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HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



LONDON : 
BRADEURV, AQNEW, & CO., PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS. 



HANDBOOK 



OF THB 



BOMBAY PEESIDENCY, 



WITH AN ACCOUNT OP 



BOMBAY CITY. 



SECOND EDITION. 

ICOST CARGFUIXT BXVISED ON THE SPOT, AKD FOS THE 

HOST FABT BEWXITTEN. 



WITH MAPS AND PLAKS. 



LONDON : 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1881. 

[AU RighU reserved J] 



THE ENGLISH EDITIONS OF MURRAY'S" HANDBOOKS MAT BE OBTAINED 

OF THE FOLLOWING AGENTS. 

Belgium^ Ilollandy aiid Germany, 

BROCKHAUS.— rvriETMEYEB. 
BENDER & FONTAINE.— LOFFLER 

— KOTTER. 
ALCAN. 

HANZ.— ACKKRICANN. — KAISER. 
SCHRAG.— ZEI8ER. 
HABTLEBEN. — O. HECKENAST 

— OSTEATAMM.— BATH. 
CALVE. 

KRAMERS. — PETBI.--R0BBER8. 
GBUCKEB. — TBVBNEB. 
HETZLER. — NEFF. 
COEN. — SCHIMPFF. 
OEROLD. — ^BRAUMULLER. 
KREIDEL. 



AIX-LA- 


I MATER. 


LEIPZIG .... 


CHAPELLE 


MANNHEIM . . 


AMSTERDAM 


MULLER.— KIRBEROER. 




ANTWERP . . 


MERTENU. 


METZ 


BADEN-BADEN 


MARX. 


MUNICH .... 


BERLIN .... 


ASHER.— MITSCHER & ROSTELL. 


KtfRNBERG .. 


BRUSSELS . . 


KIESSLING. 


PESTH 


CABLSRUHE . 


A. BIELEFELD. 




COLOGNE .... 


GREVEN. — DUMONT.— EISEN. 


PRAGUE .... 


DRESDEN.... 


BURDACH. — PIEBSON. 


RO'rir.KDAM . 


FRANKFURT . 


JtfGEL. 


STRASSBURG . 


GBATZ 


LBUSCHNEB & LUBENSKY. 


STUTTGART . . 


THE HAGUE.. 


NIJHOFF. 


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HAMBURG .. 


MAUKE SOHNE. 


VIENNA . .. 


HEIDELBERG . 


MOHR. 


WIESBADEN. . 




Switzerland, 


bIle 


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NEUCHATEL 


BEBNE 


DALP.— JENT & REINERT. 


SCHAFF- 


COIRE 


GRUfiENMANN. 


HA1TSEN .. 


CONSTANCE . 


MECK. f— H. GEORG. 


SOLEURE .... 


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MONROE (mETFORD).— 8AND0Z. 


ST. GALLEN 


LAUSANNE .. 


ROUSSY. 


ZURICH .... 


LUCERNE . . 


KAISER. 






Jla 


ly- 


BOLOGNA . . 


ZANICHELLI. 


PARMA .... 


FLORENCE .. 


OOODBAN. — LOEBCHER. 


PISA 


GENOA 


GRONDONA.— ANTOINE BEUF. 


PERUGIA .... 


LEGHORN . . 


MAZZAJOLI. 


ROME 


LUCCA 


BARON. 




MANTUA 


NEGRETTI. 


SIENA 


MILAN 


8ACCHL— DUMOLARD.— HOEPLI. 


TURIN 


MODENA 


VINCENZT A ROSSI. [HOEPLI. 




NAPLES 


BRITISH LIBRARY (UORANT).— 


VENICE 


PALERMO . . 


PEDONE. 


VERONA .... 




Fi-a 


ivce. 


AMIENS . I . . 


CARON. _ ' 


MARSEILLES . 


ANGERS .... 


BARASSl 


NANTES .... 


AVIGNON 


CLEMENT ST. JUST. 




AVRANCHES . 


ANFRAY. [ — FERET. 


NICE 


BORDEAUX . . 


CHAUMAS.— MtfLLER.— SAUVAT. 




BOULOGNE .. 


MERRIDEVY. 


ORLEANS 


CAEN 


BOISARD. — LEGOST. — CLERISSti. 


PARIS 


CALAIS 


RIGAUX CAUX. 


PAU 


CANNES 


ROBAUDY. . 


RHEIMS 


CHI<JEtBOUBG . 


LECOUFFLET. 


ROUEN 


DIEPPE 


MARAIS. 


ST. iiTIENNE . 


DINANT 


008TE. 


ST. MALO 


DOUAI 


JACQUART.— LEMIlE. 


ST. QUENTIN . 


GRENOBLE .. 


VBLLOT ET COMP. [BUYS. 


TOULON .... 


HAVRE 


BOURDIGNON. — FOUCHER. — 


TOULOUSE .. 


LILLE 


BlkSHIN. 


TOURS 


LYONS 


AYN^.— SCHEURING.— mUra. 


TROYES 



GER8TER.i .. ; 

Jhubter. \2 - 






I i p 



JENT. ^V. , 

HUBEK. 

ORELL FUESSLI & CO.— MEYER 
h ZELLER.— LEUTHOLD. 



ZANGHIERI. 

NISTBL— JOS. VANNUCCHI. 
VINCENZ — BARTELLL 
SPITHOVER. — PIALE.— MONAL- 
DINI. — LOE8CHER.— MtfLLER. 
ONORATO PORRI. 
MAGGI. — L. BEUF. — BOCCA 

FR&RES. — L0E8CHER. 
ONO ANIA. — OOEN.— MEINERS. 
MtfNSTSB. —MEINERS. 

CAMOTN FRfiRES. — MEUNIER. 

fetipas.— poirier legros.— 
andrA. 

barbery fr&rbs. — jouola. 
— galignani. 

gatineau. — pesty. 

galignani. — boyveau. 

lafon. [— giret. 

brissart binet. — geoffroy. 

lebrument. — haulabd. 

DELABUE. 

HUE. 

DOLOY. 

MONGE ET VILLAMU8. 

GIMET ET COTELLE. 

GEOBGET. 

LALOY.— DUFEY ROBERT. 

S^in arid 'Portugal, 

GIBRALTAR . R0W8WELL. I MADRID .... DURAN.— BAILU^BE. 

LISBON .... LEWTAS. 1 MALAGA .... DE MOYA. 

Mtissiaf Stvederif Denmark^ and, Norway, 

ODESSA ... CAMOIN. 

CHRI8TIANIA BENNETT. 

STOCKHOLM SAMSON & WALLIN.— FRITZ. 

Ionian Islands, 

CORFU.. J. W. TAYLOR. 



}' 



^^BU™^' J-WATKINS.— WOLFF. 

MOSCOW ...... OAUTIKR.— DEUBNER.— LANG. 

Malta, 

CRITIEN.— WATSON.— <5ALLEJA, 

Greece, 

ATHENS KARL WILDB£RG. | 



CoTistantiruyplc, 

WICK & WEISS. 

Alexandria and Cairo, 

ALEXANDRIA BOOK CO. 



India, 

CALCUTTA.... IHACKER, SPINK & CO. ) BOMBAY THACKER & CO. j LIMITED. 



\ 



TO 



THE GREAT INDIAN STATESMAN AND TRIED FRIEND OF 

THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, 



HIS EXCELLENCY THE 



NtWAB MUKHTARU'D DAULAH SIR SAlAR JANG BAHADUR, 

G.CtS.L) 



BY THE AUTHOR, 



EDWARD B. EASTWIC^-: 

Loudon, Avgitst, 1880. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



In this Second Edition the Bombay Handbook has been 
so completely re-written that it might fairly be called a new 
book rather than a new edition. All the most important 
places in the Bombay Presidency have been recently visited 
by the Author, and in particular the province of K&thiaw&d, 
"which is very difficult of access at present to the ordinary 
traveller, has been thoroughly examined. When the Branch 
Railways now in course of construction in K&thiaw&d are 
completed, the traveller will be able to visit the temples of 
Shatrunjay and Qim&r with comparative facility, but, till then, 
it would require more time than the ordinary traveller could 
afford to reach those remarkable edifices, and, as matters at 
present stand, it would be necessary to carry provisions and 
wine, as there are no hotels and but few travellers' bangl&s 
where a mess-man is to be found. 

The Author has to express his thanks for hospitality and 
valuable assistance rendered by H.E. the late Governor, Sir 
Richard Temple; the Acting-Governor, Mr. Lionel Ashbumer ; 
Mr. G. Hart, Private Secretary to the Governor; Colonel 
"Westropp, Political Agent in S&wantwddi; Mr. Arthur 
Crawford, C.S., late Envoy at Goa, and Mr. Norman Oliver ; 
Mr. Waddington, C.S., Collector ofBelg&on; Mr. Elphinston, 
C.S., Collector of Dh&rwdd; Mr. Robert Chrystall, residing at 
Gadak ; Mr. Gurshidapa Virbasapa, Mdmlatdar of Gadak ; 



VI PRKPACB. 

Mr. C. Eamchandra Bhaviya, M&mlatd^r of Eon ; Colonel 
Parr, Political Agent at Kolh&ptir ; Mr. W. Ferris, Assistant 
Political Agent at Kolh&pur, whose accurate knowledge of 
Persian enabled him to decipher the inscriptions at that place; 
Mr. MacTier, C.S., Collector of S&t&a ; Mr. Nuneham, C.S., 
Judge of Pund; Mr. P. S. MelviU, C.S.I., Eesident at 
Baroda; H.H. the G^ekw&d and Sir M^hava R&o, K.C.S.I., 
Diw&n of Baroda ; Dr. Johnston, civil surgeon at Bharuch ; 
General Schneider, C.S.I., Commanding at Ahmad &b&d, and 
his son Mr. C. Schneider ; Mr. Prendergast Walsh, Assistant 
Political Agent in Kdthiawad ; H.H. the Thakor of Rajkot ; 
Colonel Barton, Political Agent in Kathiaw^d; Mr. DhanjI 
Shdh, Magistrate at Rajkot ; H.H. the Thdkor of Gondal ; 
H.H. the N6wdb of Jun^arh ; Mr. H^ji 'Abdu 'I Latif, Wahi(s 
wad£r of Viriwal ; Major Scott, Assistant Resident at Dw&ka; 
Colonel Reeves, Political Agent in Kachh ; H.H. the R^o of 
Kachh ; the Diwdn of Kachh ; H.H. the J6m of Nowanagar ; 
Mr. McCleland, engineer to H.H. the Jdm, the Diwin of 
Nowanagar ; Major Wodehouse, Assistant Political Agent in 
Kithiawdd; H.H. the Th^kor of P^lit&ia; H.H. the Thsikor 
of Bhaunagar; the Diw^n of Bhaunagar; Mr. Birdwood, 
C.S., Judge of Surat ; Mr. Theodore Hope, C.S., Collector of 
Surat ; Mr. Waliu *llah, of the Translator's Office, Bombay ; 
Mr. Lestock Reid, C.S., Revenue Commissioner, N. Division, 
Bombay. 

The Author's especial thanks are due also to Mr. Mathew, 
Agent, and Mr. Duxbury, Traffic Manager of the B.B.C.I. 
Railway, and Mr. Bamett, Agent for the G.I.P. Railway. 
Also to Mr. Naurozji Faridunji, of Bombay. 



CONTENTS. 



Section I. 
INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION. 



§ a. Season fob yisiting 
Bombay 

§ h. Outfit .... 

§ c. Hints as to Dbess, Diet, 
Health and ^om- 
FOBT .... 

§ d. Routes to Bombay . . 

1. Voyage from South- 

ampton through the 
Suez Canal 

2. Route Overland by 

Venice or Brindisi 

§ e. Ebas .... 

Table of Festivals and 
Fasts .... 
§/. Chbonological Tables 
Hindii Chronology before 

the Christian Era . , 
Governors of Bombay and 
dates of their acces- 
sion .... 
Mar^tha Dynasties . . 
Anhaiwdda Dynasty of 

Gujar&t 
Solankhi Dynasty . . . 
Bhigela Dynasty 



PAQB 

2 
2 



3 
4 



9 
10 

II 
15 

16 



16 
17 

19 
19 
20 



Farruldif Dynasty of 
Khdndesh . . . 

Kings of Gujardt 

'Adil Shdhi Dynasty of 
BijApilr . . . . 

Ni;;dm Shdhl Dynasty of 
Al^madnagar 

Governors and Viceroys 
of Goa 

Archbishops of Goa . . 

Remarkable Events con- 
necting India with 
Europe 

Captains of Bassin . . 
§ g. Tables of Money . 

Tables of Weights and 

Measures . . . 

§ /{. Castes and Tbibes in 

THE Bombay Pbesi- 

dency 

Skeleton Routes . . . 
§ /. Languages of the Bom- 
bay Pbesidency . . 

Vocabularies and Dia- 
logues . . . . 

Indian Words used in this 
Volume 



PAOK 



20 
20 

20 

21 

21 
24 



2o 

39 
40 

40 



42 
48 

49 

51 

HI 



Section II. 

BOMBAY CITY. 



PAGE 

113 
113 

113 
114 
114 
123 



\8t Bay. 
Harbour of Bombay. 
Landing Places 
Hotels and Clubs 
Conveyances . 
Public Offices . 
The Cathedral 

2'nd Day, 
The Town Hall and Mint . . 121 
Custom House and Docks . 126 

Cotton Screws , . . . 128 
Bassoon Dock .... 128 
Koli&ba Memorial Church, 
Cemetery and Lighthouses . 129 



Catholic Chapel 
St. Andrew's Kirk 



PAOS 

. . 132 
. 132 

Zrd Day. 
Alexandra Native Girls' College 132 
Police Court . . . .132 
Sir Jamshldji Jijibhdi's Pdrsi 

Benevolent Institution . .132 
School of Design . , . . 133 
St. Xavier's School . . .133 
New Elphinstone High School . 133 
Gokald^ Hospital . . .134 
Dw^kan^th's Temple . . . 134 
House of Correction . . .134 
The Workhouse . . . . 134 



TUl 

Section II.— 

ith Day, 
Elphinstone College 
Victoria Gardens and Museum 
Christ's Church, Bykallah 
Grant Medical College 
Jamshfdjl Hospital 
Jamshidji DharmsdU 
Scotch Mission School 
Nul Market 
Girgdon Cemeteries 



CONTENTS. 



Bombay Qm—contlmed, 

6th Day, page 

Government House at Malabar 

HiU 139 

Valkeshwar 140 

Towers of Silence . . . 141 
Parsi Dhannsdld . . . . 143 

Shooting 143 

Railways and Steamers . .144 



FAGB 

134 
135 
135 
136 
136 
136 
137 
137 
137 



Wi Day. 

Elphinstone Dock . . . 137 

Mazagdoii 138 

St. Peter's Church, Mazagdou . 138 

Government House at Parell . 138 

European Cemetery at Parell . 139 

Kurla Cotton Mills . . .139 



Sights in the Vicinity of Bom- 
bay 144 

Elephanta 144 

Vihdr Waterworks . .152 
Montpezir Caves . . . 153 
Kdnhari Caves . .154 
Bassin 158 



ROUTES. 



Route PAGE 

1 Bombay to Mdtherdn . . 162 

2 Bombay to Thdnd, Kalydn 

and Amarndth . . . 166 

3 Bombay to Khanddld and 

Kdrli . . . .170 

4 Kdrli to Pund . . .177 

5 Pund to Mahdbaleshwar . .194 

6 Pund to Sholdpiir . . 205 

7 Sholdpiir to Bijdpiir . . 208 

8 Bombay to Goa . . .217 

9 Goa to Vingorleii . . . 230 

10 Sdwantwddi by the Amboli 

Ghdt to Belgdon . . 230 

11 Belgdon to Kittiir and 

Dhdrw^dd . . . . 237 

12 Dhdrwdd to Hubli, Gadak, 

and Lakkundi . . . 241 

13 Gadak to Bdddml . .248 

14 Belgdon to Gotiir and the 

Falls of Gokdk . . 253 

15 Gotiir to Kolhdpiir and 

Panhdld . . . .258 

16 Kolhdpiir to Sdtdrd . . . 269 

17 Sdtdrd to Mahdbaleshwar . 275 

18 Bombay to Ndshik . . . 276 

19 Ndshik to J^balpiir . . 286 

20 Ndndgdon to Eliira . . . 290 

21 Ndndgdoii to Al^madnagar, 

Junnar, and Pund . . 290 



and 



PA OB 



Route 

22 Khandwah to Indiir 

Mdhu (Mhow) . . . 305 

23 Bombay to Surat . 309 

24 Surat to Baroda . . . 320 

25 Baroda to Champanir and 

Pawaga^h . . . 324 

26 Bhanich to Dabhoi . . . 327 

27 Baroda to A^maddbad . 332 

28 A^jmaddbdd to Wadhwdn . 346 

29 Wadhwdn to Rdjkot . . 348 

30 Bajkot to Jiindgadh and 

Giradr . . ' , .351 

31 Jiindgadh to Virdwal and 

Somndth . . .359 

32 Virdwal to Dwdrka . . . 365 

33 Dwdrka to B6t . . . 368 

34 Dwdrka to Mdndavl and Bhuj 370 

35 Mdndavi to Nowanagar . . 373 

36 Nowanagar to Bdjkot) Son- 

gadh, Pdlitdna and 
Shatrunjay . . .376 

37 Songadh to Wallah and 

Bhaunagar . . . 379 

38 Bhaunagar to Surat . . 384 

39 Bombay to Kardchl and Kotri 384 

40 A^maddbdd to Mount Abii 

Road . . . .400 
40a Bombay and Ahmedabad 
to Mount Aboo (Abu), 
Rajputana-Malwa line . iOOa 



LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS.. 



Plan of Bombay . .113 
Map of Environs of Bom- 
BAIL 144 



Plan op BijApiJr 
Map of India 
Presidency) 



. . 209 
(Bombay 
. . at the end 



I 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 

IN THK 

BOMBAY PBESIDENCY. 



SECTION L 

INTRODUCTOEY INFORMATION. 

CONTENTS. PAGE 

§ a. Season for visiting Bombay 2 

6 6. Outfit 2 

$ e. Hints as to Dress, Diet, Health, and Comfort . 3 
^d. Routes to Bombay: 

1. Voyage from Southampton through Suez Canal 4 

2. Route Overland by Venice or Brindisi . . 9 
§ e. Eras 10 

Table of Festivals and Fasts 11 

§/. Chronological Tables .15 

H1ND1& Chronology before the Christian Era . 15 

Governors of Bombay and Dates of accession . 16 

MarXtha Dynasties 17 

AnhalwXdX Dynasty of GujarXt . .19 

Sol ANKHf Dynasty ID 

BhAgela Dynasty 20 

Parrukhi Dynasty of KhAndesh . . . . 20 

Kings of GujarXt .20 

'Adil Snlnf Dynasty of BfjXpijR . . . . 20 

Nizam Sninf Dynasty of Ahmadnagar ... 21 

Governors and Viceroys of'Goa . , . . 21 

Archbishops op Goa 24 

Remarkable Events connecting India with Europe 25 

Captains of BassIn 39 

§ g. Tables of Money : 40 

Tables op Weights and Measures .... 40 

§ h. Castes in the Bombay Presidency . . . . 42 

Skeleton Routes 48 

§ i. Languages op the Bombay Presidency . . . . 49 

Vocabularies and Dialogues 51 

Indian Words used in this Volume . . . . Ill 

[^<w»6a2^— 1880.1 ^ / 



INTBODUCTION : SEASON FOR visiTixG bomdAy. Sect. L 



§ a. SEASON FOR VISITING BOMBAY. 

It is as yet undecided whether the Province of Sindh is to be in- 
cluded in the Bombay Presidency, . or to be assigned to the Lieu- 
tenant Governorship of the Panjdb. In the former case the Bombay 
Presidency extends from N. lat. 28° 42' to about N. lat. J 4®, where 
is the S. extremity of the Collectorate of Dhdrwdd, and from E. 
long. 66° 43' to W. long. 76° 20', the E. extremity of 'Khdndesh, and 
over this wide territory the climate varies very considerably. Even 
if Sindh should be annexed to the Panj&b as regards its civil and 
political administration, it is almost certain that it will still be 
occupied by Bombay troops, and for this reason it wiU be regarded 
in these "ptnges as belonging to Bombay. We have, then, in Sindh 
a climate ot intense heat from March to November, a climate re- 
sembling that of the sultry deserts of Africa. The temperature 
decreases as the sea is approached, so that at Kardchi the heat is 
never unbearable. At Haidardbdd during the 6 hottest months of 
the year the mean maximum of temperature in the shade is given 
at 98° 5', but in Upper Sindh the thermometer sometimes registers 
130° in the shade. But in the winter months the cold is such in 
Upper Sindh that thin ice is sometimes seen. In Kachh and 
Gujardt the heat is less, but still very great ; in the other Collec- 
torates, and especially the 2 most to the S., Belgdon and Dharwdd, 
the climate is much more moderate, and at Puna and Ndshik and 
other places above the Gha^s, except Shol&pdr, the heat is never 
very oppressive. At Mahdbaleshwar, again, rawagadh, Gimdr, and 
other mountain peaks, the cold is often severe. It will be neces- 
sary, therefore, for the traveller to take warm clothing with him, as 
well as the lightest possible. So provided, he may visit Bombay at 
any period of the year, but the best time for proceeding there is the 
end of October, when, if he is not very delicate, he may stop quite 
well till May, employing April in visiting places above the Ghats. 
The rain at Bombay itself and in the Konkan or low country below 
the Gh&^s, and at Mahdbaleshwar, amounts to between 200 and 300 
inches, and travelling, except on the railways, is there nearly impos- 
sible in the rainy season. Above the Ghdts, and in Kachli and 
Edthiawdd, where the rainfall is much less, travelling is far from 
being difficult or even disagreeable. 

§ h, OUTFIT. 

Chills in India are most dangerous, and the traveller must there- 
fore provide himself with warm underclothing. He will also do well 
to taKe mosquito curtains with him, wherever he goes, with a light 
Cyprus bed, which weighs only 28lbs., but should the bedstead be 
thought inconveniently heavy, the curtains at all events are indispens- 
able, as, to say nothing of escaping the being annoyed by mosquitoes, 
flies, rats, scorpions, and snakes, the traveller will be defended by 
the curtains from wind-strokes and malaria. A list of things for an 
<>utfit will be found in the " Handbook of Madras,*' at page 3, but 
to it may be added white shoes and high boots of savwar skin 



Sect. I. HrxTS as to dresa, etc. 3 

or other light- coloured material for use in the scorching glare of 
the sun. Si^ectaclef, of neutral tint, and a veil to protect the 
eyes from dust and from the attacks of bees, are also very necessar)'. 
These troublesome insects have caused severe injuries and even 
death to travellers at the Marble Bocks, Eltira, Ajanta, and the 
Nilgiris. To be quite safe from their attacks, leather gauntlets 
reacliing half-way to the elbow, and a light wire mask to protect the 
back of the head and neck, are recjuired. As the excessive perspim- 
tion destroys kid gloves in a smgle wearing, it will be wise to 
provide oneself with cotton, silk, or Swedish gloves, and those who 
wish to shoot on the W. Coast should have gaiters steeped in 
tobacco juice to keep off leeches. Sleeping drawers should be made 
to cover the feet, and as the washermen break off or destroy buttons 
on underclothing, it will be well to use studs. All clothing sent 
in advance of the owner to India will have to pay duty, as will 
firearms that have not been in India before, or which nave been 
removed from India for more than a year. In any case the owner 
will have to sign a certificate regarding them before they can be 
removed from the Custom House. There is a sort of counterpane 
called a nzdif which can be bought anywhere in India, and is cheap, 
warm, and extremely comfortable. 

§ C. HINTS AS TO DRESS, DIET, HEALTH, AND COMPORT. 

There are certain localities in India which are highly malarious 
at all seasons, and should the traveller find it necessary to pass 
through them, he must arrange matters so as to traverse them in 
the dav time, and must on no account pass the night there. Neg- 
lect ot this precaution caused the death of Lord Hastings, who ia 
buried at Tanjur. On amving at such places the traveller should 
inquire what is the best season for traversing them, and he liad 
better defer his passage to a favourable time of year rather than 
risk a fever which has on too many occasions provedfatal. The 
temptation to wade through swampy ground in pursuit of snipe and 
ducks is very great, but almost certainly results in fever. 

The season for shooting tigers and other wild beasts is in the 
hottest time of the year, when these animals resort to any place 
where they can procure water. On such occasions the sports- 
man must provide himself with a solar hat of the best description. 
A pith hat shaped like a coalheaver's, with a ventilator, and a 
turban so twisted as not to prevent the ventilation, with an 
umbrella thickly covered with white cloth, may prevent a coup 
de soldi. Whisky and water is the safest drinK, or the juice of 
the cocoa nut, which is extremely refreshing, and is a favourite 
beverage with old Indian sportsmen. Rice, or Kdnjl, or the juice 
of fresh limes, with water that has been boiled and filtered, is 
also a safe drink. Oysters and prawn curry should be avoided, 
as also in general tinned provisions, particularly lobster and salmon. 
To Hindus the eating ot beef is an abomination, as the eating of 
pork, ham, and bacon is to the Muhammadans, and whatever they 
may say, Indian servants will certainly resent their being obliged 

B 2 



4 INTRODUCTION : ROUTES TO BOMBAY. Sect. I. 

to preppre those meats or to carry them about. Bathinj^ in cold 
water, particularly wheu fatigued or heated by exercise, is highly 
dangerous, as is £uso to sit in a draught after a bath. The deaths 
of Bishop Heber and Lord Hobart, and of many others, are decisive 
proofs of this fact. Cotton shirts and sheets are preferable to linen, 
being less likely to give chills. 

§ d. ROUTES TO BOMBAY. 

1. Voyage from Southampton through the Suez Canal. 

The comfort of the voyage depends very much on the size 
and build of the ship. As a general rule the largest ships are 
best, and amongst these the " Deccan " may be pointed out as the 
most comfortable, being unusually steady in heavy weather, and 
having a poop, so that the saloons have their ports always open, even 
during gales. In going through the Red Sea to India the starboard 
cabins are best, and those on the port side on the return voyage. 
On embarking it will be well to secure a seat at table as near tlie 
captain's as possible. This is done hj placing a card in a plate. 
The fare by this route is £68, exclusive of charges for all drink- 
ables except tea, coffee, lime juice, and water. It is usual to give 
£\ as a fee to the cabin steward, and lOs. to the one that waits on 
you at table. The doctor also is paid by those that put themselves 
under his care. To those who have not seen Gibraltar, Malta, and 
the Suez Canal, the voyage is not without objects of interest. Be- 
tween the Channel and these places there is seldom much to be 
seen. The first place sighted is Cape La Hogue in the Island of 
Ouessant, on the W. coast of Cotentin in France, off which, on 
May 19, 1692, Admiral Bossell, afterwards Earl of Orford, defeated 
De Tourville and sank or burned 16 men of war. There is a 
lighthouse on Cape La Hogue, but as the coast is very dangerous, 
and fogs often prevail, many vessels have been wrecked here. Here 
begins the Bay of Biscay, which stretches for 360 m. to Cape Finis- 
terre (finis terra;), a promontory on the W. coast of Galicia m Spain, 
in N. lat. 42° 54' and W. long. 9° 20', off which Anson defeatecl the 
French fleet in 174?. North wind usually prevails on this coast, 
which is favourable for the outward voyage. The next land sighted 
will probably be the Berlingas, or Berlings as English sailors usually 
call these dangerous rocky islands, on one of which is a lighthouse. 
These lie 40 m. N. of Lisbon, and after them Cape Roca will probably 
be seen a few m. N. of Lisbon. Next Cape St. Vincent will be made 
in N. lat. 37° 3' and W. long. 8° 59', at the S.W. comer of the Por- 
tuguese province Algarve, off which Sir G. Rodney, on January 16th, 
1780, defeated the Spanish fleet, and Sir J. Jervis, on February 14th, 
1797, won his earldom and Nelson the Bath by again defeating 
the Spaniards. On this occasion Nelson's ship captured the "S. 
Josef and the " S. Nicholas," of 112 guns each. This Cape has a 
fort upon it, and the white cliffs, more than 100 ft. high, are honey- 
combed bv the waves. Just before entering the Straits of Gibraltar 
Cape Trafalgar will also probably be seen in N. lat. 36° 9', W. long. 



Sect. I, 



VOYAGE FROM SOUTHAMPTON. 



6° 1', immortalized by Nelson's victory of October 21st, 1805. 
Gibraltar comes next in sight, and the distance between it and 
the remaining halting places will be seen in the following table : — 



Names of Places. 



Southampton to Gibraltar 
Gibraltar to Malta 
Malta to Port Said . 
Port Said to Suez, about 
Suez to Aden 
Aden to Bombay . 



Miles. 


Totals. 


1151 ) 




981 V 


3050 ^ 


918) 




100) 


> 


1306 > 


3069' 


1664) 





General Total. 



6119 



The time occupied between Southampton and Gibraltar averages 
5 days, from Gibraltar to Malta 4^, from Malta to Port Said 4. 
In the Suez Canal everything depends on the vessels not grounding. 
Large steamers draw 23 or 24 ft., and as the Canal is only 25 ft. 
deep there is great risk of detention. Thus the " Kaisar i Hind " was 
detained 5 days in 1879, and had to unload 700 tons of cargo before 
a tug could pull her off; however, if the channel were properly 
buoyed, and if other careful arrangements were made, such accidents 
would be avoided. 

The steamer stops so short a time at Gibraltar, Malta, and Aden, 
that those places cannot be properly inspected. In the Handbook of 
the Madras Presidency, Section I., ^nll be found a full account of 
them, to which reference may be made. It is here only necessary to 
say that Gibraltar was taken by the Arabs in 711 a.d., and the place 
got its name from their general, Tdrik, from whom it was called Jabal 
al Tdrik=Gibraltar, the Mountain of Tdrik. In 1309 it was captured 
by Ferdinand IV. of Spain, and recaptured in 1334 by the Moors, 
and by the Spaniards in 1462. In 1704 the English, aided by the 
Austrians ana Dutch, and commanded by Sir G. Rooke, stormed tlie 
place on July 24th. Since then it has repulsed 3 attacks, the first by 
the French and Spaniards under Marshal Tess^, who lost 10,000 men ; 
the next by the Spaniards in 1727, when they lost 5000 men ; and 
the last on July 11th, 1779, when the Spaniards besieged it. This 
siege lasted till March 12th, 1783. The highest point of the Rock of 
Gibraltar is O'Hara's Tower, which rises to 1408 ft. The short stay 
of the steamer will not permit a passenger to do more than drive to 
Europa Point. He will land at the new Mole and drive up Main 
Street as far as the Alameda, where the band plays. In 1814, Governor 
Sir George Don made it from a parade ground into a garden, and it 
is now lovely with flowers and shrubs. There is a column with a 
bust of the Duke of Wellington. Observe also a bust of General 
Elliott, the hero of the great siege. In the Main Street excellent 
gloves and silk ties, as well as lace, may be bought cheap. At the 
Garrison Librarj' is a model of the Rock, which shows every house in 
Gibraltai'. Half a m. from the landing-place the Cathedral will be 
passed. It is worth a visit. The Governor's house, called the Convent, 
because it once belonged to the Franciscans, is in South Port Street. 

On the way to Maltn, Algiers is sometimes seen stretching in the 



6 INTRODUCTION : ROUTES TO BOMBAY. Sect. I. 

pliape uf a triangle fi'om its base on the sea to its a^jex on the higher 
ground. Probably also Cape Fez will be sighted, as also the jjromon- 
tory of the Seven Capes, (5ape Bon, the most N. part of Africa, and 
the island of PanteUaria, the ancient Cossyra. It is 8 m. long, vol- 
canic, and rises to more than 2000 ft. The Maltese group of islands 
consists of Gozo to the W., Malta to the E., and Cumino in the Straits 
of Freghi between the other two. St. Paul's Bay is in Malta island, 
3 m. E. of the Straits, and thought to be the place where the ship- 
wreck mentioned in the Acts tooK place. The harbour of Malta is 
9^ m. E. of the Straits of Freghi, and consists of 2 principal ports, 
Marsamuscet on the W. and the Great Port on the E. The entrance 
to Marsamuscet is protected by Fort Tigne on the W. and Fort St. 
Elmo on the E. The harbour is not quite 1 j m. long from N. 
to S., and J of a m. broad where broadest from E. to W. On the W. 
side, at about 300 yds. from Fort Tigne, is a peninsula, on the S. side 
of which is the Lazaretto, protected by Fort ManoeL Then follows 
a bay, then anotherpeninsula, and then another bay, in which is the 
Hydraulic Dock. The E. shore of Marsamuscet is a peninsula forti- 
fied on all sides, and containing the town of Valetta on the N. and 
Floriana on the S. The town is a parallelogram, traversed from N. 
to S. by the following streets : — Marsamuscetto on the extreme W., 
and then as one goes to the E. by Ponente, Zecca, Fomi, Stretta, 
Reale, Federico, Mercanti, St. Paolo, St. Ursula, and LevantL 
Steamers generally lie at the S. end of the harbour, for the conve- 
nience of coaling. All passengers desire to escape from the dust of 
this necessary but most disagreeable operation. A boat costs !«., 
and a row of a few hundred yds. will take one to the landing-place 
at Valetta, commonly known as the Nix Mangiare Stairs — " nothing 
to eat," — so styled from the beggars that wayLiy one on the steps. 
These steps are rather fatiguing, and the task is rendered the more 
disagreeable by the odours that accompany the ascent. Those who 
dislike walking may get a cab at the top of the steps. It must be 
said that the cabs are not altogether safe, as the back sometimes falls 
out and wheels come off ; and as the coachmen drive at a great rate 
over the hard stones, down steep pitches, and round turnings at right 
angles, accidents are not unfrequent. The traveller will perhaps like 
to go first to the P. and O.'s Agent in Strada Mercanti. Between 
that street and Strada Keale, almost exactly in the centre of the 
town, is the Palace, and close to it the Treasury, the Armoury, and 
just to the S., St. John's Church, which are the principal things to be 
seen. Dumsford's Hotel is opposite to part of St. John's Cathedral. 
Other hotels are the Imperial, Cambridge, Croce di Malta, and Angle- 
terre. Close to Dumsford's is the statue of Antone Vilhena, a Por- 
tuguese Grand Master of the Knights of St. John. The floor of St 
John's Church is paved with slabs bearing the arms of knights in- 
ten-ed in the church. The Ist chapel on the rt. has a picture by 
Caravaggio of the beheading of John the Baptist. The next chapel 
belongea to the Portuguese, and has a bronze monument to Grand 
Master Manoel dc Vilhena. The 3ixl is the Spanish Chapel, the 4th 
that of the Provengtils. In the 5th, sacred to the Virgin, are kept 
the to>vn keys, taken from the Turks. Tlie Ist chapel on the 1. is 



Sect. I. MALTA — THE GREAT PORT — SUEZ CANAL. T 

I. 

the saciisty, the 2nd that of the Austrians, the 3id that of the Italians. 
In the 4th or French Chapel is the tomb of a son of Louis Philippe, 
deceased in 1808. The 5th chapel belonged to the Bavarians, and 
from it a staircase descends to the crypt, vmere is the tomb of L'Isle 
Adam, the first Qrand Master who ruled in Malta. The tomb of La 
Valette, from whom the town is called, is also in this crypt. The 
Palace contains pictures of Queen Victoria, George IIL, George IV., 
Louis XIV. by L'Etrec, Louis XV., the Duke of Bavaria, L'Isle 
Adam, and La Valette. The Armoury is full of interesting relics ; 
in it are the original deed granted to the Knights of St. John by 
Pascal II. in 1126, and the deed when they left &odes in 1522 ; and 
also the sword and axe of Dragut or Dragart, the Turkish general 
killed in the siege of 1565. The 3 silver trumpets which sounded 
the retreat from Bhodes, and the armour of a Spanish knight 7 ft. 
4 in. high, are also shown. The Library close to the Palace contains 
40,000 volumes, and some Phoenician and Boman antiquities. The 
Opera House, the Bourse, the Auberge d'Auvergne (now the Courts 
of^ Justice), the Clubs (the Union Club was the Auberge de Provence), 
all in the Strada Beale, should be looked at. After this ascend the 
liighest battery, whence is a fine view of both harbours and of the 
fortifications. If a carriage with 2 horses be hired for 6«., a visit may 
be paid to the Monastery St. Francis d'Assise, 2 m. from the landing 
stairs, where are many bodies of dried monks. Beyond this, 2j m., 
is the Governor's country Palace of San Antonio, where is a lovely 
garden with cypresses 40 ft high. S.W. of this about 2 nu is Citta 
V ecchia pn a ndge about 300 ft. high, affording a view over a greater 
part of the island. Here is a church with a dome not much smaller 
than that of St. Paul's. There are some curious Carthagenian or 
Phcenician ruins at Hajjar Kaim, but they are too distant to be visited. 

TJie Gh'eat Port, which lies on the E. of Valetta, is not visited by 
the mail steamers. It is 2 m. long, and is defended at its entrance 
by Fort St. Elmo on the W. and Fort Kicasoli on the E. Then follow 
Binella, Calcarra, and Senglea Bays, French Creek, and at the S. ex- 
tremitjr Porto Nuovo. In the towns of Senglea and Burmola and 
Vittonosa, which surround the bay to the iN.E. and S., are various 
barracks and factories protected on the W. by Fort St. Angelo, and 
on the E. by the Coto Nera lines. On the E. side of Vittoriosa is 
the Inquisitor's Palace. The men-of-war lie in the Great Port. 

TJie mez Canal, — For a history of this canal refer to the " Handbook 
of Egypt," John Murray, 1873. The land about Port S'ald is low, but 
the Hghthouse, 160 ft. high, shows the approach to the harbour, which 
is formed by 2 breakwaters. A red light is shown at the end of the 
W. mole and a green at the end of the E. The lighthouse shows an 
electric light flashing every 3 seconds and visible 20 m. Opposite 
the ainchorase on the Marina is the French office where pilots are got, 
and where they note the ship's draught, breadth, length, and tonnage. 
There is here a wooden plan of the canal, along which pe^s with flags 
show the position of every vessel passing through the canal. Steamers 
generally coal here, so there is time to see the place. In the Place de 
Lesseps, in the centre of the European quarter, are the H6tel du 
Louvre to the S. opposite the P. and 0. office, the H6tel de France to 



8 INTRODUCTION : SUEZ CANAL — SUEZ — RED SEA. Scot. I. 

the W. The Arab quarter lies to the W. and contains nearly 7000 
inhabitants and a mosqne. The dimensions of the canal (see Hand- 
book of Egjrptj) are as follows : — 

Width at water-line, where banks are liw . . . 328 ft. 

Ditto in deep ciitlir^^s . . , . 190 ., 

Ditto at base 72 ^, 

Depth 2G „ 

Slope of bank at water-line, 1 in 5 ; near base, 1 in 2. 

For about 42 ni. the canal runs due N. and S., it then bends to the E. 
for about 30 m. and again runs straight for the rest of its course. On 
the W. of the canal as far as Al Kantarah (the bridge), that is about 18 
m., there is a broad shallow expanse of water called Lake Manzalah, 
and for the rest of the way on the W. and the whole way on the E. is 
a sandy desert. At 10 m. from Port S'ald the old Pelusiac branch of 
the Nile is crossed, and 8 m. to the N.E. are the ruins of Pelusium. 
At 42 m. from Port S'ald is the town of Ismd'ilia, divided by a broad 
road lined with trees, which leads from the landing-place across the 
freshwater canal to the Quai Mehemet. In the W. quarter of the 
town are the Hotel des Voyageurs, the Railway Station, the Quays of 
the freshwater canal, and large warehouses. In the E. quarter the 
KhediVs palace and the waterworks which supply Port S*aid from 
the freshwater canal. About 5 m. from Ismd liia the canal enters 
Lake Timsah, where the course is marked by buoys. About 10 m. 
further to the S. the canal enters the Bitter Lakes, where the course 
is again buoyed. 

Suez, — ^At Suez the mail steamers frequently lie at a distance of 
3 m., as the captains prefer to be where they can get off at once as 
»oon as the Brindisi mail arrives. The office of the P. and O. is 
marked by a bust of Lieut. Waghom in front of it. 

The Red Sea, — A strong N. wind generally prevails in the Red Sea 
for half the voyage, and is succeeded by a strong wind from the S. for 
the rest of the way. The Sinaitic Bange is the first remarkable land 
viewed to the E., but Sinai itself, distant 37 geo. m., is hid bv interven- 
ing mountains of equal height. Shddwan Island is a little S. of the 
land that intervenes between the Gulfs of Suez and Akabah ; about 
10 m. from it is the reef on which the " Camatic " was lost in 1866. 
The next danger is "The Brothers," 2 circular rocks rising 30 ft. above 
the sea. In the S. part of the Red Sea islets are numerous, and 
among them is the group called " the Twelve Aj)ostles." There is 
one pmce where a light is particularly wanted, it is the rock of Abil 
Ail ; it is not easily seen on account of its grey colour. It is 2J m. to 
the E. of High Island or Jabal Suhaya, wmch is in N, lat. 14°'4' and 
E. long. 42** 44'. In the monsoon the weather is generally misty 
here, and a lighthouse is much needed. On Jabal Tir, also in N. lat. 
15° 38' and E. long. 41° 54', a light is required, as vessels coming from 
the N. have a run of 400 m. to this island without seeing land, and it 
is very desirable that the ctiptaius should make sure of their position, 
{18 there are reefs to the W. and E., the latter at only 20 m, distant. 
Jabal Til- is 110 m. N. of Abu AiL At Perini island there is an 
officer stationed with 80 men. There is also a lighthouse, but in spite 



Sect. I. OVERLAND ROUTE BY VENICE OR BRINDISI. 9 

of it the Cunard steamer "Batavia" got ashore on the N. part of the 
island. On the African shore there is a kige square house built by 
the French, now deserted. From Perim to the Arabian coast the 
strait is only 1 m. broad. From Perim to Aden is 90 m. due E. 

Adm, — Most people land at Aden to escape the dust and heat in 
coaling. AH boats must have a licence from the conservator of the 
port, and the number of the licence must be painted on the bow and 
stem. Each of the crew must wear the number on his left breast in 
figures 2^ in. long. When asking payment the crew must show the 
table of tares and rules, and any one of them asking pre-payment is 
liable to fine or imprisonment In case of dispute, recourse must be 
had to the nearest European police-officer. A Doat inspector attends 
at the Gun Wharf from 6 a.m.. to 11 p.m. to call boats and to give in- 
formation to passengers. After sunset passengers can be landed only 
at the Gun Whar£ It takes about J of an hour to land at the Post 
Office Pier, which is broad and sheltered. About 1 m. to the left are 
the H6tel de I'Europe and the H6tel de PUnivers. There is also a 
large shopkept by a Pdrei, To the right about 1 m. is Government 
House. The hour of departure is always posted up on board the 
steamer, and should there be 4 hrs. or more of daylight, a drive may 
be taken to the Tanks, which are 5 m. from the landing-place. These 
were begun in 600 a.d., and 13 have been restored, holdmg 8 million 
gallons of water. 

The vessels of the Messageries Maritimes do not ran to Bombay. 

2. Route Overland by Venice or Brindisi. 

Through tickets from London to Brindisi may be bought at the 
P. and O. Offices, 122 Leadenhall Street, and 25 Cockspur Street, 
and cost, Ist class £11 17s. 3d,, and 2nd class £8 12s. 6^., being 
the same amount as tickets from station to station. If a through 
ticket or a part of it is lost, a fresh payment must be made. With 
through tickets the journey may be broken at Dover, Calais, Folke- 
stone, Boulogne, Amiens, and Paris, and at 3 principal stations 
between Paris and Bologna. Also at Ancona ancl Foggia, between 
Bologna and Brindisi. Between London and Paris 60 lbs. of bag- 
gage are allowed free vid Newhaven and Dieppe, and 56 lbs. via 
Dover and Folkestone. Between Paris and Modane 66 lbs. are 
allowed, but on the Italian rlys. all baggage is charged at Ifr. TJc. 
for every 22 lbs. between Modane and Bologna, and 2frs. 51c. be- 
tween Bologna and Brindisi. The London, Chatham, and Dover 
trains leave victoria St., 1st and 2nd class at 7*40 a.m., and 1st class 
only at 8*20 p.m. Passengers by the through mail train must not 
start later than 7*40 a.m. on Thursday. Turin is reached at 6*40 
P.M. by the train that leaves Paris at 8*40 p.m. and Modane at 2*50 
p.m. This train arrives at Bologna at 5 p.m. Here the Hotel 
Brun can be recommended. Brindisi is reached at 1037 p.m., and 
here the Grand Hotel des Indes Oricntalcs faces the quay where the 
P. and 0. steamers lie. 

Alexandria. — This port cannot be entered at night. The land is 
low, but the lighthouse is seen at about 15 iik off. A breakwater 




10 



INTBODUCTION : ERAS. 



Sect. I» 



1 m. long projects from the S. side of the harbour. On landing a 
walk of 10 minutes brings one to the Great Square or Place Mo- 
hammed Ali, where is the H6tel de TEurope. Close by, in the 
Place de I'Eglise, is H6tel Abbat. At the right-hand comer of the 
Square is the P. and 0. Office. For the sights of Alexandria sec 
Murray's " Handbook of Egypt." A vehicle costs 2«. an hour in 
day and 3«. at night. The train for Suez starts at 6 p.m. Time- 
tables are furnished. 

By Venice.— The H6tel de TEurope is the best at Venice. From 
the 15th of April till the 15th of October pleasant weather may be 
looked for in the Adriatic. In the other months strong breezes are 
frequent. 

§ €. ERAS. 

The Hindiis call this the 4th Age of the Earth, which 
they term Kdliyug, the commencement of which they reckon from 
the 18th of February, 3102 B.c. The Era of Vikram, King of 
tJjjain, is reckoned from 57 B.C., and the years are called Samwat. 
The Era of Shalivahana dates from March 14, a.d. 78, and the years 
are called Shaka. The Muhammadan Era is called the Hijrah, or 
Flight, and is reckoned from July 16th, a.d. 622. The months are 
called — 



1. 


DAYS. 

Muljarram . . . .30 


7. 


Rajab 
Sh^aban 


DAYS. 

. 30 


2. 


§afar 


29 


8. 


. . 29 


3. 


Kabi'u '1 avval, or Rabi'a I. 


30 


9. 


Ramaz4n . 


. 30 


4. 


Rabi'u '1 dkhir, or Rabi'ii's 




10. 


Shawwdl 


. . 29 




sanl, or II. 


20 


11. 


Zd'l K'adah . 


. 30 




JumMa '1 avval, or Ju- 




12. 


Zii'lljijjah . 


. . 29 




mad I. .... 


30 




and in leap years . 


. 30 


6. 


Jumada '1 AVTiir, or Jumad II. 


29 




• 





The year of the Hijrah being lunar, has 354 d. 8h. 48 m. To 
bring the Hijrah year into accordance with the Christian year, ex- 
press the former in years and decimals of a year and multiply by 
•970225, add 621*54, and the total will correspond exactly to the 
Christian year. Or to effect the same correspondence roughly, deduct 
3 per cent, from the Hijrah year, add 621*54, and the result will 
be the period of the Christian year when the Muhammadan year 
begins. All trouble, however, of comparison is saved by Dr. Ferdi- 
nand Wiistenfeld's Comparative Tables, Leipzig, 1854. 

Era of the Parsis. — This is reckoned from the accession of Yez- 
dajird, on the 16th of June, 632 a.d. There are 12 months, of 3C 
days each, and 5 days are added at the end. 



Pdrst Months, 



1. Farvai'dln. 

2. Ardibihisht. 

3. Khui-dad. 

4. Tir. 

5. Amardad. 
G. Sharivar. 



7. Mihr. 

8. Aban. 

9. Addr. 

10. Deh. 

11. Bahmaii. 

12. Asfandiyur. 



Sect. I. 



TABLE OF FESTIVALS AND FASTS. 



11 



Tarikh Ildhi, aiid Fasli Era. — These eiiw both begin with the com- 
mencement of Akbar's reign, on Friday, the 5th of RabiVs-sdnl, 
A.H. 963= 19th of February, 1556. To make tliis era correspond 
with the Christian, 963 must be added to it. 



Year of the 


HUrah 
year. 


Hijrah 
begins. 


Sidereal years. 


1 


Christiaii era. 


K&liyug. 


Shaka. 


Begin. 


Saiuwat. 


1880 


1298 


4 


4,981 


1802 


11 


1987 

1 



Beginning. 



11th April 



Table of Festivals and Farts, 
hindu festivals. 

Mdkar SattkrantL-^On the Ist of the month Miigh, the sun entei*s 
the sign Capricorn or Makar. From this day till the arrival of the 
sun at the N. point of the Zodiac the i)eriod is called Uttardyana, 
and from that time till he returns to Makar is Dakshindjy^ana, the 
i'ormer period being lucky and the latter unlucky. At the festival of 
Makar Sankr4nti the Hindus bathe, accompanied by a BnUunan, and 
rub themselves with sesamum seed. They also invite Brahmans and 
give them pots full of sesammn seed and other things. They wear 
new clothes with ornaments, and distribute sesamum seed mixed "\ntli 
sugar. 

Vasant Panchami is on the 5th day of the light half of Mugh, and 
is a festival in honour of Spring, which is person ific.'d under the name 
of Vasanta or Spring. 

Rathsaptami.— From Hatha, a car, and Saptami, seventh, when a 
new sun mounts his chariot. 

Shivardt, the night of Shiva, held on the 14th of the dark half of 
the month Mdgha, when Shiva is worshipped with flowers during the 
whole night. 

Holi, A festival in honour of Kyishna, held fifteen days before the 
moon is at its full, in the month Phalgun, celebrated with swinging 
and squirting red powder over everyone. All sorts of licence are in- 
dulged in. 

Gudhi Pddavd, on the Ist of Chaitra. The leaves of the Melia Azadi- 
rachta are eaten. On this day the New Year commences, and the 
Almanac for that year is worshipped. 

Rdmanavamiy held on the 9th of Chaitra, in honour of Ramdchan- 
dra, who was bom on this day at Ayodhya. A small image of Rdmd 
is put into a cradle and worshipped, and red powder called guldl is 
thrown about. 

Vada Savitfi, held on the 15th of Jyeshth, when women worship 
the Indian fig-tree. 

Ashddhi EtcddasM, the 11th of the month Ashadh, sacred to Vishnu, 
when tnat deity i-eposes for 4 months. 

Ndg Pancliamt, held on the 5th of Shiiivan, when the seri:)cnt Kali 
is said to have been killed by Krishna. Ceremonies are performed 
to aveit the bite of snakes. 



12 INTRODUCTION : HINDlJ FESTIVALS. Sect. I. 

Ndrali PumiTiut, held on the 15th of Shravan. The stormy season 
is then considered over, and ofierings of cocoa nuts are thrown into 
the sea. 

Gokul AsMcmii, held on flie 8th of the dark half of Shrdvan, when 
Krishna is said to have been born at Gokul. Kice may not be eaten 
on this day, but fruits and other grains. At night Hindus bathe and 
worship an image of Krishna, adorning it with the Ocymum sanctwm. 
The chief votary of the temple of Kdnhobd dances in an ecstatic 
fashion, and is worshipped and receives large presents. He after- 
wards scourges the spectators. 

Pitri ATndvdsya, neld on the 30th of Shravan, when Hindiis go 
to Valkeshwar in Bombay and bathe in the tank called the Bangan^, 
which is said to have been produced by Bdmd, who pierced tlie 
ground with an arrow and brought up the water. Shraddas or cere- 
monies in honour of departed ancestors are performed on the side of 
the tank. 

Ganesh Chaturthi, held on the 4th of Bhadrapad, in honour ot 
Qanesh, a clay image of whom is worshipped and Brdhmans are en- 
tertained. The Hindus are prohibited from looking at the moon on 
this day, and if by accident they should «ee it, they get themselves 
abused by their neighbours in the hope that this will remove the curse. 

Rishi Panchami, held on the day following Ganesh Chaturthi, in 
honour of the 7 Eishis. 

Gaiirt Vaharty held on the 7tli of Bhddrapad, in honour of Shiva's 
wife, called Gauri or the Fair. Cakes in the shape of pebbles are 
eaten by women. 

TFdman Dwddashiy on the 12th of Bhadrapad, in honour of the 5th 
incarnation of Vishnu, who assumed the shape of a dwarf to destroy 
Bali. 

Anant ChaturdasM, held on the 14th of Bhadrapad, in honour of 
Ananta, the endless serpent. 

Pit?'i Paksh, held on the last day of Bhadrapad, in honour of the 
Pitras or Ancestors, when offerings of lire and water are made to 
them. 

Dasara, held on the lOtli of Asliwin, in honour of Durga, who on 
this day slew the buffalo-headed demon Maheshdsur. On this day 
Rama marched against Ravana, and for this reason the Marathas 
chose it for their expeditions. Branches of the Butea frondosa are 
offered at the temples. This is an auspicious day for sending children 
to school. The 9 preceding days are called Navaratra, when Brdh- 
mans are paid to recite hymns to Durga. 

JDlwdli, "feast of lamps," from Diwd, "alamp,"and Ali,"a row,"held 
on the new moon of Kartik, in honour of Kdli or Bhawani, and more 
particularly of Lakshmi, when merchants and bankers count tht5Tr 
wealth and worship it. It is said that Vishnu killed a giant on that 
day, and the women went to meet him with lighted lamps. In 
memory of this lighted lamps are set afloat in rivers and in the sea, 
and auguries are drawn from them according as they shine on or are 
extinguished. 

Bali Pratipada is held on the 1st day of Kartik, when Hindus fill 
a basket with rubbisli, put a lighted lamj) on it, and throw it away 



Sect. I. MUHAMMADAX FESTIVALS. 13 

outside the house, saying, " Let troubles go anil the kingdom of Bali 
come." 

Kdrtik Ekddashl, held on the 11th of Kdrtik, in honour of Vishnu, 
who is said then to rise from a slumber of 4 months. 

Kdrtik Pumima, held on the full moon, of Kdrtik, in honour of 
Shiva, who destroyed on that day the demon Tripurdsura. On this 
day a great fair is held in Bombay at Valkeshwar, where Hindiia 
worship Sliiva and buy sweetmeats and toys for their children. 

MUHAMMADAN FESTIVALS. 

Bakari 'Id or 'td-i-Kurhdn, held on the 10th of Zu 1 hijjah in 
memory of Abraham^s offering Ism'All or Ishniael. See Sale's 
" Koran," page 337. Tliis festival is also called 'Idu 'z Zuhd or the 
festival of lunch, when camels, cows, sheep, goats, kids, or lambs, ai*e 
sacrificed. 

Muharram, a fast in remembrance of the death of Hasan and 
Husain, the sons of 'All and Fdtimah the daughter of Muhammad. 
Hasan was poisoned by Yezld in a.h. 49, and Husiiin was murdered 
at Karbald on the 10th of Muharram, a.h. 61 = 9th October, a.d. 
680. The fast begins on the Ist of Muharram and lasts 10 days. 
Muslims of the Slii'ah persuasion assemble in the T'aziyah 
Khdnah, house of mourning. On the night of the 7th an image of 
Surdk, the animal on which Muhammad ascended to heaven, is 
carried in procession, and on the 10th a Tdbiit or bier. The Tdbi'its 
are thrown into the sea. The mourners move in a circle, beating 
their breasts with cries of "Alas ! Hasan, Alas ! Husain." At this 
time the fanatical spirit is at its height, and serious disturbances often 
take place. 

A'Eiiri Chahdr ShamhaJi, held on the last Wednesday of Safar, 
when Muhammad recovered a little in his last illness and bathed for 
the last time. It is proper to write out 7 blessings, wash off the ink 
and drink it, as also to bathe and repeat prayei"s. 

Bari Wafdty held on the 13th of Ral:)i'u 1 avval in memory of 
Muhammad's death, A.H. 11. 

Pir-i-Dastgir, held on the 10th of Eabi'u 1 dkhir in honour of Saiyid 
'Abdul Kddir Gildni, called Plr Pirdn or Saint of Saints, who taught 
and died at Baghddd. During epidemics a green flag is carried in his 
name. 

Chirdghdn-i-Zindali Shdh MaddVy held on the l7th of Jumada '1 
avval in honour of a saint who lived at Makkhanpur and who is 
thought to be still alive, whence he is called Zindah, " living." 

'Urs'i-Kddir Wali^ held on the 11th of Jumdda 1 dkhir, in honour 
of Khwdjah Mu'inu 'd din Chishtl, who was buried at Ajmir in 
A.H. 628. 

Muraj-i-Muhammady held on the 25th of Rajab, when the Prophet 
ascended to heaven. 

Shah-i-hardty night of record, held on the 16th of Sh'abdn, when 
they say men's actions for next year are recorded. The Kur'an 
ought to be read all night, and the next day a fast should le 
observed. 



14 INTRODUCTION : PARRI FESTIVALS. Sect. I. 

Ramazdn, the month long fast of the Muhamniadanp. The night 
of the 27th is called Lailatu '1-Kadr, " night of power," becxiuse the 
Kur^iin ctime down from heaven on tliat night 

*Idu *l-ftr, the festival when the fast of the Bamazan is broken. 
The evening is spent in rejoicing and in exhibitions of the Nach 
girls. 

Chirdghdn-irBaiidah NawdZy held on the 16th of Zii 1 K'adah in 
honour of a saint of the Chishti family, who is buried at Kalbarga 
and is also called Glsii Dardz, " long ringlets." 

THE PABSi FESTIVALS. 

Patati, New Year's day. The 1st of Farvardin. The Parsis rise 
earlier than usual, put on new clothes, and pray at the Fire Temples. 
They then visit friends and join hands, distribute alms and give 
clothes to servants and othew. This day is celebrated in honour of 
the accession of Yezdajird to the throne of Peraia, a.d. 632. 

Khurddd-sdl, the birthday of Zoroaster, who is said to have been 
bom 1200 B.C. at the city of Rai or Rhages near Tehran. 

Farvardtn-Jasan, on the 19th of Farvardin, on which ceremonies 
are performed in honor of the dead called Frohai*s or " protectoi-s.'' 
There are 11 other Jasans in honour of various angels. 

Jamshidi Nauroz, held on the 2l8t of March. It dates from the 
time of Jamshid, and the Pdrsis ought to commence their New Year 
from it. 

ZartasJUe Biso, held on the 11th of Deh in remembrance of the 
death of Zartasht or Zoroaster. 

Mvktad, held on the 25th of Aspenddd. A clean place in the 
house is adorned with fruits and flowers, and silver or brass vessels 
filled with water are placed there. Cei*emonies are performed in 
honour of the souls of the dead. 

According to the Kissah-i-Sanjan, translated by E. B. Eastwick 
in the Journal of the fiombay Asiatic Society for 1842, the ancient 
books of the fire- worshippers ^^ere destroyed by Alexander the Great, 
and for 3 centuries the sect was persecuted, but AKleshir Bdbegan, 
229-243 A.D., restored fire worship. After the defeat of Yezdajird 
in 640 A.D., the Fire- Worshippers migrated to Hurmaz (the island of 
OiTuuz), where they remained 15 years, and being warned by their 
ancient prophecies, then fled thence to Hindustan. They anchored 
at Deb or Diva, an island a little to the S.W. of the peninsula of 
Kdthiawad. There they disembarked, and resided 19 years and then 
migrated to Sanjdn, 24 m. S. of Damdn and 5 m. inland. Damdn is 
101 m. N. of Bombay and about 30 m. S. from Surat. The neigh- 
bouring chief was Rand Jddi or Jayadeva, a feudatory of the Rajput 
King of Champanlr, who granted an asylum to the fugitives on 
condition that they explained their faith, adopted the language of 
Hind in place of that of Persia, assimilated the dress of their "women 
to that of India, laid aside their arms and armour, and agreed that 
their marriage processions should be at night. They told the Raja 
that they worshipped Yazddn, and revered the moon and the sun, the 
cow and water ana fire, that they wore as a sacred cincture a belt of 
72 threadB (called the Kusti) ; that their women at certain periods 



Sect. I. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. l'"^ 

forbore to look on the sun, the moon, and water, and kept at a dif»tance 
from water and fire ; and that they had various other observances, 
which will be found in Dr. Wilson's " The Doctrine of Jehovah 
addressed to the PArsis." They then took up their abode in the 
B4j4's territory and called their place of residence Sanjdn. Three 
hundred years passed away, and though the Fire-Worshippers held 
their head-quarters at Sanjan, many of them were dispersed through 
Gujardt. Some went to Nausdri, some to Bdnkanir, some to 
Bhanich, othei*6 to Anklisar, and others again to Khambayat. Five 
hundred years after the settlement at Sanjan had been founded, 
the Muslims conquered Ghampanir, and Mall^miid Shah Begada began 
to reign there, and sent Alif thdn to conquer Sanjdn. This leader 
was defeated by the Hindu Rdjd chiefly through the aid of the Fire- 
Worshippers under their chief, Ardashir. In a second action 
Ma^mud Shdh's army was victorious, and Ardashir and the Bdid 
were slain. For 12 years after this the settlement of Sanjan 
lay waste, and the Fire- Worshippers then moved to Bansda, or 
Bdnsadah; and not many years after to Nausdri, whence they 
migrated to Bombay and other places. 

§ /. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 

Hindu Clirmuilogy "before the CJtrUtian JSra. -^ ^ 

ArraDgement of first nine Books of the Rig Veda . . (about) 1400 
Composition of parts of the tenth Book . . . (about) 1100 

SAma}^®^ (about) 1000-802 

Sutras Vaidik, comprising laws 1000 

Siitras of Philosophical system .... (about) 1200-800 

AtharraVeda 800 

Sakya Muni, birth 638 

Death and JRn 543 

First Buddhist Convocation at Hdjagpha o43 

Voyage of Skylax down the Indus by order of Darcius Ilystaspcs. 490 

Second Buddhist Convocation at Vesali 443 

Alexander crossed the Indus, April 327 

Chandragupta or Sandrakottus 315 

Mission of Megasthenes to the Court of Sankradotlus . . . 302 

Rdm^yana 300 

Ashoka 270 

Third Buddhist Convocation 249 

Mahdbhdrata 240 

Laws of Manu 200 

Menander . . * 126 

Ceylon Buddhistical Books 104-76 

J5ra of Vikramdditya and of the Shakuntaln .... 57 

A.D. 

Cave temples at Salsettc 50-100 

^ra of ShAlivdhan 78 

Sdh dynasty of Gujardt 100 

Travels of Fa-Hian 399 

Mahawanso 459-477 

Travels of Hiuan Tsang . • 629-645 

Purdnas . 800-1400 



IC introduction: governors of bombat. Sect. I. 



Governors of Bombay and the Dates of their Acoesglon, 

DATES. 

Mr. Gerald Aungier . . . 1667 

„ Thomas Rolt 1667 

Sir John Child, Bart 1680 

Mr.JohnVaux 1690 

„ Bartholomew Harris 1690 

„ Samuel Annesley 1692 

Sir John Gayer 1698 

Sir Nicolas Waite • 1702 

Sir H. Oxenden, Bart 1707 

Mr. William Aislabie 1709 

„ Charles Boone 1724 

„ William Phipps 1731 

„ Robert Cowan 1734 

„ John Home 1734 

„ Stephen Law 1739 

„ William Wake . 1742 

„ JohnGcekie 1742 

„ Richard Bouchier 1750 

„ Charles Crommelin . . .... . . 1760 

„ Thomas Hodges 1767 

., William Hornby 1776 

„ Rawson Horr Bodham 1784 

„ Andrew Ramsay 1788 

SirW. Medows, K.B .... 1790 

Sir Robert Abercrombie. K. P. . 1790 

Mr. George Dick 1794 

„ John Griffiths ...... . 1795 

„ Jonathan Duncan .... .... 1795 

„ George Brown 1811 

Sir Evan Nepean, Bart. . 1812 

The Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone 1815 

Sir John Malcolm, K.C.B 1817 

SirT. S. Beckwith, K.C.B 1830 

Mr. John Romer 1831 

Earl of Clare 1831 

Sir Robert Grant, Bart 1835 

Mr. James Farish 1838 

Sir James Rivett-Carnac, Bart 1839 

Sir W. H. MacDaghten, Bart 1841 

The Hon. G. W. Anderson 1841 

Sir George Arthur, Bart 1842 

The Hon. L. R. Reid 1846 

Sir George Russell Clerk 1847 

Viscount Falkland 1848 

Right Hon. Jn. Lord Elphinstone, G.C.H 1853 

Sir George Russell Clerk, K.C.B I860 

Sir Bartle Frere 1862 

Sir Seymour Fitzgerald 1867 

Sir Philip Wodehouse 1872 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart 1877 

Sir James Fergusson, Bart 1880 



Sect. I. MARATHA DYNASTIES. 17 

■ 

Mardfha DynastleM. 

PATES. 

Shdhji Bhonsl^, bom at the village of Yerol, near the caycs of EMra 1594 
Enters the service of the Emperor Sh&h Jah4n as the chief of 

SOOOhorae 1629 

Dies at Baswapatan near Bedniir .... January, 1664 
Sbivajl, founder of the Mard^ha empire, born at Junnar, 50 miles 

N.ofPuni May, 1627 

Murders Afzal Khdn, the Bijdpur General at Pratdpgarh . . , 1659 

Assumes the title of Rdjd 1664 

Bepairs to Dilli ♦ 1666 

Ascends the throne 1674 

Dies, and is succeeded by his son Shambuji 1680 

Shambuji executed by Aurangzib 1689 

Baj4 Rdm, son of Shivaji, by his second wife 1690 

Shdo or SAhu RdjA, or ShivajlIL, son of Shambuji . . 1708 
Dies, and the Peshwds get possession of the whole iK)wer 

27th December, 1749 

Ram Rdj A, son of Shivaji II. 1778 

SAhu n., adopted son of Rdm RAjA .... 4th May, 1808 

PratAp Singh, eldest son of SAhu II., entlironed by the English . 1818 

Deposisd by the English and sent prisoner to Ban&ras • . . 1839 

Ap4 Sd^b, brother of PratAp Singh 1839 

Dies, and his territories are annexed by the English . . . 1848 

Pcishwas. 

ShAmraj Pant {See Grant Duff, vol. i. i)age 150) . . . .1656 

Deposed by Shivaji, and his office given to Moro Trimmal Piiiglc . 1659 

Nilu Pant Moreshwar 1690 

Bhairu Pant Pinglc 1708 

BAlAjl WishwanAth 1714 

BAjl RAo BalAl, son of BAlAjl 1720 

BAlAjl BAji RAo, eldest son of Bajl RAo Baldl 1740 

MhAdu RAo, second sbn of BAlAjl . 1761 

Died November 18th 1772 

NarAyan RAo, brother of MhAdu RAo 1772 

RaghunAth RAo usurps 1773 

MhAdu RAo NArAyan, son of KArAyan llAo 1774 

KUls himself . ' . . . * 1795 

BAjl RAo RaghunAth 1796 

Chimnaji 2()thofMay 1796 

BAjl RAo publicly proclaimed . . . 4th of December, 1796 

Surrenders to tiie English, and his dominions annexed ... 3rd June 1818 

BhonsU Mdjds of JVdffpiir. 

KAnhojl BhoiisU SenA SA^ib SubA. 

Raghujl Bhousl^ 1734 

Receives the province of BlrAr from the Peshwa .... 1750 

Dies, and is succeeded by JAnujl 1753 

RAghuil, eldest son of MAdhujl 1772 

Sabajl, killed in battle by Mudajl (Apd SAljib) .... 1774 

Passajl, son of Raghujl 1816 

Dcpose4^ 1817—1818 

'^ The. name of this city is spelled in 2 ways in Urdu, Dilli and Dihli. Both are right, 
but in this book the form Dilli has been adoi>te<l. 

IBonibay—lSSO.] c 



18 INTRODUCTION : SINDHIA AND HOLKAR DYNASTIES. Sect. I. 

DATES. 

Gajar, pfrandpon of Raghuji, and assumeB his name . . . 1818 

ApA §al^lb dies at Jodhpiir 1840 

Raghuji dies 11th of December, 1853 

Territory of N^gpiir annexed to British India .... 1864 

Sindhia Dynasty, 

B&nuji Sindhia of Eanerkher near S&tdr^ 1724 

Jyapa, eldest son of Rdnujl (Grant Duff, vol. ii. page 40) . . 1760 
Murdered by two assassins sent by Bijya Singh of Jodhpi^r. 

(Grant Duff, vol. ii. page 144) 1759 

Mahdddjl, third son of RAnujl . 1759 

Defeated near DiUl by Al^mad ShAh, when Dataji Sindhia and 

two-thirds of the MariLtha army were killed . . . . 1769 

MahMAji dies ..." 1794 

Daulat Kdo, grand-nephew of Mah4ddjf .... 1794 to 1803 

Daulat Rdo defeated at Assye Sept. 23rd, 1803 

Baiza £di, Daulat Rdo's widow, regent 1825 

Jankojl 1833 

Jyaji succeeds 1843 

His army defeated by Sir Hugh Gough . . 29th December, 1843 

Gwdliar fort permanently occupied by the English . . . 1844 

5%€ Holkar Dynasty, 

Malhar Rao Holkar. A Dhangar and famous geneml of horse. 

(Grant Duff, vol. i. page 479) 1724 

Obtains the larger half of Mdlwa with a revenue of J£750,000 a 

vear . . 1750 

Retires from the Battle of Pdnipat. (Grant Duff, vol. ii. p. 153) 

6th January, 1761 

Malhar RAo dies ' 1767 

Mali Rdo, grandson of Malhdr, succeeds under Regency of Ahalya 
Bdi, who makes Tukoji Holkar, no relation of Malh&r B&o, 

general 1767 

Tukoji dies 15th Aug., 1797 

Tukoji's eldest son Khaiide Rao nominally succeeds, but is con- 
fined at Fund . .' 1797 

Rise of Jeswant RAo, illegitimate brother of Khande . . . 1800 
Jeswant defeats Sindhia's army at Fund, and takes his guns and 

baggage 25th October, 1802 

Bouts General Monson's army near Bidna . . 28th August, 1804 

Jeswant dies 20th October, 1811 

Tulsi Bdi, mistress of Jeswant, adopts his illegitimate son Malhdr 

Rdo 1811 

Malhdr's army defeated by the English at Mehidpiir , 21st Dec. 1818 

Martand Rdo, son of Bdpu Holkar 1833 

HariRdo 1833 

Khand^Rdo . 1833 

Malkarji under the Regency of the Mdi Sdhibah until his majority 

in February, 1852 

H.H. Mahdrdjd Tukoji Rao " 1852 

Tlie Gdekwdd Dynasty, 

Ddmajl appointed by Sdhu Rdjd second in command to Khande 

Rdo Dhdbddd with the title of Shamshir Bahddur . . ' , 1720 



Sect I. THE GAEKWAD DYNASTY. 1^ 

Pilajl, son of Jankojl GiekwAd 1721 

PiUjl defeated and wounded at the battle of Dabhoi . Ist April, 1731 

Obtains the title of Send KhAs Khail 1731 

Pildji is assassinated at Ddkiir by an emissary of Abhai Singh . 1732 

P&maji, eldest ^n of PUdjl 1732 

D&miji II. imprisoned at Pand by the Peshwd .... 1751 

Eeddrji is named Gdekwdd 1751 

Damdjl is restored 1753 

He returns from Pdnipat 1761 

Makes Patan his capital 1763 

His eldest son Govind Rdo is defeated and taken prisoner by 
Mddhu Rdo Peshwd, and Ddmdji is severely mulcted for his 

rebellion 1768 

Ddmdji II. dies 1768 

Govind Rdo attains the succession by paying five millions and fifty 

thousand rupees 1768 

SaydjlRdo 1771 

Fath Singh February 17th, 1778 

Fath Singh dies and is succeeded by Mdudji as regent for Saydji, 

December 21st, 1789 

Mdndjldies August 1st, 1793 

Govind Rdo restored December li)th, 1793 

Govind Rdo dies September 19th, 1800 

Succeeded by Anand Kdo 1800 

Fath Singh, younger brother of Auand Rdo, regent April 3rd, 1816 

Fath Singh dies June 23rd, 1818 

Succeeded by his younger brother Saydjl 1818 

Dies December 28th, 1847 

Succeeded by his eldest son G^npat Rao 1847 

Ganpat Rdo dies November 19th, 1866 

Succeeded by Khand6 Rdo 1866 

Khahd6 Rdo dies November 28th, 1870 

Malhdi* Rdo, brother of Khande Rdo . . . December 1st, 1870 

Deposed and deported to Madras .... April 22nd 1875 
Saydjl Rdo adopted by Jamnd Bdi and declared Gdekwdd 

May 27th, 1875 

Anhalwddd Dynasty of Gujarat, 

Saila-deva, living in retirement at Ujjain, found and educated . 696 
Banardja, son of Samanta Sinh (Ohohdn), who founded Anhalpiir, 

(Nerwdleh or Patau,) called after Anala Chohdn . . . 745 

Jogardja 806 

BhimaRdjA 841 

Bheur 866 

Behirsinh 895 

Reshadat 920 

Samduta 935 

.* ' ' Solanlthi Dyna»t)j. 

Mula Rdjd usurped the throne 910 

Chamund, invaded by SuUdn MahmM 1025 

Vallabba (Beyser or Bisela) ancient line restored .... 1038 

Durlabba usurped the throne 1039 

c 2 

A 



20 INTRODUCTION : KINGS OP GUJARAT. ScCt. L 

DATES. 

Bhima Tdjd. 

KAladeva, Kama-rAjendra, or Visaladeva, who became Paramount 

Sovereign of Dilll 1060 

Hiddha, or Jayasinh, an usurper 1094 

KumArap&la poisoned 1094 

AjayapAla, son of Jayasinha 1094 

Tlie BMgela DynaHty. 

Bhlma Dcva or Bhala Bhlma Deva ... . . 1209 

Arjun deva 1250 

Saranga deva 1260 

Karan 1281 

GujarAt was annexed to Dilll by 'AlAu'd-din Mu\jamniad Shiili . 1309 

Ihrrnhb* Dynasty of XJidndesh, 

Malik RAji Farrukhi receives the j&gir of TAlnlr from Flroz . 1370 

Malik Naslr or NasirKhAn Famikhl builds BurhAnpiir . . . 1399 

Mlr&n 'Ada Khdn Farrukhi expels Dakhanls from KhAndesh . 1437 

Miran MubArik Khan Farrukhi ; peaceful reign , . . . 1441 

Mir An Ghani, or A'dil KhAn Farrukhi I. ; tributary to GujarAt . 1457 

DAM KhAn Farrukhi, tributary to MAlwa 1503 

'A'nm HumAyiin, or 'Adil KhAn Farrukhi II 1510 

MlrAn Muhammad KhAn Farrul[>il ; succeeds to Gujai'At throua . 1520 

Mir An MubArik KhAn Farrukhi, brother ; war with Mughuls . 1535 

MlrAn Muhammad KhAn Farrukhi ; attack from Dakhan . . 1560 

RAjA A'll KhAn Farrukhi ; acknowledges Akbar's supremacy . 1 576 

BahAdur KhAn Farrukhi ; defies Akbar, imprisoned at GwAliar . 1596 

Kings of Gujarat. 

Mu^affar ShAh I. ; appointed Viceroy by Firoz Tughlak, 1391, 

A.H. 793 ; assumes independence in A.H. 799 . • . A.D. 1396 

Al^mad ShAh I., grandson, builds A^madAbAd and Al^madnagar . 1411 

. Muhammad ShAh, sumamed Karlm, the merciful .... 1443 

Kutb ShAh ; opposes MAlwa King, and Chitor rAjA Kombha . . 1451 

" - 1459 

. 1459 

. 1511 

. 1526 

. 1526 

. 1526 

. 1536 

. 1538 

. 1553 

. 1561 



DAiid ShAh, his imcle deposed in favour of 

MahmM ShAh I. BegadA ; two expeditions to Dakhan 

Muj;affar ShAh II. ; war with RAna Sanga 

Sikandar ShAh assassinated 

Nasir ElhAn, or Ma^mM ShAh II. displaced by 
BahAdur ShAh, invades MAlwa, murdered by Portuguese . 
MlrAn Muhammad ShAh Farrukhi, nephew of MAlwa . 
MabmTid ShAh, son of La^lf KhAn ; released from prison . 
Al^mad ShAh II., a spurious heir set up by minister 
Muj^affar ShAh III. Habbii, a supposititious son of Mahmiid 
MugaSar ShAh submits to Akbar, and in 1583 GujarAt finally be- 
comes a province of Akbar's empire 1572 



^ A'dil SlMi JDyftasty of B^jdpur, 

Abii'l Mugaffar Yiisuf ' Adil ShAh, son of Ai^A MurAd or Amurath II. 

of Anatolia ..•...•• • • 1489 



Sect. I. GOYEBNOBS AND VICBBOYS OF GO A. 21 

DATFS 

IsmA'il 'Adil Shdh ^ IMl 

Malii 'Ml Shdh 1534 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shdh 1 1636 

'All 'Adil ShAh 1567 

Ibrahim 'A'dil ShAh II 1579 

Muhammad 'Adil Shdh .... .... 1626 

SuUto Sikandar (or 'Ali 'Adil Sh^ II.) 1660 

NizAin Shdhi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar, 

A^mad Nigto Sh^h 1490 

Bm-hAn NizAm Shdh 1 1508 

9usaiQ Nij:Am Shdh . 1663 

Murtasd Ni;;dm Sh4h I ... 1566 

Mir4n Qusdin Nij:Am Shah ... ... 1688 

IsmA'il Nij{Am ShAh 1689 

Burh4n Niztei ShAh II 1590 

Ibrahim Nig Am Shih 1594 

Ahmad ibn Shdh TAhir 1694 

Bahddur NijjAm ShAh 1595 

MurtazA Nisjim Shdh II. . . 1598 

Malik Ambar . .... 1007 

(ravcrnors and Viceroys of Goa, 

J. Dom Francisco de Almeida (1st Viceroy), Maich 26th ; 

murdered on return at Cape of Good Hope . . . . 1505 

2. Affonso de Albuquerque, October, 1509 ; died in Harbour of 

Goa, December 16tih . . . . . , . 1515 

3. Lopo Spares de Albergaria, September 8th, 1515 ; went to 

Portugal, January 2^ 1519 

4. Dipgo Lopes de Siqueira, September 8th 1518 

.5. Dom Duarte de Menezes, January, 1522 ; left for Portugal, 

December 1524 

6. Dom Vasco da Gama, Count of Vidigueira (2nd Viceroy) 

September, 1524 ; died at Cochin, December 24th . . 1524 

7. Dom Henrique de Menezes, January 17th, 1526 ; died, Feb- 

ruary 21st 1526 

8. Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, February 21st, 1526 ; sent in chains to 

Portugal, November 18th 1529 

9. Nuno da Cunha, November 18th, 1529— September 14th . . 1538 

10. Dom Garcia de Noronha (3rd Viceroy), September 14th, 1538 ; 

died April 3rd 1540 

11. Dom EstevSo da Gama, son of Vasco da Gama, April 3rd, 1540 ; 

returned to Portugal, May 6th 1542 

12. Martim Aftonso de Souza, 7th May, 1642, to September 10th . 1546 

13. Dom Jofto de Castro, Governor, September lOth, 1545 (4th 

Viceroy), 1547 ; died, June 6th . . . . . . 1548 

14. Garcia de SA, June 6th, 1548 ; died, June 13th . . . . 1549 

15. Jorge Caberal, June 13th, 1549, to November . . . . 1550 

16. Dom Affonso da Noronha (5th Viceroy), November, 1550, to 

September 23rd 1554 

17. Dom Pedro Mascarenhas (6th Viceroy), September 23rd, 1554; 

jliedj^June 16th • 1655 



2 INTRODUCTION. Scct. I. 

DATES* 

18. Francisco Barreto, Jane 16th, 1555, to September 8th . . 1658 

19. Dom Constantino da Bragan^a (7th Viceroy), September 8th, 

1658, to September 7th 1661 

20. Dom Francisco Coutinho, Count of Redondo (8th Viceroy), 

September 7th, 1561 ; died, Febmary 19th .... 1564 

21. JoSo de Mendon9a, February 19th, 1664, to September 3rd . 1664 

22. Dom AntSo de Noronha (9th Viceroy), September 3rd, 1564, 

to September 10th .... ... 1568 

23. Dom Luis de Athaide (10th Viceroy), September, 1568, to 

September 6th 1571 

24. Dom Antonio de Noronha (11th Viceroy), September 6th, 

1571, to December 9th 1573 

25. Antonio Moniz Barreto, December 9th, 1673, to September . 1576 

26. Dom Diogo de Menezes, September, 1576, to August Slst . 1578 

27. Dom Luis de Athaide {12th Viceroy), August 31st, 1578 ; died, 

March 10th 1681 

28. FemSo Telles de Menezes, March 13th, 1581, to September 

17th 1581 

29. Dom Francisco Mascarenhas, Count of Villa de Horta (13th 

Viceroy), September 16th, 1581, to November . . . 1584 

30. Dom Duarte de Menezes, Count of Tarouca (14th Viceroy), 

October26th, 1684; died. May 4th . . . . . 1588 

31. Manoel de Souza Coutinho, May 4th, 1588, to May 16th . . 1691 

32. Mathias de Albuquerque (15th Viceroy), May 16th, 1691 ; re- 

turned to Portugal, May 25th . ■ 1597 

33. Dom Francisco da Gama, Count of Vidigueira, grandson of 

Vasco da Gama (16th Viceroy), May 26th, 1697, to Decem- 
ber 25th 1600 

34. Aires de Saldanha (17th Viceroy), December 26th, 1600, to 

January 16th 1605 

35. Martim AflEonso de Castro (18th Viceroy), January, 1606 ; died 

at Malacca, June 3rd 1607 

36. Dom Fr. Aleixo de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, June 3rd, 

1607, to May 27th 1609 

37. Andr6 Furtado de Mcndon9a, May 27th, 1609; recalled to 

Portugal, September 5th 1609 

38. Buy LoureuQo de Tavora (19th Viceroy), September 5th, 1609, 

to December 15th 1612 

39. Dom Jeronimo de Azevedo (20th Viceroy), December 16th, 

1612, to November 18th .... . . 1617 

40. Dom JoSo Coutinho, Count of Bedondo (2l8t Viceroy), No- 

vember 18th, 1617 ; died, November 10th .... 1619 

41. Femao de Albuquerque, November 11th, 1619, to December 

19th 1622 

42. Dom Francisco da Gama, Count of Vidigueira (22nd Vice- 

roy), November 19th, 1622, to January 31st .... 1627 

43. Dom Francisco Luis de Brito, January, 1627 ; died, July 29th 1628 

44. Dom Miguel de Noronha, Count of Linhares (23rd Viceroy), 

December 21st, 1629, to December 8th 1635 

45. Pero da Silva (24th Viceroy), December 8th, 1635, to June 24th 1639 

46. Antonio Telles de Menezes, October 4th, 1639, to September 

21st 1640 

47. JoSo da Silva Tello de Menezes, Count of Aveiras (25th Vice- 

roy), 21st September, 1640, to 30th December . ; . 1646 



Sect I. OOVEBXOHS AND VICEROYS OF QOA. 23 

DATES 

48. Dom Felippe Mascarenhas (25th Viceroy), December 30tb, 

1646, to May 3l8t 1661 

49. Dom Vasco Mascarenhas, Count of Obidos (27th Viceroy), 

September 6th, 1652; deposed by Dom Bi*az de Castro, 
October 22nd 1668 

50. Dom Rodrigo Lobo da Silveira, Count of Sarzedas (28th Vice- 

roy), August 19th, 1635 ; died, January 3rd .... 1656 

51. Antonio de Mello e Castro (29th Viceroy), January 3rd, 1656, to 1666 

52. JoSo Nunes da Cunha, Count of St. Vincent (30th Viceroy) 

ITthOctober, 1666; died, November 6th. . . . . 1668 
63. Luis de Mendonga Furtado D'Albuquerque, Count of Lavra- 

dio (31st Viceroy), May 22nd, 1671, to October 30th . . 167T 

54. Dom Pedro de Almeida, Count of Assumar (32ud Viceroy), 

October 30th, 1677 ; died at Mozambique, March . . . 1678 

55. Francisco de Tavora, Count of Alvor (33rd Viceroy), Septem- 

ber 12th, 1681, to 3rd December 1686 

56. Dom Rodrigo da Costa, 26th March, 1686, to 23rd June . . 1690 

57. Dom Miguel de Almeida, June, 1690 ; died 9th January . . 1691 

58. Dom Pedro Antonio de Noronha, Count of Villa Verde (34th 

Viceroy), May 28th, 1693, to September 20th . . . 1698 

59. Antonio Luiz GonQalves da Camai-a Coutinho (35th Viceroy), 

September 20th, 1693, to September 17th . . . .1701 

60. Caetano de Mello de Castro (36th Viceroy), October 2nd, 

1702 ; returned to Portugal, October 29th . . . .1707 

61. Dom Rodrigo da Castro (37th Viceroy), 28th October, 1707, to 

September 2l8t 1712 

62. Vasco Fernandez Cesar de Menezes (38th Viceroy). September 

2l8t, 1712, to January 13th 1717 

63. Dom SebastiSo d'Andrade Passanha, Archbishop of Goa, 

January 13th, 1717, to October 16th 1717 

64. Dom Luiz de Menezes, Count of Ericeira (39th Viceroy), Octo- 

ber 16th, 1717, to September 14th 1720 

65. Francisco Jos6 de Sampaio e Castro (40th Viceroy), Septem- 

ber 14th, 1720; died, July 13 tli 1723 

66. Dom Christovao de Mello, July 13th, 1723, to September 3rd . 1723 

67. JoSo de Saldanha da Gama (41st Viceroy), October 28th, 1725, 

to January 23rd . . . •. 1732 

68. Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, Count of Sandomil (42nd Viceroy), 

7th October, 1732, to May 18th 1741 

69. Dom Luiz de Menezes, Count of Ericeira (43rd Viceroy), May 

18th, 1741 ; died, June 12th 1742 

70. Dom Pedro Miguel de Almeida e Portugal, Count of Assumar 

(44th Viceroy), September 24th, 1744, to September 27th . 1750 

71. Francisco D'Assis, Marquis of Tavora (45th Viceroy), Septem- 

ber 27th, 1750, to September 18th 1754 

72. Dom Luiz Mascarenhas, Count of Alva (46th Viceroy), 

September 20th, 1754 ; killed by the Mardthas, June 28th . 1766 

73. Manoel de Saldanha D'Albuquerque, Count of Ega (47th 

Viceroy), September 23rd, 1756, to 19th October . . . 1765 

74. Dom JoSf) Jos6 de Mello, 14th April, 1767; died, January 

10th 1774 

75. Filippe de Valladores Sou to Maior, January 13th, 1774, to 

September 24th 1774 

76. Dom Jose Pedro da Camara, September 24th, 1 774, to May 26th 1779 




34 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

DATES. 

77. Dom Frederico Guilhenne de Souza, May 26th, 1779, to No- 

vember 3rd . . . 1780 

78. Francisco da Cnnha e Menezes, November 3rd, 1786, to May 

22nd • 17^4 

79. Francisco Antonio da Veiga Cabral, 22nd May, 1794, to May 

30th ,,...•; 1807 

80. Bernardo Jose de Lorena, Count of Sarzedas ('t8th Viceroy), 

May 30th, 1807, to November 29th 1816 

81. Dom Diogo de Souza, Count of Rio Pardo (49th Viceroy), 

November, 1816 ; deposed in the rebellion, September 16th 1821 

82. Dom Manoel da Camara (50th Viceroy), November 18th, 1822; 

died November 16th 1825 

83. Dom Manoel de Portugal e Castro (51st and last Viceroy), 

October 9th, 1827, to January 14th 1835 

84. Bernardo Peres de Silva, native of Goa, Prefect, January 14th, 

1835 ; deposed in February 1835 

86. SimSo Infante de Lucerda, Baron of Sabroso, November 23rd, 

1837 ; died, October 14th 1838 

86. Job6 Antonio Vieira da Fonseca, March 5th, 1839, to No- 

vember 14th . 1839 

87. Manoel Jos6 Mendes, Baron de Candal, November 15th, 1839 ; 

died, April 18th 1840 

88. Jos6 Joaquim Lopes de Lima, September 24th, 1840; April 27th 1842 

89. Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira, Count of Antas, September 

19th, 1842, to April 25th 1843 

90. Joaquim MourSo Garoez PaJha, April 25th, 1843, to May 20th. 1844 

91. Jos6 Ferreira Pestana, May 20th, 1844, to January loth . . 1851 

92. Jos6 Joaquim Januario Lapa, Vt. of Villa Nova d'Ourem, 

January 15th, 1851, to May 6th 1855 

93. Antonio Cesar de Vasconcellos Correa, Viscount of Torres Novas, 

November 3rd, 1855, to December 18th . . . • . 1864 

94. Jo86 Ferreira Pestana, December 25th, 1864, to May 7th . 1870 
96. Januario Corrua de Almeida, Vt. of St. Januario, May 7th. 

1870, to December 12th '. 1871 

96. Joaquim Jos6 Macfedo eConto, December 12th,l 871, to May 10th 1875 

97. Joao Tavares de Almeida, May 10th, 1875, to July 24th . . 1877 

98. Antonio Serges de Souza, November 12th, 1877; died. May 2rd 1878 

99. Caetano Alexandre de Almeida e Albuquerque, May 9th, 1878, 

present Governor. 

ArcJihisJiops of Goa, 

1. Dom Fr. JoSo de Albuquerque 1538 — 1653 

2. Dom Gaspar de LeSo Pereira, 1st Archbishop 1560; resigned 1567 

3. Dom Fr. Jorge Themudo, Bishop of Cochin 1567 to April 29th, 1571 

4. Dom Gaspar de LeSo Pereira, 2nd time ; died 15th August . 1576 
6. Dom Fr. Henrique de Tavora, Bp. of Cochin . . . 1578 — 1580 

6. Dom Fr. Vicente da Fonseca 1580—1686 

7. Dom Fr. Matheus de Medina, transferi-ed from Cochin 1688 ; 

resigned 1692 

8. Dom Fr. Andr6 de Santa Maria, Bp. of Cochin . . 1693 — 1595 

9. Dom Fr. Alejxo de Menezes, 1st Primate of the East . 1696—1610 

Went then to Portugal. 

10. Dom Fr. Christovao de Sd e Lisboa, 1616 ; died 31st March . 1622 

11. Dom Fr, Sebastigo de S, Pedro, 1626 ; died 7tli November . 162^ 



Sect. I, EVENTS CONNECTING INDIA WITH EUROPE. 25 

DATl-S. 

12. Dom Fr. Miguel Uongel, succeeded Dom Manoel Telles de 

Brito, who died on the passage out from Portugal . . 1C34 

13. Dom Fr. Francisco dos Martyres, 21st Oct. 163(; ; died 25th 

November 1G52 

The See was now vacant 22 years. 

14. Dom Fr. Antonio de BrandSo, 24th Sept., 1675 ; died Gth July 1678 

15. Dom Manoel de Souza e Menezes, 20tn Sept., 1681 — Slst Jan. 1684 

16. Dom Alberto de Silva, 24th Sept., 1687— 18th April . . 1688 

17. Dom Fr. Pedro de Silva, 1689— loth March .... 1691 

18. Dom Fr. Agostinho de Annuncia^So, 1691 — 6th July . . 1713 

19. Dom Sebasti&o de Andrade Pessanha, 24th S^pt., 1716^25th 

Jan 1721 

20. Dom Ignacio de Santa Thereza, 1721—1739 ; translated to 

Bishopric of AJgarve in Portugal. 

21. Dom Clemento Jo86 . 1739—1742 

22. Dom Francisco VasconceUes, 20th December, 1742 ; died 

March 30th 1743 

23. Dom Ft. Louren^o de Santa Maria .... 1744—1750 

24. Dom Antonio Taveira da Neiva Brun da Silveira, September 

23rd, 1750, to March 4th 1775 

25. Dom Francisco de Assump^ao e Brito, March, 1775, to Feb. 5th 1780 

26. Dom Fr. Manoel de S. Catharina, Febniary 1780— February . 1812 

27. Dom Fr. Manoel de Sfto Galdino, Feb. 18th, 1812 to July 15th 1831 

28. Dom Jos6 Maria de Silva Tones, March 7th, 1844, to 26th 

March, 1849, when he returned to Portugal. 

29. Dom Jofio Chrysostomo d'Amorin e Pessoa, 3rd of January . 1863 

Returned to Portugal, February 5th, 1869 ; resigned . . 1874 

30. Dom Ayres de Omebas e VaRconcellos, arrived Dccemljer 27th 1875 

Meniarkahle JScenfjf oonmcthig India with Evrojte, 

Odoricus, an Italian Friar, visits ThAnd 1300 

Vasco da Gama reaches KAlikod (Calicut) by sea . . . .1498 
Albuquerque, the Portuguese admiral, bums Kdlikod, but is at last 

driven off 1510 

Goa captured by the Portuguese ; retaken by the natives ; ceded 

to the Portuguese 1510 

The Zamorin permits the Portuguese to build a fort at KAlikod . 1613 

Bombay occupied by the Portuguese 1532 

Bassin, Salsette, and Bombay ceded to the Portuguese by Sultdn 

BahAdur, King of Gujarat 1534 

The Venetian merchant, Caesar Frederick, reaches A^maddbAd . 1563 
Thomas Stephens, of New College, Oxford, reaches Goa in October, 

and Sir Francis Drake lands at Temate, and subsequently at 

Java 1579 

A land expedition, organized by the Levant Company, reaches 

India 1589 

Petition presented by 101 merchants and others to Elizabeth for a 

charter to trade with India 1599 

John Mildenhall sent as Ambassador to Agra, which he reaches in 1603 
Charter for 15 years to " The Governor and Company of Merchants 

of London trading to the East Indies " 1600 

A fleet from Torbay reaches Acheen in Sumatra, and Bantam in 

Java,eBtablishing factories in each place 1601 



2(5 ixTRODucTiox. Sect. I. 

DATKS. 

Second Charter, by which the East India Company is made a cor- 
porate body, with the retention of a power to dissolve them at 
three years' notice. Captain Hawkins of the Hector reaches 
Agra with a letter to Jahdnglr. The Dutch occupy Palikat . 1609 
The Mughul Emperor issues 2kfarmAn^ permitting the English to 

establish factories at Surat, Al^mad^b^d, Ehambdyat, and Gogo 1611 
Captain Best, with the Dragon and Hosiander^ defeats the Portu- 
guese squadron at Sarat, and receives a farman^ authorising an 
English Envoy to reside at Agra, and the English to trade with 

Surat 1612 

Sir Thomas Koe, Ambassador to Jahdnglr, reaches India . . 1615 
The Danish settlement of Tallangamb^ (Tranquebar) founded . 1617 
The Dutch and English Companies contend for the exclusive trade 

with the Spice Islands 1618 

The Dutch assign to the English a share of the pepper trade with 

Java and with Palikat 1619 

Sir Robert Shirley courteously received by Jahdngir at Agra . 1619 
The East India Company receive permission to exercise martial 

law in India 1624 

The English open trade with DurgarazApatnam 1625 

Treaty with Portugal, by which the English are allowed to trade 

with Portuguese ports in India 1635 

Gabriel Boughton, surgeon of the Company's ship Hopewclly cures 
the daughter of Shdh Jahdn and the favourite mistress of the 
Niiwdb of Beagal, and so obtains for the Company the right to 
trade throughout the dominions of the Great Mughul . . . 1636 
The English remove from I)jirgarAzdpatnam to Madras . . . 1639 
Fort St. George built at Madras . . " " . . . ... 1641 

Fort St. George constituted a Presidency 1654 

New Charter for seven years 1657 

Forts on Malabar coasts placed under Surat, Bengal under Madras 1658 
The Dutch take Ndgapatnam from the Portuguese, and make it 

their capital on that coast . . 1660 

Bombay ceded to England by the Portuguese as part of the Infanta 
Catherina's dower on her marriage with Charles II., the Xlth 
Article of which states " ceded for better improvement of Eng- 
lish interest and commerce in the East Indies," June 23rd . 1661 
A New Charter confirms former privileges, with the right to make 
peace and war, to exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction, and . 

send unlicensed persons to England 1661 

Marriage of Charles IL with Catherine of Braganza, May 21st . 1662 
Earl of Marlborough and Sir Abraham Shipman with 5 men-of-war 
and 500 soldiers arrive at Bombay, <o occupy the island in fulfil- 
ment of the Treaty, September 1662 

Sir Abraham Shipman having died with most of his men at Anja- 
deva, his secretary Cooke makes a convention with the Portu- 
guese, which Charles II. refuses to ratify. Sir Gervase Lucas 
succeeds Cooke, and estimates the population of Bombay at 

10,000, and the revenue at £6,490 17*. id 1663 

French East India Company established. Defence of Surat by the 
English against Shivaji, for which they are rewarded with fresh 

privileges by Aurangzib 1664 

Island of Bombay granted by Charles II. to the East India Com- 
pany .... . . . . , 1668 



Sect. I. EVENTS CONNECTING INDIA WITH EUROPE. 27 

Dates, 

The natives destroy the English factory at HonAwar, and murder 
every Englishman 1670 

St. Helena granted by Royal Charter to the Company . . . 1673 

Dr. John Fryer visits Bombay, and reckons population at 60,000 . 1675 

Bombay revolts under Captain Keigwin . . . . . 1683 

Admiral Sir Thomas Grantham arrives in Bombay, and Keigwin 
submits to his authority 1684 

Bombay made a Regency, with sway over all the Company's estab- 
lishments. Puducheri (Pondicherry) colonized by the French. 
English driven from Hugli, and allowed to return . . . 1687 

Fort St. David built. Y'akiib Khdn Sldl, the Imperial Admiral, 

lands in Bombay with 25,000 men, and takes MazagAon . . 1689 

Chaplain Ovington's visit to Bombay described in " Voyage to 
Surat" 1689 

Charter forfeited for non-payment of 5 per cent, levied on all Joint 
Stock Companies, but on October 1st a new charter granted by 
the King 1693 

New Company incorporated under the name of " The English 
Company." The old Company, called ** The London Company," 
ordered to cease trading in three years. Calcutta purchased by 
the old Company, and Fort William built 1698 

The old Company obtain an Act authorizing them to trade under 
the charter of the new Company 1700 

Lord Godolphin's Award, by which the two Companies are united 
under the title of " The United Company of Merchants of Eng- 
land trading to the East Indies." Three Presidencies estab- 
lished, and a Governor, with the title of General, and a Council 
appointed for Bombay, 29th of Sept 1708 

An Act passed (9 Anne, c. 7) that no person shall be a Director of 
the East India Company and a Director of the Bank of England 
at the same time 1711 

July. Deputies from the Company arrive at DilU, and on the 
6th of January, 1717, ohtaXn a farmdn exempting their trade 
from duties, and allowing them to possess land round their fac- 
tories , . . . 1715 

Ostend East India Company formed 1717 

The Emperor of Germany grants a charter to the Ostend Company, 
under which they carry on a successful trade . . . . 1723 

Charter renewed till Lady-day, 17G9. The Company accept 4 per 
cent, interest for £3,200,000 lent to Government, and pay a pre- 
mium of £200,000 1730 

Swedish India Company formed 1731 

Malhdr Rdo Holkar takes Thdnd from the Portuguese, his loss 
being 5,000 men and that of the Portuguese 800. May 16th \ 1739 

The Company lend £1,000,000 to Government, and obtain an ex- 
tension of privileges to 1783. Commencement of the contest 
between England and France in India 1744 

War declared between England and France. A French fleet 
anchors 12 miles S. of Madras, and lands a force under Labour- 
donnais. Madras capitulates after a bombardment of five days. 
Labourdonniais signs a treaty to restore the town on a ransom 
being paid. This treaty violated by Dupleix, Governor of Pudu- 
cheri 174G 

December 19th. Dupleix fails in an attach on Fort St. David . . 1717 



28 ixTBODUCTiox. Sect. I. 

DATES. 

The English lay siege to Puducheri, but without success. Treaty 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, by which Madras is restored to the 
English 1748 

Sdhuji RAjA of Tanjiir, dethroned by his cousin, calls in the aid of 
the English, who, after one repulse, take Devlkota, which was 
to be the guerdon of their assistance. They then desert their 
ally, and conclude a treaty with PratAp Sing. Clive leads the 
storming party at Devikota. The war in the Karndtak begins . 1749 

Pun A made capital of the Mardthas 1750 

Mul^ammad 'All, claimant of the Niiw^bship of the Eamdtak, 
whose cause is espoused by the English, takes refuge in Trichi- 
ndpalli, which is besieged by the French, under M. Lally and 
Chanda Sdhib. The siege ends in their utter discomfiture. 
Clive takes Arcot, and defends it against overwhelming odds . 1751 

Dupleix superseded. December 26th. Treaty of peace signed at 
Puducheri — the French and English withdraw from interference 
in the afEairs of the Native Pi'inces 1754 

Commodore James takes Suwamdurg and Bankot from Angria, 
the Mardtha piratical chief 1756 

February 11th. Angria taken prisoner, and his forts destroyed, by 
Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive, assisted by the troops of the 
Peshwd. June 18th. Calcutta attacked by Sir^jA'd-daulah. The 
tragedy of the Black Hole 175C 

January 2nd. Calcutta retaken. June 23rd. Battle of Plassy. Mir 

, J'afar made §iibal?dAr of Bengal in room of Sirdju'd-daulah. 

War renewed in the B[am6.tak. English take Madura . . 1757 

April 28th. Count de Lally arrives at Fort St. David with a French 
fleet, and an indecisive action is fought next day. June 1st. 
Lally takes Fort St. David, and razes the fortifications. June 
11th. A commission arrives in Bengal from the Directors, ap- 
pointing a Council of ten, with a Governor for each three 
months. All invite Clive to assume the Government. October 
4th. Lally takes Arcot; and on December 11th lays siege to 
Madras 1758 

February 19th. Lally retires from before Madras. April 6th. The 
English take Machhlipatnam. The Nizdm engages not to permit 
the French to settle in his dominions. November 9th. Wande- 
wash taken 1759 

February 9th. Arcot taken by the English. July. Vansittart suc- 
ceeds Clive as Governor of Bengal. Clive sails for England ui 
February. Mir KAsim succeeds Mir J'afar as Siibal^dAr of Ben- 
gal. Sept. 27th. Revenues of Vardhawdn (Burdwdn), Midnapiir, 
and ChittagAon ceded to the English by Mir Edsim . . . 1760 

January 7th. Battle of Pdnipat. 14th. Puducheri taken by the 
English. Fall of the French power in the Dakhan. Shdh 'Alam 
IL defeated at Patna by Major Camac. Treaty with Shdh 
'Alam, who acknowledges Mir Kdsim on payment of £240,000 
per annum 17G1 

February 10.. Puducheri and other forts restored to the French by 
the treaty of Paris. June 25th. Mr. Ellis, with a body of troops, 
attacked and made prisoners by Mir Kdsim at Patna. July. 
The English agree to restore Mir J'afar. Nov. 6th. Patna taken 
by the English : Mir Kdsim seeks shelter with the Niiwdb of 
AVadh (Oude) . . ' . . . . . . . . . 1763 



Sect. I. EVENTS CONNECTING INDIA WITH EUROPE. 29 

DATES 

Mr. Ellig, chief of the Factory at Patna, and 200 English, murdered 
at Patna by Sumroo, an officer in the service of Mir Kdsim, 

October 1763 

October 23rd. Battle of Buxar 1764 

Death of Mir J'afar at Calcutta. His son, Najmu'd-daulah, suc- 
ceeds him. May 3rd. Lord Olive arrives at Calcutta as Governor- 
General. August 12th. The DiwAnl, or Revenue of Bengal, 
Bahdr, and (Srissa granted to the Company by Shdh 'Alam 
IL • . . 1765 

May 8th. N&jmu'd-daulah dies, and is succeeded by his brother, 
§aifu'd-daulah. The NiajAm (Nigdm 'AH) cedes the N. SarkAi-s 
to the English for 5 Idkhs per annum 1766 

January. Lord Olive sails for England. September. The troops of 
the NiJ^Am and Haidar 'All attack the English . . . . 1767 

Treaty with the Nig^m, who cedes the Kam&tak, Bdldghdt, and 
reduces the tribute for the Barkers. The English attack Gaidar 
'AH 1768 

April 4th. Qaidar, at the gates of Madras, forces the English to 
conclude a peace 1769 

March 10th. §aifu'd-daulah dies, and is succeeded by his brother, 
MubAraku'd-daulah 1770 

War between Etaidar and the Mardthas. Shdh 'Alam II. enters 
Dim with the Mardthas . . * 1771 

July. Mardthas make peace with ^aidar 1772 

AUdhdbdd and Korah sold to the Niiwdb of AJwadh (Oude) for 50 
Idkhs ; the Niiwdb agrees with Warren Hastings to pay 40 Idkhs 
for the reduction of Rohilkhand. Tanjiir taken by the English 
on the 16th of Sept., at the instigation of the Niiwdb of the 
Kanidtak, and the Rdjd handed over to the Niiwdb. The Dutch 
expelled by the English from Ndgapatnam. June. Act to lend 
the Company £1,400,000 at 4 per cent. Act to regulate the 
votes of Proprietors of East India Stock, giving one vote to 
holders from £500 to £1000, two votes from £1000 to £3000, 
three from £3000 to £6000, four from £6000 to £10,000. Six 
Directors to' go out by rotation. The other Presidencies sub- 
ordinated to Bengal. Supreme Court established at Calcutta . 1773 

April 23rd. The RohiUas defeated by the EngUsh. Dec. 28th. 
Salsette and Bassln taken by the Bombay troops . . . 1774 

March 6th, Treaty between the Bombay Government and Raghubd, 
the deposed Peshwd, who cedes Salsette and Bassln, and the 
revenues of Bhanich. May. The Bombay army march to the 
aid of Raghubd, and gain several successes. The Supreme 
Government disapprove of the proceedings of the Bombay Go- 
vernment, who are compelled to withdraw their troops, where- 
upon Raghubd retreats to Surat. A^afu'd-daulah, Niiwdb of 
Awadh, cedes Bandras to the Company, who guarantee to him 
by treaty AUdhdbdd and Korah. Deceml)er 11th. Lord Pigot 
succeeds to the Government of Madras 1775 

April 11th. Rdjd of Tanjiir restored. August 5th. Nand Kumdr 
hanged for forgery. Lord Pigot (August 24th) aiTCsted by 
two suspended members of Council and their faction, and im- 
prisoned 1776 

July. Ohandran^ar (Chandemagore), Machhlipatnam, and Ka- 
rikal taken from the French, August 10th. The French fleet 



30 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

DATES. 

defeated off Puducheri, and driven from the coast by the English. 
October, ruducheri sun-enders. Hastings tenders his resigna- 
tion to the Court of Dii-ectors, who accept it, but he subse- 
quently disowns it 1777 

January 4th. Expedition to PunA to support Raghubd. It fails, 
however, and the English are compelled to sign a treaty, by 
which they give up RaghubA and all their acquisitions since 1756. 
January 30th. General Goddard's celebrated march across India. 
He reaches Burhdnpiir in the Ni?:.dm's country, leaves it on the 
6th of February, and reaches Surat on the 26th .... 1779 

January 15th. Convention of Wargdoii, by which everything taken 
from the Mardthas since 1773 was restored to them January 15th 1779 

January 2nd. General Goddard crosses the Taptl, and takes Dabhoi 
(Jan. 20th), and A^maddbM (Feb. 15th), and April 5th he 
defeats Sindhia. August 25th. Sir Hector Munro arrives from 
Madras to oppose Gaidar. September 10th. BaiUie's defeat and 
surrender. 11th. The English retreat, and reach Madras on the 
13th. October 31st. IJaidar takes Arcot. November 5tlL Sir 
Eyre Coote arrives at Madi'as with reinforcements . . . 1780 

January 17th. Advance of Sir E. Coote. July 1st. He defeats 
Gaidar near Porto Novo, and returns to Madras in November. 
June 22nd. Lord Macartney arrives at Madras as Governor. 
Sadras, Palikat, and Ndgapatnam taken from the Dutch. Octo- 
ber 24th. Judgeship of §a!dr DlwAni given by W. Hastings to 
Sir Elijah Impey, already Chief Judge of the Supreme Court. 
The Commons recall Impey in May following. The Company's 
Charter renewed by 21 Geo. III., c. 65, till March, 1794 ; tlie 
Company to pay £400,000, and to be allowed a dividend of 
8 per cent 1781 

General Goddard retreats from Kampuli to Panwell with the loss 
of 438 rank and file, and 18 European officers killed and 
wounded, pursued by the Marathas under Hari Paiit and 
Parshurdm BhAo and Tukoji Holkar, April 23rd . . . 1781 

February 18th. Colonel Brathwaite, with 100 Europeans, 300 
cavalry, and 1,500 Sipdhls, after a gallant defence of two days, 
overpowered by Tlp\i, and his whole force cut to pieces or made 
prisoners. The battle took place about 40 miles from Tanjiir, 
on the Koleriin river. 19th. The French land 2000 men to aid 
Tlpii. April 12th. Indecisive action between the fleets of Ad- 
miral Hughes and the French Admiral Suffrein. August 31st. 
The French take Trinkomali. September 8th. Action between 
the fleets, in which the English have the advantage. Dec. 7th, 
Death of Gaidar 'AH 1782 

General Matthews takes Bedniir. March. M. Bussy lands at 
Gudaliir (Cuddalore). General Stuart, who had succeeded Sir 
Eyre Coote, being ordered to march on Gudaliir, refuses, but 
sets out on the 21st of April at the rate of 2^ miles a day. He 
attacks Gudaliir on the 13th of June, and is repulsed with the 
loss of 62 officers and 920 men, nearly all Europeans, kiUed or 
mortally wounded. Indecisive action between Hughes and 
Suffrein. General Stuart's army saved by the peace between 
the English and the French : he is arrested and sent to England. 
The French possessions in India restored in pursuance of the 
treaty of Versailles. Trinkomali restored to the Dutch. Tipii 



Sect. I. EVENTS CONNECTING INDIA WITH EUROPE 31 

DATES. 

retakes Bedniir, where Colonel Macleod had superseded General 
Matthews. The English army made prisoners, and treated 
with great cruelty by Tlpii 1783 

January 24th. The Englisn garrison of Mangali!Lr, which had been 
besieged by Tipii since May 23rd, 1783, capitulates, and marches 
out with all the honours of war. March 11th. Peace with 
Tipii ; conquests on both sides restored. August 13th. Mr. 
Pitt's Bill, 24 Geo. in., c. 25, estabUshes Board of Control . . 1784 

Pulo Penang, or Prince of Wales' Island, purchased by the Com- 
pany, and occupied July 6th. 26 Geo. III., c. 16, empowers 
Govemor-Genei^ to act in opposition to his Council ; c. 25 
grants the power of recall of the Governor-General to the Crown 1786 

February 13tii. Trial of Warren Hastings began. Defence began 
June 2nd, 1791 ; acquitted April 23rd, 1795. The Court grant 
him an annuity of £4,000 for 28| years from the 24th of June, 
1785. September. Guntiir ceded by the Ni?;&m .... 1788 

Decennial land settlement in Bengal began ; the same in Bah&r 
next year : the whole completed in 1793, when it was declared 
perpetuaL This is the permanent settlement of. Lord Corn- 
wallis, by which the Zamind^rs were declared landowners, they 
having been only the revenue agents of the Mughul Government, 
December 24th. Tipii attacks the lines of Travankor . . . 1789 

May 7th. Tipii ravages part of Travankor. June. Alliance be- 
tween the English, Mar^thas, and &g Nigdm against him : 
signed by the Mar^t^As on the 1st of June, by the Ni^^m on the 
4th of July. June 13th. General Meadows opens the campaign 1790 

February 5th. Lord Comwallis marches to V^lilr. March 21st. 
Takes Bengaliir. May 26th. The English, on their retreat owing 
to disease, are joined by the Mar^thas. July. The allies reach 
Bengaliir 1791 

February 6th. The allies storm the redoubts at Shrlrangpatnam 
(Seringapatam). March 9th. Tipii signs treaty, by which he 
agrees to pay £3,300,900, and to give his two eldest sons as 
hostages 1792 

Zila or District Courts for Civil Causes established in Bengal ; 
Courts of Appeal at Calcutta, Patna, Dhdka (Dacca) and Mur- 
shidAbdd ; ^adr DlwAni 'AdAlat (Final Civil Appeal) at Cal- 
cutta, and §adr Nis;4mat 'Adalat (Final Criminal Appeal). Pu- 
ducheri and other French settlements taken for the third time. 
New Charter for 20 years ; salaries of Commissioners of Board 
of Control to be paid by the Company ; the Commissioners not 
necessarily to be Privy Councillors. Company to provide 300 
tons of shipping for private traders 1793 

Sons of Tlpii restored to him 1794 

The Mardthas defeat the Ni^dm and compel him to cede territory. 
The Dutch settlements in Ceylon, at Banda, Amboyna, Malacca, 
and the Cape taken. Cochin surrenders after a gallant defence 1795 

September 1st. Treaty with the Ni^dm, by which he agrees to dis- 
band his French Contingent and receive four battalions of 
English 1798 

May 4th. Seringapatam stormed, and Tipii slain. Partition Treaty 
of Maistir between the Ni|;dm and the English. October 25th. 
Treaty with the RAj4 of Tanjiir, " by which he surrenders his 
power to the £ngli£^, receiving a Idkh of pagodas as pension, 



32 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

DATES. 

and one-fifth of the net revenue." December 29th. Sir J. Mal- 
colm sails fi'om Bombay as Ambassador to Persia . . . . 1799 

May l.Sth. The Niiw^b of Burat compelled to sign away his go- 
vernment for a pension of £10,000 per annum. October 12th. 
Subsidiary Treaty with the Ni?;dm, who gives up his share of 
Maisilir in consideration of English protection .... 1800 

July 16th. On the death of the NiiwAb of the Karnatak the 
English demand that his heir, *A11 Qusain, shall sign away his 
power, and on his refusal raise 'Azimu'd-daulah, his nephew, to 
the throne on that condition. October 14th. Jeswant RAo Holkar 
defeated at the battle of Indi!ir (Jndore) by Daulat Rdo Sindhia. 
November 14th. The NiiwAb of Awadh compelled to cede Rohil- 
khand and the Do4b to the company. Puducheri restored to 
the French in pursuance of the treaty of Amiens . . . . 1801 

June 4th. The NiiwAb of Farrukh^bM compelled to cede his ter- 
ritory to the English for a pension of 108,000 rupees per annum. 
October 25th. Jeswant RAo Holkar defeats Sindhia near PunA, 
whereupon the PeshwA flies to Bassin, leaving with the English 
Resident an engaigement to subsidize a body of English troops. 
The Governor-General ratifies the engagement, and agrees to 
restore the PeshwA. December 31st. Treaty of Bassin, by which 
the PeshwA agreed not to hold intercourse with any State except 
in concert with the English Government, and to cede territory 
for the support of the contingent furnished by the Company . 1802 

March. The Madras army, under General Wellesley, march on 
Puna, which they reach on the 20th of April. May 13th. The 
l*eshw4 is escorted back to Pun A by British troops. August 12th. 
General Wellesley takes Al^madnagar ; September 23rd, gains 
the victory of Assaye over Sindhia and the RAjA of NAgpur ; 
taked BurhAnplir October 13th, and Asirgarh October 2lst ; de- 
feats Sindhia at Argaum November 28th, and takes GAvelgai*h 
December 15th. General Lake takes *Aliga]*h on the 30th of 
August, defeats the MarAthas near Dilli, i^ptember 12th, and 
enters Dilll,* where he captures the Emperor and his family ; 
enters Agra October 17th, and gains the victoiy of LaswAdi 
November Ist. December 17th. The RAjA of NAgpiir cedes 
Katak (Cuttack) and agrees to admit no Europeans but the 
English into his dominions. December 29th. Sindhia cedes 
A^madnagar, Bhariich, and his forts in the DoAb, with a like 
clause about the exclusion of Europeans. Puducheri taken 
again 1803 

February 27th. Treaty of BurhAnpiir with Sindhia, who agrees to 
receive and support a British contingent. April 16th. "War 
declared against Holkar. August 24th. Colonel Murray takes 
Indilb*. October 8th. Holkar attacks Dilli, but after a nine days' 
siege is repulsed by Lieut.-Colonel8 Bum and Ochterlony. 
November 13th. General Frazer defeats Holkar at the battle of 
Dig (Deeg) and takes 87 guns. December 4th. The Fort of Dig 

taken 1804 

January 3rd. Siege of Bhartpiir (Bhurtpore) began, and lasted 
till the 22nd of February, when Lord Lake determined to retreat, 
having lost 2334 men in killed and wounded before the place. 
April 10th. The Bharatpiir RAjA signs a treaty, by which he 
agrees to pay 20 lakhs, cede ccTtain districts, and deliver his 



Sect. I. EVENTS CONNECTING INDIA WITH EUROPE. 33 

DATES. 

eldest son as hostage. October 5tli. Marquis Comwallis dies. 
November 23rd. Treaty with Sindhia. December 24th. Treaty 
with Holkar, who renounces all territory N. of the Chambal and 
in Bandalkhand, and agrees to exclude all Europeans but English 
from his dominions 1805 

July 10th. The mutiny of V61iir, in which Colonel Fancourt and 
13 other officers and 99. Europeans were massacred . . . 1806 

WarwiththeEajAof Travankor . . . . . . . 1807 

Colonel Hamilton defeats the Travankor army at Anjuricha, 
December 3rd 1808 

January 15th. Travankor army again defeated. February 10th. 
The lines stormed and entirely in possession of the English on 
February 21st, which ends the war. August 6th. The Madras 
troops at Chitradurg (Chittledroog) mutiny and seize the trea- 
sure, and march to join other mutineers at Seringapatam, but are 
routed by Colonel Gibbs. August 23rd. The mutineers at Serin- 
gapatam surrender at discretion 1809 

February 17th. Island of Amboyna taken by the English. July 
9th. Isle of Bourbon taken. August 9th. Banda ; 29th, Tcr- 
nate ; December 9th, Mauritius taken 1810 

July 21st. Charter renewed, but trade "•^vith India thrown open by 

53rd Geo. III., c. 155 1813 

May 29th. The Nipdlese attack the Police Station at Bhutwal. 
November 1st. War declared against Nipal .... 1814 

April 27th. Nipal cedes Kumdon by the convention of Almora . . 1815 

June 13th. Bdjl KAo cedes A^^madnagar and other places. October 
18th. The Governor-General takes the field against the Pindaris. 
November 6th. The GAekwM cedes AhmaddbM. November 5th. 
Battle of Khiykl, in which BAjl RAo PeshwA is defeated by Col. 
Burr, the Mardthas being 12 to 1. November 26th. Battle of 
Sitabaldl, in which Colonel Hopeton Scott defeats the Rdj4 of 
Ndgpiir, the Mar&thas being twelve times more numerous than 
the English. December 28th. Sir T. Hislop gains the battle of 
Mehidpiir against Holkar 1817 

January 6th. Holkar makes peace. May. Pin^Arl war ended by 
the destruction of the principal hordes and their chiefs. June 
3rd. BAjl RAo, the last of the PeshwAs, surrenders, and is sent 
to Bandras 1818 

The Niiwdb of Awadh (Oude) at the suggestion of Lord Hastings, 
Govemor-Genei*al, assumes the title of king, and renounces his 
nominal fealty to the Emperor of Dilll 1819 

Malacca ceded to the British by the Dutch. Singapiir purchased. 
War with Barmah. April 12th, 17th. The Bengal army embark 
for Rangiin, which is taken May 11th. August. Mergui, Tavoy, 
and Tcnasserim surrendered. October. Martaban and Yeh taken. 
November 1st. Mutiny at Barrackpiir of the 47th Bengal Native 
Infantry, with part of the 26th and 62nd Native Infantry. The 
47th erased from the army list, and many Sipdhis of that corps 
killed 1824 

February 13th. A rebellion at Bhartpiir on the death of the Rdja 
Baldev Sing. A strong faction support Durjan SAl, his brother ; 
the English declare in favour of Baldev Sing, infant son of the 
late Rdjd. December 9th. British troops march for Ava . .1825 

January 18th. English, under Lord Combermere, take Bhartpiir, 

[^owiay— 1880.] D 



34 iXTRODUCTiox. Sect. I. 

DATFS. 

with the loss of 578 men killed and wounded. February 24th. 
Treaty of Yandabu, by which the Barmese cede Assam, Arakan, 
Tavoy, Mergui, and Tenasserim, and pay £1,000,000 . . . 182(i 
February. Europeans allowed to hold lands in India in their own 
names on lease for 60 years. December. The abolition of Sati, 
or " widow burning," decreed ....... 1829 

June 18th. By 2 Wm. IV., c. 117, natives of India allowed to sit 
as jurymen and justices of the peace . / . . . . 1832 

August 18th. Royal assent given to 3 & 4 Wm. IV., c. 85, by 
which the Charter is renewed till April 30th, 1854, the property 
of the Company being held in trust for the Crown for the ser- 
vice of India. From April 22nd, 1834, the China trade of the 
Company to cease, and all their commercial transactions to 

close. St. Helena to revert to the Crown 1833 

April 6th. Mark^ra, capital of Kurg, taken. 10th. Baja deposed, 

and Kurg annexed 1834 

October 1st. The Simla Proclamation. Lord Auckland declares 
war against Dost Muhammad . . . . . . . 1838 

February 20th. Bengal army begins to march towards Afgh^is- 
tAn from Flnizpiir. March 6th. Enters the Boldn Pass. April 
12th. The Bombay army enters the BoUn ; and May 4th, joins 
the Bengal army at Kandahir. July 22nd. Fall of Ghaziil. 
August 7th. Shdh Shuj'a enters KdbuL Aden taken . . . 1839 
November 3rd. Dost Muliammad gives himself up to Sir W. Mac- 

naghten 18:10 

November 2nd. Sir A. Burnes, Lieut C. Bumes, and Lieut. Broad- 
foot, murdered at Kdbul. The Afghans rise en masse against 
the English and Shsih Shuj'a. ^ December 23rd. Sir W. Mac- 
naghten shot by Akbar IChdn. December 26th. The English 

army at Kdbul capitulate 1841 

January 6th. Betreat of the English fram K^bul commences. 
January 13th. The massacre of the British forces consummated 
at Gandamak. 18th. Akbar besieges Jaldldbdd. March 6th. 
Colonel Palmer surrenders at Ghazni. September 6th. General 
Nott retakes Ghazni. 15th. General Pollock enters Kdbul. 
17th. Bescue of Lady Sale and the Kdbul prisoners. October 

12th. The army begins to return to India 1842 

February 17th. Sir C. Napier gains the battle of Midnl ; and 
March 24th, the battle of Dabba or Qaidar&bM. December 
29th. Sir H. Gough gains the victory of MahArdjpiir (15 miles 
N.W. of Gwdlidr) over the Gwdlidr army, in the interest of the 
widow of Jankojl Rdo ^indhia; and on the same day. General 
Grey wins the battle of Panidr (a place 12 miles S.W. of 
Gw41i4r) over another division of the same army . . . 1843 
December 18th. Battle of Miidkl, in which Sir H. Hardinge and 
Sir H. Gough capture 17 guns from the Sikhs. 21st, 22nd. 
Battle of Flnizshahr ; the Sikhs lose 74 guns, the English killed 

and wounded amount to 2,415 1845 

January 28th. Battle of Aliwal. Sir H. Smith takes 48 guns from 
the Sikhs. British killed and wounded, 589. February 18th. 
Battle of Sobrdon ; the Sikhs lose 13,000 men and 67 guns, the 
English 2,383 killed and wounded. March 9th. l^aty of 
LdhtLi; the Jalandar Dodb annexed, the Sikhs to pay £1,500,000, 
and Dhallp Singh placed on the throne of Ldhiir under the 



1 



« 



Sect. I. EVENTS- CONNECTING INDIA WITH EUROrE, 35 

nXTEfl. 

protection of the British. March 16th. Kashmir given to GulAb 
Sing by the treaty of Amntsar. Guldb Sing pays £1,000,000 
of the Sikh fine 184G 

April 20th. Murder of Mr. Vans Agnew and Lieut. Anderson by 
Mulrdj, the Governor of Multdn. July. Lieut. Edwardes and 
the NAwAb of Bhdwalpiir's army, under Fat^ Mu][^ammad Ghorl, 
the former Vazlr of Mir Rustam of Sindh, lay siege to Mult4n. 
August 18th. Gen. Whlsh arrives, and batteries open on the 
12th of September; on the 22nd of which month General Whish 
is obliged to raise the siege in consequence of the desertion of 
Shir Singh with 5000 Sikhs. December 27th. Siege of Multdn 
renewed 1848 

January 2nd. Multdn taken by storm ; 13th. Battle of Chilian- 
wdla. Lord Gough's army repulsed by the Sikhs, with the 
loss of 2,357 killed and wounded ; 22nd. Mulrdj surrenders. 
February 21st. Victory of Gujardt over the Sikhs, who lose 53 
guns and all their stores. The British killed and wounded 
amount to 807. March 14th. The Sikh army, 16,000 strong, lay 
down their arms; 29th. The Panj4b annexed. May 6th. Sir C. 
Napier arrives in Calcutta as Commander-in-Chief. September. 
Mulraj sentenced to be transported for life .... 1849 

February 27th. Sir C. Napier disbands the 66th Bengal Native 
Infantry for mutiny. May 25th. Jang Bah&dur, the Nipdlese 
Ambassador, arrives in England. July 2nd. Sir C. Napier re- 
signs. October 31st. The first sod of the Bombay Railway 
turned 1850 

January 28th. Death of the ex-Peshwa Bajl Rdo at Bithiir, near 
Kdnhptir (Cawnpore). September 2l8t. Prince of Wales's 
Island, Singapi!ir, and Malacca formed into a separate govern- 
ment independent of Bengal. October 29th. British squadron 
arrives from Rangi!in to demand redress of injuries . . .1851 

April 14th. Rangiin taken by General Goodwin. June 4th. Pegu 
taken and evacuated ; 9th. Prome taken and evacuated. Octo- 
ber 9th. Prome retaken. Nov. 21st. Pegu retaken. Dec. 20th. 
Pegu annexed 1852 

June 20th. Proclamation announcing the 2nd Barmese war at an 
end. Aug. 20. By 16th & 17th Vict, c. 96, Charter renewed, 
until Parliament shall otherwise provide. After April, 1854, the 
Directors to be reduced from 24 to 18, the Crown to nominate 
six. Dec. 11th. Raghuji, the Rdj& of Ndgpiir^ having died 
without issue, his dominions were annexed .... 1853 

February 7th. The King of Awadh (Oude) deposed and his king- 
dom annexed 1856 

January. Great excitement and discontent apparent among the 
Bengal Army. 18th. The subject of the greased cartridges dis- 
cussed amongst them. 24th. The Telegraph Office at Barrack- 
piir burnt down by the Sipdhis. February 16th. General 
Hearsey harangues the Barrackpi!ir Brigade, consisting of the 
2nd Grenadiers, the 34th Native Infantry, the 43^ Light 
Infantry, and the 70th Native Infantry, on the groundlessness 
of their suspicions. Colonel Birch telegraphs to the Schools of 
Musketry at SiyAlk6t and AmbAla, in the PanjAb, to prohibit 
the use of the obnoxious cartridge. February 24th. A detach- 
ment of the 34th Native Infantry communicate their grievances 

D 2 



36 iN'THODrcTiox. Sect. I. 

DATKS. 

to the 19th Xative Infantry at Burhanpiir (Berhampore). 26th. 1857 
The 19th Native Infantry mutiny ; but after treaty with Colonel 
Mitchell give up their arms. 27th. Distribution of ehapdtig 
from KAnhptir, being the signal for a general revolt. March 
6th. The Bentinch, sent to Rangiin to bring Her Majesty's 
84th Regiment to Calcutta, returns with that corps on the 20th. 
29th. Mangal P^ndi, of the 34th Native Infantry, wounds Lieut. 
Baugh, the Adjutant of the regiment. 31 st. The 19th Native 
Infantry disbanded at Barrackpib*. April 3rd. Execution of 
Mangal Pandi. 21 st. Execution of the Jam'adar of the 34th, 
who commanded the guard on the day that Lieut. Faugh was 
wounded. May 3rd. Sir H. Lawrence suppresses a mutiny of 
the 7th -A[wadh Irregulars at Lakhnau (Lucknow). 6th. The 
34th Native Infantry disbanded at Barrackpiir. 9th. 85 troopers 
of the 3rd Bengal Cavalry placed in irons for refusing the cart- 
ridges. 10th. The 3rd Cavalry and the 11th and 20th Native 
Infantry rise and set fire to the cantonments at Mlrat, set at 
liberty the prisoners, murder many Europeans, and march for 
DilU. 11th. The mutineers reach Dilli, and are joined by the 
whole garrison, the 38th, the 54th. and 74th Native Infantry, 
and a battery of Native Artillery. The restoration of the Em- 
peror of Dilli to the throne of his ancestors proclaimed at Dilli. 
1 3th. The 45th and 57th Native Infantry mutiny at Finizpur, 
but the mutiny is quickly quelled ; other mutinies at various 
places ; the 16th, 26th, and 49th Native Infantry disarmed at 
Miydn Mir, the cantonment of Ldhiir. 16th. The Sappers and 
Miners mutiny at Mlrat, and kill their commanding officer, 
Captain Eraser. 22nd. The 24th, 27th, and 51st disarmed at 
Peshdwar ; the 55th Native Infantry dispersed or destroyed at 
Marddn ; General Anson dies of cholera at Kamul, and is suc- 
ceeded by Sir H. Barnard. 30th. The Mlrat Brigade defeat the 
mutineers of Dilli at Ghdzlu'd-din nagar. 5lst. The 48th, 71st, . 
and part of the 13th Native Infantry, and two troops of the 7th 
Cavalry, mutiny at liakhnau. June Ist. The 44th and 67th 
Native Infantry disarmed at A'gra. 4th. Mutiny of the 37th 
Native Infantry, a Sikh Regiment, and Irregular Horse at 
Bandras, and of the 6th Native Infantry at Alldhdbad, with 
great slaughter of Europeans. 5th. Mutiny of the 12th Native 
Infantry at Jhdnsl and massacre of all the i^uropeans. 6th. 
NdnA Sdhib attacl^s Sir H. Wheeler's entrenchments at Eanh- 
piir ; the revolt general throughout the Bengal army. 8th. Sir 
H. Barnard takes up a position before Dilli, £^r a sharp action 
at Badli Sardl, in which Colonel Chester, the Adjutant-General, 
is killed. June 27th. Ndhd §dhib massacres the Europeans at 
Kdnhpiir. July 1st. General Havelock's victorious advance. 
4th. Sir H. Lawrence killed by a shell at Lakhnau. 6th. Sir H. 
Barnard dies of cholera, and is succeeded by General Reid. 
17th. General Havelock retakes Kdnhpiir. 22nd. General Reid 
succeeded by General Wilson. August 2nd. Death of Gulib 
Sing. 10th. General Nicholson joins the camp at Dilli with 
a strong column. September 14th-20th. Storm and capture of 
Dilli, with the loss to the British of 1178 killed and wounded. 
25th. General Havelock and Sir J. Outram tight their way to 
the Residency at Lakhnau, where the British garrison had been 



Sect. I. EVENTS COXNECTIXG INDIA WITU EUROPE. 37 

DATE8. 

besieged since the beginning of June. Nov. 3rd. Sir C. Camp- 1857 
bell reaches Kinhptir. 11th. Advances against Lakhnau. 13th. 
Defeats the enemy and reaches the Canal. 15th. Takes the 
Dilkosh^ Palace and the La Martini6re. 16th. Storms the 
Sikandar bdgh. 17th. Opens communication with General 
Oatram. 22nd. The garrison of Lakhnau evacuate their posi- 
tion, and the retreat on Ednhpdr commences. 25th. Death of 
General Havelock. 26th. General Windham defeats the van 
of the Gwdlidr Contingent. 27. He is defeated and driven into 
his entrenchments by the GwAlidr rebels and NAn4 §d^ib, who 
take and plunder Kanhpiir. December 6th. Sir C. Campbell 
defeats the Gwdli&r rebels with great slaughter and the loss of 

nearly all their guns 1857 

January 2nd. Sir C. Campbell takes FarrukhabM. Jang Bahd- 
dur, the Nipdlese General, advancing with 10,000 Gorkhas to the 
aid of the British, takes Gorakhpib*. 12th, 16th. General Ontrani 

defeats the rebels at 'Alambdgh 1858 

Kanara assigned to Madras in 1797; restored to Bombay in . . 1862 
The walls of the Fort of Bombay pulled down .... 1863 

Elphinstone's Circle built in Bombay 1863 

Three British columns enter Afghdnistdn by the Khaibai*, Khur- 

ram, and Bolan Passes 21st November, 1878 

Fort of 'All Masjid evacuated ; Shir *Ali leaves Kdbul, 

22nd November, 1878 
Major-General Roberts defeats the Afghans at the Paiwar Pass, 

21st December, 1878 
General Roberts announces that the territory he had occupied 

would not be restored .... 26th December, 1878 

Mangals defeated by General Roberts in the Khost Valley, 

7th January, 1879 
Sir D. Stewart's column reaches Kandahdr . 8th January, 1870 

Shdhz^ah Muhammad Jambar left as Governor at Mdtun, 

29th January, 1879 
He is menaced by the Mangals, relieved by Roberts, and Khost 

evacuated January, 1879 

The Governor, Mir Af^al Khdn, father of the mother of 'Abdu'lldh 
Jan, fled ; Wall Muhammad, son of the Amir Dost Muhammad, 
left Kdbnl and joined the British at Jaldldbdd . Januaiy, 1879 
Y'akiib Khdn writes that he desires peace . 20th Februaiy, 1879 

Shir 'All dies of gangrene at Mazdr i Sharif, 12 m. from Balkh, 

21st Febmary, 1879 
Cavagnari replies first that the Amir must renounce authority over the 
Khaibar and Michni Passes, and the tribes near to Khurram and 
the crest of the Shutur Gardan Pass ; Peshin and Sibi must remain 
under the authority of the British Government . 7th March, 1879 
European Residents must, with suitable guards, be placed where 
deemed necessary by the British, and KdbuPs foreign relations 
must be controlled by the British. 
Y'akiib agrees to the rest, but protests against cession of territory, 

12th March, 1879 
T'akiib is informed that the demands cannot be withdrawn, 

23rd March, 1879 
Y'akiib repeats his protest in an able letter, but agrees to receive 
aBritish Resident at Kdbul .... 29th March, 1879 



38 IXTRODUCTIOK. Sect. 1. 

DATES. 

The Ebaibar column advances to Gandamak, 63 m. from Kabul, 

March, 1879 

The Secretary of State telegraphs that if Y'akilb is to have his 
foreign policy controlled, the British Government will support 
him with money, troops, and arms against foreign aggression, 

13th April, 1879 

Y'a^b arrives at Gandamak on 8th May, and the Treaty is signed 

26th May, 1879 

Telegraph to be constructed to KAbul, Amnesty for Afghans who 
aided English, Traders to be protected, and an annual subsidy 
of £60,000 to be paid to the Amir .... May, 1879 

Sir Louis Cavagnari, Mr. Jenkyns, C.S., Dr. Kelly, with an escort 
from the Guides Corps of 25 horse and 60 infantry under Lieut. 
W. Hamilton, V.C, left the frontier at *Ali Khel on 18th July 
and arrived at KAbul 24th July, 1879 

The Residency stormed, British oflBicers all killed, and nearly all 

the escort 3rd September, 1879 

Brigadier-General Massey occupies the Shutur Gardan, 

11th September, 1879 

Proclamation of Gen. Roberts as to his advance, 16th September, 1879 

Y'al^iib arrives in Brigadier-General Baker's camp at Khushl, 

27th September, 1879 

Sir Frederick Roberts collects his force at Khushi, 38 m. beyond 

'AH Khel, which is 82 m. from KAbul . " . 1st October, 1879 

2nd Proclamation of General Roberts . . 3rd October, 1879 

He reaches Chdrasidb, 12 m. from Kabul . . 5th October, 1879 

The heights carried and 20 guns taken . . . 6th October, 1879 

The fortified cantonment of Shlrpiir with 76 guns taken, 

9th October, 1879 

3rd Proclamation of General Roberts . . . 12th October, 1879 

Roberts encamps on the heights of Siah Sahg, E. of KAbul ; enters 
the Bdl^ Qis^ and traverses the city, 12th and 13th 
October 1879 

Shutur Gardan attacked, defended by Colonel Noel Money, who 
repulses the AfghAus ; British garrison advances to KAbul, 

14th to 19th October, 1879 

M.-General Hills appointed Governor of Kdbul, and Commission 
to investigate cause of the late outbreak ; Colonel Macgregor, 
Dr. Bellew, and Mul|;iammad Haidt Khan members ; Military 
Commission, Brig.-General Massey,Major Moriarty,and Captain 
Guinness members, who execute 5 Afghdns . . 20th October, 1879 

4th Proclamation of General Roberts, announciug the abdication 
of Y'akiib and assuming the Government of Kdbul. 

28th October, 1879 

Supplementary Proclamation of Roberts ordered by Government 

of India 29th October, 1879 

Col. C. Gough reaches Gandamak on the 22nd gf October, and 

junction with Macpherson .... 7th November, 1879 

5th Proclamation of General Roberts, granting amnesty tc^ rebels 
who give up arms and retire to their houses, except those con- 
cerned in the murder of Sir L. Cavagnari . 12th November, 1879 

General Roberts reports that 28 persons had been executed in ac- 
cordance with the finding of the Military Commission, 

15th November, 1879 



r 



Sect. L CAPTAINS OF basbIn. 39 

DATKS. 

Y'akiib sent prisoner to India . . . . Ist Becember, 1871) 

Koberts reviews British force at Kabul, when 4,700 officers and 
men paraded ; total force at Shirpiir, 5,000 — 6,000 men, 

8th December, 1879 

Macpherson drives back the Kohistdnis at Sonth Kotal, 

10th Decembei-, 1879 

Massey, with 4 H. A. guns, 2 sqnadrons of 14th Bengal Cavalry, 
9th Lancers and 19th, sharply engaged with enemy advancing 
from Arghandi, who captured his guns, but these are recovered 
by Col. Macgregor same day ; critical state of Shlrpilir can- 
tonment ; Afgh£is occupy the Talcht i Sh&h heights, 

11th December, 1879 

Colonel Noel Money is sent to recover Takht i Sh^h, but carries 

only the lower range .... 12th December, 1879 

Brig.-General Baker attacks Takht i Sh&h from E. and Money from 
W. ; Baker returns to Shirpiir, but Macpherson remains at 
Dih Mogang ; Afghdns threaten Takht i Shdh in great force ; 
Macpherson leaves Dih Mogang . . . 13th December, 1879 

Afghans enter K4bul and Dih Afgh&n, and occupy Eoh Asmai ; 
Baker, with the 72nd, 92nd, Guides, and 5th P. I., attack the 
Afghans and carry the heights, but the enemy retake a conical 
hiU and capture 2 mountain guns ; Robeits retires into Shirpiir, 

14th December, 1879 

Afgh^s plunder the Hindil and Kizalbdsh houses in Kdbul, 

16th— 22nd December, 1879 

They attack Shirpiir on the 23rd, but are repulsed ; loss of the 
British force from 10th to 23rd, 110 killed and 252 wounded ; 
force at Khurram remained inactive 1879 

Gth Proclamation of Roberts, offering amnesty to all but Muham- 
mad J4n of Wai*dak, Mir Bachchah Kohistani, Samundar 
Khdn Logarh, Ghuldm Gaidar of Charkh, and the murderers 
of Sard^ Muhammad Ijrasan Khdn . . 23rd December, 1879 

Captains of Baadn* 

1. Garcia de Sa 1535 

2. Rui Vaz Pereira 1536 

Antonio de Silveira 1536 

3. Manuel de Macedo 1537 

4. Rui Louren^o de Tavora 1538 

Garcia de SA 1538 

5. Dom Francisco de Menczes 1541 

(). Dom Jeronimo de Menezes o Baccctlmo 1545 

7. Jorge Cabral 1548 

8. Francisco Barreto 1549 

\). Francipco de SA 1554 

10. Nuno Vas de Castello Branco 1611 

11. Gaspar Pereira 1620—1623 

12. Gaspar de Mello de Miranda 1630 

13. Rui Dias da Cunha 1635 

14. Andr6 Salema 1639 

15. Dom Alvaro d' Almeida 1650 

16. Manuel Corte Real Sempail 1653 

17. JoSo de Siguiera de Faria 1661 — 1664 



\ 



40 INTRODUCTION. Sect 1. 

DATES. 

18. Dom Antonio de Souto Maior 1667 

19. Manuel Teixeira Franco 1670 

20. Jeronimo Manuel Albuquerque 1671 

21. Henrique da Silva de E9a 1672 

22. Andr6 Pereira dos Reis 1675 

23. Fernando Antonio Souto Maior 1677 — 1678 

24. Manuel Tavares da Gama 1693 

26. Dom Antonio Vasco de Mello 1712—1717 

26. Francisco Pereira Pinto .../.... 1728 

27. Jofio Barbosa Barros 1738 

Jofto Xavier Pereira Pinto 1738 

28. Caetano de Souza Pereira 1739 

§ g. TABLES OF MONEY, ETC. 

The value of a rupee has been assumed till the last few years as 
equal to 2«. It weighs 180 grs. troy = to 1 told, and consists of 11 
parts silver and one alloy. The gold rupee is of the same weight 
and standard. The copper coins are the § ana, weighing 200 gi*s. ; 
the i dnd, or paisd, 100 gre. ; the ^ paisil, 50 grs., and tne pie, 33j^ 
grs. 

TABLES. £ ^ ^; 

. 1 Pie U U 0-4 

1 Paisd, or J una Of 

1 And 14 

1 Rupee 2 

1 Gold Rupee 1 10 

1 Gold Muhr 1 12 

iLakh 100,000 

1 Karor 10,000,000 

Bombay Local Weiglits. 

4 Dbdn, or yav (grain) = 1 Rati . . . 2-1207 gr. Ir. 

8 Rati . . . . = 1 Mdshah . . . 8-6069 ,, ., 

4 Mdshah . . . -- 1 ^dnk . . . 68*055 ., ., 

72 Tdnk, or 30 psTs . . = 1 Ser = 4900 gr. tr. 

=s 27 Tolds 4 grains = 11 J oz. av. 

40 Sers = 1 Man . . = 28 lb. .. 

20 Mans . . . . = 1 Khaiidi . . — 560 „ ,, 

^J. ,, . a • . . =S .1 ., . . ^ OOO ,, .« 
*l£ „ • • • . ^ J. ., . , ^ OlO ,, .. 

22 „ 9 lb - \ ., . . = 625 ,, !, 

28 „ . . . =s 1 „ . . = 784' „ „ 

30 ., = 1 ... . = 840 „ ., 

Surat KhaucU 821i ., „ 

Khaiidl for iron 746 J „ „ 

Besides the above, various articles are bought and sold by special 
weight. The Pakd ber is \\\ lbs. av., or 72-59 tolds. At Panwel the Ser 
weighs 72-83 tolds. 

Ahmadnagar and SJwldpiir. 

At Alljimadnagar the Palla is 2 4 Mans. At Sholdptir 1 manki » 4 tha^as 
= 12 Sers. 



Sect. I. I'ABLES OF WEIGHTS AKD MEASURES. 41 

Sdtdrd, 

The Ser varies from 92*75 tolds at Kolah to 115 toUs at Mandapiir. 
In SAtAra city is 93-25 tolds. 

Sural. 

Tlie Surat Ser of 35 Surat tolas varies fron 36-4683 to 37 tolds. The 
Khandf for cotton is 21 Mans, or 7 cwt. 3 J lbs. 

Bharfieh. 
At Bhardch the Ser is 40 tolas. 

Native Jexcellers Weujht. 

1 Dhan . . . . p gr. troy. 

4 Dhan = 1 Rati ll" » f, 

8 Bati = 1 Mdshali . . . . 15 ., ., 

12 Mdshah = 1 Tola 180 „ .. 

A Dhdn is 0*46875 gr. troy, 0*0303745 French grammes. 

Goldsm iths'' Wei/jli t. 

2 Gunj = 1 Wal . . = 3*8282 gr. troy. 

4 Wal = 1 Mashah . . . ^ 15*3128 „ „ 

12 MAshah = 1 Tola . . ^ 183*7536 ,, „ 

Mashas, ratls, dhAns ai*e employed in the native valuation of assay of 
the precious metals ; thus, " 10 mashahs fine " signifies 10-12th8 pure, or 
the same as 10 oz. touch. 





Measures of Length. 




3 Jau 


. = 


1 Ungli . 


^ ill. 


4 Ungli 


, zz: 


1 Muthi 


•J 


12Ungli . 


= 


1 Bilisht . 


. ./ «« 


2 Bilisht . 


, mz 


1 HAth or Cubit . 


. 18 ., 


2 Hdth 


, ^^ 


1 Gaz or yaixl . 


3 ft. 


4.H4th . 


, ZIS 


1 Danda or Bam . 


2 yds. 


2000 Danda . 


= 


1 Kos 


4000 ., 


4Kos 


=: 


1 Yojan . . . 


9-li ill. 


• 


Bombay Cloth Measure, 




2 Ungli . 


1 J 


1 Tassii . 


IJ in. 


24Tassu . . . 


^= 


1 Gaz . 


07 



In Pun^the Gaz is 34|-tli in., but English cloth is sold by the yard. 



MEASUEES OF SURFACE. , 

Bombay, Fund, etc. 

34^ Square, Hdths. . . = 1 KAthi. 

20 Kdthi = 1 Band, or Vaso. 

20 Band = 1 Bigha. 

6 Bigh4 = 1 Rukah. 

120 Blghd = 1 Chahur. 

In some places the survey chain of 33 feet is used, and 

16 Ands, or links . . . . « 1 Gatthd, or chain. 

40 Gatthd = 1 Acre 



42 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

Gujarat, 

20 Khunt . . . . = 1 Padtal. 

20 Padtal . . . . = 1 Padat. 

20Padat . . . . « 1 Vishwashi. 

20Vishwashi . . . = 1 VasA. 

20 VasA = 1 Vingho, BighA or Don. 



36 Tanks 

2 Tipari . 

4 Sers . 
11 Payale . 

8 Pharas, or Faras 
25Phara8 . 



Bombay Dry Measure. 

= 1 Tipari .... llj oz. av. 

= 1 Ser 1 lb. 6 oz. av. 

= 1 Payale, or Adhalo . . 1 „ 9 „ „ 

= 1 Phara, or Fara . . . 89 „ 11 „ „ 

= 1 Khandi . .712 „ 11 „ „ 

= 1 Muda . . . . 59 qrs. bushel. 



A Bombay gallon'of water = 5 Sers dry measure, which gives 8*125 lbs. 
weight. The Ser of oil only contains 30 tolas weight. As a measure of 
Time it is only necessary to mention Ghari, which = 24 min. 

§ h. CASTES AND TRIBES IN THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 

The most important tribe in the Bombay Presidency is the Ma- 
ratha. According to the Tatwa (part of the Jyotish Shdstra) Maha- 
rashtra, the land of the Mardthas extends N. to the Chdndod Hills in 
about N. lat. 20° 30' and W. along those mountains to the Wain 
Gangd, E. of Nagpur and S. to about Qoa. The Marathas are to be 
found, to the number of several millions, scattered over this tract. 
But the part which is more especially Maratha is the Kohkan-Ghat- 
Mathd, "the top of the Konkan Ghats," a tract 25 m. broad, 
divided into the Mdwals, the Khords, and the Murrhens. The people 
of these places were the soldiers of Shivaji, who conquered for nim a 
large portion of the Dakhan. It is said by Grant Duff that they 
are remarkable for their simple, inoffensive demeanour, but are 
hardy and patient, and have been, and may still be, led to daring 
enterprises. In many respects thev resemble the Rdjpiits, but are 
far more temperate and frugal. The Peshwds were Maratha Brdh- 
mans of the fconkan, and Konkanists, hence pretend to superiority 
in caste. The Brdhmans of this tract are possessed of great intelli- 
gence, and a capacity for intrigue not to be surpassed. 

The Pdrsis. — The Pdrsls, so called from their original country, 
Pdrs, Persia. They migrated to India in the 7th century, and are of 
larger stature than the other peoples of Bombay. They are fire- 
worshippers, but endeavour to maintain the purity of all the 
elements, whence their dead bodies are placed in towers to be de- 
voured by vultures and then dissolve into dust. In this way they 
fancy that none of the elements are polluted. They are easily dis- 
tinguishable by their hats, which have a square front but sink down 
towards the back of the head, so as to form a hollow in which they 
often put flowers. Their numbers do not reach 200,000, of which 
the greater part reside in or near Bombay. They eat meat and 



Sect. I. CASTES AND TRIBES — THE PARSfs. 43 

drink wine, and many of them wear European clothes. Their 
women are remarkable for their morality, and, taken as a body, they 
are the most molized people in India. 

After their arrival in India, the Parsis were governed by Pan- 
chdyats » lit. councils of 5, consisting in Bombay of 12 members, 
and in the districts of such a nuniber as circumstances allowed. 
Up to about 60 years ago, Surat was looked upon as the head- 
quarters of the Pdrsls. There, and generally in the districts, the 
Panchdyats acted more or less independently of Bombay. About 20 
years ago the Bombajr Panchayat began to lose authority, and a 
movement began outside it for drawing up regulations as to in- 
heritances, marriage, and divorce, and the Panchayat now acts only 
as trustee for Pdrsi charities, and as ctistos of places of worship and 
of the Towers of Silence. No compulsory contributions are levied, 
except a small fee for registration of marriages. There is a fund 
for support of the poor in charge of the Panchdyat, and another 
managed by Sir Jamshidjfs Pdrsi Benevolent Institution. Dis- 
bursements are made from interest, and capital is untouched. Part 
of the fund is devoted to educational purposes, both in Bombay and 
in the districts. There is a Dharam Said for the Pdrsi poor at the 
foot of the Towers of Silence in Chaupatti. No Pdrsi is ever seen 
begging. There is also a fund for parymg the Jaziyah, or capitation 
tax levied on the Parsis in Persia. Manikji Limji Atdriya is still 
agent for the Pdrsis in Persia, and resides at Tehran. In spite of 
the petition to the Shdh respecting the wrongs inflicted on his Pdrsi 
subjects, no redress of grievances has been vouchsafed. There are no 
statistics as to the increase of numbers of the Pdrsis, and the census 
before last is not reliable. The two most prominent conversions to 
Christianity are those of the Rev. Dhanjlbhdi Naurozji, who resides 
in Bombay, and the Rev. Hormazdjl, who lives at Pund ; there are 
other conversions, but none to Isldm. The Pdrsis would willingly 
enter the army as officers, and Mdnikjl Khurshidjl applied for a 
commission for his son, but it was refused. The pay of privates is 
too small to induce Parsis to enlist, but they have no other objection. 
There is a Pdrsi in the military service of a Native State. The most 
learned Pdrsis at present are Klhurshldjl Rustamjl Kdma, who knows 
Zand and Pahlavt Two Dastiirs (the highest rank of Pdrsi priests) 
are very learned. One is Pesliotanji Bahramjl Sanjdna, who is head 
of the Zand College, which is located in one of the 3 large fire- 
temples in Girgdoh Road. Another temple is in Chandanwadi ; and 
the 3rd in Aggdri, into which temples none but Pdrsis may enter. 
If illegitimate children are brought up as Pdrsis, they are received into 
the community. A Pdrsi gentleman married an English lady, and 
after her death married her sister in Switzerland. There is no in- 
stance of an Englishman marrying a Pdrsi woman. Bigamy is not 
allowed. Widows may marry again, and do so. There are no 
Pdrsi women of disreputable character. 

Bhils, orBdmosis. — " These, although their office is the same when 
employed on the village establishment, are different castes of people, 
but they resemble each other in many of their habits ; both are pro- 
fessed thieves. The Rdmosls belong more particularly to Mahd- 



44 INTRODUCTION. Sect. I. 

rdslitra. The BkQs in the Mardtha country are only found in 
Khandesh, and along the Sahyddri range N. of Junnar. In villages 
they generally hold the office of watchman ; and when a country is 
settled, they become useful auxiliaries in the police ; but, under a 
weak government, or when anarchy prevails, they quit their habi- 
tations, and become thieves and robbers. The Edmosis use the sword 
and matchlock, the Bhils more commonly the bow and arrow ; the 
latter are less domesticated than the former. Bhils abound to the 
N. of the Nirbada and over the greater part of Gujardt. When 
employed on the -vdllage establishment they are in that province 
called Burtinneas" (Grant Duff, vol. i., j). 34.) 

Bohrahs, — " These are a well-to-do class of Muslims who venerate 
the representative of Hasan Sabdh, who died 1124 a.d., the prince 
of the assassins. His representative, Saiyad Muhammad Husain, 
oJlias A'gha Khan Muhulati, after a struggle with the Shah, fled from 
Kermdn to India, and is now residing in Bombay. There are in the 
Surat Collectorate 4,57*7 trading Bohrahs, who have their head quar- 
ters in the city of Surat, where their chief priest, the MuUtl Sahib, 
resides. They go great distances to trade and visit, and some- 
times settle in China and Siam." {Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ii. 
p. 38.) 

After the death of 'Alf s two sons, murdered a.d. 660, the family 
of 'All fell into obscurity. The followers of 'Ali assumed the title 
of Imamis, regarding the Imdm as semi-divine. After the death of 
Imam J'atir Sddik, a.d. 769, the Ism'ailis arose, who traced the 
Imdmi succession through Ism'ail J'afir^s son, who died in his 
father's lifetime. The other 'Aliites traced it through another son 
of J'afir to Muhammad Mahdi, w^ho disappeared, but is supposed to 
be still living. The Shi'a* doctrines were adopted by the Persians 
on the foundation of the Safavi dynasty in a.h. 905 z= a.d. 1499, and 
from that period till the present time have prevailed as the national 
religion and law of Persia, notwithstanding the efforts made by 
Ashraf and Nadir to substitute the Sunny creed. According to Sir 
H. Rawlinson, A'ghd Khdn, whose real name is Muhammad Husain, 
is a lineal descendant of the 6th Imdm, and he is the Pir, or Saint 
of the Khojahs. Irf a celebrated case, tried at Bombay in June, 
1866, a body of the Khojahs, headed by Ahmad Habfb Bhai, sup- 
ported by 700 to 800 adult followers, petitioned that A'gha Kjigin 
should be removed from being the head of the sect. They con- 
tended that the Khojahs had been Sunnis from the time when 
they had been converted from Hinduism. This diWsion of the sect 
began in 1830, and the seceders moved to Chinch Bandar in 1861, 
and built a Mosque there. The Khojahs do not perform the Hajj 
or pilgrimage to Mecca, but they go to Kerbela. The Shi'as pray 
with their hands open, and pray 3 times a day, not 5 ; the Sunnis 
pray with their arms folded, the Shi'as with their arms straight down 
at their sides. A'ghd Khdn rebelled in Persia in 1838, and in 1840 
fled to Sindh. The Khojahs gave him so much money that he was 

*■ See Morley's " Administration of Justice in India," page 250. 



Sect. I. CASTES AND TRIBES— HALIS — WARALIS. 45 

able to levy and maintain a body of horse, which aided us in 1841- 
1842, for which he got a pension in 1843. He came to Bombay 
in 1845. There are 2,810 families of Khojahs in Sindh; in 
Kathiawad, 5,000 ; in Bombay, 1,400 ; in Zanzibai^, 450 ; in 
Maskat, 4do. 

Halls, lit. " ploughmen," are hereditary servants, or serfs, and are 
of various tribes — Chodhras, Ndikds, Dhondias, and Kolls. They 
live in groups, forming distinct hamlets. Their dwelling is a hut 
with a single room, made of cane, plastered with mud, and thatched. 
A piece of matting to sleep on, and a few earthenware cooking 
vessels, are all their fumitui'e. The men wear a scanty and coarse 
cloth called a dhot, with one for the head called fdlin. The women, 
a sheet called sdlio. Their master gives them these once a year, or 
more generally they buy them out of their extra earnings. They 
are fed in the public room of their master's house on millet, bread, 
pulse, and a jug of whey. They work from 6 a.m. to sunset. When 
there is no work in the fields, the Hdli cuts faggots and takes 
them to market. On the price of this he subsists, as he gets no 
grain from his master at such timp. When the serfs of different 
masters marry, the man continues to work for his master and the 
woman for hers. The children are divided, or if there is only one 
son his seiTices are shared. A Avidow may marry again, but her 
son by the first marriage is bound to the service of her first hus- 
band's master. Treated with kindness, the Halis are contented, and 
from their extreme ignorance are happier and perliaps better fed 
than if they depended on themselves. 

Depressed Castes. — Hindus consider the touch of these castes pol- 
lution. They are Dhers, Bhangias, and Mhdrs. They are generally 
employed as sweepers. A few, however, have been educated, and 
there is one in a government office at Bombay. 

Kolis. — These in the Ahmaddbdd Collectorate alone number 
208,053, and are divided into Talahda, numbering 146,517, and 
Chuvalia, 57,750. Under the Marathas they were in a chronic state 
of revolt, were treated as outcasts, and called Mehvds, or " faithless." 
Some of them are now village watchmen, trackers, and labourers, 
but most are well-to-do husbandmen. They are undoubtedly 
aborigines, and belong to the dark races. 

The Wdralis. — The following is the account of this tribe given by 
Dr. Wilson in the 7th vol. of the " Trans, of the Roy. As. Soc.j" 
p. 14 :— 



" When Dr. Smyttan and I went out to view the village of Umargaupa, 
we found three or four WAralls, who bad come down from the jungles 
with the view of disposing of bamboos which they had cut. Their hair 
was black and lank ; their bodies were oiled ; and altogether they had a 
very wild appearance. They spoke MarAthi, and seemed to be highly 
amused at having a European to speak with them. On questioning them, 
we found that they have no connection either with the Brdhman or the 
Hindii religion, that they have priests of their own, and very few re- 
ligious rites of any kind, and that these rites principally refer to mar- 



4G INTRODUCTION, Scct. I. 

riages and deaths. They move about in the jungles according to their 
wants, many of their villages being merely temporary. Their condition 
is well worthy of being inquired into. In an old book of tr-'ivels, I find 
their tribe represented as much addicted to thieving. In the Pur^as, 
they are spoken of as the Kdlaprajd, in contradistinction to the common 
Hindiis, who are denominated the SubhrAprajd. There are other tribes 
in the jungles whose state is similar to theirs, and should be investigated. 
The wildness of their country and the difficulties and dangers of moving 
in it are obstacles in the way of research. 

" They were the most ignorant persons I have ever met with. They 
answered all my questions with the exclamation, * How is it possible for 
Its to know such matters ? * and laughed most immoderately at my inquiries, 
both as to their novelty and the idea of my expecting them to know any- 
thing about them. Two days afterwards, at a neighbouring village, I sat 
down beside a small company with the view of examining them at length 
respecting their tenets and habits. Amongst other questions, I asked 
them if Siey expected to go to God after death. * How can we get to 
God after death ? ' said they ; * men even banish us from their abodes ; how 
will God allow us to approach him ? * 

** After leaving Kakholl, two marches from Ddman, we visited a con- 
siderable number of other htctteries belonging to the Wdralis, and 
situated in the Company's territories. The principal of them were those 
of Kuddd, Parjl, Dhabdrl, Phalsunl, Kinhauli, Thaldsarl, and Pirn purl. 
The boundaries of the country of the Waralls it is difficult to 
specify. Their principal locations are Nehar, Sanjdn, Udwach, BAharach, 
Asharl, Thaldsarl, and Gambirgad. They are also found near the 
coast, but less frequently the farther south. Their total number may bo 
about 10,000. 

" The Wdralis are more slender in their form than the common agri- 
culturists in the Mardtha country, and they are somewhat darker in their 
complexion. They seldom cut either the hair on their heads or beards ; 
and on ordinary occasions they are but slightly clothed. Their huts are 
sometimes quadrangular and sometimes circular, and on the whole are 
very convenient, being formed by bamboos and bramble twisted into a 
framework of wood, and so thickly covered with dried grass as to be im- 
pervious both to heat and rain. They do not rear many cattle ; but they 
have a supei-fluity of domestic fowls. The wood which they fell near the 
banks of some of the principal streams brings them some profit; and 
altogether they appear to be in comfortable circumstances. It is pro- 
bable, from tneir consciousness of this fact and their desire to preserve 
themselves from the intrusion of other tribes, that many of them are not 
unwilling to be esteemed sorcerers. They are immoderately addicted to 
the use of tobacco, which they purchase on the coast ; and almost every 
man amongst them carries the materials for striking a light for smoking, 
in a hollow cocoa nut. They are, unfortunately, fond of ardent spirits, 
and the Pdrsis have many shops in the wilderness, placed under Hlndi!L 
servants, for their accommodation. The scarcity of money is no obstacle 
to their indulgence, as liquor can be procured for grain, gi-ass, wood, or 
any other article which may be at their disposal. 

" There are many ImU, or family divisions amongst the Wdralis, such 
as the RAvatiA, Bh&ngard (that of the chief), Bhdvar, Sankar, Hleyand, 
Meria, Wdngad, Thakarid, Jhadavd, Karbat, Bhanddr, Konddrid, &c. 
The clans indeed are so numerous, that we are forced to come to the 
conclusion that they must at one time have been a very powerful people. 
The population appears to be at present neai'ly stationary. On account 



Sect. I. CASirs and tribkh- the katodis. 47 

of the tmlieolthincss of the jungles, many of the children are cut ofP at a 
very early age. No person marries in his own clan. 

'* The Wdralt villages have not the common officers found in similar 
places among the Max&thas. They have, generally speaking, a head maii, 
who is in some degree responsible to the government for their behaviour. 
The W^ralis are not particularly noted for crime. Unless when calamities 
overtake them, they are not frequent in their visits to the images of 
W&ghid, their deity, which, at the best, are only rude forms of a tiger. 
They have an annual service for the dead, when their hhagaU, or 
elders, repeat incantations, kindle lights, and strew flowers at the 
place where the ashes of the dead have been scattered. They par- 
tially observe the two festivals of the Shimgd and Dird/i, which arc 
connected \7ith the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, and which, though 
celebrated by the Hindiis in general, are often supposed to be ante- 
Brdhmanical." 

The KdtodU, — The Kdtodis receive their name from the occupation on 
which they are principally dependent for support, the manufacture of the 
Kat, or terra japonica, from the Khair tree, or Acacia catechu. They 
principally inhabit the part of the northern Eonkan, which lies along 
the base of the Sahyddri range, and is intermediate between the N&e^ik 
and Fund roads. A few of them may be occasionally found on the £. 
face of the Ghdts, in the same latitude as the district above men- 
tioned. Major Mackintosh, who has written an interesting notice of the 
manner in which they prepare the catechu, and of some of their peculiar 
habits, speaks of them as also inhabiting the jungles of the Ath^visi be- 
tween the Ddman Gangd and Tapti Bivers. *' They may be considered 
as nomades to a certain extent,^' he says, "for, notwithstanding they 
always reside in the same countiy, they frequently change their phice of 
residence. If we are to believe their own account, they have been settled 
in the Athdvlsl from time immemorial. They have the tradition among 
them that they are descendants of the demon lUvana, the tyrant monarch 
of Lank&, and the same whom the God Rdma vanquished, and whose 
exploits are related by the distinguished poet Valmlki." They have not 
settlements of their own, like the W^a)is, but they live as outcasts near 
villages inhabited by other classes of the community. They are held in 
great abhorrence by the common agriculturists, and particularly by the 
Br^hmans, and their residences are wretched beyond belief. Among 
other things, they eat rats, lizards, squirrels, blood-suckers, the black- 
faced monkey, swine, and serpents. They will not touch the brown-faced 
monkey, which they say has a human soul. They will pawn the last rags 
on their bodies for a dram. The natives have a great dread of their 
magical powers. Their names, like those of the Wdralls, are entirely 
dikerent from those of the Hindiis. Of a future state they know nothing. 
When a death takes place, they give food to crows, and call out M/va I 
Mva I crow 1 crow 1 They say it is an old custom, but do not know the 
reason. The cost of a wife is fixed at 2 rs. Marriage is performed by 
placing a chaplet of leaves on the bride's head, and then on the bride- 
groom's ; after which both are smeared with turmeric. When they go to 
tiie jungle to prepare Kdt, they hold their encampments sacred, and will 
suffer no one of another caste to approach without giving warning. The 
K6t is prepared from the inner portion of the khair tree, by boilLig and 
then inspissating the juice. Before felling a tree, they select one, which 
they worship by offering to it a cocoa-nut, burning frankincense, and 
applying a red pigment. Then they pray to it to bless their under- 
taking. 



48 



INTRODUCTIOX, 



Rect. I, 



SKELETON ROUTES. 



1. Tour to Hie Pnncipal Caves in (lie Homhay Presidency. — 
Bombay to Eleplianta, Thdna, Bhdiidtip, Kdnhari, Kalydn, the 
Temple of Amamath, Nashik, Ahmadnagar, Jimnar, Fund, Sholapiir, 
Tuljapiir, Bljapiir, Kaladgl, Bddamf, Dharwad, Bel^h, Gadak 
and Lakkuiidi, Kolliupur, Panhala, Sdtara, MahdbaleSiwar, Fund, 
Bombay. 



From 



Bombay 
Elephauta 
Thdua . 
Bhanddp . 

Ednhaxi 

Kalydn (to 

back) . 
Kalydii . 
Karli 
Ndshik . 



and 





Railway or 








To 


OTHER Carriage, 


Miles. 


Time. Expense. 




Boat. 




d. h. m. 


rs. an. 


Eleplianta . 


Boat 


5 


10 


3 5 


Thana . . 


Boat . . . . 


12 


4 


10 


Bhandup 


G I. F. Ry. . 


4 


12 





Kdnhari . . . 


Bullock cart, pony, 










or palanquin . . 


*» 
i 


2 


5 


Kalydn . 


Cart or palki for 
5 m., then 12 ni. 










in G. I. P. Ry. . 


17 


3 


6 8 


Amarndth . . 


Cart . . 


9 


2 


8 


Karlf . 


G. I. F. Ry. . 


51 


3 31 


4 13 


Nashik . . . 


G. I. F. Ry. . . 


:52 


4 14 


7 13 


Ahnin<lnn:^'nr . 


61 m. to Nandgdoii ) 
by G. I. F. Ry., [ 
02 m. by tonga . ) 




G. I. 


F. Rv. 




12'I 


12 28 


6 11 






Tonga 23 










= 28 11 


.Tunnar . . . 


Tonga 


•JO 


8 


22 


Puna 


Tonga . . 


(H) 


8 


22 


Sholapur , . . 


G. I. P. Ry. . 


144 


K 2.'> 


26 


Bijapur . 


Tonga . . . 


00 


i> 


22 


Tuljapiii- . . . 


Tonga . 


:>0 


8 


20 


Kaladgi . 


Tonga . 


•>4f 


9 


20 


lid^ldim . . . 


Tonga . . . 


20 


5 


10 


Gadak . 


Tonga . 


:!($ 


7 


18 5 


liakkun^i . • • 


Tonga 


12 


3 


9 


Dhdrwd4 


Tonga . 


.47 


7 


30 


Belgdon . . . 


Tonga . . . 


48 


7 


30 


Yelamma 


Tonga . 


70 


10 


.35 


Gotiir and Mahdr 










baleshwar . . 


Tonga . . . 


213^ 


6 


68 


Gokak(toand back) 


Tonga . 


36 


7 30 


27 


Fund. . . . 


Tonga . . 


77 


9 80 


30 


Bombay 


G. I. P. Ry. . 


119 


7 


11 3 



Ahmadnagar . . 
Junnar . 
Puna. 
SholdpAr 
Sholdpilr (to and 

bock) . . 

B^dpiir . 

Kaladgi . . 

Bdddmi . 
Gadak (to and 

back) . . . 
Gadak . 

I)hdrwd4 . . . 
Belgdoil (to and 

back) . 
Belgdoil . 

Gotiir . 

Mahdbaleshwar . 
Puna. . . . 



The charge for Tongas varies very considerably in different locali- 
ties. As soon as the traveller gets off the Mail Road, he may have 
to pay a rupee a mile, or even more. In fact he is entirely at the 
mercy of the proprietors of the Tongas, and it is very much to their 
credit that they seldom or never attempt to charge more than what 
is reasonable. The charges of course do not include food and potables, 
which the traveller must provide for himself at large stations, and 
carry with him in a tiffin basket. Wherever there is a mess-man he 
Avill be able to get curry and rice always, and sometimes fowl and 
soda-water. 

2. To visit tlie Temples and Mosques in Kdthiawdd. — Bombay to 
Surat, Bhaunagar, Wallah, Songadh, Palitand, Shatrunjay, Rdjkot, 
Nowaiiagar, Dwdrka, Bet, Virawal, Somndth, Jiindgddh and 



Sect I. 



ROUTES TO CAVES — LAKGUAGES. 



49 



Gim^, Jaitpur, Gondal, Rdjkot, WadhwAn, Ahmaddbad, Bhardch, 
Bombay. 



From To 



Railway or 
OTHER Carriage, Miles. Time. Expekhe. 
Boat. 



Bombay . 

Sonit 

Bhaunagar 

Wallah 

Songa^h 

Palitdni . 

Songadli 
R^Jkoi 
Nowaiiagar 
Dwirka 
Dw&rka . 
Virdwal . 

Viriwal . 
Jundga^h . 
Jim&ga4h 
RiUkot . 
Wadhwan . 
Al^maddbacl 
Bhanich . 



8urat . 

Bhaunagar . . 
Wallah . 

Songadh . . . 
Palitdiia 
8hatraiijay und 

back to So]ig>i4h 
Rcgkot . 

Nowanagar . . 
Dwarka . 

B^t And back . . 
Virawal . 
Somndthand back, 

and stay 1 day . 
Jimdga4h 
Girnar and back . 
imkof . 

Wadhwan . . . 
Abniadabdd . 
Bhanich . . . 
Bombay 







d. h. m. 


n. in. 


B. B. and C. I. Ry. 


164 


11 45 


12 IS 


Steamer . . . 


90 


12 


6 


Tonga . 


22 


3 


l4 


Tonga . . 


12 


2 8 


7 


Tonga . 


14 


2 


8 


Tonga and cai-t . 


20 


4 


8 14 


Cart or tonga 


78 


12 


15 


Cart .... 


58 


20 


10 8 


Steamer. 


90 


12 


20 


Cart and boat . . 


40 


4 15 


20 


Steamer 


138 


18 


25 


Cart .... 


4 


2 


5 


Cart 


53 


3 


9 15 


Chair . . . 


10 


10 


8 


Cart 


60 


3 


11 4 


Cart .... 


72 


10 


14 8 


B. B. and C. I. Ry. 


80 


6 


6 4 


B. B. and C. I. Ry. 


105 


3 40 


8 3 


B. B. and C. I. Ry. 


203 


10 


15 13 



§ U LANGUAGES OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 

Amongst the Bhils and Kolis and other wild tribes there are many 
dialects, but the 3 principal languages are Hindustan!. Mardthi, and 
Gujardtl, as given m the vocabulary and dialogues. The Hindi!uit^ 
spoken in the Bombay Presidency is fer from being as pure as that 
in use at Dilli and LaMmau, and is mixed with Mtu^^hi and Portu- 
guese words. Nevertheless, in the families of high-class Mu^am- 
madans, such as those of the descendants of the Niiwdb of Surat, 
of LiUfullali, and of the Nuwdb of Nashik, the true Urdii will be 
heard. 

The Marathi language has two distinct lingual elements, the 
Scythian or Turanian and the Sanskrit. Almost all the words with 
initial cerebral letters, and those with the double letter ih, are Scy- 
thian. But the proportion of Sanskrit words in Mardtnl is much 
larger, and may amount perhaps to almost ^ths of all the words in the 
language. The earliest mention of the Mardtha country is in the 
Mdndvanso, where it is said that Ashoka, in the i7th year of his reign, 
A.C. 246, deputed the patriarch Mdha Dhammarakkito to Mahdratta, 
which is the Pdll form of Mahdrdsh^ra. From that time, if not earlier, 
Sanskrit words began to be introduced into Mard^hl But it must be 
remembered that tnough these words were more or less assimilated to 
the Scythian element, they are used by the Mard^hl people in a purer 
form than that which they have retained in any of the other pro- 
vincial languages in India. Even the ^ammar of Mardthl is much 
influenced by Sanskrit, and the declension of the nouns is effected 
by Sanskrit words used as post-positions. The Mard^ha numerals 
and pronouns are borrowed from tne Sanskyit, from which also come 
all tne technical words in theology, literature, and science. The 
ancient inscriptions in the Cave Temples of Mahanish^ra are in Sans* 



IBomhay'-lSSO,] 



£ 



50 INTRODUCTION. Sect. 1. 

krit aiid Pali. The oldest specimen of Maratlii is an inscription on 
a stone found near Government House at Parell, which relates to a 
grant of land, and is of the date of 1181 a.d. The literature of 
Marathi consists of poems, founded on the Sanskrit epics and Purdruis, 
and of love songs and Balcliars or Memoirs of Native Princes. 

The Gujardti is a more unformed language than the Mardthi, and 
its literature is more scanty. Authors in Gujardti are now beginning 
to appear, such as Bahrdmji Merwanjl Malabar! and Ardasir Dosabhdi 
and others. 

A few words may be required as to the system of transliteration 
adopted in this book. It is the same as that of Prof. D. Forbes, 
author of the " Urdd Dictionary," and was used in the former edition 
of the Handbooks in 1859. The vowels are the same as the Italian, 
a, dy i, iy u, A The diphthongs are e compounded of a and i ; ai, 
compounded of a and i ; o, compounded of a and u ; and au com- 
pounded of d and u. 

Taking the consonants as they stand in the English alphabet, c is 
not used at all, k being used for it. 

J) may be either dental or cerebral. In the latter case it is marked 
by four dots over it in Hindiistdni, which is represented by d here. 

H has two forms in Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani, the strong 
aspirate is represented by A. 

K has two forms in Hindustdni taken from the Arabic, the gut- 
tural k is here k. 

L has two forms in Martithl and Gujardti, the second and peculiar 
form is here /. 

N lias in Marathi a peculiarly nasal and also a cerebral sound as 
well as the common sound. The former is represented here by ?/, 
and the latter by «. 

Ry besides the common sound, has a cerebral one in Hindustani, 
which is here j\ 

S has three forms in Hindustdni. The two derived from the 
Arabic are denoted here by ? and *. 

T has two other forms in Hindustdni besides the common, denoted 
here by t and t, 

Z has four forms in Hindustdni, the three borrowed from Arabic 
are denoted here by z, z, and z. 



Sect. I. 



VOCABULARY. 



51 



VOCABULARY AND DIALOGUES. 



English. 
One 
Two 
Three 
Four 
Five 
Six 
Seven 
Eight 
Nine 
Ten 
Eleven 
Twelve 
Thirteen 
Fourteen 
Fifteen 
Sixteen 
Seventeen 
Eighteen 
Nineteen 
Twenty 
Twenty-one 
Twenty-two 
Twenty-three 
Twenty-four 
Twenty-five 
Twenty-six 
Twenty-seven 
Twenty -eight 
Twenty-nine 
Thirty 
Thirty-one 
Thirty-two 
Thirty-three 
Thirty-four 
Thirty-five 
Thirty-six 
Thirty-seven 
Thirty-eight 
Thirty-nine 
Forty 
Forty-one 
Forty-two 
Forty-three 
Forty-four 

Forty-five 

Forty-six 

Forty-seven 

For^-eight 

Forty-nine 



Hindustani. 


MabathI. 


GUJAKAXi. 


Ek 


Ek 


Ek 


Do 


Don 


Be 


Tin 


Tin 


Trail 


Chai- 


OhAr 


Char 


PAnch 


Pdnch 


Pdiich 


Chhah 


S4h4 


Chha 


S&t 


Sdt 


Sdt 


Ath 


Ath 


A'th 


Nau 


Naw, Nau 


Naw 


Das 


Dihd 


Das 


Igdrah 


AkrA 


Agidr 


Bdrah 


Bir& 


Bdr 


Terah 


TerA 


Ter 


Chaudah 


Chawadii 


Chaud 


Pandrah 


Pandh&rd 


Pandar 


Solah 


Sou 


Sol 


Satrah 


Satra 


Sattai* 


Ath^rali 


Athra 


Arddh 


Unis 


Ekunis 

• 


Oganls 


Bis 


Vis 


Wis' 


Ikis 


Ekvis • 


Ekwis 


Bd'is 


BAwls, Bewis 


Bdwis 


Te'is 


Tewis 


'J'ewls or Trcwia 


Ohaubis 


Chowis 


Chowis 


Pachis 


Panchwis 


Pachchis 


Chhabbis 


Tawis 


ChhaWwis 


Sata'is 


SattAvls 


Sattdwls 


Atha'is 


Aththdvis 


Aththawis 


Untis 


Ekuntis 


Ogantls 


Tls 


Tis * 


Trls ■ 


Iktis 


Ektis 


Ektris 


Battis 


Battis 


Batrls 


Tetis 


Tehtis 


Tetrls 


Chautis 


Chautis 


Chotris 


Paintis 


Pjwtls 


Pdiitrls 


Chhattis 


Chhattis 


Chhatrls 


Saintls 


Sadtls 


Sddtiis 


Athtis 


AthtlR 


Adtris 


Unchalis 


EkiinchdUs 


Oganchdlis 


Chdlis 


Chdlls 


Chdlls 


Iktilis 


Ektdlls 


Ekatdlls 


Be'Alls 


Betdlls 


Behet4i1fs 


TetAlis 


Tretdlls 


Tehetdlls 


Chau'dlls 


Chavvetdlis 


Chumdlls m* Ohau 
dlls 


Paintdlis 


Panchetalls 


Plstdlls 


ChhiydUs 


Shetdlls 


Chhentdlis. 


SaintdUs 


Sattetalls 


. Sudtdlls CT Sadtdl 


Athtdlis 


AththeUlls 


Adltdlis or Udtalis 


Unchds 


Ekunpaunas 


Oganpachas 



£2 



52 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



Ekglish. 

Fifty 

Fifty-one 

Fifty-two 

Fifty-three 

Fifty-four 

Fifty-five 

Fifty-six 

Fifty-seven 

Fifty-eight 

Fifty-nine 

Sixty 

Sixty-one 

Sixty-two 

Sixty-three 

Sixty-four 

Sixty-five 

Sixty-six 

Sixty-seven 

Sixty-eight 

Sixty-nine 

Seventy 

Seventy-one 

Seventy-two 

Seventy-three 

Seventy-four 

Seventy-five 

Seventy-six 

Seventy-seven 

Seventy-eight 

Seventy-nine 

Kighty 

Kighty-one 

Eighty-two 

Eighty-three 

Eighty-four 

Eighty-five 

Eighty-six 

Eighty-seven 

Eighty -eight 

Eighty-nine 

Ninety 

Ninety-one 

Ninety-two 

Ninety-three 

Ninety-four 

Ninety-five 

Ninety-six 

Ninety-seven 
Ninety-eight 
Ninety-nine 
A hundred 



HlND^STANi. 

Pachds 

Ikdwan 

Bdwan 

Tirpan 

Chauwan 

Pachpan 

Chhapan 

Satawan 

Ath&wan 

Unsath 

Sdth * 

Iksath 

Bdsath 

Tirsaith 

Chousath 

Painsdth 

Chhiydsath 

Satsath 

Athsath 

Unhattar 

Sattar 

Ikhattar 

Bahattar 

Tihattar 

Chauhattar 

Pachyattar 

Chhihattar 

Sathattar 

Athhattar 

• 

Unas! 

Assi 

Ik^sl 

Be'Asl 

TirAsi 

Ghaurasi 

Panchasl 

ChhiAsi 

Satdsi 

Athasi 

Naudsi 

Nauwe, Nawad 

Ik&nawe 

B4nawe 

Tirdnawe 

Chaurdnawe 

Pach&nawe 

Chiyduawe . 

Satdnawe 
Athanawc 
Nindnawc 
San 



MAKi-THf. 

Pannds 

Ekawan 

B&wan 

Trepan 

Chaupan 

Panchawan 

Chhappan 

Sattdwan 

Aththdwan 

Ekunsdth 

Sdth 

Eksa^ht 

Bdsa^ht 

Tresa^ht 

Chausa^ht 

Pansai^ht 

Tdhdsd^ht 

Satsa^ht 

Adsa^ht 

Ekunhattar 

• 

Sattar 

Ekdhattar 

Bdhdttar 

Trydhdttar 

Chaurydhattar 

Pafichydhdttar 

Shdhdttar 

Satydhattar 

Aththydhdttar 

Ekunaishiii 

Aishln 

Ekdnyshin 

Bydnysyhiii 

Trydiiyshin 

Chdurydnyshln 

Paiichdyshiii 

Shdnyshin 

Satydnyshlfi 

Aththydnyshln 

Ekunnawad or 

Navydnyshln 
Nawdd 
Ekydnnav 
Bydnnav 
Tradnnav 

• ■ 

Chaurydnnav 

Panehdnnav 

Shannav 

Satydnnav 
Athyannav 
Navyannav 
Shambhar 



GUJAKATI. 

Pachds 

Ekdwau 

Bdwan 

Trepan 

Choppan 

Panchdwan 

Chhappan 

Sattdwan 

Aththdwan 

Ogansdth 

Sdth 

Eksat 

• 

Bdsat 
Tresat 
Chosat 
Pdnsat 
Chhdsat 
Sadsat 
Adsdt 
Aganoter 
Sitter 
Ekoter 
Bohoter 
Tohoter 
Chumoter 
Panchot^er 
Chhoter 
Sittoter 

Iththoter or Aththo- 
ter 

• 

Oganyahesi 
Hensi 
Ekydsi 
Bydsl 

Trydsl 

Chordsl 

Parichdsl 

Chhdsi 

Satydsi 

Athydsi 

Nevyasi 

Newuii 
Ekdnnun 

• 

Bdnnun 
Trdnnun 
Chordnnun 
Panchdnnun 

* 

Chhdnnun or Chha 
newu; ChhannuA 
Sattdnuu 
Afhthd^un 
Nuwd&nun 
So 





feect. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 






ExausH. 


Hindustani. 


Mabathi. 


GUJABATt 




Two hundred 


Dosau 


Don sheii 


Raro or Basen 




Three hundred 


Tinsau 


Tin shen 


Tran seii 




Four hundred 


Chdrsau 


ChAr shen 


ChAr sen 




Five hundred 


Pdnch sau 


Panch shen 


PAnch sen 




Six hundred 


Chhah sau 


SAhA sheu 


Chhasen 




Seven hundred 


S4t sau 


SAt sheii 


SAt sen 




Eight hundred 


Ath sau 


Ath shen 


Ath sen 




Nine hundred 


Nau sau 


Naw shen 


Naw sen 




A thousand 


Hazdr 


HajAr 


Ek hajAr 




Ten thousand 


Das hazdr 


DahAhajAr 


Das hajAr 




A hundred 


Tiikh 


Laksh 


Ek lAkh 




thousand 










A million 


Daslikh 


DAhA laksh 


Das lAkh 




Ten millions 


Krof 


Kot 


Karod 




Fractions. 




Ajmrndnk, 


Ajfurnank. 




A quarter 


Pdo 


PAw 


PA 




A half 


A'dhA 


ArdhA 


Ardho 




Three-qua.rters 


Pauni, Paun 


PAwiin 


Pono 




One-and-a- 


Saw^ 


SawA 


SawA 




quarter 










One-and-a-half 


Deyh 


Dlr 


Dod 




One-and-three- 


PAune do 


PAwne don 


PonAbe 




quarters 




• 


« 




Two-and-a- 


Sawd do 


SawA don 


SawA be 




quarter 










Two-and-a-half 


Ai-hdl 


Adits 


Adl 




Two-and-three- 


PAune tin 


Pawne tin 


PonA tran 




quarters 










Three-and-a- 


SawA tin 


SawA tin 


SawA tran 




quarter 








- 


Three-and-a- 


SAre or sArhe tin Sade tin 


SAdAtran 




half 










Three-and- 


PAune chAr 


Pawne chAr 


PonA chAr 




three-quarters 




• 


• 




Four-and-a 


SawA chAr 


SawA chAr 


SAwA chAr 




quarter 










Four-and-a- 


SAye chAr 


SAde chAr 


SAdA chAr 




half 






• 




Four-and-three- 

quarters 
A third 


PAune pAnch 


Pawne pAnch 


PonA& pA&ch 




TisrA l^i^sah 


Ek tritlyAns 


Ek tritiyAnsh 




Two-thirds 


Do tisrA i^i^sah 


Don tyitlyAns 


Be tritiyAnsh 




A fourth 


ChauthA ^isAah 


Chautho bhAg 


Chotho hisso 




A fifth 


PAnchwAn 
hi^^ 


Ek panchumAiish 


Ek panchamAnsh 




A sixth 


Chhatha hi^sah 


Ek Sha^htha- 
mAiish 


Ek sashtAnsh 




A seventh 


SAtwAn hi^^ah 


Ek SaptAmAnsh 


Ek saptamAnsh 




An eighth 


*AthwAn hi§Bah Ek a§htaniAnsh 


Ek ashtamAiish 




A tenth 


DaswAn hissah 


Ek dashAnsh 


Ek dasAnsh 



53 



54 


INTRODUeTIOX. 


hect. 1. 


E^^GLISH. 


Hindustani. 


Marathi. 


GUJABATi. 


MantJix. 


Mahiiw. 


MaJiine. 


Makinna. 


Jamifliy 


Muharram 


Pausli 


Po§h 


February 


Snfar 


Mdgh 


MAgh or Mdha 


March 


Rab'lu '1 awwal 


Phalgun 


Fagan 


April 


Rab'iu '1 mm 


Chaitr 


Chaitr 


May 


Jamada 
'1 awwal 


Yatshakh 


Vaishakh or Vaisakh 


June 


Jamdda '1 akhir Jyeshth 


Jeth 


July 


Bajab 


A^adh 


Ashdd or Asdd 


August 


Sh'abAn 


Shrdwan 


Shrdwan 


September 


Eamazdn 


Bhddrapad 


Bhadarwo 


October 


Shawwdl 


Ashmn 


Ashwan or Asho or 
Ashwin 


November 


Zi K'adah 


KdrtiV 


Kartak or Kartik 


December 


Zi '1 hajj 


MdrgashirBh 


Mdgashar or Mdr- 
gashirih 



Days, 



War, 



War, 



War. 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 
Saturday 



East 
West 
North 
South 

Spring 
Summer 

Autumn 
Winter 



Itwar 
Plr 

Man gal 
P>udh 
Jum'a rdt 

Jum'aah 
Sanichar 



Mashrik 
Maghrab 
Shimdl 
Jamib 

Bahdr 
Garmd 

Khlzdn 
SarmA 



Abyss 
Air 
Atom 
Asheu 



PAtal 
Hawd 
Zarah 
Rdkh 



Raviwdr, Aditwdr 

Somwar 

Mangalwdr 

Budhwdr 

Guruwar, Brihas- 
patwdr 

Shuki'wdr 

Shaniwdr, Mand- 
wdr 

Purr 
Pashchim 
Uttar 
Dakshin 

Vasant jritu 
Unhdld, Grlshm 

ritu 
Sharad ritu 
Hinwdld, 

Hemant ritu 

Doh, Agddh jal 
Hawd, Vdyu 
Parmdnii, Kan 
Bdkh 



Rawiwar or Aditwdr 
{in writing) Raweu 

Somwdr (in writ- 
ififf) Some 

Mangalwdr (i/i writ- 
ing) Bhome 

Budhwdr {in writing) 
Budhe 

Bphaspatwdr or Gu- 
ruwdr (in writing) 
Gureu 

Hhukai-war (in writ- 
ing) Shukre 

Shaniwdr (m writing ) 
Saneu 

Purv, Ugaman 
Paschim, Athaman 
Uttar, Ottar 
Dakshan, Dakhkhan 

Vasant ritu 
Undlo, Hundlo 

Sard fitu 
Shidlo 



Doh, Dahro, Pdtdl 
Hawd, Vdyu 
Parmdnncn, Kan, Raj 
Rdkh 



r Sect. J. 


VOCABULARY. 


do 


ENGTilSH. 


HiNDlJSTANi. 


Marathi. 


GUJABATI. 


Bank of river 


jS'adikd 


Naditsd kdnth, 


NadinoKdnthof;/'Tir 




kindrah 


Nadichentir 




Bay 


Kol, Kh&ri 


Kol 


Akhdt 


Beach 


Kinarah 


Samudr Kindrd 


Samudr kdntho 


Bridge 


Pul 


Piil 


Pul 


Bubble 


Papoth 


Budbudd 


Parpoto 


Burning 


Sozish 


Jalnc 


Balwuii 


ChalV 


Khari 


Khadii,Sitadhdtu Chdk, Khadl 


Channel 


Nahar, Khdrl 


Khddl 


Khddi, Samudrdhuni 


Clay 


Mat! 


Chikana mdti 


Chiknl mdti 


Cloud 


Abr, BAdal 


Abhr, Dhag 


Wddal 


Charcoal 


EoUah 


Kolsd ' 


Koelo 


Cold 


Thand 


Shltal, Thand 


Tdhdd, Tdhddun 


Continent 


Ehand, Iklim 


Mahd dwlp 


Khand, Mahddwlp 


Darkness 


AndherA, 


Andhdr Andhak dr 


Timir 




^ulmdt 


Kdlokh 




Deluge 


Tiif An i ntih 


Jal pralay 


Jal pralay 
Unddl 


Depth 


'Amak, Onden 


Ondl 


Dew 


Shabnam, 6s 


Daiiw 


Jhdkal 


Drop 


KatrAh 


Thipkd, Thenb 


Chhdnto 


Dust 


Dhiil 


Dhiil, Raj 


Dhiil 


Earth 


Zamin, Dunyd, 


Prithwi 


Mdti, Jam in, 




Mittl 




Prithwi 


Earthquake 


Zikilali 


Bhiikamp 


Dharti kamp, Kam- 
paro, Bhu kamp, 
Dharni kamp 


Ebb-tide 


Ot 


Ohat, Ohtl 


Ot 


Ferry 


Hoi-l 


Tar 


Tar 


Flame 


HVulah 


Jwdld, Jal 


Jhdl, Baltun bhadko 

Jot 
Chamkdro, AjwdUiu 


Flash 


Jhalak, Ujala 


Tsamak, Jhalak 


Fire 


A'g, Atash 


Agnl, Ag 


Dewtd, Ag, Agni 


Flood-tide 


Bhartl 


Bhartl 


Bhartl 


Fog 


Dhudn 


Dhuken 


Dhiiwai' 


Ford 


Utdr 


Utdr 


Pdr 


Fountain 


Chashmah 


Jhard 


Jharo 


Frost 


Him, PdU 


Him 


HfAm 


Fuel 


Jaldne ki chlz 


Sarpan, Phdiitln 


Sarpan 


Gravel 


Kankar, Eeti 


Reiir, Kankar 


Kdkrd reti, Jddi reti 


Hail 


Zhdlah, Old 


Gdrd 


Old 


^ Heat 


Garmi 


Garmi, Uahnatd 


Garmi 


Highway 


Shdh rdh, Sarak Kdjmdrg 


Rdj mdrg, Dhori rasto, 






J 


Mhoto rdhd 


Hillock 


Tekri 


Tenk 


Diingrl, Tekrl 


Ice . 


Barf 


Barph, Thidzale 
len pdni 


- Baraf, Thljelun pdnl 


Island 


Jazlrah, Tdpii 


Bet, Tdpi 


Tdpu, Bet 


Inundation 


Bel 


Jal pralay 


■Rel, Piir ' 


liake 


Tdldb, Sarowar Sarowar 


Sarowar 


Lightning 


Bijli 


Vij 


Bijli 


Marsh 


Daldal 


Pdnthal dzdgd 


Anjan 


Mountain 


Pahdr 


Parvat, Dongar 


Parwat, Dungar 


Ocean 


Samundar, 
Sdgar 


Sdgar, Sindhu 


Mahd samudr, Sdgar 



r>6 



INTRODUCTIOX. 



Sect. I. 



English. 
Path 
Plain 
Pond 

Promontory 
Quicksand 
Bain 
River 
Sand 
Sea 

Shower 
Smoke 

Snow 

Spark 

Soot 

Stone 

Stream 

Tempest 

Thunder 

Valley 



Water 

Well 

Whirlpool 

Whirlwind 

Wave 



Hindustani. 
Kastah 
Maiddn 
Tdldb 

Chorbalu 

Barish, Bai'sat 

Nadl 

Ret 

Darya 

Jharl 

Dhiidn 

P414barf 

Chingl 

Kdjal 

Patthar 

Jhar4 

Tiifdn 

Garaj 

Khiil 

Paul 

Kii^n 

Bhanwar 

Bagiila 

Mauj 



Mabathi. 
Mdrg, Wdt 
Maiddn, Pdta 
Talen 

Bhiilnechi touk 
Rutan 
PdTis' 

Nadl, Sdiita 
Retl, Walii 
Samudr 
Pawasdchi sar 
Bhiir 

Barph, Him 
Thingll, Thingl 
Edjal) Mas 
Dhondd dagad 
Odhd, Jhard 
Wkdal, TuphAn 
GAjnen, Megh 

garjnd 
Khoren, Dard 



PAni 

Vihir 

Bhonwrd, Jala 

bhram 
Wawatal, Tsakra 

wdt 
Lahar, Ldt 



GUJABATi. 

Rasto, Wdt, Marg 

Meddn 

Taldw 

Bhiishlr 

Garkijdy tewi reti 

Warsdt 

Nadl 

Reti 

Dariyo, Dario 

Warsdtnun jhdptun 

Dhunmddo or Dhun- 

wddo 
Baraf 

Changl, Kdjll 
Dhons, Mes 
Paththar 
Jharo 
Topdn 
Gadgaddt, Megh 

garjnd* 
Oriin, Dungrou 

wachchemun 

meddn, Khln 
Pdni, Jal 
Kuwo 
Wamal 

Watoliyo wd 

Moje, Daridni lahar 



Kinship, 

Ancestors 
Aunt 



Boy 

Bride 

Bridegroom 

Brother 
Bachelor 



Childhood 
Children 



Sagdi, 

Ajddd 

Phuphl,Khdlah, 
Chachdnl, 
Mamdni 



Chhokrd, Larkd 

Dulhan 

Diilah 

Bhdi, Birddar 
Kii'drd, 
Mujarrad 

Bachpan 
Bachche 



Samhandh, Sagpam^ Sambandh. 



Piirvaj, Wadll 

Kdki (paternal), 
Mdmi (wife of 
maternal uncle). 
At (father's 
sister), Mdwasi 
(mother's sister) 

Mulgd 

1^'awari 

War, Nawaradev 
naward 

Bhdii, Bandhu 

Kumdr, Brahma- 
chdri,Lagnana 
ghdleld 

Bdlakpan, Porpan 

Muleii, Lekreii 



Piirwaj, Waddwa, 

Wadilo, Bdpdddd 
Kdki, Mdmi, Mdsi 



Chhokro 
Kanyd, Wahu 
War rdjd 

Bhdi 

Kunmdro, Kunwdro 



Bdlpan 
Chhokrdn 



Nect. 1. 


VOCABULARA'. 


kU 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Marathi. 


GUJABATi. 


Cousin 


Chicherd, 


Tsulat bhdii (son 


Pitrdi, Moldlbhdi 




Suserd, 


of paternal 






Mamard, 


uncle), Mdmc 






Khalera, 


bhdii (maternal 






Bhdi 


uncle's son), Ate 
bhdii (paternal 
aunt's son), 
Mdi^s hhkd 
' (maternal 
aunt's son) 




Daughter 


Larkl 


Mulgl, Lek, Ean- 
yd 


Dlkrl 


Dower 


Jahlz 


Andan. Stri dhan Strl dhan 


Dwarf 


Bilishtl ddmi 


Thengnd, Khujd Wdmanjl, ThlAgnnn 






manushya, 


mdnas 






Wdman 




Father 


Bdp 


Bdp 


Bdp, Pitd 


Father-in-law 


Susard 


Sdsrd 


Sasaro 


Female 


'Aurat 


Stii, Bdyako 


Ktrl, Bdyadf, Bdi 






mdniliK 


mdnas 


Girl 


Ohhokrl 


Mulgl 


Chhokrl 


Grandfather 


Dddd 


Ackd 


Dddo, Bapdwo, Ma- 
mdwo 


Grandmother 


Dddi 


^ii 


Ajl, Dddl 


Heir 


"Wdris 


Wdrls 


Wdras 


Husband 


Khdwind, 


NawardjGharkarl War, Pati 


^ 


Khasam, 
Shanhar 


pati, Dddld 




Infant 


Bachchd dudh Tdnheii miU 


Dhdwamun chhoka- 




pltd 




run 


Inheritance 


Wars 


Wdrafld 


Wdraso 


Kinsman 


Saga 


Bhdiiband 


Kutumbl, Gotri 


Male 


Mard 


Purush 


Purush 


Man 


Adml 


Manushya, 
Mdniis 


Mdnas 


Manhood 


Admlpand 


Mdnuspan, 
Praudhpand 


Mdnasdl 


Marriage 


Shddl 


Lagn, Wiwdh 


Lagn [shri 


Mother 


Mdii 


Ai, Mdtd 


Md, Mdtd, Mdtd 


Mother-in-law 


Sdns 


Sdsii 


SdHU 


Mortal 


Mareaisd,Mauti 


Martya,Marandd- 


Mfitiyu tulya 




(deadly),KdtU 


hin 




Nephew 


Bhatijd, Bhdnjd Putanyd (bro- 


Bhatrijo, Bhdn^j 






ther 88on),Bhd- 




» 




chd (sister's 
son) 




Niece 


Bhatiji, Bhdnji 


Putanl, Bhdchi 


Bhatrijl, Bhdnji 
Bhdnejl 


Nurse 


Ddi, Diidh, 
Hldni 


Ddl 


Dhdw 


Old Age 


Bufhdpd 


Mhdtdrpan, Vri- 


Ghadpan, Wridhdw- 






ddhatwa 


asthd 


Old Man 


Budh^, Zdlf 


Mhdtdra,Vridhdh Doso 



manushya 



^H 


INTRODUCTION. 


«ect. !. 


English. 


Hindustani. 


MarathI. 


GUJARATI. 


Old Woman 


Budhi, Zdlfah 


Mhdt&ri 


Dosi 


Orphan 


Yatim ' 


Porka 


Wagarmd bdpun, Na 
bdpun na mdyun, 
or Namdelun chho- 
krun 


Posterity 


Nasi, Aulad 


Wansh, Santati 


Wansh, Santati 


Sister 


Bahln 


Bahln 


Behen 


Son 


Bet4 

• 


Mulga, Patr, Lek 


Dikro 


Step-mother 


Sautell-mai 


Sdvatr dl 


SdwakI md 


Twins 


Towiim 


Juld 


Jol 


Uncle 


Chachd, Kdkd, 


Kakd, Mdma, 


(Paternal) Kdkd, 




PhupherA 




(maternal) Mds6, 




(paternal), 




Mdmo, Kno 




Mdmii, Khdlii 








(maternal) 






Widow 


BewA, Kdnd 


Widhwd, Rdnd 


Widhwd, Rdndirdnd 


Wife 


Jorii 


Strl, Bdyako 


Bdirl, Wahn dhanl- 
ydnnl bayadl 


Woman 


'Aurat 


Strl, BAyako ma- 
nias 


Stri, Bdi mdnas 


Young Man 


Jawdn Adml 


Tarund manu- 

• 

shya, JawAn 
manushya 


Jawdn, Juwdn mdnas 


Youth 


Jawani, Shal)ab Jwdni, Tdrunya 


Juwani, Joban 


Pai'tx of tlir 


Badan he 


Shariruchn hhdg. 


, Sluirirnd hhig. or, 


Body. 


'azu. 




avayara. 


Ankle 


Takhna. Ohiitf, 


Ghotii 


Ghunti 




K'ab 




[haduH 


Arm 


BtizAi 


Bdhu, Bhuj 


Bdhu, Bhuj pank- 


Back 


Pith 


Pdth 


Wdnso, Pith 


Back-bone 


Kli-h 


Kand, Kdnta 


Wdnsdnl wachchc- 
nun hdd 


Bile 


mt, Safni 


Pitt 


Pitt 


Blood 


LoM, Khun 


Rakt 


Lohi, Rakt 


Beard 


DArhl 


Dkxhi 


Ddhaai 


Body 


Badan 


Sharir, Aiig 


Sharir 


Bone 


Haddi 


Had 


Hdd 


Brain 


Magphz 


Magaj 


Bhejuii 


Breast 


Chhati 


Chhdtl, Ur 


Chhdtl 


Breath 


Dam 


Dam, Shwds 


Dam, Swds 


Cheek 


Gdl 


Gdl 


Gdl 


Chin 


Thuddi 


Hanawatl 


Thudi 


Ear 


Kan' 


Kan 


kdn, Karn 


Elbow 


Kuhni 


Kopar 


Kopriyuii 


Eye 


Ankh 


Dold, Netr, 
Lochan 


Aukh, Netr 


Eye-brow 


Bhauii, Abrii 


Bhrii, Bhunwdi 


Bhawuii 


Eye-lash 


Palak 


Papanltsd Kesh 


Ankhnl pdmpan 


Face 


Chihrah, Munh 


Tond,' Mukh 


Chfthero 


Fat 


Mota, Farbih 


Pusht, Tsarbi 


Jddo (adj.), Chai-bi 




(adj.), Charl)! 




(subs.) 




(subs.) 







;sect. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


oy 


English. 


HlNT>USTANi. 


MARATHi. 


GUJAHATi. 


Finger 


UngU, Angusht Bot; 


Angli 


Fist 


Miith 


Miith 


Muth 


Flesh 


Gosht 


Mds 


Mdns 


Foot 


Panw 


PAy 


Pag 


Forehead 


Peshani 


Kapdl 


KapAl, LeUt 


Gland 


Giltl 


Pind, Mans 
granthi 


Pind, MAs granthi 


Gum 


Gond 


Of the teeth) 


Ddntanu thad 






Hiradi, (exuda- 


■ 






tion fi'om a tree] 








Dlk, Goiid 




Hair 


BA\ 


Kesh 


Bdl,WAl,Mowdla,Kes 


Hand 


Hath 


HAt, Kar 


Hath 


Head 


Sar 


Shir, Doken 


Mdthuii 


Heart 


Dil 


Hfid, Hridya 


Hfid, Haiyun, Dil 


Heel 


Erl 


Tdiich, khoiit 


Edl 


Hip 


Chutar 


KamaretsA kha- 
w&td 


Jhangno thdpo 


Jaw 


Jabj-d 


Jabdd 


Jadbun 


Joint 


Sdndha 


Sdndha 


Sdndho 


Kidney 


Gurdl 


Miitra piiid, Gurd Mutra pind, Gurdi 


Knee 


Zdnil, Ghotau 


GudghA, DophA 


Ghiitan 


Knuckle 


Girih 


Per'en, Salidli 


Bedkun,Periyuii, Per 


Leg 


Tang 


Tiingadl 


TaAg 


lip 


Month, Lab 


(Inth 


Ot, 0th, Ohot 

■ 7 • ^ • 


Liver 


Kaleja or Kale- 
jah 


. Kailj 


Kalejuii 


Loin 


Kamar 


Kamar 


Kamar, Ked 


Lnngs 


Shush 


Phupphiis 


F^fasun, Fufus 


MaiTow 


Clodii 


Asthisdr, Hiidan- 


Asthi sar, Hadkan- 






talii mendu 


manhcno mcdo 


Mousta<^;hcs 


Mucliheu 


:\Iighi 


Muchh 


Mouth 


Muiih 


Toiid, Mukh 


Mukh 


Nail 


NAkhuii 


Nakii 


Nakh 


Neck 


Gardan 


Mdn, Grlwa 


Gardan, Bochi 


Nose 


Nak 


Ndk 


NAkh 


Palate 


Tdlil 


Tdlii 


TAlwun 


Pulse 


Nabz 

• 


NMlchen udnen 


Ndd, Nadl 


Ribs 


Phdnsli 


PhdsH 


Pdnsli 


Side 


BA7,t 


Kiis* 


Kuksh 


Skin 


Chamra 


KAtadl, Tsarm, 
Tsamdeii 


Twacha, Chdmdl 


Sinew- 


Patthii 


Sndyu 


Sndyu 


Skull 


Khopri 


Mastakdchi kan- 
wanchi 


Khopri 


Shoulder 


Khdnda 


Khdnda Skandh 


Khando 


Spittle 


Thiik 


Thunki 


Thuk 


Sweat 


Paslna 


(iham 


Parsevo 


Stomach 


Pet 


Pot, Jathar 


Jathragni, Pet 


Tear 


Ansu 


A'siin, Ashru 


Ashru 


Temples 


Kanpati. 
ShaVlkah 


Kanpattl 


Ankhnl bajun. 


Thigh 


Rdn, Jdngh 


MAndl, Jangh 


Jiing, Ran 


Throat 


Gala 


Gala" 


Galun 



ou 


INTBODUCTIOX. 


♦Sect, i. 




English. 


Hindustani. 


Mabath!. 


GUJABATf. 




Thumb 


Angi!itha 


A'ngatha, An- 
gushth 


HAthno angotho 




Toe 


PAiiu ka 
angutha 


PAydchen bot 


Pagnun Anglun 




ToDgue 


Zabdn, Jlbh 


Jlbh 


Jlbh 




Tooth 


Ddnt 


Dant 


DAnt 




Waist 


Kamar 


Kamar, Kati 


Ked 




Windpipe 


Nail 


Naraden, NaU 


GalAni najl, Nardl 




Wrist 


Pahuncha 


Mangat 


Poncho, KAndAu 




Vein 


Hag, Nas 


Shir, Nas 


Nes, or Nas 




Beauty 


Khiibsiiratl 


Saundarya, Sun- 
darpanA 


Swanip, Blip 




diseases. 


Amrdz, 


Bog, 


Bog, 




Ague 


Tap-i-naubat 


AntaryA tdp, Jwar 


TAhAdlyo tAw 




Bald 


Ganjd 


TakalyA, (bald- 
ness) Takkal 


TAlkun upar kesh 
nahln te 


\ 


Blind 


AndhA, NiblnA A'ndhla 


Andhlo 




Bruise 


("hot, KuchUl 


ThentsA, KhontsA ChhundAurin, Kach- 










i*awaurm 




Cholera 


Wabd, Haizah, 


Dzarl marl, Pat- 


Aghok, WAkho, Kog- 






Hag ok 


ki 


liyo 




Cold 


Sardi, Zukdm 


HiAw, ThAAdl 


, Thandl 






(catarrh) 


Sardl 






Cough 


Ehdiis 


KhoklA, KhAnsi 


KAswAs, KhAnsi, 
Khoklo, Udharas 




Consumption 


Kshay 


Kshaj' 


Kshay, Khai 




Deaf 


BahrA 


BahirA 


Bihiro 




Death 


Maut 


Mrityu, Maran 


Mot, Maran 




Digestion 


Hazm 


Jime, PAchan 


PAchan, Jarwun 




Dream 


KhwAb 


Swapn 


Swapn, Sapnun 




Drowsiness 


Nind 


Gungi, Susti 


Ghen, Sustl 




Dumb 


Giingd 


MukA, MonA 


Gungo, Mungo 




Fainting 


Ghash 


Murchchha 


MurchhA, Behosh 




Fever 


Tap 


TAp 


TAw, Jwar 




Fracture 


Tiit 


Asthi bhang 


Hastl bhang, HAdkuii 
bhAge chhe te 




Gout 


Ni^cfis 


WAtaroga 


Najlo 




Hunger 


Bhi'ik 


Bhiik, KshudhA 


Bhilkh, KshudA 


1 


Indigestion 


Bad hazml 


Apachan. Ajlru 


Ajiran, Apacho 




Inflammation 


Sozish 


Bakta dosha 
SantApan 


Lohi wikAr 




Jaundice 


Kanwal 


KAmalA 


Kamalo 




Tiame 


Langrd 


LangdA 


Tjangdo 




Madness 


Diw&nagl 


Wed, Khiil 


GAndopanun 




Measles 


PansA, Gowart Gowar 


Gowar 


1 


Numbness 


Sunsatd, 
Thithur 


Mehrl, SunepanA 


BehermAri jawun 




Ophthalmia 


Ankh dukhnd 


Dole yene, Netr Ankh dukhwA Awawl 








r6g 






Pain 


Dukh, Dard 


PidA 


ShVil, PidA 





beet. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


61 


English. 


HiNDUSTAKI. 


MarAthi. 


GUJARATI. 


Kanh 


UbhAr, Garmi 
ddnah 


GhAmolen, Pural 


Ar&i 


Rheumatism 


B&i 


Sandlii wdyu 


Sandhi wAyu, Wut 


Sickness 


Bimarl 


Bog 


Mandagl, Jiw chuno 
thay chhe te chun- 
thddo 


Sleep 


Nlnd 


Nij, Nidra 


tJngh. Nidrd 


Smallpox 


Sitald 


Devi 


Sell, Sitia devl 


Spasm 


Khinch 


Petka wal 


Tin, Khench 


Sore 


(adj.) Dukhtii 


Khat,Kshat,Bhag 


ChAdu, Ojhdo, Ogh- 




hii4,(8.)Pakla, 




wado 




GhAo 






Squint-eyed 


TirchhA dekhne 
wdlA, TerA 


Tirpd pAhne 


UndM pultino 


Stammering 


Larhar 


Totaren bolne 


Bokduu, or, Toladuu 
bolwuu 


Swelling 


Siijd 


Siij 


Sojo 


Symptoms 


Nishdnen 


Chlnh, Lakshau 


CMnh, Lakshan 


Thirst 


PiyAs 


Tdhau 


Taras 


Voice 


Aw&z 


Swar, Awdj 


Swar, Awaj 


Watching 


Jdgnd 


Jdgtd 


Pohoro bharwo, Jiig- 
wau, (protecting) 
R&khwun 


Weakness 


Z'aifi 


Ashaktatd 


NabaUi 


Wound 


Zakhm 


Ghdy, Khat 


Gh&, Jaklun 


Wrinkle 


Chin, Kalchar 


Surakuti, Chirmi 


Kachll,Karchll kack- 
lun 


QiiadrujjL'ds, 


CMrpd'e. 


CJiatufJijxid, 


Chojmgan janawar. 


Alligator 


Magar, Ghajiyal Magar, Susar 


Magar, Susar 


Animal 


Janwar,9aiwdi] 


L Jiw, Prani, Jana^ 


Janwar, PrAiii 


Antelope 


Chltal, Haran 


W<11 

Haran, M^ig 


Haran 


Ass 


Gada 


Gadhav 


Gadhediin 


Bat 


Chamgldar 


Wdgiit 


WdgluA (yr Wagol 


Bear 


Richh 


Aswal, BhAlii 


Rlchh 


Beast 


Taiwan 


Chatu^hpad, 

Pashu 
BAn dukar 


Pashu 


Boar 


Jangli siir 


Suwar, Rdni dukar 


Brute 


Halwfin 


HaiwAn, Pashu 


HewAn 


Buck 


Hamd 


KAlwit 


Hamo 


Buffalo 


Bhains 


Mhais 


Bhens, PAdo 


Bull 


Nargdo 


Pol, Sdnd 


SAnd 


Calf 


Bachera 


WAnsariin 


WAchhardun 


Camel 


tJnt 


TJiit 


tJnt 


Chameleon 


Girgit 


Saradd 


Sarado 


Cat 


Billl 


MAnj'dr, Billf 


BilAdi 


Cattle 


Mawdshf, 


Guren 


Dhor 




Dawdh. Dhoi 


t 




Colt 


Bacherd 


Shingaruii 


Wachher 


Cow 


GAe 


GAy 


GAy, Gai 


Peer 


Haran 


Haran 


Haran 


Doc 


Hinii 


Harni 


Harani 



t}2 


l^TRoDUCTIo^^ 


sect, i 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Makathi. 


GUJAKATi. 


Dog 


Kutta 


Kutrd, Shwdu, 
Kukkur 


Kutro 


Elephant 


Hatlil 


Hattl, Gaj 


Hdthl 


Elk 


8Ambar 


Sdrhbar 


Sdmbar 


Ermine 


KaJ^um 


Sinjydb, Kdkum 


Sinjydb. Kdkumii 


Ewe 


Bheri 


Mendhi 


Mendhi, Gheti 


Foal 


Bachhcri 


Hhinganiii, Bach- 


Wachherun 






hero 


"* 


Flock 


Gallah 


Kalap, Jhufid 


Jhuiid 


Fox 


Lomri 


Khonkad, 
Konkad 


Lomdi 


Frog 


Mendak 


BedT^ik 


Dedko 


Goat 


Bakr'd 


Bakrd, Bokad 


Bakrun 


Hare 


Khargosh 


Sasd 


Saso, Saslo 


Horse 


Ghojra 


Ghoda, Wdrd 


Ghodo 


Hound 


SbikAr kd kutta ParadhltsA kutrd Shlkdri kutro 


Hyena 


Tars, Kaftar 


Taras 


Dipdun 


Jackal 


Siydl 


Kolha 


Shiydl 


Kid 


Halwan, Bakri 


L Bakrun, Karadiin Bakrinun bachchuA 




kd bachcha 






Lamb 


Mendlic kd 

• 

bacha 


Koukruu 


Ghetfnnuii bachchui 


Leopard 


Chitd, Tenduji 


Chittd 


Dipdo 


Lion 


Sher, Sinh 


Sinh 


Sinh, Sahln, Sdwaj 


Lizaixl 


Chhipkali 


Pal 


Pdl 


Mai-e 


Ghori 


Ghodi 


(4hocli 


Monke}' 


Bdndar, Laiigui 


Wdnar, Makud 


Wdnar 


Mouse 


(^huhi 


Uhdir, Miishaiv 


tJndar 


Mule 


Khachar 


Khenchar 


• Khachar 


Muskdeer 


Mushk havaii 


Kastiiritsa mrig 


Kastiirl mpji' 


Muskrat 


Chichundari 


Chichundari 


Chachundra 


Otter 


Ud-bllAs 


Pdn mdiijar 


Daiidi kutniii 


Ox 


Bail 


Bail 


Balad 


Panther 


Chitd, Tendiid 


Bibali'i 


Chitto 


Pig 


Siir 


Dukar 


Dukai' 


Porcupine 


Sahi, Shalya 


Salu 


Sdbudi 

• 


Rabbit 


Khargosh 


Sasd 


Safialo, Saso 


Ram 


Mendhd 


Mendhd 


Mendho 


Rat 


Chiilid 


Ghus, Mushak 


Miish, Ghiis 


Rhinoceros 


Gainda 


Geiida 


Gendo 


8able 


Samiir 


Samiir 


Samiir 


Sheep 


Bher 


Mendhd 


Ghetuii, Mendhuii 


Squirrel 


Gilahri 


Khdr" 


Khaierl, Khiskoli 


Tiger 


Bdgh 


Wdgh 


Wdgh 


Wolf 


Bheriyd 


Ldudgd 


Warn 


Birds, 


PaHndah. 


PalisM. 


PaMii. 


Adjutant 


Khages 


Khagendra 


Baglo 


Brood 


Pote, Bachche 


Win, Wet 


Murghi wagere, Pak 
shindn bachcbun 


Chicken 


Murghi kd 


Kombadichen pi- 


Murghi wager6 pak 




bachah 


liiu 


, ehindn bachchun 



fcect. 1. 


VOCABULAKY. 


b«J 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Mabathi. 


(JUJABATi. 


Cock 


Murgh, Khuriis 


Kombada. 
Knkkut 


Margho 


Crane 


BagU 


Karkocha, Sdras 


Baglo 


Crow 


Kauwii 


Kawala 


Kagdo, Kdff 


Dove 


FAkhtah 


PdrwA (Columba Khabutar pdrewuu 






(Enas), Kabutar 




Duck 


Batak 


Badak 


Batak 


Eagle 


HumA, 'Ukab 


Garud 


Garud pakshi 


Falcon 


ShAhin 


SasAnA 


Bdj, Sakro 


Fowl 


Murgh 


Kombadeii 

• 


Marguii 


Game 


ShikAr 


Paradh, Shikar 


Shikar 


Goooe 


Hans 


Hans 


Hans 


Hawk 


BAz 


Bahirl, Sasand 


Bdj, Sakro 


Hen 


Murghi 


Kombadi 


Marghl 


Heron 


BaglA 


Kraunch 


Baglo 


Hoopoe 


Hudhud 


Hudhud 


Hudhud 


Jungle fowl 


Jangll murgh 


Ban kombadeu 


Rdnl kukdo 


Kite 


Chll 


Ghdr 


Chll 


Nightingale 


Bulbul 


Bulbiil 


Bulbul 


Ostrich 


Shutur murgh 


Shdhd mric? 


Shdhdmrig 


Owl 


Ulii, Chughd 


Ghubad 

• 


Ghuwad 


Parrot 


nm 


Popat 


Popat, kiroto 


Partridge 


Tltar 


Titar, Kawadd 


Titar' 


Peacock 


Mor, Xaiis 


Mor, Mayih- 


Mor 


Peahen 


Momi 


Ldiidor, Mayuri 


l)hel, Momi mddd 


Pheasant 


Tadarw 


Kukke kombada, 
Knkkud kumbhu 


, Kukkut kumbdo 


Pigeon 


Kabiitar 


Kabutar 


Khabutar 


Quail 


Lawa 


Ldwd 


Ldwri 


Sparrow 


Chirya 


Chimanl, ChicU 


Challi 


Spur-fowl 


Jangli murgh 


Rdn kombadd 


Rdni kukdo 


Wagtail 


Dhobi chiriya, 


Khanjan, Khanj- 


• Dhobi chiryo, Ma 




Mamola 


rit 


molo 


Fulws, 


Machhliijan. 


M(Ut'. 


Jldchhlio. 


Bombelo 


Bobila 


Bohbil 


Boubilo 


Crab 


Kenkra 


Khenkadeu 


Karchalun 


Eel 


BAm 


Niwatd, Bam 


Bdm 


Hilfla (the Clu 


- HilsA 


Hilsd' 


Hilsd 


pea aloM) 








Mahasir 


Masir 


Mahasir 


Mahdsir 


Mango-fish 


Amb machhll 


Tapshi 


Bhing 


Oyster 


KAlii 


Kdlav 


Kdlu 


Pomfret 


Chhamma 


Sarangd, Halwd 


Chhamanuii 


Porpoise 


Siis, PAur ma- 


Gddd 


Darial dukar 




chhll 






Sepia, or J cuttle Suphen 


MhdkiU 

• 


Gddo 


fish 








Carp, orf Cj/jm 


. Rohi, Rohu 


Rohi 


Roh 


nag dc7iticu 


■ 






latux 








Shark 


Magar machhll 
Nihang 


:, Grdh, Muahl 


Mushi 



64 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



English. 
Shrimp 
Skate 
i^le 
Turtle 
Whale 



Ifueots. 

Ant 

Bee 

Beetle 

Bug 

Butterfly- 
Caterpillar 

Centipede 

Cochineal worm 

Fire-fly 

Fly 

Gnat 

Grasshopper 

Leech 

Locust 

Louse 

Maggot 

Millepede 

Moth 

Scorpion 

Silk-worm 

Snail 

Snake 

Spider 

Swarm 

Tick 

Vermin 

Wasp 

White ant 



HiNDIJSTANi. 
Chingirl 
Ldkad 
Jhlpl 
Kachhwa 

Wal machhll, Timi 
Hiit. 



Mabathi. Gujarati. 

Kolambi/jhiiiga Kolabhi, Kolanl 
Bh^as L&kad 

Jhipatl, Leph Jhipdi 
Kdsava Eachchhap 

Magarmachh 



Hasliar&tn'l' Kitak or Kide. 

• • • 

arz, Kire. 

MungijCheiinti, Mungi 
(white) Dlmak 
Shahd ki makhi Madhu mashi 



Xi(ako, 



Kldi 



Gubrauta (cop- 

ris) 
Kha^al 
Tltrl 
Jhdnjhd 

Kankhajur& 

Eirm kl]*a 

Shabtdb 

Makkhl 

T>&hs 

Tidi 

Jonkh 

Tiddl, Malakh 

Jii 

Kirm 

Kankhdjiira 

Parwanah 

Bichhii 

Resham kd kir^ 

GhonghA 

Sdmp 

Makfl/Ankabiit 

Jhand (of bees) 

Chamiikan 
Klye makore 
Bar, Zambdr 

Dimak 



Mogar (a mallet) 

Dhenkiin 
Patang, PAkoll 
Surwant, Kusa- 
nid, Kusarin 
Ghon, Shatpadi 
KirmijAche kiden 
Kddzaw4 
M^hi 

Machchhar, dans 
Tol, Gawatya tol 
Dzdlii 
Tol* 

KidA, AH 
Kanakhdjiira 
Patag, Tasar 
Winchii 

Beshmdtsa Kida 
Gogal gdy 
Sap, sarp 
Sutera, Koli 
Ghongat (of bees) 

mohal 
Gochid, Gochadl 
Kide, Kid, Muugi 
Gdiidhil inasi, 

Kumbhdrin 
Wdlwl, Udai 



Madh mdkh, 
Bhamro 



Makan 
Patahgiyuii 
Kaiimlo, Kdnmliyo 

Kido 
Kdnsalo 

Kirmajno jiwado 
A'giyo 
Mdkh 

Machchhar, Ddns 
Tid 

Jdlo or Jaro 
Tld 

■ ■ 

Jii 

Kldo 

Kankhajuro 

Tiio 

Wichhii 

Keshamno Kido 

Gokalgdy 

Sdp, sarp 

Karoliyo 

Mdkhno dhaglo or 

Sanmddy 
Chiino, Chlmodi 
Kldl makodl 
Dili!in pddi!iari makh 

Udhal 



Stones, etc, Pattliarivaghaira, Daga4 wagaire, PatJiaro ivagerc. 

Agate Aklk Aklk Aklk 

Alum Phitkarl Turti, Phatki Fatkl, Fa^a^idi 

Amethyst Marjls Yakut Ydkut 

Antimony Surmah Surmydchl dhdtii Surmo 

(CoUyrium of) Ku^al Surmd 

Brass Pltal Htal Pital 

Cat's-eye 'Ainu 1-hirrali Lasani Lasanio 

Crystal Billaur Bilori Kautt Kdch, Bilor 



beet. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


(^C^ 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Mabathi. 


GujabAti. 


Copper 


TAmba 


Tdmbeu 


Trdmbnn,Tardmbua 
Tdmbun 


Coral 


Murjdn 


Powaleii, Prawdl 


Parwdtuii 


Carnclian 


'AW: 


Tdmbrd, nr 


Ldl, Dholo Akfk 






Pdndhrd Akik 




Diamonl 


Almas, Hira 


Hird 


Hire 


Dross 


Mail, Kit 


Mai, Kit 


Mel, Kit 


Emerald 


Zamarrud 


Pdts, Markat 


Pdnuii 


Flint 


Abrak 


Chakhmakh 


Chakmak 


Gold 


Sond 


Soneii 


Sonun, Sunuii 


Iron 


Lohd 


Lokhaiid, Loh 


Lohodlun, Lodhuii 


Jet 


Sang-i-miisa 


Kdr 


Sange mushd 


Jewel 


Jauhar 


Batn 


Katn 


Lapis lazuli 


Ldjaward 


Ldjaward 


Ldjaward 


Lead 


Sisd, Surb 


Slseii 


Sisuii 


Loadstone 


Sang-i-ma^na- 
tis, Ahanruba 


• Loh chumbak 


Loh chuTTibak 


Marble 


Sangi marmar 


Sang marmar 


A'raspdhdn 


Metal 


Dhdt 


Dhdtn 


Dhdtu 


Mine 


Khdn 


Dhdtuchi khdn 


Dhdtunf khdn 


Mineral 


M'adanl 


Khanij 


Khanij (i./?, what 
comes out of a 
mine, Khdndmdn- 
thi je nikle te), 
Dhdtu 


Pearl 


Moti 


Motiu, Muktd 


Moti 


Quicksilver 


Simdb, Pard 


Pdrd 


Pdro 


Ruby 


Yd^t 


Mdnik, Ldl 


Mdnek, Ldl 


Sapphire 


Nllam 


Shani, Nil 


Nil 


Silver 


Chdndi 


Kupeii 


Rupuii, Chd 


Steel 


Pauldd 


Tikheii 


Tlkhuii 


Sulphur 


Gandhak 


Gandhak 


Gandhak 


Talc 


Abrak 


Abhrak 


Abarak 


Tin 


Kalai 


Kathll 


Kalai 


Topaz 


Pukhrdj, Za- 
barjad 


Pushkardj 


Pokhrdj 


Touchstone 


Kasauti 


Kasoti 


Kasotl 


Turquoise 


Flrozaii 


Perodzd 


Piroj 


Apparel, 


PoHhak^ Zihds. 


Poshdk, 


Poshdh. 


Boot 


Jiitl, Mozah 


Charmi payamojd 


Jodo 


Bracelets 


Pahunchi 


Chudd, Kar 


PohoAchi, Chudt 






bhi!i$han 




Brocade 


Kimkhvdb 


Kinkhdb 


Kinkhdb 


Button 


Ghundi 


Gundi 


Borlyun 


Cap 


Kutdh 


Topi* 


Topi 


Chain 


Zanjir,Lubddah SdnkhU 


Sdnkli, Sdnkal 


Cloak 


Jubbah, Ang- 


Ghougadi, Motd 


Ghughadi, Mhoto 




arkhd 


dagld 


daglo 


Clothing 


Llbds 


Wastren, Pang- 
hrunen 


Lugddn, Wastrc 


Coat (of an 


Pagld 


Pagleii 


Aiigrakho, Daglo 


European) 








(of an Indian) Kurtl, Kabd 


Angarkha 




[Bomfxiy- 


-1880.1 




p 



66 



li^TnODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



English. 
Cotton 
Drawers 
Ear-rings 

Embroidery 

Fan 
Girdle 

Glove 

Gown 

Handkerchief 
Linen 

Lining 

Loop 

Kecklace 

Needle 

Pocket 

Pin 

Ribbon 

Ring 



Seam 
Shirt 
Shoe 

Silk 

Skii-t 

Sleeve 

Stocking 

Thimble 

Thread 
Turban 

Veil 

Velvet 
"Woollen 

Food. 

Asparagus 
Appetite 

Barley 
Boiled 



HiNDUSTAKi. 

Rt:ii, Kap&s 
Pdi jamah 
Jhumkd, Kun- 

dal, Awezah 
Chikan-dozi, 

Gulkari 
Pankhd 
Kamarband 

Dastdnah 

Peshwdz 

Riimdl 
San 

Astar 
Phdnsd 
Har, Kanthi 

Siii 

Khisd 

Tanchni 

Pattl, Kor, Fit 

Angushtarl, (for 
nose) Nath, 
(for toes) 
Bichwa 

Dokhtj Joj* 

Kamis 

Juti,(hom)Ndl 

Rishm 
Ddmau 
Afitin 
Mozah 
Angusht pandh 

Dorl, DhAg6 
Pagri 

BurV:'a 

Makhmal 
tJn kd kapi:d 

Khurdii, Andjj 
Tfi'dm., 

Ndgdaun 
Bhiikh, Ishtihd 

Jau 
Ubald hiid 



MABlfHi. 
Kdpiis 

Ijdr, Pdyjdmd 
Kundal, l^air^- 

bhii^han 
Kashldd, Bnti 

Pankhd, Vijhund 
Pattd, Kamar- 
band 
Hdtdtsd mojd 

Gaun, Dzhagd, 

Peshwdj 
Rumdl 
Tdgdchen or Sa^- 

dchen kdpad 
Astar 

Mudan, Phdsd 
Mdl, Hdr, GaM 

pattd 
Sui, Sii 
Khisd 
Tdntsni 
Phit 
Angathi, Mudrd, 

Mudi, Kad^n, 

Mandal 

• 

Shiwan, Dun 

Kamlj 

Jodd, Pdyposh, 

Motsd 
Reshim 
Gher, Ghol 
Bdhi, Astani 
Pdymodzd 
Angustdn, Bot 

Slit, Dord 
Pdgoteii, Mundd* 

sen 
Burkha, Ofhnl 

Ghuugat 
MakhmaJ 
Lonkarlchen 

A'sparagas 
Bhuk, Ki^hudhd 

Jau 

Ukadleld, Rdiid- 

hcia 



GUJABlxi. 

Rii 

Ijdr, Leiigo, Payjdmo 

Chokdun, Eimdal, 

Kadi 
Bharat, Chikan 

Pankho, Winjno 
Kamarbandh 

Hathnun mojun, 
Dastdnd 

Gawan, Jdmo, Pesh- 
wdj 

Romdl 

Shannun kdpad 

Astar 

Fd&do, Fdnso 
Galiyuii Kanthi, 

Hdr, Gop-mdld 
Soi, Soy 

Gajwun, Khisuii 
Tdnchnl 
Pdto, Fit 
Wintl 



Shiwan 
Khamis 
Jodo, Paposh 

Resham 

Gher 

Bdnhi 

Pagnnji moju 

Angusthnl, Aiigothl, 

Angothadi 
Doro 
Pdghdl 

Burkho, Ghuughat 

Makhmal 
tJnnun kdpad 

Blwjan, 

Kdgdan 
Ruchi, Bhukh) 

K^hudhd 
Jav 
Pakiiwclun, Rdndhc- 

luu 



Sect. I. 


VOCABULARY. 


©7 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Marathi. 


GUJA&iTi. 


Beef 


Gde k& Gosht 


Go mdns 


Go mds 


Bean 


BA\\&y Lob4 


Ghewdd, Warwa 


Walor 


Bread 


Rotl 


Bhdkar, Poll, 
PAnw 


RotU, Poll, Pdiiuii 


Breakfast 


Ndshtah 


Nyahdri 


Hdjarl, Kdshto 


Brinjal (or egg- 


' Baingan 


Wdngen 


Wengan 


plant) 








Bottle 


Shishah 


Shisd, Eupd 


Shishf 


Broth 


Shorbd 


Mdsdchi karhi, 
Rasd 


Sherwo 


Batter 


M^kah 


Loni 


Mdnkhan 


Cabbage 


Kobl 


Kobl 


Kobi 


Cauliflower 


PhiU karam 


Phiilkobi 


Phrtlkobi 


Cheese 


Panlr 


Panir 


Panlr 


Cork 


Biij, DattA 


Biij 


BAch 


Cream 


Mal^' 


Malai, Sdi 


Malal 


Curds 


Dahl 


Dahin, Chakkd, 
Dadhi 


Dahl 


Dainty 


Laziz 


Pakwdnn, God 


Mi^htdn, Pakwdn, 
Swddi^hth ann, 
Lejatddr 


Dinner 


Khand 


Jewan, Bhojan 


Jaman, Bhojan 


Drink 


Shurb, Pine ka 


k Pey, Pdnly, Piny- 


■ Pliiiin, Piwdno pa- 




chiz 


dtsd paddrth 


ddrth 


Feast 


Ziy^at 


Jewandwal, San^ 
Meiwdni 


Ujdnf, Mehmdni 


Flesh 


Gosht 


Mds 


Mdns, Gost 


Flour 


Kt& 


Pith, Kanik 


Lot, Medo, K\o 


Fried 


BhunneU hud 


Talaleleii 


Talelun 


Glass 


Edch 


Kdnts, Kdnchc- 
chen 


Kdch, Edchnun 


Gravy 


Ab-gosht 


Mdiis ras 


Madsuo ras 


Greens 


Tarkdrl 


Bhdji 


Tarkdrl,Shdk bhdji, 
Shdk tarkdrl 


Guest 


Mihmdn 


Pahnnd 


Parona 


Host 


Mezb4n 


Yajmdn, Ghard- 

hani 
Murambd, Mu- 


Ghar dhani, Yajmdn 


Jam 


Murabbd 


Murabbo 






rabbd 




Jelly 


Rubb 


J61i, PhalpAk 


Chiknun 


Knife 


(pen) ChAkii 


, Tsdkii, Surf, 


Chdkii 




ChhuTi 


Chhiirikd 




Milk 


DiWh 


Diidh, K^hlr 


Diidh 


Millet 


BAjri 


Barag 


Bdjri 


Minced 


Koft,ah 


Chhindleleii 


Ehimo karwo 


Mustard 


R4i 


Rdyl, Mohri 


B.df 


Mutton 


Bher kd gosht 


Mendhrdchl 


Ghetannu, or Bhednu 






sdguti 


mdiiS 


Napkin 


Dastmdl 


Pus^en 


Mhodun, Luchhwdno 
rumdl 


Oil 


Tel 


Tel 


Tel 


Pickle 


Achii* 


Lonchen 


Athdnu 


Pepper 


Mirch 


Kdiln mircu 


Marl' 

V 2 



68 


INTRODUCTIOX. 


dcC V* X • 


English. 


HindiistAni. 


MabIthi. 


GUJARATI. 


Plate 


B&san 


(silver or gold) 


(silver) Ruperl sA- 






BupjAchen bA- 


man, (a plate) Ki- 






mAn, (a plate) 


kabi, Thai! 




/ 


BAsan 




RoaHt 


Bhi^na 


BhAian 


KabAb 


Bice 


Chdwal,(boiled) TAndiil, BhAt 


BhAt, ChokhA 




Bhat, Dhdn 






Bait 


Nimak 


Mith, Lon, Lavan Mithun, Ldn 


Sauce 


Chatni 


Olavan 


Chatni 


Spoon 


Chamchah 


ChamchA 


Chamch6 


Stewed 


Dampukht kiyA Mand agnita pAk 


Dhime, dhlme tApc 






■ 


rAndhelu 


Sagar 


Shakar, Mi^ 


SAkar, Chini 


EhAnd 


Supper 


'AshA, Bit hiid RAtrichen bho- 


SandhyAkAlnuii bho- 




khdnd 


jan 


jan 


Sweetmeats 


Mlthdi 


MlthAi 


MlthAl, Halwo 


Tablecloth 


Dastar KhwAn 


MedzAchi ChAdar PAntharan | 


Tray 


ThAH 


Tabak 


ThAli, Khumcho 


VpaI 


Bachhre kd 


WAnsarAchl sa- 


Wachchhno mAs 




gosht 


gutl 




Vinegar 


SirkAh 


SirkA 


Sharko 


Wheat 


Gehiiii 


Gahtiii 


Gahiiii 


Wme 


SharAb 


DrakshAchi diird 


DarAkhno dAru 


House, Furni- 


GJuir Sdmdn 


GJiar Oluirdnta- 


Gluir ane g1iarn§ 


ture, <Jr. 




len sdnuln, 
wagaire 


sdman ityddL 


Arch 


KamAn 


KamAn, Mehrab 


KamAn, Mehnib 


Bag 


Thaill 


Pishwi, Thalli 


Kothll. Theli 


Basket 


TokrA, Pitai-A 


TopM, PAnti, Pe- 
thArA, Karand 


Topli, Toplo 


Barber 


QajjAm 


HajAm, NhAwi, 


HajAm, Walaiid 


Bearer 


i^ammAl 


A'nnArA, or VAh- 
iiArA (of pAlkl) 
Bhoin, KahAr 


Bhoi, AnnAr, LAwnAr 


Bath 


QammAm 


Hami),m khAnA, 


NAhawAni or snAn- 






NhAnlchidzAgA, 


karwAni jagA, 






SnAii 


HamAm 


Bed-room 


Eh^Ab gAh 


NidzAwyAchl 
kholi 


SuwAno ordo 


Beam 


ShAhtlr 


BahAl, Tulal 


BhArwatiyo 


Bench 


Chaukl 


BAnk 


BAjat 


Bell 


GhantA 


GhantA 


Ghatit 


Bedstead 


Palang 


KhAt; Palang 


KhAtlo, Palang, 
PalaAgdi 


Bedding 


BichhAnA 


BiclihAnA, Shej 


Goddun, PathAri, 
BichhAnun 


Box 


Sandiil:, Pcti 


Peti, Dabbl 


Peti, DAbdl 


Board 


Takhtah 


Phali, TakhtA 


PAtlyun 


Bolt 


HurkA, Belna 


Khii, Adkan 


Atkan, Adgro 


Brick 


Tnt 


rt, Wit ' 


Tilt ' 


Bucket 


Doi 


Dol, Pohrd, BAldl Dol, BAldi 


Building 


'imarat 


ImAi-at, Baiidist 


ImArat 


Candle 


Mom batti 


Men batti 


Men or Min batl 



Sect. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


ey 


English. 


Hindustani. 


MAnATHi. 


GujabAtI. 


Carriage 


Gdri 


Wddan, Gddi 


Gddi, Wdhan 


Carpet 


Shatranjl 


Hatranji, Gdlitsd 
bichhdyat 


SetraAji, Galicho 


Casket 


pibbA 


Dabbd 


Ddbdo 


Cellar 


Bhaunra 


talghar, Bhuydr 


Bhoiiyrun 


Chink 


Chhed, Chir 


Phkt, Chir 


Fdt, Chir, Chlro 


Chamber 


Kothri 


Ehoii, Kothadi 


Ordl, Kothadi 


Chimney 


Diidddn 


Dhurddeii 


Dhumddiyun 


Chair 


Kursl 


Ehursl 


Kursl 


Chest 


Petl 


Petl, Hadpd 


Petl 


Cistern 


Hauz 


Tdkl, Ku'nd 


Tdnkt, KuAd. Ho] 


Cook 


Bdwarchi 


(ABrdhmancook) Kasoiyo 






A'tsdrljSwayaih- 








pdki, Babarchi 




Corner 


Kond 


Kon, Eoprd 


Kon 


Connting-house 


Daftar-khdnah 


Pedhi (of Indian 

bankers) 
Phanl, Vin- 


Pedhl, Dukdn 


Comb 


Kanghi 


Kduskl 






charnl 




Cover 


Ghildf, DhiiknA Dzhdnkan 


Dhauknuii, Padbidaii 


Coverlet 


Palang posh, 


Palan? posh, Pd- 


Chddar 




Razdl 


sodd, Chddar 




Cup 


PiyAl'ah 


Pydld, Katord 


Pydlun 


Cupola 


Gumbaz 


Ghumat 


Ghunmat 


Cradle 


PAlnA 


Pdlnd, Tdrleft 


Pdlnun, ' GhodlAii, 
jhodi 


Curtains 


Parde (musqui- 
to) machch- 


Padda 

• 


Paddo 

• 




harddni 




« 


Discharge 


Ilizd, Rukhsat 


Nirop, Bajd 


Rajd (dismissal), (of 




Baitarafi 


(dismissal) 


a gun) Bdr 


Door 


Darwdzah 


Darwddzd 


Bdr, Kamdd 


Drain 


Mori 


Nal, Ndld, (of a 
house) Mori 


Mori, Nal 


Expenses 


Kharch, 
Akhrajdt 


Kharts 


Kharach 


Floor 


Zamin 


Dzamin, Bhui 


Jamin, Bhoy 


Footman 


Paidal, Piyddah 


, Pdddtsd manu- 
shya, Pyddd 


Pyddo 


Foundation 


Paydh 


Pdyd 


Pdyo 


Furniture 


Sdmdn 


Sdmdn, Saraii- 
jdm 


Sdman, Sarr.njdm 


Gardener 


Bdghbdn, Mdli 


Mdli 


Mdli 


Groom 


Ghorewdld, Sdis Ghodewdld, Mo- 


Ghodawdlo, Charwd- 






tadddr 


ddr 


Hall 


Diwdn khdnah 


Diwdn khdnd 


Ewdn 


Handle 


Dastah 


Dastd, Miith, 
Ddndd 


Hdtho, Dasto 


Hire 


Kirdyah 


Hel, Bhdden 


Bhdduii, Majuri 


Hole 


Siirdkh, Chhed 


Bhonkil, Bil, 
Kholgd 


Bil, Chhidr 


Jar 


Ghard, Khum 


Baranl, Ghadi, 
Madken 


Ghado 

• 


Kettle 


Batiid 


peg, Haudl 


peg, Taplluii 



70 


INTRODUCTIOK. 


sect. i. 


Enolisu. 


HiNDlJSTANi. 


MarAthL 


1 

GUJARATt 


Key 


ChAbl 


TsAwi, KilU 


Kunchl 


Kitchen 


Bdwarchi 


Swayampdk ghar, 
Babarcnikhdn4, 


RasoduA, Babarchi 




Ehdnah 


khdnun 






Mutbakh khdn4 




Labourer 


Mazdiir 


Madztir 


Majiir 


Lamp 


ChirAch, Dip 


Diwd 


Diwo, Dlpak 
Pustak khdnun 


Library 


Eitdb kh4nah 


Pustak&laya, Pus- 






tak kh^d 




Tiime 


Chiind 


TsunA 


Chuno 


Lock 


Kufl 


Tdld, Kuliip 


Tdlun 


Looking-glass 


'Afnah 


A'rsi, Darpan 


Darpan, Arsl, 
Chdtlun 


Mat 


Chatil 


BoryA, Anthrl 


Hashlr, Chatdl 


Oven 


Tanir 


Bhattl 


Bhaththl, Tandiir 


PAlki 


Pdlki 


PAlkl, MydnA 


Pdlkhl 


Pillar 


Sutiin, Thamb 


Ehdmb, Stambh 


Thdmbhlo, Sthambh 


Pillow 


Takiyah 


Ushl, Takyd, 
Girdl 


Takyo, Oslsun 


Porch 


Dewj-hl 


Dewyhl 


Dewdl, Osarl 


Porter 


Mazdi!ir, (at the 
door of a 
house) DarbAn 


Helkarl 


Helkarl 


Plaster 


Lep (med.) 


EaphlM, gildwd. 


Lep 




malham and 


Lep (med.) 






Marham 






Pot 


Deg 


Bhdnden 


Tapili, Handl 
Chndpruu 


Hoof 


Chhappar 


Chhappar 


Scissors 


Kainchl 


Kdtar, Kainchl 


Kdtar 


Servant 


Naukar 


TsAkaa-, Dds, 
Sewak 


Chdkar 


Sheet 


ChMar 


ChAdar, (of paper) 


Chddar,Pichhodl,(of 






TAu 


paper) Tdw 


Slave 


Ghuldm 


GuUm, Dds 


Guldm, Chelo 


Snuffers 


Gul-tardsh 


Diwydchl kdtar 


Gul Kdtar 


Soot 


KAjal 


Mas 


Kdjal, Mes 


Stair 


Darjah, Slyhi 


Jina, Shidl,Dddar Dddar, Nlsami 


Step 


Payah 


Pdyrl 


Pagthiyuii 


Storey 


Manzil 


Majld 


Mdl, Medo, Majlo 


Sweeper 


Jh4ri!i kash (low 
caste servant), 
Mihtar,Bhangi, 

HaUlkhor 


Dzhddndrd 


Jhddu korndr 


Table 


Mej 


Mej 


Mej 


Tailor 


Darjl, KhiyAt; 


Shiiiipi 


Darjl 


Terrace 


Agist, Chabil- 


Gachchl, Chau- 


Agdsf 




tarah 


thard 




Tile 


Nariya 


Kaiil, Khdpar 


Nallyuii 


Top 


(Summit) Sar 


, Shendd, Shikhd, 


ToAch, Shikhar 




Sikhar, (play- 


(plaything) 







thing) Latti 


Bhaurd 




Tongs 


Chimt4 


Gdwo 


Chipiyo, Chimto 


Torch 


MasVal 


Mashdl, Diwatl 


Masdl 


Torch-bearer 


Mash'alchi 


DiwatydjMashdl' 


• Masdlchi 



chl 



Sect. I. 



VOCABULARY* 



71 



Enqlish. 

Wages 

WaU 

Washerman 

Water-carrier 



Window 
Wood 

Bit 

Bridle 

Curry-comb 

Girth 

Martingale 

Saddle 

Spur 

Spectacles 

Stable 

Stirrup 



HlNDdSTiNf. MABATHI. 

HawAjib, Pagdr Bozmnn&, PagAr, 

MushAharA 
DlwAr BhiAt, DiwAr 

Dhobl Dhobi, Parl^ 

Bihishti PAnakyA 



Ehirkf 
Lalqrfi (firC'A 

wood) Hezam 
LagAm 
BAg 

Eharahrah 
Tang 
Zerband 
Zin 
Mahmez 

Chashmah 

Tawllah 

RikAb 



Khidkl, Jharoko 
LAAkilid, Lakdl 

Lagdm 

LagAm 

Ehardrd 

TaAg 

Jerband 

Jin. Khoglr 

PAyAAche kAnte 

'Ar, 
Chashmi, Arasi, 

Upanetr 
TabelA, Ghod- 

shAlA, PAgA 
Rikebl 



GUJABATI. 
PagAr 

BhlAt, DiwAl 

Dhobhi 

Bhisti, P4n{ bhar- 

nAr, or LAwnAr, 

PakhAli 
BAri, Jharoko 
LAkduft, Sarpan 

LagAm 

LagAm 

Kharero 

Tang 

Jer band 

Jia, PAlAn 

KAuto 

Chasmo, Upanetra 

Tabelo, GhodshAl or 

PAgA 
PAwdun, RikAb, trr 

RikAb 



A Garden, 

Fruit 

Husk 

Kernel 

Stone or seed 

Almond 

Apple 

Apricot 

Cherry 

Betel nut 

Cocoa nut 

Citron 

Custard-apple 

Date 

Fig 

Grapes 

Guava 

Lemon 

Lime 

Mango 

Mangosteen 
(fruit of the 
GiMTcinia 
purpurea) 

Melon 



Bdgh, 

Mewali 

ChhUkA 

Mafhz, Giidd 

Blj, Tukhm 

BAiiAm 

Seb 

ZardAlA 

ShAhAlA 

SApiyArl 

NAryal 

Chakotard, 

Turanj 
SitA phal 
KhajAr 
Anjlr 
AngAr 
JAm 
LlmA 
LimA 
A'm 
Kokam 



Eharbiisah 



Bdffj BagUid. Wddiy Bdg, 

Phal Mewo, Fal 

SAl ' ChhAl 

Mokh Gar 

BAAthA,Bi,Anthil Gotlo, GotH, Blj 

BadAm BadAm 

Seb Seb 

DzhardAlii JardAlu 



SupArl, Phopha} 
NAral 

_ * 

Toraujan, MAhA- 

Jung 
SitA phal 
KhajAr 
Anjlr 
DrAk^h 
PerA 
NimbA 
NlmbA 
AmbA 
Kokamb 



SopArl, Fofal 
NAi-ival, Shri fal 
TuraAj 

SitAfal 

KhAreky Ehajur 

Anjlr 

DrAksh, DarAkh 

Jamrukh 

Limbu 

KAgadi limbu 

Keri, A'mbo 

Kokamb 



KharbAj, (water Tai'buch, Tarbuchiin, 
melon) TarbAj, Khadbuj, Kaling- 
KAllAgad dAn ' 



72 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect. I. 


English. 


Hindustani. 


MabAthi. 


GujarAti. 


Mulberry 


Rh^httit 


Tuten 


Shetut 


OUve 


Zaiti!in 


Aliv 


Jalpdf, Jctun 


Orange 


NArangl 


Ndrangi 


Ndrangi 


Peach 


8haft,iilii 


SbaphtdM 


Sheftdlu 


Pear 


Ndshpati 


Ndshp&ti 


Per 


Pine-apple 
Plantain 


Anann^ 


Anands 


Anendsh 


KeU 


Keleii 


Keld, Keluu 


Plum 


A'lii bukharA 


Aid bukhar 


Alu, Amrd 


Pomegranate 


An&r 


Dd^imb, andr 


Dddam, or, Ddlam 


Quince 


.^afarjal, Bihi 


bhriphal 


Safarjal, (seed) 
Beddnd 


Baisins 


Kishmish 


Manukd, Kismis 


Kdlidrdkh 


Sugar-cane 


Gandd, Paun^^ 


, U'ns, Ikshu 


Shemdi 


Tamarind 


Tamar i Hindi, 
rmlf 


ChiAch 


A'mli' 


Walnut 


Akrot:,orAkhro1 


; Akhrot, Akhrod 


Akhrot) or Akhod 


Tree9 and 


Jliar aur PMh 


DzM4en dm 


Jhddo, WriJt-aho, 


Flowers. 




phalen. 


nc Pliulen, 


Anemone 


Sha^4i^'n 
num^n 


Guleldla 


Gul Idld 


Bambii 


Bdns 


Bdmbii 


Wdiis 


Blackwood 


Shisham 


^\sa,\{Dalhergia 
Sum) 


. Shisam 


Coffee 


Kahwah, (the 


Bund (the berry) 


BuAd 




berry) Bun 


Kawd (the in- 
fusion) 




Cypress 


Sarv 


Sanl 


Sarowar 


Figtree 


Darakht i anjlr 


Anjir, Anjfrd- Aiijiruiijhdd 






chen dzhdr 




Mallows 


Gul khaini 


ShakaxtelijDllpa- 


Gole-Kheru, Dil- 






sant 


pasand 


Myrtle 


WilAyati 


MatU 


MatU, Khoshboddr, 




Mihdi,Menhdf 




Mendm 


Pine 


Sanaubar 


Raral 


Shanobar 


Tamarisk 


JhAii, TAgh, 
Babin 


Kesari 


ChlnnI 


Teak 


SiSg 


Sdg 


Sdg, Sdgwdn 


Vine 


AngtirkA 
darakht, TAk 


Drdkshachl wel 


Drdkh 


Anise 


Sau&f 


Shepu or Badl- 

shep 
Kobl 


Suwd 


Cabbage 


Kobi 


Kobi 


Capsicum 


MughUi mirch 


Mirchi, Mogli Marchu& 






mirchl 




Caraway 


Ajmiid 


Ajmodd 


Ajmod, Warydli 


Cardamom 


IlAchi 


Eldodd, Elchl- 
chen jhdr 


Elchi 


Carrot 


G&jar 


Gddzar 


Gdjar 


Chamomile 


B&bi^nah 


Bdbund 


Bdbi!ineh 


Coriander 


DhaniyA 


Dhand 


Kothmi 


Cresses 


HAlim 


Hdli'nw, A'hllnw 


Hdlem 


Jasmine 


CharobeU 


Jdl, Mogri 


Champell. Jal 



K^ect. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


73 


English. 


HimJUSTANi. 


Mabathi. 


GUJARATf. 


lily (water) 


Kama], Sosan 


Bhui kamal, Nag- 
champak 


• Kamkl 


Nosegay 


Guldastah 


Tura, Phiildi'itsA Fulno dado, or toro, 






guchoJih 


or goto 


Poppy 


Khash khash 


Aphlncheii dzhar Ehaskasnun, /»?% 




Post 




Aflnnuii jbdd 


Bosc 


GuUb 


Guldb 


Goldb, or, Guldb 


Tomato 


WilAyati bain- 
gan 


■ Wildyatl wdiigl 




Tnlip-tree 


Ldlah 


Ldld 


Ldld, Gulldld 


Violet 


Banafshah 


Banaphshd 


Banafsd 


Wreath 


Sihrd 


Mdld, Gajrd, 
Weni 


Fiilni mdld, or Hdr 


Bark 


Chhdl 


Sdl 


Chhdl 


Berry 


DAnah 


Ldhan phal 


Ddno 


BloBsom 


Kalf 


Mohr, Pushp 


Phiilnl kail 


Branch 


D&li, Sh^kh 


Khdndi 


Pdll, Ddiikhri 


FlOflB 


Reshah 


(ThrPAcl) Tantu, 
Siitr, (of wood 
Hirkd, Shird 


Re^ho 


Flower 


Phiil 


Phiil 


Fiil, Pushp 


Gnm 


Gond 


Gond, Dlk 


Gundar 


Tieaf 


Patta 


Pdu 


Pdn 


Plant 


BiitA 


Ropd, Aushadhi 


Ropo, Chhodwo 


Root 


Jar, (origin) ArI 


Miil 


Miil, Jad 


Trunk 


Tanah 


Khod. Kdnd 


Jhddnun thad 


Cucnmber 


Khlrd, Kakri 


Kdkdi 


Kdk'adi 


Fennel 


Sod 


Wadishop 


Warydll 


Fenugreek 


Methi 


Methl 


Methl ' 


FlaL 


San 


Dzawas, Atsi 


San 


Garlic 


Lasan 


LflAiin 


Lasan 


Gourd 


Kadu 


Bhompld, Ddiigar 


Kadu, Dodhl 


Hemp 


San 


Tdg, San 


San 

• 


Indigo 


Nil 


Nil (the colour) 
Kdllgull 


Gull 


Ivy 


'Ishk pechd 


Latd, Wei 


Ashak pecho 


Leek 


Kdndd 


Kdndd 


Kdndo 


Lentil 


Masiir 


Masi!ir 


Masiir, Masiiml ddl 


Lettuce 


Edhti 




Kdhu 


{ Linseed 


Alsi 


Alshl 


Alsi 


Mint 


Podlnah 


Pudind 


Fudno 


Nettle 


Gaznah 


Khdj Koltl 


Kdkchd 


Nightshade 


MakOy Inabu \s 
salab 


Ringnl 


Riiignu 


Onion 


Piydz 


Kdiidd 


Ediido 


Parsley 


Ajmiid 


Ajmodd 


Ajmud 


Peas 


Matar, Miing, 
Mdsh 


Wdtdnd 


Mag, Tuwar 


Rue 


Ispand, Suddb 


Satdp 


Sihetdb 


Saffron 


Z'afardu 


Keshar 


Kesar 


Sorrel 


Ohiikd.Turshah, 
Chukr 


Tsukd 


Chuko, Khatum 


Spinach 


Pulak 


Pdlak 


Pdlakh, Choldni 
bhdjl 



74 



INTRODUCTION. 



k)cCX« x* 



English. 

Squill 

Turnip 

Jet-d'eau 

Aqueduct 



HlNDI^TgTANI. MABAtHI. 

Iskll Kdndd 

Shalgham Bhalgam 

Fauwdrah, KdraAjeii 

Chashmali 

Nal Nal, pdt 



GUJAltlTf. 

Kdndo 

Salgam 

Cliasmo 

Pdunino nal 



Aradle Land, 

Barley 

Bam 

Bran 

Cart 

Chaff 

Com 

Fami 

Farmer 

Field 
Grass 
Harrow 
Harvest 

Hay 

Hedge 

Husbandry 

Labourer 
Landlord 

Meadow 

Plough 
Reaper 
Reaping-hook 

Sower 
Spade 
Straw 

Stack 

Tenant 



Wheat 
Wild 



Kdhil i zird'at 

Zamin. 
Jau 
Kothd 
Chokar 
Chhakrd, Gdrl 
Bhiisd 
Andj 
Chak 



Jlrdlti dzamin Khedwdjog bhoi. 



Jav 
Kothdr 
Koiidd 
Gddd 
Bhiis 
Dhdnya 

Dhdnydne ghet- 
leli dzamin 
Kisdn, Khetddr Dhdrekarl 



Yoke 



Khet 
Ghdns 
Hengd 
Fasal, Dirau 

Siikd ghdns 

Bdr 

Kheti 

Mazdilr 
Zamin ka 

Malik 
Murghzdr 

Hal 

Dirogar 

Ddsd 

Bonewdld 
Bel, Kndali 
Pardl, Karbi 

Tal,Todah,Ganj 

Pattdddr 



Gohviii 

(adj.) Jangall, 
(subs.) Jan- 
gal, Baydbdn 

J lid 



Shet 

Gawat, Tsar 
Kulav, Ddntalefi 
Hangdm, Kdp- 

niche divas 
Wdjalelengawat 
Kupan 
Shet kdm, Kpshi 

karm 
Madziir, Bigdrl 
Phajinddr, Dza- 

minddr, 
Kuran 

• 

Ndiigar 

Edpandrd 

lid 

• 

Pernard 
Dali, Khoreii 
Kdd, Pendhd 



Jav 

Kothdr, Bhauddr 

Thulun 

Gdduu 

Bhusuii, Bhuso 

Andj 

Ijdre lidheli jamln, 

Ijdro 
Ijdraddr, Zaminddr, 

Khedut 
Khetar 
Ghds, Ehad 
Ddnto 
Mosam, Kdpnino 

Wakhat, Bhamuii 
Sdkun ghds 
Wdd 
Khetiwddi 

Majdr 
Jaminddr 

Meddn, Ghdsno 

ugawdni bid 
Ndngar 

Khetar karndrd 
Dardnti or Kdtar- 

wdnun hathiydr 
Wdwnaxo, Bopndro 
Pdwado 
Pardl, Pendo (rice 

straw) ; Kadab 
Bhag, Kudhwo 



Gani, Udwl, 

Kumbherl 
(Of a building) Ganotiyo, Khedut 

Bhddekari, 

Dhdrekarl, 

Sdrekari, Kiil 
Gahiin 
(adj.) Rdndtsd, 

(subs.) Jangal, 

Osdd dzdgd 
Dzukad,(ofoxen) (Of oxen) Jhusri 

Jodi' 



Godhdm 

Jangal, Padtd ja- 
mln, Werdn 



Sect. I. 



VOCABULARY. 



75 



English. Hindustani. MarathI. 



Of Banking 
andAcoounts. 

Account 

Acquittance 

Address 

Advance 

Advertisement 

Agent 

Agreement 

Answer 

Apprentice 

Asset 

Auction 

Balance 

Banker 

Bankrupt 

BiU 

Bond 

Broker 

Business 

Buyer 

Capital 

Charges 

Commerce 

Constituent 

Contract 

Credit 

Creditor 

Custom-house 

Date 

Day-book 

Debit 

Debt 

Debtor 

Delay 

Demand 

Evasion 

Excuse 

Export 



Factor 
Famine 



Sahuk&H avr 
jama Itlmrch. 

yisAb 

Farigh KJiatti 
Pata 

Ta^dwi 

25ahir Vhabar, 

IshtihAr 
Gumdshtah, 

Vakil 
Kabiiliyat, 
* Kar4r 

• 

Jawab 
Sh4gird 
MaujMdt, Mdl 

milkat 
Harrdj 
Bdkl 

Sdhiikdr, Sarnif 
Dewdliya 
Hundi, Chithi 
DastAwez 
DaUdl 

Kdm, DhandhA 
KharldAr 
Piinjl 
Kharch 
Saudd, Baipjir 
Munib 

IjArah, Thlka 
Jam'a 

Karz khwAh 
SAir* 
Tdrlkh 
Bozndmchah, 

Daftar 
Udhdr 
Karz 

• • 

KarzdAr 

Muhlat 
Khwdhish 

Bahdnah 

Nikdsl 



Gumdshtah 
Dukdl, Kaht 



SdrvaJtdrl wa 
thavid klvartz 
yd jyTaJtarni, 

Khdten 

Phdrakhtl 

Pattd 

Agdii paikd, 

Tagdl 
Dzdhirdt 

Adtyd 



GuJABATf. 

SdhuMrl anejame 
Mu7'chn6 hiidb, 

Hisdb, Khdtai\ 

Fdragati 

Eagalnun 

shamdmuii, Patto 
Aug udhdr 

Jdher khabar 

Adtiyo 



Kardr, Kardr- Kabiildt, Kardr 

ndmd 

Dzawdb, Uttar Jawdb, Jabdp 

Shdgird, Shishya Shdgird 

Punjl Awej 



Lilaiiw, Nildm 
Bdkl 
Sdwakdr 
Diwdliya 
Hundi, Chiththi 
Khat 
Daldl 

Kdm, Udyog 
Wikat ghendra 
Bhdndwal,' Punjl 
Kharts 
Vydpdr 
Adatyd 
Maktd 
Pat, Dzamd 
Rinkarl 
Mdndwi 
Tdrlkh 
Bodzkhardd, 
Rodzndmd 
Udhdr 
Rin 
Rinl 
Ushlr 
Mdgnen 
Tdlno 

• • 

Nimltya, Bdhdnd, 

Sabab 
Mdl dilsre baii- 

darl rawdnd 

karne 
Gumdstd, Kdrb- 

hdrl 
Dukdl 



Lildm, Hard] 

Bdkl 

Sardf 

Dlwdliyo 

Hundi, Aukdo 

Khat, Khdtun, Lekh 

Daldl, Gumdsto 

Wepdr 

Kharld ddr 

Bhaudol, PuAji 

Kharach 

Wepdr 

Adtlo 

Ijdro 

Jamd, Jame 

Mdiigndr 

Furjd, Mdndawl 

Tarlkh, Mitl 

Rojmel, RojndmuA, 

Nodh 
(to) Udhdrwun 
Karaj 

Karajddr, Denddr 
Dhll, Wilamb; Wdr 
Tagddo 
Andkdnl 
Bahdiiun, Nimitt 

Rawdnagl, Mdl blje 
baudare rawdne 
karwo 

Adatyo, Kdrbhdrl, 
Gomdshto 

Dukdl, Kdl 



7() 


INTRODUCTION. 


beet. 1. 


English. 


FTlNDUSTANI. 


MaeAthi. 


GUJARATI. 


Goods 


MAI, Jing 


Mdl, Jinnas 


Mdl, Sdman 


Grain 


An^i, Ghallah 


Dhdnya 


Dhdnya 


Handicraft 


IJirfat 


Hdtkdm, Kald 


Hdthekdm, Karwdno 
dhaAdho, Pesho 


Import 


Bdhir mal 


Bandar! jinnas 


Bandarmdii mdl 
Idwawo 


Interest 


(Of money) 


Bydj, 


( Of'money)By&i vidj : 




Biydj, (influ- 




(influence) Wag, 




ence) Wasllah 




Wasilo 


Lease 


Patta 


Pattd 


Pato 


Leisure 


Fursat 


Wei, Phursat, 
Awkdsh 


Fui'sat, Chhutl 


Letter 


Khat, Cliithl 


Patr, ChithtM 
kdgad 


Kdgal, Patar 


Loan 


Udhar 


Usanen 


Uchhlnun 


Loss 


Nuk^dn 


Totd, Nuksdn 


Toto, Nuksdn 


Manufacture 


Edrkhdnah 


Kdrkhdnd 


Kdrkhdnuu 


Market 


Bdzdr 


Bddzdr 


Bajdr, Ghaut 


Memorandum 


YM ddsht 


Yddl 


Iddl 


Merchant 


Sauddgar, 
Baip4ri 
SaudA, Mdl 


Vydpdrl, Udaml 


Wepdrl 


Merchandize 


Mal 


Mdl 


Message 


PaighAm 


Nirop 


Nirop 


Money- 


Paisa 


Paikd 


Ndnu, Paisd 


Mortgage 


Giro 


Gahdn 


Gharene, Girwi. Giro 


Note 


Chithl, Pati 


Chitti, Patr 


Chitthi, Patr 


Overplus 


Fuzlah 


Jydstl, Phdjil 


BdkY, Fdjal 


Packet 


Lifdfah, Gathri 


Lakhotd, Tablak 


Lakhoto 


Partner 


Sharlk 


Bhdglddr, Sara- 
katl, Hissedar 


Bhdgiyo 


Passport 


ParwAnah 


Parwdnd, Dastak 


Parvvdno 


Payment 


DinAr bhamd, 


Dene, Bhame, 


Bhdrnun, A'pnuii 




Add kama 


Jhddbdki * 




Pedler 


Bisdtl 


Pheriwdld 


Feriyo 


Penalty 


DAnd 

• 


Gunhegdrl, Dand 


. Gunhegdrl, Dand 


Plenty 


ZiyAdagl, Tfrdf. 


Pughkalpand 


Pushkal, Ghanuii 


Pledge 


Giro 


Gahdn, Tdian 


Giro 


Post 


Ddk, Tappal 


Tappdl, Ddk 


Ddk, Tapdl 


Poverty 


Gharlbi, Iflas 


Garibl, Darldra- 
pand, Eaiigdli 


(iaribdi, Daridr 


Price 


Kimat 


Kimmat, Mol 


Kimmat 


Principal 


Miil, Asl 


Muddal, Miil Multatw, Nivam 






(principle, mo- 


(principle), Kdran , 






tive), Hetii 


Hetii 


Profit 


Naf 'a, Fdidah 


Naphd 


Nafo, Ldbh, Facdo, 
Hdsil 


Property 


Milkat 


Mdlmilkat 


Mdl, Milkat 


Bate 


Bhao 


Dar, Bhdw 


Bhdw, Nirakh" 


Beceipt 


Basid, Pahunch Pdwatl, Pohonch, 


PonhoAch, Kabaj, 






Ba^d 


Basit 


Bent 


Kirdyah 


Bhddefi 

• 


Bhdduu 

• 


Sample 


Namtinah 


Namund, Mdsld 


Namuno, Maslo 


Scarcity 


Kami, Killat, 


Kamtlpand 


Taiigl, Achhat 



Kahti 



Sect, I. 



VOCABULARY. 



77 



English. 
SeUer 
Shop 
Signature 

Sum-total 
Trade 

Trustee 

Usage 

Wages 

Warehouse 

Wealth 

Wharf 



Hindustani. 
BAi' 
Diikan 
Dast khaU, 

Kull jam'a 
Baip4r, Saudd 

Ziminahddr 

Sarrishtah, 
Kdidah 
Pagdr 

Kothi 

Daulat 

Ghdt 



Of Sliipping, Jalidz hi hdhat. 



Anchor 
Boat 

Cable 
Cargo 

Commander of 

boat 
Compass 
Ferry-boat 
Flag 
Mast 
Mate 
Oar 

PaGsenger 
Prow 

Kope 

Budder 

Sail 

Sailor 

Stem 

Twine 
Voyage 

Yard 

Of Law and Ju- 
dicial Matters. 

Abuse 



Langar 
Ndo 

Zanjir langar kl 
Bhartl, BAr i 

jahdz 
Ndkhudd 

Ku|;b numd 

Guxdre ki ndo 

BAotd 

Dol 

Mu'allim 

Bind, Chappii 

'Abii^ 

Mdng 

Bassi, Dor 
Sukkdii 
P41, Bddbdn, 

S^rh 
Khala9l,MalU^, 

D&ndi 
Dabiisd 

Stitli 
Jahdzi safar 

Kdthi 

• 

Shir' a avr 
faujddH. 

Gall (to abuse) 
bar&bar,'Amal 
na kamd 



MASAfHi. 

WiknArA 

Dukdn 

Sahi, or, Sal, Has- 

tdk^har 
Ekandar beri j 
VydpAr, Udim 

Jimmeddr 

Tsdl, Wahlwdt 

llojmurd, Dar- 

mdhd, Pagdr 
Wakhdr 
Daulat 
Dhakkd, Ghdt 

Galhatcn Sam* 
handk, 

Ndngar 
Machwd, Ndw, 

Taraii 
Langar dor 
Bhargat 

Tdudel 

« 

Hokd 

Tar 

Bdwtd, Nishdn 

Dol 

Mdllm 

Waleii 

Utdni 

Ndl 

• 

Dor 

Sukdn 

Shld* 

Ehaldshi, Ndwd- 

di 
(Stem) Wardm 

SutH 

Jal prawds, Sa- 

})har 
Parwdn, Kdthl 

Kdyadd it a nydya 
jyraltarnl, 

Shiwl, Gali (bad 
use), Gair up- 

yog 



GUJABATI. 
Wechndro 
Dukan 
Sahi, Matuu 

Kul, Ekaudar berij 
Wepdr, Udyog, 

Dhaiidho 
Jimmeddr, Jimmo 

lendr 
Wahiwat, Dhdro. 

Bit 
Pagdr 

Wakhdr 
Dolat 
Danko, Ghdt 

Walidtf,hdhat, 

Ndngar 
Machwo, Hodi 

Langainu dordun 
Wdhan upar chaf* 

hawelo mdl 
Tandel 

Wdhd^no huko 
Hodi 

• 

Wdwa^ 
Dol 

• 

Mdlam 

Halsun 

Utdru 

Ndl, Wahdnnuii 

mdthuu 
Dordun 
Sukdn 
Sahado 

Khdrwo, Khaldsi 

Wdhdnnun pachh- 

wddun 
Dorl ' 
Darivdnl shafar 

Paiwdn, Kdthi 

Kdyadd tathd addlat 
jrrakarni. 

Gal : (to misuse) Ger 
rite niimal karwuii 



78 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



English. 

Acquittal 



Adultery 
Amputation 



Arbitration 
Arbitrator 
Attorney 
Award 



Bail 
Bribery 

Civil Court 

Chain 

Clause 

Clerk 

Confession 

Convict 



Conviction 

Copy 
Crime 

Criminal Court 
Decree 

Defendant 

Deed 

Denial 

Divorce 

Evidence 

Executioner 

Executor 

Ex-partc 
Fee 

Fine 
Forgeiy 

Gaol 



Hindustani. 
ChhiithnA, Be- 

gunah tha- 

hrdn4 

ChhindU, ZinA 
Kdt d&lnd 



Panchdyat 
Panch 
Vakil 
Thardw 



Zdmin 
Kis^wat dend, 

Ldnch dend 
Diwani 'addlat 
Zanjlr 
Ba^am 
Kdfkun 
I]p:dr 
Gundhgar, 

Kaidi jig par 

gundh sdbit 

hiii 
^abiit i gundh 

Nallfl 
Gundh 

Faujddrl 'addlat 
J^ukmnamah, 

Fai^alah 
Muddi 'alaihi 
Dastdwez 
Inkdr 

Xim, Fdrigh 
khat 

Shahddat, 
Gawdhl 

Jalldd, Phdnsi 
denewdld 

Wa§iyat cha- 
Idne wdla 

Ek tarf i 

Dastiiri, 
M'amiil 

Dand 

Jhiitd dastd- 
wez bandnd 

Kaidklianah 



MABlTHi. 

Sutne, Muktatd 



Vyabhichdr 
Edpne, Angchhed 



Paiitsdit 

Pauts, Lawdd 

Wakll 

Paiitsdsa niwddd, 
Huki!im ndmd, 
Pantsdit ndmd 

Dzdmin 

Ldnts 

Diwdni addlat 
Bidi 
Kaiam 

Kdrkiin, Parbhii 
Potukal 

Aparddhi t^ar- 
waleld 



Gunhydchi sdbiti 

Nakal, Prat 
Ganhd) Aparddh 
Faudzddrl addlat 
Hukiim ndmd, 

Niwddd 
Pratiwddl 
Khat, Patr 
Nakdr, Ni§hedh 

Wiwdh sambandh 

mochan 
Sdksh, (Proof) 
Purwarl,Pramdn 
Aiitak 



GujaratI 
Chhutak jawun, (to 

pronounce) Nira- 

parddhi ^harawa- 

wuii 
Vyabhichdr, Bad- 

karm, Chhindlun 
Angchhed, Angkdp- 

wun, Sharlmo kol 

awayaw kdpwun 
Pauchdt, Lawddi 
Panch, Lawdd 
Wakll 
Pauchdt ndmun, 

Panchno t^^erdw 

or Chukddo 
Jdmin 
Ldnch, Kushwat 

khori 
Diwdni addlat 
Bedf 
Hakam 
Kdrkiin 

Mdnwun, Kabiildt 
Aparddhi ^hareluii 

mdnas 



Gunhani sdbitino 

thardw 
Nakal 

Aparddh, Gunho 
Fojddri addlat 
Hukmndmun,Fesalo. 

Niwddo 
Pratiwddl 
EJiat, Dastdwej 
Nakdr, Inkdr, 

Ni^hedh 
Taldk 

Purwdri, Pramdn 

Fdnslkhor 



Mfitlekh tsdla- Mjityu patr chald- 

wandra wandr 

Ek-tarphi Ek tarafl 

Dasturi Dasturi 

Dand Dand 

Bandwaleld Khoto bandwatno 

kdgad dastdwej 

Tuning, Baudis- Turaug, Kcdkhdnua 

hdla 



Sect. !• 


VOCABULARY. 


7d 


EK6LISH. 


HlND^STANf. 


Mauathi. 


GujarAti. 


Gallows 


Phdu8i ke lakre Phdnsl dciiydts4 


Fanslndn Idkdan, 






khAmb 


Fdiisi 


Highwayman 


Kazza^:, 

R4hzan 
Phdiisi dend 


WAtmAryA 


Wdtpddo 


Hanging 


TAngne, Phdushl FAusl dewuii, Trfitkd- 






dene 


wawun, Tdngwun 


Judge 


Mun^if, K&zi 


NydyAdhlsh 


Nydyddhikdrl 


Legacy- 


Hibah,Tarikah 


Mritlekhddu 


Wdrsho 


Legatee 


Tarkah w41a 


MritlekhdAnAdhi- 


Mritlekhddnddhi- 






kdri 


kdrl, Wdras 


Murder 


Khiin 


Khi^n 


Khun 


Murderer 


Khrtni 


Khunl, Khi^n 
karndrA 


Khdni 


Nonsuit 


N& manziir 


Harne, 

Ndmaiidziir 


Ddwo rad thdi te 


Notice 


Khabar 


Siichan, Dzdhir- 


Jdher khabar, Suchnd 


Oath 


Kasam 


AiUxUal 

Shapath, An 


Sam, Sogand 


Pardon 


Mu'Afi 


Mdphi, Kshamd 


K^hamA^ Mdfi 


Perjury 


Jhiithi Icasam 


Khoti shapath 


Khotd sam 


PlaintifE 


Mudda'l 


WAdi 


Wddi, Fariyddi 


Prison 


Kaid khiinah 


Kaid khdnd, 


Bandhi khdnun 






Turung 




Prisoner 


Kaidi 


Kaidi 


Kedi 


Proof 


Dalil 


Pramdn, Purdwd 


Purdwo, Pramdn 


Punishment 


Saz4 


Shikshd 


Shik^d,Sajd,Na8ihat 


Quarrel 


Ka?iyah 


Jhagdd, Tantd, 


Kajiyo, Kankds, 






Bhdiidan 


Kalah 


Beader 


Parhnewala 


Wdtsndrd 


Wanchndfo 


Respite 


Muhlat 


Shik^hechl tah- 


Mehtal 






kubl 


^ 


Right 


HakH^ 


Hakk 


Hak, Kharun 


Scourge 


Chdbuk, Kord 


Tsdbrtk, Kordd 


Kordo 


Sentence 


ThahrAo 


Shik^etsd tha- 

rdw 
Mukaddama, 


Shajddewdno hukam 


Suit 


Mul^addamah, 


Mukadamo, Khatlo 




D'awA 


Khatld, 




Summons 


alab khat. 


Awdhan, Jortalab Hdkam nctdnun 






Sammdn 


boldwun. Tedun 


Testator 


Wa^iyat karne- 


Myitlekh karndrd Mrityu pati- karndro 


Theft 


WHilai 

Chorl, Duzdi 


Tsori 


Chorl 


Thief 


Chor, Duzd 


Tsor 


Chor 


Tribunal 


'AdAlat 


Addlat, Nydya 
sabhd 


Addlat, Nydya sabhd 


Trial 


Tajwiz, TapAs 


Insdph, Tsau- 
kashi 


Tajwlj, Tapds 


Will 


Wa^iyat ndmali 


I Mrityu patr 


Wasiyat ndmun 


Witness 


Sh4hid 


Sd£9hi 


Sdhedl, Sdkahi 


Of Oovevii- 


Sarkdr darhdr 


Rajya jjvakarni. 


MAj prakarnL 


ments. 


H bdbat. 






Ally 


Dost 


Dost 


Dost 


Ambas^dor 


Elchl 


Wakil 


Wakil, Elclii 



80 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect, i 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Mabathi. 


GujarAti. 


Authority 


yukm 


Sattd, Adhikdr 


Battd, Adhikdr 


Alliance 


Dosti 


Sangan mat, 
Milan 


Dostl 


Boundary 


Hadd 


SlmA 


Simd 


Canopy 


Chhat 


Chhat 


Chhat 


Capital 


Pae takht, Dd- 
ru's salf.anat 


Bdj dhdnl 

1 


Bdjdhdnl 


City 


Shahr 


Shahar, Xagar, 
Piir 


Shehar, Nagar 


Coin 


Sikkah 


Ndneii 


Sikko. Ndnu 


Courier 


Kd§id 


Jdsiid 


Jdsud, Jdsiis 


Crown 


TAj 


Mukut 

« 


Mugat, Tdj 


Dynasty 


8il8ilah i salatln 


VVdnsh 


Waiish 


Deputy 


Ndib 


Wakil, Karbhdrl, 


, Wakll, Kdrbhdri, 






Duyam 


Ndyab 


Duty 


Far? (excise), 


Dharm, (excise 


1 (Excise) Jakdt, 




Zsik&t 


Sdyar 


Dharm 


KcUct 


Farmdn 


Rdjdgyd 


Bdjdgyd, Bdjdno 
hukm, Farmdn 


Emperor 


B&dshih, 


Kaisar 


Bddfihdhd, Bajesh 




Shdhansh4h, 




war 




Chakrawartti 






Empress 


SuUdnah, 


Pddshahdchl stri 


Bddshdhanl stri, 




Bddshdh, 




Bdnnl 


Excellency 


NuwdbiMusta- 
tdb, NiiwAb 


Rdjd shri, 'A'lijd 


Alijd, Bdje shri 


Exchequer 


Khazanah 


Djaradbandlchl 


Jamd bandlnl 






kacherl 


kacheri 


Foreigner 


Pardesi 


Pardeshl man- 


Pardeshl, Parayd 






shya 


rdjnu mdnas 


Faction 


Toll 


Tat, Phall, Pak^h 


Toll 


Gentleman 


Marde adml, 
SAhib, 'Aghi 


Grihaflth 


Gfihasth 


Granary 


Amb&r, Kothd. 


Kothdr 


Kothdr, Ddundimu 
pdlun 


Inhabitant 


Desl 


Rahiwdsl 


Kehwdsl 


Journey 


Musdfiri 


Prawds 


Mushdfari, Prawds 


King 


Pddshdh 


Kddzd 


Rdjd 


Tiane 


Gall 


All, Gain 


Gall 


Levee 


Darbdr 


Darbdr 


Darbdr 


Majesty (ad- 


• Jahdn pandh 


Shrlmaiit rdje 


Shrimant, Rdjeshri 


dress to a 


I 


shri 




king) 








Mint 


Taksdl 


Tanksdl 


Tanksal 


Monarch 


Pddshdh 


Rddzd * 


Pddshahd, Rdjd 


Native 


Bdshindah 


Mulkl 


Asalno rehewdsi 


Night-watch 


Rdt kl chauki 


Bdtri idgaran 


Rdtiil chokl 


News 


Khabar,Akhbsir Khobar, Wartta- 


Khabar, 8amdchdr 






mdn 




Nobleman 


Amlr 


Amir, umi'dw 


Amir, Umrdw 


Patent 


8anad 


ISanad 


Sanad 


Pomp 


Damdamah 


Daul, Damdau- 
Idchi swdri 


Dhiimdhdm, Dol 


Populace 


Log, Khalk 


Lok 


Wastl Lok 



Sect. T. 



VOCABULARY. 



81 



English. 
Port 
Province 
Queen 
Quarter 

Rebellion 

Register 

Republic 

Retinue 
Riot 

Secretary 
Signet 

Spy 

stage 



State 

Street 
Successor 

Subject 
Throne 
Titles 

Town 
Traitor 



Treaty 

Treasurer 

Tribute 
Tyrant 
Usurper 
Umbrella of 

state 
Viceroy 



Hindustani. 
Bandar 
Zira 

Malikah, Rdni 
Hi^sah, Mahal- 

lah 
Balwd, Dan^d 
Daftar 
Saltanatlkbalk 

Jilau 

Hullar, Hangd- 

mah 
Munshi 
Sikkah, Muhr 
Jdsiis 
Manzil 



Qdlat, (govern- 
ment) Raj 
Mal^allah 
Jde nishin 

Ra*aiyat 

Takht 

Khitab 

Kabbah 
Da^^dbdz 



Sul^ ndmah 

Wisd]^ 
Khazdnohi 

Khardj bdj 
Zalim 
(Jhd^ib 
ChatrSultdni 

Niiwdb 



Marathi. 
Baiidar 
Prdiit 
Rdni 
Mahaldy Purd, 

Peth 
Band 

Uaphtar, Bchdd 
Prajdsattdka- 

rdjya 
Pariwdr, Swdrl 
Gardl, Daiigd 

Chitnis 

Mudrdi Mudrikd 

Her 

(day*s journey) 
Madzal, Tappd, 
(scaffolding) 
Mdld 

Sthiti" 

Rastd, Galli 
Jaynishin, Anu- 

gat yendra 
Prajd, Raiyat 
Sinhdsan 
Mardtab, Kitab 



GUJABATJ. 
BaAdar 
Prdnt 
Rdnni 
Mohio, ThekdnnuA 

DaAgo 

Nodh 

Prajd sattdrajya 

Khatlo, Pariwdr 
HulUd 

Munshi 
Mudrd, Mohar 
Guptdut, JdsiU 
Majal 



Safisthdn, (power) 

Rdj, Awasthd, Sthiti 
Rasto, Gali 
Jdya nashin 



Raiyat, Prajd 
Gddf, Sinhdsan 
Khetdb, Alkdb, Ma- 
rdtab 
Kasbo 

Fitiiri, Fitiir kamdr, 
Wishwdsghdtki, 
Rdjdrohi 

Tahndmd, Niyam Tah, Kolkardr, Tab* 

ndmuA 
Khajdnchi 



Kasbd, Shahar 
Wishwds ghdtaki, 
Rdjdrohi 



Ehajinaddr, 
BhdA^dri 
Khaft4Anl 
Pzulmi 
Rdjyapahdri 
Ghhatr 



Choth 
Julamgdr 
Chhlnwl lendr 
Chhatr 



Rddza pratinidhi Rdj pratinidhi 



ProffSithnft arid DJmfidJiey 

Xajfb, 



Trades, 
Armourer 

Artificer 

Artist 

Baker 

Beggar 
Blacksmith 



Hathiydr 

bandnewdld 
Edrigar 
Musauwir 
Roti bandnc* 

wdld 
Fa^ir 
Lohdr 



[Bom6a7/— 1880.] 



DJiande wa kamh, Dha lide ne haaa h. 



Shastra kdr 



Hathiydr bandwandr 



Edrigar, Kasbi, Kdrigar 
Shilpi, Edrigar Easabi 
Bhdjndrd, Roti- Rofi bandwandr 

virdld 
Bhikdrf, Ydtsak Bhikhdrl, Bhikshu 
liOhdr Lohdr, Lohd^o 

G 



82 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect. I. 



Ingush. 

Bookseller 
BTasie; 



Bricklayer 

Butober 

Carpenter 

Confectioner 

Cook 
Pancing-girl 

Druggist 
Pyer 
Farrier 
Greengrocer 

Grocer 

Goldsmith 

Horse-breaker 

Hunter 

Jeweller 

Juggler 

Linen-draper 

Musician 

Fainter 

physician 

ploughman 

Porter 



Bopomaker 

Saddler 
Sculptor 



Shepherd 

Shopkeeper 

Sa^n^er 

Shoemaker 
Singer 

Surgeon 

Tailor 

Turner 



HiNDIJSTANi. 

Eitdb f arosh 

Thather^ Ka- 



B4j, Mistari 
j^asdi, Kas^b 
Sutdr, Najjar, 

Barhal 
0alw4i 

Bdwarchi 
Kanchini, R4m- 

janl 
PansAri, 'At.tAr 
RangArA 
N'alband 
Tark^lwdld 



HABATHi. 

Pnstaken wik- 

ndrd 
EdnsAr, Pita- 

lecheu kdm 

karndrd, KAd' 

sya-kdr 
Gawandi 
Khdtak 
Sutdr 

MithdlwdlA 

Swayampdkl 
Ealdwantin, 
Eanchani 
Gandhi 
Bangdrl 
Ndlband 
Edchhi, Eunjard 



GAndhl, PasArl Pasdri, EirAnyd 



Sondr 

Chdbnksawdr 

ShikAri 

Jauhari 

Sh'ubadah-bdz 

Bazzdz 

EaUwant 

Na^d^h, 

Musawwlr 
Hakim, Tl&hih 
Jotiy&,Halwdh& 
TdBzdtTf (house 

servant) Dar- 

Un 
Bassi bandne- 

wdlA 
Zln bandnewdld 
§uratgar, Na^^- 



Sondr 

Chdbnk swar 

Pdradhi 

Johari 

Gdrodl 

Edpadkari 

Wdjaiitri 

Chitdri 

Waidya 
Ndftgaryd 
(of a house) Bar- 
wdn, Helkari 

Dor karfidrd, 

Eaiijdrl 
Jingar 
Mi!irtikdr 



Gop, Pdsbdn 

Diikdnddr 

Arrah-kash, 

Eardnti 
Mochi 
G d n e w d 1 d, 

Eawwdl 
9ajjdm, jard(i 
Darzi 
Eharddi 



Dhangar 

Dukdnddr 

EarwatAdrd 

Mochi 
Gawayi, Gdndrd 

Shastra waidya 

Shimpf 

Edntdri 



GVJABATi. 

Pustak, or chopadi 

wechndro 
Edusiyo 



Eadiyo 

Ehdtaki 

Suthdr 

Halwdi, Mithdi 

wd}o 
Rasoyo 
Kdyakan, Kdmjanl 

Gdndhi 

Bangrej, Baiigdri 
Ndlbaiidh 

• 

Tdi'kdri bechndro, 

Pastdgiyo 
Gdndhi, Eariydiui- 

wdlo, Wanik 
Sonl 

Chdbuk sawdr 
Pdradhi 
Jaw6rl 
Gdrodl 
Bajdj 
Wdjantri, Sdranp:i- 

wdlo 
Chitdri 

Waidya 
Ehedut 
Wdhik, Majdr 



Doraddu wanndr 

• • 

Jingar 

Pathhar upar naksh 
athwd ak^har 
khodndro, Mnrti 
kamdro 

Bharwdd 

Dukdnddr 

Eardi 

Mochi 
Gawaiyo 

Shastrawaidya 

Darjl 

Eharddi, Sanghddio 



Sect. I. 



VOCABULARY. 



83 



ExaUBH. 


Hindustani. 


Marathi. 


GUJABATI. 


Vintner 


Shardb farosh 


Drdksh&tsd r^s 
wikndrd 


Ddru wechndr, Kaldl 


Waterman 


PAnlwdlA, Bih- 


Pdnakyd 


Pdnl wdlo, Bhisti, 




ishtl 




(boatman) Ehdrwo 


Weaver 


Shdll, Juldhd 


Ko9htl, Winndrd 


Wankar 


Workshop 


KAikhinnh 


Shilpshdld 


Kdrkhdnuii 


Anvil 


Sind^n, Ghan 


Airan 


Jjohdrnun hathidr 


Awl 


Naharnl 


Ari * 


A'ri 


Axe 


Kulh&rl 


Kiirh&d, Parashu 


Kuhddi 

• 


Brush 


Kiinchl 


Kuiichi, Mdrjani 


Jbdduu 


Chisel 


Tdnkl 


Vindhhanen 


Widhnuu 


Compasses 


Parkdr 


Earkat 


Gol chakdun kdd- 
hwdnun hathiyar 


Enamel 


Mlndkdrl 


Mind 


Mlndkdrl 


File 


Sohan 


Kdnas 


Kdnas, Retadi 


Fish-hook 


Gal 


Mdse dharany- 


Mdchhldn pakadwd- 






dtsd gal 


noankodo athwd ga- 


Furnace 


Bhatthl 


Bhattl 


Bhaththl* 


Gilding 


TildicAri, Mu- 


(to gild) Rasa- 


Dhor chaddwuu 

• 




lamm'a sonti- 


wine, Muldmd 






kdr 


dene 




Glue 


Saresh 


Saras 


Saresh 


Hammer 


Hathaurd 


Hatodd 


Hathodi 


Hand-mill 


Chakki 


Dzatii'i, Gharat 


Pdnlnl, Ghaftti 


Inlay (to) 


Jarnd 


Dzadan kdm 

• • 


Jadwuii 

• 


Line 


Doro 


Dorl 


Dor 


Loom 


tant 


Mag 


Wan karni sdl 


Leather 


Chamra 


Tsdmad. Kdtadeu 


Chdmdun, Chdmdi 


Mallet 


Mogrl 


Mekhchii, Mogar 


Mogar 


Mould 


Sdnchl 


Sdntsd 


Blbun, Sdncho 


Nail 


KUd, Mekh 


Khild 


Chunk, Khilo 


Net 


JAl 


Dzdiefi 


Jdl, Jdluu 


Paint 


Rang 


Rang 


Rang 


Plane 


Randah 


Raiidd, Roukhnl 


Randho 


Press 


Shikanjah, 


Chhdp, Chhdpny- 


Chdp 




(Printing) 


dcheii yantra 






Chhapklianali 






Ruler 


Mistar 


Ankni 


Ankni 


Saw 


Arrah, Karwat 


Karwat 


Karwat, Karwatl 


Sieve 


Chalnl 


Tsdlan 


Chdlni 


Screen 


Pardah 


Paddd 


Paddo 


Shuttle 


Mdkhii 


Dhoteii 


Kdiitlo 


Tool 


Hathiyar 


Hatydr, Adt 


Hathidr, Yantra 


Water-mill 


Panchakki 


Pdn tsakki 


Pdnlnl chakki 


Wind-mill 


Pdwanchakkt 


Pawan tsakki 


Pawan chakki 


Wedge 


Pachcliar 


Pdtsar 


Fdchar, Khunti 


Wire 


Tdr 


Tdr 


Tdr 


School and 


Maktahf 


Sh^ld wa vldyd- 


]Sl»hdl ane rvidyd- 


CoUefjc, 


Madrasah, 


laya. 


laya. 


Author 


Musannif 


Graiitlia kdr 


Granthkdr 


Ball 


GencM 


Chendd 


Dado 


Bat 


Chaugdn 


Ddiidi:i 

• 


Daiidiyui'i 


Blot 


DdgU 


PAg 


^^'^-^ r. w 


Book 


Kitab 


Pustak 


Ch()pudi,Pustak,rotlii 
a 2 



64 


INTRODUCTION. 


feect. 1. 1 


English. 


Hindustani. 


Mabathi. 


GUJABATf. 


Chapter 


Rdb 


Adhydya 


Adhydya, Bdb 


Column 


Saflie kd ek 
khand 


Asaii, Rakdnd 


Asan 


Conclasion 


Khdtimah 


Shewat 


Samdpti, Chhedo 


Copy 


"Nakl 


Prat 


Prat, Nakal , 


Dictionaiy 


Lughat 


Kosh 


Kosh, Shabda saii- 
graha 


Dance 


Bewulfiif 


Akshar shatru 


Bewaki!if, Ak.^har 
shatru 


Education 


T'allm 


Shik§ha 


Kelawanl, "Widyd, 
Shikshd 


Exercise 


Mashk 


Abhyds 


Abhyds / 


Fable 


Nakl * 


Go§ht, Kathd 


Wdt 


History 


Tawdrikh 


Itihds, Bakhar 


Itihds, Bakhar 


Index 


Fihrist 


Anukramauikd 


Anukramanikd 


Ink 


Siydhl 


Shdl 


Shdl 


Leaf 


War, Pattd,Ak 


Patr, Pdn 


Pdn, Patr 


Lecture 


Bars, W'd}? 


Vvdkhydn 


Bhdshan i 


Lesson 


Saba]^ 


Dhadd, Path 


Sabak. Pdth 


Line 


Satar 


Regh,01 


Lik, 01, Paiikti 


Margin 


Hdshiyah 


Kdnth, Pusta- 
kdchl kad 


Hasiyo 


Maxim 


Masl 


Mhan, Wachan 


Kehewat, Wachan 


Page 


Safiiah 


Prishth 


Pri§hth, Safo 


Paper 


Kdghag 


Kdgad 


Kdgad 


Pen 


Kalam 


Lekhni 


Kalam 


Pencil 


Saldi, Surme kd 
Icalam 


Shishdtsd kalam 


Shishdnuii kalam 


Pen-Vnife 


Chdku, Kalam 
tardsh* 


Tsdkii 


Chdkii 


Pasteboard 


Dafti 


Jdddkdga^l 


Dopl§thdn 


Play 


Khel 


Khel 


Bamat, Khel 


Play-fellow 


Hamjiif 


Khelgadi 


Bhillu 


Play-ground 


Khelne ki jai 


Khelnydchi 
dzdgd 


Ramdwani jagd 


Poet 


Shd'ir 


Kawi 


Kawi 


Preface 


Dlbdjah 


Prastdwand 


Prastdwand, Dibdcho 


Professor 


Mu*alIim,Ustdd, 
Mudarris 


Widyd guru 


Widyd guru 


Prose 


Nasr 


Gadya 


Bakhar 


Proverb 


Kaiidwat 


Mhaii 


Kehewat i 


Rule 


Kdniin 


Rlti, Kdnii 


Ritl 


Rhyme 


Bal^r, Nagm 


Yamak 


Yamak 


Rod 


Chharl 


Chhadl, Kdthl 


Chhadl 


Scholar 


Tdlib i 'ilm 


Shishya 


Nisdliyo, Shishya 


School 


Maktab 


Shdld 


Nishdl 


School-hours 


Maktab kd wakt Shdletsa wel 


Nishdlni wakhat 


School-master 


Mudarris, 


Pantojl, (of Mus- 


Mehtdji 




A'khiin 


liTn3) Mulld 




Section 


Kalam, Fasal 


Warg {of a booh] 
Prakai-n, Adhy- 
dya 


Warg, Khaud 


Student 


T dllb 1 'ilm 


Wdydrthl 


Widydrthl 


Teaching 


Dai's 


Shikawine 


Sikawawaii, Bhand- 
wawun 



Sect. 1. 


VOCABULARY. 


b 


English. 


Hindustani. 


MABi-THI. 


GUJAEATf. 


Tutor 


AWik. 


Shikawindrd, 
Shik§hak 


Guru 


Verse 


Na^jm, Sh'ir 


Padya, Kawitd 


Kawitd, Charan 


Writing 


Lekh 


Lihine, l^astdk- 
shar 


Lekh, Dastdwej 


Word 


Shabd, Laf ^ 


Shabd 


Shabd, Bol 


Colours, 


Banff. 


Manff. 


Baiig, 


Black 


EiUd 


Kdld 


Edld 


Blue 


A'smdnl 


Nil, Shydm, 
Krifihn 


Nil 


Brown 


Bhiira 


Udi,Baddmi,Tap- 
kiri 


Baddmi 


Dun 


Zard 


Dzardd 


Jardo 


Green 


Sabz 


Hirwd 


Lilu 


Indigo 


Nil 


Nild 


Gull, Nile 


Lilac 


Jam kd rang 


Dzdmbud 


Jdmblun 


Orange 


NArangl Rang 


Ndraiigl 


Ndrangl rang 


Purple 


ArghawAni 

LdlTSurkli 


Baiiigani 


Weiigani 


Red 


Tambada, Ldl 


Ldl, Ratu 


Scarlet 


LAI 


Rakt, Ldl 


Ldl, Rdtu 


Spotted 


CliitU,Ddghddr 


Bibatd, Chitra 


Ddgel 


Striped 


Dhdiiddr 


Pattit 


Pattiddr 


Vermilion 


Shangarfi 


Hinguli 


Hingldkiyuii 


White 


Sufid 


Pdndhi-d 


Bholuu 


Yellow 


PllA 


Piwald 


Jard 


!l7ie Senses, 


Jlawdif, 


Indriyeti. 


Indriyo, 


Hearing 


Sunnd 


Shravan, Shruti 


Shrotra, Sdmbhal- 


Seeing 


Dekhnd 


Dri^bti 


WUIl 

Dfi^hti 


Smelling 


Siinghna 


Ghrdn 


Ghrdn 


Tasting 


ZaiVah lend 


Swdd, Ruchi 


Swdd, Rasnd 


Touching 


Lagdna 


Sparsh pratyak§h Sparsh, Ldgwuii 


Element 


'Un?ur 


Tatwa 


Tattwa 


Figure 


»Siirat, Shakl, 
Blip 


Akjiti 


Akriti, Akdr 


Fragrance 


Khushbii 


Suwds, Sugandb 


Sugandh, Suwds 


Hardness 


Sakhtl 


Kathinpand 


Kathanpanu 


Beflection 


Fikr, (shadow) 


Pardwarttan, 


l*ardwrittan 




'Aks 


Pratibirhl) 




Relish 


Mazah 


Swdd, Ruchi 


Swdd 


Speech 


Bol' 


Wdni, Wdcha 


Sambhd§han, Wdni, 
Bha^han 


Silence 


Sukiit 


Maun, (be silent) 

Chup 
Chhdyd 


Maun, Chup 


Shade 


Sdyah, Chhdiiw 


Chhdyo 


Size 


Kad 


Akdniidn 


Kad 


Softness 


Narml 


Mjidutd, Maii- 
pand 


Narmi 


Sound 


Awdz 


A'wdf, Shabd 


Awdj 


View 


Nazar, (pro- 


Darshan, Alokan 


Darsaw, Dekhaw, 




spect) Madd i 




{purpose) Mat 




uai^ar 







86 


INTRODUCTION. 


feect. 1. 


English. 


Hindustani. 


MabIthi. 


GUJABATf. 


Admiration 


Acharj 


Sdnanddshcharya Wakhdn, Sdnanddsh- 








chaiya 


Anger 


Ghu§§ah 


Rag, Krodh 


Rls, Krodh, Guso 


Awe 


Khauf 


Dhdk 


Dhdk, Bhay, Bhitl 


Belief 


BAwar, 'Al^ldah WishwAs 


Wishwds 


Choice 


Khwdhish 


Pasafitl, Marjl 


Pasandagi 


Ck)mpassion 


Ra\^m 


Dayd 


Dayd 


Curiosity 


Rdzjoi 


Jijndsd 


Jijndsd 


Dislike 


I'rA? 


Ndwad, Aprlti 


Aprlti 


Doubt 


Shak 


Sanshay, Safideh 


Shak, Saiishay 


Emulation 


Bardbariki 
Kh-^^^sh 


l*ratispardhd 


Pratispardhd 


Envy 


Qasad 


Hewd, Iri^hd 


fr^hd 


Enjoyment 


Mazah lend, 
9a^z lend 


Upabhog 


Upabhog 


Error 


Rhiil, Chiik 


Tsiik 


Bhiil, Chrtk, Khot 


Fear 


Dar, Khauf 


Bhay 


Bhay 


Friendship 


Dostl 


Maitri, Dosti 


Dostl, Sneh, Maitrl 


Guilt 


Gundh 


Aparddh 


Aparddh 


Happiness 


Rd^at 


fciukh 


Sukh 


Hatred 


'Addwat 


Dwe?h 


Dwe^h 


Hope 


Ummed 


Ashd 


Ashd, Umed 


Honour 


A'bni, 'Izzat 


Prati^hthd 


I'ratii^hthd, Mdn, Ijat 


Ignominy 


Fazltat 


Aprati^htd, Apa- 


Gerdbru, Apratish- 






mdn 


thd, Apamdn, 
Fajetl 


Ignorance 


BewuViifl, 
Ndddni, An- 
jdnpand 


Adnyaii 


Ajdnpanun, Ndddni 


Jealousy 


^asad, Jaldpd; 
Rashk 


Matsfir 


Matsar, Adekhdi 


Joy 


Khushi 


Auaiid 


Anand, Khushi 


Knowledge 


'Ilm 


Gydn 


Ddndl 


Love 


'Ishk 


Priti 


Prlti, Het 


Mercy 


Ra^m 


Kshamd buddhi, 


Kshamd buddhi, 






Daydlupand 


Dayd 


Misery 


Dukh, Kangal- 
pan, Santdp 


Dainya, Garlbi 


Garlbi, Dukh 


Memory 


Tdd 


Ydd, Smaran 


Ydd 


Opinion 


Mat, Khiydl 


Mat, Abhiprdya 


Mat, Anumat 


Pain 


Dukh 


Pid'a, Vyathd 


Dukh, Wedand 


Pleasure 


Sukh 


Sukh, Santosh 


Sukh, Majd 


Season 


'A^l, (motive) (intellect)Buddhi, 


Buddhi, Kdran 




Sabab 


(cause) Kdran 




Refusal 


Inkdr 


Nakdr 


Nakdr, Inkdr 


Shame 


Sharm 


Ldj, Lajjd, Sha- 


Sharam, Ldj 


Sorrow 


Gham 


ram 
Dilgirl, Duhkh 


Uddsl, Santdp 


Temper 


Mizdj 


Swabhdw 


Swabhdw 


Understanding 


Samajh 


Samaz, Buddhi 


Samjan, Buddhi 


Vanity 


Ghuriir, hiydl Pokalpand 


Dhambhpanuii 




i bdt;il, Abhi- 








mdn 


. 




Wisdom 


'Aklmandi 


Shahdnpa^ 


Buddh 


Zeal 


Ghalrat, Garmi 


Asthd ' 


Asthd, Dilsoji i 



Sect. I. DIALOGUtS. 

3 I 






1 S i iiiill 



ii III i |3 P 
I mtijl ||lf!l1l|i| l| 

5 1 - I 




I 1 ^ ■ • =1 
3 sS I 5^ III It t4 

1 I? S. i|l| I 11 i^i ill .St. 4» 

I j^liiil ii ii if ii i 









88 



INTRODUCTION. 



Sect I. 






o *g 



:§ 



a 



0) 



">c8 'w 






o 








M 2 ij- P. § 



d^ o 

hi 




0) 











I 

•c 



•*i 



a 



O 

§ 



o 

p 



0) 



O 



Sg 



V 



Cm 



:;3-!3 



Ii3;|3l||3 »lt|s| 

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INDIAN WOKDS USED IN THIS VOLUME, 



AmIb, a " commander," a title of princes and nobles, as the Amira of 
Sindh. 

Ana (Anna), the 16th part of a rupee, or about three half-pence, 

BahIdub, brave, a title of honour among Mu^^ammadans, 

Bandab, a port, or harbour. 

BanglA (Bungalow), a thatched house, the name usually applied to 
the houses of the English in India, and to the houses built bv 
Government for travellers on the public roads, whatever their 
construction. 

Baobi, a well. 

BiGAM (Begum), a lady of rank, a queen or princess. 

BbAhman, a Hindii of the first or priestly caste. 

Buddhist, a worshipper of Buddh, or Sakya Muni, who died B.C. 543. 

Caste, class, sect, corruption of the Portuguese ca^ta^ " race." 

ChakbA, a discus, the quoit of Vishnu. 

Chunam, an English corruption of chUnd, lime, a plaster of mortar 

made of shells of a remarkable whiteness and brilliance. 
Compound, an enclosed piece of ground round a bangld ; a corruption 

of the Malay Eam^^ong, 

Daghopa or Dahgop, from de\ "the body," and ^t/y, "to hide" a 
circular structure in Buddhistic temples, supposed to contain* the 
ashes or relicts of Buddha, and occupying the place of our altars. 

DabbXb (Durbar), a royal court. In KAthiawAd, a palace. 

DhabmsalA, alms-house, or rest«house for travellers. 

DiwAN, a minister ; a prime minister. 

0ANA, an attendant of Shiva. 

GhAt, steps on a river-side, A mountain leading like a step to table- 

^abIm (Haram), a sanctuary j ladies' apartments. 
LAkh, the number 100,000. 

MANpAP, or Mandib, a pavilion in front of a temple ; an open shed. 

SABAf , a caravanser&i. 

"Wiv, a well with steps down to the water. 



SECTION 11. 

— f— 

BOMBAY CITY. 

Bombay City — Harbour of Bombay — Landing Places — HateU and Clvbt 
— Conveyances — Public Offices — The Cathedral^The Town HaU a^nd Mint — 
Custom Souse and Docks — Cotton Screws — Sassoon Dock^Kol&ba Memorial 
Churchy Cemetery, and Liffhthouses — Jtoman Catholic Chapelr^St, Andrew's 
Kirh^ Alexandra Native 6Hrls* Institution — Police Courts Sir Jamshidjl 
JtjibhcSs Pd7'si Benevolent Institution ^Sc/u>ol of Design — St. Xavier's School 
— New Mphinstonc High School — Ookaldds Hospital — Dwdrkandth's Temple 
— House of Correction — The Worklumse — Elphinstone College — VlctoHa 
Gardens and Museum — Christ Church, BykaUah — Chant Medical CoUege — 
Jamshidji Hospital and DharmscUd — Scotch Mission Schools — Nul Market — 
Giradon Cemetei'ies — Elphinstone Dock — Mazagdon — St, Peter's Church, Ma- 
zagaon — Government House at Parell — European Cemetery at Parell — 
Kurld Cotton Mills — Government House at Malabar HUl—Valkeshwar — 
Towers of Silence — Pdrsi Dharmsdld — Shooting — Railways and Steamers — 
Sights in the vicinity of Bombay — Elcphanta — Vilidr Waterwoi'ks — Montpezir 
Caves — KdnhaH Caves — Ba^sin, 



The island of Bombay is situated in 
lat. 18' 53' 45", long. 72** 52'. It is one 
of a group of islands (perhaps that 
called Heptanesia by Arrian) of which 
the following are the principal, pro- 
ceeding from N. to S. :— 1. Bassln ; 2. 
Dravl; 3. Versova; 4. Salsette ; 5. 
Trombay, in which the hill called the 
Neat's Tongue, 900 ft. high, is a con- 
spicuous mark; 6. Bombay; 7. Old 
Woman's Island ; 8. Koldba ; 9. Ele- 
phanta; 10. Butcher's Island; 11. Gib- 
bet Island ; 12. Karanjd. Bombay 
Island is in shape a trapezoid, and a 
very fanciful person might see some 
resemblance in it to a withered leg 
with a very high heel and pointed toe ; 
the heel being Malabar Hill, and the 
toe Kol&ba. It is 11^ m. long from 
the S. extremity of Kol&ba to Zion 
Causeway, over which the railway 
passes to the larger island of Salsette, 
and from 3 to 4 m. broad in that por- 
tion which lies to the N. of the Espla- 
nade. It is difficult to estimate its 
area, as the port S. of the Esplanade 
is very narrow; but it may be put 
down as about 22 sq. m. The pop. of 



the City according to the census of 
1872 was 644,406, but there is good 
reason for thinking this an under-esti- 
mate, for in 1864 the census return was 
816,562. It would therefore not be 
incorrect to say that the number of 
inhabitants does not fall short of 
700,000. When it is remembered that 
the greater bulk of this number of 
people is contained in the quarters en- 
titled Dhobi TalAo, Market, MAndvl, 
Umarkhdrl, Bholeshwar, Khetwddl, 
K4m4tipura^ Kh4r4 Tal&o, Bykalla, 
Td^wdri, Mazagdon, GirgdoA, Chau- 
patti, and Tdrdeo, which cover only 
4 sq. m., it will be seen how astonish- 
ingly dense the pop. over that area is, 
and it speaks well for the climate and 
the sanitation of the Municipality that 
there should be comparatively so little 
disease there. 

The word Bombay is written by 
Indians Mamb6, and sometimes Bam- 
b^, from a goddess called Mamba 
Devi, to whom there was a temple 
120 years ago on what is now 
called the Esplanade. It was pulled 
down and rebuilt near the Bhendt 



113 



I- T 

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I. ! 

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inshore 
iland, a 
100 yds 
.8. from 
part of 
Pirn and 

ual for 
at what 
in offi- 
|VBt the 
d name 
pposed 
bIi sold 
Apollo 
yards 
! Wat- 
conve- 
ot for 
e con- 
lustom 
nd 0. 
ul at 
m.N. 
ebag- 
:hing8 
Souse 
jrhich 
ble is 
^n in 
Cndia 
ity is 
>e re- 
nntil 
l^ven 
since 
tra- 
will 
ould 
pre- 
lock 
the 
late 
are 

rof 

bay 

ary 

ich 

ed 

lis 

the 

^he 

mt 

ETS, 



s 



Sect. II. Bomhay Harbour — Landing Plaices — Hotels, 



113 



Bdzdr. The Mardtha name of Bombaj 
is Mumbai, from Mahlma, '< Great 
Mother," a title of Devi, still trace- 
able in Mahim, a tower on the W. coast 
of Bombay Island. Some people de- 
rive the name from Buon Bahia, *' fair 
haven," and in support of that ety- 
mology it may be said that it is un- 
doubtedly one of the finest harbours in 
the world. 

JBombaj/ Ifarhour, — On approach- 
ing Bombay from the W. there is little 
to strike the eye. The coast is low, 
the highest point, Malabar Hill, beiug 
only 180 ft. above the sea. But on 
entering the harbour a stranger must 
be impressed with the picturesqueness 
of the scene. To the W. the shore is 
crowded with buildings, some of them, 
as Koldba Church and the Tower of 
the University, very lofty and well 
proportioned. To the N. and B. are 
numerous islands, and on the main- 
land hills rising to an altitude of from 
1000 to 2000 ft. Pre-eminent amongst 
these is the remarkable hill of Bdwd 
Malang, otherwise called Mallangadh, 
on the top of which is an enormous 
mass of perpendicular rock> crowned 
with a Fort now in ruins. On the pla- 
teau below the scarp was a strong 
fortress which, in 1780, was captured 
by Captain Abington, who however 
found the upper fort quite impregnable. 
(See Grant Duff, vol. ii. p. 41.) Views 
of this hill will be found in Captain 
Mackenzie's " Pen Sketches," 1842. The 
port is always crowded with vessels of 
all nations, and conspicuous amongst 
them are 2 monitors, which constitute 
one of the important defences of the 
Harbour. These are called the "Abys- 
sinia" and the "Magdala," and are 
armed with 10-inch guns in 2 turrets. 
A commission is still sitting to con- 
sider the erection of further defences. 

But the existing defences of Bom- 
bay Harbour are batteries on rocks, 
which stud the sea from about oppo- 
site the Memorial Church at Koldba to 
the Elphinstone Keclamation. The one 
most to the ^ is called the Oyster 
Rock, which isVjOOO yds. from the 
shore, and 8400 ft. S.W. of the Middle 
Ground Battery. The Fort on the 
Middle Ground shoal is in the middle I 

[i^mJfly— 1880.] 



of the anchorage, 1800 yds. from shore 
The 3rd defence is on Cross Island, a 
the N. end of the anchorage, 100 yds 
from the shore, and 4000 yds. from 
Middle Ground. The higher part of 
the island has been cut down and 
armed with a battery. 

Landing Places. — It is usual for 
steamers to stop for J an hour at what 
is now called Wellington Pier in offi- 
cial papers, but which amongst the 
public obstinately retains its old name 
of Apollo Bandar, which is supposed 
to be derived from the Palla fish sold 
at this spot in old times. The Apollo 
Bandar is within a few hundred yards 
of the public buildings and of Wat- 
son's Hotel, and it would be conve- 
nient to land there were it not for 
baggage, which perhaps is more con- 
veniently passed through the Custom 
House at Mazagdon. The P. and 0. 
steamer, after landing the -mail at 
Apollo Bandar, proceeds about 3 m. N. 
up the harbour to Mazagdon. The bag- 
gage is then all landed, and the things 
are passed through the Custom House 
ex|)editiously. The only article which 
l^ays a high duty and gives trouble is 
firearms. If these have not been in 
India before, or have not been in India 
for a year, a high ad valorem, duty is 
levied on them, and they cannot be re- 
moved from the Custom House until 
the duty is paid, or a certificate given 
that a full year has not elapsed since 
the owner left India. Unless the tra- 
veller has a friend in Bombay who will 
send a carriage to meet him, it would 
be well to have ordered by the pre- 
vious mail a carriage and a bullock 
cart for his luggage from one of the 
hotels to meet him. This will obviate 
a considerable delay where there are 
many desagremcns. 

Hotels and Clubs, — The best way of 
locating oneself on arrival at Bombay 
is to obtain admission as an honorary 
member of the Bykallnh Club, which 
is however inconveniently situated 
very exclusive, and subject to dis 
agreeable odours from the Flats, as the 
low ground round it is called. The 
Bombay Club is in a very convenient 
locality, close to the public buildings, 
and in a better atmosphere ; the 



lU 



Bonnhay Cky, 



Sect. 11. 



cuisine ii also excellent The best 
hotels axe Watson's Esplanade Hotel, 
a large building on the Esplanade, and 
open to the refreshing sea breeze ; and 
the Victoria Hotel, kept by Palanji, 
ahoat ^ of m. to the N. of Watson's, 
which 18 small, but comfortable. At 
Bykallah, also, there are 2 hotels, of 
which Palanjfs Family Hotel can be 
recommended. The Waverley Hotel 
in the Fort is also well spoken of, and 
belongs to the same proprietor as the 
Ohauk Hotel at Hdtherdn. The terms 
are 5 rupees a day. The hotel expenses 
altogether will be from 7 to 10 rs. a 
day. There is also a comfortable hotcd 
at Khambdla. 

Conveyance. — Having secured a 
pied a terre, it will be necessary to 
hire a carriage, which, with a single 
horse, will cost 5 rs. a day; with 2 
horses 10 rs. Carriages can be got 
from the stables of Ludda Abram, 
Pedroz, and others. There is a very 
convenient, but not aristocratic mode 
of travelling by the tramway, which 
was opened in 1 873. It starts from near 
Grant's Buildings in Koldba, and runs 
by Hornby Bow and Oriental Bank 
Bead to the Money School, on a double 
track. It proceeds with a single track 
by Kalba Devi Boad and Parell Boad 
to Jail Boad, and then along Parell 
Boad by a double track, passing over 
a bridge to Bykallah. There is a double 
line from the comer of Cruikshank 
Boad to the Markets, and a single 
through' Abdu'r Bal^imdn Street toPAyd- 
honl, where it joins the Parell line. 
The latest addition is from the corner 
of Cruikshank Boad by Bampart Bow 
East to Elphinstone Circle, and by 
Marina Street to Wellington Foun- 
tain. Pdlkis now are little used, 
and the buggies, which are the cabs 
of Bombay, are most unsatisfactory 
vehicles. 

Puhli/j OJicet.-^The public Build- 
ings succeed one another in the fol- 
lowing order, from N. to S., in a line 
close to Wat69n's Hotel on the Espla- 
nade :— Telegraph Offices, Post Office, 
Public Works Ctece, Law Courts, Uni- 
versity library and Dock Jower, Uni- 
versity Hall, Secretariate, Sailors* 
Hotne. There is a building to the 



N.E. of the Telegraph Offices which 
is used for the accommodation of the 
employes of the telegraph department. 

It must be confessed that on enter- 
ing the harbour the back view of these 
buildings is not impoBing. Their grey 
colour, though far less beautiful to the 
eye than the dazzling white of stone 
or marble buildings, is at aU events 
free from glare, and the traveller on 
reaching the Esplanade and approach- 
ing them closely will be astonished 
to see what fine edifices they are, 
and how admirably the details are 
finished. 

Ike Telegraph Qffieei,'-'Th\& build- 
ing is in the Modem Gothic style, and 
182 ft. long by 55 ft. broad. The facing 
is of coursed rubble stone from Kurla 
in Salsette, and the columns are of 
bla6 basalt. The ground floor is 
paved with Minton tiles. A tablet is 
placed here with the following in- 
, scription :— 

This buildinc for the Bombay Dlviaion of 
Telegraphs and British Indian Bub-Marine 
Telegraph, was erected from designs by W. 
Paris, A. R.I. B. A., Architect to Government, 
and sanctioned by the Government of India ou 
the 22nd of September, 1871. 

The work was commenced on the 2nd of 
November, 1871, H.E. the Right Honorable 
Sir Seymour Vesey Fitzgerald, G.C.S.I., Go- 
vernor and President in Council, and was 
completed on the 20th April, 1874 ; H.E. the 
Honorable Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse, 
K.C.B., Governor and President in Council. 

The work was carried out under the imme- 
diate orders of J. H. E. Hart, M.InstC.E., 
from November 1871 to November 1872; 
Colonel J. A. Fuller, R.E., from November 
1872 to April 1874. Manchaiji K4\:i^i 
(Cowasjee) Marzbdn being Assistant-Engineer 
in chai*ge. 

Estimate as sanctioned, Rs. 2,45,840 ; actual 
cost, Rs. 2.44,697. 

Colonel M. K. Kennedy, R.E., 

Secretary to Government F. "W. D. 

The Post Office has 3 floors, and is 
242 ft. long and 71 ft. broad, with 
wings on the N. side 41 ft. broad. It 
is in the Mediaeval style, and was de- 
signed by Mr. Triibshawe. The stone 
used is the same as that of the Tele- 
graph Oflices ; the arrangement is ex- 
cellent in point of convenience, and 
large brass plates give the most de- 
tai&d information as to the bnsineBs 
carried on in each portion of the 
building. A tablet with the following 



Sect. 11. 



The Public Woi'ks Offii^e — Law Couiis, 



115 



inscripfiolt near the main entrance 
gives the particulars of the erection of 
the building : — 

The General Post Office, erected from deaigiis 
by J. Triibshawe, Architect to Government, 
and W. Paris, A.R.I.B.A., Architect to Go- 
vernment, and sanctioned by the Government 
of India on the 2l8t of February, 1870. This 
work was commenced on 11th April, 1869, 
H.B. the Bight Honorable Sir Seymour Vesey 
Fitzgerald, G.C.S.I., Governor and President 
in Council, and was completed on the 1st of 
December, 1872; H.E. the Honorable Sir 
Philip Edmond Wodehouse, K.C.B., Governor 
and President in Council. 

The work was curried out under the im- 
mediate orders of Lieut. -Col. J. A. Fuller, B. E. , 
fh>m April 1869 to Hay 1871 ; J. H. E. Hart, 
H.In8l.C.E.', firom May 1871 to November 
1872 ; C6L J. A. Fuller, B.B., f!rom Jfovember 
1872 to December 1872 ; Manchaijl Kdili^i 
(Cowasjee) Marzbto being Assistant - Engi- 
neer in charge. Estimate as sanctioned, Bs. 
5,09,992 ; actual cost, Bs. 5,94,200. 

There are in Bombay daily 6 deli- 
veries of letters, at 8, 10, and 11.30 
AJf . ; 12.30, 2, and 5 P.M. The post 
for all places on the N.E. of the 
G. I. P. Railway leaves at 4.50 p.m. ; for 
Fund, Madras, and AVmadnagar, at 
1.20 P.M.; for Sindh and Kachh at 
7.30 P.M. The mail for England closes 
every Monday for letters at 6.30 p.m., 
and for papers and books at 3 p.m. 
Late packets are received at Apollo 
Bandar till 6.30 P.M. on extra payment. 

The Public Works Office comes next, 
and is separated from the Post Office 
by a broad road which leads E. to the 
Fort by Church Gate Road and W. to 
a railway station. The P. W. Office is 
288 J ft. long and 60i ft. broad and 1 IG 
ft. high, inie central buUding has G 
stories, and the other part 3 stories. 
Near the main entrance is a tablet with 
the following inscription : — 

This building for the Offices of the Public 
Works Department was erected firom designs 
by Colonel (then Captain) H. St. Clair Wil- 
kms, B.E., A.D.O. to the Queen, and sanc- 
tioned by the Oovenm^ent of Bombay on the 
4th of May. 1869. 

The work was commenced on the 1st of 
May, 1869 ; H.E. the Right Honorable Sir 
Seymour Vesey Fitzgenud, O.C.S.I., Go- 
vernor and President in Council, and was 
completed on the 1st of April, 1872; H.E. 
the Honorable Sir Philip Edmoud Wode- 
house, K.C.B., Governor and President in 
Council. 

The work was carried out under the imQie^ 
diate orders 'of Lieut. -Col. J. A. Fuller, K.E., 
flfom May 1;jOI> to May 1871 ; J. H. E. Hatt, 



M.InstC.E., from May 1871 to April 1872, 
Wasudew B4puji Kanitker being Assistant 
Engineer in charge. 

Estimate an Kauctioned, Bs. 4,38,937; actual 
cost, Rs. 4,14,481. 

Colonel M. K. Kenncly, R.E., 

Secretaiy to Government P. W. D. 

The Railway Department is in this 
office. 

Law Courts, — This immense build- 
ing is 662 ft. long and 187 ft. broad. 
The height to the eaves is 90 f t. , and 
to the top of the Tower 176 ft. The 
Judges first took their seats here on the 
27th of January, 1S79. The structure 
runs almost N. and S. The style is 
Early English Gothic. The pnncipal 
entrance is under a large arched porch 
in the W. facade, oa either side of 
which is an octagon tower 120 ft. high, 
crowned with spirelets of white Por- 
bandar stone, and surmounted with 
statues of Justice and Mercy. 
Through these towers are 2 private 
staircases for the Judges ; that on the 
left or S. side l)eing for the Appellate 
Judges, and that on the N. for the 
Judges of the Original side. The main 
staircase is on the E. side, and is ap- 
proached by a noble groined corridor, 
10 ft. wide, in Porbandar stone, which 
runs through the building from the 
porch, the floor being paved vdth 
Minton tiles. On either side of the 
corridor are 2 rooms 49 ft. by 22 J ft., 
one for prisoners and the other for 
printing-presses. On the E. side 2 
elliptical staircases give access from 
the 1st floor upwards. There are on 
the ground-floor 4 rooms 44 ft. by 34 
ft., and 4 others 2.3 ft. by 214 ^^-j ^^ 
three 44 ft. by 34 ft., besides a library 
of the same size, and retiring rooms. 
The offices of the High Court are on 
the Ist and 3rd upper floors. The 
Appellate and Original Courts are on 
the 2nd floor. There are 9 spiral stone 
staircases from the ground-floor, and 
13 from the 1st floor. On the N. side 
are 2 Original Courts, and on the 8. 
side 1 Original Court and 2 Appellate 
Courts. The Judges' Chambers at the 
respective courts arc handsome, and 
over each entrance there is a brass 
plate with the name of the Judge. The 
Criminal Court is in the centre oi the 
building above the main colrridor, and 

I 2 



116 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



is 44 ft. high. It is 50 x CO ft., with 
angles cut off, and has a carved teak 
gaUery running round 3 sides, where 
the public are allowed to sit. The 
ceiling is of dark polished teak in 
panels, with a carved centre-piece. 
The floor is Italian mosaic, the wall 
being coloured light blue picked out 
with white. Under the Judge sit the 
Clerk of the Crown and other officers, 
and opposite are the counsel. Behind 
are railed places for the prisoners and 
police, and on either side of the bar- 
risters' table the jury-boxes. The 
witness-box is at the right-hand comer 
of the table. All these are on a raised 
platform of wood in the centre of the 
room, leaving the 2 sides of the Court 
clear. On the elliptical staircase roofs 
are large reservoirs for water with 
pipes to the ground-floor, with 4-inch 
hose taps fixed in each floor, and the 
hose coiled beside them. In case of 
fire the hose can be coupled to the tap, 
and a powerful volume of water di- 
rected against any spot near. The 
walls are of rubble and chunam, faced 
with blue basalt roughly dressed. The 
bases are of Sewrl blue basalt, the 
columns of Kurla basalt, with capitals 
of Porbandar stone. The arches of 
the ground floor are of Kurla stone, 
and those of the upper floors of Por- 
bandar stone. The corridors and para- 
pets are of Kurla basalt with columns 
of red basalt and capitals of Porbandar 
stone, with a coping of blue Sewri 
stone. The roof parapets are per- 
forated with quatrefoils and trefoils. 
ITie spirelets of the octagon towers are 
of Porbandar stone. The roofs are 
covered in vrith Taylor's tiles over 
6-inch planks of teak, tongued and 
grooved with Gothic teak trusses. 
From the windows of the tower fine 
views are obtained. On the E. are the 
harbour fringed with islands, Modi 
Bay, and the Fort ; and to the W. 
are Malabar Hill, Back Bay, and 
Koldba Point. The whole building 
does much credit to General J. A. 
Fuller, R.E., who designed it. This 
vast building is said to have cost 
£100,000. 

University Xfi^^o^ry and ClocTc Tower, 
— The Library is a long low room 



adorned with handsome carving, llie 
flying or open staircases attached to 
the outside of the building are very 
elegant. The Great University or 
RAjd Bdl Tower is annexed to the 
Library on the W. side, and is from 
its vast height the most remarkable of 
the many remarkable buildings in 
Bombay. It is 260 ft. high, and there- 
fore 8 ft. higher than the Kujb Mindr 
at Dilli, and was founded at the ex- 
pense of Mr. Premchand Baichand, 
who assigned for its erection 300,000 
rs., being a gift in memory of his 
mother, RAja Bdl. He also gave 
100,000 rs. for the Library, and these 
sums with accumulations more than 
sufficed to complete the 2 buildings. 
The Tower is divided into 8 parts, the 
porch, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 
6th floors, and the portion above them. 
The ceilings of the porch and of the 
1st floor are of Porbandar stone gi'oined 
and supported on ribs. Access to the 
Tower is gained by a solid stone spiral 
staircase, which is only 21 inches wide. 
The 1st floor is 25 ft. from the ground, 
and forms part of the upper room of 
the Library. From the 1st to the 2nd 
floor is 42 ft., with 62 steps. The 2nd 
floor contains a study for the Registrar, 
23 ft. sq. There is an opening several 
feet square in the centre of the floor, 
and over it are other openings in the 
ceilings above, so that one can look up 
115 ft. to the ceiling of the Dial Room. 
The 3rd floor is 26 ft. above the 2nd, 
and has a room 23 ft. sq. and 20 ft. high. 
Tlie 4th floor is for the great clock, 
and has in each of its 4 sides a dial 
opening 12 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Under 
the dials outside are 4 small galleries, 
each approached by a small door and 
protected by ornamental stone balus- 
trades. Above the dials the chamber 
changes from a square to an octagon, 
the projection being supported on large 
cut stone corbels. Above the dial 
chamber the staircase ascends only 
one more flight, and stops at a height 
of 184 ft. from the ground. At a height 
of 15 ft. above the gallery, in niches cut 
in the pillars which form the comers of 
the octagon, are figures 8 ft. high, repre- 
senting the Castes of W. India ; and 
I above them, where the octagon ceases 



Sect. II. 



University Hall — The SecretaricUe. 



117 



and the cupola commences, is another 
set of figures, all modelled by RAo 
BahMur Makund R^mchandra. There 
are also 8 more statues in niches about 
80 ft. above the ground level, making 
in all 24 statues representing the Castes 
of W. India. From the cupola a copper 
tube of 2^ in. diameter, forming the 
lightning conductor, descends to the 
ground, and is carried to a distance of 
60 ft., and imbedded 12 ft. below the 
surface. A tablet with the following 
inscription will be seen in the Uni- 
versity Library : — 

The University Library and R^d Bdi Clock 
Tower was erected from designs by Sir Gilbert 
Scott, B.A., F.S.A., F.R.I. A., and sanctioned 
by the Government of Bombay on the 16th 
January, 1869. 

The work was commenced on the Ist of 
March, 1869. His Excellency the Right 
Honorable Sir Seymour Vesey Pltzgerald, 
G.C.S.I., Cliancellor; Rev. John Wilson, 
F. R. S. , Vice-chancellor. 

The work was completed in November, 1878. 
His Excellency the Honorable Sir Richard 
Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., Chancellor; the 
Honorable James Gibbs, C.S., F.R.O.S,, Vice- 
Chan cellor. 

Tliis work was carried out under the imme- 
diate orders of Lieut. -Col. J. A. Fuller, R.E., 
from March 1869 to May 1871 ; J. H. E. Hart, 
M.Inst. C.E., from May 1871 to November 
1872; Lieut -Col. J. A. Fuller, R.E,, ftam 
December 1872 to November 1878 ; Rio Ba- 
hadur Makund Ramchandra being Assistant- 
Engineer in charge. 

The entire cost of the building, together 
with the Clock and Chimes, was contributed 
by Premchand Raichand, Esq., J. P. 

Lieut. -General Sir Michael Kennedy, Kt, 
C.S.I., R.E., Secretary to Government Public 
Works Department. 

Uhirersitj/ UaU. — This fine building 
is in the decorated early French style 
of the loth century. The hall is 104 ft. 
long, 44 ft. broad, and 68 ft. high to the 
apex of the groined ceiling, wil^ a semi- 
circular apse of 38 ft. diameter, sepa- 
rated from the Hall by a grand arch. 
The front corridor is 11 ft. broad, the 
side corridors are 8 ft. A gallery, 8 ft. 
1)i*oad, on handsome cast-iron brackets, 
passes round three sides of the Hall. 
There are painted glass windows, 
which have an excellent ' effect, and 
are also most useful in tempering 
the fierceness of the Indian sun. At 
first the hall was found to be defec- 
tive ^in point of acoustics, but im- 
provements liave since been made, A 



tablet with the following inscription 
is placed behind the Chancellor's 
Throne : — 

The Sir K&u^ji (Cowasjee) Jaluingir Hall of 
the Universitv of Bombay, was erected trom 
designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A., F.S.A., 
F.R.I.B.A., and sanctioned by the Govern- 
ment of Bomlmy on the 10th January, 1869. 

The work was commenced on ^e Ist of 
March. 1869. H.E. the Right Honorable Sir 
Seymour Vesey Fitzgerald, G.C.8.I., Chan- 
cellor; the Rev. John Wilson, D.D., F.R.8., 
Vice-Chancellor, and was completed on the 
:Ust of December, 1874 ; H.E. the Honorable 
Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse, K.G.B., Chan- 
cellor; the Honorable James Gibbs, C.S., Vice- 
Chancellor. 

The work was carried out under the imme- 
diate orders of Lieut.-Col. J. A. Fuller, R.E., 
ftom March 1869 to May 1871 ; J. H. E. Hart, 
M.Inst.C.E., Irom May 1871 to November 
1872 ; Col. J. A. Fuller, R.E., from Novem- 
ber 1872 to December 1874; Rio Sd^ib 
Makund Ramchandra being Assistant-En^- 
ncer in charge. Sir K&u^i (Cowai^ee) Jahdngir, 
K.C.S.I., contributed Rs. 100,000. Estimate 
as sanctioned, Rs. 4,15,S04; actual cost, 
Rs. 3,791,389. 

Colonel M. K. Kennedy, R.E., 

Secretary to Government P.W.D. 

The Secretariate is 443J ft. long, 
with two wings 81 ft. long, the ends 
of which form three sides of an oc- 
tagon. The basement contains the 
printing-rooms, and is 16 ft. high. 
The first fioor is 20 ft. high, and here 
are the< Council Hall, Committee 
Rooms, Private Rooms for the Go- 
vernor and Members of Council, and 
the Offices of the Revenue Depart- 
ment. The 2nd floor is 15 ft. high, 
and contains the Offices of the 
Judicial and Military Departments. 
On the third floor, which is 14 ft. 
high, are the Offices of the Public 
Works and Railway Departments. 
The style is Venetian Gothic, and 
the designer was Col. Wilkins, R.E. 
The pillars are moulded Kurla cut 
stone. The small corridor shafts, the 
capitals, and cornices are of Hem- 
nagar stone, a superior silicious white 
sandstone. The corridor arches on 
the ground floor are alternately of 
blue basalt and Porbandar stone. 
Those on the flrst floor are of red 
basalt and Porbandar stone alter- 
nately. The carving is by native 
ariists, and is excellent. The en- 
trance-hall and principal staircase are 
very fine. The staircase is lighted by 



118 



Bomhfiy City. 



Sect. II. 



the great window in a single arcb, 
90 ft. high, over which is the tower, 
which rises to 170 ft. At the entrance 
are the arms of Sir B. Frere and Sir 
S. Fitzgerald. There is also a very 
handsome armoire made of teak, in- 
laid with black wood, aU done by 
natives. The Council Chamber is 
50 ft. long by 40 ft. broad, and the 
table is very handsome. There are 
chairs for the fourteen members of 
the Legislative Council. The Go- 
vernor's chair is distinguished by a 
high back. The Library is a fine 
room, and the retiring rooms are re- 
plete with every comfort. In the hall 
is a tablet with the following inscrip- 
tion :— 

This building for the Offices of the Oovem- 
ment of Bombay was erected from the designs 
submitted on the 29th of September, 1865, by 
Colonel (then C5aptain) H. S. Clair Wilkius, 
R.E., A.D.C. to the Queen; H.E. the Honor- 
able Sir Bartle Frere, G.C.S.I., K.C.B., 
Governor and President in Council, and 
sanctioned by the Right Honorable Sir 
Charles Wood, Bart., G.C.B., Her Ma^jesty's 
Secretary of State in Council, on the 10th of 
June, 1866. 

The work was commenced on the 16th of 
April, 1867. H.E. the Right Honorable Sir 
William Robert Seymour Vesey Fitzgerald, 
G.C.B.L, Governor and President in Council; 
and was completed on the 20th of March, 1874. 
H.E. the Honorable Sir Philip Edmond Wode- 
house, E.C.B., Governor and President in 
Council. 

Tlie work was carried out under the imme- 
diate orders of Capt. C. W. Pinch, R.E., from 
April 1867 to November 1867; Lieut. -Col. J. 
A. Fuller, R.E., from November 1867 to May 
1871; J. H. E. Hart, M.Iust.C.E., from May 
1871 to November 1872; CoL J. A. Fuller, 
R.E., from November 1872 to March 1874; 
Mr. Wasudew Bdpujl Kanitker, Assistant- 
Engineer, being in charge. 

Estimate as sanctioned, Rs. 12,80,731; actual 
cost, Rs. 12,60,844. 

Colonel M. K. Kennedy, R.E., 
Secretary to Government in the P.W.D. ' 

Leaving the Secretariate, and turn- ; 
ing to the left for about 250 yds., the 
traveller will arrive at the Sailorx' 
Ilomej which is 270 ft. long, and 55 ft. 
broad. It has two wings, that on the 
N. side being 114 ft. long and 58 ft. 
broad, and that on the S. side 58 ft. 
square. There is accommodation for 
20 officers, 58 seamen, a superinten- 
dent and assistant superintendent, 
and 20 servants. It is stated tliat in 
case of emergency the building could 



contain 100 inmates. Officers have 
separate and superior quarters. Each 
man pays 14 dn4s a day, for which he 
gets brejEiikfast at 8*30 A.M., dinner at 
1*30 P.M., tea, with hot meat, at 6 p.m., 
and supper. If men fall sick they are 
sent to the Hospital, as there is no 
sick room. There is a reading room, 
35 ft. by 30 ft. ; the books are chiefly 
religious. The subscriptions amount 
to about Ks. 3,600. The superinten- 
dent gets Bs. 170 and free quarters, 
with an allowance for his food. There 
is a bar, where the men can purchase 
liquor, beer or wine. The walls are 
thick enough to bear another story. 
The entrance-hall and principal stair- 
case are in the centre of the building. 
The hall has a paneled teak ceiling. 
The staircase is of blue stone, with an 
iron railing on groined arches. The 
building is faced with blue basalt, and 
the carved cornices, bands, mouldings, 
&c., are of Porbandar stone. The 
caps and finely carved work are of 
Hemnagar stone. The arching is of 
Kurla stone, blue basalt, and Hemna- 
gar stone, and the flooring is of as- 
phalte. The roof is of Taylor's tiles 
over teak planking. The sculpture in 
the front gable representing Neptune 
with nymphs and sea-horses, was exe- 
cuted in Bath stone by Mr. Bolton, of 
Cheltenham. His late Highness 
Khaiid6 Rdo GAekwdd gave Rs. 200,000 
towards the cost of the building, to 
commemorate the Duke of Edin- 
burgh's visit, and the foundation 
stone was laid on the 17th of March, 
1870, by the Duke. There are tablets 
in the Hall vrith the following inscrip- 
tions : — 

The Sailors' Home was erected from designs 
by F. W. Stevens, Assoc. Inst. C.E., and 
sanctioned by the Government of 23ombfty on 
the 5tii December, 1871. 

The work was commenced on the 28th of 
February, 1872, and was completed on the 29th 
February 1876; H. R the Honorable Sir Ed- 
mond Philip Wodehouse, K.C.B., Governor 
and President in Council. 

The work lyas carried out under tlie imme- 
diate orders of J. H. E. Hart, M.I.C.E., from 
February 1872 to November 1872; Col. J. A. 
Fuller, R.E., firom November 1872 to Feb- 
ruarj' 1876; P. W. Stevens, A.I.C.E., Execu- 
tive-Engineer in charge. Sftiram Kharide" 
R4o, overseer. 

H,H, liliah^e lUo Gaekwd^, G.C.SJ,, con- 



Sect. II. 



Tlie Sailors^ Homey etc. 



119 



tributed Rs. 200,000. Estimate as sanctioned, 
Kh. 3,68,565 ; actual cost, Rs. 366,629. 
M^Jor-General Kennedy, R.E., 

Secretaiy to Oovemmeut P.W.D. 

The First Stone 

of this building, 

erected as a Home for the Seamen of this 

Fort, and dedicated by 

'His Highness Khaiid^ Rao Oiekw&a 

as a perpetual token of his loyal attachment 

To H. M. QUEKN ViCTOBIA, 

and in commemoration of the auspicious 

arrival in Bombay of 

H.R.H. the Duke or Edinburgh, K.G., 

K.T.,G.C.M.G., G.C.S.I., P.N., 

Master of the Corporation of Trinity House, 

was laid by His Royal Highness 

this 17th day of March, 1870, 

The Right Honorable W. R. Seymour 

V. Fitzgerald 

being Governor of Bombay. 

The Sailors' Home adjoins the 
Apollo Bandar, where on certain days 
the band plays, 'and where the UiU 
of Bombay resort on such occasions. 
Should it be evening when the tra- 
veller has finished his tour of the 
Public Offices, he may drive to the end 
of the Bandar and enjoy the music 
and the breeze. On the right-hand 
side, near the end of the Pier, is an 
excellent Kestaurant. Should the 
band be playing on the Esplanade, a 
drive of a few hundred yards will 
take him to the Stand, which can be 
seen at a distance, and where many 
carriages, riders, and pedestrians con- 
gregate. Where the Stand has been 
erected there was in the old time the 



high, led np to by steps. The Queen's 
dress is admirably carved. The canopy 
above makes the total height that 
given above. The Eoyal Arms are in 
&ont of the pedestal, and in the 
centre of the canopy is the Star of 
India, and above the Rose of England 
and Lotus of India, with the mottoes, 
" God and my Right " and " Heaven's 
Light our Guide." The capitals of 
the columns and the plinths are orna- 
mented with oak and ivy leaves. The 
panels are inscribed in 4 languages. 
There is also an equestrian statue of 
the Prince of Wales in bronze, on a 
gray granite pedestal, just at the back 
of the Secretariate. It was cast by 
Mr. Behm, and cost £11,000, which 
was paid by Sir A. Sassoon, who pre- 
sented the statue to the city of 
Bombay. In reaching it from the 
Queen's statue the Frere Fountain 
will be passed. For this fine work 
the Agri - horticultural Society sub- 
scribed £2,700, which was supple- 
mented &om the Esplanade Frere 
Fund, so as to defray the total cost, 
of £9000. In the double line of fine 
houses which extends from this foun- 
tain to the S. are several buildings 
of interest to the traveller. On the 
right are the Sassoon Mechanics' In- 
stitute, the Bombay Club, the Na- 
tional Bank, the Comptoir d Escompte 
de Paris, Treacher's Buildings. The 



first European cemetery established in Mechanics' Institute was founded by 



Bombay, and called Mendham's Point, 
from the first individual who was 
buried there. A drive along the road 
to where the road to the Fort and that 
to the Public Offices bifurcate will 
take the stranger to the statue of 
Queen Victoria, which is always an 
object of great interest to the Indians. 
It is of white marble, by Noble, and 
cost Bs. 182,443, including part cost of 
erection and railing, paid by Govern- 
ment, of which large sum Bs. 165,000 
was given by H. H. the late Khaud^ 
Kdo G&ekw&d. The statue was first 
uncovered by Lord Northbrook in 1872. 
This fine piece of sculpture is 42 ft. 
high, and Her Majesty is represented 
seated, and her statue in that position 
is 8 ft. high. Her State chair is placed on 
an octagonal marble platform 7 ft. 10 in« 



David Sassoon and his son Sir Albert, 
in 1870, and cost £15,000. Lec- 
tures are delivered and prize medals 
awarded. Life members pay Bs. 150, 
and members Bs. 6 per quarter. In 
the entrance-ball is a statue of David 
Sassoon, a remarkably handsome man, 
by Woolner. There is also a good 
Library. Treacher's Store is replete 
with articles of all kinds, and the 
wine can be recommended. The 
Bombay Club is also here. The en- 
trance subscription is Bs. 100, and the 
monthly subscription Bs. 6. Sleeping 
rooms may be had for Bs. 30 a month. 
The food is excellent, and equal to that 
supplied by the Bykallah Club. On 
the left hand, at No. 3, Bampart Bow, 
is the office of the P. and O. Steam 
Navigation Company. On the same 



120 



Bombay GUy, 



Sect. II. 



side are also Watson's Store, the shop 
of Favrc Leubas, the best watchmaker 
in Bombay, Bourne and Shepherd's 
excellent Photographic Office, the 
Oriental Bank ; and farther on, the 
office of Messrs. Sir C. Forbes and 
Ca, which represents the oldest and 
best established agency in Bombay. 

When the traveller has finished this 
round, he will probably think he has 
done enough for one day. On the 
visit of the Prince of Wales, the 
buildings which have been described 
above were brilliantly illuminated, and 
it was universally acknowledged that 
even at the most superb f^tes on the 
Continent of Europe nothing so mag- 
nificent had been witnessed. 

Second Day. — The next day will be 
well spent in visiting the Cathedral, 
Arthur Crawford Markets, Elphinstone 
Circle, the Town Hall and Mint, the 
Custom House and Dockyards, the 
Cotton Screws, the Sassoon Dock, the 
Memorial Church at Koldba, and the 
Lighthouse. 

Tke Markets, — The best time for 
visiting the Markets is before break- 
fast, when the meat and fish markets 
are thronged. The buildings stand in 
Market Boad, which is approached 
from Hornby Row. The first thing 
to be done is to ascend the Clock 
Tower,, 128 ft. high, whence there is a 
magnificent view. These Markets, the 
finest in the world, were founded by 
Mr. Arthur Crawford, C.S., who was 
Municipal Codimissioner from July, 
1865, to Nov. 1871. This able officer 
got the Slaughter Housesj which at 
the commencement of his term of 
office were near the market, removed 
to Bandora in Salsette, where are large 
sheds well supplied with water, the 
sheep sheds being separated from those 
for cattle. The meat is sent oft by 
special trains, which reach Bori Ban- 
dar station at 4 a.m. The markets 
cover a site of 72,000 yards, which 
was given by Groyemment. Mr. W. 
Emerson, who designed Treacher's 
Buildings, planned the fVuit and Vege- 
table Markets. There is a Central 
Hall, surmounted by the Clock Tower, 
with 3 principal arched gateways. A 
cplumn of polished granite, o|i a 



pediment of blue basalt, divides each 
gateway. In the Central Hall is a 
drinking-fountain, given by Sir K&iisji 
Jahdngir Readymoney. To the right 
is a wing, 150 ft. by 100 ft,, in which 
are fruit and flowers, and on the left 
is another wing, 350 ft. by 100 ft., for 
spices and vegetables. The central 
part, with the gateway, covers 16,000 
sq. ft. The whole area occupied is 
56,000 sq. ft., with a double iron roof 
of 50 ft. span, resting on iron pillai*6. 
The height is 51^ ft., and the ground 
is paved with fiag-stones from Caith- 
ness. The stalls in which the leaves 
of the Piper betel are sold should be 
looked at. These leaves are called 
pdn^ and the betel-nut is called 
*updri. The leaves are spread with 
lime, and the fruit of the Areca palm 
is wrapped in them. These leaves are 
chewed by the natives, and make the 
lips and the saliva red and the teeth 
black. The chief plantations of betel 
are at Jabalptir. There are many 
kinds oi plantains, but the best arc 
short, thick, and yellow. The best 
oranges are those from Nagpi!ir, and 
the best grapes are from Auran- 
g&b4d. The black grape, called 
Habshi, is the most delicious, and the 
best white grape is the SdhibL The 
mangoes come in in May, and arc 
amongst the finest fruit in the world. 
The l^ are from Mazag&on, and 2 or 
3 iced form a delicious adjunct for 
breakfast. The Pompelmooie, as the 
English call it, but properly Papar- 
mdtf or, in Mard^hi, PapoMos^ the 
Citrtts deeu7nana,ia particularly fine iu 
Bombay, very cooling and wholesome, 
but somewhat astringent. The Bom- 
bay onions are famous. The Beef 
Market is of iron. The paving-stones 
were brought from Yorkshire. The 
Fish Market ought to be separate, but 
is at present at the end of the Mutton 
Market. The turtles come from Ka- 
r^hl in Sindh. The oysters ai*e of 
moderate size and well flavoured. 
The Palla fish, generally about 2 ft. 
long, the salmon of India, though its 
flesh is light coloured, is excellent, 
but has many troublesome bones, 
and sometimes does not agree with 
strangers. The best f|sh of all |s the 



Sect. 11. 



The Town Hall. 



121 



Pomflet, or Pomfret, called Sargutali^ 
the black kind being called Haltvd. 
This is a flat fish, about the size 
of a large flounder, but better than 
the turbot. The best pomflet are 
caught at VirAwal, and are very cheap 
and wholesome. The flounders, Surma ^ 
with projecting knobs, are not equal 
to the English fish of the same name. 
The Bhui Machchhiy or mullet, are 
fairly good. The Guard-fish, Ddtah^ 
long and very thin, are excellent, but 
the flesh has a greenish colour. The 
B&mHl, called by the English JBovi- 
melo, is a glutinous fish, very nice 
when fresh, and much used by the 
natives when salted. Besides these, 
there are the Singdrdj or cat-fish, the 
Tarwdi'f or sword-fish, the Gol^ a large 
coarse fish, and many others ; but, ex- 
cept those mentioned above, there are 
none desemng commendation. Near 
the fountain with its beautiful shrubs, 
are seats for loungers, which are gene- 
rally filled. There is also a Coffee 
House, where servants congregate, and 
which clears Es. 1,200 a year. On 
the S. side is the Poultry Market, 
where fowls, ducks, turkeys, snipes, 
curlew, teal, and fiorican may be 
purchased ; the last excellent. This 
market cost over eleven hundred thou- 
sand rupees. The crowd in the Meat 
and Fish Markets is dense, and the 
hubbub deafening. There is another 
market, called the Nul Bdz&r, between 
Parell and Duncan Hoad, which cost 
Ks. 137,000. There are also the Pedder 
Markets at Mazagdon, in the middle 
of a garden. 

The ToTvn Halt — Turning back 
from the Markets, the traveller will 
go next to the Town Hall. Just to 
the N. of it is the Mint, and to the "W. 
is the Cathedral. The Town Hall is 
a handsome building, with a fine 
colonnade in front, and does credit 
to the taste of its designer. Colonel 
Thomas Cowper, of the Bombay En- 
gineers, afterwards Chief Engineer. 
It was commenced in 1820, took 15 
years in building, and cost about 
£60,000, an expense of which by far 
the larger portion was defrayed by 
the E. L Company, and the remamder 
/cleared off by subscription, and a for- 



tunate lottery ticket, taken by the com- 
mittee for the erection of the building, 
which came up a prize of £10,000. The 
building is 260 ft. long by 100 ft. deep. 
The pillars in front, and the external 
character of the edifice, are Doric ; 
the character of the interior is Corin- 
thian. It is a curious circumstance 
respecting the pillars, that it was 
Colonel Cowper's intention to have 
them in pairs, a design which was 
opposed on the ground that the 
crowded appearance would mar the 
effect. The pillars were prepared in 
England, at the expense of the Com- 
pany, and were further delivered free 
of charge for freight. On being 
landed they turned out so much more 
massive than Colonel Cowper in- 
tended, that the plan of having them 
in pairs was, by what all must now 
admit to have been a fortunate con- 
tretemps, necessarily abandoned. The 
supernumerary columns were, by com- 
mand of the then Governor, Lord 
Clare, made over to Bykallah Church, 
then in course of erection. 

The building consists of a ground 
floor, in which the rooms are rather 
low, and a story above with lofty 
apartments. On the ground floor are 
various public offices : the Medical 
Board, in which are four very hand- 
some Ionic pillars, copied from those 
of an admired temple on the banks 
of the Hyssus, and set up by Col. 
Waddington, formerly chief engineer ; 
the office of the Military Auditor 
General ; the meeting room of H. M. 
Justices of the Peace for Bombay, at 
the S. end ; the Geographical Society's 
Boom ; and some of the weightier 
curiosities of the Asiatic Society. In 
the upper story is the grand As- 
sembly Room, 100 ft. square, in which 
public meetings and balls are held. 
The organ here is inscribed : — 

Tliis Organ, 

Built by Messrs. Christopher and Stone, 

London, 

Was the gift of 

The Hon. Sir Albert David Sassoon, Kt, 

C.S.I., Member of the Legislative 

Council of Bombay, 

To the Town Hall, Bombay, 

As a Memorial of the Visit of 

H.R.H. THE Duke of Edinbubgif, 

March, 1870. Erected 1S72. 



122 



Bombay City* 



Sect II. 



Leading from this on the N. are the 
Library and Assembly Boom of the 
Bombay Asiatic Society ; the subscrip- 
tion to which is Bs. 75 a year. The 
Library, which was founded by Sir 
James Mackintosh, is well selected, 
and contains about 100.000 volumes. 
A stranger can have gratuitous access 
to the rooms for a month, by an order 
from one of the members of the So- 
ciety. On this side, also, is a room 
used by the authorities of the Edu- 
cational Department. On the S., 
from the Grand Assembly Boom, are 
the Levee Booms of the Governor and. 
the Commander-in-Chief ; the Council 
Boom, and private rooms for each 
Member of Council, all now disused. 
In the S. vestibule, near the Council 
Boom, is the statue of Mr. Norris, for 
many years a distinguished Secretary 
and Member of Council, whose labours 
in the Judicial Department were most 
useful to Government. There are five 
other statues in the edifice, of men 
whose memory is held in high esteem 
by the inhabitants of Bombay. Of 
these, the statue of Mountstuart El- 
phiustone occupies ^a;' excellence the 
place of honour in the Grand Assembly 
Boom. The statue of Sir J. Malcolm 
is on a pedestal at the head of the 
staircase in the grand vestibule, and 
that of Sir C. Forbes in a comer near 
it^ At the bottom of the staircase, 
which is of stone and 8 ft. broad, is 



the fine statue of Jagann&th Shankar- 
seth — ^that of Sir Jamshidji Jijibh4i 
is placed on the opposite side. The 
«tatues of Elphingtone, Malcolm, and 
Sir C. Forbes, are all by Chantrey, 
and in his best style, lliat of Lord 
Comwallis* is in the garden of the 
Elphinstone Circle, as is that of Mar- 
quess Wellesley, by Bacon, which cost 
5000 gs., under a cupola ; but the 
Town Hall Committee have recom- 
mended its removal to the Town Hall. 
It deserves especial notice that, owing 
to the cupola, which protected it from 
the weather, the statue of Lord Com- 
wallis is quite uninjured, and almost 
as fresh as when it left tiie sculptor's 
hands, while the far finer statue of Lord 
Wellesley, which has no defence against 
rain and storm, is greatly disfigiued — 
the features being almost obliterated. 
This ought to be a warning against 
placing marble statues in future at the 
mercy of the weather in India. 

The Council Boom contains pictures 
of B^ji B4o Peshw^, whose adopted 
son, Njin4 Dhundu Pant, will be ever 
infamous as the author of the massacre 
at Kinhpiir (Cawnpore) ; of BAji BAo's 
celebrated minister, Nan4 Farnavls ; 
and of Mahdddjl Sindhia. All three 
paintings are by Mr. Wales, whose 
daughter married Sir C. Malet, some 
time Besident at Pun4. In the 
Asiatic Society's Library are busts of 
Sir James Carnac and Sir J. Mackin- 



"' Tlie following Is the inscriiition on the 
pedestal of this statue : — 

This Memorial is consecrated 

By the British inhabitants of the Fi*esideucy of 

Bombay, 

To the Name and Character of 

CHARLES MARQUIS CORNWALLIS, K.G., 

Governor-General of India; 
Wlio resigned iu Qh^zipilr, in the Province of 

Banaras, 

On the 5th October, 1805, 

A life dedicated to the service of his King and 

Country; 

But more especially devoted. 

In its regretted close. 

To the restoration of peace in India, 

And to the promotion of the best interests 

Of the East India Company. 

Inflexible and steady courage, 
A sacred fidelity in Political trust, 

Purity and singleness of heart, 
A temper tiie mirror of that purity. 



A reflective and well disciplined Judgment 

In the most arduous couflicts, 

A dignified simplicity ot manners. 

And the most elevated sense of honor. 

Every public Virtue and Spirit, 

Every gentle and graceful aifection. 

Made him universally 

Admired, 

Revered, 

And beloved ; 

The omameut of his country and of the age, 

A model to posterity. 

John Bacon, Junior, F.A.S., Scalptor,LoiLdon. 

MDCCCXI. 

This Inscription was probably written by 
Sir J. Mackintosh, who took an active x>art in 
the arrangements for the erection of the statue. 
A letter from him to Flaxman on the subject 
will be found in his Life, voL i. p. 265. Sir 
James wrote the sermon which was preached 
by the Senior Chaplain on the occasion of Lord 
Comwallis' death. 



Sect. II. 



Tlie Mint— -The Cathedral. 



123 



toRh, that of Sir James Camac by 
Chantrey. The Geographical So- 
ciety's Room contains pictures of Sir 
A. Bumes, and Sir C. Malcolm and 
rjiptain Boss, the two first Presidents 
of the Society; as also a very fine 
collection of maps. Asnong details, 
that part of the Town Hall which 
deserves the greatest praise is the 
elliptical staircase on the K. side, 
with the tesselated floor in the yesti- 
bule adjoining. The execution of 
these is admirable, and reflects great 
credit on Major-General Wadding- 
ton, the officer of engineers under 
whose directions they were executed. 
There is another name which must 
not be passed over in noticing the 
Town Hall. Augustino, of Portuguese 
descent, showed extraordinary talent 
in the plans he submitted ; and 
played an important though a subordi- 
nate rdle in the erection of the edifice. 
Tlw Mint is contiguous to the 
Town Hall, but stands further back, 
having a tank in front of it. On the 
stairs is a stone with this inscription :— 

The Hint was designed and constructed 
by Major John Hawkins, Bombay Engineers. 
It was commenced in 1824 and completed 
1829. 

The foundation stone was laid on the 
Ist of January, 1824, and it was in 
working order in December, 1827. It 
is a plain building, with an Ionic por- 
tico. It has been erected, however, 
on a spot which was for many years 
the place where all the refuse of the 
Fort was cast. It was then called 
Modi Bay, and the object in casting 
the rubbish there was to recover the 
ground from the sea. But when it 
was decided that the Mint should be 
built upon it, it became necessary to 
clear away masses which had been for 
years accumulating, in order to lay 
the foundations. The sum expended 
in this work was large, and the cost 
of the Mint fell but little short of the 
more splendid building adjoining, the 
Town Hall. The architect. Major 
Hawkins, a Bombay officer, with 
Colonel Forbes, of the Bengal Engi- 
neers, was sent to England by Go- 
vernment to study in the office of Boul- 
ton and Watt. At this Mint, 150,000 



rupees can be coined in one day. Eight 
hrori of rupees were coined in 1879, and 
about 35 Idkhs a month have been coined 
in 1880. We read that authority was 
granted to the Company by the Crown 
to establish a mint so early as 1676 ; 
but it does not appear when first, or 
to what extent, the Company availed 
themselves of this privilege. In the 
Bullion Boom there are sometimes 
from £100,000 to £200,000 silver in 
London bars, weighing 80 lbs. each, and 
S. Francisco bars, weighing 100 lbs. 
Gold is not coined, the metal not 
being obtainable. But there are Mints 
at Calcutta, Baroda, Haidardb&d in the 
Dakhan, Travankor, Srinagar, Kachh» 
and Indik. In June, 1875, a Kachh 
coin was struck worth about 13 Bs. 
Observe a fine balance here, which 
can weigh 700 lbs. at a time and indi- 
cate a \ grain weight. It was made 
by Graves, and cost £176. Copper 
and silver are coined in alternate 
months. The copper-plates, after tho 
pice have been punched out of them, 
are called Seissile, and are full of 
round holes. They are kept for alloy- 
ing silver. Gold and silver melt at 
1800' Fahrenheit, lead at 600^ The 
sweepings are crushed by stone rollers 
weighing 4 tons, and the silver is got 
by litharge. A tile of copper weighs 
60 lbs. There are 2 steam engines of 
40-horse power, with wheels of 24 ft. 
diameter. Forty specimens of false 
coins, are exhibited, one of which has 
been a good coin, but all the silver 
has been scooped out and lead sub- 
stituted. These coins have been col- 
lected since Sept., 1872. 

TJve Cathedral church of St. Thomas^ 
stands in the Ifort, close to the Green. 
It was built as a garrison church in 
1718, and made a cathedral on the 
establishment of the See of Bombay, 
in 1833, on which occasion the only 
change in the structure was the con- 
version of the low belfry into a high 
tower, which was done at the expense 
of the E.I.C. The plan is simple ; the 
columns approach the Tusca,n, the roof 
is vaulted, and the whole building is 
of stone. The body of the church is 
roomy, but there is no gallery. There 
are some monuments here which deserve 



124 



Bombay City, 



Sect 11. 



attention. Of these the one of greatest 
interest is by Bacon to Goyemor Jona- 
than Duncan,* who held his office for 
the unprecedented period of 16 years. 
The monument was raised by public 
subscription, and represents Mr. Dun- 
can receiving the blessings of young 
Hindiis. This has reference to his glori- 
ous and successful efforts in suppress- 
ing infanticide in certain districts near 
Bandras, and afterwards in K^thiawdd, 
through the zealous and able agency of 
Colonel Walker. Mr. Duncan was a 
warm friend of the natives of India, 
and a true philanthropist ; but his ser- 
vices were butinadequately appreciated 
by Government. 

There is another inscription to Mr. 
Duncan under the Cathedral pavement, 
as follows : — 

Underneath are deposited the Remains 
of the 

HONORABLE JONATHAN DUNCAN, 

a native of Montrose, in Scotland, and 

Member of the Civil Establishment of Bengal, 

Who, after having filled with distinguished 

merit many important situations under that 

Presidency, was selected, in the year 1795, 

for the ofilce of Governor of Bombay, 

which he held until the 11th of Au^st, 1811, 

when Death terminated a life which had 

been devoted to the P^motion of the Public 

Good and the Happiness of the People 

placed under his authority. 

Ob. Ktat 57. 

His body is buried in i)eace, and his name 

liveth for evermore. 

There is also a slab to Elizabeth 
Bourchier, wife of Bichard Bourchier, 
Governor of Bombay. She died 22nd 
of August, 1756. Other inscriptions are 



to Sir James Dewar, Chief Justice, who 
died A.D. 1830 ; and to James Joseph 
Sparrow, Esq., Member of Council, 
died October 2nd, 1829 ; to the Hon. 
Sir Charles Harcourt Chambers, Senior 
Puisne Judge, died October 13th, 1828. 
There is a tablet to George Dick, 
Governor of Bombay, who died 1828, 
aged 78. There is (dso a tablet to the 
E.I.C.'s frigate Cleopatra, supposed 
to have foundered off the coast of Ma- 
labar on the 15th of April, 1847, when 
nine officers and 1 42 men perished : and 
one to Sir David Pollock, Chief Justice 
of Bombay, who died May 22nd, 1847 ; 
and another to Bear-Admiral Ingle- 
field, C.B., Naval C.C, who died Feb- 
ruary 23rd, 1848 ; and one to John 
Hutchings Bellasis, Esq., C.S., Collec- 
tor of Bhanich, and son of Major 
General John Bellasis, Commander of 
the Forces at Bombay, who died May, 
1828. At the 8.B. comer of the Cathe- 
dral is a very fine white marble monu- 
ment to the Bight Beverend ITiomas 
Carr, D.D., firat bishop of Bombay. 
The figure of the bishop lies at full 
length with his face upward. He died 
on the 6th of September, 1859. The 
monument is by Noble. Next to this 
is a slab to the memory of Sir William 
Syer, Ist Recorder of Bombay, who 
died October 7th, 1802 ; and near the 
pulpit is a slab to the wife of Bear 
Admiral Sir Bichard King, Bart. K.C.B., 
who died March 24th, 1819. There are 
also monuments to Catharine Kirk- 
patrick, who died January 27th, 1766 ; 



* The following is the inscription on the 
handsome and tastaful monument to Mr. Dun- 
can in the Bombay Cathedral :— 

In memory of 

THE HON'BLB JONATHAN DUNCAN, 

Oovemor of Bombay, from 1795 to 1811. 

Recommended to that high office by his talents 

and integrity, 
In the discharge of various important duties 

in Bengal and Baniras, 
His purity and zeal for the pubhc good were 

equally conspicuous 
During his long and upright administration at 

this Presidency. 
With a generous disregard of personal interest. 

His private life was adorned 

By the most munificent acts of charity and 

friendship 

To all classes of the community. 

To the natives in particular he was a friend and 

protector. 



To whom they looked with unbounded 

Confidence and never appealed in vain. 

He was bom at Wardhouse, in the county of 

Foriar in Scotland, 

On the Ist of May, 1766, 

Came to India at tlie age of l<i : and, after 39 

years of uninterrupted service. 

Died at this place on 11th August, ISll. 

Infanticide 

abolished 

in 

Baniiras and K&thiawd^. 

Several of tlie British inhabitants of Bombay, 

Justly appreciating his distinguished merits 

In public and private life. 

Have raised this monument 

As a tribute of respect and esteem, 

MPccrxviT, 



Sect. II. 



TJie Cathedral, 



125 



and to Daniel Seton, Ideut.-Govemor 
of Surat Castle, who died there April 
17th, 1803 ; and to Lieut.-Col. Richard 
Cay, wounded by a rocket, 4th of 
January, 1779, in the expedition 
against Fund. Near the end door is a 
slab inscribed to Captain. Sir Bobert 
Oliver, R.N., C.C. of the Indian Navy, 
who died August 5th, 1848. Also may 
be mentioned the monument to Major 
General John Bellasis, Colonel of the 
regiment of Artillery and Command- 
ing Officer of the Forces, who died 
February 10th, 1808. OvertheN.dooris 
a Latin inscription to Sir Charles Har- 
conrt Chambers, which cannot be read 
without an opera glass. The English 
inscription to the same Judge has been 
mentioned above. Admii*al Sir F. 
Maitland, K.C.B., who conveyed Na- 
poleon I. to St. Helena, is also buried 
here. His monument was erected by 
the officers of the Indian Navy, of 
which he was C.C. He died November 
r»Oth, 1839. Under the figure of an 
angel weeping over a broken wall with 
a cannon projecting from the left-hand 
corner, is the following inscription : — 

POTTINQER. 
This Monument, erected by Public Subscrip- 
tion, to the Memory of 

MAJOR ELDBED POTTINGER, C.B., 

of the Bombay Regt of Artillery', is placed in 
the Cathedral Church of Bombay in token of 
the Admiration and Re8])ect in which his 
character as a Soldier and conduct as a Man 
are held by his Friends in this Presidency. 

Mi^or Pottinger's successful defence of Hirtf t, 
his gallant bearing and judicious counsel 
throughout the eventful period of the British 
reverses in Afghanistan, are recorded in the 
Annals of his Country, and need no eulogium 
here, but the recollection of those Services 
must add to the r^:ret universally felt, that 
one whose early course gave such promise of 
ftiture eminence and distinction, should have 
found a premature grave. Compelled by long 
continued exertion, anxiety, and fatigue in 
the discharge of his Public Duty, to seek a 
change of climate for the recovery of his 
health, Mt^or Pottinger was returning to 
England, vift China, when he was attacked by 
a malignant Fever at Hong-Kong, where he 
died on the IStli of Novemlier, 1843, aged 32 
years. 

Another very interesting monument 
is the one, also by Bacon, of Captain 
Hardinge, R.N., younger brother of 
Lord Hardinge, who fell in capturing 
the Piedm4)ittetej a ship of far superior 
size. The Picdmontesc had been 



eminently successful in taking Eng- 
lish merchant ships, and on one occa- 
sion, when she made a prize of the 
Warren Haatingt^ commanded by 
Captain Larkins, the French first 
lieutenant, M. Moreau, rendered him- 
self infamously notorious by stabbing 
the captain and several of the officers 
of the English ship. This man, when 
the Piedinontese struck her colours, 
blew out his brains, anticipating, pro- 
bably, no very gentle usage from the 
captors. Captain Hardinge's ship, 
the St, Fiorenzo, a frigate of 38 guns, 
miserably undermanned, sailed from 
Point de Galle on Friday, the 4th of 
March, 1805, and sighted on that day 
the Piedmontcjtef Captain Epher, of 
50 guns, and 566 men, of whom, how- 
ever, 200 were Lascars. He gave 
chase, and exchanged the first broad- 
side about half -past eleven at night. 
The French ship then got away, but 
next day the action was renewed, and 
the English frigate being terribly 
crippled in her rigging, the French- 
man, though a worse sailer, got away 
again. Next day, the Fioi'cnzo camo 
up with her, when, after a contest of 
one hour and 40 minutes, the Pied- 
montese struck her colours. The French 
had 48 killed and 112 wounded ; and 
the English but 13 killed and 25 
wounded. The merchants and prin- 
cipal inhabitants of Bombay presented 
a vase, worth 300 guineas, to the father 
of Captain Hardinge, a sword worth 
100 guineas to the 1st Lieutenant, 
Dawson, £500 to the crew of the 
Piorenzoj and erected this monument 
in the Cathedral, at a cost of £2000. 

Opposite Governor Duncan's monu- 
ment is one to Stephen Babington, of 
the Bombay C.S., who was chosen by 
Mr. Elphinstone to revise the Judicial 
Code, having as colleagues Mr. Ers- 
kine, the translator of ^' Baber's Me- 
moirs," and Mr. Norris. The figure 
is by Chahtrcy, in his best style. Mr. 
Babington is represented in a sitting 
posture, holding in his hands a book, 
the " Judicial Code," which he revised. 
The inscription on this monument is 
by Sir J. Mackintosh, and is justly 
reckoned one of the most classical 
pieces of English composition. On the 



126 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



left, going up to the chancel, are two 
monuments erected by the E. I. Com- 
pany, — one to Colonel Dow, killed by 
a rocket at the capture of Thdna, 
and the other to Colonel Campbell, 
who, in 1783, with less than 700 
Europeans, and with only 2300 
native soldiers, defended Mangalilir for 
many months against Tlpii, who had 
with him an army of 30,000 regular 
infantry, an immense body of horse, 
said to have been 60,000, 100 guns, 
and upwards of 1000 French. Man- 
galik was in the end surrendered, but 
not till the garrison had fed on rats, 
jackals, and every sort of loathsome 
and unwholesome food, and till Tipii 
had sacrificed half his army (Mill, 
vol. iv., p. 246). In the chancel, on 
the left-hand side, is the tomb of 
General Camac, who was Clive's 
second in command at the battle of 
Plassy, and who won independent 
laurels in many other fields. He died 
.at a very advanced age, at Mangaliir, 
having retired from the service, and 
this monument was erected to his 
memory by his nephew, Mr. Rivett, 
Member of Council, to whom he be- 
queathed his fortune, and who was 
the father of the late Sir James Rivett 
Camac, Governor of Bombay. There 
are also monuments to General Bel- 
lasis. Captain Warden, Mr. Seton, 
Chief of Surat, and others. To General 
Bellasis, Bombay is indebted for the 
Apollo Bandar and the road through 
the Flats, called after his name, which 
useful works were executed under his 
orders by a multitude of the people 
of Surat, driven from that city during 
a famine. The fountain in front of the 
Cathedral was erected by Sir Kdiisji 
Jahdnglr Readymoney, at a cost of 
Rs. 7000. A large chalice and cover, 
presented by Governor Gerald Aun- 
gier, are still preserved. They have 
the following inscription : — 

Hanc Calicem 

£ucliarists& sacram esse voluit 

Honorabilis Giraldns 

Aungierus, insulee BombaiiB 

Gubcmator ac pro rebus Honombilis 

Anglonun bocietatis Indiois 

Orientalibus Mercatorum a^ntium prai-ses 

niuBtris. 

Mttt ChriBttanaa 

Anno 1676. 



Hie Custom Umae is a large, ugly 
old building, a little to the S. of the 
Town Hall and Cathedral. It was a 
Portuguese barrack in 1665, and then 
a quarter for civilians. Forbes in his 
" Oriental Memoirs " says that in 1770 
he was there and could get no supper 
or candles, so he sat on the roof 
reading Shakespeare by moonlight. 
It became a Custom House in 1802. 
Over the portico of the entrance is a 
coat of arms, with the arms of the 
E. I. C, and the inscription : "Hon. W. 
Ainslabie, 1714." The entrance is 
always thronged with natives. The 
landing-place E. of the entrance is 
called the Town Bandar. The Dock- 
yard extends hence to the ApoUo 
Gate, with a sea-face of nearly 700 yds. 
Between the Custom House and the 
Mint are the remains of the Castle, 
covering 300 sq. ft. Only the walls 
facing the harbom* remain. A flag- 
staff also is here, from which signals 
are made to ships. There is also a 
clock-tower, where a time signal ball, 
connected by an electric wii*e with the 
Observatory, falls at 1 p.m. 

Tlie Bochjard.^So early as 1673, 
the East India Company had been 
compelled to build ships of war to 
protect their merchantmen from the 
attacks of the Mardtha and Malabar 
pirates. Surat, however, was the 
chief station for building vessels, and 
up to 1735 there were no docks in 
existence at Bombay. In that year a 
vessel was built at Surat for the Com- 
pany, and an oflScer being despatched 
from Bombay to mspect it, he was 
much pleased with the skill and in- 
telligence of the Pdrsi foreman, Lowjl 
NaushlrwAnji ; and, knowing that the 
Government was desirous of esta- 
blishing a building-yard at Bombay, 
endeavoured to persuade him to leave 
Surat and take charge of it. The 
Pars!, however, had too much honesty 
to accept this advantageous offer with- 
out permission from his master to 
whom he was engaged. On its being 
granted, he proceeded to Bombay, 
with a few artificers, and selected a 
site for the Docks. Next year, Lowji 
was sent to the N. to procure timber, 
and on his return he brought his 



Sect. II* 



The Dockyard, 



127 



family "with him. Prom that day to 
this, the superintendence of the Docks 
has been wholly in I/owji's family, or, 
as it is veil expressed by a well-known 
writer, " The history of the Dockyard 
is that of the rise of a respectable, 
honest, and hard-working P4rsl 
family." Up to this time uit king*s 
ships had been hove down for repairs 
at Hog Island ; but now they were so 
frequently brought for that purpose to 
the Docks that it became necessary to 
enlarge the yard. This was done 
ibout 1767. In the year 1771, two 
grandsons of Lowjl — Framji Mdnikjl 
and Jamshldji Balunanji — entered the 
Dockyard ; but were compelled by 
their grandfather to learn their pro 



74, of 1767 tons, at an expense, in- 
cluding lower masts and bowsprit, of 
£60,762 ; and in 1812, the WelU^ley, 
74, of 1745 tons, at a cost of £56,003. 
In 1818, the Malabar^ 74, and the 
SeHngapatam, a frigate of 38 guns, 
were built, and subsequently many 
other ships of war, among which the 
Ocmges, 84, the Calcutta^ 86, and the 
Midni, of 86 guns, may be particularly 
noticed. All these vessels were made 
of teak, and have sufficiently proved 
the lasting quality of that wood. It 
has been pronounced by persons in- 
timately acquainted with the subject, 
that a teak ship will last from four to 
five times as long as one of English oak. 
The worm will not eat it, and the oil it 



fession practically, working as common contains protects the iron clamps and 



carpenters at 12 rupees a month. In 
1774, Lowjl died, leaving only a house 
and a sum of money under £3000. 
He bequeathed, however, to his family, 
a more precious legacy, — ^the remem- 
brance and prestige of his character 
for spotless integrity. MAnikji suc- 
ceeded him as master-builder, and 
Bahmanji was appointed his assistant, 
and the two managed the Docks with 
increased success. They built two fine 
ships of 900 tons, and the men of war 
crippled in the severe actions between 
Sir Edward Hughes and Admiral 
Suffrein were docked at Bombay. 
Bahmanji died in 1790, in debt, and 
MAnikji two years afterwards, leaving 
but a scanty sum to his family. Their 
sons of the same names — Framji 
Mdnikjl and Jamshidji Bahmanji — 
succeeded them. Jamshidji in 1802 
built the Crrnwallis frigate for the 
East India Company, and his success 
determined the Home Government to 
order the construction of ships for the 
royal navy at Bombay. At first it 
was proposed to send out a European 
builder ; but Jamshldji's talents being 
properly represented, he was per- 
mitted to have the sole supervision as 
master builder. In 1805 the Dock- 
yard was enlarged ; and the thorough- 
fare, which till then had been open 
through it, was closed. On the 23rd 
o£ June, 1810, the- Mviidmy 74, built 
entirely by F&ibIs, was launched, 
and not long after the CormvatUs, 



bolts from rusting. Thus we are told 
that, while ships in the Britidi navy 
are replaced every 12 years, teak ships 
last 50 years and upwards. Indeed, 
the old LoTvjl Castle^ a merchantman 
of about 1000 tons, is known to have 
made voyages for nearly three-quarters 
of a century. The Dockyard has been 
of late years much enlarged. The 
enclosure contains about 200 acres. 
There are five Graving Docks, 3 of 
which together make one large dock, 
the Bombay Dock, 648 ft. long, 67 ft! 
broad at top, and. 34 ft. at bottom, 
and with 21 ft. perpendicular depth ; 
the other 2 Graving Docks make a 
single dock, 550 ft. long, 68 ft. broad 
at top, and 46 at bottom, and with 
26 ft. perpendicular depth. There 
are also four building slips op- 
posite the Apollo Pier, and on the 
S.E. side of the enclosure. The work 
is greatly facilitated by a steam 
engine, which pumps out the water in 
a few hours. At Bombay alone, two 
ships of the line, or one ship and two 
frigates, can be finished for the Eng- 
lish navy every 18 months. Bombay 
is also the only principal settlement iii 
India where the rise of the tide is suffi- 
cient to permit docks on a large scale. 
At Bombay, the highest spring tides 
reach to 17 ft. ; but the usual height is 
14 ft. From the Dockyard the traveller 
may proceed to the Cotton Screws at 
Koliba, and the Sas^oon Dock, which 
has been purchased by Government. 



128 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



TJts Or-iginal Cotton Screws were 
worked by West's patent. West came 
to India in 1798, to set up the hj- 
drostatic presses of which Mr. Hen- 
Bhaw was promietor. Through the 
bigoted opposition of the merchants 
these presses failed, and were broken 
up and sold for ballast, though thej 
cost upwards of £20,000. After this, 
the iron screw was gradually improved 
till 1806, which is the time Hamilton 
speaks of when he says, *' At Bombay, 
1500 lbs. of cotton are screwed into 
50 ft. or one ton ; but at Calcutta, 7 
per cent, more are put.'* He adds, 
"The cotton screw is worked by a 
capstan, to each bar of which there 
are 30 men, amounting, in the whole, 
to about 240 to each screw. Hemp is 
packed in the same manner ; but it 
requires to be carefully laid in the 
press, for the fibres are liable to be 
broken if they are bent." In 1819, 
Mr. West brought his geometrical 
press into work. The machine, in ap- 
pearance, resembles in some measure 
a pile engine. Like it, the rammer 
slides in a mortice up and down two 
strong uprights, which are laid hold 
of by two strong iron rods attached to 
the capstan, which is easily worked 
by a man to each bar. The process 
of packing is completed at once, and 
when the cotton is pressed down to 
the proper size, the machine, by an 
ingenious contrivance, stops, the doors 
fly open, and the lashing of the bale 
commences. The bale is taken out 
completely finished, and the press 
being relieved without the tedious 
process attendant on a screw, the 
rammer flies up, and the press is 
ready to receive cotton for another 
bale. West's press effected a diminu- 
tion of labour and expense, in com- 
parison with the old screw, in the 
ratio of 20 to 60. For a history of 
cotton packing in Bombay, see the 
Asiatic Jowmal of 1819. West's 
press was, till lately, close to the 
Apollo Bandar in the Fort, and is now 
at Eol4ba. It screws bales at the rate 
of 7^ minutes per bale, from the time 
of putting in cotton until the men stop 
turning, and half a minute more for. 
lashing the bale, averaging about 7 \ 



bales ijer hour. There axe now new 
screws erected by a company at Ko- 
Uba, on ground recovered from the 
sea. There is at Eol4ba also a new 
Wharfs the only one in India where 
a ship of moderate size can lie along- 
side to receive cargo. Between the 
Apollo Cotton Screws and the Post 
Office, stands the office of the Hydraulic 
Press Cotton Packing Company. It 
is a handsome building and contains 
a Brahma Press, with eight presses, 
each worked by three force pumps, 
the whole moved by a steam engine of 
60-horse power. 

The Sassoon Dock, — ^This is a wet 
dock for the discharge of cargo, which 
has been purchased by Grovemment. 
The traveller will drive straight from 
the Dockyard to Kol&ba, where the 
Sassoon Dock is. This is the first wet 
dock made in India, and has the ad- 
vantage that the goods are landed 
direct on the quay with only one hand- 
ling, instead of being put into barges 
and so carried on shore. The expense 
of boats and claims for damage are 
thus avoided. The Bombay, Baroda, 
and C. I. Railway runs to the S. of the 
dock, and a siding is carried under the 
very warehouses, so that in the mon- 
soon the goods are not wetted. There 
is also, S. of the dock, a warehouse to 
keep goods from the rain, 350 ft. long 
and 26 ft. broad. The Bombay, Baroda, 
and C. I. Eailway joins the G. I. P. at 
Dadar, so that, practically, both rail- 
ways join the docks. The Sassoon 
Dock is 650 ft. long from N.N.W. to 
S.S.E., with an average breadth of 250 
ft., but near the entrance it is 300 ft. 
broad. The depth is 19 ft. when it is 
high water at neap tides, and 22 ft. 
when it is high water at spring tides. 
The Sill is the place where the gates 
shut, and a channel 300 ft. long has 
been dredged out up to it, but the 
water falls many feet at low tide. To 
the N. of the dock the land belongs to 
the Kol&ba Press and Land Company 
and other proprietors ; this Sir Albert 
Sassoon intended to have included in 
his dock, which would have given it 8 
acres instead of 3i ; but the Eol4ba 
Company would not join, and have - 
built 2 cotton mills instead. Grahame 



Sect. II. The MemorUd Church of St, John tlie Evangelist. 129 



and Co. built warehouses of brick and 
iron, without any wood, on the ground 
belonging to the dock, and paid rent for 
them. These buildings can hold 10,000 
bales of piece goods. To the S. the 
land belongs to the Port Trust, and is 
mere fore-shore. At the W. end of the 
dock are 5 warehouses, of which the 3 
largest measure 160 ft. by 40, and the 
2 others 100 ft. by 40 and 60 ft. by 40 
respectively. In one of these ware- 
houses are 6 cotton presses, which are 
hydraulic, and exert a pressure of 800 
tons on each bale. They can press 
from 125 to 150 bales a day. A bale 
contains 9} cubic ft. and weighs 441b8. 
per cubic ft. A bale weighs more than 
deal, but less than teak, of the same 
dimensions. Government made Sir A. 
Sassoon pay £10,000 for the land 
through which the siding passes, and 
£8,000 for land taken over from the 
Back Bay Beclamation Company. 
The rock was blasted out to the depth 
of 15 ft., and 1500 labourers were em- 
ployed each day for 3 years. 

It may be mentioned here that a 
bridge is crossed between the main 
island of Bombay and KoUba, and has 
the following inscription : — 

Bombay, Baroda and Central Railway. 

Wodehouse Bridge. 

Erected 1875. 

His Excellency the Honorable Sir Philip 

Edmond Wodehouse, K.C.B., G.C.S.I., 

Governor of Bombay. 

A short way further on, on the right- 
hand side going to Koldba, there is a 
convalescent home established by Mr. 
Marwangi FrAmjl, a benevolent PArsl 
gentleman, whose name is inscribed on 
every pillar of the building. 

The Memorial Chv/rch of St. John 
the Uvangelist at Xoldba. — This beau- 
tiful edifice is so placed as to attract 
the eyes of all who approach Bombay 
from the sea. The church consists of 
a nave and aisles 138 ft. long, 58 broad, 
and 65 high, with a chancel 50 ft. long 
and 27 wide, and a tower and spire 
198 ft. high. As in the great church 
of Antioch in early ages, and in St. 
Peter's at Bome, the altar is at the W. 
end. The effect on entering is good, 
owing to the length and height of the 
building, the simplicity of the archi- 

[^om&ay— 1880.J 



tecture, and the *' dim religious light" 
diffused through the stained-glass win- 
dows. The roof is open, of varnished 
teak, with a pitch of 50 degrees. The 
first object remarked on entering is the 
illuminated metal screen, light, and 
elegantly designed, and surmounted by 
a gilt cross. It stands at the second 
bay up the nave, and is 22 ft. wide 
and 14 high. Over the great door is a 
triple lancet window of stained glass, 
presented by a lady in memory of her 
husband. The subject of the centre 
window, which consists of medallions, 
is the earlier incidents in the life of 
Our Lord. The outer windows display 
the Prophets holding scrolls with texts 
referring to the Messiah. Under this 
window and on either side of the door 
are appropriate texts. S. of the main en- 
trance is the Baptistery, with a triplet 
window and large font. This beautiful 
window was erected by the congrega- 
tion in memory of their Pastor, the 
Rev. Philip Anderson. Over the en- 
trance into the Baptistery is a marblo 
slab, inscribed : — 

la Memory of 

PHILIP ANDERSON, M.A., 

Chaplain of Colaba for Seven Yeai's, 

Who departed this life on the 13th December, 

1857. 
In the 42nd year of his age. 

In life his people loved him, 
In death they bless his memory, and pray 
That they together with him may attain 
The Resurrection unto Eternal Life. 

At the W. end of the N. aisle is a 
triplet window of stained glass, erected 
to the memory of General David Barr. 
In the W. end of the S. aisle is the fine 
organ built by Holditch. On either 
side are 21 lancet windows, the upper 
part of which is filled with stained 
glass, but the rest with Venetians. All 
were presented, and 12 by Mr. Wailes, 
the famed stained glass manufacturer. 
In either aisle are the following de- 
signs, which form a " Via Crucis " to 
the altar : — 

South aide. 

A Lantern, Sword, Staves, Hammer, and 

Pincers. 

The Cup. 

A Bunch of Grapes. 

A Sheaf of Wheat, 

Pelican feeding her young. 



130 



Bombay City, 



Sect. 11. 



North aisle. 

I. H. S. 

The Gannent, Dice, 30 pieces of Silver. 

Scourges. 

Ladder and Cross. 

Sponge and Sp<Mr. 

The Crown of Thorns. 

Agnus Dei I 

In the clerestory are 30 lancet win- 
dows, glazed with coloured quarries. 
The arch of the chancel is 65 ft. high, 
and at its base a stone pulpit and 
prayer desk. The pulpit given by a 
member of the congregation, the desk 
a memorial with the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

Erected by the Officers H.M.'s 28th Regt., 
on leaving the Country, a.d. 1864. 
-f In Memory of -|- 
Lieut. Higman. Lieut. Steward. 

Lieut. McCormack. Lieut. Vaughan. 
Lieut. Wade. Assist. -Surg. Brice. 

Lieut. Irwin. 

Their Brother Officers, who have died since 
the Regt. landed in India, a.d. 1857. 

The handsome brass lectern between 
the pulpit and prayer desk was also a 
gift. Other gifts were a crimson velvet 
altar-cloth, a pair of handsome brass 
altar candlesticks, made in the School 
of Art at Bombay, and a library of Sa- 
cred Music worth £100. Behind the 
lectern is the Litany stool, inscribed in 
gold letters, " A Thank Offering from 
the R. W. FusiUers, A.D. 1869." The 
choir desks are supported by wrought- 
iron stands, illuminated, and made in 
the School of Art. The chancel floor 
is of encaustic tiles, imported from 
England. On either side the chancel 
are 3 lancet windows, made to open 
and close, filled with glass similar to 
tiiat in the clerestory windows. Be- 
neath them are placed the " memorial 
marbles," of alternate colors of white, 
red, yellow, and blue ; and beneath 
them there runs the following inscrip- 
tion, painted in mediseval characters, 
on a blue ground : — 

This Church was built in SCemory of the 
Officers whose names are written above, and 
of the Non-Commissioned Officers and Private 
Soldiers, too many to be recorded, who fell, 
mindful of their duty, by sickness or by the 
swoixl, in the Campaigns of Sind and Afghan- 
istan, A.D. 1835-43. 

The large panels between the mar- 
bles and the chancel floor, diapered 



and gilt with gtars and fleurs-de-lis on 
a dark chocolate ground, have a pleas- 
ing effect. The great window is one 
of Wailes' best works. At the foot of 
the central compartment is the Offer- 
ing of Isaac, above it the Crucifixion, 
and above that again Our Lord seated 
in Majesty. In the rest of the window 
the lowest compartments represent 
Joshua passing Jordan, the Fall of 
Jericho, Caleb taking possession of 
Hebron, and David returning from 
the defeat of Goliath. Above are the 
writers of the New Testament. The 
Rev. George Pigott, when chaplain 
of KolAba, first proposed to build a 
church in memory of those that fell in 
the first Afghan war. On the 25th of 
March, 1843, a meeting was held in 
the Town Hall, with the Right Rev. 
Daniel Wilson, Bishop of Calcutta, in 
the chair. Mr. Pigott's proposal was 
agreed to, and it was resolved that a 
church should be erected at KoUba, in 
which the names of the officers and 
men who had perished in the Afghan 
campaign should be recorded. A plan 
by H. Conybeare, son of the Dean of 
Llandaff, having been approved, the 
first stone of the church was laid on 
the 4th of December, 1847, by Sir G. 
Clerk, Governor. In February, 1850, 
Mr. Pigott died, when the walls had 
risen only 16 ft. He was chaplain with 
the Bombay column under Lord Keane 
in the advance on Edbul in 1838. He 
returned in 1842, and was made chap- 
lain of Koldba. He died at sea on his 
way home on the 24th of February, 
1850. On the chancel pavement in 
front of the altar is an illuminated 
metal cross let into a polished black 
marble slab, with the following in- 
scription to his memory : — 

In Memoriam. 
REVDI. GEORGII PIGOTT, M.A., 

Hi^jusce Ecclesiaj Conditoris ; 

Obdormivit in Jesu, Febii. a.d. 1860. 

Angliam repetens sub undis sepultus. 

^tatis 45. 

Mr. Pigott's successor was the Rev. 
Philip Aiiderson, whose "English in 
Western India" is well known. He 
exerted himself to promote the build- 
ing of the Memorial Church, but, like 
his predecessor, did not live to see its 



Sect. II. 



Koldba Cemetery — Tlie Ligkilumae. 



131 



completion. He died on the 13th of 
December, 1857, and was buried in 
KoUba cemetery. The Church was 
consecrated on the 7th of January, 
1868, by the Right Rev. John Hard- 
ing, Bishop of Bombay. H.M/s 28th 
regt., which had 10 years before fur- 
nished the Guard of Honour at the 
laying of the foundation stone, again 
furnished the Guard on this occasion. 
Up to 1857, Rs. 127,000 had been ex- 
pended on the building, and Rs. 66,000 
more were added for the tower and 
spire, the porch and the memorial 
marble. Besides iJie above sums. Sir 
KAiisji Jahangir Readymoney sub- 
scribed Rs. 7500, and the Government 
gave Rs. 10,000 for walling in the 
church compound and adorning it 
with shrubs and trees. In the com- 
pound is a Memorial Cross, erected by 
the officers and soldiers of H.M.'s 45th 
regt., in memory of 8 sergeants, 5 cor- 
porals, and 74 privates belonging to 
the corps, with 14 women and 37 chil- 
dren, who died in Kimach and Eo- 
l&ba between March, 1865, and Jan. 
1866. The style of the church is Early 
English ; the walls are of rabble, faced 
with coursed KurU stone, which is 
buif -coloured basalt. The piers, arches, 
coigns, and dressings are of Porbandar 
stone, very like the Caen stone of our 
English churches. The names on the 
memorial marbles have been a good 
deal obliterated, but they will be found 
correctly given in a work that is to be 
published shortly, called *' Churches 
and Cemeteries of India." The chap- 
lain, the Rev. — Maule, has printed an 
interesting pamphlet at the Tirnet of 
India office, Bombay, respecting this 
church, from which this account has 
been chiefly extracted. He says : 
" Such then, is the history of the Co- 
lAba church,— a church which stands 
unrivalled among the churches of the 
East — a beacon to guide men haven- 
wards and heavenwards — a church es- 
sentially military in its associations, 
a national monument raised to the 
memory of thousands of brave men 
who have died in their country's 
cause." 

Koldba Cemetery, — The Cemetery is 
beyond the church, at the extreme 



point of EoMba, It is tolerably well 
kept, but rendered dismal by having 
a lunatic asylum adjoining it to the 
W., and in walking about to examine 
the tombs, the cries of the unhappy 
inmates are constantly heard. What 
the effect upon the lunatics may be of 
their close propinquity to a graveyard 
can only be conjectured I In this 
cemetery a very great number of offi- 
cers of the Royal Navy and Merchant 
Service are buried. The Rev. Philip 
Anderson was buried here. There is 
also a large squai*e tomb with the 
names of 2 officers, which marks the 
centre of the spot where the bodies of 
184 persons drowned in the wreck of 
the Cattlerea^h were buried. The road 
for the last 50 yards down to the door 
of the cemetery is extremely steep and 
difficult for a heavy carriage to ascend. 
The following notice is put up at the 
gate : " It is requested that all per- 
sons who visit the Cemetery will take 
care not to tread on the graves of the 
Christian Dead." ^ 

The IA{ihthmise, — A ridge, or cause- 
way, which commences a little S. of 
the cemetery, and is 3500 ft. long, 
leads to the Kew or Prong Lighthouse 
from the Old Lighthouse extinguished 
1874. This ridge is dry for 4 days 
before and 4 days after full moon. A 
little W. of the old lighthouse is a 
battery of 9-in. guns, and N. of it are 
the Lines of the Artillery and a Euro- 
pean regiment. The Prong Light- 
house is 150 ft. high, with w^s 17 ft. 
thick at the lowest story and 2 ft. at 
top. The internal diameter is 12 ft. 
all the way up. There are 11 steps 
from the water to the platform, and 
then 26 steps, 1 foot high, to the 1st 
room, and then 6 flights of 18 steps 
each, about 8 in. high, and then 11 
steps to the top. The revolving gear 
has to be wound up every 45 minutes, 
which employs 2 men. The plain 
surface of the dioptric glass alone 
shows the light. The wick must be 
fed with 6 times the supply of oil. 
In storms the waves rise 50 ft. up the 
sides, and the tower vibrates. Before 
this lighthouse was built dreadful 
shipwrecks took place here, and many 
of the bodies of those drowned aro 

K 2 



132 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



1 



interred in Koldba Cemetery. It is 
interesting to watch the light from 
the shore of Back Bay as it flashes 
into full splendour and then in a few 
seconds fades into darkness. The 
light can be seen to the distance of 
18 m., and beyond the lighthouse the 
shoal water extends for a mile. It 
flashes every 10 seconds. It cost 
£60,000. There are in the lighthouse 
one European and five Indians. There 
is also an Observatory at KoUba. It 
may be as well to mention here the 
Kennery Lighthouse, which is 12 m. 
to the S. of Bombay, and has a fixed 
first-class cata-dioptric light in a 
tower 161 ft. above high-water mark. 
It cost about 2 lAkhs. There are 2 
32-pounders on the island for signal- 
ing. The word is a corruption of a 
Mardtha word. The foundation-stone 
was laid by Sir Bartle Frere, on the 
19th of September, 1867, and the 
light was first shown on June Ist fol- 
lowing. 

Catliollc Cluipel. — On the next day 
the Catholic Chapel in Meadows Street 
may be visited. It is the first that 
was built in the Fort, and dates from 
the beginning of last century. It is 
worth a visit in order to see the Bread 
Fruit Tree, the only one in India, 
which will be found in the inner quad- 
rangle. 

St. Andrew's Kirlt. — Not far off 
from the Catholic Chapel is St. An- 
drew's Kirk in Marine Street. It 
was begun in 1816, and finished in 
1818. In 1826 the steeple was thrown 
down by lightning, and rebuilt by 
John Caldecott, F.R.S., Astronomer of 
Trivandaram University. 

Alexandra College for Pdrsi Ladies. 

This institution is in KAiisjl Patel 

Street in the Fort. It was founded by 
Mr. M&nikji Khurshidjl, who is well 
known for his travels in Europe and 
for his excellent knowledge of Eng- 
lish. It was opened in 1863, and for 
a time amalgamated with the Female 
Normal School, when Government 
made a grant to it of Rs. 3120 annu- 
ally. The institutions are now again 
separated, and Grovernment has with- 
drawn its grant. The young ladies 
lemain, in some cases, to the age of 



24, and are extremely well instructed 
in history and geography, and the 
English and Gujar&ti languages. They 
also embroider and do needle-work 
exceedingly well. Persons desirous of 
visiting the institution could no doubt 
obtain permission from Mr. Manikjl 
Khurshidjl, who lives at Kambhdla 
Hill. 

Police Court. — This is in Hornby 
Row, facing the Esplanade. The 
chief magistrate sits in rooms on the 
3rd floor, and below him, on the 2nd 
floor, is the court of the second magis- 
trate, an Indian gentleman. Visitors 
who take an interest in such matters 
may hear cases tried here. The 3rd 
magistrate, who is also an Indian gen- 
tleman, holds his court at GirgAon. 

Sir Jamshidji Jijihhdi's Pdrsi 
IJenrrolent Institution is in Ram- 
j part Road, facing the Esplanade. This 
institution was founded in 1849, by 
Sir Jamshidji, who, with Lady Ava- 
bdl, his wife, set apart for the purpose 

3 Idkhs of rupees and 25 shares in the 
Bank of Bengal, to which the PArsl 
PanchAyat added 35 shares more. 
The Government of India are the 
trustees, and pay interest at 6 per 
cent, on the 3 Idkhs. The income is 
divided into 400 shares, of which 180 
go for the Boys' and Girls' Schools in 
Bombay, 70 for those in Surat, &c., 
and 150 for charities for the poor. 
There are 14 classes of bovs and 7 
classes of girls in Hornby Row, and 

4 classes of boys and 7 classes of girls 
at Dhobi Taldo. There are also 6 
classes of girls in Mamba Devi. In 
June, 1842, a number of European and 
Indian gentlemen presented an ad- 
dress to Sir Jamshidji, with a testi- 
monial of the value of £1500. This 
address was signed by 937 PArsl 
gentlemen. Sir Jamshidji, in reply, 
announced his intention of devoting 
the whole testimonial and a dona- 
tion of 3 Idkhs from himself, for 
educational and charitable purposes. 
A second meeting was held on the 
24th of Jime, 1866, to present Sir 
Jamshidji with a testimonial in the 
form of a statue of himself ; and in 
February, 1871, it was determined to 
erect a new building for the institu- 



Sect. II. Scliool of Design — New Elphinstone High Sclvod, 133 



tion. On the foundation-stone was 
inscribed : — 

This Chief Comer-Stone of the 
Sir Jamshidji Jijibhdi Piirsi Benevolent 
Institution, was laid by 
His Excellency the Bight Honourable 
Sir William Robert Seymour Vesey Fitz- 
gerald, G.C.S. I., Governor of Bombay. 
21st of February, 1871. Yezdijirdi, 1240. 

Happy is he that has mercy on the poor, 
And he that giveth to the poor shall not lack. 

The same inscription will afterwards 
be put upon the stone in Pehlavl. In 
the cavity of the stone was placed a 
glass jar, containing a portrait of Sir 
Jamshidji JijibhAi, the first Baronet ; 
the elevation and plan of the new 
building, a history of the institution, 
abridged, " Times of India Calendar," 
"The PArsl Calendar" (A.Y. 1240), 
"The GujarAti Almanack," "The 
Bombay Gazette," "The Times of 
India," Jam-1-Jamshid, and the cur- 
rent coins — a sovereign, a rupee, \ 
rupee, \ rupee, 2-dnd piece, 1 And, 
4 ^nd, ^ dnd, and a pie. The build- 
ing has 3 lofty stories, and 7 class- 
rooms on the first 2 stories. The 3rd 
story has a grand committee-room, 
80 ft. from N. to S., and 33 ft. from E. 
to W. , with a verandah of the same 
length and 12 ft. broad. In this room 
is a portrait of Sir Jamshidji seated, 
with a letter in his hand, and the in- 
scription " B. Montclar, 1863." This 
room commands a fine view over the 
Esplanade and Back Bay. To the S., 
close by, is the old house in which 
Sir Jamshidji lived. There are 4 other 
rooms in the 3rd story used for storing 
books, &c. In the 2nd story, besides 
the class-rooms, is the library. The 
girls are in a separate story from the 
boys — there being about 500 girls and 
400 boys. Mr. Burgess, the late 
master, who is now Archaeologist for 
Government, got Rs. 728 a month as 
principal ; but the present principal, 
who has 14 assistants, gets only Rs. 400. 
School of Design. — This was for a 
long time carried on in mere sheds on 
the E. side of the Esplanade. It was first 
opened for pupils in September, 1857, 
and in 1877 a handsome new building 
was erected near the Gokaldds Hospital. 
Excellent drawings and pictures may 



be seen here. In 1875, a picture by Mr. 
Griffiths, of a native woman carrying a 
water-pot, was exhibited, the price of 
which was £400. Good pottery is made 
here, and also arms, such as axes, daggers 
and swords, at prices from 16 to 60 rs. 
There are now 190 pupils, who pay 1 
rupee monthly. Those who wish to 
obtain the art certificate qualifying 
them as teachers, pay Rs. 5. 

St, Xavier's College. — This institu- 
tion grew out of the development of St. 
Mary's Institution and the European 
Roman Catholic Orphanage. A site 
for the College near the W. end of 
Esplanade Cross Road was granted by 
Government in 1867. The funds were 
supplied chiefly from private sources, 
but Government contributed Rs. 61 ,368. 

Ke^v Mphinstone High School. — This 
building shuts out the W. face of St. 
Xavier's College. Sir Albert Sassoou 
was the founder, as mentioned in the 
following inscription : — 

This the First Stone of the 
Sassoon Buildings for the Elphiiuitone High 

School, 
Towards the erection of which one lakh and 

a half of Ra. was contributed by the 

Honorable Sir Albert Sassoon, Kt., C.S.I. , 

was laid by 

H.E. the Right Hon. 

Sir W. R. Seymour Vesey Fitzoerali», 

G.C.S.I., P.C, Governor of Bombay, 

on the 3rd day of May, a.d. 1872. 

This is the great public school of 
Bombay. It is the school department 
of the old " Elphinstone Institution," 
and retained possession of the original 
buildings on the Esplanade when the 
College department was separated to 
form the Elphinstone College. 

'• The object of this school is to fur- 
nish a high-class and liberal educa- 
tion up to the standard of the Uni- 
versity entrance examination, at fees 
within the reach of the middle-class 
people of Bombay and the Mafa§§il. 
It has classes for the study of English, 
Mardthl, Gujardti, Sanskrit, Latin and 
Persian. It is divided into two sideSy 
the Hindii and PdrsI, containing about 
300 pupils each. The staff consists of 
a Principal, Vice-Principal, and 26 
Assistant-Masters and Tutors." The 
length of the building is 452 ft. There 
are 28 class-rooms, measuring 30 in*^ 



134 



]ioml)ay Citp. 



Sect II. 



25 ft., and 4 masters' rooms of smaller 
dimensions. There is a hall on the 
Ist floor measuring 62 x 36 ft. and 35 ft. 
high. Above the hall is the Library 
53 X 23 ft. The building was designed 
by G. T. Molecey. In flie place oppo- 
site the St. Mary Schools close by is a 
Gas Tower with fountains, a work given 
by the late Rustamji Jamshid, Esq. 

Goltaldds Ifosjntul. — The next place 
to visit as being adjacent, is the Go- 
kaldds Hospital, which can contain 
126 patients, and is generally full. 
Fault is found with the style of the 
building, the outside of which is, never- 
theless, handsome ; but internally the 
arrangement is not so judicious as it 
might have been. The history of this 
hospital is rather curious. Mr. Bus- 
tamjl Jamshldjl had offered to give 
£15,000, if Government would give a 
site for a native hospital, and contri- 
bute £10,000 more, and if the Munici- 
pally would undertake to support the 
Institution. Then came the monetary 
crisis in Bombay, and the affair would 
probably have been suspended indefi- 
nitely, had not Mr. Arthur Crawford, 
C.S., obtained from GokaldAs, then in 
his last illness, a cheque for £15,000, 
and induced Government to adhere to 
their former intention. The value of 
the institution is now acknowledged. 

JDfvdrltandth'g Temple, — Close to the 
Esplanade on the right-hand side of 
the road that leads to Parell and a 
little N. of the Framjl Katisji Insti- 
tute, which is on the opposite side of 
the road, is a new temple to DwAr- 
kandth in Kalka Devi. It bears this 
inscription : — 

This Temple is built by Sundardas, son of 
Thakur Midha^U Jathr^, and dedicated to 

God DwARKANATHjf, 

in the Year of Samvat, 1981, Jeth Sudh 8th, 

Friday, June 10th, 1876. 

Entering by a side door on the N. 
the visitor finds himself in a room 40 ft. 
sq. with a silver door at the end 7 ft. 
high, which hides from view the prin- 
cipal idol. There are many images 
and paintings of Kfi^l^n and B4dh4, 
his favourite mistress. After this the 
traveller may proceed through the im- 
mensely crowded, bustling and noisy 
BsizAr to the Pinjra Pol. 



Pinjrd Pol^ or Infirmary for ani- 
mals. This curious institution covers 
several acres. In the 1st division are 
diseased and aged cattle on the right, 
and horses, monkeys, and a porcupine 
on the left. In the 2nd division are 
goats, sheep and asses. In the 3rd 
are buffaloes, and in the 4th dogs, 
some of which are in a horrid state of 
mange. The animals are all quiet 
enough except the dogs, who keep up 
a considerable noise. This place is in 
the quarter called Bholeshwar, " Lord 
of the Simple," and the temple of 
the Deity so called, a form of Shiva, 
is within the inclosure. The head 
Guru, whose name is Sawejl Shri 
Charitarpradhdn, is a learned scholar, 
who speaks Sanskrit well. He is also 
the author of several works. Among 
them is a Prdk^it Grammar. It is 
remarkable that the Hindiis, who sup- 
port this institution, are not pecu- 
liarly humane in their treatment of 
animals. 

Hovse of Correction. — After this, 
should the traveller be interested in 
such matters, he may visit the House 
of Correction, which is the principal 
prison in Bombay. It is in the Clare 
Boad, BykaUah, and contains a number 
of Europeans, sailors who refuse to 
work on board their ships, and soldiers 
who have to work at shot drill. They 
raise a 12 lb. shot and put it down on 
the ground, to be raised again, and 
again put down, without resting. 
There are sometimes between 80 and 
90 Europeans in the jail, and there is 
very little sickness among them. 

Tlw WorlfJwuse adjoins the jail, 
and there are sometimes as many as 
20 Europeans in it, some of respectable 
families. They sleep in an open shed, 
and are permitted to go out and try to 
obtain places. It may be mentioned 
that in the jail there are shower-baths 
for the prisoners. There is a Black 
Hole, but confinement in it is not much 
dreaded, for. as the jailer says, it is the 
coolest room in the building. 

This will be a sufficient tour for the 
3rd day. On the 4th day the traveller 
may drive to the 

Elphinstone College in BykaUah. 
This Institution arose out of a separa- 



Sect. IL Victoria Gardens — Christ Church, Byhillah. 



135 



tion in the year 1856 of the profes- 
sorial element from the Elphinstone 
Institution, which then became a high 
school. The Elphinstone Institution 
was founded in consequence of a meet- 
ing on the 22nd of August, 1827, to 
consider what should be a memorial 
to the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone 
on resigning the Government of Bom- 
bay. Upwards of 2 lAkhs were then 
collected to endow professorships in 
English, and the Arts, Sciences and 
Literature of Europe. This sum accu- 
mulated to about 4 14khs and a half, 
and Grovernment augments the interest 
by an annual subscription of Bs. 
22,000. In 1863 Sir Kiliisjl JahAnglr 
Beadymoney gave a Ukh to build the 
Elphinstone College, and in 1864 added 
another 14kh. On the 20th of February, 
1871, the new building in the Parell 
Boad was opened. There are 16 senior 
scholarships, and 29 junior are com- 
peted for annually. A certain number 
of under-graduates who cannot pay 
the College fee are admitted free. In 
1862 Sir Alexander Grant, Bart., was 
Principal of the College, and many 
distinguished scholars have filled Pro- 
fessorships, as, for instance, Mirzd 
Qairat, who translated Malcolm*s 
*' History of Persia " into Persian. The 
grounds of the College are not well 
kept, but the building, which is in the 
Mcdissval style, is handsome. In front 
of the side which passes E.S.E. is a 
tablet with this inscription : — 

The Kili^if Jah&ngfr Buildings, 

for the use of 

Elphinstone College, 

were erected at the cost of* rupees, of which 

2 lakhs were contributed by 

Mr. KAtfsjf JAHAsafR Readvmoney, C.S.I. 

Completed March, 1870. 

It would have been better had this 

tablet been placed over the principal 

entrance, or in the Library. On the 

ground-floor are lecture rooms, and on 

the 1st floor the library, to which one 

ascends by 40 steps. Here, too, is a 

room for the Principal, with one for 

the Professors. In the 2nd floor are 

dormitories for the resident students, 

each bed-room being shared by two 

persons. The E. front looks partly on 

the Victoria Gardens, partly on an un- 

* Blank in the inscription. 



sightly piece of ground where grass is 
stored. The W. front looks on the 
G. I. P. Bailway, and beyond it on the 
Flats. The following places may then 
be visited in succession. 

Victoria Gardens and Museum. — 
In front of this handsome building, 
which stands about 100 yds. back from 
the road, is a Clock Tower, erected by 
Sir Albert Sassoon. The Museum was 
first in the Fort Barracks, Dr. Buist 
being the first Curator. When the 
Mutiny of 1857 broke out, the Com- 
mandant of the garrison ordered the 
collection to be ejected, but Dr. Bird- 
wood, who had been appointed curator 
by Lord Elphinstone, raised a sub- 
scription of a l&kh and built this Mu- 
seum. Sir B. Frere laid the first stone 
in 1862, but the works were stopped 
in 1865. Government in 1868 under- 
took to complete the edifice, and it 
was opened in 1871. There is a fine 
statue of Prince Albert here by Noble. 
The Gardens have an area of 34 acres. 
On the W. side is a handsome Tailing 
with ornamental gates; on the other 
sides the Gardens are walled in. The 
grounds are prettily laid out with 
lakes, rustic bridges, and mounds. 
On the E. is a Deer Park with black 
buck, spotted deer, elks, and the ante- 
lope picta. The beautiful Bougaim 
villea is very conspicuous in the gar« 
dens. On the extreme E. is a mena- 
gerie, with tigers, bears, panthers, and 
hundreds of guinea pigs, quails, and 
other birds. The band plays here twice 
a week, and it is a great resort for the 
citizens. The Municipality keep up 
the gardens at a cost of Bs. 10,000 
yearly, and employ 75 gardeners and 
others. 

Christ Church, Byhallah. — This 
Church was consecrated by Bishop 
Wilson in 1835. It holds 600 people. 
A stained glass window was set up in 
1870, to the memory of Mr. Spencer 
Compton, eldest son of Sir Herbert 
Compton, Chief Justice of Bombay, 
and there is a handsome monument 
to Sir Bobert Grant, G.C.B., Governor 
of Bombay, who died at Dapurl near 
PunA, on the 9th of July, 1838. There 
are also other tombs of interest and 
some monumental brasses. 



136 



Bombay City* 



Sect. II. 



Grant Medical College^ in Parell 
Koad, was established in 1845, in me- 
mory of Sir Robert Grant, Governor of 
Bombay. One half the cost was paid 
by Sir Robert Grant's friends, the other 
half by Government. The Principal 
is subordinate to the Director of Public 
Instruction. There are 8 European 
Professors and 1 Indian, besides 4 
teachers, who lecture in MarAthl and 
GujarAtl. There are 10 scholarships, 
besides funds for medals. In the class 
of the Professor of Materia Medica 
there are sometimes as many as 130 
students. In the laboratory Dr. Gray 
analysed the poison that was given 
to Colonel Phayro at Baroda. The 
Museum is fuU of curious things, Ittsi 
naturcB, snakes and other reptiles. 
The grounds cover 2 acres, and are 
being made instructive by planting in 
them all kinds of useful trees and 
shrubs. There are some seedlings of 
the Eucalyptus which promise well. 
Observe also the Babiil, Mimosa ara- 
hicaj with its soft yellow flowers ; the 
Bhehdi or hibUomt, with a bell-like 
yellow flower, introduced by the Por- 
tuguese, which is useful for shade, as 
it grows quickly ; the gum-tree, which 
bears a round glutinous fruit the size 
of a large black currant ; also the 
Causilana Moricata, a resinous tree of 
the fir kind. This College turns out a 
number of Indian Physicians and Sur- 
geons not inferior to European, who 
are gradually overspreading India, and 
find lucrative employment in the na- 
tive States. The knowledge of medi- 
cine thus diflfused is one of the greatest 
blessings India has derived from Eng- 
land. 

Jamshidji Hospital. — This institu- 
tion adjoins the one just mentioned. 
It has Parell Road to the W., and Ba- 
biila Tank Road to the S. The build- 
ing consists of a Middle Row, 1 story 
high, 400 ft. from N. to S., and 2 
wings, 2 stories high, which extend 
200 ft. from E. to W. In the middle 
building are 14 wards, holding 14 to 
16 patients each. The 5e ought all to 
be paved with Minton tiles, as earth 
absorbs miasma. The Duke of Edin- 
burgh, at Dr. Hunter's request, de- 
frayed the cost of paving one, which 



is now called the Edinbui'gh Ward; 
and H.H. the MahdrAjd Holkar volun- 
teered to pay for paving another. The 
pavement of each ward cost £120. At 
Sir Jamshidji's request, 1 ward has 
been assigned to PArsls ; in the others 
all castes, Br^hmans, Dherhs, and Mu- 
^ammadans are found together. They 
get their food from separate cooks ; 
but Pdrsls and Muhammadans will 
take it from a Christian cook, pro- 
vided that fowls, &c., are not stran- 
gled, but killed in the Mu^ammadan 
fashion. In the hall is a statue of Sir 
Jamshidji, a copy of the stone one in 
the Town Hall, but of bronze. The 
name of the sculptor is not on the 
statue. The 2nd story can be as- 
cended to by a hydraulic lift, but the 
pressure is so slight that the ascent 
takes a long time. Patients are taken 
up in this way. The wards in the 
wings are all tiled. To the W. of this 
hospital are the Ophthalmic Hospital, 
the Grant College, the Hospital for 
Incurables, and huts for contagious 
diseases, such as small-pox and cholera. 
Disease is said to be more prevalent in 
the cold weather than in the hot. 
There are 46 in-door patients, and 166 
out-door. About 150 cases of accidents 
from machinery in the mills are 
brought to the Jamshidji Hospital 
every year. In the Obstetric Hospital 
there are 40 patients, but many out- 
door patients. This building is incon- 
veniently small, and so is the quarter 
for infectious diseases. There ought 
to be a separate hospital for such cases 
on high ground, with cottages of refuge 
below for the families of the patients. 
This is one of the greatest wants in 
Bombay. 

Jarnshidji DJiarmsdld. — This may 
be next visited, as it is not very far 
off. There are about 200 small rooms 
which families or individuals may 
occupy. There is no light or ventila- 
tion, except by tbe door and a square 
hole in the roof about 6 in. sq. In a 
3rd row in the same line, but separated 
by a path, are about 200 lepers, 
covered with blotches, and many with 
their toes and fingers gone. When a 
room is vacated by these unfortunates, 
it is very often occupied forthwith by 



Sect. IL 



Girgdm Cemeteries — Elphinstone Doch 



137 



a person who is not a leper. It is no 
wonder, therefore, that there are 
between 200 and 300 people afldicted 
with this dreadful disease in Bombay. 
Dr. Vandyke Carter, who had charge 
of this Dharmsdla in 1875, is the 
great authority on the subject of this 
disease, and could give any informa- 
tion respecting it. He is for stamping 
it out by seclusion ; but at present 
there are, according to the census of 
1872, p. 215, no less than 13,842 lepers 
in the Presidency. Europeans are 
subject to it, and there are generally 
one or two such cases in Bombay. 

The Nul Marltct. — This supplies a 
large part of Bombay, and is gene- 
rally immensely crowded. Men and 
women may be seen purchasing opium, 
and the women admit that they give 
it to their infants. 

Scotch Mhifion Scliool. — On return- 
ing from these places, the Mission 
School at Ambroli may be visited. It, 
and the church, cost £6000. There is 
a tablet to the memory of Mrs. Wilson, 
wife of the Rev. Dr. Wilson, the well- 
known linguist and missionary, in the 
church, with an inscription in English 
and Marathl. There is also adjacent 
a college for youths, where Sanskpt 
and Persian are well taught. On the 
way back to the Esplanade, the Gir- 
gdon cemeteries may be visited. 

Glrgdon Cemeteries. — The English 
cemetery, which is to the W., is very 
badly kept. Amongst the most dis- 
tinguished persons buried here is 
General Kennedy. His tablet is thus 
inscribed :- 

MAJOR-GENERAL VANS KENNEDY 

Died on the 29th of December, 1846, 

aged 63 years. 

Erected to his Memory in token of regaixi 
for his Great Talents and Attainments and 
distinguished Oriental Scholarship by the 
Bombay Branch of tlie Royal Asiatic Society, 
of which he was successively the Secretary, 
President, and Honorary President, and in 
the inquiries and researches of which he ever 
manifested the deepest interest. 

In the N.E. corner is the tomb of 
Colonel Foi"d, who commanded the 
last Peshwd's Brigade, which mainly 
decided the defeat of that Prince at 
the battle of Khirkl. The Peshwd sent 
his general, Moro Dikshat, to entreat 



Colonel Ford to side with him or re- 
main neutral. Colonel Ford refused ; 
on which the Mardthd general said 
that he would take care of the 
Englishman's family should he fall in 
the battle, and asked that he would 
do the same thing for him, suppos- 
ing the English were victors. By a 
curious coincidence, the first fire of 
Colonel Ford's troops killed Moro 
Dikshat, who was charging, with the 
Golden Pennon of the MarAthas in 
his hand, at the head of 15,000 
cavalry. The inscription is as follows, 
on the N. face of the tall white tomb : 

Sdcred to the Memory of 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN FORD, 

C.B., of tlie Madras Establishment, 

Who departed this life at Bombay, 

on the 2nd day of Januarj', 1826, 

aged 46 years. 

About the oldest epitaph is that of 
Mrs. Jane Macquarie, wife of Major 
Macquarie, of H.M.'s 77th, daughter 
of the Chief Justice of Antigua. She 
died July loth, 1796. To the E. of 
this cemetery is the SmashAn, where 
the Hindii corpses are burned. Euro- 
peans who desire to see the operation 
are allowed to enter. To the S.E. is 
the Scotch Cemetery, now closed, 
where is the tomb of the * Rev, Dr. 
Wilson, mentioned above. 

The 5th day may be spent in visit- 
ing the vast reclamation works on the 
E. shore of Bombay Island, from the 
Custom House to Sewrl on the N. 
On these works and on those at Ko- 
Idba and Back Bay 5 millions sterling 
have been expended. The traveller 
will drive along Frere Road to the 
Elphinstone Dock. 

Eljihinstone Boclt. — This was com- 
menced during the Prince of "Wales' 
visit in 1875-6. In excavating the 
ground the remains of a submerged 
forest were found at a depth of 
about 10 ft. About 100 trees, from 
10 to 20 ft. long, were exhumed ; the 
wood is red and veiy hard. Many 
shells of the teredo were also found 
imbedded iu the wood. Within the 
shell the wood was entirely gone. 
This barnacle is veiy destructive in 
Bombay Harbour, and sometimes at- 
taches itself in such numbers to the 



138 



' Bomhay City, 



Sect. 11. 



bottoms of Tcssels as to take off more 
than a knot from their speed. The 
excavations extend over 30 acres, 
from which more than a million cubic 
yards of earth have been removed. 
7,000 Kulis were employed every day 
at the works ; the men getting 6 Ands 
a day, and the women 3. Adjacent to 
the Docks whole streets of warehouses 
and offices have sprung up. Continu- 
ing N., the visitor will arrive, after a 
drive of 3 m., at 

Mdzagdon^ where are tJie Office and 
Bochyard of the P. and 0, Company. 
The office is situated in the Mazagdoii 
Dock Road, in a beautiful garden with 
a profusion of flowering shrubs. The 
gent's office is fitted up with polished 
wood, and handsomely furnished, and 
looks out upon beds of flowers. The 
works were finished in 1866. The 
walls of the enclosure are strongly 
built of rubble stone, faced with cut 
stone. The dockyard covers 12 acres. 
There are iron sheds for 18,000 tons 
of coal ; but sometimes these are quite 
full, and several thousand more tons 
are stored uncovered. The Dock, which 
is the largest in Bombay, except the 
Elphinstone, is 420 ft. long, and 
capable of receiving vessels drawing 
20 ft. of water. On its left, looking 
towards the pier, is the Ice Manufac- 
tory, where are 2 machines which can 
make 31 tons a day. There is a hand- 
some tomb here to the late Captain 
Henry, who was killed by a fall from 
his carriage. He was agent for the 
P. and 0. Company, and universally 
respected. Commodore Hawkins, who 
is buried in the Girgdon. Cemetery, 
was killed by a similar accident near 
the Dockyard in the Fort. Close by is 

St. Peter'' s Churchj 3IazagdonyWhich 
seats about 300 people. Here is a 
memorial window to the officers and 
men drowned in the S.S. Caniatw. 
Continuing the drive, and passing Sir 
Albert Sassoon's fine house, the tra- 
veller will arrive at Parell. 

Oovernment House at Parell was a 
Portuguese place of worship and mo- 
nastery, confiscated by the English 
Government, on account of the traitor- 
ous conduct of the Jesuits in 1720. 
Governor Hornby was the first who 



took up his residence there, between 
1771-1780. One of the stones of the 
buUding is inscribed :— 

This built by the direction of 

Honourable Hornby, 

1771. 

It remained in statu quo till the ex- 
piration of Sir Evan Nepean's govern- 
ment. When that Governor quitted 
Bombay in 1819, he left a minute re- 
gretting that he had been compelled 
by the necessities of Government to 
neglect the house at Parell. To supply 
the required accommodation, Mr. El- 
phinstone built the right and left 
wings. In the right wing are the 
apartments belonging to the Governor 
and his family, in the left are those 
appropriated to the aides-de-camp and 
staff. The public rooms are in the 
centre facing the W. The dining room 
below, where also the Governor holds 
his public breakfasts, is 86 ft. long by 
30 broad, with a fine verandah on three 
sides, about 10 ft. broad. Above the 
dining room is a drawing room, or ball 
room, of corresponding dimensions, 
with a similar verandah. The veran- 
dah below is open, and that above is 
closed. These rooms occupy the place 
of the old Portuguese chapel. The 
altar was where the billiard table is 
now, in the recess at the end of the 
hall. In the ball room is a full length 
portrait of the Marquess Wellesley, by 
Home, an artist of Calcutta. The like- 
ness is good and the painting excel- 
lent. On the landing place of the very 
handsome stone staircase is a valuable 
marble bust of the Great Duke, vTith. 
"P.Turnerelli fecit, 181 o." In the side 
room or corridor to the ball room, are 
2 full-length marble figures of Lucretia 
and Cleopatra. For the memorials of 
the Duke of Wellington and his bro- 
ther, under the former of whom Mr, 
Elphinstone served as Political Assist- 
ant throughout the brilliant campaign 
of 1803-4, it has been asserted his suc- 
cessors are indebted to the private 
liberality of Mr. Elphinstone. The 
garden of Parell is pretty, and has at 
its W. extremity a tank, and on its 
margin a noble terrace, which rises 
about 10 ft. above the water and the 
grounds. It is here that visitors of 



Sect. II. £afoped7t Cemetery — Kurla Cotton Mill. 



139 



distinction are entertained on royal 
birthdays and other festivals, and from 
this spot they witness the display of 
fireworks. Toe Prince of Wales was 
received by Governor Sir Philip Wode- 
house at Parell, in November, 1875 ; Sir 
Richard Temple moved to the Govern- 
ment House at Malabar Hill, where the 
sea-breeze blows refreshingly. Beyond 
the corridor in which are the marble 
statues is a good suite of rooms for a 
guest of distinction, with an excellent 
bath room. In fact, all the bath rooms 
in the house are good, being of white 
stone or chunam, with pavements of 
coloured tiles at the side. At the end 
of the ball room is what is called the 
Darbdr room. Beyond is a broad 
chunam platform, with a pretty look- 
out on the garden. Next to the Dar- 
bAr room is 't sitting room, with a por- 
trait of Moantstuart Elphinstone. A 
bangld in the garden is usually occu- 
pied by the Governor's doctor when 
the Governor is here. From the S. 
corridor one can descend by steps out- 
side the building to a platform in the 
garden, where the band plays. The 
ball room is 82 ft. 6 in. long, 32 ft. 10 
broad, and 27 ft. high. It is a hand- 
some room and suitable for a Govern- 
ment House. In it is a fine full-length 
portrait of the Queen, by Sir George 
Hayter, inscribed London, 1864. On 
the E. of the ball room is a refresh- 
ment room, sometimes used as a din- 
ing room. Lord Mayo dined there. On 
the next story are bed rooms and sit- 
ting rooms for the military secretary 
and private secretary, and on the 
story above that are 3 bed rooms and 
dressing rooms, and a sitting room. In 
all, 19 bed rooms can be made avail- 
able. Below the drawing room, but 
not on the ground floor, are the Go- 
vernor's bed room and his office room, 
the latter very good, and between 
them is the private secretary's office. 
The dining room ends in a billiard 
room looking W. towards the garden. 
In the garden are 2 iron arches 
with a creeper, which has a beauti- 
ful white flower. One arch fell in 
1875, and the creeper was cut down 
almost to the ground, but soon reco- 
vered itself. Just before the 2nd arch 



is a circular basin with a small foun- 
tain, in which is a plated tube imitat- 
ing a flower and other devices. Beyond 
this is a flight of steps and a terrace, 
where the Governor receives at his 
garden parties. The grounds are pretty, 
but there are numerous snakes of the 
phursen kind, most poisonous. There 
are also many damans^ a serpent which 
grows to 9 ft. and is incredibly swift. 
The mango trees are particularly fine, 
and there is a lovely jessamine with 
flowers as large as the palm of one's 
hand. 

European Cemetery at Parell, — ^This 
cemetery was formerly a Botanical 
Garden, which was opened by Mr. 
Farish, Member of Council, in 1830. 
It is a sheltered spot under Flag StaflE 
Hill, with pine trees on either side, 
and was turned into a cemetery about 
1867. Remark here the magnificent 
crimson poinciana. 

Kurla Cotton Mill, — Should the tra- 
veller have a couple of hours free, and 
have obtained permission to visit the 
Kurla mill, which is on the causeway 
between Bombay and Salsette, and 6 
m. from Parell, he may now drive to 
the Parell Railway Station, which is 
6 m. from KolAba, and close to Pa- 
rell Government House, from which 
trains go to Kurla at 6.12 and 6.52 
A.M., and 1.22, 3.58, and 5.22 P.M., 
arriving in about a quarter of an hour. 
This is one of the largest cotton mills 
in the world, and employs 3000 hands, 
of whom 700 are women and 300 boys. 
The rooms are 760 ft. long, and the 
temperature is about 90 deg. There is a 
tower 80 ft. high, to which one may 
ascend for the view. The mill opened 
about 1863 on a smaller scale, and in 
1869 on its present footing. There are 
large lodging-houses adjoining, which 
can accommodate 400 persons. There 
are also salt pans close by, and owing 
to these, the spot is said to be un- 
healthy in November. They have a 
fire engine, which the hands work very 
well. The management is good, and 
the mill will serve as a specimen of 
the mill industry in Bombay. Re- 
mark to the S.E. Sion Hill, a place 
once fortified by the Portuguese. 

GovernmentHmise atMalabarHill. — 



140 



Bombay City, 



Sect. II. 



On the 6th day the traveller may drive 
from his hotel to Malabar Hill. If he 
be located in Watson's Hotel, or any 
other hotel in or near the Fort, his 
drive will be a pleasant one along the 
sea-side skirting Back Bay, which, on 
account of the sea breeze, is a prefer- 
able road to that through the hot and 
crowded bdzars. At about 3^ m. from 
the Cathedral, the road begins to as- 
cend a long steep hill, whence Govern- 
ment House may be reached by one of 
2 turnings to the left. The S. turning 
leads through iron gates down a rather 
steep pitch to the house of the Gover- 
nor. At the iron gate there is a notice 
that no person will be admitted except 
on business. The Governor's bangld 
consists of a suite of rooms only one 
story high, and of moderate dimen- 
sions. The principal banglA to which 
visitors must go to enter their names, 
is also only of one story, but contains 
two rooms, a dining room and a draw- 
ing room, each about 90 ft. long and 
40 broad, with a verandah surrounding 
them 16 ft. broad. You ascend to these 
rooms by a flight of 20 steps, and, pass- 
ing through the verandah where the vi- 
sitor's book is placed on the left hand, 
find yourself in a middle room, sepa- 
rated from the other 2 rooms by ex- 
tremely handsome carved black wood 
doors, ornamented with gilt work in a 
very tasteful fashion. The verandah 
on the E. side commands a fine view 
over Back Bay to Koldba and the Es- 
planade, where the Government Offices 
are an imposing feature. At night, all 
this part is lighted up with myriads of 
lamps, and the effect is extremely 
pleasing. There are several detached 
banglAs for the Governor's staff and 
for guests, all being from 80 to 100 ft. 
above the sea. Below them is a bat- 
tery, which would sweep the sea ap- 
proach. The water, however, is too 
shallow for anything but boats, and is 
besides full of rocks. Not far off to 
the N. a large ship, the Diamond^ was 
wrecked, and 80 passengers were 
drowned. The stables of the Governor 
are very commodious, and generally 
contain from 20 to 30 fine horses. 
They are to the N. of the other build- 
ings, and in front of them is a very 



curious row of trees, the branches of 
which have been turned by the mon- 
soon winds to the B. at about 10 ft. 
from the ground, as if they had been 
carefully trained in that direction. A 
few words may be said as to the his- 
tory of the Governor's residence here. 
Up to the time of Sir Evan Nepean, 
the Governor had resided either at the 
Fort or at Parell. At Malabar Point 
there were only Sergeants' quarters 
near the Flagstaff. In 1813, Sir Evan, 
feeling the cool sea breeze to be indis- 
pensable to his health, built an addi- 
tional room to the Sergeants' quarters. 
He also somewhat improved the ac- 
cess by the back road then in exist- 
ence. In 1819-20, Mr. Elphinstone 
added a public breakfast room, and a 
detached sleeping baogla on a small 
scale. At that time there was not a 
single house on the Malabar Hill and 
Breach Candy, now so covered with 
villas, except that called Tlw Retreat^ 
and one other. But the presence of 
the Governor soon attracted various 
individuals to settle in villas near the 
spot ; and the colonization of this part 
of the island of Bombay may be said 
to date from 1820. In 1828 Sir John 
Malcolm gave up for public offices the 
Government House in the Fort and 
the Secretary's office in Apollo Street, 
and considerably enlarging the resi- 
dence at Malabar Point, regularly con- 
stituted it a Government House. He 
also converted a footpath, so steep and 
rugged as to be almost impracticable, 
into a carriage road. The Governor's 
residence at the Point is elevated about 
80 ft. above the sea, and stands close 
to the edge of the steep cliff, in which 
Malabar Hill on this side terminates. 
The drive to Malabar Point, and thence 
along the sea by Breach Candy, is one 
of the most beautiful in the island, and 
is well thronged with carriages and 
equestrians. A traveller (Grant) says 
that he was reminded of Naples by 
this promenade. 

Valkeshwar. — The temple of Val- 
keshwar, " Sand Lord," is on the W. 
side of Malabar Hill, and close to Ma- 
labar Point. Throngs of Hindiis will 
be met coming from it, their foreheads 
newly coloured with the sectarial 



Sect. TI. 



Towers of Silence, 



141 



mark. The legend says that Kama, on 
his way from Ayodhya (Oadh) to 
Lankd (Ceylon), to recover his bride 
SltA, carried off by RAvana, halted 
here for the night. Lakshman pro- 
vided his brother Bdma with a new 
Lingam direct from Bandras every 
night. This night he failed to arrive 
at the expected time, and the impa- 
tient Rdma made for himself a Lin- 
gam of the sand at the spot. When 
the one from Bandras arrived, it was 
set up in the temple, while the one 
which Bdma had made, in after ages, 
on the arrival of the Portuguese, 
sprang into the sea from horror of the 
barbarians. There is also a very fine, 
but small, tank here, adorned with 
noble flights of steps, which, too, is not 
without its legend. Rdma thii-sted, 
and there being no water here, he shot 
an arrow into the earth, and forthwith 
appeai'ed the tank, hence called F<4im^- 
tirtJuif " Arrow-Tank." The tank is 
shaded by fine trees, and encircled by 
snow-white pagodas and neat houses 
of Brdhmans. On the sea- shore is a 
rock with a cleft in it, through which 
the Hindiis pass as a sign of regenera- 
tion or new birth. The legend says 
Shivajl passed through this cleft. 

Towers of Silence, — After visiting 
Valkeshwar, the traveller will drive 
along a fine road to Breach Candy, 
where he will see, on the left hand, 
the swimming bath, which is 60 ft. by 
30, and from 4 J ft. to 10 ft. deep. The 
subscription is a rupee a month, and 
those who do not subscribe pay 2 «^nAs 
for each bath. Bathers can have coffee 
and cigarettes. The baths are open 
for subscribers on Sundays to 8 A.M. ; 
on Tuesday and Friday to 10 A.M. ; 
and for ladies on Monday and Thurs- 
day to 10 A.M. At other hours non- 
subscribers may bathe. In order to see 
the Towers of Silence, permission must 
be obtained from the Secretary to the 
Pdrsl Panchdyat. There are 2 ways 
of approaching the Towers, one is 
from the N. side by turning to the 
right from the Breach Candy road as 
you come from Malabar HiU. This 
was the road taken by the Prince of 
Wales. Sir Jamshidjl Jijlbhdl, at his 
own expanse, made the splendid road 



which loiids to the Towers on this side. 
Sir Jamshldjf further gave 100,000 sq. 
yds. of land on the N. and E. sides of 
the Towers. Ascending by his road 
you can drive nearly to the top of the 
hill on which the Towers are, which is 
over 100 ft, high, and whence there is 
a charming view over the E. part of 
the island. Over the N. entrance there 
is this inscription : — 

This Road, leading to the Parai Towers of 
Silence, was constructed in Memory of the 
lato JAMSHfDjf JiJiBHAf, the First Barcnet, 
by his Son, and has been given in charge of 
the Trustees of the Parsi Panchdyat Fund, for 
the use of PJlrsis only. 19th December, 1888. 
A.c. 1238 Yezd. 

After driving in the carriage as far 
as possible, the traveller will come to 
a fiight of 80 steps, at the end of which 
he will find a notice facing him, 
" None but Pdrsls may enter." Accom- 
panied by the Secretary of the Pan- 
chaydt, the stranger will pass in, and 
turning to the right come to a stone 
building, where, during funerals, 
prayer is offered. Between this and 
the enclosing wall is a little space 
where the traveller may take a chair 
and enjoy one of the finest views ob- 
tainable in Bombay. To the left he 
will see Sion, Sewrl, and Mazagdoii 
Hills, and between them some 20 lofty 
chimneys of cotton mills and other 
high buildings. From the foot of the 
hill on which are the Towers stretches 
a vast grove of palms, in which no hu- 
man habitation is visible, though many 
are concealed by the broad palm 
leaves. On the right are seen in suc- 
cession the Cathedral, the Government 
Offices, the Memorial Church of St. 
John at Koldba, and the Prong Light- 
house. Probably while the traveller is 
looking at the view, a funeral will 
take place. A bier will be seen carried 
up the steps by 4 Nasr Salars or " car- 
riers of the dead," with 2 bearded men 
following them closely, and perhaps 
100 Pdrsls in white robes walking 2 
and 2 in procession. The bearded men 
who come next the corpse are the only 
persons who enter the Tower. They 
wear gloves, and when they touch the 
bones it is with tongs. On leaving the 
Tower after depositing the corpse on 



142 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



the grating within, they proceed to 
the purifying place, where they wash 
and leave the clothes they have worn 
in a tower built for that express pur- 
pose. In 1875 the tower was so full 
that the garments at the top were 
blown about by the wind. It should 
be said, that the Parsls who walk in 
procession after the bier, have their 
clothes linked, in which there is a 
mystic meaning. There is a model of 
the Tdwer which was exhibited to the 
Prince of Wales, and would probably 
be produced to any visitor on his ask- 
ing permission to see it. There are 6 
towers, the largest of which cost 
£30,000, while the other 4 on an aver- 
age cost £20,000 each. The largest 
tower is 276 ft. round and 25 high. At 
8 ft. from the ground is an aperture in 
the encircling wall about 5^ ft. sq., 
to which the carriers of the dead as- 
cend by a flight of steps. Inside, there 
is a circular platform or grating gra- 
dually depressed towards the centre, 
in which is a well 5 ft. in diameter. 
The bodies are deposited in fluted 
grooves in 3 series, with a circular path, 
3 ft. broad, round each, and a straight 
path to the well from the aperture in 
the wall, which straight path commu- 
nicates with the 3 circular ones. The 
adult males are laid in the outer series, 
the women in the middle series, and the 
children in that nearest the well. The 
bodies are placed in the grooves quite 
naked, and in half an hour the flesh is 
so completely devoured by the numer- 
ous vultures that inhabit the trees 
around, that nothing but the skeleton 
remains. This is left to bleach in sun 
and wind tiU it becomes perfectly dry. 
Then the carriers of the dead, gloved 
and with tongs, remove the bones from 
the grooves and cast them into the 
weU. Here they crumble into dust. 
Bound the well are perforations which 
allow the rain-water or other moisture 
to escape into 2 deep drains at the 
bottom of the Tower, and the fluid then 
passes through charcoal and becomes 
disinfected and inodorous before it 
passes into the sea. There is a ladder 
in the well by which the carriers of 
the dead descend if it be requisite to 
remove obstructions fi-om the perfora- 



tions. The dust in the well accumu- 
lates so slowly that in 40 years it 'rose 
only 5 ft. This method of interment 
originates from the veneration the Pdr- 
sls pay to the elements and their zeal- 
ous endeavours not to pollute them. 
Pdrsls respect the dead, but consider 
corpses most unclean, and the carriers 
are a separate and peculiar class who 
are not allowed to mix in social inter- 
course with other Pdrsls. Yet even 
these men wear gloves and use tongs 
in touching the remains of a deceased 
person, and purify themselves and cast 
away their garments after every visit 
to a tower. Fire is too much venerated 
by Ptels for them to allow it to be 
polluted by burning the dead. Water 
is almost equally respected, and so is 
earth ; hence this singular mode of in- 
terment has been devised. There is, 
however, another reason. Zartasht 
said, that rich and poor must meet in 
death ; and this saying has been liter- 
ally " interpreted and carried out by 
the contrivance of the well, which is a 
common receptacle for the dust of all 
PArsls, of Sir Jamshidji and other mil- 
lionaires, and of the poor inmates of 
the Pdrsi Asylum. In the arrange- 
ments of the vast area which surrounds 
the Towers, nothing has been omitted 
which could foster calm and pleasing 
meditation. You at once arrive at the 
house of prayer, and around is a beau- 
tiful garden full of flowers and flower- 
ing shrubs. Here, under the shade of 
fine trees, relatives of the deceased can 
sit and meditate. The height of the 
hill and the proximity of the sea en- 
sures always a cool breeze ; and the 
view to the W. and S. over the waters, 
and to the E. and N. over the city, 
the islands in the harbour and the dis- 
tant mountains beyond, is really en- 
chanting and perhaps unrivalled. The 
massive grey towers and the thick 
woods about them are very picturesque. 
Even the cypresses, as the PArsis them- 
selves say, tapering upwards, point the 
way to heaven ; and it is certain that 
the PArsis follow out that thought and 
are firm believers in the resurrection 
and the re-assemblage of the atoms, 
here dispersed, in a glorified and incor« 
I ruptible body. 



Sect. IL 



Pdrfi Dharmsdld — Slwoting. 



143 



PdrH Wiarrnsdld, — If the ascent 

to the towers be made from the S. side, 

the traveller will drive to the Grdm 

Devi Road, in which is the Dharms&ld 

for poor Persian PArsis. The building, 

which is a good and clean one, stands 

in an extensive garden in which is a 

tank. Over the door is ^vritten — 

In the Name of God ! Amen ! 
Khorshidjf Ardeshir Dddy Sefs Dhannsil&, 

Under trast 

For the Destitute Irdni Pdrai Zoroastrians. 

Year Yezdajird 1222— Vikram, 1929— a.c. 1853. 

In this Irinl Dharms^U are some- 
times as many as 200 men, women, 
and children. In the morning they 



of fruit. There is also a large upper 
room which looks over the garden, and 
at the end of it is the conmiittee room. 
There are also four side rooms. In 
the room below is the dispensary, and 
on the far side of the quadrangle the 
store room. The ghi and other comes- 
tibles are kept in gigantic Chinese jars, 
big enough to hold 'Ali Bdbd's thieves. 
These jars cost 2000 rs. The whole 
charity does much credit to the muni- 
ficence of the Parsls. 

There are two leading papers in Bom- 
bay, the Timrs of India and theBmnbay 
Gazette. There is also a theatre, " the 



have tea and bread, at 11 a.m. rice and I Gaiety," near the G.I.P. Railway Ter 



curry, and at B.fiO P.M. a dinner of 
meat and vegetables gratis. The chil- 
dren are taught by a Persian Munshi. 
A register is kept in Gujardti of things 
supplied to the inmates. Close to the 
dining-room is a well of clear water, 
and a large airy sleeping-room for men. 
Close to the Irini Dharms^^ is an- 
other for the use of the same persons, 
over the door of which is written : — 

Ehurshldjf Ardeshir DharmsiUl. 
Erected at the expense of 

Sir KltJsjf JahAnoIr Beadymoney, C.S.I., 

in Commemoration of his Maternal 

Grandfather, 

for the nse of Poor Persian Zoroastrians. 

Yezdi^ird, 1241. a.c. 1812. 

At the S.E. foot of the hUl on which 
are the Towers of Silence is an alms- 
house for decayed P4rsis of both sexes. 
Over the door is written . — 

This Asylum, 
for the Reception of Blind and I>i8abled Poor 

Pdrsfs, 
was erected at the expense of the 
Sons of the late FardtiA)! Sorabjl Parak, Esq., 
in Commemoration of the Death of 

PIRUZ BAI, 

the Wife of the late 

Jamshfdjf Fardiinji Parak, Esq., 

in the Yezd year 1214— a.c. 1845, and given in 

cliaige of the Tmstees of the PusiPanchiyat. 

The Upper Floor of this Building was built at 
the expense of 

KHURSHfDji FARDtJNjf Pabak, Esq., 
in the Yezd year 1233— a.c. 1864. 

There are 6 rooms on the ground floor, 
in which are generally about 8 fe- 
males and 3 or 4 times the number of 
men ; some are blind. In the centre 
of the quadrangle are flowering shrubs, 
and outside is a very large garden full 



minus, at the S. end of Esplanade Mar- 
ket Boad, and one in the Grant Eoad. 
On the Eidge is a gymnasium called 
GymJihdnahj where lawn tennis is 
played ; attached is a skating rink. 

Shooting. — Tigers and panthers are 
rather numerous in the Koukan, and 
may be found occasionally in Salsette. 
At the hill fort of Tungafh, about 
20 m. from Bombay, tigers are sure to 
be found, but it is difficult to get ac- 
commodation there, as there are only 
one or two huts, and horses picqueted 
outside are very likely to be killed 
during the night. The monthly pay of 
a huntsman or thikdri is about Bs. 15 ; 
but shooting tigers is very expensive, 
as a great number of beaters is required 
at about 6 4nds each. New comers 
should endeavour to go with some ex- 
perienced sportsman, by whom all the 
arrangements should be made. If the 
traveller can give a week to sport, he 
might go by steamer to Edrwdr, 270 m., 
occupying 36 hours, and would find on 
landing that panthers abound in the 
jungles all round the harbour, and are 
bold enough to come even to the tra- 
veller's bangld. A few miles up the 
river, royal tigers are sure to be met 
with, fc^nipe are so numerous on the 
E. side of Bombay Harbour in Panwell 
Creek, that more than 50 brace have 
been killed by a single sportsman in a 
day. At the Yihdr Lake and Thdnd 
and close to Ndrel wild duck, snipe, 
hares and partridges are to be found. 
At places in Gujardt, easily reached 
by the railway, such as Nariad, quail 
and florican can be got. 



144 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



Ra'dn^aAjsi and Sfcamfrst. — Tho sta- 
tions of the tramways, and of the 
Bombay, Baroda and Central India 
Railway are at EolAba, ^ m. S. of 
"Watson's Hotel and of the hotels in 
the Fort, but there is a station much 
closer, and nearly due W. of Watson's 
Hotel, called Church-gate Station, 
whence passengers can start for any 
places reached by the B. B. and C. I. 
line. Those who are living at the 
Bykallah hotels will go of course from 
the Bykallah Station, and those living 
at Malabar Hill and its vicinity will 
go from the Grant Koad Station. Pas- 
sengers for the Great Indian Penin- 
sula Line will start from the Bori 
Bandar Station. The office of the Bri- 
tish India Steam Navigation Company 
is that of Messrs. Mackinnon, Mac- 
kenzie and Co., in the Fort in Elphin- 
stone Circle, inner circle, S. side. The 
office of the B. B. and C. I. Ry. is in 
Church-gate Street, in a detached 
block of buildings facing the N. side of 
the Cathedral ; that of the Rubattino 
Steam Navigation Company in Hamdm 
Street, N. side. The office of the G. I. P. 
Ry. is in Elphinstone Circle, Fort. 

SIGHTS IN THE VICINITY OP BOMBAY. 

ElepJianta. — For visiting this re- 
markable place steam launches can be 
hired at Apollo Bandar, and make the 
passage in an hour, or a bandar-boat 
may be hired at from 3 to 6 rs. In 
this case the length of the passage will 
depend on wind and tide. Or, if living 
near Mazagaon, the traveller may hire 
a boat or engage a steam launch from 
the pier there. He will then cross close 
to Butcher's Island, which is 3 m. 
nearly due E. from Mazagdon Dock. 
Persons coming from sea with infec- 
tious diseases, such as small-pox, are 
placed in quarantine at Butcher's 
Island, which was at first intended for 
Madras troops coming to Bombay. 
From this island to the landing place 
at Elephanta is IJ m. due E. The 
view in this part of the harbour is 
beautiful. To the N. one sees Salsette 
Hill,otherwise called the Neat's Tongue, 
atTrombay, which is 100 ft. high above 
high water spring tides. The ruins of 
an old Portuguese chapel at Trubah in 



Trombay are at a height of 324 ft. The 
I highest point of Elephanta is 568 ft. 
There is another hill 400 ft. high to tho 
left of the Caves as you approach them, 
and here are 3 tanks, and further to the 
left the ruins of a tower. A pleasant 
trip may be made by water from Ele- 
phanta to Thdnd, a distance of 16 m. 

Elephanta^ called by the natives 
GluirapuH (*' the town of the rock," 
or " of purification," according to Dr. 
Wilson)-— according to the Rev. J. Ste- 
venson, Journal of the Bombay Asiatio 
Society^ for July, 1852, Art. iv., Gara^ 
purl, •' the town of excavations," — is 
a small island, distant about 6 miles 
from the Fort of Bombay. The caves 
are called Lenen (Lend) by the na- 
tives, a word used throughout India 
and Ceylon for these excavations, most 
probably on account of the first of 
them being intended for hermitages 
of Buddhist ascetics. The walk to the 
caves is first of all over a slippery pier 
formed of blocks of concrete, which 
rise about 5 ft. from the water and 
have an interval of some 6 or 8 inches 
between every two. The total dis- 
tance to the caves is about a J of a m. 
After passing the pier the ascent is by 
flights of steps, 118 in all, with plat- 
forms or standing-places between each 
flight and the next. The island is co- 
vered with low corinda bushes. It 
consists of two long hills, with a narrow 
valley between them. The usual land- 
ing-place "was formerly towards the 
S.W., where the valley is broadest. It 
is now on the N.W. About 250 yards 
to the right of the landing-place, on 
the rise of one of the hills, and not far 
from the ruins of the Portuguese build- 
ing, was a mass of rock, which was 
cut into the shape of an elephant of the 
following dimensions, which we give 
as a specimen of native knowledge of 
proportion at the remote age when the 
figure was sculptured, which was pro- 
bably the 10th century : — 

rr. IN. 
Length from the forehead to the root 

of the tail 13 2 

Height at head 7 4 

Whole circumference at shoulders . 35 6 
Ditto round four legs . . . . 32 
Breadth of back across rump . .80 
Girth of body about the middle . . 20 2 
Height of left hind foot . . .56 



Sect. II. 



Eleplumta» 



U5 



FT. IN. 

Circamference of right fore foot . . 6 7| 
„ „ hind foot . .63 

Circiunference of left hind foot ..77 
„ ,, forefoot . .73 

Height of stone support to sustain 

belly 2 2 

Length of tail 7 9 

Circumference of tail . . . . 2 10 
From top of brow to curve of trunk . 6 3 
Length of trunk flrom between tusks . 7 10 

Right tusk 11 

Left ditto 6 

Pyke in 1712, and Anquetil in 1760, 
represented the elephant as having 
another smaller one on its back. In 
1764, Niebuhr reported that there were 
the remains of something on the back, 
but that it was impossible to distin- 
guish what it was. Basil Hall, how- 
ever, conjectured, and no doubt cor- 
rectly, that the smaller animal was a 
tiger. Mr. Erskine {Transactiong of 
tins Bombay Literary Society, vol. i.) 
gives the following dimensions : length, 
4 ft. 7 in. ; distance of two hind paws, 
3 ft. 6 in. ; breadth of body, 1 ft. 2 in. 
In September, 1814, the head and neck 
of the elephant dropped off, and the 
body, which had a huge crack down 
the back, sank down, and threatened 
to fall. In 1864 the then shapeless 
mass of stones was removed to the 
Victoria Gardens in Bombay. 

Advancing up the valley, which 
grows more and more narrow,- at a 
place where the two hUls approach 'so 
close as to leave only a steep gulley 
between them, is the spot where Fryer, 
ill 1673, found a stone horse, which 
had sunk into the earth up to the belly. 
It still remained in 1712, but disap- 
peared in 1784. There is, however, 
now a staircase leading directly to the 
excavations from the W. The follow- 
ing description is extracted chiefly 
from Mr. Erskine's paper in the TranS' 
actions of tlie Bombay Literary Society 
above alluded to : — 

" Ascending the narrow path where 
the two hills are knit together, we at 
length come to a beautiful and rich 
prospect of the northern part of the 
island, of the sea, and the opposite 
shores of 3alsette. Advancing forward, 
and keeping to the left along the bend 
of the hill, we gradually mount to an 
open space, and come suddenly on the 

[5o7»5ay— 1880.1 



grand entrance of a magnificent temple, 
whose huge massy columns seem to 
give support to the whole mountain 
which rises above it. 

The time when these caves were e:^- 
cavated can only yet be guessed at, 
but it is supposed that it must have 
been some time between the eighth and 
twelfth centuries of the Christian era. 
The main reason for this supposition 
is, that from inscriptions and tablets 
found in various parts of Southern 
India, and architectural structures 
whose age is known, it seems that the 
religious system to which the carved 
images and architectural embellish- 
ments belong, had not gained much 
currency before the first mentioned of 
those eras ; and, owing to their conflicts 
with the Mul;^ammadans, the Hindii 
Bdjds, it is surmised, would not be 
able to give attention to such works 
after the last mentioned period. The 
rock, also, out of which tne caves are 
excavated, being full of rents, the 
water penetrates through it, and de- 
taches piece after piece from the figures, 
so as to threaten to destroy them one 
day altogether. This process, then, it 
is conjectured, if the caves had been of 
very ancient date, would by this time 
have occasioned a greater degree of 
damage than we find has actually taken 
place. This damage, since the caves 
were first described by Niebuhr, has 
been very considerable, and several 
Europeans in Bombay can testify that 
even during the last quarter of a cen- 
tuiy it has been by no means imma- 
terial. 

The entrance into the temple, which 
is entirely hewn out of a stone resem- 
bling porphyry, is by a spacious front 
supported by two massy pillars and two 
pilasters forming three openings, under 
a thick and steep rock overhung by 
brushwood and wild shrubs. The whole 
excavation consists of three principal 
parts : the great temple itself, which is 
in the centre, and two smaller chapels, 
one on each side of the great temple. 
These two chapels do not come forward 
into a straight line with the front of 
the chief temple, are not perceived on 
approaching the temple, and are con- 
siderably in recess, being approached 



146 



Bombay City. 



Sect. Ik 



by two narrow passes in the hill, one 
on each side of the grand entrance, 
■bat at some distance from it. After 
advancing to some distance up these 
confined passes, we find each of them 
conduct to another front of the grand 
excavation, exactly like the principal 
front which is first seen, all the three 
fronts being hollowed out of the solid 
rock, and each consisting of two huge 
pillars with two pilasters. The two 
side fronts are precisely opposite to 
each other on the E. and W., the 
grand entrance facing the X. The 
two wings of the temple are at the 
upper end of these passages, and are 
close by the grand excavation, but 
have no covered passage to connect 
them with it. 

The left side of the cave, that is the 
side on which the square temple is 
situated, is 130 ft. Sin. in length, while 
the right side is only 128 ft. J in. Va- 
rieties of this kind are observable in 
every other part ; — ^some of the pillars 
are situated from each other at a dis- 
tance only of 12 ft. 10 in., others are 
separated by 16 ft. 4^ in. ; some of them 
are at 15 ft. 3 in., others at 13 ft. 2 in., 
others at 14 ft. 3 in. from each other, 
and so on ; nor is the size of the pillars 
themselves less various ; the side of the 
pedestals being some of them 3 ft. 3 in. ; 
others 3 ft. 4 in., others 3 ft. 5 in., and 
others 3 ft. 6 in. 

The great temple is about 130) feet 
long, measuring from the chief en- 
trance to the furthest end of the cave, 
and 130 ft. broad from the eastern to 
the western entrance. It rests on 26 
pillars (eight of them now broken) 
and 16 pilasters ; and neither the floor 
nor the roof being in one plane, it 
varies in height from 17J to 15 ft. 
The plan is regfular, there being eight 
.pillars and pilasters in a line from 
the N. entrance to the S. extreme of 
the temple, and the same number 
from the E. to the W. entrances. The 
only striking deviation from this 
regularity in the chief temple, is the 
small square excavation, that is seen 
as we go up the temple on the 
right : it occupies the place of four 
pillars and of the intermediate space 
inclosed between them, as if a veil 



had been drawn around them, and 
the spot so enclosed divided from the 
rest of the temple. At the furthest 
extremity there are two small exca- 
vations facing each other, the one on 
the r. the other on the L ; their use 
is not well ascertained : they were 
probably employed for keeping the 
holy utensils and offerings. The exca- 
vation presents to the .eye the ap- 
pearance of perfect regularity, which 
it is not found to possess when accu- 
rately examined. The pillars, which 
all appear to run in straight lines 
parallel to each other, and at equal 
distances, are crossed by other ranges 
running at right angles in the oppo- 
site direction ; they are strong and 
massive, of an order remarkablv well 
adapted to their situation and the pur- 
pose wliich they are to serve, and liave 
an appearance of very considerable 
elegance. They are not all of the same 
form, but differ both in their size and 
ornaments, though this difference also 
does not at first strike the eye. They 
rise to upwards of half their height 
from a square pedestal, generally 
about 3 feet 5 each way, crowned 
on the top by a broad bandage of the 
same shape : above this, but divided 
from it by a circular astragal and two 
polygonic fillets, rises a short round 
fluted shaft, forming about a fourth of 
the column and diminishing with a 
curve towards the top, where a circular 
cincture of beads binds round it a fillet 
composed of an ornament resembling 
leaves, or rather cusps, the lower ex- 
tremity of which appears below the 
cincture, while the superior extremity 
rises above, projecting and terminating 
gracefully in a circle of over-hanging 
leaves or cusps. A narrow band divides 
this ornament from the round fluted 
compressed cushion, which may be re- 
garded as the capital of the column, 
and as giving it its character : its fluted 
form coalesces beautifully with the 
fluted shaft below. This cushion has 
its circumference bound by a thin flat 
band or fillet, as if to retain it ; and 
above supports a square plinth, on 
which rests the architrave that slopes 
away on each side in scrolls connected 
by a band or riband, till it meets the 



Sect. II. 



JElephanta, 



147 



large transverse beam of rock which 
connects the range of pillars. 

77ie TJ/nga Chapel, — ^The great cave 
at Elephanta is what the Hindiis 
call a Shiva Linga Temple, a class 
of sacred buildings very common in 
S. and Central India. Many of the 
Brahmans in Bombay will not ac- 
knowledge its claim to this honour, 
and the place is now nearly desei-ted. 
They, with other natives, maintain that 
this and all the rest of the excava- 
tions around are the works of the sons 
of Pdndu, who constructed them while 
wandering about the country in banish- 
ment from their native land. They ima- 
gine these excavations are works far 
too mighty for the degenerate mortals 
of our day. The reason why this temple 
lias been deserted may have been the 
nnhealthiness of the island, which, 
during certain seasons of the year, 
is very prolific of ague ; or perhaps 
the first Europeans may have dese- 
crated the images, and led the Hindtis 
to abandon them. Although the cur- 
rent tradition that the Portuguese fired 
into the cave from the offing, and 
hauled guns up the hill to its mouth 
to destroy the idols, is absurd, and 
could never, even if true, account for 
the actual damage done, as every visitor 
may easily satisfy himself ; still it is 
not improbable that they desecrated 
the place, and that hence arose those 
popular stories. The great cave is 
nevertheless still visited by Hindiis, 
especially of the Banyan caste, on the 
p:reat festivals of Shiva, and the great 
Ling is worshipped on these occasions 
by crowds of devotees. 

After entering the great cave from 
the usual entrance on the N., the 
popular object of worship, which more 
particularly attracts the devotees 
above mentioned, is seen about half- way 
up on the r., or towards theW. of the 
cave. It is a conical stone 2 ft. 10 in 
diameter, called the Ijiiig, and is en- 
closed in a chapel 19^ ft. square, 
with four doorn, facing the four 
principal directions. The Ling is in- 
tended to represent Shiva in his cha- 
racter of the prolific power of nature. 
Around this chapel on the outside are 
a number of la^e figures, representing 



door-keepers, who arc supposed to be 
high caste Hindiis. They lean on 
dwarfs, intended for low caste men, 
but called by the Hindiis pishich, 
or demons. This Ling, then, is the 
principal object of popular worship. 
All the other figures in this exca- 
vated temple are to be considered 
merely as subsidiary to this, and might 
rather be compared to our historical 
frescoes in Europe than to anything 
else. At most they can but be con- 
sidered analogous to the pictures in 
churches in S. Europe, additional to 
the altar-piece, which receive a degree 
of homage far inferior to that reserved 
for the patron saint. 

Three-faced Bmt, or TrimurtL — The 
chief of the mural figures is the im- 
mense three-faced bust,-19 ft. in height, 
which faces the northern entrance. 
It is the representation of Shiva in 
his three-fold character of Brahmd, 
Vishnu, and Rudra. The Hindti notion 
of the deity is, that God is essentially 
one, but that, when the time for the 
renewal of the world arrives, he causes 
to emanate from his essence three 
impersonations of the divinity, one 
who creates, a second who preserves, 
and a third who destroys. The 
three-feced figure, then, called by 
the Hindiis a Trimurti, is intended to 
represent these three gods, who eman- 
ate from the one divinity, and still 
continue united in him. According 
to the system of Hindiiism followed 
in these sculptures, the eternal divin- 
ity is Shiva, in another system it is 
Vishnu, and in a third the principal 
goddess of the Hindiis. Shiva is some- 
times represented with five faces, and 
it has been surmised that this three- 
faced bust is intended to represent 
him in that form, one of the heads 
being hid behind, and another above ; 
but in those figures part of all the five 
faces are visible, four arranged round 
the head, and one peeping out from 
the crown before the knot of twisted 
hair. In the other figures, especially 
that of Brahmd, as carved in these 
caves, a portion of all the faces any 
being is supposed to have are always 
represented. We do not, then need 
to go to the Greek and Boman repre- 

l2 



148 



B<ynd)ay City, 



Sect. 11. 



sentations of the three-faced Hecate 
as preserved in ancient sculptures, 
for an illustration of the theory for 
which we contend, when we find it 
universally adopted by Hindii artists, 
and even in these very caves. The bust, 
then, represents a three-faced god. 

The central face — ^the one tiiat im- 
mediately fronts the spectator in this 
triple bust — ^is intended for Shiva in 
the character of Brahmd, the Creator. 
Brahm^, again, is, perhaps, the imper- 
sonation of the Brdhman caste, — the 
originator of the sacred rites of the 
Hindi^ Eemark the jewel on the 
breast, which is one of the finest speci- 
mens of Hindii taste extant. He is re- 
presented as an ascetic Brdhman, with 
his characteristic gourd in one hand, 
to serve for a drinking vessel. The 
face to the spectator's right, and to the 
-left of the bust, is Shiva in the form 
of Vi§hnu the Preserver ; he has here 
his uid^ailing mark, a full-blown lotus, 
in his right hand. To the right of the 
bust, again, or to the spectator's left, 
Shiva appears as Budra, t.^., the De- 
stroyer, which is generally considered 
to be his proper character. He is 
smiling on a cobra capeUa-, which is 
twisted round his arm, and with ex- 
panded hood looking him full in the 
face. A swelling on his forehead is 
liis third eye, from which is to burst 
the flame that will consume at last 
the world. Among the ornaments of 
his cap are a skull, a leaf of the 
nirgvdi, and a branch of the hilva 
tree, all peculiar characteristics of this 
god. The figures at the portals, 1 3 ft. 6 
and 12 ft. 9 high, are Hind^ door- 
keepers, and they lean, as before, on 
dwar&, called by the natives pish^ch, or 
demons, probably caricaturesof the rude 
aborigines or hill tribes of the country. 

ArddhandrUh/rtar, or Half Male Half 
Female Divinity, — In the first com- 
partment to the right of the central 
figure, or to the spectator's left, there is 
an exhibition of Shiva 16 ft. 9 high in 
his character of Arddhan^rishwar . The 
right half of the figure is intended to be 
that of a male, and the left that of a 
female, and thus to represent Shiva as 
uniting the two sexes in his one per- 
son. The first European visitors sup^ 



posed this figure to be intended for an 
Amazon, trajosferring the traditions of 
Greece to India. No such being is 
known, however, to Indian mythology, 
while such a manifestation of Shiva as 
we have mentioned is described in the 
Purdnas. The buU on which two of 
the hands of the figure lean, and on 
which it is supposed to ride, is called 
Nandi, a constant attendant on Shiva. 
Brahmd, on his lotus throne, supported 
by five swans, and with his four faces, 
is exhibited on the right of the figure. 
He has a portion of all these faces 
visible. On the left, Vishnu is seen 
riding on what is now a headless 
Garuda, a fabulous creature, half man 
half eagle. Above and in the back- 
ground are found a number of inferior 
gods and sages of the Hindi!is. Indra, 
king of the old gods — ^tfaose worshipped 
in ancient times — appears mounted 
on an elephant. 

Shiva and Parvati. — In the com- 
partment next on the left of the Ttn- 
murti are two gigantic figures of Shiva 
and PArvati, the former 16 ft. high, 
the latter 12 ft. 4 in. Shiva has a 
very carious cap, on which the crescent 
and other ornaments are sculptured, 
and from the top of which issues some- 
thing which looks like a foam-crested 
wave, from which arise three female 
heads, to represent the Gang4 Proper, 
the YamunA, and Saraswatf, which 
three streams unite at Praydg, or 
A114hAbAd, and form the Ganges. 
According to a well-known Hindii 
legend, the Ganges flowed from the 
head of Shiva. The god is standing, 
and has four arms, of which the outer 
left rests on a pishdchah, who seems 
to bend under the weight. Niebuhr 
mistook the twisted hair of this dwarf 
for a turban, whereas, as is worthy of 
remark, there is no such head-dress on 
any figure at Elephanta, and it is 
altogether ignored in ancient Hindii 
books. In the dwarfs right hand is a 
cobra, in his left a clmuiiri; from his 
neck hangs a necklace, the ornament 
of which is a tortoise. On Shiva's 
right are several attendants, and above 
them Brahmd, sculptured much as in 
the compartment on the right of the 
Trimurti. Between BrahmA and Shiva 



Sect. II. 



EUphanta. 



149 



is Indra on his elephant Airdvatah, 
which appears to be kneeling. Pik- 
vati leans slightly from left to right, 
towards Shiva, and is represented with 
very full breasts. Her left hand rests 
on a female jmM^7Wf, above whom is 
Vishnu on Gamda, with the sectarial 
mark and a snake tied like a neck- 
cloth. Above is a group of six figures, 
two of which are females. 

Marriage of Shiva and Pdrvati. — 
Proceeding still to the left of the 5H- 
murti, and in a westerly direction, the 
visitor comes to the compartment re- 
presenting Bhiva's marriage, as Pyke 
and Moor were the first to discover. 
Mr. Erskine, however, in mentioning 
iheir conjecture, adds, '^ though, from 
the most careful inspection of the 
sculpture, I can perceive nothing to 
favour the supposition." This remark 
from so learned an Orientalist, is the 
more singular, as the position of P^- 
vatt on the right of Shiva would alone 
go far to prove it to be the delineation 
of her bridal ; it being well known 
that to stand on the right of her 
husband, and to eat with him are 
privileges vouchsafed to a Hindii wife 
only on her wedding-day. In the 
comer, at the right of P^vati, is 
Brahmd, known by his four faces, 
sitting and reading the sacred texts 
suited to the occasion. Above, on 
Shiva's left, is Vishnu. Among the 
attendants on the right of Pirvatl is 
one bearing a vessel, supposed to be 
filled with sugar-plums, as is the cus- 
tom still in Bombay on such occasions. 
Behind the goddess is a priest, who is 
pushing her forward to overcome her 
bashfulness. 

Birth of Oanesliah, Shiva's eldest 
son, — In the corresponding compart- 
ment, to the east and right of the 
Trimurti, Shiva and Pdrvati are seated 
together, with groups of male and 
female inferior divinities showering 
down flowers from above, the rock 
being cut into various shapes to repre- 
sent the clouds of Kailds, Shiva's 
heaven. At Shiva's feet is the skeleton 
figure of Bhringi, one of his favourites ; 
and behind Pdrvati is a female with a 
child a-straddle on her left hip. This 
child, according to Sterenson^ is Yin^- 



yaka, or Ganesh, though Erskine su]^- 
poses it to be Ei^rtikej^. Beneath is 
Nandi and the tiger on which Pdr- 
vati rides, with Apishdcluih lifting up 
its leg. Two skeleton Ri^his, the one 
on the left holding a basket, may be 
remarked in the clouds. 

Mdvanah attempting to remove Xai^ 
Ids. — ^The visitor must now face com- 
pletely round, and look to the N. 
instead of the S., and, advancing a 
few paces, he wiU come in front of the 
sixth compartment, which is to the 
right of the eastern entrance. Here 
Rdvan, the demon king of Lankd, or 
Ceylon, is attempting to remove Kailds, 
the heavenly hill of Sliiva, to his own 
kingdom, in order that he may have 
his tutelary deity always with him, for 
Bdvan was ever a worshipper of Shi- 
va. Rdvan has ten heads and arms, 
and is with his back to the spectator. 
Shiva is seen in Kailds, with Pdrvati 
on his right, and votaries and Rishis 
in the background. On the left of 
Shiva, who is represented with eight 
arms, his third eye, and the crescent 
on his cap, is Vishnu on Garuda, Ga- 
nesh, and Bh]*ingi, and in the recess is 
the VdJiana^ or vehicle of Pdrvati, a 
tiger crouched on its paws. Two of 
Shiva's attendants, on opposite sides 
of the compartment, have the eye on 
the forehead, and one has a death's 
head on his cap, " for," says the Shiv- 
Gltd, "he who worships me disinte- 
restedly, by knowing me gains my 
form." The legend runs that Rdvan 
shook Kailds so much, that Pdrvati 
was alarmed, whereupon Shiva pressed 
down the hiU with one of his toes on 
the head of Rdvan, who remained im- 
movable for 10,000 years, till his grand- 
father, Pulasti, the son of Brahma, 
taught him how to propitiate Shiva, 
and thus effected his release. Rdvan 
afterwards ever remained a worshipper 
of Shiva. In this tale is depicted the 
devotion of the aboriginal races to the 
worship of the destroying god. 

Dakfkd's sacrifice destroyed. — The 
visitor must now cross over to the op- 
posite side, passing the Linga chapel, 
in order to arrive at the correspond- 
ing compartment on the W. to that 
just described on the E, Jlere ie 



150 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



represented the sacrifice of Dak^ha, a 
legend very famous in Hindii mytho- 
logy, which is twice depicted at Eliira, 
and more than once at the Amboll 
caves in Salsette. Daik^ha, a son of 
Brahmd, bom from the thumb of his 
right hand for the purpose of peopling 
the world, had 60 daughters, of whom 
27 are the nymphs of the lunar aster- 
isms. Another of them, named Satl 
or Duigd, married Shiva, and 17 were 
maiTied to Kasyapa, and were the 
mothers of all created beings. On one 
occasion, Daksha began a sacrifice ac- 
cording to the ancient Vaidik ritual, 
and as the gods of the Vedas alone 
were invited, Shiva and his wife were 
not asked to attend. Satl went, never- 
theless, unbid, and being badly re- 
ceived, threw herself into the fire, 
whereupon Shiva made his appear- 
ance in his most terrific form as Vim 
Bhadra, which manifestation of the 
god here forms the principal figure of 
the tableau. He dispersed the gods 
and other attendants of the sacrifice, 
and seizing Daksha with one hand, 
decapitated him with another, while 
in a third he held a cup, into which 
spouted the blood. The head was 
hacked to pieces ; but when Shiva's 
wrath was appeased, he put the head 
of a ram on Daksha's body, thus keep- 
ing him ever in mind of the power of 
his decapitator. Vlra Bhadra has here 
eight arms, three of which are occu- 
pied in slaughtering Daksha, two are 
stretched up, and tlu^e are broken off. 
The face of the god is distorted with 
rage, long tusks project on either side 
of his mouth, and a necklace of human 
heads passes over his left shoulder and 
thigh, and returns by his right thigh. 
On the right of V&a Bhadra is an 
elephant, around are the gods in atti- 
tudes expressive of fear, and above are 
ten figures, two of which are children. 
They are seated in devotion round a 
curious bottle-shaped figure, which is 
the Lingam, or Phallus, and is exactly 
over the head of Vlra Bhadra. On it 
is a curious character, which Erskine 
and Stevenson suppose to be the mys- 
tic 0-m^ a monosyllable which contains 
letters from the names of Mahddeo, 
Yishnn, nn:l Brahma. T^e whole gro^p 



refers to the contest between the fol- 
lowers of the ancient Hindil ritual and 
the worshippers of Shiva, which latter 
prevailed. 

Bluiirava, — ^Advancing to the en- 
trance of the cave, and still on the 
same side, the visitor comes to another 
compartment. Here Shiva appears in 
his terrific form of Bhairava, which he 
assumed to outdo the incarnation of 
Vishnu as Narsinha, the man-lion. 
Above is a very perfect Ganesh ^vith 
elephant head. Bhairava has eight 
arms, which are all broken but one. 
Beneath is Bhfingi with his skeleton 
form, and on the right is an attendant 
with the crescent on his cap, and a 
skull, from the right eye of which a 
eohra issues. The appearance of con- 
flict is avoided, perhaps in deference 
to the numerous worshippers of Vishnu. 

Shiva as an Anoetic, — If the visitor 
now turns and advances a little, he 
will come in front of the last group, 
which is to the left of the grand en- 
trance. Here Shiva appears as a Yogi, 
and the figure so much resembles 
Buddha, that many describers of the 
cave before Erskine thought it to be 
that personage. The figure has the 
remains of two arms, which appear to 
have rested on his lap. It is seated on 
a lotus, the stalk of which is supported 
by two figures below. The Brdhmans 
detest Buddhism, so it is hardly pos- 
sible that this can be a figure of the 
genuine Buddh; but perhaps it is 
Shiva under the form of Buddh, for 
there appears to have been some at- 
tempt to reconcile the two religions. 
At the two wings of the Eltira Caves 
are Buddhistic excavations, a fact 
which favors the supposition of an at- 
tempt to unite the creeds. 

So, too, Vishnu is said to have be- 
come incarnate in Buddh, to deceive 
mankind. Brahmd is seen on the right 
of the principal figure, and Vishnu, on 
Garuda, on the left. There is also a 
figure riding on an animal, which 
Erskine conjectures to be a horse. It 
has lost the head, but has a saddle, 
saddle cloth, and girth, like those used 
in Europe. If it be a horse, it is 
unique in these sculptures. 

SuppUinentartj Mvca^athm, — Oppo ^ 



Sect 11. 



ElepJiaiUa, 



151 



site the Xing chapel first described 
m the face of the hill to the W., 
is a small excavation dedicated to 
Ganeshy who is seate<l at the S. ex- 
tremity with a company of Shiva's 
attendants. At the £. opening is 
a stair with a few steps, on either 
side of which is a sculptured lion, 
leading to a small Ling chapel, in 
which are no figures. Round the hill, 
a little to the S., are two other ex- 
cavations fronting the £. These are 
also Ling chapels, with DwdrpdU 
sculptured outside. On a hill opposite 
to the Great Cave, an excavation has 
been commenced, but without much 
progress having been made. Diogo 
de Couto, the Portuguese annalist, in 
his 8th Decade, Book iii., chap, xi., 
mentions that "a famous stone over 
the gate (of the Pagoda, as he calls 
the cave of Elephanta), which had an 
inscription of large and well- written 
characters, was sent to the King D. 
John IIL," and that it was lost in 
Portugal. He also asserts that, in 
another hill towards the E. of the 
great Pagoda, there was another Pa- 
goda, which had " a marble porch very 
curiously executed," as also another in 
the same hill as the great Pagoda, 
** about two stone throws to the E.," 
*• the most stupendous work of its 
size." He adds, that these Pagodas 
were constructed by a King of Ka- 
iiada, named Bandsur, and that the 
Portuguese soldiers did all in their 
power to destroy them. 

Dr. Wilson traces a resemblance be- 
tween some of the compartments at 
Elephanta and those at Elilira, particu- 
lai'ly in that which represents the 
marriage of Shiva and Pdrvati, and 
considers the Elephanta cave as of 
later construction than that at Eliira. 
He adds that the image of Devi, in 
the form of a tiger, on the hill above 
the caves, which is called Unid- Wdgesh' 
fearif is mentioned in the 29th chap, 
of the 1st sec. of the Sahyddrl Khwiid 
of tlie Skanda Purdna, In 1851, a 
subscription of 2000 Rs. having been 
raised at Bombay, the earth was cleared 
from the front of the N. aisle, when 
two remarkably well-executed leogrififa 
of porphyritic basalt were discovered. 



Their counterpart may be seen in the 
*' DhiimAr or Dumar Ijend " at Eliira, 
and the reddish basalt of which they 
are formed is not found at Elephanta, 
but is of the same material as that of 
which the temple of Ahalyi B41, at 
the village of Eliira, has been built. 
In a notice of these caves one is natu- 
rally reminded of Goethe's lines :— 

Auch diese will ich nicht verschonen. 
Die tollen Hdhlexcavationen, 
DaB dUiitere Troglodytengewtlhl, 
Mit Schnauz' und Rttsael ein albem Spiel 
Verriickte Zierath brauerei, 
Es ist eine saubere Baaerei. 
Nehme sie Nleiuand zum Exempel, 
Die Elephanten— und Fratzen— Terapel ! 
Mit heifigen Gi-illen trieben sie Spott, 
Man fUhlt weder Natur noch Gott — 
In Indien niocht 'ich aelber leben, 
Hiitt' es nur keine Steinlmuer gegeben. 

Mr. Burgess' account, which is the 
best, was published in Bombay, 1871. 
There are 5 caves in another part of 
the island, but the great cave alone is 
much visited. It is in the W. hill, 
250 ft. above high water level. It is 
hewn out of a hard compact trap rock, 
which has also been cut away on either 
side, affording entrances from the E. 
and W. It bears a strong resemblance 
in size, plan, and detail to the Dhii- 
mar Len4 at Elilira. The entrance 
faces the N., and over it is a mass of 
rock overhung by trees and shrubs. 
The view from the front of the caves, 
says Mr. Burgess, is one of exceeding 
beauty. "Any true lover of Nature 
will feel himself amply rewarded for 
his trouble by the magnificent views 
to be here enjoyed." From the front 
entrance to the back the cave measures 
130 ft., and its length from E. to W. 
is the same. The portions on the 3 
open sides are 54 ft. long and 16^ ft. 
deep ; omitting these and the back 
aisle, the body of the cave is a square 
of 91 ft., supported by 6 rows of 
columns with 6 columns in a row. The 
columns are very massive, and were 
26 in number, with 16 half columns ; 
but 8 of the separate pillars have 
perished, and others are much injured. 
Neither the floor nor the roof is quite 
level, so the columns vary from 7 ft, 
to 15 ft. in height. The principal ar- 
chitectural feature of the caves is 
the pillars, Mr. Burgess has given a 



152 



Bombay City. 



Sect. II. 



drawlDg of one of the columns, and 
thus describes it : — " First, a square 
shaft, about 3 ft. 4 in. each way, rising 
to nearly half the total height or 8 ft., 
the upper 16 inches of which is bound 
about, as it were, by a band of very 
slight projection; the next 2 inches 
is octagonal, and on the shoulders thus 
formed, on all the columns within the 
square of the temple, and on those 
.of the W. porch, mt male figures of 
Qat}esha or some other d^a. Above 
this 7 in. have shallow flutes, 32 in. 
in the circumference, and the next 6 in. 
in height is octagonal. From this 
springs the fluted neck of the column, 
3 ft. in length, and diminishing from 
3 ft. 1 in. to 2 ft. 9 in., the flutes end- 
ing in projecting cusps under a thin 
beaded torus, and over this a second 
line of cusps project and curve out- 
wards under a thin fillet. On this 
again rests the compressed cushion- 
shaped capital, 1 ft. 9^ in. thick, and 
projecting about 16 in. beyond the 
face of the pillar ; the middle of this 
capital is bound by a narrow flat band 
breaking its 64 flutes. Above is a 
circular neck 3 in. deep, and then a 
square plinth of the same width as the 
base, and about 8 in. deep. This last 
and the abacus or bracket it supports 
are plainly enough imitations of wooden 
details. The bracket slopes away up- 
wards on each side to the architrave 
in a series of fanciful scrolls, divided or 
connected by aband over their middle." 
(Bock Temples of Elephanta, p. 5.) 

Hydraulic Dock, — From Elephanta 
to the Hydraulic Lift Dock at Hog 
Island is IJ m. Hog Island is in re- 
ality joined to the main land by 
swampy ground. Here Captain She- 
rard Osborne proposed to bring the 
G. I. P. Railway from Fund, and pas- 
sengers and goods were to be landed 
in Bombay by a steam ferry. The 
object was to save the circuit by Kal- 
y6ii. There is deep water, about 8 
fathoms, close to the Dock. Water is 
forced by steam power into the hy- 
draulic pillars, and this lifts the girder. 
There are 36 pillars and 72 lifts. The 
pressure on a cubic inch is 1 ton 3 cwt 
Altogether, 23,000 tons can be lifted. 
There are sluices in the pontoon by 



which the water is let out rapidly. 
The length of the pontoon is 380 ft., 
inside measurement, and the breadth 
86 ft. The pontoon weighs 1600 tons. 
The engine is of ISO-horse power. The 
pipes of the engine are covered with 
Gilroy's patent coating, which is a 
non-conductor. The Lift Dock was 
constructed in 1868, by Mr. Edwin 
Clark, and the cost was £350,000, and 
the money expended has been, up to 
the present time, uselessly thrown away. 
Hence to Thdn^ is 16 m., and the trip 
may be made by water, and at fuU 
moon in fine weather the distance can 
be crossed most agreeably. 

Yih6,r Lake is 15 m. from Bombay, 
and the journey can be made in a car- 
riage, or the traveller may go by the 
G. L P. Railway to Bhdndiip, 16f m., 
leaving Bombay at 8.30 A.M. and reach- 
ing Bhdndi:ip at 9.33 A.M. At Bh&ndilip 
he must take care to have a pony 
ready, and he can canter to the Lake 
in J an hour. He will turn to the 
right after leaving Bhtodi!ip at a sign- 
post, which is marked 3 m. to Paw^. 
This Paw^ is a village belonging to a 
P^lrsf , on the ground around which are 
16,000 mango trees, which bring in 
from \\ Rs. to 2 Rs. yearly. The estate 
however has been the subject of a law- 
suit, and is in much disoixler ; and the 
jungle is very thick after leaving PAwe 
a m. or so. From the gateway called 
the Darwdzah of Paw^, it is 2 m. to 
the lake, part of which is along a steep 
height, and in one place is a chasm 
with only just room for the bullocks 
of a native gd^i to pass. On reaching 
the lake you cross an embankment 
800 ft. long; you then come to the 
outhouses where the labourers lodge ; 
and beyond that is a curious embank- 
ment about 200 ft. long. The great 
embankment is 30 ft. broad and 30 ft. 
above the water, to which it slopes 
down. The water is 75 ft. deep, of 
which 50 ft. are available for the sup- 
ply of Bombay and 25 ft. are kept for 
settling f that is, for allowing the mud 
to be deposited. Fish are numerous, 
particularly singara or "cat-fish.** 
There are also many conger-eels, which 
grow to 8 or 9 ft. long. At the end 
of the embankment there is a notice 



Sect. II. 



Montpezir Caves. 



153 



that after March, 1875, no person is to 
enter the Municipal bangli without 
showing a permission from the exe- 
cntive engineer of the municipality. 
The lake is 2f m. long from N. to S., and 
2 J m. broad from E. to W. A delicious 
cool breeze blows over the lake from 
the N. It is however a dreadful 
place for fever, and out of 76 labourers 
all but 10 died in a few months. 
There are many teal on the lake, but 
it is very difficult to get within shot of 
them, unless it be in the very early 
morning. Tigers are scarce now, but 
many have been killed there. One 
that was shot by Mr. Robertson, C.S., 
had killed 16 persons. The lake covers 
1400 acres, and was made by Mr. 
Conybeare, C.E., by damming up the 
Garptir river. It cost £373,660, and 
can supply eight million gallons of 
water a day. As fears had been en- 
tertained of a scarcity of water should 
the supply of rain in any year be un- 
usually small, it was determined to 
clam up the Tulsi Lake also, which 
lies to the N. This was done in 1872, 
at a cost of £40,000, and a pipe has been 
carried tlience to the top of Malabar HUl. 
Montpezir Caret. — These caves, 
properly Mandapethwar, are so near 
to the K&nhari Caves that it will 
be well to take them in the morn- 
ing and the Kdnharl Caves in the 
afternoon. The traveller will go to 
the Grant Boad Station and start by 
the 7.16 AM. train, local time, for Bor- 
wali Station, 224 ^^ which he will 
reach about 8.30 A.M. He will be care- 
ful to write beforehand to the station- 
master to have 6 Kulls ready for him 
to carry a chair resting on bambi!is, in 
which he will sit, and it would be 
better to have 1 Kuli to carry his tiffin- 
basket. . He will take an umbrella 
with a thickly padded white cover, as 
the sun is very hot even in the winter 
months. If he would prefer to ride, 
he must write beforehand to the sta- 
tion-master for a pony. There is a 
good clean waiting-room at Borwall. 
After leaving the station, proceeding 
N., the road turns off, at about 200 
yds., into the fields to the left. Deep 
ruts make it rather difficult for the 
bearers. In about an hour he will 



reach a ruined Portuguese church, 
which is roofless, but is substantially 
built, chiefly of stone. The nave is 
100 ft. long from the portal to the 
steps of the altar, and 17 ft. more from 
the steps to the rock against which the 
E. side is built, and 34 ft. broad. There 
are no aisles. The arch in front of the 
altar is now 30 ft. high, and when the 
roof existed must have been about 
45 ft. W. of the church, at a distance 
of 182 ft., is a cross, inscribed at top 
with I. N. R. I., which stands for Jesus 
Nazareus Rex Judeae. Turning round 
the comer of the church to the N.E. 
and descending a little, you come to 3 
caves hewn out of the rock, which, 
judging from the pillars, may be of the 
9th century. The cave on the E. is 
57 ft. 8 in. from N. to S., and 18J ft. 
from E. to W. There is no carving in- 
side, but there are 2 pillars in the 
f a9ade shaped somewhat like the Ionic. 
Adjoining this cave to the W. is a stone 
basin for water, of which there is a 
good supply, said never to fail, and this 
may be one reason why the Portuguese 
built here. The cave which adjoins is 
27 ft. 3 in. from E. to W., and 14 ft. 
9 in. from N. to S. In the W. wall is 
a group of figures very much muti- 
lated. The principal figure has 4 arms, 
and is said to be Bhim, but is probably 
Shiva, with 26 Ganas. In the comer 
of the outside wall is half a door of the 
church, of teak, with 2 saints carved on 
it. The 3rd or W. cave is to the N. of 
the other 2, and is 49 ft. 7 in. from N. 
to S., and 57 ft. 2 in. from E. to W. 
At the N. end is a partition with pil- 
lars leading to 3 cells, and to the W. 
are also similar partitions with cells. 
This cave was converted into a chapel 
in A.D. 1555. The stone on which the 
date is inscribed was originally over 
the entrance door, but has been re- 
moved and stuck in the N. part of the 
E. wall, upside down. The inscription 



IS,— 



Esta Ecclesia fabrico no anno 
Mil quinientoa ciDcueute cinco. 

At the S. end of the chapel is a figure 
of the Virgin, and W. of it a confes- 
sional, on which some recent visitors 
have scrawled their names. The chapel 
is kept locked, but the key can be ob- 



154 



Bombay City. 



Seet» !!• 



tamed from the priest, who lives J of 
a m. off. On the W. side of this cave 
are 4 pillars and 2 pilasters. The pe- 
destal of one of the pilasters appears 
to liave been painted. The pillars have 
a taperinj? shaft and an anj^ular capital, 
which reaches the ceiling, and they and 
the room are 12 ft. 2 in. high. This 
cave was probably a VihAra cave in 
which 10 or 12 hermits lived. At 200 
vds. to the S., on an eminence 80 ft. 
high, is a round tower, which the priest 
says was a Calvarium. It is 40 ft. high, 
and has a place for a bell at the top. 
In the lower part are rooms, now 
choked with rubbish and bushes, and 
the tower itself is surrounded by such 
a thicket as makes it difficult to 
reach. The staircase is on the out- 
side, and in places there are apparently 
embrasures for guns. The people about 
say it was used as a tower of defence. 
There is a good view from the top over 
the plain, and about 3 m. off to the E. 
is the hill in which are the KAnhari 
C'aves. There is a platform at about 
25 ft. from the ground, on aline with the 
entrance into a room 14^ ft. diameter, 
which forms the top of the tower. 

T/w Cave Templeg of Kdnh-ari {Kan- 
narl or Ketierif). — These caves are all 
excavated in the face of a single hill 
in the centre of the island, and about 
5 m. from the traveller's bangld at 
Thand, which is situate to the N. of the 
town. Thand is on the E. coast of the 
island, opposite the main land, and the 
caves lie due W. of it. There are 109 of 
them ; but though more numerous, they 
are pronounced by Mr. Fergusson * to be 
much less interesting than those at 
Ajanta, Eliir (Ellora), or KArli. The 
same authority considers this series of 
caves to be •' one of the most modem 
of the Buddhist series in India, and 
that the greater part of them were 
executed by a colony of Buddhists, 
who may have taken refuge here after 
being expelled from the continent, and 
who tried to reproduce the lost Kdi'li 
in their insular retreat." He ranks 
them as follows : — " Those in the ra- 
vine, in the 4th and 5th century A.D. ; 
those on the S, side, under the brow 



of the hill, with those on each side of 
the great cave, a century later ; then 
the great cave ; and lastly, the un- 
finished one, which is the first the tra- 
veller approaches by the usual route, 
and which dates about the 9th or lOtb. 
century A.D., or is even still more re- 
cent." Heber conjectures that the 
Kdnhori caves are older than those of 
Elephanta, to which he is **not dis- 
posed to assign any great degree of 
antiquity ; " but Caunter ♦ speaks of 
"sixteen or eighteen hundred years, 
the latest probable date aflsigned even 
by Bishop Heber himself to these ex- 
cavations." However this may be, it 
is at least certain, to use Heber's 
words, "the beautiful situation of these 
caves, their elaborate carving, and 
their marked connection with Buddk 
and his religion, render them every 
way remarkable." 

A good account of the Kanhari caves 
is given by Salt, p. 47, vol. i., Transac- 
tions of the Literary Society of Bombay y 
which is here followed, corrected by Mr. 
Burgess's account in " Cave Temples of 
India" just published. This writer 
speaks of there being no regular road to 
them, and of its being requisite to clear a 
way to them thi*ough the jungle, the 
whole of the part of the island where 
they lie being covered with a thick and 
almost impenetrable jungle. Most of 
this jungle, however, has now disap- 
peared. The path is naiTow, and winds 
along the sides of rocks, but it is 
quite possible to proceed along it in. 
pdlkls or on horseback. Most of the 
surrounding hills are covered with, 
jungle, but the one in which are the 
caves is nearly bare, its summit being 
formed by one large rounded mass of 
compact rock, under which a softer 
stratum has been washed out by the 
rains, forming natural caves, which, 
slightly improved by art, were appro- 
priated as cells. The road which 
ascends the hiU leads to a platform in 
front of the great ai'ched cave, where 
are several mounds of masomy. The 
largest of them was opened by Dr. 
Bird, and many relics and inscriptions 
on copper were foimd. This is the first 



r- (( 



RofU-Piit Tei]ij»les of India," p, 34. 



" Oriental Animal," p, 373, 



Sect IL 



The Cave Temples of Kdnlmri, 



155 



stage of ascent to the caves, which con- 
sist of six stories, on the ledges of the 
mountains, connected witli each other 
hj footsteps cut in the rock. The 
ascent is gradual until withm a few 
hundred yards of the southernmost, 
when the path becomes steep and 
ragged, and so closely shaded with 
shrubs and lofty trees as to conceal 
every appearance of the caves until 
actually in front of them. This gives 
a striking effect to the first which 
comes in view. Two massive columns, 
of the same order as those at Ele- 
phanta, support a plain solid entabla- 
ture, above which an oblong square is 
hollowed out. Within are two ante- 
rooms, each about 35 ft. broad and 
12 ft. deep ; and beyond, an unfinished 
chamber 26 ft. deep. Thei front screen 
has three doors, and three windows 
over them, and the partition between 
the second ante-room and the inner 
chamber has likewise three doors, and 
over the centre one a large open arch, 
rising nearly to the roof. Salt thinks 
that the workmen began this cave 
from the top, and worked downwards. 
There are here no figures or carvings, 
and the details are of little interest. 
Fergusson supposes it to be the latest ex- 
cavation in the hill, and to date in the 
9th or 10th century A.D., or even later. 
From this a viliAra^ consisting of a 
long irr^ular verandah with cells at 
the back, extends in a direction from 
south-west to north-east to the great 
cave, from which it is divided by a 
partition, so thin that it has been 
broken through by some accident. It 
contains, and this is the chief point of 
interest, two sanctuaries, in which are 
dahgopas^ or solid masses of stone or 
earth, in the form of a cupola. The 
most southern of these stands in a 
recess, the thi'ee sides of which are di- 
vided into panels, on which are carved 
one, two, or more figures of Buddha 
and of Bodhisatwas in various atti- 
tudes. Behind the northern dahgopa 
Buddha is represented on a lion-throne, 
which rests on a lotus, whose stalk is 
supported by two boys with hoods like 
that of the cobra. From the main 
stem spring two othera, on which are 
two youths with the fans called clmuri^ 



and one with a lotus-head in his hand. 
Above are two flying figures, and two 
of priests below, and a group is thus 
formed, the fac-simile of which is seen 
at K4rli and Ajayanti (Ajunta). One 
of the dahgopas was opened by Dr. 
Bird, but no relics were found. In 
digging round the foundation, how- 
ever, a small earthen pot was dis- 
covered, in which was a bi-ass serpent 
and an image of Buddha of baked 
earth, inscribed with very minute cha- 
racters. 

The Great Cliaitya 6lif«.— Joining 
this verandah, in the manner just men- 
tioned, is the Greut Clmitya Caccy 
which resembles the great cave at 
K^rli ; but it is here even still more 
evident that the centre at least must 
have been roofed, though the roof 
could not have extended to the ends, 
for then it would have cut across the 
figures of Buddh, 23 ft. high, which oc- 
cupy both extremities. On the jamb 
of the entrance to the verandah is an 
inscription of Gautamiputra II., in 
the 4th centurv A.D. The dimeu- 
sions of the interior are somewhat less 
than those of Karli, the length being 
86 ft. 6 in., breadth 39 ft. 10 in. ; the 
length and breadth of the nave, 74 ft. 
2 in. and 39 ft. 10 in. ; but in front of 
the cave itself is a poi*tal, and after 
that a vestibule. In going fi-om the 
verandah to the Great CavCy you pass a 
small tank. An ascent of five steps leads 
to the portal, which was once arched 
or much higher than at present, as is 
proved by the broken figures on either 
side. The portal opens into a court, in 
which are two lofty columns, that on 
the right surmounted by 4 lions 
couchant. Its pedestal is cut into 
panels and supports an image of Bud- 
dha, whose head is canopied by five 
heads of the hooded snake. The left 
column has 3 dwarf figures on the top, 
which once, perhaps, supported awheel. 
The whole space at the further end of 
the portico is occupied by the front face 
of the cave, which is divided by plain 
columns into three square portials be- 
neath and five open windows above, 
beyond which is the vestibule. On the 
right and left of the vestibule, in re- 
cesses, arc gigantic statues of Buddlia, 



156 



Bombay City. 



Sect* II. 



23 ft. high. On the leg of the left- 
hand image are a cross and an inscrip- 
tion in Boman letters, which, accord- 
ing to Dr. Bird, is shown to be more 
ancient than the times of the Portu- 
guese by the -Slthiopic or Arabic term, 
Abuk^ "the father," and which, ac- 
companied by the date 78, with a re- 
semblance of the cross, and the letters 
for Kal Buddha^ Buddha Sakya^ may 
indicate its connection with primitive 
Christianity, whose spurious doctrines, 
introduced into India, are supposed by 
Wilford to have given rise to the aera 
of Sh^livdhana, which dates 78 years 
after Christ. The court is parted by a 
screen, over which was once a music 
gallery, from a vestibule. The interior 
temple again is parted from the vesti- 
bule by a second screen, the figures of 
which are only remarkable for their 
miserable execution. Indeed, all the 
carving and the general execution of 
this cave are declared by Fergusson to 
be most slovenly. The pillars that sur- 
round the nave are of the same order 
as those at Kdrll, but much inferior 
in execution. fcJix on one side and 
eleven on the other have capitals orna- 
mented with figures of elephants pour- 
ing water from jars on the sacred bo- 
tree or on dahgopas, and boys with 
snake heads are also introduced. The 
remaining fifteen columns are finished 
as plain octagons. These columns 
stand at about 5 ft. distance from the 
sides of the cave, and thus form a 
narrow aisle on each side of the nave, 
which terminates in a semicircle ; and 
at this end is a dahgopa 49 ft. in cir- 
cumference. 

Mr. Fergusson is of opinion that this 
great Chaitya Cave was excavated after 
the vihdra, and that the three dahgo- 
pas existing at its threshold are more 
ancient than the cave itself. As the spot 
had been regarded as sacred, owing to 
them, some devotee, he thinks, deter- 
mined on excavating a great temple 
behind and between them. There 
being, however, but thirty feet be- 
tween them, the court in front of the 
great cave could only be made of that 
width, while the great cave itself, in 
the rear of them, swells to 40 ft. This 
way of accounting for dimensions that 



are contraiy to all rules of architec- 
ture, seems preferable to Mr. Salt's 
supposition, that the form of the hill 
occasioned such a plan of construction. 

The Barhdr Chve, — Proceeding a 
little to the N.E. from the cave just 
described, and turning to the right, 
round an angle of the rock, is a long 
winding ascent by steps cut in the 
rock, leading to many smaller caves 
in a ravine, through which a strong 
mountain torrent pours in the rainy 
season. There are ranges of caves at 
different heights on ^th sides the 
ravine, communicating by steps with 
one another, and above are the re- 
mains of a dam erected across the 
ravine, by which a capacious reser- 
voir was once formed. The first cave 
on the right hand is the so-called 
Darh&r Cdve^ or " Cave of Audience," 
the finest vih^bra of the series, and the 
only one that can compete in size with 
those at Ajayanti. It is 96 ft. 6 in. 
long, and 42 ft. 3 in. deep, exclusive of 
the cells. The colonnade goes round 
only tliree sides, and the sanctuary 
occupies one intercolunmiation of the 
inner range. It is scarce 9 ft. high, and 
therefore too low for its other dimen- 
sions. The pillars and plan are similar 
to those of the Viswakarma at EUora. 
The verandah has a range of eight 
plain octagon piUars, with pilasters. 
Below is another cave, which gives to 
the DarbAr Cave the appearance of 
having two stories. Immediately op- 
posite is a vast excavation, in which 
are a few fragments of columns hang- 
ing to the roof. 

Up;per Caves, — ^Ascending still higher 
from the platform of the Great Cave, 
the traveller comes to 20 or 30 exca- 
vations, containing nothing of note. 
Above these again is another series of 
mhdraSj of which three are very in- 
teresting, their walls being entirely 
covered with figures, finely executed. 
The general design is Buddha seated 
on a lotus. Bemains of plaster and 
painting are seen here and there. Mr. 
Fergusson remarks on the peculiar 
head-dress of the principal figure in 
some of the groups, which he had not 
noticed elsewhere, and observes, also, 
that this figure is attended by two 



Sect. IL 



The Gave Temples of Kdhhart 



157 



female fignres, whereas the tme Bud- 
dha is always attended by men. On 
the east side of the hill is a broad, long, 
and level terrace, commanding a very 
fine view of the surrounding country. 

The inscriptions at Kduhari have 
been translated and explained to some 
extent, and Mrith much learning, by 
the Rev. Dr. J. Stevenson in the 
"Journal of the Bombay Asiatic So- 
ciety," vol. v., No. XVIIL, Art. I., 
for July, 1853. In Bird's " Caves of 
Western India," also will be found 
some translations furnished to the 
author by persons acquainted with 
Sanskrit ; but the most valuable part 
of the work lajst named is the notice 
of discoveries made on opening the 
dahgopas, etc. The following passage 
refers to a discovery of great impor- 
tance made by Dr. Bird : — 

"The tope at KAnhari (Kanari) 
which was opened by me in 1839, ap- 
peared to have been originally twelve 
or sixteen feet in height, and of a 
pyramidal shape ; but being much 
dilapidated, formed exteriorly a heap 
of stones and rubbish. The largest of 
several, being selected for examina- 
tion, was penetrated from above to 
the base, which was built of cut stone. 
After digging to a level with the 
ground and clearing away the loose 
materials, the workmen came to a 
circular stone, hollow in the centre 
and covered at the top by a piece of 
gypsum. This contained two small 
copper urns, in one of which were a 
ruby, a pearl, and small piece of gold 
mixed with ashes. In this urn there 
was also a smaU gold box, containing 
a piece of cloth, and in the other, ashes 
and a silver box were found. Outside 
the circular stone there were two 
copper plates, on which were legible 
inscriptions in the Lath or Cave cha- 
racter. The smaller of the plates had 
two lines of writing in a character 
similar to that met with at the en- 
trance of the Ajanta caves ; the larger 
one was inscribed with letters of an 
earlier date. The last part of the first- 
mentioned inscription contained . the 
Buddhist creed, as found on the base 
of the Bauddha image from Tirhut, 
and on the stone taken from the tope 



of Samdthj near Banai'as ; an excel- 
lent commentary on which will be 
found in Mr. Prinsep's journal for 
March and April, 1835. The original 
of the Kinhari (Kanari) inscription 
reads, 

" ' Ye dharma hetu prabhava 
hetuii, tesh^n Tathagata hyavadat 
— t^hAncha yo nirodha evam vAdi 
Maha Shramana.' 

" And may be translated, 

" * Whatever meritorious acts pro- 
ceed from cause, of these the source 
Tathagata (Buddha) has declared ; 
the opposing principle of these, the 
great one of golden origin has also 
demonstrated.' 

" This discovery at KAnhari of the 
Buddhist confessio Jldci establishes the 
Buddha origin of the cave temples of 
Western India." 

The most curious fact of all con- 
nected with KAnhari is the existence 
there in ancient times of a tooth of 
Buddha. The cave over which in- 
scription VII. of those mentioned by 
Stevenson is engraved, is called SAka- 
datya-lena, the *' Buddha-tooth Cave," 
probably because the relic was there 
temporarily deposited, while the tope, 
there compared to the pole of the 
heavens, in which it was finally 
lodged, was being prepared. The 
final lodgment (says Dr. Stevenson) 
of the tooth was doubtless in the tope 
opened by Dr. Bird, opposite the great 
temple cave, as appears from the im- 
portant copper-plate inscription, of 
which there is a fac-simile in his 
work. At the foot of this inscription, 
in very large letters, is written 
DAdhA, " Canine tooth." There was 
no tooth among the valuables brought 
to light by Dr. Bird ; but Dr. Steven- 
son thinks there was a secret door or 
passage to the adytum in which it 
was contained, for a plate, in a cha- 
racter more modern than that above 
referred to by five or six centuries, 
was found with it in the same mound. 
The same authority therefore supposes 
that when Buddhists began to be per- 
secuted in India, their priests con- 
veyed the tooth to a place of safety, 
and he is even of opinion, " that it is 
not beyond the bounds of probability 



158 



Bombay City. 



Sect IL 



that the Ceylonese tooth, said to have 
)>een brought from the other side of 
India, A.D. 810, may be the identical 
Kdnhari relic." 

Besides the name of ChAnakya, the 
Kanhari inscriptions record that of 
Buddaghosha, who is claimed by the 
inhabitants of Siam and Barmah as 
their apostle, and who, the Ceylonese 
affirm, translated into PAli or com- 
piled the AtthakathA or commentary 
on the sayings of Buddha. There are 
also the names of Gautamiputra and 
Yadnya Shrl-Sdt-Kami, two famous 
sovereigns of the Andhra dynasty 
mentioned by Pliny, and perhaps that 
of a third, Balin, first sovereign of the 
race. Lastly, there has been the 
name, now obliterated, of one of the 
MahAkshatrapas, kings, who in the 
beginning of the Christian era reigned 
over the country on the Indus and 
GujarAt, at first as satraps of the Bac- 
trian or Parthian monarchs, but after- 
wards as independent princes. Di*. 
Stevenson thinks that in Dltannka- 
Kata, who is mentioned in No. 7 in- 
scription as an artist, and in No. 11 
of Bird's Kdrleii inscriptions as a 
Yavan or Greek, we have the name of 
the principal architect of the excava- 
tions, whose Greek name was Xeno- 
crates. The whole subject is worthy 
the study of orientalists and the con- 
tinued research of travellers. 

Mr. Salt remarks that "there is, 
perhaps, no spot in the world where 
the catholic and heathen imagery 
come so closely in contact as here." 

Magathana Caves. — Two miles south 
by east from Montpczir are the caves 
of Magathana, which are) in a most 
decayed state, and the entrance over- 
grown with thick bushes. It seems 
doubtful whether it would be worth any 
traveller's while to explore them, a task 
from which Mr. Salt excused himself. 

Jogeslirvar Cave. — Six miles to the 
south of Magathana Caves is that of 
Jogeshwar. which is two miles N.E. 
of the village of Jogeshwar, and this 
again is eight miles to the N. of 
Mahim, the town at the N.W. point 
of the island of Bombay. The W. en- 
trance is that now used ; but the de- 
corations on the E. side are more 



carefully executed, and the prin- 
cipal entrance was probably there. 
Over the sloping path that leads to 
the W. entrance, a natural arch is 
formed by the branches of a banyan 
tree, which, shooting across, have 
taken root on the other side, and 
render the approach singulai'ly pic- 
turesque. Eight steps lead down to 
a small ante-room, in which the figures 
are greatly decayed. A door leads into 
the great cave, and above this are two 
figures in the attitude in which Bdmah 
and Sitd are often represented. The 
great cave is 120 feet square, and 18 
feet from the door are 20 pillars of the 
same order as at Elephanta, forming 
an inner square. Within, there is a 
chamber 24 feet square, with doors 
corresponding to each other on the 
four sides. This is a temple sacred 
to Mahddeo. On the walls are the 
vestiges of many figures. Over the 
door at the east entrance is a curious 
design of a monster, with the mouth 
of a hippopotamus, trunk of an ele- 
phant, and a dragon's tail, which 
appears to vomit forth a sculptured 
group, representing Kdmah and Sita, 
supported by RAvan. From this en- 
trance two vestibules lead to three 
doorways, which again open into the 
great cave. Over the doorways are 
some curious designs, as, c.g.^ over the 
centre one a figure resembling Buddha, 
and on one side a hero leaning on a 
dwarf, who grasps in his hands two 
enormous snakes that are closely 
twined round his body. Adjoining 
the principal cave are several vihdras. 
The whole locality used to be much 
infested by tigers, and Mr. Salt saw 
the footprints of many of these ani- 
mals. Mr. Burgess thinks the date of 
this cave may be the latter half of the 
8th century A.D. 

BasHn. — To visit this interesting 
place, which is about 30 m. N, of 
Bombay, the traveller will leave the 
Grant Koad Station by the B. B. and 
C. I. Ry. at 7.16 A.M., and will reach 
Bhaindar Station, 284 ™v ^^ ^-48 A.M. 
Therd is no waiting-room at this 
station, and the traveller will walk j 
of a m. over heavy sand to what is 
called the han4ai\ This bandar is so 



Sect. II. 



BoMtn. 



159 



built that at high water one has to 
scramble on to the wall of rough 
stones, instead of being able to step 
into the boat at once. On getting 
into the boat, for which application 
must be made beforehand to the 
station-master, the water is very 
shoaly in places, and unless one has 
a steam launch it will take pro- 
bably 40 minutes to reach the bandar 
at Bassin, which, as the crow flies, is 
about 2 m. off. A lai'ge fishing village 
of huts extends due S. from the Fort. 
The landing is at a jetty, from which 
the road goes due W. to the Govern- 
ment bangla. The walls of the Fort are 
even now strong, and are 32J ft. high 
in some places, and 26 ft. in others. 

The fijst notice we have of Bassin 
is in 1532, when the Portuguese 
ravaged the neighbourhood and 
burned all the towns between it and 
Chikli TArdpur. In 1534 they took 
Daman, and obliged Sult&n Bahadur 
of Gujardt, then hard pressed by the 
Emperor Humdydn, to cede Bassin in 
perpetuity, on the 17th of February, 
1765. Chimnaji ApA, brother of the 
Peshwa B4ji RAo I., invested Bassin, 
and the town surrendered on the 16th 
of May, after a most desperate resist- 
ance, in which the commandant, Sil- 
veira de Mineyes, was killed, and 800 
of the garrison killed and wounded, 
while the Mardtha loss was upwards 
of 5000. The capitulation was made 
by Captain de Souza Pereira, and the 
historian of the Mardthas declares 
that it was the most vigorous siege 
ever prosecuted by that people, while 
another authority * says that " no 
contest bad been so glorious for the 
Indo-Portuguese." By the terms of 
capitulation, " all the garrison, as well 
regulars as auxiliaries," were allowed 
free passage out of the town, " with 
their arms in order, drums beating 
and colours flying, also with four 
pieces of cannon and two mortars." 
The seventh article declared, "that 
the Christians who remain voluntarily 
in the place shall enjoy the liberty of 
.worshipping God in the faith they 
profess." The English, who might 

* **' Bombay Quarterly Review " for July, 
1866, No. Aii. p. 84. 



easily have saved the i)lace, but, out 
of a miserable jealousy, had refused all 
aid, except 16,000 Rs., for which they 
took the security of the church plate 
and some brass guns, which were for 
the purpose removed fi*om the de- 
fences, now made some amends for 
their gross indiflEerence to the interests 
of an allied nation. They sent boats 
with a strong escort to bring off the 
garrison, permitted them, 800 in 
number, to remain in Bombay during 
the monsoon, and advanced 4000 
rupees monthly for their support. 
But the disasters of the gallant Por- 
tuguese were not over. On the 29tli 
of September they left Bombay, but, 
taking the overland route from ChA- 
wal (Choul) to Goa. were attacked by 
Khem Sdwant with 300 horse and 5000 
foot, and, after a furious contest of 
two hours, routed, with the loss of 
200 of their best men.* The remnant 
escaped to Goa, where the English 
commodore saw them arrive "with 
care and grief in their faces." The 
Portuguese never recovered this blow, 
and soon afterwards ceded the forts 
of Chdwal and Maira to the Mardthas. 
On the 13th of November, 1780, 
General Goddard arrived before Bas- 
sin, and on the 28th his first batteiy 
opened against it. He had very 
powerful artillery, and one battery of 
20 mortars, which was shortly after 
opened at the distance of 500 yards, 
did great execution. The place sur- 
rendered on the 11th December, on 
which day Colonel Hartley, with a 
covering army of 2000 men defeated 
the Maratha relieving army of up- 
wards of 24,000 men, and killed its 
distinguished General, RAmchandra 
Ganesh. 

Before reaching the bangla, it will 
be advisable to turn off S. to a bastion, 
which has an iron gate with knobs, 
16 ft. high. From this a path pro- 
ceeds through a thick jungle of cus- 
tard apple trees, mangoes, and the 
creeper which bears the ganja seed 
used for weights (the Abrus j)7'€cato- 
riu^). After 150 yds. the ruined ca- 
thedral of Baint Joseph is reached. 

^ "Bombay Quarterly Kcview" for July, 
1856, No. vii. p. 84. 



160 



Bombay City. 



Sect. n. 



There is no roof, but the walls are 
apparently in good preservation. It 
is not safe, however, to ascend, as a 
serious accident happened here some 
years ago to a climber. The tower is 
60 ft. high, and has the following in- 
scription, 2 ft. sq., over the door : — 
" No Anno de 1601, sendo Arcebispo 
Primar o Ill"<» Dom Frei Aleixo de 
Menezes, e vigario o Pe. Pedro Galao 
Pereira, se reformou esta Matriz." 
" In the year 1601, in the time of the 
most illustrious Primate Archbishop 
Sr. Dom Frei Aleixo de Menezes, and 
the Rev. Pedro Gtilao being Vicar, 
this Cathedral was rebuilt." In the 
body of the church, left of the en- 
trance, over which the above inscrip- 
tion is placed, is a large slab with the 
following inscription in Portuguese : — 
** To this grave are transferred the 
bones of Pedro Galao, servant of the 
Lord, who governed and enlarged this 
church. He died at Goa on the 19th 
of March,, in the year 1618." This 
cathedral was built about 1546, when 
Dom JoSo De Castro was governor, its 
erection being ordered by Dom 
Joilo III., King of Portugal. It is 
referred to by the traveller Gemelli 
Careri. (See Churchill's "Voyages," 
p. 192.) The learned J. Gerso da 
Cunha, in his notes on the history 
and antiquities of Bassin, caUs the 
slab an oblong black tomb-stone, but 
there seems some mistake here about 
the colour. He mentions another 
tomb-stone, half buried, with the 
name Antonio de Almeida de Sam- 
pano e Sa, at the W. extremity of the 
uave. At the end of the street, to the 
left of the Sea Gate, is the ruined 
doorway of the castle, with the date 
1606. There is also a ruined bastion 
with an inscription, the English of 
which is, " The 1st Captain who built 
this fortress was Garcia de Sa, by com- 
mand of the Governor, Nunc da Cunha, 
1636." This is the oldest inscription 
in Bassin. Bocarro (" Chronista," 
vol. iii. p. 243) says the captain re- 
sided in this bastion, and that in front 
of the portal was a market, which was 
the busiest thoroughfare in the city. 
Behind it are the ruined palaces of 
the General of the Korth and the Cap- 



tain of Bassin. At the end of the street 
leading from the Sea Gate to the Pillory 
Yard are the ruins of a large bmlding, 
thought to be the church and convent 
of the Augustines. In front is a sty- 
lobate witib. 5 steps, and a portico with 
4 pillars, at the back of wMch appear 
the roy^ arms of Portugal. On the 
entablature and pediment were 2 in- 
scriptions, now removed. Translation 
of the Ist : — 

While the Viceroy Dom Migael de Noronha, 
Count of Linhares, was governing tiie State of 
India, this Portal was built, on which was 
placed St Francis Xavier as Patron of this 
City, on the 10th of May, 1631. 

Translation of the 2nd : — 

When Gaspar de Mello de Miranda was 
Captain of this City, and Goncalo Coeila da 
Silva, Fero Ferreira, and Jo&o Bolo Machado, 
were aldermen with other officers, this (in- 
scription) was placed in this Portal to St. 
Xavier, who was chosen Patron in 1681. 

The ruins of the factory come next, 
and then those of the Ambdr or Store- 
house, and in the garden of the General 
of the North's Palace are the ruins of 
the Misericordia, a church with a hos- 
pital attached. First comes a large 
square cloister, the walls of which are 
most curiously intermixed with mas- 
sive shoots and roots of the Fmut 
Indica and other trees. The church 
has a stone front with pillars, and a 
Maltese cross in the centre. Within 
are 2 tombstones. On the large one is 
an inscription, of which the following 
is the translation : — 

The Grave of Po Cabral de Navais and of 
his son P. Hieronimo Po Cabral and his heirs. 

On the second tombstone is — 

Sa 
Da L. H. 
E. D. E. 

Opposite the entrance of the church is 
a mound of stones, on which probably 
stood a cross, and to the W. is a temple 
of Shiva with a circular top. The Bull 
or Nandi is well carved in stone, and 
was remarked on by Mrs. Heber. Here 
is a fosse 60 ft. broad and 25 ft. deep, 
in which is water a few feet deep. 
Parallel with the temple is the chmxdi 
of N. S. da Vida, one of the oldest in 
Bassin. Here a sugar rcfinery was 



Sect. IT. 



Basstn, 



161 



established by Mr. Littlewood, which 
is now abandoned. All the ecclesias- 
tical buildings are near this and be- 
tween the Citadel and Land gateway. 
To ^e right of the chnrch of N. S. da 
Yida is another church, which was 
made into a warehouse for the sugar 
factory. This latter church is pro- 
bably that of the Hospitallers, and 
near it are the ruins of a monastery. 
Further on are seen the ruins of the 
monastery and church of the Jesuits. 
The church has a fine arch with co- 
lumns, of which the shafts are fluted 
and ^e capitals Corinthian. Near it 
are the ruins of a college with the date 
1636 over the door. The Jesuits' 
church and monastery were founded 
in 1548. St. Xayier visited Bassin 3 
times — ^in 1544, 1548, and again in the 
same year, when he founded the Jesuit 
Mission. The Jail is thought to have 
been near the Captain's palace, but all 
that remains of it is a slab near the 
T. B., with an inscription which may 
be thus translated : — 

Pero dA Silva being Viceroy, 

and Bui Diaz da Cunha, Captain of this 

fortress at the City of Busm, Dom Luiz 

d'Athaide, Fitmcesco Perrelra 

and Alvaro Caelho caused this Jail 

to be bnilt, which was completed, 

while Andrt Saleme was Captain, 

and Antonio Teleo, Tristram .... 

Aldermen. 

The date is gone, but Pero da Silva 
was Viceroy in 1635 to 1639, during 
which period the Jail must have been 
built. The architecture is essentially 
appropriate to the climate, in marked 
contrast to the buildings in Bombay. 
In the nave of the church of the Jesuits 
are 2 gravestones with these inscrip- 
tions: — 

Grave of Isabel de Agniar, widow and 
notable benefactress of this College. 

Died 24 January, 1591. 

and 

Grave of Dona Filipa da 

Fonseca, widow and famous 

benefactress of this church, to which 

she gave, during her lifetime, all she 

possessed. Died on the 20tb of July, 1628. 

Beyond is the church of S. Antonio, 
the oldest and one of the largest in 
Bassin. •• It dates from the time of 
Yt. Antonio do Porto, who built 11 

[jBoroiay— 1880.] 



churches, conveiied 10,150 heathen, 
and destroyed 200 Pagodas. The 
ruins of the Franciscan church or 
monastery are remarkable. It was the 
largest and most important Portu- 
guese church after that of S. Francis 
at Goa. To it were affiliated the 
churches of Espirito Santo, Monte 
Calvario, Madre de Deva, and N. S. 
da Luz at Agasi in Salsette. The 
arched ceiling of the principal chapel 
is tolerably well preserved. The 
church has 4 lateral chapels, in which 
are tombstones inscribed as follows : — 

ITrantlation.J 

I. 

H. M. Counsellor, died on the 24th of 

August, 1568, and of his wife. Dona 

Luiza da Silva and of his heirs. 

II. 

Here lies Dona Francisca da 

Miranda, wife of Manoel de 

Helo Perreira, founder of this 

Chapel, and her dau£;hter Dona Ines de 

Melo, and her grandson Luis de Melo. 

She died on the 10th of November, 1606. 

IIL 
Grave of Dona Giomar da Aguiar, widow of 
Alvaro de Lemos. May he be with God ! Died 
on tlie 11th of March of W (1596). Hera and 
her son's. 

In the third chapel right of the 
chancel are two tombstones inscribed 
as folloYTs: — 

I. 

This tombstone was placed by 

Dona Sra de Barredo for her 

Interment in the grave of her husband 

Antonio Tello de Menezes, who 

died on the 26th of October, 1676. This 

Grave was purchased by Mimoel de 

Carvalhar Pereira and his heirs. Our Father. 

IL 
In the reign of the most high and puissaut 

King 

D. JoSo de Portugal, III. of the name. 

When the Viceroy D. Affonso de Noronha was 

governing India, 
Son of the Huquls of Villa Real, and when 

Francisco 
De S& was captain of this fortress and of the 

city 

of Bassin. This bastion was founded under 

tiie name of San 

Sebastian on the 22nd of February 

In the year 1554. 

A few yards from this bastion is a 
tombstone inscribed, — 

Here lies the body of . . . Durban, wife 
of Andrew Durban, Surgeon, who departed 
this life in 

M 



162 



licnUe 1. — Bombay to Mdtherdn. 



Sect. II. 



There is a cayemoiu passage towards 
the riyerside, where the air is so me- 
phitic as to extinguish a light. An 
ancient street, almost parallel to the 
new high road, leads through the 
middle of the Fort to the Sea gate- 
way. Fryer, in 1675, says, here were 
"stately dwellings, graced with co- 
Tered balconies and large windows 
two storeys high, with panes of oyster 
shell, which is the nsoal glazing among 
them (the Portuguese) in £dia, or 
else latticed.*' In a waU to the left 
of the street, near the newly-built cot- 
tages for the men who worked at the 
Sugar Factoiy, is a slab 5} ft. long and 
2 ft. broad, inscribed as follows : — 

[Traihflation.'] 

These cottages 

were built by 

SamEafoe 

Sae * * in the year 

1617. 



The rest of the inscription is much 
obliterated. Close by these buildings 
is the chapel of N. S. da Annunciada, 
which was under the care of the Augus- 
tines. The altar faces the N. There 
.is also an ornamented bath-house built 
of hard cement. The churches at Bas- 
sin, of which the principal have been 
mentioned, have square towers without 
spires. The roofs, now fallen, were 
very steep and covered with tiles. In 
the Jesuit church there were remains of 
a handsome ceiling of teak, carved and 
gilded. The tombs of Don Lorenzo, 
who encountered the Turkish Armada 
near Din, and of Alfonso Albuquerque, 
who first took Qoa, are said to have 
been here. Heber notices the monu- 
ment of Dona de Souza, dated 1606. 
The learned Doctor da Cunha of Bom- 
bay has lately published a valuable 
account of Bassln. 



ROUTE 1. 

BOMBAY TO MATHBBAN. 

Mdtherdn, — This word is derived 
from M&thd, ''crest of a hill," and 
Rdn, " wood or forest," it being a 
jungly hill on the crest of the Ghdts. 
The traveller will proceed to this place 
by the G. I. P. Railway, S.E. division. 
ThJB line, which starts from the Fort 
of Bombay, approaches the B. B. and 
C. L By. very closely at Parell Station, 
and continues in near proximity to 
Dddar Station, and then begins to di- 
verge and crosses from Bombay into 
Salsette by the causeway at Sion and 
Eurla, while the B. B. and C. I. crosses 
to Salsette from Mahim to Bandora. 
The railways continue to diverge, and 
from Kalydn Junction Station the 
G. I. P. turns to the S.E. to go to Pun4 
and Madras, whilst its K.£. division 
goes on to Ndshik and Jabalpiir. On 
this line 1st and 2nd class return tick- 
ets, available forretum any day witiiin 
2 calendar months, are issued at all 
stations to all stations throughout the 
Une. Holders of such tickets can break 
their journey either way as often and 
as long 08 they like within the two 
months, provided they do not travel 
more than once in the same direction. 
Coupon or special tickets, 1st and 2nd 
class, are issued from Bombay or Byk- 
allah Station to Khand414 or N^cl 
from 1st October to 31st May, and to 
Pun4 or Ehirki from 1st June to 
30th Sept. for use up or down any time 
within two months, so that the holders 
may make 4 journeys each way. These 
tickets are chargeable as follows : — 

Bombay, or Bvkallah, to N&rel, Ist class, 

Bs. 24 ; 2nd class, Rs. 13. 
Bombay, or Bykallah, to KhandAl^, 1st class, 

Rs. 40 ; 2nd class, Bs. 20. 
Bombay, or Bykallab, to Puni or Khirki, 1st 

class, Bs. 60 ; 2nd class, Bs. 30. 

Holders of single journey tickets of 
all classes are allowed one day for 
every 100 m. or part of 100 m. to break 
their journey, but the tune must not 
exceed the time occupied by the train 
plus the 1 day for each 100 m. The 



RoiUe 1. — .Vdl/unlii. 



164 



Rovie 1. — Bombay to Mdtlierdn, 



Sect. IT. 



traveller having taken his ticket to 
N4rel, or Neral, will not have occafiion 
to stop anywhere before reaching that 
station. He will take care to have 
written to the station master to have a 
pony or a tonjan with 6 men to carry 
him up the hill. The ascent will take 
about 1} hr. The Ist m. is mostly 
over level ground, which extends fi'om 
NArel to low hills at the foot of the 
higher hill of M4ther4n. The 1st 
milestone marks an ascent of only 
126*70 ft. The tonjon is a sort of long 
chair with poles to carry it by, and 
seated in it, the traveller is much above 
the bearers' heads. In the next mile, 
which rises to 576'13 ft., the road be- 
gins to skirt precipices. The 3rd m. 
brings the altitude to 975*38 ft., and the 
4th rises to 1526-07 ft. At the end of 
the 5th m. the height of 2138*49 ft. is 
reached. The 6th m. brings the traveller 
to the plateau on the top of Mdther^n 
Hill, which is 2283*95 ft. above the sea 
level. The 7th m. reaches 2375*71 ft., 
and the 8th m. descends to 2109*30 ft. 
From the 3rd m. the ascent is very 
steep indeed, but the greater part of 
the way luxuriant trees clothe the side 
of the hill, and cloak the precipice. 
The Alexandra Hotel is near this 
point where the road first descends. 
It must be said that the food is not 
very appetizing. There is an account 
of the hills by Dr. J. Y. Smith, which 
may be read by the traveller before 
proceeding to a personal inspection. 
The church is 200 yds. from the Alex- 
andra Hotel, and is a neat structure, 
capable of holding 240 people. Over 
the Communion-table is a handsome 
stained-glass window, given by Michael 
Scott, merchant of Bombay, who ob- 
tained great wealth during the cotton 
famine, but speedily lost it. The church 
is called St. Paul's, and is in charge of 
the junior chaplain of Bombay Cathe- 
dral, and there is service regularly 
during the season and at Christmas at 
7.30 A.M. and 5.30 PJi. There is a 
library, the subscription to which is 
Rs. 5 for the 1st month, 8 for the 2nd, 
2 for the 3rd, and so on. There are 
also grounds for croquet, badminton, 
and lawn tennis. The charge for con- 
yeyance is as f oUowb : for a p&lkl or 



tonjon with 12 bearers between Ndrel 
and Mdther^n, including the carriage 
back of the empty pAlki, Rs. 8 ; but at 
night, Rs. 8. 6 4s. For a p&lki or tonjon 
for a day on the hill, Rs. 3^. Three 
hours are reckoned for a half day, and 
the charge is R. 1. 12 a. ; for 2 hrs. the 
charge is R. 1. 8 ds. and for 1 hr. R. 1 . 1 a. 
A pony between Ndrel and M&therdn 
costs Rs. 2, and the same for a day on 
the hilL A kuU between NArel and 
Mdtherdn costs Bis, A pony for a ser- 
vant between N4rel and Mdtherdn, or 
for a day on the hill, costs R. 1. 4 As, 
One of the first points to visit is Alex- 
andra Point, which is 8100 ft. or about 
IJ m. from the church to the N.E. 
The view is very beautiful, resembling 
those from Sydney and Elphinstone 
Points at Mahdbaleshwar. To the 
right of the traveller as he looks down 
from Alexandra Point will be seen the 
old road to Chauk, by which Hugh 
Poyntz Malet ascended when he dis- 
covered M&ther&n in 1850. There is a 
thick belt of primeval forest half way 
up the mountain through which the road 
passes. This old road is most difficult 
and steep. Chauk is a stiflingly hot 
village about 14 m. N. of Panwell, on the 
road to PunA, and about 5 m. S.S.W. of 
Alexandra Point. About 1 j m. to the 
left the traveller will see Gharbat 
Point, from which a long narrow ridge 
runs tapering down into the low coun- 
try, and this ridge bounds the view in 
that direction. The next day should 
be spent in a visit to Panorama Point, 
which is to the N. W. of the hotel. The 
distance is 21,600 ft. or a little over 4 
m. The road leads through a thick jun- 
gle of beautiful trees, in the branches 
of which, about 8 or 10 ft. from the 
ground, will be observed globular 
masses like fungi about 1 ft. in diame- 
ter with leafy projections. These are 
the nests of black ants, which bite ve- 
nomously, and their nests are conse- 
quently seldom disturbed. About J m. 
from Panorama Point the road comes 
to a point parallel with a place called 
Porcupine Point. Here the traveller 
may, if he pleases, dismount, as there 
is a precipice to the left of 1000 ft. 
At 100 yds. from its termination the 
road goes quite round the brow of the 



Sect. 11. 



jRoute 1. — MdtJierdn. 



165 



peak, and here there is a truly beauti- 
ful panoramic view of the country 
from which the point gets its name. The 
traveller will have to his left Hart 
Point and Porcupine Point, the latter 
called from the number of porcupines 
which are found there. Far in the dis- 
tance is Prabal Point, where there is a 
fort of the same name, which signifies 
" Mighty." Between M4ther4n and 
Prabal the mountain sinks down 
abruptly to the plain, forming a huge 
chasm. Below and in a line with 
Panorama Point is the Bhdo Mallin 
(or B&W& Malang) Range, 10 m. 
long, with strange cylindrical or 
bottle-shaped peaks. Captain George 
Mackenzie, of the Queen's Royal regt., 
in his Series of Pen Sketches of the 
scenery in the Presidency of Bombay, 
has given views of Chauk, Pi'abal, and 
the Bh4o Mallin Range.* The huts of 
NArel village lie directly below, and 
beyond them, due N. is the curving 
line of the G. I. P. Ry. ; thus Ndrel is 
seen to be S. of the railway, and Md- 
therdn S. of Ndrel. M&therdn is 28 m. 
due E. of the Fort of Bombay, and 
Ndrel is 30) m. £. of Mazagdon and 
9 m. N.N.E. of Chauk, which again is 
4 m. S. of Koldba Lighthouse. In the 
evening a ride may be taken to the 
new Band or embankment, which is 
about IJ m. N. of the hotel. It is of 
very hard blue stone, which is quarried 
on the spot. The embankment is 100 ft. 
long and 6 ft. broad at top. There are 
other points which may be visited in 
the hills, but none equal to those al- 
ready mentioned. A whole day may 
be well spent, or even 2 days, in visit- 
ing Prabal. The traveller will start 
from Louisa Point ; this point over- 
looks a majestic cliff, whence, in the 
rainy season, descends a cataract 100 
ft. in width, which bounds into the 

* Bh&o Hallln has its name from a Mu^am- 
madan saint, who chose it for his residence. 
On the summit are the remains of a fort, to 
which the only means of access was a flight of 
narrow steps cut, or rather notched, in the 
rock, with a miserable, shaky wooden banis- 
ter, quite insecure. This frightftil ascent of 
200 ft., perpendicular, at the top of a moun- 
tain, wfa«re a gust might sweep the climber in 
a moment to destruction, was destroyed by 
Captain Dickinson, about 60 years ago, by 
order of Government. 



valley below by a single leap of 1000 
ft. Here at times the wind is so strong 
and gusty, that the cataract seems to 
struggle against it in dubious conflict, 
and the water with difficulty seems to 
force its way through the troubled air. 
Hence descend H m. to a Thikilr vil- 
lage on the middle plateau. Here 
guides must be procured. A descent 
will then be made to the low country 
by a deep valley or ravine shaped like 
a V ; after 2 m. a watercourse will be 
reached, and after that several spurs 
of the mountain must be crossed about 
100 ft. high, and so steep as to require 
great care in crossing them. They 
taper up to summits which are only a 
few feet wide. You then come to an- 
other middle ground which is very 
steep and 1600 ft. high ; traces of 
tigers will be seen here. This plateau 
is 13:^ m. from MAtherAn, and must be 
crossed in a S. direction for 1 J m. to a 
watercourse which runs at right angles 
to the first watercourse. You then as- 
cend 2 m. to Prabal plateau, from 
which precipitous rocks rise to from 
600 to 1000 ft. Prabal Fort is 2400 ft. 
above the sea, but the highest part of 
the mountain on which it is situated 
is 4000 ft. From the fort there is a 
fine view of the Cathedral Rock near 
BhAo Mallin. At a mile from Prabal 
Fort is a tank cut in the solid rock, 
10 ft. deep, 30 ft. long, and 15 broad. 
There arc other forts and buildings, 
and the locality has been very little 
explored. If the traveller has time to 
stop a few days, he would be sure to 
have sport with tigers and panthers. 



166 JRoiUe 2,— Bombay to Tlidnd, Kalydn, and Amamdth. Sect. II. 



ROUTE 2. 

BOMBAY TO THANA, KALTAn, AND 
AMAENATH. 

TTulnd. — It will be seen from the Time 
Table given in the preceding route 
that ThAnA is 20f m. from Bombay, 
and starting by the train which leaves 
Bykallah at 6.2 A.M. the traveller will 
reach Thdnd at 7.15 A.M. The town 
itself presents little attraction to the 
tourist. The railway to it was first 
opened on the 16th of April, 1853. In 
1320 A.D.. 4 Christian companions of 
the Italian friar, Odoricus, here suf- 
fered martyrdom. In April, 1737, it 
was taken from the Portuguese by the 
Mard^has under the first B4jl RAo 
PeahwA, after a gallant defence. At 
this time the country round ThAn4 
was highly cultivated, and the travel- 
ler's eye (see Anderson's "Western 
India ") rested at every half mile on 
elegant mansions, 2 of which deserve 
special mention : one, the property of 
John de Melos, was 3 m. from Thdnd ; 
it stood on a sloping eminence, deco- 
rated with terraced walks and gardens, 
and terminating at the water side with 
a banqueting-house, which was ap- 
proached by a flight of stone steps. A 
mile further was Grebondel, the pro- 
perty of Martin Alphonso, said to be 
"the richest Don on this side Goa." 
Above rose his fortified mansion 
and a church of stately architecture. 
This prosperity was ruined by the 
Mar4tha irruption and occupation 
of the island of SA^hti or Salsette, 
of which they retained possession 
till 1774. In that year (see Grant 
Duff's "History of the MarAthas," 
vol. ii. p. 276) the Portuguese sent 
a formidable armament from Eu- 
rope, for the avowed purpose of reco- 
vering their lost possessions. This 
circumstance becoming known to the 
Government of Bombay, Mr. William 
Hornby, the Governor, determined to 
anticipate their enterprise, and seize 
upon the island for the English. In 
the beginning of December a force of 
620 Europeans, 1000 Sipahts, and 200 



gun laskars, was prepared under Gene- 
ral Robert Gordon for the reduction of 
ThAnA. The batteries opened on the 
26th of December, and on the night of 
the 27th an attempt to storm was re- 
pulsed, with the loss of 100 Europeans 
killed and wounded ; but next even- 
ing a second assault was more suc- 
cessful, when almost all the garrison 
was put to the sword. The 3rd day 
of the siege was marked by the loss of 
Commodore J. Watson, the manner of 
whose death was most singular. A. 
cannon shot struck the ground close to 
him and drove the particles into his 
body. On March 6th, the PeshwA 
RaghubA, by the treaty of Wasal (Bas- 
sln) ceded the island of SAshti (Sal- 
sette) in perpetuity. By the conven- 
tion of Wargdbn, concluded in January, 
1779, this acquisition with all others 
was to be restored to the Mar&thas, 
but Mr. Hornby disavowed the treaty, 
and determined at all risks to resist the 
cession. Whether ThdnA was ever really 
given up does not appear ; but if so, it 
was recovered the next year, when 
General Goddard captured Bassin. In 
1816, Trimbakji D4ngUa, the cele- 
brated minister of Bdjl Il&o, the last 
PeshwA, effected his escape from the 
fort of Th&nA, though guarded by a 
strong body of European soldiers. The 
difficulties of this escape were greatly 
exaggerated all over the Mar^t^ coun- 
try, and it was compared to that of 
Shivaji from the power of Aurangzlb. 
The principal agent in this exploit was 
the Mar&tha horse-keeper in the ser- 
vice of one of the English officers of 
the garrison, who, passing and re-pass- 
ing Trimbakjf s cell, as if to exercise 
his master's horse, sang the informa- 
tion he wished to convey in a careless 
manner, which disarmed suspicion. 
Heber,* who had seen Trimbakji im- 
prisoned in the fort of ChunAr, was 
much interested in this escape, and 
speaks of it thus — 

" The groom's singing was made up 
of verses like the following : — 

Behind the bash the bowmen hide, 

The horse beneath the tree, 
Where shall I find a knight will ride 

The Jangle paths with me ? 



Vol. ii. p. 8. 



i 



Sect. II. 



Houte 2. — Kalydn, 



167 



There are five-and-fifty coursers there. 

And four-and-flfty men ; 
When the fifty-fifth shall mount his steed, 

The Deckan thrives d^m. 

This might have been a stratagem of 
he Scottish border, so complete a 
imilarity of character and incident 
oes a resemblance of habit and cir- 
jumstance produce among mankind." 
The same writer comments on the 
* neglected and uncivilized state of 
Salsette *' after it had been so long in 
;he hands of the English. Heber 
ds that Thdnd is chiefly inhabited 
y Roman Catholic Christians, either 
converted Hindtis or Portuguese, v^ho 
have become as black as &e natives 
and assume all their habits ; he also 
describes the place as neat and flourish- 
ing, and famous for its breed of hogs, 
and the manner in v^hich the Portu- 
guese inhabitants cure bacon. The 
church, v^hich he describes as small, 
but extremely elegant and convenient, 
was being built when he arrived, and 
on July the 10th, 1825, it was conse- 
crated by him. The neighbourhood 
was, from the time of the Bishop's 
visit till 1844, notorious for its rob- 
beries ; but rigorous measures being 
then taken, these disorders were sup- 
pressed. Shortly before that date, the 
Knglish judge having incautiously en- 
tered yntYi too few attendants among 
he large number of prisoners confined 
the jail there, was seized, and was 
thin a hair's breadth of being exe- 
crted by them. The rope was already 
roS^d his neck when help arrived. The 
f Thdni is now a jail ; the wall 
ft. high ; it has contained 850 
perhaps, but in 1876 there were only 
608, « whom 73 were women, who re- 
ceive^o instruction except in weaving. 
After the age of 45 they are not sent 
to the Andamans, and a woman above 
that age in order to go to her son con- 
fessed to a crime which she had not 
committed, and was much distressed to 
find that she would not be sent there. 
In the centre are the remains of BAjl 
Bdo's office, which is to be removed, in 
order that a centrjil tower may be 
built. 

The 23rd milestone from Bombay is 
close to the Collector's office at Th&nd, 



and the Yih&r Lak^ is 5^ m. off, so 
that if the traveller chooses, he may 
visit that lake from this town. A good 
view is obtained from the church, 
which is ascended by 69 steps, and is 
J m. W. of the fort, and about the 
same distance from the Collector's 
house. On the E. side of the church is 
a garden, well kept, and on the W. the 
cemetery. There are one or two rather 
old tombs in the cemetery, as, for in- 
stance, that of John Halsey, chief of 
Scdsette, who died March 3rd, 1785 ; 
Gregory Page, chief of Salsette, who 
died in November, 1794, is also buried 
here, as is Stephen Babington, who 
died from injuries received at a fire at 
Wasauli, a neighbouring viUage. His 
monument in Bombay Cathedral has 
been mentioned, the statue being by 
Chantrey. 

Kaly&i^, 33J m. from Bombay, This 
is a very ancient town, and in early 
times, no doubt, was the capital of an 
extensive province. There is good rea- 
son to think that a Christian Bishop 
resided at Kalydn In the beginning of 
the 6th century a.d. Thus when Cos- 
mos Indicopleustes sailed down theW. 
coast of India, he found at " Male, 
where the pepper grows, a regulaiiy 
ordained clergy, and at Kalhana, a 
Persian bishop. ' When the Mu^am- 
madan power extended itself over the 
Dakhan, the province of Ealy&ni fell 
to All^madnagar, but was ceded by that 
state to BijEpiir in 1636, and being 
divided into two, the N. part extend- 
ing from Bhiwadi to N^athdnah, was 
placed under a new Governor, who re- 
sided at Ealydn. In 1648, Abbaji 
Sondeo, a Brdhman general under Shi- 
vaji, surprised Kalydn, and was ap- 
pointed by Shivaji §AbahdAr of the 
province. In 1780, the Mard^has hav- 
ing cut off the supplies from Bombay 
and Salsette, wMch were usually 
brought to those places from the 
mainland, and were so necessary 
to the inhabitants of Bombay, the 
Government of that place determined 
to occupy the Koiikan opposite Thdn4 
as far as the Gh&ts. Accordingly, 
several posts were seized, and Kalydn 
amongst them ; and here Captain 
Richard Campbell was placed with a 



168 Eoute 2. — Bombay to Thdnd, Kalydn, arid Amamdth, Sect. II. 



garrison. N4n4 Farnayls forthwith as- 
sembled a large force to recover Eal- 
j&a, on which he set a high value, and 
his first operations were very success- 
ful. He attacked the English ad- 
vanced post at the Gh^t^, consisting 
of 4 European officers, 2 companies of 
Sip&hls, and some European artillery- 
men with 3 guns, captured the guns, 
and killed or made prisoners the whole 
detachment. He tnen compelled En- 
sign Fyf e, the only surviving officer, 
to write to Captain Campl^ll that, 
unless he surrendered, he would put 
all his prisoners, 26 in number, to 
death, storm Kalydn, and put all the 
garrison to the sword. To this Camp- 
bell replied (see Grant Duff, vol. i. 
pp. 139, 141, and vol. ii. p. 414) that, 
" the Ndnd was welcome to the town 
if he could take it," and, after a spi- 
rited defence, was relieved by Colonel 
Hartley, on the 24th of May, just as 
the Mar&thas were about to storm. 
The remains of buildings round Kal- 
j&a are very extensive, and Fryer, 
who visited the place in 1673, " gazed 
with astonishment on ruins of stately 
fabrics, and many traces of departed 
magnificence." 

It is especially deserving of notice 
that the inscriptions at K&nhari, which 
are marked XIV. and XV. by Dr. 
Stevenson in his paper in the Bombay 
Asiatic Society's Journal for July, 1853, 
establish the fact that Chdnakya, the 
famous preceptor and prime minister 
of Chandra-gupta or Sandrocottus, was 
a native of Ksdydn. He is called in 
the inscriptions Dimila, which signi- 
fies Malabarian. The XV. inscription 
runs thus : — ** To the Perfect One. To 
D4mila, inhabitant of Kalydn, famed 
throughout the world, and purified, 
the religious assignation of a cave and 
cistern in the Kanha Hill." It is 
shown by Wilford in " Asiatic Re- 
searches," vol. ix., that ChAnakya 
finished his life as a penitent or reli- 
gious recluse, and, being a native of 
Kalydn, he probably retired to the 
neighbourhood of the K^nhari caves. 
It may be fairly conjectured that one 
of his descendants, becoming a convert 
ot Buddhism, devoted his property to 
the excavation of a monument to his 



great progenitor, and hence the in- 
scriptions. Several other inscriptions 
will be found in Dr. Stevenson's paper, 
commemorating the names of natives 
of Kaly^n. Thus the first Prikiit in- 
scription is by Samiddbha, a goldsmith 
of Kalydn, and the fifth is by Ri$hi- 
hala of the same city. Dr. Stevenson 
infers from the appearance of the let- 
ters, that the 15th inscription was en- 
graved shortly after the commence- 
ment of the Christian era. 

Further testimony to the ancient 
splendour of Ealydn is found in the 
Katan Mdld, or *' Garland of Jewels," 
in which the Brdhman Kji^hnajl cele- 
brates the glories of the Solankhl 
princes. The scene is Ealydn, where 
R4j4 Bhuwar, the Solankhl, reigns, and 
the time is the year of Vlkram 752, 
A.D. 696.* " The capital city, KalyAn, 
is filled with the spoils of conquered 
foes, with camels, horses, cars, ele- 
phants. Jewellers, cloth-makers, cha- 
riot builders, makers of ornamental 
vessels, reside there, and the walls of 
the houses are covered with coloured 
pictures. Physicians and professors of 
the mechanical arts abound, as well as 
those of music, and schools are pro- 
vided for public education. It is for 
the sole purpose of comparing the ca- 
pital city of Ceylon with Kalydn, that 
the sun remains half the year in the 
north, and half in the south." 

Amarndthy ov Ambarndthy " Immor- 
tal Lord," is a village of about 300 in- 
habitants, which gives name to the 
district in which the town of Ealydn 
is situated. The temple of Ambamdth 
is in a pretty valley f less than a m. E. 
of the village of the same name, and 
4^ m. S.E. of Kalydn. It stands on 
the edge of the little jdver WadhwAn, 
which, rising near the base of the Ma- 
langad or Bdwd Malang mountain 
(cafied by others BhAo Mallin), fiows 
N. into the UlAs, near Ealydn. That 
strangely peaked hill rises very near, 
and every furrow of it is distinct, 
whUe its summit seems as thin as a 
wedge. There is no written or tradi- 
tional history of the temple. At a 

* "RAsMilfifc" vol.i. p. 26. 
t See the "Indian Antiquary" for 1878 
vol. iv. p. 316. 



Sect. II. 



lioute 2. — Amamdth, 



169 



meeting of the Bombay Asiatic Society 
in 1850, Dr. J. Wilson said that his 
attention had been called to it by Mr. 
J. S. Law, C.S., to whom its existence 
had been reported by Vishnu Shdstri, 
its first discoverer. Dr. Wilson said 
it was decidedly a Shaivite temple (see 
Journal Bombay As. Soc, vol. iii. 
pt. 2, p. 349). The temple is 87J ft. 
long from E. to W., and 68 ft. from N., 
to B. In a niche on the N. side of the 
adytum is a Trimurti, or " three-headed 
Shiva." The figure, from its multi- 
plex and fictitious heads and skeleton 
legs, is as deformed as can be imagined. 
It is an object of considerable interest 
as a specimen of genuine Hindii archi- 
tecture. The acting-superintendent of 
the School of Art at Bombay, with a 
head-moulder and draughtsman, and 8 
assistants, visited Ambarnath on the 
14th of November, 1868. They pro- 
duced 24 drawings, 36 photographs, 
and 76 moulds, at a cost of Rs. 10,714, 
and a further sum was required to com- 
plete the drawings, copies of which will 
be found in the " Indian Antiquary." 
The temple faces W., but the Mandap 
or Hall in front of the shrine has doors 
to the N. and S. Each door has a 
porch approached by 4 or 6 steps, and 
supported by 4 nearly square pillars, 
of which 2 are attached to the wall. 
These are most elegant in their pro- 
portion and design. The roofs of the 
porticoes between the lintels are co- 
vered by carved slabs with beautiful 
designs, in which birds and the heads 
of the lion of the south are introduced. 
The door from the portico into the 
temple is richly carved. The body of 
the temple is 224 ft. sq., with a lobby 
inside each door lOJ ft. wide and 5^ 
deep. The roof of the hall is supported 
by 4 elaborately carved columns nearly 
square at base but changing to octa- 
gons at about 1 third of the height. 
The capitals are circular and under 
square abaci, which are surmounted by 
square dwarf columns, ending in the 
usual bracket capitals of the older 
Hindii works. So rich and varied is 
the sculpture on these pillars, that no 
description could give an adequate 
idea of it. The peSment of the door- 
way leading into the Vimdnah is orna- 



mented above with elephants and 
lions, and in the centre with figures of 
iShiva, ascetics, &c. ; the jambs have a 
neat pilaster and 3 figures below, the 
central one having a big cap and 4 
arms and holding up a skull. By the 
door at the E. end of the hall one de- 
scends 9 steps into the shrine, which 
is 13i ft. sq. Very few fragments of 
the original surface of the wall are 
left The spire has been ruined, and 
the light comes in from the roof. The 
interior of the shrine shows how care- 
fully the long stones of dark basalt 
were jointed and bedded, mortar not 
being in use among the Hindiis until 
the Mutiammadan conquest. Like all 
Hindii temples of the N. style the out- 
side of the building is a series of pro- 
jecting comers. The base is a series of 
projecting and receding members, one 
of the upper ones representing a string 
of curious homed and bat-like faces ; 
then comes a band with elephants' 
heads and small human figures ; then 
comes a band with half -goat, half -bat- 
like faces ; then a deeper course with 
innumerable human figures. A curious 
belt of beautiful carving runs up each 
face of the Vimdnah. On the inside 
of the lintel over the N. door of the 
Mandap an inscription was found in 6 
lines with characters of the IXth cen- 
tury, which have been translated by 
Dr. Bhdu DAji (see Jour. Bomb. As. 
Soc., vol. ix. p. 220). This inscription 
gives the date of the building of the 
temple as Samwat 782=A.D. 860, in 
the reign of Mah4mandal6shvara Shri 
Mahavftnirdjadwa. 



170 



HotUe 3. — Bombay to KJiaiuMld and Kdrli, Sect. II. 



1 



ROUTE 3. 

BOMBAY TO KHAKDIlI AND KABLi. 

Xlianddld. — This pretty station is 
77 m. from Bombay. After Badldptlir, 
42 m., the scenery becomes pictnresqae. 
At Karjat, 62 m. the engine is changed 
for one much more powerful to ascend' 
the Bohr Gh4t.* The GhA^ begins 1 m. 
from Karjat. The ascent is 1 in 42, 
and to prevent destruction in case of 
the couplings snapping, there are such 
powerful breaks that a descending 
train could be soon stopped, with sur- 
plus power to spare. The ascent of 
the Ghdt to Lanaull is 17 m. by rail, 
and about 15 m. as the crow flies. It 
is a succession of short tunnels and 
open spaces, with beautiful views of 
green valleys and rocky wooded moun- 
tain sides, down which in the rains 
innumerable waterfalls descend. After 
ascending about 1000 ft. the Flag Staff 
and T. B. at EhaQd414 are seen far up 
on the left, and on the right the level 
valley from Panwell to Eamtipiill. This 
is a large and very pretty village, with 
a fine tank and t^ple to Mahddeo, 
built by the celebrated Mar^t^a Minis- 
ter, Ndn4Farnavls, whose real name was 
Baidjl Jan&Tdhan Bhdnu, and who was 
a Konkanl Brdhman of the Chitpdwan 
tribe, a tribe which gave rulers to the 
Mardtha empire in the Peshwds, and 
not improbably produced the celetaited 
Cbdnakya. KampiUi is 23^ m. from 
Panwell. The scenery is beautiful. At 
the back of Ndnd's Pagoda, the Gh&t 
rises perpendicularly and seems to over- 
hang it ; over the lake spreads a mag- 
nificent .banyan tree, and near it is a 
grove of mango trees. 

Kampiill is not 200 ft. above the 
sea, while the Government hangldy at 
Khanddld, the lowest point on the table- 
land reached by the railway, is .1 800. 
At Lanaull, the GhAt is 2037 ft. above 

* Several derivations have been given for 
this word : first, from the word Bor, Zizyphus 
Jujiiiba ; second, Dnimmond (Illustrations of 
Gram.) derives it from the Bhor River, but 
gives no etymology for the river's name. 
There is also Bhor, "dawn," which might refer 
to sunrise over the mountain. 



the sea, and is naturally an abrupt and 
volcanic scarp, which is the general 
character of tne SahyAdri Range. The 
heights of the Kasiir, the M&ej, and 
the Tal GhAts, are 2149 ft., 2062 ft. 
and 1912 ft. respectively. The im- 
portance of the Bhor and the Tal Gh&t 
may be understood from the feet that, 
along a range of 220 miles of the Sa- 
hy^ri Mountains, there are no passes 
for wheel traffic from Bombay to the 
interior of the country, but these two. 
The many so-called GhA,^ are merely 
precipitous footpaths for natives, or 
steep, winding, rugged tracks for pack- 
bullocks. The Pun& and Calcutta 
road crosses the Bhor Gh&ty ftnd the 
Agra road the Tal Ghd^. The present 
road over the Bhor Ghdt was con- 
structed 25 years ago, is three miles 
long, has in that distance about 40 
well defined turns, besides curvatures, 
and leads to a point 150 ft. higher than 
the Railway arrives at. The first in- 
cline for the G. I. Peninsular Railway 
over this Gh&t was laid in 1852, and 
at its base crossed some low ground 
on the left of the Ulasa valley, near 
the village of P&dasdarl,and proceeded 
along the N. flank of the spur, which 
projects from the main escarpment 
near Ehanddld. It ascended this moan- 
tain side, crossing several spurs of the 
Songirl Hill, above the village of 
Newali, and rose along the upper edge 
of a basaltic dyke, above the village of 
Bhlr to the Khind, or Pass, called 
Mhau ki Mali. It then curved through 
the Khamnl Hill, and reached a na- 
tural terrace near the hamlet of Tlid- 
ki!irw&d&. Thence it ran for two miles 
to Gambhlmith, where it crossed two 
ravines, and ascended to a height 
called N&th k& Doiigar, and, passing a 
deep chasm, entered upon a long level 
depression in the crest of the ridge. 
From this an inclined plain of 1 in 20, 
and 1 mile and | long for stationary 
engines, was laid along the east of the 
Shibi Hill, passing under the mail road 
below the old temple, and up the mural 
precipice of the main GhAt to its crest 
on the rice ground, to the N. of Sir 
Jamshldjl's hangld. Thence the line 
passed by a tunnel under the said 
ground to the rice fields on the S. of 



Sect. II. 



Houte 3. — KhanddldL 



171 



the Khand^d Tank, whence it turned 
into its proper direction, and crossing 
the mail road about half a mile above 
Khand41d, ran to the summit of the 
incline near the village of Tungarli. 
Its total length was 13^ miles ; its rise 
was 1796 feet ; and its estimated cost 
£483,900. The difficulties in this plan 
induced Lord Dalhousie, in 1853, to 
call for further investigation, and this 
led to the examination by Mr. Berkley, 
the Chief Engineer, of the Easilir, Saoll, 
Kuraunda, S^wa, W&gi, Sawasnl, 
Kaunl, Bhun!ip, Gdrdolet, Pimpri, 
Kumbha, and Tiptdti Gh&fs, none of 
which were found so eligible as the Bhor 
Gh&t. It was proved, for example, that 
the Kasiir Ghat, on the Biver Andhru, 
with 1728 feet to be ascended, would 
require a gradient of I in 33 instead of 
I in 40, as at the Bbor Gh^ti ^^^ ^c, 
in other respects, greatly more difficult. 
A new incline up the Bhor GhA^ was 
now adopted, and as the works in pro- 
gress along it are the most stupendous 
of the kind in the world, they deserve a 
somewhat detailed notice here. For 
the first four miles from Pddasdari to 
Mhau kl Mali, the route was entirely 
changed. It now skirted the foot of 
the spur, and turned its S.W. angle 
below Songirl Hill to it« 8. flank, up 
which it ascends to Mhau ki Mali. By 
this the gradient was reduced from 1 
in 35 to 1 in 50 and 1 in 40. From 
Khamni Hill to the Ehind, the course 
was very slightly altered, but from that 
point it was entirely changed. This 
was accomplished by adhering to the 
side of the great ravine below Khan- 
dAlA, by sweeping round the W. slope 
of Shlbl Hill, and by perforating by a 
long tunnel the lofty projection on 
which Mr. Adamson's house now stands. 
Emerging from this tunnel, the altered 
incUne ascends the precipitous escarp- 
ment on the left margin of the great 
Khanddl4 Ravine. It rises to a new 
summit near the village and beautiful 
wood of Lanaull. , Thus the stationary 
engine plane was dispensed with, but 
the works in the upper portion were 
much increased. In 1854-5, improve- 
ments were introduced. A reversing 
station was then carried down across 
the mail road to the hill opposite to 



Toll House, and thence ascended along 
the Battery Hill, recrossed the mail 
road a second time, traversed the head 
of the large ravine under the mountain 
called " the Duke's Nose," entered the 
tunnel, through the same hill as before, 
swept round the side of a lateral ravine 
through Khandald village, and bisect- 
ing the Tank, struck nearly into the 
originaJ line. The incline, as it is now 
constructed, is 15 miles 68 chains 
long ; the level of its base is 196 feet 
above high water mark in Bombay, 
and of its summit 2027 feet, so that 
the total elevation surmounted in one 
lift is 1831 feet. Its avei'age gradient 
is 1 in 48. 

The total length of tunneling is 
2535 yards. Short additional tunnels 
will probably be substituted for the 
deepest parts of some of the cuttings. 
There are eight viaducts, of which the 
dimensions are given in the following 
list : — 

Viaduct Yds. long. Ft high. 

No. 1, eight 50 ft. arches . 168 127 

2, six 50 „ . . 128 95 

S, four 50 „ .85 74 

4, four 50 „ . . 85 94 

5, eight 50 „ .168 139 

6, six 40 „ . , 101 85 

7, four 80 „ .52 45 
8 101 56 

The total quantity of cuttings 
amounts to 1 ,623,102 cubic yards. The 
largest cuttings contain respectively : — 



IIS.OOO 


cuhic yards 


72,000 


1* 


96,000 


ti 


77,000 


it 


75,000 


tt 



The greatest depth of cutting is 80 
feet. The embankments amount to 
1,849,934 cubic yards. The heaviest 
embankments contain, respectively, — 

159,000 cubic yards. 
128,000 „ 

189,000 „ 

268,000 „ 

125,000 „ 

209,000 „ 

Their maximum height is 74 ft. 
There are 18 bridges of various 
spans, from 7 to 30 ft., and 58 culverts 
from 2 to 6 ft. span. The estimated 
cost of this incline was £597,222, or 
£41,188 a mile, and its completion was 



172 



JRoiUe 3. — Bombay to Khanddld and Kdrlu Sect. II. 



contracted for in five years from the 
date of commencement, which expired 
in February, 1861. 



A comparison between the Bhor Qt\ik% 
and the two most remarkable mountain 
inclines in Europe is given below : — 



Name of Incline. 


Length. 


Total 
Ascent. 


Average 
Gradient 


Mazlmnm 
Qradient. 


Sharpest Cnrves. 


Total 
length of 
Tunneling 




Miles. 


Feet 1 






Miles. 


Giovi Incline . 


6 


889 


linStf 


Iin29 


20 chains radius. 


2.55 


Semmering Incline. 














Ascent from Fayerback 














to Semmering 


13} 


1325 


lin47 


lin40 


/SO curves of 10) 
J chains radius, f 


2.66 


Descent from Semmering 










J and 38 curves ( 


to Mtlrzzaschlag . . 


8i 


705 


linSO 


lin50 


(ofl4C. R. ; 
(l of 15, and 2) 




Bhob Gha't Incline 


^H 


1831 


lin48 


linsr 


•< of 20 chains v 
radius. } 


1.44 



The Giovi incline is upon the Turin 
and Genoa Kail way, and commences 
7} miles from Ctenoa, at a point 295 ft. 
above the level of the Mediterranean, 
and ascends the Apennines. 

The Semmering incline is upon the 
Vienna and Trieste Railway, and crosses 
the Noric Alps at the Pass of that 
name. It is replete with extensive and 
extraordinary works. The preliminary 
operations and study of this incline 
occupied from 1842 to 1848, a period 
of six years ; it was opened in May, 
1854, its construction having taken 
five and a half years. Upon the Bhor 
Ghdt, about four years were spent in 
preliminaries, and the works were 
completed in five years from the date 
of their commencement. 

The beautiful scenery of the moun- 
tains, and the remarkable character of 
the incline, make the passage of the 
Bhor Gh&t one of the most remarkable 
stages in Indian travel. In conse- 
quence of the reversing station, one 
portion of the incline is nearly parallel 
to and much above the other, both 
being, as it were, terraced 1400 ft. 
directly over the Konkan. In some 
parts the line is one half on rock 
benching, while the other half consists 
of a very lofty embankment, some- 
times retained by a wall of masonry. 
In other places, on account of the 
enormous height, embankment is im- 
possible, and while half the width of 
the railway is on rock benching, the 
other half rests on vaulted arches. 



The viaduct that crosses the Mhau ki 
Mall Khind is 163 ft. high above the 
footing, and consists of eight semi- 
circular arches of 50 ft. span. On the 
whole the traveller will here find much 
to astonish and delight him. 

At 1350 ft. above the sea the train 
halts for 10 minutes at the reversing 
station ; goods trains halt 20 min. ; the 
halt in both cases being for the engine 
to go to the other end. 

KhanddlA. — This beautiful village 
has for more than 20 years been a 
favourite retreat for the wealthy inha- 
bitants of Bombay from the distressing 
heat of the summer months. It pre- 
sents so many attractions to the tourist 
and tiie sportsman that as many days 
as can be spared may well be given to 
it. The village itself is large, and, 
now that the railway is open, must 
extend rapidly. The second bangld 
reached is one on the left of the road, 
built by Greneral Dickenson, of the 
Bombay Engineers, who did much to 
make the place known, and to improve 
the roads. The site of this bangld is 
well chosen. It overlooks a tremen- 
dous ravine, the sheer depth of which 
is in great part concealed by luxuriant 
trees. At the bottom winds a small 
silvery stream. This ravine harbours 
many wild beasts, and at night tigers, 
leopards, and bears ascend the steep 
sides, and are often seen even under 
the vrindows of the bangl&s. The 
natives, when they get sight of them, 
raise wild shouts to scare them away ; 



Sect. II. 



Baute 3.— The Waterfall— Kdrlt 



173 



and these cries, echoing among the 
hills, and a knowledge of the purpose 
for which they are raised, have a not 
very encouraging effect on the lonely 
wayfarer. About a quarter of a mile 
from this stands the traveller's bangla, 
also on the edge of the ravine ; and 
on the right is a large tank, adjoining 
which is the bangld of Sir Jamshidji 
JijibhAl. Leading past this, to the 
East, is a road to a magnificent hill 
called the Duke's Nose, whence is a 
fine view over the Konkan, similar to 
those at Mdther^, already described. 
Beyond the tank is the village of 
Khanddld ; and stiU further on the 
Kdrli road is the beautiful wood of 
Lanauli, where wild boar and othey 
game may be found. A gentleman 
riding in this direction some years 
ago came upon a party of seven large 
wolves, who, however, did not attack 
or pursue him. 

The Tr«^^//aZZ. — Distant from the 
traveller's bangld about half a mile on 
the opposite side of the ravine, is a 
much admired waterfall. To reach it 
it is necessary to go about a mile and 
a half in order to get round the head 
of a watercourse. In doing this the 
site of a bangld is passed, once the 
residence of Mountstuart Elphinstone, 
Governor of Bombay. The foundation 
alone remains. In the monsoon the 
distant view of the Fall from the top 
of the GhAt is very fine. There are 
then two cataracts, divided into upper 
and lower by a short interval. The 
upper cataract has a sheer fall of 300 ft. 

The European burial ground is 
beside the tank, and is rather thickly 
tenanted. Here is buried Mr. Graham, 
who was the principal founder of the 
Botanical Garden at Bombay, and 
whose researches in the neighbourhood 
of the EhanddU Gh^t were marked 
with much success. 

At the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, the road to EhanddU was very 
steep and difficult, and infested vTith 
wild beasts. Up this road the Duke 
of Wellington got his reinforcements 
and supplies when marching on Fund. 
At Lanauli, 79J m. from Bombay, 
20 min. are allowed for dinner, for 
which the charge is Rs. 2 without 



drinkables. Here is the G. I. P. Rail- 
way Company's School and Church, 
and from this place or from Ehandala 
the tall precipice called the Duke's 
Nose, which is about 4 m. off, may 
be visited. The ascent is by the S. 
shoulder, and is very steep. 

K&rli,* — The traveller's next halting 
place must be Edrli, where is a tra- 
veller's bangl4 and a barrack for 200 
men, v^th a small village to the right, 
hid among trees. The celebrated caves 
are on a UU about two miles to the N. 
of the bangld. 

The following is from Mr. Fergusson's 
description of the KArli cave f: — " The 
great cave of Kdrll is, without excep- 
tion, the largest and finest chaitya 
cave in India, and was excavated at a 
time when the style was in its greatest 
purity, and is fortunately the best 
preserved. Its interior dimensions 
are 124 ft. 3 in. in total length, 81 ft. 

3 in. length of nave. Its breadth from 
wall to wall is 45 ft. 6 in., while the 
width of the central aisle is 25 ft. 7 
in. The height is only 46 ft. from the 
floor to the apex. The same writer says, 
" The building resembles an early Chris- 
tian church in its arrangements, while 
all the dimensions are similar to those 
of the choir of Norwich Cathedral." 
The nave is separated from the side aisles 
by 15 columns with octagonal shafts on 
each side, of good design and workman- 
ship. On the abacus which crowns the 
capital of each of these are two kneeling 
elephants, and on each elephant are 
two seated figures, generally a male and 
female, with their arms over each 
other's shoulders ; but sometimes two 
female figures in the same attitude. 
The sculpture of these is very good, 
and the effect particularly rich and 
pleasing. Behind the altar are 7 plain 
octagonal piers without sculpture, 
making thus 37 pillars altogether, ex- 
clusive of the Lion-pillar in front, 
which is 16-sided, and is crowned with 

4 lions with their hinder parts joined. 
The chaitya is plain and very similar 
to that in the large cave at Ajayanti 



* Mr. Burgess writes KarlS and KArle (see 
Cave Temples of India," pp. 218, 219). 
t " Roek-cut Temples ol India," page 27. 



174 



JRoute 3. — Boinhay to Khanddld and Kdrli, Sect II. 



(Ajiinta), but here, fortunately, a part 
of the wooden umbrella which sur- 
mounted it remains. The wooden ribs 
of the roof, too, remain nearly entire, 
proving beyond doubt that the roof is 
not a copy of a masonry arch ; and 
the framed screen, filling up a portion 
of the great arch in front, lie the 
centering of the arch of a bridge (which 
it much resembles), still retains the 
place in which it was originally placed. 
At some distance in advance of the 
arched front of this cave is placed a 
second screen, which exists only here 
and at the great cave at Salsette, 
though it might have existed in front 
of the oldest chaitya caves at Ajayanti 
(Ajunta). It consists of two plam oc- 
tagonal columns with pilasters. Over 
these is a deep plain mass of wall, oc- 
cupying the place of an entablature, 
and over this again a superstructure 
of four dwarf pillars. Except the 
lower piers, the whole of this has been 
covered with wooden ornaments ; and, 
by a careful examination and measure- 
ment of the various mortices and foot- 
ings, it might still be possible to make 
out the greater part of the design. It 
appears, however, to have consisted 
of a broad balcony in front of the 

Elain wall, supported by bold wooden 
rackets from the two piers, and either 
roofed or having a second balcony 
above it. No part of the wood, how- 
ever, exists now, either here or at 
Salsette. It is more than probable, 
however, that this was the music gal- 
lery or Na^dra E^^nah, which we still 
find existing in front of almost all 
Jain temples, down even to the present 
day. Whether the space between this 
outer and the inner screen was roofed 
over or not is extremely difficult to 
decide. To judge from the mortices 
at Salsette, the space there would seem 
to have had a roof ; but here the evi- 
dence is by no means so distinct, 
though there is certainly nothing to 
contradict the supposition. There are 
no traces of painting in this cave, 
though the inner wall has been plas- 
tered, and may have been painted; 
but the cave is inhabited, and the con- 
tinued smoke of cookings fires has so 
blackened its walls that it is impos- 



sible to decide the question. Its inha- 
bitants ate Shivites, and the cave is 
considered a temple dedicated to Shiva, 
the Dahgopa performing the part of a 
gigantic lingam, which it resembles a 
g(X)d deal. The outer porch is 52 ft. 
wide and 16 deep. Here originally the 
fronts of 3 elephants in each end wall 
supported a frieze ornamented with the 
rail, but at both ends this 2nd rail has 
been cut away to introduce figures. 
Above was a thick quadrantal mould- 
ing, and then a rail with small fa9ades of 
temples, and pairs of figures like those 
at Kudd 45 m. S. of Bombay, for 
which see " Cave Temples of India,*' 
p. 207. The figures are a man, a 
woman, and a dwarf. 

" It would be of great importance if 
the age of this cave could be positively 
fixed ; but though that cannot quite be 
done, it is probably antecedent to the 
Christian era ; and at the same time it 
cannot possibly have been excavated 
more than two hundred years before 
that era. From the Silasthamba (pil- 
lar) on the left of the entrance, Colonel 
Sykes copied an inscription, which Mr. 
Mnsep deciphered in the sixth volume 
of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. 
It merely says, ' This lion pillar is the 
gift of Ajmitra Ukas, the son of Saha 
Ravisabhoti ; ' the character Prinsep 
thinks that of the first or second cen- 
tury B.C. From its position and im- 
port, the inscription appears to bo 
integral, and the column is certainly a 
part of the original design." 

According to a letter from Dr. Bird 
to Mr. Fergusson, one inscription at 
Kdrli is " of the 20th year of Datthama 
Hara, otherwise called Dattagamini, 
king of Ceylon, B.C. 163." Mr. Fer- 
gusson did not see this inscription ; 
and could not tell therefore whether it 
is integral or not, nor in what cha- 
racter it is written ; but thinks that 
unless other circumstances confirm the 
identity, dependence ought not to be 
placed upon the nominal similarity of 
a king at so great a distance. In his 
work on " The Caves of Western India," 
Dr. Bird makes no mention of this 
inscription. Dr. Stevenson (Bombay 
Asiatic Society's Journal, vol. 5) gives 
70 B.C. as the date of the great cave 



Sect. IT. 



Emite 3. — Kdrli, 



175 



temple at Kdrlen * executed according ; above date to be at all near the truth, 
to this writer by the Emperor Devab- 
hiiti, under the care of Xeaocrates 
(DhanukAkatA or Dhenukakati). The 
same authority says that in 326 A.D. 
the village of Karanja on the Gh&ts 
was made over to the monks at K4rlen 
by the two great military commanders, 
who in the struggles between the regal 
Satraps and Magadh emperors, had 
most likely wrested the adjacent ter- 
ritory from the former, and resigned 
it to the latter. About the same time 
the Buddha on the left of the entrance, 
where these inscriptions are found, 
was probably executed. Dr. Steven- 
son adds that in A.D. 342 the monastery 
cave at E&rlen was excavated by a 
mendicant devotee. But Mr. Thomas 
(«« Prinsep Papers," vol. ii. p. 254) 
doubts the accuracy of these dates.f 

" In disposition and size, and also 
in detail as far as similarity can be 
traced between a cave entirely covered 
with stucco and painted, and one which 
either never had, or has lost both these 
ornaments, this cave," says Mr. Fer- 
gusson, "is so similar to the two at 
Ajanta, which I had before placed 
about this age, and on the front of it 
there is also the reeded ornament, 
which is so common at Ehandagiri, 
and only exists there, and in the oldest 
caves at Ajanta ; that from all these 
circumstances I am inclined to think 
the above date, 163 B.C. is at least ex- 
tremely probable, though by no means 
as a date to be implicitly relied upon," 
" It is to this cave more especially," 
says the same writer, " that the remark 

applies that I made (p. 6) that the 

chaitya caves seem at once to have 

sprung to perfection ; for whether we 

adopt the Mahawanso for our guide, 

or Ashoka's inscriptions, it' is evident 

that this country, under the name of 

Haharatthan in the former, and Pite- 

nika in the other, is one of the uncon- 
verted countries to which missionaries 

were sent in the tenth year of Ashoka's 

reign ; and if, therefore, we assume the 

* This is the form of 8i)elliiig Kirli adopted 
always by Dr. Stevenson. 

t Mr. Burgess (" Cave Temples of India," 
p. 2SS), says : " We shall probably not be far 
wrong in placing the excavation of these caves 
uutenor to the Uhnstian era." 



a century had scarcely elapsed between 
the conversion of the country and the 
execution of this splendid monument. 
There is nothing in the Vihdras here 
or elsewhere, which I have placed 
about the same date, that might not 
have been elaborated from a natural 
cavern in that period ; but there is a 
complication of design in this that quite 
forbids the supposition ; and it must 
either be brought down to a much more 
modern epoch, or it must be admitted 
to be a copy of a structural building ; 
and even then but half the difficulty is 
got over. Was that structural building 
a temple of the Brihmans or Buddh- 
ists? was it designed or invented 
since the death of Sakya Sinha? or 
did it belong to a former religion ? and 
lastly, if we are correct in supposing 
cave-digging to have commenced only 
subsequent to Ashoka's reign, why, 
while the vih^ras were still so small 
and so insignificant, was so great a 
work undertaken in the rock 1 

"It would be a subject of curious 
inquiry to know whether the wood 
work now existing in this cave is that 
originally put up or not. Accustomed 
as I had long been to the rapid de- 
struction of everything wooden in 
India, I was half inclined to be angry 
when the idea first suggested itself to 
me ; but a calmer survey of the matter 
has convinced me that it is. Certain 
it is that it is the original design, for 
we find it repeated in stone in all the 
niches of the front, and there is no 
appearance of change or alteration in 
any part of the roof. Every part of it 
is the same as is seen so often repeated 
in stone in other and more modem 
caves, and it must, therefore, have been 
put up by the Buddhists before they 
were expelled ; and if we allow that 
it has existed 800 or 1000 years, which 
it certainly has, there is not much 
greater improbability in its having 
existed near 2000 years, as I believe to 
be the case. As far as I could ascer- 
tain the wood is teak. Though ex- 
posed to the atmosphere, it is pro- 
tected from the rain, and has no strain 
upon it but its own weight, as it does 
not support the roof, though it appears 



176 



Eoute 3. — Bombay to KJutnddld and Kdrh, 



Sect. II. 



to do so ; and the rock seems to have 
defied the industry of the white ants." 

Mr. Fergnsson appends to his notice 
of this " decidedly the finest chaitya 
cave in India," a general description 
of the arrangement of such caves. He 
observes that the disposition of parts 
is exactly the same as those of the 
choir of a Gothic round, or polygonal 
apse cathedral. Across the front there 
is always a screen with a gallery over 
it, occupying the place of the rood-loft, 
on which we now place our organs. 
In this there are 3 doors ; one, the 
largest, opening to the nave, and one 
to each of the side aisles. Over the 
screen the whole front of the cave is 
open to the air, being one vast win- 
dow, stilted so as to be more than a 
semicircle in height, or, generally, of 
a horse-shoe form. The whole light 
falls on the dahgopa, which is exactly 
opposite, in the place of the altar, 
while the colonnade around and behind 
is less perfectly lit, the pillars being 
veiy close together. To a person 
standing near the door there appeared 
nothing behind the dahgopa but " il- 
limitable gloom." The writer above- 
mentioned thinks that a votary was 
never admitted beyond the colonnade 
under the front, -the rest of the temple 
being devoted to the priests and the 
ceremonies, as in China, and in Catho- 
lic churches, and he therefore never 
could see whence the light came, and 
stood in comparative shade himself, so 
that the effect was greatly heightened. 
To the description above given it is 
only requisite to add that the hill in 
which the caves are is very steep, and 
about 600 ft. high from the plain. A 
huge round cliff like a tower shuts in 
the view in one direction. The guides 
call the male and female figures in the 
portico, hairdgiSy or devotees. The 
figure on the dahgopa they call Dhar- 
ma Bdj&, the Hindii Minos. 

Besides the great cave at Kdrll, 
there are a number of vihdras, hut 
small and very insignificant compared 
with it ; and this, Mr. Fergusson 
thinks, is a proof of their antiquity. 
For at first the vihdras were mere 
cells, where, as Fa-hian says, " the Ar- 
hats sat to meditate," and as the reli- 



gion was corrupted, became magnifi- 
cent halls and temples. Such are the 
vihdras at Ajayantl. The principal 
vihdra at E&rli is 3 tiers in height. 
They are plain halls with cells, but 
without any internal colonnades, and 
the upper one alone possesses a veran- 
dah. The lower fronts have been 
swept away by great masses of rock 
which have rolled from above. Near 
this is a small temple to Bhav&ni, with 
the figure of a tortoise in front of the 
murti, or " image," which is that of a 
moon-faced female with huge eyes. 
There is a small village at the foot of 
the hUl, in which the caves arej caUed 
Ekvlra, and from this the great cave 
is sometimes called the Cave of Ekvfra. 

Besides the caves, the traveller, 
while at Earli, may also visit the hill 
forts of Logarh and 'Isdptir (see Grant 
Duff, pp. 13, 14), which are at an 
elevation of 1200 ft. above the plain, 
with a sheer scarp of 200 ft. Logarh 
was taken by Malik Ahmad from the 
Mardthas in 1485 A.D., and by Shivaji 
in 1648, and again by the same chief in 
1670. It was here that the widow qt 
NAnd Famavls took refuge from the 
time of Amfit Rdo's coming to Fund 
on the 12th November, 1802, to March 
15th, 1804, when General Wellesley, 
according to the proposal of Dhondd 
BalaJ Kil'ad^, of Loga^h, guaranteed 
to her her safety, and an annual pen- 
sion of 12,000 rupees. Loga^h was 
twice taken by the English with little 
difficulty. 

Caves of Bhdjcb and Bedsd, — Bhdj4 
is a village 2 m. S. of Kdrll, and Beds4 
is 5^ m. E. of Bhdjd. A full account 
of tiiese places will be found in " Cave 
Temples of India," pp. 223, 228. The 
Bhdjd Cave dates from 200 B.C. There 
are 18 excavations, and No. 12 is one 
of the most interesting in India. 
Bedsd dates a little later than Bhdjd. 

In the Journal of the Bombay Asiat. 
Soc. for May, 1844, Art. vi., some ac- 
count is given of these caves by Mr. 
Westergaard, who writes to Dr. Bird 
as follows : " I have just returned from 
a visit to the caves in the neighbour- 
hood of E4rl{, and I am led to suppose 
that the minor caves at Bedsd and Bhdjd 
might possibly have escaped your 



Sect. II» 



Horde 4. — Kdrli to Fund. 



177 



notice. I take the liberty to send yon 
a short description with copies of the 
few inscriptions there ; hoping that 
you will not refuse this small contri- 
bution to your most important and in- 
teresting work on the Caves of West- 
ern India. The caves at Bedsa are 
situated about 6 m. S.W. from War- 
g^n. The plan of the temple resem- 
bles K&rll, but is neither of so great 
extent, nor so well executed, and ap- 
pears more modem. It contains a 
dahgop ; and its roof, which is ribbed 
and supported by 26 octagonal pillars 
10 ft. high, seems to have been covered 
with paintings, which are now, how- 
ever, 80 indistinct that nothing can be 
made out of them. There are 4 pillars 
about 25 ft. high in front, surmounted 
by a group of horses, bulls, and ele- 
phants. The first pillar supports a 
horse and a bull, with a male and 
female rider ; the next, 3 elephants 
and 1 horse, 2 of the elephants having 
a male and female rider ; the 3rd, 3 
horses and 1 elephant, a male and fe- 
male rider being placed on 2 of the 
horses ; and the 4th pillar is sur- 
mounted by 2 horses bearing a male 
and female rider. The hall of instruc- 
tion, which is of an oval shape, has a 
vaulted roof, and is situated close to 
the temple. It contains 11 small cells, 
and over the door of one of them 
there is an indistinct and partly de- 
faced inscription, which will be imme- 
diately noticed. 

<* The caves of Bhdji are situated 3 
m. S.B. from the village of KArli. The 
principal temple contains a dahgop, 
but no sculptures, and has its roof sup- 
ported by 27 plain pillars. Outside 
there is a group executed in has reliefs 
now much defaced. On both sides of 
the chapel the hill has been excavated 
into two stories, corresponding with 
the height of the temple, and contain- 
ing the usual ludls of instruction, with 
cells. But the most curious of the 
sculptures is a collection of 14 dahgops, 
5 of which are inside and the others 
outside the cave. On the first of the 
latter there is an inscription. The 
group of horses, bulls, and elephants, 
on the 4 pillars in front of the arched 
cave at Qedsd resembles what we 

IBombay—lSSO,] 



find on the Indo-Mithraic coins of 
the N., and is evidence, were no other 
proofs procurable, that such belongs 
to the worship of the sun. 

*' The first inscription from the BedsA 
cave, described as executed over the 
door of a small cell, may be translated 
— 'By an ascetic of N&shika, resembling 
the purified Saint (Buddha), the pri* 
mssval heavenly great one.' 

"The second inscription from the 
same caves, said to be over a well, 
may be translated — ' A righteous gift 
of a small offering to the moving power 
(body), the intellectual principle, the 
cherishing material body, the offspring 
of Manu, the precious jewel, the su- 
preme heavenly one here." 

** The inscription on the first of the 
9 dahgopas outside the cave, may be 
translated — * The resting-places of th^ 
preserver dwelling in the elements.* 
The next inscription from the Bh&jd 
caves is said to be over a well, and 
may be translated — *The righteous 
gift of a symbol and vehicle of the pu- 
rified Saka SaJka, the resting-place of 
the giver.' The last inscription which 
is given is not quite so distinct as the 
others. It may be translated — * A gift 
to the vehicle of Bdddha (the perfect 
one), the[Sugata (Buddha) eternally 
gone.' " 



ROUTE 4. 

kAeli to punA. 

Wargdon,—l&igh.t m. to the N.B. 
of Taleg&on, which is 98 m. from 
Bombay, is the very large and flour- 
ishing village of Wai^don, celebrated 
for the defeat of a British force 
under Lieut.-Col. Cockbum, on the 
12th and 13th of January, 1779, and 
for a disgraceful convention concluded 

IT 



178 



JRoiUe 4. — £arli to Fund, 



Sect. II. 



there by Mr. Camac with the Mard- 
thas. The history of the affair is briefly 
thus : The Governor of Bombay, Mr. 
Hornby, had agreed with the Ex- 
Feshw4 Raghon^th B4o to place him 
at PaD4 (Qrant Duff's "^Uar^has," 
vol. ii. p. 363) as regent, and sent a force 
of 3900 men, of whom 591 were Euro- 
peans, to carry out the agreement. 
With this little army went a trium- 
virate of 2 civil officers and Col. Eger- 
ton to direct operations. One of the 
civilians, Mr. Mostyn, was sent back 
sick, and died on the 1st of Jan. at 
Bombay, without ever attending the 
committiee. Mr. Camac, as president 
with the casting vote, had now the full 
power. The force advanced from Pan- 
well to EhanddU, where Lieut.-Col. 
Cay was killed by a rocket, the ene- 
my's advanced guard having com- 
menced an attack as soon as the troops 
surmounted the Ghdt. At K4rli, Cap- 
tain Btewart, a most gallant officer, 
who, by his conspicuous courage on 
many occasions, had won from the 
Mardthas the soubriquet of Stewart 
PhAkr6, or Stewart the Hero, was 
killed by a cannon ball. The Mard- 
tha main army, which was commanded 
by N^n& Famavis and Mahiddji Sind- 
hia, Hari Pant Pharke, and Tukoji 
Holkar, advanced to Taleg^n, but 
retired on the advance of the British, 
having first destroyed the village. Col. 
Egerton now resigned the command 
to Lieut. -Col. Cockbum, and shortly 
after, Mr. Camac becoming alarmed, 
proposed to retreat. On the night of 
the 11th of January the heavy guns 
were thrown into a tank, a quantity of 
stores were burned, and the retreat 
commenced. At 2 a.m. the Mard^has 
began an attack, plundered part of the 
baggage, and shortly after completely 
surrounded the army. The fiercest 
onset was made upon the rear-guard, 
which, but for the heroism of its com- 
mander. Captain James Hartley, would 
have been cut to pieces. Animated by 
his harangues, the Sipdhis repulsed the 
enemy till 10 A.M., when Col. Cock- 
bom sent peremptory orders to retreat 
— orders which would have been fatal 
had they been obeyed. But they were 
disregarded, and the troops main- 



tained the contest until a favourable 
opportunity presented itself of falling 
l>ack on Wargdon. The total loss on 
this day was 352, among whom were 
15 European officers, killed and 
wounded. Col. Cockbum now declared 
that further retreat was impracti- 
cable, and that the army was at the 
mercy of the Mardthas ; and this pu- 
sillanimous conduct was vainly com- 
bated by the gallant Hartley. Mr. 
Camac sent Mr. Holmes to make terms 
with the enemy, and was not ashamed 
afterwards to declare that he granted 
the powers to that gentleman, under a 
mental reservation that they were of 
no validity. The terms agi^eed upon 
were that everything should be restored 
to the Mard^has as held by them in 
1773 ; that the committee should send 
an order to the Bengal column, ad- 
vancing to their support, to halt ; that 
the English share of Bhardch should 
be given to Sindhia ; and 41,000 rs. to 
his servants. However, as soon as the 
committee were safe down the Ghdts, 
they broke faith, by countermanding 
the order to the Bengal troops, though 
the Mardthas held 2 hostages, Mr. Far- 
mer and Lt. Stewart, for the due per- 
formance of the treaty. For this dis- 
graceful convention and retreat Col. 
Egerton, Col. Cockbum, and Mr. Car- 
nac were dismissed the service. It 
was at Wargdoii that Captain Vaugh- 
an of the 15th Madras N. I. and his 
brother, a cadet, were intercepted by 
the Mardthas after the battle of Khir- 
ki, and, having been ^' driven forward 
in the most insulting manner " * to Ta- 
legdon, were there craelly hanged on 
a tree on the Pund side of the road. 

Ckinc?m-adf*^ Chinchore." — This vil- 
lage is 109 m. from Bombay, where re- 
sides a Brdhman who is worshipped 
as an incarnate god. The village has 
a picturesque appearance from the 
river side.t Above the handsome flight 
of stone steps which leads to the river 
Miild, are many fine trees, but the 
temple is low and devoid of ornament. 
LordValentia has given an account 
of his visit to this place in 1804, and 
Mrs. Grahame of hers on December 

* BUcker's " Mardtha War," p. 71, ed. 1821. 
t " Chow-Chow," vol L p. 292. 



Sect. II. 



Route 4. — Khirkt 



179 



19th, 1809,* when she saw the boy 
who was then Deo or god, *'not anyway 
distinguished from other children, but 
by an anxious wildness of the eyes, 
said to be occasioned by the quantity 
of opium which he is daily made to 
swallow." Lady Falkhmd in 1848 
▼isited the place, but did not see the 
god, who was out on a tour. An ac- 
count of the origin of this ^* exti*aordi- 
nary imposture " is given by Col. Sykes 
in vol. iii. ^' Trans. Lit. Soc. of Bom- 
bay," art. iv. p. 64. About two cen- 
turies and a half ago a poor couple 
obtained the promise of a son to soothe 
their declining years, from Gai^pati, 
the Hindii god of wisdom. The boy 
was named MorobA, in honour of the 
god, this being one of his titles. 
Shortly after ^ birth the parents 
moved to Pippalg^A, about 4 m. from 
Ohinchwad, where they died ; and 
Morobd then came to T&ti!ir close to 
Ghinchwad, and spent 22 years in 
prayer and pilgrimage. At the end 
of this time he restor^ a blind girl to 
sight, and Shivaji, whose career was 
then commencing, was induced by the 
fame of this miracle to seek a cure for 
a disorder of his eyes from the new 
saint. The cure was effected, and 
Morobd's name became widely cele- 
brated. He then quitted Tdtdr, and 
took up his residence in a jungle which 
then covered the site of Chinchwad. 
Here Ganpati appeared to him, and 
promised him as a reward for his piety 
to be incarnate in him and his de- 
scendants for seven generations. Va- 
rious miraculous circumstances fol- 
lowed, such as the emerging of a 
sacred conical stone from the earth 
close to Morobi, and ended in his be- 
ing revered as a 'god. After a long 
career he buried himself alive in a sit- 
ting posture, with a holy book in his 
hand, and with a strict command that 
his resting place should never be dis- 
turbed. Morob4 was succeeded by his 
son Chintdman Deo, in attestation of 
whose divinity a second conical stone 
emerged from the earth. He had 8 
wives and 8 sons, and was succeeded 
by Ndriyaoi Deo, whose fame having 



« If 



Joamal of Residence in India," jf. 70. 



reached Dilli, the Emperor 'Alamglr, 
to test his godship, sent him as an 
offering a piece of cow's flesh wrapped 
up in many cloths. On being opened, 
after Ndrdyan bad sprinkled it with 
holy water, it was found changed to a 
bouquet of jessamine flowers ; and 
'Alamg^ was so pleased with the mi- 
racle that he presented 8 villages in 
perpetuity to the god for his support. 
To Ndrdyan succeeded Chintdtnan 
Deo II. ; to him Dharmadhar, and to 
him Chintiman Deo III., who was fol- 
lowed by Ndr4y an U. This last brought 
down a curse upon the family by open- 
ing the grave of Morobd, who impre- 
cated childlessness upon the intruder ; 
and, in consequence, Dharmadhar, the 
son of N&rdyan IL , died without issue. 
The Brdhmans, however, were deter- 
mined to keep alive the deceit, and 
adopted for the god a distant relative 
named Sdkhdri ; and as long as the 
contributions of votaries supply the 
means of giving monthly dinners to 
select parties, and annual entertain- 
ments to unlimited numbers, as is now 
the case, the imposture will flourish. 

Xliirki (Kirkee). — The next place tq 
stop at is Khifkl, 115 J m.from Bombay, 
and only 3} m. from Fund. The word 
Khirki signifles ^'a window," but also 
a sally-port. It is interesting as being 
the scene of a splendid victory over 
Bdji Rdo, the last Peshwd. On the Ist 
of November, 1817, the dispositions of 
that prince had become so threaten- 
ing, that Mr. Elphinstonc, then Besi- 
dent at Fund, determined to remove 
the troops from the cantonment of 
that place to Khij*kl, where, on the 5th, 
they took up a good |X)sition to the 
east of an eminence, on which stands 
the village of Khiykl, and where the 
stores and ammunition were stationed, 
under the protection of the battalion 
companies of the 2nd battalion of the 
6th Begiment. In the rear of the 
troops was the river Muld, and from 
the S. and W. advanced the masses of 
the Peshwd's army, amounting to 8000 
foot, 18,000 horse, and 14 guns,* be- 
sides a reserve of 5000 horse and 2000 
foot with the Peshwd, at the sacred 

* Grant Duff, voL iii. p. 427. 

n2 



180 



Houte 4. — Karli to Fund. 



Sect. II.- 



hill of P^bati. The cantonments at 
Puni and the Residency at the San- 
pram, on the site of which now stands 
the Judicial Commissioner's office, had 
been plundered and burnt on the 1st, 
as soon as the English troops quitted 
them. One regiment of Major Ford's 
brigade was at DApdri, and the total 
Rtrength of the English, even when 
ihat joined, was, according to Grant 
Duff, but 2800 rank and file, of which 
800 were Europeans. Colonel Burr, a 
good and gallant officer, but almost 
disabled by paralysis, commanded this 
little army, and formed them, with the 
Bombay European regiment, a detach- 
ment of H.M. 65th, Sie Resident's es- 
cort, and part of the 2nd battalion of 
the 6tii N. L, in the centre ; on the 
right flank, the 2nd battalion of the 
1st K. I. ; and on the left the 1st bat- 
talion of the 7th N. I. Gokl& com- 
manded the Peshwd's army, and its 
advance is compared by Grant Duff, 
who was an eye-witness, to the rush- 
ing tide called the Bhor in the Gulf of 
Khambdyat. It swept all before it, 
tramplii^ down the hedges, and fields 
of standing corn which then covered 
the plain. Colonel Burr was now in- 
formed that Major Ford was advanc- 
ing with his regiment, the PeshwA's 
own, from DApdrl on the W., to join 
him ; and in order to facilitate the 
junction, he moved the main force to 
a position about a mile in advance, 
and to the S.W. of the village of 
Khirki. The Mardtha leaders had been 
tampering for some time with the re- 
pfiment that was moving from Ddpiirl, 
and they fully expected it would come 
over, as it was paid by the Peshwd. 
A strong body of horse, therefore, 
under Moro Dikshat, the prime minis- 
ter of the PeshwA, advanced about 4 
P.M. upon the Ddpilirl battalion, but 
Major Ford, throwing back his right 
wing, opened a heavy fire upon the 
Mar&t^as, both of musketry and from 
3 small guns commanded by Captain 
Thew. A good many Mardthas fell, 
and among them Moro Dikshat, who 
was struck by a cannon shot in the 
mouth. It is remarkable that this 
chief, who was an excellent man and 
a&dthfnl servant of his prince, had 



several times endeavoured to persuade 
Major Ford of the hopeless nature of 
the contest for the British ; and, find- 
ing that officer determined to side with 
his countrymen, had asked for and ob- 
tained a promise of protection to his 
family in case he should fall, engaging 
to do the same for Major Ford's family 
in case the Peshw4 triumphed. It need 
scarcely be added thatMajor Ford faith- 
folly performed his agreement to the 
children of the gallant Mardthd leader. 
In the meantime, Gokld had organised 
an attack on the left flank of the Eng- 
lish main force, and this was led by a 
regular battalion commanded by a 
Portuguese named De Pento ; and, 
after his discomfiture, a select body of 
6000 horse, with the Jari PatkA, or 
golden pennon, flying at their head, 
charged the 7th N.I. as they were 
pursuing De Pento's men. Gokld's 
horse was wounded in this charge, and 
his advance was stopped ; but there 
were other gallant leaders, such as 
NAni Pant Apt6 and Mahadeo RAo 
Rdstia ; and it was well for the Sipd- 
hls that a swamp in their front checked 
the charge of the Mardthas, whose 
horsemen rolled headlong over one 
another in the deep slough. As it was, 
some cut their way tlm>ugh the Si- 
pAhi battalion ; but, instead of tom- 
mg back, when they might have de- 
stroyed the regiment, they rode off to 
plunder the village of Khirki, whence 
they were repulsed by a fire of grape. 
After this charge, the MarA^has drew 
off with a total loss of about 500 men, 
while that of the English was but 86. 
On the 13th, General Smith's army 
arrived from Sinir, and the PeshwA, 
after a slight resistance, put his army 
in full retreat. The most remarkable 
point in the battle of Ehirkl is, per- 
haps, the extraordinary steadiness of 
Major Ford's regiment under great 
temptation. In it were upwards of 70 
Mai&thas, yet not a man deserted on 
the day of battle, though promised 
vast sums to join their countrymen. 
After the action, the Marathas, but 
only the Mardthas, joined the enemy, 
and many of them being subsequently 
captured, their culpability, such as it 
was, was very properly ignored, and 



Sect. II. 



Route 4. — KhirJcu 



181 



■they were set free. A further proof of 
the fidelity of this corps to its officers 
must not be overlooked. On crossing 
the river from Dapiirl it waa found 
impossible to get the guns to move, as 
the bullocks could not draw them out 
of the bed of the stream. Captain 
Thew, commanding the guns, an- 
nounced this to Captain Lodwick, the 
brigade major, who immediately or- 
dered the light battalion to t^e the 
drag ropes and extricate the guns. 
The Sipdhis, though men of the highest 
caste, obeyed this order with the ut- 
most alacrity, much to the surprise of 
the artillery officer, who fully expected 
them to mutiny. Upon the whole, it 
must be admitted that the Ddpiiri 
regiment decided the fate of the day. 
The officers with it were Major Ford, 
conomanding ; Capt. afterwards Gene- 
ral Lodwick, brigade major ; Lieut, 
afterwards Colonel Sykes, adjutant ; 
and Captain Thew, commanding the 
guns. 

The railway station at Khijrkl is 881 
yds. N.W. of the church, and the 
church is 625 yds. N.W. of the Artil- 
lery Mess, which has the barracks of 
the soldiers close by to the N. Ehirki 
is in fact the head-quarters of the Ar- 
tillery. 800 yds. to the N.E. of the bar- 
racks is the Small Arms Ammunition 
Factory, the enclosure of which is about 
600 yds. sq. At 220 yds. to the N.E. of 
the Factory are the Powder Works, 
the enclosure of which is 820 yds. long 
from N. to S. and 410 from B. to W. 
The existence of this great store of 
powder so near the barracks of the Ar- 
tillery is a serious matter, for it is said 
that if an explosion took place, not 
a building would be left standing in 
Khirki ; still the traveller may like to 
visit the Factory and the Works, and 
if so, he must obtain permission from 
the Commandant of the Artillery. 
Christ Church, Khirkl, which is in the 
Artillery lines, was consecrated by 
Bishop Carr, in 1841, and has seats for 
600 persons. It is 150 ft. long from 
E. toW., and 75 ft. broad at the chan- 
cel. There is a brass let into the floor 
in front of the W, entrance, and over 
it are 2 Colours. On the brass is in- 
scribed ; — 



In Commemoration of the Past History of 
The 23bd Regiment Bombay Native Light 

hWANTBY, 

The above Coloors are, by permission, 

Placed in this Chiu*ch. 

1870. 

There is another handsome brass in 
front of the reading-desk, to the me- 
mory of Captain Arthur Carey, of the 
R. H. A. This church is remarkable for 
the handsome tablets erected by regi- 
ments to officers and men of their 
corps, who died during service in In- 
dia. Thus there is a tablet to 3 officers 
of the 4th Queen's Own Light Dra- 
goons, who died in Sindh in the Afghan 
campaign of 1838, and one to 30 offi- 
cers of the 14th King^s Light Dra- 
goons, who died between 1841 and 
1869, 26 of whom were killed in ac- 
tion ; and another to 90 non-commis- 
sioned officers of the same regiment, 
who died or were killed during the 
same time. Of these, 3 were killed in 
action at Rdmnagar. There are 2 other 
tablets to officers of the same regiment , 
in which, strangely enough, the names 
are differently spelt. At 120 yds. to 
the N.E. of the Artillery Mess is St. 
Vincent de Paul's Roman Catholic 
Chapel, as it is called in the maps, but 
which was the Protestant Church un- 
til Government gave it over to the 
Catholics. It is 107^ ft. long and 42 ft. 
3 in. broad. One of the most interest- 
ing spots at Khifkl is Holkar's bridge 
over the Muld river, a stream which 
surrounds Khi]:ki to the S.E. and N. 
The river is 200 yds. broad at this spot. 
On the right-hand side as you go to 
Pun4 from Ehirki is an old English 
cemetery, and, on the left of the road, 
about 300 yds. to the N, is the New 
Burial Ground. After crossing the 
Mul4, the road passes on the right, the 
tomb of Kha&de R&o Holkar, and on 
the left are the Sappers and Miners' 
Lines, and to the S. the Dakhan Col- 
lege. In this vicinity the Jamshldji 
Band and the Fitzgerald Bridge may 
be visited. The Band is thrown across 
the Muld river, and on the S. side of 
it are pretty gardens, in which the band 
plays. In the New Burial Ground, as 
yet there are scarcely any tombs. In 
the Old Cemetery there are not many 
tombSy though ^eat nun^bers o| Eng- 



182 



EoiUe 4. — Karli to Fund, 



Sect. IT. 



lishmen have been buried there without 
any record ; but some inscriptions show 
the ravages of cholera in 1865. There 
are also the tombs of seyeral officers of 
the 14th Boyal Hussars and 18th Hus- 
sars, 10th Hussars, and olher cavalry 
regiments, and that of Lieut.-Col. Sus- 
sex Vane Stephenson of the Scots Fusi- 
lier Guards, erected by the officers of 
the Staff of the C. C. Col. Stephenson 
died of cholera in 1872. 

Ddpuri (Dapoorie). — Before leav- 
ing Khifkl, a visit may be paid to 
Ddpiiri. The road, which is the great 
road to Bombay, leads for 2 m. to the 
N.W., running parallel with the rail- 
way. You cross the MulA river by a 
long narrow bridge, and see on your 
left the Fitzgerald Bridge. DdpAri 
was for years the residence of the 
governor, but is now in a wretched 
state of decay. The name is perhaps 
a corruption of IndrApilr, "City of 
Indra," and may be connected with 
the worship of the God at Chinchwad. 
It was here that on the banks of the 
little river PdwanA, " pure stream," 
a tributary of the Muld, Captain, 
afterwards Col. Ford, C.B., built a 
handsome residence, and expended on 
it, and on the beautiful gardens sur- 
rounding it, no less a sum than 
110,000 rs. This officer had long been 
the assistant of Sir Barry Close, and 
was, by his interest, appointed to raise 
and command a brigade of troops, dis- 
ciplined after the English fashion, for 
the PeshwA Bdjl Rdo. This was in 
1812, and the new levies were can- 
toned at DApiiri till 1817, when they 
marched to the aid of Colonel Burr's 
army at the battle of Ehirki, and took 
a prominent part in the engagement. 
During his residence at DApSrl, Major 
Ford was conspicuous for his hospi- 
tality, his house being open to all 
strangers, and his table maintained in 
a princely style. He was also the 
liberal supporter of all charities, and 
was beloved and respected by the 
natives as much as any European who 
ever visited India. It was the declared 
intention of the Peshwi to spare Major 
Ford, had he succeeded at the battle of 
Khiykl. Some time after that victorj', 
hftvin^ fttt^ii^ed his Lt,-CQlpnelcy, h^ 



was attacked with fever and died at 
Bombay. His beautiful residence at 
D&piM was purchased by Sir J. Mal- 
colm for Government for the paltry 
sum of 10,000 rs. Near it are nowiJie 
Botanical Gardens. The principal ban- 
gle contains some fine reception rooms, 
and one, in which the Government 
balls so amusingly described by Lady 
Falkland • were held, is upwards of 80 
ft. long and well proportioned. There 
are besides several detached banglds. 

PuJid.—ThiB capital of the Mardthas 
is 119 m. from Bombay, and lies to 
the S.W. of Khifkl. PunA has a pop. 
according to the census of 1872, of 
90,436 persons, and there is generally 
a large force cantoned there, consist- 
ing of three regiments of European 
infantry, two N.L, and one of light 
cavalry. The first mention we have of 
Pun& is in the Mardtha annals of 1599 
A.D., when the parganahs of Pund and 
Stipa were made over to Maldji Bhoilislc 
(grandfather of Shivaji) by the Nigam 
ShAhl Government. In 1750 it became 
the Mar&tba capital under B&ldji Bdji 
BAo. In 1763 it was plundered and 
destroyed by NigAm 'All, with the 
Mughul army of QaidarAb&d in the 
Dakhan. Here, on the 25th of October, 
Jeswant B&o Holkar defeated the 
combined armies of the PeshwA and 
Sindhia, and captured all the guns, 
baggage, and stores of the latter. The 
city stands in a somewhat treeless 
plain on the right of the MiitA river, a 
little before it joins the Muld. At its 
extreme S. limit is the hill of PArbati, 
so called from a celebrated temple to 
the goddess DurgA or PArvatl. A few 
miles to the E. and N.E. are the hills 
which lead up to the still higher table- 
land in the direction of S&tdrd. The 
station is the principal one under the 
British Government in the Dakhan, 
and is justly a favourite for its salu- 
brity and pleasant climate. There is 
an aqueduct built by one of the 
RAstias, a family of great distinction 
amongst the Mar&thas. There are 
also extensive waterworks, constructed 
by Sir Jamshidji Jijibhdi, which cost 
upwards of £20,000. Of this sum the 

* " Chow-Chow,'* vol. i. p. 228, 



Sect II. 



Route 4. — Fund, 



185 



Pdrsi baronet contributed £17,500. 
Lady FiUkland* pronounces the view 
of Fund from the Sangam, or junction 
of the rivers Muld and Miitd, to be 
*' perfectly enchanting." Supposing 
the traveller to arrive at Puna by the 
railway, he will find the Royal Family 
Hotel almost touching the S.E. side 
of the station. The PunA Hotel, at 
the comer of Band Gardens and 
Lothian Road, is about 800 yds. further 
to the B., in close proximity to the 
Post-office and St. Paul's Church. 
The Napier Hotel is in Arsenal Road, 
and is 400 yds. farther to the S.E. 
This hotel may be strongly recom- 
mended. There is a very good Club 
at Pnn^ to which strangers are ad- 
mitted. It is between the Ordnance 
Lines and Wodehouse Road, and is 
called the Club of W. Indin. Admis- 
sion is by ballot, and the entrance fee 
is Rs. 200. There are billiard rooms 
and a good racquet court. There are 
also a few apartments which are let to 
members for residence. Supposing 
the traveller to be located at any of 
these hotels, his first visit may be to 
the Council Hall, which is 200 yds. to 
the N. of the PunA Hotel. It is 63 ft. 
long and 20 broad, and is hung with 
pictures. In the middle of the left 
end as you enter is a f nll-leng^h por- 
trait of Sir B. Frere, with one of KhAn 
Bah&dur Padamil Pestanji on his 
right. Above is |ChAn BahAdur Nau- 
shirwAnjl. Above that again is Lord 
Napier of Magdala, and on his left 
KhAn Bahddur Pestanji SorAbjl. 
These are followed by portraits of 
FrAmji Patel, the Crown Prince of 
Travankor, Sir MangaldAs NAthub- 
hAi, Dr. Bhau D&jl, the RAjA of 
Kochin, Sir S&lAr Jang, the ThAkors 
of Bhaunagar and Morvl, and at the 
end Ehand^ RAo GAekwAd and Lady 
Frere. Opposite the Council Hall is 
the office of the DaJih^in Herald^ pub- 
lished three times a week. There is 
one other paper, the Puna Observer, 
published every other day alternately 
with the Dakhan Herald, The office 
for it is close to Treacher's Store, and 
the PArsi Fire Temple. The next visit 

* " dlow-Chow," vol. I p. 265. 



will be first to the Sassoon Hospital 
and then to St. Paul's Church, which 
is 200 yds. S.W. of the PunA Hotel, 
and is plain inside, but has 4 very 
handsome stained glass windows over 
the Communion Table. It was conse- 
crated by Bishop Harding in 1867 
There are seats for 230 persons. The 
number of communicants is unusually 
large, and among them may be seen 
In£an women in their native dresses. 
The Sassoon Hospital is at tlie end of 
the Arsenal Road, and is in the 
English Gothic style. There is accom- 
modation for 150 patients. It was 
opened in the year 1867. Opposite the 
hospital are the Collector's Kacheri, the 
Government Treasury, and the Branch 
Bank of Bombay. About 260 yds. S. 
of St. Paul's Church is the Jews' Syna- 
gogue. It is a red-brick building with 
a tower 90 ft. high. It is 90 ft. 9 in. 
long from the entrance to the 
Sanctum, which is semicircular, and 
10 ft. wide. Here is a handsome 
curtain with a Bible and 2 hands 
pointing to it. The hall is 44 ft. 10 in. 
broad and stands E. and W. On the 
left, as you enter, is a tablet with this 
inscription : — 

This is the Oate of the Lord, 

Into which the Righteous shall enter, 

and 

This Stone 

Is set as a Honnment to he a sign 

of this 

House of Prayer, 

called 

The Tent of David. 

The foundation of which was laid 

on the 

2nd of November, 1863, 

by the late 

DAVID SASSOON, ESQ., 

and which was completed under we auspices 

of his Sons. 

Consecrated, 29th September, 1867. 

David Sassoon*s tomb adjoins the sjma- 

gogue, which was built by him. The 

Mausoleum is 16 ft. 7 in. sq. inside 

measure, and 28 ft. high. On the W. 

side is a Hebrew inscription and the 

Sassoon arms. On the E. side is — 

Sacred to the Memory of 

DAVID SASSOON, 

Bom at Baghdad, 

Heshwan, 6, 553: 

Died at Punii, 

Heshwan, 5, 625. 

May his soul rest in peace. 



184 



Houte 4. — Karli to Fund, 



Sect. ir. 



On the S. and N. sides are long He- 
brew inscriptions. Close here, adjoin- 
ing, is Treacher*B shop, where all stores 
can be pnichased« 

A drive of 1} to the S.E. will take 
the traveller to St. Mary's Chnrch, and 
on the way he may stop at the Arsenal 
if he wonld like to see it, which is 
about } m. from St. Paul's Chnrch. 
St Mary*B Chnrch is 118 ft long and 
85 ft. 1 in. broad at the chanceL Here 
arebnried many officers of distinction, 
sach as CoL Morris, C.B., of Balaklava 
celebrity, who died 1858, Lieut C. A. 
Stuart, of the Madras Aimy, who fell 
mortally wounded 28th of January, 
1858, while leading the men of the 
4th Kij^to's infantry for the 3rd time 
against a body of insurgent Bhils, 
strongly posted at Mandwddd Malle- 
g^n. ^ere are tablets also to 5 
officers of the 27th Bombay K.I. and 5 
officers of the 8th Royal regt. of Foot, 
also to Captain Thomas Ramon, who 
died Nov. 5th, 1816. This tablet says, 
" That it is to perpetuate his memory 
in this Christian Temple, designed by 
his genius and reared by his hand ; " 
but, strange to say, he died and was 
buried at Mandeir in Eachh, and the 
tablet was intended for the church at 
Kaira, of which he was the architect. 
There is also a tablet to Lieut. J. W. 
M'Cormack, of H.M.'s 28th, killed at 
the storming of Bet, with 4 N.C. officers 
and 8 men, Oct 6th, 1859. Another 
tablet is to Major Henry C. Teesdale, 
who fell in front of the Colours of the 
25th regt. N.I., when commanding it 
at the battle of Midnf, on the 17th 
of February, 1843. With him are as- 
sociated the names of Lieut C. Lodge, 
killed in action at Kotru in Eja(£h 
Gand&va, on the Ist of December, 
1840 ; of Capt C. Rebenac ; of Ensign 
Browne, killed by accident at Karachi, 
and of 18 other officers of the same 
regt, one of whom, Col. Robertson, 
was C.B. and A.D.C. to the Queen. 
There are also tablets to Lieut. Mal- 
colm G. Shaw, of the 3rd Light 
Cavalry, who died of sunstroke at the 
battle of Beawra, and to Lieut. 
Augustus Charles Frankland, who was 
killed in Persia at the battle of Khus- 
h^b,on the 8th of February, 1857, while 



gallantly chaiging the enemy. Re- 
mark his motto, "Fnmke Lande, 
Franke Mynde," and another to Cap- 
tains Seton and PeUe and 81 K.C. 
officers and privates of the 1st Bombay 
Fuslleers, who died of cholera at 
EariUshi in a very brief period ; (also 
on the same t^let) to Capt. Rawlin- 
son, Lieut A. P. Hunt, and 140 N. C. 
officers and privates, who died before 
the return of the regt. to its Resi- 
dency ; also (on the same tablet) 1st 
Lieut. W. A. Anderson, who was bar- 
barously murdered at Multdn, and to 
22 N.C. officers and privates killed 
during that siege. In this church 
there are 6 tall round pilli»s and 2 
shorter, faced with polished chunam. 
There are also 2 sq. pillars on which 
are tablets. The Baptismal Font is in 
the S.W. comer of the church, and is 
surrounded by handsome stained glass 
windows. St Mary's was consecratctl 
by Bishop Heber in 1825, and has 
seats for 900 persons. Close to the 
church is the United Service Library, 
in which are about 9000 volumes, of 
which 800 are biographical works, 700 
hi8torical,rand 800 works of reference. 
The monthly subscription is 4 rs. To 
the E. of St. Mary's Church are the 
General Parade Ground and Race 
Course, the latter included in the 
former, and about 1 m. long. The 
races are generally run in September, 
The band-stand is at the S.W. comer, 
and close to it are the Gymnasium, St. 
Andrew's Church, and the Masonic 
Lodge, and to the N. are the Ghorpiirl 
European Barracks. To the S. are the 
Wanawrl Barracks. While in this di- 
rection, the old cemetery in East Street 
may be visited, it not being far from 
St Paul's Church. This cemetery is 
not well kept. Observe, first, a hand- 
some stone building with a dome, sup- 
ported by 6 pillars, and a platform 
10 ft. sq. This is evidently the tomb 
of some one of importance, but there 
is no inscription. From 7 other tombs 
in the vicinity the tablets have been 
removed. Here is the tomb of Major 
John Snodgrass, of the 16th regt. N.I., 
who died on the 28th of Dec., 1828. 
Having been arrested for malpractices 
in his department, he was said to 



Sect. II. 



Eoute 4. — Fund, 



185 



have shot himself, and an inquest 
wag held on the body of an Euro- 
pean whose head was too much shat- 
tered to admit of recognition. It 
has beeii strongly assert^, in more 
than one quarter, that this officer 
has since been seen in Europe. Here 
also is interi*ed Maria Jane Jews- 
bury, wife of the Rev. W. K. Flet- 
cher. She died Oct. 4th, 1833. The 
epitaph says, "Endued with genius, 
her name lives in the literature of 
Britain," 

Another day may be spent in 
visiting, first of all the Sangam, which 
has already been referred to. Here is 
the confluence of the Miitd river 
flowing from the S. with the Mul& 
river coming from the N.W. The 
Sangam is due N. of the old city, and 
is reached from Ehirkl by the Wel- 
leslej Bridge, which is 482 ft. long and 
28} ft. broad. It crosses the IdMd 
river just S. of the Sangam. There is 
the following inscription — " The ori- 
ginal wooden structure named in 
honour of the victories obtained in 
the Dakhan by Major-General Arthur 
Wellesley (afterwards F.M. the Duke 
of Wellington, K.G.), constructed by 
Captain Kobert Foster, Bombay Engi- 
neers, at a cost of Rs. 91,892, and 
opened in 1830 by the Honourable 
Major - General Sir John Malcolm, 
G.C.B., Grovemor of Bombay, having 
become decayed and unsafe for traffic, 
was removed, and the present bridge, 
designed and constructed by Colonel 
A. U. H. Finch, R.B., at a cost of 
Bs. 110,932, was opened to the public 
in May, 1876 ; His Excellency the 
Honourable Sir Philip Wodehouse, 
K.O.B., Governor and President in 
Council." 

On the right hand, going to Pund 
from Kbi]*ki, just before you reach 
the Wellesley Bridge, are the Pund 
Engineering College and the Judges' 
Chambers, the latter a long, low build- 
ing, quite plain inside. Here stood 
the Presidency of the British Agent, 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, at the time 
of the rupture with the last Pesliwd, 
Bdji R&o. Mr. Elphinstone retired 
from it to Khipkl before the battle, 
and the Mar^thas plundered the I 



building anji pulled it down. The 
Indians still identify this spot with 
the Peshw&'s rule, and say Bdji Rio's 
throne was here, though the Peshw&'s 
actual residence was in the Fort of 
Pund. The Pund Engineering College 
is to the W. In front of it, but 
hidden by some houses, is an old 
cemetery, the very existence of which 
had been lost sight of by the Euro- 
peans at Pun&. It is enclosed by a 
ruinous wall, broken considerably in 
one place, the whole enclosure being 
about 70 ft. into 50 ft. The ground is 
filthy, and of all the 21 tombs en- 
closed there, one only has an inscrip- 
tion. It is to Mrs. Caroline Lodwick, 
who died Jan. 29th, 1819. One or 
two of the tombs are very large, with 
domes supported by pillars, and no 
doubt belonged to persons of distinc- 
tion. At the W. end of Wellesley 
Bridge is a path to the left, which 
leads dovm to a pretty garden in which 
there are several temples. The first 
is 22 ft. 8 broad at base, built of stones 
averaging 1 yd. long and 1 ft. 5 high, 
most carefully joined together without 
mortar. There are stall's to the top of 
the tower, which is 40 ft. high. The 
garden is filled with fruit trees, the 
produce of which goes to some 
Oosains who do not live on the spot. 
In the middle of the garden is a 2nd 
temple, nearly as broad but not so 
high. A 3rd temple at the end of the 
garden was built by Holkar, who de- 
stroyed % old temples to build it. All 
the temples are to Mah4deo, and, 
though small, are extremely hand- 
some. At 300 yds. from the Engi- 
neering College is Sir Albert Sassoon's 
house, called Garden Reach. It was 
begun by Col. Wilkins, and carried on 
by Mr. Rustamjl Jamshldji JijibhAi, 
who failed, and then Sir Albert bought 
it. It was built between 1862 and 
1864, and cost £80,000. The gardens 
are beautiful and stretch almost to the 
river : 15 gardeners and many la- 
bourers are employed in these gardens, 
in which, besides the principal house, 
are detached bangle for 3 families. 
The rooms in the principal house are 
floored with marble. The floor of the 
ante-cbamber to the dining-room is 



186 



Boute 4. — Karli to Fund, 



Sect. IL 



of Carrara marble, and that of the 
dining-room is of Chinese marble. 
The dining-room is connected with 
the house bj a long, open galloy, and 
is 55 ft. long and 20 broad, with a 
verandah 10 ft. broad on either side. 
Beside it is an open room, the sides of 
which are of carved wood, where the 
family dine during the Feast of 
Tabernacles. Steps lead from the 
dining-room into a billiard-room 34 ft. 
long and 21 broad. You ascend to the 
drawing-room by stairs, and here is 
a good marble bust of Garibaldi, with 
copies in marble of the best Italian 
statues. In the window are the arms 
of Rustamjl Jijibh^i in stained glass. 
The drawing-room is 50 ft. long, and 
has a vestibule, forming part of it, 
14 ft. long, so that the total length is 
64 ft., and at either end is a terrace 
paved with marble 31 ft. long by 25 
broad. The ceiling is beautifully de- 
corated by Fund artists, in imitation 
of the ceiling of the ball-room at 
Government House, called Ganesh 
Xhind. In the drawing-room is a fine 
full-length portrait of David Sassoon, 
Sir Albert's father, who must have 
been strikingly handsome. A fountain 
in the garden cost Rs. 40,000, and the 
water tower, which is 125 ft. high, 
cost Bs. 100,000. There is a flag-staff 
tower 100 ft. high. Altogether it is a 
noble residence, and permission to 
view it would no doubt be granted on 
application. From this a drive may 
be taken of 1} m. to the Jamshidjl 
Band and the Fitzgerald Bridge. The 
Band is of stone thrown across the 
Mul& river, and on the S. side of it 
are pretty gardens of 6 acres, called 
the Victoria Gardens, in which the 
band plays, and many Indian ladies 
promenade. There are 2 flights of 
steps, 1 of 13 and 1 of 11, down to 
the water, and at them is the fol- 
lowing inscription : — 



The Jamshldji Band Water-works, 

Cnnstructed at the suggestion, and carried out 

under the auspices of 

Sir Jamshidjl JijibMi, Knight, 

of Bombay, 

Wlio munificently contributed the sum of 

Rs. 173,050 towanls the undertaking, 

In which the eminent individual whose name 

it bears had in view the noble and philan* 



thropic design of fbmtshing the inhabitant* 
of I^n&, 
A nerer-lkiling supply of pure water. 
The work was commenoed in the Christian 

year 1844, 
Corresponding with the Shanshal Tezd^ird 

Era 1214-15, and 

Completed in 1850, under the superintendenco 

Of Captain Thomas, of the Bombay 

Engineers. 

The total amount of expenses incurred on this 

useful and charitable undertaking was 

Rs. 257,499» 

The view of the Fitzgerald Bridge, 
with its 27 arches, from the Band ; of 
the Cascade at the Band, which has a 
fall of about 8 ft. ; and of the broad 
stream, 350 yds. wide, above it, on 
which rowing matches take place, 
chiefly in August, starting from the 
Club boat-house on the Pnii4 side of 
the Band, is very pretty. 

Hie City, during the flourishing times 
of the Peshw&s, probably contained, 
inclusive of troops, twice as many in- 
habitants as now. For a native town 
the streets are wide, and some of the 
older houses are substantial buildings. 
It is divided into 7 quarters, named 
after the days of the week. In the 
Shanwdr qua^r, or Saturday division, 
are the remains of the Peshw4's Castle, 
called Ji!in4w&d&, or "old palace," a 
large enclosure about 180 yds. sq. It 
was built by the grandfather of the 
last Peshw4, and was a grand building 
till burned down to the first stoiy in 
1827. Mrs. Graham, in 1809, speaks 
of it as surrounded by " high, thick 
walls, with four large towers " (Joum. 
p. 78), there being but one entrance 
through a high pointed arch, on each 
side of which is a tower. The massive 
walls still remain. In front is an 
open space, where a market for ve- 
getables is held. About 110 yds. to 
the N. is a stone bridge, over which a 
road leads to the village of Bamburda 
and the Sangam. The doors are very 
large, and covered with iron spikes. 
Above the gateway is a small bcdcony 
supported on pillars. Here is the ter- 
race from which, on the morning of 
the 25th October, 1795,* the young 
Peshwd, Mhddu R&o, threw himself, 
and died two days afterwards of the 

* Grant Duff, vol. iil, p. 126. 



Sect. 11. 



Boute 4. — Fund — Fdrvati, 



187 



njuries he received in the fall. On 
the 22nd he had shown himself to 
his troops, who passed before him in 
thousands, a sea of horsemen. It 
was the festival of the Dasahr^. and 
en this occasion that national fete of 
the Mardthas was conducted with 
nnusnal splendonr. In the evening 
the young PeshwA received his great 
chiefs, and the ambassadors of foreign 
courts, in his accustomed manner ; 
but the restraints imposed upon him 
by his minister, Ndn4 Famavls, had 
stung him to the quick, and he was 
then meditating the act of self-de- 
struction, which, three days after, he 
accomplished. Here, too, on the 80th 
of August, 1773, NArdyan RAo, at the 
age of eighteen, after he had been 
but nine months PeshwA, was savagely 
murdered, by Somar Singh and Tra- 
liyA Powar, two of his guard. The 
unfortunate youth had confined his 
uncle, RaghunAth RAo, in an apart- 
ment of the palace, and RaghunAth 
had commissioned these two assassins 
to seize the young PeshwA, and thus 
bring about his own release. But the 
vindictive Anandi BAl, the wife of 
BaghunAth, secretly altered the word 
" seize " to " kill," and, in obedience 
to the mandate, Somar Sing forced 
his victim even &om his nucleus arms, 
to which he had fled for refuge, and 
stabbed him, killing with the same 
blow a faithful servant who had cast 
himself on his body. 

Not far from this castle is a street 
in which, under the PeshwAs, offenders 
were executed by being trampled to 
death by elephants. One of the most 
memorable of these executions, on 
account of the princely rank of the 
sufferer, was that of Wittojl Holkar, 
brother of that Jeswant RAo Holkar 
who, the same year, won the battle of 
PunA. The last of the PeshwAs, BAji 
BAo, beheld the agonies of the victim 
from a window of his palace, where, 
on the morning of the 1st of April, 
1800, he took his seat with his favourite 
BAlaji Kunjar, in order to glut his 
eyes with the revolting sight. In the 
" Wednesday " quarter of the city, in 
the WishrAm BA^ to the S., is another 
palace called the BudhwAr, or " Wed- 



nesday." Here are now public offices 
and an English school for the natives. 
This school has been amalgamated 
with the Sanskrit CoUege, which was, 
in 1821, established for the study of 
the ancient literature of the country. 
This also has been injured by fiie. Jn 
the same quai'ter is the quondam re- 
sidence of NAnA Farnavis, a shabby 
mansion with a small court-yard and 
fountain, and many small dark rooms 
and dingy passages. On the outskirts 
of the town is a very large Jain 
temple with Chinese-looking orna- 
ments. "In a small room,* with a 
ceiling, walls, and pillars painted red 
and green, and all the quaint orna- 
ments carved and painted the same 
colour, there is a small square cage 
with bars in which are two marble 
elephants, and on each side a little 
white marble goat." 

PdrvatL — ^A visit to PArvatl is in- 
dispensable. The hill, with its temples, 
is situated at the extreme S. of the 
town, and the road to Sinhgarh passes 
a little to the N. of it. On the way 
to it, at no great distance, is the little 
village of Bambiira, where, in former 
times, a huge gon was fired every 
evening as a MarAtha Curfew, to warn 
honest folk to keep within their houses. 
On one occasion several BrAhmans, 
disregarding this warning, remained 
out till late and were locked up by the 
police, on which the people insisted on 
the superintendent of police being 
given up to them, and stoned him to 
death, though he had not even been 
informed that the BrAhmans had been 
arrested by his satellites. The HirA 
BAgh, or " Diamond Garden," is also 
passed on the road. There is a ceihe- 
tery here, very well kept and shaded 
with trees. Here is interred the cele- 
brated African traveller, Sir William 
Comwallis Harris, Major in the Bom- 
bay Engineers, who died October 9th, 
1848. He was the author of "Wild 
Sports in the West," and the " High- 
lands of Ethiopia." In the Presby- 
terian cemetery, which adjoins to the 
E., are 2 very handsome monuments 
of beautiful polished granite, brought 

* Lady Falkland's " Chow-Chow," vol. I 
p. 276. 



J88 



EotUe 4. — Karli to Fund. 



Sect. II. 



from Scotland : one is to the wife of 
Thomas Blaney ; it is an obelisk, the 
shaft of which is 11 ft. high ; the other 
is to the wife of Mr. Jollej, Harbour- 
master of Bombay, and is a granite 
column 8 ft. 8 in. high. The HlrA 
Bdgh, with its lake and island, and 
the Villa of the Peshwto, Mosque, and 
temples, is a charming place for a pic- 
nic. Lord Yalentia mentions it in his 
account of a visit to the Peshwd in 
1804. ThetempleatP^rvati was built 
by the Peshwd B41aji Bdji R4o, who 
reigned from 1740 A.D. to June, 1761. 
He never recovered the shock of the 
fatal Mar4tha defeat at P4nipat. " He 
slowly retraced his steps towards Pun4 
from the Nirbadd, but his faculties 
were much impaired. A rapid decay 
of the constitution ensued, and he ex- 
pired in the end of June at the temple 
of P&rvati, a conspicuous building 
erected by him in the S. environs of 
PunA." (Grant Duff, vol. ii. p. 157.) 
The temple is said to have been built 
in honour of the BAjd of SdtArA. In 
order ^o reach the place of ascent, 
which is on the E. side, the Khadak- 
wasla canal must be passed. This 
canal comes from the great reservoir 
10 m. to the 8. of Pund. Here the 
water runs from the top of an aque- 
duct, which forms a bridge here, under 
which you must pass, though the 
ground is excessively filthy all around. 
You then ascend 62 steps, each of 
which has a long slant h^yond it of 
from 10 to 35 fit., and this brings 
you to a flight of 34 small steps, 
which lead to the Court of the temple. 
At each comer of this court are smaller 
shrines to Surya, *the Sun,' Vishnu, 
Eartikeya, the Hindii Mars, and Dur- 
g&. The principal temple is to P^- 
vatl, the wife of Shiva, so called from 
Parvat, '* a mountain." She is said to 
be the daughter of the Him&lya. As- 
cending 16 narrow steps you mount 
on the wall, from which is a fine and 
extensive view over PunA and Khifki. 
From the bastion on which you sit to 
the ground outside is 41 ft., but this 
ground is a considerable height above 
the plain. The view ranges over PAr- 
vati Tank to the E. by N., and PArvati 
village S, of the tank over the HirA 



B^ij^h to St. Mary's Church and the 
Jews' Synagogue far to the N.E. A 
small bangU on the bank of the tank 
is noted as the place where a civilian 
shot himself. The chief Brdhman at 
PArvati speaks English quite fluently. 
He will expect a donation of 2 rs. or 
so for the bi^efit of the temple, and 
the numerous blind persons who fre- 
quent the hill will not be satisfied 
without receiving alms. To the W. of 
the hill is a ruined palace of the Pesh- 
wAs, which was struck by lightning in 
1817, the year of BAjl RAo*s overthrow 
by the British, and destroyed as a re- 
sidence. In the temple, it should be 
said, is a silver image of Shiva, with 
images of P4rvati and Ganesh, said to 
be of gold, seated on his knees. The 
temple was built in 1749, and cost 
£100,000. During the Diw&li the 
temple is lighted up in a beautiful 
manner. On the N.W. side is a pic- 
turesque Moorish -looking window, 
whence it is said Bdji B&o watched 
the defeat of his troops at Ehi^kl. At 
the foot of the hill is a square field, 
which, in the time of the Peshwds, was 
inclosed by high brick walls. Here at 
the end of the rains, about the time of 
the Dasahra, gifts in money were pre- 
sented to all Brihmans. In order to 
prevent the holy men from receiving 
more than their share, they were passed 
into this inclosure, at the gate of which 
stood a vast cauldron filled with red 
pigment. Each as he entered was 
marked with this, and nothing was 
given tUl all had gone in. They were 
then let out one by one, and 3, 4, or 
5 rs. were given to each. On one occa- 
sion the PeshwA is said to have lavished 
away £60,000 in this manner. 

Ganesh Khin4» — Another indispens- 
able and pleasant drive is to the Go- 
vernment House at Pund, called Ganesh 
Khind. Khliid 6i°:nifies a cleft or nar- 
row pass between hills, and Ganesh is 
the God of Wisdom and Son of Shiva. 
To arrive at it you pass along a road 
which leads from the city across the 
Miit^ and enters the Ganesh Khiiid 
road S. of the Engineer College and 
close to it. The house is to the N.W. 
of Pdrvati, stands on slightly rising 
gronnd, and is c^bont 3 m, from Fund 



Sect. 11. 



Route 4:,'^^Sikhaarh. 



189 



City, which is shut out from view by 
hills, though PArvatl is very distinctly 
seen. At present the grounds sur- 
rounding the house, although planted 
with young trees, are too bare; but 
some years hence, when the trees are 
grown, the approach will be pretty 
enough. The house looks like a modem 
French chateau. There is a tall slim 
tower 80 ft. high and a facade with 2 
porches, which do not correspond. To 
describe the residence in a single line, 
it is an English gentleman's country 
house with exceptionally fine recep- 
tion rooms. The lines for the Body- 
guard are within the grounds, 1 m. 
from the house to the S.W. There is 
a tank also in the same direction be- 
tween the lines and the house. The 
rooms on the ground-floor are as fol- 
lows : — ^from W. to E. a hall, which is 
entered through a small porch, and 
which leads to a drawing-room 81 ft. 
from W. to E. and 30 ft. from S. to N. 
There are 2 magnificent chandeliers 
here, and a gallery for the orchestra. 
E. of the hall is the Darbdr room, 
which is 31 ft. 9 in. from W. to E., 
and 23 ft. from S. to N. N. of this 
and £. of the drawing-room is a flower 
gallery or garden corridor 90 ft. long 
from W. to E., and E. of the darbdr 
room is, first of all, a dining-room 59 
ft. from W. to E. by 29 ft. from S. to N. 
This forms the W. division of the 
house. The central division comes 
next, and is entered by a carriage 
porch 30 ft. 6 in. from W. to E. and 
19 ft. 3 in. from N. to S. By this a 
loggia is entered 17 ft. 8 in. from W. 
to B., and 10 ft. 6 in. from S. to N. 
This opens into a cortile 27 ft. 8 in. 
from W. to E., and beyond this to the 
N. is the billiard-room, with a pave- 
ment of encaustic tiles and lighted 
with 6 elegant chandeliers. Thus sa- 
loon is the same length from W. to E. 
as the cortile, but is broader ; beyond it 
to the N. are several small rooms. E. 
of the centre division is, first of all, 
a dark room, then a corridor 49 ft. 4 in. 
by 29 ft. 8 in., and beyond that again 
to the E. is a drawing-room 39 ft. 6 in. 
from 8. to N. Above are the bed- 
rooms, reached by a very handsome 
staircase, the woodwork of which is 



very beautiful. Outside the building, 
to the N., are the stables and servants' 
rooms. From the top of the tower 
there is a fine view. Khirki, with its 
powder- works, and the Dakhan College 
are seen to the N., and Pdrvati to the 
S.E. 

SIGHTS IN THE VICINITY OF PUNA. 

Sinhgarh. — This is a place very 
famous in Mar^t^a annals, and very 
interesting on account of scenery as 
well as historic recollections. It is 
distant from Fund about 12 m. S.W. 
and is thus described by Grant Duff, 
voL i. p. 241, where he speaks of its 
astonishing capture by the renowned 
Tdnajl MAlusrd, in February, 1670 :— 
" Sinhga^h is situated on the E. side of 
the great Sahy Mri range, near the point 
at which the Purandar Hills branch 
off into the Dakhan. With these hills 
it communicates only on the E. and 
W. by very high narrow ridges, while 
on the S. and N. it has the appearance 
of a rugged isolated mountain, with 
an ascent of i m., in many parts nearly 
perpendicular. After arriving at this 
height there is an immense craggy 
precipice of black rock upwards of 
40 ft. nigh, and surmounting the whole 
there is a strong stone wall with towers. 
The fort is of a triangular shape, its 
interior upwards of 2 m. in circum- 
ference, and the exterior presents, on 
all sides, the stupendous barrier al- 
ready mentioned, so that, except by 
the gates, entrance seems impossible. 
From the summit, when the atmos- 
phere is clear, is seen to the E. the 
narrow and beautiful valley of the 
Nird ; to the N. a great plain, in the 
forepart of which Fund, where Shivaji 
passed his youth, is a conspicuous ob- 
ject. To the S. and W. appear bound- 
less masses of mountains lost in the 
blue clouds, or mingled by distance 
with the sky. In that quarter lies 
Raigarh, from which place, directed 
by Tdnaji Mdlusr^, the thousand Md- 
walis, prepared for the attempt on 
Sinhgafh, set out by different paths, 
known only to themselves, which led 
them to unite near the fortress, ac- 
cording to the words of the Mardtha 



190 



HotUe 4. — Karli to Fund. 



Sect 11. 



MS., 'on the 9th night of the dark 
half of the moon, in the month M4gh.' 
Tdnaji divided his men ; one half re- 
mained at a little distance, with orders 
to advance if necessary, and the other 
'half lodged themselves undiscovered 
at the foot of the rock. Choosing a 
part most difficult of access, as being 
the least liable to discovery, one of 
their number mounted the rock and 
made fast a ladder of ropes, by which 
they ascended one by one and lay 
down as they gained the inside. 
Scarce 300 had entered the fort, when 
somethiug occasioned an alarm among 
the garrison that attracted their at- 
tention to the quarter by which the 
M^walis were ascending. A man ad- 
vanced to ascertain what was the 
matter. A deadly arrow from a bow- 
man silently answered his inquiries ; 
but a noise of voices and a running to 
arms induced Tdnaji to push forward, 
in hopes of still surprising them. The 
bowmen plied their arrows in the di- 
rection of the voices, till a blaze of 
blue lights and a number of torches 
kindled by the garrison showed the 
B&jpiits armed or arming, and dis- 
covered their assailants. A desperate 
conflict ensued. The Mdwa|ls, though 
thus prematurely discovered, and op- 
posed by very superior numbers, were 
gaining ground when Tdnajl M41usr^ 
fell. They then lost confidence, and 
were running to the place where they 
had escaladed ; but by that time the 
reserve, led by Tanajl's brother, Su- 
lyaji, had entered. On learning what 
}iad happened, Suryaji rallied the 
fugitives, asked ' Who amongst them 
would leave their father's (commanders) 
remains to be tossed into a pit by 
Mah&rs?' told them the ropes were 
destroyed, and now was the time to 
prove themselves Shivajl's Mdwalfs. 
This address, the loss of T&najl, the 
;irrival of their companions, and the 
presence of a leader, made them turn 
with a resolution which nothing could 
withstand. *HarlHar! MahA Deo I' 
their usual ciy on desperate onsets, 
resounded as they closed, and they 
soon found themselves in possession of 
the fort. Their total loss was esti- 
mated at one-third their number, or 



upwards of 300 killed or disabled. In 
the morning 500 gallant R4jpiits, toge- 
ther with their commander, were found 
dead or wounded ; a few had con- 
cealed themselves and submitted ; but 
several hundreds had chosen the des- 
perate alternative of venturing over 
the rock, and many were dashed to 
pieces in the attempt. The precon- 
certed signal of success was setting on 
fire a thatched house in the fort, a 
joyful intimation to Shivaji ; but when 
he heard that Tdnaji M41usr6 was 
killed, he was deeply concerned, and 
afterwards, on being congratulated, 
mournfully replied, in allusion to the 
name he had given the fort,* * The den 
is taken, but the lion is slain : we have 
gained a fort, but alas! I have lost 
Tanaji Mdlusrd.' Shivaji, though he 
seldom bestowed pecuniary gifts on the 
Mdwalis, on this occasion gave every 
private soldier a sUver bracelet or 
bangle, and proportionate rewards to 
the officers." The surprising character 
of the night escalade above recorded 
will be appreciated by those who now 
ascend peacefully in their pdlkls, and 
in the daytime. The ascent is in part 
almost perpendicular, and one is as- 
tonished that the pdlki bearers never 
slip back and roU down into the plain. 
In 1665, Shivaji had surrendered Siuh- 
garh to Aurangzlb, but retook it, as 
described, in 1670. In 1701, Aurang- 
zlb recovered it ; but ShanJkarji NA- 
rdyan Sachiva again captured it in 
1705.* On the 1st of March, 1818, it 
was taken by the English without loss. 
The garrison, 1100 men, of whom 400 
were Arabs, capitulated, after being 
shelled for 3 days, in which time 1400 
shells and upwards of 2000 shot were 
fired into the place. Lady Falkland f 
notices the splendid balsam trees, 
which completely cover the sides of 
the path that leads up to the fort, and 
are many of them nearly 10 ft. high. In 
the old ruined gateways hang festoons 
of leaves apd fiowers, almost touching 
the traveller's head as he enters. Being 
4162 ft. above the sea, Sinhgarh is a 

'^ It was originally called Kond&nah, bat 
Shlvi^i himself changed its name to Siiihgaf h. 
See Grant Dnff, vol. I p. 134. 

t " Chow-Chow," vol i. p. 303. 



Sect. IL 



Itoute 4. — Sihhgarh, 



191 



delightful retreat for Europeans from 
the heat of the plains. The air is cool 
and the views beautiful. Here, for 
some time, was confined, in a wooden 
cage, the Brihman Bdbji Pant GokU, 
the murderer of the Vaughans. 

It will be desirable to leave Fund 
very early, in order to reach Sinhgarh 
before the heat becomes excessive, and 
to start as early as 4 a.m. in a carriage 
which Mr. Framji Ardasir, mail con- 
tractor, will supply according to rates, 
which hereafter will be given. PAr- 
vatl will be reached in half-an-hour, 
and the 7th milestone on the Sinh- 
garb road will be reached in half-an- 
hour more, about 5 o'clock. Near this 
milestone horses will be changed, and 
between the 10th and 11th mile the 
lake of Ehadakwasla will be reached. 
The word signifies " stone junction," 
from Ehadak, "a rock," and Wasla, 
" a junction." This place is not 8 m. 
as the crow flies from Fund, but 10^ m. 
by the road. Here a stone embank- 
ment has been thrown across a stream, 
and a lake has been formed, which 
supplies Pund with water. The em- 
bankment is 1 m. long, and the lake 
formed by it is from 10 to 12 ,or 13 m. 
long, according to the season. At 
the end of March the top of the em- 
bankment is 30 ft. above the water, 
but during the rains the water rises 
very considerably. There is some 
shooting about this spot. There are 
2 canals branching off from the lake, 
one on each side, for irrigation ; that 
on the N. side is 16 m. long. Before 
reaching the foot of the Sinhgarh 
MountsSnthe 13th milestone is passed, 
and just before the 14th the carriage 
is exchanged for a chair, in which the 
active people of the locality will carry 
the traveller to the summit of the 
motmtain. After 300 yds. the ascent 
becomes very steep; the total length 
of the ascent is 2^ m. ; a much easier 
route being now taken than that men- 
tioned by Grant Duff, though it is 
quite steep enough even now. The 
summit of Sinhga^h is, as has been 
said, 4162 ft. above the sea ; but from 
this must be deducted 1825 ft., the 
height of the spot where you begin to 
mount in the chair, so that 2337 ft. is 



the hejght actually ascended from 
thence. The Kulls who carry the chair 
are very careless, and though they 
stoutly assert that they never fall, 
they sometimes stumble so badly that 
the traveller incurs risk of being 
pitched over the precipice. After 
reaching the scarp of the hill, you 
pass through 8 gateways into the fort, 
the area inside being about 40 acres. . 
There are several bangles on this pla- 
teau. For one of these, according to 
time of the year and size of the bangld, 
from 200 to 600 rs. rent a month will 
be asked. At one of these banglds not 
far from the gateway are stables hewn 
out of the solid rock, and used by the 
Mar&tha freebootew in Shivaji's time. 
There is a very nice banglA with a 
pretty garden belonging to Pestanjl 
Ehdn Bah&dur. The air is cool even 
in the hot weather ; but the chief dis- 
tadvantage is the isolation in a narrow 
space, for the sides of the mountain 
are too steep for any but Mardtha 
mountaineers to descend except at 
the one path by which the fort is 
entered. About \ m. from the gate- 
way to the E. is a temple to Rdm 
R4jd, and near it are wells and a tank 
hewn out of the solid rock. The views 
over the low country are charming. 
Almost due S. is seen the lake of Kha- 
dakwasl4; and to the S.E., about 7 m. 
as the crow flies, but 11 m. by the 
road, is the mountain and fort of 
Purandar. This mountain is rather 
lower than Sinhgayh, the highest 
point, according to Grant Duff (vol. i. 
p. 206), being only 1700 ft. above the 
plain, and therefore more than 600 ft. 
lower than Sinhgayh. There are at 
Furandar 2 forts, an upper and lower, 
situated more than 300ft. below the sum- 
mit. These forts are protected by a per- 
pendicular scjirp, which is weakened 
rather than strengthened by curtains 
and bastions of masonry. In 1665, 
R&jA Jay Sing, the famous Rdjpiit 
prince and general of Aurangzlb, as- 
sisted by the Afghan Diler lOiAn. be- 
sieged both Sihhgarh and Furandar. 
Shivajl was then under superstitious 
apprehensions, but his general, Bdji 
Piirvoe or Frabhu, a DeshpAndya of 
MhAr, who was havalddr of the fort 



192 



BotUe 4. — Karli to Fund, 



Sect. II. 



of Parandar, maintained his post with 
bravery and ability. He had a gar- 
rison under him of the heroic M&walis 
and Hetkaris, and he disputed every 
point of the approaches; at last the 
Afgh&ns succeeded in shattering the 
scarp and entered the lower fort, but 
were driven out again by the havalddr, 
who pursued the Afghans, until Diler 
Khdn pierced the gall^mt B4ji with an 
arrow and killed him on the spot. The 
Afghans then retook the fort, but were 
again obliged to relinquish it. Diler 
Khiin then attacked Budra Ma^all, a 
small detached fort at the N.E. angle 
of Purandar, which commands a great 
part of its works. After taking this, 
Diler brought up guns to breach the 
upper fort ; and after firing for weeks 
reduced the garrison to such a state 
that they proposed to surrender. How- 
ever in July, Shivaji himself arrived in 
Jay Sing's camp, and concluded a con-, 
ventiou with him by which he sur- 
rendered 20 forts, and among them 
Purandar and Sinhgarh. In 1670, 
Shivaji recaptured Purandar with but 
little difficulty, probably from his local 
knowledge, it having been one of 
the first places he acquired so long 
before as 1647. In 1714, Yesu BAi, 
mother of the Pant Sachiva, gave up 
Purandar to Bdldji Wi^wandth, 
founder of the Peshwa dynasty, as 
a place of refuge for his family then 
residing in S^swad. On the same pre- 
tence (Grant Duff, vol. i. p. 437), BA- 
laji obtained a grant of Purandar 
from S4hu Rdja of SAtdr4, " by which 
concession that prince forged the first 
link in the chain which afterwards 
fettered his own power, and reduced 
his successors to empty pageants of 
Br4hman policy." On the 1st of 
March, 1776, a treaty of 18 articles 
was signed at Parandar by Col. Upton, 
agent for Warren Hastings, and by 
Ndn4 Famavls, by which Salsette was 
to be retained by the English, or ex- 
changed for territory of £30,000 annual 
revenue, as the Govemor-Greneral 
might decide ; the revenue of Bha- 
nich was ceded to the English, and 
£120,000 guaranteed to the Bombay 
Government in payment of expenses 
incurred, and the treaty between that 



Government and Raghubd PeshwA was 
formally annulled. On the 14th of 
March, 1818, Purandar was attacked 
by the English column under General 
Pritzla. (Blacker'8"MardthaWar,"p. 
241.) The British advanced by way 
of Jijiiri, and at S&swad had had some 
little trouble in capturing a strong 
stone building, in which 200 Arabs 
Sindhls, and Hindustanis had shut 
themselves up with some small guns ; 
"the walls were so substantial that 
6-pounders were found incapable of 
affecting them. 18-pounders were then 
brought up; but though these also 
appe^ired to nuike as little impression 
on the walls, they had sufficient effect 
on the minds of the garrison to induce 
their surrender at discretion." The 
British at once opened a mortar bat- 
tery on Purandar, and on the 15th, 
Wajragayh, wrongly called Wuzwer 
Ghur by Blacker, surrendered ; and as 
it commanded Purandar, the KiPaddr 
of that place was compelled to capi- 
tulate on the 16th.* Purandar has 
been used as a convalescent station, 
but as there is no T. B. there, it will 
be necessary to make some arrange- 
ment with a friend before visiting the 
place. The sportsman may find pan- 
thers in the hills, and deer and other 
game in the neighbourhood. 

Chdkan. — This place is 15 m. as the 
crow files due N. of Pund. There is a 
very fair road to it, though the ascent 
to the fort itself is difficult. It is thus 
described by Grant Duff, vol. i. p. 61 : 
— " Chdkan is a small fort 18 m. N. of 
Pund. It is nearly square, with towers 
at the angles and centres of the faces* 
It has a good diteh about 30 ft. wide 
and 16 ft. deep, but wet on the N. side 
only. The walls are high, the parapet 
and rampart narrow, and the towers 
confined. There is but one entrance 
into the body of the place, through 5 
or 6 gateways; and there is a mud 
outwork, wluch also has a diteh, I 
mention it particularly, on account of 

* All the adjacent forts stirrendered in the 
same easy way. In feet the only one which 
made anything like a defence was Wasola, 
where Comets Hunter and Morrison were 
rescued, haying been confined for many weeks 
in a dark dungeon, where they had never be- 
held the light of day* 



Sect. IL 



Route 4 — Sdswad, 



193 



its reputed antiquity ; for although it 
probably is the first built by Maliku't- 
tujjAr, yet, according to occurring 
Hindii legends, it was constructed by 
an Abyssian Pdligdr, inA.D. 1295. As 
to how he got there they do not pre- 
tend to account." This fort was. given 
to Milaji Bhonsl^, grandfather of Shi- 
vajl, in 1604, by the Nizam Shahi, 
King of Alt^madnagar. In 1662 it sur- 
rendered, after a siege of 2 months, 
in which Shdistah Kh^n, Aurangzib's 
general, lost 900 men; but it was 
afterwards restored to SMvaji. In 1671 
it was taken again by Djler Khdn, 
with less difficulty. In 1818 it was 
easily captured by the British. Over 
the gates are 3 inscriptions, announc- 
ing the successes of the Mughuls. 
There are also 2 guns inscribed with 
Mardtha Inscriptions. 

Sdswad (Sassoor). — ^As this place is 
only 5 m. from Purandar to the N. by 
E., and as a good road leads from it 
to Jijtiri, which is only 8J m. to the 
S.E., the traveller may like to visit 
both places. The road from Fund to 
Saswad is lined with fine mango trees, 
.planted by the Peshw^s. Sdswad is a 
large market town on the left bank of 
the Eard river. An old palace of the 
Peshwas beyond the town and across 
the river, which, in the rainy season, 
is difficult to cross, is used as a Kacheri 
or collector's office and traveller's 
bangle. The rooms are good, but low 
and unfurnished, so that it would be 
well to make interest with the civil 
officers of the district and obtain re- 
quisite articles, such as a bed, table, 
and chair ; it is also necessary to ask 
permission to stay at the palace. There 
is fair quail shooting to be had in the 
neighbourhood of this town ; but for 
hog -hunting the sportsman must go to 
Pdrgdon or to Kdmg&on, on the road 
from Pun4 to Sholdpiir, in the adjoin- 
ing Bhim&tadi district. In an island in 
the river as you cross to the bangla 
are some temples of black basalt. The 
Peshwd's palace still bears marks of 
the English shot. At this place the 
Amirs of Sindh were confined for some 
time. Though prisoners, they wei-e 
permitted to amuse themselves with 
their favourite pursuit, shooting, and 

[5om&ay— 1880.] 



the hogs in the vicinity were much 
reduced in numbers by their battues. 

•/y wrt.--This place is famous for a 
temple of a considerable size, and built 
in a picturesque situation on the sum- 
mit of a hill, about 250 ft. high. The 
temple was built by Holkar, about 2 
centuries ago, and is dedicated to 
Khandobd or Ehanderdo, an incar- 
nation of Shiva, but dimly distin- 
guished from Bhairava, a terrific form 
of the above-named deity. The whole 
of the ascent of the hill is covered 
with pillars and gateways set up by 
various votaries, and there are many 
stone images of animals, which are 
also the record of vows. The huge 
drum in the Jiakdr khdnah or music 
room, at the top, is heard to a great 
distance round, and has a remarkable 
effect when, breaking the stillness of 
the night, it arrests the traveller's at- 
tention, and he beholds a huge mass 
of pillars and buildings faintly lit up 
by the moon or the light of torches. 
The revenues of the temple are appor- 
tioned thus :* — the Government has 
the offerings of 2 months and 18 days, 
being the Saturdays, Sundays, and 
Mondays of Ashwin ; the first 6 days 
of Mdrgashir^h ; and the whole of 
Paush and Mdgh. Of the remaining 
months, the offerings of one-half are 
given to certain Shudras employed in 
the service of the temple, cialled Gu- 
ravs; and the other half realized is 
apportioned equally between the Gar- 
gives and Virs^ Tare and cJiufe, Gar- 
lands and bracelets are also offered for 
the Government throughout the year. 
It is estimated that there are from 125 
to 150 girls attached to the temple, 
who lead an infamous life. Of these 
about 80 are present at the place, and the 
rest are scattered through the villages 
within 20 m. These girls are formsdly 
married to the god, and they and the 
male servants of the temple are con- 
tinually recruited in the following 
way : — when a man or woman, being 
childless, is anxious for offspring, such 
a person vows that if the child be 
granted it shall be devoted to the god. 
Accordingly, whether male or female, 

* "Oriental Christian Spectator," for 1837, 
p. 204. 



1D4 



SoiUe 5. — Fund to JIahdbaleshwar, 



Sect. II. 



it is, on its birth, made over to tlie 
care of the servants of the temple, and 
is brought up in habits of shameful 
profligacy. Among the noticeable 
things at this shrine is a long pole 
covered with red and blue cloth, and 
liaving a crown of peacock's feathers 
at the end; this is carried round on 
pilgrimage to other shrines, and is, as 
it were, the banner of Xhandobd. 

Carriages and horses are obtainable 
at PunA of Mr. Framji Ardaslr, whose 
office is at No. 28, Civil Lines, Band 
Gardens Road. His office at Mahdba- 
leshwar is opposite the Post Office ; 
and at Sdtdr^ Eolh&pur, and Belgdon 
his offices are similarly situated. 

TaJ)le of Mates, inchtding Tolls, Kulis and 
Ferries. 





From 


To 


a 


1 Tonga. 




III- 






1 


.2 


ingle 
Mail 




I 




en 


r. a. 


02 

r. a. 


s- 






r. a. 


©^^5^ 


Pima. 


Mahdbalesh- 








2|'g'< 




war. . . 


47 


30 


10 


Phae 
cial 
b in 
b. 


n 


S&tixi. . . 


47 


26 


10 


*y 


Kolh4p\\r . 


104 12 


52 8' 20 


t^oS- 


ft 


Belgdon . . 


156 12 


78 8;30 




>» 


A^madna- 










gar . . . 


52 8 


35 


10 


-,«" tj 


Satdrd 


Mah&balesh- 








Hoc* 




war. . . 


26 


15 s; 7 »g" 

25 10 !? * 


PiinA. 


Panchganni. 


42 



If orders are cancelled or convey- 
ances not taken on the dates fixed, the 
parties will forfeit half fare. The 
charge per mile for intermediate sta- 
tions is, for a seat in the Mail Tonga, 
2^ dnds, and for a special tonga 8 
dnds, and for a phaeton 12 dnds. The 
same, or but little more, will be 
charged for going to Sinhgarh, or to 
any place off the main road. The 
traveller will be very careful to re- 
member that tolls and ferries are paid 
for before starting in the lump sum, 
as attempts are often made by the 
drivers to get the traveller to pay 
them, under pretence of not having 
money with him. The phaetons are 
far more comfoi*table than the tongas, 
and can take more luggfige, but do not 
go so fast. 



ROUTE 5. 

PUNA TO MAHABALESHWAB. 

The stages are as follows : — 



1. Puna to Kakrej 

2. Kakrej to 8indewa4i .... 

3. Sindewii4i to Wadwa .... 

4. WadwA to KafurwJl . . . . 

5. Kafurwi to Shlrwal 

(The T. B. at SWrwal is on the left 

about 80 yds. off the road. It is 
prettily situated near the Niiu 
river.) 

6. Shirwal to Khandala . . . . 

7. KhandalA to Kamdkshi 

8. Kamakshi to Sirol . . . . 

9. Sirol to Wii 

(T. B. at W41, close to the river.) 

10. Wdi to Panchganni .... 
(T. B. at Panchganni, 300 yds. to the 

left of road.) 

11. Panchganni to the Hotel at Mahd- 

baleshwar 



Miles 

I 

6 
6 
6 
6 



6 
6 
6 
6 

10 



12 



Total . . 77 

Kakrej Ghat is 3 m. long, with a 
steep pitch on the left, from falling 
down which carriages are protected 
by a good wall 3 ft. high. There is a 
police station at the top of this Grhdt, 
not far from which you enter a tunnel 
825 ft. long. There is a toll at Ka- 
makshi of 4 dnds. The Ghdt is long, 
steep, and rocky, with a precipice on 
the right. Shirwal village formerly be- 
longed to the Pant Sacheo, a Mar^tha 
chief of high rank. The 55th mile- 
stone is close to Wdl, and the ascent 
of the Ghat commences just beyond 
this milestone, and extends about 8 m. 
Wdi (Wye), pop. 11,062.— This is one 
of the most beautiful rustic towns in 
the Dakhan. Lady Falkland says of it, 
with justice : * "I know nowhere a 
more lovely spot than Wdl, and, al- 
though 1 often visited it during my 
stay in India, I saw new beauties 
every time. Here there is grand 
scenery, as well as pleasing, quiet 
spots, and charming bits. The view 
from the traveller's bangli is per- 
fectly beautiful. Behind the city rise 
hills of all the shapes which are pecu- 
liar to the mountains in the Dakhan. 

* " Chow-Cbow," vol. i. p. 188. 



Sect. II. EoiUe 5. — Wdl — Bovi — Banyan-tree of Wair&tgarh, 195 



There are round, peaked, flat-topped 
hills ; some cover»l with rocks, look- 
ing, at a distance, like forts and 
castles. One hill, near the city, rises 
very abruptly, and has a hill-fort on 
the top. ItiscaUedPdndugarh." WAl 
is situated on the left bank of the 
Kp^hnd, which is lined with beautiful 
pippai and mango trees, and withhand- 
some flights of stone steps, ornamented 
with graceful figures of lovely Brdhman 
women, for which this place is re- 
nowned. The traveller's bangld is on 
the side nearest to the Mahdbaleshwar 
Hills. The neai-est temple to it, and the 
river is lined with beautiful temples, 
is dedicated to Ganpati ; the next to 
Mahadeo ; and one at some distance, to 
Lak^hmi. These were built about 80 
years ago, by the father of B^U ^dhib 
Bastia, of whom Lady Falkland 
speaks.'*' They are exceedingly ele- 
gant, and form the great beauty of 
this most picturesque spot. The man- 
dap or canopy in front of MahMeo's 
temple is very light, and a fine speci- 
men of carving in stone. The roof, as 
also that of Ganpati's temple, is like a 
pavement reversed. Stones cut into 
three cubes are joined at the comers, 
and are then so locked that each locks 
into six others. When the roof is 
finished, the support, which is gene- 
rally of earth, is dug out from the 
inside of the temple, and from below 
only the flat under-surface of the 
lowest cube is seen. The fortune of 
the Rdstias was much impaired by the 
expenses incurred in erecting these 
temples, and by their munificence to 
the Brdhmans. To avoid the imputa- 
tion of abandoning a generosity which 
they are no longer able to sustain, 
they have discontinued their custom 
of visiting Wai, except at very gi-eat 
intervals. They have an excellent 
mansion at no gi*eat distance from the 
town, called the Moti BAgh, or " Pearl 
garden." The road thither is beauti- 
fully shaded by splendid bambiis, 
mangos, and tamarinds. The house 
was built nearly a century ago, and is 
a good specimen of the Muhammadan 
style. It is open on one side from 

* "Chow-chow," p. 200. 



top to bottom, and shaded by huge 
curtains. The decorations are still 
fresh, but one of the mirrors has been 
broken by a monkey which got in, 
" and imagined he beheld an opponent 
in the reflection of himself." In the 
garden are fountains with curious 
primitive works, which are now sel- 
dom used. Bdl4 Sdhib commanded 
the PeshwA's horse at the siege of 
Shrirangpatnam (Seringapatam). At 
WAi is also the villa of the widow 
of NAnA Famavls. Lady Falkland * 
describes her as very old, but pos- 
sessing the traces of great beauty. 
When Lord Valentia saw her in 1804, 
at Panwell, she was " a very pretty 
girl-— fair, round-faced, with beautiful 
eyes, and apparently seventeen years 
of age." t She possessed a portrait of 
MahMeo RAo PeshwA, and of his 
famous minister NAnA Famavls, and 
several letters from the Duke of 
Wellington, who, in 1804, obtained 
for her leave to settle where she chose 
in the PeshwA's dominions, with an 
annual pension of 14,000 rupees. A 
life of NAnA, written by himself, and 
fuU of extraordinary incidents, was, 
at the request of Colonel Lodwick, 
given by this lady to an official at 
iSAtArA, and passed into the hands of 
the late General Briggs. 

DortK — About 5 m. from WAI is the 
village of Dom, where is a very hand- 
some temple, in the middle of the 
court of which is a gigantic basin of 
white marble, the edges carved with 
lotus leaves. There is also a pillar 
about 5 ft. high, on the top of which 
are the five heads of Shiva, with 
cobras twisting round them, all in 
white marble. 

The Banyan-tree of Wairdtgarh.-^ 
But the most curious thing to be seen 
near WAi is a gigantic tree, at the foot 
of a mountain called WairAtgayh, 
about 8 m. from WAi. The exact area 
shaded by it is three-quarters of an 
acre. The space covered. is a very 
symmetrical oval. There is no brash- 
wood underneath, nor aught to im- 
pede the view save the stems of the 
shoots from the parent tree. Lady 

* Vol. i., p. 203. 

t "Voyages and Travels," p. 173. 

o 2 



196 



jRoute 5. — Fund to Mahdhcdeshwar. 



Sect. II. 



Falkland says, " The shade was so com- 
plete, I could sit in the middle of the 
day without any covering on my head. 
The tree was of such a size, that sepa- 
rate picnic parties might take place 
under it, and not interfere with each 
other. There were countless arenues 
or rather aisles, like those of a church, 
the pale grey stiems being the columns, 
which, as the sun fell on them, glis- 
tened in parts like silver ; and here 
and there were little recesses like 
chapels, where the roots from the 
boughs formed themselves into delicate 
clustering pillars, up and down which 
little squirrels were chasing each 
other, while large monkeys were 
jumping from bough to bough, the 
branches cracking and creaking as if 
both they and the monkeys would fall 
on my head." Wdi is a spot much 
famed in Hindd legend. Here, ac- 
cording to old tradition, the Fundus 
spent part of their banishment, and 
performed many wonderful works. 
On this account, as because of its 
proximity to the Kji^nA river so 
near its source, W4i is viewed as a 
place of great sanctity ; and there is a 
college of Brdhmans established at it, 
once in much repute. 

PaTUihganniis a very large village 
with many bangUs belonging to Euro- 
pean genUemen, with nice plantations 
about them. In fact, many gentlemen 
who come to Mah^baleshwarf or thehot 
weather prefer to stop at Pdnchganni, 
where the view is very beautiful. The 
Ghdt from it to Fund descends at a 
moderate gradient, but has a precipice 
on the left as you go to Bombay. The 
worst places, however, are protected by 
a wall 2 ft. 6 high, which, it is said, 
has saved more than one carriage 
from going over. People are fond of 
joking about descending this road at 
night at the rate of 10 m. an hour, 
while the stertorous breathing of the 
coachman warns you that he is fast 
asleep; the Ghdktt however, is much 
less dangerous than that at Simla. 
From P^nchganni the road descends a 
little for I of a m. ; the country round 
is covered with low jungle, with 
patches of cultivation. About 1 m. 
from Mahdbaleshwar village the lake 



made by the Bdj& of Sdtard is passed 
on the right. It winds in a pic- 
turesque way, and is about 810 yds. 
long from N.E. to S.W., and not quite 
200 yds. broad at broadest There is 
a Sanatorium at Mahdbaleshwar with 
8 set« of quarters. Booms for one 
person are charged at the rate of 
Bs. 40 per month. 

Hotels. — The nearest hotel to a 
traveller coming from Sdt&r^ is 
called Langholm Lodge and Lang- 
holm House, or the Mahdbaleshwar 
Hotel, kept by Mr. Doriibjl Soribji. 
The Fountain Hall Hotel, kept by Mr. 
C. Kddsji (Cowasjee), is 400 yds. to 
the S.W. of Mahdbaleshwar Hotel, 
and is better situated, having a most 
beautiful view to the S. to Sassoon 
Point, and as far as Babington Point 
and Makrangarh. The proprietor of 
this hotel deserves strong recommen- 
dation for his extreme civility and 
attention. The charges are as fol- 
lows : — B. A. 
Boaxd and lodging for a lady or gentle- 
man. Meals at the Table d'hdte at a 
fixed hour, per diem . . . .60 
At separate table, extra charge per diem 1 
Children above 18 months and under 5 

years 18 

Above 5 years and under 12 . . .28 
Guests invited by i)ersons living at the 

hotel, dinner 1 12 

Bed for ditto 18 

Breakfast or tiffin 10 

European or East Indian sen'ants, male 
or female, i^er diem . . .18 

Accounts are settled weekly. When 
carriages are required, notice should 
be given the day previous. Lodgers 
are requested to lock their rooms on 
going out; and the proprietor will not 
be responsible for anything missing 
unless given into his charge. The tra- 
veller will remember that vegetables, 
particularly potatoes, are remarkably 
good at Mahdbaleshwar. He will also 
ask for strawberries, which are sold at 
from 8 to 12 dozen for the rupee. 
The village of Mahdbaleshwar is 3 m. 
to the N. of Malcolm Peth, which is the 
centre of the European quarter, and 
the principal station on the hills. It 
was called Malcolm Peth by the 
Bij^ of S&tdr^ in honour of Sir John 
Malcolm, who resided much on these 
hills when Governor. These hills 



Sect. II. 



Houte 5. — Hotels, 



197 



are in N. lat. 17° 56', E. long. 73'' 30'. 
The extreme length to which the hills 
extend from N.E. to S.W. is 17 m., 
but only 5 m. [from N. to S. At the 
N. end they are 15 m. broad, and at 
the S. end 8. The general elevation 
is 4500 ft. above the sea, but the 
Sindola ridge is 4700 ft., and 2300 
above the general level of the Dakhan 
plateau. The hills are only 25 m. 
due E. from the sea, but 125 m. from 
Bombay, which bears N. 29* W. The 
principal roads communicating with 
the low country are, 1st, that from 
PunA, which has been already de- 
scribed, and, 2nd, that from S4tdr^, 
which will be described in Route 17, 
and also that to NAgotna and Mhdr, 
which ascends the W. part of the 
hills. From Bombay to Ndgotna, 
which is on the Ambar River, in the 
Koldba CoUectorate, is 40 m., and from 
Ndgotna to the hills is 76 m. From 
Bombay to Bankot by sea is 70 m., and 
from Bankot to Mhdr up the Sdvitri 
river is 30 m. ; from Mh&r to the hills 
is 35 m. Both these routes are hot and 
feverish, and are now little used. No 
further allusion will therefore be 
• made to them. A large part of the 
surface on the hills is indurated iron- 
clay or laterite, which overlies basalt 
and other members of the secondary 
trap-formation. The Pterh aquilina^ 
or common brake, grows very plenti- 
fully on the hills, as do the willow, 
the Eugenm Jamhos and Gardenia 
montana. There are a few oaks. The 
Tetranthera and Cortilania flower in 
November, also the Anjunl, or iron-» 
wood, which has purple flowers. 
There are 30 species of ferns, of 
which the principal are the Acrosti' 
cJimn atirenm, the Actiniopteris ra- 
diata, the Adiantum, Umdatum^ the 
Aitpidium cochleatnm, the A^lenium 
ereetum and falcatvm^ the Pteins 
lucida and qvadrianrita. The geo- 
graphical position of this range secures 
to it a redundant supply of moisture 
during the S.W. monsoon,and has ren- 
dered it a fruitful parent of rivers 
that fertilize the Dakhan. To the site 
of the temple of Mahddeo at Mahdba- 
leshwar village mentioned above, 
Br^hmans assign the honour of giving 



birth to the KyishnA (here spoken of 
as female), the EoinA, which falls 
into the Kp^nA at Eardd, the Ten A 
and SAwitri and GAwitri, which, 
falling down the W. face of the Ghdt, 
unite with other neighbouring streams 
to form the river at the mouth of 
which stands Bankot or Fort Victoria. 
The YenA falls into the Ep^nd at 
MAholi Sangam, about 4 m. to the £. 
of SAtArA. 

The real sources and feeders of these 
rivers are of course to be sought in the 
numerous ravines and rocky dells 
that intersect the table-land of the 
hills in various directions, and in most 
of which are found at all seasons 
streamlets of the purest water, pur- 
suing their devious ways through 
huge rugged blocks that obstruct the 
passage. Thus a supply of excellent 
water is everywhere procurable, though 
none meets the eye in the landscape 
but that of the lake and of the Yend, 
which, in its gentle winding course 
towards its final fall into the Dakhan, 
forms many picturesque little cascades 
and pools, skirted by their native 
willows. The annual mean tempera- 
ture of Malcohn Peth is 65** Fah. For 
9 months, from June to February in- 
clusive, so equable is the climate, that 
the mean heat of any month does not 
differ 4°, and for more than half the 
time not 2° from the annual mean ; 
whilst the mean of the hottest month 
only exceeds it by 7^°. The average 
daily range of the thermometer in the 
open air throughout the year is only 
8°, and in a house but 4° or 6°. The 
season for visiting the hills commences 
in the beginning of October, the time 
at which the transition from the low 
country can be made with the greatest 
advantage. The atmosphere is then 
still very moist, but, in general, clear 
and fair during the day, with gentle 
showers in the evening. By these and 
the prevailing light E. winds, the air 
is delightfully cooled, the mean tem- 
perature ranging below 66°, with a 
daily variation of only 7° in the open 
air ; yet the difference of temperature 
which the new comer experiences 
between the hills and low country, 
though equal to 20* at noonday, is 



198 



Eoiite 5, — Fund to Mahdbaleshwar. 



Sect. 11. 



even less striking than the change 
from the sultry closeness below to the 
invigorating freshness of the mountain 
air. November brings a drier and 
colder climate, a more uniformly 
clear sky, and stronger E. winds, and 
the cold season extends from the 
middle of this month to the end of 
February. During this period the 
weather is almost always clear, 
serene and fair, with gentle winds, 
chiefly from the E. ; but, as the sea- 
son advances, increasingly from the 
"W. and N.W., constituting a faint sea 
breeze. The mean temperature aver- 
ages 62 4°, and the greatest cold in the 
open air is about 45^ Throughout 
the day the temperature is mild and 
genial, with somewhat of an autiminal 
sharpness in the nights and mornings. 
Hoar frost may occasionally be seen 
in situations favourable to its produc- 
tion. But the stillness of the weather, 
and the nights especially, of this sea- 
son is very favourable to the preserva- 
tion of a comfortable temperature with- 
in doors, even without fires, the ther- 
mometer so placed ranging between 
58° and 66°. A fire-place will always 
be found, however, a desirable ad- 
junct to houses at the hills. The 
warm season commences with March, 
and lasts till the beginning of June. 
Its mean temperature may be taken 
at 71°, with a daily range of 9°. The 
mean of the hottest month is less than 
73°, and at the hottest time of day 
but 76°. Any transient feeling of 
heat is soon relieved by the strong sea 
breeze, which now sets in daily, and 
blows fresh, cool, and moist, from the 
N.W., increasing in strength with the 
heat of the season. From the end of 
April squalls and thunder-storms are 
not unusual ; and in May the atmos- 
phere becomes moist er, and clouds 
and mist hang over the hills in the 
nights and mornings. In the beginning 
of June the monsoon sets steadily in, 
and to this period visitors may in 
general prolong their stay. While 
the S.W. monsoon prevails, fog and 
heavy rain envelope this exposed face 
of the mountains ; but to the E. the 
table-land enjoys a less trying climate. 
The winds arc high and stormy in the 



early part of the season, but gradu- 
ally almte as the rains cease ; and in 
September the sky begins to clear, 
and calms and variable winds, with 
passing showers, usher in again the 
desirable weather of October. The 
range of the thermometer during the 
rains does not exceed 2 J° in the open 
air, day and night ; and the mean 
temperature is about 63^°. The total 
fall of rain is from 200 to 220 in. 
The elevation and geographical posi- 
tion of this table-land, which bestow 
on it so delightful a climate, place it 
also beyond the sphere of malaria. 
The station, accordingly, is entirely 
free from endemical disease, even 
during the excessive and continued 
moisture of the rainy season, nor are 
fevers known on its cessation, or at 
any other period. No case of cholera 
has ever occurred. 

The discoverer and first visitor of 
the Mah4baleshwar Hills, for change 
of climate, was the late General P. 
Lodwick, who, being stationed with 
his regiment at S4tdr4 during the hot 
season of 1824, determined on ex- 
ploring these mountains. He was the 
very first European who ever set foot 
on the since celebrated promontory of 
Sydney Point, which has now been 
officially called after him. He made 
his way, with a walking-stick in his 
hand, through the dense and tigerish 
jungle, to the edge of that gi-and pre- 
cipice, without any encounter with 
the wild beasts that then infested 
the place in numbers ; but a day or 
two after his dog, when close to him, 
was carried ofE by a panther. To him 
also belongs the merit of first bringing 
the subject before the public through 
the medium of the newspapers. He 
was followed by the late General 
Briggs, Besident of SAtdrd, who in 
1826 built a cottage, and prevailed on 
the BdjA to construct an excellent 
caniage-road from his capital to the 
present station. Little further was 
done, till Sir J. Malcolm, Governor of 
Bombay, zealously took up the matter, 
established an experimental conva- 
lescent hospital for European soldiers, 
and by his personal residence at the 
Hills in the hot season of X828, at- 



Sect. II. 



Houte 5. — Malcolm Feth. 



199 



tracted a crowd of visitors. In the 
same season, Colonel Robertson, the 
successor of Colonel Briggs, built a 
house at the station. In November, 
1828, Sir J. Malcolm returned to the 
Hills, bringing with him Dr. William- 
son, specially appointed to the duty of 
reportiug on the climate, and the fit- 
ness of the locality for a sanatorium, 
who died not long afterwards. Sites 
were now selected for some public 
buildings; the Governor's residence 
on Mount Charlotte, called after 
Lady Malcolm, was commenced ; and 
a proclamation was soon afterwards 
issued by the Rdjd of SAtdrd, inviting 
settlers to his newly-founded village 
of Malcolm Peth, or " Malcolm-ville." 
His Highness also uudertook to con- 
tinue the high road onward over the 
hill and down the Rartondya * or Ro- 
tunda Ghat to the boundaiy of the 
British territory in the Konkan, from 
which point the Eoglish Government 
agreed to construct a similar road 
down the P6r f GhAt, through Mahir 
to Disgdoii, ' the most convenient 
harbour on the Bankot river. These 
works were completed in 1830. Next 
season Pdrsl shopkeepers made their 
appearance, and Government em- 
ployed a number of Chinese convicts 
in cultivating an extensive garden, 
whence supplies of the finest vegeta- 
bles, especially potatoes, were speedily 
drawn. The convicts, about 12 in 
number, came from the English settle- 
ments to the E., and after working 
out their time in chains, remained at 
the place, married and improved their 
condition, with the proverbial fru- 
gality and industry of their race. A 
public subscription was now raised to 
make bridle roads to the most pic- 
turesque points, and in a few years 
the station reaiched the flourishing 
condition in which it now is. 

The old road from Wdl, now disused, 
after surmountingthe Tai Ghdt, enters 

* The orthography of this word is uncer- 
tain. It may, perhaps, be an English word, 
but no dependence whatever can be placed on 
Anglican spelling of Indian words. If a Ma- 
rAt-ha word, it may be used with reference to 
the steepness of the ascent, as we might say in 
English, "Whimper hill." 

t /*«?• signifies "limit;" jilsp " beyond," 



a valley formed by heights of very 
varied form, among which the most 
remarkable are the striking* crowned 
summit of Mount Olympia on the 
right hand, and the bold rocky pro- 
montory of Kate's Point, with its 
natural tunnel, on the left. Both 
these heights are named from Sir J. 
Malcolm's daughters. Kate's Point 
commands a magnificent view of the 
valley of Wdl, and is about 8 miles 
from Malcolm Peth. The traveller 
now comes to a high ridge, and cross- 
ing that, enters a hollow, the scenery 
of which is very attractive. The road 
passes for some distance by the side 
of the YenA, and, crossing that river, 
enters Amelia Vale, called from 
another daughter of Sir J. Malcolm. 
The Falls of the YenA are situate in 
the valley of that name on the left of 
the road from the Tdi Gh^t, and are 
reached by a by-path from a point on 
the SdtArdi road into the station. The 
stream is here precipitated over the 
face of a steep cliff with a sheer 
descent of 500 ft., unbroken when 
the torrent is swollen by rain, but or- 
dinarily divided by projecting rocks 
about one-third of the way down, and 
scattered below into thin white streaks 
and spray, which are often circled by 
rainbows from the oblique rays of the 
sun. The headlong rush and roar of 
the falling river ; the many other 
streams lining with silver the steep 
dark sides ef the chasm, as they 
hasten to join the foaming torrent, 
which far below is dashing on through 
masses of rock ; the grandeur of the 
sceneiy, now wreathed in floating 
mists, now bright in sunshine— com- 
bine to form a scene of the most ab- 
sorbing beauty. From this point the 
road winds along the top of the cliff, 
crosses the river (now flowing through 
overhanging woods and rocks) above 
the waterfall, ascends to a sweetly- 
situated village on the opposite bank, 
where the dog-rose is found growing 
wild, and enters a closely-wooded 
avenue, skirted by a most picturesque 
forest dingle. Thence it opens on 
smooth green meadows, and luxuriant 
willows, through which the YenA is 
again seen sluggishly winding. Thg 



205 



; 



Rotite 5. — Fund to MahdbaletJiwar, 



Sect. II, 



first expedition the traveller should 
make will be to Elphinstone Point and 
Arthur's Seat, as being almost the 
longest and certainly the most in- 
teresting. On the right of the road, 
and on the way to Elphinstone Point, 
is the ancient village of Mah^balesh- 
war. It is a small place, but of 
great sanctity in the eyes of the 
Hindi^, as being the spot where the 
Kp9hn& and four other rivers have 
their source. There are several tem- 
ples, one very old, of black stone, said 
to have been built by a Gauli B^j^.* 
Another built by the same chief, and 
called Koteshwar, commands a grand 
view over the W4I valley. The prin- 
cipal temple, however, is called Mah4- 
baleshwar. This stands close under a 
hill, where there is the stone image of 
a cow, from whose mouth the five 
rivers are said to spring. These rivers 
fill a tank, round which is a raised 
walk, and near it are several recesses, 
where various saints, famous in Hindii 
legends, are supposed to have their 
retreat. No European is allowed to 
enter this holy place. At the temple 
they show a bed, which the priests 
assert is visited by the god Kfii^hna 
every night. At a certain hour they 
ring a bell, and then the deity, though 
invisible to mortal eye, enters the bed 
and rests till morning. The wretched 
garniture and stifling atmosphere of 
the room, however,] dispel all classic 
recollections, and prevent any com- 
parisons with the superstitions of old 
Babylon recorded by Herodotus. The 
Hindii legend about the place is re- 
lated by Lady Falkland,f and is 
simply that two demons, named Ante- 
ball and Mahdbali, were destroyed 
here by Mah^eo, and the younger, 
Mah&baU, obtained, as his dying re- 
quest, that rivers should spring from 
the bodies of the slain. Tliree of 
these temples were rebuilt about a 
century ago, by ParshurAm NArdyan 
Angal, a wealthy banker of Sdtdrd. 
The sixth temple, called Kudreshwar, 

* The Gaulis are herdsmen, and are thought 
by some to be an aboriginal race. An account 
of them will be found in Lady Falkland's 
" Chow-chow," vol 1. p. 164. 

t " Chow-Chow," vol, i. p. 169. 



was built about 75 years ago by 
AhalyA BAi, Bdni of Indiir. 

Elplmistone Point is the grandest 
of all the precipitous scarps which 
front the low country, This is about 

2 m. as the crow flies, but 4 by the 
road, to the E. of Mahdbaleshwar 
Temple. There is a sheer descent of 
above 2000 ft., though not so steep at 
the summit but that wild bison have 
been seen to gallop down some part. 
A rock rolled from the top thunders 
down and crashes into the forests 
below with a noise and commotion 
which is really grand to witness, and 
it is a common amusement of visitors 
to throw over huge masses. The view 
extends to the mountains, among 
which is the hill-fort of Toma, over 
an apparently uninhabited jungle. To 
the right of the Point is "Arthur's 
Seat," ahother fine view which must 
by no means be omitted. It has its 
name from Mr. Arthur Malet, C.S., 
who first built a house here. The 
distance from Malcolm Peth is about 
10 miles. 

The next expedition will be to 
Lodwick Point, visiting, en route, 
the village of Malcolm Peth, the 
Library, the Church, • Sir Sydney 
Beckwith's Monument, and the Ceme- 
tery. 

Malcolm Pefh. — The pop. of MahA- 
baleshwar is put down at 2759 persons, 
and the gross municipal income is 
Bs. 15,226, the expenditure being 
about Bs. 120 more than the income. 
The taxation per head being Bs. 5 
8 dn&s 3 p. (See " Census'of Bombay 
Presidency " of 1872, p. 284). There 
are some tolerable shops. The village 
and adjoining land, to the extent of 

3 sq. m. 10 furlongs, was ceded by 
the Bdj& of Sdtdrd on the 16th of May, 
1827, and the village was founded 
in 1828. It lies E. of the Foun- 
tain Hotel, and the Library is to the 
E. by N., with the mail-contractor's 
stables to the E. of that again. The 
Church and the Beckwith Monument 
are 100 yds. to the N. There is a good 
reading-room at the Library, the sub- 
scription to which is Bs. 5 per month. 
In the Library is a copy of the " Ma- 
h^baleshwar Guide," with a map 



Sect. II. 



Route 5. — Malcolm Peth. 



201 



printed at the Education Society's 
Press, Bykallah, in 1876, price Rs. 1^. 
There are Badminton grounds here, 
open to subscribers. Proceeding to 
the N. from the Library, and turning 
to the right, you come to the church, 
Christchurch. It stands high, and is 
91 ft. long from E. to W. and 374 
broad from N. to S. It was con- 
secrated by Bishop Carr, in 1842, and 
enlarged in 1867. It can seat 210 
persons ; there are no tablets. Turn- 
ing to the W. about 60 yds. you come 
to the Beckwith Monument. It is a 
plain obelisk, about 30 ft. high; and 
was erected at a cost of Rs. 3000, 
which was obtained by public sub- 
scription. Sir Sydney Beckwith died 
here in 1831, while C.-in-C. The sub- 
scribers put up an inscription which 
did not satisfy Lady Beckwith, who 
sent out another on a marble tablet. 
Such, however, is the action of the 
weather on marble in India that this 
inscription became almost illegible in 
1843, while the original inscription 
remains comparatively uninjured. Sir 
Sydney was amongst the renowned 
leaders in the Peninsular War, and has 
a prouder epitaph in the narrative of 
his deeds in Napier's " History." 
Until lately Sydney Point was called 
after him. The inscriptions are : — 

No. 1 on the W. face : — 

Sacred 
To the memory of 

Lieut.-Gen. sir T. SYDNEY BECKWITH, 

K.C.B.y 

Governor and Commander-in-chief of Bombay, 

And Colonel of H.M.'s Rifle Brigade, 

Who after a long course of 

Distinguished Service, 

Expired at his residence on these Hills 

, On the 15th day of January, 1831, 

Aged 60 years. 

Erected by a small circle of his Friends 
In testimony of their admiration 

For his noble character. 

And to perpetuate the name of 

So good and amiable a man. 

No. 2 on the E. face : — 

This tablet is placed 

By Mary, Lady Beckwith, 

Daughter of the late Sir William Douglas, 

of Kilhead, Bart., 

As a Memorial 

Of the most devoted affection for her 

{.wnent^d Husband, 



By whose sudden death she has been deprived 

of a most attached partner and friend 

And guide, in whom combined every amiable 

quality illustrated. in the Christian 

character, * * * and the intercourse of 

domestic life has endeared. 

A loss 

Which can only be alleviated by the hope that 

looks beyond the grave. 

The Sympathy of friends who 

Erected this Monument 

Has kindly permitted a sorrowing widow 

To add her heartfelt tribute to theirs. 

The writing of No. 1 is much oblite- 
rated and blackened, and can only be 
read with the greatest di&culty by 
help of an opera glass. The path to 
the obelisk is fvery bad and stony. 
The Cemetery is 700 yds. from the 
obelisk, to the S.E., on the left-hand 
side of the road as you go to Lodwick 
Point. It is canopied by the shade of 
many trees, and is well kept and 
watered. Here is buried Lieut. Hinde, 
of the 4th Dragoons, who was killed 
on these Hills by a bison on the 19th 
of April, 1834. He was a fine athletic 
man, upwards of 6 ft. high, but was 
transfixed by the horns of the infuriated 
beast, and so carried for some distance. 
Here also is interred Dr. James Fraser 
Heddle, sometime Master of the Mint 
at Bombay. He was a man of great 
scientific acquirements, and founder 
of the Bombay Geogra;phical Society. 
The monument of Major William 
Miller, Judge Advocate-General of 
the Bombay Army, may also be re- 
marked. It is a pillar supporting an 
urn on a very large base. He died on 
May 14th, 1836. Another distin- 
guished officer buried here is Captain 
Thomas John Newbold, of the 23rd 
Regiment Madras Army, Assistant 
Hesident at Hdidardbad, who died 
May 29th, 1860. From the Cemetery 
to Lodwick Point is 2900ft. due E. The 
road descends considerably aU the 
way. At about a quarter of a mile 
before reaching the monument to 
General Lodwick the carriage stops, 
and the rest of the way must be done 
on foot or on a pony. The column is 
about 25 ft. high from the ground to 
the top of the urn which surmounts 
the pillar. The spot comands a noble 
view over Pratdpgayh to the W. and 
Makrangafh to the S.W., and the hills 



202 



Houte 5. — Fund to JfaJidbalesInvar, 



Sect II. 



about it. The bangld and offices at 
the foot of Pratdpgarb are clearly 
seen. At that bangld travellers stop 
and are carried up in chairs to the 
fort of PratApgarh, the ascent being 
2 m. This bangld from Lodwick 
Point is 12 m. distant. On the W. 
side of the base of the monument is 
the head of the General, sculptured in 
alto-rilievo in white marble, pro- 
tected by stout tin wire, in an iron 
frame. The iron has rusted and 
stained the face, which some one has 
scratched, but not so as to disfigure 
it. On the S. side is inscribed : — 

In Memory of 
GENERAL PETER LODWICK, 

Second son of 

John Lodwick, Esq., of H. Bhoebury, Essex, 

Who entered the Hon. E. I. Co.'s service in 

1799, 

And died at Bagnires de Bigorre, France, 

August 28tli, 1873, 

Aged 90. 

Senior Officer of U.M.'s. forces in India. 

On the east side is written: — 

In 1803 he saw service as a subaltern 

In connection with the operations of tlie army 

under Sir Arthur Wellesley 

He was Brigade- Major of Colonel Ford's 

subsidiary force 

At the battle of Khirkl, November 5th, 1817, 

When 2,800 British troops defeated the 

Peshwd's anny, 

And was present at the taking of Purandhar, 

and other Hill Forts. 

He commanded a regiment at Kittiir in 1824. 

He subsequently became Town-Miyor of 

Bombay, 

And closed his career in India as 

Resident of Sdtdrl 

The first European who set foot on these hills, 

He made known the salubrity of the climate. 

And led to the establishment of the 

Mahdbaleshwar Sanatorium, 

Thus conferring an inestimable benefit 

on the 

Bombay Presidency. 

On the N. side is written : — 

Tliis Point, 

Now, by order of Government, 

Designated Lodwick Point in honour of his 

name, 

He reached alone in 1827, 

After hours of toil through the dense forests. 

Here, thei efore, as the most appropriate spot, 

This Monument has, with the permission of 

Government, 

Been erected by his omIv son, 

R. W. Lodwick, of H.M.'s. Bombay Ci\il 

Service, 

Accomitant-Geiiemi of Madras, 

Jii 15)74. 



A few yds. to the N. or right of the 
column is a path which leads to the 
precipice at the Point, whence it is 
seen that between Lodwick Point and 
Elphinstone Point is a vast glen, down 
to the bottom of which the mountains 
descend apparently as steeply as a 
wall. There is a path, however, a 
little to the right of that which goes 
to the Point, by which one who is not 
troubled with giddiness can make his 
way down to a village (see Darra) in 
the plain, and the Indians constantly 
ascend and descend by this path, 
bringing up wood and grass. The 
jungle is rather thick below, and ti- 
gers and panthers sometimes hai'bour 
there. A panther was shot some time 
ago at the bangld nearest to the 
Point, and in that vicinity is a small 
pool where the print of the feet 
of wild beasts may occasionally be 
seen. 

Pratapgafh, — The next expedition 
should be to Pratdpgaj'h, and there is no 
spot which, for historic recollections or 
natural beauty, is more deserving of a 
visit. The road presents magnificent 
views at every turn. A bold rider 
might, perhaps, ride the whole way 
into the fort, but the entrance is very 
rugged and steep, and it would be, 
perhaps, safer and more convenient to 
walk or to be carried in a chair. From 
the walls of the fort are seen to the 
S.E. Lodwick Point and Elphinstone 
Point, and the Maiii Mahal, as the 
Mahdbaleshwar Hills are called by 
the natives. Beyond Elphinstone 
Point towers Raieshwar, a cluster 
of black and abrupt precipices which 
no human foot has ever trod. To the 
N. rises the majestic Torna and Baj- 
gafh, and in the far distance KaigaCrh. 
On the S. is Makrangaph, or Dhdbar, 
to use the native name. On the W. 
the creek of Mhdr and Polddpiir are 
distinctly visible. In the fort are 2 
temples to Bhawdni and Mahddeo, 
and several tanks for rain water. The 
old tower under which Shivaji, in Oct., 
1659, buried the head of Afzal Khan, 
the Bijapiir general, is crumbling to 
decay, and is overgrown with weeds. 
This celebrated exploit, the murder 
of Afzal Khdn, laid the foundation of 



Sect. II. 



Houte 5. — Pratdpgarh, 



203 



Shivaji*B greatness, and is thus ad- 
mirably described by Grant Duff * : — 
" Shivajl provided accommodation for 
the envoy and his suite, but assigned 
a place for the Brdhman at some dis- 
tance from the rest. In the middle of 
the night Shivajl secretly introduced 
himseS to Paiitoji Goplndth. He ad- 
dressed him as a Brahman, his supe- 
rior. He represented that * all he had 
done was for the sake of Hindi!is and the 
Hindti faith ; that he was called on by 
Bhawdnl herself to protect Brdhmans 
and kine, to punish the violators of 
their temples and their gods, and to 
resist the enemies of ther religion ; 
that it became him as a Brahman to 
assist in what was already declared by 
the deity ; and that here amongst his 
caste and countrymen he should here- 
after live in comfort and affluence.' 
Shivajl seconded his arguments with 
presents, and a solemn promise of 
bestowing the village of Hewra in 
In'4m on him and his posterity for 
ever. No Brdhman could resist such 
an appeal, seconded by such tempta- 
tion. The envoy swore fidelity to 
Shivajl, declared he was his for ever, 
and called on the god to punish him 
if he swerved from any task he might 
impose. They accordingly consulted 
on the fittest means for averting 
the present danger. The Brdhman, 
fully acquainted with Af^al Khan's 
character, suggested the practicability 
of seducing him to a conference, and 
Shivajl at once determined on his 
scheme. He sent for a confidential 
Brdhman, already mentioned, Kfi^h- 
najl Bhdskar, informed him of what 
had just passed, and of the resolu- 
tion which he had, in consequence, 
adopted. After fully consulting on 
the subject, they separated as secretly 
as they had met. 

" Some interviews and discussions 
having taken place, merely for the 
purpose of masking their design, Krish- 
najl Bhdskar, as Shivajl's vakil, was 
despatched with Pantojl Gopln^th, to 
the camp of Afzal Khdn. The latter 
represented Shivajl as in great alarm ; 
but if his fears could be overcome by 

■^ VqI. i. p. IGO. 



the personal assurances of the Khdn, 
he was convinced that he might 
easily be prevailed upon to give him- 
self up. With a blind confidence, 
Afzal Kh4n trusted himself to Pan- 
tojl's guidance. An interview was 
agreed upon, and the Bljaptir troops 
with great labour moved to Jdoll. 
Shivajl prepared aplacefor themeeting 
below the fort of PratApgarh ; he cut 
down the jungle and cleared a road for 
the Khan's approach ; but every other 
avenue to the place was carefully closed. 
He ordered up Moro Pant and Netaji 
P^lkar from the Konkan. with many 
thousands of the Mdwall infantry. 
He communicated his whole plan to 
these two, and to Tdnajl Mdlusr^. 
Netaji was stationed in the thickets a 
little to the E. of the fort, where it 
was expected that a part of the Khdn*8 
retinue would advance, and Moro 
Trimmal, with the old and tried men, 
was sent to conceal himself in the 
neighbourhood of the main body of 
the Bljapiir troops, which remained, 
as had been agreed upon, in the 
neighbourhood of Jioll. The precon- 
certed signal for Netaji was the blast 
of a horn, and the distant attack, by 
Moro Trimmal, was to commence on 
hearing the fire of five guns from 
Pratdpgarh, which were also to an- 
nounce Shivajl's safety. 1500 of Afzal 
Khdn's troops accompanied him to 
within a few hundred yards of Pra- 
tdpgayh, where, for fear of alarming 
Shivajl, they were, at Pantojl Gopi- 
ndth's suggestion, desired to halt. 
Af^al Khdn, dressed in a thin muslin 
garment, armed only with his sword, 
and attended, as had been agreed, by 
a single armed follower, advanced in 
his pdlkl to an open bangld prepared 
for the occasion. 

" Shivajl had made preparations for 
his purpose, not as if conscious that 
he meditated a criminal and treacher- 
ous deed, but as if resolved on some 
meritorious, though desperate action. 
Having performed his ablutions with 
much earnestness, he laid his bead at 
his mother's feet and besought her 
blessing. He then arose, put on a 
steel chain cap and chain armour 
under his turban and cotton gown. 



204 



Boute 5. — Ptind to Malidbaleshwar, 



Sect. II. 




concealed a crooked dagger, or hicJiwd, 
in his right sieve, and on the fingers 
of his left hand he fixed a wdghnaJth, 
a treacherous weapon, well known 
among Mardthas. Thus accoutred, he 
slowly descended the fort. The Khdn 
had arrived at the place of meeting 
before him, and was expressing his 
impatience at the delay, when Shivajl 
was seen advancing, apparently un- 
armed, and, like the Khdn, attended 
by only one armed follower, his tried 
fnend Tdnaji MAlusr6. Shivajl, in 
view of Afzal Khdn, frequently 
stopped, which was represented as 
the effects of alarm, a supposition 
more likely to be admitted from his 
diminutive size. Under pretence of 
assuring Shivajl, the armed attendant, 
by the contrivance of the Brdhman, 
stood atafew paces distant. Afzal Kh An 
made no objection to Shivaji'sfollower, 
although he carried two swords in his 
waistband, — a circumstance which 
might pass unnoticed, being common 
among MarAthas ; he advanced two 
or three paces to meet Shivaji ; they 
were introduced, and, in the midst of 
the customary embrace, the treacher- 
ous MarAtha struck the TvdgJinaTth into 
the bowels of Afzal KhAn, who quickly 
disengaged himself, clapped his hand 
on his sword, exclaiming, 'Trea- 
chery and murder I ' But Shivajl in- 
stantly followed up the blow with his 
dagger. The KhAn had drawn his 
sword, and made a cut at Shivajl, but 
the concealed armour was proof 
against the blow : the whole was the 
work of a moment, and Shivaji was 
wresting the weapon from the hand 
of his victim before their attendants 
could run towards them. Saiyid 
Bandii, the follower of the KhAn, 
whose name deserves to be recorded, 
refused his life on condition of sur- 
render ; and, against two such swords- 
men as Shivaji and his companion, 
maintained an unequal combat before 
he fell. The bearers had lifted the 
KhAn into his pAlkl during the scuflle ; 
but, by the time it was over, Ehaiidu 
Mall6, and some other followers of 
Shivaji, had come up, when they cut 
off the head of the dying man, and 
earned it to PratApgayh. The signals 



agreed on were now made ; the M4- 
walls rushed from their concealment, 
and beset the nearest part of the Bi- 
jApdr troops on all sides, few of whom 
had time to mount their horses or 
stand to their arms. Netaji PAlkar 
gave no quarter ; but orders were sent 
to Moro Pafit to spare all who sub- 
mitted ; and Shivajl's humanity to his 
prisoners was conspicuous on this as 
well as on most occasions. This success 
among a people who cared little for 
the means by which it was attainedi 
greatly raised the reputation of 
Shivajl; and the immediate fruits of 
it were 4000 horses, several elephants, 
a number of camels, a considerable 
treasure, and the whole train of 
equipment which had been sent 
against him." 

JDarra, — The sportsman vdll find 
excellent shiMris or native huntsmen 
at the Hills waiting to be employed, 
and many places all routed where he 
may ply his rifle and gun. Jungle 
fowl and spur fowl are to be had in 
most directions, and there is always a 
chance of coming upon a panther, a 
cliitdf a bear, or a tiger. Bison, once 
numerous on the hills, are now only 
to be found at considerable distances, 
and are excessively shy. For a first 
attempt the visitor in search of game 
may descend between Sydney and 
Elphinstone Points to the village of 
Darra, which is situated about 2000 ft. 
down. The descent is rather fatiguing 
on account of the long grass, low jun- 
gle, and broken masses of rocks, where 
snakes are plentiful. Besides the 
cobra, and rock snake, there are great 
numbers of a most deadly little snake, 
called by the natives phurscn^ the 
Kaju TatA of Russell. It is requi- 
site, therefore, to be careful, though 
no European has yet been killed by 
the bite of these reptiles. Instances, 
however, of deaths among the natives 
owing to the bites of snakes are 
not uncommon. Enormous mon- 
keys inhabit the trees which clothe 
the sides of the mountains, and there 
are a few peacocks, which two kinds 
of animals are said] to be always in 
spots where the tiger is found. The 
monkeys, by their cries and excit 



Sect. 11. 



Eoute 6. — Pimd to SlwldpUr, 



205 



ment, will generally make known the 
whereabouts of the monster. After 
reaching Darra there is a path beside 
a clear stream to another village, and 
thence the return may be made up 
Lodwick Point. As the climber ad- 
vances, the ascent grows more steep, 
until near, the top there is a sheet of 
grass without any jungle, so extremely 
slippery, that it is almost impossible to 
cross it with unspiked shoes, next to 
which bare feet are safest. To those 
who are accustomed to climb moun- 
tains, the ascent will be very enjoyable, 
commanding as it does the most mag- 
nificent scenery on either side. To per- 
sons subject to giddiness this path can 
hardly be recommended, as a slip 
might cany them down many hundred 
feet into the forests below. After 
passing the grass, a narrow path about 
three feet broad is reached, which winds 
along under Sydney Point on the brink 
of a tremendous precipice, and at last 
leads to the road. So great is the 
height that if the visitor has nerve 
to look down he will see the most 
gigantic trees dwarfed to tiny shrubs. 
Indeed the forest looks almost like a 
carpet of moss. 

Makrangafh, — Another place where 
game is to be found is the forest near 
Makranga^h. A ride of about 13 miles 
leads through beautiful scenery to the 
village of Dewli, where the sportsman 
may halt in an old temple, under 
some of the tallest trees to be found 
in these parts. In the early morning 
the jungle fowl and partridges will 
be heard crying in all directions on 
the road hither, from the Hills' side ; 
while as evening comes on, shouts 
may be occasionally heard &om the 
herdsmen calling to one another to be 
on the look out, as some one among 
them has from the mountain top 
descried a prowling tiger near the 
herds. A fine river flows through the 
valleys in this direction, and the jun- 
gles are adorned with magnificent 
timber. Bears and chitaly the spotted 
antelope, are obtainable here, and 
occasionally tigers ; but the jungle is 
so thick that it is exceedingly difficult 
to follow up or secure a wounded 
animal. 



There are many other beautiful spots 
aroimd the hills which the traveller 
can explore, taldng with him an In- 
dian guide; but the most important 
have been described. A month may 
be delightfully passed on the hills. 
The rent of houses for the season is 
from Rs. 300 to 1600. 



Table of Fares for Phaetons, Dog-cariSj Twigas, 
Shigrams, and Bullock-carts. 

R. A. 

Morning or evening drive for 3 hrs., or 
under, within municipal limits :— 
Phaeton with 2 horses . . .30 
„ 1 horse . . ..20 
Tonga, with 2 horses . . . .20 
Dog-cart or Shigram, with 1 horse . 1 J 
Bullock-cart 10 

On the hill the whole day within muni- 
cipal limits : — 
Phaetons, with 2 horses . . .60 
„ „ 1 horse . . ..40 
Tonga, with 2 horses . . . .50 
Dog-cart or Shigram . . ..30 
BoUock-cart 2 



ROUTE 6, 

PUNA TO SHOLAPUE. 

For the stations and distances on 
this route refer to Time Table, Route I. 
The whole distance to Sholdpiir, 163| 
m., is passed through a level and, in 
general, treeless country, with but few 
villages, and no town of importance. 
The hills on either hand nowhere rise 
above 700 ft., and are at 3 to 5 m. 
distance, except in a veiy few places. 
A road runs parallel to the line. The 
station-houses are small but neat, with 
pretty gardens and palings covered 
with creepers with white flowers. The 
first station is Loni, but the name is 



^ 



206 



Houte 6. — Fund to Slwldiy&r, 



Sect. II. 



not written up. It is to the right of 
the line. The line is single all the 
way. The next station, Urll, is a mid- 
dling-sized* village. The station is on 
the right, as is the next station, Khed- 
gaoii, where the train stops for a few 
minutes ; Patds, the next station, is 
also on the right, and Dhond is on the 
left. Diksal, on the right, is a small 
village, where there is time to take a 
cup of tea. Two m. beyond Diksal 
you cross the Bhima river. PumAlwddl 
station is on the right, and Jaiir is on 
the left. Here mimosa trees are very 
thick. The line passes between banks 
of earth, which are so close as 
almost to touch the train. Kem, the 
next station, is a large and flourishing 
village, the largest place between PunS 
and Sholdpi^r. There is a fine clump 
of trees on the right. Bdrsi Road is 
a nice station on the right, near a large 
village. This place is the station from 
which, in the rains, travellers who in- 
tend to visit Pandharpi!ir must turn off 
to the S., the distance being about 30 
m. In dry weather they will proceed 
to Mohal, 28 m. farther ; but the dis- 
tance is only 24 m. from Pandharpiir. 
Pandharpiir is on the right bank of the 
Bhima river, 39 m. W. of ShoUpilir. 
There is here a very celebrated temple 
to Witthobd, or Withthal. The name 
is said to be derived from "W?i,'* 
knowledge, Jlia, privation, and La, 
" who take8,"=receiver of the ignorant. 
The people in charge of this idol, his 
clothes, etc., are the Badwars. The 
temple is said to have been built in 
A.D. 80, and was rented by certain 
Br^hmans till 1081, then by Badwfirs. 
The idol wears a high cap, and has a 
most ludicrous appearance. The le- 
gend is that a Brdhman named Pan- 
delli, going on a pilgrimage to Banaras, 
neglected his parents and stopped in 
a Brdhman*s house at Pandharpiir, and 
saw Gang^, Yamuna, and Saraswati 
acting as handmaids to his host on 
account of his filial piety. Pandelli 
then gave up his pilgrimage to Band- 
ras, stopped at Pandharpiir, and treated 
his pai'ents with great respect and 
honour, whereupon Vishnu became in- 
carnate in him as Witthobd. The idol 
is 4 ft. high, and the pedestal on which 



it stands is covered with 4 silver plates. 
I The first chamber in the temple has 
16 pillars, and is a room 40 ft. sq. and 
10 ft. high, without windows and ven- 
tilation. The 2nd pillar on the left is 
covered with silver plates, and pil- 
grims embrace it. The next room is 
called the Chdrkhamb, and is 20 ft. sq. 
and 10 ft. high. The idol chamber is 
8 ft. sq. Immense crowds of pilgrims 
visit this temple at certain times, par- 
ticularly on the 11th day from the 
new moon and the 11th from the full 
moon in A^hddh and K^tik, July and 
October, and suffer greatly from the 
crush and the want of ventilation. 
The pop. of Pandharpiir is 16,275, of 
which the Hindiis are 16,267. Between 
Bdrsl and Pandharpiir there is a good 
T. B. at Shetphal, 13^ m. from Bdrsl. 
SJwldp€kr is a city of 53,403 in- 
habitants, the capital of a coUectorate, 
and protected by a strong fort. The 
T. B. is 350 yards E. of the station. 
The fort is 1^ m. N.W. of the station. 
It is built on level ground, with a very 
slight fall to the N. The ramparts are 
of mud, with a fausse-braie. It has 
flanking semicircular bastions, with 4 
high towers. It has the Tank of Sa- 
deshwar to the E., and a broad and 
deep ditch on the other 3 sides. The 
first gate is called the Edntd Dar- 
wdzah or Spike Gate, from the iron 
spikes with which the huge massive 
wooden doors are garnished. These 
are to keep off elephants, which used 
to be trained to break in gates by push- 
ing with their foreheads. It has a 
Persian inscription, of which the fol- 
lowing is the translation : — " The 
building and repairs of the Spike Gate 
with iron, and of the sallyport of the 
Fort Sholdpiir in the fortunate Province 
of AurangabM, took place in the reign 
of Bdja Sdhii, King of Sdtdra, and 
by order of the Peshwa BAji Rdo 
(may his good fortune be perpetuated I) 
and under the advice of Saddseo Pan- 
dit, Governor of the said Fort, by the 
hands of Special Councillor Abdjl Ba- 
lAr, Secretary and Deputy of the said 
Governor. The building was completed 
on the 1st of Muliarram, in the year 
1225 of the holy Hijrah (A.D. 1806)." 
The second gate is at an angle to the 



Sect. II. 



Houte 6. — Slioldpur. 



207 



first, and is called the Mahang Gate. 
The 1st gate has 2 rhinoceroses carved 
above it, and the 2nd two lions. The 
walls are about 40 ft. high. Observe in 
the revetments many stones taken from 
Hindii temples, on which figures of 
A^ishnUjMahadeo, and of elephants and 
peacocks are seen. The walls are not 
solid enough when heavy guns are 
being fired on them, and there is now 
no communication between the ditch 
and the interior of the B'ort. To make 
it really strong there should be bomb- 
proofs. There is in the city, which lies 
N. of the Fort, a good high school for 
boys and young men, and a school for 
girls, which may be visited by those 
interested in educational matters. 
There are between 50 and 60 girls, 
taught by a BrAhmanl lady, but 
none of the scholars are over 12 years 
of age, and some of them are already 
married. The cantonment at Sholdpili-, 
which lies S.E. of the station, has a 
deserted look and many houses are 
falling down. There was once a strong 
force here, but nearly all the troops 
have been withdrawn. In April, 1818, 
General Munro marched against a 
body of BAji RAo's infantry, 4500 in 
number, who had with them 13 guns, 
and were commanded by Ganpat Rdo 
Phdns6. On hearing of General Mun- 
ro's approach, they retreated under the 
walls of the strong fort of ShoUpiir, 
where they were followed up, attacked, 
routed, and pursued with great 
slaughter. The P6ta of SholApiir had 
been previously carried by escalade, 
and the Fort, after a short siege, sur- 
rendered. (Grant Duff, vol. iii. p. 484.) 
There is a fine cotton-mill at SholApiir. 
It is near the Police Station, close to 
the Railway, and 4 m. S.W. of the 
Fort. The principal owner is Murdrjl 
Gokaldds, a well-known wealthy mer- 
chant of Bombay, whose family have 
been famous for their liberality. It 
is 278 ft. long by 84 ft. wide, and 
works 16,000 spindles. The lower 
story is 16 ft. high, and is the carding- 
room ; and the story above, 16 ft. high, 
is the spinning-room. The chimney 
is 130 ft. high. The weaving shed is 
138 ft. long by 78 ft. wide. The en- 
gine-house is 48 ft. by 30 ft. This Mill 



cost £60,000. Observe that in Sho- 
lapi!ir from 4 J to 6 bales, containing 
784 lbs. of cotton each, make one 
khandi ; but in Gujarat only \\ bales. 
The railway charge for carrying a 
khandi of cotton to Bombay is Rs. 14, 
or Rs. 3J to 3i per bale. Out of a 
khandi of cotton 2. bales of yarn are 
got of 300 lbs. each, and 25 per cent, 
is waste. Each bale pays 10 dnds for 
municipal tax, and Rs. 1^ brokerage. 
In some respects the mill at SholApiir 
is worked more cheaply than those in 
Bombay, where a khandi of firewood 
weighs 800 lbs. and costs Rs. 4 J ; but 
in SholApilr a khandi of wood weighs 
1600 lbs. and costs Rs. 6. Water for 
the mill in Bombay costs R. 1 for 
1000 gallons, and in Sholdpiir R. 1 
for 25,000 gallons. 

At about 3 m. N. of the city of Sho- 
ldpiir is the Eki-ilkh Tank. This tank 
has been formed by an embankment 
of earth and rough stones 1 J m. long, 
which has been carried across the Ad- 
hin river. The Indians call this river 
the Balen Ndlah, but this Ndlah is a 
smaller rivulet to the W. The lake is 
10 m. in its extreme length, and 4 m. 
at its greatest breadth. The area is 
about 6i sq. m. at full supply level. 
To speak with precision, the embank- 
ment is 6980 ft. long, and from 8 to 
18 ft. broad at top. There are 2 towers, 
from one of which there is an escape 
sluice raised by a capstan. Three 
canals, 2 on the left bank of the river 
and 1 on the right, are carried fi-om 
the tank to irrigate the surrounding 
country. The High-level canal on the 
left bank waters 2.40 sq. m. The 
Low-level canal from the left bank 
waters 16.32 sq. m. The High-level 
waters 10.12 sq. m. The greatest 
height of the embankment is 76^ ft., 
and the greatest depth of water 60 ft. 
There are thousands of trees along the 
course of the canals, but no great plan- 
tation near the lake, as the soil is rock, 
which gets harder the lower you go. 
In such ground a hole must be dug 10 
ft. deep and filled with earth for a 
tree to grow in it. There are a few 
alligators in the lake, and plenty of 
fish. The fishery lets for 450 rs. a 
year. But for this lake, which ha« 



208 



Eoute 7. — Sholdpur to Bi;dpiir, 



Sect. II. 



only lately been finished, the whole 
district near, and even the city of Sho- 
lapiir itself, must havo been deserted 
daring^ the late famine. The road to 
the la^e is impassable in the rains ; it 
crosses 2 canals, the first of which is 
so deep even in the dry weather that 
the water flows into a back seat of a 
Tonga. There is, besides, the broad 
bed of a river to be crossed, which 
would be quite impassable in the rains. 
This lake affords a signal example of 
the advantage of embanking streams 
in India. 



ROUTE 7. 

SHOLAPUB TO BLTAPUB. 

The stages are as follows : — 

Miles. 
From the judges' bangU at ShoUpiir to 

Dholkeir 20 

Dholkeir to Gundwan 12 

Gundwan to Horti 8 

Horti to Jadgnndi 8 

Jadgun41 to JBydpiir . . . . 12 

Total . . eo 

After 2 m. the Motl TalAo or Pearl 
Tank, at the extremity of the can- 
tonment, is reached. It is usual to 
change horses at the 5th milestone, 
and here for 4 m. the road is shaded 
by low tamarisk trees, which grow on 
either side as far as the river Bhlma. 
This river would scarcely be passable 
ill the rains except in a boat, but it is 
not more than 3 ft. deep in the warm 
weather, and has a rocky bed. After 
passing the 19th milestone the Bhlma 
river must be crossed again to reach 
the banglA, which is 150 yds. off the 
road to the right, and is a mere dharm- 
sdla, with no comfort or conveni- 
ence, and open to the public view. 



This place ijs 200 ft. lower than the 
£kn!ikh Tank. There are 2 villages, 
Yarji and Jalkl, between Dholkeir and 
GundwAn. The T. B. at GundwAn is 
more wretched than that at Dholkeir. 
The bugs here are very numerous. At 
Horti the domes of the buildings at 
Bij&piiir are visible from the rising 
ground. At the 43rd m. low hills be- 
gin, and at the 45th the white tomb 
of one D&iid Malik is passed on the 
right. It is on a hill a mile or more 
off. At the 50th m. there is a thick 
clump of trees, and before reaching it 
observe some small tombs and temples, 
with a red image and a stone with 
curious drawings like ships. The road 
for the last 5 m. is through a stony and 
desolate tract, and though the appear- 
ance of some of the domed buildings 
in the city is striking, no one would 
imagine that here stood a city, the 
capital of the Dakhan, the walls of 
wnich '^ were of immense extent, and 
its fort 6 m. in circumference " (Grant 
Duff, vol. i. p. 339), while its sovereign 
maintained an army of 80,000 horse 
and 200,000 infantry. A description 
of Bij4pi!ir has been given by Oapt. 
Sydenham in the Asiatic Besearches, 
vol. xiii. p. 432, 4th ed. ; and also by 
Colonel Sykes in the Trans, of the Lit. 
Soc. of Bombay, vol. iii. p. 55; and 
by Dr. James Bird in the Jour, of 
the Bom. As. Soc. for May, 1844. The 
description which follows represents 
the state of the city and buildings as 
they now are. The city is said to have 
extended, at its most flourishing pe- 
riod, to a circumference of 30 m. ; but 
this must have included the suburbs, 
which were formerly divided into 
Piiralis, of which that on the W. was 
called Sh4hpi!irah, which was joined 
by the Ydkiitpiirah, and by the \Zuhrah 
or Ibrah^pilirah to the S. of these 2. 
All 3 seem to have been called Tor- 
wah, and in themselves formed a new 
city, which was fortified by Ibrahim 
»Adil Shah II. the 24th year of his 
reign, A.H. 1011=AD. 1604. The as- 
trologers having declared that to re- 
main in the cittidel would be unlucky, 
Ibrahim removed his seat of govern- 
ment from that place to Torwah. The 
new capital, however, was plundered 



Sect. II. 



Boute 7. — Bij'dpiir, 



209 



bj Malik Ambar o£ A^madnagar in 
A.H. 1031===A.D. 1621. On this the 
Court returned from Torwah to the 
citadel ; and when Aurangzib took 
Bij&pi!ir, Torwah Was "quite depopu- 
lated, its ruined palaces only remain- 
ing, with a thick wall surrounding it, 
whose stately gateways were falling 
to decay." This suburb then, whose 
walls extended 3 m. from the W. gate 
of the fort, and probably other suburbs 
which have now utterly perished, must 
have been included in the 30 m. What 
is called the city now is the fort, of 
which Grant Duff says that it was 6 
m. in circumference. It is more pre- 
cisely 28,760 ft. round, or about 6i m. 
The total pop. according to the Census 
of 1872 is 12,938. Within the walls of 
the fort is the citadel, the walls of 
which extend 1660 ft. from N. to S., 
and 1900 ft from W. to E. The tra- 
Tcller coming from Sholdpiir will enter 
BijApiir fort or city by the ^Ahpiir 
gate, which is on the N.W. of the cita- 
del in the city wall. "When he comes 
to examine the buildings, he will then 
see a proof of the former riches and 
magnificence of this ruined capital. 
He will see a dome 127^ ft. in dia- 
meter, while that of St. Peter's is only 
139, and that of St. Paul's 108.* But 
before examining the edifices he must 
locate himself in Khawds KhAn's 
tomb, which is now used as a T. B. 
This buUding is 3600 ft. S. by E. of 
the Sh4hpiir Qate. It is well built 
and handsome, but unfortunately 
swarms with bugs. Snakes also are 
pretty numerous, and a tic polongai 
4J ft. long, which had just swallowed 
a large rat, was killed a short time 
since close to the bangld. Bij&pilir, 
like all ruined cities, is also very un- 
healthy during tiie rains, and for some 
time after them. During the late fa- 
mine it suffered very severely, and 
about 60,000 persons died in the city 
and surrounding country. Before 
making excursions the traveller will 
do well to fix in his memory the names 
of the gates of the foi*t or city, and 
their locality. The Shdhpiir Gate on 

* See "Trans, of Arch. Inst," Kovember, 
1854. 

[i?om6ay— 1880.] 



the N.W. has already been mentioned. 
2400 ft. to the 8. of it is the Paddea 
Gate, and 600 ft. to the S. of that is 
the Makkah Gate. Almost exactly 
opposite to it on tiie other or B. side 
of the fort is 'AUpiir Gate or High 
Gate, wrongly called in maps and 
elsewhere the Allahpoor Gate. 1200 
ft. to the N. of it is the PadshAhpiir 
Gate, and 6400 ft. to the N. of that, 
and in the centre of the N. wall of the 
fort, is the Bdhmani Gate. The first 
expedition will be to the Ibrahim 
Bo^ah, which is outside the Paddea 
Gate ; and returning thence the Mau- 
soleum of 'Abdu'r Baz&^ and that of 
Bigam ^d^ibah and Kishwar Ehdn's 
Mosque may be visited. Of the Ibra- 
him Ko?ah, Dr. Bird says truly, "this 
tomb is decidedly the most chaste in 
design and classical in execution of all 
the works which the Bijdpiir sove- 
reigns have left behind them.'* The 
traveller will proceed first to the Mak- 
kah Gate, which is 300 yds. almost due 
W. of the T. B. The Ibrahim Ro?ah 
is 400 yds. W. by N. of this gate. This 
magnificent buUding is said to have 
been erected by a Persian architect. 
It is inclosed by a strong wall with a 
lofty gateway. The inclosure is 600 
ft. from N. to S., and 240 ft from E. 
to W. The tomb has to the W. a very 
beautiful mosque 106 ft long from 
N. to S., and 66 ft deep from E. to W., 
which presents to the E. a front of 7 
graceful arches. In the open space 
between it is a ruined fountain with 
a reservoir. On each of the 4 sides of 
the Bof ah or tomb is a tasteful colon- 
nade open at the side by 7 arches, and 
forming a verandah of 16 ft. broad 
round the whole edifice. The pave- 
ment of this colonnade is slightly ele- 
vated, and its ceiling is exquisitely 
carved with verses of the Kur*dn, in- 
closed in compartments and inter- 
spersed with wreaths of flowers. The 
letters were originally gilt, and the 
ground is still a most brilliant azure. 
In some places the gilding is also still 
remaining. The border of every com- 
partment is different from that of the 
one adjoining. The windows are 
formed of lattice-work of Arabic sen- 
tences, cut out of stone slabs, the space 



210 



Boute 7. — Slioldpur to Bijajytir, 



Sect. IT. 



between each letter admitting the 
light. This work }8 so admirably exe- 
cuted that Colonel Sykes declares there 
is nothing to surpass it in India. 
Above the colonnade outside the build- 
ing is a magnificent cornice with a 
graceful and lofty minaret 4 stories 
high at each comer, and between 
every 2 such minarets are 6 smaller. 
From a 2nd inclosure, with 4 mina- 
rets on each side, rises the dome, the 
plan of the building resembling that 
of the tombs at Golkondah. The ceil- 
ing of the Rozah is quite flat, being 
made of square slabs without apparent 
support; and it is remarkable that 
this tomb and its adjoining mosque 
are the only stone edifices in Bij&pilir 
of this description. Under this roof 
is a cove projecting 10 ft. from the 
walls on every side. Mr. Fergusson 
says in his "Hist, of Arch." p. 562, 
" how the roof is supported is a mystery 
which can only be understood by those 
who are familiar with the use the In- 
dians make of masses of concrete, 
which, with good mortar, seems ca- 
pable of infinite applications unknown 
in Europe." The apartment so covered 
in is 40 ft. sq., and above it " is an- 
other in the dome as ornamental as 
the one below it, though its only ob- 
ject is to obtain externally the height 
required for architectural effect, and 
access to its interior can only be ob- 
tained by a dark, narrow staircase in 
the thiclmess of the wall." * Over the 
N. door is an inscription in Persian, 
which may be translated as follows : — 
" Heaven remained amazed at the ele- 
vation of this building; it was as 
though another heaven arose from the 
earth. From this Garden the Garden 
of Paradise derived its verdure. Every 
pillar in it is as graceful as a cypress 
tree in the Garden of Purity. From 
the apex of the Sky came a voice 
declaring its date. This heart-delight- 
ing building is the Monument of Tdj i 
SuU.dn." The last line is a chronogram, 

* Mr. Fergusson says, at p. 561, "that Tb- 
xahim warned by the fate of his predecessor's 
tomb, commenced his own on so small a 
plan, 116 ft. sq., that it was only by oma- 
ment that he could render it worthy of him- 
self." 



which gives the date A.H. 1036=a.d. 
1626. In the Persian, as given by Dr. 
Bird, there are one or two mistakes, as 
Magar for digar. Over the S. door is 
the following : — 

In pomp like Zubaidah, and in dignity like 

BaUlis, 
She gave lustre to the throne and was the 

crown of chastity. 
When from this terrestrial halting-place of 

dust 
She passed to tibe capital of Paradise, 
I asked the Sage the date. 
He said, Til^ i Sul$4n has become an inhabit 

taut of Eden. 

The last line is a chronogram, and 
gives the date A.H. 1083«=a.d. 1633. 
Over the same door is inscribed, — 

[Translation,'] 

To the beauty of completion this work of the 

Mausoleum was brought by Malik Sandal.* 
T^j i SulUn issued orders for this Rozah, 
At the beauty of which Paradise stood amazed. 
He expended over it l^ Ukhs of huns, 
And 900 more. 

Here too are 2 mistakes in Dr. Bird'd 
Persian. The Hiin being 3J rs., the 
total expense was Rs. 627,250. When 
Aurangzib besieged Bljdpilr in 1686, 
he took up his quarters in the Ibrahim 
Bo^ah, which received some damage 
from the BljApilr guns. These injuries 
were partially repaired by the RdjA of 
Sdtdrd, but the edifice was more com- 
pletely restored by the English Go- 
vernment. For further information 
respecting this exquisitely beautiful 
building, refer to Mr. Fergusson's 
"History of Architecture." It need 
only be added, that the double arcade 
of the Mausoleum, which is the finer 
building of the two, surpasses aU de- 
scription; and especially when seen 
by moonlight it will make an impres-^ 
sion on the beholder that will never 
be forgotten. Next to the Bozah 
1050 ft. to the N., is an Tdgdh, 
and 600 ft. N. of that is a building 
called Samshabi Ashas, and 1700 ft. 
to the N.W. of that again is the Mau- 
soleum of Amin Sd^ib. These build- 
ings are all in decay, and will not re- 
pay the trouble of a visit. KhawAs 

* The tomb of this personage is at Tikota, 
13 m. W. of the Makksili Gate. 



Sect. II. 



Jioiite 7. — Bijdpilr. 



211 



Khan's tomb, which is now used as 
the T. B.y is that of the traitor who 
admitted Auraogzlb. It is 74 ft. 3 in. 
high from the inside floor line to the 
top of the dome inside. The lower 
story is octagonal. The descendant 
of KhawAs Kh^n is an illiterate old 
man, who is hereditary deshmukh of 
Bijdpilr. He lives at the Tillage of 
Gankl. The tomb of the Pir or Saint 
of Khawds Khdn, whose name was 
*Abdu'rBaz4k, is likeKhawds Ehdn's, 
only that the lowest story is square. 
It is 45 ft. in diameter, Interior mea- 
surement ; and from the clerestory 
pHU-apet to the floor is 36^ ft. 
The dome is nearly complete, not 
stunted, and springs from a band of 
lozenge-shaped leaves. The passage of 
the clerestory is 2 ft. 10 m. broad, 
and at that point the diameter of the 
dome is 35 ft. Bigam Sdhibah, whose 
tomb is near it, was one of Anrangzib's 
wives. The remains of this tomb are 
in an inclosure 250 ft. sq., with places 
to lodge travellers on each side, and 
the ruins of a platform. According to 
Ghuldm I^usain Sd^ib Bdngi, who is 
one of the oldest inhabitants of Bljd- 
piir, there used to be a marble screen 
here, which was destroyed by the Ma- 
rdthas somewhat less than 100 years 
ago. The position of the Bigam's 
tomb is rather doubtful, and the de- 
scription of it given in a former ac- 
count of Bljdpur corresponds rather 
to the tomb of I^dji Hasan, which 
is near the 'Alipiir Gate. The tomb 
of 'Abdu^r Bazdk is a large build- 
ing, now much decayed ; near it 
to the S. is that of Kishwar Kh4n, 
whose father, Asad Ehdn, is repeatedly 
mentioned by the Portuguese. He 
founded the fort of Dhdnir, in the time 
of 'All 'Adil Shdh I., and was taken 
and put to death by one of the Nip^dm 
ShdM kings. All these minor places 
may be visited by the traveller in the 
morning that he returns from Ibrahim 
Bozah. In the evening he may visit 
the JSurj i Sharxah or "Lion Bastion," 
so called from being ornamented by 
2 lions' heads in stone. This bastion 
is 1500 ft. S. of the Shdhpiir Gate. On 
the right-hand side as you ascend the 
steps of the bastion there is an inscrip- 



tion, which may be translated as fol- 
lows : — 

In the time of the King 'All 'A'dil, victorious 
over infldels. 

To whom God granted a splendid victory for 
the sake of Murtazi, 

Through the fortunate endeavours of Maivi> 
hall Shih in 5 months, 

This bastion, such as you see it, was built 
with strong foundations like a solid moun- 
tain, 

An unseen voice from heaven, said with i>er- 
fect gladness, the date of the year of the 
unequalled Lion Mocque was "ft'om high 
heaven," a.h. 1079= a. d. 1668. 

On the top of this bastion is a huge 
gun, called the Malik i Maiddn, <* Lord 
of the Plain." * It is 14 ft. long, of 
blue metal ; but the circumference the 
whole way, from breech to muzzle, is 
15 ft. 1 in. The diameter of the bore 
is 2 ft. 4 in. Just above the touch- 
hole is the following inscription : — 

The work of Muhammad Bin Husain Rumi. 

At the muzzle is the following : — 

The servant of the family of the Prophet of 
God, Abii'l Olidzi mi^xxi Shlih, 956. 

At the muzzle is also— - 

In the SOth year of the exalted reign, 

A.H. 1097, ShAh 'A'lamgir, conqueror of infi- 
dels. King, Defender of the Faith, 

Conquered B^jdpi^, and for the date of his 
triumph. 

He falfilled what justice required, and an- 
nexed the territory of the ShAhs, 

Success showed itself, and he took the* Malik 
i MaidAn. 

The metal of the gun takes a very 
high polish, and is said to be the same 
as that of Gongs, which, in the "Annals 
of Philosophy" for Sept., 1813, p. 208, 
is declared to be an alloy of 80*427 
parts of copper to 19'573 parts of tin. 
On the 5th of Jan., 1829, the gun was, 
by the Kdj4 of S&t^4's orders, charged 
with 80 lbs. of coarse powder and fired. 
The inhabitants of the city deserted 
their houses in alarm, but the result 
of the explosion did not justify their 
terror. The report was loud, but 
nothing came of it. 400 ft. to the E, 
of the Sharzah Burj is a strange build- 
ing, called the Uparl Burj, or Upper 
Bastion. You ascend by an outside 

* The muzzle of this gun is wrought in the 
shape of a dragon's mouth. 

P 2 



212 



Route 7. — Slwldpur to Bijdpdr, 



Sect. IT. 



staircase, 52 steps, when you come to 
a Persian inscription. 

\Tra7islatUm,'\ 

In the time of Ibrahim ShAh ' A'dU Shih, Protec- 
tor of the World, ^ , ^. . 

This bastion was built as Fate directed, bemg 
constructed by HAidar Khin. 

O God I May the King of the World and his 
Deputy be fortunate I 

Tlie Moon which is in the bastion of exaltation 
is like the Sun, ^ ^ ^, , „ , 

Its date comes txom this. The Ixastlon is called 
by the name of Q^dar. 

The lion's bastion rises to the sky to the re- 
splendent sun. 

The Upari Burj is 61 ft. 3 in. high ; 
18 more steps lead to the summit, 
which is round ; and here are 2 guns 
made ol bars welded together with 
iron bands. The larger is 30 ft. 3 in. 
long, and has a diameter of 2 ft. 5 in. 
at the muzzle, and 3 ft. at the bi-eech ; 
the bore is 12 in. in diameter. The 
other gun is 19 ft. 8 in. long, with 1 ft. 
diameter at the muzzle, and 1 ft. 6 in. 
diameter at breech ; the bore is 8J in. 
in diameter. On returning from the 
Uparl Burj, the Tdj BAoli or " Crown 
Well " may be visited, adjoining which 
is the principal bAzir. This well is 
100 yds. E. of the Makkah Gate. The 
E. wing of the faQade of the well is 
partly ruined. Two flights of 4 and 8 
steps lead down to an arch of 34 ft. 
2 in. span, and about the same height. 
In the centre, under the front of the 
arch, is a vase with a Tulsl plant grow- 
ing in it with the emblem of MahAdeo. 
The tank at the water's edge is 231 ft. 
2 in. sq. The water comes partly from 
springs and partly from drainage, and 
is 30 ft. deep in the dry weather. The 
level of course sinks during the hot 
season, and is then approached by 
side stairs. There are many fish in it. 
During the famine the people lived on 
the ground around it for the sake of 
the water. There is no inscription, 
and no great beauty of design. Colonel 
Sykes states that it was built by Malik 
Sandal in SultAn Muliammad's reign ; 
but according to Dr. Bird it was the 
work of the V4zir of Sul^An Muham- 
mad, who is called by that writer 
Senid-iil Miilk, in which name there 
are several mistakes. In the arcade 
to the right of the well remark the 



curious roof, the rafters of which are 
of stone. The W. wing of the arcade 
is now the office of the Civil autho- 
rities. The Makkah Gate to the W. is 
now the Mdmlatd^r's Kacheri, and is 
generally kept closed. Here are the 
police lines and the prison. A gnn 
10 ft. long, of blue metal, with a dra- 
gon's head, lies outside, and inside is a 
10-inch mortar, with the weight of the 
shot inscribed in Mar^thi. On either 
side of the gate there is a representa- 
tion of 2 lions trampling on an ele- 
phant. 

Hitherto the traveller has been ex- 
amining the W. part of the city and 
suburbs ; on the next day he will pro- 
ceed to the E., as &r as the 'Alipiir 
gate, and then turn N. past the P^d- 
$hdpi!ir gate for 500 ft., when he will 
come to the mausoleum of Sultan 
Muhammad, 7th King. The total dis- 
tance from the T. B. is about 1| m. 
This magnificent structure is generally 
called the Grol Gumbaz,or Round Dome, 
but it is also called Bol Gumbaz, which 
is said to mean " Topless Dome," and by 
some it is styled Gul Gumbaz, or " Rose 
Dome." Mr. Fergusson, in his " Hist, 
of Arch.," p. 662, says of this building : 
" The tomb of his successor, Ma^miid,* 
was in design as complete a contrast 
to that just described as can well be 
imagined, and is as remarkable for 
simple grandeur and constructive bold- 
ness as that of Ibrahim was for exces- 
sive richness and contempt of con- 
structive proprieties. It is constructed 
on the same principle as that employed 
in the design of the dome of the great 
mosque, but on so much larger a scale 
as to convert into a wonder of con- 
structive skill what, in that instance, 
was only an elegant architectural 
design." This structure is built on a 
platform 600 ft. sq. and 2 high. In 
front is a Nakdr Kh&nah, 94 ft. from 
S. to N. and 88 ft. from E. to W. The 
Mujdwir, or keeper, gets 4 Rs. a 
month, and lives in the second inclo- 

* This king is called at B^jdpi^r itself Mu- 
hammad, but the ATord Mahmi^d, which signi- 
^ " praiseworthy," occurs in the 2nd inscrip- 
tion, q. V. He is called Ma^mM in a paper 
mentioned in the " Indian Antiquary," vol. ii. 
p. 2282. His name was Muhammad Mahi- 
miid. 



Sect. 11. 



Boute 7. — Bijdp^r. 



213 



sure, which is deformed with unsightly 
mud huts. At each comer of the 
mausoleum is a tower 7 stories high, 
besides the dome. Mr. Molecey thinks 
these towers were added as supports. 
They are very much cracked in places. 
Each side of the building is 196 ft. 
long, outside measurement. The 
square room over which the dome is 
raised is the largest domed room in 
the world, being 136 ft. sq. Briggs' 
book of Feb., 1866, makes it 134 ft. 
3 in., which is an error. Over the en- 
trance are three inscriptions. The 1st 
is '* Sul];4n Mnl^ammad, inhabitant of 
Paradise, 1067." The next is, " Mu- 
hammad, whose end was commend- 
able, 1067," and the 3rd inscription 
is, " Muhammad, became a particle 
of heaven," (lit. House of Salvation), 
1067." The date, 3 times repeated, 
is A.D. 1656. The fa9ade presents 
3 lofty arches, springing from the 
pavement, and supporting several feet 
of plain lime- work and plaster, above 
which is a cornice of grey basalt and 
a TOW of small arches supporting a 
second line of plain work, surmounted 
by a balustrade 6 ft. high. The base 
of the middle arch is of grey basalt, 
the others are of stonework and 
plaster. The comer towers or minarets 
are 12 ft. broad, and are entered by 
winding staircases and terminate in 
cupolas. Each story has 7 small 
arched windows, opening outwardly 
and looking into the court below, 
while the 8th admits a passage for the 
circular stair. From this there is an en- 
trance to a broad ledge surrounding 
the dome, which is so large that a 
carriage might pass round it. This 
passage rests on supports, inclining 
inwards in curves like half arches. 
The internal area of the tomb is 18,226 
sq. ft., while that of the Pantheon at 
Rome is only 15,833. " At the height 
of 57 ft. from the floor line," says Mr. 
Fergusson, "the hall begins to con- 
tract by a series of pendentives as in- 
genious as they are beautiful, to a 
circular opening 97 ft. in diameter. 
On these pendentives the dome is 
erected, 124 ft. in diameter." " In- 
temally, the dome is 175 ft. high ; ex- 
ternally, 198 ft., its general thickness 



being about 10 ft." Inside the dome, 
and outside too, are iron rings, and 
two brothers named 'Umr and ^asan, 
ascended inside to the ring in the 
centre, whence they dropped a line. 
Outside on the parapet is a fine view 
over Bijdpiir. On your left as you 
turn your back to the dome, you see 
*Allpiir to the E., and on the other 
side, to the W., Ibrahim Ko^ah and 
the fjpari Burj and the Sharzah or Lion 
Bastion are distinctly visible, and 
beyond them, at 4 m. to the W., is 
the wall of a new city, which the 
ministers of Ibrahim II., father of 
Sul];4n Muhammad, began to build, but 
the attempt was abandoned as un- 
lucky. Had it been continued, the 
legendary demensions of the city, 30 
m. circumference, might have been 
justified by fact. About 1 m. W. of 
the Gol Gumbaz one sees the ruins 
of what were the villages of the 
masons and painters employed on the 
mausoleum. There is a small annex 
to the N. without a roof, built by 
ISult^n Muhammad for his mother, 
Zuhrd §A^ibah, from whom one of the 
suburbs was called Zuhrdpiir. This 
building is defaced by a low ugly 
wall, built by the MarA^has, which 
ought to be removed. The cemenn 
covering of the dome, which is a foot 
thick, has fallen on the N. side and 
carried away the ornamental coping. 
The rain now comes in. 

Below the dome is the tomb of Sul- 
f.An Muhammad in the centre. To the 
left, facing the spectator, are the graves 
of his youngest wife and of the son of 
'Ali 'A'dU Shdh II. ; on the right, are 
those of his favourite dancing girl 
Rhambd, his daughter, and his eldest 
wife mentioned by Bemier, vol. ii. p. 
22 1 . The ascent at the left-hand comer 
to the parapet and gallery is by 160 
steps. If a person whisper softly at 
one point of the gallery, he will be 
heard most distinctly at the opposite 
point. There is also a good triple 
echo. 

The JAm'i Masjid, about 2,200 ft. W. 
of the Gol Gumbaz, is the J4m'i Mas- 
jid or Cathedral Mosque of BijApiir. 
The N. side of the quadrangle is 323 
ft. 3 in. from the inner wall of the W. 



214 



Boute 7. — Sholdp'dr to Bijdpur. 



Sect. 11. 



side to the edge of the platfonn on the ' 
K. The E. side has a wall and a gate- 
way, but is unfinished ; Mr. Fergusson 
says, p. 659, *^ Even as it is, it is one of 
tJie finest mosqaes in India." In the 
centre is a hauz or reservoir, now dry. 
The arcades on the N. and S. sides of 
the quadrangle are 31 ft. 3 in. broad. 
Including arcades, the court is 237^ 
ft. broad from N. to S. Over the W. 
arch is, — 

Allah 
Mul^ammad 

. aiclar 
Abii Bakr 

•Umr 
'Usman. 
« 
The Mil^rdb, which marks the place 

on the W. to which the people turn 
in prayer, is gilt and ornamented 
with much Arabic writing, but there 
is also a Persian quatrain, which may 
thus be translated — 

Rest not in the Palace of Life, for it is not 
secure, 

None can rest in a building, which is not 
meant to endure, 

Fair in my sight seems the World's halting- 
place, 

A sweet treasure is Life, but 'tis gone without 
leaving a trace. 

This Arch was built in the time of the reign of 
Sultdn Muljiammad ShAh. 

The date 1045 is in the inner centre 
of the arch - A.D. 1635. Dr. Bird 
gives the date, of the structure as 
A.H. 943=A.D. 1536, according to the 
following chronogram — 

Enter the Mosque of the Sultan, whose end 
was happy, 



which would be in the reign of *A11 
'Adil Shdh. Mr. Fergusson says that 
the building was commenced by 'All 
'Adil Shdh (1557—1579), and though 
continued by his successors was never 
completely finished. If it had been 
completed it would have covered from 
50,000 to 55,000 sq. ft., and would 
have been the size of a mediaeval ca- 
thedral. Each of the squares into 
which it is divided has a domed roof, 
beautiful, but so flat as to be concealed 
externally. 12 of these squares are 
occupied by the great dome, which is 
57 ft. in diameter, but stands on a 
square of 70 ft. There is another in- 



scription, which translated says, " Ya- 
kilt DAbiUi was the servant of the 

• 

shrine, and the slave of Sult;4n Ma- 
bammad Sh4h. May God perpetuate 
his sublime shadow 1 a.h. 1045= A.D. 
1 635.' ' The pavement below the dome 
is of chunam, divided by black lines 
into numerous squares called mumUds 
or compartments for persons to pray 
on, imitating the mufalld or prayer- 
carpet which the faithful carry with 
them to the mosques. These were 
made by order of Aurangzib when he 
carried away the velvet carpets, the 
large golden chain and other valu- 
ables belonging to the Mosque. Mr. 
Molecey , the architect who has been in 
charge of the buildings here, states 
that the sJdltr or ornament at the top 
of the mosque was filled with a sort of 
grain called rurd to give it weight. 
N. of the JAm'i Masjid 700 ft. is Kha- 
wds KhAn's home, and about 1100 ft. 
W. of that and parallel with it is Yd- 
]fM Ddbiill's mosque, 500 ft. to the S. 
of which is NiiwAb Mu§t;afa KhAn's 
mosque, all of which places may be 
visited, though they do not call for 
special description. Mu^t^fa KhAn 
iGrdistdnl was a distinguished noble- 
man at the court of 'All 'Adil Sh&h, 
and was murdered in A.D. 1581 by 
Eishwar KhAn, who usurped the re- 
gency in the time of Ibrahim 'ildil 
ShAh II. 700 ft. to the N.W. of his 
mosque is the palace of the AsAr i 
Sharif, "illustrious relics, which are 
hairs of the Prophet's beard." It is 
a large heavy looking building of brick 
and lime, and is close to the moat of 
the inner fort and in the centre of its 
E. rampart. One enters first a veran- 
dah or portico 60 ft. high, supported by 
the trunks of gigantic trees, now pro- 
tected with planks. This portico is 
36 ft. broad, and looks upon a tank 
250 ft. sq., the mud of which was 
cleared out by labourers as one of the 
works during the famine, and the 
water now looks clear. Passing througjh 
the verandah you come out into an open 
space, and see at 100 ft. to the W. a 
row of subordinate buildings. From 
this is the best view of the Gol Gum- 
baz, as the distance diminishes the 
impression of its excessive bulk. The 



Sect. 11. 



Itoute 7. — JBiJdpur, 



215 



ceiling of the verandah or portico has 
been very handsomely painted. On 
the right of the staircase by which you 
ascend to the upper rooms, is a suite 
of apartments, in the first of which 
are cases for books. They contained 
MSS. of some value, which were sent 
by Sir B. Frere to Bombay. He also 
preserved the portico by building a 
gigantic square prop and also an arch 
with a sharp point, which has an in- 
congruous look beside the old arches, 
which are broad and but slightly 
curved. Bemark here a very fine 
piece of ruddy marble with shells im- 
bedded in it, which is in one of the 
arches of the portico. The main flight 
of steps ascended here is broad, and 
leads to a hall 81 ft. 4 long and 27 ft. 
4 broad. After mounting, you pass 
into an upper verandah or ante-cham- 
ber to the right, the ceilings and walls 
of which have been gilt. The doors 
are inlaid with ivory, and in the palmy 
days of BijApiir the effect must have 
been very striking. In the N. wall is 
a cabinet in which the sacred hair is 
kept, and this is opened only once a 
year. You now pass to the S. into 2 
rooms beautifully painted with vases 
of flowers. All these rooms were de- 
faced and spoiled by the Mardthas. 
The Edjd himself is said to have set 
the example in scraping off the gilding, 
and his followers imitated him only 
too well. They picked out the ivory 
that inlaid the doors, and otherwise so 
injured the rooms as to reduce this 
once splendid palace to the state of an 
unsightly bam. This happened partly 
under the Peshwds, and partly when 
the English transferred BijApiir to the 
Raja of Satdrd. The A§dr i Sharif 
formerly communicated with the cita- 
del by means of a bridge, of which 
nothing now remains excepting the 
pillars, and succeeded to the honour 
of holding the precious relics of the 
Prophet aSter a similar building within 
the citadel had been burned down. 
Following the edge of the ditch to the 
S.W. the traveller will come to a mas- 
sive square tower called the CJuitra 
Ganj, which is one of 14 such built by 
Afzal Khdn, who met his death at the 
hands of Shivajl, the founder of the 



Mardtha empire. These, which are 
contrivances for giving impetus to the 
water of an aqueduct, were built in 
the time of Mu1;^ammad Shdh to supply 
the city. There is an inscription on 
this tower as follows: — " Be it known 
to the executors of ornamental arts, 
the architects of important works, and 
to celebrated living workmen, that 
Af^al Khdn Muhammad Shdhf, a 
nobleman of good fortune, the present 
commander-in-chief, the first in rank 
of the Dakhan lords, the religious 
destroyer of infidelity, on whom de- 
scends Qod's favour, whom heaven 
pronounces to be the most accom- 
plished and excellent^ and whose 
name, like God's praise, is resounded 
from every quarter, saying, it is ex- 
cellence, did, after much labour, and 
by order of Mul|^ammad Shdh Ghdzi 
(the exalted in dignity, whose C09rt is 
like that of Sulaimdn, and whose gloiy 
is as the sun), render this aqueduct 
conspicuous (calling it by the name 
of Muhammad Nidd,) for the con- 
venience of God's people, so that who- 
soever should have a thirsty lip might 
have his heart filled and satisfied at 
this water, whilst his tongue would be 
moist in praying that this sovereignty 
of the king, the asylum of the uni- 
verse, may abide for ever," A.H. 1063 
s=A.D. 1652. The unfinished tomb of 
'AH 'Adil Shdh H. is to be seen to the 
W. of the Agdr i Sharif, and on the N. 
of the citadel. It is a noble ruin of 7 
large Gothic-looking arches, construc- 
ted on a terrace 15 ft. high and more 
than 200 ft. sq. Had not the death of 
the Sultdn put a stop to its progress 
and prevented the addition of an 
upper story, in conformity vnth the 
original design, it would have sur- 
passed every other building at Bijdpi!ir, 
both in magnificence and beauty. 

The Ark or atadeh—Aboxit 1,400 ft 
to the S.W. of the Asdr Ma^all is the 
citadel gate, and. here the walls are 
thick with pillars and sculptured 
stones, taken from Jain, temples which 
probably stood on this spot when the 
Mul^ammadans stormed the citadel. 
Having demolished these idol temples, 
the conquerors used many of the 
stones in rebuilding the walls. The 



216 



JRoute 7. — Sholdpur to Mjdpur, 



Sect. IL 



rest they carried 75 yds. to the N.W. 
and put them together again in dis- 
orderly combination so as to form a 
new temple, which by the Mil^rdb or 
arch towards the Kiblah or point of 
prayer is shown to have been used as 
a mosque. At the distance of 70 yds. 
from the gateway, you pass to the left 
under a low roof, and have on your 
left a small mound called the Ganj i 
Shahiddn, or " Store of Martyrs," in 
which the Muslims who fell in the 
assault were buried. You are now in 
front of the first Jain temple, conver- 
ted into a mosque, with 12 pillars, 9 ft. 
6 high, in a row, the rows being 7 deep, 
the total number of pillars being there- 
fore 84. There is a central Mandap 
or Hall, 2 stories high, the inner room 
being 8 ft. 8 sq., and the outer or sur- 
rounding room 25 ft. 2 sq., inclusive of 
the inner. At the N. side, about the 
centre row, notice a wonderfully hand- 
some and elaborately carved black 
pillar, and to the N.E. of it an ancient 
Kanarese inscription. On several of 
the pillars around are inscriptions, some 
in Sanskrit and some in Kanarese. 
Pass now about 200 yds. to the N. and 
you come to the Anand Ma1;iall or 
" palace of joy," where the ladies of 
the seraglio lived. In a line with it 
to the W. is the Gagan Mal|;iall or 
" heavenly palace," the N. face of 
which has 3 magnificent arches. The 
span of the central arch is 66 ft. 6, 
and that of each of the side arches 
17 ft. lOi. The height of all 3 is the 
same, about 50 ft. The ruins of these 
palaces are extremely picturesque, but 
the ground is thickly clothed with 
coarse grass and shrubs, 1 yd. or so 
high, where one might easily step on a 
cobra or a tic prolonga. The buildings 
have cellars, the ab(Se of porcupines, 
which are very numerous here, and are 
caUed Sdrgd. Holes scraped by these 
animals, and their fallen quills, are to 
be found everywhere. Dogs are some- 
times killed by being transfixed with 
the quills. About 150 yds. to the N.E. 
is the second Jain temple, and the 
same distance to the N.W. is the un- 
finished tomb of 'AH 'Adil Shdh, men- 
tioned above, which is little more than 
a series of ruined arches. The second 



Jain temple has 10 rows of pillars 7 
deep. The Mi^rdb in it shows the 
Mu^ammadans used it as a mosque. 
At 200 yds. to the S.W. of this is 
a building called the S&t Ehandi or 
" Seven Stories," a pleasure palace 
for the ladies, from the top of which 
thej' could overlook the whole city, 
being themselves unseen. It formed 
the N.E. corner of a vast building 
called' the Granary, which was proba- 
bly the public palace of the kings, 
where their public and private au- 
diences were held. From this the 
moat of the citadel is crossed by a 
causeway 140 ft. long, but the average 
breadth of the moat may be taken as 
150 ft. 

Mihtar*8 Mosque.-^IOOO ft. to the 
S.E. of the entrance into the citadel 
is the MihtarMaliall. Observe in going 
to it, 2 gigantic stone posts of a gate- 
way with a carved beading. Each 
post is 10 ft. long and 3 thick. This 
small but elegant structure is 3 stories 
high, and has minarets at the comers 
and ornamental carving in soft clay 
stone about its windows. Dr. Bird, in 
his paper in the Bom. As. Soc. Joum., 
vol. i., p. 376, has given a lithographic 
view of this mosque. It may be ob- 
served in explanal^on of its name, that 
when the Hindiistanl language arose 
in the Urdii, or camp, of the Mughul 
emperors, the Persian soldiers gave 
nicknames to various persons, which 
took their place in the language : thus, 
a tailor was called Khalifa, " Caliph ; " 
a waterman was called Bihishtl, " an 
inhabitant of Paradise ; " and a 
sweeper, the lowest of the low, was 
called Mihtar, " a prince." The story 
is that Ibrahim Shdh had a disease 
which his physicians could not cure, 
and the astrologers told him that his 
only chance was to give a large sum 
to the first person he saw next morn- 
ing. The king looked out of the 
window very early and saw a sweeper, 
on whom he bestowed a vast sum, and 
the poor fellow, not knowing what to 
do with it, built this mosque. Mr. 
Fergusson says of this structure — 
"Perhaps the most remarkable civil 
edifice is a little gateway, known as 
the Mihtar*s Mahall, 'the gate of thA 



Sect. II. 



Soute 8. — Bombay to Goa, 



217 



sweeper,' with a legend attached to it ' 
too long to quote. It is in a mixed { 
Hindii and Muhammadan style, every ' 
part and every detail covered with > 
ornament, but always equally appro- : 
priate and elegant. Of its class it is , 
perhaps the best example in the 
country, though this class may not be 
the highest." With regard to this 
passage it must be remarked that 
the Arabic word Mahall cannot 
signify gateivay, it signifies building, 
seraglio, palace; however, in maps 
drawn on the spot, the structure is 
called the Mihtar's Mosque, though 
there is nothing to make one think 
that it was built for religious purposes. | 
Observe in returning to the T. B., to 
the left as you turn from it to the 
Mihtar's Mosque, 2 enormous tamarind 
trees. The larger is 47 ft. 9 in. in cir- 
cumference, the lesser, 36 ft. 6 in. The 
Fatlji Gate in the centre of the S. wall 
of the city is that by which Aurangzlb 
is said to have entered. It must be 
said that an idea has been entertained 
of making BijApiir the capital of the 
Collectorate instead of Kaladgi, and 
of using the abundant water in the 
moat round the citadel to irrigate the 
neighbouring grounds, turning them 
into a garden or a park. 

Routs to Kcdadgi and Bdddmi. — It 
might so happen that the traveller 
would wish to visit Bdddmi from Ka- 
ladgl, instead of going round by , 
Belgdon and Dhdrwdd. A full de- \ 
scription of Bdddmi will be found in 
a {rnbsequent Route, and therefore a 
veiy brief account only is here given 
of the route by Kaladgi. 



From 



From 


To 


Distance. 






M. F. 


1 


Brought forward 


38 


' ^usain Sahib's 


Sonagii . 


3 i 


Darg^h 






Sonaga . . 


Baulatti . . 


4 4 


iBaulatti . 


Kiindragi. 


2 1 


Kuudragi . . 


Kaladgi . . 


6 5 


Kaladgi . 


Kattikeri . 


14 5 


Kattikeri . . 


BMdmi . . 
Total . 


11 2 


81 3 



itei»Mirfc».-The road is good, but water Ijad 
and scarce to Mulwar, where there are 4 good 
wells. The 3 stations mentioned after the 
Futhi Gate are very small villages. 

At Baril Garsingi water is plentiftil. Kol.ir 
is a large village on the N. bank of the 
Krifflipa river. Two basket boats ply on the 
terry here. The other places are small vil- 
lages, and Kaladgi is a small town and canton- 
ment on the Gatparba River, which is 120 yds. 
wide, and 2 ft deep in December. 

The road at Kaladgi is very ba<l and heavy, 
with sand in the latter part. 6 small villages 
are passed ou the way. 



Shahpur Suburb 
Fat^ Gate 
Jumnal . . 
Wandkar . 
Mulwar . . 
Ronial 

Chhojii Garsingi 
Ba]*d Garsingi 
Kolar . . . 
Baloti . 
Bargaudi . 



L 



To 


Distance. 




M. 


F. 


Fat^^ Gate 
Jumnal . . 


1 

4 






Wandkar Halll 


6 


2 


Mulwar . 


6 


3 


Ronial . . 


6 


3 


Chho^A Garsingi 
Bani Garsingi . 
KoUr 




3 


6 


Baloti . . . 


4 





Bargandl . 
Husain Sd^ib's 


5 
1 


4 



Dargih 
Carry forward 






38 


6 



ROUTE 8. 

BOMBAY TO GOA. 

The best and easiest way of visiting 
Goa is to embark at Bombay on board 
one of the British India Steam Naviga- 
tion Company's steamers, and, leaving 
Bombay Harbour about 6 p.m., the tra- 
veller will reach Ratnagiri, 123 m., at 
11.40 next morning. The bay here is 
tolerably sheltered from the N.E. and 
S., but to the "W. and S.W. it is quite 
open. It is possible that the traveller 
might like to stop at Ratnagiri, a de- 
scription of which is appended. Rdjd- 
piir and Vijayadurg are also places 
worth a visit, as is Mdlwan, and the 



218 



Boute 8. — Bombay to Goct. 



S6Ct II. 



overland route to them is accordingly 
here given : — 



Names of Places. 


Distances 
in Miles. 


1 
Stages. 




K. 


F. 


M. r. 


Ratnagiri, b.p.o. . 


1 


3i 




Rajw441 . . . . 





5 




X KaUndA r. 





3 




Bh&tea . . . . 





»i 




A well and dh. 


2 


H 




A well and dh. . 


1 


6 




A well and dh. 


; 


4 




Paved descent . . , 


2 


u 




X r. to Golai) 





5 




X n 


1 


^ 


. 


X r. , . , , 





2 




Panwas .... 





1 


11 7i 


X n. and r. to Maulanga 


3 





^ 


X n 


2 


4i 




X r. to Bhar 





n 




Binl 


5 


6i 


11 4^ 


X MuchVmdi r. . 





H 


m 


Asoll . . . . 





2* 




Ascend hill to a temple 


1 


8 




X r. to Kotapur . 


1 


6 




X n 





4 




Gliotna. 


8 


3 




X n. . . . . 


1' 


2 




X r. to Raijapur . 
X Suknadir. . . . 


8 


3 


12 1 





H 




Satidli .... 


8 


3} 




Judtl .... 


8 


4 




X Kaiiwir. . 


4 







Kabiirli (hence visit Vi- 








jayadurg, Viziadroog) 





^ 




X n 


2 


3 




PAtagAon .... 





5i 


15 1 


JambhAu 


5 


6 




X 8eo r. 110 yds. broad 





^ 




Bdgk . . . . 





4 




Chandosi . ... 


1 


H 




Walandi 


2 


H 




SirgAon Wadi . . . 


1 


6 




X Mithbasr. 


1 


H 




SAlsi 


1 


n 


15 


X n 





H 




X Banii r. 


1 


6 




Barni .... 





44 




X n 





4i 




X n 


o 


5 




X n. with steep banks . 


1 


H 




X n. to Wai-oni . 





H 




X Harnf r. ... 


1 


'4 




X Gadr. 


1 







Santnil . . . . 





^h 


10 4} 


X n. rd. to MAlwan . 





6 





Ratnagiri {Rutnaglierry *). — This 
place is the principal civil station in 
the S. Konkan. A small detachment of 
troops is usually stationed at it. The 
town is large and open, facing the sea. 
There are two small bays formed by a 
rock on which the fort is built. There 
is neither shelter nor good anchorage, 

* Ratuaguiry of Grant Duff. 



as the bay is completely exposed, and 
the bottom is hard sand with rock. With 
any breeze from the W. there are heavy 
breakers on the bar at the entrance of 
the river, and boats cross it only at the 
top of high water. The landing place 
for boats is on the S. of the fort, near a 
small tank, close to high- water mark. 
The cantonment lies on the N. of the 
town. Batnagiri has its name from a 
demon named Batndsur, who was killed 
by an incarnation of Shiva called Ndth, 
or Jotibd, who is worshipped at a fa- 
mous temple near Eolhdpilir. There is 
probably some historical foundation for 
this legend, and Ratnagur may be re- 
garded as a king of the aborigines 
killed by some .^^an leader. Other- 
wise the word might be translated 
" Hill of Gems," from Skr. ratjuini, '^a 
jewel," and giHh, « hill." This is a 
pretty town hid in palm trees, with a 
hill fort to the N. on a hill which juts 
into the sea, once a stronghold of the 
Mar&thas. The principal thing of in- 
terest here to the tourist, however, is 
the Tdrli, or " Sardine " fishing, which 
is pretty to witness, independently of 
epicurean considerations. Fleets of 
canoes may be seen putting out for 
these fish in January and February. 
Three men are required in each canoe, 
two to paddle and one to cast the net. 
The attitudes of the men engaged in 
casting the nets are beautiful, and dis- 
play their fine athletic figures to ad- 
vantage. They stand in the bows of 
the canoes, leaning slightly forward, 
with the nets gathered up, the head 
turned back over the shoulders, and 
with eyes glancing keenly around in 
search of the shoal. The fish, which is 
most delicious, is caught in such num- 
bers that a single net-caster will fill his 
canoe in the course of the morning, as 
many as 50 fish being taken at a single 
cast, and quantities of the fish are used 
to manure the rice fields. At these 
times the deep-sea fishing is entirely 
neglected. The fishing is within a 
short distance of the shore, just outside 
the breakers, and can be carried on 
only when the water is sufficiently 
clear to admit of the fish being readily 
seen. In calm weather the water is as 
clear as crystal ; and it is a beautiful 



Sect. II. 



SoiUe 8. — Rdjdpur — Vijayadurg. 



219 



sight at such times to watch the waves 
breaking on the sands, which seem 
literally of pearls, while the fleet of 
canoes is shooting hither and thither 
among the bright waters, with a fisher- 
man standing in the bow of each 
boat in a picturesque attitude, like a 
piece of Grecian sculpture. The back- 
ground of this picture is formed by 
a fishing Tillage, with many boats 
drawn up on the beach, nets drying 
on the sand, huts nestled among groves 
of cocoa-nut and other trees, and the 
old fort of Batnagiri frowning over 
them. 

• The KaXiTida r., just beyond Ratna- 
giri, is never fordable except at neap 
tides, but is crossed in boats. The r. 
and n, at Golap are likewise unfordable 
at high water. P&nwas is a small 
straggling village, with a few temples ; 
Maulangd a good sized village ; Bhar 
and JBifii mere hamlets. Not far from 
Bini is a pretty fishing village called 
Sangameshwar, where 2 rivers meet, 
with steep hills all round, and scenery 
as attractive as can be found in the S. 
Konkan. There is, also, at no great 
distance a tirth.oT place of pilgrimage, 
of some celebrity, called wSdawddL 
Here is a shrine of Ganpati, which 
draws from Government a revenue of 
1,200 rupees per annum. A spring of 
fine water oozes from the rock. 

Jldjdjmr, — This is a very flourishing 
place, and a great emporium, there 
being good roads to Kolhdpiir and 
Belgdon, and the Suknadi river, on 
which the town is situated, being navig- 
able for vessels of 450 khandis. The 
exports are cloth, ^7*t, and pepper,* and 
the imports dates, dried fruits, and iron. 
There are about 1000 families resident, 
exclusive of strangers, who are very 
numerous. A considerable quantity 
of oil is made here from the sesamum 
and the cocoa-nut. The manner of 
extraction is somewhat primitive. The 
trunk of a large tree forms the mortar, 
and a branch the pestle, which is made 
to revolve by a buffalo, driven by a 
man. One such apparatus extracts 20 
sirs of oil from sesamum, or 40 from 
cocoa-nut, daily. The town of Rajdpiir 

• " Oriental Christian Spectator," April, 1834. 



is some miles up the first creek met 
with to the N. of Vijayadurg, Still 
higher up the creek, and about 1 m. 
above the town, on the L b. of the r., is 
a hot spring, which gushes from a cow's 
head carvS in stone, at the base of a 
hill about 100 ft. high, which joins with 
the general range of the Eonkan. The 
mouth of the spring is 8 in. in diameter. 
The colour of the water is dark, and it is 
strongly mineral. According to the 
natives its temperature never varies. 
Major Wingate on the morning of the 
21st of July, 1860, found it to be 109 % 
and Dr. Wilson states that it boils an 
egg easily, and that the water is too 
hot for bathing. It appears to be a 
similar spring to those at M^h^r, Dd- 
bhul, and other places in this direction. 
On the hUl above, about half a mile 
further on, are 14 singular intermittent 
springs, which are reported to flow only 
during a part of the year. They com- 
mence in December and Januaiy, but 
not simultaneously, and continue flow- 
ing for several months, when the water 
diminishes, and at last disappears. 
This, however, does not appear to be 
the invariable course, as in 1849 they 
did not flow at all, and at other times 
all or some of them have flowed at un- 
certain intervals. A small well or 
cistern has been built around each 
spring, but when the spring is in full 
flow die water passes this barrier. The 
temperature of the water in one of 
these wells was found by Major Win- 
gate to be 84 *. 

Vfjayadurg (Viziadroog). — From 
KaMrli or Mdjapur it is an easy jour- 
ney of some 12 m. to visit the ancient 
fort of Vijayadurg, " fort of victory ; " 
or Gheriah as it is called by some 
English writers, the word being merely 
a corruption of garki^ " fort." This 
place has some historical interest at- 
taching to it. having been captured by 
the great Olive (then Oolonel Olive) and 
Admiral Watson, on the 13th of Feb., 
1756. The whole affair was extremely 
characteristic of those times, when the 
ideas of honourable procedure were al- 
most as lax among the English as 
among the Mardthas. A British arma- 
ment, consisting of 8 ships of the 
line, one of 50, and another of 44 guns, 



220 



Eoute 8. — Bomhay to Ooa, 



Sect II. 



with several armed vessels belonging 
to the Bombay marine, having on board 
800 English soldiers and 1000 Sipdhls, 
sailed from Bombay early in February, 
to reduce Vijayadurg, the stronghold of 
the piratical chief Tiilajt Angria. They 
were to co-operate with the PeshwA's 
troops under Khandaji M4nkar,and the 
fruits of success were of course to be 
shared. But a committee of 10 officers, 
of which Admirals Watson and Po- 
cocke, Mr. Hough and Colonel Clive 
were members, had, before leaving 
Bombay harbour, agreed to share all 
the prize property taken, without any 
recognition of the Mardtha claims to a 
portion. When the English fleet ap- 
peared, Angria repaired to the Ma- 
ra^ha camp to negotiate for a surrender. 
The English pronounced this an in- 
fraction of the terms of alliance, 
though on what grounds it is difficult 
to see. Admiral Watson attacked the 
sea-face of the fort on the 12th of 
February, while Clive, the same night, 
landed with the troops, so as to cut ofl: 
any communication between the Ma- 
rd^as.and the garrison. The Mardtha 
general endeavoured to bribe Mr. 
Hough to get the Admiral to suspend 
operations ; and, failing in that, he 
olfered to Captain Andrew Buchanan, 
commanding the picquets, a bill on 
Bombay for 80,000 rupees, to permit 
him with a few men to pass into the 
fort. The bribe was rejected ; but the 
Bombay Government were so struck 
with the singular honesty of their offi- 
cer, that they presented him with a 
gold medal in consideration of his ex- 
traordinarily good behaviour. The fort 
surrendered on the 13th, when the 
captors decided that the Mardthas had 
no right to share, and divided the prize 
property, amounting to £100,000, 
among themselves. Tiilajl Angria was 
taken, put in irons, and imprisoned in 
one of the Peshwd's hill foits near 
Rdigaj-h. A few months after the fort 
was given up to the Peshwd, and did 
not revert to the English till 1818. 
Vijayadurg is one of the few good har- 
bours on the W. coast of India. The 
anchorage is landlocked, and sheltered 
from all winds. There is no bar at the 
entrance, the depth being fi'om 7 to 6 



fathoms, and from 4 to 3 inside at low 
water. The rise of the tide is about 
7 ft. The fort is in good preservation, 
and is one of the finest specimens of an 
Indian fortress to be seen in the W. 
Presidency. It has a double wall, with 
flanking towers, protected by ditches. 
There is a well of sweet water inside, 
and also a large tank, the bottom of 
which is said to have been lined with 
lead. The English batteries were on 
the N. side of the creek about 1200 yds. 
oif, too distant to have done much 
damage. The wall on that side has 
many shot marks, but there is no indi- 
cation of a breach or other sefiou» 
injury. There is a large temple within 
a mile of Vijayadurg, which is very 
picturesquely situated at the bottom of 
a ravine, and is worth a visit. Angria's 
dock is 2 m. to the E. of Vijayadurg, 
and is merely a wet dock with a ma- 
sonry entrance. It has no gates. The 
entrance was probably built up on 
the admission of a vessel, and the 
water afterwards drained off to the 
level of low tide, when the re- 
mainder was pumped out, or allowed 
to evaporate. 

Pdtg&on is a village of moderate size, 
with a large temple, near which is good 
ground for encamping. After leaving 
this place other temples will be passed 
at Tamltdn, Beyond this is the Seo 
river, which is fordable at low water. 
Three small boats are kept for crossing 
at other times. The bed of the r. is 
sand and mud. The places between it 
and JScUsi are small hamlets. SdlH it- 
self is a village of moderate size, with 
two temples so large as to be capable 
of accommodating a regiment. The 
Mithbds, or " sweet-smeUing " river, 
has bad, stony, and difficult banks. 
Beyond Barni the country becomes 
very jungly. The Harni and Gad 
rivers are crossed in boats, but the 
latter is fordable in the fair season. 
Santrul is a small village with some 
temples, near which is good encamping 
ground. At the first n. after passing 
it, is a very small hamlet, and here a 
road branches off to Mdlwan, which 
is a large place, with a population of 
10,000. Good iron ore is found here, 
an account of which, and of the smelt- 



Sect. TI. 



Route 8. — Old Goa. 



221 



ing process will be found in the Bom. 
As. Jour, for 1844, p. 436. The fort, 
called also Sindidurg^ was built by 
Shivaji in 1662. In 1756 it was taken 
by Major Gordon and Commodore 
Watson, and called Fort Aujipistus,* 
but was next year restored to the Bdjd 
of Kolhdpi!ir, and finally ceded to the 
English in 1812. It stands on an 
island, which is low, and at a little 
distance not distinguishable from the 
mainland. 

Supposing the traveller not to land 
at Ratnagiri, but to go on at once in 
the steamer to Goa, he will reach Vin- 
gorlen, 199 m. from Bombay, about 
9 P.U., and here the steamer will stop ^ 
an hour. Goa roadstead will be reached 
at 2 A.M., the whole voyage taking 
32 hours. The port of Goa is formed 
by the high headland point of Aguado 
to the N., and Marmagdon Point to 
the S. The steamer anchors just to the 
S. of Aguado Point, and thence to Goa 
the traveller must proceed in a boat. 
If he should have interest sufficient to 
obtain the use of the Governor's barge 
with 14 rowers and a coxswain, he will 
go up with comparative ease and 
rapidity. Otherwise, should there be 
a strong wind or a high swell, it will 
not be so pleasant. Supposing that he 
leaves the steamer at 3 A.M. he will 
come abreast of the hospital at Nova 
Qoa in an hour, and in ) hour more he 
will be at the hotel. Should he, how- 
ever, proceed to Kaibandar, he will 
probably not disembark before 5 A.M. ; 
for, although Raibandar is not more 
than 6 m. from Aguado Point, it takes 
2 hours to do the distance, as the cur- 
rent is very strong. There is no hotel at 
Baibandar, but there are one or two 
good houses, such as that of the Ba- 
ronne de Combargna, where a tra- 
veller might, perhaps, be introduced. 
A carriage will be found indispensable, 
as Old Goa is 3 m. E. of Raibandar, 
and there is some stagnant water on 
the road, the smell of which is most 
fetid and very likely to give fever, so 

* Grant Duff, vol. iii. p. 99. In the 
"Selections from the Records of Bombay," 
vol. X. N.S., p. 3, it is stated that it was the 
Fort of R6ri (Rairee), the name of which was 
so changed. 



that it will be as well to pass the spot 
with all speed. 

Old Goa. — The first expedition 
should be to the church of Bom Jesus, 
where S. Francois Xavier is buried ; 
and his tomb is the thing most 
worth seeing in Goa. The road is ex- 
cellent, and leads along the water's 
edge first through Raibandar, and then 
along the ruined gardens of Old Goa, 
whose mouldering buildings are de- 
serted by all but priests. The facade 
of the church of Bom Jesus is hand- 
some, and is 93 ft. 4 in. high, and 77 ft. 
broad, from N. to S. You turn a little 
to the right to reach it. It is decorated 
with 8 columnar pilasters, 2 close toge- 
ther on either side being in the centre, 
and 2 wide apart on either side of 
these. This facade is of the natural 
dark colour of the laterite, while the 
sides are whitewashed. Near the top 
of the facade is a coat-of-arras, and the 
letters I.H.S. Internally the church 
is 199 ft. 10 in. long from W. to E. 
Fonseca says * that the facade is 78 ft. 
high, and 75 ft. g in. broad. He 
makes it internally 55^ ft. broad, and 
61 ft. \ in. high, and 182 ft. long. The 
church was finished on the 24th of 
Nov., 1594, and consecrated on the 
15th of May, 1605. On one of the pil- 
lars supporting -the choir is in- 
scribed :— 

Hanc Ecclesiam Jesu solemni ritu conse- 
cravlt reverendissimus et illustrissimns 
Dom D. Alexius Menesius, Archiepiscopus 
Goensus Indi» Primus, a.d. HDCV. Id. Ma. 
(15th of May, 1605). 

On a wall near the side door on the 
N. is inscribed : 

Sepultura de Dom Hieronimo Masuarenhes, 

'Capita© Quefre de Cochin e Onnuz e a cuja 

custa se fez esta Igreja; em gratificaQ&o a 

Companhia de Jesu che dedicilo este logar. 

Falecio no anno de 1593. 

At the S. end of the transept of 
the church is an exquisite screen, 
and under the principal arch is a 

* "An Historical and Archeeological Sketch 
of the City of Goa, preceded by a short Statis- 
tic^ Account of the Territory of Goa, written 
with the authorization of Government, by 
Jo86 Nicolau da Fonseca, Pres. of the So- 
ciedad dos Amigos das Literas." Bombay-: 
Thacker and Co., 1876. 



222 



Eoute 8. — Bombay to Goa, 



Sect. II. 



silver image 4] ft. high, value 
£300, given by the relict of Urban 
Darezo. The pedesti^ is inscribed as 
follows : — 

Sanctissimo Indiarum Apostolo 

Francisca de Sopranio Patritia Genuenses 

Urbani Daritii olim uxor 

Nunc Maria Francisca Xavieria 

In celeberrimo Incamationis Monasterio 

Christi Sponsa 

Peregrino Celesti, 

Peregrin! Amoris votum et monumentum. 

P.P. Anno Domini 1670. 

Over the S. door is a picture 5 ft. 
4j in. by 4 ft. ^ in., v^ith the inscrip- 
tion : — 

Dimidium cemis quern 

Magnum suspicit orbis 

Xavierest; lotum 

Nulla tabella capit. 

It is a picture of S. Francis Xavier. 
The face is of a vigorous and rather 
handsome man, taken at the time he 
left Europe, at the age of 41. The 
tomb, which is all of the finest marble, 
was given by the Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany. It is so very dark at this spot, 
that the bronze tableaux on the tomb 
can be made out only vnth great diffi- 
culty. There are 2 lithographs of it, 
and one of the Saint himself, in the 
" Resumo Historico de S. Francisco Xa- 
vier," por Jos^ Manuel Braz de Sa. 
Nova Goa. Imprensa Nacional, 1878. 
The tomb is divided into 3 oblong com- 
partments, the last of which supports 
the silver coffin that contains the body. 
The lowest plinth is of jasper 4| ft. 
high, 19^ ft. long, 9^ ft. broad ; the 
second plinth is also of jasper, h\ ft. 
Mgh, 114 ft. long, and 5^ ft. wide. 
This plinth has in the centre of each 
side a bronze plate with angels in ala- 
baster. The plate on the W. side re- 
presents the saint baptizing in the 
Moluccas ; that on the N. side repre- 
sents him preaching to the natives — 
" Ut vitam habeant." The plate on the 
S. side represents the saint crossing a 
river on a raft, to escape savages — 
** Nihil horum vereor." On the E. 
side, which is at his head, the apostle 
is represented expiring among his dis- 
ciples, and surrounded by angels, and 
the sun is setting, with the motto, 
" Major in occasu." The 3rd plinth 
is placed to receive the silver coffin ; 



it is 9| ft. long, ^ ft. broad, and 2 ft. 
high. The railing is of red jasper. On 
the top is the coffin of silver, 6| ft. 
long, 2^ ft. broad, and 3^ ft. high, ex- 
clusive of the lid, which is 1^ ft. 
Above is the cross, 2^ ft. high. Two 
angels : one near the head, holds the 
heart, with a halo over it ; the other 
says, "Satis est Domine, satis est." 
The coffin weighs 600 silver marks, 
each of the value of £1. 13«. ^d. 
Total equal £600, but now worth 
£788. On the sides of the coffin are 
32 pictures, referring to various pas- 
sages in the life and death of the 
saint. 

The pictures on the coffin are : — 
1st, The saint vrith bare head and 
feet; 2nd, not visible ; 3rd, Visited 
by Jerome in hospital of Vicentia; 
4th, Vision in hospital at Rome ; 
6th, Vision seen by his sister ; 6th, 
The saint saving the son of D. Pe- 
dro Mascarenhes ; 7th, The saint rais- 
ing a rich man ; 8th, He baptises 
idolaters ; 9th, He restores a drowned 
boy at Cape Kum^ri ; 10th, He cures 
a sick man ; 11th, He frightens the 
Badajas in Travankor; 12th, He re- 
stores to life 2 boys ; 13th, He is shown 
a treasure at Meliapib: ; 14th, He effects 
2 cures in Malacca ; 16th, He restores 
a crucifix dropped into the sea ; 16th, 
Is shovim preaching to the natives ; 
17th, While preaching at Malacca on 
the 6th of December, 1647, announces 
victory over the King of Acheen ; 
18th, Bestores 2 persons in Eh&repa- 
lan ; 19th, He aids a dying man ; 
20th, He is carrying an infant on his 
shoulders ; 21st, He is travelling from 
Amangueli to Macao ; 22nd, Cures a 
dumb man at Amangueli ; 23rd, Cures 
a deaf Japanese ; 24th, Prays in a 
storm in the ship of Duiui:e da Gama ; 
26th, Baptising 3 persons ; 26th, not 
visible ; 27th, not visible ; 28th, He is 
shown expiring at Sanchia; 29th, He 
appears to Catherine da Chamez ; 
30th, His body is shovm working 
miracles ; 31st, not visible ; 32nd, not 
visible. 

The body is well preserved, but 
shrunk to 4^ ft. ; the 4th and 5th toes 
are wanting, having been bitten off 
by Isabel de Caron, who wanted them 



Sect. II. 



Route S.—Old Goa, 



223 



as relics. The vestments studded with 
pearls were giyen by DoSia Maria Sofia, 
wife of Pedro II. of Portugal. On the 
right side is his staff, with 194 eme- 
ralds, and a medallion inscribed : ** D. 
Francisc. Xayier, Indies Apost. et in 
Orienti, An. MDCXCIX." On the re- 
verse is the eflSgy of Pedro II. Near 
the tomb are several offerings made by 
persons cured of diseases. There is a 
silver leg, presented by Maria Antonia 
Francisca Xavier da Costa Campos, 
whose leg was cured and straightened, 
26th Dec. 1859. The vestry is a room 
60 ft. long by 40 ft. broad and 30 ft. 
high, with armoires all round, topped 
with pictures of saints. The vestments 
are very rich, with gold embroidery. 
At the tomb are 4 silver lamps, weigh- 
ing 1524 ^^B. The body of the saint has 
usually been exhibited once a year, 
but it is said that this exhibition will 
not take place in future, as the body is 
now so slmvelled and decomposed. In 
the vestry is the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

Sepultura de Balthazar da Viegas, a cuja 
custa se fez esta Sachrista, a Compaiihia de J. 
em gratiAcaQ&o desta bom obra, e cle outras que 
fez k esta caza, che dedicam este logar para 
seu Jazigo. Faledo a 14 de Janeiro de 1659. 

On returning from the church just 
described, the traveller may stop at 
the Powder Factory, which will be on 
his left as he comes back to Bai- 
bandar. 

Over the door is the following in- 
scription : — 

Reinado Portugal o Gatholico 

Rei Dom Felipe 8^ mandou 

a Cidade fazor toda a 

Fahrica desta Caza da 

Polvera do Dinheiro de 

hum por cento sendo Vizo- 

Rei deste Estado, Dom 

Francisco da Gama, Conde 

Almirante, o qual a prin- 

cipio adcabou aposni 

perfercare em que ora 

estfto Vizorei Dom Miguel de Noronha, 

Conde de Llnhares, a.d. 1030. 

There is a fine spring of water here, 
and a pretty garden. There is also a 
warehouse with a few pounds of pow- 
der, over which a sentinel keeps wateh. 
The next visit will be to the church of 
6. Cajetan, which is ^ of a m. to the 



N.N.B. of Bom Jesus. The facade is 
of red laterite, whitewashed. The 
church is the best preserved in Old 
Goa. It stands near the ruins of the 
Viceroy's Palace, and was built by the 
Friars of the iTheatines, and finished 
22nd Maxch, 1655. It is 121 ft. long, 
and 81 ft. broad. The facade looks to 
the W., and has 5 bastard Corinthian 
pilasters on either side of the portal. 
It has 2 low towers, and in the centre 
of the church is a cupola. Gemelli 
Careri says, it is in imitation of S. An- 
drea de la Vella at Rome. According 
to others, it is a copy of the Basilica 
of St. Peter's at Rome. Over the 
threshold is " Domus mea, domus ora- 
tionis." The nave and 2 aisles have 
each 3 altars. Under the beautiful 
cupola is a well (see " Or. Christian 
Spectator," vol. 5, p. 119). The Baron 
de Candol, Tavaras de Almeida, and 
Viscount Sergio de Souza, Governors of 
Goa in 1840, 1877, and 1878, are buried 
in this church. The facade is 98 ft. 
3 in. broad from N, to S., and 80 ft. 
high. The towers, which are 20 ft. 
higher, are 100 ft. high. To speak with 
precision, the interior of the church 
from the W. entrance to the high altar 
is 123 ft. long, to which add 8 ft. for 
the altar, and the total length is 131 ft. 
The transept is from N. to S. 89 ft. 
The roof is supported by 4 vastly 
massive columns, which, as it were, 
divide the interior into chapels. There 
are here large pictures of the Bap- 
tism of Christ by John the Baptist, the 
Descent from the Cross, the Death 
of S. Theresa, who is being trans- 
fixed with an arrow by a boy. 
There are some old tombs, one of 
1709. 

To the N.N.W. of S. Cajetan is the 
so-called Arch of the Viceroys, on the 
site of what was in 1510 the principal 
gate of the city. The arch is about 
38 ft. high, and the passage beneath is 
16 ft. high. Above this is a row of 
alternate globes and deer. The deer 
refers to Vasco da Gama, Gama in 
Portuguese meaning •*deer." Above 
this is a figure of Vasco in a sailor's 
hat with the brim turned up. He 
wears a large fur cloak, trunk hose, 
and black bx)ts, and is veiy squarely 



224 



Route 8.— Bomhay to Goa, 



Sect. II. 



built. Above him is S. Catherina. 
Patroness of Goa. The arch faces the 
N. and is about 100 ft. S. of the river. 
Over the figure of Vasoo da Gama is 
inscribed : — 

Reinado de El Rei D. Felipe 1", 

Posa Cidade de aqui Dom 

Vasco da Oama, V* Conde, 

Almirante, descobrador 

e reconquestador da 

India sendo Vizo Rei O Conde Dom Francisco 

Da Gama seu bisneto. 

O anno D. 97. 

This arch was built of black stone 
in honour of Vasco da Gama. The 
statue of S. Catharine is of bronze gilt. 
There is also this inscription in the 
passage under the arch on the left 
hand as you go to the river on the 
N. :— 

Legitime e verdadeiro Rei D. Jofto lY., 
ristoridor da Liberdade Portugueza, 1656. 

Above the inscription is the half- 
length figure of a warrior, over whose 
left shoulder is the Immaculate Con- 
ception, that is the Virgin with the 
half moon at her feet, and to his right 
the crown and arms of Portugal. At 
a little distance is also the following 
Latin inscription : — 

SanctissimsB conception! Ma- 

rittt Joannes IV., Portugalise Rex 

una cum generalibus comi- 

tiis se et regna sua sub 

annuo censu tributaria 

publice dlcavit atque dei- 

param in imperii tutela- 

rem electain a labe origi- 

nali preservatam i)erpe- 

tuo defensurum jura- 

mento firmavit et ut vive- 

ret pietas Lusitante hoc 

vivo lapide in memoriale 

perenne exorari jussit 
Anno Christo MDCLVI im- 
perii sui VI. — Esta escriptura 
por muito apagada 
mandou o Senado gravar 
de novo e reparou este 
Arco em 1831. 

From this place commenced tlie Rua 
Direita, which led from the Palace of 
the Viceroys to the church of Miseri- 
cordia (see Linchoten, Hist, de la Na- 
vegacion, p. 57, and Pyrard, Voyage, 
part ii. p. 30). Neai* the arch was the 
Ribeira des Gales, " Key of the Vice- 
roys," 700 paces long, and 200 broad, 



and covered with palm trees. Here 
were the Bangacal for storing cargo, 
the Peso and Alfondega, or Custom 
House, which Pyrard compares to the 
Palais Royal, The Palace of the Vice- 
roys, of which only one small gate, 10 
ft. high, remains, was situated a little 
S. of the arch (see Tavernier, Les Six 
Voyages, vol. ii. p. 116). Here was a 
hall with pictures of ships since the 
time of Vasco. This hall opened into 
another, with portraits of the Viceroys, 
some of whom returned to Portugal 
with fortunes of £300,000. In front 
stood the High Court and the Jail, 
which was called Tronco. The Cathe- 
dral stands to the S.W. of S. Cajetan, 
in the middle of the Rua Direita. It 
was made a cathedral by a bull of 
Paul III., dated November 3rd, 1534. 
The body of the church was finished in 
1519. The height of the fagade to the 
top of the cross is llof ft., and the 
breadth 100* ft. The length of the 
cathedral itself is 250 ft., and the 
breadth 181| ft. external measurement. 
There is one lateral tower, that to the 
N. having fallen down on the 25th of 
July, 1776. There are 5 bells; the 
great bell was tolled at the auto dafL 
The cathedral was called the " Church 
of S. Caterina." It must be said 
that, though Fonseca gives the breadth 
of the facade at lOOf ft., recent mea- 
surement, carefully taken, makes ■ it 
108 ft. 8 in. Externally, the style 
of this church is Tusco-Doric, and in- 
ternally, Mosaic-Corinthian. It is said 
to have been begun in 1511, but that 
it was rebuilt, and that the body was 
finished in 1619, and the whole struc- 
ture was finished in 1631. The inside 
is divided into a nave and 2 aisles by 
6 in-egularly shaped massive pillars, 
which form 6 arches, of which that 
nearest the entrance is comparatively 
low, and the furthest off very lofty. 
The nave is 72 ft. high, and the aisles 
574 ft. The nave is 142| ft. long, and 
69| ft. broad. Although Fonseca 
m^es the total length of the cathedral 
250 ft., and the breadth 181^ ft., re- 
cent measurement makes it 273 ft. 
long, and 137 ft. 9 in. broad, but at the 
transept 144 ft. The entrance is by a 
triple portal, and over the central one 



Sect. II. 



Rovte S.—Old Goa. 



226 



is a slab with the following, in places 
illegible, inscription :— 

Rein**® o Mni Cat" A mandaram ronti- 

Rey D. Seb»" m*<»" nuar a custa 

fazer esta S. se de sua Real Fa- 

. . . . o anno do Z^ ate o prosente 

8^ de 562 sedo Q'he o Arcebpo Pri- 

Administradores niaz D. Frey Fran«<» 

della OS ArcebP" dos Martyres e 

Primares Vizo Rey deste 

OS Catolicos Reis seus Estado 

successores. 

At the entrance are 2 marble basins 
for holy water, and a baptismal font 
of blac& stone, which was in the ori- 
ginal edifice. It is inscribed : — 

Esta pia mandou faser Jorge Gomez, e a 
deo a esta 86 em onra e lo amor do Senhor Deos 
em 1532. 

The ceiling is vaulted, and in the 
chapels adorned with mosaics. The 
4 chapels on the right of the entrance 
are dedicated to S. Anthony, S. Ber- 
nard, the Cruz dos Milagros, and the 
S. Spirito. The cross of the Srdcbapel 
is 20f ft. long, and is said to have 
grown to that bulk from a small size. 
In the second chapel is a handsome 
tomb, with the following inscription : — 

Nesta Sepultura estao os 

Ossos de Dona Leonor, Mas 

carenhas segundo mulher 

De Francisco de Mello de Castro, 

Govemador que foi do Estado 

da India tres vezes e a 

terceira vez que govemou 

mandou fazer esta 
sepultura pera nella se 
depositorem os ossos da 
data sua mulher a qual 
fallecio em 8 de Maio de 
684 a tern nesta Capella 
huma messa quotidlana. 

The transept is 90J ft. by 36 ft. 

There are 3 altars to the right, 1 to 

Nossa Senhora, and 2 to S. Jos^fo ; on 

the N. side is the following inscription 

surmounted by an escutcheon, in 

which is a skeleton holding a scythe 

and trampling on an archbishop's 

mitre : — 

Neste Mausoleo estfto os 
ossos de D. Lefto, 1 Arcebispo* 

de Goa, e de D. Fre Andre 

de S. Haria, Bispo da Cochim, 

para aqui solemnemente 

trasladadas do Conyento 

da Madre de Deos em 

5 de Octubre de 1864. 

Requiescant in pace. 

* Dom Gaspar de Le&o Fereira, died 1576. 
IBomhay—lSSO.] 



The chapels on the left are — 1. N. 
Senhora de Necessidades ; 2. S. Sebas- 
tian ; 3. Blessed Sacrament ; 4. K. 
Senhora de Bom Vida. According to 
Fonseca, Don Antonio de Noronha, 
nephew of Albuquerque, was buried in 
the Cathedral, but his tomb is not now 
to be found. There is, however, an 
epitaph to Garcia de Noronha. Under 
a casque, and surrounded by foliage, is 
inscribed : — 

A qui fajs. D. Garcia de Noronha, 

Vicerei que foi da Indite. Falleceo 

Nesta cidade de Goa aos 3 d'Aviil 

da Era 1540 annos. 

In the centre of the transept is an 
epitaph to Julius SimSo Quavaliro, 
engineer and architect, and to the left 
of it is that of Henrique Jaques de 
Magalhaens, who was Governor of An- 
gola, and his son G^eral Pedro Jaques 
de Magalhaens, who died SOtJi April, 
1700. On the right of the architect's 
tomb is that of Gomez da Silva, with 
the date 22nd Sept. 1663. On looking 
from the terraced roof of the Cathedrid 
one cannot but think of the solemn 
and terrible sights that have been seen 
in the Square below. To the S. is the 
Palace of the Inquisition, which is now 
utterly demolished. The walls (see 
Pinkerton's " Travels," vol. ix. p. 234) 
were 5 ft. thick, and the windows so 
high, that it was impossible for the 
prisoners to look out from them. From 
this building the processions of the 
auto da fi were seen advancing to 
the place of execution, and specta- 
tors at the windows of the Cathedral 
could see the miserable fate of the con- 
demned. The number of the execu- 
tions has no doubt been greatly exag- 
gerated ; it is certain, however, (see 
Buchanan's Ch. Besearches, p. 152,) 
that at least 105 men and 16 women 
were consigned to the flames. How 
many perished in the dark dungeons 
of the palace itself can never be 
known, but we may be sure that a 
much greater number died there than 
those who were publicly immolated. 
The Inquisition was abolished by royal 
letter, on the 10th of Feb., 1774, re-es- 
tablished under Dona Maria I. in 1779, 
and finally abolished in 1812. The 
site is now covered with buslies, the 




226 



Houte 8. — BoTnhay to Goa. 



Sect. II. 



liarboar of poisonous snakes, n fitting 
conclusion for this execrable institu- 
tion. To the N.W. of the Cathedral is 
the Archbishop*iS Palace, 2 stories 
high, 230 ft. long, and 108 ft. broad. 
Dr. Gemelli Careri, who saw it in 1695 
(see Churchill's Voy., vol. iv. p. 
205), speaks of its beauty, and no 
doubt it was a rery magnificent resi- 
dence, but it is now in a ruinous state. 
The doors of the facade are yery hand- 
some ; enter to the left of these, and 
pass through a hall of 3 pillars into 
cloisters, on the walls of which are 
pictures, representing martyrdoms. 
They are much injured. Then ascend 
31 very steep stairs to the left, lliis 
leads to a landing, the windows of 
which overlook a mng of the palace, 
now in ruins. To the right is a gal- 
lery, in which are many pictures, in a 
very damaged state. Ascend 12 more 
steps to the church of S. Francis d'As- 
sisi, of which a description follows. 
W. of the cathedral are the convent and 
church of S. Francis d'Assisi. The 
convent was built in 1517 by Antonio 
de Louro, a Franciscan friar, at a cost 
of £6000. Pyrard, pt. ii. p. 31, calls 
it " the richest and most beautiful edi- 
fice in the world." In the cloisters 
were depicted, in blue and gold, the 
life of S. Francis d'Assisi. The church 
was finished in 1521, and dedicated in 
1603, by Archbishop Menezes, to the 
Spirito Santo. It was rebuilt in 1661, 
but the gate of the old edifice, "exqui- 
sitely carved," remains. Here are 
buried Christovfto Britto, Dom Jo5o da 
Castro, and Dom Manoel de Camora. 
It is 190 ft. long, and 60 ft. broad. It 
is referred to in Fryer's " A New Ac- 
count of E. India and Persia," p. 150. 
The altar in the chief chapel is an ex- 
quisite work of art. At the W. end is 
a galleiy, in which are seats for the 
bishop and monks. It appears to have 
been used as our chapter-houses were. 
The scenes from the life of 8. Francis 
d'Assisi, mentioned above, are visible 
from this at the E. end, but are much 
damaged. This has been a gorgeous 
church, but is now terribly decayed. 
Kemark the view from the side win- 
dows over the great square. Fonseca 
says, " in one of the corridors are hung 



the portraits of all the archbishops." 
Of these but few are left, and are much 
decayed. This church was closed in 
1835, when the effects, valued at 
£13,350 14*. Qd., were confiscated. In 
front of the church of S. Francis runs 
a steep narrow road to the chapel of 
S. Catharine. It was built in 1510, on 
the site of the gate of the city by which 
the Portuguese entered when Albu- 
querque took Goa. It was here that 
the most desperate struggle with the 
Mu^ammadan garrison took place, and 
here some of the bravest Portuguese 
soldiers fell. Over the door is the fol- 
lowing : — 

Aqui neste Ingar estava 2i porta porque 
entrou o Governador Affonso d' Albuquerque 
li tomar esta cidade a os Mouros em dia de S. 
Catharina anno 1510, em cujo honnor e me- 
moria o governador Jorge Cabral mandon 
faser esta caza, anno 1590, It custa de S.A. 

The next visit may be to Xavier's 
well. At J m. to the S.E. of the Arch 
of the Viceroys is a narrow lane run- 
ning to the E., after proceeding along 
which for a short distance, turn to the 
left, and after 150 yds. come to a well. 
It is 40 ft. down to the surface of the 
water, over which is an arch of brick, 
covered now with shrubs and creepers. 
Descending 34 steps you will nearly 
reach the water, and will see that there 
are other steps below the water which 
are now broken. About 40 yds. N. of this 
well is S. Xavier's chapel, the facade 
of which is 22 ft. high. The building is 
roofiess, and is built of laterite, wMch 
looks very coarse, as the rains have 
washed away the plaster which once 
covered it, and also all but the iron- 
stone itself. There are 3 chambers. 
The first is 38i ft. long from 8. to N., 
and has 3 arches on either side ; the 2 
first being 13 ft. high, and the 3rd 12^ 
ft. This chamber is 14 ft. broad ; the 
2nd chamber is 37 ft. long and 16 ft. 
broad, and has 2 windows on either 
side. The 3rd chamber is 18 ft. long, 
and 12^ ft broad. In the right wcdl 
of this chamber is a door, now blocked 
up ; to the E. of this door, at the dis- 
tance of 28^ ft., is a well, in which 8. 
Xavier is said to have performed his 
ablutions. It is believed that there is 
a miraculous double reflection of the 



Sect. 11. 



Bouie 8. — Old Goo. 



227 



light in the water, one large light and 
one small, the second being miracu- 
lous. The traveller may easily satisfy 
himself that there is no miracle. If, 
after looking at the doable light, he 
will go 23 ft. from the N. end of the 
well and stop up a crack which he will 
find there in the brick covering of the 
well — after doing this, he will find 
that the second light in the water has 
vanished. Although there is nothing 
remarkable in the spot, the details of 
the building have been minutely given, 
as next to S. Xavier's tomb and coffin, 
this is the greatest object of venera- 
tion and pilgrimage in Goa. The pro- 
prietor of the ground on which Xa- 
vier's chapel stands, lives in Bombay. 
He admits that there are a great many 
cobras and other poisonous snakes at 
this spot, so that it will be well to be 
careful. 

The next visit should be to the 
church of S. John of God and the con- 
vent of S. Monica, which are to the 
S.W. of the church of Bom Jesus. To 
reach these places you must turn to 
the right before you arrive at the 
latter church. You will proceed some 
100 yds. from the tall cross you will 
see at the turning along a narrow 
lane overgrown with herbage and 
sprinkled here and there with great 
stones, which make it both disagree- 
able and dangerous to pass along in a 
carriage. The first building is the 
church of S. John, which is on the left 
hand. It is a roofless ruin, of which 
the doors have been blocked up, as it 
is dangerous to enter. The wall of the 
enclosure is considerably out of the 
perpendicular and might fall at any 
moment, in which case persons passing 
alongthe lane could hardly escape being 
crushed. Just beyond S.John's Church 
on the right are the vast convent and 
the chui-ch of S. Monica. The fa9ade 
of the church is supported by 3 im- 
mense flying buttresses. At a few 
hundred yds. beyond these buildings, 
and to the W. of them, is the chui^h 
of S. Augustine, of which the fa9ade 
alone is standing, and is about 80 ft. 
high. On its S.W. side is a tower, 
but the corresponding one has fallen. 
Still more to the W» are a brick 



column and part of a wall, and be- 
yond these again on an eminence is 
the chnrch of S. Anthony. Opposite 
this, but on the right of the road, is 
the church of S. Rosario, commonly 
called N. 8. da Rosario. Ko admis- 
sion is granted to the convent of S. 
Monica, though there is only 1 aged 
nun left there. The building is vast, 
but according to all accounts there is 
nothing particularly worth seeing, and 
at all events it is quite in vain to sue 
for leave to enter. The church, how- 
ever, of S. Monica can be seen, but a 
fee is expected. The stone doors in 
the fa9ade of the church are very 
handsome ; above them is a medallion 
with the head of Our Saviour, and be- 
low is the head of a griffin, and below 
this again the royal arms of Portugal, 
that is, 6 castles with a tablet in the 
centre containing 5 smaller tablets, in 
each of which are 6 things that look 
like buttons but are meant for coins. 
These are intended to represent the 25 
pieces of silver for which Our Saviour 
was sold. Over the first door are 2 
inscriptions, below the figure of a 
ship, round which is a legend of 
which only the word "Navio" can 
now be read. 
The Ist inscription is : — 

Jesu Christo Eterno Deus 

Filho do Eterno Padre, lux 

£ Salvador do mimdo. 

Below the arms is inscribed : — 

O Catolico Felippo IIII. Rel 

XX. de Portugal, Monarcha 

da Espanhas agragou a 

Sen podrado ester en 

Signe mosteiro em 

XXVII. de Marco, MDCXXXVI. 

The 2nd inscription is : — 

Fundor e defensor e con- 

summor esta sua Nova Caza 

E a encher de gloria. 

This church is 115 ft. long from E. 
to W, and 50 ft. broad, including the 
wall which is 11 ft. thick. There is a 
latticed gallery at the W. end in- 
tended for the nuns. There are also 
some confessionals. The pulpit is in 
the S. wall, and is very rich with 
carving and gilding. Opposite to it 
is an altar, but the main altar is on 

Q2 



228 



HoiUe 8. — Bombay to Goa. 



Sect II. 



the E. and is reached bj a flight of 
gteps. On either side of the lowest 
step is the figure of an angeL On the 
rit^ht of the chancel arch is a picture 
of a procession of nuns in black cloth- 
inc^, strangely contrasting with their 
white faces. On the right of the altar, 
opposite the pulpit, is the following in- 
scription : — 

A Sep. a questa janta deste 
epftafio e do P. Fr. Diogo de 

Sta Anna da Ordem dos 
Erem* da N.P.S.G. e o sendo 

Prior na Persia redu2io a 

obediencia da Sta Egreja Bo- 

manae David Patriarca 

doe Armeniofl e com ille 

seiflbispos Ereg. : e sacerdotes 

qne todos jurarfto obcd" a ata 

Igr. Bomana exercen todos 

OS lugares authorizados na 

Cong, athe ser della Provin. 

Visitador apostolico — Foy 

deput. dos off. e junz. dos 

ordes na se^. instan- 

cia e um o pnmeiro Adm. 

deste real Convento sea re- 

ediflcador e foy espiritual 

das Pelig. por todo o tem^o de 

sua vida pelo que nfto aceitou 

a mitra de Bispo em 

Cochim. Foy natural de 

Brag, da Caza e fami- 

lia dos Condes de Beva- 

vente, dos nobilissimos 

Morels, Pimenteis, Preiras 

de quern procedem os 

Senhores de Barcellona 

illustre por obras virtuosas 

* * ^^ e escbrecido por esmolar 

e Benefeitor deste real 

Convento no temjwral 

e espiritual. Ainstan- 

cia dos Madris e Beli- 

giozas delle foy aqui 

sepultado e onde flcfto 

sens ossos para i)erpetua 

memoria. Falleceo sendo 

de edade de setento e tres 

annos em uma quinta 
fera as nove lioras de noete 
aos 26 de Octubro de 1644. 

The first stone of the Convent of S. 
Monica was laid on the 2nd of July, 
1706, by D. Fr. Aleixo de Menezes, 
Archbishop of Goa. It took 21 years 
to finish the building, which cost 
200,000 crusados. 

Having seen the most remarkable 
buildings in Old Goa, the traveller 
may pay a visit to the palace of the 
governor at Pat0im, which town, 
otherwise Nova Goa, is joined to Kai- 
bandar by a causeway, which is 



9800 ft. long. The present governor, 
who is an admiral in the Portuguese 
Navy, and was educated in England, 
has been governor of Angola, and has 
introduced the coffee plant from that 
part of Africa, in the belief that it is 
superior to that now grown in India. 
He has made aboulevard in front of the 
palace towards the river, and planted 
it with flowers and shrubs, which is a 
great improvement on the mud bank 
over which the palace formerly looked 
out. There is a fine saloon in the 
palace, hung with the portraits of 
former viceroys and governors. In 
the principal hall is a portrait of the 
king. There is also in the building a 
chapel, with an image of Christ which 
belonged to the Liquisition. The 
Viceroy has a guard of 12 soldiers, 
dressed in the old style as the first 
viceroys had iJiem. Opposite the 
palace is the Accountant - General's 
Office, 249 ft. long and 128 broad. 
Beyond are the Jail, Telegraph Office, 
and High Court, 88 ft. long and 82 
broad. To the 8. is the most populous 
quarter. S.W. from the palace is N.S. 
da Concei9&o, situated half down a 
hill behind the town, plain but beauti- 
fully situated. There is a cemeteiy 
with pictures from convents. The 
Municipal Hall is 72 ft. x 105, with 
portraits of Vasco da Gama and Albu- 
querque. In one room is a portrait 
of Bernardo Peres da Silva, the only 
native of Gba who has been governor. 
To the E. is the Archbishop's Palace, 
and W. of that is a barrack 498 ft. long 
and 54 broad, which cost £13,000. 
Facing the barracks is a statue of Al- 
buquerque, set up on the 24th October, 
1847, with this inscription : — 

Nfto vos hade falteu, gente amosa 

Honra valor e fama gloriosa. 

No bona e feliz govemo do 

Hlmo e Bx««» Sr. D. Manoel de Portugal e 

Castro V"** da India. 

Anno de 1832. 

In this barrack were confined the Sd- 
wantwddl rebels, Phond Sdwant and 
his 8 stalwart sons. On the extreme 
W. of the city is the esplanade, called 
since 1838 Campo de D. Manoel. 
There are 2 bridges, that of Minerva 
and tiiat of S. Ignez. This town being 



Sect. II. 



Route 8. — Old Goa, 



229 



nearer the sea is much cooler and more 
healtiiy than either Baibandar or Old 
Goa. A visit may also be paid to 
Aguado Point, which is 260 ft. above 
the sea. The passage must, of course, 
be made in a boat. There is a circular 
tower at the Point .36 J ft. in diameter 
and 42 ft. high, showing a light revolv- 
ing in 7 minutes. Here is the largest 
clock bell in Goa. In the fort is a cis- 
tern 115 ft. in diameter, and holding 
2,376,000 gallons. There are 4 barracks 
and a chapel to Our Lady of Good 
Voyages. In 1808 British troops held 
thef ort. The place has its name, Aguado 
or Agoado, from aguay "water,'* be- 
cause ships were supplied here with 
water for their voyages. Overa fountain 
is an inscription which may be thus 
translated — " In the reign of the very 
Catholic king Dom Felipo III. of Por- 
tugal, the Count of Vidigueira, Dom 
Francisco da Gama, the viceroy, ordered 
the city to build this fountain with 
money received from ships which 
watered at?this port. It was done in 
the year 1624." The fort has 79 guns 
and some soldiers with 4 officers. Close 
by on a hill is the Church of S. Lau- 
rence, begun 1630 and finished 1643. 
Within is an inscription of which the 
following is a translation — "In the 
reign of the Catholic King of Portu- 
gal, Dom Philip III., the Viceroy, D. 
Miguel de Noronha, Count of Linhares, 
ordered this hermitage of S. Laurence 
to be built with the money of this 
Senate in the year 1630." S. of the 
port is the Fort Marmagao, which was 
also built in the reign of Dom Phi- 
lip III., when Dom Francisco da Gama 
was for the second time viceroy, in the 
year 1624. This fort is 2 leagues in 
circumference. It has 63 guns. Fort 
Beis Magos is 2 m. E. by N. of Agoada. 
It was built in 1561, and has 33 guns. 
It was rebuilt in 1707, when Caetano 
de Mello e Castro was viceroy. To 
the E. is the church, with the tomb of 
Don Luis da Athai'de, viceroy. Fort 
Gaspar Dios faces Beis Magos, and 
was built in 1598. There is a fine 
view over the harbour from Fort Beis 
Magos. The Alfondega, or Custom 
House, at Goa is 108 ft. long and 72 
broad. 



Observe in Goa, the oyster-shells 
used in windows instead of panes of 
glass, and the manchU or litter very 
much used by the better classes. It 
consists of a cloth or curtained frame 
slung on a bambii and carried by 2 
men. It is convenient and light, but 
thereas little protection from the sun. 

The island of Goa is 9 m. long and 
3 broad. It was called by the na- 
tives Tls WAdi. Panjim is 5 m. 
from the harbour's mouth, and Bai- 
bandar, joined by the causeway, is 
about 2 m. further. There are 2J f . 
of water in the harbour at low water. 
The territory belonging to Goa is 60 m. 
long by 30 broad, and the area is 1060 
sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by the 
Tirakol or Arandem river, which 
separates it from S^wantwddi, on the 
E. by the W. GhAts, on the W. by the 
sea, and on the S. by N. Eanara. It is 
divided into the old and new conquests. 
There are three provinces in the old 
conquests, viz., IlhSo, which has 48 sq. 
m., Salsette with 102, and Badez with 
72 sq, m.. The new conquests contain 
Pamem, 73 sq. m. ; Batagrama, 67 sq. 
m. ; Sdtari, 144 sq.m. ; Ponda, or An- 
tr^y, 79 sq. m. : Kanakona, 113, and 
Embarbarcem, 186 ; EAkoran, 5 sq. m. ; 
Chandravadi, 37 sq. m. ; Balli, 67 ; 
Astograr, 77 ; Anjadiva, 1 sq. m. ; 
Tirakol, 1. In the Sahiyddri range, 
which bounds Goa to the E., the 
highest peaks are Sonsagor, 3827 ft. 
high ; Kattanchimanti, 3633 ; Vag- 
narim, 3600 ; and Morlemchogar, 3400. 
The principal streams are the Tirakol, 
which has a course of 14 m., the 
Chapera, which runs 18 m., the Mdn- 
davl with 38J m,, and the Tuari with 
39 m. The pop. in 1851 was 363,788, 
there being then 3308 more females 
than males. In 1879 the pop. had in- 
creased to 392,234. Goa was con- 
quered by Alfonzo de Albuquerque in 
1610. He found village communities 
existing. The village council consisted 
of the tax-collector, the clerk, carpen- 
ter, barber, shoemaker, washerman, 
crier, and inahdr, or sweeper. The 
revenue is now £77,111 6*. The ex- 
penditure is £26,436. There have been 
famines in 1653, 1670, and 1682. The 
late treaty with the Government of 



230 



Boute 10. — SdwarUwddi to Belgdoh. 



Sect. 11. 



British India in which the salt trade 
has been settled and a railway from 
Hubli to Marmagao sanctioned cannot 
but greatly increase the prosperity of 
Goa. 



ROUTE 9. 

GOA TO VINGOBLBJr. 

The distance between these 2 places 
is 28 m., and can be crossed in a 
steamer or, in fine weather, in a native 
boat. After leaving the harbour the 
first place seen '^l be Tirakol, a 
white fort crowning a hill about 150 ft. 
high ; after that Beri Fort will be seen. 

Vingorlen is not a harbour but a 
roadstead, protected only on the N. 
The T. B. is 3 m. S.E. of the landing- 
place. There is a small pier at Vin- 
gorlen, with 2 cranes for landing heavy 
cargo. On a hill overlooking the pier 
is an unfurnished bangl4 belonging to 
the Custom House. A shigram with 
bullocks for the traveller himself, and 
a bullock cart for his luggage to go to 
S^wantwddi, can be obtained for 3 rs. 
The T. B. and the town cannot be seen 
from the landing-place, being hidden 
by palm trees. The town extends in 
a straggling fashion for about 2 m. 
along the road to S&wantwddl. There 
is a good ToYim Hall, with a clock 
tower. A vast amount of cotton and 
timber is shipped at Vingorlen. The 
pop, of Vingorlen is very incorrectly 
given by Thornton at 5000, but it ap- 
l^ears from the census papers of 1872, 
p. 176, to be 14,996. VingorleA was a 
retreat for the numerous pirates who 
infested the coast until 1812, when it 
was ceded by the Chief of Sdwant- 
w4dl to the East India Company. It 
is the place of embarkation for troops 
and officers, both civil and military, 
coming from Sdwantwddl and Bel- 
gdou. 



ROUTE 10. 

SlWAKTWADl AJSJ} BY THE AMBOLI 
ghIt to BELGAON. 

From VingorleA to Sdwantw&di is 
about 13 m. along a very fair road, 
which leads through a tolerably 
wooded country, with low hills and 
small streams. At a place called Kir- 
nil, about the 7th m., it is usual to 
change horses, and the road then 
turns off a little to the N. to Sdwant- 
wAdl. 

Sdwantwddi, — ^This place belongs to 
the Sir Desdi, a chief of good family. 
The name of the present Sir Desdl is 
Raghon^th Sdwant Bhonsle, or Bdba 
S^^ib, who is 18 years of age and has 
just married Tdi^ B&l, daughter of 
Jamn& Bdi, the adopted mother of the 
G&ekw&d, He is a bold rider and 
sportsman. His full title is Sir Desai 
Baj^ Bah&dur. He was born in Sep- 
tember, 1862, and is entitled to a 
salute of 9 guns. The country of 
which he is cMef has an area of 900 
sq. m., and, according to the census of 
1872, a population of 190,814, chiefly 
Hindi!is. The revenue is a little under 
Rs. 300,000, and is derived chiefly from 
land. It is increasing. The chief 
traces his ancestry back to Phond 
Sdwant, the father of Eem Sdwant, 
who reigned from A.D. 1627to A.D. 1640. 
Very little is known of the early his- 
tory of the family. The country was 
conquered by the Kings of Bijdpiir, 
but one of the chiefs, named Mdng 
S&want, resisted fiercely. His capital 
was at Hodaw4d&, on the Tirakol 
river, where he died. His residence 
there is much resorted to as a shrine 
by the Bhonsle faraUy of WAdl. 
About 1646 Lakam S4want made a 
treaty with Shivaji, but soon resumed 
his allegiance to BijdpTlir. After several 
conflicts Lakam was obliged to renew 
his engagements to Shivaji, and thence- 
forth became subject to the Mardtbas. 
The chiefs of S&wantwddi were, how- 
ever, attacked by the Angrias of 
Koldba, who were at first admirals of 
Shivujl's fleet and afterwards became 



Sect. 11. 



Houte 10. — Sdwantwddi — Wddi, 



231 



formidable pirates. At last, about the 
middle of the 18th century, in RAm- 
chandra SAwant's reign, 1737 — 1755, 
they were finally overthrown by Jay- 
T&m S4want at Lanja. Kem S&want 
reigned from 1755 to 1803. He mar- 
ried the daughter of Jayaji Sindhia, 
and, owing to this great marriage, 
obtained from the Emperor of Dilll 
the title of RAj6 BahAdur, the IlAj6 of 
which probably means the distin- 
guished Rdj^. He, like the A'ngrias, 
indulged in piracy, which brought on 
a conflict with the British Govern- 
ment, in which Kem Sdwant defended 
himself successfully. On Kem S4- 
want's death in 1803 a struggle took 
place between his imcles, Jayrdm and 
Shrlrdm, which was ended by Som 
Sdwant, the father of Jayrdm, who, 
being beleaguered in the fort of Wddl, 
blew up the palace and destroyed his 
whole family except one son, Phond 
iSdwant, who being then a prisoner 
in the fort at Redl, escaped. Lak^hmi 
Bii, widow of Kem Sdwant, then 
adopted Kdmchandra, or Bbau ^dl^ib, 
who was strangled, and the army of 
the NipAni chief took possession of the 
country, but he was expelled by Phond 
S4want, the chief who had escaped 
when the palace was destroyed. Phond 
Sdwant made a treaty with the 
British, and ceded Vingorleii to them. 
He died in 1812, and DurgA Bdl, 
second widow of Kem Sdwant, became 
regent. She died in 1819, when such 
disorders arose that the British again 
interfered. A treaty was concluded 
lietween them and the W4di State on 
the 17th February, 1819, by which 
the latter ceded all their seaboard, 
including the forts of Redl and Niwli. 
In 1822 the British placed Kem Si- 
want, the son of Phond Sdwant, on 
the throne, but in 1838 they were 
obliged to take the administration 
into their own hands. In 1844 a 
rebellion broke out in the neighbour- 
ing state of Kolh&pi!ir, and in January, 
1845, extended ^1 over Sdwantwddi. 
Phond Sdwant, a man of some in- 
fluence, with his 8 sons, joined the 
rebels, and Annd $d^ib, the eldest son 
of the late Sir Dcsdi Kem Sdwant, 
liaving joined them qn the I6th pf 



November, 1834, several engagements 
with the British took place. Ensign 
Faure, of the 2nd European regt., 
who was coming from BelgdoA to Vin- 
gorlen with a cavalry escort, was mor- 
tally wounded and died the same 
evening. On the 16th of Jan., 1846, 
Colonel Outram moved against the 
rebels with a strong force. On the 
27th General de la Motte took posses- 
sion of the forts of Manohar and 
Mansanto^, which had been evacu- 
ated by the enemy during the night, 
on which the rebels escaped into the 
Goa territory. At last a convention 
was arranged with the Government of 
Gkta, the refugees were allowed to 
return, and Annd ^a^ib came back to 
Wddi on August 2l8t, 1849. The 
British force employed during the 
rebellion consisted of the left wing of 
the 2nd Queen's, or Royals, a company 
of H.M.'s 17th Foot, the 7th regt. 
Bom. N.I., and the 3rd Madras N.I., 
and detachments of 7 other regts., and 
these troops were much harassed in 
hunting the insurgents through the 
dense and dangerous jungles of the 
country. The people of Wddl are a 
fine, athletic, and martial race, and 
for a long time supplied many good 
soldiers to the Bombay army. The 
present Sir Desdi is the son of that 
Annd $dl>ib who played such a con- 
spicuous part in the rebellion, and, 
being a minor, the State is still go- 
verned by the English, under whose 
rule the people have settled down into 
quiet and orderly habits. A well dis- 
ciplined local corps has been estab- 
lished, new roads have been made, and 
the chief having been educated at tho 
Rdjkumdr College, shows every dispo- 
sition to govern his country in accord- 
ance with British views. 

Wddi. — At this town there are some 
peculiar manufactures : stuffs em- 
broidered with gold and silver are 
well made here, also bison horns, 
polished and mounted with silver, and 
native packs of playing cards divided 
into suits named after the 10 incar- 
nations of Vishnu. Each suit has 
a king, vazir, and 10 plain cards, 
in all 120 ; they are dealt to 4 
players, 4 at £^ time, an4 tlie hig^hcs^ 



232 



JioiUe 10. — Sdwanttoddi to Belgdon. 



Sect. 11. 



wins. Also boxes ornamented with 
the wings of the diamond beetle, &c., 
are well made here. The Moti taldo, 
or "pearl tank," which borders the 
town, covers 37 acres, and is fall 
of fi^, but has no alligators. Every 
year the water is let off and the 
mud cleared out, but the fi^ are 

Preserved in a deep pit. E. and 
f J!, of the tank is the old wdd^, or 
palace, where are the public offices, 
which are to be rebuilt with a hand- 
some facade and clock tower. The 
walls of the fort have been cleared 
away, but there is a bastion to the N. 
of the tank, where the post-office is to 
be placed. The b^zir is long, but has 
notning remarkable. About 70 yds. 
to the W. and by N.W. of the tank are 
the lines of the local corps. There is 
a handsome gateway to the N.E. 
North of the tank there is a Boman 
Catholic chapel, which is well sup- 
ported, as there are 5000 Roman Ca- 
tholics in the vicinity. The Library is 
close to the tank, and there is a fine 
view over it. There are 1500 volumes 
and a good reading-room. There is a 
small People's Park, the railings of 
which are made of the muskets taken 
from the people when the country was 
disarmed. This is good head-quarters 
for sportsmen, as the road, after 
leaving the N. side of the lake, lies 
through a jungle, which is in many 
places dense. Tigers wander from hill 
to hill in these woods, and panthers 
are always there. The bears are large 
and fierce, but keep to the Ghdts, 
where they sometimes kill solitary 
travellers. 

The stages to the Amboli Gh&t are 
as follows : — 



From 


To 


MUes. 


W4dl . 


. Danoli 


. 9 


Danoli 


. Amboli . 


. . lOJ 



Between Wddl and Danoli, 3 
streams are crossed by neat and quite 
level bridges, which have inscriptions 
on them, with the date of construction. 
The streams are — 1, the Burdl ; 2, the 
Pugd ; 3, the Warkond. In the largest 
of these there are alligators. The T.B. 
at Danoli stands on a slight eminence 
to the left of the road as you go to 



Amboli. It has one very good room 
with 2 beds, one of which has mus- 
quito-curtains. Another room, not 
quite so good, has only 1 bed without 
curtains. In the best room there are 
4 tables, shelves, pegs, and a framed 
list of furniture, with the rates at 
which compensation will be demanded 
for breakages. There are a dressing- 
room and bath-room. The man in 
charge of the banglA will supply a 
good curry for 12 dnAs. The windows 
have Venetians and the doors chiks, so 
there are no flies. You pay 1 r. for 24 
hrs. and 8 kn&s for less time. The 
road ascends the whole way from 
Danoli, and is so steep in some places 
that the horses can only walk. The 
hills are thickly wooded, and the 
scenery resembles that of MahAbalesh- 
war, though it is far less picturesque, 
the hills being not nearly so high. 
The road is generally thronged with 
carts, which impede progress. About 
half way is the hamlet of NhAne Ka 
Pdnl. The police here say that they 
often hear the roaring of wild beasts 
at night, and that the panthers come 
down after the bullocks and frighten 
the cart-men. Higher up there are 
tigers and bears. The 53rd milestone 
from Belgdon is passed near the 
T. B. at Danoli, and the T. B. at 
Amboli is reached just at the 43rd 
milestone. The bangli stands a little 
off the road to the left as you go to 
Belg^ofi, and has a clean bed with 
musquito curtains and plenty of tables 
and chairs. Usually at this GhAt a 
strong wind sets in at sunset, and rises 
almost to a tempest. Observe to the 
right of the bangU the hill of Mahd- 
deogajrh, which was one of the strong- 
holds of the rebels in 1844. There is 
now not a vestige of a fort upon it. 
7 m. to the N. of Mahddeogaj-h is 
Manohargafh, which is a hill fort 
2600 ft. above the sea. The fort is 
440 yds. from B. to W. and 350 from 
N. to S. where broadest. To the W. 
of it is the much smaller fort of Man- 
santo^h, or " mind at peace," on part 
of the same ridge separated by a 
chasm. Manohar has 2 strong gates 
to a single entrance, which is ap- 
proached by a flight of steps hewn in 



Sect. II. 



BotUe 10. — Belgdoh, 



233 



the solid rock. These forts in skilfal 
hands would be almost im^gnable. 
Until 1845 they belonged to Kolhdpiir, 
but after the rebellion of that year 
were annexed to S4wantw4dl. The 
Gh^ts all along between these forts 
from Amboli, swarm with wild beasts, 
but the jungle is so dense that it is 
almost impossible to drive them from 
their lairs. The Sir Desii has a 
bangld at Amboli, and so has the Poli- 
tical Superintendent. The man in 
charge of the Sir Des4i*s bangld 
haying gone out early one morning, 
found a veiy large tiger sitting close 
to the door, which made off without 
attempting to hurt him. On leaving 
the T. ^, at Amboli there is rather a 
steep descent, and the road then 
turns to the right, and after 150 yds. 
passes on the left a white tomb with a 
tablet, on which is inscribed, ^' Sacred 
to the memory of Ensign Wilmott, 
14th Regt. Bombay N. I., who fell at 
the taking of the Fort of Mah4deogairh 
by escalade on the 15th of September, 
1832." Beyond this tomb is a village, 
which is rapidly increasing. A road 
here turns off to the right, which leads 
to the Bdm Ghdt, and the old road to 
Vingorlen, which is disused on account 
of the great Steepness of the Ghdt. 
There is, however, a banglA here much 
used by shooting parties. The next 
stage to Amboli is Kanilr, 10 m. dis- 
tant. There is a very tolerable T. B., 
and the road is excellent, as it is be- 
tween E4ni^r and the next stage, 
Tandulw^di, which is 14 m. distant. 
There is much rice cultivation along 
the road, whence Tandulwidl gets 
its name. The T. B. here is a little 
way off the road to the right, 
and has some fine trees near it. At 
^ m. beyond it is a toll of 4 dni^. 
Wdsl, the next stage, is about 9 m., 
and Belg&on, which comes next, is 
9 more. The T. B. at Belgjioii is 
close to the fort, the arrangements are 
bad. 

Belgaon is the capital of a collec- 
torate, which has a pop. of 483,928, 
the town of Belg^ii itself having 
26,947. A very large garrison has been 
usually kept in the cantonment, but 
is now greatly reduced, According to 



Mr. Stokes, Madras C. S.,* the original 
name of Belgdoii was Venu-grAma= 
Bambii village; the Sanskrit Yenu 
having become Vel. Copies of the 
Veda at Belgion are superscribed 
Venu-grama. The town by the natives 
is called ShAhpilir Belgdou, from the 
neighbouring jAgir of Shdhpiir, which 
lies to the S. It is situated in a plain 
about 2600 ft. above the sea, with low 
hills in the distance. The fort being 
at the E. extremity, the town lies in 
the centre, and the cantonment to 
theW. 

Tlie Ihrt is strong against natives, 
built of stone, with earthen ramparts. 
It is of an oval shape, 1000 yds. in 
length by 800 in breadth, with a broad 
and deep wet ditch cut in very hard 
ground ; the wall is 30 ft. high. To 
the N. is a large tank, and to the S. 
rice fields. The entrance is to the N. W. 
Within the fort is an arsenal, a bar- 
rack for European soldiers, and some 
bangl&s of civilians and others. This 
fort was taken by Brig. -General after- 
wards Sir T. Munro, on the 10th of 
April, 1818, having been besieged from 
the 20th of March. The English bat- 
teries were erected on the N.W. of the 
fort, and between the tank and the na^ 
tive town. The enemy had 1600 men 
and 36 guns, besides 60 small brass 
guns and wall pieces. They lost 20 
killed and 60 wounded, and the Eng- 
lish 11 killed and 12 wounded. On the 
right of the gateway is a Persian in- 
scription, a lithograph copy of which 
is given by Mr. Burgess in his Re- 
port of the first season's operations 
in Belgdon, of which this is the trans- 
lation : — 

The glorious God I 
Under the Government of Kh&n Muhammad, 

of fortunate issue, 

The wall of the Fort was entirely restored, 

On this day Pir Mu^aminad, sou of Zi\A\ 

Kh4n, 

Superintended this excellent work. 

This said the sage, is the date of the structure. 

The wall became strong and solid exceedingly. 

The last line is the chronogram, and 
gives the date 1648. The slab is built 
into the front wall of the library, 
which was formerly the Kil'addr's 

* Records of Bombay Government, New 
Series, No, 116, p. 18, 



234 



EoiUe 10. — SawarUwddi to Belgdm, 



Sect. IL 



house.* On the left of the gateway, 
in a recess in the parapet, is another 
Persian inscription, which maybe thus 
translated : 

Y'akiib 'Ali KhAn, the gladdener of hearts, 
Whose mercy makes the house of life to 

abound, 
Strengthened the foundations of the ramparts 

of the Fort, 
And made its base, strong as the wall of 

Alexander, 
The sage said, the date of its restoration 
Is, the wall became stronger than the spirit 

of the desperate. 

This chronogram gives A.H. 937 = 
A.D. 1530. In the passage, through the 
gateway which curves to a second gate, 
is a row of arches with some neat 
carving. At 120 yds, distance you 
come straight to the ruined Naubat 
Khdnah or music gallery. Before reach- 
ing this, is the Executive Engineer's 
Office on the right, and the CoUector's 
house is just beyond the Naubat 
KtiAnah, also on the right. On the left 
is the fort church, St. Thomas. It is 
112 ft. 7 long. There are 7 tablets ; 
the first has this inscription : — 

This Tablet was erected 

by Government 

in recognition of the able 

and devoted] public services of 

CHARLES JAMES MANSON, 

of the Bombay Civil Service, 

Who, when Acting Political Agent, 

Southern Maratha country, 

was barbarously murdered 

by a Band of Rebels 

in the night of the 29th May, 1858, 

at the village of Suraban. 

The Apse and Memorial Window at the E. end 

of the Church were erected by his Friends 
In affectionate remembrance of his public 

worth. 

Another tablet is to Lieut. "W. P. 
Shakespeare, and A. P. Campbell, and 
Ensign W. Caldwell, who all fell in 
the insurrection of Kolhipilr and Sd- 
wantwddl. Beyond the Naubat Khdnah 
to the E. is a neat but plain mosque, 
with no inscription, and with one 
large tomb and 3 smaller ones inside. 
A little further to the S. is a plain 
temple, built of laterite. It is oblong, 
and is 55 ft. from N. to S., and 42 ft. 
from E. to W. There is a low wall at the 



entrance, 



along 



which are carved 



* So stated in Mr. Burgess' Report; but, 
according to infonnation received ou the sj^ot, 
that hou»<; has perished, 



figures of musicians. Then comes the 
real facade, with 4 pillars and 2 pilas- 
ters, 2 of the pillars being on either 
side of the entrance ; all of them are 
of very complicated character. There 
was an inscription in this temple, as in 
one of the otner 2, in the old Kanada 
language, beautifully cut on a slab of 
black porphyry, which is now broken 
across. It is now in the Museum of 
the Bombay Asiatic Society. It states 
that Malik^rjuna, whose descent for 3 
generations is given, built the temple to 
Sh4ntin4th, the 16th Tirthankar. The 
date is Shaka 1127=A.D. 1206. Mr. 
Burgess, p. 2, gives part of the inscrip- 
tion, and thinks it may belong to the 
Ratta dynasty ; he also gives a photo- 
graph of the temple and a plan. After 
the facade comes a passage 6 ft. 10 In. 
broad, then a wall with 6 pilasters, 
from the capitals of which hang down 
representations of cobras. The inner 
chamber is quite plain, and is about 
.32 ft. sq. Tents are now kept in it, 
and the door is locked. 

The second Jain Temple is within the 
Commissariat Store Yard, and is very 
much handsomer than that outside. 
The roof is a most complicated piece 
of carving, with eaves about 2 ft. 
broad, which seem to rest on the bar- 
like projections from the pillars. The 
roof outside rises in tiers, but the in- 
side is circular. The principal entrance 
faces the N.W., and has one elephant 
remaining at the side, much mutilated. 
To the top of the domed roof inside is 
16| ft. There is a quadruple pendant 
in the centre. At the lowest circle 
there are figures of Jain deities, then 
5 rows of niches with small figures, 
but the lowest row is empty. The 
niches are shell-shaped. There are 4 
portals, 7 ft. sq. each, and each with 4 
black basalt pillars, 7 ft. 8 in. high, 3 
ft. of which is the base forming part 
of the stylobate, which is also 3 ft. 
high. These pillars are 4 ft. 6 in. round. 
This leads to an inner chamber, the 
roof of which is open in the centre, 
and supported by 4 pillars, between 
which and the wall is a passage 4 ft. 6 
in. broad. The breadth of the pillars is 
2 ft. 3 in. The wall is ornamented with 
8 pilasters £ind 4 denii-pil^sters. The 



Sect. II. 



HoiUe 10. — Belgdon. 



235 



height of the inner chamber to the 
opening in the roof is 12 ft. 9 in., and 
that of the pillars 8 ft. 5 in. This cham- 
ber leads to a 2nd inner chamber 8 ft. 
8 in. from E. to W., and 8 ft. from N. 
to S. This leads to a 3rd inner cham- 
ber, which is very dark ; it is 8 ft. 5 in. 
from E. to W., and 7 ft. 1 in. from N. 
to S. The image was here, but there 
is now merely a place for it, with an 
elephant and lion in relief. Mr. Bur- 
gess says, " The pillars of the temple 
are square and massive, but relieved 
by having all the principal facets, the 
triangles on the base and neck carved 
with floral ornamentations. In the 
front wall of this chamber, which is 
3 ft. 7 in. thick, are 2 small recesses, 
closed by sliding stones 1 ft. 9 in. high. 
The door leading from the Mandap to 
the temple has been carved with un- 
common care. On the centre of the 
lintel is a Tlrthankar, and above the 
cornice are 4 squat human figures. On 
tlie neat colonettes of the jambs are 5 
bands with human groups, in some of 
which the figures are little more than 
an inch high, yet in high relief ; in- 
side this is a band of rampant SinlutSj 
with a sort of high frill round the neck 
of each. Outside the colonettes is a 
band of chahvas or sacred geese, an- 
other of Sitihag, and then one of hu- 
man figures, mostly on bended knees." 
To the N.W. of this temple is the Jdm'i 
Masjid. The faQade measures 81 ft. 5 
in. in length, and the mosque is 58 ft. 7 
in. deep. In the S. wall is a well with 
water at the depth of 16 ft. This 
mosque is called the Masjid i Safd. 
Over the entrance is a Persian inscrip- 
tion, very difficult to read ; it may be 
translated as follows : — 

By the auspices of the Lord of happy con- 

jonctures, 
Whose Court is exalted, whose throne is like 

heaven, and whose place is that of Jibrail, 
Was built this Mosque, whose door is the 

point to which the Faithful turn in prayer. 
It became the Defence and Refuge to Isldin, 
And on a happy day^ by the auspices of As'ad 

(Most Happy) EhaUt 
The foundation was laid and the work brought 

to completion. 
The princes and nobles of the Dakhau, from 

their good fortune. 
Mom and eve, offer their salutations in His 

Court, 
In the year a.h. 924. 



There is a round seat, very solid and 
heavy, and about 4 ft. high, in front of 
the mosque, on which As'ad Kh4n is 
said to have often sprung when dressed 
in full armour. This As'ad Khdn Suri, 
otherwise called Khurram Turk, was a 
gigantic warrior, who held Belgdou 
against all assail|ints for a numl^r of 
years in the beginning of the 16th cen- 
tury. Belgdon was taken by Khwa- 
jah Ma^mM Gaw&n, the general of 
Muhammad Sh^, in 1472. The dis- 
trict jail at Belgdon has only about 
130 prisoners with short sentences. 
The others are sent to Gokdk. There 
is no place for women in the hospital 
of this jail, and neither females nor 
boys are taught anything. The prison- 
ers are not employed in manufactures, 
nor in anything but breaking stones and 
gardening. There are no cells for so- 
litary confinement except those for 
condemned criminals. There are 2 
cemeteries, the new one, which is well 
kept and planted with flowers, being 
IJ m. W. of the fort. The old ceme- 
t«y is at the N. end of the bdzAr. It 
is shaded with many trees, and sur- 
rounded by a high wall. It was closed 
in January, 1874. Lieut. Pawlet 
Shakespeare, who was mortally 
wounded at Samangarh on the 29th of 
Sept. 1844, is buried here, as is Lieut. 
E. M. Irvine, of the Madras Artillery, 
killed at the same place. St. Mary's 
Church at Belgdon is dedicated to St. 
Mary the Virgin. It stands in the 
cantonment N.W. of the town, is 130 
ft. long from B. to W., 40 ft. wide 
from N. to S., and 60 ft. high. It was 
consecrated in 1869. There is a hand- 
some Memorial Cross in the compound 
to 23 sergeants of H.M.'s 64th, who 
died during the Persian and Indian 
campaigns, 1856 to 1858. After seeing 
this church, the tomb of As'ad Khdn 
may be visited. It is at the N. end of 
the Sadar bdzdr, 100 yds. to the S. of 
the Roman Catholic Church. It is a 
plain square building of stone, with a 
dome. There is no inscription. A 
number of ostrich eggs are suspended 
in the inner room where the actual 
tomb is. This place had a revenue of 
6000 rs., which has all been seized by 
Government. The Race Course lies to 



236 



Eottte 10. — Sdwantwddi to Belgdoh, 



Sect. II. 



the N.W. of this building, and it is a 
pleasant drive to it. The town has 
nothing remarkable about it. It was 
greatly improved in 1848 by a sub- 
scription of the inhabitants. Govern- 
ment, in acknowledgment of their li- 
berality, made an annual grant of £600 
for the same purpose At Sutgati, 14 
m. from Belg^n, and the first stage 
on the road to Fund, there are 2 In- 
dian fig-trees of very great size. The 
first is near the T. B. ; the stem forms 
a wall of timber extending 40 ft. The 
tree rises to a great height, and the 
branches spread out 100 ft. round the 
trunk. The other tree is about 1 m. 
from the banglA, and though not re- 
markable for height, covers a larger 
surface of ground. Belgdon is usually 
considered a very healthy place. There 
is good shooting within 12 m., and al- 
together it is a very popular station. 

sights in the vicinity op 
belgAo^. 

Xddarojiy anciently called E^dara- 
valli, a village on the river Malparba, 
is 3 m. from Mugut Ehdn Hubll, 
which is the 2nd stage on the Dhdr- 
w4d road from Belgdon. There is 
a temple to Shankar Deva, of black 
stone, in the bed of the river, and in- 
accessible during floods. The distance 
as the crow flies from the fort of Bel- 
gdon is about 18 m. The central 
shrine is 8 ft. 3^ in. sq., and each of 
the 2 side ones 5 ft. 64 in. The pillars 
of the Mandap and portico to the cen- 
tral temple remain ; but the roofs and 
the capitals of all the columns have 
been carried off by the river. A stone 
tablet 3J ft. high, and 1 ft. 8 broad, 
was removed by Mr. Fleet, C.S., from 
the front of the temple to the village 
of |K4daroli, where it now is. It is 
written in old Kanarese, and mentions 
a gift of 5 golden Gady&nas to this 
temple by Dandandyaka in the year 
of the Shaka era 997= A.D. 1076. This 
Dandan^yaka, whose proper name 
seems to have been KeshavAdityadeva, 
was the general of the Kalydni sove- 
reign Someshvara Deva II., known as 
Bhuvanaikanakadeva. As this temple 
is interesting from its antiquity and 
its singular position in the bed of the 



river, the traveller may like to visit 
it, particularly as it is the first march 
in a tour of some interest. The temple 
is 57 ft. long from E. to W., and 25 ft. 
broad from N. to S. 

Sdmpgdon. — From Eidaroli to 
S4mpgdoii is 7| m. N. by £. At Sdmp- 
g&on is a mosque, 38 ft. from E. to W., 
and about the same from N. to S. It 
is a well proportioned and pleasing 
structure. Over the Mihrdb is a hand- 
some Tughri inscription, containing 
parts of the 6th, 12th, and 61st SiiraJis 
of the Kur'&n. About 7 m. E. of Sdmp- 
gdo& is the village of Bail-Hangal, 
where is a temple which dates from 
about A.D. 1200. This temple is about 
64 ft. long, and 33 ft. broad. There is 
an inscription on a large stone slab in 
front of it, and also on another in a 
ditch close by. These ought to be 
translated. 

Saundati. — About 18 m. to the E. 
of Bail-Hangal is the town of Saun- 
dati. There is a temple here to Bha- 
vdnl It is in the fort, and was buUt 
by the Desdi of Nargund. In the 
Kacheri are 2 inscriptions in E^anarese 
and Sanskrit. The first refers to Mal- 
likdrjuna and Lak^hmi - Deva, who 
lived in Venu-grama or Belgaou. The 
date is Shaka 1151 =A,D. 1229. The 
inscriptions probably refer to the Ratta 
dynasty. A critical version of both is 
much required. About 1 m. due S. of 
Saundati is the celebrated temple of 
Yellamd at Pdrasgad. It is built in 
the bed of the Sarasvati, a small stream 
which runs E. from the hills above 
Saundati. The temple is said to be 
2000 years old, but was rebuilt in the 
beginning of the 13th century, and 
again, except perhaps the shrine, with- 
in the last 200 years. It stands in the 
middle of a court, surrounded by ar- 
cades with pointed arches. In the W. 
gate are some pillars like those of the 
Jain temples at Belgdon, and on the 
base of one is an inscription covered 
with whitewash. To this temple mar- 
ried people desirous of offspring re- 
pair ; if their wish be granted, the 
children are dedicated to the service 
of the goddess Yellamd, a circumstance 
which leads to the most atrocious im- 
morality. Processions of hundreds of 



Sect. II. 



Route 11. — Belgdoh to Dhdrwdd. 



237 



naked women used to be made to this 
temple, but these have now been 
stopped by the (Government. Great 
numbers of people, however, stiU re- 
sort to the place, which is a hot-bed of 
infamy. 

Suli, — 9 m. to the N.E. of Saundatl 
is the village of Hull, where is a 
temple of Panchalinga Deva, of which 
Mr. Burgess, in his admirable Report 
of the first season's operations in the 
Belg&on and Ealadgi Districts, has 
given a photograph. The temple is 
91 ft long, and 71 ft. broad. It was 
built by the Jains, who have hewn off 
all the lintels except that over the en- 
trance to the shrine at the S. end, 
which has the finest door. The temple 
faces the E. On 2 pillars of the outer 
Mandap are 2 Eanarese inscriptions. 
The temple probably dates from 1100 
A.D. At the foot of the hill to the N. 
of the village is a group of ruined 
temples ; one built of hard compact 
bluish stone has a Mandap 43 ft. from 
N. to S. The 4 central pillars are 
similar to those at Belg4on, only the 
snake is wanting on the bracket. The 
short pillars on the screen are very va- 
ried, hexagonal, octagonal, and circu- 
lar. The door of the shrine is of por- 
phyry, richly carved, and on the lintel 
is Shri or Lak^hmi, with elephants 
pouring water over her. Near the 
ruins of an old temple close by is a 
large inscription, and all around are 
fragments of buildings, slabs of gra- 
nite and porphyry, and pieces of in- 
scriptions. *• There are carved stones 
enough to furnish a museum or illus- 
trate a mythology." At 6 m. to the 
N.W. from Huli is the village of Ma- 
nauli, where are 8 temples to Pancha- 
linga Deva, of coarse-grained stone, 
no way remarkable for carving. The 
snake head on the bracket and their 
general style would lead us to assign 
these temples to the same age as those 
at Belgdon, that is, to the end of the 
12th century. From Manauli to BA- 
dAmi is 2 marches, but BddAmi will 
be described in a different Route. 



ROUTE 11. 

BELGAON TO KITTtrE AND DHIRWAD. 

The stages to DhArwAd are as fol- 
lows : — 



Prom 



Belgdon 
Halaga . , 
Bagalwadf 
M. K. Hubli, 
Hnlikatta 
Kittilr . , 
Tegiir . 
Yanketpiir , 
Mominkatta . 



To 



Halaga . 
Bagalwa^i i 
MugutKhdiiHuLli 
Hulikatta 
Kittdr . 
Tegur . 
Yanketpur 
Mominkattii . 
Dharwii^ . 

Total . 



Miles. 



6 

a 

6 


(5 
4 
2 
G 
6 



48 



At 1 m. beyond the village of 
Mugut KhAn ki Hubll the Malparba 
river must be crossed, with very deep 
sand on the W. bank, and in the dry 
season about 1^ ft. of water. After 
this the road becomes more hilly and 
woody, with large trees and tufts of 
bambii by the river side, where there 
is a short but steep ascent. Before 
reaching Kittiir, at \ m. from the 
Tappa, there is a temple on the right- 
hand side of the road. 

Xittiir.— To see the fort of Kittiir 
the traveller will turn down to the 
left for about 1 m. He wiU proceed 
along JumWAt BAzAr, passing the 
post-office, school, and police-station. 
He will then come to a gate-way, 
and turning to the right beneath 
it, will see a Mafh, or religious house, 
and the cemetery where the DesAl 
Mall Shivaji and his wives are buried. 
About 100 yds. beyond this he will 
come to another gateway, and about 
160 yds. from that will turn to the 
left and find the ruins of the fort. 
Kittiir was the fief of a DesAf who 
received investiture from the RAjA of 
KolhApiir. When Col. Wellesley was 



238 



Houte 11. — Belgdoh to DMnodd, 



Sect. XL 



marching on Fund in 1803, this chief, 
Mall Shivaji, was of great service to 
him (see Wellington's Despatches, 
vol. iii., p. 252), but the PeshwA was 
anxious to obtain the fort, and Col. 
Wellesley wm obliged to remonstrate 
with our Government to save the 
Desdf from being dispossessed. In 
September, 1824, Shivajl died without 
children, and the British Government 
having annexed the Peshwd's do- 
minions claimed the reversion of the 
lief. The family applied for per- 
mission to adopt, which Mr. Thacke- 
ray, the Collector, refused to grant 
without the sanction of the Bombay 
Government. He assumed charge of 
the district, and was directed to retain 
it pending inquiry. On the morning 
of the 23rd of October, 1824, he was 
encamped without the walls of the 
fort with a company of N. Artillery 
and one of N. I., when the gates of the 
fort were shut, and on his attempting 
to force an entrance the garrison sal- 
lied out and overwhelmed his party. 
Mr. Thackeray, Capt. Black, and 
Lieut. Dighton, commanding the es- 
cort, were killed, Capt. Sewell mor- 
tally wounded, and Messrs. Stevenson 
and Elliot, assistants to the Collector, 
carried prisoners into the fort, where 
they were threatened with death in 
case of an assault. On this, a force 
consisting of H.M.'s 46th regt., 1 
Bombay European regt., the 3rd, 6th, 
14th, and 23rd N. L, a brigade of Ma- 
dras and Bombay artillery, and the 
4th and 8th L. C, under Lieut.-CoL 
Beacon, were sent to reduce the place. 
On the 3rd of December an attempt 
was made to storm, when John Col- 
lins Munro, C.S., nephew of Sir T. 
Munro, was mortally wounded. On 
the evening of the 4th, the walls having 
been breached, the garrison sur- 
rendered on condition that their lives 
should be spared. In 1832 another 
formidable insurrection occun-ed, 
which was suppressed by the zeal and 
courage of 2 Patels, named Linga 
Gowah and Krishna Rdo, who were 
rewarded with grants of land. A line 
of stones shows where the gateway was 
and where Thackeray fell. There is a 
ditch here about 16 ft. deep, partly 



filled up with herbage. About 80 yds. 
beyond this is a 2nd ditch and re- 
mains of the fort walls, and part of a 
stone gateway, solidly built ; pro- 
ceeding E. you pass a temple very 
recently built, a very shabby struc- 
ture, and you come to a stone cJui- 
butrahf or terrace, under 2 magni- 
ficent trees, a tamarind and a pipal 
tree. About 150 yds. E. of this are 
the ruins of the fort palace, and 
the fort extends some way beyond 
them, and is at this point defended by 
a wet ditch. Although so completely 
ruined, it may still be seen that it was 
a strong place ; the reason of its utter 
demolition in so short a time is that 
the people of the town carried away 
the stones and building materials to 
construct new houses. About 100 yds, 
beyond the fort is a place where the 
R&nls are said to have had a palace, 
where the disturbance began. Beyond 
this, going S., is a most curious build- 
ing, a temple built by Dharamapa, 
an oilman, a subject of the last Bdja 
of Kittiir. There is a sort of gallery 
about 20 ft. from the ground, which 
passes along the centre of the building 
and projects 2 wings which come to- 
wards the road. In this gallery are a 
number of figures. In the centre is 
the Bdja, and on his left his 2 wives, 
Chinnawa and Trawa, who caused the 
death of Thackeray and the other 
officers. On the RdjA's right are the 
statues* of his ministers. At the end 
of each group is the statue of an 
English officer in knee-breeches and a 
round hat. Beyond this is the police- 
station, and at a Uttle distance the S. 
gate of the town. The pop. of the 
town is 7166. Beyond the S. gate is a 
very extensive tank, and beyond it 
the road turns W. and joins the main 
road to DhtovAd. There is a very 
good T. B. at Tegiir. The red dust 
along this road is very trying. 

Bhdrwdd. — The T. B. here is 1 m. 
W. of the fort, and is a well-built, red 
house, with nice grounds around it. To 
the N., 50 yds. off, is an obelisk to Mr. 
Thackeray, 28 ft. high. There is a 
Persian inscription on the S. side, a 
Kanarese on the W. side, one in the 
Sanskrit on the N. , and one in Eng- 



Sect. IJ. 



Eoute 11. — DMrwdd. 



239 



lish on the 
follows : — 



E., which last is as 



Erected by their Friends 
to the Memory of 

ST. JOHN THACKERAY, ESQ., 

Principal Collector and Political Agent, 

S. Mardtha Dodb, 

Killed in the Inaorrection at 

Kittur, October 23rd, 1824, 

and of 

JOHN COLLINS MUNBO, ESQ., 

■ Sub-Collector, 
Who died December 16th, of a wound 
received at the reduction 
of that place. 

DhdrwAd is a large open town, with a 
pop. of 27,136. It is in a plain and was 
once defended by a low mad wall and a 
ditch of no strength.* On the N. is 
the fort, which is strong, though the 
defences are of mud and irregular. 
It has a double wall, and an outer and 
inner ditch from 26 to 30 ft. wide, and 
nearly as many ft. deep. It was taken 
from the Mar^thas by Gaidar 'All in 
1778, and stood a siege in 1789 from a 
British force co-operating with the 
Mardtha army under Parshurdm Bhdo. 
It then belonged to Tlpii, and one of 
his ablest generals, Badru*z-zam4n, 
with 7000 regulars and 3000 irregulars, 
having thrown himself into it, de- 
fended it with great spirit. The first 
operation took place on October 30th, 
when an attack was made on a party 
of the garrison that had advanced out- 
side the town. They were driven in, 
with the loss of 3 guns and many 
killed and wounded. The native town 
was then taken by storm, in which 
Capt. Little and Lieut. Forster, who 
first mounted the wall, were wounded, 
the latter mortally. Besides these, 
the British lost 62 killed and wounded. 
Iliey made over the place to the Ma- 
rathas, and returned to camp, and had 
no sooner done so than the garrison 
rallied, and, after a severe conflict, in 
which 600 Mardthas were killed, and 
at least as many of their own party, 
re-occupied the town. After a truce 
to bum and bury the dead, the fight 
was renewed, and the Mardthas re- 
took the place. The English had no 
battering guns, and the fort was too 
strong to be taken by assault, but a 

* Grant Duff, vol. iii. p. 48. 



regt. of Europeans and a native corps 
were sent under Lieut.-Col. Frederick, 
of the Bombay Army, to reinforce the 
besiegers. Col. Frederick reached 
Dhdrwdd on Bee. 28th, and immedi- 
ately took command and commenced 
operations. As fast as the Mardtha 
guns, which were now manned b^ the 
English, made a breach, the enemy 
repaired it ; and when the Briti^ 
troops advanced to the assault on Feb. 
7th, they were repulsed with the loss 
of 86 men. Col. Frederick died of 
chagrin at the failure, and was suc- 
ceeded by Major Sartorius, and at 
length, after a protracted siege of 29 
weeks, the brave Badru'z-zamdn sur- 
rendered on condition of being allowed 
to march out with all the honours of 
war. The alHes took possession of the 
fort on April 4th, and the Mar^thas 
then attacked Badru'z-zamdn as he 
was marching away, wounded him, 
and made him prisoner, with many 
others, and dispersed the rest of his 
forces on pretext of his having de- 
stroyed some of his stores after he had 
suiTcndered. In September, 1801,* 
Col. Wellesley, afterwards Buke of 
Wellington, expressed his opinion that 
Dh^w^d could be taken by a coup de 
main, and he drew up a plan of attack 
on the S.W. side. In 1803 Col. Wel- 
lesley gave a very remarkable proof of 
his confidence in Bdbiiji §indhia, who 
then held the fort with very dubious 
iiitentions as regarded the British. 
He invited Col. Wellesley to an enter- 
tainment in the fort, and his invita- 
tion was accepted, to the surprise even 
of BAbiijl himself, who, in remarking 
afterwards that he had not taken ad- 
vantage of it, said, " For I am still a 
MarAtha."t In 1814 the same Kiladdr, 
having come to pay his respects to 
Bdjl Rdo PeshwA, was told to give up 
the fort to Trimbakjl DAnglia. His 
answer was worthy a chivalrous baron 
of feudal times. "If your Highness 
will send a gentleman to relieve me in 
the command, or if you will send 
my secretary, in your own name, 
I will deliver the keys to him, but I 
will never give over the fort to such 

* Despatches, vol. I. p. 860. 
t Despatches, vol. iii. p. 405. 



240 



Eoute 11. — Bdgdoh to Dhdrtodd, 



Sect. II. 



a person as Trimbakjl DAnglia." For 
this speech he was seized as soon as he 
left the PeshwA's tent, bound and 
tortured by Trimbakjl, until a promise 
of surrender was extorted. He then 
gave the keys to his secretary, a Br&h- 
man, on whom he could rely, and the 
latter, accompanied by a body of 
troops, proceeded to Dhdrwdd. No 
sooner, however, had he reached the 
gate than he asked leave to go a little 
in advance, and as soon as he had 
entered he oaused all the gates to be 
closed, and opened such a fire upon 
Trimbakjl and his men as compelled 
them to retire with precipitation. In 
1837 DhirwM was the scene of such 
violent feuds between the Brdhmans 
and Ling^yats that Government was 
compelled to interfere. The cemetery 
at Dhdrwid is a little to the S.W. of 
the fort. Here are buried Capt. Black 
and Lieuts. SeweU and Dighton, of the 
Madras H. Artillery, *• who lost their 
lives in gallantly attempting to quell 
the insurrection at Kittiir, on the 23rd 
of October, 1824." Their monument 
was erected "by their tliree friends 
who witnessed their devoted conduct 
at that unfortunate affair." The tablet 
to the nephew of Sir T. Munro is thus 
inscribed : — 

To the Memory of 

JOHN COLLINS MUNllO, ESQ., 

of the Madras Civil Service, 

Who, being present with the force 

assembled for the reduction of Kittiir, 

was unfortunately carried by his 

ardent temper to share in the storm of 

the enemies' works, 

on the 3rd of December, 1824, 

when he received a mortal wound, 

of which he died on the 11th of December, 

1824. 
At the early age of 26 years. 



This Monument was erected by his Uncle, 
Major-Qeneral Sir Thomas Munro. 

The church at BhirwAd is about 1 m. 
to the S. of the T. B. It belongs to 
the Basle German Evangelical Mission, 
was built in 1844-45, and dedicated 
Bee. 14th, 1845. It is 76 ft long, 42 
broad, and 24 high. The tower is 
40 ft. high. The service by the mis- 
sionaries is in Kanarese, and once on 
Sunday in English. There is a small 
cemetery att<v»hed, in which several of 



the missionaries and their wires and 
children are buried. The cantonments 
for the native infantry, to the N.W. 
of the fort, are quite 2 m. off. The 
fort itself looks very desolate and 
wretched, and there is nothing re- 
markable to be seen either there or in 
the town. 

Ddndilli, — 3 stages on the road to 
Goa, in N. Eanara, and 34 m. S.W. of 
Dh^i^rwAd, are the jungles of Dindilli, 
teeming with every sort of game the 
pursuit of which can amuse and ex- 
cite the sportsman. Here tigers and 
wild buffaloes are to be found in 
plenty, and elephants are said to come 
up from the S. after the rains. Here 
the most renowned sportsman in W. 
India, Col. Peyton, resides, and. has for 
many years killed with his own gun 15 
to 20 tigers annually. The traveller 
may proceed to Goa this way, and 
then by Bombay to sea. The stages 
are : — 





Dh4rwa4 Fort 

Gate 
Ealkerra 
Hallihdl . . 

D&ndiUi . 
Jagalpet.h (no 

supplies) 
X KondAptir r. 
Kond&piir 
Funda . . 

S. Jago . 



Ealkerra 

HaUihil . . 
Ddndilli (no 

supplies) 
Jagalpeth 
CMndaw&4i . 



Fundi . 

S. Jago on the 

island of Goa 
Faiyim, or 

New Goa 

Total . 



X. 


F. 


10 


U 


11 

12 


? 


12 
18 


6 

1 


15 
10 
11 


1 
6 
6 


8 


4 


110 


5i 



Sect. II. 



Route 12. — UaUi, 



211 



ROUTE 12. 
dhAbwad to hubli, gadak, Am) 

LAKKUNDi. 

• ■ 

The stages are as follows : — 



From 



lUyapiJLr 

Hubli 

Silgupa 

NeUiirl 

A'nikeri 

Halkofa 



To 



R&yapiir . 
Hubli 
Silgupd . 
Nelluri 
A'nikerl . 
Halko^ . 
Gadak . 

Total 



Miles. 



6 
6 
8 
6 
7 
6 
8 



47 



The road as far as Huhlf R4ydn, or 
Boyal Hahli, is very good. 

Hitbli. — ^This is a most flourishing 
and increasing town, with a pop. of 
37,961. The Pdrsl mail contractor has 
a house | of m. from the outskirts of 
the town and from the road to Gadak. 
The post-oflBice is within a few yds. 
of this house, and here the traveller 
will change horses. Near Hubli and 
for the rest of this route the most re- 
markable objects are the Jain temples. 
A full account of this curious sect will 
be found in Prof. H. H. Wilson's paper 
in the "Asiatic Researches," vol. xvii., 
and Mr. Erskine's ** Literary Trans, of 
Bombay," vol. iii., p. 494. It is suffi- 
cient here to say they hold an inter- 
mediate place between the Buddhists 
and the Brahmanists, but approach 
more closely to the Buddhists. Like 
the Brdhmans, they have castes, their 
priests never eat flesh, and do not 
venerate the relics of saints. On the 
other hand, like the Buddhists, they 
disavow the Yedas and the Hindii 
deities, and in place of them the 
Jains worship the 24 Tirthankars or 
Jinas, i.e., sanctified teachers. The 
Jains, like the Buddhists, lived origi- 
nally in celibacy in monasteries. They 
select their priests from the children 
of all classes of the community, pre- 
serve as their sacred language the PAll 
or Prdkfit, a dialect closely resembling I 

[^owiSay— 1880.] 



the Magadhl or vernacular tongue of 
S. Bahdr, have nearly the same tradi- 
tional chronology, do not eat after 
sunset, and sweep the spot* on which 
they sit down, for fear of destroying 
animal life. Both sects, too, maintain 
in common with the school of Ean4da 
the doctrine of eternal atoms or ele- 
ments. The Buddhists have entirely 
disappeared from India, but the Jains 
remain in considerable numbers in 
Mdrwdd, Gujar&t, the S. Eonkan, and 
S. Mar&tha coimtry, Kanida, and Ma- 
labar. Their priests may be known 
by a covering over the mouth to pre- 
vent them destroying insect life in 
breathing, and by carrying a broom 
to sweep their path and i)lace where 
they sit, with the same object. It is 
remarkable that, though so absurdly 
chary of animal and insect life, they 
regarded the infanticide once pre- 
valent in E4thiawdd, where they are 
very numerous, with complete indif- 
ference.! The T. B. at HubU is on the 
Gadak road, just as you turn off to the 
right to go to the mail-contractor's. 
Hubli is one of the principal cotton 
marts of the S. Mardtha country, and 
is also interesting as having been the 
seat of one of the earliest English fac- 
tories, which in 1763 was plundered by 
Shivajl of goods to the value of 
27,629 rs. In the old fort is a curi- 
ous well SO ft. deep, the water of 
which has a strong mineral taste. The 
water of all the other wells is excel- 
lent. The old town of Hubli was 
built some centuries ago, the new 
town by Chintdman Rdo Patwardan 
of Sdngli, about the beginning of this 
century. 

SIGHTS IN THE VICINITY OP HUBLf 

• 

If the traveller is curious about 
temples, he may spend a few days in 
going from Hubli to BankAptir, Sa- 
vaniir, Hangal, Dewgiri, Moti Benniir, 
Chatr and Rdni Benniir. From Hubli 
to BankdpilLr is 30 m., almost due S. 
along an excellent road. Bankapiir 
was a very flourishing place, under the 
Muljiammadan Kings of the Bakhan. 
It is now desolate, but there are beau- 

* Jour. As. Soc. Bomb., 1844, vol. ii. p. 81. 
t WilBon on InfiEuiticide, p. 71. 



242 



EotUe 12. — Dhdrwdd to Iliihlt, etc. 



Sect. IT. 



t if 111 temples and mosqnes which have 
never been described.* At Savaniir, 
m. to the N.E. of Bankdptir, there 
are 6 temples, also midescribed. At 
HAngal,t 14 m. to the S.W. of Bankiptir, 
there is a large and yery ancient tem- 
ple dedicated to Jarkeshwara. The 
carving is remarkable. Opposite the 
idol is a place c^ed by the natives 
the Katnal or " lotus of Hdngal." It 
is an octagonal building, and the 
ceiling is formed by one immense 
stone 20 ft. in diameter, cut into the 
shape of a lotus and resting on 8 
pillars. On 8 stones adjoining the 
pillars are sculptured the afh^adik- 
pdlaiiUf or guardians of the eight cardi- 
nal points. Thousands of other figures, 
some seated, some standing, are sculp- 
tured in various parts of the temple. 
According to Paur^nik legend, the 
B4kj^has, or demon, E^chaka, was 
destroyed at this place. Bengal is 
surrounded by extensive gardens of 
betel and cocoa-nut trees. The sugar 
cane is also very largely cultivated. 
The method of betel culture is as fol- 
lows : — ^When the betel nuts are quite 
ripe they are gathered and planted, 
with the husks on, at intervals of 4 ft. 
from each other, and in square patches. 
In 6 months the stem begins to appear, 
and in about 12 years it reaches the 
height of 20 ft., when it throws out 
branches with nuts. In its full growth 
it is 60 ft. high, but never thicker 
than 5 or 6 inches in diameter. In 
February and March a thick green 
cover, called by the natives adkihaliy 
forms at the top of tiie tree. This dries 
and falls off, and is then 4 feet long 
and 2 J broad, brown outside and white 
in. It is very strong, particularly 
after having been soaked in water, and 
is used by the natives for bags. In this 
cover is a shell, at first 2 or 3 inches, 
and, when full grown, 2 ft. long. As 
the nuts in the shell get ripe it gives 
way and falls down. Out of it bursts 
a large bunch of nuts divided into 3 

* For the inscriptions, which date as far back 
as 1066 A.D., see Mr. Fleet's Paper, Ind. Aiiti- 
quai^ vol. iv„ p. 203. 

t Hi&ngal is one of the most ancient places 
In the I)h&rw^4 districts. It is mentioned in 
the Purdnas, under the name of " Virdtnagara," 
the city of King Yizita. 



branches. Each bunch contains from 
3 to 4 sers of nuts. The tree bears 
fruit once a year, and shoots out two 
or three branches at a time. Each of 
the nuts is covered with a shell like 
that of a cocoa-nut, which is easily re- 
moved by the gardeners. When fully 
ripe the nut is fit for seed, bu^ not to 
eat. When three-fourths ripe it is only 
eaten by the poor, and is then called, 
in Eanarese, hettedike. When half 
ripe it is the chikni adki, and is then 
at its best flavour, and sells from 6 
to 8 rupees per man. It is cut into 
wafers or small pieces, and is then 
boiled and dried, after which it is 
called the Mfad adki. The trees live 
about 60 years. 

The sugar cane is of four kinds — 
white, black or red, the raJtiiUif s-nd 
the huchch or mad. There are two 
species of the white cane, the huls and 
the het. The huU is about half an 
inch in diameter, and contains little 
juice, but the best gul or molasses is 
made from it. Bet is the hardest of 
all the canes, and grows 10 ft. high ; 
its juice is superior to that of the pre- 
ceding kind. The black or red sugar 
cane is three times as thick as the 
white, and gives more juice, but of a 
difEerent flavour. It grows to 12 ft. 
The rastdli is divided into white or 
guHf and striped. The white raatdli 
is much thicker than the red, and 
contains more juice than any cane. 
Its juice is a delicious drink, but when 
inspissated makes the worst gul. It 
is BO soft as to be easily eaten. The 
striped sort is exactly the same as the 
other species, except in color. It 
grows to 15 ft. The hvchch is good 
only for cattle, and elephants are very 
fond of it. The other sorts, when fuU 
grown, are cut up, and have the juice 
expressed by two rollers, and this is 
then inspissated by boiling it in large 
iron basins, when it is called gul, Ee- 
duced to powder, this is the native 
sugar, and is sold in this district at 
8 dn&s per Tnan, 

Chik Nargwnd or Little Nargund, — 
Here the traveller may halt for a day 
in order to see a very remarkable pass 
about 7 m. off, and about 3 m. &om 
a place called Saundatti, Here the 



Sect. II. 



Boute 12. — Nargund — Anikeri, 



243 



MalparM (MAlaprabhd, Ind. Ant..yol. 
iv. p. 139) rashes through a narrow 
precipitous gorge in the range of 
sandstone hUls between the towns of 
SaundatU and Manaull. This gorge 
is about 1^ m. in length, and is most 
wild and picturesque. The sides of the 
rayine are precipitous, and the bottom 
is strewed with huge blocks of sand- 
stone, which have fallen away from 
the cliffs on either side, and among 
these the river dashes furiously forward. 
This singular passage was probably 
cut by the river worldng back through 
the hills by such a waterfall as is now 
seen at Gok^k. The course of the 
ravine is winding, or, at least, irregu- 
lar, and not in a direct line, as would 
have been the case had it originated 
in a split in the strata occasioned by 
an earthquake. The ravine is called 
the JViavil TLrth, or " Peacock shrine," 
and the legend is that when first the 
Malparbd came rushing through the 
plain above the hill it turned this way 
and that to look for an outlet. Sud- 
denly a peacock from the summit of 
a hill caUed, " Come hither I come 
hither 1" when the hill split in two, 
and the river ran joyously down the 
wild passage that had thus miracu- 
lously been made for its escape. 

From Chill Narg'tmd a visit may be 
paid to Nargund, lately the capital of 
a petty B^jd, and the scene of a bar- 
barous massacre during his revolt. 
The chief of Nargund had long been 
plunged in pecuniary difficulties, and 
his estates were all heavily mortgaged. 
In this desperate state of his circum- 
stances he imagined he saw a means 
of escape by joining the insurrection 
against tlie English ; and, on the 30th 
of May, Mr. C. Manson, the Political 
Agent in the S. Mardtha country, 
having proceeded to Nargund to dis- 
arm the inhabitants with a few horse- 
men, was set upon by the Kajd's 
orders, and he and all his escort were 
murdered. Their deaths were soon 
avenged. On the 31st a body of the 
S. Mardtha horse, under Colonel Mal- 
colm,* and two companies of the 74th 

• See the HoToevxird Mail for July the 19th, 
1S58, where a fall account of the whole affoir 
will he found. 



Highlanders, with a company of the 
283i N. I. and two guns, under 
Capt. Paget, marched from Dhdrwdd, 
and on the 1st of June advanced 
against Nargund. The fort is on a 
rock about 800 ft. high, and was for- 
merly famous for its strength, having 
on more than one occasion defied the 
armies of Tipii. The town lies at the 
base of the rock, and the enemy, about 
1 500 in number, were encamped outside 
it. The advance of the English troops 
was very feebly opposed, and by 7 A.M. 
of the 2nd the town and fort were in their 
possession. They had but six wounded, 
while the rebels'suffered very severely. 
On the evening of the same day, the 
chief, with six of his principal fol- 
lowers, were captured in the jungle ; 
and on the 12th he was hanged, and 
the neighbouring Rdjd of Dambal was 
blown from a gun, and six of his 
accomplices hanged. On the 2nd of 
June the strong fort of KopAl also 
was taken by Major Hughes, who had 
but eight of his men wounded. These 
operations entirely crushed the insur- 
rection in this district. 

At Dewgiri, 9 m. S.B. of BankApiir, 
are 6 temples ; at Moti B^nni!ir, 10 m. 
S.E. of Dewgiri, are 5 temples ; and 
at Rdnl B6nmlr, 12 m. S.E. of Motl 
B6nniir, are several ; and between the 
two last places is Chatr, where are 3 
temples ; and none of all these have 
been described. 

At 3 m. from Hublf , the road changes 
from red to white, and on either side 
of it, instead of the Indian fig-tree, 
are rows of the mimosa. The soil, ofE 
the road, is black, and there is much 
cultivation, chiefly of cotton. Strings 
of carts, laden with bales of cotton, 
are met all along this road, and greatly 
impede progress, as they are always on 
the wrong side. 

AnilterU — There is a very good T. B. 
at this place, a little oS. the road to the 
right. The principal temple is 1 m. 
from the T.B., and to reach it you 
have to pass a tank on the left witii a 
most mephitic smell. It is sacred to 
Amriteshwar or Shiva. The usual 
entrance has been blocked up with 
a fragment of a pillar and another 
huge stone, and it is difficult to squeeze 



2i:i: RoiUel2. — Dhdrwad to IIuhlL Gadak, and LaJchumii. Sect. IT. 



past. The principal entrance, now 
disused, is by a colonnade of 6 pil- 
lars on either side, 8 ft. 10 high, 
t Ending on a stjlobate, 2 J ft. high. 
There is a large tasteless Bath, or idol 
car, outside. Goyemment allows this 
temple 201^ rs. a year, and it has 170 
acres of In'^m land. At about 70 yds. 
fi*om the entrance outside, is a gate- 
way of two stories, with 18 pillars, and 
beyond it a small Mandap with pillars 
of black basalt. The temple itself is 
122 ft. long from B. to W. It is 
massively built, and decorated with 
pilasters. There is a porch opposite 
the colonnade, the roof of which is 
pyramidal and supported by 6 pillars. 
This porch is 12 ft. from N. to S. and 
8 ft. 10 from E. to W. The tower over 
the VimAnah is 60 ft. high. This ap- 
pears to be a very old temple, probably 
of the 12*** century, but, as regards 
architecture, it is scarcely worth a 
visit. The milestones on this road are 
reckoned from K^rwdr, the 131st being 
at Amkeri. 

Gadak, anciently Kratuka, is a town 
of 10,319 inhabitants. The assistant 
collector's bangU serves as the T.B., 
and is to the E. of the town. Some 
account of the temples here will be 
found in "Oriental Christian Spec- 
tator" for July, 1839, p. 306. In the 
N.W. comer of the town is a Vai^hna- 
vite temple. The entrance is under a 
Gopurah with 4 stories and 50 ft. high. 
The door is handsomely carved with 
16 rows of figures in relief on either 
side. It opens into a paved inclosure 
in which is the temple, a quite plain 
building, with a well. S.W. of this, 
800 yds. off, is a LingAyat temple to 
Kdri Dev, " Black God." The doors 
are handsomely carved, as is the out- 
side of the Adytum. This temple 
resembles the principal temple at 
Lakkundl, and is built of the same 
bluish stone. At 30 yds. S. of this, is 
another small Jain temple. At the 
S.W. corner of the town is the Kdrwdr 
company's cotton press and factory. 
Close to this is the Government Te- 
legraph Office and the MAmlatdAr's 
Kacheri. In the S. quarter of the 
town is the principal temple, the only 
one worth coming from a long distance 



to see. It is dedicated to Trimba- 
keshwar or Trikuteshwar, "the Lord 
of the thi'ee peaks." Entering from, 
the N. you approach the temple 
along a narrow street, on either side 
of which are remains of old buildings, 
and carved stones which once be- 
longed to them protrude here and 
there from the existing houses. At 
the entrance to this street is a covered 
gateway, and 250 ft. beyond it is the 
porch of the temple court, which pro- 
jects outside from the wall of the court 
27 ft. The breadth throughout is 
16 ft., and it extends into the court 
12 ft. The court has originally been 
surrounded by a wall, forming an in- 
closure 316 feet from E. to W. and 200 
ft. from N. to S. The wall is still 
almost entire, and is very massive. On 
the right as you enter the court is a 
tall stone like a tombstone, with an 
inscription in old Eanarese. There 
are 9 inscriptions at this temple, one 
of which, translated by Mr. Fleet, Ind. 
Ant. vol. ii. p. 298, gives the date Shaka 
984=A.D. 1062. On the right, also, 
is a dharmsdld, a low stone building 
without ornament, in which the Hindil 
employes of Government sometimes 
lodge. The first door of the principal 
temple faces the visitor at a distance 
of 36 ft. from the porch. There is first 
of all an antechamber 25 ft. deep, then 
comes the main part of the temple, 
measuring 64 ft. from E. to W. and 68 
from N. to S. The outside is one mass 
of most elaborate carving. Two rows of 
figures run along the entire front and 
back ; those of the lower row are 2 ft. 9 
high, including their canopy, and are 
166 in number. In the upper row are 
104 figures, 13 inches high, 62 in the 
front, and the same in the back ; the 
rest of the wall is also ornamented. 
Bound the outside of the E. ante- 
chamber are niches for figures, but 
only 1 figure remains whole. It is 
delicately carved and 2 ft. 2 high, and 
represents Ndrdyan. It has a beauti- 
fully designed canopy. The front of 
the temple to the spectator's right is 
hidden by a modem addition, which is 
quite out of keeping with it. The roof 
of the temple is flat. Standing at the 
entrance, the visitor can look right 



Sect. II. 



Boute 12. — Gadah — Lakkundu 



245 



through the temple, between two 
rows of pillars, 6 on either side, in a 
line with 2 pilasters. The four pillars 
nearest the centre are massiye and 
ornamented, bat not carved. They are 
8 ft. 9 high and 5^ in girth. Towards 
the E. and W. are 6 other pillars, 4 in 
one row, 2 in the other, their height to 
the roof in the centre is 12J ft. Be- 
tween the 4 pillars on the E. is a 
colossal bull. The visitor will also 
observe two circular carved ornamental 
pillars which are placed on the right 
of the doorway. They touch the wall, 
but support nothing. The building 
extends towards the W., but, from the 
plain and unadorned style of this part, 
both outside and inside, one is led to 
think that this is no part of the original 
building. Passing through a large 
doorway, the visitor enters this exten- 
sion, and finds himself in a chamber 
19 X 21 ft. The roof is supported by 4 
plain massive pillars with 4 pilasters, 
1 at each comer. In the centre of this 
chamber is a small stone bull. Beyond 
this room is the adytum, a building of 
peculiar construction. The Lingam is 
in a most elaborately carved star- 
shaped sanctuary, which is surrounded 
on the N., S. and W. sides by a high 
wall, which forms a wide covered 
passage and is almost totally dark. 
The roof is supported by 10 pillars, 
*' the gradual tapering of the Sanc- 
tum to a truncated top," says Colonel 
Meadows Taylor, " being managed 
in a peculiar but ingenious fashion 
by a beautifully arranged series of 
courses and gradations. It is at this 
temple that Yira Ballata commemo- 
rated by an inscription the victory 
obtained by his general Bomma over 
Ballamadeva Y4dava of Devagiri, cap- 
turing 60 elephants and destroying 
the ships of the S. country. Another 
inscription in the temple records its 
restoration in Shaka 900=A.D. 978 by 
a prince of the Ch^lukyas ; but the 
Brdhmans claim for it a far greater 
antiquity, extending back into the 
silver age, the edifice having, as they 
allege, been originally constructed of 
precious metals." None but Hindi!is 
are allowed to enter this part of the 
temple. The conical roof appears above 



the flat roof of the passage, and is 
beautifully carved and ornamented. 
Immediately behind the main portion 
of the first temple, in the right-hand 
part of the inclosure, is a temple to 
Saraswatl. The porch is the finest 
part of it ; it contains 18 pillars and 
6 pilasters. The 3 first of the 2 centre 
rows of pillars are of black basalt, 
and deserve particular notice for their 
elegance of design and exquisite carv- 
ing.* This porch is 27 ft. broad 
and 25 deep. Beyond it is a deep 
recess 27 ft. long by 10 broad, at the 
end of which is the image of the 
goddess, 8 ft. 4 high, and 3 feet across 
the knees. The porch is 14 ft. 3 high 
in the centre. The capitals of some of 
the pillars are exquisitely carved. On 
the facade is one row of figures similar 
to those in the other temple. The walls 
of the inner recess are of great thick- 
ness, and suggest the idea that other 
recesses at the sides may have been 
built up. These walls are also finely 
carved, but all the niches are empty. 
Around are chambers for priests, and 
stalls for visitors and pilgrims. There 
are one or two small shrines in the open 
court. To the W. is another entrance, 
with a porch similar to that on the N. 
There is also in the inclosure a fine 
well, faced with solid stone, and with 
steps leading down to the water. There 
are numerous inscriptions at this place, 
one of which has the date Shaka 790 « 
A.D. 868. 

Lakkuf^di (anciently Lokkikandi). 
— The road to this town passes first 
through fields and then along the 
main road to Balldri. At about 3 m. 
from Gadak you turn off to the left, 

* Col. M. Taylor says, " It is impossible to 
describe the exquisite finish of the pillars of 
the interior of this temple, which are of black 
hornblende, nor to estimate how they were 
completed in their present condition, without 
they were turned in a latibe ; yet there can be 
little doubt that they were set up originally 
as rough masses of rock, and afterwards carved 
into their present forms. The carving on 
some of the pillars and of the lintels and 
architraves of the doors is quite beyond de- 
scription. No chased work in silver or gold 
could possibly be finer, and tlie patterns to 
this day are copied by goldsmiths, who take 
casts and moulds from them, but fail in 
representing the sharpness and finish of the 
original." 



24G 



Houte 12. — Dhdrwdd to Lakkundi, 



Sect. 11. 



into a stony and difficult path, fall of 
deep ruts, holes, and huge stones, and 
this continues for about 4 m. more. 
Tongas have passed along this road, 
but not without much risk of breaking 
down. Entering the town from the 
W., jou come at once upon a temple. 
There is a very neat Mandir here, with 
2 pillars Q^ft. high at each comer. 
It has brond eaves made of granite, 
and from their edges to the top of the 
roof is 4J ft. A few yds. fiim this 
Mandir is a temple, in the door of 
which is a huge bar of black basalt 
2 ft. 10 round, built into the walls on 
either side. This bar is to preyent 
animals from entering, and is yery 
much worn, showing the great anti- 
quity of the temple. Just beyond is 
another temple, now disused for wor- 
ship. The granite of which these 
temples are built, is brought from a 
hill called Tirappagudi, 3 m. to the S. 
The traveller will now proceed 100 
yds. to the E., and come to a temple, 
in the inner chamber of which is a 
figure of Ndrdyan, canopied by a figure 
of Narsingh. The length of this temple 
from N. to S. is 25 ft. 5, and from E. to 
W. 24 ft. 6. The ceiling is divided 
into 9 compartments, besides the 
centre, and each of the 9 has a square 
inscribed in a square, so that the 
angles of the inner square touch the 
middle of the sides of the outer square. 
The centrepiece has 4 rows of similar 
squares, and is 11 ft. high. There are 
6 pillars and 2 pilasters 7 ft. 2 high. 
On cither side of the door of the inner 
chamber is an empty, handsomely 
carved niche for a DwArp^. The 
next chamber is SJft. from E. to W., 
and 8. ft. from N. to S. The second 
inner chamber is 8 ft. 9 from E. to W., 
and 10 ft. from N. to S. Here is a 
Lingam, which they call Ishwara. 
At 100 yds. to the E. of this temple is 
another to Gokameshwar, a form of 
Kiri^hna. There is nothing remark- 
able here. Further on, about 10 yds., 
is a temple to Mahdbaleshwar, a name 
of Shiva. Over the door of this 
temple, and all the other temples 
here, is a rude sculpture in relief, of 2 
elephants pouring water over Lak- 
§hml. S. of this, about 200 yds. ofP, 



is Kdshl Vishwandth's temple.- The 
facade has been supported by 4 pil- 
lars, of which that to the N. has gone. 
This faQade is 26 ft. 3 long from N. to 
S. The door is elaborately carved, 
and has 2 flat pieces of carving, 
divided into rectangular portions, with 
headings in the centre. Then comes 
a pilaster, followed by 2 more flat 
pieces, and then another pilaster. 
Most of these oblongs have figures, 
also in relief, but only the lowest are 
distinct. The roof of the portal to 
this temple is 10 ft. 8 from the ground. 
The pointed roof above the portol may 
have been 16 ft. high, but is now 
ruined. On either side the entrance 
is a figure, very indistinct, but pro- 
bably meant for Narsingh trampling 
on snakes. The first chiunber is 21 ft. 
from N. to S., and 29 ft. 2 from E. to 
W. There are 3 pillars of black basalt 
7 ft. 7 high on either side. The roof 
is 9 ft. above the floor. The inner 
chamber is 12 ft. 10 from E. to W., and 
12 ft. from N. to S., and is 9ft. 7 high. 
It is full of bats, and the odour is 
almost insupportable. Observe in the 
first chamber, on the left-hand side, 
figures like those of men, which re- 
present the Naw Grahd, or 9 constel- 
lations. There is an inscription in 
old Kanarese on the ledge of the 2nd 
division of the ceiling. On the E. 
side is a finely-carved door, but it has 
been blocked up, probably to keep it 
from falling. It has 4 flat sidings, 
then a pilaster, and then 4 more 
carved flat sidings. With these carv- 
ings, the door is 8 ft. 9 wide, and 9 ft. 
10 high, but the actual entrance is 
only 6 ft. 9 high, and 2 ft. 8 wide. 
Five steps lead up to the platform on 
which the temple stands, and on 
either side is a wall with a lion in 
relief. The temple consists of 3 parts, 
an oblong faQade placed breadthways, 
an oblong body lengthways, and a 
slightly curving terminus, which is 
the Adytum. The roof is quite ruined. 
The carving outside is very elaborate, 
and altogether this temple is by far 
the handsomest in Lakkundi, and well 
worth seeing ; but being built of 
coarse granite, the carving is not so 
clear and shaiply defined as, for in- 



Sect. II. 



Soute 12. — ZakkundL 



247 



stance, in the Abii temples. To the 
W., on the opposite side of the road, is 
a temple to Nandeshwar, or " Shiva, 
lord of the bull Nandi." In front of 
it is a sort of colonnade 20 ft. 4 long, 
formed of 4 rows of 2 pillars each 6 ft. 
10 high. The chamber to which this 
colonnade leads is 12 ft. 6 from E. to 
W., and 12 ft. 8 from N. to S. The 
next chamber is 7 ft. 10 from E. to W., 
and 6 ft. 6 from N. to S. Beyond it is 
a chamber 8 ft. 2 from E. to W., and 
7 ft. 3 from N. to S., and 8 ft. high. 
In the 2nd chamber are 4 pillars and 
2 pilasters. There is a Kanarese in- 
scription on the ledge of the W. divi- 
sion of the roof, between the 4 pillars. 
This temple stands on the N. side of a 
tank, which it overlooks. At 200 yds. 
to the S. is a temple to Basava. The 
inside is 28 ft. broad from N. to S., 
and 34 J ft. from E. to W., but only 

7 ft. high. It is a plain building, but 
prettily situated on the E. side of the 
tank, which is a well-known place for 
wild ducks and other water-fowl, in- 
cluding snipe. The inner chamber is 

8 ft. sq. Inside the town, 200 yds. to 
the W., is a temple to MallikArjuna, a 
deity of the LingAyats, but the people 
at Lakkundi say it is the name of a 
mountain at Tlrupatl. There is a 
portal, supported by 2 rows of pillars, 
8 without and 4 within. Further to 
the W. 100 yds. is a temple to Ish- 
wara, the roof of which has fallen in. 
This is a very old temple ; the exterior 
is handsomely carved, and, as usual, is 
said to be the work of Jakanachdrya. 
The traveller will now pass along a 
narrow path, thickly shaded for about 
100 yds., to what is called a BAorl, or 
" well," but it is in fact a small tank, 
the sides of which are faced with 
stone. There are flights of steps to 
the water on 3 sides, consisting of 10 
steps each, and on either side of the 
first step is an elephant, so well carved, 
that the natives may be believed when 
they say that it is the work of Jaka- 
nacharya. There is one small alli- 
gator in the tank, which, of course, 
must on no account be touched. About 
200 yds. from this, on the W. side of 
the tower, is a temple to Minikeshwar, 
a name of Krishna, so callod because 



every day he gave to Rddhd. a jewel 
called a Mdnik, that is a ruby. A 
very pretty small tank adjoins the 
temple to the -S. It is faced with 
stone, and there are several handsome 
buttresses projecting into the water, 
said to be carved by Jakan&charya. 
The entrance into the temple is by a 
portal on the S. side, which on either 
side has 4 pillars of black basalt. The 
E. face is 58 ft. long, and from E. to 
W. it is 35 J ft. The interior is only 
9 ft. 4 high. There is nothing in the 
inner chamber, but it is decorated 
outside with 2 pillars, and the roof iB 
pyramidal. Part of the outer wall is 
falling. This temple is surrounded by 
beautiful trees of great size. The 
traveller may return to Gadak by a 
road more to the E., through the 
village of Betagari, and this perhaps 
is better than the one already men- 
tioned. Should the traveller return 
to Belg^oii from Gadak, the cost of a 
special tonga from Belg^n to Gadak 
and back ^1 be Rs. 100, but he may 
perhaps like to go on from Gadak to 
Hamp^ to see the wonderful temples 
there, and the ruined city of Blj^nagar, 
which are fully described in the Madras 
Handbook, p. 349. In that case the 
stages will be as follows : — 



Prom 



Gadak . . 
Dambal 
Hesanir . . 
Hampesagar. 
Balahansi . 
Hospef. 



To 



Dambal . 
Hesan^ 
Hampesagar . 
BalahanBl . 
Hospet . 
Hamp^, or B^&nagar 

Total . 



Miles. 



13 

18 

7J 
15 
11 

8 



72^ 



There is a T. B. at Dambal, but no 
furniture. At Hesan!ir there is a bangle 
with furniture. From Hesanir the 
road is very bad, rocky, and sandy ; 
between it and Hampesagar you cross 
the TungabhadrA river by a ford in 
dry weather, and by a ferry when the 
river is full. There are large alli- 
gators in this river. There is a T. B. 
at Hampesagar, and the road from 
thence is good. There are banglds at 
the other stations, except Hospe^. 



248 



l^oute 13. — Gadak to Bdddmi, 



Sect. 11. 



Nothing need be added to the descrip- 
tion of Bij^nagar in the Madras Hand- 
book, except that the oldest part is 
that called H41& Patna, which is 
furtiiest to the W. 




ROUTE 13. 

GADAK TO bAdAmI. 

This expedition cannot be a com- 
fortable one, whatever road is taken. 
Europeans so seldom travel to Bdddmi, 
Ihat supplies are dijQicult to procure, 
find the roads are bad. It will be well 
to leave Gadak very early in the 
morning, and horses should be changed, 
if relays can be got, at the village of 
Ndndpi!ir, just beyond the 12th mile- 
stone. At 13^ m. you pass the fort of 
Umarjf. Just beyond that, the road 
branches E. to Ndrikal, a town with a 
ruined fort and a large tank. This is 
a much longer way than if the road to 
the N. is taken, which passes through 
Abegiri. Close to the 24th milestone 
is the town of Ron. There is a toler- 
able bangld here, to reach which you 
must turn off to the left about 300 yds. 
At Ron horses are not procurable, and 
the traveller will probably have to 
proceed in a domni. The first change 
of bullocks will be at Eottabal, which 
is about 3 m. ; the next place is the 
small village of Hariar, also 3 m., 
where it will be as well to change 
bullocks again if possible. This is the 
frontier village of the Dhdrwdd Col- 
lectorate, and the traveller now passes 
into the Kaladgl ZlFa. From this to 
Bdddmi is 12 m., and is a very severe 
journey for bullocks, so that the utmost 
exertion should be made to obtain a 
relay on the other side of the Malparbd 
river, which is about 7 m. The col- 



lector of Kaladgl should be written to 
for bullocks. In the rains the Mal- 
parbd is over 100 yds. wide, and is not 
f ordable ; but in the dry weather it is 
little more than 25 yds. wide, with a 
depth of 2 ft. 6. The road down the 
bank to the water is, however, very 
steep, and on the N. shore there are 
many large pieces of rock in the water, 
which, particularly at night, render 
an upset quite probable. There are a 
few alligators, but accidents do not 
occur. The ascent on the N. bank is 
also steep, but not so bad as on the S. 
side. There is a small village on the 
N. side, but neither bullocks nor sup- 
plies are obtainable. From the Mal- 
parbd to Bdddmi is nearly 4 m. There 
is a large dharmsdld at Bdddmi, off 
the road about ^ of m. to the right. 
The whole journey from Gadak to 
Bdddmi with bullocks will take about 
6hrs. 

Bdddmi.— Th^ N. fort of Bdddmi is 
to the N.E. of the town, and on the 
heights above are some picturesque 
temples. To the S. is another rocky 
hill, in the face of which are 4 cave- 
temples. The 2 hills approach so close 
to each other as to leave only a gorge, 
into which the town extends from the 
N.W., and is bounded also to the B. 
by a fine tank. The hills are not less 
than 400 ft. high, and are very steep, 
in places perpendicular. They form 
the W. end of a ridge which extends 
E. from them about 5 m., but is 
nowhere so high as these hills. The 
forts are no doubt of extreme anti- 
quity, and in some shape or other 
probably existed as long back as the 
Christian Era, Little or nothing is 
known of the ancient history. 3 m. 
to the E. of Bdddmi is a place called 
Mahdktit, where is a fine tank faced 
with stone ; in it is a very old lingam 
with 5 heads, 3 of which are Bralund, 
Yi$hnu, and Mahddeo. It is called 
the Panchmukha, "6-faced." There 
is also a large fallen column, a mono- 
lith, with 3 long inscriptions. One, 
probably the most modem, is Chd- 
lukyan, of about A.D. 600 ; another is 
of dubious meaning and date, and a 
third is in an altogether unknown 
language, of which Mr. Fleet, C.S., the 



Sect. II. 



Sfnite 13. — Bdddmi. 



249 



distinguished Sanskrit and Kanarese 
scholar, could not read a word. This 
is alone enough to prove the remote- 
ness of the period at which this locality 
was first peopled. In 1786 BAddmi 
was in the possession of Tipii ^d^ib, 
and was attacked by the armies of 
Niz&m 'All and the PeshwAMhddu RAo. 
" Operations began on May 1st. After 
battering the walls of the town for 3 
weeks, they were very little injured ; 
but it was determined to try the effect 
of an escalade. On the morning of 
the 20th of May, 20,000 infantry of 
the confederate armies were drawn 
up for that service. The garrison, 
consisting of upwards of 3,500 men, 
manned the works to oppose them ; 
and when the assailants advanced, 
which they did with great resolution, 
they found the ditch and covered way 
full of mines, which were fired, and 
proved exceedingly destructive ; but 
the Mardthas and Mughuls, vicing 
with each other, rushed forward in a 
most impetuous though tumultuous 
manner, applied ladders, mounted the 
walls in various places, and, except a 
slight check sustained at the citadel, 
carried all before them within the 
town. The garrison fled to the forts 
above, closely followed by the assail- 
ants ; but the pursuers did not succeed 
in entering with the fugitives. They, 
however, continued to crowd up the 
face of the hills, though huge stones 
were rolled down, and a heavy fire of 
musketry opened upon them. Their 
casualties were numerous, but the gar- 
rison, becoming intimidated at their 
furious and persevering attack, offered 
to surrender if their lives were spared, 
a condition which was immediately ! 
granted." (See Gnmt Duff, vol. iii., | 
p. 10.) The fort was taken by the : 
British under Sir Thomas Munro in 
1818. To view the forts the traveller ' 
will start very early in the morning i 
and proceed to the gate of the lower i 
fort, which faces to the S.W. ; and 
soon after passing it, and leaving i 
on the left a temple of Hanumdn, 
will ascend 120 ft. to a temple of 
Mahadeo, Avhence he will have an 
excellent view over the town and 
hills. He will then see that the I 



hills which loomed before him in a 
dark blue line as he came from Hon 
are separated by the Malparbd river, 
and that the ridge on the N. side 
divides at its W. end into the 2 hills 
between which lies the town of Bd- 
ddmi. The temple is very massively 
built of hard sandstone. There is a 
portal in front of it, with 4 sq. pillars 
8 ft. 8 in periphery, and 9 ft. 5 high to 
the top of the capital. The chamber 
within the temple has also 4 pillars, 
and measures 20 ft. from N. to S., and 
22 ft. from E. to W. The chamber is 
vacant, but in the faQade are 2 dw&r- 
pals. The fort is a little to the N. of 
the dharmsdla, and in its lower part 
much of the town is included, and this 
part is defended by a ditch 50 ft. deep. 
Above the temple of Mahddeo rises a 
scarped rock 90 ft. high, round the 
edge of which runs part of the wall of 
the upper fort, which is now quite 
deserted, and only 1 iron gun, about 
10 ft. long, remains. There are 2 or 3 
other temples, mostly in the upper 
fort, which have a very picturesque 
appearance. The S. hill is also crowned 
with a fort, and contains in its W. face 
4 cave-temples, which have rendered 
Bdddmi celebrated, though the natural 
beauties of the scenery might well 
have done so without assistance from 
Art. Descend now from the temple 
of Mahddeo, and pass along to the E. 
portion of the town, and close to the 
S. hill will be seen 2 tombs of Muslims 
and a mosque. There are several in- 
scriptions in the Tughrd character 
about 2 centuries old. There is another 
gate in this quarter through which the 
traveller will pass, and ascend the S. 
hill. The 1st cave is about 30 ft. from 
the ground, and faces W. Mr. Burgess 
has given views of these caves, and an 
excellent account of them ; he says, 
" they stand as to arrangement of 
parts between the Buddhist Vihdras 
and the later Brdhmanical examples 
at Eliira, Elephanta, and Salsette. 
The front wall of the Buddhist Vihdra, 
with its small windows and doors, 
admitted too little light ; and so here, 
while retaining the verandah in front, 
and further protecting the cave from 
rain and sun by projecting eaves, the 



250 



Houte 13, — Gadak to Bdddnd, 



Sect. 11. 



front of the ShAla, or "hall," was 
made quite open, except the spaces 
between the walls and the Ist pillars 
from each end. In the sculptures, at 
least of the 2nd and 3rd caves, Vi§hnu 
oecupies the most prominent place, 
but the shrines of all 3 contain, or 
have once contained, the Linga of 
Shiva: this, however, is probably a 
later substitution in the 3rd cave, and 
in the 2nd there is only a Chavarangay 
or altar pedestal. In style they vary 
much in details, but can scarcely differ 
much in age ; and as the 3rd contains 
an inscription of Mangaleshvara, dated 
Shaka 500=A.D. 578, we cannot be 
far wrong in attributing them all to 
the 6th century. The importance of 
this date can scarcely be over esti- 
mated, as it is the first of the kind yet 
discovered in a BrAhmanical cave," 
In the faQade of the 1st cave are 4 
pillars and 2 pilasters. The 2 pillars 
to the S. have been broken by light- 
ning, and are now supported by 
wooden blocks. The pillars are square, 
8 ft. 8 high, and 6 ft. 7 in circumfer- 
ence. They are slightly carved in 
relief, to about half way from the top. 
On the left of the cave is a dwdrpAl, 
with a Nandi over him. Opposite this 
dwdrpdl is a figure of Shiva, 6 ft. 
high, with 18 arms. There is a head 
of a bull to his left, and to the right 
are Ganpati and musicians. Beyond 
the facade is a passage, or verandah, 
41ift. from N. to S., 7 ft. 10 broad, 
and 11 J ft. high. On the left is 
Vi§hnu or Harihara, 7 ft. 9 high, with 
4 hands, holding the usual symbols. 
On the right is Lakshml, with an at- 
tendant. The whole rests on a stylo- 
bate, along the front of which are 
Ganas (dwarf attendants of Shiva) in 
all sorts of attitudes. On a platform 
to the right is Shiva with Pdrvati and 
Nandi. On the back wall is a figure 
of MaheshAsurl or Durg4 destroying 
the buffalo-demon Mahesh^ur. She 
is 4 ft. 7 high, has 4 arms, and holds 
up the buffalo by the tail while her 
spear head transfixes its neck. In one 
hand she holds the discus or Chakra, 
in another the spear, in the 3rd a 
conch, and in the 4th the buffalo's 
tail. In the air above are 2 floating 



figures of attendants. On the right 
wall is Gkinpati, 3 ft. 4 high, and on 
the left Skanda, 2 ft. 11 high. Other 
figures are mentioned in Mr. Burgess's 
account. Beyond the passage is a 
chamber, with 2 pillars carved from 
the capitals to the middle. Inside are 
2 rows of 4 sq. pillars. This chamber 
is 41} ft from N. to S., and 25 ft. 5 
from B. to W, The ceiling of the 
passage, as weU as that of the chamber, 
is carved in relief. There is a small 
recess in the centre of the inner wall, 
containing the Lingam, From this 
temple a staircase, very much broken 
at one end, and containing 45 steps, 
leads to a flight of 6 more steps, by 
which you arrive at the 2nd cave- 
temple. From the platform, thus 
reached, is a fine view over the tank, 
and to the N. fort. The facade of the 
2nd temple has 4 pillars 8 ft, 10 high, 
and 1 ft. 7} square, carved from the 
middle upwards, and 4 scalloped 
arches. It faces N. In front of it 
are 3 pinnacles of perpendicular rock. 
The first chamber is 24 ft, from B. to 
W., and 32 ft. ^ from N. to S. The 
facade is about 3 ft. above the level, 
and is entered by 3 steps. There are 
2 dwdrpdls 5 ft. 10 high, each with a 
female attendant. At the B. end of 
the verandah, to the left of the spec- 
tator, is the Yardha, or 3rd Incar- 
nation of Vishnu, in which he assumed 
the form of a boar. He holds in his 
hand a pedestal, on which is the figure 
of Lakshml. . Below are She^ha, the 
1,000-headed snake, depicted with a 
human head, and a female figure, pro- 
bably meant for the wife of She^ha. 
At the other end of the verandah is a 
figure 5 ft. 1 high, with 4 arms, and 
his foot raised, which Mr. Burgess 
takes to be Virdtriipa, the demiurge 
of Vishnu, but which perhaps may be 
Shiva dancing the T^ndev. On the 
base of this sculpture, and on that of 
the facade, are a row of Ganas. In a 
compartment above is a 10-armed 
figure. On the ceiling, in front of 
this, is Ghatur Bhuj, that is Vishnu 
with 4 arms, riding on Garuda. On 
the top of the wall, in a frieze, Vi§hnu 
is sleeping on Shesha, with figures at 
his feet. In the central square of the 



Sect. II. 



Saute 13. — Bdddmi, 



251 



ceiling is a lotus with 16 fishes round 
it. Bound them is a circle inscribed 
in a square held by 12 small figures 
in an outer square. The brackets sup- 
porting the beams of the yerandah are 
strange vampire-like figures. The 
frieze of the cornice all round is carved 
with groups of figures. The entrance 
to the inner chamber from the verandah 
is like that of cave 1, with 2 pillars 

8 ft. 6J in. high. The roof of this 
chamber is supported bj 8 pillars 9 ft. 
6i high, in 4 rows of 2 each from front 
to back, with corresponding pilasters. 
The chamber measures 33 ft. 4 wide 
by 23ft. 7 deep, and is lift. 4 high. 
The brackets are lions, human figures, 
vampires, elephants, &c. The adytum 
measures 8 ft. 9 by 7 ft. 5 J, and has 
only a square Chavaranga or altar. 
The verandah is 30 ft. 4 by 6 ft. 7, and 
is 9 ft. 11 high. On the architrave, in 
the middle compartment, are several 
groups, such as a woman on a couch 
nursing a child. The figures that sup- 
port the cross beams are some of them 
very spirited. 

A sloping ascent of ruined steps 
60 ft. long leads to another flight 
of 14 steps, in tolerable preserva- 
tion, and from 9 to 10 inches high. 
These steps lead to a platform, and 
have on their right, concealed in the 
rock, a flight of exceedingly steep 
steps which lead to the fort at the top 
of the hill. Following the main line, 
you ascend another flight of 13 steps 
which lead to a doorway. On the 
right of the door is an inscription in 
old Kanarese. Then comes another 
flight of 13 steps which lead to a plat- 
form in front of the 3rd cave. Above 
the fa9ade of this cave is a scarp of 
100 ft. of perpendicular rock. This 
cave, says Mr. Burgess, is *' by far the 
finest of the series, and, in some re- 
spects, one of the most interesting 
Brahmanical works in India." The 
facade is 72 ft. from N. to S. and has 
6 pillars and 2 pilasters 12j^ ft. high. 
They are square, and their periphery is 

9 ft. Eleven steps lead from the plat- 
form to the floor of the cave, and thus 
a stylobate is formed on which Ganas 
are represented in relief. Each pillar 
has 3 brackets, one on either side and 



one to the inside of the verandah. The 
side brackets represent male and 
female figures, and the inside bracket 
is a tall female figure. The shoulders of 
the columns, as in the other caves, are 
carved with elaborate festoons, and on 
each side of the lower portions of the 
shafts are medallions with groups of 
figures. Traces of painting are visible 
on the under-side of the eaves and the 
roof of the verandah. Mr. Burgess 
has given photographs of the brackets: 
that on the E. side of the second 
column represents Arddhandrishvara, 
the male-female deity, the right side 
being male, the left female. Shiva, 
the male, has a skull and crescent- 
moon in his cap, and P4rvati, the 
female, holds a mirror in her upper 
hand, and has rings on her wrist, arm, 
and ankle. At the W. end of the 
verandah is a statue of Narsingh, 
the 4th incarnation of Vi§hnu, a very 
spirited figure, 11 ft. high. At his 
right is a Pishdcha or demon, 3 ft. 6 
high, with thick lips and a tortoise as 
a brooch. Left of Narsingh is a figure 
4 ft. 9 high, with a turban and jewelled 
girdle. Beside this figure, on the back 
wall, is Shiva, of the same height. At 
the E. end is Ndrdyan, seated under 
She^hndg. The carving of the upper 
part of NdrAyan, particularly the face, 
is of unusual excellence. The features 
are very good and have an excellent 
expression of repose, but the legs are 
clumsy and seem to be unfinished. 
On the left of this figure is the VarAha 
incarnation. To the right of this figure 
is an inscription in Kanarese. The 
chamber is 35 ft. from E. to W. and 
38 from N. to S. and 16J ft. high. It 
has 4 fluted pUlars and 2 pilasters in 
front, and then a row of 6 pillars, and 
then 2 rows of 2 pillars each, carved 
half way down ; a very deep eave pro- 
jects in front of the verandah, with an 
alto-rilievo carving of Garuda. On the 
rock to the left of the cave is an inscrip- 
tion, and there are some others in other 
places. E. of this cave is a wall 7 ft. 
high, which separates the 4th, or Jain 
cave, from the other 3, which arc 
BrAhmanical. A ladder is required to 
cross this wall, after which proceed 
20 yards to a platform, from which 9 



252 



Route 13. — Gaddk to Bdddmt 



Sect. II. 



steps lead to the 4th care. The plat- 
form overlooks the lake or tank, the 
descent being very steep and covered 
with bushes. A broad overhanging 
cave about 1 yd. in dip has been cut 
out of the rode in front of this cave. 
It has Garuda as its central ornament 
in the inside. In the faQade are 4 
pillars and 2 pilasters, carved all the 
way down, square and 8 ft. 4 high, 
with a periphery of 6 ft. 2. Between 
these pillars are scalloped arches. On 
the left of the verandah is a Jain divi- 
nity, with bands round his thighs, and 
cobras coming out below his feet. On 
the right of the verandah is a Buddha, 
with the She§h NAg over his head. 
The verandah is 32 ft. from N. to S., 
and 6 ft. 9 from E. to W. The cham- 
ber is 26 ft. from N. to S. and 6 ft. 2 
from E. to W. There are 2 pillars in 
front, and 2 richly ornamented pilas- 
ters. There are «dso 4 rows of figures, 
with Buddha in the centre. Beyond 
is the Adytum, a recess in which is 
Buddha, 4 ft. 6 high and 3 ft. 8 broad 
across the knees. In the verandah is 
a flight of 64 steps, leading up to the 
door of the fort, and there are 25 more 
steps beyond. Visitors iu descending 
will not fail to be amused with the 
monkeys, which come out on the 
scarped face of the rock, and sometimes 
endeavour to push one another down 
the precipice. At the head of the lake 
a large mass of the rock has fallen, 
and forms what may be called a 
5th cave. The entrance is by a 
hole, through which one must crawl. 
Against the rock at the back are a 
large and a small figure of Jain execu- 
tion. A little to the N.W. of this is a 
small shrine built against the rock, on 
which is carved Vi§hnu resposing on 
Shc§ha and surrounded by deities. To 
the N.W. and N. are numerous other 
shrines. N.E. of the dharmsAld is an 
old temple with massive square pillars, 
and on the right of the door is a 
Eanarese inscription. It faces E. by 
S. There are some carvings about it. 
This temple is quite deserted, and is 
infested both by bats and panthers. 

Returning from B&ddmi the traveller 
will do well to visit Banshankar, where 
Is a temple to PArvatl, the wife of 



Shiva, or Shankar, which means *• con- 
ferring happiness." PArvatl is here 
called Banshankari or " wife of Shan- 
kar of the woods." It is about 2 m. 
from BMdmi, or half-way between 
Bdddmi and the Malparbd river. The 
first thing come to is a small stone 
pavilion, and 200 yds. further is a tank 
faced with stone, and 364J ft. square, 
having on 3 sides a colonnade, roofed 
over. On the W. side there is only a pa- 
vilion with 4 rows of pillars, the first row 
having 7 pillars, and the other 3 six, 
all being 7 ft. high. Opposite to this 
pavilion on the E. side is a Gh&t with 
stone steps going down to the water. 
On the B., S., and N. sides is the 
colonnade. There are 65 double pil- 
lars on the N. side, 65 on the S., and 
63 on the E., making in all 386. The 
pillars have square bases and shafts, 
and the passage between them is 4 ft. 
2 wide. The tank is full of fish, which 
are constantly springing out of the 
water, and there are said to be alliga- 
tors. There are also many large mon- 
keys, who bound along the roof of the 
colonnade with surprising agility. At 
the N.W. comer of the colonnade is 
the Bath or chariot of the deity, 26 ft. 

5 high and 37 ft. 8 in periphery. The 
chamber of the Rath is 13 ft. 9 sq. 
and the larger wheels are 7 ft. in 
diameter. At the comers are repre- 
sentations of Kyii^hna slaying the ser- 
pent Ealinga, and of Garuda, and of 
the Tortoise and Fish Incarnations. 
The pillars of the- colonnade are only 

6 ft. 2 high. Pdrvati's temple is on 
the W. side, and is said to be 200 years 
old. It has a Government grant of 
Rs. 672 a year, besides 15 rs. monthly 
for daily expenses. It has besides 
lands of its own. There is also a lofty 
tower for lamps, which has several 
tiers of apartments. Beyond the tem- 
ple to the E. is a fine stream of clear 
water 25 ft. broad, fiowing amongst 
tall trees and shrubs, and dammed by 
a stone embankment, over which the 
surplus waters fiow. 

SIGHTS IN THE VICINITY OP BADAMf. 

PattadaTiaL 9 m. E. of BAdtoil. 
Here are several temples, both BrAh- 
manical and Jain, dating from the 



Sect. II. 



Route 13. — Pattadalcal — AiwallL 



253 



7th or 8th century. Several of the 
temples at Pat^adakal, says Mr. Bur- 
gess, "are very pure examples of 
the Dravidian style of architec- 
ture ; they are ail square pyramids 
divided into distinct stories, and each 
story ornamented with cells alter- 
nately oblong and square. Their style 
of ornamen^tion is also very much 
coarser than that of the Chdlukya 
style, and differs very much in cha- 
racter. The domical termination of 
the spires is also different, and much 
less graceful, and the overhanging 
cornices of double curvature are much 
more prominent and important." Be- 
sides these, the village possesses a 
group of temples not remarkable for 
tiieir size or architectural beauty, but 
interesting because they exhibit the 
two principal styles of Indian archi- 
tecture, in absolute juxtaposition (see 
*• Arch.of DhArwddand Maisiir," pp. 63, 
64). The temple of PApndth is of the 
N. style, and is probably rather older 
than that of Yiriipdk^ha, which dates 
from the early part of the 8th century. 
Patt^dakal is on the left bank of the 
Malparbd river. The name of this 
river is said to be derived from 
Mal^ " dirt," i,e,y " sin," and Pra/mdh^ 
"stream," i.e., "sin- washer;" Mr. Bur- 
gess writes the word Mdlaprahlia. 
He has given a view of the great Shiva 
temple, which is 120 ft. long and 78 
broad, including the porches. There 
are 18 pillars in the interior. It is 
the only ancient temple still used for 
worship. Against the wall and in 
line with the columns are 16 pilasters, 
and on the lower part of the shaft of 
each are pairs of figures fi*om 3 to 4} 
ft. high. There are photographs of 
the temples in the " Arch, of Dhdr. and 
M.," published in 1866. The temple 
of Pdpndth here is 90 ft. long. 
Including the porch, and 40 broad. 
There are 16 pillars in the hall and 4 
in the inner chamber, exclusive of 
those in the porches. 

AiTvalli is 8 m. to the N.E. of Patta- 
dakal. There is a Jaina cave here, 
which has been described by Mr. Bur- 
gess at p. 37 of his Report of 1874. 
There is also a BrAbmanical cave, de- 
scribed by him, which id to the N.W. 



of the village of Aiwalli. The Durga 
temple also has some very remark- 
able carving. Here, too, are many 
dolmens. 



ROUTE 14. 

BELGAON TO GOTUR AND THE FALL3 
OP GOKAK. 

The stages on this route are as 
follows : — 



From 


To 

Tdki'i . 

Buttrammatti . . 
SutgaUi 

Hallagi . . . 
Gukkalgu^i . 
Gotiir . . . 

Total . 


Time 

in 
Hours. 


Belgdo 

Takii . . . 
Buttrammatti 
Sutgatti . . 
Hallagi . 
Gukkalgu4i . 


6 

5.J 



5 

5 

3 


3)i 



After leaving Belgdon, you pass on 
a hill to the right, a small fort, and 
from Buttrammatti you descend a long 
Ghdt to Sutgatti, at which latter place 
the T. B. is 1 m. beyond the place 
where you change horses and a little 
off the road to the left. There is a 
thick but not high jungle here, which 
comes down close to the waUs of the 
T. B., and hares, partridges, peacocks, 
and spotted deer are plentiful. A few 
years ago a panther or tiger carried off 
a cow which was tied up in the inclo- 
sure of the T. B., between the bangld 
and the kitchen. Water here must be 
paid for. The GatparbA river runs 
close by, but the water is said to give 
fever ; good water, however, may be 
had from the well. The Gotir bangl4 
is very comfortable, and a sportsman 
might spend a few days ver^r plea- 




254 



JRoute 14. — Belgdoh to the Falls of Golcdk. Sect. 11. 



santly at it. Between Sutgatti and 
6oti!iT is a toll of 4 dnds. The road 
from Gotti to Gok^ at 2 m. from 
Gotiir turns ofE to the right, and is 
nothing but a village road, impraotic- 
able except in dry weather. It is 
made of earth, the streams are un- 
bridged, and there are deep ruts and 
holes everywhere. The stages from 
Gotiir to GokAk are : — 



From 



Gotiir ; 
Hukeri . . 

Small village 
Dhiipddl . . 



To 



Hukeri 

Small village off the 

road . . . . 

Dhupd41 . . • 

Falls of Gokik . . 

Total . . 



Miles. 



6 

6 

11 

2 



25 



At 1^ m. after leaving the main 
road from Gotiir you come to a 
deep watercourse, where, owing to the 
mud, it is very possible to be upset. 
This Nilah or stream Is called the Ka- 
pardeva, and the water is 10 ft. deep in 
the rains. Sir K. Temple got through it 
in May, but only by the aid of the vil- 
lagers. At Hukeri there is a ruined 
palace and 3 domed mausoleums of Mu- 
^ammadan nobles of Bijdpiir, about 2^ 
centuries old. English travellers stop 
in one of the mausoleums, which is 
clean, but there are no conveniences 
of any kind. The town of Hukeri ex- 
tends 3 m. to the tomb of Plr Girdhar, 
a white-domed building. On the left 
of the road is a fort belonging to the 
chief of Nirli. There is no inscription 
at Hukeri. There are some bad 
pitches along the road with Ndlahs at 
the bottom, and pieces of rocky ground 
where carriage-wheels may easily be 
broken. Along the road to the left 
are Isolated Mils, and on one is a 
temple. About the 10th m. from the 
last stage you turn off the road to the 
right to go to Dhiipddl, and pass over 
a rocky heath. After 1 J m. you come 
to the huts of the prisoners sent from 
Belgdon, from 600 to 700 in num- 
ber, all for short terms, the longest 
being 7 years. They are under the 
efl&cient control of Mr. Mc Carter, for- 
merly, in the Dragoons. He has 80 



warders and peons. The prisoners 
work solely at the Madhol Canal. 
They are chained together at night. 
There is no classification. There have 
been escapes here, but no violence. A 
p&lki with 8 bearers can be hired to 
go to the Falls for Ks. 3. The l^al 
claim is only 2 dnds per man. The 
Falls are called Dabdabd by the na- 
tives, and are 2 m. direct distance 
from the village of Dhiipddl, but the 
path lies among thick bushes of prickly 
pear, through which there is no pass- 
ing, so you must go round them. 

Falls of Gokdk. — The following ac- 
count of the Falls is from the pen of 
that keen observer and distinguished 
officer, the late Captain Newbold, who 
died at Mahdbaleshwar on the 29th of 
May, 1850 — "The subordinate ranges 
of Gok4k and Kotabangi form the E. 
flank of the W. Ghdts, and run in a 
paiallel direction here about S. by E. 
At Gokdk, the upper portions of this 
range present mural precipices with 
either fliat tabular summits or running 
in narrow crested ridges. They are 
enclosed from the E. by a picturesque 
gorge, through which the Gatparba 
hurries from its mountain sources into 
the elevated plains of the Dakhan 
near the town of Gokdk, which is 
about 3^ m. E. of the Falls. The road 
lay along the bottom and side of this 
defile, on the r. b. of the river, which 
was now (July) swollen by the mon- 
soon freshes from the W. Ghd^ts. It 
varied in breadth from 90 -to 300 yds., 
presenting a rapid muddy stream, 
brawling and rushing from the alter- 
nate confinement and opening out of its 
rocky channel. It is unf ordable from 
the middle of May to the middle of 
Sept. The water at the dry season 
ford, a little below the town, is now 
15 ft. deep. The sources are said to be 
near Bandar or Gandar Ga^h a little 
N. of the main Ghdt. After a course 
of about 100 m., watering the plains of 
Kaladgl and Bdgalkot, it finds its way 
through the gaps in the Sltddongar 
hills to the Kri^in4, which it joins at 
the Kudli Sangam. After an hour 
spent in winding up this rugged defile, 
the Falls, the roar of which we dis- 
tinctly heaid during the silence of the 



Sect. II. 



Roitte 14. — Falls of GolcdL 



255 



night at the town of Gokjik, at a sud- 
den angle of the road became partly 
visible, presenting the magnificent 
spectacle of a mass of water contain- 
ing upwards of 16,000 cubic ft. preci- 
pitated from the tabular surface of the 
sandstone into a gorge forming the 
head of the defile, the bottom of which 
is about 178 ft. below the lip of the 
cataract. The Gatparbd, a little above 
the fall, is apparently about 250 yds. 
across, but contracts to 80 as the brink 
of the chasm is approached ; conse- 
quently the density and velocity of the 
watery mass is much increased, and it 
hurries down the shelving tables of 
rock with frightful rapidity to its faU. 
The fall over the face of the precipice 
seems slow and sullen from the ve- 
locity of the surface water of the rapid, 
and from the great denseness of the 
body ; and it plunges heavily down, 
with a deep thundering sound, which 
we heard during the previous night at 
our encampment, 3J m. farther down 
the river. This ponderous descent and 
the heavy muddy colour of the water 
conveys a feeling of weight through 
the eye to the senses, which is relieved 
by the brightness and airiness of thin 
clouds of white vapour and amber- 
coloured spray which ascend from the 
basin at the bottom of the gorge in 
curling wreaths, curtaining the lower 
portions of the fall, and through which 
the basin was only seen at intervals, 
when its surface was swept by the 
fitful gusts that swept up the glen. 
Bising above the cliffs that confine the 
falls, the watery particles vanish as 
they ascend ; but, again condensing, 
descend in gentle showers, which are 
felt at a short distance round the head 
of the Falls. Spray bows, varying in 
brightness, distinctness, and extent, 
according to the quantity of light re- 
fracted, and the modification of the 
vapour, lent their prismatic tints to the 
ever ascending wreaths; the largest 
(observed about 4 P.M.), formed an 
arch completely across the river, 
rose, and, receding as the sun sank, 
gradually disappeared with it. Like 
the rainbow, they are only produced 
on the surface of the cloud opposed to 
the snn*s rays. The size and distance 



from each other of the drops compos- 
ing the different portions of the spray 
cloud evidently influenced the bril- 
liancy of the refracted colours, the tints 
being brightest in those portions where 
the drops were of medium size and 
density, and dullest where the watery 
particles were smallest and closest 
together. The velocity of the surface 
water of the rapid was about 9 ft. per 
second, and its depth 10 ft. About 
2J m. farther up the river, near the 
village of Kunir, beyond the rapids, 
is a ford in the dry season, and a safe 
ferry during the monsoon. A tumbler- 
full of the turbid water deposited 
l-50th of its bulk, of a fine i-eddish 
clay, not calcareous, — a fact show- 
ing that the lime which exists in 
the sediment of this river at its con- 
fluence with the Kji^hnA must have 
been derived from the intermediate 
plains. The pebbles brought down 
are chiefly quartz granitic, and from 
the hypogene schists, with a few of 
chalcedony ; the sands containing 
grains of magnetic iron. The boiling 
point of water at the plateau of sand- 
stone from which the cataract falls 
gives 2,817 ft. above the level of the 
sea. The mean temperature of the 
place, approximated by Boussingault's 
method, is 78°, which I should think 
rather too high, as the temperature of 
a spring close by was only 76°. The 
temperature of the air in the shade at 
the time was 78°. The mean tempe- 
rature of Dh^rwdd, which stands 
much lower, is calculated by Christie 
at 75°. The head of the fissure, which 
is elliptical in form, with mural sides 
of sandstone, has much the appearance 
of having been cut back, like Niagara, 
by the absorbing action of the water, 
for the space of about 100 yds. Large 
rocks, with angular and worn surfaces, 
evidently dislodged from the rocks on 
the spot, are seen in the bed and on 
the sides of the river below the deep 
basin, the receptacle of the fallen 
waters, and on its margin. The great 
hardness and compact structure of the 
sandstone above the Falls offers great 
obstacles to their rapid recession. The 
cliffs, however, flanking the right' side 
of the river below, are rent by nearly 




256 



Route 14. — Belgdon to the Falls of Gohdh Sect. 11. 



vertical fissures from summit to base, 
by one of which I descended to the 
bed. The direction of two of the 
largest was about E.S.E. They are 
crossed nearly at right angles by 
minor cracks, which thus insulate por- 
tions of the rock. The bases of these 
tottering pinnacles are often under- 
mined by the action of the water, and 
the mass tumbles headlong into the 
stream. The sandstone, in its lower 
portions, is interstratified with layers 
of shale, the softness of which facili- 
tates this process of undermining. 
These shales are of a purplish-brown 
and yellowish-brown colour, with mi- 
nute spangles of mica disseminated, 
and between the lamina contain in- 
crustations of common alum (sulphate 
of alumina). The alum is earthy and 
impure, and sometimes has a mammil- 
lated surface, resembling the alum in- 
crustations in the ferruginous shales 
cresting the copper mountain near 
Balldri. It is found in considerable 
quantities in a small cave near the 
foot of the Falls. The ripple mark, so 
often seen on the sandstones of Europe, 
is observed in great distinctness on 
the tabular surfaces of the cliffs, and 
in exposed layers of the subjacent 
beds, at least 100 ft. below the surface. 
Its longitudinal direction is various, 
but generally S. 25° W., indicating the 
E.S.E. and W.N.W. direction ot the 
current which caused them. The rip- 
ple marks on the sandstones of Ka- 
dapa and Karniil have a generally 
similar direction. At the bottom of 
the deep fissures in the sandstone 
cliffs already described, accumulations 
have formed of fallen fragments of 
rocks, sticks and leaves, etc., from 
above, intermingled with the dung and 
bones of bats, rats, and wild pigeons, 
with a few sheep and goat bones. 
Some of the latter have the appearance 
of having been gnawed by hyenas, 
jackals, or other beasts of prey ; many, 
however, are evidently the remains of 
animals that have fallen from above, 
as the bones are fractured. The upper 
portions of these fissures have some- 
times been choked by rock and rubbish 
from above. Their sides, though gene- 
rally smooth, are marked with shallow 



polished grooves. I made two exca- 
vations through the floor of the prin- 
cipal fissure, in the hope of meeting 
with organic remains, but in vain. 
After penetrating the surface layer of 
loose stones and bats* dung, a fine red 
earth was met with, imbedding angu- 
lar fragments of sandstone, and a few 
roundS pebbles of it and quartz. After 
digging for about 4 or 5 ft. through 
th&, farther progress was prevented 
by great blocks of solid rock. The 
seed! of creepers and other plants ve- 
getate on this soil, and shoot rapidly 
towards the surface, shading the fis- 
sures with their leaves. On the cliffs 
near the Falls, on the right bank of the 
river, stands a small group of Hindii 
temples dedicated to Shiva. The prin- 
cipal shrine is a massive and elabo- 
rately carved structure of sandstone, 
elevated on a high, well-built pediment 
above the reach of the ordinary floods, 
Seven years ago three of the steps of 
the N. flight ascending this terrace 
were submerged by an extraordinary 
rise of the river. The VimAna of this 
temple contains the Phallitic emblem 
of Shiva, the Linga, guarded by the 
sacred bull. Here we passed the heat 
of the day. On the opposite bank of 
the river rises a well wooded hill, 
about 100 ft. above the brink of the 
rapid on which stand a few ruins of 
other Hindii religious structures. The 
table-land to the S. of the Falls is co- 
vered with low jungle of Mimosa, 
Euphorbia, Cassia and Bunder, the 
Mend Bundati with its lilac sweet- 
pea-like blossom, the Ca/ntsa spmanmi, 
Wehera Tetrcmdra and other thorny 
shrubs. The EwplwrUa antiqua and 
tortilis were in flower (July)." 

In July the spectacle of the Falls is 
even more grand than would appear 
from the above description. The Gat- 
parba is then between 1000 and 1500 
ft. broad, and as it drains an area of 
2000 sq. m. it accumulates so much 
water as to discharge 100,000 cubic ft. 
of water every second. The fall of 
such a prodigious mass of water from 
a height of 176 ft. into the rocky 
chasm below, the stunning roar and 
the thick mist, which invests the 
scene with still greater awe, may be 



Sect. II. 



Falls of Gokdk. 



257 



imagined but not described, but in the 
6ij weather, even so early after the 
raifis as December, the grandeur of the 
scene has in great part vanished. The 
discharge sinks from 100,000 tons a 
second to 300 tons, and before the rains 
commence even this amount diminishes 
to almost nothing. The heat of the 
place, even in December, is very great. 
The first view of the river must be 
taken from a rock which overhangs 
the stream. The traveller will stand 
on a vast pile of broken rocks about 
70 ft. above and to the E. of the place 
where the water passes over the preci- 
pice. The huge fissures in the rocks 
on which the traveller stands will not 
impress him with any exaggerated 
view of his safety, and in fact it is 
quite probable that some day the over- 
hanging mass will topple down into 
the guli below. The height at which 
the visitor is above the stream rather 
diminishes the effect, and the fall does 
not appear more than 100 ft. high, but 
it has been well ascertained that the 
real height is 176 ft., and the pool at 
the bottom is said to be 200 ft. deep, 
but as there are very large and fierce 
alligators in it, it has never been 
accurately sounded. On the right 
bank of the river to the S. of the tra- 
veller he will see a group of old temples 
550 yds. off, and in great floods the 
river extends all this distance, but the 
usual breadth in the rains is 500 yds. 
Even in December the Falls are re- 
stricted to the N. side, and at some 
distance above them, people can ford 
the stream. At this time the river is 
divided into 2 streams 41 ft. and 55 ft. 
)>road, while at the bottom of the fall 
the united stream is 120 broad, but 
much of the water does not go over 
the fall, but sinks through the rocks. 
After satisfying himself with looking 
at the Falls from above, the traveller 
will descend 132 steps, cut in the rock 
to the river-bed before it flows over 
the fall. On a steady pony there is 
no difficulty in riding down these 
steps. At the bottom of them there is 
a little temple to Basava, of which 
only the shrine and entrance to it have 
escaped complete ruin. Over the 
porch is a carved slab, in the centre of 

[i?o?»6ay— 1880.] 



which is Kdll, with a crooked sword. 
In her 8 hands she holds a shield, a 
human head, a mace, etc. At her left 
foot is a figure on a dog, at her right 
another beating a drum. The next 
compartment nearer the shrine has a 
dancing female and smaller figures. 
In the corner compartment to the 
right is Ganpati, in another is a female 
with a strap across the bosom, seizing 
a smaller female by the hair. In the 
compartment on the E. side is the 
Vardha incarnation. Higher up the 
hill are fragments of 4 other temples, 
and a much larger one surrounded by 
prickly pear, partly filled with earth 
and infested by bats. On the S. side 
of the river are 6 temples, of which 
that to Mahdlingeshvara is the prin- 
cipal. It is a plain structure with 8 
porches, each of which has 3 pillars, 
and there is a row of single pillars 
inside. The temple is built of large 
stones, with flat ceilings. The pUl^ 
in the centre of the temple are 8 ft. 9 
high, exclusive of the brackets, and 
have square bases, octagon mouldings, 
then a square plain block, round neck 
and capital, and a square abacus. The 
pillars of the porches have round 
smooth shafts. In the E. porch is a 
long inscription, in ancient characters, 
so besmeared with paint as to be ille- 
gible. It appears to be much older 
thaA the temple. There are Shiva 
dwdrpdls on the jambs of the door, 
with 4 hands, and holding the trident 
and small drum of Shiva. On the 
wall behind on the right is Edrtikeya, 
and on the left a deity with a mace. 
The brackets of the pillar capitals have 
the cobra ornament as at Belgdoii. 
The outside of the roof is much ruined, 
but the style has been Dravidian. This 
temple is 70J ft. long and 42 broad. 
It is ascended to by a flight of 15 steps. 
On the E. opposite the shrine is ano- 
ther temple with 4 square columns in 
front. The door to the shrine is some- 
what elaborately carved with 2 male 
and 2 female figures below on the 
jambs. On the step are 2 conch shells 
forming the buds of a flower, as in the 
Jain temples of Nemndth and Yaish- 
nava temples. Behind this temple is 
a small one facing E. with an ante- 

B 



258 



Haute 15. — Gotdr to Panlidld. 



Sect. II. 



chamber and porch, abont 6 ft. high 
inside. The door of the shrine is 
tastefully carved, and has a Ganpati, 
the mark of a Shiva temple, on the 
lintel. S. of this and facing N. is 
another shrine which appears to be 
very old. It is copied &om a Bud- 
dhist cave, and is perhaps one of the 
oldest temples here. To the^.W. of 
this is a neat little temple witii 4 
columns inside. On the screen are 4 
square columns and 2 pilasters. The 
snake is represented on the brackets of 
the pillars. The floors have been re- 
cently dug up in search of treasure. 
To the "W. of the great temple are the 
remains of another on a smaller scale. 
To the S.E. of the village of Koniir, 
which is 1 m. from the Falls, are the 
remains of many dolmens. The canal, 
which is being dug from this place, is 
a most important public work, and it 
is estimated that its total cost will be 
one million four hundred thousand 
pounds. It will be 200 m. long, and 
it will irrigate 600 sq. m. It is 10 ft. 
deep and 100 broad, and will be car- 
ried 60 m. to the frontier of Madhol, 
a small state with IJ l&khs revenue. 
It will pass through that state and 
through Jamkhandi to B^alkot in the 
Kaladgi Collectorate, and 15 m. due 
E. of Kaladgi itself. Madhol and 
Jamkhandi are in the zone which the 
rains pass over, though they are heavy 
near the Ghdts, and sufficient in the 
districts to the E. of those states. 



ROUTE 15. 

GOT^rB TO KOLHAPUB AND PANHALA. 

The stages on this route are as 
follows : — 



From 


To 


Miles 


Gotiir . 

Bhankhesbwar. . 
Kingala 

NlpSii . . . 
Bondalgarh . 
Kigfd . . . 
Bhiiga . 


Shankheshwar 
Kjingala . . 
Nip4ni . 
Sondalga^h. . 
K^ . 
Shiiga . . . 
Kolh^piir 

Total . 


6 
5 
5 
6 

42 



Halfway to Shankheshwar, there is a 
toll of the usual 4 dnds. At Shan- 
kheshwar there is an old temple about 
i of m. off the road to the left. The 
word means, "Lord of the Conch 
Shell," a name of Vishnu. There is 
a long up-hill pull to K4ngala, and 
then an equally long descent of the 
steep Tondi Ghd^. 

Mpdni, — ^The bangU at Nip&ni is 
very neat, and surrounded with trellis 
work, on which flowering creepers are 
trained. It is a little way off the road 
to the left. The fort and town are on 
the other side of the road. Before 
i^cs^^^^u^S % you come to a ruined wall 
of the fort, which was much more ex- 
tensive once than it is now. The Fort, 
vnthin which is the palace, is 300 yds. 
to the N.E. of the T.B. It is strongly 
built of stone, and there is a wet ditch. 
The gateway is handsome. Close to 
the gateway is the palace, built 80 
years ago by Siddoji Nimb4Ikar, to 
whom the £)uke of Wellington, then 
Colonel Wellesley, in 1804 gave the 
following certiflcate : — 

" Siddoji B4o Nimbdlkar joined me 
with the body of Mardtha troops under 
his command, in the month of March, 
1803, when I was on my march to Fund, 
with the British troops to restore the 
PeshwA to the exercise of the powers 
of H. H.'s Government. This service 
having been effected by the arrival oi 



Sect. II. 



Boute 15. — Nipdni — Kolh&pHr. 



259 



H. H. at Fund, Siddoji Rio Nimbilkar 
accompanied the British army on ite 
march from Pnni in the month of June 
following to oppose the confederacy 
then forming bj the K. Mari^ chiefe 
against the British GoYemment and 
their allies, Rio Pandit Pradhin and 
the Kij;im. He served dming the 
war which ensued in a manner satis- 
factory to me. His troops were en- 
gaged with the enemy repeatedly, and 
always conducted themselves well, and 
Siddoji Rio Nimbilkar distiaguished 
himself and them in a late action 
against a formidable band of free- 
booters who had assembled upon the 
frontiers of the Peshwi's territories, 
and cut ofi the supplies of the city of 
Puni. 

'*I have given him this paper in 
testimony of my appirobation of his 
conduct and that of his troops ; and I 
request that all British officers and 
others to whom this paper may at an^ 
time be shown, will consider Siddoji 
Rio Nimbilkar as the &iend of the 
British Government. 

^* (Signed) Abthub Wellesley, 

" Major- General* 



i< 



PuvA, MaMi ^th, 1804.' 



The title of the chief is Desil, and 
the present Desil was educated at the 
Rijkumir College at Rijkot, and being 
still a minor his mother conducts affairs. 
There is nothing in the interior of the 
palace very remarkable. The pillars 
in the court are of teak, and neatly 
carved. At 4 m. past Sondalgafh there 
is a toll of four inis. At Sondal- 
garh there is a fort to the right of 
the road. The country is very well 
cultivated till after Eigal, which is 
a populous, handsome town, with 3 
palaces of the Riji of Eolhipiir. The 
Jiglr of Eigal was divided between 
the 3 principal branches of the Ghi^ke 
family, who bear the title of Vazirat 
Ma'ib, " Seat of Ministiy." The pre- 
sent chief of Eigal is Sirjl Rio Ghi^ke, 
who, had he not been adopted at Eigal, 
would have been Riji of Eolhipiir. 
This family has intermarried with that 
of the Riji of Eolhipiir. The esti- 
mated gi-oBS revenue is about Rs. 
70,000. 



KolMpilir,—Th!Q T. B. at Eolhipiir 
lies at the S. end of the cantonment, 
and 1800 yds. to the S. by E. of the 
Political Agent's house, which is a very 
handsome well-built mansion. 800 yds. 
S. of the T. B. is the cemetery, and 
nearly the same distance to the W. of 
the T. B. is the church. The mission 
house is 300 yds. to the W. by S. of the 
church. About } of m. to the S.W. of 
the Political Agent's house is a hand- 
some, modem house belonginfi: to the 
Chief of Inchalkarunjl Vangaliir. In- 
chalkiminjl is 18 m. E. of Eolhipiir, 
but the chief often resides in his town 
house. The jiglr was given in 1713 
to Kiro Mah&eo for distinguished 
conduct in the field by Santajl Rio 
Ghorpade, and Niro's family have as- 
sumed the name of Ghorpade, the 
latter family being one of the oldest in 
the Maritha empire. This jiglr has 
an area of 800 sq. m. and brings in 
rather more than a l^h a year. Its 
chief is really the head of the Pat- 
wardans, but a feudal retainer of Eol- 
hipiir. At \ of m. S.W. of his house is 
the Judge's Court, the Town Hall, and 
People's Park, in which is a house ; 
all three are neat modem buildings. 
The traveller will enter the fort from 
the N. by the Shanwir or " Saturday" 
gate, built by 'All 'Adil Shih of Blji- 
piir, who reigned 1557 to 1579. It has 
2 buttresses like pilasters, one on either 
side. At 300 yds. S. of this is the 
Nal^ir EhAnah or " Music Gallery," 
which is the entrance to the palace 
square. To the right as you enter is 
the Rijwidi or palace, with a stone 
gateway in the centre and woodeb 

gillars. The Rinls live in the rooms 
. of the gateway. Adjoining their 
rooms, in the S. face of the square, is 
the Treasury. It was the scene of a 
remarkable event in 1857. It was 
guarded by a Niik and 5 men of the 
Eolhipiir in&ntry. A man of noto- 
riously bad character, named Feringo 
Shinde, brought down from Panhili a 
body of Gadkuls, and formed a junc- 
tion with the mutineers of the 271h 
N. I., who had killed three of their 
officers. The whole body of rebels 
entered the square and called on the 
Niik to open the Treasury. This officer, 

8 2 



260 



Route 15. — Gotiir to Panhdld. 



Sect. II- 



named K&shi Ubarl, refused, though 
threatened with death, and being called 
oh a second time to open, with threats 
of being blown in with the door by a 
cannon which the rebels pointed at 
him, he looked up to the 2 Rdjas, 
Bdb^ $^^ib and Chimma §&^ib, who 
were at a window above him, and 
asked for their orders. They replied, 
" Don't ask us,'* on which the NAik 
rnised his musket and shot Feringo 
Shinde, who was just about to fire the 
gun, dead, the ball going through his 
right groin. On hearing the shot, some 
of the Bombay 103rd Fusileers and the 
Kolhdptir Infantry, who were outside 
the ShanwAr gate, burst it open, and 
took the rebels, who were already re- 
treating, in the rear. They killed many 
on the spot, and, collecting about 60, 
put them in a row in the palace square, 
and shot them at once. The gallant 
Ndik is now §iibahddr-major of his 
regiment. Adjoining the Treasury, in 
the S. face of the square, are other 
Governmejit offices, and behind them 
the shrine of AmbA B41, the tutelary 
deity of Kolhdpiir. The main portion 
of the building is built of black stone 
from local quarries. The dome is said 
to have been put up by ShankardchArya 
of Shankeshwar, and does not harmonise 
with the carved woodwork below, which 
resembles the style of Jain temples of 
the 12th century in Kanara. The Jains 
claim this temple, but say it was dedi- 
cated to Padmdvatl. The walls are 
covered outside with mouldings and 
with figures in niches, along the upper 
portion of the lower story. The whole 
length of the building from E. to W.is 
144 ft., and from N. to S. 167 ft., and 
the height to the top of the Shikhar 
is 82J ft. To the left of the entrance 
on the left side of the porch, in Devd- 
nii;?iri characters, is the date Shaka 
1140=A.D. 1218. On a pillar on the 
left hand, after entering the courtyard, 
in Devan^ari, is Shaka 1168. Although 
the dimensions of the edifice are as 
^iven above, including, as they do, 
sundry other accessory buildings, and 
3 shrines, that of AmbA BAi, with that 
of Mahd K411 on the left and of Mahd 
Saraswatl on the right, the shrine of 
Ambd Bai alone is only 80 ft. from E. 



to W. and 79 from N. to S. It has a 
raised passage round it 4 ft. high, with 
21 pillars outside and 36 inside. Be- 
sides these, there rise from the ground 
floor and 10 ft. from the stylobate, 4 
large pillars going almost to the roof. 
Their bases, 14 ft. high, are of black 
basalt brought from Jotebd's hills, 
and above them are wooden pillars 
12 ft. high, and then carved wooden 
scalloped arches of teak. The roof is 
of tin, painted white and ornamented 
with wood carving designed by Major 
Mant. Below, in the centre of the E. 
side of the court, is the adytum, where 
is the image of Ambd Bdi. A brazen 
image of the goddess is carried round 
the town, in a triumphal car, on the 
16th of Vaishdkh= April May. The 
image is then carried to the small 
temple of TemblAl, where an offering 
is made to it by a virgin daughter of 
the Patel of Baura. The great bell of 
the temple is inscribed, "Ave Maria 
Gratis Plena Dominus Tecum," and 
must have been obtained from the 
Portuguese about the year 1739. The 
roof was unfinished at the beginning of 
the present year. On the 2nd story is 
a DarbAr room, with portraits of AkA 
B&i, mother of the chief of KAgal, and 
of the late Ahalyd Bdl, adoptive mother 
of the late Rdjd, RAjA BAm. There is 
also a picture by Mdlle. Frls (so the 
name is spelt in Mardthl) of the mau- 
soleum at Florence, erected over the 
spot where Rdj AR4m's body was burned. 
The mausoleum is surrounded by an 
ornamental railing, within which is a 
marble plinth, supporting a pedestal, on 
which is the bust of the Bd]a, coloured 
so as to represent an Indian. Over 
this pedestal and bust is a cupola, 
resting on scalloped arches, in the Indo- 
Saracenic style, designed by Major 
Mant, B.E. This building stands 
amongst parterres of fiowers, and the 
Arno fiowB close below. The lad/ 
sent this picture as a present, and the 
Eolhdpiir Government sent in return 
gold ornaments of the Swami pattern. 
In the same room is a handsome chair, 
with a gilt frame and the royal arms 
of England embroidered on the back, 
said to have been given by the Queen 
to Rdjd Rdm when he visited England* 



Sect. II. 



£oute 15. — Kolhdp'dr. 



261 



In a small side room is a state bed 
with a white satin mattress and crimson 
satin hangings. The sofa and chairs 
are of white marble. Opposite is a 
room called She^h Maljall or " room of 
mirrors," with a number of pictures. 
In the 3rd story is an armoury, in 
which are many curious swords, one 
which must have belonged to Aurang- 
zlb, for it has in Persian the name 
l^lamglr and the date A.H. 1021. There 
is also a Persian sword, given by Sir 
John Malcolm to the RAjd of his time. 
The E. side of the palace square is 
taken up with the Gymnasium, and 
the N. side by the Na]^Ar KhAnah and 
the High School, a very handsome 
stone building to the E. of it. The gate 
itself of the Nakdr Khdnah is 47 ft. 7 
high. It has 3 scalloped arches, a 
tall one in the centre, and a smaller on 
either side. Over the central arch is 
the figure of a tiger inside the square, 
with elephants at the sides. There is 
a turret 10 ft. high at either end of the 
rooms above the arch. The building 
over the outside gate is 20 ft. higher 
than that over the inside, and has at 
each comer a turret ascended to by 
steps 12^ ft. above that again, so that 
the total height is 47 ft. 7 + 20 + 12 ft. 6 
= 80 ft. 1. To the top of these turrets 
they used to ascend in former days and 
ring a bell or beat a drum to call 
public meetings or to sound an alarm. 
The town of Kolhdpiir, which is cir- 
cular, is surrounded by a stone wall 
extending If m. The walls average in 
height 30 ft. and from 10 to 26 ft. in 
thickness ; and a wide and deep ditch, 
with a rough glacis, encircles the whole. 
At regular distances are fortified bas- 
tions, with battlements and loop-holes. 
There are 6 gates, the Shanw^, Man- 
galwdr, Rankala, Gangd, Aditwdr, and 
Warun Tirth. All these gateways are 
strongly defended, having stout wooden 
gates, studded with long projecting 
iron spikes. The entrances are over 
drawbridges. From the palace the 
streets diverge as radii and join con- 
centric lanes running parallel to the 
outer walls. Kolhdpilir has a pop. of 
39,621, and is the capital of a territory 
80 m. long from N. to S. and 68 from 
E. to W., with a, total area of about 



3,184 sq. m. and a pop. of 802,691. 
N. of the town is a sacx^ spot called 
the Brdhmapuri Hill, where all the 
Brdhmans undergo cremation. About 
100 yds. N. of this is what is called the 
Rdnl's Garden, where the bodies of the 
ruling family are burned. It is close 
to the Pdnch Gangd river, and there 
are 2 sq. tombs. One is to the Senhor 
Clementi de Avila, a Spaniard Lieut. 
Col. of the infantry of Goa, who died 
Jan. 22nd, 1809. The other is to Jules 
Komeu, bom in 1768 in Languedoc, 
and commanding one of Sindhia's regts. , 
who was killed in the trenches of Kol- 
hapiir on the 23d of March, 1800. From 
this spot is seen the new bridge over 
the PAnch Gangd, with 5 arches, 
begun in 1874 and finished in 1878 
at a cost of £14,000. Beyond Rdni's 
Garden is a massive stone gateway, 
20 ft. high, which leads to the ceno- 
taphs of RAjA Sambhdjl, just oppo- 
site the door, to that of Sliivaji, and 
more to the left those of TArd BAl and 
'Ai BAl, built by Rdjd BawA. ITie 
cantonment at Kolhdpi^r is almost de- 
serted. The KolhApir infantry lines 
are to the N., with the race course to 
the E., the artillery barracks due S., 
and the N. I. lines to the S.E. It 
appears that in ancient times Kolhdpi^r 
was subject to earthquakes ; and, in 
making extensive excavations, many 
temples and other buildings are dis- 
covered which have been in the old 
time overwhelmed with earth. The 
rock caves, Mahtas. or Grihan, are 
found in various places, one in the 
PanhAIA fort, and another at the PAndu 
Darah, 6 m. W. of PanhAlA, which is 
at the head of a wooded chasm en 
a hill 1000 ft. above the plain, where 
one apartment is 27 ft. 4 in. by 12 
ft. 8, and 2 others a little larger, but 
none of these places are worth seeing 
after visiting Elephanta, KArlf, or 
Eliira. 

In the elaborate report on the Prin- 
cipality of KolhApiir, compiled by 
Major D. C. Graham, of the 28th Bom- 
bay N. I.,* will be found various in- 
scriptions and their translations, which 

* " Selections from the Records of the Boiu- 
"bay Government" No, viU. New Series. 
Bombay, 1S54, 



262 



Boute 15. — Gotur to Fanhdld. 



Sect. 11. 



refer to dynasties of the 12th and 13th 
centuries a.d. Before that date tra- 
dition is the only guide, and from it, 
it would seem that in the heginning of 
Uie 6th century A.D. R4j4 B&m ruled 
iver all the countries between the 
N^irbad4 and the sea. In A.D. 789 a 
prince of J^nagar overran the S. 

grovinces. His minister, Him^ Pa&t. 
I said to have invented the Mof or 
written character of the Mardthi lan- 
guage. A blank follows till A.D. 1028, 
when the light of the inscriptions is 
first reached. An inscription found 
in a Jain temple at Baibif^, dated 
1202, in the Sanskrit language, but old 
Kanadl character, gives the genealogy 
of a conquering prince named Lak^hmi 
Deo, which goes back about 174 years, 
and shows that, in 1028, a dynasty had 
been established which ruled over the 
W. part of KolhApiir. The founder 
was Jlmiitawdhana Shilahiir, who was 
a branch of the B&jds who reigned for 
centuries previous at Tagara. At the 
same time, in the 13th century, there 
ruled another dynasty, 8 m. from 
Kolh&piir, at Berad, which included 
Eolhdptir itself and Panh^d ; and 
another at Vish&lgarh, where tradition 
says that a R4j& Bhoj reigned in A.D. 
688 ; and, finally, a fourth at Shan- 
keshwar. There are still remains of a 
palace and a very ancient temple at 
Berad, and it is said that the seat of 
government was transferred thence to 
Eolhdpi!ir in conser|uence of a great 
earthquake that took place between 
the 13th and 14th centuries. The 
Jimtitawdhan dynasty appears to have 
been overthrown* by Shfingan Deo, 
who was probably a T^ava B&jptit. 
Inscriptions in the Sanskrit character 
of the Ch&lukya dynasty also have 
been dug up at the temple of Amb& 
B4i at Kolh4pi!ir, but unfortunately 
without date. There is reason to think, 
however, that they are the oldest that 
have been discovered. The earliest 
Persian inscription found at Vish^- 
garh shews that the J^fu^ammadans 
took that fort in A.D. 1234. Malik 
Balj^lm, who led the invaders, was 
canonized after death, and miracles 

♦ Grant Duff, vol. 1. p. 29. 



were pretended to be wrought at his 
shrine. This is all that can be ascer- 
tained at present regarding the his- 
tory of the division before the Mu^am- 
madan conquest ; but the caves and 
other remains shew that the Buddhists 
were numerous and powerful here, 
probably in the first centuries of the 
Uhristian sera. It is to be anticipated 
that many discoveries of inscriptions 
will yet be made at Bdnebe&niir, 
Hubll, Ath^l, and other ancient 
towns; and, when all these are 
deciphered and compared, much of 
the annals of the early Hindii princes 
who reigned in this quarter may yet be 
recovered. 

The conquest of these territories, 
which, lor some years previous to the 
battle of Talikot, in 1565, were subject 
to Bljdnagar, was not entirely com- 
pleted by the Mu^ammadans till the 
close of the 15th century A.D., and in 
the middle of the next the country 
passed into Shivaji's hands. In 1690 
A.D. Kolhiptb*, as a province of the 
kingdom of Bijipi!ir, was reckoned the 
5th ^libah of Aurangzib*s conquests in 
the Dakhan. But the people resisted 
the Mughul yoke, and at Aurangzlb's 
death the Mardthas became possessed 
of the whole province, which remained 
an integral part of the Hardtha em- 

Eire until 1729, when it was formed 
ito an independent principality, un- 
der a prince of the house of SMvaji, 
whose descent is as follows : — Shivaji 
left two sons, Shambuji or Sambhaji 
and B4j& Bdm, by different wives. 
B4j4 Bdm was, in 1689, declared Be- 
gent after Sambhaji's execution by 
Aurangzlb, during the minority of 
Sambhaji's son S&u, who was shortly 
after made prisoner by the Mughuls. 
In 1700, B4j4 Bdm died, leaving, by 
different wives, two sons, Shivaji and 
Sambhaji, of whom Shivaji was placed 
on the throne by his mother, Tdr4 B^, 
but in 1708, Sdhu, being released, 
seized S4tdr&, and became tiie acknow- 
ledged head of the Mardtha nation. 
On this, Shivaji, whose adherents were 
strong in the S., fixed himself at Pan- 
hdl& and Kolhdpiir. This prince died 
of small-pox in 1712, when Bdmchan- 
dra Pant Amatya placed T&r& B^ and 



Sect. 11. 



Bovte 15. — Kolhdpur. 



263 



ShiTajl'a widow, BhawAnl BAl,* in 
confinement, and raised Sambhaji to 
the throne of Eolhdpiir. Sarje Bdo 
GhAtke,t the powerful chief of K4gal, 
now joined Sambhaji, and, the Mugful 
viceroj of the Dakhan also assisting 
him, the struggle for supremacy con- 
tinued for 13 years with alternate 
success. In 1727 Sambhaji made great 
preparations for a final campaign, but 
the PeshwA, Bdji B^ Balil, gained 
such advantages over him, that after 
being deserted by his allies, Kdnhoji 
A'ngria, aod the Nisj^m, he was obliged, 
in 1 729, to yield his claim on the Mar^tha 
sovereignty to S4hu, and content him- 
self with Kolhdpilr, as a distinct 
principality. Its boundaries were the 
Wam& and Efi^hn^ on the X. and E., 
and the Tungabhadra on the S. From 
this date, then, the separation between 
the S4t4r4 and Kolh^piir families be- 
came complete. In imitation of the 
elder kingdom, the Bajd of Kolh^piir 
appointed eight grand officers of State. 
Bhagwant R&o had Yishdlga]:h with 
the office of Pratinidhi ; Bdmchandra 
Nil Kan^h had Bdord, with the office 
of PaAt Amdtya ; the office of Seni- 
pati or General, fell to Shidojl, nephew 
of Saiitaji Ghodpade, and other chiefs 
were made Pant Sachiva, Mantri, 
Dabir, Ny&y&dhish, and Ny&yash&stri, 
In December, 1760, Sambhaji, the 
last lineal descendant of Shivajl, dying 
without issue, the son of Shdhjl Bhon- 
b16j of Kdiihwat, a descendant of the 
10th son of Bhosaji, of the line of Bdpa 
Bdwal, of Chitiir, who reigned in 134 
A.D., was carried off and adopted, and 
the Queen, with 5,000 followers, set 
out with him for Ban&ras. Her party 
was met at Jljiirl by the PeshwA, who, 
after great entreaty, agreed to the 
adoption, and presented the young 
BAjd with a magnificent diamond 
ring. In October, 1762, the youth was 
en&roned at PanAli or Panhdld, under 
the name of Shivajl, and rich presents 
were sent to him by the Ni^dm, Gaidar 

* She was then pregnant, and, in 1760, her 
son, Rdm R^jd, became R^d of fi&t&ri, 

t The founder of this family, Kdm Deo, ac- 
qioiied the name of Oh&tke by suppressing a 
famous brigand named Oh&t, B^ Graham's 
Jleport, p. 604, noU. 



*Ali, and all the neighbouring chiefs. 
For some years the Queen acted as 
Begent, and, under her rule, piracy 
grew to such a height that the English, 
in 1765, despatched an armament, 
which captured the fort of Mdlwan, 
and the PeshwA wrested the districts 
of Chikori and Manoli from Kolh&pdr, 
and gave them to the Patwardans. 
This latter circumstance led to a petty 
warfare with the Patwardans, which 
was rancorously carried on for many 
years. Mdlwan, however, was subse- 
quently restored by the British, on 
their receiving payment of 382,890 
rupees ; and Chikori and Manoli were 
given back by the Peshwi in his last 
illness. In February, 1772, the Queen 
Jlj4 B41 died. She had encouraged 
human sacrifices to a fearful extent, 
and parties scoured the plains at night 
for victims to be offered at the Black 
Tower of Panh^li, within a few hun- 
dred yards of her palace. This tower 
was a temple to Durgd, the Hindi\ 
Hecate, in the inner fort, and so 
thickly over-canopied with trees, that 
not a ray of liglit could break the 
gloom. Inl773,KunharBAoTrimbak, 
Patwardan of Kurandw4r, overran the 
country, laid siege to Kolh4pi!ir, and 
burned a famous Mat^ or monastery 
in the suburbs, whence he carried off 
an immense treasure. The Chief Priest 
buried himself alive at ShengdoA, in- 
voking curses on the sacrilegious spoiler, 
who nevertheless returned happily to 
his own district. In 1777 the chiefe of 
KAgal, B4or4, and Yishdlgafh, aided 
by the Pun4 troops, attacked Kol- 
hdpiir, but were signally defeated, as 
was also the Peshw^'s general, Jiwajl 
GopAl Joshl. In revenge for this, 
Mah4ddjl Sindhia was despatched from 
Pun4 with an overwhelming force, 
and ravaged the whole province, nor 
did he withdraw till he had exacted 
from the Bdj& an agreement to pay 
16,000,000 rupees for losses sustained 
by the PeshwA. In 1777, Gaidar 'All 
visited Kolh&ptir, presented 1,000,000 
rupees, and offered the support of his 
troops. In 1777 the Patwardan Par- 
shurdm B&mchandra, of Miraj, took 
Akewat, and 2 years after Sher^ and 
in 1780 got possession of the strong 



264 



Rovie 15. — Gotur to Panhdld. 



Sect. II. 



fort of Badargarh. Katndkar Paul 
Apd now became prime minister, and 
under his guidance the B^jd made a 
Buccessfal expedition to Sdwantwddi, 
and soon after transferred the seat of 
government from Panhdld to Kol- 
hdpiir. In 1786 the BdjA Shivajl 
again invaded S&wantwddi with 
complete success. In 1792 the Eng- 
lish fitted out a force at Bombay to 
attack WAdl and Kolhdpiir in conse- 
quence of the piracies of those powers, 
but an apology was made by the Bdjd, 
and a treaty concluded, by which 
permission was conceded for the es- 
tablishment of British factories at 
Mdlwan and Kolhdpiir. In 1793 Par- 
shurdm Bdmchandra, who had just 
returned from aiding the British in 
Maisiir, invaded the Kolhdpiir territo- 
ries, but in 1794 his son Bdmchandra 
was defeated before the walls of Alte 
by Shivaji, and made prisoner with all 
his principal officers. They were treated 
generously and released, but the elder 
Parwardan, unsoftened by this kind- 
ness to his son, immediately recrossed 
the frontier, and laid siege to Kol- 
hdpiir, from which city he exacted 
3,000,000 rupees. Soon after this NAnd 
Famavls encouraged the Bdjd of Kol- 
hdpiir to attack the Patwardans. Up- 
on this Shivajl called out the whole 
force of his State, and by a well- 
managed surprise, recovered the strong 
fort of Budargaj-h, which had been 10 
years in the Patwardan's possession. 
Chikori and Manoli were recovered 
from Bhdskar Bdo Trimbak, the chief 
of jNlpdnl. In October, 1796, Shivaji 
marched from KolhApiir, and, after 
plundering several towns, completely 
sacked Tdsgdnw, and burnt the palace 
of the Patwardan. In 1798 the Kol- 
hdpiir Bdjd aided the Bdjd of Sdtdrd 
in his attempt to recover his independ- 
ence, and received the gallant Chatur 
0ingh, the Rdjd's brother, when he 
escaped from SdtArA. This prince, 
being pursued by the Peshwd's troops, 
turned back upon them with the rein- 
forcements he had received from Kol- 
hdpiir, and cut them off almost to a 
man, and then, marching on Kardd, 
surprised the Patwardan's troops and 
totally routed them. During this 



march an unsuccessful attempt was 
made to assassinate Shivaji, who re- 
turned in triumph to Pai^dld: Soon 
after, a detachment of the kolhdpilr 
troops was despatched on a foray, and, 
falling in with a band of 400 Thags, 
hanged or beheaded them all. After 
this punishment, other hordes of that 
fraternity of miscreants avoided the 
province of KolhdpTir. At Savaniir 
the Kolhdpiir troops were, however, 
totally defeated, and driven back by 
Dhondu Pant Gokle ; but, being rein- 
forced by Shivajl in person, took 
Koniir, killed the Desdi, and laid the 
whole country round under contribu- 
tion. In 1799 Ndnd Famavls, being 
reconciled to Parshurdm Patwardan, 
directed him to restrain the forays of 
the Kolhdpiir Rdjd. This led to a 
pitched battle at Chikori, where Shi- 
vajl, surrounded by a body-guard 
glittering in chain armour, appeared 
at the head of 16,000 men, and com- 
pletely defeated Parshurdm, killing 
him, and putting his whole army to 
flight. Rdmchandra, Parshurdm's son, 
repaired to Pund, and obtained power- 
ful reinforcements, among which 
were 6 battalions of Sindhia's regular 
troops, under Major Brownrigg. With 
this army, in 1799, he besieged Kol- 
hdpiir. Shivajl himself retired into 
the fort of Panhdld, but was attacked 
on the way and suffered heavy loss. 
On the 4th of Jan., 1800, the enemy's 
batteries opened against Kolhdpiir ; 
and on the 12th of March, a wide 
breach having been made, the enemy's 
columns advanced to the assault, but 
were driven back with the loss of 
3,000 killed and wounded, including 
several of Sindhia's European officers,* 
whose graves may still be seen near 
the ramparts. The next day the 
enemy raised the siege. A peace of 
some years followed, and during the 
campaign of 1804 the Kolhdpiir Rdjd 
observed a strict neutrality between 
the English and Mardthas. In 1806, 
Shivaji besieged the fort of Wddl, 
whereupon the Peshwd sent assistance 

* Jules Romeu, n6 1768, un citoyen de Lan- 

faedoc, coimnant* du battn. de Tarm^e de 
indhia. Tu^ aux trenches de Koltfptb*, 23>"« 
Mars, 1800,- is one of the inscriptions. 



Sect. II. 



Roide 15. — KolhdpUr, 



265 



to the Sdwant. This led to a war be- 
tween the Peshwd and Shivaji, and in 
1808 the Peshwd's general, the chief 
of NlpAni, totally defeated the Kol- 
hdpiir army at Songdon, with the loss 
of 5,000 men, and all their cannon, 
colours, and elephants. Shivaji himself, 
severely wounded, with difficulty es- 
caped. A peace followed, and on 
the 21st of June, 1809, a princess 
of Kolhdpiir was given in marriage to 
the'Nlpdnl chief, who, suspicious of 
treachery, suddenly decamped in the 
night with his bride, and two years 
after made a further irruption into 
Kolhdpiir, and defeated Shivajl's 
troops at Hewra, capturing 5 guns 
and 1,200 prisoners. In 1812, a Bri- 
tish force assembled at Pandharpiir, 
and peace was made between the con- 
tending parties, through the interven- 
tion of Mr. Elphinstone. The fort of 
.M&lwan was, on that occasion, ceded 
to the Bombay Government, which 
guaranteed KolhApdr from further ag- 
gression. The same year the palace 
and state records were partly destroyed 
at Kolhdpiir, during a tumult, by some 
Pathdns. Shivaji died on the 24th of 
April, 1812, after a reign of 53 years. 
He left two sons, by different mothers, 
Shambhu and Shdhjl, better known as 
Abd Sdhib and Bdwd Sdliib. Abd 
Sdljib quietly succeeded. During the 
war with the Peshwd, in 1818, he 
heartily espoused the British cause ; 
and, by a new treaty, Chikori and 
Manoll were taken from the Nipdnl 
chief, and restored to Kolhdpiir. On 
the 2nd of July, 1821, AM Sahib was 
murdered in his palace by Sdhaji 
Mohit6, and Bdwd §Ahib succeeded. 
He was a prince of a daring and 
ferocious character, and, in 1824, 
during the disturbances at Kittiir, his 
behaviour led to grave suspicions. 
Next year his intrigues had proceeded 
so far, that the British resolved to 
interfere. A force of 6,000 men 
marched on Kolhdpiir. and arrived 
there in December. The Rdjd had 
assembled 20,000 men : but, as the 
British troops crowned the heights 
above the city, his heart failed him, 
and he submitted to the terms offered 
to him. In October, 1826, he visited 



the Governor of Bombay at Pund. 
He came with a splendid body-guard 
of 1,000 horse, 16 elephants, a bat- 
talion of Arabs, and 1,600 irregular 
infantry. His conduct was most ii*- 
ritating ; and at last, having wounded 
a trooper in the Pun^ horse, he made 
a precipitate retreat. Troops were 
now put in motion against him from 
Belgdon, and he again tendered his 
submission ; but not keeping to his 
promises, a British force was, in 1827, 
for the third time assembled at Kol- 
hdpiir. The town, though garrisoned 
by 3,000 Arabs, immediately suitcii- 
dered, and, on the 23rd of October, a 
new treaty was imposed. The Rdjd 
was compelled to reduce his troops to 
400 horse, and 800 foot ; to discharge 
his Arabs ; to cede Chikorl and Ma- 
noll, and the forts of Panhdld and 
Pawangaj-h; and to permit a British 
regiment to be quartered at Kolhdpiir. 
Bdwd Sdhib died on the 29th of No- 
vember, 1837, at Yeoti, near Pandhar- 
piir, whither he had gone on a pre- 
tended pilgrimage, but really with the 
design of plundering some of the 
towns on the Kfishnd. He left two 
sons and two daughters. His eldest 
son, Shivaji, succeeded him. A re- 
gency was formed of the young prince's 
mother, his aunt, and four ministers, 
but the aunt soon got possession of 
the whole power. As she ruled most 
oppressively, the English Government 
resolved to appoint a minister, and, in 
1843, nominated Ddjl Rrishnah to the 
office. This officer conscientiously en- 
deavoured to introduce reforms, but 
was resolutely opposed by the Regent, 
who encouraged a spirit of discontent, 
until a regular conspiracy was organ- 
ized against the British Government. 
In July, the forts of Sdmdngairh and 
Budargarh closed their gates,and Lieut .- 
Col. Wallace, of the Madras army, was 
sent from Belgdon, with 1,200 men, 
4 mortars, and 2 nine-pounders, to 
captui-e them. He arrived before Sa- 
mdngarh on the 19th of September, 
and on the 24th carried the Peta, but 
was obliged to turn the siege of the 
fort into a blockade, and to send to 
Belgdon for battering-guns. On the 
22nd of September, the garrison of 



266 



Eoute 15. — Gotur to Panhd d. 



Sect. II. 



Badargarh ^'sallied out on the Kolh4- 
piir troops sent against them, and dis- 
persed them with loss, and this success 
greatly encouraged the rebels. Rein- 
forcements of English troops were now 
ordered up. On the 8th of October, 
General Delamotte took command, and 
on the 11th, 4 battering-guns reached 
8am&ngarh. They were immediately 
placed in position, and by the next 
evening a breach was effected. The 
Commissioner, Mr. Reeves, allowed 
the garrison to parley, but found they 
were confident of support from Kol- 
h^piir, where the troops had risen and 
confined Diji Kp^hnah. Affairs, there- 
fore, took their course, and on the 
morning of the 13th the place was 
stormed and carried with little oppo- 
sition, and a wing at the 5th Madras 
Cavali7 cut up a large body of rebels, 
who had assembled in the neighbour- 
hood. 

On the day before the storm. Colonel 
Outram joined the camp to act with 
Mr. Reeves, and was the first man in 
at the assault, and, indeed, for several 
minutes, alone among the enemy. On 
the place being captured, the Joint 
Commissioners offered an amnesty to 
all who would return to their allegi- 
ance. This proclamation, however, 
produced no effect. Colonel Outram 
then, with characteristic energy, set 
off for Kdgal, taking with him Lieut.- 
Colonel Wallace and 500 of his bri- 
gade, in order that, by his near proxi- 
mity, he might be the better able to 
support the Rdjd against his rebellious 
troops, and effect the release of the 
minister, DAji Ep^hnah, who was now 
imprisoned in the fort of Pawangajrh. 
On the 24th of October, after much 
negotiation, the Minister was released, 
and the young RAjd of Kolh^piir, with 
his aunt and mother, and a majority 
of the chiefs, left the city and joined 
the British camp. This movement 
was strongly opposed by the soldiery, 
of whom 500, under B&bdjl Ahirdkar, 
went off to join the malcontents at 
Budargarh. On the 20th of October, 
General Delamotte moved from Sa- 
mangafh against Budargarh, the gar- 
rison of which place had, ten days 
previously, plundered the British Par- 



ganah of Chikori and robbed the trea- 
sury of the principal station. On ar- 
riving at Budargarh, General Dela- 
motte admitted the garrison to sur- 
render; but, while he was parleying 
at one gate, B4b&ji and his followers 
escaped at the other, and threw them- 
selves into the still stronger fortress of 
PanhAJA. On the 17th of November, 
Colonel Ovans, the Resident at SAtdrA, 
who had just been appointed Special 
Commissioner in the S. Mar&tha coun- 
try, was seized by the rebels while in- 
cautiously travelling with a very slight 
escort from Sdt^4, and carried prisoner 
into PanhAld. The Joint Commis- 
sioners exerted themselves to procure 
his release, and succeeded, but the gar- 
rison of Panh&lA still kept their gates 
closed, and rejected the terms offered 
to them. On the 27th the Peta was 
captured. On the morning of the Ist 
of December the batteries opened ; 
the same afternoon, the breach, being 
reported practicable, was stormed in 
gallant style ; and a portion of the 
garrison, endeavouring to escape to the 
adjoining fort of Pawangarh, were so 
closely followed by the British troops, 
that this second fortress also fell on 
the same day. B&b&jl Ahlrekar, and 
about 70 other ringleaders of the mal- 
contents, were killed in the storm of 
PanhAU, and many prisoners were 
captured by troops judiciously posted 
in the surrounding plain. On the 5th 
of December, Colonel Wallace, with a 
light force, proceeded against Rdngnd, 
70 m. distant, and reached it on the 
9th. He carried the Peta the same 
day; and, having got two guns and 
two mortars into position during the 
night, kept up so heavy a fire from 
them next day that the enemy, after 
dark, evacuated the fort, and fied into 
the jungles of the S4wantwddi coun- 
try. To this quarter many of the 
fugitives from Vi^Algarh and other 
forts in the Kolh&piir province betook 
themselves. Colonel Outram was ap- 
pointed to the command of a light 
field force for the reduction of these 
rebels. The 7th Regiment Bombay 
N.I., the left wing of the 2nd Queen's 
Royals, a company of H. M. 17 th Re- 
giment, the 3rd Regiment Ma4r^ 



Sect. IL 



S<mte 15. — FanJk^d. 



267 



K. L, detachments of the 10th, 2l8t, 
and 23rd Bombay N. I., and of the 8th 
and 16th Madras N. I., of the 5th 
Madras L. C, and the Pun& Horse, 
and a few light guns, were the troops 
destined for the service, and they 
arrived at Ylngorleu about the middle 
of December, 1846. Their first opera- 
tion was the reduction of the hill forts 
called ManohaVf " Mind-ravishing/' 
and MaTuaiitofhf **Mind*s delight," 
situated on two lofty rocks, about a 
mile from the fort of the Gh^ts, and 
35 m. from VingorleA, E. by N. In the 
first march from VingorleA, Colonel 
Outram had a narrow escape. Biding 
at the head of the column with Capt. 
Battye, of the 21st N. I., he was 
observed by a party of rebels posted 
in trees, and was known by his blue 
coat to be the bard fdhib or officer of 
the highest rank. A volley was fired 
at him, but the bullets intended for 
him struck Capt. Battye's horse, which 
fell dead, shot through in three places. 
On arriving at the forts it was found 
that, though close to one another, there 
was no communication between them, 
but that they were separated by a pro- 
found chasm. It was resolved to at- 
tack Afanohar, and as it was impos- 
sible to carry up heavy guns into that 
difficult fortress, the only course was 
to storm. The scarp was about 60 ft. 
high, and the only access was by steps 
cut in the rock. The height of the 
forts above the plain was about 2,600 ft. 
About noon, the company of the 17th 
and some Sipdhis, led by Lieut. Mun- 
bee of the Engineers, advanced gal- 
lantly up the rocky steps, but the gar- 
rison rolled down on them heaps of 
large stones, which swept away "several 
of the Europeans, and struck the officer 
leading them on the head. Lieut. 
Munbee was shot through the hand, 
and the storm failed. It was then 
determined to renew the attack at 
night, but, under cover of the dark- 
ness, the garrison, who did not amount 
to more than 80 or 40 men, let them- 
selves down over the wall with ropes 
and escaped. The troops now moved 
through the jungles in the direction of 
Goa, clearing them of the rebels. They 
found many stockades, and there was 



considerable danger in straying from 
the column, but they did not meet 
with any serious resistance, and, after 
a harassing campaign of tli^e months, 
the rebellion was completely put down. 
The rebels were driven into the terri- 
tories of Goa, where they received 
shelter. After the lapse of some years 
an amnesty was granted to them, but 
some desperate characters were ex- 
pressly excluded from terms. 

In January, 1846, a British officer 
was appointed Political Superintend- 
ent of the Eolh&piir State, a brigade 
was stationed in the vicinity of the 
town, and various measures of reform 
were introduced into the government 
with the happiest results. Eolh^ptir, 
however, was one of the few places 
which, during the disastrous rebellion 
of 1857, furnished proofs that the 
fidelity of even the Bombay army was 
not altogether incorruptible. On the 
night of the 31st of July a sudden 
uproar and firing was heard in the 
lines of the 27th Bombay N. I., sta- 
tioned at Kolhdpiir. The night was 
dark, and heavy rain was falling. 
The mutineers at first induced by 
threats several sipdhis who were not 
in the plot to join them. They broke 
open the store guard, and carried off 
spare arms and ammunition. They 
then proceeded to the quarter guard, 
released some prisoners, and carried 
off public treasure to the amount of 
46,000 rupees. They then plundered 
the h&z&r and the house of the Jam'a- 
ddr Adjutant, whose mother they shot, 
and but for the firmness of the local 
corps already mentioned, might have 
caused very serious trouble. 

JHU forts of Panh&]a and Pawan- 
gadh. — Before leaving KolhApiir, ' the 
traveller must pay a visit to PanhdU, 
which lies 10 m. to the N.W. of the 
capital. After about \ m. he will cross 
the P4nch Gangd river by a ford where 
the water is about 2 ft. 6 deep in the 
dry weather. He will then proceed 
about 6 m. along the foot of tfotebd's 
hill, and will come to the foot of 
Pawangadh. Jotebi's hiU is covered 
by a labyrinth of sacred temples 
and gateways. None of the present 
temples are of great age. The three 



268 



Boute 15. — Gotur to PanMld. 



Sect. 11. 



principal ones are dedicated to Shiva, 
and built of fine blue basalt. The 
revenue amounts to Rs. 12,000, of 
which Sindhia pays Rs. 7500. In the 
fiame hill are some old rock-cut cells. 
Paw414 Caves, near Jotebd's hill, con- 
sist of one large one 34 ft. sq. with 14 
pillars arranged parallel to the three 
inner walls, in which have been 18 or 
19 cells ; several on the left are entirely 
destroyed, and outside to the left is a 
very irregular Chaitya cave, 31 ft. deep 
and 16^ wide in front, with remains of 
a dalufopa. In the centre of the hill is 
a line of trees, and here steps are hewn 
in the rock which lead to the temples, 
the whole distance being about 4 m., 
for JotebA is about 2600 ft. above the 
sea. On reaching the foot of Pawan- 
gadh, one can drive up the hill for 
about 1 m., beyond which a carriage 
cannot go, but a visitor may walk, 
ride, or be taken in a pAlkl. The 
traveller will pass under the scarp of 
Pawangadh, a fort which is about 1500 
yds. from the E. gate of PanhdlA; 
which is called the Fath k4 Burj, 
'* gate of victory." The whole length 
of the *fort of PanhdlA fi'om E. to W. 
is about 1500 yds., and it is 995 ft. above 
Kolhdpiir, and this again 1997 ft. above 
the sea, so that Panhdld is 2992 ft. above 
sea level, and, though not so high as 
MahAbaleshwar, the climate is cooler, 
for the thermometer does not rise above 
70°. At the Fath Gate is a temple to 
Mdruti. On the face of the gateway 
are written 8 lines in Persian, the 
translation of which is as follows : — 

Gate of Victory. 
In the name of God, besides whom in no place 
Ne'er was nor is any other God. 
In the reign of the King of Kings, Shdh 'Ali, 
This powerful tower was, by the grace of God, 
Founded and made strong by Shamsu'd din, 
"Who was his fortunate deputy. 
A bastion is a treasure in this fort. 
Which dates from 985 a.h. 

You then pass on the left a Muham- 
madantomb of granite, which has been 
converted into a school. Then comes 
a temple of Sambhaji on the same side 
of the road. There is here a Sanskrit 
inscription with the date Shaka 1683. 
It is too long to be here translated. 
At some distance beyond this is Shi- 
vajl's Tower, which is used by the 



Political Agent for summer quarters. 
It faces the E. and stands on the brink 
of the scarp, which is here very deep. 
The lower room has a balcony, and 
in the W. wall is an inscription in 
Persian, of which the follo>\'ing is a 
translation : — 

In the reign of Ibrahim 'Adil Shah of happy 

memory 
This delightful palace was built, at the edge 

of the platform of the fort, 
* * * In the year 1008 a.h. this palace 
Was finished. 
O God, protect this castle. 

You ascend 14 + 7+2 + 3 steps to a 2nd 
story, which looks over a tolerably 
level piece of gi'ound, where is the 
bangl^ of the American Mission on 
the right, and the T. B. with 3 sets of 
rooms on the left, and near it a ruined 
pavilion. Ascend now, 9 + 5+1 steps 
to the roof of the tower, whence is a 
fine and extensive view. You see to 
the right the S. end of PanhAld fort and 
Pawangadh, beyond which is Joteb&'s 
Hill and the road leading to Malkapiir. 
The tower itself is 42 ft. high, and 
stands on a scarp of 65 ft. ; total, 
107 ft. It is said that it has been 
struck by lightning 2 or 3 times a 
year at the setting in of the monsoon, 
but it is so solid that no harm has 
been done. Long before the time of 
Shivaji, and before this tower was 
built, a Hindii RdjA resided here. A 
copper plate found at SAt^rd proves 
that in A.D. 1192, the Rdj4 of Panhala 
reigned over the territory from the 
Mahddeo Hills N. of SdtarA to the 
Hernkasi river, and claimed descent 
from the RdjAs of Tdgara. The Kings 
of BijApiir then became possessed of 
Panhdld. Shivaji got possession of it 
in 1658, but it was suiTcndered to the 
Mughuls in 1 690. The English stormed 
the fort in 1844. About \ of m. S.W. 
of the tower are the stone granaries, 
which enabled Shivaji to stand a siege 
of 5 months. They are 30 ft. high, 57 
broad, and 130 long. At the W. side 
of the fort is the Tin Darwdza gate, 
which, as the name implies, is a triple 
gate. Over the W. part of it is a 
Persian inscription, which says that 
the fort was repaired in the reign of 
Ibrahim 'Adil ShAh in the year 954 A,h, 



Sect. 11. 



Route l^.—KolhdpUr to Sdtdrd. 



269 



by Malik Ddiid ' A^i, son of the Minister 
A^mad. There are two shorter inscrip- 
tions to the right and left, of similar 
purport. The gate is handsomely 
sculptured. To the right of the gate, 
at about 40 yds. distance, is the 
place where the English breached and 
stormed the fort in 1844. Any one 
who examines this spot will admire 
the courage and vigour of the soldiers 
who could ascend, under the fire of 
the enemy, so steep a place. About 
parallel with this is the old pavilion, 
which was a Rang Ma^all for the 
Mu^iammadan ladies; when Panhild 
belonged to Bljdpiir. It is on the 
verge of the scarp and bulges over it. 
It is 43 ft. high, and is now called 
Sadobd's temple. Going S. from this, 
to the building which is now a school, 
18 a stone with a Persian inscription, 
which may be translated thus : — 

I have not seen its like in the world, 

In the reign of the King of Kings» of pure 

faith, 
A king like 'Ali, a choice ruler. 

Further on is a square domed build- 
ing, said to be the tomb of Shekh 
S'adu'd din KattAl. Near the same 
spot is an old tank, and on a stone in 
the centre of the S. wall of it, is a 
line the English of which is : — 

In the time of King 'Adil Mal^miid Sultin 
Bahmani ShA, 

May God Most High perpetuate his territory 
and his rule during the time of the adminis- 
tration 

Of 'Adil £h4n, champion against infidels, may 
the time of his power be prolonged, and 
by the direction of Malik Sikandar Gaidar 
Bahadur, may his prosperity be continued. 

The building of this reservoir took place. 

If you ask the date of the tank and who 
was its builder, then ask of me in a kind 
manner, 

The date of the tank of Fanhil&is Iskandar 
and its builder Malik. 

The date is 917 a.h. = 1497 a .d. 

Into this tank scores of Br4hmani 
women threw themselves when our 
soldiers stormed the fort. On the 
whole,. Panhdla is one of the most 
interesting forts in W. India. From 
it Shivaji made some of his most 
successful expeditions ; and if we ad- 
mire the courage of the British, who 
stormed the fort, we cannot but equally 
admire the hardihood of the Mardtha 



chief, who used to descend on horse- 
back the dangerous and almost pre- 
cipitous mountain, before the present 
road and path to the fort were made, 
in order to gallop with his wild fol- 
lowers to some far-off district in pursuit 
of plunder. 



ROUTE 16. 

KOLHiLPiJB TO aATlaX. 

The stages on this route are as fol- 
lows : — 



Prom 


To 


Miles. 


KolhApiir 


TopKdTappd . 


6 


Top KA TappA . 


KinI . . . 


6 


Kini 


TandulwA4i 


5 


Tandulw44i . 


Kamheri . 


6 


Kamheri . 


Nerla . . . 


6 


Nerla . . . 


Kiishlgdon . 


6 


Kashig4on 


NArAyanwa4f . 


6 


XAriyai^wa^i . 


Karad 


6 


Kardd 


Tilura . . . 


7 


Tih'ira . 


Terl6 . 


6 


Terl6 . . . 


Atil . . . 


7 


Atil 


Baradgiou . 


G 


Baradg&ou . . 


S&Ura . . . 
Total . . 





78 



lu the first stage the Panch Ganga 
river is crossed, and between the 
2nd and 3rd, the Varna, which is a 
bad and sandy crossing. N. of it 1 m. 
a toll is paid. The road lies between 
hills 500 to 800 ft. high, with abun- 
dance of cultivation and thriving 



270 



Route 16. — Kolhdpur to Sdtdrd. 



Sect. II. 



viUages in the vaUey. The T. B. at 
Ear&d, which is about half way, is 
bat an indifferent one, bat there are 
many Ma]|^ammadan remains in the 
town, which might induce a traveller 
to stop. After leaving Ear^, the 
road turns to the right, over the very 
deep bed of the Koini river, which 
here falls into the Efi^hnd, coming 
from the W. The bed of the river is 
crossed by a fine bridge, at least 70 ft. 
above it. Terl6 is just beyond the 
river of the same name, and is broad 
and "very sandy. 2 miles beyond 
Terl6 is Umarj, a large village where 
horses are sometimes changed, but 
there is no T. B. 

Satdrd. — The road from Eolhdpi!ir 
bends a little to the right, just before 
entering the cantonment of S&t&rd, 
and after passing on the right a tank 
much used by washermen, crosses 
the road to M^huli, and 800 yds. 
beyond it, turns to the left, and 
goes for f m. to the N.W. to the 
T. B. The road from Pun4 enters 
the cantonment from the N.W. 
The cantonment is about 1} m. from 
N. to S. and nearly the same from £. 
to W. In the centre of the S. side is 
the old Eesidency compound, but the 
collector, who is now the chief civil 
authority, lives at the N. end of the 
cantonment. The lines for the Euro- 
pean soldiers are in the centre of the 
E. side, and the native lines and §adr 
bdzar to the N. of them. The church 
is 700 yds. to the W. of the native 
lines. It is named St. Thomas, and was 
opened in 1850. It is 63 ft. from E. 
to W. and 16 ft. from N.tto S. At the E. 
end is a handsome stained glass win- 
dow, and here also is a carved screen 
of teak. The Gothic roof is of teak, 
and the pulpit of polished grey stone. 
The old colours of the 6th N. L are 
crossed over the W. entrance. A 
Bench mark of the G. Trig. Survey is 
on the door-step , and another just 
opposite between the pillars of the 
verandah, with these words, " 136 ft. 
above YenA bridge,'* which was built 
by the Bdjd, and is 2 m. from S4t&rd. 
In the road, before coming to the 
church, is a large tree with a stone 
bench round it, ascended to by 



6 steps, with the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

This Testimonial, 

in 

CoiHunetion with Charitable Institations, 

Has been erected in the year 1855 

By subscriptions of the 

Jagirdira and others, 

As a respectftil tribute of gratitude 

' To the memoir of his late 

Highness BuAHjf (Bhabjee) RAjA, 

ofSdtArd, 

and of 

H. B. E. Frere, Esq.. 

The late British Commissioner 

ofSat&ri. 

On the left is the same in Mar&thl. 
In this direction, too, is the old ceme- 
tery, a little off to the right of the 
road going to the fort. The enclosure 
in which it is, is kept locked, and no 
further interments take place. The 
oldest tomb here is to Major Bromley, 
who died July 16th, 1822. The new 
cemetery is half a mile to the N.E. of 
the European barracks, and is planted 
with flowers and cypresses and other 
fine trees. It is most creditably kept. 
There is a remarkable tomb here, with 
a white marble cross, to the wife of 
Thomas H. Leach, who died August, 
1870, and to her husband, who died 
Jan. 3l8t, 1876, who was out with the 
police after a criminal, and was shot by 
one of his own policemen, as it was al- 
leged, by accident. At the S.E. comer 
is the grave,unmarked by a stone, of the 
wife of a sub-judge, shot by her hus- 
band by accident. Proceeding from 
the old cemetery along the road which 
leads W. to the fort, the traveUer will 
pass first though a very neat hiz&r for 
about half a mile. He will leave ^e 
Jdm'i Kasjid on the left, and then 
come to the new palace built by Ap4 
§&^ib, which is near the centre of me 
city, and adjoins the old palace. On 
the facade of the new palace are a 
number of mythological pictures, 
much de&ced l^ the weather. The 
first door opens into a court 104 ft. 
from B. to W. and 79 from K. to S. 
On the W. side is a gallery, the inner 
side of which is supported by 14 teak 
pillars, well carved. On the £. side are 
only 3 pillars. On the N. side of the 
court is a vast hall, one of the largest 
in India, being 164 ft. from N.to S. and 



Sect. IL 



RcnUe 16. — Sdtdrd, 



271 



484 fro™ -E- to W., and 30 ft. high. 
In the front court are the offices of 
the collector and his assistants, and W. 
of the hall are those of the judge. 
The hall was a place of prayer in the 
time of ApA §Aliib. The roof is sup- 
ported by 64 teak pillars, besides 4 in 
front. The old palace is very shabby, 
and quite deserted. Such is now the 
state of a palace whose prince claimed 
to rule as far as the Atak. About 
200 yds. beyond this, to the B. by N., 
is a pretty garden and villa belonging 
to EAjA KAm, who was adopted by the 
late B4nl. He is a Bhonsl^ from 
NAgpiir, but not connected with the 
late reigning family of that country. 
This prince is about 6 ft. 7 in. high, and 
stout, with a pleasing face and bright 
eyes. He is in possession of Jay Bha- 
wdnl, the feunous sword of Shivajl, and 
of the crown jewelsof the Sdtdrdfamily, 
and would no doubt show them if ap- 
plication be made to his E^b&rf, or 
'* man of business." The sword is 3 ft. 
9 in. long in the blade, and the handle 
is 8 in. long, but so small that a 
European can hardly get his hand 
into it. On the blade is the stamp 
Genoa, and written in Balbod charac- 
ters, " SarkAr BAjA ShAhu Chhatrpati 
Kadim Awal," His Highness BAjA 
ShAhu Supreme Lord, the First. The 
WAghnahk, or tiger's claw,',with which 
Shivajl wounded Af^al Eh An, consists 
of 4 steel claws, with a ring which 
passes over the first and fourth finger, 
and is too small for a European hand. 
The shield is of rhinoceros hide, and has 
4 stars or bosses of diamonds. The gold 
casket for holding the seal is orna- 
mented with diamonds, rubies, pearls, 
and emeralds, and there is an inkstand 
and penholder of gold similarly be- 
gemmed. The quilted coat which 
Khivaji wore when he murdered Afij^al 
KhAn, may also be seen. It is lined 
with chain armour, which is hidden 
by thick masses of padding and silk, 
embroidered with gold. It is very 
heavy, and as Shivajl also wore a 
steel helmet, it is surprising that the 
suspicions of the BljAptir general were 
not roused. The dagger is very hand- 
some, and is 18 inches long, of which 
the steel blade is 10 inches and the 



jewelled handle 8. The diamonds, 
emeralds, and rubies in the handle 
are very fine. The city has many his- 
toric recollections, and the station is 
one of the most salubrious and plea- 
sant in the Bakhan, being close to the 
foot of the MahAbaleshwar hills. SA- 
tArA is situated in a hollow between 
two ranges of hills, which rise above it 
on the E. and W., and partly overlap 
it on the S. The hill on the W. is the 
termination of a spur from the MahA- 
baleshwar hills. It is called Utesh- 
war, and there are some temples on 
the top, with a colony of BrAh- 
mans and the largest monkeys to be 
seen in th^se parts. From this hill 
to the city there is an aqueduct 4 m, 
long, and there are also two fine tanks. 

The Fort— The gate of the Fort is 
on the E. side, and a very steep zig- 
zag path leads up to it. The traveller 
may ride up or be carried in a 
chair, supported on bambiis, by 8 
bearers. The ascent lies at first along 
the foot of a ridge, on which the RAjA 
had a house, where he slept in hot 
weather. It is now ruined, and the 
woodwork has been carried away. 
After half a mile or so, the ridge is 
crossed, and the path proceeds along 
the brink of a precipice which is to 
the right, the fort being to the left. 
Looking up at the scarp, one is as- 
tonished to hear that several of our 
soldiers have been killed in attempting 
to descend it to buy liquor. It looks 
80 utterly impracticable. The gate on 
the B. side is of stone, and very 
strongly built, with buttresses 40 ft. 
high. The interior of the Fort is now 
quite desolate. There are only a few 
wretched ruinous buildings, with 1 
small Pagoda and a brick barrack 
for 6 soldiers. The old (palace in 
which the Besident used to have his 
summer quarters has been swept 
away. 

The Fort is said to have been built 
by a BAjA of PanhA}A, who, as testified 
by a copper plate found at SAtArA,* 
reigned in A.D. 1192. By him, too, 
were erected the forts of BairAtga^h 

* Grant Buff, vol. p. 28. Transactions 
I of Bombay Lit. Society, 'ol. iii. 



272 



Route 16. — Kolhdpur to Sdtdrd. 



Sect. 11. 



and Pdiidugarh, near Wal, and Chan- 
dan and Wandan, near Sdtdra. Long 
before the time of the 'ildil Shdhi 
dynasty at Bijapiir, the fort of Sdtdrd * 
was used as a state prison, and Shivaji, 
who captured it in 1673, after a siege 
of several months, unwittingly fur- 
nished for his descendants a prison in 
which they were for years confined. 
In 1698, at the suggestion of Bdm- 
chandra Pant, Sdtdrd was made the 
capital of the Mardtha Government. 
Next year Aurangzlb, with a great 
army, arrived before the city. His 
own tents were pitched on the N. side 
of the fort; on the site of the present 
village of Karanjd. 'iJsjlm Shdh was 
stationed at a village on the W. side, 
which has since retained the name of 
Shdhpilr, or "the Shdh's Town." 
Shirzi Khdn invested the S. and Tar- 
blyat Khdn occupied the E. quarter. 
Chains of posts between the diflEerent 
camps effectually secured the blockade. 
The fort occupies the summit of a hill, 
which is about 800 ft. high, and ex- 
tends 1100 yds. in length and 500 in 
breadth. The sides are very steep, 
and even the ascent from the city by 
a somewhat winding path on the W. 
is difficult. The defences consist of a 
scarp of upwards of 40 ft. in perpen- 
dicular black rock, on the top of 
which is a stone wall. It was de- 
fended against Auraiigzib by Tiydgji 
Prabhii, l^awdlddr, who had been 
reared in the service of Shivaji. As 
soon as the Mughuls began to gain 
any part of the hill he withdrew his 
troops into the fort, and rolled down 
huge stones from the rock above, 
which did great execution, and, until 
cover could be thrown up, were as 
destructive as artillery. The blockade, 
however, was complete, no communi- 
cation could be held with the country, 
and as the small stock of grain in the 
garrison was soon exhausted, the be- 
sieged must have been compelled to 
surrender; but Parshurdm Trimbak, 
who had thrown himself into the fort 
of Prall, pui-chased the connivance of 
'>A!j{im Shdh, and conveyed stores to 
the besieged. The Mughul troops on 

* Grant Duff, vol. i., p. 260. 



the W. and S. faces erected batteries ; 
but the grand attack was directed 
against the N.E. angle, which stands 
up like a tower, and is one of the 
strongest points, the rock being 42 ft. 
high, and the bastion on the top con- 
sisting of 25 ft. of masonry, making a 
total height of 67 ft. Tarblyat Khdn 
undertook to mine this angle, and at 
the end of 4} months had completed 
two mines So confident were the 
Mughuls of success, that the storming 
party was formed under the brow of 
the hill. Aurangzlb moved out in 
grand procession to view the attack, 
and the garrison, and among them 
Prydgji, attracted by the splendour of 
his retinue, crowded to the rampart. 
The first mine burst several fissures 
in the rock, aud so violent was the 
concussion, that a great part of the 
masonry was thrown inwards, and 
crushed many of the garrison to death. 
The storming party advanced with 
eagerness, and at that time the second 
and larger mine burst outwards with 
a terrible explosion, and destroyed up- 
wards of 2000 Mughuls. Prydgji was 
buried by the first explosion close to 
a temple to Bhavdnl, but was dug out 
alive. This was regarded by the Ma- 
rdthas as a happy omen, and, ani- 
mated by it, the garrison would have 
made a prolonged and desperate de- 
fence, but provisions fell short, and 
'A^im Shdh would no longer connive 
at their introduction. Proposals of 
surrender were, therefore, made 
through him, and the honour of the 
capture, which he so ill-merited, was 
not only assigned to him, but the very 
name of the place, in compliment to 
him, was changed by the Emperor to 
'As{im Tdrd. 

In 1705 the fort was retaken by 
the Mardthas, through the artifice of a 
Brdhman named Anajl Pant. He in- 
gratiated himself with the Mughuls 
under the character of a mendicant 
devotee, amusing them with stories 
and songs, and, being allowed to 
reside in the fort, introduced a body 
of Mdwalls, and put every man of the 
garrison to the sword. To this place 
on the surrender of Trichindpalli (Tri- 
chiaopoly) on the 26th of March, 1741, 



Sect II. 



Route 1 6. — Sdtdrd — Mdliuli, 



273 



Chanda S4\]db, the well-known as- 
pirant to the Niiw&bshlp of the Ear- 
n^tak, was brought a prisoner, and 
remained under surveillance 7 years. 
In 1798 Kdm Bdjd, son of Shivajl IL, 
got jwssession of the fort, and col- 
lected troops with a view of regaining 
his independence from the Peshw^ 
BAjl RAo ; but his forces were sur- 
prised by Parshurdm Bh4o, and 
driven out of the town in spite of the 
heroism of Yelojl Mohit6 and Lenaji 
Mohit4, who charged singly into a 
host of enemies and were killed, 
After the rupture with BAjl Rdo, the 
English troops marched to Sdtdrd, 
which surrendered, after little or no 
resistance, on the 10th of February, 
1818, and Pratdp Sing, eldest son of 
Sdhu XL, was installed as Bdjd. He 
held the principality 21 years, and 
was sent prisoner to Bandras in 1839, 
being succeeded by his brother, Apd 
Sdhib, on whose death, in 1848, the 
territory was annexed. 

There were here 16 temples, of 
which 11 were to Shiva and 5 to 
Bhavdnl, the especial patroness of 
Shivaji and his family. All but one 
have perished. Panthers are occa- 
sionally seen, from the walls of the 
fort, basking on the rocks, a few score 
feet below the ramparts. The view 
from the fort is very beautiful, over 
hills rising in every direction of varied 
form, and some of them crowned with 
old forts now crumbling to decay. 
Such are the hills of Chandan and 
Wandan on the W., and the lofty hill 
of AmboH, which, according to Hindii 
legend, was a pebble that slipped 
from a mountain which Hanumdn 
was carrying to help in making a 
bridge from Lidia to Lankd, in Ramd's 
war with Rdvan. A wide plain ex- 
tends to the S., opening out from the 
town and comprehending the canton- 
meja't on the B., the Residency with 
its fine garden on the W., and beyond, 
many gardens and groves. Through 
this plain runs a broad excellent road, 
shaded by an avpnue of trees to the 
Sangam, or junction of the rivers 
Krishnd and Yend at the beautiful 
village of Mdhull. 

There are many beautiful rides at 

[jB<wi6ay— 1880.] 



Sdtdrd, and good sport to be had. 
QuaU and florican are plentiful in the 
neighbouring villages, and foxes are 
very numerous. These are coursed 
with greyhounds, and afford excellent 
sport. Bears, panthers, and chitas 
may occasionally be found. In 1836 
a large bear came down to plunder 
the Residency garden, and sUpped 
into the big wedl there. When the 
gardener went to draw water he be- 
held the animal swimming round and 
round, there being no possibility of 
its escape, and it was many hours be- 
fore it sank. A mango tree in this 
garden is worth a visit, being a very 
fine specimen, and nearly 30 ft. in 
circuniference. At a village a few 
miles off is a still larger tree of the 
same species, and nearly 40 ft. round. 
Those who take an interest in old tra- 
ditions will find Sdtdrd a good place 
for inquiry into such legends. There 
is one, and most probably founded on 
fact, that when the fort was erected 
the son and daughter of the chief 
Mahdr in the place were buried alive 
at the principal entrance, which, as 
already noticed, is on the E., and 
may be known by two large fish, the 
ensigns of nobility, sculptured upon 
it. These living sacrifices are part of 
the aboriginal worship of the country, 
and the legend tends to show that the 
Mahdrs are no other than the abo- 
rigines, as, indeed, is believed on 
many other accounts. During the 
Dasahrd the Mahdrs of Sdtdrd sacri- 
fice a male buffalo at the temple of 
Bhavdnl, which stands at the N.E. 
angle of the fort where the mine, so 
fatal to theIMu|jhul troops, was sprung. 
The animal is buffeted, wounded, 
and driven furiously about, in the 
very way in which the Tudas beat 
the buffaloes they sacrifice at their 
funeral rites. In this, then, there is 
an undoubted relic of most ancient 
aboriginal worship. 

MalmlL — This pretty place, at the 
confluence of the Kp^hnd and Yend 
rivers, is about 3 m. E. of Sdtdrd, and 
thoroughly deserves a visit. It is con- 
sidered a place of great sanctity, and 
the dead from Sdtdrd and the sur- 
rounding villages are brought there to 



274 



Eoute 16. — KoIIidpur to Sdtdrd, 



Sect. II. 



be bumed ; and here accordicgly the 
Envoy of the Rdnd of Udepiir, who 
came to Pratdp Singh in 1836 and died 
on his arrival, was burned. On the E. 
bank of the Kri^hn^ is Kfhetra Mdhuliy 
on the W. bank WmH Mdhuli, which 
belongs to the Paiit Pratinidhi.* De- 
scending the river, the first temple is 
K^hetra M&hull, dedicated to Bddh^ 
Shankar. It was built in 1825 A.D. 
by B4i §&hib Sachlv, the great-grand- 
mother of the present Bor-Pant. It 
stands on the Giri Ghdt, a long hand- 
some stone platform, built by B&pu 
Bl^at in 1780 A.D. The temple is of 
basalt, and consists of a shrine and 
verandah, supported by 3 small scal- 
loped arches; the dome is of brick, 
and conical, but broken up into gra- 
dually diminishing rows of stucco or- 
namentation, in which are niches filled 
with images. On the same side of the 
river is the temple of Bholeshwar Ma- 
hAdeo, built in 1742 A.D. by Shrlpat 
BAo PaAt Pratinidhi. It consists of a 
vestibule and shrine. The vestibule is 
square, and has no opening but a low 
door. The front is 30 ft. long, and 
plain. The sides gradually contract 
by a series of offsets, which run up 
nearly to the top of the dome, so that 
the back wall is only 5 or 6 ft. long. 
In front are a few tombs of holy men. 
The GhAt was built 4 years before the 
temple, by ^nand RAo Bhiv Rdo Desh- 
muMi Angaparkar. The next temple 
is on the same bank, dedicated to Rd- 
meshwar, and was built by Parshurdm 
NArdyana Angal of Dehgdon, in 1700 
A.D. Looking from the opposite 
bank, one is struck with the veiy fine 
flight of steps leading up to it from 
the river-bed. One flight, with its 
broad platform, was conmienced by 
Bdjl Rdo 11., but never finished ; the 
other flight begins very nearly where 
the other leaves off, and is said to be 
the work of Parshurdm Angal. Half- 
way up it is a small cloister of arches 
on either side. The roof is domed, and 
formed by concentric layers of stone, 
each diminishing in circumference. In 
front is a bull very richly ornamented 

* This nobleman was the locum tenens of the 
Kajd,and was entitled to 2 umbrellas of state, 
and the hust or figure of Maiuti and of Ganid. 



with chains and beUs, with his face 
towards the door of the vestibule. 
There are 3 domes, the lowest being 
over the vestibule. A small door leads 
into a shrine, with o small figures in 
black basalt, 8hiva and Pdrvati being 
in the centre. Close to the junction of 
the rivers, on the W. bank of the 
Blri^hnd and the N. of the Yena, is the 
temple of Sangameshwar Mahddeo. 
Two flights of steps lead up to the 
courtyard wall from the bank of the 
Kri^hnd. A door in the wall opens 
into a quadrangular court, in which is 
the temple. The temple consists of a 
small open verandah, in which is a 
painting of Lak§hml, of a vestibule 
and shmie. In front is the sacred bull 
under a canopy, supported by 4 pillars. 
The breadth at the back is gradually 
diminished by offsets. The architec- 
ture is pure Hindti. The pillars are 
round, octagonal or square, in alter- 
nate courses, and the roof is formed of 
long stones, which stretch diagonally 
from pillar to pillar, so as to form a 
series of lozenge-shaped spaces filled 
in square stones. The flying buttresses 
to the platform of the sacred bull and 
the top of the dome deserve notice. 
As usual the body of the building is 
of basalt, and the dome of brick and 
stucco. This temple was built by 
Shrlpat Rdo Pant Pratinidhi in 1679 
A.D. Below this temple and at the 
junction of the rivers is a triangular 
plot of ground, with the tombs of the 
Gosain named Banshapuri, and his 
disciples. That of the Gosain is an 
octagonal building of grey basalt, sur- 
mounted by a low dome. The sides 
are open, and the triangular heads of 
the openings are scalloped and richly 
carved above ; a broad ledge is carried 
round, supported on elegant scrolls. 
There are 4 other tombs. The largest 
of the temples is on the S. side of the 
Yend, and at its confluence with the 
Kp^hnd. It is sacred to Vishveshvar 
Mahddeo, and was built in 1735 A.D. 
by Shrlpat Rdo. It is of basalt, and 
inclosed by an irregular-shaped court- 
yard open on the side of the river, 
from which it is approached by steps. 
The high platform on which it is 
raised ; the low colonnade which runs 



Sect. II. 



Haute 17. — Sdtdrd to Mahdhaleshwar. 



275 



ronnd the greater part of it ; the short, 
thick pillars in alternate courses of 
round, octagonal, and square; the 
lozenge-figurod stone roof, the breadth 
increasing from the front by ofE-sets 
and then similarly decreasing behind, 
E^ow that it is a building of pure 
Hindii architecture. The length &om 
back to front is 60 ft. The greatest 
breadth is 20 ft., and the least 5 ft. 
The interior consists of a vestibule and 
shrine. In the wall of the vestibule 
are images of Ganpatl and Lak^hml, 
the latter of marble. The animal forms 
carved in the capitals of the pillars 
and the cornices deserve notice. On 
2 sides of the courtyard are cloisters 
with broad, low pointed arches. On 
another side is a similar building, un- 
finished. At the entrance of the ves- 
tibule is a fine bell, with the date 1744 
in English figures. The temple of 
Bdmchandra K4o at the back of the 
above is very inferior. It consists of 
a verandah and shrine. In the latter 
are figures in brass of K4van, Laksh- 
man, and Sitd. This temple was built 
by Trimbak VishvanAth P6t6, in 1772. 
Besides the above temples there is one 
to Withobd, built by J6t6pant Bhagwat 
of Chinchnera, in 1730 A.D.; one to 
Kri^ndbdi, built by Krishna Dikshit 
Chiplunkar in 1754 ; one built by the 
same man in 1790 to . Krishneshvara 
Mah&deo ; and one to Bhairava, built 
by Krishna Bhat Talke in 1770. There 
are several others of less note. In one 
observe a dog sitting, which marks the 
burial place of a favorite dog of RAjd 
Shdhu, called VedarAjA, or *' Mad 
King.'* It was a black greyhound, 
and saved the Bdjd's life by its furious 
barking, which called the prince's at- 
tention to a tiger which was in the act 
of springing on him. (See Grant Duff, 
vol. ii. p. 30.) The BdjA dressed out 
the dog in gold brocade covered with 
jewels, and put his own turban on his 
head when he was about to receive 2 
Mardtha chiefs in. full court. He also 
kept a palanquin establishment for the 
dog. Mdhull is the scandal point of 
the station. There are also some 
tombs here to widows who performed 
mti. The last mti took place on 
August 12lli, lt36, LutfuUah in his 



"Autobiography," p. 221, refers to 
one. There are many foxes at 
SdtdrA, which, if coursed, afford good 
sport. 



KOUTE 17. 

SATAEA TO MAHABALKSHWAE. 

The stages by this route are — 



From 


To 


Miles. 


Sat^r4 . 
Khinzir . . 
Me<}a 

Kilgarh . . 
Irmal • 


Khinzir . . 
Me4a . . . 
Kilgarh . . 
Irmal . . . 
Fountain Hotel, 
MahdbalftBhwar 

Total . . 


9 
4 
6 

7 
5 


31 



After leaving Sdtdrd the Yend river is 
crossed, close to the village of Ankle, 
by a bridge of 9 arches. Just here, at 
the village of Kuner, there is a toll of 
4 dnds. There is a comfortable T. B. 
at Meda, where the traveller may break 
his journey. After leaving Meda the 
road is very heavy and dusty, and full 
of ups and downs, but well shaded 
with fine trees. There are lofty hills 
on the left, being the range of which 
Uteshwar is the termination . The 1 5th 
milestone is passed very soon after 
leaving Meda, and the 21st is at 200 
yds. beyond Kilgarh. At this village 
a horde of Kulis rush out to join the 
traveller ; and just before reaching the 
21st milestone from Sdtdrd, the horses 
are taken out and the Tonga is drawn 
by the KuUs. It generally happens 
that a tremendous hubbub o£ voices 
then springs up, and a furious wrang - 

T 2 



Route 18. — Somlat/ to Ndthii. 



ling takes place between the KuliE and 
their Mu^addam or "headman," who 
triea to cheat them ont of their money. 
The traveller will be fortauate if be 

Kta ofi without a delaj of h^f an 
nr. When they do st^t they go at 
a great rate, pulling the Tongfa up a 
■teep incline tor 7 m. There is a pre- 
cipice on the right which rises nom 
10 to 1000 ft. The road is hroad 
enough for 2 Tongas to pass one 
another ; but in eome places the edge 
will have given way, and the newly 
thrown up earth at these places ia not 
at all trustworthy. The Knlls from 
time to time encourage themselvee 
wiOi yella, which show the astonish- 
ing power of their lungs, and they then 
make surprising apurts for short dis- 
tances. The sMent of the Kilgafh 
Gbk% is ended half an hour befuw 
reaching Irmal, where is the 28tb 
milestone, and which commands a flue 
view. The Kulls will expect 12 iaia 
aa a preaent,'and but for their noiae 
they well deserve it. 

For ft full deacription of Mahi- 
bale^war,eee Route C. If the traveller 

Eroceed thither from Vaai. and return 
J Ibb Route he cannot fail to see the 
most picturesque portiona of the hills. 
But to eihanst all there ii to be seen 
would require a residence of weeks 
and demand the energy of a Bportaman 
and a practdaed pedestrian. 



ave time the stations 
rision o( tiie G. I. P. 
re given, onoa for alt, 
Jabalpdr. 





1 


1 


1 


d^ 
dS 


1 

i.ti 
a.i9 

S. 1 
IL 9 

12! c 


3 12 1 

la 1 
isisi 

iii 

IK IB 
2» *0 


1 10 

s so 
4ia« 

6 140 
12 10 



ScnUe 18. — Bombay to Nddtik. 



277 

allowed in it is, in the fail season, 
11 Tehicles and 4 incline brakes foi 
1 large engine; 16 TehinleB and 4 
incline Iv^ea for 3 large engines. 
The line risea from the Botanda 
NSlah, wMch it ctobscb by a via- 
dnct 6C yds. long and 90 ft. high. 
It tlien pasaea tnrougli a rock by 
a tnniiel 130 yds. long to Mtuida 
Set NSlali, which it croases by a via- 
duct 143 yds. long and 84 ft. high, and 
another G6 yds. long and 87 ft. high. 
Close to the Manda Set torrent aie 
two tunnels 1490 yda. long and 80 
yds. Then comes, at 3^ m., KAs4ri, 
where, by double track at an acnte 
angle, called a rcTcrsing station, a 
shiup curve is avoided, the direction 
of the line altered, and the railway 
taken throngh a low pasa at the Mas- 
solah Khind to the N. flank ot the 
great spur on the Waitum side of the 
hill Beyond K4sdr4, at the 1th m., 
are 3 tunnels, 236, 113, and 123 yds. 
long respectively, and a viaduet 66 
yds. long and MO ft. high. Between 
the Blh and 6th m. is a viaduct over 
the EhglkoA N&lah 260 yds. long and 
200 ft. high, and 4 tunnels, 490, 412, 
70, and 50 yds. long. Between the 7th 
and 9th m. there is a viaduct 150 yds. 
long and 80 ft. high. There are 3 tun- 
nels, 261,140, and 68 yds. long. There 
are besideB 16 bridges and 62 culverts. 
The total cutting amonnts to 1,241,000 
CBbio yards. The embankment i ■ 
1,215,000 cubic yds. The steepest gra- 
dient is i, in. for 4 m. 29 chs., and ^ in. 
forl3chs.;andfortherestlinE0or 1 
in 18. Ibe Handa Set tunnel was made 
through the hardest basalt with steel 
drills, and 2 shafts had to be sank. 
All the viaducts are of masonry, ex- 
cept that over the Bhg^il N&lah, 
which is crossed by 3 spans of tri- 
angular iron girders, on Warren's 
principle, with semicircular arches of 
40 ft. at each end. These large girders 
had to be raised 200 ft. The Tal GhAt 
was opened for traffic in 18fi5. From 
Igatpilra to NAahik was opened on 
Jan. 22nd, 1861. The viaduct over 
the OodAvari ia 145 yds. long, and 
consists ot 9 arches of 10 ft. each. 
The fonndations are on the rock. The 
river, daring floods, is 36 ft. deep. The 



278 



Route 18. — Bombay to Ndsliik, 



Sect. II. 



line fiom Manmdd to Jalgdoii, 99^ m., 
is through a rich cotton country, and 
has 4 bridges over streams flowing into 
the Gima river. They have 30 ft. 
openings. The Manm^ river is 40 
yds. wide ; the Tetiir 90 yds. ; the Bola 
90 ; the Eoranda 40. Near JsJgiou 
and Na^lrdbdd the Wangib* stream is 
crossed, a tributary of the Taptl river. 
The Wangiir is 300 yds. wide, and it is 
crossed by a bridge with 10 openings, 
spanned by iron girders on Warren's 
principle. The NAgpi\r branch line, 
which turns off from Bhosdwal, is 214 
m. long. It is guided by the course 
of the Fund, a tributary of the Tapti, 
along a valley to Amrawati. At this 
pHQint the country is hilly, and tiie 
rivers Mand and Wardah are crossed. 
Between Bhos&wal and Amr&wati 
there is a viaduct over the Mand, with 
15 openings of 60 ft. each, and piers 
70 ft. high ; and a bridge over the 
K&tl Kanrah with 21 iron girders of 
30 ft. each, and piers 37 ft. high. The 
Wardah is crossed by a viaduct of 12 
openings of 60 ft. each. There are 
viaducts over the Hara and Wara rivers 
between Akola and Ndgpiir with 8 and 
6 spans of 60 ft. each. On the Ndg- 
pdr branch there are 351 bridges and 
viaducts, with 950 spans. From Bho- 
sdwal to Khandwa is 77 m. ; here the 
Tapti, 591 yds. wide, is crossed. The 
river is subject to sudden floods, when 
it reaches a depth of 78 ft. It is 
spanned by a viaduot 875 yds. long, 
with 5 openings of 138 ft. and 14 of 
60 ft., covered by iron girders, and 20 
arches of 40 ft. each. Near Burhdnpi!ir 
there are 3 small bridges over affluents 
of the Tapti. At 3 m. from Burhdnpiir 
the line reaches the S&tpurah range, 
and ascends for 12 m. The top of the 
ascent is at Aslr, 23 m. from Burhdn- 
piir. There is a bridge over the Pan- 
ddv, an affluent of the Taptl, 550 yds. 
broad. From Khandwd to Suhdgpiir 
is 143 m. Some miles beyond Chdr- 
wah the line enters the valley of the 
Nirbadd, and is traced along its left 
bank for 200 m., nearly to Jabalpiir. 
The country is flat, with heavy bridge 
works. The Ganjal river is crossed by 
a viaduct of 8 iron girders of 84 ft. 
each, on masonry abutments of from 



40 to 61 ft. high. In floods the Ganjal 
river rises to 40 ft. Some miles farther 
the Towah river, an affluent of the 
Nirbadd river, is crossed. In the hot 
season it is nearly dry, but in floods 
1276 yds. wide. There is a large bridge 
and 2 viaducts, with 7 openings of 30 
ft. each, and 4 viaducts with 5 open- 
ings of 30 ft. each, and 61 other open- 
ings, making in all 95 openings of 30 
ft. each. About the centre of this dis- 
trict are the iron mines of Fandsa, 
where iron ore, limestone, and coal 
are found together. At many points 
on this line, especially to the N. of the 
Nirbadd, iron and coal exist. From 
Suh^piir to Jabalpiir is 119 m. The 
Dudhi, a tributary of the Nirbadd, is 
crossed by a viaduct 170 yds. long ; 
the Sakar with one of the same length, 
and tiie 8her with one 213 yds. long. 
The highest flood on record above the 
bed of the Sher was 60 ft. The Une 
turns N., and crosses the Nirbadd at 
Jhdnsi The total width of the river 
is 414 yds., with high and steep banks. 
In dry weather the river is 70 yds. 
wide and 5 ft. deep ; in floods 414 yds. 
wide and 74 to 90 ft. deep. There is 
a viaduct over the Nirbadd 387 yds. 
long and 100 ft. high. Beyond this 
point the line passes over a flat coun- 
try to Jabalpiir, 614J m. from Bombay, 
where there is the junction with the 
East India Bailway. 

The ascent of the Tal Ghdt is at all 
seasons interesting ; but during the 
rains it is most beautiful. The leaves 
are then bright green, and the country 
below the Ghdts is all streams, pools, 
and inundations ; the Ghdts themselves 
all cascades and torrents. Igatpiira, 
properly Wigatpiira, " the town of dif- 
ficulties," so called on account of the 
precipitous road that preceded the 
railway, is not a bad place for a sports- 
man to halt at. There are several 
European banglds belonging to rail- 
way officials, and some places near 
very sacred in the eyes of the 
Hindiis, such as Sarva Tirth, where 
Jatoyu, the bird who fought with Rd- 
vana, was killed. There are panthers 
in the vicinity of Igatpiira. From 
that place to Deoldli the line passes 
through a level country, with low 



Sect. II. 



Route 18. — Xdshih. 



279 



mountains on either side, at about 5 m. 
distance. At Deolali are barracks for 
6000 men. When the trooping season 
is over, the girls from a large school at 
Bykallah are sent to Deol^. 

Ndshik is the capital of a collecto- 
rate, containing a pop. of 734,386. The 
town itself contains 22,436 inhabitants. 
The station to alight at for it is Ndshik 
Road, and the town is quite 4 m. as the 
crow flies to the N.W. of the railway. 
The peculiarity of the N^hik houses is 
that the foundation and base, up to 5 
or 6 ft. above the street, are of granite, 
while the superstructure is of wood or 
brick. Some of the houses are hand- 
some. The Niiwdb of N^shik, whose 
ancestor was the Plr or "spiritual 
guide " of Aurangzlb, has a house in 
Ndshik, but is employed in Birdr under 
the supreme government. In Aurang- 
zlb's time the family had a very large 
estate, of which we have confiscated 
all but a small portion. This is the 
only Muhammadan family of import- 
ance, but Br&hmans are very numerous, 
and their women are remarkable for 
their beauty, their large eyes, and 
graceful figures. The town is one of 
the most sacred to the Hindiis; and 
here it is said that Lak^hman, the 
elder brother of R&ma, cut off the nose 
of Sarpnakha, R&van's sister ; and as 
JVdsika in Sanskrit is "a nose," the 
place hence got its name. The real 
cause of the sanctity of Ndshik, how- 
ever, is owing to its being only 18 m. 
from the source of the Goddvarl at 
Trimbak, and from its being built on 
that fine stream. The first thing to be 
done after locating oneself at theT. B., 
which is i m. S.W. of the town, is to 
visit the temples. The traveller will 
cross the river to the W. of the Sundar 
Nariyan temple. This is a most beau- 
tiful temple, built by one of Holkars 
Sarddrs 155 years ago. It is smaller 
than that of the Black Kdma, but a 
miracle of art. Below it may be seen 
the temples of B^Uji and of the White 
R&ma, and the Memorial erected to 
the BlapurtiiAla RijA, who died in 1870 
near Aden, on his way to Europe. The 
river is 80 yds. broad, and near the N. 
bank 3 ft. 9 deep in the dry weather. 
After reaching the other bank, he will 



drive ^ m. to the W. past a very fine, 
solidly built house belonging to the 
R^tia family. One must alight then 
and walk a few hundred yards up a lane 
to 5 very old and large trees of the 
Ficvs indwa species, from which this 
side of N&shik is called Panchdwatif 
Panch being " five " and Wat " Indian 
fig." Thisquarter has 4000 inhabitants. 
Under the shade of the largest tree 
is a small building. None but Hindtis 
may pass the vesti oule ; but when that 
is done a low room is entered, at the 
S. end of which is an arch 3 ft. high, 
which must be crept under, and then 
9 steps of 6 inches each are descended 
in order to reach 2 rooms 5 ft. sq. and 
4 ft. high. In the first room are images 
of R&ma, Sitd, and Lak^hman. In the 
second is an image of Mah4deo, 6 in. 
high, which those three personages are 
said to have worshipped ; hence arises 
the extreme sanctity of the place, 
which is quite one of the holiest in 
Ndshik. This hole is Site's Guph4 or 
Cave, where she found an asylum until 
lured away by Rdvana and carried to 
Ceylon. Among other matters not easy 
of explanation is how persons of the 
heroic size got into this hole and lived 
there, when it is so small that ordi- 
nary men are almost suffocated in it. 
The traveller will then walk down to 
the river, past a large house on the 
right belonging to R^ia, which he 
lets at a cheap rate to poor people, 
and a small temple built by him to 
Pdtdleshwar, "Lord of the Infernal 
Regions," a name of Shiva. Just be- 
fore reaching the riverside, on the 
left, is the oldest temple in the place, 
to KapAleshwar, " God of the Skull," 
a name of Shiva. The ascent to it is 
by 50 stone steps. It is said to be 600 
years old, and is the most holy and 
frequented of all the temples, but is 
quite plain and unattractive. Opposite 
to it the river foams and rushes in a 
rocky bed surrounded hjXunds, which 
are stone terraces made in the river, 
or at its side, for bathers and washers 
to stand on. The nearest on the Pdnch- 
awatl side is called Rama's Kund, 
and there the god is said to have 
bathed ; hence it is very sacred, and 
bones of the dead are taken there to 



280 



Houte 18. — Bombay to NdshVc, 



Sect. 11. 



be washed away. Opposite to it and 
in the riTer itself is a stone dharm- 
8^4, with seyeral arches, roofed oyer, 
in which ascetics lodge when the water 
is low. A little lower down the stream 
is another low bnilding for bathers, 
and Sondar N4r&yan's temple is oppo- 
site to it. Down the stream, about 
20 yds., are 3 temples erected by Ahalya 
BAi. The first is only a few feet high 
and long, but the next is a large square 
building, with a stone foundation and 
brick superstructure, dedicated to RA- 
ma. N. of it is a long dharms41A, and 
a little down the stream is the third 
temple, very handsome, all of stone, 
and built in the approved form. About 
20() ft. down the stream is N&ru Shan- 
kar's temple, with an elaborately 
carved portico and a large stone in- 
closure. This ends the temples imme- 
diately on the water on the PAncha- 
wati side. Proceed then a J m. by 
a back way through streets of well-built 
houses to the great temple of Bdma, 
which cost £70,000. It stands in an 
oblong stone inclosure, with 96 arches, 
there being 15 arches on the £. and W. 
sides, 33 on the N., and 33 on the S. 
side. These arches are each 8 ft. wide, 
so the inclosure is 260 ft. long and 120 
ft. broad. The inclosure is a corridor 
25 ft. high and 11 ft. broad, where 
people can lodge. But there is a 
covered dharms&Id in the inclbsuiHe, 
with 9 arches on the N. side, 9 on the 
S., 3 on the E., and 3 on the W. The 
temple is 93 ft. long from E. to W., 
and 65 ft. broad from N. to S. It is 
60 ft. high, and has a copper ornament 
at the top 4 ft. high. It is dedicated 
to K&la KAma, or " Black R&ma,*' and 
is built of stone from R&msej, a neigh- 
bouring mountain. It is 100 years 
old, and was erected at the cost of a 
chief called Bang Bdo Odhekar. This 
fane consists of a flying portico, a 
middle building with a dome at top, 
and a cone-shaped adytum, with 
a fluting of pillars, which end in a 
broad buttress. It is possible to cross 
from the P4nchawatl side to the main 
town on a stone dyke which crosses 
the river ; but the water, though not a 
foot deep, that passes over it, flows 
with such rapidity that one might 



easily be swept off. It is therefore 
safer to go down ^ m. to the ferry, 
which is farther down the stream, and 
consists of a double boat with planks 
in the centre moved by ropes and pul- 
leys fastened to a wire cable stretched 
from shore to shore at a height of 40 
ft. Beyond the ferry, to the W., is a 
hill called Sunar *Ali, which is 200 ft. 
high, and has on it a good house built 
by an Indian called Raghuji. The view 
from this hill over the river, temples, 
and part of the city, is very fine ; but 
the walk to it is anything but pleasant, 
on account of the filth and stench. 
There is another hill close by, called 
JiinAgarh, or Old Fort, on which is a 
square building, in which Aurangzlb's 
chief oflicials used to reside. The view 
along the river when hundreds of men 
and women are bathing is extremely 
pretty. The next expedition should be 
to the LenA Caves, which are in a hill 
about 6 m. S. of N^hik. To the W. 
is another hill, steeper, but not quite 
so high. Ascending the first hill by a 
narrow path to the height of about 450 
ft., you come to a broad black line in 
the N. face of the hill, which extends 
about ^ m. in length, which marks the 
excavations. In the centre is a cave, 
just opposite the spot where the path 
ends. This cave has a corridor 5 ft. 
4 in. in front, and the room beyond it 
is 37 ft. 7 in. from N. to S., and 29 ft. 
9 in. from E. to W. It is 10 ft. high, 
with a perfectly fiat roof, and has been 
hewn but of the solid rock. Round the 
room are 18 cells, each 6 ft. sq., with 
a recess, hewn so as to make a couch 
for the inmate. In the centre of the 
room is a figure of Bhairu with a mace, 
on which he leans with his left hand. 
On either side of him is a female figure. 
That on the right is represented Winc- 
ing, and is fairly well carved. The 
corridor in front of the cave has 4 pil- 
lars and 2 pilasters in the faQade. The 
E. pilaster has a single lion on its 
capital, and one of the pillars has 2 
lions, with a human figure looking over 
each. The other pillars and 1 pUaster 
have 2 elephants for capitals. On the 
inside face of the corridor, and on one 
side, is a long inscription in old De- 
vandgari characters. To the W. is a 



Sect. 11. 



Route \^,-'Ndshih 



281 



small cave with 2 pillars with ele- 
phants on their capitals, the heads 
turned away from each other, and a 
cell. Then comes a ruined cell with 
a written tablet broken, and then 2 
pools of water, each 10 ft. long. Next 
is a fine cave with 6 pillars, of which 
2 are broken, and the heads and busts 
of 6 giants supporting the basement of 
the corridor. Inside the gallery, on 
the left of the entrance, are 2 long in- 
scriptions. The door has a figure about 
4 ft. high on either side, which the 
guides call a Gopl, and all round the 
door are small figures much defaced. 
Then there is a large room, nearly the 
same size as that in the first cave, with 
18 cells surrounding it. At the end is 
a Dahgopa with figures on the sides, a 
carved belt half way up, and a double 
ornament at top. Proceeding to the 
W. you come to a low cave with 
12 figures. On the left is Vishwakarma, 
seated, with female figures on either 
side, and opposite are Vishwakarma's 
brother and father. To the W. in a line 
with them is a figure 3 ft. 6 high, called 
by the guides Gautama. Then there 
is a large excavation, about 20 ft. long, 
called Sitd's tank, which is carried 
under the rock. There are 4 pillars in 
front, 2 of them broken. Above is a 
frieze 6 inches broad, with figures of 
horses, bulls, deer, and elephants. 
Beyond is a tank. To the E. is a cave 
with 7 pillars and a Dahgopa, which 
the guides say is Bhlm's mace. Beside 
it is a room, ascended to by 6 steps. 
It has 7 cells round it, and at the N. 
end a defaced figure of Pdrvatl. Fur- 
ther E. is the large cave of the 5 PAn- 
dus, which gives its name to the hill, 
it is 40 ft. deep from N. to S., and 27 
ft. bi-oad from E. to W. There are 22 
cells round it. The adytum is at the 
8. end, and consists of a gallery and 
vestibule about 9 ft. broad, with a deep 
gloomy recess in the centre. On the 
right of the spectator as he enters is 
BMm, 7 ft. high, with Draupadi on his 
right, 2 ft. 9 in. high. On the left is 
Arjun, about 5 ft. 8 in. high, and 
Krishna, much smaller, seated by him. 
In the recess is a seated figure of 
Dharraa RAjd, 8 ft. high, as he sits 
with Sahadcva and Nakula on his 



right ; Tudhishthir has bands of gild- 
ing on his arms and legs. There is a 
wall 3 ft. high in front of the recess, 
which is BO dark that you can see 
nothing without a torch. The figures 
are badly executed, and appear to be 
of much later date than the cave. 
There are several other smaller cells, 
one of which has an image of Kdma, 
and another is ascended to by a ladder 
of 15 steps. There is also an upper 
room, mounted to by 6 steps Over the 
cave in which is the Dahgopa. These 
caves were first described by Colonel 
James Delamaine,* who is called by 
Flitter, vol. iv. 1st Div. p. 682, their 
discoverer. He visited them in May, 
1823. The first thing to be remarked 
regarding them is the rudeness of the 
execution, which is thought by Bitter, 
Bird, and others to be an indication 
of their great antiquity. They are 
situated in a conical hill rather more 
than 100 yds. from its base, and face 
N.E. In a small recess f near the ex- 
treme excavations on the right, says Dr. 
Bird, which are intended for tanks, are 
3 figures of Buddha, of the same char- 
acter as those in the Vishwakarma cave 
at Eliira. The entrance to the next cave 
is by a verandah, raised on six colossi 
in relief, and each })earing on his 
shoulder a beam. This cave is about 
45 ft. sq., and its fiat roof is entirely 
unsupported. Small cells are exca- 
vated on both sides at the further end, 
where a dahgop projects from the 
wall. Next to this cave is another of 
similar dimensions and form. The 
next is also similar, but has a raised 
platform at the further end, in the 
centre of which is a lingam. The next 
cave in the series has a vaulted roof 
with pillars on either side, the dahgop 
at the end, and a large arched window 
in the front face. It is 45 ft. long by 
25 ft. broad. The outside is orna- 
mented with small dahgops cut in re- 
lief. A fiat-roofed excavation of 60 ft. 
by 40 ft. follows, with cells to the right 
and left. At the further end is a ve- 
randah, the pillars of which have their 
capitals ornamented with various 

* " Asiatic Journal," N. S., 1830, vol. iii. 
pp. 275-288. 
t Bird's " Caves of W. India," p. 11. 



282 



Route 18. — Bombay to NdsMk, 



Sect. II. 



animals. Beyond this is a recess with 
a colossal figure of Buddh. There are 
also two other figures holding up in' 
their right hands the mAlA^ or neck- 
lace, an<l in their left a flower and 
stem. The principal idol is called 
Dharma Rdja, a name of Yudhi^hthir, 
the eldest Pdudu, who is much wor- 
shipped in these parts, and to whom 
there is a temple at Penth be- 
tween Ndshik and Fund. In front 
of this range of caves is a good plat- 
form, at the left end of which are 
stairs or rather notches in the rock, 
which lead to the Sntdr'^s or Carpenter's 
Cave. Here is a recumbent Buddha, 
near a group of smaller figures. Se- 
veral inscriptions in a large character, 
rudely executed, are on the pillars and 
other parts of the excavation. 

The following description is ex- 
tracted from the '* Journal of the 
Bombay Asiatic Society " for January, 
1850, vol. iii. p. 65, and is from the 
pen of the late Dr. John Wilson, Pre- 
sident of the above Society. It adds 
to what has been given above some 
particulars of importance : — "NAshik* 
is an important place in the Hindii 
traditions, particularly those connected 
with the i)rogrcss of RAma, and there 
can be little doubt of its antiquity, as 
it is mentioned by the name which it 
now bears in Ptolemy's ' Geography.'! 
The principal excavations of the place 
are situated on a hill, named from 
them Pandu Lend, about 5 miles to the 
S.S.W. of the town, and overhanging 
the Bombay road. When we first had 
an opportunity of seeing them — on the 
loth of March, 1831 — we wrote thus 
respecting them : — ' They are decidedly 
Buddhist, and are very extensive. 
They scarcely fall short in interest, 
taking them as a whole, of those of 
Elephanta and Edrll. The view from 
them in the direction of the E. and 
S.E. extends for many miles, and com- 
mands the range of some very sublime 
mountains of the trap or basaltic for- 
mation. The figures in the caves are 
in a state of good preservation. They 
are those of Buddha. The principal 

* NasMk is the Mara^lia form, and is there- 
fore used in this book, 
t Ptolemy's *' Geography," lib. vii. 



ones have been newly painted and 
oiled, preparatory to an approaching 
Jdtrd. There is nothing Brdhmanical 
about them ; but as there are no Budd- 
hists in this part of India to come near 
them, the Brihmans. for the sake of. 
their own gain, encourage the J4tr&. 
When we next visited them — on the 
5th of June, 1840 — we were particu- 
larly struck, without altering alto- 
gether our opinion of their Buddhist 
origin, with the comparatively modem 
character of their architectural forms, 
which, though of inferior execution 
and less ornate, resemble those which 
have been called the Indrasabhd group 
at Elilira. They awakened witlmi us 
a sort of mysterious feeling, which we 
have only got solved to a certain ex- 
tent by the following notice of the 
Indrasabhd group in Mr. Fergusson's 
interesting paper : — * The sculptures to 
this group have hitherto proved a 
stumbling-block to antiquaries, and 
no fixed opinion seems to have been 
arrived at regarding them. Buddhist 
they certainly are not, or at all events 
of so degenerate a type as scarce to 
deserve that name. Nor are they 
Br4hmanical ; and though they cer- 
tainly resemble Jaina sculpture more 
than any other, I do not think they 
can be correctly ascribed to that sect 
either, at least as we know it. In no 
place in these caves do the 24 Tirthan' 
hirs appear, nor have the cross-legged 
figures the symbols which almost in- 
variably accompany these worthies, 
and are the only means of distinguish- 
ing one from another. If, however, I 
am correct in supposing Jainism to be 
a sort of compromise between the other 
two religions, which did not acquire 
its present form and consistency till 
after the downfall of the Buddhists, 
when they were joined by most of that 
sect who had not embraced the do- 
minant religion ; these caves are doubly 
interesting as showing us the religion 
in a state of transition from one set of 
tenets to another.' Of the age of the 
Jaina faith we here say nothing ; but 
that the Nishik caves must have ori- 
ginated after some revival of Buddh- 
ism following the great victory of the 
Brahmans over that faith, and that 



Sect. 11. 



RovUe 18. — Ndahih 



283 



thcj belong to some system of transi- 
tion and compromise, we think evi- 
dent, not only from their architectural 
character resembling those at Eli!ira 
here referred to by Mr. Fergusson, 
but from one of those inscriptions for- 
warded to us by Dr. Gibson in 1836, 
and also given, by Dr. Bird, from 
a transcript by Mr. H. W. Reeyes, 
C.S. «That inscription is in Sanskrit, 
' though not of the purest character, 
and though Dr. Stevenson, who has 
correctly given the scope of it to Dr. 
Bird, thinks from his interpretation of 
its general astronomical date, it points 
to a construction about B.C. 453, it 
yet seems evident, from its contents as 
noticed by Dr. Bird, that it indicates 
such a state of matters as may be sup- 
posed to have existed when Buddhism 
was becoming somewhat assimilated to 
the rites of the Shaiva Mdrgls.* It 
refers very distinctly to the BrAhmans, 
and several of their distant and proxi- 
mate holy places, and to several of 
their customs and legends. The fol- 
lowing notes refer to the details of the 
Ndshik caves, which hare not jet been 
fully enumerated. They commence 
with the N. extremity, or that on the 
right hand as the visitor ascends the 
hill : — 1. Unfinished compartment, 
with a few steps, but without figures. 
Workmanship modern in appearance. 
2. Chamber with three 4 ft. figures of 
Buddha seated with attendants, with 
cIvaunrU (fans made of the Tibet cow*s 
tail), and giving their blessing. 3. A 
square hall of about 17 by 19 paces, 
with a dahgop of about 13 ft. project- 
ing from the wall opposite the door, 
and with 18 monks' cells at the sides. 
At the corners of the dahgop are two 
figures with chaunris. In the front of 
this excavation are three doors and 
pillars, one of which is broken. They 
are supported by six giants (from the 
breast upwards) ; and on their capitals 
are the figures of the heads of bulls, 
elephants, lions, owls, goats, and of a 
man and woman. There are two cells 
in the verandah. 4. A tank (?) 6. 
Four cells of monks, with two pillars, 
and two pilasters in front, on the ca- 

* BirtVs " Historical Researches," p. 61. 



pitals of which are elephants, cows, 
lions, and antelopes. 6. Square hall 
like No. 3, with 16 cells, and a dahgop 
projecting from the wall opposite the 
entrance. In the middle of the dah- 
gop there is a Buddha wearing a sliMd^ 
about 6^ ft high, and two female at- 
tendants like &ncing girls, frequently 
carved within and without Hindii 
temples. On the capitals of the six 
pillars at the entrance are figures of 
elephants, lions, bulls, and owls* heads. 
Above the three doors are large in- 
scriptions. There are two cells in the 
verandah, with inscriptions above the 
doors. 7. An apartment communi- 
cating with that last mentioned, with 
three figures of Buddha, one of which 
is on an elephant, one on a lion, with 
two small figures, and one squatted, 
with lion's head with curious ears be- 
low. 8. Six cells. 9. A small room, 
with Buddha seated in the centre, and 
with two attendants, one of which is 
destroyed. On the S. side are two 
small squatted Buddha figures, sup- 
ported by two men bearing a lotus. 
Above there is a room nearly inacces- 
sible, with three figures of Buddha, 
coarsely painted by the Brdhmans. 
10. Boom of about 14 paces by 9, with 
a dahgop near the further end. The 
roof is carved, as if arched. There are 
17 pillars, and two of them have in- 
scriptions. There is a cJuinnri bearer 
near the door. 11. This is a room of 
about 16 by 9^ paces. It is reached 
by an ascent of a few steps, leading 
from No. 10 to the right. It has six 
cells ; at the entrance of one the Brdh- 
mans have constructed apocryphal 
imag^ of Ganeslia and Hanum&n. 
This cell also contains a seat cut in 
the rock of about eight paces in length. 
It has two piUars, and two pilasters, 
with figures, like some of those already 
mentioned in the front. 12. Large col- 
legiate hall of 29 by 17 paces, with a 
platform, 4 in. high, for the teacher, 
and a seat for the pupils running along 
the excavation, except in front. There 
are 21 cells off this room, but without 
couches. One of them has a small in- 
scription. Behind there is a compart- 
ment, having an inscription in front, 
with two elegant pillars, and two pi- 



284 



Rovie 18. — Bombay to Ndsldh 



Sect. II. 



lasters, with a Buddha seated as if lec- 
turing his disciples, and two chohdars 
with cluiunrisy and two pages or 
dwarfs. There are six pillars in the 
entrance to this hall; but some of 
them are completely worn away by 
the action of water. There are two 
cells in the verandah, and an empty 
chamber above to the left. ] 3. A large 
unfinished semicircular hall, with nu- 
merous figures of Buddha, with atten- 
dants bearing channria. On the sides 

are cells with Buddhas In the 

front are five tanks. For bathing ? Is 
this a place for morning ablutions? 
These excavations may not be all of 
the same age. 2. There is another 
series of excavated temples near Nd- 
shik. They are on the hill called 
RAmshej, but according to Dr. Gibson, 
they are comparatively 'of little con- 
sequence. 3. There are one or two 
small chambers in a pass on the road 
leading between Ndshik and ChAnd- 
wad." 

The following is a translation by 
Dr. Stevenson of the only one of the 
inscriptions that has as yet been satis- 
factorily made out : — 

" To the Perfect Being. May this 
prove auspicious 1 By the son of King 
KshapArdta, ruler of the K§hatriya 
tribe and protector of men, the Lord 
Dinika, resplendent as the mom, a gift 
of a hundred thousand cows along with 
the river BanAsd, and also a gift of 
gold, even by him the constructor of 
this holy place for the gods, and for 
the Brdhmans to mortify the passions. 
There is not so desirable a place even 
at PrabhAsa, where hundreds of thou- 
sands of BrAhmans go on pilgrimage 
to repeat sacred verses, nor at the pure 
city of Gaya, where Brdhmans go, nor 
at the steep hill at Ddsapura, nor the 
serpents' field at Govardhana, nor at 
the city of Pratisraya, where there is 
a Buddhistical monastery, nor even at 
the edifice built by Depanakara on the 
shore of the freshwater sea. This is 
a place which confers incomparable 
benefits, wholly pleasing, well fitted 
for the spotted deer-skin of the ascetic. 
A safe boat has been provided by him, 
the maker also of a free ferry, which 
daily plies to the well supported bank. 



By him also, the constructor of a house 
for travellers, and a public reservoir of 
water, a gilded lion (deer ?) has been 
set up at the crowded gate of this 
Govardhana, another also .at the ferry, 
and another at Bdmatlrtha. For lean 
cattle within the bounds of the village 
there are various kinds of food, for 
such cattle more than a hundred kinds 
of grass, and a thousand mountain 
roots, given by this bounteous donor. 
In this very Govardhana, in the radiant 
mountains, this excavation was ordered 
to be made by the same charitable per- 
son. And these venerated by men, 
namely, the 8im^ Sukra^ and Rdhu 
were in their exultation in that year 
when the gift was bestowed. Lali^kmi^ 
Indra^ and Yama also consecrated it 
(in Vaishdkha), and the couch was set 
up on the most fortunate day of the 
month, BhMrapad. Thereafter, these, 
Lnltfhmi, Indra, and Yama departed 
with a shout of triumph for their ex- 
cellent easy car, sustained by the force 
of incantatory verses, on the unbroken 
road. When all their retinue had de- 
parted and was gone, there fell a 
shower of water before the army, 
which, being purified and having de- 
parted and having passed over with 
the thousand cows, approaches the 
village.*' 

In the Trans, of , the 2nd session of 
the International Congress of Orien- 
talists held in London, 1874, at p. 306 
is a paper on the NAshik Cave Inscrip- 
tions by Prof. Kdmkrishna GopAl 
Bhandarkar, which should be consulted. 
From his translations he infers that in 
the early centuries of the Christian 
era Buddhism was fiourishing in this 
part of India (NAshik). He also 
argues that the date for Gautamiputra 
who overthrew the Sdh dynasty, is 
319-340 A.D. The inscriptions refer to 
charitable gifts of land, &c., and some 
of the dates are 118, 119 and 120 A.D. 

Ib'imbak. — The third expedition 
should be to Trimbak and the sources 
of the GodAvarl river. The villages 
on the road are as follows : — 1. Sha- 
ranpiir, 2} m. ; 2. Sdtpi!ir, li^ m. ; 3. 
PipalgAoii, 2 m.; 4. Mahirawani, 2^ 
m. ; 5. Khambali, 3} m. ; 6. Unjawari, 
2\ m. ; 7. PengalwAdl, 2 m.; 8. Trim- 



Sect. IT. 



RoiUe 18. — Ndshih 



285 



bak, 3 m. ; total, 191 m. This is a 
very bad road, and impracticable in 
wet weather. There is, before reach- 
ing Pipalg4oii,aN41ah with deep mud 
impassable in the rains, which will 
perhaps tak^ half an hour to cross, 
where the assistance of 2 or 3 strong 
men will be required to push the 
wheels, as the horses cannot struggle 
through unaided. There is another 
Ndlah, with a rocky bed, 200 yds. be- 
yond this one. The road is yery bad 
all the way from Pipalg&o&. Just 
before Mafalrawani there is a stream 
with a rocky bed, to cross which you 
must go off the road and get the help 
of at least 3 strong men. The change 
of horses will be a little beyond Kham- 
bal^, where there is a large tree under 
which breakfast may be taken. Lofty 
hills rise on the left over Unjaneri, 
where tigers, panthers, and 'bears may 
be found. The black partridge will be 
here heard crying on all sides, and 
gigantic adjutants may be seen stand- 
ing over the fields and swallowing frogs 
and occasionally a snake. There are 
several stone-faced wells on this route, 
andatNirw4di,on the rightof the road, 
is a beautiful tank lined with stone, 
and with stone steps and 2 small pa- 
godas buUt by Ahalya B4i. It is 17 ft. 
deep, and about 4 acres in area. On 
a hUl opposite is a large brick house. 
Near W^di 2 conical hills, about 900 
ft. high, face each other on either side 
of the road. From these the hills run 
in fantastic shapes to Trimbak, where 
they form a gigantic crescent from 
1200 to 1500 ft. high. Below this wall, 
which has near the top a scarp of 
nearly 100 ft, is Trimbak. The road 
runs W. and by S. the whole way, and 
Trimbc^ is only 2 m. from the Gh^^s. 
It is a small town of about 3000 in- 
habitants. The Goddvari rises in the 
N. comer of the mountains, at a place 
called Gang4 Dwdr, where is a temple 
to Shiva, and is said to disappear and 
to rise again about 200 ft. down. The 
ascent to the temple is by a precipitous 
path, at the worst part of which there 
are some stone steps 2 ft. broad. Here 
you look down 600 ft., and altogether 
it is a dangerous route ; but the In- 
dians of the place think nothing of it, 



and a man goes every 12 hours to do 
the service at the Shiva temple. The 
actual source of the Goddvari is a dis- 
puted matter, as some allege that it 
rises on the other side of the mountain, 
4 m. off. Trimbak has its name from 
Tri, "three," and AvihaJc, "eye;" 
three-eyed being a name of Shiva. 
The temple of Trimbakeshwar, which 
is on the £. side of the town, not far 
from where the Ndshik road enters the 
town, was built by the great B&ji Rdo 
Peshwk, who died April 28, 1740. It 
cost £90,000. It stands in a stone in- 
closure, which has no corridor, but a 
portico, which is the Music Gallery, 
and is 40 ft. high. The ascent is by 
steps outside, and strangers are per- 
mitted to mount in order to see the 
temple, which none but Hindiis may 
enter. The inclosure is 267 ft. long 
from B. to W., and 214 ft. broad from 
N. to S. The temple itself is 102 ft. 
long from E. to W.,and 66 ft. from K. 
to S. It consists of the same parts as 
that of Sundar Ndr^yan at Ndshik, but 
is built of a darker stone, and the ady- 
tum has 13 flutes on either side. On 
the top are 4 cones of copper-gilt. The 
spire is 84 ft. high. At the W. end of 
the inclosure is a tank 25 ft. long an.d 
two trees, and at the E. end a sn^fdl 
temple to Nandi, with several trees. 
Nearer the hUls is a larger tank, with 
a temple to Ksheti Adipadi or Trisan- 
deshwar. N. of the temple and out- 
side the town is a hill called Nir 
Parwat, and between is a temple to 
Indra, called Indratirt;h, and another 
to Kedareshwar or Kusawati. The 
Goddvari here for J- of m. from the 
large temple towards the hills, is 15 ft. 
broad, with stone sidings. The water 
is dirty. After that distance you come 
to a fine stone tank, 120 ft. sq., sur- 
rounded on 3 sides by a portico 25 ft. 
high, with a pagoda at each comer. 
Close to it is a stone inclosure full of 
filthy water, into which the leaves 
offered to the deities are thrown and 
there decompose. At the S. end is a 
temple to Shiva. There used to be a 
fort on the top of the mountain, but 
no Bigns of it are visible now. 

Tlie traveller should not leave NAphik 
without visiting Sharampilir, which is 



286 



Houte 19. — Ndshil- to JahalpHr. 



Sect. TI. 



in the missioiiary quarter. The mission 
was founded by the Church Missionary 
Society in 1885, in the Jtindwddi port 
of Ndshik, and was moved to Sharam- 
piir by Mr. W. S. Price in 1865. Since 
the establishment of the Government 
High School at N^Wiik in 1872, the 
missionary school has fallen off. There 
was an African Asylum, which closed 
in 1875, and Mr. Mce took the boys 
to the E. coast of Africa opposite Mom- 
baz, where a colony is established for 
redeemed slaves. The large school- 
room, well built of brick, is used as a 
church. There are upwards of 30 boys 
in the school. In the second room are 
upwards of 20 boys, from 7 to 11, 
chiefly of the Dhe): caste ; in another 
room are about 20 girls, from 9 to 13, 
who can read the 6th Mardthl book 
fluently and parse correctly. They 
can write in Mardthi very tolerably. 
There is a 4th room with about 20 little 
girls, all Mhdrs, the lowest caste. 
There is a workshop where smiths' and 
carpenters' works are done, and even 
tongas are built there. 

Ndshik may be called theW. Ba- 
ndras, as the God^vari is termed the 
GangA— "Ganges." All HindTis of 
rank on visiting it leave a record of 
their visit with their Up&dhyd, or 
*' family priest," for each noble family 
has such a priest at each celebrated 
place of pilgrimage. In this record 
are entered the names of the visitor's 
ancestors, and thus the pedigree of 
every Hindii chief is to be found in 
the keeping of these Upddhyds. Even 
Jang Bahadur, the late ruler of Nip&l, 
had his Up^hy^ at Ndshik, and it is 
easy to see what a means this forms 
of procuring information in a way 
utterly unknown to the European 
officials. The present Gdekwdd owes 
his seat on the throne to this custom, 
for when the G4ekwdd of Baroda was 
deposed and an heir sought for, the 
family Upddhyd at Ndshlk supplied 
proofs of the young prince's legitimate 
descent from Pratdp B&o, brother of 
Dum^ji, the Srd Gdekwdd. 



ROUTE 19. 

Ki.SHIK TO JABALPT^B. 

Although Jabalptir is in Central In- 
dia, yet as it forms the terminus of 
the G. I. P. Bailway, which is essen- 
tially a Bombay railway, an account 
of it will be given here. Those who 
have time to stop a couple of days at 
Manmdd, may pay a visit to Chandiir 
to the N., which is 13 m. distant, and 
to Ankai Tankai, 6 m. to the S. Ar- 
rangements must be made with the 
collector of Ndshik for a conveyance 
previously. Chandwad or Chandtir, 
is a flourishing town containing a pop. 
of 5662. On the E. is a range of hills, 
on the W.'a cultivated plain. Accord- 
ing to the Tatwa, a Hindii book, the 
country of the Mar&^has terminates 
with the Chandwad Hills ; and beyond 
is Khindesh. One of the grandest 
peaks of this range is that which, 
overlooking the town of Chdndwad, is 
crowned with an ancient fort, much 
mentioned in Mul^ammadan and Ma- 
rdtha wars. This fort was captured, 
after slight resistance, by Colonel 
Wallace, in 1804, who thus describes 
it: "The hill on which it stands, or 
rather whichforms the fort, is naturally 
the strongest I ever saw, being quite in- 
accessible everywhere but at the gate- 
way, where alone it is fortified by art, 
and where it is by no means weak. 
There is but one entrance of any kind." 
It was subsequently restored to Hol- 
kar, but in 1818 surrendered to a 
detachment of Sir Thomas Hislop's 
army. It is remarkable that Holkar 
is the Pdtll of this place ; and there is 
a fine building in the centre of the 
town, called the Raftg Ma^al, where 
his family resided. 

Anitai Tankai. — Twelve m. S.E. of 
Chdndwad are the Hill-forts and Cavei 
of Ankai Tanka% which are in the 
Patodd T'alu|:, and are thus described 
by Major (afterwards Sir George) 
Wingate. Ankai is a small deserted 
viUage, under the Hill-fort of the same 
name.. The former inhabitants wei'e 



Sect IT. 



Itoute 19. — AnJcai Tanl-ai. 



287 



mostly on the fort establishment, and 
on this being broken up, had to pro- 
ceed elsewhere in search of a subsis- 
tence. Behind the village, about 100 
ft. higher on the hill, is a small series 
of seven or eight cave temples, all 
evidently Buddhist, and belonging to a 
late age, like the Indra Sabhd at 
Eli!ira. These caves all adjoin each 
other, and beginning from the W. end 
of the series are as follows. 1. A 
small cave, in the style of a Hindii 
temple, having the top supported by 
four square, carved columns. The 
shrine is empty, but the doorway is 
sculptured with male and female 
figures, most of them having some- 
thing like a human head in one hand, 
and the palm of the other hand turned 
outwards. The outer doorway of the 
cave, communicating with the front 
verandah, is sculptured over with 
small naked figures of Buddha in a 
sitting posture, like those of the Indra 
SabhA at Eliira. There is an upper 
apartment to this cave, but without 
sculptures. 2. A small but rather 
e^borately carved cave. At each end 
of the front verandah is a colossal 
figure, but so covered up with rubbish 
as to be only partly visible. That to 
the W. is apparently a figure of Buddha, 
with a pyramidical cap, or tiara, on his 
head. Hie figure at the opposite end 
is a female with curly hair, and Nubian 
countenance. The male figure is sculp- 
tured on a slab, which has been let 
into the rock, possibly in consequence 
of the rock itself not having been well 
suited for sculpture. The inner cave 
and shrine are very like a Hindii tem- 
ple, but without sculpture. 3. Similar 
in arrangement to the two preceding 
caves, i,e., consisting of a front veran- 
dah, an inner temple, and an inmost 
shrine. At the end of the front ve- 
randah are a male and female figure 
similar to those of No. 2. Both have 
thick-lipped Nubian countenances, and 
the female has immense circular pen- 
dants in her e.'urs, like the wooden discs 
worn by some of the South Sea Is- 
landers. The inner apartments are 
exactly like a Hindii temple, the cen- 
tral ornament on the roof is formed of 
small figures of musicians playing on 



various kinds of instruments, and in 
another circle outside of the former, are 
figures mounted on various sorts of 
animals. On each side of the doorway 
to the shrine are upright naked figures 
with hands hanging down by their 
sides like those in the Indra Sabhd 
group at Eliira. 4. Similar in ar- 
rangement to the preceding caves, but 
without sculptures. ; There is an in- 
scription in the Devandgari character 
on one of the columns of the front ve- 
randah, but apparently of a later date 
than the cave itself. 6. Similar in 
arrangement to the others, but without 
sculptures in the temple. In the tank 
excavated underneath are two figures 
of Buddha, naked and seated in the 
cross-legged position, with hands on 
lap and soles of feet turned upwards. 
The features are Nubian. 6. Similar 
to preceding, but with doorway sculp- 
tured. 7. The same without sculp- 
tures. 

Most of these cave temples have an 
upper apartment, probably for the ac- 
conmiodation of the officiating priest, 
and a tank for water excavated under- 
neath. They are nearly all on the 
same plan, and apparently belong to 
one period. The African type of the 
faces of the sculptured figures is. very 
remarkable ; though as in the caves of 
Eliira, the noses and mouths have all 
been more or less defaced. After visit- 
ing the caves, the traveller may ascend 
to the hill-fort of Tankai. The twin 
fort immediately E. of it is called 
AUa-Palka^ and the village below 
Ankai, Both forts, however, are 
known to us as AnJuii Tankai, The 
top of the hill of Tankai must be about 
1000 ft. above the plain, and the ascent 
is very steep, great part of it being by 
steps cut in the rock. From the sum- 
mit is a magnificent view over a wide 
extent of country. Bears and panthers 
may be found by the sportsman. Ma- 
jor Wingate saw, from this hill, a 
large chitd stealing after a herd of 
cattle which were grazing below, but 
the cattle were startled, and evidently 
conscious of his proximity, and did 
not give him an opportunity of making 
his spring, though he followed them 
up closely for about half a mile to tLo 



288 



Route 19. — Ndshih to Jabaly^r. 



Sect. 11. 



very verge of the bush jangle. The 
watershed of the Tapti and God^vari 
systems of drainage occurs at the pass 
of Ankai-Tankaiy but there is no per- 
ceptible ridge, the plain being con- 
tinued through the pass to the other 
side of the hills. Almost 10 m. further 
N. is a ridge, which divides the Dak- 
han from Ehdndesh, and four or five 
m. of rather rough country sloping 
down to the plain of Kh^ndesh. The 
difference of level between the plain 
of Khdndesh under the hills, and that 
above, is not great, and Major Win- 
gate does not estimate it at more than 
150 ft. The plain of KhAndesh ap- 
pears to be everywhere covered with 
low bush jungle, which is not really 
the case, however, as a great deal of 
it is cleared. The appearance is oc- 
casioned by belts of bushes lining the 
fields, roads, and water-courses, as well 
as by the continuous bush-jungle of 
the uncultivated lands. 

At the first station out of Ndshik 
you lose sight of the NAshik Hills. At 
Manmdd there is a remarkable pyra- 
midal hill about 750 ft. high, with a 
tall obelisk-like rock at least 60 ft. 
high at the top of it. At the back of 
this hill are Ankai and Tankai. After 
this the hills sink down until they dis- 
appear. Near ChiilisgAon the water- 
shed changes, and a stream is crossed, 
flowing from S. to N. There is a thick, 
low jungle in this part of the journey. 
At Bhosdwal there is very good ac- 
commodation in the railway officers' 
rooms, which are 60 yds. in rear of the 
station. Beyond Bhos&wal, the coun- 
try is flat, with abundant cultivation. 
At Chdndin commences a beautiful 
jungle, with long grass permeated by 
fine streams of water. There are tigers 
in this jungle ; deer often come within 
30 yds. of the line. At ChandwA, 
Holkar's State Railway joins. From 
HdrdA there is an ascent all the way 
to Jabalpdr. At SuhAgpiir there is a 
tolerable restaurant, and ice may be 
obtained. 

Jahalpur. — ^Laurie's Great Northern 
Hotel is the place to stop at. It is 
about 1 m. to the E. by S. from the 
station. There are pankhAs in every 
room. The table d'hdte meals are 



Chhota H4zari, that is tea or coffee^ 
before breakfast, breakfast, tiffin and 
dinner. The 3 last at 9*30 AJi., 1*30 
P.M., and 7*30 P.M. No meals will 
be served in bedrooms unless charged 
for extra. The proprietors strictly 
object to the use of drinkables other 
than those supplied by the hotel. 
The general sitting room is upstairs, 
the dining room on the ground fioor. 
Visitors are earnestly requested not to 
ill-treat tJ^e hotel servants, and par- 
rots, &c., are not allowed in the house. 
Special accommodation is provided for 
them. For lodging and board per 
diem the charge is 5 rupees ; a private 
table for one person is charged 8 rs. 
European servants are charged 3 rs. 
a day, and Portuguese 2 rs. Each 
person is charged 8 dnds a day for ice, 
when it is procurable. A man who 
pulls the pai^4 is paid 3 4n&s during 
the day and 3 in4s more for the night. 
The washerman is paid 4 rs. for each 
hundred pieces. The first thing to be 
seen is the Marble Kocks, which are 
11 m. off. The charge for visiting 
them is for one person Rs. 10, for 2 
persons 12, for 3 persons 14, and for 4 
persons 16. The road to the Marble 
Rocks is heavy and dusty in places, 
but generally good. You go through 
the cantonments by the N4gpi!ir Road, 
and after 2 miles turn up the Nar- 
slnghpur Road. There are trees on 
both sides all the way, chiefiy mango 
trees. At 9^ m. turn left to the rocks, 
by a branch road, which fpr the last 
half mile has steep pitches distressing 
to horses, and not practicable in 
the rains. Stop at what is caUed the 
old bangle. There is a new banglA 
called the District, 200 yds. beyond, 
but you must apply to the munici- 
pality of Jabalpik for leave to stop at 
it, and you pay Rs. 2 a day instead of 
1, and cannot stop longer than three 
days. Descend 70 ft. to the river side, 
and there embark in a neat 6-oar boat 
with cushions. Four men to row and 
1 to steer are quite enough. Each 
visitor who goes in the boat pays 8 
An4s, and each man has 2 im^ besides, 
and 4 dnds are charged for the boat. 
The river in the dry season is a series 
of deep pools without current, and of 



Sect. 11. 



Eoute 19. — JahcUpiir. 



289 



a dark green, and fall of fish and alli- 
gators. The latter do not come out on 
the rocks tDl the sun is high, when 
they bask, and might be shot at, were 
it not for the bees. There are masses 
of pigeons, too, and water fowl, but 
shooting has its perils, for there are 
hornets' nests and bees' nests. These 
quickly attack sportsmen who fire 
guns and make a noise. Just at the 
end of the pools, at a place called the 
Monkey's Leap, 2 young railway engi- 
neers were attacked by bees as they 
were shooting. One got ashore and 
ran ofE with the natives into the 
jungle, and though much stung, es- 
caped death. The other jumped into 
the water and dived, and though a 
good swimmer, was drowned, for when 
he came up the bees attacked him 
again, and would not leave him till he 
sank. The nests are quite black, and 
more than a yard long. The cliffs 
are of white marble, which, when 
broken, is bright and sparkling, but 
the outside is discoloured by the wea- 
ther. You pass first under the new 
bangld and several white temples, the 
cliffs being 80 ft. high. The water is 
said by the people of the place to be 
here 150 ft. deep. You then turn at 
right angles to the right up a narrow 
gorge, and row about 1 m., when you 
come to barrier rocks, which intercept 
the stream, and no boat can pass 
further in the dry season. In the rains 
the river rises 30ft., and is then a 
mighty toijent, and very dangerous. 
About a quarter of a mile up, on the 
left, is an inscription in the Ndgarl 
character. The temples were built by 
M^hu KAo PeshwA. Three quarters 
of a mile on the left are curious rocks 
called HAthi k& Pdiiw, "elephant's 
legs," from a fancied resemblance. 
Besides the bees' and hornets' nests, 
there are many of the Ababll, or 
" swallow," and there are ' peacocks 
and hundreds of baboons ; panthers 
are very numerous. The height of 
the rocks nowhere exceeds 90. ft., and 
though the scenery is picturesque, it is 
not grand. There is a cascade j m. be- 
yond the barrier rocks called the Dhii- 
4ndhAr or '* Smoke Sheet.' ' Returning 
from the barrier rocks, it will be well to 

[Bombay— IS^O,] 



land at the new bangl4 and climb the 
cliff, which is very steep but practica- 
ble. Beyond this, 80 yds., is a flight 
of 107 stone steps, some of them 
carved, which leads to the Madanpiir 
temple, which is surrounded by a cir- 
cular stone enclosure. All round it 
are figures of Parvatl, with 1 leg in 
her lap. These figures are much mu- 
tilated. He-descend the steps, and 
walk 200 yards to the tomb of the en- 
gineer who was drowned by the bees. 
The epitaph says, ** Here lie the re- 
mains of Richard Bagster, Esq., C.E., 
in the service of the &. I. P. Railway 
Co., who was attacked by bees and 
drowned in the river NirbadA, near 
this spot, on the 1st of May, 1859, 
aged 29 years." 

If the traveller desire to see the 
Jail at Jabalpi!ir and the Thag School, 
he must apply to the collector for a 
pass. The Jail stands in the lines, and 
contains from 900 to 1000 prisoners, 
of whom about 60 are women. There 
are excellent workshops here. The 
prisoners learn to make daris, or 
striped cotton cloths, in 6 weeks. A 
darl costs 4 rs., and is made by 2 men 
in 3 days. The oil pressing is very 
hard labour. The prisoners turn a 
huge pestle by a sort of capstan and 
crush the seed, from which oil, thatlooks 
like soap and water, flows out. The drop 
here is only 4 ft. from, the ground, and 
the fall is only 2J ft., so that the 
criminal is said to be sometimes G 
minutes in dying. The School of In- 
dustry was founded in 1835 to reclaim 
Thags. The Goindahs, or " Informers," 
were placed here. Almost all the old 
hands have died out, but the widows 
and children remain. Originally there 
were 2600, but there are now only 
1000, chiefly women and children. 
Tent making, thread and rope making, 
smith's and carpenter's work are the 
chief employments. The work people 
live in villages, but come daily to 
work from 7 till six. The building is 
in a vast enclosure, and the people work 
in sheds all round. It is doubtful 
whether Government can ever release 
even the descendantsof these people lest 
the fearful traditions of their former 
trade of murder should be revived. 



290 



Houte 20,—^\ind^doii to Elura, 



Sect. II. 



ROUTK 20. 

NANDGAOir TO ELiJBA. 

The journey fromKdndgdon to Eliira 
bj mail toDga for a gentleman costs 
Bs. 10, and for a servant Rs. 4 ; for a 
special tonga to oneself the charge is 
lis. 20, and for a bullock cart to carry 
the heavy luggage Rs. 5. The station at 
Ndndgdon is very comfortable. There 
is a good refreshment room, with a 
lavatory, and the T. B., with three 
rooms, is 75 yds. in rear of the station. 
The stages are as follows : — 



From i To 

1 


Miles. 


Nindgaon 
Tarora . 
Deogion . . 
Fat^ibad 
Mitmatlia . . 


Tarora . 

Deogaofi . . . 
Fat^dbad . 
Mitmatlia . . 
Aurangabad 

Total . . . 


13 
22 

8 
10 

3 


56 



A little beyond the 4th milestone 
from Ndndgaon is the bed of a torrent 
60 ft. broad, with steep banks, where 
the traveller will have to alight, as it 
is very difficult for the horses to get 
up the steep incline. At the 12th m. 
is a large circular pile of stones, about 
7 ft. high, which shows where English 
territory marches with the Ni^lm's. 
From this pile one can see Tarora, but 
the road winds very much to it. The 
bangla stands outside the wall of the 
village, but within a wall of its own, 
upwards of 5 ft. high, with steps to 
ascend it and descend it on the 
other side. This enclosure is not 
without its advantages, as tigers some- 
times walk along the road at night. 
Horses are changed at the 12th mile- 
stone before reaching Tarora. llicre 
are several changes of horses in the 
next long stage, and the 5th takes 
place at Sindhiwald, a small village, 
and the 6th at a deserted bangld 
where the civil engineer used to live. 
Tliere is a very good bridge here over 
the Derkoh river, with the names of 



Armstrong, Green, and Pope upon it, 
and the <£ite 1874. Deogdoii is 6 m. 
beyond this, and just before reaching 
it is a stream, which is easily passed. 
Tliere is a T. B. at Deogdon. llie 8th 
change takes place at Fatl^dbdd, 
where, 250 J^ds. to the right of the 
road is a Dargdh, or " shrine," with 2 
old tombs about 38 ft. high. A stream 
flows between the road and these 
buildings, and waters a garden full of 
beautiful trees. In the tombs the 
chain and bell are carved. At about 
IG^ m. from Aurangdbdd a road turns 
oi¥ to the left to Ro^ah. The T. B. at 
Aurangdbdd is close to the church. 
From this city Eliira, Daulatdbdd and 
Ajanta may be visited. For a descrip- 
tion of them, and the routes to them, 
see Murray's " Madras Handbook.' 



»» 



ROUTE 21. 

NANDQAoit TO AHMADXAGAB, 
JUNNAB, AND PUNA. 

From Ndndgdon to Aurangabdd, 
the stages have already been given in 
the preceding Route. The stages to 
Aljimadnagar are as follows : — 



From ' To 


Miles. 


Aurangiibnd . 
Baliid . . 
Deygdon . 
Tok . . . 
Wonddl . 
Im&mpur . . . 


Balud . 
Deygaou . . . 

XOK ■ • • 

Wondal . . . 
Iinanipur . 
A^madnagar . . 

Total . . 


• 

8 

5} 

lU 
15 

14 

12 


66 



For the first 6 m. the ,road is very 
heavy and dusty. Strings of buUodk 



Sect. II. 



Route 21. — Ahmadiiagar. 



291 



carts are met, which greatly impede , 
progress, as the cartmen are always I 
on the wrong side and will not get \ 
out of the way. The first change of \ 
horses is at Baliid, where is the tomb l 
of a saint named Saiyid S^ldr, and 
the remains of a fine gateway, leading 
to buildings among trees. After this, 
pass on the right the small fort of 
Dewalg^ii and the large Tillage of 
Acudari, 2 m. to the right. The T. B. 
at Deyg&on is 200 yds. off the road 
to the left. After leaving this, pass 
the Tillage of Soldgdon on the left, 
and come to the Seoul river, where 
change horses. There is a steep pitch 
going down to the rlTer. The stream 
is shallow during the dry weather. At 
Tok, which is upon the Sangam, or 
confluence of the PraTra and God&Tari 
riTers, there is a comfortable T. B. 
This place is on the S. side of the 
QoddTari riTcr. The natiTes call the 
riTcr the Qang4, " Ganges." It is a 
great riTer in the rains, but in the dry 
weather it is only 30 yds. broad, with 
1 foot of water. A few hundred yards 
to the E. of the bangle is the hand- 
some granite monument of James 
Gordon, of the Madras Medical Esta- 
blishment, 20 years surgeon to the 
Residency at Ndgpiir, who died at 
Tok on the 19th of NoTcmber, 1821. 
His widow purchased 7 acres of land, 
and assigned them for the perpetual 
support of the tomb. One Saiyid 
'Usman has now the care of the tomb, 
and gets the produce of the land, but 
as the ciTil authority does not look 
after him, the place is utterly neg- 
lected. The tomb has a fine mar- 
ble tablet, and is surrounded -with a 
stone enclosure S^ft. high, which 
again is enclosed in a milk bush 
hedge, that the cattle haTe destroyed 
in places, and rubbish has accumu- 
lated within. There is a small stone 
monument besides Mr. Gordon's, but 
there is no inscription, and no one 
knows whose it is. There are 2 towers 
on the riTer's banks, with a hawser 
between them by which a feny-boat 
is worked in the rains, at which season 
the water reaches the towers, which in 
the dry weather are 40 yds. aboTe the 
stream. There are 3 Shivite temples 



near the river— -one at Tok, one at 
Eaigion, a village on the opposite 
bank, and one at Phera kd sangam. 
Aurangzib destroyed all the temples in 
this locality, and these were subse- 
quently built by Mar&thas ; but on the 
23rd of Rabl'u '1 Akhir, A.H. 1175 = 
1761 A.D., the Nijsdm's army reached 
Tok, set fire to the town, and again 
IcTclled the temples. At 12 m. from 
Tok there is a toll of 4 iuds. At 6 m. 
beyond Wonddl there is a deep riTer 
bed, with Tery heavy sand and steep 
banks. Befor reaching Imdmpiir you 
ascend a Ghdt of the same name, at 
the summit of which, about 300 ft. 
above the plain, there is a tine view. 
At the top there is a toll of 4 dnAs. 
The T. B. at ImAmpi!ir has been a 
mosque, it has 3 rooms, and is very 
comfortable. The road thence to 
Alt^madnagar is excellent. For the 
last 3 m. you pass hills and through a 
well-wooded country, though up to 
that point it is very bare. As regards 
baggage in these parts, it may be 
noticed that the authorized load at 
Aljimadnagar for a bullock cart to draw 
is 10 mans, or 823 lbs. A single mule 
or bullock carries 200 lbs., a camel 
411, and an elephant 1000 to 1200 
lbs. 

Ahmad^wgar^QS^jLBllj called Nagar. — 
The cantonment at Alj^madnagar is on 
the left of the load coming from Tok. 
The church, which is called Christ- 
church, occupies a central position in 
the cantonment, with a Boman Catholic 
Church close to it. There are two 
tablets in the church, one on either side 
of the Communion table ; one is to En- 
sign Robert Hyde Colebrooke, who was 
drowned in attempting to cross tlie 
Jamshidjl Band near Fund on the 
2l8t of October, 1847, the other is to 1 
officer and 25 sergeants and men of the 
3rd or King's Own Hussars, who died 
at this station between 1869 and 1872. 
In the Roman Catholic Church is a 
tablet to the Rev. Father Moor, bom 
in Tuscany, who died June 13th, 1851, 
of cholera, caught by attending on the 
sick. The N. I. lines are close to 
where the road from* Aurangdb^ 
enters the cantonment, and 400 yds. to 
the S.E. of them is the fort, which is 

u 2 



292 



Haute 21. — Ndndgdon to Ahmadnagar. Sect. II. 



500 yds. from E. to W. and 680 from 
N. to S. There is a NAlah between it 
and the church, which is 450 yds. to 
the E. A^madns^ar was the seat of a 
MuJI^ammadan dynasty, w