, household- 

cs, domestics y servants ; or, 

nilly, the loiver class. Z.3 66. 

n, g. pi. their, L, 

-moerken, army-marksy 

lards. L. 967. 

,* 2m. heart, 

2,* if heart, 

e, yi heart ; d. heorte, he- 

ti, herten ; pi. heorten, 

tes. Z. 

te, herrte, heart. 

ted, hearted. A. R, herd 

rled, hard-hearted. A, R, 

3n, houen, /. />/. heaved. 



hcouene, heaven, A. R, 

heowe. See hew. O, 

heowede, p.s. coloured, stained, 
A. R. 164:32. 

hep, heap. P.P, 

her,* here (time and place), 

her, here, L. ; O. 

her, ere. L. 69, 285. 

her, their, G. 273, 274, 276. 

her, to hear, R, 

h^r beforan,* herebefore, Os, 

her efter, after this. A, R. 

h^ran,* geh^i^m, to hear, obey ; 
p, h6rde. Bs, See h^ran. 

heraud, herald. P, C, 27. 

herbergh, harbouring port, har- 
bour; inn, tavern. C, 405, 767. 
(A. S. here, multitude, army, 
and beorgan, to shelter, protect. ) 

herberwe, to harbour, accommo- 
date, lodge, P. C. 63. 

herbiuore, here before, heretofore, 
R. 

hercne, imp, s. hearken. L. 

hercnen, to hearken ; pr. herc- 
net5 ; p. hercnede {A, S, 
heorcnian). A. R. 

herkneres, hearkeners, hearers, 
A, I, 

^herd, pp. heard. A, I, 

herd, hard ; pi. herde. A. R. 

herde, hards, {A, S. heordan, 
heordas), cloth made of taw, 
A. R, 166:7. 

herdeman, shepherd, pastor, P, 
C 79. 

herd est, hardest, most austere, 
A, R. 

here,* 2m. army, host, band, 
multitude, 

here, hair, haircloth. A, R, ; 
P. P, 48. 

here, their, of them. O, ^6 ; R, 



^A^rcdra] GLOS 

gehlredm,* more /rait/wori/iy. 

Bs. Set hcrian. 
hcrtgcal,* a«. mililjry appara- 
tus or equipment ; u-uipons, ar- 

vtiiar ; heriot. 
hcrtn, army, host. L. 915. 
hcre-mffifken, here-markcn, 

hxre-marken, beore-mKrkcn, 

//. stamhrdi. L. 
I'heren, lohear. A. R. 
herenn, to hear. O. gz, 139. 

pr.p/. hcrcnn. O. 328. 
hure-loga,* hcreloha, ini.geit- 

triil, /eiitir.eo/isul, duke. 64:34. 

(htrc, an ar/iiv, lei3n, to IdiJ.) 
hcrih, praiscih ; pi. heriep. 

A.I. 
hcrgian,* to harry, ravage, make 

depredations, plunder ; p. -ode ; 

pp. -od ; from here, an army. 
hergung,* j/I harrying, ravage, 

herian, to praise; p. -cde ; //. 

-ed, jffhered. 64:21, *7- 
hOrigendlice, praiseworthy, laud- 

ably. 69:5. 
herraen, hermicii, to harm ; pr. 

sub. hermic A. R. 
hennes, harms, damage. A. R. 
herrcncnn, to hearken, attend to. 

O. 
herschipe, hardship. A. R. 
hertes, hearts. P. C. 113. 
berto. hereto, to this. A. R. 
herui (sire), Sir Harvy. P.P. 

108. perhaps a proverbial per- 
sonal allusion. 
heslen, commands. A. R. 
hestes, commandments. A. I. 

|)e ten liestes. P. P. 
ha.* See hilan. 
he;, he it. O. 97, 107. 
hel, was called. R. 



het, p.s. commanded. A. I. 
hethencsse, heathendom. C 4^ 
hettc, tr named, caWd. J. S.; 
P. P. 326. pJ. hcuen. F.r. 
330- 
heued, head. I.. 540. 
heueden, p. pi. had. A. R. 
heuic, hravy, law spirited, A.R. 
hevinessc, sadaest, G. 10. 
\^c•x,/urm, apptarame. 0. 
heSene, itcapcne.rfi^^^jriar. L 
he^e, h^h, exalted, noldi. L 
hcjere, d.s.y. high, kud ; mid 
hejcre siemne, with Imi wiu. 
L. 255. 
he)he, lii^JiessL Set belt 
hcjiiche, chiefly, A. I, j 

hi,* they, Ihem. her. See he. j 

hi, she. A. I. \ 

_j'hyeilde, p.p. kolden. A. I. ^ 
hyer beuore, hercle/ore. A. I. \ 
hi, they: L. \ 

hicgan,* hycan, to think. m£- ; 
tate, strive, attempt ,- p. hogde, 
hogede(-ade. -ode), 
h^d,* %f. hide, skin ; hide {<•/ 
land), about uo acres. 
hj^dan,* gehfilm, to hide, am- 
ccal ; p. hydde ; pp. hj^ied. 
Bs. 
hiden, hides {o/land). R. 
hider,* hydcr, hither. 
hie.* Bs. 97:29. TTtis passage 
Fox translates, "again sht 
seeks her kind, and departs by- 
unknown itkiys to her rising, 
and so hastens higher and higher, 
until she comes, " etc., translating 
hie, asiffrom higan or higian, 
te hie, hasten ; bul hie unJoubl- 
edly = \i\6, hco, she, a common 
form in this text, and the verb is 
implied in '"ufor and ufor," 



397 



GLOSSARY. 



[hired 



higher and higher; translate 
thus : * * and so she [ascends'] 
higher and higher until she 
comes " etc, 

h\t* aces./, it, Bs, 

hii, they, L, 365. 

hio, nom,s,f, it, Bs, 

hig,* nom, ace, pL they, them. 
See he, he6, hit. 

higian,* to strive, endeavor, con- 
Und,hasten,hie; pr.s. higat5 ; pr, 
subj, higie ; fact he higie eallan 
rnxgne xfter fdere m6de, that 
he strive with ail his might after 
the reward, Bs, 107:7. higaj> 
ealle maegne, he strives with all 
his might. Bs, 101:24. to 
))am "^ ))u . . . mid ealles 
modes geornfullan ingefance 
higie "p fd, etc., to the end thai 
thou with all the mind's anxious 
thought strive that thou, etc. 
Bs. c. xxii. § 2. 

hi-hold. See ilialden. 

hihte, /.J. ordered, P, P. 120, 
299. 

hii, hi, th^, L, 

^^hyhtan, * to hope, confide, trust; 
rejoice, exult ; p, hyhte. Joh, 

V. 45- 
hild = held, p.s. held, esteemed, 

regarded. C. 182. 
hildcn, p, pi. flayed, L, 356. 
hyldo,* hyldu, 3/I indecl. in s, 

grace, favour^ fidelity, homage. 

93:33. 
^-hyled, pp. covered. i^A, S, 

helan. ) P, C, 41. 
hylt.* See healdan. 
hylt,* 2m., n,, and hylle, if, 

hilt, handle ; pr.s. of healdan, 

used as a noun; i,e,, that by 

which one holds, Bs, 



him suluen, nom, ace, himself 
A, R. 

hym '\^0'^iQ, it seemed to him, R, 

h^an,* h^nan, to humiliate, re- 
press, insult, spoil, injure, op- 
press ; p, -de ; pp. -ed ; henan 
t5i yflan and fyrf ran f d g6dan, 
to repress the evil and advance 
the good. Bs, xxxix. §2. an- 
gunnon fd hergian -3 hynan )>d 
pe hy frltJian sceoldan, began 
those to plunder and oppress that 
they protect should. Os.'w. i. 

hynderesl, hindmost, C. 624. 

hyne, hind. P, P, 305. 

hyngc, p. pi. hung, C. 67 g, 

hingen, p, pi, hung. G. 311. 

hine,* ace, m. him. See he, 
hec5, hit. 

hine, him. L. ; A. R. 

hyne, hind, servant, P, P, 

hio* = he6, she. Bs. 

h^^ra,* im. one hired, a hireling, 
foh. X. 12, 13 ; 60:8, 9. 

h^ran, hiran, ^^rhiran, ^dfh^ran, 
to hear, obey; audirc, obedire; 
/. h^rde ; //. ^^hyred, -hyrd. 

hird \A. S. hirdd), company, 
household, O, army. A, R. 

hyrde.* 2m. herdsman, shepherd, 
pastor, keeper, 59:10. 

hyre, g. d. her. See he, hed, 
hit. 

hire, g. d. ace, her, hers. Jl. 
R, ; O, ; R. hire suluen, her- 
self A. R. pi their, L. ; R. 
hire fo^te, it seemed to her. R, 

hir^d,* 2m. a family, household; 
palace, court ; army, host, as- 
semblage, convent. 

hired, hird, n. host ; g, hiredes, 
hirdes, hired ; d. hired, hirede- 
n, hirde. L, 943. 



hiraes] GLO: 

himes, pi. (orners, angles. P. 

C. 30. (-4, 5. hirne, iorn, 

paint, angle. ) 
^ifhyrsum,* obedient 
hyrsumian, ^^liyrsumian, to 

iM; follmv ; p. ode ; /^. -od. 
hjrsian,* to adorn, drai, deck; 

pp. ^iliyrst, Bs. 105:11. 
getiyv.,* pp. heartened, embold- 
ened. Ml. 
hyrian,* to hearten, embolden, en- 
courage, iom/ort ; p. hyite ; 

//. gehyn. 66:19. 
his, Med in the later Uxt of L. 

for expressing tiie gen. L. 169, 
147. 1029- 
his, her. A. I. 233:14, 27- 
his,tr. L. 140, 157, i64i Z4o. 
1 hys, * his. 

tiisc, them. A. I. 228:4. 

hiss, his : pi. hisc. O. 

hiw,* 2Hr' hue, species, aspect, 

form. gui„. 

hiwrieden,* j/? house, family, 

tribe. 
hyB, 3/1 gain, profit, advantage; 

pl. h>:8Sa. Ml. 60:23. 
hijeJe, /.J. hied. P. C. 
hijcnge, d.s. has/e; an hijenge, 

in haste, haililv. L. 892. 
hijenliche, speedily, hastily. L. 

516. 
hijte.^.j. commanded, P.P.^^o. 
hiadan* (9), to load, lade; draw, 

empty, lake in ; p.s. hldd;//. 

hlodon;//. hijeden, ffhladen. 

foh. iv. II ; 69:11, 
hlif,* 2m. loaf bread. 
hldf-niKsse, * 1/ lammat. Os. 
hiaford,* 2m. lord, masler. 
hledpan* (3), to leap; p.s. 

hlcijp ; pl. hieopon ; pp. hle- 



3ARY. 39! 

hledian* (19), to easi lots, *- 

termine fy lot ; he hlvt ; p.s. 

hledt; pl. hlulon;;^. G'^Jhlo- 

ten. foh. 
hicahhan,* hiihhan (10), ft 

laugh ; p.s. h!<ih; pl hlogon; 

pp. hlahen, hlcahen. 
^thiy-d,* 2«. tumult, noise, dam- 

our. /oh. vii. 12. 
hlinian, to lean, recline, rat en; 

p. -ode ; //. -od. foh. xiii. 23. 
h ly Stan , * ^<rh I r stan, jb listen, hear, 

hearken; attend to, obey; p. 

hlyste. 
hlod,*/.j. See hladan. 
hloi,* i». lot; sore. JfA. 
^fhldS, 3/; a body {of men) ; 

hldwan (4), to hnu ; p.s. hloJ*; 

pl. hlc<5won ; pp. hMwca 
blmter,* hlutlor. pure, tkar ; 

simple, single. 103:17. 
ho, they. L. 96. 



* huh, i 



W/ g. 



h<5s; . 



hd, ongc^n hyre hd. Gen. iii. 
15. ihefS hys h.6 ongein me. 
Joh. xiii. 18. g.pl, h6a. Ps. 
Th. xiviii. 5. ace, h<5s. Ps, 
Spelm, Iv. 6. 
hoaien, pr, pl. command. H. 

in. 

hoker {A. S. hocer), contempt, 
disdain. A. R. 163:16. 

hokschynes {_A. S. hdh, heel; 
sinu, suiew), the sinews j'usl 
above the heels. P. C. 1 24. 

hod, hood. P. P. 31 ; P. C. 
121, 

hogian,* to Ihihi, reflect, he anx- 
ious or concerned ; p. -ode ; 
pp. -od. 69:6, 

hilh,* imp, s. hang, crucify 

foh. xix. 6. See h<in. 



399 



GLOSSARY. 



[hirinas 



hoi, hale, healthy, R. 
ho\d,* /ai/h/ul, true , firm, 
holde, faithful R. 
holde, to hold, advance, L. 
holden, to hold, keep; imp, pi. 
holdeiS, hold, keep, retain , stick 
to. A, R. ; R, 
holden, pp. held, regarded, es- 

teemed, P. P, 475 ; C, 141. 
holic, holly. A, R. 
holie^, diggcth {A. S. holian). 

A.R, 
holylaker, holily. A, L 
hoUe, d.s, of hoi, hole. Z. 
holme, d^. holm. Z. 
\io\^^Xi, pp. helped. C 18. 
holte, d.s. holt, wood. C. 6 ; Z. 
holies, hollows, holes. L. 247. 
horn, home. R, 
horn, d. pi. them, L, ; R. 
hom fo^te, it seemed to them, R, 
hdn* (19), to' hang, crucify ; 
ic h6, h(jh, he h6h«, we hotJ ; 
p.s. heng ; //. hdngon ; imp. 
hdh, h<5S ge, foh. xix. 6, 1 5. 
pp. hangen ; dat. inf t<5-h(5nne. 
honden, hands. A. R. ; R. 
hoiit^iXy, fairly, beautifully; the 
presles arrayen here awtere 
honestly. M, 241:11. 
hongen, to hang ; opon J>e plow 
hongen, to bend aver the plavo, 
P.Cii 9. pr. pi. hongeth. A. 
R. p. pi. honged, P.C.izy. 
nongy, to hang; letef hongy 
pe 3 isles, let the hostages be hung. 
L. 504. 
honoureth, imp. pi. honour ; 
30ur fadres honoureth. P. P. 
honsel, gift, reward, bribe, P, 

P, 169. 
hontef, hunting, R. (^A, S, 
huntatS. ) 



hoot, hot. C, 6S9. 

^or, g, pi, their, of them ; hoi 
noper, neither of them, R. 

horased^,* zm, a sink, pit. 
(hora, g, pi. filth, excrement.) 
Bs. 106:25. See sedt$. 

hordom, whoredom. R, 

hore, her, their. A. R, 

horf. See orf. 

hous,whores, harlots, Lk, xv.30. 

hom, home, horn ; pi, homes, 
heomes ; d, home, homen, 
homes. Z. 

hors,*2«. horse; pi, hors ; d. pi, 
horsan = horsum. 78:35. 

hors, horse ; d. horse, horsen ; 
pi. hors, heors, horses ; d, 
horsen. Z. 

^^horsed,* ^efhorsad, pp. horsed, 
mounted on horseback ; used sub- 
slant ively, cavalry, Os. 84:1. 

hors-hwael,* 2m, horse-whale, 
walrus, 78:19. 

hose, whoso. P, P, 137, 376. 

hoseli, to housel, administer the 
sacrament, {A. S. husel, offer- 
ing, oblation. ) R, 

hosen, hose, stockings. A, R,;L, 

hote, pp. called. G. 

ihote-n, pp. named, called. L. 2. 

hote, adv. hotly, ardently. C. 97. 

hoxterje, huckster age. P.P. 141. 

h(5tJ, imp, pi. hang, crucify, foh, 
xix. 6. See hon. 

hr3edlice,*r^a^/j^', speedily, soon, 
83:27. 

hr3egl,*2«. rail, swaddling band, 
garment, clothes, raiment ; 
nihtes-hrsegl, night-rail or -cloth- 
ing ; hrsegl-hiis, vestry, 

hraetJ,* quick, soon, early. 

hninas, 2 m. pi. reins, reindeer. 
Os, 78:3c. 



hraiSc] GLO; 

hra^le,* aik'. rath, qui'dlv, soon. 
hraSosl,* is/vnaliv. 96:27. 
hreddina.*^ delhvring, saving; 

J,'l. ruUwt.' ^l. 60:7. 
hrcoh,* rough, scaen, 63:15. 

See hreOw. 
hretJsan* (19), lo rush, fall vio- 

len/lv ; p.s. hreds ; pi. hruron; 

pp. hroren. 
hre<iw,*hredwig, hredwig-mrfd. 

rough, ruggid, rude, cruel, 

fierce. Joh. vi. 18. 
hreciwan* <I9), to rue; p.s. 

hredw; //. htaxon; pp. hro- 

hrlnan* (20}, to touch; he 

hrinS ; p.s. hrin ; pi. hrtnon; 

//. hrincn ; govs. gen. 
bring,* 2m. ring, 
hriSer,* hrySer, zn. vtal, caliU, 

ox. cmy, heifer ; pL hrjiSera. 
hd,* hou), in what manner; 

quam, quomodo ; hii ne, 

whether or not. Joh. vi. 70 ; 

vii. 19, 25. 
huannc, when. A. I. 
haaSfVihcse. A. I. 
hiiden, to hide ; pr.t. huL A.R. 

p.s. huJde. L. 
hucr, where. A. I. 
hueri-ii; -.rharo/-. A. I. 
Jjtici. '.v/,„l. 'A. I. 
huich, \iayc\\, what (qualis) ; 

d.pl. huiclien. A. I. 
huyle, while. A. I. 
huire, hire, ji<ages. A. R. ; 

P. P. 305. 
hul, hill; d hulle ; pi. hulles. 

L. 1005, 1006, 1008. 
hulde, to flav. {A. S. ie-hy\- 

dan.) Jf. 581. 
huldfj, to hold; p.s. huld : pi. 

hulde. R. 



iliulet, pp. eoTvred, reofei. P.P, 
343. {A. S. h^lan. A i/k, 

hulles, Mis. P. I*. 267. 
hullpe. See hcllpenn. 0. 
hdmeta,* haw. 
hund,* 2w. hound, dog. 
hund,* 2a. hundred; pi. hand, 
hund, Jiuml, h.iiiu.! ; d.s. boo- 

de ; ^. hundes ;^.(/. banden, 

hundes. Z. 
)iuni.l-cahiaiig,*«^A/fV^.-ligra; 

d. -tigum. 
hundred.* trt. hurtdrcd. 
humJseofeni],* seventy. S. C 

tii:i2. 
hund-tei5ntig • hundred; g. 

-leuniigra «/ -tedniigum. /oi. 
iiund-nvelftig,* hundred und 

twenty; g. -tigra ; d. ^igllln. 
hungere, rfx hunger. L. 
hungrig,* hungry. 
hunig,* in. honey. 
hunig-sw^i.^Atwyjiwrf, sweelas 

honey. 69:13. 
hunta,* im. hunter; hnntan = 

himliim, d.pl. Os. 
I huntaS,* 21a. hunting. 77:6. 
hunte, hontc, hunter ; pi. bun- 
ten, huntrt, iionles. L. 
huniinge, hontynge, n. httid- 

ing. L. 
huo, who. A. I. 
hupus, hips. C. 474. 
hurde, p.s. heard. R. 
hurc* 5"^ hiiru. 
hure -} hure, at least, however, 

especially. A. R. 163:27. 
I'hure, to hear ; pp. I'hurd. R. 
hmne,corner. {A.S. hirne.).ff, 
ihun, pp. hurt A. R. 
hilru,* moreover, chttfly, indeed, 



40I 



GLOSSARY. 



[hwilon 



hiis,* 2«. house ; ph hds. 

husewif, housewife. A, R, 

hutte, /.J. hii.casi. P,P. 172. 

hwd,* inter r og, pron, who, m.f,^ 
hwaet, what^ n.; g. hwaes ; d. 
hwam (hwan, hwon, hwaem); 
ace. hwone (hwajne), hwaet ; 
abl, hwi, hw^ ; swd hwd 
swi, swd hwaet swd, whosoever, 
whatsoever. 

gehsni.,* each, every one, whoever, 
some one ; n. ^^hwaet, whatever; 
declimd like hwd. 64:21. 

^<fhwaede,* little, small ; indef. 
decL Joh, 

hwael,* 2m, whale ; pL hwalas. 
78:22. 

hwael-hunta,* im, whale-hunter, 
Os, 

hwael-huntatJ,* 2m, whale-hunt- 
ing, Os. 78:24. 

hwaene,* ace, of hwd, whom, 
each, every, every one, 

hwaenne,* when. 

hvvxr,* where. 

^t-hwaer,* everywhere. 

hwxt,* neut. of hwd, interrog., 
what ? Joh, i. 22 ; ix. 26 ; xii. 
49 ; xvi. 18 ; xxi. 22, 23. not 
used with a noun ; govs, gen. of 
adj,; hwaet lytles, a little, some- 
what; h^2fiiy{Q\c% what of evil, 
what evil thing. Matt, xxvii. 23. 
why? howl hwaet ge sindon 
earme ofer ealle men ! how 
wretched ye are beyond all men / 
indeed, moreover; hwael la, 
Weill so / hwaet fa, well, there- 
upon. See Grimm, D, G. iv. 
pp. 448-450. hwaet se(5 leo, lot 
the lion. 97:9. 

^<^hwaet, whatever, Bs, 

hwffete,* 2m. wheat. 



hwdeten,* wheaten. Joh. xii. 24. 
hwaet- hwegu,* a little, somewhat, 

in some manner. Bs. 
hwaetJer,* interrog. pron, which 

of the two, whether ; uter, uter- 

que, indef. decl. ; hwaeper . . . 

fe, whether , . , or, Joh, xviii. 

34. 
hu-aefere,* adv. yet, still, not- 
withstanding. 67:16. h wae J>- 

ere-feah, nevertheless, 
hwam,* d. ^hwd, q.v. 
hwanan,* hwanon, hwonan, 

whence. 
hwar,* where. 

hwarse, wheresoever. A, R. 
hwareuore, wherefore. A, R. 
hwarto, to what end, why. A.R. 
hwearfian,* to turn, to turn 

round ; p. -ode; pp.-od. Bs. 
hwclcan*= hwelcum. Os, See 

hwylc. 
hw^ne,* scarcely, a little ; used 

before comparatives; hw(jne der, 

shortly before, 
hwedl,* 2n, wheel ; pi. hwe(51, 

hwedlu. 
hweorfan* (18), lo turn, return; 

convert; hehwyrftJ; p. hwearf; 

/>/. hwurfon ; pp. hworfen, ge- 

hworfen, ^thwyrfed. Bs, 
hwet, what. S. C, 
hwefer.* *S*^^ hwacfer. 
h'^'i,'^ why ; abl. qfhvfi, hwaet. 
hwyder,* h wider, whither. 
hwil,* 3/1 while, time. 
hwilc,* hwylc, hwelc, interrog, 

pron. who, which, what, what 

sort, any, qualis ; indef. decl. 
^^hwilc,* each, every, everyone, 

whoever ; indef. decl. 
hwilon,* whilom, once, formerly, 

sometimes. 



hwiltidum] GLOa 

hwSIlidum,* somelimes. Ml. 

63:14. 16. 
hwilum,* f<hwilum, at limes, 

fomilima. Bs. ; Of. 
hwinsen, wings. A. Ji. 
hwil,* wAik. 70:10. 
hwo, whc. A. Ji. 
Iiwiin,* a liltk, somewhat, pau- 

lulum. 
hwon, when, since. A. R. 
hivoiine,* -when, sometimes. See 

hwxniie. 
hwdpan (4), to whoop ; p.s. 

hweup ; //, hweiipon ; //. 

hwopen. 
hwose, hwoso, whoso. A. R. 
hwu, haw. A, R. 
hwule, iKiilt/;)/. hwules. A.R. 
»-hwulen, lo haw or lake time. 

A. R. 167.1. 






I. J. T 






i, M. 


L. 246, z6i 


263; P.P. 


153; 


0. 






y./ 








jangler 


* a prater. 


babbler. 


a 


562. 








(biden 


to abidi, suj) 


W. L 




ic,* / 


■ e. min : 


i. mc; 




me (meh, mec) , 


dual. 


<iom. 




S- uncer ; d 




ii* 


; g. ire {us 


er) ;'rf. 


ace. 










y^an,* 


to eke, inc 


'■ease. 


See 


. ^can. 








V' 


0. 1 1383. 







L. ; A. R. 

each one, every. P. C. 

n°- \ 

icham, X am. P.P. 105, az6. 
ichaue, ^ have. P.P. 53, 74, 
80, 152. 



ichcholle, Ishaa. R. 
icholle = ich wolle, Iw3l. S. 
ichule, /shall. P.P. 151. 
ichulle, /shall. A. R. ; P.P. 

236. 
idede, indeed. O. 123. 
Idel,* y-del, idle, vain, useUtt; 

on ideS, vainly, in vain. 
idel, idleness, vain things. A. R. 

156:23- 
j-del, idle, vain; in yoel, m 

vain. A. L 
idcU, idle ; onn idell, » tun. 

O. 82. 
idon, pp. done. A. R. 
I'fa. io,/oe; pi. iTan, Ton. L. 
yk\,* 2n. evil; pi. yfelu. 
j'fel,* adj. evil ; comp. wj-rsa, -«, 

-e ; superl. wyrst 
yfel-daed,* j/l evil deed. Joh. 
yfele,* evilly, badly ; eomp. 

ivyrs-e ; superl. wjrrest. 
j'fel-willan,* lo wish or intend 

evil. Bs. See wylJan. 
ifell, adj. evil. O. 
yfelnes,* 3/; cvilness. 
yferaesl, superl. uppermost, high- 
est ; pos. ufeweard (up); comp. 

ufere (ufor). 
igland,* 2n. island ; pi. Igland. 
^i^'flian,* to be sick; to injure, 

weaken; pp. ge-y^oA, Joh. xi. 2. 
yhe, eye. C. 10. 
ijs, iee. P. C. 134. 
ylc* (ilc), same; se ylca, sed, 

|ixt, ylce. 
Hand," 2n. island; pi. Hand. 

Bs. 
ilehe, same. H. /// 
ilke, same. G. 
ilchcre, every. A. R. 
yld. See yldo. 
ylding,* j/! delay, tarrying. 



403 



GLOSSARY. 



[ynou 



yldo,* yldu, if, age ; indecL 

in s. 
yldre,* elder, ancestor; comp, 

qftzXdi. Os, 
yleslipes, ylespilles, hedgehog- 
skins, A, R, 1 66: 10. {A, S. 

igil, igl, \\, a hedgehog ; Fr. 

poll, hair ^ fur, shin.) 
iliche, lihe. A, R, 
illc (A. S. aelc), each ; illc an, 

each one, O, 67. 
illke, same, O, 223. 
ilome, frequefttly, R, 
ymb,* ymbe, about ^ after ^de- 
cor ding, 69:5. 
j^mbe-spraec,* 3/I a speaking 

about, 
ymbhoga,* \m, anxiety about^ 

desire, solicitude, Bs. 
ymb-snit5an,*ymb-snidan (20), 

to cut around, to circumcise ; p. 

ymb-sndt$ ; //. ymb-snidon ; 

//. ymb-sniden. Joh, vii. 26. 
jinb-sn^^dennys,* £/C a cutting 

around, circumcision. Joh, vii. 

22. 
ymbsprecan,* to speak about. 

See sprecan. 
ymb-standan,* to stand about, 

surround. Bs, See standan. 
ymbutan,* about, round about; 

without, beyond ; the parts of 

the word are often separated ; 

ymb bine utan, round about 

him, 
ymbweaxan* ( i ), /<:? grow about, 

surround ; p, ymbwedx ; pi, 

ymbweoxon ; pp, ymbweaxen. 

Os, 
imine, in my. A, R. 
immess, variously. O. 115 10. 
in, * inn, 2//. inn, dwelling, house. 
in,* inn, adv. in, within. 



in,* prep, in, into, unto ; govs, 
dat, and ace, Os. 80:21. 

in, inn, dwelling, place of re- 
sort ; dx inne, ine. L. 376. 

incer,* g, dual of ^f"^, your two ; 
used as a possessive adjective pro- 
noun, and declined indefinitely^ 
like uncer, q. v. 

inbowid, pp. bent ifi or down, 
Ps, xlv. 7. 

incund,* internal, 

yude, azure-coloured. M. 241:27. 

inehord, in hoard, in custody. 
H, III, 

in-eode,* p,s, ivcnt in. See 
gdn. 

infaer,* in, entrance, entry, 

in-faran,* to enter. See faran. 

infortune, misfortune. G, 162. 

in-gdn,* to go in. See gdn. 

ingepanc,* 2m, thought, mind, 
will, Bs. 

in-goynge, admittance, entrance, 
P,P. 380. 

inn,* adv, in, within, 

inn-dbredan,* to drag or draw 
in, Os, See dbredan. 

innan,* inne, within. 

inne,* adv, in, R, ; C, 41. 

inne, prep, in, L, 

inneweard,* inward ; comp. in- 
ncra ; super I, innemest. ^/./ 
Bs. 

innotJ,* 2/;?. inside, belly, womb; 
pi, insides, intestines, 

innse^^less {^A.S, in-segel),^^*^/^. 
O, 260, 265, 270, 284. 

innsihht, insight, perception, 
knowledge, O, 11 508. 

inntill, /;v/. into, to. O. 11 701. 

innweard,* itrward. /El. 

inoh, enough, O, R, 

ynou, enough. 



inouhreaKe] GLOi 

inouhreaBe, reaJify enough, wel! 
enough. A. R. 

inowo, enough. L. 

ynowi, tnmigh, R. 

in tel, into. H. HI. 

into,* into, against. 110:9, "■ 
Bume urnon into cyrcaii ■] 
belucan (la diiran into heom, 
some ran into {the) church and 
iocfcid the doors against {after') 
them. 110:14. 

in to, against. Lk. xv. 18, 21. 

inwardliche, inzvardty, sincerely. 
A. R. 
■card,* inward. /EL 
fcardlic,* inward. 60:11. 
A. I. 



lobeses. 

re, her. R. 
i-redy, ready. R. 
iren, iron. A. R. 
yrfenuma,* im. heir ; from 

yrfe, inheritance, and niman, 

to lake. Ml. 
yrhS,* j/; sloth, cmmrdice. Os. 
yrmS,* eorraB, ermS, 3/C pm>- 

yman* (zi), to run ; he yrnS ; 
fi.s. am ; //, union ; pp. ur- 

imen, to run. L. 6z8, p. arnde. 

L. 622. 
yrre,* in. ire, anger. 
ireian,* yrsian, jfeyrsian, to 6e 

""gV'' P- -°^^ '• PP' -^• 
f fyrsod, • yrsiende, irascible. Bs. 
irspiles. .S« yieslipes. A. R. 
irsung,* yrsung, ^, anger. Bs. 
is, his. R. 325, 326. 
is, ys, used for genitive. R. 1, 

»8i, 3*5- i^<>- « paraim. 
ise, sub. pr. pi see. R. 



j-so|)e, ifi' hyssop. And dippiS 
ysopan sceaft on J^m bliSde 
fe ys on )>am persolde, Exei. 
xii. 22. in Jtih. xis, 1% ysopo 
is used as a dal. or ail, iflir 
the Latin declension ,- circnmde- 
derunt spongiam cum ht'ssopo. 

isofe ; mid isofie, in sooth. L 

Israhela, gen. pi. of IsradUts. 

yiemesi,* superl. uttermost, ut- 
most; pos, iJteweard (dl); 
eomp. litre (dtor). 

y\^K\i,* adj. of otter. Os.T):b. 

ytst.* 2/i.J. eatest. See Oia. 

y't.* 3A''- "'^■^- ^" eiasi. 

'wn,* outer; eomp. of&\. 
yitren, of otter. 
Iud(5a, gen. pi. of Ihe Jews. 
liidea-land, 2 m, Jews' land, 

Judea. 
ludeas, nam. pi. Jews. Joh. iii. 

25- 
ludeisc, Jewish. Ml. 
Julian (Seynt), the patron of 

hospitality. C. 341, 
ivnnen, iunne. See vnnen. 
Jurie. Jewry, Ihe Jews. A. I. 
justne, to joust. C. 96. 
iwa;re, everywhere, i. 408. 
iwhillc {A. S. ge-hwyic), eaeh, 

every, any. 0. 173, 11486. 
iwis, truly, indeed. R. 
iwisiichen, d.s, eerUibt, sure; 

to iwislichS finge, as a certain 

thing. Z. 451. 
i)>e, i«e, in the. A. R. 
iSine, in thy. A. R. 
iSisse, in this. A. R. 
ijen, eyes. Eccl. xii, 3, Gloss. 



405 



GLOSSARY. 



[laferrdom 



laas, a lace^ hdt, C. 394- 
Idc,* 2«. gift, offering ; pi, Idc. 

75:22. 
lakke, sub. s, lad, /ail, be wanl- 

ing, p, a 143 ; P' P- 238. 

lakketh, lacks, /ails. P. C. 150. 
lacche, lo calch, P. P, 199. 
lacchenn, lo catch, entrap ; pp. 

lahht. O. II 62 1, 
i-laced, laced. A, i?. 
/-lad, //. led, drawn. C.532. 
ladden, ladde, /. pi. led, con- 
veyed, look. L. 
lady, g.s.for ladye, ladys; lady 

grace. C. 88. lady veyl, lady's 

veil. C. 697. 
Iddledw,* 2m. leader, general. 

Bs. ; Os. See Idltedw. 
Isec, p.s. leapt. L. 668. 
ge\d^cc2iTi,'^ to latch, get, take, seize; 

p. ^^laehte ; pL ^^laehton ; pp. 

^^laeht. 62:18. 
l^dan,*^^ldedan, to lead, bring; 

ic Idbde, J>ii l^dest, Idetst, he 

I^de«, Idet ; //. ldeda« ; p. 

Icedde; pp. Idbded, Idbd, ge- 

Ijfeded, ^dded. 61:10,30. 
Laeden, Latin, Bs, 
\^hv\,* to leave; p. -de ', pp.-td, 

laefe, belie/, /ailh. O. 11472, 

1 1 708. 
lajg. * See licgan. 
laei, p,s. lay ; pi. laein ; in/. 

ligge-n. Z. 
laeiden,/. pi. laid. L. 
laen {^A. S. ledn), reward. O. 

H4, III. 
laepenn, to leap. O. 11792. 

sub. /. J. 1 u pe. O. 1 2 03 7. 
Idbran,* to leach, instruct ; p, 

l^rde ; pp. ^ddbred. 
/ Iserde, pp. learned, cleric, H, III, 
zlairede, ^. learned; clergy. L. 



laerenn, to tecuh, instruct ; 2p.s. 

la*resst. O. 120 18. ip, laerefp. 

O. 1 1826. 
laes,* adv. less, 
laessa, * laesse, comp. less ; pos, 

lytel ; superl, laest. 
laest,* superl. least. See lytel. 
^cfl^stan,* to per/orm, execute, 

give, pay, last, endure, continue, 

Joh, XV. 16 

laesu,* 3/1 pasture, lease, com- 
mon ; g, d, ace, laeswe, laese. 

/oh, X. 9 ; 61:9. 
laeswian, * lo pasture, /eed; trans* 

and inlrans, ; ic laeswige ; /. 

-ode ; pp. -od ; pr. p, Iseswi- 

gende. 61:12. 
Idetan* (7), to let, leave, dismiss, 

suffer, cast {a net) ; he l^t ; /. 

let ; //. Idton ; pp, l^ten. /oh. 

xxi. 6; 60:23. 
Isetanias {Lat,), cue, pi, litanies. 

^l. 
laetenn, lo think, judge, esteem. 

O. 79. 
Idbwed,* leuvd, ignorant, laical^ 

lay, 67:1. 
laewedd, lewd, lay, ignorant, O. 

55. 
laetSest, lofest, most loathsome, 

odious, hate/ul, L. 
Iae3en, //. laws. L, 793. the 

word here means blows. 
l^C * 3/^ what is le/t, remainder, 

residue. 63:3; 66:26. 
laf {A. S. \i\iX), loa/ ; pi. lafess. 

O, 1 1626, 1 1788. 
laferrd {A. S. hldford), lord, 

master. O. 
laferrd inngess, lordings. O. 

1 1679. 
laferrdom i^A. S. hldforddm), 

lordship, dominion. ^.11851. 



laffdij] GLa 

laffdij, ladv. 0. 12026. 
Ufte, pJ. 'I(fi. faikd. C. 494. 
lahht, pp. See lacchenn. 
lai, pj. ky. L. 
lamb, • in. lamb ; pi. lamb. /oi. 

i. 29, 36; xxi. 16, 17. 
^.■ISmp.* i'lf^flimpan. 
land,* za. /ii»i/, country ; pi. 

lang,* long, tall ; cornp. lengra, 
-e, -e; supcrl. lengesl, also, lon- 
gest 

tang uppo {A. S. gAang, gt- 
leng), along of, owing to, be- 
cause of. 0.117. 

tange, * aJv. long, far. 

langsu m, • longsomt, long, 
ledums. 73:29. 

lape, to lap {as a dog). P. P. 
107. 

lapped, wrapt, P. C. 136. 

^t,* Zf- '"'"'' learning, doctrine, 
instruction; counsel, 59:24. \6 
Mte,/or instruction, 65:6. 

lare, lore, instruction, learning. 
O. 14, 118, 124, 258, 321, 

Idreuw,* im. teacher, doctor, mas- 
ter. 59:19; 69:10. 

large, adv. freely, licentiouslv. 
C. 736- 

largeliche, lihcrally. R. 

Iarj,'csse { pcrfonifiecT), Bounty. 
P-P.37S- 

larspcll, teaching, doctrine, 0. 
56. 

lassc. See litcll. 0. 

lasstenn, to last, continue ; pr J. 
lasste|>Ji ; pi. lasstenn ; sui.p.s. 
lasste. O. 

ilaste, p.s. lasted. R. 

late, * slmv, slowly ; at length, 

lite, adv. late ; comp. latlre ; 



5ARY. 106 

superl. lattst ; allre lattst, tad 
of aU. 0.11765, 11797. 

latere, laUer. A. R, 

latoun, latlen, a mixed metal n- 
sembling brass. C. 701. & 
latun. 

I4tte(5w»(liidte<5w), i.e.,\id}t&).: 
im, a leader, guide, general, 
lieutenant. 93:20. 

lattst, -e. See late. 

latun, hiten, a mixed metal re- 
sembling brass, P.C. 44. L»- 
ton', meial... Auricaicnm, ... 
Prompt. Pars. "Latten, a 
hard mixed metal muck resem- 
bling brass, was largely used u 
former times, especially in Ikt 
formation of sepulchral memo- 
rials. The preciie nature of its 
composition does not appear A 
Aave been accurately ascertained. 
It is repeatedly mentioned as a 
metal of a bright and golden 
colour. Chauter uses the com- 
parison that Pha:bus'\itv^ like 
latoun,' Gower speaks of it as 
distinct from brass, as it seems 
properly to have been, aJthnugll 
occasionally confounded there- 
with, and even with copper'' , . , 
Way. 

lauhwe.^r. J. ip.laugh.P.P.^i. 

lauhweS, laugheth, A. R. 

Iau)whing, laughing. P.P. 

laueyne, the wash from a kitchin 
or a sewer {Lat. lavo). /« 
P.P. 207, ("/ is used in the 

lauoures, /avers. P. C. 44. 
lawe (A. S. hlsew, blaw), heap, 

risiTig ground, hill 0. 1 1378, 

1 1 746, 11766, 
lawedd, lewd, lay, ignorant. 0. 



407 



GLOSSARY. 



[Leicestre 



la}) {A, S, Mt5), laffe, enmify, 

O, 1 1887. 
la}), loathsome, hateful ; def. j>e 

la|>e. (?. 1 1335. //. lafe. 
Id'Sian, * /<? /(?aMtf ; /. -ode ; pp, 

-od. 
^dat$ian, * /s? ra// together ^ innite; 

p, -ode ; pp, -od. 
laC-spail .(i4. *$*. MS-spel), had 

ficwSy evil tidings, L. 207. 
^da)>ung, * 3/! congregation^ 

church, 59:21. 
la'5'5est, loathes t. Z. 813. 
la^e, ^.J". /tra;. -4. / 
la^he, law, the law ; pL la^hess. 

O. 11704. 
la^henn, to lower, depress, O, 

1 1864. 
i-leaded, leaded. A, R, 
^^ledfa,* \m, belief , faith, creed, 
ledfful,* ^dedfful, believing, 

faithful, 

geidikum,* credulous. Os, 
leahter,* 2m, crime, sin, disgrace; 

g. leahtres. 59:22; 60:3. 
leahtrian, * to accuse, complain of, 

blame, criminate ; p, -ode ; pp, 

^^leahtrod. Os, 
lain,* 2n, reward, Bs, See 

edledn. 
leaiGdemtn, learned men, clergy. 

L, 
le^, * lying, deceitful, perfidious; 

fabulous, 

leas, p,s, lost, L. 
leisung,* 3/1 leasing, false- 
hood. 
leate, late. A, R, 
ileawede, lewd, lay. H, III, 
leazinges, lies, A. I, 
lecgan, * to lay, place ; put or set 

down; ic lecgc, he lecgt5, 

legtJ ; /. legde, 16de, laegde ; 



imp. lege; //. ge\(td, foh, xx. 

1 5 ; xiii. 4. 
leche, physician, P, P, 
lechecraft, the healing art, P,P, 
lechour, Lechery {personified), 

PP. 54. 
led, lead (plumbum). P,P, 

344. 

ge\^d, * pp. See lecgan. 

lede {A, S, \q66), peopk, O, 
132. See Icode. 

ledenn, to lead, conduct; 2p, 
ledesst ; ip, lede}>j> ; //. le- 
denn ; p,s, ledde;//. Icddenn; 
sub. s, lede ; pp, ledd. O, 

leden, Latin, 68:8. of b^c Le- 
dene on Englisc wende, turned 
out of book Latin into English, 
95:2. 

ledcne, speech, language, A. R, 

ledetJ, pr, pi. lead, A. R. 

leed, lead (plumbum). P, C, 

41. 
leede, dot, s. a cauldron, C, 202. 
leet, /j-. /?/. P, C. 141. 
leet make, caused to be made, 

M. 244:27. 
lef, dear, gracious, O, 80. L, 

4. See leof. 
lef, leaf ; a lef of vre bileeue, an 

article of our faith. P.P, 464. 
lef, imp. s. leave, P, P, 
lefdi, lady, A. R. 
lefenn, to believe, O. 11385, 

1 1 594. 
leger, * 2n, a lying, lying down, 
legge-n, to lay. L,; P.P, 
leggen n, to lay, bestow. 0. 1 1 993. 
leggus. legs, C. 593. 
legia, im, legion. 
lehjen, to laugh ; p. s, loh. Z. 

224. 
Leicestre, Learns city. R, 4« 



ilcid] GLO 

ileid, pp. laid. A. R. 
>-k')d, pp. laid. P. Cm. 
leiiten, /. p/. laid, L. 
\i^ip. pr. s. /iiyt, putt dawn. P.P. 
i-\ciy:n, pp. lain. P. P. 65, 

259- 
lelly, I»\'alh; /.iHfi/ully. P. P. 
lellichc, Imilly. P. C. 83. 
Icncg,* longer; comp. of lang, 

Qs. 
ge\enA\xa, ^cl^ndian, to land, 

arrivi ! to enrich wiih lands, en- 

dmo; p. -de; //. [-od.] 69:21. 
lende, //. ienden, loins. R. 
lene, to lend, grant, gha. P. 

C. 143- jui'y. J. lene. P.P.zt^. 
lenenn (.4. S. lienan), to lend, 

give, entrust with or to ; pp. 

lenedd. O. 16. 
lengra, * comp. longer. Os. 
lenb, pr. s. lends, gives, destaws. 

A. I. 
leo, m./. lion, lioness ; g. Icon ; 

ace. leon ; nom. pi. Icon ; g. 

leona ; d. leoum. Grtm's 

Glossar. 
le(3d,* 3/ people, province. 
leod, u person. (£ng. lad.) 

P.P. 269. 
leod, country, land. P.P. 301. 
leoiic, people. O. 11718. 
leodc-n, people, nation ; land, 

country ; g. pi. leodena, leo- 

dene, leoden. L. i, 114, 165. 
leod-ferde, d.s. army. L. 121. 
le<5dscipe,* 2m. nation, people, 

region. 61:34. 
ledf,* beloved, dear; sir, friend, 

lord. /oh. iv. 19. 
leof, beloved, dear. L. 166. 
leof, lef, lefe, dear, pleasing. 

O- 11377. 
leofcst, superl. liefest. L. 



:ARY. 40S 

leofian,* lybban, libban, to^; 

ic Ivbbe, |>il leofast, Ivfast, be 

leoiaiS, iyfafi ; //. IvbbaC : /. 

leofode, lyfode ; //. ieofodon 

(■edon) ; subj. pr. lybbe, Ij-b- 

bon ; /. leofode, leofoJon, 

(-edon) ; imp. s. leo fa ; //. 

lybbaS ; fut. inf. id-lybbenne ; 

pr. p. lybbende, lifiende ; /^. 

(i5-f)leofod. 67:25. 
leofmon, km^n, one bdneed, 

spouse. A. R. 
leofmonnes, g. s. kmads, ladft. 

A. R. 
hvCne,* friend, sir, lard, master. 

fok. V. 11. 
leogan* (19), to He, deceive; he 

lyhiS ; /. ledh ; pi. logon ; 

pp. logen. Bs. 
ledht, 2n. light, foh. i. 4, 5. 
leyht,* light, easy, clear, Bs. 
Iei5hi-fiet, * 2». light-vat, lamp; 

pi. ledht-fatu. 
leome, limbi' P.P. 81. 
leon, a lion, lioness. 
leou, lot L. 944. 
leop, p.s. leapt; p. pi. leopea 

leorneS, imp. //. learn. A. R. 

leornian,* ^fleornian, to learn, 
inquire, devise ; p. -ode, -cdc ; 
pp. -ed, -od. foh. vi. 45. imp 
leoma ; pi. IcorniaS ; fut. inf. 

leorning-cniht,* 2m. learning- 

knight or youth, disciple. (J. 

S. Gospel, passim. ) 
leorninngcnihhtess, disciples. 0. 

11550. 
leiisan* (19), to lose ; p.s. leas; 

//. luron ; pp. loren. foh. vi. 

49- 
leose, /(? Ave. P.P. Tj. 



409 



GLOSSARY. 



[LeUowe 



leosenn, lesenn (A, S, dlysan), 

/o loosCy release^ redeem; pp, 

lesedd. O, 11573. 
leose^, pr, pi. lose, L. 
Icosinge, losing y loss, P,P, 93. 
leoue, dear. A, R, 
Icouere, dearer, more desirable, 

A, R. 
leotJ,* 2«. laVy song J poem y verse; 

pi, le(5«. 
leoS-craeft,* 2m. song-cra/ly art 

of poetry, 
lepen, to leap ; pr, pi, leppco^ ; 

/. leop ; pi, leoj)en ; pr, p, 

leopinge ; pp. / leope. L. 
Icre, imp.s. teach. P, P, 391. 
lere, to learn, G, 
Icrede, p.s, taught. A. R. 
leref, pres. teacheth, A.R, pr.pl, 

teach. P. P, ^6, 
lernenn, to karn, O. 20. pr^, 

lemeff. O 125. 
lerninngcnihhtess, disciples, O, 

236. 
les, p.s. lost, L, 650. 
lesan* (12), to glean, collect 

{Lat, legere); p.s, laes ; //. 

Ideson ; pp, Icsen. . 
lese, meadow, pasture. R, 
lese, to lose, R, 
lesenn, to loose, release, redeem, 

O, 203. 278, 294. 
leste, pleasure, C. 132. 
Icste, />.j. it pleased. C. 752. 
lestinde, /'lestindc, lasting, per- 
manent, H, III. 
let, pr, s. hinders. A, R. See 

leten. 
I let, pp. let, hindered y obstructed. 

H. Ill, 

letania, \m, litany. 
letanias, ace, pi, litanies ; d.pl, 

letanium. ^l. 



et bringe, caused to be brought. 

R, 

et crouny, caused to be crowned, 

R, 

ete, imp. pi, let, A. R. 

ete, to have off, abandon, P, P, 

142. 

ete, delay, G, 154. 
eten, to let, perinil ; pr, let ; /. 
lette ; imp, letctJ ; pp, /leten. 
A.R, 

eten, to remain; P,P, 368. 
other texts, late, Icte. 
etenn, laetenn, to let, allow ; p.s. 
let. O, 1 1337, 1 1 603. 
eten of, to let on ; to make it ap- 
pear, A, R, 158:16. 
ct enqueri, caused investigation 
to he made, R, 

ete^, imp, pi, let, cause to he. 
Z. 

etet5, accounteth, esteemeth. A,R, 
etet$, pr, pi. forsake. A. I. 
et gader}', caused to he gathered 
together, R, 

et of-sende, caused lobe sent for; 
to defe let do, caused to be put 
to death. R, 

et rere, caused to he raised, huilt, 
R, 

et somony, caused to be sum- 
moned, R, 

ette, p.s, let, caused to he. L, 
421. 

elte, to hinder, oppose. R. 
^\XQ, pp, delayed. G, 331. 
ette burie, caused to he buried. 
R. 

etten, to hinder, prevent. M, 
to delay, P, P, 238. 
etlith, pr.s, hinders, Eccl, xii. 
12. Gloss. 
i Lettowe, Lithuania. C 54. 



18 



letlret] GLO; 

lettret, pp. Idttred, karmd. PJ>. 
letuuies, eleduariit. C428. 
let write, caused lo be wrUlen. 

R. 
leuc, d.'ar. Jt. 
leue, ^ havt, abandon. P. P. 

16. 
leue, to belitve. R. 
i-leue, lo believe. P. P. 11 2. 
leve, lo retnain, tarry. G. 335. 
leuede, U/i off, suspended i> R. 

626. 
leucde, /.J. W/rtYi/. R.; P.C. 

83- 
leuedi, lady. R. 
lever, rather, G. 290. 
Icuere, uifti. more dearly. P, P. 

3i6- 
lewid, unlearned, ignorant. C. 

504. Originally, the laity, as 

opposed to the clergy, 
leSer, leather, A. R. 
i-leHered, leathered. A, R. 
lejjkenn (A. S, tecan), lo trifle, 
jest. 0. 1204+. 
lhe))e {A. S. hhhan. hlihhan), 

lo laugh. A, I, 
Ihoauerd, lord. H. Iff, 
Ihorde, lord. A. I. 
libbaii,*lybban. 5-« leofian. 
libbc-n, lolive. L.; P.P. 36. 
lybben, pr. pi. live. P. C. 163. 
Whh^nn, lo livt. 0. 11344. 
lie,* 2n. body, corpse; pi. lie. 

/ok. XX. 12. 

gelic,*liie, equal. {Ger. gleich.) 
^clica,* im. like, equal. 
p'elice,* in like manner, likewise. 

62:26. 
Hcende feoh.* Os. See feoh. 
likerous, lecherous, voluptuous. 

P.P. 
licgan* (13), to lie, lie down. 



to extend, reach, lie along, fiMi 

{as a river): ic liege, fii list, 

he lihS, lis ; p.s. Iseg, lag; 

pi. tegon, lagon ; pp. legeo. 

Joh. XX. 5> 6, 7 ; V. 3. 
licgende feoh. * Os. See feoh. 
llchama,* \m. body. 
liche, liix. G, 57. 
lldan,*^dician, to like, lo please; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od ; o/ten used 

impersomily ; me licaS; hit 

licode He rode. 
\ykat\i, parable. P.C ill. 
licome, body ; g. licomes. A. 

R. 
licomliche, bodily. A. R. 
lyeaues, leaves. A.. I. 
lien, li, imp. s. lie, lie dawn. L. 

83a 
lyescp, pr. pi. lose. A. J. 
lyesynges, lies, falsehoods. A.I. 
lyeje, subj. pr. pA. lie. A. I. 
lyejeres, liars. A. I, 
tif,* %n. life; a living, Joh. iv. 

10, II. 69:35. 
lif, Itfe. (9.11730. g. lifess. 

O. II 682. 
lyf, living, livelihood. P.P. 81. 
lyf, leaf {o/a book) ; met., por- 
tion 0/ a subjecl. P.P. 391. 
lyian,* ^trlyfan, lo alhw, permit; 

believe; p. lyfde ; pp. gelfkd. 

67:13- 
lif-dajen,-es, d. pi. life-days. L. 

97- 
lifer,* if. thclrser. 
lyfest, leaaesl. R. 
liffaesian,* ^diffaMtan, to make 

alive, lo quicken ; he ^^liffiest ; 

p. liffsBsle ; pp. geWS^it. Joh. 

V. 21; vi. 63. 
lifft {A. -S. lyft). air. 0.11503. 
lifian.* lo live; p. lif^e, lifde ; 



411 



GLOSSARY. 



:ii« 



pr, p, lifigende ; /ut in/, t(5- 

lifigenne. 67:18, 
lifigende,* //i'/>i^. SeeW^TLn, 
lyflode, livelihood, liuing, P,P, 

238. 
ligen, to lie. Z. 
^t'liger,* 3/V a lying wilh ; 

adultery, fornication, prostitu- 
tion, 87:19. 
^tligernes,* 3/: 1. q. ^^liger. 
ligge, suhj, pr, may lie. A. R, 
liggcn, to liedoivn. A, R. 
ligginde, liggende, pr, p, lying, 

L, 
lyhtan,* lihtan, to light, shine ; 

he lyht ; p, lyhte. Joh, i. 5. 

pr, p, lifrhtendc ; he waes byr- 

nende 16oht-faet, and l^htende. * 

Joh, V. 35. 
lyghtely, lightly, easily, M, 

243:22. 
Hhle-n, light {of day), L, 
Hht, adj, light, cheerful, P,P, 

50. 
lihten, to alight. A, R, 
lihten, to lighten, make light, 

A, R. 
lihteS, pr. s, alighteth, A. R, 
Hhtliche, lightly, easily, A. R. 
lihtloker, more lightly, P, P. 

322. 
hjflode, livelihood. P. C. 143. 
lijp, pr, s, lies (jacet). P. C. 

169. 
lim,* 2n. limb ; pi, lima, limo, 

limu. 59:18. 
limes, limbs, L, 
lymytour, a friar licensed to beg 

within a certain limit, C, 209. 
^^limpan* (21), to Jiappen, oc- 
cur ; p, ^damp, ^^lomp ; //. 

^^lumpon ; pp, ^dampen. 

75- i 9- 



x'limpe-n, to befall, happen; pr,s, 

X limpets. L, 170, 178. p^ 

I'lomp/ pi. ; lompen. L, pp, 

I'iimpen. L, 177. 
linde, lime tree, G. 
linen,* adJ, of linen, Joh, xiii. 

4 ; xix. 40. 
lin-w^d, 3/! linen garment 

cloth, Joh, xiii. 5. 
h'oht.* *S*cr^ Icdht. Bs, 
1 i psed e, /. J. lisped, C, 266, 
lyre,* 2m, loss. 69:23. 
lisste, impers,; lisste himm, he 

desired, longed, O, 11334. 
list, pleasure, M, 
lystan, * ^Hystan, to lust, desire, 

please, be pleased ; with gen. of 

thing ; p, lyste ; //. ^dystcd. 
liste, impers, it pleased, G, 342, 
lyste, list {of cloth), P, P, 
lyt,* lytel, little; cofnp, laessa, -e, 

-e ; superl. laest. 
lite, little, trifling. G. 
lyteg, crafty, cunning, Bs. 
liteli, little, 0, 11 548. comp. 

lasse. O. 1 1665. superl. laeste. 
lith, pr,s. lieth. G. 95. 
Lithostrdtos {Gr.), Pavement, 

Joh, xix. 13. 
lytie,* adv, little; comp, laes. 

.S"^^ lyt, lytel. 
lyt Han,* to grow little, lessen, de^ 

crease ; /. -ode ; //. -od. Bs. 
Hue, life. A, R,; L, 
Hues, in lifetime. A, R, 163:28. 
livend, pr.p, living, G. 
\\M^Xi€^,food, nourishment, A.R. 
lyvcre, Ivvery, C, 365. 
li'5.* See licgan. 
li«, lieth. A, R, 
lit5,* 2m, cap, Bs. 106:5. 
li^, lij> , pr,s, lieth • inf liggcn, 

L,; R, 



Ii»] GLOf 

1I«,« 2m. Bs. 106:5. "{Golh. 
leifus, ) poms, sicera." Gnin's 
Olossar. 

Iffian* (20), log". Hi out, sail, 
tvrfiige ; p.s. liB ; pi. lidon 
(i'iSon) ; pp. liilen (li8en). 

liBe, t liSe, gracious, milt/. L. 4. 

Ii8e-n, lo go, come, pass, dtparl, 

journey, vtyage, sail; p. pi. 
iiScn ; liBcn after \-5en, went 
or floal/d with the wavts. L. 
327. pp. iliSen, L. 204, 287, 
344. 3+9. 452. 978- 

li«erlic, evilly. L. lOOi. 

lyjcrs, liars. P. P. 

lyje, /o /i (mentiri). P.P. iiy. 

\i:f\\c\\t,lighlly,easily,guickly. R. 

loande, land ; g. ioandes. H. 
III. 

loc,* locc, 2n. lock {n/ a door) ; 
pi. loca. Os. 94:2. 

locc,* im. lock {0/ hair). 

\o\X^%, locks {of hair). C. 81. 

loke, to look, see to, lake care of. 
P.P. 116. 

_yloked, />. kepi, observed, guard- 
ed. A. I. 

lokcn, lo look, see to ; p. lokede; 
imp. loke ; pr. sud. loke'; pp. 
i"-lokenc. A. R.; R. 

loken, d. shecpfold. L. 708. 

locen,* enclosure, hounds ; heSld 
on loccn, kepi in l/ounds. Bs. 
97:6. 

lokenn, lo look observe, aliend. 
0. 

loke|>, observes. A. I. 

loki, loky, lo look, observe, be- 
ware ; subj. loky ; fet we ous 
lok)', that we bauare. A. I. 

lijcian,* lo look, see ; p. -ode, 
-ade ; pp. -od. 

lokinge, avuard, judgment, deci- 



sion, a. {A. S.\(xxa,lBiH 

lokinnge, care. A. I. 
lodcmc-oage, pilotage. C 4Cj. 
lodlich, e>dious. A. R. lA. S. 

\mic. ) 

lof,* in. praise. 

lofenn {A. S. lofian), lopnast. 

0.i^.da/.inf.X.o\o{emi. O.n- 
lofes, loues, lu^s. /.. 348. 
lofiTi (o), aloff. O. IlSlJ. 

11S49, 11961. 
loff (A. S. lof), praise. 0. M4. | 
loh, fi.s. laughed. L. it\, %ik 

See lehjen. 
Loy (seynt). C. 120. St. Lm , 

is probably referred lo. 
XoW^Az, lolled, JIapped ahout. P. 

C. 72. 
lome, tool, loom ; pi. lomen. A. 

R. 161:5. <A. S. loma.) 
ilomp, p.s. befell, happaai; 

inf. I'-limpe-n. Z. 407, lOOi. 
lond, tt. land, country ; g. 

londcs ; d. londe-n. L. 
ionde, laiul. A. R. 
lone, lane; Cokkes lone. P. 

P. 162. 
longen, pr. pi. belong. P. P. 
lore, pp. lost. G. 187. 
lore, instruction. A, R. ; H. 

P. 246:18. 

loren, p. pi. lost. R. 231. 
los (a Fr. los, L.U. Uus), 

fame, reputation. A. I. 
losian,* lo lose ; also, to be lost, 

perish ; p, -ode ; pp. -od : t^t 

|>El losode ftel ic wylle .sikan. 

^l. 61:9; 63:3: 66:26. 
loiering. P.P. 188. E.vplaimd 

by Steal in Introd. to " Vernon" 

text {E. £. T. Soc. ), badinage. 



GLOSSARY, 



[luue-wurde 



portion. O, 
L, 

d. f. loud. Z. 189. 
lord. L, 

iffs. L. See lofes. 
u, humble J meek. P.P. 
jd. 

t>r. pi. love. A, L 
br. pi. approve. L, 

p.s. Imvcredy looked sul- 
^.P. 66. 

)wtun, lowt. {A. S. Iil- 
? baiu to. Gen. xxxvii. 
o. 

'oTcV. A. R. 

s. C. 260. ^^Lave 
Dies amoris) were days 
or settling differences by 

without having recourse 
or to violence. The ec- 
cs seem generally to have 
? principal share in the 
'jnent of these transactions^ 
throughout the visions of 
^loughman^ appear to be 
i as the means of hinder- 
'ice, and of enriching the 
' Wright's note to P.P. 

^crucr. C. 80. 

makes Icriv, humbles, G. 

See loute. 
ie {O. Fr. losengcrie), 
, adulation. A. I: 
be displeased. R. 71. 

See laet$cst. 
c. {Lat. lucius). C 352. 

19), to lock ; p.s. ledc ; 
)n ; //. locen. 
^ise. L. 599. 
ude, loudly. L, 
l.f loud ; ludere slefne, 
ud voice, L, 225. 



ufe,* \f, lave, Bs. 
ufelice,* ^/W/v'. S. C. 110:5. 
ufenn, to love ; pr, ip.s. lu- 
fesst ; ip. lufepf ; //. 1 ufenn ; 
p.s, lufcde. O, 
ufian,* to lave; p. -ode; pp. 
-od. 

ufsumere, more lavely. A. R. 
uft, left ; luft half, left side. 
P,P, 

uftyme, grateful, pleasant. 
ufu,* y^. lave, Bs./ f oh. x\ii. 
26. 

ulled, lolled. P. P. 100. 
^^1 umpen, * //. See ^di mpan. 
upe. See laepenn. O. 
usst, lust, desire ; pi. lusstess. 
O, 

ust, * zm. lusty desire, joy, 66:12. 
ust {tnore correctly luste), p.s. 
it pleased, C, 102. 
ust, pleasure, C, 192. 
ustes, pleasures, delights, pleas- 
ant things, G. 271. 
^t'lustfullian,* to give pleasure, 
please, delight ; p. -ode ; //. 
-od. 
lusty, pleasurably vigorous. G. 
1 ustlice, * freely, gladly, 
lutan* (19), to lout, bend, bow, 
stoop, incline ; he lyt ; /. ledt, 
hi eat ; pi. luion ; pp. loten. 
lute vvule, a little while. R. 
Intel, little. A. R, d, lutele. L. 
lutenn {A. S, lutan), to lout, 
bend to, obey. 0. 1 1 39 2, 1 1 80 1 . 
lutie, lotie, to stoop, to bow. L. 

908. 
luue, lave. A, R, 
luueliche, affectionately, kindly. 
A,R, 
luue-wurde, laveworthy. A. R. 



lui 



;n] 



]uui«n, In I/ipe ; 2pj. luuest ; 
3^.j-. and pi. luuieS;//. luuien; 
subj.s. iuuie ; pi. luuien ; 
pj. luuetle ; pp. (-luued ; d. 
inf. luuien, lo k lovtd. A. R. 

lujier (^1, S. Ij-Ser), bad, vjickid, 
mnkhtd. I.. ; R.; P. P. 98. 
Io}>crIicli, cvUly. L. icxJi. 
lufur, ba<i, wicked, crud. R. 



md,* adv. more. See mycle. 
maade, fi.t. made. P. P. 47. 
mace. See maken. 

mipose poelry. C. 95. 

tip. made. H. Iff. 
i make. 0. 117S8. 



make, to n 
makenn, 



0. .1340. 



pp. 



makciJd, 
f irmacian, * lo puike, do, make 

up,/orm, prepare; p. -ode; pp. 

-od. Joh. 
ffniffigfi,* 3/? greatness. Bs, 
inakien, to tiuike. compel; pr. 

makcS, makieB; p. makede ; 

pr. iuhj, makie ; pp. i-maked ; 

dat. inf. iD-makien [A. S. lii- 

maciennc). A. R. 
y-\jaA, vuide, caused. R. ; P. 

P. 80. 
made, p.s. caused. R. 63. 
mi^," 2m. man, parent, rela- 

lim, kinsman ; pi. mdgas, 

68;i4. 
maig.* See magan. 
msegan. See magan. 
mKgen,* z«. main, strength, 

power, virtue, faculty. 
mifeg-gemijt, * 2«. meeting of 

kin, family meeting, 
mxgislrc, eue. s. pm. 



mifegrifeden, * 3/ kinship, cat- 

sanguinity, aj^nity. Os. 
miyfi, ' ^f. generation, trit, 

piople, family, pmviiiet. 68:13. 
miEi {A. S. mseg), flfiiy, r(&- 

live; pi. mEies. L. iii, 111. 
mxienn, la speak. 0. 11940. 

{A. S. mKlan.) 
m&nan,* ^dnsbnan, fy pioom, 

bewail, complain; p. mxnde; 

pp. m&ned. 
m&nan.* ^mi^nan,. lo mim; 

p. tniende ; pp. [mined!. 

j£l. 64:13, 25. 
^imifenelice,* in common. 
mEnig* (manig), many; in^f. 

decl. ; nem. ace. pi. itiuaih 

manega, 58:1. 
aiKnigep.* Sie menjgu. 
m^nigfeald,* manifold. 
ji*ma2nigfj-Idan, * lo multifiy, w- 

creaie ; p. -fylde ; //. -fyid. 

64:16- Ae ^r-mcnigfildan. 
majnio,* f inded. many, mid- 

litude. foh. vii. 12, 
m&n.* great, large, grand, re- 
nowned; camp, m&rra. /bA. 

geia&re,* lit. boundary, amjau, 
frontier; pi. getn&ru. 
mferllc,* great, famous ; eemp. 

miferlicra ; supirl. mferlicost ; 

mi m£r1icra d£da, more of 

famous deeds. Os. 87:3. 
mirsian,* ^(^m&rsian, lo miig- 

nify, exalt, honour, celebrate; 

p. -ode; pp. -od. 67:16. 
miferB,* 3/; greatness, glory: fi- 

mKSse,* \f. mass; celebration of 

;hc Lord's supper. 
m^sse-dMg,* 2m. mass-day. 
ni.i'sse-reiif, * 2R. mais-Kslmtnl. 



415 



GLOSSARY. 



[mdra 



inaesse-pre<5st,* 2m, mass-priesL 

57:1. 
maest,* super!, mosL Os, 
maeste, maste, d, oak-grove, Z. 

662. 
m^S,* j/C measure, mode^ ca- 

pacify, condition, lot, dignity, 

credit. 
mae|>, measure, moderation, O, 

1 1437. 
magan* {preteritive), may, can, 

be able; ic, he,, maeg, fd 

meaht (miht) ; //. magon ; 

subj. s. mage (maege) ; //.. 

magon (-en), maegon (-en) ; 

/. meahte (mihte) ; //. meah- 

ton (mihton) ; subj. s, meahte 

(mihte) ; //. meahten (mih- 

ten). /oA. xiii. 36; 66:29. 

mdgas, * //. See mjfeg. 

magister (Lat.), master, Bs, 
97:10. d, magistre. Os. 87:12. 

^^mdglic, * importunate. 

^<fmdgnys,* j/! importunity, per- 
severance. 

mahht, mahhte, might, power, 
virtue. O. 11393, 11452. //. 
mahhtess. O. 11 506, 11828. 
.S"^^ ma^^. 

may, a relative. See maei. 

jnahten, p. pi. might, could. L, 

maie, pr,s. can. P. C. 65. 

maidene, //. maidens. L. 

maihtou, might thou. P.P. 368. 

maistrie, mastery, power, superi- 
ority, victory, R. ; P.P, 85. 

raai3t, 2p.s. might. P.P, 389. 

male, maU, budget. C. 696. 

man,* one, any one. {Ger. man, 
Fr. on. ) 

geiw^xi,* pr.s. remembers, /oh, 
xvi. 21. iS"^*? ^^munan. 

mancynn,* 2;/. mankind, 58:4. 



/mane, zmone, d, company, /el- 
lowship, L. 707. 

mdn-cwealm,* 2m, plague, pes- 
tilence, destruction, death, 

maneg,* many. See maenig. 

mdnful,*mdnfullic, ^a^, wicked, 
sinful, profane, 

mdn fill lice,* sinfully, wickedly, 
^l. 

^^mang.* See gemong, 

mangung, * 3/I negotiation, busi- 
ness, merchandise, 

mangung-hds,* 2n, house of 
merchandise, /oh. ii. 16. 

manian,*^^manian, monian, to 
admonish, advise, exhort; p. 
-ode, -ede;^. -od. 59:13; 
75:24. 

manigfeald. * See moenigfeald. 

mann,* man, mon, 2m. man; 
g, mannes ; d, men ; //. nom, 
ace, menn ; g, manna ; d, 
mannum. 

mann, servant, O, 12020. 

mann, man, mankind, person; 
g, mannes. O, 11 501. ace, 
mann. O, 11659. /^* nienn ; 
g. menness, manne ; d, menn. 

manne, g. d. pi, men, L, ; 
A. I. ; R, 

mannkinn, mankind, O. 203. 
g. 5. mannkinne. 

mdnn-cwealm.* See mdn-cwe- 
alm. 

mannian,* to supply with men, 
to people ;p. -ode ; //. -od. J3s. 

mansipliche, honourably. Z. 1 4 1 . 

man-slaga,* im. vianslayer, 
murderer, 

mansla3J)e, murderer. A. I. 

mdra, * more, greater; pos. mycel 
adv. mycle) ; camp, mdra 
adv. md); super I. mdest. 



marcheth] GLOJ 

raarcheth, /r.j, borders. G. 6i, 
mare, greaf, high. L. 1005. 
lOAX^ adv. more. O. 11836. te 

mare, the more. 11734. tup. 

miest, mast, most, chiefly. 
mareis. marsh. Gm. xli. 2. 
maiy (.1. S. mearh) bones, 

tiuirrtm bona. C. 38a. 
martyr, martir, tm. mariyr. 

mauncipic, an officer who has Ihe 

care 0/ purchasing victuals for 

an Inn of Court or College. 

{Laf. manceps, a purchaser, 

conlrador. ) C. 546. 
i-maunget, /^. eaten. P.P. 
mdwan* (2), to maw; p.s. 

meiiw ; //. mctSwon ; pp. 

mdwen. 
mawe, pr. pi. may. L, 842, 
majj (ice), may, can. 0. 1 1677, 

2p. mihht, mihhtessl; 3^. maj) ; 

p.s. ip. mihhte ; ip. mahht ; 

$p. mihhte ; fl. mihhienn ; 

subj. s. mihhic ; pi. mihhienn ; 

mihhte we. 0. 11479. 
majen, pi. may, can. L. 
me = Ger. man, Fr. on), men, 

one, they. A. R.; A. I. 

235:13; R- 

me. .4.^. 1 6?: 1 1. The force of 

m e in this passage is not clear ; 
it seems to be used as a transi- 
tinnal particle, like Lalina\x\em, 
in the sense of "now." "Agreat 
gift attracts love; now much 
he gave us." Then what he 
gave is enumerated; it may be 



Fr. 1 
meahtc,* 



<ghf. 



See magan. 
marten, ferret, 



;ary. 4i« 

humble, htimiliaie. P.P. 51, 

354- 
mecheles {A. S. micel, g. 

micles), ac/v. much ; not mecii- 

eles more, no/ much larger. 

M. 241:23- 
med," 3/; meed, reward; pL 

m6da. 60:13, 
mede, meed, reward. L, 
mede, mead, meadow. C. 89. 
m^dgj-lda,* iiw. a menaury, 

hireling. /El. 
medlod coote, motley coal. C 

330- 
medlynge, a mixmg, mingliie. 

H. P. t46;i. 
m^do,* medu, 3m, mead, a 

drink made of honey; g. d. 

meda. 81:13. 
mei, pr. s. may, can. A. R. 
meidcn, maiden ; pi. meidenes. 

A. R. 
meies, meyes, relatives. L. 221. 

See maejes. 
meiht, tp.s. canst. A. R. 
meyne, household. P.P. 8a 

■SV^ Webster's Diet. ,s.v.' 'many. " 
meires, mayors. P. P. 
mcisiries, masteries, great uvrAs, 

brave deeds. A. R. 163:13. 
mel, a meal R. 
melcan* (18), to milk; p.s. 

mealc ; pi. mulcon ; pp. moi- 

meliere, miller. C. 547. 

mellan* (18), to melt; p.s. 
mealt ; pi. mulCon ; pp. mol- 
ten. 

i-membred, ornamenied ? cheq- 
uered i> A. R. 

men, one, they. R.; C. 149. 

f-mcnbred, A. R. 166:22, In 
the Glossarial Index to the 



417 



GLOSSARY. 



[mete 



A. R. this loord is given i-mem- 
hitd^ and defined, ^^ ornamented? 
chequered/^' f*-membret is given 
in the notes as the form of the 
Tjuord in another AfS. 

mene, mean, mediator, P,P, 
486. 

menefp, meaneth. (?. 34. 

mengan,* to mingle ^ mix ; p, 
mengde; pp, ^^menged. 63 : 1 8. 

mange, 2pL mix, mingle, Ps, 
Ivii. 3. 

meny ; in meny, in many re- 
spects. H. P. 246; 2. 

menigfeald.* See maenigfeald. 

^nnenigfildan, * to multiply, in- 
crease, extend ; he -fylt ; /. 
-filde ; pp, -fild. 64:15, 18 ; 
65:18. 

menigu,* 3/I many, multitude ; 
indecl, in s, ; pi. nom. ace, -a ; 
g, -ena ; d. -um. 62:7. 

mennisc,* m. humankind, man- 
kind, people, multitude. 58:6; 
62:12 ; 63:24. 

mennisclic,* human. Bs. 

menniscnis,* -nys, 3/! human 
nature, incarnation, 63:9. 

mennisscnesse, human nature ; 
g, mennisscnesses ; d, menn- 
isscnesse. O, 1 1592. 

mennissh, human ; d, menn- 
isske. O, 218. 

menske, honour, kindness, R, 

97. 
mQo\iQnvi, to humble. O. 11 864. 

meoclike, meekly, humbly. O. 

11392. 
mcodo,* meodu. See m6do. 

meolc,* 3/1 milk 

meoman,* murnan 

mourn ; p. s. mearn 

non ; pp, momen. 



(18), to 
pi. mur- 



mere,* 2m, mere, lake, pool, 
mere, great, chief; d,s, mern. 

Z. 12. 
mere, mare, C, 543. 
mergen* (merien, merigen). 

zm. morn, morrow; to mcri« 

gen, to-morrow. 
merie, pleasant. L, 8. 
. merye, pleasant, C. 208. 
merveilous, marvellous, G. 
mesayse, misease, sorrow. A, I, 
mesauntere, mischance, misfor* 

tune, R, 
meschief, misfortune, C, 495. 
meseise, calamity, R. 
messagere, messenger, G, 46. 
messagers, messengers. A, R, 
messe {A, S, maesse), mass. O, 

32. 

messe-boc, mass-book, 0. 31. 

mest, ad/, and adv. most, great- 
est, A, R,; A, L; R, 7. pL 
meste ; meste fon, greatest foes. 
R. 136. 

mestedcl, most part. R, 

mester, trade. C. 615. 

mesurable, moderate, C, 437. 

met {A, S, mdetan), p.s. 
dreamed. G. 139, 153. 

^^-met,* 2n. measure, boundary; 
pi. ge-TCiQi\x. 

^^m^tan,* to meet, meet with, 
find, get ; p, mdtte ; //. ^nnet, 
^^m^ted. Joh, i. 43. 

metan* (12), to mete, measure ; 
p.s, maet ; //. m^ton ; pp, 
meien. 

mete, * mette, 2 //. meat, food ; 
ccena. 69:31. 

xsx^X^, food. A, R.; O. biddc 
ys mete, beg his food, R, 117. 
pi. mctcss. O, 

meie. P. C. 126. ''Middling 
18* 



^rmelfest] G 

(or poor) as Ihi shots were. It 
is the A. S. mate, middiing, 
mean." Skeal. 

^t'metfiEsi, * modcraie, modest. 
Bs. 

^oncigian,* /o mete, Umper, 
moderate, ngutait, govern, re- 
strum; p. -ode ; pp. -od. Bs. 

me ihinkeih {A. S. me {•inc«), 
il seems 10 m.: C. 37. 

metinti,* j/^ a painting, picture. 

mctl, measure, moderation, mod- 
esl\' ; wi|jji meu annd mx|i. 

o. 11437- 

m&nen* p.p/. /ound. Os. See 
gemina.tt. 

meSig,* wearied, tired, /ainl. Os. 
miccci.* See niicel. 
miccluno,* micclan, greatly, 

micel,* mycel, mtieh, great, 
loud; comp. mdra (md); superl. 
rnKSI, 58:21 ; 62:21, 22. 

mikell, muck, mam: O. 18. 
mikell ping. 0. 11410. 

Tayc<:\n\'i,* ^. greatness, magni- 
tude. 

micic,* adj). much. Os. 

miclum*, greall}', much. Os. 

mid,* mid. 

mid,* with. 

mid alle, withal, htwcver. A.R. 

middKg,* 2)7/. mid-day. 

middan,* middle; on middan, 
amid, in the midst. 

middancard,* middangcard, 
zm. middle-earth, earth, world. 
S8:i. 

middaneardlic,* earthly. 

middellierd, middle region, earth, 
world. O. 11381, 11489. g. 
middellccrdess. 



;ary. 4IS 

m iddeweard, * middieward, midst 
midewinter,* midwinter. S. C 

a" 1083. 

mjdfaran,* to go with, toaccm- 
pany. Os. See &ran. 

mid hviAia,* wherewithal. JEi. 

mydmost. middle. R. 6. 

mid t>am,* Iherebv. 

mid pam Jie,* mid py, aniai, 
while, what time, therewith, 

miht,* 3/1 might, power; act. 
raiht. 64:2, 3. 

mihl, 2p.s. mavsi. L. 

mihie.* See magan. 

miliie, might, power ; ^ mih- 
len, mih[es. A. R. 

mihtcn, might, paw.-r. A, R, 
163:14. 

mihti, might I. P.P. 6. 

mihiig,* mihtiglic, mighty, ex- 
traordinary. 

mil,* 2/: mile. 

milce, pity, grace, mercy. L. 
148; R. 

milde, humble, mcei. A. I. 

miJdheorte,* mild-hearted, mer- 
ciful. 

mildheortlice,* 
Ml. 

miidheoitnys,* miidhertes, ^/T 
mildheartedncss, mercy, eompas- 

milis,* 3/! mer^, pity. 

miltsian,* ^^miltsian, is pity, 
compassionate, he merd/ul ; p. 
-ode; pp. -od. 63:26. 

miltsung,* 3/! merry, compas- 
sion, pity. 

min," g. of ic, of me, mine ; 
used as a possessive pron. , with 
indef. decl. ; g. mines, minrc, 
mines ; d. minum, m!nre, 
minum; ace. mtnne, mine, 



419 



GLOSSARY. 



[moyste 



mln ; //. nom, ace, mine ; g, 
minra ; d, minum. 

^«nynan,* io bear in mind, re- 
member. 

gen\yTi^* 2«. mind, memory, 
69:11. 

mynegung,* j/^ admonitiou, ex- 
hortation, 

mynetere,* im, money-changer, 
Joh, ii. 14. 

ininndi3nesse, memory, atten- 
tion, O, 1 1 508. 

mynster, * in, minster, monastery; 
pi. mynsiru. 57:4 ; 69:20. 

myntan, * to suppose, resolve, in- 
tend, appoint, decree ; p. mynte. 

mire, g,d,s,f, my. L. 233, 
471, 866. 

myre,* \f, mare. 

myrht5,* mirhC, 3/I mirth, 

joy, 

niy rig, * merry, pleasant, 62:23; 
63:14, 17. 

myrs, marshes, miry places, bogs, 

• M, 2\2\\, (-^. aS". mersc, 2/w. ) 

■ mis-be<5dan,* to misrule; p, 

-bead. S. C, 110:4. See 

be6dan. 

mis-cheuing, misfortune, R, 
\ mysdo, pp, misdone, abused, R, 
) misdoeres, criminals, malefac- 
\ tors, A. I. 

misdude, /.J. misdid, did amiss, 
wronged, R. 114. 

m^se,* if. table. 

miseise, myseise, misease, mis- 
usage, maltreatment, distress, 
R. Ill, 116, 120. 

mislic,* missenlic, mistlic, 
various, diverse, several, 

mistlice,* variously, diversely, 

misnimetS, pr. pi. mistake ; pr, 
subj, 3 J. misnime ; pp, mis- 



numene. {A. S. niman. ) 

A, R. 

mis-notet$, abuselh, A. R, 
mis-notinge, abusing. {A. S. 

notian, to use,) A, R. 
mistukian,* to misuse, S. C, 

110:10. 
myteynes, mittens. P, C, 126. 
^^mittan,* to come upon, find, 

meet, meet with ; p. gemiiiQ ; 

pp, ^^mitted. 
mo, more. L. 

moare, more, greater, H, III, 
moche, great; moche and lite, 

the great and the little, the high 

and the low. C 496. 
mochel, much. 
mochele. See muchele. 
mdd,* 2n, mood, mind, courage, 
mod, mood, mind ; pride ; g, 

modes ; d, mode, moden. Z. 

959 ; R, 102 ; G, 233. 
mcjdeg.* Bs. See mddi, md- 

dig. 
mcSder,* mddor, mddur, f, 

mother; g. m6der, mddor; 

d, m6der ; //. nom, gen, ace, 

mddra ; d, m6drum. 
moderr, nom, g, ace, mother, O. 
m<5di,* mddig, moody, proud, 

haughty. 
mddignys,* 3/I moodiness, pride, 

haughtiness. 60:19. 
modi3, moody, proud ; modi^ 

wikenn, proud, elevated office. 

O. 11852. 
modi3nesse, moodiness, pride, O, 

12040. g, -ss. 
mddrie,* if maternal aunt, Os. 
Moyses, gen, s, of Moses, foh. 

vii. 23. 
moyste, fresh, new, C, 459. 

Seems to be the same word as 



momele] 



"must" applied I 
NienU-d U ' 



to mumbk, chalter. 
idols. A. I. 229:1. 
L, man, urvant man. P. P. 



Bs. 



349- 

11.(5 na,* I. 

m<inaS,* zm. month. Os. 

moncglungc, mingling, confu- 
sion. {A. S. ^flnengan, to 
mingle.) A. R. 

moncynii.* Bs. See mancjnn. 

mone, complaint. A. R. 

mone, moon. C. 405, 

monekes, pi. monks. R. 

moneg,* many. Os. , 

noong, mingling, mixing. A. R. 

monglunge, mingling, ttUermix- 
lure. A. R. 

gemoiig,* 2n. a mingling to- 
gether, multiluiie, crowd; on 
^iinong, among, 

moni,* inonig. See msenig. 

iDoni, mani, many. L. 

moni on, many a one ; moni 
ofer, many another. R. 

fisnonian,* to remind, remem- 
ber ; p. -ode ; pp. -od ; pr. he 
^fmontS. Bs. 

nionluker, more vigorously. A. 
R. 167:22. 

monne, g. pi. 0/ men. A. R. 
160:24. 

monnen, manne, ^. pi. 0/ mm. 

mouncn, d. pi. men. L. 166. 
tnonnes, men's. A. R. 
monscipe, d.s. mansMp, honour. 
L. 141, 199- 
mon8,* zm, month. 
mdr,* zm. moor ; mountain. 



Morekane, Maurilama. U. 

239:'- 
more, grealer. P. P. 
Ynde the more, India' it 
greater. lif. 



H.P. 246:16. 
morewiid, mora lid, Mcrrm- 

tide. Ps. xlv. 6. 
morgen,* 2. 

mcrgen. 
morrnal = mort mal, 

gangrene. C. 3S8. 
mome milk, morning mZt. C 

36a 
mortreux, a dish 0/ a 

gredienis, boiled hens, 

bread, yolk o/" eggs, saffrm, 

etc., pounded together. C 386. 
moriS, murder; d. mortSe, moi- 

(>re. Z. 363. 
morperde, svhj. would mvrda. 

P. P. 85. 
mo%^ greenest. P. C. 108. 
miSsle,* might. See mi5taD. 
moste, might. R. 
mosten, //. might L. 216. 
mot, moat. P.P. 339. 
mot, must. A. R. ; C. 744- 
mdt, mule, mote, may, migU. 

must. O. 55, 57, 334- t^ 

motenn. O. 319, 11728. p.t. 

mosste, might, could. 
gem6t,* ZH. mote, moot, meeting, I 

assembly, council. | 

mdtan* (preteritive), ic, he, mdt, 

)>ii m(5st; pi. mOton ; p.s. k, 

he, njiSste, pU mdsiest ; pi. 

mdstun. 
mole, pr. pi. must. L. 
moten, pr. pi. mast. A. R. 
motleleye, motley; stuff 0/ a 

mixed colour, C. »73, 



mouwe, //. maj; can. P.P. 

mowen, /o ig abk, can, may. 
R. 

Mowres, Moors. M. 240:1. 

moje. H. in. Thi sense of 
this word is not clear ; it may 
he A. S. mSeg; pi. mdgas, q. v. 

muchedel, a great deal. R. 

muchel, muchele, much, great. 
A.R.; £.,- P.P. 2$!, d.f. 
muchelere. L. 352. 

muge, iub. pr. may. H. III. 

muhte, p.s. muhten ; p. pi. 
might. A. R. 

gem\ina.ti* {preteriinie), to re- 
member, be mindful of, consider; 
ic, he, gem.&n. Joh. xvi. 2 1, 
pii geraxoA ; pi. ^miunon, 
^nnunan ; p.s. ^imunde; fd. 
-on ; imp. gemfxn ; pi. ge- 
munaS ; pp. ^^munen. 

^^mundbyrdan,* to protect, pa- 

mune, must, will ; p. munde, 
could, would. (?.ii6i4, 11615, 
12031. pi. munndenn. 

munecan'*' = munecum, d. pi. 
S. C. 110:4. 

munegunge, commemoration, re- 
membrance ,■ on his mune- 
gunge, in commemoration of 
him. A. R. 164:34. 

munnde. See mune. 0. 

miint,* 2m. mount. 

munte, p.s. mounted ; refi., me 
munte, went P. C. 19. 

munuc,"* monuc, munec, 3m. 

munuchdd,* 2m. monkhood. 
miinuclic,* monastic. 
munuclif,* 2n. monastic life, 
monk-lising, monastery. 69:18, 
murcnian, to murmur, repine; 



\RY. [n«gel 

/. -«de, -ode ; pp. -od. Joh. 

vL 41, 43, 61 ; vii. 32. 
naurie, merry, merrily, pleasant; 
favourable. A. R. ; L. 323. 
murnani' (18), lo mourn ; recti, 

regard; hemjrnJS, mumS; p. 

raeam ; pi. murnon ; pp. 

mornen. 
muruliBe, mirth, gladness. A. 

R. 
laa^Hiea, to murder; p. murtSde. 

Z. 
muwe, may, can ; fl. muwen. 

A.R. 

miliS,* 2m. mouth. 
muf, mouth; g. mu}>ess. O. 
iiiii))a,* \m. mouth {of a river). 
mu^henn, tobeable. 0. 11445, 

11595. /;•. I, 2, 2P. mmhe. 

11661. pi. mujhenn. 11051. 

N. 

nd, • ^ ne d, never, not, no, 
nabban,* to have not ; ic nabbe, 

fd nfefst, he nasfS ; //. nabbaB, 

nabbe, nsebbe ; p. ncefde ; pi. 

nxfdon ; subj. nKbbe, njeb- 

bon {-en); imp. nafa ^li, 

nabba^, or nabbe ge. 
nabbe, imp.pl. have not. A. R. 
nabbe|i, pr. pi. have not, R. 
nacod,* naced, naked. 
nakiden, p. pi. made naked. 

Gen. }(xxvii. 33. 
nadde, had not. L. 129. 
nseddre,* \f. adder, serpent; 

hilde nsddran, war-serpents, 

arrows. 
niedre,* \f. adder, serpent. Os. 

See n:Eddre. 
nSbfre* = ne £e(re, never. 
nieflS,* hat not. See nabban. 
nsegel,* 2m. nail. 



rifen.* no, none. Sire ndn. 
Uifenig.* nc/ anj; none whafavr; 

Me/, dec/. 
nscnne, ace. m. no. Z. 
n&rc* ^ ne wjfere, mic« jw/. 
nxrc, nxrenn. See namm. 
n&ron* = ne wfbron, were not. 
na;s,* = ne wxs, was not. 
naes,* not, and not. 
ndh* = ne dh, OTtwj or possesses 

not. Joh. X. 12. Swdgan, 
nahht. night ; g. nahhtess; pi. 

nahhtcss. O. 11332. 
niht* = nd-wiht, naught. 
nalffis,* not, not the less ; nalass 

[>£CI in, not that alone, 
nallas,* no/, not the less ; nallas 

no )«t in, »w/ rta/ a/imA Bs. 

See nalES. 
nam, ;>.j. tooi. Z. 

nameiiche, chie^, especially. Jt. 
namm — neamra (.^.i'.neom), 

nm not; 2p, nam; 3^. niss. 

O. 11705. p.s. nass; subj.p.s. 

nEere ; pi. na;renn. 0. 
nam on* = naman, tuc. s. 



n^n- 



Os. 



e an, « 



a 



L. 
L. 129. 



ninuht,* Ko/ a whit, naught. 
ninwiht,* niinwuht, ndnuhl, 

eontr. into niwbt, ndht, naught; 

hence the Eng. ncg., not. 
nard, 2m. spikenard; nardus. 

Joh. xii. 3. 
nare, d. f. of nan, no, none, no 

one. L. 68. 805. 
narrt. See namm. O, 



3ARY. Alt 

nass. See namm. 0. 

ndst* = ne wist, kmaxst nei. 
See n}-ian. 

ndies-hwdn,* fy no means, nol 
alalL 

nauede, ^.j. had not. L. 

naueS, pr. t. has not. L. 149. 

nauht, naught, nothing. Bs. 
used adverl'iaUy. See riihl, 

nauhCas,* nothing. Bs. 108:11. 

ndufer,* neither. Bs. 

nauxre, never. L. 

nauere, nemr. I.. 

naueS = ne haueS, has mJ. 
A. R. 

niwfer, nd|»or, neither; indif. 
decl. Bs. 

na)> = ne haf, haih not. P.P. 
305- 

nd fe Ires,* not the lets, netxrtht- 
less, nathless. Os. 

nafemo, not the more, R. 

niCcr,* naSor, neither. 

najt, naught, not. A. I. 231:1. 

najjienn {A. S. n^giian), to 
nail; pp. na^Iedd. O. 224. 

najli, deny, refuse. A. I. 232:$. 

ne,* not, neither. 

ne— no. nor— nor. L. 128. 

^(neadian,* to /orce, eompd. 
provoke ; p. -ode ; //. -od, -ad. 
^/. 

nedh,*a(^'. near, nigh, neighbor- 
ing ; comp. nedrra, -e, -e; 
super I. nedhst, n^hst, nihst, 
n^^hst, nearest. 

nedh,* n^h, adv. near, nigh, al- 
most; comp. neir, nfr, ndr; 
superl. n^hsL 

nedh-geblir, * 2m. a neighbour. 

nearew,* nearow, nearw, nar- 
row. Os. 

ne4t,* 2n. neai, cattU, ox, beast. 



\ 



423 



GLOSSARY. 



[n^fing 



nedwest,* newest, neighbour- 

hood, presence, favour. 
neb,* nebb, in, nib, beak^ face, 
nob, face ; pi. nebbes. A, R, 
ned, need, necessity , occasion. O. 

I 1538, 12043. 
ned, needful^ necessary, O. 121. 
neddre, serpent; pi, neddren. 

A. R. 
nedde, had not. P, P. 4, 121. 
nede,* adv. needs, of necessity, 

necessarily. Bs. ; A, R. ; O, 

62 ; R. 322. 
nedenn, to require, compel. O. 

1 1820. 
nefde, /. //. had not. L. 129. 
neh, adv. nigh. L. nearly. 0. 

30- 
nehlehte {^A. S. nedl^can, /. 

-l&hte), p.s. approached, L. 

518. 
n6hst, last. See next 
nei, nigh, nearly, almost. R. 
neigh, neighe, nigh, close. C. 

590, 591. 
neihen, to come nigh ; p, neih- 

ede. A. R. 
nei3cde, p.s, nighed, drew nigh. 

Gen, xxxvii. 18 ; Lk,xv, 25. 
ncldere, a dealer in needles. P.P. 

161. 
nei3inge, nei^ynge, pr, p. nigh- 

ing, drawing near to. Eccl. 

xii. 5. Gloss,; Lk. XV. I. 
n el Ian.* See nyllan. 
nemmnenn, to name, call; pr.s. 

nemmne|)J) ; pi. nemmnenn ; 

suhj. s. nemmne; pp. nemm- 

nedd. O. 11 71 5. 
neme-n, /. pi. took. L. 
nemmnedd, //. named. O. 324. 
ncmnan,* ^memnan, to name, 

call ; p. nemde ; pp. nemned. 



nemni, to name. A. I, 
merapned, pp. named. P.P. iSi. 
nenne, ace. m. none, no. A. R.; 

L. 129 ; A. I. 
neode, need, necessity. A. R. 
neode^, is necessary, A. R. 
neom* = ne eom, am not. 
neore, nere, subj. p.s, were not, 

should not be. L, ; P. P. 181, 

249- 
neorre, nearer. A. R. 

neose, nose. P. P. 

neouwen {A. S. neowan), new- 
ly, lately, Z. 82. 

n^d^^xi,^ beneath, downwards. 

nere = ne were, were not ; subj, 
should not be. A. R.; R. 

^^rnerian,* to save, deliver, re- 
deem ; p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

neruh, narrow ; comp. neruw- 
ure ; super I. nere west. A, R. 

nes = ne is, is not. 

nes = ne wes, was not, A. R.; 
L. 

nesche, soft; tender, indulgent. 
A, R. 

nese,* nay, not, no; opposed to 
gQSt. yes. Joh. vii. 12, 

nested, pr, pi, make nests, nidi- 
ficant. A. R. 158:21. 

net,* nelt, 2n. net. foh. xxi. 6. 

neueu, nephew. R. 

newene, newly, lately. Seentoyx- 
wen. 

newest* Bs. .S*^^ nedwest. 

n6xt,* next, nearest, neighbour ; 
aet n^xtan, at last. 

^<fn^€an,* to subdue, bring under, 
reduce; pp. ^m6dde. C?j. 82:25. 

neping,* 3/C boldness, rashness? 
Thorpe conjectures this word, 
which occurs Os. 90:13, to 
mean degradation. 



ne,] GL0S5 

nej, nigh. R. 105. 

nejendc, tiinlh. A. t. 233:13. 

ny, ner. R. 63. 107. 

nic* = ne ic, not I. Joh. i. 

nice,* not I. Joh. xviii. 17. 

Here il tarns to nuan simply 

" no," as it it imnu-Jialdy fol- 

iduxd 6v ne eom ic. 
nice, /bo/iii. A. I. 
rvce, fatlidwus ! lit., fodi^h. 

C. 400. 
nydan,* f«iydan, to forci, re- 
duce to suhjeeliim ; p. ginyAAe ; 

pp. nyded. 84:26, 27, 28. 
nyede, d.s. tieed ; pi. nyedes, 

wcirff, necessities, Imsiness. A.I. 
nightertale, m^^^/ time ; tale, ii 

reckoning, period. C. 97. 
nig-hworfen, * «i7('/v converted. 

y$: 17. i'w hvveorfan. 
nigon* (nygon), «(iw / ;>/otf/. 
nigontyne,* nineteen. Os. 
nfhst,* nearest. Os. 
niht,* 3/. night ; g. d. nihte ; 

ate. niht;//. nom. ace. niht ; 

f. nihta ; d. nihtum. 
niht, night ; g. nihles; d. nihie. 

L. 
nihtes, by night. A. R. 
^fnihtsutn, plenlifyt, abundanl. 

Ml 61:8. 
^mihlsumliec,*rt^ni/a»//c, suf- 

ficicnth'. 69:21. 
nyl, vJitl not. P. C. 
nile = ne wile, will not ; 

pi. nilenn ; p.s. nollde. 0. 

11811, 12029. /'■ nolldenn. 
nyllan* = ne willan, to will 

not, nolle ; //"cj. ic nelle, )>ii 

nelt, he nele, nyle ; pi. nellaS, 

nylJaS ; nelle we ; p. nolde, Jtd 

noldest ; pi. noklon ; siiij. pr. 



nclle (nvJle). nyllui [vi 
imp. nefie |>ii. ' 
□im, imp. s. of nime-D, Ik. 

niman.* nvman, ^niiminiii), 
to take; get, met! ; p. am, 
nom ; pi. n>!nion; pp. 
Joh. vii. 30. 

nime, to lake. A. I. imf. f 
nime. A. R. 

nime, nyme, nimen, & Hk I 
L.,- A. R.,- R. 131. p.f\ 
nime|t. A. I. imp. //. nint I 
nimt]). A. R. nymef. ^. >* 
nom. Z. notne. G. 

nimenn, fo take ; 2/1.1. Ml- 
essi; 3^, niine|>|>; p.s.tamK; 
imp. pi. nime|>J>. O. 1167* 
pp. numenn. 

niss. See namm, 

nyste* = newisie, im-wnoL Si 
nilan, witan. 

nitan, nytan,* not to hnxv ; ne- 
scire; ic, he, nal, |iii nisr, « 
nvlon ; /. nyste, nvslon. M 
i.'3i ; 60:14. iV/wican, 

nyten,* 211. neat, animal, trail. 

nyiennys,* J/I ignorance. 63:31: 
65:34' 

nylon* = ne witon, htiv} net. 

nixie {A. S. nyxta), g.i. migh 
hour's. A. I. 233:31. 

niSp* 2m. evil, malice, envv, halt 

nif, envy, malice. O. 76, S3, 

n)-8an,* beneath. 

nytier,* dtnvn. 

nySer-isiigan,* n)-*er-stigan, / 
come dtrum. See sligan. 

njiSercuman,* to cmne don'n, df 
scend. See ctiman. 

ni[>rull, 'envwus. O. 78. 



♦«5 



GLOSSARY. 



[o 



'ni1>]>renn {A. S, nitSerian), /o 
iring low, humble, O. 11845. 
no,* no^ noi. 
noan, none. H, IIL 
noblei, nobleness, splendour, R, 

nobleye, nohiliiy. R, 

noke. See atte noke. P. P» 115. 

noff = ne off, nor of ; ne 

nofF, neilher nor of ; O, 

1 1 906. 
gai6gi* gai6\iy enough, 
noht, naught, L, 
nohht = ne wiht, aht, naught, 

nothing, O, 11 505, 12009. 
nohht, not ; nohht ne. O, 

1 1343. ne nohht ne nohht, 

not nor, O. 11 733-4. 

nohte, naught. L, 

nolde.* See nyllan. 

nolde, would not, A,R.; P, P, 

311- 
noldes, wouldst not, A. R, 

nole, will not, L. 

nollde. See nile. O. 

nom, p.s. took ; pL nome ; pp, 

nomen. L, 184 ; R. 198, 200 ; 

G, 369. 
I nome, taken; shed, R. 
nome, name. A. R. 
nomeliche, especially. P. P, 

324. 
nones (for fe), for the nonce 

^=for then once, for the once, 
for the occasion. (A. S, for fan 

aenes.) P. C 31, 33. 
nonesweis, in no wise. A, R, 
norici, to nourish. A, I, 
nor5,* north, northwards ; be 

nortSan, to the north of. 
nortJeweard,* northivard. 
Nor5men,* Norwegians, 
noii5mest,* most northerly. 



norSor, * camp, more north, Os. 
norSryhte,* due north. 
norSwest,* northwest, Bs, 
nose-thurles, nostrils, i^A, S. 

firel, a hole; firlian, to drill, 

pierce.) C. 559. 
not, pr,s, \p. know not. C 286. 
not, knows not. A. I, 
not-heed, a closely shorn head. 

C. 109. hnot, shorn, cut, netted; 

tonsus, mutilum. jtElfrics 

Gram. * * Nottehead, a notte- 

head had he with a brown 

visage, {i, e.) caput detonsum ; 

coma supercilio brevior.'' 

Skinner's Etymolog, Ling, A ngl, 
nou, novo, L, 
nouhwar, nowhere. A. R, 
noumpere, umpire, P, P, 181. 
nout, not. A, R, 
nouthe, now ; as nouthe, just 

now, at present. C. 464. See 

as. 
no|>eles, nathless, nevertheless. 

R. 96. 
nofer, neither. R. 
no;t, nought, not; al uor no3t, 

all for nothing, vainly, R. 
nu,* nu-)>a, now ; since, 
nuy3en, 10 annoy, injure, P, P. 

327. 
nul, will not, R, 138. 

nulle = ne wulle, will'not, L, 

136; P, P, 238. 
nullich = ne wulle ich, / will 

not. A, R. 159:29. 
mumen, ihome pp, taken. L. 
nuste = ne wuste, p.s. knew not. 

L. 443, 896 ; R. 95. 

O. 

o, on. A, R, 

o. .S*^^ off, onne. O. 



.A 



O, imt. R.; P. C. 138, 139; 

G. 206. - 
occ, and. O, 
oksc|> (.'I. S. acsian), aski, di- 

manJs, nguirfs. A. I. 
of,* of, out of; govs. dal. 
of, h. R. 
of, off, from ; of londe, ml of 

the coun/ry. R. 
of-dxian,* Aiflj* iy?t^, aicertam, 

git informatiott ; p. -ode ; pp. 



iaid I 



brmg 



-od. 
of-dlBbdan,* 

from or out. 
of-cuman,* lo eoau nut of go 

forth, proceed. Sn cuman. 
of-drawen, to draw forth. A. 

R. niuchel jeouc of-drawe6 

luue. A. R. i6i;ii. 
oiil'iins,*dO!UmViirJs,down. Bs. 
ofer,* avir, agamal, aflir, by. 
ofercliman* (21), lo amrclimb ; 

p. oferclannn, oFordomm ; pi. 

olerclummon. Os. 88;30. Set 

dim ban. 
ofercuman,* to overcome. Set 

cuman. 
ofor-edca,* in. surplus, remain- 

ofcrfaran,* ofcrreran, to pass 

<mr. See faran, Una. 
oferf(5ran,* to pass over ; p. ofer- 

fcnk. 63:7. 
ofer- fro re 11,* frozen over. See 

freusan. 
o{ei-gevint,* in. an ooer-ivriting, 

a superscription. Joh. six. 19. 
ofer-gioiulnes,* j/; forgetful- 

orerliergian, * to overrun with an 
army, to harry, ravage ; p. 
'OA<t; pp.-oi^. ' Os. 

oferliliUitan,* to overload. Os. 



orermet,*2M. (Gfr^aebenoia^l 

exctss, pride, kiglmmilhm\ 

arrogance; pi. ortimetto, -*, * 1 

Bs. ■ 

ofermud,* xn. pridi, rnfmi- 

ousntss, arrogance. 
ofer-m6(iian,* ofer-mtjdgiaiL t 

be high-minded, proud, ftf^ 

up. Bs. 
ofetrhannd, mastery. 0. 11411, 

11481. 
ofetsecjn,* /o see or look oeit m 

across. Os. See sedn. 
oferstigan,* logo over, t*ffast, 

t.vcfed. 68; 1 6. See sdpiL 
0fer-swiBan,*-swJ^6an, -swiCiu, 

-swyBian, to overcome, cenqtcr; 

p. ofer-swIBde ; //. -ed, JA- 

Xvi. 33. 

oferwinnan* {21), lo rtwww, 

eon-jucr; p.s. -wann ; pL -wUB- 

non ; pp. -wunnen. 
dfesi,* 3/r haste, speed; mid. 

ofesie or dfste or dfeslum, vi& 

haste, quickly, speedily. 
off, offe, o, prip. o/,frf. 

cerning. 0. 
offrynge, the nlms collected atA< 

offertory. C. 491- 
ofiie, oflcn. O. 
oll'tredi;nn, lo tread doom. 0. 

1165a 
ofgangan,* ofgdn, to go forth, ge 
from, require, demand, seek, 

request. 61 :5. See gdn. 
of-gon, to deserve, seek, win ; pr. 

oF-geS i //. of-gon. A. R. 
ofhyealde, to withhold. A. I. 
of-hredivan* {4), lo rue, regret, 

repent; p.s. -hreaw, -hreuw ; 

pi. [-hredvfon] ; pp. f-hreciw- 

en] ; impers.; me of -hreijw, 'i' 

repented me. ^ifric's Prif. 



GLOSSARY. 



[onderuing 



•eo\ve)>. Rmhworih, Gos- 

Matt. XV. 32. 

,* olletan, to let out;- p. 

pp. ofldeten. Os. 

desirous of, 

?, to escape. R. 

3, to send for ; of is in- 

R. 
,* to set offf set round y 
\ afflict ; p. ofsette ; pp. 

69:34. 
•^ (13), to surround y be- 

oppress^ press down ; 
itt ; p, ofsaet ; pL ofsdb- 
'>p. ofseten. 66:12. 
n, //. slain, 

-slan* (10), to stay, 
off ; he ofslyhtS ; /. of- 
pl. ofsldgon ; f>p. ofsle- 
slagen). 60:21 ; 88:23. 
ri, of-slawe, pp. slain, 

p.s, slew ; inf of-slaen, 
n. L. 

J, /. //. slaughtered. L, 
1,* ofstikian, to stick, 
icrce. 
\ often, 

* of-tidn, to draw off, 
aWy deprive. Bs. See 

:omp, ofiener, A. R, 
les, ofttimes, C. 487. 
n, oftentimes, A. R, 
I, * to draw off, withdraw, 
, Bs. See tedn. 
3f-tok, p.s, overtook/ inf 
i-n. L. 
^*PP' deprroed, Bs, See 

1,"^ to stone ; p. -ode ; pp, 

/oh. viii. 5. 

\Qy^ frequent, Os, 



oft-raedlice, *oflen,frequently,foh. 

oftredan* (12), to tread out or 
down; p, oftraed; pi, oftrdbdon; 
//. oftreden. 66:11. 

of-pohte, p,s, repetited. L, 302. 

of-fuhte, p.s. repented. L. 302. 

ohht, contraction of owihht, 
aught, anything. O. 

oht-e, good, brave, worthy ; ace, 
m. oht, ohte, ohtne ; //. ohte; 
g. ohlere. L. 495i 939- 

ohtliche, bravely, boldly, L, 
433, 913. 6'<?(? ahlice, ahtliche. 

dleccan,* to flatter, allure; p, 
dlehte. 

oluhnen, to flatter, A,R, 

om, home; at om, cU home. R, 

on,* on, in, with, about, during; 
into, by, 

on, a, an, one ; g. ones. A, 
R.; L, 553; M, 241:7. 

onbaec,* aback, back, behind. 

onbeodan* (19), to announce, 
declare, Os, See beddan. 

onbyrgan,* onbyrigan, to taste, 
taste of; pres, s, onbirigtJ. Bs, 
p. onbyrigde ; pp, onbyrigd, 
onbyrged ; takes a gen, 64:35. 

onbo^samnesse, unbuxomness, 
disobedience. A, I, 

oburigan,* to taste. See onbyr- 
gan. 

onbutan,* -on, about, around, 

oncndwan* (2), to know, under- 
stand, recognize ; he oncndew^. 
p. oncnedw ; //. oncnedwon ; 
pp. oncndwen. 61:19-27. 

onconnynde, unknowing, igno- 
rant, A, I, 

oncwefan,* to speak back, echo, 
resound, Bs. See cwe^an. 

onderuing {A. S, underf(6ng), 
received. A, L 




oiid6n,*/o undo. Os. Sie d(5n. 
onitrEedan,* /o drend. fiar ; }iii 

ondrdelst, he ondrfet ; p. on- 

drOtl : //. ondrcdon ; pli. on- 

drieden. 75;'?. 
one, ahni, only. A. R. ; R, 

50. 67, 92. 
on ell|>ei5de,* inlo fordgn coun- 

Irks. Os. 
on ende, al hsi. A. R. 
ones, once. Al. 241:35. 

• to hasten; he onettaS ; 



^Cttltf. 



oiiejie, wilh 

65. 
on-festnian, * lo fasten or fix in 

or on ; transfix ; p. -ode ; pp. 

-od. Joh, six. 37. 
onfiingan,* /. t pi. recewed. Os. 

Sii ontiJD, 
on-fest, on-fast, prep, near, 

nigh. L. 9. 
onfindan* (zi), to find out, dis- 
cover, proK. Sec (indan. 
onftin* (8), io receive, take, accept; 

ic onfd, he onfehS ; p. oiiKng; 

pp. onfangen. See fangan. 
on-ron, lo receive, take, accept, 

commence. L. 593. 
on-^sTiian^, * among; on-ge- 

mang fam, meanwhile. {Lai. 



o. 



■ 3,'- 



ongean,* again,againsl,tawards, 
lo, aoer against ; eft ongean, 
iKick again. 

ongcai.* See ongtlan. 

ongedtan,*^./. ^. Os. See on- 
gilan. 

on-^i'mong, * among. 

ongenes, against. H.IIl. 

ongin,*zra, Os. i'.'e angin. 

onginnan* (ii), to liegin, un- 
dertake, endeavour ; p. ongan, 



Jui ongunne ; pi. 

pp. ongunnen. 66:1^ 
ongitan,* ongylan (1*), *» 

dir stand, perceive, km; ft 

ongj-st, be ongil, oiigyt;f 

ongeat ; //. oDgedton ; J^ 

ongiien. 
on hand gdn,* to surraiJir.Ot 
onhwearfan, * onhweortu (\i\ 

to change, go away. St. jir 

hweorfan. 
oni, any,- d. onie; /i <i 

H. III. 
onilich, uuliie. £,. 
on-innan,* tviihin, amimg. 
on-licncs, liketuss, image. L 

554- 
onlibtan,* to enlighten, dbam, 

give sight ; p. onllhte ; pp. » 

liht, onlihted. Joh. L 9; 63:17. 
onn, onne, o, prep, on, ijt, Ml^ 

O iofft, alop. O. 11849. 

onnan. See anao. 

onnepe, scarcely. L. 8;8. 
onnfon, to lake, receive; pr. 1. 

onntbji. O. 1 1 507. svij.i. 

onnfo. 
onnjxn, onnjxness, bad, again. 

O. 1 1343. 
onnjasness, onnjsn, ^ness. 

jEn, against, towards, /or. 0. 

1 1444. 
onscunian,* to shun, reject, ab- 
hor ; p. -ode ; //. -od. 
onsigan* (20), to impend, kimt 

over, descend ; he onsihii ; p. 

onsdh ; //. onsigon ; pp. on- 

sigen. Bs. 97:27. 
on-sundron,* asunder, aside, 

apart. 
onlendan,* to kindle, set on fire, 

inflame; he onient ; /. -de; 

pp. -ed. 6o:i8, 



429 



GLOSSARY. 



[ouht 







on t\v:i, * in he \ at var Liner, in 

discord, Bs, 
ovi-\x^%\, quickly. L, 958. 
on-ufan,* on-uppon, aver, upon, 
onwaecnian,* to awaken, excite. 
onwalden i^A. S. anweald), d.s. 

power, L. 385. 
on wille, awhile. L, 
€imvfOTpnessef dishonour, contempt. 

A. I. 
onworfef {A. S. unweor^ian), 

dishonour. A. 1. 
onwredH* (19), to reveal^ dis- 
close, discover ; he onwr^htJ ; 

p. onwredh ; //. onwnigon ; 

pp. onwrogen. 65:3. 
onwri|>, uncover, open. A. I, 
onJ>ringan* (21), to throng on, 

press upon ; p. onfrang ; //. 

onfrungon ; //. onfrungen. 

Os. 
oothe, g.pl. {A. S, dt$, zm., 

g. pL d^a) of oaths. C. 120. 
ope, of, upon ; workes ope f e 

woke, ivorks of the week. A. I. 
open,*^^, plain, evident. 
open, patent. H. III. 
openen, to open ; pr. opened ; 

pp. /-opened. A, R, 
^^openian, * ^^opnian, to open, 

reveal ; p, -ode ; //. -od. Joh. 
open lice,* openly. 
opennlike, opennli^, openly, 

plainly. O. 

opon lofte, alofi, on high. P. C. 
or, ere, C. ^6, 257 ; Gen. 

xxxvii. 18. 
orchejardes (A. S. wurt-geard), 

orchards, gardens. P, C. 14. 
ordeinede, ordained, ordered, ar- 
ranged. R, 
ore \A. S, ir), grace, mercy, 

L. 196; R, 



ore 



S'<- xrc. /. 



oreald, * vay old. 

oreSian.* See or8ian. 

orf, horf, cattle. Z. 374 ; R. 

oriel le, a precious stone. M, 
241:25.. 

orl, earl. L, 

orrtrowwe {A. S, or-truwian, 
to distrust), distrustful. O. 
1 1 589. 

orsorgnes,* 3/! security, Iran- 
quility, safety. Bs, 

ortruwian,* ^«5rtruwian, to de- 
spair, despair of. 

ortSian,* to breathe, blow; p, 
-ode ; //. -od. 69:17. 

ost, host. R, 

ostiller, host, tavern keeper. C. 

241. 
OM, you. A, R. 
o\x,how. L, 
ouenan, oiter, above, upon, L, 

241. 
oueral, everywhere. R.; C. 216, 

249- 
overest, uppermost. C. 292. 

ouerhongen, /. //. overhung. 

P. a 124. 

ouerkumen, //. overcome. A, 
R. 

ouerlinges, rulers, masters. A.L 

ouernon, afternoon, R. 458. 

overthwart or endlonges, across 
or leugthwise. M, 

overthwart or endlonges, cross- 
wise or lengthwise. M. 242:18. 

ouerwei^, outweigheth. A, R. 

ouerweneres, overweeners, pre- 
sumptuous ones. A. I, 

ouh, ouhte, ought ; ip, ouht- 
est ; //. owen, ouhten. A. R. 

ouhte, /. 3 J. possessed. A. R, 
163:15. 



omc, your. A. R. 

Dure, g. ofm, our. L. 

cure, voar. P.P. 316, 47*. 

ous. aT. Z. 

ou suluen, ypursihifs. A. R. 

out, citt/^ht. A. R. 

OUJt, tf«f^/. /'./'. 

ail, you. P.P. 36, 41, 308, 

owe, d. f. awn. L. 273, 389. 

owcr, _)wvr. ^. ^. 
oweih, pr.s. ought. C. 662. 
Dwher, anvivkere. C. 655, 
owune, (TTcn, A. R. 

(SK,* A//, A),' unto; at a prefix, 

of, oath. R. off of EOlie, oath 

0/ truth. A./. 
oUc, on (ht. A. R. 
&3(:x,* other, second, one ; alius, 

sccundus ; d8er Iwega, other 

of tivo, one or the other ; indef. 

deel., even vhen pretedtd try the 

article ; |>es (jBres, of the other; 

g. d. ace. f. ijfiru ; pi. neut. 

sometimes <J5ru or (JSra. 
o)>cr, or. R. 
08 er, ofer, other, second. L. 

pc ofer Godcs heslcs, the 

second commandment of God. 

A. I, on oSer, in other wise. 

L. g. pi. opre; o-. o(<ren. A.I. 
&&tTMfl? Os.8g:7. SeeSpen- 

ser's F.Q. 2, 4, 4; 2, 1 1, 23; 

5' i'> 36- 
otSer hair, one and a half. L. 

921. 

oSor hwule, otheruihilt, sometifnes. 

A.R. 
oiScme, at:c. m. another. L. 



ARV. t]» 

o)ien-, adj. other ; an o^. (L 

1 1943. pL ofre. 0. iiU^ 

1 1517. 
oferwhile, sometimes. P. f. 

303, 593- 
Ol»es. oarfj. i'.y, 178. 
iJfifleiSn,* to flee ouw)', uo^ 

91:30. See fleiin. 
(ifi-Iwian,* dfr-ywan, to d* 

rntu/, appear ; p. -ode; hIc; 

/A -od, -ed. Os. 
o|>re, //. See operr, a^. 
(jfisacan* (()),Aj denv ; p. iSfctt; 

//. dSsiScon ; pp. oSsacen ; k 

masg ic )«es ^Jisacao, /*»* 

deny this. 
<JSsiandaii* (9), io stand A 

cease; p.s. (5«sl(5d : pi. ofcli- 

don ; pp. dBsianden. 

104:25- 
0|>us. oaths. P.P. 157. 
uS&et,* A// //m/, tfwtf,- dSfa- 

tao, /0 /Ai7/ degree, so much. 
(i»6e.* .S« dS8:Et. 
(ifiSe,* or, either. 
(iRjiringan* (21), to force TJm, 

expel; p. (HSffrang (-frong); 

pi. dSfrungon. See ]>riogaD. 
ojen, awn, possession. A. I. 
ojen, pr. pi. cave. H. HI. 
ojt, aught. R. 135. 
ojji {A. S. igan), fueZi, ifi, 

oumt, postesses. A. I, 



pace, suBJ. s. pass, pass on, ad- 
vance, a 36. 

pace, topass, surpass. C $'6. 

prellen, purple. 69:25. 

pave, to please. P.P. 302. pr. 
pi. pai-e)). A. I. 

pays, peace. A. I, 

palesye, pafy: P.P. 61. 



431 



C,L()<<\\i\. 



pIvL:.! 



]>alliuni. 2///. />/////<///, /,//7. 
palm-trcow, ^ in, pdhn-trcc. Joh, 

xii. 13. 
papa, ivi, pope. 
papanhdd,* 2m, popthood, papal 

dignify, 
parauntre, perhaps^ perchance, 

R. 
par cas, perchance, G, 
pardoner, a seller of indulgences, 

a 545. 

pardoun, indulgence, C, 689. 
parteden, p, pi, wenl apart; par- 

teden bi hemseluen. P, P, 

177. 
partie, part, side ; on that other 

parti e, on the other hand, M, 

345:6. 
passchet, pp, pushed, crushed, 

P. P. 16. 
passiuns, sufferings. A, R, 
j>arvys, church-porch, C, 312. 
peine, penal ty, forfeiture, R, 
peyned, p.s, pained ; pcyned 

hire, took pains, endeavoured, C, 

139. 
>-peynt, //. painted, P. C, 8. 

peynt til, painted tiJes, P, C, 42. 

peintunge, painting. A, R, 

peired, pp, injured, P, P, 76. 

peysede, p.s, weighed, P, P, 

pelet; as pale as a palet, P.P, 
61. Other texts read palet, 
j)elat, fe pelowr was pelled. 

^XnviTi^Qy pilgrimage, G, 12. 

pening,* penig, peneg, peanig, 
2m, penny ; g, pi. penega. foh, 
vi. 7. 

^liiiig'WMt^,'^ pennyworth, ^l, 
62.17. 

perfi3t, perfect, C, 72. 

pers, siy-bliu, C. 619. 



C. 4^0, 704, 706, 708. 
Pharisca, g. pi. o/" //it- Pharisees. 
philosope, d.s. philosopher, Os. 
plane, peynye, pianye, the seed 

of the peony, used as a spice, 

P, P, 155. 
pik, a pike, staff, P, P. 257. 
pyk, a pike, staff, P, P, 289. 
piked, //. cleaned, trimmed. C, 

pic-forcken, pic-forken, d,pl. 
pitchforks, L, 996. 

pye hele, magpies heel? P. P, 
484. Wright' s text reads-, ** I 
sette youre patentes and youre 
pardon At one pies hele." 

pilche, a fur garment P, C, 
91. {Lat, pellis, pellicea.) 

piled, peeled, stripped of hair, 
bald, C, 629. 

pilwe, pillow, G, 95. 

pilwebeer, pillow-case, C. 696. 

pvnche at, find fault with, C, 

pine, pain; pi, pinen. A, 

R, 
pinunge, pining, pain. A, R. 
piries, pear trees, P, P, 16. 
piriwhit, an inferior kind of 

drink, P, P, 134. Wnght's 

text reads, puddyng ale ; other 

texts, pile-whey, pile-whew, pil- 

whay. 

pistol, im, epistle. 
pyt,* pytt, im. pit, hole, well, 
pitance, a mess of victuals, C, 

224. 
plaetton, */.//. slapped, struck, 

smote, foh, xix. 3. 
platte, p.s, felled or threw flat, 

P^ P^ 45. 
i plega,* im, play. 



plegan] GLOS 

(ilcR.in,* plegian, plcigan, lo 
/•Ijv : p. -cde, -ode ; pp. -od. 

pliht, plighUd, bound; pliht 
prcHtvs, baund apprmliu. P. 
P. lie. 

pliht, plight, harm, danger. L. 

plomircs, plum trees. P.P. i6. 

plou, plough. R. 

pitiui-lond, plmv-hnd ; a caru- 
cufc of land, as much as one 
learn can pLiw in a year. P. 

a 17. 

ploje, play. L. 241- 

pocok, /Kacock. C. 104. 

pocir, fjower. R. 

poer, power. R. 

poynt (in good). {Fr. embon- 
point.) C 200. 

polliden, p. pi. cropped, clipped. 
Gen. x\i. 14. 

pomely, dappled. C. 618. 

poocok, /v-acoti. M. 241:24. 

porchacef, /rocBrw, A. I. 

posstel!, aposlle. 0. 257. pi. 
possdess. O. 217. 

Doudre marchaunt, some com- 
pound 0/ spices, etc. C. 383. 

poraile, Ihe poor. C. 247. 

pore has, purchase, acguisih'on, 
what is obtained by conquest. 
{.Fr. pourchasser, to pursue, ob- 
tain the objeci of pursuit. ) R. 

poie, pure, sheer/ for jwre mis- 
eise, Jor sheer misusage. R. 116. 

porfil, embroidery, finery, tinsel. 
P.P. 26. 

^or%, purse. P.P. no, 153. 

port, 2 m. port. 

portic, 2m. portico, porch ; por- 
ticon = ponicum, d. pi. /oh. 
V. 3- 



poitred, portrqytd, adand, P. 

C. 40. 
poure, poor. A. R. 
porueid, prmjided, gnarM. i. 
potel, apot/ul. P. P. 191. 
pouernesse, paoerly. P.C ill 
pouerore, poorer. R. 
powhe, firike, sofi, bag. P.P. 

481. 
povrTE, topore. C 185, 
preise-n, to appraise, vaht-.f. 

pi. preiseden. P.P. 177. 
preise, pr.s. ip. prist, ni& 

P. C. 115. 
pceijede, p.s. prayed, besm^ 

P.P. 16. 
preost, prest, pries! ; g. pica- 

less, prcstess ; pi. preosla^ 

presiess. O. 
preosthid,* 2m. priesthond. 
preouen, taproot. A. R. 
presede, p.s. hasicttcd. P. C 
presie, readv. R. 
prestesle, readiest, promptest. P. 

P. 304. 
preuen, leprooe. P.P. 35. 
preuede, p.s. proved. P.P. 1 j. 
prevede, p.s. proved, tried ; pf- 

preved. ^f. 
pricasour, pricker, hard rider, 

one who uses vxU the prick or 

spur, a 189. 
priketh, pr. s. pricks, cxnlis, 

C. II. 
prikinde, /niriii^f. A. R. 
^nVynf, riding hard. C. 191. 
■ hie/. P. C. 104. 



pns, ; 



A. R. 



pry-s, priee, /ame, renown. 
67. 
priveliche, prroa/ely, secretly. 
protest, proudest. L, 269. 
prout, proud. R. 



433 



GLOSSARY. 



[r&daii 



pruide, pride. P. P, 15. 

pruyde, /r/i/<?. R, 121. 

prute, pride, R, 

pruttest, proudest, L. 269. 

Ijsalmwuruhle, psalmuL A,R, 

puire, ///r^. P. P, 13. 

puitef, putteth? P. P. 363. 
Oiher texts read, pokif fe for, 
lokilh for, poketh forth. 

pulched, pp, polished, P. C, 8. 

pulled, plucked^ pilled, C. 177. 
'*Pyllyd, or scallyd . . . depi- 
latns, glabellas, . . . (c)apiton- 
sus, . . . glabrosus." Prompt, 
Parv. 

pulte, to pushy put, thrust, R. 

pund,* 2n, pound ; pi, pund. 

punt, pundetS, impounds, shuts 
up ; pp, /-pund, pent up, {A,S, 
pyndan. ) A, R, 

puple, people, P, C, 162. 

purchase, to obtain, procure, G. 
18. 

purchase, acquisition, C, 258, 
acquisition by begging and ex- 
torting, 

purchasynge, procuring, M, 

purchasour, prosecutor, C, 320, 

pure lytel, very little, P, C, 1 8. 

pure pore, very poor, P, C. 65. 

purfiled, embroidered, C, 193. 

purpur, purple, of a purple 
colour, Joh, xix. 2, 5. 

purLray, to paint. C, 96. 

puruey, to provide. Gen, xli. 

33- 



qualm, disease, pestilence. {A,S' 

cwealm. ) R. 
quarele, contest, G, 255. 
quartrun, a quartern, P, P, 

131- 



queynteli, cunningly ; q. i-cor- 

uen, curiously carved. P. C. 9. 
queintise, stratagem, R. 
queyntliche, curiously, P, C, 

48. 
quelle, to Ml, destroy, R, 
quybybes, cubebs, M, 243:11. 

(Arabic, kubabah.) 
quic, quick, alive, L, 1031 ; 

R, 
quyk, quick, altoCy living, M,; 

Is, liii. 2. 

quickere, d, /, quick, L, 
quicliche, quickly, R, 
quyk mire, quagmire, P, G 74. 
quyte, subj, s, requite ; quyte 

you you re meede 1 reward 

you, C, 772. 



racenta,* raccenta, \m, chain, 
Bs, 

racenteag,* 3/! chain. 

rakere of chepe, a vagrant chap- 
man. P, P, 165. 

^^-rdd,* instructed ; conditioned ; 
fus ^^rad, swd ^^rdd, such, 
such sort, Joh, viii. 5. 

rad, pp. advised. P.P. 180. 

radde, p,s. read, L, 10. 

radde, p.s. advised, counselled, 
P.P. 37, 103. 

^^rsecan, * to reach, attain to, get, 
capture ; p. ^tTdehte ; pp. ge- 
rdbht. 

rsechen, /r. //. reach, L. 811. 

rded,* 2/;/. rede, counsel, instruc- 
tion, deliberation, 68:5. rsed 
fincan, to seem advisable ; rded 
witan,/^ kncnjo what one is about. 

r^dan,* ^tTdedan, to read ; ic 
r^de, f d r^tst, he rdet, rded ; 
p, r&dde ; pp. ^^rded. 



19 



radc-h.re] GLOS 

ncdc-hcre,* d.s. a riding army, 

eavalrj:. Os. %y.22. 
T^edcn, to advise. L. 
nedcsmen, countHlort. H. III. 
nedig, ready. O. 11758, 
^^neft, torn, distrackd, Bs. 

106:10. 
rieie, bold {A. S. refe). Z. 

614. 
nese, rease, d.s. omet, attack. 

L. 766. 
"est,* 3/C rest, plaee o/rcst. Bs. 
rage, to play, liry wantonly. C. 

259. 
ragcman, a catalogue, a Hit. P. 

C. 23. See Webster s Diil., s. v. 

ragman's roll. 
Ramcsscs {land of), Rameses. 

M. 
raycs, strips {0/ clot/i)i' P.P. 

"5- 
ramne, thorn, bramble. Ps. 

raply, hastily. P.P. 176. 
ras, p.s. rose. O. 167, 215, 

23a See risenii. 
rathere, former; the rathcrc 

toun of Damycle. M. 240:12. 
moner, a rat-catcier. P.P. 16^. 
raugln, p.s. reached. C. 136. 
raSe,* quickly; raSu }'ais, soon 

after this. See iiraSi;, 
rafcnn, to counsel, guide. 0. 

119S8. 
raCur, sooner. A. R. 
ra|>cst, «w»df/. P.P. i36. 
raSor,* sooner. Jolt. 
ratSost,* soonest. See hraSe. 
read,*rnrf. 69:26. 
read, counsel L. 182. 
reade, to counsel, a.hiise. L. 
reade, red. A. R. 
readliche, readily, soon. A. R. 



ARY. *J4 

reaf.* in. garment, clotkii^ ; pi 
redf. 

TGdf.*2n.spail, plunder ; pi. rd£ 

redfere,* 2m. a rmxr, sdar, 
robber, spoiler. Bs. 

recan, * reccan, to reck, care for; • 
p.s. riShte ; pi. ruhcon ; pp. 
geT6\il ; imp. liXL 

reccan,* f«-eccan, ^frecan, jH 
govern, rule, direct; reckn, 
estimate, enumerate, draidt, in- 
terpret, dejinf, explain, trans- 
late ; to say, sfteak, tell, rilati; 
p. reahte, rehie ; pp. givit&, 
^frt-eahL Joh. i. 42 ; 63:35; 
63:io. Snweald reccan, lacx- 
ercise power. Bs. 96:4, 7, II. 

r^ccelesl,* j/? recklasmss, cart- 
lessness. Bs. 106:13. 

rocchen, reche, pr. ip.pl. rat 
care. L. 979- 

rekcni, to reckon. A. I. 

rekncf, pr. pi. reckon, regard. 
P. C. 164. 

red, counsel, advice. C. 667 ; 
P.P. 250. 

rede, to eounstl. R. 

rede, advice, counsel, conlrivaact. 
A. /./ R. 78. 

i^enn. pr. pi. read. O. 47. 

redesmen, councillors. If. III. 

redilichc, readily. P.P. 103. 

redyng-kyn^, one of a class of 

feudal retainers. P. P. 1 66. 

reeve, a stnoard, bailiff. C. 5 89. 

refuyt, refut, refuge. Ps. xlv. 2. 

reformed,//!, changed back, after 
a metamorphosis, to original 

form. G. 19. 

regollic,* regular. 

regollice, regularly, as a regu- 
lar or monk. 69 : 1 9. 

regralour, a regrater. P.P. 14a 



435 



GLOSSARY. 



[riht 



reh, hold, fierce, stern, L, 959. 

^^cht.* See reccan. 

reh tun. * See reccan. . 

reh 3, bold, Z, 300. 

reyced, //. made a mUilary ex- 
pedition, C. 54. 

reisun, reason. A, R. 

renkes, men, in a distinguished 
sense, {A, S. rincas. ) P, P, 

471. 
rennend, pr. p, running, G, 84. 

renome, renown, G, 

rente, income, revenue, C, 375. 

redcan* (19), to reek; p,s, rede ; 
//. nicon ; //. rocen. 

reofan* (19), to rive ; p^, redf; 
//. rufon ; //. rofen. 

^^reord,* 2//. speech, tongue, 
69:3. 

^erreord,* in. refection, dinner, 
meal, 66:11. 

^<f reordian, * to feed, nourish, 
fill, dine ; p, -od ; pp, -ode. 
65:22, 28 ; 66:7, 24. 

Tcuw,* p,s. rawed, »SV«r rdwan. 

reowllc, * rwt/tt/. S, C. 110:16. 

rerc, to rear, raise, build ; p,s, 
and pi, rerde. R. 

rest,* 3/1 rest, quiet, repose. 

reste-daeg* resten-da^g, 2m, rest- 
day. Sabbath, foh, v. l8. 

reste (to), at rest, C, 30. 

rette, to ascribe, impute, C, 728. 

re u full, sorry- looking, P, C, 130. 

reumes, rewmes, realms, king- 
doms, Ps. xlv. 7. 

rewe, imp, s, rue, have mercy, 
P, P, 250. 

rewette, * g. -es, a rawing, navi- 
gation ; ship, foh, xxi. 6. (Ztf/. 
navigiuni. ) 

rewme, recUm, kingdom. Gen, 
xli. 40. 



r^t5,* fierce, savage, raging, 

59:24 ; 60:17. 
rejheliboc, rule-book, book of 

canons, 0, 8. 
rhof, rof {A, S, hr<5f), roof, O, 

^^Z5h ii739» "959- 
nzWy, royally, C380. 

ribibor, a player on the ribibe {a 
musical instrument), P, C. 165. 

ric,* rich, powerful ; used defi- 
nitely as a noun ; se unrihtwisa 
rica, the unrightous powerful 
man, j5EI, 

riccetere,* 2m, power, tyrrany, 
violence. j5EI, 

rice,* 2n, power, dominion, king- 
dom, empire, country, reign; pi, 
ricu. 

riche, kingdom, realm, L, 235. 

riche, rich, powerful, L, 957. 

rich en, d, s. m, rich, L, 

TicMcc,* powerfully, 

rikne, to reckon, take account of, 
C, 403. 

ricost,* superl. most powerful. Os, 

ricsian,* rixian, to govern, reign, 
rule ; p, -ode ; pp, -od. Bs, 
67:26. 

ridan* (20), to ride ; he rlt; 
p.s, rdd ; //. ridon ; //. riden. 

rideren, ridercs, //. rulers, L, 

95. 
rihht, adj, right, true ; pi, 

rihhte. O. 
rihht, adv, right, immediately, O, 
riht,* ryht, 2n, right, justice, 

truth; on riht, mid rihte, 

rightly, 
riht,* r}'ht, geuhx, right,straight, 

true ; on ^mhte, straight on- 

ward, 
riht, rihtes, culv, right, straight, 

L, 



rihtan] GLO: 

rihtan,* ^mhian, to n'ghten, 
straighten, correct, direct, guide; 
p. rihie ; pp. ^irihied. Joh. i. 

rihtc,* rightly, straightly. 

rihte, right. L. 

n"Iile norS,* due north. Os. 

^rrihtlasccan,* to reelify, correct, 
amend, riproiv; p. ^^rihclEehle ; 
//. -la;ht. Joh. iii. lo. 

rihiHce,* rightly, Jutiiy. 

rihlwis,* righteous, 

Ty\\\v;ifXicc,* rightly, wiufy. Bs. 

rihtwisnes,* r^litwlsncs, rihtwis- 
nis, 2A righteousness, justice, 
Tcctitmle, reason, wisdom. Bs. 

gcr'iTD,* 2n. number, computa- 
1*0"; pi. gexim. 

rime, metre, measure. 0. 44- 

ijmour, rumour. M. 245:3. 

ryn,* 2m.a roitring. Bs. 97:13. 

nnc,* 2m. a v.iliant man ; hon- 
ourable soldier, w.irrior. 



ring,* zm. ring. Os. 
rinnan* (zi)i ''" '■"»/ /-*■ 
rann ; pi. runnon ; pp. runnen. 

^ffip,* 2n. reaping, harvest, ^l. 
rj?pan,* to reap. Joh. iv, 35. 
//-.J. r>-pS. Joh. iv. 36, 37, 38. 
risan* (20), to rise ; p.s. rds ; 

^rrisenlic,* fitting, proper, suit- 
able, 

^<risenllce,* suitably, filly. Bs, 

riue, ri/c, prevalent. L. 71. 

riwie, rule ; pL riwlen. A. R, 

rixian. * See ricsian. 

robby, to rob, plunder. R. 

rdd,* ^ rood, cross. Joh. xix. 
'7. 19. 



lARY. 43i 

rod, p.s. rode. R. 

rode, rood, cross. O. 708, 124; 

pp. ns- 

rodetre, roodtree, cross. 0. iol 
rof. See rhof. 0. 
Romana-burh,* cily of tki Ro- 
mans, Rome. 69:8, 19, 1%. 

declined like buTh. 

Romanise, Roman. 

Romeweard, Romeward. Ot. 

Ton, p.s, ran. P.P. 43. 

Ron, the name of Arthur s spear. 
^- 557- This 'Word sigtifis 
spear in Welsh, and hence (U>f- 
frey has been accused of notiat 
derslanding its 
nutiing it a proper n 
Welsh texts add an epithet to il. 
signifying commanding or Id, 
Ri'birfs,p. 142. . .Za^moitldli 
us subsequently thai Arthari 
spear had (like his /iclm)btlongd 
previously to Ulher, and hu( 
fabricated by a smith 0/ du- 
marlhen, named Griffin, a pa- 
sonage untinniDn to the chroni- 
clers. Madden. 

rood, p.s. rode. C 169, 391. 

ropere, a ropemahr. P.P. 166. 

roie, root. 0. 11658. 

rote, a certain musical instru- 
ment. C. 236. 

I'roled, pp. rooted. A. R. 

Touncy, a clumsy hachiey-horse; 
a nag. C. 392. 

roune, /. //. ran. R. 124. 

rouneden, p. pi. ■whispered, 
talked privately. P.P. 176. 

route, d. army, host. R. cam- 
pany. C. 624. 

rouihe, pity, cause for regret, G. 

rdwan* (4), to row, navigate; 
he rewfS ; /, k6vi ; pi. red- 



437 



GLOSSARY. 



[sdrig 



won ; //. (^t^)rdwcn. Joh, 

vi. 19 ; 63:14. 
roferen, rolhtrs, heifers. P, C, 

129. {A, S. hr>t5er. ) 
rug, rugge, the back. i^A. S. 

hrycg, hricg. ) A, R,; R, 
rug, back; d, rugge. Z. 392. 
TUgge-bone, /he back'borte. P.P. 

193- 
Tustigy* rus(y, Os, 94:2. 

ruwet, a small horn or trumpet, 
P.P. 193. • 

8. 

sabat, Sabbath. A, /. 
sacclaes {A. S. sacleds), guilt- 
less . O, 202. 
sacerd,* 2m, priest, 
jfsSiCTcd, consecrated, sanctified, 

P^ C. 34. 

sad, tired. L. 229. 

sadloker, more soundly P,P, 4. 

sacjnesse, solidity, firmness. Gen. 
xli. 32. 

s^,*yi sometimes m. indecl. in s.; 
but g, s^s occurs, especially in 
composition ; pi. nom. ace. sdes, 
sjfc ; d, ssem, s^vum. 62:6; 

637, 13. 21 ; IT'I' 
s^d,* 2n, seed ; pi. s&d. 64:18. 
saegen,* 3/I a saying, utterance, 

Os. 
rsoeh, /sah, iseh, p.s. saw, L, 

104. 
sxhtnesse. Set sahtnesse. 
saiie, imp. s. say. L, 132. 
saeiles, sails. L, 
saeilen, to sail. L, 
ssel,* 2m. and 2/' lime, occasion. 
sael, sel, happiness, prosperity, 

health. L, 853. 
ge%6:t\\g,^ happy, blessed; /. ge- 

sdeligu. 



^^deliglice,* happily, prosper- 
ously. 6^: I. 
ges&[1S* 2/1 happiness, felicity, 
s^ne,* dull, sluggish, inactive. 

Bs, 
saere, sorely, L, 144, 302. 
saete, seat, sitting. O. ii959- 

pi saetess. O, 11854. 
saewi5,* servos. See sdwan. 
Saexisce, Saxish. L. 
sahh, p,s, saw. O, 259. See 

seon. 
sahtnesse, saehtnesse {A, S, 

saeht), amity, reconciliation, 

peace, L, 161. 
say, p,s, saw ; as me say, as 

one saw. R. ; P, C, 
saily, to sail, L, 
sain, to say, tell, G, 
sal, shall, L, 

salue, remedy ; pL saluen. A.R, 
saluz, salvation, A. R, 
sam,* whether ; sam sam, 

whether or. 82:19. 

sdm-,* in composition^ scmi-,half. 
sdmcuc,* -cwic, -cwyc, -cwuc, 

half-quick, half alive, 
same, d,s, shame, disgrace. L, 

403. 
samenn, together, O, 11983. 
sammnenn, to gather, collect i 

pp. sammnedd. O. 29. 
samnian,* ^t-samnian, to assem- 
ble, collect. Os. 
^^amnung. * See ^^omnung. 
samod,* at the same time^ also^ 

likewise, together. 
samwraednes,* 3/I , agreement, 

unity. Bs. 108:1. 
sand,* 3/1 and 2m, sending, 

mission; one sent. 68:5. 
sari, sori, sorry, L, 
sdrig,* sorry, sorrowful. % 



rfmys] GLOJ 

sirnys.* %f, soreiuss, pain, 

aftktiim. 
saulcn, d. pi. souls. L. 
saucr, lo savour. P.P. 
sauet, pp. sajvJ. P.P. 342. 
SAuh, ^.j. saw. P.P. 9. 
s;iul.* 5«si«-el. 
siwan* {2), to saw, scalUr, 

spread abroad ; p.s. sedw ; pi. 

swjwon ; pp. sdwcti. 
SAvCQUexn. pimpLd. C. 627. 
sdwel,* sdwl, sdwul.j/C soul, life. 
sawle, soul ; g. sawle, sawless. 

0. 36, 138, 148. pi. sawless. 

O. 210. 
sawtrie, a psaltery. C. 298. 
scacLin* (9), lo shaki. See 

scidan,* sccidan (2), fy cul, 
dhide, separate, discrminale ; 
p.s. sceiid; pL sceudon ; pp. 
acaden, sccddcn. 

scieS,* 2/C a sheath. Joh. xviii. 

scafan* (9), to shone, tnait 

smooth ; pA sc<Jf ; pi. scdfon ; 

pp. sea fen. 
scaft, sha/i, spear; pi. scaftes. 

L. 3H- 
scale, man, warrior; pi. scalk- 

as, -es, -en. Z. 961. 
scalen, pi. scales. L. 726. 
skalled, scurfy, scalfy, scalded. 

C. 629. 
scare, d.s. This is, apparently, 

the French escar, eschar, dis- 



d<jtrBe,for a derision to the folk, 

L. 145. 
scarp, sharp. L. 127. 
scarsliche, scarcely. H. P. 
• 347:3- 



;ARY. 43! ; 

skathe, misfortune, C.448. 

ska|iel3SS5, unharmtd. Q.\\\^ 
12038. 

Eca;e. See wude-sca^ 

sccacan,* scacan (9), A> skit, 
be agitated ; to rush, saify, fa 
forth ; p.s. sce<5c, sciJc; /i 
secdcon, scrfcon ; pp. sceacen 

gescdd,* 2n. reason, lUsenSm, 
distinctioit ; ratio. 64:23. 

^«ccidwis.* rtasoitabie. 

^«ceidwislice, • rationally. 

^^(^ceidwisnes, * 3/; reason, fn- 
dence. 

gesccud,* 3f. creation, aigi*; 
creature ; pi. gesceaRsL 59:8; 

I021I. 

sceal.* Seesculm, to aoe. 
sceald, shield. L. 
sceamian,* scamian, to shan; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od. Bs. 
sceanca,* \m. shank, leg. JA. 

xix. 31, 32. 33. 
scedp,* sc6p, zn. shttp ; fi 

sceip, sc^p. 59:3, 5, 10, 11. 
fisceapen,*//. shaped, for md. 

See scyppan and sceppan, 
^(Sceapian,* to shape. Su sc)^!* 

sceat,* 2M. a piece of money ; 

price, treasure, profit. 6o:i2. 
sccawian,* lo look, see, look at, 

regard ; p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

64:25 ; 7o;8. 
sceiwung." 3/C spectacle, sight; 

seeing, observitig. 
sceafa,* im. roller, thief, plun- 
derer ; wretch, miscreant. 
sceddan* (11), for scadian, to 

shed; p.s. scdd, sce<iJ ; pi. 

sccidon, sceiidon ; /p. sea- 

den. 



439 GLOS 

sceld, scelde, shield ; pi. scel- 
des, Ecealdes. L. 727. 

Bcele, reason; skill, erafl. A. I. 
133:32, scele and elde, rMJwn 
and age, maturity. A. I. 

skelluolliche, reasonably. A. I. 
229:17. 

iscend, ^. disgraced. L. 581. 

sce6&n, scii&n* (19), to shave, 
push ; p.s. sceif; pi. scufon ; 
pp. scofen. 

sccolde,* was obliged, had to. 
Os. See sculan. 

sceome, d.s. shame. L. 403. 

sceonlice,* shortly, briery. 

sceon, • short ; comp. scyrtra, 
-e, -e ; superl. scyrtest, 

^«cei3t,* in. a shot; spear, dart, 
arrow ,- //. ^ «ciitu. Os. 

scetitan* (19), to shoot, dart, 
cast ; |)ii sc^tst, he sc^t, we 
scetSiaS & sceiite; /.j-. sceit, 
sc<:t. Joh. xxi. 7. fd scute ; 

sceo-fwang, " 2m. shoe-ihong or 

-tie. Joh. t. ^7, 
sc&p,* pi. sheep. Seesceip. 
sceppend,* am. creator. £s. 
sceppan* (for scapian) and 

scapan, sceapan (11), toskape; 

p.s. scdp {sce6p) ; pi. scrfpon 

(scecipon) ; pp. scapen (scea- 

pen) ; pres. s. ic sceppe, fii 

scepest (scepsl), he scepeS ; 

pi. sccppaS. 102:1. 
Bceran(i5), lo shear, share; p.s. 

scar ; pi. scieron ; pp. scoren. 
sker {A. S. scir), sheer, clear, 

free, secure. A. Ji. 
sea," p.t.o/ scaot^n, shot. Joh. 

)ixi. 7. 
schahnu, shall thou. P. P. 
schaply, aJapted,fil. C. 374. 



f. [schraped 

scheapien, to shape; imp. pi. 

schepieS ;//, i-scheaped. A.R. 
scheawen, lo show ; pp. sche- 

awe8 ; p. scheawede ; imp. 

scheau ; pp. I'-scheawc^. {A.S. 

scedwian.) A. R, 
schecheS, seek. A. R. 
scheeldes, crmms. {Fr. ^cus, 

coins, so called from their having 

on one side the figure of a shield.) 

C. 280. 
schelchine, a slave, drudge, 

scullion. {A.S. scealc) A. R, 

163:17. 
schelde, ace. sMeldi. A. R. 
schddo, shelde, shield. A. R. 
schelles, shells. P. P, 
schende, p. pi. spurned, dis- 
honoured. R. {A. S, scendan, 

seyndan. ) 
scheomefule, dat. shameful. 

A.R. 
schepieS, imp. pi. shape. A. R, 

See scheapien. 
schilden (A. S. scyldan), to 

shield, defend; pr. ^s. schilt ; 

pr. svbj. i-schilde ; the Louenl 

Kchilde ou, may our lard 

shield you. A. R. 
schyne, shin. C. 388. 
schir {A. S. sclr), sheer, pure. 

A.R. 161:12, 23. 

schirefi, purificth. A. R. 160:16. 

schimesse, puremss. A. R. 
161:32. 

schon, pL shoes. P. C. 122. 

schone, shoes. A. 166:13. "^^^^ 
schonebeongreaic and wamie, 
let your shoes be thick and 

scRorte, to shorten. C. 793. 
schortly, briefly. C. 717. 
I schraped, p.i. rubbed; schraped 



I'-schrew] GLOI 

his eren, rubbid his tars. P. P. 
215. 

t-schreve, pp. shrhxn, confessed. 

C. 22b. 

schrcwe, shrew ; a cursed oru; 

OTU duply degraded. P. P. 23,3,. 
schrcwede havencs, bad, unsa/e 

havens. M. 239:25. 
Bchrift, fon/ission; confessor ; g. 

schriftes. A. R. 
sclirippe, {a palmer's') scr^. 

P. P. 289. 
I'-schriuen, pp. shrived. P. P. 

sltie, cloud. G. 

schrudcn {^A. S. scr^dan), lo 

(hike : pr. schrude* ; p. 

schrudde ; //. (-schmd. A.R. 
scliulde, p.s. subj. were obliged. 

Ji. 117. 

Echuldcn, pi. should. A. R. 

schuldrcd, //, shouldered. C. 
551- 

Bchulcn, pi. ought. A. R. 

schullcn, ought. A. R. 

schulicn, //. shall. A. R. 

schurye, scourge. A. R. 

schurtcS, imp.pl. divert. (Ger. 
Bcherzen.) A.R. 167:18. 

SCJ'ld,* 2m. shield. 

scylii,* j/: gui/l, crinu, sin. 

ffticyidan,* to shield, protect ; p. 
scylde, fiscylde ; pp. (ge-) 
scjlded. 59:20. 

sc)ldig,*^ttj//l', condemned; lU., 
muing, liable. 

scylc* Bs. See scit3.\. 

skill, reason, knowledge, under- 
standing, O. 83. 

scinan (20), to shiru, appear; 
he sclnS, scineS ; p.s. scin, 
sctKin ; pi. scinon ; f^. scinen. 
69:26, 



3ARY. 4W 

scinendra,* comp, more shiidng, 

brighter. Os. 
scinldc,*z». apparition; dilasm, 

magic, treachery. 86:29. 
scip,* scvp, 271, ship ; pi. seipu. 
scip, schip, sip, ship; g. scipes, 

sipcs ; d. scipc-n, sipe ; /i 

scipe-n, scipes, sipes; g. 

scipcn-e, sipes; d. scipcn, sipe. 

scip-here, zm. a ship anKy, 

naval force, ^et. Os. 9i::3. 
scyppan, *^recyppan, ^f^sceppaa 

(11), lo shape, form, erealt; 

dispose; p. ^t'sceiJp, f«eyp; 

pi. ^rtceOpon, ^recojwn ; pf. - 

^^sceapen. 

scyppenJ,* 2w. Creator. 55:9. 
scip-rip,* 2m. ship-rope. 
scir,* sheer, bright, c.'rar, v.-hil<. 
scir,* 2m. ihirc, province. 
SCirman,* shircman, superinUni- 

tnt, bailijf ; provtHcial. 
gescyilan,* to shorten; p. -scjtic; 

pp. -scyrted. 

sclondre, sUinder. A. t. 
scolaye, to attend school. C. 301. 
scole, school ; style. C. 125; G. 

212. 

scolmcistre, schoolmistress. A.R. 
scome, shame, disgrace. L. 
sconkcn {A. S. scanca), }i. 

shanks, legs. L. 534. 
scop, wcop, /.J. shaped, formd. 

L. 473- 
scon." SeeyztOTX. 
scorllicc, shortly, briefly. jEl. 
scotiaii,* to shoot ; p. pi. scoie- 

don. 110:20. 
Scra;f,* z«. den, eavc. 
scrennkeiin, skrennkcnn, l(. 

supplant. O. 11467, 11S16, 



441 



GLOSSARY 



-ei lu_ ' 



scrcpan (12), to scrape; p.s. 
scraep ; //. scrsepon \pp. sere- 
pen. 

scrydan, scrklan, to clothe ; he 
sci^t ; /. scrydde, ^^cr^dde ; 
pp, scr^ded, ge^cr^di. JoK 
^«crincan* (2 1 ), /t? shrink ;p,s, 
-scranc ; //. -scruncon ; //. 
^^cruncen. Os, 

serin, * 2«. shrine^ casket, chest; 
purse^ bag, Joh, xii. 6 ; xiii. 
29. 

scriptures, writings. M, 244:35, 

scrit, a writing, scroll, R. 

scufan* (19)1 lo shove. See 
scedfan. 

scufen, /. //. shooed, L, 324. 
•S*^^ scuuen. 

scullen, pr, pL shall, L. 

sculletS, pr. pi, shall, L, 

sculan* {prderitrve), to owe, be 
obliged, must, ought, debere ; 
ic, he, sceal, fu scealt ; //. 
sculon (sceolon ) ; subj. s. scyle 
(scule); pi, scylon (sculon) ; 
p.s, scolde (sceolde), fd scol- 
dest (sceoldest), he scolde 
(sceolde) ; pi. scoldon (sceol- 
don) ; subj, p,s, scolde (sce- 
olde); //. scoldon (-en), sce- 
oldon (en). 66:10, 12, 17, 

27, 30- 
sculuen, a probable error for 

scuuen, q, v, 

scuuen, sceouen, seue, to shave, 
push. L, 989. 1st text reads, 
sculuen; p, scaef, scaf; pi, 
scufen, scuuen, souen. L, 324. 

se, so, as, O, 102, 281, 113 19. 
son se, soon as, O, 11663. 

se, subj, pr. i, q. sf, Bs, See 
wesan. 

se,* se6, . Jwet, demonstratroe 



^9 



pron.j art., a fid relative pron: 
this, that (hie, haee, hoc ; is, 
ca, id) ; the (0, ^, to); who, 
that, which (qui, quae, quod) ; 
also, he, she, it ; g. faes, faere, 
faes ; d, fam (J>aem), faere, 
pam ; cue, ))one (faene), fd, 
J?aet ; abl. m, n, p^, used chiefly in 
adverbial expressions ; pi. nom, 
ace. fd ; g. fdra (p^ra) ; d. 
fdm,f^m ; fan, fon, are used 
in some adverbial expressions in- 
stead of neuter s, fam. 

se, sea, R, 

/se, to see, R, 

seak, sick. L. 

^^eald,*//. sold, betrayed. See 
syllan. 

sealde,*/.j. sold, 5"^^ syllan. 

sealf,* 3/1 salve, ointment. 

sealm-song (-sang),* 2m, psalm- 
song, psalmody. 66:1, 3, 4. 

searu,* searo, syru, in.; g. 
searewes, seanvcs ; d. searevve, 
searwe ; stratagem, artifice, 
craft, Os. 

sedt5,* 2m. pit, abyss, gulf, 

ston,*^«ecan, s6cean, to seek; 
p, sdhte ; pp. ges6hi. foh.vW, 

30. 
seke, sick. A. R. 

secgan,*^^ecgan, secgean, saec- 
gean, to say, speak, tell, relate; ic 
secge, saege, fu segst, he saegti, 
seg6;pl. secgat5 ; p, saede ; //. 
sjfedon ; imp, sege ; //. sec- 
ga« ; pp. (ge-) saed. 

SGCggdLH,* to say. Bs, See sec- 
gan. 

seche, to seek. L, 

sechen, to seek. A. R. 

sechep, pr. and imp. pi, seek, 
P, P. 40, 41. 



seky] GLO; 

scky, loseci, to look /or. R. 
secnessc, sickmss. A. R. 
iscii, //. s^id. R. 
sede,p.s. Ml J. R. 
soea, sea. A. R. 
seul, sfiii (sigillum). H. III. 
sectcn, p. pi. sdt. P. P. 
sceicn, pp. set, placed. P. P. 

sfflnde, seventh. 0. 145. 

seffne. saxn. 0. iSo. 

stilt:, • adj. soft, genlU, rnitd. 

su':\t ; <omp. siifira ; superl. 

scfiest. See suft. ne sccolde 

llll-s, no wise man should wisA a 

so/thfc. Bs.cop.:^\.%z. 
ficg {A. S. secg), man; pi. 

senses. L. 
scgd,* im. and n. sail ; g. seg- 

Ics ; d. scgic ; //. seglas and 

sc-lu. 
8tj,^o. to tay. R. 34. 
set;!,'eiin, lo say. Id!; ip.s. 

seggc ; 2p. scggesst. sejjst ; 

3/. sejjp ; //. scgyenn ; p.s. 

scjjde; 2p. sejjdeMl ; pi. sc)j- 

denn ; imp. s. sej; ; suli/. s. 

scgge ; pp. sejjd ; dal. ful. 

scggcnn, 0. 
S(g!ian,*^(;3eglian, segelian, lo 

siiil ; p. -ode, -ede; pp. -od. 

Os. 
fiseh*= ^raeah. See gesedn. 
siih^cTi, p. pi. saw. L. 
sei, imp. s. SO}: P. P. 
(sell, p.s. saw. L. 
Kclije-n, /. pi. fata, looked. L. 
SCJ-, p.s. saw; pi. seye. R. 

107. 
(sey.j'-sey./.f. jaa;. ,ff, 
(sej-e, sul^. p. pi. might see. R. 
seigh,/.j, saw. C. 852. 



>ARY. 44> 

seile, d.s. sail. L, it-;. 

seiles, sails. R 

sein, saint. Ji. 

K>eined, pp. sealed. H. III. 

Scin Walri. St. Valiry, nor 

Dieppe. R. | 

sejnt, a girdle. C. 331. 
Ecisine, possession. \ 

sei-so|>, Sqy-Sooih, Speak-Tntli 

P.P. 336. 
seist, sayesl. A. R. 
sel, well, good, excellent. L. 8, 

853. See Kpl. 
selcoufe, seldom known, strange. 

P.P. 265. 
seliiciift,* sticoutk, rarely knext, 

unusual, extraordinary, mot- 

dtrful. 
seldes, shields. L. 
scldon,* ieldum, seldom. 
selc, d.s. good, prosperous. L. 

289. 
selere {A. S. selra), ^ller. L 
self.* See sylf, 
sell, sillv. sintp'.e minded. R.; 

P. C'ii9- 

seluer, silver. P.P. 77. 
Eclure, a deeoralcd ceiling. {Lai. 

CElatura. ) P. C. 4y. 
self,* pr. s. gkvi. iW syllan. 
scmblaunl, appearance. -A. R. 
I'semed, pp. les,t/ned. L. 517. 
semyly, seemly, becomingly. C. 

123- 

semlich, seemly, becoming. P. 

C. 49- 
sen. O. 48. Set seon. 
send, p.s. sent. R. 
scndan,* lo send ; ic scndc, fu 

senst or sendest, he sent or 

sendcS ; /. sende; pi. sendon; 

//. scnded, senden. 
seiide, p.s. sent. A. R.; R. 



443 



GLOSSARY. 



[Seuarn 



sentten, to set, place, Z. 
8e6,* subj. pr, be, Bs, 
se6,* /I she, the. See se, se6, 

seo, to see ; subj, s, seo, see, P, 
P. 241. 

»eo, pr, subj, may see. A, R, 

se<5c, * sick, 

seofe,* se7}en. See seofon. 

seofotJa,* seofet5a, seventh; def, 
decL 69:18. 

seofon, * seven ; indecl. , but some- 
times g, seofona, and, when 
used absolutely, nom. seofone, 
as^ ealle seofone, all seven, 

seoionfeald,* sevenfold, 

sedfung,* 3/I sighing, compldint, 
lamentation, Bs, 

seol,* siol, 2m, seal (the animal 
so called), 79:48. 

seolke, silk. A, R, 

seolcutSe, pi, selcouth, unusual, 
strange, L, 730. 

seoll)>e, sellpe, happiness, bless- 
ing, wealth, O, 1 1427. g, 
seollpess. 

seoluen, d. pi. selves, Z. 

sc6n,* ge^Q6ii, si(5n, to see, be- 
hold, look upon; ic gescd, fu 
^<?sihst, he gesihfS, ges^M, st6, 
se6t$, seetJ ; /. (^«?)seah {ge- 
seh), fu sdwe ; //. (^^)sdvvon, 
-sewen or -segen ; imp. gese6h, 
gesfh, s^h. /oh. i. 46, 47» 
50, 51; 60:8, 25; 64:1; 67:12. 

seon, sen, to see ; \p, seo, se ; 
2p. seost, sest ; ip. seop, sej? ; 
//. sen ; p.s, sahh ; pi. sx^- 
henn ; sae3he we ; subj. s, seo, 
se ; p.s. seethe ; pp, s(5ne, scne, 
sejhcnn. 0, 

eeon, to see ; p. saeh, isaeh. Z. 
seoue, soue, seven, L, 



I seouen, seven, L, 
seoue^e, sevetith. A, R, 
seo u wen, to sew ; imp, pi. seou- 

wet$ ; J>p, j-seouwed. A. R, 
i-seo^, pr, pi, see. A, R, 
se6t5an* (19), to seethe; p.s, 

sedtS ; //. sudon ; pp. soden. 
sepultures, sepulchres. M. 245 : 2, 
/-seruet, pp. served^ treated, P, 

P, 185. 
seruetJ, serves, serve. A, R, 
serw, sorrow. P.P, 104. 
sester,* saester, 2m, a sester, a 

wine or water measure containing 

I ^ pints ; a firkin, 
/set, //. set, placed, arranged, 

appointed, L,; A, R, 
sete, p,s, sat, rested, was placed, 

A, R. 164:10. 
^^eten, ♦ //. seated, Os. 
setl,* 2n, settle, seat; setting (of 

the sun) ; pi. setlu ; sun nan 

sctl-gang, sunset. 
/setnesses, regulations, laws, 

decrees, H, III. 
^^setnys,* 5/I law, ordinance, 

decree, institute, book ; a set task, 

^l, 66:4. 
settan,* ^^settan, to set, place, 

plant, constitute, appoint, estab- 
lish, ordain, dedicate, compose ; 

ic sette, fu setst, seltest, he 

sett ; pi. settatS ; /. sette ; //. 

sctton ; imp. sete ; pp. gcsci, 

geseii, 59:19 ; 102:3. 
sette, p.s, set, placed, appointed, 

established. L.; O. 10. 
setten, to set, plant ; to sowen 

and to setten. P.P. 295. 
settenn, to set, appoint, place ; pp. 

s6t, sett. O. 1 1 690. 
Seuarn, Severn; vppcn Seuarne 

stape, upon Severn s bank, Z.7. 



ge.wcn] 



gis^ban* lo prove /rue, confirm; 

p. scSde ; pp. j«eSed. 
sefe,* soope, he that, she thai, 

who; fcelpe (l>aelte), /Aa/ thai, 

or simply, that. 
se|>|>e, aftirward, Iheit. P.P. 

37 ; R- 56. 

sel>J>e afturward, a/ttnvards. R. 

sc)>)jen, a/tcrmards, then. P.P. 

149. 
sejjJc, /.f. said. O. 11338. 

(-SL'je, /^ Jrtw. P.P. 4. 
i-sc)c», (iiehje, >. pi. saw. L. 

86. 
shadd, shadde. See shcdenn. 
shKdcnn, to part, siparaU ; pp. 

shadd. O. I1447, 11709, 

11/21, 

Elixwcnn, la show. 0, 

shaffte {A. S. jf^ceaft), crea- 

ture, created Ihiiig. O. 12020, 

pi. sliaffiess, shaffte; g. pi. 

shaffte. O. 12027. 
shande, i/ji(?Aii«. O. 11956. 
sliapcpp, pr. s. forms, creates ; 

p.s. sho^ip. O. 12009. PP- 

shapciin. 0. 11505. 
shawe, shade. G. 246. 
shef, sheay. C. 104. 
sliildciin, lu shltld, protect. O. 

11887. 
shippennd, siaper, creator. 0. 

12008. 
shirreve, a shire rcse, or bailiff. 

{Mod. Eitg., sheriff.) C. 361. 
sholkie, sholidtsst, //. slioll- 

dcnn ; p. g/" shall. O. 



shutenn, pi. 0/^ shall. 0. 113(15. 
sib,*sjb, sibb, if. peace, contxi, 

alliance. Os. 93:32. Joh.w. 

I? ; xvi. 33. 
sib, related, tin, allied. P.P. 

376. //. sibbe. P.P. 37S. 
sican* (20), lo sigh ; p.t. sk; 

pi. sicon ; pp. sicen. 
siccetung,* sicetung, 3/!<J^i- 

ing, sohbing. 
side,* \/. sidi. 
siden, sides. A. R. 
syf.m,* jnw». , Os. 
syfling,* 3/C m'ot, am)!iiBg 

eaten with bread, opsooiuni. 

66:5. 
sige,* zm, victory. 
sigen, to say. A. R. 
sigge, pr. s. \p. say. A. X.; 

P. P. 22. 
siggeS, saith ; imp. say. .i. R. 
sigh, />,j. S.J7V. (J. Isg. 2-^f. 
g,sihS,* gesyhK, 3/. sight, ra- 

ion, aspect, presence. 64:8. 
("siha, pr.s. seeth. A. R. 
sikcde, /.J. sighed. P.P. iii^ 
siker, secure; used subjeclitdi. 

A.R. 
siker, adj. sure, certain. R. *i 

surely. A. R. 
svker, adj. sure, certain, P.P. 

'adv. surely. P. C. 85. 
sikerrlike, surefy. O. 11412, 
^csyclod,* sick. 
sikonycs (£a/. ciconia), storks. 

M. 239:4, 
sikurly, surely, truly. C. 157. 
sihSe, sight. A. R. 
sylf,« self, same; def. and in- 

def. decl. foh. iii. 28 ; iv, 42, 

44 ; V. 30 ; xi. 6. 
sylfwilles,* of one's own u-iil, 

voluntary. 



GLOSSARY. 



[si^e-n 



.^'-^'S} Ilan, to sell, gwc, 
up, betray ; ic sylle, I>u 
c s\i"6 ; pi sylla^, sylle; 
le ; /////. syle ; pi. sylle, 

pp. (iv-)seald. 59:10; 

^ symle, always; on 
, at all times, 
•^ in. feast ^ banquet ^ 
• (/. symble, symle. 
hvays. Os. 
symle, ever, always. 

\ sin; g. d. ace. synne. 
i. 34 ; xix. II; i. 29 ; 

nnum. Joh. ix. 34. 
e, C, 603. 

(21), to sink; p.s. 
W. suncon; //. suncen. 
ijingallic, perpetual^ in- 
continuous. 69:33. 
:e,* especially. 
.\y* pp. sundered f scpar- 
Bs. 

^ sundry, separate ; soli- 
69:32. 

■* syndrige, separately, 
'cly. 

sinful. 

^21), to sing; p.s. sang; 
;on ; pp. sungen. 
^ syngian, ^dsingian, 
p. -ode ; pp. -od. 
, pr. p. singing. A. R. 
'• sinless. 

\ {A, S. synd), pr. pi. 
) 

m 

(ne, sin ; g. sinness ; 
CSS. O. 

ndc, * ever thirsting. Os. 
26. See se, SCO, fiet. 
^ce seol. Os. 
ship. L. ^"jj. Mad- 



dens text reads, sife ; //. sipes; 
d. sipen, scipen, Z. 

syrwan,* to lay snares, machi- 
nate, lie in ambush ; p. syrwde. 
/El. 59:21. 

sit, sits. A. R. 

sithes, times. C. 487. 

sittan* {11), to sil; he sitt; p.s. 
saet ; //. sdeton ; pp, seten ; 
imp. sete. ^L 62:22. 

sittet5, pr. pi. sit. A. R, 

sitton,* i. q. sittan. 

siwte, suite, retinue. R. 160. 

six,* syx, six; g. syxa; syxa 
%\xii\, one of six. 78:26. 

sixte, sixth. A, R. 

sixtig,* syxtig, sixty ; m. f n. 
g. sixtigra ; d. sixtigum. 

sixta, * -e, -e, sixth ; def 
decl. 

sits,* 2m. way, journey, expedi- 
tion ; extremity, time ; added, 
in the abl. s. sit5e, to the ordinal 
numbers, like Eng. * ' time" ; prid- 
dan sICe, the third time ; sume 
sl^e, a certain time ; in abl. pi. 
sitSum, sit5on, sitJan, it is added 
to the cardinal numbers, as 
fedwer sitJon, fif sit5on, etc. 

sif e, time. O. 96. //. sipc, sif en. 
A. I. 

sit5cn, logo. L. 

sifes, times ; seuen sifes. P.P. 

si'8t5an,* sy^^an, after, after 
that, afterwards, then, since, 
moreover, besides, 

sifpe, si?ice. H. P. 246:9. 

si)>J>enn, since, aftenvards, O, 

170, 235. 
sytJ^on,* afterwards. Os, 
si^e, victory, success. O. 11421^ 

11481. 
si3e-n, to go, come ; march, pro- 



cted: pr. pL si}c8, sif(i. L. 

I'sijcn, (sije, //. WMr;, arrived. 

L. 731- 
sijede, /.J. j-4'A.'r/. Z*. C. 140- 
syji;sl, J/i'A.'J-/. /•. C. 142. 
slakien, Ai shcken, cease, become 

n-miss. A. S. 
s!a;n, lo sin: L. 
slAp,* tni skip. 
sia;[>aii.* See sidpan, 
^rehgen,* pp. slain, stricken. 

Sw sleahan. 
sidn.* See sleaiian. 
sldpan,*s!&pan(7),/b jAy;*,- ic 

slipe, fii slicpsi, he sl&pS ; 

//. slapaS ; p.s. slep ; //. slcp- 

on ; fip. sldpc-n, sitfepen. 
sIdL* 5«slitan. 
slaw,* slmv. Bs. 
slajc, to slay, kill. A. I. 
I'slajcn, t'slaic, fip. slain. L. 
slajt, slaughler. E. 
sloaban,* slahan, sla^n, sledn, 

sldn (10), lo slay, strike, beat, 

fl'ht, cast, Ihroio, 108:5. p.s. 

sli5h ; pi. sidgon ; pp. slagcn, 

sbegon, slegcn. 
sledn,* ^t'slcdn. Stc sleahan. 
sleep, >_r. slept. C. 98, 399. 
siege,* 2w. slaying, slaughter; 

stroke, blow. 
ges\cgcn,* pp. struck. Sa slea- 

sleh,* imp. See sleahan. 
sley, slv, crafty. R. 376. 
isleien, pp. slain. A. K. 
sleight, era/}. C. 606. 
slennc, lo slay. A. R. 
sle6pan,* sliipan (19), to slip ; 

p.s. sledp ; pi. slupon ; pp. 

slopen. 
slcpen, lo sleep ,■ pr. slepeS ; p. 



SARY. 4i6 

sleptc, sleptest; pr. p. slepinJt 

A. R. 
slepend, pr. p. sletpittg. G. 141. 1 
sleul>e, shift. R. \ 

i'&Xcpt, pp. slept. P.P. ^. I 

sleuys, sleeves. P.P. 6+. 
slihl,* slj-ht, sicht, 3^ ilmtshiir. 

Os. 
slitan* (20), la slU, lair, rend; 

p.s. sldi ; pi. sliton ; pp. sliies. 

Joh. xix. 24, 

sliuinge, cutting ,- scharp slit- 
tinge. H. P. 247:5. 
sltjgon,* sitJh. Set sleahan. 
sloh, /.J. struck, smote. L. 
slombrenti, slumberittg. G. ic4 
slowe, /. //. Slav. R. 
slowe, slaw, dull, torpid. Gta. 

xlL 21. 
slojen, slowen, p. pi. dew, 

struck, smote, slaughUrid ; in/. 

sla-'n. L. 993, 999. 
slijpan* (19), lo slip. See sleo- 

pan. 
smakiih, smacks, taslcs. P.P. 

207. 
%xaw,\,* small, narrow; y. smaln; 

de/. Jecl. se smala, se^, y& 

smale. 
smairte, smorte, pL smarl, paiit- 
ful. L. 

smat, smot, p.s. smote. L. 
smeagan,* smedgcaD, smedn, 

to inquire, consider, argue, 

meditate, design, lo look closefy 

into, to examitie ; he smedS ; p. 

smcdde ; //. smcdd ; imp. s. 

smed, search, scrutare. Joh. 

vii. 52. sraedgeaS hdligegc- 

writu. Joh. V. 39 ; 60:22. 
smedn,* 5i-c smedgan. 
smcdeme,* smedme, \/. flour, 

meal. 65:27. 



447 



GLOSSARY. 



[sop 



sme6can* (19), to smoke ; p.s, 
smedc ; //. smucon ; pp. smo- 
cen. 

smerte, p.s. impcrs, U pained, 
displeased, C. 536. 

smerte, adv. smartly, C. 149. 

smylt,* mild, placid, tranquil, 
gentle, 63:14. 

smyrian,* smirian, smyrigan, 
to smear, anoint ; p, smyrode, 
-ede ; pp, {ge) smyrod. /oh, 
ix. 6. 

smitan* (20), to smite; p.s, 
stnit ; pi. smiton ; pp, smiten, 

smyie, /. pi. smote, struck, 
/ought ; smyte a batail, en- 
gaged in battle, R, 

Biniten, smite, p^pl. smote, L. 

smjrieth of, imp. pi, smite off, 

a 784. 

smytt, strikes; rushes, M, 
238:17, it smytt unto londe, 
it strikes into the earth, 

^'smoped, smoothed, A. I, 

snewed. C, 347. The verb 
snewed is usually explained as 
a metaphor from snowing ; but 
the O, E. snewe, like the Prau. 
Eng, snie or snive, signifies to 
abound^ swarm. Morris. 

snybbe, to snub, rebuke, reprove. 
C. 525. 

snytero,* snytro, f. indecl. pru- 
dence, sagacity, polity, wit, in- 
genuity, 

snoterlice,* prudently, wisely, 
/El, 57:15. 

so so, as as ; in later 



text 0/ Layimon for swa 

swa of earlier text ; swa lang 
swa, so lang so. L, 

so uorS so, as far as. A, R, 

soch, such, L, 



s(5fte* (sdft, s6fte), soft ; comp* 
sofira ; superl, softest. 

s6fte, * adv, softly, gently, sweetly, 

sol,*2n. soil, mire, filth ; licgan 
on fdlum solum, to lie in foul 
mires, Bs, 109:2. ponnesledf 
he [hi] eft on fd solu, then 
plunge they again into the mires, 
Bs, 109:4. 

solas, solace, mirth, C, 800. 

solempne, festive ; important, 
pompous. C. 209. 

solempnely, pompously, C, 276. 

solle, pi, shall. L, 

somdel, somewhat, R, ; H, P, 
246:17; C. 174. 

somed monie, many together, 
A, R, 

^fc-somnian,* to assemble, gather 
together ; p, -ode ; pp, -od. 
Joh. xi. 52. 

^tfsomnung,* j/I assembly, con- 
gregation, synagogue, 

sompnour, a summoner to eccle- 
siastical courts, C, 545. 

soraony, to summon. R, 

somtyme, formerly. M. 245:2. 

s(5n,* 2m, sound, tune, song, 
Bs, 104:2, 15. 

son se, sons, as soon as, O. 
1 1663. 

s6na,* soon, immediately, forth- 
with. 

sonde, one sent, messenger ; pL 
sonden. A. R. 

sondesmen, messengers, ambas- 
sadors, A. R. 

sone, soon, immediately, A. R.; 
O, superl. sonest. A, R, 

songen, /. pi, sang, P, P, 1 90; 
P, C, 138. 

sop, p,s, shaped, formed, L, 
473. See scop. 



sophisticate] GLOS 

sophisticate, counlfr/eiled, adul- 

lemUd. M. 244o- 
sorg,* sorh, 3/: sorrtru.', cart, 

anxidy. Bs. 
soric, sarrv, gri<vcd. A. JR. 
sorKolle. lorrmv/ul. L. 971. 
Gorjen, sorrows. L. 209, 461. 
sosLcr, sisUr ; pi. sostren, sus- 

tren. R. 41. 
solyltee, suhllefy. M. 
soiscliipe, _/ti//K- A. R. 167:23, 
soaea, p. pi. shoi'cd. ^'trscuuen. 
saa.\c,g.s. sours. .4. R. 162:17. 
Soune, sound. G. 
soupe, to sup up, swallow. Ps. 

Ivii, 10. 
souple, siippli, pliant. C. 203. 
souter, shoiniahr. P.P. 158. 
soue, savn. L. 
isoustcined, pp. sustained. R. 
BOvereyn, adj. sauirdgn, exctlkni. 

C. 67. 
souwes, ^.j. smds. C. 558. 
soivnynge, sounding, boasting. 

C 277. 
sownyngc in. tending to. C.309. 
soJ>, truth. R. 33. to sope, in 

truth. O. no. 
S(JS,* true; sujie, truly; \6 

stipe, forsooth, 
Bojwre, comp. pi. truer. L. 133. 
s6&{xsi,* trai/i-/ast, true, just. 
sdSticstncs,* sdSfasinys, .yC 

truth, integrity, justice. 
sopfasst, faithful, true. O. 
sdSlice,* sooltily, truly, verily, 

amen. 59:7. 
sp^c. * -SV^ spriec, 
spaxhe, speech, word, language. 0. 
spierc, Sparc, sparJt. L. 
spseren, spears. L. See sper. 
spfoan,* to spit; p. sp^tte ; 

pp. sp*t. foh. ix. 6. 



spare, lo abstain. C 191. 
sparede, p.s. spared. L. 
spitan, * lo spit. Set sp^etan. 
spitl,* 2«. spiaie. /oh. it 6. 
spec, p.s. spaJU. A. R. 
specan* (iz), lo speak; p.t. 
spasc /oh, vii. 13. & 

speke; to speke of, in rcspedla. 

C. 415. 
speked ^ spekeft. A. R. 
spekemen, spokesmen. A. I. 
spckenn, to speak ; p.s. space; 

pi. spaekenn ; su/d. p. spE^e. 

0. 
sped,* if. speed, success, pim- 

piritv. wealth. 78:28. 
spedfullest, speediest. P.C. ut. 
spi5dig,* J/iecrfl', successful, prut- 

perous, rich, happv. 78:27. 
spell,* 2», history, story, tJt, 

message, sermon, spell, speak, 

language. 
s\-,i\\.speeck, preaching, tidings.O. 
spaile, d.s. gospel. A. I. 
spelienn, to s/Kiii, dalon. 

preach. 0. 135, I i962.//,spel- 



. 0. ] 



i7"4- 



spellian,*speiligan, to sfteai, de- 
clare, teach ; p. -ode ; //. -oJ. 
Bs. 98:9. 

spene, lo s/>end. R. 82. 

spcoman,* spurnan ( 1 S), It 
spurn; p.s. speam ; pi. spum- 
on ; pp. sporncn. 

sper, spere, spear ; g. spercs ; 
d, spere ; //. spercn, speres ; 
d. speren, spaeren, speres, 
spere. L. 

spete,* 2n. spear, foh. xis. 34. 
pi. speru. 

sperrd (^. 5'. sparran), pp. 
closed, shut. 0. 2(1:. 



449 



GLOSSARY. 



[ssote 



spy can. * See sprecan. 
spiced conscience (C 528), a 
conscience /rained to make ingeni- 
ous distinciiofis that are more 

/actitious than real ; spice is an 
old /arm of *' species " See 
Webster's Diet, s, v. ''spice.*' 

spileden, p.pl. spake, discoursed. 
L, 325. The usual sense of 
spilede in Layimon is ''spake" 
A, S, spellian ; but it here 
seems {v. 13816) to have a dif- 
ferent meaning, appircntly from 
A. S, spilian {omitted by Bos- 
worth), scurrilibus jocis vacare; 
cognate with the Dutch speelen, 
Ger. spielen, etc. Madden. 

spinge,* sponge,* if sponge, 
foh. xix. 29. 

spin nan* (21), to spin; p.s. 
spann ; pi. spunnon ; pp. 
spunnen. 

spirian,* spirigan, to dispute, ar- 
gue ; inquire, search, investigate; 
p. -de; //. -ed; gencjh r)'htc 
j>u spyrast, thou ar guest rightly 
enough; we sceoldon eallon 
mxgnc spirian aefter Godc, we 
should with all our power search 
after God. Bs, 

spit en, //. spikes, spears. Z.728. 

spores, spurs. C. 475. 

sporned, p.s. stumbled. G. 232. 

spoushod, spousehoody marriage. 
R.; A. I. 

spousi, to espouse, wed. R. 12. 

sjx5wan* (4), /b speed, prosper, 
thrive ; p. s. spe(5w ; //. sped- 
won ; pp. sp<5wen. 

sprdbc,* sp^c, j/I speech^ say- 
ing, foh. vi. 60 ; XV. 3. 

sprecan, *^<«prccan ( 1 2 ) , A? speak^ 
speak to, address ; ic sprece, pu 



sprycst, he spric^, spryc^, 

sprece^, spredS ; pi, sprecatS ; 
p.s. sprajc; //. sprdecon ; pp. 

^fsprecen. 68:9. 
/spred, pp. stretched. A. R. 
spredtan* (19), to sprout; p.s. 

spredt ; //. spruton ; pp. spro- 

ten. 
sprincan* (21), to spring ; p.s. 

spranc. Bs. See springan. 
springan* (21), to spring ; p.s. 

sprang ; //. sprungon ; //. 

sprungen. 
springenn, pr. pi. spring, grow. 

O. 1 1657. 
sprong, /.j.^sprengen, sprang. 

L. 
spurie, sporie, to spur. L. 753. 

/. pi. spureden. L. 
spurndej/j". stumbled. R. 
ssalt, shall. R. 
ssarae, shame. A. L; R. 
ssame, to be ashamed. R. 
sscet, /.J", shot, hastened. R. 
ssel, shall. A. L 
sselt, shall. A. I. 
ssedde, p.s. shed. 
ssende, to shefid, disgrace, bring 

low. R. 
ssepere, shaper, creator. A. I. 
sseppere, d.s. creator. A. I. 
sseppe, creature. A. I. 229:2. 
ssetare, shooter, archer. R. 
ssete, to shoot. R. 
ssipes, ships. R. 
ssipuol, shipfull. R. 
ssirc, shire. R. 
ssolde, should ; ssolde abbe, 

should have. R. 
ssolden, should. A. I. 
ssoldren, shoulders. R. 
ssole, shall. A, I.; R. 

jssote, //. shot. R. 



ssrine] GLOS 

ssriuc, ta thrhre. A. I. 

ssriue, p. pi. shrove. R. 

sjsef,* zm. staff, slick, rod; pd 
cild ridatS on heora siafum, 
children ridi on Ihtir sticks. Si. 
xx.\vi.5, klltr, character, wril- 
'"g ! pl- sta&s. Joh. vii. 15 ; 
i\\.2\. litera is slOEf on En- 
glisc, and is se lassta d^el on 
bocum, and un>(Jd£ledlic. 
jEl/rie't Gram. 

sucfno, tl.s, voite. L. 

steMiranjs,* zm. pi. stale-, or 
dtcoy dar. Os. 78:30. The 
uyrd " stale" in Ifiis sense oc- 
curs freijuattly in Sliatspiari: ; 
in '' stoi>l-f'igtoii." uv have ihd 
tame U'.'rd. Sec m:\t word. 

slAlan,* ift-siajlaii, to steal, steal 
upon, tasnare, entrap ; " obre- 
jK're, irrepere, subrepere;" 
EllmUller ; p. st&lde ; pp. 
sl&lcd ; TeOwertig daqa ftehSe 
ic wille on weras &\&\3J\., forty 
days with v£n!;cance I will on 
ninsteal. Ccdmon, 81:28. 

^^siifciian,* lo stone ; p. siinde; 
//- jf''slifened. 

s renen.* of :tme ; sjx siifenene 
waiter- fill u. Joh. ii. 6. 

sl.-Bp, steep. O. 

staerc, stari, strong; ace. m. 
staercnc. L. 636, 

stsercliche, starlige, starkly, 
stiffly, strongly. L. 577. 

sta;fi, * zn. shore, hank; pi. 

slafon* = stafum, d. pi. letters. 

See siKi; 
Slab, See siijhenn. 
Slal, hirtlle. conflict. L. 693. 
sUile {.'(. S. stalu), stealing. 

A. I. 



ARY. 4SC 

stalian,* to steal ; p. -ode ; /^ 

-od ; gif besulige, i^A^ Jiii 
stall, stall, room, standing; fi 

stalless. O. 11854. 
sUllwurrJjli), stoutly, firmly. 0. 

11947- 
Stalu,* 3/: lhe/7 ; fi. stak; 

mid stale, /urlivefy. 
stamin, a skirl made cf jowii 

and linen, used instead 1/ a 

penitentiary hair-shirt. Fn- 

brooke. A. R. 
siin,* 2m. stone. Joh. viiu?; 

xi. 38, 39. 41. 
standan,* ^^tandan (9), U 

stand, to be, contiriue ; t-t urgf, 

instare ; to attack {as a disrose); 

ic stande, fii sitnsl. he sieni, 

slyni ; p.s. stod ; pi. slijiion ; 

pp. ^esiaiiden. /oh. ' " 



26; 



29: 



9 ; .XX. 14. 

slan, stone; pd. siancss. 0. 

sianene, 0/ stone. L. 

sianndenn inn, lu pt-rsevcre, a^ 
tinue. 0. 

slapan* (9), to step, go, a,h-anc;; 
he streps ; p.s. siop ; //. snip- 
on ; pp. slapen. 

slant, pr. s. slaadeth. L. ; G. 

Starke, stiff; also, iuhnlh\ en- 
tirely; Starke dedc, G. 1 56. 

starlige. See stajrcliche. Z, 

stauen, d. pi. tracings. X, 553, 

SLaS,* Z«. shore, hank. Us. See 
sloeS. 

stape, d.s. bank, shore. I,. 7. 

stckede, p. pi. stuck. L. 

stodc,* z/B. stead, place; stede 
fiest, steadfast. 

^fttaielian,* jf^taSolian, to 

found, establish, support ; p. 
-ode; pp. -od. Bs. 



451 



GLOSSARY. 



[^/^tillan 



stedefaestliche, sUad/asify, H. 
IIL 

stedes, steeds, horses, R, 

steep, bright, sparkling, C 201. 
Jilr, Cockayne has illustrated the 
use of this word in his Seinte 
Marherete; '*his twa ehnen 
[semden] steappre pene ster- 

, ren, " his two eyes seemed brighter 
than stars, Morris, 

steepen, to sty, ascend. Is, Iv. 1 3. 

stefen,* ^ voice; g, d, ace, 
stefne. Joh, x. iv. //. stefna. 

stefene, siemne, voice, L, 

stefenen, d,s, voice, L, 

stefne, f, voice \ d, stefne-n, 
stemne. L, 

steyneden, /. //. stained. Gen, 
xxxvii. 31. 

stel, steel ; g, steles; d, stele. 
Z. 

stelan* (15), to steal ; fu stylst, 
he sty]^; p,s. stail; />/. stdelon; 
pp, (^rf-)stolen. Joh, x. 10. 

stelcn, steolen, stele, to steal. L, 

stelene, //. of steel, L, 723. 

slemed, /. //. shone; "stecm, 
or lowe of fyre. Flamma," 
{Prompt. Parv.) C, 202, 

siemn,* ^, voice. 61:31. .S*^^ 
stefen. 

stent, *pr. s, stands. See standan. 

steop-cild,* 2«. step-child, or- 
phan. Joh. xiv. 18. 

stedr,* siidr, 3/C steering; guid- 
ance, direction; to stedre, for 
guidance. 65:6. 

stedran,* st^ran, to steer, guide, 
direct ; p. -de ; pp, -ed. Bs, 
96:4. ^^^ sti<5ran. 

steorbord,* 2n, starboard, the 
right side of the ship, Os, 
77:11. 



steorc, a stork, ostrich, A. R, 

steorfan* (18), to starve, die ; 
p.s. stearf ; //. sturfon ; pp, 
storfen. 

steort,* 2m. tail, Bs, 104:9. 

stepe, bright, sparkling, C, 
755. *SV^ steep. 

stepcn, to step, march, mount ; 
p.s. stop;//. stepen,stopen.Z. 

steppan,* staeppan, to step, go,, 
advance ; [/. stepte ; pp, step- 
ped. ] See stapan. 

steppe, sign. Gen. xli. 21, 

Sterne. P, C, 61. sterne opon 
heife ; the meaning seems to be 
that the wall, from its solidity 
and height, was stern or sombre 
in look. 

stere, imp, stir, M, 

stewe, a fishpond, C, 352. 

ste3en {A, S, stigan), to sty, as- 
cend. Is. liii. 2. 

sticcemdelum,* peacemeal, here 
and there, by little and little, by 
degrees. 77:5. 

stikeden, /.//. j/«f^. Z. 

stician,* to stick ; to be involved ; 

p, -ode ; pp, -od. ^. C, 

110:22. dedfol J>e stica^ on, 

a devil sticks in thee. Joh. vii. 

20. Bs. 

stieden, p, pi, ascended, went up. 
Gen, xli. 18. 

stif, strong, bold. R„ 

stigan* ( 20), stigan, to sfy, ascend, 
rise, climb, go, proceed ; but the 
direction is generally indicated by 
an accompanying word ; he 
stihtS ; p.s, stdh ; //. stigon ; 
PP' (^^)stigen. Joh. i. 51. 

^^rstillan,* to be still, quiet, mute; 
to keep still, restrain, stay ; p. 
-d^lpp. -ed. Bs. 104:30. 



Btille] 



526, 518. 



• s/ili, fixed, quill. 
still, quit:!; huld him 
itpl hims<l/ quul. H. 



-de; 



(21), /o slink; p. J. 

; pi. siuncon ; //. stun- 

Jok. si. 39. 
ide, slinhng. A. I. 
\* lo steer, control; p. 
pp. -ed. Bs. See steti- 



siyrian,* ^fslyrian, trans, and 
intrans. to stir, move, excite, 
agilate ; be moved ; to steer, rule. 
control ; to restrain, correct, 
seize ; p. -ode, -e(!e ; pp. -ed. 

styrnlic,* stern, severe, rugged. 
63:17. 

Slyrung,* 3/! a stirring, motion, 
ogitotion, tumuli, Joh. v. 3. 

stiward, sleivard. A. R. ; P.P. 
39- 

stiSc,* stiSlice, firmly, severely, 
sternly, austerely; comp. stitSli- 
eor. 69:33. 

stiflimoden, stiff-minded. L. 
627. 

stijhcnn, logo, pass {up or doom, 
according lo themodi/yingword'). 
0. 1 1827. p.s slab, ..upp, 
ascended. O. 169, 233. stah 
dun, descended. 0. 207. 

stokkes, stocks. P.P. 

stud.* See siandan. 

stod,^.j. stood, continued. L. 

stodcn, slode, p. pL stood. L. 

_j'Slolc, pp. stolen. A. I. 

siond, pr.s. standeth. L. 

aionde, lo stand ; fat fvn herte 
wol to stonde, HI., ' ihal thy 
heart will stand lo, i.e., agree 
to. R. 22. 

stonden, to stmd; 2s. stonst ; 



iARY. Alt 

3*. stont, stondeS ; /. slod 

A. R. 
sionejeden, p. fil. loere stunned, 

astonished. It. Hi. 14. , 

stoor, stori {of a/arm). C. &a ] 
Sloole, stoie, robe, mantel. Gt*- 

xli. 42 ; Lt. XV. 22. 
st<5p.* See stapAD. 
storieji. See sturieJS. Z. ' 

slot, stallion, stud. C. 617. 
stoundc, a short period of Iwu; 

a moment. R. 
Slouwet, sleivard/d. . P.P. 39. 
sttiw,* 3/: place. Joh. lii. la 

pi. stiitt'a. 
sirxhle, p.s. stretched, exttniie. 

L. 626. 
strSbt,* If. street. 
slra)nliche, siraitly, strictly. A.I. 
siratn, sirem, stream. L. 
strand,* zm. strand, shore, /ei. 

siran!?,* strong, valiant, seoeri, 

rigid; comp. strengra, -e, -e; 

superl. slrengesl (-osl). 
^fstrangian, * lo make strong, j 

strengthen, confirm, establish; ; 

p. -ode; pp. -od, -ad, 65:28. ■ 
strapeles, slrapples. A. R. 

166:17. 
strec,* strac, brave, powerful, 

violent, severe, rigid, stern, 
slreccan,* lo stretch, stretch out 

or over, spread; p. strehte; //, 

frtlrehl. Joh. xxi. iS. 
sirecche8.//'.J. stretches, extends; 

p. streihte ; imp. strik ; pp. 

j-streiht. A. R. 
sirecst,* s/retchest. See stveccin. 
J-streiht, pp. outstretched. See 

slreccheS. A. R. 
Streyt, strait, narrow, strict. C. 

174 



453 



GLOSSARY. 



[sumer 



stre)rte, closely ; ful streyte y- 

teyed (C 459), applied to hose, 

means that they were well drawn 

up, and fit closely to the leg, 
sireitliche, straitly, narrowly, 

closely. R, 
strenctS.* iS^^ strengS. 
strenctSe, strength, force, A.R, 
streng,* strengc, 2m. a string, 

sinew, cord, 
strengest,* comp, of Strang, 

strongest, most powerful, Os, 
Streng6,*streng5u, ^ strength, 

might, power, 
slrengfe, strength, force ; mid 

strengpe, by constraint, i?. 3 1 6. 
stredn,* ^^itreon, in. gain, ac- 
quisition, treasure, wealth, 

60:35. 
strednan.* iS*^^ strynan. 
strican* (20), to strike; p.s, 

sixic ; //. stricon ; f>p. striccn. 
strike of flex, hank of flax. C. 

678. 
str}'finge, strife. A, I. 
strynan, * to beget, conceive ; p, 

str^'nde ; //. ^tstryned. Os. 
stronde, d.s, strand, L. 
strongen, stronge, d.s. strong. 

L. 
stude, studen, vi. steady place ; 

d, stude/ d, pi studen, stude. 

L,; A. R.; P. P. 39. 
studes, steads, places, R, 
stunt, imp. s. stop. P, P. 329. 
sturicn, to move ; pr.s. sture^. 

A.R. 
sturiet5, storief, imp, pL of stu- 

rie-n, storie, stir ; jou storief, 

bestir yourselves. L, 913. 
sturne, stern, R.; L, 
stumhede, sternhead, sternness, 

R. 



sijcan,* sdgan (19), to suck; 

p.s. sedc, seig ; //. sucon, su- 

gon ; //. socen, sogen. 
sueden, /. //. followed. Gen, 

xli. 19. 
sukende, pr, p. pi. sucking. L, 
sukurs, aid, supplies. A, R, 

163:5. 
suden, sude (^A, S, se6t$an), 

p,pl. seethed, boiled. L, 377. 
sue, to follow. Gen. xli. 30 ; 

G. 349- 

suein, swain, young man. R. 

suend, pr. p, followiftg, G. 122. 

suerd, sword ; pi. suerdes. R. 

^\i^\, pr. pi. follow, P, C. 152. 

s\x{o\,* 2n, food, provision, foh. 
xxi. 5. 

suikedom, treachery, falseness. 
R. 176. 

suikelhede, treachery, deceit. R. 

sulle, to sell P, P. 133. 

sulue, self; ham suluen, her- 
self A. R. 

sulue, very, same; in fulke 
sulue ^ore, in that same year. 
R. 644. 

s u I u h, plough, ploughshare. A . R. 
161:3. {A, S. sulh.) 

sum,* some, someone, a certain 
one, any, quidam, aliquis ; 

ifidef decl; sum sum, ont 

another ; su me sume, 

some others ; sume ge, 

some of you. foh, vi. 64. he; 
syxa sum, he of six one, i. e., 
he and five others. Os. 78:26. 
Often united with gen. pi. of the 
cardinal numbers, and sigpiifi'S 
* * about, more or less." 

sumer,* sum or, 2m. summer; g, 
sumcres ; d, sumera (e) ; ace, 
sumer. 82:19. 



samcrcs] GLOI 

sumcres, somcrcs. g. m or 
during summir. L. 
Bumewhule, somelimes. A. R. 
suratn, cmj. as; forr|>rihht 






11404. 



r,* summor. ^« sumer. 
sumor-hietu,* j/T summer-heat. 

Os. 
gesuniH* sound, healthy, safe. 
sund. life, health. L. 725. 
isunde, d.s. safety, L. 778. 
snnd en, /!/-.>/. are. L. 159. 
suniier-liSlga, * im. one sun- 
dered or Sfparated from others 

bv his holiness ; a pharisee ; d. 

pi. sundor-hilgon = hilgum. 

Joh, i. 24. 
sunderlichc, separate, distinct. 

A.R. 
^fsundful,* full sound, safe. 

63 : 1 6. 
^(■sundfullice,* safety, success- 

fulty. 
sundor-hdiga.* See sunder- 

halga. 
sune, son ; pi. suness. 0. 
sunfol, sinful. P. P. 244. 
Bunse {A. S. syngian), to sin, 

P. P. 151. 
sunget, pp. sinned. P.P. 
sunne,* if. sun. 
sunne, sun. A. R. 
sunne, sin. A. R. ; P.P. 14 

//. sunnen. A. R. pi. sunne 

R. ! P.P. 104. 
sunu,* nt. son; g. d. suna : 

ace. sunu ; pi. nam. ace. suna ; 

g. sunena (suna) ; d. sunum. 
suor, p.s. ^vore; subj. p. pi. 

suorc, should swear ; pp. ki 



)ARY. 454 

Slipan* (19), fo soup, suP;p.t. 
sedp ; //. supon ; //. sopen. 

surcoie, upper coat. C. 619. 

sustcini, to sustain. R. 

sustren, sisters. A. R. tiy.\\ 
165:7; R. 3^: P.P. 

suwed, pp. folliived. P.P. iffj- 

suwedc, p.s. folliTuvd. P. C 
84. 

suwian,* to teep silence, stlat ; 
/. -orle, -ade ; //. -oi 60:15. 

siiS, * adj. south. 

su|>, south. O. 

stil>ei!st,* southeast. Bs. 

siiS-rihte.* right or due stmA. 

siiSweard,* southward. 

su|.|-e, af,-r, aftent\trds,siiiee.R. 

svi,* so, thus, as, whether ;sn 
h«"i swd, u-hosotver ; s«i- 
hwtcl swd, ivhittsoeTcr ; sirf- 
hwx-Ser swd, iMch {one) so- 
ever, oftivo, that ; also, virs^ 
sw;l, or swa;8er alone; sw- 
hwylc swd, whosoever; s«i 
li«a;r sw-i, wheresoever ; srf 
swd, soas, even as ; asfaras; 
swi langeswd, as long as ; sri 
ike = swylce ; swd same, j-,- 
swd-jiedh, swa-)ieah-hwa;|>ere, 
yet, notwithstatiding, n-rverAe- 



less 



O. 



5. all sn 
sumii), a-en as, so as. O. to. 
.swaic,* swec, im. odour, smell, 
satvur, taste, seasoning, foh. 
xii. 3. 
swifemes,* 3/^ dullness, heari- 

ness, sluggishness. Bs. 
swdpan* (z), to sicerp ; pj. 
:e6p ; pi. swe<Jpon ; //. swd- 



pen. 



O. : 



455 



GLOSSARY. 



[swylc 



swdtlin,* 2n. STveai-Iincn^ nap- 
kin, /oh, xi. 44 ; XX. 7. 

swdtig, * sweaty ; bloody, 

swd-fedh.* See swd. 

sweart,* sivari^ swarthy^ blacky 
gloomy, 

swefan* (12), to sUep ; p,s, 
sw'aef ; //. sw^fon ; pi, swe- 
fen. 

swefen,*swefn, zn, sleep; dream. 
Joh, xi. 13. 

8w^,* zm, sounds noise, Bs, 
103:26. 

sw^gan,* sweigan, to sounds sig- 
nify, mean; hesw6g^, sweig6; 
/. sw6gde ; pi, sw6gdon ; pp, 
swaged. 69:2. 

sweinde, sweynede, p,s, smote, 
struck, L, 822. 

sweinde, p^, swung, L, 537. 

swelc,* such. Bs. See swylc. 

sweigan* (18), to swallow ; p, s. 
swealh ; //. swulgon ; pp, 
swolgen. 

swellan* (18), to swell; p,s, 
sweall ; //. swullon ; pp, 
swollen. 

sweltan* (18), to swell, die, 
perish ; he swylt ; pi. sweltat$ ; 
p,s, swealt ; pi, swulton ; pp, 
(ge-) swollen ; dedC is so^/te- 
times added for emphasis, 61:28; 
Joh, vi. 50 ; viii. 21; xi. 50 ; 
xviii. 14 ; xxi. 23. 

swenchen, /(C?jw//af^(f, afflict, mor- 
tify, A, R. 159:12. /swen- 
ched for zswenchetS } L. 144. 

sweor,* zm. a father-in-law. 
foh. xviii. 13. 

sweord,* swurd, in. sword ; 
pi. sweord, swurd. Bs. 105:20. 

sweorde, d.s. sword ; d. pi. 
sweorden, sweoreden. L, 



sweore, d.s, neck, L. 548. 

sweoster,* sweostor,* f sister ; 
g, sweoster ; d, swyster and 
sweostor ; //. sweostra. 

sweotol,* swutol, swutel, mani- 
fest, plain, open, clear, evident, 

sweotole, * manifestly, plainly, Os. 

sweotolice, * plainly. Os. 

swere, d,s, neck, L, 

swerian* ( 1 1 ), to swear ; p,s, 
swdr ; //. sw6ron ; pp, swaren, 
sworen ; pres, s, ic swerige, 
fij swerest, he swere^, swer8 ; 
also, swerige, swerast, sweratJ ; 
//. sweriatS ; imp. s, swere and 
swera ; //. sweriat$ ; pr. part, 
swerigende. 

swerien, suhj, pi, swear. H. 
III. 

swerveth, turns, averts, G. 361. 

sw6t-met,* zm. sweetmeats, dain- 
ty food ; d. pi. sw^tmettum. 
Bs, 106:4. 

sw6tnes,* sw6tnys, 3/I sweetness, 

swcuen, dream. Gen, xxxvii. 5. 

sweven, dream. G, 49. pi. 
swevenes. G. 97. 

swi, probably used for switSe. L. 

793. 

swican,* ^^wican (20), to de- 
ceive, mock, desist from, go 
from, depart, escape, avoid, 
shrink from, offend, be offended; 
he swic^ ; pi, swica^ ; p.s, 
swdc ; //. swicon ; pp. {ge-) 
swicen, also reg. swician ; p. 
-ode; pp. -od. 61:6; foh. 
xvi. I. 

swift,* swyft, swtft ; comp. swift- 
ra ; superl. swyftost. Os. 
81:32, 35; 82:5. 

swylc,* such, of this kind, iJu 
like; indef decl.; swylc 



;v'ilcc] 



, Lilis 



quilis ; gif ic lixfde swjicne 

anweakl sw}-lce sc xlmihtcga 

God hxK. 
SH'ilce,* swylce, as if, as though, 

as it vxre, so l/iai, morcoivr, 
swillc, suih ; pi. swillke. 0. 
swimman*(zi), /o jtf/m/ p.s. 

swamm ; pi. swummon ; //. 

swum men. 
swimmcnd, swimming. G. 
swin,* sw^n, 2n. m'ine ; pi. 

swin, swj^n. Ss. 109:1. 
^<-swinc,* 2n. labour, toil, fa- 

tigue, troubli, qfflictiim, Joh. 

iv. 38. 
swjnk, toil, labour. C. 188. 
swincan* (zi), to sivink, toil, 

labour, drudge ; he swinciS ; 

//. swincaS ; p.s. sft*anc ; pi. 

Bwuncon ; pp. swuncen. Joh. 

iv. 38. 
swinke, labmr, toil; fi. swinkes. 

A.R. 
swynke, to toil, la&oun P. P. 

295 ; C 186. 
swinkcn, to labour, toil/ pr. 

swinkeS ; p. swonc, swanc, 

swong ; pr. p. swinkinde; pp. 

j'-swunken, A. R. 157:20 ; 

168:14. 
swynkcr, labourer. C. 533. 
Bwingel,* 3/C, awingele, i/. 

stripe, lash, blew ; chastisement, 

afflittion. 71:32. 
swingelian,* to beat, chastise ; p. 

■ode; pp. -od. 
swingan* (21), to swinge, 

scourge ; lie swings ; p.s. 

swang, swong ; pi. swungon ; 

//. swungen. Joh. xi.t. i. 
swinglung,* %f. a beating, flagel- 
lation, scourging. 



swinnc, labour. O. 143. 
swii>e,* \/. whip, scourge. Jak. 

ii. 15. 
swipe, swip, swipe, sivap, stnt; 

pi. swipen, swipes. L, 
swijipt'n, to rwcip, siriir ; p. 

swipie, X. S24. 
swiS,* great, strong, powerful; 

comp. swiSm, right, dciier; 

Se6 swiSre hand ; super!, swi- 

SosL 
swiCe,* wrj', very much, strongk, 
forcibly ; comp. Swi'Sor, mniL, 

rather ; supierl. swiSost, chicit, 
for the most part, Ust. 78:1^ 

swd he swifiost ma^, as Jk 

bistmav. 102:20. 
swiljc, guickl)', swiftly. L. 754; 

Lk. XV. 22. 

swiSe, much, very, exceeding. L 
swMiice,* greatly, exceedingly, 

immoderalelv. 
swiSor.* See swttSe, 
sw^jiost,* swiSosL ^.r* swifte. 
swifira,* comp. See swl6. 
switSren, d. right, dexter. L 

823. 
swoole, TWeel. C. i. 
swopen, to sweep. P.P. 102, 
Kiworene, pp. pi. sworn. H. HI 
^jBWOunyng, swooning. P.P. ; 

R. 
i-swowene, swooned, in a sweo*. 

P.P. 222. 
swulc, as if as, like. L, 
swulclie, pi. such. L. 
swurd.* See sweonl, 

sister ; indeel. in s. , but sa-iie- 
times d. swyster ; //. n. g. Me. 

/»«■ »i. .; 3. 5. 



;. IS- 



swutclian,*^^wutelian, loshaui^ 



457 



GLOSSARY. 



[laille 



manifest^ make kmnvn, glorify ; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od. Joh. xiii. 

32; xiv. 21, 22; 59:13; 75-26; 

69:6. 
swutelice,* plainly y manifestly. 

68:9. 
swutol,* swutel, plain, manifest, 

evident. 
swutSe, "oery, greatly, strongly, 

quickly ; comp. swut5ere, swu- 

tJure ; fret swut5e wel, devours 

eagerly. A, jR, 167:29. 
swuCe, strong. A, R. 



ti, * tdh, if. toe ; g. d. ace, tdan , 
tin ; //. nom. ace. tan ; g, 
tiena ; d. tium ; se(5 micle td, 
the big toe ; f^re miclan tdan 
najgel, nail of the big toe. 

la, adv, then, O. 

tabart, a short coat or mantle. 
P.P, III. See next word. 

tabbard. C. 20. ** Tabard — 
a jaquet or slevelesse coalc, 
wornc in times past by noble- 
men in the warres, but now 
only by heraults, and is called 
theyre *coate of armes in ser- 
vise. ' It is the signe of an 
inne in South warke by Lon- 
don, within the which was the 
lodging of the Abbot of Hyde 
by Winchester. This is the 
hostelr>' where Chaucer and the 
other Pilgrims mett together, 
and, with Henry Baily, their 
hoste, accorded about the 
manner of iheir journey to 
Canterbury.' Speght. also a 
loose frock or blouse. C. 543. 

tabernacles, cells in a convt?tt for 
reconnoitring. P. C. 16. 



takel, shooting tackle, bows, ar- 
rows, etc., as we say, fishing 

tackle, etc. C. 106. 
ticen,* ticn, 2n. token, sign, 

miracle ; pi, tdcen, tdcnu, some^ 

times, tdcna. Joh. iv. 48 ; vi. 

26 ; XX. 30. 
takenn, takenn, to take, receive ; 

p.s. toe; //. tokenn ; imp. s. 

tacc ; pi. take)?)) ; subj. j. take ; 

/. toke ; //. takenn ; takenn 

wi)))), to receive, O. 1 1 706. 
takinges, touchings. A. /. 

232:11; 233:21. 
tacnenn, to betoken, signify. O. 
^^tacnian, * to betoken, signify^ to 

seal, set a seal ; p. -ode ; pp. 

-od. Joh. xii. ^^', xxi. 19. 
^rtdcnung,* 3/! a betokening, 

signification, sign, presage, fype. 

64:20; 65:27. 
t^can,* to teach, show ; ic tdece, 

)?il tdehst, he t^cet5, t^chtJ, 

tdect$ ; /. tdehte; pi. t^hlon ; 

//. tJfeht, Idecn. 59:25, 26; 

6:: 16, 17. 
taeh, p.s. withdrew, retreated, L. 

1015. 
taelite, isihte, p.s, taught. Z.917. 
taelenn {A, S, taelan), to accuse, 

blame, reproach, deride. O. JJ, 
taeraffterr, thereafter. O, 11 941. 
taere, taer, there. O, 37. 
taeronne, thereon, O. 38. 
tajrto, thereto. O, 1 1 8 1 7. 
tajr))urrh, therethrough. O, 
tail, retinue, followers ; kyng 

Knout sywed after myd an 

long tayle. R. 
taille, tally ; a reckoning cut on 

a piece of wood; payde, or took 

by taille, paid for, or got on 

credit. C. 572. 



20 



talcn, lalts. A. R. 167:18, 
talicS, pr. pi. give tongue, shout. 

L. 256. 
tarn,* lame. Os. 78:29. Bs. 

97:9, 19. 
tatna,* \m. a tamer. Bs. 

97:11. 
tanne, then. 0. 
lapiccr, an uphdslcrer. {Fr. 

lapis.) C. 364, 
lapslere, a femaU tapster. C. 

241. 
tatt, that, the ; pron. rel. that, 

who, which ; conj. that. O. 
i-tauwed, /i^ tawed, (A. S. taw- 

ian, to drist leather.) A. R. 



, joined to Jiset (^). 



166:4 
tc = 

Bt. I 
te, to,' A. R. 
te, the. O. 

te, d. to thee. 0. 12, 65. 
teir,* 2m. tear. 
tekenn {A. S. id-edcan), 6e- 

sides, moreover. 0. 37. 
techen, to teach ; p. tauhte, 

teihie; pp. i-teiht A. R. 

167:8. 
techef, pi. teach. P. P. 
tekp, teaches. A. I. 229:9. 
teeme, theme. P. P. 43. 
teendilh, pr. s. lights. Lk. iv. 

8. 
teh, p.s. of tedn, went, turned, 

withdrew. L. 
f«-tel,* in. number. 66:22, 

23 ; 69:31. 
t^h,* ^./. drciv. See tedgan. 
teien, tije, to lie. L. 396. 
teid, tmt ; g. leldes ; d. lelde. 



tellan,*^rtdlan, to tell, recomU, 
announce, mpmte, asa-ibe, at- 
count, number, compute, rtekoa, 
esteem ; p. tealde ; pp. (gi-) 
teald ; imp. tele ; t6 sirangvm 
f^eald, accounted strong. _/ai 
XV, 15; 60; 3 ; 66:15; 67:14; 
69:30. 

telle, U> number, reckon. A. I. 

tellen, lo guide, direct. P. C 
80. 

telp, pr. s. telleth, aceounlt, es- 

tetnpe!, tempi, tn. temple. Joh. 
ii. 21 ; viii. 2. pi, tetnplu. 

templ-hilgung, * \f. dedicaliM 
0/ the temple; templ-hdlguoga, 
the /east o/the dedication, jek. 
X. 22, 

tende, to Idtidie, light, light up. 
R. 

tende, tenlk. A. I. 233:3a 

tene, ten. A, R. 

t^ne, tene, tenn, ten. O. 

tent, attention. Eccl. xii. 12, 
Gloss. 

te<igan,* te<5n (19). to tug, t<m, 
puU, draw lo, instigate, IcaJ, 
educate; ic ted, ie<ige, Ini 
tyhst, he t]^h«, tihtS ; //. ie<38, 
te<ibS ; pj. tedh, teh ; pi. lo- 
gon ; pp. togen, tohen, ge- 
tt^en ; imp. ted, tedh, /oh. 
vi. 44 ; xii. 32; xxi, 11 ; 
60:18 ; 66:32 ; 91:4. 

ifrteohhian,* ^rtihhian, frtioh- 
hian, '^rteohan, to Judge, deter- 
mine, decree, assign ; p. -ode 
(-ade); pp. -od. Bs. 107:6. 

tcdn,* tidn, to make, dctamine, 
constitute, create; p. ic<lde, 
tidde. Su ^^teohhian. 

teorian,* lo rub away, to wax 



459 



GLOSSARY. 



[tin 



faint, fail ; p, -ode, -ede; pp. j 

-od. 
te(5Ca,* tedfc, itnih ; def decL 
ter, df the? A, R, 156:1 1. 
teran* (15), to tear ; p.s, laer ; 

//. tjferon ; pp. toren. 
terus, tears. R. 124. 
te;3, they. O, 117, 155. See 

te^en, d. pi. ties. L, 397. 
thapparence, the appearance, G* 

127. 
tharray, tht array, outfit, C. 

718. 
thenketh, impers, it seems, G. 

354. 
thenne, thin. C. 681. 

ther, where. C. 249. 

ther as, there where. C. 34. 

ih^i zsiy where that, C. 172. 

there, where. G. 

therthur^, through tJiat, because. 

Gen, xxvii. 3. 
thestat, the estate, condition rank, 

C. 718. 
tho, then. G. 
tho, those, G. 
thought, seemed/ it thought 

her faire, // seemed to her fair. 

G. 245. as her thought, as it 

seemed to her. G, 286. 
threstende, pr. p. thirsting. Is. 

111. 2. 
thriftily. C. 105. 1. e.yhedidnt 

waste them in idle shots, 
thristende, thirsting. Is. Iv. i. 
ti, they. O. 
t^n,* to imbue, teach, instruct, 

educate ; p, t^de ; pp. get^d. 

69:7. 
tid, * 3/1 tide, time^ season, oppor- 
tunity, hour ; ace, tid ; //. 

tida. Joh, xi. 9. 



^^-tidan,* to betide, happen. 

tidcnde, tydinde, s. and pi, 
tiding, tidings. L, 456. 

tyding, tiding. L. 

lid lice,* betimes, soon, in time. 
Os. 

tihtan,* ^rtihtan, to draw, per- 
suade, allure, urge, instigate, 
excite, seduce ; ic tihle, fd tih- 
test, he tih« ; //. tihtatJ ; /. 
tihte ; //. tihton. 

tihling,* 3/; persuasion, sugges- 
tion, exhortation. 

ti h t5, * instigates. See ti htan. 

tyld, pp, set up like a tent, set up, 
raised. {A, S. teldian, to 
spread or pitch a tild or tent. ) 

p, a 29. 

t)'led,//. tilled, cultivated. M, 

243* ^3- 
tilia,* im, tiller, husbandman. 

tilian,* /? account, assign, ascribe; 
p, -ode ; pp. -od. Ds. 

tilian,* tylian, /<9 ////, take care 
of toil, labour, endeavour, pre- 
pare, provide, get ; p, -ode ; pp, 
-ed ; with gen, of thing, and 
dat, of the person, 60:28. 

tilien, to till, culirvaie. A, R. 
p.pL tileden, teledc. L, 

tiliere, tiller. Is. Hi. 4. 

till, prep, to, into, for, O, 113. 

tima,* im, time, hour, season, 
Joh, V. 4. 

timbrian,*^rtimbrian, to build, 
erect; build up, edify ; p. -ode ; 
pp,-od. 69:19. 

time, tyme, /;/. time; d. time-n. 
Z. 

^ttimian,* to befall, happen ; gif 
hit swd getimatJ. 60:6. fedh 
hit swd getimige. 61:15. 

tin, thine. O, 



lyn] GLOS: 

lyn, * kn ; indecl. , bul lomdimes 

mm. ace. lyne; g. tyna ; d. 

lynum, iclun used absotuUly. 
ijnan,* lo enelose. surround ; p. 

ij'nde ; pp. lyned. 
tvjiei, hood, cueulla, or ccnvl. C. 

'^33- 

liss, Ms. O. 321, 331. 

liK, go€S, /au.v ; inf. icon. L. 

lifennde, tidings. 0. 158, 176. 

lipian,* ^difian, to grant, al- 
lien; ptrmil ; p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

Ujc. /o /k. /.. iVlcien. 

>'-liji. //. lied, firmly /astaied, 
fi\ed,s,t.{A.S.\A^R.)P.C. 16. 

to-, Ihe sign 0/ the dat. inf. O. 
8, 44, 48, fi4 ; Gen. xli. II, 
27, 36 ; £ccl. xii, 6, G/ftfj, 

t<3, * /ytf. 

1<J,* In, at, as, for, from ; in 
A. S. the construction with two 
dalises, Ihe former used wOhmil 
a preposiiiim, and ■ the tatter 
gorerned by 16, corresponds with 
Ihe Lot. double datitv; e.g.. We 
habbaS us to fa;der Abraham, 
W*: have Abraham lo us for a 
father. 

to, prtp. to, for, as ; 10 lare, for 
inslruetion. O. 322. to hyrde, 
as a shepherd. 

In, at; lo midewinter ; to Wite- 
sonetid ; to Ester. R. 694. 

to, as, for. P.P. 169. 

to-, an intensive A. S. and £. £. 
prefix to verbs and verbal nouns, 
im/mrting an idea if destruction 
or deterioration. See words 
whickfoUow. 

toa3'ans, loayens (.-J. i'. logenes, 
logeanes), against. A. I. 

liibrecan* (15), lobreak in pieces. 



breakup, destroy ; p.s. idbrcc; 

//. ttjbr^con ; pp. lo-broceo. 
to-brenne, lo burn up. Ps. ilv. 

10. 
to-brese, lo break in pieces. Pt. 

xlv. 10. 
tobrejf, breaks in pieces. A. I. 
tobrisenn, lo bruise, dash a 

pieces. O. 12032, 
to-broke, //. broken up. R. 
to-brose, lo break in pnecet. Ps. 

xiv. 10; ivii. 7. 

IOC, p.s. took, began. O. 11327. 

See takenn. 
toke, tokenn. See iSkenn. 
token, p. pi. gjve over, delivirii 

up to, committed. R. 168. 
to-chan, to-chon. p. sundered. 

split. L. 634. 
t(5-c_vme,* 2m. a coming to, ai- 

Vint, arrival. 66:3. 
to-clsf, to-cleof, chroe asunder; 

pi. to-cluucn. L. 789, 
tocnen,/rt&»j,Ji^»j. .-(./zjj:!}. 
to corny nge {A. S. to-cura- 

enne), dat. inf. to come. Gen. 

xii. II, 27, 36; £aL sii. 6, 

Gloss, he it is, that comeih 

aftir me {Earlier fe.rt); Van 

Readings, is to come, is to 

comynge. Joh. i. 27. 
lo conne {A. S. ti5-cunnenne), 

dat. inf. to con or to be conned, 

learned ; to conne and 10 done. 

A. I. 
t<5d*lan.* to deal, part, divide; 

distinguish ; p. -de ; //. -ed. 

62:26. 
t o-dcal de,/. J. divided, scattered. L . 
to-delue8, to-dealuel*, pr. pi. 

dig out, L. z66. 
t»5-di3nne,* dat. inf. to do, to bi 

done. Joh. xvii. 4. 



46i 



GLOSSARY. 



[t6-stencan 



to done, dat in/, to do, he done, 
A, I, 231:19. See io coiiiiQ, 

td-dr^fan,* io disperse, scaiUr, 
dissipate ; p. -de ; pp. -ed. 

tddr^fednys,* 3/I a dispersion^ 
scattering, Joh. vii. 35. 

to-drawe|), pr, pt, draw, drag 
alnmt, handie roughly, abuse, R. 

todra^inge, detraction. A, I, 

iddrefian,* to scatter, expel. 

iddrifan,* (20) to drive asunder, 
disperse; p, t6-di4f ; //. t6- 
drifon ; pp, tddrifen. Joh,jL,\2, 

t6-edcan,* besides, in addition, 

lc5-^can.* Os. See t(>edcan. 

t(5-emnes,* along, even with, op- 
posite, 

to etyng {A, S. td-etanne), dat, 
inf, to eat, be eaten ; able to 
etyng, fit to be eaten; i.e,, in 
good condition, /at. Gen, xli. 18. 

td-faran,* to /are, go to ; p. td- 
fdr. /oh, ; Os, See faran. 

lofonge, p.s, received, R, 89. 

td-foran,*/r^/. govs, dat be/ore, 

to-fore, be/ore, /ormerly, M, 
246:16; G. 188. 

to foreniseide, a/oresaid. H. 
III. 

td-forl^tan, * to let, leave, allow, 
admit Os. See forldetan. 

lo-gaderes, together. L. 

tdgaedere, * together, 

td-gebindan,* to bind to. See 
bindan. 

to-gederes, together. A, R, 

^<?tdgen,* //. drawn out, edu- 
cated ; swd ^rtdgen, so learned, 
accomplished. See tedn. 

to-genes, against, towards, Z. 

to halden (^. S. td-healdenne), 
dat. in/ to be held. H. Ill, 

to-gider, together, G. 



td-hopa,* \m. hope. Bs. 

rtoh^en, iio\\t,pp, o/ieon, with- 
drawn, gone. L. 863. 

td-iman,* to run to, run here 
and there, wander. See yrnan. 

to nimene (-4. S. td-nimanne), 
dat, in/ to take, betaken. A, I. 

tdl,* 2/1 tool, instrument ; pi, 
nom. ace, tdl. Bs. 96:18. 

^lold of, made account 0/ esti- 
mated. H, P. 2.46:15. 

tolde, p.s. reckoned ; he of no 
mon ne tolde, he made no ac- 
count 0/ any man, R. 372. 

tolde, /.J. and pi, took account 0/ 
regarded, cared /or, R, 740. 

tdlicgan, * to lie between, separate; 
pretend, /eign. See licgan. 

tdmiddes,* in the midst, amid, 

ion, pi, toes, P, C. 123. 

to-neodet$, is needed. A. R. 

tonne, tun. P, C. 69. 

tooteres, watchmen, lookers out, 
gazers. . Is. lii. 8. 

toppe, prep, above; toppe alle 
finges, above all things, A. I, 
229:8. 

torfian,* to stone, /oh. viii. 59 ; 
X. 3 1 . to dart, shoot, hurl; p, 
-ode, -ede, -ude ; pp, -od. 
S. C. 110:18. 

torfung,* 2/1 a casting, throwing, 
Os. 

tornde, /. //. turned. L. 

td-scedtan* (19), to flee in all 
directions ; p. to-scedt ; //. to- 
scuton. ^. C, 110:13. 

to-somen, together, L. 195. 

to-somne, together, L, 

to sope, 0/ a truth, R, 133. 

to-sprad, //. spread about, R. 

td-stencan,* to scatter, disperse, 
drive asunder ; p. td-stencte ; 



uSsUcism] GLOS 

//. td-slenct, t<J-stenced. 60.17; 

61:3. 8- 

tosiician,* to pierce; p. -ode; 
pp. -od. Os. 

to-swungen, lo-swonge, pp. oil 
to pieces. L. 469. 

toteclcn. p. pi. looked out ; ap- 
plied, P. C. 123, to the Iocs peep- 
ing out nf torn shoes. 

toien, to look, spy round, peep ; 
tote-hjll, a hiU'of spemlation, 
whence To/hill. P. C. 16. y- 
toted, pp. inspected. P. C. 67. 

tdlcran* (15), lo tear in pieces, 
lacerate ; )>d Ijrsl, he tj'rti ; p. tii- 
Xk\ ; //. xA-XaKu; /. td-iorenu. 

toun (.-(. S. tdn, an enclosure, 
ly-nan, lo enclose), field. Lk. 
XV. 15. 

tiilwaeman,* luiwJemian, to di- 
vide, separate ; distinguish ; p. 
-de ; //. -od, -cd. 60:2a 

louche, to touch upon, refer to. 
G. 90. 

touore, before, R. 

tiiw^rd, Immrd. S. C. 

Aovie, pp. withdrawn, gone. L. 
107. 

tiSwcard,* l<5werd, toward, fu- 
ture, to come, coming, to be. 
63:24 ; 67:4, 6. 

to-wundre, grievously. A. R. 

tiiwurpan* (18), to cast down, 
put an end to, dissipate, destroy ; 
hetowyrpK ;/.t(5-wcarp,liii 1:5- 
wurpe ; pi. lo-wurpon ; pp, 
li5-norpen. foh. vii. 23. 

to-wurSen, to perish. L, 143. 

I08, * m. tooth; g. loSes ; d. ttS ; 
//. nom. ace. liii ; g. [oSa ; d. 
tcjiium. 

16 |)am,* to the {end), to that 
(degree), so, so far. Bs. 



ARY. tfa 

to-I>an, far that purpose ,■ to [aa 
ane «x>ren, chosen for thai pa - 
pose alone. L. 

toSen, lopen, d. pi. teeth. L 

783. 
id \y |>cei,* to the end that. 
\6 poll, * JO. to the extent, so/jr; 

1(5 )>on swipe. Ss. 
to jein, against. A. R. 
lo-jcincs, against, towards. L. 
tojen, p pi. drew, fed. L. 

1017. 
rto^en, pp. withdrenvn, gone. L. 

107. 
to-jere, now; lit., this year, liki 

to-day. L. 176. 
trahhlnedd, pp. treated of, ex- 
pounded. O. 116S0. 
traht-bcic,* traet-bock, treatise, 
. . commentary, exposition. 
trahinian,* /c treat of, expotad; 

p. -ode; pp. -od. 65:2a 
trau, Iree ; d.s. iranwe. .4. I. 
[ravers ; caslynge his taylle ajcn 

in iravers, crossing his tail. M. 

241:28. 
treahligean,* to treat, discuss. 

Os. 
tredan* (12), to tread; p.s. 

tned ; pi. [r£don ; pp. tredcn. 
treddede, ^.j, />■(*/. P.O. 123, 
trenchant, cutting, sharp pointed; 

that hadde 2 horries tren- 
chant on his forhede. M. 
Ireo, treou, tree, wood; pi. ireon. 

A. R. 

ireoliche, truly. L. 119, 
Ireow,* tr^w, 2n. tret; wood, 

wooden instrument ; pi. treowu, 

sometimes, treowa. 
treowa,* im.failh, fidelity. Bs 
treowe, lieges. H. III. 
I, d. pi. trees. L. 



463 



GLOSSARY. 



[twedan 



tredwian,* truwian, ^rtredwian, 
tr)'wian, io trusty confide in ; p, 
-ode ; pp, -od. Bs, See 
trdvvian. 

treowfe, d. truth, faith, allegi- 
ance, H, III, 

t re wan,* to trust. Bs, See 
tredwian. 

trewehede, truth, good faith. R. 

tricherye, treachery, R, 

trienals, triennials, 

^«rtrymman,*^dlr3rnian, ^rtiym- 
mian, to prepare ; to confirm, 
encourage, strengthen ; p. -ede, 
-ode ; p. -ed, -od. faet un- 
trume ic wylle ^rtrymman. 
^L 61:11. 

triumpha, triumph, 

tryw.* See treow. 

trompe, trump, trumpet, C676. 

trone, throne. Gen. xli. 40. 

XxoM^'Z, pr.s, I p. trow, P.P. 70. 

trowwfe, truth, faith, belief O, 
220, 226. 

truage, hostage, R, 

truijge, tribute. R, 

trufles, trifles. A, I, 

Truso, a tenon on the border oj 
the mere or lake from which the 
river Ilfing {Elbing) flows in 
its course taufards Elbing, 

truste, p.s, trusted; to wite hit 
to him wel, to keep it well for 
him. R. 

Iruwa,* \m. faith, trust, confi- 
dence, 

truwian,* ^rtrdwian, to trust, 
confide in ; p. -ode ; pp, -od. 
57:7. imp. pL ^ttriiwiat5, be of 
good cheer, Joh. xvi. 33. See 
trcdwian. 

tu, thou. O. 

tukkud, tucked, coaled, C, 623. 



tugon.* See\.^6xi, 

tuhte, p,s, drew near, came up^ 
approached. L, 

tuhten, to punish, chastise ; pr, 
tuke^ ; pr, subj. tukie ; imp, 
tuc ; pp. /-tuht, i-tuked. (A, 
S. tucian). A, R, 

tuhten, to bring, draw, go, ap" 
proach ; p, j. tu h te. Z. i o 1 8. 

tuhten, lo^en, p, pi, drew, L, 

tuhjen, /. //. drcWy fled. Z. 
1027. 

tun,* 2m, an enclosure, field, 

yard, dwelling, toivn. See t^hian. 

tune, town, A. R, 

lunece, if tunic, coat, garment, 

tungol,* tungel, 2«. star ; pi, 
tunglu. Bs. 

tunnderrstanndenn, to under- 
stand. O. 1 1923. 

turbentyne, turpentine, M, 

turncment, tournament. A. R, 

tuteletS, tattlcth, talketh. A. R. 

twa,* n,f, two. See twegen. 

Iwegen,* twd, twd, m,f n. tivo; 
g. twegra (twega) ; d, Iwdm 
(twdem); ace, twegen, twd, twd; 
on twd, at variance, 107:26. 

tweie, two ; g, tweire. L. 835. 

tweyne, two. P, P, 160. 

twelf,* twelve; g, -a; d. -um. 
Joh. vi. 71 ; XX. 24 ; 66:35. 
when used absolutelv, twelf e. 
Joh, vi. 70. used before a noun 
it is unchanged. Joh. xi. 9. 

twelf-feald,* twelvefold, ^l, 
66:34. 

twenti,* twentig, m.f.n. twen- 
ty ; g. twentigra ; d. twentigum. 

twcd,* m, doubt ; d. twedn,twy'n; 
biitan tw^n, without doubt. 
67:7. 

twedan,* to doubt ; ne twedp 



hvcOgao] GLOI 

nsenne mon, bo man douhls. 

Boil. xxK\-ii. 3- S'wtwedgan. 
tweugan,* twednian, to doubl, 

hentatc, vaciUaU ; p. tweijde or 

twcugde. 
tweolue, twelve. A. R. 
lvyita\A* tux>/old. 
twig,* in. hvig, branch. 
tw^n.* dvubl. See Iwed 
twj'nian,* At doui/, be doubi/ul, 

hesitak ; p. -ode, -ede. Joh. 

xiii. 22. See tweogan. 
twinnc, double. O. 
twynnc, lit., to divide into two 

parts (/I. S. iwegen, twi) ; 

in a general seme, to separate, 

depart. C. 837. 
twijjess, twice. O. 104, 11753. 



lua.A. Z.465. 

ua;ireste, /<«r«/. L. 

ualden, feolde. /. pi. felled. L. 

valeie, valley. R. 

valewcS, pr. y. fadelk. {^A, S. 

fealwian, logrowjvllaio.) AJi. 
uallcS, _/a//j, belongs. A. R. 
vzhe, false. A.R. 
y-ua.\f, falls, happens. A. I. 

234:19- 
uand,/>.j. found. A. I, 
vant-warde, vanguard. R, 
varf, fareth, fare, act, R. ^yj. 
vasle, fast. R. 
uaumpeK, vamps. A.R. 166:15. 
vavaser, middling landholder. C. 

36!. 

vch a, each a, every. P. P. 96. 
vche, each, every. P.P. 239. 
McieY, father. A.R. 
uedoien, feathers. A. R. 
veil, old woman j> P.P. 223. 
uciles, veils. A. R. 



sARY. 464 

ueire, /airfy. A. R. 

ueirest.y^/mi A.R. 

vel. pa. fell, R. 

uelajrede, /t/JbiwAy), mUramru. 
A.I. 

uelde, d.s. field, plain. L. 

uele, many. A, I. 

j'-uele6, pr. pl./al. A. R. 

ve\]<iddGn, p. pi. felled Z.368. 

uelles, sims. A. R. 

uelp, pr. pi. fill. A. I. 

yxec^, filth. A. I. 

venerje, hunting. C. 166. 

ueng, look possession of. R. 

ueole, ^any. A. R. 

ueond, fiend. A. R. 

veortSe, fourth. A. R. 

uer, farther ; no uer, nafarSur. 
R. 

uerde, p. s. fared, went on. L 
1013. 

verde, ferde, host, army. L. 

verdite, verdict. C. 789. 

mere, companion, comrade. L 
439- 

(Vere, pi. companions. L. • 

vernicic, dimin. of Veronike 
( Veronica'). A copy in minia- 
ture of the picture of Christ, 
which is stipposed to hone htm 
miraculously imprinted upon t 
handkerehief preserved in ik 
church of St. Peter at Rom. 
P.P. 277 ; C. 687. 

verst, first. R. 

vertue, virtue, power, effica^. 
C.4. 

vertue, vertu, strength. Pt. 
kIv, 2. 

vertues, powers, armies, hosts, 
Ps.xlv. 8, 12. 

ueste, fast, lightly. A, R, 

veaieU, fasteth. A, R. 



465 



GLOSSARY. 



[uncdC 



uestimenz, vesfmenis. A, R. 

/-uestned, pp, fastened, fixed, 
{A. S, ^^faestnian. ) A. R. 

uet, /eef. A, R. 

uette.y^^/. A. R. 

vewe, /hu. R, 

ufan,* u fen an, above, /rom above, 

ufele, adv. with evil, evilly, L, 

ufen, ufenan, aver, above, L, 
240. 

^isuferian,* to exalt, elevate. Bos- 
worth, ^^uferan. 

ufor,* ufur, comp. ^ up, upp, 
higher; ufor and ufor, higher 
and higher, Ds, 97:2^. 

uht,* 3/1 wight, creature, Os, 

viage, voyage {by sea or land), 

a 77, 

vif, five. A, I, 

\\kQ, fifth. A. R, 

uihte, fight, battle, {A, S, 
fyht) A, R, 

vilanye, rudeness, bluntness, as 
of a villain or serf C. 728. 

villiche, vilely, foully, R. 

vilonye, indecency ; language or 
conduct of a villain or serf, C, 
70. 

vingre, d.s. finger. A, I, 

uirste, [orrest, furthest, L, 262. 

uisliche, wisely. A, R, 

uissillus. Os, 92:8. M.lfred 
mistakes the Psylli, a people of 
Libya, who were skilled in the 
art of sucking poison from 
wounds, for the name of a ser- 
pent applied for that purpose, 
Frustra Caesare eliam Psyllos 
admovente, qui venena ser- 
pentum e vulneribus homi- 
num haustu revocare atque 
exsugere solent Thorpe, 
vitaille, provisions, C. 571. 



20* 



vleo, pr, subj. ^s. fly. A, R, 
vleoinde, flying. A, R. 
vleotJ, fly. A, R, 
vlesches, flesh s, A. R, 
ulesse, flesh. A. I, 
ulesslich, fleshly, carnal. A, I, 
ule^en {A, S, fleoga), flies^ 

muscse. A, I, 
vlyef, pr. pi. fly. A, I. 
ulih, pr.s, fleelh, L. 260. 
ulo^en, /. //. drove off, put to 
flight, Z. 356. 
/ulo^en, pp, flown, fled, L, 
vlnht, flight. A. R, 
ummbefennkenn {A, S, ymbe- 

fencan), to think about, con- 
sider, O, 11814. 
unabindendlic,* indissoluble, Bs, 
unaifel,* unnoble, ignoble, Bs, 
unanbindendlic,* indissoluble, 

Bs, See unabindendlic. 
undrwurtSian,* to dishonour ; p, 

-ode ; pp, -od. 
undsiwod,* unsewed, without 

seam, foh, xix. 23. 
unbeboht.* unbought. 78:29. 
unbindan,* to unbind, loosen, 
free ; subj. pr. unbinde. foh. 

i. 27. See bindan. 
unblis,* 3/1 unhappiness, ^l. 

63:20. 
unc,* d. ace. dual, us two. foh. 

See ic. 
uncer.* g. dual of ic, our two, 

used as a possessive adj. pron. , 

and declined indefinitely ; g. un- 

cres, uncre, uncres ; d. un- 

crum, uncre, uncrum ; ace. 

uncerne, uncre, uncer ; pi. 

uncre, uncra, uncrum, uncre. 
unces, ounces, small portions, C. 

679. 
uncu^,* uncouth, unknown, be- 



under] GLOi 

longing loanolAer, strange. Joh. 

X. s. 
under,* under, helmv, among. 
underbcec,* behind the back, be- 

hind, backwards. Joh. xviii. 6. 
under-cing.* i"« under-cyning. 
under-cyning,* zm. an undcr- 

king. viccrqv, giWfrnor, ruler. 
uiiderfcng.* See underfon. 
underfun,* lo undertake, recehx, 

accept, take ; p. underfeng ; 

//. -fengon. 67:1; 75:16; _/oA. 

i. II, iz; V. 41; xviii. 3. See 

fun. 
vnderfonge, //. received. P.P. 

377- 
under-ginnan* (21), to under- 
take; /.j.-gann ; pi. -gunnon ; 

pp. gunncn. ^1. 
underg}'tan*( 14), to understand, 

knmv, perceive ; p. undergeat ; 

pi. undci^ton. Joh. viii. 27; 

xii. 16; 67:2 ; 70:1. 
underneoSan,* underneath. Os. 
unUeretandan* (9), to under- 
stand; he undersienl (-siynt); 

p.s. undersiud ; pi. undersw- 

don ; pp. understanden. 64:14. 

See standan. 
vnderstonde, pp. known, remem- 
bered R. 212. 
underslondep, imp. pi. think of, 

remember. R. 396. 
nnderueng, ^. 3J, received. A.R. 
vnderueng, received. R. 
underuo, imp. pi. receive. A.R. 
underuon, to receive. A. R. 
underuongen, underuon, to iw- 

cept, receive ; p. underueng ; 

pp. underuon. A. R. 
undcrfeodan,* to resign, addict, 

subject, subiiue ; p. -Jteddde; pp. 

-I)c<jded, -peddd ; uuderiSeddd 



;ARY. «66 

Codes &, subject to Goitka. 

Hi'- 

underpeow,* zm. under-semiMi, 

subject. 93:34. 
undcrgrowe, undergroam, iehu 

the medium height. 
vndirloute, //. subjected, moJi 

obedient. Gen.XXXvii.8.See\QWt. 
uneaSe,* at(/'. uneasy, diffiadl ; 

adv. not easily, toUh difficulty, 

aarcdf. 
uni-Se,* uneasy, unpleasaM, Oi. 
unfeor,* not/ar,nigh,near. Jth. 
unforbserned, * uniurn^. 
unfracodlice, * tiol dishonaur- 

ably. Bs. 
unfriS, * 2m, discord, enmity, 

hostility. 
ungefohge,* incomprekensify, 

inconceivably. 
ungefrseglice,* exlraordim^, 

in an unheard 0/ manner. It- 

ungeltered.* unlearned. jEL 
ungeleafful,* full 0/ unbelief, 

unbelieving, faithless. Joh. iii. 

36; XX. 27. 
nngeliefedlic,* incredible. Os. 
ungelyfedlic,* incredible. 
ungemiei,* exceeding. Os. 
ungemieilic, * immeasurable, im- 



Mngciaetiic,* immense, boundless, 
exceeding. Os, 

ungemetllce, * immeasurably, 
immoderately, exceedingly. 

ungemyndig,* unmindful, 

ungenjidde,* unforced, volunta- 
rily. Os. 

ungeriseulic,* unbecoming, un- 
worthy. Bs. 

ungerisenlice, * unfitlv, unbecom- 
ingly, ittdaenlly. Bs. 



467 



CLOSSARV. 



llll-(.\ Mi 



li 



uni;(Jsful<N, 3/I unhii/'/'incss, in- 
/tlicity. Bs. 

ungestx'|>|>eg, * inconstant ^ un- 
steady. Bs, 

ungewis,* 2/I ignorance, Os, 

ungewunellc,* unwonted ^ un- 
usual, 64:14. 

ungefwder,* discordant, Bs. 

ungej)wdernes,* 3/I discord, dis- 
sension, division , wickedness, 
Joh, vii. 43 ; ^. C, 110:1. 

vnilic, unlike. L. 547. 

vnimete, immeasurably. A, R, 

uniseli, unhappy. A, R. 

unmetta,* excess, Bs, 

unmiht,* 3/I unmighl, weakness, 
impotence, Bs, 

unmihtig,* unmighfy, weak, im- 
potent. Bs. 
^mnnan* {preteritrve)^ to give, 
grant, bestow ; ic ann, ^^nn, 
)ni unne ; pi. unnon, unnan, 
^^unnon ; /. d^e, ge^^e ; //. 
litSon ; pp. gexxiiXifin. 

unnc {A, S. unc), dual ace. 
us two. O, 27, 85, 87. 

unnkerr {^A, S. uncer), dual 
gen, 0/ us two, O. 80. 

unnderrfanngenn, to under take, 
receive. O, 

vnnen, pr. pi. grant, allow. 
(^A. S. unnan). H. HI. 

nrniien, mnne {A. S. ^^unan), 
to grant. Z. 482. 

unnet, *2n. vanity, uselessness. Bs. 

vnnefe, uneasily, with difficulty. 
H, P. 247:10. scarcely, R. ; 
P. P. 100. 

unnyt,* useless, vain ; unprofit- 
able. Bs. 

unnitt, useless, vain ; onn un- 
nitt, uselessly, to no purpose. 
O. 82. 



unnncd {A. S. iiii-ncJiL;c j. 
without constraint. O, 1 1 4 5 7. 

unnorne, plain, simple, rude. 
O. 1 1 548. 

unnshafipesse {^A. S. unscx^- 
tJignys), guiltlessness, innocence, 
O. 212. 

unntodaeledd, undivided, insepar- 
able. O, 11518. 

unntrutnmnesse, infirmity. O. 

1 1938. 
}iiin\ii^,useless, unprofitable, A.R, 
unorne, plain. A, R, 
unrccheleas, indifferent, careless. 

A.R. 

unreht,* unright, wrong, Bs. 
unriht,* unrihtlic, unright, un- 
just, wrong, 
unriht-hdemed,* 2n, unlawful ^ 

cohabiting, forniccUion, adultery; 

d,s. unrihton hdemede. Joh, 

viii. 3, 4. 
unrihtllce,* wrongly, unjustly, 

Bs, 
unriht wis,* unrighteous, unjust, 

iniquitous, Bs, 
unrihtwisnis, * J/C unrighteous- 
ness, iniquity, Joh. vii. 18 ; 

60:25. 
unry^t, unright, injustice. R.ii$, 
vnrijt, unriht, wrong, injustice, 

R. 
unr6t, * uncheerful, sorrowful, 

sad, Joh, xvi. 20. 
un r6tnes, * 3/I cheerlessness, Bs, 
unr6tnys,* 3/C cheerlessness, sor- 
row, sadness, mourning, Joh, 

xvi. 6, 20, 21. 

unscaetStSig,* harmless, innocent, 
vnschape, irregular, distorted, 

H. P. 247:9. 
unsqrldig,* guUthss, innocent 

60:3. 



unslict] GLO; 

unshet, to uns&ut, ofna. G. 71. 
vn-snuwcn, io unitw. rip o/kh. 
P.P. 48. 
uns[tciiis,* unsucctst/ul, poor, 

unstilk',* unslHI, rtsllas. 

uiitiffcd, unadorned. A. R. 

MX&W^iX* dtUiluti. Bi. 

uniynan,* lo unclose, ojna, rt- 
ve.1l; p. untj^ndc, Joh.-'ix. 30. 

uniiSdAIedlic,* not lobe darideJ, 
indkisibU ; gen»3y swelol hit is 
yviAMi f^ud is anfeald and un- 
toil*Iedlic, U is dear mough 
//ill/ good is single andindrvisibU. 

Bl. KSsiii. 1. 

unlrum,* siik, weak, infirm. 

6o:i, II ; 63:1a 
ftunlrumian,* lo make sici or 

infirm, la weaken; p. -ode; pp. 

-od. 
untrumnys,* untrj-mnys, ^. 

infirmiiv, sickniss. 69:33. 
vmuledl//, uiililUd. Ji. 
unlwco^'endlke,* undouhtedly. 

Os. 
unweorlSlIc, * unworthy, dishon- 
ourable. Os. 
unwinsum,* unplcasunl. 63:19. 
un-wbdum,*2ffi. lackqf wisdom, 

imprudtme. S. C. 110:3. 
unwitendc,* mrwiilingly, un- 

knmtiing. Os. 
unfancc-s,* (JJihVu/ Ihe will or 

consent (Zi;/. invite) ; heora 

unyances,agains/lhn'rivish.Os. 
unfancwuriSc,* unacccp/able, a- 

gainst ihe will, constrained, dii- 

untieau, unScawe, a fault, sin, 
vice; pi. unSeawes. A. H. 

unpedw,* zw. tad or anihabit, 
fauU, vice. 



unScawcs, sins, vi,-/s. A. R. 
uo,^o,/o,;pl. uoan. A. R. 
aoia, /ots. A. Ji. Sctm. 
vol, full. R. 
volliche. /«//!. R. 
uoluclf. fulfils. A. I. 

vond, /. J-. found. R. 
uondungc, lanf^ation ; pi. uoo- 

dunges, A. R. 
uor, for, because, bv reasim i-f. 

A. R. ; R. 
vOT,for. A. R. ; R. 
uor-arnd. R. 461. Mortii 

suggests Ihiil Ihe word ihaM 

be uor-amad, harassed. {A. S. 

carmian, lo grii-ve, treubU. ) 
vorbamd, //. turned up. R. 
uorbed, p.s. forbade. R. 
uorbisne, e-vample, situSiaiL 

A.R. 
\iorhye.% forbidt. A. I. 
vorewarde, foreword, premst, 

agreement, cascnant. R. 
\ia\lot\i, forlorn, ruined. 
uorgulic, guilty. A. R. 
uor hwi, why. A. R. 
uorleoscn, lo Jose ; p. uorleai: 

pp. vorloren. A. R. 
uorljeseji, pr. pi. lose, farfd 

A.'I. 235:2. 
uouat, former. A. R. 
vorpriked, much pierced. R. 
uorl, until. A. R. 
uorte, for to. A. R. 
votte, for to. A. R. 
uortc, itnii/. R, See (one. 
vorle, untd. R. 
uono.frto. A.R. 
vorto, until. R. 
uort te, far lo, in order to. A.R. 
uor- wounded, mucA uvunded. 

R. 



469 



GLOSSARY. 



[user 



uoryctcp, pr. pL/or^d, A. I. 
uorzuercj), pr.s. /or swears. A,L 
uorzueric, subj. pi, forswear, 

A. I. 
VLor6y forth ; so uoiU so, as far 

as. A, R, 
voTZM^miigts, forswearings. A, 

I. 
uor8i, vorSi, for this, because, 

wherefore. A, R, 
uorfenche, to repent. A. I. 
\xox, foot ; pi. uet, uolen. A.R, 
uouIe,y?w/. A, I, 
voxe, d.s. fox, L. 239. pi. 

uoxes, voxes. A. R. 
up,* upp, up, Joh, viii. 7, 10. 

comp, ufor, upper, higher ; ufor 

and ufor, higher and higher ; 

up on, upon, 
up, prep, upon, R, 3. 
up-dhcbban,* to heave, raise, 

lift up ; f u up-dhefst, he up- 

dhefiJ ; p. up-dh6f; //. up- 

dhofon ; pp. up-dhdfen. /oh. 

iii. 14 ; vi. 5 ; xii. 32. 
up-drjferan,* to uprear, raise up, 

excite, heighten; p. -de ; pp. -ed. 
vp-holders, upholsterers, P.P, 

168. 
vpe, up, upon, R. 
uplic,* upplic, on high, high, 

lofty, 
vplondische, upland, northern, 

H. P. 246:13. 
upp.* ^^^ up. 
uppan,* upon, beyond, after, 

against, /oh. x. II. ^<^^ up- 

pon. 
uppan d, upward, A. R, 
uppflore,* ace, s. m. uppcrjloor, 

,S. C. I £0:20. 
uppo, upon. 0, 
uppon,* upon, against, after. 



upponn, in, 0. 69. 

uprine,* upr)ne, im. up course, 

rising. Bs. 
vpsodoun, upside-down, LL xv. 

8. 
up-stigan* (20), to go up, as- 
cend, mount; p.s. -stdh ; //. 

-stigon ; pp. -stigen ; pr. p. 

up-stigende. /oh. i. 51. See 

stigan. 

upweard,* upward, 
vp^ede, to yield, deliver up, R, 
VT, our. P,P, 46, 54 ; R, 
UTzm,/rom, A, I. 
ure,* g. pi. 0/ ic, 0/ us, our ; 

used as a possessive adj. pron. , 

and declitied indefinitely; g, 

ilres, dre, tires ; d, drum, dre, 

drum ; ace. drne, dre, dre ; 

//. dre, drra, drum, dre. 
vre, our, L. 
urech, ravenous. A. R. {A, 

S, free.) 
ureomede {A. S, fremed), a 

stranger, alien, A. R. 
ureonden, to make /r lends, A. 

R. 166:26. 
ureoschipe, /reeship, liberality. 

A, R. 
urejiie (A. S. fredSian), to keep, 

observe. A. I. 
umon,*/.//. ran, /oh, xx. 4. 

*S'^^ yrnan. 
uroefrien (^. S. frdfrian), to 

com/ortf solace. L. 
wxom, /torn. A. R, 
usell, wretched, miserable, mean 

in condition, O. 1 1 5 9 1 . 
vs seluen, ourself, H. iii 
dser, * g. pi. of ic, of us, our ; 

used by the poets for ure ; g. 

usses» ussc, usses ; d. ussuin, 

usse, ussum; ace. userne, ussc, 



us ihoughte] GLOl 

user; pi. usse (user), ussa, 

Aissum, usse (user). 
us thoughle, il seemed to us, C. 

787, See )>incan. 
lit,' lite, a<!/v. ou/, wilhoul, ex- 
ternally, abroad. Joh. viii. 9 ; 

xviii. 16. comp. iJtor. ipdj- 

(iucra, liira, ^ira, ^ra; superl. 

yieniesl). 
lit-adrifan* (20), lo drive out, 

exful. Sii driian. 
litan,* outiuards, from wiihoul, 

beyond, about, around. Bs. ; 

Os. 
6.W\-ymb,* aboui,ar0untf, round- 

lit-iweorpan* (18), to east out; 
he -wjrpiS ; p.s. -iwearp ; pi. 
-dwurpon ; pp. tit-iworpen. 
Joh. vi. 37; xii. 31. 

uie.* See dl. 

i3t-gin,* to go out. See gin. 

uton.* used vjilh an infinitive to 
express a proposal ; uion gin, 
aud sweltan mid him, let us go 
and die with him. Joh. si. 1 6. 
it is equivalent to the Latin ngc, 
agedum, agitedum, let us do 
so and so. (^Fr. allons.) It is 
properly a (orruptid form 0/ the 
subj. pres. pi. \p. 0/ witan, to 
go, depart & = eamus ; " cum 
infin. vcrborum notione se 
movendi prseditorum baud 
raro jungiiur, e. gr. viiin 
(utdn) gangan, eamus; viidn 
fyligean, sequamur," EttmiU- 
ler's Lexion A. S. Thefollma- 
i"g forms are given in Grein's 
Glostar,, vutan, vuton, vutun, 
utan, uton. 
lilon,* without, beyond. See 

jmbiitan. 



AKY. 470 

uttre, outer, outward, txternd. 

A. R. 
dt-wearJ,* outward ; comp. ylfa, 

ytera ; superl. jiemest 
vuel, evU, sichtess. Z. ; R. 
vuele, evil ; pi. vueles. A. R. 
vuele, evilly, L. 
uuellen, folle, /. pi. fdi L 

796. 
uuhor, 2m. vulture. 104:18. 
^•i!K,* your. Joh. viii. 54, 
i-tSen, //. waves. L. 3J7. 
liSwita,* im, a wise inan,^^- 

opher. Bs. 






wa, woe, O. 209. 

wenn. 0. 242. 
waar, aware/ I v 

percehad. Ct 157. 
wic,* weak, sUnder, infiia. 

mean, vile; anil wacum wa:f- 

eJse befangen, clad in mam 

attire. 69:28. 
waccneplf, trans, awakens, roma. \ 

0. j 

wakemen, watchmen. A. R. \ 
wakicC, watcheth. A. R. 
wacol,* wacei, watchful. 66:iS; 

69:3, 4. 
wacollice, * watchfully, vigilanliy, 

69:5. 
wacsan,* waxan (9), to wash. 

See wascan. 
wad, what. R. loi. 
waecce,* if. watch, watihing, 

vigil. 69:32. 
wasdla,*/wr; lakes only the dtf. 

decl. 
wKdIian,* to becotne poor, to beg; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od. Joh. is. S, 
waefels,* 2m. a covering, cloak, 

garment, 69:28. 



471 



GLOSSARY. 



[wamede 



wael,* 2«. slaughter^ carnage, 

death ; collectively , the dead on 

a battlefield, 85:18. 
waeld,wald, weald, plain^ Z. 240. 
M*aele, slaughter, Z. 804. 
w-aelhredwnes,* 3/I cruelty^ 

bloodthirstiness, Bs, 
w&pcn,* 2«. weapon; pL w^- 

pen, wdbpnu. 
waepenn, weapon. O, 
waepnedd, wcaporud^ armed, O, 

1 1885. 
waer, war, ware, where. Z. 
w^re. * See wesan. 
n^aertS, ;*warl>, p.s, became. Z. 
wseslm,* 2m. fruit. 64:14. 
vaeslmbdere,* fruit-bearings 
fruitful, fertile, 
waeicr,* m, water ; pi. waeter, 

waeteru, wajtru, vaetro. 
waeter- fat,* water-vat, or - vessel; 

pi. waeter-falu. foh. ii. 6, 7 ; 

iv. 28. See{'!^\.. 
waetro,* pi. waters, foh. iii. 

23. See waeter. 
waferer, a maker of sacramental 

wafers. P. P. 383. usedforfem. 
wag,* wah, 2m. wall, paries, 

murus. 
wagian,* to wag, shake, move to 

and fro ; p, -ode ; //. -od. 
wah. * .S*^^ wag. 
wah^en, d. pi. clubs, L. 995. 
1- way ted, //. watched, seen to ; 

/-wayled his profyt, consulted 

his interest. P. P. 300. 
wayiud, p.s. watched ; waylud 

after, looked for. C 527. 
wdlawd,* well -a- way, well-a-day, 

alas I 
wa 1 k end , pr, p. walking, G. 
wald. See waeld. Z. 
viO^d, possibly. O, 118 15. 



walde, wolde, would. L, 
walde, /t^ztw. t?. 204, 12010. 
waldende, one ruling; waldende 

haefnen, ruler of heamen, L. 

483. 
walleb, wallows or rolls about. 

P. P. 71. 
walle, wille, d, well, spring, L, 

733- 
warn, whom, R, 

wan, which. R, 

wan, p.s, won, R. 

wan, when, since, R, loi. 

wana,* im. want, Bs, 

wana,* wanting, lacking ; has 
only the def infl. foh. xiv. 2. 

wane, what. L. 

wang teth, molar teeth, Ps. Ivii. 7. 

wan i an J* in trans, to wane, de- 
crease, waste, decay ; trans, to 
diminish, take away, lessen ; p. 
-ode ; pp. -od ; subj. pr. wan- 
ige. Joh. iii. 30. 

wannesse, grief. Is. liii. 5. 

wantoun, wanton, free, unre- 
strained ; wan ^ un- ; -toun 
= togen, trained, from A, S. 
tecjn, to lead, educate ; pp. ge- 
logen. C. 208. 

war, ware, where. L. 774. 

war, ware, aware, L. 909. 

war, imp. s, biware ; with a re- 
dundant dative of the subject; 
war J>e. P. P. 225. 

warenian,* to btware of, guard 
ones self Bs. 

warcuore, wherefore, for which, 
R. 

ware-foru , wherethrough, through 
which, b}' what means. R. 

warinar, warrener. P. P. 159, 

wamede, p.s. warned, blamed, 
reproached, P. P. 



warp] GLOi 

waip. A/weorpen. L. 
Marr|>,^.J. i'wwutrfcnn, (?.iS4. 

varu,* %f. guardiiitiship, pro- 

kilion ) hud, (art. 60:21. 
waru,* %f. ware, mtrihandm. 
warti, happitttd, lurntd out, L. 

404. llii finl IcxI rcadt iwratS. 

See wuriSen. 
warforu, wherethrough, through 

u-hich. R. 
ttascan,* wacsan, waxan (9), 

lo wash ; p.s. \vi5sc, wox ; pi. 

wdscon, wdxon ; pp. «-ascen, 

wxsccn. 
was, * i. q. wees. Bs. 
waschelS, imp.pl. -amsk. A. R. 
waselede, p.s. beniired himself. 

{A. S. wus, oou, mud.) P. C 

128. 
wdsl,* ttdl. ^« witan. 
wast, n. waste, waste land, R. 
waslcl breed, cake-bread. C. 147. 
wasiors, umsters, extravagant 

personi. P. P. 24. 
wat, K'Afl/,- wal hall it lo telle 

long? why tell a long story /> R. 

164. 
wai, wot, pr.s. guards; in/. 

wiicn. L. 701. 
wat wat, what what, 

partly. partly. R. 

waie, luck, fortune, hap, fate, 

decree. R. 116. 
water.* i'« waiter. 
waicrrkirn, water-kitt. 0. 193, 
watloker, much more, sooner, 

raiher. {A. S. hntcllk, sharp, 

^&h.) R.$ig. 
v.wc{A.S.) v>Ag,wave. G.157. 
wawenn, //. wees. O. See wa. 
wajier so, whatsoever. L. 
wajen. See weijes. L. 
wajhe, wall. O. 11352, 11740. 



wajj, woe. O. 11904. 

wealcan* (r), to w^alk; pi. 
weiilc ; J>1. wedlcon ; Jf. we- 
alcen. 

weald,* zm.VLeaM, wold, feral 
£s. 

geviaXd,* ge^-aXA, 2m. pouxr. 

wealdan,* ^i-wealdan, ^iTfjldan 
( I ), to U'itld, goDem ; ^u 
wealdest, weltsi, he "tir, 
wylt, wealdefi ; /. weold ; fl 
wedldon ; pp. (^f-)nealden. 
66:13. 

wealdend,* ttn. a ruler, gota- 

wealdende,*/oaw/«/. Bt. 

wealhstod,* zm. translator, vi- 
ler preter. 95:1. I 

weall,* 2»7. wall. 

weallan* (r), to-well, ipring,er 
bubble up, boil; he wytfi ; /.i. 
wedll ; pi. weillon ; //. t^e)- 
weallen. Os. 

wcall-gebrec, * zn.wall-lreakmg. 
Os. 

wealwian,* bewealwian. to roll, 
ualle-w; p. -ode ; //. -od 
£s. 109:5. 

weamodc, discontented. A. S. 
159:20. 

wcariS,* p.s. became, it camt It 
pass, was. Os. See wtottar. 

wcis,* by chance, by accielenl. \ 
Bs. 105:29, 

weaxan* (1), Jto wax, grmo, in- 
crease ; fii w)xt, he wj-x8 ; /. 
we<5x ; pi. wedxon ; pp (gc-) 
weaxen. f oh. iix. 30; 65:19. 

wcbbe, a weaver ; f. webslerre. 

a 364. 

wecche, watching ; pi. wecchess. 

O. 11437- 
wtdan, * to rave, U mad, rage ; 



473 



GLOSSARY. 



[wenetJ 



ic w^de, he wdt ; /. w^dde ; 
//. w^ed. Joh. X. 20. 

wedan* (12), to wed; p,s, 
waed ; //. w^don ; pp, weden. 

wede, c hiking ; feble wede, 
poor apparel. R, 156. 

fweden, wede, garments, ar- 
mour, L. 558. 

w^dende,* pr.p, mad, raving ; 
wedende hund, mad dog, Bs, 

105:24. 
"weder, n. weather ; g. wederes ; 

d, wedere-n. Z. 
weders, weathers. P. C. 133. 
wefan* (12), to weave; p.s. 

waef ; //. w^fon ; pp. wefen. 
weg,* weig, ini. way; ealne 

weg, ahvay. 69:6. 
wegan (12), to weigh; p.s, 

waeg ; pi, wdegon ; //. wegen. 
wei, way. JR, 
weie, way; g.s. weis ; sum- 

mes weis, in some way; pi. weis, 

A. R, 
weie, balance {A. S. wdeg.) 

A.R. 
weie, to weigh, P.P. 118. 
weye, to weigh ; p, weyede. P. 

P. 
weig.* See weg. 
wei la wei !* welawayf alas I 

See wdlawd. 
weile, pr. s. \p. wail, bemoan, 

P.P. 
wei^es, weyes, p.s. clubs, staves ; 

d. wah^en, wa^en, wawes. L. 

904, 995. 

wel,* well, well, very, most, al- 
most ; comp. bet ; supcrL betst ; 
wel cynelice, most royally. Os. 

wel, full ; wel nyne and twenty. 
C. 24. 

wel, very, C. 616, 617. 



wela,* \m. weal, wealth, pros- 
perity, happiness ; pi, welan, 
riches. 

weldcn, to conquer, possess, win, 
{A. S. wealdan. ) A, R. 

welgian,* ^nvelgian, weligian, 
to enrich, endow ; p, -ode ; //. 
-od. 

welig,* wcleg, wealthy, rich, 
prosperous, bountiful. 

welni,* 3ZW. heat, fire. Bs. 

welsum, going on well, prosper- 
ous. Gen. xxxvii. 14 ; Is. Iv. 11. 

welt,* wields, governs. Bs. 
102:1. *SV^ wealdan. 

w6n,* ^ a weening, supposition, 
presumption, foh. viii. 19. 

wenan,* to ween, think, suppose ; 
p. wende ; pp. (^«?-)wened ; 
wenst fil, thinkest thou? used 
as an interrogative particle. 

wendan,* ^^wendan, to wend, 
go ; to turn, return ; translate; 
convert ; fii wenst, he went ; 
//. wendatJ ; /. wende ; pp, 
wended. 

wende, to turn ; wende to zenne, 
turn to sin. A. I. p. pi. wend- 
en, turned, veered. L. 348. 

wende, /.J. went ; pi. wenden. 
A.R. 

wende, p.s. weened, supposed, ex- 
pected. L. 450; R. 88, 89. 

wende, to wend, go ; p.s. wende. 
R. 86. 

/wende, p.s, went. L, 

wenden, wende, /. //. weened, 
thought ; inf. wenen. 

wendef, wcndeth, goeth. L. 

wenene, whence. R. 

wene^, pr. s. thinks, A. R. 

wenc"5, pr,pl. wccn, suppose. 
A. R. ; A. I. 



wcnges] GLOS 

wenges, wings. .If. 
gmeaizn.* lo accustom; p. -ede; 
pp. -ed. Bs. 
wennde, p.s. wendfd, lurntd ; 

rcJI. he wennde himm. O. 

1 1 310. pp. wennd, turned, 

irditslixltd. O. 13, 113, 147. 
went. pr. s. goes. A. R. 
weofod,* 2«. altar; pd. weo- 

Todu. 
Wconodland. See Winedaland. 
wetjp.* See w^ian. 
weope, lo we<p. P. P. 44- 
wcorc, • ^iTieorc, 2n. work ; pi. 

.core >1. X. 3Ji»iv.... 
weorcan,* ^^veorcan. See wjt- 

weorc-man,* ivorirnan. Bs. 
weore, suij. p. s. were. P. P. 

180. 
weore-n, p. pi. were. L. ; P. 

/>. ,3. 

wcorclled, world. 0. 

weorelldshipess, 0/ worldly bus- 
iness. 0. 11427- 

wcorien, to defend. L. 688, 

weorold,* weoruid, J/C ivorld. 
Os. has ace. like nom. and 
sometimes gen. in es. 

weorpan* (18), to lhrou>, cast; 
he wyrpC ; p.s. wearp ; //. 
wurpon ; pp. worpen. 

weorpen, lo thrim\ cast; p.s. 
weorp, warp; //. weorpen. L. 
528. 

iVeorred, //. attacked, warred 
upon. A. R. 

weortS,* %n. worth. Jok. vi. 7, 

weorjian,* ^Ak'eorfan, wuiSan, 
wjrSan (18), to become, he, 
come to, be made, turn; ic wc- 
orSe, fi5 «)Tst. he wyrS ; pi 
wcor]faa, weorSe we ; p.s. 



sARY. 47* 

weartS, J>iS wurde, he weart ; 

pl. wurdon ; svbj. frr. weorte ; 

pi. weorSon ; p. wurde; pl. 

wurdon ; mp. i. weoifi ; pl. 

weorJ>a8, weortSe ; dot. inf. lo- 

weorisanne ; /. pr. weorttende ; 

pp. {ge)v:oi<ien. 
weortSe,* itvrt/iy; supcrL we- 

orfest, most worthy. Bs, 
weortSfuUice,* wortkify. 
^ffl'eorfian,* tohonour, icorship; 

p. -ode ; pp. od. 
weortSmynt,* wurtSmjnt, «. 

honour, dignity, glory, aulhorily. 

60:10, iz. 
weortSscipe, • am. ttxrthihip, 

worthiness, honour. Bs. 
wep, p.s. wept. R. 124. 
wepend, pr. p. weeping. G. 31. 
w6pan (5), lo uucp, bewail; p.s. 

wedp ; pl. wedpon ; pp. we- 

pen, ifvvijpen. 
fiwepned,* tveaponcd, armed. 

S.CllQ.ll. 

iXvepned, t'wepnid, pp. weapontd. 
L. 

wcpnen, wepne, weapons, arms. 

vier,* 2m. man; husband. 66:15, 
21 ; 68:10. 

wer, whether; wer .... and 
wer, whether .... atid wheth- 
er. R. 

were, man ; g. wercss, 0. 

Il6o2. 

werk, work; pl, wcrkes. A. R. 
were, subj. should be. R. 712, 
wered,* werod, aw. a companv, 

multitude, host, army. 62:21 ; 

91:31. 
wcreden, werede, /. pl. dcftml 

ed. L. 436. 
werein, mere. M. 245:7. 



475 



GLOSSARY. 



[whou 



weren {A. S, werian), io shield^ 
protect. P. C, 133. 

were so, wheresoever, R. 

were^, wears. A, R. 

werien, to defend. H. III. 

werig, * weary. Joh. iv. 6. 

werlice,* manfully. 66:17, 19, 
20. 

werod. * See wered. 

werp, /. 3 J. cast. A. R. 

werrc, work, O. 24. 

werre, war, R, 

werrpenn, to casty scatter, 0, 

^verTscnriy to worsen. 0. 11845. 

iwersed, J>p. made worse, im- 
paired H, HI. 

werte, wart, C. 557. 

wer-wolues, were-wolves, man- 
wolves. P. C. 157. 

wes, was. L. 

wesan* (12), to be ; ic eom, fii 
eart, he is (ys) ; //. synd 
(syndon); p.s. ic, he, waes, fd 
wdere ; //. wderon ; subj. s. 
s^ (sed, sig) ; pi. %fci ; /. 
w&re ; //. wdbron ; imp. s. 
wes ; //. wesatJ, wese ; /. pr. 
wesende ; pp. ^tfwcsen ; dat. 
inf. t(j wesanne. See bedn. 

wcschte, /. pi. wished, P.P. 
195. 

wesp, wisp, P.P, ig^, 

wesste, waste, wilderness. O, 

wessteland, wilderness, desert. 
O. 

west,* west. 

west-djfel,* 2m, west part, the 
west. 

wcste,* waste, desert, barren. 

w^sten,* 2«. waste, desert, wil- 
derness, 

westen, to lay waste. L. 

westeweard,* westward, Os. 



West-S^* (Vester Hav), that 
part of the German Ocean which 
washes the western shores of 
Denmark, from the Elbe, and 
Norway. 

westweard,* westeweard, west- 
ward. 

weued, altar, R. i^A. S. weo- 
fod. 

wefe-bondes wise, withe-bound 
way. P.P. 272. 

wefer, which of the two, R, 95. 

we^e, to weigh. A. I, 

we^^e, vuay. O, 

whacker swa, wafer so, whether 
so, whatsoever, L, 276. 

whase, whoso. O, 55. 

what, ivhy. C, 184. what, lot 
C, 856. 

what so, whether ; what so he 
were of high or lowe estat. C, 

524. 
what so, whatsoever, G, 
whclkes, pimples, blotches, C. 

634. 

whenne. whence. P.P. 

wher, whether ; numquid. Gen, 
xli. 39. 

wher-forw, through which, where- 
by. P.P. 342. 

wherfur;, through which, where- 
by. H. Ill, 

which, what (qualis). C, 40. 

whiles, while; this is a more 
correct form than mod. Eng. 
'^whilst," being the g. s. 0/ 
while, C 35. 

whil fait, while. O, 

whit, wight. P. C, 128. 

whitere, g.pl. q/" brave, L. 758. 
•S"^^ wiht. L. 

whodcr, whither. P. P. 149. 

whou, hffw. P. C. 82. 



wliou^] GLOS 

whou), Aoio. P. C. 

whulc, which, whal ; g. whul- 

ches ; for whulches cunnes 

pinge, /or ivhai kind of thing? 

■why f L. 134- 
wiee,* 1/ /old; \c d<J pA ge 

geswlca* (iSbre wican, / wiii 

cause you lo depart /rem the 

/old. Ml. 61:6. 
wike, w/ek. P. P. 
wikenn, office, dufy. chargt. 0. 

66, 11932. 11S5Z. 
wician,* lo <fmeU, abide, guarttr., 

etuamPi p. -ode; pp. -od. 

77:5- 
wic-sidw,* i/. place/or a camp, 

camp, encampmint. 
wjder, whither. R. 127. 
wif.* an. wi/t, vionian ; pi. wif. 
wSrman,*-iDann, iivmoff. 66:19. 
wig-craift,* 27W. ivar-cra/t, the 

art 0/ war. Oi. {Ger. kampf- 

t&chiigkett). 

wihlii, Sting, person. 0. 11611. 
wihl,* wuht, uht, if. wight, 

creature, thing ; aught. 
wihl, wihie, brave, actm, keen; 

pi. wihte, wijite; ^. whilere ; 

superl. wihiesie. L. 495, 

wijf, wife. P. C. 131. 
Wijjt, wight P. C. 81. 

gcxW,* gev!\\], in. will, wish, 

wy!,*wjll, well, im., wyllc, 1/., 
wylla, im. a well, spring. Os. 

v.-M.*wild 

gevylii,* pp. e/ ^irwyldan, jwi- 
ducd, subjected, taken; used stdi- 
slanlii'cly, a prisnner ; id ge- 
wyldum gedon, to reduce tii 
subjection, Os. 

^ifwyldan. * Sec wcaKlan. 



sARY. 47* 

^^■yfde,* zm. paayr. Os. Su 

^iTveald, 
ivilJ-de(5r,* 2n. wild-heasl, w3d- 

deer ; pi. -deor. 
wilderne, d.s. wiUenuts. L. 
wildscipe, wildsipe, d.s. v/H- 

ntss, wanioniuss. L. 344. 
wiless, //. wiUs, guile. 0. 
wilgomen, pleasure. A343- 
wilia,* im. bcukel. 63:4. ace 

pi. wilion. 66:17. 5W«iliga. 
wiliga,* \m. wilige, iril^, 

wyltge, \/. tuillouhwork, ladA 
will,* wyll, xm. a mil. >t 

iv. 6. 14. 
geviiU.* See gev\l. 
wylle,* 1/ a ufeH. Os. 
willa,* im. wiil, desire. Bs. 
willan,* wyllan, towiS.mih; 

ic, he, wile (wiile), fi! wilt 

(wilst) ; pi. wil!a8 ; saij. J. 

wile (wilJe) ; pi. willon (-en, 

-an); p.s. woldc ; pL ml- 

don ; /*-. /. willende. 
wilie, (Ville, d.s. wiil; onwiU«, i 

at will. L. 
mWe, pleasure. R. 1 

willes. willingly. A. R. 1 

wiliesfol. Tviljul, ctmjideitL R. ' 
willung.* fiwilnung, ^ aiif, 

desire. 6B;8. 
wylm,* 2m. heat, /eraor, seal. 
wj'jne, to wish, desire. R. 101. 
wilne, suij. s. desire. P. P. 
wijnedon,*/. pt. desired. Os. 
wWaen, pi. will, desire. A. R. 
wylni, to will, desire. A. /, 
wylningge, willing, desire. A, 

^i^wilnian,* fo desire, long /or ; 

p. -ode ; pp. -od. 69:35. 
^fs'wiinung,* s/C will, desire. 

66rS; 6(>:i6. 



477 



GLOSSARY. 



[wyrm-cynn 



wim pel-leas, wimpleless, without 
wimple. A. R, 

win,* 2n, wine, 

win, wine. 0. 

wink, daze, slumber. P.P. 3. 

wynk, wynkynge, dozing, slum- 
bering. P.P. 212. 

wynkynge, dozing, slumbering. 

wind,* 2m. wind. Bs. 

windan* (21), to wind, revolve, 
whirl, brandish, surround ; he 
wint; p.s. wand; //. wundon; 
pp. wunden. Joh. xix. 2. 

winden, winde, to go, come. L. 
705, 967. 

wynde, to go, pass. R. 112, 
129. 

wineard,* wingeard,* 2m. vine- 
yard, vine. Joh. xv. 5. 

wine-maeies, kindred, relatives. 

L' 339- 
Winedaland, Weonodland, the 

country 0/ the Venedi or Wends. 

^^vinn,* 2n. war, contest, labour y 
sorrow. 

winnan,*^^winnan (21), to la- 
bour, strive, struggle, obtain by 
labour, win, overcome; p.s. 
wann, wonn ; //. wunnon ; 
//. wunnen. 

vfynriQ Jo raise, open. /*./'. 355. 

winnenn, to labour, win, obtain, 
overcome. O, 11421. 

winnien, to approach. L. 968. 

winter,* 2m. winter ; year ; g, 
wintres ; d, wintre (a) ; //. 
nom. ace. winter ; g, wintra, 
-e; d. wintrum. yb^ viii. 57. 

w}'nne vp, to draw up, raise. 

P- P- 355- 
winnien, to approach. L. 

wynsum,* winsome, agreeable, 

pleasant, sweet. Bs, 



wynt, wind. P.P. 73. 

wintres, wyntres, g. in or during 
winter. L. 

wynwe-schete, a sheet for win- 
nowing grain. P, C. 133. 

/-wipet. P.P. 195. The read- 
ings are, And wisshide it hadde 
be wexid • wif a wysp of firsen 
T ; And wy^schid it hadde be 
waxed * wif a wips of ferse H ; 
And wysschide it hadde waxidj 
• wif a wyspe of fyre U. / 
suppose the true reading to be 
wexed, as in text B, and m T, 
H, and U, Mr, Wright guessed 
the meaning of wexed to be 
washed, but in that case H is 
unlikely that so many MSS. 
would have preserved the letter 
X. It probably means * ^waxed, " 
i.e., stopped up, as one would 
stop with wax, . . . Skeat, 

wyrcan,* ^^wyrcan, to work, 
make, do, construct, exercise, 
practise ; p. worhte ; pp. (ge) 
worht 64:7, 19, 29. 

wirchef, pr.s, worketh, Z. 

vfyrd,* gey/y rd, ^. word, utter- 
ance, fate, destiny ; pi, wyrda. 
Os,; Bs. 104:1 g. 

wyrde,* became. Os, 

wirdlice. See wirtJlice. 

^^wyrht,* 2n. deed, desert ; bu- 
ton ^<?wyrhtum, undeservedly. 

wyrhta,* im. wright, workman. 
/El. 

wyrian,* wirgian, wyrgan, wyr- 
igan, to curse, execrate, malign; 
p. -ode ; //. -od. 

wyrm,* 2m. worm, serpent. 

wyrman,* to warm; p. -de ; pp, 
-ed. y^.^. xviii. 18,25. 

wyrm-cynn,* 2m. worm- or ser- 



wirrltenn] GLOS 

pittt-kmd ; nynn-crnna mis- 

senlicra, of tht various serpenl- 

kinds. Us. 
wirrkenn, io uvri, do, mate, per- 
form; p.s. wrohhte. O. 331. 

pi. wrohhtenn ; pp. wrohht. 

O. 
wyrs,* ado. worse; comp. of 

j-fctc ; superl. wjTst. 
wyn,* 3/r worl, phinl, herb; a 

root. 66 :9. 
KnTt-gemanc, * -gemang, 2«. 

herb-mixture, spices, perfume. 

Joh. xix. 39. 
wyrt-liin,* 2m. tuori-enchsure, a 

garden, /oh. xviii. i. 
ivyrt-weard. * zm. worl-ward, 

gurdemr, Joh. xx. 15, 
wyrKao.* See weorKan. 
wyr|>,* becomes. See weor^n. 
wyrilSe.* See weoiSe. 
wiriilice, worthily. L. 

wis, certain, aware. 0. 1 1599. 
j-wis, indeed, surely. R. 43. 
wisdom,* zm. wisdom. 

wisen, unn's. A. R. 

wisian,* wissian, f^u'fssian, io 

leach, instruct, show, point out, 

direct, govern ; p. -ode ; pp. 

■od. 60:4; 64:11; 75:13. 
Wislc, the Vistula. 
Wisle-mu|ia (WeichselmUnde), 

mouth of the Vistula. 
^^wislice,* ^fwisslice, surely, 

cerliiinty. 75:27. 
wislichc, wisely, prudently. A. R. 
(wislichen, d.s. certain, sure. 

L. 451. 
wiss, certainly, truly. O. 11605. 
wissen, to cause to know, teach, 

show. P.P. 187. 



ARY. 478 

wissenn, to instrucl, direct 0. 

11560. 
^fwissian.* See wEsian. 
wissinng, instruction, admomtioL 

ft 1 1830. 
wisslike {A. S. wislfce), eff- 

tainly, evidently. O. 167. 
wisl,* 3/^_/iwi/, a meal, repast. 
' pp. known, learned. P. C 



150. 



Sce^ 



wyt, * dual, we two. See ic 

wit, we two. L. 811. 811. I 

wii, common sense, natural w- 

derslanding. P.P. 
wiia.* \m. wise man, count^lar, 

senator. 63:14. 
witan* [preteritwe), to know, & 

conscious of, feel; ic, he, viL 

75:25. |>ii w^t; pi. witOD. 

/oh. vi, 69. wilan. wile ; ni^. 

s. V!iU ; pi wilon (-eo) : /.J. 

ic, he, wisle (wisse), flS wis- 

test (wissest) ; />/. wiston (wis- 

son) ; sub/, s. wisie (wisse) ; 

pi. wisten (wissen) ; imp. t. 

wite ; pi. wiiaS ; pres. part. 

witende ; pp. grwiim. 
witan,* to blame, reproach; li 

punish ; pp. wiiod. Ss. 
witan, •/»■. pi. ^ witon. Os. 
witan* (20), gewlmn, to pass 

over, go, depart, retreat ; he 

gi-v'A ; p. geviai ; pi. gewhon ; 

pp. gewiten. 
wite,* 2n. punishment, afflicttoa: 

pi. witu. 

wite, imp. pi. take charge of. A. R. 
wite, wyte. /o /nOTf. R. 37. lei 

know. O. ijo. wite, sub/. pL 

know, may know. A. I. pres. p. 

witende. Js. liii. 3. be wyten- 

de, knowingly. A. I. 



479 



GLOSSARY. 



[wit5metan 



f-wite, to knew, P.P. 307. pp. 
>'-wite. A, I, 

wite, io keep^ defend, R. 306. 
ivltega,* im. wise man, prophet 

67:7, 8, 17, 22, 23, 24. 
wltegian,* to prophesy, predict ; 

/. -ode; pp. -od. 67:8. 
witegung,* 3/I prophecy. 66:4 ; 

67:8. 
witen, io know ; pr. wot, wat, 

wost, wuteS ; p. wuste ; pr. 

subj. wute ; imp. wite, i-witeS, 

wute, wutetJ ; //. wust, /-wust 

A.R. 
witen, io guard, keep. A. R, 
witen, io know; p. wuste, wusten, 

wiste ; //. wusten, /wusten, 

wiste-n. L. 
witen, imp. pi. know. H. III. 
fwiten, to go; pr.s. /wite^, 

wiief. L. 710. 
witenn, to knew, learn, under- 
stand. O. Ill, 11411; 11762. 

p.s. wisste. O, 1 1955. imp. s. 

witt tu. O. 1 1 84 7. 
witcrrlike, witerrlij, clearly, 

truly, correctly, O, 
witeti, imp.pl. take care of. A.R, 
witetJ, reproacheth, casteth re- 
proach upon. A. R. 
wile3e, wittye, witty, skilful ; fe 

wite^e wurhle, the skilful 

Wright. L. 533. 
witfolle, witful. L, 
Vfiig'ian,'^ to prophesy. See wii- 

egian. 
with-halt, pr.s. withholds. P.P. 

305- 
withholde, pp. maintained. C. 

513- 
wide, to protect, defend, keep. R. 

wy tindel iche, wittingly, knowing- 
ly. A. I. 



Willand, the country bordering 
on the east bank of the Vistula. 

^^witnes* (^^witnes? Grein), 
2f. witness, testimony ; i6 ge- 
witnesse, y^^r a witness. Joh. 
i. 7. 

witness, witnesseth. A. R, 

^^tnian,* to punish, chastise ; 
p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

\i\\.QdXiQ^,* verily, for, now. 

witt, knowledge, understanding. 
0. 

witt, dual, we two. O. 7, j^. 

wittye, witty, skilful. Z, See 
wite^e. 

witunge, keeping, care taking. 
A. R. 

wyuene, g. pi. wives or women* s; 
wyuene pyne, womens or 
wives' punishment ; probably the 
ctuking -stool. P. P. 29. 

wis, * against, towards ^ nigh, by, 
along. 

wits and vf'i'^, forthwith, imme- 
diately. L. 146. 

wiSer, wifere, opposed to, ad- 
verse, hostile. L. 485. 

wiSer, hostility ; d.s. witJere. L. 

417. 

witSerfulne, cue. m. valiant, hos- 
tile ; pi. wiSerfulle, wi)>erfolle. 
Z. 919. d. wiScrfulle ; mid 
wiSer-fulle worden, with hostile 
words. L. 

witSerian,* to resist, oppose; p. 
-ode ; pp. -od. 

wiferr, adverse, evil. O, 11 389. 

wifer-saca,* im. adversary, op- 
poser, enemy. Joh. 

wiferwinna,* im. a striver or 
fighter against, an adversary. 

witSinnan,* within. 

witSmetan,* to measure against, 



wi8sacan] GLO£ 

mmpan, Uktn, equal ; pp. wiC- 

melen. 63:13,21. 
wiCsacan* (9), A" conlendagaiml, 

Dpfn'Si, dim/, rmeuaa, declare 

inmiiy ; he -siec5 ; p. -s6c ; 

/A -keen. Jah. i. 10. 
wi|f-segge, to withsay, gainsay, 

oppose ; p. pi. wifiedc R. 
wiCstandnn* (9], to withstand, 

oppose ; he -stent ; p. -3i<id ; 

/A -sianticn. 6o:i. A-JSlandan, 
wiiStc, pi. active. L. 495. See 

wihie. 
wipuian,* without. 
wiSutcn, without, outsidi, out- 

mirdly. A.M. 
wiBwinnan* (21), to strive, 

straggle against. Bs. See w in- 

wijjf), against. O. 

y.-\\i-ya)., against thai. P. P. ^7. 

wi|>J«seggenn, to speai against, 
deny. 0. 114S0. 

wi|)|istanndeiin. /iiiou!A.[/iini/, re- 
sist. 0. 11480, 

wifliutenn, xvitkoul, except. 0. 

wiielc-fulle, J.s. wilful, cunning, 

L 539. 

fiwl;et,* ^twlKien, d<jUtd, de- 
based. Bs. 

yi\Qot.et, pi. /Joal. L. 726. 

wlaffjnge, SaWing /■ H. P. 
246:4. 

wlite,* 2m. form, aspect, excel- 
knee, bcaufy. 

'wlilig',*_/i[>', beautiful. 

wo,* wiij;, wiJIi, in. a bending, 
turning, curve ; error, ptrver- 
sily, iniquity; Scih us pince, 
Tor iSrum dvsige, f it on wiSh 
fare, though it seem to us, by 
reason 0/ our folly, that it go 
turongly {lit., into error). Bs. 



chap. 39, § 8. hi ndccs vt^ 

[Colt. MS. wds], ne wilniaB, 

they desire nothing wrong. Bs. 

chap. 40, § 7. d-wi5h, axry. 
WO, who ; as wo seyf, as tab 

saitk, the saving is. R. So. 
wo, sorrewful ; dude so w^ 

made so sorreruful. R. 
woancs, a dwilling, abode. [A. 

i". wunian.) A. R. 165:25. 
woche, g. d. whkh, what. Set 

whulc. 
woche, pr. rtl. which. L. 
W(id,* yuood (O. E. ), mad, /w- 

sessfd [with an evil spirit). /A. 

viii. 49, 52 ; X. 21. 
wod, ta,id. R. 
wod-e, mad, fierce; pi. wode; 

d. wodun ; comp. wodelobei. 

L. 759. 
wode, furious, raging, slormj. 

G. 138. 
Wddnes-dffig,* Woden's Ar, 

Wednesday. 
woilnessc, woodncsse, tnajaes!^ 

''"ff', fi"^'- ■^■f- I*'"- 5- 
wtid-frag, 3^ a mad ceursi, 

fury. Bs. See firah, frag. 
wdg.* Scevid. 
w6h.* Sec wd. 
woh, error, wrong, wickednisi. 

0. ..937. 

wdl,* 2m. plague ; w(Sl-dz% 
pestilence-day. Bs. 
wolawo, alasl L. 
wolde, d.s. n-old, weald,plaitt. L 
woiden, wold, wiald ; pi. wol- 

wollcji, pr.pl. -will, wish. P.P. 
woh, wilt. R. 
woltou, wilt thou. P.P. 152. 
wombe, womb, bellv. .4. R. ; 
Li. XV. 16. 



48i 



GLOSSARY. 



fwraecchen 



wombede, bellied ; gret wom- 
bede, big-bellied. R, 

vond, iwni^ accustomed, i?. 129. 

wonderliche, iwndrously, Z. 

wonderly, wonderfully, G, 

wondurly, wonderfully, C, 84. 

wone, pr, pL dwell, G, 191. 

I'woned, accustomed, R. 

wone, aistom, habit. A. f; R, 

wone, a dwelling-place. P, C. 1 2. 

wonef, accustoms; him wonep, 
accustoms himself A, L 

wonhope, despair, P.P. 225. 

wonie, to dwell ; pr. pL wonief . 
Z. p.s, wonede. Z. 5. 

wonyng, dwelling. C, 390. 

wonne, /. //. tuon^ got, R. 

woo, adj, woeful^ sorrowful. 

wood (^. S, w(5d), mad^ fool- 
ish. C. 184. 

woon, I. q, wone, a dwelling- 
place, a building. P, C. 20. 

wool, pr.s. \p. know, C, 391. 

W(5p,* 2m. whoop, weeping, cry ; 
pi. w6pas. 

woj), weeping. R, 125. 

worchef , pr. pi. work, P. P, 

word,* zn, word, command ; pi, 
word. 

worde-n, d. pi. words. L, ; H, III, 

^^'orden,* pp. of weortSan, 
been, done, made ; hwaet is ge- 
worden, quid factum est, how 
is UP foh, xiv. 22. 

wordle, world. A. I. 

wore^. distortcth. A, R. 161:11. 

worhte.* See weorcan. 

I'worht, iwroht, pp. wrought. L, 

worhten, p. pi, worked, made, 
did ; suffered, L, 87. 

\i on, perverse. A, R. 161:18. 

worold-man,* im, world-man, 
secular man, jEI, 



worre, war. R, 

worri, to make war upon; p. 

worrede. R. 
worssipie, to worship ; pr, pi. 

worssipef. A. f. 
worthi, worthy, distinguished, C, 

47. 
woruld,* 3/!/ sometimes g, -es ; 

cu:c, woruld. 

yfOTM\d\\c,* worldly, 

woruld-fing,* 2n. worldly mat- 
ter, 

worf, subj. s, be. P.P, 248. 

worf ely {A, S, wurSlic), worthy, 
P. C, 81. 

"WQT^^Q^iOM, shall thou be, P.P, 

365. 
worflice, worthily, L, 

worfnesse, d. honour. H. III. 

worfssipe, imp, s, honour. A, 
I. 230:31. 

wo*so, whoso, R, 

wot, knows. A, I, ; A, R, 

wouhlecchunge, wooing, court- 
ship, A. R, 163:2. 

wou {^A. S, w(5, wdg, w(5h), 
•wrong ; wif wou, wrongly, R. 
658. mid gret wou. R. 672. 

woware, wooer. A, R, 

wowe, wall? P, P, 136. 

wowe, wrong, injustice, R, 

wowen, to woo, A. R, 

wowetJ, woos. A, R. 

wowude, /. 3J. wooed. A, R, 

W03 i^A, S, w6, w(5g, w(5h), 
wrong ; with woa, wrongly, R. 

wracu,* 3/1 ivreak, revenge, ven- 
geance, 

wraecca,* wretched ; has only the 
def decl, 

wndc,* revenge, Bs. 5V^ wracu. 

wraeken, to wreak, avenge, Z. 

wraecchen, wretches, L, 286. 



21 



wra.-csIS] GLO 

wrxcsiS,* Jm- "" i.xileslot, exih, 

biinishmtnl. 
wrfennes,* if. lusl, Uchery, 

/uxury. Bs. 
iwra;S6ed, wTa|itiedc, p.s. 

wralhcd. L. 
wrang, ath. wrongly. 0. 119^3. 
wrasllede, p. pi. wrestled. R. 
wrat, p.s. wrote. 0. 257, 33Z. 



rajijiede, 



angr-, 



R. 



■wralhed, made 



wrecan,* ^^wrccan (12}, lo 
u'r(iik, avenge ; he wricB ; p.s. 
wrec ; pi, wricon ; pp. {£e-) 

\iKCQii*wreiched. S.C. iioiij. 

wrecche, wrehhtd. 0. 

wrecche, wretched, miserable ; 
thi'ivish ; fe uox is ec a wrec- 
che urech best, thi fox is also 
a thievish, raoMous Uast, A. R. 

wrccchede, lurelchediuss. R. 

wrecches, wrelcha. A. R. 

wrtkcn, to tetcak, avenge. L. 

wrcuhe, vengeance. R, 

wri;gan,*/y accuse ; p. wrdgde, 
wrolile ; pp. (ge-)v,T6eed. Joh. 
V. 45; viii. 6, la 

wrfililon,* suhj. p. pi. might ac- 
cuse. Joh,\ii\, 6. ^Ve wrfgan. 

wreih, p. y. canered. See wrien. 
A.R. 

wrenchc (A. S. wrenc), deceit, 
siralagcm. R. 

wrej'tf, wrath. A. I. 

wrc|ii, to anger, vex; p.s. wre- 
|.c^ A. I. 

\\^\:\\\, pr. pLsnbj. wrath, anger. 
A./. 131:1. 

wricn, to cover, hide, conceal; 

pr. wrihiS, wrieB, wreolij wrifi, 
wrih ; p. wreih ; pp. t-wricn. 



(-•J. ^. nrihan, ^lTcJn.^ A. 

R. 
wrigian,* to lend, mtwc txi^ird^ 

endeavour. Bs. 
wrihhte {A. S. wnJhi). Uim, 
fault, accusalion, O. 201. 
wringan* (sr), to u-ring ; p.s. 

wrang ; //. wrungon ; ff. 

wrungen. 
writ,* gewiil, 2/1. writ, loriUxg, 

scripture, letter ; pi. ^(urilQ. 

75^16. *2. 
writ. pi. letters. H. HI. 
wrltan* (20), iowrile; he uTit; 

/. writ ; pi, writon ; //.wriiea. 

foh. V. 46. 
writenn, lo •write ; pr. s. wriu^^; 

ps. WTat. O. 11763, 
writere,* tm. tvriter. 
wriit, writ, writing, O. 331. 
wriCan* [lo), to writhe; pJ. 

wrifi ; pi. wriCon ; pp. wrilSen. 
frwrilien, pp. wound or hiiilid. 

P.P. 172. 
wtohhie. See wirrkenn. 
wnjhi, • 3f. accusation, foh. iriiL 

29. 
wrong, p.s. wrung. P.P. 63. 
wrouhte, ^. 3J. ivrought. A,R. 
t-vrTonbtc,pp.pl. wrought, mJJi. 

A.R. 
wropliche, angrily. P. P. 63. 
wrofe, unkindly. (^A. S. wriBe.) 



wuce,* tf. week, 

wuch, adj. which, what, qualii; 

in wuch manerc. R. 
wuche, d. what. R. 141, 
wuche so, whatsoever. R. 93. 
wude,* zm. wood, forest; ^i 

wudas bifodon, the woods 

trembled. Bs. 103:34- 



483 



GLOSSARY. 



[wurScn 



wude, wode, m, wood ; g. wu- 
des, wodes ; d. wude-n, wode. 
Z. 

wude-sca3e, wode-saye, d, wood- 
show, L. 960. 

wudere, wodere, whither, L, 

979- 
wudu,* g, d, -a ; pL nom, ace. 

-a ; g, -ena ; d, -um. 
wuht. See wiht. 
wulder,*\vuldor, m, glory, Joh, 

\, 14 ; 66:9 ; 69:24. 
wuldorfullice,* gloriously, 
wuldrian,* to glorify ; p, -ode ; 

//. -od. 

wule, /r. s, will, Z. / A, R, 
wule, while ; fe wule, the while, 

R, 
wulf,* 2m, wolf, 
wulletJ, pr, pi. wish, please, A. 

R, 

wult, wouldst, A,R. 
wummon, woman. A, R, 
wun, wunne, joy ; d, wunnen, 

wonne. Z. 873. 
^^wuna,* \m,wonty practice^ cus- 

tom, manner, foh. 
wunade* = wunode, p,s, dwelt, 

Os, 
wund,* 3/1 wound, 
^ifwundad,*//. wounded. S. C, 

111:8. 
wunde, wound. A,R, 
wundedd, //. wounded, O, 

1 1 776. 
wunderane, wondrously, L, 
wunderliche, wondrously, Z. 
^^wundian,* to wound; p. pi, ge- 

wundedon. 111:5. 
wundres, miracles. A, R, 
wundor,* in, wonder, miracle ; 

pl. wundor and wundru. 

64:20, 29. 



wundorful,* wundorHc, won- 
derful, 

wunderlice,* wundorlice, won- 
derfully, Bs, 

wund nan,* to wonder, admire ; 
p, -ode, -ade ; pp, -od. foh, 
vii. 21 ; 64:30. 

wune,* wuna, \m,wont, custom. 

Avuned, //. wont, accustomed, 
A.R, 

^tfwunelic,* customary, usual, 
common. 64:9. 

wunian,* ^^wunian, to dwell, 
remain ; p, -ode ; pp. -od. 
63:17. 

wunie-n, wonie, to dwell, re- 
main, L, 386. 

wunien, to dwell. A, R, 

wunnen, wonne, joy, weal, L, 

wunung,* 3/1 dwelling. 
wurchcn, pr, pl, work, L, 150. 
wurchetJ, worketh, doeth. A. R, 
^Avurde,* was, happened, befell, 

Os, See weor5an. 
wurdliche, worthily, L, 
wurhie, p,s. wrought. L. 
wurhte, wrohte, wright, L, 533. 
wurne, to refuse, R, 
wurpan.* .S^^ weorpan. 
wurrfenn, to be, become^ be done, 

O, 1 1867. P'^" warrf; //. 

wurrdenn. 
wurrfenn, to honour, magnify, 

worship; pp, wurrfedd. O, 

1 1 876. 
^^w u r8an .* See ^nveort$an. 
wuiiSe, worthy, A. R. 
I wur5e-n, to be, become, happen , 

p,s, /wars ; pl, AvurSen. Z, 

238, 477. 
wuiiSen, pr, subj, be, become, hap* 

pen, Z. 



t-wutiStB] GLO 

i'-wort5e6, btcomdh. A. R. 
wnrtSraynt, * Set weoriSmynL 
wuriSscipe, d.i. worship. L. 
wust I, knew I, if I knew. P. 
P- 383- 
waste, p.s. knew. R, 
wusten. See witen. L. 

T. (oouount.) 
jAf, p.s. gave. A. I. 
yalde. old. A. I. 
yel))es, giJU. A. I. 
yelpinge, {A.S. gi!pan)S«wAn^, 

A. I. 236:1, 10; 237:1. 
yelpj>, pr.s. boasts. A. I. 236^ 3. 
yeman, yeoman. C. 101. 
yeme {A. S. gyman), lo rule. 

A.I. 
yerde, yard, rod, stick. C 149. 
yernc, ado. dttigenlly, eagerly, 

earncslly. See jerae. 
yerfe, earth, A. I, 
yif, imp. s. giae. G. 
yiveth, givelh. G. 



zay)i, sailh. A, I. 

_yzed, pp. said ; touore _^^^ed, 

aforesaid. A. J. 
zeluer, silver. A, I. 
_>'zenejed, //. sinned. A. I, 
zencje|) {A. S. syngian), pres. 

31. and pi. sinneth, sin. A. I. 
zcnnen, pi. sins. A. I. 
zenjef, sinneth. A. I. 
2&1, p.s. set, fixed, instituted. A, 

I. 230:16. 
Zeterflay, Saturday. A.I. 230:2, 

3- 
leuende, seventh. A. I. 232:15. 
zigge, to say. A. I. 228:17; 

229:11. 
zigginges, sayings. A. I. 



iARY. 48* 

zi)f,_j'zij)>, _»^'jl», seelk. A. I. 
zome, some. A. I. 
zone, son. A. I. 
zoT^aotle, sorrow/id. A. I. 

237:1. 
zoJ>, truth; d.t. zojie. A.I. 
yLOye.pp. seen. A. I. 
zucrie, to iware. A. I. 219:11. 
zuich {A. S. swilc), tMch;d. 

pi. zuichen. A. I. 
zuo. so, A. I. 233:22. 
zuo, too. A. I, 

p. D. 

1^,* when, then, as ; [fiei, &e» 
when, or simply, when / fi gyt, 
then yet, i, e., furihermore; stiU, 

yii, |>e, |»at, thai, who, which. L. . 

fa, those. O. 47. 

I^, pi. the; ysi cheories. L. 
990. 

f£e, pron. rel. that. L. 

|i£, thy; \3iJ )Ke stoden |« 
scipen, where they stood, iht 
ships, i. e., where the ships stood. 
L. 925. 

jwene* = fone, aec m. 0/ yt, 
q. v. 

fjenne* = fonne, q. v. 

paer,* there, where; often re- 
peated, fter pEr, there where, 

JiKraffterr, therea/ler. O. 

|)Ere, fere, g.d./.the, Z.954. 

f sere, there, 0, 

fEerinne,* fserinn, therein, 

fasron,* therein^ thereon. 

fjerrihte,* straightway, forth- 

fxno,* thereto; fEito-e^can, 
Iff addition to that, 69:32. 

fKr-dte,* thereout, wtihout, out- 
side. Joh, 



485 



GLOSSARY. 



[fe 



facrwiff, therewith. O, 

J>aes,* /or this, there/are, after ; 
)>aes fd miht blissigan, for 
which thou mayest rejoice, 75:26. 
fjes for, therefore, on that ac- 
count ; to fses, to that degree, so ; 
fses fe, because that* 

J»aes,* ^ M/f^, whose. See se, 
sed, faet. 

faeslic,* a//, ^^/t?/. 

J>aesllce,* M/J- /i^, apt/y, 69: 13. 

J>aet,* that, so that, 

fact, * nom. ace. n, that, the. See 
se, sed, faet. 

)>aBUe* = paet pe, that which ; 
or, that. See fe. 

fafum,* ^t'fafian, to consent, ap- 
prove, aiiow ; p, -ode ; pp, -od. 

)>aie, nom, ace, pi, the, L, 364. 

J^aie, )>aye (^. .S. J>aege), /i^/«. 
ace, pi, they, those, L, 

fan, d. cue. s. m. n. the. Z. d. 
pi. the, those. L. 246 ; A. I, 

t>anc,* 2m. thank ; pi. fancas. 
foh. xi. 41. 

fancian,* ^^)>ancian, to thank; 
p. -ode ; pp. -od ; pr. p. )>an- 
ciende. foh. vi. 23. d. of 
person, g. of thing, 

fanc-wyrtSlice,* thank-worthily, 
gratefully. 

fane (-<4. ^. fone), ace. m, the, 
this. L. 115, 182, 701. 

fanecan,* when; fanecan fe, 
whensoever ^ as often as. See 
fonecan. 

fanene, thence. R, 

fannkenn, to thank, O, 27. 

fannkess (-4. •$*. fances), of— 
accord, will, freely ; all hise 
fannkess. O. 11457. all fe3- 
^re fannkess. O. 11464. 

fanne, thence, R. 



fanon,* fanonne, thence. 

Canon* (on t$am), in that, ^L 

far* = faer, q. v, 

far, there. L. 

fara,* there, where, 

far an, thereon. Z. 

fare, d.f the. Z. 

far hine, therein, L, 

far-ofer,* thereupon, foh. 

far vore, therefore. L. 

fas, f es, g, m. n. of the, cf this, 
that. L. 

fas, fes, nom. cue, pi. m. f n. 
these. L. 

fat, adu. until. L. 518. since. 
L. 

fauh, though, yet, however. A. 
R. 

fa3, though. A. I, 

fables, though, yet, nevertheless, 
A. I, 

f e, * indecl. that, who, which ; 
used instead of se, secS, fact, in 
all cases, but especially as a 
relative pron., and, in later 
Anglo-Saxon, as an article ; ii 
is sometimes suffixed to fact, with 
the form te, fa?tte, that which. 

pe,* or, 70:15. Seehvf2£\>GT — fc. 

fe. A. L 235:34. Morris eX' 
plains f e, as used here and else- 
where in the A. I., as a reflex- 
ive pronoun = thou thyself, 
which is not satisfactory. Set 
Mcctzner, ad locum. 

f e*. . .fe,/« interrogative sentences 
= Latin an ; fe Philippus, fe 
Alexander, whether Philip or 
Alexander, 87:3. 

fe,* \% abl. of se, se(5, fast, 
used with an adverbial function 
before comparatives, Hkc Lat. 
eo; fe bet, eo melius, the 



fcih] GLO! 

UlUr ; i f^ ma, unquam eo 
magis, ever the mart. " Notan- 
dum iiaque quod noan the, 
in islis phrasibus, the bolder, 
the bclfiT, etc. ; non esl articu- 
lus, sed Sax. [«, w ,- alili- 
tivus scil. pronominis j^ vel 
pc, is, isle." Zi*. 

[Krih,*/,/, ^cf )>c6han. J«6n. 

|»edh,* though, yet, $011, fiawevir. 

t>esih-hwiE)>cre,*>'t/, naxriheless. 

fcarf,* jf.netd. 61:15; 69:6, 
23. td fearfe, i'» nwrf. 

fearf.* See {lurran. 

fearfa.* adj. poor, needy ; noun, 
\m. a poor mun. 69:27. d.pl. 
foatfon =^ |«arfum. Joh. xii. 6, 

|»eaufule, ffjcra/, mslructwt, edi- 
fying. A. R. 

jieauwes, morali, virtues, prinH- 
pies. A. R. 

(ledw,* 2m. thai), custom, rile. 
Joh. six. 40. pi. ))cd«-a5, 
morals, manners, frimipla ; g. 
fcSwa. 69:1. 

|>cd {A. S. pcod), people. 0. 
39. Jfede. O. 171. iVi; )>t:0(le. 

Jie^cn,* pegn, pen, zm, Marjf, 
servant, minister, officer. 

pegnscipe,* am. thaneship; val- 
our, service, abiiily. Os. 

pfh.* See peih. 

pch, though. £.. 1038, ^«JJ. Jw^' 

pei, though. R. 26, 134. 

peines, thanes. L. 

peij, though. P. C. 

pe-tes,*/w//|>e las pe, lest that. 
See pe, py, oW. o/'se, soi, psl. 

pellich (J. .S. p^llic, pylic), 

J«; mi pe," the more thai. Ss. 
p<in,* ptng. See pegen, 
pen, than. A. R. 



pen. d. aec. At. R. 
pcnc, imp. s, Ikink. A. R, 
pelican,* ^.-pcncan, penceM, 
lo think, remember: p. peahu 

(pohie) ; //. peaht, ge^U,gf 

puhL 69:9. 
penchen, to think ; pr.s. uhJ fi. 

penchcS ; p. pouhie ; ui^ 

penc, penchetf ; pp. i-pouhL 

A. R. 
pcncheC, thinkelh. L. 
tpencheS, imfi. pi. 0/ penche-n, 

think. L. 940. Tiefirstleii 

reads (]>enched. 
pene {A. S. pone), aee. 1. m. 

the. L. 115, 701. A. R. 
pene, than. I.. 
pcnian,* to serve, mini'ter, n^ 

ply,- p. p^node; //. (gi-) 

pcnod. Joh. xvi. 2 ; xiL 16; 

69:27. 
pennke:nn. lo think ,• p. 2s. pohh- 

tesst; pp. pohhL O. 17, 
penne, then, when. L. 
penung,* if. service, office, duh; 

Ikosewho serve, ailtndanU, train, 

relinue ; what is served, a re- 
past, supper, feast. Bs. ; fok. 
peo, the, they, those. A. R. 
petid,* 2/^ nation, people ; couih 

try, province; pi. pedda. 6S:i; 

69:6. 
^tpciide,* zn. language, tongue, 

country. 
^fpeddan,* ^ip^dan, to join, 

associate, attach ; he gey^i ■,p 

fipe(5dde ;/v/.^<pe(5dcd, 69:16. 
peode, f. people, country, land ; 

pi. peodcn. L. 171. 
bcodscipe,* 2W. pople, nation. 

Joh. x\. 48. 
peuf,* zm. thief; pi. pcufaK 

Joh. X. 8. 



GLOSSARY. 



W 



n, fedn, ^^J>e<5n (19), /o 
% flourish ; ic (£e)\t6, he 

pugon ; ^. ^^pogen. 

* 

e, then. A, R. 

ihiSf these, the. A, R, ; 

• 

0,* darkness. Bs. 

u.* See pystru. 

1,* fiitan (19), io howl 

wolves); p.s. fedt ; //. 

n ; //. I^oten. 

* 2m, servant. 

* servile. Os. 
, im. servant. 

l(5m,* 2m. service, serfdom, 
fude ; worship. 66:13. 
an,* A? serve; p. -ode ; //. 

>t,* 2m. serviiude, slavery, 

V, servant. O. 11433. 
vtenn, to serve, O, 11393. 
>eowwtedd. O. 11 876. 
A. S, furfan), pr, 2s. 
; ne fer tu nout dreden 
ttrie neddre of helle, thou 
not dread the venomous 
r 0/ hell, A. R. 160:12. 
r readings are, ne perf tu, 
arf fu. 
i. S. f^re), d./. the, A. 

here, where. L. 10 ; R. 
ere, fir, these. /?. 
lur, in accordance with that, 
;i. See Milton s P. L, ii. 

thereby. A, R. 
iuore, be/ore that. R. 
d. /. the. L. 'joo. 
far, there. L, 



fere as, there where, where. R. 
561 ; P. C. 169. 

fer innen, therein, L. 

fer mide, therewith. A. R. 

fer o, thereon. L. 

feron, therein. P. C. 136. 

ferscan* (17), to thresh; p.s, 
faersc ; //. furscon ; //. fore- 
cen. 

ferteyens, there-against. A. I, 
234:14. 

feruppe, thereupon, above, be/ore. 
A. R. ; R. 37. 

fer witJuten, therewithout, with- 
out that. A. R, 

fes,* feds, fis (fys), m. f. n. 
this ; g. f ises, f isse, f isses ; d, 
fisum, fisse, fisum ; ace. 
f isne, fds, fis ; ail. f ise, fisse, 
f ise ; //. nom. ace, f ds ; g. 
f issa ; d, abl. fisum ; /rom fis 
(fys), is found in both numbers, 
fissumy?^ fisum {Joh, xi. 7), 
and f isses for f ises ; also f is- 
sere and f isre for fisse, and 
fissera for fissa, and in pl.^ 
f&sfor f ds, from which after- 
wards, with a distinction in sig- 
nification, these and those. 

fesne, ace. this. A. R. 

f ess te bett, so much the better. 
O. 

f ess te mare, so much the more. 
O. 

f et, that, which, the, that which, 
they, A. R. 

fet = faet -S". C. a° 1083. 

f et, that. R. 

fe3j, they. O. 81, 139, 149- 

fe^jm, d. ace. them, O. 49. 

fe3^re, their, of them. O. 84. 

f^,* abl of se, se<5, foet, on ac- 
I count of that, for, because, there- 



>ikke] GLOS 

fore; used hi/ore comparatioes, 
and tqunxdtnt io Lai. eo ; f jf 
bet, by that Utter, the bttier. 
lis. 

))ikke, ads. thickly. R. 

I-ydcr,* thither. 

J>i do rwcard . • |ty derwea rd , thither- 
ward. Os. 

Jivcf, thief. A. I. 

|.'icl>c, Ihi/t. A. I. 73!:i6. 

fj'-lxs.* See fe-laes, 

bilke, Ike or that same. A. R.; 
R. ^. 

I>yiic,* the like, such ; indef. decl. 

fin,*^. a/ |)i5, thy, thiae ; used 
as a possessive firon., and de- 
iliiied inJcfinitdy ; g. Jilnes, 
pinre. fines ; d. finum, finre, 
|>inum, etc. 

fintan,* ^(Jiincan, to seem, ap- 
pear, videri ; impers. with dot. ; 
p. |idhte ; pp. gf^(i.\n ; me 
finctS. melhinks, it stents to me. 
Joh. viii. S3- 

Jfiiit^, thing ; pi. pincges. A.R. 

SvfincS,* 2/* honour, dignity, 
merit, excelltnce. 

fine, d. thy. L. 833, 

fing,* i». thing ; pi. ym^ ] for 
his fingum, or pingon, on his 
account, Joh. xii. II, for [kes 
H;felendys fingon, on Ike Sa- 
viour's account. Joh. nil. 9. for 
nilnon pingon, on my account, 
for my saie ; foreowrum fing- 
on ; on your account, Jbr your 
saies. Joh. xii. 30. for faera 
I'harisea fingon, because of the 
Pharisees ; on sumum fing- 
um, in some respects. 

fingan, * d. pi. = bingum. S. 
C 110:4. 

finge, things, possessions; largc- 



liche him bed of ire ^i^ B- 

trailv to him offered of htrf»- 

sessions. R. 495. 
finges, things. A. R. 
^(Singian,* to pray, iitteTctdi,» 

diate for ; p. -ode; pp -od. 

60:4. 
finnteff, it seems, apfeart;f. 

puhhte. O. 
fiosir," dart. Bs. 
fiosiro.* See [ij=sirB. 
fire, g.f. Iky. L. 833. 
fvrfan,* Ste furfan. 
fymen,* thorny, of thorns, /at 

xix. 2, 5- 
Jtyrstan," to thirst ; usedimpir- 

sonally. Joh. vi. 35. me ftrai 

Joh. xix. 18. subj. pyrste, /«*. 



• 's; 



■ 37- 



fis, n. ace. pi. these. L. ; A. 

R.; H. HI. ; R.; P.P. 

pise, these. R. 

pis,* pys, this. See pes. 

pvsan* = pysum. Os. Set yi. 

pise, pi. these. O. 

pislic,* pysiic, such. 1 

pyson* = pysum, d. s.m. ttat. 

Jok. vii. 8. See pis. 
pissen, ace. this. A. R. 
pissen, pisse, d. m. n. this. L 

327. 349- 
pissere, g. d. f. this. X.. 70. 
pjSter,* pyslre, dark. 
py'stru,* pysiro, zn. pi. darkness. 

Joh. I, 5. 

pywan,* lo drive, urge ; to re- 
prove, rebuke ; p. pjwdc, Joh, 

xvi. 8. 
po, then, when. R. ; L. fo pal, 

when thai. P.P. 356. 
po, the. R. *Q, III ; // /// 

^o ■wy\c, the whiie. R. 135. 
pohhi, thought. O. 



489 



GLOSSARY. 



L>rittig 



^hte, ii seemed, L, 8. 

^hte, p,s, thought; p, pL J>oh- 

ten. L. 
|K>lenn, to admit, permit, O. 52. 

io suffer, O. 201, 242. p,s, 

^lede. O. 1 1822. 
|K)lian,*^^|>olian, to suffer, bear, 

endure ; p. -ode ; //. -od. 
itSolien, |>olie, to suffer. JU^^i, 

715. 
jK)lien, to suffer, endure. A. R. 

fr-t5olien, to suffer, permit. A. R. 

)K>IieS, pr, pi, suffer. A. R. 

jK)n* = }>am, d. m, n, of se, 

se6, )>aet ; t<5 )>on )>aet, to the 

{end) that, in order that, so 

that ; used in advl. phrases. 
}K)nan,* thence, whence, Bs. 
)K>nc, )>anCy thought, mind ; d, 

)>onke. Z. 12. 
Jjonecan,* when ; )K)nccan fe, 

whensoever, as often as. Bs, 
J>onne,* then, when, yet, than, 

but; )>onnne . . . fonne, when. . . 

then. 
fonon,* thence. See )>anon. 
Jjoru, through. R, 
forfte.* .SV^ furfan. 
J>orni, thorny. A, R. 
}^oxM, prep, thorough, through. R, 
jK)rw, through, by means of. P. 

P. 81, 388. 
jtorj alle J>yng, in every respect. 

R. 
)iouht, n. thought. A, R. 
)>ouhte, thought. A. R, 
pou3le, seemed, i?. 81. 
)>09ie, p.s. and pi. thought. R. 
J)03te, n. thought ; be )>03te, by 

thought, deiiberately, A. /. 
)>03te, seemed ; hire l>03te, it 

seemed to tier. R. 04. him 

|>03te. R. 113. 



)>rded,* 2m. thread. 99:10. 

frah,* frag, 3/I space or course 
of time, or events, order or state 
of things. 

fniwan* (2), to throw; p.s. 
fredw ; //. fredwon ; pp. 
frdwen. 

fre,* three. Bs. 

fredtian,* to threaten, chide, ad- 
monish, terrify ; p. -ode ; //. 
^^rfreitod, ge\x^\. Bs. 

)>rel {A. S. frael), a thrall, ser- 
vant ; pi. frelles. A. R. 

\x^6,*f. three. See frf. 

freo, three. A. R. 

freo, three. O. 11516. 

fredt^ne,* fredt^^ne, thirteen. 

pr^r^fre, * if trireme ; gen. pi. 
fr^r^frena. Os. 

J>reuh, p.s. used in a middle 
sense, fell. P. P. 201. 

frexwolde, threshold. P.P. 201. 

fri, three; fri sife, three times. 
A. /. 

fr^,* )>red, fred, m. f n, three; 
g. f redra ; d. frf m, frim ; 
ace. fry-, fred, fred. 

f ridda,* f rj'dda, def decl. third. 

fridde, third. O, 

fride, third. O. 6. 

frifan* (20), to thrive; p.s. 
frdf ; //. frifon ; pp. frifen. 

frym,* 2m. pomp, glory, magni- 
ficence. 

fringan,* ^ffringan (21), to 
throng, press, crowd upon ; p.s. 
f rang ; pi. f rungon ; pp. ge- 
frungen. 

frinne, threefold. O. 11 506. 

frid* = fred, three. See yrf. 

fritig,* thirty. Os. 

frittig,* thirty; g. -tigra ; d. 
-tigum. 
I* 



frfwa] GLOi 

priwa,* (T^a, three /t'mes, Ihrice. 

/.A.xiii.38. 
jTOmpelde, p.s, stumbled. P.P. 

201. 
^mngen, p. pi. ihronged, crowded, 

pressed fomard. P.P. ido. 
froie,* i/, throat. 69:13. 
J>rowian,* to throe, to suffer ; p. 

-ode, -aile ; pp. -od. 69:33. 
(irowung,* y'. suffering, passion. 
Jiii,* thou ; g. fin ; </. pe ; ace. 

fe (feh, pec) ; dual, mm. git; 

g. incer ; d. ace. inc ; pi. nam. 

ge : g. edwer ; i/. aer. oiw, 
fuder-ward, thitherward. R. 
puftin, a handmaid, servant. 

{A. S. fywen.) ^. ^. 
piilnc* ^rtpincan. 
puhie, it stenied. L. S. 
pulke, the same, that same. R. 
punchcn {A. S. pincan), to 

seem ; pr. puncheti ; p. puhte ; 

pr. suhj, punche. A, R. 
punerian,* punorian, punrian, 

to thunder ; p. -ode ; pp. -od, 

Joh. xii. 29. 

f I'pungen, * ripe, advanced; il- 
lustrious, venerable, reverend. 
purran* {pretcrilwe), to have 

need, need, be in want ; ic, he, 

pearf, pd fearft (purfe) ; pi. 

purfon ; subj. s. purfe ; pi. 

purfen (pyrfen) ; p.s. ic, he, 

porfte, pU porftest; pi. porflon; 

subJ. s. porfte; pi. porften, 

>4.iv, 15. 
purh,* through, hy. 
purfe.* See purfan, 
purh-sceiitan,* to shoot through. 

Os. See sce(Jun. 
purhleiJn,* to carry through, ac~ 

complish. Os. 93:21. See 

tctSn. 



iARY. 4{p 

purlen, to thirl, piera; p 
pucleS : p. pt. purledeo; m^ 
prilc ; //. (-purled. [A. S. 
p>rlian.) A. R. 

purrh, through, by. 0. 

purrhsekenn, to sak Axat^ 
examint. O. 1140a 

purrhlokenn, to look Jirm^ 
0.b&. 

purst," zm. thu-it. Os. 

pursiig,* thirsty / y, pur^liga. 

puruli, through. A. R. 

fufhvaTiian,*to continue lifimgi, 
persevere, persist ; p. -ode, -ede; ' 
p. -od. JeA. viii. 7, 

purj, through, ^. H, HI. 

pus, * t}tus. 

pdsend,* 2/t, thousand ; ji. 
piisenda (-0), -a, -um. Joh. H. 

pwahan,*pweahan, pn'edn(io], 
to bathe, wtish ; fir. s. ic pma, 
pweah, pd pwehst, pn'yhs, bt 
pwihS, pwehC ; p.s. pwtih;^ 
pwijgon ; pp. pwngen, pwegco; 
imp. pweh pd ; //. pweaS. }A 
is. 7 ; \iji. 5, 6, S, 9, iq, it. 

pweorrt ul, pwcm uC, throng 
out, entirely. O. 74, 99. 

pweort^me,* im, a braaia. 
Bs. "pcrversus, ferox, inn." 
Grein's Glossar. 

pwyrnys,* 3^ cross, oAiersi^, 
affiictmn, perversity, /rowari 

pwuh. * See pwaban. 



jKfe. See jifenn. 
jKn, prep, against. 0. 7a 
jKti. See onnjMness. 
jErewe, ready. /.. 619. 



GLOSSARY. 



[3erstend2ei 



, hostages. Z. See ^isles. 

af, p.s. gave, L, 

J. gave ; he ^af nat of that 

I pulled hen, he valued not 

iuV, etc. C. 177. 

\, yellow, M. 241:25. 

A. S. heom), them. L, 

985. 

L pi. to them. L. 407. 

e {A. S. gearcian), p.s. 

red. R. 

'are, ready, prepared. R. 

nn {A, S. gearcian), to 

re, make ready. O, 

•are, ready, prepared. L. 

ird, gatekeeper. P.P. 348. 
i; Robert 36 Robbour. 

242. 
t, ye. L. 

d. acc^XTH. O, 1 1559. 
. R. 

n, to say, speak. L. 828. 
S\ gyddian, to sing, say, 

) 

iges, //. (3eddynge, or 
idem quod geest (or row- 
nce. ) Prompt. Parv. 
, gleemans songs, ro- 
fj. C. 237. 
p.s. went. Gen. xxxvii. 

r. gave. A. R. ; R. 

> give. L. 

» A P^' gove. L. 646. 
nn, pp. called, named. O, 
9, 11871. 

alle, guildhall. C 372. 
1, gulden, to yield, repay; 
3ilt, 3elt. L. 470. 
, to yield ; restore. P.P. 



3eldenn {A. S. gyldan), to yields 

pay. O, 173. 
3eldest, repay est, R. 
3ellp (idell), boasting, vain 

glory. O. 1 204 1, 1 1967, 

1 1974. {A. S. gilp, gelp.) 
3elp, boast. L, 406. 
3elpet5, boasteth. A. R. {A, S. 

gilpan. ) 
3elstret5, ^^^M. A. R. 
3eme, care, heed, attention. A. R, 
3emede {A,S. gj^man ) , p.s, looked 

carefully ; 3emedevpon, closely 

regarded. P. C, 7. 
3emen, to mind, attend to. A. R, 
3emcnn, to keep, protect, take care 

of. O. ii445» "9^3» "933- 
3emston, gemstone. L. 
3eolp, boast. L, 406. 
3eomerest, most doleful, miserable. 

L. 655. 
3eond, prep. beyond, aver, 

through. L. 259, 444. 
3eorne, willingly, O. 
3eornen, pr. pi. yearn, crave. Z. 

147. 
3eornenn, to yearn, long after, 

desire eagerly, O, 11851, 

11510. /. 2s, 3erradcsst. O. 

23- 
3eornfull, 3errnfull, anxious, 

eager. O. 11452. 
3eoten, to spill, shed ; pp, /30te, 

3ute. Z. See blod-i30te. 
3epe, crafty, sagacious. L, 902. 
3eoue, gift. A. R. 
^eT,year. O. 32. 
3ere,>'^ar. A. R. 
3eme (A. S. georne), earnestly. 

O. 20; R.; P. C. 7. 
3crrnfull. See 3eornfull. 
3erstend3ei, 3orstendai, yesterday, 

L. 698. 



?«] 



^ete, //. calm, dmtd. R. 

rsaax, p. pi. gave. L. 646. 

jew, d.you. H. III. 

jif. if. P.P. Joa. 

jifen, ht gioe. L. 376. 

jifenn, lo gm ; tuij. p.s. jsefe. 

0. 11015. 
Jiff,!/-, ft 
jifue, le give. L. 178, 
}il[. .^e;i: jelden. 
jiinston. a precious shme, a jewel; 

pi. jimsiones. A.R.; /. 541. 
jimunge, _>'i-ar«iiri7, j4. ^. 
jisles {A. S. gisel; /i<^ gislas), 

Aoflagts. L. 149, aoi, 181, 

308. 
y.U_y,l. P.P. 9S. 
^Me\\ pr.t. griti. A. R. 



5AKV. 4; 

tjiue. //. given. A. R. 
jongore, comp, younger ; njw 

jongosie. R. 
jonglhe, j'ouJ/i. EfeL xn. 1. 
iyiMe, pp. yieldeJ up ; rubtrcii 
y>i%\enAz.l, yaUrday. L. 71I 
y:it,your. P.P. 38. 
josing, j'drw^, sobbing. (.1. . 

giscian.) A 125. cum to 

et singuUu pronipiL Ga^t, 

of Mcnmouth. 
jure l^A. S. e<5wer), your. ( 

11564. 
juratendsi, yesterday. L. 71I 

734- 
jus,>w. ^.i*. 103, 385. 
jut, juie, _vt/. .ff. 
julc, ;^. spill, shed. L. ^^ 

See jeoten. 
juw. Suje. 



SUPPLEMENTARY GLOSSARY 






abasshe, shame. G, 283. 

abb. rice.* abbotrice, 2m. ab- 
bacy, 114:7. 

abb. , conir, of abbotes, abbots, 
119 : I. 

dbegdan, /. //. bent^ subjected^ 
rtiluced. See bigan. 

abide (is), remains, H, P, 247: 6 

acordede, p. s. capitulated, 117:13. 

acorsede, p, s, cursed. A, I, 

234 :24. 
^fen,* 2«. «wf. evening. 
aeie {A. S. ege), awe, 117 : 2. 
selmes, alms. 

^rer, derur. formerly ; prius. 
aei^wednys,* 3/I manifestatiofi. 

^^-detred , * poisoned, 89:19. 
seu reu m wi le, continually, 118:24. 
aeuric, every, 

aetSelaen, noble {Jhings), L, 14. 
afden. /. //. = hafden, had, 

L, 18. 
dfyllan,* to fill, supply. See 

fyllan. 
igeat, * /. s. See dgy tan. 
dgy tan (14),* to know, under- 

stand ; p. s. dgeat, pi, dged- 

ton ; p, p, dgyten. 
ahten (A, S. dhton), /. pL pdS' 

sessed, L, 18. o^^ dgan. 
alful, all full ; heo was alful of 



hym er J>e 3eres ende, she had 
enough of him before the year's 
end, R. G, 90. 

alsuic, all such. 117:20. 

altegaedere, altogether, 

ancer-setl, 2«. hermitage. 

angles, angels. A, I, 237:2. 

araede for araerde.^ reared, erec- 
ted, 113:6. 

archen, d, s, ark. L. 26. 

areawe, in a raw, in order, suc- 
cession, A, R. 155:12. 

arerde, /. s. See dr^ran. 

arerdon, /. pi. levied. 112:18. 

arist, p, s, arose, G, 238. 

ateallene (to), dat. inf, to tell^ re- 
count. 1 16:1 1, o^^ tellan. 

aihes (A. S, d6as), ocUhs, 

d6,* 2m. oath. 



B. 



"b. = bi'sceop. 

baer,*/. s. See beran. 

Baius, Bayeux. 

bdr,* im. boar, 

baronage, coll., nobiUfy^ hierar- 
chy. A, I. 235:12. 

Babon, dat. Bath. 

beceorian,* to murmur, com^ 
plain. 

becwetJan* (12), to bequeath; 
p. s. becwaetJ, //. becwdedon ; 
p.p. becweden. 



berealknl 



begxt, p. i.gol. 119:10. 

belumpe,' /, suhj. s. Set be- 
limp.in. 

bcnam,* /. s. See beniman. 

bend,* 2m. iemi. 

bcnes, iearis. P.P. 4*0. 

beiin.biun.'toAr.-icbeoibeom), 
fi5 bist. bysl, he bi«, fil. bedU, 
bioB, and bed ; iufy\ f. bed, 
biij, fi/. he6a ; en/v (he prtsenl 
knsi oceuri ,■ imp. s. beti, bid ; 
pi. be(i5 (bed) ; dat. inf. 10- 
bci5nne ; pr. p. bednde. 

)'bcr, ^. J. bon. L. 65. 

besa-'l, p. s. biiieged, 

bicumen, h'^coms, to become. L. 
i((8. 

bid, I., ill ; miswritlen /or 
biS. 

bidded, Z. 55 ; biddeS? 

bicolJe, p. J. beheld, vieuxd. 
L. 45. 

byc:|), /A-. //., are. A. I. 

bihcuc, advtiniageous. A. R. 
167:29- 

jf^bvld,' -y. boldness, assurance, 
conJUence. 57:8. 

bisemeres. See bismeres. 

bistoprlce,* 2m. bishopric. 

bitowen (.-1. i'. bit^can), p. p. 
employed. 167:30. 

byliealde, /aided in, involved. 
A.I. 131:26. (^^i'.befeaidin.) 

blendian, la blind. 

ge'b\ti\aA* p.p. See btetsian. 

boc-felie, d. s. booi-stm, parch- 
ment. L. 50, 

bdsutn, 2m, bosom. 

bren, bran. P. P. 420. 

brendon, /. ;*/. burned. 118:26. 

brynjges, burnings, fires. 118:8. 



Biytland, Britmiaiul, Wala. i 
broste, I.. 38. mtswrHten fir I 
brohte ? hroughl. 



Cffise, cheese. 

canceler, chaiudlor. , 

Canlwaraburh,* /T Gwi/tf'iiirr; 

dtcPd like \iMi'h. 

canted, fAari/c, 119:14- I 

cart man, churl, tommom wa*. 

peasant ; pi. carlmea 
castel, 2m. castle ,- pi. caneles, 

ca.slelas. 
castelwcorccs, castle - itnrix 

"7:35- 
Cafum, </,//. Cbirjf. 
cearde, /, j. turrud, \A. S. 

chaste, to chasten, P. P. 45J. 

cheef meie, Me name 0/ Mw 
potkerbi' P. P. 431. The 
" Crowley" text readt, "Chi- 
bolles and cheruelles and ripe 
chines manye," Pass, vi, 196 ; 
/. f., chervils. 

cesie, chest. 

chepynge, market. P. P. 437. 

chile. cliiJl, cold. P. P. 449, 

chibolles, chihbals, dwar/ tit- 
ions {Pr. cibouls.) P. P. 431. 

chines, cherries. P. P. 431. 

cjTCciierd, churchyard, 

cyric-hilgung,* 3/1 church «•■ 
secra/ion. 

cj-pa, subj, f. = cj'fe. 115:14. 
See c^an. 

cleric, cleroc, clerc,* im. eiert, 

cler m^uii, a fine breaJ. P.P. 

442, 
cokeney, a lean cock or chicken. 



^95 



GLOSSARY. 



[eye 



P, P, 422. Wright quotes a 

' passage from the ** Turnament 

of Totienham," in which the 

writer intended to satirize the 

poorness of the fare : 

' * At that fest were thei servyd 

in a rich aray, Every fyve and 

fy ve had a cokeney ; " and from 

tfeyuxHkfs Praoerhs^ where the 

word is contrasted with a fat 

hen: "Men say, He that 

comth every daie shall have 

a cocknaiiy He that comth 

now and then, shall have a 

fat hen:' 

coket, a fine bread, P, P. 

442. 
colopus, collops, p. P, 422. 
colplontes, coteworts^ cabbages, 

P. P. 423. 
corse, to curse. P, P, 452. 
combren, to cumber^ encumber, 

P. C. 159. 
cotSe, sickness, malady, 111:19. 

{A. S, c6t$a, im, c6t5u. 3/!) 
craym, cream. P. P, 419. 
cristenan mannan* = criste- 

num mannum, dat. pi. Chris- 
tian men. 115:26. 
crucet hus, a chest for torture. 

1 1 8: 1 2. Lat, crux } 
cruddes, curds, P. P. 419. 
cudde {A. S. c]^6an), /. /. pi. 

showed f manifested, R. 293. 
cares, ccu^es, P. C. 168. 
cwennkenn, to quench, extin- 

guish^ destroy. O. 11645. 

D. 

ddelan, to deal^ divide^ distribute ; 
p, d^lde ; p. p. d^led. 
Dsenesc, Danish. 



daer (^. S. dedr), deer^ beast. 

ii7.*4. 
dagan* = dagum, dat. pi. days, 

80:13. 
date, 24 1 :8 ; *' under the date 

of the foul that is clept Fenix," 

appears to mean, that they reckon 

time by the Phoenix, each one 

representing ^00 years, 
d6ma, I m, judge. 72:7,26,30; 

73:6. 
de<5r frit$, preserve for deer. 

"5:3- 
dyeulen, devils, A. I, 237:1 

dihte, to dress, prepare, P, P. 
428. 

dole {A, S. ddel), deal, part, 
division; pi. dolen. A, R, 
155:2, 6. 

d ra pen , ^. //. killed? 118:11. 

draje, to draw. A, I, 235:29. 

drif. 2« ? fever. 111:21. The 
word occurs, Rushworth Gos- 
pels, Mt. viir. 15: **']2ethrin 
honda his •] forlet hiae sio 
drif," where it is fem. 

driste, L, 4. miswritien for 
drihte ? Lord, 

drouhfe, drought. P.P. 425. 



eaht. See dbht. 

ear hi ice,* basely, cowardly, dis- 
gracefully. 

earmian,* tocommisercUe, grieve. 

Easter-wuce,* \f. Ecuter-week. 

Ebreuwische, cuij. Hebrew, 

ecchenesse, dat,s,{A. S, 6cnys) 
eternity, 168: ri. 

eglian,* to ail, grieve, afflict; 
dolere ; govs. dat. 

tye, awe, fear, R, 2$g, 



fmteri GLOS 

emiep, pr. pi- emfit}-. A. T. 23 j r?. 
Engle, Ote English. L. 13. 
enmang fis, meanwhile. Lat, in- 

terca. ' 
eom (.-1. S. earn). «»fi, 
eorldim,* im. earldom. 
ere, A/«. /•■ 2i> 
crfli), carlhlv. 
Estum, Boston. 119:25. 



faton, = fatura, 1/. //. vtsstls. 

116:9. >S'»fxt. 
feip./uZ/A. -/*. C. 155. 
fei|>ks,/j(/A/cw. P. C. 151. 
Teorden. p. pi. fared, passed. 
feo tjei-iyne,* Jbur/een. 
kfSK-n, /ea/her, /ma. L. 49- 
fiede, p. s. wrote. L. 50. (A. 

6'. fegaa, ^^regan, lo join, 

t\. p.'s. /ell. C. 847. 
(yTToesi,* Joremosl. See forma. 
fluwc, su6J. p. s.ftew. 158:16. 
folgian,* lo/ollow; p. -ode, -ade ; 

p. p. -ad, -od, 
foliosi, L. 38 ; miswrillen for 

follohl .' baptism. 
(inn,* p. pi. weni. See laran. 
iotha.rtn, p. pi. forbore. 118:35. 

{A. S. forbirOD. ) 
forbarn,*^. J. Set forbyrnan. 
forberan* {15), lo forbear, ab- 

slain from ; p. 1. forbxT, pi. 

Torb^ron, p. p. forboren, 
forcursxd, accursed. 
ford, L. 63 ; miswrillen for 

for»? 
foregenga,* im. foregoer, pre- 
decessor, 
forfledn. See fledgan, Bedn. 
forloTcn {^A. S. forluron), p.pl. 



forfeited. 117:32. &ef<nW- 
san. 

forre, A. I. 236:23. Uwm, 
in his edition of tiu A. !.,fA 
the point after forre, /"°V 
the vford toilh avreke ; ^ 
punctuation of the kxi a 
Mdtzner's, who sajrs, i* to 
note, " Wir verbinden (Ua 

forre mit icA mile Maii,9t. 
und denLen nns in dem i&. 
Originale einen SaU. wool 

forrer, piller, als lofioilival- 
haUeo ist, so dass forrt dn 
spater gebrauchten/wrar, n»- 
age. spoil, in der Bedeutnoi 
entspricbt : ' Berge nnd "Hii- 
ler will ich verheeren laasea." 

forst(jd,*/, *. availed. 117:17. 
See forstandan. 

forto.yii/- lo ,- forto doBoe,^ 
lodo, 168:2. 

frame, profit. O. 18. "Fn- 
myngc, or afframynge, 01 
wynnjnge. Lucrum, emeli- 
meitlum." Prompt Parv. Fif- 
by gtDes Ihe verb to fnnu, 
as meaning in Norfolk lo shaft 
Ihe demeanour lo an occasion ^ 
ceremony. In N. Srilaat i 
has Ihe tigttificaJion of snemt- 
ing, and is dermed by famietm 
from A. S. fremian, valerc, 
prodesse. In Ihe Craven dia- 
led it implies making an atlemfL 
Way. 

fred, 'fret. 

Frige-dieg,* 2W. FY^a's day, 

friS,* 2n. protection, enclosure; 

deor friS, preserve fi^ deer, 

"5:3- 
*-frijet,/r«rf. A/*. 448. 



.497 



GLOSSARY. 



fyhyealde 



firouren, to comfort ; suhj, s. 

froure. i68:8. {A. S. fr6- 

frian. ) 
ful {A. S.m),/ouI. 



O. 



jgaede, p. s. wenL 118:9. 
gasildes, imposts ^ taxes, i^A. S. 

gild.) 
g«t, yd. 
gang-wuce,* i/I gang-week. 

Rubric t Joh, xvii. 
gait, /. J. made^ caused, (A, S. 

^^earwian ?) P. P, i^g, 
geapscipe,* 2m, guile, craftiness, 

sagacity, 
geat,* p, s. See getan. 
gcat, yet. 

gelstret$. 5V^^lstreiS. 
gersuraa,* im. treasure. 116:12. 

*'Vox quidem quodcunque 

prcRsto est significat, a gearo. 

Paratus." Lye. 

gimman,'*' = gimmum, d. pi. 

gems., 116:9. See gym. 
Gleaweceaster, * 3/C Gloucester. 
gledie, sudj. s, gladden, cause 
joy to. 168:7 {A. S. gladian.) 
goded, /. s. did good to, befiefil- 

id, endawecL 119:15. (^. .S". 

^^gddian. ) 

graedinaes, "^.greediness. 
gretetS, imp, pi. greet, 168:12. 

grys, pig.^' P.P. Ai^- ** Gryce, 

swyne or pygge. Porcellus, ne- 

frendis," . . . Prompt. 

Parv. See Webster's Diet., 

s, w. grice and grise. 

gr«den = grunden, d^. ground. 
L. 103. 



ha, he. A. I. 232:26. 
haeftnung,* 2/« holding^ captivity, 

durance. 116:18. 
haerfest,* im. harvest, autumn. 

112:20. 
haemes, the brain. 118:9. 
haet = h6t, q. v. 
halechede {A. .S*. hilgode), p.s. 

halloived. 117:9. 
halechen, pi. saints. {A. S. 

hiligan.) 
hdlgung,* 3/1 hallowing, conse- 
cration. 
hals, heals,* im. neck. 118:18. 
haran* = harum, dat. pi. hares. 

115:7. 
heddedr,* in. tall deer^ stag. 

115:6. 
heals.* *SV^ hals. 
healsian.* See hdlsian. 
\iekxi,* poor, humble^ abject. 
heglice, honourably. 120:3. 
hey, high ; an hey, above. R. 

284. 
i-heied, pp. exalted. 168:10. 
hem, dcU. cue, them. G. 354, 

358. 
hengen, /. pi. hanged. 119:35. 

(A. S. hangan.) 
hengen, /. //. hung. 
heonnes, hence. P. P. Ai 5- 
her abiiten, hereabout, about 

this. 168:14. 
herief, pr. pi, praise. A. I. 

233:6. {A. S. h6rian. ) 
hidousliche, hideously, dread- 
fully. A. I. 229:28. 
hyealde, to hold, regard. A. I. 

237-3; 23s:i6. 
>'hyealde, pp. held, holden, enter- 
tained. A.I. 231:26. {A. S. 

^^healden. ) 



hyer] Gl 

hyer benore, hfriUfore, be/ere 

'this. A.I. 236:4. 
hiike, same. L. 53. {A. S. 

ilc.) 
hind,* 3/; hind; cerva. 
H y r 1 1 i n g b. , Irliagborough. 

119:26. 
his, Ihtm. A. I. 237:3. 
bise. H; hise uelf, ^/tf, i'. /^ 

ihe heart. A. I. 235:4- 
hit, .4./. 235:26 : ihouU ptrhapi 

^ hi w hy, as in 235:5. 
hiedr,* an. leer, ehui, face, 

counlmanct. 
hoe, her. it, i.e., tHebook. L. 42; 

miswritlen for heo ? 
hoi, whole, wholly, all. 168:5, 
hopian,* le hope; p. -ode; //. 

-od. 
hopien, h hope ; ich hopie, / 

hope. 167:28. 
horderu-ycan, treasurer's diuell- 

ing. 119:23. 
huam, vAom. A. I. 232:22. 
hunger,* 2m. hunger, famine. 
i-huret, pp. hired ; heihlichc i- 

huret, hired al high rales. P.P. 

450. 



iafen, = yafen, gafen, p.pl.gaot. 

117:17. 
ieden, = yeden, p. pi. yode 

went. 118:30. 
f^felian,* to do evil to, afflict ; 

used impersonally with dat. ; 

him f(yfelade. he fell sick. 

H3:i. 
ilcan,* = ilcam, dat. pi same. 
. 85:34. 

inouh, ath. tnough, 168:14. 
ine, m, into, against. A, /. 
ipnalis, {Bosworih's text ; 



LRY. 49I 

Thorpe's njj^ nalis),_^ hyjai- 
lis, from v/rroS, sleep / Ik 
name gioen to the adder wkidt 
Cleopatra applitd to her arm, 
91:33- 



laegde,* p. s. laid, laiddvum. 

115:3. .S'at lecgan. 
letden, p. pi laid. 118:23. 
liet, let, caused to be. 119:1;. 
'igu, 3^ laiv, justice. 
land-leod, 3/^ peopU of a land. 
Lang Fridaei, -Long Friday, 

Good Friday. S. C. 119:34. 
Laiiga-Frige-daeg, * in. Laig 

Friday, Rubric, Joh. xvjii. 
laucrtS, L. 102 ; misverHteH fas 

lauerd, lord. 
lawe, law. 242:5 : ''^ed ktre, if 

metonomy, for country, 
lenaen,* am. Lent, spring, 
lencten-wucc,* \f. Lent^wetk 

Joh. V. Rubric. 
lenglen-wuce,* if. Lent-wed. 

Joh. iv, 6. Rubric. 
lettdbiscop, im. suffragan bish- 
op. 114:2. 
leodene, dat. s. speech, language ; 

on Ebreawische leodene, im 

the Hebrew language. 157:13. 
leofliche, looingfy. L. 47. 
leomia, pr. su6j. s. learn. L. 59. 
let, hinderance. G. 72. 
ieti, \Qi,p.s.iet. 112:14. 
lett,* pr. 3 s. leads. See libdan. 
'€1,* p. s. \il wyrcean, caused It 

bt made. 114:32. See lifeian. 
lien to, lie next to,, are adjacent. 

9:21. 
lihhilike, lihhlli), lightly, easily. 

O. 283. J89. 
limu,*//. members. See lim. 



499 



GLOSSARY. 



[ofdred 



Lincol, Lincoln, 

lire (-4. S, hledr), cheek, face, 
countenance. 157:11. 

loke, to look, observe. P.P. 453. 

lof^ grim ; 118:15 ; lof = \i^ 
loathly? Thorpe translates this 
passage **In many of the 
castles were [instruments call- 
ed] a ' l&S and grim.' " 

Lunden, London. 

Bi. 

maket, pr. s. makes. 120:3. 

(A. S. macian.) 
niddm,* im. treasure ^ precious 

thing. 
mddmehus,* m. treasure-house, 

116:6. 
maegeste, greatest^ most powerful, 

mdel,* in, meal, measure, part, 
portion ; seofon fot mael, seven 

foot meal ; used as in piece- 
meal. 113:9. 

maesse-jfefen,* 2«. evening before 
a feast. Joh. 1:34. Rubric, 

mal,* zn? tribute, rent, 

mannan'*' = mannum, d. pi. 
115:26. 

manncynn,* m, race of men, 
114:25. * . 

manred, manraeden,* 3/I hom- 
age, 117:30. 

Mans, Le Maine. 

marc,* mark, piece of money. 

116:14. 
mawe, maw, stomcuh, P,P.44g. 
Ma|>ante, Mantes, 112:30. 
ma^um, mai$m, 2m. vessel, 

treasure, ornament, precious 

thing, 
me, one {indefinite). 119:7. 



meast, most, 

metJful, moderate. 168:14. (i4. 
S, ge-met, measure^ 
mycelan* = mycelum, d. s. n. 

"4:35- 
myddan-winter,* im, and n. 

mid-winter. Joh. i. 14. Rubric. 

See winter, 
mid-lencten,* 2m. mid-lent. Joh. 

vi. Rubric 
m\nt, p, s. meant. 119:22. {A. 

S. mdenan.) 
raislie, L. 57. ; MS. error for 

mihtie ? mighty. 
m(5dian, mddigan,* to be proud, 

high-minded. 115:12. 
molde,* if mould, earth, dust, 

113:11. 
monan-daeg,* 2m. Monday, 
mdtan, must, ought, can, may, 

debere, posse, licere. 
mo^e, //. may. A. I. 234:29. 

N. 

nadresy adders, 118:10. 
namen (A. S, nimon), /. //. 

took, 116:30. ^S"^^ niman. 
nefe, nephew. 
ne6d,* 3/*. need, 
n e ues, nephews, 117:27. 
neuuae (/(. S, niwe), new. 

119:16. 
noise, to make a noise. G. 78. 
Norm. , = Normand ige. 116:28. 
nouther, neither. G. 221. 
nowiderwardes, in no direction. 

118:18. 



o, tn. 

oc {A, S, ac), but. 120:1. 

ofd red, //. affrighted. 116:35. 



oferwtihan] GLOS 

oferwrihan* (lo), to caper ovtr; 
p. t. -wrih, pi. wrigon ; pp. 

-wrigen. 
oferwrogen." pp, caotrtd aaer. 

113:10. St( oferwrihan. 
otslogon, * /. />/. See orslean. 
ofiiundrcd, pp. wonder-slruek, 

onoh, enough. 
oon. em. H. P. 246:6. 
ouer, everywhere, anywhere. 118: 
33; H9:2- 

P. Q. 

pades, paddocks, loads. ii8:ia 

psell, im.pall, robe. 

psellan* = [Kellum, dai. pi. 

116:9. See [laell. 
pan. =p£Bniga,f«n,//.ii6:i5. 

^« pening. 
piais, peate ; pais he makede 

men ■] dEr, ^a« he made for 

man and hcast. 117:4. 
percvl, parsley. P. P. 423. 
Perscoran, dat. Pershore. 
pese-coddes. peascods. P.P, 419. 
pesen. pease, P. P, 435, 
pined, p. pt. tortured. 118:4. 
pining {A. S. pinung), torture. 

pleogan.* See plegan. 
poletes, pullets, chickens. P. P. 
417- 
poretes, P. P. 435. See poret- 

poreites, perrets, leeks. P, P. 

423. (Fr. poircauK.) 
porl, 2111. port, a'0; 
preiisl,* zai. priest, 
•pnde, fineness, splendour. G. z6;. 
quanerne {.-1. S. cweanern), 

prison. 118:10. 



racheiiteges {^A. S. raceoTeag], 
neek'bends. 118:15. 

ra;flac, rapitu. ii7;ia 

r.-euede-n, p. s. rolided ; Ii6;ij. 
p. pi. neuedan, -en. nS.ij; 
119:1. (.4. S. redfian.) 

raiueres, robbers. 119:4. 

ixie,* fierce, cruel, austere. Sa 
reC. 

[edfian,* to seise, plunder. 

gCKl^,* \m. reeve, baiiiff. 

refen, /o reef? 119:16; Tharpt 
translates this passage "ind 
had it provided vtiih i-es- 
ments ;" and adds, in a fMt- 
note, "Or perii:ips had ihe 
walls adorned with hanging 
The meaning is very doubt- 
ful " 

regul, im. rule, canon. 

reiny, rainy. G. 53. 

lide, p. pi. rode. G. 264. 

risen [A. S. rison), p. pi. rosi. 
117:11. See n'san. 

ristnesse, L, 14. mis^vritlen fur 
rihinesse ? rightnesi, right 

rdhran,*^. pL See recan. 
ruhte,*^. s. See r^n. 
rdr," cheerful, bright, splendid. 
rotleste, superl., most splendid: 

113:23. SeeT6l 
runan, ace. secret counsel. L. 

59- 



sx. so. 119:6. See was S£& 
sseht,/^. reconciled {from A. S. 
setian). ii?;!?- 
Sseiernes-dEg.* 2m. Saturday. 

grsa:t% p. s. set. 



5o» 



GLOSSARY. 



[swica 



saette, p. s, = sette, pu/. 114:6. 
^^aetie, p. s. See settan. 
sandes {A. S. sand), messages, 



messengers. 



sdul,* ^ souL See sdwel. 
sauter, Psalter, A. R, 155:14. 
scearp,* sharp. 
skie, cloud. G. 389. 
^^cotura,* d. pL shots y darts. 

See ge^Q.t6\. 
seht,* 3/C friendship, reconcilia- 
tion, peace; pL good wishes. 

115:11. 
sei, to say. 117:5. 
scire, comp. better. L. 6^. 
seolfor,* 2n. silv:r. 
seonde, p. s. sent. See scndan. 
Sereberi, Salisbury. 
Seuarne, S^<:rn. L. 7. 
shape, pp. shdpm, contrived, 

arranged. G. 130. 
sie, subj. s. be, maybe, 101:3 I 

103:13 ; 105:29. 
synllce,* sinfully. 
ges\6}^, pr. pL see. 105:17. See 

se6n. 
sylhen {A. S. si9t$an), afler- 

ivards, then. 
si.hon {A. S. sitJum), dat. pi. 

at times. 118:33. 
sy;te, sight {prophetic), vision. 

R' 254. 

slep, p. s. slept. 

sob. {Lat. semi-oboli), shil- 
lings. 119:27. 

sone, son. L. 3. 

sorwe, sorrow, grief R. loi. 

sotilliche, subtly. A. I. 235:22. 

SOL 1 icty* foolishly. 

spouse. A. I. 233:26 ; seems to 
be used in the same sense as 
spoushod, ']th line abffoe; * ' that 
is not his by wedlock." ' 



ssel, shall, ought. A. I. 2^2:26. 
sparian,* to spare ; p. -ode ; //. 

-od. 
ssreward, shrew. R. 294. 
stanndenn, to stand ; pr. 31*. 

stannt. O. 33. 
statues, statutes. P.P. 455. 
stearc,* stark^ severe, rigid. 
steode,* 2 m. stead, place. See 

slede. 
stihtan,* to dispose, direct ; p. 

stihte. 111:17. 
sii^* firm, austere, obdurate. 
stole, seat, see. 112:21. 
strende, /. s. begat. {A. S, 

slrynan. ) 
stucchenes (A. S. stye, Ger. 

St tick, piece) ^ sections, parts. 

A. R. 155:9. 
sturuen, / //. died. See steor- 

fan. 
sue, tofolloiv. G. 349. 
suencten, /. //. 117:34. Set 

swencan. 
suikes {A. S. swica), traitors. 

117:28. 
suinc. swink, trouble. 119:12. 
suy^e {A. S. swItJe), very, very 

much. 117:34. 
sumne (10), together. L. 61. 
suna,* im. son. 1 13:1 1. 
Sunnan-doeg. 2/;/. Sunday. 
sund = swund, 2n? sivimming, 

natatio ; "^ he mid sunde pi ei 

oferfaran wolde, that he by 

swimming, the river cross would. 

Os. 
suoren. p. pi. s2Vore. 
sweall, * /. s. See swellan. 
swencan, */^a^/V/, oppress, vex ; 
p. swencte ; pp. ^«wenced, 
geriwtwci. 
swica,* un. deceiver, traitor. 



swtcd<5in] GLOS: 

Bwicd<5m,* im.lreachcTy, tedUion. 
swikes, (A. S. swica), Iratiort. 

117:11. 
swonc, p. t. loiied, laboured. 

168:14. 6i«swinken. 
%iK6ion* p. fil. ^^fsweriao. 
awuUon,* p. pi. See sweltan. 

T. 
Ucan* (9), .'o take; p. J. idc, pi. 

ttScon ; pp. tacen. 
tauh (/J. S. |>esil)), ytl, Ihmgh. 

"ss:-t ; 157:18. 

tenserie; 118:24. Thorpe, in 
his translation, tubslilutes 
" censerie," which, he says, 
"is, no doubt, ihe same as 
'eens,' in Low Latin antaria, 
' rente seigneuriale ei foncidre, 
dont un heritage est chang^ 
envers le seigneur du flef d'oil 
il depend.' Roquefort, Glos- 
saire Romain." 

leollan, i'. ?. tellan. 

tediia,* iTO. injury, wrong, in- 

frtjohhian, ^^eohhian, qAiYt- 
hian. ^tiigSian, to (onctde, 
grant, allow, permit ; p. -ode ; 
pp. -od. 107:6. 

Tywes-dasg, * %m. Tiw's day, 
Tuesday. 

locan, p. pi. took; 117:13. See 

tock, p. s. took, gave. L. 54. 
lo (teld, p. s. dii'ided, distributed. 

117:22. {A. S. td-d&lan.) 
toll,* 2m. loll. 
to sumne, together. L. 61. 
tre {A. S. irega), tribulation, 

affliction, grief. 116:28. 
trega,* \m. tribulation, affliction, 

grief. 



SAKY. 501 

frtredwust,* superl. irutsi, 

most faithful. 

rowwenn (,4. S. tredwian), lo 

believe, trust in. 0. 40, 51, ^^, 

I3+- 
twentygoHa,* def decL twaitiiSt. 
iwyes, tivice, 144:25. 

O. V. 

\Xf:T\e, fourth. A. I. 230:31. 

vir, live, living, 241:14. 

I'uinden {A. S. ge6ndau), lo 
find; pr.pl. iuindetS. 168:3. 

umbe, inieni, cndeaoouriitg. con- 
cerned 168:5. 

unisecgendllc,* unspcaiMt, 
not lo be told. 

undleallendlic,* iniwrnerahlt. 

undep {A. S.v.a-dtdp), trndap, 
shallow. 118:17. 

underfffidde.* p. s. sui/ecU. 
See under|>e(^c]an. 

under]>c<Jddan* ^ undeifoid- 
dum, dal. pi, subjects. Set un- 
der|ie(Sdan. 

ungederad,* pp. unhurl, wh 
annoyed. See derian. 

ungeiimp,* 2«. mishap, mis/or- 
tunc. See geWmpia. 

ungewiderung,* j/". bad wea- 
ther, tempest. 

unlesan* (12), A? unloose, sd 

free, release .- p. i. unlas. pL 
unl&son. pp, unlesen. 116:18. 

unlagu.* %f. illegality. 

unriht,*2«. unrighl, wrong, im 

iintellendlic,*unu/jW-ti^Z-. ii8:4. 
umriwS,* 3/; untruth, faithless- 

MDViKSt, frad, unstable. 113:7. 
uujeren {A. S&. wron), weri. 



503 



GLOSSARY. 



[wrope 



uuard {A, S. wear5), became, 

116:23. 
uuare (A. S. wdere), sufy', p, s. 

were. 116:24. 
uuaren (-4. S, wderon), were, 

uuenden {^A. S. w^ndon), /.//. 

weened, supposed, 117:19. 
uuessien, to vex, 1 17:15. 
uu recce (^A, S, wraecca). 

wretched, 
uurythen, /.//. writhed, twisted, 
u5e, * p,s, 111:17. See unnan. 

W. 

waeccan = waeccum, dal, pi, 
watchingSy vigils, 74:25. 

waell, ado, well, 112:7. 

w^pnon,* = waepnum, d, pi. 
See wdepen. 

wancne (Rnyal MS,^ wanene), 
whence, L, 16, 

warde {A, S, weard), ward^ 
protection, 168:7. 

warie, to curse, P,P, 451. 
[A, S, W)rian.) 

warien, to defend. (A. S, warian, 
to guard, dcware, ward off,) 
A, R. 165:12. 

warne, to warn. P,P, 461; 
i. e., and sent to warn us. 

warth i^A, S, wear5), was^ be- 
came, 116:27. 

was sae, was it so, if. 119:6. 
Thorpe translates, ** However 
a man tilled, the earth bore 
no corn." 

wende,/.j. turned, changed, ren- 
dered, 119:29. (A, 6". wendan). 

wen den, p. pi. weened, supposed. 
120:1. (A. S. w^nan.) 

wependlic,* deplorable, 

we rsc i pe, * 2 m, mans hip, valour, 
114:30. 



iwhillc See under i. 

wihte, d, s, 114:35; probably 
miswritten for rihte ; that he 
took by right, and with great 
unright ; or it may mean by 
weight. 

wildrum, dat, pL ofcomp, wildra, 
-e, -^^ wilder (animals) ? 78:28. 
Some understand the word as a 
contraction ^wild-dedrum, wild 
deer or animals. 

wllenn, wilenn, to wish, be wil- 
ling, O, 95. 

wimman. See wifman, decPd 
like mann. 

Winceaster, Winchester, 

wynnynge, winning, gain, P. C. 
169. 

wite, subj, s, guard, keep. 168:7. 

wytinde, knowing, knowledge ; 
be his w., with his knowledge, 
knowingly, wittingly. A. L 

'^l^i^'Z ; 234:15. 
wi^cwe^an * (12), to withsay, 

gainsay. See cwetJan. 

wyjidra^e, to withdraw. A, I, 
235:31 ; 2 /. s. wyfdrajst, 
235:32. 

wy))halt, withholds. A, I, 

woldberendlic, pestiferous, 

II [:i8. 

wonene, whence. L. 16. (A. 
S. hwanan. ) 

wreccehed, wretchedness. 

118:32. (A, S, wraecca, 
wretched, and hdd, hood.) 

wrihan * (20), to rig, cover ; 
p, s, wriLh, //. wrigon ; //. 
wrigen. 

wrofe hele, R, '?53 ; to the in- 
jury of the kingdom ; lit. , to 
the angry health of the king- 
dom. 



. .1 



wiia] GLC 

WU3 sua ('4. S. hw^-swd), 

wAoto. 
wucon • =: wucum, tial. pi. 

wait, 
gt-yjunnoti.* pp. See winnan. 
wunscipe {A. S. weoriSscipe), 

ivorship, honour, 
wuiiS.* 2n, worth. 
wurtSful,* worthy, dignifitJ. 
wuriSscipe. See weorCscipe. 

T (ooiuoiiuit). 
jeae, to give. A. I. 



zechi)), pr, pi. seek. A. I. 

237:5- 
zenuol, sinful. A. I. zzb.^t. 
ziste, sixth, A. I. 131:1. 

p. D. 

fabbotrice, = (>e abbotriee, the 
abbacy. 119:21. 

jKegen,* 2m. thane. See ftgen. 

he6n<le,* pr. p. prospering, 
Ihrrofng. 70:3; 76:4. See 
fe6hAD. 

|>e rafter, thereafter, in accord- 
ance with thai. P.C.il. See 
per aftur. 

perf {A. S. peorf, ficrf, perf, 
unleavenei/) ; P. P. 41 9. 
"Therf, wylhe owte sowre 
dowe {not sowryd, . . ,) 
Azimus," Prompt. Pare, 

peslrede, /. J. darkened. 1 16:23. 
(A. S. Ksiri.n.) 

fystrian,* to darken, grow dark ; 
p. -ode ; pp. -od. 

Jpo {A. S. (Bi), those. P. C. 1 53. 



iSARY. 5CH 

pohhtesst See pennkenn. 
pohuaethere {A. S. peah-hws- 

\KTi), notivithstanding. 117:15. 
ponkefS, imp. pi. thank. {A. S. 

pancian.) 
pos, those, A. I. 
pop {A. S. peib), though. 
popwethere, notwUhstanding. 

119:14. 
prengde {A. S. pringan). 

thronged, crowded, jessed. 

118:13. 

preom, dSr/. Set fif. 
prumde, p. s. compressed, set 

together, L. 54. 
pulke, those same. P. P, 436. 
Donres-djeg,* 2m, Thor's day, 

Thursday. 
pur {.4. 5. purh), through. 

1 10:3. 
purhsmedde,* p. t. searched 

through. 114:21. Seesmei' 

gan. 

Durs-daeg,* im. Thursday. 
pusen, thousand. 



jefde, p. s. gave, should give. 

160:16. 
teorne (A. S. geome), earnett/y, 

168:4. 
jeomeliche (A, S. geornllce), 

diligenlfy, intentfy, cautttmsfy, 

158:34. 
^eirndesst. See feornenn. 
jife. pr. subj. s.gwe. O. 315. 
jiue, /'■. sub/, s.give. 168:9. 
}ond {A. S. geond), beyond, 

through, over. Z. z8. 
^omanly, inyeoman fashion. C 

jorke, York. H. P. 247:8. 



THE WORKS REPRESENTED, 

AND THE EDITIONS USED. 



Da Halgan Godspel on Engusc. — The Anglo-Saxon version of 
the Holy Gospels, edited from the original manuscripts , by Benja^ 
min Thorpe, F.S.A, London^ mdcccxlil 

The basis of this text is the copy of ihe A. -S. Gospels, occu- 
pying the first 343 pages of a MS. contained in the Library of the 
University of Cambridge, and thus described by Wanley, in his 
Catalogue of A. -S. MSS., etc., 1705, p. 152 : **Cod. membr. in 
fol. min. circa tempus Conquisitionis Angliae scriptus, in quo 
habentur I. Evangelia quatuor Anglo-Saxon ic 6, ... II. pag. 
344. Gesta Salvaioris nostri, sive Pseudo-Evangel ium Nicho- 
demi .... III. Nathanisjudaei LegatioFabulosaad Tiberium 
Csesarem 

Fronte Cod. habentur hae quae sequuntur Inscriptiones. 

Hunc textum Euangeliorum dedit Leofricus E^ aecclesise Sci 
Petri Apostoli in Exonia. ad utilitatem successorum suorum . • . 

Thas Boc Leofric b gef Sco Petro. and eallum his aefter-gengum 
into Exanceastre Gode mid to tSenienne • • • 

Manu autem neoterica, Hunc Codicem Evangeliorum Gregorius 
Dodde, Decanus Ecclesiae exoniens. cum assensu fratrum suorum 
Canon icorum dono dedit Matthaeo Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, 
qui ilium in banc novam formam redigi & ornari curavit 
1566. . . . 

This is regarded by A.-S. scholars as one of the most valua- 
ble, and, in some respects, as the most valuable, of existing 
texts. By skilled paleographers a somewhat earlier date is as* 
signed to the MS. than that assigned to it by Wanley, namely, 
" Circa tempus Conquisitionis Angliae." The grammatical 



5o6 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



fonns and the onhography are those of the purest West-Suon 
dialect. This, loo, is the only early leil containing the Rnbrics 
complete, which are valuable as showing the parts of Scriptote 
appointed to be lead in Anglo-Saxon churches in ihe several 
seasons of their ecclesiastical year. 

In regard to the history of the A.-S. version of the Gospels, 
Dr. BosTorth, in his valuable edition of the Gothic, Anglo- 
Saxon, Wyclitfe, and Tyndale, versions of the Gospels, re- 
marks : " Among the many books sent by Gregory the Great to 
Augustine, two copies of the Gospels in Latin, of the same size, 
and written in the same Roman uncials, are now extant. Aficf 
being safely kept in the Bibliotheca Gregoriana in Sc Augus- 
tine's Abbey, Canterbury, Archbishop Parker, at the dissoluiioa 
of religious houses, took charge of these precious MSS, ; one of 
these he presented with his other MSS. and books, to the libia^ 
of Corpus Christ] College, Cambridge, where it still remains in 
perfect safety. The other copy we know from the following 
entry in the margin fol. 3 a, ' Robcrtus Cotton Cuninglonensis 
l6oz,' was among the manuscript treasures of Sir Robert Cotton. 
It is now in the safe custody of the Bodleian, Oxford. This 
Oxford Codex appears from its history, as well as from its inter- 
nal evidence, to have been the original from which nnmeroiu 
copies were made and spread over England as far north as the 
residence of Bede in the monastery of Wearmouih, Durham. 
The internal evidence is this, that all the Anglo-Saxon MSS. 
have ihe large interpolation given in the note upon Matt. xx. 
28, with others which will shortly be mentioned. This MS. of 
the Gospels, sent by Gregoiy the Great, is not the Vulgate, but 
the old Latin version, the Veins Italica, in constant use till the 
time of Jerome, who guided by it finished his Vulgate transla- 
tion of the Gospels in A.D. 384. As the Anglo-Saxon version 
was made from the Vctus Italica, it may be useful in ascertain- 
ing the readings of this oldest Latin version. We may cite one 
or two examples more in proof that the Anglo-Saxon was from 
the Vetus Italica, and not from the Vulgate of Jerome. 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 507 

In St. Matt, xxvii. 32, the Vulgate has Invenerunt hom- 
inem Cyrenaeum, and omits venientem obviam illis. The 
Anglo-Saxon is word for word from the Vetus Italica, as will 
be seen below. In this instance the Anglo-Saxon was evidently 
translated from the Vetus Italica. 

Invenerunt hominem Cyrenaeum, venientem obviam illis. 
F<r/. lial 

Di gem^tton hig dbnne Cyreniscne man, cumende heom 
tog^nes. Ar.g,'Sax, 

A clause is also omitted in the Vulgate of St. Matt xxiv. 41, 
when it is both in the Vetus Italica and Anglo-Saxon. 

Duo in lecto, unus assumetur, et unus relinquetur. Vet. Ital. 

Twegen beof on bedde, dn byf genumen, and dtSer byf Idefed. 
Ang.-Sax, 

Sometimes a word is different in the Vulgate and in the Italic 
Version, and the Anglo-Saxon then follows the Italic, as in St. 
Luke XV. 8. 

Et eoertit domum. Vet. Ital. 

And dwent hyre hus. Ang.-Sax. 

Et ever r it domum. Vulg. 

The Vetus Italica sometimes omits a whole verse, and the 
same omission is observed in the Codex Augustinius and in the 
Anglo-Saxon, when it is contained in the Vulgate, as in St. 
Matt, xxiii. 14. This affords further evidence, that the Anglo- 
Saxon was translated from the Vetus Italica, and also that the 
Bodleian Codex Augustinius is the Italic, and not the Vulgate 
Version. 

It is then an interesting fact, that we still possess, in the Bod- 
leian, one of the copies which Gregory the Great sent to Eng- 
land, — that it is not a copy of the Vulgate, but of the Vetus Italica, 
and that it may be the very copy from which the Anglo-Saxon 
Version was made. 

We are not certain as to the names of those patriotic Anglo- 
Saxons, who devoted their time, talents, and learning to the 
translating of the Scriptures into Anglo-Saxon, that they might 



5o8 WORKS REPRESENTED. 

be read by ihc people, and in their churches ; bnt wc ha« in 
indisputable evidence in the Rubrics, printed in our notes from 
Ihc MS. that they were constantly read in Anglo-Saxon churches, 
as the rubrical direaions declare what part of the Scriptures mi 
appointed for successive seasons. We have no more knowledge 
of ihe eicact date when the Gospels were first translated into 
Anglo-Saxon, than we have of the translators. We are, however, 
assured by Cuthbert,* a pupil of the learned Venerable Bede, tbe 
glory of the An^lo-Saxon church, that he was iiaishtng his trans- 
lation of St. John's Gospel immediately before his death on tbe 
J7lh of May, 735. As Sl John is the last of the Gospels, the 
three preceding had most likely been previously translated. 
Cuthbert describes the last day of Bede's life with Christian sim- 
plicity and feeling. ' When the morning dawned he lold us to 
write diligently what we had begun. This being done, one of as 
said, — ^There is yet, beloved Master, one chapter wanting ; will 
it be unpleasant to be asked any more questions ? He answered. 
Not at all. Take your pea and write with speed. — He did so. 
At the ninth hour he said to me, I have some valuables in my 
little chest ; fetch them that I may distribute my small presents. 
He addressed each and exhorted to prayer. We wept. In tbe 
evening when his pupil said. Dear Master, one sentence is still 
wanting. Write it quickly, exclaimed Bede. When it was fin- 
ished, he said, Support me while I go to the holy place, where 
I can pray to my Father. When he was placed there he repeated 
the Gloria Patri, and expired in the effort.' 

We have no satisfactory evidence to prove that this was the 
first translation of the Gospels, nor that Bede's version has come 
down to us. The Scriptures, in their own tongue, were revered 
by "he Anglo-Saxons, for Alfred the Great placed the Command- 
ments at the head of his Laws, and incorporated many passages 
from the Gospels. Subsequent translators would naturally avail 
themselves of the versions made by their predecessors, and write 
them in the orthography, the language, and the style of the time 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 509 

in which they Jived. From these distinguishing features, the 
age of a MS. may be ascertained with tolerable accuracy. 
Sometimes persons and places are named, which aid in fixing 
the date." 

The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church. — The first par t^ 
containing the Sermanes Catholiciy or Homilies of ^Ifric, In the 
original Anglo-Saxon^ with an English Version, Vol, 1. II. By 
Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A, London: printed for the ^Ifric 
Society, hdcccxliv. mdcccxlvi. 8vo. 

Of the author of the Ssrmones Catholici we know nothing 
with certainty beyond his name, though from the words of his 
own preface, where he speaks of king i^thelred's days as past, 
and informs us that in those days he was only a monk and mass- 
priest, it follows that he was not iSlfric archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who died in the year 1006, or ten years before the death 
of king iEthelred. 

With better foundation we may assume him to have been 
iElfric archbishop of York, who presided over that see from the 
year 1023 to 105 1. Against this supposition there seems no 
objection on the score of dates, and that the composer of the 
" Sermones" was a person of eminence during the life of arch- 
bishop Wulfstan, of whom, according to our hypothesis, he was 
the immediate successor, is evident from the language of his 
Canons, and of his Pastoral Epistle to Wulfstan, in which he 
speaks as one having authority ; though in the first-mentioned 
of these productions he styles himself simply ''humilis frater, 
and in the other **iElfricus abbas,"* and afterwards "biscop. 

Of iElfric's part in these Homilies, whether, as it would seem 
from his preface, it was that of a mere translator from the several 
works he therein names, or whether he drew aught from his own 
stores, my pursuits do not enable me to speak, though it seems 
that no one of his homilies is, generally speaking, a mere trans- 
lation from any one given Latin original, but rather a compila* 

* He was abbot of Eyiuham. See Biogr. Brit. Lit. p. 482, n. \, 



tr 



5IO WORKS REPRESENTED. 

tion from several. Be this, however, as it may, his s 
either case equally exhibit what were the doctrines of the Anglo- 
Saxon church at the period in which they were compiled or 
translated, and are for the most part valuable in matter, and ei- 
presscd in language which may be pronounced a pure specimeD 
of our noble, old, Germanic mother tongue. . , . 

The manuscript from which the text of the present volume is 
taken belongs to the Public Library at Cambridge. It is a small 
folio and probably coeval with its author, though hardly, as it 
has been supposed, his own autograph copy. It is not perfect, 
having suffered mutilation in several places, but its defects are 
all supplied in the present work from another MS. in the British 
Museum. . . . £dilor'i Pre/ace. 

King Alfreds Anglo-Saxon Version ov the Compendious 
History of the World by Orosius. . . . By At Rev. Joseph 
Boswerth, D.D. F.R.S. F.S.A. of Christ Chttreh, Oxford; 
. . . London : MDCCCLix. 8vo. 
King AtFBEn's Anglo-Saxon Version of Boethius de Cosso- 
latione Philosophle : wM a lileralEngiish TVanslation.NoUt, 
and Glossary. By the Rev. Samuel Fox, M.A., o/" Pembroke 
College, Oxford, and Rector of Morky, Derbyshire. London : 
1864. lamo. 

The Anglo-Saxon translations ascribed to Alfred are among 
the best specimens of Anglo-Saxon prose. What portions of 
these translations were done by the king himself, or what aid 
he received from his bishops and others, cannot be satisfactorily 
determined. With the exception of that of Bede's Ecclesias- 
tical History, which closely follows the original Latin, they are 
all characterized by great freedom of rendition ; large passages 
are oDen omitted, and large [passages as often added, and these 
last are among the most interesting, as exhibiting the mind and 
spirit of ihe ro^al author, one of (he longest of which, intro- 
duced into the version of Orosius, is his description of Europe 
and the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, the earliest records 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 511 

extant of the geography of northern Europe, and of the customs 
of the inhabitants. The selection from fioethius, contained in 
the present volume, headed "The desires of a good king," 
p. 95, is an expansion of the following sentence of Boethius : 
"Turn ego, Scis, inquam, ipsa minimum nobis ambitionem 
mortalium rerum fuisse dominatam : sed materiam gerendis 
rebus optavimus, quo ne virtus tacita consenesceret.'' — Lib. II. 
Opening Prosa 7. 

Alfred's sole object, in his Anglo-Saxon translations, appears 
to have been to produce useful text-books of the several kinds 
of knowledge, geographical, historical, ethical, religious, etc., 
i¥hich they represent ; and he accordingly retrenched, abridged, 
expanded, and introduced original matter, to suit his own pur- 
pose, as a great and wise ruler having at heart the good of his 
people. The best Life of Alfred for the student to consult is 
that by Pauli, translated from the German by Thorpe, and pub- 
lished in Bohn's Antiquarian Library. 

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, according h the several original 
authorities. Edited^ with a translation^ by Benjamin Thorpe, . . . 
Vol, L Original texts. Vol, II, Translation, Published by 
the authority of the Lords commissioners of her Majesty's treasury^ 
under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, London : 1861. 
roy. 8vo. 

The Saxon Chronicle comprises the period from the invasion 
of Britain by Julius Caesar, 45 a c, to the accession of Henry 11,, 
A. D. II 54. Of the numerous writers that must have participated 
in its composition, nothing is known with any degree of cer- 
tainty. Portions have been ascribed, but without any foundation 
of positive fact, to King /Elfred, to Plegemund, archbishop of 
Canterbury, 890 to 923, and to Ddnst^n, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 962 to 988. 

La^amon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain ; a poetical Semi- 
Saxon paraphrase of the Brut of Wace, New first published 
from the Cottonian Manuscripts in the British Museum ; accom- 



512 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



paniid by a literal troHilalim, nola, and a grammatical glossary. 

By Sir Frederic Madden, K.H., Keeper of ihe MSS. w A 

British Museum. V. I-I!I. London : published by the Sceitif 

of Antiquaries of London. 1847. roy. 8vo. 

The period of ihe composition of ihis work, so &r as can be 
determined by the few IndeGnite allusions in the poem to coo- 
temporary events, is ihe beginning of the thirteenth ceniuiy, in 
the reign of King John. All that is known of the author, and 
of the sources whence he derived the materiab of his extensive 
work, comprising some 32,200 lines, is what he records in tbe 
sixty-seven opening lines, given in this volume on pages iii-iij. 
By "the English book that Saint Bade made," II. 31, 53, is un- 
derstood, the Anglo Saxon version of Bede's Ecclesia.<itical His- 
tory, ascribed to King Alfred ; though very little indebtedness to 
that work can be traced, beyond the acconnt of Pope Gregoiy 
and the captive Anglo-Saxon youths exposed for sale in the 
market at Rome, the same as that contained in vElfric's Honilj 
on the Birthday of St. Gregory. "Another he took in Latin, 
that Saint Albin maked, and the fair Austin that baptism brought 
hither in." It is not clear what book is here alluded to. Tbe 
later text reads, "Another he took of Latin that Saint Albin 
maked ; book he took the third and laid there amid that Austin 
maked that baptism brought hither in," and makes no allusion 
to the work mentioned in the earlier text as the third : " book 
he look the third, laid there amid, that maked a French clerk, 
Wace was hight, that well could write." Madden conjectures 
that the author erroneously ascribed the Anglo-Saxon version to 
Bede, and the Latin original 10 Albin and Austin. The former 
contributed materials for the Ecclesiastical History, and is called 
by Bede ^' Auctor ^nxt omnes atque adjutor opusculi." It was 
from the third work named in the earlier text that Lajamon drew 
his chief materials, though he so used them that his poem may 
claim to be regarded, to a great extent, as an original composi- 
y tion. The work of Wace is a metrical translation into Norman 
French from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Sritonum, and 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 513 

completed, according to the last couplet of the poem, in the 
year 11 55. It records the history of Britain from the destruction 
of Troy, and subsequent arrival of Brutus, to the death of King 
Cadwalader, in a. d. 689. The versification of La3amon is re- 
markably irregular in its character. The peculiar alliteration of 
Anglo-Saxon poetry prevails, mixed with rhyming couplets, with 
couplets both rhymed and alliterative, and with verses that are 
neither the one nor the other. The student who would know 
more of the poem than can be given here, must consult the 
valuable preface to Madden's edition. 

The Ancren Riwle ; a treatise on the Rules and Duties of monastic 
life. Edited and translated from a Semi- Saxon MS, of the 
thirteenth century. By fames Morton, B,D,, vicar of Holbeach, 
prebendary of Lincoln, and chaplain to the right hon. Earl Grey, 
Londm : printed for the Camden Society, mdcccliii. 4 to. 

This work was composed by some unknown ecclesiastic, for the 
instruction and guidance of three ladies, of good family who, with 
their domestics or lay sisters, dwelt atTarente, in Dorsetshire, and 
devoted themselves to religious exercises. The house they occu- 
pied became a nunnery which was suppressed soon after Henry 
VIII. 's quarrel with the pope. 

The language is Semi-Saxon, differing in no important re- 
spects from that of La^amon. Morton places the date of its 
composition within the first quarter of the 13th century, and re- 
marks, in regard to the authorship, '* Wanley, who, in describ- 
ing the four different copies of the work, attributes it to Simon 
of Ghent, had evidently some doubt upon the subject, for upon 
one occasion he speaks of it as merely supposed [* ut putatur']. 
No other person is anywhere mentioned as having written it ; 
but there are circumstances which render it not improbable that 
Bishop Poor was the author, and wrote it for the use of the nuns 
at the time when he re-established or enlarged the monastery. He 
was born at Tarente, and evidently took great interest in the place. 
It was the scene of his exemplary death, and he chose to be 



514 WORKS REPRESENTED. 

buried there. His great learoing, bis active benevolence, iIk 
sanaily of his life, and his tender concern for the spiritual welfue 
of his friends and dependents, shewn in the pions exhortaiiom 
which he repeatedly addressed [o them immediately before bis 
death, agree well with the lessons of piety and morality so eani- 
esily and affectionately addressed, in this book, to the anchoressts 
of Tarente." 
The Orhuluh — NowfirsI edikd/rom Ihe origmal manuicr^ w Ai 

Bodleian with nobs and a ghisary by Robfrl Meadows W^t, 

D.D., laJt/tHow of St. Mary Magt'aleni College, and /amurfy 

pro/essor of Anglo-Saxon in the Uniuasify of Oxford. V. I, II. 

Oxford: 1852. 8vo. 

The Ormulum is a series of Homilies, in an imperfect state, 
composed in iambic verses of fifteen syllables, in two sections 
distinguished by the metrical point, placed after the eighth 
syllable or fourth foot ; or, as printed by Dr. White, in alternate 
iambic tetrameter and trimeter verses, (the latter with an addi- 
tional light syllable,) without ailiieraticin, and, except in veiy 
few cases, also without rhyme; the subject of the Homilies being 
supplied by those portions of the New Testament which were 
read in the daily service of the church. 

All that is known of the author is what he says of himself in 
the Dedication of the work to his brother Waller, that bis bap- 
tismal name was Ormin, and that he was a Canon Regularofthe 
Order of Saint Augustine. He adds, that at the request of his 
brother Walter, also an Augustinian Canon, he had composed 
these Homilies in English for the spiritual improvement of his 
countrymen. 

The only existing MS. of the Ormulum is supposed to be the 
author's autograph, and its date is placed by White in the early 
part of the I3ih century. A leading feature of the work is its 
peculiar orthography. The rule observed by the author through- 
out is to double the consonant after a short vowel ; sometimes, 
but very rarely, he substitutes the usual mark of a short syllable. 
Sometimes a single consonant occurs after a vowel, which must 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 515 

have been short in the pronunciation of the time ; this may be 
attributed, as Ellis remarks, to a slip of the pen, as the author 
corrects his spelling in some places, writing the second consonant 
of a reduplication over the other, as is shown in the facsimile of 
the sixteen opening lines prefixed to White's edition. Again, 
where two different consonants follow a short vowel, the first is 
occasionally not doubled according to the rule, also due perhaps, 
to inadvertence. The cumbersome orthography of the Ormulum 
is now valuable as throwing considerable light on the pronuncia- 
tion of the English of the time. The work as it has been pre- 
served, comprises some 20,000 verses, though out of the entire 
series of Homilies for the ecclesiastical year nothing is left beyond 
the text of the thirty-second. 

Proclamation of King Henry HI., 18 October, A.D, 1258. 

The text given in this volume has been taken from a translit- 
eration of the original document printed, for private circulation, 
along with the old French version and some extracts from Tre- 
visa's translation of Ralph Higden's ** Polychronicon," contained 
in this book, (the whole occupying two leaves, ) by Alexander J. 
Ellis, in March, 1861. After the text of this book was stereo- 
typed, the author received Mr. Ellis's work **0n Early English 
Pronunciation," and noted the following variations in the copy 
of the Proclamation given on pp. 501, 503, and 505 ; *'halde," 
line 3 of the text in this book, is spelt **holde;" ** we," 1. 4, 
is italicized; onie», 1. 20, onie; hoaten, 1. 21, italicized ; 
Ejtetentpe, 1. 25, E3teten))e ; Kant'bur', 1. 28, Kant'-bur' ; Wire- 
chest', 1. 29, Wirechestr' ; Warewik', 1, 33, without the apostro- 
phe ; Aldithel, 1. 35, with the apostrophe. 

Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. Transcribed, and new first 
publish' dy from a MS, in the Harleyan Library By Thomas 
Hearne, M,A, . , . In two volumes, Oxford, 1724. 8vo/ 
reprint, London, 18 10. 

The text of the selections given in this work was taken from 
the above edition as far as v. 294, and collated with the corre- 



5i6 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



sponding portion given by M&Uner in bis " Altengliscbe Spncb- 
proben," two or three of «'faose obvions emendalions were 
adopted; the remainder, w. 295—814, follow the text given in 
Morris's " Specimens of Early English," which was Uken from > 
contemporary MS. in the British Museum. 

The Chronicle extends from the siege of Troy to the death of 
Henr>' III., in 127^. The audior was a monk of the abbey of 
Gloucester, 

Dan Michel's Ayekbite of Inwyt, or, Remorse of Conscience. 

In the Kerttish diaUci, 1340 a. D. EdUtd /rem ifu aulegraph 

MS. iH the Brilisk Mustum, . . . By Richard Morrii, Etq. 

London ; published /or the Early English Text Society, 1866. 

The Ayenbiie 0/ Inwyl is a literal translation of a French 
treatise, entiiled Le somme dei Vices U de Vertues, and some- 



times, but incorrectly, siyied Lilibres roiat 
Le livre des Commandemens ; La somme le rt 
It was composed in the year 1279 for ust 
of France, by Frdre Lorens (or Laurenlii 
signaled in Latin), of the order of Friar 
maiion of this is given in the translator' 
of it as his own production. [pis bo 



X de Vices et de Vertus, 
r'/ Le miroir du mondc 
of Philip the Second 
s Gallus, as be is de- 
Preachers. No inti- 
i preface. He speaks 
: is dan Michelis of 



Northgale y-wriie an englis of his ojene band . fet hatte : Ayen- 
byte of inwyu] Mr. Bond, of the British Museum, found it to 
be a translation, and pointed out to the editor of the Roxburgh 
Club the MSS. containing the original French version. 

From the MS, itself we learn that the Ayeniite 0/ Inwyt was 
completed "ine pe yeare of oure Ihordes beringe (birth) 1340," 
" ine l»e cue of \^ holy apostles Symon an ludas," by Dan 
Michel of Northgate, a brother of the Cloister of Saint Austin 
of Canterbury. We cannot but regret that no more information 
is afforded us of one who so thoroughly identified himself with 
the countrj-folk among whom he dwelt as to choose this homely 
"English of Kent," in preference to a less provincial form of 
English, adopted by other Southern writers, in which he might 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 517 

teach, as he himself says, old and young, parents and children, 
to eschew all manner of sin, and to preserve a conscience /oid 
of all impurity. 

Much uncertamty attaches itself to most of our early English 
works of this period as to authorship, date, and dialect — particu- 
lars of the greatest importance to the philologist who seeks to 
gain any clear notions of early English Grammar ; but with rare 
good fortune the AyenbUc of Imuyt comes to us as a philological 
monument, the value of which is not diminished by any uncer- 
tainty on these points. And as such it must ever be regarded as 
the standard of comparison for the language of the fourteenth 
century, by which a clearer knowledge of early English inflec- 
tions may be gained than has, hitherto, been possible by means 
of the scanty materials within our reach. — Selected from Editor's 
Preface, 

The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Kt., 
which treateth of the way to Hierusalem ; and of marvayles of 
Indey with other Hands and countryes. Reprinted from the edi- 
tion of K,!). 1725, with an introduction, additional notes, a fid 
glossary, by f O, Halliwell, Esq., F.S,A., F.R.A.S, Lon- 
don : 1869. 8vo. 

Sir John Mandbville was born in the town of St. Albans 
about A. D. 1300. In 1332 he set out on his travels in the East, 
and after a long absence, how long is not known, he returned to 
England, forced to do so, as it appears, by bodily ailments. In 
the concluding paragraph of his work he says, p. 315, of the 
above edition, "And I John Maundevylle Knyghte aboveseyd, 
(aile thoughe I b5 unworthi) that departed from oure Contrees 
and passed the See, the Zeer of Grace 1322, that have passed 
many Londes and manye YIes and Contrees, and cerched 
manye fulle straunge places, and have ben in many a fulle 
2;ode honourable Companye, and at manye a faire Dede of 
Armes, (alle be it that I dide none my self, for myn unable 
insuffisance) now I am comen Hom (mawgree my self) to 

22 



5«8 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



reste: for Gowtes, Anetvkes, that me distreynen, the difljiui 
the ende of roy labour, azenst my \nlle (God knowethe). And 
thus takyngc Solace in my wrecched reste, recordynge the gwe 
passed, I have fulfilled iheise thinges and pulte hem wrytcD in 
this Boke, as it wolde come in to my mynde, ihe Zeer of Grace 
1356 in ihe 34 Zeer that 1 depattede from ouie Conans' 
Mandcville wrote his work in three different languages, Laiia, 
Ftencli, and English. In the Prolc^ue he saj-s, '■And«e 
schulle undirsionde, that I have put this Bake out of Latyn iaui 
Frcnsche, and translated it azen out of Frensche into Englyssch^ 
that every Man of my Nacioun may undirstonde it." 

George P. Marsh, in his Lectures on the ' ' Origin and His- 
tory of the English Language," etc., p. 268, has noticed a com- 
mon mistake made by careless readers in regard to the time of 
Mandcvillc's rcttirn to England, in understanding him, from 
the extract quoted above, as saying that he spent the interral 
between 1322 and 1356 abroad. The inference may be dnwn 
from what he says, that he relumed some years earlier, and that 
he wrote an account of his travels as a "solace" during his 
"wretched rest." 

It sliould be noted that where ihe letter z is used in this lest 
of Mandeville, it represents the Semi-Saxon |. which is a modi- 
fication of the Anglo-Saxon ^, and, when initial, answers to; 
or_>'; when lina! and before /, lo gh. 

Trevisa's Trakslation of Ralph Higden's Poltchroxicos. 

Ranulfh, or Ralph, Higden was a monk of Sl Werburgh's 
in Chester. His Polychronieon, wrillen in Laiin, comes down 
to the year 1357. The English translation of the work by John 
de Trevisa, was finished, as stated at the end of ihe work, in 
13S7. Trevisa was vicar of Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, and 
chaplain to Thomas Lord Berkeley, for whom the translation 
was made. According lo Caxton, he also made a translation 
of the Bible, but no copy of it is known to exist The transla- 
tion of the Polychronieon was first printed by Caxton ia 1483, 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 519 

with additions and omissions, and with a continuation of tbo 
History to 1460. As an evidence of the change which the 
English had made in the course of seventy-five years, the fol- 
lowing sentence from Caxton's preface may be cited : "I, Wil- 
liam Caxton, a simple person, have endeavoured me to writ first 
over all the said book of Polychronicon, and somewhat have 
changed the rude and old English, that is to wit, certain words 
which in these days be neither used ne understood/' 

The Vision of William concerning Piers Plowman, together 
with Vita de Dowel, Dobet, et Dobest, secundum Wii ei 
Rtsoun^by William Langland, (1^62 A. D,) Edited from the 
** Vernon" MS,, collated with MS. R, 3. 14. in the Library 0/ 
Trinity College, Cambridge, MSS. HarL 875 6* 6041, the 
MS, in Unioersity College, Oxford, MS, Douce 323, ^c. By 
the Rev. Walter W, Skeat, M. A., late fellow of Christ s College, 
Cambridge. * The *' Vernon' text ; or text A. London: pub- 
lishedfor the Early English Text Society, . . . mdccclxvii. 

A POET of the reign of Edward the Third, of whom scarcely 
anything is known but the name (and even that is uncertain), 
wrote a poem in alliterative verse which he threw into the form 
of several successive visions ; in one of these he describes his 
favourite ideal character — Piers* — and in course of time the name 
was used as a common title for the whole series of them. His 
vivid descriptions and earnest language caused the poem to be 
very popular, and the fertile imagination of the author induced 
him to rewrite the whole poem twice over, so that what may fairly 
be called three editions of it still exist in manuscript. . . . The 
poem — in all its shapes — abounds with passages which we could 
ill afford to lose ; the vivid truthfulness of its delineations of 
the life and manners of our forefathers has been often praised, 
and it is difficult to praise it too highly. ** Everywhere it gives 
flesh and blood to its abstractions by the most vigorous directness 

♦ The character of Piers, in iu highest form of development, is identifieii b| 
Langland with that of Christ the Saviour — «* Petnis est Christus." 



510 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



of familiar detail, so that every truth might, if possible, go home, 
even by the cold beanh-stone of the hungriest and most desolate 
of the poor, to whom its words of a wise syratnthy might be re- 
ciied." As indicating the true temper and feelings of the Eng- 
lish mind in the founeenth century, it is worth volumes of bia- 
toiy ; and the student who is desirous of understanding this 
period aright cannot possibly neglea Langland and Chaucer. 
Strangely too, and fortunately, these two authors are, in a great 
measure, each the supplement of the other. Chaucer describes 
the rich much more fully than the poor, and shews the holiday- 
making, cheerful, genial phase of English life ; bat Langland 
pictures the homely poor in their ill-fed, hard-working condition, 
battling against hunger, famine, injustice, oppression, and all 
the stem realities and hardships that tried them as gold is tried 
in the lire. Chaucer's satire often raises a good-humoured 
laugh ; but Langiand's is that of a man who is cx>Dsirained ic 
speak out all the bitter truth, and it is as earnest as is the cr}' of 
an injured man who appeals to heaven for vengeance. Each, in 
bis own way, is equally admirable, and worthy to be honoured 
by all who prize highly the English character and our own dear 
native land. There is a danger that some who take up "Piers 
Plowman" may be at 6r^ somewhat repelled by the allegorical 
form of it, or by an apparent archaism of lai^:uage, and some 
passages are sufficiently abstruse lo require a litUe thought and 
care to be taken before one can seize their full meaning ; but 
there are few books that so thoroughly repay a little painstaking 
consideration, and, when once the spirit of the poem is fully 
entered into, it is found to be replete with interest and instruc- 
tion. The reader who does not throw it aside a/firtfwiU hardly 
do so afterwards ; and so it must ever be with the works nf a true 
poet, when once the mind is attuned to his thoughts and feelings. 
Such, then, is "Piers Plowman," a poem written with as in- 
tense an earnestness and as untiring a search after truth — which 
is the ever- recurring burden of it — as any in the English 
language. 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 521 

The extreme earnestness of the author and the obvious truth- 
fulness and blunt honesty of his character are in themselves 
attractive and lend a value to all he utters, even when he is 
evolving a theory or wanders into abstract questions of theologi- 
cal speculation. But we are the more pleased when we perceive, 
as we veiy soon do, that he is evidently of a practical turn of 
mind, and loves best to exercise his shrewd English common 
sense upon topics of every day interest How often does the 
student of history grow weary of mere accounts of battles and 
sieges and the long series of plunders and outrages revenged by 
other plunders and outrages which require to be again revenged 
in their turn, and so on without end, and long to get an insight 
into the inner every-day life of the p>eople, their dress, their diet, 
their wages, their strikes, and all the minor details which picture 
to us what manner of men they really were 1 And it is in such a 
p>oem as the present that we find all this, and find it, too, not 
merely hinted at or presupposed, but sketched out vividly and to 
the life by a master hand. 

Date of thb Poem. 

We are indebted to Tyrwhitt for having p>ointed out that the 
" Southwestern wind on a Saturday at even" mentioned near the 
beginning of Pkssus V. refers to the storm of wind which oc- 
curred on Jan. 15, 1362, which day was a Saturday. There 
may have been more than one Saturday marked by a furious 
tempest, but the remark is rendered almost certainly true by 
observing that other indications in the poem point nearly to the 
same date, especially the allusion to the treaty of Bretigny in 
1360, and to Edward's wars in Normandy ; as also the mention 
of the ''pestilence," no doubt that of 1361. These things put 
together leave no doubt that Tyrwhitt is right, and as the "wind" 
is spoken of as being something very recent, the true date of the 
poem is doubtless 1362. But haw much was then written? Not 
all certainly, possibly only the Vision of Piers Plowman, i. e. 
only the first eight Passus. The first few lines of the Vita de 



522 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



Dowel seem to imply that there was a thorl interval between (he 
two poems, i. e. if we take them literally, and I can see no reason 
why we should noL This wonld assign the eariy part of 136J 
as the date of the former poem, and the end of the same year 
or the beginning of 1363 as the date of Dowel. — From slaafi 
Pre/act. 

PiEKCK THZ Ploughmaks Crsde (oAou/ 1394 A. D. ) tronscf&d 
and ediUd from MS. Trot. ColL, Cam., H. 3, 15, roliaied tad 
AfS.Bai.Xeg. t8. ff. xvil m Ifu British Mmatm. and wiii Ae 
cid prmUd text of 1 553 ; to which is appended God sfede thi 
Plough {(Aout ijoo a. D.) from MS. Lanidmme 762 ; by the 
Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A., lale FeUow of ChrUti CoiUge, 
Cambridge ; . . . London : ptiiHshedfor the Early English Tixi 
Society, . . . MDCCCLXVII. 

The author of the " Crede" is unltnown. " The Plowman's 
Tale," introduced into some editions of the Canterbniy Tales 
and attributed to Chaucer, though without a shadow of proba- 
bility, was most likely by the same author; good evidences of 
this are presented in Skeat's Pre&ce, to which the student is 
lefcrred. 

Of the " Crede," the Editor in his Pre^ce remarks : " It has 
several passages of great interest, as for instance, the celebrated 
description (one of the best we have) of a Dominican convent .... 
How excellent, again, are the portraits of the &t friar with his 
double chin shaking about, as big as a goose's egg, and the poor 
ploughman with his hood full of holes and his mittens made of 
patches, followed by his poor wife going ' bare-foot on the bare 
ice, that the blood followed !' Whilst the cry of the plough- 
man's children sums up the early histoiy of the poor of England 
in the words — 

' And alte fey songen o songe ' ^t sorwe was to heren ; 
pey crieden alle o cry ' 2 cartfiiU note' 
The real value of the poem lies, in &ct, in these and other vivid 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 523 

and exact descriptions, which are alike useful to the antiquary 
and interesting to the general reader, as they give a clear insight 
into the condition of the poor, the animosity which existed be- 
tween the friars and the secular clergy, and, most striking point 
of all, the utter contempt in which the orders held each other, 
and the audacity with which each tried to surpass the rest both in 
pitiless extortion and in proud display. To sum up all briefly, 
the poem is one which deserves not only to be read, but to be 
studied ; it is one of those which is much more interesting on a 
second perusal than on a first, and continually improves upon 
acquaintance. It is well illustrated by, and well illustrates, 
Chaucer, and, in particular, the * Sompnoures Tale.' " 

The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, wiih 
the Apocryphal Books , in the earliest English versions made from 
the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his followers ; edited 
by the Rev. fosiah For shall, F.R.S. etc, late Fellow of Exeter 
College, and Sir Frederic Madden, K,H. F.R.S. etc. Keeper 
of the MSS, in the British Museum, V. I-IV. Oxford, at the 
University press. M.DCCC.L. 4 to. 

This, the first complete edition of the Wyclifiite versions pub- 
lisHed since their production in the latter part of the fourteenth 
century, gives two texts, in parallel columns, — the earlier, which 
is supposed to have been finished about 1380, and the revision 
by Purvey, made about ten years later. The thoroughness with 
which the learned editors have done their work renders it the 
most valuable contribution made to early English learning since 
its revival. Marsh justly styles it "the liber vere aureus, the 
golden book, of Old-English philology." 

Chaucer's Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. 

The text is that known as the Harleian, which was first edited 
for the Percy Society by Thomas Wright, in i847-'5i, and adopted 



$l4 WORKS RKPK1>EN1KD. 

by Robert Bell in bis edition of the Poetical Works of Chauor 
in 6 %-ols. London, iS54-'s6, and by Richard Morris in ihe 
Poeiical Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, 6 vols. London, i366. 
Of this text, Wright remarks: "The Harleian manuscript, 
No. 7334. 13 by far the best manuscript of Chaucer's CankrhiTy 
Tales that I have _vet exarained, in regard both to antiqnity and 
corrcciness. The handwriting is one which would at 5m sight 
be taken by an experienced scholar for that of the latter pan of 
ihe fourteenth century, and it must have beeD written within a 
few years after 1400, and therefore soon after Chaucer's death 
and the publication of the Canterbury Tata, lis language has 
vety little, if any, appearance of local dialect; and the text is 
in general extremely good, the variations from Tyrwhilt beii^ 
usually for iSie better. " 

The valuable "Observations on the language of Chaucer, by 
Francis James Child, Professor in Harvard College," are based 
on this texL This accomplished Chaucer scholar, while regard- 
ing the Harteian as among the best texts of the Canterbury Tain, 
recognizes in it more defects than Wright probably had eyes for; 
but with this text as a basis, and with the aid of the Six-text 
prints of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, in course of publication by 
the Chaucer Society, which are exact reprints of the best existing 
MSS., it can be hoped that at no distant day a text of Chaucer 
will be constructed on sound principles, and thai as much 
certainty at least will be reached as to what the poet actually 
wrote, as has been reached in regard to ihe text of Shakspeare's 
Pla)'s, As Prof. Child remarks; "Had Chaucer been a Ger- 
man, the existing manuscripts would have been zealously hunted 
up, strictly classified, and faithfully compared and studied, and 
we should have had only too many editions. It is not desirable 
that a new edition of Chancer should be undertaken, until a 
man is found who is both competent to the task and willing to 
make thorough work with the manusaipts." 



WORKS REPRESENTED. 



525 



CoNFESSiO Amantis OF JoHN GowER, edited and collated with the 
best manuscripts by Dr. Reinhold Pauli, V, I-IIL London: 
1857. 8vo. 

The time of Gower's birth is unknown, but it must have 
been some years previous to that of Chaucer. Caxton, who 
printed the first edition of the Confession in 1483, speaks of 
him as '* Johan Gower squyer borne in Walys in the tyme of 
King Richard the Second ;" but there is no evidence that he 
was a native of Wales, and as Richard the Second's reign dates 
from 1377, he must have been born many years before. He 
survived Chaucer eight years, dying, an old man and blind, in 
1408. The period of the composition of the Confessio Amantis 
cannot be fixed with certainty, but there is pretty good internal 
evidence that it lay between the years 1385 and 1392. 

The poem is divided into eight books, and extends to some 
34,000 iambic tetrameter verses, rhyming in pairs. Gower's 
verse is smooth and regular, and, as we have it in Pauli's text, 
which does no great credit to the editor, the rhythm is more 
easily managed than that of Chaucer's verse, the form of which 
is more organic and less mechanical than Gower's. For a 
valuable analysis of the Confessio Amantis, the student is re- 
ferred to Morley's English Writers, vol. ii. Part i. 

32* 



OUTLINES 



OF 



ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



THE ALPHABET. 

Aa (S), iEae, Bb, Cc (E), Dd (b), Ee (Ge), Ff (p), Gg 
(E3), Hh (p), li (i), LI, Mm (CO), Nn, Oo, Pp, 
Rr (p), Ss (r), Tt (t), Uu, Ww (fp), Xx, -Yy, (^), 

The forms in parenthesis, which are but modifications of the 
Roman, are used in A. S.* manuscripts, and early printed books. 

Jj is not used as a distinct letter. In some recent works by 
German A. S. scholars (Ettmtlller, Loth, and others), it is used 
as a consonantal i ( == y), especially before the infinitive 
ending -an, of weak verbs; e. g., luQan for lufian, pronounced 
ioovyan, 

Kk was used later for c^ when the latter began to lose its pure 
power of cay before e^ i^y. 

qu of English orthography is represented in A. S. by cw ; 
€,g., cw6n, quern; cwic, quick ; cwealm, qucdm ; cwellan, to qucUy 
eto. 

Vv is used, and correctly so, by German editors of A. S. 
works, instead of Ww, which is without doubt its consonantal 
power in Latin. The old character f^p, which English editors 
represent with Ww, is but a calligraphic form of Latin Vv, with 
the right limb turned in. But as Vv has never this power in 
modem English orthoepy, Ww has been used in this work in- 
stead, as more familiar. 



s*» 



ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



Xs is used, ihough rarely, being represented by cs. It some- 
limes reptcsenis a itieiathesis of sc, ia the plurals of some 
nouns; t. g., fisc, _fiii; pi. fixas = ficsas ; disc, dith ; pL dixai 



Zz occurs only in foreign words. 

^ is an abbreviation for yxX, ihat, and ■] for and; the fniler 
form of the latter character is Ij, which, like & or &■, is a ligi- 
ture combining the letters of the Latin word ET. 

ACCENT. 

The principal use of the accent in A. S. manuscript appean 
(o have been to lengthen and broaden the vowel over which it 
was placed. According Xo Ketnble* it was sometimes used to 
mark a vowe! where an iialic would now be used ; e.g., }si 
gcendaS on sccortne i, that ends in short e. Coll. Jt/SS. ^ 
/El/ric'i Grammar. According lo the same authority, some 
woids were accented for peculiar distinaion, where a capital 
initial or capitals would now be used^ e. g., the pronoun he, 
when used in speaking of God or tbe Saviour, was sometimes 
written h^ or H^, as equivalent to He or HE, but in such cases 
it was tbe word and not the vowel thai was meant to be accented. 

The accent as now used in A. S. works, is meant lo serve 
only the drst purpose, that of lengthening or broadening the 
vowel. 

Many words are distinguished by tbe accent, which, but for 
the difference in the length of their vowels, wouid be represented 
alike; e. g., ac, bul, dc, oak; ban, baa, bin, boTU ; ben, wound, 
bdn, prayer ; ful, full, fdl, foul ; god, god, gdd, good ; is, it, 
fs, ice; lira, limb, llm, Ume ; man, man, mdn, sin, rvH ; mcian, 
to tneie, measure, m^tan, to meet ; wende (/, he) turned ; w^nde 
(71 he') weened ; win (winn), contention, strife, win, -aiine ; etc. 
Probable powers of the Anglo-Saxon Idlers. 

A= a in arm. art ; 4 = 3 in all ; se = a in at ; &, the same 
prolonged or doubled ; au and aw = mti in owl; e = * in met; 

• The Gentleman'i Mjgiiine, July, 183;, p. iS. 



ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 529 

6 zs em they ; f, between vowels, = v, and this may often have 
been its p)ower in other situations, especially when final ; g = ^ 
in g<xy ; when final it was interchangeable with h, which, in the 
same situation, appears to have been guttural, like ch in Ger, 
auch ; i'=:tmii ; I = 1' in machine ; 6 = (7 in hole^ tone {Gr, w)/ 
o, the same in quality, but differing in quantity, like modern 
Greek 0, and perhaps, also, zs in not; ow =:(nv in now; u = 
u inpuU; ^ = 00 in poo/ / y and y, earlier powers = Ir. u and 
a ; afterwards interchangeable with i and i ; )> = M in thin ; 6 
= th in ihen. 

The powers of the other letters correspond with their present 
powers. 

The character 9, used in Semi-Saxon and Early English, is a 
modification of ^. .9. 3, and corresponds, when initial, with^, 
sometimes g, and when final, and before /, with gh, of English 
orthography. Its power, when final, was probably the same as 
the final A, S,g. 

m 

NOUNS. 

Anglo-Saxon nouns have five cases, Nominaiioe, Genitive, Da-- 
tiue. Accusative, and Instrumental or Ablative. The use of the 
latter case is however ver}* limited, and is generally confined to 
neuter nouns, and in the plural,ii is always the same as iht dative, 
when used in the singular it ends in L 

Synopsis of Noun Declensions. 

DlOLKXBIOX L 

Singular. PluraL 

m. J. n. m. j. h% 

N, -a -e -e N. -an -an -an 

G, -an -an -an G. -ena -cna -ena 

Z>. -an -an -an D. -um -um -um 

A. -an -an -e A. -an -an -an 



ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAJL 



Singular, 


Plur,il. 


tH, H, n. 


M. !■: 


K. "M —M 


;K -OS £bnv. 


G.-at <s -d 


<?.-«-» 


A-e -e -« 


Z). -um -nm 


A. "(-e) ■• ■■(.,) 


A. -u /dxiiT' 


DHiAn 


■ m. 


Siitgutar. 


Ptml. 


/■ /■ 


/■ /■ 


N. "-n 


N. ■« -a 


0. -e-c 


G. -a -ena 


a «^ 


/>. -um -um 


yl. -e-e 


^. -a -a 



-.(».) 



Ato. — The daL pi. inflection is sometimes changed to -<w, 
xnd this again to -an, especially in the later portions of the A. 
S. Chronicle. 

Pakadigms of Decleiisioh I. 
wttega, m. prophet ; lunge, f. tongue ; eilge, «. eyt. 



Swg. 


Plural. 


Sing. 


Plural 


N. witega 


wiiegan 


N. lunge 


tungan 


G. witegan 


witegena 


G. tungan 


tungena 


D. wliegan 


witegum 


Z>. tungan 


tungum 


A. witegan 


witegan 


A. tungan 


tungan 




Smg. 


Plural 






N. eige 


eigan 






G. edgan 


eigena 






V. edgan 


e^gum 






A. cige 


e^gan 




The three nouns edge, eyi, eare, air. and cliwe, cUw, 


perhaps all the neuter nouns that a 


e embraced 


n the Firet 


clension. 









ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



531 



Paradigms of Declension II. 

Masculinks : smitJ, smith ; fisc, fish ; hyrde, shepherd; finger, 
finger; daeg, day; craeft, cra/i, art, skilly pi. /acuities ^ qmdities, 
virtues ; bedh, nng^ craum^ bracelet. 



Sing, Plural, 

N, smi6 smiSas 

G, smiles smiSa 

D, smi'Se smiSum 

A, smiS smi6as 

Sing, Plural, 

N, hyrde hyrdas 

G, hyrdes hyrda 

D, hyrde hyrdum 

A, hyrde hyrdas 

Sing, Plural. 
N, daeg dagas 
G. daeges daga 
D, daege dagum 
A, daeg dagas 



Sing, 
N, fisc 
(r. fisces 
Z7. fisce 
A, fisc 

A[ finger 
G, fingres 
J9. fingre 
A, finger 



Plural. 

fixas 

fiza 

fixum 

fixas 

Plural, 

fingras 

fingra 

fingrum 

fingras 



Sing, Plural, 
N, craeft craeftas 
G, craeftes craefta 
D, craefte craeftum 
A, craefl: craeftas 



Sing, Plural, 
N, bedh bedgas 
G, hedges bedga 
D, hedge bedgum 
A, bedh bedgas 



Neuters : word, word ; wif, ijooman^ wife ; scedp, sheep ; 
heafod, head ; bebod, commandment; faet, vat^ vessel ; spere, spear. 



Sing, PluraL 
N, word word 
G, wordes worda 
D, worde wordum 
A, word word 



Sing. Plural, 

N, wIf wlf 

G. wlfes wifa 

D. wife wifum 

A, wif wif 



iS"/)!^. Plural, 

N. sceap scedp 

6r. scedpes scedpa 

D, scedpe scedpum 

A, scedp scedp 



Sing, 
N, heafod 
G, heafdes 
D, heafde 
A, heafod 



Plural, 

heafdu 

heafda 

heafdum 

heafdu 



Sing, PluraL 

N. bebod bebodu 

G, bebodes beboda 

D, bebode bebodum 

A. bebod bebodu 



ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



Sitiff. Plural. 
A' £et &tu 

G. faetes iku 
D. [Kte fatom 
^. liet fiUu 



Sinff. PhraL 

N. spere spera 

(7. speres spen 

77. spere spenim 

A. spere spcni 



Observations en Nount of ike Second Dulensiim .• Aoiau of this dt- 
dension, both maseulint and ntuler, have the nominatax and orm- 
xo/itK C4u«f alike in the smg. and in the ^ Masculmt nunoy^atx 
nouns having £ and ending wiih a single final consonant, n 
dxg. change k to a in all the casts of the plural ; but ending 
with two consonants, as cnefi ; the a; remains unchanged in 
the //. 

Nouns whose nom. and ace. ting, end in -e, drop this -e before 
the endings of ihe other cases ; e. g. , hyrdc, hyrdes. 

Neuter monosyllabic nouns ending in two consonants, or hai'ing 
a long vowel before a single final consonant, are generally unin- 
flecled in the nom. and ace. pi. ; e. g., word, wif, sceip. Mtat 
polysyllabic nouns, especially the derivative ones, take -a in these 
cases. Neuier monoiyllaiic nouns having se before a. single final 
consonant, take -u in the nom. and ace pi., and change, in all 
cases of the ^., se into a; e. g. fet, pL fatu ; bseS, Baih ; }l 
battu. 

The vowel preceding a. final 1, m, n, r, or tS, of deris-ative 
words is often, perhaps generally, ^ncopated in the oblique 
cases, both sing,