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Full text of "Handbook of the Bengal Presidency. With an account of Calcutta city .."

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HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



BENGAL PRESIDENCY. 



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lOJTDON 
BRADBURY, AOMF.W, & CO., rRJMTCRS, WHITKriUARA. 



HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



BENGAL PEESIDENCY 



WITH AN ACCOUNT OF 



CALCUTTA CITY. 




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WITH MAPS AND PLANS. 



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LONDON : 
JOffif .^URRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1882. 
[M Rightt re8er«cd.\ 



THE BNOXilSH 



EDITIONS OF MUKll.W'.S HANDBOOKS MAY BK OBTAINED 
OF THE FOLLOWING AGENTS. 

Bdgitim, Holland^ and Germany. 



AIX-LA- 

CHAPELLE ; 
AMSTERDAM 
ANTWERP . . 
BADEN-BADEN 
^ BERLIN .... 
BRUSSELS . . 
CARL8RUHK . 

COLOGNE 

DRESDEN.... 
FRANKFURT . 



MAYER. 

MULLER.'— KIRBEROKR. . 

MERTENii. 

MARX. 

asher. — mitscher & rostkll. 

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a. bielefeld. 

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BERNE DALP.— JENT & BEINERT. SCHAFF- 

COIRE GRUBENMANN. HAI7SEN . 

CONSTANCE . MECK. [ — H. OEORG. SOLEURE . . . 

GENEVA MONROE (mETFORD). — SANDOZ. ST. OALLEN 

LAUSANNE . . ROUSSY. ZURICH . . . 

LUCERNE . . KAISER. 



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LUCCA BARON. 

MANTUA NEGRETTI. 

MILAN SACCHL— DUMOLARD.— HOEPLI. 

MODENA VINCENZI & R08SL [HOEPLI 

NAPLES .... BRITISH LIBRARY (DORANT). — 

PALERMO . . PEDONE. 



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HUBEK. 

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& ZELLER.— LEUTHOLD. 



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CORFU. .J. W. TAYLOR. WHK & 



ATHENS KARL WILDBERG. 



CALCUTTA 



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TO 



HIS EXCELLENCY THE 



HONOUEABLE SIR ASHLEY EDEN, K.S.L, 



LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF BENGAL, 



THIS HANDBOOK OP THE PRESIDENCY OP BENGAL, 



THE CHIEF PEOYINCB OF WHICH HE HAS SO ABLY GOVBENED, 



Is Instxibieb 



BY THE AUl'HOR, 



EDWARD B. EASTWICK, 



IjONdon, Dece7n5er, 188V 






LIST OF MAPS. 



Map of Bengal and Assau .... infiont Pocket. 

Plan of Calcdtta to face Page 82. 

Map of British Bcbua at the end. 

Map of the North West Provinces and Oudh in end Pocket. 



PREFACE. 



No Handbook of the Bengal Presidency has hitherto 
bee!a prepared. There have been Guide-books to some of 
the cities, such as Calcutta, Dihli, and Agra, but the 
traveller has not been told how to get to those places, 
which, though very interesting in themselves, form but an 
infinitesimally small portion of the vast region which is the 
subject of this volume. As very few travellers who visit 
Calcutta would be content with seeing merel}" that portion 
of our Indian Empire which is under the Lieut.-Govemor 
of Bengal, the routes to the chief places in Awadh (Oudh), 
Bohilkhand, the N.W. Provinces and Bannah have been 
added. 

The Author has to express his thanks to H. E. the 

Lieut.- Governor of Bengal^ the Hon. Sir A. Eden; the 

Hon. Mr. Gibbs, Member of the Supreme Council; Mr. 

James, B.C.S,, Postmaster-General, who has contributed 

an account of two routes to the book ; the Hon. Horace 

Cockerell, Member of the Lieut.-Govemor s Council, and 

Secretary of the Government ; Mr. Clarke, Editor of the 

Indian Daily Nercs ; Mr. Cochrane, Judge of Katak ; C. E. 

Bernard, Esq., Chief Commissioner of Barmah; Mr. 

Franklin Prestage, C.E., the able Manager of the Eastern 

Bengal Railway, wlio most kindly accompanied him to 

Darjiling and Dhakali, and rendered him invaluable 

issistance ; Mr. Pellew, B.C.S., Commissioner of Dh&kah; 

yfr. John Beames, CLE., the well-known linguist and 

hilologist, Commissioner of Bai'dwdn, to whom. \jL<b ^-^^^ 



PREirACE. 



the translation of the Vocabulary and Dialogues; his brother 
Mr. Harry Beames, who was his host at Murshidabad; 
Mr. Moyley, B.C.S., Collector of Barhampur ; Mr. L. S. 
Jones, Collector of Edjmahal; Mr. Barlowe, B.C.S., Com- 
missioner of Bhagalpur; Mr. Currie, B.C.S., Magistrate of 
Munger (Monghj^); Mr. Metcalfe, B.C.S, Magistrate of 
Bankipiir; Mr. Porter, B.C.S., the Judge, and Mr. Kemble, 
the Commissioner of Ga}^^; Mr. Worgan, B.C.S., Judge of 
Arrah ; Saiyid 'Ali Saghir, residing at Jawanpiir, who copied 
for him the Persian History of Jawanpiir; Mr. Douglas 
Straight, Judge of the High Court at Allahabad ; Captain 
Martelli, Acting Resident at Rewah ; H. H. the Mahdrdjd, 
of Pand ; Sir Lepel Griffin, K.S.I., Agent for the Governor- 
General in Central India ; Major Burne, Magistrate at 
Indiir ; H. H. the Mahd,r^ja of Ratlam ; Major Grant, 
Magistrate at Nimach; Mr. S. M. Moens, B.C.S., late 
Commissioner of Jawanpiir ; Dr. Cameron, Civil Surgeon at 
I'aiz^b^d ; Mr. C. Currie, Judicial Commissioner at Awadh 
(Gudh) ; the Rev. Mr. Lamert, Chaplain at Agra ; H. H. 
the Mah^r^j^ of Jaipur ; Mr. T. H. Hendley, of the Bengal 
Medical Service, stationed at Jaipur ; H. H. the Mahardji 
of Bhartpiir ; H. H. the Mah^r^j^ of Alwar ; and Majoi 
Cadell, V.C., Political Agent at that Coui't; and to Colone 
Davies, C.S.I., Commissioner of Dihli. 

The Author's special thanks are also due to Mr. Campbe 
Agent for the East India Railway ; Colonel Jenkins, Age) 
for the Awadh and Rohilkhand Railway; Mr. Barnf 
Agent for the G. I. P. Railway ; Messrs. Mackinnon Sc ( 
of the British India Steam Navigation Co. ; to Mr. J 
Hall, a Director of tliat Company ; and once more t 
T. Sutherland, Chairman of the Peninsular and Ori 
Company. 



^ 



CONTENTS. 



Section I. 
INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION. 



PACt; 

§ a. Season for visiTiNCr 

Bengal ' . . .2 

§ h. Outfit . . . . 2 

§ r. Hints AS TO Dress, Diet, 
Health, and Com- 
fort ... 2 

§ ,d. Routes to Calcutta : 

1. Voyage from South- 

ampton through the 
Suez Canal . . 3 

2. Route Overland by 

Venice or Brindisi . 12 
§ c. Chronological Tables 12 
Governors-General and 

Viceroys . . 12,13 
Coramanders-in- Chief of 

India . . . . 14 
Finance Ministers of 

India . . .15 
Governors and Lieut - 

Governors of Bengal. 15 
Lieut.-Govcrnoi'S of the 

North- West Provinces 1 6 
Chief Commissionei's of 

Awadh (Oudh) . . 16 
Chief Commissioners of 

Barmah . . . 17 
Chief Commissioners of 

Centml Provinces . 17 
Cliief Commissioners of 

A'sam . . .18 

The Siirya-Vaiisha, or 

Solar bvnastv . . 18 
The Solar Dynasties of 

Awadh and Miithila 18 
The Chandra-Vansha, or 

Lunar Race, who 

reisrncd in Banaras or 



PAGE 

Kdshl, and afterwards 
in Magadha or Bihdr, 
and Indrapi-asthah or 
Dihli . . .10 

The Maurya, Sanga, 
Kanwd, and Andhi-a 
or Vrispdla Kings of 
A'ndhra or Orissa, - 
and Gupta Kings . 21 

Pathdn, Afghdn or Ghorl 
Kings of Hindiistdn, 
who reigned at Dihli 22 

Pathdn or Afghdn Kings 
or Governors of Ben- 
gal.capitalLakhnauti 
or Gaur . . . 22 

Brings of the Shark! 
Dynasty of Jawanpiir 23 

Mughul Emperors of 
Hindiistdn . . 24 

Principal events in the 
history of Bengal up 
to the time of the 
British Government . 

The Niiwab Ndjjims of 
Murshiddbdd . . 

The Bai-mese Kings 
§/. Tablks op Money, 
Weights and Mea- 
sures 
§ g. Castes and Tribes in 
the Bengal Presi- 
dency . . . . 
§ 7/. Languages of the 
Bengal Presi- 
dency . . .39 
Vocabulary and Dia- 
logues .* . . 43 



24 

32 
33 



33 



34 



Section II. 
CALCUTTA CITY. 

\st Lay. PAOE 

Hugli Piiver and Landing 



Place at Calcutta . . 82 
Hotels, Clubs, and Boarding 

Hoases 85 

Conveyances . . . .86 
The Esplanade . . . 86 



PAGE 

86 
89 



Government House 
Ochterlony Monument 

Statues 89 

The Town Hall . . . . '^^ 
TheLegi8la.tv«'i^wss^O;N.^«5^^'^ ^^, 



^x 



.J^^' 



via 



CONTENTS. 



Section IL— Calcutta City,— continved. 



^^ ^ ' PAGE 

^^'^''"'^j^ , 2iuL Day, 
Fort William . . . .93 
St. l»aul's Cathedral ... 93 
The Zoological Gardens . . 97 
Belvedere (the Lt.-Governor's 
Palace), and the site of the 
Duel between Warren Hast- 
ings and Sir Philip Francis 97 
The Kace Course . . . 97 
Garden Beach . . .97 

Palace of the King of Awadh . 98 

ZrA Bay, 
St. John's Cathedral , . 99 
New Post Office . . . . 101 
New Telegraph Office . . 101 
Bemains of the Old Fort . . 101 
Memorial of the Black Hole 

Massacre . . ... 102 
Calcutta University . . . 102 
The Greek Church . . .102 
The Armenian Church of St, 

Nazareth . . . . 102 



PAGE 

The Brdhma Somdj . . 103 

The Scotch Kirk . . . 103 

The Old Mission Church . 103 

Ihe Dalhousie Institute and 

the Secretariate . . . 104 

Wi Day, 
The Asiatic Society . .104 
The Indian Museum . . . 104 
St. Thomas' Boman Catholic 

Church .... 105 
The Mosque of Prince Ghuldm 

Muhammad . . . . 105 
The Economical Museum . 106 
The Metcalfe Hall . . .100 
The Mint .... 10r> 
Charities 106 



SI ff Jits in tJie Vicinity of 

Calcutta, 

The Botanical Gardens . .107 

Bishop's College. . . .107 

Bari'ackpiir . . . . 107 



ROUTES. 



BOUte PAGE 

1 Calcutta to False Point by 

Steamer . . . llj 

2 Calcutta to Purl (Poorec) 

and the Black Pagoda .112 

3 Purl to Bhuvaneshwar, 

Dhauli, Udayagiri, and 
Khandagiri . . .120 

4 Bhuvaneshwar to Katak . 132 

5 Katak (Cuttack) to Ydjpiir 135 

6 Katak to False Point . .139 

7 Calcutta to Darjiling . 140 

8 DarjilingtoDhdkah (Dacca) 148 

9 Calcutta to Rangiin, Maul- 

main, and Prome . .151 

10 Prome to Mandalay . . 161 

11 Calcutta to Hugli, Chin- 

surah, Shrirdmpur, Biin- 
del, and Chandranagav 162 

12 Hugll to Bardwdn and 

Murshidabdd •, .168 

13 Murshidabad to Barham- 

piirandPalashl(Plassey) 173 

14 Mui-shidabdd to RAjmahal 176, 

15 Kdjmahal to Bhagalpiir . 178 ' 

16 Bdjmahal to Mdldah and 

GauV . . . . 180 

17 Bhagalpiir to Munger • 

(Monghyi-) . . . 18^4 

18 Munger to Patna and Bdn- 

kipur . . . . 186 



Route PAGE 

19 Bdnkipiir to Gaya . . 191 

20 Bdnklpiir to An-ah . .195 

21 Arrah to Bagsar (Buxar) . 202 

22 Bagsar to Banaras (Benares) 203 

23 Bandras to Jawanpur . 224 

24 Jawanpdr to Faizdbdd and 

Ayodhya . * . . . 227 

25 Faizdbdd to Lakhnau (Luck- 

iiow) . . . .232 

26 Lakhnau to Shahjahdn- 

piir 249 

27 Shdhjahanpur to Bareli . 2.52 

28 Bareli to Nainl Tdl ... 255 

29 Bareli to Muraddbad . 260 

30 Murdddbdd to 'Aligaj-h . 262 

31 'A'lisrarh to Mathuid . . 267 

32 Mathurdto-Bindraban . 272 

33 Bindrdban to Dii,^ . . . 275 

34 Dig to Bhartpiir . . 277 

35 Bhaitpiir to Agra . . . 280 

36 Agra to Fathpilr Sikri . 297 

37 Agra to Dihii . . . 302 

38 Dihli to Mirat . . .342 

39 Mirat to Mainpuri ... 347 
MO Mainpiiri to Etdwah . . 349 

41 Etdwah to Kdnhpiir (Cawn- 

porc) . . . . 353 

42 Kdnhpiir to AUdhdbdd . 362 

43 Agra to Gwdlidr (Gwalior) 369 

44 Bdrh to Khatmandu . . 384 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS ^ 

IN THE 

BENGAL PEESIDENCY. 



// 



SECTION I. 

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION. 

^ a. Season for visiting Bengal 

I h. Outfit 

^ c. Hints as to Dress, Diet, Health, and Comfort 
^d. Routes to Calcutta: 

1. Voyage from Southampton through Suez Canal 

2. Route Overland by Venice or Brindisi . 
§ e. Chronological Tables 

Governors General and Viceroys 

Commanders-in-Chief op India 

Finance Ministers of India .... 

Governors and Lieut.-Governors of Bengal . 

Lieut.-Governors of the North- West Provinces 

Chief Commissioners op Awadh (Oudh) 

Chief Commissioners of Barmah. 

Chief Commissioners of Central Provinces . 

Chief Commissioners op AsAm .... 

The StjRYA-VANSHA OR Solar Dynasty . 

The Solar Dynasties of Awadh and Maithila 

Chandra- Vansha, or Lunar Race, who reigned in 

BanAras or KAsHf and afterwards in Magadha 

or BihAr, and Indraprasthah or DiHLf . 
Maurya, Sang a, KanwA, and Andhra or Vrispala 

Kings of Andhra or Orissa, and Gupta Kings . 
Pathan, AfghAn or Gnonf Kings op HiNDtJSTAN, 

who reigned at DiHLf 

PathAn or AfghAn Kings or Governors of Bengal, 

CAPITAL LAKHNAUTf OR GaUR 

Kings of the Shark! Dynasty op Jawanp<jr. 

MuGHUL Emperors of HiNDtJSTAN 

Principal Events in the H^^T0RY op Bengal 
TO the time op the British GtOVernment . 

The N6wAb NAzims of MurshidabAd 

The Barmese Kings . / /. 
$/. Tables of Money, AVeight^'and Measures . 
I g. Castes and Tribes in the' Bjivngal Presidency 
I L Languages of the Bengal Presidency . 

Vocabulary and Dialogues * . * * 

[^cwflTfl/— 1881.1 



UP 



tkGtt 

2 
2 
2 

3 

12 
12 
12 
14 
15 
15 
16 
16 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 



19 

21 

2^ 

22 
23 

24 

24 
32 
33 
33 

34 



2 INTRODUCTION. Sect I. 

§ a, SEASON FOR VISITING BENGAL. 

The territory under the Deputy Governor of Ben^l extends over 
193,581 sq. m., and contiiins a pop. of 60,357,141 inhabitantg. The 
N. W. Provinces have an area of 86,902 w[, m. >ntli 30,776,442 
inhabitants. A re<:jion so vast, over which the traveller is taken in 
this volume, presents various shades of climate, but it may be said 
generally of the whole that from the 20th of November to the end of 
March, the te^nperature is such that any European of an ordinarily 
good constitution may travel and visit places of intere.st without 
suffering in the slightest degree. The climate is in fact very enjoy- 
able at that periotl of the year, and superior to anything to be met 
with in Europe. It is necessary, however, to be prepared ii\dth tliin 
flannels and underclothing to wear in the plain.^,and with very warm 
clothes for travelling in the hills, as at Durjiling. The traveller 
who desires to make an extended tour nuist leave England in the 
beginning of November, and he mayi-emainin the Bengal Presidency 
to the end of the first week in April, by which time the sun will 
have acquired great power, but if he travels in a first-class carria^. 
with a tnermantidote, and with plenty of ice and soda-water, he will 
make out his return journey without difficidty. 

§ h. OUTFIT. 

In addition to the ordinary outfit of a traveller, with light, warm 
and medium flannels, it will be absolutely nec^ssiiry to take mosquito 
curtains and a light bed of some kind, as also a soW hat tmd canvas 
shoes, and high boots of sdnibar or elk skin. The hat should be 
light, porous and broad-brimmed, and secured \\dth a strap so as not 
to blow off when riding fast. Silk umbrellas should be avoided, as 
they are soon ruined in India, and the best material for them is 
alpaca, which should be covered with a white cotton cover. 
A tiffin-basket is very necessary, and before starting on a journey 
the traveller should provide himself with a ba^ containing half 
and quarter rupees and copper coins, which will reduce expenses 
very much, as otherwise whole rupees will have to be given away 
where a few dnas or even pice would be suflicient. A green veil and 
spectacles of a neutral tint are desirable on account of the excessive 
dTust and glare of the roads. Lists of clothes will be found at page 3 of 
the " Handbook of Madras.'' Clothing sent by sea in advance will have 
to pay duty, as also fire-arms that have not been in India before, or 
have been removed from India for a year. The trouble given by the 
Custom House officers, particularly at Calcutta, with regiird to guns, 
is excessive. Even should the duty have been paid upon them at 
Boml)ay and Madras, they will be taken to the Custom House at 
Calcutta, and the o>vners -vnll have to call there and furnish cer- 
tificates regarding them. There are certain persons also who must 
be employed and paid for taking them from the rooms where they 
are deposited. 

§ C. HINTS AS TO DRESS, DIET, HEALTH, AND COMFORT. 

Light-coloured dresses are, of course, preferable, on account of the 
great power of the sun and the dust. As chills are extremely 



Sect. t. 



ROUTES TO BENGAL. 



dangerous, it is well to be provided with an overcoat, 'which can be 
put on in a carriage or on horseback as soon as the sun goes down. 
Bathing in cold water is to be avoided. In the Bengal Presidency 
over every bed apankhd is suspended, and it is understood that the 
men who pull the pankhds are paid by the ^ests in a house. Two 
men are employed during the night, and each receives 3 dnas. Fees 
to servants are generally given, especially to the water-ciirriers 
and the scavengers. Fruit Siould not be eaten at night, but in the 
early morning. A safe and refreshing beverage in shooting expe- 
ditions is the juice of the cocoa-nut, which is almost everywhere 
procurable. 

§ d. ROUTES TO BENGAL. 

1. Voyage prom Southampton through the Suez Canal. 

In going to India it is best to select a cabin on the starboard side, 
and one on the port side on the return voyage. As soon as possible 
after embarking, a place at table should be secured, by putting a 
card in a plate. The seats nearest the centre of the vessel are fi'eest 
from motion and the noise and shaking of the screw. A few seats 
next the caiitain are usually kept for his friends, or ti-avellers of dis- 
tinction. The sideboard of tlie bed is better put down, unless the 
weather should be extremely rough. To keep fruit or any kind of 
food in one's cabin is to encoursuje the visits of ants, blackbeetles, 
and rats. Tlie fee of £1 is usualhr given to the bedroom steward, 
and 10s. to the table steward. The doctor is paid by those who 
employ him. A large canvas bag will be found very useful to con- 
tain dirfcv linen and other articles. The distances to be traversed 
are as follows : — 



Names of Places. 



Southampton to Gibraltar 
Gibraltar to Malta 
Malta to Port S'ald . 
Port S'aid to Suez, as the crow flies 
Suez to Aden .... 
Aden to Galle .... 
Galle to Madras .... 
Madras to Calcutta . 



MUes. 




Totals. 



3050 



4854 



Geneial Total. 



7004 



If the traveller starts in November, rough weather may be expected 
in the Channel and Bay of Biscay, and is also not imusual in the 
^leditermiiean. The first place sighted after leaving the Channel 
Mill be Cape La Hogue, in the island of Ushant, properly Ouessant, 
on the W. coast of Cotentin in France, off which on May 19tk^ 
1692, Admiral Russell, afterwards Earl of Orford, defeated De. 
Toufville and destroyed 16 French men-of-war. ThetfcSa ^\v^e*»- 
house on Cape La flogue, but as the coaa\.\sN«r^ ^OTL^^Tox\a.^^ccv^ 



4 iNTitODUCTioK. Sect. I. 

generally give it a wide berth, notwithstanding which many vessels 
ave been wrecked on it. The Bay of Biscay begins here and 
stretches for 360 m. to Cape Finisterre (finis terrro), a promontory on 
theW. coast of Gallicia in Spain, in N. lat. 42° 54' and W. long. 
9° 20', off which Anson l)eat the French in 1747. North winds usually 
prevail on this coast, favouring the outward voyage. Next the 
Berlingas or Berlings will be sighted, dangerous rocky islands, on 
one of which is a lighthouse. Lisbon is 40 m. to the S., and Cape 
Boca, a few ni. N. of Lisbon, is sometimes seen. After that Cape 
St. Vincent will be noticed in N. lat. 37° 3' and W. long. 8° 59', at the 
S.W. corner of the Portuguese province Algarve. Here, on January 16, 
1780, Sir G. Rodney defeated the Spaniards, and on February 14th, 
1797, Sir J. Jervis won a peerage by again defeating them. On 
the latter occasion Nelson, who was second in command, with his 
sliip, a seventy-four, captured the S. Josef and th^ S. Nicholas of 
112 gims eiich. This Cape is crowned by a fort, and the white cliffs, 
more than lOOft. high, are honeycombed by the waves. Before 
entering the Straits of Gibraltar, Cape Trafalgar will perhaps be 
seen in N. lat. 36° 9', W. long. 6° 1', immortalized by Nelson's victory 
of October 21st, 1805. There is generally a stop of about 6 hours 
at Gibraltar, a description of which place will be found in the "Hand- 
book of Madras." The highest point is O'Hara's Tower, 1408ft. above 
the sea. Passengers can land at the new mole and drive up Main 
Street, as far as the Alameda, where the band plays. In this street 
excellent gloves and silk ties, as well as lace, may be bought cheap. 
At the Garrison Library there is a model of the Rocki showing every 
house in Gibraltar. On the voyage to Malta the island of Pantellaria, 
the ancient Cossyra, will probably be seen. The Maltese islands are 
Gozo to the W., Malta to the E., and Cumino in the Straits of 
Freghi, between the other two. The harbour of Malta consists of 
2 ports, Marsamuscet on the W. and the Great Port on the E. The 
latter port is used by men-of-war, and Marsamuscet by the P. & O. 
steamers. It is usual to land to escape the dust of the coaling. 
A boat costs Is., and the landing place is only a few hundred yards 
from the end of the harbour, where the steamers coal. A long 
flight of steps leads to the street, where carriages can be got. The 
traveller may go first to the P. & 0. Agent in Strada Mercante, 
between which and the Strada Keale in the centre of Valetta are the 
Palace, the Treasury, the Armoury and St. John's Ghm'ch, which are 
the principal sights. Opposite St. John's is Ditmfoi'd's Hotel. 
Other hotels are the Imperial, Cambridge, Croce di Malta, and 
Angleterre. 

The Sue:: Canal. — For the history of this Canal refer to the 
*' Handbook of Egyjit," John Murray, 1873. The lighthouse at Port 
S'aid is IGOft. high. It shows an electric light, flashing every three 
seconds. A red light is shown at the end. of thi^ W. mole, and a 
green at the end of the E. (Opposite the anchorage is the French 
Ofiice, where pilots are engaged, and where is a wooden plan of the 
Canal, in which pegs with Hags ishew the position of every vessel 
passing tlu'ough. TJie Hotel du Louvre and the Hotel de France 
are in the Place de Lessej)s in the centre of the European quarter. 



Sect. I. SUEZ— THE RED SEA — ADEN^ 5 

The dimensions of the Canal (see " Handbook of Egypt *') are a;s 
follows :— 

Width at water-line, where banks are low . . . 328 ft. 

Ditto in deep cuttings . . . . 190 „ 

Ditto at base 72 ., 

Depth 26 ,r 

Slope of bank at water-line, 1 in 5 ; near base, 1 in 2. 

jSwe^.— Steamers halt liere to receive or forw rd the mail from or 
to Brindisi. There is a hotel here, at which people have stopped 
for weeks. In the cold weather the climate is charming, but very 
little can be said in praise of the town, or any of its oelongings. 
Those who are compelled to stop a day may make an expedition to 
the Wells of Moses, on the E. coast of the Sea and about 10 m. off, ' 
where there is a nice clump of trees, a good place for a picnic. 

The Red Sea»^A strong N. wind generally prevails in the Red Sea 
for half the voyage, anil is succeeded by a strong wind from the S. 
for the rest of the way. The Sinaitic Hange is the first remarkable 
land viewed to the E., but Sinai itself, distant 37 geo. m., is liid by 
intervening mountains of equal height. Shadwan island is a little 
S. of the land that intervenes between the Gulfs of Suez and 
Akabah ; about 10 m. from it is the i*eef on which the Carnatic 
was lost in 1866. The next danger is " The Brothers," 2 circular rocks 
rising 30ft. above the sea. In the S. part of the Red Sea, islets are 
numerous, and among them is the group called " The Twelve 
Apostles." There is one place where a light is particularly wanted, 
the rock of Abii Ail : it is not easily seen on account of its grey 
colour. It is 2^ m. to the E. of High Island, or Jabal Suhaya, 
which is in N, lat. 14*^ 4' and E. long. 42*^ 44'. Here two wrecks 
are distinctly visible, viz. that of the DuJce of Lancaster, with 
four masts, the fore-mast broken. The funnel is still standing, and 
the vessel lies about 1 m. from the N. point of the island. Further 
to the N. and at the very N. end of the island is the wreck of 
the Penguin, These wrecks testify to the extreme danger of the 
passage, and prove that representations ought to be made to the 
Egyptian Government to establish a light here. In the monsoon the .-a 
weauier is generallv misty here, and a lighthouse is much needed. Oa ; ' ?' 
Jabal Tir also, in N . lat. 15° 38' and E. long. 41° 54', a light is required, . 
as vessels coming from the N. have a run of 400 m. to this island 
without seeing land, and it is very desirable that the captains should 
make sure of their position, as there are reefs to the W. and E., the 
latter at only 20 m. distant. Jabal Tir is 110 m. N. of Abu Ail. 
At Perim island there is an officer stationed with 80 men. There 
is also a lighthouse, but in spite of it the Cunard steamer Batavia 
got ashore on the N. part of the island. On the African shore there 
IS a large house built by the French, now deserted. From Pefim to 
the Arabian coast the strait is only 1 m. broad. From Perim to 
Aden is 90 m. due E. 

Aden, — Most people land at Aden to escape the dust and heat in 
coaling. All boats must have a licence from the conservator of tW 
port, and the number of the licence must be painted. o\l >(Jcvft,\><s^ «sn^ 
atenu Each of the crew must wear the uwnSo^x Qa\iSa\^Hx\ytR»&\»'^ 



6^ iNTRODUCTiox. Sect. I. 

figures 24 in. long. When asking payment the crew must show the 
table of fares and rules, and any one of them asking pre-payment is 
liable to fine and imprisonment. In case of dispute, recourse must 
be had to the nearest European police-officer. A boat inspector 
attends at the Gun Wharf from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. to call boats and to 
give information to pa<?sengers. After sunset passengers can only be 
landed at the Gun Wliaif. It takes about J of an hour to land at 
the Post Office Pier, which is broad and sheltered. About 1 m. to 
the left are the Hotel de I'Europe and the Hotel de PUnivers. There 
is also a large shop kept by a Pdrsl To the right about 1 m. is 
Government House. The hour of departure is always posted up on 
board the steamer, and should there be 4 hrs. or more of dayhght, 
a drive may be taken to the Tanks, which are 5 m. from the landmg- 

Elace. These -were begun in 600 A.D., and 13 have been restored, 
olding 8 million gallons of water. 
Galle. — The voyage from Aden to Galle takes about 5 days. 
When the breakwater at Colombo is finished, vessels will make that 
port, and Galle, which is a very small harbour, and not very safe in 
rou«;h weather, will be altogether deserted. The lighthouse is about 
60 It. high, but the entrance to the harbour is so narrow as to be 
hardly visible until very near. To the E. there is a hill 2,170 ft. 
high called the Haycock, and in the distance to the E.N.E. 
Adam's Peak, 7,000 ft. high, is sometimes dimly discerned. The 
P. & O.'s agent lives in a pretty villa in the S.W. comer of the 
harbour. The landing-place at Galle is on the N. side of the harbour. 
Close by in Church Street is the Oriental Bank. The Oriental 
Hotel is also near, and is comfortable. There is another hotel, kept 
by a lady, closer to the port. The Church, All Saints, is about J m. 
from the landing-place. It is a handsome stone building, and can seat 
500 persons. It lias 3 memorial windows at the E. end, one to a Mr. 
Templar, son-in-law of a Lite Bishop of Colombo. The architect was 
Mr. J. Smith, in Government employ, and the building cost £8,000. 
Colomho. — The French steamers go to Colombo from Galle. The 
charge for a first-class passage, with one servant deck passenger, is 28 rs. 
At present, as the breakwater is unfinished, the swell is very high, 
and in the S.W. monsoon dangerous. When vessels can come inside 
^f.'ttie breakwater the landing will be eiisy. The breakwater is made of 
'* ^concrete blocks, Aveighing 10 to 32 tons each. It was commenced 
from the W., and after running in a straight line for 3,200 ft., it 
curves to the S. The water inside is 22 ft. deep. The engineer of 
the breakwater is Mr. Kyle. There is a large hotel in the fort, 
where there is also a pleasant walk behind Government House to the 
Flag-Statt*. The Colombo Light is placed on the top of the Clock 
Tower, where Chatham Street and Queen Street join. The light is 
visible 18 m. The traveller who intends to stop a day or two will 
do well to drive on to the Galle Face Hotel. He will pass by the 
Government Offices, and turning the comer opposite Government 
House and the Library, will pass the Telegraph Office on the r., 
and the Savings Bank and General Post Office on the 1. Beyond 
the Post Office is the Scotch Presbyterian Church, and further on are 
the Officers' Quarters and the Mess House, and beyond them the fine 




V 



Sect. I. COLOMBO. 7 

open space called the Galle Face, which faces the direct road to Galle. 
Here aie 4 fine barracks, and at right angles to them a still larger 
ranee of barracks. The city of Colombo extends to the 4th m. on uie 
Gkule road, with a breadth of 3^ m. from the sea to the E. outskirts. 
By the census of 1871 there were 100,000 inhabitants. The Galle 
Face Hotel is at the S.W. extremity of the Esplanade, and has 
several advantages over the Grand Oriental Hotel in the fort. The 
water, for instance, is the best in the island, and the best drive and 
promenade are at the door of the Hotel Compound. In the Fort 
Hotel there is no sea view, not such good attendance, and more 
mosquitoes. It will be well to select a room facing the sea at the 
Galle Face Hotel, for the back rooms are not comfortable. The pro- 
prietor, a native of Ceylon, and said to be very rich, will not expend 
a sixpence on the hotel, and the consequence is that the bedrooms 
are in a sad state, though a small sum would make them charming. 
The mosquito curtains are full of holes, and the mats dirty and worn 
out The table d'h6te is at 7.30 p.m. The Sir fish is excellent, and 
the dinner is generally very good indeed. Nearly in the centre of 
the Galle Face Esplanade is the Club House, a fine building looking 
on the sea. About the middle of the Promenade, near the sea, is a 
stone like a milestone, with the following inscription : — 

Galle Face Walk. 

Commenced 

By SIR HENRY WARD, 

In 1856 ; 

Completed 1859, 

And recommended to his 

Successors for the use of 

The Ladies and Gentlemen. 

To see the town an open carriage may be engaged at the Galle 
Face Hotel, and the drive will be along the sea past the barracks, 
until the statue of Sir E. Barnes is reached. It stands on a granite 
pedestal, inscribed as follows : — 

• Lieutenant-Genebal 

SIR EDWARD BARNES, 

G.C.B., K.M.T., K.S.A. 

Erected by the 

Europeans and native inhabitants of Ceylon, 

And friends in England and India, 

To testify 

Their respect and afEection for his person, 

And to perpetuate the memory of 

His distinguished military services, 

and 

The important benefits conferred by him 

Upon this Colony 

During his administration of the Government 

From 1820—22, 

and 

From 1824—1831. 

He died March, 1838, 

Aged 62 years. 



* 



8 INTRODUCTION. Scct. I. 

Then turn to the r. past the Kacquet Court and an old Dutch 
Belfry, just beyond which is the Town Hall and Public Market 
Place, from which diverge two streets, the one to the 1., Sea Street, 
where dwell the dealers in rice and cotton, and where are 2 Hindu 
temples of no importance. The street to the r., Wolfendahl Street, 
conducts to Wolfendahl Church, a massive building on high ground, 
built by the Dutch in 1749, and commanding a fine view of the city 
and harbour. Here are hatchments recording the decease of Dutch 
officials. The church is shaped like a St. Andrew's Cross. The 
dome is the first landmark seen by ships approaching Colombo. The 
dome was of brick and was surmounted by a gilt weathercock, which 
was struck by lightning in 1856. The dome was then so much 
damaged that it was taken down, and a roof of timber and tiles 
erected instead. The morning service on Sunday is at 9.30 a.m., 
and the afternoon at 4.30 p.m. Thence the drive may be continued, 
in a N.E. direction, to the Cathedral of S. Lucia, adjoining which is 
a college for Catholics. Then N. and a little W., the Cathedral and 
College of St. Thomas are reached. They stand in a park, and were 
given by Dr. Chapman, the first Bishop. At the College are 300 
students, 60 of whom are resident, with 4 English masters. About 
1 m. to the N. is St. James' Church, and in driving there a fine house 
called Uplands is seen to the left, where is a tortoise, said to be more 
than 200 years old, and very huge. Three furlongs to the N. of St. 
James' Church is the Kelani river, whence a steamer goes twice a 
day 23 m. to Negombo, and thence the N. part of the island may be 
visited. It must be said, however, that the ruins of ancient cities in 
this island and the low lying districts are very feverish. There is 
an extremely fetid smell from the woods, owing to decaying vegetation. 
The traveller may now drive S.W,, rather more than 2 m., to the 
Cinnamon Gardens, 3 of which will be seen before reaching the 
Central Jail, where there is room for 1,000 prisoners. A turn may 
then be taken to the W. along Hospital Road, which leads to the 
Circular Walk Gardens, in which a Museum was built by 
Mr. Smither, architect, and opened in 1877 by the Governor, 
Sir William Gregory. On the basement are some interesting stones, 
and particularly a finely carved lion, brought from the ruined cities 
of Ceylon. The- entrance hall is handsome, and to the r. of it is a 
library, to which the public has access from 6.30 to 10 a.m., and 
from 3 to 5 p.m. The Museum is shut on Friday, but open on other 
days, Sundays included, from 9 a.m to 6 p.m. In front of the 
Museum is a statue of Sir W. Gregory, inscribed : 

The Right Honorable 

SIR WM. GREGORY, K.C.M.G., 

GovERNOB OP Ceylon. 

Erected by the 

Inhabitants of this Island, 

To commemorate 

The many benefits conferred 

By him upon this Colony 

During liis administration of the Government 

From 1872 to 1877. 

Returning to the fort, the traveller will pass Alfred House, the 



Sect. I, EXCURSIONS FROM COLOMBO. 9 

residence of Mr. Charles de Soysa, the richest inhabitant of Ceylon, 
who in 1870 entertained there the Duke of Edinbui-gh^i and the 
Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson. 

Before leaving Colombo, a visit may be paid to one of the 20 ' 
Coffee Mills, as e.g. to the Blomendahl Mills belonging to Messrs. 
George Wall & Co., in Alutmawatti Koad, or to the Maddema 
Mills, in Cinnamon Gardens, owned by Messrs. Sabonadiere & Co. 

Excursions. — There is a Buddhist Temple at the village of Kelanl, 
2 m. Up the river of the same name. The " Mahawanso " refers to 
it as contemporary with Buddha. The original Dagoba was built 
500 years before the Christian era and enlarged 3 centuries later, but 
the one that is now standing was constructed between the years 
1240 — 1267 A.D., and rebuilt about 1301 a.d. It stands on the river 
bank, and is handsomely, though gaudily decorated. According to 
the Colombo Guide it stands on the site of a shrine erected by 
Prince Yatalatissa B.C. 306. A ^^reat festival takes place at it at 
the full moon of May, and lasts 4 weeks. 

Another excursion may be made by rail to- Panadura, distant 
from Colombo 16 m. The village is on the sea shore, and the 
stations are : 

1. The Petah. 

2. The Fort. 

3. Slave Island. — The drive from Galle Face Hotel to this 
station is about ^ of a m. The train starts at '5.16 A.M. 

4. Kollnapitiya. 

5. Bambalcspitya arrive 7.35 

6. Wellaway;a „ 7.37 

7. Dehiwala ,, 7.47 

8. Mount Lavinia ,, 7.49 

9. ADgulana. ' 

10. Moratara. 

11. Panadura. 

At Mount Lavinia is the Grand Hotel, which was built by Sir E. 
Barnes, when Governor, as his Marine Villa. It stands on a rocky 
eminence close to the station and 1. of it. It is 7 m. from Colombo, 
and is a good place to halt for breakfast. The three stations beyond 
Panadura are : 

12. Waduwa r.rrive 8.35 

13. Kalutara North , 8.49 

14. Kalutara South . . . ,, 8.55 

Here the coach starts for Galle, the whole length of the railway 
being 28 m. The coach goes 46 m., with 7 stations for change of 
horses about 6 m. apart, Galle being the 8th. The names of the 
stations are : 



1. Magun. 

2. Bantote — amvc 10.44 

3. Indrua ., 12.0 

4. Walitara ,, 12.45 



5. Maderai)li — arrive 1.30 

6. Hirkadna ., 2.30 

7. Urkenda ., 3.20 

8. Galle ., 4.0 



At Bantote the passengers breakfast on sir fish., o^a\.et^^ Oti\vi>K.^VL\ft^'Oa.^ 



10 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



Irish stew, and 3 sorts of curries. The charge is IJ rs. The rest- 
Jiouse is comfortable, and is 100 yards from the road to the r. Alonjij 
this road many hxr<i,e lizards from 3 to 4i ft long are seen, some 
black, some grey, with long snake- like heads. They are eaten by 
the natives, and live on frogs and insects. Young alligators are 
sometimes met with. The charge from Kalutara to Galle by coach 
is 20 rs. for Ist class, and 10 rs. for 2nd class. Clergymen do not pay, 
and when one has been charged inadvertently the money has been 
returned to him. Should the traveller have time, he may visit 
Kandy from Colombo. The stations are as follows : — 



Names of Stations. 



UP. 

Colombo . 
Kelaniya . . 
Mahara . 
Henaratgoda . 
Veyangoda 
Mirigama . . 
Ambepussa 
Polgahawcla . 
Rambukkana . 
Kadugannawa . 
Peredeniya 
Kandy . . 



No. 1. 

A^ jjf* 

7.0 
7.9 
7.27 
7.50 
8.8 
8.3.S 
8.44 
9.17 
9.41 
10.45 
11.15 
11.30 





Fare 


No. 2. 


1st 




Class. 


P.M. 


R. c. 


2.0 


• • • 


2.9 


24 


2.27 


72 


2.50 


1 38 


3.8 


1 86 


,S.33 


2 49 


3.44 


2 82 


4.17 


3 69 


4.41 


4 26 


5.45 


5 22 


6.15 


5 70 


6.30 


6 



Remarks. 



The second train does not go 
on Sundays. 



The ascent begins at Rambuk- 
kana, and the views over the 
wooded hills are extremely 
picturesque. There is a 
slight descent atTeredeniya. 
There is a good hotel at 
Kandy. 



There is a picturesque rest-house at Ambepussa, one of those 
treacherously beautiful spots, which have acquired a bad renown 
from the attractions of the scenery, and the pestilent fevers by wliich 
the locality is infested. The aspect of the country here gradually 
changes, from maritime plains to the ruder and less cultivated 
Kandy an highlands. The houses, instead of groves of cocoa-nuts, 
are surrounded by a fence of coffee bushes, with their ])olished green 
leaves, and wreaths of jasmine-like flowers, and every thing indicates 
the change from the low country and its habits to the hills and a 
hardier peasantry. Between Ambepussa and Komegalle, milk-white 
monkeys are numerous.* The last 30 m. is said by Tennent to com- 
bine the grandeur of the Alps with the splendour of tropical vegeta- 
tion. There is a village of Rodiyas, a degraded race, at Kadugannawa. 
From this village there is a gentle descent for 8 or 9 m. towards the 
banks of the Maliawelli Ganga river, a bend of which flows around 
Kand)% surrounding the city, as the Singhalese say, " like a necklace 
of pearls.'^ 

Kanihj.— The first mention of Kandy as a city is at the beginning 
of the 14th century, when a teniple was built there, to contain 
Buddha's tooth and other relics. From possessing these, it became 
an important seat of the Buddhist Hierarchy, and eventually the 
residence of branches of the royal family ; but it was not till the 

* Tenneiit's '* Ceylon," vol. ii. p. 134. 



■ 

Sect. I. KAKDT. 11 

close of the 16tli century that it was adopted as the capital of the 
island, after the destruction of Kotta, and the defeat of Rdjd 
Singha II. by Wiraala Dhamia in 1592. Durinj? the wars between 
the Portuguese and Dutch, Kandy was so often bimied that ' 
scarcely any of the ancient buildings, except the temples and 
the royal residence, were remaining, when the English took it in 
1815. The Palace, a wing of which is still occupied by the chief 
civil officer of the province, was built by Wimala Dharma about 
A.D. 1600, and the Portuguese prisoners were employed in erecting 
it. This gave a European character to the architecture of some por- 
tions, such as the tower adjoining the Malagawa temple, in which 
the sacred tooth is deposited. The Dalada, or " sacred tooth,*' was 
brought to Ceylon a short time before Fa Hian's arrival in a.d. 311, 
in charge of a princess of Kalinga, who concealed it in the folds of 
her hair. It was taken by the Malabars about a.d. 1315, and again 
canied to India, but was recovered by Prakrama Baliu III. It was 
then hidden, but in 1560 was discovered by the Portuguese, taken to 
Goa by Don Constautine de Braganza, and burned by the archbishop 
in the presence of the Viceroy and his court. "Wikrama Bahu manu- 
factured another tooth, which is a piece of discoloured ivory, 2 in. 
long and less than 1 in diameter, resembling the tooth of a crocodile 
rather than that of a man. Kandy is picturesquely situated on the 
banks of a miniature lake, overhung on all sides by hills. A road 
called Lady Horton's Walk winds round one of those hills, and on 
the E. side, which is almost precipitous, looks down on the valley of 
Dumbera, through which the Mahawelli Ganga rolls over a channel 
of rocks, " presenting a scene that in majestic beauty can scarcely be 
surpassed." In a park at the foot of this acclivity is the pavilion of 
the Governor, one of the most agieeable edifices in India, not less 
from the beauty of the architecture than from its judicious adapta- 
tion to the climate " (Tennent, vol. ii. p. 203). Serpents are very 
numerous here, especially the cobra and gi-een carawilla. The large 
black scorpion, as big as a cmyfisli, is also found here, but is not very 
poisonous. 

From Kandy to the Royal Botanic Garden at Peradenia, the 
road, for nearly 4 m., passes through a suburb in which every 
house is surrounded by a garden of cocoa-nut palms, bread-fruit, 
and coffee trees. The entrance to the Botanic Garden is through a 
noble avenue of India-rubber trees {Ficus elastica), and on entering 
a group of palms is seen, unsurpassed in beauty and grandeur. 
Amongst the exotic species is the wonderful Coco de Mer of the 
Seychelles. In size it exceeds the oidinary cocoa-nut many times, 
with the peculiarity of a double and sometimes triple formation. 
Formerly medicinal virtues were ascribed to it, and the Emperor 
Rodolph II. offered 4,00(.) florins for a single specimen. The garden 
covers nearly 150 acres, and overlooks the noble river that encircles 
it on three sides. In it are Orchids and flowering creepers, Ipomocas 
and Bignonia«*, the Bauhinia scandens and racemosa, which re- 
sembles the chain cable of a man-of-war. There is a monument in 
the grounds to Dr. Gardiner, once its able Director. The great road J 
from Kandy to the Sanatorium of Nuera-ellia, a di-stovRfc <5Jl ^^»:^?i ^ 



12 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. T. 



50 in., is carried to the height of 6,000 ft. above the sea. It crosses 
the bridge of Peradenia, which spans the river Mahawelli Ganga, 
with a single arch of more than 200 ft. Gampola, the ancient Ganga 
Shri Pi'ira, the sacred city by the river, is about the same distance 
from Kandy as Nuera-ellia, but a little more to the "W. It was the 
last of the native capitals before the king removed to Kotta in 
A.D. 1410. It was built in the middle of the 14th century, and it 
was here that Ibn Batuta visited Bhuwaneka Bahu IV. about 
A.D. 1347, and here, in 1405, the next king was defeated by the 
Chinese general Ching Ho, and carried captive to Nankin. It is now 
the centre of the coffee plantations, and, therefore, the traveller may 
pay it a visit if he has time. The voyage to Madras from Ceylon is 
.not without its risks. At 80 m. from Galle the Great Basses, 
dangerous rocks, are passed, and at 120 m., the Little Basses. Vessels 
have been lost by standing too close in shore. The harbour at 
Madras is not well managed, and many captains prefer to lie outside 
in the swell rather than risk entering. For the sights of Madras see 
Murray's " Handbook of Madras," 2nd edition, 1879. 

2. Route Overland' by Venice or Brindisi. 

This route will be found described in the Madras and Bombay 
Handbooks, 2nd Ed. All that need be added is that the Pullman 
Cars are not obtainable on the Venice line, but only on that to 
Brindisi. It is necessary to write at least a fortnight beforehand to 
obtain one. The charge is .£3 extra. 

_*. , 

§ e, CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. * 

Govemors-GeneraL 



Names. 



1. The Riglit Hon. Warren 
Hastings 



2. Sir John Macplierson, 
Bart. 



3. 
4. 



5. 



Earl Cornwallis, K.G. 
Sir John Sliore, Bart,, 

afterwards LordTeign- 

mouth 
Lieut. -Gen. Sir Alured 

Clarke, K.C.B. 



Assumed 
Office. 



Oct. 20, 1774. 



Feb. 



8, 1785. 



Sept.l2,17SG. 
Oct. 28, 17ii:3. 



Embarked 
for England. 



Feb. 1, 1785. 



Oct. 10, 
Mar. 12. 



170n. 
17i>8. 



Remarks. 



Mar. 17,1798. ; May 17, 1708. 



Appointed Governor of Ben- 
gal, April 13, 1772, and 
Governor-General byLoi-d 
North's Regulating Aet, 
IH Geo. III., o. 03, in 
1773. 

Succeeded Mr. Hastings as 
l)eing Senior Mem1)er of 
Council. Ha<l l>een dis- 
missed from the Madras 
Civil Serviite in 177ti. 
Was injstored by the 
Directoi-s, and appointed 
to the Sui)reme Council 
in Januai-y, 1781. 

A Bengal Civil Servant dis- 
tinguished for knowledge 
of revenue matters. 

Succeeded as Comnmnder- 
in - Chief and Senior 
Menil)er of Council, to 
be officiating Govei-nor- 
General. 



GOVEBKOBS-GENBRi^ AND VICEHOTS. 
Gocertutr*- GrHnvl ~(.cB»tliiiied). 



»-.™.; 


Auuiiisd 
UlUcs. 


Kiiibiirkel 
fur EnBlBdil. 


Kfimrlta. 




May IS, 171IS. 


Aug. 3, 180^. 












WBllBBley 








MawifB CuniwuHifl, 


July M, 18115, 




DicBl October J. Ib03, at 






mMi«V. 4S, m. N.E. ot 








Bhurisx. 




Out 10, 1803. 


Madem-er 


8iin(.ee.M a« Montor Maui- 


But., K-ca 




•'W,* 


ber ol ConiiL-tl, anil 
WUB uiiiaiined Goyemni- 
Oeneral, yaluiury 25, 
1800. R«uillcd uuder 
Ki He'll aigii Manual 


EsrtofJfiiil-, . . 


Jiilv »1, 180". 


Oct. 181a. 


Heuills.L 




th^i. 4, i8ia. 






.irrts Ma^iii" of 








Hastlnga, a.CB. 








Mr.JoliDAJaDi . 


Jan., It-is. 


AiiB- 1, 182a 


8ii«*i^d<.d ,IM BoDiur M«i.i- 
berutOiinmiltnofflrtnte 
as Govmiot - GEiienil. 
Died J«no 4, ISM, ui, 
l™irdtlic-l/4U. 


K>tl oTAuAent . . 


Aug. 1, 1853. 


MsT. ID, IS2S. 


Itr. Bottcrwortli Bay ley 


Mori3,i82a. 


Marts <.>-.»■ 


3ii.-cecdod M Senior Mwii-'' 






tliurge, Juiy 


lirr"fCmini-ilt.)or!lBlBti! 






4,1828. 


n.H (ir.vunu'r.r,Fn™.T. 


Lorcl William Deiitini^k, 


July 4, 18i8. 


Mar. 20, IS15. 




Q.C.B. 






"'ilSni.'"'"' Mmlms''^| 


«ir Chu-Lcs Hcteolfe, 




Mafle o\-er 


SiiKi-swIeii as (jpniur Mevi-. 


' Bart., aaa 




0h«rBe,Mar.4, 


iHT nf Cdiui.'II lu ofllclaial 










Tha Eart of Aucklan.l. 






1 


O.C.B. 








EarlofEllBtvUmragli . 


Fi^b. as, 1S42. 


Ang, 1, 1S44. 


Kenilkd by the Court nf 


Lord HBraiuse. ecu. 


July A 1844. 


Jan. 18, 1648, 




•B"- "'■'""■'•• 


Jan. 12. 1648. 


Mar., \m. 


1 


Earl Cannine, G.C.B., 


Feb. 21>, 185(1. 


Mar. ie,1803. 


Ciciti'd Vltftuy, November 


O.C.B. 1. 









Gtroernot 


-General ami Viecrogs. 


j x„. 


' om<' 


forEnglaiul. 


Itctnurke. 


1 1. Earl Cnnlng, O.C.B. 

: 2. Tlie 'Eart nf Elgin, 
; _K.T..OC.B. 

Hir Robert Si,\Xn, 
K.Cn.. Htlsmanl- 
Iflrd Kapler of Mjis- 

4. Cotofl Kir William 
■_ Dmtann. K.C.B, 

Wiinlii Ijiml lAwnucc 


Nov. 
Mar. 1 

IK-,..-: 


,ma. 


Mw. 18.1802. 


b<'r20, 1B>U. ' 
Sii.Tri^p.l«a flmi™ Mem- 
ber of Cmiiicillo olllrfat^ 

cnu-iati..^ ! 



u 



INTRODUCJTION. 



Sect. I. 



Governors- General and 


Viceroys — (continued.) . 


Karnes. 


Assumed 
Office. 


Embarked 
for England. 


Remarks. 


6. The Earl of Mayo, K.P. 


Jan. 12, 1S69. 


•• 


Assassinated at Port Blair, 








Febniary 8, 1872. 


7. The Hon. Mr. John 


Feb. 9, 1872. 


Feb. 23, 1872. 


Officiating. 


Strachey, afterwards 




. 




Sir John Strachey, 








Jx.C.o.1. 






. 


8. Lord Napier of Merchis- 

toun 

9. Lord Northbrook, 


Feb. 23, 1872. 


May 7, 1872. 


Officiating. 


May 3, 1872. 


April 16,1876. 


» 


G. C. 8. 1. , afterwards 








Earl Northbrook 








10. Lord Lytton, G.M.S.L, 


April 12,1876. 


July 3, 1880. 




G.M.I.E., afterwards 








Earl Lytton 








11. Marquis of Ripon 


June 8, 1880. 


"■^ 


• 



) 



Comnianders'in'Chief of India. 

1. Brigadier-General Sir Robert Baker 

2. Colonel Charles Chapman .... 

3. Brigadier-General Giles Stibbert 

4. Lieut.-General John Clavering . 

5. Lieut.-General Sir Eyre Coote . 

6. Colonel Alexander Champion 

7. Lieut.-General Sir Robert Sioper 

8. General Earl Comwallis .... 

9. Lieut.-General Giles Stibbert (second time) 

10. Colonel Arthur Auchmuty (temporar}^ 

11. Major-General Sir Robert Abercromby . 

12. Major-General Sir Charles Morgan (temporary 

13. Colonel Sir Alexander Mackenzie (temporary) 

14. Major-Gcneral Sir Alured Clarke . 

15. Major-General Sir James Craig 

16. Lieut-General Gerard, Lord Lake 

17. General Marquis Comwallis (second time) 

18. Major-General W. Dowdeswell . 

19. Major-General Sir Evan Baillie 

20. Lieut.-General Sir G. Hewett 

21. Major-General William St. Leger (temporary) 

22. Lieut.-General Sir George Nugent 

23. General Marquis of Hastings .... 

24. General Sir Edward Paget 

25. General Viscount Combermere 

26. General Earl of Dalhousic .... 

27. General Sir Edward Barnes .... 

28. General Lord William Bentinck . 

29. General Sir Henry Fane 

30. General Sir Jasper NicoUs .... 

31. Grcncral Lord Gough 

32. General Sir Charles James Napier 

33. General Sir William Maynard Gomm 

34. General Sir George Anson .... 

36. General Sir Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde), G.C.B 



A.D 



DATKS. 

1769 
1772 
1773 
1774 
1777 
1779 
1780 
1785 
1789 
1790 
1793 
1793 
1796 
1797 
1800 
1800 
1801 
1803 
1807 
1807 
1810 
1813 
1813 
1823 
1825 
1830 
1832 
1833 
18.35 
1839 
1846 
1849 
1860 
1853 
1867 



Sect. 1. 



GOVERNORS OF BENGAL. 



15 



36. General* Sir Hugh Rose (Lord Btrathnaim) . 

37. Lieut.-General Sir W. Mansfield (Lord Sandhurst) 

38. General Robert Cornells (Lord Napier of Magdala) 

39. General Sir Frederick Haines .... 

40. General Sir Donald Mafbin Stewart, G.C.B. . 



A.D 



10th April 



Finance Ministers of India, 

1. The Right Hon. James Wilson .... 

Died 

Vacant from August 11, 1860 to . 

2. The Hon. Samuel Laing . . . 

3. The Hon. Sir C. E. Trevelyan, K.C.B. 

4. The Right Hon. W. N. Massey . 

5. The Hon. Sir Richard Temple, K.C.S.L . 

6. The Hon. J. F. D. IngUs, C.S.L . 

7. The Hon. Sir. William Muir, K.C.S.L . ' . 

Vacant from November 6, 1876 to . 

8. The Hon. Sir John Strachey, K.C.S.L, CLE. . 



November 29, 

. August 11, 

January 9, 

. January 10, 

January 13, 

April 10, 

. April 25, 

April 9, 

November 20, 

December 22, 

December 23, 



DATES. 

1860 
1865 
1870 
1876 
1880 



1859 
1860 
1861 
1861 
1863 
1865 
1868 
1874 
1874 
1876 
1876 



" Governors and LieuL-Govemors of Bengal, 

Governors, 



Names. 


Dates. 
1681 


Remarks. 




1. Mr. Hedges . 


First Governor (see Stewart's " History 




•fc 




of Bengal," p. 309). 




2. Mr. Gyfford . . . 


1685 


(See Stewart's " History of Bengal," 
p. 311). 




3. Mr. Job Chamock 


1686 


(Stewart's "History of Bengal," 
page 314). Died at Calcutta. 
January 10, 1692. 




4. Mr. Hedges . . . 


1713 


(See Stewart, p. 395). 




6. Mr. Freeke . 


1733 






6. Mr. Cruttenden . . 


1738 






7. Mr. Bradyll 


1739 




8. Mr. Forester . . . 


1745 




9. Mr. Alexander Dawson 


1749 




10. Mr. Barwell . . . 


17501 




11. Mr. William Fytche . 


1752 1 




12. Mr. Roger Drake . . 


1752 




IS. Colonel Robert Clivc . 


1758 




14. Mr. J. Z. Holwell . . 


1760 






15. Mr. Henry Vansittart . 


1760' 




16. Mr. John Spencer . . 


1764 






17. Lord Clive . 


1765 






18. Mr. Harry Verelst . . 


1767 






19. Mr. John Cartier . 


1709 






20. Mr. Warren Hastings . 


1772 j 




J 


Lieut, - Governors, 




] . Sir Frederick J. Hallidaj 


^ K.C.B April 28, 1854 


2. Sir John P. Grant 


• • 


Ma.^ \^ ^.^^ 


^ 



16 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 



1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 
0. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Sir Cecil Beadon, K.C.S.I. 

Sir William Grey, K.C.S.L . 

Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I. . 

Sir Kichard Temple, Bart., K. C.S.I. 

The Hon. Sir Ashley Eden, K.C.S.I., CLE. 



. April 24, 

April 24, 

. March 1, 

April 9, 

January 8, 



Lieut-Governors of Hie North- West Promtices, 

Sir C. T. Metcalfe, G.C.B. ...... June 1, 

The Right Hon. the Goveraor-Geueral in the North-Westem 
Provinces (Earl of Auckland) . . . . • , June 1, 

Mr. J. C. Robertson February 4, 

The Right Hon. the Governor-General in the North-Westem 



December 31, 

. June 30, 

December 22, 

. October 10, 
November 7, 

September 10, 



Provinces (Earl Ellenborough) 

Sir G. R. Clerk, K.C.B 

Mr. James Thomason .... 

Died at Bareilly, September 29, 1853. 
Mr. A. W. Begbie (in charge) 
Mr. J. R. Colvin . . . 

Died at Agra, September 9, 1857. 
Mr. E. A. Reade (in charge) ... 
Colonel H. Eraser, C.B., Chief Commissioner North-Westem 

Provinces September 30, 

The Right Hon. the Governor-General administering the 

North- Western Provinces (Earl Canning) . February 9, 

Sir G. F. Edmonstone January 19, 

Mr. R. Money (in charge) February 27, 

The Hon. E. Drummond . . . . . March 7, 

Sir William Muir, K.C.S.I March 10, 

Sir John Strachey, K.C.S.I April 7, 

Sir George Couper, Bart., C.B., K.C.S.I. . . . July 26, 

Chief Commissioners of Awadh {Oudli). 



DATES. 

1862 
1867 
1871 
1874 
1877 



1836 

1838 
1840 

1842 
1843 
1843 

1863 
1853 

1857 

1857 

1858 
1859 
1863 
1863 
1868 
1874 
1876 



1 

1 


Names. 


1. 


Major - General Sir James 




Outram, K.C.B. 


2. 


Mr. C. C. Jackson . . . 


3. 


Major - General Sir Henry 




Lawrence, K.C.B. 


4. 


Major J. S. Banks . . . 


5. 


Lieut. - General Sir James 




Outram, G.C.B. 


6. 


iMr. R. Montgomeiy . . . 


7. 


Mr. C. J. AVingficUL C.P,. 




8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



Lieut. -Colonel L. nurruw, C.B. 
Mr. (}. N. Vule, C.U. . . . 
Mr. R. H, Davics 
Mr. J. Strachey . . . . 
Mr. R. II. Davies 



Feb. 1, 1856. 

May 8, 1856. 
March 21, 1857. 

July 5, 1857. 
Sept. 11, 1857. 

April 3, 1858. 
Feb. ir>, 1859. 

April 20, 1860. 
April -1, 1861. 
Aug. 21). 1865. 
March 17, 1866. 
March 9, 1868. 



Remarks. 



Officiating. 
Died of woimds. 

Killed in action. 
Second time. 



Afterwards Sir 

Charles Wingfield . 
Officiating. 
Officiating. 
Officiating. 

Officiating from 
May 24, 1867 to 
March 8, 1868. 



Sect. I. 



CHIEF COMMISSIONERS. 



17 



Chief Commissioners of Awadk — (continued). 



Names. 


Dates. 


Remarks. 


13. Major-General L. Barrow, C.B. 


Jan. 18, 1871. 




14. Sir George Oouper, Bart., C.B. 


Dec. 8, 1878. 


Officiated from 
April 20, 1871 to 
December 8, 1873, 
when he was con- 
firmed. 


IT). Mr. J. D. Infills, C.S.I. . . 


March 15, 1875. 


Officiating. 


16. Sir George Couper, Bart., C.B. 


Nov. 5, 1875. 




17. Mr. J. F. D. IngliH, C.S.I. 


July 26, 1876. 


Officiating. 



Lieut-Governor of the N, W,P, and C. G, of Oudh. 
Sir George Couper, Bart., C.B., K.C.S.I., CLE., j Fe^raaS^ \l%77. 

Chief Commissioners of Barmah, 



1 " 

Names. 


Dates. 
Jan. 31, 1862. 


Remarks. 




i 1. Lieut.-Colonel Arthur Phayre, 






C.B., B.S.C 








1 2. Colonel A. Fytche,C.S.I.,B.S.C. 


Feb. 16, 1867. 






! 3, Lieut. -Colonel B. D. Ardagh, 


April 7, 1870. 


Officiating. 


\ 


! M.S.O. 








4. The Hon, Ashley Eden, C.B.L . 

1 


Aprill 8, 1871. 


Afterwards Sir 
Ashley Eden, 
K.S.I. 




6. Mr, Augustus Rivers Thompson 

1 


April 14, 1875. 


Officiating, con- 
firmed April 30, 
1877. 




6. Mr. Bernard. 








Gliief Commissioners o 


/ the Central Provinces, 




Names. 


Dates. 


Remarks. 


■ 


1. Colonel K. K. Elliot 


Dec. 11, 1861. 






2. Lieut.-Colonel J. K. Spence . 


Feb. 27, 1862. 


Officiating. 


• 


3. Mr. R. Temple. 


April 25, 1862. 


Officiating. 




4. Colonel E. K. Elliot . . . 


Dec. 18, 1863. 






5. Mr. J. S. Campbell . 


March 12,1864. 


Officiating. 




1 6. Mr. K. Temple . . 


March 17,1864. 






1 7. Mr. J. S. Campbell . 


April 24, 1865. 


Officiating. 




8. Mr. R. Temple .... 


Nov. 6, 1865. 






1 9. Mr. J. H. Morris 


April 4, 18§7. 


Officiating. 




,10. Mr. G. Campbell . ... 


Nov. 27, 1867. 






11. Mr. J. H. Morris . 


April 16, 1867. 


Officiating. Con- 
fii-med May 27, 






' 1870. 


' 


12. Colonel R. H. Keatinge, V.C. 


July 8, 1870. 


Officiating. 




C.S.L 








,13. Mr. J. H. Morris, C.S.I. . 


July 6, 1872. 


« 


\:i 


[J?«f^flZ— 1881.] 




c 


< 

1 



.18 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



Cliief Commimoners of Asdm, 




Names. 


Date. 


Remarks. 


1. Colonel R. H. Keatinge, V.C., 

C.S.I. 

2. Sir Stuart Bayley. 


Feb. 7, 1874. 





The Siirya-Vaiisha m* Solar Dynasty, 

Marichi (son of Brahmd, one of the first created beings). 
Kashyapa Muni, marjied Aditi, Daksha's daughter. 
Vivaswana, or Sirya (the Sun). 

Sradhadeva, or Vaivaswana (the Sun), King of Ayodhya. 
Ikshwdku, in the Treta Yuga — B.C. 3,500 according to Jones. 



B.C. 2,200 



»> 



Tod. 



From whom spring the two Solar Dynasties of Ayodhya (Oudh) 
and Maithila (Tirhiit)^ of whom only the most important names are 
given here ; — 

Ayodhya (Oudh). 

Vikukshi. 

Fifteen kings to 
Mdndhdta. 

Seven kings to 
Satyavavrata, Trayaruna. 

Two kings to 
Harischandra, King of India. 

Twelve kings to 
Bhagiratha, brought down Ganges 
river. 

Six kings to 
Nala. 

Ten kings to 
Raghu. 
Aja. 



Dwapar Yv^a or Brazen Age, 

Kusha. 

Twenty-nine kings to 
Takshaka. 
Vrihadbala. 
Vrihadsan'a, B.C. 1300 according 

to Jones. 



Maithila (^Twhiit), 
Nimi. 
Janaka, built Janakpiir. 

Nineteen kings to 
Swadhaja, father of SUA, who 
married Bdma. 

Thirty-three kings to 
Dasharatha. 
lUma, B.C. 2029 according to Jones, 

B.C. 1100 according to Tod. 

Solar Line of Vesala, 

Dishta, king of Vesala. 

Twenty-two kings to 
Trinavindhu. 

HcsabirAja, or Visala, who founded 
Vaisali (AlUhdbad). 

Seven kings to 
Janamejaya. 

lidll Yvga—Irim or Fourth Age, 
B.C. 3101. 

Twenty kings to 

Kritanjaya, first emigrant from 
Kosala (Oudh j, and founder of 
the Siiryas in Saura.shtra (Tod). 

Nine kings to 

Sumitra, B.C. 2,100 (Jones), 57 
(Tod). The last name in the 
" Bhdgavat Purdna," said to be 
contemporary with Vikramd- 
ditya. From this prince the 
Mewdr chronicles commence 
their series of Bdjds of Saura^h- 
tra. 



Sect. I. 



DYNASTIES. 



19 



TJie CJiandra-Vanslui, or Lunar Bace^ wlw reigned in Bandras or 
Kdslil, ami afterwards in MagadJw, or Bih'Mj and IndraprastMi 
or DihlL 



Atri 

Soma. 

liuiUtha 

Ailos, or 

Ayu 

N:llmsli;i 

YaviUi 



Muni. 

(Luna, the Moon). 

(Mercury) marrictl lid, daughter of the Sun. 

Purilravas. 

Kings of Kiishf. also descended from him. 

( Devanahusha, Dionysos, liacchus). 

Father of Puru and Yddu. 



Kings of Kdsht (Bandras). 

Nine kings to 
Divoddsa, becomes a Buddhist. 

Thirteen kings to 
Bhai'gabhumi (end in " Bhdgavat Pnnina "). 



Line of Yadu. 

Yudu, excluded from Buccession. 

Twenty -five kings to 
Dasharathn. 

Twenty- two kings to 
Krishna and Balardma, with whom 

this line becomes extinct, by 

quarrel of the Yddus. 



Jjine (if Puru, 

Puru. king of Pi*atishthdna. 

Fouiteen kings to 
Dushyanta,or Dushmanta, husband 

(3f Shakuntald. 
Bharata, king of Antarveda and 
Indin. 

F(3ur kings to 
Hastin, built Hastindpiir. 

Three kings to 
Kuru, from whom also descended 

the Magadha princes. 
Parikshit. 

Fourteen kings to 
Vichitravlryyn, married Ambd and 

Ambalikd, daughters of the king 

of Kashl, w^ho had issue, after 

his death, by his half-brother 

Krishnndwaipdyaha or Vydsa, 

Dhfitardshtra and Pdndu, whose 

wives b.)re the five Pdndavas, 

viz. : 

1. Yudhishthira. 

2. Arjuna, father of Parikshita. 
X Bhima, no descendants. 
4. Nnknl and ( founded the Ma- 
o. Sahadeva \ gadha line. 

Pdliflu Dynasty of Indrapra^tluth, or Dihll, continued from tlie line of 
Puru of tJie Gluindra-vansJut, or Lunar liney and collateral with the 
Magadha princes descending Jrom Jardsandha. 

Tudhi^hthira, Ist king of Indraprasthah. 

Parl^^hita, son of Arjuna b.c» tiVQ^V 

Six kings to 
Ugars^na. 



20 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I« 



Sursdna. 

Eighteen kings to 
Khevanrdj, deposed, and PAndu line ended. 

Second DynasUj^ 14 Princes^ reigned 500 years, 

Visarwa (contemporaiy with SisunAga. See Tod) 

Twelve kings to 
IViadpdl, slain by his lUjpilt Minister. 

Third Dynasty, 

MahrAje, Mahdrdje of Firlshta (Tod). 

Thirteen kings to 
Antinai, resigned to hid Minister, 

Fourth Dynasty, 



(Accordifiy to Tod.) 



S6nadhwaja. 

Mahdganga. 

Ndda. 

Jewana. 

Udiya. 

Jehala. 

Ananda. 

Rdjpala, invaded 
Kumdou, and was 
killed by Sakwanti, 
who seized on Indra- 
prasthah, whence he 
was expelled by 
Yikramdditya. 



\Jivcuru rity ii 


' M uru' . J 


ham. 


Dhurandhara, 


B.C. 230 


Yonadhara. 


Senodbata . 


. ^10 


Senadhwaja. 


Mabdkataka 


. . 190 


Mahdganga. 


Mahayodha . 


. 170 


Mahajodh. 


Ndtha . 


. . 150 


Sai*ma. 


Jirana-rdjd . 


. 130 


Jivan-sirdj. 


Udaya-Sena 


. . 110 


Umed-sen. 


Vindhachala 


. 90 


Anandajala. 


Kdjapdla . 


. . 70 


Kdjapdla. 




CO 


Dihll taken by Sdkd- 






ditya or Sakwanti. 




57 


Betaken by Yikramd- 
ditya Sdkdri. 



Kings of Macjadha or Bilidr, 

Kuru. 

Twelve kings to Jantu (Sambhava). 

Line of Pdndn, 

Jardsandha, contemporary of Yudhisfhtllira and Krishna 
Sahad(iva, Parlkshita born, great war ends 

Twenty-one kings. 
Bipunjaya, B.C. 915 — B.C. 700 (according to Wilford). A Buddha was 

bora in his reign. 



B.C. .SI 01 
B.C. 1400 



SaishnnCigas, or Sheshn^(f}s, reigned 360 years. 

According to Wilford. 

Si^hundga . . 777 

Ten kings to 



Nanda. Mahdpadma 



340 



Tod. 
1962 

Joneg. 
1602 



Sect^I. DYiiTAJSTIBS. 21' 

" He will bring th6 whole earth under one umbrella, he will have 
eight sons, Sumdlja and others, who will reign after Mahdpadma ; he 
and his send will govern for 100 years. The Brdhman Kautilya will 
root out the nine Nandas." (" Vishnu Purdna," page 468.) 

Maurya Dynasty, governed 137 years, 

Chandra-gupta Sandracottus of Greeks . . . , . B.C. 316 

Yindusdra, Vdrisdra 

Ashoka Varddhana, patron of the Buddhists. 

Suvdsas, Sujaswa. 

Dasharatha 

Sangata, Bandupdlita. 

Shdlishiika; Indrapdlita (Devadharma). 

Somasarman. 

Sashadharman (Satadhanwa). 

Vrihadratha. 

Sanga Dynasty, 110 years. 

Pnshpamitra, puts his master, the last of the Mauryas, to death 

(1365 B.C. according to Jones) . . . . ' . B.C. 178 

Eight kings to 
Devabhiiti. 

Kanwd Dynasty, 45 years. 

The Eanwd named Vasudeva usurps his master's kingdom (Jones 
and Tod, B.C. 1253) B.C. 66 

Two kings to Susharman (Wilford supposes an interval of 150 years 
before Sipraka). 

A'ndlira or Vrispdla Dynasty of A'ndhra (Orissa), 

Sipraka, a powerful servant of Susharman, kills the latter and 

founds the Andhra bhritya dynasty B.C. 21 

Twenty-two kings to — 

Chandrasrl, or Vijaya, last Magadha king .... A.D. 428 

,j ,. According to Jones . . . 300 

„ „ „ Tod . . . . 546 

Pulomdrchish (Pulomien of Chinese) dies 648 

Salomdhi, cotemporary of Bdpa 'Rdwal of Me war . . . 720 

The Gupta Kings 
Gupta. 

Ghatot Kacha. 

Chandra Gupta I. (the first MahdrdjadhirdjA). 
Samudra Gupta. 

Chandra Gupta II A.D. 161 

Kumdra Gupta 200—208 

Skanda Gupta 209—225 

Buddha Gupta 234 

Toramdna 261 

Other local unpretending Gupta kings. 
TaUabhls ^V^ 



Pa(hdn, A/gJidn, or Ohori Kings of Hindiistdn, zvho reigned at Dihli, 

A.H. A.D. 

MuMzu'd din Muhammad bin Sam (Ist Dynastv) . . 689 1193 

. Kutbu 'd din Aibak " . . 602 1206 

,=4^K^rAm ShAh 607 1210 

yt7Sham8u 'd din Altamsh 607 1211 

Ruknu 'd din Flr6z Shdh '633 1236 

«ulJ;Anah Rizlah 634 1236 

Mn'izu'd din BahrAm ShAh 637 1240 

A'lAu 'd din Masa'M Shdh 639 1242 

NAsini 'd din Maljnmd 643 1246 

GhlAsu 'd din Balban . * 664 1266 

Mu'izu 'd din Kaiknbdd 686 — 

JalAlu 'd din T'lroz fehdh, Khiljl (2nd Dynasty) . 689 1290 

Ruknu'd din IbrAhim 695 1296 

'Alau 'd din Muhammad Shdh 695 1296 

ShahAbu 'd din 'Umar 715 1316 

Ku|;bu 'd din Mubdrak Shdh 716 1316 

Nasiru 'd din Khusni ....... 720 — 

^ fihidsu 'd din Tughlak Shdh (3rd Dynasty) ... 720 — 

'MuljammadbinTughlak 725 1326 

Flroz Shah bin S41drRajab 752 1351 

TughlakShdhll 790 1388 

Abilbakr ShAh II 791 1389 

[uhammad Shdh bin Firoz Sluih 793 — 

Sikandai- ShAh 795 — 

Mahmiid Shah bin Mul^ammad Shah . . . . 795 — 

Nu^ratShdh 797 — 

Ma^mild restored . 802 — 

\ Daulat KhAn Lodl 816 1413 

Khi^ Khdn Sa'ld (4th Dynasty) 817 1414 

iMubdrak Shdh II 824 1421 

Mnljammad Shah bin Farld Shdh . ." . . . 837 1434 

"AlamShdh 849 ~ 

Bahl61 LckU (5th Dynasty) 855 1451 

Sikandar bin Bahl61 894 — 

Ibrdhlm bin Sikandar 923 1517 

Muhammad Humdvun, Mughul 937 1531 

Faiidu ^d din Shir Shdh, Afghdn 946 1540 

IsldmShdh 952 1545 

Muhammad 'A'dil Shdh 960 1553 

Ibrdhlm Siir . . . 962 1555 

Sikandar Shah (Humdyuu 9(;2 A.H.) .... 962 1555 

Pathdn or Afghdn Kivcjs or Governors of Bengal, capital LaJchnanti or 

Gaur, 

A.H. A.D. 

Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khiljl, governor of Birdr under 

Kutbu'ddln .600 1203 

Muliammad Sherdn 'Azzu 'd din 002 1205 

'All Marddn 'A'ldu 'd din 605 1208 

IJusdmu 'd din or fihiyasii 'd din 609 1212 

Nd§iru 'd din bin Shamhu W din 624 1226-7 

Mahmiid bin Shanisu \l din (became SulJ-dn of Hindil- 

stdu) 627 1229 





Sect. I. 



KINGS OP BENGAL. 



23 



A.H. A.T). 

TuehAn Kh&n, governor under SnltM Hi?.iah. . . 634 1237 

TijiTorTaji 641 1243 

Tlmtir Kh^ KerAn 642 1244 

Saifn'ddln 644 1246 

IlAtidru 'd din Malik Uzbak 651 1258 

JalAlu 'd din Kh4nl 656 1267 

TAjii 'd din ArslAn 667 1258 

Muljammad Tdtar Khdii 659 1260 

Mu'izu 'd din Tughril .676 1277 

Ndsiru 'd din Baghra, sqn of the Emperor BAlin, con- 
sidered 1st sovereign of Bengal, by some . . . 681 1282 
Kadr Khdn, viceroy of Muljammad Shdh . . . 726 1326 

Independent Kings of Bengal, ^ ^^ ^ jj 

FaWiru 'd din Sikandar assumes independence . . . 741 1340 

'AUu VI din MubArak 743 1342 

Shamsu 'd din Muhammad Shdh Tlias Bangarah . . 744 1343 

Sikandar Shdli bin Shamsu 'd din . . , . . 760 1368 

Ghiydsu 'd din A'azam ShAh bin Sikandar Shdh . . 769 1367 

Saifu 'd din SultAnus-Saldtln bin GhiyAsu *d din . . 776 1373 

Shamsu 'd din bin Sul^dnu's-Saldtln . " . • . . 785 1383 

Kansa or Khansa, a Hindii 787 1386 

Jaldlu 'd din Muhammad Shdh (Chaitmal bin Khansa) . 794 1392 

Aljmad Shdh bin Jaldlu 'd din 812 1409 

Nd?ir Shdh (descendant of Shamsu 'd din Tli6s Bangarah) 830 1426-7 

Barbak Shdh bin Ndsir Shdh 862 1457 

Yiisuf Shdh bin Bdrbak Shdh . . . . . . 879 1474 

Sikandar Shdh 887 1482 

Fath Shdh 887 1482 

Shdh-zddah, a eunuch 896 1490-1 

Flroz Shdh Habshl 897 1491 

Mal^miid Shdh bin Firoz Shdh 899 1494 

Muzaffar Shdh Habshl 900 1495 

'Aldu'd din Husain Shdh bin SayyidAshraf. . . 903 1498 

Nusrat Shdh bin 'Aldu 'd din Husain .... 927 1621 

MaWiid Shdh bin 'AJdu 'd din Husain . . . . 940 1534 

Farldu 'd din Shir Shdh 944 1537 

Humdyiin held court at Gaur, or Jannatdbdd . . . 945 1538 

Shir Shdh again 946 1539 

MubammadKfedn 952 1545 

Khizr Khdn Bahddur Shdh bin Muljammad Khan . 962 1565 

Jaldiu 'd din bin Mul>ammad Khdn 968 1560-1 

Sulaimdn Eardni or Karzdni 971 1563-4 

Bdyazld bin Sulaimdn 981 1573 

Ddi^d E^dn Sulaimdn defeated by Akbar's forces . . 981 1573 

Kings of the Sharkl Dynasty of Jawanpicr. ^^ ^ p 

Khwdjah Jahdn, Subahddr of Kinauj, Awadh, Koraand 

Jawanpiir. assumed independence 796 1394 

Mubdrak Shdh, his adopted son 802 1399 

Shamsu 'd din Ibrdhlm Shdh Sharkl 804 1401 

Ma^mM Shdh bin Ibrdhlm 844 1440 

Muhammad Shdh 862 US'? 

IJusain Shdh bin Maljmiid bin Ibrdhlm Shdh . • '^^'i* ^'t^'^ 
He took refuge in the Court of 'Aldu'd dill ofBea^^ • '^'^^ ^^'^'^ 
He died there in 905 A.H. 



24 



INTRODUCTION. 



S6ct. I. 



Mugkul Emperors of Hiiiditstdn, 

B4bar, ^ahiru 'd din Muhammad (mounted the throne 

' on June 9th) 

HumdyT!Ln, Nd^iru 'd din Muhammad ; in 946 defeated 

byShlrShdh 

Humdyiin, NA^iru 'd din Muhammad, £ounde4 the 

Mughul Dynasty of Dihli . , . . 
Akbar, Abiil fatl^, Jaldlu 'd din Muhammad consoli- 
dated Empire 

Jahdngir, Abii'l Mu^afiEar Niiru 'd din Muhammad 

7th October, 
ShAh Jahdn, ShahAbu 'd din Ghdzi . 9th February, 
Aurangzib 'Alamgir, Abiil Mugaffar, Mul^&iyiu 'd din 

24th February, 
'Ajsim ShAh, Mul|]iammad Shahid . . 3rd March, 
BahAdiir Shdh, ShAh 'Alam, Abiil Mujjaffar Kujbu 'd 

din 23rd February, 

Jah&ndAr ShAh, Mu 'izzu 'd din . .11th January, 
Farrukhsiyar, Muhammad . . 11th January, 
Raf iu 'd darjat, Shamsu 'd din . . 18th January, 
Kaf'iu 'd daulat, ShdhjahAn SAni 26th April, 

Mul^ammad Nikosiyar . !* . . . May, 

Muiiammad ShAh, Abii'l fatlj NA§iru 'd din 28th Aug., 
SulJiAn Muhammad IbrAhim . . . 4th October, 
Aiimad Shdh, Abii'l Na§r . . . 20th April, 
'Alamgir IL, 'Azizu 'd din Mul^ammad . 2nd June, 
ShAhjahAn . . . . . . 29th November. 

Shdh 'A'lam, JalAlii 'd din (MirzA 'Abdu'UAh, 'Ali Gohar) 

Mul^ammad Bedar bakht 

Akbar II., Abii'l NAsir, Mun'aim 'd din Muhammad 

3rd December, 



A.H. 
899 

937 

962 

963 



1014 


1605 


1037 


1628 


1068 


1658 


1118 


1707 


1118 


1707 


1124 


1713 


1124 


1713 


1131 


1719 


1131 


1719 


1131 


1719 


1131 


1719 


1132 


1720 


1161 


1744 


1167 


1749 


1173 


1759 


1173 


1759 


1201 


1786 


1221 


1806 



A. p. 
1494 

1531 

1554 

1556 



PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF BENGAL. 

AD. 
Mnljiammad Ghori takes and plunders Bandras . . . .1194 
Kutb defeats and kills Jaichand, R&jA of Bandras, whose body is 
* recognized by his false teeth, fastened with gold , ... 1194 
Muhammad BakhtiyAr Khilji, a native of Ghor, invades Bengal 

and makes'Gaur or Lakhnauti (supposed to be the Gangia Itryia 

of Ptolemy) his capital 1203 

Muhammad Ba^tiyAr invades AsAm 1205 

'AlAu 'd din assumes the title of King of Bengal, but is murdered 

by the Khilji nobles . . • 1212 

The Emperor Altamsh reduces Bengal and defeats the Khilji 

rebels 1229 

MinhAju 'd din, author of the *• Tabakdt i Nd§iri," visits Gaur 

and describes it 1243 

The RAjA of YAjpiir in Orissa besieges Gauj* 124-' 

Timiir KhAn dies at Gaur, and TughAn KhAn dies at Awadh on the 

same night, and both are buried at Awadh in the same tomb . 124C 
Malik Uzbak assumes the ensigns of royalty, but is defeated by 

the RAJA of YAjpiir, and is defeated and killed by the RAjA of 

AsAm 125' 



« 



Sect. I. PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 25 



\ 



- A.D. 

Tughril defeats the Kdj4 of Jdjnagar in Tippera, and brings away 

■ immense wealth . 1279 

Babels, and is killed by the troops of the Emperor Bdlin . . 1282 
Faldiru *d din; first independent king, fixes his capital at Sunar- 

gAon, near (Dacca) phdkah 1340 

The Emperor Flroa invades Bengal and takes Pandua, near 
Mdldah, and unsuccei^sfuUy besieges Shamsu 'd din in the fort 

of Akdala ... - 1363 

The Emperor Firoz invades Bengal a second time, and unsuccess- 
fully besieges Sikandar Shdh in Akdala . ... 1360 
Sikandar builds a superb mosque in Pandua . . . . . 1361 
GhiyAsu 'd din, King of Bengal, invites the poet ^dfij; to his court 1370 
RAjd Kansa, Zaminddr of Bhituriah, beautifies Pandua . 1386 — 1392 
Jaldlu 'd din, son of Kansa, removes the seat of government back 

toGaur 1407 

And dies there . . . 1409 

SultAn Ibrdhim of Jawanpiir invades Bengal, and is ordered by 
Shdh Rukh of Hirdt to release all his captives and never again 

to enter Bengal 1409—1426 

Barbek Shdh is the first prince in Hindiistdn to introduce Abys- 
sinian and negro slaves . . 1470 

Sul^dn 'Aldu 'd din allows his own troops to plunder his capital of 
Gaur, then kills 12,000 of them and seizes all their plunder, 

consisting chiefly of gold and silver plate 1489 

Invades Asdm, but loses half his army . . . . . . 

Shdh Ilusain, king of Jawanpiir, takes refuge with 'Aldu *d din, 

and dies, and is buried at Gaur . . . , . . . . 1498 
The Emperor Bdbar having killed SuUdn Ibrdhim Lodi, his 

brother Mal>miid Lodi takes refuge at the Court of Gaur . . 1526 
Nu^rat Shdh marries the daughter of the Emperor Sulf.dn Ibrdhim. 1627 
Nu§rat Shdh assists Mahmiid Lodf, who takes Jawanpiir . . 1531 
And, after building the Golden Mosque at Gauy in 1525, and the 

KadamiRa8illinl532, diesin 1533 

Shtr Shdh takes Gaur 1537 

Mal^miid Shdh, the last of the independent kings of Bengal, dies in 1538 

Shir Shdh captures Kotds 1538 

Shir Shdh, alias Farid Khdn, a Sur Afghdn, makes a treaty with 
the Emperor Humdyiin, and the same night attacks his camp, 
kills 8,000 Mughuls, and puts the rest to flight .... 1539 
Shir Shdh totally defeats the Emperor Humdyiin at Kinauj . . 1540 
Shir is killed at the fort of Kdlinjar in Bandalkhand, and is 

buried at Sdsaram 1545 

Bahddur Shdh, son of Salim Shdh, 2nd son of Shir Shdh, defeats 

and kills the Emperor Muhammad 'Adil near Munger . . 1656 

Sulaimdn Shdh Kerdni changes the capital from Gauj* to Tondali . 1564 
Sulaimdn conquers Orissa, and kills Sulf.dn Ibrdhim . . . 1568 

The Emperor Akbar takes Patna 1574 

Appoints Mun'aim Khdn to be Governor of Bihar and Bengal, and 

he takes Tondah . . 1574 

He removes the Government, and again makes Gauy the seat of 

government, but dies there V^'vvi 

It was he who built the famous bridge of Jawan^^&LT. 
Ddiid Khdn, the last King of Benga\, \b \a^L'evi ^Tv&crJ^sst ^eA-^sft.- 
headed by IJusain Kult KKin, ciit\t\ed^KfeLi).^5»JD^.^,^Vck^^^^^^ ^^^<8^ 
Bih&r, Bengal, and Orissa to obeeiieiic^ lo KJisb^c . 



26 INTRODUQTION. Scct. I. 

AJ). 

Khan Jahdn died at Tgndah in ,,,..• . 1678 
The troops in Bihdr having rebelled, Akbar sends Todaxmal to 

reduce them, who conquers Bihdr in one campaign . . . I08O * 
Khdn "Azim, having settled the affairs of Bihdr and Bengal, resigns 

and returns to Agra ......... 1584 

Mdn Singh, whose sister married the Emperor Jahdngir, is sent 

as Governor of Bihdr and Bengal to Patna 1589 

He repairs Rotds. His son Jagat Khdn is defeated and killed by 

the Afghans under Kutulu Khdn, who dies a few days after- 
wards. The Afglidns then make peace, on the understanding 

that they retain Orissa, but they surrender Jahdngir to Mdn ^ 

Singh 1589 

The Afghans in Orissa revolt, but are defeated by Man Singh, who 

again annexes the province 1591 

Mdn Singh changes the name of A'gmaljal to Rdjmahal, builds a 

palace and fortifies the town 1591 

Lakshman I^drdyan, Rdjd of Kuch Bihdr, declares himself a vassal 

of the Emperor, on which he is attacked by the neighbouring 

princes, who are defeated by troops sent by Mdn Singh . . 159G 
The Emperor sends Mdn Singh to the Dakhan, on which the 

Afghdns of Orissa again revolt and defeat the Imperial troops . 1599 
Mdn Singh is sent against the Afghdns and defeats them at a 

great battle at Sirpiii* Atdya . . 1600 

Mdn Singh resigns and is succeeded by 'Abdu '1 Majid Asaf Khdn ICOl 
The Emperor Jahdngir sends Mdn Singh again to govern Bengal, 

where he remains 8 months and is recalled 1C06 

Kutbu 'd din Kokaltdsh, the new governor of Bengal, attempts to 

kill Shir Afghan, " the lion killer," whose oiigiaal name was 

Asta Jalo, but is himself killed by Shir at Bardwdn . . . 1607 
Sebastian Gonzales, with 400 Portuguese, occupies the island of 

Sandip, where he kills the brother of Fath Khdn and the whole 

Muslim garrison . . March, 1609 

Isldm Khdn appointed Governor of Bengal, removes the seat of 

government from Rdjmahal to (Dacca) Dhdkah, which he calls 

Jahdngtmagar 1610 

The Afghdns having rebelled under 'Usmdn Khdn are defeated 

and 'Usmdn killed by Shujd'at Khdn the Imperial general . 1611 

Isldm Khdn dies at Dhdkah 16115 

Gonzales invites the Viceroy of Goa to send a fleet to attack 

Arrakan, which fleet enters the river of An'akan . 3rd October, 1615 
The Portuguese from Goa defeated and their Admiral Dom Francis 

de Menezes killed, whereupon Gonzales retires to Sandip, 

ioth November, 1615 
The English first visit Bengal and send two Agents to Patna, but 

abandon the place next year 1620 

Shah Jahdn rebels against his father Jahdngir, takes possession of 

Orissa, and captures Bardhwdn 162 

Shah Jahdu defeats and kills Ibrdhim Khdn, Governor of Bengal . 16' 
Shdh Jahdn takes 'Dhdkah and then Patna, and Saiyyid Mubdrak 

surrenders Rotds to him 1^ 

Shdh Jahdn is defeated near Allah abdd, and submits to the 

Emperor 1 

Shdh Jahdn orders Kdsim K^dn to attack Hugll, and expel the 

Portuguese • . 



Siect. L PKINCIPAti EVENTS. 27 

\ 

A.D. 

Hugli is taken with great slaughter, and 2,000 Portuguese who had 
embarked in a large vessel are drowned 1632 

Mukat Kai, a Mugh chief, surrenders Chitragdoii to the Mugjiuls, 
which is called by Islim Khdn, Isldmdbid 1638 

SnU^n ShujA', second son of ShAh Jahdn, becomes Governor of 
Bengal and transfers the seat of government to Rdjmaljal, then 
callol Akbamagar, and the Ganges changes its bed from Gauj: 
to Akbamagar 1639 

Mr. Gabriel Boughton, surgeon of the ship Hoj^welh having 
cured a daughter of ShAh Jahdn, who had been much burned, 
obtains liberty for the English to trade free of duties with 
Bengal, and proceeds to Rdjmal?al, where he cures a lady of Prince 
Shuj'Asharim 1639 

The same oflScer obtains permission to establish factories at Pipli, 
Baleshwar and Hugli, and dies 1640 

Prince ShujA' is transferred to Kdbul, and delivers the government 
of Bengal to 'ItiVdd Khdn . 1647 

ShujA' returns to Bengal 1649 

On the death of ShAh Jahdn, Shujd' takes the field . . . 1657 

Prince Sulaimdn, son of DdrA, defeats Shujd' and takes his camp 
equipage 1658 

Mir Jumlah, general for Aurangzlb, and Aurangzlb himself defeats 
Shuji' 1655 

ShujA' flies to Arakan, and is attacked, defeated, and drowned by 
theRajd .....* 1661 

Mir Jumlah invades A'sim, and writes to Aurangzlb that he has 
opened the way to China, but is obliged to return, and dies at 
Khi?rpiir 1663 

Shdistah Khdn, Amiru'l Umrd, nephew of Mir Jahdn, is appointed 
Governor of Bengal, and defeats the Maghs .... 1666 

His troops capture ChitragAon with 1223 cannon, and call the 
city IslAmdbdd 1666 

The French and Danes establish themselves in Bengal, and build 
factories at Chinsurah, Chandranagar, and Shrlrdmpiir . . 1675 

Mnl^ammad, son of Aurangzlb, marries the daughter of Shujd' and 
joins him, but is defeated by Mir Jumlah and sent to Dihll. 
where he dies a prisoner 1678 

Mul^ammad 'Aajim, 3rd son of Aurangzlb, made Governor of Bengal, 
and reaches Dhdkah 30th June, 1678 

Shdistah Khdn reappointed Governor 1679 

The English East India Company obtain a rescript from Aurangzlb 
permitting them to trade in Bengal .... 8th July, 1680 

Mr. Hedges appointed Governor of Bengal, to reside at Hugli with 
a guard of a corporal and 20 European soldiers. This was the 
Ist military establishment of the Company in Bengal . . 1681 

Admiral Nicholson with 10 ships of war and 1,000 soldiers engages 
in a combat with Shdistah Khdn's troops at Hugli. and bums 500 
houses, whereupon the Agent and Council at Hugli retire to 
Chattanatti 20th December, 1686 

Governor Charnock retires from Chattanatti to Injali, an island at 
the mouth of the Gfanges 1687 

The English are permitted to return to their factories, and to con- 
struct docks at Aulaberea, 20 m. below Calcutta, where they 
reside 3 months, and then return to Chattanatti . « . X^;Ri\ 



28 INTBODUOTION. Sect. I. 

A.D. 

Captain Heath, with 15 ships, plunders BAleshwar, and sails to 
Chitragdoii, but finding it too strong for him returns to Madras 

4th March, 1689 

Whereupon by Aurangzib's orders the factory at Machhlipatnam 
is seized, and the warehouses at Ish&kpatnam (Vizagapatam) 
are plundered, and all the Englishmen put to death . . . 1G89 

Shdistah Khdn retires to Agra and dies. Ibrdhim Khdn succeeds 
to the government of Bengal, and liberates the Company's 
Agents confined at Dh&kah 1090 

Mr. Chamock with his Council and Factors return to Chattamatti 

24th August, 1690 

The Suli;dn of Constantinople having written to Aurangzib to 
prevent Christians from purchasing saltpetre, that trade is 
dropped ... 1692 

Mr. Chaniock dying is succeeded by Mr. Ellis. Bengal is again 
put under Madras 1692 

The Faujddr of Jcsiir being besieged in Hugli by rebels, permits 
the Dutch at Chinsurah, the French at Chandranagar, and 
the English at Chattanatti, or Calcutta, to fortify their factories 1696 

The Afghans having rebelled in Bengal, and set up a king called 
Ka^lm Shdh, plundered Makhsiirtabdd and attacked Chattanatti, 
but are beaten oft by an English frigate. They then plundered 
the Dutch and English factories at Rdjmalial and Mdldah, on 
which Aurangzib appoints his grandson 'Asjimu 'sh Shdu to be 
Governor of Bengal, Bihdr and Orissa 1697 

Zabardast Khdn, son of the deprived Governor Ibrdhlm Khdn, 
defeats the relKils at Kdjmal^al May, 1697 

Rahim Shdh invites Kh^djah Anvar, chief councillor of 'A^ji^u 
'sh Shdn, to come to him, and kills him and all his attendants 
and attacks the camp of 'A?{imu 'sh Shdn, but is killed by IJamld 
Khdn and his followers dLspersed 1698 

*Ar,imvL 'sh Shdn grants the villages of Chattanatti, Govindpiir and 
Kdlikot to the English, with freedom of trade . January, 1700 

'A?jlmu 'sh Shdn, after residing for three years at Bardwdn, pro- 
ceeds to Dhdkah 1700 

The factory of Kdlikot or Calcutta, which had been lately ac- 
quired by the English and fortified, is called Fort William,, in 
honour of the King of England 1700 

Sir William Norris, ambassador from King William, has audience 
of Aurangzib at Parndlali April 28th, 1701 

Sir W. Norris embarks in the Scijno for Englan'l with a letter 
and sword for King William from Aurangzib, but dies before 
reaching St. Helena 1703 

Mur.sliid Kuli Khdn, son of a poor Brdhman, sold to a Persian 
merchant, who changed his name to Muhammad Hddi, is ap- 
pointed by Aurangzib, Diwdn of Bengal, and having rendered 
Aztmu 'sh Shdn jealous, is sought to be slain, but having es- 
caped, takes up his seat of government at Makhsusdbdd, which 
he soon after calls Murslilddbdd, after himself, and 'A?{lmu 'sh 
Shdn by command of Aurangzib goes to Bihdr, and then to 
Patna, which he calls 'A^jlmdbdd 1703 

The two East India Companies being united, the garrison of Fort 
William was increased to 130 English soldiers, and a number of 
ipana were mounted on the works, whereupcm many native 

merchants settled in Calcutta ITOG 



Sect. I. PRINCIPAL EVENTS* .29 

A.D. 

*Aj;imu 'sh Shin is recalled to Court, and leaves his son Farrukh- 
siyar, Governor of Bengal and Orissa 1706 

Aurangzib dies 21 Feb. 1707 

Shdh *Alam, or Bahddur Shah, having killed near Agra 'Agim 
ShAh and his two sons, reappoints 'Azimu 'sh ShAn Governor of 
Bengal and Orissa, with orders to confirm Murshid Kuli KhAn 
as liM deputy in Bengal and Orissa 1707 

*AjKlmu *sh Shdn is defeated by Muizzu 'd din and drowned in the 
river Ravi, and the latter takes the title of Jahdnddr ShAh . 1712 

Farrukhsiyar being supported by Saiyid Husain 'Ali KhAn, Go- 
vernor of Bihdr, is proclaimed emperor at Patna, and defeats the 
eldest son of J^dnddr Sh&h at Kajwa . . November, 1712 

Farrukhsiyar defeats Jahdnddr Shdh, and is proclaimed Em- 
peror January, 1713 

Kashid Khdn, appointed Governor of Bengal by Farrukhsiyar, is 
defeated and killed near Murshlddbdd by the troops of Murshid 
Kuli Khdn, whereon Murshid KuU Khdn is confirmed as f 1712 
i)lwan * . . . . . . ] 1713 

Murshid KuU having demanded from the English the same duties as 
paid by Hindiis, Mr. John Surman and Mr. Edward Stephenson, 
Bengal factors, are sent with Khwajah Sirhdd as ambassadors to 
Farrukhsiyar. Mr. W. Hamilton being surgeon to the embassy . 1715 

Mr. Hamilton having cured the Emperor Farrukhsiyar. obtains 
the grant of the matters petitioned for by the embassy, the 
principal points being that a passport signed by the President 
of Calcutta should exempt the goods specified in it from being 
stopped or examined by the officers of the Governor of Bengal ; 
2nd, that on requisition being made to the officers of the Mint 
at Murshlddbdd, 3 days a week should be allowed for the 
coinage of the English governor's money ; 3rd, that persons 
indebted or accountable to the Company should be delivered 
to the Presidency at Calcutta on the first demand ; 4th, that 
the English might purchase the lordships of 38 towns, with the 
same immunities as those granted by ' Apjimu 'sh Shdn when they 
bought Calcutta 1717 

Murshid KuU obtains the government of Bihdr as well as the 
offices of Ndsjim and Diwdn of Bengal and Orissa . . . . 1718 

Murshid Kuli dies, having appointed his grandson Sarfardz Khdn 
his successor 1725 

But Sarfardz gives way to his father, Shujd'u 'd din Khdn, who 
was an Afshdr of the same tribe as Nddir Shdh, and was bom 
at Burhdnpiir and married Zainatu '1 Nisd, the only daughter 
of Murshid Kuli Khdn. 

The new Niiwdb appoints Hdjl Ahmad and his brother Mfrzd 
Muhammad 'All, better known as 'All Vardl Khdn, to be his 
councillors 1725 

The 3 sons of ^ajl Muhammad, namely, Nawdzish Mul^ammad, 
Saiyid Ahmad, and Zainu 'd din, are appointed Paymaster- 
geneml, Faujddr of Rangpilr and Faujddr of Rdjmahal; they 
being married to the 3 daughters of 'All Vardi Khdn . . 1725 

Shujd'u 'd din is made Governor of Bihdr, also, and sends 'All 
Vardi Khdn to be his deputy at Patna - 1729 

The Ostend Company, established in August, 1723. having fortified 
themselves at Bdnkibdzdr, are expelled by ..the FsjoA^te q>1 
HugU . . . . . . . . . . . Vl^^ 



30 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

A.D. 

Mir Habib, Dlwdn to Murshid KuU, conquers Taprah (Tippera) . 1733 

IShuja'u *d din promotes his son-in-law, Murshid Kuli Khdn, to the 
deputy-government of Orissa, and appoints Sarfarilz to the 
government of Dhdkah . • . 1734 

Saiyid Ahmad, 2nd son of Hdjl Ahmad, who had been appointed 
Faujddr of llangpilr, conquers Dinajpiir and Kuch Bihar, and 
captures immense treasures, on which Shuja'u 'd din gives him 
the title of Khan Bahddur 1737 

Shujd'u 'd din dies and is succeeded by his son Sarfardz Khdn . 1739 ^ 

The Vazir Kaihru 'd din Khdn announces the arrival of Nddir Rhdh 
at Dihli, and calls on Sarfaraz Khdn to pay three years' revenue, 
which Sarfardz does, and orders coin to be stioick in the name of 
Nadir, and the Khut.bah to be read in his name . ... 1739 

'All Vardi Khdn marches against Sarfardz, who is killed by a 

musket ball 1740 

'All Vardi sends a kroyli of rupees in cash and 70,000,000 rupees 
to Muhammad Shdh, who confirms him in the government of 
Bengal, Bihdr, and Oi'issa with the titles of Shujd'u '1 Mulk and 
Husdmu 'd daulah, and confers on his three sons-in-law the titles 
of Shahdmat Jang, Saulat Jang, and Shaukat Jang . . . 1740 

The title of Sirdju 'd daulah Shdh Kuli Khdn Bahddur is conferred 
on Mirza Mal?miid, son of Zainu 'd din 1741 

'All Vardi Khdn marches against Murshid Kuli Khdn the 3rd in 
Orissa and defeats him, and makes Saiyid Ahmad, son of Hdjl 
Ahmad, governor of that province 1741 

All insurrection in Orissa occurs, in which Saiyid Ahmad is made 
prisoner, and Bdkir Khdn assumes the government of Katak . 1741 

Bdkir Khdn is defeated, and Saiyid Ahmad released by 'Ali Vardi, 

who makes Muhammad M'asiim Khdn Governor of Orissa . . 1741 

Bhdskar Pandit, with 40,000 Mar at ha cavalry, sent by Raghuji 
Bho lisle of Birdr, arrives near Midnapiir, where 'Ali Vardi is 
encamped 1741 

'All Vardi pushes on to Murshiddbdd, but loses all his baggage, 
artillery, and tents. On the 4th day he halts at Katwd, about 
20 m. S. of Plasscy, where he is joined by Nawdzish Muhammad 
with a large reinforcement 1742 

Bhdskar Pandit, assisted by Mir Habib, takes possession of Bard- 
wdn and Midnapiir as far as Bdleshwar in Orissa, as also 
Birbhiim and Rdjmahal, and crowds of people cross from the 
W. side of the river to Calcutta, imploring the protection of the 
English, who obtain permission from 'All Vardi to dig a fosse 
round Calcutta for 3 m., which is called the Mardtha ditch, also 
to wall in their factory at Kdsimbdzdr, with bastions at the 
angles * 1742 

'All Vardi, crosses by a bridge of boats into the Mardtha camp at 
Katwd, and chases Bhdskar Rdo to Midnapiir, where he defeats 
him with great slaughter ....'... 1742 

Safdar Jang, Niiwdb of Oudh or Awadh, comes to Patna to assist 
'All Vardi, but is requested to retire . . . December 1742 

Raghuji Bhonsle leads an army into Bengal, as does Bdldjt Rao, 

Peshwd, who for a large sum agrees to assist 'All Vardi . , 1743 

Raghuji sends Bhdskar Rdo with 20,000 cavalry to invade Bengal, 
and he being invited to an interview with 'Ali Vardi at Mankira 
near Murshiddbdd, is assassinated, with 19 officers of rank. 'Ali 



Sect. I. PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 31 

A.D. 

. Vardi then attacks the Marathas and pursues them to KatwA, 

whence they take to precipitate flight . . . . . 1744 

Mustafa Khdn, 'All Vardi's principal general, rebels and marches 

off with 8000 cavalry and a large body of infantry to Bihar, 

plunders llajmahal, and takes Hunger, but is repulsed from 

Tatna hy Zainu 'd din 1745 

Mu8f.afa retreats to Chundr. He returns to Bihar with a large 
force, but is defeated and killed by Zainu 'd din at Jagdespiir, 
and his four quarters are hung over the four gates of Patna . . 1745 

Raghujl Bhoiisle invades Bihdr and is joined by the remains of . 
flusj.nf a's army, when he plunders the suburbs of Murshidabad, 
but is defeated by 'AH Vardl at Katwd with great slaughter . 1745 

Baghuji retreats to BirAr, and 'All Vardl dismisses Sarddr Khan 
and Sharashlr Khdn with their followers, 6000 men. He then 
celebrates the marriages of his grandsons Sirdju 'd daulah and 
Akramu' d daulah, sons of Zainu 'd din 174G 

*Ali Vardi sends Mir J'afar to expel the MarAthas and Afghdns 
from Katak, but Mir J'afar retreats to Bardhwan, and 'Atdu 'lldh 
is sent to supersede him, and defeats the Mardthas at Bard wan, 
but offers to make Mir J'afar Governor of Bihdr if he would aid 
in deposing 'All Vardl, which Jaf 'ar refuses, but is removed 
from his employment by 'AH Vardl 1747 

The Afghdns under Shamshii Khdn and Murdd Shir Khdn assas- 
sinate Zainu 'd din and torture Hdjl Alimad to death, when 'All 
Vardl moves against them, having first restored Mir J'afar to 
office. He* defeats the Afghdns and kills Sarddr Khdn and 
Shamshir Khdn. He treats the women and children of the 
rebels with great humanity, and sets them free ; he then ap- 
points his grandson Sirdju 'd daulah Governor of Bihdr, and his 
second son-in-law Saiyid Alimad, Faujddr of Pameah ; he then 
obliges 'Atdu 'llah to retire to Awadh, where he is killed by the 
Pathdns of Farrukhdbdd 1749 

Sirdju 'd daulah rebels against 'AH Vardi, and summons the Gover- 
nor of Patna to give up the city, which he refuses. Sirdju 'd 
daulah gives himself up to 'AH Vardl, who makes peace with 
the Mardthas, to whom he cedes Katak, and agrees to pay 12 
Idkhs of rupees annually as the Chauth of Bengal . . . 1751 

Nawdzish Muhammad dies 1750 

As docs Sai^ad Ahmad his brother, leaving a son, Shaukat Jang . 1750 

'AH Vardl Khdn dies 9th April, 175G 

Mirza Mahmiid, otherwise the Niiwdb Sirdju 'd daulah, succeeds 
'AH Vardl and seizes the treasures of his aunt, the widow of 
Nawdzish Muhammad. He makes Mohdn Ldl his Diwdn and 
Mir J'afar his Bakhshl or paymaster-general, who intrigues 
against him 1 75C 

The Knglish having refused to deliver up Kishn BaUab, the Niiwdb 
seizes the factory at Kdsimbdzdr, and marches against Calcutta, 
which he attacks 15th June 175G 

Mr. Drake, the Governor, takes to flight, and Fort William sur- 
renders June 20th. Mr. Holwell and 145 English are im- 
prisoned in the Black Hole, and only 23 survive. ^vtiiJ^xsL^ ^ 
daulah changes the name of Calcutta to XXiTi'a.'?^'^ «iX\.^ ^"asrtV 
sons it with 3000 men, and exacts 4^\^\l\vs ttom \>cv^ Tix>J«?^ «xA. 
^ from the French, and letums to 'NLvxta^A^t^o^^^ Vs^et^ "^^ 



32 INTRODUCTION. Scct. L 

releases Mr. Hoi well and the other English, July 11th. Shaukat 
Jang is attacked by the troops of SirAju 'd daulah and killed in 
October. Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, with three line of 
battle ships, one of 60, one of 20 guns, a fire-ship, and three of 
the Company's ressels, and two smaller trausi)orts with 900 
English soldiers and 1500 SipAhis, reach Mayapiir, 10 m. below 
Bajbaj, where they are attacked by Mdnikchand, Governor of 
Calcutta, with 1500 cavalry and 2000 infantry, who are repulsed, 
and the fort being deserted is captured by a drunken sailor, 

2yth December, 1766 

Calcutta is retaken by the English, and Mr. Drake restored as 
Governor 1st January 1757 

Hugli taken by the English, January 10th. SirAju 'd daulah re- 
crosses the river Hugli and encamps 1 m. N. of Calcutta, where 
he is attacked by Colonel Clive ; whereupon he retreats several 
miles, and on the 7th of February makes a treaty with Admiral 
Watson and Colonel Clive, and agrees to restore the factories at 
Calcutta, Kdsimbdzdr, Dhdkah, etc., and indemnify the English 
for their losses. Chandranagar is taken from the French by 
Clive, March 29th. Clive demands the surrender of the French 
at Kdsimbdz^, whereupon Sirdju 'd daulah sends off the French 
agent, M. Law, with 100 Frenchmen and (JO SipAhis, who pro- 
ceed to Bihdr, April 16th. Mir J'afar makes a treaty with the 
English against Sirdju 'd daulah, which reaches Calcutta, June 
lOth, and on the 13th the English force at Chandranagar marches 
towards Murshiddbdd, the English and the artillery being in 
200 large boats, and the SipAhis marching on the road by the 
riverside. Colonel Clive holds a council of war at Katw&, which 
decides not to attack SirAju *d daulah immediately, but Clive 
disregarding their opinion, crosses the river, June 22nd, and 
reaches Plassey at 1 A.M. on the 23rd. As soon as it was light, 
Clive with 800 English infantry, 100 artillerymen, 50 sailors, 
100 Indian-Portuguese, and 2100 SipAliis, attacked SirAju 'd 
daulah, who had with him 18,000 cavalry, 50,000 infantry, 40 
Frenchmen, 50 heavy guns, and 4 pieces of light artillery. 
Sirdju 'd daulah's Commander-in-cliief is killed by a cannon- 
ball, whereupon he abjectly entreats Mir J'afar to protect him, 
but J'afar writes to Clive to advance ; at 5 P.M. the latter enters 
Sirdju 'd daulah's camp, and the enemy fly on all sides . . 1757 

Sirdju 'd daulah is betrayed by the Fakir Ddnd Shdh and brought 
to Mir J'afar's house at MurshidAbdd, where he is mui-dered by 
Mul^ammad Beg, a man employed by Mir An, the son of J'afar, 

July, 1757 

Colonel Clive enters Murshida])ad and declares Mir JAf'ar, Ni- 
wdb of Bengal, Biliar and Origsa .... 29th June, 1757 

The NHwdh Ndzims of Miirshiddbdd, 

1. Mir J'afar 'All Khdn 1757 

2. Mir Kiisim 'All Khdn, son-in-law of Mir J'afar . October, 1760 

3. Mir J'afar re-appointed July, 1760 

4. Mir Nuimu 'd daulah .... 25th February, 1765 
ShAh 'Alam grants the DiwAni of Bengal, BihAr, and Orissa to 

the E. L Company . . • . . . 12th August, 1765 



V 



Sect I. TABLES OF MOKET, ETC. 83 

A.D. 

5. Niiwab Saifa Udaulah, brother of Najmu 'd daulah, 19th May, 1766 

6. Niiw^b Mab&rakn 'd daolah, brother of S%ifa 'd daulah 

2l8t March, 1770 

7. Nd?^ 1 mulk, son of Mnbdraku *d daulah . . September, 1793 

8. Niiwdb Zainu 'd din 'AM KhAn, son of Na^jiru '1 Mulk, April, 1810 

9. NiiwAb Saiyid A^pnad 'AH Khto WAlAj Ah, brother of Zainu 'd 

din 10th August, 1821 

10. NiiwAb HumAyiin jAh MubArak 'AH KhAn, son of WAUjAh. 

14th January, 1826 

11. NiiwAb Saiyid Man^iir 'Ali Khan, son of HumAyiin jdh, 

3rd October, 1838 

The Barmese Kings, 

Aong-Zaya or Alompra, founder of the present dynasty. Died in 1760 

Upa-Taja, or Naungdau-Gyi 1763 

Tshen-byo-Yen (Shembuau of Symes) 1776 

Tsen-Gu-Men (Chenguza of Symes) killed 1781 

Paungha-tsa or Maung-Men (Momien of Symes) mui-dered . . 1781 

Bhadaun-The-Keng or Bhodan-Phra, died 1819 

Pagan-Men married daughter of Tsengu-Men. Their daughter 
married TharawAdi. Ein-Sh^-Men died before Bhodan 
Phra, his father. Padaung-mcn Phagyi-Dan, son of Ein- 

Sh6-Men. Dethroned, 1837. Died 1845 

Kunbaung-men or TharawAdi died 1846 

Mendnn-Meu, son of TharawAdi, married Tsu-phragyi, his half- 
sister, 1863. Died in 1880 

Thebaw, the present king. 

§/. TABLES OF MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Monet/. £ ^ ^ 

1 Pie .0 04 

1 PaisA, or J Ana 0^ 

1 AuA li 

1 Rupee 2 

1 Gold Rupee 1 10 

1 Gold Muhr 1 12 

1 LAkh 10,000 

1 Karor ; 1,000,000 

Native Jewellers' JVeighL 

1 DhAn . . . . JJ gr. troy. 

4 DhAn = 1 Rati IJ „ „ 

8 Rati = 1 MAshah . . . . 15 „ „ 

12 MAshali = 1 TolA 180 „ „ 

A DhAn is 0*46875 gr. troy, 0-0303745 French grammes. 

Bdzdr Weights used in Bengal, 

o Siki = 1 Kancha. 

4 Eanchas := 1 Chhatank. 

4 ChhatAnks, or 20 TolAs . . « 1 PanwA. 

4 PanwAs = 1 Sir. 

40 Sirs = 1 Man. 

[jBi»ii^i— 1881.] 'C^ 



si INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

Measures of Length, 

'3 Jau . . = 1 Ungli . . ♦ f inch. 

3 Unglis . . = 1 Girah . . . £{ „ 

8 Girahs . . = 1 HAth . . . 18 „ 
2 Hdths . . = 1 Gae .... 1 yard. 
The Gaz varies from 24 to 36 inches. The Bengal Kos • 1 m. 1 f . 
3 p. 3J yds. 

The Imperial Kos = 2^ m. In the North- West Provinces the Kos 
varies from about 1 m. near the hills, to 3 m. in Bandalkhand. 

B&iigal Square or Land Measure. 

11 Chhatanks . . . . = 46 sq. ft. or 6 sq. yds. 

16 ChhatAnks . , « 1 KatthA . = 720 „ 80 ,, 
20 KAtthds . . = 1 Bighd . « 14,400 ,, 1,600 „ 

= 3i Bighds . =s 1 acre. 

The Government Standaid Bighd is 14,000 sq. ft., or } of an acre^ 
and is adopted throughout Hunter's " Statistical Account of Bengal." 

Lam^d Measure f North-West Provinces, 

20 Aswansis . . . . = 1 Saswansi. 

20 Saswansis . . . . = 1 Kachwansi. 

20 Kachwansis . . . = 1 Biswansi. 

20 Biswansls . . . . = 1 Biswa. 

20 Biswas . . . . = 1 BlghA. 

§^. CASTES AND TRIBES IN THE BENGAL PRESIDENCY. 

According to the Census of 1872, "there is perhaps no country in 
the world which contains so wide a variety of tribes and races as 
Bengal*' In Bengal proper we have a people physically distinct 
from any other people in India. Living in a network of rivers 
and morasses, and nourished on a watery rice diet, the semi- 
amphibious Bengdli in appearance belongs to a weak and puny race, 
yet he is able to endure an amount of exposure to which the up 
country Hindustani would soon fall a victim. In active pursuits 
timid and slothful, the Bengdli is subtle in intellect, and sharp- 
witted. Plodding industry and natural fondness for sedentary 
employment have canied him into Government employment all over 
the country, and raised liiin to some of the highest judicial posts. 
The total number of Bengiili-speaking people may be put down as 
between 37 and 38 millions. Allied to the Bengali by language as 
well as descent, the Uriyas have derived a peculiar physiognomy 
and character from their isolated position. They arc even more 
timid than Bengdlis. Conservative to a degree, they arc wanting 
in enterprise, evince a thorough dislike of all modem improve- 
ments, and are the most bigoted and priest-ridden people in India. 
They number about 4 millions. Another distinct nationality is 
found in A's4m. The A'samese speak a language very similar to 
Bengali, but are largely tainted by the mixture of Indo-Chinese 
blood. The purest Asdmese are the Ahoms, of the Sfbsdgar 



Sect-I. CASTES AND TRIBES. 35 

District. Generally the A'sdmese are a mongrel race^ with Ahoni, , 
Chutiya, Koch, Bodo, and A'ryan blood in their veins. They are 
proud, haughty, and indolent, and use opium to an injurious extent. 
They number 2 millions. The Hindustanis of Bihar speak Hindi, 
the language of Upper India. They are more decidedly A'ryan than 
any of the other races in Bengal, and partly from climate, partly 
from their more substantial diet, and partly from a larger infusion of 
Aryan blood, are hardier and more manly than the Ben^lis. They 
number 20 millions. Besides these 4 distinct nationalities there are 
a vast number of aboriginal, or non- A'ryan tribes. The number of 
separate tribes and castes in Bengal probably amount to 1,000, and 
their respective sub-divisions and septs or clans to many thousands. 
Dr. Caldwell assumes the succession of four separate strata in the 
Indian population, and Colonel Dalton speaks of this as now 
commonly received. The strata are, 1st and earliest the Forest 
tribes, as Kols, Santdls, Bhlls, etc., who entered India from the N.E. ; 
2nd, Dravidians, who entered India from the N.W. ; 3rd, Scythian, 
or non- A'ryan immigrants, from the N.W., whose language united 
with the Sanskrit formed Prakrit ; 4th, the A'ryan invaders. 

Mixed Races, — The Eurasians in Patna are partly a colony at 
Dinapiir, and partly subordinates of the opium warehouse in Patna 
City. In Munger in the Sdnt^ Parganahs a large number are 
employed on the railway, and more than half the rest in the 
production of indigo. 

Asiatics other than Lidians, — There are a few Armenians in 
Shdhdbdd and Munger. The Thibetan Bhotias bury their .dead 
on the mountain's side, and raise cairns over them. It is they 
who do the real hard work at Dtlrjiling. They have Mongolian faces, . 
with wide mouths, high cheek bones, oblique eyes and flat noses. 
The Dharman Bhotias are notorious for wile beating, and resemble 
the Thibetans, possessing all their vices and none of their virtues. 
The Bhotias are all in the K. of Bhagalpiir, and are employed aslabourers. 
The word does not necessarily imply that they came from Bhutdn, but 
often means a Thibetan. 'The Jews are mostly ti-aders in Dinapiir, 
but some are found in Munger and R^jmabal. The Nlpdlese are 
mostly in Champaran, and are Pdrbatiyas and Thapas, working as 
labourers. A few are Giirkhas, in the police, and a fewDamai or tailors ; 
the rest are Limbus. The Bhars are not the least interesting of the 
tribes who ruled in India before the arrival of the Aryans ; some 
occur in Sh^dbdd and Patmi, and more in Gorakhpur and the 
neighbouring districts. They are now a degraded race, and take to 
keeping pigs. Mr. Carnegie, in his " Races of Awadh," says the 
Amethia Rajpiits are Bhars. Many forts are said to have been built 
by them, as the Fort at Bihar. A Bhar Rdja is said to have reigned 
from Botds to Rewah. They are found in large numbers in Saran, 
Sh^dbid and Champaran, and extend nearly from the Grand Trunk 
Road to Nipdl, in a strip of no great breadth E. of 84^ long. The 
Cheras once ruled Bihar, Ashoka is said to have been a Ghftxa.^«Q^ 
Chera monuments are found throughout thft moVv^cfe. TV^ ^^^osssas* 
took Champdran in 1611 A.D. They ate tt^tvOi \.o \\aN^ ^\«»^S^«*^ 
amongst themselves, unintelligible to t\ie 'Bm^xxa. '^'^^ \>\v«v^^ 



i 



36 INTRODUCTION. Sect L 

• 

are found in small mimbers in Bihdr, and are numerous in 
.Bhagalpur, Pameah, and the Sdntdl Parganahs. The EanjharB are 
a vagrant gipsy-like tribe, and are said to call themselves Siirra. 
The Kharwars are found in Bih&r proper and in EdjmaW* They 
are said to have ruled formerly in Shdhdbdd, and Rotds may have 
been their capitaL The Eols are found in Munger, Pameah and 
the Santdl Parganahs, also in Alldhdbdd, Mirzdp\!ir and Banda. 
Mais, Pahdrivas. In the Census of 1872, 9,000 M4l8 and nearly 
70,000 Pahdnyas are shewn. For a full account of them see a paper 
Lieut. T. Shaw published in 1795 in VoL IV. of the " Asiatic. 
Besearches." That officer relates a tradition current among them. 
" Seven brothers were sent from heaven to people the earth ; the eldest 
. feu sick, while the others prepared a feast ; each was to take the food 
he liked, and go to the place he chose to live in. One took goat's flesh, 
and went to a distant country, and his progeny are Hindiis ; another 
took flesh of all kinds except pork, and from him came the Muslims ; 
the 3rd begat the Kiiarwars ; the 4th took pork, went north and 
begat the Kerdtis ; the 5th became the ancestor of the Kols ; the 
6th took food of all kinds and went fer away, and it was not known 
what had become of him nntU the English appeared, when it was at 
once concluded that they were his descendants. The eldest, who was 
sick, was named Malair ; they gave him food of all kinds, in an old 
dish, thus he became an outcast, and was left on the hills, where 
finding neither clothes nor food, he and his descendants became 
thieves, and continued so until taught better by Mr. Cleveland." 
Pujahars and Naiyas are cognate hill tribes of Il4jmal?al. Buchanan 
alleges that the Naiyas were originally priests who had been de- 
graded from their office. If so, they may be identical with the 
Pujahars, who probably have their name from Puja, " worship.** 
Nats are most numerous in Pameah. They are a vagabond race, 
and live in small huts of reeds, commonly called Sirkas. They call 
themselves Bijikars or " players, " and Khotnet, " tumblers ; " 
Bandamdras, " monkey-killers ; " Gohl, " lizard-eaters ; " Sdmpheriya, 
" snake charmers.'* They are most of them hard drinkers, and 
resemble so much the gipsies of Europe that it seems almost 
impossible not to identify the two. They are said to be Kabfrpanthis, 
" followers of the poet," who designed a universal religion. They have 
a secret language hke the gipsies, besides the ordinary dialect they use. 
The Santals, as Hunter writes it, are said to number 
923,532 souls, of whom one half are in the Sdntal Parga- 
nahs. There are 132,445 in Mdnbhiim, 96,921 in Midnapur, 
76,548 iu the Tributary States of Orissa, 51,132 in Singbh6m, 
35,306 in Hazaribagh. The object of their greatest veneration is 
the Damodar liver, and the country they regard as their fatherland 
is between that river and the Kasdi. In 1854 they rebelled, and a 
history of what occurred will be found in Himter*s " History of Rural 
Bengal.** They desired to revenge themselves on the money lenders, 
and thus became arrayed against the British Government. Their 
jtftbits are migratory, and when a tract becomes denuded of primeval 
iSfcest, they select a new site and retire into the backwoods, and they 
would if they could exclude all foreigners, especially Brdhmansw 



Sect. I, CASTES 4ND TRIBES — ^ASIATICS. 37 

They axe one of the tribes who have preserved the fonn of speech 
that probably prevailed in the Gangetic Provinces before the Aryan 
conquest. They have round hcea, cheek bones moderately prominent, 
noses broad and depressed, large mouths, with full and projecting 
lips, straight, coarse and black hair. Their countenances approach 
the nesro type, but their females have small hands and feet, and ore 
ox-eyed. They are divided into 12 tribes. The polity of the 
Sdnra,l8 is patriarchal. In each village there is a Jagmdnjhi, who 
looks after the morals of the young ; a Paramdnik, wno apportions 
the lands, and attends to the farming arrangements ; a Naryd or Sayd 
6r village priest. He feasts the people twice a year, when the Sdl , 
tree blossoms, and at the Moi.Muri festival, in September or Ootober. 
In December he entertains the people, and the cattle are anointed 
with oil, daubed with vermilion, and receive a share of rice beer. . 
He propitiates the local devils. Sing Bonga, or " the Sun," is their 
supreme god, and other deities are Jahir Era, Monika and Marang 
Bum. In the E. districts the tiger is worshipped, and an oath on a 
tiger's skin is the most solemn. They are distinguished from all 
people by proficiency on the flute, which is made of bambu 2ft. long 
and 1 inch in diameter. They are fond of dancing, and their 
Jumhir is exactly the Mas of the Vii?hnu Purdnas. They have 
seldom more than one wife, who is treated with the most 
exemplary kindness and consideration. They have every 
year a great hunting festival, in which thousands take part, but on 
these occasions they avoid tigers and bears. Their constitutions are 
proof against malaria, and they are employed in localities deadly to 
most people. The bracelets of the women weigh from 2 to 41bs., ' 
and a girl will sustain in ornaments 34lbs. of brass or bell, metal. 
The Doms are one of the most remarkable of the Hindiiized 
aborigines, Hindi\ in nothing but name. The Dom has the absolute 
right of making the p^re on which the Hindu is burned, and of 
providing the torch with which it is lighted. They are the public 
executioners in Bihdr, and some families are hence called Jalidd, 
'^executioner." The Maghaiya Doms are professional thieves and 
vagabonds, and are the curse of any neighbourhood to which thev 
come. They are the only persons who will remove any dead animal. 
Dharkars are the superior Doms, who do not touch dead bodies, but 
make baskets. The women are notorious for their good looks. 
Dosadhs are a labouring class of Bihdr. The bulk of them are either 
thieves themselves, or connive at thieving. It is said that a nimiber 
of them fought in Olive's army at Plassey. Many of them 
worship Kdhu, and will eat and drink almost anything. Pasis are 
one of the most remarkable of the Hindiiized aborigines. QriginaUy a 
great and powerful nation, they were famous for their skill in 
archery. They are watchmen in the N.W., and in Bihdr sell tddi. 

The Lepchas are said to be the original inhabitants of Sikkim, and 
once held vast mountain possessions, but are now confined to a 
tract 60 m. broad, between the Nipdlese and Bhutdn &a^2i&^^%. 
There is a branch of them called Khamba Le^\i'aA/\\o.m\^c;d:oX9&^^ 
Kam, a province of Tliibet undei Chinese ime. ^[>aw\\. '^ QA£^^^x»R» 
have passed aiuce their arrive^ Tke -gT^^wX ^ti^s^wssx ^^^^ ^ ^ 



38 INTRODUCTION. Seot. I, 

Khamba. Their language is similar to the Thibetan. ' The Lepchas 
have broad chests, and muscular legs and arms, but rarely exceed 
5 ft. in height, and have small hands and feet, and almost hairless 
faces. Their coal-black hair is plaited into a long tail. The women 
wear 2 tails. Their faces are of the Mongolian type, and are of a 
whitish-yellow colour. Their dress is a thick blue and white, or red 
and white cotton cloth crossed over the breast and back, leaving the 
arms bare, and de8cendin<j to the calf of the leg, like the garment of 
a Roman gladiator. It is gathered in at the waist by a leathern 
j'irdle. Over this the women wear a loose bed-gown. They eat any 
lood, and snails, pith of the fern tree, caterpillars, fiower-buds, and 
fungi ; also a large yam, called BvMi, The females till the ground 
and look after the pigs, yaks and poultry. The men rock the cradles. 
They are good marksmen with bows and arrows. They have no 
caste, and buy their wives. A good-looking bride costs rs. 500. The 
Limbus are closely allied to the Lefjchas, but their features are more 
Mongolian, and tiiey are of more sinewy build. They wear long, 
loose cotton trousers, and a ti^ht jacket, with the curved Nipdlese 
knife in their belts, instead of the Lepcha straight knife. 

Brdhmans.-— The difference between the highest and lowest Brahman 
(Census of 1872, p. 165) is almost as great as that between the aver- 
age Brahman and the average Hindii. Those in priestly offices are 
considered of less account than those who merely worship and study 
the Vedas. A Brahman who acts as priest to another caste is 
necessarily degraded, and the receipt of alms from a low-caste man 
is almost equivalent to pollution. Although the Brdhman has still 
inmiense power, every vear takes him further from the ideal set 
forth in the books of flindii law. Not to speak of the cultivating 
Brdhmans of Orissa, there are few trades in which some Brdhmaiis 
are not now engaged. The Nipdlese Brdhmans are Kulls on tea 
plantations. Many Awadh Brahmans are doorkeepers in Calcutta. 
They are even seen as drum-players accompanjang ndch girls. 
Daibagya or Ganak are hereditary astrologers contemned by other 
Brdhmans, who will not intermarry with them. Dakantiya and 
Dhamin are low-caste Brdhmans, frequently found begging. They 
may marry as many wives as they please, and eat meat >vithout loss 
of prestige. Gayals, or Gayawals, are the proprietors of places of 
Gayd pilgrimagtf. They are very rich, and very bad landlords, and 
squeeze the last pice out of the luckless pilgrims. Kantaha or 
Mahapatra or Agradani, conduct funeral ceremonies. Their very 
touch is pollution, and entails bathing, and changing the clothes. 
Maithil is the 4th tribe of the Panchgaur. They are very common 
in N. Bihar and Parneah. They are divided into Suti, Majroti, 
Jogiya, and Grihast. The Rajji of Darbhanga is a Suti. According 
to the Census of 1872, Dr. Hunter is wrong in gi\'ing them a low 
place among Brdhmans. Sanxswat is the 2nd of the Panch-gaur 
Brdhmans. 

Kshatriyas. — In Bihdr the Edjpi'its are mostly land owners and 
cultivators. Their leader in Bihdr is the Rdjd of Damrtion, a 
Ponwar or Praraur Rdjput, 



S&Ct L LANGUAGES OF THE BBNGAL PRESIDENCY. 80 



§ h, LANGUAGES OP THE BENGAL PRESIDENCY, AND 
VOCABULARY AND DIALOGUES. 

The present inhabitants of the plains of N. India belong to what 
is called the A'ryan race, a race to which the Celtic, Teutonic, Slav, 
Latin and Greek races of Europe also belong. When they entered 
India from the N.W. they spoke a language closely akin to ancient 
Greek and Latin, and as we may infer, to the original speech of the 
Teutons, Slavs, and Celts. Of this language we have no memorials, 
but of the language spoken by the *-! ryans soon after their settle- 
ment in the Panjab a specimen, consisting of certain hymns called 
the Yedas, has been handed down to our times. Later on a vast mass 
of literature was composed in a slightly less ancient form of the 
same language. This literary language is called Sanskrit, and ig 
written, and even occasionally spoken, by learned Hindus in the 
present day. 

Side by side Avith this cultivated sacred language there gradually 
t^rew up popular forms of speech. The literary Sanskfit, like the 
classical Latin, was preventea from undergoing ciiange by the labours 
of successive generations of scholars, who strove to preserve its 
purity, while the speech of the people, like the lingua Romana 
rustica, or '• lingua volgare,'* underwent changes and broke up into 
dialects. These dialects are called Prdkyits, The Prakrits stand to 
the classical Sanskyit in precisely the same relation as old French 
and old Italian did to classical Latin. It was said of St. Adelbard, 
Abbot of Corby (a.d. 750), that he preached with equal eloouence, 
both in the " vulgar, that is the Roman ton^e " and in the classical 
Latin. So it might have been said of the disciples of Buddha that 
they used with equal fluency the Prdkrit or vulgar tongue and the 
classical Sanskrit. 

There were, as was natural, many Pi-^rit dialects, but ancient 
authors are not agreed as to the number of them or the exact locali- 
ties in which they were used. The question is a very abstnise one, 
and could hardly be made clear without entenng into technical details 
which would be uninteresting to the general reader. Recent re- 
searches have established the fact that the Prdkrits of N, India fall 
into two great divisions, eastern and western ; a line drawn K. and 
S., so as to cross the Ganges between AUdhdbdd and Bandras, roughly 
indicates the boundary between the two dialects.* 

From the E. Prdkfit sprung the Bengali Oriya and eastern Hindi ; 
from the W. came Panjdbi, Sindhi, and western Hindi. All these 
languages began to assume their present form probably about the 
13th or 14th centuries. 

Bengdli is spoken in the delta of the Ganges throughout the 
Province of Bengal properly so called. It is bounded on the N. by 
the outer skirts of the Him&hiyas ; on the E. by A'sdm, the Garo Hills 
and the range of low irregular hills running from Kachar dft^xj^Xa 



* It is a curious coincidence, though perlv&ps uotYuivft "wvox^k T.w»i\\ ^^ ^*^v^^~^%r^vt*.^ 
the staple food of the races to the E. of this \me \8 rice, viYiWfe XXvaX. ot ^>^^?J^ji5Sl 
h whmi The line of food division is nearly idenUcscY ^\>Ja. XJic^ 



the races to the E. of this \me \8 rice, viYiWfe XXvaX. ot ^"l^^^^^^Jf^^^, 
of food division is nearly ideiiUcsc\m^\)a»Xol «^^Ocv^>»s»^^ 



40 INTRODUCTION. Scct, I. 

the Barmese province of Arakan ; on the S. by the Bay of Bengal, 
and by a line which, roughly speaking, follows the course of the 
Subamarekhd river into the highlands of Chhoti Ndgpiir ; on the W. 
it follows the line of the Sdntdl Hills to Baima^al on the Ganges, 
and thence runs northwards along the Mahdnandd river to the 
Himdlayas near Darjiline. Its area is about 90,0CX) sq. m., population 
in round numbets 40 miuions. 

Bengdli was originally a rude dialect, defective in structure, dis- 
figured by an inelegant and careless pronunciation. During the 
present century strong and persistent efifbrts have been made by 
Bengalis, assisted by Englishmen, for its improvement A very large 
nunu>er of Sanskrit words has been imported into the language, 
which is now copious and elegant, and possesses a fairly good utera- 
ture, and many well written magazines and newspapers. About 90 
per cent, of its vocabulary is of Sanskrit or Prdkrit origin, leaving only 
a small proportion of Arabic, Persian, Portuguese and English words, 
many of which are strangely mutilated and disguised. Most Bengdlis 
of the upper class speak, read and write English with surprising 
fluency and correctness, and with much less of foreign accent than 
Frenchmen or Germans. 

Oriya is the vernacular of the ancient kingdom of Orissa. It is 
bounded on the N. by the Bengali, oil the E, by the Bay of Bengal, 
on the W. it stretches far into the hilly tracts of central India, and 
may be heard even in Ndgpiir. Its boundary in this direction has 
never been accurately ascertained ; on the S. it is heard as far as 
Ganjam, though there it is much corrupted by Telugu. Its area is 
about 66,000 sq. m., population probably not more than 6 or 7 
millions. 

Oriya retains many very archaic features ; its structure is more 
perfect than that of Ben^ll, which however it closely resembles. 
The difference between the two languages is not greater than that 
between Spanish and Italian. Like Bengali it has enriched itself in 
recent times from Sanskrit, and its vocabulary is almost entirely 
Sanskritic, containing only an insignificant proportion of foreign 
words. It has a small literature, chiefly rebgious, and in modem 
times has produced nothing worthy of notice. There are a few news- 
papers and some educational works, but the Province lags 
far behind Bengal, and but few even of the best educated classes 
are able to converse in English. 

Under the general and somewhat loose term Hindi (or Hinddi) are 
included the forms of speech current in an area bounded on the 
N. by the snow-clad summits of the Himdlaya mountains (in the 
lower ranges of which vast chain Hindi dialects are spoken), on the 
E. by Bengali, on the S. by an irregular and ill defined line running 
generally along the Vindhya hills and the Nerbudda (or Narmada) 
river south of Jabalpur to a point a little N. of the gulf of Kachh, 
and the salt swamps of the Rann ; on the W. by the Sindhi and 
Panjdbi into which it gradually melts in the great deserts of 
Rdjputdnd, whence it runs northwards through Patidla and Ambdla 
up mto the mountains west of Simla. 

It will be seen that this area includes portioua of both the western 



Sect I. CASTES AND TRIBES — LANGUAGES. 41 

and eastern Prdkrit districts, and accordingly the Hindi rustic 
dialects fall iiito two main divisions : the W. dialects, which 
are closely akin to Panjilbi, Sindhl and Gujardti, are very numerous, 
and include the MafW^ri £ind other dialects of E4jpiit4na, the Braj, 
spoken round Agra and Dihll, and the Kanauji of K&nh^i& 
(Cawnpore) and Rohilkhand. The eastern group contains 
the Bhojpiiri, spoken all over western Bihdr, from Patna to Banaras 
and Gorakhpur ; the Maithili in Tirhiit, and the Magadh south of the 
Ganges from Gayd to Bhdgalpiir. 

All through this area, ana far beyond it — in fact more or less all 
over India — ^is spoken the great Ungua franca known as Urdii 
or Hindustdnl. This language took its rise during the 12th century 
in the Muhammadan cou3;— half-court half-camp as Avas the fashion 
of those warlike invaders— at Dihll, and consists of a basis of Hindi 
enriched with a vast wealth of Arabic and Persian words, with a 
sprinkling of Turkish. The Hindi dialect, which served 
as its basis, was naturally the Braj, spoken in the neighbourhood, 
with some slight mixture of the adjacent M&rwdri and 
Panjdbi. Some of the harsher sounds of the rustic Braj were 
softened down, and of alternative forms only one retained. This 
language received at first little cultivation, but as the Mul?ammadau 
sway cnanged its character from that of marauding inroads to a 
settled government, this mixed language became the speech of the 
cultivated classes, and under Akbar and his successors Jahdn^ 
and Shdh Jahdn in the 16th century spread all over their vast domin- 
ions. The admirable financial organization of the whole country 
carried out by the great minister Todar Mall familiarized all classes 
with the Persian and Arabic terms used in this system of govern- 
ment, and to the present day, many of these words, often strangely 
corrupted, may be heard from the mouths of the most illiterate 
peasants in the most secluded comers of the Empire. 

The revival of an interest in the ancient Sanskrit language which 
followed upon its being made known to Europeans in the beginning 
of the present century, led among other things to a desire to obtain 
for the Hindus a national lan^age, which should take the place 
occupied by the courtly and cultivated Urdii. With a view to this 
end some writers took the Braj element in Urdi\, and substituting 
Sanskrit and Prdkyit words for Arabic and Persian, constructed an 
artificial language called High Hindi, which though used in books 
has little or no currency among the people. 

The various dialects grouped together as Hindi cover an area of 
248,000 sq. m., and are spoken by about 70 millions of people. 
Urdu possesses a literature, much oi which consists of poetry of little 
merit, mere feeble imitations of the great Persian poets. There are 
a few good prose works, but only a few. In Hindi we have some 
very interesting poems of considerable antiquity. The Prithirdja 
RTisan of Chand Barddl, written in the 12th century, is the earliest 
kno\m work in any modem Indian vernacular. It \3» ^ot^Xrxv \xv 
western Hindi, whicn at that time was YiBi^y ^^^^KsXfc^s.i-tOkVx^^vssj^^Sv^'* 
and recites in many thousand lilies oi ^^\\. ^-'^^ '^'^^'^^^^^^^^^•^L^ 
doughty deeds of the gaUant l)ut i\Via.l^^^^'^^^^>'^^^^^ 



42 IXTRODUCTION, Scct. I. 

King of Dihlf, wlio after many years of valiant resistance- at last 
perished in battle with the invading Muslim hordes at Panipat| 
A.D. 1192. Kablr, Tulsl Dds, Sdr Dds, Bihdrl Ldl and others are 
popular religious poets of the 15th and 16th centuries. In modem 
times Hindi has produced nothing worthy of note. 

Panjabi is spoken in the Province of that name. It is bounded on 
the E. by Hindi, which it meets in the country to the E. of the 
Satlaj. The traveller will begin to hear it about Ambdla, On the 
N. it goes up far into the lower ranges of the Himalaya, where it 
merges into Kashmiri and its dialects. Its western frontier is the 
Indus, where it marches with Pashtii, the language of the Afg^dns. 
In the S. it melts imperceptibly into the sister-language, Sindhi, a 
little to the S. of Mult^n. Its area is 60,000 sq, m., and population 
about 16 millions. 

The above are the principal languages of the Bengal Presidency, 
but some minor forms ol speech with which the traveller will 
occasionally come in contact may be briefly noticed. In the extreme 
E. of Bengal, in the lovely but unhealthy hill ranges of Chittagong, 
the Mag (or Magh) language, a northern dialect of Bamiese, is spoken 
by the foi-est tribes. It is monosyllabic, and has the curious tones 
peculiar to that class of languages. 

A'samese, which is spoken in the valley of A'sdm, is merely a 
very corrupt dialect of Bengdll, and in the mountains which bound 
the valley on the N. and S. a great number of dialects of the 
Barmese and Tibetan groups of languages are spoken. Such are the 
Naga, Garo, Mishmi and others. In and about Darjiling are heard 
the Bhotia, Lepcha, and Limbu ; dialects of Tibetan. In Nipdl, to 
which travellers rarely penetrate, and round the favourite hill stations 
of Naini Tal, Masiiri, and Simla, the mountaineers speak rough 
dialects of Hindi. Guides, porters, and shikdris (hunters who act as 
guides to sportsmen) mostly imderstand a little Urdii, Lastly, in^ the 
Sdntal Hills between Bhagalpur and Rdniganj, the Sdntdli, one 
of a large group of aboriginal languages spoken all through the hill 
regions of Central India, is current. Many S^ntdls however can. 
speak a little Urdii and Bengdli, 



Sect. I. 



VOCABULAKY. 



43 



VOCABULARY AND DULOGUES. 



English. 


Hindi. 


Bengali 


One 


Ek 


Ek 


Two 


Do 


Dui 


Three 


Tin 


Tin 


Four 


Chdr 


Chari 


Five 


PAnch 


Pdnch 


Six 


Chhah 


Chhay 


Seven 


SAt 


Sdt 


Eight 


A'th 

• 


At 


Nine 


Nau 


Nay 


Ten 


Das 


Das 


Eleven 


Igdrah 


Egara 


Twelve 


Bdrah 


Bdra 


Thirteen 


Terah 


Tera 


Fourteen 


Chaudah 


Chaudda 


Fifteen 


Pandrah 


Ponra 


Sixteen 


Solah 


Sola 


Seventeen 


Satrah 


Sotera 


Eighteen 


Athdrah 


Atdra 


Nineteen 


Unls 


Unis 


Twenty 


Bis 


Kuri, Bis 


Twenty-one 


Ikis 


Akus 


Jwenty-two 


Bdis 


Bdis 


Twenty-three 


Teis 


Teis 


Twenty-fonr 


Ohaubls 


Chabbis 


Twenty-five 


Pachls 


Panchls 


Twenty-six 


Chhabbls 


Chhdbbis 


Twenty-seven 


SatA'ls 


Satdft 


Twen^-eight 


Athd'ls 


Atds 


Twenly-nine 


Untls 


Untris 


Thirty 


Tls 


Tris 


Thirty-one 


Iktls 


Ekutris 


Thirty-two 


Battls 


Battris 


Thirty-three 


Tetis 


Tettris 


Thirty-four 


Chautis 


Chautris 


Thirty-five 


Paintls 


Panytris 


Thirty-six 


Chhattis 


Chhatris 


Thirty-seven 


Saintis 


Saintris 


Thirty-eight 


Athtis 


Attris 


Thirty-nine 


UnchAlis 


Unachallis 


Forty 


Chdlls 


Challis 


Forty-one 


Iktdlis 


Ekchallis 


Forty-two 


Be'alls 


Bidllis 


Forty-three 


Tetdlls 


Tetdllis 


Forty-four 


Chau'Alis 


Chuallis 


Forty-five 


PaintdUs 


Panyatallis 


Forty-six 


Chhiydlls 


Chhechdllia 


Forty-seven 


Saintdlis 


Sdtchallis 


Forty-eight 


Atht&lis 


Xlf^Vks!^^ 


Forty-nine 


Unchds 


\iT\a.^«as3cas^ 


Fifty 


Pach&s 


^vc\!d!ti^ 


Fitty-on^ 


Ik^waa 


'^^Vi.lXXL^ 



44 

Enqlish. 

Fifty-two 

Fifty-tliree 

Fifty-four 

Fifty-five 

Fifty-six 

Fifty-seven 

Fifty-eight 

Fifty-nine 

Sixty 

Sixty-one 

Sixty-two 

Sixty-three 

Sixty-four 

Sixty-five 

Sixty-six 

Sixty-seven 

Sixty-eight 

Sixty-nine 

Seventy 

Seventy-one 

Seventy-two 

Seventy-three 

Seventy-four 

Seventy-five 

Seventy-six 

Seventy-seven 

Seventy-eight 

Seventy-nine 

Eighty 

Eighty-one 

Eighty-two 

Eighty-three 

Eighty -four 

Eighty -five 

Eighty-six 

Eighty-seven 

Eighty -eight 

Eighty-nine 

Ninety 

Ninety-one 

Ninety-two 

Ninety-three 

Ninety-four 

Ninety-five 

Ninety-six 

Ninety-seven 

Ninety-eight 

Ninety-nine 

A hundred 

Two hundred 

Three hundred 

Four hundred 

Five hundred 

Six hundred 



INTRODUCTION. 


iSect 


HlNDf. 


BENOALi. 


B4wan 


Bdyduna 


Tirpan 


Tippanna 


Chauwaa 


Ohudnna 


Pachpan 


Panchdnna 


Chhapan 


Chhappdnna 


Satawan 


Sdtdnna 


Athdwan 


Atdnna 


Unsath 


U'naBdit 


SAth* 


Sdit 


Iksath 


Eksatti 


Bdsath 


Bdsatti 


Tirsaikh 


tesatti 


Chausath 


Chousatti 


Pains^th 


Panyasatti 


Chhiyisath 


Chhesatti 


Satsafh 


Sdtsatti 


Athsath 


Atsatti 


Unhattar 


Unasattar 


Sattar 


Sattar 


Ikhattar 


Ekdttar 


Bahattar 


Bdydsattar 


Ti>iattar 


Tiattar 


Chauhattar 


Chuattar 


Pachhattar 


Panchdttar 


Chhihattar 


Chhiattar 


Sathattar 


Sdtdttaa- 


Athhattar 


Atattar 


Vn&Bi 


U'nadsi 


Assi 


Asi 


Ik&sl 


Ekdsi 


Be*&sl 


Birdsi 


Tirdsl 


Tirdsi 


Chaurdsi 


Chardsi 


Panchjisi 


Pauchdsi 


Chhl^i 


Chhidsi 


Satdsi 


Sdtdsi 


AthAsl 


Athdsi 


Naujisl 


Unanahbui 


Nauwe 


Nabbui 


Ikdnawe 


Ekdnabbui 


Bdnawe 


Birenabbui 


Tirdnawe 


Tirenabbui 


Chaurdnawe 


Chamnabbui 


Pachdnawe: 


Panchdnabbui 


Chiydnawe 


Chhidnabbni 


Satdnawe 


Sdtdnabbui 


Athanawe 


Athanabbui 


Nin6jiawe 


Nirenabbui 


Sau 


Sa, Ek sata 


Do sau 


Du sa 


Tin sau 


Tinsa 


Chdr sau 


Chdr sa 


Pdnch sau 


Panch sa 


Chhahsau 


Clihasa 



Sect. I. 


VOCABULARY.- 

« 


4 


Enoush. 


HiNDf. 


BengAlI 


Seven hundred 


Sitsau 


Sdtsa 


Bight hundred 


Athsau 


Atsa 


Nine hundred 


Nau sau 


Nasa 


A thousand 


Hflz&r 


Hdzdr 


Ten thouRand 


Das hazdr 


Dashdzdr 


A hundred thousand 


L&kh 


Ek Idk 


A million 


Das Idkh 


Dha Idk 


Ten Tnillions 


Kror 


Kror, Koti 


A quarter 


P4o 


Siki, Pod 


A half 


Adhd 


Adha, Ardha 


Three-quarters 


Paond, tin pdo* 


Tin pod, Pon 


One-and-a-qunrter 


Tiwd 


Saya 


One-and-a-half 


Derh 


Derh 


One - and - three - 


Pdone do 


Pone dui 


quarters 






Two-and-a-quarter 


Sawd do 


Swd dui 


Two-and-a-half 


Arhdl 


Arhdl 


Two - and - three - 


Pdone tin 




quarters 






Three-and-a-quarter 


Sawd tin 


Soyd tin 


Three-and-a-half 


Sdrhetin 


Sare tin 


Three - and - three • 


Pdone char 


Pone chdr 


quarters 




• 


Four-and-a-quarter 


Sawd chdr 


Soya chdr 


Four-and-a-half 


Sdjrhc chdr 


Sdre chdr 


Four - and - three - 


Pdone pdnch 


Ponen pdnch 


quarters 






A third 


Tisrd liis^ah 


Ek tritiydnsa 


Two-thirds 


Do tisrd hi^^ah 


Di tritiydnsa 


A fifth 


Pdnchwdn hii^^ 


Ek paiichamaiisa 


A sixth 


Chhathafi hissah 


Ek sashtdnsa 


A seventh 


Sdtwdn hi^ssih 


Ek saptamdnsa 


An eighth 


Athwdii his^ah 


Ek a^htamdnsa 


A tenth 


Daswdn hisi^ 


Ek dasamdnsa 


Montlis, 


Mas, Mahine.f 


Mahine, 


January- 


Pus 


Pau^ 


February 


Mdgh 


Mdjha 


March 


P^jdgun 


Phdlgunc 


April 


Chalt 


Chaitra 


May 


Baisakh 


Vaishdkha 


June 


Jeth 


Jye9htha 
A^hadha 


July 


Asarh 


August 


Sdwan 


Shrdvana 


September 


Bhddoii 


Bhddra 


October 


Asin 


Ashin 


November 


Kdrtik 


Kartik 


December 


Agahan 


Agrahdyana 



45 



* A quarter less than, pdone ; a half more than, rAtKc. __ . vv»v 

+ The Indian months begin about the 15th t>t ttie ¥att^%\\. xwsw'esi*, ^2tcc» ^^^,^; 
letter ladfotJaaxuaj aod the first half ol ?ebtuaxy , wA w> ^Vttv «J^ >Qb» «!<aBK^ \bss«»x 



46 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect. I. 


English. 


Hindi. 


BENGALi. 


Days. 


Bar or Vdr, 


War. 


Sunday 


EtwAr 


RavivAr 


Monday 


Sombdr 


Somavdr 


Tuesday 


Mangalvdr 


MangalvAr 


Wednesdaj' 


Budhvar 


BudhavAr 


Thursday 


Brihaspatvar, vulgo 
biphe 


Brihaspatiydr 


Friday 


Sukarbar 


Shukravdr 


Saturday 


Sanichar 


Shaniy&r 


East 


Piirab 


Purva 


West 


Pachhim 


Pashchim 


North 


Uttar 


Uttar 


South 


Dakhin 


Dakhin 


Spring 


Basant 


Yasanta ritu 


Summer 


Grisham 


Gri§ma ritu 


Autumn 


Kharlf, Sarad 


Sarat ritu 


Winter 


Sitkdl, JAr4 


Shita ritu 


Abyss 


Dah 


Da, Daha 


Air 


Hawa 


Hawd, Vay{i 


Atom 


Tiik 


Paramdnu 


Ashen 


Rdkli 


Chhai 


Bank of river 


Nadl ka kinarah 


NadiTlr,kindra 


Bay 


Kol 


Upasdgar 


Beach 


Kindrah 


UpakiU 


Bridge 


Pul 


Pul, Setu 


Bubble 


Bulbula 


Budbud 


Burning 


Jalnd 


Jaldnd 


ChalV 


Kharl 


Khari 


Ghaiinel 


Khdl 


Kandli 


Clay 


Kddoii 


Kdda, Kardam 


Cloud 


Megh 


Megha 


Charcoal 


Koyila 


Koild 


Cold 


Thanria 


Tdnda, Shitai 


Continent 


(No word*) 


Mahddesha 


Darkness 


Andhera 


Andhakdr, And- 
hdr 


Deluge 


Saildl) 


Jalapldvan 


Depth 


Gahira 


Gavirdta 


Dew 


* Os 


Sishir 


Drop 


Blind 


Bindu 


Dust 


Dhul 


Dhula 


Earth 


Zamin 


Prithivi 


Earthquake 


Bhuikamp 


Bhumikiimp 


Ebb-tide 


Bhati 


Bhanta 


Ferry 


Nadi ghat 


Parghdt,Kheya- 
ghdt 


Flame 


A'nch 


Halka, Shikha 


Finish 


Jhalak, Ujala 


Jhalak 


Fire 


Ag 


Agan 


Flood-tide 


Jawdr 


Jdwdr 



Sect. I. 


VOCABULARY. ^ 


47 


Ekglish. 


Hindi. 


BENGALi. 


Fog 


Kuhudi 


Kuyasha 


Ford 


Heldo' 


Nadir chaya 


Fountain 


Powar4 


Foydra, Utsa 


Frost 


Thar 


Him, Tusdr 


Fuel 


J&lan 


Jvdlani Kat 


Gravel 


Kankar 


Kankar 


HaU 


Old 


Shil, ShiUbritu 


Heat 


Garml 


Dhiip, Garam, 
Uttap 


Highway 


Shahrah 


lldjmdrga,'' Ba- 

rardsta 
Chhota pdhdr 


Hillock 


IHld 


Ice 


Barf 


Baraf 


Island 


TApu 


Dip 


Inundation 


Saildb 


Banyd, Bda 


Lake 


T41 


Krada 


Lightning 


Bijli 


Bidyut 


Marsh 


Jhil 


Jald 


Mountain 


Pahdr 


Parvat 


Ocean 


Mahdsagar 


Mahdsdgar 


Path 


Pagdandi 


Path, Rafitd 


Plain 


Maiddn 


Maiddn, Mdt 


Pond 


Taldo 


Pukur, Puskarim 


Promontory 


NArI 


Antarip 


Quicksand 


Phasan 


Chord, Bdli 


Bain 


Barsd, Barkha 


Bristi, Barsa 


River 


Nadi 


Nadi 


Sand 


Ret 


Bdli 


SeA 


Samundar 


Sdgar 


Shower 


Jhapsd 


Pasld 


Smoke 


DhrtAn 


Dum, Dhowa 


Snow 


Baraf 


Baraf 


Spark 


Chit 


Fulki, SfulingB 


Soot 


. Kdjal 


Jhul 


Stone 


Patthar 


Pathar 


Stream 


Jhard 


Srota 


Tempest 


Tiifdn 


Zar, Batyd 


Thunder 


Gargarii 


Baj, Bajra 


Valley 


Nisheb 


Gnha 


Water 


PAnl 


Jal 


Well 


KAkn 


Kup, Kuwaf 


Whirlpool 


Bhanwar 


Ghiniajal. Pdkna 


Whirlwind 


BAold- 


Ghirnd, Bdt^^j* 


Wave 


Mauj, Lahar 


Dheu, Taraufa 


Xlmhip, 


Sagdi, 


Sambatidha. 


Ancestors 


Bdpddda 


Purwapurus 


Aunt , ^ 


Phtiphi, Chadii, 


Khnri, MA&^, 




Mdmi 


^taoS. 


Boy 


Chhokyd 


C\^€^'&>'^^2^»^ 


8nde 


Kanyd 


^«w3fe.,^Sja»s 



4« 


INTRODUCriOX. 


sect. 1. 


Englihh. 


HiNDi. 


BENoAii. 


Bridegroom 


Bar 


Var 


Brother 


BhAf 


Bhai, Vrata 


Bachelor 


KunwArA, Anbydha 


Anu4a, Knin&r 


Childhood 


Bdlakpan 


Balya, Saisab 


Children 


Bachhe 


Chhota chhile 


Cousin 


ChacherA bhAi 


Jettuta, Mastata, 
Pistata, Kar- 
tutacrMamato 
bhAi 


Daughter 


Beti 


Meye, KanyA 


Dower 


KanyAdAn 


Stridhan 


Dwarf 


BaunA 


BAman 


Father 


Bap 


BAp, PitA 


Father-in-law 


Sasur 


Sasura 


Female 


TlrlyA, Band! 


Meye 


Girl 


Larki 


BAlikA 


Grandfather 


DAdA, NAna 


DAdA, PitAmaha 


Grandmother 


DAdl, NAni 


TakurmA, Pita- 
mohi 


Heir 


Waris 


WAris, UttarAdhi- 
kun 


Husband 


Swaml, Khasam 


BhAlAi-, SwAmi 


Infant 


BachA 


Sisu 


Inheritance 


Wirasat bhdg 


DAya 


Kinsman 


Kutumbi 


Kutumba 


Male 


Purush 


l^inish 


Man 


Admi, MAnus 


MAnus 


Manhood 


PuikhAt 


ManusAya 


Marriage 


Shadi, BijAh 


BibAha 


Mother 


MA 


MA, MAta 


Mother-in-law 


SAs 


Sasuri, Swasra 


Mortal 


Maranhar 


Martya, Marana- 

sil 
Bhajiniya, Bhijo 


Nephew 


BhatijA, BhAnjA 


Niece 


Bhatljl, BhAnjl 


Bhijhi, Bhajineja 


Nurse 


Dai V 


DhAi, Dhatri 


Old age 


Biij-hapan 


Bura bayes, Bar- 
dhaksa 


Old man 


Biij-hA 


Bura, Bridha 


Old woman 


BnrhiyA 


Buri, BridhA 


Orphan 


BinA MA-bAp 


AnAth, Atur 


Posterity- 


Putra, PautrAdi 


Bhabishyu pums 


Sister 


Bahin 


Bon, Bhajini 


Son 


LarkA, Beta 


Betachhili, Putra 


Step-mother 


Sauteli ma 


Satraa, BimAtA 


Twins 


Jora, JAwan 


Jamak, Jamaea 


Uncle 


ChAchtl 


Khura, JetA MA- 
mA pise, MeshA 


Widow 


BewA 


BidhabA 


Wife 


Joru 


MAj, Strl 


Woman 


Randi 

• • 


Stri jAti 


Young man 


JawAn 


Juva 


Youth 


JawAn 


Jouvan 



fcect. 1. 


VOCABUIiAKY. 


41 


English. 


HlNDf. 


BENGALi. 


Parts of the 


JSadan ke ang. 


Pratyanya. 


Body. 






Ankle 


Gatta 


Payer Gordri 


Arm 


BdAh 


Bahu, Bhuja 


Back 


nth 


Pit, Prista 


Back-bone 


Blrh 


Eiter har, Prista 
danda 


Bile 


Ht 


Pitta 


Blood 


Lohii 


Kakta 


Beard 


Ddrhl 


Dadi 


Body 


Badan 


Sarir, Deha 


Bone 


Haddl 


Har, Asthi 


Brain 


Bhejd 


Majaz, Mastisk 


Breast 


Chhdtf 


Baksa, Buk ^ 


Breath 


Swdns 


Niswdo 


Cheek 


Gdl 


Kapoi, Gal 


Chin 


Thuddl 


Chibuk, Dadi 


Ear 


kdn* 


Kdn, Kamo 


Elbow 


Ghntnl 


Kanui 


Eye 


Ankh 


Ankhi, Chok 


Eye-brow 


Bhaan 


Bhni 


Eye-lash 


Palak 


Palak 


Face 


Munh 


Mukhakute 


Fat 


Motd 


Charbi, Med 


Finger 


UngU 


Anjul;, Anjul 


Fist 


Muthl 


Shusa 


Flesh 


Mdns 


Maiisa 


Foot 


Pdiiw 


Pa, Pdd 


Forehead 


Kapdl 


Eapal, Laldt 


Gland 


Gilthi 


»■ ■ • 


6am 


Gond 


Madi 


Hair 


Bdl 


Chul 


Hand 


Hdth 


Hasta, Hat 


Head 


Sir 


Mastak 


Heart 


Hirad 


Hrit piiid 


Heel 


Eri 


Gotdli 


Hip 


Pilthd 


Kuchki 


Jaw 


Jabjrd' 


Chal 


Joint 


Sdndh 


Sandhi 


Kidney 


Gurdd 


Miitrusaya 


Knee 


Theond 


Haritu 


Knuckle 


Gdnth 


Pder Gdit 


Leg 


Tdngd 


Tang, Pa, Pad 


Lip 


Ot 


Cesta 


Liver 


Kaliya 


Phiha, Kalaja 


Loin 


Kamar 


Kdnkdl, Koti 


Lungs 


Phuphds 


Phusphus 


Marrow 


Gudd 


As^ir majja 


Moustaches 


Mochheii 


Gonp 


Month 


Munh 


Mukh 


Nail 


Nakh 


^^JiKJDL 


Neck 


Gald 


Qi\3\"bL, Qct«:^«^ 


Nose 


Ndk 


^«5. 


fA'/f^/^J88L] 




^ 



00 


IJITKODUCTION. 


sect. 1. 


English. 


Hiiimi. 


BxvoAiit 


Palate 


T^u 


TAlu 


Pulse 


NAri 


Nari 


Bibs 


PaAfili 


PAiyrd. 


Side 


Baghal 


Paftjar 


Skin 


Ghamfd 


ChAmra 


Sinew 


Rag 


Snaju 


Sknll 


KhoprA 


MalhAr kh41i, 
NarakapAl 


Shoulder 


Kilndhd 


Kaftdh 


Spittle 


Kiik 


Tutu 


Sweat 


Paslnd 


<lhATn 


Stomach 


Pet 


Antra, Pet 


Tear 


A'Asii 


Asruy Chokher 
jal 


Temples 
Thigh 


Kanpati 


Bag 


Jdftgh 


Uru, JanghA 


Throat 


GalA 


GalA 


Thumb 


Anguthd 


Bara angul, An- 
gustha 


Toe 


PAnw ki ungU 


PAer angol 


Tongue 


Jtbh 


Jib, JihvA 


Tooth 


DAnt 


DantA. DAnt 


Waist 


Kamar 


Kote, komar 


Windpipe 


GalA 


Galanall 


Wrist 


Gatt& 


Hater Kabj ja 


Vein 


Bag 


SlrA 


Beauty 


Blip 


Blip, Saundaijya 



DUeayes* 



Hog. 



Rog, Pitd. 



Ague 


AntaryA tap 


Kampajwar 


Bald 


ChandlA 


Teko 


Blind 


AndhA 


KAnA, Andha 


Bniise 


Chot 


KalslrA, Chot 


Cholera 


Haizah 


BistLchikA, OlA- 
yuta 


Cold 


Sardl 


Sardi, TAndA 


Cough 


KhAnsl 


Kasa 


Consumption 


Khal rcg 


Eshaya, EAs 


Deaf 


BahirA 


EalA,Badhir 


Death 


Faut 


Maran, Mrityu 


Digestion 


Pachnd 


Hazam, ParipAk 


Dream 


SapnA 


Sapan, Swapna 


Drowsiness 


ITngh 


TandrA, Zimini 


Dumb 


GiingA 


Mtik, BohA 


Fainting 


MurchhA 


MurchhA 


Fever 


Tap, BhiikhAr 


Jwar 


Fracture 


TomA 


HarbhAngA, Asthi 
bhanja 


Gout 


BAtrog 


BAt 


Hunger 


Bh\ikh 


Khldi. KshudhA 


Indigestion 


Badhazam 


Badhazam, AhAk 



Seot. I. 

• 


yOCABULARY. 


01 ' 


l^NOLISH. 


Hindi. 


BBiraAT.f, 


Inflammation 


Jalan 


PhulaSphitl- 


Jaundice 


Pandu rog 


Nydba, Kdm&I 


T/ame 


Tiangrd 


Khonrd, Khanja. 


Madness 


Pdgalpan 


Pdglaiml, Khe- 
pame 


Measles 


Pangoti 


Hdm 


Numbness 


Thithrdhat 




Ophthalmia 


Ankh kd rog 


Chaksha rog 


Pain 


Dukh, Pir^ 


Bydthd, Bidana 


Hash 


Pitti 


Gomdr 


Rheumatism 


Bdl 


Kasha Bdt 


Sickness 


Bem4rl . 


Bayayram, Pird 


Sleep 


Nlnd 


Ghum, Nidrd 


Smallpox 


SitaU 


Basanta 


Spasm 


Maror 


Khinchuni 


Sore 


(xhAo (subs.) 


Ghd, Kshata 


Squint-eyed 


Bhenga 


Terd 


Stammering 


Larbar&nd 


Totld 


Swelling 


Sojh 


Phold 


Symptoms 


liakhan 


Laksan 


Thirst 


Piyds 


Trishnd, Pipdsd 


Voice 


Awdj 


Awdz, Swar 


Watching 


Jagnd 


Pdhdrd dewd 


Weakness 


Nirbaltd 


Durbalatd 


Wound 


Ghdo 


Ghd, Ksata 


Wrinkle 


Jhuri 


Konchkdni 


Qtmdrupeds^ 


Chanpdi, 


Cliaturpad, 


Alligator 


Magar, Bochd 


Kumir, Kumvir 


Animal 


Janwar 


Prdni, Pasu 


Antelope 


Hiran 


Elristasar, Mriga, 
Harin 


Ars 


Gadhd 


Gddhd, Gardaya 


Bat 


Chamgiidaj-l 


Badur 


Bear 


Bichh, Bbdlu 


BhaUtik, Bhaluk 


Beast 


JAnwar 


Jantu, Pashu 


Boar 


Siliar 


Siigar, Siikar 


Brute 


Jdnwar 


Paj=«i 


Buck 


Haran 


• Harin 


BufEalo 


BhaiAsa (w.), Bhains (/.) 


Mosh, Mahis 


Bull 


Sand 

• • 


Shand, Shandd 


Calf 


BachjTi 


Bacchur, Batsa 


Camel 


Unth 


Ut 


Chameleon 


Girgit 


Bahurupi, Kripa- 

las 
Birdl, Biral 


Cat 


Billl 


Cattle 


Goru, Pohe 


Gabadi, Jantix 


Colt 


Bachjii 


CiQt«tOi^toL^ 


Cow 


Gae, Gao 


Qek\, QikTS. 


Beer 


Hiran 


"ELaim 


Doe 


Hiran 


"asjcvTvV 



^^ 



0^ 


INTBODUCTION. 


sect..!. 

1 


Ekglisu. 


HiNDt 


BKNOAli. 


Dog 


Kutt4 


Eukor 


Blephant 


H4thi 


H&ti, Hasti 


Elk 


Sdmbar 


Bar singa, Haxin 


Ewe 


Bhefi 


Bheri 


Foal 


Bachru 


Ghorar bachchd 


Flock 


GaU4 


Bhir4r p^ 


Fox 


Lomri 


Kheftksiali, Phera 


Frog 


Beng 


Byang, Bhlk 


Goat 


Bakrd 


Chh&gdl, Chh^ 


Hare 


Khargosh 


Khargos; Sasak 


Horse 


Ghora 


Ghoiiri, Gholak 


Hound 


Shikiirl kuttd 


Bhik&ri kukur 


Hyena 


Lakarbaghd 


Nikdima 


Jackal 


Gidhar 


Siyal, Srig41 


Kid 


Halwdn 


Chhagali, Chhdnd 


Tiamb 


Halwdn 


Bhedar chhdnd 


Leopard 


Chita 


Chite B&g 


Lion 


B6gh, Sin^h 


Sinha 


Tjizarcl 


Tiktiki 


Girgiti 


Mare 


Ghori 


Gufi, Ghotakil 


Monkey- 


Bandar 


Bdnar 


Mouse 


Chrthi 


Indur 


Musk rat 


Chhaehhundar 


_— 


Mule 


Khachchar 


Khachchar, As- 






walar 


Muskdeer 




Kasturi mriga 


Otter 


tJd 


— . 


Ox 


Bail 


Balad 


Panther 


Chita 


Chltd 


Pig 


Si^ar 


Stiarer bachcha 


Porcupine 


— 


S^jara 


Babbit 


— 


Khargosh 


Bam 


Mendha 


Bherd 


Bat 


Chiiha 


Mushik 


Bhinoceros 


Genda 


Ga,ndar 


Sheep 


Bheri 


Bheta, Mesh 


Squirrel 


Gileri 


Katbirali 


Tiger 


Bdgh 


Kenda bdgh 


Wolf 


Bheriyd 


Nekj-e bdgh 



Birds, 



CItiriya. 



Paltshi, 



Adjutant 


HargiUi 


Saras 


Brood 


Bachhe 


Shdbak 


Chicken 


Murghi ka bachcbii 


Murgir bachcha 


Cock 


Murghii 


Morag 


Crane 


S4ras 


S&ras 


Crow 


Kawwii 


KAk 


Dove 


Parewa 


Ghughu, Kabutnr 


Duck 


Batak 


Pati pakshi 


Falcon 


B4j 


Bdj shikari 


Game 


Shikdr 


Shikdr 



beet. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


0^3 


English. 


HiNDf. 


Bengali. 


Goose 


Kdjhans 


Hans 


Hawk 


Chfl 


B4j 


Hen 


Murghi 


Murgl 


Heron 


BaguIJi 


Kank, Bak 


Hoopoe 


Hudhudd 


— 


Jungle fowl 


Jangali mui'ghl 


Bano moraj 


Kite 


Chil 


Chil 


Nightingale 


Bulbul 


Bulbul 


Ostrich 


— 


ShahAmfiga 


Owl 


Pecha 


PechA 


Parrot 


TotA 


TotA 


Partridge 


Titar 


Tittir 


Peacock 


Mor 


Mayur 


Peahen 


Momi 


Mayeri 


Pheasant 


— 


Sundarpaksa paksi 


Pigeon 


Kabutar 


KAbutdr 


Qnail 


Batcr 


Bata paksi 


Sparrow 


— . 


Chapii 


Wagtail 


Phobi 


Khanjan p&ki 


FUh4ss, 


Machhli, 


Matsa. 


Crab 


Kdkr^ 


KenkrA 


Eel 


Bdm 


B&m 


HUsa 


Hils^ 


Hilsd 


Mahasir 


Mahslr 


— 


Mango-lish 


Tapst 


Tapshi 


Oyster 


Kastuiu 


. Kari 


Pomfret 


— 


Btlpchanda 


Porpoise 


— 


Susuk 


Carp 


llohii 


Kui, Rohit 


Shark 


— 


MAgui' 


Shrimp 


Chingri 


Chingrl 


Skate 


(uo word) 


(no woiti) 


Sole 




i_ 


Tnrtle 


Kachhua 


Kachhap,Kac hhim 


Whale 


^"^"^ 


Timi 


Insects, 


Xifd. 


K'itf Patanga. 


Ant 


Chyunti 


Pipihka, Pinpre 


Bee 


Madhumakhi 


Moumache, Mad- 
humachh 


Beetle 


Bhund 


Gubrepoka 


Bti< 


Khatmal 


Chchhdrpoka 


Butterfly 


Patang 


Prajdpati 


CatcrpiUAr 


Jhanjha 


^\VfiC<^C^^ 


Centipede 


Eankhajurd. 


"BVOaJak 


CoGhinealworm 


Krimi 


"Krox^. 


Fireflj 


Jngnu 


3oTii]^\ 



54 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect I. 



English. 

Fly 

Gnat 

Grasshopper 

Leech 

Locust 

Louse 

Maggot 

Moth 

Scorpion 

Silk-worm 

Snail 

Snake 

Spider 

Swarm 

Tick 
Vermin 
Wasp 
White ant 



HiNDt 



Makkhi 

Machhar 

Tidda 

• 

Jonk 

Tin 

Jiin 

Kira 

Patang 

Bichhii 

PatkirA 

Ghongha 

Sdmp 

Makajrl 

Jhund 

Chichrl 
Kird 
Bimi 
Dimak 



BEKGili. 

Machhi 

Dans, MashA 

Fating 

Jonk 

PangapiU 

Ukun, Dengar 

Krimi 

PokA 

Bichhd 

Gulipokd 

Sanmuk 

Sdp, Sarpa 

Makarsd 

Manm^hhir, 

Jhdnk 
Eukurer ukon 
Krimi 
BoU& 
Uni 



Stones, 



Agate 
Alum 
Amethyst 

Antimony 
Brass 
Cat's eye 
Crystal 
Copper 
Coral 
Cameliau 
Diamond 
Dross 
Emerald 
Flint 
Gold 
Iron 
Jet 
Jewel 

Lapis lazuli 
Lead 

Loadstone 
Marble 
Metal 
Mine 
Mineral 
Pearl 
. QuicksilYer 
Baby 



Pathar, 



Sulaimdni 

Phitkari 

Yakut 

Surmd 

Pital 

Dudhiyd pathar 

Kachd 

TdmbA 

IMungd 

'Akik 

Hlra 

Kit 

Markat 

Chakmak 

Sond 

Lohd 

Sang miisa 

JawAhir, Mani 

Ldj award 

Sisd 

■Sang mnrmar 
Dhdt 
Khdn 
KhAnl 
Moti 
Pdr4 
Ldl, Mdnik 



Mahamulya 
Pathar, 

I 

llatna 
Phatkiri 
Begunia runger 

mani 
Surmd 
inttal 
Godant 
Sphatik 
Tama, Tdmra 
Prahdl 
Akik mdnik 
Hira, Hirak 
Khdd, Marichd 
Pannd, Marakata 
Chakmakir pdtar 
Sond 
Lohd 

Jahar, Mani 

Baidmya mani 

Sisd 

Chumbak Pdtar 

Marbal 

Dhdtu 

Khani, Akar 

Khanij 

Muktd 

Pdrd, Parad 

Pannd, Choni 



sect. L 


VOCABULARY. 




English. 


HTNBf. 


Bengali. 


Sapphire 


, Nilam 


Nilkantmani 


Silver 


ChAndi 


Bupd 


Steel 


Fiildd 


Isp&t 


Sulphur 


Gandhak 


Gandhak 


Talc 


Abrak 


Abbar, Avra 


Tin 


R&nga 


Tin 


Topaz 


Pokhrdj 


Gomedak man! 


Touchstone 


PAras 


Paras pdtar 


Turquoise 


Flroja 


— 



55 



Apparel, 



Poslidk, 



PflndJi, 



Boot 


Jiiti 


But, Jiita 


Bracelets 


Brild 


Bdld 


Brocade 


Kimkhdb 


Kinkhdp 


Button 


Ghundi 


Ghunti, Botdm 


Cap 


Topi • 


Tupl 


Chain 


Sdnkar 


Sikall 


Cloak 


Jabbd 


Jhabba 


Clothing 


Poshdk, Eapra 


Posdk 


Coat (Euro- 


Kurti 


Kote 


pean's) 






Coat (Indian's) 


Angarkha 


Ijdr 


Cotton 


Rill 


Tuld 


Drawers 


Pdijdma 




Ear-rings 


Kundal 


Edner dul 


Embroidery 


Chikan 


Hansiyar kdj 


Fan 


Pankhd 


Pdkhd 


Girdle 


Peti 


Komar bandh 


Glove 


Dastdna 


Dastdnd 


Gown 


Ghagra 


Ghdgard 


Handkerchief 


Rumdl 


Rumdl 


Linen 


8an kd kapra 


Saner kapar 


Lining 


Astar 


Kaparer astar 


Loop 


Phdndd 


Fans 


Necklace 


Hdr * 


Hdr 


Needle 


Sul 


Siich 


Pocket 


JhoU 


TaU, Jeb 


Pin 


Tdnchnl (is the Mardthl, 


Alpin 




but pins are not used by 






Indians) 




Bibbon 


Fltd 


Fitd 


King 


Angiithl 


Anghiriya, Angn* 
thi 


Seam 


Sildi 


Sildi, Jor 


Shirt 


Kamij' 


Kdmij, Jdmd 


Shoe 


Jiitd 


Juta 


Silk 


Reshm 


Resam 


Skirt 


Gher 


Jdmd 


Sleeve 


Astin 


Astvsv 


Stocking 


Mojd 


'^cJVa. 


Thimble 


Top 


Mvgw^fejc^^ 


Thread 


Dord 


^xjitix. 



06 


INTROPUCTION. 


SOCt i. 


Ekglish. 


HiNDi. 


BsNoAii. 


Turban 


Pagri 


Pdkari 


VeU 


Parda 


Mnkhosh 


Velvet 


Makhmal 


Makmal 


Woollen 


tJn 


Pdsmi 


Food, 


Kiidnekd Sdmdn, 


JihMya, 


Asparagus 


NAgdaun 


Satamnl 


Appetite 


Bhiikh 


- Kiday, Eshudhd 


Barley 


Jau, Jab 


Yab 


Boiled 


Sija 


Hidha kard 


Beef 


Gau kd mdns 


Gajur mds 


Bean 


Sem 


Sim, Barbati 


Bread 


Roti 


Buti 


Breakfast 


Hdiirl 


Sakdler khdhdr 


Brinjal 


Baigan 


Begun 


Bottle 


Botal 


Botal 


Broth 


SuruA 


Jhole 


Butter 


Makhan 


Mdkhan 


Cabbage 


Kobi 


Bdndhd Kapi 


Cauliflower 


Phi^lkobl 


Fulkapi 


Cheese 


Panlr 


Panir 


Cork 


Kdk 


Kdk 


Cream 


Maldi 


Sdr 


Curds 


Dahi 


Dai, Dadhi 


Dainty 


MithAi bhoj 


Saswadu Khddya 


Dinner 


Khdnd 


Madyanha bhojan 


Drink 


Plnd 


Jalpan Kara 


Fea«t 


Bhojan 


Nimantran 


Flesh 


Mans 


Mdnsa 


Flour 


A'td 


Atd, Moyadd 


Fried 


Bhunnd 




Glass 


Gilds, Shlshd 


Kaiich, Glas 


Gravy 


Surud 


Mdnsu jhol, Surud 


Greens 


Tarkdri 


Shdk tarkdri 


Guest 


Atlth 


Atithi,Nimantrata 


Host 


Gharwdld 


Nimantrak 


Jam 


Murabba 


Marabbd 


Jelly 


Jeli . 


Jeli 


Knife 


Chhuri 


Chaku, Chhuri 


Milk 


Diidh 


Dugdha, Dudh 


Millet 


Bdjrd 


£k rakam gdekh 


Minced 


Kofta 


Khanda khanda 
kare kdtd 


Mustard 


Rai 


Kdl 


Mutton 


Bheri kd mdns 


Bhetar maiisa 


Napkin 


Taulid 


Gamcha 


Oil 


Tel 


Tel 


Hckle 


A'chdr 


Labaner jale pras- 
tiitfal, Kdsandi 


Pepper 


Mirich 


Marich 


Plate 


ThdU 


Bdsan 


Boast 


Senkhd hiid 


Salla marisa 



»ect. I. 


VOCABULARY. 


01 


English. 


HiNDf. 


Bengali. 


Kice 


Chdnwal, Bhdt 


Chanl, Bhdt 


Salt 


Namak 


Liin, Tiavan 


Sanoe 


Chatnl, jush 


Achdr 


Spoon 


Chamcha 


Chamach 


Stewed 


_ 


Alpa jale sidha- 




t 


kara 


Sagar 


Khand 


Chlni, Sakard 


Supper 


— 


Rdtri bhojan 


Sweetmeats 


MithAi 


Mitdl 


Tablecloth 


Chadar 


Mijir chddar 


Tray 


Thdl 


Thdl, Barkos 


Veal 


Bachham k& mdns 


Baohhir Mdnsa 


Vin^ar 


SirkA 


A'ker ras 


Wheat 


Gehun 


Gam 


Wine 


Ddru, Shardb 


Mad 


Mouse, Tvrni' 


GJuzr lid Sdmdn. 


Oi'iJui, GHIia 


turCf ^v. 




Savmgri, 


Arch 


Khilan 


Khildn 


Bag 


Thaili 


Thole, Bdg 


Basket 


Tokrl 


Chubri 


Barber 


Hajj&m, Kdi 


Kapit, Hardmdnik 


Bearer 


Kahdr 


Behdrd, Pahabd- 
hak 


Bath 


Asndn 


Kdwd, Sndn 


Bed-room 


Sone kl kothri 


Sowarghar, Say- 
anghar 


Beam 


Kari 


Kari 


Bench 


Takhta 


— 


Bell 


Ghanta 


Ghanta 


Bedstead 


Khat' 


Khdt, Palang 


Bedding 


Bichhanud 


Bichhdnd 


Box 


Petdra, Bokas 


Bdksa 


Board 


Patta 


Tdkhtd 


Bolt 


Belna, Khil 


Hufko, Khil 


Brick 


I'nt 


It, Pdtkel 


Backet 


Pol 


Balti 


Bnilding 


'imarat 


Kotd, Imdrat 


Candle 


Batti 


Bdtl 


Carriage 


Gdri 


Gdrl 


Carpet 


Darl 


Gdlichd, Carpet 


Casket 


DibbiyA 


Dibd, Konta 


Chink 


Ched 


Chhidra, Phuta 


Chamber 


Kothri 


Kdmrd, Kuturl 


Chair 


Chankl . 


Keddrd 


Chest 


Sandiik 


Sindhuk 


Cistern 


Chah-bacha 


Kunda 


Cook 


Rasoi 


Handhuni 


Comer 


Kond 


Kone 


CoilntiDg-house 


Daf tar Khdna 


Daf tar 


Comb 


Kanghi 


Kd.\ikDX,^VvcK«:x 



■■^1 



D5 


INTRODUCTION. 


Secrti. K 


ESQhIBH, 


Hindi 


BbnoAlI. 


Cover 


Dh&knd 


Chandni, Aral, 
Parda 


Coverlet 


Orhna, Chadar 


Palang Posh, Oh4- 
ddr 


Cup 


Piydla, Katorii 


Peyala, Bdti 


Cupola 


Gumbaz 


Gumbaz,Golchhad 


Cradle 


Hindold 


Dolnd, DolA 


Curtains 


Pardah 


Paidd, MaMrl 


Discharge 


Chhutti 


Roksad, Biddya 


Door 


Dwdr 


Dor, Darwdsah 


Drain 


"Mori 


Ndld, Mori 


Expenses 


Byay, Kharch 


Byaya, Kharach 


Floor 


Zamin 


Shdn, Meje 


Footman 


Piy4dA 


Paddtlk, Pyddd 


Foundation 


Neo 


Buniydd, Tola, 
Bhit 


Furniture 


S&mdn 


Grihasamagrl, As- 
bdb 


Gardener 


UiXi 


Mdli 


Groom 


Sdis 


Sdis 


Hall 


Diildn 


Ddlan 


Handle 


Dastah 


Bant 


Hire 


Bhdra 


Majdri, Bfeird, 
Kerdya 


Hole 


Chhed 


Chhidra, Fdk 


Jar 


GharA 


Ghddd 


Kettle 




Ketli, Dek 


Key 


Chdbi 


Chdbi 


Kitchen 


Rasoighar 


Kdnndghar 


Labourer 


Majdiir 


Majiir 


Lamp 


DiyA 


Dip, Pradlp 


Library 


Kitdb Khana 


Pustakdlaya 


Lime 


Chund 


Chuna 


Lock 


TdlA 


Tdld, Kulup 


Looking-glass 


Alnd, Arsi 


Ayand, Arsi, Dar- 
pan 


Mat 


Cha.tai 


Chydtdi, Mddur 


Oven 


Tandiir 


— 


PAlki 


Palki 


Palki 


Pillar 


Khamba 


Thdm, Stambh 


Pillow 


Takiyah 


Bdlis, Takiyd, 
Gadi 


Porch 


Deorhl 


Dewdl, Ddrayd 


Porter 


{doorJicejier) Dwar- 






pdljDarbdn; Kuli 


Kuli 


Plaster 


IjCp 


Lep 


Pot 


Hdndl 

• 


Patra, Bhdiid, Bd- 

con 


Roof 


Chhappar 


oHIl 

Chdd 


Scissors 


Kenchi 


Kdnchi 


Servant 


Naukar 


Chdkar 


Sheet 


Chddar 


Chddar 


Slave • 


Bandah, Dds 


Das, Goldm 


Soot 


E&jal 


Jhul, Kdjal 



sect. I. 


VOCABULARY. 


oy 


Snqlish. 


HiNDf. 


BEKGlLi. 


Rlair 


Pauyhi 


Shindi 


Step 


Dh4p 


PaitA 


Storey 


Manzil 




Sweeper 


Mehtar, Hdri 


ZArud^, Zatune, 
Hdrl 


Table 


Mez 


Mij, TebU 


Tailor 


Darzi 


Darji 


Terrace 


Chabut^ra 


ChAtdl 


Tile 


Khaprail 


TAli 


Top 


MAthA 


MAth4, Ag&, Sik. 
bar 


Tongs 


CliimtA 


ChimtA 


Torch 


Mashdl 


Mash^l 


Torch-bearer 


Mashdlchi 


Mashdldhdri 


Wages 


Betan 


Betan, Majuri 


WaU 


DiwAl 


Dewal, Prachlr 


Washerman 


Dhobi 


DhopA 


Water-carrier 


P&naky^ 


BhAri, Bhisti 


Window 


KhiTki 


J&n41A 


Wood 


Tiakrl 


Edt, E&sta 


Bit, bridle 


Kaziyd, Lagam 


Lagam 


Curry-comb 


Khardra 


Kharva brus 


Girth 


Peti 


Ghoyar Peti 


Martingale 


Zerband 


Ghorar mukhband 


Saddle 


Zin 


Zin 


Spur 


KdntA 


Bik&b, EAntA 


Spectacles 


Chashmah 


Chashmah 


Stable 


Taweli 


AstApaljAvashdlA 


Stirrup 


Hik&b 


Kek&b 


A Garden, 


Bdghicha, 


Udydn Praharan, 


Fruit 


Phal 


Fal, Mewa 


Husk 


Chilka 


Tus, ChhAl 


Kernel 


Gar 


Faler bichi 


Stone or seed 


Pathar 


Bichi 


Almond 


Bdddm 


BjldAm 


Apple 
Cherry 


Seu 


Sib, Fab 


Cheri 


Cheri 


Betel Nut 


SopArl 


Sup&ri 


Cocoa Nut 


<— 


Narikel 


Citron 


— 


Kanta lebu 


Custard-apple 


Saripd 


Ata 


Date 


Khajur 


Khejur 


Fig 


Anjlr 


Dumbur 


Grapes 


Angiir 


Angiir 


Guava 


Amrud 


PiyirA 


Lemon 


Limbu 


Nebu 


Lime 


Edghazl limbu 


'fttikjKfY Oossna. 


Mango 


Am 


• ILnx^&xox^ 


Knogofftein 


.» 


— 



w 


INTRODUCTION. 


sect. "1. 


English. 


Hindi. 


Bengal!. 


Melon 


Kharbuja, Phii^ 


Tarmuj 


Mulberry 


Tiit 


Tut, Gachh 


Olive 


Jalp&i 


JfJpi 


Orange 


N^rangl 


KamU lebu 


Pea«h 


SaftAlu, Pich 


Pich 


Pear 


N^shp&ti 


Ndspdti 


Pine-apple 


Ananas 


Anan&s 


Plantain 


Kel& 


Kela 


Plnm 


Alu bokhdrd 


Alu bukh&rd 


Pomegranate 


AnAr, DAfim 


Ddlira 


Quince 


Beddnd, 


Beddnd 


Baisins 


Kismis 


Kismis 


Sugar-cane 


UTch, nh 


A'kh 


Tamarind 


Imli 


Tentul 


Walnut 


Akhrot 


Akrot 


Trfieg and 


Per aur Phul. 


Jiara gaehh o Ful 


Fl&werSf i'j'c. 




gachh. 


Anemone 


^—, 


Bdyu Puspa 


Bambti 


BdiiH 


Bans 


Blackwood 


Slsii 


Sisu 


Boxwood 


Deodar 


Devaddru 


Coffee 


Kahwd, Kdfl 


Kdfi 


Cypress 


Baro 


— 


Figtree 


Anjlr 


Dumbur gachh 


Myrtle 


Mehndi 


Medi 


Vine 


Chil 


Devaddru Sarala 


Tamariuk 


Jhdo 


Zau gachh 


Teak 


SAgwAu 


Shagan 


Vine 


Ddkh 


Drdksa Tiata 


Anise 


ISonf 


Mauri 


Asparagus 


— 


tSatamiili gachh 


Beet-root 


Chaukundar 


Bit halim 


Cabbage 


Kobi 


Kopi 


Capsicum 


Mircba 


Marich 


Caraway 


Ajwdyjui 


ISalufdr nyaya 
Bitbisesh 


Cardamom 


Ihiyaclil 


Elachi 


Carrot 


(Jiljiir 


Gdzar 


Chamomile 


Habihiii 


— 


Coriander 


Dhaniyii 


— 


Cresses 


lliUim 


Halim sdk 


Jasmine 


('hameli 


MallikA,Chambcli 


Lily (water) 


Padam, Kaniul 


Padma, Kamal 


Nosegay 


(luchhii 


TorA 


Poppy 


Post 


Posta gachh 


Rose 


Ouliib 


GoUip 


Tomato 


niUyati biiigau 




Violet 


HiinafHa 


— 


Wreath 


Miilii, Toniu 


Mdhi 


Bark 


ChhilkiV 


Chhdl 



seot. 1, 


VOCABULARY. 


t>J 


English. 


HiNDt 


Bengali. 


Berry 


Ddna 


Benguch 


BloBsom 


— 


Mukul 


Braach 


__^ t 


Sdkhd, Ddl 


Flower 


Phtil, Puhup 


Ful 


Gum 


Gond 


Gond 


Leaf 


PattA 


Pdti 


Plant 


— 


Chhotd gachh 


Root ^ 


Jar 


Gachar shikar 


Trunk 


— 


Do guri 


Cucumber 


Kakari 


KdkuT 


Fennel 


SiU 


Saluf 4 Sdk 


Fenugreek 


Methi 


Methi 


Flax 


San 


San 


Charlie 


Lahsan 


Rasun, Lasun 


Grourd 


Kaddu 


Kadu, Ldu 


Hemp 


SanpAt 


San 


Indigo 


Nil 


Nil 


Leek 


Gandand 


— . 


Lentil 


Masdr 


Masurlddl 


Lettuce 


Saldd 




Linseed 


Alsi' 


Tis 


Mint 


Podina 


Pudind 


Nettle 


Khajwat 


Bichuti gachh 
Dhalwid \ 


Nightshade 


Dhatilni 


Onion 


Piydz 


Pinyas \ 


Parsley 


Ajmud 


— 


Peas 


Matar 


Matar ' 


Safibron 


Kesar 


Zdffrou 


Spinach 


Pdlak 


Pdlak 


Thistle 


~. 


Sidlkdntd 


Turnip 


Shalgham 


Shalgam 


Jet-d'eau 


Phawdrd 


Fowdrd 


Aqueduct 


N41d 


Ndld, Jalanali 


Arable Zand, 


Jardyat, 




Barley 


Jab 


Jav 


Bam 


Kothilr 


Gold, Bari 


Bran 


Bhiisi 


- Tus, Bhiisi 


Cart 


GArl 


Gorur gari 


ChaflF 


BhiisI 


Bhilsa 


Com 


Andj 


Sasya 


Farm 


Jot, Ijdra 


Jot 


Farmer 


Jotddr, IjdradAr 


Jotddr 


Field 


Khet 


Mat, Khet 


Grass 


Ghdns 


Ghds 


Harrow 


_. 


Binde 


Harvest 


Fasl 


Phasal, Sasya 


Hay 


Mkhk ghds 


Sukna ghd& 


Hedee 
Husbandry 


Berhd 


^et^ 


Kheti 


Gtv^ii^ 


Labourer 


Mazdiir 


'iiLaVM,^'^^^*^^ 



\ 



62 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect. i. 


English. 


HdidI. 


BsKGAii. 


Landlonl 


Zamindar 


Zeminddr 


Meadow 


Maiddn 


Mdt, Mayddn 


Plough 


Hal 


Nangal 


Reaper 


KdtnewiU4 


Chasi, je susya 
kdte 


Reaping-hook 


— 


Kdste 


Rice 


Chdiiwal 


Tandul, Chdul 


Sower 


BonewAlA 


Bijbapankarl 


Spade* 


Koddli,Zit mattock 


Kodal, Kodall 


Straw 


BichhAli 


Khar 


Stack 


Dher, Rdsi 


Dhibi, Gddd, Bdsl 


Tenant 


Raiyat 


Prajd 


Wheat 


Gehun 


Gam 


Wild 


Jangal 


BaA, Jangal 


Yoke 


Jii4 


Joydl 


Yoke of Oxen 


Jor4 


Baladr jord 


Of Banking and 


SahMri atir hisdh. 




Accounts, 






Account 


Hisdb 


Hisdb 


Acquittance 


Farigh Khdtti 


Khdlds, Mukti - 


Address 


ThikAna 


Tikdnd, Sirondmd 


Advance 


DAdan 


Dddan 


Advertisement 


BigyApan 


Yijydpana 


Agent 


Airhati 


Pritinidhi, Muk- 
tiar 


Agreement 


Karir 


Kardr 


Answer 


JawAb 


Jabdb, Uttar 


Apprentice 


ShAgird 


Sikshdnabis 


Asset 


Punji 


Jamd 


Auction 


Lil&m 


Nildm 


Balance 


BAkl 


Bdnkl 


Banker 


Sahu, Kotlwal 


Kutidl 


Bankrupt 


DiwAliyA 


Diyulid 


BiU 


Hundi 


HuTjdi 


Bond 


Khat 


Khat 


Broker 


DalAl 


Ddldl 


Business 


Kdm kAj 


Kdj, Karma 


Buyer 


Kharlddr 


Kharidddr 


Capital 


Punji 


Miil Dhan, Piinji 


Charges 


Kharach 


Ddvi, Kharach 


Commerce 


BepAr 


Vydpdr, Vdnyya 


Constituent 


Arhati 




Contract 


Bandobast 




Credit 


Udhdr 


Dhdr, Jamd 


Creditor 


Mdhdjan 


Mahdjan 


Custom-house 


Parmit ghar 


Parmit, Mdsulghar 


Date 


Tdrikh 


Tarikh 


Day-book 


Rozndmcha 


Roj namchd 


Debit 


Kharach 


Kluirach 



* Spades are ouknown in India ; instead they use the mattock, called koddli. 



beGli. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


63 


MCtUSH. 


Hiirot 


Bengali. 


Bebt 


Karz, Udhdr 


Karja, Dhar 


Debtor 




Denddr 


Delay 


Deri 


Deri 


Demand 


DAvi, Talb 


Ddvi, Tdgddd 


Evasion 


Tdlmatal 


Etdna, Pariharan 


Excuse 


Bih^na 


Ojor, Bdhdnd 


Export 


Baftanf 


Baptani 


Factor 


Gomashta 


Gamasta, Edrbdri 


Famine 


Kaht, Akal 


Durbhikh, Akdl 


Goods 


Mdl 


Mdl 


Grain 


Andj 


.Sasya, Bhusi mdl' 


Handicraft 


Hathauti ' 


— 


Import 


Amdani 


Amddni 


Interest 


ByAj, SM 


Bydj, Sud 


Lease 


Patta 


Pdttd 


Leisure 


Fursat 


Phursat, Abasan 


Letter 


Chithi' 


Chithi, Patra 


Loan 


Udhdr 


Dhdr, Bin 


Loss 


Nu)[^ 


Loksdn, Esati 


Manufacture 


Edrkh^a 


Edrkhdnd 


Market 


Bdzdr 


Hdt, Bazar 


Memorandum 


YAdd^ht 


Smamna lipi 


Merchant 


Sauddgar, Bcpdri 


Vydpdri, Saddgar 


Merchandize 


Mdl 


Saudd, Mdl 


Message 


Sambdd 


Ehabar, Sambdd 


Money 


Paisd 


Artha, Tdkd 


Mortgage 


Bandhak 


Bandak 


Note 


Chitthl 


Chithi, Patra 


Overplus 


Fdl^u 


Fajil Bank! 


Packet 


Gathri 


Tdrd, Gaiitri 


Partner 


Sharik 


Bhdglddr,Ansiddr 


Passport 


— 


Chhat chitl, Par- 
wdna 


Payment 


Bhar dend 


Bitan, Dewd 


Pedler 


Pherdwdli 


Pheriwdld 


Penalty 


Dand 

• 


Danda 


Plenty 


Bhar pilr 


Prachur 


Pledge 


C^hnd, Bandhak 


Gachhit Dhan 


Post 


Dak 


Ddk 


Poverty 


Gharibl 


Ddridriya 


Price 


Bhdo 


Ddm, Mullya 


Principal 


Asal 


Miil, Pradhdn 


Profit 


Mundfd 


Ldv, Mundfd 


Property 


Milklyat 


Dhan, Rampatti 


Bate 


Bhdo, Dar 


Hdr, Bhdw 


Receipt 


Bflsid ' 


Bdshid, Kabaj 


Kent 


Bhdfd 


Khdjnd, Kar 


Sample 


Nimi^na 


Ndmund 


Scarcity 


Ghatti 


Durbhiksd 


Seller 


Bechnewdla 


Bikreta 


Shop 


Dnkdn 


Dokdn 


Signature 


Sahi 


S«i.Vxi,\i«&\a58^^ 


Sum-total 


Mot 


■^0\,, ^WCEife. 


Trade 


Bepdr 


^-3iw^ta,^«xvT3^ 



64 


INTBODUCTION. 


Sect J. 


Bkolihu. 


Hnml, 


BsNoi.ii» 


Usage 


Dastur 


DhdrA, Vyabahdr, 
Riti 


Wages 


Betan 


Majuri, Vetan 


Warehouse 


Gud&m 


Gud&m 


Wealth 


Dhan 


Dhan daulat 


Wharf 


Ghdt 


Ghdt 


Of Shipping, 


JaMz kd Kdm, 


Jahaz praltaran. 


Anchor 


Tiangar 


Langar 


Boat 


Kishtl, Nau 


NaukA 


Cable 


Rdssd 


lOkjhhi 


Cai-go 


Bojhdi 


Hozai, Md], 


Commander of 


Ndkhudd 


Kapten, Manjhf 


boat 






Compass 


Kampds 


Kampds 


Ferry-boat 


Nau 


I^drdni Xauka 


Flag 


Baotd 


Nishdn 


Mast 


Dol 


Mastul 


Mate 


Malam 


Mdlim 


Oar 


Ddnr 


Danr 


Passenger 


Rdhgir, Janewdla 


Arohf , Chai*andar 


Prow 


Muhra 


— 


Rope 


Rassi 


asi, Dard 


Rudder 


Sukkdn 


— 


Sail 


P41 


Pdl 


Sailor 


Mdnjhi 


Maji, Ndbik 


Twine 


Sutli 


Tun, Dari 


Voyage 


Safar 


Samndra Jdtrd 


Yard 


Dandi 


Dandl 



Of Law and Jn- 
dic'lal Matters, 

Abuse 
Acquittal 
Adultery 
Amputation 

Arbitration 

Arbitrator 

Attorney 

Award 

Bail 

Bribery 

Civil Court 

Chain 

Clause 

Clerk 



Aifi aur Addlat, 



Gali 

Khalds, Rahdi 

Zina 



l*anchayat 

Panch 

A^akil 

Nishpat, Faisla 

Zdmin 

Ghiis 

Diwdni Addlat 

Beji 

Kerdni 



Ain Addlat 
prakaran. 

Gdli, Gala] 
Khalas, Mukti 
Vyabhichdr 
Hastapadddich- 

hed 
Panchayat 
Madyasta 
Ukil, Mukhd 
Xishpattf 
Zdmm 
Ghush 

Diwdni Adalat 
Beri, ChhikU 
Prakaran 
Kerdni 



Sect. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 

1 « 


t)a 


BKaLI8Q. 


Hnrnt 


BSKGALi. 


Confession 


IkrAr 


Kabul jawib 


Convict 


Kaidi 


Aparddhi 


Conviction 


Sabtit, Pramdn 


Dospramdnkaran 


Copy 
Cnme 


Nakl 


Nakal 


Aparddh, Gun4h 


Aparddh 


Criminal 'Court 


Faujddri 'adAlat 


Faujddri *ad&lat 


Decree 


Faisala 


Dicri, Hukum 


Defendant 


As&mi 


Asdmi, Pratibadi 


Deed 


Dastdwez 


Dalil, Dastdwez 


Denial 


Inkdr 


Aswikdr 


Divorce 


TulAk 


Biyojan 


Bvidence 


Gawdhi 


PramAn 


Executioner 


Jal4d, Badhak 


Jahldd 


Executor 


Wasf 


Achhi 


Ex-parte 


Ektarfah 


Ek taraf 4 


Fee 


Basiim 


Talabana . 


Fine 


Dand, Jarimdna 


JaripainA 


Forgery 


J&l 


JAI 


GaoI 


Jehal khdna 


Jelkh&nA 


Gallows 


Phdnsi ki lakr£ 


PhAnsi KAt 


Highwayman 


Dakdit 


DAkAt 


Hanging 


PhAnsi 


PhAnsi dewa 


Judge 


Jaj 


Jaj, BichArap 


Legacy 


Wasfyat 


Mumiirsil Kali- 
dalli sampatti 


Legatee 


Wins 


DAy4d, UttarAd- 
hikari 


Murder 


Khiin 


Khiin 


Murderer 


Khtini 


Khrtni 


Nonsuit 


Nainsii^ 


Nalis n&manjur 


Notice 


Notis 


Notis, Khabar 


Oath 


IJaiaf 


Halap 


Pardon 


Mdfi 


M&f 


Perjury 


Jhati sakhi 


— 


Plaintiff 


Muda'i 


FariyMl 


Prison 


Jehfllkhdna 


Jailkhdnd 


Prisoner 


Kaidi 


Kayedi 


Proof 


PramAn 


Praman 


Punishment 


Saj4, pand 


SAjA, Danda 


Quarrel 


JhagrA 


Zagra, Kaziya 


Header 


Parhnewala 


Patak 


Bespite 
Bight 


Muhlat 


BirAm 


Ha^:k 


Hak, Svatwa 


Scourge 


KorA 


Chabuk, Koya 


Sentence 


Faisala 


DandAyna 


Suit 


Mukaddamd 


Mu^adddmA 


Summons 


Saman 


Saman 


Testator 


Muwassl 


DAtA 


Theft 


Caiori 
ChoJ 


Chun 


Thief 


Chor 


Tribunal 


Ad4Ut 


AdAlat 


Trial 


Tajwlz 


yVcJBte 


Will 


Wasiyat uilma 


^\i. 


Witness 


Sdkhl 


^ittB^ 


[MffMfal^lSSU} 




IB 



6Q 



INTEODUOTION. 



Sect. L 



English. 

0/ Govern' 
tnents. 

Ally 

Ambassador 

Authority 

Alliance 

Boundaiy 

Canopy 

Capital 

City 

Coin 

Crown 

Dynasty 

Deputy 

Duty 

Edict 

Emperor 

Empress 

Excellency 

Exchequer 

Foreigner 

Faction 

Gentleman 

Granaiy 

Inhabitant 

Journey 

King 

Lane 

Levee 

Majesty 

Mint 

Monarch 

Native 

Night-watch 

News 

Nobleman 

Patent 

Pomp 

Populace 

Port 

Province 

Queen 

Quarter 

Rebellion 

Register 

Republic 

Retinue 

Riot 

ISecretary 

Signet 

Spy 



HiNDi. 
Sarhari Xdm. 



BEKoixi. 
R&jya prdkaran. 



Dost 


Mitra Bdjd 


Elchi 


Diit 


Adikhdr 


Adhikdr 


Dosti, Mildp 


Mitratd 


Siw&nii 


Simd 


Chdndnd 


Chdndaya 


Rdjdhdni 


Bdjddni 


Shahr 


Shahar, Nagar 


Sikkah 


Miidrd 


Taj 


Mukut 


Bans 


Rdj vanah 


NAib 


Pratinidhi, Saha- 




kdrl 


Kdm 


Kartavya 


Hukm 


Rdjdgnd 


Bddsh&h, Samrdt 


Bddshdh, Samrdt 


Bddshdh, Samrdni 


Mahdrdni 


Rdjasri 


RdjdBhrl 


Khazdna 


Khdzdndkhdna 


Pardesi 


Videsi 


Gol 


Goljog 


§dl?ib 


Bhadralok 


Bhanddr 


Bhanddr 


Nibdsi 


Adhibdsi 


Safar 


Safar 


Bdjd 


Bdjd 


Gall 


Gall 


Darbar 


Darbdr 


Jalidn panah 


Rdjdsri 


Taksal . 


Tanksald, Tdnksdl 


Bdjd 


Bdjd 




Desi, Desiya 


Rdt kl chauki 


Ratrir chauki 


Khabar 


Khabar, Sambdd 


Amir 


Sambranta Lok 


Sanad 


Sanad 


Dhumdhdm 


Jdnk, Jamak 


Lok 


Lok 


Bandar 


Bandar 


Prades 


Prades 


Rdni 


Bdni 


Mahallah 


Mahal, Bhag 


Balwd 


Bidroha 


Registar 


Daptar, Begisteri 


_ 


Sddhdran tantra 


— 


Anujatrik 


Dangd 


Halld 


Muharir 


Sampddak 


Muhr 


Mohar, Mudra 


Jdstis 


Gupta Dut, Gup- 




tachar 



Sect. 1. 


VOOABULIBT. 


67 


English. 


HiNDt 


BSNGlLf . 


Stage 


Ad44 


Addi 


State 


H41at 


Abasth4 


Street 


lUsta 


Riifltii 


Saccesfior 


Anugdmi 


UttarAdhlkArl 


Sabject 


Raiyat 


Praj4, R^yat 


Throne 


Tak^?t 


Sinhdsah 


Titles 


Kitab 


UpAdhi, Khetdb 


Town 


IS agar 


Shahar, Nagar 


Traitor 


Daghabaz 


Rdjdrohl 


Treaty 


Sulh ndma 


Sandhi 


Treasurer 


Khazdnchl 


KosAdhyaksa 


Tribute 


Peshkash 


Kar 


Tyrant 


Zalim 


Julumbdz 


Usurper 




Balapurvak, Apa- 

hdri 
Raja chhatra 


Umbrella of 


Chhatr 


state 






Viceroy 


Pratinidhi 


Raja priti nidhi 


Profe8»wti8 and 


DIumdhA, 


Byala^d^Banyya, 


Trades, 






Armourer 


Sikalgar 


AstrakAr 


Artificer 


Karigar, Kami 


Kigdr, Shilpi 


Artist 


Musawir 


Shilpanipuu 


Baker 


RotlwdlA 


Rutiwdld 


Beggar 


Bhikhdri 


Bhikhdrl 


Blacksmith 


Lohdr 


Kdmdr, Kai*ma- 


• 




kar 


Bookseller 


Pothi bechnewdU 


Pustakbikrcta 


Brazier 


KAnsairi 


Kdusdri 


Bricklayer 


Raj 


Rdj 


Butcher 


Kasai 


Kasi 


Carpenter 


Barhdi 


Sutdr, Sutradhar 


Confectioner 


Halwal 


Mitriwala 


Cook 


Bawarchi 


Randhuni 


Dancing-girl 


Tawdif 


Nartakl 


Druggist 


Pansdri 


Bene, Ausadhbi- 
kreta 


Dyer 


Rangrez 


Rang KarankAri 


Farrier 


Ndlband 


Ndlbandh 


Greengrocer 


— 


Sdk sabzuya Bi- 


• 




kretA 


Grocer 


Mudi 


Mudi 


Goldsmith 


Son^r 


Sarnakdr 


Horse-breaker 


Chabuksawdr 


Aswa chikitsak 


Hunter 


Shikari 


Shikdri 


Jeweller 


Jauhari 


Maiiikai", Jahuri 


Juggler 


Bdzigar 


Bajikar, Aica&t^- 


Linen-<Iraper 


Bazaz 





w 


INTBODU09:iON« 


Sect 1. 


Ekoush. 


Hna>i. 


BbkoAlI 


Musician 


Bajantri 


Bazandar, Badja- 




% 


kar 


. Painter 


Cbitrakir 


Pato 


Phy/jician 


Baid, Kabirai 


Eabirdj, Baidjni 
liangaliya, f^ri- 


Ploughman 


Halia 






shak 


Porter 


Darwdn 


Majur, Darwan 

(carrier of loads) 

Daraban (house) 


Bopcmaker 
Baddler 


Rassi bananewila 


Je dari pdkdy 


Jingar 


Jinkar 


Sculptor 


— 


Murtikar 


Shepherd 


Gaderiya 


Meshpdlak 


Shopkeeper 


Dukanddr 


Dokdni 


Sawyer 


— 


Eardte 


Shoemaker 


Mochi 


Muchi, Bunama- 
kar 


Singer 


G^ewald 


Gdyak 


Surgeon 


Baid 


Astra, Vaidya 


Tailor 


Darjl 


Darji 


Turner 


KharAdi 


Eunduri 


Vintner 


Snndi 


Sanri 


Waterman 


BhiBti 


Bhdri 


Weaver 


Jull^ha 


Tariti, Tantubdy 


Workshop 


K^khdna 


Edrkhdnd, Dokdn 


% 

Anvil 


Nihdl 


Nfthi 


Awl 


Sutari 


Turpun 


Axe 


Kulh^ 


Eurul, Eutar, En- 
tarl . 


Brush 


Eunch 


Eunchi 


Chisel 


Rukhdnl 


BdtdU 


Compasses 


Kamp^s 


Eompasses 


Enamel 


Mind 


Mina 


File 


Reti 


Ukha 


Fish-hook 


Edntd 


Barsi 


Furnace 


Bhatti 


Hdpar 


Gilding 


fc 


Sonali Earmo 


Glue 


Sres 


Shiris 


Hammer 


Martol 


Hatufi 


Hand-mill 


Chakki 


Hat jantd 


Inlay (to) 


— 


Ja^wa Edj 


Line 


Dori 


Dorl 


Loom 


Tant 


Tant 


Leather 


ChamrA 


Chamrd 


Mallet 


Mogari 


Mugar, Mudgar 


Mould 


Sdncha 


Chhanch 


Nail 


Mekh, Prek 


Peraik 


Net 


Jdl 


Jdl 


Paint 


Rang 


Rang 


Plane 


Rendi 


Reiidd 


Press 


Chdpakhdna 


Chhapdkhdna, 

Jantra 
Kasitdnar danda 


Ruler 


^__ 


B&w 


Ard, Karat 


Karat 



OOUli* Ji. 


.VUUAlSUliAKY. 


Wif 


EKOLlflH. 


HllfDt • 


BENOili. . 


Sieve 


Chalnl 


Chaluni 


Screen 


Parda 


Pardd 


Shuttle 


(no word) 


Turi, Maku 


Tool 


Hathiydr 


Hatiyar 


Water-mill 


Panchakki 


Jalachallta jaubtt 


Wind-mill 


Pawanchakki 


Bayu chalita jan- 
tra 


Wedge 


Khunti 


Kdjlajonj 


Wire 

1 


TAr 


Tdr 


School and 


Maktab aur KaliJ, 


Pdtshdld XdUj. 


College, 






Author 


__ 


Granthakdr 


Ball 


Gend, Goli 


. BhatYtd, Golak 


Bat 




Baduf 


Blot 


Ddgh 


Ddg 


Book 


KitAb, Pothl 


Kitdb, Pustak 


Chapter 


BAb 


Adhydya 


Ck>lumn 


Khamb\i 


Stamba 


Ck)nclusion 


SamApti 


Samdpti 


Copy 


Nakl 


Nakdl 


Dictionary 


Kosh," Abhiddn 


Abhidan 


Dunce 


Bewaknf, AnAri 


Murkha 


Education 


SikhyA 


Shiksd 


Exercise 


Abhyds 


Abhyds 


Fable 


Katha 


Galpa, Kathd 


History 


Itihds 


Itihds 


Tndex 


Fihrist, Siichi 


Anukramanikd 


Ink 


Siydhi 


KaU 


Leaf 


Pattd 


Patra, Pdld 


Lecture 


— 


Vydkhydn 


Lesson 


Pdth 


Patha 


Line 


Satar 


Chhatra 


Margin 


HdAhiyd 


Dhdr 


Maxim 


Prabdd 


Prabdd 


Page 


Pushtah 


PriRthd 


Paper 


Kdghaz 


Kdgaz 


Pen 


Kalam 


Ka£im 


Pencil 


Pensil 


Pensil 


Pen-knife 


Chakku 


Chdku, Chhurl 


Pasteboard 


Jord kaghaz 


Jora kagaz 


Play 


Khel 


Kheld 


Play-fellow 


• 


Kritd sahachar, 
Eheldr Shdti 


Play-ground 


Khelne ki jagah 


Kheldr jayga, 
Krita-bhumi 


Poet 


Kabi 


Kabi * 


Preface 


Dlbdchah 


PraatiX^kciSw 


Professor 


Ustdcl 


JsjKo^k^^is^ 


Prose 


Gadya 


GisAi^i* 


Vvmath 


Kahdwat 


-— 



70 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect. I. 


English. 


Hindu 


BfiNoAii. 


Rule 


Kdnihi 


Niyam 


Rhyme 


Jamak 


Mil, Yamak 


Rod 


T,Athf 


Chharl 


Scholar 


TAlib 


Chhdtra 


School 


Maktab, Pdihs^d 


Vidydlaya, Pdt- 
8h41& 


School-hours 


— 


P&ker shamay 


School-master 
Section 


Miydnji 
BibhAg 


Vidyalayer siksak 
BibhAg 


Student 


-— 


Chhdtra 


Teaching 


Sikhhdna 


Siksa 


Tutor 


TAlim, Sikhak 


8iksak 


Verse 


Padya 


Kabita^ Padya 


Writing 


Likhd 


Rachand, Lekhd 


Word 


Shabd, Lafz 


Sabda 



Col(mrs» 


Bam^f, 


Bama, Rang. 


Black 


KdU 


Edla, Krisna 


Blue 


Nild, A'smdnl 


Nil 


Brown 


Khdki, Bhi^rd 


Kold, Baddmi 


Green 


Sabz 


Shabz, Harit 


Indigo 


Nil 


Nil 


Orange 


Ndrangl 


Kamald Lebnr 
Rang 


Purple 


Baiganl 


Beguni 


Red 


Ldl 


Ldl, Lohit 


Scarlet 


Ldl 


Raktabana 


St>otted 


Bnteddr 


Bichitra, Butiddr 


Striped 


Dhdriddr 


Patiddr 


Vermilion 


Sindur 


Hingul 


White 


Safed 


Dhabal, Svet 


Yellow 


Pild 


Pild 


The SenJies, 


Indriya, 


Indriya, 


Hearing 


Sunnd 


Srabankarna 


Seeing 


Dekhnd 


Darsan 


Smelling 


Sunghnd 


Ghrdn 


Tasting 




Rasand 


Touching 


Chhi'ind 


Twak 


Element 


^^ 


Tatwa, Bhut 


Figure 


.Vkdr 


ATcdr, Akriti 


Fragrance 


Khushbii 


Sngandha 


Hardness 


Sakhtl 


Kaliinya 


Relish 


MRzah 


Aswdd 


Speech 


Boli 


Bdni, Buktritd 


Silence 


Chup hond 


Chup, Nista?d 
hatd 



Sect.l« 


YOCABULABY, 


VI 


Enoltrh. 


HiNDf. 


BENGALi. 


Shade 


Clihiln 


Chhdya 


Size 


Kad 


Akdr 


Softness 


Narmi 


Mridutwa, Koma- 
lat4 


Sound 


A'wAz 


Sabda 


View 


Darsan 


Dristi, Darsan 


Admiration 


Acharaj 


Ascharya, Bis- 
maya 


Anger 


Ghussa, Kop 


Krodh, Rdj 


Awe 


Dar 

9 


Bhay 


Belief 


Biswas 


Biswds 


Choice 


Ikhtiydr 


Pachhanda 


Compassion 


Daya 


Daya 


Curiosit}' 


— 


Jijn&sd 


Bislike 


Ghiu 


Apiiti 


Doubt 


Shak 


Saiwaya, Sandohti 


Emulation 


^ 


rratiyogitd 


Envy 


Irsd, Ghairat 


tsHii, Hinsa 


Enjoyment 


Khushl 


Upabhofr 


Error 


Bhiil 


Bhram, Bhul 


Fear 


Dalt^shat 


Bhay 


Friendship 


— 


Mitrata, Band- 
hutd 


Guilt 


Gundh, Pdp 


Aparddh 


Happiness 


Chain 


Snkh 


Hatied 


Bairatd 


Dwesh 


Hope 


Umed 


A'shd 


Honour . 


Tzzat 


Pratishtha, Mdn, 
Gourab 


Ignominy 


Beizzat 


Aprati^htha, Apa- 
mdn 



72 



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[^en^a 1—1881.} 



SECTION II, 



CALCUTTA CITY. 

Calctdta City — Hugli River and Landing Place a^ CakMa — 8dgar 
Island — Tarrduh — Ddntodar Biver — Faltd — Ulubdrid — HoteU — Clubs — 
Boarding Houses — Conveyances^-The Esplanade — Oovemment House — 
Ochterlony Monument — Statwes — The Town Hall — The Legislative Council 
Office^The High Court— Fort William— St. PauPs Cathedral— Zoological 
Gardens — Belvedere, the Lievt.'Govemor's Palace — Race Course — Garden 
Reach — Palace of the King of Awadh — St. John^s Cathedral — New Post 
Office— New Telegraph Office— Tlie Old Fort— The MemorUtl of the Black 
Hole Massacre — Calcutta University Senate House — The Greek Church — 
Arnieiiian Church of St, Nazareth — The Roman Catholic Cathedral — The 
Brdhma Som&j — Scotch Kirk, or St, Andrew*8 — Old Mission Church — Dal- 
housie Institute — The Secretariate — The Asiatic Society — The Indian 
Museum — St. Thomas's Boman Catholic Church — Mosque of Prince 
Ghuldm Muhammad — The Economical Museum — Metcalfe HaU — The 
Mint — Charities — Botanical Gardens — Bishops* College — BarrackpUr, 



Hugli River and Landing Place at 
Calcutta.— la sailing to Calcutta from 
GaUe, a distance of 778 m., it is not 
usual to see any of the 11 lights which 
exist on the E. coast of the Madras 
Presidency at Divi, Machhlipatnam, 
Eoringa, Eokandda, Santipili, Ealin- 

fapatnam, Gopilpiir, Piiri, and False 
'oint. But at Pilot's Ridge during 
the S.W. monsoon, that is from the 
15th of March till the 15th of Sep- 
tember, there is a floating Light vessel, 
which is a guide to vessels making the 
Hugli Pilot Station. At this point 
then, the traveller enters the domain 
of the Calcutta Pilots, who may fairly 
be said to be the best in the worid. 
They are better paid,* better edu- 
cated, and occupy a higher position 
than any other pilots, and it is quite 
right that they should do so, for the 
Hugli is a most dangerous and difficult 

* There are 41 pilots in all, who receive 
from 280 to 550 rupees a montii, which does 
not express, however, the w^ole of their 
emoluments. 



river. There is in the first place the 
dread of cyclones, which may take 
place in any month, except February, 
when they are unknown. The worst 
months are May and October. In 
some of these cyclones, a storm wave 
has covered the adjacent shores, and 
many thousands of persons have per- 
ished. The cyclone of 1874 covered 
S&gSLT Island with water. But in 
addition to the possible danger of 
storms, there is the normal one of 
shoals and tides. New shoals are 
continually forming, and nothing but 
a daily experience of the river can 
enable a pilot to take a vessel up safely. 
There is for instance the most danger- 
ous shoal called the James and Mary, 
which is a corruption of the Indian 
words jal, " water, " and mdri, 
according to Hunter ** fatal," but more 
properly ** striking, " between the 
mouths of the Dtoodar and Btipnd- 
rdyan rivers, which fall into the 
Hugli. Here, on what is called Nynan 
Lumps, the Mhel and Agamemmon 



Sect. II. 



ffugli fiiverr-Sdpar Island. 



63 



were lost, the Mkel having dragged 
its anchor and fallen foul of the 
Agamemnon^ when both vefisels 
took the ground and were rolled over 
by Ihe tide. Many persons were 
drowned, and in 4 hours not a vestige 
was to be seen of the unfortunate 
ships. The collision took place on the 
22ud of April, 1868. On the morning 
of the 11th of August, 1877, another 
disaster happened. The ship County 
of Stirling^ from Calcutta to Hull, 
with a cargo of 1,444 tons of wheat, 
etc., grounded on the FaltA Sand, a 
little north of the " James and Mary," 
and was turned literally upside down, 
the water rushing in with terrific 
force. She disappeared in 8 minutes. 
Of the crew, 21 men, 5 were lost. The 
l)ilot was acquitt^. On the morning 
of the 28tb of September, 1878, the 
British steamer Queen Anne, with 
2,400 tons of general cargo, grounded 
on the Falta Sands, and capsized in 
2 minutes. Out of her crew of 78 
men, with 2 passengers, 6 lives were 
lost. The rest were saved when 
clinging to the vessel's bottom by 
the steam-tug Columbus, The cargo 
and vessel were entirely lost. The 
river .is most dangerous in May, 
August and September, when the 
freshes are strong, and then if a 
ship takes the ground, she is lost at 
once. It is of vital importance that 
a vessel ascending or descending the 
Hugh, should have its after-hclna 
ready to be used in a moment iu case 
of the chain of the forc-helm snap- 
ping. The Hugli cannot be navigated 
at night, nor until the tide makes can 
it be ascended. It is usual, therefore, 
to anchor near Sdgar Island until 
occasion serves. 

Sugar Island. — Thisisland is terribly 
infested with tigers, so much so that it 
is dangerous even to land, and many 
persons liave been earned off. In 
spite of this, a gathering of from 
100,000 to 200,000 pilgrims from all 

Sarts of India, but principally the 
^ngal Diilaricts, takes place on the 
day when the sun enters Capricorn 
in the early part of January, the' day 
of the great Bathing Festival of 
Bengal. A Mr is thea held, which 



lasts for 8 days. The site of the fair 
is a sand-baiik on the S. shore of the 
island just to the W. of Pagoda Creek. 
An offering is made to the sea of 
cocoa nuts, fruits or flowers, and 
esi)ecially of 5 gems, a pearl and • 
diamond, an emerald, a topaz and a 
piece of coral worth a rupee or two. 
Formerly children used to be cast Into 
the sea. After bathing, the pilgrims 
go to the temple of Kapila Muni. 
Leases for cultivating the land 
have been granted to a Mr. 
Beaumont, in 1811, and to others, but 
all attempts at cultivation have failed. 
The island was surveyed iu 1812, and 
found to contain 14.S,268 acres. It is 
still covered with a dense jungle, 
swarming with tigers and wild beasts. 
In an article in the Calcutta Beview, 
No. 30, it is asserted that before 
(/alcutta was founded Sdgar contained 
200,000 inhabitants, who were all 
swept away in 1688 in one night. 
The lighthouse was commenced in 
1808. It is at Middleton Point, at the 
S.W end of the island, 200 yds. from 
low-water mark. The light is white, 
flashing every 20 seconds, and visible in 
clear weather 15 m. The lighthouse 
is of iron, coloured red and white in 
4 alternate bauds. The building is 
764 ft. high from base to vane. The 
present light was first lighted in 1852. 
There is a house to the S. of it. The 
Flag-staff is to the N. Vessels at 
anchor sometimes fish with nets, when 
snakes are almost invariably caught 
together with the bobil and other fish ; 
the bite of these snakes is deadly. 
There is a telegraph line from S4gar 
to Calcutta. There is a Light vessel 
at the entrance to the E. channel 
in d fathoms of water ; the light is white, 
flashing and visible 12 m. From the 
15th of March to the 31st of October, 
a blue light is burned every J hour, 
and a maroon at the intermediate 
quarters. During the rest of the year 
a blue light is burned every hour, 
and a maroon at the intermediate i 
hours, commencing at 7 P.M. There 
is another Light veaafcV \ifc\."^^^i. *^^ 
East Cha\mfc\ tccA \ia^«c ^«»\wt 
Light veaseVa ixi ^ i»X\x.om%, «?^ 



84 



Calcutta City. 



Sect. II. 



is a light vessel in 25ft. of water, 
and there is another light in the 
Gaspar Channel in 21ft. of water. 
The distance from the mouth of the 
Hugli to Calcutta is about 90 m., and 
at 40 m. from Calcutta the town of 
Edlpi is passed on the E. bank. It 
contains a large market place for the 
sale of rice grown in the interior, and 
there is a road from it to Calcutta, 
and at 30 m. from Calcutta, as the crow 
flies, is Diamond Harbour, marked by 
a large number of trees where the E. I. 
Company's ships used to anchor in 
old times. It is the head-quarters of a 
sub-division of the same name, and a 
telegraph station. There is a Harbour- 
master here, with an establishment of 
Custom House officers, who board 
ships proceeding up the river. It is 
' understood that a railway is to be 
constructed to this place, which will 
enable passengers to reach Calcutta 
sooner and more safely. At 28 m. 
from Calcutta is theRiipndrdyan river, 
which flows into the Hugli on the W. 
bank. The Riipndrdyan when it enters 
the district is called Dhalkisor, and is 
called the Riipndrdyan from the point 
at which it touches MidnapiJir. It is 
60 m. long, and carries off a large body 
of water. It is navigable by boats of 
4 tons, as far as Ghdtdl. From this the 
town of Tamluk is about 8 m. distant. 
Tamluk. — This town is the head- 
quarters of a sub-division of the same 
name, and has a pop. of 5849. It 
stands in 22^* 17' 50" and 87" 57' 30" 
E. long. It was a very famous city 
in ancient times, and was a maritime 
port of the Buddhists, and is the 
place where the Chinese pilgrim Fa 
Hian embarked for Ceylon in the 
beginning of the 5th eentury A.D. 
Hiouen Thsang 250 years later speaks 
of it as an important Buddhist 
harbour washed by the ocean, with 10 
Buddhist monasteries, 1000 monks, 
and a pillar of Ashoka, 200ft. high. 
Under the rule of the Peacock 
Dynasty, the palace and grounds were 
said to have covered 8 m. There is a 
temple here sacred to the goddess 
E&li. The shrine is surrounded by a 
'•nrious triple wall, the foundation of 
i5h consists of large logs, placed in 



rows, covered with bricks and stones to 
a height of 30ft. On this is built n 
wall, 60ft. high, its "width at the to]> 
of the foundation being 9ft. The 
roof is dome shaped. The stones used 
are of enormous size. The temple is 
dedicated to the wife of Bhiva, but at 
the top is the Chakra of Vishnu, 
surmounted by a peacock. Durgd i*^ 
represented with 4 hands ; the upper d 
the 2 right hands holds a three-point ot I 
spear, and the lower one a sword. 
The upper left hand grasps another 
sword, and the lower holds the head of 
a demon. The goddess stands on the 
body of Shiva. The temple has 4 
divisions, the Vimdna or inner sanc- 
tuary, the Jagmohan or hall of 
audience, the Jajnamandap, hall of 
sacrifice, and Natmandir or dancinj; 
hall. A flight of stairs connects the 
outer gate of the temple with the 
public road below, and has 2 pillars 
on either side. Within the enclosure 
is a Eelikddamba tree, to whicYi 
women suspend bricks by ropes made 
of their hair, and pray for children. 
When the Mardthas ravaged Bengal, 
theyrefrainedfromplunderingTamluk, 
and made offerings to the temple. 
There is also a Vaishnavite temple at 
Tamluk, and it is said that Tdmrahdwaj, 
a prince of Tamluk, defeated Arjuna 
and Krishna and took them prisoners, 
when they were escorting the horse 
which Yudhi^hthir had chosen for 
sacrifice. The present Kajd is a Kai- 
bartta, an aboriginal tribe, and he is 
the 25th in descent from the foundei*. 
Tlie Ddnntda?' Illver. — Ddmodar is 
a name of Krishna, from Ddm, a rope, 
and TJdar^ the stomach, because when 
Krishna was a child, Jasodd, his 
foster-mother, tied him with a rope 
round his stomach to prevent him 
from doing mischievous tricks. This 
river enters Hugli District from 
Bardwdn, and proceeds past the 
villages of Amptd and Bdghnan, the 
former on its E. the latter on its 
W. bank, to Mahishrdkhd Gbdt, where 
it is crossed by the UlubArid Midna- 
pi!ir canal, and flows into the Hugli 
opposite Faltd. It is navigable as far 
as Ampta, which is 25 m. from its 
mouth, by boats of f rein 10 to 20 tons. 



S«ct. IL 



Vbibdrid — Cliibs — Boarding Homes, 



S5 



Bj this river laige quantities of coal 
are brought from the KAnlganj mines. 

Jililtd is a large Tillage just 
op{)08ite .the mouth of the Damodar. 
It is the site of a Dutch factory, and 
is the place to which the English ships 
sailed on the capture of Calcutta by 
Sirdju 'd daulah. 

l/Mdrid, a small town on the W. 
bank of the Hugll, is now passed. At 
this place the main road from Calcutta 
to the temple of Jagann&th at Purl 
ci-osees the Hugli, and here begins the 
Midnapi!ir High Level Canal. UlubAriA 
is 15 m. S. of Calcutta. A few m. N. 
of this, on the E. bank, are the Akra 
brickfields, belonging to Government, 
which are very extensive, and are 
managed by a superintendent with a 
salary of 1,000 rupees a month. At 7 
m. from Calcutta, the first view of 
that city is obtained, and then the 
King of Awadh's residence is passed 
on the E. bank, and the Botanical 
Gardens and Bishops' College on the 
\V. Then follows next to the King of 
Awadh's Palace, Garden Beach, where 
are some of the best villas at Calcutta, 
and the river is now crowded with 
ships anchored tier after tier, all the 
way up to the Landing Place. The 
view is very striking, and the forest of 
masts, the vast plain of the Esplanade, 
the fort and the fine buildings in the 
backgromid, all give the idea of a 
great commercial capital, and the seat 
of a powerful government. 

Eveiy vessel that amves at Calcutta 
luust be berthed by the Harbom* Mas- 
ter, and should he be absent, much 
delay takes place. Should the vessel 
be detained in this way, passengers 
may land at Prinsep's Gh&t, which is 
just opposite the S. extremity of Fort 
William. The fee is 2 AnAs for each 
person, and 4 dnds for luggage. After 
getting out of the boat there is a walk 
of about 40 yds. to the place where 
liired vehicles can be got. This Ghat 
is marked by a very neat pavilion of 
stone, supported by pUlars, and in- 
scribed " James Prinsep." The proper 
landing-place is a little to the N. of 
the Fort, and each great Steam Com- 
pany has one of its own. The passen- 
ger will be careful to take with him a 



pass from the Custom House officer, 
without which he cannot get his lug- 
gage into a carriage. From the 
Jetty to the street is about 100 yds., 
through the enclosure of the Custom 
House, a space of ground excessively 
dusty and dirty. 

jrotcls.—The principal hotel at Cal- 
cutta is the Great Eastern, which is 
about 1 m. from the Landing Place, 
and close to Government House. The 
cost will be, including wines and car- 
riage, from 10 to 20 rs. per day. Oppo- 
site is Spence's Hotel, a very small 
building. 

Clubs. — The Bengal Club is on the S. 
side of the Esplanade, at No. 33, Chau- 
ringi (Chowringhee) Road, to which are 
attached the houses No. 1, Park Street, 
and Nos. 1 and 5, Russell Street, di- 
vided into chambers for members who 
are permanent residents. There is also 
at 33, Chowringhee Road, a large 
house, where are sleeping-rooms for 
members. The Club House was for- 
merly the residence of Mr. T. B. Mac- 
aulay, afterwards Lord Macaulay. 
Members of this Club are honorary 
members of the Madras, Bombay, and 
Shanghai Clubs, and vice verm. It 
was founded in 1827. The entrance- 
fee for permanent members is 200 rs. , 
and i-esident members pay in advance 
a quarterly subscription of 25 rs. Non- 
resident members living within 100 m. 
of Calcutta pay a quai'tcrly subscrip- 
tion of 12 J rs. Those residing beyond 
100 m., or who visit India for a period 
not exceeding one month, pay in ad- 
vance a subscription of 25 rs. The 
United Service Club is at 31, Chow- 
ringhee, and at 1, 2, and 3 Kyd Street, 
and o^ Park Street; the entrance-fee ia 
100 rs. and a fee of 10 rs. for the Li- 
brary and 10 rs. for the Billiard-room. 
The subscription is 12 rs. per annum, 
paid in advance, and in addition 3 rs. 
a month for residence in Calcutta. 

IhmrdiJtg Houses. — The use of hotels 
in Calcutta is compamtively limited, 
and instead, it is usual to reside at 
boarding-houses, where the charge is 
150 rs. a month, or 5 y«». «» ^-K^^^sst 
board aivd \od%\xv^. Tev^ ^vjjsv^SkoX^ 
take theiT me«As \,o^^>iXi^:^,'s>.'«v^^"'^ 



86 



CdcuUa Citg. 



cliai^c wine and liqnora are not in- 
claded, and ench boarder mast bring 

hisown,agmTiciBnotprocoTableinthc 
house. Bonrding-bouBes are very nn- 
merons ; but Xon. B and 'J MidcUeton 
Bow Bud So. I Little RukkcII Street 
may be strongly recommended, as 
fiitiiated in a salubrioua and convement 
lociditj. Suites of rooms and single 
rooms may be engnged there, with a 
private table or taUe d'b6tc by day, 
week, or month. 

CnnvfijaiiceH. — C'arriages may be 
hired at from !> to 10 rs. a-day, and 
there are an abundance of cabs (Shi- 
grams) for which tbc charge per hour 
is veiy moderate. 



The Eij)1,aiade.—kt tbe N.W. cor- 
ner of the Esplanade lining the Stisnd 
are Uie Eden Gardens, for which Cal- 
cutta is indebted to the Misses Eden, 
Lord Auckland's sistere; here a band 
plays every evening. On the S. ride 
18 a fine marble statac of Sir William 
Feel, with this inscription : — 

SIR WILLIAM FEEL, V.C.. E.C.a. 

Commsmier of the N«val BiigadB. 

m the WIT of the Indiin Uiitiiiy. 

Born 4t1i of Noyemliet, 1B21. 

SJed St JUnhpiir, 

2Tt1i of April, lS6a. 

On the north Bide is, 

W. Theid, So., Loudon. 
On the N. side of the Qardcns, 
the end opposite to that where stands 
the Btatne of Peel, is that of Lord Auck- 
land ; he is represented standing bare- 
beaded, with the right hMt advanced, 
Aod m jf speaking ; he hold* his robe 



OBORGK, EAKL 09 AUCKLAND, 

GoverTior.OeaerBl of IndtS- 

Tlila Btatne wu EiTcted by men 



liirongh ttn benign et^Kt*, 
, ;i nt wtinm igreed in Uic itfectionite d«ln 
T" perpetoite the menioiy ot the all yr»r% 
Puring ithich he mled the ilegtlntei ot 



w ihlFi Just reuoi 

Itr lalxmrsd eume 

Tc 

Secuiity fJtffli rB 



thronRhout the 
d unreniittlnil]- 
Ld oppnsflton, 



TheBngliali LangiiBge, 



III the Gardens is also a Banncse 
P(^;oda, brought from Prome in 18H, 
and set np in 185fi. Cl^se to tbe 
Gardens is the Groand of the Calcatta 
Cricket Club. There is a good drive 
along the river's side from the Gar- 
deiLs past Fort William to Belvedere, 
the Lieut.. (Jovern or' H residence, and 
another E. from the Gardens to Oo- 
vernment House. There is also a drive 
on the S. side of the Esplanade to the 
UalUedral and (Jliowringhee. The Ea- 
[ilunade itself Is a magnificent open 
spnre of about IX m. diameter. 

A little to the N. is BAbii's Gfadt. 
named from Ma] (Jhandra D4s, who 
I'lmi^tmcled it. Tlierc is a liandsomo 
Cirjkinnade with Doric pillars ; it bcaiB 
the following inscription :— 

Tlie HIgbt Hon. Lord Willuii Cavendish 
Bkntince, Governor.aeDenl it India, with ■ 
view toeocnunGenuliltcniunlBcencetOKurki 
cf pulilLu ntillty, hea bo^n pleased to deter- 
mine that thia Oliitercctal At the eijieniu.' of 
IMliA Mi Chandra Dii In IHSB. shall heresner 
, bo cnJled B&ba lUJ Chandra Itts Oh&^ 
i Gererntneat Himtc. — This stands in 
I i^roiinds of (i acres. The first brick was 
I Inid on the 1st of February, 1799, by 
command of Lord Welleslcy. The 
architect was Captain Wyatt, R.E,, 
and it cost 13 lAkhE. The design is 
copied from that of Kedlcstone HaU, 
Derbyshire, built by Bobert Adam 



Sect. II. 



OovemmetU Home. 



87 



for Lord Scarsdale, which is a central 
building with 4 win^ connected with 
the centre by galleries. The building 
stands K. and S., and the grand en- 
trance faces the N. There is here a 
grand flight of steps in 2 diviiions ; tbe 
first having 17, and the second having 
16 steps ; atthe bottom thisflightismore 
than 100 ft. broad. It leads to a plat- 
form 67 ft. broad within the rails, and 
including the parts bejond the rails, 
74 ft. broad. Over half this platform 
is a grand porch formed bj 2 pillars 
and a pilaster to W. and E., and by 4 
pillars in front to the N. The pillars 
are 45 ft. high, and are of the Ionic 
order. Passing under this porch you 
enter a suite of 3 gi'eat rooms, the 
breakfast and tifl^ room, the dining 
room and the throne room. The Break- 
fast Room is 32^ ft. broad from N. to 
S., and 114i ft. long from E. to W. 
On the right as you enter is a finely 
executed statue of the Marquis Welles- 
ley, in white marble. The top plinth 
of the pedestal is inscribed ** F. Bacon, 
junior, FS" and under that, " London, 
1809." The statue is the size of life, 
and represents Lord Wellesley stand- 
ing, bareheaded, and dressed in uni- 
form, with his right hand on his hip, 
and a scroll in his left. His left foot 
is adyanced. He wears the collar of 
the Bath, and his face is youthful and 
eminently handsome and aristocratic. 
On the pedestal is inscribed : — 

MARQUIS WELLESLET, 

Governor-General of India 

From 1798 to 1805. 

Erected by the 

British inhabitants of Bengal, 

In testimony of their high sense of the 

Wisdom, Energy and Rectitude 

Of his Administration. 

Moving to the left you come next to a 
portrait facing the entrance, inscribed 
" Earl Canning, 1866—1862." His lord- 
ship is seated, wearing the riband of the 
Star of India and the Star. He holds 
a paper in his left hand, and the right 
leans on a table. The face is hand- 
some, intellectual, and thoughtful. Op- 
posite and looking towards the large 
room is a portrait, inscribed ^* Marquis 
of Hastings, 1813—1823." He is in 
the nnif orm of a general, and ia stand- 
ing, witli M scroll in bis right hand and 



his left on his sword. The face is 
lumdsome, and the black eye-broWs 
contrast well vnth the white hair. Op- 
posite and looking up the rooms is the 
portrait of the «* Earl of Mayo, 1869— r 
1872.*' He wears a red umform and 
the cloak of the Star of India. In his 
right hand he holds his plumed hat, and 
his left rests on the hilt of his sword. 

The Dining Boom comes next, and 
is 89 ft. 10 in. long from N. to S., and 
64 ft. 4 in. broad from E. to W. The 
walls are covered with white chunam. 
At 10 ft. from either wall are 2 rows 
of 10 pillars and 2 pilasters. The floor 
is of veined white marble. To the B. 
is a broad verandah with 6 lofty pil- 
lars. On either side along the wall 
are ranged 6 marble busts of the Css- 
sars. These were taken from a French ' 
ship during the war, perhaps by Admi- 
ral Watson, and are well executed. 
The dining-room leads into a third 
room, which runs parallel to the 
breakfast-room, and is of the same 
length, but only 29^ ft. broad. It is 
called the Throne Boom, as there is 
placed in the centre of the S. wall 
under a canopy, and with the arms of 
Eugland embroidered over it, the 
throne of Tipi!i, a gilt chair with a 
low back and low sloping arms and 
red cushions. At either end of this 
room are 4 white chunam pillars, and 
in the centre of them 2 splendid white 
marble vases, 5 ft. 6 in. high, made at 
Jaipi^, and brought thence by Lord 
Northbrook. The pictures are, Ist, 
on the r. the Queen seated, with 
the crown on her head and in her 
royal robes, by Sir George Hayter, a 
most indifferent picture ; on the L, > 
Queen Charlotte standing, in an er- 
mine-bordered robe ; next is King 
George III. also standing, with his 
right hand on his hip, and his left 
holding his ermine-bordered robe and 
resting on the table, his age appa- 
rently about 25. These two pictures are 
supposed to be by Hudson, the master 
of Sir Joshua Keynolds. Next is Ma- 
jor-General the Hon. Arthur Wellesley, 
1803, in uniform, his right «xt{:\. ^Ckcxx^ 
under the \iTeaat oS. YiSs ^c«.\., «x^^\^ 
left on the \iilt ol ^i\a ^^orc^ ^» 
stands on lYie \>imVL ol «w Vs^ T»sav«=^ 



Sect. II. 



•: A-^: '?«. .Lud stands 

v.- .: i: u :i :'.«R'- 

- ••• rr*."Si»s or 
• • ■ * 

, . • ^'ni:. ill 



"•'."•■ 



•»-r -»ifi 



IC 

■'* ir>* 

.: * "Ilvtro. 

^ . -v p 't' 

- - ■ . .:::i>ivr. 






■ % I 

• at. 

■ * . !I 
">» f 



■% 'Vw 



C: 



(in 
lh<' ft.' 

In ml ; i.- 
Uf'n(hi(\. 
}}jii\ ;is if 



'^%' N. 



VI 



V V 



\v\ »« 



Sect. 11. Government Haute — Ochterlony MonumerU, 



89 



tare, wearing the red riband of the 
Bath, and holding his cocked-hat in 
his right hand, and in his left a stick, 
which he plants firmly on the ground. 
This is a very spirited picture by Na- 
thaniel Dance. 

There are also pictures of Louis XV. 
and his Queen, perhaps by De la Roche ; 
of Lady William Bentinck, by Beechy ; 
of the NiiwAb S'addat 'All Khdn, by 
iOhinnery ; the Shdh of Persia, 1798; 
Jaswant Singh, MahArdjA of Bhartpiir, 
by Anger ; and the Amir of Kabul, by 
W. M. White. 

Above the dining-room and the ad- 
joining rooms, is a sjjlendid ball-room, 
with pillai*s resembling those below, 
and two ante-rooms of the same dimen- 
sions and character as the breakfast- 
room and the throne-room. The floor is 
of polished teak, and the ceilings are 
beautifully panelled, after designs by 
Mr. H. M. Locke. In the centre of 
the ball-room is a large chandelier, and 
6 smaller ones, 3 on either side. They 
are said to have been captured with 
the busts of the Csesars from the 
French. They were, no doubt, thought 
very fine a century ago, but would sell 
for very little now. At the W. end of 
the S. ante-room is a billiard-table, 
and a large picture of the Marquis 
Wellesley, standing under curtains, in 
the uniform of commailder-in-chief. 
There are steps fi*om the place where 
he stands do'wn to the gi-ound, where 
are soldiers with a flag. On a table 
are the subsidiary treaty of Haidard- 
bdd, 1798, the partition treaty of 
Maisdr, 1799, and subsidiary treaty of 
Slirirangpatnam, 1 799. The S . windows 
look out on the extensive grounds, 
which are well kept, and at 40 yds. 
from the verandah on the ground 
floor is a platform, on which a fine 
brass 32-pounder, taken at Aliwal, is 
mounted. At the N. end of the plat- 
form is written '* Aliwal, January 28th, 
1846," and on the gun is an inscrip- 
tion in Gurmukhi. On either side is 
a 6-pounder brass tiger gun, taken 
from Tlpii, on platforms about 40 yds. 
off. There is an English inscription 
cni the base of the platform, *^ Seringa* 
patam, 1799," and on the gun itaeJt in 
Fttsiaa is "Made in the capital." and 



" weight 6 mans." On the N. side is 

a large brass gun on a platform, which 

is inscribed " Midnl, 17th February," 

and also ** HaidarAbAd, 30th of March, 

1843." On this gun, which seems to 

be an 18-pounder, but the barrel of 

which is much broken and worn, is 

written : — 

This gun belongs to the factery of 

KhudA Y^ Kh&n Bahadur 'Abb^si gAbit 

Jang, 1263. 

On the N. side is also a vast iron gun, 
with a carriage representing a dragon 
inscribed, "Atkinson, 1844. Cossi- 
pure." It seems to be about a 42- 
pounder, and on the platform is in- 
scribed : — 

EDWARD, LORD ELLENBOROUGH, 

Goveruor-Qeneral of India in Council, 

Erected this Trophy 

Of guns taken from the Chinese, 

In commemoration of the Peace 

Dictated to the Emperor of China, 

Under the walls of Nankin, 

By the Naval and Military forces 

Of England and of India, 

Under the command of 

Vice-Admiral Sir William Parker, 

And of 

Lieutenant-General Sir Hugh Gouoh, 

In August, 1842. 

There is. also, a small brass gun to the 

N.W., curious on account of its ex- 

ti-eme age. There-as no inscription on 

it but XXI., cut probably by the 

prize agents. On the platform is : — 

Ghazui, 6th of September. 
KaBul, 16th of September, 1842. 

In the middle of the gun are 2 HinnHii*^' 
lions of brass. The cupola of GU>ijiMfkv. ' 
ment House can be ascended i)ra 
rope ladder, which is placed t^iore ; a 
strong single wire forms the bamister. 
The cupola is of metal, and the heat 
inside is like that of an oven. At top 
is a circular space of about 8ft. in 
diameter, surrounded by a rail ; in the 
centre of all is the flag-staff. 

OcJiten'lony Monuvwnt. — Not far 
from Government House, in the centre 
of the Esplanade, is a column 165 ft. 
high, to Sir David Ochterlony, Resi- 
dent in Malwd and Rdjpiitdn^, in 
1823. It is fluted, and has 2 galleries 
at top, frorn which a fine view over 
Calcutta is obtained, V^. ^1 \\. «sfe 
several statMeft. 

^^tw«.— FiGrefc eomea ^^^1?^!^ 



90 



Calcutta City, 



Sect. 11. 



He is bare headed, with his sheathed 
sword by his side. On the side of the 
base is " J. H. Foley, B.A., Sculptor, 
London, 1868." On the other side is 
" Elkington, Mason & Co., Founders." 
It is a good likeness and well exe- 
cuted. On the granite pedestal is in- 
scribed : — 

This Statue was erected 

By the Inhabitants of British India, 

Of varioiw races and creeds, 

To 

HENRY, VISCOUNT HARDINGE, 

In grateful commemoration of a Governor, 

Who, trained in War, 

Sought by the Arts of Peace 

To elevate and improve the various nations 

committed to his charge. 

And when re-called to Arms by unprovoked 

invasion, 

At Mudki, Firuzsh(dir and Sobraon, 

maintained the reputation which in 

youth he won. 

By turning the tide of victory, at Albuera. 

W. of this statue is that of Lord Law- 
rence, standing bare headed, at present 
without an inscription. On the Chow- 
ringee Koad side, is the equestrian 
statue of Sir James Outram. He is 
represented bare headed, with a drawn 
sword in his right hand, as if about to 
strike an enemy on foot. His horse is 
violently reined in, and the right leg 
pawing the air is rather unnatural 
The inscription is : — 

SIR JAMES OUTRAM.* 
Lieutenant-General, 6.C.6., and Baronet. 
His life was given to India. 
* 111 early manhood he reclaimed wild races 

by winning their hearts. 

Ghazni, Kelat, the Indian Caucasus, witnessed 

the daring deeds of his prime. 

Persia brought to sue for peace. 

Lakhnau relieved, defended and recovered. 

Were fields of his later glories. 

Faithful servant of Enghmd, 

Large-minded and kindly ruler of 

her subjects. 

* The original inscription, written by 
Colonel Yule, C.B., Member of the Council of 
India, is as follows : — 

His life was given to India. 

In early manhood he reclaimed Mrild races 

by winning their hearts. 

Ghazni, Kelat, the Indian Caucasus, witnessed 

the daiing deeds of his prime. 

Persia brought to sue for peace, 

Lucknow relieved, defended, and recovered. 

Were fields of his later glories. 

Many wise Rulers, 

Many valiant CaptainR, 

Hath his eountnr sent hither ; 

But never any loved as this man was 



In all the trae knight. 
The Bayard of the Easi 

Bom 4th of Jatfuary, 1803. 
Died 11th of March, 1863. 

J. H. Foley, Sculptor, R.A. 

On another side is " R M. Moorfield & 
Co., Founders, London, 1873.'* On 
the plot of ground to the E. of Lord 
Hardlnge's statue is an equestrian 
bronze statue of Sari of Mayo, in- 
scribed : — 

To the honoured and beloved 

Memory of 

RICHARD SOUTHWELL, 

6th Earl of Mayo, K.P., O.C.S.L, 

Viceroy and Oovemor-Oeneral of India. 

Humane, courteous, noble and enlightened. 

Struck down in the midst of a 

Mild beneflciant (beneficent) career. 

On the 8th of February, 1872, 

By the treacherous hand of an assassin. 

The people of India, mourning and indignant, 

Raised this Statue. 

Bom 21st of Febniary, 1822, 

Assumed the Viceroyalty, 

1st of January, 1867. 

T. Thornicroft, 

TIte Town Halh — This fine building 
standsW. of Government House. It was 
built by the inhabitants of Calcutta in 
1804, and cost £70,000. The style is 
Doric, with a fine flight of -steps lead- 
ing to a portico on the S. There are 
4 gigantic columns in £ront, and 2 
at the side 16 ft. round. The car- 
riage entrance is to the N. under a 
portico. The centre of the building 
is occupied by a saloon 162 ft. long, 
and 65 broad. In the S. front is a 
central room 82 ft. long, by 30 broad, 
and there are 2 smaller rooms 43 by 
21. The lower story is 23 ft. high, 
and has a marble pavement. The 
upper story is 27 ft. high. In the S. 
vestibule is a marble statue of Warren 
Hastings, by R. Westmacott, R.A., in- 

By tiiose whom they governed or led to battle. 

Faithful servant of England, 

Large-minded and kindly Kuler of 

^ her subjects, 

Doing nought through vainglor}', 

But ever esteeming others bettet* than himself. 

Valiant, incorrupt, self-denying, 

magnanimous, 

In all the true knight. 

If an opponent once styled him 

The Baj-ard of India, 
They who set up this Memorial 

May well lack words 
To utter all their loving admiration. 



Sect II. 



T(Aim> Hall — High C(niH, 



91 



scribed, " To the Right Honorable 
Warren Hastings, MDCCCXXX." He 
stands between a Mnbammadan and a 
Hindii. At the W. end of the lower 
saloon is a marble statue by J. Bacon, 
jnnr., of the Marquis of Comwallis, in- 
scribed: — 

In honour of the Most Noble the 

KABQUIS OF CORNWALLIS. K.G., 

Governor-General of India, 

September, 1786, to October, 1703. 

WbOfby'an administration uniformly conducted 

on the principles of 

Equity, wisdom and sound ]>olicy, 

Improved the internal resources of 

the country, 

Promoted the happiness of its inhabitants, 

ConeUiated the friendship of the 

Foreign powers, 

Confirmed the attachment of the 

Allies of the Company, 

And established the reputation of the 

British name in Hindi^stin, 

For good faith and moderation. 

By fixing m perpetuity the public demand 

for the landwi revenue. 

He gave for the first time. 

To the proprietor of the soil, 

A permanent interest in it 

And by the formation of a code of regulations 

For every department of the Government, 

He bOTtowed on the natives of India 

The benefit of a constitution, and h 

Security before unknown 

In the ei^joyment of their rights of property. 

Forced into a war 

By the unprovoked aggression of 

Tipu Suljtan, 
His eminent military talents in tlie 

Conduct of it 

Were no less conspicuous than his 

Moderation in victor>'. 

As a lasting 

Memorial of these important services, 

And as a testimony of their 

Res])ect and esteem for a Governor-General 

Under whose administration 

Public spirit was encouraged, and 

Merit liberally rewarded. 

This Statue was erected by the 

British Inhabitants of Bengal, 

A.D. 1803. 

In the yestibules are busts of C. B. 
Greenlaw, Esq., and John Palmer, 
Esq., and portraits of Lord Lake, 
Lord Gtough, Sir C. Metcalfe, Sir H. 
Dorant, Dwdrkandth ThAkiir, Bishop 
"^^Ison, Mr. Cameron, Mr. Wilber- 
force Bird, and others. There are also 
foll-lcngth portraits of the Queen and 
Prbice Albert, presented by Her Ma- 
jsttjto the city of Calcutta. Opposite 
the^bill, about 60 yds. off, \8 a bronze 
ili^iie of XoA? William Bentmck, with 



a bronze tablet of a mti below in- 
scribed as follows : — 

To 

WILLIAM CAVENDISH BENTINCK, 

Who during seven years 

Ruled India with eminent prudence, 

integrity and benevolence, 

Who, placed at the head of a great empire, 

Never laid aside 

The simplicity and moderation of 

a private citizen. 

Who infused into Oriental despotism 

The spirit of British freedom, 

Who never forgot that the end of Government 

Is the welfare of the governed. 

Who abolished cruel rites, 

Who effaced humiliating distinctions, 

Who allowed liberty to the expression of 

Public opinion, 

Whose constant study it was to elevate 

The moral and intellectual character of the 

Nation committed to his charge. 

This Monument was erected 

By men who, difiering 

In rac«, in manners, in country and religion, 

Cherish with equal veneration 

and gratitude, 

The memory of his wise, upright 

And paternal administration. 

Calcutta, February 4, 1835. 

The Legislative Council Office. — ^As 
the Legislative Council is close to the 
N.W., it may be visited next. The 
Council of the Bengal Government 
assembles in it. The IS. front 'is 
adorned with Corinthian columns. 

TIw High Court. — A plan of this 
building is kept in the Public Works 
Department, where it may be inspected ; 
it is dated July 4, 1870, and signed 
by William Duff Bruce, engineer, fi. 
Clarke, assis. engineer. It was finished 
in May, 1872. It is oblong, and runs 
N. and S. The S. face is 420 ft. long, 
the E. face .SQp ft.^. There are 22 
windows in front, andli large central 
one, and 2 large side ones. There are 
3 stories, and the windows are arched. 
The building faces S. The Chief 
Justice's Court is in the S.W. comer, 
with an area of 2279*0 ft., and there 
are 2 Courts 188010 ft., with rooms 
on each side 887-5 ft. The Court of 
First Instance is at the S.E. comer, 
and is of the same size as that of the 
Chief Justice. In the E. face is the 
Barristers' Library, to which each 
Imrrister pays a fee of 250 T^.,\«ssAKe» 
iOO rs. annuaWy. TYict^ wt^ ^^ ^-twi- 
i tising baxiistera \v\io «vj^a^cr^cifc, «^ 
1 16 non.pTactismg. TVve^ ^«saR» ^^ ^^" 



92 



Calcutta City. 



Sect. IL 



faulting attorneys are put up here. 
The Attorneys' Library is in the E. 
corner, and there is a portrait here of 
Justice Nonnan, and a photograph of 
Mr. Abbott, Registrar of the Diocese, 
and photographs of 15 judges in the 
Great Rent Case, Thdkiirdnl Disl v, 
Bishnu Bar Mukdji, decided by 14 to 
1 against Sir B. Peacock. There is 
also a photograph of a candelabrum, 
presented to Sir Mordaunt Lawson 
Wells. Next is the Vakil's Library, 
in which there are not many books. 
Then comes the room where the papers 
for cases for the Privy Council 
are made up, of which GO copies ai*e 
printed by the Court, at 2 rs. a page, 
paid for by the appellant. Of these 
6 copies are retained, and 2 go to 
the respondent. Next is the room 
where translations are made from 
Bengali and Urdii, for which the 
fee is 9 rs. for 150 words. Next is 
the 'Amalah's room, where papers are 
put in order for the Judge. The 
Court of First Instance is tamed 
into a Criminal Court by opening a 
trap door, which discloses a staircase, 
up which the prisoner is brought into 
the dock. This is removed when the 
Court is for civil cases. In this Court 
ai'c 3 portraits : Sir William Bun*oughs, 
Bart., inscribed * * Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, pinxit, A.D. 1818." Sir William 
is represented standiug in dark robes, 
with his right hand on a book that 
i*ests on the table. Next id Sir 
Frederick AV'oikman McXagliten, 
Knight, C.J., inscribed, " Chinnery 
pinxit, A.D. 1824." The attitude is 
the same as that of Sir W. Burroughs, 
but the robes are scarlet, with an S. S. 
collar of Chief Justice. Next is Sir 
Elijah Impey, Knt, C.J., inscribed, 
*• Kettle pinxit, A.D. 1778." He is 
dressed in red, and is seated with his 
left hand on a table, and his right on 
the chair. The next room is the 2nd 
Bench Appellant's side, with a picture 
of Shambu Ndth Pandit, the first 
Indian Judge who actually took his 
seat. He was a native of Kashmir, 
and used to wear a turban. He is re- 
presented seated, with a paper in his 
left hand. In the Chief Justice's 
Court are 3 pictuies: Sir £. Impey, 



Knt., C.J. , inscribed, "Zoflfany pinxit, 
A.D. 1782." He is in red robes, stand- 
ing with right hand upraised as if 
speaking. Next is Sir Henry Russell, 
Bart., C. J., inscribed, " Chinnery pinxit, 
A.D. 1872 ; " he is robed in red, and 
seated with his hands on a chair. 
Justice sits in the background, with 
the eyes bandaged. Next is Sir John 
Anstruther, Bart., C.J., 1805. He is 
robed in red, and seated with his hands 
on a chair. . In the centre of the E. 
side is a statue inscribed : — 

To 

SIR EDWARD HYDE EAST, Baronet, 

Chief Justice of the 

Supreme Court of Bengal. 

A principal founder of the Hindi^ College 

For promoting 

Liberal education in India. 

The Native Inhabitants of Calcutta 

Caused this Statue to be raised, 

A.D. 1821. 

On the side is — 

Chantrey, 8c., London, 1828. 

In the Library are " Notes of Cases," 
by Justice Hyde, in 1770. He came 
out with Impey. The Indian Ob' 
fterver of April, 1874, and April, 1876, 
page 261, vol. vii., January to June, 
has extracts from these notes, e,g,y 
"This day only Impey, C.J., and I, 
John Hyde, were present. Impey told 
i me that though Chambers did not 
I come into Court, he was very welL" 
I In the Judges' Library are 6 pictures, 
for which Government gave a grant 
of £500 ; xiz., Justice Trevor, standing 
with his right hand on the table ; H. 
B. Harington, sitting at a table, 
speaking to an Indian clerk, who is 
seated on the floor — the Judge is 
dressed in light-coloured clothes, with 
knee-breeches ; Sir John Colvin, who 
died at Agra — a very handsome man. 
Opposite are Sii* Edward Ryan, in red 
robies with white ermine lining, and 
his left hand on a book, inscribed 
" Sir Martin Shee pinxit, A.D. 1844 ; " 
Sir Robert Chambers, Knt., C.J., 
inscribed **C. J. Davis pinxit, A.D. 
1794 — his hand is placed on a table, 
and supports his head (this is a good 
picture, and the face is fine) ; Sir 
Lawrence Peel, Knt., C.J. The 
inner quadrangle is 240 ft. iiora E. 
to W., and 165 ft. from N. to S. 



Sdct. 11. 



Fort William — St, PmtVs CatliedraL 



93 



The height of the tower is 180 ft., and 
froiA the floor to the roof of the botly 
of the tower is 100 ft. There is a 
garden in the centre quadrangle, and 
a fountain. 

The Second Day will be spent in visit- 
ing Fort William, St. Paul's Cathedral, 
the Zoological Gardens, Belvedere, site 
of the Duel between Warren Hastings 
and Sir P. Francis, the Race Course, 
Garden Reacti, and the Palace of the 
King of Awadh (Oudh). 

lint Willmm was fortified and 
received its name from the then King 
of England, but its site was changed 
after the battle of Plassey, from that 
which is now occupied by the Post 
Office to the river bank, in 1757, 
where Clive commenced a new and 
much more formidable fortress, which 
was finished m 1773, and cost two 
millions sterling. It is an irregular 
octagon, of which 5 sides look land- 
ward and 3 on the river. It is sur- 
roanded by a fosse 30 ft. deep and 50 
broad, which can be filled ^om the 
river. It mounts 600 guns of various 
sizes, and can hold a garrison of 
10,000 men, though there are now 
only 2 regiments, 1 English and 1 
N. L, and 1 battery of artillery. 
There are 6 gates, Chowringhee, 
Plassey, Calcutta, and Water Gate, 
as well as St. George's and the 
Treasury Gate. Opposite the Water 
Gkite is the Gwdliar Monument, 
erected by Lord Ellenborough, in 
1844, in memory of the officers and 
men who fell in the Gwdlidr cam- 
paign of 1843. It was designed by 
Colonel W. H. Goodwyn, Beng. Bng. 
It is of brick, faced with Jaipiir 
marble, surmounted by a metal cu- 
pola supported on pillars, and manu- 
factured oy Messrs. Jessop & Co. of 
Calcatta, from guns taken from the 
enemy. It is 58^ ft. high. In the 
centre the names of those who fell at 
the battles of Mah&r&jpi!ir and Pan- 
niar are engraved on a sarcopha- 
gus. There is also a sallyport be- 
tween Water and St. George's Gate. 
Entering by Chowringhee Gate, you 
pass to the Governor's residence, 
used as a Soldiers' Institute and Gar- 
rison School, next which ia the Fort 



Church, St. Peter's, built in 1835. 
The Catholic Chapel, St. Patrick's, 
was built in 1857. The MUitary 
Prison is built on a massive store- 
house, on which is a tablet inscribed : 
" This building contains 51,258 mans 
of rice, and 20,023^ mans of paddy, 
which were deposited by order of 'the 
Governor-Greneral and Council, under 
the inspection and charge of John 
Belli, agent for providing Victualling 
Stores to this Garrison, in the months 
of March, April, and May ^ 1 782." The 
Arsen^ is worth a visit. The Fort 
commands the river, and is a formid- 
able defence to Calcutta. 

St. PauVs Gathed/raX, — ^Af ter seeing 
the Fort, the traveller will drive to 
Chowringhee, and proceed to the 
S.W., when, after about a m., he 
will reach the Cathedral of St. Paul. 
A design for this Cathedral was pre- 
pared so long back as 1819, but the 
project lay dormant till revived by 
Bishop Wilson in 1839. On the 8th 
of October in that year the foun- 
dation-stone was laid. The archi- 
tect wag Major W. N. Forbes, Beng. 
Eng. Tlie style is Hindii- Gothic, or 
Gothic modified to suit the climate 
of India. In the vestry of the Ca- 
thedral is a large folio MS. volume 
entitled " History of the Erection of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta, drawn 
up by the Rev. J. H. Pratt, Bishop's 
Chaplain." This contains a plan of 
the Cathedral at page 2G5, and the 
following statement of dimensions : — 
Length of Cathedral, including but- 
tresses, 247 ft. ; extreme breadth, 81 ft., 
and at transepts, 114 ft. ; W. carriage ve- 
randah and entrance, 61 ft. x 21 ft. 5 in. ; 
and W. vestibule, 36 ft. x 22 ft. ; Tower 
and Lantern, 66 ft. x 42 ft. ; N. tran- 
sept, 44 ft. X 28 ft. ; S. transept, 
44 ft. X 28 ft. : body of Cathedral for 
service, 127 ft. x 61 ft. The exact 
measurement of the porch is 60 ft. 1 1 in. 
long, and from N. to S. 20 ft 8 in. 
broad, while the transepts are 94 ft. 
Over the porch there is a libraiy, the 
books of which were left to the public 
by Bishop Wilson. There is here an 
excellent bust of that Bv%\io'^^ ^^. ^^ 
back of whicYi \s msicnfe^''''^ .^ft^02a&%.» 
sculpt., Loiidoii,^^^-' T\i^ ^e^JctesiJL^ 



94 



Calcutta City. 



Sect 11. 



is 86 ft. by 28 ft. The body of the 
Cathedral is 127 ft. x 61 ft, covered by 
an iron trussed roof, ornamented with 
tracery. The E. window represents 
the Crucifixion, designed by West. It 
cost £4,000, and was given by the 
Dean and Chapter of Windsor. Tt 
was intended to be given by George III. 
to St. George's Chapel, Windsor, but 
was not put up there. The Commu- 
nion Plate was given by the Queen. 
The organ is by Gray, and the clock by 
Vulliamy. The building cost £50,000, 
of which the Bishop gave £20,000, half 
of which, however, went to endow- 
ment. The E. I. Co. gave £15,000, 
and £12,000 was subscribed in India 
and £13,000 in England ; besides this, 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel gave £."),000, and that for the 
Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 
£6,000. Lastly, Mr. Thomas Nutt of 
Londoti gave £4,000. The outside 
gates slide into the railings, and it 
is well to know this, as servants 
struggle to force them open. The W. 
central window is a Memorial Window 
to Lord Mayo. The lantern under the 
tower is 27 ft. sq. 

The architect of the church is buried 
in the vestibule on the right as you face 
the altar. The tablet is inscribed as 
follows : — 

In Memory of 
MAJOR-GEN. WILLIAM NAIRN FORBES, 

Of the Bengal Engineers, 

The Architect of tliis Church, 

Of the Calcutta Mint, 

And of various other public buildings. 

This tablet is surmounted by a fine 
bust of the deceased, with a noble 
forehead and intellectual features, and 
an either side is a female figure, one 
holding a trumpet and a laurel wreath, 
and the other a pen and a scroll. 
Below is inscribed, 

This Monument is erected 

By the affection of his friends and 

Fellow citizens. 

He was bom at Blackford, Aberdeenshire, 

April 3rd, 1796, 

And died near Aden, on his way to England, 

May 1st, 1S55. 

On the side is — 

W. Theed, Sept., London, 1S57. 

On the left side of the vestibule is a 
reiy handsome and peculiar black 



marble tablet to 16 officers of the 
Bengal Engineers, who fell during 
the Lidian Revolt in the year 1857-58. 
It is ornamented with 16 bronze me- 
dallions, representing the heads of the 
officers whose names are recorded. 
Below is a bronze entablature repre- 
senting an officer ' creeping along a 
bridge and firing the powder bags at 
the Kashmir Gate at Dihli, while some 
soldiers are removing a wounded 
officer, who has fallen into the ditch. 
Next is a tablet to 16 officers who fell 
in the BhotAn campaign. Next is a very 
elaborate and peculiar monument. At 
the top is seated Justice with her scales, 
below which are 2 compartments : the 
first represents a man and a woman 
holding an infant, with an ox between 
them, and a child seated in front of it 
and playing with its feet ; in the 
second an Oriental is seated, with a 
camel beside him, and a standing 
figure holding out his hand to him. 
These designs are separated by a tree, 
the branches of which canopy the 
figures. Beneath is the following in- 
scription in gold and old English 
letters, cut deeply into the marble, 
and divided into 2 compartments : — 
Ist Compartment. 

In Memory of 

JOHN PAXTON NORMAN, 

Of the Inner Temple, 

Officiating Chief Justice of Bengal. 

Assassinated on the steps 

Of the Town Hall when 

Enteiing the High Court 

There held on the 

20th of September, 1871. 

He expired cm the 21st, 

In the &2nd year of his age. 

This Monument was 
Erected by the Government of India. 

2/u2 Compartment. 
1 Thess. iv., ver. 13, 14. 

Next is a tablet to 7 officers of the 
68th Regiment N. I.. " who died during 
the Mutiny of the Native Troops, and 
subsequent operations, from 1867 to 
1859 ; some on the field of battle, 
some by the hands of their own fol- 
lowers, others from disease ; all doing 
their dutv." 

Then follow tablets to Mr. William 
Hitchie of the Calcutta Bar and Inner 
Temple, a member of the Council of 
the Governor-General (this tablet la 



Seob II. 



St. PauVi CathedrcU, 



95 



sarmotinted by a bast,, which deserves ■ 

'commendation as a work ot art) and 

to Major W. Reveley, Beng. Staff 

CSorps, and then on the left one to Sir 

H. M. Lawrence, inscribed as follows : — 

In Memory of the great and good 
BIB HENRY MONTGOMERY LAWRENCE, 

K.aB., 

Chri0tian statesman, 

Philanthropic soldier, 

Who in the 

FanJ&b, IUJpi!it&n& and Oadh, 

Taoght how kindly sul^ect races 

should be ruled. 

Who first in India founded 

Asylums for British soldiers' children, 

And who fell in the 

Memorable defence of Lakhnau, 

4th July, 1857. 

Beloved and mourned 

By Natives and Europeans. 

As the Monument he would most have 

deriired, 

The Council of Calcutta and Bengal 

Joined with that of Upper India 

in founding 

A Henry-Lawrence Memorial Asylum 

for Huldiers' Children 

At Mari in the Hills of the Panjdb. 

They also erect tliis Tablet in the Cathedral, 

To keep among them his 

Memory and Example. 

This is a very handsome tablet, and is 
adorned with a medallion portrait in 
white marble. In the centre of the 
left wall of the passage from the vestl- 
bole to the transepts and body of the 
church, is a monument to Lord Elgin. 
At the base of it, painfully low down 
for those who wish to read it, is the 
foUowing inscription : — 

In Memory of the 

RIGHT HON. JAMES BRUCE, 

Sari of Elgin and Kincardine, 

K.T., aM.8.L, G.C.B., 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 

Who died in the execution of his office 

At Dhamisila in Northern India, 

And there lies buried. 

This Monument is erected by the 

Government of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 

In recognition of the many 

Eminent services rendered by him 

To his country in 

Jamaica, Canada, China and India. 

Bom July 20th, l&ll. 

Died November 20th, 1863. 

At the top of the monument is a me- 
dallion hem of Lord Elgin, which 
hardly does him justice. Below the 
bead are four designs in bronze, with 
the words ** Jamaica," ** Canada,'' 
"China," "India," written at the 
bottom. The Brst representa a white 



man, a planter or preacher, speaking to 
negroes. In the second are European 
w(Kxlmen felling trees, while an Indian 
chief in a recumbent attitude, and a 
squaw with an infant in her arms, ob- 
serve their labours. In the third. 
Lord Elgin is addressing a mandarin, 
while a Chinese lays the flag of China 
on the ground. The fourth repre- 
sents a scene in an Indian camp, 
with a tent and elephant in the back- 
ground, and a Pdr8i,'a Sikh soldier, 
and other Indians in front. Below 
is a black marble slab with the in- 
scription that has been given above. 
It projects about 18 in. from the wall. 
Within the transept are inscriptions, 
the first of which is — 

To the Memory of 

SIR MOUNTSTUART GOODRICKE 

JACKSON. Bart., 

Of the Ben^ Civil Ser\ice, 

Assistant-Commissioner at Sitdpur in Oudh, 

Who, at the age of 21, after 

Many months of privation and suffering, 

Was murdered at Lalchnau, 

On the 16th of November, 1857. 

Also of 

A3IELIA GEORGIANA JACKSON, 

Aged 20 years. 

Sister of the above, 

Who, in escaping fh>m Sitipi^, 

Was separated from her brouier. 

And after enduring for several months 

Great suffering and exposure. 

Perished at Lakhuau in the massacre, 

On the 24th of September, 1867. 

Eldest son and daughter of the late 

Sir Keith Alexander Jackson, But. 

Of Arlsey, county of Bedford. 

Then follows a tablet to Captain Gowan 
of the 27th Regiment B. N. I., who 
was killed while endeavouring to re- 
call the mutinous Sipdhis of his own 
corps to obedience. With him lie his 
wife and infant son, murdered by the 
mutineers. At a few feet from the 
S. wall, and in the S.E. comer of the 
S. transept, is the tomb of Lady Can- 
ning, brought from Barrackpiir. It 
consists of a platform or base of white 
marble with reddish veins, 15 ft. 2 J in. 
long and 8 ft. broad, on which is a 
sarcophagus, 10 ft. 4 in. long, on which 
is inlaid a cross, upon the upi>er end of 
which flowers are represented as grow- 
ing. Lower down are 2 coats oi «xtsi'%^ 
surmounted vrttb. cotqtvc^^, Qm^ ^1 \NNft. 
Stuart de UolYvesay iaimV^ , >i}aa q?Ocv« 
•quartering \}Dst Caimm^ ^ircas. '^^^ 



former hns in the left top and right 
lower qaartcr 3 Moora' beadB, Bud in 
the other quarters a hand, with a star 
between 2 cresccntB. At the S. end 
of the Barcophagus rises a alAb 7 ft. 
4 in. high, surmounted with a cruse. 
Honnd the Baroophagos, l)eginnmg at 
the 8. end, is written, " Kacted to the 
Memory of Chaiiottc Elizaljoth. oldest 
' danshlcr of Lord Ktuart de Rothesay, 
bom at (S, eidc) Paris, Htstof March, 
X817, died at (R. side) Caleutta, 18th 
of November, 1861, wife of Charles 
John Viscount and Karl Canning, Ist 
Viceroyof India." The inscriplio 
llie headstone is 



lie rnU 

vBDiDg of the 18th or Jun«, lUT. 
1 hemlof his nllant r^nent. 



HiB Hpint. we trust, nith the SsTlour, 
To whom he hanibly looltod upwnnlB. 

Also to Bishop Cotton, as follows : — < 



GI'MRGE EDWARu LYNCH COTTOX, 



October Stli, 18<H). 
To the left of tliia arc paintings in 
mosaic : Ist, Our Saviour preaching ; 
2na, the Flight into Egypt; 3id,tbe 
Adoration of the Magi and tlie Shep- 
herds ; 4th, the Annunciation. To the 
left of these is a tablet insciibed : — 

Til Meajojy of 
THB BIGHT BEV. DANIEL, 

ftthBtBhorotCiilcuttii, 

UetmpoLtaii in Ilidia, 

£ vfAn VlcAT of lilinglou, aiid 

■16 Biihup of tb<a^o«Be. 



Oath 



a AblB)- 



There are also tablets to Sir Heniy 
Miers Elliott, K.C.B., 3rd son of John 
Elliott, Esq., of Pimlico Ijodge, 
Westminster, bom March Ist, 1808, for 
2fi years a member of the Civil Service, 
who died at the Cape of Good Hope on 
the 20th of December, UriH, flged 45 
years, and to Sir Richard De la Tour 
St, Gcoi^e, Bart,, Beng. Art., and Sir 
Kobert Barlowe, Bart, of the B.C.H., 
who for more than lli years was a 
jndge of the Sadr Court at Calcutta. 
There is also a tablet to Colonel Yule, 
with an inscription written by his 
brother, of the Council of India, as 
follows : — 

To tho cli/or on.l bo loved Memorj- ot 

LIEUT. -COI.0.V EL ROBERT 

ABERCROMBY YULE, 



Thin TaWet I* erecleil bj 



will. 



, of the tower is 
at the K. end of the carriage porch. 
There are first 81 steps to a landing, 
and then a wooden ladder with 12 
steps, whence you come out on a flat 

■ surface under the lino root, which is 
very hot when the sun is up. Yott 

' then enter a door and ascend 77 steps, 
up a very narrow winding staircase, 
with iron steps. At the 5Cth step you 
come to a landing, and 21 more teke 
you to the open balcony round the 
clock, where are 4 small bells, and a 
large one. The view " 
Other interesting tablets are 
following :— 

Knt neu this stone, 
Nor in any ponsecre.t«l BTOond, 



BrJtljdi Ii 



ui Empire, 



CK ALEXANDER VANS AONEW, 



Sect II. 



St. PauVs Vatltedrdl — Belvedere, 



97 



To relieve, 

At his own request, 

Diwdn Mulrdj, Viceroy of Mnltan, 

Of the fortress and authority which he held, 

Were attacked and wounded 

By the garrisou 

On the 19th of April, 1848, 

And being treacherously deserted by the 

Sikh escort, 

Were, on the following day. 

In flagrant breacli of 

National faith and hospitality, 

Barbarously murdered 

In tlie 'Idgah, under the walls of Multiin. 

Thus fell these two young 

Public servants. 

At the age of 25 and 28 years. 

Full of high hoives, rare talents, and 

Promise of luture usefulness. 

Even in their deaths doing their 

Country honour. 

Wounded and forsaken 

They could ofibr no resistance, 

But hand in hand 

Calmly awaited the onset of their assailants. 

Nobly they refused to yield, 

Foretelling the day when thousands of 

Englishmen 

Should come to avenge their deaths 

And destroy Mulr^*, 

His army and fortress. 

History records how the 

Prediction was fulfilled. 

They were buried with military honours 

On the summit of the 

Captured citadel, 

On the 26th of January, 1849. 

The annexation of the Panjib to the 

British Empire 

Was the result of the war. 

Of which their assassination 

Was the commencement. 

The assistants to the Resident at LiUiur 

Have erected tliis Monument 

To the memory of their friends. 

There is also a tablet to George 
Montizambart, Major of H.M.'s 10th 
Begt. of Foot, who gallantly fell in 
action at the siege of Multdn on the 
12th of September, 1848 : " raised in 
friendship and in regret by his school- 
fellow, the Earl of Dalhousie, Governor 
General of India," and a very hand- 
some one to Col. Richard Baird Smith 
of the Bengal Engineers, C.B. and 
aide-de-camp to the Queen. The 
inscription is written by Colonel Yule, 
of the Indian Council ; also one to 
Captain John Peyton Davidson, who 
fell at his post fighting nobly while 
in command of the Crag Picquet, 
Ambela Pass, November 13th, 1863. 

The Zoological Gardens, — These 
gardens are near the Lt.-GoYernor's 



house in 'Alipiir, and a carriage can 
drive through them. There are the 
usual wild beasts, and a good number 
of birds. The only special curiosity 
is an electric railway, on a small scale, 
which only serves to amuse visitors. 
The Menagerie mentioned by Newman 
at Barrackpiir has been removed 
to these gardens. 

Belvedere, the Lt.- Governor's Pa- 
lace, — This fine building stands in 
extensive and well-kept grounds. There 
are perhaps too many trees about the 
house, in consequence of which the 
mosquitoes are very numerous. On 
reaching the landing-place at the top 
of the stairs, the visitor will observe 
some handsome trophies of Indian 
arms, and full-length portraits of 
Sir John Peter Grant and Sir William 
Grey. The drawing-room is 114 ft. 
long, and when occasion requires is 
divided off into a dining-room, and 
smaller drawing-room. There is a 
fine flight of steps at the S. end, 
descending to the lawn-tennis ground 
and garden. On the landing at the 
top of these steps breakfast is gene- 
rally taken. At the W. entrance of 
Belvedere, on the 'Allpur road, was 
fought the duel between Warren 
Hastings and Sir Philip Francis, in 
which the latter was wounded. In 
the Englishiiian of March 12th, 1881, 
will be found some interesting remarks 
on the subject. 

Rave Course. — In driving to Belve- 
dere, the Kace Course will be passed 
on the right. The ground is perfectly 
level, and the distance is 2 m. Here, 
the Prince of Wales during the month 
of January, 1876, witnessed an exciting 
steeple-chase and other races. 

Garden Beach. — Here are numerous 
fine villas, most of which were built 
between 1768 and 1780. The house 
of the Messageries Maritimes, and 
that of the P. & 0. Co. arc on the 
banks of the river. Just above 
Garden Reach is the village of 
Kidderpiir, so called after Mr. Kyd, 
who constructed the present Govern- 
ment Dockyard.* Between 1781 andc 
1821, according to l\v?i. CoVewtta B.e- 

vol. i.,vp. \QO,\Q\. 



98 



Calcutta CUy, 



Seot.lL 



vieiVy No. XXXVI., p. 237, ships were 
built at the Kidderpdr Docks, at a cost 
of more than 2 millions sterling, 
and in 1818, the HaxtingSj a seventy- 
four gun ship, was launched there. 
At the W. extremity of Garden Beach, 
or in its vicinitv, was situated the ' 
small fort of 'AUgarh, and opposite to 
it, on the other bank of the river, was 
the Fort of ThanA, both of which 
were taken by Lord Clivc m the re- 
capture of Calcutta, on the 30th of 
December, 1756. Near the last house ; 
in Garden Eeach, about 5 m. from 
Calcutta, the Revenue Surveyor men- 
tions in 1857, a ditch about a 
hundred feet in breadth, forming 
three sides of a square, which he 
thought had very much the appearance 
of a moat, and may have been the site 
of the 'Aligayh Fort. A short distance 
to the E. of 'Alipiir, and immediately 
S.E. of Calcutta, is the suburb of 
Baliganj, within the limits of the S. 
Suburban Municipality, and the re- 
sidence of many European gentlemen. 
The lines of the Viceroy's Body- 
guard are situated here, and consist of 
brick-built ranges of barracks with 
stables. 

Kdlighdt, celebrated as the site of a 
temple in honour of the goddess KAli, 
the wife of Shiva, is situated on the 
bank of the old bed of the Ganges, a 
few m. S. of Calcutta. The place 
derives sanctity from the legend that 
when the corpse of Shiva's wife was 
cut in pieces by order of the gods, 
and chopped up by the disc (aiidarsan 
cTiahra) of Vishnu, one of her fingers 
fell on this spot. The temple is 
supposed to have been built about 3 
centuries ago. A member of the 
Sdbarna Chandhii family, who at one 
time owned considerable estates in 
this part of the country, cleared the 
jungle, built the temple, and allotted 
194 acres of land for its mmntenance. 
A man of the name of Chandlbar was 
the first priest appointed to manage 
the affairs of the temple. His descen- 
dants have now taken the title of 
Hdlddr, and are at present the pro- 
prietors of the building. They have 
amassed great wealth, not so much 
from the proceeds of the Temple lands 



as from the daily oflerings madelqr 
pilgrims to the shrine. Thie ^zincipiu 
religious f^stiyal of the year u on the 
2nd day of the Dargi-pt^^ when the 
temple is visited by crowds kA pUffrims, 
principally belonging to the IHstriot 
of the 24 Paiganas and the Boiroond* 
ing villages. 

Palace ofthe King of AwadhiOudh). 
— Passing over Kiddcrptir bridge 
the visitor arrives at the garden gate 
of the King of Awadh's gronndB, and 
will there descend &om hiscaniage. 
He will observe on the wall to uie 
right hand a large picture of the 
Russians and French and English 
fighting in the Crimea, perhaps ai 
Inkerman. In the 1st quadrangle on 
the right hand are pigeons, said to 
number 50,000, at all events there are 
thousands. On the wall facing the 
visitor is the picture of a semi-nnde 
female, reclining in a garden,' with 
several attendants and a sentinel or 
guard. In the 2nd quadrangle is a 
large fish tank. In the 3rd qu^rangle 
is a bangld, in the fore part of which 
are fantail pigeons, of the kind 
called Rishmi, or silken-tailed, a pair 
of which, according to the guide, are 
worth 1500 rs. To the right is a long ' 
range of cages with very close bars, 
with all sorts of monkeys, one of 
which at the woixl of command dances. 
In the 4th quadrangle is a large tank 
of about 2 acres, swarming with every 
kind of water-fowl, cranes, ducks, 
geese and pelicans, and to the right a 
long range of cages which are not 
shewn. On the left is a fine panther, 
with extremely white paws and chest ; 
next to him a large lion. There is 
also a Dum Dardz, a sort of civet cat. 
In the 5th quadrangle you are requested 
to put down your umbrella, as being 
near the rooms of His Majesty the 
King. Here are ostriches, cassowaries, 
sdmbar orelk,deer and 2 immense turtles 
on which men can stand. There is a 
very handsome bangld here, into which 
visitors are not allowed to enter. The. 
visitor will now walk some distance 
past one or two more bauglds, where 
lattices conceal the inmates. At about 
^ m. further on is the Snake House. 
The earth has been excavated to the 



Sect II. 



St John^s Cathedral, 



99 



depth of 5 ft. The sides are bricked 
and chanamed over, and the wall rises 

1 or 2 ft. above the ground. A snake 
could hardly ascend the polished sur- 
face. At 2 ft. from the wall is a 
gigantic rockery, with hundreds of 
beehive-looking compartments, closed 
in, with only a round aperture of about 

2 in. diameter in each. Here thousands 
of serpents live. SSome shew half their 
boilies, and othere only the end of the 
tail or head, others arc wriggling up 
and down the building, which is 12 ft. 
high in the centre. Here and there is 
a large cage with iron bars, in which 
are the large serpents, boa-constrictors 
and the rock sn^es. Often the larger 
snakes are seen to swallow the smaller 
ones, and appear with a foot or two of 
the bodies of their victims hanging 
from their mouths. There is a small 
bangld here, with some very beauti- 
fully coloured snakes in glasses. Visitors 
are not allowed to see the King, who, 
however, eometimes drives out in the 
public promenade. 

TJie Tidrd Day will be occupied 
in seeing St. John's Cathedral, the 
New Post Office, the New Telegraph 
Office, the Old Fort, the Memorial of 
the Black Hole Massacre, the Calcutta 
University, the Greek and Armenian 
Churches, the Br&hma Somdj, the 
Scotch Kirk, and the Old Mission 
Church. 

St. JoliiCs Cathedral.-^CaXLcd the 
Old Cathedral, which stanils to the W. 
of Church Lane before you come to 
the General Post Office. Council House 
Street is written on the S.E. gate pillar. 
The compound is shaded with many 
trees. On the S. side of the compound 
is a long shed in which the pankhds 
are hung, when not used in the church. 
Outside the church to the N. of the 
W. entrance is a domed pavilion 
al)Out 60 ft. high, with 12 pillars. The 
platform of this pavilion is 4 ft. 5 in. 
from the ground, and is 28 ft. (> in. in 
diameter. It was erected in commemo- 
ration of those who fell in the first 
Afghan war, but strangely enough there 
is no inscription. The church, which 
18 a fac-simile of the one destroyed by 
Sir&JQ 'ddaulah when he took Calcutta, 
built ill 1787, and coDBecr&tod on 



the 24th of June in that year by a 
special act of consecration, sent out 
by the Primate. The Revd. W. John- 
stone and S. Blanchard were the first 
chaplains. The compound might be 
made very ornamental, being shady 
and with a considerable extent of 
grass, but it has been terribly neglected, ' 
and the N. end is generally filthy and 
covered with rubbish. At this part 
is an octagonal pavilion, containing 
some remarkable epitaphs to be men- 
tioned presently. The tower is coveretl 
with a brown-coloured plaster, which 
is very unsightly. 

From the altar on the E. to the large 
vestibule on the W. is 109 ft. 8 in. and the 
vestibule is 26 ft. 7 in., so that the total 
length is 136 ft. 3 in. The breadth from 
N. to S. is 70 ft. There is no transept. 
The galleries contain seats for 257 
persons. The organ is in the gallery 
facing the pulpit and the communion 
table. The pulpit is inlaid with 
marble, and there is a very fine stained 
glass window above the communion 
table, and in this part the pavement 
is all of fine marble. The church cost 
rs. 184,836. There are seats for 830 
persons. 

On either side the church is 
divided by 5 Corinthian pillars and a 
pilaster, whitened with chunam. There 
are entrances under fine porches 
to E. and W. That on the E. has 6 
lofty pillars, and the ix)of cf the W. 
porch is supported by 12 pillars. The 
W. vestibule has on the right as you 
enter an inscription, which says Gene- 
ral Claud Martin left the interest of 
50,000 Ts. to the poor of Calcutta. 
On the opposite wall is a large picture 
of the Lord's Supper, painted and pre- 
sented to the church by Sir John Zoff any, 
in which the Apostles are all portraits 
of certain well-known inhabitants of 
Calcutta. The head of Our Saviour is 
said to have been taken from a Greek 
clergyman, called Pai-thenio, and St. 
John from Mr. Blaquire, the well- 
kn)wn police magistrate. In the 
vestry, which is on the right as you 
enter the vestil)ule, there ^-^ w. \^»xv ciV 
the grovixY'A. ^oot ol lYtfi cNaxrccNa., -scol^ ^ 
large map ot 0a\cw\.\.a.,0Low^ \\\ \*Vl-^ 
by Fred. Y^. ^\m, C.^. 'Y>aRS«. ^ 



100 



Calcutta City, 



Sect IL 



also engraved portraits, in the order 
from right to left, of the Revs. C. 
Cotton, Daniel Wilson, Bishop of Cal- 
cutta, W. C. Brownhead, W. R. John- 
stone, 1847, John Ward, 1808. 

In this church and its compound are 
the oldest and most interesting tablets 
to be found in Calcutta ; amongst these, 
within the church, are those to Lt. and 
Adjutant Robert Harvey Turnbull, 
killed in action with the Chodrs, on 
the 1st of January, 1833; to Captain 
and Brevet Mnjor John Griffin, who 
fell at the battle of .Flnlzshahr on the 
21st of December. 1845 ; to Colonel 
W. C. Faithful, C.B. ; Captain John 
Martin, lost in the Protector in a gale 
off the Sands Heads, October, 1838 ; 
also to James Pattle of the B. C. S. 
and his wife ; Sir Benjamin Heath 
Malkin, one of the judges of the Su- 
preme Court ; to Lieut.-Col. T. J. An- 
quetil, who was killed at Jagdallak 
while commanding Shdh Shiija's force, 
on the 22nd of January, 1842 ; to Lieut.- 
Colonel James Achilles Kirkpatrick, 
who was 9 years Resident at Haidar- 
dbdd, at a very important period, and 
died at Calcutta, October 15th, 1805 ; 
to Lieut. Peter Lawtie, who, disguised 
as a native, first penetrated the passes 
into Nipal, and mainly contributed to 
the victories of Sir David Ochterlony, 
by the officers of whose army this 
monument was raised ; to Bishop Con*ie, 
Archdeacon of Calcutta and Bishop of 
Madras, the friend and fellow-labourer 
of Henry Martyn ; to the Rev. Lloyd 
Loring, first Archdeacon of Calcutta ; 
to Bishop Turner of Calcutta ; to 
Sir Charles Blunt, Bart., who died at 
Paltah, September 29th, 1802; to 
William Butterworth Bayley, some 
time Governor-Gfneral, and Henrietta 
Francis, his daughter, wife of J. S. 
Campbell ; to John Adam, member of 
the Supreme Council, acting Governor- 
General from January to August, 1823 ; 
to Bishop Cotton, of Calcutta, disowned 
at Kushteah in 1866. In the com- 
pound in the pavilion, at the N. end, 
is a tablet to William Hamilton, who, 
in 1717, having cured the Emperor 
Farrukhsiyar, obtained for the E. I. 
Company the right of importing their 
goods free of duty, and other groat 



privileges. The inscription is as 
follows : — 

Under tliis Stone lyes interrecl 

the Body of 

WILLIAM HAMILTON, 

Surgeon, 

Who departed this life 

The 11th of December, 1717. 

His Memory onglit to be dear to this Nation, 

For the credit he gained the English 

In curing Farrukhsiyar. 

The ])re8ent King of Indostan, 

Of a malignant disteni|>er. 

By which he made his own name famous 

At the Court of that Great Monaivh, 

And, without a doubt, 

Will perpetuate hiit Memory 

As well in Great Britain 

As all other Nations i4i Europe. 

There is also the same inscription in 
Persian. 

Close to this is a tablet to Job Char- 
nock, one of the first Governors of 

Bengal. 

D. o. M. 

JOBUS CHARNOCK, Armiqer, 

Anglus et nuper in hoc 

Regno Bengalensi 

Diguissimus Angloru 

Agens 

Mortalitatis ruir exuvias 

Sub hoc mannore dejiosuit, ut 

In s]>e beatte resuiTectionis ad 

Christi Judicis adventum 

Obdormient, 

Qui post quam in solo non 

Suo peregrinatus esset diu 

Reversus est domum suae iEt«r- 

nitatis decinio die Januarii, 

1(592. 

Pariter jacet 

MARIA Jobi ])rimogenita 

Caroli Fyre Anglorum 

Hicee Pnefecti 

Conjux eharissima, 

Quaj obiit 10 die Febrv, 

A.D. 1090—7. 

At about 50 yds. to the AV.is a dowed 
building, supported outside by 4 pillars, 
and inside by several more. The fol- 
lowing is the inscription : — 

Beneath 

Are deposited tlie Remains 

of 

MRS. FRANCES JOHNSON. 

She was the second daughter of 

Edward Crooke, Escj., 

Governor of Fort St. David, 

On the coast of Coromanclel, 

And was bom the 10th of Ajjril, 1723. 

In 1738 she intcnnnrried witli 

Parry Purplk Templer, Esq., 

Nephew of Mr. Braddyl, 

The Governor of Calcutta, 

By whom she had two <'liildren, 

Who died Infants. 

Her second Husband was 

James Altham of Calcutta, Esq., 



Sect II. 



St. John's CalJiedraL 



101 



Who dlod of tl^e flmallpox a few- 
Days after the marriage. 
. She next intermarried with 
William Watts, Esq., 
The Senior Member of the 
Supreme Council of Bengal, 
By whom she had issue four ciiildren : 

Amelia, who married 

The Right Hon. Charles Jenkinson, 

Afterwards Earl of Liveri>"ol. 

By whom she had issue one child, 

Robert Banks, 

Xow Earl of Liverpool, etc., etc. ; 

Edward, now of Hunsloite Parle, 

In the Countv of Bucks, Esq. ; 

Sophia, late the wife, 

And now the widow of 

George Poyntz Ricketts, Esq., 

Late Governor of Barbadues ; 

And William, who died an infant. 

After the death of Mr. Wattw she, in 1774, 

Intermarried with the 

Rev. William Johnson, 

The principle (sic) Chaplain of the 

Presidency of Fort William, 

By whom she had no issue. 

She died on the 3rd of Februarj-, 1812, 

Aged 87. 

The oldest British resident in Bengal, 

Universally beloved, resi)ected and revered. 

A few yards to the S. is the tomb of 
Admiral Watson, who with Clive re- 
took Calcutta. It has a large square 
base supporting an obelisk, inscribed 
as follows : — 

Here lies interred the Body of 

CHARLES WATSON, Esq., 

Vice- Admiral of the White, 

Commander-in-Chief of His Ma^lesty's 

Naval Forces in the East Indies, 

Who departed this life 

On the 16th day of August, 1757, 

In tlie 44th year of his age. 

Geriah (pn>p. Garhiya) 

Taken February LStii, 1750, 

Calcutta free<l, January llth, 1757, 

Chandranagar taken, Man'h •iSrtl, 1757. 

Kxegit munumentum wi-e i»erenniu8. 

Tfie JVcfv Post Office.— This is one 
of the finest buildings in Calcutta. It 
looks E. on Dalhousic Square, formerly 
Tank Square, and S. on Koilah Ghat 
Street. The ground . floor covers 
49,47 1 sq. ft ., and the first floor 29,7 1 3ft., 
the remainder being covered by out- 
Offices. It cost 630,510 rs., and occu- 
pies an area of 103,100 scj. ft., is on 
the site of the S. face of the old fort, 
and was opened in 1870. At the S.E. 
comer is a lofty dome, supported on 
an octagonal base and 28 Corinthian 
pillars. From floor to spring of arch 
k 101 ft. 9 in., the tower itself being 
120 f 1. 1} in. hi^li. The front tow&Tda 



Dalhousie Square has 11 pillars, and 
that towards the Koilah Ghat Street, 
12, all Corinthian. Accoi-ding to the 
Government plan, the site of the Black 
Hole is marked by the 3kI and 4th 
pillars in the side fronting the Square, 
counting from N. to S . This side, the E ., 
is 100 ft. long, exclusive of the tower, 
which has a diameter of 90 ft. The S. 
side is 345 ft. long, and the W. 210 ft. 
The building is iZ-storied, and was 
built from the designs of Walter B. 
Granville, Gov. Arch. Under the Ian- ' 
tern is a lofty circular hall, in which 
are the public letter-boxes. The rooms 
of the Postmaster-General are up- 
stairs in the 2nd story, and those of 
the Presidency Postmaster on the 
ground floor to the N. of the entrance. 
On the 30th of November, 1880, there 
were employed in the Calcutta General 
Post Oflice building 558 clerks and 429 
servants. There were delivered in that 
year from theCalcuttaPost Office letters, 
postcards, newspapers, books, pattern- 
parcels, 4,359,229. In 1877-78 there 
were 6,798,515, but in the next year a 
great amount of the work was done by 
postmen attached to sub-offices, so 
that there is no real falling off, but a 
steady increase at the sub-offices. 

T/te JViriv Telcffrajfh Office is also a 
very fine building. It stands at the 
S. comer of Dalhousie Square. It was 
commenced in 1873, but was not 
opened till 187G. The building stands 
on a plinth 4 ft. G in. high, and is itself 
06 ft. high. The tower, which stands 
on the E. side, is 120 ft. high. The 
main block, which faces Dalhousie 
Square, and the E. wing, have 3 stories, 
and the other wings have 2 stories 
each. 

T/tr Rcmainx of the Old Foi-t.—Thc 
first Fort William lay l^etweeu Tanks- 
hall Street, now Koilali Ghdt Street, 
on the S., and Fort Ghdt Street, now 
Fairlie Place, on the N. Its W. side 
fronted the river, and its E. Old Fort 
Street, now Dalhousie Square. The E. 
and W. sides were longer than the S., 
and that longer than the N. Enter- 
ing the N. gate of the prescxi^t ^oeK, 
Office, and YfaWdiv?; lo ^^ ^ ., ^iiaa^\ 
80 ft., you come to N«T\iVv.\. ^em^xv^ cX 
the S. curtain oi t^\^ lQit\.,Nsr\vv5a ^ ^^^ 



102 



Calcutta City, 



Sect IL 



the shape of a St. Andrew's Cross, and 
is 172 ft. lonp:, and 51 ft 6 in. broad, 
divided into 2 parts len^hways. The 
part where you enter is 21 ft. broad, 
and the other 22 ft. in. The wall is 

3 ft. G in. broail, and made of bricks, 
now hanl as a rock. There is a row of 
arches 10 ft. high in the wall where 
you enter, and also in the pai-tition 
wall that has been made lately. The 
place is now used as a workshop, with 
stables at the W. end. Here were the 
barracks, which, according to Hoi well, 
were open to the W. by arches corre- 
sponding to the arches of the verandah 
without. According to some autho- 
rities the Black Hole was at the 2nd 
arch where you enter. 

The Memorial of tlie Black Hole 
Mas8ac?'e. — ^A monument was erected 
to those who perished in the Black 
Hole in June, 1756, by their surviving 
fellow-sufferer, J. Z. Holwell. This 
Memorial was removed by the Marquis 
of Hastings, owing to some weak scru- 
ples. It is now to be restored near 
the lamp iu front of the Post Office, 
which is supposed by some to be the 
place where the Black Hole was. The 
monument consists of a fluted obelisk 
on an octagonal base, ascended to by 

4 steps, each 10:J in. high. The base 
itself is 14 ft. high, and the obelisk 
33 ft., and 4^ ft. diameter at Iwttom. 
There are 2 inscriptions on the base, 
which is 17 ft. broad, and with the 
footings 25 ft., with an urn at each of 
the 4 corners ; that on the front of the 
monument is as follows : — 

To 
The Menioiy of 
Edwd. Eyre, Wm. Baillie, Esqrs., Tlie 
Rev. James Bellamy, Mensrs. Jknks, 
Reevely, Law, Coaxes, Naucourt, J ebb, 
ToRRAiNo, E. Page, 8. Page, Grub, Street, 
Harod, p. Johnstone Ballard, N. Drake, 
Carse, Knapton, GasLiNo, Dod, Dalrymple ; 
Captains Clayton, Buchanan, Wittinoton ; 
Lieuts. Bishop, Hays, Bla(u:, Simpson. S. 
Bellamy ; Ensij^iis Paccard, Scott, Hast- 
ings, C. Wedderburn, Dumbleton ; Sea 
Captains Hunt, Osborn, Parnel ; Messrs. 
Caret, Leech, Stevenson, Guv, Porter, 
Parker, Caulker, Bbndol, Atkinson, who, 
with sundry other inhabitants, Military and 
Hilitta, to the number of 123 ^lersons, were, by 
the tyrannic violence of Sir^ju 'd daulah 
6ba of Bengal, suffocated in the Black Hole 
Prison of Fort William, in the night of the 
20th day of June, 1756, and promiscuously 



! thrown, the succeedttiff Humiing, into tii 
! ditch of the Ravelin of uiis place. 
This Monument 
Is erected by 
Their surviving fellow-sufferer, 

J. Z. HOLWKLL. 

On the reverse side is inscribed — 

This horrid act of violence 

Was as amply 
As deservedly revenged on 

SirAju'd daulah, 

By His Majesty's Arms, 

tinder the conduct of 

Vice- Admiral Watson and 

CoiiOnel CLive, 

Anno 1767. 

Calcutta University Senate House, — 
The traveller will drive along Lower 
Chitpiir Road and EalutoUah Street to 
College Square, to the N.W. of which 
he will find the Pi-e^idency College, 
Hare School, and the Calcutta Uni- 
versity. The University Senate Honse 
is a gi-and hall 120 ft, by 60 ft., in 
which the Convocations for conferring 
degixjes take place. It has a noble 
portico, ascended to by a fine flight of 
steps, and supported in front by 6 lofty 
l>illars. Close by is the Hare School, 
which is self-supporting, and is a hand- 
some building, ei-ected out of the 
surplus fees of students. The Hindi! 
College was founded in 1824, and 
opened in 1827. The total cost was 
170,000 rs. In the year 1855 it was 
merged in the Presidency College. The 
foundation stone of the new building of 
this College was laid in 1872 by Sir 
George Campbell. 

The Greek Church, — Turning to the 
W. down Canning Street, the traveller 
will come to the Greek Church, built 
ill 1780 by subscription, Mr. Wan-en 
Hastings heading the list with 2.000 rs. 

TJie Armenian Church of St. Xaza' 
rcth is close })y. It was founded in 
1724, and 10 years after a steeple was 
added, and other improvements were 
made in 171)0. 

Tlie Itomaii Catholic Cathedral is in 
Portuguese Church Lane. It is dedi- 
cated to the Vii-gin Mary, of Rosario. 
It cost 9(),(X)0 rs., of which two-thirds 
were raised by public subscrii)tion, 
two gentlemen of the Baretto family 
contributing the largest proportion. 
It is built on the site of an old brick 
chai)el, erected in 1700. The first 



Sect. II. Tlie JBrdhma Somdj^^Old Mission Church. 



103 



stone of the new building was laid 
12th of March, 1797. 

Tke JBrdhma Somdj is the reformed 
Theistic sect of Hindiis, and has set- 
tlements at Haarah (Hoorah), Eon- 
nagar, Basud, Baluti, Baidyabdti, 
Chinsurah, Hugli, and Chandranagar. 
The sect has very little hold on the 
rural population, the members being 
generally men of good social position. 
In Hugll District they number about 
1200 (see " Statistical Account of Ben- 
gal," vol. iii. p. 293). The sect was 
founded by Rdjd R4m Mohan Bai, in 
1830, when he purchased a house in 
the Chitpiir Road, and endowed it 
with a small fund for the maintenance 
of public worship, which he placed in 
the hands of trustees. The deed 
stated that " no sermon, preaching, 
discourse, prayer, or hymns be deli- 
vered, made, or used in such worship, 
but such as have a tendency to the 
promotion of the contemplation of the 
Author and Preserver of the universe, 
to the pfomotion of charity, morality, 
piety, benevolence, virtue, and the 
strengthening of the bonds of union 
between men of all religious persua- 
sions and creeds." In 1858, Keshab 
Chandra Sen joined the Somdj, being 
then 20 years of age. In 1862 he was 
ordained minister of the Calcutta 
Brihma Somdj. In October, 1865, his 
secession took place, and next year a 
new body was organized by Keshab, 
entitled the Brdhma Somdj of India, 
and in January, 1868, the first stone 
was laid of a new church for the pro- 
gressive Brdhmas or Keshab Chandra 
Sen's party. In 1872, on the applica- 
tion of Keshab, Sir. John Lawrence 
passed the Native Marriage Act, which 
enacts that the parties must be un- 
married, the bridegroom and bride 
must have completed the age of 18 and 
14 years respectively, must not be re- 
lated within certain degrees, and if 
under 21, except in the case of a 



situated in Rddha Bdzdr, and occupies 
the site of the Old Court House. It is 
called by the natives Ldrd §d^iib Kd 
Girjah, Lord Sahib's Cliurch. This 
refers to, the Countess of Loudon 
and Moira, wife of the Marquis of 
Hastings, who was present when the 
foundation-stone was laid on the 30th 
of November (St. Andrew's Day), 
1815. It was opened on March 8th, 
1818. If cost ^20,000. To the N. and 
S. are vast porticoes, the roofs sup- 
ported by lofty pillars of the Doric 
order, arranged in groups of 4, 2, 6, 2. 
This church sends a representative to 
the General Assembly at Edinburgh. 
It seats 500 pei*sons. The organ is by 
Gray and Davison, and cost 10,000 rs. 
in 1868. The clock cost 5000 rs. in 
1855. In the vestry there is a portrait 
of Dr. James Bryce, the first minister, 
by Sir John "Watson Gordon. There are 
some handsome monuments within the 
church, 

Tlie Old Mission Cliurch. — This 
Church is called the Ldl Girjah, or 
Med Church, by the Indians. This, 
with the parsonage and the office of 
the Church Missionary Society, is in a 
pretty compound in Mission Row. It 
is 125 ft. long from E. to W. and 81 ft. 
10 in. broad, and scats 450 persons. It 
was built by the celebrated missionary 
Johann Zacharias Kiemander, who 
was bom at Azted, in Gothland, in 
Sweden, on the 21st of November, 
1711, and educated at the University 
of Upsal. Being offered a post as mis- 
sionary, he left England in the Col- 
chester, Indiaman, on the 29th of 
April, 1740, and married Miss Wendela 
Fischer on the 29th of September, 
1758, and opened a school in Calcutta 
on the 1st of December in that year. 
Having lost his wife, he next married 
Mrs. Anne Wattey, on the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, 1762. At her death she left 
valuable jewels, with which he founded 
a school. He called his Church Beth 



widow, must have the written consent I Tcphillah, " House of Prayer." When 



of parent or guardian. In the " Brdh- 
ma Pocket Almanac," printed at 249, 
Bow Bdzdr Street, will be found a 
chronological table of the chief events 
with regard to this sect. 

Th$ Hooteh Kirl, or St, Andrew's, is' 



blind he was deceived into signing a 
bond, which ruined him. The church 
was seized by his creditors, VyaS. ^sa.- 
deemed by Mi. CV^a-xXes. Qc^«s2s. ^sst 
10,000 Ts. He VYien^eviX. \.o ^^mmsqk^. 
1 and died tViet^ m Vl^^- '^'^^^'^ 



'iak- 



104 



Cakutta CUy, 



. Sect It; 



p:ood engraving of him in the Mission 
Room, with an inscription in German. 
There are many interesting tablets in 
the church, particularly one to Mr. 
Charles Grant, and one to the Rev. 
Henry Martyn, also to Bishop Dealtry 
of Madras, to Bishop Wilson, and to 
an Arab lady of distinction, who was 
converted to Christianity : the inscrip- 
tion on which is as follows : — 

Erected by a Friend 

To the Memory of 

WALIU'N NISA BI'GAM, 

A native of Jedda, 

And daughter of a H^l. 

Driven in eariy life to seek a peace 

Wliich Muhammadanism could not afford, 

After many years of trials 

and disappointments, 

She found rest in Christ, 

And was baptized in this Church, 

February 16th, 1871. 

After labouring in the cause of 

The Gospel in the Zan^nah Mission 

At Lakhnau, 

She died at Murshiddbdd, 

December 8th, 1876. 

Calcutta. 

TJie Dalhouftic Institute stands on 
the S. side of Dalhousie Square, and 
was built '* to contain within its walls 
statues and busts of great men." The 
foundation-stone was laid on the 4th 
of March, 1865, but the entrance-por- 
tico preceded it, having been built in 
1824. It contains a statue of the Mar- 
quis of Hastings, by Chantrey, in- 
scribed : — 

In honour of the Most Noble the 

MARQUIS OF HASTINGS, K.G., 

Crovemor-General of British India, 

From the year of Our Lord 

1813 to 1823. 

Erected by the 

British inhabitants of Calcutta. 

The hall is lined with marble, and 
measures 90 x 45. It contains a statue 
of the Marquis of Dalhousie, by Steele, 
R.S.A., and one of the Right Hon. 
James Wilson, and a bust of Edward 
E. Venables, indigo planter, 'A^^imgarh, 
by the same artist. Also a bust of 
Brig.-General Neil, C.B., and of Major- 
General Sir Henry Havelock, Bart., by 
Noble ; and busts of Major-General 
Sir James Outram and Brig.-General 
John Nicholson, who led the storm at 
Dihli, by Foley. 

Ths Secretariate, — This noble build- 
ing stands on the N. side of Didhousie 



Square, and occnpies the mte of the 
Old Writers' Buildings, where so many 
illustrious Indian Statesmen com- 
menced their public career. The 
fa9ade is 675 ft. long, and it is 2 
stories high. 

The Fonrth Day may be spent by 
the traveller in visiting the Asiatic 
Society, the Indian Museum. St. 
Thomas's Roman Catholic Church, fhe 
Mosque of Prince Gbuldm Muham- 
mad, the Economical Museum, and 
the Mint. 

The Afdatic Society is at 57, Park 
Street. This institution was estab- 
lished in 1784. There are now 355 
members. The entrance fee is 32 rs. 
The subscription for members residing 
in Calcutta is 9 rs. a quarter. For 
those residing in the Districts, it is 
6 rs. ; for foreign members, 4 rs. All 
these subscriptions may be com- 
pounded for, by a payment of 300 rs. 
There is a meeting on the 1st Wednes- 
day of every month, except in Sep- 
tember and October, when the Rooms 
are closed. The " Asiatic Researches " 
began to be issued in 1788, and went 
on to 1839. The " Journal " b^^an in 
1832, and from that time to 1839, both 
publications were issued. Each num- 
ber of the *' Journal " costs 2 rs., but 
to members 1 J rs. The curiosities have 
all been sent to the Indian Museum, 
where the Society was to have had 
rooms. This having been denied to 
them, Government made a grant to 
the Society of IJ Idklis in compen- 
sation. A catalogue of the pictures, 
&c. is being prepared. Tlie Library 
consists of 15,000 volumes. 

The Indian Muaevvi is at 27, Chow- 
riiighee Road. It is an immense build- 
ing, and from its enormous weight and 
the want of solidity in the ground on 
which it is built ,t he walls have cracked 
in the centre from top to bottom. It 
was founded by Act XVII. of 1866, 
re-enacted by Act XXII. of 1876. It 
is governed by trustees, of whom the 
Home Secretary, the Accountaut-Gene- 
ral, the President of the Asiatic Society, 
and the Superintendent of the Geologi- 
cal Survey are ex njfficio members. Five 
other members are nominated by the 
Viceroy, and four by the Asiatic So- 



Sect II. Indian Museum — St, Thomases R. C. Church. 



105 



ciety ; thi-e^ are elected by the Trus- 
tees. It is closed from the 1st to the 
15th of May, aud from the 1st to the 
loth of November, and on Fridays, It 
is open on all other days, including 
Sunday, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., from 
the let of February to the 1st of No- 
vember, and for the other months from 
10 >LM. to. 4 P.M. There are on an 
average 1170 native visitors a day and 
700 Europeans a month. On the 
ppound-floor is a very fine collection of 
Fossils, Minerals, and Rocks. On the 
Ist floor is the Geological Gallery, also 
very rich in specimens, the Library, 
and Offices. There is also a Gallery of 
Antiquities well worth inspection, par- 
ticularly those brought from Bharhut. 
(See Fergusson's Hist, of Arch., pp. 85 
to 91, 135 and 168.) A popular Guide 
to the Geological Collections is in 
course of being printed, and 3 num- 
bers have already appeared: No. 1., 
Tertiary Vertebrate Animals, by R. 
Lyddeker, BA.. ; No. II., Minerals, by 
F. R. Mallet ; No. III., Meteorites, by F. 
Feddery. Other numbers will follow, 
and may be now seen in manuscript. 

Amongst the Siwalik Fossil Re- 
xnains, observe the Hyjenarctos or 
Hyaena-Bear, the AmpMcyon, a dog- 
like animal as large as the Polar bear, 
the Machairodus or Sabre-tooth tiger, 
whose canine teeth were 7 inches long, 
also the Siwalik cat, which was at 
least as large as a tiger — it is distin- 
guished by a ridge running along the 
upper part of the skull. Amongst the 
.^jnerican Edentata remark the Mega- 
lonyx, long-nailed animal, and the 
Glyptodon, a gigantic armadillo, whose 
armour was all of one piece, so that it 
could not roll itself up. There is the ske- 
leton of a Megatherium brought from 
America, and one of an elephant lift, 
high; also of Hodson's antelope, whose 
2 horns seen in a line were thought to 
belong to a uniconi. Amongst Siwalik 
birds there are the shank-l^one and the 
breast-bone of a wading-bird as big as 
an ostrich. This bird has been called 
the Megaloscelomis, and these bones 
kre the only ones belonging to this 
species existing in the world. In the 
wall case at the W. end of the Upper Pa- 
IsBontological GaUeTy, there are many 



bones of the Dinomis. Amongst the 
reptiles, remark a Magar or crocodile, 
from Matlah, 18 ft. loug, and a snake 
of the Python species, also of that 
length. There are the jaws of the 
Balsenopteraindica, which must have 
belonged to a fish between 80 ft. and 
90 ft. long. These are on the N. side 
of the 1st floor, and at the end of the 
same Gallery are a tiger and lion 
fighting, very well set up. Observe 
also the remains of the Crocodilus cras- 
sidens, an extinct species of enormous 
dimensions. There is also a specimen 
of the Siwalik Colossochclys, a gigantic 
tortoise of prodigious size. It will bo 
noticed that whereas all the species 
and many of the genera of the Siwalik 
Mammals and Birds are entirely dif- 
ferent from those inhabiting the earth, 
all the genera of the Reptiles have 
living representatives in India. The 
Collection of the Fossil Vertebrata of 
the Siwaliks is the most complete and 
comprehensive in the world. 

As to Minerals, it may be said that 
most of the diamonds exhibited are 
Indian, from Bandalkhand, S. India, 
and Sambhalpiir. There are also models 
of the most celebrated diamonds, such 
as the Regent, the most perfect bril- 
liant in existence, the Koh i Niir, the 
Great Nizdm, &c., all of which were 
obtained in India. Amongst the Me- 
teorites, remark the Model No. 16, of 
one which fell on the 23rd of Janu- 
ary, 1870, at Ncdagolla, G m. S. of 
Pdrvatipiir, in the Madras Presidency. 
The original weighed over 10 lbs. 
There is a portion of the original 
weighing 7 oz. 260*8 gr., numbered 90, 
in the collection. It is the only Indian 
meteoric iron here. 

St. ThomaiC Itovuui Catholic Church. 
— This is a handsome building, aud is 
in Middleton Row, not far from the 
Indian Museum ; it was commenced 
in 1841, the first stone being laid on 
the 11th of November. It has 3 mai'ble 
altars, of which the central one is sur- 
mounted by a fine stained-glass win- 
dow. Close by is the Convent of Our 
Lady of Loretto. 

The Mo^qxic o/ Prince Glu vVaw "Mw.- 

Calcutta, Oftd s^aT^jQift ^^. ^iJaa ^errasst ^ 



-■■: 



106 



Calcutta ^ City, 



Sect. IL 



Dharamtolla Street, and may be visited ; 
when driving up Chowringhce, from i 
which it is conspicuous. It is in- j 
scribed, " This Masjid was erected : 
during the Government of Lord Auck- 
land, G.C.B., by the Prince Ghuldm 
Muljammad, son of the late Tlpii §ul- 
J.dn, ingratitude to God, and in com- 
memoration of the Honourable Court 
of Directors granting him the arrears 
of his stipend in 1840." 

Tlic Economical Museum, — Those 
who desire to study the products of 
the country may visit this Museum, 
which adjoins the Custom House, and 
contains an interesting collection of 
mineral and vegetable specimens, and 
also samples of native manufactures. 
It was founded by 8ir G. Campbell in 
1873. Close by at the S.W. corner of 
Hare Street is the 

Metcalfe Hall, founded in honour of 
Sir C. Metcalfe, by subscription and 
contributions from the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society and the Cal- 
cutta Public Library, which are here 
located. The 1st stone was laid on the 
19th of December, 1840, and the struc- 
ture was finished in 1844. The design 
is copied from the Portico of the 
Temple of the Winds at Athens. The 
entrance is on the E., under a roofed- 
in colonnade. There is a fine bust 
of Sir C. Metcalfe facing the . en- 
trance. 

The Mint.— Yrom the Metcalfe Hall 
the traveller will diive along the bank 
of the river to the Mint, which is at 
the W. end of NimtoUa Street. It was 
built in 1824-30, the architect being 
Major W. X. Forbes, B.E. The foun- 
dations ai*e 25 ft. deep. The style is 
Doric, the central portico being a 
copy in half size of the Temple of 
Minerva at Athens. The area of the 
building and grounds is 18^ acres. 
The building is in two separate blocks; 
that to the S. is called the Silver Mint, 
and the N. block added in 1865 is the 
Copper Mint. On the left is a large 
building occupied by the Mechanical 
Engineers, and one on the right by the 
Military and Police Guard. Beyond is 
a tank, and on the opposite side of the 
road is the house of the Warder in charge 
of the Mint Gate, who receives visitors 



and sends a man round with them. The ' 
Bullion D6p6t is first shown, where 
the blocks of silver are severed by the , 
steam-hammer. The Melting Room 
comes next, where the silver is fused 
in plumbago crucibles. In 3 hours 
the metal becomes liquid, and the era- 
cibles are then lifted out of the fur- 
naces by" cranes, swung round, and 
poured into iron moulds. The ingots, 
are then dipped into cold water. Next 
comes the Gas Melting Rooms, where 
the furnaces are heated with gas. Here 
is a quadrangle, in the centre of which 
are the Bullion Vaults. Next comes 
the Bullion Room, where the silver is 
weighed and brought to the quality 
required by law, that is, 11 parts of 
pure silver and 1 of copper alloy. In 
this room is a marble bust of Major- 
General Forbes. Next comes another 
Melting Room, and next a room where 
the ingots are drawn out into strips 
of one-sixteenth of an inch. The cop- 
per cakes are similarly treated. After 
this the metal goes to the Rolling. 
Room, where it is reduced to the pro- 
per thickness, and then to the Cutting 
Room, where a punch forms the metal 
into round pieces the size of a coin. 
These pieces are sent in bags to the 
next department, where thej' are 
milled, and then sent on to be an- 
nealed, in which process they are 
heated in furnaces to a red heat, when 
they are dipped in acid, which makes 
the surface bright. The next is the 
Coining Department, where there are 
12 screw presses in one room and 14 
lever presses in another. The former 
strike the blanks and give the proper 
impression, while in the other the 
impression is raised. In the next 
Room are the Automaton Balances, 
where the coin is brought to 180 grs. 
weight. Next comes the Engravei-s' 
Room. 

Charities. — Amongst charitable es- 
tablishments, one of the most interest- 
ing is the Women's Worki^hop, at 294, 
Old Bdzdr Street. The object is not 
so much charity as to encourage habits 
of industry. The rates charged for 
work are not higher than those paid 
to the regular tailors. Lists of cloth- 
ing, ^vith charges for the work, are 



S:ct. II. 



Botanical Gardens — BisTiojih College, 



107 



obiainablc at the Workshop, whore 
orders will be receired by the Super- 
int^ident. 

Sights in the vicinity of Calcnttn. — 
The JBotanicaX Gardem, on the W. bank 
of the rirer, opposite 'Alipiir, were 
founded in 1786, on the suggestion of 
General Kyd, who was appointed to 
be the first Superintendent. His suc- 
.cessors, Roxburgh, Wallich, Griffith, 
Falconer, Thomson, and Anderson, 
have all been celebrated botanists. 
The visitor may drive to the Gardens 
from Haurah or cross the river 
Hugli to them in a boat. The area 
of the Gardens is 272 acres, with 
river frontage of a mile. Tlie 
whole of them may be seen with- 
out descending from the carriage. At 
the N.W. comer is the Haurah Gate, 
where are 3 fine trees, a Flcnst indica 
in tlie centre, with a Fimist relief ioHa 
on either side. There is an avenue of 
Palmyra Palms to the right of tlie en- 
trance, and one of mahogany trees to 
. the left. The visitor will pass up a 
broad road in the centre, leaving to 
the left a sheet of water, and then pass- 
ing through Casuarina trees, up which 
are trained specimens of Climbing 
Palms, will enter the Palmetum, or 
Palm plantation. A canal divides this 
from the rest of the gardens, crossed 
by 3 bridges. Having crossed one of 
these, the visitor will find the Flower 
Garcfen on the right, where are many 
conservatories and two Orchid Houses, 
near which is a Conservator}' 2()0 ft. 
long, and a monument to General Kyd, 
from which a broad walk runs down 
to the River Entrance. Leaving this 
to the left, the visitor will pass along a 
road which leads to the Great Banyan 
Tree {Fimm indica)^ which covers 
ground 800 ft. in circumference ; the 
girth of the trunk is 51 ft, and it has 
170 off-shoots. Bevond this towards 
the river used to Ikj a fine avenue of 
Mahogany trees, planted at the end of 
the last century by Dr. Roxburgh. 
This was almost destroyed by the cy- 
clone of 1864. There is another avenue, 
on the left of which, going from the 
great tree, is a monument to Rox- 
burgh, with a Latin epitaph by Heber. 
Therp are also tablets in the Garden, 



near the old Conservatory, to Jack and 
to Griffith. 

Sir J. Hooker, in his interesting 
work "Himdlayan Journals," Vol. I., 
pp. 3 and 4, speaks of his visit to these 
Gardens in 1848, and says that " they 
had contributed more useful and orna- 
mental tropical plants to the public 
and private gardens of the world than 
any other establishment before or 
since." He says also, "that the great 
Indian Herbarium, chiefly formed by 
the Staff of the Botanic Gardens, under . 
the direction of Dr. Wallich, and distri- 
buted in 1829 to the principal Mu- 
seums of Europe, was the most valu- 
able contribution of the kind dver 
made to science," and adds, " that the 
establishment of the tea trade in the 
Himalaya and A'sdm was almost en- 
tirely the work of the Superintendent 
of the Gardens at Calcutta and Sahd- 
ranpiir," as will be mentioned in the 
Route to Darjlling. The Superin- 
tendent has a house on a promontory 
of the river bank at the W. end of the 
Gardens. Not far from this house is 
the Herbarium, or collection of dried 
plants, probably the only one in Asia 
of the first class. There are from 30,000 
to 40,000 species represented in it. 
Attached to the Herbarium is a very 
fine Botanic Library. 

BisJi^ys Q)Ueg(:. — X. of the Gardens 
is Bishop's College, a very handsome 
building, which looks well from the 
river. It was first used as a Sanskrit 
College, but the whole Staff has been 
removed, and it is now to be used as 
an Engineering College. 

liarrac1q)TLU\ — The visitor may go 
to Barrackptir, which the Indians call 
Chamock, from Job Chamock, who 
resided there for a period, as has 
been handed down by tradition 
to all the inhabitants c»f Calcutta. 
The journey may be made either by 
river or by rail or carriage. Which- 
ever route may be adopted, it is sure 
to }>e a i)leasant journey. The best 
course i)erhaps would be to go with 
the tide to Barrackpi\r, and return by 
rail. 

The stations on the rall^^c^ ^t 
the Eastern "Ben^«X Co. wc^ \>& V^- 
lows : — 



-Sect. II. 



1 


li 

p 


..„,... 


1 

1 

i 
1 


i' 

i 
i: 

s 


1 
1 

1 

i 

J 


i 

C 
1 

i 


t 
1 

1. 


I 
S. 

1 

i 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
s" 


1 1 
s s" 


Si 

Hi 


51 

Si 


OilcsuHa . . . 

Sudpilr . ' . '. 
Kfaanlslii . 


7.0 ' 


t'.so 




I'.So 
U6 


3,32 


sla 


tiio 


f 1 





SHndayt there arc Flee Traillt. 












■= 


■= 


1 


^ 


■= 






, ri 




7i 


6 


■rS=f 




""'"•""- 


1*1 


n 


p 


S 


ill 






\i 


i 


s 


s 






















































































TittoBarhiii , 




8.10 


1L60 


— 




-— 


Bnmrkr^V . 




, S.IU 


!:■,« 


1.W 


a.n) 


10.10 1 



Shmild the traveller desire to go by the beautiful jinrk, willi noble trcca 
river, he may leave the Kidder^ilr nnii a Htnali pier ah latiilii^-place, at 
Ufwliyaiyl about 7.15 A.M., in whieh which thu Viceroy's yacht very oflcu 
caae he will nMchHaurahBriiige, sup- ; lies. The Viceroy ixissoisies au iu- 
posinjl him to go in a steam Uunch, , valid's carriage, ivhidi eiin be drawn 



The fleets of ships, the countless fae- 
toiiea, pretty templee. numerous 
flights of stone steps down to the 
river, at which thousands of people, 
cspeeiilly during the full moon, will 
be seen bathing, make up an inter- 
esting scene. Just before reaching 
Banackpiir, there are some handsome 
temples on the left bank, then comes 

-■ Goods Tr^ni only stop it Cbltpdr. 



by 2 men. At 300 yds. to the 8. of 
the boasc, under a fine Imli or tamn- 
rind ti'ee, is a polygonal cQClusui'e, 
surrounded by a bmnzc, railing im- 
bedded in white stoJic. Within the 
railing is the tomb of Ijady Can- 
ning. It is a white marble larcopha- 
guE with a tall slab, surmounted by 
a St Andrew's cross. The white 
marble platform ou which the sar* 



Sect II. Bam 

• cophagna rests measures IS ft. x 
13 ft. On the slab have been in- 
scribed the wonia which have been 
Tecoided ns on her lomb in the Cn- 
thedral at Calcutta ; the vest of the 
inscription there is engraveil on the 
top o( the 8arcophag:uG. The walk to 
this tomb is shaded by fine trees. At 
the end, near the tomb, is a board 
with "Private " on it. The traveller 
wi]l next walk to the Halt, built bj 
the Eail of Uinto In 1813. It is 100 
yds. to the N, of the house. To reach 
it on coaling from the river, tern to 
the left down a brick walk, which 
ilips and then ascends to the bnihling'. 
The Hall is within a colonnade of 
'Corinthian pillars, fi in front and 9 at 

. each side. Ascend bj 12 steps to the 
'platform on which the Hall is. It 
measures 38 ft. from E. to W. and 
Ifi ft, 10 in, from N. to S. Over the 
ontaide entrance is a black slab, in- 
seribed— 



li Regt. fAuftiwc, 

K.I, 
En lien Wolfe, H.U.'a SBUi R^gt., 
W. MUHHALL, 24tli Bengal ^.I., 22nd ot 

Btpteniber, ISU. 
Captain Hhaw, 13th Bengal N.I,. SStli of Sep> 

Ltent. WcLeod, H.M.'s 14th Hegt., ffllth uf ' 

On the 1st tablet on the right is in- 
scribed — 

OBIcsre whoTell at the cflucmest ot tlie 

IsleofPianue. 

Lieut. MuNRO. acth Begt., 8tli of Juli-, 1S10 

Mjjot 0-KEPaiE, H.M.'b laili W^. 

ttetween SOtOi or Noveiiiher an<l 2ai 
December, ISID. 

On theSnd tablet to the right is the 
following inscription : — 

EDW.IBD, LORD ELLENBOBOUQH 
Dinetclthittlili. 
Tablet BhouW be in 



Ih UiB Namea 



There are 4 tablets in the walla of 
the Hall. Tlie \st on the left is in- 

Was e»L-tffll'l.j- 

GILBERT. 

Eort of Minlo, 

Onremor-Geiieral i>t: Urttloh India, 

Tribal* ot personal ftieling and teapeet 

Uejnory uT tJie Bravu 

InUieac|j<^fthignili^tm 
Ami who gliirluHiiiy tell in the 

Puring UiD oonune^t or tlie Idlandx of 

intolje^mtt.lslif 

The 2nd tablet on the left is in- 

Bcrihed as follows ;— 

l.Ieut MiTjiU), H.M.'a rsili liegt., 10th 

I-leuLlcoionel ■ OLAaoow, H.JI.'a 

WtUReBt. 
Lieut. SHEPHAnn.MadnmPloneen. 
En^gn UcLbod, Uadras Ploueen. 



JiaiAipAr and Pan 
undB ^e^^elved in tli 



Funght on 
M»1or-Qene; 



CajitAlii Stewaht, llnl DulTa. 
Captain Cjuham, 50Ui Regt. 
Ca]>tBin Hi-Grath, 30tli Hegt. 



. who Ml 
DBS battles 



. JeimalArt. TAu 

I.tont-Culonel McLeod, H.M.'a 

«4thRegL 
XalwCuirBEU., R.M.'b rstli Regt 
apt. KramnT, H.M.'a Uth Reirt. 
Vaut. Olfkebih, II.M.'b FiUih, Ulth 

Bcgta. 
C^ Boas, H.U.'s «Mli ReRt. 
Umt, HuTCHZisH, B.U.'a2iBi}aeg. 



It, 1811. 



The House which is the Viceroy's 
country residence was commenoeil by 
I^ttl Minto, aiid eiilai^eil to its 
prexcnt size by the Marquis of Hast- 
iiiRS. (See " Stat. Account of Bengal." 
vol. i. p. 82.) In the diiiini!:-room arc 
liortraits, beginning from the left, of 
Shckh Ijosain, 'Abdii '1 Eh^i^, 
Fatij IJaidar, Qhuldm 'AH Kh4n, ' 
■All Rtzd Khin, Shekh" 'll'ih, Plr 
Gliulim Muhammad, ]8t13, son of 
Tipii SulSiin, Prince Firilz Khih, 
son of Plr Ghulam Muhammad, 1825. 
In the corresponding room, to the S. 
of the drawing-room, are Ki&\««. ■%*i,t« 
Udiawav, Rijik ^aw, "Baitanx '\ 'I.'s.- 
mta, "Yadu i^tV^i "EVtia. '*-<i\, ooi 



110 Route 1. — Calcutta to False Point by Steamer, Sect. II. 



Maiida Rdjd. To the N. of the park 
is Barrackpiir Cantonment, with a 
population, according to the last 
census, of 9,591. Troops were first 
stationed there in 1772, after which 
it was called Barrackpiir. Four regts. 
N. I. used to be cantoned in the 
lines. In 1824, during the Barmese 
War, the 47th B. N. 1., which was 
ordered on service, mutinied here on 
the 30th of October, on which the 
Commander-iu-Chief, Sir Edward 
Paget, proceeded to the cantonment 
with 2 European regts., a battery of 
European artillery, and a troop of the 
Governor-General's Body Guaixi. The 
mutinous regiment was drawn up in 
face of these troops, and was ordered 
to march, or ground arms. The Si- 
pdhls refused to obey, when the guns 
opened upon tliem, and throwing away 
their ai-ms and accoutrements they 
made for the river. Some were shot 
down, some drowned, many hanged, 
and the regt. was struck out of the 
"Army List." 

In 1857, on the night of February 
27th, the 19th N. I. mutinied at Bar- 
hampiir, and were ordered to Barrack- 
piir to be disbanded. There were then 
at that cantonment the 2nd Grena- 
diers, the 34th, 43rd, and 70th N. I. 
General Hersey, who commanded the 
division, endeavoured to restore con- 
fidence to them, but on the 29th of 
March, a private of the 34th, named 
Mangal P4nd6, fired at a sergeant- 
major, and then at Lieut. Baugh, 
and wounded his horse. A hand-to- 
hand conflict then took place, in which 
the Lieut, was wounded, and some of the 
Sipdhis struck him as he lay on the 
ground. General Hersey then came 
up with several officers, and Mangal 
Pdndd wounded himself with his mus- 
ket, but not mortally. He was taken 
to the hospital, recovered, and was 
hanged on the 8th of April, as was 
the native non-commissioned officer 
who commanded the quarter-guard, 
on the 22nd of April. The 19th Eegt. 
came in on the 31st of March, and 
was disbanded, but not with any 
marks of disgrace. The 84th, how- 
ever, which had stood by while the 
sei:geant-major and Lieut, Baugh were 



I shot at, without attempting to assist 
I them, were di^raced as well as dis- 
banded. 



ROUTE 1. 

CALCUTTA TO FALSE POINT BY 
STEAMER. 

The antiquities of Orissa are among 
the most interesting objects in India, 
and now that the steamers of the 
British India Steam Navigation Com- 
pany run weekly to False Point, 
Orissa is easily visited. In connec- 
tion with this line the Katak agents, 
Messrs. John Bullock & Co., main- 
tain communication with Katak by 
means of inland steamers, which, with 
cargo boats in tow, meet each of the 
Co.'s steamers on the line between 
Calcutta and Bombay, at False Point, 
and run up the river MahAnadi, a 
distance 6f about 40 m. to Marsaghai, 
at the mouth of the canal leading to 
Katak. These steamers afford com- 
fortable accommodation for 4 or 5 
passengers, and fi-om Marsaghai to 
Katak, 44 m., is performed by steam 
launch. The single fare fi'om False 
Point to Katak is 2r> rs., without food, 
which must be paid for at an extra 
charge of 4 rs. a day, and special ac- 
commodation can generally be secured 
at an extra charge by communicating 
a few days in advance with the agents. 
The passenger had better take his 
wine and beer with him, not for- 
getting his rifle, for which he will 



Sect II. 



Eoute 1. — False Point 



111 



find abundant use in firing at the 
enoimons alligators which are to be 
•een at the mouth of the canal and 
other places. . The office of the British 
a N. Co. is at 16, Strand Road North, 
and as the steamers often start at 
daylight, it will be well to go on 
board the night before. The distances 
are as foUows : — 





Distances in Miles 


Places. 


from Fort William 




by river. 




Miles. Furlongs. 


Kidderpi^r 


1 


Garden House . . 


2 7 


Raigaiy^ . 

Falti House . . 


5 6 
28 6 


Lower Faltd . 


35 


Diamond Harboiu* . 


47 6 


Khichri . . . 
False Point Light- 


67 




house . 


216 



The steamer will probably anchor for 
the first day at Khichri (vul. Kedgeree), 
andwill reach False Point the next even- 
ing. From November till the middle of 
March the sea is generally calm, with 
light winds, and it is during this 
period that the voyage should be 
made ; after that the surf becomes 
very heavy along the coast, and some- 
times excessively dangerous. It is sad 
to say that, notwithstanding all that 
Government can do, False Point Har- 
bour is gradually silting up, so that 
the Co.'s steamei-s are obliged to lie 
out at some distance from its mouth, 
say a couple of m. For small vessels 
the harbour is safe and convenient, 
being formed by two spits— Long 
Island and Dowdeswell Island — of 
land, which run out to the S. for from 
10 to 15 m. On the S. spit, the end 
of which is called Point Ready, are 
the house of the Harbour Master, the 
T. B., and the Landing-place. 

liihe Point — The account given of 
this Harbour in the " Stat Ace. of 
Bengal,'* vol. xviii. p. 32, is, it is to 
be feared, somewhat couleur de rose. 
To say that it is the best harbour 
between Hugll and Bombay is, per- 
haps, not saying much, as there is 
sdffcely a place in that immense 
distance which can be called a 



harbour. It has, however, been very 
much improved of late years, and 
could the sand be prevented from 
silting it up, and could the mouth be 
dredged out, it might become what it 
is now represented to be. It derives 
its name from the circumstance that 
ships proceeding N. frequently mis- 
took it for Point Palmyras, a degree 
further N. A lighthouse has been 
erected close to where the'N. spit 
begins to run out, and about 4 m. as 
the crow flies from Point Ready. This 
lighthouse is built of reddish granite, 
with a large white star in the centre, , 
and is 129 ft. high from base to vane. 
It was lighted in 1838, and is a white 
flashing light, visible about 12 m. 

In the dense jungle round the light- 
house are many tigers, and one gentle- 
man has there killed 10 or 12. The 
alligators also are of prodigious size, 
sometimes 30 ft. in length, and very 
ferocious. They are also occasionally 
seen on Dowdeswell Island, where one 
15 ft. long, but of huge girth, was 
killed a year or two ago with 40 lbs. 
weight of women's bangles in its 
stomach ; 2 of these bangles weigh 
1 lb. Tigers, also, sometimes come on 
the S. spit, but this is a rare occur- 
rence. There are excellent fish in the 
harbour, but few or no fishermen. 
During the calm season it would be bet- 
ter to go on to Purl than land at False 
Point, although the surf is unpleasantly 
high even in the calmest weather, for 
if the traveller proceeds to Katak 
from False Point Harbour, he will 
have to go over the same ground twice 
or risk the chance of a long delay, as 
steamers do not always touch at Puri. 
In any case, it will be well to land at 
the S. landing-place, and go to the 
T. B. There is usually a swell at a 
projecting bit of land, a ^ m. S. of the 
landing-place, but as the landing can 
be done in a steam launch, there will 
be little or no inconvenience. The 
launch draws only 3 ft., but so shallow 
is the water, that it cannot reach the 
shore. The visitor will get into a 
boat, and then be carried some 30 yds. 
on men's shoulders to t\i"& Q,wsX.csvcl 
House, wVvicVl \^ Q\Ck^^ \Ci \\\c, "^-.^.^ 

I which laltex \iaa ^ Tooxas ^T^vi^ ^ ^V^^ 



112 Route 2. — OalciUta to Purl (Fooree) and Black Pagoda. Sect, If. 



verandah. Good oysters are obtain- 
able in the harbour, but should be 
eaten quite fresh, or else they are un- 
wholesome. It is not possible to pro- 
ceed to Jaganndth by land from 
Dowdeswell Island, as the Devi river 
intervenes and is unfordable, and 
there is no boat. 



EOUTE 2. 

CALCUTTA TO PURI (POORKE) AND 
THE BLACK PAGODA. 

The distance from False Point Har- 
bour to Purl is 60 m., and from Cal- 
cutta to Purl it is 276. There is no 
shelter whatever for a vessel at Purl. 
There are, however, plenty of masulah 
boats, which come off to ships unless 
the surf be very bad indeed. All 
natives of India are noisy, but the 
hubbub raised by the boatmen at this 
place baffles all description. Even in 
the calmest weather the surf extends 
about 80 yds., and the boat is thrown 
up at such an angle, that it ai)peai's as 
if the crew must be precipitated into 
the water. The present Collector was 
upset in the surf, but fortunately 
had on a life-belt, and was rescued by 
another boat. The T. B. is about { m. 
from the landing-place, but close to 
the beach. The Circuit House is near 
it, and is roomy, and English gentle- 
men are sometimes allowed to stop 
there. The church is about 80 yds. 
from the T. B. to the N., and the 
burial-ground 1 m. to the N.E, 



This Cemetery is suirounded by a 
neat and substantial masonry wall, 6 ft 
G in. high, inclosing an area 150ft. 9 in. 
long and 100 ft. broad. There are 26 
tombs, but 6 have no tablet. The 
wooden gate of the inclosure is kept 
locked. The earliest date on a tomb 
here, is 1824. No person of conse- 
quence is inteiTed here except William 
Leycester, Senior Judge of the High 
Court, who was the descendant of an 
ancient family, and after 40 years' 
residence in India died at Puri, in 
May, 1831. 

Puri. — The town of Purl is about 
IJ m. in breadth from E. to W., that 
is, from the sea to the Madhupiir river, 
and 3 J m. long from N. to S., that is, 
from Balikhand to Lokndth Temple. 
In the Census of 1872 the pop. was 
22,695, but during the great festivals 
this number is increased by 100,000 
pilgrims. The town covers an area of 
1,871 acres, including the Xfhetra^ 
or Sacred Precincts. It is a city of 
lodging-houses, and the streets are 
mean and narrow, except the Bapd- 
dand, or i;oad for the Rath of Jagan- 
ndth, when he goes from his temple to 
his country house. This road runs 
through the centre of the town N. and 
S., and is in places J a furlong wide. 
The town is destitute of commercei 
and is entirely maintained by the 
income of the Great Temple, and 
the offerings made to it. The en- 
dowments of the temple amount to 
£27,000 a year, to which is to be 
added the present value of the 
lauds granted by the State, £4,000 — 
total of annual income £31,000; but 
the offerings of pilgrims amount to 
at least £37,000 a year ; no one comes 
empty-handed. The richer pilgrims 
heap gold and silver and jewels at 
the feet of the god, or spread before 
him charters and title-deeds, convey- 
ing lands in distant provinces. Every 
one, from the richest to the poorest, 
gives beyond his ability ; many cripple 
their fortunes for the rest of their lives ; 
and hundreds die on the way home, 
from not having kept enough to sup- 
port them on the journey. Han jit 
Singh bequeathed the Koh i Niir to 
Jaganndth, though fortunately it never 



Sect n. 



BolUc 2. — Puri (Pooree). 



113 



reached its destiDation. There are 
more than 6,000 male adults as priests, 
winders of the temple, and pilgrim 
guides, and including the monastic 
establishments, and the guides, who 
roam through India, there are prob- 
ably not less than 20,000 men, women, 
and children dependent on Jaganndth. 
The immediate attendants on the god 
are divided into 36 orders and 97 
classes. At the head of all is the 
RAjd of Khurdhd, who represents the 
royiAl house of Orissa, and who is the 
hereditary sweeper of the temple. He 
has lately been transported to the 
Andamans, for murder. There are 
distinct sets of servants to put the 
god to bed, to di*ess and bathe him, 
and a numerous band of bad women, 
or 2idek girls, who sing before the idol. 
The temple is situated in the centre 
of the town, about 6^ furlongs, as the 
crow flies, to the W. by S. of the T. B. 
The temple stands upon rising ground, 
which is called Nllgirl, or the Blue 
Hill. Rdjendraldld Mitra thinks it 
doubtful whether this rising ground is 
a sand ridge or the deh'is of the 
ancient Buddhist structure, over which 
the present temple has been built. 
(See "Antiq. of Orissa," vol. ii. p. 
112.) The temple is surrounded by a 
square inclosing stone wall, about 20ft. 
6 in. high — (according to Rdjendraldld 
Mitra, 20 ft. to 24 ft., and he adds the 
walls were built in the reign of Purushot- 
tama Deva, 3 centuries after the erec- 
tion of the temple) — so that nothing 
can be seen of the interior except 
from the E. gate, which is always 
open, and the upper parts of the tower 
can, of course, be seen through an 
opera-glass.* Each side of the en- 
closing wall is 6o2 ft. long and 630 ft. 
broad — (according to Bdjendraldld 
Mitra, 665 ft. x (>44 ft.). Within is a 
2nd enclosing wall, 420 ft. from E. to 
W. and 300 from N. to S. Within 
this, again, is the temple itself — (ac- 
cording to Rajendralald Mitra, 400 ft, x 
278 ft., consisting of a double wall with 
an interval of 11 ft. between)— which is 

" A plan pf the Temple, and an excellent 
account of it and of the town in given in tlie 
" Statistical Ae(!ount of Heiigal " by Mr. W. 
Hunter, vol. xix. p. 90. 



300 ft. long from E. to W., and con- 
sists of (beginning from ' the E.) the 
Hall of Offerings, or Bhog mandir 
— (it is said to have been built by 
the Mardthas, in the last century, 
the architect being Bhdskar Pandit, 
who was 12 years finishing it, at a 
cost of 40 Idkhs of rs. It measures 
58 ft. X 66 ft., and the plinth is 7ft. 6 in. 
high, itself being 15 ft. 6 in. high. It 
was part of the Pagoda of Kondrak, 
and was brought thence by the Mard- 
thas) — ^the Ndth mandir, or dancing- 
hall, which also is of later date— a 
sq. room, measuring 80 ft. outside 
and 69 ft. x 67 ft. inside. It is 
divided by four rows of pillars into 
a nave and 2 aisles on each side. The 
pillars are sq. and plain ; the 2 inner 
rows beiug 4 ft. sq. , and the 2 outer 3 ft. 
6 in. The nave measures 69 ft. x 16 ft. ; 
the 2 inner aisles 10 ft. 6 in., and the 
2 outer 7 ft. 9 in. The walls are plain, 
with only 2 figures of dwdrp&ls, called 
Jaya and Vijaya, and a marble figure 
of Garuda, 2 ft. high. There is also a 
painting in oil of 2 horsemen and a ^ 
milkmaid (" Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii. 
p 119) ; the Jagamohan, or Hall of 
Audience, where the pilgrims see 
the idols. This is 80 ft. sq. and 
120 ft. high. The Bajrddewal, or Sanc- 
tuary, where the idols are, is also 80 ft. 
sq. This part consists of a lofty 
conical tower. 

The idols themselves, that is to 
say, Jaganndth, with his brother 
Balbhadra and his sister Subadhra, 
arc disgusting, frightful logs, with- 
out hands or feet, coarsely carved 
into a wretched likeness of the human 
bust. Bepresentations of them may 
be seen in BdjendraJdld Mitra's work 
on the " Antiquities of Orissa," vol. ii. 
p. 122. The tower is 192 ft. high, 
black with time, and surmounted by 
the Wheel and Flag of Vi§hnu. It 
was built in the reign and by order of 
Auangabhima Deva, of the Gangetic 
Dynasty of Orissa, as mentioned in 
the Temple Becords. The date of its 
erection, therefore, is 1198 A.D.,and it 
cost about half a million sterling. It 
was repaired in the reign ot &t«J^^- 
parudra, A.D. l^QV— \^*i'i^ Vwsscl ^X. 
waBplaateted&TL0L\7\i\\a^«k^^* 'V^c£s^ 

V 



114: Rovie2. — CakuttatoFuH (Pooree) and Black Fag&da. Sect. I^ 



was repeated by Nrisinha Dera in 
1G47, and again by Kjishna Deva, 
1713—1718 A.D., and in 1768 A.D. by 
the Queen of Virakishora Deva. The 
frequent whitewashings completed 
" the ruin of the temple as a work of 
art." 

The only beautiful thing to be 
seen at Purl is an exquisite pillar, 
which was brought from the Black 
Pagoda at Kondrak. It stands out- 
side the Lion, or E. gate of Jagan- 
ndth's temple, on a platform of rough 
stones, measuring 39 ft. from E. to W. 
and 44 J ft. from N. to S., and 14 in. 
high. In the centre of this platform 
is a base of carved chlorite, 8 in. high 
and 32 ft. in periphery. The carvings 
on the sides of this platform represent 
soldiers and men carrying burdens. 
There are then 4 other circles orna- 
mented with carved patterns, but with- 
out figures, of a total height of 3 ft. 
6 in. Then comes the pillar, which, 
reckoning to the top of the seated 
figure which surmounts it, is 30 ft. 
high, and adding the heights of the 
platform and bases, 35 ft. 4 in. The 
figure at the top is that of Aruna, or 
the Dawn, and is 14 in. high. It is a 
human figure and very well carved, 
and not at all like that given in Hunter, 
vol. xix. p. 86. The pillar is 16-sided, 
and if it were washed and re-polished, 
it would be most beautiful, but it is 
now disfigured with dirt and a large 
patch of red paint. The Lion Gate, 
on entering which the pilgrims are 
slightly struck with a wand by an 
official, has its name from 2 large 
lions of the conventional form, with 

, one paw raised, which stand one at 
either side of the entrance. The en- 
trance itself is about 15 ft. high, with 
2 figures of athletes of a blue colour, 
painted on either side. The lintels 
and sides of the doorway have 6 bauds 
painted, one of them red. Then 
comes a band of figures 1 ft. 4 in. 
high, then a Vandyke ornament, then 

■ come 4 figures like supporters, 4 J ft. 
high, with smaller figures in rear in 
niches. From these a massive roof 
goes up to the height of about 48 ft. 
As the door stands open, it is possible 
to see the bands of pilgrims within, 



but not the temples, of which besides 
the Great Pagoda, there are more than 
100, 13 of them being sacred to Shiya. 
There is also a temple to the Sun. 

There is a street about 45 ft broad all 
round the Temple. Turning to the 
left, from the Lion Gate along this 
road, the visitor comes to the S, 
gate, where 5 steps lead up to the 
entrance. These steps are 4 ft. 6 in. 
high, and they and the gate are of 
laterite. The entrance itself is 15 ft. 
high, and above it are five incised 
cuttings. Above these are the Nan 
Grahas, or the 9 Planets personified, re- 
presented by figures with ugly Hindii 
faces, seated in a Buddhistic attitude. 
At either end is a divdrpdl, of the same 
size as the other figures. The rafters 
that support the massive roof are of 
iron. Above is another tableau of 
figures, representing Krishna playing 
on the flute to the Gopis, who are 
here called 8akhis, or Friends. This 
is surmounted by a conventional lion. 
Altogether, the gate is about 45 ft. 
high. With an opera-glass, the Great 
Tower is very well seen from the W. 
gate. It is ornamented with flutings, 
of which every 3 are semi-circular 
projections, without carving, and then 
comes aflat carved band ; for example, 
one such band represents the Narsingh 
AvatAr, and above an elephant, on 
which a lion has sprung, and pulled it 
down on its knees. To the left is 
Krishna slaying Bakasur, in the shape 
of a huge crane. Krijjhna has a hand 
on the upper and lower portion of the 
bill, and is rending the demon asunder. 
On the right is Kyi^hna killing another 
demon, and above he is seated in a tree 
with the clothes of the Gopis, who are 
entreating him to give them back. 
Above is the same god slaying Kans. 
Above he is seated on Garuda, and 
defeating Indra, who is mounted on 
Airdvat. Above the flutings of the 
tower arc 4 large figures of Garuda, 
and lions supporting the bossed finial 
of the roof, on which is Vishnu's 
Wlieel. 

It often happens that while the 
visitor is viewinjij the building, a 
couple of men will pass by, carrying 
a bundle by a pole, which is passed 



See*, n.' SffuiK 2. — futi (Poorae)— 27i« Garden Heme. 



115 



thfongfa it, the bundle being a corpse ' 
loUed up in a cloth, and so carried to 
be burned. On the N. face is the 
coronation of Bdma, and on the 8. 
side his wars with Bdvana. 

The N. gate has a step up and 
down, then a flight of 13 steps, 
and 60 ft. beyond a gateway, with a 
wooden door and an elephant on either 
side. The outer gate has above it a 
tableau of the Nau Grahas and 1 of 
Krishna playiug the flute to the Gopls. 
There are some fine trees in the in- 
closure on this side. Leaving the tem- 
ple and turning to the N.E., there is 
on the left a new monastery being built, 
and on the right, about 50 yds. off, a 
platform 11 ft. high and 40 ft. sq., on 
which is a scalloped aixjh of chlorite, 
with a heavenly alligator on either 
side, where the arch begins to spring. 
The arch is about 18 ft. high above 
the platform, and is called the Phul 
Dol, OT flower swing. Here the idols 
used to be swung, but as one fell and 
was brokcD, the practice has been 
discontinued. The visitor may now 
proceed to the S.W. 1 m., and come 
down to the sea-shore W. of the 
Circuit House. He will thus reach 
the Swarga DwAra or door of Paradise, 
where when all the ceremonies are 
finished, the pilgrims bathe in the 
surf, and wash away their sins. There 
is a stump of a pillar 4 ft. high, on 
the right hand near a small temple. 
On this pillar offerings arc placed, 
which are eaten by the crows. On 
the left is what is called the LAhiir 
Math. The present Abbot Kishii 
DAs. a good-looking man of about HO, 
comes from the frontier of the Panjab. 
Within the inclosure is a well, with 
excellent water, which seems wonder- 
ful, as the sea is not 100 yds. off. 
Opposite will be seen hundreds of men 
and women bathing, the surf rolling 
over them in its fury. Afterwai'ds 
they make little lumps of sand, and 
stidc little pieces of wood into them. 
At this place this year lay the dead 
carcase of a crocodile, >\'ith a blunt 
head, and huge limbs. It measured 
15 ft. and was shot by Mr. Annstrong 
the Collector, in one of the sacred 
taak*^ where the pilgnm^; bathe. It 



had been thrown into the sea, but was 
cast up again by the surf. This circuit 
will probably suffice for one day. 

The next day the traveller wUl proceed 
to the N.E. of the city, passing on 
the left the Chandan tank and temple, 
a furlong to the W. of which is the 
Mitiaiii Tank, and another furlong 
further to the W. the Markhand Tank 
and temple. At this latter tank is a 
very ancient sculptured figure of 
Garuda under a tree, and idols of 
Subhadra, Balbhadra and JagannAth, 
the latter of a blue colour. A short 
way beyond the Chandan tank is the 
Madhupiir river, which further to the 
N.E. is called the Mutia, and at the 
part between the two is a Dak Bangla 
and to the N. of it the Athara NAlah. 
Here is a bridge said to have been 
made by the Mardthas, but probably 
repaired by them. It was built accord- 
ing to Rajendralala Mitra A.D. 1038 — 
1050. It is 278 ft. long by 38 broad, 
and has 19 arches. Over this the 
main road to Katak passes. At vol. i, 
p. 296,1ihe " Stat. *Acc. of Bengal " says, 
'•the massive bridge by which the 
pilgrims enter Purl at this day, 
consists of masses of the red ferru- 
ginous stone known to geologists as 
laterite. It spans 290 ft. of water- 
way, by 18 arches, the central one 18 
ft. high by 14ft. broad, and the piers 8 ft. 
by 6 ft." The number of arches is 
here not coiTCctly given, nor the 
length of the bridge. In January the 
stream becomes a swamp, with long 
grass and reeds, which harbour 
crocodiles. From this the route will 
be to the S.E. to reach the Garden House, 
to which the cai* of Jagannath is 
brought at the Car Festival, which 
takes place in June or July, when 
pilgrims come trooping into Puri by 
thousands a day. The great Car is 
45 ft. high and 35 sq., and is supported 
on 10 wheels of 7 it. diameter. The 
brother and sister of Jagannath have 
separate cars a few ft. smaller. The 
car is dragged by 4,200 professionals, 
who come from the iieighboming 
districts, and during the festival live 
at Puri gratis. 

The 6farde)i IIou8c.~TVi\^\yK^^2iSi|, 
stands at t\ic cuvJioi \\i"tt\5VQsv.^^^^ 



116 Route 2.-- Calcutta to Pari (Pooree) and Block Pa{foda. Sect IL 



avenue called the Barddand, 1 m. 
from the Great Temple. The house 
is a temple within a garden inclosed 
with a wall 15 ft. high. The principal 
gateway looks towards the temple, and 
is a handsome structure, with a fine 
jwintcd roof, adorned with conven- 
tional lions. From the gateway to 
the door of the temple is 80 yds. 
The central portion oi the temple is 
100 ft. long and 53 ft. 9 in. broad. 
These measurements do not coincide 
with those of Kdjeiidraldld Mitra, 
which have been probably taken from 
other points .adopted by liim. He 
says : " the temple is 75 ft. high, with a 
base of 55 x 4(1 outside, and 30 ft. 8 in. 
X 27 iufside. The ceiling from the 
floor is 1 G ft. 7 in. high. The walls are set 
off with only a few temple mouldings, 
but no carvings. On the off side of 
the temple there is a plain raised seat 
4 ft. high and ID ft. long, made of 
chlorite, and this is called the 
Ratnavedi, the throne on which the 
images are placed when brought to 
the temple. The porch is a sq. of 
48 ft., divided into a nave and 2 aisles 
by 4 sq. pillars. The nave is 17 ft. 
broad, and the aisles 8 ft. 7 in. each. 
The walls are 5 ft. thick. The ceiling 
is 10 ft. 8 in. from the floor, and the 
doorway 11 x ft. 8 in. The dancing 
hall is a rectangle of 48 x 44 ft., divided 
into a nave and 2 aisles like the porch. 
It has 3 doors on each side, of which 
the central one measures lift. 3 in., 
into 9 ft. 7 ill., and the side ones 8 ft. 
8 in. x (J ft. 7 in. 

The Bhoga Mandir of this temple 
is peculiar. Instead of being a 
square or nearly so, as is the case 
everywhere else in Orissa, it is 
an oblong room 58 ft. 9 in. x 20 ft. 
inside, with walls Oft. 10 in. thick, 
and 3 doors on either side 8 ft. in. x 
(J ft. 4 in. Beyond the last is a long 
range of low rooms, which are used 
as kitchen and store rooms. Tlie 
legend is that Imlradyimma pitched 
his ctmip lieix) when he aniviHl at 
Pui'l, and set up an imtige of Ntirsingh. 
Hd-c the Sacred Log from the White 
Island stranded, and here the Divine 
Carver made the images of Jaganndth, 
etc., and hcie Indradyonma p^ormcd 



the horse sacrifice a hundred timeB 
over. Inside tiie roof is supported bj 
4 sq. colnnms with a penpheiy A 
lift. The shafts are 15 ft. high to 
the arcliitraves, which are 5 ft more. 
They are of black chlorite or basalt. 
Tliere is also at the right end a |4I]ar 
7 ft. 7 in. high and 6 ft. 4uLnmnd, 
with a figure of Ganida at the top. 
On the walls arc some fine carvings of 
horsemen, etc. The 2 other portions 
of the temple are each 34 ft. long, so 
that the total length is 168 ft. Oat- 
side over the door, fronting you as you 
enter, are iron figures of women 
supporting the roof, and about 2 ft^ 
high. Inhere are also carvings of 
Brahmd with 4 heads, worshipping 
Ndrdyan ; of Kfi^hiia playing to the 
Gopis, etc. The gates to Urn temple 
arc built upon the Hindii arch system, 
with a series of slabs supporting the 
roof, each a little longer than the 
other, and projecting beyond it. This 
is said to be a veiy old temple, but it 
has not much pretension to archi- 
tectural beautv. 

It takes pAlkl bearers J an hour to go 
from the Garden House to thclarge tem- 
ple. TheBarddandistherefore more than 

1 m. long. Hunter says that it is not less 
than a m., but it is certainly more. It is 
180 ft. broad in some places. According 
to Kajendralala Mitra, Jaganndth and 
some of his peculiar ceremonial 
observances are of Buddhist origin, 
and the Car Festival marks the 
anniversary of Buddha's birthday. 
The Garden House is also called the 
GundichA Gai*h. The authority just 
quoted makes the distance about 2 m. 
from the great temple. It is called 
a Gayh or "fort," because a part 
(430 X 320 ft.) of the area is surrounded 
by a masonry wall 20 ft. hjgh and 5 ft. 

2 in. thick. Gundicha means the 
Sacred lA)g which stranded here. Be- 
sides the Car Festival there are the 
following holy days : 1 ,Ghornagi,**wann 
clotliing festival," wlien tlu* images 
aitj dressed in shawls ; 2. Abhisheka, 
sacred as theannivoi'saiy of Jaganniith's 
coronation ; 3, Makara, when the Sun 
enters the sign Capricorn. This corre- 
sponds to the Strenae of the Romans, 
the New Year's gifts of the French ; 



Sect. II. Haute 2, — The Garden House — Black Pagoda. 



117 



4, Dola Yikirk, or HoU^ to celebrate 
the return of spring, the Carnival of 
India. It falls on the full moon of 
Phdlgnna. Next to the Car and 
Bathmg Festivals, this is the most 
important at Pari ; this is the Swinging 
Festival. "Forty years ago,*' says 
Bdjendralild Mitra, there was not a 
good garden in the suburbs of Calcutta 
which had not its swing, and only 
lately English influence has set it 
aside." *>, Rdmavavani, birthday of 
Rdma, when Jagann&th is dressed as 
R4ma ; 6, Damana-bhanjika Y&tra, 
anniversary of the destruction of a 
demon named Damanika ; 7, Chandana 
Ydtri, the Florialia of the Romans 
and the Maypole of modern Europe, 
a feast of flowers ; 8, Rukmini Harana, 
anniversary of Rukmini's eioi)ement. 
She was the daughter of Bhlshm, 
King of Birdr, and was betrothed to 
Shi^updl, but ran off with Kri^hu ; 
9, Sndna YdtrA, or " bathing festival," 
when the images are brought to the 
N.E. corner of the outer inclosure and 
bathed at noon, then dressed and 
decorated with a proboscis. After this 
the images are removed to one of the 
side rooms for a fortnight, and their 
room is called Andur Ghar or " sick 
chamber," and the divinities are said 
to be laid up with fever in consequence 
of their unusual bath ; the real object 
18 to wash off the dust and soot of the 
year, and to re-paint the idols ; 10, is 
the Car Festival ; 11, the Sayana 
Kkidashi, on the 11th of the 1st half 
of Ashidh. This marks the (lav when 
Vi^him falls into his 4 months' slumber. 
The images are put to bed. and said to 
Bleep for 4 months. 12, .Thi!ilana Yatra, 
on the 11th of the 1st half of Shriivana. 

• 

Madananjohana. the proxy of Jagan- 
n^th, is every night for 5 nights placed 
in a swing and entertained with sing- 
ing and dancing ; 13, Janam, birthday 
of Krishna, a priest acts the father, 
and an^h girl the mother ; 14,Par8hva- 

garivartana Kkddnshl, 11th of the 1st 
alf of Shrdvaiia* in honour of Vishnu 
when asleep turning on to his right 
gide ; 15, K&liya Damana on the day 

* So given by RajendraliU Hitra, whence 
It would appear thst there htq two ftsstivals 
im^ij^ mnae day. 



when Krishna killed the black ser- 
pent. Dr. Hunter supposes this to 
be the anniversary of a victory 
over the aboriginal Nagas, by the 
A'ryans. 10, V&mana-janam, anniver- 
sary of the birth of the 6th incarnation 
of Vishnu. Jagann^th is dressed like 
a dwarf, and provided ^vith an 
umbrella and an urn ; 17. KudrPiin&i, 
at the full moon of Ashvina, when 
the discus of Vishnu is carried in 
procession, borrowed from the Budd- 
hist rite of the procession of the 
Wheel of the Law ; 18, Utthdpana 
Ekddashl, the 11th of Kdrfcik, when 
Vishnu wakes from his 4 months' 
sleep. 

Statement of Expenses from Puri to 
Kondrak and baokj 36 m, reckoned 
ait 44. 



rs. Ad. 



9 



Conveyance ) 

16 bearers- ] ' 

2 toivh-lKjarersf 1 2 

Oil 8 



Okulist . . . 

Gratuity at 1 | 

and each j 

Total. . . 



3 ti 
1 S 



U> 8 



Remarks. i 



No supplies can 
be got at Kondrak 
except milk and 
perhaps eggs. 
The traveller will 
do well to carry 
even water with 
him. 



The Black Paffoda. — As this Pago<la 
is considered to be the finest Hindii 
Temple extant, the traveller will on 
noaccountomitto visit it. If hecan pro- 
cure a pony it will be better to ride, but 
otherwise the journey may be made 
in a pdlkl with 8 bearers, 3 %:uli8 
to carry provisions, etc., and 2 torch 
bearers. The start should be made at 
3.30 A.M. It will Ixj necessary to have 
the route carefully explained to the 
bearers, as Uriyas do not understand 
Hindustani, much less English. The 
path at first turns X. for about 2 m., 
and then turns to the right and goes 
direct E. The whole way lies through 
a fine grass}' plain, in which are in- 
numerable herds of black buck, which 
are so tame, that even the noise oi tA^*^ 

\ 9 auaa eacVi. 
\ inaa eac\v. 



118 Route 2,— Calcutta to Puri (Pooree) and Blaeh Pagoda, Seet. IL 



hammdls who chant a monotonotis 
song, each line ending with " Was 
Tffl*," docs not scare them away. 
The traveller will be sure to have 8 or 
10 shots at the deer at moderate 
distances. "VVhcn a shot is fired it is a 
beautiful sight to see the deer bound- 
ing over the country, and leaping 6 or 
8 ft. in the air, one sometimes spring- 
ing completely over another. There 
are also a great number of plovers, 
and sometimes ducks and other birds. 
There is a relav of l^earers at 10 m. 

* 

from Puri, near a thick clump of bushes 
on the left. The trees are few and far 
between, and there is only one hut, 
which is near the nver Kushbhadrd, 
13 J m. from Purl. The river is about 
.100 yds. broad in the rains, and at 
that season could hardly be forded, 
but in the cold season there are 3 
streams, swift, but only 1 ft. deep. 
About 1 m. from the temple there are 
a few clumps of trees on the right, 
one thick enough to give shelter from 
the sun. The whole distance is about 
18 m. 

At first sight the Black Pagoda 
is disappointing. It has on the N. 
side a heap of ruins, 45 ft. high and 
about 70 long, sloping down at a steep 
angle. This was the tower where the 
idol was. Next comes the Hall of 
Audience, which is now the only part 
standing, though much ruined inter- 
nally. It has a sq. base of 90 ft., 
according to the last measurement 
made, lldjendralalii Mitra says it is 
06 ft., with a two-fold projection on 
each side. The larger measure of 90 ft. 
seems more reasonable, as the sloping 
roof is 72 ft. long and (>4 ft. high. 
Mr. Fergusson says : *' the roof, which 
in height is about equal to the width 
of the temple, or GO ft., is likewise 
divided into 4 compartments." It 
must be said tliat the measurement is 
a difficult matter, as the groimd on 
which the building stands is high and 
sloping, and covered with enormous 
stones. The roof consists of 3 tiei*s 
formed of slabs, of which the inner 
ones have fallen. The 2 lowest tiers 
have 6 rows each, the top tier only o 
rows ; then comes a circular cupola in 
the shape of an inverted cup 8 Qr 9 ft. 



high, and then a boss about 6 ft high, 
on the top of which there has been a 
Shikar, 

The whole roof is excessiYely beau- 
tiful, and covered with elaborate carv- 
ings, and Mr. Fergusson says of it 
there is no roof in India where the 
same play of light and shade is ob- 
tained, with an equal amount of rich- 
ness and constructive propriety, nor 
one that sits so gracefully on the base 
that supports it. (" Hist, of Arch.," 
p. 428). The entrance of the temple is 
on the B. side. The interior of the 
hall is filled to the height of 8 ft. with 
huge stones, which have fallen from 
the roof or sides. One of these stones 
is 12 ft. 8 in. long, 3 ft. 2 in. thick and 
4 ft. 6 in. broad. Another is lOft. long, 
4 ft. 6 in. broad and 3 ft. 6 in. thick. 
Most of the stones have holes in them, 
shewing that they have been clamped 
with iron. E. of the E. door lie two 
stone lions, with strongly marked 
manes, and one paw lifted up. They are 
on the backs of elephants, which are 
of smaller bulk than they are. The 
lions are 75 ft. from the entrance, and 
could not merely have fallen down. 
It is true that they stand at the sides 
of flights of steps which sloped, but 
not so steeply that the lions could 
have rolled to their present site. 
There are fallen stones all the way to 
them, and it certainly looks like the 
work of gunpowder. The entrance 
has on either side a slab of blue 
chlorite, 14 ft. high, (ift. 3 in. broad, 
and 1 ft. thick. They axe now scribbled 
over with English names, such as 
E. C. Hughes, 1824, and spoilt, but 
must originally have been very beauti- 
ful. The height of the entrance, 
which has no door, is 16i ft., and the 
1 stones fail to reach the present floor 
j by 2i ft., but they may probably have 
, originally done so, for the floor is now 
I broken up, and may have been 2^ ft, 
! higher. The roof of the entrance is 
! supported by 2 rafters of iron and 4 of 
stone. In front of the entrance, 
amongst the stones, lies a bar or 
rafter of iron 23 ft. long, and 1 1 J in, 
thick and broad. 

• The lions are about 60 ft. to the 
E, of this bar. Tliey ^re 8 ft. high 



Sect. II. 



Boute 2. — The Black Pagoda, 



119 



from the top ot the neck to the slab 
on which they stand, and 9 ft. 
long from the top of the crest to the 
root of the tail. They are semi- 
rampant, and but for that attitude, 
and the elephants under them, would 
be only 4Jft. high from their jaws 
to the root of their tails, which are 
curled over their backs. The sides of 
the entrance are ornamented with 8 
rows of patterns, very finely executed. 
The innermost of all is a flower 
pattern ;* the 2nd represents 2 snakes 
entwined, and is very beautiful ; the 
.Srd consists of male and female 
figures ; the 4th displays trees, up 
which Ganahs or children with wings 
like Cupids, are climbing ; the 6th 
is the same as the 4th ; the 7th is a 
lovely pattern of conventional lotus ; 
the 8th is a series of leaves like bay 
leaves. Outside are sculptured figures, 
about the size of life. There are also 
conventional lions rampant and re- 
gardant en ani^re. The temple was 
dedicated to the Sun, which divinity 
is said to have here cured Sambii,* son 
of Krishna, of a leprosy of 12 yearb' 
standing. As the E. door was guarded 
by lions, so that to the S. was by 
horses trampling down armed men, 
who from their tusk -like teeth, crisped 
hair and Kukri knives, that is knives 
somewhat resembling bill-hooks, used 
in Kurg and Nip^l, and shields, are 
evidently intended for aborigines. 
The N. door had elephants before it. 
These and the horses remain, but cast 
down to a distance from where they 
stood. The VV. door is closed by the 
vast heap of ruins, which lies against 
the Hall of Audience, and is the debris 
of the great tower. The Jagamohan 
which has just been described is built 
of red laterite, and is called " Black^^ 
on account of the deep shadow it 
casts. 

There either never was a Nat 
mandir, or it has fallen, and every 
trace of it has been swept away. At 
125 ft. to the E. of the E. gate, where 
the Bhoga Mandapa, or Hall of Gifts, 
should have stood, is a circular mound 

* lUijendraldld Mitm calls him S^mba, but 
the Hindi name is Sambii. He wgs son of 



of ruins, lying in a slope 86 ft. long, 
and covered all over with a dense, 
thorny jungle. There are, no doubt, 
many serpents here, as the slough of a 
cobra lay near it when Mr. James, 
the Postmaster-General of Bengal, 
measured it, going through the dense 
thorns. (For this see " Ant. of 
Orissa," p. 150.) There is a diffi- 
culty, then, as to Edjendraldld Mitra's 
saying that the Bhoga Mandir was re- 
moved to Purl. If so, it is impossible 
to explain these ruins. 

At 390 ft. to the S. of the Jaga-. 
mohan, is a very large banyan tree, 
under which is a good place for the 
traveller to take his meal. Dr. Hunter 
says it is only 50 yds. off, but this is a 
mistake. Near the great tree is a 
grove of palms, and smaller trees of 
the F\cu» indica genus, and a garden 
with a Mafh, or devotee's residence, 
and also a sq. temple, without any idol 
in it. Milk and eggs can be procured 
at or near this place, where a tent 
might be pitched, though no doubt 
the spot is not safe from the visits of 
wild beasts. Kondrak signifies " Suti' 
corner, ^^ from Kona, comer, and Arha, 
the sun. The name, however, does 
not occur in Sanskrit books, and 
instead of it in the " Kapila SanhitA," 
Padnia KsJietra, " the place of Vish- 
nu's Lotus," or Arhi Ksiwtra, " Sanc- 
tuary of the sun," is used. Kdjendra- 
Idld Mitra says : '^ it contains the ruins 
of, perhaps, the largest and most 
beautiful temple which was ever 
erected by the N. Hindiis." The 
same authority quotes Gladwin's 
" Ain-i-Akbari," vol. ii. \\. .15, where 
Abii '1 Fazl gives a ridiculous and 
exaggerated account of Kondrak, 
making the surrounding wall 150 
cubits high and 19 cubits thick. 
There is no such wall at all now, but 
in the " Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii. p. 149, 
an inclosure is spoken of which must 
have been 750 ft. long and between 
500 ft. and 550 ft. broad. This mea- 
surement, also, is purely conjectural, 
and there is no inclosure at all to be 
made out. Stirling says the present 
edifice, "as is well Vaicir^rcL,'^^:^\scSi^ 
by t\ie IL^^^ la^Ti^ot^ ^«s«av^^^. 



Souls 3.—Pnri {Po&ree) to Khandagiri. ' Sect II. 



120 

Bearches," vol. ly. p. 827.) Mr. Fer- 1 

gosson sajs that he haa no hesitation 
in putting aside this date, for the ' 
simple reason that it seems impossiUo ' 
nfter the erection of &o d^nided » 
specimen of the art as the temple of 
Purl, A,D. 1174, that the style ever 
conld hBTO iovcrt«d to anything so 
beautiful as Kon&rak. He adds that 
it does not appear to lum doubtful 
that Kou^rnk really belongs to the 
latter half of the 9th centmry. When 
thia gentleman visited Eon&rak in 
1837, a portion of the Great Tower 
was still standing, as will be seen in 
hia magnificent drawing at page 26, 
plate ill., in his "Ancient Architectm^ 
of Hindiistdn." He is of opinion that 
the destruction of the temple was 
omng, not to earthqutjtes, or man's 
Tiolence, but to the nature of the soil, 
which was not solid enoi^b to bear 
•0 enormous a structure. He has 
probably assigned the true cause for 
the fall of the building, but as we 
know that the Mardthas carried off 
large portions of it, it is more than 
possible that man assisted Tery sig- 
nally in the destruction. Over the E. 
entrance used to be a chlorite slab, on 
which the einblemB of tbo days ot the 
week, with the ascending and descend- 
ing nodes, are carved. Some Girlish 
antiquaries attempted to remove this 
fine work of art to the Musetun at Cal- 
cutta, but after dragging it 200 yds., 
gave up the attempt, though the In- 
dian builders, after excnvatii^ the 
block in the Hill States, and carving 
it, had carried it 80 ro. across swamps 
and unbridged rivers to KonArak. It 
lies now about 200 yds. to'the K, of 
the Oreat Tree, and is 20 ft. 2 in. long, 
4 ft. deep, and 4 ft, 10 in. broad. It 
is sadly disfigured with oil and red 
paint, with which the Hindils have be- 
daubed it. At the Jagamohan itself, 
the traveller will be careful to notice 
the spirit with which the horses at the 
S, face are carved, and also the device 
on one of the shields, of 2 lizanls 
climbing np, done to the life. The 
aea is not visible from the Jf^amohan, 
and is abont 2 m. ofiL 



S; 



It cannot be too often repeated, that 
the traveller not acqiminted with the 
Uriya language munt take care to 
have his rontc exactly explained to 
the bearers, and the bangla where he 
is to be put down, otherwise, as the 
bearers know no language bnt their 
own, he may chance to be taken to a 
wrong place, or be put down in the 
middle of the road and left, and no 
expostulation will be of any avail, as 
it will not be understood. The journey 
will bemadeinap41k(,with8beMers, 
and the luggage will be sent on in a 
--' The E4th milestone from Katak 
. Purl, and the 41st just before 
reaching the Inspection Houno at Ka< 
tyabidl. The Inspection House, or 
houne where the Superinteiideni. of 
the roads resides, la ofi the road, 100 
yds. to the right, and the traveller 
will stop there. The Post Office is on 
the opposite side of the rond, before 
taming. SMnhMlmeana^thr truth- 
teller," and there is an absurd legend 
about the origin of the name. At the 
villace, whioli is some distance from 
the Inspection House, there is a rather 
fine temple. At the 47th milestone 
the road runs along an embankment, 
ZG ft high, between rice-fields, and in 



Sect. II. 



Boute 3. — JDhauli — Bhuvaneshwar, 



121 



seTeral places it is so narrow that it is 
difficult for a pdlkl to pass a bullock- 
cart, of which great numbers are sure 
to be met. The pilgrims on this road 
axe Tery numerous, and many of them 
carry baskets surmounted by canopies 
of red silk, and having flags of the 
same material. These are offerings to 
Jaganndth. After leaving Satyabddi, 
herds of enormous hogs will be met 
with, feeding on roots in the Irriga- 
tion Canal. Mukundpiir is the town 
of Mukunda, a name of Krishna, from 
a word which signifies "liberation." 
3 m. from Mukundpiir is Pipll, a 
station of Baptist missionaries. Their 
bangld is an extremely nice one, and 
from thence the road all along to 
Sardaiptir is excellent, and well 
shaded in parts. A superintendent 
of roads lives at the Inspection House. 
The bangld at Sardaipiir is a little 
way oflE ^e road to the right. 

hhauH, — The firat visit should be 
paid to Dhaull, where there is an in- 
scription in the Pdli character, and the 
Hagadha language, being an ordinance 
by Ashoka. The traveller will proceed 
from the bangld to the high road and 
after going J m. to the N. turn off to 
the right, and pass through fine groves 
of mango trees, by 2 small villages 
called XJthra, and then through rice- 
fields, and after skirting a small piece 
of water, cross to the E. among 
thorns and rough ground to a long 
low hill, about 2^ m. from the T.B. at 
Sardalptir. At tlie E. end of this hill, 
on the highest point, is a small and 
very ancient temple to Shiva, con- 
spicaons from aU parts of the country 
for 15 m. round. It is built of large 
sq. stones, without mortar. The only 
ornament is geometric patterns, like 
those at Kondrak, in the simplest 
form. The temple inside is 10 ft. sq. 
The roof is pyi'amidal, and 2 sides 
and part of the 3rd are entire. The 
height to the springing of the arch is 
10 ft. 6 in. The total height is about 
30 ft. A banyan tree has grown from 
the roof, and now overshadows the 
whole building. Inside is the emblem 
of Shiva, of poUshed blue stone, 5 ft. 
6 in. in circumference, overturned but 
not broken. From the top of the hill is 



a beautiful view in which the great 
tower of Bhuvaneshwar figures con- 
spicuously. The groves of mango and 
other fruit trees, and many tanks 
adorn the scene. It takes 60 minutes 
in a pAlkl to reach the rock at Dhaull, 
from the Inspection House, but the 
men go very slowly among the thorns. 
At the N.W. end of the hill is Ashoka's 
inscription, 15 ft. long horizontally, 
and 6 ft. high perpendicularly. At 
the top of : the inscription, facing W., 
are the head and shoultlers of an ele- 
phant, 4 ft. high, cut out of the living 
rock. In front of the elephant, and 
where the inscription is, the rock has 
been smoothed. The elephant is an 
object of worship, for it is smeared 
with red paint. It has 2 tusks, about 

10 in. long. The trunk is cracked 
near the top, and on the left side of 
the head is a hole 8 in. deep. From 
the smooth platform before the ele- 
phant to the ground is a sheer depth 
of 10 ft. With regard to the meaning 
of the inscription, it will be sufficient 
to give a translation of the 1st Edict, 
which is as follows (see *' Ind. Ant.," 
vol. v., p. 274) : — " In the name of 
DevdnAmpriya, be it said to the ma- 
gistrates charged with the jurisdiction 
of the city of Tosall. Every cause which 
is submitted to my judicial decision, I 
wish to have investigated ; I convince 
myself of the guilt of the perpetra- 
tors, and I act myself according to a 
steadfast principle. The principle on 
which I place the highest value in 
these is communicated to you in this 
instruction, because ye are placed 
over many thousands of souls among 
the people, and over the whole num- 
ber of the good. Every good man is 
a child to me ; as for a child, I wish 
that they may be blessed with every- 
thing which is useful and pleasant for 
this world and hereafter." There are 

11 Edicts promulgated by Ashoka, and 
2 added by the local prince. 

Bhuvaneshwar, — The traveller should 
start for Bhuvaneshwar, as soon after 6 
A.M. as possible, as though the distance 
is only 4 m. from Sardalpiir it is over 
rather rough country, 'wixXi ^\.TwiW^- 
some stream, ^\aci\v "tias. \,o \>^ oi^ae^j^^ 
twice, and yt^AqXy i^ »)oqm^* ^ ^» ^^^'^'' 



122 



Eoute 3. — J^urt (Fooree) to Kliandagiri, Sect. II. 



with rather high banks. This stream 
is called the Kwattiah. Bhuvaneshwar 
lies to the N.W. of Sardaipiir, and for 
J m. before reaching it, there are ruins 
of walls, among fine mango trees, and 
a few temples, like the Great Temple 
in shape, but on a much smaller scale. 
A halt may be made at the Post-office, 
which is only 20 yds. E. of the E. gate 
of the Temple. Bhuvaneshwar ex- 
tends from the temple of Rdmeshwara 
to that of Bhuvaneshwar on the W., 
from that to the temple of Kapilesh- 
war on the S., from that to the temple 
of Bhdskareshwar on the E. and from 
Bhaskareshwar to Kameshwara on the 
N. The area is 1,253 acres 1 rood and 
22 poles, and according to the census 
of 1872, the pop. is 3,936. One half 
of the community are priests or tem- 
ple servants. These live on what they 
get fi"om the pilgrims. 

The town was once the capital 
of a large and flourishing kingdom, 
but is now an insignificant, unin- 
viting place, but interesting to anti- 
quarians. The traveller, however, 
must expect considerable annoy- 
ance from the hungry priests, who 
rank high in effrontery amongst the 
most persistent beggars in the world. 
The first mention of Bhuvaneshwar, in 
the Records of the temple at Jaganndth, 
dates from the reign of Yayati, who 
is called by Rajendralald Mitra the 1st 
of the Civsars of Orissa, but who was 
the first of the Keshwaris, and reigned 
for 52 years from 474 to 526 A.D. He 
expelled the Yavanas, thought by Stir- 
ling, Hunter, and RdjendraldlA Mitra 
to 1)0 the Buddhists, but they were 
more probably descendants of the 
Greeks, who had come down from the 
N. His successoi*s reigned in Bhu- 
vaneshwar for 24 generations, until 
Npipati Keshwariin 940 — 950 founded 
Katak, and made it his capital. To 
enter the E, gate of the Great Temple, 
3 steps are descended between low 
walls, on which are a few rough carv- 
ings, the principal being on the left 
Gangd, represented as a goddess, with 
the Rishi Bmhma Dcva on her left, 
and Vashi§htha on her right. Brah- 
ma Deva is the ISagc, who is the 
oldest of all beings and who sarviYes 



the Mah& Pralay, or universal deluge 
on which he floats. On the right waJl 
is Yamund. At the end of the low 
wall are first 2 conventional lions, with 
the right paw raised, and measuring 
4 ft. 8 in. from the top of their heads 
to the slab on which they stand. Be- 
hind the lions and next the door are 2 
pillars, formed of circular stones with- 
out mortar. The stones are from 10 in. 
to 1 ft. 2 in. in height, and about 1 ft. 
10 in. in diameter. The gate is plain, 
having for ornament only 5 simple 
geometric lines. The roof is pyra- 
midal and has 8 wide projecting eaves 
one above another, with the sloping 
roof ; the gateway is 33 ft. 7 in. high, 
which does not include the um-like 
top, nor the conventional lion sur- 
mounting it. The wall of the enclosure 
is 7 ft. 5 in. thick. It is built of large 
cut stones, without mortar ; it is 17 ft. 
7 in. high, which includes the inward 
sloping parapet, 5 ft. 6 in. high, and 
is strong enough to defy field artillery. 
None but Hindiis may approach the 
entrance nearer than within 3 ft., and 
all that can be seen inside is a small 
plain temple, a pillar 7 ft. 2 in. in cir- 
cumference, 17 ft. high, with Rishaba, 
or Shiva's bull, at top, but a view of 
the interior of the enclosure may be 
obtained by placing a ladder against 
the N. wall and ascending it, for which 
1 r. will be a sufficient fee. From the 
ladder it may be seen that the enclo- 
sure is full of small temples. The 
area of the court-yard, according to 
Rdjendraldld Mitra, measures 520 x 
465 ft., with a projection on the N. 
side. There are 3 gateways, of which 
that to the S. is the smallest, that to 
the N. larger, and that to the E. the 
largest. At the N.E. corner of the 
wall there is a small pavilion, which 
was perhaps built for a music room, 
but has now an image of Pdrvati. 
Along the inner side of the surround- 
ing wall there is a berme, 4 ft. high 
and 20 ft. broad. The oldest building 
in the courtyard is a plain temple, 
20 ft. high, the inside ai*ea being 6 ft. 
sq., and containing a short sandstone 
pUlar. The room is 5 ft. 6 in. below 
the level of the court-yard, and there 
is a flight of 3 steps to descend to it. 



Sect 11. 



Route 3. — JBhuvaneshwar. 



123 



On the W. side there is a teidple to 
Bhagayati, elaborately sculptured. It 
is of brick-red sandstone, and was 
built about 200 years after the Great 
Tower. 

Entering the enclosure from the 
E., the first thing reached is a paved 
court-yard, 65 ft. from E. to W., 
and 60 ft. from N. to S. Here is a 
flat-roofed temple, with a parapet of 
crest tiles, not unlike Saracenic battle- 
ments. It is sacred to GopAlini or 
Durg4 in the form of a cow-herdess. 
To the W. of it there is a flight of 6 
stone steps, each 48 ft. 7 in. long and 
3 ft. 6 in. broad. From these steps to 
the front building of the Great Tower 
is 22 ft. Right in front of the gate- 
way is a monolithic pillar, 2 ft. in dia- 
meter and 20 ft. high, surmounted by 
a bull coufihant. The temple consists 
of 4 buildings, as usual — the Hall of 
Oflferings, Dancing Hall, Porch, and 
Great Tower. The 2 last are much 
older than the others. The Hall of 
Offerings was built during the reign 
of Kamala Keshari, between 792 and 
811 AD. It was originally an open 
pillared Chaultvy. It stands on a 
platform, 00 ft. sq. ; all round is a 
berme, 3 ft. high and 2 ft. broad. The 
plinth is elaborately sculptured. Above 
it is a broad band, with images of 
pigeons, geese, ducks, etc. The build- 
ing, above the plinth, is 56 ft. sq. W. 
of this and abutting on it is the Danc- 
ing Hall, built by the Queen of Sdlini 
Keshari, who reigned 1091) to 1104 
A.D. It has a berme, 3 ft. high and 
2 ft. broad on the N. and S. sides, 
carved with effigies of temples, each 
with a human figure seated in the 
midst. The door on the W. side is of 
sandal wood, most delicately carved, 
and decorated with brass bosses. The 
cornice is flat, and 3 ft. deep.* The 
roof is sloping, and formed of 4 tiers, 
terminating at top in a sq. platform, 
surrounded by Saracenic battlements. 
The roof is supported by 4 sq. pillars 
and several iron beams. On the W. 
side is a frame of chlorite richly 
carved. There arc 2 inscriptions of no 
interest. Next comes the Mohan or 



•» (C 



Ant. of Onsaaj" vol. li., p. 78. 



" Porch " of the same date as the 
Tower, that is in the reign of , Yayati 
Keshari, 474 to 526 A.D., but not 
completed till the reign of Laldtendu 
Keshari alias AlAvu Keshari, 623 
to 677 A.D. It measures 65 by 45 ft. 
The style of it is ornamented with 
pitchers in high relief, from each of ' 
which rises a highly ornamented pi- 
laster. Between these are alto-rilievo 
figures of men, women and lions. The 
cornice is flat, and projects 4 ft. The 
roof is pyramidal and formed of re- 
ceding ledges, which are elaborately 
carved. The roof is supported by 4 
massive sq. pillars, 30 ft. high. 

Next the Mohan is the Great Tower, 
of the samedimensionsas the Porch. The 
plinth has a series of pitchers and 
pilasters rising from them. In the in- 
tervals are statues of Bhagavati on the 
N., Kartika on the W., and Ganesh on 
the S. The other niches are smaller, 
and contain statues of Indra on the 
E., Agni on the S.E., Yama on the 
S., Nlrriti on the S.W., Varuna on 
the W., Mdrut on the N.W., Kuvera 
on the N., and Isha on the N.E. The 
body of the tower is 55 ft. high, and 
from it rises the spire, between which 
the horizontal mouldings are so dis- 
continued, as to indicate where the 
tower ends and the spire begins. The 
top of the spire is flat, and from the 
centre rises a cylindrical neck, sup- 
porting a ribbed dome, over which is 
placed the Kalasha or " pinnacle." 12 
statues of lions seated support the 
dome. Over it is, according to Rdj- 
endralal4 Mitra, a trident, of which 
the side prong has been knocked off 
by lightning. At present it looks, 
most ccrtainlv, more like a bow than 
a trident. The presiding deity is 
Tribhuvaneshwara," Lord of the Three 
Worlds," generally called Bhnvanesh- 
wara. He is represented in the sanc- 
tuary by a block of granite, 8 ft. in dia- 
meter, and rising 8 in. above the floor. 
It isbathed with water, milk, andbhang. 
There are 22 Dhiipas, or ceremonies 
daily, consisting in washing the teeth of 
the divinity, moving a lamp in front, 
dressing, breakfast, cto.. Ttisst^ ^x'e. 
also U Xto^ crc l^^WN^^.-a. txi^'w^ 
i cowt oi \J^Oci ^WT;SL\ie; IcsojoS^ \s^ ^»fe 



124 



Baute 3. — Puri (Poof^ee) to Klmndagiri, Sect. 11. 



" Ant. of Orissa, " vol. ii., page 77. The 
Great Tower is fluted on the outside 
with horizontal flutes, which are also 
grooved cross-ways, and thus difEer 
from those of the tower of Jaganndth. 
On the E. face of the tower, under the 
figure of a large conventional lion, is 
a symbol called Surjl N^dyan, con- 
sisting of a line in the shape of a horse- 
shoe, having a similar line within, in 
which is the figure of an aged man 
seated. This represents the 33 mil- 
lions of gods. The figure which RAj- 
endraldlA Mitra calls a trident resem- 
bles, as has been said, a bow, and the 
people on the spot call it Pinak 
Dhenu or Shiva's Bow. It is sur- 
mounted by a bambii, with a white 
flag in which is a red crescent. For 
a small gratuity, 1 or 2 rs., a man will 
ascend the tower outside to the top of 
the bow and measure it. From the 
top of the bow to the bottom of the 
urn is 34 ft., and thence to the ground 
127 ft., the total height being 161 ft. 
Outside the enclosure are many small 
subteiTaneous temples, and at theN.E. 
comer is a platform, in which is a 
well of good water, and beyond it to 
the E. a very handsome tank, the 
water of which is foetid. The tank is 
surrounded on all sides by flights of 
13 steps, which descend to the water, 
and above them is a row of small tem- 
pi es, 108 in number and ft. high, 
which extend all round. In the centre 
of the tank is a pavilion. The ground 
to the S. of the Great Tower, to the 
extent of 20 acres, is said to be the 
site of Laldtendu Keshari's palace. 
It is now overgrown with jungle, but 
there are everywhere the remains of 
foundations and i)avement8. There 
are many mango trees and Bakula 
trees {JUimifsojJit ehngi), X. of the 
temple, about 100 yds., is the veiy tine 
tank called Vindusdgar," ocean drop." 
It is faced with stone all round, and 
has numerous fiights of steps descend- 
ing to the water. In the centre is a 
Jal Mandir or " Water Pavilion," con- 
sisting of several shrines, on which 
perch numerous cranes, who in mo- 
tionless repose appear to be a cornice. 
In front of the central Ghdt of this 
tank there is a magnificent Temple, 



with a Porch, a Dancing Hall, and a 
Bhog Mandir. The court-yard mea- 
sures 131 ft, X 117 ft., and has a pro- 
jection |in &ont 96 ft. x 25 ft., with a 
gateway opening towards the W. The 
wall enclosing the court-yard is of 
laterite, 9 ft. high and 4 ft. thick. The 
total height of the Temple is 60 ft. to 
the spire. The ba&e is a sq. of 23 ft., 
and the interior is a sq. of 10 ft. 9 in., 
on a plinth 5 ft. high. The Porch is 
a sq. of 33 ft., outside and 19 ft. inside. 
The Dancing Hall is 29 ft. x 24 ft. 
outside, and 17 ft. 4 in. x 16 ft. 9 in. 
inside. The Bhog Mandir is 22 ft. x 
19 ft. outside and 19 ft* * x 12 ft. 6 in. 
inside. - The roofs are pyramidal, and 
supported on thick iron beams. The 
Temple and Porch are the oldest, and 
the Dancing Hall and Bhog Mandir 
the most modern. The last is quite 
plain ; the other 3 buildings are lined 
with brick-red sandstone, elaborately 
sculptured. The Temple is sacred to 
Vdsudev or Kpi^hna, and Ananta or 
Balardm, and no pilgrim is allowed to 
perfonn any religious ceremony in the 
town without obtaining their sanction. 
He prays them to ganction his bathing 
in the Vindusdgar and offering obla- 
tions. He then visits the images in 
the temple, and prays for leave to 
visit Bhuvancshwar. He next goes to 
the goddess Pdpahar^, "remover of 
sins," and after adoring her he may 
visit Bhuvancshwar. There are 2 in- 
scriptions on the W. wall of the court- 
yai-d which fixes the date at the close 
of the 11th century. 

Passing along the E. side of the 
tank, the water of which is refresh- 
ingly clear and clean, the traveller will 
see several temples of the same shape as 
the Great Tower. About \ m. to the 
E.N.E. of the Ananta and Vdnudev Tem- 
ple is one to Kotitirthesh vara, " the lord 
of 10 millions of sacred pools." It is 
about 40 ft. high, with a correspond- 
ing porch. It is built of bluish-grey 
coarse basalt, and is dilapidated. 
It is evidently built of stones from 
some other edifice, as the faces of 
the stones, which ai-e concealed, 
being joined to other stones in 
the walls, have elaborate carvings, 
now brought to light by the fall of 



Sect. n« « MoiUe 3. — Bhuvaneshwar — Muhteshvara, 



125 



oUier stones. It is a place where the 
" * bathe, and the water is filthy. 
m. to the £. of this is the Temple of 
leshwara, on a high mound, 
fonned into a terrace. It is most 
sumptaonsly carved, as well inside as 
oat. RdjendralaU Mitra says that it 
was erected by KolAvatl, mother of 
Udyotaka Eesharl, in the 3rd quarter 
of the 9th century A.D. In Vol. VII. , As. 
Sec p. 658, is the translation of an in- 
scription, which mentions Koldvati as 
the founder. W. of the temple, close 
to its terrace, is a tank called Brahma 
Kui^^A. N.E. is an old temple to 
BhAskareshwara, " Sun-god." It is 
1600 fathoms to the N.E. of the Great 
Tower. It is of basalt. Tlie basement 
is 48 ft. 4 in. by 47 ft. 8 in., the height 
being 11 ft. The temple stands on 
this, and is broken, so that it is only 
40 ft. high. It is said to belong to the 
close of the 6th or the beginning of 
the 6th century. ^ m. to the W. of 
Bh&skareshwara is the once magnifi- 
cent Temple of RAjdrAni. Mr. Fergus- 
son says of it (♦• Hist, of Arch." p. 424) 
that " the plan is arranged so as to 
give great variety and play of light 
and shade, and as the details are of 
the most exquisite beauty, it is one of 
the gems of Orissan art." It faces the 
E., and has a porch in front, both of 
dressed brick-red sandstone, llie 
chamber is 14 ft. long and 1 2 ft. wide ; 
the walls are 10 ft. thick. The height 
of the temple is G3 ft., and that of the 
porch, 30 ft. The niches arc filled with 
statues 3 ft. high, executed with great 
vigour and elegance ; one of them 
closely resembles the statue of Venus 
de Medici. RdjendralAla Mitra savs 
("Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii. p. 90): 
" for elegance, beauty, and finish, the 
temple aSfords one of the finest 8j)eci- 
mens of Orissan art. It is worthy of 
the highest consideration." He adds 
that General Stewart and Colonel 
Mackenzie carried away the largest 
num1)cr of statues, and in cletacln'ng 
them disnitintlcd lai'gc portions of tlic 
niclics, and sadly defaced the build- 
ing. About 300 yds. to the W. is a 
grove of mango trees, called Hiddhd- 
ra^a, " Grove of the p<».rfect beings." 
Here many temples werc bnilt, of 



which more than 20 remain entue. Of 
these, the most remarkable are Muk- 
teshvara, Kedareshvara, Siddheshvara, 
and Parashurdmeshvara. 

Muhteshvara is the handsomest, 
though the smallest. It is 36 ft. high, 
and the porch 25 ft. high. The orna- 
mentation is of the most sumptuous 
description, sculptured and finished 
with the greatest care and taste. The 
floral bands are neater and better exe- 
cuted than in most of the temples ; 
the bas-reliefs sharp and impressive ; 
the statuettes vigorous and full of 
action, with drapery well-disposed, 
and the disposition of the whole ele- 
gant and most efltective." Among the 
subjects are: a lady mounted on a rear- 
ing elephant . and striking with her 
sword a giant armed with sword and 
shield ; a figure of Annapiirnd pre- 
senting alms to Shiva ; females, half- 
serpents, canopied under 5 or7-headed 
cobras ; lions mounted on elephants, 
or fighting with lions ; damsels danc- 
ing or playing on the Mridang ; an 
emaciated hermit giving lessons ; a 
lady standing by a door with a pet 
parrot ; another standing on a tortoise. 
The scroll-work, bosses and friezes are 
worthy of note. The chamber of the 
temple is 7 ft. sq., but outside mea- 
sures 18 ft. The porch is 26 ft. outside, 
and 15 ft. 7 in. b}' 12 ft. inside. 
In front of the porch is an archway 
or Toran 15 ft. high. It is sup- 
ported on 2 columns of elaborate 
workmanship, unlike anything of the 
kind at Bhuvaneshwar. Over the 
arch are 2 reclining female figures. 
It is said that the arch is used for 
swinging, in the DoJ Festival. Close 
behind the temple is a tank 100 ft. by 
25 ft., lined with stone revetments on 
3 sides, and having a flight of steps on 
the 4th, shaded by a Ndgakeshwara tree 
{Mestiafcm'ca) of remarkable size and 
beauty; 30 ft. to the S. is the Gaurl 
Kunda. which is 70 ft. by 28, with a 
depth of IGft. The water is beauti- 
fully cleai'. tepid, and fidl of fish, and 
the best drinking water in the locality. 
Water flows into it from the first- 
named tank, but a much greater c\uaa- 
tity flows owl, v.xxf^ci^Tv^, \.o vrrvjgBX.^ ""iis^ 
acres ol vvnOL VaA.viYVV'fe ^V!^. \V>'«» >afi^W» 



126 



Eoute 3,— PwrC (Pdoree) to JHiandc^iH. S^ct. !!• 



have been excavated by the goddess 
Gaurl, and that it bestows beauty, 
good fortune, and freedom from all sin. 

Keddreshvara. — Close by this Kun- 
da is the Keddreshvara Temple, and 
near it against the outer wall of a 
small room is a figure of Hanumdn, 8 ft. 
high, and one of Durgd, standing on a 
lion. Her statue is of chlorite, and has 
the finest female head to be seen in 
Bhuvaneshwar. The Keddreshvara 
temple is 41 ft. high, and has an almost 
circular ground plan. The Mohan is 
square and plain. This temple is proba- 
bly older than the Great Tower, and 
possibly dates from the middle of the 
Gth century. It is very sacred. N.W. 
of Mukteshvara is Sideshvara, which 
is very ancient, and was once the most 
sacred spot on this side of Bhuvanesh- 
war. It is 47 ft. high, and has a well- 
proportioned porch. 

Parashurdnieifhvara, — At 200 yds. 
to the W. of the Gaurl tank is Parashu- 
rdmeshvai*a Temple, more than 60 ft. 
high, and most elaborately carved all 
over. The ground plan is a sq., the 
porch is obloDg and covered with bas- 
reliefs representing processions of 
horses and elephants in the upper 
linear bands under the cornice, and 
scenes from the life of Rdma in the 
lower. The roof is a sloping terrace, 
in the middle of which is a clear story 
with a sloping roof, crowned with a 
flat one in the middle. The clear 
story has 6 windows in front and 12 
on either side. This mode of lighting 
occurs nowhere else except in the 
Mohan of the Vaital Temple. It is 
borrowed from the halls of the Budd- 
liists. This temple is probably of the 
9th century. 

AldhikciiJivnra. — This temple stands 
800 ft. to the N.E. of the last, and is of 
red sandstone. Aldbu is a nickname 
of Lalatendu Keshari, who built the 
Great Tower. Alabu is also the alms- 
bowl of Shiva. 

Vaital Deival. — This is on the road- 
side to the W. of the Vindusagar tank. 
Its spire is 4-sided, and ends in a long 
ridge, set off with 3 Kalashas. It is de- 
corated with a profusion of carvings, 
and is probably of the 9th century. 

jSo/m'shra7'a» — This temple stands 800 



ft. to the 8. of the last named. It is 33 
ft. high and 27 ft. sq., and richly carved 
all over. The Mohan is 33 ft. by 27 ft. 
There are many other temples, and a 
list of 81 will be found in the " Ant. of 
Orissa," vol. ii. pp. 97, 98, where it is 
estimated that there are about 300 
altogether. It would require at least a 
fortnight to examine them all, and 
none but a zealous antiquarian would 
undertake the task. 

On leaving Bhuvaneshwar, the tra- 
veller is sure to be pm'sued for 1 m. 
by the most clamorous mob of beg- 
ging priests that can be found any- 
where. It vTill be for him to elect 
whether he will sternly refuse to give 
anything, and submit to the stunning 
noise, or will continually cast out 
4-dnd and 2-dnd pieces. The distance 
to the caves of Udayagiri and Khan- 
dagiri is about 4 m. to the N.W., and 
the path lies through low jungle, which 
gradually increases till the hills are 
reached. Of course, in the day the heat 
is great. 

Udayagiri is 110 ft. high, and the 
caves exist in 8 stages. The lowest 
being the Rani Naur* or Queen's Palace, 
which is about 64 ft. to the N.E. of a 
Ma^h, or hut where the guide lives. " It 
consists of 2 rows of cells, one above the 
other, shaded by pillared verandahs, 
with a courtyai-d 49 by 43 ft. cut out 
of the hill-side." ("Stat. Ace. of 
Beng." vol. xix., p. 74). The fa9ade 
of the upper story, which faces E., is 
63^ ft. long, and has 8 doors. There 
are 2 rf/t*a?7;a^, representing men. in 
Grecian armour, with buskins and 
greaves. Bdjcndraldla Mitra says : 
"dressed in tight fitting clothes and 
armed with spears and clubs;" but 
certainly to one who has seen classiciU 
figures, these appear to be Greek. 
They arc cut out of the solid rock in 
alto-rilievo. The verandah is supported 
by 9 pillars, and it gives access to 4 
cells, each 14 ft. long by 7 broad and 
3 ft. 9 in. high. The verandah is 7 ft. 
broad and 7 ft. in. high. Each cell 
has 2 doors, and at either end is a rock 
lion, done with some spirit and resem- 
bling the real animal. The back wall 

* Spelt by Hunter Nur, and Called by 
Fei-gusfiou the im R^i Cav^. x 



Sect. II. 



Route 3. — Udayagiri, 



127 



of the verandah is a eeries of tableaux. 
1st on the left are men carrying fruit, 
a grOup of elephants and soldiers 
anii^ with swords. In the " Ant. of 
Orissa," vol. ii., p. 7, there is a very 
elaborate account of this part of the 
tableau, which requires very keen 
sight and some imagination to realize. 
It is said that there is a large den in a 
rock " sheltering a grown-up elephant 
and 2 elephant calves, the foremost 
crouching and the hindmost standing. 
The animals are tame ones, and the 
foremost calf shows a halter round his 
neck ; but they have exddently strayed 
away from their proper pen, and taken 
shelter in the cave, for there appears 
a large crowd of men and women 
assembled before them, determined to 
dislodge them from their shelter by 
force. The foremost person in the 
group is a stout man, ready, with an 
uplifted bludgeon, to strike the nearest 
caJf. Behind him a woman is also 
bent on attacking the animals, but a 
gentle, modest-looking lady in a veil 
is trying to dissuade her, and drag her 
away by her left hand. The woman 
to the left of the gentle lady has 
thrown off her veil, and holds aloft a 
coil of rope — a lasso — ready to cast it 
on the animals. A coil of this kind has 
ah*eady l)een cast, and is seen sticking 
on the flank of the foremost calf — 
thrown j)robably by the youth in the 
foreground, whose mother, or some 
kind fi*icnd, has dragged him away so 
as to make him fall stooping forward. 
A 2nd youth is being dragged away 
by an equally anxious female. H other 
females in the furthest background 
are crowding together. ' 

** The cave has the mark of a ScastiTta 
(implying benediction) over it, and is 
evidently intended as a representation 
of the Elephant Cave, which has a 
similar symbol on its front, but what- 
ever the locale^ it is certain that the 
whole scene is a representation of 
elephants having taken possession of 
a sacred cave, tlie dwelling of some 
simple people, who are trying their 
utmost to dislodge them. The amount 
of jewellery on the persons of the 
people precludes the idea of their 
being Buddhist hermits, but their 



adventure must have acquired some 
interest to have formed the subject of 
a tableau. To the extreme right is an 
Afihoka tree, an emblem of constancy 
in women. From the top of the tree 
a BrAhmanl goose, another emblem of 
constancy, is seen to fly out. The 1st 
scene in the 3rd compartment is 
purely ornamental. It represents a 
couple of monkeys in a cave frightened 
by a serpent. Next appears a young 
lady, at the door of a cave seated 
cross-legged, close by a man, whose 
head rests on her lap ; a female is in- 
troducing a warrior, with a straight 
long sword and an oblong shield." 
The next tableau represents 2 persons 
fighting, which Hunter declares to be 
a prince and princess, armed with 
swords and oblong shields. One of 
the shields has a sort of projecting 
spikes. On the left is a female figure 
being carried off. It must be said 
that all the figures are so much defaced 
that it is mere matter of conjecture to 
describe them. 

The next tableau is a hunt: a groom 
is leading a horse carved with much 
spirit. There is a tree in the 
centre, and on the left of the spec- 
tator is the prince firing with a bow. 
which he holds perpendicularly, at a 
bounding anteloj)e on the spectator's 
right. A figure which is said to be the 
piincess is sitting in a tree on the ex- 
treme right of the spectator. In the 
5th compartment the figures are so 
much injured, that it is almost im- 
possible to make them out. A man 
with large pectoral muscles sits on a 
stool wit£ his legs hanging down, with 
a number of females about him. On 
the other side is a female recluse sitting 
cross-legged and adoring a Cliaityay 
placed before her. A boy in the fore- 
ground is similarly occupied. The Gth 
compartment is still move defective. 
It represents a man and a woman 
seated on separate chairs, then the 
woman sitting on the man's lap, then 
both seated on the ground. In the 
last compartment there is the same 
figure as in the first, which shows the 
end of the frieze. It is a man <ia.Yr3- 
ing fruit, but in. \ns fv.^'t V-asv^ \»» -^ 
roll ot coxd ox a ^"aiVKaA-VQ ^<i«.QrcoXfc^ 



128 



Emte 3. — Furi (Fooree) to Ehandagifi, Sect.IL 



Chaityay or other slirine, which Mr. 
Fergusson thinks is of Bactrian origin, 
but EAjendraliUd Mitra thinks it Budd- 
histic. The lower story, also, has 8 
doors. The ground-floor front was 
formed of a colonnaded verandah 
44 ft. long, having a raised seat or 
berme, along its whole inner line. It 
was formerly supported by a row of 
8 sq. pillars, of which only the 2 end 
ones remain, the rest having fallen 
down with the roof. To the E. it 
opened into an oblong chamber 11 ft. 
by 7 ft., and to the N. into 3 rooms of 
which the central one measures 16 ft. 
by 7 ft., and the side ones 13 ft. 6 in. 
by 7 ft. and 13 ft. by 7 ft. The side 
rooms have each 2 doors, and the cen- 
tral one 3, and a frieze of bas relief 
extends the whole length over the 
door-way. The frieze is much dila- 
pidated, so that only 4 fragments 
admit of description ; the 1st repre- 
sents a hut of 2 stories, of which the 
lower has 2 doors and the upper 1. A 
female figui'c looks out of each door, 
and one fiom the balcony, which is pro- 
tected by a Buddhist rail of 4 bars. 
A similar rail runs in front of the 
lower story, with a large tree by its 
side. In the 2nd fragment, a saint or 
priest holds a piece of cloth in his 
left hand and extends the right as in 
the act of blessing. He wears an 
ample dJiotl round the waist and a 
scarf over the body. On his right a 
servant holds an umbrella, and another 
in front carries a sword. On his left 
is a devotee on his knees seeking a 
blessing, and beyond to the left are two 
women bringing offerings, both kneel- 
ing, but one with the hands folded 
and the other dusting the feet of a 
boy, who has one hand on her head and 
the other holding a cloth which hangs 
from her. In the 3rd fragment is a 
saddle horse, with 3 attendants, and 
the holy man of the 2nd fragment 
with an umbrella held over him, and 
2 attendants with swords on their 
shoulders. In the 4th fragment, there 
is a group of 6 women, 3 carrying 
pitchers on their heads, 1 kneeling 
and ofltering her pitcher to a figure, 
which is lost, 1 kneeling with folded 
hands, and 1 leaning ou the branch 



of a tree and holding out her pitcher. 
The groups rest on Buddhist rfal& 

Oatfeshah GHmvoKA (or more cor- 
rectly GvpM)or Garbhah. — ^At 170 ft 
almost due N. of the BAnl Naur Gave, 
is that of the Gaigieshah GuphA, which, 
however, is much higher in the hiU. It 
has but 1 story, but 2 compartments, 
with a verand^ in front, which is 30 ft. 
long and 7 ft. broad. It has 3 pillars in 
the front of the verandah, sq. and 
massive, but other 2 have fallen. The 
pillars have brackets, with fema)A 
figures carved on them. The flight oi 
steps leading to the verandiQi has a 
crouching elephant on either side, hold- 
ing lotuses in their trunks. There are 
also elephants in bas reHef at the ends 
of the architrave. The rooms are rect- 
angular, measuring 15 ft. by 7 ft 
The verandah is 5 ft. 4 in. high, and its 
wall is ornamented with a series of 
tableaux in alto-rilievo. The 1st re- 
presents a man sleeping under a Bo 
tree, 'with a nude female sitting on his 
legs ; in the next a man has scozed the 
hand of a female, who is holding up 
her right hand as if crying for help. 
Then come 2 persons, perhaps the 
lady and her suitor, fighting, with 
swords and oblong shields, and then 
the man is depicted carrying off the 
woman, who retains her pecuUar head- 
dress. In the 5th compartment the 
successful lover is escaping on an 
elephant, pursued by soldiers in heavy 
kilts. A man on the elephant has cut 
off the head of one, and is holding it 
up. The ravisher is drawing his l»w, 
holding it perpendicularly. In the 6th 
compartment he has reached his home, 
and he and the lady have alighted 
from the elephant. In the 7th the 
lady stands with her hand on the 
man's shoulder, while his arm is round 
her waist. In the next she is seated 
on the ground, while he stands near 
her. 

This frieze, and that in the Kdni 
Naur Cave, represent the same stonr, 
the main difference being that m 
this cave the figures are more classi- 
cal and better drawn, and. therefore, 
Mr. Fcrgusson thinks more modern. 
In the Rdni's cave they ai*c certainly 
more Hindu. Of the story from 



Sect. II. Route Z.-^Gopalapilrar^Yaikuntha — Hdthi^Gumphd, "129 



which these designs are taken, nothing^ 
is known. Rdjp^t ladies, in the olden 
time, wore weapons and fought as at 
the taking of Chitiir, where 2 prin- 
cesses sallied at the head of the Mewar 
troops, and were killed. Those who 
wish to go further into the matter may 
consult the "Ant. of Orissa," vol. ii., 
pp'. 12-13. A little more than 50 yds. 
to the W. of Rdnl Naur Cave, is a 
flight of steps which lead to a two- 
storied cave called Swargapurl. Both 
stones have 2 rooms, with a verandah 
in fi'ont, which has been supported by 
pillars now broken. There is no carv- 
ing or inscription except some pilasters 
near the door, from the t<^ of which 
runs a line of Buddhist rails, sur- 
mounted by an elephant in bas relief, 
with what is perhaps a human figure 
and a tree behind it. 60 ft. to the N. 
by W. of these are the Jaya VijayA 
Caves, sometimes called Hansapir. 
The porch is 8 ft. by 3 ft., and the 
corridor 13 ft. by 6 ft. In the corridor 
is a raised plinth on 3 sides, and be- 
hind are 2 rooms, 7 ft. G in. by 6 ft. 
6 in. There is a fiieze with 3 com- 
partments, the base being formed of 
a line of Buddhist rails. In the cen- 
tral compartment is a Bo tree. Beside 
the tree are 2 male figures, that on the 
left with folded hands, and that on 
the right holding a bit of cloth tied to 
the tree and a small branch. Near 
the men are 2 females bringing trays 
of offerings. The scroll work on the 
semi-circular bands over the doorways 
are different, and beyond them are 2 
turbaned figures carrying trays of 
offerings. At the sides of the facade 
are a man and woman, C ft. high, in 
alto-rilievo. To the left is a small cave 
called Dwdrkapiira. 

GopdlapHra. — To the N.W. are 2 
groups of caves, named Gopdlapiira 
and Munchapiira, in which are a hall 
33 ft. 4 in. by C ft., 2 side rooms and 
a verandah 25 ft. 4 in. long. On the 
piers of the hall are 2 inscriptions in 
the LAt character, now illegible. 

Vaikun^ha. — This and 2 other caves, 
Pdtilapura and Jamapura, are a little 
to the N.W. They are much defaced 
and are now uninteresting. There is a 



'* Rock-crit Temples of India,*' plate i 
There are 2 PAll inscriptions in the 
Ldt character, of which all' that can 
be read is " excavations of the Bdjds 
of Kalinga enjoying the favour of 
the Arhantas," and *' the cave of the 
Mahdrdjd Ylra, the Lord of Kalinga, 
the cave of the venerable Kadepa," 
also "the cave of Prince Vidukha." 
Hence it appears that the prope# 
name of these caves is Ealingardj4 
GumphA, or Vidukha GumphA, or 
Kadepa's Gumphd. 

Ildthi Q^imphd. — 75 yds. to the N.W. 
is the HAthl Gumphd or "Elephant 
Cave," of which Mr. Fergusson says : 
"it is an extensive natural cave, unim- 
proved bv art." (" Tree and Serpent 
Worship," 2nd ed. p. 267). To the 
left is a boulder, which has been 
hollowed out into a cell 5 ft. sq. Over 
the entrance, cut into the scarped 
rock, is an inscription in the most 
ancient Ldt character, 14 ft. long and 
6 ft. broad, comprising 17 lines, each 
letter 2 in. long. It has suffered seri- 
ous injury in several places, but 
enough remains to show that it is, 
perhaps, the oldest Indian engraved 
document that has come down to us. 
The translation, according to B6jen- 
dralAlA Mitra, is : — 

\st h'>i«.— Salutation to those who have 
overcome all human passions, to all who have 
attained x>erfection. 

2?id Kwe.— By Aira, the Great King, who has 
a mighty elephant for his vehicle, who has 
lavished his wealth in erecting Chaityas, who 
is distinguished by the attributes of Shakya, 
who isirenowned for having plundered the earth 
to its uttermost limits, who is the Sovereign 
of Kalinga, has this hill been excavated. 

3rd line. — For 15 years all juvenile games 
having been played by him, who had a hand- 
some red body, and 9 of education, the person 
in the 24th year of his age, wishing to become 
a king, with the characteristics of a giant and 
with a numerous anny, becoming victorious 
in the 8rd battle, in the capital of the Royal 
Dynasty of Kalinga, received royal unction, 
and devoted to the duty of Kings, causes the 
gates, walls and houses, which had been 
destroyed to be repaired. In the city of 
Kalinga a lake refreshing as the moonbeams, 
and a flight of steps, and many roads for all 
kind of equipages he caused to be, 

Ath Ztrw.— Consecrated. He causes the gra- 
tification of hundreds of thousands ot ^^a. 
subjects, whose head&«.T^\iecA. <i«7rQ.\sL^^^ 
tation. liv \.\ift wteoxA ^cax Vs^'^ \v\'e. ^nse^^ 



View of these caves m Mr, Fergusson s \ placed on \3[ie'7^ . ^veife,\La»«a^^«^^^^^' 



Kouti 3.— rwri {Poortt) to Kkandajtn. Sect It 

whn iiie inscription lived within the hnn - 



tuiawlo, iu tin niUmriiiR year. 

Uk Hw.— 11a canwil t» IM rrlcbnitol 
•AMrtalniiuiiCiriUi tbs iiiiulc iiT Uie Ihmia 



jxnintiK ]>rr>fkiBnt In the ■Gb'IMii iiT InUiiic niicl 
B dramtic ivrftnuiuiot W rlandnt; ulrbi. 
Xut In tin 4th jear, in Uui Ikiuiw uf tliu 
lesnwil (lui ciilU tuwetlMi) the AAutt, whi> 
tad 1«cu isuliliiaieil Iiy the Unipi ut tits clty 
M Euilcni Kullii)^ Iinprllsil Iiy ihviitbm t<> 
■cU at nllgiuD Ui( funikeii nulmllu— a 
honilreil 
Ol^Jinc.—UmBrtillof Jewels Klllchlniiulciil 

hliqpi liul Kivu. Ill, to Llnriie a»i«ii b, 1k> 
iinBred (til Via ffnU). Nuvr In tUe ttli yr»r, 

Kliig NuDiU haviiiK liee-ji, by hitii, eiqiellei] 

tium liuHHi, weut umy uii a iwllt hune tu Uk 

dtjruTruluult. 
;U li«.— lie niunillceutly diHtrlbutB In 

(Ourlty limy huiHlnnl Uiuiuniid liiauni<)~i). 

•■—•—' • , iiiiriUn'— Muitnn wtll— In 

l>UlllHl'-IlUt. 



tlis Sth ycai 
dejitructli 



-<T..) 



»lk ifTK.— Ai*ji, bullii, liunns, elepluHit*, 
bnOiiluca widall miulHltts tiir tharundture »( 
a koiua ;— to ludiice tlie iimrii«> "f i»iw.i.iiii. 
IniiimTHr iwrnoiia, lia further 



whlcli hwl luf I 



- li. 

lb — Tlie lilKldy rHiiMWnud King < 
rtn tJiu I IBtjIca tit IS vLcttiTlui.— 
Finding imelnry, In Uia ( 
— "-imtuftlieniKmit 

ycnt— tho Ciifl uf tiis 

-Fut tlM jmtaMe prollt of 



»llaiUi«li 

VUhUnr. . . - 

cmKnentliHu — Ih eatabltiihcd — VaguUui. 
Kings— well Hni'emuil— nines NtniU nUf n— 

im lliM.— He dIaWliula riiiich ijuld at 

Uli llv. 



muuntoina. liuHUHlby 
ISUi (<"r.-lly Idii, ,.,1 
tMlOnipiirfuctval 



id orowdH rjf iHMJide— 



ItU (liK.— lie caused to 
(nMamneiiiu elunnlH'n, cu 
Vbnitya temple kiid nlllHni-l 
— Kin|ti<ifiti^iinia~KiiiKai,f : 

ITCt lliK.—Vut vhcMu Uiu iMpliy lieivtiiai 
lljr uny^idi^r, havtiia - ""■ ' 



prcccUng; the tu 
ChaiiilrnKUpt* t" tlie throac of M»- 
gadhn. iu 31G B.C. There foe screral 
smaller itucriptions within the cave, 
some ill ill-fui'iiu.-<l Ga]>ta chnrooteTi 
otliCTs in equally (Ifjjuiieratc Entila. 
Tliey wori! cut, prubabiy by idle 
inuuliE, or visitora. A few yds. X. of 
the Elciiliant Cnvc U the PAvana 
OupliA, or " cavo of piirifieiUion." It 
ii of no importance, except thnt it hut 
an inscription, in tlie Lfi( character.for 
which see " As, Soc. Jonm. of Beng.," 
vol. Ti,, p. 1074. 

About 75 ft. to the S.V,'. of the 
I'Avana GmiliA is the ijarpn Uaph&, or 
•■ Seqient Cave," On the top ol the 
untrance is a mdc carving nf the hood 
tif a 3-liea(Ie.l cobm. Under this ii the 
loor, into wliich a man can just crawl ; 
ihcinteriiirbciugacubcof jft. liesido 
the door is an inscription thus tnme- 
)al«l hj' James Prinsep : — " The 
unequalled chnmber of Chnlakarmn 
and the apiiropriate temple of Konna 
Rishi." Aboutir.yds.totheN.iBlho 
Bhajana Guphii, or " cave of medita- 
tion." It mensurcs H ft. long in front, 
and IE ft. beliinJ. It is 10 ft broad, 
and T ft. h^h. A litlh: to the N. in 
tJie Alftklipura, or "palace of Inilni." 
Neither is of .iiiy importance. 

Jliiffh (iHjiha, or " Tiger Cure."— 
At GUft. to the N. is the very interest- 
ing Tiger Cave, cut cxteiTally into tlie 
shaiie uf ft tiger's head, nith the jaws 
at full KBjw. The eyes and nose of 
the monster are very well marked, but 
the teeth ai'c now imperfectly dis- 
ccmiblc. The head at top, where it 
joins the hill, is 8 (t. 8 in. broad, and 
thence to the upper lip, 10 ft. G in. 
long. "Dte gape is 11 ft. wide, and the 
to the cell occupies the jilnco 



eqiilnices— the ftarirjiui Huvareliin 
hOli by tiie uii (cliariHlied) the [ 



iruCth' 






" All who take ititcrest in Indimi 
antiquities," says I'rinscp, "will nt 
once see the value of the above recorrl, 

Cerhapa the moat curious that has yf 
ecu disclosed to us." BiijendralAli 
MitraEuppoaesthatAiiamentioncdi] 



of the gnltet. To the rijjht of the 
entrance Is an htscriptioii in the L&t 
diameter, which says, " The Cave of 
Sasovin," n llurco opjioneiit of tho 
Vediiu. At tlie bosiiiiiing of the in- 
scription is a Buddhist monogram, 
and at the end a Svnstika. A little 
N. of the Ti^or Cave is the Urdha- 
bfthu, a one-storied chamber, 12 ft. 
by G ft. wiile, n verandah of cone- 
; spoudini; size, faced by three pillars 



Sect. II. 



Route 3; — KJmndagvri, 



131 



with lion capitals and brackets carved 
like female figures, projecting in 
front. It has an illegible inscriptipn 
in the Ld^ character. 

XJiandagirl JliU.— This hill is 133 ft. 
high, and faces E. It is thickly covered 
with trees. The path which leads to 
the top is steep, and at the height of 
about 50 ft. divides into 2, one branch 
leading to the right and ending at the 
foot of a terrace in front of a cave. 
The other leads to the left, and to a 
range of caves cut in the E. face of 
the hill. The terrace on the right 
leads by 2 very broad steps to the 
Ananta cave, which is a narrow room, 
with 4 doorways and a verandah in 
front. The room is 24 ft. 6 in. in 
front, and the verandah 25 ft. The 
room is 7 ft. broad, and the verandah 
5 ft. The verandah has 3 pillars, 
which are divided into 3 sections, of 
which the centre one is octagonal and 
the others sq. Instead of a capital, 
the pillars have a projecting bracket, 
shaped like a woman. The architrave 
is heavy, and over it is a parapet 
supported on corbels, and formed of 
pyramidal battlements, with inter- 
vening bunches of flowers. 

In the centre of the back wall of the 
room is a Buddha, in bas-relief. The 
frieze is in 5 compartments. In the 1 st 
are 2 human figures running or flying, 
dressed in waist-belts and scarves and 
turbans. They carry trays of offer- 
ings. At the spring of the arch to 
the right of these figures is a kneeling 
athlete, over whom stands a man 
holding by its hind legs a lion, which 
appears to be making for a man who 
is struggling with an enraged bull, 
and which he has caught by the left 
horn, and is about to strike with a 
club. Next comes a lion, held by the 
hind leg by a man who stands at the 
head of an athlete like the former 
one. The crown of the arch is formed 
by the tails of 2 snakes, and above is 
a Buddhist rail. In the semi-circular 
space under the arch is a nude female, 
standing in a lotus-bush, and holding 
a lotus-stalk in either hand. Two ele- 
phants are throwing water over her 
with their trunks. This is either Bdsull, 
anaboriginal goddess mentioned by Mr. 



Beames,orLak8hml. The 3rd compart-" 
ment is the same as the 2nd, but the arch 
which follows has two lines of geese 
running with spread wings, each with 
a flower in its bill. On the Tympanum 
is a Bo tree, and a lady standing before 
it with folded hands. One of her at- 
tendants has a garland, and others 
hold trays of offerings. In the last .. 
compartment the flying figures ard^ 
repeated. In the back wall of the 
verandah are 2 inscriptions, one in 
the Ldt character, and the other in 
the Kutila. 

The visitor must now turn back 
to the place where the path divides 
and proceed to the left, when he will 
come to a mo.lern gallery and to 
the S., at a distance of 30 ft., to a 
range of 3 openings, with 2 lines of 
pillars, of which the inner is broken. 
There is here a Sanskrit inscription of 
the 12th century in Nagari. which 
says the cave belonged to AchArya 
Kdlachandra, and his pupil Vella- 
chandra. Xext comes a range of 
caves facing the E., divided into 2 
compartments by a partition in the . 
middle. Each of the compartnjents 
is divided into 2 aisles by a range of 
pillai*s, round in the shaft, with" a 
narrow fillet round the middle, the 
capitals formed of 2 tiles, enclosing a 
flattened ribbed ball. On the back 
wall is a row of seated Dhyanl Bu:l- 
dhas, and some new images of Jinua 
Deva. At the E. end is an altar of 
masonry, on which are ranged anumber 
of Jain images, IG in. high. The com- 
partment on the right side is 21 ft. 6 in. 
long and 8 ft. high. The outer ttisle 
is 4 ft. 4 in. broad, the inner 6 ft. 8 in. 
The 2nd compartment is 22 ft. 4 in. 
long, with the same height and breadth 
as the other. The pillars of the front 
row are of the same pattern as4n 
those of the 1st compartment, but 
those in the inner are octagonal and 
tapering. On the back wall is a row 
of Dhydnl Buddhas, 1 ft. high, and 
below females seated on stools, some 
4-handed, others 8-handed, with one leg 
crossed and the other hanging. Below 
the stools are llowa» co\vc"\iiu\t. ^^s55sa^ 
this \,o \Ai^ \«^ ol >:Xxa ^^^^ '^^ ^ '^^®- 



S(yute i. — Bkuvanethtear to Katak (Cutiack). Sect. II. 



132 

almost perpendicular. On the sitmiait 
of the bill is a, plateau, and a temple 
to PArasoiitb, 31 ft. lonR bom N. to S. 
and lil ft. from E. to W. From it is 
a magnificeiit panoramic riew lookinj^ 
E. to Dhauli. S.B. to Bhuvaneshwar, 
and 15 m. all round. The gi'oves of 
mango and jack trees are most beauti- 
ful, and no doubt supplied the hermits 
■with food. A panther livea in thia 
hill, and killfi eattle, and lately tore a 
Br&hman so much that be died. This 
t«mplc was built about a century ago, 
by Mnnju Chund&ri and his nephew, 
Bbaninl B&da of Katal:, Jain mer- 
chantB of the Digambari sect. In the 
sanctuary is n standing figure of Ma- 
h&vlra in black stone, 1 ft. high, 
placed on a wooden chair. In front 
of the temple is a fine terrace, 50 ft. sq., 
with a raised masonry seat all round. 
The temple is in charge of a BrAhman 
of Bhuvanosliwar. To the S.W. of the 
temple is a smooth teri'ace, of 160 fL 
diameter, gently sloping to the W., 
c^ed the Dcva Sabha. In the centre 
is a small sq. pillar, with a bas-relief 
of Buddha on each side, and round it 
4 circles of Chaityos, from 2 to 3 ft. 
high. 3 small boulders, set in a tri- 
angle, and covered by a dolmen of 
sandstone, stand in the inner circle. 
E. of the Deva BabhA, at XOO yds., is a 
tank cut in the solid rock, called the 
Akfisha Gangd, or "heavenly Ganges " 
Immediately below the tank is a ca c 
where the remains of Eiiji LalAtendru 
Kesharl are said to rest. Eajendra 
'Uli, Mitra believes the whole of he 
eaves to be originally Buddhist, and 
to have been conBtruoted from .1411 to 
320 B.C. He sees in them no eonnec 
tion with Greek arcMtectare and 



The stages are as follows :- 



1 „„., 




1 


1 


1 


J 

a 


lta*tOi..bddl Co fotuk . 
Total. . . 


23 


M 


I 


i 


1! 



The road from Sardaipilr to the 
river at Katak is good and well 
shaded. The Inspection House at 
Bastambfidl, where [the traveller eaii 
alight and stop the night, if he bo 
pleases, is IBO yds. oft the road to the 
left, and is in good repair and com- 
fortable. It is a little past the llfh 
milestone from Katak, The distance 
thence to the Kitjuri is done in a 
pAlki in 2 hours. In the cold season 
the channel of this river coosists of J 
of a m. of sand and 160 to 200 yds. of 
wae If deep. The banks arehigh, 
Q d n the rainy season the river is 
p hap i a m. broad and 15 ft. deep. 
Aa a s a city with 50,878 inhabi- 
ants It s situated at the apex of 
he le ta f the Mabiinadi river, 
h h scs n the Riipiir district of 
he Cen ra Provinces, and has a 
length of C29 m., or 1 m. shorter 
than the Loire. It pours down upon 
the Delta through the narrow gorge 
at Nar4j, 7 m. W. of the town of 
Katak, and, dividing into 2 streama, 
encircles the city on the N. and E., 
and on the W. by its branch, the 
Kitjuri. The river during the rain 
pours down a prodigious flood, and to 
prevent its sweeping away tlic city, 
an important stone emlmukincnt, or 
Anakattihas been erected a m. S.IV. of 
the N.iV. point of the spit of lando 



Sect II: 



Bouie 4. — Katah {Guttack), 



133 



which the city has been built. From 
this Anakat^ extends the Taldanda 
Canal, from N. to S., and from it a city- 
drainage canal runs N. for 6 m. to the 
Bidyadhar Tank, and divides the in- 
habited part of the spit of ground into 
2 nearly equal parts ; the N. contain- 
ing the Bakhshl Bdzdr, the canton- 
ments and fort, and the S. containing 
the Uriya and Shckh Bdzdrs and the 
main portion of the city. The T.B. 
is in the middle of Ihc cantonments, 
on the right of the road going down 
to the fort. 

About ^th of a m. beyond it is 
the Parade Ground, with the Roman 
Catholic chapel on the left, and 
the Church of the Epiphany on the 
right. It has its name from having 
been consecrated on the Feast of the 
Epiphany, on the 6th of January, 
1868, by Bishop Milman. The build- 
ing cost 19,000 rs., and will accommo- 
date 200 persons. The architect was 
Mr. Chisholm, assisted by Mr. Gran- 
ville, Gov. Arch. It has a sq. tower, 
is 83 ft. 9 in. long and 24 ft. broad, 
with a verandah 12 ft. broad. There 
is a stained-glass window at the E. 
end, and a marble pavement. The 
Register begins on July I, 18oo. 
There are 3 tablets in the church, 
one to Mr. G. W. Boothby, C.S., son 
of the Rev. Brooke Boothby and Hon. 
Louisa Vernon, his vnfe, who died 
suddenly of cholera, March 28th, 
1868, at Calcutta. It is a very hand- 
some white marble slab, on a black 
ground, with a head of the deceased well 
executed. Another is to the Rev. H. H. 
Harington, the chaplain who laboured 
for the erection of the church, but 
did not live to see it opened. The 
3rd is to John Campbell, C.E., who 
was drowned at Kalpara. The Ceine- 
tcrii is } of a m. to the N.W. of 
the church, beyond the fort, near the 
left bank of the river. It is shaded 
with fine trees, and is very well kept. 
On the side post of the gate is marked 
in red chalk, 786 sonU buried here. 

The Fort is called Bardbdti, and 
is thought by Stirling to have been 
built by Rdjd Anang Bhim Deo, 
in the fourteenth century. He says, 
" the sq. sloping bastions and general 



style bespeak a Hindii origin. The 
Mu^ammadan or the Mardtha Go- 
vernors of Orissa added a round . » 
bastion at the N.W. angle, and the 
arched gateway in the E. face, as 
mentioned in Persian inscriptions, 
which gives the 4th year of Ahmad 
ShAh, or A.D. 1750, as the date of the 
additions. The fort has double walls., 
of stone, of which the inner enclose* 
a rectangular area 2150 ft. by 1800 ft. 
The entrance is through a grand gate- 
way on the E., flanked by 2 lofty sq. 
towers, having the sides inclining in- 
wards from the base to the summit. A 
noble ditch, faced with masonry, sur- 
rounds the whole, measuring 220 ft. in 
the broadest part. In the centre of the 
fort is a huge sq. bastion, with a flag- 
staff. M. La Motte, who travelled in 
1767 A.D., thought the fort like the 
W. side of Windsor Castle. In the 
" Aln-i-Akbarl " it is said that there 
was, within the fort, the famous palace 
of Rdjd Mukund Deo, 9 stories high. 
The Persian word in the "Ain" is 
Aahydnah^ which Rajendraldld Mitra 
takes to mean " courtyard," but in 
this he appears to be in error, for the 
word originally means *' nest," and • 
then "ceiling," and could hardly be 
applied to a lateral layer. This h^s 
utterly perished, but from the ruins 
have been dug up fragments of cor- 
nices, and a massive candelabrum of 
tine indurated chlorite. Mr. Stirling's 
description of what the fort was is 
now inapplicable, for it has been con: 
verted into an unsightly series of 
earthen mounds; the stones of the moat 
having been faJcen in 1873 to build an 
hospital, and those of the fort to con- 
struct the lighthouse at False Point. 
The arched gateway in the E. face, 
and the Mosque of Fatlj Khdn, are the 
only objects of antiquarian interest 
which remain. The top of the ruined 
citadel is 100 ft. above the level of the 
river. There are 8 large white stones 
there, used for seats. 

On the way to the fort, before 
entering the cantonments, on the 
left of the road, close to the baixk. 
of the TaldaTAjda. C*.\\V3\, -fts^^ ^^ "bv. 

I 'Peo^\t'% GaTaeu,^\iM2c^ ^^^ ^3»fi^ ^=«^ 



134 



Route- ir^Bhuvctneshwar to Katak (Cuttacic), Sect. II. 



by the well-known philologist Mr. 

, John Beames. A carriage can drive 
about it. At the W. extremity Is an 
arch 9 ft. hij^h, and several carved 
stones, all of which were brought 
from Altl by Mr. Beames. The arch 
is beautifully carved. In the centre 
. of the top piece are vacant spaces, 
which were probably filled with Surjl 

* KArAyans. On either side are festoons 
of monkeys and elephants pouring 
water over Lakshml. On the side 
pilasters arc 5 rows of ornaments, the 
outside band consisting of lotuses and 
other flowers, next is a band repre- 
senting lions crushing elephants, next 
is a row of male and female figures, 
The next band presents Ganas 
chasing one another up the stem of 
a creeping plant ; next is a scroll 
of leaves. At the base are figures of 
Vi§hnu under the Shesh Ndg and 2 
DwArpdls, 1 ft. 10 in. high. After 
crossing the bridge over the canal, 
the Circuit House, a large building, is 
passed on the right. The Club is on 
the right, about 60 yds. before reach- 
ing the fort. 

In order to see the stone facing 
of the Kdtjurl river, which was made 
by the Mardthas, the traveller will 
drive through the city to the Col- 
lector's Kachharl, which is on the 
banks of the Kdtjurl river. The 
bank is here 25ft. high, and is faced 
with fine stone slabs of laterite. In 
order to understand the urgent neces- 
sity for this costly work, which extends 
nearly 2 m.,* and for others about to 
be mentioned, it must be said th.nt 
the Mahdnadl, Brdhmani, Baitanii, Sd- 
landl, and Subamarekhd, which are 
the chief livers of Orissa, and which, 
in the month of May bring down 
only 1690 cubic ft. of water per 
second, dash down during the rains 
2,760,000 cubic ft. per second. This is 
far more than twice the total discharge 
of the Ganges during its maximum 
floods. From time immemorial efforts 
have been made to control this inun- 

" dation, but hitherto with small suc- 

* RdjendralaU Mitm says (" Ant. of Orissa," 
▼ol. ii. p. 164), •• it is a noble piece of en- 
^cering work, and worthy of high admira- 



eess. From 1831 to 1867 Government 
spent in Katak District alone £157,676, 
but in 1866 the flood broke through 
the Govt, embankment in 413 places. 
642 sq. m. were submerged from 3 to 
60 days to the depth of from 3 ft. to 
15 ft., and 699,893 persons were driven 
from their homes. 

In order to see the other works, 
it will be desirable to leave the T. 
B. in a carriage about 6 A.M., and 
after driving about 3 J m. to Ihe 
N.W., the traveller will enter a pdlkl 
and stop for a few minutes at a tem- 
ple rebuilt by tlie Mardthas, on the 
right, about 3 m. from the place where 
he entered the pdlki. In order, 
to reach it he will cross a small 
arm of the river close to the temple. 
The water is about 3 ft. deep, and 
there are quicksands, which are 
troublesome, and, were a person 
alone, might be dangerous. The 
temple has a tower and Mohan, or 
Audience Hall. The tower is 19 ft. sq., 
the hall 25 ft. sq. The height of the 
tower is about 60 ft. The view over 
the river is extremely pretty. 

From this spot the road lies through 
deep sand,which extends to anAnaka^t, 
beyond which, to the N., is Nardj, 7 
m. from Katak, where the Mahdnadl 
debouches on the Delta, and forms its 
first bifurcation. There is a T. B. at 
Nardj, on a hill overlooking the river. 
It has 3 good rooms, and the breeze 
is delicious. It is a favourite resort 
for the Europeans at Katak, who come 
here for change of air, picnics, and 
sometimes for honeymoons. The Ma- 
hdnadl at this point is about f of a m. 
across in the dry season, and the 
country is here covered with a dense 
low jungle. At 7 m. to the N. in the 
States of Ddligora and Athgayh, 
tigers are very numerous, and reports 
of their killing men and cattle are 
frequently made. A little way up 
the river is a narrow gorge, whence 
it issues, and the scene is so picturesque 
as to deserve a visit. It must be said 
that there are many alligators, and 
some of great size. The Kdtjurl 
AVcir, over which travellers cross to 
reach the Nardj Bangld, is 3800 ft. 
long and 124 f*' high, and cost 6 



r 

Sect. 11. Soute 5. — KatCik {OtUtaeh) to Tdjpdr, 



135 



Idkhs of rs. It was constructed partly 
by Mr. Macmillan and partly by Mr. 
Walker. The country below it on the 
W. is so low thq-t the danger of a 
breach at this spot cannot be exag- 
gerated. As there is no protection 
from the sun, it is desirable to cross 
this weir before 9 A.M. and breakfast 
at the Nardj Bangld, and then return 
in the afternoon. The other 2 great 
Weirs, namely, the BinipA And 
MahAnadl, may be seen in quittiug 
Katak. The traveller will drive along 
a road a little to the N. of the Tal- 
danda Canal, to the Jobrd Gh4t, 
where are the Taldanda workshops, 
the Mahdnadl Anaka^t, and the place 
for embarking for False Point, on the 
left bank of the Mahdnadi. The Bi- 
riipA river leaves the MahAnadl on its 
right bank, and the weir there is 
1980 ft. long and 9 ft. high. Of the 
4 canals which form the Orissa Irri- 
gation System, 2 take ofE from the 
Biriipd Weir, and 1 with its branch 
from the Mahdnadi Weir. The 2 
former are the High Level Canal and 
the Kendrapara, the latter is the Tal- 
danda. The Mahdnadl Weir is 6400 ft. 
long and 12^ ft. high, and cost in round 
numbers 13 Idkhs of rs. It was begun 
in 1863 and completed in 1869-70. 
Tlie engineer was Mr. Macmillan. 
The materials for all these works were 
brought from the Nardj Quarry, which 
IS sandstone ; from the Manchipiir 
Quany, which is conglomerate sand- 
stone ; and the Chiteswar and Chand- 
wdr Quarries, which are laterite, a 
kind of earthy sandstone. The mortar 
was formed from nodule limestone, 
which was found near the quarries. The 
mortar is composed of one part lime- 
stone, one part sand from the river- 
bed, and one part brick dust. This 
makes a slow-setting hydraulic mortar. 
The word Katak, written improperly 
in English Cuttack, and wrongly ac- 
cented on the last syllable, means in 
Sane^rit " a royal metropolis," "a city," 
and also " an army." The people of 
Orissa adopt the 1st meaning, and 
speak of 7 Kayaks in Orissa. The 1st 
YAjpiir, where Yaydti Kesharl first 
plai^ his capital ; the 2nd Purl, to 
which he removed ; the 3rd Bhu- 



vaneshwarl^ here he settled at the close . 
of his reign ; the 4th Bid&nasi, on the 
fork between the Mahdnadl and Edt- 
juri, to which Nripa Kesharl removed 
in 953 A.D. ; the 5th Sdrangad, to 
which Mddhava Keshdrl removed 
between 971—989 A.D. ; the 6th, Chan- 
duar, on the left bank of the Mahdnadl, 
where Ananga Bhima held his court ; 
the 7th, ChhAtea, where he resided for 
a time. The inundations of the river 
obliged Mddhava Kesharl to move 
to Sarangad, which was on the other 
side of 3ae Katjuri, away from the 
river bank. The cause of Ananga 
Bhlma's moving to Chanduar was '&E 
seeing a hawk killed by a crane, which 
he took to be a good omen. The pre- 
sent Katak is due to the Mu^am- 
madans. 



HOUTE 6. 

KATAK (CTJTTACK) TO YAjPUB. 

The stages are as follows : — 



Names of Stations. 


Miles. 


Bearers. 


R8. 

i 

10 


Katak to Tanghi . . 
Taiiglii to Barcliaua . 
Barclianato Dharam- 

•dla 

DharaniSciia to Yaji)ur 


10 
10 

10 
15 


8 

8 

8 
8 


] Total. . . 


45 


32 



\ 



The distance, ^"a XJt^a ^tqtti ^K!iR»>->^ 
only about ^b m. ^^^^ Vc^^^^-t -^ 
leave "Kja.^:tL, aSX^ wl ^^\i e^^a^ax,^ 



136 



EotUe 5. — Katak (CuUack) to TdjpiJir. Sect. 11. 



about 5 P.M. He will thus be able to 
cross the MahAnadi during daylight, 
and will proceed during the night 
32 m. up the Grand Trunk Road, pass- 
ing. 3 Inspection oi: DAk Bangles, 
distant about 10^ m. apart at Tanghi, 
Barchana, and Dharamsdla, where his 
pAlkl will cross the river Brdhmani in 
a ferry boat, and after proceeding 
about 3 m. further he will leave the 
Trunk Road at a place called Kuakhia, 

* turning off to the right. There is a 
short cut after crossing the river, but 
it is not advisable to take it. The road 
then proceeds 11 m. to the E., crossing 
en 7'oute 3 rivers, unbridged, but ford- 
able in the cold weather. At sunrise 
he will reach Jdjpiir, properly YAjpiir, 
fi'om Yaj in Sanskjit, *'to sacrifice." 
YAydtl Keshari, coming from Bihdr, 
found Ydjpiir a place of importance, 
and fitted to be his base of operations 
in the S., and to make it his capital for 
a time. It was close to Dantapura, 
where the sacred tooth of Buddha was 
kept, and in the 4th and 5th century 
A.D. it was called the navel of Buddh- 
ism. Ydydtl subdued it, and converted 
the sanctuaries into Hindii places of 
worship, but in 1558 KdlApahAr, a 
famous champion of Isldm, defeated 
the Hindiis in a great battle at Gah- 
vara Tekri, 4 m. to the N.E. of Ydjpiir. 
It is believed that whole armies are 
buried here, and so late as 1595 A.D. a 
grave Muhammadan author writes that 
he heard at night shouts of "kill," 
"strike" (see Jour. As. Soc. of Beng., 
vol. xl., p. 159). Kdldpahdr demo- 
lished all the Hindii temples, and the 
accumulated treasures of art of 1,000 
years were lost for ever. 

Td^pUr is a city of 10,161 inhabit- 
ants, situated on the S. bank of the 
Baitaranl river, in 20'* 50' 45" N.lat. and 
86** 22' 56" E. long. With the aid of 
a pdlkl, or a pony, the visitor can see 
aU that is to be seen at YAjpiir in one 
day. Close to the T. B. is a noble 
mosque, built by NiiwAb Abii NAsir in 
1681 A.D. out of the stones of Hindtl 
palaces and temples. Adjoining the 
mosque is the residence of the Magi- 
strate, in whose compound are to be 
seen 3 monolithic statues of blue 

cbJoiite, from 3 ft. 9 in. to 9 ft. 6 in. 



high.* One is Indranf, wife of Indra, 
the air-god. She is a 4-armed goddess, 
and sits in tranquil majesty, with an 
admirably cut elephant as her foot- 
stool. A muslin sdrl falls in delicate 
curves to her feet, and is fastened at 
the waist by a girdle. Ornaments 
cover her breast, and her hair towers 
up in a cone of curls. The earth god- 
dess, VarAhinl, the wife of Vishnu in 
his boar incarnation, sits with her in- 
fant on her knee, and is 8 ft. high by 
4 ft. broad. She wears bracelets on 
her four arms, and rings on her little 
fingers. She sits on a buffalo, finely 
carved. A temple to Vishnu, in his 
boar incarnation, crowns a flight of 
stairs leading up from the river. The 
most striking of the 3 monoliths re- 
presents Chdmundd, the wife of the 
All Destroyer, a colossal naked skele- 
ton, with the skin hanging to the 
bones, and the veins and muscles 
standing out in ghastly fidelity. A 
snake is the fillet of her hair bnished 
back, a death's-head crowns her fore- 
head, to which the distended hood of 
the cobra serves as a canopy. Her snaky 
tresses fall over her cheek, and a string 
of skulls winds round her body. She sits 
on a small figure of her husband, Shiva, 
resting on a lotus-leaved pedestal. 

In a gallery overlooking the dried 
up bed of the river are 7 idols, 
elaborately carved, and each made of 
a block of chlorite, (J. ft high. Mr. 
James thinks they have been collected 
from various desecrated shrines, and 
that some pious Hindu, seeing them 
placed against a wall, erected a vaulted 
roof over them, and a wall in front, 
which is pierced with latticed windows, 
and the effect of the dim light upon 
these terrible images is very striking 
indeed. Rajendraldla Mitra com- 
pares these images with the Cretan 
fxT}r€p€s. Six of them are goddesses 
with 4 arms each, the 7th is Narsingh. 
The first goddess is Kali, or Chtlmun- 
dA, a grim skeleton, holding in one 
hand a decapitated head, in another a 

■* They were broujjht from tlie Cenotaph of 
Saiyid 'Ali Bukhuri, a Pathan saint, who 
accompanied Kdhlpahdr, and when his head 
was cut off, at the siege of Banibatf, rode 
without it to Yi'ijpur, and was huried tliero. 



Sect. II. 



EoiUe 5. — Ydjpilr, 



137- 



cup of blood, in the 3rd a trident, and 
in the 4th a sword. She has a snaky 
head-dress and a garland of skulls, and 
is treading on her husband Shiva. The 
next is the wife of Yama, or " Death," 
with a swine's head. Her hands hold 
a cup, a fish, and a child. At her feet 
is a buffalo. Next is the wife of Indra ; 
she holds a child in her lap, while her 
two other hands hold a war-club and 
a thunderbolt ; an elephant serves 
her as footstool. Lakh§hnil comes next; 
with 2 hands she holds a child, and in 
a 3rd Vishnu's Wheel, in her 4th a 
shelL Beneath her feet is Garuda. 
Next is an awful figure, a naked, 
emaciated old hag, the Mother of 
Death. She is squatting down. Below 
her are 2 votaries, and between them 
3 kinds of bells— the bell of Yama, that 
of K411, and that of Vi§hnu. Savitri, 
the wife of Brahmd, comes next. Her 
hair is dressed with 3 ostrich feathers; 
she holds a child and 2 war-clubs ; at 
her feet is a peacock. Pdrbatl comes 
next, with a child on her knees, and 
holding a trident and a rosary ; a bull 
is at her feet. Below Narsingh are 2 
groups of worshippers, and female 
attendants waving the cJiaunrU. 

Close to the gallery is a temple con- 
taining a large image of Ganpati. Oppo- 
site the gallery, in a wooded island in the 
middle of the river, about 250 yds. off, is 
the 2nd great temple, dedicated to the 
boar incarnation. Around are groups 
of smaller temples, and the whole in- 
closure is protected from floods by a 
masonry wall. Beside the main flight 
of steps, which lead up from the river, 
are 2 roofless temples, over the gate of 
which is an effigy of the Sun driving 6 
horses, and a bull in the midst. Pro- 
ceeding now to the S. for about IJ m., 
along the Bingapiir high road, the 
visitor must turn to the left, and at 
200 yds. from the road he will come 
to the most beautiful object in YAjpiir, 
a pillar 32 ft. high; the base is 5 ft. 5 in. 
high, sq., and composed of large blocks 
of stone, without any ornament. The 
shaft and capital are 2(i ft. 7 in. high, 
and appear to be a monolith. The 
shaft is 16-sided. The capital, which 
is of exquisite proportion, is carved to 
imitate lotus blossoms, while immedi- 



ately below it the summit of the shaft 
is adorned with lions' heads, from 
whose mouths depend roses. The capi- 
tal once was crowned with a figure of 
Garuda, which is supposed to have 
been, not a carrion vulture, as Dr. 
Hunter calls it, but the great Indian 
Toucan, a handsome bird, 4 J ft. long. 
The Guruda is said to have been hurled 
from the summit of the pillar by the 
Muhammadans, who attempted also to 
destroy the pillar itself. The Garuda, 
or a fac-simile of it, now stands in the 
ante-chamber of a small temple of 
Narsingh, in Madhupiir, a village about 
1 m. to the S.E. of the temple of Jagan- 
ndth at Ydjpiir. This figure should 
be inspected. It is a fine piece of 
sculpture 4 ft. high, carved out of black 
chlorite. It represents a human figure 
resting on one knee, the palms of the 
hands pressed together in an attitude 
of devotion, as if awaiting the com- 
mands of the god ; short wings are at- 
tached to the shoulders, and while the 
hair of the fore part of the head is 
dressed in the shape of a mitre, the 
back part of the head is covered with 
a profusion of curls. The face and 
attitude are majestic, but the nose is 
lengthened to imitate a bird's beak. 
It rests on a i)cdestal, which is an 
exact duplicate of the capital and 
upper shaft of the pillar. When the 
Garuda was in xitu on the top of the 
pillar, the whole must have resembled 
in many respects, and even rivalled, 
the well-known column in the Piazza 
di San Marco at Venice, the winged 
lion of the Saint being not unlike the 
winged vehicle of Vishnu. It is im- 
probable that a special pedestal would 
be carved for the Garuda after the 
Hindu revival, so that it may perhaps 
be that there were once two pillars — 
one still in tntu^ but wanting the 
Garuda, while the capital and upper 
shaft of the other pillar, surmounted 
by the sacred bird, has found a rest- 
ing place in the small temple, the 
shaft of the column having been de- 
stroyed. 

Returning to the Bingapiir road, 
and proceeding in the ^axsvi ^xx^^Nhssvv 
as betoie, t\ie tt«LN^Wax V-CSV <ixq?s»» '^^'^ 



138 



Eovte 5, — Katdic {CutiacJc) to TdjpHr. Sect. 11. 



architecture. It is not so large as the 
bridp^e of the same name at Purl, but 
has 11 arches, and is built in precisely 
the same fashion. It appears to be of 
extreme antiquity, but has evidently 
been repaired after the temples were 
destroyed by the Muhammadans, as 
fragments of carvings in relief, taken 
evidently from temples, are let into 
the walls and piers. It also goes by 
the name of the Devldwdr, lit. " God- 
dess-door Bridge," from its proximity 
to a temple now to be described. 

After another 500 yds., through beau- 
tiful groves of palms and mango trees, 
the Brahmd Kund, a tank faced with 
stone, is reached, opposite which is the 
walled in closure of the holy temple 
of Biraja, " the Passionless One," 
Biraja was a goddess who sprang from 
Pdrbatl after that deity had destroyed 
herself, in consequence of her father 
not having invited her husband Shiva 
along with the rest of the gods to a 
feast. Her body was distributed in 
62 pieces, and the navel fell to YAjpilr, 
which consequently, in the estimation 
of the inhabitants, ranks after Puri and 
Gaya as the 3rd most holy place in 
Bengal. Unbelievers are not admitted 
to the temple, but through the breaches 
can be seen the Hall of Audience and 
the tall spire, while the inclosure is 
covered with innumerable broken 
images. The spire is 67 ft. 6 in. high, 
and there are some curious sculptures 
let into the wall at the portico. The 
traveller will now regain the highway, 
and a little beyond the 2nd mile- 
stone, 200 yds. from the road, on the 
left-hand side, is the temple of Tri- 
lochan of the 3-ejed god, l.e, Shiva. 
The base of the original tower, which 
is now about (JO ft. high, has survived 
the general ruin, and for a height of 
about 14 ft. from the ground still 
stands, richly carved as of yore, giving 
some idea of the pa.st glories of Yajpiir. 
The rest of the building is covered 
with stucco. The god is placed in the 
inner sanctuary in a well, so as not to 
be visible from outside, but a copy 
exists in front of the outer door. It is 
the usual symbol of Shiva, with the 
face of Pdrbati attached, with 3 eyes 
ia her forehead, A few yds, off is 



a small dilapidated temple, containiiig 
the oldest Lingam in Yajpiir, called 
Tilobandeshwar, 7 ft. 8 in. in circum- 
ference. The priests assert that it is a 
miraculous stone, and grows. The rate 
of growth is, however, slow, being only 
1 Til, or the thickness of ft grain of 
mustard seed, a year. 

Between the I'emple of Trilochan 
and the road, in an undei^ound cham- 
ber, is a very holy and frightful image 
of KAll, with 18 arms. Beginning from 
the right of the observer, the hands are 
occupied as follows : the 1st holds a 
snake ; the 2nd, a cup of blood ; the 
3rd, the head of the demon Shambur ; 
the 4th. a shell ; the 5th, a bowl ; the 
Gth, a trident ; the 7th, a mirror ; the 
8th rests on her breast. On the left, 
the 1st hand lies on her knee ; the 
2nd holds a javelin ; the 3rd, a rosary ; 
the 4th, a dagger ; the 6th, a war 
club ; the 6th, a bell ; the 7th, a spear ; 
and the 8th, one of those heavy knives 
which are still used by the Nipdlese, 
and with which they decapitate a buf- 
falo at a blow. The remaining 2 hands 
are raised above the others, and grasp 
a gigantic sword. The ground about is 
covered with carved fragments, and in 
a temple on the other side of the road 
are some elegant sculptures ; a pippal 
tree growing on the top of the spire of 
this temple, has gradually forced its 
roots to the very bottom, and is slowly 
rending it asunder. The traveller may 
now explore the streets and gardens 
of the present town, where he will 
find fragments of halls and temples all 
built of fine cut stone, and by the ad- 
dition of mud walls, now converted 
into small but comfortable dwellings. 

Ydjpilr formerly stood on the main 
road to Purl, and the pilgrims to Ja- 
ganndth used regularly to resort to it, 
but the sanctity of the place has much 
diminished, and with it the gains of 
the priests, since the present high road 
was constructed. It is, however, still 
visited by a few pilgrims, and is wor- 
thy of being inspected by all who take 
an interest in Hindii antiquities. A 
Nach at this place is very different 
from the dull, stupid ceremony which 
passes under that name at Calcutta 
and in tVie lest of India. The damaelB 



Sect IL RoiOe 6.—Entak (Gutlad:) to Falu FmnU 



display great aetivitj in their more- 
ments, and throw much pnEsion into 
their looks and gcsturea. The ancient 
pnlace at Yijpiir was dostrojoil by the 
officers of the English Tnblic Works 
Department, who tore down the last 
remainB, and built bribes along the 
Trunk Koad with the stones. At 11 m. 
to the W. of Yijpilr a colossal figure 
was dug Dp, of Fadmap^, the feet 
lost, but tUe lolal height must have 
beenaboutlTfLOiu. Thisflgureisuow 
called Sli&nta M&dharn. 'Ilierc arc 
other ruius tu the neighbourhood, but 
probably Ihose will suffiee for onli- 
naiy travellers. 

Should tl.e traveller prefer it, he 
may rctnm to Calcutta vi& Baleshwnr 
(Balasore), which is only 35 m. in a 
direct line from Yiljpur, and from 
which small steamers run. 

Sahuore. — Ihia place was onco of 
Rteat commercial importauce, and the 
Dutch had a factory hero, and the 
Danes also, but the latter sold their in- 
terest to the Enj^lish Government in 
1846. The sandhills in the neighbour- 
hood are much resorted to by anti- 
lopes, and in the grassy plains furthcT 
inland the wild buff^o is common, 
the tifier rare, but the leopard, hysena, 
elk, nllgfit, spotted deer, hog deer, 
mouse dcer,wilddog,wildcat, civet cat, 
niid bate arc common, as are peacocks, 
jungle fowl, black and red partridgoa, 
2 sorts of quail, snipe, golden plover, 
wild docks a[id wild geese. At the olcl 
Cometery in Mandal Street are a few 
□Id tombs : one (o Isabella Eclso, who 
<lied in April, 17C1, aged 17 ; one to 
Anne, wife of Cnpt, Francis Wilehan, 
who died in IfiBi. There U also the 
tomb of Burg Graff Van Leven Huscn, 
who died 23rd of November, H1H«. An 
ol)elisk on a triangular base behind 
I!dj& ShAm Anand's Dispensary, may 
also be visited. It has an inscription 
which hue not been copied. 



ROUTE 6. 

SATAK (CDTTACE) TO PAIBB POINT. 

The Agents for the British India 
Steam Navigation Company, Messrs. 
J. Bullock ic Co., at False I'oint, 
are also proprietors of the Orissa 
Carrying Company. They a 
following fleet of boats and st 



They run a steam launch weekly be- 
tween Katak and False Point, in con- 
nection with the B.I.8. Co. 'a mail 
steamers, from Calcutta and Bombay, 
and coast ports, and country passen- 
gers and cai^. 

The rates of passnge are as follows : 
Cabin rnm Kntak to Fnlw Toiut »8. it. 
Hnd via wsl Inclusivi: cif i«»i.ie<i 

nd ClaiiB ditto, LtiduAlve of puBoge 



Cabin and 2nd class passengers are 
dieted on board, the former at a. charge 
of 3 rs., and Ihe latter at 3 rs. per 
diem. Wines and spirits are supplied 
ou boaid. The dielance between Eo- 
tak and False Point is about 82 -m.; ot 
this aO m. JB by canal, the icmainder 
by river. The journey isgenerally per- 
formed in 21 hours. 

It is always best for passengers 
by the British Steam Navipation 
Company's steamers for False I'oint, 
(0 advise Messrs. J. Bullock & Co., 
by teicgraph or letter, when to 
expect them ; for, as the steam 
, launches have only accommodation 
' for a limited number, estro. ^Kie^K 
I would haiB Vo '^ KQ^'^\<A "vn ''3Q& 



' Routt 7. — Calcutta to DdrjSing. 



140 

one time. The COmpanj will let out 
Bteam laonchea and buats on hire, fix- 
ing their charges according to the na- 
ture o£ the work to be performecl. It 
the trayeller tlecides to retura by this 
route, the onljalUmntiTc being a very ! 
long route bj pdlki, he will go on ' 
board the stenm launch at G.45 A.x.. 
having provided himself with such 
drinkables &b he may require. He will 
. also do well to take with him a. rifte, 
aa he is nearly Bare to see crocodiles 
and altigatore, and it is really a good 
work to kill these monalere, who destroy 
at least 100 human beings every year in 
this province. InleBsthanhalf anhour 
he will pass the first lock, and enter 
the Kendrdp&r& Canal, which is here 
about 80 ft. broad. This canal reacben 
from Katak for a distance of 42^ m. 
till it drops into tidal waters at Mir- I 
sAgii, M m. from Fate Point Har'l 
bonr. The first 40 m. and the works 
connected iherewllh were constructed 
partly by Mr. LaTinge-and partly by 
Mr. Brookes and by Mr. Wildtord. 

The- extension of the-Kendrdpflra 
Canal for 15 m. to Jambill Lock, close 
lo False Point Earboor, was designed 
jind made by Mr. Macmillan. The 
Patamundi Canal, which connects the 
K«ndr&p^iL Uaiialwitli Ibe Brdlimiinl 
Eiver, was made by Mr. Unwin. The 
High Level Canal and Works con- 
nected with it were designed and con- ' 
structed by Messrs. Walker, Odling, 
and Macmillan. These vrurkg were 
begun in 13(i3, and the Bhndruk end 
is still in progress, with distributariea. 
from it. Through the Kendr^pArA 
Canal the steam launch, will glide 
quite tranquilly, and the traveller will 
Bee on either side a rather pretty coun- 
try, with occasional Tillafres. There 
are''a11igators in the canal, but not rc'ry 
large ones. It takes about B hours to 
reach the place where the canal bifur- 
cates, and 6 locks are passed, each 
caoeing a delay of 7 to 10 minntes. 
Where the canal branches inlo two, 
the right branch leads to Marsilgrti. 
the left to Chombell. There are 3 
more locks before reaching Milrs&gili. 
At the month of the canal there is 
sand, on which usually many alliga- 1 
tan are seen, aoineotQiAm from 20 ft. ; 



Sect. II. 



to 30 ft. long. During floods, the 
whole tract to the K., or coast side, is 
one large sea or jangle-covered swamp. 
It belonged to the ancient family of 
the Kujang RAji, but has lately been 
purchased by the MaJuirAjS of Bald- 
win, whoso great wealth will, it is 
hoped, enable him to make many im- 
provements. 

The traveller will probably have to 
pass the 'night at anchor somewhere 
near Fnlse Point Harbour, at a place 
where the steamer will take in wood, 
and in'the motning he wiU reach the 
Landing Place at Dowdeswell Island, 
where he will embark in the B.I.8.H. 
Co.'s ship for C^eutta. 



EOUTE 7. 
TTTA TO DilUiL 







iBt, 2nd 


Ut 211.1 


WlWa 


Sl.-itir.n«. 


aiulSM 


anrt Srd 












Calcutta, SrUiWilh 








Slalion . . . 


-.M 


«.30 




B(imck]iilr . . . 






ifH 


IL-Uuipilr . . . 






3 




8.17 


10.30 


SB 


K.i.ul.™pdri . . 








JUMlaniiiir. . . 
(Tqm off here for 


IP, a 


" 


4ii 


Ctjgdali". . . , 
RiusghSf . . . 


9r, 


n.K 




Amnsliala . . . 








(Tura "IT tor 








Ki?^la,iiif.,[li. 






S7J 


Bopiln'. . . . 




i2.« 


ti. 


KLshuganJ . . . 






T4) 








77] 








^4 


CUuadanga . . 


vi.a 


2.5 



■ Wiiete tliB Buuum Ban»lii;ll ColL-ge is. 



Soutt 7. — Railviay StoHotit. 







iut "I,d 


i.i,ft.rt 


MUcs 


SlatloTij. 


onrtSnl 










. Chiaa. 










102} 










Mirpilr . . . 






IIGJ 


























SilraOhdt+. . 






4 


Gui^lplir . 


: 8> 


sill 


a* 


Ki'ttto .'.' 


8.a!i 












M 








Hiuiiui^.'. 






Builinpilr . 






IW 


NflivilW) . 


■1 lO-M 


iiIm 


.raj 


Jaipilr . . . 


. j ii.as 


'^"o 


B« 




■ \?i 


i,.ie 


IBO* 


?fs*':- 






iiU 


P&rbJitiiiiir . . 






120i 


Bdldimr. . . 








Bsrwdpi . . . 






i 


&-".-. 


'. \ ■ aTiT 


<l.3 










15H 




'. 4.3! 






BlilUmir ', '. 


: S 


IL 



Rruurli.— For lutennedlBto steUona Me 
TIniB Tabic In " ftights III tte vldulty of Cat- 
cnlta," : Ctlnata, toSarra^pliT. Shortly snor 



coeoa palme nnd iiluiitaln trues to the rieht. 
T]iere fssQ old AeKerted fort J uiili^ to the U. 
ur ChaiDim^r' KBnchrfipAra la the plue 



FaMpiunini in the stmiier Hhonlil eipeci&lty 
ask fur tlifl Kiluk tjA, nhicli ia lurtloalariy 
niie lien. Tlw EanCeNBeiif^ Bcllway iiinne- 
tlmu talieH U fiiu of thb tlali bi CalcnCta 
uhrre It iwllH st 20 tiuiFH tlie [>rl<w It fdtche 
at Itaiimk.liya. It take, a uuirtsr ut an hoii 
to crvvt b) HAii am, and then there Is . 



• The Eastern Bengal Railway aCops 
you croai In tlie steam ferry acij proce 
tlie Nortbero Bengal fUilww. BeTreshi 
ate supplied on Ixiard the Btcazners. 

T Ths diaitmce In mllM Is ban given tnm 



SoJdpuT, Jalpsigiiri and at Uiliguri. 

None of the Btations are very IWEe, 
exocpt JaJpaiguri and SiiiguH. The 
coanlTj is flat and well'n-oodcd all the 
way. At Bilignrf, tie travGller tu 
DArjlling gets into the cars, which we 
drawn by steam on the tramway. The 
station is ofi the linelo the light 
about 60 yds. The travtllcrs Ebould 
becarefol to provide themBclTeB with 
veils, HB the dast and blacks from the 
engine fly into their Sacen in clouds. 
Those who sit'ou the front xeata are 
eapecially inconvenieuoed. The time 
table of the Bteani Tramway is as fol- 




At Sukna tlie cars begin to ascend 
in cuTves, like thoac ninde by a man 
skating. The turns aie very aharp, 
Hiicl at each a fresh landscape is devc- 
lo[icd. ThesidcB of Ihu mouutaia ore 
cluthcd witli lofty trees and maaseB of 
jungle. At about the IGtli m. the com 
pBHN round a loop which projects from 
ihc inountKin, and the line runs on the 
edpe of a precipice of 1,000 ft, Break- 
fast at Tsndoria costs IJ ta. At Kar- 
seong there is an eicellent hotel kept 
by Mr. Hoberls. who bss been there 
ai'veral years, and is also pronriatoT ol 
the WoodltnAa au\sl b.1. ^ittCiS&n^t, 
1 The ^ote\ at "KjoicOT.'i, "la c^SieSi. ■So» 



142 



Route 7; — Calcutta to DdrjUing, 



^edt. IT. 



ClarienfloTi. This' hotel can accom- 
modate 20 people. The charges arc 
6 rs, a day for a broken period, or 
150 rs. a month. There are 15 acres 
of ground attached to the hotel, and 
in these grounds the vegetables used 
at the hotel are grown. The munici- 
pality levy 150 rs. a year on the hotel, 
and, it is said, fail to keep the roads in 
repair. There are two doctors living 
close by : Dr. Morris, who is very well 
spoken of, and another. Just below 
it, on the other side of the road, is a 
tea garden, and on the opposite moun- 
tain is Marmah, a tea plantation, 
where there is a European manager 
with 3 assistants, and 400 kulis. Those 
who stop at Karseong must take pre- 
cautions against the leeches, which are 
so numerous that, in walking over the 
grass or undergrowth for half an hour, 
more than 100 of these voracious crea- 
tures will have fastened on a person. 
There are no tigers, but panthers 
sometimes carry off cattle. Before 
the N. Bengal State Railway was 
opened, the route from Calcutta to 
Ddrjiling was by rail to Sdhibganj, 
220 m. from Haurah, then by steam 
ferry across the Ganges to Karagola, 
thence by carriage to the river oppo- 
site Dingra Ghdt, then crossing the 
river to Kishanganj, Titalid and Sili- 
guri at the foot of the hills. 

The distances from Calcutta are as 
follows : — 

Miles. 
Calcutta to Damukdiya . . . 118$ 
Across the river . . . . 2\ 

SArd Ghd^ to Siliguri . . .196 
Billguri to Ddrjiliiig . . . . 50 

Total distance . . 367 

All is now accomplished with per- 
fect ease by steam, but when the N. 
Bengal State Railway was opened to 
Siliguri in 1878, the means of trans- 
port were veiy seriously taxed, for the 
extension of the railway to near the 
foot of the hills, not only brought 
more summer residents to Darjiling, 
but also many more casual travellers.* 
At the same time the tea cultivation 
had much increased, and consequently 
more tea had to be sent down, and 
moi-e stoiea of all kinds to be sent up, 
2W for instance, lead, etc., for packing 



the tea. It was at one time intended 
to extend the N.B. State Railway to a 
place in the Tardl called 'Adilp'iir, 
nearer the foot of the hills ; but this 
fell through, and a proposal to lay a 
steam tramway from Siliguri to Dar- 
jiling, on the cart road, was warmly 
taken up loj the Lt.-Governor, Sir 
Ashley Eden. A capital of 1,400,000 
rs. was subscribed, and the works were 
started early in May, 1879. The Vice- 
roy and Lady Lytton travelled 18 m. 
up this line in March, 1880, and in 
August of that year the line was 
opened for passenger and goods traffic 
to Karseong, 30 m., an elevation of 
5000 ft. The line is now prolonged 
to DArjlling, 7300 ft. high, the greatest 
altitude a locomotive has ever been 
worked. 

Although called a tramway, the 
line is in every sense of the word a 
2-ft. gauge railway, constructed in 
the most substantial manner, with 
heavy steel rails (40 lbs. to the yd.). 
The locomotives, specially designed by 
Messrs. Sharpe & Stewart, of Manches- 
ter, have 4 wheels, with a wheel base 
of 4x3, and weigh 10 tons. The 
manner in which they turn round the 
curves, many of which are only of 
70 ft. radius, as.tonish even American 
experts. The speed of the trains, both 
up and down, is not allowed to exceed 
7 m. an hour, although on special occa- 
sions 16 m. has been easily attained. 
By the present speed travellers ascend 
over 1 ,000 ft. an hour, but as the start is 
made early in the morning, the day 
becomes warmer as the greater alti- 
tude is attained. Travellers are 
strongly advised to have extra warm 
clothing at hand, also a warm wrapper 
for the feet. It is worthy of note, that 
this is the fii*st work of the kind for 
which the capital required has been 
raised entirely in India. The speed 
with which this line has been finished 
and the success which has attended it 
are due to the energy of the able 
Agent of the E. Bengal Railway, My. 
Prestage, who had the good sense to 
resist the proposal to select an alto- 
gether new route, and to choose, for 
tlie line one of the finest mountain 
roads in the world, well-bridged, 



*■» 



Sect. II. 



£ou(e 7. — DdrjUing, 



143 



drained, and consolidated, which had 
cost £6000 per m., and was already at 
his disposal. 

Ddr;jiling^ written by SirJ. Hooker 
Dorjihng, signifies accordine to some 
" the Holy Spot "("Up in the Clduds," 
p. 21) ; according to others " the 
Bright" or" Sunny Spot." The district 
is divided into 2 portions : the N. is ' 
from 4,000 to 9,000 ft. above the sea | 
level. The S., or Moning, consists of 
the spurs of the first range of the 
Himdlayas, and the plains thence to 
the Zil'a of Rangpiir. It is bounded 
on the N. by the rivers Ruman, Great 
Kanjit, and TlstA, which divide it from 
Sikkim on the W. ; by the Mechi river 
and mountains, which rise to between 
12,000 ft. and 13,000 ft., and divide it 
from Nlpdl ; on the E. the Tlstd and 
the Sechi divide it from Bhutdn, and 
on the S. it marches with; the Zil'as of 
Rangpiir and Panieah. The area in 
sq. m. of Ddrjlling District, according 
to the Census Map of 1872, is 1,234 sq. 
m. The District of Morang has a total 
area of 4,000 sq. m., and was ceded to 
the E. L Company by the Rdjd of 
Nipdl, by the treaty of peace signed at 
Segauli, and made over to the Rdjd of 
SilUdm by the treaty of Titdlia, on 
the 10th of February, 1817. From 
1817 to 1828, no notice was taken of 
Sikkim till a dispute occurred between 
the Lepchas and NlpAlese, which was 
referred to the British Government. 
In February, 1828, Mr. J. W. Grant, 
B. C. S., and Captain Lloyd, who was 
settling the boundary between NlpAl 
and Sikkim, represented to the Gover- 
nor-General, Lord W. Bentinck, that 
Ddrjlling would be a good place for a 
Sanatorium, whereupon Major Her- 
bert, Deputy Surveyor-General, was 
ordered to survey the Sikkim Hills. 
This was done in 1830. In 1835, the 
Sikkim RAjd ceded all the land S. of 
the Great Raujit river, E. of the 
Balasan, Kakail, and Little Raujit, 
and W. of the Rangno and Mahdnadl 
rivers, for a sum of 3,000 rs. per annum. 
In 1839, Captain Lloyd made over the 
Station to Dr. Campbell, who was 
transferred from Nipdl. When Dr. 
Campbell took charge there were only 
20 families in the whole tract. He 



remained Superintendent for 22 years, 
and built the Bdzdr, the Kachharl, and 
Church, made roads, and established 
a convalescent depot at Jelapahar. 

InNovember,1849,bothDr. Campbell 
and Sir J. Hooker, who were travelling 
together, were seized and imprisoned 
by the people of the Sikkim Rdjd, and 
Campbell was severely beaten. For 
this outrage the Rdjd was deprived of 
Morang, and of the 3,000 rs. a year 
which had been paid to him. (See 
"Himdlayan Journals," vol. ii., p. 202). 
The Station of Ddrjlling is surrounded 
by the highest mountain peaks in the 
worid. Of these, the highest, Mt. 
Everest, is 29,130 ft. above the level 
of the sea, and is visible from Jela- 
pahdr, the convalescent depot, to the 
S. of Ddrjlling, but though visible, it 
is at the distance of at least 120 m. 
It is in Nipdl, and the traveller will 
look for it over the hill of Tonglii, 
10,080 ft. high, which is due W. of 
Jclapahdr, at about 12 m. distance as 
the crow flies. A fearless rider, or 
strong Alpine climber may make an 
expedition to Tonglii, where there is 
a Ddk Bangld, but it is only right to 
say that it is a most fatiguing jommey, 
and for a rider not without consider- 
able danger. Sir J. Hooker, in his 
" Himdlayan Journ." vol. i., p. 154,says 
that this is the most interesting trip to 
be made from Ddrjlling, and that it is 
fully 30 m. by the path ; by the way 
he went he soon entered a forest, and 
descended very rapidly, occasionally 
emerging on cleared spurs, where were 
fine crops of various millets, with 
much maize and rice. At an elevation 
of about 4000 ft. he found the great 
bambii abound, which flowers every 
year, while all others of this genus 
flower profusely once in a great many 
years, and then die away ; their place 
being supplied by seedlings, which 
grow with immense rapidity. This 
bambii attains a height of from 40 ft. 
to 60 ft., and its culms are as thick as 
tiie human thigh ; it is used for water- 
vessels, and its leaves form an ad- 
mirable thatch, which in the time of 
Sir J. Hooker's visit N<ICtfe^Tv.^^£>ciN^:c«a^. 
use f OT Yiowsca ?x\. T>^t\\Nxyv^. ^tv "Odl^ 
way to Tou^Vli, ^ ^^^Wi'a q1 ^'?»^ "'^'^"^ 



144 



Boute 7, — Calcutta to Ddrjiling. 



Sect. 11. 



be noticed, some bearing palatable, and 
very eatable fruit of enormous size, 
others with small finiit, borne on pros- 
trate leafless , branches, which spring 
from the root and creep along the 
ground. On the banks of the streams 
swarms a troublesome dipterous insect, 
the Jxipsa, a species of Siamulium, very- 
small and black, floating like a speck 
before the eye. Its bite leaves a spot 
of extravasated blood under the cuticle, 
very irritating if not opened. Sir J. 
Hooker crossed the Little Ranjit river, 
and so reached the base of Tonglii, 
where he camped ; he then ascended 
the Simonbong spur, called from a 
small village Llama temple of that 
name, on its summit. Here the Praong 
bambii replaces the larger kind, which 
grows below, and the wild strawberry, 
violet, and geranium are found. Above 
Simonbong, the path up Tonglii is 
little frequented. Thetrack runs along 
ridges, verj- steep and narrow at the 
top, through deep humid forests of 
oaks and magnolias, and tetranthera 
and cinnamomum,one species of which 
ascendg to 8000 ft., while one of te- 
tranthera reaches 9000 ft. At 6000 
ft. there is a spring of water called 
Simsibong. Here are great scandent 
trees, twisting around the trunks of 
others and strangling them. The 
latter gradually decay, leaving the 
sheath of climbers, one of the most 
remarkable vegetable phenomena of 
these mountains. Leeches swarm up 
to 7,000 ft., and have been known to 
live for days in the jaws, nostrils, and 
stomachs of human beings, causing 
dreadful suffering and death. Sir J. 
Hooker says that he had frequently 50 
or 60 together on his ankles. There 
is also a large tick wliicli infests the 
small bambii, and which the traveller 
cannot prevent from coming on his 
person. They get inside his dress and 
insert the proboscis deeply, without 
pain. Buried head and shoulders, and 
retained by a barbed lancet, the tick 
is only to be extracted by force, which 
is very painful. 

At 8,000 ft. enormous detached 

masses of micaceous gneiss rise ab- 

mpiHy from the ridge, covered with 

mosseB and ferns. In the forest here 



will be observed 3 species of oak, 
of which Quercus annulcuta, with im- 
mense lamellated acorns and leaves 
16 in. long, is the tallest and most 
abundant. There are also chestnut 
trees and laurini of several species, all 
beautiful forest trees, straight-boled 
and umbrageous above, also Magnolias, 
of which the Campbellii is the most 
superb species known. The Indian 
mountains and islands are the centre of 
this natural order. Skimmia and 
Symplocos arc the common shrubs. 
A beautiful orchid, with purple flowers 
(Cwlogyne WaUichii)^ grows on the 
trunks of all the great trees. The 
ascent to the summit is by the bed of 
a water-course, on the banks of which 
grow a small Anagallis and a beau- 
tiful purple primrose. In order of 
prevalence, the trees are the scarlet 
Mhododeiidron arhoreum and harha' 
turn, also Falconeriy in point of foliage 
the most superb of all the Himdlayan 
species, with trunks 30 ft. high, and 
branches bearing only at the ends, 
leaves 18 in. long, deep green above, 
and covered beneath with a rich brown 
down, also Skirmnia laurcola ; Sym- 
plocos and hydrangea, a few purple 
magnolias, pyri and the common yew, 
18 ft. round, currants, cherries, barber- 
ries, Andromeda, Daphne, and maple. 

Another very favourite and in- 
teresting excursion from Ddrjiling is 
to the Cane Bridge over the Great 
Ranjit River, 6,000 ft. below. An 
excellent road has been made, by 
which the whole descent can be easily 
performed on ponies, the distance by 
the road being 11 m. The zones of 
vegetation are clearly marked, Ist 
bv the oak, chestnut, and magnolia, 
which grow from 7,000 ft. to 10,000 
ft. ; 2nd, below 6,500 ft. grows the 
Alsophila gigantea or ti-ee-f em, which 
is seen from the Himalayas, E. to the 
Malayan Peninsula and Java, and 
W. in Ceylon ; 3rd, over the same 
height are seen the Calamus and Plec- 
tocomia Palms (6,500 ft. is the upper 
limit of palms in Sikkim) ; the 4th 
feature is the wild plantain, which 
in lower elevations is replaced by a 
larger kind. 

At 1,000 ft. below Ddrjiling is a fin^ 



Sect II. 



Hotite 7. — DdrjUing, 



145 



wooded spur called Llbong, where 
peaches and English fruit trees flour- 
ish, but do not produce fruit. The tea 
plant also succeeds admirably. Below 
18 the village of Ging, surrounded by 
steeps cultivated with rice, maize, and 
millet. At 10 m. distance from Ddr- 
jiling is the junction of the Ranjit 
with the Rangmo. The Ranjit's foam- 
ing stream runs through a dense forest ; 
in the opposite direction the Rangmo 
comes tearing down from the top of 
Senchal, 7,000 ft. above. Its roar is 
heard and its course is visible, but its 
channel is so deep that the stream it- 
self is nowhere seen. The descent of 
the river is exceedingly steep, and the 
banks are closed with impencti'able 
jungle. It is about 80 yds. across. 
The water is beautifully clear, and 
large fish, chiefly of the Cypranoid 
kind, abound. Here may be seen, too, 
immense quantities of superb butter- 
flies, large tropical swallow - tails, 
black, with scarlet or yellow eyes on 
their wings. Beautiful whip-snakes 
gleam in the sun. They liold on by 
a few coils of the tail round a twig, 
the greatar part of their body stretched 
out horizontally, and occasionally 
retracting, and darting an unerriug 
aim at some insect. Cane bridges occur 
here, which are made by stretching 
2 parallel canes across the stream; from 
them hang others in loops, and along 
the loops are laid 1 or 2 bambii stems 
for flooring. Cross pieces, below this 
flooring, hang from the 2 upper canes, 
and serve to keep them apart. The 
traveller grasps one of the canes in 
cither hand and walks along the loose 
bambtis laid on the swinging loops, 
the rattling of which is not csdculated 
to inspire confidence. Even with bare 
feet it is often difficult to walk, there 
being frequently but 1 bambii for the 
feet, and if the fastening is loose it 
tilts up,leaving the traveller suspended 
over the torrent by the slender canes ; 
yet here a Lcpcha, carrying 140 lbs. on 
his back, crosses without hesitation, 
slowly but steadily and with perfect 
confidence. Further down is the junc- 
tion of the Ranjit with the Tlstd, 
which is sea-green and muddy, while 
the Great Ranjit is dark green and 



Yery clear. The Tlsta is much the 
broadest, deepest, and most rapid. • 
This expedition will take 2 days. 

Other great peaks seen from^ Jela- 
pahAr and Ddrjiling are Kinchinjanga, 
28,166 ft. high, 45 m. distant ; Janu, 
25,304 ft. ; Kabru, 24,015 ft. ; Chu- 
maldri, 23,943 ft., 84 m. distant ; Pau- 
hanri, 23,186 ft, ; Donkia, 23,176 ft., 73 
m. distant ; Baudim, 22,017 ft. ; Nar- 
singh, 19,146 ft., 32 m. distant ; Black 
Rock, 17,572 ft. ; and Chomunko, 17,325 
ft. Senchal, 8,610 ft., is clearly seCn 
from Jelapahdr, and is about 6 m. off, 
It used to be a depot, and an expe- 
dition may be made to it, starting 
early in the morning. It is compara- 
tively easy of access, and from Jela- 
pahda: the path along the ridge of the 
mountains may be seen. This path 
abounds in rare and beautiful plants, 
and traverses magnificent forests of 
oak, magnolia, and rhododendron. In 
April and May, when the magnolias 
and rhododendrons are in blossom, the 
gorgeous vegetation is, in some re- 
spects, not to be surpassed by any 
thing in the tropics. But the prevail- 
ing gloom of the weather iif general 
mars the otherwise beautiful effect. 
The white-flowered magnolia {Mag' 
noli/i exceytor) is found in great abun- 
dance at an elevation of from 8,000 
ft. to 9,000 ft., and it blossoms so pro- 
fusely that the forest on the broad 
flanks of Senchal, and other moun- 
taius of that elevation, appear as if 
sprinkled with snow. The purple- 
flowered magnolia (J/. Camphellii) is 
seldom found below 8,000 ft., and is 
au immense, but very ugly, black- 
barked sparingly branched tree, leaf- 
less in winter and also during the 
flowering season, when it puts forth 
from the ends of its branches great 
rose-purple cup-shaped flowers. On 
its branches and on those of oaks and 
iBxaolB^Rhododendron Balhotmi grows 
epiphytically, a slender shrub, bearing 
from 3 to 6 white lemon-scented beUs, 
4 J in. long, and as many broad, at the 
end of each branch. In the same 
woods the scarlet Rhododendron (i^ 
arboreum) is scarce, and is QVLbnasL 
by the ^eafc R. aTcje,i\,tcuw,,, -^^ossSci." 
grows «A a \.T^^ ^ft iX,•\s:\^^"^N^5^^'»^'^ 



146 



Route 7, — Calcutta to Ddrjiling. 



Sect. II. 



12 in. to 15 in. long, deep green, 
wrinkled above and silvery below, 
while the flowers are as large as those 
of i?. Dalhouni, and grow more in a 
cluster. Nothiuj? of the kind exceeds 
m beauty the flowering branch of R, 
argents um, with its spreailing foliage 
and glorious mass of flowers. 

Ois, laurels, maples, birch, chesnut, 
hydrangea, a species of fig, and 3 Chi- 
nese and Japanese kinds, are the prin- 
cipal trees ; the common bushes being 
Aucuba, Skimmia, and the curious 
Helwingia, with little clusters of 
flowers on the centre of the leaf, like 
Butcher's Broom.* In spring immense 
broad-leaved arums spring up, with 
green or purple-striped hoods that end 
in tail-like threads, 18 in. long, which 
He along the ground ; and there are 
yarious kinds of Uonvallaria, Paris, Be- 
gonia, and other beautiful flowering 
herbs. Nearly 30 ferns may be gath- 
ered on this excursion, including many 
of great beauty and rarity, but the 
tree-fem does not ascend so high. 
Grasses are verj' rare in these woods, 
except the dwarf bambu, now culti- 
vated in the open air in England. 
Jelapahar, itself, is 7,4GOft. high, and 
Darjiling 7,iHX) ft. 

On entering PArjiling from the 
Karsoong Kwid, the tniveller will 
arrive in the BAzar, oppasite the 
lK)st-offico. A very steep path on 
the right loads to the l>ingle, the 
house of Mr. l^stage. Agent for the 
E. Bengal Kaihvay, whence a road 
leads to Jelajxihar, distant 300 yds. 
After iws8ing the bamicks the road 
tnds in tho oemotery, which is sur- 
rounded by a gi.HHl oncU\««ing wall. It 
is bitterly cold at this pUico, even m 
^larch. Thorv' are only 3 or 4 tablets 
of ottioors and otHoors' wives. IV- 
jfvendiuj: from tho l>iuj;lo,ariKullo:uis 
N.W. to tho Mall K<.>ad, in whioh is 
a band-stand. At UH> vds, Ivvoud 
this on tho loft is tho Svvivtariato, a 
fine large bangla, on a wiilo pLiioau, 
which KH>ks mori^ soouro fivm a land- 
slip than anv othor houso al>out. A 
little to the :>', of it is tho Club. Tho 
entrance fiv for jHTuiauont momlK^rs 

* Hookw't **Hlmalay9ui Jv^unuds," nxl. l, 

JKSti 



only is 30 rs. The subscription for 
permanent members is 7 rs. a month. 
The subscription for honorary members 
is 16 rs. for a month of 30 days, and 
the same for broken periods of a month, 
provided that not more than 48 rs. 
shall be paid altogether by an hono- 
rary member. Ladies resident in 
Ddrjlling, without any male member 
of their families, may be authorized by 
the committee to take books from the 
library, on payment of 4 rs. a month 
in advance. Permanent members have 
a right to occupy bed-rooms before 
honorary members. * There are 8 
sleeping rooms and 2 billiard rooms. 
Above the Secretariate is St. Andrew's, 
the foundation stone of which (the 
enlarged Church) was laid by 
Bishop Milman in 1870. The old churcm 
was founded in 1843. It is 104 ft. 
long and 30 ft. 2 in. broad, and can 
seat 360 people comfortably. It was 
opened for service in October, 1844. 
The Chaplain has also to attend the 
church for the soldiers at Jelapah&r. 
There is also a Wesleyan Chapel in 
Auckland Koad. There are 8 tablets 
in the church, of which the most no- 
table is to George William Aylmer 
Lloyd, C.B., lieut.-Gen. H. M.*s Ben- 
gal Army, who died at Ddijillng on 
the 4th of June, 1865. aged 76. 

To his exertions and 
Personal inflnence with the 
RAiaofSikkim, 
The province of Bengal is indebted 
For the Sanatarium cX I^uijiling. 

There is also a tablet with the 
following inscription : — 

In Menioriain of 

CUAKLOTTE, a>UNTESS CANNING, 

No^•enlber, 1S62. 

AlK>ut J of a m. beyond the church 
is the residence of the'Lt.-Govemor of 
IVngal. who ix'isses the hot season at 
this pl:ioo. Tho house is called the 
ShrublHTv. and is large and comfort- 
ablo. l.vAvor down the hill, and a 
littlo to tho S.W. of the Shrubbery, is 
tho oomotory. which is arranged fn 3 
lornuvs. Outside is a placard with 
tho foosi, whioh are for a masoniy 
grave, 8 anaj) per sq. ft. ; for a monu- 

* ShouM the trax-^Uer not be able to obtain 
a lteilnH>m at the Club, he can do ao at 
Kobcru's Woodlamla Hotd. 



Sect. 11. 



lioute 7, — DdrjUing, 



147 



ment, 1 r. per sq. ft.; for a headstone 
or flat slab, 15 is. Soldiei's are ex- 
empted from payment. There arc 43 
tablets, and amongst them one of great 
interest, inscribed as follows : — 

H.J. 

ALEXANDER CSONA (sic) DE KOROSIE, 

A Native of Hungary, 

wlio to follow out 

Philological Researches,' 

resorted to the East, 

and after years X)as8ed under 

privations such 

as have been seldom endured, 

and xtatient labour in the cause of science, 

compiled a Dictionary and Grammar 

of the Tibetan Language, 

his.best and real monument. 

On his road to Hlassa 

to resume his labors, 

he (lied at this ]ilace 

on the 11th of April, 1846, 

aged 45 years. 

His fellow-labourers. 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

erected this Tablet to his memory. 

Re<iuiescat in pace. 

The principal bdz^r is in a hollow 
below the Secretariate, and is so 
thronged that it is difficult to make 
a way through it. There will be seen 
numbers of Lepchas, Limbus, Bhutias, 
and Pahdris mixed up with the In- 
dian servants of European gentlemen 
and Hindii and Pdrsi shop-keepers. 
The women are, in general, short, 
thick, and rosy -cheeked, and may be 
seen, in a good-humoured way, dealing 
out tremendous thumps on the men. 
There is not much game to be had in 
the immediate neighbourhood of D^r- 
jiling, but to the able pedestrian, the 
botanist, the lover of the picturesque, 
there are endless excursions to be 
made on foot. It is impossible to 
paint the scenery in words, but there 
are many views, and particularly that 
of Einchinjanga, which impress the 
mind more and more every time that 
they are viewed. Too often clouds 
veil the highest peaks, but at times 
these roll away, and the bare granite 
summits are seen. One looks over the 
lofty hills and across a vast chasm to 
the line of perpetual snow, about 17,000 
ft. high, on the side of the stupendous 
Kinchinjanga. Above that rises a 
glittering white wall, and then it 
seems as if the sky were rent and the 
Tiew is dosed by cnormoas masses of 



bare rock. There is one special feature 
in the summit of Einchinjanga, and 
that is a lofty wall of granite of pro- 
digious breadth,which appears to divide 
the summit into 2 portions. It seems 
difficult to explain how it is that the 
snow, which has fallen without cessa- 
tion for so many ages, has not closed 
up the sides of this wall so as to render 
it like the top of Mount Everest, one 
vast semi-circle. So it is, however, 
that the top of Kinchinjanga displays 
most distinctly this great granite wall 
and, also, vast boulders or masses of 
rock. It may be, of course, that the 
violent winds at the summit drive the 
snow aw^y over the almost perpen- 
dicular sides ; but whatever the cause, 
the effect is much more grand than if 
it were one great mass of snow. The 
extraordinary grandeur of this scene 
is heightened by the colouring given 
to it by the rising and setting sun, or 
by the moon. 

One of the most beautiful appear- 
ances is when, in the early morn- 
ing, the valleys are filled with mist, 
so that all the lower ground looks 
like an icy ocean ; then the top of 
Einchin, and those of its neighbour- 
ing giants, flame with a pink or ruby 
light, while the gloomy shades lower 
down seem to give increased lofti- 
ness to these stupendous peaks ; but, 
to use the words of the well-known 
traveller from whose work so many 
extracts have been made, " the most 
eloquent descriptions fail to convey to 
the mind's eye the forms and colours 
of snowy mountains, or to the imagi- 
nation the sensations and impressions 
that rivet attention to these sublime 
phenomena when they are present in 
reality." He adds, however, that 
" the Swiss Alps, though hardly pos- 
sessing the sublimity, extent, or ^ 
height of the Himalayas, are yet far 
more beautiful." In either case the 
spectator is struck with the precision 
and sharpness of the outlines, and still 
more with the wonderful play of 
colours on the snowy flanks of the 
mountains, from the glowing hae& 
reflected in orau^^, ^'^'^•» ^is^^ TVi^"^^ 

1 from clouds \\\ximva«3L Vj Wvi «nx^s^:wj; 

\ or rising suw, \jo Wi^ '^wv^vVj \2r:S^ox 



148 



HotUe 8. — Ddrjiling to Dhdkah (Dacca). Sect. II, 



that succeeds with twilight, when the 
red gives {Jlace to its complementary 
colour green. Such dissolving-views 
elude all attempts at description ; 
they are far too aerial to be chained to 
the memory, and fade fi'om it so fast 
as to be gazed upon day after day 
with -undiminished admiration and 
pleasure." (Himalayan Joumal8,vol, i. 
p. 123.) 



steamer. The stations from Jdgatf 
Junction to Goalando are as follows: — 



ROUTE 8. 

DArJILING to (DACCA) DIIAKAH. 

Although there is not very much to 
be seen at Dhdkah itself, it is very 
desirable to return to Calcutta from 
Ddrjiling by Goalando and that city, 
in order to see the gigantic rivers 
which traverse this part of Bengal. 
Leaving Ddrjiling at 10 A.M., the 
traveller will reach Siligurl at 7 P.M., 
where he may dine at the refreshment 
rooms, paying IJ rs. for a very good 
dinner. The train for Sdrd Ghdt 
leaves at 7.15 P.M., and arrives at 
A.M. The passage of the Ganges 
will then be made in the steamer 
Onprey, of 354 tons, on board 
which breakfast can be had for 12 
dnds. During the cold weather a 
temporary rail is laid for IJ m. over 
a sand bank, which, duiing the rains, 
is covered by the Ganges. The tra- 
veller will thus arrive at Jdgati Junc- 
tion, which is 107J m. from Calcutta, 
and 44 m. from Goalando, whence the 
oaxnej io phikah is made in a 



stations. 


• 

** . 

S I' 

.Is 

Q 

n 

7 
73 

44 


.Si 

P.M. 

2.35 
3.20 

4.35 


Jagatf Junction to Komarkoli 
Komarkoli to Khoksa . . . 

Khoksa to Pdngsa 

PAngsa to Belgachi .... 
BelgdcW to Rajabari ... 
R^abari to Goalando . . . 

Totfll 



Expense from JAgatl to Goalando is first 
class, Rs. 2 13 ds. 

There was formerly a Resident on 
the part of the E. I. Co. at Komarkoli, 
where there was a considerable busi- 
ness in silk filatures. A small ceme- 
tery remains, kept up by the E. Bengal 
Railway Co. It is enclosed with a 
good wall. There are 7 brick tombs 
without any tablet or inscription, and 
9 with inscriptions, the oldest of 
which is to James Macfie, M.D., sur- 
geon in the E. I, Co.'s service, who 
died April 14th, 1790. The others 
are quite modem. It is said that an 
Englishman was in the habit of bury- 
ing his favourite horses in this ceme- 
tery. Near Khoksa is a piece of 
country called Helling, or Baksa, in 
which are several neat villages and 
groves of trees, and sugar-cane is 
grown in abundance. Lord Mayo 
used to call this the Prestage Country, 
from the secretary of the Tent Club, 
who is one of the best riders in India. 
On one occasion, 14 fine boars, one of 
them of prodigious size, were speared 
here in a single day. The tents of the 
Tent Club are kept at this place, and 
it is the best ground for hog-hunting 
near Calcutta. There is an hotel at 
Goalando, and the traveller must pass 
the night there, or in one of the rail- 
way carriages. At Goalando the 
Ganges joins the Brdhmaputra. The 
Ganges is here called the Padma, or 
Padda, and is avast river. At some 
distance S., the 2 rivers form the 
Megna. With the tide the steamer 
goes 14 m. an hour. The whole dis- 



Sect. 11. 



Houte 8. — Dh^Uidh (Dacca). 



149 



tance from Goalando to Dhdkah is 
aboat 110 m. At aboat 65 m. the 
steamer leaves the Megna and turns 
into the Dhakah river, which is much 
narrower and shallower, and near 
phdkah itself is fast silting up. In 
the cold weather the Megna is a vast 
river, but in the rains it is so deep 
and rapid, as is too the Ganges at 
Goalando, that the navigation becomes 
really dangerous. Whirlpools are 
formed in which boats and light craft 
are often engulfed. At 10 m. from 
Dhdkah is Narayanganj, with 10,911 
inhabitants ; it is a great emporium for 
jute. There are 2 large factories here, 
employing some hundreds of hands, 
and an ancient building called the 
Kadam Hasiil, where, in a small 
mosque, is a stone with, it is said, the 
impression of the Prophet's foot. 

J)hdkah is a city with 69,212 in- 
habitants, and was once much more 
populous. It looks well from the 
river, having many fine buildings 
facing the stream. 1st, there is the 
house of a rich Hindii Seth, then 
comes what was the house of Zamin- 
ddr Wyse, an Englishman who ac- 
quired a large fortune, and possessed 
extraordinary influence ; not far off is 
the palace of the Niiwdb A^sanu 'lldli, 
who is one of the most distin- 
guished Muhammadan noblemen in 
Bengal. He, with his son Niiwdb 
Abdu '1 Ghani, are quite the leadei's 
of society in this Province, and arc 
celebrated for their charitable acts. 
Beyond the palace is the Mitford 
Hospital, a fine building. Beyond is 
the house of the agent for the Steam 
Packet Co. The landing-place is a 
little beyond this house, and is not 
very convenient. The steamer runs 
alongside a large flat, into which 
passengers disembark, and then pass 
over planks to the shore. A good 
landing-place is very much required 
here, and should be undertaken by 
the Government. The distance thence 
to the Commissioner's house, the 
houses of the other Europeans, and 
the church, is about 1 m. 

The two principal streets of the city 
cross each other at right angles. One 
extends from the Ldl ^^gh palace to 



the Bol&i creek, and is over 2 m. long, 
It runs parallel to the river, and has 
branch streets leading to the landing- 
places. The other leads to the canton- 
ment N. of the town, and is IJ m. 
long. At the junction of the streets is 
a square, with a garden in the centre. 
The church, which is 100 yds. ^S. of 
the Commissioner's house, is called 
St. Thomas', and is 75 ft. 8 in. long, in- 
cluding the porch, which measures 
12 ft. 8 in., and 31i ft. broad. It can 
seat 106 persons. There are 10 tablets, 
one of them to Mr. John Hollow, 
" erected in testimony of his munifi- 
cent bequest to this church." He 
died May 3rd, 1834, aged 76. There 
is also a tablet to Alexander Hollow, 
a zaminddr, and one which commemo- 
rates the presentation of an organ to 
the church by James Hollow, in 1837, 
The organ itself, however, has perished. 

At ird of a m. from the church is the 
Cemetery, which is very weU kept, and 
is worth a visit. It contains a small 
tank, whence the flowers, of which 
there are a great number, are watered. 
There are also some fine trees. In the 
centre is a handsome stone gateway, 
which marks the limit of the old 
cemetery. The older and handsomer 
tombs are within this gateway. There 
are a good many tombs of missionaries, 
and of Frenchmen and other foreigners. 
There is a finely sculptured mausoleum 
40 ft. high, with columns of a peculiar 
kind, which has no inscription, but is 
probably the tomb of some Muham- 
madan of rank. One tomb bears the 
names of Frederica Catharine and 
Louisa Charlotte, children of Arthur 
Littledale, of the C. S., who both died 
of cholera, within a few days of one 
another, in 1840. There are also some 
fine tombs of an old date in the E. I. 
Co.'s time, when Dhdkah was a place 
of considerable importance. 

Dhdkah, erroneously called Dacca by 
the English, has its name from Dhdk, 
the Butea froiidosa. In 1576, when 
Akbar's generals reduced Bengal, Sun- 
hdrgdon was the chief commercial 
city ; the emperor Jahdngir made 
Dhdkah the residence of the goverixcvt^ 
and called t\i<& cvJc^ ^^^D&x^5J5isxv's^^. 



150 



Eoute 8. — Ddrjiling toDhdJcah (Dacca). * Sect. IL 



galija called the Dalliseri. In 1801 
there were 233 mosques, and 43,949 
houses, of which 2,832 were of brick, 
according to the account given by 
Tavernier, in January, 1666. Not- 
withstanding the riches and celebrity 
of phdkah, there are few edifices left 
of any importance. On the S. bank 
of the river, near the centre of the 
city, is the great Katra (built in 1645 
A.D., according to Hunter), which 
means " arched building," which bears 
an inscription with the date A.H. 
1,035=1625 A.D. The small Katra 
was built by Amiru '1 umri Shdistah 
Khdn, in 1663 A.D. To the E. of the 
town is the Ldl Bdgh, begun by Mu- 
hammad 'Azim, son of ShAh JahAn, 
in 1677 A.D., and probably never 
finished. The walls are of red brick, 
and very solid. The fort was built 
by Ibrdhlm Khdn, the 5th Mughul 
crovernor, in 1690 A.D. In 1712, J'afar 
Khdn removed the court to Murshidd- 
bdd. The widow of Sirdju *d daulah 
was confined, with others, in a prison 
on the W. side of the liver, opposite 
the Katra. Jasdrat Khdn, governor 
in the time of Sirdju 'd daulah, was 
ordered to massacre the English at 
Dhdkah, but spared them. The most 
pleasant drive at Dhdkah is round 
the race-course, which is about 1 m. 
to the W. of the church. To the S. of 
it is a fine country villa belonging to 
the Niiwdb Ahsanu 'lldh. The T. B. 
is not far from the church. Dhdkah 
is a good place for hog-huntiiig and 
tiger-shooting. There are extensive 
ruins at Sundrgdon, but they can be 
visited only on an. elephant. The 
Niiwdb, mentioned above, possessed 
some elephants thoroughly broken in 
for tiger-hunting, and they were often 
lent to English gentlemen for that 
purpose. The English Government 
boiTowed them some years ago, and 
they died while in use for Government 
purposes, and have not been replaced. 
Shillong. — This hill, which is in 
the Khdsia Hills, is 6,600 ft. high 
above sea . level. It is the culminant 
point of the Khasia range, 6 m. N.E. 
from the Moflong bangld, where a 
most superb view is obtained of the 
Bhntdn Himdlaya ; the snowy peaks 



stretching in a broken series froin N. 
17° E. to N. 35** W. All are below the 
horizon of the spectator, though from 
17,000 to 20,000 ft. above his fevel. 
The finest view, however, in the 
Khasia mountains is from Shillong. 
A very full description of the scenery 
will be found in Hooker's "Himdlayan 
Journals," vol. ii. p. 290. Shillong majr 
be reached from Dhdkah by steamerr/a 
Kdchdr, and it is, therefore, introduced 
here, but only those travellers who have 
abundant time could be able to visit it. 
The country about Dhdkah (Dacca) 
is under water for 7 months in the 
year, and ordinary land travelling 
is unknown. From Dhdkah to Chat- 
tak in Sylhet takes from 1 to 3 
days by steamer, accoixiing to the 
state of the water. At Chattak there 
is a good T. B. with a khdnsamdn. 
In going to the Khdsia hills the 
traveller should leave Chattak in the 
evening in a native boat. At sunripe 
he is tmnsferred to a canoe, and 
ascends a mountain torrent through 
beautiful sceneiy for 3 m., when he 
reaches Teria, a village at the foot of 
the pass leading to Cherra Punjl. 
There is a small T. B. at Teria. From 
7 A.M. to 10 A.M. plenty of ^ulis can 
be got, but not in the afternoon, and 
the ti*aveller who anives at Teria at 
that time must sleep in heat and dis- 
comfort. Teria Ghdt is a steep i)aved 
ascent, and there is a good riding path 
from it for 9 m. to Cherm Punji, 
where there is a large commodious 
T. B. with a khdnsamdn. At Teria 
Ghdt the rain in the rainy season is 
something terrific, and the traveller 
must protect everything ^^^th water- 
proof coverings, it is 16 m. from 
Cherra Punjl to Moflong, where there 
is a good T. B. with a khdiisanian. 
The road is a good bridle path. Thence 
to Shillong is 17 m., and there is a 
good cart road. Shillong is the head- 
quarters of the Asdm Government, 
and there is a T. B. with a khdnsa- 
mdn. This i-oad is seldom taken, the 
usual route to Shillong being by 
Gauhati, on the N., where the ascent 
is by a veiy good carriage road, 63 m. 
long, with 3 T. B.'s and special com- 
forts at the central station. 



Sect. IL 



Boute 9. — Calcutta to Frome. 



151 



ROUTE 9. 

CALCUTTA TO BANGUN, MAULMAIN 
AND PBOMB. 

The distance from Calcutta to 
Rangiin is 780 m., and from Rangiin 



to Maulmain (Moulmein) 70 m, : 
total 850 m. To visit Barmah, it will 
be necessary to embark in one of 
the steamers of the B.I.S.N. Co. From 
Kangiin to Prome is 163 m., done by 
railway. The oflSce of the B.LS.N. 
Co. is in 16, North Strand, and the 
vessels lie in the river close by. The 
Co. maintains 60 steamers, many of 
them of large size, that is to say of 
2,000 tons and over ; they are kept 
beautifully clean, and are thoroughly 
well managed. The following table 
shows the rates to Rangiln and the 
places on the way. But some steamers 
go direct to Rangim, and it will be 
better to go in one of them. See page 
160 for a notice of Chitragaoii, 



Calcutta. 




1 




Chittagoug. 


Akyab. 


1 






Kyouk Phyu. 


1 


Cabin, i Deck. 

rs. TH. 


1 




Sandoway. 


Bassin. 


Cabin. 


Deck. 






45 « 
5t> 1 9 
t>0 11 


rs. 
26 
34 


rs. 
4 


Cabin, 
rs. 
10 


Deck. 

rs. 

2 


Cabin, i Deck. 




Cabin. 


Deck. 




• 

i 


rs. 


rs. 






75 


18 


45 


8 


22 


4 


12 


2 


rs. 


rs. 


Cabin. 


Deck. 




90 


18 


45 


8 


34 


5 


24 


8 


24 


3 


rs. 


rs. 


(4 


90 


18 


60 


12 


49 


9 


89 


7 


39 


7 


15 


4 





The voyage occupies somewhat less 
than 6 days, but according to the 
official statement 4 days. The descent 
of the Hugli occupies at least one of 
these days. The first place seen after 
leaving the mouth of the HugU, is 
the Alguada lighthouse, which is 
built on a reef, and is of granite, and 
160 ft. high. It has 8 streaks black 
and white alternately to the top, which 
is white. It stands in N. lat. 1 5'' 42' 14", 
and E. long. 94° 11' 35". and has awhite 
revolving light visible 20 m. The 
diameter of the building is 18 ft. 
The centre of the limtern is 144 ft. 
above high water. It was first lighted 
on the 23rd of April, 1865. Vessels 
should not approach nearer than 15 to 
20 fathoms. When the lighthouse 
bears N.. the course of the steamer is 
altered to E. by S. i S. magnetic. At 
51 m. from Alguada there is a floating 
light, and at 60 m. beyond the pilot 
comes on board. In about 2 hours 
Slephant pQint 19 reached; where is a 



lofty brick landmark. Here it is usual 
to throw over a bottle containing any 
particulars of importance about the 
vessel. The bottle is picked up by a 
boat, taken to the Telegraph Office on 
the shore close by, and the contaits 
are telegraphed to Rangiin. A few 
minutes afterwards the steamer is met 
by the one which plies to Maulmain, 
which takes the mails for that part. 
The latter steamer has a speed of 15 
m. an hour. 

The entrance to the Rangiin river is 
not impressive, the banks being low. 
The Irawddi river, however, cannot fail 
to impress the traveller by its vast 
breadth and volume of water. Its 
sources have never been explored, but 
according to the " British Barmah Ga- 
zetteer," vol. ii. p. 209, it is at least 900 
m. long, the last 240 of which are in Bri- 
tish territory. It rises and falls several 
times till about June, and then ri«XLSL 
steadily, it ^\X'&M>k& \\.^ Tss»xisssssssk. 



162 



Eoute 9. — Calcutta to Frame 



Sect II. 



time it is at Prome, that is, 163 m. 
beyond Rangiln, from 33 to 34 ft. 
above its dry season level, and below 
the lat. of Myan-bung inundates a 
vast tract of country on the E. and 
unprotected bank. Its maximum 
discharge of water has been variously 
calculated. According to the table of 
the "Barmah Gazetteer," it brought 
downdaily in July, 1875, 94,027,208,760 
metre tons of water. In August, 72, 
Mr. Gordon calculated the flood 
maximum discliargc at 1,442,007 cubic 
ft. per second. ITie Great Pagoda is 
seen shortly after entering the mouth 
of the river. On reaching Monkey 
Point the river divides into Poozoon- 
doung Creek on the right, and the 
main river which passes Rangiin. At 
Monkey Point is a fort which candes 
6 guns. Two roads branch off from 
Monkey Point, one called Poozoon- 
doung Road, which runs parallel to 
the creek of the same name, and be- 
side which, next the water, are 18 large 
factories, belonging to different 
European companies ; the other. 
Monkey Point Road, which further on, 
near the Sailors' Home and the 
Master Intendant's Wharf and Offices, 
is called the Strand. On the side of 
Monkey Point Road nearest the water, 
are the offices of several European 
companies, and the King of Barmali's 
Rice Mills. Four parts of the rice 
are husked, and one part left unhusked 
to prevent combustion. The Sailors' 
Home has a small turret in the 
centre. Beyond it is a small pagoda, 
where the officers of the WeUeslei/ 
killed in the attack on Rangi!in were 
buried. The Strand is a handsome 
broad road, with some fine buildings 
along it. Of these the handsomest is 
the Law Courts, wliich is about 50 
yds. back from the water. Past it and 
level with the Flag- Staff, runs the 
Soolay Pagoda Road, from the river 
in a N. direction. Not far off is the 
B.I.S,N. Co.'s office in Forty Street, a 
few yds. off Strand Road. About 
2,000 ft. up this road is the Soolay 
Pagoda, in Fytche Square, an open 
space with a tank in the centre, sur- 
rounded by trees and shrubs, and 
fyj'ih Dalboiwic Street mniung E. and 



W. from it. In this street, opposite 
the Pagoda, is the Town Hall. A little 
beyond it is the British India Hotel. 
The British Barmah Hotel, which is 
the best, is a little further off. 

Having located himself in one of 
these hotels, the traveller may view the 
principal European buildings in the 
town, which are close by, and then 
proceed to the Shoay Dagon Pagoda, 
which is the chief sight in Rangi!Ln. Re- 
turning to the Strand he will visit the 
Pi*o-Cathedral, or Church of the Holy 
Trinity, which is about 260 yds. to the 
W. of the Flag-Staff. It is 106 ft. 
long from E. to W., and 35 ft. 5 in. 
broad from N. to S. The following 
inscription is in the pulpit : — 

JAMES AND SARAH LEISHMAN 

Present this Pulpit 

As a Tliank Offering to God 

For three dear children — 

Oswald Stuart, Aones Maud, and 

Alain Ross — 

Born to them wliile members of the 

Congregation of Holy Trinity Church, 

1872—1879. 

Other tablets are to John Victor 
Douglas de Wet, Govt. Advocate of 
British Barmah, drowned by the up- 
setting of a boat at Table Island, 
Cocos, in 187G ; to William Henry 
Clarke, LL.D., the first judge ap- 
pointed to the Recorder's Court m 
British Barmah, who died at sea in 
1867 ; and to Francis Edward Cunning- 
ham, Govt. Advocate, who died in 
1877. Over the entrance door is — 

To the Gh>ry of God 

This Window is offered by 

COLONEL A. FPYTCHE, 

H.M.'s Commissioner of Bannah. 

A.D. 18(58. 

In the pavement near the Altar is— 

This Chancel Floor 

Was laid down 

By the Rangiin Volunteer Rifles, 

In Memory of their CommancluHt, 

LIJIUT.-COLONEL THOMAS PHILLIPS 

SPARK, 

Major Madras Staff C»)rp8, 

And CtnnmiHsicmer of Pegu ; 

Who die<l at Madras, 

On the 23rtl of April, 18C3. 

Beati mortui qui in Domino 

Moriuntur ut requiescant 

A laboribus suis. 

About 100 yds. to the E. in the 
Strand is the Telegraph Office, and a 



1 

Sect. IL HoiUe 9.—TIte Skive or Shoai/ Dagon Pagoda, 153 



few yds. to the N, of it the Bank of 
Bengal and the Post Office. About 
the same distance to the E. in Phayre 
Street, and close to the Strand, are the 
Chartered Bank and the Chartered 
Mercantile Bank. The Roiiian Catho- 
lic Cathedral is on the N. side of 
Merchant Street, where it joins Bank 
Street, and on the S. side of Merchant 
Street, 100 yds. to the E. of the 
Boman Catholic Cathedral, is the 
Baptist Chapel, and 150 yds. to the 
E. of it, the Armenian Church. 

The next visit may be to the Phayre 
Museum, which is between Commis- 
sioner's Road and Montgomery Street, 
on the N. side of the Canal, and close 
to the General Hospital, to the W. of 
Pagoda Road, which runs between the 
two. It stands in very pretty grounds, 
and is a 2-storied building. In the 
lower story are wild beasts, bears, 
panthere, >vild cats, monkeys, and a 
young tiger from Maulmain. Mr. 
Harding, the honorary curator, has 
taught all the animals to be tractable, 
except the hyama, with which no- 
thing can be done. The Orang-Utan 
in the cold weather wraps himself up 
in a cloak, but on being called he puts 
it off, comes forward, and gives his 
great hairy paw to Mr. Harding. 
The Menagerie is very popular, and 
many Punjus, or priests, visit it. It is 
also good policy to keep it up, for the 
Barmese think it one of the insignia 
of royalty. In the upper story is a 
most curious collection of stone and 
bronze images, representing men with 
the heads of elephants and boai's. 
There are also one or two images of 
Hindii deities. There is too a collec- 
tion of stuffed animals, and of minerals 
and fabrics, and the bark of a tree, 
which exactly resembles plush, and is 
used by some tribes as clothing. The 
Govt. High School is a little to the N. 
of this Museum, as are the Diocesan 
Schools and the Freemasons' Hall. 
The Railway Station of the Rangiin 
and Irawddi Valley State Railway 
is about 2,000 ft. to the E. of the Free- 
masons' Hall, and it runs on to within 
J of a m. of Monkey Point. Due N. 
of it are 2 tanks, the New Dhobi Tank 
and the Dhohi Tank, mid almost 



parallel with the latter, and to the W, 
of it, are the Barracks of the European 
infantry, and the Officers' Mess-rooms 
of the infantry and artillery. W. of 
these again are the Roman Catholic 
Cantonment Church, and the Pro- 
testant Iron Church. The Cantonment 
Cemetery is to the E. of the European 
Infantry Barracks, and between them 
and the Royal Tank ; 2,000 ft. to the 
W. of this tank is the Great Pagoda. 
The Government House, which is the 
house of the Chief Commissioner, is 
about 2J m. to the N.W. of the land- 
ing-place at the Strand. It is a large 
2-storied house, in rather extensive 
grounds. The Chief Commissioner's 
Office is in the Strand, close to Holy 
Trinity Church, and adjoining it are 
the Public Offices, an imposing build- 
ing. 

TJtc Skive or b7ioay Dagon Pagoda, — 
This temple, which is one of the most 
remarkable in the world, is to the 
N.W.* of the town, and a little more 
than 2J m. from the landing-place at 
the Strand. The ** Gazetteer" says of 
this building that it is the most 
celebrated object of worship in all the 
Indo-Chinese countries, and according 
to the Palm-leaf Records was founded 
in 588 B.C., or 43 years before the death 
of Gaudama or Gautama,when that sage 
was 35 years old, by Poo and Ta-pan, 
sons of the King of Twan-te, who 
during a visit to India had obtained 
from Buddha himself several of his 
hairs, which were enshrined under a 
pagoda 18 cubits in height ; but, ob- 
serves Sir Arthur Phayre, '*it cannot 
be credited that during the life of 
Gaudama, the Talang people had 
through their own means any com- 
munication by sea with India, or that 
Buddhism was introduced into the 
Delta of the Irawddi at so early a 
period." The first trustworthy state- 
ments are those which relate to the 
repairs and works carried out by 
Queen Sheng-tsaw-bii, in the latter 
half of the 15th century. She raised 
its height to 292 ft., made terraces on 
the hUl, paved the topmost with stone^ 
and set apart land a.\i<i\\et^^\asr3 ^'a^i^'s. 

that was as tivQ tio-wu s^q^ vq.\^\"\.. 



154 



SovU 9. — Calcutia to Pronte. 



Sect. II. 



X of the Bhrine. Mendcz 
rmto UiakGH no mention of llie 
Pagoda, but Balbi. the Venetian, who 
visited HftngTin, or Dagon as it was then 
called, towBrds the end of the 16th 
centuty, gives a full description of it. 
In 1768 A.D. King Tsheng-hiijao- 
sheng replaced the Talaing Crown by 
one of Barmese form, and regilt the 
oQtaide. Id 1871 it waa re-gilt with 
funds derived from piiUic Bubscrip- 
tions, the donations of pilgrims, and 
the rents of the fruit trees on tie 
platform ; and when the re-gilding was 
complete, a now Htee was put on it. 
This was made in Mandalay, of iron, 
thickly gilded and studdeti with 
jewels, at a cost of rs. 620,000, brought 
down the river with great ceremony, 
received and escorted by a Krifish 
ofBecrspetialiy deputed, and elevated 
amid great public rejoicings. 

The Ifuilding is 321 ft. high, and 1 130 
ft, in cireumference at the base, rising 
from asquare platform, and snrrounded 
by many small pagodas and images. It 
is approached by i sets of stairs at 
the canliiisl points. It was garrisoned 
by the Barmese in the 2nd Barmese 
War, and taken by storm by General 
Godwin on the 11th of April, 1852. 
The building resembles a vast band- 
bell, with a polygonal biuK, about 40 
ft. high, oil which is a cylindrical part, 
Bormounled by 9 vast bosses, then a 
broad band, then a circle of balls, 
then another broad liand, and then a 

g'lece shaped like an extinguisher, 
n the top of alt is a vane, with a 
golden weathereock. It in about IJ 
ra. to the E. of the Clitof tlommis- 
sioner's house. Oppoeite to it, across the 
road, is a Rc«t House, built by the King 
of Siam. The asceiLt is to the left of the 
road, Urst by T masonry steps and 1 
wooden, and then by a passage along 
a platform, past u huge liou on the 
right. The said lion i.'! a conventional 
one, unlike the living one, and about 
40 ft. high, in a sitting posture. Two 
dnarpaU, images of Dailyaa or 
giants, are then passed. They are 
rather well executed. Thus a gilt 
over-hanging screen is reached, on the 
left portion of which is represented 
the King ot the Oiaata, j^Uoping 



with a Tirtuons miniBter, or (lerhapB 
Gautama tied to his horse's tiuL On 
t^e right compartment of the acreea, 
the giant is represented throwing the 
sage down a precipice. Next comes 
a long, much-damaged portico, witb a 
tablet inscribed in Barmese — 

AchBbek ka t«t. 

East side from enter. 
At a distance of 396 ft. from tho 
great lion, the moat is reached, and 
the whole way is covered by a wooden 
roofi supported by many wooden pil- 
lars, now dirty and dilapidated, which 
have once been gilt or coloured,* 
Under this shed are spread many 
wooden beds for pilgrims, and num- 
bers of dogs roam in this unclean 
place. The swlcs have once been 

Siainted, with binia, and fish, and 
Irngons. The moat is lili fl. ivide and 
10 deep. It is now clry. Cfosaing 
tliis moat by a' drawbridge, the 
traveller comes to a Chinese pagoda, 
with a tablet, on which is a CMnese 
inscription, written in letters of gold. 
Now follows a flight ofl6-t-G-»-6 + e-H 
.S + 3-H4 + 4 + 4-HlO+7 + :t+6dirty, 
broken and rough steps, 77 in all, at 
the top of which is a vast platform, 
on which are very many small pagodas 
and pavilions, with figures of 
Gautama, and conventional lions, 
surrounding the Great Fagoda, on the 
lowest rim of which is a series of 6S 
small pagodiLS, of the same shape as 
the large one. Of these 4, one at 
each cardinal point is twice the 
height of the others. On Ihc ¥,. side 
is a vestibule of carved woodwork, in 
which are many lighted candles. 
The general ajipearance of the build- 
ing, fram its vast size and flne 
esccution, is wondoi-faliy striking, and 
it is altogether diSerentfnmi anything 
that a traveller from the W. has ever 
seen before. At the N.E, corner o( 
the platform is ahuge bell, 7 ft. 71 in. 



Bl>rin^iiE fruui an nctoffonol bfliw. with & purl. 
>iieterotl3I^&n.,rl>i>ui wltli a ynulually illiulu- 
tnliliigaphnuldaluuUilia tu alielghturaain., 



' !ilu»U upwaid Ukc * pituiud ot On.' 



,Sect II. 



^ptde 9. — The Shvve Pagoda. 



155 



in diameter at the mouth, under wticli 
a man can stand upright with ease, 
"svith a long Barmese inscription. 
The latter part of the inscription says : 
" For this meritorious gift replete with 
virtue of beneficence may he" (Bho- 
dau Bhura, the King who presented 
the bell) " be connected to Neek-bau, 
and obtain the destined blessing of 
men, Nat and Bramha, by means 
of divine perfection. May he obtain 
in his transmigrations only the kingly 
state among men and Nat. May he 
have a pleasant voice, a voice heard at 
whatever place desired, like the voice of 
Kan-tha-Mang, Pun-Nu-Ka, and A-la- 
Ma-Ka, when he speaks to terrify, and 
like Karawek, King of birds, when he 
speaks on the subjects about which 
Nat and Bramha delight to hear. 
Whatever may be his desire or the 
thought of his heart merely, let 
that desire be fulfilled. When 
Arlmcdya shall be revealed, let him 
have the revelation, that he may 
become We-tha-di Nat, supreme of the 
Eational Existences. Thus in order 
to cause the voice of homage, during 
500 years, to be heard at the Monu- 
ment of the Divine Hair in the city 
of Rangiln, let the reward of the great 
merit of giving the Great Bell, called 
Maha Ganda, be unto the royal Queen 
Mother, the royal Father, proprietor 
of life. Lord of the White Elephant, 
the royal Grandfather Alung-meng, 
the royal Uncle," and so forth. 

About 80 yds. beyond it in the same 
direction, at the extreme N.E. corner 
of the platform, is a small inolosure, 
where the officers who were killed in 
the Second Barmese War are buried. 
The 3rd tomb has no inscription, the 
other 3 are inscribed as follows : — 

I. 

To the Meinorj' of 

LIEUT. MARRIOTT TAYLER, 

Of the 9th Regiment 

Madras Native Iiifantiy, 

Who was killed 

On the 19th of March, 1853, 

While gallantly storming the enemy's 

Breast-work near the Donahew. 

Aged 29 years. 

His remains were interred 

On the spot where he fell. 

This Monument is erected by his 

Brother Officers as a 

Token otieffod and esteem. 



In Memory of 

CAPTAIN GRANVILLE GOWER LOCH, 

H.M.'s ship "Winchester,". 

Who died 6th of February, 1853. 

From the effects of a wound i-eceived in 

action. 

Aged 39 years. * 

This Monument is erected by his Officers and 

Ship's Company. 

IV. • 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

LIEUT. ROBERT DORAN, 

H.M.'s 18th Royal Irish, 

Wlin fell at the taking of this Pagoda, 

On the 14th of AprU, 1852. 

V. 

No tablet. 

Certain legends regarding the building 
of the pagoda will be found in the 
" Barmah Gazetteer," vol. ii., pp. 635, 
636. The word Shwee or " golden "is a 
Barmese translation of the original 
Talaing word prefixed to Tekun. It is 
now used generally as a term indica- 
tive of excellence. 

It should be said that there are a 
number of nuns living near the pagoda, 
some of whom are always present in 
the enclosure, and they appear to be 
learned, as should any question be put 
to the guides, they invariably refer to 
these women for an explanation. E. 
of the pagoda, at some distance is the 
old cemetery, which is a piece of rough 
and very stony ground ; there are 
12 tablets, and amongst them one 
to Col. Malcolm McNeiU, of the Madras 
Light Cavalry, Brigadier commanding 
the 3rd Brigade of the Madras Divi- 
sion of the Army of Ava, who died at 
Rangiin, 8th December, 1862, from 
coup de soleil and fatigue, endured 
during the capture of the city of 
Pegu. There is also one to Lieut. 
Walter Cooke, who died of a wound 
received at the assault of Pegu. On 
returning the traveller may stop at 
the Signal Pagoda, which is on a hill 
near the barracks of the European 
regiment. It is very small in compari- 
son with the Shwee Dagon. Before 
leaving, the traveller will do well to 
drive to the Great Royal Lake, which 
has been made by Qoven^saKcX.. 'V^. Na 



156 



, Route 9. — Calcutta to Ptome, 



Sect. IT. 



it have been prettily laid out, and the 
drive to and round it is the most 
pleasant at Eangiin. 

Manlniain, — While at Rangiin the 
traveller may pay a visit to Maulmain, 

/ which is the prettiest spot in Barmah, 
and reached in a steamer in 10 hours, 
being only 147 m. distant to the S. 

' The steamer sails from Rangiin every 
Friday, and the fare is 16 i*s. for a 
cabin and 2 rs. for a deck passenger. 
Maulmain is in 16° 29' N. lat. and 
97° 38' E. long., and is the head- 
quarters of the Amherst district, and of 
the Tcnasserim division. It is situated 
on the left b. of the Salura at its 
junction with the Gyaing and the 
Attaran. Immediately to the W. 
is Bhl-lu-gywon, an island 107 sq. 
m. in extent. The waters of the 
^win How W. into the Gulf of 
Martaban round the N. of the island, 
between it and Martaban by the Davag- 
boak and again flow S. between it and 
the mainland on which stands Maul- 
main. This channel is sometimes called 
the Amherst and sometimes the Maul- 
main river, but now generally the 
Salwln. To the N., on the opposite 
bank of the Sal win, is Martaban, once 
the capital of a kingdom, but now a 
moderate-sized village. Low hills, form- 
ing the N. end of the Toung-gnys range, 
run N. and S. through Maulmain, 
dividing it into 2 distinct portions, 
which touch each other at the N. base 
of the hills on the bank of the Gyaing. 
These are crowned at intervals ("B. 
Gazetteer," vol.ii.,p. 358) with pagodas 
in various stages of preservation, from 
the dark brick grass-covered and 
tottering relic with its rusty and fall- 
ing Htee, to the white and gold re- 
stored edifice, gleaming in the sunlight, 
and monasteries richly ornamented 
with gilding, colour and carved work. 
On the W. are 4 out of the 5 divisions 
of the town, which extends N., be- 
tween the Salwln and the hills from 
Mopun, with its steam mills for husk- 
ing rice, and timber and ship-building 
yards, to the military cantonment on 
the point formed by the junction of 
the Gyaing and the Salwln opposite 
Martahan, a distance of 6 m. The 

breadth nowhere exceeds 1,200 yds. 



This portion, which slopes to the bank 
of the Salwln, is intersected by 3 
main roads, running N. and S. One 
extends the whole distance, with a 
single row of houses between it and 
the Salwln. The 2nd, parallel to the 
E., runs from the cantonment S. for a 
little more than a m., and the 3rd, still 
more to the E. at its N. end, on the 
border of the cantonment unites with 
the 2nd, and at its S. end near the N. 
entrance of Mopuh with the 1st. 
Numerous cross roads running E. and 
W. up the slope from the Salwln 
connect these 3. Here ai-e situated 
the public buildings, the cantonment, 
the merchants' offices and warehouses, 
the principal shops, and on the W. 
slopes of the hill, the houses of the 
Europeans. The inhabitants are almost 
entirely Europeans, Eurasians, natives 
of India, and Chinese. The 5th divi- 
sion or Ding-wan-queng, is more com- 
pact, and lies behind the hills in the 
valley of the Attaran, and with its N. 
resting on the Gyaing stretches nearly 
to the Attaran. On the opposite 
shore is Gsujoung-beng-Tshiep, a large 
village, not included in the limits of 
the town lands, of which the Attaran 
is the E. boundary. This quarter is 
inhabited principally by Barmesc and 
Talaing. 

Like most towns in the Province, 
the houses, except near the Salwln and 
in Ding-wan-queng, are surrounded 
by extensive grounds and nestled in 
masses of foliage. The view from the 
hills in the centre of the town is of 
great beauty, probably unsurpassed in 
all Barmah. W. the foreground is 
occupied by trees of every shade of 
foliage, from the dark olive of the 
mango to the light green of the 
pagoda tree, varied by the gi'accful 
plumes of the bambii, with buildings 
showing here and there and the 
' magnificent sheet of water beyond, 
; studded with green islands, among 
I which stands out conspicuously the 
i little rocky Goung-tsai-Kaywin, com- 
pletely occupied by white and glitter- 
ing pagodas, and a monastery sheltered 
j by trees, and in the distance are the 
j forest-clad hills of Bhl-lu-gyAvon and 
Martaban. E. at the foot of the hills 



SeotlL 



Soute 9,~Mawlniain — Prome. 



157 



'Ib a Uoge nnd regnlarlj laid oat tonri, 
OIL the edge of a nee plain, from 
which beyond the Atiaran rise isolated, 
fantastically shaped ridges of lime- 
stone, in part bore and elsewhere with 
jagged peaks, partially conccnlcd by 
atrafgling clumps of vegetation, and 
in tte estrcrae distance a faint blue 
OQtline of tbc frowQiog Dawna hills. 
To the N. are the Zwai-ka-beng rocfes 
of limestone, 13 m. long, while t< 
S. rise the darlt Toonu-waing 
their sombre colour relievwl by a 
glistening white pagoda and mocee- 
teries OD their stdej winding through 
the plain like silver bands are the 
Oyaing anAAttHran. 

The principal buildings arc Salwln 
house, built by Col. Bogle as a priyate 
residence, and now the Municipal 
Hall ; the Hospital, a new and hand- 
some wooden edifice ; thePublic Offices; 
2 B. C. Churches : St.ratriek's, built in 
1857 ; and St. Mark's in 1843, and one 
of wood for the Anglican branch of 
the Catholic Church, dedicated to St. 
Matthew, consecrated in ISH by 
Bishop Wilson ; a Baptist Chapel bailt 
in 1833; a lai^e ]ail; the wooden 
barracks occupied by ths regiment of 
Madras N. I., whicli forms the garri- 
son; the Custom House, the Post and 
Telegraph Offices, the Master Inten- 
ilanfs Office near the Main Wharf. 
When this portion of the province was 
ceded, by the Treaty of Yandabu, 
there was a spacious irregular quad- 
rangle sunounded by on earthen 
rampart. All the rest was a mass of 
tangled trees, brushwood, and long 
flTBBB ; but the site was chosen by 
General Sir Archibald Campbell for 
the British garrison. The trade of 
Mattlmain soon grew to be consider- 
able. Along the banks of the Attaran 
are valuable teak foi'csts, and to tlie 
N. in 6inm vast tracts of country pro- 
dncing magni ficen t timber, of which the 
only outlet is Manlmain, Since 18uB 
the export has grown from 28,7119 tons 
to,in 18T8,1S3,242. The rice trade too 
has grown from 16,170 tons in 1855 to 
77,880 in 1875. There is also a con- 
slderable cotton trade, and hidcB and 
horns, lead, copper, yellow orpiment, 
and stick lac are among the exports. 



The pop. 



' was 51,607, and 
. be found Englidi, 
French, Glermans, Dutch, Belgians, 
Norwegians, Bwedes, Greeks, Danes, 
Americans, Persians, Chinese, Bar- 
mans, Shams, and Indians. It is incon- 
venient that a visit to Maulmain must 
last a week, but if the traveller 
chooses he may leturu to Calcutta by 
the Andamans, which arc 690 m. from 
the Hugll mouth of the Ganges, and 160 
m. from Cape Negrais. Port Blair is 
situated on the S.E. shore of the south- 
em island of the Gi'eat Andaman, and 
is one of the most perfect harbonia 
in the world ; half the British Navy 
might ride in it. In 1789 a convict 
settlement was established here by the 
Bengal Government, and a harbour 
of refuge for ships blown out of their 
coarse. On the »th of February, 1873, 
Lord Mayo was murdered at Port Blair. 
Ptiniui. — The distances are as 
follows : — 



Remarta. — 1tu.n^i 



158 SoKte 9. — Caicutla 'to Promt. Sect. II. 

iMst M minutes hofOre sdwitiaed depirture ■ ou the inner side of the Strand, are 
■ t train. 15 via oT luggage allowed free of ^j|g Markets. In an open apace, lacmg 



"^•^'...^Tfi^^AS^iror^^^. f»e of ' aaa .-lm>wn Uok from 1 

littles, of the Law Courta, are 2 tanks 



Kf/rffliiiMFil /too.M.-Meal8 ordered, free of i 



I with the T. B. on the roadway between 
Pmme, written by the Banneae | j|jg^ T),g jjailway Station is just 
Pri and pronouneed by them Pi/i, is i ],ghiDd those tanks, separated from 
a towH iu the Talley of the IrawSdl, ' ^^^ (,7 High Street. The Baptist 
on the 1. b. of that river in 18° 47' 53" , chapel is nesr the Market, and the 
N.lat., and 'J5°IS'18"E. long. Thehead- 1 j[^ c. Church is in Tsheng-tsu quarter, 
quarters of the Prome District, which , ].>j^n,e is mentioned in ancient his- 
occnpieBthewholebreadth of the valley I lories, aa the capital of a great king:- 
of the IrawiidI, between the Thayet ^^m before the Chrietian era, but the 
District on the N., and the Henaada ,o„^ spoken of was Tha-re-Khcttrn, 
and Thanawftdi Districts on the S. , ^graa m. inland, the ruins of which - 
In 1877 there were 30,826 inhab. in ^.yji eiist.* This was deBtrejed,febout, 
Prome. The town eitenda N. from (i,g ^qJ ^f (he let century. A.D.,. 
the foot of the Prome hiils to the | pin^e when Prome belonged some- 
bank on the Nar-weng, with a suburb ■ ^jmes to Ava, sometimes to Pegu, bat 
on the other side of that stream, and , ^j^y yjg conquest of Pego by Alaung- 
B. for some distance up the Nar-weng ghura it remained a Barman town 
valley. It is divided into the follow- yuty pggu ^gj annexed by the 
ing municipal divisions : Nar-wei^ British, in 18C3. Prome was occupied 
on the N., Riva-bhai on the E., ^y the troops ander Sir A, Campbell 
Tcheng-tsu on the S., and Shwi-ku „„ the 7th of April, 1825, havii^ been 
and Tshan-daw in the centre, forming nracuated and partly burned by the 
as it were the heart of the town. On garmeBe. 

the hank of the river, on the high y^^ Shine-Ulian-dam Pagoda.— Ja 
■ gronnd, opposite the centre of the ^n a hill 4 a m. from the L b. of 
town,ftr^thePoliccOffice,thcGoTer«- the IrawAdi, and covers on area 
ment Schools, Law Courts, witli n of ii,<)25 sq. ft., rising from a nearly 
gtffden and fonntidu in front, the square platform to a height of 
Public Gardens, tlie AngUcan Chm'ch, jyo n_ fj jg surrounded by 8S small 
and the Telegraph Office. The Strand gij^ed temples, called Ze-di-yan, each 
Eoad extends from one end of the giving an image of Gautama. These 
town to the other, and from it well- unite at their toBee, and form a wall 
laid-out streets run E., and are inter- 1 i-^und the pagoda, leaving a narrow 
aected at right angles by othern. 1 paggeae between it and them. (See 
Beliind and rather N. o£ Tcheng-tau j .. jjannah Gaietteer, ' vol. ii. p. 403.) 
and detached from the low hills. | There are 4 approachea to the plab- 
which shut in the town on the S., is , £(^q, „„ which the pagoda stands, 
the great Shive Tshan-daw Pagoda, ^^jj ^j iqq brick steps, facuig N., S., 
Bliining out from the dark foliage of I e., and W. The N. and W. are covered 
the trees, which cover the slopes cjf 1 [„ ^j^j ornamented roofs, supported 
the hill on ivliich it stands. _ S. ot tho ^q massive teak posts, some partly 
high lateritc ground, on which are thi^ gilded and partly painted vermilion. 
Law Courts, and under the high hank, ^^e platform ou the top of the hill is 
a sand bank strctelies up to the moutli paved with stone slabs, and round its 

the dry weather, when a fleet ot mer- ^.^nduil of Giintama, Id the lolst jeat ur tlie 
chantboatsis moored alongit,of which bhitisI ea-MS a-c. ForTOjeais tlieseit of 

the whole Nar-weng quarter. Hen.', (t^^ Cmwfurd'B "Eiiibaaiiy to Ava," vol. 1^ 
on the bigb bank, s iittte inland, and ^ p. a4.) 



Sect. II. 



JRoiUe 9. — Sldve-Nat'Taung Pagoda, 



159 



oater edge are carved wooden houses, 
facing iiiwards, interspersed with small 
pagodas, in which are figures of 
Gkuitama and Bahan, standing, sitting, 
or Ijring. Between these and the main 
pagoda are many Tan-khwon-daing, 
posts surmounted by the Ka-ra-wait 
or Barmese Garuda, with streamers 
dependent from their summits, and 13 
large bells, partly gilt, hanging, with 
their rims just" off the 'ground, on 2 
cross-bars -"supported on strong posts. 
TBiese are struck by worshippers with 
deers' antler8,which lie near them. The 
Pagoda has 2 gigantic lions of the 
usual .conventional form at the N. 
entrance. 'In -1763 a.d. this pagoda 
was regilt by Alaing Bhura ; in 1841, 
King Kun-baung-meng, better known 
as Tharrawaddy, had it repaired and 
regilt, and surmounted with ■ a new 
Htee, or crown of iron, gilt and 
studded with jewels, the diameter of 
the base of which was 10 ft. ; in 1842, 
the carved roofs over the N. and W. 
approaches were put up by the 
Governor. In 1858 it was again put 
in repair at a cost of 76,800 rs., raised 
by public subscription, and a few 
years ago it was regilt at a cost of 
25,000 rs., raised in the same manner. 
The annual festival, when the pagoda 
is visited by thousands of pious Budd- 
hists, is held in March. There is a 
pagoda of the same name near Twan-te, 
in the Rangiin district. This pagoda is 
said to be more venerated by the 
Tataing than even the Great Pagoda 
of Bangiin, and to have been built in 
r>77 B.C., by Thamien-htaw-byecn-ran, 
the then King of Kha-beng, a small 
village near Twan-te, and his wife, 
Mien-da-de-wee, as a shrine of 3 of 
Gautama's hairs, given by him to 
3 holy pilgrims from Ceylon. Near 
this pagoda is a gi'ove of Thwot-ta-bat 
trees (Sapodilla plum), 7 in number, 
the only ones existing in Pegu. 

TheShivc-Nat-Tming Pagoda.— This 
pagoda, 16 m. IS. of Prome, may be 
visited by the traveller. It is said to 
have been built during the reign of the 
founder of Prome, by his queen. It 
was then 22^ ft. high. When Thi-ha- 
thu became King of Prome he repaired 
the Pagoda, and raised it to a height of 



66 ft. About the middle of the 16th 
century, Ta-beng-shwe-hti, king of 
Taungu, who h^ conquered Prome, 
added to the Pagoda, and increased its 
height. The binlding, richly gilt, and 
glittering in the sun, stands out con- 
spicuously on the first hill of a low 
range, overhanging the Shwe-nat- 
taung plain, and has, in a line behind 
it, the Nga-Tsu, Pau-Bhu, Hpo-lag, 
Hpo-myat, and Hpo-tha-bho and 
Theng-gan Pagodas, all which may be 
visited by the traveller, if not already 
tired with buildings of the kind. 

The journey from Rangiin to Prome 
may also be done in one of the steamers 
of the Irawddi Flotilla Co. line, the 
office of which is in the Strand Road, 
Rangiin. Steamers carrying H.M.'s 
mailsleaveRangiinand Mandalay twice 
a week, and one leaves Mandalay for 
Bhdmo, and vice vei'sdy twice a month. 
There is a daily service between Prome 
and Thayetmayo. The stations from 
Rangiin to Prome, and from Prome to 
Mandalay, are as follows : — 



Names of Stations 
from Rangun to 


Cabin. 


Steer- 
age.. 


Deck. 


Prome. 










rs. as. 


rs. iis. 


rs. as. 


1. MauTmin . 


5 


2 8 


1 


2. Yandun . . 


5 


2 8 


1 8 


3. Donabew* 


15 


7 8 2 1 


4. Henzada . . 


20 


10 


3 


5. Yeaghin . 


28 


14 


4 8 


6. Myanaung . . 


30 U 


15 


5 


7. Prome 


30 

1 


15 


5 



The traveller will find buildings of 
some Interest in Amarapiira and Ava. 

* Donabewwas taken by Sir A. Campbell on 
the 3rd of April, 1825. The Barmese General, 
Maha Bandiila, was killed on the previous 
night by a shell (see Mill, vol. ix. p. 127.) 
The British loss was 30 killed and 134 
wounded. General Cotton had attacked the 
place on the 7th of March, vnth 600 men, but 
had been repulsed, with the loss of Captains 
Rt)se and Cannon killed, and a number of 
men killed and wounded. 

Henzada is i)roperly ITnnsa-ta, and means 
"wail for the goose," which bird was the 
standard of Pegu, and thus held to be sacred, 
and it is alleged that one such bird waS acci- 
dentally shot here by a prince. 

Myanaung means " speed v victory >" e. vass^R 
given it by the coucvyx'etQT MsAxv^i^^^^^vQ^-tK^ 

. his heaA-ctoattata \iftT^ > '^'^^'^vC*''^^^JS»^ 
1 full career ot\\\s wXotte'^ o^ct xXva^^^aaa*^ 



'"rrv 



160 



Eoute 9. — Calcutta to Prome, 



Sect. It 



At 2 m. from Amarapiira is the Arakan 
temple, which is supported by 232 
border-gilt pillars. There is a gilt 
bronze statue of Gautama in a sitting 
position, about 12 ft. high. It was 
brought from Arakan in 1784, and is 
said to have been cast during the life- 
time of Gautama, and is, therefore, 
especially sacred. There are here 260 
marble and stone slabs covered with 
inscriptions. One is dated 1432 A.D. ; 
another is inscribed 1454. 

Ata is surrounded by a brick wall 
15i ft. high, and 10 ft. thick. The 
Irawadi flows on the N. side, and is 
about 1,200 yds. broad. The S. and W. 
faces of the town are defended by a 
deep and rapid torrent, called the 
Mijst-tha-badj, from the Eiver Mijst- 
nge, which is 150 yds. broad, with veiy 
steep and high banks. The stream is 
BO rapid that boats can with great 
dijficulty stem it. The walls of Ava 
extend 54 m. The largest temple is 
called Lo-ga-tha-bu, and consists of 
two parts, one ancient and the other 
modem. In the former is an image of 
Gautama, of enormous size. A 2nd 
very large temple is called Aug-wa 
S6-Kong, and a 3rd Ph'ra-1'ha or ^' the 
beautiful.' A 4th is Maong-ratna, where 
the officers of the Government used to 
takethe oath of allegiance. A 5th temple 
is Maha-mrat-muni, which has a zyat, 
or chapel, attached, more splendid than 
any other building exccpt^the palace. 
The pillars and ceiling are richly gilt. 
There are 19 gates in the outer and 
inner wall of the town. The palace is 
1,400 yds. long from E. to W., and 
1 ,100 yds. from N. to S. The Rangdhau, 
or Hall of Justice, which is on the N. 
side of the palace, is a lofty wooden 
building, supported by several rows of 
wooden pillars. It is a plain structure, 
without carving, gilding, or any deco- 
ration. The Hall of Audience consists 
of a centre and 2 mugs. It is of 
wood, but the roofs are covered \vith 
plates of tin. Over the centre is a hand- 
some spire, cro\vued by the Ti or Htee, 
or iron umbrella. It is without walls, 
and open all round, except where the 
throne is. The roof is supported by 
manj handsome pillars, and is richly 
und tastefully carved. The whole 



fabric stands on a terrace 12 ft. high, 
of solid stone and lime. " The Throne, 
which is at the back of the hall, is dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the struc- 
ture by its superior brilliancy and rich- 
ness of decoration. The pedestal on 
which it stands is composed of a kind 
of mosaic of mirrors, coloured-glass, 
gilding, and silver, after a style peculiar 
to the Barmans. Over it is a canopy, 
I riclily gilt and carved, and the wil 
{ behind it is also highly embellished. 
j Although little reconcilable to our 
! notions of good taste in architecture, 
i the building is unquestionably most 
splendid and brilliant ; and it is doubt- 
ful whether so singular and imposing 
a royal edifice exists in any other 
country." (See Crawfurd's" Embassy to 
Ava," vol. i. p. 229.) There are other 
edifices which are worth visiting, but 
as relations with Barmali have been 
broken off by the British Government, 
it is more than doubtful whether they 
could be viewed at present. 

Chitragdoii. — On returning to Cal- 
cutta, the traveller may take a 
steamer which stops at Chitragdoii 
(Chittagong). Sportsmen who are really 
desirous of encountering tigers, will 
find any number of them in the email 
islands opposite the mouth of the Kar- 
naphuli. There are also to be seen the 
largest alligators in the world. Of 
course it would be necessary to take 
good shikdris with one in such a locality. 
There is a good Ddk Bangld, or T, B,, 
at Chitragdon, large, cool, clean, and 
commodious, situated about f m. from 
the pier or jetty where passengers 
by steamer disembark. The cost for 
food and lodging there is about 5 rs, 
a day without wine and other luxuries. 
There are no interesting buildings or 
inscriptions at Chitragdon. There are 
very high hills to be reached in a small 
boat in 3 days' journey up theKama- 
])liuli, but Europeans do not resort 
there as yet for health or change. The 
boat hire would be from 15 to 20 rs. 



Sect.« II. 



S&uie 10. — Proiite to ManAolay, 



161 



ROUTE 


10. 




PBOME 


TO MANDALAY. 










Names of Sta- 








tions fh>m 

Fronis to Man- 

daUur. Total 

distence 282 


Cabin 

from 

Raugiin- 


Steerage 

from 
Raiigiui- 


Deck 

from 

Raiigun. 


miles. 








1 
1 


rs. a8. 


rs. 08. 


rH. i\». 


1. Thantmayo 


30 
40 


15 
20 


5 
(i 8 


8.]|agwsy. . 


45 1 22 8 


7 


4. Teanau- 


1 




orotuig 
5. Bmlwi^'uii 


50 
00 


25 
30 


7 8 

8 


O.Binaymyo . 


05 


32 8 8 8 


7. Fagban 


70 


35 


» 


8. Knoywa. . 


75 


37 8 


10 


0. lfaii]A>'aii . 
10. lfim£lay* . 

1 


80 


40 11 


90 


45 12 8 



Raiig<^ to Kandalay or Ava, 440 uiileH. See 
Crairftird, voL i., p. 153. 

30 cubic ft. of luggage is allowed free of 
ftwi^t to each cabin iiasBenger. Quarter-<leck 
itassengers are allowed 8 cubic ft. of personal 
liagKSge, a roll of bedding, and a chilamchi. 
Deck passengers are allowed 3 cubic ft. of 
bagga({e, and a roll of be<lding. 



"■ Mandtday is alwut 8 ni. to the X. of Ama- 
rapura, which again is 4 ni. to the N.E. of 
Ava. All three 1^>wnK aro <m the loft or E. l)ank 
of the InwAdi, while Sagiiing, which was at 
one time the capital, is on the W. bank and 
just opposite to Ava. Ava was founde<l by 
Tlia-do-nieug-bya in 1304, who removc<l the 
Heat of Government to it from Amaraiiiira. 
In 1842, Tliar^wadi built u )Ki1ac(>. tin tlie 
Innks of tlie Ma-<lc stream, whero Mandalay 
now stands, and went to live tlicrc. Tliara- 
wadi died in 1840, and his son the Pnj^haii 
Prince became King under the name of 
HpagyAdaw, and his insults led Lord Dal- 
houme to send an army aipinst him under 
General Godwin. Ho.stilities l)egan (m the 
5Ui of April, 1852, by the capture of Martaban. 
Rangdii was taken 'on the 18th with the loss 
nf 8 officers killc<l and 13 wounded, and 15 
non-oonunissioned officers and men killed, and 
114 wounded. On board the man-of-war 2 
men were killed, and 1 officer and 23 men 
wouiHled. On the 18tli of Feb., 1853, the Meuy- 
dAn-Meuyo's troops dethroned his brother 
Hpagyadaw. and t(N)k Amarapiira, and Pegu 
WM annexed in British Baniiah. Thiliau sue- 
oeedeil aiMl has luaiie Mandalay his capital. 



At Wet-ma-set, some miles to the N. 
of Mag way (written by Crawfurd Mak- 
we) are some very productive petro- 
leum wells. Paghan (written by Craw- 
furd Pngan) is said by the Barmese to 
have been founded by Sa-mud-da-rdj 
in 107 A.D., and to have been destroyed 
in 1356 A.D. The oldest temple, and 
they are proverbially numerous, was 
built in the reign of Pyan-byrd, 846 to 
864 A.D. One of the finest is Thapni- 
nyu, " the Omniscient." It is built of 
well-bum t bricks, 15 in. long and 8 in. 
broad. The fonn is an equilateral 
triangle, with 4 quadrangular wings 
on the sides, on the gi'ound floor only, 
which contain the principal images of 
Gautama. Each side of the temple 
measures 230 ft., and it has 4 stages 
diminishing in size as they ascend. 
The centre building is a solid mass of 
masonrj", surmounted by a steeple like 
a mitre, ending in a spire crowned 
with an iron umbrella. The total height 
is 210 ft. Gateways, doors, galleries, 
and roofs, are invariably formed by a 
well-turned Gothic arch. This temple 
was built 108 1-1151. The most sacred 
temple is called Anandd, after the 
favourite disciple of Gautama. It is 
1 60 J ft. high, and was built between 1076 
and 1081. In Crawfurd's " Embassy 
to Ava," vol. i. p. 116, will be found 
an engraving of one of these temples, 
and a full account of the place. He 
mentions that rank in Barmah is 
marked by the number of strings in a 
gold chain ; only the royal family 
wear 24 strings, and the lowest rank is 
shown by 3. Rank is also shown by 
the number of syllables in a title. 
Thus the King's title has 21 syllables. 



^T 



162 



Rouie II.— 'Calcutta to Hugli {Hoogldy). Sect, 



ROUTE 11. 

CALCUTTA TO HUGLI, CHINSURAH, 
8HRIBAMPUB (SEBAMPOBE), BAN- 
DEL, AND CHANDBANAOAB (CHAN- j 
D13>BNAaOBE). 

Havins^ finished the outlying pro- 
vinces of Orissa, Barmah and Sik- 
kim, the traveller may now proceed 
along the line of the East Indian 
Bailway. diverging to any places of 
great interest within a reasonable dis- 
Uince of its course. A magnificent 
new station is being built for this 
line in Clive Street. The architect 
is Mr. R. Roskell Bayne. The building 
is of brick, with columns and cor- 
nices of stone, brought from MlrzApiir 
and Jabalpiir. Old rails are utilized 
for rafters, so that the edifice will be 
almost fire-proof. The faQade is 
300 ft. long from N. to S., and the 
building is 140 ft. broad. It is 3 
stories high, but at the ends 4, 
and with the mezzanine 5. The 
ground covered is 40,000 S(i. ft., and 
the cost is 360,000 rs. It has been 
built expeditiously, for the offices were 
occupied in 14 months after the build- 
ing began. The cornices, supported 
by rails, project 5 ft. The Haurah 
office, from which passengers at present 
start, is 200 yards beyond the Hugli 
bridge, on the E. bank of the Hugli 
river. This bridge opens on Tuesdays 
and Fridays for two hours for ships to 
pass. It opens in the centre 200 ft. 
Ships do not pay anything for passing. 
Should the traveller have time he may 
drive to the Slbpiir Jute Mill, IJ m. 
It employs 1,500 hands, of whom many 
are women and children. There are 3 
jute mills. Dundee is the head-quarters 
of the trade in Great Britain, and has 
been engaged in it for ^b years. Jute 
is used only for ])ag8 and sacks. It 
i*ots if wet with water. By Mr. 
Plimsoll's Act grain must be stored in 
bags and not in bulk, which is a great 
boon for the jute trade. 

The 1st room is the soi*ting-rooni. 
whfsre the jute is stacked according 



to quality. It is moistened with 

oil and water. Next comes the 

softening • room, with 4 machineB. 

The fibre passes backward and for- 

ward, and gets a wave, and is 

softened by the pressure of steel-ribbed 

cylinders. The 3rd room is the canl- 

ing-room, where clouds of dusty pM^ 

tides are driven off the fibre. ^ In the 

4th room arc the spinning jennies, 

where many girls are employed. The 

5th room is titie weaving-room, where 

the shuttles are driven to and fro with 

great force. Here are 5 steam-engines 

of 35 horse-power each. There is also 

a colandering process, which g^reatly 

softens the cloth, and it is then used 

by tailors for paddings. Bags sell at 

from 16 to 35 rs. per hundred. Bales 

weigh from 8 to 9 cwt., or even half 

a ton. There is a hydraulic prets, 

which exerts a pressure of 3 toSos to 

the square inch. The house of HliA 

Ldl Set is close by; he is a great 

landowner, and sold the Dharam- 

tollah Market to Government for 

£70,000. Near this is the Hospital,with 

beds for 50 Eiuropeans, who occupy 

the upi)er rooms, and 40 natives. 

Inside the Hugli station, on the ist 
panel to your right as you look at the 
clock, is a white marble tablet witli 
black border, inscribed as follows : — 

In Memory of 
CECIL MACKINTOSH STEPHENSON, 

Agent of the 

Ea8t India Railway, 

Who (lied at sea 

On the 2l8t of November, 1876. 

This Tablet was erected 

Ah a mark of their sincere esteem and resi»ect, 

By more than 

Five tliousand officers and men 

Of the East Indian Railway 

(and others desiring to joiii), 

Wlu) Iiave also placed a similar 

Tablet in the Calcutta Cathedral, 

And instituted a scholarship 

In the Diocesan School at Nairn Tiil, 

For sons of East Indian Railway servants. 

The traveller will be careful to re- 
member that Madras tinie is kept at 
all stations, and is 33 min. behind 
Calcutta time. Passengers must be at 
the station at least 10 min. before the 
time stated in the table. First-olasa 
passengers pay 1 &. 6 pu per m. 8nd 
class. D p. per m. Betnm tickets^ 



Sect. II. 



B(mte 11. — Chifumrah, 



163 



ayailable for 2 months, will be issued 
to 1st and 2iid class passengers from 
uid to any station more thaii 130 m. 
distant, at the rate of one ordinary 
&re and a hall The holders may 
break journeys as often and for as 
long as they like, provided the line is 
not travelled over more than once in 
the same direction, and the limit of 2 
months is not exceeded. Holders of 
monthly tickets,on arriving at a station 
where they intend breaking their jour- 
ney, must have inserted on their tickets 
the date and train of arrival, and when 
leaving the date and train of departure, 
and the column, ** station stamp,*' cor- 
rectly filled in by the station staff. 
Each Ist-class passenger may take IJ 
mans of luggage ; 2nd class, 30 sirs. 
If luggage is not booked before com- 
mencement of the journey, no free 
aUowance will be made. 

The name of Chinsurah will not be 
found in the railway time-tables, so 
the traveller must go to Hugli, from 
which place Chinsurah is 2 m. distant. 
The stations are as follows : — 



s 1 

2 . ; NaineH of 
1 J Stations. 


Time. 


iHt 


2n(l 


Class. 


Class. 


38- 












A.M. 


r. i.p. 


r. a. p. 




Haurah 










(Howrah) . 


8.45 






6 


Ball! (Bally). 


9.3 


9 


4 6 


9 


Koniiagarh 








18 


^Connagiiur) 
8tiriraini>ur 


9.15 


13 tf 


6 9 




(Serampore) 
Biddabatti 


9.27 


12 


9 


15 










(Bidda- 
batty) . . 


9.39 


10 6 


11 3 


18 


Budheshwar 


t 






(Bhaddes* 










nor) . 


9.47 


1 11 


13 6 


21 


Ghandranagar 
(Chander- 








24 


nagore) . . 
Hugl( 
(Hooghly) . 


9.59 


1 15 6 


15 9 




10.11 


2 4 


12 



Hugli and Chinsurah are bracketed 
together as one in the CSensus Report, 
and together cover an area of 6 sq. m. 
The pop. is 34,761. Should the tra- 
veller not find comfortable quarters 
at Hugli, he may resort to the Hotel 
at (Masoiahf or be may stop at the 



French Hotel at Chandranagar (Chan- 
demagore), near the river, or at the 
new hotel at Shrirdmpiir (Serampore). 
Botii are good, and he may visit Hugli, 
Chinsurah, and Bandel from them by 
rail or hired carriage. Hugli town is 
the administrative head-quM±ers of the 
district of the same name. It was 
founded by the Portuguese in 1547 
A.D., when the royal port of Bengal, 
Sdtgaon, began to be deserted, owing 
to the silting up of the Saraswatl, on 
which river it was situated. The Por- 
tuguese, under their general, Samprayo, 
built a fortress at GholghAt, close to 
the present Hugli jail, some vestiges 
of which are still visible in the bed of 
the liver. The Portuguese, however, 
became unpopular, owing to their 
establishing themselves in E. Bengal 
as an independent piratical power. 
About 1621, Prince Khurram, after- 
wards the emperor ShAh Jahdn, re- 
volted against his father Jah^ngir. 
Being defeated, he fled to Bengal, and 
asked the Portuguese at Hugli to 
assist him. The Portuguese governor 
refused, and added insult to the re- 
fusal. When Shdh Jahan came to the 
throne, complaints were made to him 
of the conduct of the Portuguese at 
Hugli. He was glad to revenge him- 
self, and sent a large, force against 
Hugli, the fort of which, after a siege 
of 4i months, was stormed. More 
than 1,000 Portuguese were slain, and 
4,000 men, women, and children were 
captured. Out of 300 Portuguese 
vessels only 3 escaped. The prisoners 
were sent to Agra, and forcibly con- 
verted to Islam. Sdtgdon was then 
abandoned for Hugli, which was made 
the royal port. Hugli was also the 
first settlement of the English in Lower 
Bengal. The E. I. Co. established a 
factory there in 1642, under afarmdn 
from Sulj;an ShujA', Governor of Ben- 
gal, and 2nd son of Shah Jahdn. This 
faritiAw was granted to Dr. Boughton, 
who had curSi a favourite daughter of 
the emperor, and asked for it when 
desired to name his reward. In 1669, 
the Company received permission to 
bring their ships to K^^\ft V2»^>*"«\.« 
tttead oi U*wcL«^t^:vw5, >i5ass«: ^^"^/^ 



I 



164 



Eoute W.-^ColcuUa to Hvgli (Hooghltf). Sect IL 



into large. In 1685, a dispute took 
place between the English at Hngll 
and the Nilwdb of Bengal, and the 
Company sent a force to protect their 
factories at Hugll. It chanced that 
a few English soldiers were attacked 
by the NiiwAb's men in the b&zdrs, 
and a street fight ensued. Cblonel 
Nicholson bombarded the town, and 
burned 600 houses, including the Com- 
pany's warehouses, containing goods 
to the value of £300,000. The chief 
of the English factory was obliged to 
fly from Hugli to SutAnuti, or Chat- 
tanatti, and take shelter with some 
native merchants. In 1742, Hugli 
was sacked by the Mardthas. 

About 6 m. from Hugll, to the N., is 
Sdtffdon. It is said to be so called from 
7 holy men who resided there. Wilf ord 
speaks of it as Ganges Begia, and says 
it was once a residence of the kings of 
the country. There is a ruined mosque, 
which Professor Blochmann describes 
in vol. xxxix. of the " Joum. of the 
Beng. As. Soc." parti, for 1870, p. 280 : 
" This mosque which, together with a 
few tomlw near it, is the only remnant 
of the old capital of Lower Bengal, 
was built by Saiyid Jamdlu 'd din, son 
of Fakhra 'd din, who, according to 
inscriptions in the mosque, came from 
Amol, a town on the Caspian. The 
walls are of small bricks, adorned in- 
side and out with arabesques. The 
central Mi^jrAb is very fine. The 
arches and domes are in the later 
PathAn style. At the S.E. angle are 
3 tombs in an enclosure. During the 
last century, the Dutch of Chinsurah 
had their country seats at SdtgAon, to 
which they walked, m the ndddle of 
the day, to dine. The river of SAtgdon, 
up to Akbar's time, formed the N. 
frontier of Orissa, and SAtgAon 
flourished for not less than 1,500 
years. 3 centuries ago the Hugli 
flowed by SAtgAon, and the masts of 
a ship were found, about 30 years ago, 
in the ground which was its bed. 

The principal thing to be seen at 

Hugli is the ImAmbArah, built by Ka- 

rAmat 'All, the fiiend and companion of 

Arthur Connolly, at a cost of 300,000 

JVL The funds, however, had been be- 

ioestAed bjr Mapammad Mnisin, This 



gentleman owned a quarter share of 
the great Saiyidpi!ir estate, in Jessiir 
District, and died in 1814, without 
heirs, leaving property worth £4,500 
a year for pious purposes. There were 
2 trustees, and by the terms of the 
will the estate was divided into 9 
shares of £500 a year each, of which 
£1,500 a year was to be spent on re- 
ligious observances at the ImAmbArah, 
£2,000 a year in keeping it in repair 
and paying the officers attached to it, 
and the rest, £1,000 a year, was to be 
divided between the trustees. The 
trustees soon quarrelled, and Govern- 
ment assumed charge of the estate, 
and appointed 2 trustees, 1 being the 
Collector of Jessiir, and the other 
KarAmat 'AH. During the litigation, 
a fund of £86,110 h^ accumulated, 
and with this the Hugli College was 
founded, in 1836. The faQade of the 
ImAmbArah is 277ft 3 in. long and 36 ft. 
high, and in its centre is a gateway 
consisting of 2 minarets, or towers, 
■114 ft. high, with a curtain between, 
in which is a large clock. On either 
side of the door are inscriptions. On 
the spectator's left is, in English, a 
resolution of the Bengal Govt, dated 
16th of December, 1863, and on the 
right is the same resolution in, now 
illegible, Persian. This resolution 
censures the magistrate of Hugll for 
allowing a Hindii marriage procession 
to pass the ImAmbArah at a time 
when the Muslims were keeping the 
fast of the Mu^arram there. On enter- 
ing the gateway the visitor finds him- 
self in the quadrangle, 150 ft. from N. 
to S., and 80 ft. from E. to W., with 
rooms all round, and at the N. end a fine 
hall 70 ft. by 80 ft, 36 ft 3 in. high, 
paved with marble, and having a pulpit 
with 7 steps. The sides of the pulpit 
are covered with plates of silver, a 
vci*se of the Kur'an being iusciibed in 
eacli plate. The walls of the hall and 
portico arc ornamented with verses 
from the Kur'An, or passages from the 
^adls, in the Juf^rA chiuucter. As- 
cend now a staircase between the hall 
and the rooms, and pass down a 
corridor for | of its length, where is 
the library which was bequeathed by 
KarAmat 'All, bat a few books haye 



Seet. II. 



Baute H.^^hinmrah — Bdndel. 



165 



sinoe been added by other people. 
There are in all 787 manuscripts, and 
among them is a fine folio Kur'dn, in 
2 Yols., given by Prince GhiilAm Mu- 
hammad, son of Tipii. There is also 
the work on astronomy, by Ulugh Beg, 
probably an autograph. The traveller 
will now cross the road which passes 
the front of this Imdmbdrah, and visit 
the old Im4mbdrah, buUt in 1776-7. 
In the W. corner lie the remains of 
Kardmat 'All, and there is a white 
marble tablet placed against the wall, 
with an extract from the Kur'dn, but 
no tomb. Kar&mat died on the lOch 
September, 1875. 

Chinsurah is written in the old 
Hindii books, Chuchlmdd. In the 
poems of Chandi Kavi Kankan, in the 
early part of the loth century, the 
travels of a Hindii merchant in E. Ben- 
gal are described. He came down to 
the mouth of the Hugli by Koii 
Nagar, or "Comertown," and Chit- 
ptlr to Kdll Kdta, "KAU's acre." 
This shews that there was a town or 
village Edllkatta (Calcutta) long be- 
fore the time of the English. Chin- 
surah was held by the Dutch for 180 
years, and ceded by them to the Eng- 
lish in exchange for Sumatra, in 182G. 
At a little distance from the river, and 
N. of the college, there is an hotel, 
where accommodation may be had for 
6 rs. a day. The town was used for 
an invalid depot for troops coming 
from or going to England, till lately, 
when it was abandoned as a military 
station. The old Dutch church, said 
to have been built by the Governor in 
1768,* at his own expense, is solidly 
built of brick. It is 74 ft. 1 in. long, 
and 37 ft. broad from E. to W., and 
can seat 120 persons. Acx^ording to 
some, it was built for a market, and 
its length N. and S. gives colour to the 
notion. Over the E. door is inscribed : 

Ad niajoram 

Dei gloriam 

^Uflcari jussit 

G. L. Vbrnet. 

A.D. 1767. 

In the vestiy is an old stone, said to 
have been taken from the fallen tower, 
and inscribed, " Gebowd Door, J. A. 

* This Is aooordi^g to the Bailway Quide, 
printed by Sumders Cooes ftud Co., 1805. 



Shisterman." In the church afe 14 
escutcheons, 7 on either side. The 
dates are from January, 1685, to 1770, 
and the inscriptions are in Dutch. 
The Hugh College is to the S. of the 
church, and is one of the most famous 
in India. There are 600 students, and 
ample accommodation for more in the 
rooms of the old barracks, which are 
very extensive, and are kept in re- 
pair, to lodge students. Kristodds 
Pil and other eminent men were 
educated at this college. The ceme- 
tery is 1 m. to the \V. of the church ; 
the new part is tolerably well kept, 
but where the old tombs are the 
ground is filthy. Many of the tombs 
are those of Dutch officials, as that of 
Gregorius Herklots, Esq., Fiscal of 
Chinsurah, who was bom in Birming- 
ham, Jan. 9th, 1768, arrived in Chin- 
surah 1789, resided there 63 years, 
and died May 26th, 1852, aged 84. 
This tablet speaks well for the salu- 
brity of the place. There is another 
tomb to Captain Lucas Jurrianz Zuyd- 
land, who died 25th October, 1766. 

Bdndel. — ^The traveller will next 
drive to Bdndel, which is a m. N. qt 
Hugli. The Portuguese monastery and 
church here are worth a visit. The 
church was built in 1599, and is of 
brick, and very solidly built. It is 
dedicated to Nossa Senhora di Bosario, 
and is 196 ft. long from E. to W., and 
44 ft. 10 in. from N. to S. There are 
fine cloisters on the S., and a priory, 
in which is a noble room called St. 
Augustine's Hall. In the aisle on 
either side are 8 inter-columnar spaces. 
The organ is good. The church was 
founded by the Augustine Missionaries, 
demolished by Shdh Jah&n. in 1640, 
and rebuilt by John Gomez di Soto. 
It is situated on the banks of the 
Hugli, 28 m. N. of Calcutta. In the 
N. aisle is an inscription : 

Hie 

Jacet ELIZABET ex Sylva 

In Mailapurensi civitatedivi 

Thom^ sita et ex lumestis 

Et Luaitauis Patribus Oriuiula. 

Quie labore astate intinnitate oppressa 

Ex bello AngliH a Mauris illato, 

Obiit loco Chiu(iUTO.\\,<Sia*iX 



166 



Route 11. — Calcutta to Hngli {HoogMy). Sect. II. 



There is also here the following in- 
scription : — 

Este Altar 

DA VIRGEM NOSSA 8ENH0RA DE 

ROSARIO, 

De Conveutu de Ugolym, 

De 

Privilegiado ao Salmdo 

Pello summo pontiflce Benedicto XIII. 

Anno da m.d.c.c.c, xxv. 

Feito em anno 17.70. 

SlirirAmpur (Serampore). — The 
headquarters of the sub-division of 
the same name is situated on the 
W. bank of the Hugli, opposite 
Barrackpiir, in N. lat. 22" 45' 30", 
E. long. 88° 23' 30", and has 24,440 
inhabitants. B4bil BholAndth Chan- 
dra, in his "Travels of a Hindii," 
p. 6, says, " Serampore is a snug little 
town, and jwssesses an exceeding ele- 
gance and neatness of appearance. 
The range of houses along the river- 
side makes up a gay and brilliant 
picture. The streets are as brightly 
clean as the walks in a garden, but 
time was when Serampore had a busy 
trade, and 22 ships cleared from this 
small port in 3 months." It is only 
13 m. from Calcutta, and is a favourite 
resort of people whose business lies in 
that city. But its chief claim to his- 
torical notice arises from its having 
been the scene of the Apostolic labours 
of Carey, Marshman, and Ward. The 
zeal and successes of the Baptist mis- 
sionaries of Serampore, at the begin- 
ning of this century, form the brightest 
episode in Evangelistic efforts in 
India. Serampore was formerly a 
Danish settlement, and was then 
called Fredericksnagar. In 1845, a 
treaty was made with the King of 
Denmark ; all the Danish possessions 
in India, namely, Tranquebar, Fiefle- 
ricksnagar, and a small piece of ground 
at Bdleshwar (Balasore), were trans- 
ferred to the E. I. Co. for £125,000. 

The traveller will drive first to the 
old Danish church, over the facade of 
which is « M. DCCC. V." It is 90 ft. 
long and 34 ft. broad. It cost 18,500 rs. , 
of which 1,000 were given by the Mar- 
quis Wellesley. The communion table 
is to the W. The church seats 77 per- 
sons. There are 5 tablets, of which 
one is to William Carey , IXD,, bom at 



Pordarsbury, Northaonptonshire, 17th 
of August, 1761, died 9th of June, 
1834 ; another to Joshua Marshman, 
D.D., bom at Westbury, Wilts, 20th of 
April, 1768, died 6th of December, 
1837; and the third to the Rev. 
William Ward, bom at Derby, 20th of 
October, 1769, died 7th of March, 
1823 — the Serampore missionaries. 
There is another large and very hand- 
some marble tablet to the memory of 
the Hon. J. S. Hottenberg, Esq., late 
Chief of H. Danish M.'s Settlement of 
Fredericksnagar, who died May 11th, 
1835. 

The next visit will be to the Col- 
lege, which is a very handsome build- 
ing on the banks of the Hugli, and 
commanding a fine view across the 
river, over Barrackpiir Park. The 
porch is gigantic, the roof being sup- 
ported by 6 pillars 60 ft, high. On 
the ground floor is the Lecture Room, 
and in the floor above the Great Hall, 
which is 103 ft. 7 in. long, and 66 ft. 
broad. On the right is the Library, 
where are the following portraits : 1, 
Madame Grand, by Zoffany ; she after- 
wards married Talleyrand (see Mdmc. 
de R6musat's " Memoirs ") ; 2, Dr. 
Marshman, by Zoffany ; 3, Frederick 
VI. of Denmark ; 4, Frederick's wife, 
Queen of Denmark ; 5, copy of a 
Madonna, by Raphael; 6. Rev. W. 
Ward, by Penny. The library con- 
tains some curious Sanskrit and Thi- 
betan manuscripts, and an account of 
the Apostles, drawn up by the Jesuits, 
for Akbar. In the College compound 
is the house in which Carey, Marsh- 
man, and Ward Uved, and a large 
mansion, now inhabited by the prin- 
cipal of the College ; and before reach- 
ing the College you pass the Mission 
Chapel, and the old or Baudrick's 
Hotel, once famous for pic-nics of 
people from Calcutta, but now a pri- 
vate dwelling. Also the new hotel, 
well situated on the banks of the 
river. 

Cliandranagar (popularly Chunder- 
nagore, but according to Hunter, 
voL iii. p. 307, correctly Chandanngar, 
or " City of Sandal-wood," but rather 
perhaps,Chandranagar; ^^MoonTown") 
is in N, lat, 22* 51' 40", and B. long. 



Sect. II. EotUe 11. — GJiandranagar {Ghundemagore), 



167 



88" 24' 6(y. The French made a set- 
tlement here in 1678, and in the time of 
Dnpleix more tiban 2000 brick houses 
were built in the town, and a consi- 
derable trade was carried on. In 1757, 
the town was bombarded by the Eng- 
lish fleet under Admiral Watson, and 
captured ; he, however, died on the 
16th of August in that year, having 
taken Chandranagar on the 23rd of 
March. The fortifications were demo- 
lished, but in 1763 the town was re- 
stored to the French.' In 1794 it was 
again captured by the English, and 
held till 1816, when it was again re- 
stored to the French, and has re- 
mained in their possession ever since. 
The Bailway Station is just outside 
the French boundary. It was in- 
tended at first to carry the line closer 
to Chandranagar itself, but difficul- 
ties arising -with the French Govern- 
ment, it was eventually resolved that 
it should pass over ground indisput- 
ably English. 

The old fort, 30 yds. W. of the 
river, which was taken by Clive and 
Watson, was a sq. of 120 yds., de- 
fended by 100 pieces of cannon. On 
March 14th Clive attacked it from the 
cover of the houses to the S., and three 
English men-of-war sailed up the 
river, but were detained by vessels 
sunk by the French to block the 
channel ; but a French officer pointed 
out the passage to the Engli^, and 
their ships attacked the fort on the 
23rd. The traitor subsequently hanged 
himself, when his old father in France 
rejected some money he had sent him. 
¥/hile the English ships bombarded 
the fort, fighting went on in the town 
from the tops of the houses. ** For 3 
hours nothing was heard but an inces- 
sant roll of aitillery and musketry, the 
crashing of timbers or masonry, the 
shouts and cheers of the combatants, 
and the shrieks and groans of the 
wounded. After 3 hours' cannonade, 
when the French guns had been all 
dismounted by the fire of the ships, 
the fort surrendered to Admiral Wat- 
Bon. The property captured was valued 
at 13 l&khs." 

Chandranagar receives from the 
'EmtiMi 300 chests of opium on ecu- 



dition that the inhabitants do not 
engage in the manufacture of that 
article. N. of the fort is the Cemetery, 
which contains some neat monuments, 
A church stands on the bank of the 
river, built by Italian missionaries in 
1726 A.D. Between Chandranagar and 
Chinsurah is Biderra, where the Eng- 
lish obtained a decisive victory over 
the Dutch. The English commander 
was aware that his nation and the 
Dutch were at peace, and wrote to 
Clive for an order in council to fight. 
Clive was playing cards, and wrote 
in pencil : " Dear Forde fight them 
to-day, and I will send you an order 
to - morrow. — Thursday^ nth^ 1.30 



P.M. 



11 



\ 



168 Rovite 12. — HugU to Murshiddbdd {Moorshedalad). Sect. II. 



ROUTE 12. 

HUGli TO BARDWAn 
8HIDi.BilD. 

The time table of the 
Railway is as follows : — 

U 



AND HUB- 

East Indian 






27 
29 
35 
38 

44 

51 

59 

67 
75 
87 

99 

111 

119 

129 
136 

145 



Names of Sta- 
tions. 



TrishblghA . 
Maffra(Mugrali) 
Khuiian . . 
Pandua (Pun- 

dooah) 
Bainchi (Boin- 

chee) 
Memari (My- 

uiaree) 

S aktigarh (Sak- 
t eegiirli) 
B ardwau 
K anu Junction 
Gnshkhara 

(Gooslikarah) 
Bolpur (Bhul- 

pore) 
Anmadpur (xVh- 

riioodpore) 
Sainthe (Cjti- 

theeA) 
Mallar|>ur . . 
Rdmpur Hdt 

(Rampore 

Haut) 
Nalhiiti (Xul- 

hattee) 



Time. 



10.23 
10.33 
10.50 
11.6 

11.23 

11.44 

P.M. 

12.7 

12.29 
7.6 
7.35 

8.3 

8.:]2 

8.52 

9.14 
9.30 

10.1 



1st 
Class. 



R. A. p. 

2 8 6 

2 11 6 

3 4 6 

3 9 

4 2 
4 12 6 



5 8 6 

6 4 6 

7 6 

8 2 

9 4 6 

10 6 6 

11 2 6 



2nd 
Class. 



R.A.P. 

14 3 

15 9 
1 10 3 

1 12 6 

2 10 
2 6 3 



2 13 3 

3 2 3 

3 8 3 

4 13 

4 10 3 



5 3 8 



5 9 3 



12 1 6'6 9 
12 12 6 6 



13 9 6 6 12 9 



At Magra the traveller should, if 
possible, stop a few hours. There is a 
bridge here over a channel through 
which the Dimodar River, now flow- 
ing 20 m. to the W., formerly found a 
passage to the Hugli River at Naya 
Sardi, 'ciS, Salimdb^. The channel 
is now called the KAnanadi or " blind 
river," because it is obstructed by 
sand. A high embankment runs here 
E. to W., which, centuries ago, was a 
royal road leading to Tribenl, 3 m. 
distant, on the banks of the HugU, 
celebrated as a place of pilgrimage, 
where the Bhdgirathi or Hugll, the 
SaiAswati, and the Yamnnd, an im- 
portant river of Nadiy&, are supposed 

^uJ^^' ^^^ ^ ^^^ a splendid 
t^M^ or Aigbt of stone steps, said 



to have been built by MukundDeo, the 
last independent King of Orissa, whose 
dominioi^s extended up to this spot. 
The Rev. Mr. Long, in an article in 
the "Calcutta Review," writes : Tri- 
benl was one of the four mm^ or 
places famous for Hindii learning ; 
the others are, NadiyA, Shdntipiir, and 
GutipAri. Tribeni was formerly noted 
for its trade. Pliny mentions that the 
ships assembling near the GodAvarl 
sailed from thence to Cape Palinums, 
Ihence to Tentigal6 opposite FaltA, 
thence to Tribeni, and lastly to Patna. 
Ptolemy also notices Tribeni. For- 
merly there were over 30 folg or Sans- 
krit schools in the town. The famous 
pandit, Jaganndth Tarkopanch&nam, 
the Sanskrit tutor of Sir WilUam - 
Jones, was a native of this village, and 
in the time of Lord Comwallis he 
took an active part in the publication 
of the Hindii Laws. 

S. of Tribeni stands a famous mosque 
containing the tomb of Zj afar Kh&n. 
It was once a Hindii temple. Zafar 
was the uncle of Shdh Safi, and was 
killed in a battle fought with RdjA 
Bhudea. Z^^^r's son conquered the 
RAjd of Hugh, and married his daugh- 
ter, who is buried within the precincts 
of the temple ; and at Muhammadan 
festivals the Hindils make offerings at 
her tomb. Professor Blochmann thus 
describes the mosque and tomb 
("Jour. Beng. As. Soc," vol. xxxix., 
part 1., p. 282): " The AstAnah consists 
of 2 inclosures ; the Ist, which lies 
near the road leading along the bank 
of the Hugli, is built of large basalt 
stones, said to have been taken from a 
Hindii temple, destroyed by Zafar 
Khdn. Its E. wall, which faces the 
river, shovji traces of Hindii idols, and 
fixed in it at a height of 6 ft. from the 
ground is a piece of iron, said to be 
the handle of Zafar Khdn's battle- 
axe. The'2nd inclosure, joined to the 
W. wall of- the Ist, is of sandstone. 
ITie keeper of the AstAnah points out 
the W. tomb as that of Zafar KhAn, 
and says the other three are those 
of his 2 sons and the wife of Bar 
KhAn, his 3td sou, 20 -jdR. to tVve W, 
of the 2Tid Vnc\osaxe «e^ V5cv^ tvCyqa 
of ft moeqae, \i\n\t ^itV ^>ti<i ^e^\^ 



Sect. 11. Eoiite 12. — Pdndua — MemaH — Bardwdn. 



169 



rials of a Hindii temple. The low 
basalt pillars supporting the arches 
are nnasually thick, and the domes 
are built of successive rings of ma- 
sofiiry, the diameter of each layer 
being somewhat less than that of the 
layer below, the whole being capped 
bya circular stone coveriDg the small 
lemaining aperture. Two of the domes 
are broken ; on the W. wall there are 
several inscriptions. According to the 
Arabic verses written about the prin- 
cipal mihrab, the mosque was built by 
Khan Muhammad ^afar Khdn, who 
is called a Turk, in A.H. 698, or A.D. 
1298. The ground round about the 
mosque is ver^ uneven ; several ba- 
salt pillars lie about, and there are 
foundations of several structures as 
also a few tombs, which are said to be 
the resting-places of former Phadinvt." 
Pdiidua, — At this station, too, the 
traveller may make a stop. Bdbil 
Bhol&ndth Chandra, in his " Travels 
of a Hindii," vol. i., p. 141: says, " In 
ancient times P&ndua was the seat of 
a Hindii RijA, and fortified by a wall 
and trench 5 m. in circumference. It 
is now only a small rural village, but 
traces of its ancient fortifications arc 
yet discernible. The tower, 120 ft. 
high, arrests the eye from a long way 
off. This is said to be the oldest build- 
ing in Lower Bengal, and it has de- 
fied the storms of a tropical climate 
through 5 centuries." It is 1 m. from 
the station, and is well worth a visit 
for the view to be obtained from its 
summit. An iron rod runs up to the 
top, which the pilgrims, who come in 
Januarv, say was the walking-stick of 
ShAh ^afi, who defeated the Hindiis 
here in a great battle in 1340 A.D. It 
is said that the Rdjd of Pdndaa gave 
a great feast on the birth of an heir. 
One of his officers, a Muslim, who was 
his Persian translator, gave a feast at 
the same time, and killed a cow to 
supply his guests with the flesh, and 
buried the bones, but they were dug 
up at night by jackals. In the morn- 
ing the whole population, on discover- 
ing that a cow had been killed, rose 
en maMe, and slew the Edjd's child. 
Tbejr then were about to kill the Mus- 
Um, bat be Ued to DihU, and the Em- 



peror despatched an army against the 
Bdjd. War raged for years, but ended 
in the complete overthrow of the 
Hindiis by Shdh Safl. The Rev. Mr. 
Long, in the " Calcutta Review," tells 
the same story, except that he says 
that the Muslim who killed the cow 
was celebrating the birth of his own 
child. A fine mosque near the tower 
200 ft. long, with 60 domes, which re- 
verberate sound like the " Whispering 
Gallery" of St. Paul's, contains a 
platform on which ShAh Safi used to 
sit. A little west of the village is a 
tank called Pir Pokar ; a fakir resides 
near it, and when he calls out Fath 
KhAn, a large alligator comes to the 
surface. The tank was probably dug 
500 years ago, and is in places 40 ft, 
deep. 

Mcmari. — The station here is close 
to the crossing of the Grand Trunk 
Road, and near the site of the T. B., 
should the traveller be inclined to 
stop. A few m. further on the line 
approaches the Ddmodar River, which 
rises in the hills of Rdrngafh, and 
drains 7200 sq. ra. In the rains as 
much water falls into it as would fill 
a channel 20 ft. deep and 2 m. wide. 
The bed of the Ddmodai- is 50 ft. 
above the high -water mark of the 
Hugli, and much above the level of 
the adjacent country. In 1823, the 
Ddmodar flowed through the town of 
Bardwdn to the depth of 4 ft., and 
formed a sheet of water 6 m. broad 
over the country. Many people were 
drowned, and only a few were saved, 
floating down the river on the roofs of 
their houses. 

Hardwun (prop. Barclhwdn). — The 
landscape approaching this town is very 
fine. Within a mile of it a noble vi.aduct 
of 280 arches is passed over, and this 
work cost £20,000. To the left is seen 
the steeple of a neat church, built by 
the Rev. J. J. Weisbrecht, at a cost of - 
10,000 i*s. A noble avenue of trees 
lines the embankment. Bardwdn, 
(called in Hindii books, Kusum- 
piir, or the " City ot ^Q^^"t^''''^\'^"<>w=^ 
capital ol ^ (\\n\!&\qw ^wv\5!:\xivAx^i, 
12,719 BQ. m. •, VVe. ^^\>. ^'ssL'fc'^j ^\ 



170 JSoute 12. — Ilitgli to Murshiddbdd {MoorsJiedahad), Sect. IL 



are the most densely populated coun- 
try in the whole world. In BardwAn 
itself there are 578 persons to the sq. 
m., but in HugU no less than 1045. The 
division contains the following dis- 
tricts : Birbhi"im, Bankurah, BardwAn, 
Midnapiir, and HugU. There is a good 
railway refreshment-room and also the 
National Hotel. At If m. from the 
station is the palace of the MahdrAjA 
of BardwAn, the richest zaminddr in 
Bengal. His estate is 73 m. long and 
40 ra. broad, and pays to Government 
a rental of dit 420,000. His palace and 
grounds are open every day to visitors, 
and he has a building where those 
whom he invites are hospitably enter- 
tained. The palace is 2 stories high, 
with 3-storied towers at the 4 comers. 
There is a sq. garden in front and small 
buildings all i-ound for relations and 
friends. The Menagerie in the grounds 
is a great attraction. BardwAn was 
once the residence of Shdh JAhAn, and 
sustained a siege from the Mughuls 
in 1621, and was in 1743 the camp 
of 120,000 MarAthas. In 1695 the 
English factors received from Bard- 
wdn the lease of the ground on which 
Calcutta now stands. 

Kann Junction, 8 m. from Bardwdn, 
iff the place where the loop line to RAj- 
mahal branches off. The journey from 
NalhAtl to 'Azimganj is notoriously 
uncomfortable. The gauge is 2 ft., but 
the train shakes fearfully. 1st class 
carriages have no lavatories, and the 
stations along the line are dirty little 
villages, where there are no banglAs, 
and no accommodation of any kind. 
But this is not all ; the E. I. Railway 
train arrives at 10.1 p.m., and the State 
Railway carriages start at 6 A.M. 
There is no bedroom at NalhAtl, so that 
you must sleep in the railway carriage 
if you can get permission to do so. 
The discomfort is so great, that an ill- 
ness may probably be incurred. There 
is indeed a Hdnmmdn^ and if he can 
be found, which is extremely doubtful, 
a cup of tea may be got for 4 An As, and 
a bit of bread. The Indians themselves 
saj, " this is not a railway, but only a 
wretched tramway," It is absolutely 
22^e6sarjr that Government should 
order a good retreshment'Toom and 2 



s]eei)ing-room8 to be opened at Nal- 
hAtl, and that the MaTisamdn should 
be instructed to look out for travellers, 
and to render them every assistance 
on pain of losing his place. Then at 
SAgardigi, half way to 'A^imganj, a 
comfortable T. B. should be builti and 
a 1fhd7i8amAn appointed to provide re- 
freshment for travellers. At 'A'jjim- 
ganj also, there ought to be a T. B., and 
a covered boat should be provided to 
carry passengers across the Ganges, 
and a T. B. should be built on the Mur- 
shidAbAd side of that river, where 
carriages could be procured for going 
to MurshidAbAd. Then, indeed, the 
journey might be made with moderate 
comfort. As it is, the Government 
have done almost nothing, and the 
NiiwAb NAzim of MurshidAbAd has 
done less than nothing. Many princes, 
for instance the MahArAjA of Bhart- 
piir, supply European travellers for 
one day at least with food and lodg- 
ing free of expense ; but the NiiwAb of 
MurshidAbAd overlooks the traveller 
altogether. It is also to be observed, 
that the NalhAtl line is managed with 
such extraordinary carelessness, that 
complaints are rife of the train being 
stopped to allow some official con- 
nected with it to get down and shoot 
ducks or deer. The following are the 
stations : — 




4 

8 

1-4 

17 

21 
27i 



Names of 
Stations. 



Nalhdti 

Takipur . 

Nowada 

Bokhdra . 

Sa^rdigi 

Shahapur 

'A/.iingaiij 



Time. 


Ist 
Clans. 


2nd 
Class. 


A.M. 


r. A. p. 


d. p. 


5.0 






5.21 


6 


2 


5.44 


12 


4 


6.13 


13 6 


6 6 


6.39 


19 6 


8 8 


7.2 


1 15 6 


10 6 


7.30 


2 10 


14 



'A'zmf/aTiJ is a neat town, with 
several good houses of Jain merchants, 
of which sect a number of families 
came from Jaipiir and RAjpiitAnA 
many years ago. On entering the 
town iTOTn'^«\\ii!k\iV,^ct^S& wilVkaleft, 
a neat v\\Ya\ifcVoTvgmi^ \Ai ^ti^Jtfi^i&j*^ 



Sect IT. EotUe 12. — Tafar Ganj Cemetery — Khmk BdgK 171 



hoofie belonging to Edlu Shrimall, and 
the houses of\ the brothers Bi^hn 
Ohand Doddriya and Kandho Singh 
Dod&riya arc large and handsome. 
One room in the station, on the right 
as you arrive from Nalh&ti, is fitted 
up for the accommodation of travellers, 
and there is a khAnsdmAn. The B&ghi- 
i-athi is here 700 ft. broad, and rises 
in the rains 25 ft., when the current 
runs 7 m. an hour. The only boats 
procurable have no covering, and in 
the burning sun, or in the rains, it may 
be imagined what the traveller has to 
suffer, more particularly as the dis- 
tance from the GhAt on the river's side 
to the refreshment room is 5 of a m. 
at least. From the Ghdt on the far 
side to the palace where the Political 
Agent in charge of tlie Ni'iwdb's aif airs 
lives, is o m. 

Cemefn-y of J'' afar Ganj. — The first 
thing to be seen is the Mul^ammadan 
cemetery. It is about a mile to the N. 
of the palace of MurshiddbAd. This 
cemetery is in some respects the most 
remarkable place of the kind in all 
India. Opposite the gate of the ceme- 
tery, and on the other side of the road, 
is a handsome mosque. The |)erson in 
charge of the cemetery, which covers 
several acres, has a plan which shows 
all the tombs. These are very well 
kept, and almost every inch of ground 
is occupied. The fmthest tomb at 
the E. end is that of Gauharu'n nisd 
Bigam, who was the daughter of 
Na§iru'l mulk, and died in her 19th 
year. The date is A.H. 1185, and the 
epitaph is in well-written Persian 
verse. At the E. end are also the 
following tombs : — 1, Saiyid A^mad 
Najafl ; 2, Muhammad 'All Khdn ; 
3, Niiwdb J'afar"'All Khdn ; 4, Ismail 
'All KhAu» son-in-law of J'afar 'All ; 
5, Niiwdb Ni?;dmu'd daulah ; C, Nii- 
wdb Nawdzish 'All Khdn, son of J'afar 
'Ali ; 7, Ndwdb Babar jang ; 8, Nii- 
wdb 'All Jdh ; 9, Niiwdb 'All Jdh ; 
10, Niiwdb Wdld Jah ; 11, Niiwdb 
Humdyiin Jdh. There are 77 Kdris 
or Scripture readers at this cemetery, 
who read the Kur'dn in 3 portions, 
BO that every Hrd day the whole 
Knr'dn is read through, ITiey get 
^m 4 rs, to 6 rs, a month, accoid- 



ing to their ability. This, then, is the 
cemetery of the Niiwdbs Nd^im ap- 
pointed by the English. After seeing 
the J'afar Ganj, the traveller will cross 
the Bdghirathi and go to the Roshan 
Bdgh cemetery, which is on the W. 
side of the river, about a mile to the 
S.W. of the place where you land. 
There is a fine view of the palace and 
the Imdmbdrah from the W. bank of 
the river. 

Boshan Bagh- — In this cemetery, 
which is a i)retty, well shaded garden, 
there is a platform 4 ft. bigh, on which 
is a masoniy building 36 ft. by 20 ft., 
with 3 doors in front. This building 
was constructed by the English to 
replace a much lai'ger and handsomer 
one which had fallen to decay. Over 
the centre door is a Persian distich, 
which says that Shujd'u 'd daulah 
became an inhabitant of the highest 
heaven on Tuesday, the 13th of Zii*- 
lliajj in 1151 A.H., but according to 
another account would seem to be 10£9. 
In the N.W. comer of the garden is a 
mosque, which measures 35 ft. from 
N. to S., and 18 ft. from E. to W. It 
has a Persian inscription which gives 
the date A.H. 1 156. Shujd'u 'd daulah 
was the son-in-law of Murshid Kiili 
Khdn, and succeeded him. 

Khvsh Bdgt' — The traveller will 
now proceed nearly 2 m. to the S.W., 
to a cemetery enclosed ])y Lujfu'n 
nisd Bigam, widow of Sirdju 'd daulah. 
It is surrounded by a solid brick wall. 
At the W. end is a mosque of masonry, 
measuring 56 ft. from N. to S., and 
25 ft. from E. to W. The mausoleum 
is 30 yds. off. It is 65 ft. sq. In the 
centre is the tomb of 'Ali Vardl Khdn, 
and to the W. are those of Sirdju'd 
daulah, and beside it, to the E., that 
of his brother. These tombs are almost 
level with the ground, and are covered 
with chadars of gold embroidery. In 
returning from this cemeteiy the tra- 
veller will pass the river opposite the 
Ldl Bdgh, which is an official residence, 
close to the landing-place on the oppo- 
site side. Here thft Yv^^x\&Y«!kft^^»o&tt. 
a cnnoua p«I\isaJV^ cS. ^\vJ2\8L«e,^<3\i."«>KtfSa. 
is a ioot\ca^, \yy ^YiSaV \>afe>o(QK*s^ 
1 can paaa aVow^ >iX\fe ^-w-WsvVst ^ 
\ BiderabVe d\B\«ac^ 



172 RoiUe 12. — Huglj, to Mttrshiddhdd (Moorshedabad). Sect. II. 



\ 



Murshiddbdd, Palace of the Numab, 
— The chief object of attraction at 
MurshidAbad is the palace of the Nil- 
wdt) NAzim, on the bank of the Bhdgi- 
rathl, on the W. side of the city, near 
the centre. It is in the Italian style, 
and preferred by some to Government 
House at Calcutta. The architect was 
General Macleod of the Beng. Eng. 
It was begun in 1827, and finished 
in 1837, at a cost of £167,000. It 
faces N., and is 425 ft. long, 200 ft. 
broad, and 80 ft. high. In front 37 
immensely broad steps lead up to the 
portico. In the entrance room is a 
picture of the Niiwdb Ndj^im and 
General Macleod consulting as to build- 
ing the palace. The Banqueting Room 
is on the Ist floor. At its E. end is a 
very good picture by the well-known 
artist Lewis, representing the Ni'iwdb 
Ndgim interviewing the Agent Torrens. 
The Banqueting Room is 191 ft. 1 in. 
long, and TA ft. 9 in. broad, but loses 
something of its apparent size by being 
partly divided into 3 by doors. These 
ought to be made to slide into the wall, 
or be removed altogether, screens being 
used when it is wished to divide the 
room. In Dr. Hunter's account (vol. 
ix.. Beng Stat. Ace. p. 66), there are 
sonic inaccuracies. It is said that the 
Banqueting Hall is 290 ft. long, which 
would be 90 ft. longer than the whole 
breadth of the palace. This is prob- 
ably a typographical error. He says 
also that in the centre of the building 
is a dome, from which hangs a vast 
and most superb chandelier of 150 
branches, presented to the NiiwAb 
by the Queen, but an official who has 
lived in Murshiddbji<l J) 7 years states 
that he saw the chandelier put up, and 
knows that it was boujjht by the Xii- 
wAb Humayiin Jdh at Osier's. It bums 
110, not lob, candles. The Darbdr, or 
ThiY>ne 'loom, adjoins tlic Banqueting 
Boom, and is circular, and ()24 ft. 
high, but from its shape seems much 
higher. At the W. end of the Banquet- 
ing Room is a picture of the Burial of 
Sir John Moore, painted by Marshall 
for the corps to which Sir John be- 
longed. It was rejected, and sent out 
to India, and exliibited in Hudson's 
stadio at Calcutta, The NiiwAb is 



said to have bought it for 10,000 t&. 
The floor of this room is of marble, and 
the mirrored partitions of which Dr. 
Hunter speaks, have been removed, as 
the mirrors were broken. 

In the Throne Room is, or was, 
a beautiful ivory throne with painted 
and gilded flowers, a specimen of 
the perfection of that ivory work 
for which Murshiddbdd is famous. 
The portraits of HumAyiin Jdh, the 
present NiiwAb's father, and those of 
the Agents, except Mr. Caulfleld, of 
the DiwAn and of General Macleod, who 
was not Agent, though his son-in-law, 
Colonel Pemberton, was, are by Hud- 
son. The picture of the present Nii- 
wab, in the N. Dining Room, and of 
his 2 sons, and the 2 pictures of 
children in the N. bedroom above, are 
by Hutchinson, a planter and amateur 
painter. In the Drawing Room at the 
W. end of the palace are portitdts of 
Sir Herbert Maddock and Marquis 
Wellesley, at the S. end of the room. 
At the N. end of the room are portraits 
of Queen Victoria, William IV., and 
the Earl of Munster, the 2 last sent 
out by King William to the Nilwdb. 
In the Dining Room at the W. end of 
the palace are portraits of the Niiwdb 
Ndzim, his Diwdn, Rdjd Krishna 
Ndrdydn Rdo, and Colonel Macgregor. 
On the N. side of the room are Wdld 
Kadr, and 'All Kadr, sons of the pre- 
sent Niiwdb, 'All being the elder. On 
the S. side are Mr. Caulfleld and 
General Macleod, General Colin Mac- 
kenzie and his wife, and Humdyiin 
Jdh. In the bedroom at the S. end 
are likenesses of Amir Sd^ib, and 
Mirdn ; on the S. side the brothers 
*Ali Kadr and Wdld Kadr, and at the 
W. end the 3 sons of the present Nii- 
wdb. 

The Ball Room is exactly above 
the Banqueting Room, ana on the 
next floor, and is of the same size, but 
with a wooden floor instead of the 
marble pavement of the Banqueting 
Room. There are many other pictures, 
marble tables, and other valuables. 
The Armoury is quite worthy of a visit, 
and the jewels are remarkably fine. 
Altogether the palace is the finest 
modem bviUdm^ ot the Idnd in IiidU» 



^A,edalbad} 



and the views from it over the river, 
the Im&mb&rah and the ZanAna, are 
very beautiful. It is strange that with 
so noble a residence the Niiwdb should 
have preferred to live in a range of low, 
small buildings to the E., while his 
mother resides in a barge. To the N. 
of the palace is an Imdmbirah, built 
in 1847, according to an inscription on 
it, which, translated, signifies ^' the 
Grove of Elarbald,'' which in Persian 
represents the date 1264 a.h.=1847 
A.D. It occupies the site of a still 
finer building erected by Siraju 'd 
daolah, in which, according to the 
T&rikh-i-Manstiri (Blochmann's trans- 
lation, pp. 97 to 102), was a piece of 
ground about 5 ft. 6 in. deep, fill^ 
with earth brought from the holy 
Karbald, near Baghdad. The building 
had 2 stories, and was richly decorated, 
but accidentally burnt during a display 
of fireworks about 1840 a.d. Beyond 
the palace, on the road to Barhampi!ir, 
is a fine range of coach houses and 
stables. It is to be regretted that 
travellers who wish to visit the palace 
should have to encounter many difii- 
culties. There is no T. B. nor hotel at 
Mur^iddbdd. The traveller is, and 
must be, wholly dependent on the 
English authorities for lodging, food, 
and comfort. 

The Great Gun. — The only remain- 
ing sight is that of the Great Gun, 
which is 3 m. due E. of the LAI Bagh, 
the last it m. being over a country road, 
where are at present deep, muddy 
swamps, impassable, except in a very 
light dog-cart. The Gun is at a place 
called the Katra, and is 00 yds. off 
the road to the riglit. This is the 
sister gun to that at DhAkah. It is 
171 ^^* ^o^?« ^i^^ A girth of 5 ft. at 
the breach. The diameter of the touch- 
hole is 14 in. ; of the muzzle, 1 ft. 10 in. ; 
of the orifice, 6 in. The extraordinary 
tiling is that this gun, which had been 
left lying on the gi'ound for many 
years, has been lifted up 5 ft. in the 
air by a vast tree which grew up from 
a seedling beside it, so that the gun 
grew into the trunk, and has formed 
a groove there. The inscription is in 
Persian, which translated is, ^* In the 



and beneficent IslAm Kh4n, a cloud 
dropping mercy, by whom the vast 
Kingdom of Bengal was brought into 
order, and at whose door Fortune •sat 
like a slave of low degree, this dragon- 
mouthed cannon was made at JahAngir- 
nagar, otherwise DhAkah, when Shir 
Muhammad was Ddroghah, on the 11th 
of JumAda' ssdni, in the year 1047 A.H.'* 
The pop. of the city of Murshidibad 
is 46,182, according to the Census of 
1872. There is notliing remarkable to 
be seen in the town itself. A gentle- 
man acting for the S. Kensington 
Museum, is said to have been in treaty 
for this gun, which, if moved from its 
present position resting on the tree, 
would lose its value as a curiosity. 



ROUTE 13. 

MUHSHIDABAD TO BABHAMPUB AND 
PALASHi OB PLAS8EY. 

Barhampur is a town of 27,110 
inhabitants, and is the civil head- 
quarters of the district, and was up to 
1875 the residence of the Commis- 
sioner of the Riijshdhi division. In 
the ** Stat. Ace. of Bengal." vul.ix.,p.75, 
it is said," the town of Barhampiir is 
said to be so called from a MusalmAn 
named Brampiir, an officer of the army 
of an early Nuwtlb." In this sentence 
are several palpable errors. It may 
well be doubted whether there was 
ever an Indian named Brampiir, and 
that he should have been a Muslim is 
an absurd statement. The name should 
properly be \mtten Brahma\)iir., «.V- 
though it ia Sfe IftKX ^}q»X* W \cm6» ^^ss« 



tune of the Qovemment of the just I been coutwycVeQi m\o ^«t\k»sasg^ 



174 EotUe 13. — MursMddbdd (Moorskedabad) to PUmey. Sect IL 



Urdii. It is in fact a kindred word to 
the name of the well-known river 
which should be Brahmaputra. After 
the battle of Plassey, properly Paldshi, 
asthefactory-house atKdisim Bdzdrhad 
been destroyed by Siraju 'd daulah, and 
the fortifications dismantled in the pre- 
vious year, the Barhampiir plain was 
chosen in October, 1757, as the site 
for barracks. The barracks took two 
years in building, and were not com- 
pleted till 1767, for they were not 
begun till some time after it had been 
decided to build them. They cost 
dii302,270, and 3 officers were suspended 
for over-charges. The author of the 
Siyar-i-Mutaakharln, writing in 1786, 
says, " the barracks of Barhampiii* are 
the finest and healthiest that any na- 
tion can boast of. They contain 2 
regiments of Europeans, 7 or 8 of 
Sipdhis, and 15 or 16 cannons." " The 
cantonments of Barhampiir," says the 
" Stat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. ix., p. 77, 
" will always be notorious as the 
scene of the first overt act of mutiny 
in 1857." The account will be found 
in Kaye's " Sepoy War,"3rded., pp.496 
to 508. Suffice it to say that there were 
no European troops at the station or 
any where near it. There was a regi- 
ment of N.I., the 19th, with a corps of 
irregular cavalry and a battery manned 
by native gunners. On the 18th of 
Februaiy, 1857, a detachment of the 
34th N.I., a notoriously disloyal regi- 
ment, reached Barhampiir from Bar- 
rackpiir, and told the 19th what was 
said about the greased cartridges, and 
on the 25th of February the 19th re- 
fused to receive their ammunition, for 
which they were marched down to 
Barrackpiir and disbanded. 

The town of Kdaini Bazar is to the W. 

of Barhampiir. The whole distance 

from Murshidabad is 7 m., and is done 

easily in an hour, the road being a 

good one. It is usual to change horses 

halfway. It should be mentioned 

that Barhampiir is a plaec famed for 

its washermen. Thei*c are none at 

Mui'shiddbdd,and the European gentry 

there send all their things to Barham- 

piirto be washed. Between Barhampiir 

Aiid MarshiddbM, the traveller will 

pass to the rl^ht, at 2 m. S. of Mur- 



shiddbdd. a Jhll or muddy tank a m. 
long called Mutl Jhll, in which are a 
gocS. many alligators. Mutl Jhll is 
said to mean "lake of pearls," in 
which case it would be more properly 
written Moti Jhll. There used to be 
near it a palace built by Sirdju 'd 
daulah at a great expense. Some of 
the materials were brought from the 
ruins of Graur. The English Political 
Resident at MurshidAbdd lived at this 
place until 1785 A.D., when the English 
headquarters were transferred to Mai- 
ddpiir and then to Barhampiir. At 
3 m. S. of Murshiddbdd, to the left of 
the road to Barhampiir, is a magnificent 
avenue of deodar trees, extending from 
2 to 3 m., the trees being from 10 ft. to . 
15 ft. apart. They resemble mango 
trees, but have a narrower and more 
twisted leaf. This avenue leads to 
Maiddpiir, the old civil station now 
abandoned. To the N.E. of Mutl Jhil 
is the Katrd, where there is the tomb 
of Murshid Kuli KhAn, who changed the 
name of Ms^ki^iisdbdd to Murshiddbdd. 
and fixed his seat of G-ovemment there 
in 1704 A.D. The Katrd is said to have 
been built after the model'of the Mosque 
at Makka (Mecca). There is an old 
English cemetery at K&sim B&z4r, of 
some interest. It is 3 m. to the N.W. of 
Barrack Square, and as it is generally 
kept locked it will be necessary to 
procure the key beforehand. On en- 
tering there are 2 tombs, without 
tablets, and then one to John Peach, 
senior Magistrate, who died in 1790 
A.D., and one to Joseph Bourdieu, a 
factor of the B. I. Co., who died in the 
same year. Then comes after 5 tombs 
in a ruinous state and without 
tablets, one to the wife of Lt.-Colonel 
John Mallocks, but her own name is 
written Mattock. She died on the 4th 
of October, 1788, and is here declared 
to be the grand-daughter of the great 
John Hamdeu(*/c), Esq., of St. James*, 
Westminster. As the lady was only 
27, it is evidently impossible that she 
could be a grand-daughter of the 
famous Hampden who was killed at 
the skirmish of Chalgrove Field iu 
Oxf 0Tda\\\Ye, ou 3wTia "iVOQ.,\^^^» 'J^<st 
far tvom 1\\\a \,oto\^\\v \vw3t\.^il \ks»-^ 
house, ml\i «tli\a»vwga\M v'^^^ ^ ""^^^ 



Sdct. IL 



Eoute 13. — Murshiddhdd — Pcddat 



175 



ble in front and one side open, is a 
tablet with — 

In Memory of 

MRS. MARY HASTINGS 

and her daughter 

ELIZABETH, 

Who died 11th of Jijly, 1759, 

In the 2nd year of her age. 

This Monument was erected 

By her husband, 

WARREN HASTINGS, Esqbb., 

In due regard 

Of her Memory. 

Restored by Government 

Of Bengal, 18(J3. 

With reference to this tablet it must 
be noted that Warren Hastings was 
one of the first to fill the office of Po- 
litical Resident at Murshiddbdd. There 
is also a tablet to Mr. Lyoa Praged, 
diamond merchant and inspector of 
indigo and drugs for the E. I. Co., 
who died on the 12th of May, 1793. 

Thence the traveller may go to the 
Dutch Cemetery, which is ^ a mile to 
the W. of the English. In driving to 
it, pass a very fine house, belonging to j 
a child, who is a ward of the Collector. 
The Dutch Cemetery contains 43 tombs, 
of which only 4 are inscribed. The 1st 
is over 40 ft, high, being a pyramid, 
84 ft. 6 in. high, on a base measuring 
16 ft. by 11 J ft., and 5 ft. 6 in. high. 
It i8in8cribed"Tameru8 Canter Vischer 
of Pinjum, in Friesland," who died on 
the 31st of January, 1772. Another 
is inscribed '* Matthias Arnoldus Brake, 
who died on the Istof September,1772 ;" 
it is also inscribed *^ Johanna Petrovoila 
Van Sorgan, who died on the 4th of 
September, 1772." The 3rd is a noble 
mausoleum, built of brick and iron, 4 
storeys high, and reaching an altitude 
of 42 ft. There is first a chamber, open, 
with 4 open arches, each arch having 
on either side 2 Corinthian pillars, 
so that there are 16 pillars in all. The 
2nd story has 12 arches, with a cir- 
cular window above each. It, also, has 
16 pillars. The 3ixl story is the dome, 
and the 4th a small cylindrical build- 
ing, with a cupola. There is no in- 
sciiption. There are other tombs in a 
very ruinous state. A pillar, 20 ft. 
hi^h and massive, is on the point of 
falling, and when it does fall will 
knock down an adjoining handsome 



tomb with 12 pillars. The new ceme- 
tery at Barhampiir is J a mile to the 
N.E. of Barrack Square. It is one of 
the best kept in India. Here are said 
to be interred (see ''Stat.Acc. of Beng.," 
vol. ix., p. 77), George Thomas, the 
famous Irish adventurer, who made for 
himself a principality in Kajpiitdnd, 
which he failed to keep; Creighton, the 
explorer of Gaur, and the hero of Mrs. 
Sherwood's well-known tale "Little 
Henry and his Beaier." Tlie great 
Square formed by the barracks is called 
Cantonment Square or Barnick Square. 
The T. B. is at the S.E. corner, and is 
but a poor place. In the middle of 
the W. side is the Mission Chapel, 
dated 1828. Kdsim Bdzdr is a long 
narrow town, with some good houses 
of rich natives. 

Paldsi (^Plasscy), called from Pal As, 
the Butea frondoaa tree, is 25 m. by 
road S. of K4sim Bdzdr. It is a very 
bad hard road, and 3 carnages must be 
hired to m^tke the journey. Each 
carriage will be charged for 2 days, 
and the expense will be from 20 to 
25 rs. A Mr. Malcolm has a good 
house near the spot where the battle 
was fought. The distance by river is 
36 m., and in the cold season it would 
take 3 days to go and return by water. 
Clive's position is marked by a mound 
close to the river, on which he placed 
his guns. There was a grove of mango 
trees, but the last fell some years ago, 
and has been eaten by white ants. 1 1 
appears from old maps that at the 
time of the battle the Bhdgiratlii 
flowed more to the West, where, in 
fact, an old channel can be clearly 
traced. Apart from its historical in- 
terest, the battle-field of Paldshi offers 
considerable atti-actions to a man fond 
of sport. There is capital snipe- 
shooting in and about it, and florican 
are generally to be met with. There 
is also admirable ground for a gallop, 
and plenty of wild hogs, foxes, and 
hares to gallop after. 



176 Eoute 14. — MurshiddMd {Afoorshedahad) to Rdjmahai* Seet. IL 



S' 



ROUTE 14. 

MUBSHIDABAD TO BAJMAHAL. 

The following are the stations on 
the East Indian Railway from Kal- 
lidti :— 



ih 






S*5 


Names of Statiuiis. 


Time. 


X «« 






51^1 


1 






P.M. 1 




Nalhatf .... 


1.45 ' 


10 


Muran>i(Moorar(N;). . . 


2.12 


17 


RAjguiiu (Rajgowaii) . 


2..S5 . 


24 ; Pakowar (PakowT) . . . 


2.57 1 


32 1 Byilj)iir (Biejapore) . 


8.2:i , 


40 1 Bahawa ..... 


3.47 


50 . Tin Pahdr (Teeupaliar) 


4.12 


57 1 Rajiual^al .... 


4.55 



The fare fhnu Xalhatl to Bajmahal is 1st 
Class, 5 rs. 5 iis. p. 

The traveller will return from Mur- 
shiddbdcl to Nalhdti, and start thence 
to R(ijmal>al. along the loop line. 

Rajmahal distnct. with the sub- 
division of Pilkur. is a sub-district of 
the Sdntal Pnrgauahs. spelt in the 
Bengal Census of 1872, Sonthal, in 
which it appears to have a total pop. 
of 1U0,890. The town of Rajmahal 
stands on the W. or rijrht bank of the 
Ganges, in N. lot. 25" 2' 25" and E. 
long. 87** 52' 51". As this place was 
once the capital of Bengal, and has 
many historical associations, it is de- 
serving of a visit, and also because the 
traveller will have an opportunity of 
seeing the remarkable tribe of Santals. 
It maybe added tliat Maldah is only 
18 m.to the E., and that if arrange- 
ments could be made to reach it, the 
traveller would find himself in the 
midst of a country where tiger-shooting 
is plentiful. 

K^jma^ial up to 1592 A.D. was 
known as Agmahal, but when Rajii 
2Idu Siui^h, ^kUir s famous Rdjput 



eneral, retomod from the conquest of 
Orissa in 1592 A.D., he made it the 
seat of his government, and changed 
its name to R&jma^al. He also begm 
to build a palace and a Hindii Templei 
but Fat^ Jang, the Goyemor ot Bih&r, 
who was risiding at R&jma^^al, wrote 
to Akbar that M&n Singh was building 
an idolatrous temple. In order to es- 
cape the results of this aocnsation, 
Mdn Singh turned the temple into a 
mosque, and changed the name of the 
town to Akbamagar. In 1607, IsUm 
Khdn transferred the seat of goveni- 
ment to Dhdkah, but it was again 
brought to Rdjma^al by Saltan ShnjA* 
in 1639. In the b^inning of the nert 
century, Murshid Kuli Kh&n trans- 
ferred the government to MorshidAUid, 
and Rdjma^al went to decaj, bnt its 
ruin was greatly accelerate by an 
event which happened in 1863. In 
1859 the loop line of Bailway was 
opened, and in that year an arm of 
the Ganges ran close to IUkjnu4]ial, so 
that ste!>mers and vessels of all sizes 
could approach that place, bat in 1863 
the river abandoned its channel and 
left a cluir or sandbank, and only a 
comparatively small stream, so tiiat 
Kdjmahal became 3 m. distant from 
the main stream, and could be ap- 
proached by steamers only during the 
rains. 

At Tin Pahar, the line turns off 
to the E., forming a branch line to 
Kajmal]ial. The station at B&jma^id 
is a very handsome one, and was 
opened in 1859 by Lord Canning. 
Troops during the Mutiny came to 
Rajmahal by train, and were for- 
warded to the N.AV. Provinces by 
water, and it thus became requisite to 
caiTy on the E. L Railway to DihlL 
After the rains of 1880 the river re- 
turned to its former channcL 

Jldjmahal.— On the opposite side 
of the road from the station, is the 
Collector's Office, and other public 
buildings. The Collector's house is 
about i of a m. from these to the 8.E., 
and to tlie £. of it again, at a dis- 
tance of 200 yils., runs the Ganges. 
The T. B. is on the other side of the 
road from the Collectar*s house. In 



Sect. IT. 



Route 14. — Rdjmahal. 



177 



a very long extract is given from Dr. 
Buchanan Hamilton, containing a de- 
scription of Edjma^al in his time, 
which is now altogether inapplicable. 
The first thing to be visited is the 
Kachhari, or Collector's Office, close 
to the station, which is a fine building. 
Immediately adjoining this, to the 
N.E. is the old cemetery, in which 
are 11 tombs, but only three have in- 
scriptions, and they are not of im- 
portance. A few yds. N. of the 
cemetery is a building called the 
Sangi ddlAn, " hall of stone." It is 
1004 ft. long from N. to S., and has 3 
doors of black basalt in the centre. 
In Montgomery Martin's " Eastern 
India," vol. ii. p. 70, this is said to 
have been part of the palace of SulJ.dn 
Shujd', son of Jahdngir, and governor 
of Bihdr. He fii-st resided at Gaur, 
but moved to Rdjma]|^al, and inhabited 
this palace. Many of its stones have 
been used to build palaces for the 
Niiwdbs of Murshiddbdd. Martin 
gives a plan of the building. There 
are some people still living who say 
they can remember the great gateway 
of which he speaks, but all has now 
disappeared, except a part of the 
central building, which may have 
been the Sangi ddldn. There are also 
some large ' fragments of masonry, 
which may have belonged to the well 
he mentions. 

After viewing this ruin, the travel- 
ler may drive to the New Cemetery, 
half a mile to the W. by N. of the 
Kachhari. It is a field of three acres 
with some fine trees, but there are only 
twelve tombs with inscriptions, and 
none of them of much interest. The 
Maina Tank will next be visited, which 
is i of a m. due W. of the Kachhari. 
It is full of weeds. At its S. end is a 
massive brick building, with an Arabic 
inscription in the Tughrd character, 
too high up to be read. At 100 yds. 
to the S. is the Maina Mosque, which 
measures 81 ft. from N. to S. and 28 
ft. from E. to W. At the lowest part, 
where the wall has been somewhat 
broken down, the height is 22 ft. 9 in. 
There is an inscription at the S.W. 
end, but the large stone on which it 
is engraved is put sideways, so that 



it cannot be read. These buildings 
appear to be very old. The tomb of 
Mlrdn, eldest son of Mir J'afar, who 
caused the assassination of Sir^ju 'd 
daulah, when he was brought back 
to Murshiddbdd, after being captured 
near Rdjmahal, is said to be in the 
town, and it may have been at the time 
when Dr. Buchanan Hamilton wrote. 
There is only one other place to 
be visited, and that is the Had^f, 
which is 4 m. to the N.W.* The 
traveller will probably go in a pdlki, 
and will require 12 bearers, to be paid 
at 2 dnds per man. The road leads 
through a forest of tall trees, with 
ruined buildings at intervals. At 1 J 
m. it passes a solid brick building on 
the right hand, called the Taksdl, or 
Mint. The walls are 5^ ft. thick. 
After an hour's travelling, the pdlki 
will turn off the road to the left, and 
pass through a thick low jungle, 
smelling sweetly of the chanvpd tree, 
the delicate white Krona, and other 
flowering shrubs, for about 200 yds., 
when the ruins will be readied. The 
entrance is by the E. gateway, whidi 
is much injured. The traveller then 
finds himself in a quadrangle, the N. 
and S. sides of which are 180 ft. long. 
At the W. side is a mosque, the facade 
of which is 200 ft. long, and forms the 
top side of the quadrangle, while theE. 
W.e is of the same length. To the 
sid of the battlement of the mosquo 
is 34 ft. 10 in., the battlement itself 
being 3 ft. 10 in. There are 7 arches 
in the fa9ade, each 22 ft. high, and 
from the apex of each to the bottom 
of the battlement is 9 ft. In the 
centre of the quadrangle is a hauz, or 
reservoir for water, with 5 steps on 4 
sides down to the water. The people 
of the place call it a well, which it 
probably is, but it is so choked with 
grass and shrubs that it is impossible 
to decide. On the whole this is a fine 
building, but now much ruined and 
covered with jungle. 



178 



EoiUe 15. — Rajmahal to Blidgalpiir. 



8eet.lL 



ROUTE 15. 
bAjmahal to bhAoalpi^b. 

• 

The traveller will have to return to 
Tin Pahdr, and then continue his 
journey along the main line of the 
E. I. Railway. 



8 ^ 



7 
31 

8 

55 

6 2 

75 



Names of Stations. 



! Time. 



Tin PaliAr . 
Maliditijpur 
Sii^iltgaitj . 
Pinxmiti . 
Kolgdon (Colgong) 
Ohogah . 
Bhdgalpih* . 



P.M. 

4.18 

4.57 

6.21 

tf.30 

7.3 

7.24 

8.1 



There is a refreshment room at Sahibganj. 
The fare tlrst class ft'om Tin Pahdr to 
Bhdgalpiir is 5 rs. 14 ds. 6p. 

The country all the way is covered 
with vast herds of cattle, ^dl^ibganj 
is a large place, with a fine large 
structure, the church, which is very 
conspicuous. 

Bhdgalpur is situated on tne right 
or S. bank of the Ganges, in N. lat. 
25' 15', E. long. 87** (/ 2". It is a 
capital of the district of the same 
name, which contains 1,826,290 souls, 
and has an area of 4268 sq. m. The 
pop. of the town itself is 69,678. 
When the E. L Co. assumed the Re- 
venue Administration of Bengal, Bhd- 
galpiir formed the E. district of the 
division of Mung«r, and lay entirely 
t-o the S. of the Ganges ; except the 
Pargauah of Chhdi, the exact bounda- 
ries towards the S. and W. cannot 
now be determined, as the inroads of 
the aboriginal tribes rendered it un- 
settled. In December, 1 777, and Janu- 
arj^, 1778, 44 villages were piundercd 
^u^dbarnedbjr the marauders under Riip 



N&rdyan Deo, Zamindir of Ohandwi. 
In 1779 Mr. Cleveland became Col- 
lector, and successfolly attempted the 
pacification of the hill tribes. la 
1791 an attempt was made to natu- 
ralize Virginian tobacco, and the first 
indigo factory was opened by Mr. Glas, 
civil surgeon in Bh&galptir, in 1798. 

The monuments to Mr. Cleve- 
land will, of course , first attract the 
attention of the traveller. The T. B. 
is ^ of a m. from the church, and 2 m. 
N.E. of the Railway Station. After 
locating himself, the traveller will 
drive to the Old Mess House, which 
occupies the finest site of any such 
building in India. It is 2^ m. to the 
N. of the river, and is situated on a 
hill, ascended by 60 steps. The bnild- 
ing has a centre-piece, two stories 
high, and 2 long wings, projecting 
forwards from the centre. The Mess 
House is now inhabited by Rdmesh- 
war Singh, brother of the Rdj& of 
Darbhanga. There is a magnificent 
view from it Between the entrance- 
gate and the hill is a monument to 
Mr. Cleveland. The base, with the 
cuttings, is a rectangle, and measures 
19 ft. 2 in. from N. to S. and 23 ft. 
from E. to W. There are 4 steps, 
then the base with an urn on the top. 
16 ft in all. The inscription is as 
follows : — 

To the Memory of 

AUGUSTUS CLEVELAND, Esq., 

Late Collector of the 

Districts of Bhdgalpi\r and lUJma^al, 

Who, without bloo<l8he<l or the 

Terrors of authority, 

Employing only means of 

Conciliation, conHdence, and benevolence, 

Attempted and accomplished 

The entire subjection of the lawless and savage 

Inhabitants of the 

Jang^ Tarai of R^mal^al, 

Who liad long infested that neighbourhood by 

Their predatory incursions, 

Inspired them with a taste for the 

Arts of civilized life. 

And attached them to the British Ooveniment 

By a Conquest over their minds. 

The most permanent as the most natural 

Mode of dominion. 

The Governor-General and Council of Bengal, 

In honour of his character and for an 

Example to others. 

Have ordered thia Moivumetit to be eT«c^«iL 

He departed tVvU Y\t4& vm \Xvi^ 

WtU <l»y ot 3&u\iArj A"*^ 



Sect IL 



Eoute 15. — Bhdgalpur, 



179 



surrounvied with a rail of ' Cleveland died on the 13th of January, 
ft. liiffh. About J a m. S. corresponding to the 22nd of the 

Hindii month Posh, and the 9th of 
i^afar, in the year of the Fasll, 1191. 
The employes of the Kachharl and the 
Zamlnddrs, of their own free will, 
erected this Memorial in remembrance 
of benefits confeiTed upon them, to 
perpetuate the recollection of his ami- 
able manners. On the Race Course, 
which is not far from this Memorial, 
is a monument to a number of officers 
and soldiers who died here of cholera. 
Bhdgalpiir is a good head-quarters 
for the sportsman, the ferae being very 
numerous, but they are principally to 
be found in the N. district of Ndthptir. 



It is 
iron, 5 

of the Mess House is the Cemi'tery, 
where it is melancholy to see a 
row of lofty obelisks, all to the 
children of Sir Frederick and Lady 
Hamilton, 5 of whom died here. 
There are 10.3 inscriptions, and many 
tombs without any. One tomb, con- 
sisting of a base 16 ft. high and an 
obelisk, in all 38 ft., is to Greorge 
Elliot, Esq. Mr. John Glas, who was 
32 years surgeon to this Station, and 
t:> the Coips of Hill Rangers, and who 
introduced the growing of tobacco, is 
buried here. His epitaph truly says 
that he was looked up to by the na 



tives as their father. His daughters, Thcie are 2 kinds of bears, who are 



Mrs. Mary Shaw and Mrs. Davies, lie 
beside him ; one aged 81, the other 
87. One of the oldest tombs is that 
of John Barry, in the Civil Service, 
who died the 28th of October, 1779. 
In the same year died Alexander Dow, 
Lt. -Colonel in the E. 1. Co.'s service. 
The church, Christ Clmrch, may next 
be visited, centrically situated in the 
civil lines. It me^isures 81 ft. 10 in. by 
64 ft., and can seat 200 persons. It has 
5 pointed arches, and a stained glass 
window at the E. end. The entrance 
is by a fine portico on the W. There 
are only 3 tablets inside, one to Mr. 



not daugerons unless attacked. They 
live on ants, beetles, truit, honey, and 
the petals of the Mahud, Colonel 
Tickell gives a curious account of the 
power of suction possessed by this 
animal. On arriving at an ant-hill 
the bear scrapes with his fore-feet 
until he reaches the large combs at 
the bottom of the galleries. He then, 
with violent puffs, dissipates the dust 
and sucks out the inhabitants of the 
comb with inhalations of such force 
as to be heard 200 yds. off. Large 
larvae are in this way sucked out from 
great depths under the sod. The 



St. George, resident engineer of the E. hog-badger, or hluil-svr^ is found in- 



I. Railway, who was drowned on the 
4th of October, 1859, while crossing a 
flooded valley between Kolgdon and 
Pii-pointi. 

The native monument to Augustus 
Cleveland is a m. to the E. of the 
church, beyond the school, which 
is a long large white building on 
the left. The monument resembles 
a Hindii Pagoda, and is conical and 
50 ft. high, surrounded by a masonry 
verandah. It stands in a compound 
of about f of an acre in extent, which 
has a handsome railing on the N. and 
K. sides. A lamp is kept always 
burning in the monument. There is 
a Persian inscription over the door, 
which, owing to smears of whitewash 



this region. This animal can walk 
erect on his liind-feet. The badger 
(^MclUvora indlca) keeps to the 
hills, and is about 3 ft. long. The 
Indian otter, or jfd, is trained here 
for fishing purposes. Its success in 
killing and bringing up a fish 6 times 
its own size is truly remarkable. The 
tiger is found among the high grass 
jungles in NAthpilr. It is also not 
uncommon in the hills, and numerous 
at Gauj*, near Mdldah, which is due 
E. The large tiger-cat {Felu river- 
rhm) is found in the thick jungles. 
It has been known to carry off young 
children and calves. The leopard-cat 
(^Fiilis BengaleHiMs) is also founds hv\*» 



is not eo \a.T^'fe ot ^Q»^«^xi^» To»ss^». 
and wear, is hardly legible. The at- \ ate scvcr«A. »^«i\ea q1 ^«r\^ ^»5«^ ^'^ "^ 
tendanta bare a copy of this inscrip- \ smaWeT wA^, «J^ >^^ KatA*^ a«^ '^'^ 
tion on paper, but have torn off t\ie\mo\i tTee-<iBJt, <i^\^ '^^^'^ JSkxS 
top. The inscription says that- Mr. Eutoveoxv^, ttQ^ "^^ ^^W^^^^^ 



180 



Route 16. — Ndjmahal to Gavr, 



Sect. 11. 



hnbit of drinking the juice of the 
palms. Hares are very numerous, as 
are wild bog. The swamp deer is 
met with, and is as high as 11 hands. 
The sAmbar {Rv«a Arktotelis) is 
also found, and is a taller and heavier 
animal. The spotted deer and hog 
deer are common. The barking deer 
( Cervvlvs aurmfi) supplies the best veni- 
son. The antelope {Antilopa Bezoar- 
tica) is common, and there are a few 
four-homed antelopes. Wild buffaloes 
and rhinoceroses are occasionally seen. 
Wild geese, wild duck, teal, and rock 
pigeons, snipe, quail, ortolan ; black, 
painted, grey, and double-spurred par- 
tridges are plentiful 



ROUTE 16. 

BA.JMAHAL TO MALDAH AND GAUR. 

The distance in a direct line from 
B&jmabal to Mdldah is 16 m., but 2 
rivers have to be crossed, the Ganges, 
on the right bank of which R^jma^al 
is situated, and the Mah^nandd, on 
♦he left bank of which Mdldah is 
built. The ferries over these rivers 
pay very well, and are in good order. 
The road from Mdldah to Bdjma]|^al, 
or rather from English Bdzdr, is 18 m. 
long, exclusive of the rivers. By writ- 
ing to tire Magistrate at Mdldah a week 
beforehand a palki and bearers can be 
sent to Jt&jmfil(is^. The cost is 1 6 rs. 
for the journey, which is 24 m. inclu- 
»>e of crossing the Qanges in the 
paucx on the ferry boat. The Magis* 



trate's permission should be obtahied 
previously to occupy the Mdldah cir- 
cuit house, which is a comfortable 
building, being furnished and provided 
with bedding, linen, crockery, cookiDg 
utensils and all requisites, in charge of 
a resident servant. At least one ser- 
vant who could cook and take charge 
of baggage should be sent on before 
with the ^lis or covered cart con- 
taining the baggage. Horses and car- 
riages cannot be hired. The traveller 
must bring his wine, soda water, 
tobacco, tinned meats and biscuits, 
none of which can be got. The 
distance from Mdldah to Gaur is about 
11 m. as the crow flies. From Mdldah 
to Nimasardi on the other bank of the 
Mabdnandd is 1 m., and thence to 
English Bdzdr between 2 and 3 m., 
and thence to Gaur about SJ m.* 

Mdldiih is at the confluence of the 
Kdlindri with the Mabdnandd in N, 
lat. 25** 2' 36", and E. long. SS^KySl". 
It is an admirable position for river 
traffic, and probably rose to prosperity 
as the port of the Mul^ammadan 
capital of Panduah. During the last 
century it was the seat of thriving 
cotton and silk manufactures, and the 
French and Dutch had factories at it. 
The English factory, however, was 
always at English Bdzdr, lower down 
the Mabdnandd, and on the opposite 
bank of the river. In 1872 the 
population was 6,762. The traveller 
must apply to the Civil authorities at 
Mdldah for advice and assistance. 
In Mr. Bavenshaw's work will be seen 
views of Mdldah fort gate, and of 
the S. gate of the city, but neither of 
them are remarkable enough to re- 
quire any notice here. The same 
work gives a view of the outer wall 
of the Golden Mosque of Mdldah, 
which is the finest ruin there. The 
inscription over the door gives the 
date of its construction as 974 

" Before starting on this exi>e(lition, it ia 
most important that the traveller should 
obtain a copy of "Gaur: its Ruins and In- 
scriptions," by the late J. H. Ravenshaw, 
B.C.S., Kegan Paul, 1878, which contains 
photogranhsofall the mostimportant buildings 
at Gaur, M&ldah and ¥«a)^Mv^ «xi^ «^ao ^'ut^ 
notices Vrrltten V5 tJh^ lata "Ptoteawst "fi^otV- 
maun, whose accuiwi^ to*:? \\voTO>ix^\^ \» 
relied upon. 



Sectn. 



JRoute 16. — Gau7\ 



181 



A.H.=sl566 A.D. It was built by 
a merchant named M'a^ihn. The 
ruins of Ganx and Panduah, successive 
capitals of Bengal, are worth a visit. 
'* Both these cities are almost level 
with the ground, and are overgrown 
with dense jungle ; but the ruins that 
remain, though difficult and indeed 
dangerous of access, reveal sufficient 
traces of their former magnificence." 
Ganr was the metropolis of Bengal, 
under its Hindii Kings. Its most 
ancient name was Lakhnauti, a 
corruption of LakshmandwatL But 
the name of Gauf, also, is of primeval 
antiquity. Its real history begins 
with its conquest* m 1204 A.D., by 
the Muslims, who made it the chief 
centre of their power in Bengal for 
more than 3 centuries. When the 
Afghan Kings of Bengal became in- 
dependent, they made Panduah beyond 
the Mah4nandd their capital, and for 
building purposes there, robbed Gaur 
of all the material that could be re- 
moved. Hence the ruins of Panduah 
are full of stones sculptured by 
Hindiis, while there are none such in 
Gauf. When Panduah was in its turn 
deserted Gau^ again became the capi- 
tal, and was called Jannatdbdd, 
** terrestrial paradise," which name 
occurs in the Ain i Akbari. D&iid 
KhAn was the last of the Afghan 
Kings, and his State was absorbed into 
Akbar*s Empire in 1573 A.D. Akbar's 
General Muna'im Kj^dn occupied 
during the rains the already decaying 
city of Gauy. In 1675 a dreadful 
pestilence broke out, to which Muud'im 
himself fell a victim. The city was 
depopulated, and the government was 
traniderred to KAjma^al. Dr. 
Buchanan Hamilton, however, abso- 
lutely denies this story of the 
pestilence. Certain it is, however, 
that tigers, rock pythons, pelicans and 
alligators are now the chief inhabi- 
tants of Gaur. In 1801, Mr. H. 
Grichton, an indigo planter, explored 
the ruins, and made a number of 
drawings. In 1816, Dr. Buchanan 
Hamilton visited this spot, and in tYie 
same year Major W, Francklin also 

iJL^'S^']'^"'^ '^y^ "»8 A.D. ; Mr. Thomas 
laaS; Major Havcrty, 1194. 



visited this place. His journal is still 
in MS., in the Survey Department of 
the India Office, which ought long 
since to have published it. 

The dimensions of the city proper, 
within the great continuous embank- 
ment, are 7^ m. from N. to S., and 1 to 2 
m. broad. The W. side was washed by 
the Ganges, which flowed where the 
channel of the Little Bhdgirathi now 
is. The E. side was protected by the 
Mah&nandd, and by swamps. On the 
S. the Mah^andd joined the Ganges, 
and left little space for an enemy to 
encamp. On the N. a fortification 6 
m. long, extends in an irregular curve 
from the old channel of the Bhdgirathl 
at SonAtala, to near the MahAnandd 
and Bholahat. This rampart is 100 
ft. wide at base. At the N.E. part of 
the curve is a gate, protected, by a 
strong outwork in the form of a 
quadmnt, through which a high em- 
banked road passes N. and S. In this 
outwork is the tomb of a Mu^am- 
madan saint. Near the N.E. comer, 
at the confiuence of the Kalindrl and 
the Mahdnandd, are the ruins of a 
Mifidr, N. of the rampart are the 
ruins of the palace of Baldl Sen, an 
early Hindii king. Behind the 
rampart lay the N. suburb of the city, 
in which is the most celebrated piece , 
of artificial water in Bengal, called 
the Sdgar Dighi or Digi, 1,600 yds. long 
from N. to S., by 800 broad. SAgarDighi 
dates from 1126 A.D. The water is 
still pui'e and sweet. On the bank is 
the tomb of Makhdilm. From an 
Arabic inscription it appears that this 
is the tomb of Makhdilm Shekh Akhl 
Sirdju 'd din, and it was buUt by 
l^usain Shdh in 916 A.H.=1510 A.D. 
It must be understood that the names 
are those given to saints conven- 
tionally ; Akhl means " my brother," 
Sh&h a famous saint. Near the tomb 
is a small mosque, built by the son of 
^fusain Shdh in 941 A.H. ; both build- 
ings are endowed and kept in fair re- 
pair. Opposite this w3Xyxt\i^&^^SS^i^> 



182 



Soute 16. — Hajmahal to Gaur. 



Sect. IL 



rampart has been double, and in most 
parts there have been 2 immense 
ditches, and in places 3. Mr. Crichton 
found the outer embankment to be 
150 ft. thick. The part thus inclosed 
has an area of 13 sq. m., and the ruins 
shew that it was thickly inhabited. 

To the S. on the Bhdgirathi was 
the citadel, 1 m. long from N. to 
S., and from 600 to 800 yds! broad. 
The brick wall has been very strong, 
with many flanking angles, and round 
bastions at the comers. Outside the 
N. entrance have been several fine 
gates or triumphal arches. In the 
S.E. comer of the citadel was the 
palace, surrounded by a brick wall 
40 ft. high, and 8 ft. thick, with an 
ornamented cornice. A little N. of 
the palace are the royal tombs, where 
^usain Shdh and other Kings were 
buried. In the citadel too are 2 
mosques, 1 in ruins. The smaller was 
built by Husain ShAh, and is kept in 
good repair by an endowment. This 
mosque is called the Eadam KasiiL 
In Stewart's " Hist, of Bengal " it is said 
to have been built by the son and 
successor of Husain ShAh ; an inscrip- 
tion still perfect fixes the date at a.h. 
937=1538 A.D. Just outside the E. 
wall of the citadel is a lofty brick 
tower, which had a chamber with 4 
windows at the top, to which access 
was gained by a winding stair, known 
as Pir 'A§A Min^. Mr. Fergusson, in 
his " Hist, of Arch.," p. 650, gives a 
woodcut of it. Dr. Hunter, in his 
" Stat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. vii., p. 57, 
says : " One of the most interesting of 
the antiquities of the place is a 
Mindr. For |rds of the height it is 
a polygon of 12 sides ; above that 
circular until it attains the height of 
84 ft. The door is at some distance 
from the ground ; and altogether it 
looks more like an Irish round tower 
than any other example known, 
though it is most improbable that 
there should be any connection 
between the 2 forms." It is evidently 
a pillar of victory, a Jayd Stambha, 
such as the Kn]^b Mindr at Dihli. 
There is or was' an inscription on this 
jnaaamentf which ascribed its erection 
to Firdz Shdb. In Mr. Bavenshaw's 



I photograph this tower is round all the 
way up. The flight of stone steps 
remains, 73 in number. 

Mr. Fergusson also gives a woodcut 
of the Kadam Rasiil, and says of its 
style : " it is neither like that of Dihll 
nor that of Jawanpiir, nor any other 
style, but one purely loc4l, and not 
without considerable merit in itself ; 
its principal characteristic being 
heavy, short pillars of stone support- 
ing pointed arches, and vaults in brick. 
The solidity of the supports goes far to 
redeem the inherent weakness of brick 
architecture. It also presents, though 
in a veiy subdued form, the curved 
linear form of the roof, which is so 
characteristic of the style. The 
Kadam Kasi!il was built by Nu^at 
ShAh, in 937 A.H. = 1530 A.D. Mr. 
Fergusson also mentions 2 very hand- 
some mosques in Gaur itself, the 
Golden and the B4rah Darwazah, 
which however are one and the same, 
and the reason of the mosque being 
called B4rah DarwAzah seems to be 
that there are 11 arches on either side 
of the corridor, and one at each end. 
About 1^ m. N. of the citadel is a 
space of 600 sq. yds., bounded by a 
rampart and ditch, known as the 
Flower Garden. Between it and the 
citadel is the PiydswAri, "Abode of 
Thirst," a tank of bad water, which is 
said to have been given to condemned 
criminals. Major Franklin describes 
it as excellent water. Between the 
Piy4sw4ri and the citadel, and close 
to the N.E. comer of the citadel, is the 
great Golden Mosque, the grandest 
building in Gaur. It measures 180 ft. 
from N. to S., 60 from E. to W., and is 
20 ft. high to the top of the cornice. 
Major Francklin thus describes the 
Golden Mosque : — 

"It is a building of a very ex- 
traordinary construction. You enter 
by an arched gateway of stone 26 ft. 
in height, and 6 ft. in breadth. After 
passing through some very thick jungle 
you approach the building. 

" The Mosque in form resembles an 
oblong square, and originally con- 
sisted of 4 separate colonnades, arched 
and roofed over, and covered by hand* 
some domes, \n all 44 in number. 



Sect.IL 



Route 16.— ffai^r — Panduah. 



183 



The front of the Mosqne is 180 ft. in 
length, 40 ft. in height ; 11 arched 
doorways of solid, stone, 10 ft. high by 
6 ft. broad, afford a noble entrance ; 
^ minarets or columns of brown stone 
faced with black marble adorn the 
building ; bands of blue marble about 
12 in. in breadth embrace the column 
from the- base to the capital, and are 
adorned with a profusion of flower- 
work carved in marble. The 4 aisles 
or cloisters which compose this magni- 
ficent building are of unequal di- 
mensions, that on entering is the 
largest. The arched doorways, both 
within and on the outside, are faced 
with black marble, but above them 
the domes are built of brick. 

" The plinths of the outer doorways 
are each ornamented with 3 roses 
carved in stone. The arches are 
pointed, and may be defined to be of 
the Saracenic style of architecture — 
they resemble those of many of the 
old mosques at old Dihli, erected by 
Pathdn sovereigns of the Ghoy and 
Lodi dynasties. The whole appear- 
ance of this building is strikingly 
grand, exhibiting the taste and muni- 
ficence of the Prince who ei*ected it." 

The corridor of the Golden Mosque is 
so large that one can ride through it 
on an elephant, and so enter the 
DdlAil or "SalAral Gate," the N. 
entrance to the fort. Mr. Ravenshaw 
has given a view of this beautiful 
gate. It is built of small red bricks, 
and has been adorned with embossed 
bricks, which can still be seen on the 
towers at the 4 comers. The arch of 
the gateway is about 30 ft. high, and 
forms a conidor 112 ft. long. The 
Lesser Golden Mosque is in Finizpiir, 
which Buchanan Hamilton says, ** is 
one of the neatest pieces of archi- 
tecture in the whole place." Mr. 
llavenshaw calls it the " gem of 
Gauy." It is built of hornblende, is 
oblong and has 15 domes, supported 
by massive hornblende pillars. An 
inscription over the midale door says 
it was built by Wall Mn^amjnad in 
the reign of ^usain Shih. The date 
has perished. A little to the N. of 
the Mosque is a tank called the Tftks&l 
Dighi, or " Tank of the Mint*" 



In the S. wall of the city is a fine 
central gate, called the Eotwili 
Darw4zah ; it is 61 ft. high. S. from 
this gate stretches an immense suburb 
as far as Pukh4riy&, a distance of 7 
m. It was called Finizpiir. The 
tomb of the saint Nij;&mat 'ull4h is to 
be seen there. 

Paf!,4fi(ih is 20 m, N.E. from Gfkuf, 
and 6 m. N.E. fiom Mdldah. It was 
called by the Muslims Fin!izdb4d. 
The first independent King of Bengal 
made it his capital. A road paved 
with brick, from 12 ft. to 15 ft. wide, 
passes through Panduah. Almost all 
the monuments are on the borders of 
this road. Near the middle is a bridge 
of 3 arches, the materials of which 
have evidently been brought from the 
Hindii temples at Gaur, as figures of 
men and animals are sculptured on 
them. On approaching the ruins from 
the 8., the first objects that attract 
attention are the shrines of Makhdi!uu 
Sh&h Jaldl, and his grandson Ku);b . 
'Alana Shdh, which are endowed with 
28,000 acres of land. The inscriptions 
show that the buildings were erected or 
repaired in A.D. 1664, 1673, and 1682. 
To the N. stands a small mosque called 
the Golden, with granite walls and 10 
brick domes. An Arabic inscription 
says that it was built by Makhdi!im 
Shekh, son of Mul^ammad Al- 
Khalidi in A.H. 990. Another in- 
scription on the gateway, also in 
Arabic, says that the gateway was 
built by the same person, and gives a 
chronogram of its date, 993 A.H.= 
1585 A.D. On the faQade of the 
mosque an inscription says that it was 
built by Yiisuf Shdh, son of Sul|;Au 
Barbak, and has the date A.H. 885, 
which seems difficult to reconcile with , 
the other dates. N. of this mosque 
is another, called Eklakhi, as having 
cost a Idkh. Buchanan Hamilton 
thinks it the handsomest building in 
the place. Tradition says that it is 
the tomb of Ghid$u 'd din II., and his 
2 sons. This is apparently the tomb 
referred to by General Cunningham, 
'•Arch. Report," vol. iii., p. 11, as one of 
the finest examples of th& B^x^^^^^i^' 
.tomb. 'fiLK^eiTi'^'K^ %a.'^^SX*\^'^^»^«^ 
\ and C0NeT^^\>^ ox^a^Qxaa^^s^^'Os^^*^ 



184 Route 17. ^^BJidgalpilr to Munger {M(mghyr). Sect. II. 



contains the remains of Gbia^a 'd 
din, his wife and his daughter-in-law. 
It is Completely covered with trees, 
which are growing out of it and will 
destroy it. 2 m. beyond it is the tomb 
of Sikandar, father of Ghid^u *d din, 
and the greatest of the monarchs who 
made Panduah their capital. It 
forms part of the great mosque, called 
the Adlnah Masjid, which is by far 
the most celebrated building in this 
part of India. According to Mr. 
Fergusson the ground plan and di- 
mensions are exactly similar to those 
of the great mosque at Damascus. 
It extends 500 ft. from N. to S., and 
300 ft. from E. to W. The E. side, 
which is entered by an insignificant 
door, is 500 ft. long, and 38 ft. wide 
between the walLs. This space is sub- 
divided by transverse brick walls and 
stone pillars into 127 sqs., each 
covered by a dome. The N. and S. 
sides are similarly divided, but have 
only 39 domes each. The height of 
all three is about 20 ft., including a 
broad ornamental cornice. Towards 
the quadrangle they open inwards 
with arches which correspond to the 
squares. On the outside are many 
small windows, highly decorated with 
carved tiles disposed in arches. The 
W. side of the building is composed 
of a central apartment, and the 
mosque proper in 2 wings. The 
mosque is 62 ft. high in the centre 
from the floor to the middle of the 
dome, 64 ft. long from E. to W., and 
32 ft. from N. to S. The N. wing 
only differs in so far that it contains 
a raised platform for the King to 
worship on, called the Bddshdh kd 
Tal^t. It is supported on thick 
columns, is raised 8 ft. from the floor, 
and is 80 ft. long and 40 ft. wide. An 
inscription gives the date of the build- 
ing, 1367 A.D.* The only other rain of 
note in Panduah is the Satdlsga^h, 
said to have been the King's palace. 
It is situated opposite the Adlnah 
Mosque, and is enveloped in the most 
dense jungle. 

* In Bavensliaw's book the date is given 

eth Bajab. 770 a.h., which he makes equal 

14th of February, 1369 a.d., but Wlistenfeld's 

Oiiblea five Otb ot Febraary, 1868, as corre- 



There are any number of tigers and 
panthers in and near Gauf and 
Panduah, in the Barindra tract and 
the jungles E. of them, but the English 
sportsman who desires to hunt them 
must take advice from experienced 
Nimrods who know the locality. 



ROUTE 17. 

bhIgalfub to munger (monghyr). 

The stations along the E. I. Railway, 
loop line, are as follows : — 






oBij Sb 



Miles. 

15 
26 
28 
82 



Names of Stations. 



Bhdgalpiir . 

Sult^nganj 

BurhiyapAr (Burriari>ore) 

•Taiiialpur. 

Munger (Monghyr) 



Time. 



P.M. 

8.1 
8.42 
i).13 
9.83 
10.10 



Remnrks.— There is a refreshment-room at 
Jamalpiir. The fare Ist class is 8 rs. 

1 m. to the S. of the station, and about 
I of a m. outside the S. gate of the 
fort of Munger, is Woodbrook House> 
an hotel or lodging-house kept by Mrs. 
Hooley, the widow of a planter. 
There are 6 comfortable bed-rooms, 
with bath-rooms attached, and the 
back of the house looks on the Ganges. 
Persons are here lodged most comfort- 
ably at the very moderate charge of 
4 rs. a day. There is sport to be had 
not far off. The first thing to be seen 



Seet 11. 



Soute 17. — Munger {Monghyr), 



185 



is the hot spring of beautiful pure 
water, called Sitd Knnd, situate about 
4 m. to the B. of Munger. The road 
])as8es the Dispensary after about f of 
a m., and then traverses for 1 m. the 
bdzAr, and about 300 yds. E. of it 
crosses the railway, and after another 
m. passes 2 very large mansions on 
hills about 300 ft. high. The 1st 
house is called Pir Pahdri, or " moun- 
tain saint." The 2nd is conspicuous 
by a high round tower. After another 
m. the village of Durgdpiir is reached, 
about 1^ of a m. beyond which is a 
rising ground or rock, without a blade 
of grass or vegetation up xi it. About 
3 of a m. beyond this, in a N.E. dii-ec- 
tion, is an inclosure on the right of 
the road, in which is a temple to 
Rdma, with a figure of Hanumdn out- 
side. Inside the inclosure are 5 
springs. The hot spring, or Sltd Kund, 
is reached by descending 4 steps, each 
about 14 in. high. There is an iron 
railing 5 ft. high round the water, 
which makes a pool 23 ft. 4 in. from 
N.E. to S.W., and 30 ft. S. by E. to N. 
by W. In the " Stat. Ace. of Beng.," 
vol. XV., p. 76, the temperature of the 
water is said to be 130**— 138*. The pool 
is from 6 to 20 ft deep. The railing 
was put up to prevent accidents, as at 
the gatherings at the festivals the 
throng was so great, that the people 
were pushed into the pool. The water 
is considered excellent for drinking 
purposes, and is largely used in 
making soda-water, for which Munger 
is celebrated. There are 4 other wells, 
in all of which the water is cold. 
They are called Rdm, Lak^hman, 
Bharata, and Shatangnan. The water 
is foul, probably from the numbers of 
people who wash in them, to the W. 
of a small temple which has the figure 
of Lak^hman on it. The Maithala 
Brdhmans have the charge of this 
place, and are extremely ignorant or 
uncommunicative. They are, also, 
most persevering beggars, and a mob 
of their sons is sure to follow the 
traveller's carriage, with vociferous 
cries for money. It would be a very 
good thing if the authorities would 
put a stop to this nuisance. It should 
mat the surplua hot water from 



Sitd Kund escapes through a large 
drain to the E. into a field, in which 
many washerwomen ai-e busily em- 
ployed. 

The next thing to be seen is the 
JFhrtf which was once esteemed a place 
of great strength. It is surrounded 
by a moat, now dry, but from 50 to 80 
ft. broad. The wall is 18 ft. high and 
8 ft. thick. Within is a raised plat- 
form 30 ft. high, on which is a good 
house. On this platform some think 
the palace was built, others the citadel. 
The Jail is worth a visit It is said to 
have been part of the palace, and is 
very solidly built of brick. The 
Go-down, or warehouse, has been a 
magazine, and the walls arc 15 ft. 7 in. 
thick. On the 27th of March, 1881, 
there were 59 male prisoners, of whom 
3 were boys, and 14 women. The 
climate of Munger is considered so 
good that prisoners are sent from 
other prisons to this one, as a con- 
valescent station. The age of some of 
the Europeans buried in the cemetery 
of Munger, may be considered as one 
proof of the excellence of the climate. 
The prisoners are employed in making 
carpets and cloths. There has been a 
subterraneous passage to the river, 
which was no doubt used when the 
fort was garrisoned for a means of 
escape at the last extremity. There 
is a similar subterraneous passage, but 
much larger, in the house next to that 
at present occupied by the Magistrate. 

S.E. of the Jail at 50 yds. distance is 

the neat church of St. John. It has 

been coloured red, and is nearly all 

covered with a creeper. There are no 

tablets. The church is 53 ft 3 in. from 

E. to W., and 24 ft 10 in. from N. to 

S. It seats CO persons. The Ck'tnctery 

is ^ a m. W. of the Jail. Among the 

tablets is one to Major- General James 

Murray Macgregor, who died 7th of 

December, 1817. The following words 

form part of the epitaph : — 

Oi>pre8sed and broken 

By a Heries of unmerited niisfortuncH, 

Hi8 Spirit, it is hoi>ed, has found repose 

In tlie bosom of a merciful Redeemer. 

The remembrance of what he was 

While living, to all who reallv k\vew VvVwl 

Will remaVn. Nm\X«v\ \w \xv\OS«\«k Ocuncm^kc^ 



186 



SouU 18. — Monger to Patna and Bdnldpiir. Sect, 11. 



There is also one to William Grahame, 
who came to India as a private in the 
E. I. Co.'s army in 1766, and for his 
meritorious and gallant condnct was 
breveted ensign, and after retiring 
** from the active duties of his profes- 
sion, creditably educated his children 
and maintained his family, and accu- 
mulated a very considerable fortune." 
One also to Mrs. Rebecca Parnell may 
be mentioned, who met her death by 
the upsetting of a boat on the 2nd of 
February, 1837, aged 16 years. The 
verses on her tomb, and also those on 
the tombs of Henry Page and Martha 
Bilson, are very far superior to nearly 
all that can be found in Indian ceme- 
teries. One instance of longevity may 
be cited in the tablet to Robert Ross, 
late pension sergeant, who died 29th 
of May, 1857, aged 101 years. 
Amongst the oldest tablets is one 
dated June 5th, 1769. The tablets 
mention several persons who died at 
ases from 70 to 90. 



§ A 






istan 
from 
malpi 


Names of Stations. 


Time. 


" A 






Miles. 




P.M. 




Jamalpi!ir .... 


9.53 


7 
16 


Dagafha (Durrarah) . . 
Kajrah 


10.16 
10.44 


25 


Lakhisarslf (Luckies-erai)* . 


11.9 


34 


Barhiya (Burhea) . 


11.41 

A.M. 


45 


Mokamalif . . . . 


12.9 


ti5 


BdiTh 


7,85 


76 


Baklitiyarpur .... 


— 


90 


Fatwa(Fatwah) . 


8.14 


98 


Patna 


8.29 


104 


Bdnkfpur .... 


9.8 



ROUTE 18. 

MUNQEE (MONGHYE) TO PATNA 
AND BANKIp^B. 

Hie traveller must Tetum to Jamal- 

piir from Mnnger, and then proceed 

on the E. I. Bailway to MokAmah. 



At Lakhisarai is the junction of the 
Chord and Loop Line. The traveller 
has been taken along the Loop Line, 
near which are all the places of most 
interest. There is nothing that calls 
for special notice on the Chord Line, 
except Rdniganj and Deogayh. Should 
the traveller desire to see these he 
must return from LakhisarAi towards 
Calcutta on the Chord Line. 

Rdniganj is 121 m. from Calcutta, 
and is famous for its coal-mines. 
There are here a T. B. and an hotel, 
called Williams' Hotel. The place 
has its name from the circumstance of 
the ground having been formerly the 
property of the Rdni of Bardwin. 
The mines afford regular employment 
for more than 1,000 men and women, 
chiefly of the Beauri tribe. The mines 
are reached by 140 steps, which lead 
130 ft. down to galleries 9 ft. high, 
supported by pillars of solid coal, 
15 ft. sq. and 15 ft. apart. There are 
25 shafts which give occasional 
glimpses of light. A vast number of 
boatmen on the Ddmodar river are 
employed in carrying the annual 
yield of coal, about 81,000 tons, to 
Calcutta. The cost of transit is about 
34 dnas per 80 lbs. The coal is piled 
on the banks of the river, and can be 
carried down only while the Ddmodar 
is in flood. During the remainder of 
the year it is subject to deterioration, 
from exposure to the weather. The 

♦ JuncUoti. .^ „ - 

\ The traveWet n«\1\ Yva\<4 \ft vra\\. 1 \vwm% 

here. 



Sect IL SotUe 18. — Fdrarndth Mountain — DeogarK 



187 



mines are said to have been accidentally 
discovered in 1820, by Mr. Jones, the 
architect of Bishop's College at Cal- 
cutta. The place was then infested 
with tigers and bears, but the jungle 
has been cut down, and the bears and 
tigers have retreated to the hills. 
Above the mines are a stratum of 
sandstone, and thick beds of alluvium. 
A walk of 3 m. by torchlight through 
the mines can be had. More than 30 
species of fossil plants, chiefly feras, 
have been found in the coal, of similar 
species to those in the Yorkshire and 
Australian coal. The coal lies in the 
basin between the Ddmodar and Ajl 
rivers, formed thousands of yeare ago 
when the ocean rolled its waves at 
Rinlganj. The mines extend under 
the bed of the Ddmodar. The hills of 
Chdtna, Bihdri Ndth, and Pachete 
look well from RAniganj. The Bihdri 

■ NAth, only 12 m. off, is 1200 ft. high, 
and is easily accessible in a pdlki. 
There is good bear-shooting in the 
neighbourhood. 

Pdrasndth Mountain, — An excur- 
sion may be made from Rdniganj to 
Pdrasndth, which is less than 70 m. 
distant, and is worthy of a visit, as 
being tie E. metropolis of Jain wor- 
ship. According to tradition Pdras- 
ndth, who was the 23rd Tirthankar of 
the Jains, was bom at Bandras, lived 
100 years, and was buried on this 
mountain. The traveller will proceed 
by regular stages to Top Choni, which 
is 62 m. fi'om Rdniganj, and is near 
the base of Pdrasndth. There are 
T, B.'s at every 10 or 11 m. along the 
road, and one at Top Chonl, where a 
dolt or light palanquin can be had, 
with 8 bearers, to go to Mddhuband, 
at the N. side of the mountain, the 
opposite side to that on which the 
Grand Trunk Road runs. Here is a 
Jain convent on a table land, and 
bearers can be procured in abundance 
to take the traveller to the summit of 
the mountain in 2} hours. Mddhuband 
is 1230 ft. high, in a clearance of the 
forest, " and tlae appearance of the 
snow-white domes and bannerets of 
its temples, through the fine trees by 
which it is surrounded, is very 

beaaUfal" The ascent oi the moun- 



tain is immediately from the village, 
up a pathway worn by the feet of 
innumerable pilgrims from all parts 
of India. The path leads through 
woods of the common trees, with large 
clumps of bambil over slaty rocks of 
gneiss, much inclined and sloping away 
from the mountain. The view from a 
ridge 500 ft. above the village is superb^ 
Ascending higher the path traverses a 
thick forest otsdl ( Vateria, or Tliorea^ 
i'obusta)j and other trees spanned with 
cables of Bauhinia stems. At 3,000 ft. 
above the sea the vegetation becomes 
more luxuriant, and the conical hills 
of the white ants disappear. At 3,500 
ft. elevation, the vegetation again 
chan.a:e8, and the trees all become 
gnarled and scattered. The traveller 
emerges from the forest at the foot of 
a great ridge of rocky peaks, stretch- 
ing E. and W. for 3 or 4 m. The 
saddle of the crest is 4,230 ft. high, 
and is marked by a small temple, one 
of 5 or 6 which occupy various promi- 
nences of the ridge. The view is 
beautiful. To the N. are ranges of 
low wooded hills, and the Barakah 
and Aji rivers. To the S. is a flatter 
country, with lower ranges and the 
Ddmodar. The situation of the prin- 
cipal temple is very fine, below the 
saddle in a hollow facing the S., 
surrounded by groves of plantain and 
J^ioiM indica. The temple is small and 
contains little worthy of notice but 
the sculptured feet of Pdrasndth and 
some marble idols of Buddha — cross- 
legged figures, with crisp hair and 
the Brdhmanical Cord. Bears are 
numerous round this spot. An excel- 
lent account of the place will be 
found in Sir J. Hooker's " Himalayan 
Journals," vol. i., pp. IC to 25. 

Deogafh or BaidyanAth, — Deogayh 
is the only municipality in the Sdntdl 
Parganahs, and is situated in the 
S.W. part of the district, in N. lat. 
24'' 29' 43" and E. long. 86" 44' 30", 4 m. 
to the E. of the Chord Line. The 
pop. is 4.861, exclusive of pilgrims. 
The pT\nc\\i«\ c5b\esiX cil \»\R:t^'fe^ Sj^ "^ 
group ol UiTtvxAfc^, ^Q.(SSca.\si,Cy. \r» ^^"^^ 

to Aick Hm^cii v^\%Yvm^ ^-«-^ ^^'^ 

all paxla ot lueAft.. TV^^^l" 



188 



Eoute 18.— JfMn.yw* to Patna and BdnMpur. Sect. II 



of Beng.," vol. xiv., p. 323) as follows : 
** In the old time, they say, a band of 
Brdhmans settled on the banks of the 
beautiful hij^hland lake, beside which 
the Holy City stands. Around them 
there was nothing but the foi*est 
and mountains, in which dwell the 
black races. The Brdhmans placed 
the symbol of their god Siva near the 
lake, and did sacrifice to it ; but the 
black tribes would not sacrifice to it, 
but came, as before, to the three great 
stones which their fathers had wor- 
shipped, and which are to be seen at 
taie western entrance of the Holy City 
to this day. The Brdhmans, moreover, 
ploughed the land, and brought water 
from the lake to nourish the soil ; 
but the hill-men hunted and fished as 
. of old, or tended their herds, while the 
women tilled little patches of Indian 
com. But in process of time the 
Brdhmans, finding the land good, be- 
came slothful, giving themselves up 
to lust, and seldom calling on their 
god Siva. This the black tribes, who 
came to worship at the great stones, 
saw and wondered at more and more, 
till at last one of them, Baiju, a man 
of a mighty arm, and rich in all sorts 
of cattle, became wroth at the lies 
and wantonness of the Brdhmans, 
and vowed he would beat the symbol 
of their god Siva with his club every 
day before touching food. This he 
did, but one morning his cows strayed 
into the forest, and after seeking 
them all day, he came home hungry 
and weary, and having hastily bathed 
in the lake, sat down to supper. Just 
as he stretched out his hand to take 
his food, he called to mind his vow, 
and, worn out as he was, he got up, 
limped painfully to the Brdhmans' 
idol, on the margin of the lake, and 
beat it \tdth his club. Then suddenly 
a splendid form, sparkling with jewels, 
rose from the waters and said: ' Behold 
the man who forgets his hunger and 
his weariness to beat me, while my 
priests sleep with their concubines at 
home, and neither give me to eat nor 
to diiak. Let him aak of me wliat he 
will, and it sbaU be given.' Baiju 
answered : 'J am strong of arm and 
nch in cattle; I am a ieader of my 



people ; what want I more ? Thou 
art called Ndth (Lord) ; let me too be 
called Lord, and let thy temple go 
by my name.' 'Amen,' replied the 
deity ; * henceforth thou art not Baiju 
but Bdijindthj'and my temple shall be 
called by thy name.'" "From that 
day," says Captain Sherwill, in his 
" Survey and Report of Birbhiim," " the 
place rose into note ; merchants, Rdjds 
and Brdhmans commenced buildmg 
temples, each vicing with the other 
who would build the handsomest 
temple near the spot where Mahddeo 
had appeared to Baiju. The fame of the 
spot, its sanctity, all became noised 
abroad throughout the country, until it 
gi-adually became a place of pil- 
grimage, at present beset by a band 
of harpies in the shape of Brdhmans, 
who remorselessly fleece all the poorer 
pilgrims, beg of the rich with much 
impunity, and lead the most dissolute 
and vagabond lives. 

" The group of temples, 22 in nimi- 
ber, is surrounded by a high wall 
enclosing an extensive court-yard, 
paved with Chundr freestone ; this 
pavement, the offering of a rich 
Mirzdpi!ir merchant, cost a Idkh of 
rupees, and serves to keep the court- 
yard in a state of cleanliness that 
could not otherwise be the case. All 
the temples but 3 are dedicated to 
Mahddeo ; the remaining 3 are to 
Gauri Pdrbati, his wife. The male 
and female temples are connected 
from the summit, Kalasj or highest 
pinnacle, with silken ropes 40 or 60 
yds. in length, from which depend 
gaudily-coloured cloths, wreaths and 
garlands of flowers, and tinsel, the 
whole betokening the bands of mar- 
riage. At the W. entrance to the 
town of Deogayh, is a masonry plat- 
form, about 6 ft. in height and 20 ft. 
sq., supporting 3 huge monoliths of 
contorted gneiss rock of great beauty : 
2 are vertical, and the 3nl is laid 
upon the heads of the 2 uprights, as 
a horizontal beam. These massive 
stones are 12 ft. in length, each weigh- 
ing upwards otl tows*, lVi<iy «i«^ c^«dti- 
lateral, each tac^i \>ev\\^ *i i't, ^ \w., 
or 10 it. TovxuvV (iaaVv »Vo\\<i. T\vr 



Sect. IL 



Eoute 18. — BdnHpiir. 



189 



place by mortise and tenon. By 
whom or when these ponderous stones 
were erected no one knows. There is 
a faint attempt at sculpture at each end 
of the vertical faces of the horizontal 
beam, representing either elephants 
or crocodiles* heads. A few ancient 
Buddhist-looking viMras stand near 
the monolithic group." 

There is a very tolerable T. B. at 
Bdnkipiir, and it will be more conve- 
nient to stop there, and drive by car- 
riage to Patna, which is not a desirable 
place for Europeans to alight at. The 
station at Bdnklpiir, however, is so far 
inconvenient, that to reach it one has 
to cross the line by a high bridge. The 
,cabs, too, at this place cannot be 
praised. Tlie T. B. is at 250 yds. from 
the station, on the left-hand side of 
the road. The Ganges at Bdnkipiir 
and Patna runs nearly E. and W., and 
along its S. bank for 14 m. extends 
the city of Patna and its suburbs, 
BAnklpiir being its civil station. 

B&nHpur, — On the way from the 
T. B. to the Golah, in the compound 
of the Judge's house, which is on the 
left of the road, there is a tomb with 
the following inscription : — 

Here lye («c) interred 

The body of 

JOHN LOWIS, 

Lately a Member of the Provincial 

Council of Revenue at Pumeah, 

Who dei>arted this life 

The 6th of September, 1780. 

Aged 27 years. 

This Monument was erected 

To his memory, by his affectionate Friend, 

James Ross. 

The first building to visit, as being the 
nearest, is the Golah^ which was built 
for a granary in 1783, and has never 
been used for that purpose. It is 
426 ft. round at the base, built of 
masonry, with walls 12 ft. 2 in. in 
thickness, the interior diameter being 
109 ft. It is about 90 ft. high, and 
will contain 137,000 tons. There is a 
most wonderful echo inside. If the 
door is closed violently, the thundering 
sound is perpetuated many times. The 
best place to hear the echo is to go 
jDto the middle of the boilding. A 
bJow on a tin case there fills the air 
with a storm of sounds, which can be 



compared to nothing so well as to the 
hurtling of volleys of tent-pegs thrown 
from every quarter with great violence. 
As a whispering gallery, there is per- 
haps no such building in the world. 
The faintest whisper at one end is 
heard most distinctly at the other. As 
a curiosity, if for no other reason, Ihe 
building should be kept up. The 
ascent to the top is outside, by 146 
steps in one direction, and 144 in the 
other. At the top is a platfonn 10 ft. 
9 in. round, which has a stone with 3 
rings placed in the centre. This stone 
can be lifted up by 3 men, and access 
obtained to the interior ; and sup- 
posing that the building was filled 
with grain, this of course would be 
very convenient, as persons might de- 
scend by a rope-ladder and remove 
such quantity of grain as was needed. 
It is said that Jang Bahddur of Nip^ 
rode up the steps outside to the top of 
the building, which, of course, would 
be possible, but excessively dangerous. 
Each step is 8 in. high, and, reckoned , 
by this height of the steps, the total 
altitude would be 97 ft. Some stores 
ai-e kept in the interior — tents and so 
forth ; and the place is so dark, there 
not being any windows, a light is re- 
quired. About } of a m. beyond the 
Golah is the Church. It has a lofty 
tower with 4 high pinnacles, which 
makes it look large externally; but in- 
side it is only 72 ft. from E. to W. and 
30 from N. to S., and cannot seat more 
than 90 persons. The exterior is ex- 
cessively ugly, but the inside is better. 
The pulpit is of stone, and there are 3 
stained-glass windows. There is only 
1 inscription, on a handsome brass 
plate, to the "vsife of Edmund Craster, 
B.C.S., who died in July, 1874. 

At a } of a m. to the N. of the 
church is the old Cemetery. There is 
no tablet of any great interest in it. 
In going to the old Cemetery the Race- 
course is on the right. About } of a 
m. to the N. of the cemetery is the 
house of !^xid4 Bakhsh Khdn, who is 
a vaJiil or lawyex, «b!3l ^^"5sv^<^ \a. "«^ 

VLOTL to ^e^ \i\» \towcr5 ^^^^r^^^tfs:^ 



190 



Route 18. — Munger to F atria and Bdnhip^r, Sect. II. 



MSS. of great beauty. Amongst the 
best is the TArlkh-i-Timi\ri, written by 
Sdllh Khdn. It was written in the 
22nd year of the reign of Daulat Shdh 
Bdbd, and contains a Persian notice of 
this, written by Shdh Jahdn, son of 
Jahdngir, son of Akbar, in his own 
hand, who also wrote the date on 
which it was received into the Emperor 
Jahdnglr's library. Shdh JahAn signs 
himself Khurram, son of Jahdnglr. 
Another most beautiful MS., in Per- 
sian and Arabic, is entitled "Prag- 
ments written by 'Abd'ulldh Dardyat 
Khan, son of J'afar Khdn." 

Patna. — Driving on to the E. 3 m., 
the traveller will arrive in Patna, the 
capital of Bihdr, at a place called 
Ramsayganj, which is rather more 
than 5 m. from Bdnklpiir church. This 
is the site of the house of the Wdhdbls, 
who were arrested by Mr. William 
Taylor, Commissioner of Patna, and 
which must have covered a consider- 
able space, as there are now a market 
and a nice garden where it stood. It 
was made a charge against Mr. Taylor 
that he arrested these persons, but 
their guilt was subsequently discovered, 
and one of them is now a prisoner in 
the Andamans. About ^ a m. beyond 
this is the old City Cemetery, in the 
centre of which rises a handsome and 
very peculiar column, 70 ft. high. The 
footings are 3 steps, which lead to a 
broad base about 20 ft. high. The 
shaft has 6 projecting rims, at a 
distance of about 4 ft. from each other, 
and the whole is crowned with a lofty 
urn on a pedestal. The lowest step 
at the base is 7 ft. 10 in. sq., and the 
base has on the E. side a marble tablet 
inscribed as follows : — 

In Memory of 

Captain John Kirch, 

First-Lieutenants Richard Perry and 

George Hockles ; 

Lieutenants Fireworkers, John Brown, 

Ardean Deckers, John Read, and 

Benjamin Adamson ; 

Of the Honourable East India Company's 

Artillery : 

Captains Peter Carstairs, Charles Ernest 

Joacher, Ambrose Perry, Henry Summers, 

James Tabley, William Turner, 

and George Wilson, 

Lieutenants John Dowell, Richard Hol- 

j,Aja>, Maurice Roach, Qeohoe Alston, 

audiiir William Hope; 



Ensigns John Orecs^tree, Robert Roberts, 

Duncan MacLeod, William Crawford, 

William Hinckles, Isaac Humphries, John 

Robert Roach, John Perry, and 

Walter Mackay, 
Of the Honble. East India Company's 

* Infantry. 

Doctors Campbell and Anderson ; 

Messrs. Kay, Ellis, Lushington, Lyons, 

Jones, Chambers, Garrett, and Kelly, 

Who, 

With a hundred other captives of inferior rank, 

Were, 

On the night of the 5th November, 1763, 

Binitally massacred near this spot. 

By the troops of MIr KAsim-'AlI NCwab 

^^bahdAr, of Bengal, 

Under command of 

Walter Reinhardt, alias Sumboo, 

a French renegade. 

£ dedecore hostium nata est gloria eorum. 

In this cemetery are buried many of 
the old servants of the E. I. Co., who 
died during the 18th century — as, for 
instance, William Majendie, who was 
2nd Member of the Patna Council, who 
died October 2nd, 1779 ; Captain 
Kinloch, who died 10th of May, 1763 ; 
Samuel Charters, Senior Judge of the 
Court of Appeal at Patna, who died 
25th of July, 1795 ; Francis Le Gros, 
Commercial Resident at Patna, died 
May 10th, 1818. There is also a tablet 
to Polly Bradshaw, wife of Lt.-Col. 
Samuel Bradshaw, and daughter . of 
Christopher Keating, Senior Judge of 
the Provincial Court of Appeal at 
Patna, who died October 14th, 1805. 
The old fabrics for which Patna was 
famed have ceased to exist, and the 
streets are shabby indeed, although 
there is a good deal of bustle in them. 
There is one very large house belong- 
ing to an Indian banker, which is set 
back in a quadrangle, and seems to 
speak of wealth. The pop. is 158,900, 
of whom 38,729 ai*e Muhammadans. 
The military station of DlnApiir is 6 m. 
to the N. of Bdnklpiir, and 4 m. to the 
N, of this again the Soane empties 
itself into the Ganges. The traveller, 
if he pleases, may make an excursion 
to Dindpiir, and thence to the con- 
fluence of the Soane, but there are no 
buildings of any interest to be seen 
there. 



Sect. II. 



Route 19. — BdnMpitr to Gayd, 



191 





ROUTE 


19 


• 








BAifKtPlJE TO GAyA. 




Names of 


J! • 


1^ 


Stations. 


, Time. 'i25 S.S 


iS 












A.M.ip.H. r. a. r. a. 




Bdnkipur . . . 


6.251 1.0 1 — i — 


9 


Puupuii (Poonpoon) 


6.54 1.28 14 7 


19 


Masuri (Masonrhi) . 


7.29 


2.2 1 13 14 


28 


JahanAbdd . - . ! 8.7 


2.42 2 10 1 5 


88 i MakhdumpurGaya. 8.41 i 3.16 3 1 13 


45 Beltt . . . . 9.5 , 3.40 4 4 2 2 


61 Chiikund . . 9.27 4.2 4 13 2 


57 1 Guyd .... 9.45 4.20 5 6 2 11 

1 1 I t 1 



The line passes through a low country 
for the most part cultivated in rice, 
but in April dry and unprepossessing. 
Towards the close of the journey there 
f re low hills, in which are bears and 
janthers. 

Oayd is a city of 66,843 inhabitants. 
At 1 m. from the station is the T. B., 
and a shcjrt way to the W. of it the 
Collector's office. At 3 m. to the E. 
from the station is the Cemetery^ which 
is close to the bank of the Phdlgu 
river, dry in April. The cemetery is 
shaded with fine trees of the pippal, 
bel, and mango species. The person 
in charge of the cemetery has 4 rs. a 
month, a hut, and the fruit. The 
tombs and tablets suffered much 
during the Mutiny, as the malcontents 
and rebels smashed them Ijy firing 
shot at them. Among those that re- 
main may be noticed one to 11 seamen 
of No. 1 Company No. 5 Light Naval 
Brigade, " who died of disease while 
ficrving at Gayd during that year of 
florrow, 1857-58." Observe, also, a 
noble mausoleum, 40 ft. high, of which 
the base measures 20 ft. 3 in., and is 



and a dome. It has a white marble 
tablet with the inscription — 

. Sacred to the Memory of 
FRANCIS GILLANDBR8, Esq., 
Many years Collector 
Of Taxes on Pilgrims 

At Gfayd, where he 

Departed this life on 

The 27th of August, 1821, 

Aged 60 years. 

This is followed by a long eulogy on 
the deceased. There are, also, hand- 
some monuments to Caroline, wife of 
G. J, Morris, Judge of Gayd, and to 
Duncan Crauford McLeod, Esq., B.C.S., 
Magistrate of Gayd. About 100 yds. 
N. of the cemetery is a very hand- 
some temple, sacred to Mahddeo, Edm, 
Lak^hman, Ganesh, and Hanumdn, 
built by Rdnl Indrajit, of Tikdri, at 
a very considerable cost. She also 
endowed it with the village of Pa- 
rima, which yields 1,200 rs. a year. 
Thence the traveller will drive 1 J m. 
to the temple of Bi§hn Pad, in Old 
Gayd. It is difficult to approach 
the temple except on foot, owing to 
the extreme narrowness of the streets, 
and an outer door only 5 ft. high. 
Just beyond this door, on the right, is 
a very plain temple, built by Ahalya 
Bdi, the celebrated Queen of Indiir. 
The Bishn Pad Temple has a vestibule 
50 ft. sq., built of hard stone. Beyond 
this is the Footstep of Vi§hnu, or the 
Bishn Pad, which is 13 in. long and 
6 in. broad, is of silver, and in a 
vessel of silver inserted into the pave- 
ment, which has a diameter of 4 ft. 
Here flowers and other offerings are- 
made. The temple is not in itself 
handsome or remarkable, but is con- 
sidered very holy, and is crowded with 
devotees. 

Btiddlia Gay a, — The distance of 
this place from Gayd is 7 m. For the 
first 5 m. the road is good, but un- 
shaded by trees. The traveller will 
pass, on his right, the prison of Gayd. 
After 5 m. he 'will turn to the left, and 
go for 2 m. along a country road, 
where the many ruts and inequalities 
oblige carriage-horses to walk. The 
temple of Buddha Gayd is built in a 
hollow, which dimlnMv^^ v\s» \N.>^>^«t^»x. 



fmrmoanted by a tovrer with 6 pillars \ Viowsea. TVv^ Kala% ^\* X«^ ^^^ X^r:^ 



193 



^ Rotite 19. — BdnMpfir to Gay a. 



Sect. II. 



eaten away by time and weather, so 
that it has the look of the bent top of a 
night-cap, which spoils the appearance 
of the edifice. Among the unsightly 
cottages through which you pass to 
the temple, many stones will be 
seen, taken from it in years gone by. 
Mr. Bcgler, an Armenian gentleman, 
who has been superintending the re- 
pairs, resides in a small house to the 
S.W. According to him the temple is 
at present 160 ft. high, and if the 
Kalas was completed as at first, the 
height would be from 170 ft. to 180 ft. 
Mr. Begler supposes it was shaped like 
a volute, and had 9 twists and a finial. 
The base of the tower is at bottom an 
oblong, at the top a sq. of 47 ft. The 
present tower rises over the Sanctuary 
and its vestibule, and is all that re- 
mains of the temple. It is of brick, 
but the original tower was of stone. 
Stone pillars from 8 ft. to 10 ft. high 
were found beneath the lowest floor 
of this temple. One now stands in 
Mr. Begler*s garden, and consists of a 
sq. base and the figure of a Yak^hini, 
which was found lying at some dis- 
tance from it. The head-dress of this 
female figure is exactly the same as 
that of figures exhumed by Dr. Schlie- 
mann at Troy. This pillar was one of 
a row of 11, of which 10 remain buried 
under the foundations of the temple ; 
and there are 11 others quite similar, 
now m situ, outside what is called 
Buddha's Promenade, which was once 
dovered by a roof supported by them. 
Thffre were 2 rows of pillars, and the 
outer row was not at first discovered, 
being buried in the earth. Buddha's Pro- 
menade is on the N. side of the temple, 
and consists of a masonry plinth 60 ft. 
long, 4 ft. high, and 3 ft. 6 in. broad, 
with the stumps of the 11 pillars above 
mentioned. 

The wall of the tower is 14 ft. 

thick. The chamber of the sanctum 

is 20 ft. long from E. to W., and 

13 ft. broad from N. to S. The 

entrance was at the E., and Buddha's 

tbjone faced it. His figure, according 

to Hiouen Tsaug, was of perfumed 

paste, and was destroyed centuries 

WV perhaps bjr the Muslims. The 

^tfonnese made a Sgure of plaster, 



destroyed it and made another of the 
same material, which Mr. Begler de- 
stroyed, and now there is none. Op- 
posite the entrance was a Bo or 
Buddha tree, that is, a pippal or I^icus 
religio^. To the left of the entrance 
is the place where the founder of the 
present College of Mahants, about 250 
years ago, performed Ta])asya, that is, 
sat surrounded by 4 fires, with the sun 
overhead. The ashes remain, and the 
present Mahant stipulated with lilr. 
Begler that they should not be dis- 
turbed. Mr. Begler, therefore, built 
over them a hollow pillar, with a dia- 
meter of 4 J ft., and 4 ft. high, rising 
from a sq. base. Nearly in line with 
this are 3 masonry tombs of Mahants. 
It is known that Ashoka sur- 
rounded the temple with a stone 
railing. As much of this railing as 
could be found is being restored to the 
position which it is supposed on the 
N. and S. sides to have occupied. It 
is being set up at a distance of 10 ft. 
from the wall of the temple, which 
it encircles, except on the E. side, 
where no remains of it are found. On 
the W. side it is 25 ft. from the wall 
of the temple. The railing has 4 bars 
of stone, supported by pillars at inter- 
vals of 8 ft. The top rail is orna- 
mented with carvings of mermaids, or 
females with the tails of fish, insert- 
ing their anns into the mouths of 
Mak^ahs, that is, imaginary croco- 
diles, with large ears like those of 
elephants, and long hind-legs. Below 
tbis top bar are 3 others, also of stone, 
ornamented with carvings of lotus- 
flowers. The pillars are adorned with 
carvings of various groups, such as a 
woman and child, a man, with a 
woman who has the head of a horse. 
Centaurs, and so on. Sculptors of the 
present day in India, at all events 
near Gayd, ai-e not skilful enough to 
reproduce these figures. Mi-. Ferguson 
says (" Hist, of Arch.," p. 86) : " The 
Buddha Gay4 rail is a rectangle, 
measuring 131 ft. by 98 ft., and is very 
much mined. Its dimensions were, 
indeed, only obtained by excavation. 
The pillaTS axe appoteuW^ c\i\^ &tt. 
11 in. in Y\eigVit, aud at^ ^^euet^^i 
ornamented vntki a semi-dAWiVav «a^ 



Sect ir. 



Route 19. — Buddlm Gayd, 



193 



bottom, containing a single figure or a 
group of several. Thej have i^so a 
central circular disc, with either an 
animal or bust in the centre of a lotus. 
No part of the upper rail seems to 
have been recovered, and none of the 
intermediate rails between the pillars 
are sculptured.* As the most ancient 
sculptured monument in India, it 
would be extremely interesting to 
have this rail fully illustrated, not so 
much for its artistic merit as because 
it is the earliest authentic monument 
representing manners and mythology 
in India," The base of the temple is 
26i ft. high, and at the top oE it, 
between its margin and the tower, is 
a clear space 13 ft. broad, which 
allowed a passage round the tower, 
and also gave access to a chamber in 
it. The tower rose about 140 ft. above 
this base, without counting the spiral 
Kolas and the finial. At each comer 
of the platfoim, by which the passage 
round the tower was effected, was a 
small temple, and below, outside 
Ashoka's rail, were many subordinate 
temples. It is very difficult to realise 
what the temple in its original state 
was, although there is a photograph of 
what it now is in its repaired state 
in Rdjendraldld Mitra's book, called 
Buddha Gr^yA ; but it may perhaps be 
said, with some confidence, that the 
building was never one of great beauty, 
and the inducements to visit it are its 
extreme antiquity, which certainly 
reaches to o43 B.C., and its great 
sanctity in the eyes of the Hindiis, 
who reckon it in that respect on a par 
withAllAhAbdd. 

To the N.W. is a small but very 
ancient temple, in which is a figure of 
Buddha standing. The door has a 
finely-carved bar at top. It is in- 
tended to build an enclosing wall at 
about 60 ft. distant from the great 
temple. So far the traces of successive 
buildings may be clearly seen. In 
returning from the temple, the tra- 
veller may stop at the College, where 
the Mahuit resides. There were in 
the posaeamon of the Mahant a aeries 
of term-^^otta seals, which went back 

inwm>^" ^ ^" *"" ^^* precedes, this la 



to the foundation of the College ; but 
Mr. Clarke, sent out by the South 
Kensington Museum, has carried them 
all off, not leaving one, although the 
Museum at Calcutta had certainly 
strong claims for a specimen. The 
proprietors of the GayA places of pil- 
grimage are called GyAls or GayAwAls. 
They pretend to be descended from 14 
BrAhmans, who were created by Brdh- 
ma at the time when he persuaded the 
demon Gaya to lie down in order that 
a feast might be held on his body, and 
when he had done so, placed a large 
stone on him to keep him there. 
Gay A, however, struggled so violently 
that it was necessary, in order to per- 
suade him to be quiet, to promise that 
the gods would take up their abode on 
him permanently, and that anyone 
who made a pilgrimage to the temple 
which was then built upon him should 
be saved from the HindA Pandemo- 
nium. Although the Gaydwdls are 
treated with great consideration at' 
the place of pilgrimage, the respect- 
able Brdhmans hold them in small 
esteem, and, in fact, "the GayAwAls 
are generally a dissolute race" (see 
Census of 1872). Up to a very recent 
date they used to practise the most 
open extortion, and now, though less 
violent, they are hardly less successful 
in squeezing the hai)le88 pilgrim. They 
are very rich, and are said to be gene- 
rally bad landlords, and often able to 
evade penalties through the sanctity 
that attaches to their position. Subor- 
dinate to them arc the Dhdmins 
or Prestiyas, who, under their direc- 
tion, perform the ceremonies for the 
pilgrims to Gayd. They give one- 
fourth of their profits to the GayAwdls. 
They are allowed to marry as many 
wives as they please, and may eat meat 
without loss of prestige. It has been 
noticed (see Dalton's "Descriptive 
Ethnology of Bengal," p. 163) that 
the sculptures at Buddha Gay4 por- 
tray not Aryan, but Turanian or Kol 
features. In accordance with this, 
there is aTvm?aT\\Xv3vi«X.^\i.^>S^ 



194 



HouU 19. — Bdnkipdr to Oa^ 



.Seet n. 



in Dr. Muir's " Sanskrit Texts," Tol. 
ii., p. :)62, it is said that ** when the 
Kali age has begun, Buddha^s son, 
Anjana, will Ije born among the 
Kikatas, in order to delude the 
Asuras,'* that is, according to the 
commentator, in the district of Gayd, 
so that when Gautama was bom the 
country of GayA was occupied by 
aboriginal tribes, such as Cheros, 
Kikatns, and Mundas, and, according 
to Buchanan, "the Cheros probably 
accepted the doctrines of Gautama, 
while the lower orders — the Kols — ^re- 
jected them ; and while the Cheros 
became Aryanized the Kols adhered 
to the life of freedom and impurity 
in which they are still found." 

In the winter of 1876 the late King 
. of Barmali deputed 3 officers to super- 
intend the repairs of the temple of 
Buddlia Gayd. The men arrived in 
January, 1877. With the permission 
of the Mahant in charge of the temple 
they cleared a large space round it, 
built an enclosing wall, renewed the 
retaining walls of the terrace, re-plas- 
tered the interior of the temple, and 
took steps for preserving the Bodhi 
tree.* In the course of their work 
they brought to light a great number 
of images, and other objects of anti- 
quarian interest. Some of these they 
built into the new wall, and others they 
left scattered about the place. The Lieu- 
tenant-Governor requested R&jendra- 
141A Mitra to visit the place, to give 
the Barmese such guidance as might 
prevent serious injury being done to 
the temple. He went in the autumn 
of 1877, and has published an elaborate 
report. He states that one of the 
earliest papers of the Associated 
Society of Bengal was a translation, 
by Sir C. Wilkins, of an inscription 
found at Buddha Gayd. Buchanan 
Hamilton visited the place in 1809, and 
in 1 830 published a paper in vol. ii. 
" Trans, of the As, Soc. in Great Bri- 
tain," respecting the legends he had col- 
lected from the Mahants. In 1832 Mr. 
Hawthorne, Judge of Gayd, sent James 

* Tfi/s tree lias disappeared. Cnnningham 
fij^s: " During these 10 years, 1S61—71, one of 
Joe principal branches has disappearet], and 
me ivitea stem must soon, foUoviv' 



Prinsep oopies of insoriptioiu. In 
1846 Major Markham Kittoe was ap- 
pointed arohnolQfi^ical tarreror, aod 
went first to Oay4. On his deatii his 
papers were diqiersed, and no use 
made of them. OmmJnghain'a ihst 
visit was in 1861, his seoomd in 1871. 
His report, at p. 79 of toL iiL, 
" ArchsBological Sarveys,*' may be con- 
sulted. BdjendrnldUk Ultra begins bj 
stating that the 4 most sacred places 
of Buddhism are Kapilayasta, the 
birthplace of Buddha ; Boddha OajA, 
his hermitage ; Bandras, where he nrst 
preached ; and Kosi, the place of his 
Nirvdna. Buddha Gay4 stands in 
N. lat. 24" 41' 45", B. long. 86» 2* 4". 
The river Lildjan, which washes the 
E. boundary of the place, is, in the 
rains, about ^ a m. broad ; at other 
times a silver streaodet 80 yds. in 
breadth. The word in Sanskrit is Nai- 
ranjand, *Hhe immaculate." A m. 
from Buddha Gayd, near the Hard 
Hill, it joins the Mohand, and is called 
the Fhdigu. In Government records 
the place has two names — Buddha 
Gayd proper, with an area oKf 2,152 
acres ; and Mastip;!ir Tarddi, with 
647 acres. Tarddi has its name from 
a temple to Tdra Devi. This area is a 
fertile plain, broken by one large and 
several small mounds. The large 
mound is divided by a village road. 
In the centre of the S. part stands the 
great temple. The N. part was called 
the Rdjastdn or '* palace.'* It is now 
called Gayh or "fort." There are 
traces of a double wall and ditch. 
Here was probably a large monastery. 
The present monastery is on the left 
bank of the Lildjan, in the midst of a 
garden of 20 acres, surrounded by a 
high walL In some parts it has 4 
stories, but round the quadrangle 
only 3. The ground floor is faced by 
a verandah, built on sculptured mono- 
lithic pillars, and on one side on 
wooden pillars. The present Mahant 
has a fine collection of Sanskrit MS8. 
The " LaUta Vistdra," edited by Rd- 
jendra, is the chief authority as to 
Buddha Gayd, and the Gdtha part of 
it is com\K)6cd. imxaedrntc^-:^ o&xst. 
Shdkya's death, and t\icrc !>» \ABiwi \& 
I called TJyuvUva. It ^aa t\ie ftci ol a. 



Soot. II . 



Boute 20. — BdmMpdr to ArraL 



195 



/ 



general senrixig the potentate who 
ruled Gayi, then the capital of Ki^aka* 
a synonym for Magadha. Bnddha 
Gayd is a modem name, and B&jendra 
thinks that it was originally Bodhi- 
Gayd, from the Bodhi tree, which has 
now disappeared. He explains in a 
reasonable way the absurdlegend about 
the demon Oayd, who was 576 m. high 
and 268 m. round, and who was guilty 
of saving souls too easily, so that 
Death and Hades became depopulated. 
This demon was Buddhism, and was 
quieted by having Brahmi, Vishnu, 

, and Maheshvara seated on him, that 
is to say, their temples were built on 
him. In fact, in the middle of the 7th 
century aj>., when Hiouen Tsang 
visited Gay& it had relapsed into 
Hinddism. The penance that Buddha 
or Sh^kya performed at Buddha Qay& 
is discussed at great length by Bd- 
jendra. It was a 6 years' fast, and 
one uninterrupted concentration of the 
mind to the contemplation of its 
own state was its absolute require- 
ment. Buddha began by living on a 
plum a day, then on a grain of rice, 
then on a graiu of sesamum, and then 
he took nothing. In Cave No. 1, 
Ajanta, is a fresco painting of the 
temptations of Buddha during this 
fast, of which Rdjendra has given an 
autotype. Buddha is surrounded by 
threatening fiends, and also by lovely 
damsels, who are doing their best, 
each in their owti way, to disturb his 
meditations. The old temple men- 
tioned above, which is said to have 
l)cen that of T&ra Devi, measures, ac- 
cording to Rdjendra, 36 ft. 5 in. high, 
on a base of 15ft. 9 in. by loft. 3 in. 
The chamber inside is 5 ft. 8 in. by 
5 ft. 10 in. by 11 ft. 2 in. He identifies 
the figure as that of Padmapdni. In 
front of it, at a distance of 150 ft., is 
what is called Vdgeshvari's temple, 
the goddess of speech ; but Bdjendra 
says the figure is that of an armed 
male, and is Vajarapdni seated on a 
throne. He also states that ^' the Bar- 
mese carried on demolitions and ex- 
cavations which in a manner swept 
awaj- most of the old landmarks." 
The raaams oi the molted gateway ii^ 

front oi the temple were completely 



demolished, and the place cleared out 
and levelled. The stone pavilion over • 
the Buddha Pad was dismantled, and 
its nuiterials cast aside on a rubbish- 
mound at a distance. The granite 
plinth beside it was removed. The " 
sites of the chambers brought to light 
by Major Mead were cleared. The 
drain-pipe and gargoyle which marked 
the level of the granite pavement were 
destroyed. The foundations of the old 
buildings noticed by Hiouen Tsang 
were excavated for bricks and filled 
with rubbish. The revetment wall 
round the sacred tree had been rebuilt 
on a different foundation on the W. 
The plaster ornaments on the interior 
&cing of the sanctuary were knocked 
off, and the facing was covered with 
plain stucco, and an area of 213 ft. to 
250 ft. was levelled and surrounded by 
a new wall. For further description 
of the temple, the traveller may refer 
to RAjendraldld Mitra's "Buddha 
GayA," Calcutta, 1878, and Cumjing- 
ham's "Archaeological Surveys," vol. iii. 



ROUTE 20. 

BANKIPUB TO ABSAU. 

The stations on the E. I. Rulway 
are as follows : — 



•si 

92 ^ X I 



Names of Stations. 




Banki[)iir 
Diuapiir 
WaXax . 

Xtmtv 







196 



Rovie 20. — Bdnkip^r to ArraL 



Sect. IL 



Before reaching this station the tra- 
veller will cross the river S6n (Soane) 
at 8 m. beyond Bihtar and 10 m. before 
reaching Arrah. The bridge over this 
river is considered one of the finest in 
India. It consists of 28 spans, each of 
160 ft., making a total of 4200 ft The 
foundations are sunk to a depth of 
about 30 ft. During the rains this vast 
channel is filled, biit in the dry season 
there remains only an insignificant 
stream. 

Arrah is the chief town of Shdhd- 
bad, a well-cultivated fertile district, 
and has a pop. of 39,386. The district 
has an area of 4385 sq. m., and a pop. 
of 1,723,974. A halt here for a day 
ought certainly to be made to see the 
house which was defended with such 
extraordinary gallantry by Herwald 
Wake, B.C.S., and Mr. Boyle. The 
following account is abstracted and 
condensed from Kaye's " Sepoy War," 
vol. iii. p. 125 : — 

** On the evening of the 3rd of July, 
1857, a large body of Muslims, bearing 
aloft the Green Flag, and summoning 
others to join them by the beating of 
drums, marched through the streets of 
Fatna, and attacked the house of 
a Roman Catholic priest. The Sikh 
regiment, under Captain Rattray, was 
at once ordered out, and an express 
was sent to Diiiapdr for European 
troops. Dr. Lyall, who thought to 
pacify the mob, was shot dead ; but 
• when Rattray, with liis men, arrived, 
the victory of the mob was over. The 
rioters were soon dispersed, and quiet 
was restored. A number of arrests 
and one execution followed. At Dina- 
piir there were 3 regiments of 
SipAhls, the 7th, 8th, and 40th Beng. 
N.I., whose loyalty was much sus- 
pected. On the loth of July Sir P. 
Grant wrote to General Lloyd, com- 
manding at Diuapiir, that as the 5th 
l^isiliers would pass Dinapiir on their 
way to'Bandras, he mignt take the 
opportunity of disarming the Sipdhis. 
General Lloyd feebly halted between 
two opinions, and at last, when 2 com- 
panies of the 37th Foot arrived, on the 
54th of July, resolved not to disarm 
tlie Sipihis, bat to take away their 
percnssion caps. The 7tb and 8th 



then broke into open mutiny, but the 
40th were inclined to stand fast, until, 
bemg fired upon by some soldiers of 
the 10th Foot, they joined their com- 
rades and went off e;^ mmsae. General 
Lloyd then went on board a steamer, 
thinking that he would be most useful 
there. The European soldiers made 
only a feeble effort in pursuing the 
Sipdhis, who crossed the river and 
marched to Arrah, where they released 
all the prisoners in the jail, plundered 
the treasury, and, but for the wisdom 
and bravery of the few English, would 
have exterminated them. General 
Lloyd now proposed to entrench him- 
self at Dinapiir, but Commissioner 
Tayler protested against such an exhi- 
bition of weakness, and urged the 
immediate despatch of a strong force 
into the Shdhdbdd district to crush 
the insurrection. General Lloyd did 
nothing, but a number of volunteers 
and some Sikh soldiers assembled at 
the Commissiouer's house, and went 
out at night to see what could be done. 
That night the Commissioner received 
news that the 12th Irregular Horse 
had mutinied at Sigaulf (Segowlie) in 
Champdran, and had murdered their 
commander. Major James Holmes, and 
his wife, a daughter of Sir Robert Sale, 
as well as Dr. and Mrs. Gamer, and 
others. Mr. Tayler, therefore, recalled 
the volunteers, but continucKl to urge 
General Lloyd to send troops. On the 
29th of July Mr. Tayler went to Dina- 
piir to urge General Lloyd to take 
action. MXjev several mishaps, 150 
men of the 10th under Captain Dunbar, 
and 76 under Lt. Ingleby, were sent 
in a steamer towards Arrah. Two 
gallant oflicers of the Civil Service, 
Mr. McDonell, magistrate of Chaprah, 
and Mr. Ross Mangles, assistant to Mr. 
Tayler, accompanied them. The affair 
was miserably conducted, the soldiers 
got nothing to eat, and went fasting 
and feeble in the dark night to attack 
the rebels at Artah. They fell into an 
ambush, and were driven back, with 
the loss of 2 captains, 2 lieutenants, 
3 ensigns, 3 sergeants, 10 corporals, 
and 115 privates killed ; 3 officers, 3 
sergeants, and 54 privates wounded.' 
Mr. MangleB and Mi. McDonell dis* 



Sect. IT. 



R(yute 20. — Arrah. 



197 



plajed the utmost heroism, for which 
they afterwards received liie Victoria 
Croiss. JBut the little party of English 
at Arrah were holding out against 
tremendous odds with a resolution 
worthy of Sparta. Anything more 
hopeless than an attempt to defend a 
house against 2000 Sipdhls and a mul- 
titude of armed insurgents, perhaps 
four times that number, could not well 
be conceived. The almost absolute 
certainty of destruction was such that 
a retreat under cover of the night 
would not have been discreditable ; 
but the residents at Arrah had other 
thoughts of their duty to the State. 
There were a dozen Englishmen and 
3 or 4 other Christians, and 50 Sikhs 
sent by Mr. Tayler, so it was resolved 
that there shoiUd be no flight, but hard 
fighting. 

"The centre of defence had been 
wisely chosen. Mr. Vicars Boyle, 
who was superintending the works of 
the E. I. Railway, was a civil en- 
gineer who had some acquaintance 
with military science. He was the 
owner of 2 houses, and chose the 
smaller, a 2*storied one with a flat 
roof, for the defence, and razed the 
parapet of the other. He had col- 
lectea stores and ammunition. On the 
27tii of July the Dinapiir mutinous 
Sip^his marched boldly up to the 
attack, but were met with such a heavy 
Are that they broke into groups and 
sheltered themselves by trees. Her- 
wald Wake had taken command of the 
Sikhs, and the little garrison resisted 
all attempts to overpower them, either 
Ijy the fire of rifles or by heaping up 
combustibles, and adding to the smoke 
by throwing chilis on the flames. 
Another attemi)t to drive out the gar- 
rison by piling up the carcases of 
horses and men, so as to create a 
fearful effluvium, also failed, as did a 
mine which the rebels carried to the 
foundations of the house. A week 
thus passed, but when the second Sun- 
day came round Major Vincent Eyre 
arrived with 4 guns, 60 English 
gunners, and 100 men of the 78th 
Highlanders, accompanied by 160 of 
the 6th Fusiliers, under Oaptarn. 



rain, the roads were very difficult, and 
before reaching Arrah Eyre had been 
attacked by thousands of the enemy, 
but he fought his way through idl 
obstacles until he reached the Railway 
Works. The line of railway gained. 
Eyre drew up his force, and the fight 
speedily commenced. Awed by the 
foretaste they had had in the morning 
of our Enfield rifles and our field-guns, 
the enemy again sought shelter in a 
wood, from which they poured a 
galling fire on our people. Our want 
of numbers was now severely felt. 
There was a general want of fighting- 
men to contend with the multitude of 
the enemy, and there was a special 
want, almost as great, which rendered 
the service of a single man, in that 
conjuncture, well-nigh as important 
as a company of Fusiliers. Eyre had 
left his only artillery subaltern at 
Gbazipi!ir, and was compelled, there- 
fore, himself to direct the fire of his 
guns, when he would fain have been 
directing the general operations of 
his force. More than once the 
forward movements of the Infantry 
had left the guns without support ; 
and the Sip4his, seeing their oppor- 
tunity, had made a nish upon the 
battery, but had been driven back by 
showers of grape. Another charge 
made in greater force, and the guns 
might, perhaps, be lost to us. The 
Infantry were fighting stoutly and 
steadily, but they could not make an 
impression on those vastly superior 
numbers, aided by the advantage of 
their p<j8ition. The staff officer, 
Hastings, indeed, had brought word 
that the Fusiliers were giving way. 
The moment was a critical one. No- 
thing now was so likely to save us 
as the cold arbitrament of steel. So 
Eyre issued orders for a bayonet- 
charge. With the utmost alacrity, 
Hastings carried back the oi*der to 
the Commander of the Infantry ; but 
not immediately finding L'Estrangc, 
who was in another part of the field, 
and seeing that there was no time to 
be lost, he * collected every available 
man,' placed himself at thevc 'b&'o^^ 



L'Estran^e, Atter weeks <^ heayy \ L'i^sitx«si^ m'w«w\xvNs.>^Mafi^ ^"^"^ '^ 



J 98 



Eoute 20. — Bdnhipur to Arrah, 



Sect. IL 



with another body of Fusiliers, and 
the whole, sending up as they went a 
right good English cheer, cleared the j 
^stream, which at this point had ta- 

^ pered down to the breadth of a few 
feet, and charged the surprised and 
paniC'Stricken multitude of Sipdhis. 
It was nothing that they had our num- 
bers twenty times told. They turned 
and fled in confusion before the British 
bayoneteers ; whilst Eyre poured in 
his grape, round after round, upon the 
flying masses. The rout was com- 
plete. They never rallied. And the 
road to Arrah was left as clear as 
though there had been no mutiny at 
Dinapiir — no. revolt in Bihar." 

This house stands in the Judge's 
Compound, about 50 yds. S. of his house. 
It is nearly a sq., and has 2 stories, with 
a verandah on 3 sides, supported by 
arches, which the besieged filled up 
with sand-bags. The lower story is a 
little over 10 ft. high, and was held by 
50 Sikh soldiers. Behind one of the 
rooms, the outer wall of which had no 
arch nor opening, the garrison dug a 
well, and that was all 3ie water they 
had. From the flat roof Boyle and the 
Judge killed many of the assailants, 
who mounted a small cannon on the 
house which is now inhabited by the pre- 
sent Judge, Mr. Worgan. He has a ball 
which was fired from the gun mounted 
by the rebels, nnd was found im- 
bedded in the wall of Wake's house. 
How the latter could have been de- 
fended against 2,000 Sipdhis and 
others seems past comprehension, and 
shows what determination can do 
against the most overwhelming odds. 

, At aboat a ^ of a m. from the Judge's 
house is St. Saviour's Church, a verj' 
small but neat building. It is 53 ft. long 
. from E.. to W., and 24 ft. broad from 
N. to S., and can seat about 100 per- 
sons. It contains one handsome white 
marble tablet on a black ground, with 
the following interesting inscription : — 

In MeiJioiy of 
CAPTAIN THE HONBLE. DAVID 
PLANTAGENET ROBIN HOOD HASTINGS, 

Of the late 32ud Regt. N.I., 

To whose euergien, self-devoUon and courage 

The relief of the Arrah Garrison, in 1857, 

Was, under the mercy of Providence, 

To be maiDly attributed* 



This Tablet is erected by his family 

In affectionate and grateful remembrance 

Of his name and deeds. 

Obiit 19th of October, 1857. • 

^tat. 39; 

And of 

CAPTAIN FRANCIS C. JACKSON, 

Lite 12th Regt N.I. 

Ob. Brd of August, 1858. 

Another of the devoted band of Volunteers ' 

Who aided Vincent Eyre in his gallant 

And successful effort to rescue the Garrison, 

And who died ftron^ the effects 

Of fatigue and exposure. 

At about 150 jds. from this is the 
Collector's KAchharl, and in front of 
it is a square tomb railed off, with the 
following inscription : — 

Sacred to the Memory of the 

Undermentioned Offlcers, Non-commissioned 

Officers and Men of H.M.'s 35th Regt, 

who fell in action in the District 

on the 23nl of April, 1858. 

Here lie the Remains of Ensign W. Britten, 
Corporal Henry Atkins, Privates Samuel 
Frost, George Dooley, James Vauoley. 

L. Hills and James Greenhill, who died 
after coming into AiTah. 

Tlie undeimentioned fell in action : 
Captain A. G. Le Grand. 
Lt W. G. Massey. 
— K. H. Clarke. 
Cr.-Sergt. Wm. Russell. 

— M. Morton. 
Sergt. W. Johnston. 

— R. Bush. 
Corp. G. Barnes. 
And 85 privates of the same Regt 

The Cemetery is an extremely pictu- 
resque spot, an eminence shaded by 
fine trees. Here are buried one or two 
of the heroes of Arrah. The tablet of 
the last of them is inscribed : — 

Sacred to 

The Memory of 

JOHN LIDDALL, 

Staff- Veterinary Surgeon, 

H.M.'s Anny, 

Who died at Beleen House 

On tlic 6th of September, 1807, 

In the 49th year of his age. 

One of the last survivora 

Of the gallant hand of Voluuteei's 

Who relieved the Arrah Garrison 

During the Mutiny of 1857. 

This Monument is ei-ected by 
His sorrowing Widow. 

From Arrah 2 places of great interest 
may be Tisited, Sdttar&ni and Koiax, 
There is a canal from Arrah to Dihri, 
a distance of 60 m. , a town to which 
the traveller may proceed in a boat. 
At Dihri there is a weir 12,500 ft. 
longi 120 broad, and 8 ft. above the 



.Sect IL 



Rovte 20, — Arrah — SdsardM, 



199 



' nonnal level of the river-bed. The 
foundation is f onned by hollow blocks 
16 ft long, 15 ft. broad, and 10 ft. 
deepfWith 15-inch walls, leaving a space 
from which sand was excavated by 
means of Fouracres* excavators. It 
took on an average 3 days to sink 
each block. On the wells thus formed, 
2 walls were built of masonry, the 
main wall 8 ft. high, the rear wall 5^ 
ft. The space between the walls, as 
well as the rear apron, was filled with 
rabble stones. The total cost exceeded 
£150,000. To provide for superfluous 
water, not required for irrigation, the 
weir is pierced by S sets of sluices, 
each containing 22 vents, of 20) ft. 
space. Daring floods these sluices, 
which are placed at each end and at 
the centre of the weir, are always left 
open to obviate by the scour the danger 
of the river silting up Where the canals 
branch off. A difficulty, however, 
arose as regards the shutting of these 
sluices, the pressure during a violent 
stream amounting to 600 tons upon 
each gate. Mr. Fouracres, the en- 
gineer in charge of the Dihri work- 
shops, invented a system of shutters, 
by which the opening and shutting 
are effected almost instantaneously. 

To many travellers it will be inte- 
resting to visit these works, and to 
have them explained by the engineer 
in charge. They will then see the im- 
portant cansds which irrigate the whole 
of the 8h4h&b4d district. The Main 
W. Canal starts from the head works 
at Dihri, and carries up to the 5th m., 
where the Arrah Canal branches off, 
4,511 cubic ft. of water per second, 
to irrigate 1,200,000 acres. The di- 
mensions at starting are — breadth at 
base 180 ft.; depth of water in full 
supply, 9 ft.; fall per m., 6 in. The 
Arrah Canal takes off 1,616 cubic ft. of 
water per second, which leaves 2,81)6 
cubic ft. up to the 12th m., where the 
Bagsar and Chausd Canals leave, ab- 
stracting a further 1,260 cubic ft. per 
second. The dimensions are here re- 
duced to 124 ft. at the base, with the 
other particulars as before. The Main 
W. Canal curves round in a K. di- 
rection to the head works of the Arrah 
Qanal; then Itenda to the W., crossing 



the K4o river, over a syphon aqueduct 
at Bihiya, and finally stops on the 
Grand Trunk Boad, 2 m. W. of Sdsa- 
rdm. Further particulars will be 
found in the " Stat. Ace. of Beng.,"voL* . 
xii, p. 170, where it is added, " there 
can be little doubtthesecanalshave con- 
ferred on Shihdb&d an entire immunity 
from future famines. As far iis the S6n 
readings have gone, they show that a 
minimum supply of 3,000 cubic ft. per 
second can be depended upon up to 
the 15th of January ; and this would 
suffice to irrigate 480,000 acres. But 
many of the cold-weather crops will 
have been completely irrigated before 
this date, so that the amount of water 
required decreases equally with the 
volume of the stream." 

Sdmrd?/!., — This place, the head- 
quarters of a sub-division of the same 
name, is situated in E. long. 84** 
3' 25" and N. lat. 24° 56' 58" on the 
Grand Trunk Boad, and is famous as 
containing the tomb of Shir Shdh, who 
conquered Hum^yiin, and became em- 
peror of Dihli. The pop. is 21,023 
persons. It is a municipal town, and 
commands a fine view of the N. es- 
carpment of the £Iaimi!ir hills, 2 m. to 
the S. At the W. end of the town is 
the mausoleum of Shir Shdh, who was 
born here. It is an octagonal hall, 
built within a tank, and surrounded 
by an arcade, which forms a gallery. 
'* Each side of the octagon consists of 
3 Gothic arches below, from which 
springs a second story, also octagonal 
and 25 ft. high. The roof consists of 
3 alcoves, and is supported by 4 Gothic 
arches, above which is a terrace form* 
ing the first story, about 354 ^» ^ig^ J 
6J ft. of this height is occupied by a 
very heavy balustrade and parapet. 
The terrace is 15 ft. wide, and has a 
small cupola, supported by 6 rude 
columns at each comer. The 2nd 
stage consists of a plain wall, with a 
cornice, surmounted by a low parapet. 
On the top is a smaJl terrace, 9 ft. 
10 in. wide, having at each corner a 
: cupola similar to those below. Above 
the 2nd stage the outside of the build- 
ing rises perpendicularly, with a 3rd 
stage oi \^ «\!^aa,W^^-^^'^- '^Jssr:^^ 



200 



Boute 20. — Bdnkipth' to Atrah. 



Sect. II, 



which a nearly hemispherical dome 
arises. On its summit, again, is a 
small cupola, supported by 4 pillars. 
" The interior of the building forms 
/ ' an octagon, the sides of which measure 
64 ft. at the base ; the thickness of the 
outer wall is 6 ft., and of the gallery 
10 ft. Each inner side of the gallery 
is divided into 3 others by an equal 
number of arches. In the central arch 
of 7 sides there is a door. The inner 
wall, which bounds the central hall, is 
16 ft. thick at the ground, forming an 
inside octagon, each side of which is 
41 1 ft. long. The most W. side is in- 
scribed with sacred sentences, and in 
the centre with the name of Alldh. 
The great hall ascends as an octagon 
for about 27 ft., or as high as the 
terrace above the Ist stage on the out- 
side, where there is a small rade 
cornice ; above this level, each side of 
the octagon divides into two, and con- 
tains a window of stone fretwork. 
For about 25 ft. the wall ascends with 
16 sides, which then subdivide into 
J»2 for a height of 11 ft. further, where 
the dome springs. In the centre of 
each dome hangs a chain, probably 
used for lamps. The king's tomb lies 
in the centre of the hall, opposite the 
niche for prayer, with the right hand 
towards Makka ; it is raised 6 in. from 
the floor, and consists of plain plaster, 
X but is distinguished from the other 
graves by a small column at the head. 
The inside is fairly lighted, but the 
ornaments are in the very worst taste. 
The stones are irregularly cut, and as 
irregulariy placed ; and the balustrades 
have been painted with gaudy and 
glaring colours. 

"An endowment was left for the 
support of the tomb ; but the Mughul 
Emperors resumed the lands, and the 

• place has long been neglected." — 
(" Stat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. xii., pp. 
206-7.) 

" About J a m. to the N.W. of Shir 
8h&h*s tomb is situated the unfinished 

- tomb of his nephew Salim, also in an 
artificial tank. If completed, this 
would, doubtless, have been on the 
same plan as the tomb already de- 

senbed. What remains is an octa- 

j^onal'Sbaped building, about 10 ft, or 



' 16 ft. high, with some of the arches 
turned. The banks of the tank have 
been ^rown to a farther distance, and 
slope gradually to the stairs. The 
island is about 10 ft. above the water, 
with a stair extending along the whole 
length. At each comer is an octa- 
gonal projection, connected with the 
island by a narrow passage. The niche 
for prayer is not so profusely carved 
as in Shir Shdh*s tomb ; and there are 
no inscriptions except the name of 
Alldli in the centre. The grave which 
occupies the centre of the building, is 
undoubtedly that of Salim. On his 
left is a second grave, and at his feet 
5 others of a smaller size, the whole 
being surrounded by a wall about 7 ft. 
high, rudely built of rough stones and 
clay." — ("Stat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. xii, 
pp. 207-8.) 

Jiotdsgafh . — Betuming to Dihri, 
the traveller may continue his course 
to Bot^garh, 24 m. to the S. The 
place has its name from Bohit&shwa, 
son of Harishchandra, the 28th sove- 
reign of the Solar Dynasty, famous for 
his piety, but becoming too proud, he 
was fixed with his capital in mid-air. 
His image was worshipped on the spot 
until destroyed by Aurangzib. Little 
or nothing is known concerning the 
persons who held the fort from Bohi- 
tdshwa up to 1100 A.D., when it is 
supposed to have belonged to Pratdp 
Dhawata. Shir Shdh took it in 1639, 
and began to strengthen the fortifica- 
tions, but before long selected a better 
site for a castle at Shirgafh, 11 m. to 
the N. by W. Mdn Singh, on be- 
coming Viceroy of Bengal and Bihdr, 
made Botds Ms stronghold, and ac- 
cording to 2 inscriptions in Sanskrit 
and Persian,erected the buildings that 
now exist, about 1654 A.D. In 1644, 
the Governor protected Shdh Jahdn's 
family here, wnen he was in rebellion 
against his father. The commander- 
ship of the garrison was hereditary, 
and was assigned to Bdjpi!its, but in 
1810 to Muslims. There were 4,000 
matchlock men, and 1,600 regular 
soldiers. "Wiien Mir Kdsim was de- 
feated, in 1764, he sent his wife, with 
1,700 women and children and much 
treasure, to Botto, but Shdh Mall, who 



Sect. II. 



JRoiUe 20. — Rotdsgarh — Shlrgarlu 



201 



had charge of them after the battle of 
Bagsar, sent the chief lady to Mir 
K£im, who then adyised the Governor 
to give np the fort to the English, 
which was done. Colonel Goddard 
took possession, and remained for 2 
months, destroying all military stores. 
He then left a native guard, which re- 
mained for a year, when the place was 
abandoned. The palace was then in 
good repair. The remains of the fort 
now occupy part of the table-land, 
4 m. from E. to W., and 6 from N. to 
8. This is isolated by 2 deep ravines, 
leaving between its S. end and the 
rock overhanging the S6n (Soane), a 
neck about 200 yds. wide, with perpen- 
dicular sides. There are 83 paths up 
the rock accessible to man. One of 
these is the neck just mentioned, 
which, and 3 others, are called the 4 
Great Ghdts ; the other 80 are called 
Ghdtie. Rdjd Ghd^ is the easiest, but 
is, nevertheless, a very steep and long 
ascent. 

Sir J. Hooker, when he visited Kotds 
(see " Himalayan Jour." vol. i., p. 40), 
encamped at the village of Akbarpiir, 
400 ft. above sea-level, and thence 
ascended to the palace, 1,490 ft. On 
the way is a beautiful well, GO ft deep, 
with steps to the bottom, and covered 
with flowering creepera. A fine fig- 
tree grows out of the stone, and en- 
velopes 2 sides of the walls with its 
roots, which form a curious net-work. 
The ascent here is over dry hills of 
limestone, covered with scrub. After 
these succeeds a sandstone cliff, cut 
into steps, which lead from ledge to 
ledge and gap to gap, guarded with 
walls and an archway of solid ma- 
sonry. After ascending 1,200 ft., the 
visiter will come to a pretty octagonal 
summer-house, whence there is a su- 
perb view. From this, a walk of 3 
m. leads through woods to the Palace, 
which extends from K. to S., and has 
its principal front to the W. There 
is a fine door, consisting of a large 
Gothic arch, with the figure of an 
elephant on either side. Within is 
another arch of the same size, leading 
to the Guard Boom, one of the best- 
proportioned parts of the whole build- 
jn^r, T!he Biirahdarif or room where 



business was transacted, is a tasteful 
apartment. In front is an open hall, 
supported by 4 doable columns. There 
are other extensive buildings, such as 
light galleries, supported by slender 
colimins, long cool arcades,and screened 
squares. The rooms open out on flat 
roofs, commanding views of the table- 
land to the W., and a sheer precipice 
of 1,000 ft. to the E., with the S6n 
river and the village of Akbarpiir 
below. 

Shirgafh is in appearance much 
stronger than Eotds, as the rock on 
the top is surrounded by a rampart, 
and the general, outline is broken by 
bastions and turrets. Buchanan Hamil- 
ton says that the ladies' apartments 
foim a long castle on the summit of 
the small hill on the S. side of the 
fort, and resemble Durham Castle. 

There are endless ruins to be visited 
in the neighbourhood, and the sports- 
man who has brought skilful hunters 
with him will be fully employed, for 
bears, tigers, panthers, wild cats, wild 
dogs, and deer of several kinds are 
very numerous. There is an alligator 
in the hill streams of a different kind 
from that found in the S6n. 



I 



202 



Eonte 21. — Arrah to Bagsar (Bnxar), Sect. II. 



ROUTE 21. 

ABBAH TO BAGSAB (BUXAB). 

The stations along the E. I. Bail- 
way are as follows : — 



Dist. 

from 

Arrah. 


Names of Sta- 
tions. 


Time. 


Remark. 


Miles. 

14 
23 
33 
43 


Armh 

Bihiya (Beeheea) 
Raghunathpilir . 
Dilmrdoii . . 
Bagsar (Buxar) . 


A.M. 

10.14 
10.42 
11. 3 
11.25 
11.40 


This train 
is on the 
Chord 
Line. 



Bagsar, spelt by Hunter Baarar, 
nnd commonly Buxar, the head- 
quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name, is situated in 84° 1' E. 
long, and 25° 34' 30" N. lat. on the S. 
baiSc of the Ganges. The pop. in 
1B72 was 13,446. It is a municipal 
town, and a changing station for en- 
gines on the E. I. Railway. It was 
formerly a stud depot, but has now 
been closed for that purpose. There 
is a legend about it mentioned by 
Hunter (" Stat. Ace. of Beng.," vol. 
xii. p. 206), but not worth recounting ; 
but there is a historical fsyct of great 
importance connected with the place. 
It was here that, in 1764, Major, 
afterwards Sir Hector Munro, de- 
feated the army of Shujd'u 'd daulah, 
the Niiwdb of Awadh, with whom Mir 
' K^im, our refractory Niiwdb of Ben- 
gal, had taken refuge. Munro had 
been hampered in his advance by the 
mutinous conduct of his troops, and 
had in May blown away from guns 
30 Sipdhis belonging to a regiment 
who had marched off, perhaps with a 

^ view of joining the enemy. On the 

22nd of October, 1764, Munro en- 

cnmped within shot of the enemy, 

wi^ the village and fort of Bagsar in 

tbwrear, and the Ganges on their 

iffL ^^^ -*-^- ^^ *^e ^3rd the 
Gnemjr advanced, and the battle 



began - at 9 and lasted till noon, 
when the Niiw^b's army gave way, 
and retired slowly, blowing up some 
tumbrils and magazines of powder as 
they withdrew. Munro ordered the 
line to break into columns and pur- 
sue, but the enemy destroyed a bridge 
over a stream 2 m. from the field of 
battle, and effectually checked the 
pursuit. "This," says Mill, vol. iii. 
p. 353, " was one of the most critical 
and important victories in the history 
of the British wars in India. It broke 
completely the force of Shujd*u .'d 
daulah, the only Mughul chief who 
retained till this period any consider- 
able strength ; it placed the emperor 
himself (Shdh 'Alam) under the pro- 
tection of the English ; and left them, 
without dispute, the greatest power 
in India. The British had 857 Euro- 
pean soldiers, 5297 Sipdhis, and 918 
Indian Cavalry, with a siege train 
and 20 field guns. The British loss 
was 847, and they captured 133 guns. 
The Kiiwdb of Awadh h^ 40,000 men, 
and lost about 4000. In a book called 
the ^ Balwant Ndmah,' translated by 
F. Curwen at AUahdbdd, in 1875, it is 
stated at p. 61, that Balwant Singh, 
Bdjd of Bandras, father of Chait 
Singh, claimed to have assisted the 
English by deserting the Niiwdb 
on the day of battle." Tlie fort of 
Bagsar is to theN.N.W. of the Bailway 
Station. It covers about 2 acres, and 
is entered by a bridge over a ditch 
from 20 ft. to 30 ft deep. In some 
places, particularly at the bridge, are 
brick walls from 10 ft. to 15 ft« high. 
There are 4 bastions and 4 low towers. 
There are embrasures, but no guns. 
A house in the centre is used by the 
executive engineer. Within the walls 
is a well of tolerable water, 40 ft. deep. 
To the W. of the fort is the house of 
the Rdjd of Diimrdon, which is well 
situated on the Ganges, here } of a mile 
broad. W. of the Bdjd's house is a 
ruined temple of Shiva, and W. of it 
again a good-sized temple to Vishnu 
built 100 years ago by Bdm Pratdp 
Singh, Dlwdu of the Diimrdon Kdjd. 
W. of ih\% again \& V)ti<& SnuuK^iu^ ^t 
burning-gioxmii oi V)ki"B "Bm^^ija* '^ > 
snaa be so v^x \]laa,\, \fta <»\.^\.^ ^SR^ 



Sect. II. Eoitte 22. — Bagsar (Buxar) to Bandras. 



203 



not buy wood with which to consume 
bis body, they anchor it in the stream 
of the Ganges until it is eaten by the 
tortoises or alligators. Some of the 
jSd^s, who are the priests of this 
locality, have good houses in the 
town. The English cemetery is not 
far from this, which is planted with 
cypress trees. -To the left of the en- 
trance is an obelisk to the men of the 
Naval Brig^e who died here during 
the Mutiny. The date is obliterated. 
Among the tablets may be remai'ked 
one to the Chevalier Antoine de 
I'Etang, Knight of St. Louis, bom 
20th July, 1757, died 1st December, 
1840, and one to Lt.-General Sir 
Gabriel Martindale, K.C.B., who en- 
tered the service in 1772 and served 
68 years, without quitting India. He 
received the thaiJcs of Government, 
and filled important commands. There 
is also a tablet to Captain Henry Mason 
and Lt. W. H. Dawson, who were killed 
while gallantly charging at the head 
of their troops ; the former near Bag- 
sar, on the 6th of October, 1858, and 
the latter at Jagdespik, 23rd of May, 
1858. Also to the N.-C. officers and 
privates of the Military Train, who 
were killed at Jagdespiir and in 
the ShahdbM and Bihdr Districts, 
during the Kebellion. There is also 
a tablet to Captain James Sholto 
Douglas, 4th Madras L. C. who died 
on Sie 6th of October, 1858, of a 
wound received in action on the 5th. 

The Paddocks where the stud-horses 
were fed have now been converted into 
corn-fields. A stable COO ft. long has 
been changed into a jail. Opposite to it, 
across the Ganges, is another large 
stable and a good house. A commission 
of inquiry did away with the stud, as 
each horse was reckoned to cost £240. 
The lands were given back, as they 
were held only on occupancy tenure. 
The loss to Grovernment was £40,000. 
There are 700 prisoners in the Jail, 
and a new part will hold 300 more. 
7 m. to the S.W. of Bagsar the Karam- 
n4sa flows into the Ganges. This 



sangkii, who murdered a Br&hman and 
married his step-mother, was washed 
away in it. At Chhanpathar, this 
river forms a magnificent waterfall, 
100 ft. high. 



ROUTE 22. 

BAGSAB (BUXAB) TO BANABAS. 

The stations on the E. L Railway 
Chord Line are as follows : — 



Miles from 
fiagsur. 


Names of Stations. 


Time. 


58} 
64} 


Bagsar (Buxar) . . 
Mugliul Sanii . 

Bandras . . . 


A.1I. 

8.91 

11.55 

P.M. 

12.12 



At Mughul Sardi, 470 m. from Cal- 
cutta, passengers change for Bandras, 
and the train for that city, which is 6 
m. distant, starts 20 min. after the 
Calcutta train reaches Mughul SardL 
The through mail train stops 40 min., 
to allow passengers to dine at the 
Ref i*eshment Rooms. 

Jiatidras (vulg. Benares) is in Sans- 
krit Vardnasi, a word compounded of 
Var, " best,*' and Ana^t, " water," 
meaning the Ganges, on whose hook 



the city \^ «vl\X"Bit^, '^A^^.Ss.SiQ&^N:^- 
river is held by Hindiis in the utmost \ mo\og;y ^'^ea m^\Sa»^«» '"' '^'«s>^cc^ 
abhorrence, and no person of highlBictvonwcyr "^^"^ 'Caa^^^DKis^^ |^ 
CMBte wiU drink or touch its water,! dent at ^Mite»a «aJS, ^^^^vvos^^ 
OBitiamd that the siji of R&j&Tri-\ witYitnxVXi.XSQaX >Csxa Ttf^aa ^^ 



204 



Route 22. — Bagsar (Biixar) to Bandras. Secfc. II. 



is compounded of the rivers Bama 
and A'sni, the former of which bounds 
Baniras to the N. and the latter to 
the S. The city stands in N. lat. 25' 17', 
and E. long. 83^ 4'. The area of the 
British cantonment, which is called 
Sikrol, and lies to the N.W. of the city, 
is 1-77 sq. m. ; that of Pandipiir, 0*36 ; 
of city and environs, 28*19 ; total, 
30*32. In the cantonment there are 
usually a Ydng of a European regi- 
ment, 1 regiment N. I., a battery of 
R. A., and some N. cavalry. At Pan- 
dipiir there are barracks for a regiment 
of dragoons. The pop. is in round 
^^ numbers 250,000, which ebbs and 
7^ flows with the number of pilgrims. 
^ The city lies along the N. or left bank 
of the Ganges, which has to be crossed 
at present by a bridge of boats. The 
45. L Railway Station is on the right 
or S. side of the river, and the traveller 
will have to engage a carriage and 
drive over the pontoon bridge at 
BAjghdt to one of the hotels, which 
are situated 4 m. to the W., or less pre- 
ferably to the T. B., which is near 
the Post Office and the hotels. The 
charge for crossing the bridge is IJrs., 
and the carriage will cost 2 rs.. The 
hotels ai-e Clarke's Hotel and the United 
Service, and they are close to the S. 
bank of the river Bama, which joins the 
Ganges at 1 m. N. of the Rdjghdt, and 
runs W., passing at about the 4th m. 
between the Public Gardens and Col- 
lector's Court on the N., and the 
hotels, the Judge's Court, the Post 
Office, Station Church, and T. B. to 
the S. The charge at the hotels will 
be 5 rs. a day for food and lodging. 

The ancient history of Bandras is 
involved in impenetrable obscurity, 
but it is admitted on all hands that it 
is one of the oldest cities in India, and 
goes back probably to the Aryan in- 
vasion. It is certain that it was a 
most flourishing and important place 
6 centuries before the Christian era, 
for Shdkya Muni, who was born in 
038 B.C., and died in 543 B.C., came to 
it from Gayk to establish his religion, 
TrMcIi be would not have done had it 
not been then a great centre. All the 
^f^ i'^Portant writers of the Hindiis 
were Jirst heard of at .Ban^as, where 



y / 



Eapila taught the Sdnkhya, Gautama 
the Nydya, and Pdnini published his 
Grammar. Of intermediate events 
little is known, but we learn from 
Qusain Nizdml's history that in A.D. 
1194, Jai Chand, Bdjd of Bandras, 
whose army was countless as the sand, 
was defeated and killed by Ku^.bu 'd 
din, the general of Shahdbii 'd din 
Ghori. It is said that the Rdjd's corpse 
was recognized by his false teeth, 
fastened with gold, which is a proof 
of the civilized state of the city at that 
date. Ku};b destroyed 1,000 temples, 
and buiit mosques on their sites. From 
that date Bandras was governed by 
the Muslims, and became part of the 
province of AUdhdbdd. Ddrd, eldest 
son of Shdh Jahdn, was at one time 
its governor, and it seems always to 
have had its own Bdjd down to near 
the 18th century, but some time before 
that the family became extinct ; and 
in 1730 A.D. Mul^ammad Shdh selected 
Mansardm, chief of the Trikerma 
Brdhmans, to be Bdjd, placing under 
his rule Bandras, Jawanpiir, and Ghdzi- 
piii', for which he was to pay a tribute 
of 13 Idkhs. This Bdjd reigned 8 years, 
and dying in 1738 was succeeded by 
his son, Balwant Singh, who, on his 
succession, presented to the Emperor 
21,733 rs. In the preceding notice of 
Bagsar it has been mentioned that 
Balwant Singh claimed to have aided 
Munro in defeating the Ntiwdb of 
Awadh, by deserting him on the field of 
battle. It appears that Major Camac 
had reported that Mir J'afar was 
anxious to conclude finally a treaty of 
alliance, which had for some time been . 
in agitation, between him and Bal- 
want Singh, and on the 29th of March, 
17C4, the Government of Bengal re- 
corded "that the proposed alliance 
with Balwant Singh would be a very 
proper measure, and prove as well now 
as in all time to come a strong barrier 
and defence to the Bengal Provinces. 
Agreed, therefore, that we write to 
Major Camac that we sliall approve 
entirely of his entering into tlie in- 
tended treaty in concert with the Nii- 
wdb "Mix 3'aiaT,aTidolVi^c\\?,"»SE«^^ 
protect and maasiXsatL '&«\wttxv\. ^vtv^ 
indepeudent \>ot\x txo^ kcA\v«»^5^«^^ 



Sect. It. 



Houte 22. — BmiAras [Benares). 



205 



The victory of Bagsar followed, and in 
December, 1764, it was agreed between 
the Emperor Shdh 'Alam and the 
€h>Temment of Bengal that R4j4 Bal- 
want Singh, having settled terms with 
the chiefs of the English Company, is 
is to pay the revenues to the Company, 
and the amount shall not belong to the 
books of the royal revenue, but shall 
be expunged from them. Rdjd Bal- 
want Singh thus became a feudatory of 
the British Government instead of that 
of Dihll, but Lord Clive subsequently 
restored to ShujA'u 'd daulah all the ter 



meet the Niiw&b, and compel him to 
observe with greater fidelity the treaty 
with the British in resi^ect to Bandras, 
In September Warren Hastings re- 
ported that he had concluded a new 
treaty with tlfe NiiwAb, and had ob- 
tained from him an engagement con- 
firming to Chait Singh and his pos- 
terity, the stipulation made with Bal- 
want Singh. Shujd'u 'd daulah died 
on the 26th of Januaiy, 1776, and his 
son, A'safu 'd daulah, continued his 
hostile attempts against Chait Singh, 
and the British Government interfered 



ritory which previously constituted his ! to i)rotect him. The Niiwi,b then made 



viceroyalty, including the kingdom of 
Ban^ras, but in doing so the Governor- 
General, fully recognising the great 
claims of Rdjd Bal want Singh, "for 
the signal and important services 
rendered by him to the affairs and 
interests of Great Britain, stipulated 
in the 5th Article of the treaty that 
Shnj&*u 'd daulah engages in the most 



over to the British the territory of 
Bandras and the other possessions of 
Chait Singh, for which he was to pay 
to the Company the tribute which had 
been paid to Awadh. It was subse- 
quently agreed that Chait Singh should 
maintain 3 battalions of Sipdhis to aid 
the Company. Disputes arose as to 
the subsidy, and Wan*en Hastings 



solemn manner to continue Balwaut again proceeded to Bandras in August, 
Singh in the Zaminddris of Bandras, ! 1781, and arrived on the 14th. On the 



Ghdzipiir, and all those districts he 
possessed at the time he came over to 
the English, on condition of his paying 
the same revenue as heretofore." In 
spite of this stipulation the Niiwdb 
of Awadh endeavoured to deprive Bal- 
want Singh of his kingdom, and to 
seize his person, but all his attempts 
failed on account of the protection of 
the British Government. Balwaut 
Singh died on the 22nd of August, 
1770, at his palace of Kimnagar, which 
he had built on the bank of the Ganges, 



15th the Resident, Mr. Markham, was 
sent to Chait Singh with a paper of 
complaints, and a demand for 50 Idkhs. 
The Rdjd had previously offered 20 
Idkhs, which had been refused. He 
now sent a paper justifying himself, on 
which Hastings, " without any further 
communication (see Mill, vol. iv. 
p. 377) put him under arrest the follow- 
ing morning ; and imprisoned him in 
his own house with a military guard." 
This step led to a riot. A crowd as- 
sembled, and as the Sii)4his had come 



opposite to Bandras. He left a son, by i without ammunition, two additional 
a slave girl named Chait Singh, whom ' companies, ynth. a supply of cartridges, 
he declared to be his successor, and from were ordered to their support. But 
whom the NiiwAb of Awadh extorted a before they arrived at the palace all 
sum of 17 Ukhs, with an increased . the avenues were blockea up, and 
trifcute of 2i Idklis on his succession. ' a tumult arose which soon led to 



His subjects, however, presented peti- 
tions against his succession, on account 
of his illegitimacy, and because a 
rightful heir to Balwant Singh existed 
in Mahip Ndrdyan, grandson of Bal 



bloodshed, and at last to a furious en- 
gagement between the people and the 
troops, who were almost all destroyed. 
Mr. Hastings was then living in Mdd- 
hu DAs Ga^en (see " Hist, of Bandras," 



want, his mother being Rani Qulab | p. 34), which was about } of a m. from 
Ku&war, only child of Balwant's prin- \ the R4ia'a i^a\a£.^ ^ '§c^.'«?^^ <3i^^> 
cipal wife. Chait Singh's troublesl where C^a\t ^\\iS^«» ^«^3aRft. ^^^'*^^ 
were increased hy the hostility of the \ from \«Ai\c\i \i^ e«i«^ ^^^^"^^S 
3rrfir46o/^wadh,andinl773 Warren UoTt on tYic oV\ifcT «s^^^ ^^ ^ >«« * 
BastiDga was deputed to BandraSs to I Had aw aU^cV >d^c». ^^»»k. ^ 



206 



JSotUe 22.^^JBagmr (Snxar) to Bandras. Sect. IL 



Rdjd's people on Mddhn Dds Garden, 
Hastings would hare probably been 
killed or made prisoner. He hinouself 
was of that opinion, for he says, " If 
Chait Singh's people, after they had 
effected his rescue, had proceeded to 
my quarters instead of crowding after 
him in a tumultuous manner, as they 
did in his passage over the river, it is 
probable that my blood, and that of 
about fiO English gentlemen of my 
party, would have been added to the 
recent carnage ; for they were about 
2,000, furious and daring from the easy 
success of their last attempt ; nor could 
I assemble more than 50 regular and 
armed Sip^is for my whole defence." 
(" Hist, of B. India," Mill and WUson, 
vol. iv. p. 393.) No attack, however, 
was made, and Hastings collected 6 
companies of Major Popham's regi- 
ment, which with 60 Sipdhis he had 
brought from Bagsar, and a few re- 
cruits newly enlisted for the Resident's 
Chiard, formed his garrison. He ordered 
the other 4 companies of Major Pop- 
ham's regiment, a company of artillery, 
and one of French Bangers, then sta- 
tioned at Mlrzdpiir, to march upon 
Bdmni^ar and reduce it. Major Pop- 
ham was to command the force ; but 
an ofiBlcer who was then at the head of 
the troops, did not wait for his arrival, 
bat attempted to storm the palace, and 
in marching through the narrow streets 
by which it was surrounded was him- 
self killed, and his troops were re- 
pulsed. This defeat encouraged the 
rebels, and preparations were made for 
attacking the Mddhu Dds Garden. 
After consulting with several officers 
of the army, Hastings resolved to re 
tire to Chundr, taking the entire Euro 



pean community at Ban&ras with 
him, and this was effected. On the 
29th of August Chait Singh's troops 
were def eatS at Sikr, and on the 20th 
of September Major Popham captured 
Patita, and Chait Singh fled from 
Latif piir to Bijgarh, which surrendered 
on the 9th of November, and property 
to the amount of 23 Idkhs was captured. 
The ladies of the family were plundered 
of all they possessed, but Chait Singh 
had escaped to Bandalkhand. Hastings 
then bestowed the succession on Mahip 
NArdyan, who was proclaimed BAj4 on 
the 30th of September, 1781, and thus 
the Bdj of Bandras was restored to the 
grandson of Balwant Singh. The 
treatment of Chait Singh formed one 
of the articles of accusation against 
Warren Hastings in his famous trial of 
the 13th of June, 1786. Mahip NAra- 
yan died in 1795, was succeeded by 
his son, A^t NdrAyan, who was suc- 
ceeded in 1805 by his nephew, the 
present Mahdraja Ishwari PrasM Na- 
rdyan, who was made a G.C.S.I. at 
the Imperial Assemblage in 1876, and 
now resides at Bdmnagar. He has 
a salute of 13 guns. 

As the finest view of Bandras is ob- 
tained from the river Ganges, the banks 
of which are bordered by magnificent 
Ghdts, or flights of stone steps, descend- 
ing to the water from the most famous 
buildings in the city, the traveller will 
do well to spend his first day in a 
boat, or, if possible, a steam launch, 
passing along the whole of the river 
frontage. In doing this he will 
find it not only useful, but absolutely 
necessary to refer continually to the 
following list : — 



Names of the Ghats nr flights of steps 
from S. to N. 



1. Ashi Ghdt or Asi Sangam Ghd^ . 

2. Ldld Misr Ghdt or BachhrAj Ghdt 
^. TuIsiGhdt 

4. Jido Sdhib Gbdt .... 
S, Akral Ghdt I 

£SbiwdldGhdt . ' 

^ ^Bdi Obdf. , 



Names of the Buildings adjacent to 
each Gha^. 



1. The Monastery of Tulsi Dds, 
JagannAth Temple to S. ; Durga 
Kund or Monkey Temple to W. 

3. Kuru Chatr Temple. 

4. Image oi B\iim. 

6. Khali "MaVjaW, 'Pivtv^ife c>l T>\WK:^ 
house. 



Sect. II. 



Soute 22. — Bmdras (Benarei). 



207 



Names of ihe Ghdts or flights of steps 
fh>in S. to N. 



Names of the Buildings adjacent to 
each Ghdif. 



8. Hanmndn Gh&^. 

9. Smash^n or Mashdu Ghdt . 

10. LAU GhAt. 

11. Keddr Ghdt .... 

12. Charak or Cbauki Ghdt . 

13. Chhattri Ghdt or Rdj4 Ghdt . 

14. Someshwar Ghdt. 

15. Pande GhAt- 

16. Nand Ghdt. 

17. Chatr Ghdt. 

18. BengAlf To'lA Ghdt. 

19. Guru Pant Ghdt- 

20. Chausathi Ghdt 

21. Bdnd Ghdt .... 

22. Munshi Ghdt . 

23. Ahalya Bdl's Ghdt. 

24. Sitld Ghdt. 

25. Dasashwamedh Ghat . 

26. Mdn Mandir Ghdt • 

27. Bhairava Ghdt- 

28. Mir Ghat. 

29. LalltaGhdt. 
.SO. NipdlGhdt 

31. Jal Sdin Ghdt. 

32. Eyasth Ghdt. 

33. Manikaranikd Ghdt 



34. Sindhia's Ghdt • 

35. Bhlm ka Ghdt. 

36. GaneshGhdt. 

37. Ghosla Ghdt. 

38. Rdm Ghdt 

39. Pdnchganga Ghdt . 



40. Durgd or Kali Ghdt. 

41. Bindu Mddhava Ghdt. 

42. GauGhdt 

43. Trilochana Ghdt . 

44. TiUandla Ghdt 

45. Maitra Ghdt- 

46. PrahlddGhat. 

47. Rdj Ghdt 



9. The Cremation ground. 



11. Keddmdth Temple. 

12. Mdnsarovar, a tank surrounded by 

shrines. 

13. The Chattra or Rest House of Rdjd 

Amirita Kdo. 



20. Temple of the Goddess Chausathi. 

21. BuUt by the Rdnd of Udipiir. 

22. A fine building at head of stairs. 



25. The Observatory. 

26. Mahalla Agast Kund. 



30. Temple of Bisheshwar or Golden 
Temple and Holy WeU. 

38. Temple of Tdrkeshwara, Well of 

Manikaranikd. 
34. Broken Wall. 



38. Temple of Rdm. 

39. Confluence of the Dhantapdpd, 

Jarandndda, Kirndnada, Saras- 
wati and Ganga, the first four 
underground. Aurangzib's 
Mosque, called Mddhu Dds kd 
pcoj'hd. 



42. Stone figure of a cow. 

43. Houses of the Dihli family and 

Cemetery of MiJfbdum Sd$ib. 



47. Briclgc of Boats. 



TarticuhtTs regarding these Ghdts 
and the buildings near them, will be 
given nreaentlyy hut it will be convc- 
nient £rst to mention the places which 



the txoveWct ft\LQ\a\^N\sv\, c.u T«u.tt \» 
the p\aftG N^ihci^ V^ vTiM ^^«^^«^S:^^ 

Btop afc N^ >^ St- KaTM s CW 



208 



Boute 22. — Bagsar {Buxar) to Sandras. Sect. II. 



which is close to Clarke's Hotel, and 
between it and the T.B. It is 84 ft. 
10 in. long, and 67 ft. broad. There 
are 4 tablets : one to W. A. Basevi, 
Divisional Engineer ; one to Major 
William Murray Stuart, Governor- 
General's Agent at Bandras, who died 
29th of July, 1853 ; one to Lt.-General 
James Kennedy, C.B., who died 27th 
of September, 1869, aged 81 years 10 
months ; and one to Lt. Curtis Richard 
Taylor, who was killed by the fall of 
his horse, July 2nd, 1849. On the W. 
of the church is a pillar, which with 
its footings is 25 ft. 9 in. high, erected 
to the memory of Maj.-Geueral James 
Alexander, commanding the Bandras 
Division, who died 11th of March, 
18*7. At the E. end of the church 
compound are 5 old tombs. The firet 
is to the 3 children of W. Grahame, 
1801 ; the 2nd to Susannah Stuait, 
who died 8th of January, 1788 ; the 
3rd to J. Burdikin, who died 1794 ; 
the 4th to the remains of 12 bodies 
brought from the Old City Burial 
Ground, Jan. 10, 1829, by James Prin- 
sep ; the 5th to Ensign D. S. Beek, 
di'owned near M4hi!i, 24 th August, 1835. 
Should the traveller desire to 
go first to the RAj Gh&t^ by the 
Grand Tinink Road, he will pass the 
Nandeshwar Kothl, a residence of the 
Mahdrdjd of Bandras. In this house, 
Mr. Davis, Judge and Magisti-ate of 
Bandras, was attacked by the followers 
of Vazlr 'All, the deposed Niiwdb of 
Awadh, who had just killed Mr. Cherry, 
the British Resident, on the 14th of 
January, 1799. Mr. Davis sent his 
wife and 2 children, one of whom was 
subsequently Sir John Davis, on to the 
roof, and with a spear, placed himself 
at the top of the staircase leading to 
it. It appears from an account subse- 
quently given by Sir John Davis, that 
his father wounded and disabled suc- 
cessively the first 2 men who attempted 
to ascend. This so discouraged the 
cowardly assailants, that they made 
no further attack, but contented them- 
selves with destroying the furniture, 
and watching their opportunity. One 
of the women servants with Mrs. 
DaviB, on the roof, was shot through 
Hie Arm. Vazir 'AU then sent for ma- 



terials to fire the house, and when an 
hour had passed, the galloping of a re- 
giment of cavalry, headed by English 
officers, was heard ; Mr. Davis then de- 
scended, and found 3 of his servants 
dead or dying. Vazlr 'AH escaped to 
the woody country of Bhotwdl, where, 
after several defeats, he fled to a Raj- 
piit chief, who surrendered him to the 
British, and he died a prisoner in Fort 
William. The house at present is lent 
by the Mahdrdjd to persons of rank 
who visit Bandi-as. The furniture and 
pictures seem to be of Mr. Davis' time. 
The gai-deu is pretty. The next place 
to be visited is the Bandras Govern- 
ment College, which is about } of a m. 
to the S.E. It is called Queen's Col- 
lege, and is in the Perpendicular style. 
It is faced with free-stone from Chu- 
ndr, and was built by Major Kittoe, 
R.E. Government gave £12,690, and 
other sums were raised by subscrip- 
tion. In front is a small building in- 
scribed : — 

The foundation-stone of this College 

Was laid by 

ROBERT NEAVE, 

D.P.G;M.N.W.P., 

Ist of November, 1847. 

The centre tower is 76 ft. high. The 
nave is 60 ft. long, 30 ft. wide, and 
32 ft. high. The transept is 40 ft. 
long, 20 ft. wide, and 32 ft. high. At 
each corner are towers joined by open 
arcades. The names of subscribers 
have been recorded by the architect 
on the part built at their expense. 
Dr. John Muir, brother of Sir W. Muir, 
and the Rev. Mr. Wallace, were the 
first principals. Robert Ballantyne, 
R. T. H. Griffith, Dr. Fitz Edward 
Hall, late librarian of the India Office, 
Dr. Kern, professor of Sanskrit at Ley- 
den, and Mr. Gough have been profes- 
sors. In the CoUege are a bust of 
Rdjendrd NArdyan Sil, and iK)rtraits of 
Robert Ballantyne, Major Kittoe, R.E., 
and Mr. Donkin. To the N. of the 
College is a monolith, 31} ft. high, in- 
scribed : — 

This ancient Pillar, 

Found at Frahl4dptlr, near Ohazipur, was 

Brought to Bandras, in 1853, 

By the order, and at the expense of 

The Honourable James Thomasov, 

Iiieut.-Goyemor North Western Pro^^nce», 



Sect. IT. liottte 22. — Bandras {Benares) : Durgd Temple, 209 



B)' W. G. Uaxiltox, 

Lieatenant 3nd Fusilien, 

And was erected May, 18M, 

Under the orders of Government, 

By Geoboe Franklis Atkivbox, 

Lieut. Bengal Engineers. 

There is also a Persian translation 
of the above, which shows that there 



' ler will driYC IJ m. to the Mah4hlj6 
of Vijayanagram's palace at Belipt^r. 
He will of course obtain permission to 
see the house from. Dr. Lazaras, or 
some Agent of the Bdja. The Beoep* 
tion Room is 60 ft. long, 30 ft. broad, 
and30 ft high. Init willbe shown apho* 



are 2 mistakes in the English, the r of . tograph of a sword given to the HAjA 
Prahl6dpi\r being left out, and instead by the Duke of Edinburgh ; also one 
of *• near" it should be " Ijelonging to 'o* ^^^ Royal Family as far as Priucega 
tlicZira of." On the obelisk there is jLooiset ^ith an inscription, saying, it 
nn inscription in the Gupta character, was given to MahArdjA MlrzA Shrl 
To the E. of the grounds are carved ^ijaya Kam Gajapati Kdj Mume Sul- 
stones brought from SAmAth,Bakariya I f.iuBahMur of Vi jay anagram, K.C.S.I. 
Kund, etc. There is also an Arehteolo- I ^ ^^^ table are boars' tusks measur- 
gical Museum in the College. | "»S 1*> i"** which are said to have been 

The traveller will now drive to j b«*«glit from Africa. Tliey are larger 
Chait Ganj, which is about a m. to the ' ^^^ anything seen in India. There 
H. by E. of the College. There isl^* a good view from the terraced roof 
here an enclosure, over the gate of \ o* ^^^ palace over the Ganges, in the 
which is this inscription :— .^^^i-.. -* a„«. — ,«..o — .«„« fvu^ 



Hie enclosed ground 

Was the Burial Place of 

Brave Men, 

Wlio diml in tbe perfoniiaiioe of their duty, 

On tlie Itfth uf August, 1781 a.d. 

Tills Wall has hetfu Imilt 

To iirotect the spot fn>m desecration. 

A.D. 1S62. 

There is no tomb in the incloeore. 
Not even the signs of a grave having 
been there are to be seen. The indo- 
sure is close to Chait Ganj kA ThAnA. 



direction of Aurangzib*s mosque. The 
! terraced roof measures 160 ft from N. 
toS. and 89 ft. 7 in. from E. to W. The 
Golden Temple is seen to the E.N.E. 
Close to the palace on the W, are 
several Jain temples. 

The next thing to be visited is the ^ ». 
Durgd Ti-mplt, sometimes called the / Q 
' Monkey Temple by Europeans, from 
the myriads of monkeys which inhabit 
the gigantic trees near it. One of 
these trees has many cavities in its 
trunk, which are the houses in which 



It appears to have been the site of \ the monkeys live. A Bengal gentle- 
Madhu Das Garden, where Hastings man of rank is said to have caused a 

tumult by shooting several of these 
troublesome creatures, who enter tiie 



lived, and whence he fled in 1781, as 
has been alreadv mentioned. It was 



subsequently the house to which Vazir ! houses and gardens near the temple, 
'Ali. the deposed NiiwAb of Awadh. was and do infinite miscliicf. The temple 
sent in 1798, and thence he issued in is al)out § of a m. S. of the Yijayana- 



gram Palace. It is stained red with 
ochre. It stands in a quadrangle snr- 
rounded by high walls. In front of 
the principal entrance is the band 



January, 1799, to murder Mr. Cherry, 
the Resident, and attack Mr. Davis. 

Next the traveller will drive to the 
t'A If /*/•/< .1/ixx/f IN y/fi/xr at Sigra, which 

is 1^ ni. to theW. Tlic church stands room, where the priests beat a large 
about a m. due S. of the Awadh and drum 3 times a day. 'I he poroh is 
Kohilkhand liailway Station, and is I supported by 12 curiously carved pil- 
called »St. Paul's, and was finished in liars, on a platform raised 4 ft from 
1847. It is far handsomer tlian St. ]the ground, llie Toat of the porch has 



Mary's. There is an Orphanage, with 
66 girb and 47 boys, attached. There 
is also « Normal School for Women, 
uid an Indtutrial School for Women, 
wkkh about 60 attend. The church 



a dome, and cuixjlas at each comer. 
The doors are plated with brass, and 
there arc two bells. It is said that the 



one tYiiiXi Y^u^v^ Iioisl ^^it ^icioSx^ ^A. ^Qafe 
. -_- -,.w«* ^ ^^.M^ *^ v«.^w« .dome "w«a wcaeuV^A. V5 >&x. vvwa^, j^ 
•MAiaivAamE.toW.,andAOft. inamalTatft ot llSniwsto, ^«^ 2?-. 
N.toB, Thence the traTel-lyeaiB ago. TVwi X«ni^^"^ «^^ "^^ ^""^ 



210 



Route 22. — Bagmr (Buxar) to Bandras, Sect. IL 



tank adjoiiiing were constracted by 
the Ban! of Natiir in the last centary. 
As Durgd is the terrific form of Shiva's 
wife, and is said to delight in destmc- 
tion, bloody sacrifices are offered to 
her, and goat's blood may be seen 
sprinkled about. 

From this temple the trayeller may 
proceed to the Ashi Gh dt, and go on 
tKiord a boat or steam laonch. This 
is one of the 5 celebrated places of 
pilgrimage in Banaras. It is called 
also Ashi Sangam, from the con- 
tinence of the Ashi with the Ganges, 
which takes place close by. The 
channel of the Ashi is dry during the 
cold weather, but quite full in the 
rains. It is about 40 ft. broad. There 
is a grand bathing festival held here 
and at the temple of Jaganndth, 900 
ft. to the H.f on the lath of the Hindu 

f month Jefh. The steps at this Ghat 
are a good deal broken, and though 
one of the most sacred, it is certainly 
not one of the handsomest Ghd^s. 
This is the nearest Ghdt from which to 
cross to Bdmnagar, the palace of the 
Mahdrdjd of Bandras. The Math or 
monastery of Tulsi Dds, the famous 
Hindi poet, is close to this Ghdt. The 
next Ghdt is the Bachhrdj or Ldld 
Misr Ghdt, called in the Calcutta Map 
of 1869 the Bussoordj Ghd^. Here the 
Jains have lately built 2 temples, 
which stand on the bank of the 
Ganges. At the N. end of Tulsi 
Ghdf, which comes next, huge masses 
of the building have fallen, and lie on 
the river's edge. At Rdo Sd^ib Ghdt 
U a huge recumbent image of Bhim, 
which is said to be annually washed 
away and restored. The traveller will 
now pass the Akrul Ghdt and come to 

-y^ the bhiwdld Ghdt. Here stands the 

^ fort in which Chait Singh resided. It 

is a handsome building, and appears as 

fresh as when first constructed. In 

the upper part of the N. wall are 6 

small windows in a row, from one of 

which Cbait Singh made his escape, 

when he fled from Warren Hastings in 

1781. It is now called the Khdli 

Jfa^alJ, or ^^ empty palace," and be- 

JoDg^a to Oovernment. In this vast 

bniiding, 2 companies at Sipdblg and 

^ omeerB, who were guarcling Chait 



Singh, were massacred when he made 
his escape, as has been already men- 
tioned, llie Shiwald Ghd^ is one of 
the finest and most crowded of the 
Ghats. Part of it is assigned to the 
religions ascetica called G^dina. ^e « 
next is the Dandi Ghat, and is de* ^ ' 
voted to the staff-bearing ascetics 
called Dandi Pants. It is also veiy 
large. The Hanumdn Ghdt, which 
comes next, is large and generally 
crowded. At the Smashdn Ghdt» 
pyres for cremation may be seen being 
builded up, while bodies wrapt up in 
red cloths lie with their feet in tiie 
Ganges ready to be burned. 

Passing the Ldld Ghdt, the Keddr 
Ghdt, which comes next, deserves atten- 
tion. According to the religious books 
of the Hindiis, the city is£vided into 
3 great portions — Bandras, Kdshi, and 
Keddr. Keddr is a name of Shiva, 
but it also signifies a mountain, and Is 
especially a part of the Himdlayan ^ 
mountains, of which Shiva is the lord, 
hence called Keddmdth. His temple, 
or rather the top of it, may be seen 
from the river at this Ghdt.. It is 
much resorted to by the Bengdli and 
Utilangi pop. of the city. The temple 
is a spacious building, the centre of 
which is supposed to be the place 
where Keddrndth dwells. At the 4 
comers are Sffivdlas, with cupolas. 
Here are two brass figures, hidden by 
a cloth, which is removed on payment 
of a fee. The walls and pillars are 
painted red or white. There are 2 
large black figures, which represent 
the dtvdrpdls or janitors ; each has 4 
hands holding a trident, a flower, a 
club, and the 4th empty, to push away 
intruders. At the bottom of the Ghdt 
is a well called the Gauri Kund, or 
"well of Gaurl," Shiva's wife, the 
watere of which are said to be effica- 
cious in curing fevers, dysenterv, etc. 
To the W. at 1,800 ft. is the Mdusar- 
ovar tank, round which are 60 sliriues. 
Mdnas or Mdnsarovar is a &bulous 
tank in the Himdlayan mountains, 
near Kailds, or Shiva's heaven. Near 
the tank at Bandras so called is a stone 
44 ft. bigh, Mid \&\ Sxi v^TVjJMsrj^ 
whicb is said to gwjw dsa\^ Vi \Xi^ «.- 
tent of a seaomum seed. \ii ^ «xt^<i\.^^ 



Sect. II. Eoitte 22. — Bandras (Benares): Ohservatot-y, 211 



the E. of the tank are figures of daring eclipses. Here Brahmd is said 



Bilkfi^hna, or the infant Kri^hQa, and 
Chatrbhuj or Vishnu. Close by is a 
Shivdla, built by kdj4 Man Singh, 
and called Mineshwar. At the Chauki 
Gh^t is the place where serpents are 
worshipped. Here, under a pippal 
tree, are to be seen many idols and 
figures of snakes. In a street close by, 
called Kewal, is a figure of Durgd 
with 10 anns. 

Chatr or RAjA GhAt is next, where 
the stairs nscend into a large house 
built by Araj-it Rdo for travellers. 
Some/?hwar Ghdt, which is next, is 
so called from the temple of the moon 
adjacent, So^nia being the "moon." 
and I'shwar *'lord." At this Ghdt 
every kind of disease is supposed 
to be healed. It is, however, not 
very crowded, as the Indians wisely 
prefer going to the hospitals or the 
doctors. Close by is an alley, in which 
is the shrine of BariUian Devi, a female 
iEscnlapius, who is worshipped in the 
morning, and is supposed to cure 
swelled bands and feet. From Chauki 
to Pande Gh&t the water is very dirty, 
which is owing to a large drain, which 
pours the filth of the city into this 
part of the Ganges. There is nothing 
particular at the next 4 Ghd^s, but the 
one after them, Chausathi Ghdt, is one 
of the most ancient at Bandras. Here, 
in a narrow lane, is a temple to the 
goddess Chausa^hi. Chausathl sig- 
nifies " sixty-four." The R4nd Ghdt, 
built by the Rdnd of Udipiir, is not 
much frequented by Hindi!is. It is the 
RI)ecial place for the bathing of the 
Muslims. The Munshi Ghdt is the 
most picturesque of all the Ghdfs at 
Bandras. It was built by Munshi 
Shrl Dhar, Diwdn of the Rdjd of 
Ndgpi!ir. The edifice above the stairs 
is very handsome. There is a tower 
at each end and 3 large pilasters in the 
centre, over which are 5 windows, 
with H on either side, besides 3 win- 
dows in each tower. Of the 2 next 
Ghdts nothing particular is to be said. 
Situ Ghdt signifies <* small-pox Ghdt," 
over which a Hindi) goddess presides. 



to have offered in sacrifice 10 horses, 
and to have made the place equal in 
merit to Alldhdbdd, called by the 
Hindiis, Praydg, the name of which is 
derived from 2 Sanskrit words, which 
signify pre-eminent woi-ship. A foolish 
legend is told in the Bandras Guide 
Book about the word Praydg, which 
must have been invented for the bene- 
fit of Europeans. Another story is 
that if a Hiiidd dies on the opposite 
bank of the Ganges, he will be trans- 
migrated into a donkey. 

The traveller may disembai'k here and 
walk to the Mdn Mandir Ghdt to see the 
Obstervatory, This lofty building gives 
a fine appearance to the Ghdt, and 
commands a beautiful view of the river. 
It was erected by Rdjd Jai Singh, who 
succeeded the Rdjds of Amber, in 
1693. That Rdjd was chosen by 
Muliammad Shdh to reform the calen- 
dar, and for this purpose constructed 
a set of tables, which he called Zij 
Muhammad Shdhi. (See As. Res. 
vol. V. pp. 177, 178). He built 5 
Observatories at Dihll, Bandras, Ma- 
thura, Ujjain, and Jaipiir. On enter- 
ing the Observatoiy the firstinstrument 
seen is the Bhittiyantra, or "mural 
quadrant." It is a wall 11 ft. high 
and 9 ft. IJ in. broad, in the plane of 
the meridian ; by this are ascei-tained 
the sun's altitude and zenith distance, 
and its greatest declination, and hence 
the latitude. Then come 2 large 
circles, one of stone and the other of 
lime, and a stone square, used, per- 
haps, for ascertaining the shadow of 
the gnomon alid the degrees of azi- 
muth. Next the Yantrasamant will be 
seen, the wall of which is 36 ft long 
and 4 J ft. broad, and is set in the 
plane of the meridian. One end is 
ft. 4i in. high, and the other 22 ft. 
34 in., and it slopes gradually up, so 
as to point to the North Pole. By 
this, the distance from the meridian, 
the declination of any planet or star 
and of the sun, and the right aRceueAsvcs. 
of a Stat fwc^ <:»XQ^:i^aX.!^, '\>wes«i %x^ 



DaBaahwamedh Qh&i is one of the 5 \ equmocl\a\OTc\<^o'l^Voxv'5i,«aa.^^ 
celebrated places of pilgrimaro in \ \aiitn«amwQX. C\o%fc >ai ^^^^^^j^i.' 
Bod Ana. It ia specially thronged \tovyaiitTtv,\»VK^«^^^^^^^^^\^ 



212 



Route 22. — Bagmr {Bwcar) to Bandrai, Sect. Yt, 



X 



finding the declination of a planet or 
star, and near it a Digansayantra, to 
find the degrees of azimuth of a planet 
or star. 

At Bhairava Gh^t is a Shivdla, 
as Bhairava is only a terrific form of 
Shiya. The idol here is said to be 
the Kotwal, or magistrate of the 
city. There is an image of a dog 
close to the idol, and the confectioners 
near sell images of dogs made of sugar, 
.which are offered to the idol of 
Bhairavandth. A Brdhman here waives 
a fan of peacocks' feathers over visitors 
to protect them from evil spirits, and 
they in return must drop offerings into 
the cocoa-nut shell he holds. The idol 
here is of stone, with a face of silver, 
and has 4 hands. The temple was 
built in 1825 by RAj4 RAo of Pun&. 
There are several other idols, and 
among them one of Sitld, goddess of 
smallpox, the offerings at which are 
taken by men of the gardener caste, as 
they are the professional inoculators 
of India. At this place dog£ are daily 
fed by a Gosdin, who has servants 
under him, who make up cakes of 
wheat, barley, or jowdri flour. On 
festivals the dogs have cakes of 
wheaten flour, butter, and sugar. The 
traveller will come next to the Mir 
Ghdt, which was built by Bustam 'All 
Khdn, Ndzim of Bandras. It now be- 
longs to the Mahdrdjd of Bandras. 
From this the Nipdlese temple is seen, 
and is a strikingly picturesque object. 
It does not resemble in the least the 
Hindi!! temples. It is popularly 
^ called the Nipdli Khaprd. 

Between this Ghdt and the Jal 
Sdin Ghdt is the famous Golden 
Temple, dedicated to Bisheshwar, 
the Poison God, or Shiva — a word 
compounded of TV?//, "poison," and 
Ishwar^ *' god," because Shiva swal- 
lowed the poison when the gods and 
demons churned the ocean. The 
temple is in a quadrangle roofed in, 
above which rises the tower. At each 
comer is a dome, and at the S.E. a 
Shivdla. Opposite the entrance is a 
shop where flowers are sold for offer- 
ings The visitor should enter the 
Bhop and ascend to the 2nd storfi 
which is on a level with the 3 towers 



of the temple. The Ist tower is the 
spire of Mahddeo's temple, the ^d is a 
g^t dome, and the 3rd the gilt tower 
of Bi^eshwar's temple. The 3 are in 
a row in the centre of the quadrangle, 
which they almost fill up. They are 
covered with gold plates, over plates 
of copper which cover the stones. The 
expense of gilding was defrayed by 
Mahdrdjd Ranjit Singh of Ldhilr. The 
temple of Bisheshwar is 51 ft. high. 
Between it and the temple of Hahd- 
deo hang 9 bells, from a carved stone 
scaffolding. One of these, and the 
most elegant, was presented by the 
Rdjd of NlpdL The temple of Mahd- 
dco was built by Ahalya Bdi, Rdni of 
Indiir. Outside the enclosure, and to 
the N. of it, is the Court of Mahddeo, 
where on a platform are a number of 
Lingams, and many small idols are ^ 
built into the wall. They are thought ^ 
to have belonged to the old temple of J ' 
Bi^eshwar, which stood N.W. of the 
present one, and was destroyed by 
Aurangzib. Remains of this temple 
are still to be seen, and form part of a 
mosque which Aurangzib built, where 
the old temple stood. This mosque is 
plain, and of no interest except for a 
row of Hindii or Buddhist columns in 
the front. This mosque, built to in- 
sult the Hindiis, in one of their most 
sacred localities, has led to much 
animosity between them and the Mus- 
lims. The Hindiis claim the courtyard 
between the mosque and the wall, and 
will not allow the Muslims to enter by 
the front of the mosque, but only on 
one side. The Muslims built a gate- 
way in front of the mosque, which 
still stands, but no Muslim can enter 
by it, and the space between the pillars 
has been built up. A Fwiut reliffiota 
tree overshadows the gateway and the 
road, but the Hindiis will not suffer 
the Muslims to touch a leaf of it. The 
British Government acts as trustee 
of the mosque, and allows certain 
moneys belonging to it to be paid 
into the Treasorj, and to be periodi- 
cally made over for the benefit of the 
mosque. 

In the qnadrangle between the 
mosque and the Temple of Bi^hesh- 
"wai is the jCamouB Oydn Kiip, " Well 



Sect. tL Soute %i.—Sandfa» {Benares) : Gydn Kup. 



213 



of Knowledge," where the Hindiis 
/* suppose that Shiva resides. The quad- 
rangle itself is filthy, but in that 
respect falls short of the well, which 
is absolutely fetid, from the decaying 
flowers and other filth thrown into 
it, notwithstanding that it has a grat- 
ing over it, overspread with a cloth ; 
for in this cloth there arc large gaps 
at the sides, and flowers are continu- 
ally falling through them. The 
votaries, also, throw down water ; and 
as they are not at all particular how 
they throw it, they make the pave- 
ment one vast puddle, and besprinkle 
their fellow-worshippers all over, so 
that the clothes of many of them are 
in a dripping state. The stench of 
the mud composed of decaying vege- 
table matter in the well is something 
indescribable. It is said that when 
the old temple of Bi^heshwar was 
destroyed, a priest threw the idol into 
this well, hence its uncommon sanctity. 
The platform is thronged by filthy, 
greasy men and women, and the 
horrible din of gongs and voices 
deafens the visitor. In such a hubbub 
and throng, it is difficult to take notes 
or to measure ; but it appears that 
the well is 55 ft. deep to the surface 
of the water. There is a staircase, by 
which the well can be descended ; but 
the door is kept locked, and the stairs 
are only used when the well is cleaned. 
One can see, however, that the stairs, 
in accordance with all the parts of this 
abominable place, are filthy to a de- 
gree. Crowds of fresh pilgrims arrive 
incessantly ; and as numbers of cows 
are mixed up in the throng, and must 
be treated with great consideration, 
the jostling is something terrific. The 
roof and colonnade of this quadrangle 
were built in 1828, by Shrlmant Bai?& 
B^i, widow of Shrlmant Daulat B4o 
Sindhia. The roof is supported by 
4 rows of pillars, 10 in a row. To the 
E. of the colonnade is a stone Nandi,* 
given by the R4j4 of NipAl, 7 ft high. 
On the S. side of the colonnade is an 
iron palisade, within which is a shrine 

* In "Sherring's Oaide," it is said that the 
temple to Mahi Deo here, close to the bull, is 
a gift of tile Rini of ^aidardbdd— « strange 
Uunder, there being no such B&ai, 



of white marble, and one of white 
stone, and a carved stone scaffolding, 
from which hangs a bell. Around are 
many richly carved small temples, 
particularly one to the S. of Bi^hesh- 
war, and the gateways of the court- 
yard are similarly carved, and small 
gilded spires add to the picturesque- • 
ness of the scene. 

Just beyond these temples is the 
shrine of Sanlchar, or Shani, the 
planet Saturn or its regent. The 
image is a round silver disc, from 
which hangs an apron, or cloth, which 
prevents one remarking that it is a 
head without a body. A garland 
hangs from either ear, and a canopy 
is spread above. A few steps beyond 
this is the temple of Annaptirnd, a 
goddess whose name is compounded 
of Anna, "food," a.nd Piirna^ "who 
fills with." She is supposed to have 
> express orders from Bi^heshwar to 
feed the inhabitants of Ban^ras. In 
front of this temple are a number of. 
beggars, who pester all passers-by. 
This temple is 57i ft. by 19 ft. 9 in. It 
was built about 160 years ago, by the 
PeshwA of that date, BAji R4o.* 
There are four shrines in this temple' 
dedicated to the Sun, Ganesh, Gauri 
Shankar, and the monkey-god, Hanu- 
mdn. Near this is the temple of 
Sdk^hi VinAyak. the witnessing deity. 
It was built in 1770 A.D., by a Mard^ha, 
whose name is not recorded. Here pil- 
grims, after finishing the P4nch Kosf , 
or five kos or 10 m. circuit round 
Bandras, must get a certificate of 
having done so, otherwise their labour 
goes for nothing. S. of the temple to . 
Shani is that of Shukareshwar, Skukar 
being the planet Venus or its regent, 
and rkhtvar " god." Here prayers are 
made for handsome sons. Between 
the Temple of Annapurna and that of 
SAkishi VinAyak is a strange figure of 
Ganesh, squatting on a floor raised a 
little above the path. This odious 
object is red, with silver hands, feet, 
ears, and elephant's trunk. 

After viewing the abominations of 

• "Sherring's Guide," p. 8S,«k^."\s^ Xio* 

1 at that Ume «t svv\c,vi. t\vi ^ v^^vk^ ^ws^ ^Qa» 
\ ruVera ot Vww^. 



214 



MotUe 22. — Sagsar (Btixar) to Bandras, Sect. JL 



Hindii worship, and suffering from 
the filthy smells, jostlings, and hideous 
noises of the Golden Temple, it will be 
a sweet relief to visit the R4j4 of 
Vijayanagram's Female School close 
by. Thei-e are here 500 girls of all 
ages, from 3 to 18, and of the highest 
castes, some of them BrAhmanls. 
They are well taught, and excel 
especially in geography. They also 
sing very nicely. Near this is the 
Carmichael Library, which has this 
inscription, on -a white marble 
tablet : — 

This BuUding, 

Which was commenced in a.d. 1874, 

Fi'om subscriptions, aided by a 

Liberal donation from 

His Highness the Mahdriiji of Banaras, 

■ Who also laid in that year tlie 

First stone of the Building, 

Was completed in 1876, entirely through the 

Generosity of His Highness the 

Maliir^d of Yijayanagram, K.C.8.I., 

Wlio has thus added another to his many 

Memorials of regard for the 

City of Banaras, 

And at whose request the building has been 

Named after his friend the 

Agent Qovemor-G^neral of Banaras 

For the time being, 

Who again on his part desires thus 

Publicly to record his sense not only of the 

Mahar^d's munificence, but of his 

Great r^ard for the social welfare of his 

Fellow-countrymen. 

Stet fortuna domus V^ayanagram. 

Though the Town Hall is almost a m. 
N. of this, it will be as well to visit it, as 
it is a fine structure, and worth seeing. 
It was built at the expense of the 
Mahardjd of Yijayanagram. It is 
of stone, but coloured red, and is 112 
ft. long from N. to S. and 32 ft. 8 in. 
from E. to W. The length includes 
the ante-chamber, and the chief room 
itself is 73 ft. from N. to 8. There is 
a good room on either side of the 
staircase ; that to the N.W. is used by 
the Magistrates. Ascend 33 steps to 
the upper rooms, and remark on the 
landing-place a stuffed tiger, which 
was killed in the city, near the R4m 
Ghdt. by Alexander Lawrence, after it 
had killed a woman and wounded two 
men. The assistant magistrate fired 
at the animal, and fell off the wall, 
Sfi. high, on which he was standing, 
ffoivn upon the pavementheloyr. Over 



the gateway of the Town Hall is the 
following inscription : — 

ALFRED HALL. 

This Hiall was built by 

H.H. the MahArAjA of Yijayanagram, 

K.C.S.L, 

To commemorate the visit of 

H.B.H. Prince Alfred to this city in 

January, 1870. 

It was commenced in 1873, and 

Completed in December, 1875, and opened by 

H.B.H. the Prince of Wales, in 

January, 1876, 

When it was presented as a free gift to the 

Citizens of Bandras. 

Proceeding with the catalogue of 
Gh4ts, and omitting the Kyasth, which 
is of no importance, the traveller will 
come to the Manikaranikd, which is 
one of the 5 celebrated places of Hindii 
pilgrimage in Banaras, and is con- 
sidered to be the most sacred of all the 
GhA^s. It is also at the central point 
of the citj", so that if a line was drawn 
from it to the W., it would divide 
Ban&ras into 2 portions N. and S. 
Close to it are 3 temples erected by 
the RAj4 of Amethi. Just above the 
flight of steps is the ManikaranikA 
Well, and between it and the steps is 
the temple of Tdrkeshwara, "god of v 
salvation," as Tdrak signifies "he who 
ferries over." Below this temple the 
bodies of Hindiis are burned. The 
well has its name from Mam, "a 
jewel," and Kamja, " the ear," Devi or 
MahMeo having dropped an earring 
into it. During the eclipse of the sun 
it is visited by 100,000 pilgrims. The 
well, or, more properly, tank, is 35 ft. 
sq., and stone steps lead down to the 
water. Offerings of the Bel tree, ' 
flowers, milk, sandal -wood, sweet- 
meats, and water are thrown into it ; 
and from the putrefaction of these a 
stench arises equal to that which 
ascends from the Well of Knowledge. 
According to a ridiculous Hindi'i 
legend, it was dug by Vishnu, and 
fiUed with his perspiration, and when 
he went away MabAdeo peeped in 
and saw innumerable suns, which so 
pleased him, that he promised Vishnu 
anything he pleased to ask for. Yiigihnu 
asked that Mahddeo should be with 
him for ever, and so gratified Mahideo, 
that he shook with joy, until one of his 
I eaningB ieU iaoto the tank. Accordin g 



_ * * 

Sect. II. jRoUte 22. — Sandras {Benares) : Ghdu; 



216 



to others it was from Devils ear, as ^e 
was sitting with Mahddeo, that the 
earring fell into the water. It may be 
mentioned that at the Cremation 
Ground below, the fire must be brought 
from the house of a pomrd, a man of 
very low caste. The Pomj'd, who bias 
the monopoly of giving fire for crema- 
tion, is very wealthy, as fees are de- 
manded and given up to 1000 rs. At 
Tdrkeshwara the idol is kept in a re- 
servoir of water. At this GhAt is the 
Charana-piidukd, a round slab project- 
ing slightly from the pavement, on 
which stands a pedestal of stone, on 
the top of which is marble, with 2 
imprints, which are said to have been 
made by the feet of Vishnu. In the 
month of Kdrtik multitudes of pilgrims 
flock to this place. At the 2ud flight 

<of steps at this Ghdt is a temple to 
Siddha Vindyak, or Ganesh, whose 
idol has 3 eyes, is painted red, and 
has a silver scalp, and an elephant's 
trunk covered with a bib, which re- 
sembles a barber's cloth wrapped 
about a man when he is about to be 
shaved. At the feet of the image is 
tlie figure of a rat, which is the 
Vdhana or "vehicle" of this deity. 
On either side of the shrine is a female 
figure, one called Siddhl and the other 
Buddhl. 

The traveller will now proceed to 
Sindhia's Ghdt, which is curious 
from the fact that its massive struc- 
ture is gradually sinking, and has 
already gone down several feet It is 
said that at one time this sinking was 
accompanied by a noise like the report 
of a cannon. The temple on the left 
of the S, turret is rent from top to 
bottom, as are the stairs leading to the 
curtain, between the turrets. The re- 
sidents near it say that the Ghdt has 
gone down 12 ft. It was built by 
fiai^d Bdf , who constructed the colon- 
nade round the Well of Knowledge, 
but was left unfinished. Passing over 
the next 2 Ghdts, the traveller will 
come to the Ghosla Ghdt, which was 
bnih by the Ndgptir Bdjd, and is very 
massive and handsome. The steps 
lead into a btdlding, which has a 
gigantic tower at each comer, and 
a central piece with 5 windows. As 



the family name of the Bdjds of Ndg- 
pilir is Bhonsla, that name would seem 
to be more appropriate for the Ghdt, 
more particularly as Ghcsla means 
" bird's-nest," a signification wholly 
inappropriate. It may be remarked 
here that all the names of the Ghdts as 
given in maps are most erroneous and 
misleading, as Hilla Bdi for Ahalya 
Bdi, and Madhadass ka Dhrurara 
for Mddhudds ka Deoflm, Bdm Ghdt 
comes next, and is much frequented 
by Mardthas. On the steps is a hand- 
some and very sacred temple. It was 
near this that the tiger was killed by 
Mr. Lawrence. 

The next is the Pdncbganga Ghdtr 
from which there is a fine view of 
Aurangzib's mosque, called in maps 
"the Minarets." The best view, m 
fact, is from the river; but those 
who have seen the Tdj and the Kuj^b 
will be disappointed. The traveller 
will disembark at this Ghdt, amid a 
crowd of bathers, and ascend 120 
steep steps to reach the platform of 
the mosque. Passing a sacred stunted 
tree of the F-icvg indica species, he 
arrives at a dirty pavement thronged 
with troublesome cows and snarUug 
dogs. With their usual exaggera-^ 
tion, the Indians say that the foun- 
dations of the mosque are as deep 
as the building is high. Daring the 
century and three-quarters since the 
structure was raised, not a stone has 
been loosened. This mosque was 
built on the site of a magnificent 
temple of Mddhava, or Krishna. A 
small number of the faithful assemble 
here on Fridays, otherwise it is de- 
serted. The inside of the mosque is 
very narrow and ugly. The left 
aisle is only 28 ft. 8 in. deep, the 
centre 38 ft. deep. The total length 
is 90 ft. 4 in. In the centre on the left, 
in a recess, is a Persian inscription, 
which may be thus translated : — 

In accordance with the order of the Qentlenien 

Who have been appointed by the 

Govemor-Genenil in Council to 

Superintend the repairs of buildings and roads 

For the town of Ban&ras, and by the 

Direction of 

Mr. Zkvlxa '^'ixssstXy 



216 



Moute i^-^Bagsar (Bnmr) to Bandras, Sect. IL 



Beginning of 1824 to tiie end of 1825, 

Both as regards the courtyard of the Mosque, 

And also as regards the 

fitone seats towards the River Gktnges, and 

The wide staircases and minarets and 

The sides of the principal door, 

With most careful measurement 

Have been rewired. 

On the right is — 

In the reign of tlie 

King Shah 'Alam, by the aid of the 

Amiru '1 mamilik 'Imddu 'd daulah, 

Mr. Hushton (Hastings), 

Bahadur Jalddat Jang,* 

In the year 1198 of the H^rah = 1783 a.d. 

NAgiru 'd daulah 'All Ibrdhlm Khdn, 

Governor of Ban&ras, 

Repaired the Mosque. 

The traveller will now ascend the 
eentral staircase, which leads to the 
roof, by 2 most precipitous flights of 
steps. There are ropes on either side. 
In the first flight are 29 steps of more 
than a foot high, and 16 in the 2nd 
flight, after which a single high step 
brings him on to the roof, whence 
springs the dome, which is a bulbous 
one. At the N.W. comer of the 
roof are 5 steps, which lead to the 
winding staircase of the minaret. 
There are 86 steps to the top of the 
minaret, so that there are in all 29 + 
16+86. Total 131 steps. The breadth 
of the uppermost platform is 7 ft. 7 in., 
and there are 8 windows in the 
minaret, each 8 ft. 7 in. high. From 
the ground to the roof is 46 ft., and 
thence to the top stair of the minaret, 
which is as high as one can go, is 77ft. 
so that the total height to that point 
is 122 ft., and adding 20 ft. from the 
top stair to the ornament at the top of 
the minaret, 142 ft. According to 
Sherring's Guide the height is 147 ft. 
2 in. The same authority says that 
the minarets are 15 inches out of the 
perpendicular, and that their diameter 
is 8} ft. at the base. It must be 
remembered that 120 steep steps have 
to be ascended before the platform is 
reached from which the minarets 
spring, so that their top is more than 
250 ft. above the river. The view from 
the minarets is not very picturesque, 

^ These titleti, given to Warren Hastings by 

tije emperor, are the same aa thoae conferred 

v^rfJ^J^"^"/""^^^^" officers of state— Amiru 

LX^'H'^H V/^i^^^ "^^ of all the pro- 

' *^''*^'»^«<'«^J«/?5i "brave in war." 



as the houses in the city are ugly, but 
the river looks well, though there is a 
vast expanse of sand, beginning at 
the bridge of boats and extending 
along the E. bank for 2 or 8 m. This 
sand seems to be extending, for about 
^ of a m. from E. L Railway Station 
there is an inclosure where once was 
a garden, which is now all sand. Pass- 
ing the Durg4 GhAt the traveller will 
come next to the Hindu Mddhava 
Ghdt, which was formerly dedicated to 
Mddhava or Krishna, whose temple 
was razed by Anrangzlb. The next 
Ghdt is the Gau Ghdt, so called from 
the number of cows that resort to it, 
and also from the stone figure of a 
cow there. 

The Trilochana Ghdt, also called 
the Pilpilla Tirth, will next be 
reached. The pilgrim bathes in the 
Ganges at this Ghdt, and then pro- 
ceeds to the P&nchganga, and there 
bathes again. There are 2 turrets at 
the Pilpilla Ghdt, and the water 
between them possesses a special 
sanctity. Passing the 3 next Ghd^s 
the traveller will arrive at the Rij 
Ghdt, where is the Bridge of Boats, 
which is about ^ am. from Aurangzlb^s 
mosque. On the morning of May the 
1st, 1860, a terrific explosion took 
place here, owing to a magazine fleet 
blowing up, when lying at this Ghdt. 
All the buildings near were shattered. 
A Mrs. Small, wife of a missionary, 
had gone to the window of her house, 
and her head was blown to pieces by 
the explosion. There is a sq. build- 
ing a little to the N. of the bridge, 
and a good way back from the river, 
which was once an hotel, but is now 
deserted. There are 66 boats or 
pontoons in the bridge, and the way 
across them is so uneven and unsteady 
that bullocks can hardly draw carts 
across it, particularly from the dip at 
the end to the more level part. The E. I. 
Railway Station is | of a m. from the 
bridge, and is a very good one. There 
is, however, no reft^shment room. The 
total length of the bridge is 1,719 ft. 
A short way on. Wift "B.ij\ Qi\\k\ ^owSl S» 
a Dispensary, \)\n\t \>7 \>Mi '^^k q1 
Viiayanagram, vjYvVeXx -w^ja ^Q«e^ \v\ 
187G, aa Qo^eTumeTkX. i^tost^ ^^o ^«v\- 



Sect. Ill JSoute 22. — Bandras (^Benares) : Rdmnagar. 



217 



tribute to it. At the junction of the 
Ganges and the BarnA is a piece of high 
gronnd, which in the Mutiny was 
strongly fortified, and has ever since 
been called the Rdj Ghdt; Fort 

. A bridge over the Ganges at the 
spot where the bridge of boats now 
is, is to be construct^ by the Awadh 
and Rohilkhand Railway. The plant 
required for sinking wells, &c., has 
been sent out. The manufacture of 
the girders has not yet begun, but 
workin||^ drawings have been made. 
In India nothing has been done be- 
yond collecting materials, but the 
work will, it is expected, be veiy 
shortly commenced. The bridge will 
not be finished under 3 years. The 
engineer is Mr. Batho. The super* 
structure is to consist of 7 main 
sj^ns, each 360 ft. between centres of 
piers, or 350 ft. between centres of 
oearings, and 9 spans of bridge ex- 
tension, each 114 ft. between centres 
of piers, and 111 ft. 3 in. between 
centres of bearings ; the whole being 
supported by piers of brickwork. 
The whole of the superstructure is to 
be constructed of steel, manufactured 
by the Open Hearth process. The 
length of the main bridge will be 
2,492 ft., of the bridge extension, 
1,026 ft. 

The sights thus far described will, 
unless the traveller be veiy strong and 
active, occupy more than one day. 
For those who are pressed for time, it 
wiU be sufficient to see the Monkey 
Temple, steam up the whole length 
of the Gh^ts, and disembark at the 
Pdnchganga to see the Golden Temple, 
the adjacent mosque, and if possible 
the R^j^ of Vijayanagram's Girls* 
School, and disembark again at the 
R4m Ghdt to see Aurangzib*s Mosque. 
The rest may be omitted. 

For the next day visits to Rdmna/far 
and iSlcir^f^ will be sufficient. Before! 
visiting Rdmnagar, the residence of | 
the Mahdrdjd of Bandras, it will be 
well to call on H.H.*s agent or Dr. 
Lasams, and ask permission to visit 
the palace. Having obtained this the 
traveller will drive past the Durgd 
Xand Temple to what is called the\ 
Sdmuagar GbAf on the W. bank ot 



the Ganges, opposite to a Ghi^ of the 
same name on the E. bank, which is 
overlooked by the castle of H.H. 
The bank of the river, on which the 
castle is built, is about 60 to 90 ft. 
high, and is all faced with masoniy. 
It is owing to this elevation that there 
is so fine a view from the rooms 
which look on the river. The river 
must be crossed in a steam launch, 
and the passage takes 10 minutes. 
At the end of February an elephant 
can cross the river without being out 
of his depth. The castle has 8 vast 
bastions, and stands at a m. to the 
S.E. of Shivdla Ghd^, on the opposite 
bank. In the rains the water rises to 
the foot of the walls, and extends 
over the W. bank for a m., and even 
deposits the sand in the upper stories 
of some houses at 30 to 40 ft. above 
the surface of the water in the 
cold season. The traveller will pass 
through an outer court into anotner, 
where he will alight, and be ushered 
into a very handsome reception room, 
65 ft. long, 30 ft. broad, and 30 ft. 
high, and open to the front. The 
R&jd is a fine-looking man, with very 
bright, piercing eyes. His sight, how- 
ever, has been affected by passing 
whole nights in prayer and worship. 
He has translated the Queen's Journal 
into Hindi. Close to the first room 
is one 30 ft. sq., with a balcony all 
paved with marble, and commanding 
a very fine view to the 8. as far as 
Chundr, which is only 150 ft. high, 
but is visible from this room. To the 
N. is seen the city of Bandras, and 
the Bridge of Boats. Within the 
castle is a temple to Vydsa, the 
compiler of the Vedas. There are 
festivals in Mdgh and Phdgun 
(January to March), when boats laden 
with people accompanied by Ndch 
girls proceed from A'shi Ghdt, and 
row about the river in front of the 
fort At the entrance of the palace 
are kept a fine tiger and leopard, 
caught in the Chdkia Jungles, which 
are H.H.'s hunting-grounds. 

At a m. to the N.£. of the palace la & 
beaal\lv\\. UltlY^ ^\V\v ^^V^ ^"t ^Vsswa. 
Btepa to lYie -waXxst*^ ^?Ji.^ «*^^ ^^\rw» 



218 



Route 22.-^J!rt^«ar (Suxdr) to Bandras^ Sect IL 



is a temple called Sumer Mandir, dedi- 
cated to Durgd, 'Commenced by Chait 
Singh, and finished by the present 
MahdrAjd. This edifice has a base 
f35 ft. sq., and about the same height, 
from which rises a spire of the usual 

Eagoda form, 60 ft. high ; the total 
eight being 95 ft. The surface is 
entirely covered with stone idols, but 
many of them are broken. This 
arises from the images not being 
carved out of one stone, but the limbs, 
being fastened on, drop oif. On the 
W. side at the door, about 5 ft. from 
the ground are the words in NAgari, 
*-Taraph i pachham," which is no 
doubt a builder's mark. The plat- 
form on which the temple stands is 
106 ft. 8 in. from E. to W., and 77 ft. 
fi-om N. to S. It is raised 11 ft. 7 in. 
from the ground. There are white 
marble pavilions on the N. and S. 
sides, and a white marble lion on the 
W. side. To the S. is a fine garden 
called the Rdm Bdgh. Poor people 
who come to this place are fed at the 
expense of the Rdjd. 

Sdrndth, — The traveller will start 
for Sdrndth at 3 P.M., and proceed 
■ along the Ghdzlpiir Boad to the 3rd 
'^'■\ mile-stone, and then turn off to the 
. V left, and drive about a m. along a 
J, non-metalled road. Shortly after 
turning, he will see 2 towers, 1 of 
which stands on a hill. The principal 
one stands on a rising ground Jam. 
beyond the first, and there the travel- 
ler will get out. In Dr. Fergusson's 
"Hist, of Arch.," vol. iii. p. 65, is a 
view of this tower, or Top, and also 
an excellent account of it; and in 
p. 68 is a representation of the 
panelling. From that book is extracted 
the following : " The best known as 
well as the best preserved of the 
Bengal tops, is that at Sdrndth, near 
Bandi'as. It was carefuUy explored 
by General Cunningham in 1835-36, 
and found to be a stupa— viz., con- 
taining no relics, but erected to mark 
some spot sanctified by the presence 
of Buddha^ or hy some act of his 
during his long residence there. It is 
edtimted in the Deer Park, where he 
^k up his residence, with his 5 
<^^iplea, when he fiwt remoyed from 



Gayd on attaining Baddhahood, and 
commencing his mission as a teacher. 
What act it commemorates we shall 
probably never know, as there are 
several mounds in the neighbourhood, 
and the descriptions of the Chinese 
pilgrims are not sufficiently precise to 
enable us now to discriminate between 
them." 

The building consists of a stone 
basement 93 ft. in diameter, and 
solidly built, the stones being clamped 
together with iron to the height of 
43 ft. Above that it is in brickwork, 
rising to a height of 110 ft. above 
the surrounding ruins, and 128 ft. 
above the plain. Externally the 
lower part is relieved by 8 projecting 
faces, each 21 ft. 6 in. wide, and 15 ft. 
apart! In each is a small niche, in- 
tended apparently to contain a seated 
figure of Buddha, and below them, 
encircling the monument, is a band of 
sculptured ornament of the most 
exquisite beauty. The central part 
consists of geometric patterns of great 
intricacy, but combined with singular 
skill; and above and below, foliage 
equally well designed, arid so much 
resembling that carved by Hindil 
artists on the earliest Muhammadan 
mosques at Ajmlr and Dihli, as to 
make us feel sure that they cannot be 
very distant in date. 

The carvings round the niches and 
on the projections have been left so 
unfinished — in some instances only 
outlined — ^that it is impossible to 
guess what ultimate form it may have 
been intended to give them. The 
upper part of the tower seems never 
to have been finished at all, but from 
our knowledge of the Afghdnistan 
T6ps, we may surmise that it was 
intended to encircle it with a range 
of pilasters, and then some bold 
mouldings, before covering it with a 
hemispherical dome. 

" In his excavations,GeneralCunning- 
ham found, buried in the solid masonry, 
at the depth of lOi ft. from the sum- 
mit, a large stone, on which was 
I engraved t^<6 wsvxcX 1ixjidd\:i\%t lovrnMilik: 
pYedharmma 'tkftVvL,' ^«i., \\v ^iNasct^^- 
teT8\)e\oiia;\xig;^ XNi^UV c^oXxai ,\KJssi. 
' which \ie wtcta \X\eX. ^LV^i mawaxftsii 



SeC5t.IL Bouie 22,-^Bandra8 {Benares) : Sdmdih 



219 



belongs to the 6th century. To me (Dr. 
Fergussoh), it appears so extremely im- 
probable that men should carefally en- 
grave such a formula on a stone, and 
then bury it 10 or 12 ft. in a mass of 
masonry which they must have hoped 
would endure for ever, that I cannot 
accept the conclusion. It seems to me 
much more probable that it may have 
belonged to some building, which this 
one was designed to supersede, or to 
have been the pedestal of some statue 
which had been disused, but which 
from its age had become venerable, 
and was consequently utilised to 
sanctify this new erection. I am con 



Vihdra was a stone stupa raised by 
Ashoka, having in front a column 
70 ft. high, on the spot where Buddha 
delivered his first discourse. W. of 
the monastery was a tank in which 
Buddha bathed, to the W. of that 
another where he washed his monks* 
water-pot, and to the N. a 3rd where 
he washed his garments. Here was a 
square stone, which showed the marks 
of the threads of his brown vestment. 
Close to the tcanks was a stupa, then 
another, and then in the midst of a 
forest a third. To the S.W. of the 
monasteiy at J a m. was a stupa, 3(X) 
ft. high, resplendent with jewels and 



sequently more inclined to adopt the surmounted by an arrow." The 
tradition preserved by Captain Wil- 
ford, to the effect that the Sdm^th 



monument was erected by the sons of 
Hohi Pala, and destroyed (interrupted) 
by the Mu]|^ammadans in 1017, bsfore 
its completion. The form of the 
monument, the character of its sculp- 
tured ornaments, the unfinished con- 
dition in which it is left, and indeed 
the whole circumstances of the case, 
render this date so much the most 
probable, that I feel inclined to adopt 
it almost without hesitation." 

S4m4th was visited by the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hian in 809 
A.D., and Hiouen Tsang in 629 — 645 



Dhamck Stupa is the one now exist- 
ing. It stands on rising ground, and 
has to the W. a Jain temple surrounded 
by an inclosure, the door of which is 
often locked when the attendant goes 
to Bandras. The base of the stupa 
has been surrounded by a handsome 
facing of stone, decorated with a 
relievo of the pattern shown by Dr. 
Fergusson. This has fallen off in 
many places. Up to 1878 an old 
man, who said he was 98. named Har 
Dyal, acted as guide. He was with 
General Cunningham and Major 
Kittoe, when they made their excava- 
tions. He will show the way with a 
A.D. The former says : "at 10 li = 2 m. torch of withered grass into a dark 
to the N.W. of Bandras is the temple, ' passage, which has been made with a 
situated in the Deer Park of the pickaxe right through the building. 
Immortal." Hiouen Tsang states that > This passage is only 4 ft. 10 in. high, 
in his day the kingdom of VarAnasi. and 2 ft. 7 in. broad, and curves a 
or Bandras, was 4,000 li, or 667 m. good deal, so that it is 120 ft. long, 
in circumference. Li it were 30 Budd- though the actual diameter of the 
hist monasteries, having 3,000 rc%w??/,?? building is only 03 ft. There arc 
attached. He states too that to the often cobras in the passage, and, in 
N.E, of Ban^ras was a stupa, which 1876, 2dropped close to the heads of two 
we call T6p, built by Ashoka, 100 ft. officers, who were going through. It 
high, and opposite to it a stone column is necessarj', therefore, to have a goo<l 
" of blue colour, bright as a mirror." ' light, and the best plan is to bring a 
He says the monastery of the Deer I torch with one. In the centre of this 
Park was divided into 8 parts, and \ passage you can see right up to the 
was surrounded by a wall, within ; top of the stupa. About 40 ft. from 
which were balustrades, 2-storied the E. end there is a torso of Buddha, 
palaces, and a Vihira, 200 ft. high, with the Brdhmanical Tkc<i»d^. ToR^s^si. 
surmounts by an An-molo or mango are also a lew e«tN^ ^\.v>rQR&» '^^ '^'^' 
in embossed gold "There were 100 : W. are acTea ot movBw^a ««^^ "^^^^"^ 
rows of nicbea round the stupa of \m.Q\L^^ tionB, 8\iONnx\^ ^^X* ^«^^ ^?^^^ ^ 
each holding a statue of Buddha in\ aWe \>tx\V\\t\^^ *m ^^^V'^y^^^Cys 
embossed gold. To the S.W. of thc^ old gmOic d^\ax^^ ^^a^^"^ "^"^ 



220 



BotUe 22.—Bagmr {Btixar) to Bandras^ Sect. 11. 



stones were carried off to the Bandras 
CJollege. At 370 ft. to the W. by S. of 
the Dhamek Stupa, is a round well 50 
ft. in diameter, which the guide calls 
the Rdni's bath. It is 15 ft. deep, 
and a torso of Buddha lies in it. 

A little to the K. of the well is Jagat 
^gh*s Stupa, 80 called by Cunning- 
ham, because Bdbii Jagat Singh, 
Diw4n of Chait Singh, excavated it to 
get bricks to built Jagatganj. His 
workmen found, at a depth of 27 ft., 
2 vessels of stone and marble, one 
inside the other. In a paper by 
Jonathan Duncan (" As. Res.," vol. v., 
p. 131) it is said that the inner vessel 
contained human bones, gold leaves, 
decayed pearls, and other jewels of 
trifling value. In the same place, and 
at the same time, a statue of Buddha 
was found, inscribed : "Samwat 1083 
= A.D. 1026." According to the 
guide's account, who is perhaps the 
person called by Cunningham Sang 
Kar, the inner box was of green 
marble, 15 in. high and 5 in. diameter, 
and it held 46 pearls, 14 rubies, 8 
silver and 9 gold earrings, and 3 
pieces of the arm-bone of a man. 
This informant showed Cunningham 
where the stone box had been left at 
a depth of 12 ft, and the General 
presented it, with 60 statues, to the 
Bengal Asiatic Society, in whose 
Museum it now is. There is a ruin 
W. of the Great Stupa, which the guide 
calls the Khizdna, and near it lies a 
stone 5 ft. 8 in. long, 2 ft. 2 in. broad, 
and 1 ft. 7 in. deep. There is also a 
well 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with water 
at 60 ft. down. Some brick walls 
remain of great thickness. Those who 
desire further particulars may consult 
Cunningham's ** Archaeological Re- 
port,'* and Kittoe's "Bhllsa T6ps." 
The other tower stands on a very steep 
mound about 100 ft. high. The build- 
ing is octagonal, and has an Arabic 
inscription on the N. side, and a well 
down the centre. 

When the Great Mutiny broke out 
in May, 1857, there were in the Eng- 
lish cantonment at Sikrol. the suburb 
of BanAras, the 37th N. I., the Sikh 
Begiment of LodMnab, and the 13th 
Irr^alar Cavalry,^m all about 2,000 



Indian soldiers, watched by half a com- 
pany of European Artillery; the whole • 
commanded by Brigadier George Pon- 
sonby, who, 15 years before, in the 
cavalry engagement of Parw4n-darah, 
had shown great gallantry. The civi- 
lians were men of courage and capacity ; 
Henry Carr Tucker was Commis- 
sioner of Bandras, Frederick Gubbins 
was judge, and Lind was the magis- 
trate ; Captain William Olpherts com- 
manded the Artillery. He had served 
under Williams of Kars. According 
to Kaye, he and Captain Watson, of 
the Engineers, called on Lind, and 
suggested that a retreat should be 
maide to Chundr. Lind replied that 
nothing would induce him to leave his 
post, and it was determined to face 
the danger. In the event of a rising, 
all Christians not engaged in sup- 
pressing it were to take refuge in the 
Mint. On the 3rd of June the 17th 
Regiment N. I. shot their quarter- 
master and quartermaster-sergeant at 
'As^imgajrh, and carried off 7 Idkhs of 
rupees. This mutiny of a neighbouring 
corps excited the troops at Bandras. On 
the 4th of June Colonels Gordon and 
Neil and Brigadier Ponsonby resolved 
to disarm the native regiments, and 
moved up all the Europeans, namely, 
150 men and 3 officers of the 10th, 60 
men and 3 officers of the Madras Fusi- 
leers, and 2 officei*s and 38 men of the 
Artillery. In the attempt to disarm 
the Sipdhls, the mutiny broke out ; 
some men of the 10th were shot down, 
and the rest fell back in rear of 
the guns, which opened upon the 
mutineers and soon drove the 37th off 
the field in panic flight. Meanwhile, 
the Irregular Cavalry and Gordon's 
Sikhs came on the ground. The com- 
mander of the Irregulars, Captain 
Guise, had been killed bj- a Sipdhi of 
the 37th, and Dodgson, the Brigadier- 
Major, who took his place, was at- 
tacked by the troopers. The guns 
then opened upon the cavalry and 
upon the Sikhs, who had already 
begun to fire upon the English. The 
mutineers charged the guns three 
times, but were driven back and were 
soon in confused flight. Still, in a 
I city like "BaaittT^a \)aet^ '«?iQivsLVi Viw?^ 



Seet II. Route 22.—£an<ir(a\Semiret) : PvUie Buildings. 221 



been extreme dongeT of an imgvtf, 
occBMoned by the numcrouB mutinous 
Slpdfali diapcised through it, had not 
SuiUr Burnt Singh, who after the 
Slid Sikh War hod been a prisoner on 
pkrote at Ban&ras, allajed the tumult 
amongst the Sikh ioldiere, who, on 
big peranasioc, gave up the Govern- 
ment treasure and the Lfihi^ir Crawn 
Jewels, which were then placed in the 
strong cells of the Artillery I'rison. 
Meantime the European community 
had tor the most part taken refufje in 
the Mint. On the 9tb of June, mar- 
tial law was proclaimed in the divi- 
sions of Band^ras and All^dhM, niiil 
a number of execnlEons followed, ami 
BanAmswns safe. Only one Eiiglir^h 
officer, Captain Ouise, was killed, awl 
Captain DodgBon, Ensigns TweeiUe, 
Chapman, and Hayter were noujiJed, 
of whom Hayter died of bis womule. 
The Mint is in the centre of the can- 
tonment, near the I'ost Office. It has 
2 porticos, 30 ft. 4 in. long. The 
building has a total length of 2S6 ft., 
and a breadth of 95 ft It has been 
pnrchased by the MahArAjA of Bo- 
n&ras, and is no longer a mint. There 
ii a full-length portrait of Heniy Carr 
Tocker, and a great number of old 
prints. The General Parade Ground, 
where the Mutiny took place, is to tlie 
8.W. of the building which was the 
Mint, and has at its S.W. comer the 
Bace Course, and to the S.E. the London 
Mission. After seeing these placea, 
the traveller may drive to a yellow 
bangIA ^ a m. from the hotel, and on 
the left as you enter cantonments. In 
front, adjoininfcthe road, is a stone sun- 
dial, surrounded by an iron railing, and 
with this inscription at its back — 



HON. 1 



■^J^Jn 



rotOi 



n the N. side, facing the roiwl. Is — 



Mr. Hastings lived in the yellow 
house. The traveller will now cross 
the bridge over the Bama to the Col- 
lector's Office, to the right of which 



Ih the Bankof Bengal. The Collector's 
Office was formerly the residence of 
the Agent of (he Governor-General. 
In this house, or just outside it, Mr. 
Clitrry was killed by the followers of 
Vnzlr'All. ClosetoitarethePublicGar- 
dei i,s where are a hilliatd-room, library, 
nnd Badminton ground. The Commis- 
siuiier's Office is just beyond. Nearly a 
ni, f the K. are 2 cemeteries, and hon- 
[litnls for the deat, dumb, and blind. 
Over that for the blind is written — 



1 iDd Deatitute, 



the I 



Iteii^Ul and Persian. This Asylum 
iLccijuunodates 186 inmates. Near 
this is a hospital for poor Europeans, 
erected by Bibii Guru DAb Mitra. 
The Old Jail is also close by, and can 
contain 600 prisoners. The bridge 
over the Barna baa the following iu- 

Bj order of tbs 

Oovemor-Genenl In CoDncll 

Thli Bridge wu erectfiil Bud lb* 

Expeose thereof deftsyed out of tlM 

InciBiued resoureeg of the 

Province of Bantam, durloi; the Prealdmcy of 



rofKi 



«, Arch. 



The austral Jail is 2 m. from the 
Imicl, and about 1 m. fo the W. of the 
Collector's Court. On the 26th of 
Kebniary, 18T7, there were 1799 male 
prisoners, of whom 37 were sick . Women 
nnil boys ore kept in the District Jail. 
'I'hc Central Jail was built by the 
pi'Uimers. They make and repair 
euni^^B, boats, etc., and there is the 
Ix.'.st blacksmith's yard here, perhaps, 
in ill! India. The Jail was begun in 
IHtitJ. Before that the District Jnil 
way the Central. In 1869, six men 
escaped through a hole in the wall. 
Theie is a permanent guard of 32 
men. At night the men are only 
locked up, and no chains are put 
upon them. Mr. Morgan, formerly a 
private in the Hth, is at the head of 
the smiths' and carpentering work, 
which is done most admirably. 

U may lateiealt. wnoft. -QiaMff<& 'm 



222 



Route 22. — Bcujfsar (Buxar) to Baivdras. Sect. II. 



are, several. The Old Cemetery is IJ 
m. from Clarke's Hotel, to the E., and 
is quite full of tombs. One or two 
are utterly ruined, but others have 
been i-epaired, and repairs are gene- 
rally going on. One may be noticed, 
which is inscribed in Greek and also in 
Persian. The Greek says, *' In memory 
of Demetrius Galanos, an Athenian ; " 
the Persian gives the chronograph as 
" Af siis ! Falatiin i Zaman Raft." ' Alas 1 
the Plato of the age has gone.' The 
tomb of Robert Bathui-st, B.C.S., may 
also be noticed as being 25 ft. high, 
supported by pillars. He died the 3rd 
of November, 1821. Notice, also, the 
cenotaph of James Robert Ballantyne, 
LL.D., the Sanskrit scholar, bom at 
Kelso, December 13, 1813, and died in 
London, February 16,' 1864. Notice, 
also, an obelisk 40 ft. high, as- 
cended to by 9 steps, and surrounded 
by an iron railing ; the base projects 
like that of the Nelson Column in 
London. Up to 1877 there was no 
inscription, but it is the monument of 
Mr. Cherry, murdered by Vazir 'All 
Next to it is the tomb of W. A. Brooke, 
Senior Judge of the Court of Appeal, 
and Agent to the Governor-General, 
who died in July, 1833, in his 81st 
year. The tomb of Lt.-Colonel 
Francis Wilford, the well-known ar- 
chaeologist, who died 4th September, 
1822, aged 71, is thus inscribed : — 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

FRANCIS WILFORD, 

lit.-Colonel in the Engineer Service of 

The East India Company. 

Aged 71 years. 

Deceased on the 4th of September, 1822. 



Encouraged by the 

Liberality of the Qovernment of 

British India, 

He fixed his i*esidence at Banaras 

In the year 1788, 

Whilst yet in the vigour of his days, 

Devoted his life to retirement and study. 

Eminently qualified by previous education, 

Extensive erudition, a true intellect, and 

Indefatigable zeal. 

He made himself master of 

The classical language and literature of 

The Hindi^s, and applied 

His knowledge to the irradiation of the 

Dark periods of antiquity 

With a success that 

J'erpetuates hla own reputation, and the 

Honour of the British uiuue in the East 



Colonel Wilford*8 tomb is a hand* 
some building, supported by 4 pillars. 
The following tablet speaks ill for the 
climate ; — 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

John, died 11th March, 1834, 

Aged 7 months. 

Jesse £., died 18th Augus^, 1835, 

Aged 8 months. 
Henrietta, died 3rd June, 1838, 

A^ed 6 months. 

Oliver, died 14th August, 1SS9. 

Aged 13 months. 

Arnold, died 22nd November, 1841, 

Aged 5 months. 

Joseph, died 29th Hay, 1842. 

Aged 5 months. 

The beloved children of 

Joseph and Elizabeth Stevens. 



Reader, did you ever love children? 

Mrs. Small, daughter of Robert Cath- 
cart, Esq., of Domus, who was killed 
by the terrible explosion at Rdjghdt, 
on May 1st, 1850, is also buried here. 
The Demetrius Galanos who has been 
mentioned put up an inscription in 
Greek, as follows : — 

The Stranger, 

Demetrius Galanos, the Athenian, 

To the Stranger, 

Peter Federof, the Russian. 

The persons killed in the Mutiny at 
Bandras, on the 5th of June, 1857, 
were buried in a spot of ground which 
is now inclosed with a wall 6 ft. high, 
and is within the premises of the Awadh 
and Bohilkhand Railway Station at 
Bandras. It is about 20() yds. to the 
\V. of the ground on which the fight- 
ing took place. There are traces of 
earthen graves, but no masonry tomb, 
nor any inscription, in the inclosure. 
The tablet to Rebecca Pushong con- 
tains the most poetical epitaph in all 
India. 

The Military Cenietevy is very well 
kept, and is laid out with flower-beds. 
There is a well, from which the 
ground is watered, and 3 gaixleners 
are employed. In the new Civil 
Cemeteiy there is a tablet to Captain 
S. C. Walker, of the 19th Hussars, 
who died of cholera on the 22nd of 
July, 18G9. He died in the house 
nearest to the Bam&, on the left hand 
as you pass the biidge, going from 



Sect. II.' SoiUe 22. — Bandras (Benares) : . DevVs House, 



223 



cantomnents. It was taken next by 
the Saperintendent of Jails— a remark- 
ably tall, powerful man, who also died 
suddenly of cholera ; and it was then 
taken by a doctor, who also died of 
cholera ; now no one will look at it. 
Notice in this cemetery a beautiful 
white marble tomb to Augusta, 
daughter of Captain Lowe, R.A. Also 
the tablet to Lt.-Colonel Kennedy, 
C.B., of the 5th Bengal European 
Cavalry, who died 26th of September, 
1869, in his 82nd year, after an Indian 
service of 61 years. *' This Monument 
is erected by his Widow, for 65 years 
partner of his joys and sorrows," Mrs. 
Kennedy, who thus mentions her 
marriage to the deceased 73 years ago, 
is still living at Banaras, and is about 
96 years old, and is the lady presented 
to the Prince of Wales by Lady 
Strachey and Canon Duckworth. 

To the spoi'tsman Bandras is not 
without its attractions. At Jalhupdr, 
8 m. off, on the road to Ghdzlpdr, is 
a preserve of H. H. the Mah&rdjA, in 
which are numerous herds of deer, 
Nilgdi, and wild hogs ; also peacocks, 
which must not be shot, partridges, 
pigeons, quails, ducks and swans. The 
chief place for ducks, however, is a 
lake called the "R&y&l Jhil, 5 m. long 
and 2 broad, at Chandauli, 18 m. S., on 
the Grand Trunk Hoad to Calcutta. To 
shoot at Jalhuptir, the Mahdrdjd's per- 
mission must be obtained. At the 
Ajgai'ah or Pipri Band, wild hogs, 
wolves, and foxes are very numerous, 
it is 12 m. from Ban&ras, on the Ghd- 
zlpdr Boad. 

Before leaving Bandras, the traveller 
should visit the shop of Ldld Devi 
Prasdd, near the Purdnd Chauk, where 
all kinds of beautiful fabrics and pic- 
tures on mica, as well as toys and. fans 
of peacocks' feathers, may be purchased. 
It is desirable to avoid employing a 
daldlf or broker, as they expect a fourth 
of the price of each article purchased. 
This they call kojuif or " comer,*' an 
expressive word, which means 4 dnds 
in the rupee. In driving to the shop 
the Clock Tower is passed; you then 
turn to the right, and drive till you 
can go no further in a carriage, and 
^hen walk a little way to the lef k) and 



on the left is Devf s house. Devi him- 
self died on the 9th of November, 1876^ 
from an illness brought on by grief at 
the death of his younger son, Sukh 
Deo, who was killed, when visiting 
the Town Hall, by the fall of some 
bricks. This so affected the old man, 
that he became subject to aben*ation of 
mind, and died in his 69th year. His 
eldest son, Balbhadradds, has succeeded 
him, and is a young man of good pre- 
sence and manners. The principal 
room for dealing is upstairs, quite 
away from the street, where the gor- 
geous brocades would excite too much 
interest amongst the passers-by. The 
room is dark, the door has over it, 
" Worship to the divine Ganesh." A 
casket will be shown containing the 
medals gained at exhibitions by the 
firm. There are a Bronze Medal in- 
scribed, " 1862, Londini Honoris 
Causa," an Awadh Agricultural Medal, 
N.W. Prov., a Bronze Medal, given at 
the Great Exhibition of 1851, a Bronze 
Medal of the Nagpiir Exhibition, 1855, 
and others. The firm complain that the 
hotels exact a commission of 2^ per 
cent., and if this is not given the guides 
take people to other shops, or otherwise 
mislead travellers. Here are table- 
mats from 16 rs. upwards, and silk bro- 
cade at 246 rs. a yard. There are reti- 
cules from 7 J rs.to 23 rs. These are given 
at Indian marriages as purses. There 
are scarfs, 1^ yds. long, at 90 rs., white 
scarfs at 52 rs., and those called lungU^ 
which are of 2 colours, at 46 rs. The 
firm possess letters fi*om Indian civi- 
lians of distinction, and others, as one 
from Martin Gubbins, dated 25th of 
February, 1862. 

The traveller, having seen Bandras, 
must consider whether he can afford 3 
weeks* time to visit Awadh and Kohil- 
khand, and then proceed to Agra and 
Dihlf, and the other places mentioned 
in the following routes, and then return 
via AUdhdbdd to Calcutta, or by AUd- 
hdbdd and Jaba]pi!ir to Bombay, before 
the first week in April, when the great 
heat sets in. .Should he decide to give 
up Awadh and Rohilkhand, he will pro- 
ceed to Alldhdbdd by the route whic' 
follows ;-r 

\ 



224 Route 23,-^Bandras to Jaioanpiir (Jaunpcfre). Sect. II. 



Dist. from 
Ban&ras. 


Names of Stations. 


Time. 


MUes. 

6 

45 

101 


Banaras . 
MuyrhulSarAi . . 
Mirzdpur . 
AlUlidbad 


p. u. 
1.0 
1.45 
3.40 
5.46 



From Mughal Sar41 you pass through 
a flat country richly cultivated, lie 
stations are on the left hand, except the 
one at Mlrzipiir. The famous fort at 
Chundr is seen at about 2 m. distance, 
and thence the country to AlUhibM 
is truly lovely, studded with fine tops 
of treeis. MirzapiHr is a very large 
town with spreading suburbs. For the 
description of Alldhdbdd, refer to 
Route 42. 



ROUTE 23. 

banAras to jawanpi^s. 

The traveller must proceed to the 
Awadh and Rohilkhand Railway, the 
station of which is about ) of a m. to 
the S. of Chirke's Hotel. The stations 
along this line are as follows : — 



Miles from 
Bandras. 


Names of Stations. < Time. 

1 


4 
12 
18 
25 
32 

1 


Ban&ras . • . 
Sheopiir 

B41ritpi:ir. . . 
Phulptir :. 
Jal&lgan} . . . 
Jawanpur (Civil) . 

JawanpiHr (City) . 


A. M. 

8.45 

9.7 

9.52 

10.82 

11.12 

11.59 

P.M. 

1.80 



There are 2 stations at Jawanptkr — ^the 
city or Zafar&b^ station, which is used 
by passengers coming from Faif&b&d, 
and the cantonment station, usied by 
itiose coming from BanAras. The first 
thing to be seen is the famous bridge 
over the Gumtl, which became pro- 
verbial for its excellence in Hindi 
writings. To reach it the traveller 
will pass under 2 gateways. On the 
first, called the Sardl, at the height of 
18 ft., is written " Flood Level," which 
marks the height to which the water 
rose in the great Flood of 1774. Most 
of the houses were then destroyed, and 
troops passed in boats over the top of the 
bridge, from the top of the parapet of 
which to the surface of the water is now 
29 ft. 4 in. The bridge has 10 arohes, 
besides 4 others smaller, 2 at each end, 
beyond the water. The bridge is 400 
ft. long. It is of stone, and was com- 
menced in 1564, and completed in 3 
years, by Fahlm, a freed man of MuAim 
Kh4n. one of Akbar's high officers. 
In the B^ o Bah&r (English Trans- 
lation, p. 222) we read : " BihzAd 
Kh&Q caused the princess and me 
to stand in the aroh of a bridge, 
which had 12 arches, and was like 
the Bridge of Jawanpiir." The B^ 
o Bah4r is an Urdii translation of tne 
" Story of the Four Dervishes," written 
by Aui!ir Khusrau, who died in 1815, 
A.D. The bridge is said to have 
cost £300,000. There is a story that 
^bar, who was fond of sailing on 
the river, saw a woman crying, and 
inquired the reason. She said she 
was a widow, and could not afford 
to pay for a boat to cross. Akbar 
then ordered that a ferry boat should 
be placed there, and that widows 
should be permitted to cross without 
payment. He also suggested to the 
KhAn Khdndn that a bridge should 
be built, which was done. The Jawan- 
piir Ndmali, or *' History of Jawanptir," 
adds some absurd details to this story. 
On the 2nd arch is the following 
inscription :— 

KhAn KhIkan Mun'im, 
'The Centre of the World, 

Built this bridge, 

By the aid of the Mercifol. 

His name of Muk'im henoe arose that he 

Was at onoe beneficent and meroiftil 



Sect. 11. 



jRotUe 23. — Jatoanpdr (Jaunpore), 



225 



By its Ann road is displayed , it cleaned and repaired. Some think 

The highway^toPaw^e^ worJ*^''' "^^' I ^*.^ itsname from a goddess called 
From the word which gives the date, 



It will give the chronogram in 
^iritu '1 Mostakim. 

On the 3rd arch there is the following 
inscription : — 

KhAn KbAnAn, 

Who is the heaven of beneficence 

And Tvhose door is the point to which 

All hearts turn in prayer, 

Built this bridge of stone over the river, 

That at all times x)eople may 

Pass over it ; 

As he was favoured by God, he built the bridge, 

And its date became Al^l Alldh. 

According to the rules of Amjady by 
which corresponding figures are as- 
signed to the Arabic letters, the date 
is formed from the words §irAj;u '1 
MustaJ^m. 



90 


. S 


200 . 


. . R 


1 


. A 


9 . 


. . T 


1 


. A 


30 . 


. . L 


40 


. M 


60 . 


. . fS 


400 


. T 


100 . 


. . K' 


10 


. i 


40 . 


. . M 



081 



A^la. The pulpit is of stone, and has 
11 steps. It is 8 ft. high, and 13 ft. 
2J in. long. On a black Mihr&b, or 
alcove, in the centre of the place where 
they say prayers, is a verse of the 
Kur'4n, and above it the Creed. The 
Great Square is 174 ft. 6 in., inside mea- 
surement from E. to W., and 176 ft. 10 
in. from N. to S. The N. and S. sides 
have each a dome, supported by 2 
double and 2 quadruple pillars. The 
E. side has no dome, but 4 double 
supports in the front row, and 3 rows 
of 2 pillars and a pilaster behind, and 

2 scalloped arches beyond. In the 
centre of the large square is a well 
with a fine citron-leaved Indian fig- 
tree (^Ficu8 venosa). The faQade is 74 
ft. 8 in. high, adorned with a finely 
wiitten quotation in Arabic, meaning, 
'• Verily He has led thee to a secure 
path." The Square where prayers 
are made is 35 ft. from N. to S., and 
29i from E. to W. At the S.W. 
corner of the large square, ascend by 
IG steps to a latticed stone gallery, 
which was reserved for the women ; 
thence 16 more steps lead to the ter- 
raced roof of the cloisters. There is an 
upper room, 9 ft. high. At the back of 
the dome, behind the centre of the 
fft9ade, there is a sort of minaret with 

3 stories. 
The next place to visit is the Friday 

Mosque, wMch was built by Suljdn 
Qusain bin Mahmiidbin Sultdn Ibrahim 
in 883 A.H., though according to the 
table given in " Pfinsep's Antiquities," 
by Thomas, in vol. ii. p. 312, he fled to 
the court of 'AlAu 'd din in 881, and died 
there. The date, however, 883, was 
carved on a stone over the door which 
faces the E., but now that stone has 
been broken. The traveller will turn 
back from the bridge into the main 
road, and after proceeding Jth of a m., 
turn up a narrow lane to the Friday 
Mosque. In passing along the W. side, 
it will be observed that it is built like 
the wall of a fortress. It is 218 ft. 6 in. 
long, and has a sort of tower of 3 
stories, like that in tba M<sKa.'^^2S«5?ifc. 



The year 981 of the Hijrah corre- 
si)onds to 1573 A.D., and deducting 
6 years for the word Bad as prescribed, 
it would have been commenced in 
1567. This does not quite coincide 
with the date usually assigned, but 
must of course be accurate. 

There used to be shops on either side 
of the bridge, but they were swept 
away in the great flood of 1774. Two 
new ones, however, were built by Mr. 
Moens. The traveller will drive over 
the bridge, and at 200 yds. to the N. of 
it turn to the right, when he will see, 
at 75 yds. off, the entrance to the Great 
Square of the Mosque. It is called the 
A^6lah Mosque, because, as some say, 
the camp equipage of the king was 
kept there when not in use. It used 
to be an idol temple, but was partly 
destroyed in Saltan Ibr^him^s reign 

and oonverted into a mosque. Mr. - vo 

WeUmid, in am. 1216=: AJ). 1802, had\ cnteT a.t ^\i<b ^. svdL^ >cr3 11 ^^e^^^^^«^^ 



226 



Eoute 28. — Bandras to JauHtnpur (Jaunpore). Sect. II. 



are 20 ft. high. On the left jamb of 
the door is a stone, 'with an inscription 
in the Fill or Old Sanskrit character. 
It is 1 ft. 4 in. high and 1 ft. 1 in. broad, 
and is put in about 6 ft. from the ground. 
The E. side and the E. end of the N. 
side have fallen or been pulled down, 
but enough remains of the centre of the 
E. side to show that it had a dome. 
Many stones from Hindii temples have 
been built into the walls. The facade 
of the mosque resembles that of the 
At41a mosque, but is exquisitely carved, 
and is ornamented with many Mlll^r&bs, 
or alcoves. It is 83 ft. 6 in. high, and 
faced with smooth stone, Inside which 
is rubble. The centre arch has 5 small 
arches on either side. In each half of 
the other sides there are 10 double 
pillars and 2 pilasters. There is a 
dome in the centre of each side. The 
Great Square is 216 ft. 8 in. from N. to 
S., and 214 ft. 8 in. from E. to W., 
inside measurement, and has a dry 
reservoir in the centre. Beyond is a 
corridor, 20 ft. 8 in. broad. To ttie N. 
of the mosque are the ruins of a palace 
of the Sharki kings, the S. wall of 
which approaches the N. wall of the 
mosque, within 30 ft. The quadrangle 
of this palace has been converted into 
a cemetery, and the first tomb is that 
' of Ghuldm *Ali Sh4h, with an inscrip- 
tion in Persian, which may be trans- 
lated : — 

The Shdh of high descent, OhulAm 'Aii, 

Possessed the love of 'Aii. 

both hidden and manifest. 

He TOepared to leave tliis transitory world, 

To go to the Etenial Abode which 

has no decay. 

When I asked the aged l^ge of Reason 

The year of the date of the death of this 

Friend of 'AiA, 

He gave from the invisible world 

This response : 

*' He has found a place in the 

Celestial Paradise." 

In the centre, beyond this tomb, is that 

of SuljAn Ibrdhim Shdh. The only 

inscription is on a round stone in the 

centre, which has the Xalimah, and 

\bove it there is a brick the size of the 

ifjm of a lady^s hand, brought from 

iakka^ with the remains of an in* 

option, now wholly iilegible* Next 

-- ^e tomb of Ihi&him ia that of his 



son, Sultdn Hdshim Sh&h, with this 
inscription: — 

ShAh HAshim, 

A Shdh of happy qualities, 

Was a Mine of accomplishments, of amiability 

And courtesy. 

He departed full of travail from this 

World of woe to Puadise, 

Where there are endless eigoyments. 

I declare the date of his decease as follows :— 

Alas 1 for the Sh&h. 

Who was called a fresh flower. 

The date is given in figures 976 A.H. = 
1568 A.D. On the E. wall is this 
further inscription : — 

The Invisible Sage 

Said with regard to the date, 

The tomb of SultAn HAshim 

Is like tib^t of the fialries. 

In the principal mosque the pulpit is 
of stone, and has 8 steps. There is a 
black alcove in the centre of the 
mosque with a text from the Kur'dn 
inscribed. 

The next visit will be to the 
Fort, which will be entered from the 
N.E. by a gate 41 ft. high, covered 
once with blue and yellow enamelled 
bricks, of which beautiful portions re- 
main. The inner gate has many stones 
of idol temples, built into the walls, 
on some of which is carved the Jain 
bell. At 200 ft. from this gate is a 
low mosque, with a reservoir in front, 
and a Jain pillar 28 ft. high to a 
border, and above that an ornamental 
spire, with several projections. This 
pillar has a base sloping inward, and 
then a rim on 2 steps. The pillar 
itself has 3 divisions ; tne first portion 
being square, the 2nd octagonal, and 
the 3rd round. The base is 5 ft. 7 in. 
high. At 300 ft. beyond this pillar 
the river face of the fort is reached. 
It is 150 ft. in perpendicular height, 
and commands a noble view of the 
country and city. Before reaching it, 
the visitor will see a round tower 
called the magazine, with a hamdm 
on the left. At a market-place at the 
S. end of the bridge is a stone lion 
somewhat larger than life, which was 
found in the fort. Under it is a young 
elephant which it is supposed to have 
seized. From this aU distances in the 
city ttOii '^iONmc«ik «s& t9^is>&!bBted« 



Sect. n. 



Raate 24. — JawanpArto Ayo^ya. 



The diuTch at Uiia station is called 
Trinity Church, and is 79 ft. Jong and 
37 ft. brond. It contains a tablet to 
Han ton CollingwoodOmmane7,B.C.8., 
Judicial Commissioner of Awsdh, who 
rebuilt this chorch in 1852, and died 
at Lakhnan daring the siege, Jnl; 8th, 
1857, aged 44 jeus. With him are 
buried his 2 bom. The new cemetery 
is ltd of a m. from the church. Re- 
mark here a tablet to Charles Wemyss 
HaTelocli, Lieut in the 66th Oiiikhda 
aud 2nd in command of the 12th 
Irregolar Cavalry, only son ol Lt- 
Col. Charles Frederick Havelock," who 
was killed in action at Tigre with Sir 
B. Lug'ard's force, whilst gallantly 
leading his men of the 12th Irr^inlai 
CBvaliT in a chai^ against the 
rebels. Observe, slso, a tablet to 
James Sonth Barwise, of Farldib^, 
who was speared to death by gong 
lobbers, December lutb, 1844. 

Besides the mosques already men- 
tioned, there are 6 others which may 
be visited. 1. Mosque of Malik Kh41i^ 
Mukhli?, which was a temple buUt by 
RAji Bij4i Chand, which was broken 
down 1^ Malik KhfUij and Malik 
Huhhlif, by order of Sult&n Ibrihlm. 
They built this ntosqne in the place of 
it. In one of the pillars is a black 
stone, stilt worshipped by the Hindus, 
and said by them to always measure 
the same whoever Bpane it. 2. Cha- 
chakpilr Mosque was a temple built 
by Jii Chand, and converted by ijik- 
andar into a mosque. 3. Mosque of 
Bibi lUji,qneeuof Bult^n Mnhanunad, 
son of Ibrahim, Bhebnilt it in A.H. 
801!, and called it Maljallah Naw^ 
Gh.6,%. The entrance gateway is the 
Ldl Dsrw^ah, and fHces K., and iB of 
grey and red sandstone. It is 3-storied, 
and is 29^ ft. high, to which must be 
added the steps that lead up from the 
road, and which are 6 ft. high. The 
total height, therefore, is 354 ^- I<^ 
ia handsomely carved, with numerous 
alcoves, and ornaments of lotus-Qoweis 
and bells. It leads into a cloistered 
square of 133 ft, wiQi 2 rows of angle 
pillars in the cloisters. The facade is 
48 ft high, and is very massive. It is 
snpported by i double pillars in. 2 , 
roir*; I&epttJjritisof stcaie, andhas 



227 

1) steps. The Kililali is mmlced by a 
black alesve, without any vfriting. 
Over the centre arch of the screen 
there is li black round stooe^with an 
inscription. 4. Mosque of Nilwib 
Muljsui KhAa. 6ukh Mandil, who 
nno the Dlwfin of Khin Zamin KhAn, 



killed the buililing came to Mulfslii 
KhAn ,who wasoncofAkbar's courtiera, 
K]id he destroyed the pagoda, and 
built a mosque. G. The Mosque ot 
Shdh Kablr, built by B4bii Beg Jfc. 
Ingur. governor of Jawanpilr, in Ak- 
bar's reign, in 1583, in honour of the 
Haint Shih Kabir. 6. The 'Idgih 
Mosque, built hy Sultan Ousain, and 
repaireii in Akbar's roif;n by Khdn 
Khiiniin. It then feU into b Tuiriona 
fiiiitc, and WBS dcsertetl till rcatoretl hf 
Mr. WellanU. 



T 
lilkl 


stations on the An-adh and Ro- 
nud Itaihvay are as follows :— 


If 


N.™«._uf Bt^ Th... 


BemarlDk 


1 


Jawniiliiir . . 1 r.:10 

Millpiir . . . ; 4.17 
Akburpilr . . fi.:(:l 


Th« iDirijr- 

is 



228 



JRoute 24, — Jaxoanpur to Ayodkya, 



Sect. II. 



JFhi:fdbdd is the capital of a district, 
with an area of 1,686 sq. m., of which 
947 are cultivated and 285 cultnrable. 
The pop. is 1,026,088. It was 646 sq. 
m. larger 7 years ago, but that area 
was taken from it then and added to 
the SuljAnpiir District. It is worse 
stocked with game than any district 
in Awadh. The city has fallen into 
decay since the death, in 1816, of 
Bahii Bigam, who held it rent-free for 
18 years. It contains 49 MahallaSy or 
quarters, and covers the lands of 9 
villages, but the Fa^l^ or fortification 
thrown up by Shuji'u 'd daulah after 
his defeat at Bagsar, comprehends 19 
villages. The pop. is 36,550, of whom 
21,930 are Hindus, and the rest Mus- 
lims, of whom 9,868 are Shf as, and 
the rest Sunnis. There are 36 Hindii 
temples, of which 26 are to Shiva, 
10 to Vi§hnu, and 1 belonging to the 
NAnak Shdhls. There are 1 1 4 mosques 
and one Imdmb4rah. The Eam- 
naumi Fair is attended by 500,000 
pilgrims. FaizdbAd is bounded to the 
St. by the Gogra river, and the N, of 
that by the Gonda District. The 
Gogra divides into 2 streams, both of 
which are crossed by pontoon bridges, 
• The cantonment lies to the N.W. of 
the Indian city, at the S.W. comer 
of which the railway from Ban&ras 
passes. The T. B. is at the S.E. comer 
of the cantonment, about ^ a m. to the 
N. of the railway. 

The first place to be visited is 
the mausoleum of the Bahii (written 
by Cunningham, BAo) Blgam, which 
is about \\ m. to the S.E. of the T. B. 
She was wife of ShujA'u 'd daulah, 
Niiwdb of Awadh, and mother of 
A'^afu 'd daulah. On the ground fioor 
is a square room, measuring 44 ft. 
8 in. It contains a sepulchral slab of 
streaked black-and-white marble, with 
a border of pure white. There is no 
inscription. In the 1st upper platform 
is a white maible slab edged with 
black marble. This, also, has no in- 
scription. The 1st upper platform is 
190 ft. 5 in. sq., and the 2nd upper 
platform is 114 ft. 2, in. sq. There are 
15 steps of 9 J in. each to the 1st plat- 
fonn, and thence to the 2nd platform 
are S2 steps of 1 ft, each, and 



I thence to the rim round the dome, 
39 steps of 10 in. each, and thence 
to the top of the interior of the dome 
6 steps of 9^ in., and above that to the 
top of the ornament on the outer dome 
60 ft.; so that the total height may be 
taken at 140 ft. The mausoleum of 
Shuj&'u ^d daulah is cloee by, and is 
something like the Blgam's, but, in- 
cluding the subordinate buildings, is 
larger. At each of the 4 comers of 
the building are an oblong reservoir, 
and a square one. In the centre room 
on the ground floor are 3 slabs without 
any writing. The centre slab is that 
of ShujA'u 'd daulah. His mother's is 
to the W., and that of his son, Man§iir 
'All, to the E. In the W. side of the 
inclosure is a mosque at the N. end, 
with an Imdmb4rah on the S. The 
place for a tablet is seen in the E. 
face of the mosque wall, but so care- 
lessly were things done in Awadh that 
it has not been filled in, and nowhere 
is there any inscription, though the 
building cost a vast sum. There are 
16 steps of 11 in. each to the 1st upper 
platform, which is 124 ft. 9 in. sq., 
and 27 steps of one ft. each to the 2nd 
upper platform, which is 81 ft. sq. 
Here may be seen the Datura plant, 
which is much used for poisoning in 
Awadh and other parts of India. It has 
an oval lanceolate leaf, and grows to 
the height of 6 or 7 ft. ; the flower is 
trumpet-shaped, and of a purplish- 
white colour. Every part is poisonous, 
and a woman was treated in the Hos- 

Eital here, in 1877, for dementia, from 
aving had a poultice of the leaves 
applied to her knee for rheumatism, 
which it took away, but drove her mad 
for a time. There were at one time 
27 patients here, who had gone mad 
from eating Datura seeds, given them 
in prosody that is, food offered to idols. 
From the sacred character of this 
food, which is bestowed as a great 
favour on devotees, it is eaten without 
apprehension, and is thus of great 
service to professional poisoners. 

The Jail. — The traveller may next 
visit the Jail, which is a divisional one, 
and is only J a m. to the N.W. of the 
mauBoleums. It contains about 4S0 
pTiBonei«,olNii\)Oia^«sft^crKOJ»y. Mfin 



Sect. II. 



Soute 24. — Faizdbdd — Ayodhya, 



229 



are here taught to read and write/ but 
women receive no instruction, and this 
is too often the case in Indian jails. 
After returning to the T. B. the tra- 
veller may drive to the church — St. 
Andrew's, about a mile to the N.W. of 
the T. B. It was built 25 years ago. 
There are 3 inscriptions, one of which 
is to 5 officers of the 11th Foot The 
cemetery is a little way to the N. of 
the church. The shape of the tombs 
is very peculiar — ^they resemble long 
baths, and there is nothing like them 
in any other cemetery. The visitor 
will be struck by the numbers of tablets 
to persons who have died of cholera. 

In the " Gazetteer of Awadh " recently 
published (vol. i. pp. 485-488) will be 
found a list of 31 buildings which are 
supposed to possess some interest, but 
most of them have disappeared, or 
are not in the city but district of 
Faif&b&d. The tomb of Sh4h Jah&n 
Ghorl is said to be nearly 700 years 
old, but no one seems to know where it 
is situated. The traveller may, how- 
ever, drive to Fort Calcutta, whence 
he will see the bridges over the Gogra, 
and come at a short distance to the 
Gupta Park, which is prettily laid out. 
On the right of the road, and close to 
it, is a tall stone, on the W. side of 
which is " 1861, Gupta Gardens ;" on 
the E. side,"H.M.*s Bengal Cavalry,21st 
PanjAb, N. L ; " on the S. side,"l— 11th 
Brigade B. A., H.M.'s 1st Battalion 
23rd R. W. F., H.M.*8 31st Regt." At 
the S. end of the Park is a temple, 
where they say R4m disappeared. 
Here descend 12 steps to a dark pas- 
sage, which leads to an open vault, at 
the end of which is a small cylinder. 
On the floor is a stone, with the marks 
of 2 feet in alto-rilievo, 5J in. long, as 
if a delicate woman had trodden there 
with bare feet and left the impress. 
The Mahant informs visitors that Bdma 
made these marks 11,000 years ago. 
The first NiiwAb of Awadh, Sa'Adat 'All 
Khdn, seldom appeared at Fal^&bAd, 
though it was his nominal capital, nor 
did his successor, §afdar jang ; but in 
1776 Shujd'u *d daulah, who succeeded, 
took up his permanent residence there. 
When defeated at Bagsar he fled to 
FaifdbAd, and oomtmct^ the lofty 



entrenchment whose ramparts of 
ranmied clay frown over the Gogra. 
At his death, in 1775, his widow, the 
Bahii Blgam, who had been guaranteed 
by the British Government the pos- 
session of her enormous jointure, re- 
mained at Faiz&bdd, while A'$afd 'd 
daulah, the then NiiwAb, removed to 
Lakhnau. At the end of May, 1857, 
the troops in Faizdb&d cantonment 
consisted of the 22nd Beng. N. I., under 
Colonel Lennox ; the 6th Irreg. Awadh 
Inf., commanded by Lt.-Col. C. Brien ; 
a troop of Irreg. Cav., and a company 
of the Beng. Art., with 1 Horse Battery 
of light field guns, under the command 
of Major Mill. When confidence was 
shaken in the Sip^his, arrangements 
were made with Itdjd Mdn Singh to 
protect the women and children, but 
an order was sent from Lakhnau to 
arrest him, which was done by Colonel 
Goldney, the Commissioner of Fai^d- 
bAd. The Assistant-Commissioner, how- 
ever, obtained his release, and he 
then took the ladies and children to 
his fort of Shdhganj. On the 3rd of 
June it was reported that the muti- 
neers of the 17th Beng. N. I. were ad- 
vancing from 'A?;imgai:h. At 10 P.M. 
on June 8th, an alarm was sounded in . 
the lines of the 6th Irreg. Awadh Inf., 
which was taken up by the 22nd N. I., 
and the battery prepared for action, 
when the 2 companies in support of 
the guns crossed bayonets over the 
vents, and prevented the Artillery 
officer from approaching. The cavalry 
then placed picquets round the lines, 
and two officers, trying to escape, were 
firod at, and brought back. At sun- > 
rise on the the 9th the officers were 
allowed to take to the boats, except 
Colonel Lennox and his family. 
His full-dress regimentals were taken 
by a Maulavi, The Siibahd4r-Major 
then took command of the Station. A 
full account of the flight and sufferings 
of the rest will be found in the " Awadh 
Gazetteer," vol. i. pp. 477-483. Many 
were killed, and amongst them Colonel 
Goldney, the Commissioner. Lieuts. 
Currie and Parsons were drowned, and 
Lieuts. Lindsay^ G«wi\'e^^^».^^^^^2^'^^ 

\ Aijodli'ya, ^wi^T^J^ Avi>va-WA«'> ^^^ 



230 



Houte 24. — Jawanpdr to Ayodhya, 



Sect 



.II. \ 



A, " not," and Tuddh^ *' to make war," 
= * not to be warred against,' is in N. 
lat. 26° 47', and E. Ion. 82° 16', on the 
banks of the Gogra. In the *' Gazet- 
teer of Awadh," vol. i. p. 2, it is said 
that this town is to the Hindii what 
Makka is to the Mnlgiammadans, and 
Jerusalem to Ihe Jews. The ancient 
city is said to have covered an area of 
48 kos, or 96 m., and to have been the 
capital of Koshal4 or Koshald, "the 
resplendent," from Ku8h, " to shine" — 
the country of the. Solar race of kings, 
of whom Manu was the first, Rdmchan- 
dra the 57th, and Sumitra the 113th 
and last. It is doubtful for what 
reason the Solar race dispersed, but it 
is certain that the ancestors of the 
rulers of Udipiir, Jodhpiir, and other 
RAjpiit cities, wandered, with their 
followers, over India, until they at last 
settled in Rdjpiitdnd. For some cen- 
turies the Buddhists, under Ashoka 
and his successors, were supreme. 
Vikramajit is said to have restored 
Brdhmanism, and to have traced 
the ancient city by the holy river Sarju, 
which was the ancient name of the 
, Gogra, properly GhAgri, and to have 
indicated the shrines to which pilgiims 
still flock. Tradition says that Vikram 
ruled for 80 years, and was succeeded 
by the Jogi Samundra ViX, who spirited 
away the Rdjd's soul and entered his 
body. He and his successors ruled 
for 643 years. This dynasty was suc- 
ceeded by a Jain dynasty, the Shri 
Bdstam family, and these again by the 
Kanauj dynasty. A copper grant of 
J&l Chand, the last of the Kanauj 
Bothers, dated 1187 A.D., was found 
near Fai?4bM. This date is 6 years 
before his death (see " As. Soc. Joum.," 
vol. X. part i. p. 861). Koshald was the 
cradle of Buddhism, for Sh4kya Muni, 
its founder, was born at Kapila, in the 
Goi-akhpiir district, and preached at 
Ayodhya. Here, too, was bom Eikhab 
Deo, of Ik^hwdku's royal race, who 
founded the Jain faith. The Chinese 
traveller, Hiouen-Tsang, found at Ayo- 
dhya 20 Buddhist monasteries, with 
3000 monks. Cunningham, in his 
"Arch. Survey of India" (vol. i. p. 317), 
identi&es Ayodhya,, or S4keta, with 
the Sbd'Chi of Fa-Hian, and the 



Yisdkh4 of Hiouen Tsang, at which 
grew the celebrated Tooth-brush Tree 
of 3uddha. 

The road from Faizdbad cantonment 
to Ayodhya, 5J m., is excellent. On 
leaving Fai^&bdd you pass through 
2 arches, and on entering Ayodhya, 
stop and alight. Then turn to the left 
up a narrow street to a place where 
there are a few shops ; then turn again 
to the left, and ascend 45 steps, which 
are opposite M&n Singh's house. As- 
cend 15 more steps to a platform, 
where is the Janamasth^ temple. In 
the sanctum are images of Sitd and 
Rdm. H&m has a gleaming jewel of 
large size, which looks like a light- 
coloured sapphire. The temple is an 
oblong of about 200 ft. x 150 ft. The 
walls are 45 ft. high, and seem strong 
enough for a fortress ; which justifies 
its name of Hanumdn Gaph, '^Hanu- 
m&n's foi*tress." This is also called 
Bimkot. It is said by Cunningham 
to be of Aurangzib's time. The 
neighbouring trees swarm with middle- 
siz^ grey monkeys of grave demean- 
our. The images of Bdm and Sit4 arc 
in a shrine, the door of which has a 
silver frame 6 ft. high and 1 ft. broad. 
The traveller will now walk 400 
yds. to the N.W., to the temple of 
Kanak Bhawan, or Sone K^ Gafh. 
There are images of Slt& Bdm. They 
are crowned with gold, whence the 
name "Fortress of Gold." This is 
said to be the oldest temple here. The 
Janam Sth&n, or place where B4m 
Chandra was bom, is i of a m. to the 
W. of the Hanumdn Gayh. Close to 
the door, and outside it, is a Mu^am- 
madan cemetery, in which 165 persons, 
according to the "Gazetteer" 75 persons, 
are buried, all Muslims, who were 
killed in a fight between the Muslims 
and Hindiis for the possession of 
the temple in 1855. The Muslims 
on that occasion cha]*ged up the 
steps of the Hanum^u Garh, but 
wei-e driven back with considerable 
loss. The Hindi!u3 followed up their 
success, and at the 3rd attempt took 
the Janam Sthdn, at the gates of which 
the Muslims who were killed were 
buried, the place being called Ganj i 
\ S\iaUdii.Ti, 01 ^^ Qitw^ ot tbka Mactyta," 



Sect. II. 



£oute 24. — Ayodhya. 



231 



Eleyen Hindiis were killed, and were 
thrown into the river. Several' of the 
King of Awadh's regiments were look- 
ing on, but their orders were not to 
interfere. Up to that time both Hindiis 
and Mull^ammadans used to worship in 
the temple. Since British rule a rail- 
ing has been put up, within which the 
Muslims pray. Outside, the Hindi!is 
make their offerings. The actual 
Janam Sth&n is a plain masonry plat- 
form, just outside the mosque or temple, 
but within the inclosure, on the left- 
hand side. The primeval temple 
perished, but was rebuilt by Vikram, 
and it was his temple that the Muslims 
converted into a mosque. Europeans 
are expected to take off their shoes if 
they enter the building, which is quite 
plain, with the exception of 12 black 
pillars taken from the old temple. 
On the pillar on the left of the door 
as you enter, may be seen the remains 
of a figure which appears to be either 
Krishna or an Apsard. There are 2 
alcoves, one on either side of the main 
arch, and a stone pulpit, on the steps 
of which is an inscription now illegible. 
The building is about 38 ft. by 18 ft. 

The next walk will be to the Sarju, 
or 6hdghr&, now known as the Gogra 
river, which is ^ of a m. off, and near 
it is a Mu^ammadan cemetery, in 
which are shown 2 tombs without in- 
scriptions, which are said to be those 
of Englishmen who perished during 
the mutiny. Between this and Janam 
Sthdn is a Naugajl tomb, a name given 
to many very large tombs, and implying 
that the people buried there were 9 
yds. long. It is 46 ft. long, 4 ft. broad, 
and 4 ft. high, whitewashed, and quite 
plain. At about ^ of a m. to the N. 
of Janam Stbdn is Swarga Dw&ra, or 
Kdm Ghdt, where Bdma bathed ; and 
i of a m. to the S.W. of it is Lak$h- 
man's Ghdt, where Lak^hman, the 
half-brother of Rdma, bathed. A mile 
to the S. of Hanumdn Garh is the 
Mani Parbat, and to its 8. again is the 
Kuver Parbat and Sugriv Parbat. The 
Mani Parbat Hill is 65 ft. high, and is 
covered with broken bricks and blocks 
of masonry. The bricks are 11 in. sq. 
and 3 in. thick. At 46 ft. above the 
groand, 022 the W. side, are the lemftinB 



of a curved wall faced with Kanhir 
blocks. According to the Brdhmans, 
the Mani Parbat is one of the hills 
which were dropped by the monkeys 
when aiding B4ma. It was dropped 
by Sugrlva, the Monkey-King of Kish- 
kindhya. The common people say that 
it was formed of the bricks and d$brU 
shaken by the labourers out of their 
baskets every evening, on their return 
from building Rdmkot. Hence it is 
known by the name of Jhowa-jhAr, or 
Ora-jh4r, meaning '^ basket - shak- 
ings." To the S., at the distance of 
500 ft,, is the Kuver Parbat, which is 
28 ft. high. The surface is covered 
with brick rubbish, with numerous 
holes made in digging for bricks, which 
are 11 in. by 7^ in. by 2 in. Between 
the Mani and Kuver mounds is an in- 
closure measuring 64 ft. from B. to W., 
and 47 from N. to S., in which are the 
tombs of Seth, 17 ft. long ; and Job, 
12 ft. long, mentioned by Abii Fazl, 
who, however, gives them the length 
of 7 cubits and 6 cubits. Near the 
Lak^hman Ghd^ is a large modem 
temple, built by the KAj4 of Bhriya, 
with many daubs of pictures represent- 
ing Kfi^lma and Hddhd. One-sixth of 
a m. &om'this is a hill 90 ft. high, with 
a small Jain temple, sacred to Adin^th. 
To enter this temple you ascend 30 
steps. In a small closet is a tablet 
marked " Samwat, 1851." At 150 yds 
further is the tomb of Shdh Ibrahim, 
with a Persian inscription on the wall, 
which may be translated thus : — 

When I asked the Sage 

The date of his decease, 

He said, 

" Give the lover the good news of 

Meeting his mistress." 

The words 'A'shi^ Bawasal i M'ashi!i^ 
are the chronogram. There are 6 
scalloped arches in the E. side of the 
mausoleum, 3 in the S., and 3 in the 
N. This is about 100 yds. from the 
Swarga DwAra, where are the vast 
ruins of a mosque, with an iron post 
21 in. long and 6 in. broad. There are 
2 minarets 40 ft. high and about 30 in. 
round. They are probably of the time - 
of Anrangzib. 



232 



Eoute 25. — Faizdbdd to ZaMnau (Lucknow). Sect. II. 



is the Sugriv Parbat, which is 560 ft. 
long by 300 ft. broad, and that the 
Mani Parbat is the Stupa of Ashoka, 
200 ft. high, built on the spot where 
Buddha preached the law during his 6 
years' residence at Sdketa. 



ROUTE 25. 

faizJlbAb to lakhnau (lucknow). 

The Stations on the Awadh and Ro- 
Mlkhand Railway are as follows : 



a^ 










Names of Sta- 
tions. 


Time. 


Remarks. 


1^ 










P.M. 






FalzAMd . . . 


7.55 


Here the 






A.M. 


traveller 


10 


Sohdwal 


5.20 


will have 


18 


Baragdoil . . 


5.50 


to wait 9 


24 


Badauli 


6.15 


hours. 


S3 


Makdumpur . . 


6.49 




88 


Duridbdd . 


7.16 




50 


^af dai^nj . . 
Rasaulf 


8.5 




56 


8.27 




«2 


NiiwdbgaDJ . . 


8.41 


There is 


69 


Jagaur 


9.23 


here a re- 


72 


Malhaur . . 


9.39 


freshment* 


80 


Lakhnau . 


10.2 room. 



The Luggage Office will be closed 10 minutes 
before starting the train. Luggage arriving 
after that time will be weighed and charged 
for at destination. 

Lalihnau. — This city lies in N. lat. 
?• 52', and E. long, 81°. It is 42 m. 
of Kdnbpiir, 199 m. :^in Bandras, 



and 610 m. from Calcutta. It covers 
36 sq. m., and has a pop. of 273,126, 
of whom }ths are Hindtis, and is the 
largest city in the Indian Empire 
after Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. 
It is the capital of Awadh, and has been 
so since A^afu 'd daulah in 1775, 
moved the seat of government to it. 
In the " Awadh Gazetteer," vol. ii. p. 
357, there is a blunder as to the acces- 
sion of this Niiwdb ; it says: " Asifu 'd 
daulah commenced his rule in 1798, 
which is the date of his brother S*addat 
'All's accession." It is the chief 
town of a province, with an area 
of 26,131 sq. m., and has a pop. of 
11,174,670, or 476 to the sq. m. It is 
situated on the W. bank of the Gumti, 
but there are suburbs on the E. bank. 
The river takes a bend to the S. W., 
and in the bend on the W. bank is the 
Residency, a little to the N. of which 
the Gumti is passed by the Iron Bridge. 
This is the (Sty Residency, but there 
was also a cantonment Residency, the 
cantonments being 2J m. to the S. of 
the city, on the banks of Qaidar's or 
Gh^ziu 'd din's Canal, which runs 
from the Gumti at Jayamdn to the 
W. cutting the Currie, Dilkushd, Can- 
tonment, and K^nhpi!ir Roads. The 
DAk BangU or T. B. is a few yds. to 
the W. of the Currie Road, |th of a m. 
to the N.W. of Christ Church, and 
close to the Post Office; but there is an 
excellent hotel close, to the E^ai^ar 
Bdgh, which is about* 800 yds. to the 
E. of the Residency, and there is an- 
other in J^usainganj, near the Orr 
Memorial, called Honnazdji& ^ The 
charges are only 4 rs. a day for board 
and lodging. Between the two, on the 
W. bank of the Gumti, is the Chatr 
Manzil Palace, so called from the 
Chatr, or "umbrella" which crowns 
its summit. Here is the United Ser- 
vice Club, and here, too, are the 
Theatre, Assembly Rooms, and Public 
Library. The Club would be the best 
place for a traveller, who could get 
himself elected an honorary mem^r, 
to stop at. 

The Residency. — ^This place and its 
environs demand the first attention cf 
the traveller. The Residency itself, 
with its yarVoxxa de:^\ide.TiQi»s^ »iQh as 



Sect II, Souie S5. — Lakhnau {Lwiknou)) : the Beddenci/. 



ihe BailUe Onuil* the Barracka, Ok 
Hoepftal, &c, is 2160 ft. long froiu 
N.W. to S.E., and 1200 ft. broad from 
B. to W., that is, from the Bailliu 
QtiBrd to GubbinB' Battery. There ie 
A model oarefuUj made b; Chaplaiii 
Hoore of the Hesidency and the gar. 
ronndiDg houses, at the Museum. It 
npieeents the Residency before th^ 
clearanceB were made. Srcry one 
who desires to nnderstHnd the siege 
anf^ht carefully to examine this moilel. 
He will then see the great disadvan^ 
ti^es onder which tbc besieged fot^ht, 
as the eneuiy were close to them all 
round, and under cover. The first 
thing the traveller will see on his 
visit to the Residency is an obelisk, 
erected by Lord "NorUibrook, in front 
ot the Baillie Qoard, but a little to the 
right as yoD enter. On the B. face of 
tlM obelisk is inscribed ; — 
In Meinmy of 
The NaUv* Offleeni and SlpihlB 

r, 41st Nltivs Infantry, 



li lireeutar Foi 

Wbu dlod Bear tUa apnl 
Nobly perfarming their <ti 



It should be s^d, that on the even- 
JDg of the 17th of May, a part of the 
82nd Foot, with guns, hod been 
brought into the Hesidency from the 
cantwunents (Bee Kaye, toL iii. p. 
497), and they brought witji them 
great numbers of Englishwomen and 
children. To accommodate these, the 
, Gorernment Records were removed 
, from the Banqueting Hall, wliich was 
to the N. of the Baillie Guard. The 
Tteasniy close to it contdned 30 

* ThaDaDieorthlscelebratedOuanlla spelt 
In Mvemi w*n. lu tlie inau u< Uiws' " Per- 
•mal Namtive," DaUy, but in Ills text i.t 
p. KM It ii Bailey. In Uie Government Uau 
pntallabed In ie;o it BBiltee. In Keetu^^ 
''OoldB" itiaBalUle, and tlilHii currecl, for It 
«■■ bout by MMlor Baillle, who was Resident 
■t Uduwa, In lUl See Mm, vol. \iU.. 
JLllL ' 



' likha of mpees in catdi, and a larger 
I sum in Government securities. A guard 
of Slp^is had been in charge of the 
I Treasury, but a European guard was 
I now substituted. The defences of Vtie 
' Hesidency and itd buildings, begin- 
ning from the Baillie Guard on the E. 
and proceeding to the N., were, Ist, 
Alexander's Battery; 2nd, Water Gate 
Battery ; 3rd, Redan Battery ; Ith, a 
palisade; and then turning S., Uie 
Innis Garrison, the BhdsA Guard, Om- 
maiiey's Battery, the Gubbins' Garri- 
son, and Gubbins' Battery, the Sikh 
Bqaare ; and turning to the E., the 
Kiinhpiir Battery, Thomas' Battery, 
Anderson's Garrison, Post OfGce Garri- 
son, Judicial Garrison, Sago's Guard, 
and Financi^ Garrison. The gateway 
of the Baillie Guard was a common 
archway, but the main arch had been 
built up, and as it now stands may be 
seen to be riddled with bullets. It was 
commanded by Lieut. Aitken. Ah the 

giten'ay was blocked up, Outram and 
avelock passed into the Residency 
through a small hole which was made 
in the low wall near the gateway, 
while their troops occupied posts at 
about 100ft. beyond the incloBure. On 
entering through the gateway, Dr, 
I'ayrer's house wdl be seen to the left, 
60 ft. back. In a room in this house 
Sir Henry Lawrence died, and a 
written notice says, " Here Sir H, 
Lawrence died." A small wall ran in 
front of the left part of the Baillie 
Guard, but this has been camed.away 
for the sake of the bricks. At 100 ft. 
from the Guard Toivor, which ia about 
42 ft. high, is a small pillar with 
'' Financial Post," and this is the first 
of a scries of sucb pillars which sur- 
round the Hesidency. The ground to 
the B. of this pillar rises in mounds, 
jind a little way to the W. of tliis 
pillar is another with " Sago's Post;" 
then comes " Germon's Post." At the 
fop of the slope and to tlie W, of 
Sago's, was " Residency Post." To the 
S. is " Post Office Post," and in rear 
of Germon's is" Anderson's Garrison." 
To the W. of Qennoii's, in the same 
line, is the KinUpAT 'fto.Viftvj ■^■«««, 
Thia was flve mo«. Ao.Tv?,wsaa '^sW' ■* 
all. Tte muluieeia '^■iii. -nS^a tasft- -< 



234 



Eoute 25. — Faizdhdd to Lahhnau (Lttchrum), Sectl IL 



rests in the house opposite, and swept 
the road that led through the Besidency 
inclosure here. To show oneself in that 
road was certain death. At 50 :£t. to the 
N.W. is Duprat's pillar. Duprat was 
a gallant Frenchman, who had seuved 
in the French army, and is constantly 
mentioned by Mr. L. E. Rees, in his 
" Personal Narrative." In rear of it 
was the Martini6re Post. The boys 
were employed in many ways, but 
took no part in the actual fighting. 
Johannes' house is 30 yds. to the W. 
There are the ruins of a house here 
with immensely thick walls. In rear 
of it is Luke's Battery. In the ex- 
treme N. is a pillar marking Gubbins' 
house, and in rear of it is the pillar of 
a Sikh regiment. To the E. is Ouse- 
ley's house, and S. of it Bigam's 
Kothi, a large building in which the 
ladies were quartered, and where they 
were comparatively safe. At the ex- 
treme N. is a Mandir or temple, and 
close to it the ruins of an immensely 
massive building, which appears to 
have been blown up. Here, too, is the 
billiard room. Beyond Bigam Kothl 
to the N.W. is a large building with a 
Tahkhdnah, or subterraneous apart- 
ment, in which the women of the 
32nd werie located ; you descend into 
it by 46 steps. Close ±6 this is an 
artificial mound 30 ft. high, with a 
very handsome white marble cross, 
20 ft. high at the summit. This is the 
Lawrence Memorial, and on it is in- 
scribed — 

In Memory of 
MAJOR-GEN. SIR HENRY LAWRENCE, 

K.C.B., 

And the brave men who fell 
In defence of the Residency, 
4thof July, 1857. . 

There are 8 stone steps up to the 
Cross. 

It is now requisite to give a very 
brief accDjmt of what took place be- 
fore the attack on the Residency and 
during its siege. The. first startling 
event that occurred was the mutiny of 
the 7th Awadh Irreg. Infantry, at Miisd 
Bd£A, a palace of one at the late king's 
w/ves, situated at 4} .m. from the 
S^^^^y- Jfajor GaJi, commanding 
tue 4tb Irreg, Carahy, on being in- 



formed of the imminent danger of the 
European officers, galloped up to the 
vicinity with his troopers. Soon after 
Sir H. Lawrence arrived with 4 guns, 
4 companies of H.M.'s 32nd, 2 regi- 
ments N. I., and the 7th L. Cavalry* 
The mutineers then broke and fled, 
but some were made prisoners, and 
others gave up their arms. Sir H. 
Lawrence, a few days afterwards, held 
a darbdr in the Cantonment Resi- 
dency ; the troops were drawn up, and 
2 native officers, who had given infor- 
mation of the intended outbreak, were 
promoted. Sir H.Lawrence harangued 
the troops, and the city was tranquil 
for some weeks afterwards. On the 
23rd of May, 2 detachments of cavalry 
were sent to KAnhpilr, to clear the 
road between it and Agra. One party 
was commanded by Captain Fletcher 
Hayes, the other by Major Gall, com- 
manding the 4th Irreg. Cavalry. Near 
MainpiM the party under Captain 
Hayes mutini^, and killed Mr. 
Fayrer, brother of the Residency sur- 
geon. Captain Hayes, and Lieut. 
Barber. Lieut. Carey escaped to 
Kdnhpiir, and fell there in the general 
massacre. Major Gall returned, but 
was subsequently murdered in a vil- 
lage in Awadh when carrying des- 
patches to the Governor Gener^. 

On the 30th May, the Mutiny began 
in the cantonments, in the lines of the 
71st N. I., and quickly became generaL 
Brigadier Handscombewas shot dead, 
as was Lieut. Grant, of the 71st. The 
mutineers attacked Sir Henry and his 
staff at the artillery ground, but were 
driven off with some rounds of gtape, 
which killed many of them. <Si the 
31st of May, a Mr. Mendes was mur- 
dered in his own house, in the city. 
Martial law was now proclaimed, and 
36 rebels were hanged. By Sir Henry's 
order immense supplies of wheat and 
all sorts of provisions were brought 
into the Residency, and Machchf 
Bhawan ; but for this Lakhnau would 
have been lost. This last place had 
belonged to Niiwdb 'All Khdn, and 
was bought by Sir Henry for Rs. 
60,000. It 'waa ^oitoxJiA^ Vyj \».^li 



Sect II. Eo2Ue 25. — Lakhnau (Luchnow): the Eeddency. 235 



and intricate. Towards the N. it 
commanded the Iron and Stone 
bridges. It was garrisoned by 2 com- 
panies of Europeans, one horse artil- 
lery battery, the mortar battery, and 
the Gate guns. The cholera soon 
broke out in it. On the 1st of July, 
the ^rrison having been withdrawn, 
the Machchi Bhawan was blown up 
with 250 barrels of gunpowder. On the 
11th of June, the cavalry of the Mili- 
tary Police mutinied. Their barracks 
were 1 J m. from the Residency, and 
the infantry followed their example ; 
but one Siibahd^, one Jam'siddr, 
6 I^awald^s, and 26 Sip^hls remained 
faithful, and continued to guard the 
jail. Meantime, bodies of mutineers 
were advancing on Lakhnau, and on 
the 30th of June Sir Henry, with 300 
of the 32nd, under Colonel Case, 200 
Sipihis, 120 of the Awadh Irreg. Horse, 
and a fQvn^ volunteer troopers ; the 4 
guns of a European battery, 6 guns of 
the Awadh Artillery, and an 8-inch 
howitzer, drawn by an elephant, 
marched out to disperse them. When 
they reached Ism'ailganj they saw the 
plain between it and Chinhat was 
"one moving mass of men." The 
Sipdhis advanced with great steadi- 
ness, and the native cav^ry, under 
Lawrence, fled, as did some of the 
native artillery. Colonel Case and 2 
of his officers were mortally wounded 
in attempting to storm Ism'ailganj. 
Lawrence gave the order to retreat ; 
but 4 field pieces and the heavy howit- 
zer, as well as the wounded, were 
abandoned ; 119 English soldiers were 
lost in this affair. The result of this 
disaster was that the Machchi Bhawan 
had to be blown up, and the rebels 
pressed the siege of the Hesidency 
with increased vigour. On the 2nd of 
July, Sir Henry was wounded in the 
upper part of the left thigh by a shell ; 
and after he had made over the office 
of Chief Commissioner to Major Banks, 
and conferred the chief military com- 
mand on Colonel Inglis, he passed 
away on the morning of the 4th July. 
The siege virtually commenced after 
the batDe of Chinhat, Now it was 
that the surgeons were seen catting, 
probiDg wounds, amputating and ban- 



daging. The Kulls who had been build- 
ing the works of defence all fled, and 
with them went most of the domestic • 
servants. The strongest post that the 
besieged had was the Redan battery, 
at the N.E. angle, built and fortified 
by Captain Fulton, of the Engineers. 
It formed rather more than } of a 
circle, and was elevated considerably 
above the street below. It was armed 
with 2 eighteen-pounders and 1 nine- 
pounder, which could play on the 
whole river's side and the buildings 
on the opposite bank. Along the 
Redan, as far as the hospital, was a 
wall of fascines and earthwork, with 
loopholes formed by sandbags, through 
which the besieged fired with certain 
effect. Along the Redan, past the 
Residency and the hospital, and as 
far as the Baillie Guard, was a clear 
space, 1000 yds. long and 400 wide, 
which, being exceedingly low, formed 
a glacis for the entrenchments above. 
The Residency, with its lofty rooms, 
fine verandahs, and large porticoes, 
its range of subterraneous apartments, 
its ground floor and 2 upper stories, 
afforded accommodation to nearly 
1000 persons — men, women, and child- 
ren. The hospital, formeriy the 
banqueting hall, had only 2 stories. 
The front rooms were given to officers, 
the back part was made a dispensary, 
and the other rooms were given to 
soldiers. A battery of 3 guns was 
placed between the "Water Gate and 
the hospital. The right wing of the 
hospital was used for making fuses 
and cartridges, and in front of it was 
a battery of three mortars. The 
Baillie Guard was a continuation of 
the hospital, but on much lower 
ground. A part of it was used as a 
storeroom, part as the treasury, part 
as an office, and the rest as barracks 
for the Sipdhls, who garrisoned it 
under Lieut. Aitken. Dr^ Fayrer's 
house, like the Baillie Guard, faced 
the E. It was commanded by Captain 
Weston and Dr. Fayrer, afirst-rateshot, 
who killed many, of the Si^^VjAa. '^X>si 
Post Ot^Cft "swaa ». ^erj \!Da.v3v\»ss^.\^s».- 

to the x\^i\it, «a^ ^^?^>^1^^ 



236 



Botite 25. — Faizdbdd to Lakhnau {Lucknow). Sect. II. 



all being outside the entrenchment. 
It was made a barrack room for the 
soldiers, and was armed with 3 guns. 
The Financial Office outpost was com- 
posed by Captain Sanders of the 13th. 
It was a Isu'ge 2-storied house, and 
well barricaded. The Bfgam Kothl, 
nearly in the centre of all the de- 
fences, had its name from having been 
the dwelling-place of the daughter of 
Miss Walters, one of the king's wives. 
A double range of out-offices formed 
a square within a square, one side 
of which was an Imdmbdrah, after- 
wards converted into an officers' hos- 
pital. 

On the 2nd of July, the day of Sir 
Henry's being wounded, the rebels 
attacked the Baillie Guard Gate, and 
Lieut. Grahame was wounded in the 
groin by one of them, who advanced 
to the very walls. Lieut. Foster, of 
the 32nd, was also slightly wounded. 
On the 8th, Mr. Ommaney, the judicial 
commissioner, was killed by a cannon 
ball, which passed over Sergeant-major 
Watson without touching him, but he 
also died. The deaths now averaged 
from 15 to 20 daily. Many were 
killed by an African, who fired from 
Johannes' house, outside the entrench- 
ment, without ever missing. On the 
8th, Captain Mansfield and 3 other 

> officers, and Maycock, a civilian, sal- 
lied out, spiked a gun, and Mlled 
about 40 of the rebels without losing 
a man, though 3 were wounded. On 
the 9th another sortie was made, when 
a private named O'Keene spiked a 
gun. On the 10th, the ammunition of 
the rebels' cannon falling short, they 
began to fire pieces of wood, copper 
coin, iron, and even bullocks' horas. 
On the 14th the enemy made a general 
attack ; Lieut. Lester and a number of 
others were killed. On the 16th the 
rebels made a night attack on Gubbins' 
Battery, but were beaten back. On 
the 20th of July the rebels exploded a 
mine near the Redan. They attempted 
to storm the Baillie Guard, and made 
their assault from every point, pouring 

la volleys of musketry j and sending 
shell aft^r shell into the entrench- 
menta. As the rebels approached, they 
Irene mowed down in scores b^^ grape, 



and their leaders were picked off by 
the English riflemen, among whom 
Captain Weston and Dr. Fayrer were 
most conspicuous. As the fire became 
more and more infernal, even the 
wounded and sick English rose from 
their couches, seized muskets, and 
fired as long as their strength allowed. 
One man with only one arm was seen 
hanging to the entrenchments with 
his musket, and died from the exer- 
tion. The mine the rebels fired near 
the Redan did no harm to that battery, 
but they, supposing a breach to have 
been made, rushed up the glacis at the 
double, with fixed bayonets. Hundreds 
were shot down ; but their leader, 
waving his sword, on which he placed 
his cap, shouted to them to come on. 
Again they advanced, but the grape 
made huge gaps in their ranks, and a 
musket Imll killed their leader. They 
then retreated, leaving heaps of slain 
and wounded. At this time a furious 
attack was made on Innes' outpost, 
where Lieut. Loughnan, of the 13th 
N.I., with 24 EngUsh soldiers, 12 un- 
covenanted civilians, and 25 Sipdhis, 
beat back a whole host of rebels. At 
first, they had forgotten the scaling 
ladders, and when they were brought, 
those who carried them were again 
and again shot down. Some reached 
the top of the wall, but were driven 
down with the bayonet. At this 
moment one part of Innes' house, 
called the Cockloft, was in the most 
imminent danger of being taken. For- 
tunately, the guns from the Redan com- 
manded this position, and the shells 
thrown by them killed numbers of the 
enemy, who, beaten at all points, at 
last slowly retreated, carrying off 100 
of their wounded comrades. At the 
Financial and Sago's posts, the column 
of rebels with the green standard was 
after some hours* hard fighting beaten 
off, with the loss of all their com- 
manders and about 60 men. The 
English loss was about 15 English 
and 10 Indians, killed and wounded, 
while the rebels lost not less than 
1000 men. The fight ended at 4 F.M., 
wlveti the Te\»Va «evi\. «u ^kjaj^ Kit 
I truce, and oaVed i^TnsMsaoTi \» x«ai.wi 
1 th^T Wled wad ^Qi\xiidsd,^\5i<3Q^^^ 



Seot II. Houte 2^.'v:-Lakhnau{Luchiow) : tlie Residency. 237 



granted, and cartloads were carried 
away. 

Though beaten at all points, on the 
20th the enemy maintained a furious 
cannonade, and added new batteries. 
On the 21st Major Banks, the Chief 
Commissioner, Mr. PoIehampt6n, the 
chaplain, and 10 other Englishmen 
were killed or died. Brigadier Inglis 
now assumed the command. The 
hospital was. always fuU of men 
covered with blood, and oftien with 
vermin. Owing to the fire of the 
enemy, the windows had to be barri- 
caded, and even then men were shot 
in their beds. A carcase shell fell 
among the barricades, and the fire 
consumed a number of hospital stores. 
The greatest torment was the flies, 
which swarmed in incredible numbers. 
The ground was black with them, and 
the tables covered. The besieged 
could not sleep, they could scarcely 
eat on account of them. On the 
25th a letter was received from the 
Quartermaster General of Havelock's 
force, telling the besieged to be of 
good cheer, for a relieving force was 
coming in overwhelming numbers. 
But days passed and the rebels were 
busy with their mines, and but foir the 
counter mining by Capt Fulton of the 
Engineers, the place must have fallen. 

On the 10th of August thefre was 
another general attack, but the enemy 
showed little courage, and they 
were easily beaten off. On the same 
day a mine was exploded at Sago's 
garrison, and blew down some out- 
houses ; 2 English soldiers were blown 
into the air, but both escaped. An- 
other mine between the Brigade Mess 
and the KAnhpiir battery blew down 
a stockade, and the enemy attempted 
to enter, but were repulsed. The 8-in. 
howitzer which the rebels took at 
Chinhat, played on Innes' post with 
fatal effect, bringmg down beam 
after beam, and making many breaches. 
On the 1 1th of August, Major Anderson, 
the chief engineer, died. On the 14th, 
Captain Fulton exploded a mine 
under a house near Sago's garrisoD, 



garrisoned by 15 Christian drummers 
and musicians, and 15 Sikhs, was 
blown up by the rebels, and buried 7 
Christians and 2 Sikhs imder its ruins. 
Captain Orr, Lt. Meecham and 2 
drummers were blown into the air ; 2 
of the drummers were killed, but On* 
and Meecham escaped with slight 
injuries. A large breach was made, 
and the enemy tried to enter, but 
their leader was killed and they 
retired. Captain Fulton with a 
number of volunteers then sallied, 
killed a number of matchlock men, 
destroyed a number of houses, and 
blew up the shaft of another mine 
begun by the rebels. 

On the 20th, the house called Johan- 
nes was blown up by Capt. Fulton, kill- 
ing 60 to 80 of the rebels. Capt. l^\dton 
then headed a sally and drove out the 
insurgents from several buildings, and 
blew them up. Lt. Macabe headed 
another party and spiked 2 guns. 
Previous to this Lt. Macabe of the 
32nd had attack-ed Johannes house, 
and bayoneted a number of the enemy, 
who were found asleep, and amongst 
them the African, who had picked off 
dozens of the English during the first 
days of the siege, and had been 
christened by the soldiers "Bob the 
Nailer." At this time a sergeant of 
the Bhusa guard named Jones, and 
10 othei-s, mostly native Christians, 
deserted, but were Idlled by the 
insurgents. On the 29th of August, 
Angad the spy brought another letter 
from Kdnhpiir, saying that the relief 
would take place in 3 weeks. On the 
same day Edwin Sequera, who had 
greatly distinguished himself at 
Chinhat, and during the siege, died 
from a wound in his chest, and his 
was the only death that day. Food 
was now very dear, a bottle of pickles 
cost 20 rs., and a dozen of beer 70 rs. 
On the 6th of September the rebels 
made another attack, having previously 
exploded 3 mines. The enemy ad- 
vanced to the Brigade Mass boldly, 
but were driven back witl\ tba \«mk ^ 



„„__ „ ^,.100 mca. 1\\ftr3 ^iJaaw <8^X3MihfJ!s.^ '^'e. 

which was blown up, and in it wetelBaWUe Gw«l\^, \sw\. ^a>asv^ ^'^ ^^*"^_ 
buried from 40 to 60 of the enemy. On! maAe ^a5le€. ol e^^^ ^^ '^^^^i^'^^ 
)be 18th, the Second Sikh Square A wiei aX.|^^^^«^^>3sv^^^^ 



238 



Eoute 25. — FaizdhM to Lakhnau (JLucknow). Sdct. IL 



similarly repulsed. On the 14th, 
Captain Fulton was killed at Gubbins-' 
Battery, where a 9-pound shot took 
his head completely off. Lt. Birch 
also was killed by a soldier of the 32ndy 
who took him for an insurgent. On 
the 23rd of September, a furious 
cannonade raged outside the city 
from 10 A.M. to 4 P.M., and confirmed 
the news received the day before that 
Outram and Havelock were coming to 
relieve the besieged. On the 25th, 
smoke and the crack of musketry 
shewed that street fighting was going 
on. The fire advanced steadily and 
gradually towards the entrenchments, 
and at last a loud shout proclaimed 
the arrival of the long expected 
reinforcements. 

This relief was not, however, effected 
without most serious loss; forSOOofficers 
and men were killed and wounded. 
Among these Brigadier-General Neill 
and Major Couper were killed, and 
10 other officers fell, besides those who 
died of their wounds. At this time 
the houses were all perforated with 
cannon-shot, and the Kdnhpiir Battery 
was a mass of ruins ; the outpost at 
Innes' house roofless ; and out of the 
Brigade Mess alone 435 cannon balls 
were taken. The besieged were not, 
however, free. Those who relieved 
them had possession of the Tdrd Ko^hi 
and the Farid Bakhsh Palace, as also 
the Chatr Manzil Palace, which were 
on the river's side, and from which the 
enemy's fire had been most fatal, par- 
ticularly from the Clock Tower, whence 
an African eunuch had killed many of 
the besieged. Though the garrison 
had extended their positions, the 
enemy were far from abandoning the 
city, and Outram and Havelock with 
their troops were themselves block- 
aded. On the 26th of September 
Captain Lowe, of the 32nd, made a 
sortie with 150 men of his regiment, 
with detachments under Captains Bas- 
sano, Hughes, and Lawrence. Law- 
rence took 3 guns and drove the enemy 
Jnto the river, killing almost all of 
tbem ; Captain Hughes spiked 2 
mortars and blow up a powder maga- 
^/ne ; Captain Lowe brought in as 
trophies an IS-pounder, a 9-pouiider, 



1 



and 5 smaller guns. On the 27th 
Major Stephenson made another sortie 
with the Ist Madras Fusiliers, while 
another party of the 32nd attacked the 
Garden Battery. The enemy, how- 
elfcr, Turere in such force that, after 
spikirfg 3 guns and burning the 
battery, the English were obliged to 
retire. On the 29th there were 3 
sorties, commanded by Major Ap- 
.thorpe, who had 6 officers and 100 
men of the Madras Fusiliers. Captain' 
Macabe commanded a 2nd sortie, and 
was mortally wounded. A great num- 
ber of the enemy, however, were killed, 
and the objects of the sortie fully at- 
tained. A 3rd sortie, under the com- 
mand of Captain Shute, stormed a 
house, killed a great number of the 
enemy, and burst the large gun they 
had taken at Chinhat. This party lost 
35 men kUled and wounded. (^ the 
1st of October a body of 570 English 
soldiers, commanded by Colonel 
Napier, occupied the houses to the 
front and left of Phillips' Battery, 
whidh was one of the enemy's strongest 
positions, and was sfcormed next day. 
Attempts were then made to open 
communications with 'Alam Bd|^, 
where the relieving force had deposited 
their baggage and ammunition, with 
4 guns and 300 men as an escort. 
The attempt failed, for an intervening 
mosque was filled with riflemen, and 
too strongly fortified to be taken with- 
out very great loss. During the opera- 
tions Major Halliburton was mortally 
wounded, and his successor, Major 
Stephensop, was killed next day. The 
besieged now repaired their dd^ences, 
and extended them near Innes' post 
by taking and fortifying a mound, 
which became one of their strongest 
positions. Fighting went on inces- 
santly, and the besieged had daily to 
deplore the loss of one or two men. 
The Sikhs under Captain Brasyerwere 
attacked, and the enemy penetrated 
into their inclosure, but were driven 
back with the loss of 400 men. On 
the 20th of October the enemy madd a 
deteimmedL xx]i<&\i at the K4nhpiir 
Battery, "bxnt -^let^ ^^iVn^tl qSS. ^wSSa. 
gi*apc. "Proymcyns "wct^ ^«i\i \!>i2«ci^.^ 
aud \>taady sold «A. ^^xa. ^3aa \»\KNsii. 



Sect, II. Eoute 25. — LaJchiau (Lucknow) : tlie Rmdency, 



239 



The palaces which had been taken by 
our troops continaed to be fortifiea, 
bat were the object of severe attacks. 
The Rcqaet Honse was blown up by 
the enemy. One dark night Colonel 
Napier reconnoitred the enemy's posi- 
tion, and under his directions Lt. 
Bnssell) of the Engineers, blew up a 
mosque occupied by the enemy, of 
whom numbers were killed. On the 
10th of November Sir Colin Campbell 
reached 'Alam Bdgh, and relieved the 
garrison besieged there. At this time 
James Kavanagh, a civilian, who had 
distinguished himself in several sorties, 
joffered to carry despatches from Sir 
V James Outram at Lakhnau to Sir 
Colin Campbell at 'Alam Bdj^, and 
succeeded in doing so with wonderful 
courage and add^ss. As Sir Colin 
Campbell approached the city, the 
besieged exploded mines at the Hiran 
Kh&nah and Kal Khdnah's engine- 
house, but without much effect. Lt. 
Hutchinson, with a party of the 64th 
under Captain Adolphe Orr, then 
sallied, and captured tlie house in 
which the latter had resided ; and Lt. 
Hall and Captain Willis, with a de- 
tachment of the 84th, stormed the 
Hiran Kh4nah ; and Col. Pumell, with 
a body of the 90th, drove the enemy 
out <^ the engine-house, but were com- 
pelled to retreat by the guns of the 
JK^ai^arbdgh, and therefore burnt it. 

Captains Bussell and Oakes, with a 
detachment of the 78th under Captain 
Lockhart, took the King's stables, 
secured the position, and made it over 
to Col. Pumell and the 90th. The 
loss was 2 officers wounded, 7 N.-C. 
officers and men killed, and 23 
wounded. Meantime Sir Colin, with 
2700 infantry and 700 cavalry, moved 
on to the *Alam BdeJi, and, leaving his 
baggage there, anotaking with him 
700 more soldiers, proceeded to the 
Dilkushd, in which movement his 
advanced guard encountered a heavy 
fire, but drove the rebels past the 
Martini^re College. On the 12th an 
attack of the rebels was repulsed, and 
on the 14th the rear guard joined Bii 
CoUn. On the 16th Sir Colin's whole 
force, except the 8th, left to guard the 
DilknahA, advanced against the Bi 



kandara Bdgh. After a desperate 
conflict, the 4th Sikhs, the 93rd High- 
landers, and the 52nd, broke into the 
entrance, and next day 2000 dead 
bodies of the rebels told the result. 
While this battle was raging, the 
English suffered much tsom a mur- 
derous fire directed upon them from 
the Sh^ Najaf mosque. This place 
was next taken by Peel's Naval Brigade 
and the 93rd. The troops then rested 
for the night, though fired on con- 
tinually from the adjacent buildings. 
On the 17th the Mess-house, a large, 
two-storied, flat-roofed house, flanked 
by 2 square turrets, was stormed by 
detachments of the 53rd, 90th, and a 
body of Sikhs. The Observatory, in 
rear of the Mess-house, was next taken 
by the Sikhs. To keep up a line of 
communication with the Dilkushdwas 
the next object, and was effected with 
some loss. Brigadier Russell was 
severely wounded, and his successor, 
Colonel Biddulph, killed. The enemy 
then made a fierce attack on the Mess- 
house and the Highlanders in the bar- 
racks taken on the 16th, but were 
repulsed with great loss. On the 
afternoon of the 17th of November 
Sir Colin met Outram and Havelock, 
and loud shouts proclaimed that the 
relief of Lakhnau had been effected. 
The British loss was 467 killed and 
wounded, of whom 10 officers were 
killed and 33 wounded. That evening 
Sir Colin commanded the sick and 
wounded, women and children, should 
be moved from the Residency to the 
DilkushA. This was carried out on 
the 22nd. Captain Watermore was 
the only person left behind, having 
over-slept himself ; but at 2 a.m. he 
awoke, and managed to reach the re- 
tiring rear-guard. The enemy con- 
tinned firing into the old positions 
long after they had been abandoned. 
On the 25th of November GeneraJ 
Havelock died. When the column, 
which was 7 m. long, arrived at the 
KAnhpiir bridge of boats, the booming 
of cannon was hea.td,^s^!^^^3sx^Sss». 
waa ■ Been, 'fttvgai^et ^-jt^SSqsssn. ^^s^ 
been eieteaXfc^, ^qSl \5Mi ^^nssss^ ^ 
K&.Tihpta N^i^ m ^^ V^^ ^W^ 



240 



Boute 25. — Faizdhdd to Ldkhnau {LmlcrKm\ Sect. II. 



women and the sick were enabled to 
proceed to All&hdbdd. Sir James 
Outram with his division had been left 
at 'Alam Bdgh. 

Having refreshed his memory with 
this summary, the traveller will go 
round the entrenchments of the Resi- 
dency, and will do well to ascend the 
tower, which is propped up, and the 
top story of which has been much 
shot away. The ascent is by 94 steps, 
and the height is 65 ft. 4 in. There is 
a fine view from the top. Below is the 
cemetery, which is shaded with fine 
trees, and is well kept. The 1st monu- 
ment is to the memory of Major J. E. 
Swinney and 5 other officers, 5 ser- 
geants, 2 corporals, and 77 privates of 
H. M.'s 7th Fusiliers, who lost their 
lives in the advance on Lakhnau under 
General Havelock. Then comes the 
tablet of Thomas John Chancey, killed 
during the siege, and next to it is a 
tablet to Lt.-Col. G. Seymour and 11 
other officers, and 360 N.-C. officers and 
privates of the 84th York and Lancaster 
Regiment, who were killed, died of 
their wounds or disease during the 
Indian mutiny. Then follows a monu- 
ment to Brig.-General G. C. S. NeiU, 
C.B., and A.D.C. to the Queen, Lt.-Col. 
J. L. Stephenson, C.B., Major G. L. C. 
Renaud, and 6 other officers, and 352 
N.-C. officers and privates of the 1st 
Madras. Fusiliers, who fell during the 
RebelUon in 1857-68. Close by is the 
tomb of Henry Steadman Polehampton, 
Chaplain of Lakhnau, who died July 
20th, 1857, during the siege; with him 
is buried his only child. Then comes 
the monument to Colonel Robert P. 
Campbell, who died of his wounds 12th 
of November, 1867; Major Robert Barn- 
stone, Brev.-Major John Perrin, and 
Captain Henry Denison, who died of 
their wounds; Lt. Nicolas Grahame, 
Lt. J. J. Nunn, Lt. Arthur Moultrie, 
who were killed in action ; Lt. N. 
Preston, who died of his wounds ; and 

1. Rev. Patrick Fairhurst 



5 other officers, who died of coup de 
soleil and disease ; and 271 N.-C. officers 
and privates of the 90th Light Infantry, 
who fell in the gallant performance of 
their duty at the relief, defence and 
capture of Lakhnau, and during the 
subsequent campaign in Awadh. Then 
comes the celebrated epitaph to Sir 
Henry Lawrence: — 

Here lies 

HENRY LAWRENCE, 

Who tried to do his duty. 

May the Lord have mercy on his soul ! 

Bom 28th of June, 1806. 

Died 4th of July, 1857. 

The next tablet is to Leonard Augustus 
Arthur, 7th Light Cavalry, who fell 
while comman£ng the Ednhptir Bat- 
tery, 19th of July, 1867. Next is "Wil- 
liam Hamilton Halford, Colonel com- 
manding the 74th B.N.I., who died at 
Lakhnau, 27th of July, 1857, from the 
effects of the siege.*' Next is Lt. W. 
R. Moorsom, H. M.'s 83d, killed in 
action near the iron bridge, March 1 1th, 
1858. Next are Mrs. AHnutt and her 
child, Lt. H. J. Richards, H. M.'s 23d, 
John Connell, Lt. H. Godwyn, who aH 
died during the siege; Mr. T. W. Erith, 
who died of his wounds, and Mrs. 
Amour, killed by a shell. Close by is 
the tomb of Major John Sherbrooke 
Banks, of the 33d N.L, who fell at 
Lakhnau, 21st of July, 1857. Also 
that of Lt. James Grahame, 4th Light 
Cavalry, who died during the si^e, 
with his 2 children. At some distance 
is the tomb of Major C. F. Bruere, 
Captain R. B. Fraulis, Lt. G. W. Green, 
and Ensign A. R. Inglis, of the ISth 
N.L, who fell in the defence of Lakh- 
nau in 1857. Also of Captain A. M. 
Turnbull, who died in the Ednhpiir 
entrenchment, and Lt. E. W. Bamett, 
killed at Hi^dr, both of the same regi- 
ment. The names of the other victims 
are here given in the order of tiieir 
tombs: — 



. Raised by the Catholic soldiers of the 
58th. 

2. James Fallarton and his child, I)*ied mt\ie^?\'i<Mv<iy, September 15Ui, 
Elphinstone FuJJarton. 1?>51 . 

3. Captain James Chapman, 7t\i Killed dxrrav^ ^^^ ^^^> ^^1 "iR^ss 
Light Cavalry, 1^51. 



^Pi 



ym 



•f^^ 



Sect. II. JRoute 26,— Afachcht Bhatoah and Great Imdmbdrah, 241 



4. Captain G. W. W. Falton, B.E. 

5. Fitzherbert Dacre Lucas, 3d son 

of Bight Hon. E. Lucas. 

6. Captain A. Beecher, 49th N.L . 

6. Mrs. Nazareth . ... 

8. Lt. B. P. Lewin, B. Art, 

9. Edith Scot Lewin . . . . 

10. F. J. Cunliffe, 2d Lt. Bengal Art. 

11. J. B. Thorahill, B.C.S. 

12. Maiy C. B. Thorahill . . . 

13. Mrs. Thomas, wife of Captain L. 

F. C. Thomas, Madras Art 

14. Capt. T. F. Gosseret, 34th M.L.L 

15. M. C. Ommaney, B.C.S. 

16. C. B. J. Mayer . . . . 

17. Juliana Fitegerald 

18. Mary Dunb^ 

19. Lt. A. J. Dashwood, and his child. 

20. G&orginaBoileau. 

21. Elizabeth, wife of Balph Ooseley, 

and 2 children. 

22. Captain A. P. Symons \ C 
Lieut. D. C. AleKander I Beng. J 
Lieut. E. P. Lewin ( Art. ) 
Lieut. F. J. Cunliffe ) ( 

23. Ellen Huxham . . . . 

24. Lt. W. D. Bayley, H. M.'s 38th. 

25. W. Marshall .... 



MaohoM BJuman and Great ImAm- 
hdrah, — Thetravellerwill next proceed 
1000 yds. to the W., to the Machchl Bha- 
wan. It has been said that this building 
was blown up on the night of the 30th of 
June, 1857. It has now been repaired 
and extended, and includes the Great 
Imdmb^ah, which word is better 
translated, *' Building of the Lnim's," 
than " Patriarch's Place," as given by 
Keene. The Bi!iml Darwdzah or Con- 
stantinople Gate, is said to have been 
built by Ai^afii 'd daulah in imitation 
of that gate at Constantinople from 
which the Turkish Government derives 
its name of "Sublime Porte." This 
Darwizah is 220 yds. to the W. of the 
street leading to the Imdmbirah. The 
visitor will pass under an arch, and 
find on his right a lai^e mosque, and 
ascend a number of steps to the Imdm- 
bdrab, wbicb facea N,, and is said to 



Killed 14th of September, 1857. 
Travelling in India, volunteered for 

service. Mortally wounded, 29th 

September, 1857. 
Died of wounds received in Havelock's 

advance. 
Died 2l8t of September, 1857. 
Killed at the KAnhpilr Battery, 26th of 

July, 1857. 
Died 20th of August, 1857. 
Died September 23rd, 1857. 
Died of wounds, October 12th, 1867. 
Died September 1 st, 1857. 
Died 16th July, 1857. 

Died of wounds, April 10th, 1858. 

Died July 8th, 1857. 

Died 19th of July, 1857. 

Died August 18th, 1857. 

Died 17th of July, lg57. 

Died July 9th, 18571 

Died 13th of September, 1857. 

Died 14th of November, 1857. 

Who died of wounds, disease and ex- 
posure, July, Auguist and September, 
1857. 

Died 9th of August, 1857. 

Died in the Im£nbdrah, 23d of August, 

1858. 
Died of wounds received at Sago's 

Garrison, July 13th, 1857. 

I have cost a million sterling. The cen- 
tral or great room of the Im&mbdrah 
is 163 ft. long, 53 ft. broad, and 49} ft. 
high, and has an arched roof without 
supports. The curve of the arch is 68 
ft., the wall is 16 ft. thick, and when* 
its immense weight is considered, the 
roof of this room may be regarded as 
one of the most remarkable things in 
Indian architecture. The circumfe- 
rence of the octagonal room, which 
adjoins the central hall, is 216 ft. 1 in., 
and its height 53 ft. At the W. end 
is a sq. room about the same size as the 
octagonal one. In the largest room are 
a number of cannon, and conspicuous 
amongst them are 6 10-inch guns, 
brought from the Shannon man-of- 
war, which did sufiliL^^cy^L^KcsSssfc^sssSSsHt 
Peel. T\i«»«t^«^BK>lwJxV\Bs3Q.^BSsafc^ 
T\ie c^ixn^ ol >2ci& acXasjfSM^k. w^ '^ 



\' 



242 



Houte 25. — Faizdbad to Ldkhmu {Lucknow). Sect. II. 



• ^ A perfectly plain masonry slab, without 
j^^ any inscription, marks where K^aiu 'd 
* " daulah was interred. The Imdmbdrali 
is 303 ft. long from E. to W., 160 ft. 
broad, and 62^ ft. high. From the 
teiTaced roof, which is ascended to by 
75 steps, of 10 in. each, is a magnificent 
view over the city. The Jdm*i Masjid 
is f of a m. due W. The passages 
which lead to the roof of the Imdm- 
bdrah are very numerous and intricate, 
and one might easily lose one's way. 
Besides this, some parts are quite un- 
safe. Still it is worth while to mount, 
and the look along the gallery round 
the base of the roof, inside the building, 
is curious. The Imdmbdrah was built 
in 1784 A.D., the year of the great 
famine, to afford relief to the people. 
Leaving the Imdmb^rah, at a few yds. 
to the left, the visitor will see a very 
extensive and old Bdorl, that is, a well 
^- with galleries and flight of steps. The 
walls are overgrovni with weeds and 
bushes, which make it very picturesque. 
The descent to the water's edge is by 
46 steps. The water is brackish, and 
not used. Enter next the mosque, 
which has Persian verses over the door, 
which may thus be translated, with the 
date, 1250 a.h. = 1834 a.d. 

When by order of the King of Kings 

The Mosque was 

Whitened all over in a beautiful way, 

Hy pen thus traced on the silver slate: 

Tlie whitening is like the 

White hand of Moses.* 

The mosque is now used for concerts, 
church service and theatricals. The 
Machchl Bhawa& was built by the 
Shekhs, called also the Shdhzaddhs, of 
Lakhnau, about 2 centuries ago. All 
that is left of their building is the 
round earthen bastions on the S. of the 
road. The high ground across the road 
within the fort surmounted by a small 

< mosque^ is Laki^hmanTila,whereLak§h- 
man, brother of Bdmchandra, founded 
the village of Lak^hmanp^. The 
mosque was built by Aurangzlb, 

Iran BHdge, — Turning back now to 
the Residency for 800 yds. the iron 

. bridge over the Gumti will be reached. 

* According to the Mas! ims, Moses received 
^Ae power of working of miracles, one of 
which was making bis Jiaud white, fiee 
^tirdn/' Sale's Tataalation, p. 218, note. 



This bridge was brought from England 
by order of the king, Gh&zin 'd.dla 
Haidar, but he died before it arrived. 
His son, Nd§iru 'd din, ordered it to be 
put. up in front of the. Residency, and 
gave the contract to a Mr. Sinclair, 
who failed. The erection was thus 
delayed till Amjad 'Ali Shdh caused it 
to be put up. At 1100 yds. to the E. 
of it, on the 1. b. of the Gumti, is the 
Tdrdjvali Xothi, or Observatory (lit. 
Star House), built by Ndsiru 'd din 
Haidar, under the superintendence of 
Col. Wilcox, Astronomer Royal. When 
the colonel died in 1847, the king dis- 
missed the employes. The instruments 
disappeared in the Rebellion. The rebel 
Maulavl Al^madu'Udh, of FaizAbdd, 
made it his head-quarters, and the rebel 
parliament often met there. The space 
in front of it, between it and the 
Kai^ar Bdgh, is where the prisoners 
sent in by the Dhaurahra Rdjd on. the 
24th September,1867 — Miss G. Jackson, 
Mr. Greene, Mrs. Rogers, Mr. Cairew, 
and Mr. J. Sulivan, with 9 deserters 
from the Residency, and the prisoners 
sent by the Mithauli RdjA — Sir M. 
Jackson, Captain Orr, Lt. Bums, and 
Sergeant Morton, were martyred, on 
the 16th Nov., 1857. RAjd Jai 1A\ 
3ingh, a rebel Reader, mounted a gate 
of the Kai^ar Bdgh to feast his eyes 
with the butchery. Two years passed, 
his part in the rebellion had been con- 
doned, his cruel act not being known, 
when his confidential servants informed 
against him, and on the 1st of October, 
1859, he was executed on the very 
spot where his horrid cruelty had been 
exhibited. On the 12th, Bandah Husain 
and Fat^ 'Ali, who had hunted down 
and brought the victims into Lakhnau, 
atoned for their Avickedness by their 
deaths. Here, opposite the door to 
the Kaisar Bdgh, is the Orr Monument, 
which marks the spot where the poor 
victims fell. It is an ugly red low 
mcellvm, inscribed on the E. face:— * 

Sacred to 

The Memory of 

J. Ch. p. Carew, Esq., 

Mr. CiiHj:ENK, Miss Jackson, 

And others, 

Earopeana and Natives, 



Sect. II. Baute 25. — Farhat Bahhsh Palace — Kaimr Bdgh. 243 



West face: — 

Sacred to 

The Memory of 

Sir MouNTSTUART Jackson, Bart, 

Capt&in Patrick Ob's, 

Lieutenant G. H. Burns, 

1st Bombay European Fusiliers, 

Serg.-M%jor Morton, 

Victims of 1857. 

The Farhat Balth^h Palaae is next 
to the Observatory to the K. It 
was the royal palace &om the time of 
S'addat 'All Khdn II. till Wdjid 'All 
built the KalFar Bdgh. The part 
which overlooks the river was built by 
General Martin, and sold by him to 
the Niiwdb. The rest was built by 
S'aAdat 'AH Khdn. It is the building 
referred to in " The Private Life of an 
Eastern King." The throne-room, 
known as the Ka^ 1 Sal];dn or Ldl 
Bdr^dari, was' set apart for royal 
Darbdrs. At the accession of a new 
king, it was the custom for the Kesi- 
dent to seat him on the throne, and 
then present him with a Nazar or 
"offering." In this room the Bdidshdh 
Bigam, after she had forced open the 
gate with an elephant, endeavoured to 
oblige the Resident, Colonel Lowe, to 
place Munna Jdn, the illegitimate son 
of Nd^iru 'd din Qaidar, on the throne. 
Miss Eden speaks of it as follows : — 
''There are 4 small palaces fitted up in 
the Eastern way, with velvet, gold, 
and marble, with arabesque ceilings, 
orange-trees, and roses in all direc- 
tions." (See Sleeman, vol. ii. p. 162). 
The Jail adjoins this palace to the 
S. There are about 1,400 prisoners, of 
whom about 70 are women. It is the 
healthiest jail in India. Habitual 
criminals are those that come in for the 
fourth time. Good-conduot men are 
made overseers and warders. Women 
are taught to read and write. The 
treadmill is used for those who are 
physically fit for it ; but only for a 
month, and they are changed every 
quarter of an hour. 

Chatr ManzU,— To the N.E. of the 
JaU, on the W. bank of the Gumti, is 
the Chatr Manzil, which was built by 
Nd^iru 'd din, and is a handsome 
hnUding. Hie best rooms are now 
ased by the United Service Club, and 
for riunions And theatricals. Some o£ 



the detached buildings are turned into 
offices of the Public Works Depart- 
ment and Civil Courts. During the 
Bebellion this building was surrounded 
by a high brick wall, of which the 
rebels availed themselves, and during 
the advance of Havelock it was heavily 
cannonaded. 

KaUar Bdgh* — It will be best to 
enter this palace by the N.E. gateway, 
which faces the open space in front of 
TdrAwAli Kothi or Observatory, now 
the Bank of Bengal. At the entrance 
is the tomb of S'addat 'AH Khdn IL 
Passing up the open court in front of 
the gate called the Jilaukhdnah, or 
place where the royal processions used 
to start from, the visitor will turn to 
the right, through a gateway covered 
by a screen, cross the Chlnf Bdgh, 
called from the large china vessels 
with which it was decorated, and pass 
under a gate flanked with green mer- ■ 
maids to the Hazrat Bdgh. Then on 
the right hand is. the Chdndiwdli 
Bdrahdari, which used to be paved 
with silver, and the Ehd^ Makdm and 
Bddshdh Manzil, formerly the special 
residence of the king. The Bddshdh 
Manzil was built by S'addat 'All II., 
and was included by Wdjid 'All Shdh 
in the new palace of the Kai^r B&gh, 
which was begun in 1848 and finished 
in 1850, and cost, including furniture 
and decorations, 80 lAkhs. Wdjid- 
'All's Vazir, Niiwdb 'AH Naki KhAn, 
used to reside above the Mermaid's 
Gateway, in order to be near the king 
and learn all he was doing. On the 
left is the Chauldkhi, built by 'Aj^mu 
'llAh K^dn, the royal barber, and sold 
to the king for 4 Idkhs. Here resided 
the Queen and her chief ladies. Dur« 
ing the Rebellion she held her court 
here, and in a stable close by our 
prisoners were kept for weeks. Further 
along the road is a tree paved round 
the roots with marble, under which 
Wdjid 'All Shdh used to sit dressed in 
the yellow robe of a Fak:ir during the. 
Great Fair. Further on, the visitor 
will pass under tha ^TOBX.\ii>i^EiL^^^*^Y 
C8A\fi^ iiam.\kaTOMg, oosi^ ^\^5£s^«o^ 
come into ^i5cka Tn.»«KAa«Q5^^^?:^^S 
ot the Y.«L^T ^tw^ ^^""^^c^^S^^ 



244 



Moute 25. — Faizdbdd to Laklmau {Lucknow), Sect. II. 



ladies of the V^^* Here the Great 
Fair was held in August, and all the 
people of the city were admitted. 
After passing a stone Bdrahdari, now 
fitted up as a theatre, but used by the 
British India Association, and through 
the W. LAkhi Gate, corresponding to 
the B. one before mentioned, the 
visitor will come to the Kaisar Pasand, 
or " Caesar's Pleasure," surmounted by 
a gilt semi-circle and hemisphere. It 
was built by Roshanu *d daulah, the 
. minister of Ndsiru 'd din Gaidar, and 
confiscated by WAjid 'AH, who gave it 
to a favourite lady, the M'ashiiku 's 
Sult.4n. In the under-stories of this 
building the Dhaurahra party of cap- 
tives were confined, and from it taken 
to be killed. On the right is another 
Jilaukhdnah, corresponding to the E. 
one at the entrance to the palace, and 
turning down it, the visitor will find 
himseS outside the Kaisar Bd|^, and 
opposite the Shir Darwdzah, under 
wluch General Neill was killed, by a 
discharge of grape from a gun placed 
at th« gate of the Kai^r BAgh. 
' Between the great quadrangle of me 
Kaisar Bdgh and the Chini B4zdr are 
tlie tombs of S'addat 'AH Khdn, and 
his wife, Murshid Zddi. Both were 
built by their son Gh4ziu 'd din 
Gaidar. The spot where S'aidat 'AH's 
tomb stands was formerly occupied by 
a house in which Gh Aziu 'd din lived 
during his father's reign. When he 
succeeded to the throne he moved 
into the palace, and remarked that 
as he had now taken his father's 
house, it was but fair that he should 
have his, so he turned it into a maoso- 
f leum. In the Ha^ratganj Road, which 
passes the N. face of the Kaisar 
Bdgh, is the mausoleum of Amjad 
'AlTshdh. 

Moti Mahall, — The next visit will 
be paid to the Moti Mahall, which in- 
cludes 3 buildings. The one properly 
called Moti MalbiaU is at the N. of the 
inclosure, and was built by S'addat 
'AH Khdn. It is said it was named 
hecaoBe its dome resembled a pearl. 
22ug dome ia now destroyed, and the 
-nnterof the *' Gazetteer,'' vol. ii, p. 
J, which accounts for the name m 
' ^^r Just giren, orerioaks the fact 



that Moti Mal^all is a very common 
name for mosques and palaces. The 
Moti Mal^aU at Dibli, for example, is 
a mosque. Along the river face 
Ghdziu 'd din built the Mubdrak 
Manzil to the E. of the former Bridge 
of Boats and the Shdh Manzil close to 
the bridge. The celebrated wild beast 
fights took place in the Shdh Manzil. 
But the fights between elephants 
and rhinoceroses were exhibited in 
front of the ^uziiri B^gh, on the other 
side of the Gumtl, and the king and 
his court watched them from the 
verandah of the Shdh Manzil, where 
they were safe. 

Sh&h Kajaf, — The next visit may be 
to the ShAh Najaf, a place which pro- 
bably has its name from Najaf, or 
Mashhad 'Ali, a town 98 m. S. of 
Baghd^ in Irdk i Ar'abi, where 'Ali 
was buried. It was built by Ghdziu 
'ddln Gaidar, the first king of Awadh, 
in 1814, and is now his mausoleum. It 
is situated about ^th of a m. to the E. of 
the Moti MahaU, and 180 yds. to the 
S. of the W. bank of the Gumti. It is 
a white mosque of scanty elevation 
compared with its immense low dome. 
Inside it is filled with T&ziyahs and 
smaU pictures of the different Niiwdbs 
and kings, and their favourite ladies. 
Over the entrance, on a marble slab, 
at the right of the steps, is a 
Persian inscription of 24 lines, dated 
1243 A.H. = 1827 A.D. These verses 
are an elegy on the death of Ghdziu 
'd din, as may be seen from the first 
4 Unes : — 

When the King of the World 

Departed from this earth, 

Woe seized the hearts of high and low ; 

I said with lamentations and sighs, 

"paidar has taken his place in Najaf." 

Here the advance under Sir CoHn 
CampbeU received a severe check. 
The following is a description of the 
assault by Mr. Gnbbins : — " Behind a 
parapet, raised on the massive terrace 
of tMs tomb, the enemy was clustered, 
and poured a frightful fire on a com- 
pany of the 90th, which got up within 
15 yds. of the main building. They 
could discover, WwcTw,!!!^ ^\^xw5«i^\ 
and botb. s\i\i8b\tiexiva nv^io c«rBKni"Kwi^ 
it having been 'WO\Ma!i«Qi> ^^ "oi^^ VsS^ 



Sect. II. Soitte 25. — Kadam EoM-^Sikandara Bdgh. 



246 



back behind some neighbonring hnts. 
The guns were now allowed to batter 
the place for 2 hours, after which 
Brigadier Hope was ordered to take it 
with the 93ra Highlanders. Finding 
that no breach had been effected, 
Brigadier Hope was obliged to send 
for a heavy gun, which was brought 
up by Captain Peel, of the Shannon^ 
and was dragged by the sailors and 
men of the 93rd, under a fearful fire of 
musketry, close up to the wall of the 
Shdh Najaf. Here, with the muzzle 
almost touching the building, the 
24-pounder was worked. The dust and 
smoke was so great that it was almost 
impossible to see what was the effect 
of the cannonade, unexampled except 
in naval warfare. A breach was made 
in the outer wall ; but there was yet 
an inner wall, which seemed to present 
a serious obstacle, and the enemy from 
the elevated terrace still maintained a 
fire of musketry which could not be 
effectually kept down by the rifles of 
the 93rd. There was a tree standing 
at the comer of the Shdh Najaf, close 
to the building,' and at this juncture 
Captain Peel offered the Victoria Cross 
to any of his men who would climb it. 
Three men immediately ascended the 
tree up to the level of the terrace, and 
from this position fired on the enemy. 
By this time, however, the enemy, 
alarmed by the progress of the attack, 
began to desert the place. Their fire 
slackened ; the Highlanders rushed in 
at the breach, and the Shdh Najaf was 
taken." 

Kadam Baml. — ^About 800 yds. to the 
E. of the Shdh Najaf is a brick build- 
ing, called the Kadam RasiU, or ** foot 
of the Prophet," though it is rather a 
misnomer, for they do not even pre- 
tend to ^ow the footprints of the 
Prophet. The road to it is filthily 
dirty, and latrines are put up at the 
base of the hill on which it is built. 
The hill is no doubt artificial. The 
ascent is by 56 steps of brick, over- 
grown with weeds, and covered with 
rubbish, to a brick platform, on which 
is the bniidin^, which has been used 
ae a moaqne. There is a good view 

from the top, hut it hardly compen- 

sates for the Slthj walk. 



Khwrsltid ManzU, — In rear of the 
Motl Mal^all, and between it and 
the Observatory, is the Khurshld 
Manzil, a strongly-built plain house,, 
which was fortified by the rebels. It 
is now a Girls' School affiliated to the 
Martini^re, having been endowed 
from funds saved &om those belong- 
ing to the Martini^re by General and 
Mrs. Abbott, and opened in 1869. It 
was stormed by detachments of the 
53rd and 90th, and the Naval Brigade, 
with some Sikhs. It is interest- 
ing because here Outram and Have- 
lock met Sir Colin Campbell, after 
severe loss in passing the fire of the 
rebels. 

TJie *Ajdib Ghar or Musetim is not 
far from the Kadam KasiU, and should 
be visited, as has been before men- 
tioned, to inspect the model of the 
Residency by Chaplain Moore. 

Sikandara Bdgh is about J of a m. 
to the E. by S. of the Shdh Najaf, and 
between them lie the gardens of the 
Awadh Agri-Horticultural Society. 
They are very extensive, and are 
bounded on the N. by the Gumti. 
The Sikandara Bdgh -is 120 yds. S(|., 
and is surrounded by a high solid 
wall. It was built by WAjid 'AH, for 
one of his ladies, named Sikandar 
Mal^all. During the Bebellion a body 
of 1,643 Sipihis retreated to this 
garden, under the belief that there 
was an outlet to it, through which 
they might escape. They were hotly 
pursued by the 93rd Highlanders and 
4th Panj&b Rifies, so much so that 
they were unable to close the gate / 
before 2 officers of the 93rd, and a 
gigantic ^libahddr of the Panjdb Rifles, 
and another tall powerful officer of 
that regiment, made a rush at the 
gate, and with their bodies prevented 
its being closed. The $i!ibahddr and 
the other officer of the Rifles were 
shot dead, but the others got in and 
were followed by their regiments, who 
bayoneted every man inside the in- 
closure, so that 1,643 dead boAvs^ ^ 
the mwtVafteta "^et^ SsiXfcTts.^ '^sv "^iss^ 

space Viet^^ea VJcia ^\ftw^ "^^l^ 
Toad,^\ieTeV:tvcte\a ^sevSJ.^^^^^-^ 

caugAitm iwcul de •ac.'C^^^^ 



246 



Hdute 25, — Jpaizdbdd to Ldkhnau {Luchnow), Sect. II*. 



door on the other side of the garden, 
and the wall being too high to climb. 
This was the greatest loss inflicted 
upon them in any one day throughout 
the war. Nothing marks the spot 
where they were buried, but it is all 
• the ridge to the E. of the gateway, up 
to and even beyond the ro^» Directly 
N. of their burial-place, and border- 
ing on it, is a white inclosnre, 15 ft. 
sq., under some trees. In it is a tomb 
with the following inscription, on a 
copper plate : — 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

LIEUT. FRANCIS DOBBS, 

Who was killed in action 

at the 

Storming of the Shjih Najaf, 

On the 6th of November, 1857, 

And buried here. 

Also of 

Privates Edward Donaohay, 

Hugh Gray, Alexander Gormb, 

Patrick Coluns, Thomas Kenney, 

All of the 1st Madras Fusiliers, 

Who were killed in action 

On the same day, and interred 

In the same grave. 

Tlie Ma/rtiniere,— At 2,500 yds. to 
the S.S.E. of the Sikandara B&^ is 
the Martini^re. This institution was 
founded by Major- General Claude 
Martin. His tomb is in the E. crypt 
of the chapel, and is inscribed : — 

MAJOR-GENERAL CLAUDE MARTIN, 

Bom at Lyons, 

The 5th day of Janua^, 1735, 

Arrived in India a common soldier, and 

Died at Lakhnau, 

The 13th day of September, 1800. 

Pray for his soul. 

This tomb was restored in 1865. In 
the central crypt of the college is a 
bell cast by the General, the circum- 
ference of which is 16 ft., the diameter 
5 ft. 4 in., and the length 3 ft. 4 in. It 
has on it : — 

COLONEL CLAUDE MARTIN, 

Lakhnau, 

1786. 

He was the son of a cooper, and 

mrred as a soldier under Lally in the 

^giment of Lorraine, He and some of 

^us comrades formed a company of 



Chasseurs under Law, and garrisoned 
Chandranagar, till taken by Clive. 
He then entered the British army, and 
rose to the rank of captain. In 1774 
he was employed in surveying the 
boundary made over by the British to 
Shujd'u 'd danlah. Two years after- 
wards he entered the service of the 
NiiwAbs of Awadh, but the British 
Government allowed him to retain his 
rank, and to enjoy promotion. In 
1783 he formed the acquaintance of 
De Boigne, and took part with him in 
cultivating indigo, and in other agri- 
cultural pursuits, by which he acquired 
a large fortune. The Siyaru 7 Muta* 
^a klM irin^ says : " Colonel Martin is 
a man desirous of all kinds of know* 
ledge, and although he is at the head 
of a, large fortune, which he owes 
only to his industry, he works whole 
days together at ^1 the arts that 
concern watchmaking and gunsmiths' 
work, with as much bodily labour as 
If he had his bread to earn by it. As 
an architect (and he is everything) he 
has built himself, at Lakhnau, a strong 
and elegant house." The house in- 
tended in this quotation is probably 
the Far^at Bakhsh, in which he died, 
and he also built the mansion of 
Constantia, which has now become a 
college. The titles given him by the 
King of Awadh were Sharafu 'd daulah, 
Saifu '1 mulk, Imtiydz Khdn, General 
Claude Martin Bahddur, Shah4mat 
jang. It is said that Ai^fu *d daulah 
offered him a million sterling for 
Constantia, now the Martini^re. But 
the Niiwdb died before the bargain 
was completed, and General Martin 
himself died before the building was 
finished, and he directed it should be 
completed out of the funds left to 
endow a school there. The chapel is 
exquisitely decorated with medallions 
by Italian artists. The visitor should 
ascend to the roof, where he will see 
the damage done by the rebels to the 
building and statues, which could not 
be repaired at a less expense than 
60,000 rs. They broke open the tomb 
of General Martin, and scattered his 
bones about, but they were collected 
and replaced by the British. In a 
cemetery m Via '^wXVvvx^'xsi "Pwk^ 



Sect. II. jRoute 25. —Dilkmhd—'Alam Bdgh. 



247 



close to Uie road leading from the 
Civil Lines, is a tomb inscribed : — 

Here lieth 

All that could die of 

WILLIAM STEPHEN RAIKES H0D80N, 

Captain and Bt.-Mi^or 1st E. B. Fusiliers 

and 

Commandant of Hodson's Horse, 

Son of the Venerable George Hodson, 

Archdeacon of Stafford, 

Bom 

March 19th, 1826, 

Fell 

In the final assault at Lakhnau, 

March 11th, 1858. 

There is another tablet inscribed :— 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

CAPTAIN L. DA COSTA, 

5th N.I., attached to 

Firdzpiir Regiment of Sikhs, 

Who fell in the final assault on the 

Kaii^r Bdsh, 

13th" of March, 1858. 

About 200 yds. W. of the Martiniere 
is a tomb inscribed : — 

Here 

Lies the body of 

LIEUT. AUGUSTUS OTWAY MAYNE, 

Bengal Artillery, 

Killed in action at the Relief of Lakhnau, 

On the 14th of November, 1857, 

In the 28th year of his age. 

" Waiting for the coming of the Lord." 

The exterior of the Martiniere is 
imposing, and will more than satisfy 
the expectations of the visitor. The 
basement story is raised to a good 
height above the ground, and has 
extensive wings, but the super- 
structure is bizarre^ and has not in- 
correctly been styled "a whimsical 
pile of every species of architecture." 
There are 4 towers and a central one, 
supported by flying buttresses. The 
ceilings of many of the rooms are 
lieautifully panelled in floral stucco 
relief. The College contains from 120 
to 180 boys, who obtain a substantial 
and useful education free of expense. 
In front is a piece of water, with a 
small mound in the centre, on which is 
an Ionic column, which is conspicuous 
for miles round. 

Dilkn^hd, or " heart -expanding,*' 
was a villa built by S'aAdat 'AH KhAn, 
in the midst of an extensive deer- 
park, Jt stands about | of a m. to 



the S.S.E. of the Martiniere. It was 
captured by Colonel Hamilton, of the 
78th, with some companies of his own 
corps, and of the 5th and 64th, on the 
12th of November, 1857. Here, on 
the 24th, General Havelock expired, 
as is recorded in his epitaph at the 
'Alam Bdgh. The building is now a 
ruin. 

Wingfield Park, — In returning from 
the DiikushA the traveller will drive 
through Wingfield Park, which is to 
the W. of it. This park is very 
pretty, and is adorned with many 
white marble pavilions and statues^ 
and has a large pavilion in the centre, 
surrounded by 80 acres of grounds 
and flower-gardens. One statue re- 
presents a man attacked by a wolf, 
and has on it, "The 1st Premium 
adjudged to N. Read, by the Society 
of Polite Arts, 100 guineas, A.D. 1761.'* 
There is said to be a statue by Canova* 
This park was named after Sir C. 
Wingfield, Chief Commissioner, after- 
wards M.P. for Gravescnd. 

'A'lam Bdgh.'^ThSs place is 6,500 ft. 
S. W. of the booking-office of the Awadh 
and Rohilkhand Railway, and is in a 
walled inclosure of 500 sq. yds. It 
commands the road to Kdnhpiir, for 
which reason it was chosen for Sir 
J. Outram's position, when, on Sir 
Colin Campbell's retreat with the, 
women and the wounded, he was left 
behind to keep the rebels in check, it 
was built by Wajid All, as an occa- 
sional residence for a favourite wife. 
There is a building in the garden, with 
a good many rooms in the second 
story, of which any gentleman may 
make use ; there are 4 towers, one at 
each corner, and 5 pillars and 2 pilas- 
ters on each side in the lower story. 
Here is General Havelock's tomb, sur- 
mounted by an obelisk 30 ft. high, with 
the following inscription written by 
his wife. It is on the E. face of the 
obelisk: — 

Here rest the mortal remains of 

HENRY HAVELOCK, 

Hajor-General in the British ^Vnny, 

Knight Commander of the Bath, 

Who died at DUku&lvi^ liB.V3s»».\\^ vi\ $s;>iveeXK«t 



\ 



248 



Route 25. — Fakdhdd to LaJchnau {Luchnow). Sect II. 



Bte was bom on the 5th of April, 1795, 

At Bishop's Wearmouth, coun^ Durham, 

England ; 

Entered the army in 1815; 

« Came to India in 1823, 

And served there, with little intermption. 

Until his death. 



His ashes in a peaceful urn shall rest, 
His name a great example stands, to show 

How strangely high endeavours may he 
blessed, 
When piety and valour jointly go. 

This Monument is erected by 
His sorrowing Widow and Family. 

The building is very much marked 
with shot. 

The only things that remain to be 
seen are the Church — Christ Church, 
which is a ^ of a m. from the Judicial 
Commissioner's house, and ^ a m. to 
the S.S.E. of the T. B.,— the BAdsh^h 
BAgh, and the lesser Imdmbdrah. The 
church is a neat building with a tower, 
measuring 97 ft. from B. to W. and 
34 ft. 9 in. in breadth in the body of 
the church, but in the chancel con- 
siderably more. There is here a 
handsome stained-glass window. The 
church compound is prettily laid out 
with many flowers and creepers. In 
the side wall is a tablet put up by 
H.M.'8 62nd Eegiment, to their com- 
rades who died in the year 1856 : 
86 names of men, 6 of women, and 
7 of children are given. The ceme- 
tery of the church is J of a m. further 
on. The 1st tablet in the church is to 
Colonel Handscombe, Brigadier com- 
manding the Awadh Field Force, who 
was shot by the Lakhnau mutineers on 
the night of the 30th of May, 1867. 
Next is one to Francis Boche Thack- 
well, Captain 6th Royal Irish Lancers, 
youngest son of Lieut.-General Sir 
Joseph Thackwell, who died on the 
29th of June, 1869, of wounds inflicted 
by a tiger. Then follows one to Lieut. 
John Swanston, 78th Highlanders, 
who died at the Residency, October 
2nd, 1867, of wounds received on the 
25th and 26th of May. Beside his is the 
tablet of Captain Symons, Beng. Art., 
wAo died of his wounds September 8th, 
I^Z His daughter lies beside him. 
T/ien follows one to Captain Lnmsden 
jorf Z/eaf. Cape of the 30th B^iment 
^'^.Z, lulled at Lakbnau in 1857-58. 



Next is a tablet set up by the 93rd 
Highlanders to their comrades who 
fell in action or died of wounds during 
the|Mutiny, — Skilled inaction, 5 officers, 
45 men; died of wounds, 1 officer, 
36 men ; died of disease, 1 officer, 83 
men. Next is to Alexander Bryson, a 
Volunteer, who was killed on the 9th 
of July, 1867, within the Residency 
Defences, while singly building under 
a deadly fire a barricade, a duty he 
volunteered to perform. A tablet to 
Sir James Oufram deserves to be 
recorded whole ; also to Sir H. Law- 
rence: — 

In grateful Memory of 

Lieut.-General 

SIR JAMES OUTRAM, Bt., G.C.B., 

This Tablet is erected 

In the City of Lakhnau, 

To recall his valour and generosity 

In the memorable relief and siege, 

And his foreseeing wisdom, 

Which reconciled this Province 

To British rule ; 

In this Christian church, 

Because, by thoughtful kindness. 

He gslined the title 

Of The Soldier's Friend ; 

And because, in simplicity and sincerity. 

He had his conversation in the world. 

Bom 2nd of January, 1808, 

Died 12th of March, 1863. 

His body rests in Westminster Abbey. 

The tablet to Sir H. Lawrence is as 
oUows: — 

To the Memory of 

SIR HENRY LAWRENCE, K.C.B., 

The Statesman 

Who administered in succession 

Three great Provinces of India ; 

The Soldier 

Who died in defending the Garrison 

Entrusted to his charge ; 

The Christian 

Who, in his last hour, humbly trusted 

That he had tried to do his duty, 

And committed his soul. 

In full assurance of faith. 

To the mercy of his Lord. 

Bom 28th of June, 1806, 

Died4thof July, 1857. 

His body rests in the Burial-Ground 

Of the Residency. 

The last two tablets are very hand- 
some. There are others of interest, 
but the above must suffice. 

BadsIM, Bdgh is on the left bank 
of the Gumtl, and 1100 yds. from the 
Resideiicy. TYie m\k\Aas«» had a 
battery "her^, mv^l ttaai \\. c»xci& ^^^ 



Sect. II, RttUe 26.— ZajtAnaw (Luchtoui) to SJt^ijdtdnpur. 

and waterworks show that it muet 
have been & cool and delightful phice 
beftffe the Mutiny. In driving to 
this place, before crossing the river, 
the traveller may torn to the left 
along Kapier Road, and a little to 
the N, will be seen the Jim'i Masjid, or 
principal mosque. Not far off is the 
tjusain^bid M^b&rah, built bj 
Mnbammad 'Ali Sh^h, A.D. 1B3T, as 
a burial-place for himself. It consista 
of 2 lai^e jncloautes, one of which ia nt 
right angles to the other. This Im&m- 
b&rah la small in comparisoa with 
that in the Uacbchl Bhawan, but is 
of great beau^ in execution, and 
finish in detail. It stands in a large 
quadrangle, which has a marble reser- 
voir of water in the centre, crossed by 
a fancifol iron bridge. The InjAm- 
bdrah is fiUed with mirrors and 
chandeliers. The throne of the king, 
covered with beaten silver, and hia 
wife's divan, with solid silver sup- 
ports, are l^i be seen here. There is, 
also, not far off, a 7-storied watch- 
tower, also commenced b; Muljammad 
'All ii\\i!a, but interrapted by hia 

The visitor will leave the Biimi 
Dnrw^ah by a broad road near the 
Gumtf, ^ of a m, long, which will 
take him to tbe gale of the enter 
quadrangle of the Im&mb&rah. Stand- 
ing a little to the W. of the road, the 
visitor will take in at one view the 
great ImiknibAnih and Rilmi Darwizah 
to the right, and the HnsaiD&b&d arid 
J&m'l Masjid to the left. The whole 
forms, as Bishop Heber remarks, one 
of the finest architectural views in the 
world. Having finished LB)(bnau,tbe 
traveller will now decide whether he 
will go through Rohilkhand, where arc 
the beautiful hill-station of Naini Tal 
and the interesting towns of Barcli 
|Bareilly},Sh^jahdnpilr,andMnr&1^ 
b4d, or proceed by KAnhpilr to Agra 
and Dihli. If be decides on seeing 
Rohilkhand, he will proceed to Ba- 
reilly by the following route ; — | 



Shiit^ah^piir 






Sh&hjahdnpir.—Tiit road to 8h4h- 
jah^Dpiir passes through a perfectly 
level country. The T. B. at BhAhja- 
hinpilr is a m. to the S.W. of the 
railway station. This is an extremely 
pretty station, and as it is the scene 
of one of the most remarkable imentet 
(luring the SipShi War, the traveller 
should make a hiilt of a day at it. 
The first thing to be visited is St, 
Mary's Church, which is J of a m. 
from the T. B. On the we.^ an. h'c^neS*- 

aist«nccBiMft4 ^ft■^■?^■^^''^^^^X^ 
U no \oAi£eT ^'^^'T^J'^^^^tos 



250 EoiUe 26. — Lahhnau {Luchiovi) to SkdIiJaMnpikr. Sect. IL 



looking churcli, with a tower, on the 
, top of which the poor ladies took 
refuge on a memorable Sunday when 
the outbreak took place. Major Sneyd 
' of the 28th N.I. brought up some of 
his men and drove off the mutineers, 
and induced the ladies to come down, 
when, according to the popular story, 
the 42nd B.N.I. arrived, and an en- 
gagement took place between them 
and the 28th, in which the 42nd were 
worsted, but the ladies were killed. 
This is the account given at Shdhjahdn- 
piir itself, but it does not appear that 
the 42nd were there At all, and a n^ore 
- correct one will be found extracted 
from Kaye's " Sipdhl War," further 
on. At 50 yds. to the N.W. of the 
church is a handsome finely-polished 
granite pillar, which, with a stone 
cross at the top, and the pediment, is 
26 ft. high. On the W. face is in- 
scribed — 

This Monument is erected 

By the friends and relatives of those honoured 

And beloved ones, whose names are here 

inscribed, 

Who yielded up their lives unto death, through 

the violence of a lawless and fanatical 

insurrection, 

At this Station, on the 31st day of May, 

A.D. 185T. 

To the care of a poor Native resident of this 

City 

They owe a grave near this spot, 

And in God their Saviour we hope they have 

found peace. 

** Lord Jesus receive my spirit, 
And lay not this sin to their charge." 

On the S. side is — 

Henry Hawkins Bowling, 

Surgeon 28th Regiment B.N. I., 

Aged 43. 

Captain Marshall James, 

28th Regt. B.N.I., 

Aged 37. 

On the E. side is — 

The Rev. John Williams, 
Aged 45. 

Mordaunt Ricketts, 

Bengal Civil Service, 

Magistrate and Collector of the District, 

Aged 30 years. 

Arthur CnABLEs SitiTHf Esq., 
Bengal Civil Service, 
^ , , ^ged 22 years, 

uniy and beloved son of the late Peplob 
SMtTH, B.C.8., 
^nd Habbiet his wife. 



On the N. side — 

John Robert Swanston, 

Clerk in the Magistrate's Office, 

Aged 42 ye-ars. 

In the church are the following 
tablets, inscribed : — 

I. 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

CAPTAIN MORDAUNT MONEY SALMON, 

Of the late 28th Regiment N.I., 

Who was murdered 

By the mutinous Sipdhis 

Near Mohamdf, 

10th of June, 1857. 

II. 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

GEORGE POLE CAREW, 

Who, having esca^ied from Rosa* 

After the outbreak at Shilhjahanpiir, 

Was captured by the Rebels, 

And massacred at Lakhnau 

In September, 1857. 

This Tablet was erected by his brother, 
R. P. Carew. 

III. 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

Tlie undennentioned Officers of 

The 28th Regt. N.L, 

Wlio perished, in the performance of 

their duty. 

At the hands of the mutinous Sipdhls, 

in 1857 :— 

Captains. 

I. N. James, killed at Shdl^ahdnpi^r, 31st May. 
T. H. GciSE „ Bandras, 4th June. 

H. W. L. Sneyd ,, Naurangdbdd,10th June. 
C. Lysaght 
H. M. Salmon 

Lieutenants. 

A. Kay . . killedatNaurangdbad,10thJune. 
C. A. Robertson „ 

C. T. Scott „ 
W. W. Patt „ 
G. W. Rutherford 

D. I. A. Spens 
C. E. Scott 
P. E. Johnston 

Surgeon H. M. S. Bowling, Shalijahanpur, 
31st May. 

Also 









>> 



I* 



>* 

n 

>> 
It 
II 
II 
n 



Mrs. Bowling, 
Mrs. Lysaght, 
Mrs. Kay, 
Mrs. Scott, 



killed at 

Nanrangdiiad, 

June 10th. 



A tablet follows to A, C. Smith, Esq., 
B.C.S., whose name is on the pillar. 

above epVtav\i,\a <i tv\, ^. ot >&\AJa^kw^*, 
and there ia ivoNf «L»Bi\i «^ xaoaN. ^wM^vSKvVft 
Bustar lactoTV \.\i«te,tto\ja.^\v\^^T.'^Cwt« 
tows, it \% »aiA, J£.\b.Wi v^'»x» 



Sect. IL 



EoiUe 26. — SlidJbjdIidnpilr. 



251 



The cemetery is J of a m. N.W. of the 
church, and is well kept, with flower- 
beds, which are watered from a well 
in the ground. The following account 
is given by Kaye, vol. iii. p. 79 :— " On 
Sunday, the Slst of May, the troops 
rose. Many of our people were in 
church, for it was the hour of divine 
service when the revolt commenced. 
It was the old story over again, with 
scarcely a variation. The banglAs of 
the English were plundered and burnt. 
The Treasury was sacked. The Jail 
was opened ; the prisoners were re- 
leased. The townspeople made com- 
mon cause with the mutineers, and 
the surrounding villages broke out into 
rebellion. An English factory, (at Rosa) 
where sugar was refined and rum dis- 
tilled, was attacked and devastated 
by the villagers. And, ere the night 
had closed in upon the scene, new 
native rulers had been formally pro- 
claimed, and the dominion of the 
white man was at an end. 

" The fate of the English residents at 
Shdhjahdnpiir has now to be recorded. 
The murder of our people was not a 
conspicuous feature in the programme 
of the mutineers of the 28th. If the 
compact had been to destroy the Eng- 
lish, root and branch, on that Sunday 
morning, whilst engaged in the offices 
of their religion, it was very imper- 
fectly fulfilled. A party of mutineers 
made for the Christian church ; but 
it was to be counted only by units. 
Armed with swords and clubs, they 
rushed in, yelling. Mordaunt Ricketts 
was slashed by a Sipihi, but he carried 
his wound to the vestry door, there to 
be cut down and slain. A clerk in 
the magistrate's office, named Le 
Maistre, was killed in the first on- 
slaught. No other member of the 
congregation stained with his blood the 
floor of the Christian temple ; but the 
agony of the women was great. These 
(> or 7 assassins might be the precursors 
of hundreds of remorseless insurgents 
from the Lines and from the city, all 
thirsting for Christian blood. Was it 
better, then, to endeavour to escape 
from the church, or to close the doors 
and prevent further ingress of the 
BBBoilanta? The chaplain endea- 



voured to escape, but he was wounded 
as he left the church, and was after- 
wards kiUed by some villagers, to- 
gether with Assistant A. Smith, at a 
Uttle distance from ShAhjahAnptir. 
After this, the doors of the church were 
closed, and the shuddering women 
were removed to the tower, where 
they abided in safety for a time. 

" Meanwhile, in the cantonment the 
SipAhis were in a state of wild excite- 
ment. But, as often happened, there 
was a division amongst them. Cap- 
tain James was shot on parade, whilst 
endeavouring to pacify his men. Dr. 
Bowling, who, returning from his 
morning visit to the hospital, had 
found the regiihent in rebellion, 
placed his wife and child and a Eu- 
ropean female servant in his carriage, 
and mounting the box beside the 
coachman, had made for the church. 
As they went a party of Sipdhis fired 
at them, atid Bowling fell dead from 
the box. Another bullet wounded his 
wife, but she escaped to reach the 
church, where other fugitives were 
assembling ; and their native servants, 
true to their salt, were bringing guns 
and pistols to their masters. If, at 
this time, there had been united action 
among the Sipdhis, not one of our 
people could have escaped. But it 
happened that a party, scarcely less 
than a hundred strong, rallied round 
our officers, and thus the Christian 
fugitives were saved. These were 
principally Sikhs. With this safe- 
guard, those within and thoHC without 
the church gathered themselves to- 
gether, and took counsel as to the 
means of escape. Mr. Jenkins recom- 
mended that they should make for 
Pohwaine, beyond the Awadh frontier, 
where it was believed that the Rdjd of 
that place would shelter them. As by 
this time several horses and a carriage 
or two were assembled in the church 
compound, the flight was not difficult. 
So they went. But the Pohwaine 
declared his inability to protect them^ 
and they 'wevi't wiX.'i'^'^'ssxs.^^ <5>vssi.'cS- 
OUT out-sta.WoTi'a m K^«>.^i2cL. ^^S^v^s. \x».- 
gedy ot S»\i«fcL\^\itoi^^x \^vNa. ^^^ ^^^ 

been act«d o\xt'* **o«w'^^^SiK^ 



262 Rovie 27. — SMIijahdnpUr to BareiUy {Bareli), Sect. II. 



h&npiir, were murdered at Mohandl, 
with the exception of one drummer- 
boy. (See Kaye, vol. iii., p. 460). 
In the compound of the Judge s house, 
surrounded by a wall 4 ft. high, is a 
tomb 2J feet high. The wall was 
built by Government, in 1867. The 
tomb is a small sarcophagus, and the 
Indians persist in saying that it is the 
tomb of a dog. There is no inscription. 
From this spot one sees a railway 
bridge over the Kankrat stream E. by 
N. of the tomb ; and when Lord Clyde 
moved his army to Bareilly, the 
Maulavl Ahmadu'llah, with 15,000 
rebels, crossed this bridge, and drove 
our 82nd Kegiment, and the other 
troops left to guard this Station, into 
the Old JaU. Whilst the Indian who 
i commanded one of the Maulavi's regi- 
ments of cavalry was parading his 
men before the church, a sergeant of 
the 82nd, at 600 yds, put a ball through 
his body, and he dropped dead from 
his horse, whereupon the whole regi- 
ment hurried under cover. The 82nd 
had been surprised by the- Maulavl, 
while the men had been preparing for 
dinner, and he caught the bakers 
and hanged them, each with a loaf of 
bread round his neck. The rebels 
occupied the church, and filled it with 
wood, intending to bum it down, but 
had to make so precipitate a retreat, 
that they could not carry out their 
purpose. The trees all about are 
scarred with round shot. The inner 
wall alone of the old Jail, to which 
our men retreated, is still standing. 
It is of mud, and is now the outer wall 
of the Commissariat Store. 
The old cemetery is 200 yds. due S. 
, of this wall. There are about 20 'tombs, 
evidently those of persons oE conside- 
ration, the tablets of which were de- 
stroyed by the rebels. The judge's 
and magistrate's offices are not far off, 
and south of them is a large Sardi, 
built out of the fine imposed on the 
city after the Mutiny. It is on the right 
hand as you leave the cantonment. S. 
of It is the Jadlf a, semicircle, on the 
radiating principle, bat without a 

9n^^^' ^^^® ^ accommodation for 
1^02 prisoners. About a m. beyond it 
^ An earthen rampart, on which were 



the walls of the Fort, where the rebel 
N\iw4b of ShihjahAnpiir resided. 
Lord Clyde had these walls thrown, 
down. The soldiers of the 82nd and 
88th for some time occupied this fort, 
and those who died are buried in two 
inclosures about 150 yds. from the 
rampart, one on each side of the main 
road. The city of Shdhjahdnpiir is 
about a m. long, well shaded with 
trees. There are some good houses of 
rich people, and all of that class were 
glad when the British returned. 



ROUTE 27. 

SHi.HJAHANPUR TO BAEEILLY. 

The stations are as follows : — 



Ms. from 
Tiaklinau. 


Names of Stations. 


Time. 


113 
119 
123 
133 

\ 


Shdhjahanpiir 

Tilhiir 

Mirinpur Khatrn . . 

Fathganj . 

Parfdpiir . . . 


P.M. 

8.15 
8.41 
9.0 
9.40 
10.22 
\ V 



Bareli ox BoreUl-y.— Tofe T. ^. ^\. 
ihiB city \a ne^oc XTog cenJut^ oil >iXia ^ssai 



Sect. II. 



Eoute 27. — Bareilly (Bareli), 



253 



tonment, just E. of the Soldiers' Gar- 
dens, between two tanks, Jrd of a m. 
to the E. of the new church. It is 1 j m. 
from the railway station, but at the 
railway station there are very nice 
rooms, called the Inspection Rooms, 
and there are, also, refreshment rooms, 
so that the traveller can stop there, if 
he can get permission to occupy the 
rooms. Bareli was the chief city of 
Bohilkhand. The city has had a bad 
name for disaffection from of old. In 
1816 an insurrection ]^broke out, in 
consequence of the imposition of a 
new tax on houses. A Mufti, named 
Mul^ammad Aiwaz, a man of great 
age and reputed sanctity, encouraged 
the popular excitement. On the 16th 
of April, the magistrate, attended by a 
few horsemen and 30 Sipdhls, repaired 
to the city, and the Mufti took 
sanctuary in a shrine, in the suburbs. 
The magistrate advanced to the place 
where he was, but was opposed by a 
mob armed with swords and pikes, 
who killed 2 and wounded several 
of the troopers. The Mufti escaped, 
but received a slight wound. He was 
soon joined by 5,(X)0 armed men. On 
the 21 St these people murdered Mr. 
Leycester, a son of one of the judges. 
They then attacked the troops, but 
after a sharp conflict were dispersed, 
with the loss of several hundred men 
killed and wounded. The troops had 
21 killed an^ 62 wounded. 

Some remembrance of this affair, no 
doubt, lingered amongst the pop. of [ 
Bareli, when the news of the outbreak 
at Mirat and Dihli arrived. There was 
a small fort to the S. of the city, and 
J of a m. to the E. of the railway station, 
which had been built by G ovemment f or 
a citadel, after the insurrection of 1816. 
It was quadrangular, with a good ditch 
and 2 bastions projecting from opposite 
angles, but nothing seems to have been 
done to place it in a state of defence. 
In cantonments there were the 18th 
and 16th KegimentsN. I., the Sthlrreg. 
Cav., and a native battery. The 
commandant, Brigadier Sibbald, was 
absent at Almomh, and Col. Ck)lin 
Troup, who bad been one of the cap- 
tj'ves in Afgbdnistdn, was in charge of 
the station. There was a large cluster 



of civilians, and altogether there were 
nearly 100 Christians, exclusive of 
women and children. On the 19th of 
May, 1857, a jama'ddr was murdered 
by one of the prisoners. On the 2l8t 
Brigadier Sibbald, who had returned, 
harangued the troops. On the 29th, a 
swarm of mutineers from the 45th 
at Firiizpiir, arrived at Bareli. On the 
31st, the outbreak took place. Par- 
ties of the 68th set fire to the English 
houses, they then shot down every 
white man they met. Brigadier 
Sibbald was one of the first victims. 
The oflicers of the 8th Cav. determined 
to retreat to Nainl TAl, and Troup 
cabled on them to follow him, but 
Mackenzie represented that his 
troopers were eager to attack the / 
mutineers. Troup consented, and the , 

word was given, but when the regi- 
ment confronted the 68th, and saw the 
green standard of Isldm, they deserted 
their officers and went over to the 
mutineers, and these, turning the guns 
on the 18th, persuaded that regiment 
to join in the insurrection. Major 
Pearson and 4 other officers of the 
18th escaped from the ground, but 
were killed by the villagers of Rdm- 
patti. The Commissioner, Mr. Alex- 
ander, escaped to Naini T41, as did Mr. 
Guthrie, the Collector and Magistrate; 
and the Joint Magistrates, Mr. Parley 
and Mr. Currie. The Judges, Mr. D. 
Robertson, Mr. Raikes, and also Dr. 
Hay and Mr. Orr, were all killed. 
Thus the higher civilians, with 
several subordinates, were slain, as 
were many merchants and traders, 
with their wives and children. KhAn 
Bahddur Khdn, a descendant of H4fi^ 
Ral^mat Khdn, the first Pathlin ruler 
of Bareli, who was killed in a battle 
with the English, was proclaimed 
viceroy, and he ordered all Christians 
to be killed. Mr. and Mrs. Aspinall 
saw their two children murdered 
before their eyes, and were then put 
to death. Others were slaughtered in 
the same way, and the naked corpses 
of the English were dsaj^^*^ ^Coxsssisgp^ 
the toYm, \jci \>afc lesA^^^ifc '^Jt Nioj. 

standard, lilx. ^^^^X'S!^^^^ 



254 



Route 27. — ShdJijaMnpur to Bareilly (Bareli). Sect^ II, 



defended himself all Sunday, was then 
brought to the Ntiwdb, and cut to 
pieces. But the Viceroy was afraid of 
the soldiery, and he persuaded their 
general, Bakht K^&n. to march with 
them to Dihll. When they had 
depaited Khdn Bahadur's authoritywas 
proclaimed and acknowledged as well 
in Barcli and its environs as also at 
Buddoti. Kljdn Bahddur then issued 
a proclamation to the Hindiis, calling 
upon them to join in the rebellion. 

After reading the above summary, 
the traveller may drive to the churches, 
and first to Christ Church, which can 
seat 300 persons, and is C5 ft. long. It 
is rather pretty. There is only one 
tablet, on the left of the entrance. 
The other tablets were stolen, and the 
church itself was almost destroyed 
during the Mutiny. The remaining 
tablet is thus inscribed : — 

Sacred 

To the Memory of 

GEORGE DAVIS RAIKES, Esq., 

Of the Bengal Civil Service, 

Who was killed at Bareilly 

By the RebelH on the day of the Outbreak, 

May 3l8t, 1857, 

Aged 39 years. 

This Tablet is erected to his memory by 

His bereaved Widow, 

Margaret Julia Raikes. 

St Stephen's Church was consecra- 
ted in 1862, when the Bishop of Auck- 
land was chaplain of the station. It 
is 159 ft. long, and seats 1,000 persons, 
is built of stone, and has seven arches 
inside, on either side. There is a fine 
brass on the left of the altar, with the 
names of tiie persons murdered here 
in the Mutiny. It is as follows : — 

Sacred 
To the Memory of 
D. Robertson, Esq., Judge of Bareilly ; 
G. D. Raikes, Esq., Sessions' Judge ; 
Dr. T. M. Hay, Ci^il Surgeon ; 
Dr. Hansbrow (sic), Superintendent of the 
Central Jail ; 
Dr. Bu<*, Principal of the College ; 
T. Wyatt, Deputy Collector ; 
R. Orr, Esq., Deputy Collector; 
Mr. J. Beale ; 
Mr. Watts ; 
Miaa Watts ; 
Brigadier SiBBALD. C.B.j Commanding in 
Aoh/ikiiand ; 
Sei^geant T. Caplby, Artillery ; 
Ensign B. C. Tucker, 18th N.I. ; 
Vusrtermaster-aergeant Henby, 18th N.I. ; 



Major H. C. Pearson, 18th N.I. ; 
Captain T. C. Richardson, 18th N.L ; 

Captain H. N. Hagstom, 18th N.I. : 

Lieutenant H. N. Stewart, 18th N.I. ; 

Lieutenant J. C. Dyson, 18th N.I. ; 

Quartermaster-sergeant Cross, and child; 

Mr. A. Fenwick, Commissioner's Office , 

Mr. and Mrs. Aloue and 2 children, 

Commissioner's Office ; 

Mr. J. C. Nicholas, Commissioner's. Office ; 

Mr. and Mrs. Phellan and 4 children, 

Commissioner's Office ; 

3Ir. and Mrs. Davis and 2 children. 

Commissioner's Office ; 

Sergeant Worrell, Jail Establishment : . 

Mrs. Crusbr, Jail Establishment ; 

Mr. T. Bolst; 

Miss Bolst ; 

Mrs. Lawrence ; 

Mrs. and Miss Aspinall and 2 children ; 

Mr. R. Ritchie ; 

Mr. Jacques ; 

Sub-Conductor Cameron, Eng. Dop. ; 

Mrs. Cameron and 2 chil<m)n. 

This Tablet and Chancel Windows were 

Erected in memory of the 

Above-mentioned persons, who were 

Murdered at Bareilly, in June, 1867. 

A.D. 18G3. 

The Cemetery is about Jam. from the 
T. B. The old tombs, some of which 
arc of great size, have been robbed of 
their tablets, as have also 2 octagonal 
handsome buildings like temples. The 
rebels spent some time in Jknoddng 
the tombs to pieces, and, after our 
Government was restored, more than 
100 men were employed by the Bhiglifih 
authorities for a considerable time in 
making repairs. As no certain account 
was kept of the places where people 
were buried, the tablets are not en- 
tirely to be relied on; for example, 
the tablet to Brigadier Sibbald is in- 
correctly dated. It runs thus : — 

In Memory of 
BRIGADIER HUGH SIBBALD, C.B., 

Commanding in Rohilkhand and Kum^ii, 

Muniered, after upwards of 

51 years' service in the Bengal Army, 

By tlie Mutineers 

Of the Bareli Brigade, 

On the Slst of May, 1858 (<^), 

In the 68th year of his age. 

This tomb is erected in token of 

Affectionate remembrance by hit 

Widow and children. 

'MaTL7 ol>i!tL<&\»\:^ft^^eTe restored by 



Sect. il. Houte 28. — Bareli {BarisiMy) to Naini Tdl, 



255 



and Robinson, and Lt. Dawson were 
murdered, and their bodies were not 
buried. It may be mentioned that the 
ring of Maulavi Ahmadu'lldh, who 
was shot by the R4jd of Pohwaine's 
brother, at Pohwaine, 18 m. N.E. of 
Shdhjahdnpiir, came into the possession 
of Mr. Gilbert Money at Bareli. 

Th^ Central Jail. — A visit may now 
be paid to the CentralJail, which is on 
the N. of the city, having the city be- 
tween it and the cantonments. On the 
24th of April, 1877, there were 1,328 
prisoners. There are 6 corridors, of 
5^ solitary cells each, for natives ; and 
2 corridors of 6 cells each, for Euro- 
peans. They are all well ventilated. 
There are 6 dark cells, but the only 
ventilation in them is by air forced 
through a metal sieve. It is the opi- 
nion of the Superintendent that the 
dark cell is no punishment to natives, 
as they go to sleep. The roofs of the 
corridors are made of hexagonal tiles, 
which ai-e very binding, to dispense 
with timber, and they never require 
repairs. There are also arched roofs, 
with square tiles ; but they have no- 
thing in the shape of a wedge, and can- 
not be safe. They are perforated with 
one hole for ventilation. Women and 
boys are kept in the district jail. A 
European matron teaches the women 
to sew, but they are not taught to read 
or write. The boys are instructed. 



ROUTE 28. 

BABELI TO NAINI TAL. 

This journey must be made in a car- 
riage, and the cost to Naini Tdl and 
back, is 52 rs. 



Nos. 


1 Names of Villages for 


Dist. from 


changing horses. 


Bareillj'. 






Ms. Fur. 


1 


BUwa . . . 


5 


2 


Bholapur 




10 6 


3 


Khamkela . 




18 6 


4 


Kauwan 




25 4 


5 


Bahari 




32 2 


6 


Dargu . 




38 


7 


Kirhidr . 




43 6 


8 


Nagidr . 




49 4 


9 


LdlKilar . 




65 2 


10 


Mata Haklu 




61 


11 


Halddn 




GO 6 


12 


BAmUah . 
Naini Tal . 




74 2 


13 




74 4 



J 

\ 



There are villages at all, or almost 
all, these places. The road is very fair 
throughout, and there is no difficulty 
in travelling at the rate of 8 m. an 
hour, including stoppages, neither is 
there any jungle at all for the first 
55 m. Then there are trees rather 
thick, at a distance of 50 yds. from the 
road side, and at the 59th'^ the road 
enters the hills, and winds along be- 
tween hills from 800 to 1,500 ft. high, 
well clothed with trees. There are 
bears in this part of the road, who 
occasionally show themselves. At the 
55th m. a small rapid stream from 
3 to 5 ft. broad runs beside the road, 
which is used for in^^tion. At 
Bahari the traveller can obtain soda- 
water and tea. The T. B. at Rdmbdgh 
is very good, and haa ti x<2ickscs.. k^ 
R6.m\>^^ tYi'fc V-w.^OXet. Tocas^ \s5i6Si. 
jh-dmndii, ox xv^Lft \).v^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^T^^, 



wlWlM^^e lo -^^ij 



256 



Houte 28. — Bareli (Bardlly) to Naini Tdl, Sect. II. 



hiring one. To carry the jhdmpdn, 6, 
8, or 10 kulls will be, required, accord- 
ing to the weight of the person. A 
child or very light lady might be car- 
ried by 6 bearers, for whom the charge 
will be 6 Anas each ; and some \pi\i^ 
will be required for carrying the kit, 
for whom the charge will be 4 Ands 
each. Ponies are cheaper, but cannot 
always be obtained. The proprietors 
of the hotels will send jhdmp4ns or 
ponies on particulars being specified. 
On leaving Bareli, should a part of the 
journey be made at night, the traveller 
must be very particular in insisting 
on the carriage having 2 lights, and 
seeing that they are both put into the 
lamps, for it is a usual thing to give 
only one light, and that a bad one, 
which soon goes out, and leaves a 
dangerous road to be crossed in the 
dark. 

JV^aini Tdl— The T. B. here is about 
Jam. from the Lake to the N. by W. 
There are 3 hotels, the Mayo or Mur- 
ray's, quite close to the N. of the Lake ; 
the Star and Garter, about J of a m. 
to the N. by W. of the Lake ; and the 
Boyal, about |th of a m. due E. of the 
Lake. The charges at these hotels are, 
for a sitting-room, bedroom, and bath- 
room, taking meals at the table-d'hdte, 
300 rs. i^er month ; for a bedroom and 
bathroom, 150 rs. per month ; for 
broken periods, 6 rs. per day. In these 
charges wine and liquors are not in- 
cluded. The charge for boats on the 
Lake is — ^for a rowing boat, 1 rupee a 
day ; for a sailing boat, \\ rs. a day. 
The charge for horses is, in the sta- 
tion, 2 rs. a day, and out of it, 2J rs. 
a day ; to Almorah, 8 rs. a day ; to 
BAnlkhet, 10 rs. ; and to Khama, 
4 rs. There is a very good banglA at 
Kharna. At Almorah there are 2 DAk 
banglds. 

Nainl TAl is extremely pictur- 
esque, and the Lake forms one of its 
most striking features. It is nearly 
a m. long, and 400 yds. broad. The 
flood-level is 6,410 ft, above the sea. 
The depth ranges from 5 fathoms at 
tlie N. end, to 15^ in the broadest part. 
22ie total area of the settlement is 
4f^^S acres, or 6'5i sq. m. The area 
of the Lake is 120 acres 2 roods. The 



total area is divided into settlement 
1,665 acres, cantonment 418, enyironsy 
2,100. Besides the principal lake, 
there are several small ones, such as 
the Jewali, the Khuria — the former to 
the S.W. of the great lake, and the 
latter to the S.E. The chief pop. is 
to the N. by W. of the Lake, where are, 
close to the Lake, the assembly rooms, 
bathing-shed, billiard-rooms, racquet- 
court, and public gardens. The cricket- 
ground and racquet-court are a little 
N. of the assembly rooms. The club 
is 300 yds. S.E. of the T, B. St, John's 
Church is rather more than a furlong 
due S. of the T, B., and the cemetery 
is a few yds. to the S. of the church. 
The highest peaks are to the N.W., as 
China, which is 8,568 ft, above sea- 
level, Deopathar, 7,589 ft., &c. 

The traveller may visit first the 
church, St. John's, which is a neat 
edifice, partly of stone, partly of 
masonry. It is 114 ft. 10 in, long, and 
61 ft. 8 in. broad, and can seat 500 
persons. It has a roof 6f dark-coloured 
wood, and has 2 stained-glass widows. 
There is a handsome brass under the 
window, on the N. or left side of the 
communion table, with this inscrip- 
tion : — 

In affectionate remembrance of 

CUTHBERT BEN8EY THORNHILL, C.S.I., 

Bengal Civil Service, 

. Who (lied at sea, July 11th, 1868, 

And was buried at Aden, aged 48 years. 

The above Window is placed m the Church 

By a few of his many friends, 

Who deeply lament his loss. 

Behind the organ, so that it is read 
with difficulty, is the following : — 

In Memory of 

MAJOR CHARLES WARDE, 

Tliis Tablet is erected by his brother officers 

Of the late 68th Regiment N.I., 

In token of affection and regaiti. 

Died at Almorah, 26th of November, 185 r, 

Aged 42 years. 

There is also a brass in the church to 
Francis Otway Mayne, Esq., C.B., to 
whose memory the second stained-glass 
window is put up. The cemetery is 
not ^0 yds. to tbft S. ot the church. It 
is weM "kapt , wi^Qi \}![i&\xsEc^<& «ifc ycl ^:y^ 
Older. T\i"a oiiVj \x^a((si\^\k<(si^ ^1 'va.- 



Sect. IL 



EotOe 2S.-^Naini Tdl. 



257 



terest are to Major-General Sir Stuart 
Corbet, K.C.B.^ who died Angnst 14th, 
1865, aked 63, and to Thomas Sidn/^ 
Gepp, Lt. in tiie 66th or Gurkd regi- 
ment, who died at Baldwin, on the 
12th of February, 1868, of wounds re- 
ceived in action with the rebels of 
Bohilkhand, at Ch&rpurd. There is a 
tablet to Captain William Lawson, 
42nd Highlanders, who died of a 
wound received at MitA Ghdt, on the 
4th of January, 1859. Kemark also 
a tablet to Lt-General Sir B. W. 
Huthwaite, K.C.6., who died on the 
5th of April, 1873, alter a distinguished 
service of 63 years. Another victim 
to the attack on Lakhnau, whose name 
is recorded here, is Fitzhardinge 
Theophilus Quintin Berkeley, who 
lingered as long as the 2nd of July, 
1867, but never recovered from his 
wound. 

There is a pretty ride on the W. side 
of the Lake, where the visitor may 
ride up to a considerable height. But 
the finest views will be obtained on 
the E. side of the Lake, such as from 
Shcr kc Danda, whence the snowy 
mountains beyond Almorah and K4ni- 
khet may be seen. The Lake of 
Bhim Til cannot be seen from Naini 
Til, but its site can be made out in- 
distinctly. The visitor will soon tire 
of the roads about the Station, and 
if he is vigorous and fond of sport, 
will do well to go to Rinikhet and 
Almorah, for a short tour by the 
following route :• — 



undertake a journey to Chamoll. 
stations are as follows : — ^ 



The 







Miles from 


Nos. 


Xamcs of Villages. 


Village to 


1 




Village. 


From Naini Tdl to 


12 




Khyma. 




2 


From Khvrna to Rani- 
khet 


18 

1 


3 


Froiii Rdnikhot to 
Muchkuiiti. 


8 


4 


Miichkunti to Almorah 


10 


5 


Fi-om Almorah to Peora 


12 


6 


From Peora to Ramgarh 
Fron. Rdmgarh to Naini 


1) 


■ 7 


10 




TjU. 


1 

1 



Nos. 

1 


Names of Villages. 


Miles. 


From Naini Til to Kymah . 


12 


2 


From Kymah to Almorah . 


19 


3 


From Almorah to Biligeshw&r 


12 


4 


From Bigeshwir to Raij- 


12 


5 


From Rav nith to Gwaldam 
From Owaldam to 6h4( 


9 


6 


14 


7 


From Ohat to Rdmun . . 





8 


From Rimon to Kdni 





g 


From Kfini to Pdna . . . 


4 


10 


From P4na to Pi^nah . 
From Pagnah to Beri . . 


10 


11 


12 


12 


From Ben to Chamoll . 


12 


13 


From Chamoll to Ardbadna 


12 


14 


From Ardbadna to Karani 
Prdg. 


12 


15 


From Karam Frdg to Lobah 


10 


16 


From Lobah to Gandl . . 


12 


17 


From Oan&l to Dwarahatl . 


12 


18 


From Dwdrahatl to Rdnl- 
khet. 


12 


19 


From Rdmkhet to Khyma . 


10 


20 


From Khyma to Naini TiX . 


12 
226 



Total distance from Naini Tdl and back to 
it, 85. 



As this route will take the traveller 
beyond civilized parts, it will be 
necessary for him to take a small tent 
and supplies. But he will be rewarded 
by views of the snowy mountains, and 
by the chance of obtaining the follow- 
ing game : Jirao, Simbar or elk, 
S^io or wild goat, Gural or chamoif, 
Th&r, another sort of wild goat ; Bar- 
ral or wild sheep, Kyun or wild 
ass, Kikar barkri or deer, Chanhu or 
snow leopard, Eilij or pheasant, 
^ixiX or snow pheasant, Peor4 or 
partridge, Lungi Argas, another kind 
of pheasant, and Jungrish or small 
pheasant. 

Hdnikliet is a convalescent station, 
and Lord Lytton's (Government had 
under consideration the expediency of 
making the annual migration from 
Cfdcutta to it, rather than to Simla, 
but the want of a good supply of 
water was an insuperable objection. 

Almorah is a place of considerable 
historical interest, for its capture de- 
cided the Gurkh4 War in ISU. Tfes^ 



vlow* •.— *' Otl t>afe Vb'w^ ^2k -OcNR >sSs 



258 



Soute 28. — Bareli (fiareilly) to Naini TdL Sect 11. 



the Gorklids fell back, occasionalljt 
skirmishing with the detachment, bue 
offering no resolute resistance. Th 
gallant bearing of the Irregulars, con- 
sisting chiefly of natives of KoMlkhand, 
and the judicious dispositions of their 
leader, dislodged the enemy from every 
position, until they had concentrated 
their force upon the ridge, on which 
stands the town of Almorah. 

"During the advance of Colonel 
Gardner another body of irregular 
troops, commanded by Captain Hear- 
say, entered the province by the Timli 
Pass, near the Gagra River, in order 
to create a diversion in Colonel Gard- 
ner's favour, and prevent GurkhA rein- 
forcements from crossing the river. 
This movement also was at firfit suc- 
cessfuL Captain Hearsay took pos- 
session of the chief town of the 
district, and laid siege to a hill-fort in 
its vicinity ; here, however, he was 
attacked by the Hasti Ddl Chautra, 
the Gurkh4 commander of the adjoin- 
ing district of Duti, and was defeated 
and taken prisonei^ He was con- 
ducted to Almorah, to which the 
Gurkh&s repaired to assist in its 
defence. 

■ "The importance of securing and 
extending the advantages obtained in 
Ktmiion determined the Governor- 
General to send a regular force into 
that quarter ; and lieutenant-Colonel 
Nicholls, of his Majesty's 14th Hegi- 
^ ment, was despatched thither to t&e 
the command, with 3 battalions of 
N.L and a proportion of field artil- 
lery. Colonel Nicholls joined the 
troops before Almorah on the 8th of 
April. The Gurkhds were nothing 
daunted by his arrival ; and whatever 
inclination Bdm B&b. had originally 
manifested to join the invaders, no 
indication of any disposition to sur- 
render the fortress entrusted to his 
charge was exhibited ; he had been 
taught, no doubt, by the little pro- 
gress which the British arms had 
made, to question the probability of 
their ultimate triumph, and to adhere 
i to the safer path of Melity to his 
»irereign. 

^Almorah was resolutely defended 



'/ 



the position of the besiegers un- 
tenable. On the 21st Hasti D&L 
marched from Almorah to occupy a 
mountain pass on the N. of the 
British camp. He was immediately 
followed by Major Paton, with 6 
companies of the Light Battalion, and 
a company of Irregulars ; the enemy 
was overtaken on the evening of the 
22nd of April, and, after a spirited 
action, put to', flight with the loss of 
their commander. No time was 
suffered to efface the effects of this 
discomfiture. On the 25th a general 
attack was made on the stockaded 
defences of the hills of Sitauli, in 
front of Almorah, which were all 
carried after a short resistance, and 
the troops, following up their success, 
established themselves within the 
town. 

"A vigorous effort was made at night 
by the garrison to recover possession 
of the posts, and, for a time, a part 
was regained, but the Gurkhds were 
finally repulsed. On the following 
mormng the troops were advanced to 
within 70 yds. of the fort, and mor- 
tars were opened upon the works, the 
effect of which was soon discernible 
in the desertion of great numbers of 
the defenders. A &g of truce was 
sent out by the commandant, and 
after a short negotiation the Gurkh&s 
were allowed to retire across the 
K41i, with their arms and personal 
property ; and the fort of Almorah, 
with the provinces of Kamdoii and 
Garhwal, were ceded to the British. 
They were permanently annexed to 
the British territories.** 

On September 18th, 1880, a fright- 
ful and unexpected catastrophe oc- 
curred at yaini TdL On Thursday, 
the 16th of September, rain fell in 
torrents, and continued to fall till 
Saturday morning, when 25 in. had 
fallen. There was in consequence an 
enormous body of water in the hills 
which surround the Naini TAX Lake. 
The Victoria Hotel, which stood about 
280 yards to the N. of the N. comer 
of the lake, had a lofty hill at its 
back. *rhe xqax^u cl >i>afe X-aJta "^i^a 
6,470 it, a\»T^ «fcv\«^^, «Q^ ^^ 



^d measures were taken to render 1 bill at t^ie \jwSk. ol ^}a&\vo\&\ laSA 



Sect II. 



R(Mte 2%.—Naini Tdl. 



259 



At 10 o'clock on the morning of 
Saturday, the 18th, a slight landslip 
occurred on the spur erf the hill, 
behind the hotel, crashing in the out- 
hooses and a portion of the rear of 
the premises, and burying 20 Indians 
and 1 European child. Assistant- 
Gommissaiy Taylor, with some police 
and labourers, came at once to render 
assistance, and sent for the military, 
who hastened to. the spot, under the 
command of Captain Balderstone. 
The work of extricating the dead and 
wounded went on till 1.30 p.m., when 
in a moment the whole precipitous 
cliff overhanging the spot fell with a 
tremendous roar, burying at once the 
hotel, the soldiers, the assembly 
rooms, library, orderly room, road, 
and garden. Almost every person in 
the buildings and grounds was en- 
tombed. The place shook as with an 
earthquake, and the waters of the 
lake were driven to the S. part of it in 
an immense wave, while vast clouds 
of dust rose from the falling masses 
like volumes of smoke after a terrible 
explosion. 

The following is a list of those who 
were killed : — 

1. L. Taylor, C. S. Assist.-Commis- 

sioner. 

2. G. H. Noad, Assist, to In8.-Gen. 

of Police. 

3. Rev. Mr. Bobinson, Chaplain. 

4. Mr. Morgan, Boad Overseer. 

5. Major Morphy, 40th Regiment* 

6. Mrs. Morphy. 

7. Mr. Tumbull. 

8. Captain Goodridge, 30th N.L 

9. Surgeon-Major Hannah. 

10. Captain Haines, R.E. 

11. Captain Balderstone, 34th Regi- 

ment. 

12. Lieut. Sullivan, 73rd Begiment 

13. Lieut Halkett, 73rd Begmient. 

14. Lieut. Carmichael, 33nl Begi- 

ment. 

15. Sergeant-Major Bogers. 

16. Sergeant Instructor Meenan. 

17. Sergeant Frood, 33rd Begiment 

18. Lance-Sergeant Graver, ^rd 

B^fiment. 
19, Ironce-Corporal Trister, 25th. 
jBe;giment 



20. Private Hehnouth, 6th Begi- 

ment. 

21. Private Hoyes, 33rd Begiment. 

22. Private Gillan, 33rd Biegiment. 

23. Private Turner, 73rd Begiment. 

24. Private H. Brown, 73rd Begi- 

ment. 
26. Private Chisholm, 73rd Begi- 
ment. 

26. Private Keneray, 73rd Begiment. 

27. Private Farrance, 13th Hussars. 

28. Private Bast, 39th Begiment. 

29. Driver Colman, B.H.A. 

30. Mr. Bell, merchant. 

31. Mr. Moss, Assist, to Mr. Bell. 

32. Mr. James Drew. 

33. Mr. Tucker, Clerk. 

34. Mr. Morgan. 

35. Mr. Shields. 







Route 2S.—SareH to MvrOdiibdd. 



Sect n. . 



KOUTB 29. 

BASELI TO UDEADABAD. 

The trareHer will retnm to Bareli 
from Nainl T41 by the siatioiis that 
haye already been given. On the way 
down, the traTeller may, j£ he ia in- 
terested in Buch mattfiiB, stop at the 
Naini TAl Brewery. It was eBtabliahed 
in 1863, and passed through Beveral 
hands. Mr. Marsden, who took charge 
in 1874, obtained a contract to supply 
the troops at Nainl Til, which tripled 
his operatioDK, It is stated that the 
water resembles more that of Burton 
than does any source in India. At 
this brewery many dogs have been 
carried off by leopards, which break 
the Htrongeet chains to take them 
away. The stationB from Barcli to 
Miinid4bid, on the Awadh and EoMl- 
kband Bailway, are as follows : — 



ii 


NnmB-nrsiatimiK. 






u 








s 






1 




























ADuIa 














X 


DubS™''" 








At^p,^ 






t« 


LTiBudausi- 


III 


10 Jt 




hunlcri,] 






71 




VSO 


1140 



At Chaiidaiisl the tiaveller will 

change to thi Murddabad line as the 

. inain line goes on tn A'hgaxh. An 

- extensioa is proposed from KaiidihiA 



to Bimnagar, which is only 12 m. 8. 
of Binikhet, and another to' Sihia 
ranpiir, to connect with theB. I. EaiU 
way and Hardw&r. 

MvmddiM ia on the right bank of 
the RAo^anga riTer, and ia a town of 
4901 inhabitants. The cantonment 
Ues to the N.W. of the town. The 
areas are as follows ; cantonment, 
lOiO-14 acres= 1'62 sq.m. ; city, 842-29 
BcreB = l-32aq.ni. The Awadh and Bo- 
hilkhand Railway enters Mur4dSb4d at 
the 8.B. of the city, and the station is 
ird of a m. R of the junction with the 
Ulrat road. The D&k Bangli is 
nearly IJ m. due N. of the railway 
station. But at the station at the S. 
end of the platform, are the company's 
rooms, which perhaps a. traveller may 
be allowed to occupy. There are two 
Tery fine rooms and a lavatory. 

St. PavVa Chureh.— At Jth of a m. 

I the W, of the pik Bai^li is St. 
Paul's Chnroh. It is 106 ft, 3 in. long, 
and 76 ft. 7 in. broad, is quite plain 
inside, and there ia only one inscrip- 
tion to the memory of Bobert Hander- 
3.C.S., who died at NaIni Tft], May 

, 869. As there ia no <j)aplain, the 
compound is neglected and the hedge 
broten down. The cemeteiy is jrds of 

m. S.W. of the church, and nearer 

e station. It is well kept, with 
plenty; of flowers, well watered. 
All the tablets of the old tombs were ' 
removed in the Matiny, and those who 
took them destroyed them foe fear of 
detection when the English govern- 
ment was restored. Here is the tomb 
of Lt. Francis Warwick and his wife, 
who were murdered by the populace 
during the insurrection on the 4th of 
June, 1867. There are 60 iaigetombs, 
two of which are 30 ft, high, without 
tablets, all having been destroyed in 
the Mutiny. The tablet to Major O. 
W. Savage, 37th H. Hants regiment, 
who died 3rd of December, 1869, states 
that a mural tablet, subscribed for l^ 
ill ranks of the regiment, has been 
erected in the parish church at Combar, 
county Down, as a mark of the high 
esteem in which he was held by um 
corps \\i wluch he h*d Mrred 30 years. 



Sect IL 



Rmte l^.—Murdddbdd. 



261 



Jth of a mile to the S. of it, and the 
Telegraph Office about 100 yds. further 
on. 

About i a m. to the N.N.E. of 
the station is the American church 
built by their Methodist Mission in 
1 874. It stands on the left of the road, 
and is used as a school, except during 
hours of service. The average at- 
tendance of pupils is 140. The Mission 
has also a vernacular school in the 
city, and there the average attendance 
is 120. All the boys read the Bible, 
and there are one or two Christians. 
The missionaries have to pass 4 ex- 
aminations, one at the end of each of 
the first 4 years. The master, Mr. 
McGrew, from Virginia, states that 
they have hundreds of Christians in 
the villages, but discourage their 
coming into the towns. The office of 
the Ta^silddr, on the opposite side of 
the road, is a handsome white building. 
A m. to the N. by E. of this church is 
the Zil'a School, on the banks of the 
Kdmganga, which is there about 100 
yds. bro^ in April, and is crossed by 
a bridge of boats. To the W. of the 
school is the Bddsh^i Masjid, the in- 
scription on which has been covered 
with chunavij when the mosque was 
repaired. The date is in the reign of 
Shdh JahAn, 1628—1658 AJ). The 
principal mosque is to the S. of the 
school, and is a plain but rather laige 
building, with the following inscrip- 
tion in the central alcove inside in 
Persian, which may be thus trans- 
lated : — ' 

No mosque had been built in MuridAb&d, 

But Kdflra and Hindus enough and to spare. 

The Just Sh^ 

ShahAb(} 'd DfN I GhAzi. 

Gave orders to Rctstam Kq lK 

To found a lofty and noble mosque, 

Which that Noble built graceful and becoming. 

Firmly he laid the foundations 

of his Faith. 

He set up his religion firmly in the world. 

Each man of learning was busy 

with this, 

How to find in the Ocean of Thought its date. 

One of the learned brought from tiiat 

mystic o<'r»an 

This pure pearl <• invention : 

RusTAM KhAn, by 1. 1' Divine fkvour, 

Set upthe foundation of the 

House of Faith on High. 



The Persian worcjs BUx&i Kh&naU 1 \ s^Lbo to xeawa ^^ ToSiaXaarj 



din kardah bAlo, by the rules of /'^ 
Amjad, give the total 1046 A.H.= ^ 
A.D. 1636. The pulpit has 4 steps. ^^ 
The Zil'a School cost 35,641 rs., of ^ 
which* Government paid 18,000. The 
rest was defrayed by the local fund, 
which was rais^ by subscriptions, and 
by the sale of confiscated arms. The 
ground was given by Bdjd Gursah^i, a 
native of Murdd&bdd. It was built 
shortly after the Mutiny. Persian is 
very well taught in this school, or 
rather college, for the pupils are from 
the age of 18 to 23. N. of the school 
are the ruins of Bustam Khdn's fort, 
the wa^B of which are of burnt brick, 
and are from 4 to 6 ft. thick ; and so 
close is it to the Rdmganga, that one 
might spring from it into the stream. 
The air is deliciously cool here, even 
at the end of April. A large well 
here is called the Mint Well, because 
it supplied water to the Mint in which 
Bustam Kh&n coined his money. 

What occurred at Murdddb^ during 
the Mutiny has been told by Kaye in 
his " Sepoy War," vol. iii. p. 252. The 
29th £.x^.I. was posted at this station, 
and were for some time kept steady 
by Mr. Cracroft Wilson, the Judge, but 
the gunners of the N. Artillery showed 
from the first unmistakable signs of 
an inclination to revolt. On the 18th 
of May, a regiment from Mirat, which 
had mutinied, came down upon Mur^ 
ddbid, and arrived at the G&ngan 
Bridge. They had with them a con- 
siderable treasure, which they had 
carried off from ^af amagar. Mr. Wil- 
son moved against them, with a 
detachment of the 29th, under 2 ex- 
cellent officers, Captain Faddy and 
Lieut. Clifford, and a body of Irreg. 
Horse. 

He surprised the 20th asleep, 
and 8 or 10 of them were seized, 
1 shot dead by a trooper, and the 
treasure captured. Next day the 
mutineers of the 20th entered MurA- 
ddbdd, when one was shot dead by a 
Sikh Sip4hl of the 29th, and 4 were 
made prisoner. Tc^a ^^^xs.^cMsxv.^^'as^ ^ 

vai\ed otl tv. iixmvJoex ^"^^^^^^^^"^^^ 



262 



Boute 30. — Murdddbdd to 'Aligarh. 



Sect.IL 



The guard at the jail ^temised with 
these men, and all the prisoners in the 
jail were released, but the Adjutant of 
the 29th and Wilson with a few Sipdhis 
and a few Irregulars, captured 150 of 
the prisoners, and lodged them again 
in the jail. In this manner Wilson 
continued to make use of the 29th, 
though in a dangerous mood, and he 
even disarmed 2 companies of Sappers 
who marched in from Rurkhi and had 
mutinied, but when the news of the 
mutiny at Barell arrived it became 
impossible to restrain the Sipdhls any 
longer, and Wilson had to make over 
the treasure to them, and escape with 
the other civilians and their wives to 
Mlrat. 

Thfe officers of the 29th, and 
their wives and children, went off to 
Naini Tdl. Lieut. Warwick and his 
wife — a native Christian — were mur- 
dered. Some of the uncovenanted 
officials, who remained behind, were 
killed, and others were carried prisoners 
to Dihll, where they perished. 



ROUTE 30. 

IfUBlDABAD TO *i.LiGABH. 

The traveller must return to Chan- 
dausl by the branch line already given, 
and proceed from thence by the Awadh 
and Bohilkhand main line to 'Aligarh. 
The stations are as follows : — 









as 


Names of Stations. 


Time. 


CO cS 

86 










A.M. 


P.M. 




Chandausi . 


9.40 


9.0 


10 


Bijhoi .... 


10.15 


9.42 


19 


Danhari . 


10.40 


10.12 


27 


Bulrala. . . . 


11.11 


10.47 


SO 


Rijghdt . . . 


11.39 


11.17 


34 


Dabhili .... 


11.54 


11.42 






P.M. 


A.M. 


43 


Atrauli Road . 


12.21 


12.17 


52 


Hardwagaoj . . . 


12.50 


12.50 


60 


•Allgayh* . . . 


1.10 


1.20 



*A'ligaf7ij ** tJie high foj*t" is the 
name of the considerable fortress 
which adjoins and protects the town 
of Kol or KoiL Tins town is of un- 
doubtedly great antiquity, but refer- 
ence will not be made to the puerile 
legends regarding it, which the Hindiis 
put forth in lieu of history. Before 
the Muslim invasion the district was 
held by Dor Kdjptits. Buddhistic 
remains have been found in excavating 
the eminence on which the citadel of 
Koil stood. Probably in very ancient 
times a Buddhist community existed 
there. Authentic history commences 
with the Muslim historians. Qasan 
NijsAmi writes that in 1194 A.D., Ku|;bu 
'd din marched from Dihll to Koil, 
*' which is one of the most celebrated 
fortresses of Hind." In 1262 A.D. 
Ghiydsu *d din Balban was governor 
ot Koil. Hfe «fct u^ a ^reat minaret, 



Sect. II. 



Houie 30. — 'Aligark 



263 



which he had before he ascended the 
throne—" Bah&n 'd din Shamsl,** and 
dated 10th of Bajab, A.H. 652= 27th of 
August, 1254 A.D. In August, 1862 A.D. 
this pillar, by an extraordinary act of 
Vandalism, was pulled down with the 
sanction of Mr. Edmonstone, to make 
room for shops. At the time of demo- 
lition the 1st story, 54 ft. high, and 
part of the 2nd, 20 ft., remained: 
total height 74 ft. The circumference 
of the base was 80 ft., and the walls 
were 6 ft. thick, diminishing at the 
top of the story to 4i ft. A doorway 
opened on a spiral staircase which 
originally led to the top of the column. 
Where this staircase ended it was 
crossed by an ornamental Hindi!! 
pillar, and several beams of wood, 
from which the author of the " Gazet- 
teer" infers that the 2nd story was 
built by other hands. The inscription 
is preserved in the *Aligarh Institute. 

Ibn Batuta mentions Eoil in his 
account of his embassy from Dihli to 
China, 1842 A.D. He calls it a fine 
town surrounded by mango groves. In 
the 15th century Koil became the 
scene of many a battle between the 
armies of Jawanpiir and Dihli. An 
inscription in the fort of Koil records 
its construction during the reign of 
IbrAhlm Lodi in 931 A.H. = 1524 A.D. 
An inscription on the Tdg&h states 
that it was erected in 1563 A.D. by 
Mul^ammad Gisii. Another writing 
on the shrine of Bihi Bakhsh says 
that it was built by $dbit Kh&n in 
1129 A.H. = 1717 A.D. This Khdn re- 
paired the old Lodi fort and called it 
^dbitgarh. He also built the great 
mosque in the centre of the town, an 
inscription on which states that it was 
finished in 1141 A.n. = 1728 a.d. In 
1757 A.D. Silirajmall of Bhartpiir took 
^dbitgarh, and called it Bdmgafh. In 
1759 A.D. the Af|^&ns, under Al^mad 
Bh&h, expelled the Jdts from Eoil. 
About 1776 A.D. Najaf Kh&n repaired 
the fort of Bdmga^h, and changed its 
name to 'Aligarb. About 1785 Mah&- 
dajl Sindhia captured 'Aligafh, in 
which he found treasure in specie and 
jewels amounting tx) a kror of rapees. 
In 1788 'Aligarh was taken by Ghuldm 



and here, with the aid of Be Boigne» 
that prince organised those battalions 
after the European fashion which did 
such good service on many a hard* 
fought field. In 1790 there were 
14 of these battalions, which formed 
2 brigades, with 100 pieces of cannon. 
That year they defeated the B^thora 
at the famous battle of Malrta, and 
also the combined armies of the 
Jaipi!ir B&j& and Isma'll Beg ; in fact, 
all Sindhia's successes from 1784 were 
due to these troops alone. In 1796 
De Boigne was succeeded by Perron. 
There weie then 3 brigades, one com- 
manded by Major Perron at Pund, one 
under Major Sutherland at Mathurd, 
and one under Captain Padron at 
'Aligarh. But in 1797 Perron came to 
'Allgarh and assumed the supreme 
command. His only rivals, Tantia 
Pagnavis and Lakhwa DMa, perished 
in 1801, and next year George Thomas 
fell. In 1802 the force was raised to 
4 brigades or 32 battalions. 

By the treaty of 1802 the British fron- 
tier had been advanced to within 15 m. 
of KoiL In 1803 the British declared 
war against Sindhia ; on the 5th of 
September in that year Perron took 
refuge with the British. The day 
previous 'Aliga^hwas stormed. Colonel 
Monson led the attack, with 4 com- 
panies of H.M.'s 76th, under Major 
McLeod, 2 battalions of the 4th N.I. 
under Colonel Browne, and 4 com- 
panies of the 17th N.I. under Captain 
Bagshaw. During the night previous 
to the attack 2 batteries of 14 eighteen- 
pounders each were erected to protedt 
the storming party, 1 at a village near 
the fort, and 1 near Perron's house. 
At 3 A.M. the storming party arrived 
within 400 yds. of the gateway, where 
they halted till daybreak. Meantime 
a party of H.M.'s 76th destroyed 60 or 
70 of the garrison, who, with the usual 
carelessness of Indians, were smoking 
under a tree in front of the gateway. 
At daybreak the enemy were dislodged 
from a traverse mounted with three 
6-pounders, which wetft 1^3bj»v\5r&ss\j5>. 



264 



Houte 30. — MurdddMd to ^Aligarh, 



Sect IL 



fire of grape-shot. An ineffectual 
attempt was made to blow open the 
gate with a 6-pounder. A 12-pounder 
was then brought up, but at least 
twenty minutes passed before any 
impression was made on the gate. 
Colonel Monson was wounded with a 
pike, the adjutant of the 76th, Lieut. 
Turton of the 4th N.I., and 4 Grenadier 
officers were killed. After passing the 
first gate, the storming party advanced 
along a narrow road, defended by a 
strong tower, from which a deadly fire 
was kept up, while showers of grape 
poured from the neighbouring bastion 
on the narrow passage. The stormers, 
however, forced their way until they 
arrived at a 4th gate, which was too 
strong to be driven in even by a 
12-pounder. At length Major McLeod 
succeeded in passing a wicket and 
ascending the ramparts, when after a 
vigorous defence, which lasted nearly 
an hour, the place was taken. The 
British lost 26 Europeans and 21 
natives killed, and 76 Europeans and 
105 natives wounded, and 6 officers were 
killed and 11 wounded. Of the garri- 
son 2,000 were killed. In 1851 a 
medal was given for this achievement. 
When the news of the Mutiny at 
Mlrat arrived, on the 12th of May, 
'Aligarh was garrisoned by 300 SipAhls 
of the 9th N.I. under Major Percy Eld, 
On the 16th a party of the Sipdhls 
under Captain D. M. Stewart was sent 
out to suppress some alleged disturb- 
ances in the distiict. Francis Out- 
ram, C.S., only son of Sir James 
Outram, accompanied Stewart with a 
few troopers. It appeared that the 
disturbances had been greatly exag- 
gerated, and Stewart and Outram re- 
turned. On the 19th the SipAhls 
were reinforced, and on the 20th 
Captain Alexander marched in with 
the right wing of the Ist Gw41idr 
Cavalry. That day a Brdhman named 
Ndrdyan was hanged for tampering 
with the Sipdhis. He had scarcely 
been executed when the 9th broke 
into mutiny. The Europeans es- 
caped to Metros, and 'A'llgarh was 
occupied by rebels, among whom the 
treasure, 7 Idkhs, was distributed. 
^^e prisoners were leleaaed from the 



jail, and a large bullock-train at the 
Post Office plundered. On the 28th ' 
Lieut. Greath^ reached 'Aligarh, with 
40 volunteer horsemen, and infonna- 
tion being received that B4o Bhup&l 
Singh, a Chauhdn, had proclaimed a 
B4jpi!it government at khair, 14 m. 
W. of 'AUgaj-h, the volunteers went 
there, and Mr. Watson, with a few of 
them, rode straight through the town 
to the Ta^^ilddr's office, captured 
Bhup^ Singh and 16 of his followers, 
and hanged him on the spot. Up to 
the 21st of June the volunteers held 
their ground at 'Aligarh, but the 
Lieut.-Govemor of Agra then recalled 
most of them, and only Messrs. Cocks 
and Outram, of the B.C.S., Ensigns 
Marsh and.Olivant, Dr. Stewart Clarke, 
and Messrs. Saunders, Tandy, Haring- 
ton. Hind, Castle, and Burkinyoung 
were left. This scanty band moved to 
Mandrdk, 7 m. from 'Aligarh on the 
Agra Road, and occupied the deserted 
factory there. On the 2nd of July, 
about 3 P.M., the volunteers were sur- 
rounded, but mounted and charged 
the mob, and killed 15 of them, when 
the rest dispersed. The volunteers 
were soon after obliged to retire to 
Agra, where their gallant leader, 
Watson, the magistrate of 'Aligayh, 
died of cholera. 

From the 2nd July to the 24th Au- 
gust, the district was in the hands of the 
rebels. On August 20 Mr. Cocks, with 
a force under Major Montgomery, was 
despatched from Agra to succour 
Hdtras, and on the 24th this force 
moved on Eoil, and attacked the 
rebels under Ghaus Khdn and Maulavi 
'Abdu 1 Jalil, near the garden of M^ 
Singh, close to the town. The Manlavl 
was killed and the rebels were driven 
out of the city. Govind Singh was 
then made Governor by the British, 
but on the 25th of September was 
driven out by rebels, and next day 
Major Montgomery was obliged to 
retreat on Hdtras. On the 5th o£ 
October Colonel Greathed's column 
occupied Koil, when Mr. Cocks, Major 
Eld, 150 '&Qxoi^eai\a, 100 Sikhs, and 
2 guna "wetft eenX. tcoxci K3en^ \a tfc- 
occupy tlie ^VcvcX.. QcQToA ^m^ 



Sect n. 



Route 30. — ^AUgarh, 



266 



ber, Ck>lonel Seaton's column arrived 
at 'Allgarh, and on the 14th joined the 
Bnlan^ahr force, and the same day 
completelj routed the rebels at the 
Ninmadi. After this the Dudb was 
completely cleared of rebels. After 
the rebellion, was over 4,969iacres were 
confiscated. 

The T. B. at this town is close 
to the railway station. The church, 
Christ Church, may first be visited. It 
is very small, being only 43 ft. 5 in. 
long and 23 ft. broad. It is ^ of a m. 
N. of the T. B., and is quite plain. 
There is only one tablet to Mr. George 
Blackmorc Phelips, B.C.S., who died 
23rd of February, 1850. The church 
seats 50 persons, and was consecrated 
by Bishop Wilson in 1840. The ceme- 
tery is ^th of a m. to the W. of the 
church, and is nicely shaded with fine 
trees, and well kept. As usual many 
of the tablets have been removed 
during the Mutiny. At the 3rd mile- 
stone S. of 'Allgarh, on the Agra Road, 
is a Flcug reli4fioia of enormous girth, 
and 100 yds. from it on the left of the 
road is a garden, in which a body of 
Ghdzis concealed themselves during 
the Rebellion, and rushed out on a 
detachment of our troops, inflicting 
much loss before they were killed. A 
few yds. beyond the milestone stands 
a Maltese cross on a pedestal, al- 
together 12 ft. high. On the pedestal 
is inscribed : — 

Near this spot fell the undennentioned 
gallant officers and men, on the 24th August, 
1857, fighting in defence of their Government 
against a large body of rebels, who had come 
Crom the Town of Koil, and were repulsed by 
a small force under Mafor Momtoomebt, 
15th Regiment Native Infantry : — 

Ensign Habby Lewin Habsh, 

16th Regiment N.I. ; 

Mr. John O'Bbiem Tandy, Merchant and 

Volunteer ; 
Gunner Robbbt Locrhabt, 2nd Qo. 5th 

Battery Bengal Artillery ; 

Coxporal William Abmstbono, i 3rd Bengal 

Private Nicholas Fitzokbald, } European 



fi 



Patrick Lsvinok, 



lar 

|e 

J I 



nfantry. 



Their Mortal Remains lie buried at HAtras. 

Betoming 2 m. by the same road, 
the* traveller will come to the goods 
sbeda o£ the E, I, JSailway on the 
CtrandTranklUmd, Here, where three 
Toa^Bmeetf at the side of » deep ditch, 



is an inclosure about 8 ft. sq., con- 
taining a small white marble fence, 
within which is a white marble colnmn 
34 ft. high, surmounted by a white 
marble figure of a dumpy dog. This 
monument is protected by a wire 
fence, at the top of which is a lamp, 
and is said to have cost 1 ,000 rs. Sudi 
a tomb is at once unintelligible and 
odious to the natives. The E. I. By. 
Station, a well-constructed and com- 
modious building, lies between the 
Civil Station and the City. The Civil 
Station is admirably kept. There is 
a large central space, having on one 
side the private residences and the 
Post Office, and on the other, the Pub- 
lic Offices, Law Courts, Zil'a School, 
the 'Allgarh Institute, and the ceme- 
tery. The Institute was founded in 
1864 by the well-known Saiyid Al^mad 
Khdn, C. S. I., Judge of the Small 
Court at Banaras. The Library con- 
tains more than 2,000 volumes, and 
the Beading-room is furnished with 
the leading English and vernacular 
papers. The Institute has a newspaper 
of its own, called the ♦* 'Aligayh Insti- 
tute Gazette." The Telegraph Office 
is on the S. side of the E. 1. By., on 
the outskirts of the city. The old 
cemetery of 1802 lies towards the 
fort. There was a military can- 
tonment here until 1870, when it 
was abandoned, and the ground 
given to the Koil municipality. The 
Anglo • Vernacular School has an 
average attendance of 125 boys. The 
District Jail is built for 500 pri- 
soners. It stands to the W. of the 
Station. 

TJie Fort of^A'ligarh, — Before visit- 
ing the town, it w&l be well to drive 
to the Fort, which is situated 2 m. to 
the N. of the town of Koil. It is 
surrounded by a ditch 18 ft. deep and 
from 80 ft. to 200 ft. wide. In April 
there is only a foot of water in the 
ditch, but during the rains it is full. 
Shallow as it is, there are large fish in 
it. The ditch is protected by a counter- 
scarp, aIidt\i^^%!^ol\\.,^^5^vO£v^^^Xi^J^^ 
in peTpeTLeacxA«a\v<fc\^\.A^ wnrss^^x^^^ 

by an eaartJ[i^TL ca^^^-^^^^^^C^^"-^ 



266 



SoiUe 30. — Murdddhad to ^Aligarh, 



Sect IL 



Tisitor will come to another portion of 
the ditch, which is crossed in like 
manner by a bridge, at the end of 
which there was formerly 'a draw- 
bridge. A tunnel 60 yds. long is next 
passed. A little to the left of the 
inner mouth of this tunnel is a large 
quarter-guard. The fort is an oblong, 
with an inside area of about 20 acres. 
There is one bastion on each of the N. 
and S. sides, 3 bastions on the E., and 
3 on the W. In the E. bastion there 
is a model of the fort, 20 ft. sq. and 3 ft. 
high. At the N.W. angle there are 
the bomb-proof magazines. The plan 
of the fort is a native one, improved 
by the French. Perron's house is J a 
m. to the S. of the fort. The main 
entrance to the fort is on the N. There 
were barracks in the fort, but they 
have been pulled down. 

Perron^s Home, — There is a square 
gateway or guard-house in front of 
this house, with an arched entrance 
and a guard-room above it. Over the 
arch is written ; — 

Perron, 
1802. 

There is then a Persian inscription, 
which gives Perron's Oriental titles as 
follows : — Nd^lru 'd daulah Imti- 
X&mu '1 mulk, General Perron Bah^ur, 
Mu^affar jang. Then the date is given 
on the right, 1802 A.D. ; on the left, 
1217 JL.H. In the garden is a well, 
on the side of which is a copper plate 
with the following inscription in 
Persian : — 

In the Name of the 

Most Merciful God, 

Praise be to God, that the Spring of the 

Beneficence of Ndsiru '1 mulk, 

Imtizamu '1 mulk. 

GsNERAL Perron BahAdur Md^ffab jano, 

By the fresh favour of the 

Maker of the World, 

Has been repaired and is flowing. 

Then follow two couplets — 

Outside Kol a garden was made. 
In it is a well, the source of the Kanthar 
of Light, 

The companion of General Perron, 
Which flows from l^e great river Jaihun. 

The same date is given as above. 
T^ JdU 18 1 m. S, of Perron's 



The walls are of mud, but the entrance! 
is of burnt bricks. It can hold 682 
prisoners. There are only 6 solitary 
cells. Just outside the S. angle of the 
Jail, about 50 ft. from the wall, and 
just after crossing the E. I. Hallway, 
is a hexagonal temple, 25 ft. high, 
with 7 pillars and a dome, under which 
is a pedestal inscribed : — 

To the Memory of 
The undermentioned gallant Officers, 
H.M.'8 76th Regiment of Foot :— >^ 

Captain Bonald Cameron, 

Lieut. Michael Baylinq Flemiiino, 

Lieut. John Brown, 

Lieut, and Adjutant Frederick William 

St. Axtbin, 

Lieut. Arthur Cuthbert Campbell, 

Who were killed 

During the assault in which 

The strong fortress of 'Aligarh, 

Defended by a numerous and well-appointed 

garrison. 

Fell to the superior energy of 

British valour aad British spirit, 

On the 4th of September, a.d. 180S. 

Also of 

Lieut, and Adjutant John Meuth, 

Lieut. John Henry Hurd, 

Of H.M.'8 76th Regt. of Foot, 

Who lost their lives nobly fighting 

In their country's cause, 

During the memorable victory 

Afterwards gained 

Over the army of Daulat BAo Sindhia, 

Near Laswdri, in Hindustan, 

By the British forces under the command of 

General Lake, 

On the 1st of November, a.d. 180S. 

This Monument was erected by their brother- 
officers. 

The town may now be visited, and at 
the top of a long and rather steep 
slope is the principal mosque, to the 
quadrangle of which the ascent is by 
10 broad steps. The building has .3 
central domes and 2 side domes, and 
2 large and 2 small minarets on the 
E. and W. faces. On the outside gate 
is a Persian inscription, which says 
that §dbit Khdn built this mosque in 
the 11th year of the reign of Muham- 
mad 6h4h. The architecture is in the de- 
based style of the last century, yet the 
mosque is by no means without beauty 
and even dignity. The domes are of 
brick, the rest of the building is of 
blocked kanJtar and red sandstone. 
The pinnacles are gilt, the mosque is 
not in good repair. The eminence on 



house. It is a ilrat-claw district jail, V^UcJh \\. ^XoneA \a <»\\R!iV \\i^ ^^4 



Seci n. 



Ji<mte Zl.-^JiUgarh to Mathurd, 



267 



ipifth, and in it have been discoYered 
vemains of Buddhist and Hindii 
temples; Some of the fragments have 
been placed in the compound of the 
Institnte, and their elegance contrasts 
with the ugly fountain there. S.E. of 
the great mosque is another smaller, 
bntmore omate,]aiownas the Moti Mas- 
jid, or "Pearl Mosque." Sixty-five steps 
lead to the top of the minaret of the 
principal mosque, which is altogether 
about 60 ft. high. There is a good 
▼iew over an extensive and well- 
wooded plain. In the cemetery is a 
tablet to William Booty, a brave old 
soldier of H.M.'s 75th. He died 22nd 
of December, 1853, aged 86. He fought 
against Tipti in 1799, and under Lord 
l4tke at 'Allgarh, Laswdri, Dig, and 
Bhartpiir. The town has a pop., ac- 
cording to the Census of 1872, of 
58,689 persons. There are nearly 100 
Imdmbdrahs in the town. The tomb 
of Gisii Khdn is undoubtedly the most 
beautiful of the mortuary buildings. 
It is an open-pillared Chatrl, and is 
close to the 'Idgdh. The tomb of Hdi 
Baldush is close to the Pearl Mosque, 
and is handsome, but small. W. of 
the chief mosque, about ^ of a m., is a 
curious group of tombs, in which the 
central one is called the Shrine of 
Shih Jamdl, who is said to have lived 
before Koil was taken by 'AUu 'd 
din Ghori. 



ROUTE 31. 

'iLIGABH TO MATHUBi.. 

• 

There is a branch line from Hdthras 
to Mathurd, the stations on which are 
as follows. The traveller must pro- 
ceed from *A.ligairh on the main line 
to Hdthras. 



ft 

8 
18 


Names 
of Stations. 


Time. 


Remarks. 


'lllgarh. 

Pali . . . 

Hdthras 


P.M. 

5.10 
5.49 


This train 
does not 
stop at 
Pali. 



id 






l| 


Names of Stations. 


Time. 


00 -<e 






»n 










A.M. 


P.M. 




Hdthras Road Junc- 








tion* 


9.0 


6.80 


h\ 


HAthras City . . . 


9.33 


7.3 


12| 
19X 


Marsan 


10.12 


7.42 


Barhana . . . 


10.40 


8.10 


22 


Rayah 


11.0 


8.30 


29 


Mathura . . . 


11.30 


9.0 



H&thras town is seen from the rail- 
way. It has an appearance of pros- 
perity, which it deserves. By the 
Census of 1872 there were 23,589 in- 
habitants, of whom 21,121 were Hin- 
diis. To the E. of the town are the 
remains of Daya Bdm*s Fort, consist- 
ing of a broken mound of earthwork, 
and 4 comer bastions of great size, 
surrounded by a ditch fully 40 yds. 
wide. An old temple in the fort still 
bears traces of the furious cannonade 
directed upon it in 1817, when Daya 
Bdm, during Holkar*s invasion, acted 
hostilely towards the British. In con- 
sequence, on the 1st of March, fb:e 
was opened on the fort from 45 mor- 
tars and 3 breaching batteries. At 
the- close of the day a magazinfi.va.-<3c!& 

la 1 Ts. \Et c\»aa, \^ ^'Q^'* "^^.^ '^^'^ ^ to3»* 
1 3xd claaa. 



268 



Eoute 31. — *Aligarh to Mathurd, 



Seci It 



fort exploded, and caused such de- 
struction of the garrison and buildings 
that Daya Rdm fled during the night, 
and Hdthras and the neighbouring 
fort of Marsan were forthwith dis- 
mantled. 

Mathurd. — The city of Mathurd 
stretches for about IJ m. along the 
right bank of the Jamna, the fort 
being in the centre, of which only 
the sub-structure is left ; it was 
^ rebuilt in Akbar's time, and is said to 
be the fort of Kans. It is in N. lat. 
27° 30' and E. long. 77° 45'. The JaU 
and Collector's Office are 1} m. to 
the S. of the S. extremity of the town, 
and 1 m. to the W. of the town is a 
Jain temple and a large mound of 
bricks called Chaurdsi Tila. In a line 
with the Jain temple, but bordering 
on the town, is the principal mosque, 
in the Katra and about J a m. to the 
B. is another mound called Kankali, 
and to the S.W., at distances Tarying 
from ^ a m. to a m., are 5 mounds 
called the Chaubdrah mounds; and all 
these places will be found mentioned 
by General Cunningham in vol. iii. of 
his "Arch. Survey Eeports," p. 13, 
and also in vol. i., p. 233. The travel- 
ler may first dispose of the modem 
buildings, and then inspect the an- 
tiquities of the place. As the birth- 
place ()f Krishna, Mnthurd naturally 
presents some objects of alleged great 
antiquity. 

The little church, Christ Church, 
stands not E. and W., but almost 
N. and S. It is 79 ft. 9 in. long, and 
54 ft. 5 in. broad. It was conse- 
crated by Bishop Deltry, in De- 
cember, 1856. Over the Communion 
table is a brass to the memory of 
Lt. R. F. P. Spartin, Adjutant of the 
10th Hussars, accidentally killed by a 
spear- wound at Shirgajrh on the 1st of 
December, 1875. The window above 
the brass was erected to his memory 
by the 10th Hussars and the 94th 
Riegiment, and by the civilians of Ma- 
thurd. The window has 3 divisions, 
and nepresents in the centre the Cru- 
ciSxion, with an aagel on each side. 
r- ^^ ^^^^ inscription is to the memoxy 
( of Malcolm, sixth son of W. Barrington, 
Jpsden, OxforOsbire, Hewasaciyilian 



and assistant-settlement officer, and 
was murdered at Crovardan on the ^ 
of February, 1875. Another tablet is to 
Biding-Master Corbit and his wife, 
and 29 n.-c. officers and men of 
the 11th Hussars. The B. C. Chnzch 
of the Sacred Heart, built by C3i- 
Salmon Growse in 1874, is extr^nely 
pretty and interesting. It is 73 ft. 
long and 60 ft. broad at the chancel. 
There is a tower, with a dome copied 
from a Hindii temple, with a carving 
of our Saviour at the top, over the 
entrance. It has, outside, 3 pillars on 
either side, with polished white shafts, 
decorated with a black vandyke pat- 
tern and 2 plain white pilastera Over 
the altar there is a wooden roof, and 
over the rest of the church a picked- 
out red brick one. On the left of the 
entrance is a niche for the holy 
water, and above it a glass case, con- 
taining a representation of the Cruci- 
fixion carved in ivory. More to the 
left is the baptismal font of carved 
stone. The cemetery is a little N. of 
the church, and is nicely kept with 
fiowers. Some of the tablets were re- 
moved and some broken in the Mutiny. 
There are tablets to many officers, and 
among them one to Brig. -General 
Bichard Frith, 8th Light Cav^ry, 
commanding the Agra and Mathurd 
frontier, who died July, 1809, and one 
to Major-General John Smith, " com- 
manding officer in the field," who died 
6th of August, 1806. There is also, on a 
small eminence in the very centre of 
the cemetery, a tomb with the follow- 
ing inscription : — 



Sacred 

To the Memory of 

MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY ERASER, 

Of H.M.'s 11th Regiment of Foot, T 

Wlio commanded the British Army at tlie 

Battle of Dig, 

On the 13th of November, 1804, 

And by his judgment and valour achieved an 

Important and glorious victory. 

He died in consequence of a wound 

He received when leading on the ti'oops, 

And was interred here on the 

24th of November, 1804, 

In the 40th year of his age. 

The Army 

laame;i\.t \i\a Xoaa viSXltv \2tvb ^c^-^vt sorrow^ 

And Yv\a co\]CQ\rj t«^t^ >d\& \i.«tck\s^ ocsoi^^x. 

History "W\!^ Tfccot^\i\a traskfe vcA^t^k^koNj^ 
TCiiB igLon ^^'^ ^\»\jAsw» ^'wA^ 



Tl 



^re^cr-a>'^^ 



. Seci. 11. 



Route 31. — Mathurd, 



269 



A walk may now be taken through 
the town, entering bj the Hardinge 
Gate, alfio called Holi Gate, built by 
the mnnicipaUtj. 

In the banning of May the Jamna 
18 here 300 yds. broad. There is a 
paved street the whole way along it, 
with bathing Gh^t^ or flights of steps 
descending to the water, and orna- 
mental c1uibidwrah4 or platforms, and 
small but neat pavilions. Generally 
speaking the men bathe at separate 
Ghdts from the women. The 1st Ghdt 
is called Bangili. It is at the foot of 
the x>ontoon bridge, and close to the 
large house of the Bdj& of Jhdlra- 
patan. It has its name from having 
been built by the Gosdln of the temple 
of Gk)vind Deva at Bindrdban, the 
head of the Vaishavas of Bengal. 
whose house is opposite. The names 
of the Ghd^s are thus given by Mr. 
Growsc, in his book on Mathurd, 
p. 134. To the N., Ganes, Mdn- 
aaa, Dasasvamedha, Chakra, Elri^h- 
na' Gangd, Som-tirtha, Yasudeva or 
Shaikh, Brahmdlek. Ghant4hbdran, 
Dh&rapatan, Sangaman-tirtha, Kava- 
tirtha, and Asikunda. To the S. arc 
Avimukta, Visrdnti, Pr&g, Kankhal, 
Tinduk, Si!irya, Ghintd-mani, Dh]iva, 
Rlshi, Moksha, Eoti, and Bndh Ghdts. 
The temple of Mah4deva Kpshna 
Ganga has some rich and delicate 
Btone tracery. The Visrdntl Ghat 
is where Krishna rested after slay- 
ing Kansa. It is distinguished 
frmn all the other Ghdts by having 
a series of marble arches facing the 
water. 

The river is full of tortoises, some of 
them veiy lai^ge, poking their long necks 
and heads out to be f ^. There is a 
well here 12 ft. deep, with steps down 
to it, choked at the bottom with rub- 
bish. After about 80 yds. is the fine 
house of the Guru Parshotomdas. He 
affects great sanctity, and will not see 
a European. Then comes a fine house, 
belonging to a Gujardti, called Bal- 
liunHf^, Opposite to this is the flour- 
ishing village of Hans Ganj or '* Swan 
boiOQgh.*' After this comes a stone 
tower, 55 ft bigb, which is called the 
SmU Buij, becaase when Kans was 
JkiOed bf Kjiffbna bis widow com.- 



mitted xati here. Growse, p. 97, says 
it was the wife of Rdj4 Bh4r Mai of 
Jaipiir, mother of Bhagwdndas, who 
built it in 1570 Jl.d. The traveller 
now descends 4+1 +1 + 2 steps to 
the Bisr&m Ghdt, a little N. of the 
Sati Burj, and then goes down 2 moro 
steps to a sort of square, where the 
Bdjds are weighed against gold. There 
is a small white marble arch here, 
close to the river. Beyond this is a 
Ghdt built by Jai Singh of Jaipiir. 
Beyond this, observe the enormous 
house and temple belonging to Lak^h- 
man Dds, son of Seth Govindds, who 
is the richest man in India. Bumour 
states his wealth at 23 millions sterling. 
Ascend by 16 steps to the court of the 
temple of Pdrasndth. At this point 
the adytum can be seen. It has a 
portico with 4 pillars, and then 2 rows 
of 5 pillars each. The roof has eaves 
which project 10 ft., and a 2-storied 
gallery runs all round the court. 

A visit may next be paid to the Jdm'i 
Masjid, which stands high. Ascend 
20 steps to reach the court of the 
mosque, which is 14 ft. above the 
level of the street, leading up to and 
round it. The mosque has been covered 
with encaustic tiles. On either side 
of the f a9ade of the gateway is written 
4 Persian lines, which may be thus 
translated : — 

In the reign of ShAh ^'lamoIr, 
Who inspired life into the creed and its 

votaries, 

The Emj^eror of the earth, Anrangzib, 

Clothed in justice, 

Praise be to Go<l, the light of Isldm is shining, 

For this lofty mosque was founded by 

'ABDU'NNABf KhAn, 

It made the idols bow, did this second house * 

of God. + 
Sec tlie sacred mystery that Error vanished. 
When I sought for its date, by grace a voice 

came, 
** Say that 'Abdu'nnabl is the founder of this 

mosque' 

The chronogram gives the date 1071 
A.H. = 1660-61 A.D. Over the facade 
of the mosque are the 99 names of 
God. The pulpit has 3 steps, and is 
of fine white ina."tV>\ft, fe^^* 'Cor. ^^^e^ 

* The UmpVe a\, U«>K\ia. V>V^^>^aN '^"^^^^^ 

said to "be tVve rwotv^ o^ ^^^w^i: -^-v^- 



270 



Route 31. — 'Aliffark to Matkurd. 



Seotn. 



are 2 pavilions roofed in the Hindil 
maimer. The court meaaurea 116 ft. 
e in. from N. to S., and 131 ft. 10 in, 
from E. to W. There ore i minarets, 
vbioh are 91 ft. high from the top 
gallery to the Soot of the mosqoe, and 
27 ft. from the top gallery to the top 
of the minaret, and there are 14 ft. 
from the coort of the mosque to the 
ground. The total height from the 
groundia 91 + 27 + 14 = 132 ft. There 
are i other Persian lines, which maj 
be translated as follows : — 



principal moaqus of blessed foundaHoD 









rt u wide as the eipiuiH of IhoogUt. 
Abda'noabi was killed in quelling an 
imeute at SAhora in the Pargan^ of 
Mah&ban, on the E. side of the 
T^un4. At the entrance to the W. 
of the town is the TdgAh,* and abont 

tof a m. to the W. of the town ia the 
»tra, which is an enclosore like that 
of a SahU, 601 ft. long by 6G3 ft 
broad. Upon a teirace 172 ft x 86 ft, 
broad stands a mosque of the same 
length, but only 60 ft. brood. There 
ia another terrace 6 ft lower, measur- 
ing 286x268 ft. There arc rotive 
tablets in the N&garl character, dated 
Samvat 1713— 1720. On this site etood 
the great temple of Kesava lUl, 
which Tavemier saw in the beginning 
of Aurangzlb's reign, apparently 
about 165!) A.D., and which he des- 
cribes as reiT magnificent, adding 
that it ranked next after the temples 
of Ja€a.nn&th and Ban^^s (Travels, 
part ii. book iii. chap. 12, French 
ed., and CSunningham Reports, vol. iii. 
p. 16). It was built of a red sandstone 
from Agra. At the back of the 
Katra is a modem temple to Kesara, 
and dose by is the Futara-Knnd, a 
tank in which Kfifihna's baby linen 
was washed. This tank is faced 
throughout with Etonc, and haa Sights 
of stone steps down to the water, with 
iO steps in each flight. There is also 
a TCTf steep lamp down which hoiscs 



jro to he washed, and It is strange how 
they are able to get np agaiit. The 
next Tiait may be to the New Husenm, 
of the carving of which Mr, Growse 
says, p. 101," but the moet refined and 
dilate work of the kind ever 
taecuted is to be seen in a building 
erected by public subscription, at the 
suggestion of Mr. Mark IhorahilL" 
On this 30,000 ra. were spent before 
the Mutiny, nhcn it was intermpted. 
bnt it has since been carried on. !Rie 
central ball ia only 26 ft. eh]., and 
there is a verandah or corridor 10 ft 
broad. In the c 
Persian inscription 
worked. It may 



; of the hall a 
beautifully 

1 translated 






f the people Wi 



Collector and 



ntstothe 

MaMstnte; 

iCUeborUstliDn, 
Tot tmvellen,' 
una a mirror m brjghtneos, 
iblea a garden in ita colomuig, 

most i^eaainK and perfect, 
r to compare It to Uia 
me o( JUrtaiib, 
call It the palace of Caaar- 



B tlio fiarit bf Its tj 



Mr. Growse says 1859 A.D. The 
best piece of sculpture in the Museum 
is the Tasa-ditta atatae of Buddha, 
The face is really beautiful, more 
iirtistic than that of any figure yet 
iliscovercd, hut the nose has lately 
mischievously been broken off ; the 
moat cnrions object is a carved 
block found by Mr. Growae in 1878, , 
representing a Bacchanal group. 
Immediately opposite is the Public 
Uaidens in wMch the Museum ooght 
10 have been placed. A little further 
tia is the Jail, constructed on t^ 
ladiating principle. 

When ra-Hian traveUcd in the 
end of the 4th century, and the 

ginning of the oth, he halted 
(., whole month at Uathur^, and 

que /s quoted by Cunnjnghain^\ ^cTLES 'm.V'n ^J*« -tfl«w'*a, -wft. 



\vj\ieafiVoaen.'S\aaa?,'^SKv'W!i.'0Q5i-^«a 



Sect. II. 



Baute 31,*-^Mathurd, 



271 



in 634 A.D., the number had declined 
to 2,000, whence it appeals that 
Bnddihism was on the wane. It is 
also known that one of the monasteries 
was established by the great Indo- 
Scythian King Huvishka about the 
beginning of the Christian Era, and 
under the patronage of the King 
Buddhism was probably still more 
flourishing then. It is therefore not 
improbable that Brdhmanism suc- 
ceeded Buddhism at Mathurd, and 
that in fact tl\e worship of Krishna 
was introduced subsequently to the 
Christian Era, which adds probability 
to the idea that this worship is a 
grotesque offshoot of Christianity. 
Be this as it may, we find that the 
Eatra which has been before men- 
tioned yielded a number of Buddhistic 
remains to General Cunningham and 
others. In fact Cunningham fixes 
upon the Katra as the site of the 
I^agupta monastery, mentioned by 
Hiouen Thsang. At the Eatra, 
Cunningham found a broken Buddhist 
railing pillar, with the figure of Mdya 
Devi standing under the Sdl tree, and 
also a stone on which was inscribed 
the well-known genealogy of the 
Gupta dynasty, from Shrl Gupta the 
founder, down to Samudra Gupta, 
where the stone was broken off. He 
also found built into the wall of a 
well, one of the peculiar curved 
architraves of a Buddhist gateway, and 
also an inscription on the base of a 
statue of Sh4kya dated Samvat 281, 
or A.D. 224, in which the Yasa VihAra 
is mentioned, and this is probably the 
monastery which once existed on the 
Eatra. Id. the Katra too were found 

2 capitals of columns, one no less than 

3 ft. in diameter. A fragment of the 
larger one is still to be seen lying in- 
side the Katra gateway. Cunning- 
ham thinks the smaller is of the 
Indo-Scythian, and the larger of the 
Gupta period. Ma^mi!id of Ghazni 
in 1017 A.D., remained at Mathurd 
20 days, and pillaged and burned the 
city, and carried off 5 golden idols, 
whose eyes were of rubies worth 
50,000 dindr8= £26,000, A 6th idol 

of gold weighed 1120 lbs, and was 
dea^ated with a sapphire weighing 



300 MshMU or 3ilbs. There were 
also 100 idols of silver, each of which 
loaded a camel. The idols together 
were worth not less than £3^,000. 
From Hiouen Thsang's visit to 
Mal^M's is nearly 400 years, and 
during these 4 centuries Buddhism 
wholly disappeared from Mathurd, 
and the Brdhman temple of Eesava 
"R&i was built on the very site where 
the great Buddhist monastery Yasa 
Vihdra stood. 

Near the Jail is a mound, where the 
most extensive discoveries have been 
made. It appears that on it stood 2 
Buddhist monasteries, the Huvishka 
and the Kunda-Suka Vihdra. The 
latter is the place where the famous 
monkey which made an offering to 
Buddha, jumped into the tank and 
was killed. At this mound statues oi 
all sizes, bas-reliefis, pillars, Buddhist 
rails, votive stwpdtt, stone umbrellas, 
and inscriptions have been found. 
One inscription is of the Ist century 
B.C. The earliest is of the Satrap 
Sanddsa, and the next of the great 
King Kanishka in the year 9. ' The 
left hand of a colossal Buddha has 
been found, the figure of which must 
have been 24 ft. high. The most 
remarkable piece of sculpture is that 
of a female, rather more than half 
life size, whose attitude, and the 
position of whose hands resembles 
those of the famous Venus of the 
Capitol. Cunningham says it is one 
of the best specimens of unaided 
Indian Art. There is also a Silentis, 
described by James Prinsep in 1836, 
and which Cunningham thinks is the 
work of a Bactrian Greek sculptor ; 
Prinsep thinks that it is "superior 
to any specimen of pure Hindti 
sculpture that we possess." 

In the Chaubdrah mounds, 1^ m. to 
the S.W. of the city, measuring from 
the gateway of the Katra, was found 
a golden casket, now in the possession 
of Mr. F. S. Growse. There also was 
found by Cunningham a ntupd 17 ft. 
in diameter, also ^^ ^^aaJCs^'^ ^»^«J5^.^ 
which no doxiViV. otvgeosi^ ^sKfo^sacos^ 
relics. "Re ^\^o \iVsvM^\ «^^ ^^ 
capita.! oi a ^m«t V^-^^^^^V 



272 



Eoute 32. — Mathurd to Bindrdban, 



Sect IL 



recumbent animals placed at the 4 
angles, 2 being winged lions, and 2 
winged bulls, with human heads 
adorned with rams' horns and ears. 
For the many other discoveries made 
in different mounds near Mathurd 
reference must be made to Cunning- 
ham's Report, vol. iii., where they are 
detailed at great length. 

Gokul, — The traveller will drive 6 
m. to the S.E., to the town of (Jokul, 
where Ep^hna is said to have passed 
his childhood. Before reaching the 
town the Yamund, 200 yds. broad, 
has to be crossed on a pontoon bridge, 
which will support a carriage. After 
crossing, one must drive Jam. 
through deep sand to a lane so narrow 
that a carriage can only just pass, 
then drive 3 m., } of a m. being over a 
very bad road; the visitor will then 
arrive at a temple, at the E. of the 
town of Mahdban. Here are immense 
remains of fortifications, and after 
passing the red-brick gate of the fort, 
at the top of the rampart, on the left 
is a building, 94 feet long, which is 
called Nand's house; and here is a black 
figure of Krishna, and figures of Nand, 
Jasodd, and Ndrad. Nand is the 
foster-father of Krishna, Jasodd is 
Nand's wife, and Ndrad one of the 
divine sages. This building is 26} ft. 
broad, and has 14 rows of pillars, 5 
deep =70 ; 7 ft. 6 in. high -f the 
capitol, which is 1 ft. high ; total, 8 ft. 
5 in. These pillars are very remark- 
able, as they have two belts of spirited 
figures, seemingly flying in succession. 
They are all broken by the Muslims, 
and the whole edifice was thrown 
down, but we are attempting to re- 
store it. 



EOUTE 32. 

MATHUBA to BINDILABAII^. 

Bindrdban, or, properly, Vrindi- 
ban, is compounded of Vrinday " holy 
basil," Ocymum sanctum, from Vrin^ 
"to please," and Ban or Van, " a 
forest ; " literally, a forest of tnlsi 
trees, the name of the place to which 
ELp^hna removed from Gokul, 9 m. to 
the N. of Mathurd. The traveller wiJl 
drive through the city of MathurA, 
passing under the very handsome 
Hardinge Gate, at the S. of the town. 
The streets are paved with ribbed 
stone, which gives the horses safe foot- 
ing, and aUows the dust to be 
swept or washed off. The road is 
good. It passes through 2 villages, 
Jaisinghpiir and Ahalya-ganj, and, 
about half way, crosses a ravine by a 
bridge, which bears an inscription 
showing that it was built by the 
daughter of Sindhia. Adjoining, is a 
masonry tank, with an inscription 
stating that it was constructed by 
Ldld Eishan Ldl, a resident at Dihli. 
Before reaching this there is a garden 
called Eushl, from a banker of Gajai^t 
who made it, and founded one of the 
largest temples at Mathurd. On the 
opposite side of the road is a lai^ 
handsome well of red sandstone, with 
a flight of 57 steps leading down to 
the water, built by Ahalya Bdl. 

There is no reason to believe that 
Bindrdban was ever a great seat of 
Buddhism. Its most ancient temples, 
4 in number, date only from the 
time of Elizabeth, "while the space 
now occupied by a series of the 
largest and most magnificent shrines 
ever erected in Upper India 
was 50 years ago an unclaimed 
belt of woodland^' (see Growse, p. 
174). The 4 temples alluded to arc 
those of Govind Deo, Gopi Ndth, 
Jugal Eishor, and Madan Mohan. 
Bindiibfui is famous as the place 



Sect. II. 



Eoute 32. — Bindrdhan. 



273 



where Krishna sported with the Gopis, 
and stole their clothes when they were 
bathing. The Tamund bounds the 
town to the E., and winds pleasantly 
round it. It is in the (uy season 
about 100 yds. broad. At the entrance 
to the town, on the left, is a large red 
temple, 300 years old. It is sacred to 
Girddri, and was almost destroyed 
by Aurangzib, but has been restored 
by the British Government. On the 
right is a new temple, built by Se^h 
Rddhd Ep^hn and Seth Govind D^. 
The latter retired from the world in 
1874, and devoted himself to worship 
and alms-giving. Every day 100 per- 
sons or more were fed at lus temple, 
on the outside ; while others of high 
caste were fed within the sacred in- 
closure, within which Europeans are 
not allowed to go. The temple con- 
sists of a vast inclosing wall, with 3 
gopuras, which are 80 to 90 ft. high, 
while the gates are about 65. The 
traveller will ascend the N. gate, by 
22 steps, to a terrace, then 18 to an- 
other resting-place, and then 20 more 
to the top platform ; in all 60 steps. 
Here he will sit and view the scene. 

The great court is 509 ft. 1 in. from 
N. to S., and 400 ft. from B. to W., and 
contains the temple, which is about 
400 ft. from N. to 8., and 280 from E. 
to W. This court opens into a square, 
or rather oblong, 500 ft. from E. to 
W. and 400 from N. to S., vnth a tank 
in the centre, about 30 ft. deep, to the 
water of which steps lead down on 
every side. The water is of a deep- 
green colour. All along the long court 
first mentioned are houses, with a 
narrow verandah in front. Those on 
the N. side are not seen at all, as doors 
in the wall of the inclosure open into 
the yards in which they are. The 
temple is dedicated to Shri Banga, a 
name of Vishnu; and figures of 
Garuda, the man-bird, Vishnu's vehicle, 
are very conspicuous. The visitor will 
walk round the great court, and see 2 
white marble pavilions, 1 at the E. 
and 1 at the W. side of the tank ; and 
a stone pavilion, with a fiat roof, sup- 
ported by 16 pillars, opposite the E. 
gopoia. Europeans must not go be- 
yond the steps of the temple ) bat they 



will,see a ^Iden or gilt flag-staff, 60 ft* 
high, and in front of it a black marble 
slab, on which the sacrificial rice is 
daily laid. Behind is the Murth, or 
image, and near it women will be 
seen worshipping. To the W, of this 
temple is a Ifurge one sacred to Govind 
Deo. It is red, and may be seen from 
the top of the N. gate. A mile beyond 
it, in the same direction, is the Madan 
Mohan Temple. To the N. is a vast 
house, with a temple inside, belonging 
to Sindhia. To the E., near the river, 
is a temple belonging to the Tik&ri 
II&J4, who lives near Gayd. The 
Bigam of Bhopil has a house at Bin- 
drdban. To the S.E. is the Bang 
Bil^ Garden, whither the idol in the 
Serb's Temple is taken, in the month 
Chaitr, during a festival which lasts 
10 days. 

The visitor will now cross the 
road to the temple of Govind Deo. 
It is said by Mr. Growse to be the 
most impressive religious edifice that 
Hindti art has ever produced, at least 
in Upper India. The body of the 
building is in the form of a Greek 
cross, the nave being 100 ft. long, and 
the breadth across the transepts the 
same. The central compartment is 
surmounted by a dome of singularly 
graceful proportions ; and the 4 arms 
of the cross are roofed by a waggon- 
vault ci pointed form, not, as is usual 
in Hindii architecture, composed of 
overlapping brackets, but constructed 
of true radiating arches as in Gothic 
cathedrals. The walls have an average 
thickness of 10 ft., and are pierced in 
2 stages, the upper stage being a 
regular triforium. Under one of 
the arches at the W. end of the nave 
is a tablet, with a Sanskrit inscription, 
with the date Samwat 1647=rA.D. 
1690. It is thought by some to be 
handsomer than the Seth's Temple. 
A fiight of 8 steps ascends to a hall, 
117 ft. long from E. to W., and 99 ft. 
10 in. broad from N. to S. Mr. Feiy 
gusson says ("History of Arch.," p. 
468) :— ■•' Mdn Singh erected, at Bind- 
rdban, a temple which either he left 
unfinished at his death, or the sikra 
of which may havebe«i\.'UKX52wroL^^s^rsv 
\)yAMiMi^&. \\.V^Qiifc^\'Oc»&^^^ 



I'M ^wm*' w 



•^v 



274: 



Boute 32i — Mathurd io Bindrdban, 



Sect. It: 



interesting and elegant temples in 
India, and the onljo^e, perhaps, from 
which an European arcMtect might 
borrow a few hints. The temple con- 
sists of a cruciform porch, internally 
nearly quite perfect, though externally 
it is not quite clear how it was in- 
tended to be finished. The cell, too, 
is perfect internally — used for worship 
— but the sikra is gone, possibly it 
may never have been completed. 
Though not large, its dimensions are 
respectable, the porch measuring 117 
ft. B. and W. by 105 ft. N. and S., 
and is covered bya true vault, built 
with radiating arches — ^the only in- 
stance, except one, known to exist in 
a Hindil temple in the N. of India. 
Over the 4 arms of the cross the vault 
is plain, and only. 20 ft. span, but in 
the centre it expands to 35 ft., and is 
ouite equal in design to the best 
Gothic vaulting known. It is the 
external design of this temple, how- 
ever, which, is the most remarkable. 
The angles are accentuated with sin- 
gular force and decision, and the 
openings, which are more than suffi- 
cient for that climate, are pictu- 
resquely arranged and pleasingly 
divided. It is, however, the com- 
bination of vertical with horizontal 
lines, covering the whole surface, 
that forms the great merit of the 
design. This is, indeed, not pecu- 
liar to this temple, but is found 
also at Bhuvaneshwar." 

After seeing this temple the visitor 
may proceed to the next, which is all 
of redstone, and was repaired in 1877, 
at the expense of the British Govern- 
ment. At the back of the temple, 
and adjoining it on the W., are, at 8 
comers, temples which resemble each 
other, and a 1 -storied red temple to 
the S., which is the temple of PatAlya 
Devi, the Hindii Hecate, which is 24 
ft. from E. to W., and 32 ft. from K. 
to S. There is a new temple ad- 
joining this temple to the W., built 
by a BerigAll Bdbii. It is not tasteful, 
but has a finely carved door. To the 
N. is a kitchen, and in the centre a 
pavilion with 4 pillars. On ascending 
B ladder to go into Devi's temple, 
/^ vFiiJ be found without a root, 



as Aurangzib demolished the two 
upper stories and the roof. A de- 
scent of 12 steps brings the Tisitor 
to the sanctum, which is a niche on 
the right, with a figure of the goddess 
riding a tiger. The comer boildings 
are polygonal, like the comers of the 
mosque at Bandras, next the Golden 
Temple. The next visit will be to 
Madan Mohan Temple, but a stop 
must be made to walk ^ a m. through 
deep sand to a Ghdt on a branch of 
the river. Here, under 2 fine trees, a 
IHcus indica and a Navclea orientalig, 
is a fine pavilion, in which many 
cobra's heads are represented. Shiva 
is said to have struck Devi with a 
stick here, when she jumped off this 
Ghdt, and made it a place for curing 
snake bites. There is here a Sdlagram 
(a species of Ammonite worshipped as 
a type of Vishnu), with 2 footprints, 
2i in. long. The Madan Mohan 
Temple stands on rising ground, and 
one ascends 7 by 7 steps, to long in- 
clines, with thrice 3 steps, in ail 23 
steps. The temple is 65 ft. high, and 
is in the shape of a cone. Inside are 
2 black quite new idols of Satya 
Anand and another. E. of the cone 
is a shorter temple, and then a Hasoy 
or "kitchen" and a JSabhd or «hall,^' 
where the music plays, which measures 
56 ft. from N. to S., and 17 ft. 9 in. 
from E. to W. A very steep flight of 
29 steps leads down to the level 
ground. 

The Temple of Oopin&th is thought by 
Mr. Growse to be the earliest of the 
series. It was built by Raesil Ji, a 
grandson of the founder of the Sher- 
khdwat branch of the Kachhwiha 
chiefs. He distinguished himself 
under Akbar. The temple of which 
he is said to be the founder resembles 
that of Madan Mohan, but is in a 
ruinous condition. Its special feature 
is an arcade of 3 bracket arches. 

The Temple of JugaX Exihor is at the 
lower end of the town, near the Kesi 
Ghdt. It is said to have been built 
by Kou-Earan, a Chauh&n chief, in 
1627 AD. The choir arch has pierced 
txae^iy m the head of the arch, and 



Sect. II. 



Rovte 33. — BindrdJban to Dig, 



275 



The Ibm^le of Bddhd Ballabh is a 
handsome building. The hall is 63 ft. by 
20 ft. Hie shrine was demolished by 
Aurangzib. The nave is 54 ft. by 18 ft. 
The Jag Mohan is 17 ft. by 18 ft. and 
is of especial interest as the last speci- 
men of the early eclectic style. There 
are also 5 modem temples of some 
interest. 



ROUTE 33. 

BINDBABAN TO dIG. 

The distance is 12 kos, or 24 m., 
and the journey must be made in a 
carriage or on horseback. The first 
change of horses will be at the village 
of Sdmln, 5J m. from Mathurd. At 
about the same distance further on is 
the village of Govardhan, from Go, 
*• a cow," and Varddhan, " increasing," 
a celebrated hill, which was upheld 
by Krishna on one finger to shelter 
the cowherds from a storm excited by 
India, as a test of Krishna's divinity. 
Here the carriage will turn to the 
right, to the Chattri of the Bhartpi!ir 
R4jas. The2Chattrlsof Bandhirand 
B&la Deva Singh, on the b&nk of the 
Minasa Ganga, are also worth a visit. 
The Samddhi, or place where the 
ashes after cremation are deposited, is 
in the upper story, which is mentioned 
by Mr. Gxowse as one of the best 
specimens of the ydad of carving exe- 
cs^ at Mathui^. There is a tank 
here, with 40 steps leading down to 



the water. For the other buildings 
at Govardhan refer to Mr. Growse's 
book, p. 174, and to Mr. Ferjgusson for 
a temple built in Akbar's reign (idem, 
p. 465. About Jam. beyond this is a 
rocky ridge, 60 ft. high, which is said 
to be the famous mountain of Govard» 
han. According to the Hindi\s it 
was once a high mountain, and has 
been sinking ever since the time of 
Kp^hna. For 3 m. before reaching ' 
Dig the road forms a sort of causeway 
above a very low, flat country. There 
is a stone wall from 2 to 4 ft. on 
either side. 

JHgy said to be from Dirg, " long." — 
At Dig the traveller will take up his 
lodging in the palace of the Bhartpiir 
Edjd, who, with a hospitality which 
cannot be too much commended, not 
only allows European travellers of re- 
spectability to stop in his magnificent 
residence, but supplies them with food 
and wine. The Gopdl Bhawan, in 
which the traveller will lodge, has 
manyjhdlis or Venetians, and it will 
be well to leave them open for the 
sake of air. A cannon is fired at the 
break of day. A paper of printed 
rules is hung up for the benefit of 
travellers, and they are told that per- 
mission to use the palace is to be got 
from the Political Agent at Bhartpiir. 
It is expressly stated that the Kishn 
Bhawan or *' marble hall " is not to be 
used by travellers, nor are they 
allowed to partake of meals there. 
Visitors are requested not to net fish 
or to pick fruit. The shooting of pea 
fowl, or blue pigeons, is strictly pro- 
hibited. There is a fine view from 
the top of the Gopdl Bhawai&. It is 
built on the E. edge of the Eachcha 
tank, which is full of fish, and is much 
used by the people for washing and 
bathing. The palace is 210 ft. 10 in. 
long from N. to S., and 120 ft. broad 
from E. to W. The front hall is 82 ft. 
long and 67 ft. broad, and the lake is 
about 400 ft. long and 800 ft. broad. 
In front of the palace is a pretty 
chdbutarah of inlaid marble^ wltK ^ 
white maiVAfc «iXc)DL. 'Ick ^kJsv^^::^. ^^^^ 

at 1^0 it. o«.,S& ^^^La'^^^^^®^^^^^^^ 



276 



Boiite 33. — Bindrdhan to Dig, 



Sect. IL 



on either side, and 6 pillars ; and 
there is an inner inclosure, marked off 
by 16 pillars. Between the 2 rows of 
pillars stand 4 very thick pillars, one 
at each comer, with paintings of 
Janaka and other mythological per- 
sons. The hall is 20 ft. high. Pass 
now into the gardens, and see on the 
left the house of the Indian doctor, 
according to whom it is a very feverish 
place. Continuing the promenade, the 
Riip Sdgar lake, a very large one, will 
be pass^ on the right. The W. gate 
of the fort (there are 2 gates) is J a 
m. from the GopAl Bhawau. The fort 
has 12 bastions, and a ditch 50 ft. 
broacJ, in which the water in the 
dry season is from 12 to 18 ft. deep. 
Passing through the first door, the 
visitor will come to a second, pro- 
tected with spikes to prevent elephants 
from breaking in. Beyond that is a 
wall, 27 ft. thick, where there was a 
gate, which was removed by RAjd 
Balwant Singh. Beyond this is a 
natural mound, about 70 ft. high, and 
beyond that a building which serves 
as a prison. The walls of the fort are 
very massive and lofty. There are 72 
bastions in all. The N.E. bastion may 
be ascended. It is about 80 ft. high. 
On it is a cannon 16 ft. 7 in. long in 
the barrel, exclusive of the projection 
from the breach, which measures 2 ft. 
4 in. The diameter of the muzzle is 
2 ft. 4 in., but that of the orifice is 
only 5J in. The inside area of the 
fort is about 20 acres. 

The Siiraj Bhawan is to the S. of 
the Gopdl Bhawan, and is 88 ft. long. 
The floor is of marble, chiefly white, 
but inlaid with pieces of other colours. 
Opposite to it, with a pretty garden 
between, is another small palace on 
the W., called the " Harde Bhawan." 
The eaves of these buildings are veiy 
ornamental. There are two, one above 
the other, the lower projecting 3 ft., 
and the upper 4 J ft. But in the facade 
the projection is greater. Both eaves 
have handsome supports. The Kishn 
Bhawan is S.E. of the Gop41 Bhawan, 
<uid the roof measures 131 ft. from E. 
X) W., and 71 ft. from N. to S. The 
lo-called Marble Hall is of stone of a 
9ddiab tint, and not veiy handsome. 



It is 60 ft. long from B. to W. and 52^ 
ft. from N. to S. The height is 22 ft 
3 in. There are 5 scalloped arches in 
the facade, and 5 in the centre, with 4 
pillars and 2 pilasters each. The roofs 
are of stone, quite plain, and the walls 
are but slightly decorated with, carv- 
ing. Altegether it does not come up to 
the Halls at Dihll, Agra, and Amber- 
Ascend by 42 steps to the terraced 
roof, where is a pavilion, the roof of 
which is supported by 12 single pillars 
and 4 double pHlars, one at each 
comer. 

Dig is celebrated for the battle 
fought on the 1 3th of November,1804, in 
which General Frazer (see Mill, vol. vL 
p. 693) defeated Jeswant RAo Holkar's 
army. Mill writes ; " Major-General 
Frazer marched from Dihli on the 6th 
of November, and arrived at Gobard- 
han on the 12th, a place within 3 kos 
of the fort of Dig. His force consisted 
of 2 regiments of native cavalry, his 
Majesty's 76th Regiment, the Com- 
pany's European regiments, 6 bat- 
talions of Sipdhls, and the park of 
artillery, in all about 6000 men. The 
force of the enemy was understood to 
amount to 24 battalions of infantry, a 
large body of horse, and 160 pieces of 
ordnance, strongly encamped, with 
their right upon Dig, and a laige JAt7 
or lake of water covering the whole of 
their front. 

" As the hour was late, and the Gene- 
ral had little information of the enemy's 
position, he delayed the attack till 
morning. Having made his arrange- 
ments for the security of the camp, he 
marched with the army in 2 brigades 
at 3 o'clock in the morning, making a 
circuit round the water to the left, to 
enable him to come upon the right 
flank of the enemy. A little after day- 
break the army was formed in 2 lines, 
and attacked and carried a lai^e vil- 
lage on the enemy's flank. It then 
descended the .hill and charged the 
enemy's advanced party, under a 
heavy discharge of round grape and 
chain from their guns, which they 
abandoned as the British army came 
up. General Frazer, whose gallantry 
animated eveiy man in the field, was 
wounded) and obliged to be carried 



Sept. II. 



Soute 34, — Di^ to BhartpHr. 



277 



from the battle, when the command 
devolved upon General Monson. The 
enemy retired to fresh batteries as the 
British advanced. The whole of the 
batteries were carried for upwards of 
2 m., till the enemy were driven close 
to the walls of the fort. One body of 
them drawn up to the B. 61 the lower 
end of the lake, still retained a posi- 
tion whence they had annoyed the 
British with a very destructive fire. 
Seeing the British troops under cover 
of a fire from several pieces of cannon 
hovering round to their left, they 
made a precipitate retreat into the 
lake, where many of them were lost. 
The British took 87 pieces of ordnance 
in this battle, and lost in killed and 
wounded about 360 men. The ene- 
my's loss, which was great, could only 
be conjectured. The remains of the 
army took shelter in the fort of Dig." 
On the Ist of December following, 
Lord Lake joined the army before 
Dig, and immediately commenced 
operations to reduce that town. On 
the night of the 23rd, his troops 
captured an eminence which com- 
manded the city, but not without con- 
siderable loss. However, the enemy 
evacuated Dig on the following day 
and the fort on the succeeding night, 
and fled to Bhartpiir. 



KOUTE 34. 

DIG TO BHAETPiJb. 

This journey of 22 m. must be done 
in a carriage or on horseback. It 
can be done in 3 hours. At Kdman 
horses will be changed. The D^ 
Bangld at Bhartpiir is admirably clean, 
and possesses every comfort. Wines 
and provisions are furnished for one 
day gratis. H.H. the Rdj4 is most 
generous, but it would be well if the 
officer he directs to order the wines 
were to send for them to one of the 
good European houses in Calcutta or 
Bombay, for native dealers are not to 
be depended on. There are 3 good 
rooms here. 

Bhartpur, — The territory of Bhart- 
piir measures 76 m. from N. to S., and 
63 from E. to W. The area is 1,974-07 
sq. m., and the pop. is 743,710. It is 
bounded on the N. by the British dis- 
trict Gurgdoii, on the B. by Mathura 
and Agra, on the S. by the States of 
Dholpiir, Earauli, and Jaipiir, on the 
W. by Jaipiir, Alwar, and Gurgdon. 
The capital, Bhartpiir, is on the high 
road between Agra and Ajmlr, and on 
the Bdjpiitdnd State Railway 36 m. 
from Agra, and 112 from Jaipiir. It 
is 577 ft. above sea-level, and has a 
pop. of 61,448 persons. The present 
Bdjd, whose name is, Jaswant Singh, 
was borh in 1862, and married the 
daughter of the RAjd of PatiAlA, who 
died in 1870. His son, Rdm Singh, is 
more than 4 years old. He is de- 
scended from a Jdt Zamindir named 
ChiirAman, who built 2 small forts, 
Thiin and Sinsiniwar, and harassed 
the rear of Aurangzlb*s army during 
his expedition to the Daklian, Jai 
Singh of Amber was sent to reduce 
ChiirAman, and in 1712 A.D. took and 
destroyed Thiin ; Badan Singh, the 
brother of Chiir&man, was then nta- 
claimed «A, l>i<^, Taifis^ ^\. SiQ& 1^^;^. 



278 



Route 34. — Big to Bhartpdr. 



Sect. IL 



fixed his capital at Bhartpiir. In 1748 
he was invited by the Emperor A^- 
mad Shdh to join Holkar in suppress- 
ing the revolt of the Rohillas. When 
§afdar jang, in consequence of a dis- 
pute with GhAziu 'd din, rebelled, Siiraj 
Mall assisted him, and Bhartpiir was 
besieged by Ghdziu 'd din, who, how- 
ever, raised the siege and returned to 
Dihll in 1754. In 1769 Qh^iu 'd din 
came to Bhartpiir as a suppliant for pro- 
tection. When A^mad Shdh invaded 
Agra a second time in 1759-60, Siiraj 
Mall joined the MarAthas with 30,000 
men, but disagreeing with their plan 
of carrying on the war, withdrew 
before the battle of Pdnipat. After 
the defeat he drove out the MarAtha 
Governor from Agra, and made it his 
own residence. Najlbu 'd daulah 
having become the virtual minister of 
Sh4h *Alam, Siiraj Mall claimed the 
office of Faujddr of Farrukhnagar. and 
on its being refused, marched to Sh4h- 
danah, on the Hinddun, and here, 
while hunting, he was surprised by the 
enemy and k&led. This was in 1764. 
Jawdhar Singh succeeded, and re- 
solved to provoke a quarrel with 
Jaipiir. Accordingly he marched 
through the Jaipiir territory to the 
Pushkar Lake, when he received inti- 
mation from Jaipiir that if he returned 
the same way it would be regarded as 
a hostile aggression. He paid no at- 
tention to this, and on his way back, 
in 1765, he was attacked and defeated, 
but almost every chief of note in the 
Jaipiir army was killed. Soon after 
this, Jawdhar was murdered at Agra. 
His son Batan succeeded, but was 
murdered by an alchemist. *Hi8 bro- 
ther Naval Singh next reigned, who 
marched with the Mardthas to Dihli, 
but there deserted them. The Jdts 
were then repulsed before Dihll, and 
driven out of Agra. They withdrew 
towards Dig, but at Barsdna were 
overtaken by the Vazlr Najaf Khdn, 
and defeated. Their infantry was in 
this battle commanded by Walter 
Reinhardt, alias " Sumroo," who at 
first broke the enemy, but pursuing in 
disorder was routed. Barsdna was 
Mooked, and next year, in March, 1776, 
fife* was taken. However, territory 



yielding 9 l&khs. annually was given 
back to Banjit Singh, who was now 
on the throne. 

After the death of Najaf Kh&n, in 
1782, Sindhia seized Bhartpiir and the 
territory, but at the intercession of 
the widow of Siiraj Mall, Sindhia 
restored 11 districts, and subsequently 
added 3 more for services rendered to 
General Perron. When Sindhia got 
into difficulties at L&l Kot, he made 
an alliance with Banjit, and restored 
Dig, and also ceded territory yielding 
a revenue of 10 lAkhs; but Sindhia 
and the Jdts were defeated by 
Ghuldm Edidir at Fatljipiir Sikri, and 
were driven back on Bhartpiir, but 
being reinforced at the end of the 
same year, in 1788, they raised the 
blockade of Agra, and Sindhia re- 
covered it. In 1803 the British 
Government made a treaty with 
Banjit, who joined General Lake at 
Agra with 6,000 horse, and received 
in return the districts of Eishngarh, 
Kattdwar, Bewari, Gokul, and Sahdr. 
But Banjit intrigued with Jaswant 
Bdo Holkar. Then followed the si^c 
of Bhartpiir by Lake, who was 
repulsed with a loss of 3,000 men. 
Banjit then made overtures for peace, 
which were accepted on the 4th of 
May, 1805. He agreed to pay 27 
Idkhs, 7 of which were subsequently 
remitted, and was guaranteed in his 
territories, but the districts granted 
to him in 1803 were resumed. Banjit 
died in 1805, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Bandhir, who died in 
1823, leaving the throne to his brother, 
Bdla Deva, who died after a reign of 
18 months, leaving a son, Balwant, who 
was recognized by the British Govern- 
ment. But his cousin, Durjan Sdl, 
rebelled, and cast Balwant into prison. 
After some hesitation Iiord Amherst 
consented to support Balwant, and on 
the 18th of January, 1826, after a 
siege of 6 weeks, Bhartpiir was stormed. 
The loss of the besieged was estimated 
at 14,000 men kill^ and wounded. 
The British had 103 killed, and 477 
wounded and missing. Durjan Sdl 
was sent as a prisoner to Alldhdbdd, 
and Balwant was placed on the 
\ throne. "Re ^e^ Vn. IftSS, and was 



Sect. II. 



liovie Si.-^BhartpjUir, 



279 



succeeded by his only 'son, Jaswant, 
the present soyereign. 

The first thing for the traveller to 
do will be to wfuk to the Bia&r, quite 
close to the T. B., and turn to the 
right, and about ^ a m. from the T. B. 
he will see H.H.'s Menagerie. There is 
a very fine tiger, and there are bears, 
panthers, and other animals. After 
this the Fort may be visited. The 
walled city of Bhartpiir is an irregular 
oblong, lying N.E. and S.W. The 
N.E. side is tolerably regular, and so 
is the B. side, but the W. projects to 
the W., and the 8. forms a semicircle. 
The N.E. side is 3,828 ft. long, the W. 
side 7,656 ft., the E. side 6,966 ft., and 
the S.W. 5,280. The inner fort is 
contained in the N.E. half of the 
outer fort, and its N. side is 1,980 ft. 
long, its E. side 2,211 ft., its S. arid W. 
sides 1,980 ft. Three palaces run right 
across the centre of the inner fort 
from E. to W., that to the E. being 
the King's Palace. Next is an old 
palace built by Badan Singh. To the 
W. is a palace which in the map of 
1817-18 is called the Residency, but is 
generally styled the Kamara. It is 
furnished in a semi-European style, 
with a number of pictures, glasses, and 
chandeliers. 

Major Bouverie, who was Resident 
in 1867, built a house among the gar- 
dens, between the Agra and Fat^pilr 
Sikri roads, E. of the town, and 
the Residents live there now. The 
house and park, however, belong 
to the Rdjd, who used to send sup- 
plies of wine and provisions for the 
Resident's use, and kept a number of 
elephants and carriages there for him. 

There are only 2 sates to the inner 
fort, the Chau Burj gate on the 8., 
and the Asalddtl on the N. The moat 
round the fort is 198 ft. broad and 
very deep. The gates of the outer fort 
are the Mathur4 which faces E., the 
Ndr&yan S.E., the Atal Band S., the 
Nlm S., the Anah W., the Kumbhlr 
W., the Gobardhan N.W., the Jazina 
N., and the Siiraj pol E. The bastion 
at the N.W. comer of the inner fort is 
called the Jawdbar Burj, and is 
worth ascending for the view. The 
bastion at the E. end of the N. side is 



the Fatb Burj. That in the centre of 
the E. side is the Hanumdn Burj, and 
the 3 batons on the S. side, from W. 
to E., are the Sinsani, the Bdgar, and 
the Noal Buij. N. of the Kamara 
Palace is the Court of Justice, the 
Jewel Office, and the Jail. On the 
road between the Chau Burj gate of 
the inner fort and the Anah gate of 
the outer foi-t are the Gangii kl 
Mandi, a market-place, the new 
mosque, and the Lakh^hmanjl teniple. 
The hospital is 3,960 ft. outside, and 
S.W. of the Anah gate. The Ddk 
BangU is 2,772 ft. N.E. of 'the 
Mathurd gate. The outer wall has 
very swampy ground about it, and 
might be rendered inaccessible by 
inundating the country. In driving 
round the fort, it is more than pro- 
bable that the visitor will meet a wild 
boar, as wild hog are very numerous, 
and very large and fierce, and other 
game is very plentiful, as the R4j4 has 
extensive preserves. It is forbidden 
to shoot Nllgdi. To the W. of the 
city is the parade-ground, and the 
Rdjd is skilful in exercising his troops. 
He is a great horseman, and will nde 
100 m. in a day. 



\ 



280 



Haute 35, — BhartpUr to Agra, 



Sect. It 





ROUTE 35. 
bhabtpiJb to agba. 

t 


BR M 


Names 
of Stations. 


Time. 


Remarks. 


r 

u 

18 
26 


Bliartptir . . 
Ikr&n . 
Achnevra . 
Bichpuri . . 
Agra . 


A.M. 

5.41 

6.13 

7.7 

7.50 

8.16 


P.M. 

5.35 

6.7 

6.53 

7.40 

8.6 


These are the 
stations on 
the R^piit- 
in4 State 
Railway. The 
fares on this 


inia 1st class, 4 &Diks 2nd clas 
1^ &ii^ from station to statioi 


line are : 8 
s, and 3rd class 
1. 



The station for Agra is 1} m. from the 
P4k Bangld at Bhartpiir. Achneyra 
is a good-sized town, and there, in June, 
1857, the mutineers of Na^irdbdd 
encountered a force of 2,000 men, 
Bent by the BAjA of Alwar to stop 
their advance, but Chimman, the 
General of the Alwar force, fraternised 
with the mutineers, and induced the 
other 8u:d4rs to enter into a parley 
with the officer commanding the 
mutineers, who put them all to death, 
and inflicted severe loss on the 
B&jpiits, and then marched to Agra. 

Agra is the 2nd city in size and 

importance of the N.W. Provinces, 

and has a pop. of 149,008. It is 841 

m. distant from Calcutta by rail, and 

139 m. from Dihll. It stands on the 

W. or right bank of the Jamnd, which 

here makes a bend, and turns off at 

an obtuse angle to the E. The Fort is 

in the centre of this bend, and close 

upon the bank. The old city covered 

about 11 sq. m., half of which area is 

still inhabited. The cantonment lies 

to the S, of the Fort, and between 

them on the river bank is the famous 

TAj. The civil station lies N.W. of 

tbeFort, and between it and the river 

r tbe native city — " better built," says 

^^e Jmperial Gazetteer, '*than any 

^^tber town in the N.W. Provinces." 



JSistory. — Several etymologies have 
been offered for the word Agrah, such 
as A'gar, a salt-pan, and agar, a race, 
of which traces are found near DihU 
and in Mdlwa ; but it is perhaps a 
shortened form of Agrah^r, a Brahman 
village. In an interesting paper by Mr. 
Carlleyle, As. Archaeolog. Survey, 
in the 4th vol. of Cunningham's 
" Reports," reference is made to the 
fact that more than 2,000 silver coins 
were dug up at Agra in 1869, in- 
scribed with the words Shrl Guhila in 
an ancient western form of the Sans- 
krit character. These coins may have 
been issued by the founder of the 
Gehlot dynasty of MewAr, in A.D. 
750 ; but on account of the antiquity 
of the character, they may more pro- 
bably be ascribed to an earlier prince, 
the first of the Gehlot or Sisodia 
branch of the expelled dynasty of 
Saurashtra, who reigned in the 4th or 
6th century of the Christian era. 
Further on the r. b. of the river, 3 m. 
above the Fort, there is a place called 
the Garden and Palace of BdjA Bhoj, 
who may be the Bhoj of Mdlwa of the 
6th to 6th century, or the successor of 
Guhila the Gehlot. But Mr. Carlleyle 
supposes that the old Hindii city of 
Agra was situated 10 m. S. of the 
present town. Be this as it may, 
nothing certain is known of Ag^before 
the Mu^anmiadan period. The house of 
Lodi was the first Mu^ammadan 
dynasty which chose Agra for an oc- 
casional residence. Before their time 
Agra was a district of Bidna. Sikandar 
bin Bahlol Lodi died at Agra in 1615 
A.D., but was buried at Dihll. Sikan- 
dar Lodi built the BAradari Palace, 
near Sikandra, which suburb received 
its name from him. The Lodi Khdn 
k& Til a, or Lodfs Mound, is now built 
over with modem houses ; it is said to 
be the site of the palace of the Lodis, 
called Bddalgarh. Ibrdhim Lodi, son 
of Sikandar, resided at Agra, but was 
defeated and killed there by Bdbar, 
April 21, 1526. B4bar is said to have 
had a garden-palace on the E. bank of 
the Jamn4, nearly opposite the Tdj, and 
theie \a a 'm.oeqvx<& ii<eax Wi<& «<^V^'')i^^(^ 
an inactipXioTL "wVas^ ^'oti^ ^OruaX. SSl 
was "bx)aVVb3 'BWom?^ ^ouiaxaakytot^Va. 



Sect. 11. 



Soute 35. — Agra» 



281 



1530 A.D. Bat 2 m. E. of the Eailway 
Station, and the tomb of rtim&du 'd 
Banlah, on the 'Aligarh Road, there is 
a large village called Ntmihwi^ which is 
traditionally reputed to be the site of 
an older city of Agra ; and 1 m. due 
S. is the site of an ancient palace 
called Achdnak Bdg^. An area of 
724 ft. by 706 ft. was here walled in, 
with a tower at each comer and a 
palace at the centre of the river-fron- 
tage, which seems to have been in- 
habited by a princess about the time 
of B&bar. But there is another place, 
called the Z&hara B4|^, also on the 
1. b., where B^bar is said to have 
built a garden-palace for one of his 
daughters. It Hes between the Edm 
Bds^ and the Chinl ka Bozah. The 
palace was a quadrangle of 142 ft. x 
123 ft. ; an avenue 900 ft. long leads 
from the road to the palace. It is said 
to be named after Bihar's daughter. 

There is, however, another garden 
of the same name on the Agra 
side of the river near the Barracks : 
these are the largest remains of an 
ancient garden anywhere near Agra, 
being 3840 ft. long, and 2064 ft. broad. 
There is a well here at which 52 
people could draw water at once — a 
well which is the wonder of Agra. This 
is said to have been constracted by 
Bdbar for his daughter, but Mr. Carl- 
leyle thinks it was the place where 
Akbar encamped when he first came 
to Agra. There is a building in the 
garden which is the shrine of Kam41 
Khdn, 40 ft. long, and rectangular ; 
the outer -longitudinal half being 
solid wall, while the inner half is 
divided into 3 compartments, entered 
by arches between red sandstone 
pillars with square shafts and Hindii 
bracket capitals. Broad eaves of red 
.sandstone project from above the 
entablatures, and are supported by 
beautiful openwork brackets of a 
thoroughly Hindii character, being 
composed of 2 horizontal stone bars, 
the spaces between which are filled 
up by a goose, then by an elephant, 
alternately. The great well, the most 
BtnpendouB about Agra, is at the back 

ofKamdl EMn'a shnne ; it is 220 ft. 

in circamference, with a 16-8ided 



^ 



exterior, each side measuring 13 ft. 
9 in. The wall of the well is 9 ft. 7 in. 
thick. On looking over the brink the 
water appears at an awful depth. 
From such great works it appears that 
Agra was the seat of government 
under Bdbar and Humd^!m, though 
after Humdyiin's restoration he resided 
frequently at Dihli, and died and was 
buried there. Agra was probably 
then on the 1. bank. Akbar removed 
from Fat^Jpl!ir Sikri to Agra about 
1568 A.D., and built the fort in 1671 
A.D., or, according to the " Imp. Gaz.," 
in 1566. The only buildings that can 
now be attributed to Akbar himself 
are the walls and the Magazine to the 
N. of the Water-gate, once Akbar's 
audience-hall. He died at Agra in 
1605. Jahdnglr left Agra in 1618, 
and never i-eturned. Sblh Jahdn re- 
sided at Agra from 1632 to 1637, and 
built the Pearl Mosque, the Cathedral 
Mosque, and the T4j. He was deposed 
by Aurangzlb in 1658, but lived as a 
State prisoner 7 years longer there. 
Aurangzlb removed the seat of govem-j 
ment permanently to Dihll. In 1764, it 
was taken by Siiraj Mall, of Bhartpib: 
and Sumroo ; in 1770 the Mard^has 
captured it, and were expelled by 
Najaf KhAu in 1774. In 1784 Mu- 
hammad Beg was Governor of Agra, 
and was besieged by Mahddaji Sin£ia, 
who took it in 1787, and the Mar^t^as 
held it till it was taken by Lord Lake, 
Oct 17, 1803. Since then it has 
been a British possession. In 1835 
the seat of government of the N.W. 
Provinces was removed to it from 
AllAhdbdd. On the 30th May, 1859, 
two companies of the 40th and 67th 
N. I., who had been sent to Mathur4 
to bring the treasure there into Agra, 
mutini^ and marched off to Dihli. Next 
morning their comrades were ordered 
to pile arms, which they did, and most 
of them went to their homes. On the 
3rd July, Mr. Colvin, Lt.-Governor of 
Agra, was so dangerously ill that he 
made over the government to a 
council of admlm&txn^^-w. ^^tcl Kicft. 

and N^ent o«. \d \^^,S^^^^^^ 



li(^l 



282 



Eouie 35. — BhaHp&r to Agra. 



Sectn. 






Mackenzie's troop, the 72nd N. L, 
the 7th Gwdlidr Contingent, the Ist 
Native Cavalry, and 4 troops of the 
Mahidpiir Horse. Their camp was at 
2 m. from the Ag^ cantonment at 
Suchata. On Jidy 5th, Brigadier 
Polwhele moved out with 816 men to 
attack them. The battle began with 
artillery, but the enemy were so well 
posted, sheltered by low trees and 
walls and natural earthworks, that the 
British fired into them with little 
damage. Captain D'Oyley, who 
commanded the Artillery, had his 
horse shot under him, and was then 
mortally wounded by grape-shot. 
Lieut. Lamb was also dangerously 
wounded, and carried off the field. 
At 4 P.M. the ammunition was ex- 
pended, and the guns ceased to fire ; 
then Col. Kiddell advanced with the 
Engh'sh soldiers, and captured the 
village of Shihganj, but with such 
heavy loss that they were unable to 
hold their ground. The British Ar- 
tillery were so disabled that they could 
not go to assist the Infantry. The 
Vol. Cavalry numbered 60. When the 
enemy's cavalry charged in a dense 
mass to capture the British guns, this 
small body of Volunteers galloped 
forwards, but soon had 7 killed, among 
whom was M. Jourdan, the chief of a 
wandering circus from France. The 
order for retreat was then given. The 
enemy pursued with great vigour ; 20 
Christians were murdered, the canton- 
ments were burnt, the records were 
destroyed, and the conflagration raged 
from the civil lines on the right 
to the Kh61at i Ghilzi on the left. 
It was a memorable night, but chiefly 
memorable for the deep devotion 
with which the gentlewomen of Agra 
ministered to the wants of the wounded 
and exhausted soldiers. 

There were now 6,000 men, women, 
and children, of whom only 1,500 
were Hindiis and Mu^ammadans, 
shut up in the Fort of Agra. Among 
these were nuns from the banks of the 
Garonne and the Loire, priests from 
Sicily and Eome,9iissionarie8from Ohio 
and Basle, mixed with rope-dancers 
from Paris and pedlers from America. 
Polwhele now made Fraser second in 



command, and the fort was pot in a 
thorough state of defence. Soon after 
Brigadier Polwhele was saperaededi 
and Col. Cotton took his place. On 
the 20th of August he sent oat his 
Brig.-Major Montgomery, with a small: 
column, and on the 24th Montgomery 
defeated the rebels at jAQLiga^, ana 
took the place. On the 9th Sept. Mr. 
Colvin died. The mutineers, after 
their successful engagement, marched 
on to Dihli, but after the fall of tiiat 
city in Sept., the fugitive rebels, to- 
gether with those of Central India, 
advanced, on Oct. 6th, against Agra. 
Meantime Col. Greathed's colunm en- 
tered the city without their knowledge, 
and when they, unsuspicious of his 
presence, attacked the place, they were 
completely routed and dispersed. Agra 
was thus relieved from all danger, and 
in the beginning of 1858, Brig. Showers, 
who had been appointed to command 
the district, surprised the rebels at 
Eachru and captured their ringleaders. 
At the end of Jan., 1858, Captain B. J. 
Meade had formed a regiment of 
cavalry, which became famous for 
their services. On the 2nd Jane, 1858, 
the Mah4rdj4 Sindhia entered Agra as 
a fugitive, having been defeated and 
driven from his capital by Tantia 
Topi. On the night of the 19th Jane, 
Sir Hugh Bose retook Gw41i4r, with 
the loss of 87 killed and wounded. On 
the morning of the 20th, Lieut. Bose, 
of the 25th Bombay N. I., and Lieat. 
Waller, of the same r^., with a 
small body of their men, captured the 
strong citadel of Gwilidr, but Lieut. 
Bose was killed in the moment of his 
splendid victory, on the news of 
which Sindhia returned to his capital. 
In Feb., 1858 the government of the 
N. W. Provinces was removed to A11&- 
h^bdd, which was considered a supe- 
rior military position. "Since that 
time," says the Gazetteer, "Agra has 
become, for administrative purposes, 
merely the head-quarters of a division 
and district, but the ancient capital 
still maintains its natural supremacy as 
the fibuest city of Upper India, while 
the development of the railway sys- 
tem, of which it forms a great centre, 
iis g;t«d\x82^7 i«n.dfii\n^ it once more 



Sect. 11. 



Houte 35,— Agra : tite Tdj MahalL 



283 



the commercial metropolis of the 
north-west." 

Ckmtormiewt, — ^The p&k Bangld, or 
T. B., is at the K. end of Drummond 
Boad, on the W. side of it, while the 
Club and Post Office are on the r. 
The $adr Bdzdr is at the S. end of 
Dmmmond Boad, with the Church on 
the W. and the Parade-ground on the 
S.W. The places just mentioned are 
about 1 m. to the S.W. of the Fort. 
The E. I. Bailway Station of the 
branch line which goes from Agra to 
Tundld is a little more than i m. to 
the N. by E. of the Fort on the oppo- 
site, or 1. bank of the Jamnd, which the 
line crosses by a bridge. There is an 
hotel close to the railway station, and 
S. of it. There is another hotel two- 
thirds of a m. to the S.S.E. of the 
Fort, a few yards W. of Hastings 
Boad, and about a third of a m. 
N. of the Agra Bank. It will be 
best for the traveller to get elected, 
through some friend, a member of 
the Club, where he will be very com- 
fortable. Hon. members will be 
charged 1 r. a day up to fi days, 
when the month's subscription of 
5 rs. and no more will be charged. 
A candidate must be proposed by one 
member and seconded by another, but 
gentlemen passing through Agra, and 
invited by the Committee to be 
honorary members, are exempt from 
a subscription. Honorary mem- 
bers can be introduced on the proposi- 
tion of a member, made to and endorsed 
by 2 members of the committee, for a 
period of 2 months. The proposer 
18 held responsible for payment 
of bills incurred by the honorary 
member. For the convenience of 
honorary members, their bills are 
delivered every Wednesday, but if 
they intend to leave on any inter- 
mediate day, they must give due 
notice. 

The Taj Mahall—As the Tdj is the 
most beautiful building in India, per- 
haps in the world, and cannot be seen 
too ottenf the first thing the traveller 
shofdd do after locating himself is to 
pay it avisit. A good roadleadsto it, 
made in the famine of 1838. It stands 
on the blink of the Jamn^ on the x. 



bank a little more than a m. S.S.E.of the 
Fort. And here it may be said that 
to those who come from Tundld, the 
first view of the Tdj is disappointing. 
From Tundld one comes suddenly on 
Agra, the approach to which is bad. 
The Tdj is seen on the ' 1. to great 
disadvantage, as it stands low, and the 
railway is about 18 ft. above the level 
of the ground on which it stands, so 
that its symmetry is impaired. But in 
coming by the road made in the famine 
of 1838, there is nothing ',to diminish 
the pleasure of the first view. It may 
be premised that this Mausoleum was 
commenced in A.H. 1040, or A.D. 1630, 
by the Emperor Shdh Jahdn, as a 
tomb for his favourite queen, Arjmand 
Bdnii, entitled Mumtdz Ma^all, lit. 
the " Chosen of the Palace," or, more 
freely, " Pride of the Palace." She was 
the daughter of A^af Ehdn, brother of 
Niirjahdn, the famous empress-wife of 
Jahdnglr. Their father was Mlrzd 
6hiyd8,aPersian,who came from^ehrdn 
to seek his fortune in India, and rose 
to power under the title of Itimddu *d 
daulah. Mumtdz iMahall married Shdh 
Jahdn in 1615 A.D., had by him 7 child- 
ren, and died in childbed of the 8th in 
1629, at Burhdnpiir, in the Dakhan. 
Her body was brought to Agra, and 
laid in the garden where the Tdj 
stands until the Mausoleum was built. 
The Tdj cost, according to some ac- 
counts, 1,84,65,186 rs., and, according 
to other accounts, 3,17,48,026 rs. It 
took upwards of 17 years to build, and 
much of the materials and labour re- 
mained unpaid. According to Sh^ 
Jahdn's own memoirs, the masons re- 
ceived only 30 Idkhs. There were 
originally 2 silver doors at the entrance, 
but these were taken away and melted 
by Siiraj Mall and his Jdts. It is un- 
certain who was the principal archi- 
tect, but Austin de Bordeaux was then 
in the Emperor's service, and his por- 
trait was on the back of the throne in 
Shdh Jahdn's palace at Dihli. He was 
buried at Agra, and it is probable that 
he took part in the construction, and 
especially in the inlaid work, of the 
Mausoleum. 
By tbft ToWSi "^"V^Oa. \saA \«iaxs. \ssss^- 



284 



Houte 35. — BhartpUr to Agra. 



Sect. IL 



Taj Ganj or S. gate, which opens into 
an outer court siSOft. wide and 440 ft. 
deep. In the centre of its inner wall 
is the great gateway of the garden- 
court, which Mr. Fergusson calls "a 
worthy pendant to the TAj itself." It 
is, indeed, a superb gateway of red 
sandstone, inlaid with ornaments and 
inscriptions from the Kur'An, in white 
marble, and surmounted by 26 white 
marble cupolas. Before passing under 
the gateway, observe the noble cara- 
yanserai outside, and an equally fine 
building on the other side. According 
to the ** Indian Tmveller's Handbook," 
published in Calcutta in 1873, the prin- 
cipal gateway is 140 ft. high by 110 ft. 
wide ; and Bayard Taylor says " that it 
is not so large as that of Akbar's tomb, 
but quite as beautiful in design." The 
remark about the height is incorrect, 
for, as will be seen hereafter, the gate- 
way at Sikandra is not 100 ft. high, 
reckoning to the top of the turrets, and 
thisgatewayattheTAjishigher. Bayard 
Taylor says : ** Whatever may be the 
visitor's impatience, he cannot help 
pausing to notice the fine proportions 
of these structures, and the rich and 
massive style of their construction." 
This is perfectly true, but neither he 
nor anyone else does complete justice 
to the magnificence of these buildings 
and the gateway. These objects are 
not only admirably beautiful, but 
while they intensify the impatience of 
the visitor to see the Mausoleum, of 
which the screen is so extraordinarily 
grand, they increase the glories of the 
Mausoleum itself, by the contrast of 
the somewhat stem red sandstone, 
with the soft and pearl-like white 
marble of the T4j itself. 

Having passed the gateway , the visitor 
finds himself in a garden 880 ft. sq. — 
a garden the like of which does not 
exist in Asia. In the centre is a 
stream of living water, clear as 
crystal, which runs the whole length 
of the igarden, and has 23 fountains 
in its course. It would be 880 ft. 
long but that a central platform of 
white marble, with 5 fountains, inter- 
venes. This, including its surround- 
ings, is a little more than 125 ft. sq., 
9o that the total length of the stream 



is 755 ft. The garden is divided into 
16 separate parterres, or smaller 
gardens, divided by walks and by 
the watercourses, which cross one 
another at right angles, so as to make 
4 divisions of 4 parterres each.* The 
beds of the garden are filled with the 
choicest shrubs and cypress trees, 
equal in size and beauty to those of 
Mazandarun. The eye, after passing 
from the glare outside to the astonish- 
ing fi^shness and verdure of this 
garden, finds unspeakable relief and 
pleasure. It is now that the Mausoleum 
presents itself to the gaze in all its 
glory. It stands upon a platform, faced 
with white marble, exactly 313 ft. 
sq. and 18 ft. high, — Hodgson says 
314 ft. 6-18 in. The visitor will ascend 
20 steps to the top of the Chabiitarah, 
or " platform," and here on entering 
the building, if the visitor, or any one 
who accompanies him, has a musical 
voice, he will find that Echo will 
repeat his warble in a tone surpassing 
his own ; but Echo is a seraph here, 
and will not respond harmoniously 
to loud coai'se shouts, or to compli- 
cated singing. At each comer of the 
terrace stands a white minaret, 133 ft. 
high, and, says Mr. Fergusson, " of the 
most exquisite proportions — more 
beautiful, perhaps, than any other in 
India. In the centre of this marble 
platform stands the Mausoleum, a sq. 
of 186 ft., with the comers cut off to 
the extent of 33J ft. The principal 
dome is 68 ft. in diameter, and 80 ft, 
in height, under which is an inclosure 
of trellis-work of white marble, a 
chef-d'iBUvre of elegance in Indian 
art." 

The following measurements were 
furnished by the engineer employed 
in repairing the TAj, before the Prince 
of Wales' visit : — Height of red sand- 
stone platform above the garden is 
6 ft. Height of the upper platform 
above the red platform is 17 ft. 8 in. 
Height of the minarets above the 

* In the 7th volume of the " Journ. of the 
Roy. As. Soc." published in 184S, will be 
found a plan of the T^» its garden and tomb, 
by Col. J. A. Hodgson, B.N.I., fonnerly Sor- 
veyor-Oeneral of India. This plan is spoiled 
by not giving the points of the compaaa and 
meaauiemeMs. 



Sect. II. 



RouUfi^. — Agra : the Tdj'MahaU, 



285 



upper platform to the plinth of the 
dome is 127 ft. 2 in. Height of the 
plinth, 6 ft. 6 in., and of gilt finial on 
the top, 5 ft. Total, 138 ft. 8 in. The 
height of the Ist story to floor of 1st 
balcony, 33 ft. 9 in. ; floor of 1st 
balcony to floor of 2nd, 35 ft. 3 in. ; 
and from 2nd to 3rd, 39 ft. The top 
portion, or the Chattii, is 15 ft. 6 in. 
to base of small dome. Dome and 
pinnacle, 11 ft. 6 in. The thickness of 
the wall of the Mindr at base is 3 ft. 

5 in. The Min^r is bound by a spiral 
staircase, the steps of which are let 
into the walL The plinth of the 
building, above the platform, is 3 ft. 

6 in., and is the floor-level of the arch- 
way. From that floor to the apex of 
the arch is 63 ft. Apex of the arch 
at top of the main parapet is 24 ft. 
6 in. ; thence to the base of the 
pinnacle is 98 ft. 4 in. The pinnacle 
is 80 ft. 6 in., and is copper gilt. 
From the bottom of the lowest plat- 
form to the top of the pinnacle, not 
including the red platform, is 239 ft. 
6 in. The total from the garden-level 
is 245 ft. 6 in. The platform from 
the outside of one minaret to the 
outside of the other, from E. to W., 
iu the S. face measures 327 ft. 9 in. 

When the TAj was repaired, before 
the Prince of Wales* visit, it was 
estimated that to put the centre build- 
ing of the Mausoleum in thorough 
repair — restoring and inlaying the 
marble, pointing and roofing — ^would 
cost 70,000 rs. The dome is brick 
veneered with marble, and all the 
slabs with which it is faced were 
examined, and those that required it 
were repointed. The marble was 
damaged chiefly by the swelling of 
the iron clamps, during oxidation. 
The iron thus increased from 1 in. 
to Ij in. The total actual outlay 
was 45,983 rs. It was fortunate that 
the repairs were made, as but for this, 
the whole marble facing of the roof 
would have been destroyed by the 
swelling of the iron. It would cost 
17,000 rs, to completely restore the 
entrance arch. To repair the Mosque 
at the W. side would cost 26,000 rs., 
and the Mosque at the E. side 26,000 
to 27/X)0 X8. The Indians weie mucli 



pleased at the repairs done to the Tdj, 
which to them is a great place of resort. 
There are two wings to the 
Mausoleum, both of which are 
Mosques which anywhere else would 
be considered important buildings. 
They resemble the Mausoleum, except 
in being smaller. " In every angle of 
the Mausoleum is a small domical 
apartment, 2 stories high, and 26 ft. 
8 in. in diameter, and these are con- 
nected by various passages and halls. 
Under the centre of the dome are the 
tombs of Muntdz i Mahall and Shih 
Jahdn. These are the show tombs, 
but the real ones are in a vault below, 
exactly under the others. You des- 
cend to the real tombs by a polished 
slope, which is so slippery as to be 
almost dangerous. In the apartment 
above, where the show tombs are, 
the light," says Mr. Fergusson, *'is 
admitted only through double screens 
of white marble trellis work of the 
most exquisite design, one on the 
outer and one on the inner face of the 
walls. In our climate this would 
produce nearly complete darkness ; 
but in India, and in a building wholly 
composed of white marble, this was 
required to temper the glare that 
otherwise would have been intolerable. 
As it is, no words can express the 
chastened beauty of that central 
chamber, seen in the soft gloom of 
the subdued light that reaches it 
through the distant and half closed 
openings that surround it. When 
used as a Bdrah Darl, or pleasure 
palace, it must always have been the 
coolest and the loveliest of garden 
retreats, and now that it is sacred to the 
dead, it is the most graceful and the 
most impressive of sepulchres in the 
world." (See "Hist, of Arch.," p. 
598). There are 3 inscriptions : 1046 
A.H.r=rl636 A.D., 1048 A.H.=16S8 A.D., 
and 1057 A.H.=1 647 AD. Mr. Keene, 
who has given an excellent account of 
the Tdj, thinks that " the inscriptions 
show the order in which the various 
parts of the building were completed." 
Buch then is this "poem in marble," v 
whose beauty has been faintly f 
shadowed out, \yafc ^^tS» \Ji^.<af^5riCciS5x 



2SG 



Some Z^.—Bharip&r to Agro 



Sect. H. 



It should be seen if possible hj moon* I 
light, fs well as \>j day, and in dark 
nights thG garden should be lighted 
up artificially. Here, indeed, the I 
electric light wonld do more aervioe 
than, anywhere else in tbc world, and 
fortunate would those be, who ahoold 
be present at its cshihition. The S, 
face, which looks upon the gaiden, ia 
perhaps the most beautiful, but the N. 
front, which rises above the Jamn^, 
derives an'iadditional charm from, the 
broad waters which roll past it. 

The Fort. — " Most of the mi^nifl- 
ccnt Mughul buildings, which render 
Agra so interesting in the eye of the 
traveller, are situated within the 
Fort. Tbey justify the criticism that 
the MuD^u& designed like Titans and 
finiaheiriike jewelleiB." The fort ia 
about i a m. long from N. to S. aud i 
of a mile broad from E. to W. It 
standa on the left or W. bank of the 
Jatnni, and somewhat more than J a 
m. to the S. of the E. I. Hallway 
Bridge.* The walls and ^oMng 
defences am of red sandstone, and 
have an imposing ^peamnce, being 
nearly 70 ft. high. The ditch is 30 ft. 

■ Tho Agia JamnS bridge 



4ahurt 









The milw&y la carried hetwt 

s narrow plattbrrc. and the roadwa/ ia atuve, 

& bTL>ad guage. The roadway is 10 Ft. wide, 
with 2 lootpathi, eacli 1 ft Tha principle of 
theconstruutlDtioftheglrdersislAttlce. The 
ban an tortneil of anKle irnas. ThB lower 
plA.tfarm 1r Buppoiifld by croaa glKlera eua- 

f ended below the main ^^rders. and attached 
y BnglB-iron aide plecaB, wWch parUy per- 



iia girder! 



it Aile-tree Company. 
\Bto each pier. The 



JamntE, 21 m. W, of Agra, and ia erytftaliine 
grey landatone, hard to work, bnt exceJ1«nl 
lu baildlng. The bridge cost is. l.SlS.STr. 
Tb* greatut flood at Agra was in August, 



wideandSEftdcep. Theentnneeiibr 
the Dibit Qate, and crosses the ditch. 
There are 2 turnings, at right angles, 
the first commanded by 2 cannons, 
but it ia said that the walls wonld not 
3tand the concussion of firing heavr 
Tuns. The slope of the road is still 
iteep, though it has been Improved. A. 
^coud arehway is called the Sdthit/a 
Barrcaaih, " Elephant Gate," Thero 
used to be 2 figures of elephants here, 
brought from Cbitilr ; one was called 
Fatta and the other Jaimall, after two 
famous B&jpiit champions, Aurangzib 
mutilated Uiem. There are here 3 
octagonal towers of red sandstone, in-' 
laid with white marble. The passage 
between these is covc:^ by 2 domes. 
The traveller will then pass the 
Mini B&z&r and enter the grand 
square, the Place du Carrousel of Agra, 
with the Diwin i 'Am on the left 
The beauty of this magnificent square 
has been woefully m^red by building 
a hideous low laboratory, on the aide 
on which is the Ulwftn i 'Am, and on 
the other side a strong iron railing to 
protect the stores. Before entering the 
Dlwlkn i 'Am, notice a large brass gnu 
called the Dbolpiir gun, which was 
taken from the mutJneeiB. There aie 
ranges of cannons here and large 
mortars, and beyond the brass gun the 
tomb of Mr. Colviu, which is not tade- 
ful. Borne have thought the Diw^ i 
'Am was built by Akbar, ofherB by 
Jah&ngir, but accoidiug to Carlleyle 
it was built by Shih Jahfin and was 
his public Hall of Audience. This 
building is 560 ft long from N. to S. 
and 120 ft. broad from E. to W. Theie 
are S rows of 3S pillars each, 2 and 2. 
Along the walls are grilles, through 
which fair faces looked ou when Sbili 
Jab&n sat to see his courtiers dlspl^ 
feats of horsemanship. All these 
pillars were covered vrith whitewash 
until the expected visit of the Prince 
of Wales, when they were washed and 
restored to their original state. It 
was " originally an open building, of 
red saodstone, and resting on a double 
series of sq. pillars, standing on sq. 
bases, higher than their breadth, and 
bevllled ofl »t the top comers. 
Eiigi'hilcd arches, so characteristic of 



Sect. IL 



BotUe 35. — Agra : the Mod Masjid. 



287 



Sh&h Jahdn^B time, rise from and 
between the pillars, and must haye 
given a light appearance to the build- 
ing ; but the British authorities have 
filled up the spaces between the outer 
range of pillars with brickwork, and 
covered the whole, both inside and out- 
side, with whitewash. The back or E. 
side of the Diwto i 'Am is formed into 
a beautiful 2-storied colonnade ; and 
from each end of the building a long 
colonnade extends on each side, that is 
on the N. and S. sides, running from 
E. to W., thus forming a grand colon- 
nade court. Beyond the E. end lies 
the grand raised terrace, with a black 
marble throne in its mid-front, over- 
looking the great quadrangle, facing 
the DiwAn i 'Am. Close to the W. end 
of the DtwAn i 'Am, is a beautiful little 
3-domcd mosque of white marble, 
called the Naginah Masjid or *Gtem 
Mosque.' It was the private mosque 
of the royal ladies of the court. This 
gem is as tantalizing as beautiful, for 
it is built up on all sides and cannot 
be got at except by scaling the walls. 
It was built by Shdh Jah4n for the use 
of his ladies. 

The Mcfti Masjidy the "Pearl 
Mosque,*' is situated to the N.W. of 
the palace and other buildings of 
Sh4h Jah4n,nearthe present Ordnance 
Department and N. of the great 
DiwAn i 'Am. The building of this 
Mosque was commenced A.H. 1056= 
A.D. 1648, and was finished A.H. 1063 
=A.D. 1655, and is said to have cost 
300,000 rs. It is 234 ft. 3 in. long from 
E. to W. and 187 ft. 8 in., broad 
from N. to S., minus the projections of 
the towers, the gateway and the W. 
apse. On the entablature over the 
front row of supporting figures, on the 
E. face, on the W. covered in part, 
there is an inscription running the 
whole length, the letters being of black 
marble, inlaid into the white. The 
inscription says that the Mosque may 
be likened to a precious pearl, for no 
other mosque is Uned throughout with 
marble like this. It was built by 
Abd'l MnxafEar Shah4bu'd din Muham- 
mad $4t^b Kirdn §dni 8h4h Jah4n. 
The date above-mentioned is here 
given. Being built on sloping ground 



the basement decreases in height 
towards the W. end, where the upper 
story comes to be on a level with the 
surface of the ground. At the back 
towards the W. the exterior is faced 
with slabs of red sandstone, but the 
Mosque is inwardly veneered with 
marble, white, blue, and grey veined, 
and this part is really beautiful. 
•' The walls of the upper story, which 
is the real mosque, are only 3 ft. 6 in. 
to 4 ft. in thickness, including the outer 
casing of red sandstone, the central 
core of brickwork, and the inside 
lining of marble. The gateway, which 
is very fine, makes a trihedral projec- 
tion from the centre of the E. end of 
the Mosque, and the ascent to the gate- 
way is by a broad and high flight of 
steps. There is an octagonal tower at 
each of the 4 corners of the build- 
ing, of which 5 sides are visible in 
projection from the walls, externally, 
each side measuring 4 ft. 5^ in., and 
50 ft. to the E. there is a 3-sided por* . 
tion of a tower, and it marks the 
commencement of the raised platform 
of the W. part used for worship. The 
exterior of the gateway is of red sand- 
stone, but the interior of the passage 
through the gateway, sides, ceiling and 
floor, is entirely lined with white 
marble. The gateway widens out in 
the centre into a vestibule 16 ft. sq., 
with a domed ceiling. At each side of 
this vestibule there is a wing com- 
posed of a raised platform and a blind 
arch. Each platform is 10 ft. 8 in. broad, 
by 6 ft. 2 in. deep. In the centre of the 
N. and S. sides is a beautiful white 
marble archway. 

In the centre of the court there 
is a marble tank, 37 ft. 7 in. sq., 
for ablutions, and between the 
S.E. comer of the tank and the 6.E. 
inner comer of the Mosque there is 
an ancient sun-dial, consisting of an 
octagonal marble pillar 4 ft. high, 
with no gnomon, but simply 2 cros^ 
lines and an arc. A marble cloister, 
10 ft. 10 in, wide, runs round the E., N. 
and S. sides of the court, which is in- 
terrupted by the gateway and side 
arches. The cloisters contain 58 
slender pillars, with 12-sided thal^^^ 



288 



Route 35. — Blmrtp^r to Agra, 



Sect, m 



comers the pillar is quadruple, com- 
posed of 4 pillars joined back to back. 
The W. part of the Mosque, where they 
worshipped, is 148 ft. 10 in. long x 56 ft. 
broad, containing 18 massive pillars of 
veined marble in 3 rows, and 14J pil- 
lars in the back of blue and grey- 
veined white marble, and the whole is 
surmounted by 3 white marble domes, 
the central being the largest. The 
marble lining on the internal sides and 
back of this colonnade is divided into 
panels, with sculptured devices in 
the centre representing groups and 
wreaths, and bouquets of flowers, of 
most exquisite workmanship. From a 
small doorway and passage, which 
goes off on either side, just inside the 
great arch of the gateway, a flight of 
steps leads to the top of the gateway, 
and thence to the roof of the side 
cloisters. From these steps passages 
lead off to balconies, 2 on either 
side of the gateway, one above the 
other. 

In the Mosque itself there is a door at 
each W. end of the side cloisters, leading 
into a long passage, at each side of the 
place of worship. From each of these 
passages, 3 doorways look into each 
end of the W. pillared compartment. 
The central doorway is open, but the 
others are filled up with screens of 
beautiful perforated white marble 
lattice-work, of exquisite patterns," 
(See Carlleyle's Report, vol. iv. Arch. 
Surv.) Ascend now some stairs, at 
the back of the place where the 
Emperor sat in the Dlwdn i *Am, and 
pass through a doorway into the 
Machchl Bhawan or ''Fish Square." 
A corridor runs all round, except on 
the side which fronts the Jamn^, 
where there is an open terrace, with a 
black throne, on the side nearest the 
river, with a white seat opposite, where 
it is said the Court of Justice sat. 
The black throne has a long fissure, 
which is said to have appeared when 
the throne was usurped by the Jdt 
chief. This throne is 10 ft. 7 J in. long, 
9 ft. 10 in. broad and 6 in. thick. The 
octagonal pedestals which support it 
are 1 ft. 4 in. high. There is a reddish 
itain in one spot, which shows a combi- 
Qfttion of iron, but the Indians pretend | 



that it is blood. An inscription TOiifl 
round the 4 sides, which fiays in hii^ 
when Salim became heir to the crown 
his name was changed to Jah4nghlr, 
and for the light of his justice he was 
called Nuru *d din. His sword cot 
his enemies' heads into two halves like 
the Gemini. As long as the heaven is 
the throne for the sun, may the throne 
of Sallm remain. Date 1011 A.H. 
On leaving the Diwdn i 'Am, the 
Emperor walked along the cor- 
ridor to the opposite side, where 
there is a beautiful pavilion of 
white marble with a cupola, said to be 
the work of Italian artists. A few 
years ago this pavilion was lying in 
fragments all over the Square, but has 
now been put together and restored. 
It is beautiful, but fades into insigni- 
cance compared with the — 

Diw&n i Khdf, at the end, and the 
rooms beyond, close to the river. 
The Diw4n i Khd$ is a miracle of 
beauty. The carving is exquisite, and 
flowers are inlaid on the white marble, 
red camelian, and other precious 
stones. From this building, or from 
his throne on the terrace, the Emperor 
looked over the broad river to the 
beautiful gardens and buildings on 
the opposite shore. The length of the 
Diwdn i Ehds is 64 ft. 9 in., its breadth 
34 ft., and its height 22 ft. The 
date of this building is 1046 A.H. = 
1637 A.D. Unfortunately many of 
the valuable stones in the inlaid work 
have been picked out by Mardtha, J4t, 
and English soldiers. In the N. side 
of the Machchl Bhawan are two bronze 
gates, made according to some,- of the 
guns taken at Chitiir, when Akbar 
captured that fortress, and the B4j« 
piits performed the Johdr, and caused 
their women, 20,000 in number, to 
undergo cremation before they sal- 
lied out to find death in the Mughul 
ranks. The visitor will now pass from 
the Dlwdn i Khd?, over a terrace 
which represents a Pachisl board, into 
the Saman Burj, where the chief 
SuU.dna lived. The lovely marble 
lattice- work seems to have been broken 
by cannon-shot in some places, hut 
might easily be repaired. A beautiful 
pavilion, with a fountain, and retiiing' 



Sect. II. 



Saute 35. — Agra : Jahdngir MaJtail 



289 



room, close upon the riyer, are the 
chief apartments here. These haye 
been lately repaired, but in fact the 
work of restoration went on from 1874 
to 1877. In returning, there is on 
the left the site of rooms, whence 
the Marquis of Hastings swept off 
the marble and sent it to Windsor. 
The next thing to see is the Shishah 
Ma^aU or "lady's bath," literally, 
" Mirror Palace," behind the Diw^ i 
Khds, the walls and ceiling of which 
are lined with innumerable small mir- 
rors. These were restored in 1876. 
A room of this kind is to be seen in 
many places, as in L^htir and in Na- 
wanagar. Passing now a little to the 
W., the traveller will enter the Angiirl 
B4gh, or " Grape Garden," a fine square 
of 280 ft. In it are bedrooms for 
ladies, with holes in the wall, 14 in. 
deep, into which they used to slip 
their jewels. These holes are so nar- 
row, that only a woman's arm could 
draw them out. In the E. part of this 
square is a lovely hall, called the 
Khds Ma^all, the gilding and colour- 
ing of which were restored, in 1876, 
at a cost of 200 rs. for every piece 
measuring 4 ft. by 2 ft. Proceeding to 
the W., the visitor will come to 3 
rooms, which were the private apart- 
ments of Bhih Jahdn. In one of the 
3, he and Governor Colvin died ; but 
in which of them is not known, but 
whichever it was it is said that the 
Emperor gazed from it on the T^j, 
where his favourite queen rested. On 
the right is an inclosure railed in, 
in which stand the Gates of Somndth, 
of a faint reddish-grey colour, 26 ft. 
high, and finely carved. There is a 
Ktkfic inscription running round them, 
in which the name of S&buktagin has 
been read, but Cunningham pronounces 
against their genuineness. A Pa^uki 
horseshoe and 2 bosses of a shield are 
nailed in the centre. In the opposite 
comer of the terrace lie 3 of Akbar's 
kettledrums, and in a room still further 
to the W. the Archaeological Sodetv of 
Agra meet. It, also, was restored in 
1876. The room nearest the river is an 
octagonal pavilion, and very beautiful. 
In it, perhaps, Sh^ Jah4n died ; if so, 
he coiud fee the T4j, about 1 m. to the 



B., with his closing eyes. Beyond is 
an aqueduct witb lifts, and a similar 
one is near the Diwin i Kh4^ 

Jah&tigir MahaU, — The visitor 
now passes into the Jahdngir Ma- 
lljall. While Jahdnglr was still Prince 
Sallm, he had a separate establishment 
in the fort of Agra. It was called 
Salimgarh. The measurements, accord- 
ing to Carlleyle, arei : N. side, 600 ft. ; 
W. side, 200 ft. ; S. side, 469 ft. ; and 
E., 362 ft. It was situated to the W. ' 
of the Moti Masjid. There are no re- 
mains of this palace left, unless Dansa 
J4t's house may have been a part of it. 
This house has a fine porch, supported' 
by ornamental pillars at the doorway, 
and surmounted by a beautiful canopy, 
covered at the top with gilt copper. 
But the Jahdnglr Mahall, the red- 
stone palace, into which the traveller 
now enters, was built by Jah4ngir 
immediately after the death of Akbar. 
It stands in the S.E. part of the forty 
between the palace of Sh&h Jah4n and 
the Bang&ll bastion. The red sand- 
stone of which it is built has not re- 
sisted the destructive action of the 
elements. A view of it will be found 
in the 4th vol. of Cunningham's" Arch. 
Reports," where it accompanies Mr. 
Carlleyle's Beport. It measures 249 ft. 
by 260 ft. According to the ubove 
authority, "the length of the W. front, 
at the entrance which faces towards 
the interior of the fort, is 226 ft. 10 in., 
including the comer towers. The B. 
front which faces the river is 240 ft, 
and the depth from front to back is 
260 ft. In some parts there are 2 
stories ; the lower story has no win- 
dows looking to the front, but the upper 
has several. The upper front is orna- 
mented with an intermittent row of 
enamelled lozenge-shaped and star- 
shaped blue and bright green tiles in- 
serted into the sandstone. The masonic 
symbol of the double triangle, inlaid in 
white marble, occurs in several places 
on the trout gateway. The entrance 
gateway ' lea£ng directly into the 
palace is very fine. It is in the centre 
of the W. front, and is the highest part 
of the front, with the exception of the 
2 comer towers. These tA^^'<c& «3^ 



290 



Eoute 35. — Bfiartpdr to Agra. 



Sect. H 



9 ft. 4 in. each. The towers are 3- 
storied, and are surmounted by ele- 
gant cupolas. The outer archway of 
the gateway is very fine. It is 14 ft. 
2 in. broad and 10ft. 4 in. deep. The 
entrance nanxjws inwardly into an 
empty vestibule of 9 ft. 1 in. by 8 ft. 
2 in. This leads into a beautiful domed 
hall, 18 ft. sq., the ceiling of which is 
elaborately carved. On 3 sides of this 



between them and the roof. A ooreied 
passage, or corridor, runs round the 
top of this hall, from which one can 
look down into it. The other pil- 
lared hall on the opposite or S. side of 
the grand court is somewhat less in 
size, it being 52 ft. long by 29 ft broad. 
It differs slightly from the other halls, 
in that the back row of pillars is single, 
instead of double, and that the inter- 



hall is a side vestibule 16 ft. long and spaces between the side pillars and 



9 ft. broad. A corridor, 27 ft. 6 m. 
long, leads into the grand central 
court, which is 72 ft. sq. The archi- 
tecture of this court is entirely Hindii. 
Its design, the pillars of its side halls, 
the carving and ornamentation, are all 
pure Hind^ This, perhaps, arose from 
the fact that JahAnglr was the son of 
a RAjpiit princess. 

"On the N. side of the court is 
a grand open pillared hall 62 ft. 
long and 37 ft. broad. It contains 
14 pillars, 2 longitudinal rows of 
4 and 4 or 8 double sq. pillars, 2 and 
2 or 4 single side sq. pillars, and 4 
comer composite quadruple pillars. 
The pillars support bracket capitals, 
richly carved and ornamented with 
pendants. The front row send out pro- 
jecting brackets of exquisite workman- 
ship, the inner angle of the bracket 
being filled up with a web of tastefully 
sculptured cross bars. These front 
brackets supported broad sloping eaves 
of thin stone slabs. But the stone 
xoof or ceiling of these pillared halls 
is the most remarkable feature about 
it. It has a narrow, flat, oblong, cen- 
tral compartment resting on 4 sloping 
aide compartments, and this roof is 
supported most curiously by stone 
cross-beams, which are ornamented 
with the quaint device of a great ser 
pent or dragon carved on them length 



back pillars are filled up with per- 
forated stone lattice-work. Behind 
this stone lattice-work, and round the 
back and 2 sides of this wall, there 
runs a passage, from which, I presome, 
the ladies of the harem, ensconced 
behind the lattice, used to look out 
upon anything that was going on in 
the grand court in front." 

Passing from the grand court,through 
a large chamber to the E.,the visitor y^l 
find a grand*archway in the centre of a 
quadrangle which faces the river. It 
is supported by 2 lofty pillars and 2 
half pillars of the more slender and 
graceful Hindii kind. The shafts are 
rounded and fluted on 12 sides, ¥rith a 
series of transverse sculptures running 
round them. The bases are 4-sided, and 
ornamented with a flowered device, like 
the lotus, between 2 broad leaves. The 
shafts are monoliths. The pillars are 
17 ft. 7 in. high, their shafts 10 ft. 8 in., 
the capitals 2 ft. 5 in., and the brackets 
2 ft. 2 in. Some of the chambers ore 
lined with stucco, which has been 
painted. This stucco has lasted better 
tiian the stone-work. For minute and 
exquisite ornaments carving in stone, 
the great central court is pre-eminent. 
The palace ends on the side facing the 
river with a retaining wall, and 2 
comer bastions, each surmounted by 
an ornamental tower with a domed 



constructed roof — a^wonder of architec- 
tural constructive ingenuity — unique 
and without a parallel in its design. 
Architects will understand that it is a 
stone roof or ceiling sloping up from 
the 4 sides, or wall plates, to a flat 
oblong-shaped quadrilateral top, which 
crowns it, and which is supported by 
stone cross-beams projecting from the 
waUpIates, with stone stxuts or trusses 



ways. It is altogether a wonderfully cupola. There are many vaulted 



chambers underneath the palace, but 
as the air is veiy close, and snakes are 
numerous, they are seldom visited. 
Between the palace of Jahtoglr and 
that of Sh^h Jah4n, there is a series of 
bathing tanks and pipes. The 9auf 
of Jahdngir is an enormous mono- 
lithic cistern of light-coloured porphyry 
or close-grained granite ; externally it 
is nearly 5 ft. high, and internally 4 ft. 



Sect. II. 



EotUe 35. — Agra : Churclies, d&c. 



291 



deep. It is 8 ft. in diameter at top. 
It originally stood in Jah^ngir's 
palace, but has been removed to the 
public gardens, where it now stands. 
To the 8. of Jahdngir's palace are 
rooms, which have b^n turned into 
Sergeants' quarters and the Military 
Prison. 

JdmH Maitjid, — "Facing the gate- 
way, and outside the enclosure of the 
fort, stands the J^'i Masjid, or Great 
Mosque, elevated upon a raised plat- 
form, and reached by a broad flight of 
steps. The main building of the 
mosque is divided into 3 compart- 
ments, each of which opens on the 
courtyard by a fine archway, and is 
surmounted by a low dome, built of 
white and red stone in oblique courses, 
and producing a somewhat singular 
though pleasing effect. The work has 
all the originsdity and vigour of the 
early Mughul style, mixed with many 
reminiscences of the Path4n school. 
The inscription over the main archway 
sets forth that the mosque was con- 
structed by the Emperor Shih Jah^u 
in 1644, after 6 years' labour. It was 
built in the name of his daughter 
Jahdndra, who afterwards devotedly 
shared her father's captivity when he 
was deposed by Aurangzlb. The dimen- 
sions are 130 ft. in length by 100 ft. in 
breadth." (See Hunter's ** Imperial 
Gazetteer," vol. i., p. 56.) " The great 
peculiarity of this Masjid consists in 
Its 3 great full-bottomed domes with- 
out necks, shaped like balloons re- 
versed, and built of red sandstone, 
with zigzag bands of white marble 
circling round them. Its grand gate- 
way was pulled down by the British 
authorities during'the Mutiny." (See 
"Arch. Surv.," vol. iv., p. 170.) 

Churches and Cemeteries, — Two days 
will have been spent in seeing the T4j 
and the Fort, and a 2nd visit to the 
T4j will be indispensable, but the 3rd 
day may very well be spent in seeing 
the prominent buildings m the canton- 
ment. The first visit may be to 8t, 
George's Church, It is 120 ft. long, 
inside measurement, and 70 ft. wide, 
and is divided into a nave with 2 side 
aisles, by 6 lofty pillars, between 
pilasten on -each side, carrying beary 



timbers and red sandstone slabs, which 
form the roof. It was built in 1826, by 
Colonel Boileau , B.E.,partly by Govern- 
ment and partly by subscription. The 
tower and spire are of more recent 
date. The effect on entering by the 
W. door is good. A quasi chancel has 
been formed by a stone platform, which 
extends some feet into the body of the 
church, and is enclosed by a carved 
screen of white sandstone and iron ' 
rail. The E., N. and S. sides are finely 
carved; the inlaid marble work for 
which Agra is so famous, is weU worth 
notice in the reredos and the altar. 
These chancel improvements have been 
designed and superintended by the 
chaplain, the Bev. M. Lamert, who is 
himself an artist of ability, at a cost of 
8,000 rs. The choir is said to be the 
best in the diocese. On the left of the 
altar is a mural tablet carved by M. 
Lamert. It bears an Agnus Dei sub- 
scribed, " Ad majorem Dei gloriam et 
in memoriam piam G. L., G. E.^L., 
B. G. L., Matthseus Lamert. ^ujusc6 
ecclesise sacerdos posuit, 1872." 

St, PauVs {Military Church) was 
built by the E. L Co. in 1828, by J. 
T. Boileau. There is here a tablet on 
tSie left as you face the altar, to the 
memory of Ensign Theodore David 
Bray, killed while gallantly carrying 
the colours at Mah4r4jpi!^, 29th of 
Dec. 1843, with the names of 40 K.-C. 
officers and men killed in the same 
action. There is also one to Captain 
Bichard Ponsonby Alcock, 46th B.N. I., 
murdered by a band of assassins in 
Mainpuri District, 26th of Oct., 1844. 
Also one to Major Charles Eneas 
Burton, 4th B. K. L, Polit. Agent at 
Harauti, aged 47, and his two sons, ' 
murdered after a long and gallant 
resistance at the Besidency at Eotah, 
Oct. 15th, 1857. There is also one to 
Major G. Bussell Crommelin, C.B., 
who fell at the head of the 1st Begi- 
ment N. I. at Mahdrdjpi!ir, 29th Dec., 
1843. There are several other tablets. 

8t, PauVs {Civil) Church,— AhoMt 
4 m. K. of St. Gteorge's Church is St. 
Paul's Church, in the Civil Lines. 
This church was built in 1854. All 
the flttln^ft \i!L\JDi^\iTsSL^iJfl^%^'^iMi.^^^ ^ 



292 



Boute 35. — BhartpUr to Agra, 



Sect IL 



Htitineerg in 1857, iriio also fired 
several shots at and broke the railing 
of l^e gallery opposite the altar. This 
chnrch cost 40,000 rs., and is bpoiled 
architecturally by its not having a 
chancel. It is said that Sir Willmm 
Hair objected to it. 

TJie Roman Catholic Cathedral, which 
is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is 
qoite close to the Old Jail, and ^ a m. 
N.W. of the Fort. It is 157 ft. 5in. long, 
inside measurement, and 56 ft. broad in 
the body of the church, and 136 ft. at 
the chancel. There is a tower about 
150 ft. high, which contains 4 stories, 
above the body of the church. There 
are 7 arches on either side of the nave, 
supported by 8 Corinthian pillars. 

8. of the W. entrance there is a 
tablet, inscribed to the Rev. P. 
Bonavcntura. 

Under the S. wall of the church are 
a number of slabs with inscriptions. 
Amongst them is one to Fanny Lucy 
Craven, " the Convent Pet," who died 
on the Ist of May, 1875. To the N. of 
the church is a fine white building, a 
convent, and to the S. of the church 
is a house in which the priests live. 
In their garden is a chapel, in which 
they have service for themselves. 

On the wall of the garden are several 
inscriptions, the oldest of which bears 
the date of 1791 A.D. 

No, 1 Cemetery, — After visiting 
these churches, the traveller may pro- 
ceed to the cemeteries. The 1st lies 
100 yds. S.E. of the fort, and is sur- 
rounded by a wall 5 ft. high. Notice 
first 3 victims of cholera during the 
siege of Agra, John Mackemess, O.E., 
who died on the 23rd of July, 1857 ; 
Georgiana Fife, who died July, 1858 ; 
and W. Christian Watson, who died 
July 12th, 1857. There is also a 
monument to Major G. P. Thomas, 
who died at Agra Fort, on the 4th of 
August, 1857, of wounds received on 
the previous 5th of July, 

No, 2 Cemetery, — This cemetery is 
100 yds. to the S.E. of the preceding 
one, on a ridge. A great number of 
'persons are buried here, and the 
nound sinltB in at every tread, but 
Shough the graves are so numerous 
he tomha are reiy Uw, There aie 



28 inscriptions, chiefly to women and 
children who died daring the Mutiny 
in 1857-1858. 

No, 3 Cemetery.—ThiB cemetery Is 
also near the Fort. The Muslim idio 
has charge of it receives 4 rs. a montti, 
and a house to live in. Obflerve a 
tablet to Lieut. John Henderson Lunb 
of the Beng. Art., who died on tiie 
24th of August, 1857, of wounds 
received in action on the 5th of July. 
The next is to John Bohle Mackinnon. 
who died in the Fort of Agra in 
August, 1857. The next is to W. J. E. 
Hoggan, who died in the Fort of Agra 
August 19th, 1857 ; also to Lieut. O. 
Span, 62nd K.L, who died August 9th, 
1857, and then one to a child, Helen 
Stewart, who died in the same ^ace 
August 4th, 1857 ; then one to Ben- 
jamin Robinson, died in the same 
place 20th of August, 1857 ; then to 
another child, Edward Cust Thombillf 
died August 9th, 1857 ; then to 
Catharine, daughter of James Beale* 
who died on the 23rd of August, 1857. 
Towards the K. gate of the fort, and 
close to the ditch, is a Mu^ammadan 
tomb. Near it is one that looks like 
that of an European, and 100 yds. 
beyond it is a large pyramidal tomb of 
red stone on a square base, with an 
English and Persian inscription to 
SitSrah Blgam, the friend of Lieut. 
Sharpe, who died on the 3rd of 
December, 1804. 

At a short distance from St. Paul*s 
in the Civil Lines, on the way to the 
Civil Cemetery, on the right hand, are 
some curious old tombs, found under 
the earth at St. Paul's, when the 
foundations were begun in 1854, and 
removed to a platform here. The Ist 
tomb is that of George Purchas, who 
died 14th May, 1651, and the next is 
that of John Brake Laine, who died 
1637. 

The next is in Dutch, and is dated 
10th October, 1649. 

Beginning now with the 2nd row at 
the end nearest the entrance, the Ist 
'tomb has no inscription. The next 
epitaph is much damaged, but the 
letters that remain are *^ Nat ol Jus- 
tinian, of Ley—- <— was chief merchant 
« ^ He deceased the * AprU, 1627.'* 



Sect. n. 



Saute 35. — Agra : the Central Jail. 



^93 



This is the oldest tomb of all. There 
are some rained tombs, howeveri of 
which the dates can only be guessed 
Next is "Hicr legt begraven Jan de 
Bofek, Amsterdam. In syn leeben ad 
cisten objt 19th September, 1679, out 
36 yaren." 

Another cemetery in the canton- 
ment is near the Parade Groand, and 
is most neatly kept and adorned with 
flowers. On the right side a little 
way up is the tomb of "Elizabeth, 
wife of John Camming of the 80th 
Regiment, who died November 17th, 
ISfi), from an injury received in 
crossing the sur£ at Madras ; also her 
infant son, who died on the Ganges, 
and was buried in its bank.'* Further 
on, on the left, is a monument to Cap- 
tain B. A. C, D'Oyley, killed in action 
with the rebels on the 5th July, 1857. 

This gallant officer was shot by his 
favourite Indian gunner, whom he had 
himself instructed. He fell at the 
disastrous engagement of Sh4hganj. 
Further on is a tablet to Walter 
Frederick Cavendish, 2nd Batt. Rifle 
Brigade, son of Loid C. Cavendish, 
who died of cholera 26th of November, 
1866, aged 22. Behind it is a hand- 
some monument to 53 N.-C. officers 
and privates of the 3rd Batt. of the 
Rifle Brigade, who died of cholera in 
1860. Beyond is a tablet to Ensign 
John C. Mordaunt Seymour. The 
furthest tomb on this side is that of 
Brig.-G^neral W. H. Ryves, command- 
ing the Agra Brigade, who died 
September 20th, 1873. This monu- 
ment was erected by public subscrip- 
tion at this station. Near this is a 
circular piece of ground for children*s 
graves, and in 1875 sixty-three were 
already buried there. On the right, 
rather more than half way up, is a 
most singular and unparalleled tomb 
to Catharine, wife of J. C. Lacy, of the 
Medical Hall, Agra, who diod April 
8th, 1861. It is a perforated tomb 
10 ft. sq. and 15 ft. high, to the top of 
the ornament on the dome. Just 
below this ornament is a crown of 
pare gold worth 4,000 rs. At the 
head St the slab inside were 2 crosses 
of gold, worth 600 rs. each. A Sipihi 



these, to effect which he had broken 
the side window, and broken it re- 
mained. The cross was also brbken. 

At the extreme E. of the cantonment 
is a fine house, which stands on a hill , 
with a noble portico. Just across the 

Sath is the very handsome tomb to 
[ajor John Jacob, murdered oh 
the 6th of July, 1857, a country- 
bom officer of Sindhia's force, who 
thought he was quite safe in the 
Mutiny, but on reaching this house 
after leaving Gw^idr, his own cook 
rushed out and stabbed him to the 
heart. It is said the cook had de- 
manded his money, which was thought 
to be buried under this house, and he 
had refused to tell where it was. He 
fell dead at his own door. The plat- 
form on which the tomb is, is elabo- 
rately carved, with an acanthus border 
of flowers. Above is an oriental 
canopied octagon, also finely carved. 

The Central Jail. — This Jail is one 
of the largest, if it is not the largest, 
in India. On September 27th, 1876, 
there were 2,390 prisoners, of whom 
163 were women. It is situated about 
1 mile to the N.W. of the Fort. The 
guard consists of 50 police, 26 of whom 
are within the walls ; 80 good-conduct 
men wear the yellow prison dress, but 
are styled Barkand&z^ " musketeers." 
The prison has 3 centres — 1 principal 
centre, and 2 minor ones. From these 
extend barracks, which hold 56 men 
apiece. The manufactures in this 
Jail are well worth attention, and the 
fabrics made at it are all bespoken in 
London. In the carpet factory men 
sit on each side, and the Instructor 
calls out the tlu^ad ; Ins words are 
repeated by one of the men, and the 
thread put in accordingly. Some learn 
in 5 days, some not in 5 weeks. A 
first-class carpet has 8 threads in the 
weft, and 8 in the warp in the sq. in. 
Six men in a full day of 10 hours' work 
can make 5 in. a day in a 12-ft. carpet. 
In 1876 there was made for the Prin^ce 
of Wales a carpet 31 yds. sq., costing 
10 rs. a sq. yd. Two more were made 
for the same room. A firm in High 
Holbom take all the caipiets they can 
make here for l^.^l^. 'jKV'oskcw -ksr. 



was caught attempting to steal one ot\ cm.p\o^^ m >2ti<& l^aRXssrj . "^^Sx^^k^^t^ 



294 



Moute 35. — BhartpUr to Agra* 



Sect. II, 



prisoners are punished by working 
Underhay's Patent Labour Machine. 
They must turn it 9,000 times, when 
they sit down and do nothing 
else. The carding is considered the 
hardest work — i8 men are employed at 
the capstan at one time for 30 minutes, 
when they are relieved. In the 1st 
room rags and wool are cleaned ; in 
the 2nd room the fibres are opened 
and cleaned, so that it will spin. The 
mule machines spin the fibre into 
warp and weft. 178 men are engaged 
here. Prisoners are allowed to see 
their friends once in 6 months, and 
once in the year, in the presence of 
the jailors. They talk about domestic 
affairs, and their friends never believe 
them to be guilty. There are both 
men and women who have had their 
foreheads branded. There are 3 classes 
of criminals — 1st, for heinous crimes ; 
2nd, habitual; 3rd, casual. The 2nd 
class alone cannot become Bar^^nd&z. 

"Amongst the modem buildings may 
be mentioned the Government College 
in Drummond Boad, and the Judge's 
Court. The Catholic Mission and Or- 
phanage is also of interest for its rela- 
tive antiquity, having been founded as 
early as the reign of Akbar, through 
the influence of the Jesuit Fathers, 
when the Portuguese were the only 
Europeans who had much communica- 
tion with India." — Imp, Gazetteer, 

Promenade Gardens, — The visitor 
will next go to the Promenade Gardens, 
otherwise called the A^fa Bdgh, 
where the band plays every Wednes- 
day. In the centre is a lofty sand- 
stone obelisk with an inscription to 
General Sir John Adams, G.C.B. 

The Tovib of rtmddu W daulah, — 
This building is one of the finest 
in Agra. It is on the left bank of the 
Jamn&, near the E. I. Railway Station. 
The traveller will cross the pontoon 
bridge and turn to the left, and at 
about 200 yds. he will come to the 
garden in which is this tomb. It is 
the tomb of Ghiyds Beg, called by Sir 
W. Slecman, Khw&jah Accas, a Per- 
sian, who was the father of Ntir 
ah&n, and her brother, Af«i Kh&n, 
nd became high treasurer of Jahdn- 
fif: This mausoleum is 69 ft. 2 in. sq. 



It is entirely encased with white 
marble externally,, and partly inter- 
nally, the interior being bea^itifally 
inlaid with mosaic work. There is an 
octagonal tower at each cotner, of 
which 7 sides are visible, and project 
from the building; each side being 
4 ft. 9 in. broad. It contains 9 cham- 
bers, i of them 23 ft. 4} in. long, and 
13 ft. If in. broad. The 4 comer cham- 
bers are 13 ft. 1} in. sq., and the central 
chamber is 22 ft. 1 in. sq. The outer 
walls are 5 ft. 6 in. thick; the side 
partition walls, 4 ft. 2} in., and the 
central partition walls, 4 ft. 9j in. In 
each of the 4 sides there is an arched 
entrance 7 ft. 8 in. broad. On each 
side of each of these entrances is a 
window 3 ft. 10 in. broad, filled with 
exquisite marble lattice-work. Be- 
tween these and the comer towers are 
arched window recesses 6 ft. 6 in. broad 
externally, and 3 ft. 10 in. internally. 
In the centre of these windows is per- 
forated marble lattice-work. Each 
chamber has a door leading into the 
next, but the central has only one open 
door, the other 3 being filled with 
marble lattice-work. The actual door 
in this chamber is on the S. side. In 
the central chamber are 2 marble 
tombs of Ghiyiis Beg and his wife, 
on a platform of variegated stone 
6 ft. 6 in. by 5 ft. 5 in. The hus- 
band's tomb is a little to the W. 

There are 7 tombs altogether in 
the mausoleum — 2 in the N.E. comer 
chamber, and one in each of the 3 
other comer chambers. The tombs 
lie N. and S., according to the usual 
custom. The sides of the central cham- 
ber are lined with marble, inlaid "with 
mosaics, representing flowers, but the 
roof is lined with stucco, adorned "with 
flowers and other devices in gilding. 
The side chambers are panelled to 
4 ft. 4 in. from the floor with slabs of 
marble inlaid with mosaic work, but 
the upper part of the walls and the 
ceiling are lined "with plaster, orna- 
ment^ with paintings of flowers and 
long-necked vases. In the thickness of 
the outer walls of the S. chamber there 
are 2 flights of stairs, which ascend to 
the 2nd story, on which is a marble 
pavilion, 25 ft 8 in. sq. on a plat- 



Sdct. II. 



£(yitte 36. — Sikandarah. 



295 



fonn 88 ft. sq. The roof is canopy- 
shaped, with broad sloping eaves, and 
marble slabs. The sides are of perfo- 
rated marble lattice- work, and divided 
into 12 compartments by 12 marble 
pillars. In the centre of the chamber 
are 2 marble cenotaphs, counterparts 
of those below. The whole of the flat 
roof of the lower story is paved with 
marble. The octagonal towers, faced 
with marble, at each comer of the 
mausoleum spread out into balconies 
supported by brackets at the level of 
the roof. Above, the towers become 
circular, and rise until they again 
spread out into graceful balconies sup- 
ported by brackets, and surmounted 
by marble domed cupolas, each sup- 
ported on 8 slender marble pillars. 
There was a marble railing along the 
platform of the roof, which has been 
destroyed, probably by the Jdts, who 
are also said to have stolen the inlaid 
stones of the mosaic. Mr. Carlleyle, 
however, thinks that the stone workers 
of Agra have taken them, and says the 
Government ought to inquire into this 
matter, and that the head of the Archae- 
ological Survey ought to move the 
Government to " stop for ever this base 
system of pilfering. The mausoleum 
is on a raised platform of red sand- 
stone, 160 ft. 10 in. long, and between 
30 and 40 ft. broad. It is surrounded 
by a walled inclosure, except towards 
the river, or W. front. In the centre 
of the E. side is a gateway 64 ft. long 
and 30 ft. broad. The walled inclosure 
is 540 ft. long on each side, and has 
towers of red sandstone at the comers. 
In the centre of the river front is a red 
sandstone building, 67 ft. long, where 
European residents of Agra come for 
change of air. In the wall facing the 
river is a fish carved in white marble. 
The legend is that when the Jamnd 
reaches the mouth of this fish, A114h&- 
bAd will be submerged. In 1871 the 
water rose several ft. above this fish, 
but nothing happened. 

Chini lub Jloi^ah stands on the left 
bank of the JamnA, opposite Agra. 
It is 79 ft. sq., with one great dome 
resting on an octagonal b^e. In the 
centre Is a beautiful octagonal domed 
chamber 27 ft. 10 in. in dmmeter. In 



it are 2 tombs of brick, whidi have 
replaced marble tombs. Besides the 
central chamber, there are 4 sq. corner 
chambers, and 4 side halls. The 
mausoleum stands on the river bank, 
in a masonry enclosure 462 ft. 9 in. 
from E. to W., and 323 ft. 11 in. from 
N. to S. Though called china, this 
mausoleum is only externally glazed 
or enamelled. It is said to have been 
built by Afzal ghdn, in the time of 
Aurangzib. 

Tlie KalAn Ma^id is opposite the 
present Medical School in the Sabdn 
Eatra. Mr. Carlleyle thinks it the 
oldest mosque in Agra. It has 6 
domes, the central being the largest. 
The same authority thinks it was built 
by Sikandar Lodi. . 

Sihandarah, — It is 5 m. 3 furlongs 
from the cantonment at Agra to 
Sikandarah, in a N.W. direction. 
There are many tombs on the way, 
and a sculptured horse, badly exe- 
cuted. This is on the left or S. side 
of the road, nearly 4 m. from Agra, 
and nearly opposite the lofty arched 
gateway of an ancient building called \ 
the Kachi ki SarAl. The horse for- 
merly stood on a pedestal, on which 
was an inscription, but these are gone. 
From the nostrils to the tail it mea- 
sures 7 ft. 1 in., but from the nostrils, 
over the head, along the curve of 
the neck, 8 ft. 10 in. From the shoul- 
ders to the knees, where the legs are 
broken off, 2 ft. 4 in. Its girth is 
6 ft. 5 in. Mr. Carlleyle thinks it 
was put up by Sikandar Lodi. At 
Jam. further on is a tank of red 
sandstone, with ornamental octagonal 
towers, called Guru kd J^. It mea- 
sures 542 ft. from K. to S., and 548 ft. 
from E. to W. On the S. side are 
3 flights of steps, and E. of them is a 
long and broad channel of masoniy, 
which brought water to the tank. This 
has been stopped by the new road 
made by the British, who have taken 
some of the stones to repair the road. 
The tank was probably the work of 
Sikandar Lodi. At the £. side of the 
tank there is a mausoleum 35 ft. 8 in. 
sq., on a platform of masonry 109 ft. 
3 in, sq., which M.t. C!«xVi!Kf\fe "CkssSsa 



296 



Houte 35. — SJuirtpiir to Agra. 



Sect It 



as it is near his palace, the Bdrahdari. 
According to Mr. Carlleyle the Birah- 
dari was built by Sikandar Lodl in 
A.D. 1495. It is a red sandstone, 
2-8toried building, 142 ft. 6 in. sq. 
The ground floor contains 40 cham- 
bers. Each comer of the building is 
surmounted bya short octagonal tower. 
It is commonly known as the tomb of 
Bigam Mariam, because Akbar in- 
terred here his Portuguese Christian 
wife Mary. Her tomb is in the vault 
below, and there is also a white marble 
cenotaph in the centre of the upper 
story. The B^rahdari is now occu- 
pied by a part of the establishment of 
the Agra Orphan Asylum. It was 
from Sikandar Lodi that Sikandarah 
received its name. 
The gateway at Sikandarah is truly 
r y magnificent. It is of red sandstone, 
jLr very massive, and with a splendid 
■^ scroll, a foot broad, of Tugbra writing 
^ adorning it. Part of this writing is the 
chapter of the Kur'dn, called the Stirah 
i Mulk. On the top of the gateway, 
at each comer, rises a white minaret 
of 2 stories, the lower being 32 ft. 8 in. 
high, the upper 28 ft. ; total 60 ft. 8 in. ; 
but they do not appear so high. Some 
years ago an European soldier fell 
from the top of one of them, and was 
killed. Hence the staircases to the 
upper story were all closed. The tops 
of 2 of these minarets are knocked off, 
it is said by the Jdts. The height of 
the archway to the top of the rail to 
the great >\'indow is 29 ft. 6 in., and 
thence to the battlement is 42 ft. 9 in. : 
total 72 ft. 3 in., but it seems higher. 

There is a 2nd platform above the Ist, 
which is 10 ft. 6 in. From this to the 
top of the battlement is 9 ft. 2 in. 
There is a fine view from the platform 
at the top, and it is worth ascending 
the steep stairs for it. To the W. are 
seen the Orphanage Church, and a 
little to the right of it the Bigam k& 
Hawaii, its dark red colour contrasting 
with the white of the church. Far to 
the S.W., on a clear day the grand 
archway at Fathpiir Sikri can be dimly 
seen. Over the tomb to the N. is seen 
the Jamnd ; to the S.E. are seen the 
Fort, the T4j, the church in the Civil 
Lines, and the city oi Agra. The 



traveller will walk 150 ydg. over a 
broad paved path in a desolate guden, 
and arrive at the glorious Manaoleam 
of Akbar. The facade has a hig^ 
central arch, with 5 dwarf arches on 
either side. The vaulted ceiling of the 
entrance room is cut into several cabes* 
and has once been splendidly gilt and 
coloured,