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Full text of "Handbook of the Bengal Presidency. With an account of Calcutta city .."

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Indian Ingtitutfi, ©xforii. 



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HANDBOOK 



BENGAL PEESIDENCY. 



Dgiiizodb, Google 






DgilizodbvGoOglc 



HANDBOOK 



BENGAL PEESIDENCY. 



WITH AN ACCOUNT OF 



CALCUTTA CITY. 



WITH MAPS AND PLANS. 



LONDON ; 
JOHN MUBEAT, ALBEMARLE STREET. 



........Google 

lAU Sights reserved. \ 



I EntTioss or Mur.n/ 

Belgimu Hotlmul, and Qerwany, 



E (MyTroRD)-s"™z. j ™' 
Italy. 



(V (doRABt) — VENICE 



^^jit awl Partttgal. 
Rua»ta, Swtden, Denmark, aiid Xonmij. 



Ionian Islands. ConataJUinapIi:. 

Alexandria mid Cairo, 



HIS EXCELLENCY THE 

HONOURABLE SIR ASHLEY EDEN, K.S.L, 

LIEUTENANT-QOTBENOE OF BBNOAL, 

THIS HANDBOOK OF THE FRESIDENCT 07 BENGAL, 
THE CHIEF PROVIKCE OF WHICH HE HAH SO ABLT OOVEBKGD, 

BY THB AtHHOn, 

EDWAHD E. EASTWICK. •-" 

LoNDOK. Deambtr, ISSl. 



Dgiiizodb, Google 



LIST OF MAPS. 

Map OF Bengal AND Assam .... in front Focket. 

PtAH OP Calcutta lo fau Page R2. 

Map op Bbitish Bl-rma at the end. 

Map oif THB North West Provinces asd Oudh mi mi Podet. 



db,Googlc 



PREFACE. 



No Handbook of the Bengal Presidency has hitherto 
been prepared. There have been Guide-books to some of 
the cities, such as Calcutta, Dihli, and Agra, but the 
traveller has not been told how to get to those places, 
which, though very interesting iu themselves, form but an 
inflnitesimaUy small portion of the vast region which is tlie 
subject of this volume. As very few travellers who visit 
Calcutta would be content with seeing merely tliat poilion 
of our Indian Empire which is under the Lieut.- Governor 
of Bengal, the routes to the chief places in Awadh (Oudh), 
Eohilkhaod, the N.W. Provinces and Bannali have been 
added. 

The Author has to express his thanks to H. E. the 
Lieut.-Gov€rnor of Bengal, the Hon. Sir A. Eden; the 
Hon. Mr. Gibbs, Member of the Supreme Council ; Mr. 
James, B.C.S., Postmaster-General, who has contributed 
an accoxint of two routes to the book ; the Hon. Horace 
Cockerell, Member of the Lieut.-Govemor's Council, and 
Secretary of the Government ; Mr. Clarke, Editor of the 
Indian Daily News ; Mr. Cochrane, Judge of Katak ; C. E. 
Bernard, Esq., Chief Commissioner of Baimah ; Mr. 
Franklin Prestage, C.E., the able Manager of the Eastern 
Bengal Eailway, who most kindly accompanied him to 
Biijiling and Dh^ah, and rendered him invaluable 
assistance; Mr. Pellew, B.C.S., Commissioner of Dh^kah; 
Mr. John Eeames, C.I.E., the well-known linguist and 
, Commissioner of Bardwdn, to whom he owes 



the trauslation of the Vocabulary and Dialogues ; his brother 
Mr, HoiTy Beames, who was his host at Murshidab£d; 
Mr. Moyley, B.C.S., Collector of Barhampur ; Mr. L. S. 
JoDes, Collector of B^jmahal; Mr. Barlowe, B.C.S., Com- 
missioner of Bhagalp'iir ; Mr. Currie, B.C.S., Magistrate of 
Munger (Monghyr) ; Mr. Metcalfe, B.C.S, Mt^isti'ate of 
B&ilripiiir; Mr. Porter, E.C.S., the Judge, and Mr. Kemble, 
the Commissioner of Gayii; Mr. Worgan, B.C.S., Judge of 
AiTah ; Saiyid 'Ali Saghtr, residing at Jawanplir, who copied 
for him the Persian History of Jawanplir; Mr. Bouglas 
Straight, Judge of the High Court at AlMb^bad ; Captain 
MarteUi, Acting Resident at Bewah ; H. H. the Mahar^j^ 
of Pan^ ; Sir Lepel Griffin, K.S.I., Agent for the Governor- 
General in Central India ; Major Bume, Magistrate at 
Indlir ; H. H. the MaMr^j^ of HatUun ; Major Grant, 
Magistrate at Kimach; Mr. S. M. Moens, B.C.S., late 
Commissioner of Jawanpiir ; Dr. Cameron, Civil Surgeon at 
I'aiz^bfid ; Mr. C. Currie, Judicial Commissioner at Awadh 
(Oudh) ; the Eev. Mr. Lamert, Chaplain at Agra ; H. H. 
the Mab^r£j^ of Jaipur ; Mr. T. H. Hendley, of the Bengal 
Medical Service, stationed at JaipOr ; H. H. the Mahai'^ja 
of Bhartpur; H. H. the Mah^r&j& of Alwar; and Major 
Cadell, V.C., Political Agent at that Coui-t; and to Colonel 
Davies, C.S.I., Commissioner of Dihli. 

The Author's special thanks are also due to Mr. Campbell, 
Agent for the East India Railway ; Colonel Jenkins, Agent 
for the Aivadb and Eobilkhand Railway; Mr. Bamett, 
Agent for the G. I. P. Railway; Messrs. Mackinnon & Co., 
of the British India Steam Navigation Co. ; to Mr. Peter 
Hall, a Director of tliat Company ; and once more to Mr. 
T. Sutherland, Chaiiman of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company. 



CONTENTS. 



Section I. 
INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION. 



g fl. t^I:Aso^■ FOR 

Be-noal . 
S *. OtriFiT ... 

ji r. Hikt»istoDrehb,Diet. 

Health, and Cou- 

S </. lioUTES TO Cai^utta : 

J. \oyagti from Sonth- 

.inipton through the 

Suez Cnnal 

2. Houte Overland Tiy 

Vcuice or Btinilisi . 

;• c. Chronological Tadlks 

Oovemore-Generttl luid 

Viceroys . . 12, 
Coramnnders-in-Chicf of 

Fiunncc MiDistcrs of 

and Lient - 



isotB 



Uove 
Liout.-Govemois of the 

North-'W'est Pro vi nces 
Chief Commisaionera of 

Awaclii (Oudh) . . ; 
Cliicf ComnusBioneis of 

Hannah . . . 
Chief Commissioners of 

Central Provinces . 
Chief Conimissioiiera of 

"The Sftiya-Vaiishi, or 
Solav Uyuasty . . 

The Solar Dynaaties ot 
Airadh aud Maithila 

The Chandta-VaAgha, or 
Lanor Haco, who 
rclgncd ht Bniidras or 



K Ashi, aD(l af t em'ards 
in Magadha or Bih^tr. 
and ludnipnisttinli oi- 
Dihll ... 

The Haurya, Snngn, 
Kanwi, and A^ndlira 
or VrisjHlla Kings of 
ilmlhra or OrissMi. 
anil Onptn Kings . I 

Fnthdn, Alfbin or (|hor[ 
Kings of HinditBtd". 
who reigned at Dihll : 

Pa^dn or Af^^ Ein<r< 
or Govemois of Ben- 
gal .capital Lakhnaut i 

Kings of the f^harVi 
UjTiast J of Jawanptir '. 

Mu^ul Emperors of 
HiudiistStl 

Princijial events in tlio 
history of Bengal uy 
to the time ot the 
British Government . 

The Kiiwali NApms of 
Mumhid&bM . . 

The Barmese KinRS 
§/. Tablkh of Money, 
Weights and Mi;.\. 

SUHE8 

§ J. Cabteb and Tribes ik 
THE Benbal Presi- 

g h. Lakouageb op the 
Bengal PitEsi- 



Section II. 
CALCUTTA CITY. 



l^( iJrry. rs 

Uuglt Eivcr and Landing 

Plato ot Calcutta 
Hotels. Clubs, and BoawUng 



Government House . 8't 

Ochterlony Monument . . 8* 

Slatuea 81> 

The Town Hall . . . . 90 

The Legislative Council OHiee 91 

The High Court . 91 



Section II.— Calcutta Cnw—coniinjied. 



2nd Day. 
Fort William .... 93 
BL Paul's Cathedral . , . 93 
The Zoolt^cal Gardens . . 97 
Belvedere (tlio Lt.-GloTemor's 
Palace), and the site of the 
Doel between Warren Hast- 
ings and Sir Philip Francis 97 



The TLace Couree 

Qanlcn Beach . . .97 

Palace of the King of Awatlh . 98 

Srd Daij. 
St. John's Cathedral . . 99 
New Port Office . . . 101 

New Telegraph Office . 101 

Bemains o£ the Old Fort . . 101 
Memorial of the Black Hole 

UaasacTC . . . .102 
Calcutta University . . . 102 
The Greek Church . . .102 
The Armenian Churcli of St. 

Nazareth . . . . 102 



The Brahma Som&j . . 103 

The Scotch Kirk . . . 108 

The Old Mission Church . 103 

The Dalhousie Institute and 

the Secretariate . . . 104 

ith Day, 
The Asiatic Society . . 104 
The Indian MuBeran . . . 104 
St. Thomas' Soman Catholic 

Church .... 10& 
The Mosque of Prince Ghulim 

Muhammad . . . . 105 
The Economical Museum . lOS 
The Metcalfe Hall . . . 10ft 
The Mint . . , .101! 
Charities lOG 

SigUi in the Vicinity nf 

OalcKtta. 

The Botanical Gardens . , 107 

Bishop's Collie. . . .107 

Barrackpiir . . . . 107 



2 Calcutta to Purl (Pooree) 

and the Black Pf^oda . 

3 Pari to Bhuvaneshwar, 

Dhauli, Ddaj^ri, and 
Khandngiri . 

4 Bhuvnueshwar to Ka^ak 

5 Katak (CuttackJtoYAJpiii 
II Kaiafe to FaLso Point . 

7 (.'alcutta to DArjEing 
i DArjmngtoPhAkah(Dacci 
9 Calcutta to Rangiln, Maul- 
main, and Prome . 

10 Prome to Mandalay 

11 Calcutta to Hugll, Chin- 

surah, Shriidjnpir, B&n- 
del, and Chandranag;ar 
13 Hngli to Bardwiu and 
Mur«hidAtuld 

13 Hurshid^bid to Barham- 

pilr and Pal^h i( Ptassey ) 

14 Mutshidibfid to Rijmabal 
16 Hajmaljal to Bh&gfdpi^ . 

16 B&jmabal to M&ldah and 

17 Ehftgalpiir to Munger 

(MonghvT) . - . 

18 Munger to Patna and BAn- 

kipiir .... 



9 BSnkipiir to Gayi . . 191 

BSnklpiir to Arrah . . 195 

1 Arrah to Bog^tar (Buxar) . 202 

2 BagsartoBanilras(Bcnarcs) 203 
9 BanAnw to Jawanpiir . 22-t 
i Jawanpiir to Faijibail and 

Ayodhya . . . . 227 

3 Fai|&b^toLakhnau(Luck- 



S Lakhnaa to SbdhjahAn- 






. 232 
. 249 



7 Shahjah^npilr to Barcli 

8 Bareli to Kaiui Tiil 

9 Barcli to Mur^l^li^ 

MurMSbid to 'AligaTh 

1 'AllHiarh to Mathura . 

2 Mathur& to Bindrdban 

3 Bindrdban to Dig . 
i Dig to Bhartplir 

5 Bhartplir to Agra . 

6 Agra to Fatbpiir Sikri 

7 Agra to Dihli 

8 Dihli to Mirat . 

9 Mitat to Mainpdrl 

MainpAri to Etavrah . 

1 Et&WBhtoKanhp^(Cawi 

pore) 

2 EAnhpUr to AllahAbdd 

3 Agra to Gwilidr (Gwalior) 3C9 

4 B^rli to Kliatmandu , 



. 362 



HANDBOOK FOR TRA.VELLEES 

BENGAL PRESIDENCY. 



SECTION I. 

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION. 

^ a. Season for nBiriNa Bbnqal 

5 ft. OOTFIT 

i c. HiKTS Aa TO Drbbb, Diet, Health, and Couport 
^d. KooTEa TO Calcutta: 

1. Voyage from Southahfton thbouoh Suez Canal 

2, RouTK Overland by Venice or Brindibi . 

5 e. Chbonoloqical Tables 

Govern ORB Qeneral and Viceroys 

Coiiv and ERS-iN' Chief or India 
-< - Finance Minibterb of India .... 

(^ .( Governors and Libdt.- Governors of Bengal . 

LiECT.-QovERNORs OF TBB North-West Province.s 

Chief Couuibsioners of Awadh (Oudh) . 

Chief Comuisbionehs of Barhah. 

Chief Commissioners of Central Provinces . 

Chief Commibsionerb of ^sJ(m .... 

The SOrya-Vasbha or Solar Dynasty . 

The Solar Dynasties of Awadh and Maithila 

Chandra-Vanbha, or Lunar Bace, who rgioned in 
BahIras oh KAsHf and aftrrwardb in Maoadha 
OE BihIr, and Indraprabthah or DiHLf . 

M&UBYA, Sanoa, KanwA, and Andhra or VbispXla 
Kings of Andhra or Ohissa, and Gupta Kinos. 

PathAn, AfohAn or GnoRf Kings of HindCbtAn, 

WHO reigned at DlHLf 

PathAn or AfohXn Kings or Oovebnobs of Benoal, 

capital LAKHNAUTf OR Oaur . 
Kings or the Shark f Dynasty of jAWAHPeH. 
MuGHUL Emperors of Hindustan 
Principal Events in the History of Bengal 

TO Thb time of ths British Government . 
The Ni5wAb NA^imb op MuhshidAbAd 

The Barmese Kings 

If. Tables of Money, Weights and Measures . 
i g- Cartes and Tribes in the Benoal Presidency 
$ K. Languages or the Benoal Presidency . 
Vocabulary and Dialogues ... 
latxjfli— 1881.] 



2 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. . 

§ a. SEASON POR VIBITIHO BENGAL. 

The territory under the Deputy Oovemor of Ben<pil extends over 
193,581 sq, m., and contains a pop, of 60,357,141 inhabitants. The 
N. W, Provinces have an area ol 86,902 »i. m. with 30,776,442 
inhabitants. A legion bo vast, over which tlie traveller is taken in 
this volume, presents various shades of climate, bnt it may be said 
generally of the whole that from the 20th of November to the end of 
March, the temperature is such that any European of an ordinarily 
good constitution may travel and visit places of interest without 
sufferinfj in the slightest degree. The climate is in fact very enjoy- 
able at that period of the year, and supeiior to anything to be met 
with in Europe. It is necessary, however, to be prepared with thin 
flannels and underclothing to wear in the plainB,and with very warm 
dothea for travelling in the hills, as at Dijjiling. The traveller 
who desires to make on extended tour must leave England in tlie 
begimiii^ of November, and he may remain in the Bei^l Presidency 
to the end of the first week in April, by which time the sun will 
Have acquired great power, but if he travels in a lirst>claas carria^ 
with a therm antidote, and with plenty of ice and soda-water, he will 
make out his return journey without ditlioulty. 

§ h. OUTFIT. 
In addition to the ordinary outfit of a liaveller, with light, warm 
and medium flannels, it will be absolutely necessary to take mosquito 
curtains and a light bed of some kind, as also a solar hat and canvas 
shoes, and high boots of s&iahaT or elk skin. The hat should be 
light, porous and broad-brimmed, and secured with a strap so ua not 
to blow off when riding fast Silk umbrellas should be avoided, as 
they are soon ruined in India, and the best material for them is 
alpaca, which should be covered ivith a white cotton cover. 
A tiffin-lDasket is very necessary, and before starting on a journey 
the traveller should provide himself with a bn" containing half 
and quarter rupees and copper coins, which will reduce expenses 
very much, as otherwise whole rupees will have to be given away 
where a few iaaa or even pice would be suflicient. A green veil and 
^ectacles of a neutral tint are desirable on account of the eiccessive 
dW and glare of the roads. Lists of clothes will be fotmd at page 3 of 
the "Handbook of Madras," Clothini; sent by sea in advance will have 
to pay duty, as also fire-arms that have not been in India before, or 
have neen removed from India for a year. The trouble given by the 
Custom House officers, particularly at Calcutta, with regard to guns, 
is excessive. Even should the duty have been paid upon them at 
Bombay and Madras, they will be taken to the Custom House at 
Calcutta, and the owners will have to call there and furnish cer- 
tificates regarding them. There are certain persons also who must 
be employed and paid for taking them from the rooms where they 
are deposited, 

§ e. HIHTB A8 TO DRIBS, DIET, HEALTH, AND OOMFOBT. 

Light-coloured dresses are, of course, preferable, on account of the 
great power of the sun and the dust. As chills are cxtremelj 



Sect I. ROUTES TO BBNOAL. 3 

dangerous, itia well to be provided with an overcoat, which con be 

Eton in Ik cjiniage or on horseback as booh au the Bun goes dowii. 
thing in. cold water in to be avoided. In the Bengal PreMdency 
ovet eveiy bed a panikd it Buspeuded, iind it is understood that thu 
men who pull the pankhdg are paid by the Kuesia in a house. Two 
men are employed during the night, and each receives 3 dniiB. Fees 
to servants are generafly (dven, especially to the water-cuniei's 
and the Bcaven<jers. Fi-uit should not be eaten at uisht, but ut tUu 
early morning. A safe and refreshing beverage in footing expe- 
ditions is the juice of the cocoa-nut, which ia almost everywhere 
procurable. 

§ d. B0DTE8 10 BEKQAL. 

1. Voyage fkom Southampton throcoh the Suez Canal, 

In going to India it is best to select a cabin on the BtarlKtard side, 
and one on the port side on the return voyage. Am soon ns possible 
after embarking, a place at table sliould be sectired, by putting u 
card in a plute. The seata nearest the centre of the ves^l uru freest 
from motiou and the noise and shaking of the screw. A few seats 
next the captain are uanally kept for his friends, or tiavellers of dis- 
' tinction. The sideboanl of tlie bed ia better put down, unle:4s the 
weather should be extremely rough. To keep fruit or tuiy kind of 
food in one's cabin ia to encourtuje the visits of ant«, blackbeetlee, 
and lata. The fee of .£1 h vgaaUy given to the bedroom stewoJrd, 
and 10«. to the table steward. The doctor is paid by those who 
employ him. A large canvas bog will be founa very useful to con- 
tain dir^ linen and other articles. The distances to be travelled 
are as follows -.-^ 



NuneBOfPUcw. 


Hil«». 


■ TBtok. 


OeunlloUL 




1151 






Gibraltar to Malta .... 




30501 




Malta to Port S'ald .... 


918 






Port S'ald to Saei, aa the crow flies , 


100 


} 






i3or. 


( 






2134 V 








r>46 






Madras to Calcutta .... 


770) 







If the traveller starts in November, rough weather may be expected 
in the Cluumel and Bay of Biwcay, and U alio not tmusual in the 
Meditt^rraneitn. The first place sighted nfter leaving the Channel 
will be Cupe Ln Hoguc, in the iMl.iud of Utliont, properiy Ouessant, 
[■n the W. coast of Cutentin in Fcanie, olf whiclr on" May 19th 
1692, Admiral Buwi-ll, allenvawlB -Earl of Orford, defeated Dl 
TourviJlo and dpi^iroypd IG French men-of-witr. There is a licht- 
hou><e on Cupe La Ilogue, but as the coast is very dnngerons, ships 



4 iNTRODCcnoN. Sect. I, 

generally give it a wide liertli, notwithBtanding which many vessels 
nave been wrecked on it The Bay of Biscay begins here and 
Btretches for 36C m. to Cape FiniBterre (flnis teirse), a proraontoty on 
the W. eoaat of Gallida in Spain, in N. lat. 42° 54' and W. long, 
9° 30', oil' which Anson l)eat the French in 1747. North, winds usual^ 
prevail on this coast, fnvoniin^' the outward voyage. Next the 
Berlingas or Berliiu;s will be Hichted, dangerous rocky ialanJ.^, on 
one of which is a lighthouse. Lisbon is 40 m. to the »., and Cape 
Boca, a few m. N. of Lisbon, is sometimes seen. After that Cape 
St Vincent will be noticed in N. lat, 37° 3' and W. long. 8° 69', at tlie 
S.W. comer of the Portuguese province Algarve. Here, on January 16, 
1780, Sir G. Koilney defeated the Spaniards, and onFebtnary ,14th, 
1797, Sii J. Jervis won a peerage by again defeating them. On 
the latter occasion Nelson, who was second in command, with his 
ship, a seventy-four, captured the S, Josef and the S. Nicholas of 
113 guna each. This Cape is crowned hy a fort, and the white cliffi", 
more than lOOft. high, are honeycombed by the waves. Before 
enterii^ the Straits of Gibraltar, Cape Trafalgar will perhaps be 
seen in N. lat. 36° 9', W. long. 6° 1', immortalized hy Nelson's victory 
of October 2lBt, 1803. There is generally a stop of about 6 hours 
at Gibraltar, a description of which place will be found in the " Hand- 
book of MadiM." The highest point is O'Hara's Tower, 14081't. above 
the sea. Passengers can land at the new mole and drive up Main 
Street, as far as the Alameda, where the band plays. In this street 
excellent gloves and silk ties, as well as lace, may be bought cheap. 
At the Garrison Library there is a model of the Bock, showing every 
house in Gibraltar. On the voyage to Malta the island of Pautellaria, 
the ancient Cossyra, will probably be seen. The Maltese islands are 
Gozo to (he W., Malta to the E,, and Cumino in the Straits of 
Freghi, between the other two. "Tlie harbour of Malta consists of 
2 ports, Marsamuscet on the W. and the Great Port on the E. The 
latter port is used, by men-of-war, and Marsamuscet by the P. & O.. 
steamers. It is usual to land to escape the dust oi^ the coaling. 
A boat costs Is., and the landing place is only a few hundred yanfs 
from the end of the harbour, where the steamers coal. A long 
flight of steps leads to the street, where carriages can be got. The 
traveller may go fimt to the P. & O. A^nt in Strada Mercante, 
between which and the Strada Reale in the centre of Valetta.are the 
Palace, the Treasury, the Armouiy and SL John's Church, which are 
the principal aightB, Opposite St, John's is Dtimford's Hotel. 
Other hotels are the Imperial, Cambridge, Ciihb di Malta, and 
Augleterra 

37ie Sue:: L'aiiul. — For the history of this Canal refer to the 
" Handbook of Egypt," John Murray, 1873. The lighthoiiBe at Port 
S'aid is 160fC. high. It shows an electric light, flashing Qvery three 
seconds. A red light is shon'n at the end of the W. mole, and a 
green at the end of the E. Opposite the anchoi^e is the French 
Oftice, where pilots are engaged, and where is a wooden plan of the 
Canal, in which pegs with nags shew the position of every vessel 
passing through. Tlie Hotel uu Louvre and the H6tet de France 
are in the Phice de Lesseps in the centre of the European c^narter. 



SUEZ — THE nSD SEA — AUEK. 



Width at water-line, where banks are low . . 1128 f). 

Ditto in deep cuttings . . 1!)0 „ 

Ditto at base 72 ., 

Depth 26 „ 

Slope of bank at water-line, 1 in 6 j near base, 1 in U. 

Suez. — Steamers halt here to receive or forw td the mail from or 
to Brindisi. Them ia a hut«l here, at which people have st^ppeil 
tor weeks. In the cold weather the dimate in charming, hut very 
little can be eaid in tiraise of tlie t«wn, or uiiy of its belon^iogs. 
Those who are compelled to Bb>p a day may niaie an expedition to 
the Wells of Moaes, on the E. coaat of the S«a and about 10 m. ojf, 
where there is a nice clump of trees, a good place for a picnic 

Tke Ked Sea.— A Btroiig N, wind cenenilly prevails in tlie Red Sea 
for half the voyage, and is aucoeeded by a atroDc wind from the S. 
for the rest of the way. The Sinaitic Range ix Uis first remarkable 
land viewed ta the E., but Sinui itself, distant 37 geo. m., ia hid by 
intervening mountains of equal height. Shtldwto island is a little 
S. of the land that intervenes between the Gulfs of Suez and 
Akabah ; about 10 m. from it ia the reef on which the Camatic 
was lost in 1S86. The next danger iB"TheBrotheiB," 2 circular locka 
rising 30ft. above the sea. In the S. part of the Red Sea, islets are 
numerous, and among them is the group called " The Twelve 
Apostles." There is one ^lace where a light is particnlarly wanted, 
the rock of Abu Ail : it is not easily seen on account of its grey 
colour. It is S( m. to the E. of High Island, or Jabal Suhnya, 
which is in N. lat. 14° 4' and E, lo:ig, 42° 44', Here two wrecks 
are distinctly visible, vi/. that of the Diike of Lancatter, with 
four masts, the fore-mast broken. The funnel is still standing, and 
the vessel lies about 1 m. from the N. point of the island, Furlher 
to. the N. and at the very N. end ot the island is the wreck of 
the Penguin. These wrecks testify to the extreme danger of the 
passage, and prove that representations on^t to be niade to the 
Egyptian Uovernment to esbiblish a li)jht here. In the monsoon the 
weatlier is generally misty here, and a lighthouse is much ueeiled. On 
Jabal TiralW), in N. lat, 15°i)8'andE. long. 41° 54',a light ia required, 
a« vessels coming irom the N. have a run of 400 m. to this island 
without seeing land, and it is very desirable that the captmns should 
make sure of tlieir position, aa there are reefs to the W, and £., the 
latter at only 20 m. distant. Jabal Tir is 110 m. N. of Abii Ail. 
At Perim island there is an officer stationed with 60 men. There 
is also a lighthouse, but in spite of it the Cunard steamer Batavia 
apt ashore on the N. part of the island. On the African shore there 
IS a large house built by the French, now deserted. From Perim to 
the Arabian coast the strait ia only 1 m. broad. From Perim to 
Aden is 90 m. due E. 

Adsn.—iiwt people laud at Aden to escape tlie dust and heat in 
coaling. All beats must have a licence from the conservator of the 
port, and the number of the licence must be painted on the how and 
stem. Each of the crew must wear the numoer on his left breast in 



iNTPonucnox. Sect. I. 

lijtiirGs 2i ju, lon^ When asking payment tbe crew mu8t show the 
tuble of fares aim rules, and any one of tliem axking pre-payment ia 
liable to fine nnd impiisonment. In cuse uf dispute, recoarae must 
be bad \o tlie neareitt European police-ofBcer. A boat inspector 
attends at the Oun Wharf from 6 a.u. to 11 r.u. to call boats and to 
tjive information to px-sseiiRers, After cuiiset pussengei* can only be 
landed at the Gun Whai-f. It takes about J of an hour to land at 
the Post OlKce Pier, which ia broad and aheltered. About 1 m. to 
the leftare tiie Hotel de I'Europeand the H6tel de TUnivera. There 
is also ft huge shop kept by a PilrsL To the riglit about 1 m. is 
Government House, "nie hour of diiparture is always posted up on 
board the steamer, and should there be 4 lira, or more of daylight, 
a drive may be takeu to tlie Toukn, which are 5 m. from the landiug- 

Elace. These were begun in 600 a.d., and 13 have been restored, 
aiding 8 million t^llona of water. 

Galle. — The voyage from Aden to Galle takes about 5 days. 
When the breakwater at Colombo ia linialieil, vessels will make that 
port, and Galle, whicli ia a very anioU liarbour, and not very safe in 
t-ough weather, will be altt^'ether (leaerte<l. The lighthouse is about 
60 ft. high, but the entinnce to the harbour is ao narrow as to be 
hardly visible until veiy neat. To the K there ia a hill 2,170 ft. 
high called the Haycock, oitd in the distance to tbe KN.E. 
Adam's Peak, 7,(KK) ft high, is sometimes dimly discerned. The 
P. & O.'s agent lives in a jitetty villa in tbe S.W. comer of the 
harbour. The landiiig-jdace at O^le is on tbe N. aide of the harbour. 
Close by in Churcli Street is the Oriental Bank. The Oriental 
Hotel is alw near, and is comfortable. There ia anotlier hotel, kept 
by a lady, closer to the pirt. The Churcli, All Saints, is about i m. 
from the landing-place. It is a handsome stone building, and can seat 
5<)0 persons. It has 3 memorial windows at the E. end, one to a Hi. 
Templar, son-in-law of a Lite Bishop of Colombo. The architect was 
Mr. J. Smith, in Government employ, and tbe building cost £6,<HH>. 
Colombv.—Tbi: French steamers go to Culoml)o from Galle. The 
charge for a Grst-clans passage, with one servant deck passenger,is 28 rt. 
At ju^aent, as the bi-eakwater is unHnished, the swell is very high, 
oud in the S.W. nionaoon dangerous. When vessels can come inaide 
the breakwater the landing wUl be easy. The breakwater is made of 
concrete blocks, weighing 10 to 32 t^ns each. It was commence<l 
from the W., and after running in a straight line for 3,200 ft., it 
cnrves to the S. The water inside is 22 ft. deep. The ei^ineer of 
the breidiwater is Mr. Kyle. There is a large hotel in the fort, 
where there is alao a pleasant walk behiml Government Houae to the 
Fl^-btaif. The Colombo Light is placed on the top of the Clock 
Tower, where Chatham Street and <Jueeu Street join. The light is 
visible 16 m. The traveller uho intends to stop a day or two will 
do well to drive on to the Galle Face Hotel. He will pass by the 
Government Offices, and turning the corner opposite Government 
Houae and the Library, wiU pass the Tel^(i«pli Office on the r., 
and the Savings Bank and General Post OlHce on the 1. Beyond 
the Post Olflce is the Scotch Presbyterian Church, and further on are 
the Officers' Quoiten and the Mesa Hoo^e, and beyond them the fine 



Sect. I. 

open space called the Galle Face, wbicli faces tbe direct road to Galle. 
Here are 4 fine bonackE, and at right iLuglea to them a Btill la^er 
ranee of barracks. The city of Colombo estends to the 4ih m, on tlie 
Qalle road, with a breadth of 3^ m. from the sea to the E. outakirta. 
By the census of 1871 there were 100,00(1 inhabitants. The Galle 
Face Hotel is at the S.W. extiemity of the Esplanade, and has 
sereml advantages over the Grand Oneiital Hotel in the fort The 
water, for iiutonce, is the best, in the island, and the best drive and 
promenade are at the door of the Hotel Conipoimd. In the Fort 
Hotel there is no sea view, not such good attendance, and more 
mosquitoes. It will be well to select a room facing the sea at the 
Galle Face Hotel, for the back rooms are not comfortable. The pro- 
prietor, a native of Ceylon, and said to be very rich, will not expend 
a sixpence on the hot«l, and tlie consequence is that the bedrooms 
are in a sad state, though a small sum woidd make them charming. 
The moNjuito curtains are full of boles, and the mats dirty and worn 
out The table dTitJte is at 7.30 p.m. The Sir Jish is excellent, and 
the dinner is generally very sood indeed. Nearly in the eentie of 
the Galle Face Esplanade is the Club House, a fine building looking 
on the sea. About the middle of the Promenade, near the sea, is a 
atone like a milestone, with the following inscription ; — 
Galle Fack Walk, 
Commenced 
By SIK HENRY WARD, 
In 1856 ; 
Completed 1859, 
And recommended to bis 
SuccesBOTS for the use ot 
The Ladies and Gentlemen. 
To see the town an open carriage may be engt^ed at the Galle 
Face Hotel, and the drive will be along the sea past the bai-racks, 
until the statue of Sir E. Barnes is reached. It stands ou a granite 
pedestal, inscribed as follows : — 

Libdtbkant-Genbbal 
SIR EDWARD BARNES, 

Erected by the 

Europeans and natlie inhabitants of Ceylon, 

And friends in England and India, 

To testify 

Their respect and aSection for his person, 

And to perpetuate the memory of 

His distii^uished military services, 

The important benefits conferred by him 

Upon this Colony 

During his administration of the Government 

From 1820—22, 

From 1824—1831, - .- , 

He disd March, 1838, CiOOQ[c 

Aged 62 years. 



Sect. I. 

Then tum to the r. put the Racquet Court aad an nU Dutch 
Belfr;, just beyond which ia the Town Hall and Public Market 
Place, fram which diverge two Btreete, the oao to the 1., Sea Street, 
where dwell the dealera in rice and cotton, and where are 3 Hindil 
temples of no importance. The street to the r., Wolfendahl Street, 
conductB to Wolfendahl Church, a nuMive building on high ground, 
built by the Dutch in 1T49, and commanding a, fine view of the city 
and harbour. Here are hatchmente recording the decease of Dutch 
oflicialB, The church is shaped like a SL Andrew's Cross, The 
dome is the first londmnrk seen by ehipe approaching Colombo. The 
dome was of brick and was sunnounted by a gilt weathercock, which 
was struck by lightning in 1856. The dome was then so much 
damaged that it was taken down, and a roof of timber and tiles 
erected instead. The muming service on Sunday is at 9.30 A. u., 
and the afternoon at 4.30 P.M. Thence the drive may be continued, 
in a N.E. direction, to the Cathedral of S. Lucia, adjoining which tn 
a coU^e for Catholics. Then N. and a little W., the Cathedral and 
College of St. Thomas are reached. They stand in a park, and were 
given 1^ Dr. Chapman, the first Bishop. At the College are 300 
students, 60 of whom are resident, with 4 Su^lish masters. About 
1 ra, to the N. la SL James' Church, and ia driving there a fine house 
called Uplands is seen to the left, where is a tortoise, said to be more 
than 200 years old, and very huge. Three furlongs to the N. of St. 
James' Church is the Keliul river, whence a steamer goes twice a 
day 23 m. to Negombo, and thence the N. part of the island may be 
visited, It most be said, however, that the ruins of ancient cities in 
this island and the low lying districts are very feverish. There is 
an eitremely fetid smell from the woods, owing to decaying v^etation. 
The traveller may now drive S.W., rather more than 2 m., to the 
Cinnamon Qatdens, 3 of which vnll be seen before reaching the 
Central Jail, where tliere is room for 1,000 prisoners. A tum may 
then be taken to the W. along Hospital Eoad, which leads to the 
Circular Walk Gardens, in which a Museum was built by 
Mr. Smither, architect, and opened in 1877 by the Governor, 
Sir William Gregoiy. On the basement are some interesting stones, 
and particularly a finely carved lion, broi^ht from the ruined cities 
of Ceylon. The entrance hall is handsome, and to the r. of it is a 
library, to which the public lias access from 6.30 to 10 a.m., and 
ii'om 3 to 5 f.u. The Museom is shut on Friday, but open on other 
days, Sundays included, from 9 A.U to 6 f.u. In front of the 
Museum is a statue of Sir W. Gregory, inscribed : 
The Bight Honorable 
SIB WM. GKEGOBY, K.C.M.Q., 
GOTEBKOK OF ClSTbON, 

Erected by the 
Inhabitants of this Island, 



The many benefits conferred 



From 1872 to 1877. 
KetunuDg to the fort, the troveller will pass Alfred House, the 



Sect. I. ExcuRaiONs prou Colombo. 9 

residence of Mr. Chatles Je Soysa, the richest inhabitant of Cevlon, 
who in 1870 entertained there t!ie Duke of Edinburgh, and the 
Governor, Sir Hercules KobinBOn. 

Before leaving Colombo, a visit may be paid to one of the 20 
Coffee Mills, as t.(i. to the Blomendahl Mills belonging to Hesm. 
George Wall & Co., in Alutmaivatti lioad, oi to the Maddema 
Mills, in Cinnanion Gardens, owned by Messra. Sabonadiore & Co. 

Recursion*.— There is a Buddhist Temple at the vilUf^e of KeUnf, 
2 m. up the river of the same name. The " Mahawanso " refeis to 
it as contemporary with Buddha. The original Dagoba was built 
500 years before the Chriation era and enlarged 3 centuries later, but 
the one that is now standing was conatructed lietween the years 
1240— 12C7 A.D., and rebuilt about 1301 a.d. It stands on the river 
bank, and is handsomely, though caudily decorated. According to 
the Colombo Guide jt stands on tlie site of a shrine erected by 
Prince Yatalatissa b.c. 306. A great festival takes plac« at it at 
the full moon of May, and lasts 4 weeks. 

Another excursion may be made by rail to Fanadura, distant 
from Colombo 10 m. The village is on the sea shore, and the 
stations are : 

1. The Potah. 

2. The Fort. 

3. Slave Island. — The drive from Galle Face Hotel to this 
station is about } of a m. The train starts at 7.16 A.ir. 

i. Kollnapitlya. 



6. Wellawatta „ 7.37 

7. Dehiwola 7.47 

8. Mount Lavinia , 7.49 

9. Angulana. 

10. Moratara. 

11. Panadura. 

At Mount Lavinia is the Grand Hotel, which was built by Sir E. 
Barnes, when Governor, as his Marine Villa. It stands on a rocky 
eminence close to the station and 1. of it, It ia 7 m. from Colombo, 
and is a good place to halt for breakiast. The three stations beyond 
Panadura are : 

12. Waduwa arrive 8.35 

13. Kalutara North S.49 

14. Kalutara South 8.65 

Here the coach starts for Galle, the whole length of the railway 
being 28 m. The coach goes 46 m., with 7 stations for change of 
horses about 6 ni. apart, Galle being the 8th. The names of the 
stations ore : 

1. Mnffun. 1 5, MaderapU — arrive OO 

2. Bautote - arrive 10.4i 6. Hirkadna „ 2.30 

3. Indrua ., 12,0 7. Urkenda ., 3.20 

4. WaUtara „ 12.4C j 8. Galle .. 4.0 

At fiantote the passengers breakfast on air fish, oysters, chicken broth. 



10 



Sect I. 



Irish stew, and 3 aorta of curries. The charge is Ij rs. The resU 
house is coml'ortable, anil is 100 yards from the road to the r. Along 
this road many lai^e lizaids ftttm 3 to 4j ft. long are seen, some 
bhtck, some grey, with bng snake- like heads. They are eaten by 
the natiTcs, and live on fn^ ajid insects. Yonng alligntora are 
BometimeB met with. The charge from Kalutnta to Galle by coacli 
is 20 rs. for Ist class, and 10 w. for 2nd clous. Clergymen do not pay, 
and when one has heen eliarged inwivertently the money has been 
returned to him. Should tlie Imveller have time, he may visit 
Kondy fi-om Colombo. The Htationi are as follows :— 



Niunea ot StoUoiiM. 


Xo 1 


■V i 


F«e' 


Remark.. 








CUH9. 














Colombo . 


1.6 


2.0 ■ 






Eelaaiya . . 


7.9 


2.9 


024 


The second tram doeti not go 


Mahara . 


7.37 


2.27 


72 


on Sundays. 




7.r>o 


2.50 


1 33 




Veyangoda . 


8.R 


S.8 


1 86 




Mirigama . . 


H,33 


3.33 


2 49 


The ascent begins at Kambuk- 


AmbepuBiyi . 


H.44 


AM 


2 82 


kaiiB,and Iho views over the 


Polgahawolft . 


!).17 


i.n 




wooded hilla are eitremelj 


Hambukknna . 




4.41 


4 26 


picturesque. There is a 


Kadugannawa . 


10,45 


6.45 


6 22 


slight descent at' Peredeniya. 


Peredeniya 


11. IS 


6.15 


S 70 


Tliei'e is a good hotel at 


Kandy . . 


11.30 


6.30 


6 


Kandy. 



There is a picturesque rest-house at Ambepussa, one of those 
treacherously beautiful spots, which have acquired a bad renown 
from the attractions of the scenery, and the pestilent fevers by which 
the locality is infested. The aspect of the country here gradually 
clianges, from maritime plains to the ruder and less cultivated 
■'"" "1 highlands. The houses, instead of groves of cocoa-nuts, 



e surrounded by a fence of coffee bushes, ivitli their jiolished 



green 



their poll ^ 

leaver and wreaths oE jasmine-like flowers, and every thing indicates 
the change from the low country and its habits to the hills and a 
hardier peasantiy. Between Ambepussa and Kom^alle, milk-white 
monkeys are numerous.' The last 30 m. is said by Tennent to com- 
bine the grandeur of the Alps with the splendour of tropical vegeta- 
tion. There is avillage of Eodiyas, a degraded race, at Kadugaunawa. 
From this village there is a gentle descent for 8 or 9 m. towards the 
banks of the Mahawelli Ganga river, a bend of which flows around 
Kandy, surrounding the city, as the Singhalese say, " like a necklace 
of pearls." 

Kandij.— The fii'st mention of Kandy as a city is at the beginning 
of the 14th century, when a temple was built there, to contain 
Buddha's tooth and other relics. From possessing these, it became 
an important seat of the Buddhist Hieraichy, and eventually the 
residence of branches of the royal family ; but it was not till the 

', Teniieut'a " CerloB,"" toI. it ji. 134, 



Sect. I. KAN-nr. 11 

close of the I6th century tlint it wan adopted afi the cApitalof the 
i»tand, after the de»tnittioii of Kotta, and the defeat of R^i 
Singlm II. by Wiiiiala Dhaniia in. 1592. Dnrin;; tlie ivaif between' 
the Portuguese and Dutch, Ksndy ivaa no (iften burned that 
scarcely any of the ancient buihliugi*, except the terapleH and 
the royal rexidence, wei-e remaining, when the En^ltsli took it in 
ISIB. The Palace, n wing of which is still occunicil by the chief 
civil officer of the jiroTince, was bnilt by Wimala Dliarma about 
A.D. 1800, and the Portuguese prisoners were employed in erecting 
iL This gave a European character to the architecture of some por- 
tions, such as the tower a<lio!ning the Malagawa temple, in which 
the sacred tootli in deposited. Tne Uatada, or " sacred tooth," was 
brought to Ceylon a short time before Fa Hiaii's arrival in a.d. 311, 
in charge of a princess of Kalinga, who concealed it in the folds of 
her hair. It was taken by the Malabara about a.d. 1315, and again 
carried to India, but wa» recovcreil by Prakrama Balm III. It wan 
then hidden, but in 1560 wan discovered by the Portujtuese, taken to 
GiHi by Don Constantioe de Bn^^nza, and burned by the archbisliop 
in the presence of the Viceroy and his court. . Wikrama Bahu niann- 
factured another tooth, which is a piece of <liscotoured ivory, 2 in. 
long and leas than 1 in diameter, resembling the tooth of a crocodile 
rather than that of a man. Kondy is picturesquely situated on the 
banks of a miniature lake, overhung on all sides by hills, A road 
called Lady Horton's Walk winds round one of those hill«, and on 
the £. side, which is almost precipitous^ looks down on the valley of 
Dumbera, through which the Mahawelli Ganga rolls over a channel 
of rock?, "presenting a scene that in majestic beauty can scarcely be 
surpassed. In a park at the foot of this acclivity is the pavilion of 
the Governor, one of the moat agreeable edifices in India, not less 
from the beauty of the architecture than from ita judicious adapta- 
tion to the climate" (Tennent, vol. ii. p. 203). Serpents are very 

>n, aaltig as a ctayfisli, is also found he 
poisonous. 



here, especially the cobra and gi'een carawilla. The lai^e 
black scorpion, aa big as a ctayfisli, is also found here, but is not very 



From Kandy to the Boyal Botanic Garden at Peiadenia, the 
load, for nearly 4 m,, passes through a auburb in which ever]' 
house is surrounded by a gaiilen of cocoa-nut palms, bread-fruit, 
and coffee trees. The entrance to the Botanic Garden is through a 
noble avenue of India-rubber trees (Ficia elaslica), and on entering 
a group of palms is seen, unsurpassed in beauty and grandeur. 
Amount the exotic sptcies is tlie wonderful Coco de Mer of the 
Seychelles. In size it exceeds the ordinary cocoa-nut many times, 
with the peculiarity of a double and sometinies triple formation. 
Formerly medicinal virtues were ascribed to it, and the Emperor . 
Rodolph II. offered 4,000 florina for a single specimen. The garden 
covers nearly 150 acres, and overlooks the noble river that encbcles 
it on three sides. In it are Orchids and flowering creepers, Iponwcas 
and Bignonias, tlie Uauhinia scandens and racemoaa, which re- 
sembles the chain cable of a man-of-war. There is a monument in 
the grounds to Dr. Gardiner, once its able Director. The great road 
. from Kondy to the Sanatoriiua of Nnera-ellia, a distance of nearly 



12 



Sect. I. 



50 in., ia carried to tlie height of 6,000 ft above the sea. It croueg 
the brid^^e of Perodenia, vnich spans the river Mahawelli Gang^ 
with ft single arch of more tlian 200 ft. Gampola, the ancient Ganga 
Shrl Pill's, the sacred city by the river, ii about the some dietance 
from Kanily as Nuem-ellia, hut a little more to the W. It was the 
lost of the uutiva capitals before the king removed to Kotta in 
A.u. 1410. It was built in the middle of the 14th century, and it 
was here that Ibn Batuta visited Bliuwaneka Eobu IV. about 
A.D. 1347, and here, in 1405, the neit king was defeated by the 
Cldneee general Ching Hu, and carried captive to Nnnkin. It is now 
the centre of the coH'ee ])lantations, and, therefore, tlie traveller may 
pay it a visit if he lias time. The voyage to Madras from Ceylon u 
not witlioiit its risks. At 60 m. from Galle the Great Basses, 
dangerous rocks, are passetl, and at 120 m., the Little Basses. Yeasel^ 
have been lost by standing too close in shore. The harbour at 
Ma<lras is lint well iiiam^ed, and many captains prefer to lie outside 
in the swell rather than risk entering. For the sights of Madras see 
Murray's " Handbook of Madras." 2nd edition, 1879. 

2. Route Overlaid by Yenicb ok Brindisi. 
This route wUl be found described in the Madras and Bombay 
Handbooks, 2nd Ed. All that need be added is that the Pullman 
Cars are not obtainable on the Venice line, but only on that to 
Biindisi. It is necessary to write at least a fortnight beforehand to 
obtain cue. The charge ia £3 extra. 

§ e. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 

Goremon-General. 



Natuea. 


*sr 


Embarked 
'forEnKhmd. 


Beraaritt. 


1. The Right Hot. Wamn 
Hdatingl 


Oct. so, 1774. 


Feb. 1, 1765. 


Apiwlntwl Goveniorot Ben. 
ml, Arril 13, 1772, and 

IS Geo. 111., c. 6S, In 


S. air John MacpLeraon, 


Feh. e, 1785. 




Su<iUd*a>(r. H.ating.as 
being »enior Uciuber of 
CuuncdL Hadlseudia- 
misaed troin tbe Hadns 

Waa restored by 'the 

tu tlie Uupreme Cunncil 


3. EerlConiiialliB, K.G. 

4. Mir John Obom. Bart., 

afterwarta Uotd1i\gii- 
mouth 
i. LleuC-Gen. Sir Aliired 
i;hiri(c,K.C.B. 


8opt,li,lT8a. 
Mar. 17, 1798. 


May IT, 1798. 


A Bangui Civil Servant dis- 
tlnguiihed fur knowledge 

Menil^r of CoonoU, W 
be oUlciatlng Goi-emor- 
GenenL 



OOVERRORS^ENERAL AND VICBItOTS. 

Qmrrnort- General —{coittinuM) . 



^■..«. 


AMUined 


fwEngluid. 


1 


S. Eiri or Homingbnt, 


May 18, 1709. 


~^«~m,. 




wSlXy"*""'^"''' 








^■W ''""^'"- 


Jiily30,l*)5, 


- 


DhiI October 5. iSDi. at 
GiiWliflr. 46, m. N.E.of 


S. Sir a«nrES Birlow, 


Oct 10, IflOS. 


MaJeom 


Huni^eded aa Senior Mam- 


B«<.. K.C.B. 




charBo, Jnly 


bor nl Connnil, and 






n, 1807. 


General, Februaiy 3i. 
-im. Becallsl under 


0. EirlorMlato . . 


July SI, 180T. 


Oct ISIA. 


Klng'a Sign ManuaL 










•«<l^ MBmiu' of 
Hutliigi. Q.CB. 














U. Mr.JohiTAdan . . 


Jan., 1623. 


Aug. 1. 18i» 


S<iei:eetled aa Senior Mem- 
ber u( Connvll to ofllciate 
at Qoienior ■ GeiiorSI. 
Uled June 4, 1S£6, on 
bouMtLe^d.;™. 


IB. Rati of Amherst . . 


Aug. 1, 1S2S. 


Mar. 10, 1S2S. 




13. HT.Buttmrorth Style; 


Ka.liuiS. 


Made over 








ch«vMnly 


berofConnclltoomciak 
u aovemor.General. 


11. LordWIUlHoBenUnck, 


July 4, 1838, 














15. BIr CharlH MeUalfe, 


Mar. 20,1«3S. 


Made over 


gueeeeded as Senior Mem- 


Bart.,6.CB. 




"-mr-'- 


aa Governor.OeneraL 


IS. Ths Eart of AutrklMid, 


Mar. 4. IBM. 


Mar.lS,lS42. 












IT. Earl of Elle nbotungh . 


Feb. SS, lB4a, 


Aug. 1, 1844. 


"•ssi""""-" 


19. I*rf ainUTiw, G.CB, 


jdiy aa, 1B44. 


Jan. 18, 18*8. 




Mar.,18M. 




20. Earl Cuming, G.CB., 


Feb. M, ISM. 


Mar. 19,18«3. 


Created Viceroy, November 


G.CB. I. 


1 


1,1868. 



Ooverwrr^General and Vicenyyt. 


Names. 


Awumsd 


Etnbaiked 
for England. 


Hemailis. 


I. Eari Canning, G.CB. 

3. Tbe 'sarl of Elgin, 
K.T., G.CB. 

Sit Robert Napier, 
K.CB.. altarwards 
lAnl Napier or Mag. 

oilSwm, ILCa "° 

6. fllr JobB tawrenie, 

G.CB.I.,a.C.B.,att«r- 

watdaLwlLawi™™. 


mr. li.lStf2. 
Nov. 1, 18G3. 

Jul. 13, 1S64, 


Mot. 15, 1603. 
Dec. 3, 1SV3. 

Jan. n 1864. 
JaJ..l»,ie60. 


Died at Dliarm»ila, Sovem- ' 
ber30,1863. 1 

ber or Council to omelale 
OlHoiaUiig. 



eonrrwn-Oeaeral and 




---« I -sir 


farEugland. 


RemarkK. 


C. The Earl of Mayo, K.P. 

Htrachey, afterwanhi 

a. Lonlh-apkrotMerchia- 

O.C.a.I., adcrwanlB 

10. Loni L)^r, aH.S.I., 
G.M.I.B., anerwsnH 
EarlLythm 

ILHanjuiHufBlpon . 


Jul. 12, 18fl». 
Feb. fl, 1872. 

Feh. 23, 1872. 
liay3.18T2. 

Ajiril 12,1876. 


Feh. 2a,lB72. 

May 7, 1872. 
Aptll 1S,187«. 

July 3.1880. 


onciatinit. ' 
OIBidaling. 



Vummaiiders-in-ClUef of Inilia. 

1. Brigadier-General Sir Robert Baker .... A.D. ITIiU 

I. Colonel Chsrlea Chapman 1772 

i. Brigadier-General Giles Stibbert 1773 

1. Lieut.-QeiieralJotm ClaTeriiig 1774 

S. Lient-General Sir Eyre Coote 1777 

I, Colonel Alexander Cliampion 1779 

r. Lieut.-GunetBl Sir Eobert Sloper 1780 

i. General Earl Comwallis I?SS 

J. Lieut. -General Giles Stibbert (second time) .... 178B 

}. Colonel Arthur Auclimuty (temporary) 1790 

I. Major-fieneral Sir Kobert Abercromby 1793 

J. Major-General Sir Charles Moitran (tcrapovarv) . . . 1793 

). Colonel Sir Alexander Mackenzie (tcmiKirarj). . . 1796 

1, Major-General Sir Alured Clarke 1797 

i. Ma]or-General Sir James Craig 1800 

}. Lient.-General Gerard, Lord Lake 1800 

7. General Marquis Comwallie (second time) .... 1801 

J. Major-General W. UowdeswcU 1803 

}. Uajor-General Sir Ei-an BailUe 1807 

X Lieat.-Geaenit Sir G. Hewett 1807 

I. Major-General William St. Lctget (tempomry) . . . 1810 

i. Xiieat.-Genera1 Sir George Nugent -1813 

i. General Marquis ol Eastings 1813 

1. General Sir Edwarf Paget 1823 

). General Viscount Combermere 1825 

^, General Earl of Dalhousie 1830 

r. General Sir Edward Barnes 1832 

i. General Lord William Eentinck 1833 

i. General Sir Henry Fane 1835 

>. General Sir Jasper Nicolls . . . . . . .. 18.19 

I, General Loiil Qough . 184B 

t. General Sir Charles Jamca Napier . . . . . . 1849 

1. Genera! Sir William Maynard Gomm ..... 185() 

I. General Sir George Anson 1853 

j. General Sir Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde), O.C.B. . . . 1857 



oovEBSona of i 



36. Oeneral Sir Huf^h Bose (Iiord Strathnaim) . . a.d. 

37. Licut.-General Sit W. MansBeld <Lord Snndhural) . 

.1S. General Robert. Conielis (Lord Napier of If agdala) . . 
3'J, General Sir Frederick Hninea . , . , lOIli April, 
*0. General Sir Donald Martin Stewart, G.C.B 

Finance Mintelere of bidia. 

1. The Eight Hon. James Wilson .... Noretnber 23, 

Died * . . . Augiut 1 1 , 

Vacant from August 11, ISUU to . . January 9, 

2. The Hon. Samuel Laing Janoorj 10, 

», The Hon. Kir C. E. Trevelyan, K.C.B. . January IS, 

4. The Bight Hon. W. N. Massej .... April 10, 

5. The Hon. Sir Richard Temple, K.C.M.I. . . April 23, 
(i. The Hon. J. F. U. IngUe, C.8.I. .... April U, 
T. The Hon. Sir William Moir, K.C.S,I. . , November 20, 

Vacant from November 6, 1B7B to . . December 22, 
8. The Hon, Sir John Stiachey, K.C.S.I., C.I.K. , December 23, 

Govmwrs and Lieul.-Gouernori of Bengal. 
Cfovernom. 



1870 
1876 
18S0 



1861 
1S61 
1863 

1865 
1868 
1874 
1874 
1876 
1876 



NUUM. 


-i ■ ~ 1 


1. Mr. Hodges . 


1681 


First Governor (see Stewart 
of Bengal," p. 309). 


8"HistotT 


2. Mr, GjfEord . . . 


168B 


(See .Stewart's " History 

p. 311). 
(Stewart's " History of 


Bengal," 


3. Mr. Job Chamock . 


1686 


Bengal- 




i page 314). Died" at 


Calcutta, 




1 January 10, 1692. 






1713 1 (See Stewart, p. 395). 




6. Mr. Frecke . 


1733; 




6. Mr. Cruttenden . . 


1738 1 




7. Mr. Bradyll . . 


1739' 




8. Mr. Forester . . . 


1745! 




». Mr. Alexander Dawson 


1748 1 




10. Mr. Barwell . . . 


1750 




11. Mr. William Fytohe . 


1762' 




12. Mr. Roger Drake . . 


17,12 




13. Colonel Robert Clive . 


1768 




U. Mr. J. Z. HolweU . . 


1760 i 




IB. Mr. Henry Vansittart . 


I7(iO; 




16. Mr. John Spencer . . 


1764 




17. Lord Clive . . . 


1705 




18. Mr. Harrv Verelst . . 


17671 




19. Mr. JohnCaitier. 


176!) ; 




20. Mr. Warrcn Hastings . 


1772; 





1. Sir Frederick J. Halliday, K.C.B 



INTRODUCTIOIf. 



3. Sir Cecil Beadon, K.C.S.I April 24, 

i. Sir WiUism Grej, K.C.S.I April 24, 

8. Sir George CRinpbell, K.C.S.I. March 1, 

6. Sir Richard Temple, Bart., K.C.S.I. . . . April 9, 

7. The Hon. Sir ABhley Eden, K.C.S.L, CLE. , January 8, 

Lieut.-GoeemoTs of (A« North-Weit Pnmnctt. 

1, Sir C. T, Metcalfe, G.C.B Jttno 1, 

2. The Right Hon. the GoTemor-General in the Norlh-Wertem 

ProTinceB (Earl of Anckland) June 1, 

8. Mr. J. C. Robertson February 4, 

4. The Right Hon. the Governor-General in the North-Westem 

Provinces (Earl EUenboroujrh) . December 31, 
G. Sir G.R. Clerk, K.aB June 30, 

6. Mr. Jamea Thomason December 22, 

Died at Bareillj, September 29, 1853. 

7. Mr. A. W. Begbie (ia charge) .... October 10, 

8. Mr. J. H. Colvin Korember 7, 

Died at Agra, September 9, 1857. 
0. Mr. E. A. Reade (in charge) .... September 10, 

10. Colonel H. Fraaer, C.B., Chief Commiflsioner North-Westem 

Province! September 30, 

11. The Right Hon. the Govemor-Goneral adminiatering the 

North-Western Prorinccs (Earl Canning) . Fehmary 6, 

12. Sir G, P. Bdmonatone January 19, 

13. Mr. R. MoQey(in charge) February 27, 

14. The Hon. E. Drummond March 7, 

15. Sir William Mnir, K.C.S.I March 10, 

16. Sir John Straohey, K.C.S.I April 7, 

17. Sir Geot^e Couper, Bart., C.B., K.C.S.I. . . . July 26, 

Chief CommimoneTe of AwmOi (Oudh). 



1842 

1843 
1843 



18C7 
1857 



Names. 


Date. 


Renurti. ' 


1. Major- General Sir James 


Feb. I, 18GG. 




Oulram, KC.B. 






2. Mr. C. C. Jackson 


May 8, 186G. 


Officiatinit. 


a. Major - General Sli' Henry 


March 21, 1857. 


Died of woundu. 


Lawrence. K.C.B. 






J. Major J. S.Banks . . 


July C, 18E7. 


Killed in action. 


S. Lieut. - General Sir Jamw 


Sept 11,1857. 


Second time. 


Outram, G.C.B. 






r.. Mr. R. Montgomery . 


Aprils, 1858. 




7. Mr. C. J. Wingfield, C.U. 




Afterwards Sir 
CharlesWingfield. 


8. Lieut. -Colonel L. Barrow, C.B. 


April 20, 1860. 


Officiating. 


9. Mr. G. N. Yule, C.B. . . 


April 4, 1861. 


Officiating. 


10. Mr, K. H. DaTies . 


Aug. S6, 1865. 


Officiating, 


11. Mr. J. Btrachey . 


March 17, 1866. 




12. Mr. R. H. Daviea . 


March 9, 1SG8. 


Officiating from 
May 24, 1867 to 
March 8, 1868. 



CHIEF COUUIEBIOSERS. 17 

Chief Commiationert of Atradk — (coKtinved). 



S^mm. 


P.te.. 


Remiirkh. 


I!l. Major-General L. Bamiw, C.B. 


Jan. 18, 1871. 




14, Sir George Couper, Bart., C.B. 


Doe, 8, 1873. 


OiBciated from 
April 20, 1871 to 
Dccembei'8,18T3, 

grmed. 


ir.. Mr. J. D. InKlia, C.8.I. . . 


March 15, I87B. 


Offieiatine. 


It!, Sir Georee Couper, Bart., C.B. 


Nov. B, 1876. 




17. Mr. J. F. D. Iiiglifl, C.S.L 


Jnlv 2fl, 1879. 


OfflciatiiiB. 



LieuL-GovemoT of Hie N.IV.P. ani C. C. of Oudh. 

ir aeorge Couper, Bart., C.B., K.C.S.I.. CLE., j J.°^?J^ \f^%^j^ 

Chief Commitxionert of Barmah. 



I 1. Lieut. -Colonel Arthur Fhayre, 

i 3. ColonelA.Fytclie,C.S.I.,B.S.C. 

[ 3. LieQt.-Colouel R. D. Ani^b, 

I ltS,0. 

I 4. The Hon. Ashley Eden, 0.8.1. , 



I. Mr, AugnBtuB Rivera TbompEon 
I. Mr. Bernard. 



Chief Ommiim'oners of tlie Central Provint 



! N>.n>«. 




1 1. Colonel E. K. KUiot 


Dec. 11, 1861. 




2. Lieut.-Colonel J. K. Spence . 


Feb. 27, 1862. 


OfflciatiDg. 


I 3, Mr; a Temple, 


April 26, 1862. 


Officiating. 




Dec IB, 1863. 




6. Mr. J. 8. Campbell . . . 


March 12, 1864. 




' 8, Mr. K, Temple . . . . 






7, Mr. J, S, Campbell , 






1 8, Mr. K. Temple . 






I S, Mr. J. H, Morrifl , 




Officiating. 


■10, Mr, G. Campbell , 


Soy. 27, 1867. 




ai, Mr. J, H. Morris . . 


April IG, 1867, 


Officiating, Con- 
firmed May 27, 
1870. 


12. Colonel B. H. KealiDge, V.C 

C.S.I. 

13. Mr. J, H. Morris, C.S.I. . 


July P, 1870, 




July 6, 1872. 





INTRODronOU. 

Chit/ Commiuionen of Aidm, 



1, Colonel It. H. Keatiiwe, V,C„ Feb. 7, 1674. 
C.8.I. 
j 2. Sir smart Bajley. 



The S&rya-Va'iulia or Solar V'juady, 
Marichi (son of BrahmA, qdc of the flnt created beings). 
Kashyapa Muni, married AditI, DalcKlia'B daughter. 
Vivaawana, or Siirya (tbe Sun). 

Sradbadera, or Vaivasiraiia (Uie Sao), Eiag of Ayodhya. 
Sqbw^a, in the Treta Yuga — b.c. 3,5(10 aocoiding to Jones. 
B.C, 2^00 „ Tod. 

From.'whom BprinK tlie two SoIat Dynaaties of Ayodhya (Oudh) 
and Maithila (Tiibiit), of whom only the moet importnnt names ore 

given here ; — 



Ayodhya (O^h). 
Vikukahi. ■ 

Fifteen kings to 
MAndh&ta. 

Seven kings to 
BatyavaTrata, Trayamna. 

Two kings to 
Earischandra, King of India. 

Twelve kings to 
Bhagiratlia, brought down Oanges 

Six kiugg to 
Nala. 

Ten kings to 

Alf. 
Die&par Yuga or Srtneh Agt, 

Twenty-nine kings t^ 
Takshaka. 
Vrlhadbala. 
Vrihadaan'a, B,o. 1300 according 



MaUhila {^TtrliU). 
Nimi. 

Janaka, built Janakpilr. 

Nineteen kings to 
Swadhaja, fatlier of Sltd, who 
married fi&ma. 

Thirty- three kingi to 
Dashoratha. 
lUma, B.C. 2029 according to Jodcs, 

B.O. 1100 according to Tod, 

Salar X>M of Vetala. 
IHehta, king of Vesala. 
Twenty-two kings to 
Trinavindhu. 

BesabirAjo, orVisala, who foandod 
Vaisali (AUAh&Md]. 
Seven kings to 
Janamejaya. 

Kali Yuaa—Inm if tinirtk Age, 
B.C. 3101. 
Twenty kings to 

Kritanjaya, tirst emigrant from 
KosbIb (Ondfa^, and founder of 
the S\lryaa in Baatft?htra (Tod). 

Nine kings to 

Snmitra, B.C. 2,100 (Jones), 67 
<Tod). Tbe Inst name in tlio 
" Bh^arat PurAiia," Bald to be 
contemporary with Vikrami- 
ditya. From thi« prince the 
Mcw&r chronicles commence 
their series of BAj&a of Saurafh- 



rft# CKandra-Van^i or Lttnar Race, tcho reitpied inBandroi or 
KdAt, aiul afierwirdi ia, Mag<(dha or BiMr, aiid IndrapratthMi 
orDMl. 

Atri ... , , . Muni. 

Kiiina (Lunn, Uic Mnon). 

lliiddhft .... (Mercury) marrieii lU, daughter of the Son. 

Alias, or . . . Punirsvaii. 

Ayii Kiiigsof KAsht.ftUo deneendcd from liim. 

NiihaMu .... ( Dcvamthushft, Dioiivw>»i, Itnccliua). 

Yayiti .... -Father of Pura nnd Vaflu. 

Kiuiji ofKdM (BanArm). 

DivodiUa, becomes a Buddhist. 

Thirteen kings to 
Bhargsbhumi (end in " Bhigavat Purdi.ui "). 



LiM of Yadu. 
Yndu, excluded fi 

Twenty-five kinga to 
Dasharathft. 

Twenty-two kinps to 
Krishna and Balariima, with whom 

this lino bccnmes extinct, by 

quarrel of the Yildua. 



Puru, king of Pratiphthitna. 

Fourteou Icings to 
I)iisliyantft,orDushnianta, husband 

of Khakuatald. 
Bharata, king of Antacreda and 

Four kinga to 

Easttn, bqilt Haatindpilr. 
Three kings to 

Kuru, from whom also descended 
the Uagadba princes, 

Parltshit. 
Fourteen kings to 

Vichitravlryra, married Ambi atid 
AmtialikA, daughters of the king 
of K&shl. who had issue, after 
his death, by his half-brother 
Krifhtiidwaipiyani or Vyfiai, 
Dhritarilihtni and Pindu, whoso 
wives bji'c the five I'lk^ijavas, 

1. YadhiehfUira. 

2. Arjuna, father of Partk^ita. 
a. Bbima, no descendants. 

4. Nokut and ( founded, the Ma- 
il, tjahadcva ) gadha line. 



Piihdv. Dynasty of Indraprastlu^ or Dihlt, amtiniied from the tine of 
Pwu of the Chandra-vaifha, or Laaar liite, and eoUaleral with the 
MayadJia princet dencendhuj from Jardiandka. 

Yailhi|hthira, 1st king of ludraprasthah, 

Parlk^hita, son of Arjuna _ B.C, SlOl 

Siikingsto d ,,. CoOqIc 

. .Diaraina. _ . .... '' 



20 INTBODOCnOS. 

Bursfna. 

Eighteen kings to 
KbiSvnni'iij, di;|ioee(t, nnil PiLn^n line ended. 

iScnW Dipiaety, 14 J*rhicn, niynfd 500 yean. 
ViBarvrit (cunt<;mporarj ivitli Sisundga. See Tod) 



IVeNt kings lo 








Madptkl, Hlniii by his ltAj|>at Minister. 






Thiiil Djiiintlij. 




Mahrjije, MnliiirAie of FirlsUta (Tod). 




Thirteen kinjja to 












(Ae,.„-r.«g toward.^ 




(AceordiHg U Ji-rf.) 


Aecardiag fu CmtKiiig- 


Sf^nadhwajn. 








Sciiodhaln . 


210 


Seiiadhwaja. ' 


N&dn. 


Malidknlaka . 




MnhAranga. 


.Jowaiia. 


Maliarulha . 




Mahuiwlh. 


Ildiyn. 


NdlU . 




Sarma. 


Jehaln. 


.liinna-rajA . 




.livan-sirij. - 


Ananda. 


lIilnTa-fSens . 


illl 


llmtil-scn. 


KdipAhi, inva<lod 


Viiiillinchaln 


IK) 


AnAiMlajnIa. 


Kumftofi, niid was 


lldjapiila . 


71) 


lUjapAla. 


killed by Sakwanti, 




Dihll taken by SAkA- 


who seized on Indm- 




iliLjnorSakwanti. 






1 


was expelled bj 






Vikramilditjn. 


GT 


Belakcn hy Vikrami- , 








dit;a .sdkAri. 



KingK of MaijaHhn or Bihdr, 

Twelve kings to Jnnlu (Snmbliftva). 

Line of Pdndu. 
Jardxandlia. contempnrarf of Yudbjphtliira and Kri^hita . B.C. 3101 
SahadivB, I'ariksliita bom, jjres^t war ends . . . . b.c, 1400 

Twenty-one kinars. 
Bipunjaya, B.C. 9ln— B.C. 700 (ncccrding io Wilford). A Buddhs was 

bom in bU re^. 

Saidiyniiiga*, or Slieiihr.i'ii;s. reigned 360 yearf. 

An'Oidtng to WiirDrd. Tod. 



Nauda. MflbApadms 



" He will bring the whole earth under one umbrella, he will have 
eight 80na, SumAlya and others, who will reign after MabApailiiia ; he 
and his Bona will govern lur 100 yenra. The BtAhman Kau^ilja will 
root out the nine Nandiuj." (■' Viijhija PucAiia," psgc 108.) 

Maiinja Dynasty, governed 137 yean, 

Chandra-gnpta Sandracottus of Greeks . . . ' , • B.C. 31S 

VinduHdra, vArisAra 

Ashoka VarddhuQa, patron of Ihc BuddhutB. 

KaT&sas, Sujaawa. 

Dasharatlia 

Sangnta, BandopiUita. 

SUUIshakth IndrapAlita (Devadhama). 

Soraasaimail. 

Stwhadhannan (Satadlianwa). 

Vrihadratha. 

Sarxja Vynadij, 110 \jeaTM. 

Pushpiunitra, puta his maater, the last of the MnnrjnB, to death 

(1365 B.C. according to Jonea) B.C. 178 

Eight kvDgB to 
DevabhiWi. 

Kanvid Dynaity, 45 yean. 

The Eanni named Yasudeva usurps his master's kingdom (Jones 
«ad Tod, B.C. 1263) ■ . . B.C. 66 

Two kiDfjs to Sosharman (Wilford sopposcs an inteiTHl of 150 years 
before SipnAa). 

A'ndkra or VrUpdla I)i/iiiistij of A'lidhra (Orkiu). 

Hiprakn, a powcrfid hcivant ot ^usharman. kill* the latter and 

founds the ^ndhra bhritja dynnBly B.C. 21 

Twenty-two kinga to — 

Chandraari, or Vi jaya, Inst Magadha king .... A.l>. i 2H 

„ ,. AccOTdiug to Jones . . 300 

„ Tod. , . . r.*(! 

Pulomirchish (Pulomien of Chineae) dies- 648 

ISalomdhi, cotemporary of BiLpa lUwal of McwAr . . 730 

27w Gupta Kingx 

Ohatot Kacha. 

Chandra Qupta I. (the first Mah&rdjddhirdjil). 

Samndra tiupta. 

Chandra Gupta II A.d. IGl 

Kum&nt Gupta 200—208 

Skaoda Gupta 20tf— 223 

Buddha Gupta 2.S1 

Toram4i.ia Cinn^^ 

Other local unpretending GunUi kings. D.ii;iii,vn.n.ii,;n. 
TallabblB 819 



32 iNTRoDCcnox. Sect I. 

Palhdn, Afgidit, or Ohtrt Kiiig$ of Hinditldn, who reigntd al DAtt. 

A.H. A.D. 

Mn'iza'd din Uul)(uumad bin Rdm (1st Dmaitv) . . 5S9 1193 

Kiitbn 'd din Aibak ....'... 602 1306 

&rim Sh&h 607 1210 

Shamsu 'd din Altamsh 607 J2U 

Euknu 'A din FIriii Bhfth 633 1236 

Hdlt&nah Biilah 6S4 1236 

Ha'izu'd din BahrAm SbAh 637 1240 

A'Uq 'd din Hass'ild Sh4h 639 1242 

N&siru M din Malfmiid 643 1246 

Ghl&gu 'd din Balban 661 1S66 

Hu'iEu 'd din KaikubAd 686 — 

Jal&ln 'd d(n Firoz tShih, Khilji (2Bd I>yiiMt7) . nS9 1290 

Boknn'd din IbrAhim 696 12«« 

'AMn 'd din Mnljammad Sh<lh 695 1396 

ehahibu 'd din 'Umar 716 1318 

:Kutbu 'd din Mubib-nk Shih 716 1316 

Nftsiru 'd din Khnwii 



OhiAen 'd din ToEhlak Sh&U (Srd Dynasty) 

Mubammad bin Tuijilak 

Flroi ShAh bin Silit Rajab 7B2 13ol 



Tujhlftk ShUi 11. 790 1388 

Abilbakr 8bih II 791 1389 

Muhammad Shib bin Flroz Slidli 793 — 

Sikandfti' Shih 796 — 

Habmiid Sh^ bin Hnlfammad Sli^li .... 796 — 

Nu^ratBlifth 797 — 

Mabmild restored 803 — 

Danlat KhAn Lodl 81« 1413 

Ehiitc Khftn 8a"ld (itb DjnaBtv) 817 1414 

Mub4rak ShAh II 824 1421 

Mnbammad ShAb bin Farid Sbih 837 1434 

"Alam Sliih 84» — 

Bahldl Lodl (6th Dynasty) 866 1461 

Sikandai' bin Bahl61 8fl4 — 

Jbr&him bin Sikandar 923 1517 

Muljammad HnmAyiln, UiAiA . . ■ . . . 937 1631 

Faridu 'd din 8hlr Shah, AfsUAn 946 1640 

Isl^m Sh^ 062 1646 

Mubammad 'Adil Sh&h 960 1553 

Ibrdhtm Silr 962 1566 

yikandar ShiUi (Uum^yiln 1162 A.H.) .... 962 1566 

Pathdn or Afabfln Kings or Gormtore of Bengal, cnmial Lakknavii or 
Gaur. 

A.H. A.D. 

Muliommikd Bnklitiy&r Eliilji, governor of Birdr under 

¥ulbn 'd din 600 120.1 

Mubammad Stier^n 'Azxu 'd din 602 1205 

'All Mardto 'AlAu 'd din 606 1208 

Bnaimu 'd din ot RhijiBU '<! din 609 1212 

Nil?iru 'd ditt bin Shamsn 'd din 624 1230-7 

MsbmM bin Sliamsu 'd din (iiccnac Sultto of Bindd* 

Bt4n) 627 1229 



Seat. I. KiNoa of bengal. 23 

A.H. A.D. 

Tairli&n Kli&Ti, gorernor under S^iMM Bifiaii. . Ii31 1237 

Tiji.or:aji 6« 1243 

TiDxAl KbAo Kerin e4S 1211 

Saifn 'd din 644 1216 

mti&ru 'd din Malik Uzbak 6G1 12G3 

Jal&lQ 'd din I$h4nl 6S6 1367 

TAjit 'd din Arslftn fiST 12SS 

Hubammad T&tar Kh&n S59 ISfiO 

Ma'ku 'd din Tujhril ....... 676 1277 

MAsirn 'd dla Baghra, son of the Emperor BJUin, con- 

Bidered Ist Borereign of Bengal, bj some . . RSI 1282 

Kadi Kh&ii, Ticero? of Haljanimad Sbih . 72S 132S 

Independent Kinge of Bengal. ^^ ^p 

Fak^ 'd din Sikandu sBnunes Independence . . . 741 1810 

'AIAh 'd din HabArak T43 1342 

Shamsu 'd d(n MnbBiOimad Ehih I'll&s Bangaiab . . 714 1343 

SiXandar Shih bin Shamsa 'd din ..... 760 1358 

Ohiyi^n 'd din A'aj^m ShSh bin Sikandar Shih . . 769 1367 

Baifa 'd din SuItinns-SaUtin bin Gbiyisn 'd din , . 775 1373 

8hamB-j 'd din bin Sultfinn's-Balitfn ?8B 1383 

Kansa or Khaosa, a Eindd 787 13S6 

JnUIn 'd din Hnbammad Shiii {Chnitmal bin EhaoBa) . 794 1392 

Abmod Sb4h bin JaKilu 'd din 812 1409 

N&siiSMhtdescendantolSbnmen'iIdfnl'K^Basgarab) 830 112&.T 

Barbak Bbiili bin Sieir Shiih 862 1467 

TAsaf ShAh bin Bftrbak ShAh 879 1474 

Sitaiid?r Sbih 887 1482 ' 

Fatl) ShSh . . \ . ..■,.,. 887 1482 

Sh&h-z^tab, a eunnch 806 1490-1 

FlfM Shih Habehl 897 HSl 

Maljmtid SbAh bin Firoz Bhih 899 1491 

MiuafFar Shih HababI 900 1496 

'AUn 'd din I^usnin SbAli bin Sayyid Asbraf ... 903 1498 

No^rat 8!iAh bin 'AUn 'd dia Hvmixt .... 927 1621 

MabiuM ShAh bin 'AUa 'd din Qmiain . . . . 940 1631 

Fftridu 'd din ebic Shib 941 1637 

HumAjdn held comt at Ganr, or JsnnaUbdd . . . 946 1538 

Sbir Shib again 918 1539 

Mnbaniniad Kbin 952 1646 

Kiii^r Rhdn Bab^uT SbAh bin Hn^aminad ^Aa . 962 166S 

JalAlu'ddlnbinMubammadE^ttn 9Q6 1560-1 

BnlaimAn Karini or Kamliii 871 1668-4 

B&jaild bin SalairoAn 981 1673 

UAiid K^An Snlaimiln defeated l^ Akbar'a forces . . 081 1573 

Kingi of the ^tarlA Ihfnatly of Jaieanp&r. ^ g ^^ 
Khwdjali Jahin. SubahdAr of Kiiiaaj,Awadb,Eoraand 

Jawanptir. nsBumed independence 796 J 301 

Mnbitak SbAh, bis adopted son 802 1399 

Shamsn 'd din Ibrdhltn Sliib BharW 804 1401 

Habmdd Bb&b bin IbrAblm 811 1410 

Mnbamroad SMh 863 1467 

Qnsoin BbAh bin Maljmdd bin Ibribim 8h&h . . 862 1467 

He took refnge in tbe Court of 'AlAn 'd din of Bengal . SBl 14T6 
Hp dinl there in 905 A.H. 



INTHODOCTION. 



Jlfuyiitl EmptTon of Sind&itdn. 

Bibar, ^abira 'd din Hn^ammad (moanted the throne 

onJnne9th) 

Hmn&Tiln, Ni^m 'd din Mnt^ammad ; in 948 defeated 

by ShirShih 

Hnmiyiia, N&^im 'd din HuljMiiiiiad, foanded the 

Mnghul Dynasty of DihK 

jUbar, Abd'l fatl^, Jal^lu 'd din Mul^ammad ccmsoU- 

dated Empire 

JahAnglr, Abd'l MnjaSar Niim 'd din Mntammad 
7 th Octolier, 
Shih Jahin, Shahibn 'd din Qhiri . Sib Febmary, 
Anrangzlb 'Alamgir, Abd'l UtijiaffHr, UuljAiyiu 'd din 
2*th Febmary, 
'Ailtn Sh4h, Hnljammad Sbahid . . 8rd Haruh, 
BahidilT Sh&b, Sb&h 'Alam, Abi^l MajafEar ^utbu 'd 

din 23rd February, 

Jahind&r Sli4h, Hn 'iizti 'd dlu . . Ilth January, 
Fsimkbsijar, Uutjammad . 11th January, 

Eaf'in 'd darjat, Shunsu "d din . . JSth January, 
Saf iu 'd daulat, Sh^jah4n Sdni . 2Gth Apiil, 

Hnljammad Kikoaiyar May, 

Mohammad Sb&h, Abd'l fatl; N&fim 'd din SSth Aug., 
Saltin MutamniEid Ibrdhlm . . *tJi October, 

Ahmad BhAh, Ab\l'l Najr . . . gOth April, 
'Alamj^lr II., 'Azizu 'd din Muhammad . 2nd June, 
Shiihiahin , . , . ', . 29th Norcmber. 
Bhih 'Alam, JaUlA 'd din (Miiz4 'AbdalUh, 'All Oohar) 

Mnhammad Bedar b^djt 

Akbar II., Abfl'l N4^, Uan'aim 'd din Muhammad 
3rd December, 



1713 
1719 

1719 
171U 
1719 

1720 
1744 
17M 



PRIHCIPAL BTZMTS IH THE HISTORY OF BENGAL. 



AD. 



Hntiammad Ohorl takea and plunders Baniras . , , . 1194 
l^ujjb defeats and kills Jaicband, Rdji uf BanAros, nhoee body is 

recognized by his Islse teeth, lasteneil with gold , ... 1194 
Ha^ammad Bakhtiyiir E.hiljl, a native of phor, invades Bengali 

and makes Gaur or Lakhnatiti (supposed to be the Oangia Jleijia 

of Ptolemy) hia capital 120B 

Mutiaminad Bakhtiy&r invades ks&xa 120S 

'AlAn 'd <lln assumes the title of King of Sengnl, bat is murdered 

bytheKhiljinoblea . . ■ 1212 

The Emperor Altamsh redacca Bengal and defeats the KhiijI 

rebels 1229 

Minhiju 'd din, author of the '■ Tabaltilt i NAfiri," visits Gaur 

and describes it 1343 

The Hiji of Ydjpiir in Oriesa beeieges Gaur 1244 

Tlunlr Kh&n dies at Gaur, and Tugh&n Khin dies at Awadh on the 

same night, and both are buried at Awadh in the same tomb . 124G 
Malik Ujbak assumes the ensigns of royalty, but is drfeatcd by 

the KAjA of Y&jpilr, and is defeated and killed by the Bija of 

As4m 1237 



PRINCIPAT, EVENTS. 



Tariiril defeats the RijA ot Jiinagar in Tippera, and brings awa? 

immense wealth 1270 

Rebeie, and is Itillod by the troops o£ the Emiicror Bdlin . . 1262 
FaJtliru 'd din, first independent Idng, fiies his capit4il at Hunar- 

gAoft, near (Dacca) ahikah 13*0 

The Emperor Ffrott invades Bengal and takes fandua, near 
MAldati, and unsuccessfully besieges Khamsu \l dlu in the fort 

ofAtdala 1353 

The Emperor Firoz invades Bengal a second time, and unsuccess- 
fully hcsic^es Sikandar Hhdh !n Akdala . ... 1360 

Silcaudar builds a superb mosque in Pandua 13<>1 

GhiySsn "d din, King of Bengal, invites the poet IJfifiir, to his court 1370 
K4j& Kansa, Zamltid^r of Bhitnrlah, beautifies Pandua . ISiSS— 1392 
Jal&ln M din, son of Kansa, removes the seat ot government back 

toGaor 1*07 

And dies there UW 

Sultan IbriMm of Jawanpiir invades Bengal, and is ordered by 
dhdii Rukii of Hnit to release all his captives and never again 

to enter Bengal 140a— 1426 

Barbek ShU is the first prince in BinddstAn to introduce Abys- 
sinian and negro slaves . - 1470 

Sultftn 'AlAa "d din aUows his own troops to plunder his capital ot 
Gaur, then kills 12,000 of them and seizes all their plunder, 

consisting chiefly of gold and silver plate H89 

Invades Ks&m, but loses half his array ...... 

ShAh ^nsain, king of Jawanpilr, takes refuge with 'Al&a 'd din, 

and dies, and is buried at Oaur 1493 

The Emperor Bfibar haviag killed Snltin IbrAblm Lodl, his 

brother Maljmild I^I takes refuge at the Court ot Gaor . . 162fi 
Nu^rat Sh&h marries the daughter ot the Emperor Sult^ IbrlUlim. 1627 
Nu^rat Sh&h assists Malfmild Lodi, who takes Jawanpflr . . Iu31 
And, after building the GoldcQ Mosqne at Oaur i" la2o, and the 

Xadaro i Rasill in 1532, dies in 1533 

Shir Shah takes Oaur 1537 

MabmMSh^h, the last of the independent kingsof Bengal, dies in 1638 

fihfr Sh&tj captures Rot&s 1638 

Bhtr ShUi, fltiaj- Farid ghiin, a Bur Afghan, makes a treaty with 
the Emperor Hum^yiln, and the same night attacks his camp, 
kills 8,000 Mughuls, and puts the rest to flight .... 1639 
Shir Shiih totally defeats the Emperor Homiyiin at Kinanj , . 1540 
Shir is killed at the fort of KAlinjar in Bandalkhand, and is 

buried at S4saram 1543 

BahAdur Sh^. son of Salim ShU, 2nd son of Shir Shih, defeats 

and kills the Emperor Mnbammad 'Adil near Hunger . . 1666 

Sulaim&n Shih Kerini changes the capital from Gaur to Tondah . 1664 
Sulumd,n conquers Orisaa, and kills Bul|,4n Ibr&him . . . 1SG8 

The Emperor Akbar takes Patna 1574 

Appoints Mun'aim KhAn to be GoTomor of Bihdr and Bengal, and 

he takes Tondah 1574 

He removes the Government, and again makes Gauj the scat of 

government, but dies there 1575 

It was he who built (he famous bridge of Jawanpilr. 
VH6d Khin, the last King of Bengal, is taken prisoner and be- 
headed by IJusain Kuli K^4n, entitled Kb^Q Jah&n, who reduces 
Bihir, Bengal, and'Orissa to obedience to Akbar . . . . 1676 



intrOductiok. 



Sbin Jah^ died at Tondah in . 1B7S 

The troops in Bth&r having rebelled, Akbar sends Todftrmal hi 
rednce tbcm, who conqoers BihiLr in one campoijni ■ ■ - 1580 

KhAn "Atim.hftTJDg seKled the aSaiTB of Bih&randBci^al, resigns 
and returns to Agra 1684 

HAn Singh, whose sister married the Brnpcror Jfthdoglr. is sent 
as Governor of Bihir and Bengal to Patna . . . . . 1B89 

He repairs Botde. His son Jagat Kh&n is defeated and killed by 
the Af ghdns under Kutulu Kh&n, who dies a few dajs after- 
wards. The Af|^4ns then mako peace, on the understanding 
that the? retain Orissa, bat the; aurrendcr Jah&nglr to H^ 
Singh 1689 

The Af ^dns in Orissa revolt, but are defeated by Man Singh, who 
again annexes the province 1591 

M&a Singh chan(;eg the name of Jfgnialjal to Rijmal^B], builds a 
palace and fortifies the town 1591 

Lakshman NirAyan, R4jd of Kuch Bihir, declsieB himself a vassal 
of the Kmperor, on which he is attacked by the neighbouring 
princes, who are defeated by troops sent by M4n Singh . . 16SS 

The Emperor sends Mdu Singh to the Dakban, on which the 
AfghAos of Orissa again revolt and defeat the Imperial troops . 1699 

Kin ^ingh Is sent a^inst the Af^h^ns and defeats them at a 
great battle at SIrpiir Atiya IBOO 

Mdn Singh resigns and is sncceoded by 'Abdn 'I Majfd A!^af KhSn 1601 

The Emperor Jahinglt sends Min Singh again to govern Bengal, 
where he remains 8 months and is recalled 1606 

^ntbu 'd din Kokalt^h, the new governor of Bengal, attempte to 
kiU. Shir Afghan, "the lion killer," whose original name was 
Aflta Jalo, but is himself kUled by Shir nt Bardwiin , . . 1607 

Sebastian Ooniales, with 100 Portuguese, occnpies the island of 
Sandip, where he kills the brother of FatV K^dn and the whole 
Muslim garrison Slaich, 1609 

IsUm Kh*n appointed Oovemor of Bengal, removes the seat of 
government from Sdjmal^al to (Dacca) Dhdkah, which he calls 
Jah&oglmagar 1610 

The Afjdiins having rebelled under 'UsmSn Khin are defeated 
and 'Usm^n killed by Bhnid'at Khiin the Imperial general . 1611 

IslAm Kh'in dies at Bh^kah 1613 

Gonzales invites the Viceroy of Goa to send a fleet to attack 
Arrakan, which fleet entere the river of Arrakan . 3rd October, 1615 

The Portugnese from Ooa defeated and their Admiral Dom Francis 
de Menezes killed, wbereapon Gonzales retires to Sandlp, 

JDih November, 1616 

The English first visit Bengal and send two Agents to Patna, but 
abandon the place next year 1620 

ShSh JahSn rebels against his father Jahinglr, takes possession of 
Orissa, and captui'cs Bardhw^n 1621 

8hihJah&i)dcfeab9Rndkillslbt&hlni ^'kn.Govemorof Bengal . 1622 

Shih Jahin takes phfikah and then Patna, and Saiyyid MnbSrak 
surrenders llot&s to him 1622 

Sh4h Jabto is defeated near AlUhiibAd, and submits to the 

Emperor 1633 

Sh&h J^&n orders ^sim Khiin to attack HugU, and expel the 
Porttiguese 16S1 



'PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 



Hugll ia taken with great Blaughter, and 2,000 Portngnesc who had 
embarked in a Iwrc vessel are drowned 1632 , 

Alukat Rai, a Mngh chief, stitTendera ChitraitAon to the Mn^hnla, 
which is called hj Isl^ Kh&n, iBlimdlMbd 163S 

Siilt,4n ShnjA', eecond son of SblUi Jah&n, becomes Oovemor of 
Bengal and tranEfers the seat of government to K&jmaljal, then 
cal!»i Akbamagar, and the Gnngea changes ita bed from Gauf 
to Akbarnsgar 163S 

Mr. Qabriel Boiighton, surgeon of the ship IIojKirell, having 
cured a daughter of Shfth Jahin, who had been much burned, 
obtains liberty for the English to trade free of duties with 
Bengal, and proceeds to TliLjmal^aliWherchccureBalndjof Princa 
Khuj'da harfm . . . - 1639 

The eame oMcer obtAins permission to establish factories at Piph, 

Balcshwar and Hugll, and dies . 1640 

Prince Shuji' is traniferrcd to Kilbul, and delivers the government 
of Bengrf to'ltiVAd KhAn 1647 

ShujA' retnrns to Bengal 16*9 

On the death of 6hdh Jah&n, ShujA' takes the field . . . 1657 

I'lincc Sulaim&n, son of U4rA, defeats ShujA' and takes his camp 
eqnipage 1668 

Sf Ir Jumlah, general for Auraugilb, and Aurangiib himself defeats 
Shuii' 16BS 

ShujA*^ tUes to Arakan, and is attacked, defeated, and drowned by 
theRAja 1661 

M(r Jumlah invades A'siim, nnd writes to Aorangzib that he has 
opened the way to China, bat is obliged to return, and dies at 
Kbijrpjir 1663 

Hh&iatah ^4n, Amlru'l UmrA, nephew of Mir Jahdii, ia appointed 

Oovemor of Bengal, and defeats the Mi^fhs .... 1666 

His troops capture ChitragaoA with 1223 cannon, and coll tho 

city Islamabad IGGG 

The French and Danes establish themselves in Bengal, and build 
factories at Chinsarah, ChandTanagar, and Sbrirampdr . . 1675 

Hul^aniniad, son of Aurangzlb, marries the daughter of Shnja' and 
ioios him, but is defeated by Hlr Jnmlah and sent to Dihli, 
where he dies a prisoner 1678 

Hn^ammad 'Ai^m, 3iil son of Aurangclb, made Qovemor of Bengal, 

and reaches ph&Knh 30th June, 1678 

Shdistah Kb&n reappointed Qovemor 1-679 

The English Kaat India Company obtain a rescript from Aurangzlb 
permitting them to trade in Bengal .... 8th July, 1680 

Hr. Hedges appointed Governor of Bengal, to reside at Hugll with 
a guard of a conioral and 20 European soldiers. This was the 
Jut military BBtablishment of the Company in Bengal . . 1681 

Aiimiml Nicholson with 10 ships of war and 1,000 soldiers engages 
in B comliat with ShAistah Khiln's troops at Hugll, and bums 'lOO 
houses, whereupon the Agent and Council at Hugll retire to 
Chattanntti 20th December, 1686 

Governor Chnmock retires from Chatlanatti to Injalt.an island at 
the mouth of the Ganges 1687 

The English are permitted to retura to their factories, and to con- 
stTOct docks at Aulaberea, 20 m. below Calcutta, where they 
reside 3 months, and then return to Chnttanatti . . . 1687 



INTRODECnOS. 



Captnjn Heath, -with in nliips, plandcrs Bileshwar, am] sails to 
Chitiagtoa, but finding it too stroog for him rcluma to Madras 

4th March, 16SS 

Wheteapon by Aurangzlb'a orders the factory at Machhllpatoam 
la seized, and the waruhouHes at Xzh^iiatnani (Vizagapatam] 
are plundered, mid all the Englishmen put to death . . . 1689 

Shftistah Kt4n retires to Agra and dies. IbrAhlm Kh&n aacceedB 
to the government of Bengal, and liberates the Company's 
Agents confined at phAkah ISOO 

Mr. Charuock with his Council and Factors return to Chnttnmatli 

24tb Aui^st, 11190 

The Sulfin of Constantinople having written to Auiangilb to 
prevent Christians from purchasing saltpetre, that trade is 
dropped ... 1092 

Mr. Chamock dying it succeeded by Mr. Ellis. Bengal ia again 
put under Madras 1G92 

The FaajdAr of Jesilr being besieged in HugU by rebels, permiLa 
the Datch at Chinaurah, the French at Chandranagar, and 
the English at Chattanatti, or Calcutta, to fortify their factories 1696 

The Afghins having rebelled in Bengal, and set up a king called 
Bahim Sh4b, plundered MaMisiiwahM and attacked Chattanatti, 
but are beaten off by an English frigate. They then plundered 
the Dutch and Knglish factoriea at B&jmabal and M4ldah, ou 
which Aurangilb appoints his grandijon 'Aj[imn 'sh Shin to he 
Oovemor of Bengal, BihSr and Orisaa 1637 

Zabordast Kfein, son of the deprived Governor Ibrihtm KJjAn, 
defeats the rebels at BAjmahal May, 1697 

Ra^im Shfih invites KhyAjoh Anvar, chief councillor of 'Ajjlmu 
'sh t^hdn, tu come to him, and kills him and all bis attendants 
andattacksthecompof 'Ajiimu'sh Bh&n, hut is killed by Ijamid 
Khan and his followers dispersed 1C98 

'Ajlmu 'sh Shin grants the villages of Chattanatti, GoTindpiir and 
KiUkot to the Knglish, with fi'eedom of trade . JanuaLy, 1700 

'AkIdiu 'sh Khdn, after residing for three years at BordwAn, pro- 
ceeds to pbAkah 1700 

The factory of KAlikof or Calcutta, which had been lately ac- 
quired by the English and fortified, is called Fort William, in 
honour of the King of England 1700 

Hit William Norris, ambas.iador from King William, has audience 
of Aurangilb at PamilUh April 28th, 1701 

Sh W. Norris embarks in tlie I'ieijih for England with a letter 
and sword for King William from Anrangalb, but dies before 
reaching; St. Helena 1703 

Mur?hid KuU Khdn, son of a poor Brahman, sold to a Persian 
mtrchant, who changed his name to Huljammad I^adi, is ap- 
pointed by Aurangzlb, Diwto of Bengal, and having rendered 
Ajilmu 'sh Shin jealous, is sought to be slain, but having es- 
caped, takes up his seat of govt<rnment at Hakh^n^bdd, wliich 
he soon after calls MurabidAbid, after himself, and 'A^jlinu 'sh 
Sh^n by command of Aurnngzlb goes to Bih&r, and then to 
I'atna, which he calls 'A^lmabSd 1703 

The two East India Companies being united, tlie garrison of Fort 
William tvas increased to 130 English soldiers, and a number of 
guns were mounted on the works, whereupcm many native 
merchants settled in Calcutta 1706 



PBINCIPAL EVBKT3. 



'A|inm 'gh Bbin is recalled to Court, imrt leoTes his son Farrukh- 

siyar, Governor of Bengal niid Orisfn ITOfi 

Aurnngjib dies 21 Feb, 1707 

6bAL ^Allam, or BahAdm- Shah, liaving killed near Agra 'A?;im 
mi&h and his two sons, reappoints 'Agimu 'all Slian QoTemor o( 
Bengal and Oi'issa, with orders to confiim Marsbid Knll Kh&n 
as hia deputy in Bengal and OrJssa 1707 

'Ajtmii'flh Shan i a defeated by Muizia 'd din and diowned in the 
river Eavi. and the latter takes the title of Jnlidndiir Shih , 1712 

FarruMisijar being supported by Saiyid Husain 'Ali Khin, Go- 
vernor of Bilifir, is proclaimedemperoratFatna, and defeats the 
eldest son of Jah&nd^ ShAh at Kajwa . . November, 1712 

Farrukhsivar defeats Jah&nddr Ijb^, and is proclaimed Em- 
peror Jannary, 1713 

Kashld KhAn, appointed Governor of Bengal by Famikljsiyar, is 
defeated and kdled near MurshidAbftd by the troops of Murshld 
KuK iihAn, whereon Murshld Kuli Kh^ is conllrmed as 1 1712 
IMwan ■ i 1713 

Mnrshid ^ull having demanded from the English the same duties as 
paid by HiDdtis, Mr. John tjumian and Mr. Edviard Stephenson, 
Bengal factors, are sent with Kh^ajah Sirhtkd as ambassadors to 
Farrukhsivar. Mr. W. Hamilton being surgeon to the embassy . 1T16 

Mr. Hamilton having cured the Emperor Farrukliaivar. obtains 
the grant of the matters petitioned for by the embassy, the 
principal points being that a pass]>ort signed by the President 
of Calcutta should exempt the goods specified in it from being 
stopped or examined by the oiEcers of the Governor ot Bengal ; 
2nd, that on requisition being made to the officers of the Mint 
nt Murshlddb^d, 3 days a week should be allowed for the 
coinage of the English governor's money ; 3rd, that persons 
indebted or aceountable to the Company should be delivered 
to the i'residcncv at Calcutta on the first demand ; 4th, that 
the English might pnichase the lordEhips of 3H towns, with the 
same immunities as those granted by 'A^lmu 'sh Sh&n when they 
bought Calcutta 1717 

Murshid Kull obtains the government of Bih^ as well as the 

offices of NSjim and Dlwiu of Bengal and Orissa . . . . 1718 

Uurehid Kull dies, having api>ointed his grandson Sarfardz Kh^ 



But SarfarAx gives way to his father. ShujA'u 'd din Kh&n, who 
was an Afshftr ot the same tribe as Nddir Blifth, and was born 
at BurliAnpilr and married Zainatu 'I NisA, the only daughter 
of Murehid Kuli Kh&n. 

The new-Niiw6b appoints ySjl Aljmad and his brother MItzi 
Muhammad 'All, better known as 'All Vardl KhAn, to be his 
conncillors 172S 

TheSsons of Haji Muhammad, namei), NawAiith Muhammad, 

Saijid Ahmad, and Zainu 'd dfn, aie appointed Paymaster. 

f^eneral, FaujdAr of Hangpilr and FaujdAr of RAjmalial they 

being married to the 3 danghters of 'Ali Vai'di Khin lT2li 

' Shnjd'u 'd din is made QoTcmor of BihAr, atw) and sends 'All 

Vardi Khftn to be his deputy at Patnn 1729 

The Ostend Company, established in Angus' 1723 ha-ving fortified 
theffiselveB at BAnkih^Ar, are expelled by the Faujd&r of 
Hngll , 1733 



30 jKTnODvcTioif. Sect I. 

A,D, 

Mir Hablb, Dfwin to MnrHhid Knli, conqneri Tapnh (Tlpperft) . 1733 . 

Khuj^'u 'd din promotCH his eon-in-law, Uurabid Kail Kh&D,to the 
depnty-f^oTcmmeiit of Orisea, and appoiute SarfarAz to the 
government of Dti&k&h . ' 17S4 

Satyid Ahmad, 2iid boii of I^&jl Aljmad, wbo faail been ■ppoiatcd 
Faujd&r uf Rangpilr, cuiiquure Din&Jpilr and Kueh BibAi, mad 
citptares immense treasures, on which IShujA'u 'd din gives him 
the title of Khin Bahildur 1737 

Stiuj^'u 'd (lln dica aod is succeeded by hia xon tiarfanlz Hh&a . 173!) 

The Vailr Kaimu 'd din Khdii annouiica the arrival of Sftdir BU4h 
at Dihli, and colls on Sarfaraz Kh4u to \iay three years' revuime, 
which Sarfar^ does, aud ordcrx coin Co t>e stmckin the name of 
XMir, and the ghntbah to be read in hie name . ... 1739 

'Ali Vardi Kh^ marches ogaiost Sarfardz, who la killed by a 
muakotbaU 171(1 

'All Vardl sends a kro^b of rupees in cash and 70,000,000 mpecs 
to Mul^ammad ShAb, who cozifinnH him in the (fovemment of 
Bengal, Bihir, and Orissa with the titles of Bhujil'n '1 Mulk and 
I^us&mu 'd daulAh, and confers on hia three Bons-in-lavr tbe titles 
of iiliali&mat Jane, ti'aulat Jang, and Hbaukat Jang; . . . 17-10 

rhe title of Sirfiju'ddaulah Shih Kult Khftn Bahiklatis conferred 
on Mina Mabmiid,san of Zainu 'd din 1741 

'Ali ^'ardi Kb&n marches against Murshid Kuli Kh&u the 3rd in 
Orisaa and defeats him, and makes Saiyiil Alpuad, son of Ifi-H 
Abmad, governor of that province 1741 

An insQirection in OrisHa occurs, in which Saiyid Aljmad is made 
prisoner, and li&^ir Kh&n assumes the government of Kafak . 1711 

JJiikir Khiln is defeated, and Baiyid Aljmad released by 'Ali Vardl, 
who makes Un^ammiad M'a^tim Kh&u Governor of Orissa . . 1711 

Bhdskar Pandit, with 40.000 HarAtha cavalry, sent by lla<;bujl 
Bhouale of Blr^, arrives near Midnapilr, where 'All Varill is 
encamped 1711 

'Ali Vanll pushes on to HiiFshidiibM, but loses all his baggage, 
artillery, and tents. On the 1th day he halts at KatwA, about 
20 m. B. of Flasaey, where he is joined by Naw^zish Muhammail 
vrith a large reinforcement 1713 

Bhdskar Pandit, assisted by Mir Ijabib, lakes possession of Banl- 
w&n and Midnapilir as far as BtUeshwar in Orissa, as also 
Blrbliika and KAjmal^al, and crowds of ]>eople cross from the 
W. aide of the river to Calcutta, imploring the protection of the 
English, who obtain permission from 'All Vardl to dig a fosse 
round Calcutta for 3 m., which is called the Marifba ditch, also 
to wall in their factory at KAaimbizAir, with bastions at the 
angles 1712 

'AH Vardi, crosses by a bridge of boats into the Mardfha camp at 
Katwft, and chases 6h4skar Bdo to Midnapiir, where he defeats 
bim with great slanghter . . . ■ . . . . 1T4S 

Safdar Jang, Niiwib of Oodb or Awadh, comes to Patna to assist 

'AH Vai^, but is requested to retire . . . December 1712 

B^liujl Bhoiisle leads an army into Bengal, as docs BillAjI Rdo, 

PeshwA, wbo for a large sum agrees to assist 'All Tardl . . 1713 

Knghuji sends Bhiskar Hio with 20,000 cavalry to invade Bengal, 
and he being invited to an interview ivith 'All Vardi at Mankira 
near MotshidiibAd, is assassinated, with 13 officers of rank. 'All 



PRINCIPAL EVEXTS. 



Tonll then attaoka the Mar^tli^ and pnrsnes them to Katwi, 

whence the? t^e to precipitate flight 1744 

Mustafa. Kh4n, 'Ali Vurdi'a principal general, rebels and marches 
ofl with 8OO0 earahy and a large bod; of infantry to Bihdr, 

f landers RAjmaltal, and takes Manger, but ia repnlsed from 
atim by Zainu 'd din 1T45 

Mnslafa retreats to Chiinir. Ho retnms to Bihfir with a large 
force, but is defeated and hilled by Zaiou 'd din at Jogdcspilr, 
and his fuitr quarters are hung over the four gates of Fatna . . IT-lu 
Ba{>hujl BhoiiHle ioTades Bih^ and ia joined by tlie remains of 
Mui;Eaf a.'s ai'my, when he plunderB the enborbs of Murehidilbild, 
but is defeated bj 'All Varai at EatwA with great slaughter . 1T4I> 
Ba"buil retreats to Bir&r, and 'All Vardl dismisHes SordAr Kh&n 
and Bhamshlr Kh4n with their followers, 6000 men. He then 
celebrates the marriages of his grandsons Sir4ju 'd daulah end 

Akramu' d daulah, sons of Zainu 'd din 174G 

'Ali Vardi Eieods Mir J'afar to expel the MarAthas and Afghans 
from KBt»k, but Mir J'afar retreats to Bardhwto, and 'AlAu 'Llih 
is sent to supersede him, and defeats the Marithas at Bardwdn, 
tmt offers to make Mir J'afar Gorernor of Bih&r if he would aid 
in deposing 'All Vardl, whieh Jaf'ar refuses, but ia icmored 

from his employment by 'Ali Vardl 1747 

tTbc Afghans under Shamshil Kh^n and MurfUl Shir Ehiln assas- 
sinate 2ainu'd din and torture Hiiji Aljaiadto death, when 'All 
Vardl movcfl against them, liaving first restored Mir J'afar to 
office. He defeats the Afgbdns and killa Sardfir KhAa and 
Sh^shir Kh4n. He treats the women and children of tho 
rebels with great humanitj, and sets them free ; he then ap- 
points bis grandson Siriju 'd daulah Governor of BihAr, and liia 
second son-in-iaw BoiyidAbmad, Faujdftr of Pameoh ; he then 
obliges 'A£4u 'llah to retire to Awadh, where he is killed by the 

Pathtlns of Parmkh4b4d 174» 

Eiriiju 'd claulah rebels against 'Ali Vardi, and summouB the Gover- 
nor of Patna to give up the citv. which he refuses. Sirftju 'd 
danliih gives himself up to 'All Vardi, who makes peace with 
the Mardthas, to whom be cedes Katak, and agrees to pay 12 
l^hs of rupees annually as the Ciautli of Bengal , . . ITEl 

Jiawdzish Mubammad dies 17Gti 

As does Saivid Aljmad his brother, leaving a son, Shaukat Jang . ITiill 

'Ali Vardi ghfin dies 9th April, 17S0 

Mirza Maljraild, otherwiae the NilwSb Sirftju 'il daulah, succeeds 
"Alt Vanil and seines the tresaures of hia aunt, the widow of 
Kawtoish Muljiammad. He makes Moh^ L&l his Dlw^n and 
Mir J'afar his Bakhahl or pajmaater-general, who intrigues 

against him 17SG 

The English having refused to deliver up Kiahn Ballab, the Nilwib 
seizes tlie factory at KlLsimb^&r, and marches against Calcutta, 

which he attacks 16th June 17jC 

Mr, Drake, the Governor, takes to flight, and Fort William aur- 
rendcrs June 20th. Mr. Holwell and 146 English are im- 
prisoned in the Black Hole, and only 23 survive. Sir&ju 'd 
daalal] changes the name of Calcutta to Atlnagar end garri- 
sons it with 3000 men, and exacts 4i likhs from the Dutch and . 
Aj) from the French, and returns to Murahid^h^, where he 



ISTRODUCTION. 



relcflsei Mr. Holwcll and the other English, July Ilth. Shaultat 
Jang iB attacked by the troops of Siriju 'd daulab nnd killed in 
Ootabcr. Colonel Cltve and Admiral WotBon, witli three line of 
battle ships, one of 50, one of 20 guns, a fire-ebip, aud three of 
the Company's vessels, and two smaller transports with 900 
English floldiera and 1500 SipShis, roach MayapCir, 10 m. below 
Bajbaj, where they are attacked by Mftnikchand, Governor o( 
Calcutta, with 1500 cavalry and 2000 iDfanti7,wbo are repnlsed, 
and the fort being deserted is captured by a drunken sailor, 

2Uth December, 1760 

Calcutta is retaken by the English, and Hr. Drake restored as 

Governor let Janiiary 1757 

Bngli token by the English, January lOtb. Bir&ju 'd dauloh re- 
crosses the river Hugli and encamps 1 m. N. of Calcutta, where 
he is attacked by Colonel Clivc ; wberenpon he retreats several 
milea, and on the Tth of February makes a treaty witb Admiral 
Wftlson and Colonel Clive, and agrees to restore the factories at 
Calcutta, K&simb^ilr, ph4kah, etc., and indemnify the Ei^lish 
for their losses. Chandranagar is taken from the French by 
Clive, Mfticb 29th. Clive demands the anrrender of the French 
nt K^imbftzdr, whereupon Sir^ju 'd daulah sends oS the French 
agent, M. Law, with 100 Frenchmen and liO Sip&hls, who pre- 
oeed to Bih&r, April 16th. Mir J'afar makes a treaty with the 
English against Sir&jn 'd daulah, which reaches Calcutta, Juno 
]Oth,and on the 13th the English force at t3mndninagar marches 
towards Murshid^hM. the English and the artillery being in 
200 large boata, and the Sipihia marching on the road by the 
riverside. Colonel Clive holds a council of war at KatwA, which 
decides not to attack Str4ju 'd daulah immediately, but Clive 
disregarding their opinion, crosses the river, June 22nd, and 
reaches Plassey at 1 ajs. on the 23rd. As soon as it waa light, 
Clive with 800 English infantry, 100 artillerymen, 60 sailors, 
100 Indian-Portuguese, and 2100 Siplihls, attacked SirAja 'd 
daulah, who had with him 18,000 eavahy, 60,000 infantry, 40 
Frenehmcn, 60 heavy guns, and 4 pieces of light artillery. 
SirAjn 'd daulah's Commander-in-chief is killed by a eannon- 
ball, whereupon he abjectly entteata Mir J'afar to protect him, 
but J'afar writes to Clive to advance ; at 5 P.M. the latter enteia 
Sir^Ju 'd daulah's camp, and the enemy fly on all sides . . 1757 

SirAjn 'd daulah is betrayed by the Ea([ir Tl6,a& Sh4h and brought 
to Mir J'afar's house at Murshid^bdd, where he is murdered by 
Mul^ammad Beg, a man employed by Miiin, the son of J'afar, 

July, 1767 

Colonel Clive enters MursbidiibSd and declares Mir Jifar, Kl- 
wiih of Bengal, Bihar and OiiEsa . . . . 29th June, 17G7 

The Niiw&b NCmiiM of MuriliidtUxid. 

1. Mir J'afar 'Ali Khan 17CT 

2. Mir Kjisim 'Ali ghAn, son-in-law of Mir J'afar . October, 17fi0 

3. Mfr J'afar to-appointed July, 1760 

4. Mir Nuima 'd daulah .... 25th February, 1766 
Sb&h 'A'Um grants the DlwAml of Bengal, Bih&r, end Orissa to 

the £. I. Company 12tbAngtut, 1700 



ftect 1. TABLES OP HONET, ETC. 33 

A.D. 

5. Sitrib BBifa 'A daalah, brother of Najma 'd daulab, 19th Ma;, 1TG6 

6. Niiwib Hubirakn 'd daalafa, brother of Soifu 'd daolith 

31st Marah, 17T0 

7. NAjiiru '1 mult, son of Mubirakn 'd daulah , , September, 1793 
H. Niiwib Zainn 'd din 'AJl Kh4n, son of Na^ '1 Mnik, April, 1810 
9. Niiwib Baljid Afjmad 'AH KhAn WAUjAh, brother of Zainu 'd 

ciin 10th Aii(;nat, 1821 

10. NiiwAb Hnm&jitn jAh Mubarak 'AH KhAn, son ot W^l&jAh. 

t4tb Jannary, 1826 

11. Siwib Saiyid Maojilr 'Ali Kh&n, boq ot Eum&jAn jAb, 

did October, 1838 
The BrtTTOtM Kinga. 

JLD. 

Aong-ZaTB or Alompra, founder ot the present dTnasty. . Died ia 1760 

Upa-YaJB, or Niuingdaa-07i 1763 

Tshen-bTO-Yen (Shembuan of Bymoa) I77fi 

TBen-Ou-Men (Chenguza of Symes) killed 1781 

Panngha-tsi or Manng-Men (Momien of Symes) mliiiicrcd . . 1781 

Bhadaun-Tbe-Keng or Bhodan-Phra, died 1819 

I'agan-Mcn married danghter of Taengu-Men. Their daughter 
married Tharaw4di. Eio-Sh^-Meii died before Bhodan 
Phrn, his father. Padaang-men Phagyi-Dan, «on of Bin- 

ShS-Hen. Dethroned, 1837. Died 1845 

Emibamig-mcn or TharawAdi died 1816 

Mendon-Men, eon of Tharawfkdi, married I^n-phn^tji, his haU- 

siatcr, 1353. Died in . , . i 1880 

Thebaw, the present king. 

§/. TABLES OF UOKET, WEIOHTS AKD ItEASURES. 

.V„«:y. H ,. d. 

1 Pie OJ 

1 Pais<>, or } find Of 

1 AnA li 

1 Rupee 2 

1 Oold Rupee 1 10 

1 Gold Muhr 1 12 

1 LAkh 10.000 

1 Knror 1,000,000 

Native Jeivellert' IFeight 
1 Dhan . . U gr. troy. 

4 Dhin = 1 Rati if .. -. 

8 Rati = 1 Mishah .... 15 „ „ 

12 JWshah = 1 Tol4 180 „ ., 

A Dh4n is 0-40875 gr. troy, 0'0303745 French grammes. 

iWsif I' Wei'ihU used in Bengal. 

a Siki = 1 Kancha. 

4 KancbM ^^ 1 Chhat^nk. 

4 ChbatAnks, or 20 ToI4h . . - I PsawA. ,~- ', 

4 PanwAs = 1 Sir. CiOOylC 

40 Slw = 1 Man, 

[Ani^itl— 1S8I.] a 



t* iNTRODUCTtuN. Sect. 

Meatura of Length. 
a Jiiu , = I Unglf ... I inch, 

3 UugllB . . = 1 Oirah . . . SJ „ 

8 OirahE . . = 1 H4tti . . . 18 „ 
2 H&tbs . . = 1 Obe .... 1 rard. 
Tbe QaE varies from 24 to 36 inches. The Bengal Eos -. 1 m. 1 
8p.3j7dB. 
The Imper 



Bengal Square or Land Meatun. 

II Chhftttlnkfl . . . . — *6 eq. ft. or B eq. yds. 

16 Chhafdnks . . - I Kattbd . ;= 720 „ SO „ 

20 KAttliAs . . - 1 BighA . - 1*,400 ., 1,600 „ 

= 31 BighAg . = 1 aero. 

The Ooveminent Standard Blf;h& is 14,000 sq. ft., or I of an acre 
and is adopted throoghoot Hunter's " Statistical Accoont of Bengal." 

Land Msatwfi, Norili-Wett Pronnet*. 



SOAswansIs . 


= 1 SaawanBl. 


20 Snswansis 


= 1 Kachwanel 


20 KachwansiH 


= 1 Biswausl. 




= 1 Biswa. 


SOBi)iwafl 


= 1 BlghA. 



§ g. CASTES AKD TRIBES IN THE BENGAL PREaiDESCV. 

According to the Census of 1872, " there is perhaps no coonliy iu 
tlie world which contains so wide a variety of tubes and races as 
BeugaL" In Bei^l proper we have a people physically distinct 
' from any other people in India. Living in a network of rivere 
and morasses, Mid nonrished on a watery rice diet, the semi- 
amphibioiis Eeng&li in appearance helonj^ to a weak and puny race, 
yet he is able to endkire an amount of exposure to which the u]> 
country Hindustani would soon fall a victim. In active pursuits 
timid and nlothful, the Bengdlf is subtle in intellect, and eharp- 
witted. Plodding industry' and natural fondness for sedentary 
employment have caiTied him into Government employment all over 
the countiy, and raised him to some of the highest judicial posts. 
The total number of Bengdii-speaking people may be put down as 
between 37 and 38 millions. Allied to the BengMi by language as 
well as descent, the Uriyaa have derived a peculiar physiognomy 
and character ftoni their isolated position. They are even more 
timid than Bengdlla. Conservative to a degree, they are wanting 
in enterprise, evince a thorough dislike of all modem improve- 
ments, and are the most bigoted and priest-ridden people in India. 
They number about 4 millions. Another distinct nationality is 
found in A'sim. Tbe A'sdmese speak a language very similar to 
Bengali, but are laigely taiiUed by the misture of Indo-Chinese 
blood. Tbe purest As&neae are the Ahoms, of the Sibsdgar 



Sect, I. CASTIS AND TRIBES. 3S 

District. Geueially the A'tuimeee are a inongrel race, with Ahom, 
Chutiya, Koch, Bodo, and A'ryan blood in Uieir veins. They are 
proud, haughty, and indolent, and nee opium to an injnrioua extent. 
They number 2 nillione. The Hindiletaitia of Eih^ speak Hindi, 
the langm^ of Upper India. They are more decidedly A'ryan than 
any of the other races in Bengal, and partly from efimate, partly 
' &om their more subatantlal diet, and partly &om a larger inf^ision of 
Aryan blood, are hardier and more manly than the Bengdlis. They 
number 20 millions. Besides these 4 distinct nationalities there are 
a vast number of aboriginal, or non- A'ryan tribes. The number of 
separate tribes and castes in Bengal prooably amount to 1,000, and 
their respective sub-divisions and septs or clans to many thousands. 
I)r. Caldwell assumes the succession of four separate strata in the 
Indian population, and Colonel Dalton speaks of this as now 
commonly received. The strata are, 1st and earliest the Forest 
tribes, as Kols, Sintils, Bhils, etc., who entered India from the N.E. ; 
2nd, DravidiMia, who entered India from the N.W. ; 3rd, Scythian, 
or non-A'ryan immigrants, from the N.W., whose language united 
with the ^mskrit formed Fr^rlt ; 4th, the A'ryan. invaders. 

Mixed Eaees. — The EuraBians in Patna aie partly a colony at 
Dinapiir, and partly subordinates of the opium warehouse in Fatna 
City. In Uun^er in the Sdnt&l Pargamihs a lai^ numbet are 
employed on the railway, and more than half the rest in the 
production of indigo, 

Aiiafia other than Indians.— Theie are a few Armenians in 
ShiMbad and Munger. The Tliibetan Bhotias buiy their dead 
on the mountain's side, and raise cairns over them. It is they 
who do the real hard work at Biirjiling. They have Mongolian faces, 
vrith wide mouths, high cheek bones, oblique eyes una flat noses. 
The Dharman Bhotias are notorious for wile beating, and resemble 
the Thibetans, possessine all their vices and none of their virtues. 
The Bhotias areall in the ir.ofBhHgalpur,andare employed as labourers. 
The word does notnecessarily imply that they oamefromBhut^, but 
often means a Thibetan, 'ihe Jews are mostly traders in Dinapiir, 
but some are found in Munger and R&jmatial. The Nipillese are 
mostly in Ohampiran, and are Fdrbatiyas and Thanas, working aa 
labourers. AfewareGiirkhas,inthepolice,and a fewDaniaiortailors; 
the rest are Limbua, The Bhars are not the least interesting of tlto 
tribes who ruled in India before the arrival of the Aryans ; some 
occur in Shilhibdd and Fatna, and more in Gorakhpilr and the 
neighbouring districts. They are now a degraded race, and take to 
keeping pigs. Mr. Carnegie, in his " Races of Awadh," says the 
Amethia Rajpiits arc Bhars. Many forts are said to have been built 
by them, as the Fort at Bihar. A Bhar R^a is said to have reigned 
from Rotis 1« Rewah. They are found in large numbers in Saran, 
Shihabid and Champaran, and extend nearly from the Gi-and Trunk 
Road to Nipil, in a ^strip of no great bread.th E. of a4° long. The 
Cheras once ruled Bihar, Ashoka is said to have been a Chera, and 
Chera monuments are found throughout the province. The Cheras 
took Champiran in 1611 a.d. They are said to have a language 
amongst themselves, unintelligible to the HindUa, The Dliangars 



36 iKTRODDcrioy. Sect I. 

are found in email nninbers in BiMr, and are numerouB in. 
Bhigalpik, Pameah, and the StinttU Farganahi. The Kaujhan are 
a vagrant gipay-like tribe, and are wid to call theniselyes Siirra. 
Tile KharworB are fonnd in Bih&r praper and in lUjinaliia!. They 
are said to have ruled formerlj in ShifidMd, and Bot&s may have 
been their capital. The Kols are fonnd in Mnnger, Pameah and 
the Sintfl Parganaha, ako in AlMhdb^, MlrzMn^ uid Banda. 
Miib, Pah&riyas- In the Cenmis of 1872, 9,000 &UIs and nearly 
70,0()0 Fa!i6nyas are shewn. For a full acconnt of them see a paper 
Lieut. T. Shaw puhliahed in 1T95 in VoL IV. of the " Ajiiatic 
fieseaiches." That officer relates a tradition current among them. 
*' Seven brothers were sent &om heaven to people the earth ; the eldest 
fell Bick, while the others prepared a feaat; each was to take the food 
he liked, and go to the place he choae to live in. One took goat'a flesh, 
and went to a distant country, and his progeny aie Hindus ; another 
took fiesh of all kinds except jxirk, and from liim came the MualimH ; 
the 3rd begat the Kharwars ; tiie 4th took pork, went north and 
begat the Ker^tis ; the 6th became the ancestor of the Kols ; the 
tita took food of all kinds and went far away, and it was not known 
what hod become of him nntil the English appeared, when it was at 
once concluded that they were his descendants. The eldest, who wai 
sick, was named Malair ; they gave him food of all kinds, in an old 
dish, thus he became an outcast, and was left on the mHi, where 
finding neither clothes nor food, he and hia descendants became 
thieves, and continued so until taught better by Mi. Cleveland." 
Pujahors and Naiyas are cognate hill tribes of R&jmaW- Buchanan 
alleges that the Naiyas were originally priests who had been de- 
HTBded from their office. If so, they may be identical with the 
Pujahars, who probably have their name from PujA, "worship." 
Nats are most numerous in Pameah. They are a vagabond race, 
and live in small huts of leeda, commonly called Sirkas. They call 
themselves Bfijikars or " players," and Khotnet, " tumblers;" 
Bandamdraa, " monkey-killers ; " Gobi, " lizard-eaters ; " Sampheriya, 
" snake charmers." They are most of them hard drinkers, ajid 
resemble so much the gipsies of Europe that it seems almost 
impossible not to identify the two. They are said to be Kabirpanthfs, 
"followers of the poet," who designed auniversalrehgion. They have 
a secret languwe like the gipsies, besidesthe ordinary dialect they use. 
The SftntAls, as Hunter writes it, are said to nimiber 
923,532 sonls, of whom one half are in the Santdl Parga- 
nahs. There are 132,445 in llinbhdni, 96,921 in Midnapdr, 
76,548 in the Tributary States of Orissa, 51,132 in Singbhfim, 
36,306 in Hazilribdgb, The object of their greatest veneration is 
the Ddmodar rivet, and the country thev regard as their iatherland 
is between that river and the Ka^t. In 1864 they rebelled, and. a 
history of what occurred will be found in Hunter's "History of Rnr^ 
Bengal." They desired to revenge themselves on the money lenders, 
and thus became arrayed against the British Government. Their 
habits are migratory, and when a tract becomes denuded of primeval 
forest, they select a new site and retire into the backwoods, and tiiey 
wouhl if they could exclude all foreigners, especially BnUmians. 



Sect. L CASTES AMD TBIBEH — AfllATICB. 37 

They aie one of the tribee who have preserved the foim. of Bpeeuh 
that probably prevailed in the Gangetio Provinces before the Ar7aa 
conquest. They have round faces, cheek bones moderately prominent, 
noaeg broad and depressed, large moutha, with full and projecting 
lipa, Btraigbt, coarae and black hair. Their countenances approach 
the negro tyi>e, but their females have amati hands and feet, and are 
oi-eyed. They ar« divided into 12 tribes. The polity of the 
Sdntiklg is patriarchal. In each village there is a Jagminjhf, who 
looks after the morals of the young ; a Paiamduik, who apportions 
the lands, and attends to the farming arrangements ; a Naryk or Sayd 
or viU^e priest He feasts the people twice a year, when the Sil 
tree blossoms, and at the Moi Mori festival, in September or Ootober. 
In December he entertains tlie people, ^id the cattle are anointed 
with oil, daubed '^vith vermilion, ahd receive a share of rice beer. 
He propitiates the local devils. Sing Boi^, or " the Sun," is their 
supreme god, and other deities ore Jahir Era, Monika and Maiang 
Bum. In the E. districts the tiger is worahimied, and an oath on a 
tiger's skin is the most solemn. They are distinguished from all 
people by proficiency on the Ante, which is made of oambu 2ft. long 
and 1 inch in diameter. They are fond of dancing, and their 
Jwmhir is exactly the Rai of the Vi^hi^u Punlnag. They have 
seldom more than one wife, who is treated with the most 
exemplary kindness and consideration. They have every 
year a great bunting festival, in which thousands take part, but on 
these occasions they avoid tigers and bears. Their constitutions are 
proof against msliuia, and they are employed in localities deadly to 
moat peojile. The bracelets M the women weigh from 2 to 4lbs., 
and a giil will sustain in ornaments 3411)S. of brass or bell metal. 
The noms are one of the most remarkable of the Hindiiized 
aborigines, Hindi^ in nothing but name. The Dom has the absolute 
right of making the pyre on which the Hindu is burned, and of 
providing the torch with which it is lighted. They are the public 
executioners in Bihar, and some fiuniUes are hence called JalMd, 
"executioner," The Maghaiya Doms are professional thieves and 
vagabonds, and are the curse of any neighbourhood to which thev 
come. They are the only peisons who will remove any dead animal. 
Dharkats are the superior Doms, who do not touch dead bodies, but 
make baskets. The women are notorious for their good looks. 
Dosadhs are a labouiii^ class of Bih&r. The bulk of them are either 
thieves themselves, or conuive at thieviug. It is said that a number 
of them fought in Clive's army at Plasaey. Many of them 
woiship Kdhu, and will eat and drink almost anything. Pasis are 
one of the most remarkable of the Hindiiined aborigines. Originally a 
great and powerful nation, they were famous for theii skill in, 
archety. TTiey are watchmen in the N.W., and in Bihir sell t&il. 

The Lepdms are said to be the original inhabitants of Sikkim, and 
once hela vast mountain possessions, but are now confined to a 
tract 60 m, brood, Ijetween the Nipileae and Bhutan frontiers. 
There iaa branch of tliem called Khamba Lepchas, immigrants from . 
Kam, a province of Thibet under Chinese nue. About 2 centuries 
have passed since theil twrival. The present Sikitim Eiiji is a 



38 iNTRODUCTiOH. Sect. I. 

Khamba. Tbeit language ia siinilar to the ThibetAn. The Lepcha* 
have btoad cheetfl, and muKolar legs and aims, bat niielj exceed 
5 fL iu height, and have small hands and feet, and eLinost hturless 
faces. Their coal-black hair ia plaited into a long tail. The women 
wear 2 tails. Their faces are of the Mongolian type, and are of a 
whitieh-^ellow colour. Their dress is a thick bine and white, oi red 
and white cotton cloth cioKsed over the breast and back, leaving the 
anns bare, and descending to the calf of the leg, like the garment of 
a Roman gladiator. It is gathered in at the waist by a leathern 
(■irdle. Over this the women wear a loose bed-gown. They eat any 
lood, and snails, pith of tbe fern tree, caterpillarB, fiowet-buds, and 
fungi ; also a large yam, called Bvkh. The females till the gronnd 
and look after the pigs, yaks and poultry. The men rock the cradles. 
They are good marksmen with oows and arrows. They have no 
caste, and buy their wives. A good-looking bride costs rs. 500. The 
Limbus are closely allied to the LejwhaB, but their features are more 
^Mongolian, and tney are of more sinewy bnild. They wear long, 
loose cotten trousers, and a ti^ht jacket, with the curved Nfpiilese 
knife in their belts, instead of the Lepcha straight knife. 

Jirahtaam, — The difference between the highest and lowest Brfthnum 
(Census of 1672, p. \^b) is almost as great as that between the aver- 
age Bidlunan and the average Hindii. Those in priestly offices are 
considered of less account than those who merely worship and study 
the Yedas. A Brahman who acts ae priest to another caste is 
necessarily d^raded, and the receipt of alms from a low-caste man 
is almost equivalent to pollution. Although tlie Bnihman has still 
immense power, every vear takes him further from the ideal set 
forth in tne books ot fiindd law. Not to speak of the cultivating 
Brdhmans of Orissa, there are few trades in which some Brdhmana 
are not now engaged. The Ntpdieae Brahraans are Kulls on tea 
plantations. Many Awadli Brahmans are doorkeepers in Calcutta. 
They are even seen as drum-players accompanying wick girls, 
Daibagya or Oanak are hereditary astrologers contemned by other 
Bnthmans, who will not intennnny with them. Dakantiya. and 
Dhamin are low-caste Brahmans, frequently found begging. They 
may marry as many wives as they please, and eat meat without loss 
of prestige. Gayals, or Gayawals, are the proprietors of places of 
Gayii pilgrim^t. They are very rich, and very bad landlords, and 
squeeze the last pice out of the luckless pil^ims. Eantaha or 
Mahapatra or Agradani, conduct liineral ceremonies. Their very 
touch is pollution, -and entails bathing, and changii^^ the clothes. 
Maithil is the 4th tribe of the Panchgaur. They are very common 
in N. Bihilr and Pameah. They are divided into Suti, Majroti, 
.I(^ya, and Grihast The lUjii oi' Darbhanga is a Suti. According 
Ui the Census of 1872, Dr. Hunter is wrong in giving them a low 
place among Brdlimans. Saroswat is the soA. of the Panch^iir 
Brahmans. 

Kfhatriyat. — In Bihar the RiiiputB are mostly land owners and 
cultivators. Their leader in BihAr is the BSji of Dapmtonj a 
Ponwar or Pramiir EiljpiJt. 



Sect I. LANQUAOES OF THE DEN'QAL PBESIDBKCT. 



§ h. LANOUAQES OF THE BEHQAL FRBBIDBHCY, AND 
VOCABULARY A»D DULOQDES. 

The present inhabitantB of Hie plains of N. India belong to wliat 
i» called the A'ryan race, a race to which the Celtic, Teutonic, Slav, 
Latin and Qreek racei of Europe aUo belong. When they entered 
India from the N.W. they epoke a langu^e cIorcIj akin to ancient 
Greek and Latin, and as we may infer, to the original Bpeech of the 
Teutons, Slavs, and Celts. Of thie language we have no memorials, 
but of Uie language spoken bj the Tyam soon alter their settle- 
ment in the Panjab a specimen, consisting of certain hymns called 
the Vedae, has been handed down to our times. Later on a vast mass 
of literature was comptised in a slightly leas ancient form of the 
same language. This litararv language is called Sanskrit, and is 
written, and even occasionaUy apoken, by learned Hinaiis in the 
present day. 

Side by side with, this cultivated sacred language there fjiradually 
^Tew up popular forms of speech. Tlie literair Sanskrit, like the 
etassical Latin, was prevented from undergoing change by the labours 
of successive generations of scholam, who strove to preserve its 
pority, while the speech of the people, like the lingua Romana 
rustica, or '■ lingua volgars," underwent changes and broke up into 
dialects. These dialects are called Prdkrits. The Prikfits xtand to 
the classical Sanskrit in precisely the same rektion as old fi^neh 
and old Italian did to cliuBical Latin. It was said of St. Adelbanl, 
Abbot of Corby (a.d. 750), that he preached with ei^nal eloquence, 
both in the " vulgar, that is the Boman tongue " and in the classical 
Xiatin. So it might have been said of the disciples of Buddha that 
they used with equal fluency the Prakrit or vulgar tongue and the 
classical Sanskrit. 

There were, as was natural, many Pnikfit dialects, but andent 
authors are not agreed as to the number of them or the exact locali- 
ties in which they were nsed. The question is a very abstrase one, 
and could hardly lie made clear without entering into technical details 
which would be uninteresting to the general reader. Recent re- 
searches have established the fact that the Frdkfits of N. India f^l 
into two great divisions, eastern and western ; a line drawn K. and 
S., so as to cniss the Gongea between AlldbSbfid and BaniiraB, roughly 
indicates the boundary between the two dialects.* 

From the E. Prikpt sprung the Bengilt Oriya and eastern Hindi ; 
from the W. came Panjibi, Sindhi, and western Hindi, All these 
languages began to assume their present form probably about the 
13t£ or 14th centuries. 

Bengdil is spoken in the delta of the Ganges throughout the 
Province of Bengal properly so called. It is bounded on the N. by 
the outer skirts of iJie Uun&layas ; on the E. by A's&m, the Oaro Hills 
and the range . of low irregular hills running irom Kilch^ down to 

* It in a cnrionn colndilence, though perhspa nothing more thui a colncldeniw, that 
tbe itople food of the races to the K. of this fjne ia rice, while tliat of those to IM V. 
1» wheat The lioe of lood dli-iBion ia uearly identical with that of speecli dUfcrenie, 



*U IKTRODDCnON, gcct. L 

the Barmcsc province of Amkan ; on the S. by the Bay of Bengal, 
and by a line whiuh, ruughlf speakiiiK, foUowB tbe ooime of thf 
SubarnarekM river into the lii(,'hWds of Chhoti Nigpiit ; on the W. 
it follows the line of the 8ilut^l Hills to Bujma^al an the Gangei, 
and thence runs northwards ftloug the UahioaiuU river to the 
Himaiayaa near DsijUins. Its aiea is about 90,000 sq, ni,, populatioa 
in round numbera 40 minions. 

Beng&li was oridnally a lude dialect, defective in structure, dis- 
figured by an inel^ant and careless pronunciation. During tht 
present century strong and persistent efforts have been made by 
Ben^lis, assisted by Englishmen, for its improvement. A very lei^ 
numW of Sanskrit words has been imported into the language, 
which is now copious and elegant, and possegses a fairly good Uteta- 
Uire, and many well written magazines and newspapers. Aboiit 90 
per cent, of its vocabulary is of Sanskfit or Prikfit oriuin, leaving only 
a small proportion of Arabic, Persian, Portuguese and English words, 
many of which are strangely mutilated and disguised. Most Bengills 
of the upper class speak, read and write English with surprising 
flucncv and correctness, and with much less of foreign accent than 
Frenchmen or Germans. 

Oriya is the vernacular of the ancient kingdom of Orissa. It is 
bounded on the N. by the BenBiU, on the E. by the Bay of Bengol, 
on the W. it stretches far into the hilly tracts of central India, and 
may be heaid even in Ndgpdr. Its boundary in this direction has 
never been accurately ascertained ; on the S. it is heard as for as 
Qanjam, though there it is much corrupted by Teli^u. Its area is 
about &6,000 sq, m., population probably not more than 6 or T 
millions. 

Oriya retains many very archaic features ; its structure is more 
perfect than that of Bengali, which however it closely resemble*. 
The difference between the two langui^es is not greater than that 
between Spanish and Italian. Like &ngdll it has enriched itself in 
recent times from Sanskrit, and ifa vocabulary is almost entirely 
Sauskfitic, containing only an insinuficont proportion of fure^ 
words. It has a small literature, uiiefly religious, and in modem 
times has produced nothing worthy of notice. There are a few news- 
papers and some educational works, but the Province lags 
far beliind Bengal, and but few even of the best educated classes 
are able to converse in English. 

Under the general and somewhat loose term Hindi (or HindiU) are 
included the forms of speech current in an area bounded on the 
N. by the snow-clad summits of the Himalaya mountains (in the 
lower ranges uf which vast chain Hindi dialects are spoken), on the 
E. by BcMili, on the 8. by an irregular and ill defined line running 
generally along the Vindhya hills and the Nerbudda (or Narmadii) 
river south ol Jabalpi!ir to a point a little N. of the gulf of Kachh, 
and the salt swamps of the Bonn ; on the W. by the Sindhf and 
Panjibi into which it gradually melts in the great deserts of 
Edjpdtina, whence it runs northwards through Patiila and Ambilu 
up mto the mountains west of Simla. 

It will be seen that this area includes portions of both the western 



Sect. I. cAaTBS and tribes— i.akodaobs. 41 

ajid eastern Frikpt districts, and accordingly the Hindi rustic 
dia1e£ta Ml into two iimin diviitionfl : the W. dialects, which 
are cloaely akin to Puniiibl, Sindhf and Gujai&tl, nre very numerous, 
and include the MoFwdr' and other dinlects oi' Gl^pdt^^ the Bra), 
spoken round Agra and Dihl!, and the Kanat^l of K4nhpur 

SDawnpoce) and Bohiikhand. The eastern gronp coatams 
lie Bhojpdci, spokeu all over western Bihdr, fcora Patna to Baniras 
andGorakhpur ; theMaithili in TirhiU, and the Uagadh south of the 
Ganges trom Qayii to BMgalpiir. 

All through this area, and far beyond it — in ittct more or lesi all 
over India — is spoken the great Sngua franea known as UrdA 
or Hindilstini. This language took its rise during the 12th century 
in the Mnbammadan court— naif-court half-camp as was the fashion 
of those warlilte invaders— at Dihli, and consists of a basis of Hindi 
enriched with a vast wealth of Arabic and Persian words, with a 
sprinkling of Turkish. The Hindi dialect, which served 
OS its baUs, was naturally the Braj, spoken in the neighbourhood, 
with some slight mixture of the adjacent M&wiri and 
Fanjibt Some of the harsher sounds of the rustic Braj were 
softened down, and of alternative forms only one retained. This 
languafje received at first little cultivaUou, but as the Hubammadau 
Bwav changed its character from that of marauding inroads to a 
settled government, this mixed language became the speech of the 
cultivawii clftsaea, and under Akbar and his successors JahAn^r 
ondShih JahSnin the I6th century spread all over their vast domm- 
ions. The admirable financial organization of the whole country 
carried out by the great minister Todar Mall iamiliarinsd all classes 
with the Persian and Arabic terms used in this system of govern- 
ment, and to the present day, many of these words, often strangely 
corrupted, may he heard from the mouths of the most illiterate 
peasants in the most secluded comers of the Empire. 

Tlie revival of an interest in the ancient Sanskpt language which 
followed upon its being made known to Europeans in the beginning 
of the present century, led among other things to a desire to obtain 
for the Hindus a national language, which shonld take the place 
occupied by the courtly and cultivated Urdii. With a view to thin 
end some writen took the Braj element in Urdd, and substituting 
Sanskrit and Prikfit words for Arabic and Persian, constructed an 
artificial languf^^ called High Hindi, which though iised in books 
has little or no currency among the people. 

The various dialects grouped together as Hindi cover an area of 
248,000 sq. ra., and are spofeen by about 70 millions of people. 
Urdii possesses a literature, much ot which consists of poetry of little 
merit, mere feeble imitations of the great Persian poets. There are 
a few good prose works, but only a few. In Hindi we have somti 
very interesting poems of considerable antiquity. The PrithiTdja 
Bdmn of Chand Bardiif, written in the 12tli century, is the earlient 
known work in any modem Indian Teniaoular. It is written in 
western Hindi, which at that time was hardly separated from PanjibI, 
and recites in many thousand lines of wild and spirited versej the 
doughty deeds of toe gallant hut Hl-fated Frithirdj, the last Bindi'i 



43 INTBODCCTION. Scct. I. 

King of Dihli, wlio after many years of valiant resiatwiM at last 
peruhed in. battle with the invading Mualiia hordes at Pipipat, 
A.D. 1192. Kabir, Tulsl D^, Si^ Dii, Bihdri Ldl and others are 
popular religious poets of the 15th and 16th centuries. In modem 
times Hind! has produced nothing worthy of note. 

FanjdhI is sjwken in the ProTince of that name. It is bounded on 
tlie E. by Hindi, which it meets in the country to the £. of the 
Satlaj. The traveller will bejpn to hear it about Amb&la. On the 
N. it tfoes np far into the lower ranges of the Himalaya, where it 
merges into Kashmiri and its dialects. Its western ftontiei is the 
Indofi, where it marches with PashtA, the language of the Aff^ane. 
In the 8. it melts imperceptibly into the sister-languftge, Sindhi, a 
little to the S. of Mult^n. Its area is 6U,000 sq. m., and population 
iibont 16 millions. 

The above are the principal langn^es of the Bengal Pteeidencr, 
but sorap minor forms of speech with which, the traveller will 
oL-casionally come in contact may be briefly noticed. In the extreme 
E. of Bengal, in the lovely bnt iinhealthr hill ranges of Chitti^ng, 
the Mag (or Magti) language, a northern ciinlect of Barmese, is spoken 
1iy the forest tribes. It is monosyllabic, and has the curious tones 
peculiar to that data of languages. 

A's^mese, which is spoken in the valley of A's&ni, is merely a 
very corrupt dialect of Bengal, and in the mountains which bound 
the valley on the N, and S, a great number of dialects of the 
Barmese and Tibetan groups of langnogea are spoken. Such ate the 
Nitga, G^ro, Mislmti and others. In and about Darjiling are heard 
the Bhotiii, Lepcha, and Limbil ; dialects of Tibetan. In Nipil, to 
which travellers rarely penetrate, and round the favourite hill stations 
of Naini Til, Mastiri, and Sindo, the mountaineera speak rough 
dialects of Hindi. Guides, portew, and shikdris (hunters who act as 
guides to sportsmen) mostly understand a little Urdii, Lastly, in the 
Santil Hills between Bhdgalp^r and lUlnlganj, the Sintftli, one 
of a large group of aboriginal langtiages spoken all through the hill 
r^ons of Central India, is current. Many S&ntils however can 
^ieak a little UrdA uid Bengali 



db,Googlc 



VffCABDLARY. 



VOCABULABY AND DIALOGUES. 



Two 


Do 


Dni 


Three 


Tin 


Tin 


Four 


Ch4r 


Chari 


Five 


punch 


Pdnch 


Six 


Chhnh 


Chhay 


Seven 


S&t 


Sit 


Bieht 


A'th 


At 


Nine 


Nau 


Nay 


Ten 


Daa 


Dai 


ElsTen 
Tirelve 


Igiainh 
Klrah 


£" 


Thirteen 


Terah 


Tera 


Fourteen 


Chaudah 


Chaudda 


Fifteen 


Pnndmb 


I'onra 


Sixteen 


Solnh 


Sola 


Seventeen 


Satrab 


8oter« 


Eighteen 


Ath4rah 


Atira 


Nineteen 


UnU 


Unis 


Twenty 


Bis 


Kuri, BiB 




Ibis 


Akns 


Twenty -two 


h&U 


B&is 


Twenty.thi^ 


Tels 


Teis 


Twenty .four 


Chunbis 


Cbabbis 


Twenty-fi»e 


I'aohlB 


Paiichis 


Twenty-sii 


Chhabbfa 


Chbfibbis 


Twenty-seven 


Sat&'iB 


RatAB 


Twen^^ight 


Ath&'ls 


XlAn 


Twenty-nine 


Untls 


UntriB 


Thirty 


TiB 


Trifl 


Thirty-one 


Iktis 


Kkniris 


Thirty.two 


B»ttU 


BattriB 


Thirty-three 


TetlB 


Tettris 


Thirty-four 


ChButla 


Chautria 


Thirty-five 


Paintis 


PftftytriB 


Thirty-six 


Chhattie 


Chbatiis 


Thirty-Beven 


t^aintlB 


Salntris 


Thirty-eight 


Athtls 


AttriB 


Thirty -nine 


Unchftils 


Unacballia 


Forty 


ChlUlB 


ChalliB 


Fortr-one 


IttitKs 


KkchalUs 


Forty-two 


Be'iilla 
TetiUiB 


Bi&lliB 


Forty-three 


TetAllis 


Forty-fonr 


Chan'AllB 


Cbuatlis 


Forty-five 


PaintMlB 


PanyataUiB 


Forty-tijt 


ChbJyilis 


Chhechillis 


Fortj-Bsven 


Saintitis 


Sitchallii 


Forty^ght 


A(htUla 


A'tehalliB 


Porty-nine 


Unehda 


UuapanchBS 

Pmacbie 


Fiftj 


Fachi* 


Fiftyontt 


lUwan 


EkAnna 



INTRODUCnON. 



Eh&libh. 


Hindi. 


BenoAlj. 


Fifty-two 


B&wan 


BAyinna 


Ftftj-three 


Tirpan 


Tippanna 


Fifty-four 


Chanwan 


ChDAnna 


Fifty-ftTe 


Pachpan 


Pancb^na 


PUtj-rix 


Chhapan 


Chtuipp&nna 


nf^^erm 


Satawan 


SAtAmiB 


Elfly-ei^t 


AthAwan 


Atdima 


Fi%-niue 


Unaath 


U^ias^t 


Sixty 


Bdth' 


Sdit 


8ixtyH»e 


Iksath 


Bksatti 


Sixt7-two 


B4sftth 


B&satti 


BiX^-thKB 


Tlna^h 


Tesatti 


Sixty-tour 


Chausath 


Chougatti 


Biity-«ve 


VaioHiith 


PaAyasatti 


Sixty-six 


CbhiyOaath 


Chhesatti 


ffixty-aaven 


Satsatfa 


SAtaatti 


Sixty-eight 


Athaatb 


Ataatti 


Siity-nine 


uiiliattar 


Unasattar 


SereQty 


Sattar 




SCTenty-one 


nhattar 




Beveiitj-two 


Bahattar 


myixattar 


Beventy-three 


Titiflttar 


Tiatlar 


SeTenty-four 




Chuattar 


8a¥enty-fiTe 






Seventy-six 


Chhihattar 


Chhiattar 


Seventy-BeTen 


Sathattar 


Bdtittar 


Seventy-eight 


Athhattar 


Atattar 


Seventy-nine 


Un4sl 


U'na&iii 


Eighty 


Aeel 


A'ai 


Biihty-one 


IkAsl 


Kltiai 


Bighty-two 


Be'ABi 


BirM 


Bighty-three 


TirtBl 


Tirftri 


BightT-fonr 


Channlsf 


Chardsi 


Bightj-ilvo 


Panchisi 


Pauchdsi 


Bighty-six 


Chhliai 


Chhi^i 


Bighty-seyen 


SaX&si 


S&lisi 


Bighty-eight 


Ath^ 


AthAsi 


Bighty-mnu 


NanisI 


Unanabbui 


Ninety 


Nanwe 


Nabbni 


Ninety-one 


Ik&nawe 


ElcAnabbui 


Ninety-two 


BiJtawe 


Birenabbui 


Ninety-three 


Tirftnawe 


Tirenabbui 


Nine^-fonr 




Charanabbui 


Ninety.five 




PanchAnabbui 


Ninety-Bix 


Chiyifiawc' 


Chhiinabbui 


Ninety-seven 


BatAnawe 


BAtSnabbui 


Ninely-eight 


Athanawe 


Athanabbni 


Ninety-nine 


NinSjiawe 


Nirenabbui 


A hundred 


San 


Sa, Gk sata 


Two hundred 


Dosau 


Dusa 


Three hundred 


Tlnsau 


Tin Ha 


Four hnndred 


Cbirsao 


ChiTEa 


Five hnndred 


Pinch aau 


Paich M C 


Sixbimdred 


ClihahsMi 


ahftsa 



Sect. I. 


VOCABULARY. , 




EKCII.ISH. 


HlUDi. 


BbhoalI. 


Sorea hundred 


BUsan 


SAtaa 


Bight hundred 


Xtihmu 


Ktea. 


Nine hundred 


Nausau 


Nasa 


A thoDBnnd 


Kazii 


HAzix 


Ten tJionrand 


DaahaaAi 


DatbAzia 


A hundred tbouaand 


Likh 


Kklik 


A million 


DaalUh 


DaxlAk 


Ten millions 


Kror 


KroT, Koti 


Aqnarter 


P4o 


Siki, PoA 


A half 


A;4h4 


j:dha, Ardha 


Three-quarterfl 


Paon4,UnpAo' 


Tin po4, Pon 


One-uid-H-nuartcr 


TiwA 


Saya 


One-and-a-half 


Perh 


Derh 


Om - and . throe - 


r^one do 


Pone dni 


Two-and-a-qnaTtcr 


Sawfido 


SwA dnl 


Two-and-a-haU 


ArhAI 


ArhAi 


Two - and - three - 

qDATteni 
Three-and-B-qa nrtcr 


Pionetln 




SawAtln 


SoyAtin 




Sdrhetln 


SAre tin 


Three - and - three - 


P&one ch&r 


Pone chAr 


Four-and-a-quarter 


SawA chftr 


SoyachAr 


Four-and-a-half 


Harhe chAr 


SArechAr 


Font - and - three - 


PAone pinch 


Potien pAnch 


Aftiird 






TlsrAhi»ah 


Ek trifijAiisa 


Two-third* 


Do tlBM hiwah 


Di tritijAiina 


Aflfth 


Pinohwdft hisgah 


Ek peiichamaiis 


A sixth 


ChhR^han hi9«ah 


Ek sa^hlAnsa 


A serenth 


SAtwitn hi9$ah 


Ek saptamAAaa 


An eighth 


XthwAft hiK<ah 


A tenth 


DasviA bi^ah 





Jannaiy 






Piia 




Pau^a 


S-ST 






HAgh 

PhAgun 




Philgune 


^? 






Chalt 




Chaitra 






Balsakh 




TaiAAkhn 


June 






Jefh 




Jyefhtha 


Jnly 






Asarh 




AHhadha 


Angort 






SAwan 






September 






BhMoA 




Bhidra 


October 






fiaa 




Jldnn 


November 






KArtik 




Kartik 


December 






Agahan 




AgrahAyana 


•Aau.rt«lM.Uuui 


\,pii:nt 


; a half more thu 


1, Mlf*'- 




+ Tie Indlmn 


monttii 


ibsBin 


shout the 150i oT 


thg Endish 


1 monUi : tbu> PI 


UUerlKUorji 




mdUu 





46 


miRODBCnoK. 


Sect. I. 


Ekglisk. 


Huroi. 


BEKGALt 


Day,. 


a«rwKd.'. 


ITdr. 


Snndaj 


Elwir 


BaTivir 


U<mdi7 


B>H>iUr 


SomarAr 


Tnesdar 


HangalTir 


Mangal74r 




Badhvilr 


Badbavii 


Thnwday 


biphe 
Snkarbar 
»anichar 




£1X 


SholtrovAr 

ShanirAr 


But 


PHrab 


Pnrra 


West 


Paohhim 


PashcLin 


N«th 


Utfar 


TJttar 


South 


Dakhin 


Dak»in 


Spiliig 


Baaant 


Vaaanta ritu 


sSm^r 


GrlBham 


Griemaritu 


Antmnn 


Kbarif, Sacad 


Saratritu 


Winter 


Hiik&l, Jkri. 


Shitaritu 


AbjM 


Dab 


Da,Daha 


Air 


HawA 


Hawi, Vayi 


Atom 


Tiik 


ParAminu 


A»b«i> 


lUkh 


Chhai 


Bank of riTer 


NacHUkindrah 


MadlTlr.ldniLia 


Bay 


Kol 


Upasigar 


Ba£oh 


Kinirah 


Upakill 


a 


Pnl 
BolbnU 


pSTeetu 

Bndbnd 


Boroing 


JufaiA 


JaUoA 


ciuiSr 


Kharl 


Kharl 


Channel 


KhU 


KanAl) 


Clsy 


IUda& 


EilcIA, Kardau 


Cloud 


Megh 


Megha 


Otwcoal 


KoyiU 


KoiM 


Cold 


Tban^a 


Tanda, Shitai 


Continent 


(Ko word.) 


-Mohdderfia 


DarkncBij 


AndherA 


Andhakilr, And- 
hAr 


DepT 


SailAb 
Oahii'd 


JalapUran 
Gav&4ta 


DeW 


Oe 


SiHhir 


Drop 


Blind 


Bindu 


Du«t 


Dhnl 


Dbula 


Earth 


Zamln 


Prithivi 


Barthquakc 


Bhuikimp 


Bhumikamp 


Ebb-tide 


Bh^ti 


Bhanta 


Ferry 


Nadighat 


PdrghAt.Klicjd- 

Rhit 
Hallta. SbiklM 


Flame 


Anch 


Flath 


Jhalak, UjdlA 


Jhalak 


Flie 


*e 


Agan 


VkxxUida 


Jnw4r 


JAw4r 



vocabuUlby. 



Ehglibh. 


UlVDt. 


BENGiLi. 


Pog 


Kuhu^i 


Kuywhft 


Ford 


Helao 


Na^ir cbarA 




I'owari 


Foy4ra, Utsa 


FroBt 


Thir 


Him,TiiB4r 


Fuel 


J&Ian 


JviUani Kit 


OMvel 


Kankar 


Kankar 


Hail 


UU 


Shil, Shilltbritu 


Heat 


Garmi 


Dhiip, Garam. 

Dttap 
HAjmirga,' Ba- 


Highway 


Shshr&b 






rarAflta 


HiUock 


TilA 


Chhota p&h^r 


Ice 


Barf 


Baraf 


Island 


Tipu 


Dip 


lanndfttion 


Salllkh 


Banyfi, Baa 


Lake 


Til 


Krada 


Lightning 


Bijli . 


Bidyut 


MSrah 


Jbll 


JalA 




Pah&r 


Parvat 


OceaQ 


Mahisi^ar 


MahAsigar 


Path 


Pagdandl 


Path, Kast4 


Plain 


Moid&a 


MaidAn, M&t 


Pond 


Talio 


Pukar, Puskarim 


Promontmy 


THiBi 


Antarlp 


Quicksand 


Phasan 


ChorA, B411 


B^n 


BaraA, Barbhil 


Briflti, Bara-l 


River 


NacU^ 


Narll 


Sand 


Bet 


Bdli 


Sea 


Samnndai' 


Sigar 


Shower 


Jhapsi 


Pasli 


Smoke 


DhiUn 


Dam, Dhowa 


Snow 


Baraf 


Bai-af 


Spark 


Chif 


Folk!, Sfulinga 


Shot 


Kijal 


Jhnl 


Stone 


Patthai- 


Pathar 


Stream 


Jhar4 


Cirota 


Tempest 


Wflln 


Zar, Batji 


ITiunder 


Oargar^ 


Baj, Bajra 


TaUey 


Niflheb 


Gnha 


■Water 


PAnl 


Jal 


WeU 


Kttin 


Knp, Euwa 


Whirlpool 


Bhanwar 


Ghiraajal. Paknd 


Whirlwind 


S&oli.' 


GhimA, Biit^ 


WaTB 


Manj, Lahar 


Dheu, Taraufa 


XiMkip. 


Sajdi. 


Sambandha. 


AnceBtora 


BApdidi 


Punvapnrua 


Aunt 


Phiipbl, Chidii, 


Khuri, M4si, 




Mdmf 


MlLmi 


Boy 


Chhokr^ 


Cbhele, BnJak 


Bn^e 


KanyA 


KanjA, Kane 



EHaUBH. 


HlKDi. 


BENOALf. 


Bridegroom 


Bar 


Var 


Brother 


Bhii 


Bhal. Vrata 


Bscbclor 


Kunndr^. Anb;4hn, 


Anuda, KumAr 


Childhood 


B^akpan 


Balya, Saisab 


OhMreii 


Bachhe, 


Chhota chhilc 


Conrin 


Chacherd bhal 


Jettuta, Mastuta, 
Fistula, Kur- 
tutaocMamato 
bh4i 


DMf^ter 


Beti 


Meje, Kanyi 


Dower 


Kanyidin 


Btridhan 


Dwarf 


Bauni 


BftmoQ 


Father 


Bap 


Bdp, PitA 


Father-in-Uw 


Snsar 


SaBura 


Female 


Tiriji, Randl 
Larkf 


Meye 


Girl 


BAlikA 




DddA, NAn4 


DAdA, PitAmaha 


Grandmother 


Dddi, NinI 


Taknnni, 'Pita- 
mohi 


Heir 


Wirls 


WAri6,UttarAdhi- 
kun 


Husband 


Sw^l, Kha;am 


Bh^lar, SwAmi 


Infant 


Rachi ~ 


»ini 


Inheritance 


Wirasat Wiig 


DAya 




Kutumbi 


Kutamba 


Male 


I'urusb 


Puniah 


Man 


Admi, M^os 


MAdus 


Manhood 


ParkhAt 




Marriage 


Shadi, Bij&h 


BibAha 


Mother 


U& 


MA,MAtA 


Mother-in-law 


S&a 


SasarJ, Swasni 


Mortal 


Maranhar 


Martya, Marana- 

EbBJiniya, Bbijo 


Nephew 


Bhatiji, Bhinji 


Nilce 


BhaUjf, Bh4njl 




Nnwe 


B&i 


DhAi, Dhatri 


Old age 




Bura bBy(;B, Bar- 
dhaksB 


Old man 


Bilrbi 


Bura, Bridha 


Old woman 


Burhlyi 
Bin& tt&-Un 


Buji, Bridhi 


Orphan 


AnAth, Atur 


PortCTitj- 


Futra, Pautr^i 


Bhabishyu purue 


Sister 


Bahin 


Bon, Bhajini 


Son 


LarkA, Betd 


BetachhUi, Pntra 


Btep-molher 
Twins 


Sauteli tn4 


Satma, BimdtA 


Jori, JAwin 


ilamak, Jamasa 


Uncle 


Chdchtt 


Kbura, JctA MA- 
mA pise, MeshA 


Widow 


Bew4 


Bidhabi 


Wife 


Joni 


MAi, Stri 


Woman 


Baijdi 


Stri jAti 


Tonng man 


Jaw in , 


Juva 


Youth 


Jftwin 


Jouvaa 



Sect. I. 


VOCABULABY. 


49 


Bnoush. 


HlMDt. 


BENQAli. 


Parti of tlid 
Ankle 


Badan ke ang. 


Pratyanya. 


Gatta 


Payer Gorftri 
Bahu, Bhuja 


Arm 


BMh 


Back 


nth 


Pit, Prists 


Back.bone 


Birh 


Eiter har, Prista- 
dantia 


Bile 


Pit 


Pitta 


Blood 


r^hii 


Bakia 


Beai^ 


Dirw 


Dodi 


Body 


Badan 


Sarir, Deha 


Bone 


Haddf 


Har, Asthi 


Brain 


Bhejd 


Hajaz, MaatiBk 


Breast 


ChhitI 


BakBa,Bnt 


Breatb 


S«i.ia 


Niawilo 


Cheek 


Q&\ 


Kapol. Gal 
Chibuk, Dadl 


Chin 


Thud^i 


Ear 


Kftn 


K4n, Kamo 


Elbow 


Qhutnt 


Kanui 


Eye 


Xnkh 


Aftkhi, Chofc 


E;e-brow 


Bhaua 


Bhni 


Bye-lash 


Palflk 


Palak 


Face 


MuAh 


Mnkhafcute 


Fat 


MotA 


Charbi, Mini 


Finger 


UngK 


AnJDli, An Jul 


Fiat 


Muthi 


Shusa 


Flesh 


MliMH 


Maiisa 


Foot 


PiiiVw 


Pa,Pid 


Forehead 


Kap^ 


Kapa] I^Ut 


aland 


Gilthi 




Gam 


Qond 


Ma^i 


Hair 


B41 


Choi 


Hand 


Hiitb 


Hasta, Hat 


Head 


Sir 


Mastak 


Heart 


Hirad 


Hrit pind 


Heel 


Eri 


Gotdli 


Hip 


pathd 


Kuchlti 


Jaw 


JabrA 


Chal 


Joint 


Silndh 


Sandhi 


Kidney 


Gurd4 


Mutrasaya 


Enee 


Theon4 


Haritu 


Knuckle 


Ginth 


P4erG4it 


Leg 


Tinji 


Tang, Pa, Pad 


Lip 


Ot 


Cesfa 


LiTer 


Kaliyn 


Phiha, Ealaja 


Loin 


Eamar 


K&Ak&l, Eoti 


Lnnga 


Phnph4a 


Phusphna 


Marrow 


Gudi 


Astir majjft 


Monetaches 


Mochheft 


Oonp 
Muli 


Mouth 


MuAh 


Nail 
Neck 


Nakh 
OaU 


Nakh,^ , 


Now 


Nitk 


Nik 


(ft-Mfffl?— 1881-1 




B 



miBODnOTION. 



ENaUSB. 


HlHDi. 


BSSQkLt. 


folate 


TiXa 


TAln' 


Pulse 


Nftri 


Kari 


Elba 


Paftall 


Pdiyri 


Side 


Baghal 


PaSjar 


ESdn 


Chamrll 


OUar* 


Sinew 


Rag 


H^r kh&li. 


Bkun 


KhopMl 






Bantkapti 


Bbonlder 


E&Ddhi 


EaAdh 


Spittle 


Kik 


Tato 


Sweat 


Pasind 


ah4tn 


SUmuKih 


Pet 


Antra, Pet 


Teu 


A'ASU 


Abtu, Chokher 

jal 
Rag 


ssr 


Kanpatt 


Jftftgh 


Uru. Janghi 


nnoat 


GaU 


6alA 


Ttniiab 


AnguthA 


Bara angol. An- 

gMiha 
PAeraneal 


Toe 


PAnw ki ungll 


SX 


JIUi 


Jfb, Jihv& 


D^t 


Danta. Dint 


Waist; 




Kote, Komar 


Windpipe 


naU 


Oalanall 


Wrirt 


Gat14 


Hater Kabjja 


Tein 


Bag 


SliA 


Beauty 


Blip 





te 


SS"- 


3^ 


Blind 


AndM 


E6ni,Andha 


Broiae 


Chot 


Kalriri.Cha. 


Violent 


Haiiah 


BisdchikA, OU 

jTita 
Sudi,Tiiidd 


Cold 


Sardt 


Goagb 


KhinBl 


Ka«r 


Conffumption 


She.i rtg 


Kahaja, E&s 


Deaf 


BabiML 


KaU,BadhiT 


Sealli 


Fant 






Pachnil 


Haiam, Faiip&k 


Dream 


SapnA 


Sapan, Swapna 


Drowsineea 


Cagh 


Tandri, Zimini 


Thanh 


OiingA 


Miik,Bohi 


Fainting 


HurchhA 


Muicbhi 


Ferer 


Tap, BbilkhAr 


Jwar 


Fiaotoie 


Tomi 


bhania 


Ocml 


BAtrog 


Bit 


Hunger 


Bhdkli 


Khkii. KshndhA 


Indigettion 


Badhazam 


BadhazalD,Ah4k 



Seot. I. 


yOCABCLART. 


51 


Ehglibh. 


HIKDI. 


B^NOlLt. 




Jalaa 


Phnla Sphiti 
Nydba, KAmil 


Jaundice 


Pandu rog 


Lame 


Lao^A 


Khonri, Khanja 


Madness 


PAigalpan 


PAslaiml, Klic 


Measles 


Pangoti 


pame 
Hdm 




Thithrfthat 




Ophthalmia 


Xnkh ltd rog 


Chaksha rop 


Pain 


Dukh, Plri 


Bjithft, Bidana 


Basfa 


Pitti 


Gomir 


Rbevunatinm 


BAI 


BashaS&t 


eickaess 


Bemirl 


Bajajram, Pirft 


»leep 
Smallpox 


-Nind 


Ghnm, Nidri 


Sit&l& 


Basanta 


Spwm 


Maror 


KbiAchuni 


S^pT 


QMo (tubs.) 


GM,Kghata 


Squint-eyed 


Bhenga 


TerA 


Stammering 


LarUriDi. 


Totli 


Swelling 


Soih 


PlioIA 


srr- 


Ukban 


Laksan 


Pijfa 


Trisho4, Pipisi 


Voice 


Awij 


Aw&z, Swor 


WatchinK 


J4gn4 


P^Ar& dew4 


Weakness 


NirbalUl 


Snrbalatii 


Wound 


Oh&o 


ah&, Egata 


Wrinkle 


Jhnri 


Koftchkftni 



Alligator 


Magar, Boch4 


Kumir, Kumvir 


Animal 


Jinwar 


Prdni, Pasu 


Antelope 


Hiran 


Kriataaar, Mriga, 

Harin 
QAdbd, Gardava 


Asfi 


Qadbi 


Bat 


ChamgCidiirf 


Badnr 


Bear 


Bichh, Bb&lu 


BhaUOt, Bhaluk 


Bewt 


JAnwar 


Janta, Pashu 


Boar 


Silar 


Btigar, Sdkar 


Brute 


Jdnwar 


Pasfi 


Buck 


Haran 


Harin 


BnOalo 


Bhaiftsi{m.),Bl"im8(/) 


MoBh,,Mahas 


Bull 


Sand 


Bhand, Shanda 


Calf 


Bachrii 


llacchir, Batsa 


Camel 


Unth 


Ut 


Chameleon 


Qlrgit 


Bahnrupi, Kri pa- 
las 
Bir&l, Biral 


Cat 


Biiif 


Cattle 


Goni, Pohe 


Gabadi, Jantu 


Colt 


Bachni 




Cow 


Oae, Ooo 


G4i, Givi 


Deer 


Hiran 


Harin 


Doe 


Hiran 


Harini 



52 


INTBODL'CIIOK. 


Sect, I. 


ESdLIBH. 


HiNDf. 


BESOiLt 


Dog 


KuttA 


Eukor 


Elsphtrnt 


H&thl 


SM, Hasti 


Blk 


Riimbar 


Bar Hingft, Harin 


Ewe 


Bhe^ 


Bheri 


Foal 


Bachru 


Ohorar bachcha 


Flock 


OallA 


Bhirir pAl 


Fos 


Lomri 


KheftkBiali, Pheru 


Frog 


Beng 


ByaDg, Bhlk 
ChUg&l, Chhig 


GOBt 


BO^ 


Hare 


Khargosh 


Ehaigoi, ea«k 


Horse 


Ghoi* 


OhWlii, Gholak 


Hound 


iMUri kntti 


ShikM knkur 


Hyemi 


Lakartiaghii 


Nikdima 


jHckal 


Oidhar 


Sijal, Br^ 


Kid 


Halw&n 


Ohhsgall, Chh&nfi 


Lamb 


Halwin 


Bhedar chhdnd 




ChltA 


Chit«Bdt; 


Lion 


Bigh, SinRh 


Sinha 


Lizard 


Tiktiki 


Gii^tl 


Mate 


GhoTi 


Gurl, Ghotakil 


Monte? 


Bandar 


E4nar 


Mouse 


Chiihl 


lAdar 


Hnskmt 






3lDle 


Khoclichnr 


walar 


HnskdecT 




Kasturi mrisa 


Otter 


tjr 




Ox 


Bail 


Balad 


Pantber 


ChiU 


ChiU 


P^ 


Sdar . 


SOaier bachchd 


Porcupine 




Sejant 


BabMt 




KhargoBh 


Bun 


MeadhA 


Bheri 


Bat 


Chiihi 


Muahik 


Bhinoceros 


Oen4& 


Oandar 


Sleep 


Bherl 


Bheta, Medi 


Sqtdrrel 


Gileri 


Eatbirali 


Tk^ 


Bftgh 


Kenda bdgb 


Wolf 


BheiiyA 


Hekre bdgb 


£irdt. 


Chirni. 


PiifjiJ. 


Adjutant 


HargilA 


Siras 


Brood 


BBchhe 


Shibak 


CMcken 


MaigU ka bochcbd 


Mnrgir baclicha 


Cock 


Murglii 


Morag 


Onuie 


e^ 


S^ras 


Crow 


Eawwd 


K6k 


DOTO 


Parewd 


Ghnghu, KsbntHT 


Buck 


Batak 


Pati pak^hi 


Faletm 


Bij 


Bij Bliikdri 


Game 


Shikdr 


tjhikdi 



Ekolisu. 


ElKDf. 


Uekgali. 


Goose 


Bdjbaas 


Hans 


Hawk 


Chll 


B&j 


Hen 
Heron 


Murghi 
BagulA 


Mnrgt 
Ka?I,Bak 


Hoopoe 


Hudhndi 




Junele fowl 


Jaogali murght 




Kite 


Chil 


Chil 


Nightii^o 


Bnlbul 


Bulbu) 


Oatrich 




Shfthimriga 


Owl 


Pechfi 


Pechfi 


Parrot 


TotA 


TotA 


PartTidge 


TiUa 


Tittir 


Peacock 


Slor 




Peahen 


Momf 


HaTori 


Pheasant 
P^eon 


Kabotor 


Kfibntir 


0^1 


Bater 


Batapakgi 


■(^^ 


phobi 


Charii 

KhRajan p&ki 



Hilaa. 

MangO'iisIi 

Oyster 

Pomfret 

Porpoise 

Carp 



HUbA 
Mfthslr 
Tapsi 
Kuitunl 



Bui, Rohit 
Chingrf 



AM 


Chyunti 


Bee 


Madhomakhf 


Beetle 


Bhond 


B1..5 


Khattnal 


Batterfly 
Catsrpillu 


J& 


Centipede 


EaQkhajari 


CochiDMlworm 


Erimi 


Firefly 


Jngnu 



Moumache, Ma 

hiunacbh 
Gabrepoka 
Chchhdrpoka 
Prajdnati 
SuapokA 
BiohhlL ■ I 

Krimi ■ ■'Hi;.^! 



H 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect. 


Englibu. 


HlMDf. 


BEKQiLi, 


Fly 


Makkbl 


Hachhi 


Gnat 


Mochhar 


DaAs,H>ulii 


OTdBHhopper 


Tidda 


Fating 


Leech 


Jonk 


Jofik 


MsaO, 


Tiri 


Pangapiil 




Jta 


Uknn, Dengar 


5gr 


Kira 
Txuag 


Krimi 
Fokft 


Soorploii 


Bichhfi 


Bichhft 


8ilk.woiiii 


Pi^ri 


GnUpokH 


Snul 


Ghongba 


tSa&ifmk 


Snake 


S^p 


Sip, Sarpa 


Bidder 


Hakvl 


MakftTBi 


B^nn 


Jhund 


MaomftcUiir 
JhMk 


Ticl 


Chichri 


Knkurerukna 


TennlQ 


Kiri 


Erimi 


Wmp 


Birnl 


BolU 


White mt 


DimiJt 


Vhi 



Stmen, 


JtoM«r. 


Fathar. 


Agate 




Batoa 


Afnm 


Phitkari 


PUtkiri 


AmethTat 


Yakut 


Bcgnnia mnger 

manl 
Sarm4 


AntlnuM? 


Surmi 


Bnwr^ 


PItal 


IHttal 


Cat's qre 


Dadhiy& pathar 


Godant 

Bphatik 


SB" 


Tdmbi 
MiingA 


Tima, Timra 
PrahAl 


Carnelian 


'Milf 


AkikmAnik 


Diamond 


Hirft 


Hira, Hirak 


DlOBS 


Kit 


KhUd, MaricbA 


Emerald 


Mwkat 


P<lnn&, Marakata. 


Flint 


Chskmak 


Chakmakix pilar 


Gold 


KonA 


Soni 


Iron 


Lolm 


Loh4 


Jet 


Sang mtisa 




Jewel 


Jawfthir, Maui 


Jahar, Moni 


Lapis lazuli 


Lajaward 


ISHJdurya mani 


Lend 


SlBil 


KiuL 


Loadstone 




ChumlMik P(t(ar 


Marble 


Saog marmar 


Mfttbttl 


Uetal 


Dh&t 


DhAtn 


Mine 


£h&n 


Khani,Akar 


Mineral 


Kh&nl 


Khanii 


Pearl 


Moti 


MQkt4 


Quicksilver 


PiTi 


P&r4,Pand 


Baby 


Lil, MAnik 


PannA, Chnnl 



TOCABDLARY. 



English, 


Hnrof. 


BENoiLi. 


S^phire 


Kllam 


NUkantmani 


SilTer 


Chftndi 


Bnpi 


Steel 


FiilM 


lapU 


Bnlphnr 


Qandbak 


Qandhak 


Talc 


Abrak 


Abbai, Am 


Tin 


lUnga 


Tin 


TopM 


Pokhrij 


Qomedakmani 




Piras 


FuaBp4tBr 


TnrquoiBC 


Flroja 




Apparel. 


PothOi. 


i^«ii. 


Boot 


Jiti 


Bnt, Jdta 




B&U 


BlOA 


Brocade 


Eimkh&b 


Einkfadp 


Button 


Ghnndi 


Ghunti, Botdm 


Cap 


Topi" 


Tnpl 


Chain 


S&nku 


^all 


Cloak 


JsbbA 


Jhabba 


aothing 


Posh^, EapF4 


PosAk 


Coat _ (Enro- 


£uiti 


Kote 


CfJ^Tl^n'B) 


AngMkhi 


IjAr 


Cotton 


BW 


^"tr^^ 


Drawert 


PMjAma 


Ear-ringH 


Kimdftl 


KAnerdul 


Embroiderr 


Chlkaa 


Eanai;K Uj 


Fan 


Paiikh4 


Pdkb& 


Girdle 


P4i 


Eomar bandh 


Glove 


Dastina 


Daatdni 


Gown 


Ghugri 


Ohigari 


Handkerchief 


Kumil 


Bnmdl 


Linen 


Sankikapnl 


Saner kapar 


Lining 


Artar 


Kapareraatar 


NecSlaco 


Ph^^& 


FsAs 


H&T 


Hftr 


Needle 


Sal 


Siich 


Pocket 


JhoU 


Tali, Jeb 


Pin 


Tftnchiji (is the MarfttW, 
but pins are not nsed bj 
Indians) 


, Alpln 


Kbbon 


Fit& 


Fit4 


Ring 


Angdthl 


SUM, Jor 


Seun 


sa4i 


Shirt 


Kamlj 


KAmij, Jima 


Shoe 


Jdtd 


JdU 


Silk 


Beshni 


Besom 


Skirt 


Gher 


Jamd 




fgtin 


Irtin 


Stoclciiis 


Moji 


Moja 


Thimble 
Thread 


a 


Angnstftni ^ 
SuU 



56 


INTRODLCTIOK. 


Soct I. 


Bkqlibh. 


HuiDt 


Bnvalht 


Tnrban 


Pagri 


Pdkari 


VeU 


Pa^ 


MakhoBb 


Velvet 


Hakhmal 


Hakmal 


Woollen 


0n 


PAsml 


Ibod. 


XMxeU .Sa™<ia. 


Xiddya. 




Nigdaon 


Satamnl 


Appetite 


Bhtkkb 


Kiday, KEhndhi 


BSrley 


Jan, Jab 


Yab 


Boiled 


Sljd 


Kidhakari 


Beef 


QaD i& m&ns 


GanirmAs 


Bean 


Bern 


Sim, Barbati 


Breaii 


Hop 


RDti 


BreokfHBt 


H^irl 


SakAIerkhih^r 


a" 


Baigan 


Begnu 


Botal 


Botal 


Broth 


Burui 


Jhole 


Btitter 


Hakhan 


MAkhan 


Cabbie 


Kobi 


Bftitlhi Kapi 


Cauliflower 


Phdltobl 


Folkapi 


Cheese 


Paiilr 


Panir 


Cork 


lUk 


KAk 


Cream 


Hatil 


B4r 


Curds 


Dahi 


Dal, Dadbi 


Dainty 


Mithdl bhoj 


Baawftdu Khiidya 


Dinner 


Khiai. 


Madjanha bhojan 


Drink 


PIni 


Jftlpaii Kara 


Feast 


Bhojan 


Nimantran 


Flesh 


Mine 


MAfisa 


Flonr 


Ati ■ 


&t&, Moyada 


Fried 


Bhunni 


~ 8fcy- 


Glass 


GilAs, Shlehd 


Kiiiich, GlsE 


G»V7 


enrai 


MiQBU jhol, SuTui 


One^ 


TarkAri 


Shik larkiri 


Guest 


AUth 


Atlthi,NimanttBta 


Host 


Oharwihl 


Nimantrftk 


Jam 


Murobba 


Marabbi 


Jelly 


Jell 


Jell 


Knife 


Chhuri 


Chaka, Chhim 


Milk 


Diidh 


Dngdha, Dudh 


MUlet 
Minced 


Kofta 


m rakam gdekh 
Ebanda kb^da 

kaivkit4 


Mnstard 


Bai 


B41 


Hatton 


Bherf U m&tia 


Bbefnr mansa 


Napkin 


Taulid 


Gamcha 


Oil"^ 


Tel 


Tel 


PioUe 


AchAr 


Ijibaner j'ale pras- 
tiitfal, KAsandi 


Pepper 


Mirich 


Marich 


Plate 


Th&U 


Bisan 


Rout 


SwkhAMi, 


BalUmavn 



»eot. I. 


VOCABULABT. 


57 


ESGLISU. 


HlNDf. 


BEKGALi. 


Kice 


CliiAwal, Bbit 


Chaul, Bhit 


Salt 


Namak 


LOn, Lavau 


Sance 


Chatnl, josh 


Acbar 


Spoon 


Chamcha 


Chamach 


Stewed 


— 


Alpa jale wdha- 
Chlni, SaVari 


Sugar 


Khand 


Sapper 




KAlri bhojan 




HtlMl 


Mitii 




Chadar 


Mijir ch&dai' 


^ 


Thft! 


ThAI, Borkos 


Bachharu k4 mins 


BacfahirHiosa 


Vmegar 


Sirk4 


Akerras 


Wheat 


Oehufl 


Gam 


Wine 


Ddra, Shar4b 


Had 


B<m»e, Fvrni- 


GA^r id Samn. 


Gi-llui, Oriha 


t»re, ^. 




Sa«agH. 


Aroh 


Khilan 


KMU? 


Bag 


ThaiU 


Ihole, B% 


Baakct 


lokri 


Chnbri 


Barber 


Hajidm, NAi 


Napit,HaTiminilc 


Bearer 


Kab4r 


Beh4r4, PahabiL. 
hak 


Bath 


Aen&n 


N&W&, Snin 




tJone ki kothrl 


Sowargbar, tjsy- 


Beam 
Bench 


Kai'i 
Takhta 


^>-»f'y,'tt.seJU. 


BeU 


Ghantd 


Ghanta 


Bedstead 


Khat 


Kbit, Palang 


Sodding 


BichhannA 


Bichh^Qi 


Box 


Petira, Bokas 


Bikia 


Board 


PaHa 


Tikbti 


Bolt 


BelnB,Khil 


Hurko, Khil 


Brick 


I'nt 


It, Pft&el ' 


Bucket 


Pol 


Balti 


BaUdiug 


'Imarat 


KotA, ImAret 


Candle 


Batii 


Bdti 


CaiTiage 


Girl 


GAri 


iX 


Dari 


G&lichd, Carpet 


DibbivA 


Dibi, Konia 


ChiQk 


Chad 


Ohhidra, Pbnta 


Chamber 


Kothri 


KAmri, Kutnri 


Chait 


Chaokt 


KedirA 


Cheit 


i^andiiV 


Sindhuk 


Cistern 


Chah-bacba 


Kunda 


Cook 


Baiol 


JUAdhuni 


Comer 


KooA 


Eone 


Counting-hoase 


DaftftTEUna 


Daftar 


Comb 


KangU 


KAnkni, Chinmi 



58 


IKTRODUCTION. 


Sect.!. 


EsaiABH. 


HihdL 


BBHaALf. 


Cover 


pbiknd 


Chandni, Aral, 
Patda 


Coverlet 


Orhni, Chidar 


PalatigPosh,Chd- 

dir 
Peyala, B6tl 


Cnp 


Piy^ Kator4 


Cnpola 


Gumbaz 


ODmbaz,Qolchi)ad 


Ci£^e 


HittdolA 


DolnA, D0I& 


CBrtaiM 


Pardah 


Pard&, Maa&ri 


DiBchargo 


Chhutti 


Bokead, BidAva 


Door 


Dw4r 


Dor, Darwiifth 


Dnia 


Mori 


NAlft, Mnp 




Byay, Khareh 


Byaya, Kbarach 


Fl<Sr 


Zamln 


StMln, Meje 


Footman 


Piyid4 


Pad&tik, FyidA 


Fonndatdon 


n4 


Bnniyid, Toln, 
Bhit 


Furniture 


Sdm4u 


Grihaaam^ri, Ab- 
bAb 




MftU 


Onxm 


B4l8 


SMs 


HaU 


DAlin 


DftlAn 


Handte 


Uastfth 


Ba?t 


Hiie 


Bh^ 


Majiiri, Bh4r6, 
Keriy4 


Hole 


Chhed 


Chhidra, Fik 


Jar 


Ohari 


Gh&dA 


Settle 




Ketii, Dek 


Key 


Chdbi 


Chibi 


Kitchen 




BAnnighBT 


Labomer 


M:aidAr 


Majdr 


Lamp 


Dlyft 


Dip, Pradlp 


Library 


KitibEh^ia 


PaBtakHIaya 


Lime 


Chun* 


Cbuna 


Lock 


Tilii 


T41A, Kulup 


Lookiiig-gla«3 


Atni, Aral 


Ayani, AtsI, Dnr- 


Hat 


Chatai 


Ch^tii, Madnr 


Otot 


Tftndiir 


- ttrtS^ 


FAIM 


Psiki 


P^ki 


Pillar 


Khamba 


'i'bam, Stambb 


Pillow 


Takiyah 


BMi«, ^ Takiya, 


Poroh 


Deorhi 


Dewdi'Dfirayi , 


Forter 


idoorhecpcT-} Dwdr- 






pil,Darbdn;Kuli 


Kuli 


Plaster 


iJp 


Lep 


Pot 


H^^i 


Patra, Bhiud, Ba- 


Hoof 


ssr 


ChZ' 


Scisaors 


Kitichl 


Servant 


Nankar 


ChAkar 


Sheet 


Chftdar 


Chfidar 


Slave 


Bandah,t>As 


Dds, GoWm 


Soot 


E&jal 


Jbul, KAjnl 



VOCABULARY. 



Bkolibh. 


HIKDI. 


BESOALi. 


Stair 


Fanrhl 


ShiA41 


Step 

Storey 


Dh&p 

Uanzil 


""'fir„- 


Bweeper 


MehtM, H4r! 


ZipidAr, Zalnne, 


Table 


Hez 


Mij, Teba 


TaUor 


Darai 


Darji 


Teirace 




Cbdt&l 


Tile 


EbuiTsil 

M&tk 


TAli 


lop 


M4thft, Kg&, Sik. 






bar 


Tonga 


Cbimti 


Chunt4 


Torch 


JSubii 


Uaahtll 


Torch-bearer 




Uasb&ldlidri 


Wages 


Betan 


Betan, Majuri 


WaU 


DiwAl 


Dewal, Praclilr 


■Wagheman 


. DhoLi 


DhopA 


Water-carrier 


ffi&' 


Bhdri, BhiBti 


Window 


JAnAU 


Wood 


Lalrl 


K4t,KMa 


Bit, bridle 


Kaiiji, Lagam 




Carry-comb 


Kbarira 


Kharva bru8 


aiTth 


Poti 


Ohorar Pcti 


Martiogale 


Zerband 


Ghorarmukhband 


Saddle 


Zin 


Zin 


Spur 


E&ntA 


RikAb, KAAtA 


Spectacles 


Chagbiaah 


Chaahmah 


Stable 


Taweil 


AatApal,AyaBb41& 
Bek^b 


StiiTup 


Kikib 


A Garden. 


SoffMfha. 


Ud^dK Pi-aUra*. 


Fmit ■ 


Phal 


Fal. Mews 


Husk 


ChilkA 


Tub, Chbil 


Kernel 


Oar 


Paler bichi 


Stoaeoreeed 


Pathar 


Bichi 


Almond 


B&d&m 


SiAAm 


Apple 

Cherry 


Sett 


Sib, Fab 


Cherl 


Cheri 


Betel Nat 


SopSrl 


SnpAri 


Cocoa Hut ■ 




Narikel 


Citron 




Eantalebit 


Cnstard-apple 


lifLTipi. 


Ata 


Date 


Khalur 


Khejnr 


Fig 


Anjir 


Dumbur 


G^pe, 


Aii{{flr 


Angiir 


Qnara 


Arorad 


Piydrti 




Limbn 


Nebn 


Lime 


E&ghazi litabu 


BUari chum 


Mango 


Urn 


i:m, Amra 


Mangortein 


— 


— 



60 


IXTBODCCIiOX. 


Sect. I. 


EsiiLtsu. 


HlNDi. 


BBKGiLi. 


Melon 


Kharbnjft, Philt 


Tarmuj 


MulbeiTT 


Tdt 


Tnt,GtaoIih 


Olive 


Jalp&l 


Jalpi 


Orange 


Nanmgi 


Kamlilebn 


Pa»h 


Saftilu, PIch 


PIch 


Pear 


N4fdip&ti 


N&Bp4li 


Pine-ni)ule 
Plantua 


Anan^ 


An&n&s 


Kelft 


Kela 


Plum 


Alu bokiidrA 


Alu bukhiri 




Andr, Ddriin 


Dilim 


Qaince 


Bed&ni 


Bedin4 


lUJBms 


Eiamu 




Sugar-caiic 


Uth, Hth 


Akh 


Tamarind 


Imli 


TefttuI 


Wolnnt 


Akhiot 


Akrot 


TrBM and 


i^ronrPSiit 


JIara gaekk e Ful 


Plmvert, ^-c. 




pflciA. 


Anemone 


_ 


BdyuPUBpa 


Biunbfl 


Bftns 


Bans 


Blackwood 


Btaa 


Siiu 


Boiwood 


Deodar 


De*ad&ru 


Cofiee 


Kahwi, KMi 


K4ft 


Cypress 


Saro 




Figtree 


Aniir 
Meiindi 


Dumbor gachh 


Myrtle 


Medi 


Pine 


Chil 


Devad&ra Sarald 


Tamarisk 


JhAo 


Zau gachli 


Teak 


Sigwan 


Shagan 


Vine 


DAklt 


DrftkwiLatA 


Anise 


SoM 


Mauri 


Asparagus 




Satamiill gaclih 


Beet-root 


Chaukundar 


Bit h41im 


Cabbage 


Kobl 


Kopi 


Capsicum 


Mirciid 


Marioh 


Caraway 


Ajwiyan 


SaluMr nyaya 
Bitbisesli 


Cardamom 


lUyachi 


ElicM 


Carrot 


GAjar 


Giiar 




BabAnd 




Coriander 


Dbaniy^ 




Crerees 


H4lim 


Halimsik 


Jaflraine 


Chameli 


Malliki,Clumbeli 


LUy (water) 


Padam, Kamal 


Padma, Kamal 


Nosegay 


GDchM 


Tori 


Poppy 


Post 


Posts gachh 


BOBC 


Gulib 


"l^totty 


Tomato 


Bil&yaU baigan 


Violet 


Banafsa 




Wreatli 


M416, Tomn 


lAAii. 


Bark 


chhitki 


ChhU 



Engush. 


HiKDt 


BKKGiLt. 


Berry 


Ddna 


Bengnch 


Blossom 




Hokul 


Bntnch 




SikhA, DU 


Flower 


Fhdl, Pnbap 


Fol 


Qnm 


Qoud 


Gond 


Leal 


Patti 


PitA 


Plant 




Chboti gachh 


Root 


Jar 


Gachar shikar 


Tnuik 




Dognri 


Caciunbei 


K^Ti 


Kiknr 


Pennel 


soft 


Salnf&SAk 


Fenugreek 


Methi 


Methi 


Flai 


San 


San 


Qflriic 


Lab»m 


Baaan, Lamm 


Goard 


Kaddu 


Eadn, LAu 


Hemp 


SanpAt 


Ban 


Indigo 


Nil 


Nil 


Leek 


Gandanii 




Lentdl 


Hasdr 


Masnrldil 


Lettnce 


SaUd 


- C5-*^0 


Linseed 


Alii' 


TiB 


Mint 


Podinft 


PndinA 


NeUle 


Khajwat 


Bicbati jiachh 


NishlHlinde 


Dhatiir:i 


Dbalwiik 


Onion 


Piy&i 


PinysB 


ParBley 






PeaH 


Matar 


Matar 




KeBM 


ZAffron 


Spinach 


PAUk 


PAlak 


Thistle 




Bi&lkAnti 


Turuip 


Shalghara 


Bhalgam 


Jet-d'eau 


Phawdnl 


FowitA 


Aqaednct 


SUi 


Vm, Jalanali 


Arable Zand. 


Jar&yat, 




Barley 


Jab 


Jay 


Bars 


Eothdr 


G0I4, Bdrf 


Bran 


Bhilsi 


Tue,BhtLHi 


Cart 


QAri 




Chalf 


BhM 


BhtiM 


Com 


An4j 


Sagya 


Farm 


Jot, Ijira 


Jot' 


Farmer 


Jotdir, IjiSradir 


Jcrtddr 


Keld 


Khet 


Mat, Khet 


Onu 


Oh&nB 


Qhfts 






Binde 


Hanreit 


Foal 


Phasal, Bosya 


Hay 


SilkhA ehig 


Sukna ghAs 




Berhd' 


Beri 


KheU 


Chfiah , ^ 


Lttbonrer 


Haulilr 


Majur, KriHdr 



62 


INTBOfiuCTIOK. 


Sect. I. 


KlfflUBH. 


HISDI. 


BaHOiLf. 


Laudloitl 


Znmlndar 


Zemind&r 


Ueadow 


Msidto 


M4t, Majdin 


PloQgh 


Hftl 


Nangal 


B«a[>er 


Kft(newiU& 


Chasi, je i««7a 
kite 


Beaping-hook 




K4>te 


Bice 


ChAiVwal 


Tandnl, Chiol 


Sower 


BonewilA 


Bijbapankari 
Kodal, Kodali 


Bpada* 


KodAll.W. mattock 


Straw 


BichhiLll 


Khar 


atatSk 


Dber, RAsi 


Dhibi, Qid^ Bdsi 


TeMtit 


Praji 


WbMt 


Oetmn 


Gam 


WM 


Jangal 


BaA, Jangal 


Toke 


JdA 


Joyil 


Yoke of Oien 


JofA 


Baladrjori 


Of Banking and 


Sah«UH mr hi>dh. 




Aeoaitittt. 






Accoant 


His4b 


Hisib 


Acquittance 

Addr^ 


Farigh Ehittl 




ThikAna " 




Advance 




DMaa 


Advertigement 


ssr 


Vijyipana 


.^ent 


Pritinidhi, Muk- 






tiar 


Agreement 


Karir 


Ear^ 


Answer 


JawiLb 


JabAb,Uttar 




Bh^td 


SkshtlDabis 


AMet 


Punji 


Jam& 


Anotint 


Lil&m 


Nil&m 


Balance 


B6ki 


B&AU 


Baaker 


Sabn, Kotlwta 


KntiM 


Bftnkrnpt 


Diw&UjA 


DiyaM 


BiU 


Hundi 


Hnndi 


Bond 


Kbit ■ 


Kbat 


Btoker 


Dal^l 


D&lfil 


Bniaaesa 


K^k&j 


K4J, Karma 


Bnjer 


KharidSr 


. Khariddir 


Capitia 


Ponji 


MiUDhan, Pd^i 


Charges 


Kharach 


D4Ti, Kharach 




Bandobast 


Vy4pirJ^ya 


Conetitnent 
Contract 


Credit 


UdhAr 


Dh4r. Jamd 


Creditor 


M&h&ian 


MahSjsn 


CuBlom-lion.se 


Parmi't ghnr 


Pannit,Misu^har 


Date 


TArikh 


Tarikh 


DftT-book 


Rwtnimcba 


Boj namchi 


Debit 


Klinradi 


Kharach 



■ SpadHUs anlmova In JntUi; Inatoid tlKT^uH tbs fflittock, oiled kodiUt. 



VOOAimhARY. 



Kbgush. 


HiNDi. 


BExaiLt. 


Debt 


Kan, UiUidr 


Karja, Dhar 


Debtor 




Dendir 


Dcia; 


Deri 


Deri 


Demand 


DdTi, Talb 


DdTi, TdgdiU 




T41matal 


'EtAna, Paribaran 


ISiCttse 


Bih&na 


Ojor, Bdhdnd 


Export 


Baftanl 


Eaptani 


Factor 


Gomaahia 


Gamasta, Kirbiiri 


Ffimino 


Kaht, Akal 


Durbhikh, Akil 


Goods 


MM 


Mdl 


Grain 
Handicrsft 


mJm.nU 


Sasya, Bhnd mill 


Import 


Amdani 


Amddni 


Interest 


ByAj, Slid 


Byij, Sod 


Lease 


PatU 


Pdttd 


Leienro 


Pursat 


Phnreat, Abaaan 


Letter 


Chithl 


Chithi, Fatra 


Loan 


Udh&r 


Dhir, Bin 


Low 


Nu*;sin 


Loksin, Ksati 


Manufacture 


E&rUi&na 


E^kbdi)& 


Market 




H&t, Bazar 




TAddSsht 


Smarana lipi 


Merchant 


SaDd&gar, Bcp&ri 


KfiSr"^' 


Merchandise 


MftI 


MeBSBge 


Sambild 


Ehabar, Bambad 


Money 


PaifiA 


Artha,T4ki 


Mortgage 


Bandhak 


Baadak 


Kote 


CbiHM 


Chithi, Patta 


OrerpluB 


PAltu 


FajU BaAki 


Packet 


Gathri 


lm, Gafitri 


Partner 


Sharlk 


Btidgfd&r,A6sid&r 


Passport 


— 


Chhat ctu(l, For- 

wdna 
BUan, Dewd 


Payment 


Bhardend 


Peeler 


PherAwiU 


PherlwAld 


Penalty 


Dand 


Danda 


Plenty 


KiarpOr 


Preehor 


Pledge 


Qahnd, Bandhak 


GachMtDhan 


Port' 


PAk 


Ddk 


Porertj 


Qbarlbf 


Ddridriya 


Price 


Bbdo 


Ddm, Mi^ya 


Principal 


Aaal 


mi, Pradhdn 


Profit 


Munifi 


Ldy, Mandm 


Property 


Milkiyat 


Dhan, Bampatti 


Sate 


Bh4o, par 


Hdr, Bhdw 


Eeceipt 


IU«ld 


BdBhid, Kabflj 


Kent 


Bhiri 


KhdjnA, Kar 


Sampla 


Nimdna 


Ndmund 


Scarcity ' 


Ghatti 




Seller 


Bechnewild 


Bikreta 


Shop 


Dokdn 


Dokdn 


Signature 


Sahl 


Sahi, Dnetakhat 


Sum-total 


Mot 


Mot, Jamd 


Trade 


Bepdr 


Vydpii.Banyya 



6i 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect. T. 


Bkgube. 


Hnisf. 


BBNDili. 


n«gB 


Dastor 


Dhitri, YyabBh&r 
Uiti 


Wages 


Betan 


Majori, Vetan 


WarehouM 


Oudim 


Gndim 


Wealth 


Dhan 


Dhan UauUt 


Wharf 


Oh&t 


GhM 


OfShippmB- 


Jahdi U Kam. 


Ja}ia:}>iahaTan. 


Anchor 


Langar 


Naak& 


Boat 


Kishtl, Nau 


Cable 


lUasA 


Kichlii 


Cargo 


Bojh^ 


DoE&l, M4I, 


Commander of 


N&khudi 


Kapten, H&njtii 


boat 






CompasEi 


Kampd* 


Kamp^ 


Ferry-boat 


Nau 


Vtai.ai Nanka 


Flag 


Bftoti 


Nishdn 


MaTt 


Dol 


Mutul 


Mate 


Malam 


Mftlim 


Oar 


Daiir 


Dafir 


Passenger 


lUhgir, Jilnewdln 


A roll! , Charaadar 


Prow 


Mnhra 




Rope 


KassI 


R«i, Dard 


Rudder 


SukkAn 




Sail 


Pdl 


m 


Siulor 


Mdnjhl 


Maj!, Nibik 


Twine 


Sutll 


Tun, Dart 


Voyage 


Safar 


Hamudra Jdtrd 


Yard 


Uandi 


Dandt 


f.)fLai«andJv 


AinaurAMUt. 


Aix AdAUt 


liieial Sfaiiert. 




prakaran. 


Ahoie 


Gm 


GAli, Oalaj 
Khnlas, l(uktt 


Acquittal 


Khal^, KahM 


Adultery 


Zin4 


VyabMohif 




— 


hed 




I'anchAyat 


Arbitrator 


Panch 


Madynata 


Attorney 


Vakil 


Ukil, Mttkhi 


Award 


Kishpat, FaiBla 


NiBhpatti 


Bail 




Zim& 


Bribery 


OhiU 


QhuBli 


CiTil Court 


Diwfini Adilat 


Dlwdni Adalat 


Chain 


Be[i 


Beri, ChhikU 


Claiwe 




Prakaran 


Clerk 


Kerdni 


Kerini 



CbnlCsiioii 

Convict 
CDiiTiction 

Cdminal Court 

Defemlant 

Deed 

Dcuitd 

DiTorce 

Evidence 

Execntioner 

Execntor 

Ex-parte 

Fee 

Fwe 

Forgeiy 

Oaol 

OaJlowB 

Highwiiymaii 

Hangiug 

Legacy 



Unrdei 

Mnrderer 

NoDBnit 

Oath 
Pardun 



Prisoner 

Pr«rf 

PuniBbiucnt 

Quarrel 

Header 

Respite 

ffigtt 

Scoxagc 

Sentence 

Suit 

Sammons 

Testator 

Theft 

Thief 

Tribune 

Trial 

Will 

Wilncis 



VOCABDLiBT. 



Ikiir 
Kaidl 

Sabilt, Framan 
Nald 

Aparidh, Qnnih 
Fanjd&ri 'adklat 

DastAwez 
lak&r 

JaUd,Badbak 

Waal 

Bktarfah 

Dand, JarimtiiiA 

J41 
JebalkhAna 

PhAnaf ki lakrl 

pak&it 

Phfinsi 



Vfitii 

Kbtm 

Kbtknl 
Nainsilt 

Haiaf 
HAS 
Jhutiaikhi 

Moda'i 

JehiilkhAtia 

Koidi 

BajA, pand 

PafEnewAla 

Mublat 

Ha»* 

KorA 

Faisala 

Mukaddami 

Bsman 

Muwassl 

Chori 

Chor 

Ad&lat 

Tajwii 

Wariyat nima 

&Uchi 



BEHBild. 
Kabul jawib 
Aporidhi 
DospraminkMan 
Nakal 
ApftiAdh 
FnnjdAri 'tuUlat 
Dicn, Hukum 
AsAmi, Pradbddi 
Dalil, Daat&wez 
Aswikilr 
Biyojan 

JahlM 

Ektaraf^ 

Talabana 

JaripainA 

JM 

Jelkhini 

PbduBf EAt 

Phinai dewa 
Jaj, Bicbirftp 
Hamiirsd Kall- 
daUiMmpatti 

DAy&d, UttorM- 

Ehdn 
Ehiini 

Nails ndmanjar 
Notia, Ehabar 

Fariyidl 
JailkbAnA 
Kayedi 

SAj&,Dallda 
K^ttA,i^adTa 
Patak 
Birim 

Hak, Svatwa 
ChAbok, Kora 
Uand^it^ 
Hnkaddimi 

DAt4 
Chori 
Chor 

Adilat 

SAkjhf 



66 


iniBODUonoK. 


Sect. I. 


Esauta. 


Hnroi. 


BBiaoAli. 


QfGMmtr 

mtaU. 


SirHri JH-B. 




Ally 


Dost 


MitnBij4 




Klchl 


Mt 


Authority 


AdiVhAr 


Adhikir 


AlliMce 


Do8tl,UiUp 


MitraW 


Bonndwy 


IJiwiDi 


Slmd 


S^ 


CbdndnA 


ChfrndayA 


lUjdhini 


BAjdAni 




Shfthr 


Sbahar, Nagar 




eikkRh 


HAUrA 


CiDwn 


T4j 


Mukat 


Dynasty 


B«i.< 


Ki] Tanah 


Depn^ 


Htib 


Pratinidhi, iteho- 
kAri 

Kartflvja 


Daty 


EAm 


Edict 


Hnkm 


R&j4Kn4 


Empemr 


BAdstuUt, Sunrit 


B&dHh&h, Samr4t 


Bm5«- 


B4dabdb, SudtAdI 


MahArAni,S««-j 


BicelloncT 


Rijuri 


lUjAdiH 


Eschequer 


Khaz4na 




Fore^cura 


Pardtol 


Videsi 


Faction 


Gol 


Goljog 


0«iit1eiiiHi 


gibib 


Bhadralok 


Gnnwy 


Bbaii4Ar 


BhandAr 


Inbabl^t 


Klbial 


AdbibAai 


Jommy 


BafM- 


Safar 


Lwe 


a 


» 


levee 


DMbAr 


Darbir 


Mfqertj 


JahAnpanih 


Rij&srl 


Hint 


Taks^ 


ranksald, TJlnkuU 


Monsnih 


EAjA 


BAja 


Native 




rieffl,Deaiya 


Nigbt-wateh 


lUt ki chaokf 


Eatrircbanki 


News 


Khaber 


Khabar, Sambid 


Nobleman 






Patent 


Saimd 


Sauad 


1^-, 


DhMndhAm 


J&nk, Jamak 


Lok 


Lok 


F(^ 


BandM 


Bandar 


Prorince 


Pradc8 


Pradea 


Qneeo 


lUrl 


RiDi 


Qnuter 


Mahallah 


MaM, Bhag 


BcbeUkn 


BiUwA 


Bidroba 


B^bne 


B^Btar 


Daptar, Begirteri 
SMh4raa tautra 
Anujfttrik 


Biot 


DaogA 


Hali4 


Secntuy 


Mobnrir 


Bampildak 


aignet 


Unhr 


Mohar, Mudra 


Bpj 


J^iia 


Gupta Dut, Onp< 



VODIBULABT. 





HiimL 


BuraiLj. 


Stage 


AiMA 


kAAi. 


State 


H41at 


Abasthd 


tjtieet 


BAatB 


OiMi. 




Anug^i 


nttar4dhikiri 


Subject 
Itome 


TakVt 


ajT" 


TiUes 


Kitib 


Dpidhi, Khetdb 


Town 


Nagar 


Shahar, Nagat 


TrMtOT 


Dwhibdz 
^ulhn^ma 


K4idrohi 


Treaty 


Sandlii 


TreotHiitit: 


Khoxtoobi 


KosAdhTaksa 


Tribute 


Peahkatiti 


Ear 


TiTant 

Usnrper 


zmim 




— 


B^a^„rvak,Apa. 


Umbrella of 


Chhatr 


Mjacbhatra 


Btate 






Viceroy 


Pnitjmdbi 


"'(S^i"^ 




DhaAdM. 


ByalM&,BMyy<i. 


Trade,. 






Annonrcr 


Sikalgar 


AstrakAr 


Artificer 


Karigar, Eaml 


Kig4r, ShUpi 


Ard8t 


Mneawir 


Shilpanipun 


Baker 


Botlw&16 


KaUwfilA 


B^gar 


Bhikhiri 


BbikhArl 


Blacksmith 


Loh&r 


KamiT, Ktu'ma- 
kir 


Bookseller 


Pothl bechnewili 


l*ustakbikrat4 


Brazier 


K&Qg&ri 


KAfisAri 




RAj 


KAj 


Butcher 


KasAl 


Kasi 




Barhil 


SutAr, Sutradhar 




HalwAI 


MitriwftU 


Cook 


Bairewbt 


Kaudhuni 


Dsncing^l 


TawAif 


Nartaki 


Drnggiat 


Panairi 


kreta 


Djer 


Bangrei 




Farriwr 


Ndlband 


N&lliandli 


Oieengroeer 


— 


8Ak BabBuya Bi- 

kreti 
Madi 


Qrocer 


Mudi 


Goldimith 


Sonir 


SamakAr 




CbabnksawAr 


Aswacbikitsak 


Hnnter 


SbikArl 


SUkAri 


Jeweller 


Janbarl 


Manikar, Jaburi 


Juggler 


Biiigar 


Bi^ikar, Aindra- 

Kimai, Barira 
ByabBii4y6 




BaiBi 



68 


INTBODDOTIOK. 


Sect I. 


Sksubb. 


EtifQi. 


BEMOlLt. 


HuBieian 


Bai«ntri 


BasudM, Badya- 

kar 
Pato 


Tuutet 


Chitrakir 




Baid, Kabirtj 


Eabirij, Baidya 


lloughman 


Halia 


Langaliya, Kri- 


Portec 


Darwin 


Majur, Darwan 
(Barrier qf loadt) 
Daraban (Amim) 


BopcmBler 

Sandier 


Jingar 


Je dari pltkiy 
Jinkar 


SculptuT 




Murtikar 


Shephpid 


Gaderijfi 


Ueshpilak 




DnkaniUr 


Dokini 


Sawyer 




Kaiite 


Shoemaker 


Mochi 


Mnchi, Bauama. 

kar 


Silver 


Qiaewm 


Gayak 


Sw^eon 


Baid 


Astra, Vaidya 


Tailor 


Daiji 


Dani 


Tamer 


Ehar^ 


Kundnri 


Tintner 


Bondi 


Sanri 


Wateromn 


Bhisti 


Bhiil 


WeaTBE 


JuUiUia 


Tariti, Tantnbiy 


Workshop 


Kbkh&na 


Edrkhini, DokAQ 


Anvil 


Nihil 


Nehi 


Awl 


Sutari 




Aie 


Kulhiri 


Kiirul,Kntar,Ku- 
tari 


Bradi 


Ennch 


KuacM 


Chisel 


Ruhhini 


BitiU 




Kampis 






Mini 


Mina 


File 


Eeti 


Ukha 


*-id.-hoo!i; 


K6nt4 


Barsi 


Furnace 


BhatH 


Hipar 


«ildtng 




Sonali Karmo 


(Hue 


Sres 


Shiris 


Hammer 


Martol 


Haturi 




Cliakki 


UatjaiiU 


Inlay (to) 




Ja^wn Eij 


Lino 


Dorl 


Dorf 


I,oom 


Taat 


TaAt 


Leather 


Chaairi 


Chamra 


Mallet 


Mogari 


Mugar, Mudgar 


Mould 


Sincha 


CMiB.-.ch 


Nail 


Mekh, Trek 


Pcraik 


Net 


Jil 


J41 


Paint 


Rang 


Haig 


Plane 


Rendi 


BeAdi 


Press 


Chipakhina 


ChhapUhina, 

Jantra 


Buler 


_ 


Sa-ttr 


irfi. Karat 


Karat 



VOCABULART. 



GNauBS. 


Hl^Dt. 


BEKOlLt. 


Siere 


Chalnl 


Cbaloni 


Screen 


Pwda 


Paid4 


Shuttle 


(no word) 


Tnri, Uaku 


Tool 


Hathiyir 


Hatiyar 


Water-mUl 


PftnchakU 


Jalachalita jantra. 


Wind-miU 


Pawanchakki 


Bayu chalita jan- 


Wedge 




Kfijlajonj ■ 


Wire^ 


Tit 


T4r 


SoUoolaail 


.VaAfab aiir KiiliJ. 


PiitiMU Kalij. 


College. 






Anthor 


_ 


aranlhnfcar 


BaII 


aej4, Goll 


lihUitA, Qolak 


Bat 




Badur 


Blot 


Dftgh 


Dig 


Book 


Kitib, Pothl 


Kitftb, Pustak 


Chapter 


B&b 


AdhyAyii 


Colama 


Kbambli 


Htamba 


Copy 


Samipti 

Nakl 


Samipti 
NaktJ 




Ko«h, AbhidAn 


Abhidan 


Dance 


Bewakuf, Aniri 


Murkha 


Edacatioa 


Bikhyi 


ShiksA 


Exercise 
Fable 


Abhjila 
SatM 


Abhyifl 
aalpa,Katbi 


Hiatory 


Itihftg 


Itih4s 


Indei 


FihrisI, Silchi 


AnnkramanlkA 


Ink 


8iy£hl 


K41i 


I*af 


Pitti 


Patra, PA14 


Lecture 




Vyikhyin 


Lesson 


PAth 


Wha 


Line 




Chhatra 


Margin 


HAshiTil 


Dhdr 


MsTim 


PmbAa 


Prabid 


P^fe 


PuBhtah 


PristhA 


Papr 


K^has 


Kiga^ 


Pen 


Kalom 


Ralam 


PencU 


Pensil 


Ponsil 


Pen-knife 


Chakku 


ChAkn, ChhuH 


Pasteboard 


Jori kaBho!! 


Jora kagan 


Play 


Khel 


Kheli 


Play-fellow 


^ 


Krit4 sahftchar, 
Kbel&t Sb&U 




Khelne ki jngah 


Kh^l^ „ V-yf. 


Poet 


Kabi 


Kabi 


Preface 


Uib&ch.ih 


yvi&ii.hi.aa 


Professor 


Urtftd 




ProM 


Gadya 


O'lJja „ 


Prorerb 


Kab4wftt 





70 


INTROBrcTIOM. 


Sect. I. 




Hraoi. 


BBHOAli. 


Bale 


irtniin 


Niyam 


S" 


Jemslc 
LAtU 


UU,YanMk 

Chiari 


Scbolar 


TWb 


Chhitn 


School 


Uaktsb, PittiaUA 


Tidyilaya, Pit- 


Bchool-hotirs 




Piker shaiBBy 


School-mMtcr 


Miydnji 


Vidyalayer sikaak 


Section 


Bibhig 


Student 




Chhitri 


Teaching 


Sikhhtkni 


Sikui 


Tutor 


T&lim, ISlkhak 


Sikaak 


Yens 
Writing 


Padva 
Ltkh& 


Eabita, Padya 
Eachani, Lekhi 


Word . 


Shabd, Lafi 


SalKla 


COowt. 


Bamf. 


Bama, Sang. 


Black 


KAld 


K61a,KriBna 


Blue 


NiU, A'fonAnt 


Nil 


Brown 


Kbdki, -Bhiai. 


Koli. BadAmi 


Green 


Sabi: 


Shabz, Harit 


Indigo 


Nil 


Nil 


Orange 


Nfinrngl 


Kamald Lebur 
Bang 


S" 


Baiganl 
L41 


Beguni 

L41, Lohit 


Scarlet 


1A\ 


Baklabana 


Spotted 


ButedUr 


Bichilni, BntidAr 


Striped 


Dh&riddr 


Patidir 


Vermilion 


Sindnr 


DhaW, Sret 


White 


Sated 


Yellow 


PilA 


Pild 


TheSetuci. 


Indriya. 


Indriya. 


Hearing 


Snnnd 




Seeing 


DekhnA 


Danan 


Smelling 


Simg)in& 


Ghrdn 


Twting 




Baaani 


Touching 


Chhi^ft 


Twak 


Element 




Tatwa, Bhnt 


Figure 


ATcftr 


ATtftr, AkritI 


ar 


EhuEhbil 
Sakbti 


Kihiuya 


BeUdi 


Mazah 


Aswid 


e 


BoH 


Bini, Buktriti 


Chop hooA 


Chop, NiBUTd- 



VOCABUI.ART, 



English. 


HiNDt. 


BENOAli. 


Sbade 


Chhto 


Cbhiyi 


Siie 


Fad 


fiyy 


eoftneea 


Narml 


Mridntira, Koma- 
lati 


Soand 


A'W&E 


Sabda 


View 


Darsaa 


Drieti, Daraan 




Achaiaj 


Aschaiya, Bii- 
maja 


Anger 


GhnKO, Kop 


Kn>lb,B&j 


Awe 


par 


Bhay 


BeUef 


Biewius 


BiBW&S 


Choice 


Ikhtivir 




Compaaston 


Daya' 


Dayi 


Curiority 




JiJQAsA 


DiBlike 


Ghifl 


ApriU 


Doubt 


»hak 


Bnimaya,Sandehti 


Kmulation 




PratiyoRiti 


EnYy 


fraA, Ghairat 


IsiA.HlnBa 


Eajoyment 


KbUBhi 


e%l 




Bhtil 


Fear 


DahBhat 


Bhay 


Friendship 


— 


Mitrati, Bnnd- 

htiti 
Aparidh 


Guilt 


Gunih, Pip 


Happinees 


Chain 


Suth 


Ha^ 


BairatA 


Dwesh 


Hope 


Umed 


A'sh& 


Honour 


IiEat 


GoDrab 


Igaominy 


Beizwt 


Apratishtha, Apa- 



db,Googlc 



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INTRODDITnON. 



I J' J I ■^ ^ I HI 

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[itTiyal— 1881.] 



Google 



SECTION II. 



CALCOTTA CITY. 

Ca^eutia Cily—Hugti Rixr and Landing Place at Oaleaita—Sdgar 
ItUmd—Taialuh—Ddmodar Siver—Faltd—UlwbdHd—RoteU—Cluba— 
Boarding Houui — Convey atuxi — The £aplanade—OoVfmment Houk — 
OchUrJony MoTi'omeni — Staiuet — The Town Ilail — -The Legislative Oouneit 
Office— The Sigh Court— Fort W^liain—Sl. PauPt Cathedral— Zcologiml 
Gardens — Sduedert, ths Limt.-Qoceriior's Palaos—Ruoe Course — Garden 
Seach— Palace of the Sing of Awadh—St. John's Cailtedral—New Pott 
Office— 2few Telegraph (^ice—The Old Fort— The ManorUd of the BUtck 
Sole Mcaeacn — Calcutta University Senate House — The Greek Church — 
Amtenian Church of St. NaaxTetk—The Soman Calltolic Cathedral— The 
Brdhma SomAj — Scotch Kirk, or St. Aiidreto's — Old Mieaion Church — DuU 
houaie Inititute — The Secretariate — The Asiatic Society — The Indian 
Museum — St. Thomas's Roman OiUholic Church — Mosque of Prince 
Qhuldm Muhaiiiinad — Tin Economical Miutam — Metcalfe Halt — The 
Mint — Charities — Botanical Gardens — Bishops' Colltge — Barradepiir. 



E^U Sirer and Landtag Place at 
Caicatta.^-la sailing to Calcutta from 
GaUe, a diataoce of TT8 m., it is not 
HBual to Bee aoy ot the 11 ligfata which 
exist on the E. coast ot the Madras 
Presidency at DiTi, Machhlipatnam, 
Eoringa, Kokan^a, Santipili, Kolin- 
gapatmtm, QopAlpiir, Pilri, and FaUe 
Point, But at Pilot'a Ridge during 
the a.W. monsoon, that is from the 
15th of March till the I6th of Sep- 
tcmtter, there is a Soatiog Light Tessel, 
which is a guide to reseels making the 
Huglf Pilot Station. At this point 
then, the travelter enters the domain 
at the Calcntta Pilots, who may fairly 
be said to be the best in the world. 
They are better paid,' better edu. 
cated, and occupy a higher position 
thjui any other pilots, and it is quite 
tight that they should do so, for the 
HugU is a most dangeroot and difficult 



I vrholB of their 



. There is in the first place the 
dread of cycloucB, which may take 
place in any monlh, except Kebmary, 
when thuy are nnknown. The worst 
months are May and Octol>er. In 
of these cyclones, a storm wave 
has covered the ailjaccot shoreii, and 
many thousands of persons have per- 
ished. The cyclone of 187-t covered 
8^ar iBhtnd with water. Bat in 
addition to the possible danger of 
storms, there is the normal one of 
shoals and tides. New shoals ore 
continually forming, and nothing hat 
a daily eiperieai* of the river can 
enable a pilot to take a vessel up aafely. 
There is for instance the most danger- 
ous ahoal called the James and Kaxj, 
which is a corruption of the Indian 
words jal, " water, " and Buirf, 
according to Hunter " fatal," but more 
properly " striking, " between the 
mouths of the B&modar and Biipn&- 
htyan rivers, which fall Into the 
Hugll. Here, on what is called Nynau 
Lamps, Uie SttuH and Aga'otemtum 



■ll*l- f'l»1. ?■)««■/ 






Dgiiizodb, Google 



db,Googlc 



■MCt. 11. 



JIuffli Kim- — Sdj^ar liland. 



were ta«t. the &M Imving ilraggeil 
i's anchor and fallen foul of the 
-tjameamo/i, when both vesselfl 
toot the ground nnd were rolled over 
ly 'he tide. Many persona were 
(irowned, and in 4 houra not a vestige 
"■us (o be Been of the unfortunate 
^ips- The culliijioii took plaoo on the 
22a(t of April, IBfiS. On the morning 
n[ Ihc lHh of Augnst, 1877, another 
disaster happened. The ship Qmntij 
«f Stirliag, from Cakutta to Hull, 
with a cargo of 1,444 tons of nhent, 
^<'-.i grounded on the FaltA Band, a 
little north of the " James and Maiy," 
and nas turned literally npsidc down, 
the water nuhing in with terrific 
fnrce. She disappeared in S minntcx. 
Of the crew, 21 men, 5 were lost. The 
pilot was acquitted. On the momiii); 
of the 2Sth of September, I87il, the 
British steamer Queen. Anne, with 
2,400 tons of general cargo, groundeil 
on the Falt4 Bandi, and capsized in 
2 minutes. Out of her crew of 78 
men, with 2 passengers, 6 lives were 
lost. The rest were saved when 
clinging to the vesHel'a bottom by 
the steam-tug Calamliuf. The cargo 
and YcBflcl were entirely lost. The 
river is most danfferous in Uay, 
August and September, when the 
freshes are strong, and then if a 
ship takes the ground, she is lost at 
once. It is of vital importance that 
a vessel aacendii^ or descendinfi: the 
Hugli, should have its aftcr-hclm 
ready to be used iu a moment in case 
of the chain of the fore-helm snap- 
ping. The HugU cannot be navigated 
at nigbt, nor until the tide mokes can 
it be asceiidciL It is usual, therefoiv, 
to anchor near HAgar Island until 
occasion serves. 

SdgoT Ttlaiid, — Thisisland is terribly 
Infested with tigers, so much so that it 
is dangerous even to land, and many 
persons have been carried off. In 
spite of this, a gathering of from 
100,000 to 200,000 pilgrims from all 

Krts of India, but principally the 
ngal Districts, takes pincc on the 
day when the sun enters Capricorn 
in the early part of January, the day 
of the great Bathing ll^'estival uf 
Bengal, \ {air ia then held, which 



83 

I lasts for 3 days. The idU of the fair 
is a sand-baiOc on the S. shore of the 
island just to the W. of Fagoda Creek. 
An oaring ia made to the sea of 
cocoa nuts, fniits or Son-ets, and 
es|)cci3ny uf 5 gems, a pearl nnd 
diamond, an emerald, a topaz and a 

fiece of coral worth a rupee or two. 
ormerly children used to be cast into 
the sea. After bathing, the pilgrimij 
go to the temple of Kspila Muni. 
Leases for cultivatiag the land 
have been granted to a Mr. 
Beaumont, in 1811, and to others, but 
all attempts at cultivation have failed. 
The island was surveyed iu 1812, and 
found to contain 143,266 acres. It is 
still covered with a dense jungle, 
swarming with titters snd wild beants. 
in an article in the Calcutta Heview, 
No. 30, it is asserted that before 
Calcutta was founded S&gar contained 
200,000 inhabitants, who were all 
swept away in 1688 in one night. 
Tlie lighthouse was commenced in 
1808. It is at Middlcton Point, at the 
S.W end of the ishind, 200 yds. from 
low-water mark. The light is white, 
flashing every 20 seconds, and visible in 
clear weather lli m. The lighthouw 
is of iron, coloured red and white in 
i alternate bands. The building is 
TG^ft. high from base to vane. The 
present light was first lighted in 1862. 
There is a house to the S. of it. The 
flag-staff is to the H. Vessels at 
anchor sometimes fish with nets, when 
snakes ai'e almost invariably caught 
together with the bobil and other fi% ; 
the bite of these snakes is deadly. 
There is a telegraph line from Sftgar 
to Calcutta. There is a Light vessel 
at the entrance to the E. channel 
iu 3 fathoms of water ; the light is white, 
flashing and visible ]2 m. From the 
irith of March to the 3Istof October, 
a blue light is burned every J hour, 
and a maroon at the intermediate 
(luarters. During the rest of the year 
a blue light ia bnmed every hour, 
and a maroon at the intermediate ^ 
hours, commencing at 7 P.M. There 
is another Light vessel between the 
Eo^t Channel and Lower Gaspar 
Light vcKSels in 6^ fathoms, and 
in the Lower Gaapar Channel there 
«2 



84 



Calcutta City. 



Sect. II. 



is a light Tcssel in 26ft. of water, 
&nd there is anoUier light in the 
Oaspar Channel in 21ft. of water. 
The diatAnue from the month of the 
Hngll to CaloBttB ia abont 90 m., and 
at 40 m. from Calcutta the town, of 
Kilpl ia psBsad on the E. bank. It 
cnntAini a large inarkeC place for the 
sale of rice grown in the interior, and 
tiiere ia a road from it to Calcntta, 
and at 30 m. from Calcntta, aa the crow 
fliea, is Diamond Harbonr, marked b; 
BlBTgenumberot trees where the E. I. 
Companj'B ehipa used to anchor in 
old tlmea. It is the head-quarters of a 
Bub-dirigioit of the same name, and a, 
telegraph station. There is a Harbour- 
master here, with an eBtablishmeut of 
Cnatom House officers, who board 
ships proceeding up the river. It is 
understood that a railway ia to be 
constructed to this place, which will 
enable passengers to reach Calcutta 
sooner and more safelj. At 28 m. 
from Calcutta is theEipnArftjan river, 
which flows into the Hngll on the W. 
bank. The RiipnJirAjRn when it enters 
the district is coDed Dhalkiaor, and is 
called the KilpnArAyan from the point 
at which it touches MidnapUr. It is 
60ln.k>rg, and carries oft a large body 
of water. It is navigable by boats of 
4 tons, as far as QbAt41. From this the 
town of Tamluk is about S m, distant. 
JUmia*.— This town is the head- 
quarters of a aiib.diviaion of the same 
name, and has a pop. of 6849. It 
Btands in 22'' 17' 60" and 87° 57' 30" 
E. long. It waa a very famous city 
ia ancient times, and was a maritime 
port of the Buddhists, and is the 
place where the Chinese pilgrim Fa 
Hian embarked for Ceylon in the 
beginning of the 5th eeutury A.D. 
Hionen Thsang 250 years later apeaks 
of it aa an important Buddhist 
harbour washed by the ocean, with 10 
BnddMst monaateriea, 1000 monks, 
and a pillar of Asboka, 200ft. high. 
Under the rule of the Peacock 
Dynasty, the palace and gronnda were 
said to have covered 8 m. There is a, 
temple here sacred to the goddess 
Kftli, The shrine ia soirounded by a 
curious triple wall, the foundation of 
which consists of large logs, placed in 



TOWS, covered with bricks and stones to 

a lieight of SOft. On this is Imilt a 
wftll, GOft. high, ita width at the top 
of the foundation being 9(t. The 
roof is dome shaped. The stones used 
are of enormous siie. The temple is 
dedicated to the wife of Shiva, but at 
the top U the Chokrs of Vifhnn, 
surmounted by a peacock. DargA in 
represented with 4 hands ; the upper of 
the 2 right bands holds a three-poisleil 
spear, and the lower one a swonl. 
The upper left band grasps another 
sword, and the lower holds the head nf 
a demon. The goddess stands on th(> 
body of Shiva. The temple has 4 
divisions, the Tim&na or inner sanc- 
tuary, the Jagmohan or hall of 
audience, the Jajtiamandap, hall of 
gaorifice, and NiWmandir or daneinjr 
hall. A Bight of stairs connects t lie 
outer gate of the temple with tho 
public road below, and has 2 pillam 
on either aide. Within the enclosure 
is a Kelikitdamba tree, to which 
women suspend bricks by ropes made 
of their hair, and pray for children. 
When the Mariit^iBB ravaged Bengal, 
they refrained from plnnderi ng Taml uk , 
and made oSerings to the temple. 
There is also a Vaishoavite temple at 
Tamluk,anditissaidthatTiiiirahdwaj, 
a prince of Tamluk, defeated Arjnna 
and Kp?hna and took them prisoners, 
when they were escorting the horse 
which Yudhi^hthir hml chosen for 
sacrifice. The present H&jA ia a Eai- 
bartta, an aboriginal tribe, and he is 
the 26th in descent from the founder. 
TAe Damodar Jfir^i-.^IlAmodar Is 
a name of Krishna, from D6m, a rope, 
and Udtir, the stomach, because when 
Kpeh^a was B child, Jasod^ his 
foster-mother, tied him with a rope 
round his stomach to prevent him 
from doing mischievous tricka. This 
river enters Hngll District from 
Baldwin, and proceeds past the 
villages of AmptA and Btkghnan, the 
former on its E. the latter on Its 
W. bank, to MahishrAkhA OhAf, where 
it is crossed by the UlobAriA Midna- 
piir canal, and flows into the Hngll 
opposite FalttL It is navigable as far 
aa Ampta, which is 26 m. from its 
month, bj boats of from 10 to 20 tons. 



Sectir. 



Vlubdrid — CtiAi — Boarding Hoam, 



B7 Uiis river large qaantitiea of cosl 
are brooght from the Rdnlgaoj mines. 
f^t& iB EL large vElagc just 
opjKwile tlie mouth of the DAmodar. 
It is the site of & Dutch factor;, and 
lathe place tu which the English ships 
Ksiled on the cuptnre of CsJontta by 
Nirija 'd danlab. 

Tjltibaria, a smsll town on the W. 
bank of the Hngll, is now passed. At 
this place the main road from Calcatta 
to the temple of Jagami&th at Purl 
croe^ea the Hi^ll, and here benns the 
Uidnapilr High I^vel Canal. Aub&rii 
U 16 m. 8, of Caloutta, A few m. N. 
<^ this, on the £. bank, are the Akra 
hrickGelda, belonging to Oovemment, 
which are veiy extensive, and sre 
manned by a Buperintendent with n 
BahU7 of 1,000 rupees a month. At 7 
m. from Calcntta, the first view of 
that city is obtained, and then the 
King of Awftdh's letidence is passed 
on the £, bank, and the Botanical 
Oaidena and Bishops' College on the 
W. Then follows next to the King of 
Awadh'B Palace, Garden Beach, where 
are some of the best villas at Calcutta, 
and the river is now crowded with 
ships anchored tier after tier, all the 
way Dp to the Landing Place. The 
view is very striking, and the forest of 
masts, the vast plain of the Esplanade, 
the fort and the fine buildings in tlic 
backgronnd, all give the idea of a 
great commercial capital, and the seat 
of a powerful government. 

Every vessel that arrives at Calcntta 
moat be beithed by the Harbour Mas- 
ter, and should he he absent, much 
dcbiy takes place. Shonld the vessel 
be detained in this way, passengers 
may land at Prinsep's Gh^t, whicli is 
just opposite the S. eitremity of Fort 
William. The tee is 2 &itis for each 
person, and 1 dn&s for luggage. After 
getting ont of the boat there is a walk 
of about 10 yds. to the place where 
hired vehicles can be got. This Ghftf 
is marked by a vei; neat pavilion of 
stotte, supported by pillars, and in- 
scribed " James Prinsep." The proper 
landing-place is a little to the N. of 
the Fort, and each great Steam Com- 
paiiy has one of its own. The passen- 
g«r will be oaiefol to take vrith him a 



85 

pass from the Custom House officer, 
without which he cannot get his Ing- 

J age into a carriage. From the 
etty to the street is about 100 yds., 
throQgh the enclosure of the Custom 
House, a space of gromid excessively 
dnsty and dir^. 

/foM".— The principal hotel r* Cal- 
cutta is the Great Eastern, which is 
about 1 m. from the Landing Place, 
and close to Govenunent House. The 
cost will be, including wines and car- 
riage, from 10 to 20 rs. per day. Oppo- 
site is Spence's Hotel, a very small 
building. 

Ciuft*.— The Bengal Club is on the S. 
side of the Esplanade, at No. 33, Chan- 
ringl(Chowringhee)Road,to which are 
attached the houses No. 1, Park Stieet, 
and Nos. 1 and 5, Bussell Street, di- 
vided into chambers for members who 
are permanent residents. There is also 
at 33, Chowringhce Road, a large 
house, where are sleeping-rooms for 
members. The Club Hoose was for- 
merly the residence of Mr. T. B. Mac- 
aulay, afterwards Lord Macaulay. 
Members of this Club are hononi^ 
members of the Madias, Bombay, and 
tihangliai Cluhs, and vise tertS. It 
was founded in 1827. The entrance- 
fee for permanent members is 200 rs. , 
and resident members pay in advance 
8 quarterly subscription of 25 ra. Non- 
resident members living within 100 m. 
of Calcutta pay a quarterly aubscrip- 
of 12ira. Those residing beyond 
m., or who visit India for a period 
eiceoding one month, pay in ad- 
vance a snbscription of 26 rs. The 
United Service Club is at 31, Chow- 
ringheo, and at 1, 2, and 3 Kyd Street, 
nnd 66 Park Street; the entrance-fee is 
100 ra. and a fee of 10 rs. for the Li- 
brary and 10 rs. for the Billiard-room. 
The subscription is 12 rs. per annum, 
paid in advance, and in addition 3 rs. 
a month for residence in Calcutta, 

Jii-arding Humee.—The use of hotels 
ia Calcutta ia comparatively limited, 
and instead, it is usual to reside at 
boarding-houses, where the chiu^e ia 
150 rs. a mouth, or 6rB. a day, for 
board and lodging. The residents 
take their meals together, and a very 
comfortable table is kept In this 



charge wine and liqoora arc not 
['luded, and each boarder must bring 
his own, DH wine is not procarablc in tlic 
lioase. BoAniiiig-lKnises are teij nu- 
ineroUH : but Xus. 3 mid 9 Middletoa 
Itowaud No. 1 LiCtli; Khm*!! Street 
ma J he strungly recoiti mended, as 
Hitiiated in b salubrious and convenient 
iocalitj. Suites of rooms aiid sinnlc 
ix>om8 may be engafted tUero, wHlh a 
private table or table dTiStc by daj, 
wcek.or monUi. 

CoKtrijatiefg. — CaniagcB may be 
birud at from a to 10 w. a-day, and 
tliurc: are an abnudaneu of cabs (Shi- 
(■nUHs) for which tht charge per hour 
is very moderate. 



GEORGE, EABL OF AUCKLAND. 

GovcrnoMlfinenil nripdii. 

Thi> Slatni tru eiwteil by ni 






OrwL. 

KIb OovemDient, 

Tlmtagli ItB Iffiiign flflVtJk 

'" -'— ' iimwd in the nOWtioiiate rtfiili 

— the inen.onr r.t Uhs six jwi 
^ h; rulod the dentiiilrB nT 
Biltixh liiillA. 
'V llilH Jiut muuin, tAnt thmnEhont I 
wliole coniw nT thiHw F«in 

IJecuritj- from Biiine •irf oppression, 

nMdoiD Of Internal trmdfl, 

The MhIIo] Sckni'SH nt Entvpe, 

Tlic JoBtlis wbli^li Eg Mliul tn dlatiiictioiii 

cfni-o. 

The EngliHli liBngmge, 



The Eaplaiuidc—AS, the N.W. 
ner of the Espluuade lining the Stland 
are the Eden Gardens, for which Cal- 
i:utta is indebted to the Misses Eden, 
Iiord Auckland's sisters ; here a band 
jiiays every evening, (hi the K. eide 
is a fine marble atatub of Sii' William 
I'eel, with this inscription : — 

SIR WILLIAM PEEL. V.C. K.C.R. 

Comnundei' at the Nsval Brieiule. 

In the war of the iDdliD Hutlny. 

Bom Mh or November, 1824. 

Died at Kinhpur, 

!Tth or AprU, IBOB. 

On the no.-th side is, 

W. Thked, Bo., Lonaoii. 
On the N. side of the Gard«i]K, at 
the end oppoaiti^ to tliat where stands 
the statue of Peel, is thatof Lord Auck- 
land ; he is represented standiug bare- 
headed, with the right foot advanced, 
and as if speaking ; he holds hie robe 



In the Gardens is also a Barmese 
Paitoda, broajifht from I'rome in 1854, 
and set up in 185<S. Close to the 
Gardens is the Ground of ilie Calewtta 
Cricket Club. There is a good drive 
along the river's side from the Gar- 
dens inst Fort William to Belvedere, 
the I.ieut.- Governor's residence, and 
another E. from the Gardens to Go- 
vernment House, There is also a drive 
on the S. side of the Ksplanade to the 
Cathedral and Chowriu^ee. The Ei- 
lilanade itself Ik a mngnificent open 
space of aboat IS m. diameter. 

A liUle to the N. is Mbd's Ghit. 
named troia Itfij Chandra DAs, who 
constmcted it. 'There is a handsome 
Colonnade with Doric pillars ; It bears 
the following inscription ; — 

The lU^ht Hon. Lord Wiluui Cavendish 
BENTiiiCK, GDvamor4]cnend of Indlih with a 
view toeueoungepuhlioniuntllceneetoworke 
or public utillt)', luiH lie"n pleased to deter- 
IDiiie thuC tills Ghilt, ern'teil at the eipcuse ot 
Bibii lUj Chandra ma in 1S88. shall hereafter 
be mllsil BiLbO RA] Chaniim Wx GhiV 

Govtmtntnt llvvie. — This stands in 
gromidsof 6 acres. The first brick was 
laid on the Ist ot I'ebniarj-, 1799, 1^ 
command of Loid Welleslej. The 
architect was Captain Wyatt, E.E., 
and it cost 13 Ukhs. The design is 
copied from thatof Kedlestone Hall, 
Derbyshire, built by Bobert Adam 



Sect. n. 



Govenunati Hotue. 



for Lord ScSiTsdale, which Ib a central 
bsilding with i wingB Gonneoted with ; 
the centre by golLeries. The building 
■Cauda N. and H., and the grand en- 
trance faces the N. There is here a 
)P»nd flight of Btepsia 2diTi8iona; the 
ftret having 17, and the second having 
16 st«p8 ; at the buttom thinftight is more 
thaji 100 ft. broad. It leada to a phit- 1 
fonn (i7 f I. broad within the raila, and ; 



ia a gnmd porch fomcd by ^ pillara ; 
nnd a pilMter to W. and E., and bj 4 
piilara in front to the N. The pillan 
are 4B ft. high, and are of the Ionic 
order, rawiog under this porch ;ou 
enter a auite of 3 great rooms, the 
breakfost and tiffin room, the dining : 
room and the throne room. The Break- ' 
fast Room is 32J ft. broad from N. to 
a., and llij ft. long from K. to W. 
Ou the Tight as you enter is a finely 
executed Btatne of the Marquis Welles- 
ley, in white marble. The top plinth 
of the pedestal is inscribed " F. fiacon, 
junior, F*," and underthat, "London, 
1809." The statue U the eiie of life, 
and represents Lord Wellesley stand- 
ing, bareheaded, and dressed in nni- 
furm, with bis right hand on his hip, 
and a scroll in his left. His left foot 
is advanced. He wears the collar of 
the Bath, and his face is youthful and 
eminently handsome and, aristocratic. 
On the pedestal is inscribed : — 
HAKQUia WELLE81.EY. 
Ooveinar-Oenenl oC IndlK 
From ITM to i9K. 



Wisdom, Energy ind Rectltnde 



MoTtng to the left you come next to a 
portrait facing the entrance, inscribed 
" Earl Canning, ISBG— 1862." Hislord- 
ship is aeatedjwearing the riband of the 
Star of India and the Star. He holds 
a paper in bin left hand, and the right 
leans on a table. The face is hand- 
some, intellectual, and thoughtful. Op- 
posite and looking towards the lar^ 
room is a portrait, inscribed " M^rqnis 
of Hastings, 1813—1823." He is in 
the uniform of a general, and is st^uid- 
ii^, with a scroll in hie right band and 



posite sad looking np the n 
portrait of the " Earl of Mayo, I86B— 
1872." He wears a ted umfonn and 
the cloak of the 8Ur of India. In bii 
right hand he holds bis plumed hal, and 
his left rests on the hilt of his sword. 

The Dining Room comes next, and 
is 89 ft 10 in. long from N. to S., and 
64 ft. i in. broad from E. to W. The 
walls are coTered with white chuOam. 
At 10 ft. from either wall are 2 rowi 
of 10 pillaisand 2 pilasters. The floor 
is of Teined white marble. To the E. 
is a broad verandah with 8 lof^ pil- 
lars. On either side along the wall 
are ranged 6 marble buats of the On- 
These were taken from a French 
ship during tie war, perhaps by Admi- 
ral Watson, and are well executed. 
The dining-room leads into a third 
room, which runs parallel to the 
breakfast-room, and is of the same 
length, hot only 21ti ft broad. It is 
called the Throne Boom, as there is 
placed in the centre of the 8, wall 
under a canopy, and with the arms of 
England embroidered over It, the 
throne of Tipi), a gilt chair with a 
low back and low sloping arms and 
red cushions. At either end ot this 
room are 4 white chunam pillars, and 
in the centre of them 2 splendid white 
marble vases, 6 ft. 6 in. high, made at 
jnipi^, and brought thence by Loid 
Northbrook. The pictures are, 1st, 
on the T, the Queen seated, with 
the crown on her head and in her 
royal robes, by Sir George Hayter, a 
most indifferent pictoro ; on the L, 
Queen Charlotte standing, in an er- 
mine-bordered robe ; next is King 
George III. also standing, with hu 
right hand on his hip, and his left 
holding his ermine-bordered robe and 
resting on the table, his i^e appa- 
rently about 25. These two pictures are 
supposed to be by Hudson, the master 
of Sir Joshua Iteynolds. Next is Ma- 
jor-General the Hon. Arthur Wellosley, 
1803, in oniform, his right arm thnist 
under the breast of his coat, and his 
left on the hilt of his sword. Ha 
stands on the brink of a low rampart, 



GdcttHa City. 



below which aome ■rtUlerjiaen an 
baulinK forward k gun, and tbere are 
other fignrcB beyond them. This pic- 
turo by Home, B. A., u one of the oest 
io the collection, and eztremelj' inte- 
resting. Tbe Duke U i^pteteaieii w a 
very handsome fouiw man, slim, but 
weU set up, and looking lil the tol- 
dier. Betuming to the breakfast^room, 
yon pass E. through a cnrTCd paaeage 
to the Council Boom. In this passage 
are three fall-Ieiwth portraits. On 
the r. is "Lord Teignmouth, 1798— 
1798," dressed in black, wiUi light- 
coloured trousers ; fae has a plain, sen- 
trible face, but the month is Wge and 
tigly. His right hand holds a book, 
which Testa on a table, and on the 
back of which is written " India, Vol. 
III." On the left hand is " The Earl 
of Ellenborough, 1842— 18i*." He 
stands with his right arm acroa his 
cbDBt, and his left leaning on a table, 
and is dressed in black, but wears the 
Star and red riband of the Bath. Next 
to him is "Lord Melcalfc, 183B— 
1839." It is the well-known likeness 
from which so man; prints have been 
taken, and is by Hayes. He is seated 
At a table, drtascd in black, and wears 
nStar. llie face is plain but redeemed 
by a sensible and pleasing expression. 
At the end of the passage, on tbe 
right, is a aitting-room, and in front 
11 door which leads into the CooncU 
Boom. This is H ft. long from 
S. to S. and 37 ft. broad from E. to W. 
The first picture on the right is " The 
Earl of Minto, 1807—1813." There 
is an ornamental projection in the 
centre on the top of the frame, with 
" Suo perionlo " in large letters. He 
ia dressed in tbe robes of a peer, 
and stands holding in his left hand a 
scnll,andwith Ms right drawing back 
his robe, in a not very graceful man- 
ner, as if to display his yellowish- 
brown kneebreeches. He hiis a plain, 
sensible Scotch face. Next over the 
centre door is a j length portrait of 
Sir Eyre Uoote in the uniform of a 
l^nerol, seated, with bis right hand 
leaning on the chair, and hie left across 
his chest. The face is that of a hard 
veteran. Neit is " Marqnis Com- 
wallis, 1786— 17»S— leoa." He is in 



weak, smirking expression, and a look 
of age. Next is "Viscount Hardinge, 
1811-18*8," a I lei^ portrait, in 
blue nndiesa, wearing a Star. The 
scene appears t« be Hodkl, after the 
battle. A gun with broken carriage 
is to the right of him, and tenta are 
seen between Next is " Warren Hast- 
ings, 1772 — 1786," with a motto, 
" Mens ffiqoa in ardois," at the top of 
the picture. This is a fine picture, and 
the subject is worthy of a great master. 
Hastings is seated, with his well- 
formed hands bangii^ down, bat rest- 
ing loosely, the right on a lable, tlie 
left on the arm cl a chair. He ia 
dressed in a black coat and knee- 
breeches, with one ot those rich flow- 
ered waistcoats so much tbe fashion a 
century ago. His forehead is h^h, 
and rather resembles that of Shake- 
speare. He bos piercing eyes, but a 
thoughtful expression. Over the 2nd 
door to the right is "The Earl of Elgin 
and Kincar^e, 1863—1863," a ( 
length portrait. He wears a blue coat, 
and the riband of the Bath. His right 
hand rest on a table, and his left on 
the hilt of bis sword. The painters of 
these portraits seem to have had a 
stereotyped attitude for all who have 
sat to them. Next over the window is 
" The Earl of Auckland, 1836—1842," 
a i length. To the left is Mr. John 
Adam, 1823, a fine picture by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence. He is dres^d in 
black, seated at a table, on which his 
right hand rests, while his left is rest- 
ing on the chair. The face is that of 
a handsome man, with dark hair and 
eyes, and in the prime of life. Next 
is the ■' Marqnis Wellesley, 1798 — 
1805," in peer's robes, with powdered 
hair, standing at a table, on which his 
right hand rests. Appended to the 
picture is one in crayons, without a 
frame, of a younji l*rinco seated under 
a canopy, with 3 English officers sit^ 
ing beyond its fringe in front and 
L>me Indian attendants, one of whom 
presents a tray to the Prince. Over a 
window is Lwd Clive, a ] length pic- 



ii a coniEige repiesentlDe B dragon 
cribed, "Atkinson, 18M. Cosd- 



Sect. Ii. GoverriMmt Hmue — Oehlerhn]/ Monument. 



tore, wearing the red riband of tlie 
Bith, and holding his cocked-hat in 
hii tight hud, and in hia left a stick, 
whicti he plants firml; on the grooud. 
Iliis is a very spirited picture by Na- 
thaniel Dance. 

There are aim pictures ol Louis XV. 
and his Qneen, pntaaps by De la Roche ; 
of Lady WiUlam Bentinck, by Beechv ; 
Df the NdwAb S'aidat 'All K^An, by 
Chinnery; the Shih of Persia, 1T9S ; 
Jaswftnt Singh, Hahirijiof Bl^piir, 
by Anger ; and the Amir of KaboL by 
W. MTwiitte. 

Abore IJie dining-room and the ad- 
joining rooms, is a splendid ball-room, 
with pillars resembling those below, 
and two anle-rooms of the some dimcn- 
BLODi and cbamcter as the breakfast- 
room and thcthrone-room. TheSooris 
of polished leak, and the ceilings are 
beautilallv panelled, after designs iiy 
Mr. H. U. Locke. In the centre of 
the ball-room is a large chandelier, and 
6 smaller ones, 3 on either side. TheT 
are said to bafe been captnred with 
the basts of the Cnsara from the 
French, They were, no doobt, thought 
very fine a century ago, but wonld sell 
for Tery little now. At the W, end of 
the 8, ante-room is a biUiard-table, 
nnd a large picture of the Marquis 
Wellesley, standing under curtains, in 
(he imirorm of commander-in-chief. 
ThEie are steps from the p1«;e where 
he stands down to the ground, where 
are soldiers with a flag. On a table 
ue the subsidiary treaty of Qaidari- 
bid, 17»S, the partition trea^ of 
Musiltr, 1799, and snbsidiary treaty of 
8hrtrangpatuam,1799. TbeB.windows 
look ont on the extensive gronnds, 
which are well kept, and at 40 yds. 
from the Terandah on the ground 
floor ill a platform, on wblch a fine 
brass 32-poander, taken at Allwal, is 
monnted. At the N. end of the plat- 
form is written "Aliwal, January 2Stb, 
1816," and on the gun is an inscrip- 
tion in Oarmokhl. On either side is 
a 6-ponnder brass tiger gun, taken 
from Tlpii, on platforms about iO yds. 
off. There is an English inscription 
on the base of the platform, " Senoga- 
mtam, 1799," and on the gnn itself in 
Persian is " Uade In the capital," and j 



" weight 6 ma^." On the N. side is 
a large brass gnn on a platform, which 
is inscribed "MiAnl, 17th Febmaiy," 
and also " ^aidarAbid, 30th of March, 
1843." On this gun, which seems to 
be an 18-ponnder, bat the barrel ctf 
which is moch broken and worn, is 

Thli ffun bflJongi to tha (factory of 

Kliodi At Eiiin Sihidnr 'AbMil SlMl 

Juig, 12S3. 

On the N. side is also a n 

inscribed, ' 

pure." It seems to be about a 43- 

ponnder, and on Uie platform is in- 

EDWARD, LORD ELLENBORODOB, 

GoTsnioT-OiiMnl of Indlft to OaancU, 

Erected this Trophy 

Of guna taken rrom tbs Cbfneeii, 

DitUtBd to the Emptmr of China, 

Uodei tha mlla ot Nankin, 

By tbe Naval and UIUUct fonM 

or Engbnd and of India, 

Undar tha comniand of 

Vicfr-Admlial Sir Willuh Pauu, 

Lisatenant-QflDeral aii HuaH Ouuoh, 

In Angoat, JS4:J- 

There ie, also, a small brass gnn to the 

treme age. There is no inscription on 
it but XXI,, cat probably by the 
prise agenta. On the platform is : — 
OhaEnL BUi of Bomber. 
KAm, l«ib oraeptembgr, 1942. 
the middle of the gun are 2 small 
Ds of brass. The cupola of OoTem- 
nt Eoase can be ascended by a 
_« ladder, which is placed thet« ; a 
strong single wire forms the banister. 
The cupola Is of metal, and the heat 
'-^de IB like that of an oven. At top 
a circular ajjace of about 8ft In 
diameter, surrounded by a rail ; in the 
ntre of all is the flag-staff. 
Oehttrrluiiy Monument. — Not far 
from Government House, in the centre 
of the Eaplanado, is a column 1G5 ft 
high, to Sir David Ochterlony, Resi- 
dent in Malw& and RijpiltAn&, in 
I82.S. It is fluted, and has 2 galleries 
at top, from which a fine view oyer 
Calcutta is obtained. W. of it are 
several statues. 

Statvet. — First comes the bronze 
equestrian statne of Lord Hardinge. 



90 

He is bare beaded, with his 
Gironl by hU side. On the ride of the 
base is"J. H. Foley, H.A., Sculptor, 
London, 1888." On the other Bide is 
" Elkiugton, Mason & Co., Fonndew." 
It 18 a gooil lilcBDeas and well exe- 
cnted. On the granite pedestal is in- 



Bylim] 



Th1,S 



orBrltlah 



And when re-called to Amu b; unproroked 

At Uudlil, F^nlEBhahr'and Bobnon, 
inalntalned the reputatEon which iu 
youth he won, 
Bj' tnmtoK tlio tide of victory, »t Albuert 
W. of this statne is that of Lord Law- 
rence, standing bare headed, at present 
without an inscriptton. On the Chow- 
ringee Itoad side, is the equestrian 
statue of Sir Jamca Oatiam. He is 
represented bare headed, with a drawn 
sword in his right hsiud, ah if about to 
strike an enemy on foot Hia horse is 
violently reined in, and the right leg 
pawing the air ia rather orniatural- 
Thc inscription is;— 

HIR JAHTS OUTRAU.- 
r-kultiiiiut-Oeaeial, G.C.B., nnd Baronet. 

HIh lire waa given to Indi^ 

h> early manhood he reclalmfld wild tti^a 

by ninnlaa their hearta, 

Uliazn!, KeUt. U]« iDdian CBD<!aBnB,wltne»ited 

the daring decda of hia prime. 

Perala brotiflht to sue for p«ac«. 

Lakhnau nliered; del^oded and recovc 



Wew 



Dt of England, 



onel TcLE, C.B., Mem 



Persia hrought to sue tnr pe&oe, 

Lucknow relieved, defended, aud recovered. 

Were Aelde of his Uter gloilea. 

Many wIm Rm-™- 

Uany valiant 



Bntiu 






int Captains, 

a eent hither; 
aBlhiam&nwv 



; City. Sect. II. 

Id *]1 the tnu knlcht 
The Bayard of the Eul. 
Bfitn 4tJ] of Janoary, 1S03. 
Died 11th of Miin;h, IMS. 

J. H. FoLiv, Senlplor, R.A. 
On another side ia " B. M. Hobrfleld ii 
Ca, Fotmders, London, 1873." On 
the plot of ground to the E. of Iionl 
Hardlnge's statue in an equestriao 
bronic statue of Earl of Majo, in- 

To the honoured and beloved 

Meniory of 

mCHASD BOtTHWELL, 

eth Earl of Kayo, K.P., O.CS.I.. 

Viceroy asd Goremnr^Jenenil at India. 

Hunuine, comteoua, nublt and anll^temjd, 

Htmok down In the midiit ol ■ 

lllldbeneBelMt(beiieBcentjan>r, 

On the Slh oTFebroaiT, IBTS, 

By the treaoheroua hand or an saiBBBln. 

The people of India, monmlug dod IndlCDiult, 

RaiMd thla SUtue. 

BomaiatofFehniBiT, ISK, 

Auiuned the Vice-royalty, 

l«t of January, 1M7. 

T. Thoudckoft. 
Tlic Tlnon Hall. — This fine building 
stands W. of Government House. Itwaa 
built hj the inhabitants of Calcutta in 
1801, and cost £70,000. The style is 
Doric, with a fine flight of ateps lead- 
ing to a portico on the S. There are 
i gigantic colnmns in front, and 2 
nt the side 16 ft. round. The car- 
riage entrance is to the N. under a 
portico. The centre of the building 
\a occupied b; a naloon 162 ft. long, 
and 65 broad. Iti the K. front is a 
centtal room 82 ft. lonj;, liy 30 broad, 
and there are 2 smaller rooms Of by 
31. The lower story is 23 ft. hif;h, 
and has a marble pavement. The 
upper story is 27 ft high. In the S. 
veatibule is a marble statue of Warren 
Hastings, by K. Westmacott, R.A., in- 



hoee whom they pn-emed or led to battle. 
FalChnil servant of Bnglnnd, 
Idige-mlnded and kindly Ituler of 

her au1)^t«. 

Doing nonght throash vaiualoir, 

evereneemingotben better aanhltnHlf. 

Valiant, incompt, Be1f.denylng, 

magnanimous, 

In (11 the tnie linlf^t. 



je Bayard of India, 

J aey who Bet np this Ueinoi-^iu 

Mtr well lock Torda 

To utter all thehr loving admintlon. 



Sect II. 



Tmen Hall— Sigh Court. 



scribed, " To the Eight Honorable : 
Warren Hastings, MDCCCXXX" He : 
Ettuida between a Mulianimadan nnd » 
HindCL At tbe W. end of the lower 
ralooQ IB B marble Btatae by J. Bacon, 
junr., of the Marqais of Cornwallia, i 

In hononr nr Ihp Most N'oMe tbe 

HARQUIS OF CORSWALl.lB, K.U., 

Gavemor-Ueiienl ot Inillii, 

SrptiinlKr. ITStL to UrlnhFr, no». 

I^ho, If3' vi lubniinJutnti™ utdri mnly condiu^lfd 

Oh the pri]iclplv4 tyt 

Equity, niKlorn UMt •oiiiut imtlcy, 

rmrroved the Intenul wwurcen of 

the couutrv. 

rromoled the hlpph 



leMeni 






epnUttoii of t 



ConflrmedUii 
Allteanl 
And eetfcbllihed the repnii 
BiitlBb mme In ifind 

B)' fiilnehi perpatDltytheiHiblk deniend 

He 'b*™ fOT the "ntHme 

Tn Oie proprietrr of tha Jwil, 

A perminent Interest In It. 

And by the fnnnntlon ot ■ eod« nf tegulittiixig 

For Bverj depwtment of the Government, 

He bestuwed on the nslii-«i 'if Indln 

Tbe benefit of ■ cmiHUtutlon, nnd k 

at of thelriiglitfl of property. 



Foreed Into 
By Uie onprovoked 

Tip* Bui!...., 
Hl4 eminent inllllur; t> 



no lom connplmnuii tlisn bin 
MoileliitlOH in vliitoiy. 



Public spirit wee encourued, jind 

Heift llbendlf reouded, 
Tble atatne wu erected b; the 
Biitlelilnhibltants of Bengal, 

In tbe Teatibnles are bnats of C. B. 
Oreenlaw, Esq., and John PohneT, 
Esq., and portraits of Lord Lake, 
lAixd Qongh, Bir C Metcalfe, Sir H. 
Dnrant, Dw&rhanAtli Thilki^, Bishop 
Wiison, Mr. Cameron, Mr. WUber- 
force Bird, and others. There are also 
full-length portrsita of the Queen and 
Prince Albert, presented by Her Ma- 
jesty to the citj of Calcutta. Opposite 
the Hall, about 60 yds. off, is a bronze 
itatne of Lard WilUam Beutinck, with 



WILLIAM CAVENDISH BBNTINCK, . 

Who during HTsn yeui 

Rnltd India with eminent pntdence, 

Inl^rtty »nd benevolence. 

Who, placod Mthe heed ofesreet empire, 

Kevsr laid Hide 

The nloipllclty and modersHon of 

■ private eltlnn, 

Who inftued Into OrlenUl despotiim 

ITif spirit oT Sritleb (teedom. 

riiu never foi^ that the end of OoTrmiiKnt 

Is the ««lltire of the gavemedi 

Who abolished cruel ritea, 

Who eltaced hnndtlatlng distlneUani, 

Who »llo««d liberty to the enpteaalon of 

Wbow constant study it waa In elevate 
The moral end Intellectunl ctaracter of the 

-■led 
iintry'uid religion. 



TAe Legiilati'ee OmntQ Office. — As 
the LegiGlntive Conncil is close to the 
N.W., it may be visited neit. Tho 
Council of the Ben^ Oovemment 
aHsembles in it. The S. front is 
adorned with Corinthian columns. 

Thr High Omrf.—A plan of this 
building is kept in the Vublic Works 
Department, whercit may be inspected; 
it IS datol July 1, 1870, and signed 
by William Duff Bruce, engineer, B. 
Ulnrke, aesis. engineer. It wss flnished 
ill May, 1872. It is oblong, and nms 
N. anil 8. The S. face is 4ao ft. long, 
the E. face 300 ft. There are 32 
windows in front, and & lar^ central 
one, and 2 laific side ones. There arc 
3 stories, and the windows are arched. 
The building faces S. The Chief 
Justice's Court is in the S.W. comer, 
with an area of 2279-6 ft., and there 
arc 2 Courts 1880*10 ft., with rooms 
oil each Bide ewT-C ft. Tho Court of 
First Instance is at the S.E. comer, 
and is of the same sir« aa that of the 
Chief Justice. In the E. face is the 
Barristers' Library, to which each 






e of 250 rt 



100 rs. annually. There are *0 prac- 
tising barristers who subscribe, and 
111 non-practising. The names of de- 



Calcutta Cily. 



1 the E. 

-f, and there is a portrait here of 

Joitice Norman, and a photograph of 
Mr. Abbott, Regiatrar of the Diocege, 
snd photc^raphs of 15 jadgea in the 
Oreat Kent Case, Tb^kiiriiit Biii v. 
Biehnu Bar MulUji, decided by 14 to 
1 against Sir B. Peacock. There is 
also a photograph of a candelabrum, 
presented to Sir Mordannt Lawson 
Wells. Next is the Vakil's Library, 
in which there are not many bool^. 
Then comes the room where the papets 
for cases for the Privf Ckiancil 
are made np, of which 50 copies are 
printed hv the Comt, at 2 is. a page, 
paid for by the appellant. Of these 
G copies axe retained, and 2 go to 
the respondent. Next is the room 
-where translations are made from 
Bengili and Urdti, for which the 
fee is B rs. for 150 words. Next is 
the 'Amalah's room, where papers are 
put in order for the Jnage. The 
Court of First Instance is tiimed 
into a Criminal Court by opening a 
trap door, which discloses a si^ircAsc, 
up which the prisoner in brought into 
ilie dock. This is remoTed when the 
€ourt is for civil cases. In this Court 
areSportraita : Sir William Burroughs, 
Bare, inHcribed ''Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, piniit, A.D. 18!8." Sir WilUam 
is represented standing in dark robes, 
with his right hand on a book that 
rests on the table. Next is Sir 
Ft«deri»Ji Workman McNaghtec, 
Knight, C.J., inscribed, " Chinnery 
pinxlt, JLD. 1824." The attitude is 
the same as that of Sir W. Burroughs, 
but the robes are scarlet, with an S. 3. 
collar of Chief Justice. Next is Sir 
Elijah Impey, Knt., C.J., inscribed, 
"KetUe pinxit, A.D, 1778." He is 
dressed in red, and is seated with his 
left hand on a table, and his right on 
the chikir. The next room is the 2nd 
Bench Appellant's side, with a picture 
of Shambu N^h Fandit, the first 
Indian Ju(%e who actually took his 
seat. He was a native of Kashmir, 
aad used to wear a turban. He is tc- 
preaent«d seated, with a paper in his 



Knt, C,J,, inscribed, "Zofiany pioxit, 
A.D. 1T83." He is in red robes, stMid- 
ing with right hand upraised as if 
speaking. Next is Sir Henry Bossell, 
Bart,C.J.,inBcribed, "Chinnery piniit, 
A.D. 1872 ;" he is robed in red, and 
seated with his hands on a chair. 
Justice sits in the background, with 
the eyei bandaged. Next is Sir John 
Anstruther, Bart., C.J., 1806. He is 
robed in red, and seated with his hands 
on a chair. In the centre of the R. 
side i$ a statue inscribed :— 



Btipntne CnBTt Dt Bengal. 
A prindpat founder gf the Bindil Coll«B« 

Ubenl education in India. 
The NaUve InhabilaDtg of Calcntla 
Caiued thla SUtue to be raised. 

On the side is— 

CBUrmET, Sc, London, 181S. 
In the Library are " Notes of Coses," 
by Justice Hyde, in 1770. He came 
out with Impey. The Inditm Oh- 
mrrxer of April, 1874, and April, 1876, 
page 261, vol. vii., Jannary to June, 
has extracts from these notes, e.ff., 
"This day only Impey, C.J., and I, 
John Hyde, were present. Impey told 
me that though Chambers did not 
come into Court, he was very well," 
In the Judges' Library are 6 pictntes, 
for which Government gave a giant 
of £B0O ; uij.. Justice Trevor, standing 
with his right hand on the table ; H. 
B. Harington, sitting at a table, 
speaking \a an Indian clerk, who is 
seated on the floor — the Judge is 
dressed in light-colonxed clothes, with 
knee-breeches ; Sir John Colvin, who 
died at Agra — a very handsome man. 
Opposite are Sir Edward Byan, in red 
robes with white ermine lining, and 
his left hand on a book, inscribed 
" Sir Martin Shee piimit, A.b. 184* ;" 
Sir Robert Chambers, Knt., C.J., 
inscribed "C. J. Davis pinxit, A.D. 
1794 — bis band is placed on a table, 
and supports his head (this is a good 
picture, and the face is fine) ; Sir 
Lawrence Peel, Knt., CJ. The 
inner qnadrangle is 240 ft. from B. 
to W., and 160 ft, frran N. to B. 



Sect. IL 



Fm-t WUlianir-St. PauVt Cathedral. 



93 



The beigbt of the tower b 1 80 ft, and 
Crom the floor to the roof of the bodj 
of the tower is 100 ft. There is a 
garden in the centre quadrangle, ood 
* fountain. 

The SeenTUt Day viil be Bpeatin-vidt' 
tag Fort Wmiam, Bt. Paul's Cathedral, 
the Zoolc^cal Gardens, Belvedere, site 
of the Dael between Wanen Hastings 
and Sir P. Francis, the Hoce Conrse, 
Qarden Beach, and the Palace uf the 
Ein^ ot Awadh (Oudb). 

Jlirf WUlitint was fortified and 
receiTed iU name from the then King 
of England, but its site was changed 
after the battle of Plassey, from that 
which is now occupied by the Post 
Office to the river bant, in 17j7, 
where CUve commenced a new and 
much more formidable fortress, which 
was finished In 1773, and cost two 
ToillitHiB sterling. It is an irr^ular 
octagon, of which G sides look land- 
ward and 3 on the rirer. It is Bur- 
rotinded bj a fosse 80 ft. deep and 
broad, which can be Oiled from t 
river. It monnta 600 guns of varic 
sizes, and can hold a garrison of 
10.000 men, though there are now 
only 2 regiments, 1 English and 1 
N. L, and I battery of artillety. 
There are 6 gates, Chowringhee, 
Plassey, Calcutta, and Water Gate, 
as well as St. George's and the 
Treasury Gate. Opposite the Water 
G)ate is the Qw^i&r Honument, 
erected by I/)td EUenborough, in 
1844, in memory of the officers and 
men who fell in the GwUi4r cam- 
paign of 1843. It was desigQCd by 
Colonel W. H. Goodvtyn, Beng. Bng. 
It is of brick, faced with Jaipiiu' 
marble, anrmounted by a metal cn- 

Cla supported on pillars, and manu- 
itured by Messrs. Jessop k Co. ot 
Caloatta, man guns taken from the 
enemy. It is 66^ ft. high. In the 
centre the names of those who fell at 
the battles of Uah&r&jpik and Fan- 
niar are engraved on a sarcopba- 
gos. There is also a sallyport be- 
tween Water and Bt. George's Gate. 
Entering by Chowringhee Gate, yon 
pais to the Governor's residence, 
used *a a Soldiers' Institnte and Oar- , 
riion School, next which is the Fort 



Chm«h, St. Peter's, bnitt in ISSS. 
The Catholic Chapel, St. Patrick's, 
was bnilt in 1K37. The Military 
Prison is built on a massive store- 
house, on which is a tablet inscribed : 
"This building contains G1,2G8 mans 
of rice, and 20,0234 ™»"8 <>' pa^J. 
which were deposited by order of the 
Governor- General and Connoil, under 
the inspection and chaise of John 
Belli, agent for providing Tictaallii^ 
Stores to this Garrison, in the months 
of March, April, and May, 1782," The 
Arsenal is worth a visit. The Fort 
commands the river, and is a formid- 
able defence to Calcutta. 

St. POHl'ii Oat/iedral^Allet seeing 
the Fort, the traveller will drive to 
Chowringhee, and proceed to the 
S.W., when, after abont a m., be 
will reach the Cathedral of SL Fanl. 
A dexiga for this Cathedral was pre- 
pared so long back as 1819, bnt the 
project lay dormant till renved by 
Bishop Wilson in 1S39. On the 8th 
of October in that year the foan- 
I datiott-stone was laid. The archi- 
tect was Major W. N. Forbes, Beng. 
Eng, The style is Hindd- Gothic, or 
Uotjiic modifled to suit the climate 
of India. In the vestry of the Ca- 
thedral is a large folio MS. volnme 
entitled " Histoiy of the Erection o£ 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta, drawn 
up by the Bev. J. H. Pratt, Bishop's 
Chaplain." This contains a plan of 
tbc Cathedral at page 2G5, and the 
following statement of dimensiomi ; — 
Length of Cathedral, including but- 
tresses, 247ft, ; eitreme breadth, 81 ft,, 
andat transepts, 1 14 ft. ; W. carriage ve- 
randah and entrance, 61 ft X 21ft.6in. ; 
and W. vesHbuIe, 38 ft x 22 ft. ; Tower 
and Lantern, 56 ft. x 42 ft. ; N. tran- 
sept, 44 ft X 28 ft. ; S. transept, 
44 ft, X 28 ft. : body of Cathedral for 
service, 127 ft. x 61 ft. The exact 
measurement of the porch is 60ft. 11 in. 
long, and from N. to B. 20 ft. 8 in. 
brood, while the transepts are 94 ft 
Over the poreh there is a library, the 
books of which were left to the public 
by Bishop Wilson. There Is here sn ' 
excellent bust of that Bisbm), at the 
back of which is inscribed " W. Behnes, 
sculpt, London, 1846." The veitibnle 



9i CalctUU 

ia 36 ft. by 38 It. The body ol the 
Cathedral is 127 ft. x 61 ft., covered by 
an iron tmssed roof, omamcnted wilji 
tracery. The E. window represenfa 
the Cnidfiiion, designed by West It 
cost £4,000, and was given by the 
Dean and Chapter of Windsor. It 
was intended to be given by Qeorgelll. 
to SL George's C^pel, Windsor, bnt 
was not put up there. The Comma- 
nion Flat« was given by the Qneen. 
The organ is by Gray, and the cloclc by 
VaUiamy, The building coat £50,000, 
of which the Bishop gave £20,000, half 
of which, however, went to endow- 
ment. The B. L Co. gave ^£16,000, 
and £12,000 was snbscribed in India 
and £13,000 in Ei^land ; besides this, 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel gave £5,000, and that for the 
Promotion of Cbrietian Knowle<ige, 
£5,000. Lastly, Mr. Thomas Nutt of 
London gave £1,000. The oatside 
gates slide into Uie railings, and it 
is well to know this, as servants . 
struggle to force them open. The W, 
central window is a Memorial Window 
to Lord Mayo. The lantern under the 
tower is 27 ft. »q. 

The architect of the church is buried 
in the vestibule on the right as you face 
the altar. The tablet is inscribed as 
followa : — 

In Memoi? ot 

UAJ0R.OEN. WILLIAM NAIRK FORBBB, 

Of tbA Bengal Kngliieexi, 

The Ardiitect of this Chuich, 

And rtt various other pubUc buildings. 

This tablet ia 8urmoant«d by a fine 
bust of the deceased, with a noble 
forehead and intellectual features, and 
an either side is a female figure, one 
holding a trumpet and a laurel wreath, 
and the other a pen. and a scroll. 
Below is inscribed. 



; CUif. Sect II. 

marble tablet to Ifi officers of the 
Bengal Engioeera, who fell durini- 
the Indian Kevolt in the year 1857-58. 
It is ornamented with 16 bronze mc- 
dnllioiie, representing the heads of the 
officers whose namea are recorded. 
Below is a bronze entablature repn.'- 
sentiiig an officer creeping along a 
bridge and firing the powder bags at 
the Kashmir Gate at Dihli, while sonip 
soldiers arc removing a wounded 
olficer, who has fallen into the ditch. 
Next is a tablet to 15 officers who fell 
in the Bhotftn campaign. NeatisiTery 
elaborate and peculiar monument Af 
the top is seated Justice with her seal ea, 
below which are 2 compartmenta ; the 
first represents a man and a woman 
holding an infant, with an oi between 
them, and a child seated in front of it 
and playing with its feet ; in the 
second an Oriental ia sealed, with a 
camel beside him, and a standing 
figure holding out his hand to him. 
These des^ns are separated by a tree, 
the branches of which canopy Ihn 
figorea. Beneath is the following in- 
scription in gold and old EngliHli 
iettors, cut deeply into the marble, 
and divided inta a compartments : — 
let CompaHmAl. 
In Hsmnt? ot 
JOHN PAXTOS NOHMAS, 
or the Inner Tempte, 
OfflciitiBg Chief JuatLpe of Bengnl. 






nf India. 



So wu bom at Blackford. Aberdaonahln, 

April 3id, ITSa, 

And died n«u Aden, on hla way to En^^ntl, 

May Ut, 1S6B. 
On the side is — 

W. Tbeed, Sept., London, IS!,7. 

On the left eide of the veatibnle is a 

my bsndaome and peculiar black 



2vd Compar/mtrUM 
I TheBH. iv., l-er. 13, 1*. 
Next is a tablet to T officers ot the 
68th Regiment N. I.. " who died during 
the Mutiny of the Native Troops, and 
subsequent operations, from 1857 to 
18S9; some on the field of battle, 
some by the bands of their own fol. 
lowers, others from disease ; all doing 
their duty." 

Then follow tablets to Mr. William 
Ritchie of the Calcutta Bar and Inner 
Temple, a, member of the Conncil of 
the Governor-Oeneral {tim tablet U 



Sect. II. 



Si. FauVi Cathedral 



05 



sunnonnted by a bust, which deserves 
commendation as a work of art) and 
to Major W. Reveley, Beng, Staff 
Corps, and then on the left one to Sir 
H. M. Lawrence, inscribed tw lollows: — 



FT of 



QOUl 






HY MONTGOMERY LAWRENCE, 



Who in thB 
Pujib, RAJnAUni and Ondh, 
Taiufht liow Bodl) " 



ilodly EulilBCt ncei 



in founding 

A Henn-La»reni:e Ueiiiorlal AsylDin 

fnr Soldicra' ChUdran 

At Ifirl In UiB Htll* of tlis PuijUi. 

Thay Blso ersFt tbi( Tablet in tbe Csthedml, 

To keep among thorn hie 

Memorf and EiAiDple, 

This IB a very handsome tablet, and is 

adorned with a medallion parirait in 

white marble. In the centre of the 

left wall of the passage from the 



Lt the haae ot it, painfully low down 
for iboae who wish to read it, is the 
following inscription : — 

luHemorrofthe 

RIQHT HON. J&HEB BRUCE, 

Earl of ElMn and Khicardltie, 

1C.T., ftM.B.1. a.C.R, 

VieeroFand Qovemor-OenBisl o[ India, 

Who died In the sxeouUoa of h[s ulHite 

At DhartnaiUa in Northern India, 

And there Uee buried. 
This Uonuinent is erecttd by the 



Tolii 

.^t the top of the monument is a mc- 
dalliou head of Iiord Elgin, which 
hardly does him jaatlce. Below the 
head are four designs in bronze, with 
the words "Jamaica," "Canade,," 
" China," " India," written at the 
bottom. The first represeuU a white 



man, aplanter or preacher, speakisg' to 
negroes. In the second are European 
woodmen felling trees, while an Indian 
chief in a recumbent attitude, and a 
siioaw with an infant in her arms, ob- 
serve their labours, la the thiid, 
Loid Elgin is addressing a mandarin, 
while a Chinese lays the flag of China 
on the ground. The fourth repre- 
sents a scene in an Indian camp, 
with a tent and elephant in the back- 
ground, and a PAral,) a t<ikh soldier. 
and other Indians in front. Below 
is a black marble slab with the in- 
scription that has been given above. 
It projects about 18 in. from the wall. 
Within the transept are inscriptions, 
the first of which la — 

aiB MOUNTSTUARTQOODHICKE 

JACKSON, B«»T., 

Of the Bengal CIvU Bnrica, 

Araiatuit-Coinmiaaiouer at Sit^pUr In Oudh, 

Who, at the age of ^1, after 

Man; months of privation and Buffering, 



AM^IA OEORGIAXA JACKSON, 

Bister of tbe Bbora, 

Who, in sscanlne bom Sltipftr, 

Was wparated rrom her brotbsr. 

And after endnidng fnc seveml moutlu 

Great soflbrlng and avpoaun, 
Parlsbed at Lakbniui in the nuaaacre. 
On the 24Ui of September, IMT. 
Eldest Bon and daughter ot the late 
Sib KiiTH ALjauNDEa JaOKSOK, Uart, 
Of Arlsej, conntj of Bedford. 
Thenfollows a tablet to Captain Gowatt 
of the 27th Regiment B. N. L, who 
was killed while endeavouring to re- 
call the mutinous Slp&hls of bis own 
corps to obedience. With him lie his 
wife and infant son, murdered by the 
mutineers. At a few feet from the 
a wall, and in the S.E. comer of the 
3. transept, is the tomb of Lady Can- 
ning, brought from Barrackpiir, It 
consists of a platform or base of white 
marble with reddish veins, IH ft. BJiD. 
long and 8 ft. broad, on which is a 
sarcophagus, 10 ft, i in. long, on which 
is inlaid serosa, upon the upper end of 
which Bowers are represented as grow- 
ing. Lower down are 2 coats of arms, 
Hurmounteti with coronets, one of the 
Stuart de Rothesay family, the other 
quartering the Canning arms. The 



96 Ct 

former has in the left top and right 
lower qnarter 3 Moon' heiids, and in 
the othcT quarters a hand, with a etar 
between 2 croscentfl. At the 6. end 
of the sarcoph^ng riBcg a slab 7 ft. 
4 in. high, sarmoonted with a crosB, 
BoQQd Uie Earcophagoa, beginning at 
the S. end, is written, " Sacred to the 
Memory of Charlotte Kliiabeth, eldest 
daogbter of Lord Stoart de Rothesaj, 
• bom at (N. aide) Paris, Slstof March, 
ISIT, died at (E. side) Calcutta, IStli 
of Novembor, 1861, wife of ChwleB 
John Viscount and Eu-l Canning, lat 
Viceroy of India." The inacription 
the headstone is 

Honoim nnd praliieii 

Written on a tomb ue 4t lict 

A TAlD glory, but that her vhuity. 

Be mwepled oTQod, uiil betohM»6lor 

Everlaatlng, ia the Ann tnut of tliosB 

Wlio knew hsr bell 

Loved her In 1K8, and who cheriah 
The 101101017 0' t'*'' departiil. 



rewritten 



The shove 



WeHtmlDBtw Abbojr 

_ 3 Bir Henry 

Miers Elliott, K.C.B., 3rd 8on ol John 
Elliott, Esq., of Pimlico I^odge, 
Westminster, bom March Ist, 1808, for 
26 years a member ot the Civil Service, 
who died at the Cape of Good Hope on 
the 20th of December, 1853, Hged Ifi 
years, and to Sir Richard De la Tour 
St. Geoi^e, Bart., Beng. Art., and Sir 
Bobert Barlowe, Bart, ot the B.C.S., 
who for more tbiui 16 years was a 
jadge of the $adr Court at Calcntta. 
There is also a tablet to Colonel Yule, 
witti an inscription written by his 
brother, of the Council of India, as 
follows ; — 

To the dear and beloved MeoioiT ot 

LIEUT.-COLONBI. ROBERT 

ABERCROUSY YULB, 



Utbehaufothiei 



HU 



S, 



Uiidi 



rrothienllBiitregiineot, 

inlar nlOi the lehol for«ei 

Delhi. 






I hom)^ looked ojiwanla.' 

Also to Bishop Cotton, as follows : — 

GEORGE EDWARL LYNCH COTTON, 

BernnitUeiropotltanlit^Ddla. 

BornOrtoborJ»th, ISIH, 

Conaecnted Hay iglh, 1858. 

Soddenly called to imt In Chrlel, 

October Sth, ISM. 

To the left of this are paintings in 

mosaic : 1st, Our Saviour preaching ; 

3nd, the llight into Kgypt ; Sid, Um 

Adoration of the Magi and the Shep- 

heids ; lth,ttie Aunanciation. To the 

left of these is a tablet inscribed : — 

loMamoiyot 

THE RIGHT REV. DANIEL, 

5th Blahop nfCalriUtta, 

Metropotftaii In India, 

8 jeara Vioar of Islington, and 

Died Juuorf Sad, l&&e. 



Ilda Tablet 



tdbythe 



rmlly.l 



The ascent to the top (d the tower is 
at the S. end of the carriage porch. 
There are first 81 steps to a lauding, 
knd -Uien a wooden mdder with 13 
teps, whence yon come oat on a flat 
urface under the zinc roof, which is 
ery hot when the sun is up. You 
then enter a door and ascend 77 steps, 
very narrow winding staircase, 
with iron steps. At the 66th step yon 
> a landing, and 21 mure take 
you to the open balcony round the 
clock, where are 1 small bells, and a 
large one. The view is extensive. 
Other interesting tablets are the 
following : — 

-■-1 glOUBd, 

itlerorthi 



Norinai 



PATRICK ALBXAMDER TAtTO AQNEW, 




. I'auPs Cathedral — Beltedire. 



?7 



To relltv*, 

Siwlkn MuliA), ViceiOT ot kulUn. 

he rortnu uia nuthorEtv which he hcic 

Wan ntUoked and woimded 

By the ^utIhu 

hI LeiDK Qvocbfiroiulj dfiaert^d by Uit 

Hiklieacart, 

Win, on the fulLowing cUy, 

Nitional ttiVb uid liiiapitality. 



^ui'feU tiien 



nwj oonld oSU DO mlatancc, 

Bat bud In baud 

CUmlT Bw^tod the onset ot their uulksti. 

Nobly Uiey nhiBed to yield. 

ForetsUInc the dur when thoouiult at 

Engliihmen 

Should come to Bveoge their death. 

And dettny Bulm. 

Hla umT and fortren. 

1> bow the 



The uiiHiatlan of tin Fmilb to the 
BrtUeh Br-'- 
Vuthei 



To the I 

Tliere is eXm a tablet ia Ucotgt 
IfontiKambart, Major of H.M.'s 10th 
Regt.of Foot, who gallantly fell in 
action at the Bicge of MaltAu on tbe 
12th of September, 184H : " raised in 
friendship and in regret by hift school- 
fellow, the Earl of Dalhouaie, Governor 
Genetal of Iiidift." and a very hand- 
some one to CoL Kichard Baird Bmitb 
of the Bengal Eninneen, CB. aud 
ai Jo-de-camp to the Queen. The 
iaicription ia B-ritten by Colonel Yule, 
of tie Indian Council ; also one to 
Captain John Peyton Davidaon, who 
fell at hja post fighting nobly while 
in command of the Crag Ficquet, 
Ambela Pasa, November I3th, 1863, 

The Zooisgical Garden*.— These 
ganlenR are near the Lt.-Govemor'a 
[Sngal—lSSi.} 



: home in 'Allpilr, and a curit^ can 
drire through them. There are the 
usual wild beasta, aod a good number 
of birds. The only special cariosity 
is an electric railway, on a araall scale, 
which only nerves to omuee vinton. 
Tbe Menagerie mentioned by Newman 
at BarrackpAr haa been remoTed 
to these gaidenB. 

Selcedere, the Lt.-Gi»:eraer'i Pa- 
laee. — This &ae building stands in 
exleniive and well-kept grounds. There 
are perhaps too many trees aboat the 
house, in consequence ot which the 
moaqoitoes are very nnmerous. On 
reaching the landing-place at the top 
of the stairs, tbeviailor will observe 
some handsome trophies of Indian 
arms, and fu[l-length portraits of 
Sir John Peter Grant and Sir William 
Grey. The drawing-room is 114 ft. 
long, and when oceasion requires ia 
divided off into a dining-room, and 
smaller drawing-room. There is a, 
fine flight of al^ at the S. end, 
descending to theJawn-tennis ground 
aud garden. On the landing at the 
top of these stpps breakfast is gene- 
rally taken. At the W, entrance of 
Belvedere, on the 'Altpiir road, was 
fought the duel between Warren 
Hastings and Sir Philip Francis, in 
which the latter was w>3anded. In 
the En^liilaiuxH of Match 12th, 1881, 
ivill be found some interesting lemarica 
on the subject, 

Jtace GiuTte.—lD driving to Belve- 
dere, the Race Course will be passed 
on the right. The ground is perfectly 
level, and tbe distance is 2 m. Here, 
the Prince of Wales during the month 
of January, lST6,witnesBedan exciting 
steeple-chasB and other races. 

Oardcn Ncaek. — Here we numerous 
fine vilUa. most of which were built 
between 1T(J6 and 1780. tiie house 
of the Messageries Maritimes, and 
that of the P, fc 0. Co, are on the 
banks of the river. Just above 
Garden Keach is the village of 
Eidderpdr, so called after Mr. Kyd, 
who constructed the presant Govern- 
ment Dockywii.* Between 1781 and 
ISai, according to the Calc\iUa St- 



CalciMa Gits, 



SectlL 



vien. No. XXXVI., p. 237, BhipB were I 
built at the EidderpCir Docks, at a cost I 
oC more than 2 milliona stcrlmg, ' 
nnd in 1818, the llattingi, a seventj- 
faur gun Bbip, was launched there. 
At the W. extiemity of Garden Eeaeh, 
or in ita vioiuitj, was situated the 
small fort of 'Alignrh, and opposite to 
it, on tlie other bank of the river, was 
the Fort of Th4D6, both of which 
were taken by Lord Clivo in the re- 
capture of Calcutta, on the 30th of 
December, 1756. Near tie last house 
in Garden Keach, about G m. from 
Calcutta, the BeTenue fiurvejor men- 
tions in 1867, a ditch about a 
hondred feet in breadth, forming 
three sides of a sqnarc, which he 
thouglit had very much the appearance 
of a moat, and may have been the site 
of the 'Aligarh Fort. A short distance 
to the E. of 'Allpiir, and immediately 
S.E. of Calcutta, is the suburb of 
Boliganj, within the limits of the S. 
Saborban Municipality, and the re- 
Fiidenee of many European gentlemen. 
The lines of the Viceroy's Body- 
guard are situated here, and coDSist of 
brick-built ranges of barracks with 

KaighAt, celebrated as the Kite of a 
temple in honour of the goddess Kili, 
the wife of Shira, is situated on the 
bank of the old bed of the Ganges, a 
few m. 8. of Calcutta. The place 
deriTCs sanctity from the legend that 
when the corpse of Sliiva's " 
cut in piecea by order of 
and chopped up by the disc (i-udartiin 
cliakra) of Vijhiin, one of her fingers 
fell on this spot. The temple is 
supposed to have been built about 3 
centuries ago. A member of the 
H^baroa Cbandhii family, who at 
time owned conBiderable estates 
this part of the country, cleared the 
jungle, built the temple, and allotted 
194 acres of land for its maintena: 
A man of the name of Chandlbar 
the first priest appointed to manage 
the affairs of the temple. His descen- 
dants have now taken the title of 
H&ldir, and are at present the pro- 
prietcrs of the building. They have 
nmasBod great wealth, not so much 
from the proceeds of the Temple lands 



as from the daily offerings made by 
pilgrims to the shrine. The principal 
religious festival of the year is on the 
2nd day of the Durgi-piijA, when the 
templeis visited by crowds of pilgrims, 
priocipally belonging to the District 
of the 24 Parganos and the surround- 
ing villBges, 

Palace i-fthe King ofAwadK ( Chtdb). 

Passing over Kidderpilr bridge 

e visitor arrives at the garden gate 
of Ihe King of Awailhs grounds, and 
will there descend from his carri^e. 
He will observe on the wall to the 
right hand a large picture of the 
RDSsiane and French and English 
fighting in the Crimea, perhaps at 
Inkerman. In the lid^ quadrangle on 
the right hand are pigeons, said to 
number uO.OOO, at all events there are 
thousands. On the wall facing the 
visitor is the picture of a semi-nnde 
female, reclining in a garden, with 
several attendants and a sentinel or 
guard. In the 3nd quadrangle is a 
large fish tank. In the itrd quadrangle 
■ ■ a bangld, in the fore part of which 

s fnntftil pigeons, of the kind , 
called Itishml, or silken-tailed, a pair 
of which, according to the guide, are 
worth 1500 te. To the right is a long 
range of cages with very close bars- 
with all sorts of monkeys, one of 
whicbatthe wordof command dances. 
In the 4th quadrangle is a large tank 
of about 2 acres, swarming with every 
kind of water-fowl, cranes, dncka, 
geese and pelicans, and to the right a 
long range of cages which are not 
shewn. On the Ititisafine panther, 
with extremely white paws and chest ; 
next to him a large lion. There is 
also a Dam Dardz, a sort of civet cat. 
In the 5th qnadrangle you are requested 
to put down your umbrella, as being 
neiu' the rooms of His Majesty tlio 
King. Here are ostriches, cassowaries, 
lAmbar or elk)deerand 2 immense turtles 
on which men can stand. Thete is a 
very handsome bangle here, into which 
visitors are not allowed to enter. Tho 
visitor will now walk some distance 

EBKt one or two more banglAs, where 
ittiees conceal the inmates. At .ibont 
t ra. further on is the Snake House, 
The earth has been excavated to the 



SMtn. 



St. John'* Cathedra/. 



depth of 5 ft The sides are brickc:! 
u>d chnnftmcd over, nnd the wall rieei 
1 or 2 fL above Hie (trunud, A snake 
conlil hardly ascend the polinhed but- 
face. At 2 ft. from the wall is s 
gig«atic rockcty, with hanilrcils of 
beeldve-lookiiig compartments, closed 
in, wiih only a rouuil apcrlore of about 
Sin.iliametetinench. Here thousands 
otserpentBlive. fiunic shew half their 
hollies, and othera only the eud of the 
Isil or heail, otheni arc nri(rf;liiii: ap 
and down the buildinff- which U IS ft. 
high ill the centre. Here and Uiuro is 
A Ui^ cage with iron bars, in ivliicli 
tire the iatgo serpents, bon-eonstrietorB 
and the rock snakes. Often the larger 
siiaicH are Been to swallow the Bmaller 
ones, and appear with a toot or two of 
the bodies of their victims hanRing 
from their mouths. There is n small 
liaiiglA bore, with some xery bcimti- 
fiillycolonredsnakcsinglasseB. Visitors 
are not allowed to see the King, who, 
however, romelimos drives out in the 
public promenade. 

The Third Day will be occapied 
in seein;; IJt. John's Cathedral, the 
New Post Office, the Xew Telegraph 
Oflice, the Old Fort, the Memorial of 
the Black Hole Hassncrc, the Calcutta 
University, the Greet and Armenian 
Churches, the Brahma Somiij, the 
Hcotcb Kirk, and the Old Mission 

St. JahH't Gj/ if (fcni.— Called the 
Old Calhodi»l. which stands to the W. 
of Chtii-ch Lane before you come to 
the General Post Office. Council House 
Streetis written on the S.E. gate pillar. 
The compound is shadeil with many 
trees. On the S. side of the compound 
is a long shed in which the pankbdfi 
are hung, when not uNcd in the church. 
Outside Ihe ehnrch to thoN. of the 
W. entmncc is a <lonie(l jinvilion 
about SU ft. high, with 12 pitlnrs. The 
platform of this pavilion is -1 ft. .1 in. 
from the ground, and is 28 ft. (• in. in 
ditimctcf. Itwa* erected in pommemii- 
railon of those who fell in the fii-st 
Af gh&n war, hat strangely enough there 
is no inscription. The church, which 
is a fac-simile of the one destroyed by 
Sirijn'ddanlah when he took Coleutta, 
Was built in 1787, uid consecrated on 



the 21th of June in that year by a 

special aet of consecration, sent out 
by the I'rimate. The Revd. W, John- 
stone and S. Blanchaid were the first 
chaplains. The compound might be 
made very ornamental, being shadv 
and with a considerable extent of 
grass, but ithas been terribly neglected, 
and the N. end is generally filthy and 
covei'ol with ru))liiBli. At thb part 
is an octagonal pavilion, containing 
some remarkable epitaphs to be men- 
tioned preseutly. The tower is covercl 
with a Lrown-colonred plaster, which 
is very unsightly. 

from the altar on the K. to the kitre 
vestibule on the W.Ul(Wft.8in. and the 
vestibule is 26 ft. 7 in., so that the total 
length is 136 ft. 3 in. The breadth from 
N, to a is 70 ft. There is no transept . 
The galleriea contain leats for 2r.7 
persons. The organ is in the gallery 
facing the pulpit and the communion 
table. The pulpit is inlaid with 
marble, and there is a very fine slain cil 
glass window above the e 



rs. 1 8-1,836. Tlieru are seats for83(J 
per«onH. 

On either side the church is 
divided by k> Corinthian pillars and a 
pilaster, whitened with ohunam. Then- 
arc entranees under fine porches 
to K. and W. That on the K. has H 
lofty ^)illn^s, and the ri>of i.f Ihe W. 
porch IS supported by 12 pillars. The 
W, vestibule has on the right as you 
enter an inscription, which says Gene- 
ral Claud Martin Ipft the interest of 
HMXK) iv. (o the poor of Calcutta. 
On the opposite wall is a laiTje picturi! 
of the Loril's Supper, painted and pif- 
aenleil to Ihe church by Si r John Zoffanv, 
in which the AiKwtles arts all portraj'ts 
of certain well-known inhabitants of 
Oaleutta. The head of Our Saviour is 
said to have been taken from a Greek 
cleigymun, called Parthenio, and St. 
.lohn from Mr. Bhiquire, the well- 
known police magistrate. In the 
vesiry, wliich ia on the right as yon 
enter the vestibule, there is a plan of 
tlie ground floor of the church, and a 
large map of Calcutta, done in 1847-43 
by Fred. W. Sim, C.E. There arc 
B 2 



t^_ 



„) Calcutta Citff. 



CottoD, Daoiel Wilson, Bishop of Cal- 
cutta, W. C. Brownhead, W. R. John- 
•tone, 1847, John Ward, 1S08. 

In this church mtd ile compound are 
the oldest and moat intereetiiig tablets 
to be found in Calcutta ; amongst these, 
nithia the church, are those \n Lt. and 
Adjutant Robert Harvey Tumbull, 
killed in action 'with the Cho&n, on 
the Ist of JanuaiT, 1833; to Captain 
and Brevet Mnjor Jnhu Qriffln, who 
fell at the battle of Flrd^ahahr on the 
21st of December. 1945; to Colonel 
W. C. Faithful, C.B. ; Captain Jdin 
Martin, lost in the Protectav in n gale 
off the Rands Heads, October, 1838; 
also to James Pattle ol the B. C. S. 
and his wife ; Sir Benjamin Heath 
Malkin, one of the jud^s of the Su- 
preme Court ; to Lieiit.-Col. T. J. An- 
quetil, who was killed at Jagdallak 
while commanding Sh&hSbitj&'sforce, 
on the 22nd of January, 1842; loLieut.- 
Colonel James Achillea Kirkpatrick, 
who waa 9 years Resident at IJaidar- 
dbid, at a very important period, and 
died at Calcutta, October ICth, 180B ; 
to Lieut. Peter Lawtie, who, disguised 
as a native, first penetrated the passes 
into Ntpdl, and mainly contributed to 
the Tictories of Sir David Ochterlony, 
bj the officers of whose army this 
monument was raised; to Bishop Corrie, 
Archdeacon of Cakutta and Bishop of 
Madras, the friend and fellow-labourer 
of Henry Martjn ; to the Rev. Lloyd 
Lorir^, first Archdeacon of Calcutta ; 
to Bishop Turner of Calcntta ; to 
Sir Charles Blunt, Bart., who died at 
Faltah, Kcptember 29th, 1802 ; to 
William Batterworth Bayley, some 
time Oovemor-General, and Henrietta 
Francis, his daughter, wife of J. S. 
Campbell ; to John Adam, member of 
the BupremeCouncil, acting Oorernor- 
GeneratfromJasaar; to August, 1S23; 
to Bishop Cotton, of Calcutta, drowned 
at Eusbteah in 1866. In the com- 
pound in the pavilion, at the N. end, 
IB a tablet to William Hamilton, who, 
in 1717, baving cured the Emperor 
FarrukhsiTar. obtained for the E. I. 
Company the r^bt of importing their 
goods free of daty, and other gw»t 



Uodci thii BtoiK 1th iDlHisd 

the Bod^ of 

VILLLLH HAHILTON, 

Who Oe^i^ tbla Jifs 

The llth ufDMsniber, ]7ir. 

Els Memoir ouBlit tn lie dear to this Katlon, 

Fnr tha cnait be gsined the EugliBh 

The jireieDt King oT Indostin. 

Ur 1 tnolignuit diitemper, 

By whttsh he nude his own n&iDe fftmoiu 

At UiB Court oT that Oreiit Uoiuroh. 

And, wltlwnt a dcnibt, 

Vill perpetuate hia Memoir 

Ab wan in Onit Britain 

Aa all other Nations in Europe, 

There is also the same inscription in 

Persian. 

Close to this is a tablet to Job Chnr. 
nock, one ot the first Oovemors of 
Bengal 

J0BU8 CH A KNOCK, Abhioih, 



HortalitatJa auH'. ei 



MARIA JoU ptimogei 
Cuoli Vyn AnKlnnii 



At about no yds. to the W, is n domed 
buildinfc, sup|)oi-ted outside by i pillars, 
and inside by several moi«. The fol- 
lowing is the inscription ; — 



And was bnm the iOth or April, 17S3 
In 173fi Hhe iiilennarried wllh 

Nephew of Mr. Bisddil, ' 

The Govsmgr of Calcutta, 

By whom she had two chUdiMi, 

Who died Inlbnta. 

Her second HoAband wu 

JiHES ALtBiX of Calcuttn, Esqj, 



St.J<Ah'g Cathedral. 



101. 



Bhs ne« IntMituuTlcd with 

The Henlor llemtwr ot the 

Supreme CoundloTBeDEiil, 

By wham *be bad ienie torn ctuidren : 

Amut. vhonuTted 

The Right Hon. CnxBin Jehkihsoh, 

Afterwuda Earl of LlTarponl, 



Nov Eul ot LlTen 



loir Eul o( LlTernool, etc.,ft< 

_}«ABD, now of Hunilope Pi 

In tlie Couu^ of Bnclu, Eh. 

BoTBiA.Utt tfae wUe. 

And now the widow cif 

Ohoboe Fonm Hickettb, 

Lite Oovemor or Burbiili: 

And W1U.11H, who died an i 

After the deetli at !Ur, Wattk eh^ 



E«|.. 



PiwidencT of Fort 

She dlad on the Snl of Febnuin-, 1 

The oId«n British nident Is Beogul, 
Cnivermllj beloml, respected and revered. 
A few Tarda to the 8, is the tomb of 
AdmiiaJ WBtaon, who widi Clive re- 
took Calcutta. It has a large Bquare 
b(ue supporting an obelisk, inscribed 
aa follows ; — 

Han Met interred the Bndr of 

CHARLES WATSUN, Eau., 

Vlce-Adminl of the White, 

CommandfT-ln-ChiefirfHfe M«lestT'< 

Naval Forces In the Eatt Indies. 

Who departed thla life 
On the Jfltii dajr of August, 



The mw Poit OiKw.— This is one 
o( the flneit bnildinea in Calcatta. It 
looks B. on Dalhonsie Square, formerly 
Tank Square, and H. on Koilah Qhiit 
Street. The gronnd floor covers 
*9,*71 sq.ft., and the flretlloor29,713ft., 
the remainder being covered by out- 
ofiees. It cost 630,610 ts., and occa- 
pies an area of 103,100 Bq. fC, is on 
the site of the S. face of the old fort, 
and WM opened in 1870. At the 8,E. 
corner ig a lofly dome, supported on 
an octa^oal base and 2S Oorinthiaa 
pillars. Prom floor to spring of arch 
11 101 ft. 9 in., the tower itself being 
130 ft. 11 la. high. The front towaids 



DrdhooBie Square has II pillars, and 
that tflwarda the Koi!ah Qh&t Street, 
12, all Corinthian. According to thu 
Government plan, the site of the Block 
Hole is marked by the 3rd and 4th 
pillars in the side fronting the Square, 
countingfi'omN.toS. rhisBide,theE., 
is ICO ft. long, excluaive of the tower, 
which has a diameter of 90 ft. The 8. 
side is Sir, ft. long, aud the W. 210 ft 
The building ia 2-storied, and was 
built frotn the deei^ns of Walter B. 
Granville, Gov. Arch. Under the lan- 
tern is a tofCy circular hall, in which 
are the public letter-boxes. The rotans 
of the Postmaster- General are up- 
stairs in the 2nd story, aud those of 
the Presidency Postmaster on the 
ground floor to the N. of the entrance. 
On the 30th of November, 1880, there 
were emploved in the Calcutta General 
Post Office building 5G8 clerks and 129 
servants. There were delivered in that 
year from liie CalcuttaPostOffioe letters, 
postcaids, newspapers, books, pattern- 
parcels, 4,359,239. In 1877-78 there 
were 6,798,615, but in the next year a 
great amount of the work was done by 
postmen attached to sub-offlces, so 
that there is no real falling ofE, but a 
steady increase at the Bub-offices. 

T/w JVerrt Telegraph OJ^ce is also a 
rer; fine building. It stands at the 
S. corner of Dalhonsie Square. It was 
.commenced in 1873, but was not 
1 opened till 1876. The building stands 
I on a plinth 4 fL G in. high, and is itself 
' 6S ft, high. The tower, which stands 
on the K. side, is 120 ft. high. The 
main block, which faces Dalhousie 
Square, and the B. wing, have 3 stories, 
^d the other wings have 2 stories 

The neuuiiiu 0/ tlie Old /lirt.— The 
first Fort William lay between Tanks- 
hall Street, now Eoilah GhA^ Street, 
on the S., aad Fort Gh&f Street, now 
Fairhe Place, on the N. Its W. side 
fronted the river, and its E. Old Fort 
Street, now Dnlhousic Square. The E. 
and W. sides were longer than the S., 
and that longer than the N. Enter- 
ing the N. gate of the present Poet 
oSce, and walking to the W., about 
80 ft., you come to what remains ot 
the S. curtain of the fort, which ii in 



102 

the Bhape of a St. Andrew's Croge, sncl 
is 172 ft. lon|:r, and 61 tt 6 in. broad, 
divided into 2 parts lengthways. The 
part where yoa enter ia 21 ft, broad, 
and the other 22 ft. G in. The wall ia 

3 f i 6 in. brond, and made of bricks, 
uow bard as a rock. There is a row of 
arches 10 ft. high in the wall where 
you enter, and also in the partitioo 
wall that has been made lately. The 
place is now used as a workshop, with 
stables at the W. end. Here were the 
barracka, which, according to Holnell, 
were open to the W. by arches corre- 
sponding to the arches of the veraiid^ 
without. Accordini; to some antho- 
ritiea the Black Hole was at the 2nd 
arch where you enter. 

Tie Memnrial of tlie BUck Hole 
MoMoorc. — A monument was erected 
to those who perished in the Black 
Hole in June, 17r>6, by their survivinR- 
feltow-suSerer, J. Z. Holwell. Ibis 
Memorial was removed by the Harquis 
of Hastings, owing to some weak scru- 
ples. It is now to be restored near 
the lamp iu front of the Post Offlce. 
which is supposed by some to be the 
place where the Black Hole was. The 
monument consists of a fluted obelisk 
on an octagonal base, ascuuded t^j by 

4 steps, cauh \Q\ in. high. The base 
itself is 11 ft. high, and the obelisk 
33 ft., and i^ ft. diameter at bottom. 
Thereare 2 inscriptions on the base, 
which is 17 ft. broad, and with the 
footings 25 ft., with an urn at each of 
the i comers ; that on the front of the 
monument is ns follows ; — 



Calcutta CUy. 



tlinnni, tbe nenediiis moniiog, into tta 
ditch ot ths IteTclin at this pUec. 
Tlilt Uouoment 



OlptniUB 

BlLLjlltY ; EuslgllH FAI.-I 

PiBKEE, C*l 



], UoD, DALRTxru: : 



. WEDI>EIlllf 



DtmaLEroii : Meii 



with iundry other inb.biUuta, Militur .nd 
Milita.lo the number of lis r«™>nH,wRre,liv 
ttn tyisunli! violence of aiiiiu 'il daiiliL 
ubs of Bennl, ■uRbGatid In the BUek Hole 
Prlgoa of Fort Wlllliiin, in the nigbt of [he 
20th Aaj ot Juno, ITM, ind promlseuouilx 



Ta£. 



Bs HIB UsjHtj'B A 
Under the coml Di 



PfUcatla, Unitrrtity Senate Jloiue. — 
Tlie traveller will drive along Lower 
Cbitpir Boart and Kalntollah Street to 
Cullepi Square, to (be N.W. of which 
lie will find the Presidency CoUcge, 
Hare School, and the Cnleutta Uni- 
versity. The University Senate Hon^c 
is a grand hall 120 ft. by 60 ft., in 
which the ConYOcalions for conferrinji 
degrees take place. It has a noble 
porlico, ascended to by a fine Sight of 
BtepB, and supported in front by 6 lofty 
piliars._ Close by ia the Hare School, 
which is sel F-snpportiiig, and is a hand- 
some buildinR, creeled ont of the 
Burplas tees ot students. The Hindii 
College was founded in 1821, and 
opened ill 1827. Ilie total cost wan 
170,000 rs. In the year ISBB it was 
merged in the Presidency College. The 
fotmdation atuno of the new buildii^ of 
this CoUege was laid in 18T2 by Sir 
Oeoi^ Campbell. 

The Greek Chwcli.—fMrtihtg to the 
W. down Canning Street, the traveller 
will come to the Greek Chnrch. built 
ill 17tJ0 by Bobscription, Hr. Won'mi 
Hastings heading the list with 2,O0Oi'k. 

The JriHeiiian Clmrck of tH. A'aza- 
reti U closu by. It was foonded in 
1724, and 10 j'eara after a steeple was 
added, and otbec improi'emcntE were 
made in 179(1. 

The Itaman OtthoHa Catheiral is in 
Portuguese Church Idne. It is dedi- 
cated to the Virgin Marv, of Botario. 
It cost <H>,000 ra., of which two-thirds 



contributing the largest proportion. 
It is built on the site of an old briek 
chapel, erected In 1700. The Brat 



Sect. II. The Srdhma SomdJ~OId Mission Churdi. 



Htone of the new building waa laid 
13111 at Match, 1797. 

The Br&hma Som^ is the reformed 
Theistic sect of Hindiie, and has set- 
tlements at Hanrah (Hourah), Kod- 
nagBT, Bawai, B&Iuti, Baidjab&ti, 
ChJTunirah. Hugll, and Chandranagar. 
The sect has very little hold on the 
rural population, the memberB being 
Kenerall; men of good sncial position. 
In Hugli District they number about 
1 200 (see " Staliaticnl AccODnt of Ben- 
gal," vol. iiL p. 293). The eect was 
founded b; Ri-ji B6m Mohan Bai, in 
1S30, when he purchased a house in 
the Chitpdr !Road, and endowed it 
with a small fimdfor the maintenance 
3f public worship, which he placed in ' 
the hands of trustees. The deed 
stated that " no sermon, preaching;, 
discourse, prajer, or hjmns be deli- 
vered, made, or nsed in sach worship, 
but BQch aa have a tendency to the 
promotion of the contemplation of the 
Anthor and Preeeirer o£ the oniverso, 
to the promotion of charity, morality, 
piety, benevolence, virtue, and the 
BtreT^thening of the bonds of nnion 
between men of all religions persaa- 
sions and creeds." In 1868, Keshab 
Chandra Sen joined the Som&j, being 
then 20 years of age. In 1862 he was 
ordained minister o£ the Calcutta 
BrUima Somaj. In October, 18fi6, hi 
secession took place, and next year 
new body was organized by Eeshab, 
entitled the Brdhma Somfij of India, 
and in January, 1S68, the first Btonc 
was laid of a new chun^ for the pro- 
gitissive Brdhmas or Keshab Chandra 
Wen's party. In 1872, on the applica- 
tion of Keshab, Sir John Lawrence 
jutssed the Nalive Marriatje Act, which 
enacts that the parties must be un- 
married, the bridegroom and bride 
must have completed the age of 18 and 
H years respectively, must not be re- 
lated within certain d^rees, and if 
under 2), except in the case of a 
widow, must have the written consent 
of parent or guardian. In the " Br^- 
ma Pocket Almanac," printed at 249, 
Bow B&zir Street, will be found a 
chronological table of the chief events 
with regard to this sect. 
Tht Hooteh Kirk, or St. Androm't, ii 



_ _ of the Old Court Honse. 
called by the natives L4rd $Sl)ib Ki 
Girjah, Lord Sahib'f ChnrcL This 
refers to the Countess of Loudon 
and Moira, wife of the Marquis of 
Hastii^B, who was present when the 
fonndation-stone was laid on the SOth 
of November (St. Andrew's Day), 
1815. It was opened on March 8th, 
1818. It cost £20,000. To the N. and 
a. are vast porticoes, the roofs sup- 
ported by lofty pillnrs of the Doric 
order, arranged in groups of i, 2, G, 2. 
This church sends a representative to 
the Oeneial Assembly at Edinbui^h. 
It seats BOO pci'sone. The organ is by 

I Gray and Davison, and coat 10,000 rs. 

I in 18S8. The clock cost 5000 rs. in 

^he vestry there is a portrait 

of Dr. .Tames Bryce, the first minister, 

by Sir John Watsoa Gordon. There are 

handsome monnmenta within ttie 



The Old MUtvm Chvrcb. — This 
Chuteh is called the L41 Girjah, or 
Hed Chureh, by the Indians. This, 
with the parsonage and the office of 
the Chotch Missionary Society, is in a 
pretty compound in Mission How. It 
IS 125 ft. long from E. to W. and 81 ft. 
10 in. broad, and seats 450 persons. It 
was built by the celebrated missionary 
Johana Zacharias Kiemander, who 
vas bom at Azted, in Gothland, in 
Iweden, on the 2l8t of NoveOibcr, 
711, and educated at the University 
of Upsal. Being oSered a post as mis- 
sionary, lie left England m the Col- 
chettfr, Indiaman, on the 29tb of 
April, 1740, and married Miss Weadela" 
Fischer on the 29tb of September, 
1758, and opened a school in Calcutta 
on the 1st of December in that year. 
Having lost his wife, lie next married 
Mrs.AnneWattey,on the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, 1762, At her death she left 
valuable jewels, with which be founded 
a school. He called his Church Beth 
•Tephillah, " House of Prayer." When 
blind he was deceived into signing a 
bond, which ruined him. The church 
was seized by his creditors, bnt re- 
deemed by Mr. Charles Grant for 
10,000 rs. Ho then went to Chinsurah, 
and died there in 1799. There ii « 



104 CaleutU 

CI engra^Dg of him ia Uie Stinion 
m, nitb an inscription in Oerman. 
There are manj inUreating tablets in 
the chnrch. particnlarlj one to Hr. 
Charles Grant, aod one to the Eev. 
Heniy Hart;n, also to Bishop Dealtrj 
ot Madras, to Bishop Wilson, and io 
an Arab lady of diBtinction, who was 
converted to Christianitr : the inscrip- 
tion oa which is as follows ;— 
Ereclwl by ■ Friend 
Tn the Heraorr of 
WALIU'N Sisl BI'OAll, 
A native DtJedda, 
AaddAnghKrnfktfilL 



Ske founi^^°ln 



She died et VqnlUdlMd, 
DecMoter 8th, 1S76. 

CiLCDTTA. 

The Lalhowiie Iiulitvte stands on 
the S. side of Dalhonsie Sqnare, and 
was built ' ' to contain within its walls 
statnes and busts of great men." The 
foundation-stone was laid on the Itb 
of March, 1866, but the entrancf-por- 
tico preceded it, having been bnilt in 
, 1834. It contains a statue o£ the Mar- 
quis of Hastings, by Chantray, in- 

Id honour of the Uoct Koble t3i« 
MAHQUia OP HASTINOe, - ' 



From 



if British ladlB, 
of Our Lonl 



Erected hi the 
litiBb inhabltinU of CiIcuttL 
lall is lined with marble, and 
ts 90 X is. It contains a statue 
of the Jlarqnis of Dalhousie, by Steele, 
R.&A,, and one of the Bight Hon. 
James Wilson, and a bust of Edward 
E.Tenables, indigo planter, 'Ai^irngsfh, 
by the some artist. Also a bust of 
Brig.-General Neil, C.B,, and of Major- 
Oeneral Sir Henry Havelock, Bart., by 
Noble ; and busts of Major-Oener^ 
Sir James Outram and Brig.-Qenetal 
John Nicholson, who led the ttorm at 
Dihli, by Foley. 

T/U SeoretariaU.—Ttat noble bnild- 
ing itanda on ttw N. ude ot Dalhooiie 



; City. Sect II. 

Square, and occupies the rite ot the 
Old Writers' Buildings, where bo many 
illnstrions Indian ij talesmen com- 
menced their pnblic career. The 
fagadc is 875 ft. long, nod it ia 2 
stories Mgh. 

Tie l^Tth Day may be spew by 
the traveller in visiting the Aaatic 
Society, the Indian Museum, Ht. 
Thomas's Boman Catholic Uhnrch, the 
Mosqne ot Prince Obuldm Mn))sm' 
mad, the Ekmnomiotl Huseam, end 
the Hint. 

The Aitiatie Smietg is at 67, Park 
Street. This institotion waa eatab' 
lished in 1784, There are now 855 
members. The entrance fee is 33 rs. 
The subscription for members residing 
in Calcutta is 9 ra. a quarter. For 
those residing in the IKstricts, it is 
B n. ; for foreign members, 4 ra. All 
these subscriptionB may be com- 
poanded tor, by a payment ot 300 rs. 
There is a meeting on the 1st Wednes- 
day of every montti, except in Sep- 
tember and October, when Ok Boomn 
are closed. The " Asiatic Researches " 
began to be issaed in 1788, and went 
ontoJB39. The " Journal "btganix 
1832, and from that time to 1839, both 
publications were issued. Each num. 
bcr of the "Journal" costs 2 rs., but 
to members 1} re. The curiosities hare 
all been sent to the Indian Mnsenm, 
where the Society was to have had 
rooms. This having been denied to 
them, Qoverament made a grant to 
the Society of \)j likhs in compen- 
sation. A catalogue of the pictures, 
ftc. is being prepared. The Library 
consists of 16,000 volumes. 

The Indian MvtMm ia at 27, Cbow- 
ringhcc Boad. It ia an immense build- 
ing, and from its enormous weight and 
the want of solidity in the ground on 
which it is built ,the walla have cracked 
in the centre from top to bottom. It 
was founded by Act XVII. of 1866, 
re-euacted by Act XXII. of 1876. It 
is governed by trustees, of whom the 
Home Becreta^,the Accoantant-Oene- 
ral, the President of the Asiatic Society, 
and the Superintendent of the Geologi- 
cal Survey are ex officio members. Five 
other members are nominated by the 
Viceroy, and four by the Asiatic Bo- 



Sect. IL Indian Mvteum — St. Tliamafi R. 0. Church. 



ciely i three arc elected by the TruE- 
tees. It is closed from the 1st to the 
IGth of May, aud from the 1st to the 
16th of November, «nd on FridajB. It 
id open oa all other dajs, inclading 



a 10 a. 

the 1st of February to the Ist of No- 
yember, and for the Other moQthB from 
10 A.M. to i P.M. There are on an 
averse 1170 native Tisitora a day and 
TOO EnropeaTU a month. On the 
gronnd-floor is averyfine collection of 
Fowila, Minernln, and Rocks. On the 
1st floor ie the Qcological Gallery, also 
Ten- rich in apecimena, the Library, 
tmd Offices. There ia also a Oaltcry of 
Antiquities well worth inspection, par- 
ticulnrly those bronght from Bharhnt. 
(See Fer^sson'a Hist, of Arch., pp. SB 
to 91, 1S5 and 168.) A popular Qnidc 
to the Geological Collections is in 
cootse of being printed, and 6 nnm- 
bera hare already appeared : No. 1., 
TertiBjy Vertebrate Animals, by H. 
Lyddeker, B.A. ; No. n.. Minerals, by 
F. R MaUet ; No. lU., Meteorites, by F. 
Feddery. Other nmabera will follow, 
and may be now seen in manaecript. 
Amongst the Siwalik Fogsil Re- 
mains, obaerro the Hysenaretos or 
Hyiena-BeoT, the AmpMcyon, a dog- 
like animal as large as the Polar bear, 
the Mochairodna or Sabrc-tooth tiger, 
whose canine teeth were 7 inches long, 
also the Siwalik cat, which was at 
least as large as a tiger — it is distin- 
gnished by a ridge running along the 
upper part of the aknll. Amongst the 
American Edentata remark the Mega- 
lonyx, long-nailed animal, and the 
Glyptodon, a gigantic armadillo, whose 
armour waa all of one piece, so that it 
conldnotrollitselfnp. There is the ske- 
leton of a M^athenam brought from 
America, and one of an elephant lift. 
high; also of Hodson's antelope, whose 
2 homa seen in a line were thought to 
belong to a nnioom. Amongst Siwalik 
birda there are the ahank-bone and the 
bieast-bone of a wading-bird as big as 
an ostrich. This bird has been called 
the Megaloacelornis, and these bonea 
are the only ones belonging to thia 
species existing in the world. In the 
wall case at the W. end of the Upper Pa- 
Iwintological Qslleiy, there are many 



of the Whon species, also c 
length. There are the jaws of the 
BaJsnoptera indica, which must have 
belonged to a fish between 80 ft. and 
90 ft. long. These are on the N. side 
of the 1st floor, and at the end of Hie 
same Qallery are a tiger and lion 
fighting, very well set np. ObBeTTC 
also the remains of the Crocodilns crss- 
sidens, an eitinct species of enormous 
dimeoaions. There is also a specimen 
of the Siwalik Colossochelya, a gigantic 
tortoise of prodigious size. It will be 
noticed that whereas all the ^tecie» 
and many of the genera of the Siwalik 
Mammals and Birds are entirely dif- 
ferent from those inhabiting the earth, 
all the genera of the Beptiles have 
living repreacntatives in India. The 
Collection of the Fossil Vertebrata of 
the Biwaliln is the most complete and 
comprehenaive in the world. 

As to Minerals, it may be said that 
most of the diamonds exhibited are 
Indian, from Bandalkhand, S. Indin, 
and Samhhalpiir. There are also models 
of the moat celebrated diamonds, anch 
as the Regent, the moat perfect bril- 
liant in eiiatence, the Koh i Niir, the 
Great Nijim, &c., all of which were 
obtained in India. Amongst the Me- 
teorites, remark the Model No. 16, at 
one which fell on the 23rd of Jann- 
aty, 1870, at Nedagolla, 6 m. 8. of 
P^rvatipiir, in the Madras Presidency. 
The original weighed over 10 !li. 
There is a portion of the original 
weighing Toi. 260'8gr., numbered 90, 
in the collection. It is the only Indian 

Sf. Tkoma>' Stman Catholic Charch. 
— This is a handsome building, and is 
in Middleton Row, not far friDm the 
Indian Mnseum ; it was commenced 
in 1811, the first stone being laid on 
the 1 1th of November. It has 3 marble 
altars, of which the central one is soT- 
mounted by a fine stained-glass win- 
dow. Close by is the Convent of Our 
Lady of Loretto. 

The Mmqve nf Printe GhulAm Sfu- 
liammad.—^rbiB is the fineat Mosqne in 
Cfllcntta, and stands at the comer of 



lOS , Calcutti 

Dharamtollii Street, aadmaj be eiflited i 
when driving up Cbowringhee, from i 
which it ia conepicnoaa. It is in- j 
actibod, "This Masjid was erected 
during the GovemmeEt of Lord Aack- 
land, G.C.B., by the Prince Ghulim i 
Muijamtuad, «an of tbe Ute TipA $al- : 
tan, in gratitude to God, and in com- ! 
memoration of the Honourable Court | 
of Directore granting him the arrears | 
of his sHpend in 1840." I 

T!ie Ecanomieal Mnmvm Those I 

who desire to study the products of 
the country may visit thoa Museum, 
which adjoins the Custom House, and 
contains an interesting collection of 
mineral and vegetable specimens, and 
also samples of native manufactures. 
It was founded by Sir O. Campbell in 
1873. Close by at the S.W. comer of 
Hare Street is the 
' Metcalfe Hall, foMTiAtA in honour of 
Sir C. Metcalfe, by subscription and 
contributions from the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society and the Cal- 
cutta Public Library, which are here 
located. The 1st stone was laid on the 
iOthof December, 18iO, and the struc- 
ture was finiehed in 1844. The design 
is copied from tbe Portico of the 
Temple of the Winds at Athens. The 
entrance is on the B., under a roofed- 
in colonnade. There is a fine bust 
of Sir C. Metcalfe facir^ the en- 

The!iri:tt.—¥Tom the Metcalfe Hall 
the traveller will drive along the bank 
of the river to the Mint, which i 
the W. end of Nimtolla Street It 
built ill 1824^0, the architect being 
Major W. N. Forbes, B.K. The fouu 
dations are 25 ft. <leep. ITie style i( 
Doric, the central portico being i 
copy in half size of the Temple of 
Minerva at Athens. The area of the 
building and grounds is 18J acres. 
The building is in two separate blocks; 
that to the S. is called the Silver Mint, 
and the N. block added in 1865 is tbe 
Copper Mint. On the left is a large 
building occupied by the Mechanical 
Engineers, and one on the right by tt 
Military and Police Guard. Beyond 
a tank, and on the opposite side of the 
road is thehouse of th e Warder in chargt 
of the Mint Gate, who receives visitors 



; City. Sect. II. 

and sends a man round with tbeqi. The 
Bullion D£p6t is first shown, whetc 
the blocks of silver are severed by the 
steam-hammer. The Melting Room 
comes neit, where the silver is fused 
in plumbago crucibles. In 3 hoars 
the metal becomes liquid, and the cru- 
cibles are then lifted oat of the fur- 
naces by cranes, swung round, and 
poured into iron moulds. The ingots 
are then dipped into cold water. Next 
comes the Gas Meltin;; Rooms, where 
the furnaces aiC heated with gas. Here 
quailrangle, in the centre of which 
the Bullion Vaults. Nest comes 
the BulUon Room, where the silver is 
weighed and brought to the quality 
required by law, that is, 11 parts uf 
pure silver and 1 of copper alloy. In 
this room is a marble bust of Major- 
Oeneral Forbes. Nest eomes anoier 
Melting Room, and nest a room where 
the ingots are drawn out intn strips 
of one-sixteenth of an inch. The cop- 
per cakes arc similarly treated. After 
this the metal goes to the Rolling 
Room, where it is reduced to the pro- 
per thickness, and then to the Cutting 
Room, where a pnnch forms the metal 
into round pieces the size of a coin. 
These pieces are sent in bags to the 
next department, where they are 
milled, and then sent on to be an- 
nealed, in which process they are 
heated in furnaces to a red heat, when 
they are dipped in acid, which makes 
the surface bright. Tlie next is the 
Coining Department, where there are 
12 screw presses in one room and 14 
lever presses in another. The former 
strike tbe blanks and give the proper 
impression, while in the other the 
impression is raised. In the next 
Boom are the Automaton Balances, 
where the coin is brought to 180 gra. 
weight. Neit comes the Eiigravers' 

Charities. — Amongst charitable es- 
tablishments, one of the most interest- 
ing is the Women's Workshop, at 294, 
Old Bfiuir Street. The object is not 
so much charity as to encourage habita 
of industry. The rates charged for 
work are not higher than those paid 
to the regular tailors. Lists of cloth- 
ing, vrith chaiges for the work, are 



Sect. II. 



Botanical Gardens' — Bishop't Cdltge. 



107 



■•b ninablo at the Workshop, where 
1 rdere will bo received by the Super- 
intendeiit. 

SiffhU in tit: Ttdaity of Calcutta. — 
The BotanicalGardent, on the W. bank 
of the riTET. opposite 'Allpdr, were 
founded in 1786, on tlie BugRestioii of 
General Kjd, who was appointed to 
be the fir^t Superintendent. His bhc- 
cesaors, Boiburgh, Wallioh, Griffilh, 
Falconer, Thomson, and Anderson, 
liBTc all been celebratwl botanists. 
The visitor may drive to the Gai'denn 
from Haurah or cross the river 
UnRll to them in a boat. The area 
of the Gardens ie 272 acres, with 
river froatago of a mUe. The 
whole of them may be seen with- 
out descending from the cutriage. At 
the N.W. comer is the Haurah Gate, 
where are 3 fine trees, a Fieui iHdica 
in the centre, with a Fietit religiota 
on either side. There ia an avenue of 
Palmyra Tnlms to the right of tlie en- 
trance, and one of mahogany trees to 
the left. The visitor will ijass up a 
broad road in the centre, leaving to 
the left a sheet of water, and then jiaRS' 
ing through CasaBrina trees, up which 
are trained specimens of Climbing 
Palms, will enter the Palmetum, or 
Palm plantation. A canal divides tliis 
from the rest of the gardens, crossed 
liy S bridges. Having crossed one of 
these, tlie visitor will find the Flower 
Garden on the right, where are many 
conaervatoriea and two Orchid Hoasea, 
neai which is a Consorratorj 201) ft. 
long, and a monument to General Kyd, 
from which a broad walk runs down 
to the Kiver Entrance, Leaving this 
to the left, the visitor will pass along a 
road which leads to the Great Banyan 
Tree {Fleiu indicd), which covers 
ground 800 ft. in circumference ; tlie 
rfrtii of the trunk is 51 ft, and it has 
170 off-shoota. Beyond this towards 
the river used to Ix! a fine avenue of 
Mahceany trees, planted at the end of 
the last century by Dr. Roxburgh. 
Tliis was almost destroyed by the cy- 
cloneof 1S64. There is another avenue, 
on the left of which, going from the 
great tree, is a monument to Koi- 
bu^h, with a Latin epitaph by Hcber. 
There aiv also tablets in the Garden, 



near the old Conservatory, to Jack and 
to Griffith, 

Sir J. Hooker, in his interestiDg 
work " HimAlayan Journals," Vol. 1., 
pp. 3 and 4, speaks of his visit to these 
Gardens in 1S46, and says that "they 
bad contribnted more nsetnl and orna- 
mental tropical plants to the public 
and private gardens of the world than 
any other establishment before or 
since." He says also, "that the great 
Indian Herbariuin, cliiefly formed by 
the Staff of the Botanic Gardens, under 
the direction of Dr. Wallich, and distri- 
buted in 1829 to the principal Ma- 
seums of Europe, was the most valu- 
able contribution of the kind ever 
made to science," and adds. " that the 
establishment of the tea trade in the 
HimAlaya and A'a4m was almost en- 
tirely the work of the Superintendent 
of the Gardens at Calcutta and tSaha- 
ranpilr," as will be mentioned in the 
Route to Darjiling. The Buperin- 
tendent has a house on a promontory 
of the river bank at the W. end of the 
Gardens. Not far from this house is 
the Herbarium, or collection of dried 
plants, probably the only one in Asia 
of the first class. There are fi'om 30,000 
to 40,000 species represented in it. 
Attached to the Herbarium is a veij 
fine Botanic LibJiuy. 

SUhoy't ColUgc. — N. of the Gardens 
is Bishop's College, a very handsome 
building, which looks w^ from the 
river. It was first used as a Sanskrit 
College, but the whole Staff has been 
removed, and it is now to be used as 
an Engineering College 

Barrachpir. — The iistfor may go 
to Barrackpilt, which the Indians call 
Chamock. firaii .lob Chamoek, who 
resided there for a period, as ha'* 
been handed down by tradition 
lo all the inhabitants cf Calcutta. 
The journey may be made either by 
Hver or by rail or carringe. Which- 
ever route may be adopted, it is sure 
to be a pleasant journey. Tlie beat 
eonrse i«rliap8 would be to go with 
the tide to Barrackplir, and return by 

Tlie stations on the railway of 
the Eastern Bengal Co. are as fol- 



CahtUta Giiy. 



i 

ll 

f 


1 

1 

f 


STATION!, 


I 

a 

1 

1 
1 


1 

i 

i 

1 


1 

i 
1 

1 

i 


i 

i 

ii 
1" 




ii 

1 

i 


i 

6 

i 
i 
1 

2 


1 

1 

i 


1 
J* 


I? 


i 

1 


Cskntt. . . . 
ChLtpUr* 

Kliankhi . 






{„ 


ifia 
Ills- 


1.30 


siis 


r.u. 


M 
6M 


;l 


9.36 






& 


<au 


lay 


ther 


arc Fite Traint 













1 


1 


1 


^ 


■s 


BTillOKJ. 


« 
^ 


p 


Si" 

3" 


g 


f 


^™«.^^ 


-.fu) 


s 


1^0 


P.U. 


si 30 








Sodpir 

Kh.rd«h» 

TittlgMbl., 


So 


ll.« 


BwraclcpHr 


,... 


11. 


1.5« 


5.ai 


10.10 



Should tiie traveller desire to go by 
liver, he maj leave the Kidderpiir 
DockjBird about 7.15 JlM.., in which 
case he will reach Eaarah Bridge, sup- 
poain; him to go in a steam launch, 
at 8.55, and Barrackpilr at 10.20 ^.it. 
The fleets of ships, the counttees fac- 
tories, pretty temples, niunerons 
flights of stone steps down to the 
river, at which thousands of people, 
especially during the full moon, will 
he seen bathing, make up an inter- 
eating scene. Just before reaching 
Barrackpilr, there are some handsome 
temples on the left bonk, then comes 



the beantiful park, with noble trees 
and a small pier as landing-place, at 
which the Viceroy's yacht veiy often 
lies. The Viceroy possesses an in- 
valid's carriage, whi(i can bo drawn 
by 2 men. At 300 yds. to the S. of 
the house, under a fine Imli or tama- 
rind tree, is a polygonal enclosure, 
surrounded by a bronsc railing im- 
bedded in white etonc. Within the 
railing ie the tomb of Lady Can- 
ning. It is a white marble sarcopha- 
gus with a tall slab, snimoimted by 
a St Andrew's cross. The white 
marble platform on which the saT- 



** Goods Tniiu onl]' stop st CtaitpAr. 



LIL 



Barraekpur. 



copli^ns rests measures 18 ft x 
13 ft. On the elab bate been in- 
scribed the wonls ichich have been 
recotded as on her tomb in the Ca- 
tiiedral at Colcntta ; the lext oF the 
iiiBcriplioQ there is engrared on the 
top ai the sarcophagus. The walk to 
this tomb Is shaded b; Sne trees. At 
the end, near the tomb, is a bonrd 
with " Prisatc " on it. The traTeller 
will next walk to the Hall, built by 
the Earl of Minto in 181». It ta 100 
yd*, to the N. of the houBe. To reach 
it on coming from the river, turn to 
the left down a brick walk, which 
ilipa and then ascends to the building. 
The Hall is within a colonnade of 
UorintViiaiL pillani, G in front and 9 at 
each side. Ascend by 12 steps to the 
platform on which the Hall is. It 
measDreB 38 ft. from E. to W. and 
10 ft, 10 in. from N. tn S. Over the 
outside entrance is a black slab, in- 
scribed — 

To the Memotj at Uie Bmn. 

There are 4 tablets in the walk of 

the Hall. The l»t on the left is in- 

Tlil) C'tnotnph 
Waa eraqted by 



Ueut. WiRtMo, B.U.'l S«tb RcgLI 
Lkob Llotd, H.M.'a snh S*f\. I 
L[«ut Lirnrn, H.H.'b SMh R^t. JOtk of 
Ltaot. HKrBUKM, U.M.'BMth Kegt VAngut, 
Ltent. Puuiusgos, 20tJi Uuina IBll. 

■S.l. 
Enel^n Wolfe, H.tL'a SSth Brp.) 
W. HiTBRALL, Mill Ben^ S.l., Uml of 

Captain SuAW, ISth Bang^ N.I., 2Stli at Sep. 

Lieut. KcLeod, H.H.'b 14th Rcgt., «IUi nf 









On the 2nd tablet to the right is the 
following iascription : — 

EDWAHD. LORD ELLENBOKOUQH 



WIthth 



Tablet 



iBcrlbed 



tell 



penanal («ellng Mid reaiKct 



Lieut LuTHES, Artillery. 

Majuc CaoHuu-tR. inb Light Intluitry. 

"-thFoot 



WhoBenai 

An<lwl.ogl.>ri(.ui5yti 



rdBuDh. 
JiHxgt. 
lOtliBegt. 



'^"iv^^ar 



The 2nd tablet on the left is in- 
Bcribed as follows :— 
Lieut MVKHO, H.M.'« TSth ReRt., IMh 

. MiulnuPloneetB. f *"S"t. 
Hoyal Art. I £4th of 



Ueut. PjtLNEB, Royal ._ 
Ueut Fakhabv, Bengal 
Lieut -Colonel McLeod 

64th Begt 
M^Jdt CiHPMLt, H.M.'g 
C«pt. KEnmoi, H.M.'a : 
Capt. Olpbestb. H.U.'a ^..i., ■^•^ 

B(«ta. 
Chpt Boaa, H.M.'a (»th Rfgt 
.LiMltBDICBIEM, H.M.'s!12iidR«.J 



JiR*«t , 



UcuITNew- 



Cajilaln Stehari 
CajiWin McGrai 



The House which is the Viceroy's 
country residence was commenced by 
Lord Minto, and enlarged ta it« 
present siio b; the Harquis of Hast- 
ings. (See " Stat Account of Bengal," 
vol. i. p. 82.} In the dining-room are 
portraits, bc^ning from the left, of 
Bhelsl) Busaia, 'Abdu 'l KhSlilf, 
FatV Gaidar, QhuUm 'All Kb^, 
'All Riid !i]j4n, Shekliii 'U'ih, PIr 
Ohul&QL Mubammad, 1863, son of 
Tlpii Sultda, Prince Firili Bhih, 
eon of Fir Gbul&m Muhammad, ISCfi. 
In the corresponding room, to the S. 
of the drawing-room, ale Eishna KkjiV 
Udiawar, R6]i ghSn, Badm 1 Za- 
min, Yosln §4hib, Finii Silt, and 



no 



Rovti 1, — Calcutta to Faltt Point Iff Steamti: Seot. IL 



Maada ItiljA. To the N. of the pork 
is Barrackpiir Caiitonmeut, witn a 
populatioa, iLCCOrding tu the last 
consuB, of 9,fi9l. Troops were 
stationed there in 1T72, after which 
it was called Barrackpiir. Four regta. 
N. I. used to be cantoned in the 
lines. In 1824, durinfc the Bnrmese 
War, (he *7th B. N. 1., which was 
ordered on Ber>ice, matioied here on 
, the 30th of October, on which the 
Commandei'-iii-Chief, Sir Edward 
Patjet, proceeded to the cantonment 
with 2 Uuropeau re^s., a batteiy of 
European artillery, and a troop of the 
Ooveraor- General's Body GuanS, The 
mutinous regiment was drawn up in 
face of these troops, and wa« ordered 
to march, or ground arms. The Si- 
pdhis refused to obey, when the guns 
opened u)K)n them, and throiving away 
tlieir arms and accoutrements they 
made for the rircr. Some were shot 
Jown, some drowned, many hanged, 
and the regf. wag struck out of the 
" Army List," 

In 1857, on the night of February 
27th. the I9th N. I. mutinied at Bar- 
hampir, and were ordered to Barrack- 
piir to be disbanded. There were then 
at that cantonment the 2Qd Grena- 
diers, the 34lh, 43rd, and 70th N. L 
General Hersey, who commanded the 
diFision, endeavonred to restore con- 
fidence to them, but on the 29th of 
March, a private of the 34th, named 
Maugal P^d^, lired at a sei^eant- 
mnjor, and then at Lieut. Bangh, 
and Bounded bis horse. A hand-to- 
hand conflict then took place, in which 
the Lieut, was wounded, and some of the 
Sip&hls struck him as he lay on the 
ground. General Hersey then came 
Hp with several officers, and Hangal 
Pindfi wounded himself with his mus- 
ket, but not mortally. He was taken 
to the hospital, recovered, and was 
hanged on the 8th of April, as was 
the native non-commissioned officer 
who commanded the quarter-gnard, 
on the 22nd of April The 19th Regl. 
came in on the 31st of March, and 
w«B disbanded, bnt not with any 
marks of disgrace. The 34th, how- 
ever, which had, stood by wfiilo the 
se^eant-maior and Ijeut. Baogb were 



shot at, without attempting to assist 
them, were disgraced a» well as dis- 
banded. 



The autiquilies of Orissa are among 
the most interesting objects in India, 
and now that the steamers of the 
British I ndia Stearn Navigation Com- 
pany run weekly to Palso Point, 
Orissa is easily visited. In connee- 
tion with this line the Ka^ak agents, 
Messrs. John Bullock ^ Co., main- 
tain communication with Ka^ak by 
means of inland steamers, which, with 
cargo boats in tow, meet each of the 
Co.'s steamers on the line between 
Calcutta and Bombay, at False Point, 
and run up the river Mahiuadi, a 
distance of about 40 m. to Mi^saghai, 
at the mouth of the cjnal leading to 
Katak. These steamers afford com- 
fortable accommodation for 4 or i> 
passengers, and from itfiirsnghai In 
Kafak, 44 m. , is performed by steam 
launch. The single fare from False 
Point to Katak is 2Ii rs., without food, 
which must be paid for at an extra 
charge of 4 rs. a day. and special ac- 
nodatjon can generally be secured 
I extra charge by communioatii^ 
a few days in advance with the agents. 
The passenger had belter lake his 
win? and beer with him, not for- 
getting hia rifle, for whi<^ he wiU 



, II. 



JloHte 1. — False Point. 



Ill 



find abundant use in firing at the 
enonnoos alligators nbicli are to be 
seen at tlie month of the canal and 
other placcH. The office of the British 
B. N. Co. ifl at IG, Strand Koad North, 
and as the steamers often start at 
ilaflif;ht, it will be well to go on 
board the night before. The distances 
are as follows :— 



FIui«. 


Dl£tAiiG«g [u HUea 
train Fort WUltaui 


Kiddeipar 
GunlenHoiUf . . 

Sfes ■ • ■■ 

DlMnond Hirlionr '. 
Khicbri . . . 
FulMVoint Light- 
hon«6 . 


Uiles. Purlonga. 
2U 



The Bteamer will probablj anchor for 
the first day at. Khichrl (viil. Kedgeree), 
andnillreafih False Point the next even- 
ing. From November till the middle of 
March the sea is (jenerally calm, with 
light winds, and it is during tbi) 



very heavy along the coagt, and some- 
times excessively dangerous. It is sad 
to say that, notwithstanding all that 
Oovcmment ean do, False Point Har- 
Ixiur is gradually silting np, so that 
the Co.'s steamers are obliged to lie 
out at some distance from ita mouth, 
say a couple of m. For small vessels 
the harbour is safe and convenient, 
being formed by two epita — Long 
Islniul and Dowdeswell Island — of 
land, whieh ran out to the S. for from 
10 to ir. m. On the S, spit, the end 
of which is called Point Heady, ate 
the house of the Harbour Master, the 
T. B., and the Landing-place. 

Falfe Point. — The account given of 
this Harbour in the " Stat Ace. of 
Bengal," vol. iviii. p. 32, is, it iB to 
be feared, somewhat cauleur de rose. 
To say that it is the best harbour 
between HugH and Bombay is, per- 
haps, not saying much, as there ia 
scarcely a place in that immense 
distance whieh can be called a 



larbour. It has, however, been very 
nuch improved of late years, and 
lould the sand be prevented from 
ilting it up, and eouid the mouth be 
dredged out, it might become what it 
is now represented to be. It derives 
its name from the circumstance that 
ships proceeding N. frequently mis- 
took it tor Point Palmyras, a degree 
further N. A lighthouse has been 
erected close to where the N. spit 
begins to run out, and about 4 m. as 
the crow flies from Point Ready. This 
lighthouse is built of reddish granite, 
with a large white star in the centre, 
and is 129 ft. high from base to vane. 
It was lighted in 1838, and is a white 
flashing light, visible about 12 m. 

In the dense jungle round the lighl- 
hoose are many tigers, and one gentle- 
man had there killed 10 or 12. The 
alligators also are of prodigious size, 
sometimes .SO ft. in length, and very 
ferocious. They are also occasionally 
seen on Dowdeswell Island, where one 
Hi ft. long, but of huge girth, was 
killed a year or two ago wiUi 40 lbs. 
weight of women's bangles in its 
stomach ; 2 of these bangles weigh 
1 lb. Tigers, also, sometimes come on 
the S. spit, but this is a rare occur- 
rence. There are eicellent fish in the 
harbour, but few or no fishermen. 
During the calm season it would be bet - 
ter lo go on to Puri than land at False 
Point,although theBurfisunplcKHftntly 
high even in the calmest weather, for 
if the traveller proceeds to Katak 
from False Point Harbour, he will 
have to go over the same ground twice 
or risk the chance of a long delay, as 
steanierB do not always touch at Puri. 
In any case, it will be well to land at 
the S. landing-place, and go to th(! 
T. B. There is usually a swell at a 
projecting bit of land, a J m. S. of the 
landing-place, but as the landing can 
be done in a steam launch, there will 
be little or no inconvenience. The 
launch draws only 3 ft., but so shallow 
is the water, that it cannot reach the 
shore. The visitor will get into a 
boat, and then be carried some 30 yds. 
on men's shoulders to the Oustom 
House, which is close lo the 'J'. B., 
which latter has i rooms and a wide 



112 Jloute2.—CalcuUatoPKri{Pooree)andBlachPagoda. SeotIL 



Teraudali. Good oysters are obtaift- 
able in the harbour, bnt ehould. be 
eaten quite fresh, or else tbey ar 
wholesome. It is not possible lo , 
ceed to Jagannith by land from 
Dowdeswell Island, an the Devi rivev 
intervenes and is nnfordablc, aiid 
there is no boat. 



The distance from False Faint Har- 
bour to Purl is 60 m., and from Cal- 
cutta to Pari it is 276. There is no 
shelter whatever for a vessel at PnrL 
There are, however, plenty of masulah 
boats, which come oS to ships unless 
the snrf be very bad indeed. All 
natives of India are noisy, but the 
hubbub miged by the boatmen at this 
place baffles all description. Even iu 
the calmest weather the surf extends 
about 80 yds., and the boat is thrown 
up at such an angle, that it appears as 
if the crew must be precipitated into 
the water. The present Ciillector was 
npset in the suif, but fortunately 
had on a life-belt, and was rescued by 
another boat The T. B. is about i m. 
from the huidiug-place, but close ta 
the beach. The Circuit House is near 
it, and is roomy, and English gentle- 
men are Bometimes allowed to stop 
there. The church is about SO yds, 
from the T. B. to the N., and the 
bnrial-gronnd 1 m. to the U.S. 



This Cemetery is surronnded by a 
neat and substantial maeonrj wall, G ft 
6 in. high, iacloaiii^Bn area ISOf t 9 in. 
long and 100 ft. brond. There arc 26 
tombs, but 6 have no tablet. The 
wooden gate of the inclosure is kept 
locked. The earliest date on a tomb 
here, is 1821. No person of conse- 
qucnce is interred here except William 
Lcyocstcr, Senior Judge of the High 
Court, who was the descendant of an 
ancient family, and after 40 jean' 
residence in India died at Furl, in 
May, 1B31, 

Pari.— The town of Puri is abont 
li m. in breadth from E. to W., that 
is, from the sea to the Hudhupiir river, 
and Si m. long from N. to S., that is, 
bom Balikhaud to Lokn&th Temple. 
In the Census of 1672 the pop. was 
22,696, but during the great festivals 
this number is increased by 100,000 
pilgrims. The town covers an area of 
1,ST1 acres, including the Kflietra, 
or Sacred Precincts. It is a city of 
lodging-houses, and the streets are 
mean and narrow, except the Bar&- 
dand, or rood for IJic Bath of Jagan- 
nith, when he goes from his teraple to 
his conntry house. This road runs 
tlirough the centre of the town N. and 
S.. and is iu places ) a fnrlong wide. 
The town is destitute of commerce, 
and is entirely maintained by the 
income of the Great Temple, and 
the offerings made to it The en- 
dowments of the temple amount to 
£27,000 a year, to which is to be 
added the present value of the 
lands granted by the State, £4,000— 
total of annual income £31,000; but 
the ofEeringB of pilgrims amount to 
at least £37,000 a year ; no one comes 
empty-handed. The richer pilgrims 
heap gold end silver and jewels at 
the feet of the god, or spread before 
him charters and title-deeds, convey- 
'~ ~ lands in distant provinces. Every 

, from the richest to the poorest, 
gives beyond his ability ; many cripple 
&eir fortunes for the rest of their Lves; 
and hundreds die on the way home, 
from not having kept enough to sup- 
port them on the journey. ICanjlt 
Singh bequeathed the Koh i Niir .to 
Jagnnn&tb, though fortunately it ncTei 



ItotOe 2.—Purt {Poorte). 



Sect. II. 

reached its destuiBtion. Ibere are 
more Oian 6,000 male adolts bb priests, 
warders of lie temple, and pilgrim 
guides, and including the monastic 
establishments, and the gtudcs, who 
roam through India, there ure prob- 
ably not IcBs than 20,000 men, women, 
and children dependent on JagaunSth. 
The immediate attendants on the god 
are divided into 8(5 orders and 97 
classes. At the head of all is the 
ItAji of Khurdhil, who represents the 
rojal house of Orissa, and who is the 
hereditary sweeper of the l«mple. He 
has lately been transported to the 
Andamans, for murder. There are 
distinct seta o* serTants to put the 
god to bed, to dress and bathe him, 
and a nameroos band of bad women, 
or JiAchgiTla, who sing before this idol. 
The temple is situated in the centre 
of the town, about 6i furlongs, as the 
crow flies, to the W. by 8. of the T. B. 
The temple stands upon rising ground, 
which is called Nilgiri, or the Blue 
Hill. R&jendral^ Hitra thioks it 
doabtfnl whether this rising ground is 
a sand ridge or the dibris of the 
ancient Buddhist structure, over which 
the present temple has been built, 
(See " Autiq. of Orissa," vol. ii. p, 
112.) The temple is surrounded by a 
square inclosing atone wall, about 20ft. 
6in. high — (accDtdingto RdjendraMlk 
Mitra, 20 ft. to 21 ft., and he adds the 
walls were built inthereignofPurushot- 
tama Deva, 3 centuries after the erec- 
tion of the temple)— so that nothing 
can ha seen of the interior except 
from the E. gate, which is always 
open, and the upper parts of the tower 
can, of course, he seen through an 
opera-glass.* Each side of the en- 
closing wall is 652 ft. long and 630 ft. 
broad — (according to EAjendraUlA 
Mitra, C65 ft. x e«ft.). Within is a 
2ad eaciosing wall, 420 ft. from E, to 
W. and 300 from N. to S. Within 
this, again, is the temple itself — (ac- 
cording to RajeiidralaU Mitra, 400f(, x 
278 ft., consisting of a double wail with 
an interval of 11 ft. between) — which is 

* A Blui of the Temple, ind aa excelliMit 
itconni of It md of the town Is given In ths 
'• Btatiattcal Account a! Dougal " by Mr, W, 
Hoator, voL ili. y. %. 



113 

300 ft. long from E. to W., and con- 
sists of (beginning from tjie E.) the 
Hall of Oflerings, or Bhog mandir 
—(it is said to have been bnilt by ' 
the Marithas, in the last century, 
the architect being BhAskar Pandit, 
who was 12 years finishing it, at a 
cost of 40 lakhs of rs. It meaaorea 
68 ft. X 56 ft., and the plinth is Ta 6 in. 
high, itself being IS ft. G in, high. It 
was part of the Pagoda of Kondrak, 
and was brought thence by the Mari- 
(has) — the N&th mandir, or dancing- 
hall, which also is of later date — a 
sq, room, measuring 80 ft, outside 
and 69 ft, * 67 ft. inside. It is 
divided by fonr rows of pillars into 
a nave and 2 aisles on each side. The 
pillars arc sq. and plain ; the 2 inner 
rows being 4 ft, sq. , and the 2 outer 3 ft, 
6 in. The nave measures 69 ft. X 16 ft; 
the 2 inner aisles 10 ft. 6 in,, and the 
2 outer 7 ft. 9 in. The walls are plain, 
with only 2 figures of dm&Tp&lt, called 
Jaya and Vijaya, and a marble figure 
of Gsru^a, 2 ft. high. There is also a 
painting in oil of 2 horsemen and a 
milkmaid (" Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii. 
p 119); the Jagamoban, or Hall of 
Audience, where the pilgrims see 
the idols. This is 80 ft. sq. and 
120ft, high, TheBar4dewal,or Sane- 
taary, where the idols are, is also 80 ft, 
sq. This part consists of a lofty 
conical tswer. 

The idols themselveB, that is to 
say, Jagann&th, with his brother 
Balbhadra and his sister Snhadhra, 
are disgusting, frightful logs, with- 
out bands or feet, coarsely carved 
into a wretched likeness of the human 
bust. Bepresentations of them may 
be seen iu Mjendral&U Mitra's wc«k 
on the " Antiquities of Orissa," vol. ii. 
p, 122, The tower is 192 ft. high, 
black with time, and surmounted by 
the Whe^ and Flag of Vi^u. It 
was built in the reign and by order of 
Anangabhlma Dera, of the Oangetic 
Dynasty of Orissa, as mentioned in 
the Temple Records. The date of its 
erection, therefore, is 1198 A.D.,aiid it 
cost about half a million sterling. It 
was repaired in the reign <rf Pratd- 
pamdra, a.d. 1604—1632, when it 
was plastered aikd whitewashed. This 



Ui Rovte %— CaloMtato Part {Pooree)and Blade Pagoda. Saot II. 



waa repeated by Nrirfnha Dev» in 
16tT, and Rgoiu by Krifhna Dcva, 
1713-1718 A.D., and in 17fi8 A,D. by 
the Qneen of Virakiahora Dera. The 
frequent wbitewashinge completed 
„ the ruin of the temple at a work of 

The only beautiful thing to be 
seen at Pari is an exqnisiu pillar, 
which was brought from the Black 
Pagoda at Kon&rak. It stands out- 
side the Lion, or E. gate of Jagan- 
nith's temple, oa a plMforn of rough 
stones, measuring 39 ft from B. to W. 
and «4i ft from N. to S., and U in. 
high. In the centre of this platform 
is a base of carved chlorite, S in. high 
and 32 ft in periphery. The carvings 
on the sides of this platform represent 
soldiers and men carrying burdens. 
There are then 4 other circles orna- 
mented withcarred patteras, but with- 
out Ggnres, of a total height of 3 ft 
6 in. Then comes the pillar, which, 
reckoning to the top of the seated 
t^ara which snrmonnts it, is 30 ft. 
high, and adding the heights of the 
platform and bases, 36 ft. 4 in. The 
figure at the top is that of Aiona, or 
the Dawn, and is 14 in. high. It is a 
human figure and very well carred, 
and not at all like that given in Hnnter, 
vol. lis. p. ee. The pillar is 16-sided, 
and if it were washed and le-polished, 
it would be most beautiful, bnt it ie 
now disfigured with dirt and a large 
patch of red paint. The Lion Gate, 
on entering which the pilgrims are 
slightly struck with a wand by an 
official, has its name from 2 large 
lions of the conventional form, with 
one paw raised, which stand one at 
either side of the entrance. The en- 
trance itself is about 16 ft. high, with 
2 figures of athletes of a blue colour, 
painted on either side. The lintels 
and sides of the doorway have 6 bonds 
painted, one of them red. Then 
comes a band of figures 1 ft 4 in. 
high, then a vandjke onuunent, then 
come 4 figures like supporters, 44 ft. 
high, with smaller figures in rear in 
nichea. From these a massive roof 
goes up to the height of about 48 ft 
As the door stands open, it is possible 
to see ttke bonds of pilgrims within, 



but not the temples, of which besides 
the Great Pagoto, there are more than 
100, 13 of them being sacred to Shiva. 
There is also a temple to the Sun. 

There la a street about 46 ft broad all 
ronnd the Temple. Taming to th« 
left, from the Lion Gate along this 
road, the visitor comes to the H. 
gate, where S steps lead up to the 
entrance. These steps are 1 ft 6 in. 
high, and they and the gate are of 
latcrite. The entrance itself is 16 ft. 
high, and above it are five incised 
cnttingB. Above these are the Nan 
Grahas, or the 9 Planets personified, re- 
presented by figures with oglj Hindd 
faces, seated in a Buddhistic attitude. 
At either end is a dicarjiil, of the same 
aze as the other Ugares. The rafters 
that support the massive roof are of 
iron. Above is another tableao of 



here called Sakhis, or Friends. This 
is surmounted by a, conventional lion. 
Altogether, the gate is abont 46 ft 
high. With an opera-glass, the Great 
Tower is very well seen from the W. 
gate. It is ornamented with flutlngs, 
of which every 3 are semi-circular 
projectioDB, without carving, and then 
comes a fiat carved band ; for example, 
one such band represents the Karaing-h 
Avatdr, and above an elephant, on 
which a lion has sprunj^. and pulled it 
down on ita knees. To the left is 
Krishna slaying Bak&sur, in the shape 
of a huge crane, Krishna has a hand 
on the upper and lower portion of the 
bill, and is rending the demon asunder. 
On the right is Kri^hga killing another 
demon, and above he is seated in a tree 
with the clothes of the Gopis, who are 
entreating him to give them back. 
Above is the same god slaying Ea&s. 
Above he is seated on Gtaruda, and 
defeating Indra. who is mounted on 
AirAval. Above the flutings of the 
tower arc 4 large figures o£ Garuda, 
and hons supporting the bossed finial 
of the root, on which is Vi^h^iu's 
Wheel 

It often happens that while the 
visitor is vievving the building, a 
couple of men will pass by, carryinf; 
a tnindle by a pole, which is passed 



Saotll. Soute2.—Fw'i (i?0(»w)-*T7« Canfcn ffmue. 



115- 



ttuoagh it, the bandls being a, corpK 
rolled ap in s doth, and BO carried to 
be burned. On the N. face is the 
coiooaticin of BAma, and on the S. 
Bide hia w&ra with BATana. 

The N. gate has a step up and 
down, then a flight of 13 Bteps, 
and 60 ft beyond a gateway, with a 
wooden door and an elephant on either 
Bide. The onter gate haa above it a 
tableau of tbo Sou Qrabaa and 1 of 
Kri?bpi plajiug the flute to. the Oopia. 
There are some fine trees in the in- 
elostue on this aide. Leaving the tem- 
ple and turning to the N.K., tlierc is 
on the left a new monastery beii^ built, 
and on the right, about 60 yds, oft, a 
platform 11 ft. high and 40 ft. gq., on 
vrbicb is B soalloped ai'ch of chlorite, 
ivith a heavenly alligator on either 
eide, where the arch begins to spring. 
The arch is about IS ft. high above 
the platform, and ie called the Phiil 
Dol, oi fiower swing. Here the idols 
used to be swung, but as one fell and 
was broken, the practice haa been 
discontinued. The visitoT may now 

Sroceed to the S.W. 1 m., and come 
own to the sea-shore W. of the 
CiFcuit Houae. He will thoe reach 
the BwargaDwiraor liiw^Parorfwe, 
where when all the ceremonies are 
finished, the pilgrinm bathe in the 
tnirf, and waah away their sine. There 
is a stump of a pillar 4 ft. h%h, on 
the right hand near a sraai! temple. 
On this pillar ofEcrings are placed, 
which are enten by the crowB. On 
the left is what is called the LAhilr 
Math. The present Abbot Kishn 
DAs, a good-looking man of about 30, 
comes from the frontier of the Panj&b. 
Within the inclosnre is a well, with 
excellent wafer, which seem* wonder- 
ful, as the sea is not 100 yds. ofF, 
Opposite will be seen hundreds of men 
and women bathing, the surf rolling 
over them in its fury. Afterwanfi 
they make little lamps of sand, and 
stick little pieces of wood into them. 
At this place this year lay the dead 
carcase of a crocodile, with, a blunt 
head, and huge limbs. It messui^d 
15 ft. and was shot by itr. Armstrong 
the Collector,' in one of the sacred 
tanks where the pUgiim>i_bathc_. It 



had been thrown into the sea, but waa 
cast up again by the sort This circnit 
will probably suffice for one day. 

The next day the traveller will proceed 
to the N.E. of the city, passing on 
the left the Chandan tank and temple, 
a furlong to the W. of which is the 
Mitiani Tank, and another furlong 
further to the Vf. the Markhand Tank 
and temple. At this latter tank is a 
very ancient scnlptnred figure of 
Garuda nnder a tree, and idols of 
Subhadra, Balbhadra and JagannMh, 
tlie latter of a blue colour. A short 
vray beyond the Chandan tank is the 
Madhupilr river, which further to the 
N.E, is called the Mutia, and at the 
part between the two ia a Dik Bnngla 
and to the N. of it the Athirfi N41ah. 
Here is a bridge said to have been 
made by the Mara^hiu, but probably- 
repaired by them. It was built accord- 
ing to RftjendraliUil Mitra a.d. 1038— 
1050. It is 378 ft. long by 38 broad, 
and has 19 arches. Over this the 
main road to Katak passes. At voL i, 
p.2U(j,the " Stat. Aec. of BeugoJ " says, 
'■the massive bridge by which the 
pilgrims enter Puri at this day, 
consists of masses of the red fcrru- 
giuouB stone known, to geologists an 
kterito. It spans 290 ft, of water- 
way, by IB arches, the central one 18 
ft highby I4ft. brood, and the piersSft. 
bj' 6 ft," The number of arches is 
here not correctly given, nor Hie 
length of the bridge. In January the 
stream becomes a snamp, with long 
grasH and reeds, which harbour 
crocodiles. From this the route will 
be to the S.E. toreacb the Garden House, 
to which the car of Jagann^tli is 
brought at the Cor Festival, which 
ukes place in June or Julj, when 
pilgrims como trooping into Pari by 
thousands a day. The great Car is 
45 ft. high and 36 sq., and is supported 
on IG wheels of 7 ft. diameter. The 
brother and sister of Jagaunith have 
separate cars a few ft. smaller. The 
car is dragged by 4,200 professionals, 
who come from the neighbouriug 
districts, and during the fesiival live 

. Tie Sardcti ITouie. — This building 
sljindt at the end of the brood sandy 



US Soiae 2, — Calcutta to Puri (Pooree) and Black Pagoda. Sect It 



avenue called tlie Ba^diland, 1 m. 
from the Great Temple. The house 
is a temple within a garden inclosed, 
with a wall 15 ft. high. The principal 
patoway looks towarda lie temple, and 
is a, handsome etructnre, with a fine 
■pointed roof, adorned with conven- 
tional liooa. From the gateway to 
the door of the temple is SO yds. 
The central portion oi the temple in 
lOU ft. long and ui ft 9 in. broad. 
These meaaurementn do not coincide 
with those of RAjendmliUA Mitra, 
which l^ave been probablj taken from 
other points adopted by liim. He 
says : " the temple is 75 ft. high, with a 
base of 65 x 46 outKide, and 3(! ft. 8 in. 
K 27 inside. The cciUng from the 
tloorisI6ft.7in.high. ThewallBareset 
oS with only a few temple monldings, 
but no carvings. On the off side of 
tlie temple there is a plain raised seat 
ifL high and 19 ft. long, made ot 
chlorite, and this is called the 
Ratnavedi, the throne on which the 
imnges aro placed when brought to 
the temple. The poi-ch is a sq. of 
m ft., divided iiito a nave and 2 aisles 
Iiy 4 sq. pillaiB. The nave is 17 ft, 
hi'OBd, and the aisles 8 ft. 7 in. each. 
The walls are 6 ft. thick. . The ceiling 
is 16 ft. 8 in. from the floor, and the 
doorway 1 1 x 6 ft. 8 in. The dancing 
hall isarectai^Icof 48 x 44ft,,dividcd 
into a nave and 2 aisles like the porch. 
It has 3 doors on each side, of which 
the central one measures lift. Sin., 
into 9 f t^ 7 in., and the side ones 8 ft. 

The Bhoga Mnndir of this temple 
is peculiar. Instead of being a 
N<iaare or nearly so, as is the case 
cveiywhero else in Oiissa, it is 
:m oblong room E8 ft. 9 in. x 26 ft. 
inside, with walls 6 ft lOin. thick, 
iiiid H doors on either side 8 ft. 6 in. x 
G ft. 4 in. Beyond the last is a long 
iiinge of low rooms, which are used 
ns kitchen and store rooms. The 
legend is that Indradyumna pitched 
his camp hero when he arrived at 
Purl, and set up animageof Norsiiigh. 
Here the Sacred Log from the White 
Island stranded, and here the Divine 
Carver made the images of Jagannith, 
etc. and here Indradynnma pwfoimed 



the horse sacrifice a hundred times 
over. Inside the roof is supported by 
4 sq. colnmns with a periphery of 
11 ft. The shafts are 15 ft. high to 
the architraves, which are 5 ft. more 
They are of black chlorite or basalt. 
There is also at the right end a pillar 
7 ft. 7 in. high and 5 ft, 4 in. round, 
with a figure of Oaruda at the top. 
Ob the walis are some line carvings of 
horsemen, etc. The 2 other portions 
of the temple are each 34 ft. long, so 
that the toUi length is 168 ft. Out- 
side over tlie door, fronting yon as you 
cuter, are iron figures of women 
supporting the roof, and about 2 ft. 
high, there are also carvings of 
BtnhmA with i heads, worshipping 
N&r&yau ; of Krishna playing to the 
Gopis, etc. The ^tes to this temple 
arc built upon the Htndii arch system, 
with a series of slabs supporting the 
roof, each a little longer than the 
other, and projecting beyond it. This 
is said to be a vety old temple, bnt it 
has not much pretension to archi- 
tectural beauty. 

It takes p&lkl bearer; J an hour to go 
from the Garden House to the large tem- 
ple. TheBafidan disthereforemorethan 
1 ro. long, HuutersaysthatitisnotlcBB 
th»nain.,butit iacertainly more. Itis 
180 ft. broad in some places. According 
to R&jendrai&la Mitra, Jsgannllth and 
some of his peculiar ceremonial 
observances are of Buddhist origin, 
and the Car Festival marks the 
anniversary of Buddha's birthday. 
The Garden Honac is also called the 
Ou]jdich4 Garli. The authority just 
quoted makes the distance about 2 ax. 
from the great temple. It ia .jailed 
a Garh or " fort, because a pait 
(4ilOx il20ft,) of the arcA is surrounded 
by a masonry wall 20 ft. high and 5 ft, 
2iu. thick. Guridich4 means the 
Sacred Log which stranded here. Be- 
sides the Car Festival there are the 
followingholyday8:l,GhomSgi,"wami 
clothing festival," when the im^es 
are dressed in ebawls ; 2, Abhisbeka, 
sacred as th e anniversary of Jngannith's 
coronation ; S, Mokara, when the Sun 
caters the sign Capricorn. This corre- 

rods to the Strenso of the Bomans, 
Kcw Tear's gifts of the Frendi ; 



Sect. II. XotUe 2. — The Gardm Bottie— Black Pt^oda. 



iir 



i, Dola Y^tri, or Holi, to celebrate 
tue return of spring, the Carnival of 
India. It folia oa the tuU moon of 
PMIgana. Neit to the Car and 
Bathing Featiraltt, this ia the most 
important at Pari ; this is the Swinging 
FeEtivat. "Forl^ years ago," saja 
BAjenttraltUA Uiira, there was not a 
^ood garden in the Biiborhn of Calcntta 
which had not its swing, nnil onlj 
lately English inflaencc liaa set it 
aaide," C, RdmoTavani, birthday of 
Riima, when JB^annilth is dresseil hb 
R^a ; 6, Damaua-hhnnjika Ytltra, 
annivemary of the destruction of a 
demon named Damanika; 7, CSiandona 
Yiltrd, the Florialin of the Romans 
and thB Maypole of modem Kurope, 
a feast of flowers ; 8, Rukmiei Harana, 
ajiniyersnry of Rukminl's elopement, 
dhe was the daut;htcr of Bhfslim. 
King of Birftr, an<l was betrothed to 
Shishnpdl, but ran ofi with Kiigibn : 
9, Snina Y4trS, or " bathing feslival," 
when the images are brought to the 
N.E. comer of the outer inclosurc and 
bathed at noon, then dressed and 
decorated with a proboscis. After this 
the images are remoTcd to one of the 
side rooms for a fortnight, and their 
room is called Andur Qhar or " sick 
ehamber," and the divinities are said 
to be laid up with fever in consequence ' 
of their nnnsoalbath ; the real object 
ia to wash ofF the dust and soot of the 
year, and to re-paint tie iilola ; 10, is 
the Car Feitiml ; 11, the Bayana 
KkAdashf, on the 11th of the 1st half 
of Ashadh. This marks the day when 
ViHhna falls into his 1 months' slumber. 
The images are pnt to bed, and said to 
sleep for 4 months. 12, JhiUana Yiitf^, I 
on the nth of the Isthalf of Bhr&vana. j 
Madanninobana. the proxy of Jagan- | 
nAth, is evciy niglit fonl nights placed ( 
in a swing and entertained with sing- '- 
ingand dancing ; 13, Janam, birthday [ 
of Kjishija, a priest acts the father, ■ 
and a nticb girt the mother \ 14,PaTshva- 
parivartona EkAdashf, 11th of the lat 
half otShrdvann* in honour of Vishnu 
whon asleep ti' iiimg on to hia right 
aide ; IS, KiUlyu Damana on the day 



when Krifhna lolled the black ser- 
pent. Dr. Hnnter sttpposes this to 
be the anniversary of a victory 
over the aboriginal NAgas, by the 
Aryans. l(j, Tamana-janam, annivev- 
8017 of th<! hxfVn of the 6th incarnation 
of Vi^hiiu. JagannAth is dressed like 
a dwarf, and provided with an 
umbrella and an am ; 17, Ku4rPilniil, 
at the fall moon of Ashyina, when 
the discus of Vi^hiju is carried in 

Crocession, borrowed from the Badd- 
iat rite rjf the procession of the 
Wheel of the Law ; 18, Utthiipana 
EfcildashI, the lltli of Kartik, when 
Vishnn wakes from his 4 months' 



_l 



• So ill 
it would < 



1 br RaJendimMU Ultni, whuce 
ftppwr that then tn tiro biUval* 



The Slack Pagiida.-^As this Psgods 
is considered to be the finest Hindil 
Temple eitant, the traveller will on 
noacconntomittoviaitit, Ifhecanpro- 
core a pony it will he better to ride, bnt 
othenvise the journey may be niadn 
in A pAlki with S bearers, R \aMn 
to carry provisions, etc., and 2 torch 
bearers. The start shnuid lie made at 
3.30 A.M. It wil I be necessary to have 
tlie route carefully explained to tlio 
bearers, as Uriyas do not understand 
HindristAnl, much leas English. Tlie 
path at first turns N. for about 2 m., 
and then turns to the right and goes 
direct E. The whole way lies through 
a fine grassy plain, in which ore in- 
numerable herds of black buck, which 
are so tame, that even the noise of the 



118 Moute 2.— Calcutta to Pur't (Pooret) and Black Pagoda. Sect. II. 



hammiU ■who chant ti raonotoncmt 
Eong, each line ending with " Wai 
Wat," does not scare tbem arrnj. 
The traveller nill be sure to have 8 or 
10 Bhota at the deer at moderate 
diManccB. When a shot is Gied it ia a 
beautiful idght to see the deer bonnd- 
ing over the coontry, and leaping e or 
8 ft. in the air, one sometimes spring- 
ing completely over another. There 
are also a great number of plovers, 
and sometimes ducte and other birds. 
There is a relay of besrera at 10 in. 
from Purl, near a thick clump of bushes 
on the left. The trees are few and far 
betweoD, and there is only one hnt, 
which ia near the nver Kushbhadri, 
ISJ m. from Purl. The river is about 
100 yds. brood in the rains, and at 
Ihat season could hardly be forded, 
but in the cold season there are 3 
streams, swift, but only 1 ft. deep. 
About 1 m. from the temple there are 
a few clumps of trees on the right, 
one thick enough to give shelter fiom 
the sun. The whole distance is abont 



At first sight the Black Pagoda 
is disappointing. It has on the N. 
side a heap of ruins, 45 ft. high and 
about 70 long, eloping down at a sttep 
angle. This was the tower where the 
idol WHS. Next comes the Hall of 
Audience, which is now the only port 
standing, though much ruined inter- 
nally. It has a sq. bare of 90 ft., 
according to the laiit meosureraeot 
made. R&jendral^Id Mitra nays it Is 
6Gft., with a two-fold projection on 
each side. The larger measure of yOft. 
seems more reasonable, as the sloping 
roof is 73 ft. long and fi4ft. high. 
Mr. Fei^uBson says ; " iho root, which 
in height is about equal t« the width 
of the temple, or 60Et., is likewise 
diTided into i eompartments." It 
must be said that the measurement ' 
a difficult matter, as the ground < 
which the building stands is high and 
sloping, and covered with 
stones. The roof consisfs ot 3 ti 
formed ot slabs, of which the in: 
ones have fallen. The 2 lowest ti 
have 6 rowa each, the top tier only 6 
rows ; then comes a ciicular cupola in 
the shape ot an inverted cap 8 pr 9 ft. 



The whole roof is excessivelT bean- 
titul, and covered wiUi elaborate carv- 
ings, and Mr, Ferguaaon says of it 
there is no roof in India where the 
iJay of light and ehade is ob- 
tained, with an equal amonnt of rich- 
and constructive propriety, nor 
that sits so gracefully on the base 
that sapporta it, (" Hist, of Arch.," 
p. 428). The entiuice of the temple is 
- the B. side. The interior of the 
I is filled to the height of 8 ft. with 
hage stones, which have fallen from 
the roof or sides. One of these stones 
lift. Sin. long, 3ft. 2in. thick and 
4ft.6in. broad. Another is 10ft. long, 
1 ft. 6 in. broad and 3 ft. 6 in. thick. 
Most of the atones have holes in them, 
shewing that they have been clamped 
with Iran. £. of the B. door lie two 
le lions, with strongly marked 
aes, and one paw lifted up. They are 
the backa of elephants, which are 
of smaller bulk than they are. The 
liona are 75 ftL from the entrance, and 
could not merely have fallen down. 
It is true that they stand at the sides 
of flights of steps which sloped, bnt 
not eo steeply that the lions could 
have rolled to their present site. 
There are fallen stones all the way to 
them, and it certainly looks like the 
work ot gunpowder. The entrance 
has on either side a slab of blue 
chlorite, I4tt high, 6ft. 3 in. broad, 
and 1 ft. thick. They are now scribbled 
over with English names, soch as 
E. C. Hnghes, 1824, and spoilt, bnt 
must originally have been very beauti- 
ful. The height of the entianoe, 
which has no door, is 16J ft., and the 
stones fail to reach the present floor 
by 2J ft., but they may probably have 
originally done so, for the floor is now 
broken up, and may have been 2Jft, 
higher. The root of the entrance is 
Bupported by 2 rafters of iron and' 4 of 
stone. In front of the entrance, 
amongst the etonca, lies a bar or 
rafter of iron 23ft. long, and llj iji. 
thick and broad. 

The liona are about 60 ft. to the 
E, (d this bar. They ^ 8 ft. high 



Sect. II. 



Bowte 2.—Thi Black Pagoda. 



119 



from the top of the neck to tbe slab 
on which they stand, and. 9 ft. 
long from the lop of the crest to the 
Toot of the tail. They are semi- 
rampant, and but for that attitude, 
and the elephantsunder them, would 
be only 4^ ft high from their jaws 
to the root of their tuls, which are 
CDtled over their backi. The aides of 
tbe entrance are ornamented with 8 
rows of patfema, ■verj finely executed. 
The innermost of all i« a flower 
pattern ; the 2nd represents 2 snakes 
entwined, and is very beautiful ; the ' 
3rd consista of male and female 
flgniies ; the 4th displaye trees, up 
whioli Oan^s or children with wings 
like Cupids, are climbing ; the 6th 
is the same as the 4th ; the 7th is a 
lovely pattern of conventional lotns ; 
the Sth is a series of leaves like bay 
leaves. Outside are ncolptured figures, 
about the size of life. There are also 
conventional lions rampant and re- 
gardant en arri^re. The temple was 
dedicated to the Bun, which divinity 
is Bail! to have here cared Sambii,* son 
of Krishna, of a leprosy of 12 yearE* 
standing. Ae the E. door was guarded 
by liona, so that to the B. was by 
horses tromplini; down armed metii 
who from their tusk-like teeth, crisped 
hair and Knkri knives, that is knives 
somewhat resembling biU-hooks, used 
in Knrg and Nipdl. and shields, are 
evidently intflnded for aborigines. 
The N. door had elephants before it. 
These and the horses remain, but cast 
down to a distance from where they 
stood. The W. door it dosed by the 
vast heap of ruins, which lies against 
the Hall of Audience, and is the debris 
of the great tower. The Jagamoban 
which has just been described is bnilt 
of red laterite, and is called " Black," 
on aooonnt of the deep shadow it 

There either never was a Naf; 
map4ir, or it has fallen, and every 
trace of it has been swept away. At 
126 ft to the B. of tbe E. gate, where 
the Bhoga Mondapa, or Hall of Qifts, 
should have stood, i« a circular mound 



1& M!tn calls him Sfmbi, but 



X|^h)», bf jtnmti. 



of ndna, lying in a slope 86 ft, long, 
and covered all over with a dense, 
thorny jungle. There are, no doubt, 
many serpents here, as the slough of a 
cobra lay near it when Mr, James, 
the Postmaster-Oenera! of Bengal, 
measured it, going through the dense 
thorns. (For this see " Ant. of 
Orissa," p. 160.) There is a diffi- 
culty, then, as to R&jendral&U Hitra'a 
saying tiiat the Bhoga Mandir was re- 
moved to Purl. If BO, it is impossible 
to explain these ruins. 

At 3!I0 ft. to the B. of the Jaga- 
moban, is a very large banyan tree, 
under which is a good place for the 
traveller to take bis meal. Dr. Hunter 
says it is only fiO yds. off, but ^s is a 
mistake. Near the great tree is a 
grove of palms, and smaller trees of 
the i'iimt i«dU:a genus, and a (garden 
with a Mafh, or devotee's residence, 
and also a sq. temple, without any idol 
in it. Milk and eggs can be procured 
at or near this place, where a tent 
might bs pitched, though no doubt 
the flijot is not safe from the visits of 
wild beasts. Eonirak signifies " Sun- 
oorner," from ICona, comer, and Aria, 
the sun. The name, however, does 
not occur in Sanskjit books, and 
instj^ad of it in the " Kapila Saihitd," 
Padma Efhetra, " the place of Vijh- 
nu's Lotus," or Aria S§hetra, " Sanc- 
tuary of the sun," ig used. B&jendra- 
1^ Mitra says : " it contains the ruins 
of, perhaps, the largest and most 
beautiful temple which was ever 
erected by the N, Hindis." The 
same authority quotes Gladwin's 
" iin-i-Akbari," vol. ii. p. 15, where 
Abii '1 Fb?1 gives a ridiculoua and 
exaggerated account of Eon&raV, 
making the surrounding wall 150 
cubits h^h and 19 cubits thick. 
There is no such wall at ail now, but 
in the " Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii. p. 14!t, 
an inclosure is spoken of wbidi mnat 
have been 750 ft. long itaA between 
EOO ft and 5B0 ft. broad. This mea- 
snrement, also, is purely conjectural, 
and there is no inclosure at aU to be 
made out. Stirling says the present 
edifice, " as is well known, was built 
by the Eiij4 Langorah Narsingh Deo, 
in A.D. 1241." (See "AsiaUo He- 



Roifte 3. — Pvri (Pixyree) to Khanda^ri. 



120 

seaiclies," vol. it. p, 337.) Mr. Fer- 1 
goBBOli says tbab he has no hedtetion i 
m pattmg aside this date, for the 
simple resson that it seems impossible 
after the erection of so degraded a 
Epecimen of the art as the temple of 
Purl, A.D. 1174, that the style ever 
could have reverted to anything so 
beaatifol as Kon&iak. He adds that 
it does not appear to Mm doabtfnl 
that Kon4rak really belongs to the 
latter half of the 9th century. When | 
this geotlemaa visited Eoi^irak in 
1837, a portion of the Great Toner 
'was still standing, as will be seen in 
hie magnificent drawing at i«ge 26, 
plate iii., in his " Ancient Architecture 
of Hindiist&n." He ie of opinion that 
the destruction of the temple was 
owing, not to earthgnahee, or man's 
violence, but te the nature of the soil, 
which was not solid enough to bear 
BO enormons a stmctore. He has 
probably assigned the true cause for 
the fall of the bailding, but as we 
know that the Uarithas carried ofF 
large iKirtions of it, it is more tbao 
poaaible that man assieted very sig. 
nally in the destruction. Over the K, 
entrance used to be a chlorite slab, on 
which the emblems of the days of the 
"week, with the ascending and descend- 
ing nodei, are carved. Some English 
antiquaries attempted to remove this 
fine work of art to the Museum at Cal- 
cutta, but after dragging it 200 yds., 
gave up the attempt, though the In- 
dian bnilders, after excavating the 
block in the Hill States, and earring 
it, had carried it 80 m. across swamps 
and unbridged rivers to Konirak. It 
lies now aSrat 200 yds. to the E, of 
theJSreat Tree, and is 20 ft, 2 in. long, 
4 ft. deep, and 4 ft. 10 in. broad. It 
is sadly disfigured with oil and red 
paint, with which the Hindils have l>e- 
oaubed it. At theJagamohan itself,' 
the traveller will be careful to notice 
the spirit with which the horses at the 
S.face are carved, and also the device 
on one of Ihe shields, of 2 lizards 
climbing up, done to the life. The 
sea is not visible from the Jogamohan, 
and is about 2 m. oS. 





1 


1 


1 


1 


h 


Puri to aaty»- 
audalpflr. . 


1! 


^ 


S 


j 


T.Lf 

ana 


Total. . . 


32 


24 


" 


a 


143 



It cannot be too often repeated, that 
the traveller not acquainted with the 
Uriya language must take care to 
have his route exactly explained to 
the bearers, and the bauglA whete be 
is to be put down, otherwise, as the 
bearers know no language bat their 
own, he may chance to be taken to a 
wrong place, or be put down in the 
middle of the road and left, and no 
eipoatulation will be of any avail, as 
it will not be understood. The joamey 
will be made ina p&1kl,wlth S bearers, 
and the luggage will be sent on in a 
cart. The fi4th milestone from Kafak 
it nt Furi, and the 41st just before 
reaching the Inspection House at Hn- 
tyab&di. The Inspection House, or 
house where the Superintendem: nf 
the roada rcBidea, is off tbe road, 10l> 
yds. to the right, and the traveller 
will stop there. The Post Office is on 
the opposite side of the road, before 
turning. Satyab&dl means " (^ fi-ufA- 
ietler," and there is on absurd legend 
about the origin of the name At the 
village, which is some distance from 
tbe Inspection House, there is a rather 
fine temple. At the 17th milestone 
the road runs along an embankment, 
2S ft. high, between rice-fields, and in 



Sect. II. 



Route 3. — J)hauli — Bkuvanahtoar. 



121 



sereral places it is so narrow that it it 
difficult for B piikl to pass a bnllock- 
'Cart, of irtiicb great nomberB are Bare 
to be met. The pilgrima on this rood 
are rery unmerooB, and many of them 
carry tWilcets aurmounted by canopies 
-of red Bilk, and liaving Saga of the 
Bame material These are offerii^s to 
■Jagann&th. After leaving Satjaiiidi, 
ierds of enormous hogs will be met 
with, feeding oa roots in the Irriga- 
tion CanaL Mukundpiir is the town 
of Mukunda, a name of Ep^na, from 
ji word which signifioB "liberation," 
3 m. from Mnkundpilr is PiplI, a 
atatioa of BaptiBt miesionaiieB. Their 
bauglA ia an extremely nice one, and 
from tlience the road aU along to 
Sardalpar is excellent, and well 
ahadad in paiis. A Bnpeiintcndent 
of roads lives at the Inspection House. 
The bangU at iJardalpOr is a little 
way off the road to the right. 

bhavU. — The first viBit should be 
paid to Dhauli, where there is an in- 
scription in the P&ll character, and the 
Magadhalan;Tuage, being an ordinance 
by Ashoka. The traveller will proceed 
from the banglfL to the high road and 
after going ^ m. to the K. tarn oS to 
the right, and pass through fine groves 
of mango trees, by 2 Bmall vUtageB 
called Utbra, and then through rice- 
fields, and after skirling a small piece 
o£ water, cross to the E, among 
thorns and roagh ground to a long 
low hill, about aj m. from the T.B. at 
Sardaipilr. At the E. end of this hill, 
on the highest point, is a small and 
very ancient temple to Shiva, cou- 
spicnous from all parts of the country 
for 16 m. round. It is built of lai^e 
sq. atones, witliout mortar. The only 
ornament is geometric patterns, like 
those at Konirak, in the simplest 
form. The temple inside is 10 ft. sq. 
The roof is pyramidal, and 2 sides 
and part of the 3rd are entire. The 
height to the springing of the arch is 
10 ft. 6 in. The total height is about 
.SO ft. A banyan tree has grown from 
the roof, and now overshadows the 
whole building. Inside is the emblem 
■of Shiva, of polished blue stone, 6 ft. 
8 in. in circnrafereace, overturned but 
not.broken. Fiorait^etopof thshillis 



a beautifnl view in which the great 
tower of Bhuvaneshwar figures uon- 
spicuoualy. The groves of mango and 
other fruit trees, and many tanks 
adorn the soene. It takes 60 minuter 
in a pAlkl to reach the rock at Dhauli, 
from the Inspection. House, but the 
men go very dowly among the thorns. 
At the N,W. end of the hill is Ashoka's 
inscription, 15 ft. long horiuontally, 
and 6 ft. high perpendicularly. At 
the top of the inscription, facing W., 
are the head and shoulders of an ele- 
phant, i ft. high, cut out of the living 
rock. In front of the elephant, and 
where the inBCription ia, the rock has 
been smoothed. The elephant is an 
object of worship, for it ia smeared 
with red paint. It has 2 tusks, about 

10 in. long. The trunk is cracked 
near the top, and on the left side of 
the head is a hole 8 in. deep. From 
the smooth platform before the ele- 
phant to the ground ia a sheer depth 
of 10 ft. With regard to the meaning 
of the inscription, it will be sufficient 
to give a translation of the 1st £dict, 
which is as follows (see " Ind Ant.," 
vol. v., p. 27i) ; — " In the name of 
Dev&nimpriya, be it said to the ma- 
gistrates charged with the jurisdiction 
otthecityofTosalL Every cause which 
is submitted to my judicial decision, I 
wish to have investigated ; I convince 
myself of the guilt of the perpetra- 
tors, and 1 act myacK according to a 
steadfast principle. The principle on 
which I place the highest value in 
these is commanicated to you in this 
instruction, because ye are placed 
over many thousands of souls among 
the people, and over the whole num< 
ber of the good. Every good man is 
a child to me ; as for a child, I wish 
that they may be blessed with every- 
thing which IB usefid and pleasant for 
this world and hereafter." There are 

11 Edicts promulgated by Ashoka, ontt 
2 added by the local prince. 

Bhiivaneahmat: — The traveller should 
start for Bhuvaneshwar, as Boon after ti 
A.M. as poGsiblc, as though the distance 
is only i m. from Sardaipilr it is over 
rather rough country, with a trouble- 
some stream, which has to be crossed 
twice, and which is about 2 it. deep, 



SoiUe 3.^Puri {Pooree) io Mandagiri, 



122 

with rather high banks. This stream 
ia called the Kwattiah. Bhuvancsbwar 
lies to the N.W. of Bardalpfir, and for 
j m. before reaching- it, tberc arc mine 
of walls, among fiac mango treea, and 
a few temples, like the Great Temple 
in shape, bat on a much smaller scale. 
A bait maj be made at the Post-offloc, 
whichisocar20ydH.E. of theB.gate 
of the Temple. Bhuvaaetihwar ex- 
tends from tbe temple of R^eahwara 
to that of Bhnvaneshwar on the W., 
from that to tbe temple of Kapilesh- 
war on tbe S., from that to the temple 
of Bb&aiareehwai on the E, and from 
BhAskareshwar to B&meBhwara on the 
N. The area is 1,263 acres! rood and 
22 poles, and according tij the census 
of 1872, the pop. is 3,936. One half 
of the community are prieata or tem- 
ple servants. These live on what thej 
get from tbe pilgrims. 



Sect. 11. 



The t 



the ( 



pital 



of a lajge and Nourishing bi 
but ifl now an insignificant, imin- 
viting place, but interesting to anti- 
qoariana The travellev, however, 
must cipect considerable annor- 
ance from tbe hungry priests, who 
rank high in efEronteiy amongst the 
most persistent beggars in the world. 
Tbe Srst mention of Bhuvaneahwar, in 
the Records of the temple at Jagannith, 
dates from the reigu «£ YaySti, who 
is called by RAJendral&lfL Mitrathe 1st 
of the Ciegars of Orissa, but who was 
the first of tbe Kesbwarfa, and reigned 
for 62 years from 47* to 626 A.D. He 
expelled the Yavanas, thought by Stir- 
lii^, Hunter, and BfLjeudral&U Mitra 
to be the Budilhists, but they were 
more probably descendants of the 
Ul«ekB, who had come down from the 
N. His successoi's reigned in Bhu- 
vaneahwar for 24 generations, until 
Nripati Keshwariin 940— 9B0 founded 
Ea^, and made it his capital. To 
enter the E, gate of the Great Temple, 
3 BMps are descended between tow 
walls, on which are a tew rough carv- 
ings, the principal being on the left 
Qaug&, represented as a goddess, with 
the Bi^ Bmbma Deva on her left, 
and Vashi^htha on her right. Brah- 
ma Dera is the tjage, who is the 
old«gt of all beii^ aM who Barrivea 



the Hah& Pralny, or nnirersal deluge 
on wMch he floats. On the right waU 
is Yamuni. At the end of the low 
wall are first 2 conventional lions, with 
the right paw raised, and measuring 
4 ft. S in. from tbe top of titeir beads 
to the slab on which they stand. Be- 
hind the lions and next the door are 2 
piUatB, formed of circular stones with- 
out mortar. The stonesarefrom 10 in. 
to 1 ft. 2 in. in height, and about I ft, 
10 in. in diameter. The gate is plain, 
having for ornament only 6 simple 
geometric lines. The roof is pyra* 
midal and has 8 wide projecting eaves 
one above another, with the slopii^ 
roof ; the gateway is 3.S ft. 7 in, high, 
which does not inclnde tbe urn-1U:e 
top, nor the conventional lion sur- 
mountit^ it. The wall of the enclosore 
is 7 ft. 6 in. thick. It is built of large 
cut stones, vriHiout mortar ; it is IT ft. 
7 in. high, which includes tbe inward 
sloping parapet, 5 ft. 6 in. high, and 
is strong enough to defy field artillery. 
None but HindOs may approach the 
entrance nearer than within 3 ft., and 
tdl that can be seen inside is a amall 
plain temple, a pillar 7 ft. 2 in. in cir- 
cumferencc, 17 ft. high, with Biahabo, 
or Sbiva's bull, at top, but a view of 
the interior of the enclosure may be 
obtained by placing a ladder against 
the N. wall and ascending it, for which 
1 r. will be a sufficient fee. From Uie 
ladder it may be seen that the enclo- 
sure is full of small temples. Tbe 
area of the oourt>yard, according to 
B&jendralMA Mitra measures 620 x 
4S6 ft., with a projection on the N. 
side. There are 3 gateways, of which 
that to the S. is the smallest, that to 
the N. larger, and that to the E. the 
lai^est. At the N.E. comer of the 
wall there ia a small pavilion, which 
was perhaps built for a music room, 
but has now an image of PftrvatL 
Along the inner aide of the surronnd- 
ing wall there ia a bermc, 4 ft. high 
and 20 ft. broad. The oldest building 
in the courtyard is a plain temple, 
20'ft. h^h, the inside area being 6 ft. 
sq., and containing a short sandstone 
piUar. The room ie 5 ft. 6 in. below ' 
the level of tlie court-yard, and there 
, ia a flight o| 3 stepe to descead to it. 



; S.—Bhitvana^tar. 



123 



Oa the W. side there ia a templt 
Bha^avBtl, elabombelj sculptured. It 

Entering the eacloinre from the 
E., the first thing reached is a paved 
(icKurt-yard, fin ft. from B. to W., 
and 50 ft. from N. to S. Here Ib a 
flal^roofed temple, witti a parapet ot 
crest tiles, not Kiilike Saracenic I )nttle- 
menta. It is sacred to Gop&lini or 
Darg& in the fona of a cow-berdcsa. 
To the W. of it there is a flight of H 
stone steps, each 48 tt. 7 in. long and 
3 ft, 6 in. broad. From these steps to 
the front bnilding of the Qreat Tower 
is 22 ft. Right in front of the gate- 
way is a monolithic pillar, 2 ft. in dia- 
meter and 20 ft. high, sormomited by 
a bull co«chant. The temple consists 
of 4 bnildings, as usoal — the Hall of 
Offerings, Dancing Hall, Porch, and 
Great Tower. The 2 last are much 
older than the others. The Hall of 
OSerings wrs built dnring the reign 
of Kamala Keshnrl, between 792 and 
811 AD. It was orisrinally an open 
pillfircii €haii!t!)j. It stands on a 

Slatform, 6<) ft. sq. ; all rooDd ia a 
erme, 3 ft. high and 2 ft. broad. The 
plinth is elaborately BCnlptured. Abore 
it is a broad biuid, with images of 
pigeons, geese, dacks, etc. The build- 
ing, above the plinth, is 56 ft. sq. W. 
of this and abutting onlt is the Danc- 
ing Hall, built by the Queen oi Silini 
Kesharl, who reigued 1099 to 1104 
A.D. It has a bcrme, 3 ft. high and 
2 ft. broad on the N. nnd S. sides, 
carved with efflgiea ot temples, each 
with a human fipure seated in the 
midst. The door on the W. side ia of 
Randal wood, most delicately carved, 
and decorated with brass bosses. The 
cornice ia flat, and 3 ft. deep." TTie 
roof is sloping, and formed o( 4 tiers, 
terminating at top in a sq. platform, 
sarroundcd by Saracenic battlements. 
The roof is supported by i sq. nilhtrs 
•nd several iron beams. On the W. 
side is a frame of chlorite richly 
carved. There are 2 inscriptions of no 
Interest, Next comes the Mohan or 

■ " "Ant,o[Ori«i»,"Tol.il,,p,7B.' 



" Porch " of the same date as the 
Tower, that is in the reign of Tayiti 
Eeshari, 474 to 626 A.D., but not 
completed till the reign of Lal&fendn 
Kesbarl alia» Al&vu Keshari, 623 
to 677 A. D. It measorea 65 by 45 ft. 
The style of it is ornamented wifli 
pitchers in high relief, from each of 
which rises a highly ornamented pi- 
laster. Between these are alto-riliero 
flgures of men, women and Uons. The 
cornice is flat, and projects 4 ft. The 
roof is pyramidal and formed of re- 
ceding ledges, which are elaborately 
carved. The roof is supported by 4 
massive sq. pillars, 30 ft. high. 

Next the Mohan is the Great Tower, 
oftheBamedijnenaionBasthe Porch. The 
plinth has a series of pitchers and 
pilssters rising from them. In the in- 
tervals are statnes ot Bhagavati on the 
N., Kartika on thoW., and Oanesh on 
the S. The other niches are smaller, 
and contain statues of India on the 
E., Agni on the S.E., Yama on the 
8., Nirrlti on the 8.W., Varnna on 
the W., Mirot on the N.W., Knvera 
on the N., and fsha on the N.E. The . 
body of the tower is 56 ft. high, and 
from it rises the spire, between which 
the horizontal monldings are so dis- 
continued, as to indicate where the 
tower ends and the spire begina The . 
top of the spire is nat, and from the 
centre rises a cylindrical neck, sup- 
porting a ribbed dome, over which is 
placed the Ealasha or " pinnacle." 12 
statues of lions seated support the 
dome. Over it is, according to EAj- 
endral^lA Mitta, a trident, of which 
the side prong has been knocked off 
by lightning. At present it looks, 
most certaiiuy, more like a liow than 
a trident. The presiding deity is 
Tribhnvaneshwara," Ijord of tba Three 
Worlds," generally called Bhiivanesh- 
wara. He is represented in the sanc- 
tuary by a block of granite, 8 ft. in dia- 
meter, and rising 8 in. above the floor. 
It isbathed with water, milk, and bhang. 
There are 22 Dhiipas, or ceremonies 
daily, consisting in washing the teeth of 
the divinity, moving a lamp in front, 
dressii^, breakfast, etc. There are 
also 14 Y&tr48 or festLvale, a full ac- 
conat of which will b« found in tbe 



RouU 3. — Puri {Pooree} io Khaadagiri. 



bheDU 



124 

" Ant, of Oriaaa, " vol, ii., page 77. The 
Great Tower is fluted on the outflide 
nitli horizontal Antes, which 
grooved crosB-wajB, and thas differ 
from those of the tower of Jaganndth. 
On the B. face of the tower, nnder the 
figure of a largo conventional lion, is 
a symbol called Surjl Nirftyan, con- 
sisting of a line in the shape of a horse- 
shoe, having a similar line within, in 
which is the iignre of an aged man 
seated. Thia reprceenl* the 38 mii- 
liona of gods. The figure which Eij- 
endram^ Mitra calls a trident resem- 
■jeen said, a bow, and the 
the spot call it Pinal: 
ihiva's Bow. It is anr- 
moimted bj a bambi^ with a white 
flag ill which is " — 

a email fatuity, 
ascend the tower outside to the top of 
the bow and measure it. From the 
top of the bow to the bottom of the 
um is 34 ft, and thence to the ground 
127 ft., the total height being 161 ft. 

Ontside the enclosure arc manjamall 
subterraneous temples, and at tbcN.fi. 
comer ia a platform, in which is a 
. well of good water, and beyond it to 
the E. a very handsome tank, the 
water of which is fcetid. The tank is 
snrrounded on all sidca by flights of 
I a stj3ps, which descend to the wat«r, 
!,iid nbove them i; n row of small tem- 
ples, 108 in number and 6 ft. high, 
which extend all round. In the centre 
of the lank is a pavilion. The ground 
to the S. of the Great Tower, to the 
extent of 20 acres, is said to be the 
site of LalAtendu Keshari'a palace. 
It is now overgrown with jungle, but 
there are everywhere the remains of 
foundations and pavements. There 
are many mango trees and Bakula 
trees (_Miimiaop» eleagi). X. of the 
temple, about lODyds., is (he very fine 
t.ank called Vindus%ar, "ocean drop." 
It is faced with stone all round, and 
has numerous flights of steps descend- 
ing to the water. In the centre is a 
Jal Maiidir or '■ Water Pavilion," con- 
sisting oif several shrines, on which 
pereh numerous cranes, who in mo- 
tionless repose appear to be a cornice. 
In front of the central Gh.&\ ol this 
'tank there la a '.magnificent Xcmple, 



Sect II. 

with a Porch, a Dancing ^^11, and a 
Bhog Mandir. The court-yard mea- 
sures 131 ft, X IIT ft, and has a pro- 
jection |in front 96 ft. X 25 ft., with a 
gateway opening towards the W. The 
wall enclosing the conrt-yard is of 
latcrite, 9 ft. high and * ft. thick. The 
total height of the Temple is GO fL to 
the spire. The base is a sq. of 23 ft., 
and the interior is a sq. of 10 ft. 9 in., 
on a plinth B ft high. The Porch is 
a sq. of 33 ft oatside and 19 11. inside. 
The Dancing HaU is 29 ft x 24 ft 
outside, and 17 ft 4 in. x 16 ft. 9 in. 
inside. The Bhog Mandir in 22 ft. x 
19 ft. outflide and 19 ft! " x 12 ft 6 in. 
JnBide. The roofs are pyramidal, and 
supported on thick iron beams. The 
Temple and Porch are the oldest, and 
the Dancing Hall and Bhog Mandir 
the most modern. The last is quite 
plain ; the other 3 buildings are lined 
with brick-red sandstone, elaborately 
Bouliiturod. The Temple is sacred to 
V'^uduv or Krishna, and Ananta or 
Balar&m, and no pilgrim is allowod to 
perform any religions ceremony in the 
town without obtaining theirsanction. 
He prays them to Eanction his bathing 
in the TinduB&gar and ofiering obla- 
tions. He then visits the images in 
the temple, and prays for leave to 
visit Bbuvaneshwar. Ho next goes to 
the goddess Pdpaharft, "remover of 
sins," and after adoring her he roay 
visit Bhuvanoshwar. There are 2 in- 
scriptions on the W. wall of the conrt- 
yard which fixes the date at the cloee 
of the 11th centut;. 

Passing along the E. side of the 
tank, the water of which is refresh- 
ingly clear and clean, the traveller wiU 
see several temples of the same shape as 
the Groat Tower. About { m. to the 
E.N. B. of the Ananta and Vftsudcv Tern - 
pleisonetoKotitii'theshvaro, " the lord 
of 10 millions of sacred pools." It is 
ahont 40 ft high, with a correspond- 
ing porch. It is built of bluish-grey 
coarse basalt, and is dilapidated. 
It is evidently built of stones from 
other edifice, as the faces of 
tones, which are concealed, 
being joined to other stones in. 
the walls, have elaborate carvings, 
brought to light by the fall of 



Seet. It. Jiouie 3. — Shuvatuthuiar — MnJkUifwara. 



other stones. It is a place where the 
pflgrints bathe, anil the water ia filthy, 
t m. to the E. of this is the Temple of 
BTahmeshwaia, on a high mound, 
formed into a terrace. It is most 
Mumptnonsly carved, bb well inside as 
out. BlLjendrnl41[l Mitra says thn.t It 
was erected by Koliivatl, mother of 
UdyotaltB Keshari, in the 3rd qaartei' 
of tie 9th centniy A.D. InYoI. VII., Ab, 
Boc p. 568, is the tranElation of nn iu- 
Bcription, which mentions KolAvatI as 
the founder. W, of the temple, close 
to its terrace, ia a tank called Bmhma 
Kun^a. N.E. is an old temple to 
Bhaskatwihwara, " Sun-god." It is 
IGOO fathoms to the N.B. of the Great 
Tower, It is of basalt. The basement 
is 48 ft. i in. by 47 ft, 8 in., the height 
being 11 ft. The temple stands on 
Ihin. and is broken, so that it is only 
40 ft high. It is said to belong to the 
close of tlie Sth or the begiunint; of 
the 6th centnry. J m. to the W. of 
BhAskareshwaia is the onec magnifi- 
cent Temple of EfijAr^ril. Mr. Fergus- 
Kon says of it (" Hist, of Arch." p. 42-1) 
that " the plan is arranged so as to 
give great variety and play of light 
»nd shade, and as the details are of 
the most exquisite beanty, it ia one of 
the gems of Orissan art," It faces the 
E., and has a porch in front, both of 
dressed brick-rod sandstone. The 
chamber is 14 ft. long and 12ft. wide; 
the walls are 10 ft. thick. The height 
of tlie temple is Ct ft., and that of the 
poreh, 30 ft. The niches ore fiUed with 
statnes 3 ft, high, esecvtted with great 
vigour and elegance ; one of them 
closely I'esembles the statue of Venus 
de Modici, BAjendralAli Mitra says 
("Ant. of OrissB," vol, ii, p. SOy-. 
" for elegance, beauty, and flnisli, the 
temple i&ords one of the finest sjted- 
aens of Otiaaan art. It is worthy of 
the highest consideration." He adds 
that General Stewart and Colonel 
Maokonnie carried away the largest 
iitzmber of statues, and in detaching 
them dismantled lai^ portions of the | 
niches, and sadly defaced the build- 
ing. About 300 yds. to the W, is a ' 
grove of mango trees, called Siddhi- 1 
ra^ya, " Grove of the piirfect beings." j 
Here many temples were boilt, of{ 



125 



which moi^ than 20 remain entire. Of 
these, the most remarkable ore Muk- 
teshvara, Kedareshvara,Sidd)icshvara, 
and ParashorAmeshvara, 

Mukteihrara is the handsomest, 
though the smallest. It is 36 ft high, 
and the porch 3S ft. high. The oma- 

description, sculptured aJiA finished 
with the greatest care and taste. The 
floral Innda are neat«rand better exe- 
cuted than in most of the temples ; 
the bas-reliefs sharp and imprtsaive ; 
the statuettes vigorous and full of 
action, vrith drapery well-disposed, 
and the disposition of the whole ele- 
gant and most effective," Among the 
subjects are : a, lady mounted on a tear- 
ing elephant and striking with her 
aword a giant armed with sword and 
shield ; a figure of Annapilrni pre- 
senting alma to Shiva ; females, half- 
serpents, canopied under 6 or7-headcd 
cobraa ; liona mounted on elephants, 
or fighting with lions ; damsela danc- 
ing or playing on the Mridang; an 
emaciated hermit giving lessons ; a 
lady standing by a door with a pet 

Kn-ot ; another standing on a tortoise, 
e scroll-work, bosses and friezes are 
worthy of not*. The chamber of the 
temple ia 7 ft. sq., but outside mea- 
sures 18 ft. The porch is 2G ft outside, 
aud 16 ft. 7 in. by 12 ft. inside. 
In front of the porch is an archway 
or Toran 16 ft. high. It ia sup- 
ported on 2 columns of elaborate 
workman^ip, unlike anything of the 
kind at Bhuvaneshwar. Over the 
arch arc 2 reclining female flgures. 
It is said that the arch is nswi foi- 
swinging, in the Dol Festival. Ciow; 
behind the templeia a t.iuk 100 ft. by 
2o ft., lined with atone revetments on 
3 sides, and having a flight of steps on 
the4th, shaded byaNAgafcoshwara tree 
{MetHaferrea) of remarkable sise and 
beau^; 30 ft to the 8. la the Ganri 
Kunda, which is 70 ft. by 28, with a 
depth of 16 ft. The water is beauti- 
fully clear, tepid, and fall of fish, and 
the bestdnnking water in the looalitj. 
Water flows into it from the first- 
named tank, but a mnch gi-eater quan- 
tity fiowa ont, sufficient to irr^te 25 - 
acres of arid laterite soiL It is said to 



BouU 3.— Puri (Pooree) to Khandagiri. Sect IL 

f L to the S. of the last umed. ItiaSS 
ft-Mgh and 27 f t. 8q., and richlT earred 
aUorer. The Mohoji fa 33 ft by 37 ft. 
There are mauj other templea, imd *, 
list ot 81 will be foondin the " Ant. of 
Oriaaa," vol. ii. pp. 97, 98, where it is 
estimated that there axe about 300 
Bltogether. It would require at least a 
fortnight to examine them all, and 
none but a zealous autiquorian would 
ondettake the tnsk. 

Oa leaving Bhuraneahwar, the tra< 
Teller ia suie to be pursued for 1 m. 
by the most clamorous mob ot beg- 
ging priests theX can. be found any- 
where. It will be for him to elrct 
whether he will sternly refuse to give 
anything, and submit to the Etunning 
noise, or will continually cast out 
l-ini and 3-&n4 pieces. The distance 
to the cares of Udayagiri and Khan- 
dagiri is about i m. to the N.W., and 
the path lies through low jungle, which 
gradonlly increases till the hills arc 
reached. Of course, in the day the heat 



126 

have been excavated by the goddess 
Gaori, and that it tiestowa beauty, 
good fortune, und freedom from all sin. 

Eed&rakcara.— Close by this Kup- 
4ll is the Eedireshvara Temple, and 
near it against the outer wall of a 
sm^ room is a figure of Hanum^, g ft. 
high, and one of DurgA, standing on a 
lloa. Her statue is of chlorite, and has 
the finest female head to be seen in 
Bhuvaoeshwar. The Keddreahvara 
temple is 41 ft. high, and has an almost 
circular ground plan. The Mohan is 
square and plain. This temple is proba- 
bly older than the Great Tower, and 
possibly dates from the middle of the 
eth centuiy. It is very sacred. N.W, 
of Huktc^vara is Bideshvara, which 
is very ancient, and was once the most 
sacred spot on this side of BhUTanC!«li- 
war. It is 47 ft. high, and has a well- 
prOTOrtioned porch. 

ParaMkUTime»htara,.—Xi 200 yds. 
to the W.pf tho Oaurl tank is Panuhu- 
rimeshvara Temple, more than 60 ft. 
high, and most elaborately carved all 
over. The ground plan ia a an., the 
pmch is oblong and covered with bas- 
reliefs Teprescuting procession!) of 
hones and elephants in the npper 
Hnear bands under the cornice, and 
Hcenes from the life of R&ma in the 
lower. The roof is a sloping terrace, 
in the middle of which ia aclearstory 
with a sloping root, crowned with a 
flat one in tho middle. The clear 
■tmy has 6 windows in front and 12 
on either side. This mode of lighting 
occurs nowhere else except in the 
Mohan ot the Vait&l Temple. It ia 
borrowed from the halls of the Budd- 
hists. This temple is probably of the 
Sthcentory. 

AlAlKjKthaira. — This temple stands 
800 ft. to the N.K. of the last, and is of 
red sandstone. Alftbu fa a nickname 
of Lal&tendu Eeaharl, who built the 
Great Tower. A14bu fa also the alms- 
bowl of Shiva. 

VaUal itewfll.— Thfa is on the road- 
aide to the W. of the Vindoaagar tank. 
Its spire fa 4-sided, and ends in a long 
ridge, set oS with 3 Kalashas. It is de- 
corated with a profusion of carviugs, 
and is probably of the 9th ccntuir. 

Someihcara. — IMs temple stands 800 



t great 
Vdai 



Jdayagiri is 110 ft, high, and lie 
caves exist in 8 stages. The lowest 
being the Hdni Naur* or Queen's Palace, 
which is about 64 ft. to the N.E. of a 
Math, or hnt where the guide lives. ''It 
consists ot 2 rows of cells, one above the 
other, shaded by pillared veraudohfi, 
with a courtyard 4!) by 43 ft. cut out 
of the hill-aide." (" Stat. Ace. of 
Beng." vol. xis., p. 74). The facade 
ot the tipj>er stoiy, which faces E,, is 
63J ft, lon^, and has 8 doors. There 
are 2 dwdrpAU, representing men in 
Grecian armoar, with burins and 
greaves. MjendralAla Mitra says : 
" dressed in tight fitting clothes and 
armed with spears and clnbs ; " bnt 
certainly to one who has seen classical 
figures, these appear to be Greek. 
They are cut out of the solid rock in 
alto-rilievo. The verandah is supported 
by 9 pilhua, and it gives access to 4 
cells, each 14 ft. long by 7 broad and 
3 ft. 9 in. high. The verandah is 7 ft. 
broad and 7 f L 6 in. high. Each cell 
has 2 doors, and at either end is a rock 
lion, done with some spirit and resem- 
bling the teal ^imal. The back wall 



leB^R 



iCav.. 



Route 3. — Ud^agin, 



of die TBTaudBh u a series of tableAux. 
Ist on the left are men conying fmit, 
ft group of elepluuita and soldiers 
armed with Bwords. In the "Ant. of 
(Mesa," vol. iL, p. 7, there is a veij 
elabontte account of this part of the 
tableau, whicb requires Teiy teen 
eight and some imagination to TcaliKe. 
It is sud that there is a large den in a 
rod " sheltering a a[Town'ap eiephaot 
and 2 elephant calveB, the foremost 
crouching and the hindmost standing. 
The animals are tame ones, and the 
foremost calf shows a halter round hie 
neck ; but they have evidently strayed 
away from their proper pen, and taken 
ehelCei in tbe cave, for then appears 
a la^ crowd of men and women 
asBembled before them, determined to 
dislodge tbem fronj tieir shelter by 
force. The foremost person in the 
group is a stout man, ready, with bd 
uplifted bludj^eon, to strike the nearest 
caJf. Behind him a woman is also 
bent on attacking the animals, but a 
gentle, modest-loci:) Dg lady in a vdl 
is trying to dissoade her, and dr^ her 
away by her left hand. The woman 
to the left of the geatle lady has 
ttirown oS her veil, and holds aloft a 
coil of rop& — a-lssso — ready to cast it 
on the animals. A coil of this kind has 
already been cost, and is seen stickin); 
on the flank of the foremost calf — 
thrown probably by tbe youth in the 
fbregttnmd, nhose mother, or some 
kind friend, has dragged him away su 
as to make him fall stooping forward. 
A 2nd youth is l>eing draj^ed away 
by an equally anxioos female. 3 other 
females in the farthest background 
are crowding together. ; 

" Tbe cave hasthe mark of aSceutika 
(implying benediction) over it, and is 
evidently intended as a representation 
d the Elephant Cave, which has a 
similar symbol on its front, but what- 
ever the locale, it is certain that the 
whole scene is a representation of 
clophants having taken posseesion of 
a sacred cave, the dwelling of some 
simple people, who are tryii^ their 
utmost to disbdge them. The amoont 
of jewellery on the pereons of the 
people precludes the idea of their 
being Buddhist hermitSt but their 



adveutuM most have acquired some 
interest to ha*e formed the snbjcet of 
a tableau. To tbe extreme right is an 
Ashoka tree, an emblem of conetancy 
in women. From the top of the tree 
a Br&bmanl goose, anothi^ emblem of 
constancy, is seen to fly out. Tbe 1st 
scene in the 3rd compartment is 
porely ornamental. It represents a 
couple of monkeys in a cave frightened 
by a serpent. Next appears a young 
lady, at the door of a cave seated 
cross-legged, close by a man, whose 
head rests on her lap ; a female is in- 
troducing a warrior, with a straight 
long sword and an oblong shield." 
The nest tableau represents 2 persons 
fluting, which Hunter declares to be 
a prince and pKncess, armed with 
swords and oblong shields. One of 
tbe shields baa a sort of projecting 
spikes. On tbe left is a female flgore 
being carried oS. It must be said 
that all the fignres are so much defaced 
that it is mere matter of conjectnro to 
describe Uiem. 

Tbe next tableau is a hunt : a groom 
is leading a horse carved with mneb 
spirit There is a tree in the 
centre, and on the left of the spec- 
tator is tbe prince firing with a bow. 
which he holds perpendicularly, at a 
bounding antelope on tbe spectator's 
right. A llgure which is said to be the 
princess is sitting in a tree on the ex- 
treme right of the spectator. Id the 
6th compartment the figures are so 
much injured, tbat it is almost im> 
possible. to inake them out. A man 
with largo pectoral muscles sits on a 
stool with his legsbangiog down, with 
a number of females about him. On. 
the other side is a female recluse sitting 
cross-legged and adoring a Chaitya, 
placed before her. A boy in the fore- 
ground is similarly occupied. The 6th 
compartment is still more defective. 
It represents a man and a woman 
seated on separate chairs, tt^en the 
woman sitting on the man's lap, then 
both seated on the ground. In tbe 
last compartment there is the same 
Sgiu« as in the first, whicb ehowe the 
end of the frieze. It is a man carry- 
ing fruit, bat in hia right band is a 
n^of cord or a garland to decorate a 



128 



JioiUe S.—Ptai (Pooree) to Kluindagin. Sect. IL 



Ckaitya, or other Bhiine, which Hr. 
FerfniaEon thinks isof Bactri&n origin, 
bnt KijendralAU Mitra thinks it Budd- 
histic. The lower story, also, has 8 
doors. The ground-Hoor froat was 
formed of a coloimaded veraudah 
41 ft. long, having a raised seat or 
benoe, along its whole inner line. It 
was formerly supported by a row of 
A sq. pillars, of which only the 2 ead 
ones remain, the rest haying fallen 
down with the roof. To the K. it 
opened into on ohlong chamber 11 ft. 
by 7 ft., and to the N. into 3 rooms of 
wlucli the central one measures 1 6 ft. 
by 7 ft., and the side ones 13 ft. 6 in. 
by 7 ft. and 13 ft. hy 7 ft. The side 
rooms bare each 2 doors, and the cen- 
tral one 3, and a frieze of bas relief 
eitends the whole length over the 
door-way. The frieze is mach dila- 
pidated, so that only i fragments 
admit of description ; the 1st repre- 
sents a hnt of 2 stories, of which the 
lower has 1 doors and the nppcr 1. A 
femklc figure looks oat of each door, 
and one tiTDm the balcony, which is pro- 
tected by a Buddhist rail of i bars. 
A similar rail mns in front of the 
lower story, with a lai^ tree by its 
side. In the 2nd fragment, a saint or 

iiriest holds a piece of cloth in his 
eft hand and extends the right as in 
the act of blessing. He wears an 
ample dlu>ti round the waist and a 
scarf orer the body. On his right a 
servant holds an umbrella, and another 
in front cajriea a sword. On his left 
is a devotee on his knees seeking a 
blessing, and beyond to the left are two 
women bringing oSerli^s, both kneel- 
ing, but one with the hands folded 
and the other dusting the feet of a 
boy, who has one hand on her head and 
the other holding a cloth which hangs 
from her. In the 3rd fragment is a 
saddle horse, with 3 attendants, and 
the holy man of the 2nd fragment 
with an nmbrella held over him, and 
2 attendants with swords on their 
Ghoolders. In the 1th fragment, there 
is a group of 6 women, 3 carrying 
pitchers on their heads, 1 kneeing 
and offering her pitcher to a Ggnre, 
which is lost, 1 kneeling with folded 
faaada, and 1 leaniDg on the branch 



of a free and holding out her pitcher. 
The groups rest on Bnddhist ruls. 

Qa^thah Qvm,pk6. (or more cor- 
rectly GKpkA.)OTGarbkah.—ktnO&. 
almost due N. of the R&nl Naur Cave, 
is that of the Qaneshah Guphi, which, 
however, is much higher in the hill. It 
has bnt 1 story, bat 2 ctdnpartments, 
with a verand^ in front, which is 30 ft. 
long and 7 ft. broad. It has 3 pillars in 
the front of the verandah, sq. and 
massive, but other 2 have fallen. The 
pillars have brackets, with femal« 
figures carved on them. The fl^ht oi 
steps leading to the verandah has a 
crouching elephant on either side, hold- 
ing lotuses in their trunks. Tbere are 
also elephants in biva relief at the ends 
of the architrave. The rooms are rect- 
angular, measuring 16 ft. by 7 ft. 
The verandah is 6 ft. 4 in. high, and its 
wall is oi-namented with a series of 
tableaux in aHo-rilievo. The Irt re- 
presents B man sleeping under a Bo 
tree, with a nude female sitting on his 
legs ; in the neita man has seized the 
hand of a female, who is holding up 
her right hand as if crying for help. 
Then come 2 persons, perhaps the 
lady and her suitor, fighting, with 
swords and oblong shields, and then 
the man is depicted carrying off the 
woman, who retains her pecnuar head- 
dress. In the Qtli compartment the 
successfnl lover is escaping on an 
elephant, pursued by soldiers in heavy 
kilts. A man on the elephant has cut 
ofF the head of one, and is holding it 
up. The ravisber is drawing his bow, 
holding it peipendicularly. In the Gth 
compartment he has reached his home, 
and he and the lady have aUghled 
from the elephant. In the 7th the 
lady stands with her hand on the 
man's shoulder, while his arm is I'ound 
her waist. In the next she is seated 
on the ground, while be stands near 

This frieze, and that in the Banf 
Naur Cave, represent the same stoiy, 
the TnaiTi difference being that in 
this cave the figures are more classi- 
cal and better drawn, and, therefore, 
Mr. FerguBson thinks more modem. 
In the BAni's cave they are certainty 
more Hindd. Of the story from 



Sect. 11. Soute 3. — Gopdlaptlra — VaikunlJia — Ildth'i Gumphd. l20 



which these designs are taken, nothiog 
is known. E&jpikt ladies, in the olden 
time, wore weapons aod fought as at 
the tailing of Chitilr, where 2 prin- 
cesses sallied at the head of the Mew^lr 
troops, and were killed. Those who 
wish to go further into the matter may 
consult the "Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii., 
pp. 12-13. A little more than BO yds. 
to the W. of E4nt Naur Cave, is a 
flight of steps which lead to a two- 
Bloried cave called Swargnpurl. Both 
stories have 2 rooms, with a. verandah 
in front, which has been supported by 
pillars now broken. There is no carv- 
ing or inscription except some pilasters 
near the door, from the top of which 
runs a line of Buddhist rails, sur- 
mounted by aa elephant in bas relief, 
with what is perhaps a human figure 
and a tree behind it. 60 ft. to the N. 
hj W. of these are the Jaj4 Vijayi 
Cavea, sometimes called Hansapir. 
The porch is 8 ft. by 3 ft., and the 
corridor 13 ft. by 6 ft. In the corridor 
is a, raised plinth on 3 sides, and be- 
hind are 2 rooms, 7 (t. O in. by fi ft. 
« in. There is a frieze with 3 com- 
partments, the base being formed of 
a line of Buddhist rails. In the cen- 
tral compartment is a Bo tree. Beside 
the tree are 2 male figures, that on the 
■left with folded hands, and that on 
the right holdii^ a bit of cloth tied to 
the tree and a small branch. Near 
the men are 2 females bringing trays 
of ofieringB. The scroll work on the 
seuu-circuiar bands over the doorways 
arc different, and beyond them are 2 
turbaned figures carrying trays of 
offerings. At the sides of the facade 
are a man and Tvoman, 6 ft. high, in 
alto-rilievo. To the left is a small cave 
called DwArkapiira. 

Cfopdlaptij-a.— Jo the K,W. are 2 
groups of caves, named OopAlapiira 
and MancbapUra, in which arc a hall 
33 ft 4 in, by 6 ft., 3 side rooms and 
a verandah 25 ft. 4 in. long. On the 
piers of the hall are 2 inscriptions in 
the L&t chantcter, now illegible. 

yhiiunf^. — This and 2 other caves, 
P&t&lapura and Jamapura, are a little 
to the N.W. They are much defaced 
and are now oninteresting. There is a 
rlow of these caves in Mr. Fergusson's 
tawffoJ— 1881.] 



" Rock-cut Temples of India," plate i 
There 'are 2 Pfilli inscriptions in the 
Lit character, of which all that can 
be read is " excavations of the Rdj^ 
of Kalinga enjoying the , favour of 
the Arhantas," and "the cave of the 
Mah4r&i& Vlia, the Loixl of Eahnga, 
the cave of the venerable Kadepa," 
also " the cave of Prince Vidukha." 
Hence it appears that the proper 
name of these caves is Kalingarfijil 
Gumphii, or Yidukha Oumph^, or 
Kadepa's Gumphi. 

IIdtlii6hitnp!ul.~-75ydB.to theN.W. 
is the Hithi CJumphi or "Elephant 
Cave," of which Mr. Fei^nsson says : 
" it is an extensive natnral cave, unim- 

8 roved bT art." (" Tree and Serpent 
Worship,'' 2nd ed. p. 267). To the 
left is a boulder, which has been 
hollowed out into a cell E ft. sq. Over 
the entrance, cat into the scarped 
rock, is an inscription in the most 
ancient L^t character, 14 ft. long and 
S ft. broad, comprising 17 lines, each 
letter 2 in. long. It lias safEered seri- 
ous injury in seveia! places, but 
enough lemains to show that it is, 
perhaps, the oldest Indian engraved 
document that bas come down to us. 
The translation, according to K&jen- 
dral&U Mitra, is :— 



litu.— Selntation 



1 thOM 1 






itiajiied perfect 
1 iiilghty el 






eat King, who lias 

J weaioi in erecting Chaltysa, wliu 

IB dlatiugulBhed by the attributes ot Sb&kys, 
who is.'reiiDwned fur havlug plundered the earth 

of Kalinga, has tbia hill been eicavBtod. 

Srd llM.— For IB years all juvenile oamea 
having been played by lim, who bad a hand- 
some red body, and 9 ot education, the person 
in the 2411i year of hie age, wiahlnK to become 
a king, with the chaiaiteriBtica of a giant and 

in the Hid batUe, in the capital of the Boyal 
Dynasty of Kalinga, received royal unction, 
and devoted to the rinty of Kings, causes tho 
gates, walla and houiea, nrhioh had been 
destroyed to he repaired. In the city of 
Kalinga a lake refieshing ae the moonbeams, 
and a Sight uf steps, and insny roads for all 
kind of equipages he caused tn be, 
ith iiw .—ConHeotatBd. He causes the gia- 



le W. side, horses, olephants, m 



■ Jiouti Z.—Puri (Fooree) to JUtandaffiri. Sect. II. 



-tTirufulI Dt Jewels, which inimioil 



—He munLBoentJy liiatrfbutei 
mj hundred thaQHud (giaiiai 
towu, territory — governs well 






'.-(To) the priiio 



(dCite) 






quiUl- Seated on the hill— laviebea bbud 

i^loea and all reiiul^teB for the 
boose \—to induce the pnc 
~ 1 rur&er 



.fi^.S.""*^ 



iBiptopar peraoDH, ho furfeer beetoi 
lOIMiiu.— Thebtghly] 



>ot It 



iwnalKuigca 



— Floding no gloiy, Jn the Cf 



reEectlngintheiatbyeai 



.—la the 
>f the ao-CKlled 
Impelled by v 



charity iDDumerable npd 
year — married the 



— KiDga or AyatDa — Kings of 



equipagee- the feixleBS sovoreign of 
Mils by the eun (cbeiiahed) the gret 
qneror of the oceau shoie I 

" All who ta^t inteKBt in Indian 
ftntiquities," aajfl PrinBep, "will at 
once aee tbe yalac of the atrave record, 
perhape the most curious that has yet 
been dieclosed to ns." EijendralSlft 
Mitra aapposes that Aiia mentioned ' 



the inscription lived witliin the hun- 
dred years preceding the accesEion ol 
Chandragupta to tlie throne of Ma^ 
gndha, in 316 B.C. There are eeveral 
emaller inecriptionB within the CftTe, 
some in ill-formeil Gupta character, 
others in equally degcoerata Kntila. 
They were cut, probably by idle 
monlcB, or visitors. A few yds. N. of 
the Elephant Cave is the F&vana 
Quphi, or "cave of purification." It 
is of no importance, except that it has 
an inscription, in the L4f character.for 
which see " As, Soc. Joum. of Beng,," 
vol, vi., p. 1074. 

About 75 ft. to the S.W, of the 
PAvana GuphA is the Sarpa GnphA, or 
" Scrjient Cave." On the top of the 
entrance is a rude carving of the hood 
.headed cobra. Under this is the 
door, into which a man can just crawl ; 
thointeriorbeingacabeof ift. Beside 
tbe door is an inscription thus trans- 
lated by James Prinsep ; — " The 
unequalled chamber' of Chulakama 
and the appropriate temple of Karma 
E,iBhi." About IE yds. to the X. is the 
Bhajana Quphl, or " cave of medita- 
tion." It measures 8 ft. long in front, 
and 10 ft. behind. It is 10 ft brood, 
and 7 ft. high. A little to the N. is 
the Alakdpura, or " palace of Indra." 
Neither is of any importance. 

Sdffh QupkA. or " Tigei- Girt."— 
■j 50ft. to the N. is the very interest- 
g Tiger Cave, cut eitemally into the 
shape of a tiger's head, with the javcs 
at full gape. Tlie eyes and nose ot 
the monster are very well marlted, but 
the teeth are now imperfectly dis- 
cernible. The head at top, where it 
joins the hill, is 8 ft. 8 in. broad, and 
tbenoe to the upper lip, 10 ft, li in. 
long. The gape is y ft, wide, and the 
entrance to the cell occupies the place 
of the gullet. To tlie right of the 
entrance is an inscription in the lAt 
character, which says, " Tbe Cnvc of 
Sasevin," a fierce opponent of the 
Vedas. At tbe beginning of the in- 
scription is a Buddhist monogram, 
and at tbe end a Svastika. A little 
N. of the Tiger Cave is the Urdha- 
b&hu, a one-storied chamber, 12 ft. 
by 6 ft. wide, a verandah of corre- 
sponding aiie, faced by three pillare 



Soot. II. 



. Route 3. — Kiiortdagiri. 



with lion capitals and brocketa carved 
like female figures, projecting in 
front. It has an illegible iuacription 
in the Lat character. 

Kha^idagiTiUm.—TtiieMWial^Stt. 
Iiigb,aQd &icea£. It is tMcklj covered 
with trees. The path which leads to 
the top is gteep, and at the height of 
about 30 ft. dirides into 2, one branch 
leadiqg to the right and ending at the 
foot of B terrace in front of a care. 
The other leads to the loft, and to a 
rango of cavee cut in the E. face of 
the hill. The terrace on the right 
leads hj 2 ver; broad steps tn the 
.Ananta cave, which is a narrow room, 
with i doorways and a rerandah in 
front. The room is 24 ft. 6 in. in 
front, and the verandah 26 ft. The 
room is 7 ft broad, and the verandah 
8 ft. The verandah has 3 pillars, 
which are divide into S sections, of 
which the centre one is octagonal and 
the others sq. Instead of a capital, 
the pillars have a projecting bracket, 
■hapid like a woman. The architrave 
ie heavy, and over it is a parapet 
■ supported on corbels, and formed of 
pyramidal battlements, with inter- 
Tening bunches of flowers. 

In the centre of the back wall of the 
room ie a Buddha, in )ma-relief . The 
frieze is in 5 compartments. In the 1 st 
are 2 human figures running or flying, 
dressed in waist-belts and scarves and 
turbans. They carry Iraya of offer- 
ings. At the spring of the arch to 
the right of these figures is a kneeling 
athlete, over whom stands a man 
holding by its hind legs a lion, which 
appears to be making for a man who 
is struggling with an enraged bull, 
and which he has caught by the left 
horn, and is about to strike with a 
club. Next cornea a lion, held by the 
hind leg by a man who stands at the 
head ot an athlete like the former 
one. The crown of the arch is formed 
by the tails of 2 snakes, and above is 
a. Buddhist rail. In the semi -circular 
■pace nndcr the arch ia a nude female, 
•tanding in a lotus-bush, and holding 
a lotos-stalk in either hand. Two ele- 
phants are throwing water over her 
with their tmnks. ThisiaeitherBftsull, 
anaboiigiual goddess mentioned by Mr, 



. 131 

BeameSiOrLakghmi. The 3rd Compart- 
ment is the same as the 2nd, but the arch 
which follows has two lines of gcesc 
running with spread wings, each with 
a flower in its hill. On the Tympanum 
is a Bo tree, and a lady standing before 
it with folded hands. One of her at- 
tendants has a garland, and others 
hold trays of offerings. In the last 
compartment the flying figures are 
repealed. In the back wall of the 
Terandah are 2 inscriptions, one in 
the L&t character, and the other in 
the Kntila. 

The visitor must now turn bnck 
to the place where the path divides 
and proceed to the left, when he will 
come to a modem gallery and to 
the S., at a distance of .SO ft., to a 
range of 3 openings, with 2 lines of 
pillars, of which the inner is broken. 
There is here a Sanslq^t inscription of 
the 12th century in Ndgari. which 
says the cave belonged to ichirya 
E&lachaudra, and his pupil Vel^ 
Chandra. Next comes a range of 
caves facini; the E., divided into 2 
compartments by a partition in the 
middle. Each of the compartments 
is divided into 2 aisles by a range of 
pillars, round in the shaft, with a 
narrow fillet ronnd the middle, the 
capitals formed of 2 tiles, enclosing a 
flattened ribbed ball. On the back 
wall is a row of seated Dhy4nl Bu:i- 
dbas, and some new images of Jinna 
Deva. At the E. end is an altar of 
masonry, on which are ranged nnumber 
of Jain images, 16 in. high. Thecom- 
partment on the right side is 21 ft. 6 in. 
long and g ft. high. The outer aisle 
is 4 ft. i in. broad, the inner 6 ft. 8 in. 
The 2nd compartment is 22 ft. 4 in. 
long, with the same height and breadth 
as the other. The pillars of the front 
row are of the same pattern as in 
tiose of the 1st compartment, but 
those in the inner are octagonal and 
tapering. On the back wall is a row 
of Dhyinl Boddhas, I ft. high, and 
below females seated on stools, some 
4-handed, others 8-handed, with one 1^ 
crossed and the other hanging. Below 
the stools are lions coiicliant. From 
this to the top of the hill is a stiff 
climb, and the steps in one place are 



Route i. — liliuvandhumr to Katak (Cuttach). Sect, II, 



132 

almost perpendicular. On the Eummit 
of the hill is a plateau, and a temple 
la PirssnAfh, 31 £t. lopg (rom N. to S. 
and 2\ ft. from E. to W. From it iB 
a magnificent panoramic view lootinjj 
E. to Dhauli, 8.E, to Bhuvnneshwar, 
and 15 m. all round. The groves of 
mango and jack trees are most beauti- 
ful, and nadonbt supplied the hermits 
with food. A panther lives in this 
hill, and kills cattle, and lately tore a 
BrAhman so much that he died. This 
temple was built about a century ago, 
by ManJQ Chandiri and his nephew, 
Bhawdni Dftdu at Katak, Jain mer- 
chants of the DiBambari sect. In the 
sanctuary ia a standing figure of Ma- 
hivlra in black stone, 1 ft. high, 
placed on a wooden chair. In front 
of the temple is a line terrace, BO ft. sq,, 
with a raised masonry seat all round. 
The temple is in. charge of a Br&hman 
of Bhuvaneshwar. To the 8.W. of the 
temple is a smooth terrace, of 160 ft. 
diameter, gently sloping to the W., 
called the Deva Sabhd, In the centre 
is a small sq. pillar, witli a bas-relief 
. oE Buddha on each side, and round it 
4 circles of Chaityas, from 2 to 3 ft. 
high. 3 small boulders, set in a tri- 
angle, and covered by a dolmen of 
sandstone, stand in tie inner circle. 
E. ot the Deva SabhA, at 100 yds., is a 
tank cut in the solid' rock, called the 
Akisha Q»ng4, or "heavenly Ganges." 
Immediately below the tank is a cave, 
where the remains of S.i,\6. LalAtendru 
£esharl are said to rest. Biijendra- 
IftlS, Mitra believes the whole of the 
caves to be originally Buddhist, and 
to Imve been constmcted from 3W to 
320 B.C. He sees in them no connec- 
tion with Qreek architecture and 
sculpture. 



ROUTE 4. 

EATAE. 

The stages are as follows : — 



The road from f 
river at Katak is good' and well 
shaded. The Inspection House at 
BastambSdi, where 'the traveller can 
alight and stop the night, if he so 
pleases, is lEO yds. off the road to the 
left, and is in good repair and com- 
fortable. It is a little past the Ilth 
milestone from Ea^ak. The distance 
thence to the K4tjuri fs done in a 
pilki in 2 hours. In the cold season 
the channel of this river consists of I 
of a m. of sand and ISO to 200 yds. of 
water I ft. deep. The banks are high, 
and in the rainy season the river is 
perhaps Jam. broad and 15 ft. deep. 

Katak is a city with 50,878 inhabi- 
tants. It is silnated at the apex of 
the delta of the Mabdnadi river, 
which rises in the BMpik district of 
the Central Provinces, and has a 
length of 529 m., or I m. shorter 
thajt the Loire. It pours dovm upon 
the Delta throi^h the narrow go^e 
of Nar6j, T m. W. of the tovm of 
Katak, and, dividing into 2 streams, 
encircles the city on the N. and E., 
and on the W. by its blanch, the 
KAtjuri. The river dnring the rain 
pours down a prodigious flood, and to 
prevent its sweeping away the city, 
an important stone embankment, or 
A(iakatt,has been erected 8 m. S.W^ of 
tiie N,W. point of the spit of land on 



ssctir. 



Soute i.^Katak (CuMoci). 



133 



which the city haa been built. From 
this Anakatt extends the Tuldanda 
Canal, from N. to S., and frum it acity 
drainage caoal runs N, for 6 m, to the 
Bidysdluxr Tank, and divides the in- 
habited part of the spit of ground into 
2 nuarly equal parts ; the N. contain- 
ing the Brichahi Bitc&T, the canton- 
ments and fort, and the S. containing 
the Uciya and Shekh B^Ars and the 
main portion of the city. The T.B. 
is in the middle of the cantonments, 
on the right o£ the road going down 
to the fort. 

About Jth of a m. beyond it in 
the Parade Ground, with the Roman 
Catholic chapel on the left, and 
the Church ot the Epiphany on the 
right. It has its name from haviDg 
been consecrated on the Feast of the 
Epiphany, on the Bth of Jannnry, 
1S68, by Bishop Milman. The build- 
ing cost 19,000 rs., and will accommo- 
date 200 perBons. The architect was 
Mr. Chishobn, assisted by Mr. Gran- 
villa, Gov. Ardi. It has a sq. tower, 
is 83 ft. 9 in. long and 24 ft. broad, 
with a verandah 12 fL broad. There 
is a stained-glass window at the G. 
end, aJid a marble parement. The 
Register begins oa Jaly 1, lS5i>. 
ITiere are 3 tablets in the church, 
one to Mr. Q. W. Boothby, C.8., son 
of the Rev, Brooke Boothby and Hon. 
Louisa Vernon, his wife, who died 
snddenly ot cholera, March 28IJi, 
1S68, at Calcutta. It is a very hand- 
some white marble slab, on a black 
groiiDd,witha head of thedcccascd well 
ciecuted. Another is to the Rev, H.H. 
Harington, the chaplain who laboured 
for the erection of the church, but 
did not live to see it opened. The 
.ltd is to John Campbell, C.E., who 
was drowned at Kalpara. The fJ™e- 
f^ri/ is 3 of a m. to the N.W, of 
the church, beyond the fort, near the 
left bank of the river. It is shaded 
with line trees, and is very well kept. 
On the side post of the f^te is marked 
in red cbalk, 786 tinili buried here. 

The Fi'rt is called BatdbStl, and 
ia thooght by Stirling to have been 
built by B4j^ Anang Bhim Deo, 
in the fourteenth century. He soys, 
'* the Bq. shDping bastions and general 



style bespeak a Hindii origin. The 
Mubammadan or the Maritha Go- 
vernors of Orissa added a round 
bastion at the N.W. angle, and the 
arched gateway in the K. face, as 
mentioned in Persian inaoriptions, 
which gives the 4th year of Ahmad 
8h4h, or A.D. 1760, as the date ot the 
additions. The fort has double walls 
of stone, of which the inner encloses 
a rectangular area 2150ft. by ISOOft. 
The entrance is through a grajid gate- 
way on the E., flanked by 2 lofty sq. 
towers, having the sides inolinii^ in- 
wards from the base totbesommit. A 
noble ditch, faced with masonry, sur- 
rounds the whole, measuring 2Mft.in 
the broadest part. In the centre of the 
fort is a huge sq. bastion, with a flag- 
staff. M, La Mottc, who travelled fii 
1767 A.D., thongbt the fort hke the 
W. side of Windsor Castle. In the 
" Ain-i-Akbari " it is said that there 
was, within the fort, the famous palace 
ot Eij4 Mukund Deo, 9 stories high. 
The Persian word in the "Ain" is 
Axhijdnah, which K4jendrftlil4 Mida 
lakes to mean "courtyard," but in 
this he appears to be in error, for the 
word onginally means "nest," and 
then " ceiling," and could hardly be 
applied to a lateral layer. This has 
utterly perished, but from the mins 
have l>een dug up fragments of cor- 
nieea, and a massive candelabrum of 
fine indurated chlorite. Mr. Stirlii^|8 
description of what the fort was is 
now inapplicable, for it has been con- 
verted mlo an unsightly series of 
earthen monnds; the stones of the moat 
having been taken in 1873 to build an 
hospital, and those of the fort to con- 
struct the lighthouse at False Point. 
The arched gateway in the E, face, 
and the Mosque of Fatlj K]j4n, are the 
only objects of antiqaalian interest 
which remain. The top ot the ruined 
citadel ia 100 ft. above the level of the 
river. There arc 3 large white stones 
there, used for seats. 

On the way to the fort, before 
entering the cantonments, on the 
left of the road, ckae to the bank 
of the Taldanda Canal, and 1 m. 
W. of the Collector's .House, is the 
People'i Garden, which was laid out 



MoiUe i, — Bkuvanesltwar to Kafak (C'uifack). Sect. II. 



134 

by the well-knovrn philologist Mr. 
John Bcames. A carriage can drive 
Bboat it. At the W. eitremity is an 
aroh 9 ft. high, nnd several carved 
Htones, all of which were brought 
from AlU by Mr. Bcaiucs. Tlie arch 
ia beautifully carved. In the centre 
o( the top piece arc vacant spaces, 
which were probably filled with Surjl 
NArSyanB. On either side are featoona 
of monkeys and elephants ponring 
water over Lak?hmi. On uie ride 
pilasters ore 6 rows of ornaments, the 
ontside band eousisling of lotuses and 
other flowers, next is a band reprc- 
Henting lions crushini; elephants, uesX 
is a row of male and female Empires, 
The next band presents (ianas 
chasing one another up the stem of 
a creeping plant ; next is a scroll 
of leaves. At the base are flgores of 
Vishnu under the Sheeh N^ and 2 
Dwii-pils, I ft. 10 in. high. After 
crossing the brii^ over the canal, 
the Circuit House, alai^ building, is 
passed on the right. The Club is on 
the right, about 50 yds, before reach- 
ing the fort. 

In order to see the stone facing 
of the Kfttjurl river, which was made 
by the Manlflias, the traveller will 
drive through the city to the Col- 
lector's Kachharl, which is on the 
banks of the Kfitjuri river. The 
bank ia here 25ft. high, and is faced 
with fine atone slabs of laterite. In 
order to Understand the ui^nt neces- 
sity for this costly work, which eitends 
nearly 2 m.,* and for others about to 
be mentioned, it must be said that 
the Mahanadf, Br4hniani,Baitam(, Si.- 
landi, and Suhamarckhi, which arc 
the chief rivers of Orissa, and which, 
in the month of May bring down 
only 1690 cubic ft. of water jjer 
iiccoud, dash down during the rains 
M,7tiO,000 cubic ft. persecond. This is 
far more than twice the tot^ discharge 
of the Ganges during its maxtmnra 
floods. From time immemorial efforts 
have been made to control this inun- 
dation, but hitherto with small snc- 

* IU|endiBlBliMitraBiiya("Aiit orOrieaa," 
tot. ii. p. Ifltl, "it is B noblo piece ,.f eii- 
glaeering work, sHd wurthj of Bigh admira- 



cess. From 1831 to 1867 Government 
s|)ent in Eatak District alone £157,676, 
but in 1866 the flood broke through 
the Govt, embankment in 413 places. 
642 sq. m. were snbmei^ed from 3 to 
GO days to the depth of from 3 ft. to 
1 5 ft., wid 69H,893 persona were driven 
from their homes. 

In Older to see the other workw, 
it will be desirable to leave the T. 
B. in a carriage about S A.U., and 
after driving about 3^ m. to Ihe 
N.W., the traveUer will enter a p4lki 
and stop for a few minutes at a tem- 
ple rebuilt by the Mar^t^as, on the 
right, about 3 m. from the place where 
he entered the p&lkl. In order 
to reach it he mil cross a small 
arm of the river close to the temple. 
The water is about 3 ft deep, and 
there are quicksands, which are 
troublesome, and, were a person 
alone, might be dangerous. The 
temple has a tower and Mohan, or 
Audience Hall. The tower ia 19 ft. sq., 
the hall 25 ft. sq. The height of the 
tower ia about BO ft. The view over 
the river is extremely pretty. 

From this spot the road liea through 
deep sand, which extends to anAimkatt, 
beyond which, to the N., is Harfij, 7 
m. from Rafak, where the Hah&nadl 
debouches on the Delta, and forms its 
first bifurcation. There is a T. B. at 
Nar4j, on a hill overlooking the river. 
It has 3 good rooms, and ihe breeze 
is delicious. It ia a favourite resort 
for the Europeans at Katak, who come 
here for change of air, picnics, and 
sometimes for honeymoons. The Ma- 
liiuadi at this point ia abont } of a m. 
across in the dry season, and the 
country ia here covered with a denwi 
low jungle. At 7 m. to the N. in the 
States of Daligora and Athgarii. 
" ■ , and reports 

1 and cattle arc 
A little way up 
w goi^e, whence 
e is so picturesque 



frequently made. 






the ri 



as to deserve a 
that there are many alligators, and 
some of great size. The Katjurl 
Weir, over which travellers cross to 
reach Ihe Narfij BanglA, is 3800 ft. 
long and 12( ft. high, and cost G 



135 

vaneshwar'i here he settled at the close 

of his rei^ ; ths 4tli Bid&nasl, oa the 

fork between the H&hfiiiadl and Kilt- 

which NripB Keshari remoTed 

A.s. ; the lith Bdirangad, to ' 

which MAdhavii KeshAri removed 

between 9T1 — 989 a.d, ; the 6th, Chan- 

dnar, on the left bank of the Mah&nadl, 

where Anangft Bhima held hie court ; 

the 7th, ChhAtea, where he resided for 

The inundatioDB of the river 

obliged MfLdhava Keehari to more 

to Sarangad, which was on the other 

side of the Katjuri, away from the 

river bank. The cause of Aoanga 

Bhima'a moving to Chandnar was his 

seeing a hawk kiUed by a crane, which 

he took to be a good omen. The pre- 

Katak is due to the Muljam. 



Sect. II. Smae 5.—Katale (GtUtaeh) to Tdjpdr. 



likhs of ra. It waa constructed partly 
by Mr. Macmillan. and partly by Mr. 
Walker. The country below it on the 
W. is so low that the danger of a 
breach at this spot cannot be exag- 
gerated. Ab tbere is no protection 
from the sun, it is desirable to cross 
this weir before 9 A.H. and breakfast 
at the Nar&j Bangld, and then return 
in the afternoon. The other 2 great 
Weirs, namely, the BinipA and 
Mah4uadl, may be seen in quitting 
Katak. The traveller will dri^e along 
n road a little to the N. of the Tal- 
danda Canal, to the JobrA QhAft 
where are the Taldanda workahopB, 
Ihc MahAnadl Anakatt, and the place 
for embarking for Falae Point, on the 
left bank of the Mahdnadl. The Bi- 
rtip& river leaves the MabAnadi on its 
right bank, and the weir there is 
1980 ft. long and 9 ft. high. Of the 
i canals which form the Orisea Irri- 
gation System, 2 take oQ from the 
BirAp4 Weir, and 1 with its branch 
from the Mahftnadl Weir, 
former are the High Lerel Canal and 
the Kendrap&ra, the latter is the ThI- 
danda. The Mahftnadl Weiria 6400ft. 
loi^and 12^ ft. high, and cost in round 
numbers 13 lAkhsof 18. It wj 
in 18G3 and completed in 1869-70. 
The engineer was Mr. Macmillan. 
The materials for all these works 
broi^ht from the Narfij Quarry, which 
is sandstone -, from the Manchipilr 
Quarry, which is conglomerate sand, 
stone ; and the Chitcswar and Chand- 
wdr Quarries, which are laterite, a 
kind of earthy ^nd stone. The mortar 
was formed from nodule limestone, 
whichwasfounducarthequarries. The 
mortar is composed of one part lime- 
Ktono, one part sand from the river- 
bed, and one |>art brick dnst. This 
makes a slow-setting hydraulic mortar. 
The word Katak, written improperly 
in English Cuttack, ond wrongly ac- 
cented on the last syllable, means In 
San^rit " a rojal metropolis," "a city," 
and also " an army." The people of 
Orisaa adopt the let meaning, and 
speak of 7 Kataks in Orisea. The 1st 
y&ipiir, where Tay&ti Keshari first 



SOUTE 5. 
KATAK (CUTTACK) TO TijPliE. 
The stages are as follows :— 



Tanrfii to 
Barchana 



DhanilnBJlB hi Ynjiiur 



The distance, as the c 



SouU 5.—£ata& {CvUaek) to Ydjpiir. Sect. TI. 

high.* One is IndrSni, wife of Indra, 
the air-god. She is a l-nrmed goddess, 
and Gits in tranquil mnjcstj, with an 
admirably cnC elephant aa her foot- 
stool, A mnslin Bdri falls in delicate 
carves to her feet, and is fastened at 
the waist by a girdle. Ornaments 
covet her breast, and her hair towers 
up in a cone of curls. The earth god- 
dess, Varihini, the wife of Vijhnu in 
hia hoar inwmation, sits with her in- 
fant on her knee, and is S ft. high by 
4 ft, broad. She wears bracelets on 
her four arms, and rings on her little 
fingers. IShe aits on a buffalo, finely 
carred. A temple to Vishnu, in his 
boar incarnation, crowns a flight of 
stairs leading up from the river. The 
moat atriking of the 3 monoliths re- 
presents Cliimuiidi, the wife of the 
All Destroyer, a colossal naked akele- 
ton, with the skin hanging to the 
bonee, and the veins and muscles 
standing out in ghastly fidelity. A 
snake is the fillet of her hair brushed 
back, a death's-head crowns her fore- 
head, to which the distended hood of 
the cobra serves as acanopy. Her snaky 
tresses fall over her check, and a string 
of skalls winds round her body. Sherats 
on a small figure of her hushed, Shira, 
resting on a lotna-ieaved pedestal. 

la a gallery overlooking the dried 
up bed o£ the river are 7 idols, 
elaborately carved, and each made of 
a block of chlorite, fi. ft high. Mr. 
James thinks they have been collected 
from various desecrated shrines, and 
that some pious Hindii, seeing them 
placed against a wall, erected a vaulted 
root over them, and a wall in front, 
which is pierced with latticed windows, 
and the effect of the dim light npon 
these terrible im.igea is very striking 
indeed. E4jendral41a Mitra com- 
pares these inures with the Cretan 
//.tp-ipn. Six of them are goddesses- 
with i arms each, the 7th is Narsingh. 
The first goddess is KiM, or ChAmun- 
d4. a grim skeleton, holding in one 
hand a decapitated head, in anotlicr a 

' Thfiy were brought frnm the Cenolapli of 
^yid 'All Bukhfiri, a PatMu Kalnt, nlia 



,136 

about 6 P.M. He wjll thos be able to 
cross the Mahfinadi daring daylight, 
and will proceed during the night 
32 m. np the Grand Trunk Road, pass- 
ing 3 Inspection or Dik BanglAs, 
distant about 10^ m. apart at Tanghi, 
Barchana, and Dbarams&la, where his 
pilki will cross the river Brihmani ' 
a ferry boat, and after proceedi: 
about 3 m. further he will leave t 
Trunk Boad at a place called Kuakhia, 
turning off to the right. There 
short cot after crossing the river, 
it is not advisable to take it. The road 
then proceeds 11 m. to the E,, crossing 
ere route 3 rivers, imbridged, but ford- 
able in the cold weather. At sunrise 
he will reach Jftjpiir, properly Tijpiir, 
from ria in Sanskrit, "to aacrifice." 
TAyftti Kesharl, coming from Bihir, 
found Yfijpilr a place of importance, 
and fitted to be his base of operations 
in the S., and to make it his capital for 
a time. It was close to Dantapura, 
where the sacred tooth of Buddha was 
kept, and in the 4th and 5th century 
A.D. it was called the navel of Buddh- 
ism. Tflyfiti Bubdoed it, and converted 
the sanctuaries into HindA places of 
worship, but in 1568 £dldpah&r, a 
fiunous champion of IslJim, defeated 
the Hindiis in a great battle at Gah 
vara Tekri, 4 m. to the N.E. of YAjpto 
It is believed that whole armies ar 
buried here, and so late as 1595 A.d. : 
grave Mubammadau author writes that 
he heard at night shouts of "kUl," 
"strike" (see Jour. Ab. Soc. of Beng., 
vol. xl., p. 1B9). K414pah4r demo- 
lished all the Hindu temples, and the 
accumulated treasures of art of 1 ,000 
years were lost for ever. 

Td^Hr is a city of 10,161 inhabit- 
anta, aituated on the S. bank of the 
Baitarani river, in WSC 45" N. iat, and 
86° 22" 56' E. long. With the aid of 
a pAlkl, or a pony, the visitor can aee 
all that is to be seen at TAjpilr in one 
day. Close to the T. B. is a noble 
mosque, built hy NiiwAb Abd NA?ir in 
1681 A.D. out of the atones of Hindii 
palaces and temples. Adjoinh^ the 
mosque is the reaidence of the Magi- 
strate, in whose componnd are to be 
Been 3 monolithic statues of bine 
chlorite, from 8 ft. 9 in. to 9 ft. 6 in. 



accompanied KAlApahar, hdo wbeD hifl faeoc 
■ma cut oa; it thu alege r>f Bsritatf, rodi 
Kitliout it to Tijpur, and was buria! tbero. 



Sect. II. 

cup of blood, in the 8rd a trident, and 
in the Ith a iwiird. She has a snaky 
bead-dress and a garland of skulls, and 
is treading on her husband Shiva. The 
neit ia the wife of Yama, or " Death," 
with a swine's head. Her hands hold 
a cup, a fish, and a child. At her feet 
is a buKalo. Next is the wife of Indra 
she holds a child in ber lap, while he 
two other hands hold a war-club and 
a thunderbolt ; an elepht 
heraafootstooL Lakh^hmic . , 

with 2 hands she holds a child, and in 
a 3rd Vishnu's Wheel, in her 4th a 
shell. Beneath her feet is Garuda. 
Next is an awful li{cure, a naked, 
emaciated old hag, the Mother of 
Death. She is aqaatliDK down. Below 
her are 2 votaries, and between them 
3 kinds of bells— the bell of Yama, that 
of KftK, and that of Vishnn. Savitri, 
the wife of BrahmA, comes next. Her 
hair is dressed with 3 ostrich feathers; 
she holds a child and 2 war-clubs ; at 
hei feet is a peacock. F&rbatI comes 
next, with a child on her knees, and 
holding B trident and a rosaiy ; a bull 
is at her feet. Below Sarsingh arc 2 
groups of worshippers, and female 
attendants waving the diautirU. 

Close to the galleiy is a temple con- 
taininga large image of Ga^pati. Oppo- 
site thegallcr7,in a wooded island in the 
middle of the river,aboat 250 yds. off, is 
the 2nd great temple, dedicated to the 
boar incarnation. Around are groups 
of smaller temples, and the whole in- 
cloBure is protected from floods by a 
masonry wait. Beside the main flight 
ot steps, which lead up from the river, 
are 2 roofless temples, over the gaffl of 
which is an effigy of the Sun driving 6 
horses, and a bull in the midst. Pro- 
ceeding now to the 6. for about IJ m., 
along the Bingapi^ high toad, the 
visitor must turn to the left, and at 
200 yds. from the road he will come 
to the most beautifnl object inYAjpilr, 
a pillar 32 ft high; the base is 5 ft. 5 in. 
high, sq,, and composed of large blocks 
of stone, without any ornament The 
shaft and capital are 2G ft. 7 in. hie;h, 
and appear to be n monolith. The 
shaft is 16-6ided. Tlie capital, which 
is of exquisite proportion, is carved to 
imitate lotos blossoms, while immedi- 



-Ydfptlr. 



137 



1 at«ly below it the summit of the shaft 
' is adorned with lions' heads, from 
whose mouths depend roses. The capi- 
I tal once was crowned with a figure of 
i Garuda, which is supposed to have 
' been, not a carrion vTiltore, as Dr. 
Hunter cnUa it, but the great Indian 
Toucan, a handsome bird, 4§ ft. long. 
The Garuda is said to have been hnrled 
from the summit of the pillar by the 
I Muhammadans, who attempted also to 
destroy the pillar itself. Ihe Garuda, 
or a fac-simile of it, now stands in the 
ante-chamber of a small temple of 
Narsingh, in Madhnpiir, a Tillage about 
Im.totbe S.E.ot the temple of Jagan- 
nilth at Yiljpiir. This figure should 
be inspected. It is a fine piece of 
sculpture 4 ft, high, carved ont of black 
chlorite. It represents a human figure 
resting on one Koee, the palms of the 
hands pressed to;:^thcr in an attitude 
of devotion, as if awaitiog (he com- 
mands of the god ; short wings an; at- 
tached to the shoulders, and while the 
hair of the fore part of the head is 
dressed in the shape of a mitre, the 
back part of the head is covered with 
s. profusion of curls. The face and 
attitude arc majestic, but the nose is 
lengthened to imitate a bird's beak, 
a pedestal, which i 
;ate of the capital 
of tliu pillar. Wher 
Garn4a was it titii on the top of the 
pillar^ the whole must have resembled 
in many respects, and even rivalled, 
the well-known column in the PiniKa 
di San Marco at Yeuice, the winged 
lion of the Saint being not unlike the 
winged vehicle of Vishnu. It is im- 
probable that a special pedestal would 
be carved for the Garuda after the 
Hindi! revival, so that it may perhaps 
be that there were once two pillars — 
one still in tii«, but wanting the 
Garuda, while the capital and upper 
shaft of the other pillar, aurinoanted 
by the sacred bird, has found a rest- 
ing place in the small temple, the 
shaft of the column having been de- 
stroyed. 

Returning to the Bingapiir road, 
and proceeding in the same direction 
3S before, the traveller will cross the 
Mar&t^ bridge, a fine specimen ot 



lt(nde 5. — Katal (Cuttach) to Ydjptir. ' Sect. II. 



138 

architectnre. It is not so large aa the 
briage of the Fame name at Purl, bat 1 
hm 1 1 EUY^s, and in built in pTecisel j 
the same fashion. It appears to be of 
extreme antiquity, but has evidently 
been repaired after the temples were 
<]c8troyed bj the Muhammadans, as 
fragmcntB of carvings in relief, taken 
evidently from temples, are let into 
the walU and piers. It also goes by 
the name of the DevidwAr, lit. " Qod- 
desa-door Bridge," from its proiimitj 
to a temple now to be described. 

After another 600 yds., through hean- 
tiful groves of palms and mango trees, 
the Brahmi KupiJ, a tank faced with, 
stone, is reached, opposite which is the 
walled ioclosnre of the holy temple 
of Biraja, " the Passionless One," 
BiTBJa was a goddess who sprang fiom 
P^batl after that deity had destroyed 
herself, in consequence of her father 
not haricg invited her husband Shira 
along wil£ the rest of the gods to a 
feast. Her body was distributed in 
62 pieces, and the naTelfcUto YlljpUr, 
which consequently, in the estimation 
of the inhabitants, ranks after Puri and 
Gaja as the 'AtA most holy place in 
Bengal. Unbelievers are not admitted 
to the temple, bat through the breaches 
can be seen the Hall of Audience and 
the tall spire, while the inclosarc is 
covered Tfitli inniimerable broken 
images. The spire is 67 ft. 6 in. high, 
and there are some curioas sculptures 
let into the wall at the portico. The 
traveller will now regain the highway, 
and a little beyond the 2nd mile- 
stone, 200 yds. from the roiwl, on the 
left-hand side, is tlie temple of Tri- 
locban of the 3-eyed f^pA, i^. l^hira. 
The base of the original tower, which 
is now about f>0 ft. high, has sui'vived 
the general ruin, ai^d for a height of 
about 11 ft. from the ground still 
stands, richly carved as of jore, giving 
some idea of the pairt glories of YAjpCir. 
The rest of the building is covered 
wilii stucco. The god is placed in the 

be visible from outaide, but a copy 
exisls in front of the outer door. It is 
the usual symbol of Bhiva, with the 
face of PArbatI attached, with 3 eyes 
in her forehead, A few yds, off is 



smalt dilapidated temple, coutaiiung 
the oldest Lingam in Yajpi^, called 
Tilobandeshwar, 7 ft. 8 in, in circum- 
ference. The priests assert that it is a 
miraculous stone, and grows. The rate 
of growth is, however, slow, being only 
1 Til, or the thickness of a grain of 
mustard seed, a year. 

Between the Temple of Trilochan 
and the road, in an undei^ronnd chain- 
tier, is a very boly and frightful image 
of K^ll, with 16 anas. Begioningfrom 
the right of the observer, the hands are 
occupied as follows : the Ist holds a 
snake ; the 2nd, a cap of blood ; the 
3rd, the head of the demon Shambur ; 
the 4th, a shell | the 5th, a bowl ; the 
fith, a trident ; the 7th, a mirror ; the 
8th rests on her breast. On the left, 
the Ist hand lies on her knee; the 
2ud holds a javelin ; the 3rd, a rosary ; 
the 4th, a dogger ; the 5th, a war 
ctnb ; the eth, a bell ; the Tth, a spear ; 
and the 8th, one of those heavy knives 
which are still used by the Ntpilese, 
and with which they decapitate a buf- 
falo at a blow. The remaining 2 hands 
are raited above the others, and grasp 
a gigantic sword. The ground about ia 
covered with carved fr^tments, and in 
a temple on the other side of the road 
are some elegant sculptures ; a pippal 
tree growing on the top of the spire of 
this temple, has gradually forced its 
roots to the very bottom, and is slowly 
rending it asunder. The traveller may 
now eiplore the streets and gardens 
of the present town, where he will 
find fn^ments of halls and temples all 
built of fine oat stone, and by the ad- 
dition of mud wolls, now converted 
into small but comfortable dwellings. 
Yijpiir formerly stood on the main 
road to Puri, and the pilgrims to Ja- 
gannith used regularly to I'esort to it, 
bat the sanctity of the place has much 
diminished, and with it the gains of 
the priests, since the present high rood 
was constructed. It is, however, still 
visited by a few pilgrims, and ia wor- 
thy of beii^ inspected by all who take 
an interest in Hindii antiquities. A 
NAch at this place is very different 
from the dull, stupid ceremony which 
' passes nnder that name at Calcutta 
I and in the rest of India, The damsels 



Sect. II. Moute 6.— JCatai {Cuitack) to Fahe Point 

display great Bcdrit; in their moie- 
mcnts, and throw much fusion into 
Uieir looks and gestnrefl. The ancient 
, palace at Yijpiir was destrojed by the 
officeis of the EDf;lish Fnblio Works 
Department, who tore down the last 
remains, and built brieves along the 
Trunk Road with the stones. At 11 m. 
to the W. of Y4ip>ir a colossal figure 
was dug np, of radmap&ni, the feet 
tost, but the total height must hare 
becnaboutlTft.ein. This figure is now 
called ShAnta H^dhavn. There are 
other ruins in the neighbourhood, but 
probably these will sufBce for ordi- 
URry traTellera. 

Shonld the traveller prefer it, he 
may return lo Caltutta via Baleahwai 
(Balasore), which is only 35 m. in a 
direct line from YAjpi^, and from 
which smalt steamers run. 

Balatorc. — Ihis place was once of 

Cat commercial importance, and the 
tch had a factory here, and the 
Danes also, bnt the latter sold their in- 
terest to the English QoTerament in 
1S46. The sandhills in the neighbour- 
hood are much lesorted to by anti- 
lopes, and in the grassy plains further 
inland the wild boCalo is cotomon, 
the tif;er rare, but the leopard, hjiena, 
elk, nllg&i, spotted deer, hog deer, 
mouse deer, wild dog, wild cat, civet cat, 
and hare are cororaon, as are peacocks, 
jungle fowl, black and red partridges, 
2 sorts of quail, snipe, golden plover, 
wild dacks and wild geese. At the old 
Cemetery in Mandal Street are a few 
old tombs 1 one to Isabella Kelso, who 
died in April, 1751, aged 17; one to 
Anne, wife of Capt. Francis WLlslian, 
who died in ItiSl, There is also tho 
tomb of Burg Graft Van Leveii Husen, 
who died 23rd of November, IfiUtl. An 
obelisk on a triangnlar base behind 
Kaj& Shto Anand's Dispensaiy, may 
also be visited. It has an inscription 
which has not been copied. 



ROUTE 6. 

EATAK (CDTTACK) TO FALBB POINT. 
The Agents for the British India 
Stenm Navigation Company, Mcestg. 
J. BuUoct t Co., at False Point, 
also proprietors of the Orissa 
Carrying Company. They c 
following fleet of boats and st' 

£an> ) Tons. H. p' 

UDchf " Hut Theresa' 1^ ^ 
■'Olga''^ W M 

„ " Rumln Lau " IS t 

•i Iron Lighten, such 100 

1 AoeommoilBtlouBMt 16 

They ran a steam launch weekly be- 
resn Eafak and False Point, in con- 
nection with the B.I,8. Co.'s mail 
I, from Colcntta and Bombay, 
and coast ports, and couutty passen- 
gers and cargo. 
The rates of passage are as follows : 

CaUn rtom Kulak to Fil>e Point lu. As. 
and piot vrrtd LnduaWe of pdssage 
(Deck) of a I 



InelmivB of jm 



. a c 



ditto 



Cabin and 2nd class passengers are 
dieted on hoard, the former at a charge 
of 3 rs., and the latter at 2 rs. per 
diem. Wines and Bpirits are sapplied 
on board. The distance between Ka- 
tak and False Point is about 82 m.; of 
this 39 m. is by canal, the remainder 
by river. The journey isgenorallyper- 
furmed in Zl hours. 

It is always best for passengers 
by the British Steam NavigaHon 
Company's steamers for False Point, 
I to advise Messrs. J. Bullock & Co., 
I by telegraph or letter, when to 
! expect them ; for, as the steam 
I launches have only accommodation 
for a limited number, eitra boats 
would have to be supplied in the 
evcntof several passengers arriving at 



HoiUe 7. — Calcutta to Ddrjiling. 



140 

one time. The Uompanj wilf Jet out 
steam launches and boats on hire, fix- 
ing their charges according to the na- 
ture of the work to be performed. If 
the traTeller decides to return by this 
rout«, the only alternative being a rerj 
long route by p41M, he will go on 
bo^ the sWam launch at 6,15 A.M.. 
having provided himself with such 
drinfeablea as he may require. He will 
also do well to take with him a rifle, 
as he ia nearly sure to see crocodiles 
and alligators, and it is really a good 
woA to kill these monsters, who destroy 
at least 100 human beings every year in 
this province. In less than half an hour 
he will pass the first lock, and enter 
the Eenar&p&r4 Canal,'which is here 
ahont SO ft broad. This canal reaches 
from Eafi^ tor a distance of 12^ m. 
till it drops into tidal waters at MAr- 
s&igfii, 23 m. from Palse Point Hai'- 
hour. The flrsC 40 m. and the works 
connected therewith were constructed 

Sartlj by Mr. Lavinge and partly by 
[r. Brookes and by Mr. Wildford. 
The extension of the KendrSpftri 
Canal for 15 m. to Jambili Lock, close 
lo False Point Harbour, was designed 
and made by Mr. Macmillan. The 
Patamundi Canal, which coniiects the 
KendrApfirA Canal with Ibe Brillummi 
Kiver, was made bv Mr. Unwin. The 
High Level Canal and Works con- 
nected wjtli it were designed and con- 
structed by Messrs, Walker, Odling, 
and Macmillan. Tliese works were 
begun in ISGil, and the Bhadrak end 
is still ift progress, with distribntariea 
from it. Through the Kendrdp^fi 
Canal the steam launch will glide 
quite tranquilly, and the traveller will 
see on either side a rather pretty coun- 
try, with occasional villages. There 
are alligators in the canid, but not rei; 
large ones. It takes about 6 hours to 
reach the place where the canal bifur- 
cates, and 6 locks are passed, each 
causing a delay of 7 to 10 minutes. 
Where the canal branches into two, 
the right branch leads to MarsAgSi. 
the left to Chambell. There are 3 
more locks before reaching "iSAxskgil, 
At the month of the canal there is 
sand, on which usually many alliga- 
tors are seen, some of them from 20 ft. 



Sect. II. 



to -W ft. long. Daring ftoods, the 
whole tract to the E., or coast side, is 
one largo sea or jnngle-eovercd swamp. 
It belonged to the ancient family of 
the Kujang Rilji, but has lately been 
purchased by the MahSriji of Bard- 
win, whose great wealth will, it is 
hoped, enable him to make many im- 
provements. 

The traveller will probably have to 
pass the night at anchor soraewhoro 
near False I'omt Harbour, at a place 
where the steamer will take in wood, 
and in the morning he will reach the 
Landing Place at Dowdeswell Island, 
where he vrill embark in the B.I.S.N. 
Co.'s ship for Calcutta. 





EOUTE 7. 




CALCUTTA TO DiEjiLIKG. 


Miles. 


station.. 


indM 


■Jlr' 




















CslcutK Haildab 








Btatta . . . 




».30 




Biurackpilr . . . 






1« 


I-ihhapur . . . 






laj 


8h*mnagar . . . 


B.1" 


10.30 


23i 










Kanchrepif* '. ■ 






s? 


"s-i'r-' 


«.a 




3SI 


Cbogdsl .... 


9.17 


ll.« 


m 


R&n&ghit ■ - - 


0.S5 


\il' 




Arenghsl^ . . . 








SS.^t.'" 






sri 


Bogula. . . . 


10.1S 


14.48 




Kishngoni . . . 






'.», 








m 


JayrlmpAi . . . 


11.20 




ssI 


Chnadang. . 




2.S 



* Where the titmous Stuukrlt College la. 



Klhi. 


n ,1 ''.ti^^ 

1 Clan-. 


lit, ind 


mi 

1131 

i 

il 

m 


VoaMlii . . . 
Mirpilr .... 
Dauukdlyu' . . 

MaKAl . . . 

r:;;;: 

i^Swri"^'' .* : 

PirbfttLi.Vir . . . 

sa:,'. ■. \ : 

H.ijibivrij'. ■.: 
smgu'rl"!'.'.' : 


12. SO 


HLied. 
AM 



e right. 



Intentwdiate « 
lights In the Vic 
U'liansclipitT. t 



Then hsa old dawrtul 
of Chamnirar. Kanclii 
vhere the E, BenEttl Ra 
wpiiir their locuiuutfves. 

here, but the gmund ha 
thftt a gnod hAg [a UTiuauf 
PoBaengcrain theateaii..- „ 

Ang her«. The Intern Bengal Railway some. 



JiyB. 1( Uliea » quarter of an I 
II aikid aM\, and then there 
bO ydi. to the N. Bengal Rail 
3b is on the metre gtoge princiiile 
COQtnst to the E. Bui|^L, which 



■ The Eaatem Beng&l R&ilway atope 

ie Northern Bengal Rallwar. Hefreahmentj 
re aupplled oo hoard the euambra. 
1 The dlBtaiiiM ia mllM li Len glTUi tnni 



t enppli 
and at Sill 



lillgim. 



: Sattiir, 



Saidpiir, Jaljolgur 

None of the stationB are yery Iw^, 
except Jalpaigtiri and Silipurl. The 
country is Hat and well wooded all the 
way. At Siliguri, the traveller to 
Dftrjlling gets into the cars, which we 
drawn by Bteam on the tramway. The 
station ib ofE the line to the right 
about GO yds. The travellera Bhoald 
be cntefnl to provide themsclTes with 
veilB, as the dnst and blacks from the 
engine fly into their faces in clouds, 
Those who Bit on the front seats are 
eepedallj inconvenienced. The time 
table of the Steam Tramway is as fol- 



J 




Beuisrki, 








^ 


Sir- 


plautdtisn'u and Eacfglis, 












w 


HahAnaill. 


* Jungle la very tUck 
here and glass high. 


in 


So""fl""^* 




w 


DUJlItng. 


rassengera booked 
halt one liayotKaiseong. 













At Sukna the cars begin to ascend 
in cutrcs, like those made by a man 
skating. The turns are very sharp, 
and Ht each a fresh landscape fs deve- 
lai)ed. The sides of the mountain are 
clothed with lofty trees and masses of 
jungle. At about the 16th m. the cars 
paHS round a loop which piojecU from 
the monntain, and the line runs on the 
edge of a pi'eoipice of 1,000 ft. Break- 
fast at Tendoria costa IJ ib. At Kar- 
seong there is an excellent hotel kopt 
by Mr. Koberts. who has been there 
several years, and is also proprietor of 
the Woodlands Hotel at Ddrjiline, 
The hotel at Kaneong is called the 



JioiUe 7. — Calcutta to DdrjUinff. 



Sect. II. 



Clareadon. This hotel can accon 
mpdate 20 people. The chnrgea ai 
* ~ 1 day for a broken perioi, < 



160 rt 



Ther 



3 IC a 



of ground attached to the hotel, and 
in these grouiida the vcgetahlea uaed 
at the hotel ace grown. The mvmioi- 
pality levy 160 tb. a year on the hotel, 
and, it is said, fail to keep the roada in 
repair. There aro two doctors living 
close by : Dr. Morris, who iflveryweu 
spoken of, and another. JuHt below 
it, on the other side of the road, is a 
tea garden, iind ou the opposite moan- 
tain is Mannoh, a tea plantation, 
where there is a European manager 
with 3 assislante, and 400 tulla. Those 
who atop at Katseong must take pre- 
cautions against the lecehes, which are 
so numerous that, in walking over the 
grass or undei^rowth for half an hour, 
more than 100 of these voracious crea- 
tares will have fastened on a pereon. 
There are no tigers, but panthers 
sometimes eany uif cattle. Before 
the N. Bengal State Ilailway was 
opened, the route from Calcutta to 
Dirjlling was by rail to ^Ahihganj, 
220 m. from Haurah, then by fileam 
ferry across the Ganges to Karagola, 
thence by carriage to the river oppo- 
site Dingra Gh&f, then crossing the 
river to Kishangonj, Titalii sJid Sih- 
guri at the foot of the hills. 

The distances from Calcutta are as 
fallows :— 



Bii^ Ohilt to SlllRiui . 
aillguii to IMijilliig . 



All is now acoorapliahed with per- 
fect case by steam, but when the N. 
Bengal State Railway was opened to 
Silignri in 1878, the means of trans- 
port were very seriously taied, for the 
eitenaion of the railway to near the 
foot of the hills, not only bronght 
more summer residents to Dirjlling, 
but also many more casual travellers. 
At the same time the tea cultivation 
had much increased, and consequently 
more tea had to be sent down, and 
moi'e stores of all kinds to be sent up, 
as for InBtanue, lead, etc., for packing 



the tea. It was at one time intended 
to extend the N.U. State Railway to a 
place in the TarSt called 'IcUlpiir, 
nearer the foot of the hills ; but this 
fell through, and a proposal to lay a 
steam tramway from Siliguri to Dr- 
illing, on the cajt road, was warmly 
taken up by the Lt.-Oovcmor, Sir 
Ashley Eden. A capital of 1,400,000 
rs. was subscribed, and the works were 
started early in May, 1879. The Vice- 
roy and Lady Lytton travelled 18 m. 
up this line in March, 1880, and in 
August of that year the line ■yraa 
opened for passenger and goods traffic 
to Katseong, 30 m., an elevation of 
6000 ft. The line is now prolonged 
to DfirjUing, 7S00 ft. high, the greatest 
altitude a locomotive naa ever been 
worked. 

Although called a tramway, the 
line is in every sense of the word a 
2-ft- gauge railway, constructed in 
the most substantia! manner, with 
heavy steel rails (40 lbs. to the yd.). 
The locomotives, si)ccially designed by 
Messrs. Sharpe & Stewart, of Manches- 
ter, have 1 wheels, with a wheel base 
of i X S, and weigh 10 tons. The 
manner in which they turn round the 
curves, many of which arc only of 
70 ft. radius, astonish even American 
experts. The speed of the tialns, both 
up and down, is not allowed to exceed 
7 m. an honr, althongh on special occa- 
sions 16 m. has been easily attained. 
By the present speed travellers a^end 
over 1,000 ft. an hour, bnt as the start is 
made early in the morning, the day 
becomes warmer as the greater alti- 
tude is attained. Traveliera are 
strongly advised to have extra warm 
clothing at hand, also a warm wrapper 
for the feet It is worthy of note, that 
this is the first work of the kind for 
which the capital required has been 
raised entirely in India. The speed 
with which tins line has been finished 
and the success which has attended it 
are due to the energy of the able 
Agent of the G. Bengal Railway, Mr. 
I'restage, who had the good sense to 
resist the proposal to select an alto- 
gether new route, and to choose for 
the hnc one of the finest mountain 
roads in the worid, well-bridged, 



Sect II. 



Route 7. — DdrjUing, 



drained, and consolidated, which had 
cost £6000 per m., and was already at 
hia dispotal. 

Daijiling, written by Sir J. Hooker 
Dorjiling, signifies according to some 
" the Holy Spot "("Up in the Clouds," 
p. 21); according t« others "the 
Briglit"or"SaanySpot." Thediatrict 
is divided into 2 portions : the N. '- 
from 4,000 to 9,000 ft. above the i 
ievel. The S., or Moraiig, consists 
the spars of the first range of the 
Hinimayas, and the plains thence to 
the Zil'a of RangpAr. it is bounded 
on the N. by the rivers Kuman, Great 
Kan jit, and Ttsti, which divide it from 
Sikkim on the W. ; by the Meehi river 
and mountains, which rise to between 
12,000 ft. and 13,000 ft, and divide it 
from Nlpd! ; on the E. the Tlsti and 
the Sechi divide it from Bhutan, and 
oD the S. it marches with) the Zil'as of 
Rangpir and Pameah. The area in 
sq. m. of Dulling District, according 
to the Census Map of 1872, is 1,231 sq. 
m. The District of Morang has a total 
area of 4,000 aq. m., and was ceiled to 
the E. i Company by the R4)& of 
Nipftl, by the treaty of peace signed at 
SegaiUf, and made over to the RAjA of 
Sikkim by the treaty of TitAlia, on 
the loth of February, ISIT, From 
1817 to 1828, no notice was taken of 
Sikkim till a dispute occurred between 
the Lepchas and Nlp41ese, which waa 
referred to the British Government. 
In Febninry, 1828, Mr. J. W. Grant, 
B. C. S., and Captain Lloyd, who was 
settling the bonndaiy between NIp41 
and Sikkim, represented to the Gover- 
nor-General, Lord W. Bentinck, that 
Diirjlling would be a good place for a 
Sanatorium, whereupon Major Her- 
bert, Deputy Surveyor-General, was 
ordered to survey the Sikkim Hills. 
This was done in 1830. in 1835, the 
Sikkim Riij4 ceded all the land S. of 
the Great Banjlt river, E. of the 
Balasan, Kaksil, and Little Hanjlt, 
and W. of the Rangno and Mahinadi 
rivers, f oi' a sum of 3,000 rs. per annum. 
In 1889, Captain Lloyd made over the 
Station to Dr. Campbell, who waa 
transferred from NIpil. When Dr. 
Campbell took chaise there were only 
20 families in the whole tract. Se 



' H3, 

remained Superintendent for 22 years, 
and built the BazAr, the Kachharl,and 
Church, made roads, and established 
a convalescent depot at Jelapah4r. 

InNovoraber,I849,bothDr.CarapbeU 
and Sir J. Hooker, who were travelling 
together, were eeiied and imprisoned 
\ by the people of the Sikkim BAjA, and 
] Campbell was severely beaten. For 
this outrage the RAj& was deprived of 
Morang, and of the 3,000 rs. a year 
which had been paid to him. (Bee 
"Himalayan Journals," vol. ii., p. 202). 
The Station of D4rjIiinB is surrounded 
by the highest mountain pealcs in the 
world. Of these, the highest, Mt, 
Everest, is 29,130 ft. above the level 
of the sea, and is visible from Jela- 

rhir, the convaleacent depot, to the 
of DSrjiling, but though visible, it 
is at the disttuice of at least 120 m. 
It is in NipAl, and the traveller will 
look for it over the hill of TonglO, 
10,080 a high, which is due W. of 
JelapaMr, at atiout 12 m. distance as 
the crow flies. A fearless rider, or 
strong Alpine c1iml)cr may make an 
expedition to Tonglil, where there is 
a pdk Bangle, but it is only right to - 
say that it is a most fatiguing jonmey, 
and for a rider not wi^out consider' 
able danger. Sir J. Hooker, in his 
■' Himilavan Journ." voL i., p. 154, saya 
that this is the most interesting trip to 
be made from D&rjiling, and that it is 
fully 30 m. by the path ; by the way 
he weut he soon entered a forest, and 
descended very rapidly, occasionally 
emeiging on cleared spurs, where were 
fine cro(>s of various millets, with 
much maize and rice. At an elevation 
of about 4000 ft. he found the great 
bambil abound, wliich flowers every 
year, while all others of this genus 
flower profusely once in a great many 
years, and then die away ; their place 
tieing BuppUed by seedlings, which 
grow with immense rapidity. This 
bambii attains a height of from 40 ft. 
to 60 ft., and its culms are as thick as 
the human thigh ; it is used for wator- 
vessela, and its leaves form an ad- 
mirable thatch, which in the time of 
Sir J. Hooker's visit were in universal 
use for houses at DArjIling. On the 
way to Tonglii, 6 species lA figs will 



Houie 7.— Calcutta to Ddrjiling. 



H4 

be noticed, some bearing palatable and 
vei7 eatable frait of enormous size, 
others with small fruit, borne on pros- 
trate leaSess branches, nhich spring 
from the root and creep along the 
ground. On the bania o£ the streams 
swarms a troublesome dipterous inject, 
the Jflpsa,aepecieGof Siamaliuni,vory 
email and black, floating like a speck 
before the eye. Its bite leanes a spot 
of extrayasated blood underthe cuticle, 
very irritating if not opened. Bir J. 
Eookei crossed the Little Banjit river, 
and BO reached the base of TODglili, 
where he camped ; he then ascended 
the Simonbong spur, called from a 
Btnall village Llama temple of that 
name, on its summit. Here the Prnong 
bambd replaces the larger kind, which 
grows below, and the wild strawberry, 
■violet, and geranium are found. Above 
Simonbong, the path up Tonglti is 
little frequented. Thetrackruns along 
ridges, Tery steep and narrow at the 
top, through deep hnmid forests of 
(uiks and magnolias, and tetranthera 
and cinnamomum,one species of wiiich 
SBcends to 3000 ft., while one of te- 
trenthera reaches 9000 ft. At BOOO 
f 1. there is a spring of writer called 
gimsibong. Mere are great scandent 
trees, tmsting around the trunks of 
others and strangling them. The 
latter gradually decay, leaving the 
sheath of climbers, one of the most 
remarkable vegetable phenomena of 
these mountains. Leeches swarm np 
to 7,000 ft., and hare been known to 
live for days in the jaws, nostrils, and 
stomachs of human beings, causing 
<b:«adful suffering and death. Sir J. 
Hooker says that he had frequently 60 
or 60 t<^ether on his ankles. There 
is also a lai^e tick which infests the 
small bambii, and which the traveller 
cannot prevent from coming 
person. They get inside his dress and 
insert the proboscis deeply, withont 
pain, Baried bead and shoulders,and 
retained by a barbed lancet, the tick 
is only to he extracted by force, which 
is very painfuL 

At 8,000 ft. enormouB detached 
masses of micaceous gneiss rise, ab- 
ruptly from the ridge, covered with 
mosses and feme. In the forest here 



Sect II; 



will be observed 3 species of oak, 
of which Quercvt anmiljita with im- 
mense lamollated acorns and Icaies 
IG in. long, is the tallest and most 
abundant. There are also chestnut 
trees and laurini of several species, all 
beantiful forest trees, stiaight-boled 
and umbrageous above, also Magnolias, 
of which the Campbellii is the most 
superb species known. The Indian 
mountains and islandaare tlie centre of 
this natural older. Skimmia and 
Symplocos are the common shrubs. 
A beautiful orchid, with purple Howcra 
(CceUgync WalUchii), grows on the 
trunks of all the great tiees. The 
ascent to the sammit is by the bed of 
a water-course, on the bai^ of which 
grow a small An^allis and a beau- 
tiful purple primrose. In order of 
prevalence, the trees are the scarlet 
MhododeiUlTon arboream and barha- 
(um,also Falani£ri,ia point of foliage 
the most superb of all the Himalayan 
species, with trunks 30 ft. high, and 
bi'anohes bearing only at the ends, 
leaves 18 in. long, deep green above, 
and covered beneath with a rich brown 
down, also Skimmia laarm'la ; Sjm- 
plocoa and hydrangea, a few purple 
magnolias, pyri and the common yew, 
18 ft. roulid, currants, cherries, barber- 
ries, Andromeda, Daphne, and maple. 
Another very favourite and in- 
tereating excursion from Ddrjiling is 
to the Cane Bridge over the Great 
Kanjlt River, 6,000 ft. below. An 
eicellent road has been made, by 
which the whole descent can be easily 
performed on ponies, the distance by 
the road being 11 m. The sones of 
vegetation are clearly marked, 1st 
by the oak, chestnut, and magnolia, 
which grow from 7,000 ft. to 10,000 
ft. ; 2nd, below 6,500 ft. grows the 
AUaphila gigantia or tree-fern, which 
is seen from the Eim^yas, B. to the 
Malayan Peninsnla and Java, and 
W. in Ceylon ; 3rd, over the same 
height are seen the Calamus and Plec- 
ttwomia Fabns (6,500 ft. is the upper 
limit of palms in Sikkim); the 4th 
feature is the wild plantain, which 
in lower elevations is replaced by a 
lai^er kind. 
; At 1,000 ft, below DdrjOIngisa fine 



Sect. n. 



Soute 7. — DdrjUing. 



145 



wooded spur called Libong, where 
peaches and English fruit trees flour- 
uh, bat do not produce fruit. The ten 
plant also succeeds admirably. Below 
19 the Tillage of Ging, surrounded by 
steeps cultirated with rice, maize, and 
millet At 10 ro. distance from D^- 
jllini; is the junction of the Banjit 
with the Baugmo. The Kanjit's foam- 
ing stream runs through a dense forest ; 
in the opposite direction the, Rangmo 
comes tearing dnwn from the top of 
Senchftl, 7,000 ft. above. Ite roar is 
bcafd and its course is visible, but ita 
channel is so deep that the stream it- 
self is nowhere seen. The descent of 
the ri?er ia B:tceeiIinBly steep, and the 
banks ore closed with impcnctrablt; 
jungle. It is about 80 yds. across. 
The water is beautifully clear, and 
lai^ Ssh, chiefly of the Cypranoid 
kind, abound. Here may be seen, Uja, 
immense quantities of aujicrb butter- 
flies, large tropical swallow - toils, 
black, with scarlet or yellow eyes on 
their wings. Beautifol whip-snakeB 
gleam in the sun. They bold on by 
» few coils of the lail roand a twig, 
the greatar part of their body stretched 
— ■" horizon tally, and occasionally 



ic insect Cane bridges occur 
here, which are made by stretching 
2 parallel canes across the streajn; from 
them hang others in loops, and along 
the loops are laid 1 or 2 bambfi stems 
for flooring. Cross pieces, below this 
flooiii^;, hitng from the 2 upper can«a, 
and scire to keep them apart. The 
traveller grasps one of the canes in 
either hard and waUts alon^ the'loose 
bambiis laid on the swinging loops, 
the Tattling of which is not calculated 
to inspire confidence. Even with biu^ 
feet it is often difficnlt to walk, there 
being frequently but 1 bambS for the 
feet, and if the fastening is loose it 
tilts ttp,leftTing the traveller suspended 
over the torrent by the slender canes ; 

Jet here a Lepcha, carrying 140 lbs. on 
is back, crosses without hesitation, 
slowly hut steadily and with perfect 
confidence. Further down is the junc- 
tion of the Banjit with the Tist&, 
which is sea-green and muddy, while. 
the Great Banjit is dark green and 
[.Bnva^-1881.] 



very clear. The Tlsti is ranch the 
broadest, deepest, and moat rapid. 
This expedition will taie 2 days. 

Other great peaks seen from Jela- 
pahftrandDdrjllingareKinchinjanga, 
28,166 ft. high, 46 m. distant ; Janu, 
25,301 ft ; Kabru, 24,016 ft ; Chu- 
maliri, 28.943 ft., 84 m. distant ; Paa- 
hanri. 23,186 ft ; Donkia, 23,17B ft. 73 
m. distant; Baudim, 22,017 ft; Nar- 
singh, 19,146 ft., 32 m. distant ; Black 
Rc)ck,17,572ft.;andChomunko, 1T,32S 
ft. Senchal, 8,610 ft., is clearly seen 
from Jelapahilr, and is about 6 ra. off. 
It used to be a depot, and an eij)e- 
dition may bo made to it, starting 
early in the morning. It is compara- 
tively easy of access, and from Jela- 
]>ah4r the path along the ridge of the 
mountains may be seen. This path 
abounds in rare and beautiful plants, 
and traverses magnificent forests of 
oak, magnolia, and rhododendron. lu 
April and May, when the magnolias 
and rhododendrons are in blossom, the 
gorgeous vegetation is, in some re- 
spects, not to be surpassed by any 
thing in the tropics. But the prevail- 
ing gloom of the weather in general 
mars the otherwise beautiful effect 
The white-flowered magnolia (.^ag- 
luilia tacelHor) is found in great abun- 
dance at an elevation of from 8,000 
ft. to 9,000 ft., and it blossoms bo pro- 
fusely that the forest on the broad 
flaolu of Senchal, and other moun- 
tains of that elevation, appear as if 
sprinkled with snow. The porple- 
flowered magnolia (3f. Camj>belli%) is 
seldom found below 8,000 ft, and is 
ttu immense, but very ugly, black- 
barked Bparii^ly branched tree, leaf- 
less in winter and also during the 
fiowering season, when it puis forth 
from the ends of its branches great 
rose- purple onp-shaped flowers. On 
its branches and on those of oaks and 
\a.aje\%,Rlu>dodBiidr0n Dalhoutii grows 
epiphytically, a slender shrub, bearing 
from 3 to 6 white lemon-scented bellE, 
-IJ in. long, and as many broad, at the 
end of each branch. In. the same 
woods the scarlet Ehododendron (Ji. 
arliereHm) is scarce, and is outvied 



U6 



Soult 7. — Calcutta to BdrjiUn^. 



Sect. II. 



12 in. to 15 in. loi^, de«p green, 
wrinkled above and Bilvery bolow, 
while the flowers are as large sa those 
of R. Dalhoiirii, and grow more in a 
ulastcr. Nothini; of the kind oiceedB 
in beauty the flowerini; branch of S. 
argenteum, with its spreading foliage 
and glorioue mass of flowers. 

O^s, lanrela, maples, birch, chCBtmt, 
hydrangea, a BpeciKB of fig, and 3 Chi- 
nese and Japanese kinds, are the prin- 
cipal trees ; the common bnshea beinf; 
Aucubo, Skimmia, and the ctirioun 
Helwingia, with little cloetoTS of 
flowers on the centre of the leaf, like 
Butcher's Broom.* In spring immense 
broad-leaTed arums spring np, with 
green or pnrple-BtripedhoSis that end 
in tall-like threads, IS in. loi^, which 
lie along the ground ; and there arc 
various kinds of Cotivallaria, Paris, Be- 
gonia, and other beautiful flowering 
herbs. Nearly 30 ferns may be gath- 
ered on this eiuursion, including many 
of great beauty aiid rarity, but the 
tree-fern does not ascend ho high. 
Grasses are very rare in these woods, 
except the dwarf hambil, now culti- 
vated in the open air in England. 
Jelapahir, itself, is 7,460 ft. high, and 
Diijliing 7,300 ft. 

Oa entering DArjIling from the 
Karseong Ki^, the traveller will 
arrive in the BSafiT, opposite the 
poat-office. A very steyi path on 
the right leads to the Dingle, the 
house of Mr. Prestage, Agent for the 
B. Bengal Railway, whence a road 
leads to Jelapahilr, distant 300 yds. 
After passing the barracks the road 
ends in the cemetery, which is sur- 
rounded by a good enclosing wall, it 
is bitterly cold at this place, even m 
March. There are only 3 or 4 tablets 
of officers and officers' wives. De- 
scending from the Dingle, aroad leads 
N.W. to the Mall Road, in which is 
a band-stand. At 100 yds. beyond 
this on the left is the Secretariate, a 
fine large banglA, on a wide plateau, 
which looks more secure from a land- 
Blip than any other house aboat. A 
little to the a of it is the Club. The 
entrance fee for permanent members 



only is 30 ra. The enbscription for 
permanent members is 7 rs. a month. 
The subscription for honorary members 
is 16 rs. for a mouth of 30 days, and 
the same f orbroken periods of a month, 
provided that not more than 48 rs. 
shall be paid altogether by an hono- 
rary member. Ladie? resident in 
Dii]lling, without any male member 
of their families, may be authorized by 
the committee to take books from the 
library, on p^mont of * rs. a month 
in advance. Permanent membets have 
a right to occupy bed-rooms before 
honorary mcmbcis. * There are 8 
sleeping rooms and 2 billiard rooma. 
Above the Secretariate is St. Andrew's, 
the foundation stone of which (the 
enlarged Church) was laid by- 
Bishop Mil man in 1870. Theold church 
was founded in 1843. It is 104 ft. 
long and 30 ft. 2 in. broad, and can 
seat 360 people comfortably. It was 
opened for Borvice in October, 1844. 
The Chaplain has also to attend the 
church for the soldiers at Jelapab4r. 
There is also a Wesleyau Chapel in 
Auckland Road. There arc 8 tablets 
in the church, of which the most no- 
table is to George William Aylmer 
Lloyd, C.B„ Lieut. -Gen. H. M.'b Ben- 
gal Army, who died at D^iling on 
the 4th of June, 1866, aged 76, 
Tobt8eiertioD8iind 
PersoMi influence with the 

The province of Beiig>l is indebted 
Fur the aanatariuni of Ddijfline. 

There is also a tablet with the 
foOowing inscription : — 
In Memorism of 
CHARLOTTE, COUNTKSS CANHINO, 



Shrubbery, and is lai^e and comfort- 
able. Lower down 5je hill, and a 
little to the S.W. of the Shrubbery, is 
the cemetery, which is arranged in 3 
' — ces. Outside is a plac^ with 
fees, which are lor a masonry 
grave, S &a&a per sq. ft j for a menu- 
Should the traveller not be itile to obtain 
edmutn tt the Clab, hg on ilo so at 
Roberta's WoodUuds HataL 



£aitie 7. — Ddrj'Uing. 



empted from payment. There a. 
labletB, aod amongst them one of 
interest, inscribed as follows : — 

ALEXANDER CBONA '(»ic) 1>E Kl>BOSIE, I 
ANsHveotHungsiy, | 

Phlloli^cal Rwearches, 
nnnrled to the Eiiat, 






iniac 



The pTincipal b4z&T ia in a hollow 
below tliQ Secretariate, and ia ho 
thronged that it is difficult to make 
a, way throngh it. There will be seen 
numbers of Lepchas, Limbus, Bkutias, 
and PahariB mixed up with the In- 
dian servants of European gentlemen 
and Hindil and Pftrsl shop-keepers. 
The women are, in general, short, 
thick, and rosy-cheeked, and may be 
seen, in a good-huiuoured way, deling 
out trcmcadoua thumps on the men. 
There ia not much game to be had in 
the immediate neighbourhood of D^r- 
jlling, but to the able pedestrian, the 
botanist, the lover of the picturesque, 
there are eadleas excursions to be 
made on foot It is impossible to 
paint the scenery in words, but there 
are many views, and particularly that 
of Kinchinjangtt, which impress the 
mind more and more every time that 
they are viewed. Too often clouds 
veil the highest peaks, bnt at times 
these roU away, and the bare granite 
summits are seen. One looks over the 
lofty hills and across a vast chasm to 
the line of perpetual enow, about 17,000 
ft. high, on the Bide of the stupendous 
Kincliinjanga. Above that rises a 
glittering white wall, and then it 
seems as if the sky were rent and the 
Ttev ia closed bj enormotis masses of 



U7 

le [ bare rock. There ia one special feature 
' . in the summit of KincMnjanga, and 
I that is a lofty wall of granite of pro- 
: digioua breadth, which appears to divide 
the summit int« 2 portions. It seems 
■ ■ ~ ;iilt to eiplaiu how it ia that the 
r, which has fallen without cesea- 
tor so many agea, baa not closed 
j ap the sides of this wall so as to render 
! it like the top of Mount Everest, one 
1 vast semi-circle. So it is, however, 
'_ that the top of Kinebinjanga displays 
! most distinctly this great granite wall 
' and, also, vast boulders or masses of 
rock. It may be, of course, that the 
violent winds at the summit drive the 
snow away over the almost perpen- 
dicular sides ; but whatever the cause, 
the effect ia mach more grand than if 
it were one great mass of snow. The 
eitraordinary grandeur of this scene 
is heightened by the oolouiiag given 
to it by the rising and setting sun, or 



One of the most beautiful appear- 
ances is when, in the early morn- 
ing, the valleys are filled with mist, 
so that all the lower ground looks 
like an icy ocean ; then the top of 
Kinchin, and those of its neighbour- 
ing giants, Qame with a pink or ruby 
light, while the gloomy shades lower 
down seem to give increased lofti- 
ness to these stupendous peaks ; but, 
to use the words of the well-known 
traveller from whose work so many 
extracts have been made, " the most 
eloquent deBcriptions fall to convey to 
the mind's eye the forms and colours 
of Bnowy monutaine, or to the imagi- 
nation the sensations and impressions 
that rivet attention to these aublime 
phenomena when they are present in 
reality." He adds, however, that 
"the Swiss Alps, though hardly pos- 
sessing the sublimity, extent, or 
height of the Himillayas, ai^ yet far 
mote beautiful." lu either case the 
spectator ia struck with the precision 
and sharpness of the outlines, and still 
more with the wonderful play of 
colours on the snowy flanks of the 
mountains, from the glowing hues 
reflected in orange, gold, and ruby, 
from oUiuds illumined by the sinking 
or rising san, bi the ghastly pallor 



Houte %.—D4iiiUinff io pMkah (Saeea). . Sect II. 



US 

that succeeds with twilight, wben the steamer. 
red giTBB place to its complementary JuDction to 

colour green. Bach dissolTiiiB-Tiews i 

elude all attempta at description ; 
thej arc far too aerial lo be chained to I 
the msmOTj, and £ade from it so fast 1 ' ^ 

, as to be gazed npon day after day I ' 
with undimiDisbed admiration and 
pleasore," (Himftlayan JoumalH.Tol. i 
p. 123.) 



ROUTE 8. 

5 (DACCA) 

Although there is not very much to 
be seen at phikah itself, it is very 
desirable to 'rctum to Calcntta from 
D&rjiling by Qoalando and that city, 
in order to see the gigantic rivera 
which traverse this part of Bengal. 
Leaving DArjlling at 10 A.K.. the 
traveller will teach Silignri 
where he may dine at the re 
rooma, paying IJ rs, for a veiy good 
dinner. The train for B&t& Qh&t 
leaves at 7.15 p.u., and arrives at 
ti A.H. The passage of the Ganges 
will then be made in the steamer 
Oipreij, of 354 tons, on board 
which breakfast can be had for VI 
anAa. During the cold weather a 
temporary rail is laid for IJ m. over 
a sand bank, which, during tiie rains, 
is covered by the Ganges. The tra- 
veller will thus arriTe at JAgati Junc- 
tion, which is 107J m. from Calcutta, 
and 44 m. from Goatando, whence the 
oomey to ptaAkah 1b made in a 



iasStXi Juiiui 



IU>Mrt to Gwluido 



Eipenne from Jigntf te G 



the part of the E. I. Co. at Eomarkoli, 
where there was a considerable basi- , 
ness in silk filatures. A small ceme- 
tery remains, kept up by the E, Bengal 
Railway Co. It is enclosed with a 
good walL There are 7 brick tomb* 
without any tablet or inscription, and 
9 with inscriptions, the oldest of 
which is (o James Slacfie, M.D., sor- 
geon in the E. 1. Co.'s service, who 
died April 14th, J790. The others 
are quite modem. It is said that an 
Englishman Was in the habit of barr- 
ing his favourite horses in this ceme- 
tery. Near Khoksa is a piece of 
country called Helling, or Baksa, in 
which are several neat villages and 
groves of trees, and sugar-cane is 
grown in abundance. Lord Hayo 
used to call this the ftestage Coontiy, 
from the Bccretary of the Tent Club, 
who is one of the best riders in India. 
On one occasion, 14 fine boars, one of 
them of prodigious size, were speared 
here in a single day. The tenta of the 
Tent Clnb are kept at this place, and 
it is the beet ground for hog-hunting 
near Calcutta. There is an hotel at 
Goalando, and the traveller must pass 
the night there, or in one of lie r^- 
way carriages. At Goalando the 
Ganges joins the Brilmiaputra. The 
Ganges ia here called the Padma, or 
Padda, and is avast river. At some 
distance 8., the 2 rivers form the 
Megna. With the tide the steamer 
goes 11 m. an boor. The whole d^ 



Sect. IL 

tflnce from Goalando to phfLkah is 
aboat 110 m. At aboat 63 m. the 
steamer leaves the M^na and turns 
into the DhAkah rirer, which is much 
narrower and shallower, aad near 
pb4kah itsetl is fast silting up. In 
the cold weatlier the MegOA is a vast 
river, bnt in the rains it is so deep 
and rapid, a« is too the Oonges at 
Goalando, that the navigation becomes 
really dangerous. Whirlpoobi are 
formed in which boats and light craft 
are often engulfed. At 10 m. from 
phaiah is Naifiyanganj, with 10,911 
inhabitants ; it is a great emporium for 
jate. There are 2 large factories here, 
employing some hundreds of handa, 
and an ancient building called the 
Kadam Rosiil, where, in a small 
moBqne, is a stone with, it is said, the 
impression of the Prophet's foot. 

JTJhAhalt is ft city with 69,212 in- 
habitants, and was once much more 
populous. It looks well from the 
river, havii^f many Sno buildinjii 
facing the stream. Ist, there is the 
house of a rich Hindil Sefh, then 
comes what was the house of Zamtn- 
dir Wjse, an Euglishman who ac- 
quired a lai^ fortune, and possesse.l 
extraotdinaiy influence ; not far off is 
the palace of the Ndw&b Aljsanu 'Uih, 
who is one of the moat distin- 
guished Mutjammadan noblemen in 
Bengal. He, with his son Nilwib 
Abdu '1 flhanl, are quite the leadeia 
of society in this Pn)viuce, and are 
celebiated for their charitable acln. 
Beyond the palace is the Mitford 
Hospital, a floe buildii^. Beyond is 
the house of the ^:ent for the Steam 
Packet Co. The laiidiug- place is a 
little beyond this bouse, and is not 
vei7 convenient. The steamer runs 
alongside a large flat, into which 
passengers disembark, and then pass 
OTcr planks to the shora A good 
landing-place is very much required 
here, mid should be undertaken by 
the Government. The distance thence 
to the CommisaioQer's hoaae, the 
houses of the other Europeans, and 
tbe church, ia about 1 m. 

The two principal streets of the city 
crosa each i^er at right angles. One 
extwtds from, the L&l Bdi^ palace. to 



E6uU $.—pii4iiA {Datca). 



149 

the Dol^f creek, and is over 2 m. long, 
It mna parallel to the river, and has 
branch streets leading to the landing- 
places. The other leads to the canton- 
ment N. of the town, and is IJ' m. 
long. At the junction of the streets is 
a square, with a garden in the centre. 
The church, which is 100 yds, S. of 
the Commissioner's house, is called 
St. Thonias',andiH 75 ft, 8 in. long, in- 
cluding the porch, which measures 
12 ft. B in,, and SIJ ft. broad. It can 
seat 106 perspns. There are 10 tablcta, 
one of them to Mr. John Hollow, 
" erected in testimony of his munifi- 
cent bequest to this church." He 
died May 3rd, 1834, aged 76. There 
is also a tablet to Alexander Hollow, 
a Eomind^, and one which commemo- 
rates the presentation of an oi^an to 
the church by James Hollow, in 1837, 
The organ itself, however, has perished. 

At ^rd of a m, from the church is the 
Cemetery, which is very well kept, and 
' is worUi a visit. It contains a small 
tank, whence the flowers, of which 
there are a great number, are watered. 
Ihorc arc also some fine trees. lu the 
centre is a handsome stone gateway, 
which marka the limit of the old 
cemeteiy. The older and handsomer 
tomba arewithinthiagateway. There 
are a good many tombs of missionaries, 
and of Frenchmen and other foreigners. 
There ia a finely sculptured mausoleum 
40 ft. high, with columns of a peculiar 
kind, which has no inscription, but is 
probably the tomb of some Mat)am- 
madan of rank. One tomb bears the 
names of Frederica Catharine and 
Louisa Charlotte, children of Arthur 
Littloiiale, of the C. S., who both died 
of cholera, within a few days of ona 
another, in 1840, There are also some 
fine tomba of an old date in the £. I. 
Co.'a time, when Shiiksh was a place 
of considerable importance. 

DhAkah, erroneously called Dacca by 
the' English, has ita name from Dh&k, 
the Butea froiidoga. In lo7E, when 
Akbar's generals reduced Bengal, Sun- 
h&rg&oA was the chief commercial 
city I the emperor Jah&i^^ made 
Bh4kah the residence of the governor, 
and called the city Jahinglmagar. 
It is built on that part of the Bara- 



Route 8. — DdrjiUng iophdhih {Dacca). Sect. IL . 



150 

fTftDJa called the Dslliseri. In 1801 
there were 233 mowmes, and 43,949 
houses, of which 2,832 were of brick, 
according to the account given hy 
Tavernier, in January, !66S. Not- 
withstaniiing Ihe riches and celebrity 
of Dhftkah, there are few edifices left 
of any importance. On the S. bank 
of the river, near the centre of the 
city, is the great Katra (built in 1646 
A.D,, according to Hunter), which 
means " arched bmlding," which beays 
an inscription with the date A.h. 
l,035==lfi2B A.D. The small Kafra 
WBS built by Amlru '1 umrft Sh^stah 
KhAn, in 16ti3 A,D. To the E. of the 
town is the I.il Bigh, begun by Mu- 
Ijammad '^i^im, sou of 8h&h Jah&n, 
in 1677 A.D., and probably never 
finished. The walls are of red brick, 
and very solid. The fort was built 
by IbrShlm Khdn, the 5th MurtuI 
Kovernor, in 16B0 A.D. In 1712, J'afar 
KhAn removed the conrt to MnrshidA- 
bAd. The widow of Sirftju 'd daulah 
was confined, with othere, in a prison 
on the W. side of the liver, opposite 
the Katra. Jasirat ICh&n, governor 
in the time of Siriju 'd daulah, was 
ordered to massacre the Erglish at 
pii^kah, but spared them. The most 
pleasant drive at pb4kah is round 
the race-course, which is about 1 m. 
to the W. of the church. To the S. of 
it is a fine country villa belonging to 
the Nilw6b Aljsanu 'Uilh. The T. B. 
is not far from the church. Dh&kah 
ia a good place for hog-hunting and 
tiger-shooting. There ace extensive 
ruins at Suu&rg&oA, but they can be 
visited only on an elephant. The 
Niiw4b, mentioned above, posseE^sed 
some elephants thoroughly broken in 
for tiger-hunting, and they were often 
lent to English gentlemen for that 
pnr])ose. The English Government 
borrowed them some years ago, and 
they died while in use for Government 
purposes, and liave not been replaced. 
8hiaimg.—T!\ii!i hill, which is in 
the Khisia Hills, is C.fiOO ft. high 
above sea level. It is the culminant 
point of the Khasia range, 6 m. N.E. 
from the Moflong hangU, where a 
most superb view is obtained of the 
Bhtttin HimAlaya ; the snowy peaka 



stretching in a broken series from "S. 
17°E. toN.35°W. All are below the 
horizon of the spectator, though from 
17,000 to 20,000 ft. above hie level. 
The flneat view, however, in the 
Khasia mountains is from Sbillong. 
A very full description of the aconery 
will M found in Hooker's "Himalayan 
Journals," vol. ii. p. 290. SMUong may 
be reached from DhUtah by Bteamertrid 
lUch^, and it is, therefore, introduced 
here, but only those travelleiB who have 
abundant time could be able to visit it. 
The country about phikah (Dacca) 
is under water for 7 months in the 
year, Hid ordinary land travelling 
is nnknown. From Dhfikah to Chat- 
tak in Sylhet takes from 1 to 3 
days by steamer, according to the 
state of the water. At Chatlak there 
is a good T. B. with a kh&nsaman. 
In going to the Khisia hills the 
traveller should leave Chattak in the 
evening in a native boat. At sunrise 
he is transferred to a canoe, and 
ascends a mountain torrent through 
beautiful scenery for 3 m., when he 
reaches Teria, a village at the foot of 
the pass leading to Cherra PunjI. 
There is a small T. B. at Teria. Front 
7 A.M. to 10 A.M. plenty of IniUs can 
be got, hnt not in the afternoon, and 
the traveller who arrives at Teria at 
that time must sleep in heat and dis- 
comfort. Teria Ghdt is a steep paved 
ascent, and there is a good riding path 
from it for 9 m. to Cherra Punjl, 
where there is a large commodious 
T. B. with a ^^sam&n. At T^ria 
Ghit the mn in the rainy season ia 
something terrific, and the traveller 
must protect eveiything with water- 

Sroof coverings. It ia 16 ra. from 
herm Punji to Moflong, where there 
is a good T. 6. with a kh&nsam&n. 
The raid is a good bridle path. Thence 
to Bhillong is 17 m., and there is a 
good cad: road. Bhillong is the head- 
quarters of the As4m Government, 
and there is a T. B. vrith a kk^nsa- 
rafin. This i-oad is seldom taken, the 
usual route to Shi Hong being by 
Gauhati, on the N., where the ascent 
is by a very good carriage road, 63 m. 
long, with 3 T. B.'s and specif com- 
forts at the central station. 



Houte 9. — Calcutta to Prome. 



191 



ROUTE 9. 

CALCDTTA TO EAUauN, 



to Maulmain (Moulmein) 70 m. : 
total 850 m. To visit Bannah, it will 
lie neeeBBaiy to embark in one o£ 
the steamers of the B.I, S.N. Co. From 
Eaiigiii]. to Prome is 163 m., done by 
railway. The office o£ the B.I.fi.N, 
Co. is in 16, North Strand, and the 
vessels lie in the river close by. Tha 
Co. maintains fiO steamers, many of 
tbem of large size, tbat is to say o£ 
2,000 tons and over ; they are kept 
beautifully clean, and are thoroughly 
well managed. The following table 
shows the rates to RaDgiin and the 
places on the way. But some steamers 
go direct to Rajigiin, and it will be 
better to go in one of them. Sue page 
160 for a notice of Chitri^^oi^. 



c,^ 


Chittagoag, 






Eyouli 












1 






Akj 


Phyu. 


Sandoway. 


1 




CablQ 
BO 


Deck. 


% 


D|k. 


Baastn. 


1 
1 


Cabin 
SB 


D^^. 


Cbin. 


Deck. 
7 


Cabin 


IWoli. 



The voyage occupies somewhat less 
than 5 days, but accordii^ to the 
officii statement 4 days. The descent 
erf the Hugll occupies at least one of 
these days. The first place seen after 
leaving the month of the Hugli, is 
the A^^uada lighthouse, which is 
bnilt on a reef, ajid is of granite, and 
IGOft. high. It haa 8 streaks black 
and white alternately to the top, which 
'towhite. ltstandBinN.lfttl[)''42'l+", 
andE.long. 9i°ll'35",andhaaawhite 
revolvii^ light visible 20 m. The 
diameter of the building is IS ft. 
The centre of the tanteru is I41ft. 
above high water. It was first lighted 
on the 23rd of April, 1866. Vessels 
should not approach nearer than 16 to 
20 fethoma. When the lighthouse 
bears N.. the course of theat«ameria 
altered to B. by S. i B. magnetic. At 
61 m. from Alguada there is a floating 
l^bt, and at 60 m. beyond the pilot 
comes on board. In about 2 hours 
Elephant Point la reached, where is a 



lofty brick landmark. Here it is usual 
to throw over a bottle containing any 
particulars of importance about the 
vessel. The bottle is picked up V.y a 
boat, taken to the Telegraph Office on 
the shore close by, and the contents 
are telegraphed to Bangiln. A few 
mintites afterwards the steamer is met 
by the one which plies to Maulmain, 
which takes the mails far that part. 
The latter steamer has a speed of 15 
m. Bxi hour. 

The entrance to the Rangiin river is 
not impressive, the banks being low. 
The Irawidi river, however, cannttf ail 
to impress the traveller by its vast 
breadth and volume of water. Ita 
have never been explored, but 
the "British Bannah Ga- 
zetteer," vof. ii. p. 209, it is at least SOO 
m.long,thelaBt2iO of which are in Bri- 
tish territory. It risesandfallsBCveral 
times till about June, and then rising 
steadily, it attains \ia maximum 
height about September, at which 



152 



Umite 9. — Calcutta to Frame 



Sect. II. 



tinio it is at Prome, that is, 1C3 m. 
beyond Rangiin, from 33 to 34 ft. 
above ita dry aeason ievel, and below 
the t&t. of MyaD-bung inaudatee n 
Taat tract of country on the E. and 
unprotected bank. Its maiiinam 
discharge of water baa been variously 
colcnlated. According to the table of 
the " Barmah Gazetteer," it brought 
downdailyinJuly,!87D,a4,02T,208,7eo 
metre tons of water. In August, '72, 
Mr. Oordon calculated the fiood 
msxiinum discharge atl,4!42,OOT cubic 
It. per second. The Great Pagoda is 
seen shortly after entering the mouth 
of the river. On reaching Monkey 
Point the river divides into Poowon- 
doung Creek on the right, and the 
main river which passes Hangiin. At 
Monkey Point is a fort which carries 
6 guns. Two roada branch ofi from 
Monkey Point, one called Pooioou- 
doung Road, which runs parallel tc 
the creek of the same najne, and be- 
side which, next the water, are 18 large 
factoricB, belonging to different 
Enropean companies ; the other, 
Monkey Point Road, which further on, 
near the Sailors' Home and the 
Master Inteudant'a Wharf and Offices, 
is called the Strand. On the side of 
Monkey Point Boad nearest the water, 
are the offices of eevewJ European 
companies, and the King of Barmah 's 
Eice Mills. Four parts of the rice 
arehusked, andone part leftunhusked 
to prevent combustion. The Sailors' 
Home has a small turret in the 
centre. Beyond it is a. small pagoda, 
where the officers of the Welleilej/ 
killed in the attack on Rangiin were 
buried. The Strand is a handsome 
broad road, with some fine buildings 
along it. Of these the handsomest is 
the Law Courts, which is about BO 
yds. back from the water. Past it and 
level with the Fli^-Staff, runs the 
Soolay Pagoda Koad, from the river 
in a N. dit«clion. Not far off is the 
B.I.S.N. Cc's office in Forty Street, a 
few yds. off Strand Boad. About 
2,000 ft. up this road is the Soolay 
Pagoda, in Fytche Square, an open 
space with a tank in the centre, aur- 
Tounded by trees and shrubs, and 
with Dalhonsie Street running E. and 



W, fiom it. In this elreet, opposite 
the Pagoda, is the Town Hall. A Httle 
bevood it is the British India Hotel, 
The British Barmah Hotel, which is 
the best, is a little further off. 

Having located himself in one of 
these hotels, the traveller may view the 
principal European buildlcga in the 
town, which are close by, and then 
proceed to the Shoay Dagon Pagoda, 
whichiathechiefsightinEangiin. Ee- 
turning to the Strand he will visit the 
Pro-Cathe*iral, or Church of the Holy 
Trini^, which is about 250 yds. to the 
W. of the Flag-Staff, It is 106ft. 
long from £. to W., and 35ft. Sin. 
broad from N. to S. The following 
inscription is in the pnlpit : — 



sringioGo 
■ chfldren- 



CongregnOoii of Holy Tiini^ Chnrcli, 

Other tablets are to John Victor 
Douglas de Wet, Govt. Advocate of 
British Barmah, drowned by the up- 
setting of a boat at Table Island, . 
Cocoa, in 1876 | to William Henry 
Clarke, LL.D., the firet judge ap- 
pointed to the Eecorder's Court in 
British Barmah, who died at sea in 
1867 ; and to Francis Edwaid Cunning- 
ham, Govt. Advocate, who died in 
1877. Over the entrance door is— 
TotheOloiyorOod 
This Wind™ la oifcred bv 
COLONEL A. PFYTCHE, 



H.M.-s 



BFOrBl 



LIEUT.-COLONEL THOMAS PHILLIPS 

SPARK, 

H^or Mailms BtslT Corps, 

And Coinmisaloner of Feeu ; 

Wlio died Bt MsdisK, 

Ontlie2SrdofArri],188S, 

Ikati mnrtni qnl In Domino 



Sect ir. Boute 9. — The SMve or Shoay Dagon Pagoda. 



153 



few yila. to the N. o£ it the Bank of 
BeQ^ and the Poat Office. Aboat 
tbe same distance to the E. in I'hajre 
Street, and close to the Strand, are the 
Chartered Bank and the Chartered 
Mercantile Rank. The Boman. Catho- 
lic CathedrtJ is on the N. side of 
Merchant Street, where it joins Bank 
Street, and on the S. aide of Merchant 
Street, 100 j-ds. to the E, of the 
Boman Catholic Cathedral, ia 
Baptist Chapel, and 160 ;ds. to 
£. of it, the Armenian Church. 

The next vlait may be to tbe Phajre 
Muaenm, which is between Commie- 
fiiouer'a Eoad and Montgomery Street, 
on the N^. side of the Canal, and close 
to the General Hospital, to the W. of 
Pagoda Koad, which mns between the 
two. It stands in very pretty grounds, 
and is a 2-Htoried building. In the 
lower story are wild beaats, bears, 
panthers, wild cats, monkeys, and a 
young tiger from MatUmain. Mr. 
Harding, the honorary carator, has 
taught all the animals to be tractable, 
except the hTsena, with which no- 
thing can be done. The Orang-Utan 
in the colil weather wraps himself up 
in a cloak, but on being called he putEi 
it o&, cornea forward, and gives hix 
great hairy paw to Mr. Harding. 
The Menagerie ia veiy popular, and 
many Punjue, or priests, viait it. It is 
also good policy to keep it up, tor the 
Barmese Uiink it one of the inaignia 
of royalty. In tbe upper atory is a 
most curious collection of stone and 
bronze Images, representing men with 
the heads of elephants and boara. 
There are also one or two imagea of 
Hindi) deities. There is too a coUcc- 
tion of stuffed animals, and of minerals 
and fabrics, and the hark of a tree, 
which eiaotly resembles pluah, and is 
used by aome tribes an clothing. The 
Govt. High School is a little to the N. 
of this Museum, as are the Diocesan 
Schools and the Freemasans' U^. 
The Railway Station of the Rangiin 
and IrawMI Valley State Railway 
igabout2,000ft. to theE. of the Free- 
masons' Hall, and it runs on to within 
J of a m. of Monkey Point. Due S. 
of it are 2 tanks, the New Dhobi Tank 
and the Dhobl Tank, and almost 



parallel with the latter, and to the W. 
of it, are the Barracks of tbe European 
infantry, and the Otflcera' Mess-rooms 
of the infantry and artillery. W. o( 
these again are the Roman Catholic 
Cantonment Church, and the Pro- 
testant Iron Church. The Cantonment 
Cemetery ia to the E. of the European 
Infantry Barracks, and between them 
and the Royal Tank ; 2,000 ft. to the 
W. of this tank is the Great Pagoda. 
The Qovemment House, which is the 
bouse of the Chief Commissioner, is 
about 2i m. to the N.W. of the land- 
ing-place at the Strand. It is a lai^e 
2-storied honae, in rather extensire 
grounds. Tbe Chief Commiteioner's 
Office is in the Strand, close to Holy 
Trinity Church, and adjoining it are 
the Public Offices, an imposing build- . 
ing. 

TlieSkheitr Slimy Dagnn Pagoda. — 
This temple, which is one of the most 
remarkable in the world, is to the 
N.W." of the io-mi, and a little more 
than 2S m. from the landing-place at 
the Strand. The " Gazetteer says of 
this building that it is the most 
celebrated object of woisliip in all the 
Indo-Chineac countries, and according; 
to the Palm-leaf Records was founded 
in 588 B.C., or 43 yeara before tbe death 
of Qaudama or Gautama, when that sage 
was SB years old, by Poo and Ta-pan, 
sons of the King of Twan-te, who 
during a yisit to India had obtained 
from Buddha himself several of his 
haira, which were enshrined under a 
pagoda 18 cubits in height ; bat, ob- 
serres Sir Arthur Phayre, "it cannot 
be credited that during the life of 
Qaudama, the Tnlang people had 
through their own means any com- 
munication by sea with India, or that 
Buddhism was introduced into the 
Delta of the IrawAdl at so early a 
period." The first trustworthy state- 
ments are those which relate to the 
repairs and works carried out by 
Queen Sheng-tsaw-bii, in the latter 
half of tbe ISth century. She raised 
its height to 293 ft., made terraces on 
the hill, paTed the topmost with stone, 
and set apart land and hereditary slaves 



15i 



Route 9. — Catcutia to Prome, 



for the service of the Bhrino. Mendei 
Pinto makes no mention of the 
Pagoda, but Balbi, Ihe Venetian, who 
visited Kangiln.orDBgonasitwaBthen 
called, towanJa the end of the 16th 
eentury, gives a full description of it. 
In 176a A.D. King Tsliong-hprao- 
Bheng replaced the Talaing &oivn by 
one of Barmeae form, and regilt the 
outside. In 1871 it was re-gilt with 
funds derived from public Babscrip- 
tions, the donations of pilgrims, and 
the rentfl of the fruit trees on tke 
platform ; and when the re-gilding was 
complete, a now Htee was put on it. 
This was niade in Mandalay, of iron, 
thickly gilded and studded with 
jewels, at a cost of ra. 620,000, brought 
down the river with great ceremony, 
received and escorted by a British 
officer speciallydepnted, and elevated 
amid great public rejoidngs. 

The building is 321fL high, and 1130 
ft. in circumference at the base, rising 
fromasquareplatfom, and surrounded 
by many small pagodas and images. It 
is approached by 4 seta of stairs at 
the cardinal points. It was garrisoned 
by the Barmese in the 2nd Barmese 
War, and taken by Blorm by General 
Godwin on the 14th of April, 1852. 
The bntlding resembles a vast hand- 
bell, ivith a polygonal base, about 40 
ft. high, on which is acjlindrical part, 
surmounted by 9 vast boesea, then a 
broad band, then a circle of balls, 
then another broad band, and then a 
piece shaped like an oitinguisher. 
On the top of all is a vane, with a 
golden weathercock. It is about IJ 
m. to the E. of tlie Chief Commis- 
sioner'a house. Oppoaitctoit.acrossthc 
road, is a Rest House, built by the King 
of Siam. The ascent is to the left of the 
road, first by 7 masonry steps and 1 
wooden, and then by a passage along 
a platform, past a huge lion on the 
right. The said lion is a conventional 
one, nnlike the living one, and about 
40 ft. high, in a sitting posture. Two 
dtc&rpaU^ images of Daifyag 
giant^, arc then passed. They 
rather well executed. Thus a gilt 
over-hanging screen is reached, 
left portion of which is : 
the King of the Oiauts, 



with a virtuoua minister, or perhaps 
Gautama tied to his horse's tail. On 
the right compartment of the screen, 
the giant is represented throwing the 



Achsbeli In tet. 
EaBtsiderroiD enter. 
At a distAuce of 395 ft. fnmi the 
great lion, the moat ia reached, and 
the whole way is covered by a wooden 
roof, supported by many wooden pil- 
lars, now dirty and dilapidated, which 
have once been gilt or coloured,* 
Under thia shed are spread many 
wooden beds for pilgrims, and nnm- 
bers of dogs roam in this unclean 
place. The sides have once been 
painted, with birds, and fish, and 
dragons. The moat is fi6 ft. wide and 
10 deep. It ia now di7. Crossing 
this moat by a drawbridge, the 
traveller comes to a Chinese pagoda, 
with a tablet, on which ia a CMnese 
inscription, written in letters of gold. 
Now follows a flight ofl6 + 6 + 6.(-5-l- 
a + 3 -H 4 + 4 + 4 -(- 10 + 7 + 3 + 6dirty, 
broken and rough steps, 77 in all, at 
the lop of which is a vast platform, 
on which are very many small pagodas 
and pavilions, with figures of 
Gautama, and conventional lions, 
surrounding the Great P^oda, on the 
lowest rim of which is a series of 68 
small psgodas, of the same shape as 
the large one. Of these 1, one at 
each cardinal point is twice the 
height of the otneia. On the S. aide 
is a vestibule of carved woodwork, in 
which are many lighted candles. 
The general appearance of the build- 
ing, from its vast siee and flne 
eiecution, is wonderfully striking, and 
it is altogether different from anything 
that a traveller from the W, has ever 
seen before. At the N.E, comer of 
the platform isahngebell,7ft.7tiu. 

■ The "Damuli Gazetteer " says, vol. II. p. 
34 : " The profuBely gilt, BoUrt brick pagoiU, 
aiiringing traai »ii uctagoimi base, with a peri- 
lueltrof ia55ft.,risss with a Kiailually dbnin- 
iahliigsphenridaluutlliie to ftlieightofsairt., 
and supporting a gilt Iron network umbrvlla, 
in Che shape of a cone SO Ct high eud tur- 
rounded itich bells 

> SticK>ts upward like « pyiamld of Ore,' 



Movie 9. — The Shive Pagoda. 



Sect. II. 

in diameter at the mouth, onderwhich 
a man can Rtand upright with ease, 
with a long Barmeee inscriptioD. 
The latter part o£ the inscription aays : 
" For this meritorioue gift replete with 
virtue of beneScence may he" (Bho- 
dau Bhura. the King who presented 
the bell) " be conoected to Neck-bau, 
and obtain the destined blessing of 
men, Nat and Bramha, by means 
of divine perfection. May he obtain 
in hia transmigrations only the kingly 
gtate among men and Nat. Ma; he 
havea pleasant voice,avoiceheanl at 
whatever place deaired, like the voice of 
Kan-tha-Mang, Pun-Nu-Kn, and A-la- 
Mb-Kb, wben he speaks to tei7ify,and 
like Karawek, King of birds, when he 
speaks on the aubjecta about which 
Nat and Bramha delight to heal'. 
Whatever may be his desire or the 
thought of hia heart merclv, let 
that desire be fulfilled. 'When 
Arimedya shall be revealed, let him 
'ha.Te the revelation, that he may 
become We-tha-dl Nat, supreme of the 
Rational Eiistences. Thus in order 
to cause the voice of homage, during 
600 years, to l>e hearil nt the Monn- 
ment of the Divine Hair in the city 
ot Rangiin, let the reward of the great 
merit of giving the Great BcU, called 
Maha Ganda, be unto the royal Queen 
Mother, the royal Father, proprietor 
of life, Lord of the White Elephant, 
the royal Grandfather Alung-mei^, 
the royal Uncle," and eo forth. 

About 80 yds. l)eyond it in the same 
direction, at the extreme N.E. comei' 
of the platform, is a small inclosnre, 
where the officers who were killed in 
the Second Barmese War are buried. 
The ^rd tomb has no inscription, the 
other 3 are inscribed aa follows :— 



CAPTAIN GRANVILLE GOWEB LOCH, 

H.M.'a Hhlii "Winchester," 

Who died iUi ot Fcbnuu?, 18b3. 

From the elTBcta of » wound received in 

Mtlon. 

Thli Uonuuient Is e»cl«a by bb OIBiMra uul 
Ship's Cudipuif . 



Cerlain legends regarding the building 
of the pagoda wul be found in the 
" Barman Gazetteer," vol. ii., pp. 633, 
(J36. The word Bhwee or "golden "is a 
Barmese translation of the original 
Talaing word prefixed to Tekun, It is 
now used generally aa a term indica^ 
tire of eiceUonce. 

It should be said that there are a 
number of nuns livins' near the pagoda, 
some of whom are always present in 
the enclosure, and they appear to.be 
learned, as should auj question be put 
to the guides, they invariably refer to 
theae women for an explanation. E. 
of the pagoda, at some distance is the 
old cemetery, which is a piece of rough 
and very stony ground. ; there are 
12 tablets, and amongst them one 
to Col. Malcolm McNeill, of the Madras 
Light Cavalry, Brigadier commanding 
the 3rd Brigade of the Madras Divi- 
sion of the Army of Ava, who died at 
Eangiin, eth December, 1852, from 
coup de soleil and fatigue, endured 
during the capture of the city of 
Pegu. There ia also one to Lieut. 
Walter Cooke, vrho died of a wound 
received at the assault of Pegu. On 
returning the traveller may stop at 
the Signal Pagoda, which is on a bill 
near me banacka of the European 
regiment. It is very small in compari- 
son with the Shwee Dagon. Before 
leaving, the traveller will do well to 
drive to the Great Koyal Lake, which 
has been made by Government. It is 
N. of the town ^ut 1 m., and B. of 
. the Great Fagoda, The gionads aronnd 



156 



Soute i 



—Calcutta to Prome. 



Sect. II. 



it have been prettUy laid out, and the 
drive to ana lonnd it is the most 
pleasant at Ranipln. 

J/owJmai'n. — While at Rangiin the 
traveller may pay aTiait to Maulmain, 
ivhich is the prettiest spot in Bannah, 
and reached in a steamer in 10 houri, 
being only 1*7 m. distant to the 8. 
The steamer Bails from Rangi^ every 
Friday, and the fare is IB i-a. for a 
cabin and 2 ra. tor a deot passenger, , 
Manlmein is in 16" 3y N. lat. and' 
97° 38' B. long., and is the head- 
qnarteraof the Amherst district, nnd of 
the Tenasaerim division. It is situated 
on the left b. of the Salura at its 
junction with the Gyaing and the 
Attaran. Immediately to the W. 
is BhI-lu-gywon, an island 107 iq. 
m. in extent. The waters of the 
Balwln flow W. into the GuU o£ 
Hartahan round the K. of the island, 
between it and ilartaban by the Davag- 1 
boak and again fiow S. between it and 
the mainland on which stands Maul- 
main, This channel is sometimes called 
tie Amberst and eomotimes the Maul- 
main river, but now generally the 
Salwfn. To the N., on the opposite 
bank of the Salwin, ia Martabui, once 
the capital of a kingdom, but now a 
raoderiite-siied village. Lowhills, form- 
ing the N. end of the Toung^nys range, 
run ?f. and B, through Haulmain, 
dividing it into 2 distinct portiona, 
which touch each other at the N. base 
of the hills on the bank of the Qyaing. 
These are crowned at intervals ("B, 
aazetteer,"vol.ii.,p,358) with pagodas 
in various stages of preservation, from 
the dork brick grasa-covercd and 
tottering relic with its rusty and fall- 
ing Htee, to tjie white and gold re- 
stored edifice, gleajning in the sunlight, 
and monasteries richly ornamented 
tt'ith gilding, colour and carved work. 

On the W, are 4 oat of the 6 divisions 
of the town, which extends N,, be- 
tween the Salwiu and the hills from 
Mopnn, with its ateam mills for bask- 
ing rice, and timber and ahip-building 
yards, to the military cantonment on 
the point formed by the junction of 
the Qyaing and the Salwin opposite 
Martaban, a distance of 6 m. The 
breadth nowhere exceeds 1,200 yds. 



This portion, which slopes to the bank 
of the Salwin, is intersected by 3 
main ronds, Fanning H, and S, One 
extends the whole distance, with a 
single row of houses between it and 
the Salwin. The 2nd, parallel to the 
E., tuns from the cantonment S. for a 
little more than a m„ and the 3rd, atjll 
more to the E, at its N, end, on the 
border of the cantonment unites with 
the 2nd, and at its S. end neat the N. 
entrance of Mopun with the 1st, 
Numcroua cross roads runnii^ E, and 
W. up the slope from the Salwin 
connect these 3. Here ai-e situated 
the public buildings, the cantonment, 
the moTchajits' offices and warehouses, 
the principal shops, and on the W. 
slopes of the hill, the houses of the 
Europeans. The inhabitants are almost 
entirely Europeans, Eurasians, natives 
of India, and Chinese. The Bth divi- 
sion or Ding-wan-queng, is more com- 
pact, aud lies behind the hills in the 
valley of the Attatan, and with its N, 
resting on the Qyaing stretches nearly 
to the Attaran. On the opposite 
shore is Qsujonng-bcn^-Tshicp, a large 
village, not included m the limits of 
the town lands, of which the Attaran 
is the E. boundary, Thia qnarler is 
izihabited priiicipally by liarmose aud 
Talaing. 

Like most towns in the Province, 
the houses, except neat the Salwin and 
in Ding-wan-queng, are snrrounded 
by extensive grounds and nestled in 
masses of foliage. The view from the 
hills iu the centre of the town is of 
great beauty, probably nnsurpaascd in 
all Barmah. W. the foreground is 
occupied by trees of every shade of 
foliage, from the dark olive of the 
mango to the light green of the 
pagoda tree, varied by the graoefol 
plumes of the bambil, with buildings 
showing here and there and the 
magnificent sheet of water beyond, 
studded with green islands, among 
which stands out conspicuously the 
little rocky Goui^-tsai-Kaywin, com- 
pletely occupied by white and glittcr- 
mg pagodas, and a monastery sheltered 
bj trees, and in the distance are the 
forest-ciad hills of BhI-lu-gywon and 
Ututabao. B. at the foot of the hilla 



Sect II. 



RotUe S.~-Mavimain — Promt. 



ia a large and re^larly laid ont town, 
on the edge of a rice plain, from 
wbich beyond the Attaran rise isolated, 
fantastically shaped ridges of lime- 
stone, in part hare and elsewhere with 
jaggud peaks, jmrtially concenled by 
straffiling clumpB of vegetatian, and 
in the eilrome distance a faint blue 
outline of the frowning Dawna hUls, 
To the N. are the Zwei-lta-beng rocks 
of limestone, 13 m. long, while to the 
8. rise the dark Tomift-wning hills, 
their sombre colour relieved by a 
glistening white pagoda and monea- 
teries on their side; winding through 
the plain like silver bands 
Qyaing and Attaran. 

The principal buildings are Salwlu 
house, built hy CoL Bogle as a privati 
residence, and now the Municipal 
Hall ; the Hospital, a new and hand- 
somewooden edifice; the Public Offices; 
3 E. C. Churches ; ScPatrick's, built in 
1857 ; and 8t. Mark's in 1843, and one 
of wood for the Anglican branch of 
the Catholic Church, dedicated to St, 
Matthew, consecrated in 1834 by 
Bishop Wilson ; a Baptist Chapel built 
in 1633; a large jail; the wooden 
barracks occupied by the regiment of 
Madras N. I., which forms the garri- 
son; the Custom House, the Post and 
Telegraph Offices, the Master Inten- 
dant's Office near the Main Wharf. 
When this portion of the province was 
ceded, by the Treaty of Tandabu, 
there was a spacious irregular quad- 
rangle sun'ounded by an earthen 
rampart. All the rest was a mass of 
tangled trees, brushwood, and long 
grass; bnt the Bile was chosen by 
General Sir Archibald Campbell for 
the British g'arrison. The trade of 
Manlmain soon grew to be consider- 
able. Along the banks of the Attaran 
are valuable teak forests, and to the 
N. in Siam vast tracts of country pro- 
ducing magnificent timber, of which the 
only outlet is Maulmain. Since 1856 
the ciport has grown from 28,71)9 tons 
to, in 1878, 123,242. The rice trade too 
has grown from 1G,170 tons in 1855 to 
77,980 in 1876. There ia also a con- 
siderable cotton trade, and hides and 
horns, lead, copper, yellow orpiment, 
and Bti<^ lac are snioiig the esports. 



The pop. in 1877 was 61,607, and 
among it are to be found English, 
French, Germane, Dutch, Belgians, 
Nom-egians, Swedes, Greeks, Danes 
Americans, Persians, Chinese, Bar- 
mans, Shams, and Indians. It is incon- 
venient that a visit to Maulmain musl 
last a week, hat if the traveller 
chooses he may letum to Calcutta by 
the Andamans, which are 690 m. from 
theHugU mouthof the Ganges, andlSO 
m. from Cape JJegiais. Port Blair is 
situated on the S.E. shore of the south- 
em island of the Great Andaman, and 
is one of the most perfect harbonre 
in the world ; half the British Navy 
might ride in it. In 1789 a convict 
settlement was established here by the 
Bengal Govemmenl, and a harbour 
of refuge for ships blown ont of their 
coni'se. On the ath of February, 1872, 

Prome. — The distances ai^ as 
follows:— 


1 


.„.™. 


HiUI, 


Nii«<l. 


h 

S3 

r» 

1 
s 


Rangfln. , . . 
Kemendlne . . . 
Bngtssin . . . 

iss; -.-.-: 

Phalou .■ .■ .' : 
OUun .... 

s:s;3,-. -. : 
Siiss: -.-.-: 

8.^'.- .- .- : 
feu-.-.-.: 

Psiuigde . . . 

Sl^iSSwa " ■ ■ 

Moss 

ProiDB .... 


f.2 


las 

!40 


«^ 


:.o«W-£ittobr 


mtBtfiS 
ougMlo 


ru™u 



Soute 9. — CaiciUta to Promt. 



-tt 



least so miante> beton sdTertlMd deputon 
of tralQ. IB via o( luggage , allowed free of 
(JmrgQ. Exc«afl chaige ' " "■- '^- 
JUfra^ ^ . 

Prome, written by the Bannese 
Pri and pronounced by them Pg), is 
a towu in the valley of the Irawidi, 
on the 1. b. of that river in 18° iT 53" 
N.lat.,and 95°18'18"E.loQg. The head- 
quartera of the Prome DiBtrict, which 
occupies the whole breadth of the valley 
of tlio IrawidI, between the Thayet 
District on the N. , and the Henznda 
and TharrawMl Districts on the S. 
In 1877 there were 26,826 iiOiab. in 
Prome. Tbe town eitcnds S. from 
the foot of the I'rome hilla to the 
bank on the Nar-wcng, with a subntb 
on the other side of that stream, and 
E. tor some distance np the Nar-weng 
valley. It is divided into the follow- 
ing municipal divisions : Nar-weng 
on the N., Riva-bbai on tlie B., 
Toheng-tau on the 8., and Shwi-iin 
and Tshan^daw in the centre, forming 
as it were the heart of the town. On 
the bank of the river, on the high 
ground, opposite the centre of the 
town, are the Police Office, the Govern- 
ment Schools, Law Courts, with a 
garden and fountain in front, the 
Public Gardens, the Anglican Chnrcli, 
and the Telegraph Office. The Strand 
Boad extends from one end of the 
tnwn to tbo other, and from it weU- 
laid-out atreetB run E., and are inter- 
secled at right angles by others. 
Behind and rather N. of Tcheng-tsu 
and detached from the low hiOa, 
which shut in the town on the S., is 
the great Shive Tshan-daw Pagoda, 
shining out from the dark foliage of 
the trees, which cover the slopes of 
the bill on which it stands. N. of the 
high laterite ground, on which are the 
Law OodTts, and under the high bank, 
a sand bank stretches up to the month 
of the Kai-weng, under water in the 
rains, but covered with brokers' huts in 
the dry weather, when a fleet of mer- 
chant boats is moored along it, of which 
many are laden with Nagar-pi, or fish 
pa«te, the udonr of which pervades 
the whole Nar-weng quarter. Here, 
OD tbo high, bank, a little inlaud, and 



on the inner Bide of the Strand, ate 
the Uarkets. In aa open spaca, facing 
and thrown back from the river, a 
little S. of the Iaw Courts, are 2 tanks 
with the T. B. on the roadway between 
them. The Railway Station is just 
behind these tanks, separated from 
tJiem by High Street. The Baptist 
Chapel ia near the Market, and the 
K. <J. Church is in Tsheng-teu qoartcr. 
Prome ia mentioned in. ancient his- 
tories, as the capital ot a great king- 
dom before the Christian era, but the 
town spoken of was Tha-rc-Khettra, 
some m. inland, the mins of which 
still exist.* This was destroyed about 
the end of the 1st century A.D., 
since when Prome belonged some- 
times to Avo, sometimes to Pega, but 
after the conquest of Pegu by Alaung- 
Bbura it remained a Barman town 
until Pegu was annexed by the 
British, in 1853. Prome was occnpleil 
by the troops under Sir A. Campbell 
on the Tth of April, 1826, having been 
evacuated and partly burned by the 
Barmese. 

TJtii S/iire-ttlum-daw Pagoda.— Is 
on a hiU i a m. from the I. b, ot 
the IrawAdf, and covers an area 
of 11,925 sq. ft., rising from a nearly 
square platform to a height of 
180 ft. It is surrounded by 83 small 
gilded temples, called Ze.df-yan, each 
having an image of Gautama. These 
unite at their bases, and form a wall 
ronnd the pagoda, leaving a narrow 
passage between it and them. (See 
" Barmah Gazetteer, ' vol. ii. p. 499.) 
There are i approaches to the plat- 
form on which the p^oda stands, 
each of 100 brick steps, facing N., 8,, 
E., and W. The N, and W. are covered 
in with ornamented roots, supported 
on massive teak posts, some partly 
gilded and partly painted vermUion. 
The platform on the top of the hill is 
paved with stone slabs, and round its 

• Tha-re-Khettra, according to 
WHS (nundeil by King Twat-tt-inuuit. a us- 

governtneat was altematelv at Prome and 
Ma]-ji-ma (perhapa MagfLdba) till 107 B.C., 
when it na flied permantntljr at Prome. 
(Seo C[»w(Utd'i " Eiubwur to An," toL L, 



to the Barmese, 



Sectn. 



Houte 9. — SMve-ifai-Taung Pagoda. 



159 



outer edge are carved wooden houses, 
facing inwards. interBpersed withamall 
pagodas, in which are figures of 
Gautama and Kahan, standing, sitting, 
or lying. Between these and the main 
pagoda are manj Tan-khwon-daing, 
posts surmounted by the Ka-ra-wait 
or Barmese Ganida, with streamers 
dependent from their summits, and 13 
large bells, partly gilt, hanging, with 
their rims just off the ground, on 2 
crass-bars supported on strong posts. 
These are struck by worshippers with 
deera'antlerB,whichlienearthem. The 
Pagoda has 2 gigantic liona of the 
usual conventional form at the N, 
entrance. In lTo3 A.D. this pagoda 
was rcRilt by Alaing Bhura ; in ISil. 
King Kun-baung-meng, better known 
as Tharrawaddy, had it repaired and 
regilt, and surmounted with a new 
Htee, or crown of iron, gilt and 
studded with jewels, tlio iliameter of 
the base of wliich was 10 ft. ; in 1842, 
the carved roofs over the N. and W. 
approaches were i>ut up by the 
Governor. lu 1858 it was again put 
in repair at a cost of 76,800 rs., raised 
by public subscription, and a few 
years ago it was re^lt at a cost of 
25,000 rs., rmacd in the same manner. 
The annual festival, when the pagoda 
is visited by thousands of pious But' ' 
hists, is held in March. There ii 
pagoda of the same name nearTwan- , 
in the Baiigiin district. Thisp^odais 
said to be more venerated by the 
TaLiing than even the Great Pagoda 
of Rangiln, and to have been built 
677 B.C., by Thamien.btaw-byeen-n , 
the then King of Kba-beng, a small 
village near Twan-te, and his wife, 
Mien.da-de-wee, as a shrine of 3 of 
Gautama's hairs, given by him to 
3 holy pilgrima from C^ion. Near 
tiis pagoda is a grove of ITiwot-ta-bat 
trees (Sapodilla plum]), 7 in number, 
the only ones existing in Pegu. 

ThuShive-Nttt-Jiiung Fagoda.—Tb\3 
p^oda, 16 m. S. of Preme, may be 
TJsited by the traveller. It is eaid to 
luiTe been built dnrir^ the reign of the 
founder of Frome, by his queen. It 
was then 224 ft. high. When Thi-ha- 
tlm became King of Prome he r^ired 
the Pagoda, andraiecdit toaheight of 



ft. About the middle of the 16th 
century, Ta-beng-shwe-htl, king of 
Tftungu, who had conquered Prome, 
added to the Pagoda, and increased its 
height. The building, richly gilt, and 
glittering in the sun, stands out con- 
spicuously on the first hill of a low 
range, overhanging the Shwe-nat- 
taui^ plain, and has,in a line behind 
it, the Nga-Tsu, Pau-Bhu, Hpo-lag, 
Hpo-myat, and Hpo-tha-bbo and 
Thesg-gan Pagodas, all which may be 
visited by the traveller, if not already 
tired with buildings of the kind. 

The joamey from Rangiin to Proma 
may also be done in one of thest«amere 
of the Irawidl Flotilla Co. line, the 
office of which is in the Strand Road, 
Rangdn. Steamers carrying H.M.'s 
mailslcaveRangilinandMandalay twice 
H week, and one leaves Uandalay for 
Uh&mo, and itice tena, twice a month. 
There is a daily service between I'rome 
and Tbayetmayo. The stationa from 
Rangiin to Prome, and from Prome to 
Mondalay, are as follows : — 



Names of Stations 

trum Bangto to 

PmiiiB. 


c».. 


X:: 


Deck. 


















































Y^gUn . . 


















7. Pmine . . 




'" " 


i, 



light bjr & slieli (s« 



(en by Sir A. Campbell on 
S. The Burmeae Qenenl, 



■ «0 men, but 
I of Csptaitul 



killed, and s 

HenzacU is pioperl; Haiiia-la, and mekns 
"mil for the gou»," wbieh biri w»b Oik 
stuiilatrt of Pegu, and Urns held to be sacred, 
snd it iH alleged that one sucb Wrd wM acci- 
dentally she' ' — ■■ '-"" 

■" -'--r means '■ apettiy ^ 

_»;l_... 

\it 111* victuiies over tbe Pcguniis, 



160 



SouU 9. — OalcuUa to Fronte. 



Sect. II. 



At 2 m. from Amaxapdra ia tlie Arakan 
temple, which is sapported by 232 
boroeir-gilt pillars. There is a gilt 
bronze statae of Gaatama in a sitting 
IKisition, about 12 ft. Iijgh. It was 
brought from Arakau in 1784, and ia 
said to hare been cast during the life- 
time of Oautima, and is, therefore, 
especially eacred. There are here 260 
marble and atone elabs coreted with 
iiiBcription?. One ia dated 1432 A.D. ; 
another is inecribed 1464. 

Ara is sarrounded bj a brick wall 
IBJ ft. high, and 10 ft. thick. The 
Ii'awidI flows on the N. side, and is 
about l,200jd3. broad. TheS.andW. 
fiices of the town are defended by a 
deep and rapid torrent, called the 
Mijst-tha-badj, from the Eiver Mijst- 
ngS, which is 160yds. broad, with very 
ateep and high b&nku. The stream is 
ao rapid that boats can with great 
difflculty stem it. The nails of Ava 
extend 6^ m. The largeet temple is 
called Lo-ga-ttia-ba, and conaiats of 
two parte, one ancient and the other 
modem. In the former is au image of 
Qantama, of enormons size. A 2nd 
TCiy large temple is called Aug-wa 
SS-Kong, and a 3rd Ph'ra-l'ha or ■ the 
beautiful.' A 4th is Maong-ratna, where 
the officers of the Government used t<: 
take the oath ofall^iance. A5thtempl< 
■ '■ ' i, which haa a zyat 



auy 01 .... 

The pillars and ceiling are richly gilt. 
There are 19 gates in the outer and 
inner wall of the town. The Mlace is 
1,400 yds. long from E, to W., and 
l,lOOyda,fromN.to8. TheHangdhan, 
or Hall of Jastice, which ia on the N, 
side of the pahtce, is a loft; wooden 
building, auppoiled by aeveral rows of 
wooden pillars. It is a plain structure, 
without earring, gilding, or any deco- 
ration. The Hall of Audience consists 
of a centre and 2 wings. It is o£ 
wood, but the roofa are covered with 
platesoftin. Overthecentreisahand- 
Bome apire, crowned by the Ti or Htec, 
or iron umbrella. It la without walls, 
and open all I'ound, except where the 
throne ia. The cool is supported by 
many handsome pillars, and ia richly 
and lastefnll; carved. The whole 



fabric atanda on a terrace 12 ft. high, 
of solid atone and lime. "The Throne, 
which is at the back of the hall, is dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the strac- 
ture by itssuperiocbrilliancy and rich- 
ness of decoration. The pedestal on 
which it stands is composed of a kind 
of mosaic of mirrore, colonred'^IasG, 
gilding.and silver, aftera style peculiar 
to the Barmans. Over it is a canopy, 
riclily gilt and carved, and the w^l 
behind it is alao highly embellished. 
Although little reconcilable to our 
notions of good taste in architecture, 
the building is unquestionably most 
splendid and brilliant; and it is doubt- 
ful whether so singular and imposing 
a royal ediflce exists in any other 
country." (See (>awfurd's"Kmba8syto 
Ava," vol. i. p. 229.) There are other 
ediflces which are worth visiting, but 
as rctationa with Barmah have been 
broken ofi by the British Government, 
it is more than doubtful whether they 
could be viewed at present. 

Cldtragd-ou. — On returning to Cal- 
cutta, the traveller may tiie a 
steamer which slops at Chitiag^n 
(Chittogong). Sportsmen who are really 
desirous of encountering tigere, will 
find any number of them in the small 
islands oppoaite the mouth of the Ear- 
naphuU. There are alao to be seen the 
largest alligatora in the world. Of 
1 course it would be necessary to take 
goodshik&riswithoDeinsuch a locality. 
There is a good pftk BanglA, or T. B., 
at Chitrag&on, large, cool, clean, and 
commodious, situated about Jm. from 
the pier or jetty where passengers 
by atcamcr disembark. The cost for 
food and lodging there is about B ib, 
a day without wine and other luxuries. 
There are no interesting buildinga or 
inscriptions at Chltrag^n. There are 
veiy high hills to be reached in a small 
boat in 3 days' journey up theKania- 
pliuli, but Europeans do not resort 
there na yet for health or change. The 
boat hire would be from 16 to 20 rs. 



db,Googlc 



Rauie 10. — Pronut to Mcmdahy. 



161 



ROUTE 


10. 




PBOMB TO HAHDALAT. 


N.mw ot 8ta- 


cu lt«««. 


1 


riome to Man- 




s^si 


rI^^. 


R«.gdti 


Bang.,. 








1 


1 ». i«. 


n. ia. 


ra. lia. : 


a. Mlnhk . 


« 


16 

M 




fl.M.gw.y. , 


45 D 


SS B 




4. Y.anaii- 








..fi-CS,™ 


« 


M 


s ' 


8.8Ul.jmyo . 








T. Fagbui . 
















iSiSiK;-: 


W 


40 


H 8 






1 fl. nf lugg«ee 1h Blluwed free oT 
inch CAbin pauengar. Quirter-decJc 
I tTV allowed a ™blc ft iif pMBonsI 
L mil nf bedding, md i Ailamchi. 



baggage, and a roU of bedding. 


rapii™, which again is 4 in. ti> Uie N.E. at 
Tha-do-ineng-bya in 1884, who nimoYed Uio 



Prince beeiiiM King under the nanie of 
Hpaayadaw, and hlx InsulU lad LuTil Dal- 

Oenanl QcAvW^ BoatHlBn benn on tbe 
Bth ot April. \Sii, by the capture i>l HarUbao. 
Rangiln was taken on the IMh witl; tlie losa 
nf » oOlcan killed and IS wounded, and U 
non-oinunlBaloned offlcen and men killed, and 
114 wounded. On board the man-of-war 3 
men were killed, and I ollloer uUI K man 
wounded- OnthalSthomb., 1SS3, theHeny- 
diln-Heuy6'a troop* dathmned bla lirutlier 
Hpagyadaw, and took Amarapitra, and Pq[u 
waa aTineieit to Brltiah Buinali. Ttaiban bdc- 
Kedad and has innde Mandalay hia capital. 
[B(iijoZ-1881.1 



At Wet-ma-Bet, some miles to the N. 
of Magway (written by Ctawfuid Malc- 
we) are some very productive petro- 
lenm wells. Paghan (written by Craw- 
furd Pugan) is said by the Barmese to 
have been foLuided by Sa-mud-da-rtj 
in 107 A.D,, and tohave been destroyed 
In I35C A.D. The oldest temple, and . 
they are proverbially numeroas, waa 
built in the reign of Pyan-byni, 84R to 
8B1 A-D- One of the finest is Thapni- 
nyn, " the Omniscient." It is built of 
well-burnt bricks. 15 in. long and 8 in. 
broad. The form is an equilateral 
triangle, with 1 quadrangular wings 
on the sides, on the ground floor only, 
which contain tbe principal images of 
Oantama. Gaoh side of the temple 
measures 230 ft., and it has i st^es 
diminishing in size as they ascend. 
The centre building is a solid mass ot 
masonry, surmounted by a steeple like 
a mitre, ending in a spire crowned 
with an iron umbrella- The total height 
ia 210 ft. Gateways, doors, galleries, 
and roofs, are invariably formed by a 
well-turned Gothic ajch. This temple 
was built 1081-1161. The most sacred 
temple is called Anand4, after the 
favourite disciple of Oautama. It is 
160i ft. high, and was builtbetweenl076 
and 1081. In Cmwfuid's "Embassy 
to Ava," YoL i. p. 116, will be found 
an engraving of one of these temples, 
and a full ncconnt of tbe place. Ea 
mentions that rank in Barmah is 
marked by tbe number of strings in a 
gold chain ; only the royal family 
wear 24 slrings, sad the lowest rank is 
shown by 3. Rank is also shown by 
the number of syllables in a title. 
Thus the King's title has 21 syllables. 



db,Googlc 



Kovit W.— Calcutta to Hugli {Hooghlij). Sect. IL 



ROUTE 11. 

ALCUTTA TO HUGli, i 

BHBIOAHPdB (BKRAMPOBB), BAH- 
DEL, ASD CHAJSDKANAGAK CCHAH- 



Having finiahed the ontljing pro- 
vinces of Urisss, Barmah nad Bik- 
kim, the traveller may now proceed 
along the line of the fiast Indian 
Railway, divei^ng to any placea of 
great intereat within a reasonable dis- 
Uince of ita course. A magniGcent 
new atation is being bnilt fur this 
line in Clive Bueet. The architect 
ia Mt. B. Roekell Bajne. The bailding 
is of brick, with columofl and cor- 
nices of atone, brought from MiraApiir 
and Jabalpilr. Old rails are ntiliied 
fur raftera, so that the edifice will be 
ftlmoEt fiie-proot. The fagade is 
300 ft. long from N. to S., and the 
building ia 140 ft. broad. It ia 3 
Btoriee high, but at the ends 1, 
and with the mezianino o. The 
ground covered is 40,000 sq. ft,, and 
the coat ia 360,OCO ra. It has been 
bnilt eipeditionaly, for the offices were 
months after the build- 



ing began. The c 






by raUa, project 5 ft The Eaurab 
office, from which paasengera at present 
start, is 200 yards beyond the Hugll 
bridge, on the B. bank of the Hugli 
river. This bridge opcna on Tuesdays 
and Fridays for two honra for ships to 
paas. It opens in the centre 200 ft. 
I^hips do not pay anything for passing. 
Shoald tie traveller have time ne may 
ilrive to the SIbpiir Jute Mill, Ij m. 
It employs 1,600 hands, of whom many 
are women and children. There are 'i 
jntemills. Dnndeeistbebead-quartera 
of the trade in Great Britain, and has 
been engaged in it for 66 yeani. Jute 
ia need only for bags and sacks. It 
rols if wet with water. By Mr, 
PlimaoU's Act grain must be stored in 
baga and not in bulk, which ia a great 
boon for the jute trade. 

The l6t room ia the aorting-room, 
where the jute is stacked according 



qoaltty. It is molBtened willi 
and water. Nest comes the 
Boftening • room, wlQi i machines. 
The £bre pasaea backward and for- 
ward, and gets a wave, and is 
softened by the pressnte of steel-ribbed 
cylinders. The 3rd room ia the card- 
ii^room, where clouds of dnatv par- 
ticles are driven ofi the fibre.' In the 
4tb room aK the spinning jennies, 
where many girls are employed. The 
Sth room ia £e weaving-room, where 
the Bhattlee are driven ta and fro with 
great force. Here are 6 steam-enginea 
of 35 horse-power each. Tbete ifi also 
a colandering proceaa, which greatly 
softens the cloth, and it is then usei 
by tailors for paddings. Bags sell at 
from 16 to S6 ra. per hundred. Balea 
weigh from 8 to 9 cwt., or even half 
a ton. There is a hydrauhc press, 
which eierts a preaeure of 3 tons to 
the square inch, The house of Hiri 
L^ Set: ia close by ; he ia a great 
landowner, and sold the Dh^aiU' 
tollah Market to Government for 
£70,000. Near thia is the Hospital, with 
beds for 50 Europeans, who occupy 
the upper rooms, and 10 natives. 

Inaide the Hngli atation, on Uie ist 

panel to your right as you look at the 

clock, is a white marble tablet with 

black border, inscribed as follows :>~ 

In HemoTT of 

CECIL UACKINTOSHSTEFHEIraON, 
AASDtoTttie 



(and others desiring to joinY 
Wlio bsie also Plaoul > aiuiilBr 
litABt In the CslcuCtB Cathedml, 



And In 



tntedsi 
an Bcboo! 



tNainJTill, 



For sona of Bast Indian Railway BervaotB. 
The traveller will be careful to re- 
member that Madras time ia kept at 
aU stations, and is 33 min. behind 
Calcutta time, Fassengera must bs at 
the station at least 10 min. before the 
time atated in the table. FiiBt-cIass 
pasacngers pay 1 &. 6 p. per m. 3nd 
class, U p. per m. Botum tickets, 



SMt n. 



Eovte 11. — Chinturah. 



ATailable for 2 montlu, will be ismied 
to lit and 2nd class patsengers &om 
and to anj etetion more Oma 130 w. 
distant, at the rate of one ordinary 
fare and a hall The boldors tnaj 
break jonTDcya m often and for as 
long 08 thej like, pniTided the line is 
not traveUed orer more than once in 
the same direction, and the limit of 2 
months is not exceeded. Holders of 
month I7 ticketB,on arririag at a station 
where they intend breaking their jonr- 
ney, mnsthave inserted on t^eir tickets 
the date and train of arriva], and when 
leaving the date and tnin of departure, 
and the column, '' station etamp," cor- 
rectly filled in by the station staff. 
Each Ist-clOBB passenger may take IJ 
mans of luggage ; 2nd clasa, 30 airs. 
If luggage is not booked before com- 
mencement of tiie journey, no free 
allowance will be made. 

The name of Chinsurah wilt not be 
found in the railway time-tables, so 
the traveller most go to Hogli, from 
which place Chiasorah Is 2 m. distant. 
The atationa are aa follows : — 



il 


NlUHHOf 

tttatloDi. 


TfniB 


c!^ 


ma 

ClUB. 


































<Ho»™h> . 


SAi 








B»lll(B.i1s). 










KonnigBjh 










csfr 


9.1b 


013 B 


B« 










1!. 


S^"' 


9.27 


12 


9 




tM 


















Sir-. 


9.47 


1110 


01s 6 


21 


^Xp" 








'l 


^('^^hirt . 


10.11 


a «o 


1 ao 



HngU and Chinnrah are bracketed 

together as one in th« Cenana Beport, 
and together ooTer an area of 6 sq. m. 
The pop. il 3*,761. Bhoald the tra- 
veller not Snd comfortable qoarteta 
at Hngll, he may resort to the Hotel 
at Chinniraii, or he maj stop at the 



French Hotel at Chandran^ar (Chan- 



r the r 



t the 



hotel at Bhrir4mpir (Serampore). 
Both are good, and he may visit Hngli, 
Chinsurah, and Bindel from them by- 
rail or hired carriage. Hngli town ia 
the administrative hcad-quarterB of the 
district of the same name. It was 
fonnded by the Portuguese in 1617 
A.D., when the royal port of Bengal, 
SAtgdon. began to be deserted, owing 
to the silting up of the Saraswatl, on 
which river it was situated, The Por- 
tuguese, under theirgeneral, Samprayo, 
built a foTtreaa at Uholghit, dose to 
the present Huglt jail, some vestiges 
of which are still visible in the bed of 
the river. The Portuguese, however, 
became unpopular, owing to their 
establishing themselves in E. Bengal 
as an independent piratical power. 
About IG21, Prince Khurram, after- 
wards the emperoT Shih JahAn, re- 
volted against his father JahAnglr. 
Being defeated, he fled to Bengal, and 
asked the Portuguese at HugU to 
assist Mm. The Portngueso governor 
refused, and added insult to the re- 
fusal When 8h&h Jah&n came to the 
throne, comphunta were made to him 
of the conduct of the Portuguese at 
Hugli. He was glad lo revenge him- 
self, and sent a large force against 
HugH, tie fort of which, after a siege 
of ii mouths, was sti^med. More 
than 1,000 Portuguese were slain, and 
*,000 men, women, and children were 
captured. Out of 300 Portuguese 
vessels only 3 escaped. The prisoners 
were sent to Agra, and forcibly con- 
verted to Isldm. SAtg&o& was then 
abandoned for HugU, which was mode 
the royal port, HugU was also the 
first settlement of the English in Lower 
BengaL The E. 1. Co. established a 
foeton' there in 1642, under a/armAn. 
from SultAn 8huj4', Governor of Ben- 
gal, and 2nd son of Bh4h Jab&n. This 
farmdn was granted to Dr. Boughton, 
who had cur«l a favourite daughter of 
the emperor, and asked for it when 
desired to name his reward. In 1669, 
tjie Company received permission to 
bring their ships to Hugll to load, in- 
stead of transporting their goods in 
small Teasels, and then shipping them 



RotUe 11. — CalaOta to Eugli {HoogUy). Sect 11. 



into latge. In 16B5, a dispute took 
place between the English at Hneli 
and the NiiwAti of Bengal, and the 
Company sent a fOTCS to protect their 
factories at Hngll. It chanced that 
a few English eoldiers were attacked 
by the Nilwib's men in the tia&ta, 
and a street fight ensued. Colonel 
ICicholBon bomlMrded the town, and 
Wned 600 honsea, including the Com- 
pany's narehouses, containing goods 
to the valne of £300,000. The chief 
of ttie EngUah factory was obliged to 
fly from Hngli to Bntinutl, or Chat- 
tanatti, and take shelter with some 
native merchants. In 1742, Hoglt 
waa sacked by the HarAthas. 

About 6 m. from Hugli, to the K., is 
Sitg&ei. It is said to !« so called from 
Tholy menwhoresidedtheTe. Wilford 
speaks of it as Oai^es Begia, and says 
It was once a residence of the kings of 
the country. There is a mined mosque, 
which Professor Blocbmann deacribes 
fn vol, xxiii. of the " Joum. of the 
Bene. As. 8oc." parti for 1870, p. 280 : 
" TMs mosque which, together with a 
few tombs neat it, ia the only remnant 
of the old capital of Lower Bengal, 
was bnilt by Saiyid JamAlu 'd din, eon 
of Fakhm 'd din, who, according to 
insoriptiona in the mosque, came from 
Amol, a town on the Caspian, The 
walls are o( emsll bricks, adorned in- 
side and oat with arabesques. The 
central MHJrAb is Tery fine. The 
arehes and domes are in the later 
Pathftn style. At the B.E. angle are 
3 tombs In an encloHure. During the 
last century, the JJntch of Chinanrah 
had their countrr seats at SitgAoA, to 
which they walked, in. the middle of 
m Aay, to dine. The river of SAtgiofi, 
up to Akbar'a time, formed the N. 
frontier ot Orissa, and SAtgdon 
flourished for not less than 1,600 
years. 3 centuries ago the Hngli 
flawed by SAtgAoA, and the nutste of 
a ship were found, about 30 years ago, 
in the ground which was its hed. 

The principal thing to be seen at 
Hngll is the Im^bArah, bnilt by Ka- 
rAmat 'AH, the friend and companion of 
Arthur Connolly, at a cost of 300,000 
ra. The funds, however, had been be- 
queathed by MnljammadMobBi''- "^^^ 



gentleman owned a qnartcr ahara of 
the great Saiyidptir estate, in Jesaiir 
District, and died in 18U, withont 
heirs, leaving property worth £1,600 
a year for pieua purposes. There were 
2 trustees, and by the terms of the 
will tbo estate was divided into 9 
shares of £600 a year each, of which 
£lj600 a year was to be spent on re- 
ligions observances at the ImAmbArah, 
£2,000 a year in keeping it in repair 
and paying the officers attached to it, 
and the reat, £1,000 a year, was to be 
divided between the trosteea. The 
trustees soon quarrelled, and Ooveni' 
ment asanmed charge of the estate, 
and appointed 2 truistees, 1 being the 
Collector <^ Jeasiir, and the other 
EarAmat 'All During the litigation, 
a fimd of £86,110 had sccnmulated, 
and with UiiB the Hagil College was 
fonnded, in 1836. The facade of the 
ImAmbAiah U277ft. Sin.long and 36 ft 
high, and in its centre Is a gateiray 
consisting of 2 minarets, or towers, 
111 ft. high, with a curtain between, 
in which is a large clock. On either 
side of the door are inscriptions. On 
the spectator's left is, in English, a 
resolution of the Bengal Qovt. dated 
I6th of December, 1S63, and on the 
right is the same resolution in, now 
illt^ble, Persian. This resolution 
censures the magistrate of Hugll for 
allowing a Hindi! marriage procession 
to pass the ImAmbArah at a time 
when tJie HuHlims were keeping the 
fast of the Muljarram there. On enter- 
ing the gateway the visitor finds him- 
sett in the quadrangle, 160rt. from N, 
to a, and 80ft. from E. to W., with 
rooms all round, and at the N. end a One 
hall 70 ft. by 80 ft., 3fi ft. 3 in. high, 
paved with marble, and having a pnlpit 
with T steps. The sides of the pulpit 
are covered with plates of silver, a 
verse of the Kur'An being inscribed in 
each plate. The walls of the hall and 

Krtico are ornamented with verses 
on the Kur'An, or passages from the 
Qadls, in the 'fughiA character. As- 
cend now a staircase between the hall 
and the rooms, and pass down a 
' corridor tor J of its length, where is 
the libraiT which was bequeathed by 
KajAmat 'Ali, but a few books haye 



t.II. 



JtmUe 11. — Chfnmrah — Sdndel. 



165 



rince been added by other people. 
There are in alt 787 mantiftcrij^, tmd 
among them is a fine folio Kar'An, in 
2 toIb., giTen by Prince Ghiilim Mu- 
hammad, son of Tlp^ There is also 
the work on astronomy, by Ulogh Beg, 
probably an aab^raph. The traveller 
will now cross the road which passee , 
the front of thia Im&mt)&rab, and lisit 
the oid Imimbimh, bnilt in 1776-7. 
In the W. corner lie the remains of 
Eor&mat 'AH, and there is a white 
marble tablet placed against the wall, 
with an extract from the !^nr'^, but 
no tomb. Kar&mat died on the lOth 
September, 1H75. 

CkiiuHrah ia written in the old 
Hindii books, Cbachlmd&. lu the 
poema of Chandi Kavi Kankan, in the 
early part of the 15th century, the 
tTBTela of a Hindii merchant in K, Ben- 
gal are described. He came down to 



plir to K41I KAta, "Kill's acre." 
This shews that th^re was a town or 
Tillage Killkatta (Ciilcntta) long be- 
fore the time of the English. Chin- 
surah was hela by the Dutch for 180 
years, and c^ed by them to the Eng- 
lish ib eichiuige for Sumatis, in 1826. 
At a little distance from the rirer, and 
If. of the college, there is an hotel, 
where accommodation may be had for 
6 rt. a day. The town was ased for 
an invalid depot lor troops coming 
from or going to England, till lately, 
when it was abandoned as a military 
station. 'The old Dutch church, said 
to have been built by the Qovemor in 
1768,* at bis own expense, is solidly 
built of brick. It is 74 ft. 1 in. long, 
and 87 ft. broad from E. to W., and 
can seat 120 persona. According \o 
some, it was ballt for a market, and 
its length N. and S. gives colour to the 
notion. Over the E, door is inHcribed: 
Ad majoiam 

.XdlflcarlluuK 
a L. Vr«NET. 

In the vestry is an old stone, said to 
have been taken from the fallen tower, 
and inscribed, " Qebowd Door, J. A. 
* This li ■ooordlng to the Ballwa; Quid*, 



Shistermaii" In the chnroh are 11 
escutcheons, 7 on either side. The 
dates are from January, 1686, to 1770, 
and the iuscriptiona are in Dutch. 
The HugU CoU^e U to the 8. of the 
church, and is one of the most famous 
in India. There are SOO students, and 
ample accommodation for more in (he 
rooms of the old barracks, which are 
veiy extensive, and are kept in re- 
pair, to lodge students. Krlstod^ 
FAl and other eminent men were 
educated at this college. The ceme- 
tery is 1 m. to the W. of the churob ; 
the new part is tolerably well kept^ 
but where the old tombs are the 
ground is filthy. Many of the tombs 
are those of Dutch officials, as that of 
Qregoriun Eerklots, Esq., Fiscal of 
Chinsnrah, who was boni in Birming- 
ham, Jan. 9th,' 1758, arrived in Chin- 
surah 1789, resided there 63 yean^ 
and died May 26th, 1852, aged 84. 
This tablet speaks well for the salu- 
brity of the place. There is another 
tomb to Captain Lucas Jurrianz Znyd- 
land, who died 25th October, 1766. 

Biadel. — The traveller wiU next 
drive to Bftndel, which is a m. S. of 
Hugll. The Portuguese monastery and 
chnrch here are worth a visit. The 
chnrch was bnilt in 1599, and is of 
brick, and very solidly built. It is 
dedicated to Nossa Benhora di Bosario, 
and is 196 fL long from G. to W., and 
4* ft. 10 in. from N, to 8. There are 
fine cloisters on the 8., and a priory, 
in which is a noble room called St. 
Augustine's Hall. Iii the aisle on 
either Bide ate 8 inter-columnar spaces. 
The organ is good. The church was 
founded by the Augustine Missionarieg, 
demolished by Sh&h Jah&n in 1640, 
and rebnilc by Jolin Gomez di Soto. 
It is sitnated on the banks of the 
Hugli, 28 m. N. of Calcutta. In the 
N, aisle is an inscription : 

Hie 
Jscet ELIZABET ei Syln 
In Hailapunnai dvltate divl 

Bt LUHitiinIa Fsti^bna OriuudA. 

Ex b«l1o AagllB >L Mauris ilL^, 

OWIt loco Chiiionmh, die 21 

tTovsmbrlB Xiw dirtitlftne, 17 



JiouU 1\.—Ca2evtta to Hvgli (Sooghly). Sect. II. 



PoHUrsbtuy, NorthamptooahiK, 17th 

of AoguBt, 1761, died 9tk c^ Jane, 
1834 ; another to Joahna MarahmBii, 
D.D., bom atWe«tbui7, Wilts, 20th ot 
April, 1768, died 6tli of December, 
1837; and the third to the Rev. 
WiUitun Ward, bom at Derby, 20th of 
October, 1769, died 7th of March, 
lH23~the Beismpore mieaiolLBriee. 
There U another lajge and rer; hand- 
soma marble tablet to the memorj of 
the Hon. J. S. Eotteabe^, Esq., lata 
Chief of H. Danish M.'b Settlement of 
Fredencksnagar, who died M^ llUi, 



DA VIBaEM N0S6A BENBORi DE 



Frivil(«lftdii to B&bulo 
Palla suramD poaUflcs Beuedicto XIU. 

Feito em uiDO mo. 
ShHMmpiir (Serampore). — The 
hMdqnaiters of Wie snb-diviBioii of 
the same name is situated on the 
W. bank of the Englf, oppaute 
Barraokpilr, in N. lat. 22° W 30", 
E. long. Sa° 23' 30", and has 24,440 
inhabitants. B&bA BhoUndth Chan- 
dta, in his " Travels of a Eindil," 
p. 6, says, " Serampore is a anng little 
Q exceeding ele- 



The range of houses along 
side mokes np a ga; aud briUiaat 
picture. The streets are as brightly 
clean as the walks in. a garden, but 
time was when Berampore had a busy 
trade, and 22 ships cleared from this 
small port in 3 months." It is only 
13 m. ^nt Calcutta, and is a favourite 
resort of people whose boainess lies in 
that city. But its chief claim to his- 
torical notice arises from its haying 
been the scene of the Apostolic labours 
of Carey, Marshman, and Ward. The 
seal nnd snccesses of the Baptist mis- 
sionaries of Serampore, at the be^n- 
ningof this century, form the brightest 
epiade in Evangelistic efforts ■- 
Lldia. Serampore was formerly 
Danish settlement, and was On 
called Fi«dericksnsgar. In 1846, 
treaty vras made ^'ith the King of 
Denmark ; all the Dauish posBesaions 
in India, namely, Tranquebar, Frede- 
ricksn agar, and a small piece of gronod 
at BAleahwar (Balasore), were trar - 
ferred to the E, I. Co. for £125,000. 

The traveller will drive first to the 
old Danish church, over the facade of 
which is "M.DCCC.V." It is aO ft. 
long and 34 ft. broad. Itcastl8,600rB., 
of which 1 ,000 were given by the Mar- 
qnis Wellealey. The communion table 
is to the W. The church spate 77 per- 
sons. There are 6 tahlebi, of wtiich 
one is to William Carey, D.D,, bom at 



The neit visit vrill be to the Col- 
lege, which is a very handsome build- 
ing on the banks of the Hugll, and 
commanding a fine view across the 
river, over Banackpiir Park. The 
porch is gigantic, the roof being sup- 
ported by 6 pillars 60 ft, high. On 
the ground floor is the Lecture Boom, 
and in the fioor above the Great Hall, 
which is 103 ft. 7 iu. long, and 66 ft. 
broad. On the right ia ttie Library, 
where are tbe following portraits : 1 , 
Madame Grand, byZofiany ; she after- 
wards married Talleyrand (see Hdme. 
de Rfiinusat's " Memoirs ") j 2, Dr. 
Harshman, by Zoffany ; 3, Frederick 
VL of Denmark ; 4, Frederick's wife, 
Qaeen of Denmark ; 6, cop; of a, 
Madonna, by itaphael; 6. fiev. W. 
Ward, by Penny. The library con- 
tains some curious Sanskrit and Thi- 
betan manuscripts, and an acconnt of 
the Apostles, drawn np by the Jesuits, 
for Akbar. In the College compound 
ia the house in which Carey, Marsh- 
man, and Ward lived, and a liu^e 
mansion, now inhabited by the prin- 
cipal of the College ; and before reach- 
ing the College you pass the Mission 
Chapel, and the old or Baadrick's 
Hotel, once famous for pic-nics of 
people from Calcutta, bnt now a pri- 
vate dwelling. Also the new hotel, 
well sitnated on the banks of the 



i. p. 307, correctly Chandana^ar, 
" City of Sandal-wood," but rauier 
rhapi, Chandranagai ; "MoonTown" ) 
in S. lat ar 61' 40", and B. long. 



Sect. II. HoiUe 11, — Chandranoffor (Chundernagore). 



88* 24' yy. Tbe Ttencb. nuide ft let- 
tlcment here in 1673, and in the time ol 
Dapleiz more than 2000 brick houses 
were built in the town, and a consi- 
denble (xade wks carried on. lu 1767, 
the town was bombarded by the Eng- 
lish fleet onder Admiial Watson, and 
cuptored ; he, however, died on the 
16th of August in that year, haTing 
taken Chaudranaf;^ on the 23rd of 
Uarcfa. The fortifications were demo- 
lUbed, but in 1763 the town was te- 
sUrred to the French. In 1791 it was 
again captured by the English, and 
held till 1816, when it was again re- 
stored to the French, and has re- 
mained in theii posBesBLon eier eince. 
The Bailway Station is just ontdda 
the French boundary. It was in- 
tended at first to carry the line closer 
to Chandranaf^ itself, bat: difficul- 
tiea arising with the French GoTem- 
ment, it was eTentoally resolved that 
. it should pass over ground indisput- 
ably English. 

The old fort, 80 yds. W, of the 
river, which waa taken by Clive and 
Watson, was a sq. of 130 yds,, de- 
fended by 100 pieces of cannon. On 
March 14th Clive attacked it from the 
cover of the houses to the S., and tbiee 
English men-of-war sailed up the 
river, but were detained by vessels 
sunt by the French to block the 
channel ; but a French oCBcer poinKd 
ont the passage to the English, and 
their ships attacked the fort on the 
23rd. The traitor Bubeeqaeiitly hanged 
himself, when bis old father in France 
rejected some money he had sent him. 
While the English ships bomtiarded 
the fort, fighting went on in the town 
from the tops of the hooscs. " For 3 
hours nothing was heard but au inces- 
sant roll of artillery and musketry, the 
crashijig of timbers or masonry, the 
shouts and cheen of the combatants, 
and the Bhrieks and groans of the 
nnnded. After 3 hours' cannonadi 



when the French guns had been aU 
dismounted by the fire of the ships, 
the fort surrendered to Admiral Wat- 
son. The property captured was valued 
at 13 Ukhs."^ 

Chandntnagar receives from the 
Eogluti 800 eUests of opiust on 



dition that the inhabitants do not 
^ ge in the mannfacture of that 
article. N, ot the fort is the Cemetery, 

A church stands on the bank of the 
, built by Italian missionaries in 
A.D. Between Chandranagar and 
Chinsurah is Biderra, where the Eng- 
lish obtained a decieive victory over 
the Dntch. The English commander 
was aware that bis nation and thfi 
Dutch were at peace, and wrote to 
Clive for an older in council to fight. 
Clive was playing cards, and wrote 
in pencil : " Dear Forde 6ght them 
to-day, and I will send yon an order 
to - morrow. — TAurtJay, llth, 1.30 
PA" 



db,Googlc 



' Suaea at Bto- . 



' Triahbieh 

dooBh) 
Balnrlii (BoLn- 



168 B<tute l2.~nuffR to 3lnrihid<a>tid {MoorBhedalad). Sect II. 

', to have been built bj Mulnnd Deo, the 
laat independent King of Orissa, whoie 
dominions extended np to this spo^ 
The Bev. Mr. Ixmg, in an article in 
the "CBlcutta Review," wrilCB: Tri- 
benl ma one of the four aani^' or 
places famoos Iot Hiodti leomuig ; 
' the otheiB are, Nadi;A, Sh&ntitiiir, and 
Qntip&Ti. Tribenl -wM formerlj noted 
tor ita trade. Pliny mentione thatthe 
ships asiembllng near the God&vHil 
sailed from thence to Cape PallnuniB, 
thence to TentigalS opposite Falti, 
thence to Tribenl, and Isstlj to PatDa. 
Ptolemy also notices Tribenl. For- 
merlj there were over 30 (il* ox Sans- 
krit BchoolB in the town. The famous 
pandU, Jagann&th TaTkopanohAnam, 
the Sanstrit tutor of Sir William 
Jones, was a native of this village, and 
in the time of Lord Comwallis be 
took an active part in the publication 
of the Hindi! Laws. 

8, of Tribenl stands a famous mosqne 
containing the tomb of ga's'S^^' 
It was once a Hindi temple. Zafar 
was the uncle of ShAh Safi, and was 
killed in a. battle fought with lUbji 
Bhndea. Zafar's son conquered the 
Rijft of Hugll, and married his dai^h- 
ter, who is buried within the precinct* 
of the temple ; and at Mu^ammadan 
festivals the Hindt^ make offerii^ at 
her tomb. Professor Blochmann thus 
describes the masque and tomb 
("Jonr, Beng. As. Soc.," vol. xxxix., 
parti., p. 2S2); "TheAst&nah consists 
of 2 inclosures ; the Ist, which hes 
near the rood leading along the bank 
of the Engll, is built of large basalt 
stones, said to have been taken from a 
Hindi! temple, destrojed bf SJafar 
Kh&n. Its E. wall, which faces the 
river, shows traces of Hindil idols, and 
fixed in it at a height of 6 ft. from the 
ground is a piece of iron, said to be 
the handle of gafar EhAn's battle- 
aie. The 2nd inclosure, joined to the 
W. wall of the 1st, is of sandstone, 
llie keeper of the Ast^ah points out 
the W. tomb as that of Zafar Khftn, 
and says the other three are those 
of his 2 sons and the wife of Bar 
Khin, bis 3rd son. 20 yds. to the W. 
of the 2Bd inclosure are the mins 
of a mosqne, boilt with the tmta- 



« B oktlgirb (3iik- : 

7 B a^wtin 
K anu Junction 
Gnshkhan 

(Onoshkuali> 
Bulpiir (Bhul- 

A^mndpi^ (Ah- 

— jthB (CjTl- 
theeit) 

I [Minpt'r mt 

■ Nulhitl (Nul. 
battee) 

At Magra the traveller should, if 

Eoesible, stop a few hoois. There is a 
ridge here over a channel through 
which the D^modar Bjver, now flow- 
ing 20 m. to the W.. formerly found a 
passage to the Hngli Elver at Naya 
Sex&l, viA Sallm^b&d. The channel 
is now called the E^anadi or " blind 
river," because it is obstniel«d by 
sand. A high embankment mns here 
B. to W., which, centuries ago, was a 
royal road leading to Tribenl, 3 m. 
distant, on the banks of the Hngli, 
celebrated as a place of pilgrimage, 
where the Bh^rathi or Hugli, the 
Soraswati, and the Yamnni, an im- 
portant river of NadivA, are supposed 
to unite. There ia here a splendid 
Qh^t, or Sight of stone steps, said 



Sect. IL Route 12, — Pdndua^-Memari — Bardwdn. 



rials of a Hiodti temple. The low 
imealt pillars Bupportioe the arehes 
are nnaBnallj thick, and the domes 
are built of suooeeaive rings ol nia- 
Boniy, the diameter of each layer 
being somewhat lesa than that of the 
layer below, the whole being capped 
byacircular stone covoring the email 
remaining aperture. Two of the domes 
are broken ; on the W. wall there 
several inscriptions. According to the 
Arabic verses written about the prin- 
cipal ird^rib, the mosque was built by 
^nn Miitiammad ^afar K^ki 
it called a Turk, in ah. e98, i . . . 
1298. The ground round about the 
moaque is vei^ uneven ; several br 
salt pillars lie about, and there ar 
foundationa of several atructures s 
also a few tombs, which are said to b 
the rcsting-plaeea of former khMims. 

PAitdaa. — At tliis station, too, the 
traveller may make a stop. 'B&bix 
Bholtlnith Chandra, in his "Traycls 
of a Hindii," vol. i., p. 141 ; eays, 
ancient times P^ndua was the se 
a Hindfi R&jA, and fortified by a wall 
and trench 6 m. in circumference. It 
is now only a small rural village, but 
traces of its ancient fortiScationa are 
jet diseernible. The tower, 120 It. 
high, arrests the eye from a long way 
off. This is said to be the oldest build, 
ing in Lower Bengal, and it has de- 
fied the stonna of a tropical climate 
through 6 centuries," It is 1 m.from 
the station, and is well worth a visit 
for the Tiew to be obtained from its 
nuntnit. An iron rod runs up to tlie 
t<^, which the pilgrims, who come in 
January, say was the walking -sticlt of 
Sh4h $atl, who defeated the Hindis 
here in a great battle in 1340 A.T>. It 
is said that the Bjtjfl of P^udua gave 
a great feast on the birth of an heir. 
One of his officers, a Muslim, who was 
his Persian translator, gave a feast at 
the same time, and kuled a cow to 
sapply his guests with the flesh, and 
buried the bones, but they were dug 
up at night by jackals. In the morn- 
ing the whole population, on discover- 
ing that a cow had been killed, rose 
en maiue, and slew the Eijft's child. 
They then were about to kill the Mus- 
lim, but lie fled to KhU, and the Em- 



peror despatched an army against the 
Hiji. War raged for years, but ended 
in the complete overthrow of the 
Hindils by eh4h $afi. The Bev. Mr. 
Long, iu ttfl " Calcutta Eeview," tells 
the same story, eicept that he says 
that the Muslim who killed the cow 
was celebrating the birth of his own 
child. A fine mosque near the tower 
200 ft long, with eo domes, which re- 
verberate sound lite the " Whispering 
Qallery" of St. Paul's, contains a 
platform on which 8h4h Safl used to 
sit. A little west of the village is a 
tank called Plr Pokar ; a faVlr resides 
near it, and when he calls out Fat^ 
Khin, a large alligator comes to the 
surface. The tank was probably dug 
500 years ago, and is in places 40 ft. 

Maiiari. — The station here is close 
to the crossing of the Grand Trank 
Road, and near the site of the T. B., 
should the toaveller be inclined to 
stop. A few m. further on the line 
approaches the D&modar River, which 
rises in the hills of R&mgaih, and 
drains 7200 sq. m. In the rains as 
mach water falls into it as would fill 
a channel 20 ft. deep and 2 m. wide. 
The bed of the D4modar ia 50 ft, 
above the high-water mark of the 
Hugll, and much above the level of 
the adjacent country. In 1823, the 
Dftmodar flowed through the town of 
Bardwin to the depth of 4 ft., and 
formed a sheet of water 6 m. broad 
the country. Many people were 
drowned, and only a few were saved, 
floating down the river on the roofe of 
their booses. 

Bardirda (prop. Bardhwin). — The 
landscape approaching this to wn is very 
fine. Within amilc of it anobleviflduct 
of 280 arches is passed over, and this 
work cost £20,000. To the left is seen 
the steeple of a neat church, built by 
the Hev. J. J. Weisbrecht, at a cost of 
10,000 rs. A noble avenue of trees 
lines the embankment. Bardw&n, 
(called in Kindii books, Kusnnl- 
pilr, or the " City of flowers ") is the 
capital of a division containft^ 
12,719 sq. m. ; the pop. exceeds 7} 
millions, giving an average of 673 
penons to the sq, m. The £. dlstrlots 



170 Boutf 12.— Svgli to MursUddhdd {Moonhedahad). Sect. II. 



are the most densely populated coiin- 
trj' in the whole world. la Bardw&n 
itself there are G78 personB to the sq. 
m.,butuiHugliito less than 1045. The 
dtTJBion contains the foUowing dis- 
trintB : Blrbhiim, Bankniah, Baidw^, 
Uidoapiir, and Uuglf . There is a good 
railway refreahment-rooni and also the 
National Hotel. At U m. from the 
station is the palace of the Uah&rdj& 
of Bardwin, the richest zamfiid^ in 
Bengal. His estate is 73 m. long aud 
40 to. broad, and pays to Goyernment 
a rental of £420,000. His palace and 
gronnds arc opcc eiaj dajiio visitors, 
and he has a biulding where those 
whom he inrites are hospitably enter- 
tained. The pulaco is 2 stories high, 
with 3-8toried towera at the 4 comers. 
There is a sq . garden in front and small 
buildings all round for relations and 
friends. The Menagerie in thegrounds 
is a great attraction. Bardw&n was 
once the residence of 6h&h J^hfb, and 
sustained a siege from the Mug^uls 
in 1621, and was in 1743 the camp 
of 120.000 Mardlhas. In 1695 the 
Ktiglish factors received from Bard- 
wdn the lease of the ground on which 
Calcutta now standa. 

Kanu Jiinclinn. 8 m. from Bardwin, 
is the place where the loop line to Rttj- 
nmljal branches off. The journey from 
Nalhiti to 'aJjimgauj is notorioTtaly 
oncomfortable. The gauge is 2 ft., but 
the train shakes fearfully. Ist class 
carriages have no lavatories, and the 
stations along the line are dirty little 
villages, where there are no bai^l^, 
and no accommodation of any kind. 
Bat this is not all ; the E. L Bailwa; 
train arrives at 10.1 P.U., and Uie State 
Railway caiTiages start at 6 A.M. 
Ibereis nobedroomatNalhiitf,sothat 
you mast sleep in the railway carriage 
if you can ^t permission to do so. 
The discomfort is so great, that an ill- 
ness may prebably be incurred. There 
is indeed a ^dmamin, and if he can 
be found, which is extremely doubtful, 
a cup of tea may begot fori Amis, and 
a bit of bread. The Indiana themselves 
say, " this is not a railway, but only 
wretched tramw^." It is absolutely 
necessary that Gavemment should 
ordei a good iefceshmeut>taom and 2 



sleeping-rooms to be opened at Nal- 
h&tl, and that tiie Mi^tf^"^ should 
be instnicted to look out for traveUers, 
and to render them every assistance 
on pain of losing his place. Then at 
gd^ardigi, half way to 'A^jjimganj, a 
comfortable T. B. should be built, and 
a ihimamdn appointed to provide re- 
freshment for travellers. At 'Ajim- 
ganj also, there ought to beaT. B.,and 
a covered boat should be provided to 
carry passengers across the OanEea, 
and a T. 6. should be built on the Unr- 
shid&bM aide of that river, where 
carnages eoold be ^x>caied for going 
to Murshid&bM. Then, indeed, the 
joomey might be made with modJerate 
comfort. As it is, the Government 
have done almost nothing, and the 
SimAh N^im of Morshid^bM has 
done lere than nothing. Many princes, 
for instance the Mahtofijft of Bhart- 
piir, supply European travellers for 
one da; at least with food and lodg- 
ing free of expense ; but the Nilw&b of 
Murshid&bdd overlooks the traveller 
altogether. It is also to be observed, 
that the Nalh&ti line is managed with 
such extraordinary carelessness, that 
complnints are rife of the train being ' 
stopped to allow some official con- 
nected with it to get down and shoot 
ducks or deer. The following are the 



bK'S 



'A'zimganj is a neat town, with 
several good houses of Jain merehantB, 
of which sect a number of families 
came from Jaipiir and B^jpi^ttdni 
many yeara ago. On entering the 
town from Nalh4tlj there ia on the left 
a neat villa belonging to Bablo BAbA, 
In-Bskili fati there ia also a good 



Soot. II. SffiOe \%—Tafar 6anj Cemttery—Khah h 



hoDBS beloDgii^t to K&ln Shrlmall, and 
the hoaaes of the brothers Bigh;! 
Chand D^id&Tiya and Eandho Singh 
DodAhya are iaTge and handsome. 
One room in the station, on the right 
aa yon arriTe from Nalh&ti, ie fitted 
up tor the accommodatioii of traTellen, 
and thereisa^&ns&m&n. The Bi^hi- 
ntthl is here 700 ft. bioad, and risea 
in the mng 25 ft., when the current 
runs 7 m. an hour. The only boats 
procurable hare no coTering, and in 
the burning Bun, or in the rains, it may 
be imagined what the traveller has to 
snficr, more particuhiriy as the die- 
tAnce from the Qh&t °^ ^^ river's side 
to the refreshment room ia j of a m. 
at leaat. From the Qh&t on the far 
(dde to the palace where tbc Political 
Agent in charge of the Niiw&b's aSairs 

Cemetery ofj'afar tfan/.— The first 
thing to be seen is the Aiu^ammadan 
cemetery. It is about a mile to the N. 
of the palace of Hurshid^bAd. This 
cemete^ is in some respects the moat 
remarkable place of the kind in all 
India. Opposite the gate of theccme- 
tery, and on the other side of the road, 
is a handsome mosque. The person in 
charge of the cemetery, which coyors 
several acres, bos a plan which shows 
all the tombs. These are very well 
kept, and almost every Inch of ground 
ia occapied. The furthest tomb at 
the E. end is that of Gauharu'n nis4 
Bigam, who was the daughter of 
Na$iru'l mulk, and died in her ISth 
year. The date 'is A.H. 1185, and the 
epitaph is in well-written Persian 
verae. At the E. end arc also the 
following tombs ; — 1, Baijid Ahmad 
Najafl ; 2, Muhammad 'All Ehlul ; 
3, NOwib J'afar 'All Khin ; 4, Ismiill 
'All Khin, son-in-law of J'afar 'All ; 
B, NiiwAb Niitoiu'd daulah ; fi. Nil- 
w4b Nawiiish 'All Kh4n, Bon of J'ofar 
'All i 7, Nilwib Bftbar Jang : 8, Nil- 
w4b 'Alt Jih ; 9, Nriwib 'Ali J4h ; 
10, Niiwfth Wilft Jah; 11, NilwAb 
HnmAyiin J^. There are 77 KfLils 
or Scripture readers at this cemetery, 
who read the Kar'An in 3 portions, 
so that every 3rd day the whole 
Knr'in is read through. They get 
bom 1 IB, to 6 18. a month, accord- 



in 

ing to their ability. This, then, ia the 
cemetery of the NilwAbs N&iim ap- 
pointed by the English, After seeing 
the J'afar Ganj, the trayeller will crosi 
the BAghirathi and go to the Boshan 
B&gh cemetery, which is on the W. 
side of the river, about a raile to the 
S.W. of the place where you land. 
There ie a fine view of the i^acc and 
tha ImAmb^Lmh from the W. bank of 
the river. 

JtoiAaji B&j/^. — In this cemetery, 
which is a pretty, well shaded garden, 
there is a platform i ft. high, on which 
is a masoniy building 3B fL oj 20 ft., 
with 3 doora in front. This building 
was conatructed by the English to 
replace a much larger and handsomer 
one which had fallen to decay. Over 
the centre door is a Persian distich, 
which says that tihuj&'u 'd daolah 
became an inhabitant of the highest 
heaven on Tuesday, the 13th ot Zi'- 
l^ajj in llGl A.H., hut according to 
another account wouldseem 10 belO£9. 
In the N.W. comer of the garden ia a 
mosque, which memBorea 36 ft. from 
N. to 8., and 18 ft. from B. to W. It 
has a Persian inscription which gives 
thedatcA-H. llSfi. ShuJS'u'd daulah 
was the son-in-law of Murshld Kiili 
Khdn, and succeeded him. 

Khuih B&j^.—lha bavcUer will 
now proceed nearly 2 m. to the S.W., 
to a cemetery enctoGed by Lutfu'n 
niE& Bigam, widow of Sir4iu 'd daulah. 
It is surrounded by a solid brick walL 
At the W. endis a moaqne of masonry, 
measuring 66 ft from N. to S., and 
2B ft. from E, to W. The mausolenm 
is 30 yds. oft. It is CB ft. sq. In the 
centre is the tcnnb of 'Ali Vardl Kh4n, 
and to the W. are those of Biriju'd 
daulah, and beside it, to the E., that 
of his brother. These tomha are almost 
level with the ground, and are covered 
with chadari o£ gold embroidery. In 
returning from this cemetery tho tra- 
Teller will pass the river oppoaite the 
Lil B&g^, which ia an official residence, 
close to the landing-place on the oppo- 
site side. Here tberiver is lined with 
a curious palisade of stakea, on which 
la a footway, hj which the boatmen 
can pass along the stream tm a con- 
I siderable di«tanc& 



1T2 Hoiile \%—Bngli to Mun!iida>dd {^Moordied^Mid). Sect. II. 



MurtMdAb&d, Palace of (he Xiixib. 
— Tha chief object of attraction at 
Unrahiddbid ia the palace of tlic Nil- 
w4b Nfiiim, on the bank of the BhA^- 
rathl, on the W. side of the city, near 
the centre. It ia in the Italian style, 
and preferred by some to Qovemment 
House at Calcutta. The architect was 
GeneiU Macleod of the Beng. Eng. 
It WBi begun in 1827, and finished 
in 1837, at a coat of £167,000. It 
faces N.. and ia 425 ft, long, 200 ft. 
broad, and 80 ft. high. In front 37 
immensely broad stepa lead tip to the 
portico. In the entrance room is a 
picture of the Niiw&b Nijim and 
ti«neral Macleod consultiQg aa to build- 
ing the palace. The Banqueting Room 
ia on the lat floor. At ita,E, end is a 
very good picture by the well-ltnown 
artiat Lewis, representii^ the Niiwiib 
N4|^m interviewing the Agent Torrens. 
The Banqueting Room ia 191 ft. 1 in. 
long, and 5* ft, 9 in. broad, but loses 
something of its apparent size by being 
partly divided into 3 by doors. These 
ought to be made to Elide into the wall, 
or be removed altogether, Bcreena being 
used when it ia wiahed to divide the 
room. In Dr. Hnnter'a account (voL 
is... Beng Stat. Ace. p. 66), there are 
aouiu inaccaracies. It is said that the 
lianqueting Hall ia 290 ft. long, which 
would be 90 ft, longer than the whole 
breadth of the palace, TMb ia prob- 
ably a typographical error; He saya 
also that in the centre of the building 
is a dome, from which hangs a vast 
and most superb chandelier of 160 
branches, presented to the Nflwib 
by the Queen, but an official who has 
lived in Murahid&b&I 37 years states 
that be saw the chandelier put up, and 
knows that it waa boaght by the Nii- 
wftb Humiyiln Jib at Osier's. It hums 
110, not 160, candles. The Darbir, or 
Thr«ne ^loom, adjoins the Banqueting 
Boom, and is circnlar, and U2J ft. 
high, but from its shape seems much 
higher. At the W. end of the Banquet- 
ing Boom is a picture of the Burial of 
Sir John Moore, painted by Marshall 
for the corps to which Sir John be- 
longed. It was rejected, and sent out 
to India, and eiWbitcd in Hudson's 
Htndio at Calcutta. The NHw&b is 



amd to have bought it for 10,000 is. 
The floor of this room is of marble, and 
the mirrored partitions of which Dr. 
Hunter speaks, have been removed, as 

In the Throne fioom is, or vraa, 
a beautiful ivory throne with painted 
and gilded flowers, a specimen of 
the perfection of that ivory work 
for which Mursbid&b^ ia famous. 
The portraits of HumiyilJi Jfth, the 
present Nitwilb's father, and those of 
the Agents, except Mr. Caulfield, of 
the Dlw&n and of General Macleod, who 
was not Agent, though his son-in-law. 
Colonel Pemberton, was, are by Hud- 
son, The picture of the present Nil- 
wAb, in the N- Dining Room, and of 
his 2 sons, and the 2 pictures of 
children in the N, bedroom above, are 
by Hutchinson, a planter and amateur 
painter. In the Drawing Room at the 
W. end of the palace are portraits of 
Sir Herbert Maddock and Marquis 
Wellesley, at the B. end of the room. 
At the N, end of the room are portraits 
of Qneen Victoria, William IV., and 
the Earl of Manster, the 2 last Bent 
out by King William to the Ndwftb, 
In the Dining Room at the W. end of 
the palace ate portraits of the Nilwfib 
HApm, his Diw^, lUjA Krishna 
N4rd,yin R4o, and Colonel Macgregor, 
On the N. side of the room are W414 
Kadr, and 'All Kadr, sons of the pre- 
sent Nilw4b, 'All being the elder. Oil 
the S, side arc Mr. Caulfield and 
General Macleod, General Colin Mac- 
kenzie and his wife, and Hum&yiin 
J^. In the bedroom at the S. end 
are likenesses of Amir gAljlb, and 
tili&a ; on the 5. side the brothera 
'AH Kadr and W&IA Kadr, and at the 
W, end the 3 sons of the present Nii- 

The Ball Boom is exactly above 
the Banqueting Room, aad on tha 
nest ftoor, and is of the same siie, but 
with a wooden floor instead of the 
marble pavement of the Banqueting 
Room. There are many other pictures, 
marble tables, and other valuables. 
The Armoury is quito worthy of a visit, 
imd the jewels are remarkably fine. 
Altogether the palace is the finest 
modem building of the kind in India, 



Sect II. £ouuU.—Murthi4dbM{Moor»he<Ma(I)taPl(Uieir. 173 



and the views from it over the river, 
the lin^bdiah and tho Zen&na, are 
very beauttCnl, It is strange that with 
60 noble a reddence tlie Niiwdb Bhonltl 
have preferred (« live in a range of low, 
small bnildinga to the E., while hig 
mother resides in a barge. To tlie N. 
of the palace is an Im&mb£Lrah, built 
in 1817, according toan inscription on 
it, which, translated, signifies " the 
Grove of Karbali," which in Persipm 
represents the date 1281 A.H.=18i7 
A.D. It occupies the site of a still 
finer building erected bv SirAju 'd 
daolah, in which, sccording to the 
Tirim-i-Mansiirl (Blochnmnu's trans- 
lation, pp. 97 to 103), was a piece of 
ground about 5 ft. 6 in. deep, filled 
■with earth brought from the holy 
KarbaU,nearBajLdfid, Tho building 
had 2 stories, and was richly dccc^^ated, 
but accidentallj burnt during a display 
of fireworks about 1840 a.d. Bejond 
the palace, on the road to Barhampib-, 
is a fine range of coach houses and 
stables. It is to be regretted that 
traveUers who wish to visit the palace 
should have to encounter many diffl- 
cultiea. There is no T. B. nor hotel at 
HuTshidAbdd. The traveller is, and 
must be, wholly dependent on the 
English anthorities tor lodging, food, 
uid comfort. 

, The Givat ffun The only remain- 
ing sight is (hat of the Great Gun, 
which is 3 m. due E. of the L^ B^, 
the last J m. being over a country roail, 
where are at present deep, muddy 
swamps, impassable, except in a very 
light dog^cart. The Gun is at a place 
called the Ka^ra, and is GO yds. oS 
the road to the right. This is the 
sister gun to that at DhdJiah, It Is 
171 ft- I'^iB- "if^ 8 girth of 5 ft. at 
the breach. The diameter of the touch- 
hole is 1 J in. ; of the muzzle, 1 ft. 10 in. ; 
ofthe orifice, 6 in. The eitraordinary 
thing is that this gun, which had been 
left lying on the ground for many 
years, has been lifted up 6 ft. in the 
air by a vast tree which grew up from 
a seedling beside it, so that the gun 
pew into the trunk, and has formed 
a groove there. The inscription 
Persian, which translated is, " In the 
time of the Qovemment of tho just 



and beneficent Islim gh&n, a cloud 
dropping mercy, by whom the vast 
Kingdom of Bengal was brought into 
order, and at whose door Fortune sat 
like a slave of low degiee, this dragon- 
mouthed cannon was made at Jah4nglr-. 
nagar, otherwise pbdkah, when Bhlr 
Muljammad was D4ro^ah, on the 11th 
of JumAda'ss4nI,intheyearl047A.H." 
The pop. of the city of Murshid&bad 
is 46,182, according to the Census of 
1872. There is nothing remarkahlc to 
be seen in the town itself. A gentle- 
man acting for the S. Kensington 
Museum, is said to have been in treaty 
for this gun, which, if moved from its 
present position resting on the tree, 
wotild lose its value as a cariosity. 



ROUTE 13. 

III^ItBHII>i.BiD TO BABHAUFUB AKD 
PALASHt OR PLASSBY. 

Sarlmmpiir is a town of 27,110 
inhabitants, and is the civil head- 
quarters of the district, and was up to 
1875 the residence of the Commis- 
sioner of the Rajsh^l division. In 
the " Stat. Aoc, of Bengal," vul.ix.,p.7C, 
it is said,'' the town of Barhampiir is 
said to be so called from a Musalm&n 
named Branmilr.an officer of the army 
of an early t- ilwAb." In this sentence 
are several palpable errors. It may 
well be doubted whether there was 
ever an Indian named Brampdr, and 
that he should have been a Muslim is 
an absurd statement. The name should 
properly be written Buhmapiir, al- 
though it is a fact that it has now 
been contraeled into Barbampi^ ia 



174 Boute \3.^Mtir3fnd£)dd (Moonktdahad) te Plaisei/. Sect II 

shidAb^. s JMl ot mndd; tank a m. 
long called Mutl Jhll, in which are a 
good many alligatoTB. Mutl Jhll ia 
said to mean " lake ol pearls," in 
whicli case it would be more propsrlj 
written Motl Jhil. There used lo be 
near it a palace built by Sirijn 'd 
daolab at a gn^nt expense. Some of 
the materials were brought from the 
ruins of (Jaar- The English Political 
Sesident at MurahidAbftd lived at this 
place until 1785 a.d., when the English 
headquarters were traneferredtoMai- 
dap&r and then to Barhampilr. At 
3 m. S. of Murshidibftd, to the left of 
the road to Barhampiii, is a magnificent 
avenofe of deodar trees, extending from 
2 to 3 m., the treea beingfrom lOft. to 
IS ft. apart. They resemble mango 
trees, but have a narrower and more 
twisted leaf. This arenne leads to 
MaidApiir, the old cItjI station now 
abandoned. To the N.E. of Mutl Jhll 
ia the Katri, where there is the tomb 
of HnnhidKuli^in, who changed the 
name of M^iisib^ to Murshid&b^. 
and fixed his seat of QoTernment there 
ia 170* A.D. The Katri is said to have 
been built after the model of the Mosque 
at Makka (Mecca). There ie aa old 
English cemetery at KAsim BAzir, of 
some interest. It is 3in.totheN.W.of 
Barrack Square, and as it ia generally 
kept looked it wiO be necessary to 
procure the key beforehand. On en- 
tering there are 2 tombs, without 
tablets, and then one to John Peach, 
senior Magistrate, who died in 1790 
A.D., and one to Joseph Bonrdien, a 
factor of Oie B. L Co., who died in the 
year. Then cornea after 5 tombs 
minouB state and without 
tablets, one to the wife o£ Lt.-Colonel 
John Mallj«ks, bnt her own name ia 
written Mattock. She died on the 4th 
of October, 1788, and is here declared 
to he the graud'daughter of the great 
John Hamden(jic), Esq., of 8C. Jamea', 
Westminster. As the lady was only 
27, it is evidently impossible that ahe 
could be a grand-daughter of the 
famons Hampien who was killed at 
the skirmish of Chalgrove Field in 
Oxfordshire, on June 24th, 1643. Not 
far fnim this tomb, in a sort of pent 
house, with a triangular picoe of mar 



DrdA. It is in fact a kindred word 
the name of the well-known riv 
which Bhottld be Brahmaputra. After 
the battle of Plaesey, properly PalAshI, 
as the factory-house atK^mB4z&rhad 
been destroyed by t^ir^ju'd daulah, and 
the fortifications dismantled in the pre- 
vious year, the Barhampir plain was 
chosen in October, 1767, as the site 
for barracks. The barracks took two 
years in building, and were not com- 
pleted til! 17157, for they were not 
b^an till some time after it had been 
decided to build them. They cost 
£302,270, and 3 officers were suspended 
for over-charges. The author of the 
Slyar-i'Mutaakharin, writing in 1788, 
says, " the barracks of Barhampiir are 
the finest and healthiest that any na- 
tion can boast of. They cont^n 2 
regiments of Europeans, 7 or S of 
Sip4his, and 15 or Ifi cannons." " The 
cantonments of Barhampdr," says the 
" Stat. Aoc of Beng.," vol. ix., p, 77, 
'* will always be notorious as the 
scene of the first overt act of mutiny 
in 1S67." The accoont will be found 
in Kaye's" Sepoy War,"3rded., pp.4a6 
to SOS. Suffice it to say that there were 
no European troops at the station or 
any where near it^ There was a regi- 
ment of N.I., the 19th, with a corps of 
Irregular cavalry and a battery manned 
by native gunners. On the IStb of 
February, 1867, a detachment of the 
34th N.I., a notoriously disloyal regi- 
ment, reached Barhampiir from Bar- 
rackpdr, and told the 19th what was 
said about the greased cartridges, and 
on the 25th of February the 19th re- 



■e thfti 



which they were marched down to 
Baj-rackptir and disbanded. 

Thetownofi:<innii(il;iiristotheW. 
of Barhampiir, The whole distance 
from Murshid^bid is 7 m,, and is done 
easily in an hour, the rood being a 
good one. It is usual to change horacs 
iaifway. It should be mentioned 
that Barhampiir is a place famed for 
its washermen. There are none at 
Hurshid&b^, and the E uropeas ge atry 
there send all their things to Barham- 
ptlT to be washed. Between Barhampiir 
and Murehidftbdd, the traveller will 
pass to the right, at 2 m. 8. of Uur- 



Jtmte U.—Murihiddbdd—Pal<Ui. 



175 



T1i[b Honament was «vct«d 



With reference to this tablet it mnst 
be not«d that Warren Hastings vnts 
one of the first to fill the office of Po- 
litical BesidentntMurshidAbid. There 
ia also a tablet to Mr. Lyon Praged, 
diamond Inerchant and inspector of 
ind^ and drugs for the K. I. Oo., 
who died on the 12tli of May, 17a3. 

Thence the traveller may go to the 
Dutch Cemetery, which is i^ a mile to , 
the W. of the EngUah. In driving to i 
it, pass a very fioe hoose, belonging to \ 
ft child, who is a ward of the Collector. 
TheDatchCemeterycontains*3lombs, I 
of which only 4 are inscribed. The 1st 
is over 10 ft. high, being a pyramid, 
31 ft. 6 in. high, on a base measariiig 
16 ft. by nj ft., and E ft. 6 in. high. 
ItiBinacrihe(l"Tameni£ Canter Viacher 
of Pinjum, in Frieshmd," who died on 
the 31st of January, 1772. Another 
U inscribed "HattbiaaAmoldus Brake, 
whodiedonthelBtofSeptember,1773;" 
it is also in scribed" Johanna Petrovoila 
Van Bni^n, who died on the 4th of 
September, 1772," The 3rd is a noble 
mausoleum, built of brick and iron, i 
storeys high, and reachii^ an altitude 
of 42 ft. There is first a, cbomhcr, open, 
with 4 open arches, each arch having 
on either side 2 Corinthian pillars, 
sothat there are 16 pillarsin all. The 
2nd story has 12 arches, with a cir- 
cular window aboveeaoh. It,Bl8o, haa 
16 pillars. The 3rd story is the dome, 
and the 4th a small cylindrical build- 
ing, with a cupola. There is no in- 
scription. There are other tombs in a 
very ruioooB state. A pillar, 20 ft. 
h^h and massive, is on the point of 
filing, and when it does fall will < 
knook down an adjoining handsome ' 



tomb with 12 pillars. The new ceme- 
tery at Barhampiir is j a mile to the 
N.E. of Barrack Sqnare. It is one of 
the best kept in India. Here are said 
tobcintcrred(see"Stat.Acc.of Beng.," 
vol. ix., p. 77), George Thomas, the 
famous Irish adventnrer, who made for 
himself a principality in Rjtjpiltinli, 
which he failed to keep ; Creighton, the 
eiplorer of Gaar, and the hero of Mrs. 
Sherwood's well-known tale " Little 
Hemy and his Bearer." The great 
Squaraformed by the barracks is called 
Cantonment Square or Barrack Square. 
The T. B. ia at the S.B. corner, and is 
but a poor place. In the middle of 
the W. side is the Mission Chapel, 
dated 182S. K&sim Biiziv is a long 
narrow town, with some good houses 
of rich natives. 

J'aldH <,Plai»cy), called from PalAs, 
the Butea frondota tree, is 36 tn. by 
rood 6. of KAsim B&zic. It is a very 
bad hard road, and 3 carriages most be 
hired to make the journey. Each 
carriage will be charged for 2 days, 
and the eipense will be from 20 to 
25 ra. A Mr. Malcolm has a good 
house near the spot where the battle 
was fought. The distance by river is 
36 m., and in the cold season it would 
take 3 days to go and return by water, 
dive's position is marked byamonnd 
close to the ri^er, on which he placed 
his guns. There was a grove of mango 
trees, but the last fell some years ago, 
and has been eaten by white aats. 1 1 
appears from old maps that at the 
time of the battle the Bh^ratlil 
flowed more to the West, where, in 
fact, an old channel can be clearly 
traced. Apart from its historical in- 
terest, the battle-field of Pal4ahIoffers 
considerable attractions to a man fond 
of spoit. There is capital snipe- 
shooting in and about it, and florican 
aic generally to be met with. There 
is also admirable ground for a gallop, 
and plenty of wild hogs, foxes, aitd 
hares to gallop after. 



db,Googlc 



ROUTE 14. 

HTTBaHIslBAD TO KiJUAHAI.. 

The foUowlag nre the stations on 

the Bast Indiaa Railwa; from Nal- 



176 EmtUli.—Murshid^iddiMoonJiedaJxKt) to RdJmaAa!. Sect. II. 

I general, retorned from the eonqnest of 
I Orissa in 1592 A.D., he made it the 
seat of hia government, and changed 
its name to RAjmahal, He also bepm 
to build ft palaoe and a Hindi! Temple, 
but Fatlj Jang, the Governor of Bili4r, 
who wiu riaiding at Rijmal^al, wrote 
to Akbar that M&n Singh was bnilding 
an idolfttniaa temple. In order U> ee> 
cape tiiu results of this accosation, 
M^Ti Singh tamed the temple into a 
mosqne, and changed the name of the 
town to Akbamagar. In 1607, laUm 
Kh^ transferrin the seat of govern- 
ment to pbllkah. but it was i^ain 
brought to R&jma^nl b? BiiltAn Shuj&' 
in 1639. In the beginning of the next 
century, Mnrsbid Kali KhAn tranB- 
terred the govemmentto MurBhidibAd, 
and B&jmaljal went to decay, but its 
min wag greatly accelerated by an 
event which happened in 1863. In 
1859 the loop line of Railway was 
opened, and in that year an arm of 
the Ganges rau close to Bijmaljal, so 
that Btesmers and vessels of all sizes 
could approach that place, bnt in I8SR 
the river abandoned its channel and 
Clias Sni 5 iai Vii ~ ' " ' '^^ * "''*"' °' sandbank, and only a 



lii 


N.mMof8ti.tiQn«. 


Time. 


1 


Nalhda .... 
Mur*ro((Mot™n»). . . 

^SwlrtSkom-) . ' . '. 




1^ 


SSw"-"^" . : 




g; 



« rrom VaMiM to RAjmatal is : 



The traveller will retam from Mur- 
shid4bAd to NalhfLti, and start thence 
to B^jniabal, ^ong the loop line. 

RiAmafyal district, with the snb- 
divieion of PAknr, vi a sub-district of 
the B&nt^l rarganahe, spelt in the 
Bei^al CetJBOS of 1872, Sonthal, in 
which it appears to have a total pop. 
of 190,890. The town of HAjoialjal 
stands on the W. or right bank of the 
Ganges, in N, lat. 25° 2' 25" and K. 
long. 87° 52' 51". As this place was 
once the capilal of Bengal, and has 
many historical associations, it is de- 
serving of a visit, and also because the 
traveller will have an opportunity of 
seeing the remarkable tribe of iSActils. 
It may be added that M&ldah is only 
18 in. to the E,, and that if arrange- 
ments could be made to reach it, flie 
traveller would Had himself in the 
midst of » country where tiger-shooting 
is plentif uL 

RAjma^al up to 1592 a.d. was 
known as J^ma1^41, but when BAja 
H4n Singh, AkW's famoos lUjpAt 



comparatively 


mall stream, so that 




lie main strea 


m, and could be ap- 
mers only during the 


proaohed by stei 



At Tin Pahdr, the line turns off 
to the E,, forming a branch line to 
BAjmahat. The station at lUjma^al 
is a very handsome one, and was 
opened in 1869 by Lord Canning. 
Iroops duriog the Mutiny came to 
RAjmahal by train, and were for- 
wai'dci to the N,W. Provinces by 
water, and it thios became requisite to 
carry on tie B. I. Railway to Dihli. 
After the rains of 1880 the river re- 
tnmed to ita former clianneL 

lUjviahal. ~0n the opposite side 
of the road from the station, is the 
Collector's Office, and other public 
buildings. The Collector's house is 
about t of a m. from these to the B.E., 
and to the B. of it again, at a dis- 
tance of 200 yds., runs the Ganges. 
The T. B. is on the other side of the 
road from the Collector's house. In 
the " BtAt Ace. of Bengal," vol. liv.. 



Sect. ir. 



Soute 14. — Rdjmahal. 



177 



a verj long extract is given from Dr. 
BncliBitan HaniilU)!!, containing a de- 
scription of B&jmeljRl in Ms time, 
which is DOW altogether inapplicable. 
The firut thio^ to be Tiaited ii the 
Kachhari, or Collector's Office, close 
to the station, wbicb is a fine building. 
Immediately adjoioing this, to Ihc 
N.E. ia the old cemetery, in which 
are 11 tombs, bnt only three have in- 
scriptions, and they are not of im- 
portance. A few yds. N. of the 
cemetery ig a building called the 
Bangi dA14n, " hall of stone." It is 
1004 ft. long from N. to S., and has 3 
doors of black basalt in the centre. 
In Montgomery Uartin'a " Eastern 
India," voL it. p. 70, this is said to 
have been part of the palace of Snlt&n 
ShDJ4', son of JohAn^, and governor 
of Bihir. He first resided at Gau]', 
bnt moved to B4jmal>al, and inhabited 
this palace. Many of its stones have 
been used to bnild palaces for the 
NAw4bs of MuiBhid&b&d. Martin 
^ves a plan of the building. There 
are some people still living who say 
they can remember the great gateway 
of which he speaks, but all has now 
disappeared, except a part of the 
central building, which may have 
been the Sangl dll&n. There are also 
some large fragments of masonry, 
which may bnve belonged to the well 

After viewing this ruin, the travel- 
ler may drive to the New Cemetery, 
half a mile to the W. by N. of the 
Kachharl. It is a field of three acres 
with some fine trees, but there are only 
twelve tombs with insoripiions, and 
none of them of much inffircst. The 
Maina Tank ivill next be visited, which 
is J of a m. due W. of the Kachharl. 
It is full of weeds. At its S. end is a 
massive brick building, witJi an Arabic 
inscription in the Tu(*ri character, 
loo high up to be readT At 100 yds. 
to the 8. is the Maina Mosque, which 
measures SI ft,, from N. to S. and 28 
ft. from B. to W. At the lowest part, 
where the wait has been soraewhat 
broken down, the height is 22 ft, 9 in. 
There is an inscription at the 6.W. 
end, bat the large st^ne on which it 
ia engraved is put sideways, so that 
[ienyflt— 1831.] 



it cannot be read. These buildings 
appear to be very old. The tomb of 
Mirftn, eldest son of Mir J'afar, who 
caused the assassination of Sir^ju 'd 
daulah, when he was brought back 
to Murshid^bAd, after being captured 
near Rijmabai, is said to be ia the 
town, and it may have been at the time 
when Dr. Bnchaaan Hamilton wrote. 
There is only one other place to 
be visifed, and that ia the Jladaf, 
which is 4 m, to the N.W.' The 
traveller will prolmbly go in a pilkl, 
and will require 12 bearers, to be paid 
at 2 4n&s per naan. The road leads 
through a forest of toll trees, vrith 
ruined buildings at intervals. At 1^ 
m. it passes a solid brick building on 
the right hand, called the Taka^, or 
Mint. The walla are 6J ft. thick. 
After an hour's travelling, the pilki 
wiU turn ofl the road to the left, and 
pass through a thick low jungle, 
smelling sweetly of the ehampi tree, 
the delicate white Erona, an<l other 
flowering shrubs, for about 200 yds., 
when the mins will be reached. The 
entrance is by the E. gateway, which 
is much injured. The traveller then 
finds himeelf in a quadrangle, the N. 
and S. sides of which are 180 ft. long. 
At the W. side is a mosque, the facade 
of which is 200 ft. long, and forms the 
top aide of the quadrangle, while theE. 
w;e is of the same length. To tho 
aid of the battlement of the mosque 
is 34 ft. 10 in., the battlement itself 
being 3 ft. 10 in. There are 7 arches 
in the facade, each 23 ft. high, and 
fi'om the apes of each to the bottom 
of Uie battlement is 9 ft. In the 
centre of the quadrangle is a ^<auz, or 
reservoir for water, with 5 steps on t 
sides down to the water. The peoplo 
of the place call it a well, which it 
probably is, but it is so choked with 
grass and shruba that it ia impossible 
to decide. On tlie whole this la a fine 
building, bat now much ruined and 
covered with giu^le. 



b,Googlc 



Eoule 15. — Rajmahal to BMgalpiiT. 



Sect. II. 



BOUTE 15. 

BiJUAHAL TO BHiGALPltlL 

The traveller will liave to return to 
Tin Pab&r, and then contmae Ma 



H 


»■.«.«.. 


Time. 


I 


HaJiiT^pAr' . ' . ' . '. 


4.67 


FirpXti 

Bliigdpiit .... 


1 



There li s reftHhment: room st Skbllitiiui]. 
The bre tiret class ^m Tin Faliir to 
BhAgslpir ia S n. 11 As. ftp. 

The ooQDtiy oil the way is coTered 
with Tast herds of cattle, ^^ibganj 
t large place, vrith a ^ne 1ai^ 
"'"""" ""3 church, which it veiy 
conspicuouB. 

BhagalpuT is situatefl on tlie rieht 
or S. bank of the Oan^B, in N, lat. 
26° 15', E. long. 87° ff 2". It is a 
capital of the district of the eame 
name, which contains 1,826,290 boiJs, 
and has an area of 426S sq. m. The 
pop. of the town, ilaelf is 69,678. 
When the E. L Co. assumed the Be- 
venuD AdminiatratioD of Bei^al, Bh&- 
galpiir formed the E. district of the 
division of Mungsr, and lay entirely 
tj> the S. of the Ganges \ escept the 
Fai^nah of Ghhfii, the eiact bounda- 
ries towards the S. and W. cannot 
now be determined, as tha inroads of 
the aboriginal tribes rendered it un- 
settled. InDecember, 1777,andJanti. 
ary, 1778, H villageg were plundered 
and burned by the maraudets underfiiip 



Nir4yan Deo, Zamind^r of Chandw&, 
In 1779 Mr. Cleveland became CoU 
lector, and successfully attempted the 
pacification of Uie hill tribes. In 
1791 an attempt waa made to natu- 
ralLie Virj^ian tobacco, and the first 
indigo factory was opened by Mr. QIaij, 
civil surgeon in Bh&galpi^, in 1793. 

The luouumentB to Mr. Cleve- 
land will, of course, first attract llis 
attention of the traveUer. The T. R 
is I of a m. from the chnrch, and 2 m. 
N.E. of the Bailway Station. After 
locatjug himself, the traveller will 
drive to the Old Mess Eooae, which 
occnpies the finest site of any such 
building in India. It is 2} m. to the 
N, of the river, and is sitaated on a 
hill, aaoended by 60 stepik The build- 
ing has a centre-piece, two storiea 
high, and 3 long wings, projecting 
forwards from the centre. The Mess 
HoQse is now inhabited by RAmesh- 
wor Singh, brother of the B&jA of 
Darbhanga. There is a magnificent 
view from it. Between the entrance- 
gate and the hill is a monument to 
Mr. Cleveland. The base, with the 
cuttings, is a rectangle, and meaaores 
19 ft. 2 in. from N. to S. and 23 ft. 
from E. to W. Thei% are 1 steps, 
then the base with an urn on the top, 
16 ft in all. The inscription is as 
follows : — 

To the Memory of 

AUQUBTUS CLEVELAND, Esq., 

LiteColleetotofthe 

Districts of BluieilpilF aiid IU]nial?iil, 
Who, without bloixtiheii or the 



TiLeir predatorr Ldi 
Inspired thsin nith a taste foi 
ArtaofclviliiallifB, 
Aud attached th — ■-'■■-- "-^'■' -■- -^ - 



Mode of dominion. 

rha QoveTDOT-Qeneial and Caunell of Beogal, 

la honour of his character aad for an 

Example to othen, 

Have ordered this Sioiiumeut to be erected. 

13th day of January, 17M. 



Sect 11. 



Roate 15. — Bhdgaip&r. 



It is soiTonndcJ vritli n roil of 
iron, S ft. !iic;h. About } a m. 8. 
of the McB9 Hoose is the Cemetery, 
where it is melancbolj' to see a 
roiT of lofty obelisks, all to the 
children of Kir Frederick and Lady 
Hamilton, 6 of whom died here. 
There are lOS insoriptfons, and many 
tombs without any. One tomb, con- 
sistint; of a base Ifl ft. high and an 
obolisk, in all 38 ft., is to Georj^ 
Elliot, Esq. Mr, John Qlaa, who was 
B2 years surgeon to this Station, and 
to the Coips of Hill Hangers, and who 
introduced the growing of tobacco, is 
bnried here. His epitaph truly anys 
that he was looked up to by the na- 
tives SB their father. His daughters, 
Mrs. Mary Shaw and Mrs. Davies, lie 
beside him ; one aged 81, the other 
87. One of the oldest tombs is that 
of John Barry, in the Civil Service, 
who died the 28tb of October, 1779. 
In the same Year died Aleiander Dow, 
Lt.-Colonel in the E. I. Co.'s service. 
The chorch, Christ Church, may neit 
bG visited, centrically eitnated in the 
civil lines. It measures 81 ft. 10 in. by 
Ul ft,, and con seat 2O0 persons. It has 
S pointfid arches, and a stained gloss 
window at the B. end. The entrance 
is by B fine portico on the W, There 
are only 3 tablets inside, one to Mr. 
St. George, resident engineer of the B. 
I. Railway, who was drowned on the 
ith of OctJibor, 18S9, while crossing a 
Hooded valley between KolgAon and 
Plrpointi. 

The nutive monument to Aogustns 
Cleveland is a m. to the B. of the 
chmch, beyond the school, which 
Is a long lai^ white building on 
the left. The monument resembles 
a Hindi) Pagoda, and is codIcoI and 
SO ft high, surrounded by » masonry 
verandnh. It stands in a compound 
of about % of an acre in extent, which 
has a handsome railing on the N. and 
B. sides. A lamp is kept always 
burning in the monument. There is 
a Persian inscription over the door, 
which, owing to smears of whitcwaab 
and wear, is hardly legible The at- 
tcnilants have a copy of this inicrjp' 
tion .on paper, but have torn oS the 
top. The inscription says that Mr, 



179 

Cleveland died on the 13th of Jannary, 
corresponding to the 22nd of the 
Hiadil month Posh, nnd the 9th of 
§afar, in the year of the Fosll, 1191. 
The employ^ of the Kaehharl and the 
Zaminddrs, of their own free will, 
erected this Memorial in remembrance 
of benefits oonferred upon them, to 
perpetuate the recollection of his ami- 
able manners. On the Race Course, 
which is not far from this Memorial, 
is a monument to a number of offlcera 
and soldiers who died here of cholera. 
Bhdgalpiir is a good head.quarferB 
for the sportsman, the fene being veiy 
nnmerons, bat they are ptincicEdly to 
be found in the N. district of N4thpilr. 
'''l■^l■e are 2 kinds of bears, who are 
dangerous unless attacked. They 
live on ants, beetles, trait, honey, and 
the petals of the Mahu&. Colonel 
Tickell gives a cnrioiis account of the 
power of suction possessed by this 
animaL On arriving at an ant-hill 
the bear scrapes with his fore-feet 
until he reaches the largo combs at 
the bottom of the galleries. He then, 
with violent puifs, dissipates the dust 
and ancka out the inhabitants of the 
comb with inhalatioos of such force 
as to ho heard 200 yds. off. Lai^e 
larvie are in this way sucked out from 
preat depths nnder the sod. The 
hog.badger, or hliM-nr, is found in 
this region. This animal can walk 
erect on his hind-feet. The badger 
{.Uellirora indka) keeps to the 
hills, and is about 3 ft. long. The 
Indian otter, or v'd, is trained here 
for fishing purposes. Its success va 
killing and bringiog up a fish G times 
its own size is trnly remarkable. The 
tiger is found among the high grass 
jungles in NAthpiir. It is also not 
uncommon in the hills, and nuraei'ous 
at Gaur, near Mildah, which is due 
E. The large tiger-cat {fhlU viver- 
riiui) is found in the thick jungles: 
It has been known to carry off young 
children and calves. The leopard^iat 
^lUh Bengalciuu) is also found, but 
is not so large or powerful. There 
arc several species of wild cats of a 
smaller size, as the Katilt. or com- 
mon tree-cat, called Toddy cat by 
Enropeans, from its well-established 
N 2 



180 



Route 16. — S^jmahal to Gaur. 



Sect. II. 



habit of driukiu^ the juice of the 
p*lme. Harea are yery nomerons, u 
are wild hog. The swamp deer is 
met witfi, and is as high as It hands. 
The fimbar {Riua ATutotelu) ie 
also foimd, and is a taller and heavier 
animal. The epotted deer and hog 
deer are common. The barking deer 
( Cert iiliieavrevi) Enpplieflthe best veni- 
son. I'he antelope {Antilepa £esoar- 
tica) is common, and there are a few 
fonr-horned antelopes. Wild buffaloes 
and rhinoceroses are occasionallT seen. 
Wild geese, wild dnck, teal, and rock 
paeons, snipe, qoail, ortolan ; black, 
painted, grey, and double-spurred par- 
tridges are plentiful 



ROUTE 18. 
bIjuahal to maldah and oacr. 
The distance in a direct line from 
KiljmB^al to MMdah is 16 m., but 2 
l-ivers have to be crossed, the Ganges, 
on the ri^ht bank of which B&jmahsl 
is situated, and ilie Mah4nandA, on 
the left hapk of which MMdnh is 
built. The ferries over these rivers 
pay very well, and are in good order. 
The road from M&ldah to K^mnl^al, 
orratber from English fi&zAr, is 16 m. 
long, eiclusivc of the rivers. By writ- 
ing to tie Magistrate at MAldah a week 
baoreband a palkl and hearers can be 
sent to BAjuu^^al. The cost is 16 ra. 
for the joomej, which is 24 m. inclu- 
sive of crossing the Ganges in the 
pilki on tlie fen; boat. The Magis- 



trate'i permission should be obtained 

previously to occupy the UAldah cir- 
cuit house, which is a comforiable 
building, beingfanushedand provided 
with bKlding, linen , crockeij, cooking 
utensils nnd all requisites, in charge of 
a resident Bcrvant. At least one tcr- 
vaiit who could cook and take charge 
of baggage should be sent on before 
with the knits or covered cart con- 
taining the baggage. Horses and ctr- 
riagea cannot he hired. The traveller 
must bring his wine, soda water, 
tobacco, tinned meats and biscuits, 
none of which can be got The 
distance from M&ldoh to Gaur is about 
II m. as the crow flies. From UUdah 
to Kimasar&l on the other bank of tlia 
Mah&oandA is 1 m., and thence ti> 
Ei^ltsh BixIkV between 2 and .t m., 
and thence to Oaur about 8} m.* 

Mildah is at the conflnence of the 
K^indri with the Hahfbandil in N. 
lat. as- 2! 36", and E. long. BS" Iff Dl". 
It is an admirable position for river 
traffic, and probably rose to prosperity^ 
na tbe port of me Mubammiulan 
capital of Fa^^uali. During the laiit 
century it was the seat of thriving 
cotton and silk manufactures, and the 
E^nch and Dnleh bad factories at il. 
The English factory, however, was 
always at English BAz&r, lower down 
the Mahinandi, and on the oppusite 
bank of the river. In 1873 the 
popuLition was 6,763. The traveller 
must apply to the Civil authorities at 
HMdah for advice and npsiatance. 
In Mr. Bavensbaw's work will be Eeen 
viewf of MlUdah fort gate, and of 
the S. gale of tbe city, but neither of 
them are remarkable enough to re- 
quire any notice here. Tbe same 
work gives a view of the outer wall 
of tbe Golden Uosque of M&ldah, 
which is the finest rnin there. The 
ingoription over the door gives tbe 
date of its construction as 971 



mnat Important Ui»t the 
ohlalna copy of "Giu;; i 
•oiptiobi," tFj the tat« J. 






^iouM 



' mar thoniDgUT Im 



Sect. II. 



Route 16, — Oawr, 



181 



JLH, = 1666 A.D. It was built by 
a merchant named M's^dm. The 
ruins of Ganf and Pnndnah, succeseiTe 
cnpitala of Bengal, are north a visit. 
" Both these cities are almogt level 
wil4i the ground, and are overgrown 
with dense jungle ; but the ruins that 
remain, though difficult end indeed 
dangeroaa of acceas, reveal sufficient 
tracea of their former magnificence." 
OoHf was the metropolis of Bengal, 
under its Hindd Kings. Ita most 
anaent name was Xakhnauti, a 
corruption of LakBhinandwatL But 
the name of Oaur, also, is of primeval 
antiquity. Its real history begins 
with its conquest* m 1204 AD,, hy 
the Muslims, who made it the chief 
centre of their power in Bengal for 
more than 3 centuries. When the 
Afghto Kings of Bengal became in- 
dependent, they made Pagdaah beyond 
the Uahdnandlk their capital, and for 
building purposes there, robbed Qanr 
of all the material that could be re- 
moved. Bcnce the ruins of Panduah 
ate full of atones sculptured by 
HindAs, while there are none Bncb in 
Qanr, When Panduah was in its turn 
dest^tcd Qauf again became the capi- 
tal, and was called Januatihlid, 
" terrestrial priradise," which name 
occurs in tha tiln i Atbarl. DAdd 
Khin was the last of the Af^^iin 
Kings, and his State was absorbed intn 
Akbar's Empire in 1673 AJ>. Akbar's 
Oeneral Muna'im Kh4n occupied 
during the rains the already decaying 
city of Qaur. In 1675 a dreadful 
pestilence broke out, to which Muni'im 
himself fell a victim. The city wan 
depopulated, and the government was 
trmi^errcd to It&jma(ial. Dr. 
Buchanan Hamilton, hovfcver, abso- 
lutely denies this story of the 
pestilence. Certain it is, however, 
that tigers, rock pythons, pelicans and 
alligators are now the chief inhabi- 
taote of Oaur. In 1801, Mr. H. 
Orichton, an indigo planter, explored 
(he ruins, and made a number of 
drawings. In 1816, Dr. Buchanan 
Hamilton visited this spoC, and in the 
same year Major W. ITtancklin also 
* Blochnisnr nj^ri lioa ».ii. ; Mr. ThomH, 
1302; MiJar lUTCrt^-, llOt. 



visited this place. His journal is still 
in Ma., in the Survey Department of 
the India Office, which ought long 
since to have published it. 

The dimensions of the city proper, 
within the great continuous embank- 
ment, are 7J m. from N. to S., and 1 to 2 
m. broad. The W. side vras washed by 
the Ganges, which flowed where the 
channel of the Little Bh4girathl now 
is. The B. side was protected by the 
UahAnandA, and by swamps. On the 
8. the MiUiAnandi joined the Gaines, 
and left little space for an enemy to 
encamp. On the N. a fortification 6 
m. long, extends in an irregular curve 
from the old channel of the Bh&girathl 
at Son^tala, to near the Mah&Bandi 
and Bholabit. This rampart is 100 
ft. wide at base. At the N.E. part of 
the curve is a gat«, protected by a 
strong outwork in the form of » 
quadrant, through which a high em- 
hanked load passes N. and B. In this 
outwork is the tomb of a Mnljam- 
madan saint. Near the N.E. cofne^ 
at the confluence of the Kalindrl and 
the Mah&nandA, are the rnins of a 
Slinar. N. of the rampart are the 
ruins of the palace of BaUl Sen, an 
early Hindd king. Behind the 
rampart lay the N. suburb of the city, 
in which is the most celebrated piece 
of artificial water in Bengal, oilled 
the S4gar Dighi or Digl, 1,600 yds. long 
fromN.loS.ibyeOObroad. SigarDighi 
dates from 1126 A.D, The water is 
still pure and sweet. On the bank is 
the tomb of Makhdilm. From an 
Arabic inscription it appears that this 
is the tomb of M^hdilra Shekh A^I 
Sirdju 'd din, and it wss built by 
flusain Bh4h in 91G A.H. = I610 AJ). 
It must be understood that the names 
are those given to saints conven- 
tionally ; Akhl means " my brother," 
Bb&h a famous saint. Near the tomb 
is a small mosque, built by the son of 
pnsain Shdh in 941 A.H. ; both build- 
ings ai« endowed and kept in fair re- 
pair. Opposite this suburb is a QhiJ, 
called B'adu'Uihptlr, where is the 
Hindi! cremation gronnd. S. of this 
suburb lie the mine of the city, de- 
fended by a strong rampart and 
ditch. Towards the Mahinandi^ the 



182 



Sotde 16. — Kd^maJuA to Gaur'.' 



Sect. II. 



mmpart has been double, and in mogt 
parts there have been 2 immeriBe 
ditehea, and In places 3. Mr. Crichton 
found the outer embankment to be 
150 ft. thick. The part anB inclosed 
has an area of 13 sq. m., and the rnins 
shew that it was thickly inhabited. 

To the S. on the Bh&eiratbi was 
the ciladel, 1 m. long from M. to 
8., and from 600 to 800 yds. broad. 
The brick wall has been very strong, 
with many Sankiag angles^ and round 
baBtions at fte comers. Outside the 
H. entrance have been BeTernl fine 
gates or triumphal archcB. In the 
8.E, comer of the citadel was the 
palace, Burronndcd by a brick wall 
iOft. high, and aft, thick, with an 
ornamented cornice, A little N. of 
the palace are the royal tombs, where 
Qusain Sh&h and other Kinga were 
buried. Iq the citadel too are 2 
moaqnes, 1 in ruing. The smaller was 
built by 5uBaln Shllh, and ia kept in 
good repair by an endowment. This 
mosque is called the Kadam BasAL 
In Stewart's "Hist of Bengal" itissaid 
to h«Te been built by the son and 
Eraccessor of Busain Sh4h ; an inscrip- 
tion still perfect fiiea the date at A.h. 
937 = 1638 A.D. Just ontside the E. 
wall of the citadel is a lofty brick 
tower, which had a chamber with 4 
windows at the top, to which access 
was gained by n winding stair, known 
as Plr 'A^ MinAr. Mr, Fergnsaon, in 
his " Hist, of Arch.," p. 650, gives a 
woodcat of it, Dr, Hunter, in his 
" Btat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. Tii., p. E7, 
gays : " One of the most interesting of 
the antiqaities of the place is a 
MinAr. For jrdg of the height it is 
a polygon of 12 sides j above that 
circular until it attains the height of 
M ft. The door is at iome distance 
from the ground ; and altogether it 
looks more like an Irish round tower 
than any other example known, 
though it is most improbable that 
there should be any connection 
between tbe 2 forms." It is evidently 
a pillar of victory, a JayfL Stambha, 
such as the Kutb MinAr at Dihll. 
There is or was an inscription on this 
monument, which ascribed its erection 
to Flr&z Sh&h. In Mr. Bavenshaw's \ 



photoffraph this tower is round all the 
way np. The flight of atone steps 
remains, 73 in niunber. 

Mr. FergusBon also gives a woodcut 
of the Kadam Kasiil, and says of its 
Btyle : " it is neither like that of Dihll 
nor that nt Jawanpiir, nor any otlier 
style, but one purely local, uid not 
without considerable merit in itself ; 
its principal charactcriatic being 
heavy, sliort pillars of stone support- 
ing pointed arches, and vaults in brick. 
The solidity of the supports goes far to 
redeem the inherent weakness of brick 
architecture. It also presents, though 
in a very sabdned form, the curved 
linear form of the roof, which is so 
characteriBtic of the style. The 
Kadam Rasfll waa built by Nmjrat 
Shih, ill 937 A.H. = 1530 A.D. Mr. 
Ferguseon also mentions 2 very hand- 
some mosques in Oaur itself, the 
Golden and the B&rah DarwAzah, 
which however are one and the same, 
and the reason of the mosqoe being 
called BArah Darwiiah seems to \^ 
that there are 11 arches on either side 
of the corridor, and one at each end. 
About 1^ m, N. of the citadel is a 
space of 600 sq. yds., bounded by a 
rampart and ditch, known as the 
Flower Qatden. Between it and the 
citadel is the FiyAsw&ri, "Abode of 
Thirst," atank of had water, which is 
said to have been given to condemned 
criminals. Major Franklin deacnbea 
it as excellent water. Between the 
PiyllBw&ri and the citadel, and cloi» 
to ttaeN.E. comer of the citadel, is the 
great Golden Mosque, the grandest 
building in Qauf. It measures 180ft, 
from N. to S., 60 from B. to W., and is 
20 ft. high to the top of the cornice. 
Major Francklin thua describes the 
Golden Mosque : — 

"It is a building of a very ex- 
traordinary construction. Yon enter 
by an arched gateway of stone 26 ft. 
in height, and 6 ft. in breadth. After 
passing through some very thick jungle 
you approach Ihe building. 

" The Hosqne in form resembles an 
oblong square, and originally con- 
sisted of i sepaiste colonnades, arched 
and roofed over, and covered hj hand- 
some domes. In all 41 in number. 



Sect.IL 



JioiUe 16. — Gaw-^PanduaJi. 



183 



The front of the Mosque is ISO ft. in 

length, 40 ft. in height ; 11 arched 
doorways ctf solid stone, 10 ft. high by 
6fC. broad, afford a uoble entrance ; 
6 miiiBretii or coluuuu of bronn stone 
faced with black marble sdom. the 
bnildicg ; bands of blue marble about 
12 in. in breadth embrace the column 
from the base to the capital, and ere 
adorned with a profusion of flower- 
work carved in marble. The 4 aisles 
or cloisters which compose this magni- 
ficent building are of unequal di- 
mensionB, that on entering is the 
lariat. The arched doorways, l>oth 
within and on the outside, are faced 
with blade marble, but abore them 
the domes are built of brick. 

" The plinths of the ouler doorw.iys 
are each ornamented with 3 roses 
cnrred in stone. The arches are 
pointed, and may be defined to be of 
the Saracenic style of architecture — 
tbey resemble those of many of the 
old mosques at old Dibit, erected by 
Pa^hfin sovereigns of the Ghor and 
Lodl dynasties. The whole appear- 
ance of thia building is strikii^ly 
(trand, exhibiting the taste and muni- 
ficence of the Prince who erected it.' 

The corridor of the Golden Mosque il 
so latgc that one can ride throi^h il 
on an elephant, and so enter the 
DAkhil or " Salami Gate," the N. 
. entrance to the fort. Mr. Bavenshaw 
has given a view of this beautiful 
gate. It is bnitt of small red bricks, 
mid has been adorned with emtiossed 
bricks, which can still be seen on the 
towers at the 4 comers. The arch of 
the gateway is about 30 ft high, and 
forms a corridor 112 ft. lon^. The 
Lesser Golden Mcsque is in I'lnlzpflr. 
which Bacbaoan Hamilton says, " it 
one of the neatest pieces of aicbi' 
tectore in the whole place." Mr. 
Kavenshaw calls it the " gem of 
Oaur." It is built of hornblende, is 
oblong and has ID domes, supported 
by massive hornblende pillars. Ad 
inscription over the middle door says 
it was built by Wait Mubammad in 
the reign of ijusain Sh4h. The date 
has perished. A little to the N. of 
the Mosqne is a tank called the '^aks&l 
Dighi, or " Tank of the Mint." 



In the 8. wall of t2ie city is a fine 
central gate, called the Eotw^i 
Darwdzah ; it is 61 ft. high. S. from 
this gate stretches an immense suburb 

, faJ- as PnkhAriy&, a distance of T 
It was called Flnizpi^r. The 

mb of the saint Kii^mat iill&h is to 

Fandiiah is 20 m. N.B. from Oaur, 
id 6 m. N.E. from MWah. It was 
cslled by the Huilims Fir^iiiid. 
The first independent King of Bengal 
made it his capital. A road paved 
with brick, from 12 ft. to 16 ft. wide, 
through Paijduah. Almost all 
jnnments are on the bojdeis of 
this road. Near the middle is a bridge 
of 3 arches, the materials of which 
idently been brought from the 
Hindil temples at Gauf, aa figures of 
and animals are sculptured on 
tbem. On approaching the rains from 
the B., the first objects that attract 
attention are the sbrincs of Makhdtim 
Sh4b Jal&l, and bis grandson Ku^b 
' ■ 8h4h, which are endowed with 
aciea of land. The inscriptions 
ahowthat the buildings were erected or 
repaired in A.V. 1661, 1673, and 1682. 
To the N . stands a small mosque called 
the Golden, with granite walls and 10 
brick domes. An Arabic inscription 
says that it was built by M^ihdiini 
8hekh, son of Mul^ammad Al- 
Khilldi in A.H. 990. Another in- 
scription on the gateway, also in 
Arabic, says that the gateway was 
built by the same person, and gives a 
chronogram of its date, 993 A.H.= 
16S5 A.D. On the fai^e of the 
mosque an inscription says that it was 
bnilt by YCisuf Sh&h, eon of Sult&n 
Barbak, and has the date A.H. 8tt5, 
which seems difticnlt to reconcile with 
the other dates. N. of this mosque 
is another, called Eklakhi, as baring 
cost a l&kh. Buchanan Hamilton 
thinks it the handsomest building in 
the place. Tradition says that it is 
the tomb of Gb'^u 'd din II., and his 
2 sons. This is apparently the tomb 
referred to by General Cunningham, 
'■Arch. HepoTt," vol. iii., p. 11, as one of 
the finest examples of the BengSll 
tomb. Bavenshaw eajs it is 80 ft. sq., 
1 and covered by one dome, and that it 



Route 17. — BhdffatpUr to Munger (Monghyr). Sect. II, 



184 

contiune the lemains of ObMfa 'd 
dia, his wife aod his daughter-in-law. 
It ia completely covered with trees, 
which arc growing out ot it and will 
destroy it. 2 m. beyond it is Uie tomb 
of Sikimdar, father of Ghi^u 'd din, 
and the greatest of tlie monarchs who 
made Ponduah their capital. It 
forma part ot the great mosque, called 
the Adinah Maejid, which is by far 
the most celebrated building ' 
part of India. According i 
Fergusaon the ground plan and di- 
mensiouB are exactly similar to those 
of the great mosque at DamascuB. 
It extends 600 ft> from N. to S., and 
SOO ft. from B, to W. The B. side, 
whieti is entered by an insignificant 
door, is 600 ft. long, and 38 ft. wide 
between the walla. This space is sub- 
divided by tranB'erse brick walls and 
stone pillars into 1 27 sqa., each 
corered by a dome. The "S. and 8. 
aides are similarly divided, but have 
only 39 domes each. Ttie height of 
all three is about 20 ft., including a 
broad ornamental cornice. Tow^ds 
the qnadranglo they open inwards 
with arches which correspond to the 
squares. On the outside are many 
small windows, highly decorated with 
carved tilea disposed in arehea. The 
W. side of the building is composed 
of a central apartment, and the 
mosque proper in 2 wings. The 
mosqne is 62 ft. high in the centre 
from the floor to the middle of the 
dome, 64 ft. long from E. to W., and 
32 ft, from K. to S. The N. wing 
only diffeia in so far that it contains 
a raised platform for the King to 
warship on, called the BikdstuUi kA 
Ti^t. It is sDpported on thick 
columns, ia raised 6 ft. from the floor, 
and is 80 ft. long and 40 ft. wide. An 
inscription gives the date of the build- 
ing, 1367 A.D.* The only other ruin of 
note in Fanduah is the SatAlsgarh, 
said to have been the King's p^ace. 
It is situated oppositfl the Adinah 
Mosque, and is enveloped in the most 
dense jangle. 

• In Rsvensluiw'B ioolt the date \t riven 
Sth Bolfb, 770 A.H., w 
14f^ of Fabruaij, 1300 • 



Dwksa eqoi] 
WtUWnteld'B 



There are any nninber o( tigers and 

? anthers in and near Gaur and 
anduah, in Qie Barindra tract and 
the jungles B. ot them, but the English 
sportsman who desires to hunt them 
must take advice from experienced 
Kimroda who know the locality. 



ROUTE 17. 

BHlQALFliB TO HtTNGEB {UONQBTB). 

The stations along the E. I. Bailway, 
loop line, are as follows : — 



Bhigsipilr . . . 
BultJngsiij ■ . ■ ■ 
BurbiyApur (Burmrpore) 



Uunger (UOBIliiyr) . 






^— Then is B rsfresbine 
The fUe iBt class Is 3 i 



st 



the S. of the Station, and about 
j of a m. outside the S. gate of the 
fort of Munjrer, is Woodhrook House, 
ao hotel or lodgiag-house kept by Mra. 
Hooley, the widow of a panter. 
There are 6 comfortable bed-rooms, 
with bath-Toems attached, and the 
back of the boose looks on the Ganges. 
Persons are here lodged most comfort- 
ably at the veiy moderate charge of 
1 18. a day. There is sport to be bad 
not far off. The flist thing to be seen 



Scot II. 



Soutt 17. — Mun^er (Monghyr). 



is the hot spring o( beautiful pure 
water, cfttlert SUA E-unf, titoate about 
* ra. to the B. of Monger. The road 
pnases the Diflpeneary attcr about I of 
a m., and then tntTerses lor 1 m. the 
b&zix, and about 300 yds. E. of it 
crosaea the railway, and after another 
m. pnsica 2 very large inansions on 
hills Bbont 300 It. high. The let 
house is called Plr Pahirl, or " moun- 
tain saint." The 2nd is conspicuous 
by a high round tower. After another 
m. the village of Durgipiir is reached, 
abotlt i of a m. beyond which is a 
rising ground or rock, without a blade 
of grass or vegetation up m it. Al 
J_ of a ra. beyond this, iu a N.E. di 
tioD, is an inclosure on the right of 
the road, in which ia a tenipli 
Bitna, with a Sgnre of Hanumdn 
side. Inside the inclosure ar 
springs. The hot spring, or SitiK 
is reached by descending i steps, ■ 
about 14 in. high. There is an 
railing 6 ft. high round the water, 
which makes a pool S3 ft. 4 in. from 
K.B. to 6.W., and 30 ft. 8. by B. to N. 
by W. In the " Stat. Ace. of Beng.," 
Tol. XV., p. 76, the temperature of the 
wateriasaidtobelSO-— 138°, Thepool 
is from 6 to 20 ft. deep. The railing 









the gatherings at the festivala the 
throng was so great, that the people 
were pushed into the pool. The water 
is considered eioellont for drinking 
purposes, and is largely need iu 
making soda-water, for which Manger 
is celebrated, There are i other wells, 
in all of which the water is cold. 
They are called Rim, Lak^man, 
Bharato, and Shatangnan. The water 
is foul, probably from the numbers of 
people who wash in thorn, K the W. 
of A small temple which has the figure 
of Lakfhmau on it. The Haitbala 
Brihmana have the charge of this 
pUc«, and are citremely ignorant or 
nnconunanicative. They are, also, 
moot perserering beggars, and a mob 
of their sons is sure to follow the 
traTeller's carriage, with yociferous 
cries for money. It would be a very 
good thing if the authorities wonld 
put a stop to this nuisance. It shotlld 
be said that the surplns hot water from 



185 

Sits Kund cBcapps throngh a la^e 
drain to the B. into a field, in which 
many washerwomen are busily em- 
ployed. 

The next thing to be seen is the 
J/brt, which was once aateemed a place 
of great strength. It is surrounded 
by a moat, now dry, but from 50 to 80 
ft. broad. The wal! is 18 ft. high and 
8 ft. thick. Within is a raised plat- 
form 30 ft. high, on which is a good 
house. On this platform some think 
the palace was bmtt, others the citadel. 
The JaU is worth a visit. It is said to 
have been part of the palace, and is 
very solidly built of brick. The 
Go-down, or warehouse, has been a 
magazine, and the walls are 15 ft. 7 in, 
thick, Ou the 27th of March, 1881, 
there were 69 male prisoacrs, of whom 
3 were boys, and 14 women. The 
climate of Hunger is considered so 
good that prisoners arc sent from 
other prisons to this one, as a con- 
valasoent station. The age of some of 
the Europeans bnricd in the cemetery 
of Munger, may be considered as one 
proof of the eioellenee of the climate. 
The prisoners are employed in making 
carpels and cloths. There has been a 
subterraneous passage to the river, 
which wag no donbt used when the 
fort was garrisoned for a means of 
escape at the last extremity. There 
~ a similar subterraneous passage, but 
uch larger, in the house next to that 
. present occupied by the Magistrate. 
a.E. of the Jail at CO yds. distauce is 
le neat church of St. John. It has 
been coloured red, and is nearly all 
covered with a creeper. There are no 
tablets. The church is 53 fL 8 in. from 
W„ ajiid 24 ft. 10 in. from N. to 
S, It seats 60 persons. Iha OimeteTj/ 
is i a m. W. of the Jail. Among the 
tablets is one to Major-General James 
Murray Macgregor, who died Tth of 
December, 1H17. The following words 
form part of the epitaph : — ■ 
Oppreased at ' ' ' 




Soute l&.-^JU'unffer to Patna and SdnHpHr. Sect, II. 



186 

There is algo one to Willinio Grshame. 
who came to India as a private in the 
E. L Co.'b army in 17C6, and for his 
meriConona and gallant condnct was 
breveted ensign, and after retiring 
" ftom the active duties of his proles- 
don, creditably edacated Mb children 
and maintained his family, and accu- 
mulated a very considerable fortane." 
One also to Mrs. Rebecca Pamell mny 
be mentioned, who met her death by 
the upsetting of a boot on the 2nd of 
February, 1837, aged 16 years. The 
verses on her tomb, and also those on 
the tombs of Henry Page and Martha 
Bilson, arc veiy far superior to nearly 
all that can be found in Indian ceme- 
teries. One instance of longevity may 
be cited in the tablet to Eobert Rosa, 
1 sergeant, who died 2t)th 



of 






1857, 



10! 



Amongst the oldest tablets 
dated June 6th, 1769. The tablets 
mention several pcisona who died at 
ages from 70 to 90. 



The traveller must rettim to Jamil- 
piir from Mimger, and then proceed 
on the B, I. Bidlwa; to Uoumah. 



PI 



LtikhlunVi (Luckl«s-«nl)> . 



inklpar 



At Laihlsarfil is the jonction of the 
Chord and I-oop Line. The traveller 
has been taken along the Loop Line, 
near which are all the places of most 
inte'rest. There ia nothing that calls 
for Bpecinl notice on the Chord Line, 
exceptR&nlganj BQdDeogarh. Should 
the traveller desire to see these he 
must Tctum from Lalchlsar&l towards 
Calcutta on the Choid. Line. 

R&niganj is 121 m. from Calcutta, 
and is famous for its coal-mines. 
There arc here a T. B. and an hotel, 
called WiUiams' Hotel. The place 
has its name from the circumstance of 
the ground having been formerly the 
property of the lUni of Bardw^. 
The mines afford regular employment 
tor more than 1,000 men and women, 
chiefly of the Beauri tribe. The mines 
are reached by 140 steps, which lead 
130 ft. down to Rftlleriea 9 ft. high, 
supported by pillars of solid cotJ, 
IB ft, sq. and 16 ft. a{wiit. There are 
25 shafts which give occasional 
glimpses of light. A vast number of 
boatmen on the D&modar river are 
employed in carrying the ananal 
yield of coal, about 81,000 tons, to 
Calcutta. The cost of transit is about 
3fi &n6^ per 8U lbs. The coal is piled 
on the winks of the river, anil can be 
carried down only while the DSmodar 
is in flood. During the remainder of 
the year it is subject to deterioration, 
from exposure to the weather. The 

t The traveller Trill h»vB to wait 7 iKKn 



tn. 



Rmite 18. — I'dratndth Mountain— Dtogarh. 



187 



re ERid to have been, acciilentally 
red in 1820, bj Mr. Jonea,the 
architect of Bishop's College at Cal- 
cntts. The place was then infested 
with tigers and bears, but tbe jnngte 
has been cut down, and the bean and 
tigew have retreated to the ' hills. 
Above the mines are a stratnm of 
sandetone, and tliick beds of allnTinm. 
A walk of 3 m. by torchlight through 
the mines can be had. More tlian 30 
species of fossil plants, chiefly feme, 
have been found in the coal, of similar 
specieB to those in the yorkshire and 
Australian coaL The coal lies in the 
basin between the Dimodar and Ajl 
rivers, formed thousands of years Ago 
when the ocean rolled its waves at 
B4nigaD]. The mines extend under 
the bed of the Dimodar. The hills of . 
Chitna, BihArl N4th, and Paohete! 
look well from EAnlganj. The BiliSri 
N4th, only 12 m. off.ia 1200 ft. high, : 
and is easily accessible in a p&lki. 
There is good bear- shooting in the 
neighhoorbood. 

PAraan&th Maantaia. — An eicur- 
sion may he made from H&niganj to 
FAraenfLth, which Is less than TO m. 
distant, and is worthy of a visit, as 
being the B. metropolis of Jain wor- 
ship. According to tradition Pikms- 
nAth, who was the 23rd Tlrthankar of 
the Jains, was bom at BanAras, lived 
100 yesrs, and was buried on this 
mountain. The traveller will proceed 
by regular stages to Top Chonl, which 
is 62 m. from Uinlgaaj, and is near 
the base of Pirasn&th. There are 
T. B.'s at every 10 or 11 m. along the 
road, and one at Top Cfaoni, where a 
doU OT light palanquin can be had, 
with g bearers, to go to M^huband, 
at the K. side of the motmtain, the 
opposite side to that on which the 
Grand Trunk Boad runs. Here is a 
Jain convent on a table land, and 
bearers can be procured in abundance 
to take the traveller to the summit of 
the mountain in 2| hours. M^huband 
is 1230 ft. high, in a clearance of the 
forest, " and the appearance of the 
enow-white domes and bannerets of 
its temples, through the fine trees by 
which it is surrounded, ia very 
beautlfiiL" The asceat of the moun- 



tain is immediately from the village, 
up a pathway woru 1^ the feet of 
innumerable pilgrims from all parts 
of India. The path leads through 
woods of the common trees, with large 
clumps of bambii over slaty rocks of 
gneiss, much inclined and sloping away 
from the monntain. The view from a 
ridge 500 ft. abovethe village is superb. 
Ascending higher the path traverses a 
thick forest of t&l ( Vatcria, or Thorea, 
Tobutta),B.aA other trees spanned with 
cables o£ Bauhinia stems. At 3,000 ft. 
above the sea the vegetation becomes 
more luxuriant, and the conical hillH 
of the white ants disappear. At 3,LiOO 
ft elevation, the vegetation again 
changes, and the trees all become 
gnarled and scattered. The traveller 
emergea from the forest at Ibc foot of 
a great ridge of rocky peaks, stretch- 
ing E. and W. for 3 or 4 m. The 
saddle of the crest is 4,230 ft. high, 
and is marked by a small temple, one 
of 5 or 6 which occupy various promi- 
nences of the ridge. The view is 
beautiful. To the N. are ranges of 
low wooded bills, and the Barakah 
and Ajl rivers. To the S. is a flatter 
countiT, with lower ranges and the 
D&modar. The situation of the prin- 
cipal temple is very fine, below the 
saddle in a hollow facing the S., 
surrounded by groves of plantain and 
Picat indica. The temple ia small and 
contains little worthy of notice but 
the sculptured feet of Pirasn^th and 
some marble idols of Buddha — cross- 
legged figures, with crisp hair and 
the BiAhmanical Cortl. Bears are 
numerous round this spot. An excel- 
lent account of the place will be 
found in Sir J. Hooker's " Himalayan 
Janrnals," vol. i., pp. 16 to 25. 

Deogarh or BaidyanAtk. — Deogafh 
is the only municipality in the S&ntU 
Parganaha, and is situated in the 
B.W. part of the district, in N. lat, 
24° 29'43" and K. long. 86°44' 36", 4 m. 
to the B. of the Chord Line. The 
pop. is 1,861, exclusive of pilgrims. 
The principal object of interest is a 
group of temples, dedicated to Shiva, 
to which Hindd pilgrims come from 
all parts of India. The legend of the 
temples is (see Hunter's "Stat Ace. 



Route 18. — Mun^tr to Patna and BdnHpHr. Sect. II. 



of Beng.," vol, xiv.,p. 323) asfoUowa. 
" In the old time, thoy asy, a band of 
Br^hnutus settled on the banks of tlie 
bsaatiful bii;htaDd lake, beaidt; which 
the Holy City stands. Around them 
there was nothing but the forest 
and mountains, in which dwell the 
black races. The Br&hmans placed 
the symbol of their god Sira neat the 
lake, and did sacriSce to it ; but the 
black tribes would not Bacriflce 
but came, aa before, to the three great 
Btones which their fathers had 
riiippeiJ, and which arc to bo aet 
the western entrance of the Holy City 
to Hiis day. The BrfthTuans. moreoyi 
ploughed the land, and brought wat 
from the lake to nourish the Boi 
bat the hill-men hunted and fished 
of old, or tended their herds, while the 
women tilled little patches of Indian 
com. But in process of time the 
BrtLhmana, finding the land good, be- 
came slothful, giiiug- themMlTes up 
to luat, and seldom calling on their 
god BiTa. This the black tribes, who 
came to worship at the great atones, 

Baw and wondered at more and i 

till at last one of them, Baiju, a 
of a mighty arm, and rich in all 
of cattle, became wroth at the lies 
and wantounesa of the Br&hmaos, 
and rowed he would beat the symbol 
of their god Siva with hia club every 
day before tonching food. Thia he 
did, but one mormiig Ma cowa strayed 
inlA the forest, and after seeking 
. them all day, he came home hungry 
and weaiy, and having hastily bathed 
in the lake, aat down to supper. Juat 
as he stretched out hia hand to take 
his food, he called to mind his vow, 
and, worn out as he was, he got up, 
limped painfully to the Brahmana' 
idol, on the margin of the lake, and 
' beat it with his club. Then suddenly 
a splendid form, sparkling with jewels, 
rose from the waters and said : ' Behold 
the man who forgeta his hunger and 
his weariness to beat me, while my 

KlesCa Bleep with their concubines at 
me, and neither give me to eat nor 
to ddnk. Let him ask of me what he 
will, and it shall be given.' Baiju 
answered ; ' I atn strong of arm and 
rich ill cattle j I am a leader of m; 



people ; what want I more ? Thon 
art eaUed Nftth (Lord) ; let me too be 
called Lord, and let thy temple go 
by my name.' ' Amen,' replied the 
deity ; ' henceforth thon art not Baiju 
but B&ijiuAth, and my temple shall be 
called by thy name.'" "From that 
day," says Captain Sherwili, in hie 
"Survey and Beport of Blrbhiim," "the 
place rose into note ; merchants, R&j&a 
and Brahmana commenced building 
temples, each vieing with the other 
who would build the handsomest 
temple near the spot where Hah^eo 
had appeared to Baiju. Thefameofthe 
spot, its sanctity, all became noised 
abroad throughout the country, untU it 
gradually became a place of pil- 
grimage, at present beset by a band 
of harpies in the shape of Br&hmans, 
who remorselessly fleece all the poorer 
pilgrims, beg of the rich with much 
impunity, and lead the most dissolute 
and vagabond lives. 

" The group of temples, 22 in num- 
ber, is surrounded by a high wall 
enclosing an ei tensive court-yard, 
paved with Chun&r freestone ; this 
pavement, the offering of a rich 
Atiiz&pilr merchant, coat a 14kh of 
rupeoB, and serves to keep the court- 
yard in a atate of cleanliness that 
could not otherwise be the case. All 
the temples but 3 are dedicated to 
MahAdeo ; the remaining 3 are to 
Gauri PftrbatI, hia wife. The male 
and female templea are connected 
from the summit, Kalat, or highest 
pinnacle, with silken ro[>cs 40 or 60 
yds. in length, from which depend 
gaudily-coloured cloths, wreaths and 
garlands of flowers, and tinsel, the 
whole bstokcning the bands of mar- 
riage. At the W. entrance to the 
town of Deogarh, ia a masonry plat- 
form, about 6 ft, in height and 20 ft. 
sq,, supporting 3 huge monoliths of 
contorted gneiss rock of great beauty : 
3 are vertical, and the 3rd is mi 
upon the heads of the 2 uprights, as 
a horizontal beam. These massive 
stones are 12 ft, in length, each weigh- 
ing upwarda of 7 tons ; they are quadri- 
lateral, each face being 2 ft. 6 in., 
or 10 fL round each stone. The 
horisontal beam is retained in its 



Sect. 11. 



EouU ii.—£<inMptir. 



Br 



place bj mortjsc mid ' 
whom or when these pondi 
were erected no one knows. There ia 
a faint attempt at ecalpture at each end 
of tho vertical faces of the boriEontal 
beam, representinj; eitber elephants 
or crocodiles' heads. A few ancient 
BuddhiBt-looking idMrat gland near 
the monolithic group. " 

There ia a very tolemble T. B. at 
Bftnklpilr, and it will be more conve- 
nient to Btop there, nnd drive by car- 
riage to Patna, which is not a deeirable 
place for Europeans to alight at. The 
Htation at B&nkipiir, however, is bo far 
inconTcnient, that to lUach it one has 
to cross the line hj a. high bridge. The 
cabs, too, at this place cannot be 
praised. The T. B. is at 260 yds. from 
the station, on the IcfC-basd side of 
the road. The Ganges at B&nklpiii 
and Patna runs nearly E. and W., and 
along its S. bank for 14 m. extends 
the city of Patna and its aubarbs, 
Binklpi^r being its civil station. 

£d7ildpur. — On the way from the 

T. B. to the Oolah, in the compound 

of the Judge's house, which is on the 

left of the road, there is a tomb with 

tire following inscription ; — 

Hoia lye (lici Inlened 

lliBixidy nf 

JOBS L0WI8, 

t ProTlnoiil 



Conn. 



otSi 



bb of Beptemt 
Aged in yoBT 



The first building to visit, as being the 
nearest, is the Golak. which was bnilt 
for a granary in 1783, and has never 
been used for that purpose. It is 
426 ft. round at the biie, bnilt of 
masonry, with walla 12 ft. 2 in. in 
thickness, the interior diameter being 
109 ft. It is about 90 ft high, and 
willcontaia 137,000 tons. There ia a 
most wonderful echo inside. If the 
door ia closed violently, the thundering 
Bonnd ia perpetuated many times. The 
best place to hear the echo is to go 
into the middle of the building. A 
blow on a tin case there fiUs the air 
with a storm of sonnda, which can be 



otbe 

from every quarter with great violence. 
As a whispering gallery, there ia per- 
haps no auch building in tbe world. 
The faintest whisper at one end is 
heard most distinctly at the other. As 
a curiosity, if for no other reason, Iho 
building should be kept up. The 
ascent to the top is outside, by 148 
Ktops in one direction, and 144 in tha 
other. At the top is a platform 10 ft, 
9 in. round, whicli haa a atone with 3 
rings placwl in Uie centre. This stone 
can be lifted up b^ 3 men, and access 
obtained to the interior ; and sup- 
posing that the building was Gllral 
with grain, this of coorac would be 
very convenient, as persons might de- 
scend by a rope-ladder and remove 
such quantity of grain as was needed. 
It is said that Jang Bah^ur of Nlp^l 
rode up the steps ontside to the top of 
tha building, which, of coarse, would 
be possible, but eicessively dangerous. 
Each step is 8 in. high, and, reckoned 
by this height of the steps, the total 
altitude would be 97 ft. Home stores 
are kept in the interior — tents and so 
forth ; and the place ia ao dark, there 
not being any windows, a light is re- 
quired. About i of a m. beyond the 
Oolab is the Church. It has a lofty 
tower with i high pinnacles, which 
makes it look large externally; but in- 
side it is only 73ft. from E, to W, and 
30 from N.to S., andcannot seat more 
than 1)0 persons. The exterior is ex- 
cessively ugly, but the inside is better. 
The pulpit is of stone, and there are 3 
stained-glass windows. There is only 
1 inscription, on a handsome brass 
plate, to the wife of Edmund Craster, 
B.C.e., who died in July, 1874. 

At a i of a m. to the N. of tbe 
church is the old Cemetery. There ia 
no tablet of any great interest in it. 
In going to the old Cemetery the fiacC' 
course is on tlie right. About J. of a 
m. to the N. of the cemetety is tbe 
house of KhndA Bakhsh Kh4n, who is 
a vakil or lawyer, and resides in a 
quartercalledBotbMaliallAt. Penuia- 
sion to view bis library should be ob- 
tained from this gentleman , who spealca 
English perfectly. He posGesees 14C0 



190 



Bouie 18. — MvTiger U> Patria and BdiJ^p&r. Sect. II. 



UfiS. of great beantj. Amongst thfe 
beat is Ihe TArlkh-£.Tlmflri, written by 
§4Hli Kiin. it was written in the 
22nd year of the teign of Danlat Shith 
B&bit, and contains a Persltm notice of 
ttiia, written by Saih JahAn, son of 
Jahingir, son of Akbar, in hia own 
hand, wlio also wrote the dale on 
wbich it was received into Ihe Emperor 
Jab&Dgir'e library. ShftTi Jah&n signs 
himself Khurram, mm of Jab^glr. 
Another most beautiful MS., in Per- 
sian and Arabic, is entitled " Frag- 
ments written by 'Abd'uESh Darfijat 
Khin, son of J'afar KhAn." 

ilKiui.— Driving on to the E. 3 m., 
the tiavelter will anive in Patna, the 
capital of Bih^, at a place called 
Rinsajganj, which is rather more 
ttian, 6 m. from Bfinkipiir church. This 
is the site of the honee of the WUAbf b, 
who were arrested by Mr. William 
Taylor, Commiesioner of Patna, and 
wmch must have covered a eonsidor- 
able apace, as there are now & market 
and a nice garden where it stood. I( 
was made a chaise against Mr. Taylor 
that he arrested these persons, bnt 
their guilt was subsequently discovered, 
and one of them is now a prisoner in 
the Andamans. .ibout Jam. beyond 
this is the old City Cemetery, in the 
centre of which rises a handsome and 
very peculiar column, 70 ft. high. The 
footings are 3 steps, which lead to a 
broad base nbont 20 ft. high. The 
shaft has 6 projecting rims, at a 
distance of about 4 ft. Erom each other, 
and the whole is crowned with a lofty 
nm on a pcdestjil. The lowest step 
at the base is 7 ft. 10 in. sq., and the 
base bos on the E. aide a marble tablet 
inscribed as follows : — 
In Memory of 
Captain JonB Kirch, 



or ths Honourable But ludiB QompaDy'a 
i^talna PercB Casstairs,' Chakles Ebhish 




Ededc 



lUmn Data eat gloria eoivm. 



In this cemetery are buried many of 
the old Borranta of the E. L Co., who 
died during the I8th century — as, for 
instance, William Majendie, who was 
2nd Member of the Patna Council, who 
died October 2nd, 1779 ; Captain 
Kinloch, who died 10th of May, 1763 ; 
Samuel Charters, Senior Judge of the 
Court of Appeal at Patna, who died 
25th of July, 1795 ; Francis Le Gros, 
Commercial Resident at Patna, died 
May 10th, 1818. There is also a tablet 
to Polly Bradshaw, wife of Lt.-CoT. 
Samuel Bradshaw, and daughter of 
Christopher Keating, Senior Judge of 
the Provincial Court of Apiieal at 
Patna, who died October 14th, 1805. 
The old fabrics for which Patna was 
famed have ceased to exist, and the 
streets are aliabby indeed, although 
there is a good deal of bustle in them. 
There is one verj lar^re house belong- 
ing to an Indian banker, which is set 
bacic in a quadrangle, and seems to 
speak of wealth. The pop. is 168,900, 
of whom 38,729 are Muljiimmadans. 
The military station of Ulnfipilr iB6 m. 
to the N. of Bdnklpilr, and * m. to the 
N. of this again the Soane empties 
itself into the Ganges. The traveller, 
if he pleases, may make an cxcarsion 
to Dinipdr, and thence to the con- 
fluence of the Soane, but there are no 
buildings of any intenet to be seen 



ta JoHti DonaLL, Bichah 

AUBICE BflACH, OEOHQE AL 

snU air William Hofe ; 



Jtoiite 19.~SdnMpilr to Gayd. 



ROUTE 19. 

BijIKIPI^B TO OAT A. 



The line passes through rIowi 
for the moat part cultivated 
but in April drj and ujiptepo! 
Towards the close of the joamey there 
I le low hills, in which are beiu« and 

Gayd is a city of 66,813 inhabitants. 
At I ni. from the station is Ihe T. B., 
bmS a Bhort way to the W. of it the 
Collectors office. At 9 m. to the E. 
from the station is the Cemctenj, which 
is close to the bank of the Phdlgu 
riTer, dry in April. The cemetery is 
shaded with flue trees of the pippal, 
bel, and manfro species. The person 
in charge of the cemetery has 4 rs. n 
month, a. hut, and the fruit. Tht 
tombs and tablets suScred much 
during tlie Mutiny, as the malcontenls 
and rebels smashed them by firing 
shot at them. Among Ihose that 
main may be uoticed one to ] 1 atari 
of Ko. 1 Company ITo. 6 Light NaTal 
Brigade, " who died of disease while 
serving at Gayi during that year of 
sorrow, 1857-68." Obsurre, also, a 
noble mausoleum, 40 ft. high, of which 
the boss measures 20 ft. » in., and is 
i by o tower with (i pillars 



Bicred to tfac Memory of 

FRANCI3 GILL ANDERS, Ea», 

Mnnv years Collector 

Ot Taien un Filgrima 

At Gayi, where he 
Dtported this Ills rin 
Tlie 1:7th or AugUflt, 1S31, 
Aged BO yuis. 
This is followed by a long eulogy on 
the deceased. There are, also, hand- 
luments to Caroline, wife of 
Q. J. Morris, Judge of Gayft, and to 
Duncan CraufordMcLeod, Esq., b.C.S., 
MagUtrate of Gayi About 100 yds. 
N. of the cemetery is a very hand- 
temple, eacredto MahAdeo, Kilm, 
Xiak^man, Ganesh, and Hanum&n, 
built by R4ni Indrajlt, of Tifc4rl, at 
a very considerable cost. She also 
endowed it with the village of Pa- 
rima, which yields 1,200 is. a year. 
Thence the traveller will drive IJ m. 
to the temple of Bi^hn Pad, in Old 
Qayd. It is difflcolt to approach 
the temple except on foot, owing to 
the estreme narrowness of the streets, 
and an outer door only 6 ft. high. 
Just beyond this door, on the right, is 
a very plain temple, built by Ahalya 
B4(, the celebrated Queen of Indilr. 
The Bighn Pad Temple has a vestibule 
60 ft. sq.,btiiltof hardstone. Beyond 
this is the Footstep of Vi^ihiiu, or the 
Bishn Pad, which le 13 in, long and 
6 in. broad, is of silver, and in a 
vessel of silver inserted into the pave- 
ment, which boa a diameter of 4 ft. 
Here flowers and other offerings ore 
made. The temple is not in ilself 
handsome or remarkable, bot is con- 
sidered very holy, and is crowded with 
devotees. 

BvddJia Gayd.— The distance ol 
this place from Gay6 is 7 m. For the 
first 5 m. the road is good, but an- 
shfided by trees. The traveller will 
pass, on his right, the prison of Goyi 
After 5 ro. he will turn to the left, and 
go for 2 ra. along a couotry road, 
where the many ruts and inequalities . 
oblige carriage-horses to walk. The 
temple of Baddha Qayi is bnilt in a 
hollow, which dirainiahes its apparent 
height. It is also shut in by email 
houses. The Kalaa at top has been 



192 

eaten away by time flnd weather, 
that it has the look of the bent top o 
night-cap, whicb spoils the appearance 
o£ the edifice. Amnng the uoBighlly 
cottages throogh which you pass lo 
the temple, mnny «toues will be 
seen, taken from it in years gone by. 
Mr. Begler, an Armcoian gentlemao 
who has been superintending the re 
pairs, resides in a small house to thi 
tS.W, According to him the temple ii 
at present 160 ft. high, and if thi 
Kala> was completed as at first, the 
height would be from 170 tt, to 180 ft. 
Mr. Begler supposes it was shaped like 
a volute, and hod 9 twists and afininl. 
The base of the tower is at bottom aii 
oblong, at the top a eq. of 47 ft The 
present tower rises over the Sanctuary 
and its vestibule, acd is all that re- 
mains of the temple. It is of brick, 
but the original tower was of stone. 
Stone pillnrs from 8 ft. to 10 ft high 
were found beneath the lowest floor 
of this temple. One now elands in 
Mr. Begler's garden, and consists of a 
gq. base and Uie figure of a Yok^hinl, 
which was found lying at some dis- 
tance from it. The head.dress of this 
female figure is eiactly the same as 
that of figures eibumed by Dr. Schlie- 
mann at Troy. This pillar was one of 
a row of 11, of which 10 remain buried 
under the foundations of the temple ; 
and there are 11 others quite similar, 
now in titu, outside what is called 
Buddha's Fromeoade, which was once 
covered by o roof supported by them. 
Thare were 2 rows of pillars, and the 
outer row was not at first discovered, 
being buried in the earth. Buddha'sPro- 
raenado is on the N. side of the temple, 
and consiats of a masonry plinth ISO ft. 
long, 4 ft, high, and 3 ft. 6 in. broad, 
with thestumpsof thell piUars above 
mentioned. 

The wbU of the tower is \i ft, 
thick. The chamber of the sanctum 
JB 20 ft. long from E. to W., and 
13 ft. broad from N. to S. The 
entrance was at the E., and Buddha's 
throne faced it. His figure, according 
to Eiouen Tsaug, was of perfumed 
paste, and was destroyed centuries 
ago, perhaps by the Muslims. The 
Banneee made a figure of plaster, 



EotUt X^.—Mnkipiir io Qayd. 



destroyed it and made another of the 
same material, which Mr. Begler de- 
stroyed, and now there is none. Op- 



Buddha tree, that is, a pippal or f'icut 
relifima. To the left of the entrance 
is the place where the foonder of the 
present College of Mahants, abont 25D 
years ago, performed Tapatya, that is, 
sat surrounded tiy 4 fires, with the sun 
ovciheini. The ashes remain, and the 
present Mahant stipulafed with Mr, 
Begler that they should not be dis- 
turbed. Mr. Begler, therefore, bniJt 
over them a hollow pillar, with a dia- 
meter of 4} ft., and i ft. high, rising 
from a sq. base. Nearly in line with 
this are 3 masonry tombs of Mahants. 
It is known that Ash oka sur- 
rounded the temple with a stone 
railing. As much of this railing aa 
coold be found is being restored to the 
position which it in supposed on the 
N. and S. sides to have occupiei It 
is being set up at a distance of 10 ft. 
from the wall of the temple, which 
it encircles, except on the E. side, 
where no remains of it are found. On 
the W, side it is 26 ft. from the wall 
of the temple. The railing has 4 bars 
of stone, supported by pillars at inter- 
vals of 8 ft. The top rail is orna- 
mented with csrvings of mermaids, or 
females with the tails of fish, insert- 
ing tbeir arms into the months of 
MakiLmhs, that is, imaginary croco- 
diles, with large ears like those of 
elephants, and long hind-legs. Below 
this top bar are 3 others, also of stone, 
ornamented with carvings of lotns- 
flowers. The pillars are adorned with 
Ings of viu-ious groups, such as a 
on and child, a man, with a 
an who has the head of a horse. 
Centaurs, and so on. Scnlplors of the 
mt day in India, at all events 
Gayi, are not skilful enough to 
reproduce these figuics. Mr. Ferguson 
says ("Hist, of Arch.," p. 8fl) : "The 
Buddha Gay& rail is a rectangle, 
measuring IBlft, by 98 ft., and is very 
much mined. Its dimensions were, 
indeed, only obtained by eicavation. 
The pillsrs are apparently only r^ ft. 
11 in. in height, and are generally 

otnamcnled witli a eeiui-diec top and 



Sect 11. 



Soiite \9.~-Budd!ia Gayd. 



bottom, contaiaing n single figure 
groDp ol Beveral. Thcj hare also ft' 
central circiiliiT disc, witb either an 
Rnimal or bast in the centre ol a lotas. 
No part of the upper mil seemb to 
hare been recorerod, and none of the 
intermediate railsbetween the pil'i 
are sculptured.* As the most ancient 
sculptured monument iu India, 
would be extremely interesting 
have this rail tnlly Uhislrated, not 
ranch for its artiiitic merit as becai 
it is the earliest anthentic nonunii 
representing manners and mythology 
in India," The base of the temple is 
26i ft. high, and at the tup of it, 
between its margin and the tower, is 
a clear space 13 ft. broad, which 
alloired a |)assnge round the 
tind also gave access to a chamber in 
it. Hie tower rose about 140 ft. above 
this base, without counting the spiral 

Xjitat and the finial. At each i 

of Uie platform, by which the p 
ronnd the tower was effected, 
small tcmpie, and below, outside 
Ashoka's rail, were many Bubardinnte 
temples. It is Yery difficult to realise 
what the temple in ita original state 
was, although there is a pholc^raph of 
what it now is in ita repaired state 
in lUjendralUi Mitra's book, called 
Buddha GayA ; but it nay perhaps be 
saiil, with some ccmfldence, "■■■■ "■" 
building was never one of p rei 
and the indnceraents to visit it ate its 
extreme antiquity, which certainly 
reaches to 54a B.C., and its great 
sanctity in the eyes of the Hindtis, 
who reckon it in that respect on a par 
witbAU^&bftd. 

To the H.W. is a small but veiy 
ancient temple, in which is a figure of 
Buddha standing. The door has a 
finely-carved bar at top. It is in- 
tended to build an enclosing wall at 
about 50 ft. distant from the great 
temple. So far the traces of saccessive 
buildings may be clearly seen. In 
tetuming from the temple, the tni' 
Teller may stop at the College, where 
the Mahant resides. There were in 
the possession of the Mahant a scries j 
of terra-cotta seals, which went back 
ID (tom what prandis, Uil* Is I 






tilM«Bt-l88K3 



to the foundation of the College ; but 
Mr. Clarke, sent out by the South 
KensingCoa Museum, has carried them 
all oS, not leaving one, although the 
Hnseum at Calcutta had certainly 
strong claims for a specimen. The 
proprietors of the Oaji place* of pil- 
grimage are called GyAls or Gay&wals. 
They pretend to be descended from 14 
Br&hmaos, who were created by Br^- 
ma at the time when he persuaded the 
demon GayA to lie down in. order that 
a feast might be held on his body, and 
when he had done bo, placed a large 
stone on him to keep hira there. 
Qayi, however, struggled so violently 
that it was necessary, in order to per- 
suade him to be quiet, to promise that 
the gods would take up their abode on 
him permanently, and that anyone 
who made n pilgrimi^^ to the temple 
which was then builtupon him should 
be saved from the HindA Pandemo- 

Although the Gay&w&Ia arc . 
treated with great consideration at 
the place of pilgrimage, the respect- 
able Br&hmans hold them in small 
esteem, and, in fact, "the Qay&w&ls 
generally a dissolute race" (see 
Census of 1872), Up- to a very recent 
date they used to practise the most 
open extortion, and now, though less 
violent, they are hardly less BucceBSful 
■ squeeiingthebaplesspilgrim. They 
e very rich, and are said to be gwie- 
rally bad landlords, and often able to 
evade penalties through the sanctity 
that attaches to their position. Subor- 
dinate to them are the Dhimius 
or Prestiyas, who, under their direc- 
tion, perform the ceremonies for tjie 
{lilgrims'to Gayi. They give one- 
ourth of their profits to the QayAwAls. 
They are allowed to marry as many 
wives as they please, and may eat meat 
without loss of prestige. It has been 
noticed (see Dalton's " DescriptiTe 
Ethnology of Bengal," p. 163) that 
the Bculptnrcs at Buddha GajA por- 
tray not Alryan, but Turanian or Kol 
features. In accordance with this, 
there is an inscription at Buddha Oaji 
which mentions Phndi Chandra, who 
is traditionally said to have been a 
Chero, an aboriginal tribe. In a com- 
mentflj-y on the " Kig Veda," quoted » 



194 

in Dr. Muir's " Sanstrit Tests," vol. 
ii., p. 3G2, it ia snid that " when the 
Kali Bgc has begun, Baddha'e son, 
An j ana, will be bora among the 
Kikatas, in order to delude the 
Aauras," that is, according to the 
commentator, in the district of (inyi,, 
■0 that when Oaatama was born the 
coimtry of OayA was occupied by 
aboriginal tribes, ench as Cheroa, 
Eikatas, and Maadas, and, according 
to Bachanan, " the Cheroa probably 
accepted the doctrines of Gautama, 
while the lower orders — the Kols — re- 
jected them ; and while the Cheroa 
became Arjantzed the XoIb adhered 
to the life ot freedom and impurity 
in wbioh they ate still found." 

In the winter of 1ST6 the late King 
of Barmah deputed 3 officera to super- 
intend the repairs of the temple of 
Buddlia GayiL The men atriTed in 
Jnnaary, 1877. With the permiasion 
ot the Mahant in charge of the temple 



letaining walla of the terrace, re-plas- 
tered the interior of the temple, and 
took ateps for preserving the Bodhi 
tree.* In the courae ot their work 
they broaght to light a great number 
ot images, and other objects of anti- 
quarian interest, tiomc of these they 
built into the new w^, and others they 
lettacatteredaboct the place. TheLieu- 
t«nant-Oovemor requested Rijcndro- 
141& Mitra to visit the place, to give 
the Barmese such guidaace as m^ht 
prevent serious injury being done to 
the temple. He went in the antnmn 
of 1877, and has published an elabinate 
report. He states that one ot the 
earliest papers of the Associated 
Society of Bengal was a translation, 
bj Bir C. WiUuns, of an inscription 
found at Buddha Qay£L. Buchanan 
Hamilton visited the place in 1S09, and 
in 1830 published a paper in vol. it 
" Trana. ot the As. Boc. in Great Bri- 
tain," respecting the legends he had col- 
lected from the Mahanta. In 1832 Ur. 
Hawtliornc, Judge of Gay^ sent Jamea 

* TliiAtrefl baa dtBappeuvd. GnnDlngliuii 
Baya: " During thesB JUrsars, 1S61— 71, nneot 
tha prlndiHl bnuchCB bat diiHppenrsd, and 
ttia rotUn atem must aoon fallow.^ 



SouU 19. — Sdniipdr to Gaya. 



Sect. IL 



Prituep copiea ot inscriptions. In 
1846 Major Harkham ICittoe was ap< 
pointed archieological surveyor, and 
went first to GayA. On his death bia 
papers were dispersed, and no use 
made of them. Cunningham's first 
risit was in 1861, his second in 1871. 
His report, at p. 79 of vol. iii., 
" ArchEeologicftl SurveyEt," may be con- 
sulted. R&jcndriU&U Mitra begins by 
stating that the i most sacred places 
ot Boddhism are Kapilavastn, Uie 
birthplace of Buddha ; Buddha Gajk, 
his hermitage ; Banilras, where he first 

S cached ; and Kuii, the place of his ' 
irv&na. Buddha GayA stands in 
N. !at. 24° 41' i:,", E. long. 85° 2' 4". 
The river Lil&jan, whidi washes the 
B. bonndaiy of the place, is, in the 
rains, about Jam. broad ; at other 
times a silver streamlet 80 yds. in 
breadth. The word in Sanskrit is Nai- 
lanjan^ "the immaculate." A m. 
from Buddha OayA, near the Mard 
Hill, it joins the Mohand, and is called 
the Philgu. In Government records 
the place has two names — Buddha 
QayA proper, vtith an area of 2,152 
acres ; and Uastipilr Tantdi, with 
G4T acres. Tarddi has its name from 
a temple to T6ra Deri. This area is a 
fertile plain, broken by one large and 
several am^ monnds. The large 
mound is divided by a village road. 
In the centre of the S. part stands the 
great temple. The N. part was called 
the RijastAn or " palace." It is now 
called Garh or "fort." There are 
traces of a double wall and ditoh. 
Here was probably a lat^ monastery. 
The present monastery is on the left 
bank ot the LilAjan, in the midst of a 
garden of 20 acres, snrroundcd by a 
high wall. In some parts it has 4 
stories, but round the quadrangle 
only 3. The ground floor is faced by 
a verandah, built on sculptured mono- 
lithic pillars, and on one side on 
wooden pillars. The present M^nt 
has a fine collection of Sanskrit MSB. 
The " Lalita TistAra," edited by HA- 
jendra, is the chief authority as to 
Buddha Qayd, and the G&tba part of 
it is composed immediately after 
Bb&kya's death, and there the place ib 
called Gnvilva. It waa tlie fief (i & 



^t. II. 

general serring Uie potentate wiio 
ruled Gay ik, tlien the capital of Kltaka, 
a synonym for Magadha. Buddha 
Gaj^ ia a modem name, and BAjendra 
thinks that it wfta origin^y Bodhi- 
Oa,jA, from the Bodhi tree, which has 
now disappeared. He explains in a 
nasonable way the absardlcgend about 
the demon Gayi, who was [>T6 m. high 
and 268 m. roand, and who was guilty 
of sarins souls too easily, so that 
Death and Hades became depopulated. 
This demon was Bnddhiam, and was 
quieted by hsTing Brahmi, Vishpu, 
and Mahcshrara seated on him, that 
is to SAT, their temples were built on 
him. In fact, in the middle of the Tth 
centuiy a.d., when Htoncn Tsang 
Tidted Qayi it had relapsed into 
Hindiiism. The penance that Buddha 
or Sh&kya performed at Buddha GayA 
is dlscnssf^ at great length by Rk- 
jendra. It waa a 6 years' fast, and 
one tmintermpted concentration of the 
mind lo the contemplation of its 
ovm state was its al»olute require- 
ment. Bnddha began by living on a 
plum a day, then on a grain of rice, 
then on a grain of aesamum, and then 
he took notliiiig. In Cave No. I, 
Ajnnta, is a fr^o painting of the 
temptations of Buddha dniicg this 
fast, of which Rijendra has given rm 
autotype. Baddha is surrounded bj 
threatening fiends, and also by lovely 
damsels, who are doing their best, 
each In their own way, to disturb his 
meditations. The old temple men- 
tioned above, which is aiid to have 
l>een that of T4ra I)i;vi, menam^, ac- 
cording to RdiGndra, 3Gft. »in. high, 
on a base of 16 ft. 9 in. by ir, ft. 3 in. 
The chamber inside is 5 fL 8 in. by 
Sft 10in.by lift. 2iii. He identifies 
the figure as that of PadmapAvi. In 
front of it. at a distance of ISOft., is 
what is called VAgeahvari's temple, 
the goddess of speech ; but lidjendra 
says the flgure is that of an armed 
male, and is Vajarap^t seated on a 
throne. He also states that " the Bar- 
mese carried on demolitions and ei- 
cavations wliieh in a manner swept 
away most of the old landmarks." 
The remains of the vaulted gateway in 
ttoat 01 tiio temple were completely 



JtoiUe ia.—SdnMpdr to Arrah. 



195 

demolished, and the place cleared out 
and levelled. The stone pavilion over 
the Buddba Pad was dismantlcil, and 
its miitcriala east aside on a rubbish- 
motuid at a distaueo. The granite 
plinth beside it was removed. The 
sites of the chambers brought to l^ht 
by Major Mead were cleared. The 
drain-pipe and i^ar^^'ylewhich marked 
the level of the granite pavement wore 
destroyed. The foundations of the old 
buildings noticed by Hiouen Tsang 
were cxeavatcd for bricks and filled 
with rubbish. The revetment wall 
round the sacred tree had been rebnilt 
on a different foundation on the W. 
The plaster ornaments on the interior 
facing of the sanctuary were knocked 
oflf, and the facing was covered with 
plain stucco, and an area of 213 ft. to 
260 ft was levelled and surrounded by 
a new wall. For further description 
of the temple, the traveller may refer 
to lUjendraMlA Mitra's "Buddha 
Gayi," Calcutta, 1878, and Cutmincr- 
hBm's"Arch(Bological8nrveyi',"vol.iii. 



The 


ROUTE 20. 

BiHKfPllB TO ABRUI. 

Stations on the B.I. Biilway 
follows :— 




NimeaotStsHoiis. 


„.. 


ai 




rr 


Bihtir 


fl^ 






DiD»pu 


rt.~.Jb.tn k 1 rermbment 


«""•* 



196 

Before reacUng this itstiaii tiie tra- 
Teller will cross the river S6n (Soane) 
at S m. bejond Bihtsr and 10 m. before 
reaching Arrati. The lirid^e over this 
river ia conrndcred one of tbe finest in 
India. It consieta of 2S spana, each of 
IGO ft, makings total of 1200 ft Tbe 
foundations are sunk to a depth of 
about 30 ft. During the roina this vast 
channel is filled, bnt in tbe dry aeaaon 
there rcmaiiu onlj an insignificant 
stream, 

Arrah is the chief town of 8hAh4- 
bAd, a well-<;ultivated fertile district, 
and has a pop. of S9,38G. The district 
has an area of 1386 sq. m., and a pop. 
of 1,723,97*. A halt here for a day 
ODght certainly to be made to see the 
house which was defended with such 
exti»ordinary gallantry by Herwald 
Wake, B.aS.. and Mr. Boyle. The 
following account is abstracted and 
condensed from Eaye's " 8epoy War," 



Soute i(i.~BdnJ^pir to Arrah. 



Sect. n. 






». 123 :- 



" On the evening of the 3nl of July, 
186T, a large body of Muslims, bearing 
aloft the Green Flag, and summoning 
others to join them by the beatii^ of 
drams, marched through the strccta of 
Patna, and attacked the hoose of 
a Soman Catholic priest. The Sikh 
raiment, nnder Captain Rattray, was 
at once ordered out, and an express 
was sent 'to Dinap^ for European 
troops. Dr. Lyall, who thought to 
pacify the mob, was shot dead ; bnt 
when Rattray, with his men, arrived, 
the victory of the mob was over. The 
rioters were soon dispersed, and quiet 
wfifl restored. A number of arrests 
and one execution followed. At Dina- 
piir there were B regimenta of 
6ipd,his, tbe 7th, %Va, and 10th Beng. 
K.I., whose loyidty was much sus- 
pected. On the IBth of Jaly Sir P. 
Grant wrote to General Lloyd, com- 
manding at Dinapiir, that u the [>th 
Fusiliers woidd pass Dinapilr on their 
way to Ban&ras, he mignt take the 
opportunity of disarming the Sip&his. 
General Lloyd feebly halted between 
two opinions, and at last, when 2 com- 
panies of the 37th Foot arrived, on the 
altii <rf July, resolved not to disarm 
the SipiiUs, but to take away their 
percussion caps. The 7th and 8th 



then broke into open mutiny, bat the 
loth wore inclined to stand fast, until, 
being fired upon by some sotdicrs of 
the loth Foot, they joined their com- 
rades and went oS en matte. General . 
Lloyd then went on board a steamer, 
thinkingthat he would he most usefal 
thete. The Enropean soldiers made 
only a feeble effort in pursning the 
BipAhls, who crossed the river and 
marched to Arrah, where they released 
all the prisoners in the jail, plundered 
the treasury, and, but for the wisdom 
and bravery of the few English, would 
have exterminated them. General 
Lloyd now proposed to entrench him- 
self at Dinapiir, bnt Commissioner 
Tayler protested against soch an exhi- 
bition of weakness, and orged the 
immediate despatch of a strong foice 
into the ShAh&b&d district to crush 
the insurrection. Genettil Lloyd did 
nothing, bat a number of volonteers 
and some Sikh soldiers assembled at 
the Commissioner's house, and went 
ontat night to see what could be done. 
That night the Commissioner received 
news that the 12th Irregular Hoise 
had matinied at BigauU ( BegowUe) in 
CbampAran, and had murdered their 
commander, Major James Holmes, and 
his wife, a daughter of Sir Robert Sale, 
as well as Dr. and Hrs. Garner, and 
others. Mr. Tayler, therefore, recalled 
the volunteers, bat continued to urge 
General Lloyd 1« send troops. On tAB 
29th of July Mr. Tayler went to Dina- 
piir to orge Oenetul Lloyd to take 
action. After several mishaps, 150 
men of the 10th nnder Captain Dunbar, 
and 76 nnder Lt. Ingleby, were sent 
in a steamer towards Arrah. Two 
gallant officers of the Civil Bervice, 
Mr. McSonell, magistrate of Chaprah, 
and Mr. Ross Mangles, assistant to Mr. 
Tayler, accompanied tiiem. The affair 
was miserably conducted, the soldiera 
got notliins to cat, and went fasting 
and feeble ui the dark night to attack 
the rebels at Artah. They fell Into aa 
ambush, and vrere driven back, with 
the loss of 2 captains, S lientenanta, 
3 ensigns, 8 sergeants, 10 corporals, 
and 116 privates killed ; 3 officers, 3 
sergeants, and Gl privates wounded, 
Mr. Mangles and Mr, McDonell dia- 



Kwt» 20. — Arrah. 



197 



played tho ntmoat berofim, foi which 
thej afterwuda iTCeiT«d tlie Tletoria 
Cron. But the little pwtj of Bngli^h 
at Arrah were holduig ont (ninHt 

tremendoQi odds -with a naowGaa. 
worthy of Sparta. Anjihing more 
hopeless thut an attempt to defend a 
boose againat 2000 Bipdm g and a mul- 
titado ol armed insorgeuts, perhaps 
four times that nomber, could not well 
be conceired. The Almost absotuta 
certaintj of dCBtmction was sach tiiat 
a retreat under cover of the night 
woold not hare been diacredi table ; 
bnt Oie residents at Arrah had other 
thonghta of their duty to Qie State. 
TbcK were a dozen Englishmen sad 
3 or 1 other Christianfi, and GO Sikhs 
sent by Mr. Tayler, so it was reBolved 
that there should be no Sight, bat hard 
fighting. 

" The centre of defence had been 
wisely chosen. Mr, Vicars Boyle, 
who was superintending the works of 
the E. L Bailway, was a civil en- 
gineer who had some acquaintance 
with military science. He was tlie 
owner of S houses, and chose the 
smaller, a 2-storied one with a flat 
roof, for the defence, and razed the 
puspet of the other. He had col- 
lected stores and ammomtion- On the 
27th of July the Dinapilr mutinous 
Sipihis marched boldly np to the 
attack, but were met with such a heavy 
fire that Uiey broke iat« groups and 
sheltered themselves by trees. Her- 
WHld Wake had token command of the 
Bikhs, and tho little garrison resisted 
all attempts to overpower them, either 
by the fire of rifles or by heaping up 
combuBtibles, and adding to the smoke 
by throwing chilis on the flames. 
Anotiier attempt to drive ont the gar- 
rison by piling up the carcases of 
horses and men, so as to ateate a 
fearful efflnvium, also failed, as did a 
mine which the rebels carried to the 
foundations of the house. A week 
tJiuB passed, but when the second Sun- 
day came round Major Vincent Syre 
arrived with 1 gnns, 60 English 
gunners, and 100 men of the 78th 
Highlanders, accompanied by 160 of 
the Gth Fusiliers, under Captain 
L'Bstrange, After 6 ^eeka of heavj 



nln, the loads were very difficult, and 
befme reaching Arrah Eyre had been 
attacked by thousands dt the enemy, 
bnt he fought his way through all 
obstacles ontll he readied the B^way 
Works. The line of railway gained. 
Byre drew ap his force, and the fight 
speedily commenced. Awed by the 
foretaste they bad had in the morning 
of our Enfield rifles and our Qeld-guns, 
the enemy again sought shelter in a 
wood, from which ttiey poured a 
galling flie on onr people. Oar want 
of numbers was now severely felt. 
There was a general want of fighting- 
men to contend with the nialtitude of 
the enemy, and there was a special 
vrant, almost as great, which rendered 
the service of a single man, in that 
conjuncture, well-nigh as important 
OS a company of Fusiliers. Eyre had 
left his only artillery subaltern at 
Ghgilpilr, and was compelled, there- 
fore, himself to direct the fire of his 
guns, when he would foin have been 
directing the general operations of 
his force. More than once the 
forwwd movements of the Infantry 
hod left the guns without support ; 
and the Sip&hls, seeing their oppor- 
tunity, had mode a rush upon the 
battery, but had been driven hack by 
showers of gmpe. Another charge 
made in greater force, and the guns 
might, perhaps, be lost to us. The 
Infantry were fighting stoutly and 
steadily, but they could not make ah 
impression on Uiose vastly superior 
nmnbers, aided by the advantage of 
their position. The stnS officer, 
Hastings, indeed, had brought word 
that the Fusiliers were giving way. 
The moment was a critical one. 'So- 
tiling now was so likely to save ns 
as tiie cold arbitrament of steeL So 
Byre issued orders for a bayonet- 
charge. With the utmost alacrity, 
Hastings carried bock the order to 
the Commander of the Infantry ; but 
not immedmtely finding L'Setranj^e, 
who was in another part of the field, 
and seeii^ that there was no time to 
he lost, he ' collected every available 
man,' placed himself at their head, 
and issued the stirring order to charge. 
L'Sstrange, meanwhile, bad come up 



Route 20. — Bdiildpur to Arrah. 



198 

with another body of Fueiliers, and I 
the whole, sending up an they went & I 
right good EngliBh cheer, cleared the 
Btream, which at this point had ta- 
pered down to the br^dth of a few 
feet, and charged the Burprised and 
panic-stricken multitude of Sip^ls. 
It wasuothiDg that they had oar num- 
bers twenty times told. They tnmeil 
and fled in confusion before the British 
bayoneteers ; whilst Eyre poured in 
his grape, round after ronnd, upon the 
flying masses. The rout was com- 
plete. They never rallied. And the 
I'oad to Anah was left as clear as 
though there had been no mutiny at 
Dinapiir — no revolt in Bihar." 

This house stands in the Judge's 
Compound,aboat60y(Is.S.ofluBhou8e. 
It is nearly a sq., and has 2 stories, with 
a verandah on 3 sides, supported by 
arehes, which the tiesiegcd filled up 
with sand-bags. The lower story is a 
little over 10 ft. high, and was held hy 
50 Sikh soldiers. Behind one of the 
rooms, the oater wall of which had no 
arch nor opening, the carrisoa dug a 
well, and that was all the water they 
had. From the flat roof Boyle and tho 
Judge killed many of the sas^lants, 
who mounted a small cannon on the 
housewhich is now inhabited by the pre- 
sent Judge, Mr. Worgan. He has a ball 
which was flrcd from the gan mounted 
by the rebels, and was found im- 
bedded in the wall of Wake's house. 
How the latter could have been de- 
fended against 2,000 Sip&hia and 
others seems past comprehension, and 
shows what determination can do 
against the most overwhclmiog odds. 

At abo;it B J of a m. from the Judge's 
houae is St. Saviour's Chureh, a very 
nmall bat neat building. ItisGSft. long 
from E. to W., and 24 ft. broad from 
N. to S., and can seat about 100 per- 

ROUS. It 



le Anali OsnlBau, 



Tbis Tablet Is erectsd by hia tUDily 
lo alectiDiiMa and grataFol remembnu) 



CAPTAIN FHANCIi C 

late 13tb Be^. 

Ob. 3id of Augual 



lElni 






or fatigue and exposure. 
At about IGO yds. from this is the 
Collector's KAchharl, and in front of 
a square tomb railed ofi, with the 
following inscription ; — 

Bacnd to the UemuTy at th« 

<n and Men at ^.H.'a 3!^tk Etcgt, 
hu fell ill action [n the Ddatrict 

le the RfmalnaotETmlKiiW. Bhitteii, 






1,. Hiu 



ind Jahes Qhe 



Caiitsiij A. G. I4E Obihd. 



And S3 iirlvatea of the auns Regt. 
The Cemetery is an extremely pictn- 
resque spot, an eminence shaded by 
fine trees. Here are bwied one or two 
of the heroes of Arrah. The tablet of 
the last of them is inscribed : — 

The Memory of 
JOHN LIDDALL, 

Staff- Veterinarr Siuseon, 






ofSeptoml 



OuH of tbe but survivon 

Of tbe eallant bwid of Viduuteera 

Wbn relieved the Anvb Oarrisuu 

Durtug the Mutiny of 1857. 

Thli Monument is erected by 

His aorrowlug Widow. 

From Arrah 2 places of great interest 

may be visited, SAiard^i and JIutAi, 

There is a canal from Arrah to Dihri, 

a distance of 60 m., a town to which 

the traveller may proceed in a boat. 

At Dlhri there is a weir 12,500 ft. 

long, 120 broad, and 8 ft. tiboye thg 



Scot II. 



Ronte 20. — Arrah — Sdsardm. 



199 



normal level of the river-bed. Tte 
foondation is formed 1>7 tmUow- blocks 
16 ft. loiiK, 16 ft. broad, and 10 ft. 
deep.with 16-incb walla, learine a epace 
from wbicli Band was excsvated 1^ 
means of Fouracrea' ezcaTaCors. It 
took on aa arerage 3 days to nnk 
each block. On the wells thus formed, 
2 walls were built of masonry, the 
main wall 8 ft, hieh, tbe rear waU SJ 
ft. The space between the walls, as 
well as the rear apron, was filled with 
rubble stones. The total cost exceeded 
£160,000, To ptoride for superftnons 
water, not required for irrigation, the 
weir ia pierced by 3 seta of sluices, 
each containing 32 venta, of 20^ ft. 
space. During Qoods these sluiocB, 
which ore placed at each end and at 
the centre of the weir, are always left 
open to obviate ty the scour the danger 
(rf the river silting up'where the canals 
branch off. A difficulty, however, 
arose as regards the shutting of these 
sluices, the pressure during a violent 
stream amounting io 600 tons upon 
each gate. Mr, Fom^ores, the en- 
gineer in charge of the Dihri work- 
shops, invented a system of shutters, 
by which the opening and nhntting 
are effected almost Instantaneonsly. 

To many travellers it will be inte- 
resting to visit these works, and to 
have them explained by the engineer 
in charge. They wi:i then see the im- 
portant canala which irrigalethe whole 
of tbe BhdhAbM district. The Main 
W. Canal starts from the head worka 
at Dihrr, and carries up to (he eth m., 
where the Arrnh Canal branches off, 
4,511 cubic ft of water per second, 
to irrigate 1,200,000 acres. The di- 
mensions at starting are — breadth at 
baae ISO ft.j depth of water in full 
ELipply, 9 ft,; fall per m., 6 in. The 
Arrah Canal takes off 1,616 cubic ft.of 
wat«r per second, which leaves 2,8yr> 
cubic ft. np to the 12th m., where the 
Bagsar and Chnusii Canala leave, ab- 
ctracting a further 1,260 cubic ft. per 
second. The dimensions are here re- 
duced to 121 ft. at the base, with the 
other particnlara aa before. The Main 
W. Canal curves round in a N. di- 
rectjon to the head works of the Artah 
Canal, then ben4a to tba W., orossii^ 



the Edo river, over a syphon aqueduct 
at Bihija, and finally stops on the 
Grand Tmok Road, 2 m. W. of 8Am- 
i&m. Further particulars will be 
found in the" Stat. Ace. of Beng.,"vol, 
lil, p. 170, where it is added, " there 
can be little doubt t^esecanals have con- 
ferred on Sh&hAb^ an entire immnnity 
from future famines. As far as the S6n 
readings have gone, they show that a 
minlmnm supply of 3,000 cubic ft. per 
second can be depended npon up to 
the 1 Sth at January ; and this would 
Boffloe to irrigate 480,000 acres. But 
many of the cold-weather crops will 
have been completely irrigated before 
this date, so that tbe amount of water , 
required decreases equally with the 
volume of tlie stream." 

iSUaMiB, — This place, the head- 
quarters of a Bab-divisiou of the same 
name, is aitnated in E. long, 84' 
3' 25" and N, lat, 24° 56' 68" on the 
Grand Trunk Roail, and ia lamoas as 
containing tbe tomb of Shir Sh&h, who 
conquered HumAyi^m, and became em> 
]>eror of Dihli, The pop. is 21,023 
persona. It is b municipal town, and 
commands a fine view of the N. es- 
carpment of the Kaimiir hills, 2 m. to 
the 8. At the W. end of tbe town ia 
the mausolemn of Shir ShfLh, who was 
born here. It is an octaj^nal hall, 
built within a tank, and surronnded 
by an arcade, which forms a gaUery. 
" Bach side of the octagon consists of 
3 Gothic arches below, from which 
springs a second story, also octagonal 
and 26 ft. high. The roof consists of 
H alcoves, and is supported by 4 Qotliio 
arches, above which is a terrace form- 
ing the first story, abomt 35^ ft. high j 
6 1 ft, of this height is occupied by a 
very heavy balustrade and parapet. 
The terrace ia IE ft, wide, and )via a 
small cnpola, supported by 6 rade 
columns at each corner. The 2nd 
stage consiBts of a plain wall, with a 
cornice, surmonnted by a low parapet. 
On the top is a small terrace, a ft. 
10 in. wide, having at each corner a 
cupola similar to thoae below. Above 
the 2nd stage the outside of the build- 
ing rises perpendinnlarly, with a Srd 
, stage of 16 sides, 11 ft. high. There 
I U a kind of false balustrade, from 



Eaute 20. — BinJApAi- to Arrah. 



which V. nearlj hemispheiical dome 

BmaJl cupola, Bupportetl by t pillars. 

" The interior of the building forms 
an octagon, the aides of which mi 
61 ft. at tho base ; the thickness 
outer wall is 6 ft., and of the gallery 
10 ft. Bach inner side of the gallery 
is divided into 3 others bj an equ^ 
number of arches. In the central arch 
of 7 sides there is a door. The inn 
wall, which boundB the central haO, 
15 ft. thick at the ground, forming i 
inside octagon, each side of which 
41i ft. long. , The most W. aide Is i 
scribed with sacred sentences, and 
the cNitte with tbo name of AlU 
The great ball ascends as an octag< 
for about 27 ft., or as high as tl 
terrace above the Ist stage on tieou 
side, where there is a small rude 
cornice ; above this level, each aide 
the octagon divides into two, and en 
tains a window of stone fretwork. 
For abont 25 ft. the wall aseenda with 
Its sides, which then subdivide into 
33 for a height of 11 ft, further, where 
the dome springs. In the centre of 
each dome hangs a chain, probably 
used for lamps. The king's tomb lies 
in the centre of the hall, opposite thi 
niche for prayer, with the right hand 
towards Makka ; it is raised 6 in. from 
the floor, and consists of plain plaster, 
but is distinguished from the other 
jrraves by a small column at the head. 
The inside is fairly lighted, but the 
ornaments are in the very worst taste. 
The stones are irrognlarly cat, and as 
irregularly placed ; and the balustrades 
have been painted with gandy and 
glaring coloura. 

"An endowment was left for the 
support of the tomb ; but the Hu^ul 
Emperoia resumed the lands, and the 
place has long been neglected." — 
("Slat. Ace, of Beng.," vol. lii,, pp. 
206-7.) 

" About i a m. to the N.W. of Shir 
Sh&h's tomb is situated the unfinished 
tomb of his nephew Ballm, also in an 
orUfidal tank. If completed, this 
would, doubtless, have been on the 
same plan as the tomb already de- 
scribed. What remains is an octa- 
gonal-shaped building, about 10. ft, or I 



16 ft. high, with some of the arches 
turned. The banks of the tank have 
bees thrown to a farther distance, and 
slope gradually to the stairs. The 
island is about 10 ft, above the water, 
with a stair extending along the whole 
length. At each comer is an octa- 
gonal projection, connected with the 
island by a narrow passage, Theniche 
for prayer ii not so profusely carved 
as in Shir Sh^'s tomb ; and there are 
no inscriptions except the name of 
AlUli in the centre. The grave which 
occupies the centre of the building, is 
undoubtedly that of Sallm. On his 
left is a second grave, and at his feet 
6 others of a Mialler site, the whole 
being surrounded by a wall about 7 ft. 
high, rudely built of rough stones and . 
clay." — (''Stat. Aco. of Beng.," voLxii, 
pp. 207-8.) 

Sotd^afh . — Botuming to Dihri, 
the traveller ma; continue his course 
to Botiisgarh, 24 m. to the S. Tho 
place has its name from Bohitdshwa, 
son of Harishchandra, the 28th sove- 
reign of the Solar Dynasty, famous for 
his piety, but becoming too prond, he 
was Gx.ed with his capital in mid-air. 
His image was worshipped on the spot 
until destroyed by Aurangzlb, Little 
or nothing is known cooceroing the 
persons who held the fort from Kohi- 
t&shwa up to 1100 A.D., when it is 
supposed to have belonged to Prat4p 
Vhawata. Shir Sh&h took it in 1Q39, 
and b^fan to strengthen the fortiflca- 
*'~s,bnt before long selected a better 
for a castle at Shirgafh, 11 m. to 
the N. by W. M4n Sii^h, on be- 
' Lg Viceroy of Bengal and Bihikr, 
made Bot^ his stronghold, and ac- 
cording to 2 inscriptions in Sanskrit 
and Fersian,erected the buildings tlwt 

■-', abont 16o* AJ). In 1814, 

nor protected Sh^ Jah&n's 
re, when he vras in rebellion 
against, his father. The commander- 
ship of the garrison was hereditary, 
and was assigned to Bijpiits, but in 
1810 to Muslims. There were 4,000 
matchlock men, and 1,600 regular 
soldiers. When Mir ^Asim was de- 
feated, in 1761, he sent his vrife, with 
1,700 women and children and moch 
treosnie, to Botis, but SbAh Mall, who 



Sect. II. 



Route 2 



—RoUugarh — Shirgarh. 



201 



had charice of them after tlie battle of 
Bagsar, acnt the chief lady to Mir 
Jf.tiAnx, who then advised the Oovemor 
to gire up the fort to the GogUsh, 
which waa done. Colonel Goddord 
took posBSBsion, and remained lor 2 
months, destrojing all military sto: 
He then left a native gnard, which 
mfuned fOF a year, when the place was 
abandoned. The palace was then in 
good repair. The remains of the fort 
now occupy port of the table-land, 
1 m. from E. to W,, and S from N. ' 
B. This is tsokted by 2 deep ravin , 
leanng between its S. end and the 
rock overhanging the S6n (Soanc), a 
neok about 200 yds. wide, with perpen- 
dicular sides. There are S3 paths up 
the rock acocBsiblc to man. One of 
these is the neck just mentioned, 
which, and 3 others, are called the i 
Great Gh4ts ; the other 80 are called 
Qhitie. Rfiji Obit ii the camoat, but 
is, nevertheless, a very ateep and long 

Sir J. Hooker, when he visited Rotdx 
(see '-HiniaiEjan Jour." vol. i., p. Hi), 
encamped at the rilli^e of Akbarpilr, 
100 ft. above aea-level, and thenco 
ascended to the palace, 1 ,490 ft. On 
the way is a beautiful well, GO f L deep, 
with steps to the bottom, and covered 
with flowering creepers. A fine fig- 
tree growB out of the stone, and en- 
velopes 2 sides of the walls with its 
roots, which form a curious net-work. 
The ascent hero is over dry hills of 
limestone, covered with scrub. After 
these succeeds a sandstone cliff, cut 
into steps, which lead from Icdgc to 
ledge and gap to gap, guarded with 
vrallg and aa archway of solid ma- 
sonry. After ascending 1,200 ft^, the 
visitor will come to a pretty octagonal 
summer-house, whence there is a su- 
perb view. From this, a walk of 3 
m. leads through woods to the Palace, 
which extenda from N. to S,, and has 
its principal front to the W. There 






hu^e 



Gotbie arch, with the figure of 

elephant on either aide. Within ia 
another oreb of the same size, leading 
to the Guard Boom, one of the best- 
proportioned parts of the whole build- 
"^S- The B&rahdari, or room where 



bufdneas was transacted, is a ttistefol 
apartment. In front is an open hall, 
supported by 4 double columns. There 
ore other eitenaivs buildings, such as 
light galleries, supported by alender 
cSumUB, long cool arcades,and acreened 
squarea. The rooms open out on flat 
roofs, commanding views of the table- 
land to the W., and a sheer precipice 
of 1,000 ft. to the E„ with the Sdn 
river and the village of Akbarpiir 

Shirgafh is in appearance much 
slroi^jer than Botia, as the rock on 
the fop is aurrounded by ft rampart, 
and the general outline ie broken by 
bastions and turrets. Buchanan Hamil- 
ton Bays that the ladies' apartments 
form a long castle on the summit of 
the small bill on the &. side of the 
fort, and resemble Durham Castle. 

There are endless ruins to be visited 
in the neighbourhood, and the sports- 
man who has brought skilful hunters 
with him will be fully emjiloyed, for 
bears, figure, pantheiB, wild cats, wild 
dogs, and door of several kinds are 
very numerous. There is an alligator 
in the bill streams of a diSerent kind 
from that found in the S^n. 






db,Googlc 



AKBAH to BAOSAB (BUXAS). 

The Btatjons aloQg the B. I. Bai 
woy are aa follows : — 



fnua 


tion». 


- 


Beimrk. 


« 




S 


This train 
(a on the 

1 



Bagiar, spelt ^ Haoter Barar, 
nnd commonly Buiar, the head- 
quarters at the Bubdivision of the 
snme name, is gitnated in St* 1' E. 
loQg. and 25' 31' 30" N. lat. on the S. 
bank of the Gaoges. The pop. in 
1872 was 13,4M. It U a municipal 
town, Bud a chanfring station for en- 
gines on the E. I. Bailwny. It waa 
formerly a stnd depQt, but baa now 
been closed for that purpose. There 
is a legend about it mentioned by 
Hunter (" Stat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. 
xii. p. 206), but not worth recounting ; 
bnt there is a historical fact of great 
importaoce connected nitb the place. 
It was here that, in 1TG4, Major, 
afterwards Sir Hector Mutiro, de- 
feated the army o£ Shuji'n 'd danlah, 
the Nflwib of Awadh, with whom Mir 
!^^m, our refractory NtlwAb of Ben- 
gal, had taken refuge. Munro had 
be^ hampered in hia Bdrancc by the 
mafinouB coodnct of his tioopB, and 
had in Hay blown away from guns 
30 Sip&his belonging to a r^;imeut 
who had marched off, perhaps with a 
view of joining the enemy. On the 
22nd of October, I76J, Munro en- 
camped within ^lot of the enemy, 
with the village and fort of B^aar in 
their rear, and the Oangea on their 
left At 8 A.M. on the 23rd the 
enemy advanced, and the battle 



e 21. — Arrah to Bagtar (Buxar). Sect. II. 



began at 9 and lasted till noon, 
when the Niiwfib'a army gave way, 
and retired elowly, blowing up some 
tumbrils and magaiines of powder as 
they withdrew. Munro ordered the 
line to brealt into eolnmna and pur- 
sue, but the enemy destroyed a bridge 
over a stream 2 m. from the field of 
battle, and cffectnallj checked the 
pursuit. "This," aays Mill, vol. iii. 
p. 3u3, " was one of the most critical 
and important victories in the history 
of the British wars in India. It broka 
completely the force of 8huj4'u 'd 
danlah, the only Hu^nl chief who 
retained till this periooany consider- 
able strength ; it placed the emperor 
himself (8bdh 'Alam) under the pro- 
tection of the English ; and left them, 
without dispute, the greatest powt^r 
in India. The British had 8o7 Euro- 
pean soldiers, 6297 Sipihla, and 918 
Ind^ Cavaby, with a siege train 
and 20 Seld guns. The British loaa 
was 847, and they captured 133 guns. 
The Niiw&b of Awadh had 10,000 men,, 
and lost about 1000, In a book called 
the ' Balwant N&mah,' translated by 
P. Curwen at Allahib^I, in 1876, it la 
stated at p. 61, that Balwant Singh, 
R&j^ of BanfLras, father of Clmit 
Bii^h, claimed to have assisted the 
Engliah by deserting the NAw&b 
on the day of battle.^ The fort of 
Bagsar is to the N. N.W. of the Railway 
Station. It covers about 2 acres, and 
is entered by a bridge over a ditch 
from 20 ft. to 30 ft deep. In some 
places, particularly at the bridge, are 
brick walls from 10 ft. to 15 ft. high. 
There are 4 bastions and 1 tow towers. 
There are embrasures, but no guns. 
A house in the centre is nsed by the 
eiecutive engineer. Within the walls 
is a well of tolerable water, 10 ft. deep. 
To the W. of the fort ia the house of 
the B&jil of Dimiioi, which is well 
situated on the Ganges, here } of A mile 
broad. W. of the BAj&'s house is a 
ruined temple of Shiva, and W. of it 
again a good-giied temple to Ti|hnu 
built 100 years ago by Rim Pralip 
Singh, Dlwin of the DdmrAob 'B.6.\&. 
W. of this again is the Sounhiii, or 
burning-ground of the Hindiis, If a 
man be so poor that his estate wiU 



203 

BiiDgkd, who mardered a Brdluuau and 
married hie etep-mother, was washed 
awaj in it. At ChhanpatbaT, this 
river forms a magaifioeat waterfall, 
100 ft. bigb. 



Sect. IL Roiiif 22. — Baffsar (Buxar) to Bandrat. 

not bay wood with wbioh 
his body, they nnclior it in tne stream 
of the Ganges until it is eaten by the 
tortoises or alligators. Some ol the 
Sddbs, who are the priests of this 
locality, have good hoases in the 
town. The English cemetery is not 
far from this, which is planted with 
cypress trees. To the lixFt of the en- 
trance is an obelisk to the men of the 
Naval Brigade who died here during 
the Mutiny. The date is obliterated. 
Among the tablets may be remariced 
one to the Chevalier Antoine dc 
VEtang, Knight of St. Loais, bom 
20th Jalj, 1757, died 1st December, 
1840, and one to Lt.-General Sir 
Gabriel Martindale, K.C.B., who en- 
tered the service in 1772 and served 
68 years, without quitting India. He 
received the thanks of Government, 
and filled Important commands. There 
is also a tablet to Captain Henry Mason 
andLt.W.H. Dawson, who were killed 
while gallantly charging at the head 
of their troops ; the former near Bag- 
Bar, on the tith of October, 1858, and 
the latter at Jagdespdr, 2Srd of Hay, 
1868. Also to the N.-C. officers aud 
privates of the Military Train, who 
were lulled at Jagdespiir and in 
the Sh^i&b^ and Bih&r Districts, 
during the Rebellion. There is also 
a tablet to Captain James Sholto 
Douglas, 4th Madrna L, C, who died 
on the Gth of October, 18n8, of a 
wound received Jn action on tbe 6th. 

The Paddocks where the stud-horses 
were fed have now been converted into 
corn-fields. A stable 600 ft. long has 
beenchangedintoajail. Opposite to it, 
across the Ganges, is another large 
stableandagoodhouse, Acommissf 
of inquiry did away with the stud, 
each horse was reckoned to coat £240. 
The lands were given back, as they 
were held only on occupancy tenure. 
The loss to Government was £40,000. 
There are 700 prisoners in the Jail, 
and a new part will hold 300 more, 
7 m. to the S.W. of Bagsnr the Xaram- 
n&sa Sows into Ihc Ganges. This 
river ia held by Hindila in the 
abhorrence, and no person of high 
caste will drink or touch its water, 
w it ie said that the sin of B&j& Tri- 



ROUTE 22. 

BAOSAB (BUXAS) TO BAnAbAS. 



Miles tmn. 
Itagsar. 


NsraMQf8t&tion«. 


Time. 


Ml 


Bagur (Bni»p) . . 
U^ulMnnki . . 


11 



At Mu^nl Snxii, 470 m. from Cal- 
cutta, passengers change for Ban&ras, 
and the train tor that city, which is 6 
m. distant, starts 20 min. after the 
Calcutta train reaches Mnt^hul Ssxii. 
The through mail train stops 40 min., 
to aliow passengers to dine at the 
Eefreehment Roome. 

Bandrai (vulg. Benares) is in Sans- 
krit Van^asl, a word compounded of 
Var, "best," and Anat, "water," 
meaning the Ganges, on whose bank 
the city is situated. Tiiis is the ety- 
moI»^ given in Wilson's " Sanskrit 
Dictionary," but the BrAhmans lesi* 
dent at Ban&ras say, and no doubt 
with ti^ntb, that the same of the ci^ 



304 

is componnded of the liTers Bama 
and ^shi, the tarmei of which bonnds 
Baniras to the N. and the latter to 
theS. Thecity8taiidBinN.lat.26''17', 
and E. long. 83° 4'. The area of the 
British caDtonnent, which is called 
Sikrol, aad lies to the N.W. of the city, 
ia 1-77 sq. m. ; that of Pandipilr, 0-36 ; 
of city and enTirons, 28-19 ; total, 
3032. In the cantonment there are 
usually a wing of a European regi- 
ment, 1 regiment N. L, a battery of 
K. A., and some N, caralry. At Pan- 
dipdrthereare bamtcke for a regiment 
of dragoons. The pop. is in round 
numbers 250,000, which ebbs and 
flows with the number of pilgrimB. 
The city lies along the N, or left bank 
of the Ganges, which has to be crosaad 
at present by a bridge of boats. The 
B, 1. Railway Station is on the right 
or S. side of the riTer, and the traveller 
will have to engage a carriage and 
drive over the pontoon bridge at 
Rijgh&t to one of the hotels, which 
are situated 4 m. to the W., or less pre- 
ferably to the T. B,, which is near 
the Post OfBce and the hotels. The 
charge tor crossing the bridge is IJrs., 
and the carriage will cost 2 rs. The 
hotels are Clarke's Hotel and the United 
Service, and they are close to the S. 
bank of the river Bama, which joins the 
Gaines at 1 m. N. of the Kijgh^t, and 
runs W., passing at abont the 4th m. 
between the Public Qaidens and Col- 
lector's Court on the N., and Ibe 
hotels, the Judge's Court, tie Post 
Office, Station Church, and T, B. to 
the S. The charge at tlie hotels will 
be 5 ra. a day for food and lodging. 

The ancient history of Ban&iaa is 
involved in impenetrable obscurity, 
but it is admitted on all hands that it 
ia one of the oldest cities in India, and 
goes back probably to the Aryan in- 



It i 



Simte 2i.—Bagiar {Btixar) to Bandra*. Sect. II. 



Eapila taught the BAnkhya, Oautama 
the Nyilya, and F&qini published his 
Qrammar, Of intermediate events 
little is known, but we learn from 
^Jusoin NiEAml's history that in a,d. 
1194, Jai Chond, BijA of BanAias, 
whose army was countless as the sand, 
was defeated and killed by Kutbn 'd 
din, the general of Bhohibil 'd din 
(ihorl. It is said that the R&j&'s corpse 
waa recognized by his false teeth, 
fastened with gold, which is a proof 
of the civilized state of the city at thiat 
date. Kulb destroyed 1,000 temples, 
and built mosques on their sites, l^n 
that date Ban4ras was governed by 
the Mnslims, and became part of the 
province of All&bAbild. D^il, eldest 
son of 8h^ Jahiii, was at one time 
its governor, aod it seems always to 
have had its own R&jil down to near 
the 18th century, but some time before 
that the family l>ecame extinct ; and 
in 1 730 AJ3. Muhammad Bhih selected 
Mausar&m, chief of the Trikerma 
BrAhmaos, to be B&i&, placing under 
his rule BuiAras, Jawanpdr, and Gh&xi- 
pdr, for which he was to pay a Wibut« 
of 13 14khs. This R4jA reigned 3 years, 
and dying in 1738 was succeeded by 
his son, Balwant Singh, who, on bis 
succession, presented to the Emperor 
21,733 TB. In the preceding notice of 
Bsgsar it has been mentioned that 
B^want Singh claimed to have aided 
Munro in defeating the Nilw4b of 
Awadh, by deserting him on the field of 
battle. It appears that Major Camac 
had reported that Mir J'afar was 
anzions 1« oonclade finally a treaty of 
alliance, which hod for some time been 
in agitation, between him and Bal- 
want Singh, and on the 29th of March, 
1761, the Qovemment of Bengal re- 
corded " that the proposed alliance 
with Balwant Singh would be a very 
proper measure, and prove as well now 
as in all time to come a sta^)ng barrier 
and defence to the Bengal Frovino^ 
Agreed, therefore, that we write to 
Major Camac that we shall approve 
entirely of his entering into the in- 
tended treaty in concert with the Nii- 
w&b Ulr J'afar, and of his ei^aging to 
protect and maintain Balwant Singh 
independent both now and hereafter." 



I that 



most flonriEhing and important place 
G centuries before the Christian era, 
for Sh^ya Muni, who was bom in 
638 B.C., and died in 543 B.C., came to 
it from Oa;& to establish his religion, 
which he would not have done had it 
not been theo a great centre. All the 
most important writers of the Hindile 
were first heard of at Bac&ras, where 



Sect n. 



Botite 23. — Saniras (Benartt). 



The victory of Bagsar followed, and in 
December, I76t, it WHS agreed between 
the £mperoT ShAh '£lkm and tliG 
Government of Bengti that B&ji Bal- 
want Singh, linying settled tetms with 
the chiefs of the English Company, is 
ia to pay the revennea to the Company, 
and the amount shaH not belong to the 
books of the royal reyenne, but shall 
be expunged from them. &&]& Bal- 
want feingli thus became a feudatory of 
the British GoTcmment instead of that 
of Dihli, but Lord Clive anbeequently 
restored to Shnjd'u 'd daoiah all the ter- 
ritory which previously constituted hig 
viceroyalty, including the kingdom of 
BenilrBs, but in doing so the Qoremor- 
Qeneral, fully recognising the great 
claims of Ri]4 Balwant Singh, "for 
the signal and important services 
rendered by him to the affairs and 
interests of Great Britain, atipnlated 
in the 5th Article of the treaty tbat 
ShnjA'a 'd daulah engages in the most 
solemn manner to continue Balwant 
Singh in the Zamlnd&ris of BanArae, 
<^4tlpiir, and all liose districts he 
poBSeteed at the time he came over to 
the English, on condition of his paying 
the some revenue as heretofore." In 
spite of this stipulation the Nilwftb 
d Awadh endeavoured to deprive Bal- 
want Singh of his kingdom, and to 
seize his person, but all his attempts 
failed on account of the protection of 
the British Government. Balwant 
Singh died on the 22nd of August, 
1770, at bis palace of Bimnagar, which 
he had built on the bank of the Ganges, 
opposite to BanSras. He left a son, by 
a slave girl named Chait Singh, whom 
he declared to be his auccessor.and from 
whom the Ndw&bof Awadh extorted a 
Bum of 17 likhs, with an iacreascd 
tribnte of 24 Idkhs on " ' 
His Bubjecls, however, 
tions against his succesi 
of hig illegitimacy, and because n 
rightful heir to Balwant Bingh existed 
in Mahlp KArdyan, grandson of Bal- 
want, hiH mother being BAni Oul&b 
Kuftwar, only child of Balwant's prin- 
cipal wife. Chait Singh's troubles 
were increased by the hostility of the 
NflwAb of Awadh, andiu 1773 Warren 
s depnted to Ban&ras to 



meet the NiiwAb, and compel him to 
observe with greater fidelity the treaty 
with the British in res[:ect to Ban&ras, 
In September Warren Hastinga re- 
ported that he had concluded a new 
treaty with the Nilwib, and had ob- 
tained from him an engagement con- 
finuing to Cbait Rjngh and his pos- 
terity, the stipulation made with Bal- 
want Singh. Shujd'u 'd daulah died 
on the 2RUi of January, 1775, and his 
sou, Ajafu 'd daulah, continued his 
hostile attempts against Chait Singh, 
and the British Government interfered 
to protect him. The Kiiwib then made 
over to the British the territory of 
Ban&ras and the other possessions of 
Chait Singh, for which he was to pay 
to the Company the tribute which had 
been paid to Awadh. It was subse- 
quently agreed tbat Chait Singh should 
maintain 3 battalions of Sip^ls to aid 
the Company. Disputes arose as to 
the subsidy, and Warren Hastings 
again proceeded to Ban&ras in August, 
1781, and arrived on the 14th. On the 
15th the Resident, Mr. Markham, was 
sent to Clrnit Singh with a paper of 
complaints, and a demand for 60 likhs. 
The Riji liad previously offered 2[) 
likhs, which had been refused. Ho 
now sent a paper justifying himself, on 
which Hastmgs, " without any further 
communication (ece Mill, vol. iv, 
p. .177) put him under arrest the follow- 
ing momiug ; and imprisoned him in 
his own house with a military guatd." 
This atep led to a riot. A crowd as* 
sembled, and as the Sip^ls had come 
without ammunition, two additional 
companies, with a supply of cartridges, 
were ordcrtd to their support. But 
before they arrived at the palace all 
the avenues were blocked up, and 
a tumult arose which soon led to 
bloodshed, and at last to a furious en- 
gagement between the people and the 
troops, who were almost all destroyed. 
Mr. Hastings was then living iu M&d- 
IjuDAs Garden (see "Hist. of Banfiros," 
p. 31), which was about J of a m. from 
the R&i&'s palace at ShivMa Qh^t' 
where Chait Singh's palace waa, and 
from which be escaped to Rfimnagar 
fort on the other side of the river. 
Had an attack been made by Uie 



206 

lUji's people on Madhn D&9 Oarden, 
Hastings would hare probably been 
killed or msdc prisoner. He hiniBelf 
■was of that opinion, for he says, " if 
ChAit Singh's people, alter thej had 
effected his rescoe, had proceeded to 
my qnarters instead of crowding after 
tuia in a tnmultnious maimer, as the^ 
did tn bis passage over the rirer, it is 
probable that my blood, and that of 
about SO English gcntl^nea of my 
party, would have beeo addeil to the 
recent carnage ; for they were about 
2,000, furionn and daring from the easy 
success of their last attempt ; nor could 
I assemble more than 50 regular and 
armed Sipihls for my whole defence." 
(" Hist of B. India," MUl and Wilson, 
ToL iv. p. 893.) No attack, however, 
was made, and Hastings collected 6 
companiea of Major Pophara'e regi- 
ment, which with GO Sip4hla he had 
brought from Bagsar, and a few re- 
cruits newly enlisMd for the Rcsident'a 
Qnard, formed his garrison. He ordered 
the other 4 companies of Major Pop- 
ham's TeglmenC, a company of artillery, 
and one of French B^gerg, then aie.- 
tioned at Hln&pAr, to march upon 
lUnmagar and reduce it. Major Pop- 
Iiam was to command the force ; but 
an officer who was then at the head of 
the troops, did not wait for hie arrival, 
but attempted to storm the palace, and 
in marching throngh the narrow streets 
by which it was Borronnded was him- 
self killed, and his troops were re- 
pnlsed. liiia defeat encooiaged the 
rebels, and preparations were made tor . 
attacking t^e Mlldhn D^ Qaiden. 
After consulting with several officers 
of the army, Hsstinga resolved to re- 
tire to Cbun&r, taking the entire Euro- 1 

Kimes ot tbe Gh&ta DrfliKhti ofitcps 



Soide 2%—Bastar (Buxar) to Sandras. Sect. II. 



ity at Bandras with 
dim, and this was effected. On the 
29tb of August Chait Biugh's troops 
were defeated at Bikr, and on the 20th 
of Septemt>er Major Fopham captured 
Patlta, and Chait Singh Bed from 
Lallfpiir to Bijgarh, which surrendered 
on the 9th of November, and property 
to the amonntof 23 l&khs was captured. 
The ladies of the family were plundered 
of all they poEBcssed, hut Chait Singh 
had escaped to Bandalkhand. Hastltigs 
then bestowed the succession on Hahlp 
N4r4jan, who was proclaimed B&J& on 
the ;Wth of September, 1781, and thus 
the Bi] of BaniirBswas restored to the 
^andaon of Balwant Singh. The 
treatment of Chait Singh formed one 
of the articles of accusation Bgainst 
Warren Hastings iu his famous trial of 
the 13th of June, 1786. Mahip NAra- 
yan died in 1796, was succeeded by 
his son, Adit N4r4yan, who was suc- 
ceeded in 1805 by Mh nephew, the 
present MahfLrf^ii Ishwari PrasM Nlk- 
r&yan, who was mada a Q.C.8.L at 
the Imperial Assemblage in 1876, and 
now resides at BAmni^ar. He haa 
a salute of 13 guns. 

As the finest view of Ban&ras ia ob- 
tained from the river Ganges, the banks 
of which are bordered by magnificent 
Oh&ts, or Bights of stone steps, descend- 
aler from the most famous 
the city, the traveller will 
spend his first day in a 
boat, or, if possible, a steam Wnch, 
passing along the whole of the river 
frontage. In doing this he will 
find it not only useful, but absolutely 
necessary to refer continually to the 
following list : — 



ing to the w 
buildings iu 
do well t 



1. £sM OhH o 



2. Ldl& Uisr Qh&t ' 
8. TnUi Qhdf . 
t. Bio S&ljlb Ghit 

6. Akml Qh^t 

e. 8hiw41A Gh4( . 

7. Dsu4i Gh&(. 



Aai Sangam OhAi . 
Bochbrij Ghii( 



. The Monastery of Tulsl Vis, 
Jagann^th Temple to S. ; DurgA 
Ktini or Monkey Temple to W. 

. Knru Chatr Temple. 

. Image of Bhlm. 

. ghdlf Maboll, Prince of Dibit's 



—Sandrtu (Benaret), 



Stm«s of lU OhiU or BlghM of .t*i« 
framS-toN. 




Nam« of the BultUn^ lOJKmt to 




eachGMt. 


a Hannm&a Oh&t- 











The Cremation ground. 


10. L411 QMi. 






11. KedArGhdt 


11 


KedAmAth Temple. 


12. Charat or Chanki Ghit ■ ■ • 


12 






shrines. 


13. Cbhattrl Ohit ox Bdjd Olidf . 


13 


The ChaUca or Eeat House of EftjA 






Ainrita BAo. 


15. Pande Ob&(. 






16. Nand Gh^t. 






17. Chatr Qliit- 






18. Bengfill Toli Gh4t. 






19. Gnra Pant Ghi*. 






20. Chausttthl GWt .... 


20 


Temple of tba Goddess Chausathi. 


21. R&n& QhiJ 


21 


Built by the RAnA of Udipilr. 
A fine building at head of stairs. 


32. Hanalil Ghttf 


22. 


23. AhalTB Bdi'B Ghat. 






24. Sltlil Gh^t. 








25 


The Observatory. 


2S. MAn MaiiOir Gh4t .... 


2e 


Mahalla Arm* KQn4. 


27. Bhurava Gh4t- 






28. Mir out. 






39. LaUU GhAt. 






3a NlpAlOh&t 

31. Jal Stin Gh&t. 

32. Kyasth Ghdt- 

33. Mai^kan^A Ghat . . . 


sa 


Temple of Bi^heehwar or Golden 




Temple and Eolj WeU. 


33 


Temple of TArkeahwara, Well of 






MaiiikaranikA. 


34. 8iD(Uiia'8 QMt .... 


u 


Broken Wall. 


35. Bblm k^ Qhdt. 






36. GaneBh Gh&^ 






87. Ghisla GU4t. 






38. Ram Ghit 


38 


Temple of RAm. 

Conftuence of the DhantapdpA, 
Jara^Anada, EirnAnada, Sarae- 


39. Piluclie:anga GLut .... 


39 










wati and Ganga, the fiist four 






undergrouud. Aurangzib's 






Mosque, called HAdbn DAs kA 






peorhA. 


4a Durgi or Kftlt Ghit- 
41. Bindn Midhava Ohif- 










42. Gau GhA( ..... 


42. 


Stone figure of a cow. 




4a 


Houses of the Dihll family and 
Cemetery of H^diun ^A^b. 


44. Tilianita Ghdt 




15. Maitni GhAt- 






46. Prahlid Qh4t- 






17. Bij Ghit 


47 


Biidge of Boats. 



Particalars regarding those GhAts I the traveller ihould visit en touU to 
and the buildings near them, will be the place where he will embark in the 
given presently, but it will be convo- steam launch. The first pUcc he will 
mentOrst to mention the places whiob I sti^ at will be 5(. Miri/'t Church, 



Houie 23. — Bagtar (Buxar) to Sandra*. Sect. II. 



which is close to Clarke's Hotel, and 
between it and the T.B. It is 8* ft. 
10 in. long, and 67 ft, broad. There 
are i tablets : one to W. A. Baseri, 
DivisioDal Engineer ; one to Major 
William Murmy Stuart, Govemor- 
Geneial'B Agent at Ban&ras, who died 
29th of Joly, IHiia ; one to Lt.-Ocnoral 
James Kennedy, C.B., who died 27th 
of September, 1869, aged 81 years 10 
months ; and one to Lt, Curtis Richard 
Taylor, who was killed by the fall of 
his horse, July 3nd, 1840. On the W, 
of the church is a pillar, which with 
its footings is 2S ft, in. high, ci'ccted 
to the memory of Maj.-Geueral James 
Alexander, commanding the Ban&ras 
Division, who died llth of March, 
18*7. At the E. end of the chnreh 
compound are B old tombs. The first 
is to the 3 children of W. Grahame, 
1801 ; the 2nd to Susannah gtoart, 
-who died 8tb of January, 1788 ; the 
3i^ to J, Bnrdikin, who died 17B4 ; 
the 4th to the remains of 12 bodies 
brought from the Old City Burial 
Grottnd,Jan. 10, 1829, hy James Prin- 
sep ; the 5th to Ensign D. B. Beek, 
drovmedncnrltl^i^, 24th August, 1835. 
Should the traveller desire to 
go first to the Bftj Ghit by the 
Gmad Trunk Boad, he will pass the 
Nandcshwar Kotlii, a residence of the 
HahdrAj^ of Ban&ras. In this house, 
Mr, Davis, Judge and Magistrate of 
Ban&ras, was attached by the followers 
of Vailr 'All, the deposed Niiwih of 
A*adh, who had just killed Mr. Cherry, 
the British Itesldent, on the I4tb of 
January, 1789. Mr. Daria sent his 
wife and 2 children, one of whom was 
subsequently Sir John Davis, on to the 
roof, and with a spear, placed himself 
at the top of the staircase leading to 
it. It appears from an. acconnt subse- 
quently given by Sir John Davis, that 
his father wounded and disabled suc- 
cessively the first 2 mcu who attempted 
to ascend. This so diicoarsged the 
cowaidly asBailante. that they made 
no further attack, bnt contented them- 
selves with destroying the furniture, 
and watching their opportnnity. One 
of the women serrants with Mrs. 
Davis, on the roctf, was shot throngh 
the nnn. Yaztr 'All then sent for ma- 



t«tia!a to fire the house, and when an 
hour had passed, the galloping of a re- 
giment of cavalry, headed by English 
ofQcere, was heard ; Mr. Davis then de- 
scended, and found 3 of his servants 
dead or dying. Varir 'Ail escaped to 
the woody country of Bhotwil, wheie, 
after several defeats, he fled to a Eaj- 
piit chief, who snrrenderad him to the 
British, and he died a prisoner in Fort 
William. The house at present is lent 
by the MahfirAji to porsons of mnk 
who visit BanAras. The fumitare and 
pictures aeem to be of Mr. Davis' lime. 
The garden is pretty. The next place 
to be visited is the Baniras Govern- 
ment Collie, which is about J of o m, 
to the S.E, It is called Queen's Col- 
let, and is in the Perpendicular style. 
It is faced with free-stone from Chn- 
n4r, and was built by Major Eittoe, 
B.E. Government gave £12,690, and 
other sums were raised by subscrip- 
tion. In front is a small building in- 



lit of November, IMT. 

The centre tower is 76 ft. high. The 
nave is 60 ft. long, 30 ft. vnde, and 
32 ft. high. The transept is 10 It. 
long, 20 ft. wide, and 33 ft. high. At 
each comer are towers joined by open 
arcades. The names of Eubscribers 
have been recorded by the architect 
on the part built at their expense. 
Dr, John Midr, brother of Sir W. Muir, 
and the Rev. Mr. Wallace, were the 
first principals. Bobert Ballant^e, 
R. T. H. Griffith, Dr. Fitu Bdwaid 
Hall, late librarian of the India Office, 
Dr. Kern, prof easor of Sanskrit at Ley- 
den, and Mr. Gough have been profes- 
sors. In the College are a bust of 
R&jendriNdr&yan Bii, andpoTtiBil«oE 
Robert Ballantyne, Major Ejttoe, K.S,, 
and Mr. Donkin. To the N. of the 
College is a monolith, 31^ ft. high, ill> 
scribed ; — 

This BDcient Plllw, 

Found It Prghlidinb, near QbAitpir, mu 

Brought to Banini, in 1S^ 

By the Older, uid it the eipensg of 

The Hanoambls JAura Tnoiuso, 

Lkat,.G«VNiic>r Hoith Wuliin Fnrlncea, 



Sect. n. Route 22. — Bandrat {Benara) : Dvrgd Temple. 



And wi 
Under th 



eiuot ^nd Fiulllen 
) Qrden of OoTemn 



By Ql . 

LJeut. Bengal Englni 

Tbere is also a Fenian tranglalion 
ol the above, which showa that there 
are 2 mietakea in the Euglish, the r of 
Prabl&dpilr being left out, and inatead 
o£ '■ near " it should be '■ belonging lo 
theZira ot" On the obelisk there ia 
an inecnptiOD in the Oupta character. 
To the £. of the grounds are carved 
stones brought from SAmAUi, Bakariya 
Kund, etc. There is also an Archaolo- 
gical idngeom in the College, 

The traveller will now drive to 
Chait Qanj, which is about a m, to I 
S. by B. o£ the Collie. There 
here an encloenre, ovci the gate of 
which is this inscription ; — 
Tha eovloud grouDd 
Was (Jib Burial^luw ot 






9 Spot from dAaecrttion 



There is no tomb in tlie inclomre. 

Not even the signs ol a grave having 
been there are to be seen. The inclo- 
sure is close to Chait Ganj "^k Thini. 
It appears to have been the site ot 
Midhu Dia Garden, where HastlngB 
lived, and whence he fled in 17B1, as 
has been a1read7 mentioned. It was 
aibsequentlj the house to which Vazlr 
'Ali, the deposed Niiwib of Awadh, was 
sent In 1798, and thence he issued in 
January, 1799, to murder Mr. Cherry, 
the Itesident, and attack Mr. Davis. 

Next the traveller will drive to the 
Gnircli Mi»»ion Ifovtc at Sigra, which 
la Ij m. to theW. The church stands 
ahODt a m. due S. of the Awadh and 
Bohillchaud Baitwsy Btation, and ia 
caUad Ht. Paul's, and was Rniahed in 
1847. It is far handsomer than St. 
Mary's, There is an Orphsn^e, with 
66 girl» and 47 boys, attached. There 
is also a Normal School for Women, 
nd an Industrial School for Women, 
n which about 60 attend. The church 
- SSi ft. long from K. to W., and 40 It. 

s.firomH.toR Thence the tnxel- 
[Be^igal—lSSl.] 



ler will drive IJ m. to the MahirAjA 
of Vijayanagram's palace at Belipiir, 
Ho will of conne obtain permission to 
see the hooee from Di. Lazarus, or 
some Agent of the BA}&, The Becep- 
tion Room is 60 ft. long, 30 ft. broad, 
andSOfthigh. In it will be shown a pho- 
t<^rapfa of a sword given to the SA]& 
by the Duke of Edinburgh ; also one 
of the Hoyal Family as far aa ftincess 
Iiouise, with an inscription, saying, it 
was given to Mah&rftj& Mii2i Bhrl 
Vijajra K^m Gajapati HAj Mamc Bui- 
tin Bah&dnrof Yijayanagrain, K.C. S.I. 
On the table are boars' tasks measnr- 
ing IS in., which are said to have been 
brought from Africa. They are larger 
than anything seen in India. There 
is a good view from the terraced roof 
of the palace over the Ganges, in the 
direction of Anrangzib's mosque. The 
terraced roof measures 160 ftL from N, 
and 89 ft. 7 in. from E. to W. Tha 
Golden Temple is seen to the B.N.E. 
Close to the palace on the W. are 
several Jain temples. 

The next thing to be viiited is the 
Dargd Temple, sometimes caUed the 
Monkey Temple by Europeans, from 
the myriads of monkeys which inhabit 
the gigautio trees near it. One of 
these trees has many cavities in its 
trunk, which are the nouses in which 
the monkeys live. A Bengal gentle- 
man of r^lc is said t^ have caused a 
tumult by shooting seveial of these 
troublesome creatures, who enter the 
houses and gardens near the temple, 
and do iu9uito mischief. The temple 
is about I of a m. S. of the Vijayana- 
gram Palace. It is stained red with 
ochre. It stands in a quadrangle sur- 
rounded by high walls. In front of 
the principal entrance is the band 
room, where the priestfi beat a large 
drum 8 times a day. The porch is 
snpported by 12 curiously carved pil- 
lars, on a platform raised 4 ft. from 
the ground. I'he roof of the porch has 
a dome, and cupolas at eacA comer. 
The doors are plated with brass, and 
there aro two bells. It is said that the 
that hangB from the centre of the 
.e was presented by Mr. Qrnnt, a 
_. .latrate of Hin&pdr, about SO 
ynn agoi The temple and the flne 



Soute 22. — Batftar (Buxar) to Bandrai. Sect. II._ 



Singh, were mesBacred when he made 
his escape, as has been already men- 
tioned. Tan Bhiw&m Ohit i« one of 
tbe finest iJid most crowded at the 
Ghil^, Part of it Ib asoKued to the 
religions aacetics called Oos^ns. The 
next is the Dandi Gh&f, and la de- 
voted to the BtaS-beariDK aecetica 
called Dsndi Pants. It is also vei? 
laige. The Hanom&n iih&X, irhii^ 
comes next, is large and generally 
crowded. At the Smash^ Ghilt, 

EyreB for crematiou nuij be seen being 
nilded up, while bodies wrapt up in 
red cloths lie with their feet in the 
Ganges ready to be bnmcd. 

Fasdiig the UAi. Qh&\, the EedAr 
Gh4t, which comes next, deserves atten- 
tion. According to the religious books 
of Qie Hindils, the city ia Svided into 
3 great portions — Ban^raa, KMil, and 
Kedir. Ked&r is a name of Shiva, 
bat it also signifles a mountain, and 
especially a paK of the Himdlajau 
monntuns, of which Shiva ia the lord, 
hence called Sed^mith. His temple, 
or rather the top of it, may be aeen 
from tiie river at thia QM(. It is 
mnch resorted to by the Bengali and 
Tailangi pop, of the city. The temple 
is a spaciona bnilding, the centre of 
which is supposed to be tJie place 
where Kedftm&th dwelU. At Oie 4 
comers are ShiviJaa, with cupolas. 
Here are two brass figorea, hidden by 
a cloth, which ia removed on payment . 
of a fee. The walls and pillars an: 

C' ed red or white. There are 2 
black figuiet, which lepieaent 
the dmArpiiU or janitors ; each has i 
hands holding a trident, a flower, a 
club, and the 4th empty, to push away 
intruders. At the bottom of the Gh&t 
IB a well called the Gaurl Eund, or 
"well of Gnuri," Shiva's wife, the 
waters of which are said to be effica- 
cious in curing fevci's, dysentery, etc. 
To the W. at 1,800 ft. is the Mdosar- 
ovar tank, round which are tiO shrmes. 
Milnas or M^sarovar is a fabulous 
tank in the Himalayan mountains, 
near KaiMB, or Shiva's heaven. Near 
the tank at Ban&ras so called is a stone 
4^ ft high, and IS} in periphery, 
which is said to grow didW to the ex- 
'~ ' of asesamomsecd. Inaitieetto 



210 

tank adjoining were constructed by 
the Bini of Natdr in the last centory. 
As Dm^i is the torriftc form of Shiva's 
wife, and is laid to delight in destruc- 
tion, bloody saorificeB are oScred to 
her, and goat's blood may be seen 
sprinkled abont. 

From thia temple the traveller nay 
proceed to the Asbl Gh4t, and go on 
ixiard a boat or steam launch. TIuk 
is one of the 6 celebrated places of 
pilgrimage in Ban&ras. It it called 
also A'sbi Sangam, from the con- 
fluence of the ifshl with the Ganges, 
which takes place dose by. The 
channel of the AbU is dty diuiog the 
cold weather, bat qnite fnll in the 
Tains. It ia about 10 ft. broad. There 
is a grand bathing festival held here 
and at the temple of Jaganu&th, 900 
ft. to the S., on the IStb of the Uindi^ 
month Je(h. The steps at this Gh&t 
are a good deal broken, and thongh 
one of the moat sacred, it is certainly 
not one of the handsomest Qh&ta. 
This is the nearest GhAt from which to 
cross to BAmnagar, the palace of the 
Mabiiriji of BanAras. The Ma^ or 
monastery of TuLsi Oils, the famous 
Hindi poet, is close to this Gh&t- l^e 
next GhAt is the BachhrAj or L&llL 
Hisr Gh&f , called in the Calontta Map 
of 1869 the BassoorAj GhAf- Hete the 
Joins have lately built 2 temples, 
which stand on the bank of the 
Ganges. At the N. end of Tulsl 
Ohdt, which comes next, huge masses 
of the building have fallen, and he on 
the river's edge. At ItAo S&fib Oh&t 
is a huge recumbent image of Bhlm, 
which is Baid to be annually washed 
away and restored. The traveller will 
now pasa the Akml Ghit and come to 
the tJhiw^lA Qh&(. Here sUnds the 
fort in which Chait Singh resided. It 
is a handsome building', and appears as 
fresh as when first consb^ncted. In 
t^e upper part of the N. wall are G 
small windows in a row, from one of 
which Chait Singh made his escape, 
when be tied from Warren Hastings in 
1781. It is now called the Eh411 
Maljall, or "empty palace," and be- 
longs to Government. In this vast 
building, 2 companies of SipiUiIs ^d 
8 officew, who were gnarding Chait 



Sect. II. lioute 22. — Sandras (Benaret) : Observatory. 

the E. of the tank are figures ol 
B&UcnsIiriB, or the infant EH^^o, and 
Chatrbliuj or Viijlina. Close by ia a 
Shivila, built by iUij6 M6n Singh, 
nod called M^neshwar. At the CiiBukl 
Oh&t is the plHce where sci'peatB are 
worshipped. Here, under a pippal 
tree, are to be eeen many idols and 
figures of snakes. In a stroct olose by, 
calleil KeivaJ, is a figure of Durgi 
with 10 anas. 

Cbatr or Rijil Giii.% is neit, where 
tbe stairs BBcciid into a large house 
built by Aiiirit Kdo for travellers. 
Someshwar Ghfif, which is ueit, is 
w called from the temple of the moon 
adjacent, Soma being the "moon." 
and I'akicar "lord." At this Ghit 
every kind of disease is supposed 
to be healed. It is, however, not 
very crowded, as the Indians wisely 
prefer going to the hospitals or the 
doctors. Close by is an alley, in which 
is the shrine of ^r&han Devi, a female 
^sculapius, who is wor^ipped in the 
morning, and is Bupposed to cure 
swelled hands and feet. From Chaukt 
to Pande Gbfit the water is very dirty, 
which is owing to a large drain, which 
pours the filth of the city into this 
part of the Ganges. There is nothing 
particular at the next i Ghi(B, but the 
one after them, Chausathl QM.%, is one 
of the most ancient at BanSras. Here, 
in a narrow lane, is a temple to the 
goddess Cbausa^hi. Chansathi sig- 
nifies " siity-four." The BAnS Gh^t, 
bnUt by the fLA.ni. of Udipiir, is not 
much frequented by Hiudiis. It is the 
special place for the bathing of the 
llaalims. The Munshl (ih.&% is the 
most picturesque of all the Ghits at 
Ban&raa. It was built by Munshi 
8hri Dhar, Diw&n of the BAj& of 
N4gpilr, The edifice above the stairs 
is TfiiT handsome. There is a tower 
at each end and 3 large piissters in the 
centre, over which ate 5 windows, 
with 6 on either side, besides S win- 
dows in each tower. Of the 2 next 
Qhi(8 nothing particular is to be said. 
SltlB Ghfit signffiea " smaU-pox Ghd^," 
over which a Hindd goddess presides. 

Daaaihwainedb Qh&t ia one of the 5 



311 

during eclipses. Here Brahm& is said 
to have bffiered in sacrifice 10 horses, 
and to have made the place equal in 
meiit to AlliL^bild, called by the 
Hindils, Ptayag, the name of which ia 
derived from 2 Sanskrit words, which 
signifypre-emincnt worship. Afoolish 
legend is told in the Baniras Guide 
Book about the woid PraySg, which 
must have been invented for the bene- 
fit of Europeans. Another story is 
that if a Eindil dies on the oppoiite 
bant of the Ganges, he will be tians- 
migrated into a donkey. 

The travellermay disembark here and 
walk to the Min Mandir Gh4t to see the 
Observalury, This lofty building gives 
a fine appearance to the Gbi.\, and 
commands a beaulifnl view of the river. 
It was erected by Rajk Jai Singh, who 
succeeded the Rijis of Amber, in 
1693. That Biji was chosen by 
Mnljammad SbAh to reform the calen- 
dar, and for this purpose constructed 
a set of tables, which he called Zij 
Muhammad Shihi. (See As. Eea. 
vol. V. pp. 177, 178>. He built 6 
Observatories at Dihli, Banfiras, Ma- 
tbura, Ujjain, and Jaipiir, On enter- 
ing the Observatory the firstinstjiunent 
seen is the Bhittjyantra, or "ulural 
quadrant." It is a wall 11 ft. high 
and 9 ft. 1} in. braad, in the plane of 
the meridian ; by this are OBCertaJned 
the sun's altitude and zenifli distance, 
and its greatest declination, and hence 
the latitude. Then come 2 large 
circles, one of stone and the other of 
lime, and a stone square, used, per- 
haps, (or ascertaining the shadow of 
the gnomon and the degrees of azi- 
muth. Neit the Tantrasamant will bo 
seen, the waLl of which is 36 ft long 
and ij, ft. broad, and is set in the 
plane of the meridian. One end is 
6 ft. 4^ in. high, and the other 22 ft, 
34 in,, and it slopes gradually up, so 
as to point to the North Pole, By 
this, the distance from the meridian, 
the declinaljoa of any planet or star 
and of the sun, and the nght ascension 
of a star are calculated, There aie 
here a double mural quadrant, an 
equinoctial circle of stone, and aoother 
Yantrasamant. Close bj is the Cha- 
krayantra, between two walls, used for 
P 2 



Houle 22. — Bagear (Siixar) to Sandra* 



Hading the declination of a planet or 
star, and near it a DigansByantrft, to 
tindthe degrees of azimnthot aplaoet 

At BhaircLva Ghdt is a etuTila, 
as BhairaTa is only a terrific form of 
Shiva. The idol here is said to be 
the Kotwal, or maj^atrate of the 
city. There is an image of a dog 
cloae to the idol, and the confectionerb 
□ear sell imageEi of doga tnade of angar. 
which are offered to the idol of 
Bhairavan&tli. A Ttr Ahman here waves 
a fan of peacocks' feathers over viaitora 
to protect them from evil apirits, and 
th^ in return muat drop ojlerings into 
the cocoa-nut shell he holds. The idol 
here is of stone, with a fa^e of silver, 
and has 4 hands. The temple waa 
built in 1825 by '&&]&, R&o of PunA. 
There are several other idols, and 
among them one of Sttl&, goddess of 
amallpox, the oflerings at which are 
taken by men of the gardener caste, aa 
they are the professional inoculators 
of India. At Uiis place doge are daily 
fed by a QosAln, vrho has servants 
under him, who make up cakes of 
wheat, barley, or jowirl flour. On 
feativals the doga have cakes of 
wheaten flour, butter, and Bngar. The 
traveller will come nest to the Mir 
Oh4t;, which was built by Eustam 'All 
Kbin, N&;;ini of Ban4ms. It now be- 
longs to the Mah&rij4 of Banilra.s. 
From this the NIptileae temple in seen, 
and is a atrikingly picturesque object. 
It does not resemble in the least the 
Hindil temples. It is popularly 
called the Nlpill Khapri. 

Between this Ghit and the Jal 
6^n Ohiit is the famoas Oolden 
Temple, dedicated to Bi?heahwar, 
the Poison God, or Shiva — a word 
compounded of Vith, "poison," and 
tahnar, " god," because Shiva swal- 
lowed the poison when the goda and 
demons churned the ocean. "" 
temple is in a quadrangle roofed 
above which rises the tower. At each 
comer is a dome, and at the S.E. 
Shiv&la. Opposite the entrance ia 
shop where flowers are sold for offer- 
ings. The visitor should enter the 
shop and ascend to the 2nd stoiy, 
which ia on a level with the 3 towers 



Sect. II, 

of the temple. The Ist tower is the 
spire of Mah^eo's temple, the 2adisa 
gilt dome, and the 3rd the gilt tower 
of Bi^heshwar's temple. The 3 are in 
a row in the centre of the quadrangle, 
which they almost fill up. They are 
covered with gold plates, over plates 
of copper which cover the stones. The 
expense of gilding was defrayed by 
Mah&rij^ Ranjit Sin^h of Uxhia. The 
temple of Bisheshwar is 51 ft. high. 
Between it and the temple of Mahd- 
deo bang 9 bells, from a carved stone 
BcaSolding. One of these, and the 
most elegant, was presented by the 
Hftji of Nlp4l. The temple of Uahil- 
deo was built by Ahalya BSl, ItinI oE 
Indiir, Outside the enclosure, and to 
the N. of it, is the Court of UabAdeo, 
where on a platform arc a number of 
Lingams, and many small idols are 
built into the weJI. They are thought 
to have belonged to the old temple of 
Bi^eshwar, which stood N.W. of the 
present one, and was destroyed by 
Auraagilb. Remans of this temple 
are BtiD to be seen, and form part of a 
moaqnc which Aurangzlb built, where 
the old temple stood. This mosque is 
plain, and of no interest except for a 
row of Hindii or Buddhist columns in 
the front. This mosque, built to iu- 
snlt the Hiudi^, in one of their most 
sacred localitieB, has led to much 
animosity between them and the Mus- 
lims. The Hindiia claim the courtyard 
between the mosque and the wall, and 
will not allow the Mnslims to enter by 
the front of the mosque, but only on 
one side. The Muslims built a gate- 
way in front of the mosque, which 
still stands, but no Muslim can enter 
by it, and the apacebetween the pillars 
has been built up, A Fi^ut religiota 
tree overshadows the gateway and the 
road, but the HindOs will not suffer 
the Muslims to touch a leaf of it. The 
British Qovenunent acta as trustee 
of the mosque, and allows certain 
moneys belonging to it to be paid 
into the Treasui;, and to be periodi- 
cally made over for the benefit ol the 
mosque. 

In the quadrai^le between the 
mosque and the Temple of Bishesh- 
war is the famous Ch/iit Kip, "Well 



Sect 11. Soute^i. — Bandras {Sftuirtt) : Oj/dn Kup. 

of KiKiwle<%e," irhere the Hindiis 
suppose that 8hi7»TesideB, Thequad- 
rangle itoelf is Slthy, lint ia thai 
respect tails short of the welt, which 
is absolutely fetid, from the decajing 
flowers and other filth thrown into 
it, notwithitanduig that it tins a grat- 
ing orer it, OTerapreod with a cloth ; 
for in this cloth there arc large gaps 
at the sides, aod flowers arc contina- 
aUj falling tlicoagb them. The 
votaries, also, throw down water ; and 
as the7 are not at aU particular how 
they throw it, they make the pave- 
ment one last paddle, and besprmkle 
their fellow -worshippeiB all over, so 
that the clothes of many of them are 
la a dripping state. The steoch of 
the mud composed of decaying vege- 
table matter la the well is something 
indescribable. It is said that when 
the old tempk of Bi^eshwar was 
destroyed, a priest threw the idol into 
thU well, hence its nucommon sanctity. 
The platform is thronged by filthy, 
greasy men and women, and the 
horrible din of gongs and voices 
deafens Uie vlsit«r. In such a hubbub 
and throng, it is difflcnlt to take notes 
or to measure ; but it appears that 
the well is 5fi ft. deep to the sutface 
of the water. There is a staircase, by 
which the well can be descended ; but 
the door is kept locked, and the stairs 
ai^e only used when the well is cleaned. 
One can see, however, that the Btairs, 
in accordance with all the parts of this 
abominable place, are filthy to a de- 
pee. Crowds of fresh pilgnms arrive 
incessantly ; and as numbers of cows 
are mixed up in the throng, and most 
be treated with great consideration, 
the jostling is something terrific. The 
roof and colonnade of this quadrangle 
were bnilt in 1838, by Shrlmant Bai^i 
Sid, widow of Shrimant Daulat B^ 
Bindhia. The roof is supported by 
4 rows of pillars, 10 in a row. To the 
E. of the colonnade is a stone Nandi,* 
nven by the B^i. of NlpAl, T ft. high. 
On ttie S. side of the colonnade is an 
iron palisade, within which is a shrine 

• In " BhoTTlnjf* OuWe," it li niliJ tb»t the 
(empla to Mihi D«o h««, c1o« to tbe bulL t> 
> f^oT tJn lUnl of ^ilduiUd-a atrmnge 



213 

of white marble, and one of white 
stone, and a carved stone scsiEolding, 
from which hangs a bell. Around are 
many richly carved small temples, 
particularly one to the S. of Bi^hesh- 
war, and the gatewBys of the court- 
yard are similarly carved, and Bmall 
gilded spires add to the picturesque- 
ness of the scene. 

Just beyoud these temples is the 
shrine of Sanlchu', or Shani, the 
planet Baturn or its regent. The 
image is a round silver disc, from 
which hangs an apron, or cloth, which 

Erevents one remarking that it is a 
ead without a body. A garland 
hangs from either ear, and a canopy 
is spread above. A few steps beyond 
this is the temple of AnnapAr^fk, a 
goddess whose name is compounded 
of Anna, "food," and Purna, "who 
fills with." She is supposed to have 
express orders from Bi^beshwar to 
feed the inhabitants of Ban&ras. In 
front of this temple are a nnmber of 
bi^gars, who pester all paaserB-by. 
ThiBl«mplei85Titt.by]9rt.9in. It 
was built about 160 years ago, by the 
Peshwi of that date, Bajl RAo.* 
There are four shrines in this temple 
dedicated to the Sun, Gai^esb, Qanri 
Shankar, and the monkey-god, Hana- 
min. Near this is the temple of 
Sftkshl Viii*yalt. the witnessing deity,' 
It was built in 1770 A.D., by a Maritbft, 
whose name is not recoiled. Here pil- 
grims, after finishing the P&nch Kosl, 
or five kos or 10 m. circuit round 
Bantkras, mast get a certificate of 
having done so, otherwise their labour 
goes fur nothing. S. of the temple to 
Shani is that of Sh'ukareshwar, Skahar 
being the planet Venus or its regent, 
and7'*/iirar "god." Here prayers are 
made for handsome sons. Between 
the Teiople of AnnapurnA and that of 
Sf^sbl Vin&yak is a strange fignre of 
Oaiiesh, squatting on a floor raised a 
little above the path. This odious 
object is red, with silver hands, feet, 
cars, and elephant's trunk. 
After viewing the abominations of 

• " Shertinj's flnid*," p, S5, ears, " bj th* 
Mji of PiiniT- ThciewHiio BijiofPuni 
■t that Unw or since. The Fvehwis wen tlia 



S<mie 22. — Sagiar {Bttxar) to Sandriu. Sect II. 



214 

Hindii worship, and suffering from 
the filth? smellB, jostlings, and hideous 
noises of the Golden Temple, it will be 
» sweet relief to visit the BAji of 
Vijaj-ftntiKram's Female School cloge 
by. There are here 600 girls of all 
ages, fwm 3 to 18, and of the highest 
castes, some of them Br&hmanls. 
They are well taught, and eicel 
eapeciaily in gi;ogTaphj. They also 
sing very nicely. Near this is the 
Carmichael Library, which has this 
inscription, on a white marble 
tablet :— 



Idlng, 
oedln*.! 



1ST1, 



impletd 



the UihMli ofBaTianu, 
laid In tbit TUT Oit 
yoB of the Buil^lltig, 
D ISTO, flntlnlf tZm>ugli tb 
ucuc.ugi.y nr hIh HlghDssa the 
MihMJi OF VIJumiKKma, K.C.S.I., 
Who haa thiu mdded oooUieT to hli nun 
HemorlAls of regerd for tbe 
CltyofBaniras. 
And at whoia reqneit Uie building bu b« 
Nuned sRet ble ItieDd Uie 
Agent Ooremor-Genenl ot BuuLiu 

Wbo I^n on his put dedni Urns 

Publicly to record h!a unse not only of th 

Mihir^'a maaiflcenco, but of hie 



Blet fbrtane domoa Vl>yaiugnm. 
Though the Town Hall is almost a m. 
N. ol this, it will be as well to Tisitit, as 
itisaflne ntructure, and wotUi seeing. 
It was built at the expense of the 
Mab4r4j4 of Vijayant^ram. It is 
of stone, but coloured r«l, and is 113 
ft. long from N, to B, and 33 ft. 8 in. 
from B. to W. Tlie length includes 
the ante-cbamber, and the chief room 
itself is 73 ft. from N. to S. There is 
a, good room on either side of the 
staircase ; that to the N.W. is nsed by 
the Magistrates. Ascend 33 steps to 
the upper rooms, and remark on the 
landing-place a stuffed tiger, which 
was kUled in the dty, near the Bdra 
Ohif, by Alexander Lawrence, after it 
had killed a woman and wounded two 
men. The essistaaC magistrate fired 
at tbe animal, and fell oB the wall, 
8 ft. high, on which he was standing, 
down apoathc pavement below. Over 



the gateway of the Town Eall is the 
following inscription :— 


E.H. the 
H.B.H 


ALFRED HALL. 

MifllBAj™ r VlJATABAORAK, 

K.C.8.L, 
Pan.™ Ai^iK to tUa dty in 



Couplfited in Decvmbar, 1S7 






Whmftwi 






I, and opened bf 
I. uiD fHini-B ui Wiuie, la 

Jannary, 

u pnMnt*d 
Clilnnaaf 

Proceeding with the catal<^e of 
Qh4^, and oraittjng the Kyasth, which 
is of no importance, the traveller will 
come to the Uanikarauik^, which is 
one of the 6 celebrated places of Hindii 
pilgrimage in Ban^ras, and is con- 
sidered to be the most sacred of all the 
GhitB. It is also at the central point 
of the city, so that if a line was drawn, 
from it to the W., it would divide 
Banteis into 3 portions N. and S. 
Close to it are 3 temples erected by 
the £&jA of Amethi. Just above the 
flight of steps is the ManikaraniU 
Well, and between it and the steps is 
the temple of T&rkeshwara, " god of 
salvation," as T&rak signifies "he who 
ferries over." Below Uiis temple the 
bodies of Hindis are hnme<I. The 
well has its name from JMittii, "a 
jewel," and Kan/a, " the ear," Devi or 
Hahdidco having dropped an earring 
into it. During the eclipse of the smt 
it is visited by 100,000 pilgrims. The , 
well, or, more properly, tank, is 36 ft 
sq., and stone steps lead down to the 
water. Offerings of the Bel tree, 
fiowera, milk, landal - wood, sweet- 
meats, and water are thrown into it ; 
and from the putrefaction of these a 
stench arisca equal to that which 
ascends from the Well of Knowledge. 
According to a ridiculons Hindii 
legend, it was dng by Vi?h?n, and 
fiUed with his perspiration, and when 
he went away Mahideo peeped in 
and saw innumerable suns, which ft 
pleased him, that he promised Vi^hiuii 
anythinghepleasedtoaakfor. Vigbna 
asked that Mahtldeo should be with 
him for ever, and so gratified Uah&deOf 
that he shook with joy,untjloneof his 
earrings fell into the tank. Accordlog 



Sect. II. Jtotiie 22.—Scmdrat {Senayes) : GUlt. 



to othen it wu from Deri's ev, as she 
WM sitting with Hahideo, that tlie 
earring fell into the water. It maj be 
mentioned that at the Cremation 
GrTonnd below, the fire must be brought 
from the house ol a Domri, a man of 
Tery low caste. The pomi*, who haa 
the monopoly of giving Are for cp 
tion, is very wealthy, aa fees art 
maiided and given up to lOOO is. 
TArkeshwara the idol is kept in . 
servoir of water. At this Gh4{ i 
Charana-pfidulti, a roond slab project- 
ing slightly from the pavement, c 
which stands a pedestal of stone, c 
the top of which is marble, with. 
Imprints, which ate said to have been 
made by the feet of Vi^hnn. In the 
month (^ Eftrtik multitudes of pilgrims 
flock to this place. At the 2ud flight 
of steps at this Ghdt is a temple to 
Siddba Tiniyak, or Oanesh, whose 
idol has 3 eyes, is painted red, and 
has a silver scalp, and an elephaat's 
tmnk covered with a bib, which re- 
sembles a barber's eloth wrapped 
about a man when he ia about to be 
phnved. At the feet of the image is 
the figure of a rat, which Is the 
VShana or "vehicle" of this deity. 
On either sidenf thculirine is a female 
figure, one called SiddhI and the other 
BuddhL 

The traveller will now proceed 
Sindhia's Qhif, which is cnriouB 
bom the fact that its massive sT 
tore is gradually sinkinc, and 
already gone down sever^feet It is 
said that at one time this siDking was 
accompanied by n noise like the report 
of a cannon. The temple on the left 
of the 8. turret is rent from top fo 
bottom, as arc the stairs lending to the 
cTutain, between the turrets. The re- 
sidents near it say that the Ohdf haa 
gone down 12 ft. It was built by 
BaifA BiU, who constmctcd the colon- 
nade round the Well of Knowledge, 
but was left nnflnighed. Passing over 
the next 2 Gh4ta, tic traveller will 
come to the Ghosla Gh4t, which was 
huiit by the Nigpiir BAji, and is very 
massive and handsome. The steps 
lead Into a building, which bna a 
gigantic tower at each comer, and 
a central piece with B windows. As 



215 



the family name of the lUids of Kflg- 
pdr is Bho^Ia, that name would seem 
to be more appropriate for the Oh&^ 
more particularly aa Ghotia means 
" bird's-nest," a signification wholly 
inappropriate. It may be remarked 
here that all the nimes of the Qhtlfa as 
l^iven in maps are most erroncons and 
misleading, as Hilla BAl for Ahaly a 
B&i, and Madhadass ka Dhrwrara 
for MAdhDdAs ita J}eorha. EAm Ghit 
comes next, and is mnch frequented 
by Mar&thas. On the steps is a hand- 
some and very sacred temple. It was 
near this that the tiger was killed by 
Ur. Lawrence. 

The nest is 'Uie Pdncbgonga Ghit, 
from which there is a fine view of 
Aurangzlb's mosque, called in maps 
"the Minarets." ITio beat view, in 
fact, is from the river; but those 
who have seen the Tftj and the l^utb 
will be disappointed. The traveller 
will disembark at this Ghdf, amid a 
crowd of bathers, and ascend 120 
steep steps to reach the platform <j 
the mosque. Passing n sacred stunted 
tree of the Fieug intluia species, he 
arrives at a dirty pavement thronged 
with troublesome cows and snarUng 
dogs. With their usual eiagjfera- 
tion, the Indians say that tlie foun- 
dationa of the mosque are as deep 
as the building is high. During the 
century and three-quarters since the 
stnicture was raised, not a stone has 
been loosened. This mosque was 
built on the site of a magnificent 
temple of M&dhava, or Eri^hns. A 
small number of the faithful assemble 
here on Fridays, otherwise it is de- 
serted. The inside of the mosque is 
very narrow and i^ly. The left 
aisle is only 28 ft, 8 in. deep, the 
centre 3S ft. deep. The total length 
ft, * in. In the centre oa the left, 
recess, ia a Persian inscription, 
which may be thus translated : — 

■ccordonce with the ordrr ot the Gentlemim 
Whn hsve besn sppoirUd bv the 

tperintend the repalra of huilding? mid roads 

For tho town at BinirsB, injby the 

Direction of 



Houte 22.—Baffsar (_Siaxir) to Bandrat. Sort, II. 



And also as ncarda the 

Slonc sesta biwHrds the Bjver Osnges, and 

Tko wide Htalicaaea ud mlnireM Mid 

Tbs sldea of tfas prjncipsl door, 

With moat cireful mcuDieuient 

Have been tep«tred. 

On the right is — 

In tlie relfn of the 
X!ng BhHh 'Ilmn.liT the (Id of the 

Mr. HnAlon mMSngs), 
BshMur JaKiant Jung,* 
In the vesr IIM of the Hllrah ^ 1783 a. 
Hiqlra 'd danlah 'AU iWhiin Khln, 
Ooveraor of BuuLna, 
JUpalrod the Mosque. 
The traveller will now ascend the 
central staircase, which leads to the 
roo^ bj 2 most precipltoas flights of 
Btepa. There are ropes on either Bide. 
In the first fliftbt are 29 steps of more 
than a foot Ugh, and 16 in the 2nd 
flight, after which a single high step 
brings him on to the roof, whence 
Bprings the dome, which ia a bulbous 
one. At the N.W. comer of the 
root are B tteps, which lead to the 
winding staiicase of the minaret. 
There are 86 steps to the top of the 
minaret, so that there are in all 29 -i- 
ie+S6. Total 131 steps. The breadth 
of the uppermost plat&rm ia 7 ft. 7 in., 
and there are 8 windows in tiie 
minaret, each 8 ft, 7 in. high. From 
the ground to the roof is 45 ft,, and 
thence (o the top stair of the niinaret, 
which is as high aa one can go, is 77ft, 
80 that the total height to that point 
is 122 ft., and adding 20 ft, from the 
top stair to the ornament at the top of 
the minaret, 142 ft. According to 
Sherring'3 CJuide the height is 147 ft. 
2 in. The same authority sajs that 
the minaicts are Ifi inches out of the 
perpendicular, and that their diameter 
is 8^ ft, at the base. It must be 
remembered that 120 steep steps have 
to be ascended before the platform is 
reached from which the minarets 
spring, so that their top ia more than 
260 ft. above the river. The view from 
ihe minarets is not very picturesque, 

'' Theae iJtlea. glvea to Warren Htutlofti hf 
the emperor, are the same aa thoae oonfrired 
on high Mu^uunniadan offlcerv of state — Anjlm 



. as tlie houses in the ci4? ai« uglj, but 
the liver looks well, though there is a 
vast expanse of sand, beginning at 
the bridge of boats and extending 
along the E. bank for 2 or 3 m. This 
sand seems to be extending, for about 
1 of a m. from E. I. Railway Station 
there is an inctosoic where once waa 
a garden, which is now all sand. Pass- 
ing the Durgil Ghit the traveller will 
come next to the Bindu M^h,iva 
Qbllt, which was formerly dotlicated to 
MAdhava or IJri^H, whose temple 
waa raied by Aurangilb, The licit 
Gh&t is the Gau Oh&i, so called from 
the nnmber of cows that lesurt to it, 
and also from the stone figure of a 
cow there. 

The Trilochann Ghaf, also called 
the KlpiUa Tirth, will ucxt be 
reached. The pilgrim bathes in the 
Ganges at this Gh&t, and then pro- 
ceeds to the f^chganga, and tliere 
bathes again. There arc 2 turrets at 
the PilpUla GbHt. and the water 
between them possesses a special 



Qh^t, whei« is the Bridge of Boats, 
which is about ^ am. from Aurangzib's 
mosque. On the morning of May the 
1st, 1860, a terrific explosion took 
place here, owing to a magazine fleet 
blowing up, when lying at this Gbi.^. 
All the bmldiiigs near wore shattered. 
A Mi's, Small, wife of a missionary, 
had gone to the window of her house, 
and her head was blown to pieces by 
the explosion. There is a sq. bnild- 
n little to the N, of the bridge, 
a good way back from the river, 
which was once an hotel, but is now 
deserted. There are 6fi boats or 
jons in the bridge, and the way ■ 
8 them is so uneven and unsteady 
that bullocks can haidly draw carts 
a it, particularly from the dip at 
ndtothemorelevelpart TheE.1, 
Hallway Station is f of a m. from the 
bridge, and is a very good one. There 
is, however, no refreshment room. The 
total length of the bridge is 1,719ft, 
A short way on the BAj Gh&t Koad is 
a Diepensaiy, built by the -lUjA of 
Vijayanagtam, which was closed in 
1876, as Government refused to con- 



Seat. 11, RotOe 22.'^Banirtu {Beitam) : Sdmnaffar. 

tribute to it. At tlie junction of tbe 

Qonges and tbe Bani4 iaapieceof high 

};roQ]id, whlcli in the Matiny was 

stronglj fortified, and lias ever since 

been eaUed the Rij GhAt Fort 
A bridge oyer the Ganges st the 

spot where the bridge of boata now 

is, is to be constmcted by the Awadh 

and Bohilkhand Railwaj. The plant 

required for sinking wella, &c., has 

been sent ont. The mannfactnre of 

the girders baa not jet begon, but 

working drawings have been made. 

lo India nothing baa l)een done be- 

yond collecting moterialB, hot the 

work will, it is expected, be vciy 

shortly commenced. The bridge will 

not be finished under 3 years. The 

engineer is Mr. Batho. The supor- 

stractUM is to consist of 7 main 

e^ans, each 360 ft. between centres of 

piew, or 350 ft. between centres of 

bearings, and 9 spans of bridge ez- 

teotion, each 114 ft. between cantrea 

of piers, and 111 ft. 3 In. betweea 

centres of bearings ; the whole being 

supported by piers of brickwork. 

The whole of the superstructure Is to 

be constructed of steel, manofactured 

by the Open Hearth pioccss. The 

length of the main bridge will be '- 

2,492 ft., of the bridge extension, ' 

1,026 ft. 

The sights thns far described will, 
unless the traveller be very strong and 
active, occupy more than one day. 

For those who are pressed for time, it 
will be sufficient to see the Monkey 
Temple, steam up the whole length 
ot the Gh&ts, and disembark at the 

F4nch^anga to see the GoMen Temple, 
the adjacent mosqae, and it possible 
the R&jA of Vijanmagram's Girls' 

School, and disembark afain at the 

Bim Qb&i to see Anrangzib's Moaquc. 
The rest may be omitted. 

For the next day visits to iZiimiu^iir 
and SinuUh will be suffldent. Before 
visiting BAmnagar, the residence of 
the MahArAji of Ban4ras, it will be 
well to call on H.H.'s agent or Dr. 
Lazarus, and ask permission to visit 
the palace. Having obtained this the 
traveller will drive past the DargA 
Emid Temple ta what is called tAe 
BAmuagar Oh^ on the W. book of 



217 

the Gai^ieB, opposite to a Gh&t of the 
same name on the E. bank, which is 
overlooked by the castle of H.H. 
The bank of the river, on which the 
castle is boilt, is about GO to 00 ft 
h^h, and is idl faced with masonry. 
It is owing to this elevation that there 
is so fine a view from the rooms 
which look on the river. Ihe rivet 
mnst be ctossed in a steam launch, 
and the passage takes 10 minutes. 
At the end of Februaiy an elephant 
can cross the river without being oat 
of his depth. The castle has 8 vast 
bastions, and stands at a m. to the 
S.E. of Shiv&la Qb&ti on the opposito 
bank. Tq the rains the water rises to 
the toot of the walls, and extends 
over the W, bank for a m., and even 
deposits the sand In the upper stories 
of some bouses at 30 to 40 ft. above 
the surface of the water in the 
cold season. The traveller will pass 
through an outer court into another, 
where he will alight, and be ushered 
into a very handsome reception room, 
fiS ft. long, 30 ft. broad, and 30 ft. 
high, and open to the front. Tlie 
RijA is a fine-looking man, with veiy 
bright, piercing eyes. His sight, how- 
ever, has been affected by passing 
whole nights in prayer and worehip. 
He has translated the Queen's Journal 
into Hindi. Close to the first room 
is one 30 ft. sq., with a balcony all 
paved with marble, and commanding 
a veiy fine view to the 8. as tar as 
ChunAr, which is only 150 ft. high, 
but is visible from this room. To the 
N. is seen the city of BauAros, and 
the Brii^ of Boats. Within the 
castle is a temple to VjAsa, the 
compiler of the Vedas. There are 
festivals in MAgh and Phdgun 
(January to March), when boats laden 
with people accompanied by Nich 
girls proceed from Ashl Gh&(, and 
row about the river in front of the 
fort At the entiance of the palace 
are kept a fine tiger and leopard, 
caught in the Chiikia Jungles, which 
H.H.'s-huiitiiig-grounds. 
it a m. to the N.E. ot the palace is a 
beautiful tank, with flights of stone 
steps to the water's edge, and a stone 
caang all lound. TothcN. of thetank 



Soiite 22. — Bagtar {Siixar) to Sandras. Sect II. 



is a temple called Samer Mandir, dedi- 
cated to Dorgi, commenced by Chait 
Singh, and finished by the present 
Mah^&j4. This edifice has a base 
3i) ft. go., and about the same height, 
from which rises a spire o£ the usaal 
pngoda fonn, 60 ft, high ; the total 
height being 9r, tt. The surface is 
entirely covered with stone idols, bnt 
many of thera nrc broken. This 
arises from the images not being 
carrod out of one stone, but the limbs, 
being fa,itened on, drop off. On the 
W. side at the door, abont 6 ft. from 
the ground are the wonis in Nigari, 
"Tnraph i pachham," which is no 
doubt a huilder'n mark. The plat- 
form on which the temple stands is 
106 ft. 8 in. from E. to W., and 77 ft. 
from N. to 8. It is raised II ft. 7 in. 
from the groond. There are white 
marble pavilions on the N, nnd 8. 
sides, and a white marble lion on the 
W. side. To the a. is a fine garden 
called the BAm Bkgh. I'oor people 
who come to this place are fed at the 
expense of the It&ji. 

AirndfA,— The traTcller will start 
for Stlcnith at 3 p.m., and proceed 
along the GhA^fpflr Road to the 3rd 
mile-stone, and then turn off to the 
)eft, and drive about a m. along a 
non-metallotl road. Shortly after 
fumirg, he will sec 2 towers, 1 of 
which stands on a hill. Tlie principal 
one stands on a rising ground Jam. 
beyond the first, and there the travel- 
ler wiU get out In Dr. Fergusson's 
"Hist, of Arch.," vol. iii. p. RE, is a 
view of this tower, or jfti/i, and also 
an excellent account of it ; and in 
p. 68 is a representation of the 
panelling. From that book is eitraotcd 
the following : " The best known as 
well as the best preserved of the 
Bengal tilips, is that at f^&mAth, near 
Ban&ras. It was carefolly explored 
by General CDnningbam in 1836-36, 
and found to be a stupa— viz., con- 
taining no relics, but erected to mark 
some spot sanctified by the presence 
of BuddliH, or by Bome act of his 
during his long residence there. It is 
eitoated in the Deer Park, where he 
took np his residence, with his 5 
disciples, when he first removed from 



Gay& on attaining Buddhahood, and 
commencing Mb mission as a teacher- 
What act it commemorates we shall 
probably never know, as there arc 
several mounds in the neighbourhood, 
and the descriptions of the Chinese 
pilgrims are not suHciently precise to 
enable us now to discriminate between 

The building consists of a stone 
basement 93 ft, in diameter, and 
solidly built, the stones being clamped 
tt^ther with iron to the height of 
43 ft. Above that it is in brickwork, 
rising to a height of 110 ft. above 
the surrounding ruins, and 128 ft. 
above the plain. Externally the 
lower part is relieved by 8 projecting 
faces, each 21 tt. ti in. wide, and 15 ft. 
apart. In each is a small niche, in- 
tended apparently to contain a seated 
fignre of Buddha, and below them, 
cncireling the monument, is a band of 
sculptur^ ornament of the most 
exquisite beauty. The central part 
consists of geometric patterns of great 
intricacy, bnt combined with singular 
skill ; and above and below, folis^ 
equally well designed, and so much 
resembling that carved by Hindi 
artists on the earliest Mnhammadan 
mosques at Ajmir and Dihll, as to 
lUEike us feel sure that they cannot be 
very distant in date. 

The carvings round the niches khA 
on the projections have been left so 
unfinished — in some instances only 
outlined — that it is impossible to 
guesi what ultimate form it may have 
been intended to give them. The 
upper part of the tower seems never 
to nave been finished at all, but from 
our knowledge of the Af^b&niat&n 
Tdps, we may surmise that it was 
intended to encircle it with a range 
of pilasters, and then some bold 
mouldings, Iwfore covering it with a 
hemispherical dome. 

" InbisexcBvations,QenenilCuniiiDg- 
ham found, buried in the solid masonty, 
at the depth of )0( ft. from the sum. 
mit, a large stone, on which wm 
engraved the usual Buddhist formula 
'Yedharmma hetu,' ic, in chorac- 
ters belonging to the 7th century, from 
which he infers that the 



Sect. II. Moute 22.—Ban&rds (Senares) : SdmdtL 

belonRH to the 6tli centray. Tome (Dr. 
Fergusson), it appears so extremely im- 
probable tbatmen shonld csrefullj en- 
grave anch a formcla on a Btone, and 
then bury it 10 or 12 ft. in a mass of 
masonry which they mnat have hoped 
would endure for ever, that I cannot 
accept the conclusion. It Eeenrn to ne 
mnon more probable that it may hare 
belonged to some building, which this 
one was designed to supersede, or to 
have been the pedestal (^ some statue 
which had been disnaed, but which 
Itom its age bad become Tenerable, 
and was consequently utilised to 
sanctify this new erection, I am con- 
Gcquently more inclined to adopt the 
tradition preserved by Captain Wil- 
ford, to the effect that the 84m4th 



a erected by the si 
Mobi Pala, and destroyed (interrupted) 
by the Muhammadans in 1017, before 
its completion. The form of the 
monntaent, the character of its sculp- 
tnred ornaments, the unfinished con- 
dition in which it ia left, and indeed 
the whole circumstances of the case, 
render this date bo much the most 
probable, that I feel inclined to adopt 
it almost without hesitation. " 

84m4th was visited by the Chinese 
BaddhiBt pilgrims, Fa-Hian in 3B9 
A.D., and Hiouen Tsang in 629—646 
A.D. Theformersays; "Rtl01i = 3m. 
to the N.W. of Baniras is the temple, 
situated in the Deer Park of the 
ImmortoL" Hionen Tsanj; states that 
In his day the kingdom of VarAnael. 
or Bau^bras, was 4,000 li, or 667 m. 
in circumference. In it were 30 Budd- 
hist monasteries, having 3,000 religiaix 
attached. He states too that to the 
N. E. of BanAraa was a stnpa, which 

c call T<5p, bnilt b^ Ashoka, 100 ft. 



He says the monastery of the Deer 
Park was divided into 8 parts, and 
was surrounded by a wall, within 
which were balnstrades, S-storied 
palaces, and a Vih&ra, 200 ft. hi^h, 
Burmenntcd by an An-molo or man);o 
in embossed gold. "There were 100 
rows of niches round the stupa of brick, 
each holding a statue of Buddha in 
embossed gold. To the B.W. of the 



219 

Tihdra was a stone stapa raised by 
Ashoka, having in front a column 
TO ft. high, on the spot where Buddha 
delivered his first disconrae, W. of 
the monastery was a tank in which 
Buddha bathed, to the W. of that 
another where he washed his monks' 
water-pot, and to the N. a 3rd where 
he washed his garments. Here was a 
sqnare atone, which showed the marks 
of the threads of his brown vestment. 
Close to the tanks was a stupa, then 
another, and then in the midst of a 
forest a third. To the B.W. of the 
monastery at ^ a m. was a stupa, 301) 
ft. high, resplendent with jewels and 
surmounted by an arrow," The 
Dhamck Btnpa is the one now exist- 
ing. It stands on rising ground, and 
has to the W. a Jain temple surrounded 
by an inclosure, the door of which is 
often locked when the attendant goes 
to BanSras, The base of the stnpa 
has been surrounded by a handsome 
facing of stone, decorated with a 
relievo of the pattern shown by Dr. 
Fei^useon. This has fallen oS in 
many places. Up to 1878 an old 
man, who said he was 9S. named Har 
Dyal, acted as guide. He was vrith 
General Cunningham and Major 
Kittoe, when they made their eicava- 
tions. He will show the way with a 
torch of withered grass into a dark 
passage, which has been made with a 

?ickaxe r^ht through the building, 
his passage is only 4 ft. 10 in. high, 
and 2 ft. 7 in. broad, and curves a 
good deal, so that it is 120 ft. long, 
tjiough the actual diameter of the 
building is only 93 ft. There are 
often cobras in the pasnngc, and, in 
1876, ^dropped close to the headsof two 
officers, who were goii^; through. It 
is necessary, therefore, to have a good 
light, and the best plan is to bring a 
torch with one. In the centre of this 
passage you can sec right np to the 
top of the stupa. About 40 ft. from 
the B. end there is a torso of Buddha, 
with the Brdhmanical Thread. There 
are also a few carved stones. To the 
W. are acres of moanda and excava- 
tions, showing that there were exten- 
wve buildings in that direction. The 
old gaide declares that cart-loads of 



330 

stones were carried off to tbe Ban&TM ' 
CoUege. At 370 ft. to the W. by S. of ■ 
the Dhamek Btupa, is a ronnd well 50 
ft, in diameter, which the guide calls 
tbe lUDl'a batb. It ia 15 ft. deep, 
and B torso of Buddha lies in it. 

A little to the N. of the well is Jagst 
SlDgh'a Btnpa, bo called hj Cnoniog- 
ham, becBose BAM Jagat Singh, 
Dlwin of Chait Singh, excavated it to 
get brickg to built Jagatganj. His 
workmen found, itt a depm of 27 ft., 
2 Teasels of stone and marble, one 
inside the other. In a paper bj 
Jonathan Daucan ("As. Bes.," vol. v., 
p. 131) it is said that the inner Tcssel 
contained human bones, gold leaves, 
decayed pearls, and other jewels of 
trifling value. In the same place, and 
at the same time, a statue ot Buddha 
was found, iaecribed : "Samwat 1083 
■^ A.D. 102li." According to the 
guide's account, who is perhaps the 
person called by Cnnningbora Saug 
KaT, the inner bos was of green 
marble, IC in. high and 5 in. diameter, 
and it held 46 pearls, 14 rubies,' 8 
silver and 9 gold earrings, and 3 
pieces of the arm-bone of a man. 
This informant showed Cunningham 
where the stone box had been l^t at 
a depth of 12 ft., and the Qcneral 
presented it, with GO statues, to the 
Bengal Adatic Society, in whose 
Museum it now is. There is a ruin 
W. c^ the Great Stupa, which ijie guide 
colls the Khiz4na, and near it lies a 
stone 5 ft, 8 in. long, 2 ft. 2 in. broad, 
and 1 ft. 7 in. deep. There is also a 
well 6 ft 6 in. in diameter, with water 
at GO ft. down, fiome brick walls 
remain ot great thickness. Those who 
desire farther particntars may cousolt 
Cunningham's " Archseologica] Be- 
port," and Kittoe's " Bhllsa Tdps," 
The other tower stands on a very steep 
mound about 100 ft. high. The build- 
ing is octagonal, and has an Arabic 
inscription on the N. side, and a well 
down the centre. 

When the Great Mutiny broke out 
in Mfty, 1867, there were in the Eng- 
lish cantonment at Sikrol. the suburb 
of Ban&ras, the 37th N. I„ the Silch 
Regiment of LodiiDali, and the 13th 
Irr%nlar Cavaliy,— in all about 2,000 



Moute 22, — Sagtar {Buxar) to Sandrag. ^t. II, 

lodJan soldiers, watched by half a com- 
pany of European Artillery; the whole 
commanded by Brigadier George Pou- 
sonby, who, IG years before, in tiic 
cavalry engagement of Parwin-darah, 
had shown great gallantry. The civi- 
lians were men of courage and capacity; 
Henry Carr Tucker was Commiis- 
sioner of BanAniA, Frederick Gubbina 
was judge, and lind was the magis- 
trate ; Captain William Olpherts com- 
manded the Artillery. He bad served 
under Williams ot Ears. According 
t« Kaye, he and Captain Watson, ot 
the Engineers, called on Lind, and 
suggested that a retreat should be 
mode to Chun&r. Lind replied that 
nothingwould induce him to leave his 
post, and it was determined to face 
the danger. In the event ot a rising, 
all Christians not engaged in sap- 
pressing it were to take refuge in the 
Mint. On the 3rd of June the 17th 
Regiment N. L shot their quarter- 
master and quartermaster-sergeant at 
'A'j;imgarb, and carried oS 7 l&khs of 
rupees. This mutiny of a neighbouring 
corpsexcitedtbetroopsatBan&ras. On 
the 4th of June Colonels Ooidon and 
Neil and Brigadier Ponsouby resolved 
to disarm the native regiments, and 
moved up all the Europeans, namely, 
160 men and 3 officers of the 10th, 60 
men and 3 officers of the Uadraa Fusi- 
Icers, and 2 officers and 38 men ot the 
Axtiliery. In the attempt to disarm 
the Sip&his, the mutiny broke out ; 
some men of the 10th were shot down, 
and the rest fcU back in rear of 
the guns, which opened upon the 
mutineers and soon drove the 37th oS 
the field in panic dight. Meanwhile, 
the Irregular Cavaliy and Gordon's 
Sikhs came on the ground. The com- 
mander of the Irr^ulars, Captain 
Guise, had been killed by a Sip^l of 
the 3Tth, and Dodgsou, the Brigadier- 
Major, who took his place, was at- 
tacked by iha troopers. The guns 
then opened upon the cavalry and 
upon tLe Sikhs, who had already 
begun to fire upon the English. The 
mntiueers charged the guns three 
times, but were driven back and were 
soon in confused Sight. Still, in a 
city like Banftras there would have 



Sect. II. Jloute 22.— Bandras (Bemret) : PvMie Buildings. S21 



been extreme danger of an imeiite, 
occnsioned by tbe iiiimerovis mutinoua 
Sipithls dispersed tlirangh it, had not 
Sarddr Surat Singli, icho after the 
2nd Bikh Wat bad been a prisoner on 
parole at Ban^ias, allayed the tomnlt 
amongst the Sikh soldiers, who, on 
his persuasion, gave up the GoTem- 
ment treaaare and the LAhrir Crown 
Jewels, which were then placed in the 
strong cells of the Artillery Prison, 
Meantime tbe European community 
had for the moat part taten lefui^e in 
tJie Mint On the 9th of Jane, mar- 
tial law was proclaimed in the divi- 
sions of Baaiiaa and All^iib^, and 
a number of executions followed, and 
BanAras waa safe. Only one English 
otDcer, Captain Guise, was killed, and 
Captain Dodgson, Ensigns Tweedie, 
Chapman, and Hayter were wounded, 
of whom Hayter died of his wounds. 
Tbe Mint ia in the centre of the can- 
tonment, near the Post Office. It has 
2 porticos, 30 ft. 4 in. long. The 
building has a total length of 286 ft., 
and a breadth of 95 ft. It has been 
purchased by tbe Mah&rijA of Ba- 
nAras, and is no longer a mint. There 
is a full-length portrait of Henry Carr 
Tucker, and a great number of old 
prints. The General Parade Ground, 
where the Mutiny took place, is to the 
S.W, of the building which was the 
Mint, and has at its B.W. corner the 
Bnce Cooree, and to the S.E. the London 
Mission. After seeing these places, 
the traveller may drive to a yellow 
baugli ^ a m. from the hotel, and on 
the left as yon enter cantonnicnte. In 
front, adjoining the road, is a stone aun- 
(lial, surrounded by an iron railing, and 
with this inscription at its back — . 
EMtteU by order of the 
HON. WAKRBH HASTINGS, Esq., 
Govemnr^enenil, 



latltDde, M* ai' M" S. 
LongitudtSS" IS' 16" E. 

Mr. Hasting lived in the yellow 
house. The toaveller will now cross 
the bridge oiet the Bama to the Col- 
lector's Office, to. the right of which 



In the BnnkofBengaL The Collector's 
Office WBB formerly the residence of 
the Agent of tbe Govemor-Qeneral, 
In this house, or just outside it, Mr. 
Cherry was killed by the followers of 
Varlr'All. CIosetoitarethePublicQar- 
dena, where areabilliard-room, library, 
and Badminton ground. The Commis- 
"loner's OtBoe is just beyond. Nearly a ' 
Q, to the K. are 2 cemeteries, and ho«- 
,iitals for tbe deaf, dumb, and blind. 
Over that for tbe blind is written — 
am Kill BtiimkBr Ohaul BaUdur 
Fiiunded UiIb Asylum 
For tbe Blind and DoMHutc, 

There is tlie same inscription in 
Beng&U and Persian. This Asylnm 
accommodates 18S inmates. Near 
this is a hospital for poor Eutopeans, 
erected by Siht. Guru D&e Mitra. 
The Old Jail is also close by, and can 
contain 600 prisoners. Ilio bridge 
over the Bama has the following in- 

Brordaroftbfl 

Oovemor-Geuenl in Council 

Tbil Bridge hbs ereeteil and the 

Eipenu tJiereoT defrftyed on' ~ " 



BegDD the 39th or April, ITSIS, ind 
Coiuplelfld on the SOth oV NoYember, ITBr. 

John OissriN, Major of Eogtneen, Arch. 

The Central Jail is 2 m. from the 
hotel, and about 1 m. to the W. of tbe 
Collector's Court. On the 26th of 
February, 1877, there were 179B male 
prisoneiB,ot whom 87 were sick, Women 
and lioyi are kept in the District Jail. 
The Central Jail was built by the 
prisoners. They make and repair 
carriages, boats, etc., and there is tho 
best blacksmith's yard here, perhaps, 
in all India. The Jail was begun in 
1866. Before that the District Jnil 
was the Central. In 1869, six men 
escaped through a hole in the wall. 
There is a permanent guatd of 32 
men. At night the men are only 
locked np, and no chains are pat 
upon them. Mr. Morgan, formerlj a 
private in the 14th, is at the head of 
the smiths' and caroentering vork, 
which is dime most admirably. 

It may interest some persoDS to 
visit the cemeteries, of which there 



Route 23.^ — Bagtar {Baa 



m. from Clacke'B Hotel, to the E., 
U quite full of tomba. Odd or two 
are utterly ruined, but others hare 
been Tepajred, and repairs are gene- 
rally going on. One may be noticed, 
which ia inscribed in Greek and also in 
Persian. The Greek aaye, " In niemory 
of Demetrius Qalanos, an Athenian ; " 
the Fcrsian gives the chronograph aa 
"AfsiislFalatdniZamiijiBaft." 'Alasl 
the Plato of the age haa gone.' The 
tomb of Robert Batharat, B.C.S., may 
also be noticed as being 25 ft. high, 
supported by pillars. He died the 3rd 
of November, 1821, Notice,.alBo, the 
cenotaph of James Robert Bollantyne, 
LL.D., the Sanskrit scholar, bom at 
Kelso, December 13, 1813, and died in 
London, February IS, 11(64. Notice, 
also, an obelisk 10 ft. high, as- 
cended to by 9 steps, and iurronndcil 
by an iron railing ; the base projects 
like that of the Nelson Column in 
London. Up to 1877 there was no 
inacTiption, but it is the monument of 
Mr. Cherry, murdered by Vaiir 'Alt 
Neit to it is the tomb of W, A. Brooke, 
Senior Judge of the Court of Appeal, 
and Agent to the Qovemoc-Qcneral, 
vrho died in Jul;-, 1833, in his Sist 
year. The t«nib of Lt.- Colonel 
Francis WiUotd, the well-known 
obteolt^ist, who died 4th September, 
1$22, aged 71, is thua inscribed ;- 

To th« U tiuory of 

FRANCIS WILFORD, 

Lt-Colond tn th« Engineer 8urvic« 

Tlie £ut ludu CompMiy. 

Agat It yeara. 

Deceued on the 4Ch of Seplembar, IE 

EticDunged by the 



Colonel Wilfoid's tomb is a hand- 
arane building, supported by 4 pillara. 
The following tablet speaks ill toi the 
climate : — 

e Memoty of 
lltti Uarch, IBM, 

d littii Augnat, 183^, 

1, dledSrd June, 1938, 



LlberaUtyofthsGovBi 



Ha flied hU resldeni 

In the jDir 1768. 

WhUet yot in the Tlgoar of bii days. 

Devoted hli life to nflnment and itkid;, 

Emineutly qoallfled by picvioua siluutiuii, 

EiMosive erudlUoD, ■ trne intellect and 



Tha cUsaJcal Unvu^e ju»d lltfitaturo of 

Tbe Hlndi&e, and applied 

His knowledge to Uia imidUtloa or the 

Dark period! of antiquity 

Perpatufttei bla own repuUtlon, And t 
BoDour of tbe Brlttab name in the Eait. 



AmdS 
Oliveb, died 14th Augnat, 
. Aged IS niqn^. 

Ha 

AoHl & mouUu . 

The b^oved children ot 

Joseph «ad Eluabetu Utevess. 

Reader, did yon ev«r love childienl 

Mrs. Small, daughter of Bobert Cath- 
cort, Esq., of Domus, who was killed 
by the terrible explosion at lUjgh&t, 
ou May 1st, 1850, is also buried here. 
The Demetrius Qalanos who has been 
mentioned put up an inscription in 
Greek, as follows : — 



DUCETBIUB iil 



The Stranger, 

StTKliger, 



Tbe persona killed in the Mntiny at 
Ban&ras, on tbe Gth of Jane, 1867, 
were buried in a spot of ground which 
is DOW inclosed with a wall fi ft. high, 
and is within the premises of theAwadh 
and Rotulkhand Railway Station at 
liandraa. It ia nbout 200 yds. to the 
W. of the ground ou which the fight- 
ing took place. There are traces ot 
earthen graves, but no masonry tomb, 
nor any inscription, In the inclosure. 
The tablet to Hebeoca Pushong con- 
taina tbe most poetical epitaph in all 

The Military CBmeteru ia very well 
kept, and ia laid out with flower-beds. 
There is a well, from which the 
ground ia watered, and 3 gardeners 
are employed. In the new Civil 
Cemetez7 there is a tablet to Captain 
! B. C. Walker, of the 19th Hnssais, 
I who died of cholera on the 22nd of 
I July, lH6a. He died in the house 
I nearest to the BamA, on the left band 
I as you pass tike bridge, going; from 



Sect. II. Route 2±—Mn<ira» {Bemrei) : Devi's ffou 



was taken next by 
the Snperintoiident of Jails— aiemark- 
ably tall, powerful man, who also died 
suddenly of cbotera ; and it wm tlicn 
takea bj a doctor, who also died of 
(diolera ; now no one will look at it. 
Ifotice in this cemetery a beantiful 
white maible tomb to Augusta, 
daughter of Captain Lowe, "RJl. Also 
the tablet to Lt.-Colonel Kennedy, 
C.B., of the 6th Bengal European 
Cavalry, who died 26th of September, 
lesy, in his 82nd year, after an Indian 
service of 61 years. " This Monument 
is erected by his Widow, for 65 years 
partner of his joys and sorrows." Mrs. 
Kennedy, who thus mentions her 
manifvge to the deceased 73 years ^o, 
is still living at Ban&ras, and ia aboat 
SS years old, and is the lady presented 
to the Prince of Wales by Lady 
Strachey and Canon Duckworth. 

To the sportsman Ban&ras is not 
without its attractions. At Jalhupiir, 
8 m. off, on the road to Qh^lpi^, is 
a in'eserTe of H. H. the Hah&r&j^, in 
which are numerous herds of deer, 
NilgM, and wild hogs ; also peacocks, 
which must not be shot, partridg-ee, 
pigeons, quails, ducks and swans. The 
chief place for duuks, howerer, is a 
lake called the &ay^ Jhll, 6 m. long 
and 2 broad, at Chandauli, IS m. S., on 
the Qrand Trunk ftoad to Calcutta. To 
shoot at Jnlhupilr, the Mah4r&j&'s per- 
mission must be obtained. At the 
Ajgarah or PiprI Band, wild hogs, 
wolves, and toies are very uumeraus. 
It is 12 m. from Ban^as, on the GhA- 
ziptir Boad. 

Befcre leaving Ban4ras, the traveller 
should visit the shop of IMi. Devi 
Praaid, near the Purind Chauk, where 
all kinds of beautiful fabrics and pic- 
tnrea on mica, as well as toys and fans 
of peacocks' feathers, may be purchased. 
It is desirable to avoid employing a 
daldl, or broker, as they expect a fourth 
of the price of each article purchased. 
This they call i*n«, or " corner," on 
expressive word, which means 4 &aAa 
In the rupee. In driving to the shop 
the Clock Tower is passed; you then 
turn to the right, and drive till you 
can go no further in a carriage, and 
Jien walk a little way to the left, and 



the left is Devi's house. Devi hlm- 
seLf died on the 9th of November, 1876, 
from an illness brought on by grief at 
the death of his younger son, IJukh 
Deo, who was killed, when visiting 
the Town Hall, by the faU of some 
bricks. This so alfected the old man, 
that he became subject to aberration of 
mind, and died in his !>9th year. His 
eldest son, Balbhadrad^, has succeeded 
him, and is a young man of good prc- 
1 and mannei's. The principal 
for dealing is upstairs, quite 
away from the street, where the gor- 
geous biocades would excite too much 
* iterest amongst the passers-by. The 
x>m is dark, the door has over it, 
Worsliip to the divine Ganesh." A 
casket will be shown containing the 
medals gained at exhibitions by the 
lliere are a Bronse Medal in- 
scribed, " 1862, Londini Honoris 
Causa," an Awadh A^cultural Medal, 
N,W. Prov., a Bronze Medal, given at 
the Great Exhibition of 1861, a Bronze 
Uedal of the Kagpiir Exhibition, 1865, 
ondothcrs. The firm complain that the 
hotels exact a oommisaion of 2J per 
cent., and if this is not given the guides 
take people to other shops, or otherwise 
mislead travellers. Here are table- 
mats from 16 rs. upwarils, and silk bro- 
cade at 246 rs. a yard. There are reti- 
oulcsfrom7its.to23rB, Thesearegiven 
at Indian marriages as purses. There 
are scarfs, 1} yds. long, at 90 rs., white 
scarfs at 62 rs., and those called lu/uiU, 
which are of 2 colours, at 46 rs. The 
firm possess letters from Indian civi- 
lians of distinction, and others, as one 
from Martin Gubbins, dated 2Bth of 
Febmary, 1862. 

The traveller, having seen BonAros, 
must consider whether he can afiord 3 
weeks' time to visit Awadh and Eohil- 
khand, and then proceed to Agra and 
Dihii, and the other places mentioned 
in the following routes, and then teturu 
viS. A114h4bSd to Calcutta, or by Alii- 
h&b^andJabaJpilr to Bombay, before 
the first week in April, whan the great 
beat sets in. Should ha decide to give 
up Awadh and Bohilkhand, be will pro- 
ceed to AlMh&b&d by tbe route whic- 
followB : — 



224 Jiouie 23. — Bandrai to JaieanpAr (Jauvpsre]. Sect. II. 



^ntau. 


NMieBofStatloM. Time. 


i 


BiniLiu . . 'i.o' 
MuihalSirU , . | l.ifi 

Aimifwd' : '. , I'm 



From Mne^nl iJEiril yon pass'throiiKlt 
a flat conntry richly cultivated. The 
Htations are on the l^t hand, escept the 
one at MIraipflr. The famooa fort at 
Cbnn&T is seen at about 2 m. diBtance, 
and thence tha country to AllAhdb^ 
is truly lovely, Btnddad with fine tops 
of trees. Mlnapilr is a very larife 
town vrith Bpreadin^!; auburba. Pur the 
description of AlUhAbAd, refer to 
Boate42. 



ROUTE 23. 

BANIRAS to JAWASPiiL 

The traveller must proceed to the 
Awadh and Bohillcband Batlway, the 

station of which is abont J of a i 
the a of Clarte's Hotel. The ata 
along this line ore as foOows : — 



'sss: 


NuDMOf St.Oon.. Tim.. 


IS 
IS 

n 

SB 


SI'-:-; 

jllf^icivd) ; 

Jmwmpilnaty) . 


i.»t. 

B.Ba 

l.MI 



There are 2 stations at Jawaupdr — the 
city OT ZafarAbid station, which is used 
by passenger* coming from Fai»ibAd, 
and the cantoament station, xuied by 
those coming from Ban&ias. The Srst 
thing to be Been is the famons bridge 
over the Qomtl, which became pro- 
verbial for its excellence in Hindi 
wiitjngg. To reach it the traveller 
will pass nnder 2 gateways. On the 
first, called the SarAl, at the height of 
18 ft., is written " Flood Level," which 
marks the height to which the water 
rose In the great Flood of 177*. Most 
of the houses were then destroyed, and 
troops passed in boats over the top ot the 
bridge, from the top of the parapet of 
which to the surface of the water is now 
29 ft. 4 in. The bridge has 10 arches, 
besides 4 others smaller, 2 at each end, 
beyond the water. The bridge is 400 
ft, limg. It is of stone, and was com- 
menced in 1664, and completed in 3 
years, by Pahlm, a freed man of HaMm 
Kh&Q, one of Akbar'a high officers, 
la the Bd(b o Bahir (English Trans- 
lation, p. 223) we read : " Blhzid 
Khin caused the princess and me 
to stand in the areh of a bridge, 
which had 12 arches, and was like 
the Bridge of Javranplr." The B&cti 
o Bah&r is an Urdil translation of the 
" Story of the Four Derviahea," written 
by AnAr Khusrau, who died in ISIO, 
A.D. The bridge is said to have 
cost £300,000. ' There is a story that 
Akbar, who was fond of sailing on 
the river, saw a woman crying, and 
inquired the reason. She said ^e 
was a widow, and conid not afFord 
to pay for a boat to cross. Akbar 
then ordered that a ferry boat should 
be placed there, and that widows 
should be permitted to cross without 
payment. He also suggested to the 
gh&n Kh&ndQ that a bridge ehoald 
be built, which was done. The Jawan- 
piir Nitoah, or " History of Jawanpilr," 
adds some absurd details to this story. 
On Qie 2nd arch is the following 

gRlH KalHUf HuyiH, 

nw Cintn of tbs World, 

Built this tnldCB, 

BytbeiMoftlHlil^idltiL 

HI* hmw otMinrm hi "" "- 



To tbs peo^. 



Sect. II. 



Rovie 23. — Jnwanp&r (Jawnpore), 



lij its firm rind i> displayed 

The highway to PiisdlM, the pWe of repoiB. 

Kyuu take Uie word fioil 

From the word which gives the date. 

It will give the tlironogram in 

^i^tu 1 Mualskim. 

On the 3ni arcli then is the following 
inscription : — 



at at (S to 



According to tho rules of Amjad, by 
which coireaponding figures are as- 
signed to the Arabic letters, the date 
is formed from the words §irfttn '1 
MQBtu^im. 



The rear 981 of &is HiJTah e 
sponds to 1S73 a.d., and dednctiDg 
6 yoara for the word Jiad as prescribed, 
it would hftTc been commenced in 
1667. Thia does not quite coincide 
with the date ueusJly assigoed, but 
must of course bo accurate. 

Thei« used to be shops on either aide 
of the bridge, but they were swept 
away in the great flood of 1771. Two 
new ones, however, were built by Mr. 
Moens. The tiaveUer will drive orer 
the bridRe, and at 200 yds. to the N. of 
it turn to the right, when he will see, 
at 75 yds. ofl, the entrance to ^he Great 
Square of tJie Uosque. It is called the 
A(ilah Moiqne, because, as some aay, 
the camp equipage of the Idng was 
kept there whw not in use. Jt used 
to be an idol temple, but was partly 
destroyed in Saltan IbrAMm's reign 
and conTerted into a mosque. Mr. 
Welland, in A.IL I216='A.p. 1602, had 
[B<;,TffoZ.— 1831.] 



225 

cleaned and repaired. Some Hiinli 
had its name from a goddess caUed 
At^la. The pulpit is of stone, and has 
11 step*. It is 8 ft high, and IS ft. ■ 
2i in. long. On a black Mibrdb, or 
alcove, in the centre of the place where 
they say prayers, is a verse of the 
Knt'4n, and above it the Creed. The 
Great Square is 171 ft. Gin., inside mea- 
surement from E. to W., and 176 ft. 10 
The N. and S. sides 
. . le, aupported by 2 
double and 2 quadruple pillars. The 
E. side has no dome, but 1 double 
the front row, and 3 rows' 
of 2 pillars and a pilaster behind, and 
2 scalloped arches beyond. In the 
centre of the large square is a well 
with a fine citron-leaved Indian fig- 
tree (.^EetM venaia). The facade is 74 
ft. 8 in. high, adorned with a finely 
wiitten quotation in Arabic, meaning, 
'■Verily He has led thee to a secure 
path," Tho Square where prayers 
are made is 35 ft. from N. to S., and 
from B. to W. At the B.W. 
3r of the large square, ascend by 
16 steps tiD a latticed stone gallery, 
which was reserved for the women ; 
thence 16 more steps lead to the ter- 
raced roof of the cloisters. There is an 
upper room, 9 ft. high. At the back of 
the dome, behind the centre of the 
fogade, there is a sort of minaret with 
" stories. 

The next place to •riaitHt'be Friday 
Motque, wluch was built by SulS4n 
IJusainbinMal^mMbinSnlt^IbnUiim 
in 883 A.H., though according to the 
table given in " I^nsep's Antiquities," 
by Thomas, in vol. ii. p. 312, he fled to 
the courtof 'Al&u 'd din in 881, and died 
there. The date, however, 883, was 
carved on a stone over the door which 
faces tho E., but now that stone has 
been broken. The traveller will turn 
back from the bridge into the main 
road, and after proceeding jth of a m., 
turn up a narrow lane to the Friday 
Mosque. In passing along the W. side, 
it will be observed that it is built like 
the wall of afortress. It is 218 ft, 6in. 
long, and has a. sort of bswer of 3 
stories, like that in the Afdla Mosque. 
The visiter will turn to the rigiit and 
. enter at the 3. ddc by 27 steps, which 



Boute 2S.—Bandr(u to Jateanpur (Jaimpwe). Sect II. 



are 20 ft, high. On the left jamb of 
the door is a stone, with an inBcription 
in the F611 or Old Songkrit ctiaracter. 
It U 1 ft. 4 in. high and 1 ft. 1 in. broad, 
and is pat in abontSft.from the ground. 
The E. aide and the E. end of the K. 
side have fallen or beea pulled down, 
but enongh remains of the centra of the 
£. Bide to show that it had a dome. 
Many stones from Hindi) templei have 
been built into the walls. The fa^e 
of the mosqae resembles that of the 
At^ mosqne, bnt ia exquisitely carved, 
and ia ornamented with many Ml^irilbs, 
OT alcoves. It ia 83 ft 6 in. high, and 
faced with emooth stone, inside which 
U rubble. The centre arch has E small 
arehea on either side. In each half of 
the other sidea there are 10 double 
piUara and 2 pilasters. There 
dome in the centre of each nde. The 
Great Square is 216 ft. 8 in. from 
S., and 311 ft. 8 in. from E. tt 
inside measurement, and has a dry 
reservoir in the centre. Beyond is a 
corridori 20 ft, 8 in. broad. To the N. 
of the mosque are the reins of a palace 
of the ahar^i kings, the B. wall of 
which approaches the 1.'. wall o£ the 
moeque, within 30 ft. The quadrangle 
of this palace has been converted int^ 
a cemetery, and the first tomb is thai 
of Ghulfim 'All Shfth, with an inscrip. 
tioit in Peisian, which may be traoS' 
laled: — 

The Bbib ot high descent, ObulIh 'AlL 

" '"-' — of'AU, 

Mnlfest. 
He preisired 



loyeof'AU, 
■est 



le Elenuil Abode wtOch 

When I m«ked the ued Bage of Reason 

The jtn of tlie date a( the deatii of this 

Friend of 'Ai.1, 

He gmrefrom Uie invlsike wodd 



Tn the centre, beyond this tomb, is that 
of Sullin Ibrihlm 8h4h. The only 
inscription is on a round atone in the 
centre, which has the SialimaA, and 
above it there is a brick the size of the 
palm of a lady's hand, brought from 
Makka, with the remains of an in- 
scription, now wholly iUegible. Next 
to Uie tomb of Il»'f£lm is that of hJH 



A ghjih of hMtpr qtulibes, 
Mine Df KceomplfHliinenla, of ■mlsbility 

le derarted full of tncill from mis 
World nf woe to PuhKh, 

eodlMi rajoyioenta. 



The date ia given in flgares 97C A.H. ^ ' 
1568 A.D. On the £. vrall is this 
farther inscription ; — 



Is like Uut of the biriea. 

Tn the principal mosqae the pulpit is 
of atone, and lias 8 steps. There is a 
black ^cove in the centre of the 
mosque with a text from the Kur'An 
inscribed. 

The ncit visit will be to the 
l^irt, which will be entered from the 
N.E. by a gate 41 ft, high, coverrai 
once with blue and yellow enainelled 
bricks, of which beautiful portions re- 
main. The inner gate baa many stones 
of idol templea, built into the walls, 
on some of which is carved the Jain 
bell. At 200 ft. from this gate is a 
low mosque, with a reservoir in front, 
and a Join pillar 28 ft. high to s 
border, and above that an ornamental 
spire, with several projectiona. This 
pillar has a base sloping inward, and 
then a rim on 2 etepB. The pillar 
itself has 3 divisions ; tiie first portion 
heii^t square, the 2nd octagonal, and 
the 8rd round. The base is fl ft. 7 in. 
high. At 300 ft. beyond this pillar 
the river face of the fort is reached. 
It ia 160 ft, in perpendicular height, 
and commsnda a noble view of the 
country and city. Before reaching it, 
the visitor wilt see a round tower 
called the magazine, with a luijnim 
on Uie left. At a market-place at the 
S. end of Uie bridge ia a atone lion 
somewhat larger than life, which was 
found in the fort. Under it is a young 
elephant which it ia supposed b " - 



Seot. n. 



RottU 24. — Jauanpdr to Ayodlii/a. 



The church at this stiition is called. 
Trinity Church, and is 79 ft. long and 
37 ft. broad. It contains a tablet to 
Hantou ColIingwoodOmiiiaiLe;,B.C.8., 
Judicial CommiiuioiieT of Awadh, who 
rebuilt this chuich in 1852, and died 
at Iiokhnan during the siege, JUI7 8th, 
1867, aged 41 years. With him ate 
buried bis 2 aons. The new cemetery 
,i8 Jrd of a m. from the church. Re- 
mark here a tablet to Cliarles Wemy e« 
Havelock, Lieut, in the 66th OtirkhAs 
and 2nd in command of the lath 
Intgnlar CaTalry, only son o( Lt- 
OoL Charles Frederick HaTelook,"who 
was killed in action at Tigre with Sir 
E. Lngard'H force, whilst gallantly 
leading his men ot the 12th Irregular 
CaTaliy in a charge against the 
rebels. Obaerre, also, a tablet to 
James South Barwise, of Faiid^iM, 
who WM speared to death bj gang 
iDbben, December IQth, 1611. 

Bemdes the mosques already men- 
tioned, there are 6 others which may 
be Tiaitad. 1, Mosquo of Malik Kh&lig 
Mokhli?, which was a temple built by 
BAjA Bij&i Chand, which was broken 
down by Halik Kh^s and Malik 
Hnkfalif, by otder of HMll&a. Ibr&him. 
They boilt this mosque in the place of 
it In one of the pillars is a black 
stone, still worshipped by the Hindila, 
and said by them to always meastire 
the same whoever spans it. 2. Cha- 
chakpflr Mosque was a teniple built 
by 3ii Chand, and converted 1^ Sik- 
nndar into a moaqtie. 3. Mosque of 
Bibi Biji, queen of Sult&u Muhsjnmad, 
son of Ibr&him. »he built it iu A.H. 
eos, and called it Ma^alUh NawAs 
Gbit. The entraitcc gateway is the 
LAI Darw&Kah, and faces E., and is of 
grey and red sandstone. It is 3-storie<l, 
and is 21)i ft. high, to which must be 
added thif steps that lead up from the 
rood, and which are 6 ft. high. The 
total height, therefore, is 36i ft. It 
is handsomely carved, with numerous 
alcoves, and ornaments of lotus-flowers 
and bells. It leads into a cloistered 
square of 1S3 ft, with 2 rows of single 
pillars in the cloist«i8. The facade is 
48 ft high, and is very mafsive. It is 
supported by 4 double pillars in 2 
nwi. The polpit is of stone, and has 



227 

9 steps. The ^iblah is marked by a 
blactc alcsve, without any writinj;. 
Over the centre arch of the screen 
there is a black round stone with au 
inscription. 4. Mosque of Ni!tw4b 
Mu)fSin Kh&n. Sukh Mandil, who 
was the Diw^n of Kh&u ZamAn K^An, 
hod bnilt a pagoda where this mosqne 
stands, and when Kh&n ZamAn was 
killed the building came to Mnlfsin 
Kh4n ,who was one of Akbar's courtiers, 
and he destroyed the pM^>da, and 
built a mosque. 6. The Mosque of 
Shih. Kablr, built by B^b& B^ Ja- 
lagnr, governor of Jawanpilr, in Ak- 
bar's reign, in liiHS, in honour of the 
saint Sh&h Kabir, S. The 'Idg&h 
Moflque. bnilt by 8nlt4n Ilnsain, and 
repaired in Akbar's reign by Khin 
EhtknAn. It then fell into a ruinous 
state, and was deserted tiQ restored by 
Mr. Welland. 



3^ 









U 


Ksme- of Ht« 


Tl,n. 


RenmrkE. 


b£ 










J.™.pflr . 


Tis" 


Tbcn is a 




Hml . . 




clauihreii 


w 


KlietiiB>ni 
Mallpar . 


• ' ;"S 


67 


Akbirpiir . 

OoBfilltlUl] . 


: S 


Snieperm. 




Tin.Uull . 




'* rtitto*™ 


Z 


Nam . . 

Sift' ■ . 


iji 


Tliere in 
only the-e 

aclMBMOn 

thi- railWHy, 



228 



Route 24, — Jauxmpur to Ayodkya. 



Sect. 11. 



, JIilfdMiJ is the capital of a dietrict, 
mth an Etren of 1,686 aq. m., of which 
947 are cnltivated and 28G cnlturable. 
The pop. la 1,025,088. It was 616 sq. 
m. lai^er T jeaxs ago, hut that area 
was taken from it then and added to 
the BtillAnpiir District. It is worse 
Etocked with game than an; district 
in Awadh. The city has fallen into 
decay Pince the deatli, in 1816, of 
Babii Blgam, who held it rent-free for 
18 years. Itoontains 19 Xa^aiitu, or 
quarters, and covers the lands of 9 
Tillages, but the JVifil, or fortifloation 
thrown up by Shuji'u 'd danlah after 
his defeat at BaRsar, coinpreheDds 19 
Tillages. The pop. is 36,650, of whom 
21,930 are Hindiis, and the rest Mug- 
Urns, of whom 9,ti6S are Shl'as. and 
the rest SuDnis. There are 36 HindA 
temples, of which 25 are to Shiva, 
10 to Vi^nu, and 1 belonging to the 
N&nak HhAbts. Theie are 111 mosques 
and one ImtobAxah. The Bam- 
naumi Fair is attended by 500,000 
pilgrims. Faii&bM is boanded to the 
N. by the Gogra river, and Uie N. of 
that by the Gonda District. The 
Gogra divides into 2 streams, both of 
which are crossed by pontoon bridges. 
The cantonment liea to the N."' 
the Indian city, at the S.W. i 
of which the railway from Ban4iaa 
passes. The T. B. is at the 8.E. comer 
of the cantonment, about ) a m. to the 
N. of the railway. 

Hie first place to be visited 
the mansoleum of the BahA (written 
by Cnnnir^ham, BAo) Blgam, which 
is about li m. to the 8.E, of the T. B. 
She was wife of Bhnji'u 'd daulah, 
Nflwtkb of Awadh, and mother of 
A'^afu 'd daulah. On the ground fioor 
is a square room, measuring ii ft. 
8 in. It contains a gepnlchraJ slab of 
streaked black-and-wMte marble, with 
a border of poie white. There is no 
inacription. ti the 1st npper platform 
is a white marble aUb edged with 
black marble. This, also, has no in- 
scription. The Ist upper platform is 
190 ft. S in. sq., and the 2nd upper 
platform is 111 ft. 2 in. sq. There are 
16 steps of Si in. each to the 1st plat- 
form, and theticc to the 2nd platform 
arc 32 steps of 1 ft. each, and 



thence to the rim round the dome, 
39 Hteja of 10 in. each, ami thence 
to the lop of the interior of the dome 
6 steps (^9i in., and above that to the 
top ot the ornament ontheonterdome 
60 ft.; BO that the total height may be 
taken at 110 ft. The mausoleum of 
ShujA'u 'd danlah is close by, and is 
something like the Blgam's, but, in- 
cluding the sabordinate buildings, is 
larger. At each of the 1 comers cd 
the building are an oblong reservoir, 
and a square one, In the centre room 
- the ground floor are 3 eiabs without 






Theci 



'c slab is that 



ot Shui&'u 'd daulah. His mother's i 
to the W., and that of his son, Manijilr 
'&li, to the £. In the W. side of Qte 
iucloBure is a moaque at the N. end, 
with an Im&mli4rab on the B. The 

£lace for a tablet is seen in the E. 
Hse of the mosque wall, but so care* 
lessly were things done in Awadh that 
it has not been filled in, and nowhere 
is there any inscription, tbotigh the 
building cost a vast mm. Tb^ are 
16 steps of 11 in. each to the 1st upper 
platfomi, which is 124 ft. 9 in. sq., 
and 27 steps of one ft. each to the2iid 
npper platform, which is 81 ft. sq. 
Here may be seen tiie J)aCiira plant, 
which is much nsed for poisoning in 
Awadh and other parts of India. Ithas 
an oval lanceolate leaf, and grows to 
the height of 6 or 7 ft. ; the flower is 
trumpet-shaped, and of a purplish- 
white colour. Eveiy part is poisonous, 
and a woman was treated in the Hos- 
pital here, in 1S77, for dementia, from 
having bad a poultice of the leaves 
ipplied to her knee for rheumatism, 
vhlch it took away, bat dfove her mad 
or a time. There were at one time 
27 patients here, who had gone mad 
from (»ting Datura seeds, giyen (hem 
inpratdd, that is, food offered to idols. 
From the sacred character of this 
food, which is bestowed as a great 
favour on devotees, it is eaten without 
apprehension, and is thus of great 
service to profcssionid poisoners. 

The Jail, — The traveller may next 
visit tjie Jail, which is a divisionia] one, 
and is only j a m. to the N.W. of the 
mausaleoms. It contains about 130 
prisonen,of whrnnSOarewomm. Men 



Sect. n. 



'2ioute 24. — Faiidbdd — Ayodhya. 



229 



are hero taught to read and write, but 
women receive no inttroction, and this 
ia too often tbe case in Indian jaila 
After returning to the T. B. the tra- 
Teller may drive to the church- — St. 
Andrew's, about a mile to the N.W. of 
the T. B. It nu built 26 years a^o. 
There are 3 inscriptions, one of which 
la to B officers of the 11th Foot. Tbe 
cemetery ia a little way to the N. of 
the church. The Bh^>e of the tombs 
is very peculiar — they reaemble long 
baths, and there la nothing like tbem 
in any other cemetery. The visitor 
will be Btruck by ihe numbers ot tablets 
to persons who have died of cholera, j 
Inthe" Gaiatteer of Awadh" recently 
pnbliahed (vol. i. pp. *8S-488) will be 
found a list ot 31 buildings which aie 
supposed to possess some interest, hut 
most of thran have disappeared, or 
are not in the city but district ot 
Faii&b&d. The tomb ot Sh&h Jah&n 
Qhori is said to be nearly 700 years 
old, but no one seems to know where it 
is dtnated. The traveller may, how- 
ever, drive to Fort Calcutta, whence 
he will see the bridges over the Gogra, 
and come at a ahc^ distance to tbe 
Gnpta Park, which is prettily laid out. 
On the right ot the road, and close to 
it, is a tall stone, on the W. side of 
which is " 1861, Onpta Gardens ; " oa 
the B,Bide,"H.M.'H Bengal Cavalry ,3lBt 
PanjAb, N. I. ; " on the 8. side,"l— Ilth 
Brif^ R. A., H.M.'s 1st Battalion 
23rd B. W. P., H.M.'a 31st Eegt," At 
the S. end of the Park is a, temple, 
where they say R4m disappeared. 
Here deaccnd 12 steps to a dark pas- 
sage, which leads to an open vault, at 
the end of which ia a small cylinder. 
On the Soor is a stone, with the marks 
of 2 feet in alto-rilievo, 6i in. long, as 
if a delicate woman had trodden there 
with bare feet and left the impress. 
The Mahant informs visitors that B&ma 
made these marks 1],0(X) years ^o. 
The first Niiwib of Awadh, Sa'ddat 'All 
Sh&n, seldom appeared at Faif&bU, 
though it was his nominal capital, nor 
did bis successor, §sfdar gang ; but iu 
1TT6 Shuj&'u 'd daulah, who succeeded, 
took up his permanent residence there. 
When defeated at Bagsar he fled to 
FaifAb&d, and constructed the lofty 



entrenchment whose ramparta of 
rammed clay fn>wn over the Qogra. 
At his death, in 1T7S, his widow, the 
Bahil Bigam, who had been guarai^ed 
by the British Government the pos- 
session of her enormous jointure, re- 
mained at Faii&b&d, while Ajafd 'd 
daulah, the then NdwAb, removed to 
Lakhnau. At tbe end ot May, 1857, 
the troops in Fai|4b&d cantonment 
consisted of the 22nd Beng. N. I., under 
Colonel Lennox ; the 6th Irreg. Awadh 
Inf., commanded by Lt.-CoL C. Brien ; 
a troop of Im^. Cav., and a company 
ot the Beng. Art, with 1 Horse Battery 
of light field i^ons, under the command 
of Major Hill. When confidence was 
shaken in the SipdMs, arrangements 
were made with B.6,]^ Mllu Singh to 
protect the women and children, but 
an order was sent from Lakhnsu to 
arrest him, which was done by Colonel 
Goldney, the Commissioiier ot Fai^i- 
bAd. The Assistact-Commisaiouer, how- 
ever, obtained his release, aud he 
then took the ladies and children to 
hia fort of Shihganj. On the 3rd of 
June it waa reported that the muti- 
neers ot the 17th Beng. N, I. were ad- 
vancing from 'ijimgarh. At 10 p.m. 
on June 8th, an alarm was sounded in 
the lines of i^e 6th Irreg. Awadh Inf., 
which was taken up by the 22nd N. I., 
and the battery prepared for action, 
when the 2 compames In support of 
the guns crossed bayonets over the 
vents, and prevented the Artillery 
oMcer from approaching. The cavalry 
then placed picqnets round the lines, 
and two officers, trying to escape, wero 
Q[«d at, and brought hack. At Sim- 
rise on the the 9th the offlcers were 
allowed to take to the boats, except 
Colonel Lennoi and his family. 
His full-dress r^mentals were taken 
by a Xaulavi. The SilbahdiLr-Hajor 
then took command of the Station. A 
full account ot the flight and sufferings 
ot the rest vriil be found in tic " Awadh 
Gaietteer," voL i. pp, 477-483. Many 
were killed, and amongst them Colonel 
Goldney, the Commissioner, Lieuts. 
Cunie and Panous were drowned, and 
Lieuts, lindsay, CauUey, and Ritchie, 
with 5 others, were butchered. 

Ayadliya, Sanskfit Ayudhya, from 



Eottle 24, — JawaTiptir to Ayodhya. 



Sect. II, 



A, " not," and Yuddk, " to make irar," 
= 'iiot tobe warred againet,' ia in N. 
lat. 26° 47', and K. Ion, 82° 10', on the 
banks of the Gogra. In the " Gazet- 
teer of Awadh," vol. i. p. 2, it is said 
that this town is to tlie Hindii what 
MakkH IB to the MuVammadans, and 
Jerusalem to the Je'ws, The ancient 
city is said to liave covered an area ot 
48 kos, or % m., and to hsTe been the 
caiiitol of Ko^alA or KoshalA, " the 
resplendent," from Kiuh, " to shine" — ■ 
the coDDtry of the Solar race of kiogE, 
of whom Manu was the first, B^mcban- 
dra the 67th, and Snmitra the 119th 
and last. It is doubtful for what 
reason the Solar race dispersed, hut it 
JB certain that the ancestora of the 
fqlers of Udipilr, Jodbpilr, and other 
K&jpilt cities, wandered, with their 
followers, over India, until they at last 
settled in RAjpiltAnA. For some ceU' 
turies the Buddhists, under Ashoka 
and his successors, were supreme. 
Vikramajit U said to have restored 
BnUimanism, and to have traced 
the ancient city by the holy river Saijn, 
which was the ancient name of the 
Gogra, properly G h^ri, and to have 
indicated the shrines to which pilgrims 
atill flock. Tradition says that Vikram 
ruled for 80 years, and was succeeded 
by the Jcgl t^mundia. P^ who spirited 
away the B&j&'s soul and entered his 
body. He and his suocessors ruled 
for 643 years. Tliis dynasty was suc- 
ceeded by a Jain dynasty, the Shri 
Bdatam family, and these again by the 
Kananj dynasty. A copper grant of 
J^ Chand, the last of the Kanauj 
BAthora, dated 1187 a.d., was fonnd 
near Faijibdd, This date is 6 years 
before his death (see " As. Soc. Joum,," 
lol. X. part i. p. 861). Ko^at^ was the 
cradle of Buddhism, for Shdkya Muni, 
its founder, was born at Kapila, in the 
Gorakhpilr district, and preached at 
Ayodhya, Here, too, was bom Bikhab 
Deo, at Ikghwiku's royal race, who 
founded the Jain faith. The Chinese 
traveller, Hiouen-Tsang, found 
dhja 20 Buddhist monasteries, with 
3000 monks, Cunningham, in his 
"Arch. BuiTey of India" (vol. i.p.317), 
identifiea Ayodhya, or Siketa, with 
the ShdrChi of Fa-Hisn, and the 



Via^hA of Hionen Tsang,' at wbicli. 
grew the celebrated Tooth-hmsh Tree 
of Buddha. 

The road from Fai;Ab4d cantonment 
to Ayodhya, 5} m., is excellent. On 
leaving FaifibM yon pass through 
2 arches, and on entering Ayodhya, 
stop and alight. Then turn to the left 
Qp a narrow street to a place where 
there are a few shops ; then turn again 
to the left, and ascend 45 steps, which 
arc opposite M&n Singh's house. As- 
cend 15 more steps to a platform, 
where is the Janamasth&n temple. In 
the sanctum are images of Sltd and 
V.ixa. R&m baa a gleaming jewel of 
large aize, which looks like a light- 
coloured sapphire. The temple is an 
oblong of about200 ft, x 160 ft. The 
walls are 46 ft. high, and aeem strong 
enongh for a fortress ; which justifies 
its name of HanumAn Gafh, " Hann- 
man's fortress." This is also called 
Kfimkot It ia aaid by Cnnningham 
to be of Aurangzlb'a time. The 
neighbouring trees swarm with middle- 
sized grey monkeys of grave demean- 
our. The im^es of Rim and SItfi are 
in a ahrine, the door of wliich has a 
silver frame 6 ft. hiffh and 1 ft. broad, 
ITie traveller will now walk 400 
yds. to the K.W., to the temple of 
Kanak Bhawan, or Sone K& Garb, 
There are imag^ of Blti K&m, They 
are crowned with gold, whence the 
name "Fortress ot Gold." This ia 
said to be the oldest temple here. The 
Janam Sth^n, of place where B&m 
Chandra was bom, is | of a m, to the 
W, of the Hanumin Gafh. Clcae to 
the door, and outside it, is a Unl;lUD- 
madan cemetery, in which 165 persons, 
accoidi ng to the "Gazetteer" TS pei'sons, 
are buried, all Mnalims, who were 
billed in a ^t between the Hualims 
and Hindi^ for the possession of 
the temple in 1866. The Mnslimt 
on that occasion charged up the 
steps of the Hanumfiu Garh, but 
were driven back with considerable 
loss. The Hiudiis followed up their 
success, and at the 3rd attempt took 
the Janam Sth&n, at the gates o( which 
the Muslims who were killed were 
buried, the place being called Ganj i 
Sbfihld^n, oj " Cir^iv? of tbe Mftityra," 



Sect. 11. 



Route 24. — Ayodhya, 



231 



Eleren Hindilia were killed, and 
thrown into the river. Several of the 
King of Awadh's regimenta were Jook- 
ing on, but their ordera were not to 
interfere. Up to that time both Hindiia 
and Muhammadana naed to worship ir 
the t«mple. Since BritiBb rule a rail 
ing haa been put ap, within which the 
Muslime pray. Outside, the Hindis 
make- their offerings. The actual 
Janam Sthin is a plain masonry plat- 
form, just uutdde the moHque or temple, 
but within the inclosure, on the left- 
hand side. The primeval temple 
perished, but was rebuilt bjr Vikram, 
andit was bis temple that the UueJiius 
converted into a mosque. Europeans 
are expected to take off their shoes if 
tbe; enter the building, which is quite 
plain, with the exception of 13 black 
^lars taken from the old temple. 

00 the pillar on the left of the door 
as joD enter, may be seen the ramains 
of a figure wUcb appears to be either 
Krishna or an Apsarll. There are 2 
alcoves, one on either side of the main 
arch, and a etone pulpit, on the steps 
of which is an inscnption now illegible. 
The buiMing is about 38 ft. by 18 ft. 

The next walk will be to the Sarju, 
or GhighrA, now known as the Qogra 
river, which is f of a m. off, and near 
it U a Muljammadan cemetery, in 
which are shown 2 tombs without in- 
scriptions, which at« said to be those 
ot Englishmen who perished during 
the mutiny. Between this and Janam 
Stll^ is a Naugajl tomb, a name given 
to many very lai^ tombs, and implying 
that the people buried there wei'e 9 
yds. long. It is 16 ft. long, 4 ft. broad, 
and 4 ft high, whitewashed, and quite 
plain. At about i of a m, to the N, 
of Janam Sth&it is Swaiga Dwdra, or 
fidm GhAt, where B&ma bathed ; and 

1 of a m. to the S.W. of it is Lak^- 
man's Oh&f, where Lak^hman, the 
half .brother of K4ma, bathed, A mile 
to the 8. of HanomAn Qafh is the 
Mani Farbat, and to its 8. agun is the 
Kuver Parbat and Bugrlv Parbat. The 
Hani Parbat Hill is 65 ft, high, and is 
covered with broken bricks and blocks 
of masonry. The bricks are 11 in, iq. 
and 3 in. thick. At 46 ft, above the 
ground, on the W. side, are the remains 



of a curved wall faced with Kaitkar 
blacks. Accoiding to the Biihmans, 
the Hani Parbat is one of the hills 
which were dropped by the monkeys 
when aiding B&ma, It was dropped 
by Sugrlva, the Monkey-King of Kish- 
kindhya. The common people say that 
it was formed of the bricks and debrit 
shaken by the labourers out of their 
baskets every evening, on their return 
from building Simkof. Hence it is 
known by the name of Jhowa-jhir, or 
Ora-jhir, meaning "b^ket- shak- 
ings." To the S,, at the distance of 
500 ft,, is the Kuver Parbat, which is 
28 ft. high. The surface is covered 
with brick rubbish, with numerous 
holes mode in digging for bricks, which 
are 11 in, by '!■ i". by 2 in. Between 
the Mani and Knver mounds is an in- 
closura measuring 6* ft. from E. to W., 
and 47 from N. to S., in which are the 
tombs of Setb, IT ft, long ; and Job, 
1* ft. long, mentioned by Abi Fa?l, 
who, however, gives them the length 
of 7 cubits and 6 cubits. Near the 
Lak$hman Gh^t is a large modem 
temple, built by the HajS of Bhriya, 
with many danlw of pictures represent- 
ing Kri^lma and RMh^, One-sixth of 
a m. from this is a hill 90 ft, high, with 
a small Jain temple, sacred to AdinAtb. 
To enter this temple you ascend 30 
steps. In a small closet is a tablet 
marked "Samwat, 1851." At 150 yds 
further is the tomb of ShAh Ibiihim, 
with a Peisinn inscription on the wall, 
which may be translated thus : — 
Wh«D I naked the SogB 
The date of hie deceuc, 
He Slid, 
" Give the lover tlie good n«»B at 
Meeting his mliitreBa." 

The words 'Ashifc Bawajal i M'ashii^ ' 
are the chronogram. There are 5 
scalloped arches in the E, side of the 
mausoleum, 3 in the S., and 3 in the 
N. This is about 100 yds. from the 
Swarga Dw&ra, where are the vast 
ruins of a mosque, with an iron post 
21 in, long and 6 in. broad. There are 
2 minarets 10 ft. high and about 30 in. 
round. They are probably of the time 
of Aurangzlb. 

Cunningham supposes that the great 
monastery desoiiwa by Hiouea Isang 



232 

ia the Sngrlv Parbat, which iB 560 ft. 
long by 300 It. broad, and that the 
Man! Parbat ia the Stupa ot Ashoka, 
200 ft. bigh, built on the spot wbere 
Buddha preached the law during his 6 
years' residence at SSfceta. 



Route 25. — Faudbdd to ZaMtnait (Luchioui). Sect. II. 

and 610 m, from Calcutta. It cotcts 
. m., and bos a pop. ot 2T3,12C, 
of whom jtha are Hinddg, and ia the 
largest city in the Indian Empire 
after Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. 
It ia the capital of Awadh, and haa been 
80 Bince Agafu 'd daulah in 1775, 
moved the seat of government to it. 
In the " Awadi Gazetteer," voL ii. p. 
357, there u a blonder as to the acces- 
don of this Nfiw&b ; it si^s: " Aaifa'd 
daulah commenced his rule in IT9H, 
which ia the date ot hia brother 8'a^at 
'All's accession." It is the chief 
town of a province, with an ftrea 
of 26,131 sq. m., and haa a pop. of 
11,174,670, or *76 to the eq. m. It ia 
situated on theW. bank of the Qnmti, 
but there are suburbs on the E. bank. 
The river takes a bend to the S. W., 
and in the bend on the W. bank ia the 
Reaidenoy, a little to the N. of which 
(heQtimtl is pasaed by the Iron Bridge. 
This is the City BesLdency, but there 
was also a cantonment Residency, the 
cantonments being 2J m. to the S. of 
the dty, on the banks of Haidar's or 
Ghfiziu 'd din's Canal, which runs 
from the Gumti at Jayarain to tha 
W. catting the Currie, DilkuahA, Can- 
tonment, and Kdinhpi^ Roads. The 
Oik BanglA or T. B. is a few yds. to 
the W. of the Currie Road, Jth of a m. 
to the N.W. of Christ Church, and 
close to the Post Office; but there ia an 
eicellent hotel close to the §MSflr 
BA^p which ia about 800 yds. to the 
E. of the Residency, and there ia an- 
other in Hnsainganj, near the Orr 
Memorial, called Horraaidjia. The , 
charges are only 1 is. a day for boald 
and lodging. Between the two, on the 
W. bank of the Cumtl, ia the Chstr 
Manzil Palace, so called from the 
Chatr, or "nmbrella" which crowns 
its eummit. Here ia the United Ser- 
vice Club, and here, too, are the 
Theatre, Aasembly Rooms, and Public 
Library. The Club would be the best 
pUoe for a traveller, who coold get 
himself elected an honorary member. 

The Setidfnci/.—'nas place and its 
environa demand the first attention ot 
the traveller. The Residency itself, 
with its vaiions dependencies, such w 





KOUTE 25. 




FAIfABAD TO lAKHKAU (LUCKHOW) 


The Stations on the Awadh and Ro 


hilkhand Railway are aa foUows : 


II 


NmaaofSlB- 


'Hme. 


Remarks. 


l£ 


















Fil^bad . 




H«re the 














b.ii 


wuThBve 




BHsgioii . : 




to wait a 








hours. 


ts 


Sff*^' ■ ; 


fie 




M 


esr.-; 


s'lr 






NUmlbgsoj . . 




Then Ih 


n 


STL ■. 


»:!* 


her* a re- 


so 


Lakhmn . . 


10:2 


room. 




before bUMix Uie train. Luaww BrrirtiiK 




thattlinewiUlB V 


eighed 


and chained 



Lak/inau.— This city lies in N. laf. 
26* 52', and E. long. 81°. It ia 12 m. 
E. of KAnhpUi, 199 m. from Banltias, 



Sect. II. Route 25. — LalAnau {Lmhtow) : the 



233 



the Baillie Qnaid,* the Barracks, the 

Hospital, kc, is 2160 ft. long from 
N.W. to S.E„ and 1200 ft, broad from 
E. to W., that is, fnim the Baillie 
Qnard to Gubbiiw' Battery. There ia 
a model carefully made by Chapli ' 
Hoore of the Besidency and the si 
rounding hongea, at the Museum. It 
reprcaentB the Berideney befon ' 
clearaDces were made. Every 
who desires to nnderatand the siege 
ought carefully to eiamiue this model 
He will tbea see the great disadvan- 
tages under which the besieged fought, 
as the enemy were close to them all 
round, and under cover. The first 
thing the traveller will eee on his 
■visit to the Besidency is an obelisk, 
erected by Lord Northbrook, in front 
of the Baillie Onard, bnt a little to the 
r^ht as you enter. On the 8. face of 
th« obeluk ia inscribed : — 



The N»tive OfBoei 



i:"?5' "L , 



Id Slp*hls 



- Natl 



iPiauH 



AttlUerr, iixi 1'. «aeHine<nc), 

Who died ni»r lUa spot, 

NoWy performing their du^. 

This oolnmn Is erected by 

LOBD NOBTBBEOOK, 

viceroy aort Goveni|ir-aeniml of India, 

On the E. face ia a Persian inacrip- 
tJon, on the W. one in Didi. 

It should be aaid, that on the even- 
ing of the ITth of May, a part of the 
32lld Foot, with guns, had been 
brought into the Besidency from the 
cantonments (see Kaye, voL iii. p. 
437), and they brought with them 
great numbera of Kugliehwomen and 
children. To Bccommodate these, the 
Government Becords were removed 
from the Banqueting Hatl. which was 
to the N. of the Baillie Guard. The 
Treasury close to it contained SO 

- TbansnuotUiltcalebntadGuBrd Is spelt 
Id aevanl wsn. In the msp tu Reei'"fer- 
sonil Nuntive," Bsilj, but in ids text at 
p. 30S It li Bsller. In the Ouvemment JIsp 
pabllMhed In IHTO It is BsUlee. In Keeue's 
''Ootde" It liltalUle, KndthlBlH correct, for it 
wu built by li*lor Usillie. irtao was Reiildent 
>t UUuiMi, In 1»U. Bee MIU, wL vlU., 
p. IlL 



Ukhs of rupees in cash, and a larger 
sum in Government securities. Agunrd 
of 8ip4hfB had been in charge of the 
Treasury, hut a European guard was 
now Buhetitnted. The defences of the 
Residency and ite buildings, begin- 
ning from the Baillie Guard on the E. 
and proceeding to the N., were, 1st, 
Aleiandei's Battery; 2nd, Water Gate 
Battery ; 3rd, Bedan Battery ; 4th, a 

Eolisade; and then turning S., the 
nnis Garrison, the Bhiisi Guard, Om- 
mauey'H Battery, the Oubbins' Garri- 
son, and Qubbins' Battery, the Sikh 
Square ; and turning to the E., the 
Kinhpiir Battery, Thomas' Battery, 
Anderson's Garrison, Post Office Garri- 
son, Judicial Garrison, Sago's Guard, 
and Fiaancial Garrison. The gateway 
of the Baillie Guard was a common 
archway, bnt the main arch had been 
built up, and ns it now stands may be 
I be riddled with bullets. It was 
mded by Lient. Aitken. As the 
gateway was blocked np, Outram and 
Havelock passed into the Besidency 
through a small hole which was made 
iii the low wall near the gateway, 
while their troops occupied poata at 
about 100ft, beyond theiuclosure. On 
entering through the gateway. Dr. 
Fajrer's house will be seen to the left, 
ft. back. In n room in this house 
; Henry J^awrcnce died, and a 
itteu notice says, " Here Sir H. 
Lawrence died," A small wall ran in 
front of the left part of the Baillie 
Guard, but this has been carried away 
for the sake of the bricks. At 100 ft. 
from the Guard Tower, which is about • 
42 ft. high, is a small pillar with 
" Financial Poet," and this is the first 
■ a series of such pillars which sur- 
round the Besidency. The ground to 
the B. of this pillar riEcs in mounds, 
and a little way to the W. of this 
pillar is another with " Sago's Post;" 
then comes "Gcrmon's Post." At the 
top of the slope and to the W. of 
St^'s, was " Heaideocy Post." To the 
N. ia " Post Office Post," and in rear 
of Qermon'sis" Anderson's Garrison." 
To the W. of Germon's, in the same 
the Kinhpiir Battery pillar. 
This was the most dangerous post of 
all. The matineers had rifles nxed in 



334 

rests in the hoaae opposite, and swept 
the road that led through the Residency 
inclosure here. To show oneself in that 
road waa certain death. At 50 ft. to the 
K.W. is Duprat's pillar. Dnprat was 
a gallant Frenchman, who had served 
in the French army, and is constantly 
mentioned by Mr. L. B. Hees, in his 
"Pereonal NarratiTe," In rear of it 
was the Martinifere Post. The boys 
were employed in. many ways, but 
took no part in the actual fighting. 
Johnnnea house is 30 yds. to the W. 
There are the ruins of a house here 
with lumkengely thick walls. In rear 
of it ifl Lnke's Battery. In the ex- 
treme N. is a pillar marking Gubbins' 
house, and in rear of it is the pillar of 
■ li regiment. To the E, is Onso- 






SottU 25. — Faii&bdd to I^lknait {Ludcnow), Sect. 11. 

formed of the imminent danger of the 
European otflcers, galloped up to the 
Tidnity with his troopers. Boon att«r 
Sir H, Lawrence arrired with ,4 gniiB, 
i companies ttf H.M.'s 32nd, 2 regi- 
ments N, I., and tbe 7th L. Cavalij. 
The mntiueers then broke and fled, 
but some were made prisoners, and 
otliers gave up their arms. Sic H. 
liBWrence, a few days afterwards, held 
a darb^ in the Cantonment Resi- 
dency i the troops were drawn np, and 
2 native officers, who had given infor- 
matioii of the intended outbrrak, were 
promoted. Sir H, Lawrence harangued 
the troops, and the city was tranqnil 
for some weeks afterwards. On the 
23rd of May, 2 detachments of cavalry 

were sent to KAnhpiir, to dear the 

and 8. of it Blgam's road between it and Agra. One party 
was commanded by Oiptain Fletcher 
Hayes, the other by Major Gall, com- 
manding the 4th IiTOg. Cavalry. Near 
Hainpi!iTl the party under Captain 
Hayes mutiniei, and killed Mr. 



Kothl, a large building in which the 
ladies were qnartered, and where they 
were comparatively safe. At the ex- 
treme N, is a Ma^dir or temple, and 
close to it the ruins of an immensely 
massive building, which appears to 
have been blown up. Here, too, is the 
biUiard room. Beyond Blgam Kothi 
to the N.W. is a large building with a 
3'ah!th4nah, or subterraneons apart- 
ment, in which the women of the 
;t2nd were located ; you descend into 
it by 46 steps. Close to this is an 
artificial mound 30 ft. high, with a 
very handsome white marble cross, 
20 ft. high at the sununit. This is the 
Lawrence Memorial, and on it is in- 





In Memort of 




N. SIR HE.^Br LAWBENCB, 




K.C.B., 




d the brave men Hlio feU 




tenc« of t]>e Resldencr, 




«lio(jBly,1857. 


There are 


8 stone steps up to the 


Cross. 




It isn 


w requisite to give a very 
ant of what took place be- 


brief acco 



fore the attack on the Besidency and 
daring its siege. The first staling 
event that oc^curred was the mutiny of 
the 7tb Awadh Irreg. Infantry, at Miis4 
B&^, a palace of one of the late king's 
wives, situated at 4^ m. from the 
Residency. Major Gall, commanding 
the 4th Irreg. Cavalij, on being in- 



geon. Captain Hayes, and 
Barber. Lieut. Carey escapea h> 
XAnhpiir, and fell there in the general 
massacre. Major Gall retomSi, bot 
was subsequently murdered in a vil- 
lage in Awadh when carrying des- 
patches to the Governor GenerFd. 

On the 30th May, the Mutiny began 
in the cantonments, in the lines of the 
TlstN. L, and quickly became general. 
Brigadier Handacomtie was shot dead, 
as was Lieut. Grant, of the 71st. The 
mutineers attacked Sir Henry and bis 
staff at the artillery ground, bnt were 
driven off with some rounds of grape, 
which killed many of them. Oa the 
31st of May, a Mr. Mendes was mur- 
dered in his own house, in the city. 
Martial law was now proclaimed, and 
36 rebels were hanged. By Sir Henry's 
order immense supplies of wheat and 
all sorts of provisions were brought 
into the Besidency, and Hachchf 
Bhawa^ ; but for this Lakhnau would 
have been lost. This last place had 
belonged to Niiw&b 'All O^, and 
was bought by Sir Henry for Bs. 
rrO,UOO. It was surrounded by high 
walls, and the towers, magazines, ont- 
houses, and terraces v 



Sect II, H&tUe 25'.— ^ZaXAnoM (Zwrfoiow) ; (A* ReiideTiq/. 



235 



and intricate. TowBrds the N. it 
commtuided tbe Iron and Stone 
bridges. It was garrisoned b^ 2 com- 

Cies of Europeans, one liurae artil- 
battery, the mortar battery, and 
the Gate guns. The cholera soon 
broke out in it. On the let of Julf, 
the nuriaon having been withdrairn, 
the Hachchl Bhawaii was blown up 
with 260 barrels of gunpowder. On the 
11th of June, the CBToIrr of the Mili- 
tary Police mutinied. Their barracks 
were 1^ m. from the Beddency, and 
the iotantry followed their eiample ; 
but one ^tlbahdlLr, one Jam'iidfir, 
6 I^awald^Lrs, and 26 SipAhla remained 
faitbfnl, and continued to guard the 
j(ul. Meantime, bodies of mutineers 
were advancing on Tiafchnmij and on 
the SOth of June Sir Henry, with 300 
of the 32nd, under Colonel Case, 200 
Siplihifl, 130 of the Awadh.Irreg. Horse, 
and a few volunteer troopers \ the 4 
guns of a European battery, 6 guns of 
the Awadh Artilleiy, and an 8-iach 
howttser, drawn by an elep^nt, 
marched out to disperse them. When 
they reached Ism'aXtgiuij they saw the 
phun between it and Cbinhat wae 
"one moving mass of men." The 
Sip&hls advanced with great steadi- 
neas, and the native cavalry, under 
Lawrence, fled, as did some of the 
mitive artillery. Colonel Case and 2 
of his officers were mortally wounded 
in attempting to storm Jsm'ailganj. 
Lawrence gave the order to retreat ; 
but 1 field pieces and the heavy howit- 
zer, as well as the wounded, were 
abandoned ; 119 English aoldien were 
lost in this affair. The result of this 
disaster was that the Machchl Bhawa^ 
had to be blown up, and the rebels 
pressed tie siege of the Kcflidency 
with increased vigour. On the 2nd ' 
July, Sir Henry waa wounded in t 
upper part of the left thigh by a shel 
and after he had made over the office 
of Chief Commissioner to Major Banks, 
and conferred t^ chief military com- 
mand on Colonel Inglis, be passed 
away on the morning of the 4th July. 
Ibe siega virtuoUy commenced after 
the battle of Chinhat. Now it was 
that the snrgfeons were seen cutting, 
probing woquds, amputating and ban- 



ding. The Knlls who had been build- 
ing the works of defence all fled, and 
witli them went most of the domeatic 
servants. The strongest post that the 
besieged had was the Redan battery, 
at the N.E. angle, built and fortified 
by Captain Fulton, of the Engineers. 
It formed rather more than J of a 
circle, and was elevated considerably 
above the street below. It was armed ' 
with 2 cighteen-pounders and I nine- 
pounder, which coold play on the 
whole river's side and the buildings 
lie opposite bank. Along the 
Eedan, as far as the hospital, was a 
wall of fascines and earthwork, with 
loopholes formed by sandbag tluvagh 
which the besieged fired with certain 
effect. Aloog the Redan, past' the 
Residency and the hospital, and as 
far as the Baillie Quard, was a clear 
space, 1000 yds. long and 400 wide, 
which, being exceedingly low, formed 
a glacis for the entrenchments above. 
The Residency, with its lofty rooms, 
flue verandahs, and large porticoes, 
ita range of subterraneous aiMUimenti;, 
its ground floor and 2 upper stories, 
afforded accommodation to nearly 
1000 {tersons — men, women, and child- 
ren. The hospital, formerly the 
banqueting hall, had only 2 stories. 
The front rooms were given to offloers, 
the back part was made a dispensary, 
and the other rooms wore given to 
soldiers, A battery of 3 goiis was 
placed between the Water Qate and 
the hospital. The right wing of the 
hospital was used for making fuses 
and cartridges, and in front of it was 
a battery of three mortars. The 
Baillie Guard was a continuation of 
the hospital, hut on much lower 
ground. A part of it was used as a 
storeroom, part as the treasury, part 
as an office, and the rest as bairacks 
for the Bipihis, who garrisoned it 
under Lieut. Aitken. Dr. Fajrer'a 
house, like the Baillie Guard, faced 
the E. It was commanded by Captain 
Weston and Dr. Fayier, a flrst-rateshot, 
who killed many of the Sipdhis. The 
Post Office was a very important posi- 
tion, comrnanding the jail and mosque 
to the right, and the Clock Tower and 
offices of the T&r4 Ko(hl to the left, 



Boute 25. — Faizdbdd C-o Laiknau [Luthimi'). Sect. II. 



all being oiittiide the entrenchment. 
It was made a barrack room foT the 
aoldiora, and was armed with 3 guna. 
The Financial Office outpost was com- 

{osed bj Captain Sanders of the 13th. 
t was a large 2-stoiied liousG, and 
well barricaded. The Blgam Kothi, 
nearly in the centre ot all the de- 
fences, had its name from having been 
the dwelling-place of the daughter ot 
Sliss Walters, one of the king'i wives. 
A double range of ovt-offices formed 
a square within a square, one side 
of which was an Im^birah, after- 
wards converted into an ofHcers' hos- 

On the 3nd of Julj, the day of Sir 
Henry's being wounded, the rebels 
attacked the BailUe Guard Gate, -and 
Lieut. Orabame was wounded in the 
groin by one of them, who advanced 
to the very walls. Lient. Foster, of 
the 32nd, was also slightly wounded. 
On the 8th, Mr. Oramaney, the judicial 
commissioner, was killed by a cannon 
ball, which passed over Sergeant-major 
Watson withont touching him, bnt he 
also died. The deaths now averaged 
from 15 to 20 daily. Many were 
killed by an African, who fired from 
Johannes' house, outside the entrench- 
ment, without ever missing. On the 
Sth, Captain Mansfield and 3 other 
officers, and Mayceck. a civilian, sal- 
lied out, spiked a gun, and killed 
about 40 o£ the rebels without losing 
a man, thongh 3 were wounded. On 
the 9th another sortie was made, when 
a private named O'Keene spiked a 
gun. On the 10th, the ammnnition of 
the rebels' cannon falling short, the; 
began to fire pieces of wood, copper 
com, iron, and even bullocl^' horns. 
On the 11th the enemy made a general 
attack ; Lieut. Iicster and a number of 
others were killed. On the 16th the 
rebels made a night attack on (jubbins' 
Battery, but were beaten back. On 
l^e 20th of July the rebels exploded a 
mine near the Bedan. They attempted 
to storm the Baillie Guard, and roade 
their assault from every point, pouring 
in volleys of musketry, and sending 
shell after shell into the entrench- 
ments. Am the rebels approached, they ! 
were mowed down in sooiea by grape, \ 



and their leaders were picked oS by 
the Ki^lish rifiemen, among whota 
Captain Weston and Dr. Fayrer were 
most conspicuous. As the fire became 
more aud more infernal, even the 
wounded and sick English rose from 
their conches, seized muskets, and 
flred as long as their streogUi allowed. 
Ooe man with only one arm was seen 
haogii^ to the entrenchments with 
bis miuket, and died from the exer- 
tion. The miDC the rebels flMd near 
the Bedan did no harm to that battery, 
bat they, supposing a breach to have 
been made, rushed up the glacis at the 
double, with fiied bayonets. Hundreds 
were shot down ; but their leader, 
waving his sword, on which he placed 
his cap, sbonted to them to came on. 
Again they advanced, but the grape 
nmde huge gaps in ^elr ranks, and a 
musket ball killed their leader. They 
then retreated, leaving heaps of slain 
aud wounded. At this time a furious 
attack was made on Innes' outpost, 
where Lieut. Loughnan, of the 13th 
N,l., with 24 English soldiers, 12 Qn7 
covenanted civilians, and 25 Bip^his, 
beat back a whole host of rebels. At 
first, they bad forgotten the scaling 
ladders, and when they were brought, 
those who carried them were again 
and again shot down. Some readied 
the top of the wall, but were driven 
down with the bayonet. At this 
moment one part of Innes' house, 
called the Cockloft, was iu the most 
immineat danger of being taken. For- 
tunately, the gnnsfrom the Hedan com- 
manded this position, and the shells 
thrown by them killed numbers of the 
enemy, who, beaten at all points, at 
last slowly retreated, corryii^ off 100 
of their wounded comrades. At the 
Financial and Sago's posts, the column 
of rebels with the green standard was 
after some hours' hard fighting beaten 
off, with the loss of all their com- 
miindera and about 60 men. The 
English loss was about 1£ Ei^lish 
and 10 Imlians, killed and vrouoded, 
while the rebels lost not less than 
1000 men. The fight ended at 4 P.M., 
when the rebels sent a flag of 
truce, and asked permiBdon to remove 
their killed and wonnded, trtdoh wm 



Sect. II. Iioute-25. — Laiikr)au{Liuhww) : the ReiUenci/. 



237 



gnuiteU, and cartlonds were ci 
Though beaten nt all points, c 



the 



20th the enemy nminlained a furiuT 
cannonade, unci added new batteries. 
On the Slst Major Banks, the Chief 
OommisEioner, Hr. Polehompton , the 
chaplain, and 10 other Englishmen 
■were killed or died. Brigadier Inglis 
now assumed the command. The 
hospital was always full uf men 
covered with blood, and often with 
vermin. Owing to the fire o( the 
enemy, the windows had to be barri- 
caded, and even then men were shot 
in their beds. A carcaee s!iell fell 
among Uie barricades, and the fire 
craiBumed a number of hospital stores. 
The greatest torment was the flies, 
whieh swarmed in incredible numbers. 
The ground was black with them, and 
the tables covered. The besieged 
could not sleep, they coold eearccly 
eat on account of them. On the 
2Btb a letter was received from the 
Quartermaster General of Havelock's 
force, telling the besieged to be of 
good cheer, for a relieving force was 
coming in overwhelming numbers. 
But days passed and the rebele were 
btas; Willi their mines, and but for the 
comiler mining by Capl; Fulton of the 
Engineers, the place must have fallen. 
On the 10th of August there was 
another general attack, but the enemy 
showed little courage, and they 
were easily beaten off. On the same 
day a mine was exploded at Sago's 
garrison, and blew down some out- 
houses ; 2 English soldiers were blown 
into tie air, but both escaped. An- 
other mine between the Brigade Mess 
and the K&nhpdr battery blew down 
a stockade, and the enemy attempted 
to enter, but were repulsed. The 8-in. 
howitzer which the rebels took at 
Chinhat, played on Innes' post with 
fatal effect, bringing down beam 
after beam, and making many breaches. 
On the 11th of Ai^ust, Major Anderson, 
tha chief engineer, died. On the 14th, 
Captain Fulton exploded a mine 
under a house near Ssgo's garrison, 
which was blown up, and in it were 
buried from 40 to 60 of theenemv. On 
the 18th, the Seccmd Sikh Square, 



ganisoned by IE Christiau drummBrs 
and mostcians, and 16 Sikhs, was 
blown up by the rebels, and buried 7 
Christians and 2 Sikhs under its ruins. 
Captain Oir, Lt. Meecham and 2 
drummers were blown into the air ; 2 
of the drummers were killed, but Orr 
and Meecham escaped with slight 
injuries. A large breach was mode, 
and the enemy tried to enter, but 
their leader was killed and they 
retired. Captain J'ulton with a 
number of volunteers then sallied, 
killed a number of matchlock men, 
destroyed a number of houses, and 
blew up the shaft of another mine 
begun by the rebels. 

On the 20th, the house called Johan- 
nes was blown np by Capt. Fulton, kill- 
ing 60 to 80 of the rebels. Capt.Fulton 
then headed a sally and drove out the 
insurgents from several buildings, and 
blew them up. Lt. Macabe headed 
another party and spiked 2 gnna. 
Previous to this Lt. Macabe of the 
32nd had attacked Johanues house, 
and bayoneted a, number of the eriemy, 
who were found asleep, and amongst 
them the African, who had picked off 
dozens of the Eiiglish during the first 
days of the siege, and hail been 
christened by the soldiers " Bob the 
Nailer." At this time a sergeant of 
the Bhusa guard named Jones, and 
10 othcre, mostly native Christiana, 
deserted, but were killed by the 
iusurgenls. On the 29th of August, 
Angad the spy brought another letter 
from K^hpiir, saying that the relief 
would take place in 3 weeks. On the 
same day Edwin Sequera, who had 
greatly distinguished himself at 
Chinhat, and during the siege, died 
from a wound in his chest, and his 
was the only death that day. Food 
was now very dear, a bottle of pickles 
cost 20 rs., and a dozen of beer 70 rs. 
On the 6th of September the rebels 
mode another attack, having previously 
exploded 3 mines. The enemy ad- 
vanced to the Brigade Mess boldly, 
hut were driven back with the loss of 
100 men. They then attacked the 
Baillie Quaiil, but rounds of grape 
made lanes of death in their ranks, 
and at several other places they were 



238 

similarly repulsed. On the 14th, 
. Capt&in Fulton was killed, at Gubbius' 
Batt«iy, where a S-poond shot took 
hia bead complete!; off. Lt. Biruh 
aUo was killed by a soldier of lie 
who took him for an insai'gent. 
the 23ni of September, a fnrioiu 
oannonacie raged ootaide the citj 
from 10 A.M. to 1 P.M., and conGrmed 
the news received the day before that 
Outiam and Havelock were coming to 
relieve the besieged. On the 25th, 
smoke and the crack of musketry 
ehewed that street fighting was going 
on. The lire adyanced ateadilj and 
grndually towards the entrenchments, 
aud at last a loud shout proclaimed 
the arrival of the long eipected 
relnforcementa. 

This relief was not, however, effected 
without most seriooB loss; forSOOofficera 
and men were killed and wounded. 
Among these Brigadier-General Neill 
and Major Couper were killed, and 
10 other officers fell, besides those who 
died of t^eir wounds. At this time 
the houses were all perforated with 
cannon-ahot, and the Kinhpfit Battery 
waa a mass of ruins ; the outpost at 
Innes' bouse roofiess ; and out of the 
Brigade Mess alone 436 cannon balls 
were taken. The besieged were not, 
however, free. Those who relieved 
them tuid poseesxion of the T4rA Kotbi 
and the Farid Bakhsh Palace, as also 
the Chatr Hanzil Palace, which were 
on the river's side, and from which the 
enemy's lire had been meet fatal, par- 
ticularly from the Clock Tower, whence 
an African eunuch had killed many of 
the besieged. Thoagh the garrison 
had extended their positions, the 
enemy were far from abandoning the 
city, and Outram and Havelock with 
their troops were themselves block- 
aded. On the 36th of September 
Captain Lowe, of the 32nd, made a 
sortie with 160 men of his regiment, 
with detachments under Captains Bas- 
sano, Hughes, and Lawrence. Law- 
rence took 3 guns and drove the enemy 
into the river, killing almost all of 
them ; Captain Hngbes spiked 2 
mortars and blew up a powder maga- 
zine ; Captain Lowe brought in as 
trof^es an IS-ponnder, a S-poonder, | 



ItouU 25.—FaUdbad to ZaUikau (lucknow). Sect. II, 



and 6 smaller guna. On tbe 2Tth 
Major Stephenson made another sortie 
witli the 1st Madras Fusiliers, while 
another party of the 32nd attacked the 
Garden Battery. The enemy, how- 
ever, were in such force that, after 
spiking 3 guOB and burning the 
battery, the English were obliged to 
retire. On the 29th there were 3 
sorties, commanded bv Major Ap- 
thorpe, who had 6 officers and lOO 
men of the Madias Fuailiers. Captain 
Macabe commanded a 2nd sortie, and 
was mortally wonnded. A gi'cat num- 
ber of tJie enemy, however, were killed, 
and the objects of the sortie tolly at- 
tained. A 3tA sortie, under the com- 
mand of Captain Shute, stormed a 
house, Idlled a great number of the 
enemy, and burst the large gnu they 
had taken at Chlnhat. This partly lost 
36 men killed and wounded. On the 
1st of October a body of 670 English 
soldiers, commanded by Colonel 
Napier, (H;ciipied the houses to the 
front and left of Phillips' Battery, 
which was one of tlte enemy's strongest 
positioDB, and was Btormed next dtiy. 
Attempts were then made to open 
communicatious with 'A lam BAgh. 
where the relieving loree had deposited 
their baggage and ammunition, with 
4 guns and 300 men as an escort 
The attempt failed, for an intervenli^ 
mosque was filM with riflemen, and 
too strongly fortified to be taken with- 
out very great loss. During the opera- 
tions Major Halliburton was mortally 
wounded, aud his successor, Major 
m, was killed nest day. The 
now repaired their defences, 
and eitended thera near Innes' post 
by taking and fortifying a mound, 
which became one of their strongest 
positions. Fighting went on inces- 
santly, and the besieged had daily to 
deplore the loss of one or two men. 
The Sikhs under Captain Brasyer were 
attacked, and the enemy penetrated 
into their incloanre, but were driven 
back with the loss of 400 men. On 
the 20th of October tbe enemy made a 
determined rush at the K&nhpilr 
Battery, but were driven off with 
gi'ape. PtovisionB were again scant, 
and brandy sold at 64 rs. the bottle- 



Sect. II. Itoale 25.—Laldiitau. {Luc&aoui): tke- Reii4ency. 

The palaces which had been taken br 
oni troops continued to be fortified, 
bnt were the object ot severe ftttaoks, 
Tbe Picqaet Hooae was blown np b; 
the enemy. One dark night Colonel 
Napier reconnoitred the enemy's posi- 
tion, and nnder hia directions Lt. 
Jhusell, of the Engineers, blew np a 
mosqne occupied by the enemy, of 
whom nnmbera were killed. On the 
10th of November Sir Colin Campliell 
reached 'Alam BAg^, and relieved the 
gairison besieged there. At this time 
James Kavana[;h, a civilian, who had 
distinguished liimself in several sorties, 
offered to carry despatches from Sir 
James Ontram at Lakbuan to Sir 
Colin Camptx^l at 'i^Um B4gh, and 
succeeded in doing so with wonderful 
ootiri^e and address. As Sir Colin 
Campbell approached the city, the 
besieged exploded mines at the Hiran 
Kh&£ah and Kal Kh Anah's engine- 
hoose, but vrithont much cflect. Lt. 
Hutchinson, with a party of the 6ith 
under Captain Adolphe Orr, then 
■allied, and captured the house in. 
which the latter had resided ; and Lt. 
HaU and Captain Willis, with a de- 
tachment of the 81ih, stormed the 
Hiran Kh&uah ; and Col. Pumell, with 
a body of the 90th, drove the enemy 
out of the engine-hoDse, but were com- 
pelled to retreat by the guns of the 
JEai^arb&l^, and therefore burnt it 

Captains Russell and Gates, wiUi a 
detachment of the T8th nnder Captain 
Lockhart, took the King's stables, 
secured the position, and made it over 
to Col. Pumell and the 90th. The 
loss was 3 officers wounded, 7 K.-C. 
officers and men killed, and 28 
wounded. Meantime Sir Colin, with 
2700 infantry and 700 cavalry, moved 
on to the 'Alam BAgh, and, leaving his 
baggage there, and taking witli him 
700 more soldiers, proceed " ^ " '^'^ - 
DilkushS, in which move 
advanced guard encountered a heavy 
fire, but toive the rebels past the 
MartiniSie College. On the 12th an 
attack of the rebels was repulsed, and 
on the Uth the rear guard joined Sir 
Colin. On the 16th Sir Colin's whole 
force, eseept the 8th, left to guard the 
DiJkiubA, advanced agMoat tlie "' 



239 



kandara Bd^. After a desperate 
conflict, the 4th Sikhs, the 93rd High- 
landers, and the 62nd, broke into the 
entrance, and next day 2000 dead 
bodies of tlic rebels told the result. 
While this battle was raging, the 
English suffered much from a mur- 
derous .fire directed upon them from 
the Shih Najaf mosque. Thia place 
was next taken by Feel s Naval Brigade 
and the 93rd. The troops then rested 
for the night, though fired on cou' 
tinnally from the adjacent buUdings. 
Oq the 17th the Mess-house, a large, > 
two-storied, flat-roofed house, flanked 
by 2 square turrets, was stormed by 
detachments of the 53rd, 90th, aikd a 
body o£ Bikha. The Observatory, in 
rear of the Mess-house, was next taken 
by the Sikhs. To keep up a line of 
communication with the Mkushiwas 
the next object, and was effected with 
some loss. Brigadier Hussdl was 
severely wounded, and his snccessor, 
Colonel Biddulph, killed. The enemy 
then mode a fierce attack on the Hcss- 
house and the Highlanders in the bar- 
racks taken on the 16th, but were 
repulsed with great loss. On the 
afternoon of the 17th of November 
Sir Colin met Outram and Havelock, 
and loud shouts proclaimed that the 
relief of Lakhnau had been eHected. 
The British loss was 467 killed and 
wounded, of whom 10 officers were 
killed and 33 wounded. That evening 
Sir Colin commanded the sick and 
wounded, women and children, should 
be moved from the Eesidency to the 
Dilkushi. This was carried out on 
the 22nd. Captain Watermore was 
the only person left behind, having 
over-slept himself ; but at 2 A.M. he 
awoke, and managed to reach the re- 
tiring rear-gnard. The enemy con- 
tinued firing into the old positions 
long after they had been abandoned. 
On the 2Sth of November General 
Havelock died. When the colomn, 
which was 7 m. long, arriyed at the 
KAnbpiir bridge of boats, tie booming 
of cannon was heard, and a large fire 
was seen. Brigadier Wyndham had 
been defeated, and the station of 
K4nhpiir was in the hands <ff the 
GwAli^ rebels. After « few days the 



240 

women and the sick were enabled to 

gfocecd to AlMh4b4d. Sir James 
iitram with hia diTisioiiliad been left 
at 'AUm BAgh. 

Haring refreshed his memory with 
this Hommaiy, the traveller will go 
round the entrenchments of the Besi- 
dency, and will do well to ascend the 
tower, which ia propped, np, and the 
top utorj of which haa been moch 
shot away. The aecent is by 91 Etep«, 
and the height is 05 ft. 1 in, There is 
a fine view from the top. Below ib the 
cemetery, which is shaded with Bite 
ti'ees, and ia well kept. The Ist monn- 
mcnt ia to the memory of Major J. E. 
Swinncy and S other officers, C set- 
f^eanta, 2 corporals, and 77 privates of 
H. M.'s 7th Fnfiiliers, who lost their 
lives in the advance on lakboau under 
General Uavelock. Then comes the 
tablet of Thomas John Chancey, killed 
daring the siege, and next to it ia a 
tablet to Lt,-Col. G, Seymonr and II 
other officers, and3G0 N.-C officers and 
privates of the 81th York and Lancaster 
B^iment, who were killed, died of 
thcit wonnds Or diacase during the 
Indian mutiny. Then follows a monn- 
ment to Brif;.- General G. C, 8. Neill, 
C.B., and A-D.C. to the Queen, Lt.-Col. 
J. L. Stephenson, C.B., Major G. L. C. 
Eenaud, and 6 other officers, and 362 
N.-C. officers and privates of the 1st 
M.idraa Fuailiera, who fell during the 
Rebellion in 1867-68. Close by ia the 
tomb of Henry Steadman Polehampton , 
Chaplain of Lakhmtn, who died July 
20Ui, IS57, during the siege; with him 
is buried Ida only child. Then comes 
Uie monument to Colonel Robert F. 
Campbell, who died of his wonnds 12th 
ofNovember,18e7; Major Kobert Barn- 
atone, Brev.-Major John Perrin, and 
Captain Henry Denison, who died of 
their wounds; Lt, Nicolaa Grahame, 
Lt. J, J. Nunn, Lt, Arthur Moultrie, 
who were killed in action ; Lt. S. 
Preston, who died of hia wounda ; and 



Moute 25.~FaiTdbdd to ZaiUnau {ludiunp). Sect II. 



and privates of t^SOtbLightlnfantrj, 
who fell in the gallant performance of 
their daty at the relirf, defence and 
capture of Lakhnan, and during the 
snbeeqnent campaign inAwadh. Then 
comes the celebrated epitaph to Sir 
Henry Lawrence: — 



The next tablet is to ]>onard Angostas 
Arthor, 7th Light Cavalry, who fell 
while commanding the KAnhpili BBt- 
tety, mh of July, 1867. Nertia "WU- 
liam Hamilton HaJford, Colonel ciHn- 
manding the 71th BJf.L, who died at 
Lakhnan, 27th of July, 1857, from the 
lifects of the siege." Nest is Lt. W. 
R. Mooiwm, H. M.'s e3d, killed in 
action near the iron bridge, March 11 th, 
1868. Next are Mrs. Allnntt and her 
child, LL H. J. Bicbapda, H. M.'s 29d, 
John Connell, Lt. H. Godwyn, who all 
died during the siege; Mr. T. W. Erith, 
who died of hia woonds, and Mra. 
Amoor, killed by a shell. Close by is 
the tomb of Major John Sherbrooke 
Banka, of the S3d N.L, who fell at 
I^bnaa, 2l8t of July, 1857. Also 
that of Lt. James Grahiune, 4th Light 
Cavalry, who died during the si^e, 
with hia 2 children. At eome distance 
is the tomb of Major C. F. Bmere, 
Cmtain R. B. Fiaulis, Lt. G. W. Green, 
and Enaign A. R. Inglis, of the IStli 
N.L, who fell in the defence of Lakh< 
nan in 1867. Also of Captain A. H. 
Tnmbnll, who died in the K&nhptir 
entrenohinent, and Lt. E. W. Bamett, 
killed at I^i^, both of the same regi- 
ment. The names of the other victims 
here given in the order of their 



1. Bcv. Patrick Fairhurst . . Riused by the Catholic soldiera of the 

SSth. 

2. James Follarton and his child, I}iedintbeBeiideney,Septemberl6th, 

Elphinstone FuUarton. 1857. 

3. Captain James Chapman, 7th Killed during the bI^b, Jnljr 2Gth, 

Light Cavalij. ISST. 



Sect. II. Route 25. — MacltcM Bhawan mid Great Imdmhdrah. 



241 



4. Captain G. W. W. Falton, R.B. 

5. Fiuherbert Dacre Lucas, 3d ear. 

at Eight Hon. E. Lncaa. 

6. Captain A. Beecher, tfllh NX , 



9. Edith Scot Lewin . . . . 

10. F. J, Cnnliffe, 2d Lt. Bengal Art, 

11. J. B. ThornhiU, B.C.S. 

12. Mary C. B. ThornhUl . . . 

13. Hra. Thomas, wife of CapUin L, 

F. C. ThomoB, Madras Art. 

14. Cftpt. T. F. GoBseret, 34th M.L.I. 
16. M. C. Ommaaey, B.C.S. 

16. C. B. J. Mayer .... 

17. Juliana Fitzgerald 

18. Mary Dunbar 

19. Lt. A. J, DaBhwood, and his child. 
30, Geoi^ina Boilean . 

21. Etizalieth, wife of Balph Onseley, 
and 2 children. 

32. Captain A. P. Symons 

Lieut. D. C. Alexander { Beng, 
Lieut. B, P. Lewin ' ' * 
Lieut. F. J. Cunliffe 

23. Ellen Huxham 

24. Lt, W. D. Bayley, H. M.'b 38th. 

£5. W. MarshaU . . 



KUled 14th ot Bepfemljer, 1857. 
XraTeUiug in India, volunteered for 

Hervice. MoctalJy wounded, BUth 

September, 1857. 
Died of wounds received in Haveiock's 

Died 21st of September. 185T. 
Killed at the KAnhpOr Battery, 2Cth of 

July, 1867. 
Died 20th of August, 1857. 
Died September 23rd, 18B7. 
Died of woonde, October 12th, 1857. 
Died September Ist. 1857. 
Died 16th July, 1857. 

Died of WQunds, April 10th, 1866. 

Died July Sth, 1867. 

Died I9th of July, 1867. 

Died August I8th, 1857. 

Died 17th of July, 1857. 

Died July 9th, n&l^ 

Died 13tb ot September, 1857, 

Died 14tb of November, 18E7. 

Who died ot wounds, disease and ex- 
posure, July, August and September, 
1867. 



llaoheki Bkateai and Great Im&m- 
hirah. — The traveller will next proceed 
1000 yds. to the W., to the MachcbfBba- 
wiUL It bos been said that this building 
was blown up on the night of the 30th of 
June) 1SG7. It has now been repaired 
and extended, and includes the Great 
Imdmbfirah, which word is better 
translated, " Bnildiag of the ImAm's," 
than " Patriarch's I'lace," as given by 
Keene. The Rilml DarwAzah or Con- 
stantinople Qate, is said to have been, 
built by A^afii 'd daulah in imitation 
of that gate at Constantinople from 
which the Turkish Government derives 
its name of "iiublime Porte." This 
DarwAzah is 220 yds. to the W. of the 
street leading to Uie Im&mbirah. The 
visitor will pa«s under an arch, and 
find on his right a large mosque, and 
ascend a number of steps to the Imto- 
bdrab, which faces N., and ii said to 
[Smjot— 1881.1 



I have coat a milhon sterling. The cen- 
tral or great room of the ImAmb^rah 
iBl63 ft. long, 53ft.broad, and49ift. 
high, and has an arched roof without 
supports. The curve ot the arch is 63 
ft., the wall is 16 ft. thick, and when 
its immense weight is considered, the 
roof of this room may be r^Md^ as 
one of the most remarkable things in 
Indian architecture. The circumfe- 
rence of the oetngonal room, which 
adjoins the central nail, is 216 ft. 1 in., 
and its height 53 ft. At the W. cud 
is a sq. room about the same size as the 
octagonal one. In the lai^est room are 
a number of cannon, and conspicuous 
amongst them are 6 lO-inch guns, 
brought from the Bhannort man-of- 
war, which did such good service nnder 
Feel. There are also four 8-inoh guns. 
The ceiling of the octi^oual room ia 
handsomely decorated , bntnot coloured. 



Soute 25.~Faiidbad to taklmau (Lucknote). Sect. II, 



by order of the king, Ghieiu 'i 
I^aidar, bnt he died before it arriTed. 
His Bon, Ndfim 'd dla, ordered it to be 
pat np in front of the KesideDcj, and 
gave the contract to a Mr. Binclair, 
nho failed. The erection wra thnB 
delayed till Amjad 'All Sh^ caused it 
to be put up. At 1100 yds. to Uie E. 
of it, on the 1. b. of the Gumtl, is the 
Tir&mali JbfA/, or Obaerratory (lit 
8Ur HoQM), built by N&siru 'd din 
I^aidar, under the Buperinlendence of 
Col,Wilcoi,AfltronomerEoyal. When 
the colonel died in 1847, the king: dis- 
miBS^ the em^ioyii. The instrumenta 
diBappeaiedintheRebellion. Therebel 
MftulftTl Alunadu'llih, of FoiribAd, 
made it his head-quarters, and the rebel 
parliament often met (here. The apace 
in front of it, between it and the 
Kaigar Biyli, is where tbe priBocen 
seat in by the Dbanrehra BAj^ on the 
24tb September,1867—HiB8Q. Jackson, 
Hr. Greene, Mrs. Bogers, Mr. Carew, 
and Mr. J. Suliran, with 9 deserters 
from the Beeidency, and the priaonera 
sent by the Mithanll fi&j4~~&ir U. 
Jackson, Captain Orr, Lt. Burns, and 
Sergeant Morton, were martyrcd on 
the letb Not., ISfiT. IUj& Jai L&l 
Bingh, a rebel- leader, mounted a gate 
of Uie Kai^ar B4gh to feast his eyes 
with the batoheiy. Two years pas^, 
bis part in the rebellion had been con- 
doned, bis cruel act not being known, 
when bis confidential serrants informed 
against hira, and on the let of October, 
1859, be waa executed on the very 
spot where bis horrid cruel^ had been 
tihibited. Onthel2lh,Banaah^uBain 
and Fatb 'AU, who had bunted down 
and brought the victims intoLakhnau, 
atoned for their wickedness by their 
deaths. Here, opposite the door to 
the Kai^ar B&gh, is the Orr Monument, 
which marks the spot where the poor 
Tlctima feU. It is an i^ly red low 
iacellvm, inscribed on the B. face: — 
B&cred to 
The Memoir or 



242 

A perfectly plain masonry slab, without 
any inscription, marks where A'gafn 'd 
daulah was interred. The Im&mb&rah 
is 303 ft long from K. to W., 180 ft. 
broad, and 62i ft high. From the 
terraced root, which is ascended to by 
76 steps, of 10 in. each, is a magnificent 
view over the city. The J*m'i Masjid 
la } of a m. due W. The passages 
which lead to the roof of the Im£n- 
b&rah aie very numerous and intricate, 
and one might eadly lose one's way. 
Besides this, some parts are quite un- 
safe. SUll it is worth while to mount, 
and the look along the gallery round 
the base of the roof, inside the building, 
is curious. The Im^mbArah was bnilt 
in 1784 A.D„ the year of the great 
famine, to aflord relief to the people. 
Leaving the Imimbirah, at a few yds. 
to the left, the visitor will see a very 
extensive and old Bdorl, that is, a well 
with gaUcries and flight of steps. The 
walls are overgrown with weeds and 
bushes, which make it very picturesque. 
The descent to the water's edge is by 
46 steps. The water is brackish, and 
not Dsed. Enter next the mosque, 
which has Persian verses over the door, 
which may thus be translatad, with the 
date, 1250 a.h.=1834a.». 

fften l)y anier of Uie King of KinRS 

WbiMned lU over in t beautltul way, 
Vj pen thna timeed on tlie allrtr alste: 
Tke whlUnlng la like ths 
WbltsbudotMioiis.* 
The mosqae is now nsed for concerts, 
church service and theatricals. The 
Machchi BhawBi. was bnilt by the 
Bhekhs, called also the Sh&hzad^, of 
Lakbnau, about 2 centuries ago. All 
that is left of their building is the 
round earthen bastions on the S. of the 
load. The high ground across the road 
within the fort surmounted by a small 
mosque, is Lak^hman Tila,where I^k^h- 
man, brother of B&mchandra, founded 
the village of Lak^hmanpiir. The 
mosque was bnilt by Anrangzib. 

Inm Bridge. — Taming l»ck now to 
the Residency for gOO yda. the iron 
bridge over the Gumtl will be reached. 

• According totha MnillmB, Mosoa reeeived 
thd powoT of working of miraclea, odo of 
which wu mBklag his hud white. Sea 
" ICur'iii," Sale'i TniiilB,ti(Hi, p. il8, uota 



i<i:iEH^ Uiw ^ic. 



FaltUoI servuils ot Ood, 



Sect. II. Saute ^^.—Farkat ^M*A Polaee—Kaitar Bdgh. 243 

the detached buildings are tamed into 
ofBoes of the Fablic WorkB Depart- 
ment and Civil Courta. During the 
Optain PiTBicK Ok*., Bebelliontliiaboildiiig wasflorroiuided 

Lisuteiunt Q, H. Bubhs, bj a high brick w^ of wMch the 

Bt BomW Eoropmn Puaiiion, rebels availed themBelveB, and dnriug 

*%:!???'..*',??!"'■ the adTanoe of Havelock it wm heavUr 

Utt litrhat Baihjik Pataee 
I the Observatory to the B, It 
was the royal palace from the time of 
H'aidst 'AU Kh4Q n. till W&jid 'All 
bnilt the Kai^ar BA^. The part 
which overlooka the river was bnilt by 
Oeneral Hartiu., and sold b? him to 
tjie Niiw&b. The reat was built by 
S'a^klat 'All Eb&n. It is the bmlding 
referred to in " The Private Life of aa 
Eastern King." The thnme-room, 
kDOwn as the Ka^ i Saltan or LAI 
BArahdari, was set apart for royal 
Darbirs. At the accession of a new 
king, it was die custom for the Besi- 
dent to seat him on the throne, and 
then present hitn with a Najar or 
"offering." In this room the BMshih 
Blgam, after she had forced open the 
gate tnVa an elephant, endeaT^ured to 
oblige the Resident, Colonel Lowe, to 
place Munna J&a, the illegmmate son 
of NA^im 'd din I^aidar, on the throne. 
Hies Eden epeaka of it as follows :— 
"There are 4 small palaces fitted np in 
the Bastem way, with velvet, gold, 
and marble, wi^ arabesqne ceilings, 
orange-trees, and rosea in all direc- 
tions."' (See Sleemaa, vol. it p,162). 
The Jail adjoins this palace to the 
S. There are about l,40u prisoners, of 
whom about 70 are woman. It is the 
healthiest jail in India. Habitual 
criminals are those that come in for the 
lootth time. Good-conduct men are 
made overseem and warders. Women 
are taught to read and write. The 
treadmill is used for those who ate 
physically fit for it ; but only for a 
month, tmd thej> are changed every 
quarter of an hour. 

Clmtr Jfonifl.— To the N.E. of the 
Jail, on t^e W. bank of the Oomtl, is 
the Chati Uaniil, which WM built by 
NAfiru 'd din, and ia a handsome 
building. The bett rooms are now 
nsed by the United Service Club, and 
for reuntoru and theatricals. Some of 



Kaifar Bdg^. — It will be best to 
enter this palace by the N.E. gateway, 
which faces the open epaoe in front of 
TArftwAli Kothi or ObBcrvatory, now 
the Bank of Bengal. At the entrance 
is the tomb of S'a&lat 'AU Ehto II. 
Passing np the open court in front of 
the gat« called the JilankhAnah, or 
place where the royal processions used 
to start from, the visitor will turn to 
the right, through a gateway covered 
by a screen, cross the Chlni B&^, 
called from the large china vessels 
with which it was decorated, and pass, 
under a gate flanked with green mer- 
maids to the 9afrat B&gh. Then on 
the right hand is the Ch&ndlw&li 
Bdrahdarl, which used to be paved 
with sHver, and the Khd^ Ual^Am and 
BAdsh&h Hanzil, formerly the special 
residence of the thig. The BAdshAh 
Manril was boilt by S'aAdat 'All II., 
and was included by WAjid 'All Sh&h 
in the new palace of the Kaijar BiLgh, 
which was begun in 1848 and finished 
in 1S60, and cost, including Eamitnre 
and decomUoQB, 80 l&khs. WAjid 
'Ali's Vaili, NiiwAb 'All Na^i EhAn, 
used to reside above ^e Mermaid's 
Gateway, in order to be near &e king 
and lenm all he was doing. On the 
left is the ChauUkhi, built by 'Ailmu 
'llAh K^An, the royal barber, and sold 
to the king for 4 l&khs. Here resided 
the Queen and her chief ladies. Dui^ 
ing the Kebellion she held her conrt 
hOTo, and in a stable close by our 
prisoners were kept for weeks. Further 
along the road is a tree paved roond 
the roots with marble, under which 
W&jiil 'AU ShAh nsed to sit dressed in 
the yellow robe of a Fa^li duiii^ the 
Qreat Fair. Further on, the visitor 
will pass under the great L&khl Qate, 
called from haying cost a lAkh, and 
'nto the magnificent open ■quare 
" ■ " ' ■ POT, the build- 
1 occupied by 



944 






—FoudliSd to LaUmau {Luchima). . Sect. II. 



ladies of the Ijarim. Here the Great 
Fair was held in Angust, and all the 
people of the city were admitted. 
After passing a stone BArahdarl, aow 
fitted up as a theatre, but used by the 
Britiab India Association, and through 
the W. L&khl date, correaponding to 
the E. one before mentioned, the 
Tiaitor will come to the Kaiijac Pasand, 
or " Ciesar's Pleaanie," aurmounted by 
a gilt semi-circle and hemisphere. It 
was built by Roshajin 'd danlah, the 
minister of N4siru 'd din I^aidar, and 
conflBcated by Wfijid 'All, who gave it 
to a favourite lady, the M'aahfl^K 'b 
Sultin. In the nnder-storiea of this 
baliding the Dhaurabra party of cap- 
tives were confined, and from it taken 
to be killed. On the right ia another 
Jilsukh&aah, corresponding to the K. 
one at the entrance to the palace, and 
turning down it, the Tisitor will find 
himself ontaide the Kai^ar Big^, and 
opposite the Shir DarwAzah, under 
wluch General Neill was killed, by a, 
discharge of grape from a gun ^aeed 
at the gate of the Kai^ar Bd|4i. 
Between the great quadrangle of the 
Kai^r H&gk and the Chlul B&z&r are 
the tombs of S'a^at 'All Khlln, and 
his wife, Mnrshid Z&di. Both were 
built by their son Gh&zin 'd din 
Gaidar. The spot where S'aAdat 'All's 
tomb stands was formerly occupied by 
a house in which Obiiiiu 'd din lived 
during his father's reign. When he 
succeeded to the throne he moved 
into the palace, and remarked that 
as he had now token his tattler's 
house, it was but fair that he should 
have hia, so he turned it into a mauso- 
leum. In the Ila^ratganj Boad, which 
Kisses. the N. face of the Kai^ar 
B^E^, ia the maasoleam of Amiad 
•AiTshih. 

JioH Mahall.— The next visit will 
be paid to the Motl Ma^all, which in- 
clodes 3 buildings. The one properly 
called Moti MatiaU is at the N. of the 
incloBure, and was built by 8'aAdat 
'AU S^in. It is said it was named 
because ita dome resembled a pearl. 
Thia dome is now destroyed, and the 
writer of the " Gazetteer," voL ii., p. 
371, which accounts for the, name m 
the way just given, orerlooks the fact 



that Hoti Halfall is a veir c 
name for mosqeee and [Hifaces. The 
Moti Mahall at Dibit, for example, is 
a mosque. Along the river face 
Ghisln 'd din built the Mubftrak 
Hannl to the E. of the former Bridge 
of Boats and the tib&h Mauzil close to 
the bridge. The celebrated wild beast 
fights took place in the 8h^ Manzil. 
But the ftghts between elephants 
and rhinoceroses were exhibited in 
front of the IJu^iirl Bfirt, on the other 
aide of the Gumtl, anothc king and 
his court watched them from the 
verandah of the Sh&h Manzil, wheie 
they were safe. 

ShAk JViijK/'.— The next visit may be 
to the BhAh Nojaf, a place which pro- 
bably has its name from Najef, or 
Mashhad 'Ail, a town 98 m. S. of 
Iri^ i Ar'abi, where 'AU 
buried. It was built by 01i4ziu 
'd din Gaidar, the flnt king of Awadh, 
in 1814, and isnow his mausoleum. It 
is sftuated about Jth of a m. to the E. of 
the Motl Mafciall, and 180 yds. to the 
8. of theW. bankof theOamti. It is 
a white mosque of scanty elevation 
compared with its immense low dome. 
Inwde it ia filled with Tixiyaht and 
amall picCurea of the different Nilwdbs 
and kings, and their favoarite ladies. 
Over the entrance, on a marble slab, 
at Uie right of the steps, ia a 
Persian inscription of 2i lines, dated 
1213 A.H. = 1827 A..D. These verses 
arc aa el^j- on the death ot Qtaeiria 
'd din, as may be seen from the firtt 

Wbsn the King ol the World 

Departed fmtn thli eirtb, 
""'""■"**■" *■ — ■" of high ftnd low ; 



^' P^dar hu taken his place In J 

Here the advance onder Sir Colin 
Campbell received a severe check. 
The following is a description of the 
assanlt by Mr. Qubbine :-'" Behind a 
parapet, raised on llie massive terrace 
of this tomb, the enemy was olustered, 
and ponred a frightful fire on a cun* 
pany of the 90th, which got up vrlthJn 
15 yds. of the main building. They 
Id discover, however, no entrance ; 
and both subalterns who commanded 
it having been wounded, the men fell 



Sect. II. jRonU 35.— f'tb^cun £<u&l — Sikandara Bdgh, 

back beUnd some neighbouring hitbi. 
I'hc gnoa were non- ^owed to batter 
the place for 2 hours, after which 
Brigadier Hope wm onlered to tahe it 
Willi the 93rd Highlandere. Finding 
that no breach had been effected, 
Brigadier Hope waa obliged to iend 
for a heavy gun, which was 
up by Captain Peel, of lie Shatmon, 
and was draped bv the sailors and 
meuof tl]e93rd, nnder afoarfulfireof 
mnsketry, close up to the wall of the 
Shfth Najaf. Here, with the onBile 
almost t«nchiiig ilie bailding, the 
2i-ponnder was worked. The dust and 
smoke was so great that it naa almost 
impoBsible to see what was the " ' 
of the cannonade, nnezampled e 
in naral warfare. A breach was 
in the outer wall ; but there was yet 
an inner wall, whiish seemed to present 
a serious obstacle, and the enemy from 
the elevated terrace still maintained a 
Arc of musketry which could not lie 
efiectoally kept down by tbe rifles of 
the 93rd. There was a tree staQding 
at Uie comer of the SbAh Najaf, close 
to tbe building,' and at this juncture 
Captain Peel c&red the Victoria Cross 
to any of his men who would climb it. 
Three men immediately ascended the 
tree up to the level of the terrace, and 
from this position fired on the enemy. 
By this time, however, the enemy, 
alarmed by the pn^ress of the attack, 
began to desert the place. Their fire 
slackened ; tite Highlanders rushed in 
at the bresJch, and the SbAh Nsjaf was 

Xadam .S^miU,— About 900 yds. to the 
E. of the Sh<kh Najaf is a brick build- 
ing, called the $Mam BasiU, or " foot 
of the Prophet," though it is rather a 
misnomer, for tliey do not even pre- 
tend to idiow the footprints of the 
Prophet. The road to it Is filtiily 
dirty, and latrines are put up at the 
base of the hill on which it is bailt. 
Tbe hill is no doubt artificial. The 
ascent is by £6 steps of brick, over- 
grown with weeds, and covered with 
rubbish, to a brick platform, on which 
is the building, which has been used 
as a mosque. There is a good view 
from the top, but it hardly compen- 
sates for the filthy walk. 



245 

KhursMd ManzU. — In ,rear of the 
MoE Maljidl, and between it and 
the Observatory, is the Khorahld 
Hanzil, a strongly-built plain boose, 
which was fortified by the rebels. It 
is now a Qirls' School affiliated to the 
Martini^re, having been endowed 
from funds, saved from those belong- 
ing to the Mortiniire by General and 
Mrs. Abbott, and opened in 18e9. It 
was stormed by detachments of the 
63Fd and 90th, and the Naval Brigade, 
with some Sikhs. It is int^st- 
ing becanse here Ontram and Have- 
lock met Sir Colin Campbell, after 
severe loss in passing the fire of the 

The 'JJdib Gkar or Mmfwn is not 
far from the Eadam Ra8iil,and t^uld 
be visited, as h&s been before men- 
tioned, to inspect the model of the 
Beaidency by Chaplain Moore. 

' Sikandara lidgtt is about J of a m. 
t« the K. by S. of the Sh4h Najaf, and 
between them lie the gardens ri the 
Awadh Agri-Horticttltural ^odetj. 
Tbey are very eztensiTC, and are 
bounded on the S, by the Gumtl. 
The Sikandara B6j^ is 120 yds. sq., 
and is surrounded by a high solid 
wall. It was built by WAjid 'Ali, for 
one of his ladies, named Sikandar 
Hawaii. Daring the Bcbellion a body 
of 1,613 SipAhis retreated to this 
gaiden, under the belief that there 
was an outlet to it, through which 
they might escape. They were hotly 
pursued by the 93rd Highlanders and 
jth Fanj&b Rifies, Bo much so that 
they were unable to close the gate 
before 2 officers of the 93rd, and a 
gigantic sibahdAr of the Panj4b Rifles, 
and another tall powerful officer of 
that regiment, made a rush at the 
gate, and with their bodies prevented 
its being closed. The i^dbahd&r and 
the other officer of the Rifles were 
shot dead, but tbe others got in and 
were followed by their regiments, who 
bayoneted every man inside the in- 
closure, so that 1,M3 dead bodies of 
interred in the 
space between the gateway and the 
road, where there is still a long mound 
or ridge. The SipShls were, in fact, 
coDght in tkeuldii lac, there being no 



UmiU 25. — Fait&>dd to Lakhum {Lueknow). gect 11. 



246 

door on. the other side ol the garden, 
and the wall being too high to olimb. 
Thii WB8 the greatest Ion inflicted 
upon them in eay one day tbioughont 
the war. Nothing markg the spot 
where they were buried, bnt it ie all 
the ndge to the E. of the gatewaj, up 
to and eTen beyond the ro^. Directly 
N, of their burial-place, and border- 
ing on it, ia a white inolotnre, 16 ft 
Bq., under some trees. In it i« a tomb 
with the following inscription, on a 
copper plate : — 



jA KimmET 

ifl Fiu1Ubt«, 

On the luiu d«y, and interred 
In Uia nmB gisTe. - 

Tkfi MarHniirc^At 2,600 yds. to 
the 8.tj.B. of the Sikandara B^ is 
the Martini&re. This institation wns 
founded by Major- General Claude 
Martin. His tomb ia in the B. crypt 
of the chapel, and is inscribed ; — 

HerellBB 
1UJ0B.QENERAL CLAtlDE HARTIK, 

The 5tli day of Jannnij, 1785, 

Airivert In India a lonimon Bolrtter, and 

l>ied at Lskhnau, 

The 13th day of September, 1800. 

This tomb wan restored in I860. In 
the central crypt of the college is a 
bell cast by the General, the circum- 
ference of which ia 1 6 ft., the diameter 
C ft. 4 in., and the length 3 ft i in. It 



He was the son of a cooper, and 
serred as a soldier under LaAy in the 
regiment of Lorraine. He and some of 
hlg comrades formed a company c>f 



ChaaMuis under Law, and garrisoned 
Chandianagar, 'till taken by Clive. 
He then entered ^e Britiih army, and 
rose to the rank of captain. In 17T4 
he wM employed in mrveying the 
boundary made oyer by the British to 
Shuji'a 'd daulah. Two years after- 
wards he entered the service of the 
Niiwibg of Awadb, but the British 
Qorenmient allowed him to retain faia 
tank, and to enjoy promotion. In 
1TS3 he formed the acquaintance of 
T)e Boigne, and took part with him in 
cultivating indigo, and in other agri- 
culttual pniBuits, by which he acquired 
a huge fortune. Ihe Siyar» 'I Muta' 
'ai^sMrin, says : " Colonel Martin is 
a man dennms of all kinds of know* 
ledge, and although be is at the head 
of a, large fortune, which he owes 
only to his industry, he works whole 
days together at tH the arts VarA 
conoem watchmaking and gnDBmithB* 
work, with as much bodily labour as 
if he had his bread to earn by It. Ae 
an architect (and he is eTerytmng) he 
has bnilt himself, at IiCtkhnan, a strong 
and elegant house." The honee in- 
tended in this quotation is probably 
the Farljat Bakbsh, in which he died, 
and be also built the mansion of 
Constantia, which has now become a 
college. The titles given him by the 
King uf Awadh were Sharafu 'd daulah. 
Saifn '1 mulk, Imtiydz K^&n, OeueisI . 
Claode Martin Bah&dur, Shah4mat 
Jang. It is said that A^afu 'd daulah 
offered him a million sterling for 
Constantia, now the Martini£re. Bat 
the Ndw&b died before the bargain 
was completed, and Qeneial Martin 
himself died before the building was 
Snished, and he directed it should be . 
completed out of the funds left to 
endow a school there. The chapel is 
exquisitely decorated with medaUions 
by Italian artiets. The visitor should 
ascend to the roof, where he wil! see 
the damage done by the rebels to the 
boilding and stataes, which conld not 
be repaired at a less expense than 
60,000 rs. They broke open the tomb 
of Oeneral Martin, and scattered his 
bones about, bnt they were collected 
and replac^ by the British. In a 
cemetery in the Hartini^ie Park, 



Saute 25. —DUhulid — 'Alam Bdgk. ' 



All tlut conld dia of 

VILLIAU 8TEPHKN EUtKES HOSSON, 

Capti^ii Bud Bt-Mmjor lat E. B. FuailLsta 



In tbe Bi»l uuult st Likhiuu, 



There is another tablet Inscribed :— 



H L. DA COSTA, 

»H>».I.,attuhBdt<i 

FirdipAi Rtig<iii«rt ot HIkha, 

'WHO fell In the flnil UHUlt on tbi 

Kalur BAsb, 

l^tfaofHsrch, 186S. 



Killed In Bction 



Bengal ArtUleiy. 



t the Relief dT lA\mi 






leLonl." 



The eiterior ol tho Martinifere 
impoajng, and will more than satis 
the espcctfttiona of the -visitor. T! 
baaemeut story ia raised to a ga 
height abo»e tho groand, and ha« 
cxteQBlve wings, but the anper- 
fltructnre ia Jnuvrre, and has not in- 
correctly been stjled "a whimsical 
pile dt eveiy species of arehiteoti " 
There are i towers and a central 
sapportcd by flyinp battresseB, The 
ceilings ol mxaj of the rooms are 
beantifnlly panelled in floral stucco 
tciief. The College contains from 120 
to IBO boys, who obtain a substantial 
and lueful education free of expense. 
In front is a piece of water, with a 
nmall mound in the centre, on which 
an Ionic column, which is couspicaoos 
for miles round. 

Dilkatkd, or "heart -expanding," 
was a villa bmlt bj S'a&dat AH K^&i 
in the midst of an extensive dee: 
park. It stands about j of a m. t 



247 

tbe B.S.E. of the Martini^re. It was 
captured by Colonel Hamilton, of tha 
TStii, with some companies of his own 
corps, and of the 6th and 61th, on the 
12tli o£ November, 1867. Here, oil 
tbe 21tb, General Eavclock expired, 
u is recorded in hia epitaph at the 
jVlam Bd^. The building is now a 

TRjw/EcWParA.— In returning from 
the Dilkushi the traveller will drive 
through Wingfield I'ark, which is to 
the W, of it. This park is veiy 
pretty, and ia adorned with many 
white marble pavilions and statuea, 
and has a laige pavilion in the centre, 
surrounded by 80 acres of grounds 

" " -gardens. One statue re- 
presents a man attacked by a wolf, 
and has on it, "The 1st Premium 
adjndged to N. Head, by the Society 
of PoUte Arts, 100 Ruinca*, a,d. 1761." 
There is said to be a atAtue by Canova. 
This park was named after Sir C. 
Wingfield, Chief Commissioner, after- 
warns M.P. for Gravesend. 

'A'laia Jdji.— Thi8placei8 6,B00tt. 
S.W. of the booking-office of theAwadh 
nnd Kobilkhand Railway, and is in a 
walled inclosuro of 6U0 eq. yds. It 
commands the road to K^hpiir, for 
which reason it was chosen for Sir 
J. Outrara's position, when, on Sir 
Colin Campbell's retreat with tie 
women and the wounded, he was left 
behind to keep Ihe rebels in check. It 
was built by Wajiii All, as an occa- 
sional residence for a favourite wife. 
There ia a building in the garden, with 
a good many rooms in the second 
story, of which any gentleman may 
make use ; there are i towers, one at 
each comer, and 6 pillara and 2 pilas- 
ters on each side in the lower story. 
Here is General Havelock's tomb, sur- 
mounted by an obelisk 30 ft. high, with 
the following inscription written by 
his vrife. It is on the E. face of the 



BENRY HATELOCK, 



id by the hardahip^ of 



He VH bom on tfae iHs nf Anrll, 1T», 
.t Bialinp'* Weannouth, cuimi)' Dnrtiiin, 

Erlered the srmy In 1S16; 

tnd Krred then, iHlh little InteiTaFtlini, 
Until ble destli. 



Soute 25. — FaifdS4dto Lakknau {Lackfwv)). Sect. IL 

Next is a Ublet set up by the 93rd 
HiKhlandeiB to their comrades wbo 
fell in action OT died of woonde daring 
the|Htitin7, — killed inaction, 6 officers, 
16 meD ; died of wounds, 1 officer, 
36 men ; died of digeoBe, 1 officer, 83 
men. Next 1b to Alexander BiTSoQ, • 
Volunteer, who was killed on Uie 9tli 
of July, 1857, within the Eesidency 
Defences, while singly building under 
a deadly fire a bcmicade, a duty be 
Toluuteeted to perform. A tablet to 
Sir Junes Ontram deserves to be 
recorded iriiole ; also to Sir H. Low- 



Hie uheii In B peucfdl nm bIaII rbI. 

Qle name b great exBiupleBtmnclB, toi^nw 
Huw stiBogtlj' high endBBVours may be 

"Vbto piety Bnd Tslonr Jointly go. 
Tbia Honnment le erected by 
Bia Bomnlng Wldnn and E^amltj-, 
The buildiog in reiy much marked 
with shot. 

The only things that rem^n to be 
Keen are we Church — Christ Oiorch, 
which is a ^ of a m. from the Judicial 
Commissioner's house, and J a m. to 
the S.8.E. of the T. B.,^tlie B&dsh^ 
Bijli, and the leaser Imdmbarsh. The 
cboTch Is a neat building with a tower, 
measuring ^7 ft, from E. to W. and 
3* ft. 9 in. in breadth in the body of 
the chuicb, but in the chancel con- 
siderably more. There is here a 
handsome stained-glsss window. The 
church compound is prettily laid out 
with many flowers and creepers. In 
the side wall is a tablet put up by 
H.M.'s 62nd Regiment, to their com- 
Tmles who died in the year IBG3 : 
86 names of men, 6 of women, and 
7 of children are giren. The ceme- 
tery of the church is J of a m. further 
on. The Ist tablet in the church lb to 
Colonel Kandscombe, Brigadier com- 
manding the Awadh Field Force, who 
was shot by the Lskhnau mutineers on 
the night of the 30th of May, 1857. 
Heit is one to Francis Eoche Thack- 
well, Captain Gth Royal Irish Xancers, 

Joungest son of Lieut.- General Blr 
osaph Thackwell, who died on the 
29th of June, I86i), of wounds inflicted 
byatiger. Then follows one to lieut. 
John Swanston, 78th Highlanders, 
who died at the Besidency, October 
3nd, 1857, of wounds received on the 
26thand26thof May. Beside bis Is the 
tablet of Captain Symons, Deng. Art,, 
who died of his wounds September 8 th, 
1857. His daughter lies beside him. 
Then follows one to Captain Lnmsden 
and Lieut. Cape of tiie 90th lU^ment 
B.N.L, killed at Lakhnau In 1867-58. 



In gntsnil UenHUT of 
SIB JAMES OirrHAM, Bt., G.C.U., 






hnngbtful klndnen. 



OfTbe Bnldler'e Priend ; 
An<l becBuee, li^alnipllDity ilid MnMlltf, 
He had bia conTeraatlon lii the world. 

I'iedllltbo(MaiT;h,'lS6»,' • 
HIa bndj reata In Weatmlnsler Abbey. 

The tablet to Bir H. LawTeuce is as 
ollows: — 

To the Memory of 
BIR HENRY LAWRE\CB, K.C.6., 



tmeted to his 
The CbriaOan 



, huinbly tr 



That he had tried to 

And ccinimitled his aonl, 

To tlie mercy of his Uiri. 
Bum «Blhci? June, IWM!, 

Hie body reste In the fenlal-'aronnd 

OrtbeResidenoy. 

The last two tablets are veij hand- 

Bomc. There are others of interest, 

but the above most suffice. 

Bad*Wt Bish is on the left bank 
of the Guiutl, and 1100 yds. from the 
Kesidency. The mutineers had a 
battery here, and from it eame the 
shell which killed Sir Henry Law- 
rence. The remunB of aquednets 



Sect. II. SoiUe 2&.—ZaMimu {Luchnow) to SMijidiAhpur. 249 



and waterworka show that it must 
have been a cool and delightlul place 
before the Mutiny. In driving to 
this place, before ciosaiog the riyer, 
the traveller may turn to the left 
along Napier Bead, and a little to 
theN. willbeBeenthe Jim'iMasJidjOr 
principal moeqiie. Not foi off is the 
^uaainibid Im4mMrah, built by 
Mubammad 'Ali Shib, A.n. 1837, as 
a bimal-placc for himself. It consists 
of 2 lai^e inclo«ures, one of which ia at 
right angles to the other. This Imftm- 
bjkrah is small in compariaon with 
that in the Machchl Bhnwaft, but is 
of great beauty in execution, and 
finish in detatL It stands in a large 
qnadrangle, which has a marble reser- 
voir of water in the centre, crossed by 
a fanciful iron bridge, The Imftm- 
b&cah is filled with mirrors and 
chandeliers. The throne of the kin^, 
covered with beaten silver, and his 
wife's divan, with solid silver snp- 
poTte, are to be seen here. There is, 
also, not far oS, a T-Btoriod watch- 
tower, also commenced bj MubiJnniad 
'Aii ahfth, bat interrupted by his 

The visitor will leave the Rfimi 
Darw^ah by a broad road near tbe 
Oumtl, i of a m. long, which will 
take him to the gat« of the onter 
qnadnngle of tbe Im^mbftrah. Stand- 
ing a little to the W. of the road, the 
visitor will take in at one view tbe 
great ImimbArah and Bilml Darwizah 
to the right, and the y\isaJndt)Ad and 
JSm'l Maajid to the left. The whole 
forms, aa Bishop Heber remai'ks, one 
of the Unest architectural views in the 
world. Having finished Lakhnau, the 
traveller will now decide whether he 
will go through Robilkhand, where are 
the beaulitul biU-station of Nftini T41 
and the interesting towns of Bareli 
(Bai:eilly},8h4hjah4npilr,and Murftdft- 
bM, or proceed bj KSnhpilr to Agra 
and Dlhlt. If he decides on seeing 
Rohilkhand, he will proceed to Ba- 
reilly by the following rente :— 



*ig Names ot at 



Sk&lgahlnp&r.~-T:b.e road to Shib- 
jahinpiir passes through a perfectly 
level country. The T. B. at Bhibja- 
binpiir is a ra. to the B.W. of the 
railway station. This is an eitremely 
pretty station, and as it is the scene 
of one of the moat remarkable tmtntea 
daring the SipShI War, the traveller 
should make a halt of a day at it. 
The first thing to be visited is Kt. 
Mary's Church, which is J of a m. 
fipm the T. B. On the way an obelisk 
will be passwi, 35 ft. high, on which 
distances used to be painted, but as it 
is no longer the point from which 
they are reckoned, it has been white- 
washed. St. Mary's ia a real English- 



250 Soute 26.—Laytnait-{Zuchiow) to ShdhJa/idnpAr. Sect IL 
! On the N. Bide — 



looking charch, with a tower, ._ ._._ 
top of which the poor ladiea took 
refage on a memorable Sunday when 
the outbreak took place. Major Snejd 
of the 28tii N.I. brought up some of 
hia men and drove offl the mntineera, 
and induced the ladies to come down, 
when, according to the popular storj, 
the 42nd B.N.I, arrived, and aa en- 
gamement took place between them 
and the 28th, in which the 42nd were 
worsted, but the ladiea were killed. 
This IB the account given at Shdhjah4n- 
piir itself, but it does not appear that 
the 42nd were there at all, and a more 
correct one will be fonnd eitracted 
from Kaye's " Sipihl War," further 
on. At 60 ydfl. to the N.W. of the 
church is a handsome finely-poliahed 
granite pillar, which, with a Btone 
croBB at the top, and the pedlmeiit, is 
26 ft. high. On the W. face ia in- 
scribed — 



theaiBtdayofMsi, 

ty "" ™ 

e near thia spob, 

Dur «» bope tbey h, 

" Lord Jesna reiwiVB my ej 



Tlw 






Ji to their chwge." 



BEnmlCi 



.HBgiatnita in3 Collector of th 

Aged Ik) years, 

Abthob OHABtEs Bhitb, Esq,, 

Bengal diU Service, 

AgedSSyeHn, 

Only and beloyed eon of tlie lute Ft 

Shttb, B.C.B., 

And HUBIBT bis wift. 



la the Megistrate'j Offlee, 

Aged « yours, 
ihm^h are the following 



New Mohamdi; 



To Uie HemDiT t^ 

OEOBGB POLE CABEW, 

Who, hsyiiig escaped from Bou* 

!ler the outfiresk at Shjlhjahinpiii^ 

Was captured by the Robsls, 



Who perished. 

11 

At the hands oi 



I Mamorv of 
entloned Ofllceni of 
hBegtN.L. 



rAHEs, hUled at ehihjahijipiir, SIrtMay. 
Ol'iBE „ BanlLns, 4th June, 

L.BsKVi' „ NanraugihM.ioUiJaM. 



A.K.Y . . killBlatNauimgibid.KUhJune. 



G. W. RqTHEBroRD 

D. I. A. Sfens „ 



H. M. 8. BowLiNu, Shdhjahinpiir, 



blet follows to A, C. Smith, Esq., 

i., whose name is on the pillar. 

• The village of Boaa, mentioned in the 

above epltipfi, ia e ni. 8. of ShaWabinpilr ; 

and there is now agsia a most flonrislilng 

sugor fsotory there, from which Mr. R. Csiew 



Route 26. — S/tdkjaiidiiptir, 



Sect. II. 

The cemetery IB i o{ a ra. N.W. o£ the 
chtirch, and is well kept, with fiower- 
beds, whicli are watered from a well 
in the ground. The foUovriog account 
is given by Kaye, vol. iii. p. 79 :— " On 
Snnday, the 3lRt of May, the troops 
roBC Many of our people were m 
chmvh, (or it was the hour of dirine 
flerrice when the revolt commenced. 
It was the old glory over again, with 
soaraoly r variation. The baoglAs of 
the English were plundered and bmnt. 
The Treaaury was sacked. The Jaii 
was opened ; the prisoners wer 
leased. The townspeople made 
mon cause with the matineers, and 
the surrounding villages broke out into 
rebellion. AnEngliah factory, (at Rosa) 
where sugar was refined and ram dis- 
tilled, was attacked and devastated 
by the Till^era. And, ere the night 
bad closed in upon the scene, new 
native rulers had been formally pro- 
ctaimed, and the dominloa of the 
white man was at an end. 

" The fate'of the English residents at 
Sh^hjahAnpdT has now to he recorded. 
The murder of our people was not a 
conspicuous feature in the programme 
of the mutinecra of the 28tli. If the 
compact had been to destroy the Eng- 
lish, root and branch, ou that Sunday 
morning, whilst engaged in the offices 
of their religion, it wm very imper- 
fectly fulfiUed. A party of muti 
made for the Christian chorch 
it wa« to be counted only by units. 
Armed with swords and clubs, they 
rushed in, yelling. Mordaunt Ricketts 
was slashed by a Sip&hi, but he carried 
his wound to the vestry door, there to 
be cat down and slain. A clerk in 
the mugistrate's office, named Le 
Maistre, was killed in the first on- 
slaught. No other member of the 
congregation stained with his blood the 
flrior of the Christian temple ; but the 
agony of the women was great. These 

(it hondreds of remoiseless insurgents 
from the Lines and from the city, all 
thirsting for Christian blood. Was it 
better, then, to endeavour to escape 
from tbe church, or to close the doors 
and prevent further inKress of the 
assaihuits 1 The chai^aiu endea- 



251 



vouied to escape, but he was wounded 
as he left the chureh, and was after- 
wards killed bj some viUagers, to- 
gether with As^tant A. Smith, at a 
little distance from ehibjahAnpilr. 
After this, the doors of the church were 
closed, and the shuddering n'omen 
were removed to the tower, where 
they abided in safety for a time, 

" Meanwhile, in the cantonment the 
SipAhis were in a state of wild excite- 
ment. But. as often happened, there 
was a division, amongst them. Cap- 
tain James was shot on parade, whilst 
endeavouring to pacify his meD. Dr. 
Bowling, who, returning fiom bis 
morning visit to the hospital, had 
found the regiment in rebellion, 
placed his wife and child and a Eu- 
ropean female servant in his carriage, 
and mounting the box beside the 
coachman, had made for the church. 
As they went a party of SipAhis fired 
at them, and Bowling fell dead from 
the box. Another bullet wounded his 
, wife, but she escaped to reach the 
charch, where other fugitives were 
assembling; and their native servants, 
true to their salt, were bringing guns 
and pirtola to their masters. If, at 
this time, there had been united action 
among the Sipihis, not one of our 
people could have escaped. Sut it 
happened that a party, scarcely less 
than a hundred strong, rallied round 
our officers, and thus the Christian 
fugitives were saved. These were 
principally Sikhs. With this safe- 
guard, those within and those without 
the church gathered themselves to- 
gether, and took counsel as to tbe 
means of escape. Mr. Jenkins recom- 
mended that they should make for 
Pohwaine, beyond the Awadh frontier, 
where it was believed that the It^d of 
that place wotild shelter them. As by 
this time several horses and a carriage 
or two were assembled in the chnrch 
compound, the Sight was not difficult. 
So they went. But the Pohwaine 
declared his inability to protect them, 
and they went on to Motaandi, one of 
our out-stations in Awadh. The tra- 
gedy of &h&hjah&npilr had not yet 
been acted out." 

All those that escaped from Sh&bja- 



Jioute 27. — S/idltJaMnplir to SareiUy (Bareli). ' Seot. II. 

the walla of the Fort, where the rebel 
Ndw&b of ShAhjah^piir Tended. 
Lord Clyde had these walls thrown 
down. The Boldiere of the 82nd and 
88th for some time occupied this fort, 
and thoftc who died are buried in two 
inclosures abont 150 yds. from the 
rampart, one on each side of the main 
roadl The city of Sh&hjah&apAr is 
about a m. long, well shaded with 
trees. There are some good houses ot 
rich people, and all of that class were 
glad when the British returned. 



252 

hdnpAr, were murdered at Hohandl, | 
with the exception of one drummer- 
boy. (See Kaye, voL iii., p. 460). 
Ill the compound of the Judge a hoQse, 
surrounded by a wall 4 ft. high, is e. 
tomb 2^ feet high. The wall was 
bnilt by QoTemmenf, in 1867. The 
tomb k a BmaU sarcophagus, and the 
Indians peisist in saying that it is the 
tombofadog. ThercisnoinBcription. 
From thia spot one aeea a railway 
bridge orer the Kanfcrat etream E. by 
N, of the tomb ; and when Lord Clyde 
moved his army to Bareilly, the 
Haularl Abmada'lUh, with 15,000 
rebels, crosaed this bridge, and drove 
onr 82nd K^ment, and the other 



s lefttt 



^ard this Station, into 



theb 

commanded one of the Maulavi's regi- 
ments of cavalry was parading £iB 
men before the church, a sergeant of 
the 82nd,at 600 yds, put a ball through 
bis body, and he dropped dead from 
hia horse, whereupon tbe whole regi- 
ment hurried under cover. The 82nd 
had been surprised by the ManlsTl, 
while the men had been preparing for 
dinner, and he caught the b^ers 
and hanged them, each with a loaf of 
bread round bia neck. The rebels 
occnpied the cirorch, and filled it with 
wood, intending to bum it down, but 
had to make so precipitate a retreat, 
that they could not c&rry oat tbeir 
purpose, nie trees all about are 
fioarred with round shot. The inner 
wall alone of the old Jail, to which 
our men retreated, ia stilL standing. 
It is of mud, and is now the outer wall 
of the Commissariat Store. 

The old cemetery is 200 yds. doe S. 
of this wall. There are about 20,tombfl, 
evidentJy those of persons of conside- 
ration, the tablets ot which were de- 
stroyed by the rebels. The judge's 
and magiatrate'e offices are not far off, 
and south of them is a liu^ Bar&l, 
built out of the fine imposed on the 
city after theMotiny. Itiaontheright 
band BB yon leave the cantonment. B. 
of it is the Jail, a semicircle, on the 
radiating principle, but without a 
tower. There is accommodation for 
303 prisoners. About a m. beyond it 
Is an earthen rampart, on which were 



EOUTE 27. 
bhahjahInpub 

The stations are as follows 



[ikhniu 


Names oCSlations. 


TTne. 


1 


HirtnpAr Kliutiu . . 


l-.M. 



Bareli or .Bflwitty.— The T. B. at 
his city is near the oentre of the oan- 



;. It. 



Sffute il.—Bareilly (Bareli). 



just E. of the Soldiera' Gar- 
dons, between two tanks, jrd of a m. 
to the E. of the new church. Itis.ljm. 
from the railway station, but at the 
railway station there are very n 
rooms, called the Inspection Kooi 
and there are, also, refresbmentrooi 
BO that the traveller can stop there, if 
he can get permission to occupy the 
rooms. Bareli was the chief city of 
Rohilkhand. The city has had a bad 
name for disaffection from of old. In 
1816 an insurrection ibroke oat, in 
consequence of the imposition of a 
new tax on houses. A Mufti, named 
MnljamniBd Aiwaz, a man of great 
age and reputed sanctity, encouraged 
the popular eicitement. On the 16th 
of April, the magistrate, attended by a 
few tlorsemen and 30 tSip^ls, repaired 
to the city, and the Mufti took 
fiftnctuaiy in a shcine, in the saburbs. 
The magistrate adTsnced to the place 
where he was, but was opposed by a 
mob armed with swords and pikes, 
who killed 2 and wonnded several 
of the troopers. The Mufti escaped, 
but received a alight wound. He was 
Soon joined by G,000 armed men. On 
the 21st these people murdered Mr. 
Leyceeter, a son of one of the judgex. 
They, then attacked the troops, but 
after a sharp conflict were dispersed, 
with the loss of several hundred men 
killed and wounded. The troops had 
21 killed and 62 wounded. 

Some remembrance of this affair, no 
doabt, lingered amongst the pop. of 
Bareli, when the news of the outbreak 
at MlratandSitali arrived. There was 
a small fort to the S. of the city, and 
J of a m. to the E. of the railway station, 
which hadheenbuiltbyli o vemm ent f or 
a citadel, after the insurrection of 1816. 
It was quadrangular, with a good ditch 
and 2 bastions projecting from opposite 
angles, but nothing seems to have been i 
done to place it in a state of defence. 
In cantonments there were the ISth 
and leth Hegimcnts N, I., the 8th Irreg. 
CsT., and a native battery. The 
commandant. Brigadier Bibbald, was 
absent at Almorah, and Col. Colin 
Troup, who had been one of the cap- 
tives in Af^nistin, was in charge of 
the station. There was a large chister 



253 

of civilians, and altogether there were 
nearly 100 Chiistians, eiclnsive of 
women and children. On the 19th of 
May, 1H5T, a jema'ddr was muidered 
by one of the prisoners. On the 21st 
Brigadier Bibbald, who had i-etumed, 
harangued the troops. On the 29th, a 
swarm of mutineers from the 46th 
atFinlzpiir, arrived at Bareli. On the 
31st, the outbreak took place. Par- 
ties of the 6Sth set fire to the English 
houses, they then shot down every 
white man they met. Brigadier 
Pibbald web one of the first victims. 
The officers of the 8th Cav, determined 
to retreat to Naiul TAl, and Troup 
called on them to follow him, but 
Mackenzie represented that his 
troopers were eager to attack the 
mutineers. Troup consented, and the 
word was given, but when the regi- 
ment confronted the G8th, and saw the 
green standard of Idim, they deserted 
their officers and went over to the 
mutiueeis, and these, turning the ^ns 
on the 18th, persuaded that regiment 
to join in the insorrection. Major 
Pearson and 1 other officers of the 
18th escaped from the ground, but 
were killed by the villagers of E&m- 
patti. The Commissioner, Mr. Alex- 
ander, escaped to Naini Til, as did Mr, 
Guthrie, the Collector and MagiBtrate; 
and the Joint Magistrates, Mr. Parley 
and Mr. Currie. The Judges, Mr. D. 
RobertBon, Mr. Baikcs, and also Dr. 
Hay and Mr. Orr, were all killed. 
Thus the higher civilians, with 
several subordinates, were slain, as 
were many merchants and traders, 
with their wives and children. Khin 
BahMur Kh^, a descendant of lf&&t 
Kabmat Khin, the first Papi&n ruler 
of Bareli, who was killed in a battle 
with the English, was proclaimeil 
vicenty, and he entered all Christians 
be killed. Mr. and Mis. Aspinall 
I their two children murdered 
before their eyes, and were then put 
to d^th. Others were slaughtered in 
the same vray, and the nak^ corpses 
of the English were draped through 
lie town, to the jesi^enco of the 
Nilw&b, and cast at the foot of his 
standard. Mr, Handsborough, the 
Superintendent of the Jail, who bad 



Route 27. — ShdJijaJidnpiir to Bareilly (Barelt). Sect. II. 



254 

defended himself all Saiidfty,wa8 then 
bronght t* the Nfiwib, and out to 
pieces. But the Viceroy waa afiaid of 
the soldiery, and he persuaded their 
general, B^ht giin. to march with 
them to Dihll. When they hail 
departed KhAn Bahadur's authority was 
proclairaed and acknowledged as well 
m Bareli and its environs as also at 
BudaoA. Khin Bahadur then isaned 
a. proclamation to the Hindiis, calling 
upon them to join in the rebellion. 

After reading the above Bommary, 
the traveller may drive to the churches, 
and first to Christ Church, which oao 
seat 300 persons, and is G6 ft. long. It 
is rather pretty. There is only 
tablet, on the left of the eatra 
The other tablets were stolen, and the 
cJiurch itself was almost destroyed 
daring the Mutiny. The remaining 
tablet is thus inscribed 



Of the Bengal Civil 
Who WM killBd at biiiviijj 
ly tbe BobetH uu tbe day of the Outbrea 



This TaMet la erected to liis 
HIb bereaved Wtdo 

TtiMUKBt JuLIt Bill 

St. SUplien'i Ckarch wt 
ted in 1863, when the Bishop of Auck- 
land was chaplain of the station. It 
is 159ft. long,and seats 1,000 persons, 
is built of stone, and ha.i seven archet 
inside, on either side. There is a fine 
brass on the left of the altar, with the 
names of the persons mui'dered here 
in the Mutiny. It is as follows :— 

D. BoBEBTSOM, ^., Juiiue of BareiUy 

G. D. EuKEB. Esq., SeifflonB' Judge ; 

Dr. T. M. Hav, Civil Satgeon ; 

Dr. Habbbbow (ji<*, Supeiinlendent of t: 

Dr. Bdcb, Principal, of the College; 

T. WviTT, Deputy Collector : 

B.OBB, EBq., nieputy Collector; 

Mr. J. Beai« ; 



H«or E. C. Peabsoh, UBi N.I. ; 
Cspbitn T. C. RicHiBsaOB, IStb B.] 
Capt^n H. N. Haobioh, ISth N.I. 



_. DTBtw, 18Ul N.I. ; 

QuartaiDiaiter-isrEeult Cboss, and child ; 
Jlr. A. Fehwigk, Comoitsaianei's OtBae . 



He. and Mn. Divis and 2 cbliann, 

CoEunluionet'H OHeo : 

Sergaant Woorbll, Jail Estublialimeiit ; 

Un. CaDSKR, JaU Establiahment ; 

Mr, T. Boist; 

Hn. LiWBiHCi ; 
Mrs. aud Mine A9P1H4J:.l and 2 clilldrea ; 

Mr. jAoaUEK ; 

Sub-Condnctor C*meboh, Eng. Dep. ; 

Un. CtKEaoN and 2 chlldieii. 

Thla T«bl6t and Cliancal Windows wero 

Above-mentlonsd pusodb. wlia wen 
MuideieU at BareUly, in Jubb, \WT. 

The Cemetery is about Jam. from the 
T. B. The old tombs, some of which 
are of great size, have been tobbed of 
their t^lets, as have also 2 octagonal 
handsome buildings like temples. The 
rebels spent some (dme in knockiiie 
the tombs to pieces, and, after pnr 
Government was restored, more than 
J 00 men were employed by the English 
authorities for a considerable time ia 
making repairs. As no certain account 
was kept of the places where people 
were buried, the tablets are not en- 
tirely to be relied on ; for example, 
the tablet t« Brigadier Stbbald is in- 
correctly dated. It runs thus ; — 

In Memoi; of 

BBIOADIER HDOH SIBBALD, C.a, 

ConuoandlDg in Rohltkhand and Enmlod, 

Hurdend, after upinnja of 

61 yean' service In tbe Bengal Amy, 

By tlie Mutineeis 

Of the Banll Brigade, 

'■-"'—■ 8t of May, IS" '-■■-' 



iutheesth] 



irofbli 



Many of the tablets were restored by 
Mr. John logHs, late Chiaf Commis- 
sioner of Awadh. At Santopilr, 16 m. 
to the N.B. of Bareli, Captains Hales 



This jonmej mast be nude in a car- 

riage, and the ooat to Nainl Til and 
back, ia 62 re. 



Sect, II. ^Jioute 28.—Sareli {BardUy) to Naini Tdl. 

sod Bobinion, and Lt. Dawion 
mnrdered, and their bodies wen 
bnried. It may be mentioned that the 
ring of Maulnyl AJjioadu'lliih, wh 
was shot \>j the KAji of Fobwaiae' 
brother, at Pohwaine, 18 m. N,E. a 
tihfthjah4npiir,came into the posseBsion 
of Mr. Gilbert Money at Bareli. 

The Central JaU.-^k. viait may now 
be paid to the CentralJail, which in on 
ths N. of the city, having the city be- 
tween it and the cantonments, (^the 
24th of April, IS77, there were l,i 
prisoners. There are 6 ciHridors, of 
G2 solitary cells each, for natives ; and 
2 corridors of 6 cells each, for Euro- 

ems. They are all well ventilated, 
ere are 6 dark cells, bnt the only 
Tentilation in them is by air forced 
through a jnetal sieve. It is the opi- 
nion of the Superintendent that the 
daric cell is no puoishment to natives, 
as they go to sleep. The roofs of the 
corridors are made of hexagonal tales, 
which are very binding, to dispense 
with timber, and they never require 
repairs. There are also arched roofs, 
with Bqnare tiles ; bnt they have no- 
thing in the shape of a wedge, and can- 
not be safe. They are perforated with 
one hole for ventilation. Women and 
boys are kept in the district jail. A 
Enropean matron teaches the women 
to sew,bitt they are not taught to read 
or write. The boys are instracted. 



Nob. 


NinuH of vmige* fa 
changliig horeea. 


j Dist.fWiii 
j BhmIIIj. 


2 
S 


BUws 
BhoUpilr 
Kbimkela . 

BaCr . ■ 

«"■:■ 

M»l.H»l.lH 




M,. Fur. 
32 2 

as 
4a 4 

74 2 



There are villages at all, or almost 
all, theae places. The road is very fair 
throughout, and there ia no difficulty 
in travelling at the rate of 8 m. an 
hour, including stoppages, neither is 
there any jmigle at sU for the iirst 
66 m. Then thpre are trees ralher 
thick, at a distance of 60 yds. from the 
road side, and at the G9th m. the road 
enters the hills, and winds along be- 
tween hills from 800 to 1,500 ft. high, 
well clothed with trees. There are 
bears in this part of the road, wha 
occasionally show themselves. At the 
66th m. a amall rapid straam from 
3 to 6 ft. bioad runs beside the road, 
which is used for irrigation. At 
Bahari the traveller con obtain sodo- 
r and tea. The T. B. at B&mbieh 
is very good, and has fi rooms. At 
Biinl>i[h the traveller must take 
Jhdmpin, or ride ap if he has a horse. 
If he has no jh&mp^ of hia own, he 
will have to pay 1 r. at B4inb^;h for 



-BareH (Bartiliff) to Jfaini Tdl. Sect. II. 



To cany Ihe jhdmpin, 6, 



child or sery light lady might be 
ried by C bearers, for whom the charge 
will be G &a&s each ; and some VuHs 
vrill be required for carrying the Ht, 
for whom the charge will be 4 i.n&n 
each. I'cniea are cheaper, but cannot 
always be obtained. The proprietors 
of the hol«la will send ih4mp4ns or 
ponies on particulara being specified. 
On lenving Bareli, ehoald a part nf the 
journey be made at night, the traveller 
must be very particular in insisting 
on the carriage having 2 lights, and 
seeing that they are both put iuto the 
lamps, for it ia a nsual thing to give 
only one light, and that a had one. 
which soon goes out, and leavea a 
dangerous road to be crossed in the 

Xaini Jai— The T. B. here is about 
i a m. from the Lake to the N. by W, 
There are 3 bnlcia, the Mayo or Mur- 
ray's, quite close to the N. of the Lake ; 
the Star and Garter, about ^ of a m, 
to the N. by W. of the Lake ; and the 
Royal, about Jth of a m. due K. of the 
Lake, The charges at these hotels are, 
for a aitting-room, bedroom, ajid bath- 
room, taking meals at the table-d'hSte, 
iJOO rs. per month ; for a bedroom and 
bathroom, 150 rs. per month ; for 
broken periods, 6 re. per day. In thCBc 
chatgcs wine and liquors are not in- 
cluded. The charge for boats on the 
' I^e is — for a rowing boat, 1 rupee a 
day ; for a sailing boat, 1 J ra. a day. 
The charge for horses is, in the sta- 
tion, 2 ts. a day, and out of it, 24 ra. 
a day ; to Almorah, S tb. a day ; to 
R&njlchet, 10 rs. ; and to Ehama, 
i ra. liiere is a very good bangU at 
Ebama. At AlmoTBii mere are 2 D&k 
bangl^- 

N^nl T&l is extremely pictur- 
eeqne, and the Lake forms one of its 
moat atriking features. It is nearly 
a m. long, and tOO yda. broad. The 
flood-level is 6,410ft. above the sea. 
The depth ranges from 6 fathoma at 
the N. end, to lEi in the broadest part. 
The total area of the settlement is 
fi-54 sq. m. The area 
120 acres 2 roods. The 



total area is divided into settlement 



i,6i;5 1 



dpal lake. 



of the lAke is 



2,100. Besidea th 
there are several si 
the Jewali, the Khuria — the former to 
the S.W. of the great lake, and the 
latter to the tl.B. The chief pop, is 
to the N.byW, of the Lake, where ajv, 
close to the Lake, the assembly rooms, 
batbing-shcd, hilliard-rooma, racquet- 
court, and public gardens. The cricket- 
gronnd and racqnet-conrt are a little 
N. of the assembly rooms. The clnb 
is 300 yds. 8.E. of the T. B, St. John's 
Chnrch is rather more than a forloi^ 
due S. of the T, B., and the cemeteiy 
is a few yds. to the 8. of lie church. 
The highest peaks are to the N.W,, as 
China, which is B,568 ft, above sea- 
level, Deopathar, 7,689 ft., Ice. 

The traveller may visit first the 
chnreh, St. John's, which is a neat 
edifice, partly of stone, partly of 
masonry. It is 114 ft. 10 in, long, and 
61 ft. 8 in. broad, and can seat 500 
persona. It has a roof of dark-coloured 
wood, and baa 2 stained-glasa widows. 
There is a handsome brass under the 
window, on the N, or left side of the 
lunion table, with this inscrip- 



CUTHBERT BBN8EY THOBNHILL, CB.!., 

BeagBl Civil Senlce, 

Who died at lea, July lllli, 1888, 

And itu buried it Aden, aged 43 jiwi. 

The Bbova Whidov Is placed in the Church 



MAJOR CHABL& WASDE, 



Aged la yeara. 

There is also a brass in the chnrcb to 
Francis Otway Mayne, Esq,, C.B,, to 
whose memory the second stained^lass 
window is put up. The cemeteiy is 
not BO yds. to the B. of the church. It 

well kept, and the tombs are in good 
tier. The onlj InscripijoDs ol ia- 



Sect. U. 



Rovte 28,— JPinni Tdl. 



tereit are to Hajor-Oenera] Sir Stuart 
Corbet, E.C.B., who died An^iut 14th, 

1866, aged 63, and to Thomas Sidney 
Qepp, Lt in the 66th or OorkA regi- 
ment, who died at Haldwin, on the 

' 12th of Febnuuj, 1868, of wotmdB re- 
ceived in action with the rebels of 
Rohilkhand, at Ch4rpnr4. There is a 
tablet to Captain William lawioa, 
42nd HighlanderB, who died of a 
woand received at Miti Gh&t, on the 
4th of Janna^, 1869. Bemark also 
a tablet to Lt.-aenei«l Sir E. W. 
Eathwaite, K.C.B., who died on the 
eth of April, 1873, after a diatingmshed 
service of 63 years, AnoUiei victim 
to the attack on Lakhnau, whose natae 
is recorded here, is Fitshardinge 
Theophilus Quintin Berkeley, who 
lingered as long as the 2nd of Jnly, 

1867, but never reoorered from his 

There is a pretty ride on the W. Bide 
of the Lake, where the visitor may 
ride np to a considerable height But 
the finest views will be obtained on 
the E. side of the Lake, snch as from 
Sher ke Danda, whence the snowy 
mountains beyond AlmorBli and B&nl- 
khet may be eeen. The Lake of 
Bhlm TiX cannot be seen from Najni 
Ti\, but its site can be made out in- 
distinctly. The visitor will soon tire 
of the roads about the Stntion, aad 
if he is rigorous and fond of sport, 
will do well to go to BAnikhet and 
Almonih, for a short tour by the 
following rottte :■ - 



Names of VillBKM. VUlmtsto 



From Rdntkhrt 1 
Mitcbkunti tn Almon 



!!« from Nslnl T4] ■ 



Not. 


NamuofViU^^B. 


UilH. 


, 


FrofflNalnlTiltoKynuJi. 


IS 






1? 




FromBaUnithtoGwildsm 


13 






























From PHiii to Fugnali . 












\\ 








IB 




10 














IB 


From Dwimtoll to Rini- 


U 




From Khjma to Niinl Til . 












220 



Bat if tile travelleT has time he shoold 
[flWtifa?.— 1881-3 



As this Taai« wilt take the traveller 
beyond civilised parts, it will be 
necessary for him to take a small teat 
and supplies. But he will be rewmded 
by views of the snowy mountains, and 
by the chance of obtaining the follow- 
ing game : Jlrao, SAmbar or elk, 
8er4o or wild goat, Gural or chamois, 
Thdr, another sort of wild goat ; Bar- 
rel or wild dieep, Kynn or wild 
ass, EAkar barkri or deer, Chanhn or 
snow leopard, Eilij or pheasant, 
Hlr&l or snow pheasant, Peord or 
partridge, Lnngi Ar^as, another kind 
of pheasant, and Jnngrieb or small 
pheasant 

SdnUUufvi a convalescent station, 
and Lord Lytton's Government had 
nnder consideration the espedisncy of 
making the annual migration from 
Calcutta to it, rather than to Simla, 
but the want of a good supply of 
water was an inaupereble objection. 

Almorak is a place of coiuiderablo 
historical interest, for its capture de- 
cided the GnrkhA War in 1816. The 
account will be foond in Mill's " His- 
tory," voL viii., p. 63. It is as fol- 
lows;— "On the lEth of February 
Colonel Gardner ascended the hills ; 



258 

the GnrkhlU fell back, occsaionBllyt 
Bkirmishing with the detachment, bng 
offering no resolute tesiatance. Th 
gsJlant bearing of the IrregnlarB, con- 
sisting chieflfol natires of Kohilkhand, 
and the judicioas dispositions of their 
leader, dislodged the enem j from every 
position, until they had concentrated 
tbeir force upon the ridge, ou which 
Ftands the town of AlmotBh. 

" During the adTance of Colonel 
Gardner another bodj of irrefpilar 
troops, commanded I^ Captain Hear- 
Bay, entered the province by the Timli 
PaUB, near the uagra River, in order 
to create a diversioii in Colonel Gard- 
ner's favottr, And prevent Gorkbi rein- 
forcemeats from crossing the river. 
This movement also was at first mc- 
cessful. Captain Hearsay took pos- 
session of the chief town of the 
district, and laid siege to a hill-fort in 
its vicinity ; here, however, he was 
attached by the Hasti Dil Chantra, 
the Qurkhft commander of the adjt ' 
ing district of Duti, and was defi 
and taken prisoner. He vres 
dnctcd to Almorah, to which the 
Oorkbtls repaired to asnst in ita 
defence. 

" The importance of securing and 
extendii^ toe advantages obtained in 
EnmioA determined the Qovemor- 
General to send a r^alar force into 
that quarter ; and Lieotenant-Ctolonel 
Nicholls, of his Majesty's Hth Itegi- 
ment, waa despatched thither to t^e 
the command, with 3 battalionB of 
N.L and a proportion of field artil- 
tery. Colonel Nicholls joined the 
troops before Almorah on the 8th of 
April. The Gni-khAa were nothing 
daunted by his arrival ; and whatever 
inclination B&tn 6&h bad originally 
manifested to join the invaders, no 
indication of any disposition to sur- 
render the fortress entrusted to bis 
charge was eihibited ; he had berai 
taught, no doubt, by the little pro- 
gress which the British arms had 
made, to question the probability of 
their altimate triumph, and to adhere 
to tbe safer path of fidelity fo his 
Eovereign, 

" Almorah was resolutely defended 
""" " B taken to i«nder 



JiouU 28.—BareU {BareUly) to S'aini Tdl. Sect II. 

the portion of the besiegers un- 
tenable. On the 31st Eaati THA 
marched from Almorah to occapy « 
mountain pass on tbe N. of the 
British camp. He was immediately 
followed by Major Faton, with 6 
companies of the Light Battalion, and 
a company of Irregulars ; tbe enemy 
was overtaken on the evenir^ of the 
22nd of April, and, after a apirited 
action, pat to" flight with tbe loss of 
their commander. No time was 
suffered to efface the effects of this 
discomfitore. On the 2Sth a general- 
attack was made on the stockaded- 
defences of the hilla of Sitaull, in 
front of Almorah, which were bU 
carried after a short resiatance, and 
the troops, following np their Buccess, 
established themselves within the 

'A vigorous effort was made at night 
by the garrison to recover possession 
of the posts, and, for a time, a part 
was regained, but tbe Onrkhte were 
finally repulsed. On the following 
mormng the troops were advanced to 
within TO yds. of the fort, and mor- 
tals vrere opened npon the works, the 
effect of which was soon discernible 
tbe desertion of great numbers of 
the defenders. A Sag of truce was 
sent out by the commandant, and 
after a short negotiation the Gnrkh^ 
were allowed to retite across the 
Kill, with their arms and pcnonal 
property ; and the fort of Almorah, 
with the provinces of KumdoA and 
Garhwal, were ceded to the British. 
They were permanently annexed to 
the British territories." 

On September 18tb, 1880, a fright- 
ful and unexpected catastrophe oc- 
curred at JVaixi Tdl. On Thursday, 
tbe 16th of September, rain fell in 
torrents, and continued to fall till 
Saturday morning, when 26 in. had 
fallen. There was in consequence an 
body of water in the hills 
which surround the Nainl Til Lake. 
The Victoria Hotel, which stood about 
280 yards to the N. of the N. comer 
of the lake, had a lofty hill at its 
back. The margin of the lake was 
" *70 ft. above eea-Ievel, and the 
ill at the back of the hotel 7,204. 



Sect. II. 



Soule 28.-~X'aini Tdi. 



At 10 o'clock on the montlni; of 
Bstntdar, the ISth, » ilight Undslip 
occurred on the epor c3 the hill, 
behind the hotel, cnuhii^ In the ont- 
tkooaea and a portion of the rear of 
" '""1, and burying SO Indians 



and labonien, came at once to render 
tisniatance, and eent for the military, 
who hastened to the spot, nnder the 
command of Captain Balderstone. 
The work of extricating the dead and 
wounded went on till 1.30 F.H., when 
in a moment the whole piecipitoiia 
cliff oyerhsnging the spot fell with a 
tiemendons roar, barjing at once the 
hotel, the Boldieni, me tui8emblT 
ToomB, libraTf, orderly room, road, 
and garden. Almost every pernon in 
the bnildlngB and gronnds was en- 
tombed. The place shook as with au 
earthqaake, and the waters of the 
lake were driven to the B. part of it in 
an immense wave, while vast clonds 
ot dnst rose from the falling masses 
like YoluneB of smoke after a terrible 
exploaion. 

The following ig a list of those who 
were killed ; — 

1. L. Taylor, C. S. Aengt-Conunis- 

2. O. K Noad, Assist to Ins.-Gen. 

of Police. 

5. Iter. Mr. Bobinson, Chaplain. 
i. Mr. Morgan, Road Orersecr. 

G. Major Morphy, 40th B^iment 

6. Mrs. Morphy. 

7. Mr. TnmbnU. 

S. Captain Qoodri^, 30th N.L 
9. Surgeon-Major Hannah. 

10. Captain Haines, B.B. 

11. Captain Balderstone, 31Ui Begi- 

12. Ltent SnlliTan, TSrd Beglment. 

13. Lieut Halkett, 73rd Begnnent. 

14. Lieat Carmichael, 33ni Begi- 

15. 8ergeant-Maj or Bikers. 

16. Sei^eant Instmctor Meenan. 

17. Betgeant Frood, 38id B^iment 
IS. lAnce- Sergeant Qraver, SSrd 

Begiment. 
19. Luice-Corporal Trister, 3Gth 



20. Private Helmouth, fith Begi- 

21. Private Hoyes, SSrd Begiment. 

22. Private Oillan, 33rd B^ment 

33. Private Tomer, 73rd Begiment 
21. Private H. Brovm, 73rd Begi- 

2S. Private Chisholm, 78rd Begi- 

20. Private Eeneray,T3rdB^iineiit. 

27. Private Farrance, 13th Hofisars. 

28. Private Bast, 39tli Kegiment 

29. Driver Colman, B.H.A. 

30. Mr. Bell, merchant 

31. Mr. Moss, Asaiat to Mr. Bell. 

32. Mr. James Drew. 
38. Mr. Tucker, Clerk. 

34. Mr. Morgan. 
36. Mr. Shields. 



b,Googlc 



BoiUe 29. — Bareii to Mv.r&ddb6d. 



Sect II. 



BAfiELI TO MOBAsaBAS. 
The traTeller will retnm to Barali 
from Nouii jftl b? the statioiu tbat 
have already been giren. On the way 
down, the traveller may, i£ he is in- 
teiested in such matters, stop at the 
NainlTftl Brewery. It was established 
in. 1863, and passed through several 
hands. Mr. Marsden, who took charge 
in 1874, obtained a contract to supply 
the troops at NainI Til, which tripM 
hia operations. It is stated tliBt the 
wat«r resembles more that of Btuion 
tban does any eonice in India. At 
this breweiT many dogs have been 
carried ofi hj leopards, which break 
the strongest (AaioB to take them 
awBy. The stations from Bareti t« 
MuiAd&bM,onthe Awadhand BohiL 
khand Hallway, are aa follows ; — 



ii 


N^^ofBft.™.. 


«... 


1 


10 
S8 

71 


Bsreillr . 

SS-" . ■ : 
SC . ■ ; 

AailiClr . . . 
CluuidaiuC . 

KunrtCTki ' . ' ; 


6.8 


If 



At Chandausi the traveller will 
change to the Mnridib^ line, s. 
main line goes on tn '^Lgarh. An 
extension is proposed from Mur&d&bM 



■ At Clwnd^iul there 



I stops 1 honr sod ■ quuter. 



which is only IS m. S. 
of RAnikhet,' and another to SAhA- 
ranpiir, to connect with the E. I. Rail- 
way and HardwAi. 

MvrAd^>dd is on the right bank of 
the Bdmganga river, and is a town of 
4901 inhabitants. The cantonment 
lies to the N.W. of the town. The 
are as follows : cantonment, 
10*0-UacreB = I-62sq.m. ; city,812-29 
acres=l-32Bq.m. The Awadh and So- 
hilkhand Bailway enters MurAd&bAd at 
the B.E. c^ the city, and the station is 
Jrf of a m. B. of the junction with the 
Hirat road. The ptlk BangU is 
learly IJ m. due "S. of the railwaj' 
tation. But at the station at the ^. 
end of the platform, are the company's 
rooms, which perhaps a traveller may 
be allowed to occupy. There are two 
very fine rootns and a lavatory. 

St. Jto»r» ChvTck — At jth of a m. 
to the W. of tbe PAk BanglA is St, 
Paul's Church. It is 106 ft. 3 in. loi^f , 
and 7E ft. 7 in. broad, is quite plain 
inside, and there ia only one inscrip- 
tion to the memory of Robert Mander- 
■on, B.C.B., who died at Nainl TAl, Hay 
18, 1869. As there is no chaplain, the 
compound is neglected and tue he^e 
broken down. Tlie cemetery is frds of 
a m. 6.W. of the chnrch, and nearer 
the station. It is well kept, wiUi 
plenty; of flowers, well watered. 
All the tablets of the old tombs were 
removed in the Mutiny, and those who 
took them destroyed them for fear of 
detection when the Enghsh govern- 
ment was restored. Here is the tomb 
of Lt. Francis Warwick and his wife, 
who were murdered by the populace 
during tbe insurrection on the Vh. c^ 
June, 1857, There are 60 lai^e tombs, 
two of which are 30 ft. high, without 
tablets, all hating been destooyed in 
the Mutiny. The tablet to Major G. 
W. Savage, 37th N. Han1« regiment, 
who died 3rd of December, 1869, 8tat«8 
that a mural tablet, subscribed for 1^ 
all riknks of tbe r^ment, has been 
erected in the pariah chnrch at Combar, 
connty Down, as a mark of the hiKh 
esteem in which he was held by £« 
corps in which he had served 20 years. 
The Race Course is 1th of a m. to tte 
W. of the T. B., and the Post Office is 



Route 29.—Murdda>dd. 



261 



About 1 a m, to the NJJ.l 

the station ia the American church 
tniilt by their Methodist Missioa in 
1871. It stands on the left of the Toad, 
and is used as a school, except during 
hoars of service. Tha aTeraga at> 
tendance of pupils is 110. The Mission 
has also a Temacnlar school in the 
city, and there the average attendance 
is 120. All the boja read the Bible, 
and there are one or two Ohristians. 
The missionaries have to pass 4 er- 
aminations, one at the end of each of 
the flwt 4 yeaM. The mastei", 
UcGrew, from Virginia, states that 
they have bnndreds of Christians in 
the villages, but disconioge tbdr 
coming into the tomis. The office of 
the Tahslldto, on the opposite side of 
the road, ia a handsome white building. 
A m. to the N. by K. of this ohnrch is 
the Zil'a School, on the banks of the 
lUmganga, which is there abont 100 
yds. brood in April, and is crossed by 
a bridge of boats. To the W. of the 
school is the BAdahii Hasjid, the in- 
scription OD which has been covered 
with cAvnam, when the mosqnc was 
repaired. The date is in the reign of 
Shih Jahin, 1628—1668 AJD. The 
principal mosque is to tha U. of the 



TbeJostSluUi 

Ta round ■ lofty und noble moKiiw, 

Wliich that Nobla built gn«ful Mid becomlnf 

nnoly ho Laid ui» foondiLtloju 

of his FiiUi. 

He wt up bis nliglon Brmlf In ths world. 

Booh man orieamiDf wai buy 



HauB of Faith on Hl«1i. 

The Fersi«i woids BiniU ^4nab I 



dfn kardah b&lo, by the rules of 
Amjad, give the t«taL 10*6 a.H.= 
A.D. 16S6. The pulpit has 4 steps. 
The Zil'a School cost 36,641 is., of 
which' Qovemment p^d 18,000. The 
rest was drfrayed by the local fond, 
which was raised by snbscriptions, and 
by the sale of conSscated amu. The 
ground was given by R^A Qursah&I, a 
native of Mur&d&b^. It was built 
shortly after the Mutiny. Paniian is 
veiT well tanght in this school, or 
rather college, for the papila are from 
the age of 18 tjj 23. N. of the school 
are the mins of Bustam EhfLn's fort, 
the walls of which are of bomt brick, 
and are from 4 to 6 ft. thick ; and bo 
close is it to the R&mganga, that oue 
might spring from it into the stream. 
The air is ddiciously cool here, even 
at the end of ApriL A large well 
here is called the Mint Well, because 
it supplied water to the Mint in whieh 
Rustam K^u coined his money. 

What occurred at Mur&dAb&d during 
the Mutiny has been told by Eaye in 
hi8"HepoyWar,"vol.iii.p. 262. The 
29th B.N.I. was posted at this station, 
and were for some time kept steady 
by Mr, Cracroft Wilson, the Jndge, but 
the gunners of the N. Artillery £owed 
from t^e first unmistakable signs of 
an inclination to revolt. On the 18tb 
of May, a regiment from MIrat, which 
had mutinied, came down upon Mnri- 
d&b&d, and arrived at the G&ngan 
Bridge. They had with them a con- 
siderable treasnre, which they had 
carried o5 from gafamagar. Mr. Wil- 
son moved against them, with a 
detaohment of the 29tb, under 2 ex- 
cellent officers, Captain Faddy and 
Lieut CliffoRl, and a body of Irreg. 

He ntrprlsed the 20th asleep, 

and 3 or 10 cd them were seized, 

shot dead by a trooper, and the 



_... of the 20th enteiedi 
d&b&d, when one was shot dead by a 
Bikh Sip&hl of the 29th, and 4 were 
made prisoners. ZTie slain man was a 
relative of one of the 29th, who pre- 
vailed on a number of his comrades to 
go to the jail and get his body, and 
-'-- '- the lailitaiy piieoiieis. 



SotOe ^.—Sfurdddbdd to 'Migarh. 



263 

Ti» guard at the joU fratermwd with 
theee men, and all Ihe prisoners in tba 
jail were released, but the Adjutant of 
the 29tli and WiUon with a few KpAble 
and a few Irregulars, captnTed IGO of 
the prisoners, and lodged them again 
in the jail. In this mannei Wilson 
continued to make use of the 29tb, 
though in a dangerous mood, and be 
even disarmed 2 corapaniea of Sappers 
who marehed in from Hurkhl and had 
mutinied, hut when the news of the 
mutiny at Barell aniyed it became 
impossible to restraia the Sipihls any 
longer, and Wilson had to make orer 
the treoaare to them, and escape with 
the other ciTilians and their wiTea to 
HIrat. 

The officers of the 29th, and 
their wives and chUdren, went off to 
N^ni TiL Lient. Warwick and his 
wife — a native Christian — were mur- 
dered. Some of the nncovenanted 
officials, who remained behind, 
killed, iuid otherswete carried prii 
to Dihii, where thej- perished. 



BOUTE 30. 

HUEADAmiD TO 'AlJOAftH. 

The traveller must return to Ch»n- 
dansi by the branch line already giTen 
and proceed from thence by the Awadh 
and Bohilkband main line to 'Aligartu 
The stationa are as follows : — 


II 


N^orauti™. 


^ 


10 

ao 


Chind«u£. . ' . 
BULoi .... 

BolnU. ■ . ■ . : 

SB'. • . • . : 

AtrauII Rout . 


VIM 
ILM 

isIm 


io.ia 

P 

I2.M 
Lie 


'Migarh, " thu hiah fort," U the 
name of the eonsiderable fortress 
which adjoins and protects the town 
of Kol or KoiL Tins tovra is of on- 

ence will not be made to the pnerile 
legends ragaiding it, which the Hindils 
put forth in Uen of history. Before 
the Muslim invawon the district was 
held by Dor Bijpiits. BnddhiiHo 
remains have been foand in excavating 
the eminence on which the citadel at 
Koil stood. Probably in very ancient 

there. Authentic Mstoiy commences 
with the Muslim historians. Basan 
Nijiml writes that in 1194 A.D., Kutbn 
'd din marched from Dihll to Koil. 
"which is one of the moat celebrated 
fortresses of Hind." In 1252 A.D. 
Oh^&su 'd din Balban was governor 
i^EoiL He set up a great minaret, 



Sect. II. 

iThich ha htd before he ascended tiie 
tiirone — "B*b&n 'd din Shamal," and 
dated 10th of Baj&b, A.H. 6G2 = 27th of 
Almost, 12G4 1..S. InAngust,1862A.D. 
this pillar, b; ix estmoidinBTj act of 
TaDdoUun, was pulled down with the 
sanction of Mr. Edmonstone, to moke 
room for shops. At the time of demo- 
lition the iBt 8hir7, GJ ft, high, and 
part of the itnd, 20 ft, lemaincd: 
total height H ft. The circnmference 
of the base was SO ft., and the walls 
were 6 ft. thick, diminishing at the 
top of the atorj to 4 ( ft. A doorwav 
opened on a spiral staircase whit^ 
originally led to the top of the colomn. 
Where this staircase ended it was 
crooned by an ornamental Uindii 

C'lar, and sereral beams of wood, 
m which the aatlior of the " Qaiet- 
teer" infers that the 2nd story was 
built by other hands. The inscription 
is prcBerved in the 'Aligarh loatituto. 

Ibn Batata mentions Koil in his 
aceoont of his embassy from Dihli to 
China, 1342 a.i>. He calls it a fine 
town sanonnded by mango groves. In 
the IGth century Koil became t^e 
scene of many a battle between the 
armies of Jawonpilr and Dlhll. An 
inscription in the fort of Koil records 
Its construction during the reign of 
Ibrihlm Lodi in 931 A.H. = lG2t A.D. 
An inscription on the 'I'dg&h states 
that it was erected in 1568 A.D. by 
Muhammad Qlsd. Another writing 
on the shrine of-DUl B^^sh lays 
that it was bnilt by §4bit £b4n m 
1129a.H. = 1717 AD. This Kh&n re- 
paired the old Lodi fort and called it 
^bitgarh. He also bnilt the great 
mosque In the centre of the town, on 
inscription on which states that it was 
finished In 1111 An. = 1728 a.d. In 
17n7Aj>. SArajmall of Bhartpdr took 
" '.bitgafh, and called it lUmgarh. In 



About 1776 AS. Najaf K^n lepaiied 
the fort of BAmgafh, and changed its 
nameto 'Allgart. About 1786 Mah&- 
dajf Blndhia captnred 'Alfgarh, in 
which he found .treainn in specie and 

Eirels anunmting to a kior of rupees. 
1788 'iilgirb was taken by GhaUm 
]pdir Sbto uul ntaken bj SlndMs, 



£oaU 30.— U^orA. 



263 

and here, with the old of De Boigne, 
that prince organised those battalions 
after the European fashion iriiich did 
snch good senice on many a hard* 
fought field. In 1790 there were 
11 of these battalions, which formed 
2 brigades, with 100 pieces of cannon. 
That year they defeated tbe BAthori 
at the famous battle of Mairto, and 
also the combined armies of the 
Jaipiir K&J& and Isnta'll Beg ; in fact, 
all Sindhia's saccesses from 1781 were 
due to these troops alone. In 1796 
De Boigne was succeeded by Perron, 
There weie then 3 brigades, one com- 
maaded by Major Perron at PnnA, one 
□nder Major Sutherland at Mathuri, 
and one under Captain Fadron at 
'Ailgarb. Bat in 1797 Perron came to 
'Allgarh and assumed Uie supreme 
command. His only rivals, Tautia 
Pagnavls and Lakbwa Ddda, perished 
in 1801, and next year George Thomas 
felL In 1802 the force was mised to 

1 brigades or 32 battalions. 

Bytbe treaty of 1802 the British fron> 
tier nad been advanced to within 15 m. 
of EoiL In 1803 the British declared 
war against Sindbia ; on the Gth of 
September In that year Perron took 
r^ge with the British. The day 
prerions 'Allgarb was stormed. Colonel 
Monson led the attack, with 1 com- 
panies of H.H.'s 76th, nnder Major 
McLeod, 2 battalions of the 1th N.I. 
under Colonel Browne, and 1 com- 
panies of the 17tb N.I. under Captain 
Bagshaw. During the night previooa 
to Uie attack 2 batteries of H eighteen* 
pounders each were erected to protect 
the storming party, I at a village near 
the fort, and I near Perron's honse. 
At 3 AM. tbe storming party arrived 
witliln 400 yds. of the gateway, where 
they halted till daybreak. Meantime 
a [«rty of E.M.'b 7Sth destroyed 60 or 
70 of the garrison, who, with the nsoal 
carelessness of Indians, were smoking 
under a tree In front of the gateway. 
At daybreak the enemy were dislodged 
from a trarerse mounted with three 
6-pannders, which were taken before 
th« enemy had time to fire them. 
QoloDel Monson then poshed on with 

2 flank companies of the 7Sth, and 
WM iBceired witb ft inoit dntnictiTe 



Some ZO.—AfurdimAi to 'i%arA. 



fire of grape-ahot. An iueflectoal 
attempt waa made to blow open the 
gatawith a 6-pomidei. A 12-ponnder 
was then brought np, bat at least 
twenty miaatea passed before an^ 
Impreadon was made on tbe pte. 
Cfdonel Honsoa was wcnmded mth a 

K":e, the adjutant of the 76tli, Lient. 
rton of the 4th NX, and 4 OTenadier 
offlcersweie killed. After paaringthe 
first gate, the itorming partj advanced 
along a □anow load, defended b; a 
strong tower, from which a deadlj fire 
was kept np, while showers ot grape 
ponred from the neighboaring bwtioii 
on tbe narrow paesage. The stormeis, 
however, forced their waj until they 
arrived at a 4th gate, wUcb was too 
BtroT^ to be driven in even by a 
12-pounder. At length Uajor McLeod 
succeeded in passing a wicket and 
ascending the ramparts, when after a 
vigoroug defence, which lasted nearly 
an hour, the place was taken. The 
British lost 2S Europeans and 21 
natives killed, and 76 Europeans and 
105 natives wounded, and6offlcer8were 
killed and 11 woundad. Of the garri- 
son 2,000 were killed. In 1851 a 
medal was given for thie achievement. 
Wlien the news of the Mutiny at 
Mlrat arrived, on the 12th of May, 
'Altearh was garrisoned by 300 SipiMs 
of the 9th N.I. under Major Percy Eld, 
On the 16th a party of the Sip&hle 
under Captain D. M. Stewart was sent 
out to suppress some alleged diatnrb' 
auces in the district Francis Out- 
ram, C.8., only son of Sir Jamea 
tDutram, accompanied Stewart willi a 
few troopers. It appeared that the 
dlstorbances bad been greatly exag- 
gerated, and Stewari^ and Ontram re- 
tomed. On the ISth ibe Sipilhls 
were reinforced, and on the 20th 
Captain Alexander marched in with 
the right wing of the Ist Gwilifir 
Cavalry. That day a Brihman njoned 
N&r&yan was hanged for tampering 
wiUi tlie Sip4hlB. He had scarcely 
been executed when tbe 9th broke 
into mutiny. The Europeaiu es- 
caped to Hktras, and 'Al^rb was 
occupied by rebel*, among whom the 
treasure, T Itlkhs, was distributed. 
The prisoners were released tom the 



Sect. II. 

jail, and a laige baUack-traJn at the 
Post Office plandered. On the 26th 
Lieut. Qreathed reached '^ligarh, with 
40 volunteer horsemen, and infonna- 
tion being received that Bio BhnpAl 
Singh, a Chaohin, had prochumeQ a 
Ujpilt government at Khair, 11 m. 
W. of 'Jugaili, the voliuiteen went 
tliere, and Hr. Watson, with a tew of 
them, rode straight thioogh the town 
to the Tah^lldkr'a office, captured 
Bhupil Singh and 16 of his followers, 
and hanged him on the spot. Up to 
the Slst of June the Tolnnteera held 
their ground at '^l^arh, bat the 
Lient.-QovemoT of Agra then recalled 
most of them, and only Messrs. Cocks 
and Oatram, of the B.C.S., Ensigns 
Marsh and.Olivant. Dr. Stewart Clarke, 
and Messrs. Saanders, Tandy, Haring- 
ton, Hii^, Castle, and Burkinyoang 
were left. This scanty band moved to 
Mandrik, 7 m. from 'Ahgarh on the 
Agra Eoad, and occnpied the deserted 
factory there. On the 2nd of Joly, 
about 3 P.K., the volnnteers were snr- 
rounded, but mounted and chalked 
the mob, and killed 16 of them, when 
tbe rest dispersed. The volnnteeia 
wei« soon after obliged to retire to 
Agra, where their gallant leader, 
Watson, the magistrate of 'Allgafh, 
died of cholera. 

From the 2nd July to the 21Ui Au- 
gust, the district was in the handsotthe 
rebels. On August SO Hr. Cocks, with 
a force under Major Montgomery, was ■ 
despatched from Agra to succour 
Hitras, and on the 24th this force 
moved on Koil, and attacked the 
rebels under ghaus KhAn and Haulavi 
'Abdn 1 Jalit, near the gaiden of M4n 
Bingh, close to the town. The Maulavi 
was killed and the reb^ were driven 
out ot the city. Qovind Singh was 
then made Governor by the British, 
but on the 25th of September was 
driven out by rebels, and next day 
Major Montgomery was obliged to ' 
retreat on HAtras. On the Gth of 
October Colonel Oreatbed's colnmn 
occupied Koil, when Mr. Cocks, Major 
Eld, 160 Bnropeans, 100 Sikhs, and 
2 guns were sent from Agra to le- 
occupy tbe district. Oovind Singh 
reinstated. OnthellthofDecea- 



StnUe 30.—'Al^ark. 



SectU. 

ber, Culonel tJeatou's colnmn arrired 
at 'JUig&fb, and on the 14th joined the 
BnJaniJBhahr force, and the eame day 
txnupletely routed the rebels at the 
Nimnadl. After tUs the Dn&b was 
completely cleared of rebels. After 
the rebellion, was over 4,969iacTee were 
coufiBcoted, 

The T. B. at. this town is olofle 
to the Tailwa; station. The church, 
Christ Church, may first be visited. It 
is *erj email, being only 48 ft. 6 in, 
long and 23 ft. broad. It is i of a m. 
N, of the T. B., and is quite plain. 
There is only ooe tablet to Mr. Oeoi^e 
Blackmore Phelipa, B.C.S., who died 
23rd of Febroary, 1 860. The church 
seats 50 persona, and waa consecrated 
by Bishop Wilson in 1840. The ceme- 
tery is Jtb of a m. to the W. at the 
church, and is nicely shaded with Sne 
trees, and well kept. Aa luual many 
of the tablets have been removed 
during tlie Mutiny. At the 3rd mile- 
stone 8. of 'Allgarh, on the Agra Boad, 
is a Meut religima of enormons girth, 
and 100 yds. from it on the left of the 
road is a garden, in which a body of 
Qh&zis concealed themselves during 
the Bebellion, and rushed oat on a 
detachment of our troops, inflicting 
moch less before Uiey were killed. A 
few yds. beyond the milestone stands 
a Maltese cross on a pedeetsl, al- 
together 12 K. high. On tha pedestal 
is Inscribed: — 

Heur this apot feU ths undermimUoned 
Bllut oBlcen ud men, on tbe 2ttli Aogoat, 

I<i7, figbUng In delSmw of tbC " 

■giiniC B large bods of rebels, 
bom the Town of Koll, snd we 

■ mull foicn TUider Malor 

Itth K^lnuEt Nitiva Infiutti; :— 

aulgn Hakbt Liwn lUasB, 
inii BaglnieiitK.I. ; 
Xr. Jomr CBbhh Tahdt, MeniliMit ■ 
Volnuton; 
' BoBDT LocxHiar, 3ii< 
Bitterr Bragal Artillery : 
Corpotal WiLLiiH AamrBoHo, i Snl Bengal 
Frtnts MiCHOU* FiuoiBiaj), } Zumpesn 
„ PiTucK IiEvmiE. J IntantiT. 
nalT Uwtel Bnulw Ug bnHed at Hitms. 

Betuming 3 m. by the same road, 
the traveller will come* to the goods 
■heda of the E. 1. Bailway on the 
Qrand Tnmk Boad. Here, where three 
n»4s meet, at the ride of a deep ditch, 






265 

is an incloBure about 8 ft. sq., con- 
taining' a small white marble fence, 
within which is a whit« marble coiunm 
3^ ft. high, surmounted by a white 
marble figune of a dumpy dog. This 
monument is protected by a wire 
fenoe, at the top of which is a lamp, 
andissaid tohavecOBtl,OOOrs. Such 

tomb is at once unintelligible and 
odious to the natives. The E. I. By. 
Station, a well-conatrnoted and com- 
modious building, lies between the 
Civil Station and the City. The Civil 
Station is admirably kept. There is 
a large centra] space, having on one 
side the private residences and the 
Post Office, and on the other, the Pub- 
lic Officii, Law Courts, Zil'a School, 
the 'Aligarh Institute, and the ceme< 
tery. The Institute was founded in 
1864 by the well-known SuyidAIjmad 
Kb^n, C. B. I., Judge of the Small 
Court at Ban&raa. The Library con- 
tains more than 2,000 volumes, and 
tie Beading-room is fnrnished with 
the leading English and vernacular 
papers. The Institute has a newspaper 
of its own, called the " 'Aligarh Insti- 
tute Gaiette." The Telegraph Office 
is on the S. side of Oie 1. 1. By., on 
the outskirts of the dty. The old 
cemetery of 1802 lies towards Uie 
fort. There was a military can- 
tonment here until 1870, when it 
was abandoned, and the ground 
given to the Koll municipality. The 
Anglo ■ Vernacular School has an 
average attendance of 125 boys. The 
District Jail is built for 500 pri- 
soners. It stands to the W. of the 
Station. 

The Fart of 'A'ligarh.~BetoTe visit- 
ing the town, itwUl be well to drive 
to the Fort, which is situated 2 m. to 
the N. of the town of Koil. It is 
surrounded by a ditch 18 ft. deep and 
from 80 ft. to 200 ft. wide. In April 
there is only a foot of water in the 
ditch, but during the rains it is full. 
Shallow as it is, there are large Ssh in 
it. The ditch is protected hy a counter- 
scarp, and the vmll of it, which ie 18 ft. 
in perpendicnlai height, is surmounted 
by an earthen embankment 20 ft. 
hi^h. After crossing the ditch hy a 
fandge, and passing a cutting, the 



Soute 30.~3fvrdddbad to 'lUgark. Sect IIJ- 



Tigitor will come to ajiotber portion ol 
the diteb, which is crOBaed in like 
nunner by a bridge, at Uie end of 
which there was (ormerly'ft draw- 
bridge. A tanael 60 yds. long is next 
passed. A UtUe to the left of the 
inner month of this tunnel is a large 
qnarler-giiBtd. The fort is an oblong, 
with aa inside area of about SO acres. 
There la one bastion on each of the 2i. 
and B. sidea, 3 bastions on the E., and 
3 on the W. In the S. bastion there 
is a model of the fort, SO ft. sq. and 3 ft. 
high. At the N. W. angle there are 
the bomb-proof magaiinei. The plan 
of the fort is a native one, improred 
b; the French. Perron's house is ) a 
m. to the B. of the fort. The main 
entrance to the fort is on the N. There 
were barracks in the fort, Init they 
have been pulled dawn. 

Pernm'i flinwe.— There is a square 
gateway or guard-house in front of 
this house, with an arched entrance 
and a goard-Toom above It. Over the 
arch ia written : — 

PERROZf, 

There is then a Persian inscription, 
which gives Perron's Oriental titles as 
follows: — Nftflru 'd daulah ImtJ- 
liana '1 mulk, Qeueral Perron Bah&dur, 
If a^faffar jang. Then the date is given 
on the right, 1802 4.D. ; on the left, 
1217 JLH. In the garden is a well, 
on the side of which is a copper plate 
with the following inscription, in 



Most Merciful God, 

al» be to Qod, thnt the Spiing of t 

Beneacence of Hitim '1 taSlk, 

ImtlniDU 1 iDDlk. 

RAL Perron B&uAdur UDfAVTAa 



Has been tepaired and la flowing. 

Then follow two couplets — 

Outaide Eot ■ nrdeu wu msde. 

Id it it a ndJ, tb* Boiine ot tbe g'"""' 

Tha companion of Oeheou, Fehhoh, 
Wblcli Oona ftom the great ilver Jailiuii. 
The same data is given as above. 

The Jail ia 1 m. S. of Perron's 
hoose. It is ft fiiBt-claa; district jail. 



The walls ue of mad, bat the entraiio« 
is of burnt bricks. It can hold 582 
prisoners. There are only 6 solitary 
cellg. Just outside the 8. angle of the 
Jail, aboat 60 ft. from the wall, and 



To tha Kmaaty of 
njideniumtloDfd gallant Offleei 
M.'B T«b Begiinent of Foot :- 
Captain ItoHALD Cauuoh, 



Lteut. Abtruk Cutubibt Cuatxu- 
Who were killed 

The stntng fortreBj of 'A\igufb, 
Defended by a nuraeruiu snd nell-si^intad 

Brltlab valour ud Brltiili spirit, 
On tbs ith of Beptembei, a.d. IMS. 
Alaoot 
and A4|utuit Joan MiTirn, 






OfH, 



'oot, 



Uvea Tkobljr llf^tlng 

DaiiDc tbs menunabla victoiT 

Iftemardi gained 

Over the aimv of Diuuc Rio Sindhia. 

Near IiuwiM, in HindOaUn, 

By tbe Brltisb forces under the command of 

Ontfaalat arNo>enibei,'A.n. 1S03. 

Thi« Honnmeut was elected by thelt bcothsp- 

The town may now be visited, and at 
the top of a lon(; and rather steep 
slope is the ptindpal mosqae, to Uie 
quadrangle of which the ascent is by 
10 broad steps. The building has 3 
central domes and 3 side domes, and 
2 large and 2 small minatets on the 
B. and W. faces. On the ontside gate 
is a Persian inscription, which says 
that $&bit Kbia built this mosque in 
the lith year of the reign of Muham- 
mad Bhiib. Theaichiteotureisinthede- 
based style of the last century, yet the 
mosque ia by no means without beauty 
and even dignity. The domes ate ctf 
brick, the rest of the building is of 
blocked knniar and red sandstone. 
The pinnacles are gilt, the mosqae is 
not in good repair. The eminenee on 
which.it stands it called the B&IA 



Sect a 



Jioute 31. — ^Aligarh io-Mathurd. 



]^sii, and in it hare been dlaeof eied 
remains of Baddhist and Hindi 
temples. Borne of the fragmenta have 
been placed in the ccmponnd of the 
Instltate, and theit elegance contmeta 
with the ugly fonntain there. S." 
the great moaqne is anotbei Bmatler, 
but more omate,kiiown as the Ho^ Mae- 
iid,or"PeMlMo9qiie." 8 i sty-five ateps 
lead to the top of the minaret of tt 
principal mosque, which is a1togetb< 
abODt GO ft. high. There ia a good 
view over an extensile and well- 
wooded plain. In the cemetery is a 
tablet to William Booty, a brave old 
soldier of E.M.'s 76tfa. He died 22nd 
ofDecember, 1S63, agedSe. He fought 
agftinst TipilinlT39, and under Locd 
I^e at 'ifllgarh, Laswiii, Big, and 
Bhartpilr. The town has a pop., ac- 
coiding to the Census of 1872, of 
58,BS9 penons. There are nearly 100 
Tm&mbAiBliE in the town. The tomb 
of Q-lsil ^^ is undoubtedly the most 
beautiful of the mortuaiT' buildinga. 
It is an open-pillared Ohatri, and is 
close to the 'Idgih. The tomb of Hfi( 
Bal^h m close to the Pearl Moaqoe, 
and is haudsome, bnt small. W. of 
the chief moaqoe, about ^ of a m., is a 
curioua group of tombs, in which the 
central one is called the Shrine of 
Sh^ Jam&l, who is said to have lived 
before Koil wae taken by 'AlAn 'd 
din Qhori. 



EOUTE 31. 

'iLiOABH TO HATBUBi. 

There is a branch line from H&thras 
to MatbuT^ the etations on which are 
s« follows. The traveller mnat pro- 
ceed from 'Aligarh on the main line 
to HfLthras. 



H 








i 


otBt.tlo.UL 












J 


ft*. .. 


S.W 


a"" 






H 


NunesofBtatloni. 


Time. 


ss 






































St 


























ll.BO 


>.o 



Sitkrat town is seen from the rail- 
way. It has an appearance of pros- 
perity, which it deservea. By the 
CensuB of 1872 there were 23,689 iu- 
haMtanta, of whom 21,121 were Hin- 
dds. To the E. of the town are the 
remaina of Daya B&rn'a Fort, consist- 
ing of a broken mound of earthwoi^, 
and 4 comer bastions of great size, 
surrounded by a ditch tnl^ 40 yds. 
wide. An old temple in the fort atill 
beam tracea of the furious cannonade 
directed upon it in 1817, when Daya 
B&ni, during Holliar'a inraalon, acted 
hostilely towards the British. In con- 
sequence, on the Ist of Mareh, fire 
was opened on the fort from 46 mor- 
tars and 3 breaching batteries. At 
" e close of the day a magaxine in the 

The tUe from HAthna Jonetlon to Uithnti 



Koiiie 31. — 'Aligarh to Matlmrd, 



■ fort exploded, and caused Bach de- 
stmcdon of the ganison and bo^dioga 
that Dajra Bdm fled during the night, 
and H&thnia and the neighbounng 
fort of Maisan were forthwith dis- 
mantled. 

Mathvri.— The city of Mathnri 
stretches for about l\ m. along- the 
right bank of the Jomna, the tort 
being in the centre, of which onlj 
the Bub-stnicture is left ; it was 
rebuilt in Akbar'a time, and is aaid to 
be the fort of Kang. It is in N. lat. 
27° 30" and E. long. 77° 46'. The Jail 
and Collector's Office are 1} m. to 
the S. of the 8. extremity of the town, 
and 1 m. to the W, of the town is a 
Jain temple and a large mound of 
bric^ called Chaur&sl Tlla. In a line 
with the Jain temple, but bordering 
on the town, is the principal mosque, 
in the Katra and abont j a m. to the 
a. is another mound called Eankali, 
and to the S.W., at distances varying 
from ^ a m. to a m., arc 5 mounds 
called the Chaabtrah mounds ; and all 
these places will be found mentioned 
by General Cunningham in toL iii. of 
his "Arch, Sajrej Reports," p. 13, 
and also in vol. i., p. 233. The trayel- 
ler ma; flcst dispose of the modem 
buildings, and then inspect the an- 
' tiquities of the place. As the birth- 
placid I if IKji^pa, M.ithutft naturally 
prc^^ents some objecla of alleged great 
antiquity. 

The little church, Christ Church, 
stands not G. and W., but almost 
N. and S. It is 79 ft. 9 in. long, and 
Gl ft. 5 in. broad. It was conse- 
etated by Bishop Deltry, in De- 
cember, 1858. Over the Communion 
table is a brass to the memory of 
Lt. K F, P. Spartin, Adjutant of the 
10th Hussars, accideataliy Idllod by a 
spear-wound at Bhlrgarh on the let of 
IJecember, 1875. The window above 
the brass was erected to his memory 
by the 10th Hussars and the Mtb 
fegimont, and by the civilians of Ma- 
tburft. The window has 3 diyisions, 
and represents in the centre the Cru- 
cifixion, with an angel on each side. 
The next inscription is to the memory 
of Malcolm, sixth son of W.Bariington, 
Ipsden, Oxfordshire. He was a civilian. 



and aadstant-settlemeDt officer, aitd 
was murdered at Qoraidan on the 6tli 
of February, 18TS. Another tablet iB to 
Biding-Ms£ter Corbit and his wife. 



and : 






the 11th HuBsaiB. The B. C. Church 
of the Sacied Heart, built by Ch. 
Salmon Orowse in 1874, is extremely 

Eretty and interesting. It is 78 ft. 
mg and 60 ft. broad at the chancel. 
There is a tower, with a dome copied, 
from a HindtL temple, with a carving 
of oar Saviour at the top, over the 
entrance. It has, outside, 3 pillars on 
either side, with polished white shafts, 
decorated vrith a black Vandyke pat- 
tern and 2 plain white pilasters. Over 
the altar there is a wooden roof, and 
over the rest of the church a picked- 
out red brick one. On the left of the 
entrance is a niche for the holy 
water, and above it a glass case, con- 
taining a representation of the Cruci- 
fliion carved in ivory. More to the 
left is the baptismal font of carved 
stone. The cemetery is a little N. of 
the church, and is nicely kept with 
flowers. Some of the tablets were re- 
moved and some broken in the Mutiny. 
There aw tablets to mAny officen, and 
among them one to Brig. - General 
Eichard Frith, 8th Light Cavalij, 
commanding the Agra and Matbun 
frontier, who died July, 1809, and one 
to MajoT-GencralJoluL Smith, "com- 
manding officer in the field," wbo died 
6thof August, 1806. There is also, on a 
small eminence in the very centre of 
the cemetery, a tomb with tbefollow- 
ing inscription : — 

To tlie Usmocy of 

HAJOIWIENBRAL HENRY FBABEK. 

Of H.M.'s lllh RMrtmcnt of Foot, 



111 by his jud^ept (uid vidour achifived u 

Importuii uid ^oiioM victoiT. 

Hfi dEed [a oouHiiiienoe of ■ wound 

He mc^ved wban Itftdlng on tha Ifoopa, 



And wu intsiTsd hg 



Aud hia countrr regards hia iiBroio conduct 

With gnteful admintlan. 

Hlgtory will lecord hli liiine snd jHiiHtiUit* 

The gloi; of bla lllnstrious ^Mds, 



Sect It 



RcmU 31. — Mathurd. 



A walk m&s now be tnken thmngh 
the town, enterins by the Haidinge 
G«te, also called Ho!i Gate, built by 
the mnaicipalitj. 

In the bei^ning of May the Jamna 
is here 300 yds. broad. There is a 
paved street the 'whole nay along it, 
with bathing Gh4{s or flights of steps 
descending to the water, and orna- 
mental ekabjiiarahi or platforms, and 
email but neat pavilions. QeneiaHy 
BpecLkiog the men bathe at separate 
ahi\B from the women. The 1st Oh&t 
is called Bai^&ll It is at the foot of 
the pontoon bridge, and close to the 
liuge house of the Riji. of Jh41ia- 
patan. It has its name from having 
been built by the Gosiin of the temple 
of Qovind Dcva at BindrAbon, the 
head of tbe Taishavos of Bengal, 
whose hoase U opposite. The names 
of the OhAts an thus given by Mr. 
Growse, in his book on Mathnri, 
p. 13j. To the N., Guies, MUn- 
Eiea, DasasTamedha, Chakia, . Eri^- 
na Oangi, Bom-tirtha, Tasndeva oi 
Shaikh, BrahmMek. GhanUbhb&ran, 
DbArapatan, Sangaman-tirtha, Nava- 
tlrtha, and Asikonda. To the B. are 
Avimukta, Visr&ntt, . PrSg, Kankhal, 
Tindnk, Sdrya, Chinti-mani, Dbriva, 
Rlshf, Moksha, Rati, and Bndh Gh^ta. 
The temple of Mah&deva Krishna 
Ganga has some rich and delicate 
stone tracery. The VisrAnti Qh^t 
is where Krishna rested after slay- 
ing Kansa. It is distingoishcd 
from all the other Qhits by having 
a series of marble arches facing the 

The river is full of tortoises, 80i 
them very large, poki ng theirlong necks 
and heads out to be fed. There is a 
well here 12 ft, deep, with steps down 
to it, choked at the bottom with mb- 
bish. After abont 80 yds. is the fine 
honse of the Qnru Patrfiotomdis. He 
affects great sanctity, and will not see 
a European, Then comes a fine house, 
belongmg to a Gujor&tl, called Bal- 
lamdis. Opposite to this is the flour- 
ishing village of Hans Ganj or " Swan 
borongb." Aft«r this comes a i 
tower, 65 ft. high, which is called the 

SatI Bnrj, because when Kans 

killed by Eri^bna his widoTr ( 



mitt«d tati here. Giowee, p. 97, says 
kS the wife of B&j& BhAr Mai of 
Jaipdr, mother of Bhagw&nd&s, who 
bnilt it in 1570 A.O. The traveller 
descends 4 + 1 + 1+3 steps to 
the Bisrim Qh&i, a little N. of the 
Satl Barj, and then goes down 2 more 
steps to a Bort of square, where the 
lUjfls are weighed against gold. There 
is a small white marble arch here, 
close to the river. Beyond this is a 
Qh4t built by Jai Singh of Jaipiir. 
Beyond this, observe the enormous 
house and temple belonging to Lakfh- 
man DAs, son of Beth Govind^s, who 
is the richest man in India. Bumour 
states his wealth at 23 millions sterling. 
Ascend by 16 steps to the conrt of the 
temple of P&rasn4th. At this point 
the adytnm can be seen. It has a 
portico with 4 pillars, and then 2 rows 
of 6 pillar* each. The root has eaves 
which project 10 ft., and a 2-storied 
galleiT runs all round the court. 

A visit may next be paid to the J4m'i 
Hasjid, which stands high. Ascend 
20 steps tfl reach the court; of the . 
mosque, which is 14 ft. above the 
level of the street, leading up to and 
ronndit. Theraosquehasbeencovered 
with encaustic tiles. On either side 
of the fa^^e of the gateway is written 
4 Persian lines, which may be thus 
translated. ; — 

Ic Uie reign of ShAh X'luioIb, 

The EmpwDT of the wttli, Aursngiib, 

Clothed Id lostlce, 

Pmlse be io Ood, the light of lajim ia elunlng, 

For this lofty moMine was fonnded by 

■abdd'nhabI KhAs, 

It miide the idols bow, did thlsKcondhouu' 



" Bar tliat 'Abdu'nnabI la the ronndeT of Uili 

The chronogram giroa the date 1071 
A.H.-1660-61 A.D. Over the fagadc 
of the mosque are the 99 names of 
God. The pnlplt has 3 Bteps, and is 
of flne white marble. At the sides 



sro 



BouU Sl.~-'Ali^rh to Wotkmd. 



Sect II. 



ore 2 pBfilioDB roofed in the Eindd 
maimeT. The court measores 116 ft. 
6 in. from N. to 8., and 131 ft. 10 in. 
from E. to W. There ore 4 minarets, 
which are 91 ft. high from the to] 
gallery to the Acndt of the mosqae, aii<. 
27 ft. from the top gallery to the top 
of the minaret, and there are 14 ft. 
from the coart of the mosqne to the 
groond. The total height from the 
gronndis ai + 27 + 14 = 133ft. There 
are 4 other PeiHian lines, which may 
be translated as follows : — 
This pdndpal moaqne of blcMed fonnditddiL 
Gtandeiic *a gn«t u ma heuts ot the nl 
A conit u vlda u tJiB nxpuue of thon^t. 

Abdn'nnabl was UUed in qaeUiug a; 
toente at g&bora in the Parganah of 
M^tiban, on the E. side t£ the 
YAmQnA. At the entrance to the W. 
of the town ia the Tdgdh," and about 
i of a m. to the W. of the town is the 
Eatra, which is an enclosme like that 
of a Sar&i, 804 ft. lot« by 653 ft. 
broad. Upon a terrace 1T2 ft. x 86 ft. 
broad stands a moeqne of the same 
length, bnt only 60 ft. broad. There 
ia another terrace 6ft. lower, measur- 
ing 286 K 268 ft. There are yotive 
tablets in the Nfkgarl character, dated 
SamvatlTlS— 1720. On this sitestood 
the great temple of Keeara BAI, 
which laTemler saw in the beginning 
of Anrat^^b's reign, apparently 
about 1S59 AJ3., and which he des- 
cribes as veiy munificent, adding 
that it ranked neit after the temples 
of Jagann&th and Ban4raa (Travels, 
part ii. book iii. ehap. 12, French 
ed., and Cunningham Beports, vol. iii 
p. 15). It was built of a red sandstone 
from Agra. At the back of ithe 
Eatra is a modem temple to Kesava, 
and close by is the Patara-Kund, a 
tank in which Krighi^a's baby linen 
was washed. This tank is faced 
throughont with ? lone, and has flights 
of st«ne Bteps down to the water, with 
40 steps in each flight. There is also 
a very steep ramp down which horses 

- This moBque la quoted by Cundinghom, 
vol. iii. p. 18, Bs one of Uie best specimens of 
anumenfatUon with glaied tUes. 



go to be washed, and it ia strange how 
they are able to get up again. The 
next yiait may be to the New Museum, 
of the carving of which Mr. Orowse 
saya, p. 101, " bat the most refined and 
delicate work of the kind ever 
executed Is to be seen in a bailding 
erected by public subscription, at the 
aaggestion of Mr. Mark ThomhilL" 
On this 30,000 is. were spent before 
the Mutiny, when it wa« interrupted, 
but it has since been carried on. The 
central hall is only 2G ft. sq., and 
there ia a rerandah or corridor 10 ft. 
broad. In the cornice of the hall a 
Persian Inscription is beautifully 
woAed. It may be translated 

Ai the comfort ol the people vu 
Vetr deu to OovsnuneDt, 
Tber gave hints to the 



The I 



are like a miimr In hrlghtneas, 
sembles ■ garden in Its oolouring, 

Tiaeedin floiren. 

k Ib most pleasing and pettect, 

[t is fair to compaie it to the 

Dome of AtMslib, 

And right to eall It the pal(tc« of Cesar. 

Wboevei looks at It wlU lam 

The dale ol Iti fbandatiou 

Is the Suit, by tt* symmetry oinaed much 

Vo-vj to the beuiUfnl garden. 

•Ab date ia a.d. wS-^. 

Jl.1. 1264. 

Mr. Orowse says 1869 A.D. The 
best piece of scnlptnre in the Museum 
is the Tasa-ditta statue of Buddha. 
The face is really beautiful, more 
artistic than that of any figure yet 
discovered, but the nose haa lately 
mischievoosly been broken off ; the 
most curious object is a carved 
block found by Mr. drowse in 1873, 
representing a Bacchanal group. 
Immediately opposite is the Public 
Gardens in which the Museum ought 
to have been placed. A little further 
on is the Jail, constructed on the 
radiating principle. 

When Fa-Hian traveUed in the 
end of the 4tb century, ■s.xiA the 
beginning of the Gth, he halted 
a whole month at MathnrA, and 
found that there were 20 Buddhist 
monasteriea with 3,000 monks, bnt 
when HiouenTbsang visited the p1a«e 



Sectn. 



Awrfe 31.— jtfaiAtmt 



271 



in 63t A.D., the nmnber hwl declined 
to 2,000, whence it RppeaiB Uiot 
Buddhism was on the wane. It is 
also known that one ot the monasteries 
was established bj the great Jndo- 
Scjthian King Envishka aboat the 
beginning of the Christian Bra, and 
nndei the patronage of the King 
BnddluHm was probably still more 
flonrishing then. It is therefore not 
improbable that Br&hmanism mc- 
oceded BoddMsm at Hathord, and 
that in fact the worship of Eri^i^ 
was Introdnced subsequently to the 
Christian Bra, which adds probability 
to the idea that this worship is a 
grotesque oSshoot of Christianity. 
Be thia as it may, we find that the 
Eatrii which has been before men- 
tioned yielded a number of Buddhistic 
Temadns to General Cnnningham and 
othen. In fact Canningham Axes 
tipan the Katra as the site of the 
Ima^pta monastery, mentioned by 
Hionen Thsang. At the Eatra, 
Cunningham foond a broken Buddhist 
Tailing pillar, with the figure of Miya 
Dert BtBuding under the Sdl tree, and 
also a stone on which was inscribed 
the well-known genealogy of the 
Qopta dynasty, from Shri Gupta the 
founder, down to Samudra Gupta, 
where ihe stone was broken off. He 
also fonnd built into the wall of a 
well, one of the peculiar curved 
aichitraves of a Buddhist gateway, and 
also an inscription on the base of a 
statue of ShiLkya dated Samvat 331, 
or A.D. 221, in which the Yasa Tih&ra 
is mentioned, and this ia probably the 
monastery which once eiistfid on the 
Katra, la the Katra too were found 
! capitals of columns, one no leas than 
3 ft. iu dituueter. A fragment of the 
larger one U still to be seen lying in- 
side the Eatra gateway. Cunulng- 
ham thinks the smaller is of the 
Indo- Scythian, and the larger of the 
Gupta period. Ma^nnia irf Ghftini 
in 1017 A.D., remained at Mathuri 
20 days, and pUlaged and burned the 
city, and carried off 5 golden idols, 
whose m« were of rubies worth 
50,000 c[mdis=ie26,0OO. A 6th idol 
of gold weighed 1120 tbs, and was 
deCOTBted with ■ sapphire weighing 



300 XUhW* or 3}lbfl, There were 
also 100 idols of silver, each of which 
loaded a camel. The idols together 
were worth not less than £300,000. 
From Eiouen Thsang's Tiait to 
Ha^taM's is nearly 400 years, and 
during these 4 centnriee Buddhism 
wholly disappeared from MathurA, 
and tiie Brahman temple of Eesava 
RAI was built on the very site where 
the great Buddhist monastery Tma 
Vih&rastonL 

Near the Jail is a mound, where tlie 
most exteasiTe discoreriee hare been 
made. It appears that on it stood 2 
Buddhist monasteries, the Huvishka 
and the Knnda-Snka Tih&ra. The 
latter is the place where the famous 
monkey which made an offering to 
Buddha, jumped into the tank and 
was killed. At this mound statues ot 
all sizes, bas-reliefs, pillare, Buddhist 
rails, TOtive itvjxU, stone umbrellas, 
and inscriptions have been found. 
Cne inscription is of the 1st century 
B.C. The earlic«t is of the Satrap 
Sand&BO, and the next of the great 
King Kanishka in the year 9. The 
left hand of a colossal Buddha has 
been, found, the figure of which must 
have been 24 ft. high. The most 
remarkable piece of sculpture is that 
of a female, rather more than half 
life size, whose attitude, and the 
position of whose liands resembles 
those of the famous Tenus of the 
Capitol. Canningham says it is one 
of the best spedmens of unaided 
Indian Art. There is also a Sileuus, 
described by James Prinscp in 1836, 
and which Ctmningham thinks is the 
work of a Bactrian Greek sculptor ; 
Prinsep thinks that it is "superior 
to any specimen of pure Hindii 
sculpture Uiat we poeeess." 

In the Cbaub&rah mounds, IJ m. to 
the S.W. of the city, measuring from 
the gateway of the Katra, was found 
a gofden casket, now in the poBsession 
of Mr. F, 8. Growse. There also was 
found by Cunningham a«^it IT ft. 
in diameter, also a steatile casket, 
which no doubt originally contained 
relics. Ho also brought oat the 
capital of a pillar 3 ft. long, 2 ft. 
broad, and 2 ft. high, formed by 4 



272 



Route 32. — Jfathurd to Bindrdhan. 



reeambent animals placed at the 4 
angles, 2 being winged lions, and 2 
winged bolls, with hnman huida 

adorned with rami' honif and ean. 
For the mon^ other disooreiieB made 
in different menndi near HathnrA 
reference mnat be made to Cnnning- 
ham's Report, toI. iii., where they are 
detailed at great length. 

OoJml. — The traveller will drive 6 
m. to the B.E., t« the town at Qoknl, 
where ^fihna is mid to have paeaed 
his chit^ood. Before reaching the 
town the Yamnn^, 200 yds. broad, 
has to be crossed on a pontoon bridge, 
which will support a carrii^e. After 
crossing, one must drive j[ a m. 
throagh deep sand to a lane so narrow 
that a carriage can only jnat pass, 
then drive 3 m., } of a m. bdng over a 
veiy bad road ; the Tiaitor wUl then 
arrive at a temple, at the E, of the 
town of MahAban, Here arc iwm 
remains of fortifications, and after 
passing the red-hrick gate of the fort, 
afr the ton of the rampait, on the left 
is a building, 9* feet long, which is 
called Nand'shonsc; and here is a black 
fignre of Kriftma, and figures of Nand, 
Jasodi, and NArad, Nand is 1' 
foster-father of E^fbpa, JaaodA 
Nand'9 wife, and NArad one of the 
divine sages. This boilding is 26} ft. 
broad, and has H rowa of pillars, 6 
deep-70 ; 7 ft. 6 in. high + the 
capitol, which is I ft. high ; total, 8 ft. 
6 in. These pillars are very remark- 
able, as they nave two belts of spirited 
figures, seemingly flying in saccession. 
They ate all broken by the Htulims, 
and the whole edifice was thrown 
down, bnt we are attempting t* 



VATHUBi TO BIHDSABAN. 

BindT&boTi, or, properly, VrindA- 
ban, is componndea of Vrittda, "holy 
batil," OofBivn lanctmm,, from Vrhi, 
"to please," and Ba» or Van, "b 
forest ;" literally, a forest ot tnlsf 
trees, the name of the place to which 
Kriehna removed from Ookul, S m. to 
the N. of HathnhL The traveller will 
drive thronsh the city of HathnrA, 
passing under the very handsonie 
Hardinge Gate, at the 8. of the town. 
The streets are paved with ribbed 
:, which gives the horses safe foot- 
ing, and allows the dost to be 
swept or washed off. The rMd is 
good. It panes throi^h 2 villages, 
Jsisinghpiiir and Ahalya-ganj, aod, 
abont half way, crosses a ravine by a 
bridge, which bears an inscription 
showing that it was bnilt by the 
daughter of Sindhia. Adjoining, is a 
masonry tank, with an inscription 
stating that it was oonstrocted by 
LdlA Eishon LfU, a resident at Dihll. 
Before reaching tjiis there is a garden 
called Eushl, from a banker of Onjonlt 
who made it, and founded one of the 
largest temples at Hathnri. On the 
opposite side of the road is a lal^ 
handsome well of red sandstone, with 
a fiight of 67 steps leading down to 
the water, built by Ahaiya B41. 

There is no reason to believe that 
Bindr&ban was ever a great seat of 
Boddhlsm. Its meet ancient temples, 
i in number, date only bom tlie 
time of Elizabeth, "while the space 
now occapied by a series of tbe 
largest and most magnificent shrines 
ever erected in Upper India 
vras 60 yeois ago an nnclaimed 
belt of woodland (see Orowse, p. 
171). The * temples alluded to are 
those of Oovind Deo, Qopi NAth, 
Jugal Eishor, and Hadan Mohan. 
BindiAban is famous as the place 



Sect. II. 



Route 32,— Jindrtiian. 



27» 



■where Krigltrift sported with the Gopli 
and Btole ttielr clothea when they wep_ 
bathing. The Tamimd bonndB the 
town to the E., and winds pleasajitlj 
roMid it. It ia in the diy season 
about 100 yds. broad. At the entrance 
to the t«wn, on the left, ia a large red 
temple, 300 years old. It is sacred to 
OlrdAri, aDd was almost destroyed 
by Aorangilb, bat hae been restored 
by the British Government. On the 
right is a new temple, built by Sefh 
BMhi Eriabn and Beth Gorind Dia. 
The Utter retired from the world in 
1874, and deToted himeelf to worship 
and alms-^ving. Erery day 100 per- 
eonfl or more were fed at lus temple, 
on the ontdde ; while others of high 
caste were fad within the sacred in- 
closare, within which Europeans are 
not allowed ta go. The temple con- 
sists of a Tsst inclosing wall, with 3 
gopnnis, which are 80 to 90 ft. lugh, 
while the gates are about 6fi. The 
traveller will ascend the N. gate, by 
22 steps, l« a terrace, then 18 to an- 
other resting-place, and then 20 more 
to the (op platform ; in all 80 steps. 
Here he will sit and view the scene. 

The great coort is 609 ft. 1 in. from 
N, to S., and 400 ft, from K. to W., and 
contains the temple, which is abont 
too ft, from N. to 8., and 280 from B. 
to W. This court opens into a aqoare, 
or rather oblong, fiOO ft. from S. to 
W. and 400 from N. to S., with a tank 
in the centre, about 30 ft. deep, to the 
water of which steps lead down 
every side. The water is of a di 
green coloor. All aloiw the long et _ 
first mentioned are honses, with a 
narrow verandah in front. Those on 
the N. mdearenotseenat all,asdooT9 
in the wall of the inclosnie open into 
Ibe yaids in which they are. The 
temple is dedicated to 8hrl Banga, a 
name of Vi^nu ; and fignrte of 
Gam^a, tlie man-bi rd, Tifhpn's vehicle, 
are very conspicnoQS. The visitor will 
wa]^ ronnd toe great coart, and see 2 
white marble pavilions, 1 at the E, 
and 1 at the W. side of the tank ; and 
a stone pavilion, with a flat roof, sup- 
ported by 16 pillar*, opposite the £. 
gopoTO. Bnropeans mnst not go be- 
yond the steps of the temple j but they 
[Beitgal—liil.-] 



will see a golden or gilt flag-staO, 80 ft. 
high, and in front of it a black marblo 
slab, on which the sacriflcla! rice is 
daily laid. Behind ia the Murth, or 
image, and near it women will be 
seen worshipping. To the W. of this 
temple is a large one sscied to Govind 
Deo. It is red, and may be seen from 
the top of the M. gate. A mile beyond 
it, in the same direction, ia the Modan 
Mohan Temple. To the N. is a vast 
house, with a temple inside, belonging 
to Sindbia. To the E., near the river, 
is a temple belonging to the TilcAri 
Hdijd, who lives near Qay^ The 
Bigam of BhopU has a house at Bin- 
drdban. To the B.E, is the Bang 
BiUs Oaiden, whither the idol in the 
Seth's Temple is taken, in the month 
Chaitr, duflng a festival which ls«ts 
10 days. 

The visitor will now cross the 
road to the temple of Govind Dea 
It is said by Hr, Qiowse to be the 
most impressive religions edifice tlmt 
Eindtl art has ever prodnced, at least 
a 0pper India, The body of the 
inilding is in the form of a Greek 
roas, the nave being 100 ft. long, and 
he breadth across the transepts the 
sme. The central compartment is 
snrmounted by a dome d dngnlarly 
graceful proportions ; and the 4 arms 
of the cross are roofed by a waggon- 
lit of pointed form, not, as is nsnal 
Hindi! architecture, composed of 
irlapping brackets, but constructed 
of true radiating arches as in Gothic 
cathedrals. The walls have an average 
thickness of 10 ft., and ore pieiced in 
2 stages, the apper stage being a 
regnlor ttiforinm. Under one of 
the arches at the W. end of the nave 
a tablet, with a Banskrit inscription, 
ith the date Samwat 1647 = *.a 
i90. It is thought by some to be 
handsomer than the ^tb's Temple. 
A Sight of S steps ascends to a hall, 
IIT ft. long from B. to W., and 99 ft, 
10 in. broad from H. to 8. Mr. Fei" 
guBson says ("History of Aioh.," p. 
46S) :— ■' M4n Blngh erected, at Bind- 



27* 



Souie 32. — Mathuri to £indrdban. . 



Sect. II. 



intereating and elegant temples in 
India, ajid tbe only oae, perliftps, from 
which an Europeaa archilect might 
borrow a few hints. The temple con- 
sists cS. a ccuciform porch, intemallj 
nearly quite perfect, though eitemallj 
it is not qnite clear how it was iu- 
tendad to be finished. The cell, too, 
is perfect intemalij — nsed for worship 
— bat the sikra is gone, possibly it 
may never have been completed. 
Though not lai^, its dimensions are 
respectable, tbe porch measuring 117 
ft. B. and W. by 106 ft, N. and 8., 
and ia covered by a true fault, built 
with radiating arches— the ool; in- 
stance, except one, known to exist in 
a Hindit temple in the K of India. 
Over the i arms of the cross the vault 
is plain, and only 20 ft. span, but in 
the centra it expaodB to 35 ft,, and is 
unite equal in design to the best 
Oothic vaulting known. It ia the 
external design of this temple, how- 
ever, which is the most remai^ble. 
The angles are accentuated with sin- 
gular force and decision, and the 
opeoingB, which are more than sufB.- 
cient for that climate, are pictu- 
resquely arranged and pleasingly 
divided. It is, however, the com- 
bication of vertical with horizontal 
lines, covering the whole surface, 
that forms the great merit of the 
design. This is, indeed, not peca- 
Uar to this temple, but is round 
also at Bhuvaneshwar." 

After seeing this temple the visitor 
may proceed to the next, which is all 
of redstone, and was repaired in 1877, 
at the expense of the British Govern- 
ment. At the back of the temple, 
and adjoining it on the W., are, at 3 
comers, temples which resemble each 
other, and a l-storied red temple to 
the S., which ia the temple of Pat^ya 
Devi, the Hindil Hecate, which is 2i 
ft. from E. to W., and 32 ft. from N. 
to S, There is a new temple ad- 
joining this temple to the W,, built 
by a BenglUf B4bii. It is not tasteful, 
but has a finely carved door. To the 
N. is a kitchen, and in the centre a 
pavihon with 4 pillars. On ascending 
a ladder to go into Devi's temple. 
It will be toaiul without a rod, 



as Aurangzib demolished the two 
upper stories and the roof. A dc< 
scent of 12 steps brings the visitor 
to the sanctum, which is a niche on 
the right, with a figure <A the goddew 
riding a tiger. The comer baildings 
are polygonal, like the comers of the 
mosque at Ban^iras, next the Golden 
Temple. The next visit will be to 
Madan Mohan Temple, but a ittop 
must be made to walk ^ a m. through 
deep sand to a Gb^ on a branch oE 
the river. Here, under 2 fine trees, a 
Fiaiu in^ion and a Nbm6Uo, orientalit, 
is a fine pavilion, in which many 
cobra's heads are represented. Shiva 
is said to have struck Devi with a 
stick here, when she jumped oS this 
Gh&t, and made it a place for caring 
snake bites. There is here a S&lagram 
(a species of Ammonite worshipped aa 
a type of Vishna), with 2 footprints, 
2i in. long. The Madan Mohan 
Temple stands on rising ground, and 
one ascends 7 by 7 steps, to long in- 
cUnes, with thrice 3 steps, in all 2it 
steps. Tbe temple is 65 ft. high, and 
is in the shape of a cone. Inside aie 
2 black quite new idols of Batya 
Anand and another. B. of the cone 
is a shorter temple, and then a Batov 
or " kitchen " and a SabhA or " hall, 
where the music plays, which measnres 
65 ft. from N, to S., and 17 ft. 9 in. 
from B. to W. A veiy steep flight of 
29 steps leads down to the level 
grouai 

The Jbmple cf Oopin&th is thought by 
Mr, 6rowse to be the earliest i^ the 
series. It was built by fiaesil Jl, a 
grandson of the founder of the Sher- 
khiwat branch of the Kachhw&ha 
chiefs. He distinguished himself 
under Akbar. The temple of which 
he is said to be the founder resembles 
that of Madan Mohan, but is in a 
ruinous condition. Its special feature 
is an arcade of 3 bracket arches. 

The TfSmpU of Jagai ISilwr ia at the 
lower end of the town, near the Seal 
Qh&t. It is said to have been built 
by Nou-Earan, a Cbauhiln chief, in 
1G2T A.D, The choir arch has pierced 
tracery in the head of the arch, and 
above it a representation of EfiilifM 
gupportiug the hill ^ Qobaidhan. 



Sect.IL 



Mute 33. — Bindrdban to Dig. 



275 



The limpU of RadM Ballabh is a 
handsome buitdmg. The hall is 63 ft. by 
20 ft. The ahrliie waa demolished by 
Aurangzlb, TbeiiaTO is Sift, by 18 ft. 
The Jag Holiaii is IT ft. by 18 ft. and 
fa of especial interest as the last speci- 
men of the early eclectic style. There 
are oIbo G modera temples of some 
interest. 



HOUTE 33. 

BIKDKABAir n> Did. 
The distance is 12 koe, or 34 n 
and the journey must be made In 
carriage or on horaeback. The firet 
ctiange of horses will be at the village 
of a4niln, 6} m. from Mathuri. At 
about tho same distance further on is 
the village of Qovardhan, from Go, 
'■acow,"andriiriiiiSaji, "increasing," 
a oelebtated UU, which was upheld 
Iw Kii^na on one finger to shelter 
«ie cowherds from a storm excited by 
India, BB a teat of Kpsh^ia's divinity. 
Here the carriage will turn to tht 
ri^t, to tho Chattri of the Bhartpilr 
»]»». TheaChattrisof Bandhirand 
B4Js Deva angh, on the bank of the 
*™« Qmb»i are aUo worth a visit, 
lae eunilhi, or place where the 
*•■»» after cremation are dopositei, is 
In tto appei Mory, which ifl mentioned 
°T ">. OlowBe as one of the beat 
■pwajnans of the kind of carving exe- 
oatod at Mathwi. There ia a tank 
™»i with U itepe leading dowji 



: vrater. For the other buildinga 
__ Govardhan refer to Mr. Giowse's , 
book, p. 174, and to Mr. Fergnsson for 
, temple built in Akbar's reign (idem, 
,). 466. About Jam. beyond this is a 
rocky ridge, 60 ft. high, which is eaid 
to be the famous mountain of Qovaid- 
han. According to the Hindiia it 
was once a high mountain, and has 
been sinking ever since the time of 
Krishna. For 3 m. before reaching 
Dig the road forms a sort of causeway 
above a very low, Sat country. There 
is a stone wall from 2 to 4 ft on 
either side. 

2W?i9aidtobefrom JM»7, "long." — 
At Dig the traveller will take ap his 
lodging in the palace of the Bhartpdr 
B&jO, who, with a ho^tality wluch 
cannot be too much commended, not 
only allows European travellers c^ re- 
spectability to stop in Ms magnificent 
residence, but supplies them with food 
and wine. The QopAl Bhawan, in 
which the traveller will lodge, has 
maajikiXU or Venetians, and it will 
be well to leave them open for the 
sake of air. A cannon is fired at the 
break of day. A paper of printed 
rules is hong np for the benefit of 
traveUers, and they ate told that per. 
mission to use the palace is to be got 
from the Political Xgent at BhartpAr. 
It is expressly stated that the Eishn 
BhawaA or " marble ball " is not to be 
Oised by travellers, nor are they 
allowed to partake of meals there. 
Visitors are requested not to net fish 
or to pick fruit. The shooting of pea 
fowl, or blue pigeons, Is strictly pro- 
hibited. There is a fine view from 
the top of the GopM BhawaA. It is 
built on the G. edge of the Eachcha 
tank, which is full of fish, and is much 
used by the people for washing and 
bathing. The palace is 210 ft. 10 in. 
long from N. to 8., and 120 ft. broad 
from B, to W. The front hall is 82 ft 
long and 57 ft. broad, and the lake ia 
about 400 ft, long and 300 ft broad. 
In front of the palace is a pretty 
ch&butarah of inlaid marble, with a 
white marble arch. To the N.E. of It, 
at ISO ft. oB, is the Nand BhawaA, in 
which is a fine hall, 108^ ft. long, and 
8S ft, 1 in. broad. There are 7 arches 
t2 



Rotile SS.Sindrdban to Biff. 



Sect. IL 



on either aide, and 6 pillars ; and 
tbere is an inner incloeurc, marked off 
bj 16 pillare. Between the 2 Towa i 
pillars atand 4 reiy thick pillorB, oi 
at each comer, with painting of 
Janaka and other mTtholoftical per- 
HOna. The hall is 20 ft, high. Pass 
now into the ganJenB, and Be« on the 
left the hoaae of the Indian doctor, 
according to whom it is a very feverish 

Elace. Continuing the promenade, the 
lip S^ar laJte, a very large one, will 
be passed on the right. The W. gate 
of the fort (there are 2 ^tes) is J a 
m. fKmi the Gop&l Bhawa&. The fort 
has 12 bftationa, and a ditch GO ft. 
broad, in which the water in the 
tby season is from 12 to IS ft. ~ 
Passing tliToogh the first door, the 
tiaitor will come t^ a second, pro- 
tected with apikes to preyent elephant! 
from breaking in. Beyond that ia e 
wall, 27 ft. thick, where there was s 
gate, which was removed by R&jA 
Balwant Bingh. Beyond this is a 
natnral roonnd, about 70 ft high, and 
beyond tltat a building which serves 
as a prison. The walls of the fort are 
very massiye and lofty. There are 72 
bastiona in nil. The U.K. bastion may 
be ascended. It is about 80 ft high. 
On it IB a cannon 16 ft. 7 in. long in 
the barrel, exclusive of the projection 
from the breach, which measures 2 ft. 
i in. The diameter of the muzzle ia 
2 ft. * in., but that of the oriSce is 
only 6^ in. The inside area of the 
fort is about 20 acres. 

The Siiiai Bhawan is to the 8. of 
the QoplU BbawaA, and is 38 ft. long. 
The fioor is of marble, chiefly white, 
bat inlaid with pieces of other colours. 
Opposite to it, with a pretty garden 
between, is another small palace on 
the W., called the " Harde Bbawaft." 
The caves of these buildings are very 
ornamental. There are two, one above 
the other, the iower projecting 3 ft., 
and the nppr 4i ft. Bat in the facade 
the projection is greater. Both eaves 
have handsome supports. The Kishn 
BhawaA is 8.E. of the Oop4I BhawaA, 
and the n>of measures 131 ft. from B. 
to W., and 71 ft from N. to S. The 
so-called Marble Hall is of atone of a 
reddish tint, and not vei? handsome. 



It is 60 ft. long from B. to W. and S2| 
ft. from N. to S. The height is 22 ft. 
3 in. There are 6 scallop^ arches in 
the facade, and 6 in the centre, with 4 
pillan and 2 pilasters each. The roofa 
are of stone, quite plain, aud the walls 
are but slightly decorated with earr- 
ing. Altegether it does not come up to 
the Ualls at DlMi, Agra, and Amber. 
Aaceivd by 12 steps to the terraced 
root, where is a pavilion, the reof of 
which is anpported by 12 single piUora 
and 4 double pillars, one at each 

Dig ia celebrated for the battle 
fought on the 1 3tb of November,! 304, in 
which General Fraier (see Mill, voL ti, 
p. B93) defeated Jeswant BAo Holkar's 
army. Hill writes ; " Major-General 
Fraier marched from Dihll on the 5th 
of November, and arrived at Gobard- 
han on the 12th, a place within 3 koa 
of the fort of Dig. Ilia force consisted 
of 2 regiments of native cavalry, his 
Majesty's 7Gtb Regiment, the Com- 
pany's Eoropean regiments, 6 bat- 
talions of SipAhls, and the park of 
artillery, in all about 6000 men. The 
force of the enemy was understood to 
amount to 24 battalions of infantry, a 
large body of horse, and ISO pieces of 
ordnance, strongly encamped, with 
their right upon Dig, and a large j'AiJ 
or lake of water covering the whole of 
their front. 

" As the hour was late, and the Gene- 
ral had Uttle information of the enem}r's 
position, he delayed the attack till 
morning. Having made hia arrange- 
ments for the security of the camp, he 
marched with the army In 2 bri|;ade8 
"' 3 o'clock in the morning, making a 

■cuit round the water to the left, to 

able him to come upon the right 
flank of the enemy. A little after day- 
break the army was formed in 2 lines, 
and attacked and carried a lat^ vil- 
lage on the enemy's flank, It then 
d^cended the hill aud charged the 
enemy's advanced party, nnder a 
heavy discharge of round grape and 
chain from their guns, which they 
abandoned as the British army came 
up. General Fraier, whose gallantry 
animated every man in the field, waa 
wounded, and obl%*d to be carried 



Sect. 11. ■ 



RmUe M.-^Dip to B!tartptir. 



from the battle, when the command 
deTolved upon General Hnngon. The 
enemy retired to freeh batteHes as the 
British advaiiced. The whole of the 
batteries were carried for upwards of 
2 m,, till the enemj were dnven close 
to the walls of the fort. One body of 
them drawn np to the E. of the lower 
end of the lake, still retained a posi- 
tion, whence they had annoyed the 
Britieh with a ¥ei7 deatrnctive fire. 
Seeing the British troops under cover 
of a fire from sereral pieces of cannon 
hoTeriog itraad to their left, they 
made a precipitate retreat into the 
lake, where many of tbem were lost. 
. The British took 87 pieces of ordnance 
in this battle, and lost in killed and 
wonnded about 360 men. Tho ene- 
my's loss, which was great, could only 
be conjectnred. The remains of the 
army took shelter in the fort of Dig." 
Oa the lat of December following. 
Lord Lake joined the army before 
Dig, and immediately commenced 
operationH to rednce that town. On 
the nigbt of the 23iil, his troops 
captored an eminence which com- 
manded the city, but not without con- 
siderable loss. HoweTCT, the enemy 
eracuated Big on the following day 
and tbe fort on the succeeding night, 
and fled to BhartpSr. 



Din T 



BOABTPdB, 



This ioumey of 22 m. must be done 
in a carriage or on horseback. It 
can bo done in 3 honra. At Kiman 
horses will be changed. The piki 
Bangle at Bhartpili is admirably clean, 
and possesses eveiy comfort. Wines 
and provisions are furnished for one 
day gratis, H.H. the R4jd is most 
generons, but it would be well if tbe 
officer he directs to order the wines 
were to send for them to one of the 
good European houses in Calcutta oc 
Bombay, for native dealeis are not to 
be depended on. There are 3 good 

Bfiartpur.—lhe territoiy of Bhart- 
piir measures 76 m, from N. to S., and 
63 from E. to W. The area is 1,974-07 
sq. m., and the pop. is 743,710. It is 
bounded on. the N. by the British dis- 
trict Q-al^d^ii, on. the E. by MathorA. 
and Agra, on the S, by the States of 
Dholpiir, Karanll, and Jaipiir, on the 
W. by Jaipjir, Alwar, and Gurgioii. 
The capital, Bhartpdr, is on the high 
road between Agra and Ajmlr, and on 
the BAjpHt^nA State Railway 35 m. 
from Agra, and IIS from Jtuprir. It 
is S77 n. above sea-level, and has a 
pop. of 61,148 persons. The present 
R6i&, whose name ia, Jaswaut Singh, 
was bom. in 1852, and married the 
daughter of the BAjA of Fati4M, who 
died in 1S70. His sou, Sim Singh, is 
more than 4 yeara old. He is de- 
scended from a Jilt Zamlnd^ named 
ChUrfuuan, who built 2 smaU forts, 
Thiin and Sinsiniwar, and harassed 
the rear of Aurangzlb's army during 
hia expedition to the DatJian. J& 
Singh of Amber was sent fo reduce 
Chdr&man, and in 1712 A.D. took and 
destroyed Thiin ; Badan Singh, the 
brother of Chdriman, was then pro- 
claimed at Big, Th^iir of the f&tM. 
On his death, his eldest son, Silnij Mall, 



278 



JloTife 3i. — 2Hff to Bhartp&r. 



Seot. II. 



fixed hifl capital at Bhartpiir. In 17*6 
he was invited by the Kmperor Alj- 
mod 6h&h to join Holk&r in anppreaa- 
ing tie revolt of the HohiUw. When 
^nfdar ]&□(;, in conseqaence of a die- 

eitewithGhibiu'ddln.rebelled.Siira] 
all BSBistod him, and Bhaitp^ was 
besieged bj Ghdiiu 'd din, who, how- 
ever, raised the siege and returned to 
DihUinl754. In 1769 QJjiiin 'd din 
came to Bhurtpiir at aenppliBnt for pro- 
tection. When Aljmad Uhih invaded 
Agra a second time in 1769-60, Biinij 
Mall joined the ManL^hss vith 30,000 
men, but disagreeing with their plan 
of canying on the war, withdrew 
before Uie battle of PAnipat. After 
the defeat ho drove oot the Marfttha 
Qovemor from Agra, and made It his 
own residence. Najlbu 'd danlah 
having become the virtual ministci of 
Sh&h 'Alam, Btiraj Mall claimed the 
office oEFaujdfir of FamJAnagar, and 
on its being refused, marebed to Sh&h- 
danah, on the HindAun, and here, 
while banting, he was surprised by the 
enemy and kUled. This was in 17B4. 
Jaw&har Bingh succeeded, and re- 
solved to prevoke a quarrel with 
Jaipiir. Accordingly he marched 
thtungt the Jaipilr territory to the 
Pushkar Lake, when he received inti- 
mation from Jaip&r that it he returned 
the same way it would be regarded as 
a hostile aggression. He paid no at- 
tention to this, and on his way back, 
in ITSe, he wM attacked and defeated, 
bat almost every chief of note in die 
Jaipfir army was killed. Soon after 
this, Jaw&har was mnrdered at Agra. 
His son RatftD succeeded, but wai 
murdered by an alchemist. His bro. 
ther Naval Bingh next reigned, who 
marched with the Mar&thas to Dihli, 
but there deserted them. The Jdts 
were then repulsed before Dihil, and 
driven out of Agra. They withdrew 
towaids Dig, but at BarsAna were 
overtaken !«■ the VaKiT Najaf ghin, 
and defeated. Their infantry was in 
this battle commanded by Walter 
Tteinhardt, lUiat " Bomroo," who at 
first broke the enemy, bnt pursuing in 
disorder was rented. Bare&na was 
sacked, and next year, in March, 1776, 
D^ was taken. However, territory 



yielding 9 Ukbs annually was ifiven 
back to Banjlt Bingh, who was now 

1 the throne. 

After the death of Najaf Sb&n, in 
17B2, Sindfaia seized Bhaitpilr and the 
territory, but at the intercession of 
the widow of 8draj Mall, Sindhia 
restored II districts, and subsequently 
added 3 more for services rendered to 
Qeneral Perron. When Sindhia got 
into difficulties at I^ Kut, he made 
an alliance with Banjit, and restored 
Dig, and also ceded territoiy yielding 
a revenue of 10 lAkhs; bat Sindhia 
and the Jftta were defeated by 
Ohnl&m K&dir at Kat^piir Sikri, and 
driven back on Bhartpiir, bnt 
being reinforced at the end of the 
same year, in 178S, they raised the 
blockade of Agm, and Sindhia re- 
covered it. la 1803 the Britisli 
Oovemment made a treaty with 
Banjit, who joined General Lake at 
Agra with 6,000 horse, and received 
in return the districts of Eishngarh, 
Eatt&war, Bewaii, Qokul, and ^ihir. 
But Banjit intrigued with Jaswant 
lUo Holkar. Then followed the siege 
of Bhartpiir bj Lake, who was 
repulsed with a loss of 3,000 men. 
Banjit then made overtures for peace, 
which were accepted on the 4th ol 
May, 180B, He agreed to pay 27 
Itths, 7 of which were snbseqaentlj 
remitted, and was guaranteed in his 
territories, but the districts granted 
to him in 1803 were resumed. Banjtt 
died in 1805, and was succeeded I7 
his eldest son, Bandhir, who died in 
1823, leaving the throne to his brother, 
BAla DeVB, who died after a reign of 
18 months, leaving a son, Balwant, who 
was recognized by the British Govern- 
aent. Bat bis cousin, Durjan B&l, 
rebelled, and cast Balwant into prison. 
After some hesitation Lord Amherst 
consented i^ support Balwant, and on 
the 18th of Jannary, 1826, aft«r « 
sl^e of 6 weeks, Bhartpiir was stormed. 
The loss of the besieged was estimated 
at 11,000 men killed and wounded. 
The British had 103 killed, and 477 
wonnded and missing. Durjan Bdl 
was sent as a prisoner to ABAh&bid, 
and Balwant was placed on the 
throne. He died in 1863, and wm 



Sect. II. 



Jt<yute H.~Bharlptir. 



succeeded hj bis onlj son, Juirent, 
the preeent sovereign. 

The flist thinK for the traveUei to 
do will be to wS}i to the BllE&r, quite 
cIoBB to the T, B,, »xA torn to the 
light, and alxmt ) b m. from the T. B. 
he will Bee H.H.'s Menagerie. There is 
a Ter; fine tiger, and there are bears, 
ptuitherB, and other animaU. After 
thia the Fort may be yidlei. The 
walled city of BhartpilriBan irregular 
oblong, lyii^ N.E. and B.W. The 
N.B. side is tolerably i«^lar, and so 
la the E, ride, but the W. projects to 
the W., and the B. forms a semicircle. 
Tbe If.E. side is 3,828 ft long, the W. 
side 7,SG6 ft, the E. side 6,966 ft, and 
tbe 8.W. 6,280. The inner fort is 
contaiued in the N.E. half of the 
outer fort, and its N. side is 1,S80 ft. 
long, its B. Bide 2,211 ft.,its S. and W. 
sides 1,980 ft Three palaces run right 
across tbe centre of the inner fort 
from B. to W., that to the B. being 
the King's Palace. Next is an old 
palace built by Badan 9ingh. To the 
W. is a palace which in the map of 
lSlT-18 is caUed tbe Beridency, bat is 
generally styled the Eamara. It is 
fumisbed in a semi-Bnropean style, 
with a nomber of pictnies, glasses, and 
chandeliers. 

Major Boaverie, who was Beddent 
in 1867, built a house among the gar- 
dens, between the Agra and Fatljpiit 
Bikrl roads, E. of tbe town, --' 
the Beddents lire there now. 
house and park, however, belong 
to the RAji, who n»ed to send 

C! of wine and prorisionB fo: 
dent's Dse, and kept a number of 
elephants and carriages there for hi 
There are only 2 gates to the ini 
fort, the Chau Burj gate on the 
and tbe Asald&tl on the N. The nv 
roond the fort, is 198 ft. broad and 
very deep. The gates of the outer fort 
are tbe Mathm* which faces E., the 
Nir&yan S.B., tbe Atal Band 8., the 
Nlm a, the Anab W., tbe Enmbhlr 
W., the Gobftidhan N.W., the Jazlaa 
N., and the BAraj pol E. The bastion 
at the N.W. comer of tbe inner t< ' ' 
called the JawAbar Burj, ani 
worth ascending for the view. The 
bastion at the E. end of the N. dde is 



279 

the Fatb Burj. That in the centre of 
the E. side is the Hanmniin Burj, and 
the 3 baatioiiB on the S. side, from W. 
to E,, are the Slnsani, the B^ar, and 
the Noal Burj. N, of the Kamara 
Palace is the Court of Jnstice, the 
Jewel Office, and the Jail. On the 
road between the Chau Burj gate of 
the inner fort and the Anan gate of 
the outer fort are the Qaug& kl 
Mandi, a market-place, the new 
mosque, and the Lakh^hmanjl temple. 
TLe hospital is 3,9G0 ft. outside, and 
8.W. of the Anah gate. The pftk 
Bangli is 2,772 ft. N.E. of the 
MathurA gate. The outer wall has 
Teiy swampy ground about it, and 
might be rendered inaccessible by 
inundating the country. In driring 
round the fort, it is more than pro- 
bable that the visitor will meet a wild 
boar, aa wild hog are veiy numerous, 
and Tery large and fierce, and other 
game is very plentiful, as the Rftji baa 
ertenaive preserres. It is forbidden 
to shoot HilgW. To the W. of the 
city is tbe parade-ground, and the 
BAj& is akiltul in eierdeang his troops. 
" ■ ■ ■ ' "" ride 



db,Googlc 



Jioule 35, -^BlMrtpUr to Agra, 



Sect. II. 



HOUTE 36. 

BHABTPliB TO AOBi. 



^isla ]gt clui, ( laiM 2nd clasg, u 
] t tula bum lUtion tu ataUon. 



The statical for Agtaialjm. from the 
p^k Bangli at Bhortpiir. Ackneyra 
\» agood-Bizcdionri, and there, in Jane, 
1867, the mutineers of Na^r&b&d 
enconnteTed a force of 3,000 men, 
sent bf the R&ji of Alwar to stop 
their advance, hut Chimman, the 
Generalof the Alwar force, fmtemiBed 
with the mutineers, and indnoed the 
other Bard&ra to enter into a parle; 
with the officer commanding the 
~ "' — s, who put them all t« death, 









the 



9, and then marched to Agra. 
Agra ib the 2iid city in aize and 
importance of the N.w, Provinces, 
and has a pop. of 149/X>8. It ia S41 
ra. distant from Calcutta b; rail, and 
139 m. from Dihli. It stands on the 
W. or right bank of the JamnA, which 
here makes a bend, and tnma off at 
an obtnse angle to the E. The Fort is 
in the centre of this bend, and close 
npon the bank. The old city covered 
about II sq. m., half of which area is 
still inhabited. The cantonment lies 
to the 8. of the Fort, Mid between 
them on the river bank is the famous 
Tij. The civil station Ues N.W. of 
the Fort, and between it and the river 
is the native city — " better built," says 
the Imperutl Oatetteer, "than anj 
other town in tbe N.W. Provinces." 



Hutory. — Several etymologies have 
been offraed for the word Agrah, auch 
as A'gar, a ssjt-pan, and agar, a race, 
of which traces are found near Dihil 
and in M^wa ; but it ia perhitpa a 
shortoued form of AgTAh&r, a BrAhinan 
village, In an interesting paper by Mr. 
Carlleyle, As. ArchKolog. Borvey, 
in the 4th vol. of Conningbam's 
" Beports," reference is made to the 
fact that more than 3,000 silver coins 
were dng up at Agra in 1869, ia- 
Bcribed with the woi^ Bhri Oubila in 
an ancient western form of the Sans- 
krit character. These coins may have 
been issued by the founder of the 
Qehlot dynasty of Mewir, In A.D. 
750 ; bnt on account of the aatiqnity 
of the character, they may more pro- 
bably be ascribed to an earlier prince, 
the first of the Oehlot or Uisodia 
branch of the expelled dynasty of 
Baurashtra, who reigned in tbe 4th or 
5th century of the Christian era. 
Further on the r. b. of the river, 3 m. 
above tbe Fort, there is a place called 
the Garden and Palace of Bflj4 Bhoj, 
who may he the Bboj of M41wa of the 
5th to 6th century, or the socceseor of 
Quhila the Gehlot. But Mr. CarUeyle 
aapposes that the old Hindi! city ot 
Agra was situated 10 ra. S. of the 
present town. Be this as it may, 
nothing certain isknown of Agra before 
the Mubammadan period, Tbehonseof 
Lodl was the first Mu^ammadaa 
dynasty which chose Agra for an oo- 
casional residence. BefOTe their time 
Agra was B district of BiAna. Sifcandar 
"In Bahlol Lodi died at Agra in 1615 
.D., but was buried at Dihli. Sikan- 
dar Lodi built the BiLradari Palace, 
Sikandra, which suburb received 
ame from him. The Lodi K^Aa 
k& Tila, OT Lodf's Monnd, is now built 
over with modem houses ; it is said to 
be the site of the palace of the Lodls, 
called B&dalgarh. IbrAhlm Lodi, son 
of Sikandar, resided at Agra, but was 
defeated and killed there by B&bar, 
April 21, 162S. B&bar is said to have 
had a garden-palace on the E, bank of 
ttie JamnA, nearly opposite the T^, and 
there ia a mosque near the spot, with 
an inscription which shows that it 
was bnilt by BAbar's son Hum&ytin, in 



Sect 11/ 



■ SottR 35. — Agra, 



1630 A.D. Bat2m.B.o{tbeBialwa]' 
Station, and the tomb of Ftimida 'd 
Daolah, on the 'AUgarh Boad, there a 
slai^ village called Jfrnihai, wbicli is 
traditionally reputed to be the site of 
an older dly of .^ra ; and 1 m, doe 
8, is the site ol an ancient palace 
culled Ach&nak Bi.f^ An aiea of 
724 ft. by 706 ft. was here waJled in, 
with a tower at each comer and a 
palace at the centre of the riTer-fron- 
tage, whii^ seemB to have been in- 
habited by a princess about the time 
of B6bar. But there is another place, 
called the Z&hara Bllth, also on the 
L b., where B&bor is said to have 
bnilt a garden-palace for one of his 
daughters. It lies lietween the K4m 
B&ik and the Chlnl ka Bofsh. The 
palace was a qoadraogle of 142 ft. x 
133 ft. ; an avenue 900 ft. long leads 
from the road to the palace, It is said 
to be named after B4bar's daughter. 

There is, however, another gaiden 
of the same name on the Agra 
aide of the river near the Buracks : 
Uiese are the Lai^est remains of an 
ancient garden anywhere near Agra, 
beinic 3810 ft. long, and 206* ft. broad. 
There is a well here at which 62 
people could draw water at once— a 
well which lathe wonder of Agro. This 
is said to have been constructed by 
B4bar for hia daughter, bnt Mr. Carl- 
leyle thinto it wai the place where 
Akbar encamped when he first come 
to Agra. Th^ is a building in the 
garden which is the shrine of Kam&l 
KhAn. 40 ft. long, and rectangolar ; 
the outer longitudinal half being 
solid wall, while the inner half is 
divided into 3 compartments, entered 
b^ arches between red sandstone 

ElllaiB with square shafts and Hindil 
racket capitals. Broad eaves of red 
sandstone project from above the 
etttablatares, and are supported by 
beautiful openwork biacketa of a 
thoroughly Hindd character, beii^ 
composed of 2 horicontol stone bars, 
the spaces between which are filled 
Dp by a goose, then by an elephant, 
alteraately. The great well, the most 
stnpendooH about Agra, is at the back 
of Kam&l Kbit's shrine ; it is 220 ft. 
in circumference, with a 16-sided 



exterior, each side measuring 13 ft. 
« ih. The waU of the well is B ft. 7 in. 
thick. On looking over the brink the 
water appears at an awful depth. 
From such great works it appears that 
Agra was the seat of govenmient 
under B&t>ar and Hnmiytin, though 
after Humiyiln'arestoration he redded 
ErequenUy at Dihll, and died and was 
buried there. Agra was probably 
then on the 1. bank. Akbor removed 
from Fat^pAr SikrI to Agra about 
IMS A.D., and built the fort in IGTl 
A.D., or, accordii^ to the " Imp. Qsz.," 
in 166S. The only buildings that can 
now be attributed to Akbar himself 
are the walls and the Hagacine to the 
N. of the Water-gate, once Akbar's 
audience-hall, He died at Agra in 
1606. JahAqglr left Agra in 1618, 
and never returned. BhAh Jah&n re- 
sided at Agra from 1632 to 1637, and 
built the I'earl Mosque, the Cathedral 
Moaque, and the T&j. He was deposed 
by Anrangzlb in 165S, hut lived as a 
State prisoner 7 years lotiger there. 
Aurangzlb removed the seat of govern- 
mentpermauently toDihll. Inl764,it 
was taken by Siiiaj Mall, of Bhartpilr 
and Sumroo ; in 1770 the Mar&thas 
captured it, and were expelled by 
Najaf Kh4n in 1774. In 1784 Mu- 
hammad Beg was Governor of Agra, 
and was besieged by Mahfidaji Sindhia, 
who took it in 178T, and the Mar^fhas 
held it till it was token by Lord Lake, 
Oct 17, 1803. Since then it has 
been a British possession. In 1835 
the seat of government of the N.W. 
Provinces was removed to it from 
AMhibid. On the 30th May, 1861), 
two companies of the 40th and 67th 
N. I., who had been sent to Mathurd 
to bring the treaaare there into Agra, 
mutinied and inarched oS to DihlL Next 
morning their comrades were ordered 
to pile arms, which they did, and moat 
of them went fai their homes. On the 
3rd July, Hr. Colvin, Lt.-Governor of 
A^ra, was so dangerously ill that he 
made over the government to a 
council of admioiatration. On the 
4th the Eotah contingent mntinied, 
and went ofE to join the Ntmach 
mutineers, consisting of the 4th Troop 
Ist Brigade H. A., known as Hnrray- 



HouU 3C. — ShartpiSr to Agra. 



283 

Mackenzie'B troop, the 72Dd N. L, 
the Tth Ow&li&r Contingent, tlie let 
Native Cariilt?, and 4 troops of the 
MahidplliT Horse, Their camp was at 
2 m. from the Agra cantonment at 
Suchftta. On Jnlj 6tli, Brigadier 
Polwhele moyed out witli 816 men to 
attack them. The liattle b^an with 
artillery, hot the enemj were so well 
posted, Bheltered by low trees and 
walls and nataral earthworks, that the 
British flied into them with little 
damage. Captain D'Oyley, who 
commanded the Artillery, had hia 
horse shot nnder him, and was then 
mortally wonnded by grape-ahot. 
Lieat. Lamb wag also dangerODsly 
wounded, and carried off the field. 
At i P.M. the ammtmition was ex- 
pended, and the guns ceased to fire ; 
then Col. Riddell adranced with the 
English soldiers, and captured the 
Tillage of Sh&hganj, bnt with anch 
heavy toss that they were nnable to 
hold their groond. The British Ar- 
tillery were so disabled that they conld 
not go to assist the Infantrv. The 
Vol. Cavalry nambered 60. When the 
enemj'8 csvalry charged io a dense 
mass to capture the British guns, this 
small body of Volunteers galloped 
forwards, bnt soon had 7 killed, among 
whom was M. Jourdan, the chief of a 
wandering circos from France. The 
order for reti«at was then given. The 
enemy put^ned with great vigour ; 20 
Christians were murdered, the canton- 
ments were burnt, the records were 
destroyed, and the conflagration raged 
from the civil lines on the right 
to the "SifiiitA i Ghilii on the left. 
It was a memorable night, bnt chiefly 
memorable for the deep devotion 
with which the gentlewomen of Agra 
miniBtered to the wants of the wonnded 
and exhausted soldiels. 

There were now 6,000 
and childien, of whom only 1,500 
were Hindils and Mntfammadans, 
shut up in the Fort of Ajn^ Among 
these were nuna from the banks of the 
Garonne and the Loire, priests from 
Sicily and Some, loissionanes from Ohio 
and BmIc, mixed with rope-danoera 
from Paris and pedlers from America. 
Polwhele now made Fiaoer second in 



Secst. n. 



command, and the fort was pat in ft 
thorough state of defence. Soon after 
Brigadier Polwhele was Buperseded, 
and Col, Cotton took his place. On 
the 20th of August he sent oat bis 
Brig.-Haj or Montgomery, withasmall 
column, and on the 24Ui Montgomery 
defeated the rebels at Jfl^arti, and 
took the place. On the 9th Sept. Mr. 
Colvin died. The mnttneeis, after 
their anccessful engagement, marched 
on to Dihli, hut after the fal] of that 
city in Sept., the fugitive rebels, to- 
gether with those of Central India, 
advanced, on Oct. Sth, against Agra, 
Ueantime CoL Greathed's colnmn en- 
tered the city without their knowledge, 
and when they, unsospicions of hia 



presence, attacked the place, they w 
completely routed and diapersed. A_ 
was thna relieved from all danger, aild 



the beginning of 18S8, Br^. lowers, 
who had been appointed t« eomnnuid 
dlMrict, sorplsed the rebels at 
hru and captured their rii^leaden. 
he end of Jan., 1858, Captain R.J, 
Heade had formed a raiment <d 
cavalry, which became famous ba 
their aerrices. On theSnd June, 1868, 
the Mah4r4j& Sindhia entered Agnt as 
a fagitive, having been defeated and 
driven from his capital by Tantia 
Topi. On the night of the 19th June, 
Sir Hogh Bose retook GwUi&r, with 
the loss of 87 killed and wounded. On 
the morning of the 2Qth, Lient. Sose, 
of the 26th Bombay N. L, and Lient. 
Waller, of the same regt., with a 
small body of their men, captured the 
strong citadel of GwAlikr, bnt Lieat. 
Rose was killed in the moment of bin . 
splendid victoiy, on the newa of 
which Bindhia retutned to his capital. 
In Feb., 1858 the government m tbe 
N. W. ProTinces was removed to Alld- 
li4b&d, which was considered a supe- 
rior military position. "Since that 
time," says the Qasettetr, "Agra has 
become, for administrative purposes, 
merelytbe head-quwters of a divlsioii 
and district, bnt the ancient capital 
still maintains its nataral aupremacy as 
the flneat city of Cpper India, while 
the development of the railway Byn> 



Sect.IL 



RouU Z5.—Affra: the Tdj MahalL 



' the commeTCUl inetropolia of the 
north- wart." 

OmbmninK.— The Biik Bsi^Ii, oi 
T. B., is at the N. end at Dmrnmond 
Soad, on the W. aide of it, while the 
Clab and Post Office sre on the r. 
The ^Bdr Bizix ia at the S. end of 
Dnmnnond Road, with the Chnrch on 
the W. and the Farade-fn''>iind on the 
B.W. The pUcei jnat mentioned are 
»bont 1 m. to the S.W. of the Fort. 
The E. L Railway Station of the 
bnmch lino which goes from Agra to 
TnndlA 19 a little more than J m. to 
the N. l^ E. of the Fort on the oppo- 
site, or L bank of the Jamn^ which the 
line crossea by a bridge. There is an 
hotel close to the lailway station, and 
S. of it. Thete ii another hotel two- 
thirds of a m. to the S.8.E. of the 
Frat, a few yaids W. of HaatingB 
Brad, and aoont a third of a m. 
K. of the Agra Bonk. It will be 
best for the traveUer to get elected, 
throagh some friend, a member of 
the cTnb, where he will be very 
forlable. Hon. members will be 
charged 1 r. a daj up to fi dajs, 
when the month's subscription of 
6 TB. and no more wUl be charged. 
A caudidRte ma«t be proposed by one 
member and seconded by another, but 
gentlemen passing through ^th, and 
invited by the Committee to be 
honoiarj members, are exempt from 
a subscription. Honorary mem 
ben can be introduced on the proposi 
tion of a member, mads to and endorsed 
by S members of the committee, for 
period of 2 months. The ptopoeer 
IS held responsible fur pByiuent 
cj bills incurred by the honorary 
member. For the conTcnience of 
honorary membets, their bills 
delirer^ every Wednegday, bat if 
tbey intend to leave on any inter- 
mediate day, they must give dne 

naT^ MahaiL—AB the T&j is the 
most beantifnl building in India, per- 
haps in the world, and cannot be seen 
too often, the flist thing the traveller 
should do after locating himself is ' 
pay It a visit, A good road leads to 
mode in the famine of 183S. It stands 
on the brink of the JomnA, 



banka1ittlemorothanam.8.B.E.ofthe 
Fort. And here it may be said that 
to those who come from TundlA, the 
first view of the Tij is disappointing. 
From fmidli one comes suddenly on 
Agra, the approach to which is bad. 
The TAj is seen on the L to great 
disadvantage, «s it stands low, and the 
railway is about 1 8 ft. above the level 
of the ground on which it stands, so 
that its symmetry is impaired. But in 
coming by the road ma^ in the famine 
of 1SS8, there is nothing^to diminish 
the pleasnre of the first view. It msy 
be premised that this Mansoleom was 
commenced in a.h. 1040, or a.d. IBSO, 
by the Emperor Sb&h Jah&n, as a 
tomb for his favourite queen, Aiimand 
B^d, entitled Mumt&z Hah^, lit. 
the " Chosen of the Palace," or, more 
freeIy,"PrideofthePalace." Sbewas 
the daughter of Sial Eh&n, brother of 
Nilrjah^, the famous empress-wife of 
JahAnglT. Their father was Hli»L 
Ghiytj,aFersian.who came from^ehrin 
se^ his fortune (n India, and rose 
power under the title of ItimAda 'd 
daulah. Mumt&ziMahallmarriedSh&h 
Jab&nin 1616A.D,, hadby him7child< 
ren, and died in childbed of the 8th in 
1629, at Barh&npdr, in the Dokhan. 
Her body was brought to Agra, and 
laid in the gaiden where the T4i 
stands nntil the Mausoleum was built. 
The T&j cost, occoiding to some ac- 
counts, 1,84,65,186 rs., and, according 
to other accounts, 3,17,48,026 is. It 
took upwards of 17 yeais to bnild, and 
much of the materials and labour re- 
mained unpaid. According to ShAh 
Jah&n's own memoirs, the masons re- 
ceived only 30 Ukhs. There were 
originally 2 sUver doors at the entrance, 
but these were taken away and melted 
by SAraj Hall and his J&ts. It is un- 
certain who was the principal archi- 
tect, bnt Anstin de Bordeaux was then 
in the Emperor's service, and his por- 
trait was on the back of the throne in 
Sh^h Jahfln'B palace at Sihll. He was 
buried at Agra, and it ia probable tbat 
he l«ok part In the construction, and 
especially in the inlaid work, of the 
Mausoleum. 

By the road which has been men- 
tioned the traveller will arrive at the 



Jlottle 35. — BhartpSr to Agra. 



Sect. II. . 



TAj Ganj or S, gate, which opens into 
an onUr conrt 880 ft. wide and 440 ft. 
deep, la the centre of ita inner wall 
ii the great gateway of the garden- 
cooTt, which Hr. Fergnsson colls " a 
worthy pendant to the Ti] itaelf." It 
is, indeed, a snperb gateway of red 
B^ndatone, inlaid with omamenta and 
inscriptiona from the Kor'^n, iit white 
marble, and Bnrmonntod by 36 white 
marble cupolas. Before passing under 
the gateway, ohaerre the nohlc i 
vanserai outside, and an equally fine 
building on the other eide. Accotdinc 
to the "Indian Trayellec'a Handbook, 
pnblished in Calcutta in 1S73, the prin- 
cipal gateway ia 140 ft. high by 110 ft. 
wide ; andBayaTdTaylorsays"t1iatit 
is not BO lai^e as that ol Aklrai's tomb, 
but quite as beautiful in deaini.'' The 
remark about the height is incorrect, 
for, as will be seen hereafter, the gate- 
way at Bikandra is not 100ft. high, 
reclconing to the top of the turrets, and 
tbisgatewayattheT^j is higher. Bayaid 
Taylor says : " Whatever may be the 
visitor's impatience, he cannot help 
pausing to notice the fine proportions 
of these Btructuiea, and the rich and 



style of their 
This is perfectly true, bnt neither he 
nor anyone else does complete instice 
to the magnificence of these bmldings 
and the gateway. These objects are 
not only admirably beautiful, but 
while they intensify the impatience of 
the viutor to see the Mausoleum, of 
which the screen ia so extraordinarily 
grand, they increase the glories of the 
Hausoleum Itself, by the contrast of 
the somewhat stem red sandstone, 
with the soft and pearl-Uke white 
marble of the T&j iteeU. 

Havi n^ passed the gate way , the visitor 
finds himself in a garden 880 fL sq. — 
a garden the lite of which docs not 
exist in Asia. In the centre ia a 
stream of living wat«r, clear as 
crystal, which nms the whole length 
of the igaiden, and has 23 fountains 
in its couise. !t would be 880 ft. 
long but that a central platform of 
white marble, with 6 fountains, inter- 
venes. This, including its SQrround- 
ii^, is a little more than 12G ft. sq., 
so that the total length of the stream 



ia T5G ft. The garden ia divided into 
16 separate parterres, or smaller 
gaidens, divided by walks and by 
the watercooises, which cross one 
another at right angles, so as to make 
4 divisions of 4 parterres each.* The 
beds of the garden are filled with the 
choicest shrubs and cypress trees, 
equal in size and beauty to those of 
Mozandarun. The eye, after passinfr 
from the glare ontaide to the astonish- 
ing freshness and verdnre of this 
gaiden, finds unspeakable relief and 
pleasure. ItisnowthattheMansolenm 
presents itself to the gaze in all its 
glory. It stands upon a platform, faced 
with white marble; eiactly 313 ft. 
sq. and 18 ft high, — Hodgson says 
314 ft. G'18 in. The visitor vrill ascend 
20 steps to the top of the Chabdtarah, 
or "platform," Bud here on entering 
the building, if the visitor, or any one 

. who accompanies him, has a musical 
voice, he will find that Echo will 

, repeat his warble in a tone surpassing 
his own ; but Echo is a aeiaph here, 
and win not respond haimonionsly 
to loud coarse shouts, or to compli- 
cated singing. At each comer of the 
terrace stands a white minaret, 133 ft. 
high, and, says Mr. Fergusson, " of the 
most eiquisite proportions^- more 
beautiful, perhaps, than anv other in 
India. In the centre of this marble 
platform stands the Mausoleum, a sq. 
of 186 ft., with the comers cut off to 
the extent of 33i ft. The principal 
dome is 68 ft. in diameter, and SO ft. 
in height, under which is an incloeore 
of trellis-work of white marble, » 
eh^-d'iBimTe ist elegance in Indian 

The following measurementa were 
furnished by the engineer employed 
in repairing the T4j, before the Prince 
of Wales' visit ; — Height of red sand' 
stone platform above the gaiden is 
6 ft. Height of the upper platform 
above the red platform la 17 ft. 8 in. 
Eaght of the minarets above the 

•InthcTth volmneof tho"JoiiriLof tbe 
Roj. As. Boc." publtghed Id 1843, will be 
fonnd B pUn uf tbe TiJ, Its rardan uid tomb, 
by Col. 3. A. HodgBon, B.N^., rormnly Bur- 



BoiiUZ5.—Affrai the Tdj Mahall. 



be^ht of the 1st sbaij to floor of Ist 
balcony, 83 ft. 9 in.; floor of Ist 
balcony to floor of 2nd, 35 ft. 3 in, ; 
and from 2nd to 3rd, 39 ft. The top 
portion, or the Chattrl, is 16 ft. 6 in. 
to base of small dome. Dome and 
pinnacle, 11 ft. 6 in. The thickness of 
tbe wall of the Min^ at base is 3 ft. 

5 in. The MinAr is bound by a, spiral 
GtaircBse, the steps of which are let 
into the wall. The plinth of the 
building, abore the platform, ia 3 ft. 

6 in., aad is the floor-level of the aich- 
ivay. From that Qoor to the apex of 
the arch is 63 ft. Apex of the arch 
at top of the main parapet is 24! ft. 
6 in. ; thence to the base of the 
pinnacle is 98 ft. i in. The pinnacle 
is 30 ft. 6 in., and ig copper gilt. 
From the bottom of the lowest plat- 
form to the top of the pinnacle, not 
inclnding the red platform, ia 239 ft. 
6 in. The total from the garden-level 
is 21G ft. e in. The platform from 
ibe ontside of one minaret to the 
ontside of the other, from E. to W., 
in the S. face measures 327 ft. 9 in. 

When the Tdj waa repaired, before 
the Prince of Wales' visit, it waa 
estimated that to put the centre build- 
ing of the Mausoleum in thorough 
repair — restoring and inlaying the 
marble, pointing and xooflng— would 
cost lOfiOO IS. The dome is brick 
veneered with . marble, and all the 
slabs with which it is faced were 
examined, and those that required it 
were repointed. The marble was 
damaged chiefly by the swelling of 
tbe iron clamps, during oxidation. 
The iron thus increased from I in. 
to IJ in. The total actoal outlay 
was 46,983 m It waa fortunate that 
the repaiiB were made, bb but for this, 
the wliole marble facing of the roof 
would have been destroyed by the 
swelling ot the iron. It wonld cost 
17^000 rs. to completely restore the 
entrance arch. To repair the Mosque 
at the W. mde would cost 26,000 i^, 
and the Moiqae at the S. side 26,000 
to 27,000 IS. The Indiana were mucb 



285 

pleased at the repaiis done to the T&j, 
which to them is a great place ot resort. 
There are two wings to tbe 
Mausoleum, both of which aie 
Mosques wliich anywhere else would 
be considered important buildings. 
They resemble the Mangoleiiiu, eicept 
in being smaUcr. "In eveiy angle of 
the Mausoleum is a small domical 
apartment, 2 stories high, and 26 ft. 
8 in. in diameter, and these are con- 
nected by various passages and balls. 
Under the centre ol the dome are the 
tombs of MnntAz i Majfoll and Sh&h 
Jah^. These are the show tombs, 
but the real ones are in a vault below, 
exactly nnder the others. You des- 
cend to the real tombs by a pt^shed 
slope, which is so slippery as to be 
almost dangerous. In the apartment 
above, where tbe show tombs are, 
the light," says Mr. Feigcsson, "is 
admitted only through double screens 
of white marble trellis work of the 
most exquisite design, one on the 
outer and one on the inner face of tbe 
walls. In onr climate this would 

Eioduce nearly complete darkness ; 
at in India, aiid in a building whoUy 
com.posed of white marble, this was 
required to temper the glare that 
otherwise would nave been intolerable. 
As it is, no words can express the 
chastened beauty of that central 
chamber, seen in the soft gloom of 
the subdued light that reaches it 
through tbe distant and half closed 
openings that surround it. When 
used as a B&rah Dari, or pleasure 
palace, it must always have been the 
coolest and the loveliest ot garden 
' ' " ' now that it is sacred to the 
le most graceful and the 
most impressive of sepulchres in the 
world." (See "Hist of Arch.," p. 
698). There are 3 inscriptions; 10l6 
A.H.=1636 A.D., 1048 A.,H.i=ieSe A.D„ 
and 1057 A.H.>c^l647 A.D. Mr. Eeene, 
whohas given an excelWt account ot 
the Til], thinks that "tbe inscriptions 
show the Older in which tbe varioos 
parts of the building were completed." 
Such then is this "poem in marble," 
whose beauty has been faintly 
shadowed ont, but words altt^ther 
fail to describe its surpassing loveliness. 



Sovle 35. — Bltarljtflr to Agra. 



Sect. II. 



It ahoald be seen if posaiUebj moon- 
light, aa well hb b7 daj, and in dark 
nights the garden Bhoald be lifted 
up artificially. Here, indeed, tbe 
electric light woold do more service 
tlian anywhere else In the world, and 
fartanate would those be, who should 
he piesent at its exhibition. The S. 
face, which looks upon the goiden, is 
perluipa tbe moat beantifnl, but the N. 
front, which rises above the Jonin^, 
derives an'i additional chknu from the 
broad waters which roll past it. 

The -Hirt.— "Moat of the magnifi- 
cent Mnehul buildings, which render 
Agra so mteresting in the eye of the 
traveller, are Bituated within the 
Fort. They justify the criticism that 
the Mn^ols designed like Xitana and 
finished like jewellers." The fort is 
about i a m. long from N. to S. and J 
of a mile broad fwm E. to W. It 
Btanda on the left or W. bank of tbe 
Jamnil, and somewhat more than 1 a 
m. to the 6. of the E. I. ^Railway 
Bridge.* The walls and flanking 
defences are of red a&ndstone, and 
have an imposing appearance, being 
Dcarlf 70 ft. high. The ditch is 30 ft 

■ The Agi» Jamni bridge ooniiata 
BpABi dT 14! ft. between ceutree of piers, ind 
i short eptne on the W. bank, to eonnor* "■ - 



a broad go&ge. The ro&dwa; le ItifL wide, 



pended below uia m&ln (^ideifl, mud attach 
by ande-lron side plena, which pattJy p- 
fhmi vie offlcB of stumpe to tha snu glidi 
BT niadwar >a tanMi on ema ^rdt 

ted on the msin gliders 

_„ -J brwjkete. The teste 



TtM upper niadwar la earc. 
2U ft. lane, eopported o 
and strengthened by bn 






In India, I 



pertisps the beat mannlketuTed 

were nude by Hie Patent Axle-tree Compsiiy. 
The ronndsUone of the plan are on wella or 
12( fC diameter. S wella la each plsr. T1 
average depth of IJie wella la 64 ft. A pla 
fono of red undatone la placed over we 
wella, and on that platform tbe pier Is bull 
The atofe of the plera la ^m a quarry . 
' " " — " af Agra, and la eijltallli 



wide andSS ft. deep. Theenliancelabj 

the Diblf Gate, and crosses the ditch. 
Thero are 2 turnings, at right angles, 
the first commaodcd by 2 cannoas, 
bat it is said that the walls wonld not 
stand the concussion of firing heavj 
guns. The slope of the road ia still 
steep, though it has been improved. A 
seccmd archway is called the H&tliiya 
Darivaxah, " Elephant Gale." There 
□Bed to be 2 figures of elephants here, 
brought from Chitflr ; one was called 
Patta and the other Jaimsll, afl«r two 
famous Bijpdt champions, Aotangsib 
mutilated Uiem. Thero aro here 2 
octagonal towers of red sandstone, in- 
laid with white marble. The passage 
between these is covered by, 2 domes. 

The traveller will then pass tbe 
Mini B4zAr and enter the grand 
square, the Place dn Carrousel of Agra, 
with the Diw^ i 'Am on the left. 
The beauty of l^s magnificent square 
has been woefully marred by boilding 
a hideous low laboratory, on the aida 
on which is the Dlw^ i 'Am, and on 
the other side a strong iron roiling to 
protect the stores. Before entering tbe 
Diw&n i 'Am, notice a laige brass gun 
called tbe Dholpiir gun, which waa 
taken from the mntineers. There are 
raogea of cannons here and large 
moriors, and beyond the brass gun the 
tomb of Mr. Colvin, which is not taste- 
ful. Some have thought the Dlw&n i 
'Am waa built by ilbar, others by 
Jah&ngir, but according to CarUeyle 
it was built bj ShAh Jah&n and waa 
his public Hall of Audience. This 
building is 6G0 ft long from N to S. 
and 420 ft. broad from B. to W. There 
of 36 pillsjs each, 2 and 2. 
Along the walls are grilles, Quongh 
which fair faces look^ on when ShAh 
Jahdu eat to see his courtiers display 
feats of horsemanship. AH tbesi 



grey SB 



ling. The bridge 



eioellent 



greateit flood at A^ waa In Anguat. 



pillar 



e covered with whitewa^ 



until the expected visit of tbe Prince 
of Wales, when Uiey were washed and 
restored to their original state. It 
was " originally an open building, of 
red sandstone, and resting on a double 
series of sq. pillars, sliding on sq, 
bases, higher than their breadth, and 
bevilled o2 at tbe top cornets. 
Engrailed arches, so characteristic of 



Sowte m,—-Agra : the Moti M<ujid, 



287 



ShAh Jsh&n'B time, liae from and 
between the [nUars, ai)d moat have 
given a light appearance to the boild- 
ioK ; bat the British anthoritiea have 
fil^ up the spaces between the out«i 
Tuige of pillarB with brickworlc, and 
covered the whole, both inside audout- 
Bide, with whitewash. The back or E. 
Bide of the Diwilii i 'Am ia formed into 
a beautiful 2-Btoried colonnade ; and 
from each end of the building a long 
colonnade extends on each side, that is 
on the N. and S. tidex, mniiing from 
E. to W., thus farming a giand colon- 
nade court. Beyond the E. end lieB 
the grand raised terrace, with a black 
marble throne in its mid-front, over- 
looking the great quadrangle, facing 
the Dlw4u i 'Am. Close to the W. end 
of theDiw^ni 'Am, is a beautiful little 
3-domcd mosque of white marble, 
called the Naglnah Maajid or 'Gem 
Mosque.' It was the private mosque 
of the ro;al ladies of Van coort. "Ihis 
gem is as tantalizing as beautiful, for 
it is built up on all aides and cannot 
be got at except bj scaling the walls. 
It was built by Sh&h Jahdn for the use 
t£ his ladies. 

The Metl Matjid, the " Pearl 
Mosque," is situated to the N.W. of 
the palace and other buildiags 
Sh4h Jah4n, near the present Oidnance 
Department and S, of the gieat 
Dlw&n i 'Am. The building of this 
Mcaqne was commenoed ajl 1066= 
Ajx 164S, and was finished A.H. 1063 
= A.D. 16SS, and is said to hare cost 
300,000 rs. It is 23* ft. 3 ia long from 
E. to W. and 187 ft. 8 in. broad 
from N. to 8., minns the projectiona 
the toweis, the gateway and the 1 
apae. On the entablature over t 
front row of supporting figures, on the 
S. face, on the W. covwed in part, 
there is an inscription running the 
whole length, the letters being of black 
marble, inlaid into the white. The 
inscription says that the Hoaque may 
be likened to a precious pearl, for no 
other mosque is lined tiu^^ughoat with 
marble like this. It was built by 
Abfl'i Untaffar Shohibn'd din Muham- 
mad $&))ib Kii&n ^iJli Shih Jah&n. 
The date above-mentioned is here 
given. Being bnilt on sloping ground 



the basement decreases in height 
towards the V. end, where the upper 
story comes to be on a level vrith the 
suifooe of the ground. At the back 
towoida the W. the exterior is faced 
with slabs of red sandstone, bnt the 
Mosque is inwardly veneered with 
marble, white, blue, and grey veined, 
and this piut is -really beautiful. 
' The walls of the upper story, which 
I the real mosque, are only 3 ft. 6 in. 
) 1 ft. in tliickness, including the outer 
casing of red sandstone, the central 
lore of brickwork, and the inside 
ining of marble. The gateway, which 
M very fine, makes a trihedral proiec- 
ion from tha centre of the E. end of 
the Mosque, and the ascent to the gate- 
hv a broad and high flight of 
There is an oct^onal tower at 
eotji of the 1 comers of the build' 
ing, of which 5 sides are visible in 
projection from the walls, extemallf, 
eacn side measuring 1 ft. 6J in., ami 
SO ft. to the E. there is a 3-sided por- 
tion of a tower, and it marks the 
commencement of the raised platform 
of the W. part nsed for worship. The 
■ jr of the gateway ia of rod sand- 
, bnt the interior of the passage 
through the gateway, sides, ceilmg and 
floor, is entirely lined with white 
marble. The gateway widens out in 
the centre into a veBtibolo IB ft. sq., 
with a domed ceiling. At each side of 
this vestibule there is a wing com- 
posed of a raised platform and a blind 
arch. Each platform islOft8in.broad, 
by 6 ft. 2 in, deep. In the centre of the 
N. artd S. sides Is a lieautifnl white 
marble aichway. 

In the centre of the conrt there 
is a marble tank, 37 ft. 7 in. sq., 
for ablations, and between the 
e.E. comer of the tank and the S.K. 
inner comer of the Mosque there is 
an ancient sun-dial, consiating of an 
octagonal marble pillar 4 fL high, 
with no gnomon, but simply 2 crossed 
lines and an arc. A marble cloister, 
10 ft. 10 in, vride, mnaronnd the E., N. 
and S. sides of the conrt, which Is ia- 
termpted by the gateway and side 
arches. The cloisters contain 5ti 
Blender pillars, with 12-sided shafts, 
OD sq. bases, but at the N,G. and 8.E 



BotUe 35. — BliOTtp^r lo Agra. 



eomeH the pillar is quadruple, 
posed of i pillars joined back to lock. 
The W. part ot the Hoaque, where thej 
Korehipped, is 1*8 ft. 10 in. loag x 6S ft. 
broad, containing 18 maedTs pillaiBof 
reined marble in S rows, and 14J plL 
lars in the back of bine and gre^' 
veined white marble, and the whole is 
ionnonnted by 3-wliite marble domeS; 
the central being the largest The 
marble lining on theintemal sides and 
back of this colonnade is dirided into 
panels, with senlptiired devices 
the centre representing groups and 
wreaths, and bonquet^ of flowers, of 
most exquisite workmanship. From a 
email doorway and passage, which 
goes oS on either side, just inside the 
great arch of the gateway, a flight of 
steps leads to the top of the gateway, 
and thence to the roof of the aide 
cloisters. From these steps passages 
lead oflf to balconies, 2 on either 
side of the gateway, one above the 

In the Mosque itself there is a door 
each W. end ot the aide cloisters, leading 
Into B long passage, at each side of the 
place of worship. From each of these 
passages, 3 doorways look into each 
end of the W. pillu«d compartment. 
The central doorway is open, hut the 
others ate filled up with screens of 
beautiful perforated white marble 
lattice-work, of exquisite patterns." 
(See Carlleyle's Report, voL iv. Arch. 
Sorv.) Ascend now some staits, 
the back of the place where the 
Emperor sat in the DiwAn i 'Am, and 

SkSB through a doorway into the 
achchi Bhawan or '-Fish Square." 
A corridor runs all round, except on 
the side which fronts the Jamn^ 
where there is an open terrace, with a 
black throne, on the side nearest the 
rivar, with a white seat opposite, where 
it is said the Court of Justice sat. 
The black throne has a long fissure, 
wtnch is said to have appeared when 
the throne was nsarped by the Jit 
chief. This throne is 10 ft. 7^ in. long, 
9 ft. 10 in. broad and 6 in. thick. The 
octagonal pedestals which support it 
are 1 ft. i in. high. There is a reddish 
stain is one spot, which shows a combi- 
nation of iron, but the Indians pretend 



Sect. IL 

that it is blood. An inscription mug 
ronnd the i sides, which says in brief, 
when Sallm became heir to the crown 
his name was changed to Jah&ngblr, 
and for the light of his justice he was 
called Nura 'd din. His sword cut 
his enemies* heads Into two halves like 
the Gemini. As long as the heaven is 
the throne for the sun, may the throne 
of Ballm remain. Date 1011 A.H. 
On leaving the DlwAn i 'A'm, tbe 
Emperor walked along the cor- 
ridor to the opposite side, where 
there is a beantifnl pavilion <f 
white marble with a cnpolo, said to be 
the work of ItAlian aridsta. A fow 
years ago this pavilion was lying in 
fragments all over the Square, but has 
now been pnt t<^ther and restoKd. 
It is beaatiful, bat fades into insigni- 
cance compared with the — 

IHrnin i ^h&f, at the end, and the 
rooms beyond, close to the river. 
The Slw&n i Ehilf is a miracle (d 
beaaty. The carving is exquisite, and 
flowers are inlaid on the white marble, 
red cornelian, and other precious 
stones. From this building, or from 
his throne on the terrace, the Emperor 
looked over the broad river to the 
beautiful gardens and buildings on 
the opposite shore. The length of the 
Diw^niKh&9is64ft 9in.,iUbieadtli 
34 ft, and its height 22 ft. The 
date of this building is 1046 * , « . = 
1637 A.D. Unfortunately many of 
the valuable stones in the inlaid work 
have been picked out by MaiA^ha, JAt, 
and Bngliah soldiers. In the N. aide 
of tbe Machcbl Bhawa& are two Intmse 
gates, made according to some, at tbe 
guns taken at ChitAr, when Akbar 
captured that fortress, and the lUj- 
pAts performed the Joh&r, and caused 
their women, 20,000 in number, to 
undergo cremation before they scJ- 
lied out to find death in the Moj-hnl 
ranks. The visitor will now pass ban 
the DlwAu i Ehif, over a terrace 
which represents a Pachlsl board, into 
the Saman Buiij, where tie ohief 
Snltina lived. The lovely marble 
tattice-work seems to have b^ broken 
by cannon-shot in some places, bnt 
niight easily be repaired. A beaatiful 
pAvllion, with a fonntatn, and retiring 



Sect. II. 



Jioute Zl).-~Affra : Jahdngir Mahall, 



room, close npoa the river, are 
chief apartmenta here. These have 
been lately repaired, but in fact the 
work of restoration went on from ISTl 
to 1877. In retaming, tliere is on 
the left the site of rooms, whence 
the MaiqutH of Hastings swept off 
the marhle and gent it to Windsor. 
The next thing to see ia the BUshah 
MahatI or "lady's bath," literally, 
" Mirror Palace," behind the Dlw4n i 
KhAs, the walls and ceiling of which 
are lined with innumerable small mir- 
rors. These were restored in 18TE. 
A room of this Idnd is to be seen in 
many places, as in L&hiir and in Na- 
wanagar. Passing now a little to the 
W., the traveller will enter the Angilri 
B&i^, or " Qrape Qaiden," a fine sqnare 
of 280 ft. In it are bedrooms for 
ladies, with holes in the wall, 14 in. 
deep, into which they used t« slip 
their jewels. These holes are so nar- 
row, that only a woman's arm coold 
draw them out. In the K. part of this 
square is a lovely hall, called the 
^&a Ual^ll, the gilding and colour- 
ing of which were restored, in ISTS, 
at a cost of MO is. for every piece 
measuring 1 ft, by 2 ft. Proceeding to 
the W., the visitor will come to 8 
rooms, which were the private apart- 
ments of Bhiix Jah4n. In one of the 
3, he and Oovemor Calvin died ; hut 
iu which of them is not known, bat 
whichever it was it ie said that the 
Emperor gazed from it on the T&j, 
where his favourite queen rested. On 
the right is an inclosure railed in, 
in which stand the Gates of SotaoiXb, 
of a faint reddish-grey colour, 2o ft. 
high, and finely carved. There is a 
KMc inscription running round them, 
in which the name of Stlbuktagin has 
been read, but Cunningham pronounces 
against their gennineness. A Fafhto 
horseshoe and 2 bosses of a shield are 
nailed in the centre. In the opposite 
corner of the terrace lie 3 of Akbar's 
kettledrums, and in a room still further 
to the W. the Archjeologlcal Society of 
Agra meet. It, also, was restored in 
1875. The room neareat the river is an 
octagonal pavilion, and very beautiful. 
In it, perhaps, Bhtti Jah4u died ; if so, 
he conld «ee the T&j, about 1 m, to the 
IBenffal-Uil.'i 



E., with his closing eyes. Beyond ie 
an' aqueduct with lifts, and a similar 
one is near the Dlw^ i Kh^ 

JahAugir ila^lL — The visitor 
now passes into the Jahinglr Ma- 
hall. WhjleJah4ngIr was stai Prince 
SaUm, he had a separate establishment 
in the fort of Agra. It was called 
Ballragarh. The meaaarements, accord- 
ing to Carileyle, arej : N. side, 600 ft. ; 
W. Bide, 200 ft. ; 8, side, 469 ft. ; and 
B., .S62 ft. It was situated to the W. 
of the Moti Masjid. There are no re- 
mains of this pajkce left, unless Dansa 
J&t's house may have been a part of It. 
This house has a fine porch, supported 
by ornamental pillars at the-doorway, 
and surmounted by a beautiful canopy, 
covered at the top with gilt copper. 
But the Jah&nglr Mahall, the red- 
stooe palace, into which the traveller 
now enters, was built hy Jahftnglr 
immediately after the death of Akbar, 
It stands in the S.E. part of the fort, 
between the palace of ViiiSa Jah&n and 
the Bangui! bastion. The red sand- 
stone of which it is built has not re- 
sisted the destructive action of the 
elements. A view of it will be found 
in the 4th vol. of Cunningham's" Arch. 
RBporta," where it accompanies Mr. 
Carlieyie's Eeport. It measures 249 ft. 
by 260 ft. According to the above 
authority, ' ' the length of the W. front, 
at the entrance which faces towards 
the interior of the fort, is 226 ft. 10 in., 
including the comer towers. The B. 
front which faces the river is 240 ft., 
and the depth from front to back is 
260 ft. In soine parts there are 2 
stories i the lower story has no win- 
dows looking to the front, but the upper 
has severaL The upper front is orna- 
mented with an intermittent row of 
enamelled knenge-shaped and star- 
shaped blue and bright green tiles in- 
serted into the sandstone. Themasonio 
symbol of the double triangle, inlaid in 
white marble, occurs in several places 
on the firont gateway. The entrance 
gateway leading directly into the 
palace is very fine. It lain tha centre 
of the W. front, and is the highest part 
of the front, with the exception of the 
2 comer towers. These towers are 
«ctageitB, of which the sides measure 



R<yaU Z5,~-Bhartpfy- to Agra. 



290 

9 ft. 1 in. each. The towera are 3- 
atoried, and are surmomit^d by ele- 
gant cupolas. The outer arehwaj of 
the gateway is veij fine. It is 14 ft. 
2 in. broad and 10ft. i in. deep. The 
entranoe uarrowa inwaidly into au 
empty veatitnle i^ 9 ft. 1 in. by 8 ft. 
Sin. This leadsintoabeantifal domed 
hall, IB ft. sq., the ceiling of irtuch is 
elalKirately corred. On 3 sides of this 
ball is A side restilmle 16 ft. long and 
9 ft. broad. A corridor, 27 ft. 5 in. 
iong^, leads into the grand central 
court, which U 72 ft. aq. The archi- 
tecture of thin court ia entirely Hioda. 
Its design, the pillars of its side halls, 
the carving and omamentstion, are all 
pure Hind^ This, perhaps, arose from 
the fact that Jahinglr ww the son of 
a R&jpAt princess. 

" On the N. side of the court is 
a grand open pillared hall G3 ft. 
long and ST ft. browl. It contains 
11 pillars, 2 longitudinal rows of 
1 and 4 or 8 double sq. pillara, 2 and 
ii or 4 sii^le side sq. pillars, and 4 
.comer composite quadruple pillfus. 
The pillars support bracket capitals, 
richly carved and ornamented with 
pemJants. The front row send out pio- 
gecting brackets of exquisite workman- 
ship, the inner angle of the bracket 
beir^ filled up with a web of tastefully 
aculptnred cross bars. These front 
bra»±eta supported broad sloping eavee 
of thin stone slabs. But the stone 
loof or ceiling of these pillared haU; 
is the most remarkable feature about 
it. It has a narrow, flat, oblong, 
tiAl compartment restii^ on 4 sloping 
side compartments, and this roof is 
supported most curlonsly by stone 
cross-beams, which arc ornamented 
with the quaint device of a great ser- 
pent or dragon carved on them length' 
ways. It is altogether a wonderMly 
conBtmctedroof — a,wonder of architec- 
tural constructive ingenuity — unique 
tioA without a parallel in its design. 
Architects will .understand that it is a 
stone roof or ceiling sloping up from 
the 4 sides, or wall plates, to a fat 
oblong-shap«d quadrilateral top, which 
■nrowns it, and which is supported by 
stone crosa-beama projecting from the 
^wftllpbt^ with stone strats or truaaes 



Sect. IL 



between themandtheroof. Acovered 
passage, or corridor, runs rouad the 
top of this hall, from which one can 
look down into it. The other pil- 
lared hall on the opj>osite or S. aide ot 
the grand court is somewhat leHs in. 
siie, it being 63 ft. long by 29 ft. brotuL 
It differs slightly from the other halla, 
in that the back row of pillars is sing-le, 
insteaul of double, and that the inter- 
ipaoeB between the side pillam and 
back pillars are filled up with per- 
forated stone lattice-work. Behind 
this stone lattioe-work, and round tbe 
haok and 2 sides of this wall, there 
from which, I prcaume, 
the ladies of tbe haiem, ensconced 
behind the lattice, used to look ont 
upon anything that was going on in 
the grand conit in front." 
Passing from tbe grand ooiirt,tbrongli 
large chamber to tioe B.,the visitor vrill 
nd a graiid|aTchway in the centre of a 
quadrangle which faeca tbe river. It 
is supported bj 2 lofty pillars and 8 
half pillars of the more slender and 
grac^nl Hindii kind. The shafts aie 
rounded and fiatedon 12sideB, wifcha 
series of transverse scnlptures running 
roundthem. The bases are 44ided, and 
ornamented withaflowered device, like 
the lotus, between abroad leaves. The 
shafts aro monoliths. The pillam are 
17 ft. 7 in. high, their shafts 10 ft. 8 in., 
the capitals 2 ft. 5 in., and the brackets 
2 ft. 2 in. Some of the chambers are 
lined with, stucco, which has been 
painted. This sbicco has lasted better 
than the stone-work. For minute and 
exquisite ornamental carving In stone, 
the great central court is pre-eminent. 
The palace ends on the side facing the 
river with a retaining wall, and 2 
comer baatlona, each surmounted by 
an ornamental tower with a domed 
cupola. There are many vaalted 
chambers underneath the palace, but 
as the air Is very close, and snakes are 
Ihey are seldom visited. 



that of Shih JahAn, there Is a series cd 
bathing tanks and pipes. . Tbe ^ani 
of Jahiii^r is an enormous mono. 
litbic astem of light-colonred por^di^iT 
or close-grained granite ; extenially tt 
ia nearly fi ft hign, andlntenulljifl; 



Route 35. — Agra : Chwrcha, Ax. 



Sect II. 



deep. It is S ft. tn 
It oiiginjill]' stood in Jah&ngli^e 
paUce, but bM been removed to the 
public gBidenB, where it now stuida. 
To the S. of Jahingic'B palace are 
rooms, which hnye been tnmed into 
Sergeante' qoartera and the Military 

Ji,w!i Mmjid. — " Facing the gate- 
way, and outside the encloHara of the 
fort, standB the JAm'i Hasjid, or Great 
Hosqne, elevated apon a raised plat- 
form, and reached b; a btood flight of 
steps. The main building of the 
moeqne ii divided into 3 compart- 
ments, each of which opens on the 
conrtjard bj a fine archway, and is 
earmonntect by a low dome, built of 
white and red itone in obliqne couraea, 
and producing a somewhat singular 
though pleasjng effect. The work has 
•11 &e originality and vigour of the 
early Mnghnl style, mixed with many 
reminiscences of the FafliAn school, 
tnie inscription over the toida archway 
seta forth that the mosque was oon- 
stmcted by the Bmperor 8h&h J^&n 
in 18*t, after 6 years' labour. It was 
built in the nune of his daughter 
Jahin&ra, who afterwards devotedly 
shared her father's captivity when he 
iras deposed by Aurangiilb. Tbedimen- 
iioos are 130 ft. in len^h bj 100 ft. in 
breadth." (See Hunter's " Imperial 
QaMttear," VoL i., p. 56.) " The great 
peculiarity of this Hasjld cond^ in 
its 3 great fall-bottomed domes with- 
out ueolcs, shaped like balloons le- 
versed, and bmlt of red sandstone, 
with ligiag bands of white marble 
circling round them. Its grand gate- 
way was palled down by the British 
■athoritles dnring'the Mutiny." (Bee 
"Arch. Surv.," vol. iv., p. 170.) 

CKurdiM aiftd Oemeterin, — Two days 
will have been spent in seeing the T&j 
and the Fort, and a 2nd visit to the 
T&i will be iodiapenBable, but the 3rd 
day may very well be spent in seeing 
the prominent Imildings in the canton- 
ment. Ttie first visit may be to St. 
Qeorg^t Churek. It is 120 ft. long, 
inside measorement, and 70 ft. wide, 
and i» divided into a nave with 3 dde 
aisle*, by S lofty pillus, between 
pilastera on ea<^ ride, canying heavy 



291 

timbers and red sandstone slabs, which 
form the roof. It was built in 1 B26, by 
Colonel Boileau, R,B.,partly by Qovem- 
ment and partly by subscription. "Hie 
tower and spire are of more recent 
date. The efiect on entering by the 
W. door is good. A quasi chancel has 
been formed by a stone platform, which 
extends some feet into the body of the 
choreb, and la enclosed by a carved 
Boreen of white sandstone and iron 
rail, The B., N. and 8. sides ate finely 
carred ; the inlaid marble work for 
which Agra is bo famoaa, is well worth 
notice in the reredos and the altar. 
These chancel improvements have been 
designed and superintended by the 
chaplain, the Ber. M. Lamert, who is 
himself an artist of atulity, at a cost of 
8,000 Ts. The choir is said to be the 
t>est in the diocese. On the left of the 
altar is a moral tablet carved by M. 
Lamert. It bears an Agnus Dei sab- 
scribed, "Ad majorcm Dei gloriam et 
in memoriara piam Q. L., O. S. ,L., 
B. Q. L., UatthieuB Lamert. Hnjasce 
ecclesiie sacerdos posuit, 18TZ." 

St. PauTt (matarf Ckttreh) was 
buUt by the E, L Co. in 1S28, by J. 
T. Boileau. There is here a tablet on 
the left as yoa face the altar, to the 
memory of Ensign Theodore David 
Bray, killed while gallantly carrying 
the colours at Hahirijpi^, 39th of 
Dec 1B43, with the names of 40.N..C. 
offlcera and men killed in the same 
action. There is also one to Captain 
BichardPonsonbyAloock,4ethB.N.I., 
murdered by ■ buid of assassins in 
KainpoTl District, 26th of Oct., 1341. 
Also one to Hajor Charles Eneas 
Burton, 4th I). N. L, PoUt. Agent at 
HaiBnti, aged 47, and his two sons, 
nardered after a long and gallant 
resistance at the Beatuncy at Kofah, 
Oct. leth, 1857. There is alwi <»ie to 
Major 0. Bossell CrommeUn, C.B., 
iriio fell at the head of the 1st Begi- 
ment N. I. at MahirAjpOr, 29th Deo., 
1843. Th«« are several other tablets. 

St. FuuFt {aviT) r^KrcA.— Abont 
4 m. N. of St. George's Chorch is St. 
Paul's Church, in the Civil Lines. 
This church was built in 18B4. All 
the fittings In this building, the pnlpit, 
<»^:an, etc., were destn^ed by the 
u 2 



292 



RoiUe 35, — Bharlp&r to Agra. 



Sect. II. 



HQtineera in 1867, who also fired 
seTend shoU at and broke the ntiliog 
of the galleiT oppoBite the altar. This 
cbnroh coat 40,000 ts., and la spoiled 
' architecturally by It8 not having a 
chanceL It is said that Sir WiULun 
Miiir objected to it. 

The Soman OUIwiic Cathsdral, which 
19 dedicated to the Viigiit Marj. It is 
quite close to the Old Jail, and {am, 
N.W. of the Fort Itig 157 ft. Bin, long, 
iiuidc lueasaremeat, and 56 ft, broadin 
the body of the church, and 13S ft. at 
the cfafjiceL Tbera is a tower about 
150 ft. high, which contains 4 stories, 
above the body of the church. There 
are 7 arches on either side of the nave, 
supported by 6 Corintbian pillars. 

S. of the W. entrance there is a 
tablet, inscribed to the Kct, P. 
Bonaventnra. 

Under the S, wall of the church are 
B aambcr of slabs with inscriptions. 
Amaugst tbem is one to Fann; Lnc; 
Craven, "the Convent Pet," who died 
on the lat of Hay, 1S7d. To the N. of 
the church la a fine white building, a 
convent, and to the 6. of the church 
ia a bouse in which the priests live. 
In their garden is a chapel, in which 
they have service for themselves. 

On the wall of the garden are eeyetJil 
inscriptions, the oldest of which bears 
the date of 1791 A.D. 

JVo. 1 Cemetery. — Miex visiting 
these churoheB, the ttaveiler may pro- 
ceed to the cemeteries. The Ist lies 
100 yds. 8.E. of the fort, and is sur- 
rounded by a wall B ft. high. Notice 
first 3 vicuma of cholera during the 
siege of Agra, John Hackemess, C.E., 
who died on the SSrd of July, 1867 ; 
Georgiana Fife, who died July, 18S8 ; 
and W. Christian Watson, who died 
July 12th, 18B7, There is also a 
monument to Uajor Q. F. Thomas, 
who died at Agra Fort, on the 4tb of 
August, 18S7, of wouude receired on 
the previous Sth of July, 

No. 2 (kmetery.—Ti^ cemetery is 
100 yds. to the S,E. of the preceding 
one, on a ridge. A grsAt number <3 
persons are buried here, and the 
ground sinks is at every tread, but 
though the graves are Fto numerous 
^le tombs ara Tery few. Xbete tue 



28 inscriptioDS, chiefly to women and 
children who died during the Mntinj 
in I867-186S. 

Xb. 3 Gt««(ery,— This cemetety Is 
also near the Fort. The MuBlitn who 
has charge of it receives 1 rs. a montli, 
and a house to live in. Observe a 
tablet to Lieut, John Henderson LMub 
of the Beng. Art., who died on the 
21th of August, 16G7, of wounds 
received in action on the Gth of July. 
The next ia to John Bohle HacLiunon. 
who died in the Fort of Agra in 
August, 18G7, The next is to W. J. B. 
Hoggan, who died in the Fort of Agm 
August 19th, 1867 ; also to Lieut, O. 
Stian, 62nd N.I., who died August 9th, 
I8GT, and then one to a child, Helen 
Stewart, who died in the same place 
August Mb, 1857 ; then one to Bea- 
johiia Robineon, died In the same 
phice 20th of August, 1867 ; then to 
another child, Edward Cust Thomhill, 
died August Sth, 1867 ; then to 
Catharine, daughter of James Beole, 
who died on the 23id of August, 1867. 
Towards the N. gate of the tort, and 
close to the ditch, ia a Mubammadan 
tomb. Near it is one that looks like 
that of an £uropean, and 100 yds. 
beyond it is a large pyramidal tomb of 
red atone on a square tiasc, with an 
Boglish and Persian ioacription .to 
SitArah Blgam, the friend of Lieut. 
Bharpe, who died on the 3rd of 
December, 1804. 

At a short dintance from 8t. Paul's 
in the Civil Lines, on the way to the 
Civil Cemetery, on the right hand, are 
some curious old tombs, found iiiider 
the earth at Bt. Paul's, when the 
foundations were began ia 1851, and 
removed to a platform here. The 1st 
tomb ia that of Creorge Purohaa, who 
died 14th May, 1661, and the next is 
that of John Draks Laine, who died 
1637. 

The next is in Dutch, and ia dated 
10th October, 1649, 

Beginning now with the 2nd row at 
the end nearest the entrance, the lat 
tomb has no inscription. The next 
epitaph ia much dawned, but the 
letters that remain are " Kat of Ju»- 

tinian, of Ley was chief merehant 

- - " • ' the • ApiU, 1627." 



Sect IL 



Bottte 35. — Agra : the Central Jail. 



This is the oldest tomb of all. There 
_ are some ruined tombB, however, of 
'Which ihe dates can onlj be gaeaaei 
Next is " Hier legt begravcn Jan de 
Bof elc, Amsterdam. In 11711 leeben ad 
cisten objt IBth September, 1679, out 
36 ;Rren." 

Another -cemetery in the -canton- 
ment is near the Parade Ground, and 
is moat neatly kept and adorned with 
flowers. On the right side a little 
way up is the tomb of "Eliiabeth, 
wife o! John Camming of the 80th 
Begiment, who died November 17th, 
1810, bom an injury received in 
croeeing the surf at Madras ; also her 
inEaat son, who died on the Ganges, 
and was buried in its bank." Further 
on, on the left, is amonnment to Cap- 
tain E. A. C. D'Oyley, killed inaction 
with the rebels on the 6th July, 1S6T. 
This gallant officer waa shot by bis 
favourite Indian fanner, whom he had 
himself instructed. He fell at the 
disostrona engagement of Bhihganj. 
EHirther on is a tablet to Walter 
Frederick Cavendish, 2nd Batt. Bifle 
Brigade, son of Lord C. Cavendish, 
who died of cholera 26th of November, 
1866, aged 22. Behind it is a hand- 
some monument to GS N.-C. officers 
and privates of the 3rd Batt. of the 
Itifle Brigade, who died of cholera in 
18^. Beyond is a tablet to Ensign 
John C. Hordaont Seymour. The 
furthest tomb on this side is that of 
Brig.-Qeneral W. H. Kyves, command- 
ing the Agra Brigade, who died 
September 20th, 1S7S. This monn- 
ment was erected by pnblic subscrip- 
tion at this station. Near this is a 
(Hronlu piece of ground for children's 
graves, and in 18711 siity-three were 
already buried there. On the right, 
rather more than half wav up, is a 
most singular and unparalleled tomb 
to Catharine, wife of J. C. Lacy, of tbe 
Medical Hall, Agra, who died April 
Sth, 1S61. It is a perforated tomb 
10 ft. sq. and IS ft. high, to the top of 
the ornament on the dome, .juBt 
below thin omanient is a crown of 
pure gold worth 4,000 rs. At the 
head of the slab inside were 2 crosses 
of gold, worth 500 rs. each. A Gipihi 
was caught attempting to steal one id 



S93 

these, to effect which he had broken 
the side window, and broken it re- 
mained. The cross was also broken. 

At the extreme E. of the cantonment 
is a Sne house, which stands on a hill , 
vdth a noble portico. Just across the 
path is the very handsome tomb to 
Major John Jacob, murdered on 
the 6th of July, 18B7, a country- 
bom officer of Bindhia's force, who 
thought he was quite safe in tbe 
Mutiny, but on reaching this house 
after leaving GwAliAr, his own cook 
rushed out and stabbed him to the 
heart. It is said the cook had de- 
manded his money, which was thoi^ht 
to be buried under this house, and he 
had refused to t«ll where It was. He 
fell dead at his own door. The plat- 
form on which the tomb is, is elabo- 
rated carved, with an acanthus bolder 
of flowers. Above is an oriental 
canopied octagon, also finely carved. 

The Central Jiitl.— This Jail is one 
of the latT^eat, it it is not tbe largest, 
in India. On September 27th, 1875. 
there were 2,390 prisoners, of whom 
163 were women. It is situated about 
1 mile to the H.W. of the Fort. The 
guard consists of 60 police, 26 of whom 
are within the walls ; 80 good-conduct 
men wear the yellow prison dress, but 
are styled Sarkanddz, " musketeew," 
The prison has 3 centres — ) principal 
centre, and 2 minor ones. Frnm these 
extend barracks, which hold 66 men 
apiece. The manufactures In this 
Jail are well worth attention, and tbe 
fabrics made at it aic all bespoken is 
London, In the caroet factory men 
sit on each aide, and the Instructor 
calls out the thread ; hia words are 
repeated by one of the men, and the 
thread put in accordingly. Some learn 
in 6 days, some not in 6 weeks, A 
fintt-class carpet has 8 threads in the 
weft, and 8 In the waiTj In the sq. in. 
Bix men in a full day of 10 houi^' work 
can make 6 in. a day in a 12-ft. carpet. 
In 1875 there was rnade for the Prince 
of Wales a carpet SI yds. sq,, costing 
10 rs. a sq, yd. Two more were made 
for tbe same room. A &rm in High 
Holbom take t^ the carpets they can 
make here for 16s. a yd. 227 men are 
employed in the factory. Befractoi^' 



294 



Route 35. — Shartpir to Agra. 



Sect IL 



pjigoDcra are paniahed bf working 
Dnderhay's Patent Labour MacMfte. 
They must turn it 9,000 times, when 
tbej sit down and do nothing 
else. The carding is coneldeted the 
haideat work— i8 mea are employed at 
the CApstan at one time for 30 mlnntea. . 
when they are relieved. In the Ist 
room rags and wool are cleaned ; in 
the 2nd Toom the fibiee are opened 
and cleaned, bo that it will ipin. The 
mole machinea spin the Sbie into 
warp and weft. 178 men ara engaged 
here. PHsoneie aie allowed to see 
their ftiends once in 6 months, and 
once in the year, in the presence of 
the jailors. They tslk abont domestie 
aifair*, and their trienda neTerbeUere 
them to be guilty, There are boUi 
men and women who have had their 
foreheads branded. There are S claaeet 
oC criminals — 1st, Cor heinoos crimes ; 
2nd, babltnal ; 3rd. cainaL The 2nd 
class alone cannot become Bartand&z. 

"Amongst the modem boildings ma; 
be mentioned the Government College 
in Drummond Boad, and the Judge's 
Conrt. ]]he Catholic Mission and Of- 
phan^e is also of inteieHt for its rda^ 
tire antiquity, having beenfoanded sa 
early as the reign of Akbar, through 
the infiuence of the Jesuit Fathers, 
when the Portnguese were the only 
Buropeons who had much commanicn- 
tioa with India." — Imp. Qaietteer. 

Promenade Qardeat.—Tttei visitor 
will next go to the Promenade Qaidens, 
otherwise called the Afafa B^, 
where the band plays every Wednes- 
day. In the centre is a lofty sand- 
stone obelisk with an ioECiiption to 
General Sir John Adams, G.C.B. 

The Ibmb of J'timidu 'd da/vlah.— 
This building ia one of the finest 
in Agra. It is on the left bank of the 
Jamni, near the B. I. Sailway Station. 
The traveller wiU cross the pontoon 
bridge and tnm to the left, and at 
about 200 yds, he will come to the 
garden in which is this tomb. It is 
the tomb of GbiyAs Beg, called by Sir 
W. Sleeman, KhwAjah Accas, a Per- 
*an, who was the father of NSr 
Jabiin, and her brother, A^af KhAn, 
and became high treasurer of Jahin- 
gir. TbiB mausoleum is 69 ft. 2 in. «i. 



It is entirely encased with whit« 
marble exWmally, and partly inter- 
nally, the interior being beantifully 
inlaid with mosaic work- There is an 
octagonal tower at each comer, of 
which 7 Bides are visihle, and project 
from the building; each side being 
1 ft. 9 in. broad. It contains 9 cham- 
bers, 4 of them 33 ft. 4^ in. long, and 
18 ft, H in. broad. The i comer cham- 
bers srelSft. If in. Bq., and the central 
chamber ia 22 ft. 1 in. sq. The outer 
walla are 5 ft. 6 in. thick; the side 
partition walls, 1 ft. 2^ in., and the 
central partition )vallB, 1 ft. 9} in. In 
each of the i sides there is an arched 
entrance 7 ft. 8 in. broad. On each 
Bide of each of these entranem is a 
window 8 ft. 10 in. broad, filled with 
exquisite marble lattice-work. Be- 
tween these and the comer towers are 
arched vrindow receases 6 ft, 6 in. browl 
externally, and 3 ft. 10 In. internally. 
In the centre of these windows ia per- 
forated marble lattice-work. Each 
chamber has a door leading into the 
next, but the centralhas only one open 
door, the other 3 being filled with 
marble lattice-work. The actual door 
in this chamber is on the 8. side. In 
the central chamber are 2 marUe 
tombs of OhiyAs Beg and his wife, 
on a platform of variegated stone 
6 ft. 6 in. by 5 ft. 6 in. The hna- 
band's tomb is a little to the W. 

There are T tombs altogether in 
the mangoleum- — 2 in the N.B. comer 
chamber, and one in each of the 3 
other comer chambers. The tombs 
lie N. and S,, according to the nsual 
custom. The sides of the central cham- 
ber are lined with marble, inlaid with 
mosaics, representing flowers, but the 
roof .ia lined with stncco, adorned with 
flowera and other devices in gilding, 
l^e side chambers are paneUed to 
4 ft. 1 in. frem the floor with slabs of 
marble inlaid vrith mosaic work, but 
the upper part of the walls and the 
celling are lined with plaster, omn- 
mentral with punting <nE flowers and 
long-necked vases. £i the thickneea of 
the enter walls of the S. chamber there 
are 2 fligbtB of stain, wMoh tueend to 
the 2nd itoiy, on which is a msrUe 
pavilion, 26 ft. 8 in, sq. on » plat- 



Sect It. 



Soute 35, — Sikandartik. 



fenn 98 ft, eq. The roof is canrtpj- 
shaped, with broad Blo)Htig eares, and 
aarbla sUbH. The Bidet are of perfo- 
rat«d marble lattioe-woik, and divided 
{■to 12 compartmenia by 12 marble 
pillais. In the centK of tbe ohamber 
■re S marble oeaotapha, cwanterpsrta 
of thoH below. The whole of the flat 
roof of the lower story ia paved with 
marble. The octagonal towert, faced 
with marble, at each comer of the 
mansolenm spread oat into, balconies 
sapported by bmcketa at the level of 
the roof. Above, the towers become 
dicnlor, and riie nutU they again 
spread out into gracefol balconies snp- 
pcnted by brackets, and sarmounted 
by marble domed cupolas, each sup- 

Srted on 8 slender marble pitlaiB. 
ere was a marble railing along the 
platform of tbe roof, whl^ has been 
destroyed, probabl}' by the J&ts, who 
are also said to have stolen the inlaid 
atones of the moeiuc. Mr. Carlleyle, 
however, thinks that the stone workers 
of Agra have taken them, and says the 
Qovemment ought to inquire into thie 
matter, and that the head of the Archae- 
ological Survey ooght to move the 
OoTenuiient to " stop for ever this base 
system of pilfering. The mausoleum 
ia on a raised platform of red sand- 
stone, 150 ft. 10 In. long, and between 
SO u^ 40 ft. broad. It is surrounded 
by a walled inclosare, except towards 
tbe river, or W. front. In the centre 
cd the S. side is a gateway SI ft. long 
and 30 ft. broad. The walled incloenrc 
ia 640 ft. long on each side, and has 
towera of red sandstone at the cor 
In the centre of the river front is 
sandstone building, 67 ft. long, whore 
European residents of Agra come for 
change of air. In the wall facing the 
river is A fish carved in white marble. 
The legend is that when the Janni 
reaches tbe mouth of this fish, AlUh^ 
bild will be submerged. In 1871 the 
water rose several ft, above this fish, 
bqt nothing happened. 

CkUU ba Sarah stands on the left 
bank of the JamnA, opposite Agra. 
It ta 79 ft. sq., with one great dome 
resting on an oetagonal base. In the 
centre is a beautifnl octagonal domed 
chamber 27 ft. 10 Id, in dlometw, la 



e 2 tombs of brick, which have 
replaced marble tombs. Besides the 
central chamlier, there are * sq. comer 
chambers, and 1 side halls. The 
mausolcnm stands ou the river bank, 
a masonry enclosure 462 ft. 9 in. 
from B. to W,, and 823 ft. 11 in. from 
> B. Though called china, this 
mausoleum ia only externally glazed 
or emUDClled. It is said to have been 
built by Ai^al Eh&n, in the time of 
Aurangzlb. 

The Xaldn Ma^id is apposite tlie 
present Medical School in the Bab^ii 
Eatra. Ur. Carlleyle thinks it the 
oldest mosque in Agra. It has S 
domes, the central being the largest. 
The same anthority thinks it was built 
by Sikandar Lodi. . 

^kandarah. — It is 6 m. S furlongs 
from the cantonment at Agra to 
Bikandnrah, in a N.W. direction. 
There are many tomla on the way, 
and a sculptured hoise, badly eze- 
cnted. This is on the left or B. side 
of the road, nearly 4 m. from Agra, 
and nearly opposite tbe lofty ardied 
gateway of on ancient building called 
the Eochl kl Sor^. The boise for- 
merly stood on a pedestal, on which 
was an inscription, but these arc gone. 
From the nostrils to the tail it mea- 
sorea 7 ft. 1 in., but from the nostrils, 
over the head, along the curve of 
the neck, S ft. 10 in. From the shoul, 
ders to the knees, where the l^s ore 
broken ofi, 2 ft. 4 in. Its girth is 
6 ft. 5 in. Mr. Corlteyle thinks It 
was pat up by Sikandar Lodi. At 
Jam. further on is a tank of red 
sandstone, with ornamental octagonal 
towers, called Guru k& J^ It mea- 
sures 542 ft. from H. to S., and B48 ft. 
from E. to W. On the & side are 
3 flights of steps, and B. of them is a. 
long and broad channel of masonry, 
which brought water to the tank. This 
baa been stopped by the now road 
made by the British, who have taken 
some of the atones to repair the road. 
The tank was probably the work of 
Sikandar Lodi. At the S. side of the 
tank there is a maneotenm 3S ft. 8 in. 
sq., on a platform of masonry 109 ft. 
3 in, sq., which Mr. Carlleyle thinks 
WW the mausoleum of Sikandar Lodi, 



Hottte 35,— 5iartpiir to Agra. 



BSitix 



■T his palace, the BArahdarl. 



AccoidiDg to Hr. Carllcjle the Bftrah- 
darl was baiit bj Sikandar Lodi in 
A.D. 119G. It ia a red sandstone, 
2-Btoried bnildinf, 142 ft. 6 in. sq. 
The ground floor contains 40 ch&m- 
■beis. Each, comer of the building iB 
Bunnountcd by a short oct«f^nal tower. 
It is commonly known as the tomb of 
BIgam Hariam, bccanee Akbar in- 
terred here his Portoguese Christian 
wile Haiy. Her tomb is in the Tault 
below, anl there is also a white marble 
cenotaph in the centre of the npper 
etaiT. The BArahdari is now occu- 
pied by a part of the establishment of 
the A^^ra Orphan Asylum. It was 
from SilcandBr Lodl that Bikandarah 
received its name. 

The gateway at Sikandanth is tmly 
magnificent. It is of red sandstone, 
Tet7 massive, and with a splendid 
scroll, a foot broad, of Jisira vniting 
adorning it. Part of this writing is the 
chapter of the Eur'&n, called the Silrah 
i Mnlt. On the top of the gateway, 
St each comer, rises n white minaret 
of 2 stories, the lower being 32ft. 8 in. 
high, the upper 28 ft. ; total 60 ft. 8 in. ; 
but theydonot appear ho high. Some 
yeaiB ago an European soldier fell 
from thf! top of one ot them, and was 
killed. Hence the staircases to the 
upper story were all closed. The tops 
ot 2 of these minarets are knocked (M. 
it is said by the JAts. The height of 
the archway to the top of the rail to 
the great window is 39 ft. G in., and 
thence to the battlement ia 42 ft. 9 in. : 
total 72ft.3iD.,biit it seems higher. 

There is a 2nd platform above the 1 st, 
which is 10 ft. 6 in. From this to the 
top of the battlement ig 9 ft 2 in. 
There is a fine view from the plafJorm 
at the top, and it is worth ascending 
the steep staira for it. To the W. are 
seen ttie Orphanage Church, and a 
little to the light of it the Blgam ki 
Haljall, its dark red colour contrasting 
with the white of the chnrch. Far to 
the B.W., on a clear day the grand 
opchway at Fatljpiii Sikrt can bo dimly 
Been. Over the tomb to the N. a aeon 
the JamnA ; to the 6.E, are seen the 
Port, the Tij, the church in the Civil 
Linea, and the city of Agra. The 



traveller will' walk 1 



I yds. c 



broad paved path in a desolate garden, 
and arrive at the glorions Mausoleum 
of Akbar. The fa9ade has a iugb 
central arch, with 6 dwarf arches o» 
cither side. The vaulted ceiling of tht 
entrance loom is cat into several cubes 
and has otice been splendidly gilt and 
coloured, with gold and blue inter^ 
mingled. The Silrah i Mulk rung 
round it under the cornice in a, scroll 
12 in. broad. This scroll begins at the 
right-band comer furthoit from the 
entrance, and at the entrance to the 
; ^ssage which leads to the tomb itself. 
From the commencement of this pas- 
sage to the edge ot the plntform out 
of which the tomb rises, is J 18 ft. 
The vBiilted chamber in which the 
' great Akbar rests is qnite dark, and 
the once iUaminated walls are now 
dirty and defaced. Bach of the dwarf 
arches on cither side of the great 
entrance, leads to a chapel. In the 
1st chapel, on the left, is a tomb with 
an Arabic inscription, in beautiful 
eharactera, — "This ia the tomb ot 
Shokra'n NisA BIgam." On the sides 
irf the tomb is inscrilied the Ayftt i 
Kuisi. The 2nd chapel contains the 
tomb of the uncle of Bahadur t^hih, 
the last King of Dibll. He was the 
sou of Shah 'Alam. On it are n'ritten 
the names of AllAh, Muljammad, 
F4tima, I^asan, and I^nsain ; and also 
a Persian inscription, which signifieB, 
" When Sulaim&n was pleased to direct 
his steps from this transitory abode to 
the region of permanence, he departed 
there in the year 1253 i.H., on the 
29th of the month ZI^Msh. An in- 
visible voice said as to the date, Say 
that the King of Mercy removed the 
pure tablet of the Prince of the World. 
Sulaimftn Sbikob BahMur, tbc son of 
Mnlfammad Shib 'Alam, King, Slayer 
of infidels." The next chapel contains 
the tomb of Zibu'n Nisi, daughter of 
Aurangzib, and in a niche in the 
side of the room, farthest from the en- 
trance, is an alabaster tablet, inscribed 
with the 99 Divine Names. These 
begin at the top on the left. The 
other chapels on the left, and all but 
the first on the right, are empty. In 
the let, on the right, i£ a tomb in- 



Sect. IL Route 36.— J^ra to FaihpAr Sih-i (Futhepoor Sihi). 397 



Bcribed,— " This is the tomb of Kriaa 

The passage to the t/>p of the Mau- 
soleum is OD the right of the entrance 
Ascend 36 atepe to a platform, which 
measnrea 3*8 ft. from E. to W., and 
34* ft, 10 in. from S. to B. Prom this 
sHcend 14 steps to the 2nd platform, 
and 1* high etepa to the 3td patform, 
and 14 more U> the Jth or highest plat- 
form. This is Burroanded t^ a bean- 
tifnl corridor of white marble, carved 
on the outer aide into lattice-work in 
eqnares of 2 ft., eveiy sq. having a 
different pattern, 'fiie corridor is 
9 ft. 41 in. broad, and the terrace be- 
tween the e<^ea of the corridor is 
69 ft. 10 in. broad. In the centre is 
the splendid white cenotaph <rf Aiijar, 
jiwt over the place where his dust 
rests, in the gloomy vanlted chamber 
below. On Uie N. side of tbia ocno- 
taph ia inscribed the motto of the sect 
he founded, " Allfthn Atbar," " God is 
greatest ; " and on the S. side, " Jalla 
Jal&Iahn," " May his glorj shine." To 
the N. of this cenotaph, at the dis- 
tance of 4 ft., is a handsome white 
marble pillar 4 ft. high, which was 
once covered with gold, and contained 
the Knh i Nile. It in laid that NMir 
Shih took it from this. The corridor 
has 9 arches in each inner side, and 
11 in each cater. It should be said 
that on the inner arch, in the entrance. 
ate 4 Persian lines, which translated 
mean, — " This arch, which is the oma- 
ment of the 9 heavens and the T con- 
tinents, is illustrious as belonging to 
the Mausoleum of Akbar." 

A short distance to the left of the 
main road, which runs through Sik- 
andsrah, there is an old mosque, partly 
built of brick and partly of red sand- 
stone, called Bhnri KhAn's. It has 
one dome, and is 34 ft 3 in. long, and 
20 ft. 9 in. broad. There is an octa- 
gonal tower at each front comer. A 
short distance to the 8.E. are the 
remains of Bhuri Khin's I'alace, 
namely, the gateway, and part of the 
facade. Just beyond the N,W. comer 
of the mansoleum at Sikandarah is an 
old Hindd boandary stone, with a 
If&gari inscription, which gives the 
date, Somwat 1651-1*9* A.d. . 



ROUTE 36. 

«00R aiKEi). 
To see the famous deserted 
city of Patbpiir Sikri, the traveller 
mnst Older a carriage nnd start from 
the Dnimmond Road. If he goes 
direct by the Fathpiir Sikri road, he 
vrill have the Normal School on hie 
left, which was burned by the rebeln 
on the 6th of July, 1867, and on his 
right, about ^ a m. fiuther to the W., 
the garden of Snmroo Bigam, where 
the battle of the same date began. 
But if he take the road to Kheragarh, 
he will pass, fimt of all, the 'tdgiib, 
which ia near the HuUAnpdf Boad, 
and ) a m. S. of the Mf^istratc's 
Kachhari. It was built by ShAh 
Jali4n, and is 169 ft. long, and 40 ft, 
broad, of red sandstone, and has an 
octagonal tower at each of the 4 cor- 
nels, snrmoonted by cnpolaa. The 
entablature of the front is supported by 
6 pillats. The central archway in 
front is 2.^ ft. 9 in. broad, and the 
Kiblah apse is 26 ft, broad by 12 ft 
deep. The front walls are 9 ft. 3 in. 
thick. At each side comer of the pro- 
jection, at the rear or W. comer of the 
building, is a slender abaft, or Qulda- 
atoh. These Guldastahi, witb their 
cupolas, are seen for a very long dis- 
tance. The 'idgih stands in a walled 
enclosure 565 ft. long and 629 ft. 
broad. About i of a m. to the S. is 
the Artillery practice ground, called 
Ch&ndmiri by the natives, and nearly 
parallel with it, but a few yds. N. of 
the Kheragarh Koad, is the village of 
Khojah Saril, Near this are the ruina 
of the manaolenm of Jodh BU, Akbar'a 



RAo of Jodhpflr, and mother 
of the Emperor Jahinglr. Tho 
mausoleum was blovm up 50 jeara 
ago by tho British Government. The 
gates, walls, and towers of the in- 
cisure were pulled down, and the 
nutteriale taken to build barracks. 



29S Souh 36.— J^m to Fathpdr SikH {FuAepair SUtn). Sect. II. 



The manBolemn itself was too hard ta 
meddle with, and is left a hogc shape- 
less heap of masaire fragments oi , 
masonrj, nbich neither the hammer 
of mitn nor of time can destroy. 
There is a large vaulted uudergroimd 
chamber, into which i passages de- 
Bceud. This chamber is^now a habi- 
tation for jackals, wolyes, and hjEenas. 

Betaming to ttie direct road, the 
risitor who takes that roate will pass 
to tho W. through ShAhganj, which 
place has given its name to the battle 
of the 6th of July, 1867. Observe at 
the entrance to it the mina of a mosqne, 
with an inscription saying it was bnilt 
in 1031 A.s.= 1621 A.D., the 16th year 
of JahAnglr's reign, which marks the 
site of Uie old Ajmir gate. Further 
on Is a Uuslim cemetery, known as 
Mujdl k4 Gnmbaz, where is the tomb 
of Hirza Hiud^, son of Bibar, tather 
o( Akbar's chief wife. At the foot of 
the tomb in a monolith T ft. high, with 
the date 978 A.H. = 1B70 A.D, Further 
on is the Tillage of Sucheta, which also 
was part of the battlefield on the Bth 
of July, The traveller will change 
horses twice on the way to Fatbpilr 
Sikrl. 

yathp<ir Sftrt.— The 23d miieatone 
is jnat within the gate of Fatbpiir 
Fnrt. From this there is a rather bad 
road, with a steep ascent into the palace 
of Akbar. The traveller vrill enter 
from the E., aod pass throngh the 
DIwllu i 'Am, which stands in a quad- 
rangle which measDTes 360 ft. from N. 
to B., and 180 ft. from K. to W. The 
hall itself, however. Is bnt a small one, 
51 ft. 4 in. long from N. t« 8.,bat that 
includes a verandah 10 ft deep. The 
2 room« inside aie 2^ ft. by IG ft. 
The corridor round the quadrangle is 
12 ft. deep. From this a patli leads in 
a 8.W, direction to a bnilding called 
the Daftar KhAnah, or Record OfGce, 
.now tnmed into the T. B. It is aboat 
90 yds, to the B.W. of the Dlwin 
The traveller may Siltc to proceed there 
fiist and refresh himseU, and then 
return to the Dfwftn i 'Am, in order 
go through the palaces aeriatim ; then 
■ return to tlieT.B.,andvlaittheDarg&h 
last of all. To the N. is the Dlwin ' 
Khift or " PriTate Hall." This is i 



very cnrioni building. It measntea 2S 

ft. 9 in, sq., and is 36 ft, high to the 

terrace round the roof. In lie Centre 

of the loof are S high steps, and to the 

them is abont 6 ft. more, makiog 

if fU in aU. At each comer is a 

turret IS ft. high. It ma; be said, 

e for all, that alt the buildings here 

of red sandstone. This hall is vel? 

solidly built, with a staircase on the K> 

side. The singular feature of this 

building is a central column, to the flkt 

top of which run i flat shafts of stone, 

10 ft, long, and the capital of which 

'- ui enormous bunch of protuberances 

the kind generally used for the eaves 

A Hindi! roof. The story is that the 

king sat in the middle, and one of his 

principal ministera on each shaft. This 

IS, of course, an absurd HindA ir 

but what the room 

a myster;. The waiiiscotiiig 
of these walls hm a band of paint- 
ings 4 ft. high, representing forest 
views, with tigers and birds, and 
also Chinese landscapes, 

8. of this hall is a quadrangle measDi> 
ing 310 ft, by 120 ft., called a Pachisl, 
fmm its reaemblingthe board on which 
they play the game of pachisl, which 
has its name &om the highest throw, 
which is 26. It is played with kaofis 
instead of dice. It is a tcsselated stinie 
pavement. At the S.E. comer of it Is 
the Turkish queen's house, and nume- 
rous apartments for the ladies. About 
130 ft. a. of the Turkish queen's honse 
is a room 11 fL 4 in. sq., wtiich Is 
called Akbar's KhvAbg^ or " keeping 
Apartment." There are some Peraian 
couplets written on the walls, half way 
up, and beginning on Uie S. side. They 
are much defaced, and are simply com- 
plimentary verses to the Emperor. 8. 
of the Kh^ibg^ U an open space 
through which the road to the Dai^Ah 
or ■■ shrine " passes. W. of the Diw&n 
i EhAt^ and further N., is the Anbli 
Michauli, or " Hide and Seek Place," 
from Ankh, " an eye," and Mteknia, 
"to shut," where it is said JahAngir 
used to pla; at hide and seek as a 
child. It is also supposed to have 
been a treasure house, and some of the 
flooring has i>een taken up, and si 
where the Uar&t'uis dug for ti" 



Sect II. RottU S6.—Fat7fp4r Sthi (Futh^poor Siirt). 



Here is a small nuiKdir, which ia said 
to hare been the residence of Aibar's 
HiodA Gam or "teticher." It is of 
pnre Jsin architecture, and " each of 
the architrares is supported t^ 2 very 
singular strata, issuiog from the mouths 
of mon8t«iB, and meeting in the middle 
like the apex of a triangle." 8, of this 
ia the Fanch Mahall, a 6-storied colon- 
nade, each platFoTTO bein^ lees thnn 
the one below it. The capitals of the 
pillars voir. One ia a couple of ele- 

Ebuits vrith Interlaced tmnke, another 
a lEiiin gathering fruit from a tree, 
Bapposed hj Plunket to come from a 
Btiddhist temple. The ground floor 
has 56 colnmna in 7 rows, with 3 in a 
row, the 7th and 3d being double, 
and the 3d of the Bd row quadruple; 
the next above 36, 6 rows of 6 pillars 
each, and a pilaster. At the end of the 
ist and 6th rows the pillars are quad- 
TDple. In this row the pillais are of 
different designs. The next aboTe has 



2d pillar double ; the paTilion at the 
top rests on i. The total height is 6S ft. 
8. and a little Vf. of the Panch 
Ua^i^ is Harism's house, a small 
building with defaced pictures in the 
niches, one representing the Annuncia- 
tion, which is only recoguiKsble by the 
wings of the angeL Karlam is said to 
hare been a Portaguese. There have 
been donbts expressed as to Akbar's hav- 
ing ever had a Christian wife, bnt Hr. 
Carlleyle positively mentions Mariam's 
tomb, and the " Indian Traveller's 
Handbook," p 78, says, "Akbar, who 
has the credit of having been a liberal 
minded man in the matter of religion, 
built not only distinctive residences for 
his Hnl^ammadan and Hindii wives, 
bnt one also for a Christian named 
Marie or Haire Blgatn, one of his wives. 
This boilding adjoins the Emperor's 
palace and laninah, and unlike the 
other stractnrcs ia ornamented with 
paintings in fresco. The Greek crnas 
U also in many places decipherable, 









mnch disfigored, one of which, however, 
ia BtUl sufficiently distinct to confirm 
the genetallv received opinion that 
it may have been inteodea for the An- 



nnnciation." N.W. of this is a garden, 
12G ft. sq,, with a bath and small 
mosqne, and W. of that ia the Hitbiya 
Pol DarwAzab; in which, 20 ft. from 
the ground, the spandrils are flanked 
by 2 life-sized elephants, with trunks 
interlaced. Near this is a groined 
bastion called |the Bangin Burj or 
'' Heavy Bastion." 

On the extreme N.W, of all these 
buildings, and Joat below the Hithiya 
Pol Darw&iah, is a Soril, or resting 
honse for travelleis, 3(>0 ft. eq., exclusive 
of a bastion at the W. comer. It has 
a great row of lodgings above it, with 
24 arched entranciis, where probably 
tradera who dealt with the Court lodged. 
To the N. U a tower 70 ft. high, atndded 
with a sort of pegs like elephants' tnsks. 
There are 1 5 in a row, perpendicnlarly, 
Thisomamentisuscdbecaose the mina- 
ret was put over the grove of Akbar's 
elephant. It is caUed the Hiran 
Min6r or " Deer Minaret," on which it 
is said the Emperor Akbar used to sit 
to shoot the aoteiopes and other game, 
perhaps tigera, that were driven towards 
him. The Hiran Min&r stands on a 
platform, which is ascended by 13 steps, 
and has a base i ft. high. A viaduct 
called the Pardah, supporting a closed 
gallery, pasavs from the palace to rooms 
over the HAthija Pol, where the ladies 
probably sat to inspect the merchandise 
brought to them from the titaU. The 
Pardah is broken where it reaches the 
Bar&l, and the traveller will have to 
clamber dovm a ruined wall 20 ft. high 
to the level ground. He will pass on 
the left a great atone, with holes in it, 
to which elephants were chained ; the 
rubbing of the chain is quite plain. 
This gallery leads to the palace of the 
Empress Jodh Bid, which ia due S. of 
the garden and mosqne that liave been 
already mentioned. This palace is a 
quadrangle meaauring 177 ft. from N. 
to 8. by 157 ft. from K, to W. The 
bnilding has a sort of corridor run- 
ning round the quadrangle, roofed with 
sloping slabs, and adorned with bine 
enameL According to one authority 
this palace is erroneously called that 
of Jodh B41, and probiAly belonged 
to the chief wife, daughter cd! HindU, 
cousin of Akbitr, who survived him. 



300 HouU Se.—Affra to FathpUr Sthi (Fia7iepoor .S^ifon). Soct- II- 



Mr.Eeene s»ya that Jfthinglr's mother 
was a, HiDdfl princesa of the Amber 
f ftmUy, and therefore a Kachwaha, but 



of KAjA Maldeo Rio. of Jodhpiir, and 
was the mother of Jahinglr. And 
the "Qaaettcer of Rijpiitdiii," vol. ii., 

5. 232, sajs that Chaada Sen lUji, of 
odhpiir, was slain ia the atonoiii); of 
8iw^ia, and was socoeeded hj hU 
brother, Ud4[ iiiingh, who gave hia 
Bister, Jodh B&i, to Akbar. 

To the N.W. of Jodh Bit's palace is 
what is called the house of Blrbal's 
daughter, a 2-9toried building of red 
sandstone. The lower atoij ia divided 
into i rooms, each IS ft. sq. They ar« 
ceiled with slabs 16 ft. long by 1 ft. 
broad. No wood is nsed. Iliere are 4 
rooms in the npper atoiy, also of the 
same size, bat they have cupolas formed 
by slabs placed one above the other and 
shelTing oatwards. The words of Victor 
Hugo have been applied to this : " If 
it were not the most minate of palaces 
it was the moat gigantic of jewel cases." 
It is neatly finished bat not handsome. 
KAja Birbal was a HiudU celebrated 
tor hia wit and his abilities as an ac 
coantant. He was one of Akbar' 
favoarite courtiers, and perished with 
his whole force of 8,000 men in 
the YoBufzye country, to the N.E. of 
Peshdwar, in February, 1586 A.D. To 
the S.W. of Jodh Bat's palace are the 
stables for lOti horses, in 63 stalls, and 
camels. Eveiy stall has stone fittings 
for the horae ropea. E. of this is the 
camel atable, with 2 rows of 16 pillars 

The traveller may now return to the 
T. B., and, after reatii^; a time, proceed 
300 yds. to the S.W., which will bring 
him to the entrance into the DArgah or 
"shrine," or quadrangle containir^ 
the tomh of Sbe^ Sallm Chishtl, who 
was the Nawisi or grandson of Shakhar 
Oanj Bhih, who is buried at PAk Patan. 
The Shea's father was Bahiu 'd din. 
Najar i Marifat, "Miraculous Sight," 
gives the date of the Hhokh's birth, or 
883, and he died t>79A.H = lB71 A.D. 
The traveller will enter the quadrangle, 
which is 672 ft. long from N. to S. , and 



3W ft. 10 In. from E. to W., ciclusivc of 
the part from the ledge in the breadth. 
The corridor is 20 ft. 4 in. broad. 
From this ledge to the entrance into 
the mosqne U 101 ft. 1 in., so that the 
total breadth from E. to W. U 4*1 ft. 
II in. The K. door by which the tra- 
veller enters the quadrangle is called 
the BAdshAhf or "royal" gate. The 
ascent to it ia by 15 steps. It is 43 ft. 
high to the platform, and about 60 ft. 
to the very top. Opposite to it, on the 
W., 19 the mosque, on the right of 
which is the tomb of the saint, or this 
actual DarglLh. It is a sq. of 16 ft. 
6 in., including the corridor, and the 
shrine is 26 ft. within that. It 
is surronnded by beautiful white marble 
lattice work. The inner build- 
ing is marble only for the (iret 
4 ft. The inner screen, is inlwd 
with mother of pearl, which has a 
beantifnl efiect. The oater doora are 
of ebony, immensely solid, and oma* 
mented with brass. There is the usoai 
display of oatrich e^s. On the tomb 
is vmtten the date ^ the death of the 
Shekhu '! Isl&m, Shekh 6alim Chishti, 
" May God hallow hia tomb ! The 
beloved helper of the sect and its 
saint, Shel^ Salim, whose miraculons 
rifts and propinquity to the Divine 
Being are celebrated, and by whom the 
lamp of the family of Chisht is iUtuui- 
nated. Be not doable-sighted, looking 
to the transitory self, as woU as to the 
everlasting Deity. ITie year of his de- 
cease is known throughout the world." 
This last lineisthechronogram. All the 
inscriptions here may be found in the 
" Miftahu'l Tawirl^," by John Ellis, 
printed at Agra. 

The brackets which support the eavea 
of the moeque are copies of those in the 
old mosque of the stonemasons outside 
the quadrangle and W. of the mosque, 
where 8hd^ Ballmlived his hermit Ute. 
Beale says the saint died February 
13th, 972 A.H., bvt his tomb was not 
finiahed till »8Ba.H. = 1580a.D., which 
date is inscribed on the inner wall, 
OntheN.of the quadrangle is the tomb. 
surmounted with a cupola, of IslAtn 
Khftn, who was the grandson of the 
saint, and Governor of Bengal. Close 
- "lis is the tomb of Bind l^nsain, 



k Sect. ir. Sottte ZQ.-~Fathpdr Sih-i (Futhepoor Sttn). 



" Sbckh, chief o( the camvaa ^Ajl IJq- 
saiu, 1010 A.H." In front of the tomb 
- of lal&in KbAn is that of Mushti^k 
'All, grandfather o( the guide, llie 
grandfather's luune vraa Bash&rat 'AH, 
and a Persian iQs:^^ipti(ln sajb that 
when ' " Bosh^rat passed front this 
transitoiy world, I heard from 
the Invisible Sage the ^te," 
which is contained in this chrom^ram, 
"'All is happy I Bravol 1273 aji.= 
185GA.D." 

The gnide has the following cer- 
tificate, >' Imd^ I^nsain, son of 
Bashirat 'All, haa condacted us over 
the ruins of ITatljptir Sikrl, and given 
me every information concerning the 
buildings. His father, BaahArat 'All, 
BaTed my father's life in 1805, when 
be had been taken prisoner at " 
of Lord (_»ic) Mnnson's retrea! 
incarcerated in one of the towers, from 
which he aided him to make bis escape. 
— C. J. Sampson, Major, D.C.G. 
Febmary 25th, 180*." Another cer- 
tificate IS, " April 17th, 1871,— Mnsh- 
t^ 'All and Wasijat 'All, on this 
day showed his Excellency' over the 
diHetent buildings and places of iote- 
re3t.~F. Hood Obbooby, A.D.C. to 
the Viceroy. Blanchi Julia Mayo." 

The mosque is said to be a copy of the 
one at Matka. It U about 70 ft. high, 
and very beantifal. At the 9. of the 
quadrangle ia the Buland Barwiiah, or 
" high gate," which towera to the height 
of 130 ft. To the W. olit is a well, 
into which boys and men spring from 
the walls of the Dai^ih, from heights 
varying from 30 to 80 ft. The water 
is very foul, and of a deep green colour. 
The men spring from the wails 7 or 8 ft 
horiiontally, and cleave the water with 
B sharp blow. The traveller may give 
them 1 inia apiece for their perform- 
ance. A MeU or Fair is held in Febm- 
ary on the anniversary of the Saint's 
death. In ascending the Bnland Dar- 
wAzah the traveller will mount 66 steps 
to the 1st platform, whiah has 14 bas- 
tions, and is 122 ft. long, with oi 
corresponding length on the other side 
of the gate. Ascend than 19 steps to the 
ad platform and 26 to the 3d, and 1 1 to 
the 4th, The height from the balcony 
of the 4th pktfotm to the ground is 



301 

107 ft., and from that to the top is 23 ft. 
The giandenr of this great height ia 
increased by a vast Bight of steps from 
the Bikrl aide, 30 in number, and each 
a ft. high, so that tlie height from the 
level ground at the bottom ia 150 ft. 

In the archway at the Bnland Qate 
is an inscription on the lefthandasthc 
ttHTeller goes out, which says that the 
" King of Kings, Shadow of God, Jal41u 
'd din, Mnljamuiad Akbar, the emperor, 
on his return from conquering the 
kingdoms o£ the S., and Khaodesh, for- 
merly called Dhandesh, came to Fatlj- 
piir m the 46th year of his reign, cor- 
responding to 1010 A.H. — 1601 A.D., 
and proceeded from thence to Agra," 
On the opposite side is inscribed " '(sA 
(Jeaua), on whom be peace, said, ' The 
world ia a bridge, pass over it, but build 
no bouse on it. The world endures but 
an hour, spend it in devotion.' " From 
tbegateaboutSO steps descend towards 
the level of the well, which is on the 
right of them. From these steps may 
be seen tbe villages of Sikri and Fatli- 
piir, and a tract o£ dry and barren 
countrf. In fact it was the want of 
water which caused Fatl^pilr to be 
deserted. N, of the DargAh are the 
houses of the brothera Abil 'I Fa^l and 
Faizl, the famous and learned favour- 
ites of Akbar. These are now turned 
into a college. There are 70 pupils, 3 
professois and one assistant. 'There arc 
3 rooms -, in one Hindi and Uidil are 
taught, in another English, and in the 
3d, a small one, Persian, and Arabic. 
The house measuies 69 ft. from E. to 
W., including theopen verandah, 30 ft. 



db,Googlc 



BMiie S7.—Agra to DiMi {DellU). 



Sect. IL 



The traveller mnat retnm to . 
and proceed from Uience on the 
IUilwa7 to Dihli. The stations oi 
line are h« follows : — 



Agra. 


HunHorStatlona. 


Time. 


123 


Agra . 

TOiidIi . . . 
Bartan . . . 
J«lesirlk«d . . 
Eilttiras. 

™i^ ' . " : 
Kb^. ' . ■ ; 

ChoU . . . 

^•^ ■. : 


lii."3S 
1:45 

in 


*6^ 

da 

_ 

4113 



OhizWiid.— this is a very lai^e 
station, and a fair dinner may be had 
for 3 ts. The train takea i an hour 
from this to reach Dihil. The ap- 
proach to DihK ia much flner than 
that to Agra. The white buildings 
all around, and the splendid iron lattice 
gilder bridge over the JamnA, which 
has 12 spans of 200 ft. each, and the 
entrance by the Calontta Gate, are all 
very fine and impressive. 

DiMi.— -The DAk BanglS, or T. B., 
is 1 of a m. and 200 yds. to the N.E. 
of the Railway Station. A Post Office 
and Telegraph Office are close to it, and 
a chureh is B50 yds to the N.E. of the 
T, B. The United Service Hotel is j 
a m. from the atation, and there arc 
also the Hamilton and Northbrook, 
which latter is kept by a European, 






lomlDi'tnl 
. BoHtopho 



a BDd cold bstbs and 



and is very good. Having located him- 
self in the T, B. or in one of these 
hotels, the traveller may proceed, to 
view the sigbta of DihU, but it wiU 
be as well for Mm to peruse the sum- 
mary of histoiy here given firat, 

General Cunningham, in the 1st 
vol, of the "Arch. Survqr," exhibits ft 
sketch map of the ruins Mund Bihll, 
wbiuh extend from the 8. end of the 
present city, now called Sh&hjabiuilL- 
bftd, to the deserted fort of Bii 
Pithora, and Tu^lakftb^ on tlie 8., 
about d n. The breadth at the N. end 
opposite FIrdz Bh&h's Kotila, is about 
3 m., and at TughlakAb&d more than 
6 m. The whole area covered with ruiiu 
is not less than 46 sq. m. These ruins 
are the remains of T cities, built 
at different times by 7 old Kings of 
Dihli. Other torts were built by the 
emperors Balban, Kai-kublld, and 
Hnb^^, but where their sites are is 
now doubtful Finch, who came from 
Agra to Dihli in 1611 A.D., entered 
Dihli from the 3., and says he saw the 
ruins of Old Dihli, caUed the Seven 
Castles, and the tlf^-two Gates on 
the left, a name by which these mini 
are still known, so that he seems to 
have seen all that is now seen, and 
DOthii^more. IbnBatutasa^" Dihli 
now consists of 4 cities, which have 
formed one." These cities are certainly 
R&i Pithora, Jah^paufth, Siri, and 
TuflilakAbad. The city of Kai.knbAd 
was Eilugarhi, on the banks of the 
JamnA, about (psrallel with ^afdar 
Jong's tomb. The city of Mubarak 
was also on the banks of the Jamni^ 
But in the Map it is represented ai 
being some niiles to the W. of the 
JamnA. The Seven Forts, according to 
Cunningham, are Ltlko^, adjoining 
mi Pithora, and built by Aoang PU 
in IOCS A.D.I R6i Pithora, built by the 
king of that name, about 1180 A.D. ; 
Siri or Kill'ash KUii, built by 'Alia'd 
din in 1304 A.D. ; Tushiak&bild, buUt 
by Tu^lak Sh6h, in 1331 A.D. ; the 
citadelof Tujhlakibid, built by 
the same king at the same date ; 
'Adil&b^ built by Muhammad Tu^- 
lak in 13SB A.D. ; Jahiniuuiah en- 
closed by the same king. InOraprastha, 
the anctent capital ot the {V^bs, U 



JiouU ZT.~DiMi (Delhi). 



SeotIL 

not mentioned, becanse the present fort 
ot Indrapnt representa port of Indra- 
pnst&, ajid it is on the Jamnft, and. 
would therefoTe tuve been on the rig-ht 
hand of Finch as be ent«red Dihli, and 
not on his left. At the time ot the 
HobBmoiadBn conqueet, the nindd 
city of Dihli was confined to the forts 
of L4]ltot and BiLi Pithora, bnt when 
Flrdi Sh&h mored the seat of Gorem- 
ment to Firdi^Md, about } a m. S. of 
modem Dihli, that name was given to 
the whole extent of gronnd from 
FlrliiAbAd to Siri and Jahinpanfli. 
Sharfu 'd din and Farishtah restrict 
the name of old Dihli to the 2 Hindil 
forts, and describe Siri andJahinpanih 
sepsratel J, bnt when Hum&pln rebuilt 
Indrapat and called it DIopanih, and 
Sbir UiUi fonnded the fort of his 
own name on the gits of Fln^&bAd 
and Indntprastha, the common people 
began to speak of Old DihU and 
New Dihli, the former meaning 
JAlkoi, R&i Pithora, and the Hindi! 
citiee adjoining, and the Iatt«r the 
towns situated on the Jamni. Indra- 
pat was one of the G Pats, namely : 
P&nipat, Sonpat, ludiapat, 'Hlpat, and 
B»|*pat, which Doryoaban demanded 
of XndbJsVtlnra, as mentioned in the 
HahAbhCirata, and as that poem dates 
centuries before Christ, Indtapat must 
be Tery ancient, and Cunningham i&ys 
It existed in the latter half of the IStb 
centmy B.C He snpporte this b; 
diowing that the positions of the 
planeta recorded in the Mah&bh&rata 
took place in 1121 B.C., and that there 
is no other year before or 
which they were so situated, 

ludropatis now called Pnrftna ^il'aah 
M''oldfort," HumAyiin called it Din- 
pan&h, bnt only educated people use 
tbat name. Cunningham thinks, how- 
eret, that there are no HindA remains 
in the old fort, but that it ia altogether 
s Mnl^ammadaii stmcture. The only 
root tiiat has any claim to be of the 
limeofYudhi9lf^ra,iB tbeNigambhod 
Obit, where Yadhie^fl'ira performed 
the JBbtn after his horse sacnfice. 

According to the Bhagayat PnrAna, 
Yndhialfthint was the flnt Eing of 
Indrap^rtA, and was sncceeded by the 
AsMendants ot hi* brother Arjnna, ' 



303 

30 generations down to Kiliemaka. 
He was deposed by his ' minister 
Visarva, whose family held the throne' 
for BOO years. Then came a dynasty 
of 16 sovereigns called Qautamas. 
Then followed a, dynasty of 9 Uayuras, 
of whom the last BAjd F^a was killed 
by YikramMitya. Then the name 
of Dihli Erst begins to appear, but 
Vikramiditya's em is 57 B.C. There 
is a tradition that DihU was built by 
i, Diln or Bilapa, a contemporarj' 
"ikram^itya. The capital of tbu 
latter was Ujain, and his descendants 
recorded to have reigned there for 
792 years, during which Dihli lay- 
waste, and nothing is known ot that 
period. After that it was repeopled 
by t^e Tomtrs, who were displaced 
by the ChohAna or Chauh&na, under 
Bisal Di, the Viaala Deva ot the 2 in- 
scriptions on Flrfli Shfth's pillar, 
Cunningham thinks t^at the desertion 
of DihU refers to ]ili ceasing to be 
the seat of government, and he is in- 
cbned to identify DihU and lodrapat 
with the Daidcla and Indabiia of 
Ptolemy. 

Ancient DIhll most probably occu- 
pied the siteof the fort lUlPithora,Bnd 
the iron pillar is the only thing that 
can be assigned with certainty to the 
old Hindi city. The first king of the 
Toroir Dynasty was Anang P41, some- 
times called Billan De, who reigned 
A.D. 789, or, perhaps, 731 i.D. The 
Chinese pilgrims, Fa-Hian and Hiouen 
Tsang, are silent respecting Dihli. 
The geographer Uasudi, who visited 
India in 91S A.D., does not mention 
a King of Dihli, but does mention a 
king of Kaooj, and Cnnuingbam thinks 
that the latter king of the Tom&r 
Dynasty reigned there, but Abii'l Fazl 
mentions a KAj& J&yp&l, who was the 
Itth king ot the Tom^r Dynasty, who 
died in 1021 A.D„ and in January 1022 
A.D., U&t^mild of Ghaint reached 
Kanoj. Cunningham thinks that the 
rebniiding ot Dihli by Anang Pil, was 
owing to the loss of the territory of 
Eano], along with its new capital of 
Bdri in Awadh, which were conquered 
by Chandra Dotb, the founder of the 
RAhtoi Dynasty. On the iron pillar it 
is sUted that Anang Fal, or aa it ig 



Sottfe Zl.—Agra to Dihli {Delhi). 



304 

there writteD Aug Pal BAM, " peopled " 
Dihll in Samwat 1109, or A.D. 1052. 

Now the Dihli spoken of was the 
Lftlkot, the walls of which have a 
circuit of 21 m. The same anthority 
considers it most probable that Dihll 
was taken b; the Chauh&ns in 1151 
A.D., when Visola Deva, the Chanhin, 
sat on tiie throne. Hia son SomcRhvara 
married Anang P&l's daughter, and had 
a son, the famous Prithi BAj, or BAi 
Pithora, who was adopted by the Tom4r 
king. Prithi RAj abducted the not 
nnw^ing daughter of Jai Chandra, the 
RAhtor B4j4 of Kanoj, in 1175 A,D.. 
and in the war which ensned, the best 
warriors of the BAhtore and ChatdiaDs 
were kiUed, which rendered the eon- 
quest of Dihll by the MutiammadaDS in 
5B7 A.H. = 1191' A.D., comparatively 

The aucient poem of the MahA- 
bb&iata and all Hindu traditions 
cleai'ly prove that there was a large 
and populons city at the site now 
occupied by the ruins of L&lko^, BtU 
Pithora's Fort, and Indiapat. The 
mounds of mina still remain to attest 
the fact, but the Hjndii Empire 
paascd away without leaving any such 
monumenta as have been bequeathed 
to us by the Muslims. The first 
grand edifice raised by these con- 
querors which eicitea the aaWimsh- 
ment and claims the admiration of 
every traveller is the gigantic Kutb 
Minilr, which was begun by Kujhn 'd 
din Aibak. The Great Mosque wae 
begun and completed at the same 
time by the same person. The date 
cannot be called in question, because 
it is recorded by the King himself in 
the long inscription over the inner 
archway over the E. entrance. In 
this inscription, as well as in a shorter 
one over tie outer archway, §!Qlbo 'd 
din refrains from calling himself 
Sult&n — a title which he gives to 
Mu'izzu'd din bin Sftm, whose general 



Sect II. 



The I 



t bat 



of ICutbu'd din was Bhamsa 'd din 
Altam^. who was also his son-in-law. 
He added the N. and S. wings to the 

< AccanUas ta "Priiucp'a Antlqultlei," vol. 
<[.p. 310. tbcMDluiamadaiiCnniiueit took place 
in 11831.D., but Cunuiagbiui give* imA.e. 



' Hosqite, and erected a new cloistered 
court on the N., E., and 8. sides so as 
to include the Kufb Min^ in the 
S.B. corner. The' next great builder 
was'Al&u 'd din Khilji, whose wnrk vras 
described by the contemporary poet 
Amir Khnarau, who says that this 
king completed the joosque by build- 
ing beyond the 3 old courts and gates, 
a 4th with lofty pillaiv. 'AUn 'd din 
reigned from 129£ to 1316 A.D. The 
beautiful S. gateway of the quad- 
rangle was also his wo^ The gigan- 
tic unfinished Min&r, which stands 
due N. of the Entb Min&r, at a 
distance of *26 ft'., and 110 ft. N. of 
the wall of the Mosque enclosure, was 
erected by the same king. Its height 
is 67 ft., but it was intended to have 
been twice that of the Ku^b Min^, in 
which case it would have had a 
diameter of 85 ft. and a he^ht of 600. 
Another great work of 'AlAu 'd din was ' 
the celebrated Kaf r i VLazAr SntOn or 
Palace of a Thousand Pillars, of which 
the remains are still to be seen in tiie 
old ruined Fort irf 8h4hpiir, whidt 
Cunningham identifies with l^iri. The 
next great monuments are the grand 
ohl Fort of TuEhlaklkb^, with the 
tomb of its founder Ohiytoi 'd dtn 
Tu^lak Sh&h, and the castle of his 
son Muhammad, called 'A'dil&bU, 
and the city named Jah&npanAd. 
Tughlak reigned 2 years and some 
months, and died in 1325. His sou 
Muhammad 'A'dil Tu^lak Shih for> 
tifiod the suburbs between the HindA 
fort of KlU Pithora and the MnsUnt 
citadelof Sill Thewallsheerectedex- 
tended 5 m. This king's name before 
his accession was JunA EhAn ; he re- 
moved the population of Dihll toDeoglr 
or DaulatAbAd. Flrds Tujchlak, who 
reigned from 13E1 to 1SS&, devoted 
the greater part of his long rei^ to 
the constniction of numerous works, 
the most useful of which was the 
canal, which he made from the w. b. 
of the Jamnd to his new capital of 
FlrdEibM. This canal was cleared 
out by 'AH Matdin 5iin in the 
reign of ShAh JabAn, and again by the 
British, and flows throt^h modem 
Dihll under the name of the Western 
Jaiun& Cuial. He also bnilt the citj 



Sect II. 



Soutt 37.—JKhll 



305 



of FlrdxiUd, which he began in 13B4, 
Bxtd two palAces, the En^ i Flnlx- 
AbM and the Enshk i Sbikir 
or Hnnting Palace. Tlmir the 
Mughal emperor, who invaded India 
in 1398 A.D., briefly describes Dihllin 
his Autobiography : " When my mind 
was no lonjfer occupied with the 
destruction of the people of Dihll I 
took a ride round the cities. Siri is a 
round city. It« bnildini^ are lofty ; 
they are Burroondcd by fortifioations 
Imilt of Btone and brick, and they are 
very strong ; Old Dihli also baa a 
Bbmlai stronif fort, but it it larger 
than that of Siri. Fiom the fori; of 
Siri to that of Old DihU, which is a 
considerable distance, there runs a 
strong wall built of sti:ine and 
cement. The part called Jabdnpaniih 
is situated in the midst of the in- 
habited dty. The fortifications of 
the S cities have 30 gatca. Jah&npan^ 
has 13 gates — 7 on tie S, side, bear- 
itiK tonaids the E., and 6 on the N. 
ride, bearing towards the W. Siri has 
7 gates — I towards the outtide, and 3 
on the ituide towards JahAnpan&h. 
The fortiEcations of Old Dihll have 10 
gKtea, some opening towards the ei- 
t«rior,andKimc towards the interior of 
the city." 
Of ti 
JthAn w . ^ - - 

bat before his time, in A.D. 1533 Hu. 
tnAydn repaired the fori, of Indrapat 
or PaiAn^ ^il'ah, and caUed it Dln< 
panAh, a name which did not sor- 
vive. In 1640 Shir Shih made Indra- 
pftt the citadel of his new city, nnder 
the name of Shlr^fh, by which it is 
still known, thongh Fur^& kil'nh in 
the common appellation. He also 
built in 1641 a mosque, generally 
known as the Kil'ah Kon4 Uasjid, 
and a lofty oclogooal building, which 
Is still called Shir Handir or Shir's 
Palace. In 1646 Sallm Sh&h, the son 
of Shir Shih, built the fort of Salim- 
garh. In 163S Bh&h JahAn began the 
citadel or palace of Sh&hjahUnibid. 

It is not intended here to ^ve even 
asumnuTyof the higtoiy of DudI under 
the Murtiala after the time of SbAii 
JahAn, bat allurion most be mode to 
an event which inflicted a dreadful 

CBcK^u-iest.] 



blow on the prosperity of Dihll. On 
the 10th of March, 1739, the Persian 
garrieon, which Nfidir Bhfth had in- 
troduced into the city, partly for the 
duty of protecting the palaces of the 
principal inhabitants, was almost 
entirely put to the sword by the 
people, who rose in revolt. On the 
llth the conqueror gave his troops, 
who had arrived fn^ the encamp- 
ment neat the city, ordei« for a 
general massacre. From sunrise till 
12 o'clock Dihll presented a scene ot 
shocking carnage, the horrors of 
which were increased by the flames 
that now spread to almost every 
quarter of the capital. N4dir, after 
lie had issued the fatal orders, went 
into the small mosque of Boihanu 'd 
daulah, which standi near the centre 
of the city, and remained there in 
deep gloom that none dared to dis- 
turb. According to Malcolm, who 
qnotes from Fraier's "History of 
N&dir," the Emperor, Muhammad 
Bh&h, then interceded for the people, 
and KAdir replied, " The Bmjaror of 
India must never ask in vain," and' 
commanded that the massacre should 
cease. It appears, however, from the 
Sadi^ah i 'Jiiam that the first NiitSm 
claimed to have brought about the 
suspension of the slaughter. Be that 
as it may, a multitude of persons, 
yarioualy stated from 8,000 to 2 40,000, 
perished, and when NAdir left Dihli 
he carried with him immense 
treasures, of which the exact amount 
can never bo known, but it is esti- 
mated at from 30 to 70 millions eter- 
Ung. 

In 1789 Mah^ajl SindMa arrived 
in Dihll, JMnb after his general had 
killed GliulAm RAdlr and captured 
the city. From that time till Septem- 
ber llth, 1803, Dihll remained in the 
power of the MarAthas, but on that 
day General Lake, vrith 4,600 men, 
defeated Louis Bourquin, who was 
commanding Sindhia's anny ot 12 
battalions irf regular infontry, 6,000 
cavalry, and 70 guns. The results of 
the victory were possession of Dihll 
and of the family mid person of Shih 
'Alam. From October 8th to the 
14th, 1S04, Dihll was lieaieged bj' 



Bovie 37,— Agra to DihlL 



Sect. II. 



JoBwant lUo HolkaT s armj, but the 
citj- vas succesafnlly defended by 
Ochtorlon.y. From that time to 1857 
the old capital of India remained in 
the poBseBsioti of the Bntieh, although 
the descendants of Aamngzlb were 
Bllowed some ebow of royalty and the 
tiune of king. In December, 1806, 
8h4h 'A'lam, whose original name waa 
*J!]i Ganhar, died, and was encceedcd 
by hia son Akbai Shdh, who died on 
the 2Sth (^ September, 18itT, and v/ts 
Bncceeded by hla Bon Abii ^alar, who 
assumed the title of Bahikdur Bh&h ; at 
the time of the mutiny he was aboat 
80 years old. 

On the 10th of May, 1857, there 
were in the large cantonment of 
Mtrat a battalion of the 60th Rifles, 
a regiment of Dragoons armed with 
carbines, and a lai^e force of Uniti- 
pean ArtiUeij, thoogh only 2 field- 
batteries were fnlly equipped. There 
was one raiment of Native Cayaby— 
the 3rd, and two refnmenta of 8ip^9 
—the 11th and SOth. Sigbty-firc 
troopers of the 3rd Cavalry had been 
Imprisoned for refusing to use the cart- 
ridges, but were released on the day 
above mentioned, by their fwmradea. 
On that day, Sunday, when the sun 
went down, the Sipfthts broke into re- 
volt. The Rnglisb soldiers in the 
cantonment were in amply sufficient 
nnmbera to have crushed tiic mutiny 
had they been commanded by a com- 
petent general, but General Hewitt 
does not seem to have comprehended 
the necessity for vigorous action, and 
the mutineers, after setting fire to the 
houges of the European offlcers, 
escaped to DihlL " The sweepings of 
tile jails and the ecmn of the b^&rs 
were loose in the caofonment, plun- 
dering and destroying wherever an 
English bangl4 was to be gutted and 
burned. The wives of English offlcers, 
Irft without protection whilst their 
-hnsbands were striving to do their 
duty in the lines, were savagely cut to 

Eieces in their burning booses ; and 
(tie children were massacred beneath 
the eyes of their mothera." On the 
morning of the llth there was still 
time for the Carbineers and the Horse 
.ArtiUei; to have reached Uie DihU can- 



tonment soon enough to have stopped 
the mutiny of the Sith and 74th Kegl- 
ments, and to have saved many 
precious lives, bat Ocuend Hewitt dM 
nothinf;. He did not even deal out 

Eunishment to the rebels in the 
^Ars. It was not till the I4tb of 
May, i days after the mnliny, that 
Lieut. MiJller, of the llth N. 1., went 
into the Great Biztkr, and singly 
arrested the murderer of Mtb. 
Chambers, who was forthwith hanged. 
There may have been other examples 
of individual courage, but the arm of 
authority was not uplifted to strike, 
and the multitude of the criminalB 
escaped. 

The mutineers were more active. 
The 3rd Cavalry galloped in hot haste 
oil through the moonlight night to 
Dihli, The distance was 40 m., but 
by 8 AJC. on the llth the foretoMt 
troopers had crossed the bridge of 
boats, cut down the toll-keeper, fired 
hiH house, and slain an Englisbnuui 
who WAS returning to Dihll across 
the bridge. The 3Sth lU^ment N.L, 
who in October, 1852, had i«tased 
to go by sea to Barmah, wero then 
on duty in the city, and were ripe 
for an outbreak. The troopers of the 
Srd Cavalry made their way along the 
road between the palace walls and 
the river to the BAj GhSt Gate, and m 
entered the city. They cut down 
every European they met, and set fire 
to their houses. They then turned 
back towards the Palace, and while 
Commissioner Fraaer and Captain 
Donglas wete endeavouring io secure 
the loydty of the KipAhl auards, the 
36th fraternised with the troopers, 
pursued Frazer and Douglas to the 
chaplain's house, and ^aughtered 
them, Hr. Jennings the chaplain, his 
daughter, and a Misa Clifford, and also 
Ml'. Hutchinson the Collector, who 
had been already wounded. At noon 
Mr. Beresford, the manager of the 
Dihli Bank, with his vrife and family 
and all the members of the establi^- 
ment, were slau^tered. The same 
fate befell the printers at the EMhll 
press, who remained at their work till 
the last, and sent forth the intelli- 
gence of their apptoscbiug death. Thb 



Sect 11: 



Jtoufe Sl.—DMi. 



307 



church was next destroyed, Christians 
were everywhere butchered, and their 
liouscs set on Gre. 

lu the cftiit°'i""^°'''i which were 2 m. 
fpom the town, on the ridge which after- 
comhntB maile so famous, the Sip&his 
had been assembled at the early sun- 
rise parade to hear the proceedings of 
the conrt-martial on Ishwari pSndi. 
the Jam'adAr at Barrackpilr, who had 
been hanged on the Z2nd of April. 
They heard With murmurs of disap- 
probation ; neTCrtheless the 54th, 
under Colonel Ripley, were ordered 
ont for service, and marched through 
the Kaslmilr Oate to the lUain Onaid, 
and a little beyond it, whero some of 
the 38th were posted. There th^ 
joined the .^th, and allowed their 
officers to be shot down. Major 
Abbott then bronght up the T4th N.L, 
wifli 2 gang, to the Main Guard, 
where Captain Patterson, of the fi4th, 
and 2 companies of bis regiment were 
posted with some guns, the arrival of 
which hod for a moment awed the 
mntineera into retreat. Eiuropean 



. The 38th now fired upon the 
fugitives, and many were killed ; but 
gome, both men and women, got 
throogh an embrastiFc in the bastion 
which skirted the courtyanl of the 
Main Guard, and dropped into the 
ditch ; while others let down the 
women with their belts, and with 
superhuman energy snnnounlcd the 
outer slope of the ditch and made 
their way into the jungle, which 
boiidered it Some of th