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Handbook of Co\stbuction Eqi'ipment 
Handbook oi.' ConaTKUCTtoN Pi: ant 
Cost Analysis Exoinbebing 

Mechanical & Electbicai Cost Daia 

A handbook 
Cost' Keeping and Mabaoement Ehoiwbebino 
ConaxBUCTTON Cost Ki3:ping and Management 

Hock Dbillino 

The Tbackman's Hij.peb 




Construction Equipment 



Hem. Am. Soc. C.B., Mem. A.l.M. it M.S. 

Member Yale Englnetrina Aut- 
Ottef Eaginter. Conttruction Service Co. 






CorrRiom, 1981, btthe 



ThU book U presented in lieu of a new edition of the " Hand- 
book of Conatructiod Plant " which was published in 1914. Three 
paragraphs in the pr^ace of that iMok outlined the plan of the 
vorlc in the following terms; 

" My principal reason for thinking that these notes would be 
useful to others is that I found them all but indispensaJile in 
m; own practice, and not available in other form. My justifica- 
tion for the alphabetical method of claasification is that this 
scheme admits of more rapid service on my desk tiian any other 
and I have attempted to eapplement this arrangement by a very 
full index. For encouragemeait in this plan of procedure I am 
indebted to many .of my engineering friends, who have aided by 
suggestions and useful criticisms. 

" Finally, the keynote of the book has been practical utility to 
the man who has to buy, sell or use construction pltmt, or who 
needs to know what can be done with it. The existing facts in 
the shortest time on the reader's part, rather thsji interesting 
theory and clever comparisons have been kept most in mind. Be- 
cause of this, a large wealth of material that would probably be 
of intense interest to the economist and the engineering student 
has been put aside for publication some time later if it seem de- 
sirable, but for which there is no space in this volUBie, which Wa 
grown to just double the size originally planned for it. 

" A more general idea of the scope of tlie work, its field and its 
limitations may be found in the introductory chapter which fol- 
lows the preface.'' 

The trend of evolution in construction equipment is toward 
simplification in the design of each individual machine, and a more 
specific adaptation of such design to special uses. Consequently, 
the number of types of equipment is growing year by year, and 
each type, for its particular use, is more efficient than its prede- 
cessor. Wherefore, it behooves anyone having to do with con- 
struction equipment to be up-to-date in knowledge of what is avail- 
able in the line of equipment, trtiat it costs, and how to use it. 

The prices have been revised as of 1920. A considerable amount 
of the old material which experience in estimating has shown to 
be of less than the average utility has been dropped from the book 
altc^tfaer. Mid about twicejierauch material as made up the old 


book has been, added to make the " Handbook of ConBtmction 
Equipment " about tliree times as large in content, while only 
slightly more bulliy in volume, than the " Handbook of Construe- 
tion Plant." 

The reader is very particularly rafwred to the introductory 
chapter which ehould be read by every engineer and contractor 
who buys the book, because in this chapter have been carefully 
brotight together a number of bint« and suggestimis aa to the use 
of the material for the purpdeea of the estimator. In a book 
such as this, containing a great many prices, the qDCstion is con- 
tinually being aeked ; "Are the pricei up to date; and, if not, 
what factors should be applied to make them sot" The data 
of this book are so fully given that the reader can readilj' make 
the necessary adjustments to fit the condltirais of his kicality 
and time if he will study carefullj' this chapter, entitled: "Gen- 
eral Principles Applying to Equipment" Errors in eetimatiiig are 
generally due to one or more, tisually more, of the following 
causes, viz: — 

{ 1 ) Failure (o visualize the conditions of the work. 

(2) Failure to correctly gauge the trend of prices. 

(3) The inadvertent omission of Hems because of incomplete 

(4) Altorations in design after the estimate has been made, 

under the assumption that the estimate provides enough 
leewa; to cover them. 

(G) Blunders in computation. 

(6) Chance or accident, which cannot be altogether provided 
' against by insurance. 

(7 1 Erroneous information as to conditions, such ae the work- 
ing capacity of equipment. 

(5) Bias, or the unconscious leaning due to an effort to make 

the estimate come to a certain figure. 

It is believed that if the general principles of the chapter re- 
ferred to be kept in mind the present volume, with its larger 
scope, will be more effective even than its predecessm in helping 
to remove the difficulties suggested by the above list of causes. 
If this be accomplished the author's hopes will be more than 

My sincerest acknowledgements are due to Mr. J. 6. Breaznell 
of the Construction Service Company for his painstaking and 
most excellent work in checking over prices, reducing them to & 
1920 basis, and in gathering together a vast quantity of this 

RicuAU) T. Dan/ 

15 William Street, New York, N. Y. 

General Pbinciples Applying to Equipmeni .... 1 
Substitution of e(tuipm«nt for hand labor — Varia- 
tion of equipment prices and labor eo*te — Index prices 
of wholesale commoditieii — Effect of war on prices — 
Uee of co«t data — Depreciation of eqiiipmcBt— Method 
of figuring coett and conditMne governing the proper 
selection of equipment — Object of the book. 


General use of air compressors — 'Air c«nBiiinptio:i of 
drills — Compre«»ed air plant for contractin«r — Types 
of air compreBsoTH — Cunt of compressor installation — 
AuxiHary machinery tor compreeaor plant — PorWjle 
air compressors — Care of compreeaors — Transmiasion 
of compressed air. 

Asbestos ... 38 

Asbestos building felt, board, wood and cement. 

Asphalt Plants 39 

Portable asplialt plaJita — Coat of laying asphalt — 
Municipal repair plants — Asphalt paving and repairing 
equipment — Asphalt tools. 

AUTOMOBILEa ■ . 411 

Passenger cars, depreciation and cost of maintaining. 

BACKriLLLxo Machines . . . -"il 

Dragline hackfllling maphines — rBackfllling wagons — 
BBekfllling with a road roller. 

Bab Cuttbhb .'i(i 

Manufactured and home made, 

Baeaes asd Scowh , , ~i7 

Types of barges — Cost new and maintenance costB 
of barges — Steel barges —Comparison of steel, untreat- 
ed and treated wood barges — Quarter lioats. 

Barb 70 

Crow, lining, claw and tamping bars. 
Belting tor VowEtt Pibposkr 70 

Leaither. rnhber, and canvas belts — Link belts. . 

vil ■' ' ^'"^'S'^' 


Bending Machinis 

Bar and Btitrup benders — Bar crimpers — Angle bend- 
era — Power bending machines — Home-made devices — 
Pipe bending maehines. 


Portable bins — Oravul screens — Portable bin* for 
concrete aggregates. 

Blacksmith Shop Outfit ■...'.. 

Tools in outfit for general work. 
BLASTino Machines and Supplies 

Blasting machines — Thawin? kettles — Augers^— Caps, 
fuse, wire, etc., for blasting — Blasting mats. 


Metal and wooden blocks for wire and manila rope. 

Blue Pbint Machines 

Machines, frames and racks for blue prints. 

Types of boilers for construction plant — Care of boil- 
er8--Boiler room tools. 

Bbtck Rattles 


Types of buckets — Bucket handling machines — Buck. 

et excavator — Bucket dredgeti — Cost of operating 

bucket dredges. 

Buildings 1 

Portable buildings — Dry house — Car camps— Porta- 
ble bunkhouses — Description of construction camp — 

Metal garages. 


Description, use and cost of cableways — Types of 
carriers — Towers for cableways — A rock transporting 
cable way. 

Types of dump cars — Cost of handling earth on cars 
— I^pe of cars used in concrete plant — Depreciation 
and repairs. 

Cahtb 146 

Use of carts — Cost of handling earth with carts — 
Types of carts — A motor cart. 


Cement Gun 152 

DescriptioD and operation of cement gun — Cost ol 
cement gun work. 

Cement Testinq Apparatub 159 

Ohairb leo 

Cost of chtuu — Table of weights, etrengtb, etc, of 

Chain Bloces 163 

Types of chain, blocks — Care of chain blockB. 

Chutes 165 

Kinds and uses of chutes. 

CoNCBffTB Placing Bquipxent 167 

Buckets, hoppers, chutes and equipment for gravity 
placing plants— Comparison of steel and wooden towers 
— Description of portable plant — Gravity plant on a 

CoRCBETE Sidewalk and Curb Forms 161 

Forms and tools for sidewalk and curb work. 

CohVetobs 186 

Belt conveyors — Equipment tor conveyor 
Elevators — Goat of operating conveyors — Portable 


Types of crushers — Portable rigs — Repairs to crush- 
ers—Cost of crusher plants — Comparison of jaw and 
gyratory crushers. 

T^pes of derricks — Cost of derrick work — Special 
uses ot derriefcs — Cost of derrick repairs. 

DiviHQ Ol-tpits 249 

Description of outflts — Selection of diving apparatus 
— Notes on diving. 

Dbao Scbapeb ExcAVAToaa 264 

Description of excavators— Cost of scraper work — 
T^pes of drag scrapers— Buckets for use with drag 
scrapers — Cable way excavator a — Tower excavators — 
Self-contained madiines or draglines — Cost of dragline 

Drawing Boards 282 

r:„i- j-,G(.K)tjl>J 


Typea of ilre(lgeH--CoBt of dredge excuvfltion — Oper- 
ation ot V. S. Army diedges — Ladder dreilgea — Hy- 
draulic dredscB — Selection and operation of dredging 


Types of hand drills — Electric air drills — Cost of 
diill repairii— Drill sharpeners — Submarine drilla — 
. Drill wagons— Chan iielers— Pinion drills — Chum driirs 
— Cost of drilling — Auger drills — Wash boring — Dia- 
mond drilling— Shot drills — Sounding rigs — Sand 

Electbic Motoks 

Alternating and dirMt current motors. 
Elevating Gbadebs ... 

Types of st*am enginch for construction plant — ^Es- 
timating horse power — Oasolint engines — Care of gas- 
oline engines in free/inj; leather 

ExFLosiiES ,373 

Kinds and uses of ev plosives — F\plo8ives store 
houses — Maga/ ines 

Fire Eqlipmfnt . , 380 

Chemical engines— Extinguishers— Fire hose and tlt- 

FoRGES 383 

FoRKfl 383 

Forms . 384 

Building, wall and foundation, and column forms. 

1 Ketti-es 385 

TyppM of furnaces and kettles. 

nsfi Machines 3Ra 

B of scrapers for grading — Handling of earth by 


?l and Fresno scrapers— Hoad drags — GradOTs— Rull- 
dosing — Spreader plow» — Shrinkage of earth embank- 


O ravel heaters — Sand dryers — Rigs for thawing 
■ ground. 


Hoisiina Enqinbs 433 

Steam aiid el«clrie hoisting engfnei — Cost of operat- 
ing hoista — Gasoline hoiata — Air hoist — Traction pow- 

H018T8 444 

Material elevators and building hoists. 


Coat of maintaining horsea and mules — Estimating 
the cost of teaming. 

Hose 457 

Water and steam hose. 

Htdraiiuc MiNiisa Giamts ' . . 459 

Jacks 461 

Hydraulic and screw jacks. 

Lead - . . 482 

Lrad, lead wool and lead it*— Cost of pneumatic 

Lktels 465 

Lights 485 

Contractora' lights and t«rchca — PortaJtile electric 
lighting plants. 

Locomotive CnAJtEa - 471 

Types of cranes — Tractor cranes — Auto cranes — Pile 
driving attachniNits. 

IxicoMonvEa 477 

Tractive force of locomotives — Types of locomotives 
for conatruction work — Gaeoline locomotives—Life and 
waintainance costs of locomotives. 

MiCHifB Shop Outfit 486 

Lathes, etc., for contra tors' shop — Portable shop 
mounted on auto chKseis — Shop beatk 

:^lIXERs 493 

Cta^iaes of concrete mixcra — Heating attachment 
for millers — Cost and repairs of mixera — Pleating 
mixer plant — Pneumatic miser. 


MoTOB Tbucks SIO 

Formulaa of transportation costs — Bodies fpr trucki 
— Uses of trucks — Cost of truck operation-— Coat of 
operating trucks and trailers — Other costs of truck op- 

Paint Spbatimo Equipbient '. S30 

Spraying outfits — Tests ot machines. 

PAOLINB . fi34 

Photocbaphy S35 

Use of photography in construction work. 

Picks and Mattocks 636 

PiEB AND Foundation Equipment 637 

Cost of erecting piers and foundations. 
Pile Dbivebb 640 

Types of drivers — Cost of pile driving. 
Piling 647 

Cost of sheet and round piling — Method of pulling 
piling — Types of sheet piling — Concrete piles. 

Pipe 564 

Pipe — Cost of pipe laying — Equation of pipes. 

Pipe Line Tools 572 

Plant Rental Chabgbs . . 574 

Bent of construction equipment. 

Plows 584 

Types of plows for construction work — Cost of rip- 
ping pavement with plows. 

Post Hole Diooebs 588 

Powee 589 

Comparative cost of gasoline, steam, gas and elec- ' 
tricity for small powers. 

Pumps 507 

Classification and use of pumpt — Pnlsometer pumps 
— Hand pumps — Pumping units. 

Bails and Tracks 611 

Rail and track supplies — Depreciation of track- 
Portable railways. 

REFSiGEBATitra Plant 

RlVETINO GUHB . . , . 

Road Makino Equipmekt 

Equipment and coat of road conatructioii plant. 

l^fpM of rolien — Cost of msintenHice and operatioii 

of Bteam rollers — Cost of operating a gasoline roller. 

Kinds of wire rope, dimensions end etren^hs — Life 
of wire cable-^Directionn for splicing — Manila and 
Bittal rope~Tensile atrengtha of manila and wire rope 

Sand Blast Machines 

Cost of equipment — Coat of sand blast trork. 

Band and Obatel Washers 


, Portable aawa, woodworkers and saw rigs — Saw 

mills — Outfits for cutting off piles. 

Portable and track scales. 

Typea of Hcarifiera—Cost of ripping pavement with 



Sand and coal screens — Home-made _ wagon side 

Hand ahovela — Study of shoveling aa applied to min- 
ing — Steam ahovela — Reaulta of extenaive study of 
shovel work — Gasoline shovels — ^Electric ahovels— -Cost 
of nhorel work — Erecting a ahovel — Derrlek exeava- 

Stone and cableway skips. 
SLEDBEa AND Hamubbs 


Sprinklers and road oiling machines. 

xiv C0N1ENT8 

Stohe Boats 729 

SniMP PuLLEBS 729 

Types of pullers — Cost of clearing land by various 

SuBVEYiNG AND Enojneeeinq Equipmem 741 

Tampebs 742 

Types of tampers — Cost of machine and hand tamp- 
ing compared — Air rammers and tampers. 

l>XEPiioNBB AND Telephone Lines 74S 

Cost of construction Hervice line. 

Tents and Tent EqriPMENT 751 

Equipment — Cost of framing and flooring tents. 

Ties' ,754 

Number of ties required for track — Life and cost of 

Tool Boses 756 

Tow Boats 757 

Cost and repairs. 

Tbactobs 760 

Steam tractors — Cost of hauling with tractors — 
Gas and oil tractors— Comparison of traction engine 
and the horse— <^ast of hauling with team and tractor 

Tbailebs 767 

Types of trailers — Cost of operating trucks and trail- 
ers — Trailer bodies. 

Tbekchinq Machines ,.,.... 773 

Types of machines — Cost of trenching — Methods em- 
ployed — Sewer trenching. 

T^iUCKS ■ .... 786 

Timber and stone trucks. 

UifLOADiNG Machines 787 

Railroad plows— Cost of repairs to unloaders — Port- 
able car unloader. 


Waoons 7B1 

Types of wagons — Cost ot operating wagons. 

Waqos Loadebh 7(15 

Types of loaders — Loading plant — Wagon loaders. 

Wbidino 7B9 

Thermit and acytelene wedding ontfita — Cost of 

Wheexbabbowb 804 

Not«s on the wheelbarrow — Contractor's wheelbar- 


Appenbhi — Classifibd List of CoNaTBUcrroN E<juip. 






At the time of thin book tioing to press there in a labor shortage 
in the United SlafeB, and tlie ratpH of wasies are hijiher than they 
have ever'i)een liefore. Consequently, there iu a great deal of ron- 
slruction work which eannot be done at all except by the exten- 
sive use of equipment, and there ih other work for wliirh rflpita! 
is not obtainable unless it can be Hhnwn thnt new nielhuiU ba<-ed 
on the line of equipment in plaee of labor will rpxiilt in lower unit 
cohts than can be hoped for by the old methods under preM'nt 
conditione, and that we are truly living in an cpo<^h of mannfac- 
tured power has been clpaily noted in the little book, "The New 
Ejioch," by the great George S Jlorison. 

Ab a transformer of energy into useful work man is about the 
least economical machine in the world Working at top "peed he 
can average in a working day not more than about </ih"' '>^ "'^^ 
mechanical h.p. Compare this with tlie rale for electrical power 
in any civilized community and it in at once apparent what an 
overwhelming advantage is derived economically liy reducing the 
employment of human energy to the abaoiute minimum ronaiitent 
with due coordination on the work This means the substitution 
of equipment in place of human labor wherever it is possible to 
do so. Sloreover. a h.p developed mechanically is very much 
cheaper than a h.p. derived from teamii and guided by drivers. 
Tlierefore, wherever the same work can be done by machines that 
would otherwise be performed by horsM the former is economically 

It ia necessary, then, to know where and when equipment can 
be substituted for (le«h and blood, what kind of eqnijiment is 
available, and two cost factors, — first, how much of an invcKt- 
ment is necessary, and second, bow murh the work of equipment, 
itnelt, would cnfit; in other words, how much cnpilal is needed 
and what would be the unit cost through the use of the equipment, 
purchased or rented aa the ease may lie, 


TJie prices, of equipment and. the cost of labor have varied more 
w ith ill 'tfie last four years than at any other time einee 186'! and, 
consequently, data of cost of plant, or eost of operating it, at any 
time within the five year period must be considered in eonnection 
with the dates at which the data were obtained Commodity 
prices between 190S and 1915, although showing a slightly rising 
tendency, were fairly stable, but from 1D1S to 1S18 average prieee 
of commodities increased (rom 25% to 35% per year. In order, 
therefore, to make the most eHective use of the data in thia book, 
if is necessary to hai'e a statement in convenient form of the trend 
of commodity prices, which is given herewith in the diagram. 
Fig 1. 

The index prices are those derived from two sources; (1| From 
1H59 to 1899, the index prices are those given in Senate Report 
No. 1304 on "Wholesale Prices, Wages and Transportation," by 
Kelson W. Aldrich, Mareh 3, 1893. The weighted average index 
prices there given are multiplied by 0.9 to reduM them to the , 
i^ame base as the index prices, of the U. S. Bureau of Labor, the 
latter inde>i prices being those from 1890 to 1919, using the year 
1013 as 100. The Aldrich report index prices are based on the 
wholesale prices of 223 commodities;' weighted in proportion to 
family budget expenses. The Bureau of Labor index prices are 
based on the wholesale prices of 192 commodities in 1890, a^ given 
in Bulletin No. 173, and in the Monthly Labor Review, December, 
1019, and January, 1920. 

If the index prices given in Dun's (Mercantile Agency) Revieiv 
are multiplied by 83 they will be reduced to the same base (the 
year 1913 being Uken at 100) aa that used in this table. Dun's 
index prices are the weighted average of 300 ivholesale quotations 
on commodities Ithe weighing being in proportion to annual pro- 
duction). The quotations are taken for the first day of each 
month, and the resulting index prices for each of the 12 months 
are added together and divided by 12 to give the figures that ap- 
pear in the last column of this table tor every year from 1898 to 
1919, inclusive; but prior to 1898 Dun gives index prices only tor 
Jan. 1 and July 1, of each year. Tlie numbers given in the last 
column of this fable from 1860 to 1897, inclusive, are the inileic 
prices on July 1. Index prices on July 1 are ordinarily quite 
close to the average for the entire year. In not a single year since 
1898 have Dun's index prices for July 1 differed by more than 
4% from the average for the 12 months: but for the years 19(13 
to 18(19, it seems evident that Dun's index prices for July 1 
(which are those given in the table) are not typical of the entire 

This diagram is plotted on semi -logarithmic paper on which 






similar percentagra of Tariation ehow up equally to the re- 
gardless uF the location ot Ibe rurve on the pa|>er. Thus, for io- 
stance, the Dun curve hhowa a relative increase between the yeara 
1S07 and inos of 6r,% at an alBmlute increase of from Gfl% to 
S9%. A correspondins relative iiicreaae of 0.j% from ini.l would 
he shown by equal vertical measurement on the chart upuard from 
the 100% line indicating \6'>% of the 1913 prices, corresponding 
approximately to the prices of ISIIT. 

Of course, the prices of construction equipment, varying from 
year to year, will not vary exactly in pro|K>rtion to the curve of 
commodity prices liut since the weighted commodity priceii are 
generally accepted an the best haxic criterion of indu»>triat prices 
generally, the intelligent use ot this curve will enable the reader 
to make the moat xatiifaclory use of the various data in this book, 
which have lieen compiled from a multitude of sources extending 
over a great many years. The curve has been extended back to 
IStiO and may he uaed to good advantage In estimating the prob- 
able trend of future prices in view of the close parallel between 
the action of those prices before and after the American Civil War 
and the great World War. Note that the rise in commodity prices 
from 1015 has been almost exactly parallel to the corresponding 
riM^ from IK02. and note, aUo, that the curv« of declining prices 
after IB64 has been at about the rate of 23% in ten years as 
compared with a rise of 23% in about three years before the 

Cost data, as distinct from price lists, are never out oi date 
provided they are accompanied by nuRicient information to inter- 
pret the conditions. In the "Handbook of ^Mechanical and Elec~ 
trical Cost Data" under the joint authorship of Mr Gillette and 
myself wc said: 

"If a unit cost has been so analyzed as to show the -quantities 
of each kind of labor and of each kind of material involved in the 
production of the given unit, such a unit cost may be quite as 
servicealile a generation or more after its publication aa it was 
when flrst published Thus, the yardase costs of excavating earth 
with drag'Bcrapers and horses which Elwood Morris published in 
1841 are applicalile now, three-quarters of a century later; for we 
still use dragscraptrs for earth excavation, and we have merely 
to substitute present team and man wages for those used in the 
time of Morris. Curiously enough many men, even engineers, have 
failed to see that ' out of date ' cost data can often be thus 
brought up to dale. 

" liales of wages are frequently omitted in giving unit costs, 
but, if the date when the cost was incurred is given, it is usually 
possible to ascertain the wage rates that then prevailed. An ex- 


perienc«d engineer ofUn knows offband the prevailing rates of 
wages that were paid in any part- of the ronntr; et any given 
time. While it is true that wages of individual workmen often 
differ quite widely even in the game locality and at the same time, 
it ahould be remembered that this difference in tiRtially eonaequent 
upon their individual diiTerencee in efficiency. TIiub, when rail- 
way carpenters were paid f2 50 a day and contractors' carpenters 
were paid ^3 00 in tl>e aame locality for the same class of work, the , 
carpenters working; fur a contractor did fully 20%' more work 
daily. Hence llie unit cost of carpenter work did not differ ma- 
terially even where the wage differed 20% 

"The labor cost of installing a machine is very often estimated 
as a. percentage of the coat of tJie machine. Suppose, for example, 
a given machine was installed 20 years ago at a labor cost that 
was 10% of the cost of the machine If the general level of wages 
and machine prices hati risen 75% since that time, then the ratio 
of labor coat of installation to machine cost would still remain 
10%; and the lalior cost data of 20 years ago would remain ap- 
plicable today if applit'd as a percentage to the present cost of the 
given machine. 

" The labor coht of installing equipment is frequently estimated 
in dullara [ler tun of weight. Although the weight of a machine 
of given nze and type is seldom given in an article containing 
costs of machinery installation, the weight is usually ascertainable 
from tables such aa are given in tlits )K>ok; and then a published 
labor coat of installation of a machine may be converted into a 
cost per ton. Old installation costs per ton may be brought up to 
date by making proper allowance for the rise in wages. 

"In making tables that give the prices of machines and equip- 
ment of different types and si^ea wc have given also the weights. 
It is therefore possible to deduce fiom our tables the price per lb. 
of each size and type of plant-unit. Our prices were normal prices 
at the factories in 1013 and 1014, prior to the world war. It 
might seem at first sight that these tabular prices will be value- 
less at least until the war is ended and normal economic condi- 
tions are restored. Yet a little consideration of the matter will 
show that our tables of equipment prices may be uned effectively 
now. To illustrate, fuppose it is desired to estimate the present 
price of electric transformers of difl'erent sizes. Secure either the 
price actually paid recently for a given transformer, or secure 
a quotation, then divide this price by the price given in our table, 
and thus esiabliiih the factor by which to multiply other prices in 
the same table to get present prices. This procedure will save 
time and trouble. Moreover, it will be found much easier to se- 
cnre a few quotations from manufacturers or their agenta than to 


secure ss nmny as may be needed for on approximate appraiea) or 
a preliminary eatimate of cost of a propoeod plant unit." 

Much trouble has been caueed for contractors and many engi- 
neers by a failure to appreciate in its true importance the matter 
of depreciation of equipment. The subject is somewhat intricate 
and cannot be adequately discussed in a page or two whereas 
inadequate discuasion of it is likely to be mjeleading. The reader 
ia, therefore, referred to pages 82 to 144, covering a full discus- 
sion of depreciation with very elaborate tables of the estimated 
lives of plant units, in the " Handbook of Mechanical and Electri- 
cal Cost Data " above referred to. 

The problem of how to carry out a given plan of construction 
at the lowest cost is year by year becoming mure complex, and 
it is becoming more and more necessary to apply to it scientific 
methods in order to meet the growing competition between various 
men, methods, and machines. The contractor of long experienoe 
who applies to his work, even in its simplest operations such as 
moving earth by scrapers, the methods that he knows absolutely 
were the best ten yearu ago, is competing, whether he knows it or 
not, with men who have developed up-to-date methods that are 
very likely to be twenty, thirty, or even forty per cent more ~ 
cacious or economical than the beat old ones. 

It is of vast importance to know the relative coats of different 
methods, some of the reasons for which it seems worth while tc 
outline here. Before bidding on new work, it is generally not 
diSicult to find out what methods the other bidders are accus- 
tomed to, and, by making independent estimates based on th( 
probable niebbods for the most dangerous competitor, to reach a 
llgure that is something better than a mere guess at what bi( 
bid may be. Of course, it muat be distinctly understood that this 
is not an attempt to eliminate human nature from the contracting 
business. The " most dangerous competitor " may suddenly 
change his methods and upset a lot of calculations, and whether 
he will do this or not is just as much a matter for psychologic 
study as what sort of hand he is drawing to when he takea one 
card. Nevertheless the man who knows his competitor's usual 
methods, and knows the relative efficiency of those methods as 
compared with his own, is in a position to bid much more intelli- 
gently than be otherwise could. With the increasing disuse of 
old methods it is necessary to know the value of the new ones 
order to know whether it will pay to change from old equipment 
to new, and how much {it anything) the change may be expected 
to save; and it is vastly important to know what ia the very best 
method for the work to be done. Even if a contract can be carried 
out at a handsome profit by the second best or third best method, 


the man Is a. fool who would hesitate to diBcover and apply the 
first best, thus converting a- handsome profit into a still hand- 
■omer one. When, inoreoveT, a loss is being faced, it is almost 
always due, according to my experience, to the fact that the 
wrong methods were in use, rather than that the contract had 
been talcN) at " impossible figures." In such a situation the first 
and most necessary move is to ascertain the very best method and 
apply it immediately; and to assist the contractor and the engi- 
neer in the selection and application of the bent method in the 
least time is the main object of this volume, which is devoted to 
Field Equipment. 

It is a fact of common experience that if we want, or think that 
we may want, a piece of equipment for certain work, we iran have 
a large* amount of free literature upon the Hubject, backed up by 
the extensive experience and earnest enthusiasm of the salesmen 
of eqnipment houses. Such Information is not always reliable 
and it is generally confusing. Moreover, before it can he applied 
to the work in hand it must be sorted, collated, studied snd 
verified, a process requiring a ruinous amount of time for every 
investigation. This book attempts to save the estimator and con- 
tractor a large part of this time, whieb is ordinarily lost. The 
author has never sold any kind of equipment on commission and 
has never received a commisgion of any kind for recommending 
the adoption of any machine or tools for any purpose, and has no 
interest whatever in any statement contained in this book except 
to see that it correctly represents the economic facts in a useful 
and convenient way. Although it has been carefully checked for 
errors, it is possible, of course, that mistakeB may have escaped 
notice. If any such should be noted, a memorandum, mentioning 
page-number and line would be greatly appreciated. 

Ilie main features of equipment which bear upon economic 
operation are as follows : 

C Cost, ready to commence work. 

Q Capacity, minimum, standard and maximum. 

E Operating expense, including depreciation and repairs. 

A Adaptability to the conditions governing the work. 

No effort has been spared in preparing this volume to put the 
information into such form as to make it available, with the 
minimum of time and trouble, and it is believed that with the 
aid dT the information contained in these pages an intelligent 
estimator of practical experience can determine within reasonable 
limits the figures for each of the above features. Prices vary 
from year to year, and terms of sale change with the conditions; 
but witbin a limit too small to affect materially an estimate of 


unit cost for plant perforniance, I believe tlie fiuta here given 
may be eafely used. For making apprftiasl of a pUjit to be sold, 
if these figures be used they should of course be checked by actual 
bids from the manufacturers or dealers to the appraiser. In 
nearly every instance the prices here given represent liona fide 
quotations made to the author, but since the book is Hot written 
to advertise anyone no names are given. 

E;icept where otherwise expressly stated the prices are t. o, b. 
the manufacturer's works. 

(C) The cost, ready to commence work, includes 
(p) the purchase price, the 
(t) cost o[ transportation, and the 
(a) preparatory cost, including unloading, erectjng sJid 
getting into working position. 

When possible the shipping weights have been included here, 
and the freight rate may be obtained from the nearest railroad 
agent, usually on the telephone. Data on the cost of erecting and 
installing machinery are not very plentiful. I have included them 
wherever possible from the availahlc information. 

(Q) The capacity o£ equipment is a very elusive quantity. 
That of a wagon, ship, bucket or scraper is usually listed by the 
manufacturer as the " water measure " capacity and must be cor- 
rected to obtain the " place measure " capacity. The capacity of 
a steam shovel in theory is the " water m«a«ure " of the bucket 
multiplied by the rated number of swings per unit of time; in 
practice it is likely to average from 20% to 70% of this, with 
the odds on the lower figure. Therefore the capacity Hgures must 
be taken as purely relative for the purpose of defining the sise or 
type of equipment mentioned. A good many elements enter into 
ijiis, not the least of which is often the skill of the operator. A 
steam nliovcl, in particular, is dependent for its capacity upun the 
skill of the runner and the manner in which the runner and 
craneman work together. The character and condition of the ma- 
teria! that is handled may greatly affect the performance, so that 
capacity under ideal conditions (which is the manufacturer's 
assumption when rating his machines) is simply the maximum, 
and is rarely to be equaled in working practice. Moreover, the 
capacity of such a machine as a steam shovel is limited hy that of 
the cars into which it is loading, and is affected by the necesHlty 
of " moving up," and of changing trains, etc. 

(E) The cost of operating a machine depends a good deal on 
the skill of the operator, as well as on the layout of the work, 
weather conditions, etc. In estimating this quantity, there ehould 1 
be included the incidental and necessary costs without whicli it 


cftimot work to advantage. The ro»t of operating a hoiating en- 
gine, for example, inclndeei that of coal " on the platfonu," which 
may include the cost of hauling coal from a delivery point, and 
ahould include the coat oi eoaling at night, watchman's lime, etc. 
The operating cont and operating capacity are reciprocally de- 
pendent nn each other. 

{A) The adaptability of a particular machine to the conditions 
govpming its work ig often, if not always, the most important 
feature to be considered in its selection, since on thie feature its 
practical efficiency for the work in hand largely depends. Adapta- 
bility ia affected by the peculiaritifH of the work on which it if 
to be employed a% well ae thoae of the machine itself, and for a 
proper judgment as to itK value an intimate knowledge of the ma- 
chine and a thorough knowledge of the conditions under which it 
is to work are necessary. Unfortunately the working conditions 
are not always ascertainable with suJTicient eiactneHS to be sure 
of selecting the most suitable plant, and, more unfortunately, 
reliable information about new equipment is scarce. Salesmen, 
while probably no worse than the rest of mankind, are always 
hiaxed by their persooal interest in the product that they handle, 
and they cannot be expected to give due wei<;bt to the fanlta of 
their own machines or the virtues of those sold by their com- 
petitors, and are poor advisers in consequence. Theoretically, a 
way to avoid this disadvantage would be to call in rival salesmen 
and let them talk out the whole aubjeot in the presence of each 
other. The writer tried thin plan junt once, at the request of a 
client, and it was a howling failure. Advertising statements, 
while honestly meant, are apt to be ontrageoaaly deceptive. An 
an instance of this, the following was cut out of one of the tech- 
nical jnurnal»: 



"Eight men can shovel oni' n 


"Tliu> cubic yard machine ii 

yinl of knee undy loani lol. 

loadetl in K minute; therefore, in ■ 

1(1 hour day one man on tliia ma- 
chine can load Z.«0 cubic rarda o[ 

'oaM load a» (uhi.- yirdi al m 

material, or 12 time* ■> much M S 

n.l At 11.60 per d.y. B »en . 


niM; therefore. Ihc labor < 


in a lOhoor day. 

"rone on m yard> would be fl 

"Ou the above baaia we fl«nre the 

Pfr eobie ysrd. 

two teams and their drivers and 
even Ihen iHkina lhi> coat al |10.i>0, 
the eogt pet cnhic yard would ba 

'"niere are a numtwr of ileom 


thMe coaU but the ratio of roM 

1 10 21 in favor of (hie acraper." 

This is cost analysis gone mad with a vengeance, yet the man 
who wrote it in all probahilfty thought that he was highly con- 
sorvative. A great many manufactHrcrs use special care that the 


statements in their trade literature shall be undeniably on the 
saEe aide on account of the ver; bad moral effect of an exaggera- 
tion. One of the large manufacturers of electrical machinery 
hag been known to permit salesmen to state as the working effi- 
ciency of certain machines a percentage of the results shown by 
mechanical tests, on the ground that a disappointed and disgusted 
customer is the worst advertisement possible. Notwithstanding 
this fact, there are many machines that would be much more gen- 
erally used did contractors feel confidence in the statements re- 
garding them. The old and tried mttehine that is not especially 
well adapted to the work in. hand is thus often used for lack of 
reliable information about the new and unknown one. 

No book can tell a contractor automatically what equipment is 
the best for his une, but it is possible to put. him in possession of 
vastly more information than has heretofore been available, and 
this has been attempted in the present volume. 

The object of this book being primarily to furnish the infor- 
mation needed by contractors, and the material having become 
rather voluminous, it was thought advisable to leave out a great 
many items which might be useful to a very few contractors, but 
which would not be generally employed by the vast majority of 
them. The author will appreciate hearing from contractors who 
would like to find more material than obtained in Uie book, with 
a view to finding out the exact demand for extra matter, and will 
endeavor to insert such additional material in future editions. 

A most important point to which attention is called is that all 
the illustrations in this volume are for the purpose of illustrating ' 
types of machines of which costs and performances are given. 
No quotation or. price mentioned in these pages is to be taken as 
referring exclusively to any one machine illustrated or to the 
production of any one manufacturer. The prices are frequently 
averages of several quotations, while the illustration that goes 
with this price is that of a standard piece of equipment. 



Theae oiachiDeB are for the purpose of puttiag power into 
proper form for convenient and eronomital transmission. Many 
of the opeiations that formerlj were done only by band are 
now being accomplished by machinery and machine tools driven 
by compressed air or Ite subatitute, compressed steam. Under 
many circumstances a drill can operate by steam as well as by 
air, while tor the hand tools, such as riveters, stone cutters, 
etc., the use of steam is not convenient because ot its high, 
temperature and sometimes because of the dense white cloud 
of condensing steam which is opaque and wet. In general, air 
is never at a disadvantage as compared with steam in con- 
venience of working; and u'bere they are equally convenient the 
ruling economic feature is' the distance to which the power 
must be transmitted. A boiler is less expensive than a boiler 
and compressor of the same power; hence for short distances the 
steam power is more economical, other conditions bein^; equal. 
As the distance of transmission increases, the relative economy 
of the steam transmission decreases, on account of heat losses, 
and there is, therefore, a point at which the e^tra economy of 
the air transmission equals the extra cost of the compressor. 
For greater distances than this the air transmission is economic; 
below it direct steam is the lees costly. The actusJ position of 
this critical point for each net of conditions depnids on the 
conditions themselves and can be worked out when they are all 
determined. It should be remembered, when considering such a 
problem, that it is quite possible to carry sleam for half a mile 
in well la^ed pipe with inconsiderable heiit losses. 

The chief peculiarity of air compression for these purposes is 
that, as the air becomes compressed, its temperature rises. It 
may then be cooled at the place of compression by artificial 
means, or it may be admitted to the transmission pipes without 
first being cooled. In the latter case it becomes cooled more or 
less in transit, necessarily losing some of its pressure by the 
atft of cooling, with a consecjiient loss of efficiency. For large 
installations; ttierefore, it is customary to do the cooling in 
the engine' t^ a water jacket, or water jets. 


A cubic foot of " free " air, at noTinal atmoapheric pressure 
of 14.7 lb. per square inch and initial temperature of 60' F,, 
will have a temperature of about 225° F. and pressure of 2.81 
atmoepherea when compresBed to one-half Its original volume if 
there be no escape of the heat which is necessarily generated 
by the increase of pressure. This is " adiabatic " eompresaion, or 
compression without loss of heat. If by a cooling arrangement 
the generated heat could all be removed as fast as generated, 
so that the temperature should remain constant, then the final 
pressure would be two atmospheres for the above example, and 
the compression would be " isothermal." In actual practice some 
heat is tost through the cylinders, so that neither the adiabatic 
nor isothermal curves represent accurately the facts. 
If V represents final volume, 

V represents initial \'olume, 

P represents final pressure, 

P' represents initial pressure. 
Then in general. 


^ ( ; ) 

(2) For isothermal compression, n = 1 

(3) For adiabatic compression, n = 1,4 

For commercial machinery the expMient will be somewhere be- 
tween these figures, depending upon the eSlciency of the machine 
and the amount of cooling that is introduced into it. These three 
simple formulas combine the theoretical facts. The diagram, 
Fig. 2, givi:^ In graphic form the adiabatic curves for tempera- 
ture, pressure and volume will enable the approximate tempera- 
ture to be obtained without tedious calculation. 

Chart for Fiadlag Air CoaiompUon «( Drllli. The following 
notes are from an article by Robert 8. Lewis in the Eng. and 
Mm, Journal: 

The chart Fig. 3 is a modification of the one appearing in 
" Rock Drilling," by Dana and Saunders, with the addition of 
data for hammer drills and basing the diagram on an air pressure 
of 90 lb. per sq. in. at the drill instead of 75 lb-, to conform 
more nearly with the requirements of modern practice. 

The inclined linee are baaed on a sea level datum and 00 lb- 
pressure per sq. in. at the drill. This gives a factor of 1 ; tor 
any other altitude or pressure at drill, the factor is founS at 
the left margin, passing there from the intereectioD of the 
inclined line of the given altitude with a vertical through the 
given pressure. 


i 1 1 1 1 

re, Degree! r. 


f. I 

I \- - 

t — g 

I i 

3 ...J 

I % - 

a 1 

I i - 

3,- 1=^ 

- 1- 


: \' 

= 1-3 



? ; 3 

'i- 1- 

- 1 - 

^"i E 

c ^i 


S-^- i 

s » 

\ J 

^^ 5 

i' -s 


i l-e 


\ i 

sf i 

-% t 




; 3 


-^ V 

S 3 

" z^^ 

,'^ \ 


— J 

■#■01 'suiniOA 

The average consumption of air for botli piKlon and hammer 
drills is given in the table of Air Consumptian of Rock Drills. 

Hammer drills vary ao in sir t^onsumpliun that only general 
figuree can be given. Catalogs from drill manufaeturers will 
give the consumption for any particular drill and generally at 
no lb. pressure at sea level. By means of the chart the con- 
iumption for other conditions can be quickly found. 


Table of Aib Cobsumption or Rock Dbills, Cu. Ft. per Min. 

90 lb at Sea Level. Piston Drills. 

DrlllB, in 2 !!4 !M !W !X _ 

Cu. ft. p. miD es ST 92 »8 118 12S 129 >«> . 

00 11). at Sea Level. Hammer Drills. 

In i-ase niore than one drill is used, the factor by wliii^h to 
multiply the air consumption of one drill to determine the con- 
sumption of a number in to be taken from the fallowing table. 

This is based on manufacturers' stet«mentB. When a number 
are working they are seldom all running at the same time. This 
table covers the requirements ot from one to fiisty drills. 

Am Consumption for More Than One Drill 

7.S B^ lO.S nx IS.l n.l 19.7 22.0 ZB.5 30,S 


Oampreued Air Plant for Contracting. Mr. W. L. Saunders 
to whom, probably, the compressed air iuduntry owes more 
than to any other liviog man, published the following notes in 
Engineering and Contracting, Mar. 19, 11)19. The character of 
the work is an important feature in the determining of the site 
and the selecting of the type of air compressor plant; for in- 
stance, sueh woric as tunnel driving, aqueduct construction, canal 
excavation, etc., might well utilize a number of semi -permanent 
air compreBBor installations, as such work usually extends over 
a considerable period of time. On the other hand, such work 
as road building, open cut excavation, trench digging, structural 
work, etc., could more profitably employ portable air compres- 
sor plants which move with the work. 

In the case of semi -permanent installations the requirements 
may call for the iastallation of both high pressure and low 
pressure units, the former for purposes of operating rock excavat- 
ing machinery, pneumatic placing of concrete, the operation of 
water pumps, hoisting engines, pneumatic riveters, and the like. 

The availability of motive power will be a deciding feature in 
the selection of the type of air compressor. 

lu earlier practice it was customary to operate rock excavating 
machinery by steam, utilizing the boiler horse power direct, and 
thereby eliminating one item in the initial cost of equipment. 
On the other hand, the development of efficient steam operated 
air compressors and greatly improved compressed air operated 
rock drills caused the contractor to realize that be could elTect 
more efficient and economical operation by installing an air 
compressor, than ho could by adhering to the now admittedly 
obsolete practice. The greater loss experienced in the transmis- 
sion of steam over long distances, as compared with that of air, 
and the greater consumption of boiler horse power in the rock 
excavating machine per unit of work, as compared with compressed 
air drills, more than compensated for the additional initial outlay. 

For portable compressed air plants, the choice of motive power 
falls naturally to gasoline driven types, due to comparative 
lightnesH of the equipment, the simplicity of operation and the 
ease with which satisfactory operating labor may be secured. 
On city street work it is sometimes advisable to use a motor 
driven portable unit, securing electric power from trolley lines 
or commercial power circuita. In building construction the semi- 
portable skid-mounted motor driven units are customarily em- 

With semi -permanent installations it becomes necessary to pro- 
vide suitable housing and foundations of serai- permanent char- 
acter. The question of housing is a simple one; the only 


precaution required is the protection of the plant from the 
elements. With work of long duration, it is advisable to iastall 
a foundation of masa concrete or stone masonrj' Btructnre- 
This is particularly true of large machines. Machines of small 
and moderate capacity customarily employed on short time jobs 
give aatisfftctory service bolted to skid foundati<His, firmly an- 

On penalty jobs, or in such work as pneumatic caisson sinking 
or shield tunneling, where the lives of the workmen are dependent 
on the absolute un interruption of the sir supply, it is imperative 
to install duplicate units, so as to insure against failure of the 
power supplied. 

The radius of distribution of compressed air from a central sta- 
tion is practically without limit. 

Transmission lines will vary from 2 to 6 in. in diameter, de- 
pending upon the size of the installation and the distance of 
transmission. Suitable control valves should be provided at 
the power house, as well as the points of outlet. 

In pneumatic caisson work an after-cooler forms an essential 
part of the air compressor equipment, it being utilized tc remove 
the heat of compression and deliver the air to tlie air locks 
at normal temperature. 

In the operation of pneumatic tools of various kinds, partic- 
ularly in cold weather, some trouble may be experienced from 
freezing, and under such circumstances it becomes advisable to 
install some form of air reheater, which not only eliminates this 
trouble but increases the power delivered by the air compressing 

A properly designed air transmission line ehcwld include the 
installation of moisture traps at convenient intervals for the 
removal of the moisture which the air contains and which is 
deposited In the transmission line. 

Modern air compressors have reached such a high stute of 
reHnement that aside from an occasional inxpeetion to insure tight- 
ness of stuffing boxes, absence of leakage in the transmission line, 
and the proper functioning of the lubricating devices they require 
very Uttif. attention on the part of the operator. Most machines 
have their driving parts automatically splash-lubricated with 
force feed pumps supplying the cylinders. Air compressors for 
permanent or semi -permanent installation vary in size from 50 
to IO,Ono cu, ft. of free air per minute, pressure ranging from 16 
to 125 lb. Porta1>le air compre^-*or plants range from 50 to 500 
cu. ft, free air per minute at similar pressures. 

Types of Compreslors. ComprpsBors may be divided Into two 
general classes. The lirst classification divides them into the 


straight-line compresBor in which the Bteam and air <7]indars 
are arranged in a Htrftijrht line and the power is applied through 
a single long piston rflH connnting all pistons; and the duplex 
compressor which consiHtB of two comprcssore set side by gide, 
each made up of a steam and an air cylinder connected to a 
crank ahaft carrying a single balance wheel. The cranks of 
the two sections are set at a 90° angle to each other with the 
object of producing no dead center and to enable the machine 
to operate at very low speeds. 

The straight line machine is usually of lower cost, requires 
lighter foundation, occupies less room than the duplex, is more 
reliable in the hands of an average engineer and is a machine 
for every day service in moderate capacity. The duplex has more 
uniform operation, higher ediciency and greater steam economy. 
Another adrantage is that in case of accident one sidS of 
the machine may remain uninjured and can be run in an 

The second general ela as iii cation divides them into steam driven 
and power driven compressors. In the former the steam cylinder 
is an integral part of the machine. In the latter the compresnor 
is operated by power outside of the machine arid may be driven 
by belts, ropea, chains, gears, or a direct shaft connection. Of 
these the belt driven is the most common and the direct shaft 
is used only with electric motors or water wheels. OompressorB 
may be classed also as vertical and horizontal. The vertical type 
is advantageous where space in limited, as the machine is small, 
and is commonly restricted to the power driven class. The 
horizontal type is generally considered the better. Another 
classification is that of the single stage or compound stage. 
This has to do with the degree of eompresaion to which the air 
must be subjected. 

Locomotive Comprenor. The simplest of air compressars Is 
the standard locomotive pump used for air brakes. Tl:is ma- 
chine is of the straight line type and was originally designed for 
locomotive air brake use, but ^au since l>een applied to over one 
hundred different kinds of service, such as nmall pneumatic tool 
operation, cleaning metal surfaces, sand-blast outfits, in sewage 
ejectors, for pumping and conveying liquids. 

This compressor is made in two typpn, the single cylinder 
and croHS-com pound. A 35 cu. ft, per m!n. displaeement at 100 
lb. pressure, single cylinder machine, weighs afiprorimately 5S0 
lb. and is priced at SI 30. The 50 cu. ft. size weighs 650 lb. 
and costs $160. The 70 cu, ft. 8i?e weighs about 1000 lb. for 
shipment and costa $235, The cross-componnd type in the 150 
eu. ft. size at 100 lb. preBsnre weighs about 1750 Ih. for shipment 



and coats $376. All the above pricee are f.o.b. manufacturers' 

This form of compreasor requires no fffundatioD (being bolteJ 
to a column or wall) nor accurate alignment of parts. The usual 
method of installing a water jacketed compressor of this type is 

Fig. 4. Locomotive Compressor Cross-Compound Type. 

shown in Fig. 5. If the conditions do not require a water jacket 
the water pipe connections and valve, and radiating discharge 
pipe may be omitted. The approximate prices of the chief ele- 
ments are: Lubricator, $10.00; Oovernor, $21.00; Air gauge. 
$3.75; Main reservoir, $36.00; Drain cock, $1..';0. 

Single Stage Vebtical Aib Compressobs 

60-100 lb. press. 

Rated c apse itf id Apprcainiate shipping Pri 

cu. (t. per m&. wt. In *s. f. o. h. fi 

Single Stage Yertlcal Coropxessors for belt drive are designed 
for either intermittent or continuous service where air is re- 
quired in small quantities. When electric power is to be used 
these machines sre equipped complete with motor, driving pulle.v, 
endless belt and short drive attachment; all mounted on a 
hardwood Inse, ready to set on foundation and not requiring 




any adjustmentB or aligning. Motors are furnished to order to 
suit power requiremeale. 

Power Driven Sinole Stage Stb-iiqht Line Aib Compbebsobs. 

100-150 lb. presijure. 

Rated cajiscily In Approitnute shipping: Price 

cu. ft. per mia. weight in lb. 1. o, b. factOTy 

St <60 t 330 

» 1S20 4W 



Yertioal Type Motor Driven Air Coropreston are illuBtrat«d by 
Fig. 8. Tliia type of compreBeor, 90 lb. per sq. in, pretiBure, costs 
as followfi: In the f>0 ou. ft. per min. Bize, the approximate 
shipping weight is 3500 lb., price $1950; the 100 cu. ft. sii^e 
weighs about 5000 lb. for Bhipment and ia priced at ¥2100; the 

Fig. 6. 150 ft. Alternating Current Air Compressor with Com- 
bined Automatic Controlling Device. 

150 cu. ft. size weighs about 7500 lb., price $2500; the 200 
cu. ft. per min. size weighs 10,000 lb. for shipment and costs $2900. 
AD the foregoing prices are f. o. b. factory for complete eom- 
preSHors fitted with D, C. motors for 220 volts and waterjacketed. 
This type of compressor may also be had in capacities of from 


40 to 450 cu. ft. per min. at presBureB of from 30 to 160 lb. 

Steau Dbivex Simple Straioht Line Aib Coupbessobb 

BO-126 lb. pressure 

Bated capMilr in Approiimsts bhippiDi Price 

cu. (C. per min. welghl in tb. t. o. b. ttctoty 

iM uw ma 

uo iiw uw 

300 Mil ItiO 

10-50 lb, prMHure , 

Steam Driven Two Stage Ai 
aO-lOO lb presBU 

Power Dbiven Two Staoe Air Compressobb 
80-100 lb. pressure 



L Straight Line Air Compressor. 

Steam Driven Straight Line Air Compressor. 


Fig. 9, Angle Compound 2-8tage Power Driven Air Compressor, 

Fig. 10. 2- Stage Power Driven Air CompresNi 



An air compreHsor, electric generating, and pumping outfit 
was installed about 1B12 for the Water Board of the City of 
New York at Cornwall Landing on the Iludaon Biver, about 
2,000 ft. south of the West Shore Railway Station. Thifl plant 
nae ueed to supply air for drills, pumps, and general shaft and 
tunnel work, in driving the Biphon under the Hudson at Storm 
King Mountain. 

18 25\ 

Compressor Eqnlpmeut Installed. Tivo (2) — x — ^xl6 Class 

" HH-3 " croBs compound steam driven air rumprpSBOTB, having a 
piston displacement each of 1302 cii. ft. designed to operate con- 
densing; air pressure 100 to 110 lbs ; steam pressure ISO lb. 

One (1) 48" improved type of >*ertlcal aftercooler. 

One (1) 54" dia. by 12' vertical air receiver. 

Boiler Eqnipment and Pumps, etc. Three (3) 130 hp. Sterlinjr 

Two (2) 6x4x0 outside packed boiler feed pumps built liy 
the Buffalo Steam Pump Co. 

Two (2) 6 X 5% X 8 piston type tank pumps built by the 
Buffalo Steam Pump Co. 

One (1) 10 X in X 10 independent jet type condenser built by 
the Buffalo Steam Pump Co. 

One ( 1 ) 400 hp. enclosed Berriman type feed water heater 
built by the F. L. Patterson Co, 

One ( 1 ) 20 K. W. Kerr steam turbine f^nerating set built by 
the Atwood Reardick Co, 

One (1| station panel complete with necessary switches, etc. 

One (1) feed water tank, i 

2,600 ft. of 6-in. black wrought iron pipe. | 

2,500 ft. of 1^-in. 2 conductor cable. I 

The above equipment was installed on rented property on the I 
Hudson River and immediately adjacent to the right of way of i 
the West Shore Railroad, Cost including this equipment plux 
the cost of the railroad siding, actual building and foundations, ' 
piping in power house, boiler setting, together with all labor 
and other charges for putting this equipment into operation, 
laying the air pipe from the plant to the shaft, some 2,400 ft. 
distant, and electrical connections between shaft and power 
house, and adequate well to obtain boiler feed water and making 
proper connections to the Hudson River with strainer, etc., for 
condensing and circulating purposes, approximately $35,000.00. 
which includes the following pohI s ; Compressors, aftercooler 


sod receiver, approximately 913,500. Balance of equipment, con- 
Bisting of boilers, pumps, generator set, water tank, pipe and 
electric conductor, etc., about (10,000. Railroad siding, building 
and foundations, piping in power house, boiler settings, fret), 
erecting itacka, labor, superintendence, charges for placing plant 
in operation, rental, lease for railroad siding, and incidentals, 


Fonnnlae of Coiti of Air Compreiion. Mr. A. A. Potter in 
Power, Dec. 30, 1BI3, derived the formulae in the following table 
for the cost« of air campresaore, by tabulating and plotting the 
net prices received from several different manufacturerB. The 
prices are the net gelling prices f. o. b. factory and do not include 
the coat of erection. 

Oaijacity up to Equation of 

^pe cu^ it. ^r mill. coat in doUarfl 

Singla cylinder, belt driien WOO 52 + l.SS X eu. ». 

Duplex, belt driven S50 116 + l.eTE X cu. It. 

Corapound. belt driven SSO 3.1 X cd. ft. 

Single cjrUnder, utMin driven 350 :3l + !,32 X cu. ft. 

Dupin, ateen drivrn 800 160 + 2.ES X cu. Ft. 

Compound, stum driven EDO 71.25 +4.025 X cu. ft. 

The results obtained in the use of the above equations should 
be multiplied by 175% to bring them to 1920 prices. 

Cost of Motob Driven Compbessoks with Avxiuaries a>d 
TuEiB Installation 

220V 220V 220V SOOV flOOV «00V 

Pinion diBpUcement in CD. ft. per min 15 25 50 50 IE 25 

Bhipping tnlgbt in lb «30 S30 2050 1400 «20 S30 

Net price compreMor f. 0. b. factory $220 280 450 *M W5 Z2S 

Net price governora and awiloh t. o. b. fac- 
tory 40 40 « 20 20 20 

Freiglit and drayage st fl.80 3 12 31 22 IS 

Ert. cost ol receiver, piping, etc 40 40 40 40 40 40 

Onl of tuetaDinc 15 IE 15 IE IE IB 

$324 367 5T8 427 259 31J 

The above amounts should be doubled to equal 1920 prices. 

Separator for Eemovlng Water from Compreiied Air. In 
connection with the operation of pneumatic tools any wat«r 
which is in the compressed air supplied to them occupies valu- 
able power space in the cylinders of the>too1e, thereby decreasing 
their efficiency and sooner or later resulting in damage, due to 
the constant internal hammering action of the water. The sep- 
arator utiliies centrifugal force to remove the water from the 
air. As the air and water enter it they pass through a helical 
path formed about a central cylinder, resulting in a swirling 
motion of the entire mass. As water is several times heavier 


than air it is thrown out of the curving air current, and against 
the walla (^ the separator, which it meets at an angle without 
any spatter or splash and slips smoothly along until it reaches 
the'receiver space at the bottom.' Here the motion is retarded 
by Yanes in order to permit drainage of the accumulated water. 
The resulting aeparation if practically complete with very little 
pressure loss. The separator is made of close grained cast iron, 
suitable for a working pressure not in excess of 200 lb. per 
sq. in., is simple in construction, has no movable parts and will 
operate indefinitely with a minimum of attention. 

In order that the separation may take place when the air is at 
its lowest temperature, it is desirable to install the separator 
as near as possible to the point at which the air is to be used. 
In the case of long air pipe tines out of doors, where there is a 
possibility of freezing, the separator should be placed in the 
line at a point just before the pipe leaves the heated building. 
To maintain the beat operating conditions it is well to install 
a trap to automatically drain the separator of water. 


Retaeatert. When air is to be transmitted tor appreciable dis- 
tances, particularly out of doors, the losses in transmisBion are 
largely overcome and certain operating features gained by the 
use of a reheater. Air after being compressed enters the pipe 
line at a temperature greatly in evcess of the surrounding atmos- 
phere. By radiation this temperature is greatly reduced with a 
corresponding reduction in volume and, therefore, capacity for 
work. A reheater placed as closely as possible to the working 
machine will raise the temperature of the air to about 250 degrees 
F., increasing its volume approximately 30% with proportional 
gains in capacity for doing work. The reheater will also elim- 
inate the freezing of the moisture in the exhaust ports and clog- 
ging of the tool. The reheater closely resembles a stove, the 
air being heated by the combustion of coal or coke in the 
inner shell, and the heat thus generated transmitted to the air 
which is around this shell. 


Fig. 11. AiB Rqieateb 

The following data give the result of a t«at made in the ahops 
o( the Hanaell Elcock Co., 'Chicago, in driving 1,809 %-in. Hveta. 
Half of theae rivets were driven using an ordinary air line, and 
half were driven uaing heated air from a Sterling Heater. 

A plain toggle portable yoke riveter was used. The compreaeor 
cylinder was 10 ina. in diameter and 9^1 ina. stroke. 

An Excelsior Airometer waa put in the line, ftt which point line 


[ireasureB and tine temperatureii were read. Twenty feet of 1-in. 
rubber hose was ueed between the airomeier and the BterlinK 
heater. On the discharge side of the heater a gage and ther- 
mometer were inserted for reading the temperature and pressure 
of the heated air. Between the heater and the riveter 27^ 
ft. of 1-in. insulated flexible hose was used. The following shonEi 
the results: 

Wiibout With 
heater hraier 

Number o( riv»ta 804 804 

A^PiHCe tempersture o( Une aic G7.G' 60.0° 

Average prsBnure. lb 85 85 

Total en. (l. air oawi 14,874 S.'nl 

Average lemperalure of hojted air 398° 

Cu. fl. of air used per rivet 18.5 lO.GS 

This difference in air used per rivet equals 7.92 cu. ft. or 
an increase in volume of 74.7%. This increase equals an actual 

saving in air used of 42.7%. 

Fig. 13. Horizontal Air Receiver 

Assuming 1,500 rivets per day, the actual air saving equals 

11,880 cu. ft. At 8 cts. per l,00f) cu. ft. this saving equals 95 
cts., the cost of opeialing the heater equals 3 gal. oil at 10 cts. 
plus 8 cts. for ignition current e<]"als 18 cts., total, a net saving 
of 77 cts- per day. This saving six days per week would pay (or 
the heaUr in one year and leave a profit of S156.00. 

The cubic fset of air given were actual airometer readings. 
On account of the intermittent service the heated air tempera- 
tures are not quite high enough. The aetua.1 temperature of the 
air supplied to the riveter was about 1.5% in excess of the heated 
air temperatures shown in the table. 


Air KeoelTers (Fig. 12) are plain steel sheila, which cool 
and reduce the velocity of air before it paaeea into the main, 
causing deposition of moisture where it can be drained off; they 
equalize the flow of air, eliminate puluating eUeet of the piston 
Htrokea, thus minimizing friction losses, and Herve in some degiee 
as reservoirs of power. For best results the receiver must 
be close to the compressor. Secondary receivers at the other 
end of the air main, and near the operating machines, are oft«n 






vertical type 


or which bMt Bdspted 

i;u. ft. iier min. 



Weight of 








PropoTtioniniT Air Eeceivers. To determine what sized air 
receiver is best for the capacity of the air compressor it in pro- 
posed to install: 

1st. Determine the maximum capacity of the compresBor per 
min. in free air. (Piston displacement per min. will do.) 

2nd. Calculate what volume this air will occupy at the 
working pressure, and this will be the required voliime of the 

This is a very easy calculation to make as the following will 


'Suppose the raaliimum piston displacement of compressor per 
min. = 115 eu. ft. 

Working pressure = SO lb. (gage). To determine the volume of 
63 cu, ft. of free air when compressed to 80 pounds pressure, 
the following formula may be used 

'~ P.-i- 14-7 

in which V, = maximum piston displacement in cu, ft, per min 
= 65. 

P,:= Working pressure (gage) =90 lb. 

\'j = Volume of the air at the hipher preRSure. 



Substituting in this formula we have: 

' 80 + 14-7 
=: 10 cu. ft. which would be the volume of a r 
dia. and 6 ft. long. 

The above formula determines approximately the minimum 
aised receiver ne«esaary, but in making a selection a larger one i 
is preferable. There ia no drawback in having the receiver too 
large; a receiver is eeldom tCHD large, in fact moat troubles are 
caused by the receiver being too small to, overcome fluctuation in 
pressure and by not allowing the air to remain stationary long 
enough to cool and to deposit part of its moisture. 

CooUuff Derloes increase compressor efficiency by reducing the 
temperature of the air while liein); compressed. Thin also de- 
creases danger of explosion and provides drier air after com- 

Ooollne aurf see 


Horiiontal and vertical type 


Fig. 13. Air Aftercooler 



Hethodi of Coolingf: (a) Ante-cooling; (b| cooling during 
compression; (c) intercooliDg ; ^ (d) aftercooling. Ante^coollng I 
is bj leading the air to the compreasor from the coolest Bide of 
the building; or hy the use of ante-coolers (similar to after- 
coolers). Cooling during compression is by direct contact be- 
tween water and air (as in wet compressors, now nearly obso- 
lete) or by the use of water jackets. Tntercooler is used in stage 
compressors, to cool the compressed air between the cylinders. 
Upon proper cooling at this point depends largely the ctHciency i 
of stage compresaion. After-coolera cool the air, anJ therefore 
deposit moisture, between compressor and delivery pipe. 

Fig. 14. Gasoline Driven Portable Air Compressor I 

Portable Air Compressors. Small portable gasoline and power 
driven air compressors are adapted to work of a temporary char- i 
acter reijuiring compressed air in small quantities, such as the 
laying of gas and water mains, where air tools of various typ^s i 
are used for cutting atphalt, tearing up roadways, rock cutting. I 
calking lead joints, drilling and riveting of steel pipes, tamping 
dirt, etc. The machines are usually furnished complete with the 
engine and its fittings, compressor, air receiver and fittings such as 
valves, gages, outlets, piping, etc. They are rigged for hand 
transportation and may also be had fitted with tongue and single 
tree or bar for trailing behind a motor truck. 

Where compressors of over 200 cu. ft. are required for tern- 


PoBTABLE Air Compbessobs 
SO-lOO ib. preaiure 
(Gasoline driven) 
Bated cspudtT in ApprndmBtfl Bhipping Price 

wr mJD. weliht^D lb. t. g. b. ftcUaj 


100 330 

UE 4000 

(E)ectric motor driveu) 

The following tabit gWeB the cost of amall portable 
preeeore f. a. b. Michigan. 

Bated capacity Id Approiimste staippiag Price 

In the above table the last two cunpreasorH are of the 6 by 6 
size, the 42 cu. ft. machine being driven by an S hp. engine and 
having a pressure of T5 Ib. per eq. in., and the 10 being driven b; 
a 10 bp. engine and having a pressure of 100 lb. per sq. in. 

Ettelenoy of CompreHon at VertoQa Elevatioos. Aa it is a 
very common practice to use air in drills and light machines 
at full stroke, a table of the eiTicienc; of compressors when the 
air is BO used at various heights above sea level follows; 
HilgU in H. 





!■") . 


















20. I> 






as ' 







Care «f ComprciMTI. From " Mining Engineerij' Handbook," 

General. So locate tlie compressor that parte are readily ac- 
c'easibie. PoundationB must lie level in both dim'tiona and, 
power dri,ven machineH, the motor and compressor must be i 
curatel; aligned. 

Air Valvee. Examine at least oiit« a month, to see that 
there is no cutting, and that the apringa, if any, are in good 

Cutting is caused by ineffective tubrieation or grit entering 
inlet. If the latter, remove the cause of dust, or change position 
of intake. Keep spare valves on hand for prompt renewal. 
before wear or defect becomes serious. Leaky discharge valvee 
greatly reduce volumetric efficiency. | 

Air Lines. Watch closely for leaks, which are costly. A 0.25-| 
in. hole may waste enough air to run a 2,25-in, drill. ' 

Ltibricaiion must be sufficient, but not excessive. 

An air cylinder requires less oil than steam cylinder of eame 
size. Use best air-cylinder oil for cylinder and valves, having; a 
flash point not lower than 500° F. Never use kerosene to eut 
carbon deposits in the exhaust valves and ports, as it has a low 
flash point and may ignite and cause explosion. 


C'aueet: excessively high internal pressure, due less to the air 
pressure carried than to that prnduced by ignition, in compressor, 
piping, or receiver of an explosive mixture of air and gaa from 

Lvhricanta in general use are: commercial cylinder oil, and a 
mixture of soap and water, each having its proper function. Soap 
and water has inferior lubricating qualities; if used alone a much 
greater quantity is necessary than with a proper oil. 

In a compressor lubricated almost exclusively by soap and 
water, a deposit 2 in. thick was found, which readily ignited at 
400° F.' A very small quantity of oil with a flash point of 400° 
F. had also been used, which indicates that the use of soap Ibj 
not a sure preventive of explosions. Nevertheless, it will cleani 
the cylinder and valves without shutting down, and its use is 
recommended. All oils give off combu»tihle gases when heated. 
The lowest temperature at which this begins is the flash point. 
the ignition temperature being the burning point. As ordinary 
lubricating oils (lash at about 250° F. .(a temperature below the 
usual working temperature of compressors), special high-flash 
cylinder oils should be used. 


Temperature Due to Conprtition drpeada upon initial temper- 
ature, the working preaaure, and the elHcienc; o( the cooling de- 

Tetnpereture of discliarxecl air of a eingle-atage comprcBHor ia 
/P'\ii — I 
found by T' = T I — \~ — where T and T = abaolute Initial 

and final temperature, P and P' = abHolutc initial and final 

preeaure, n = constant^ 1,41 and =0.29. This formula, 

for adiabatic compresBlon, ia not abaolutelj correct, because water 
jackets permit ver; little loas of heat by radiation. Near aea 
level at atmoapheric temperature of 70° P., P = 14, and at HO 
lb. gage presHure the final temperature la 

/80-L H\n.!S • 

T = 70 + 4SB" I — ~- — 1 = 917' F., absolute, or 

45S° F. thermometric. 

With leaky exhaust valvea thia temperature may be materially 


If no exploeion occurs, CO, from imperfect combustfon of the 
oil, and carried with the compressed air underground, may cause 
danger to the miners. 

PrecauHona tor avoiding high temperature; 
(a) The compressor should be adapted to the conditiona.' 
Cylinder proportions (or sea level are not suitable for high 
altitudes; (b) Intake pipe should be of wood or other insulating 
material, and air should be taken from as cool a place aa pos- 
sible outside of the engine room. A lowering of 5° F. may in- 
crease efficiency by 1%; (c) Unloader should be designed not to 
cause excessive heating when in operation; (d) Largest possible 
area of cylinder surface should be jacketed, and plenty of the 
eoldeet water obtainable used; |e] For a stage compressor use 
eHicient inter-cool era; ff) After-coolera increase efHeiency and 
should be used; (g) If circulating water be reused, provide 
ample water-coolen; (h) Place tei^eiver inteta near the top and 
outlets about one ft. above the bottom, to insure cleanliness in 
the air; (i) Receiver should have blow-off cocks at the bottom, 
and manhole for inspecting the interior; (j| Place a recording 
thermometer between high-pressure cylinder and receiver; (k) An 
automatic blowout valve, to act if temperature rises alwve a 
safe point, ia advisable; (1) Tnlet air should be free from dust; 
— washed if necessary; (m) While running, never inject kerosene 
into the compressor to cut carbon deposit. 

Data to Be Oiven When Inavlrlng About Air Compreuors. 
When writing for prices or other information, give aa complete 


data as poBsible regarding service to be performed and local 
conditions. Following points sbould be covered; 

(a) Purpose for which the air is to be used; (b) volume of 
free air required, cubic ft, per minute; (c) working air pressure; 
(d) altitude, if over 1,000 ft. above se* level; (e) number, size, 
and kinds of machines to be operated b; conlpressed air; (() if 
air is to be used for pumps, give moke, size, speed and head; 
(g) if tor raising water i^ the air Hft, state flow per min. in 
gal^ dia. and deptli of well, and height of delivery above average 
height of water in the well; (h) whether the demand for air 
will be constant or intermittent; (i) whether the compressor 
will be operated by steam or power; (j) if steam-driven, state 
steam pressure, kind and cost of fuel, type of engine preferred, 
andswhetber condensing or non-condens[ng; (k) if power driven, 
state motive power, and whether direct connection, belt, or gear- 
ing is preferred; (1) if belt-driven, give hp, at belt, and if 
apace is limited, state maximum distance allowable between driv- 
ing centers; (m) if electric-driven give partieulars as to current 
and motor; (n) if water power is to be used, give hp, available, 
or head or fall of water in feet: also cu. ft. of water per min.; 
|o) state transport facilitiee. If machine must be sectional) zed. 
state heaviest wt. allowable for a single package; (p) state 
style of compressor preferred. If portable, state whether for 
surface or underground service, and kind and source of power. 

TaANStuasioN of Coupressed Aib in Pipes 

Kpe Lines. Wrought iron and ateel pipe is lap or butt-welded. 
As lap-weM is the stronger, it is used for the larger sizes. 

Pipe up to S in. are usually butt-weld, though lap-weld pipe as 
small as 1.25 in, is made. Pipe and fittings should be galvanized 
inside, as the scale from black pipe may injure machines using 
the air. Extra-heavy pipe for high pressure may be had. 
Wrought iron spiral-seam riveted pipe is useful for large sizes. 
Itolled sheets, with punched edges ready fof riveting, are con- 
venient for transport to remote regions. 

Joints. W. I. pipe lengths are connected by sleeve couplings, 
or bj C. I. flanges into which the pipe ends are expanded or 
threaded. Sleeve couplings, which are suitable for all except 
very large sizes, should be put on with white or red lead, espe- 
cially where leaks may develop in shifting ground. Gaskets are 
used for flange couplings ; asbestos near the receiver, brown 
paper elsewhere. Expansion joints are necessary on long lines, 
but too many should be avoided as they are likely to leak. 

Coat of laying gas mains of 4, 6 and 10 in. diameter, and W, I. 


sleere-joint, 6 and S in. ftir pipe, is given in Gillette's " Cost 
Data," pp. 1S02, 1B04. 

Tranunluion Louei in compressed air pipes. The heat of com- 
preseion is quickly lost in the flrst few hundred ft. of air main, 
and cannot economically be retained by non-conducting covering. 
Before using air expansively, it should be reheated. 

Tnn'imiulon Line Hints. Losaes from leaky joints or unsound 
pipe often exceed all other transmission losses. Pipes should be 
inspected regularly to eliminate waste of power. Pipe of too 
small diameter reduces effective pressure by causing high velocity 
and undue friction. Velocity in mains ahould not exceed 20 to 
25 ft. per second; in short branch pipes it may he 40 or SO ft. 
Pipe with rough interior can He k excessive friction loss. Each 
length should be cleaned of forci;(n substances before coupling. 
Lead forced into the pipe at couplings makes obstructive ridges. 
Surface mains should be protected, to avoid freezing of the 
moisture and consequent obstruction. Tees, elbows, and other 
Bttings cause friction and should be avoided wherever possible. 

flitcnoN OP Globe Valves, Tees, and Elbows 

Sednotlon of Pressure by globe valves is the same as that 
caused by an added length of straight pipe, as follows: 

Added lenjth= (U4 X dla. o( pipe) ^ (1 + (3.»-^di«.)) 

DiiL nf pipe, in t 1,E 2 2.E 3 3.S 4 E S 

Added lenith.-ft 2 4 T 10 IS IS 20 £S 3« 

Di" of D-«- in 7 K in 1! Ij IS 20 31 H 

A4dMl leagtii. ft 44 B3 10 SS IIS 143 1S2 ISl MO 

Redvotion of Treisure by elbows and tees is equal to two- 
thirds of thst caused by globe valves. Following are the added 
lengths of straight pipe equivalent to elbows and tees: 

Dia. of pipr. in 1 1.5 2 S.G 3 S.E 4 t « 

Added Isnttli, ft 22 ET S It 13 19 34 

DU. of uipr. in 78 10 12 IS IS 202224 

Added length, » 30 35 47 a« 77 M IDS 120 134 

These additional lengths of pipe for globe valves, elbows and 
tees must be added in each case to length of straight pipe. Thus 
a 6-in, pipe 500 ft. long, with I globe valve, 2 elbows and 3 
tees would be equivalent to a straight pipe 600 -f 36 + (2 X 24) 

+ (3 X24)=6Sa ft. long. 



Asbestos Building: Felt and Sheathing in less than ton lots 
costs 14 cents per 111. and may be had in thicknesses weighing 
from 6 to 56 lb. per 100 aq. ft. 

Asbestos Kill Board is made in standard sheets, 40 by 40 in, 
and 42 by 48 in. It varies in thickness from He to ^ '"■> ""^ I 
in weight from 4 to 27 lb. per sheet. The price in ton lote per 
lb. is $0.086 ; in less than ton lots, in crates of approximately | 
400 lb., $0.00 per lb.; and In quantities of less than 40(1 lb., its 
price per lb. is $0,125. 

Transits, Asbestos Wood used for firepi.oofing work, ventilaf- | 
ors and smoke jackets, comes in standard sheets 30 b^ 48 in., 42 j 
by 48 in., and 42 by 06 in. It may be had in ail thicknesses from | 
^^ in. to 2 in., and weighs from about 1.4 to 20 lb. per sq. ft. It 
costs in less than ton lots $0 1 1 per lb. 

Asbestos cements are used for covering boilers, domes, fittings, 
etc., and all irregular surfaces, and may be used over asbestos 
air cell twiler blocks, when it makes an excellent covering. 
When mixed with water to a copsisteney of mortar and applied 
with a trowel, it forms a light porous coating which is the most 
efficient non-conductor. The cost of this cement is $4.50 per bag 
of too 111. 



Portable Alphalt Mixing; Plant. A plant of the two unit type 
having a capacity of 800 Bq. yd. consiats of the following: 

iBt Unit: Boiler, engii 
and atone storage bin, 
complete all mounted 
lb. and ccwts $11,500. 

ind Unit: Portable sti 
mounted on wheels, wi 

cold material elevator, screen, sand 
nea»uring box, weighing bucket, mixer, 
I steel frame and wheels, weighs 44,200 

Fig. 15. Two Unit Portable Asphalt Plant. 

A three unit plant similar to the above in capacity ia as fol- 

Ut Unit: Mixer, drier, etc., weight 34,200 lb., price $0,000. 
2nd Unit: 40 hp. portable boiler and 25 hp. steam engine, weight 

12,600 lb., price $3,200. 
3rd Unit ; Same as sei'ond unit in above outfit. 

A three unit plant similar to the above rated at 1,250 sq. yd. 
capacity ie as follows: 



Ist Unit: Mixer, drier, etc., weight 38,000 lb., price $12,500. 
2nd Unit: 50 hp. porbible boiler, 25 hp. engine, weight 13,100 

lb., price $3,700. 
3rd Unit; Two 2,400 gal. portable ateam melting kettles, weight 

19,600 lb., price $3,700. 

Fig, 16. Portable Aaphalt Plant. 

Portable Road Asphalt Plant. The following is a description 
of a plant made in three sizes. These plants consist of tliree 
units. For the plant having a rated capacity of 75 yards, or the 
equivalent Topeka Mixture Asphaltic Concrete -Asphalt Macadam, 
oi any of the patented hot mixture asphalt pavements per hour, 
the first unit consists of a sand drum, capacity 8 tons per hour; 
mixer, capacity 5 cu. ft.; sand bin with rotary screen divided 
into two comparttnonta so that Sheet Asphalt Topping, Topeka 
Mix or Asphalt Concrete can be laid without change, capacity 
5 tons; measuring box arranged so that hot 'Band and stone 
for each hatch is weighed quickly and accurately; asphalt bucket 
arranged so that the asphalt for each batch is accurately weighed: 
mounted on all-steel trucks. The approvimate shipping weight 
of thU outfit is 35,000 Ih and it costs .$10,000. 

The second unit consists of a 30 hp. locomotive type portable 
boiler and a 25 hp engine, mounted together on an all-steel 
trunk. It weighs 10,800 lb for shipment and costs $2,.'>00. 

The third unit consists of a portable melting kettle having a 
capacity of 12 tons, mounted on steel trucks and furnished with 


two plstformB. The shipping weight is approximatelj 12,000 

lb., and the price is tl,7S0. 

The plant having a capacity of 125 sq. jd. baa a Band drum with 
a. ca.pacit]' of 12 tons per hour; a T cu. ft. batch mixer; a 7 ton 
sand bin; meaiiuring box, a»phalt bucket and is mounted on 
trucks. It weighs approximately 42,000 lb. for shipment and 
costs $12,600. 

The second unit is the same as in the 76 yd, size. The third 
unit is also the same as in the 75 yd. size. 

The plant having a rapacity of ISO sq. yd. has in the flrat unit 
a sand drum, capacity ot 18 tons per hour; a 9 cu. ft. steam 
jacketed mixer, a 10 ton sand bin, measuring box, bucket and 
tH mounted on steel trucks. It weighs approximately 46,000 lb. 
for shipment and eoxts SI5,000. 

The second unit conxtHtB of a 50 bp. boiler with a 40 hp. 
engine mounted an it with belt and weighs 16,000 lb. for ship- 
ment and costs $3,000. 

The third unit consists of two of the same kettles as used in 
the other outflta. • 

The following men are required to run any of the three sizes; 
one additional man for the 180 yard size; 

1 Drum fireman. 

3 Men on the mixer platform for sheet asphalt and other 
mixtures requiring the addition of dust. 

2 Men on the mixer platform for Topeka mix or other 

pavement not requiring additional dust. 
1 Man to fire and attend to the temperature of the kettles. 
1 General foreman. 
1 Engineer if eieam power be used; he can be dispensed 

■with it electric power be used. 
1 Oiler and general handy man. 

Sufficient laborers to carry wet sand and stone to the cold 
material elevator. 
For municipalities, these portable plants may be used as sta- 
tionary plants by removing the axles and wheels, setting up the 
plant on a permanent concrete foundation and surrounding the 
plant with a suitable building of light construction. 
This plant is illustrated by Fig. 17. 

A portable asphalt mixing plant has the following dimensions: 
length over all 3fi ft., width over frame 7 ft, 3 in., width over 
wheels 12 It. 3 in., wheel base 22 ft., height over all when work- 
ing 21 ft. in., and height over all when the elevator is taken 
down for travel 12 ft. The specifications are as follows: Asphalt 
kettle capacity 1500 gallons or approximately 26 barrels; boiler 


48 in. by 104 in., vertical, 34 hp.-, engine 10 in. by 10 in., vertical, 
25 hp.; boiler water tank, 300 gallonn; traveling speed one mile 
per hour; tnpacity ot batdi ^/t cii. yd. or 1,000 Ik; weight of 
machine, approximately 20 tons. Price f. o. b. factory $9,000.00. 
An asphalt mixer waH iixed in Lincoln Park, Chicago, during 
1010 to construct an asphalt surfaced driveway. The road was 

Fig. 17. Dryer and Mixer Unit. 

40 ft. wide \ 4,631 ft. long, and had 2 inches of asphalt on an 
in. base of crunhed stone. The total amount of asphalt wa 
22,318 sq. y^i. The material was mixed in an asphalt mixer i 
the following proportions; 

i part tori>mlo nand {JS 

The total costs were ae follows: 

Labwor -lone, p*r ,q. j-d. W-JM 

T.slmr on ■"phalt. per m yd 3K 


Lobcv coat of enib, p«r lln. ft t <M 

M»teriBl cost o( eorb, per Ijn. ft. 21 

Tot»l ooet of eurb (0^ 

These coeU include all repairs to the plant, but no depreciatiun 
The coat of the plant was as follows: 

Link Beh Co., OBphBll miier f 5,590 

GBeoline tractor 1,3X1 ■ 

e-lon roDer 1,800 

15-ton roller 1,500 

Asphth tsnks and tools 1,000 

Total T»lue of pUnt (IMO) «1,090 

The municipal asplialt repair plant oE New Orleans, La., was 
erected on a lot 175 ft. x 260 ft., and covers about 1,5M square 
feet of ground. 

The cost of plant was as follows ( 1Q06 prices) : 

Demolilion of old Earbage plant buildings t 4T5.D0 

A«ph»lt plant — Wsrren Bro«. AephaU Pacing Oo.'h 
ronlract, tlt.geZ.EO; citT atlsraliona and additiona, 

B.TOT.SO 19.599.00 

Yard (encee and galoa 859.00 

Swilct tracks I.ISB 00 

Yard paTemenla and drains 0,7211X1 

Tower lank and filter 1,130.00 

Water plpea and oullela 1,015.00 

Watefhouae and plBtform 1,«1.00 

iaphalt Bhed . "" "" 

Blacksmltta ahop and equipment 2IS.00 

~ " ollinr pen and wagon shed 5,311.00 

naher and Mnranti bin 1.9S«.O0 

ilerlal b 

Stone crnahei 

n building E.E09.00 

Landing bins and roade I,45!.n0 

Lighting S5S00 

General cteanlBg ot premiaea M8.00 ' 

In addition to 134 toolx of various kinds included in the con- 
tract price, the plant ie furninhed with the following: 1 roller- 
mounted platform scales; I 4-wheeI hand truck; 12 wheelbarrows, 
IS fihovels; 10 axes; ft picks; 8 crowbars; S sledge hammefH; and 
a number of small tools. The shed tools consist of the following: 
2 tool bones; 18 street barriers; 1 8-ton steam roller; I 3'A-ton 
steam roller; 1 1,000-lb. hand roller; 1 Are wagon; 1 mixing 
kettle; 18 asphalt irons; 66 asphalt axes; 107 picks; 18 mattocks: 
142 shovels; 24 wheelbarrows; 6 axes; 200 ft of hose; 6 sledae 
hammers; 8 chisels; 10 iron bars; and other small tools. The 
testing laboratory in equipped with cement testing apparatus, oil 
testers, brick testers, etc. 



In addition, 17 mules, 3 horHM, 9 aets hamMS, haltera, blan- 
kets, etc., for tlie staUle, and 10 wagons, 8 carta, 2 farm wBg<me, 
1 float dray and 1 buggy were puri-haiied. 

This equipment cost a« foUowai 








Bollitig (tock l.On.OO 

AsphBll. 465.« looM 

Fluiing OIL Ui,5?7 lb 








TrbHnnrU River Hand, 250 en. ;d 


Biver gravel, 6« cu. jd 

Clay »ra»«L 3,17S en. yd 

Vevi aoMll [rantLe blo<ka, 3,240 



.- -^ 

Laiti. >b<']k, 3.81SCU. id 

Br.ckbaK, 6M cu. yd 

::::;: i:*s 

::::::: ff 






I>iu'ing the same period ot time the plant turned out 88,947 
cubic feet of wear surface which equals 49/116 square yards of 
2 inch pavement. 

The largest day's ruB was 206 hoses of wearing aurfaee mix- 
ture. One box, or 9 cubic feet, will lay 5 square yards of 2-inch 

Operation Coat, Municipal Aiphalt Plant of the Dlatrlot of 
Columbia. Itemized costs for the operation of the District of 
Columbia municipal asphalt plant are contained in a report by 
the engineer department for the year which ended June 30, 1918. 
The plant output for the year was 185,952 cu. ft. of material, 
consisting of 1S1,152 cu, ft. of old-material mixture 22,050 cu. 
ft. of asphaltic concrete mixture, and 12,744 cu. ft. of topping 
mixture. The plant was operated for 214 days with an average 
daily output of 869 cubic feet. 

Hauling by motor trucli was introduced during the year for 
hauling the hot mixture, and was found to be both economical and 
advantageous. About 90% of the liot ha.ul was done by trucks. 

Municipal Asphalt Plant Costs at Washinqton, D. C. 

Baaed on 1 cu. ft. of Mixture 

Old-Material Mixture 

UBterUl con ; 

SBnd. 0.34 ca. ft., il 
Llmeetone dnet, S.l it}., at >^.bj 

TDM tMt ol material per cabi 

Matm(acturlng Bud placing cost: 

Plant labor* 

Hot haul 

Street layinf 

Uaintenance af plant and toots , 


Total cost per cubie loot 

16 per lu, yd. . 

. tO.0593 

Asphaltic Concrete Mixture 

Material cost: 

BcTfeningB, 0.6 en, ft-, at 1139 per t^ ..: 

Sand, O.Ben. [I., at II. 4S per ou, yd 

Limealone du>it, t.2 lb., aft3.63 per ton 

AqihatUe esment, 9,ie lb,, at tll.lO per loA 

;ort of maUrisI 1 JO.lBlt 

Lring and plaeins coat SSSS 

Total a 


Topping Mixture 

UaWrial eoM: 

Sand, 1.0 ca. It., at tl.43 per cu. yd. t0.0530 

Lim»Miie duet *.2 lb., *t i3.G3 per too .0076 

Asphsltlc CHnent, iM lb„ M tU.lO per tM .087S 

ToWt cost of ni»l«rial |0.14gl ' 

HttDutacturing and placing iMWt MS5 

ToiBl cost per cubic fool I0.51W 

A Bummary of the casts of material, operatioQ, hftuling, layiBg, 
maintetiBiice and HUperviaion is given in tiie table. The cost of 
minor repairs to sheet-asphalt pavements during the year averaged 
l.Tc. per square yard on a yardage of 3,064,700. The averaj^e 
coHta for the past 10 years have been as follows: 190S, 3.8c.; 
1009, 2.3c.; 1910, 2.6c.; 1911, 2.2o.; 1912, 2.4c.; 1913, 2c,; 1914, 
I.S)c.; 191S, 1.9c.; 1910, l.Bc; 1917, 1.6c The plant began 
operations in 1912. 


Surface Heateis. A heater primarily designed for heating old 
asphalt pavements in repairing, but which may also bs used 
for general heating and drying purposea. bums cither gasoline or 
kerosene. The heater weighs approximately 61.'i lb, for shipment 
and costs $190. It is made in the following sizes; 

Hood tlie Burners 

4 by t ft, B 

3 br 4 ft 4 

! by 4 ft 3 

1 by 4 It S 

Another make of surface heater has the following speciflcations : 
Fire Pan — 6 ft. by 6 ft. by 6 in., flat top. Can be raised and 

lowered by one man. 
Tanks — main tank, 3.5 gal., auxiliary tank, 18 gal., total 53 gal. 
Consumption — 6 gal. per br., kerosene. 
Wheels — 36-in. staggered spokes, steel. 
Fittings — air and oil gauges, valves, etc 
Shipping weight — 1,300 Ih, 
Price- $52.5, f. o, h, Detroit, Mieh. 

The manufacturers claim that this heater will remove 500 sq. yd. 
to a depth of one inch in eight hours. 

Keioiene Tool Furnace. This furnace is designed to replace 
the old style Rre wagon to get away from the smoke and dirt 
and time lost in heating the tools. With the kerosene furnace it 
takes about 15 minutes to heat up the tools ready for use. 

This furnace has the following specifications: Capacity — ap- 


proximately 15 assorted tools, rakes, shoTele, tampers, etc.; three 
burners, flanie plays directly on the tools; two IS-gal. tanks, 30-in. 
steel wheels, fittings, gauges, etc., complete. Shipping weiglit 
1,050 lb., price ¥320, f. o. b. Detroit, Mich. 

Fire wagon for beating asphalt tools made of heavy steel 
channel sections and equipped with uprights, cross bar and 
hooks, mounted on metal wheels, has a shipping' weight of 
1,360 lb., and costs $165. 

Fig. 18. Fire Wagon. 

Hand roller for patcliing weighs approximately 1,150 lb, for 
shipment and costs $135. 
Old material pan for re-heating old asphalt is about 10 ft. 

long, 4 ft. wide and 14 in. deep. It has a shipping weight of 
725 lb. and costs $125. 


CapBfily Apprailoiitfi 

in»al. Kind weight in lb. Price 

10 Porlable pstrol kettle 135 t W 

50 Slationarj' reitangular kettle 280 96 

IN atalianary rectsUKabr kettle 4W U9 


60 Portable recUnfuUr kettle 71 

100 Portable lectansulu kettle Hi 

160 PorlBble TeclBQEuIw kxtlle IS 

100 Btsllonary round maalle Irrttla fi' 

150 StBtionirr irclangulu- mutle kettle 31 

400 Portab'e coQtlnuoiu krttle with hood IS 

800 portable eontinnouB kettle with hood 

Asphalt Tooi« 

Itam weighllolb. 

Sandals, in pairs « d». 

Melting pots, T ga1.. [or piil«bin( S 

Pouring r>of, * gHl,, 8 in. ipouC 7 

PouHhk pot. * gal.. 10 in. apout 7 

Brick fllllnK pota, 1 (sl 7 

, ABphult Btrfft arraniTa 10 

Diprfm iriib long bandlM, » qt 9 

Diripera with long handl». » qt 7 

Anphalt cuttori'. without haadlM 10 

Smootben., aapbalt, lOW by Btt in « 

Smoolhen. B!<phaU, 1IU by 7U in 87 

Tampers, asphalt, 8 by S in 35 

Tamprra, asphalt. 8 by S in 37 

TimperB, a-nhait. S by S in 20 

Tanin»r«, asphalt. K(i by 214 in W 

Tamnrn. i-ODcrete, S In S in., bandka 10 

Asnhall rakes 5 

, Twoman stoDB rake 10 

8tone and binder fork 8 

Aiphall p»l«hing hoes 11 

Wiro niuh brooms. Iiandl.s 4 

Rattan pn>ih broomB. handlei S,% 

A>phall shoyl". solid "orVet 

Asphalt shovels, open socket *'A 

Uaatie "Hrring rods 10 

MB»tlo floafR 4H 

Usilio Bborela, long handlei *•& 

Doien prices apply on each order for six or more on oni 



(See Motor Trucke.) 

Faoenrer Can. For use of a BuiJerintendent, the passenger 
automobile, enabling bim to go from place to place with speed 
and convenience, is practically in dispensable. Tleir first cost 
is known to almost everyone who reads the papers, hut the cost 
of operation, which is the important feature, seems to be a mys- 
tery to ovmers until a few moathH after they have had their cars 
in cominiBsion. The medium priced car, say from $1,200 to 
S1,H00 for a five- passenger touring car equipped, is worth at 
the end of its first year a little less than two-thirds of its first 
cost it in proper repair, newly painted and usually with two 
new tires. After the first year the rate of depreciation is a 
little less, say, 25% of the original cost when new. It is rea- 
sonably safe to figure about as follows for a standard American 

.sin and paintini »%-«% 

rage (girase) (if in «t«.) ""- 

, »%-«% 
. lB%-30% 

Glii»line sad oit, lO.OOO miles li%-3e% 

These figures are intended to represent average conditions, 
and may easily be exceeded by careless handling or rough usage, 
and, on the other hand, may be too high for certain condi- 
tions. The very high priced cars will not depreciate as fast as 
35%, while the very low ones may depreciate faster than 40%. 
If given lesB than average use the repair hill will be low, and 
the gasoline and oil costs will be reduced in proportion. If 
not used at all, but stored at a minimum rate of 5%, the above 
costs will foot up to 36% of the cost of the car new, while with 
very moderate usage 50% would seem none too high. The 
proper unit for gasoline cost is that of the car mile, but here 
it has been assumed to be on the basis of gasoline at 36 cents 
per gallon and twelve car miles per gallon of gasoline. I have 


allowed % cent per mile for oil, tuaktni^ 3.5 cents per mile in all, 
or $360 for 10,000 miles, which would be 23% of the first cost of a 
$1,500 car. The other Hguteg are properly in terms of percentaj;e 
of flrBt cost per year, and the fuel costs have been assumed aa 
above to get them into tlie sa,me units for comparison. The last 
item is relatively unimportant, and becomes insignificant if the 
car is not much used. 

If the average $1,500 car is used 200 days in the year, averag- 
ing Rfty miles per day, its daily mat on the above basia will be 
$9.00, which, allowing for chauffeur and overhead eKpenses, 
checks with the ordinary rental charges. The price of gasoline is 
not likely to be lowered, but is gradually advancing;, and repair 
and storage rates tend to fnerease with the lapse of time. Con- 
sequently, the total percentage for annual maintenance coet, in 
terms of the selling price, is likely to grow from year to year the 
country over, the selling prices tending to steadily decline until 
they reach a, standard cost of production plus standard overhead 
charges and reasonable profits. 

Many figures of " sworn statements " as to repair costs have 
been published in the interests of the manufacturers of ears. 
These may be useful as advertising matter, but they are hardly 
a safe guide when financing a purchase. 



In trenching nork where machinee aro used for excavation, the 
eoat of baekfllling (by hand) is frequently higher than that of 
excavation, and there ia op)>ortunity for considerable saving in 
this item by the use of machines instead of hand labor. 

The DraKllne Baokfllling Machine. The wheel type without 
traction it< made in the smaller sizes. It ie designed to be drawn 

Fig. 19. Gasoline Backfiller. 

by a horse or trailed behind a motor truck to the job. It is 
moved along with the work on the job by its own power, by the 
use of the winch heail and an anchored line. This type of ma- 
chine equipped with a pulling drum having a capacity of 175 
ft. of 1^-in. cable and a maximum capacity of a 1,700-lb. load at 
a single line speed of 85 ft. per min. weighs approximately 
4,IXK) lb; Price f. o. b. factory, S700.00. 

The following table givee the size, weight and price of the wheel 
type with traction. 



Gasoline Dbivek Backfilling Machines 

Wheel type, with traction 

Horse power ehippinir weight in lb. [. o. b. factoc; 

5 2800 %SX 

6 34IM 8M 

7 4000 »S0 

Hg. 20. Backfiller with Traction. 

The following table gives the size, weight and price of the 
caterpillar traction type. 

Gasoline Driven Backfillii-o Machines 

Caterpillar traction type 

BHckfllling machinee equipped with a, winch head may be used 
for Tariong purposes besides backfilling, such as raising telegraph 
poles by a gin'pole, pulling cable through conduit, pulling crib- 


bing, lowering pipe into a, trencb or unloading it from care (see 
Figs, 21 and 22), and many others where temporary power is 

BaokfilllBK Wagoni. The following notes are from the Eieca- 
vating Engineer! By moimling- a triangular 3 yd. Ixis on an 
ordinary wagon body, a Chicago contrattor was able to avoid 
piling dirt on etreeta and rehandling in a sewer job. The 
top of the box is 10 ft. above ground and the floor forma a. 
chute starting at the top on the outside and extending at a 4&- 

Fig. 21. Unloading Pipe from Car. 
Fig. 22. Lowering Pipe into Trench. 

deg. angle past the side of the wagon for a distance of about 3 
ft. This overhang is stifflcient to permit discharging the material 
into the trench a,nd atill keep the wheels of the wagon from 
crumbling the edge of the trench. The diacharge gate consists 
of B, door, hinged at the top, controlled by a, lever beside the 
driver'a Beat. Ree Fig. 23. 

Backfllllng' with a Koad Boiler. The following notes are taken 
from Engineering NetB», May !3, 1015: 

For rapid, cheap and effective backfilling of trenches the Los 
Angeles City Water Department has utilized its steam road 
roller, rigged up to wJiat the force calls a " pusher," the con- 
trivance being capable of doing three times the amount of work 


that can .b« accompliibed by an average scraper gang, at one'half 
the expenae. The device is shown in the illuatration. It con- 
sistH of a piece of Oregon pine, 2iiJ2-in, by 3 ft, long, shod 
with iron, well braced and bolted to a 6x6 Oregon pine beam, 10 
ft. long, attached after the manner of a wagon tongue to the 
front of a 7-ton lO-hp. Kelly- SptingSeld road roller. The beam 
ia supported by tackle from a maet of 4 x 4 Oregon pine fastened 
on a hinge to the frame of the roller and held in place by wire 

This machine was used on baekfllling 5 miles of ditch excavated 
for a 40-iu. riveted steel main, the trench being 5 ft. deep and 5\4i 
ft. wide. The spoil bank, which vrm of reaaouable dry earth, had 

Fig. 23. Piling Dirt on Streets and Rehandling Avoided by Use 
of These Wagons. 

a base of approximately 12 ft. and a height of aliout 6 ft. After 
the men became accustomed to the use of the equipment, with 
every forward trip of the roller a cubit yard of fill went into the 
trench. Not only was the machine satisfactory from the volume 
of earth moved, but it was found that the roller could batk up 
to a freeway, go forward again and have its load in the diti'h 
in the time that a two-horse fresno was getting into position for 
its load. 

The machine on this ditch in an 8-hr. day did an average of 
450 lin. ft. of backfill, the expense being one man to guide the 
"pusher" or plowshare at $2.50; a second man to raise and 
lower the tongue by means of the tackle at $2.50; a steam engineer 
for the roller at S3.50; and 800 lb. of coal at $13.50 per ton — 


a total of $13.90. (This rate would be coneiderably lowered in 
B, locality where ehemp coal in to be had.) On the same work 
liefore the contrivance was put in service two two-liorse scrapers 
and drivers at $3.50 each and one man as helper at S2.50 did 
150 lin. ft. 

In working out the final form it was found tliat the length 
of tongue should be nearly ae long as the base of the spoil bank 
to be moved; also that the device must be very strongly huilt. 

Fig. 24. Steam Roller with Pusher Attachment Backfillinp; a 
Pipe Trench. 

Two conditions necessary for {"ood work are a fairly level ground 
with no obstructions in the way and auiflcient room in the street 
for the length of roller and tangue to get at the outer edge of 
the bank. It is quite possible to take the bank at an angle, but 
the best results are accomplished when the bank is hit squarely. 
Also, the use of the machine involves stopping of traffic in the 
block in which it is working. 




A eutter which is operated by a ]?ver and takes round steel 
bars up to %-in. in size, weighing about 130 lb., costs $16. 

A cutter taking flat bars up to % by 3 in., weighing 120 lb., 
coets $19. 

The above prices do not include stands. 

A maehine with »tand which cuts twisted squares up to I in., 
and rounds up to 1^ in., weighing about 315 lb; is priced at $06. 

Fig. 23. Home Made Bar Cutter. 

Home Kade Bar Cutter, Mr. L. A. Francisco in Engineering 
Record has described a home made bar cutter as follows: To a 
12 X 12'in. timber ia bolted a l-iu. thick steel plate having two 
holes over the center-line of the timlier. Through one of these 
passes the pyrbolt which forms the hinge of the jaw. Into the 
other lit several different siiws of anvil- blocks, for cutting different 
sizes of uteel bars. The movable blade of the shear was made from 
an old bridge eyebar fitted with a cutting edge of hardened 
tool steel. The leverage shown in the sketch Fig. 25 makes it 
possible to exert a pressure ot about 70,000 lb. on this edge. 



Wood Barges. The following data are vouched for by Mr. 
C. W. Dunham {Profesgional Memoirg), and were published in 
Engineering and Conlracliiiff, July 17, 1012. Thej cover a very 
interenting and instructive record of initial cost, repairs and life 
of various claseee of floating plant used on the Upper Miasis- 
aippi Improvement during the last thirty years. 

During this period of thirty years, this improvement has 
owned and employed 282 barges .(scow), 12 barges (model), 90 
quarter -boats, office'boats and store-boats, 3 steam drill-boats, 4 
dipper dredges, 5 hydraulic dredges, 7 pile drivers, 23 dump 
boats, 3 snag-boats, IS tow-boats of various sizes, and a very large 
number of small steam and gasoline launches, motor and ordinary 
skifTs, pontoons, and other small pie res. 

It will not be practicable within reasonable limits to follow 
the destinies of no many pieces, and therefore certain character- 
istic groups of various kinds arc taken, from the experience of 
which conclusions may be drawn. Pieces built within the last 
few years are not considered. 1 would say that none of the 
pieces up to 1908 had any kind of wood preserver except, occa- 
sionally, Carbolineum Avenarios laid on with a bruah, but during 
the past three years, SO barges, i dumps, 3 dredges, 33 pontoons, 
and 3 quarterdeck boats have been built, of which most of the 
lumber in the hnlh has been treated with creosote by the open 
tank or dipping process. Sufficient time has not elapsed to show 
the value of this treatment. 

In 1911 we treated lumber in barge construction by a pressure 
process. ^ 

Bcow Barges. The standard barges used in this district are 
100x20]c4^-ft. and 110x24x5-ft. in size. 

The barges used in the earliest years of this improvement for 
carrying rock and brush, were mostly of smaller size than those 
at present employed, were built of white pine, and with calking 
and nominal repairs, gave good service for periods ranging from 
eight to eleven years. 

Kodel Ba^es. Early in the improvement six oak model barges, 




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135 Jt26xB%-ft., were IniHt on the Ohio River, three hj Howard, 
of Jefferson vi lie, Idd., and three bj Cutting, of Metropolis, III. 
The:»e bargen, numlHred 60-ft2 and 8ft-90, ;wer» built in 1882 at 
$3,500 eatii, and were not uaii<temned until 1001, but for Ave or 
BIX ypars pri-vious th« repairs were very heavy. These barges 
were in li-e eigUtepn years. 

Steel "Bargea. Fnnrteen steel harfcea built for U9e on govern- 
ment work on the AIi^4^it»ippi River and placed in commission in 
1!II2 are descrlhfd in Enginrcring and Con iroci in j,. April 24, 1012. 
Theae bai^ies nwt fO^-lOO each, have a oapniity of about 400 
Ions, and an estimated lifn nf over tivenly jears They are used 
in conjunction with ereoMtcd wood bargen of aliout the same 
capaiily, but co»tln!r half an mucli and with an e>itimaled life 
of (en yearn. It will tie well to onmiMie Ihose cstimatea of life 
wilh those at Mr. UflgflMiP* k, dowrilml later 

The steel liarjroa are 120 It. lonjr, 30 ft >ram, 7 ft. 4 in. deep 
at center of h'>ld and 7 ft. at aides They are of steel through- 
out, flat botbkmed, wiUi rounded knuck)e«, wall iidi-d, aymmetri.'al 
about center line, with a rake 15 ft. long, a sheer 12 in. high 
»t each end. and a iroivn of beam 4 in. There are fnur tranv 
vcme water-tight bulkheads, and one non-wnlpT- tight lonai- 
tiidinni bulkhead over the center line, and two longitudinal 

Xlittreated Wood, Treated Wood and Steel Compared. "Mx. A. C. 
Hagcliocck, United Stati-n Innpcclor at Rock Inland, III, in a 
paper presented to the American Wood Preiervers' A«»otla(ion, 
and repiintcd in EngiMcring and Conlrarling, April 24, 1912, 
gives the comparative costs of barges of trealed and untreated 
timlicr and of slivl He states Diat the life of untresti'd yellow 
pine iMfgcs Is itiflicult In determine due to lack of aeenrate records, 
but thai a barge containin;^ a minimum proportion of sappy 
timber is pant ccononiral repnirn at the end of ten. years. Pres- 
sure-treated yellow pinn liargi-s have iieen uspcl for twelve years 
and are good to dny fur an additional life of ten years. It is 
necessary to recalk the barges after two yeara' service. The 
original cost of nntrrated barftce, 120 x 30 x S ft. built in the 
early nineties was aliout $3,000, and the cost during ten years 
averaged $2,00(1,61 per barge. The original cost of preifsure- 
treated yellow pine linrges ()f the same si^e was $4,000, and the 
cost of repairs a vera aed' $5-57,115. 

The ti)ble on page 60 compares the two kinds of barges. 

TiepairB to untreated flr barges are mainly due to decay and 
not to abrasions. The life of barges of this wood used on the 
upper MIssiiuiippi has been from ten to seventeen years, averag- 
ing Gfteen. The cost of repairs Is slight up to the sixth or 


Comparative Ankual Cost of Tieatgo and Umtb£ated 

YiXLOW ¥lSB Babgeb 

■ 120 Ft. X 30 Ft. X Ft. 

UnlrtaW Treal*d 

BarKeii. 10 Barces. 9 

r«n01d YaanOld 

OriBin«l cost »,OM.JS KflOOJM 

Cost of repBire 2,0««.SI EB7.36 

ToOil Oflsl I5.100.W 14.65?^ 

Vslue ol bargM Wd.y IS.fOO.OO 

Cost of birgea duriDg (oUI periods |5.10I>.IM S6T.35 

Annual cost per bnrge SIO.-M IW.TO 

Aaanal ssTiDg In favor of ereosoted barxn 4M.00 

seventh year, at which period $200 to $300 ie spent for entensive 
repairs. After that time repairu average $75 per year until the 
tenth or twelfth year, ivben extenaive repairs are agaio required 
and the barges have to be talwn from rock work and placed in 
the brush carrying service. Tlie life of treated fir barges is esti- 
mated at twenty years with Hiight repairs. 

Tlie following table is based on government freight rates on 
timber, and for commercial cbmparison, $10 per barge should l>e 
jldded to the yearly cost. 

CoupAbATivB Cost op Light Draft Barges Built of Vaeious 

KixuH OF Matebial 

100 Ft. X 20 Ft. K 4 Ft. 7 ill. 

DoQEhUL Fir TsLlow Pine 8ted 

Untr'd Tr'd Uatr'd Tr'd 

ID lb. 11 lb. 

15y»ar BOywr ISjMt 22ynt 2B year 

life life fifo life Ufe 

OrtBlnsl coat »l.a» IVMO «,«» «.«» 

Total repaira 1,091 *» l.OM TO* MO 

lnl«rest at E% on emit .... STO 1.500 »7G l.»R G.OOD 
iMereat at 5% on repairs 

T«»l coat »3,5J5 liBK 13.710 H,29tt W.BJS 

co«t per .b 
■eosoted 1 

Annual s»>nc in lavof of 

■ d Ir bariw 

Further data on the cost of Itarges are given by Mr. John L. 
Taylor in Engineering iVeiot, September 26, 1012, in whirh he takes 
eseeption to the price of steel bnrges given by Mr. Ilageboeek 
above. He states that the following is an abiitract of proposals 
for fumishine two gravel barges for Bam No. 28, Ohio River, 
opened on November 23, 1911: 

r:„|. :iMG00tjl>J 


Barges 100 Ft. x 

22 Ft. \ 5 


r E.M 

per barge 






Untreated wood 


Unlreiited woo* 

The above shows a ratio between the cost of a ateel barge and 
a wooden barg« of 1.47 to 1 in comparing the lowest price for 
a wooden barge, and 1.27 to 1 in comparing the average price 
of wooden barges. 

Bids opened on January 24, 1012. for two dump scowa for the 
same work were as follows: 

Bargea SO Ft. x 21 Ft. x fi Ft. 4 ins. 

I8.4M m.em Untreated wood 

e.M5 13,130 Untreated VDod 

E.«95 II,T»0 Untreated wood 

The almve shows a ratio between the price of stee) and loweat 
price of wood bargea to be 1 14 to 1 and between the price of 
steel and average price of wood bargea to be 1.06 to 1. 

Bidn opened October T, 1910, at St. Louia, Mo., reaulted aa 
f oUowB : 

Flat Barges, 55 Ft. x 16 Ft. x 3 Ft. 

Bid No. 1, lowert bid tor steel flat bosti {1,725 each 

Bid Ho. 1, loveBt bid (or wooden flat boats 1,223 each 

Hlacella neons Boatt. Mr. C. W. Dunham in Profeasiimal ilem- 
oirg, reprinted in Engineering and Contracting, gives the follow- 
ing information in regard to quarter boats of pine or fir: 

Quarter Boat*. The quarter boats used in (hia Improvement, 
in which category may l>c included oHicc-boata and insgicction 
boats, have been very numerous and always long lived, because 
it haa been advisable to rebuild hulls or provide new onea on 
account of the cabins, which do not decay or wear out. The 
dimpQsions and design of these boats have varied — In fact, it is 
believed that there are hardly any two alike. 

Building boats have not been standardized, although those 
recently built are quite similar. Many of these boats were 
adapted from ordinary barges. They arc used in building dams, 
liejng Buapeniled along the line of the dam; the brush and rock 
liarges are handled with their power. 




# n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II I II I 

°°i s M s i n r s * * * * ' 

ijj I ? 3 3 I II I S I j ir 



Is 'Is 

a a 3 a 
5 III 

........... Jilt 


ii = = = 
i||i 1 1 1 

? I t 


. 11^ 1 


..s- ! ^ ? =1 


" 5 s s t:, 
II I i I 1! 

III 5 I 



Net prices for aolil steel crowlmrg, lining bars, claw bars, and 
railroad tamping bars, are about bb followB (1920) : 


Orowbara Mot. 

Lininj b»fa :.■ IS ot. 

CUw bars, goons D«ck 14 ct. 

CUw bBr», with benl Met, 

Bftilroad lunpint: ban r. II ct. 


Flat Leather. Price per one inch width per rojining foot in 
i^ents. Single, 23 cents, double 47 cents. Weight 16 oz. to 1 sq. 
ft. in single ply. 

Bound LeaUier. Solid, price per running ft. in c«ails: 

Ks in. ^ 

Cut ladnsTB, bundles, priee per <4-in. width per 100 ft., $1.90. 
Eabber. Price per I in. width per running foot: 

Stitohed Casvai. Price per 1 inch width per running foot: 

Smslleit PriH 

PI; width in in. p«r n. 

Detachable Unk Beltt, Below is a table- of various sizes of 
detachable link belt with pricen, etc. Figure the working atraia 
at one -tenth the it It i mate stroigth for ^eeds of from 200 


to 400 teet per minute. For lower speeds increase this by two- 
thirde. When » number of attttchment links for fastening on 
buckets, ete., ore used, odd about 15% to cost of chain. 

Cost and Steenoth of Lirk Belt Detachable Chains 

Chain ~F(ni« 

No. per ft. 


in 10 (t. 

. ;t8-.. 


Bxaronro machises 

Hand bar bending maahlne capable of bending any Biz« of bar 
from 14 to t^ in. round, square or deformed to any angle At^ 
eired, weighs about 400 lb. for shipment and coats $100 f. o. b. 

Sttrrnp and Column Stay Benders. A small bender designed 
so that a 45 degree turn of the lever will give a 90 degree bend 
to the bar costs $S.O0. A larger, capable of bending round bars 
up to % in., costs $12. These benders may be mounted on a 

Bar crimpers designed for use on reinforced concrete construc- 
tion to do miscellaneous bending work on tbe job, such as bending 
slab bars around elevator openings, stairways and beam bars 
that do not fit as calculated, etc., cost from $6 to $8. Thej are 
made in the following sizes %, %, 1, 1^ and i'/, inches and will 
bend bars their equal in she or smaller. 

Another make of bar bender costs as followa f. o. b. lUlnoia. 



Fig. 2«. Bar Bender. 

This machine will bend round, square, and twisted bats cold 
up to 1^ in. Bdid hot up to 2 in. The 2-in. die will bend 
(lata "A by 2 cold, and 1 by 2 hot; the 3-in. die will bend flats 


^ t^ 3 incbee cold And 1 h; 3 hot; the S-in. die will bend flati 
^ by 4 eoM and 1 bf 5 hot. Special dies for this machine ma; 

Aa angle bender fitt«d with special dies for making atiirupB 
and hangers for beams, anchors tor concrete work, etc., weighs 
about 135 lb. and is priced at tSS.SO. Special dies of varioua 
sizes ma; be bad for this machine at from $2.60 to 85. 

Fig. 27. Angle Bender. 

A bar bending mactilne partimlarly designed for bending 
stirrups is illuatrattd hk Fig. 28. The Turner Construction Com- 
panf stat«s that a netaVlic latber, in eight hours, would bend 
from 3W to BOO stirrups per day, while with this bender they 
found it easily possible to bend from 1,200 to 2,000 stirrups per 
day. The price of the machine is about $90, f. o. b. New York. 

TTViet Hosnted, Fower Operated Bender for Keinforcin; Bods. 
A bar bending machine equipped either with gasoline engine or 
electric motor,' and mounted oh wheels for transportation by 
team is illustrated by Sgure 2Q. This machine is designed to 
bend Kny-tAm ov.eluipe of reioforcing rod that is likelj to 
be used in bniUii^ operations. It will bend rods up to 1^ in. 
diameter, ro«iid, square, or defgrmed, and is also provided with 
an attachment at the rear by means of which spirals or rings of 
any diaweter from 10 iu. up may be formed. It is, for example, 
used frequently for turning rings for column head reinforcement 
used in the Tnnier Mtithroom system of reinforcing. 


Th& Bimplt, tke actioii olirtlie'beiidjhigi nerober 

bein^ 'QOB trolled hya levar at the re^r of tha Inn«JliI)e-^ t 

The machine ia fitted with g^i^eti, scaled in feet and ioches. 
N> that' no iDftrking'Of the coda is Hieiie^fiary, ttnd as tJut heigbt 
ofi truss and .angl« of bead cKit be.aet.. WagOD tfucks and steel 
wheels'are prmided e& tlia>t the n^qbiiKt.jnuu'; (le. readily mov«l 
from plaice to place; .Each rear whwJ i» ;pr»\-jded \vith a.Bquart 
steel shaft which fits a hollow square axle so that it can be read- 

. :■ I Fiy.BS. -. 

Uji irsmov«dj BkAuI4'itl .be,deeifled- ta 'have f^reater ffcedoni -of mffve- 

malt oboMt ithe.iiBaiclwnet by- haviqg the iWbeala eutrof-jtlie' way. 
Vli« fpsmt truckiican be turaediundflr the.nuicbine.. - - , r, 
. The: total cOBt «f, .operatingi tdii^.jnacfainie '-peK^teor boor ,,da.v 
is given^as. follows; .' . ' , 

InleresC asd deprecistioB - :::ii.i,. .■ii...^.^i^^.^uiiii ■• 3ii 

'■" "■ Total ...' '..:.; '...:!.':;'■.. ;.■.'.'... v.'.'.'.,;;'kS 

■ One mftn-ia required to direct theiwhrlcajnil -operate 'Ae^DMLckine, 

and.two^mtfi' to hnUdle the etMI. -Titer mafiufMitaer'siritdteiiienl 
aS' to' perfonmanbc is one .tonr pir 'hour, : average i routput^ at a 
b«st ofi $l.(U)'.per ton, but this output' has <!fTe(]ueiili}>.;be(tt. ex- 
CHfled *t a eorrespdndingly' lowee «Dst. TheiibsSt iScbiissemeBt 
hafl'tieeii 3D'ton8 inOibMirs'ttt a ttott.olrSi Kte.'.pthiony- 
ThJH niachiM> equipped with- a gaeollnti.engine,! mavnttnl on 



trucks complete, weighs aglptoxinui^ly 2,700 lb. for Hkipmenb 
and costs $000 f. o. b. Minnemtft. 

Home Made Benah for Bendln; Belnferoing Ban. Mr. E. O. 
Keator in Hn^neering and OotUracling, June 14, IHII, describea 

Fig, 29. Track Mouoifd Potref Operated Reinforcing Bar Bender 

B home mode bench for bendinj; reinfoicin^ bar^ It ib illuetrBted 
by Fig. 30. The lH*ph proper is 30 in high and 5 It ffljuare 

on top and cost about ^'t for labor to make, uxing second band 
lumber. The bending device conaitits of two ittationairy sheaies 

Fig JO Home Made Bench tor Bendinj; Reinforcing Ban 

and a morable abeaTe D mounted on a sliding strip operated by 
a screw C The bar is iniertod between the sheavee as shown and ' 
a man operates the screw O Ibira moving the «heavp D to pro- 
Ja*e.tbe bend T)ie pnnciple of operation as will te Mbrilis'ltat 




of the familiar roller rail bender. A Bcala on the elide E indi- 
catea the travel required to produce correiponding bendi. Tbt 
bench as illustrated was used to bend the steel for aewtri and a 
standpipe. It coat $1 per ton t« bend ^-In. steel lor an e^* 
shaped Bewer. The sheaves used were taken from S-ia. double 
blocks used on the job and they were pivoted on % x 10-in. bolts. 
The stationary sheaves were spaced from 10 to IS in. apart: 
the heavier bars, ii^-in. requiring an 18-in. spacing. ' 

DevlM en Bender to Keep Bars from IwiatinK. The following 
is taken from Bn^ineeriitg Record, Jan. 2», 1916. A number ol 


1 M 




i (oY"](o) 


r ^ 


Fig. ; 

Pipe " Tunnel " Prevents Twisting. 

bars bent to a three-quarter circle were required in building 
the pier walls at the Halifax ocean terminal. The bars were 
light and would twist up in going through the rolls, and so 
acquire curves in several dilfereiit planes. To overcome this and 
hold the bars flat on the table a pipe " tunnel " for the bent end 
of the bar to feed through was made of a piece of I^-in. pipe. 
This was bent to a quarter circle and clamped down to the 
bending table on the circumference of a circle passing throngb 
the roIU. Fig. Sl.illuetrates this device, 
npe BendisK KaoUme*. The following gives vartous aiiM 


of pipe bending machines together with the shipping weights 
and prices. The band power machine is illustrated bj Fig. 32. 

Pipe Bendiro Machini 

(Without power) 


Approiimste shipping 
weiglit in lb. 



(With power) 



A hand power niaehine of this type is stated to make a 90 
deg. cold bend in a 6-iD, Iron pipe in leas than 10 minutes at a 
labor cost of about $1.S0. The bender consi^tij of a circular 
head, which is supported by an upright and from which arms 
extend to carry the bending shoe and a toggle jointed lever. 
In operation the pipe is placed behind the head and the banding 
shoe aD4 the pressure applied by moving the lever. In making a 
S-in. bend, six laborera handled the lever. 




PoRTADLt: Bins 

''''""ight iif lb!"""' 

Gravel screens for the above 15 and 20 ton sizes, 30-in, dia. 
by !» ft. long, weigh about 1,000 lb. for shipment and cost *200 
f. o. b. manufacturers' works. Screens for the 30 and 40 ton 
'sizes, 30-in. dia. by 12 ft. long, weigh about 1.300 lb. for shipment 
and coat $270 f. o. b. manufacturers' works. 

Fig. 33. 20 Ton Portable Bin. Screen in Position for Operation. 



Portable Bins (oi Conerete AKgre^tei. A portable otorage 
sjatem for handling cement, sand, gravel and crushed atone ia 
illustrated by Fig. 34 and consiatH of u number of binij into which 
the materials are deposited by a bucket elevator. These bins 
Hre built BO that, no danger of damage from rain exUts. The 
capacity of the bins La one carload or more, and the agRregates 
are fed by gravity to the mixer below. For batch mixing, 
measuring devices can be fitted to the chuies or the materials can 
be directly spouted into the hopper.. For continuous mixing, 
automatic feeding devieea can be attached to apouts, regulated 
to deliver varying amounts from ' the different bins at the 







1^ Car 



Fig. 34. Portable Bin for CoiK-rete Aggregattea. 

By this arrangement maximum capacit; can be reached, as the 
unloading from cars can l>e accomplished at the most convenient 
time and a large supply of material is constantly on liaad and 
available by operating a lever. After tinishing one job the equip- 
ment can be taken down, shipped to another point and ijuickly 
reaeHembled. The m»chinery can be operated by motor, gas or 
ateem engine or any other available power. Theae storage sya- 
tema can be built all steel or all wood, or a combination of ateel 
and wood. 



e cSiurS, coldTu ib"at'u ci 
( Chieets, liot, 8 lb. M 42 ot. 
1 Cutter for pipe up to 3 in. 
1 Drill. poBt. liand power up 

12 Btraight nhank twist drilLt, laaortnl tliea k 

6 Drill dollimi 

12 FiUs, uhoiled, «l tS i>«r dei. up to 12 In. . 

1! FiiM. flat 

12 Files, rasps 

1 Taps and dies. si't. S sites, mKblne threads --It.M' 

ti, aiieaned .■ , *M 

.... blapkimith'B leg -', !S.(M 

1 Vise, hinged for pipe up lo 3 in.-...i : ■../;'_J"«S 




Blasting hj electricity is the moat effective and economical 
system. It HurpaHseB all ottiers in safety, certainty and in re- 
eults. By this Byatem it Ib poaaible to fire t\ro or more charges 

Tlie equiiMnent necesHary for electric blasting is as follows: 
Electric blasting capi. 
Connei.'ting wire 
Leading wire 
Blasting machine. , i ' . . . ... 

'Blabtino JtAcriisEs 

The following is the cost of blasting machinea operated hj 

pushing down. The pocket size is operated by turning a Tiandle. 

Site of Maiimam Weirht 

machine cHpacitr Used for ' inlb. ' Pnce 

Pocket 3 StumpiiiK and Wider 4H . tZl.M 

2 ID Smu.l hLju.i ...,r. IS IT.SO 

3 Sn Grofral work .,... 26 2.S.W 

4 GO Lurir blasta 42 ,. WM 

e 'WD Larie hluU GS innOO 

6 m. .Large biMla; ., XI . ..-110.110 : 

BiAwrso atPPiiEs 

(See .al^o Eitploelwa) 
Blastcrb Thawing Kpttleb 

Blasti^q Auggbs 
Augers ,na(r> be «aDvenientlj. used to bora.koleB for inserting: 
dynamite under tre« itumpit.alc. They tosl> aa iollowaj- 



lucbea LiM price 

•Dirt Hi %1.S 

•Dirt 2 1.36 

'Dirt !-4 1.50 

Wood Hi L7S 

Wood 2 2.2S 

■Wood !(4 2.T5 

Aiig«r handles 1.2S 

•Withont handles. 

BLAsTixa Caps 
Number. S .raps are strong detonatMs. No. .8 are nearly double : 
the strength of No. 6. The following are prii'os per 1,000. 

, Numbar o( cans -pTim I 

■-""»• Nuinb*r6 Number 8 

■ -won 




Discounta t 

o dead nation 

> apply to the above are as follows: 

' In lota of leas than 1000 10% f. o. b. fsctory or dislrib' 
In lota of iOOO or over 15% I. 0. b. Ucioty -' ■'■•"'■I: 
In lots ol 20000 or over 2B% auiregt R.R. i 

Electric Blasting Caps 
The following ar^ the prices of dectric blasting capf per 100. 

Length of . 







The gatne diMOunts apply to these aa to the above. 
Longer lengths (made to order) $1.60 for each adilitional 2 ft. 
Waterproof electric caps cost aboijt .30% more than the above. 
Electric caps are packed as follott'S': 

Iiength in ft. Quantity per case Grose lb. 


' BIW ■ 
SOO . 

BLASTina Fuse 
Fuse may be divided into four classes according to the clasa 
of work it'ie intf^d^ for. There are maitylrinds for eai^ «l«i8. 
the following being of the- plain finisbrd' varietieK. 


Kind of tnn tni uae perlOMfl, 

Cotton, for use in drr work only, very pMahle » 9.SS 

Singli) Tape, for nu in damp vork i .. in.n 

Doable T»pe, tor UM in wet work 13.15 

Triple T«pe, lor um in Tery wet work where cxpo»d to 

DiacountB to apply to the above are as follows: 

In lot! of ten than MOT ft. 10% f. o. b. CoanecticDt 

In kita to ftWD tt. 1G% t. o.b. OoaDeetleut 

In lots to lOOOO ft. K% I. o. b. CanneoIfcDt 

In lots at less Ihsn IDW ft. 7H% I. d. b. dtstributinc point 

In lota to MOO tl. 12U% t. o. b. diatribatiug: point 

Id loll to MOOO It 1TU% t. o. b, dlitribnliDC point 

Approximate weights of packages of 1,000 ft. in 50-tt lengths 
are 13 Ih. for cotton and 23 lb. for the others. 

Fuse should be stored in a cool, Atj place and in handling car« 
should be taken not to kinb it. 

Blasting Wise 

ConnectiiiK Tire, Kp, 20 B A S gunge and No. a oa lib. and 2-lb. 

Leadins wire. No, 14 B t S bolh Bingle and daplex In tOO, 280, 300 and 
500 ft. coili. 

Leading wire reels |4.00 

The priie of wire varies with the locality and the market, but is 
about as follows: 

Connecting wire No, 20 tO.H9 perlb, 

Connecling wire No. 21 .. . .«4 per lb. 

Ijeading wire, iinale No. H ,00 per lb. 

Leading wire, dnplea No, It .01 per lb, 

BLAaTi:*o Mats 
Sir. H. P. Oillette, in "Rock Excavation," sa-ys: 
" Use of a Blaitlng Hat. For preventing accidents due to flying 
rockq, all blasia in cities should be covered either with timbers 
or with a blaiiting mat. This xhould be done to avoid suits for 
[lamages, regardless of city ordinances, A blasting mat is readily 
made by weaving together old hemp ropes, IH '"- diameter or 
larger. To make such a mat, support two .lengths of 1-in. gas 
pipe parallel with one another and as many feet apart as the 
width of the mat is to be. Fasten one end of the rope to one 
end of the pipe; carry the rope across and loop it over the other 
pipe; bring it back around the first pipe; and so on until a sulD- 
cient number of close parallel strands of the rope have been 
laid to make a mat as long as desired. Starting with another 
rope, weave It over and under, like the strands in a cane-seati.'d 
chair, until a mat of criss-cross ropes is made. Such a mat. 



weighted down with a few heavy timbers, will effectually pre- 
vent small fragments from flying at the time of blanling. The 
mat and its ballast may be htirled into the air eeverat feet, upon 
blaeting: but it will serve its purpose by stopping the Btnalt 
pieceR of rock which are so dangeroiu even where light blaBte 
are fired. The mat should be laid directly upon the rock. Such a 

Fig. 35. Blasting Mat. 

mat will save a great deal of labor involved in laying a grillage 
of timbers over a trench. It will also make it unnecessary for 
the blasters to stand far from the blast when flrfng." 

Manufactured mtits cost, for 1 in. dia. rope, $1.60 per sq. ft. f. o. 
b. New Vork, These are furnished with a loop on each corner 
and binding on the aides. See Fig. 35. 



Wrought Iron Gin Bloeki (or wire rope with stiff iwivel 
hooks and bMkets iniiy be had In diaioetfTH of from 10 to IB )d. 
The single blocka coit from (12 to fli4, the double from $1* to 
933, and the triple from «30 to (SS. 

Wronght Inn bloekt for wire rope, heavy pattern, are made 
from 6 to IS-in. sheave Ji>met^rB. The iron bushed tjpe single, 
ooet from SIO to S3G, doable from |I5 to |50, and triple from <22 
to 466. Tbe self-lubrieatiDg bronie hushed blocks cost about 12% 

Steel deiriek an4 hoiitlng blocks for wire rope are made in 
Kizea from 6 to 14-in., for diameter of from % to 1 in. Thej 
are self-lubrj rating with broiiKe buxhings. The single cost from 
$6 to $16, the double from $8 to (25, and the triple from 912 to 

Wroi^llt Iroa UUttell blocks for wire rope in diameters of 
from 6 to 20 in. cost from tl2 to $80 for the iron bushed. Tbej 
will take ropa from % to 1^-in. in diameter. 

Standard wood shell iron strapped blocks with sheaves in 
diametere of from 1%-in. to Il-in. with common bushed sheaves, 
for rope of from % to Hi-in., single block cost from $0.00 to #13, 
double block from $1,50 to $10, and triple from $2.25 to $25. 

Metal blocks for manila rope from 1%-in. dta. sheaves to 
S^-iu. dia. sheaves cost, for single from $0,60 to $12, double 
blocks from $0.90 to $1S, and triple from $2.25 to $26, 

The above blocks are some of the more commonlj ueed and 
the prices are approximate and to Ik used tor estimating. 

There are a great man;, difTerent types and sisea of blocks of 
which the above is a fairly representative list, but, owing to 
limited space, by no means complete. 



^ I -. 
Contitmons bine print macblne of the horiiEonUL t;pe is il- 
lustrated b; Fig. 3G. It takes continuous rolls or c«t sheets 
from 2 to 48 in. wide. The tracing may be delivered at will 
to the storage compartment or to the opcrai#r.:iQr nvprintiiig. 

Fit 3C.| Horizontal Blue, Print' Machine. ■ 

This machine weighs about 450 lb. tor sliipment and may be ha<l 
to operate on any current condition. The price for the standard 
speed is «285 and for the high speed $350 f, o b. factory. 

Blue print frames, with pad and polished plate glass, cost as 
follows ; 


Fig. '37. Print Frame en Wheel Carriage . 

Fig. 38. Folding Rack tor Blueprints. 


2Dx» 2ti30 30iU SSitt MitO IXifiO 4fx73 I 

With Mk (nme (26 tU OSS ITS tSS tUO I13> 

With bardwood fnnw » U U n 85 I 

With whMbd e«ni*i« TB 109 114 151 lO 200 | 

With tilting (larriags on rklta for ' 

window 1» ISO ITO 

Same at sbere with lavolfitic 

carriage 161 193 2ia 

Idr. R. M. JoaM in the Ameriean Machiitiat, Nov. S, IBIT, de- 
scribes a. folding rack for blueprints as follows: 

lu shops msltiiig a standard line of work, blueprints do not I 
need to be taken to tbe maohine, but muat be readily accessible | 
for reference. A convenient method of keeping them is in a ' 
folio, bound at the top and hung coi the wait out of the way, 
offering little space for dust and dirt to colleet. However, as 
it is handier to have the printa in a horizontal position when in 
use, the stand illustrated was made. 

It consists of two braces hingcii to two pieces fastened to the 
wall. A tie-bar is loosely bolted to the braces far enough from 
the wall to provide necessary room to allow prints to be folded 
back on the bracea. The top of the folio, which has a stiff board 
back, is hinged to the tie-bar. 

To extend the folio board, it is lifted to a horiBontal position 
and moved to the right until the supporting braces come under- 
neath it. To close, the folio is moved to the left until the 
braces come under the tie-bar; then it is allowed to fall. This 
makes a simple, inexpensive stand easily put in position (it may 
be worked with one hand); and when not in use, it is out of 
the way against the wall. 



ITpriffht tabolmr bollen with full lengUt tubes for 100 lb. steBin 
pressure, fitted with injector and 10 ft. of emolEe Htack cost as 


Standard portabU bollen for 100 lb. pressure, conplete vith 
fittings, injector, 10 ft. of suction bo«e, neck yoke, eveocr and 
wIiiinetreeB, cost as follows: 





On skids OB«h< 


1 nj I «! 

Ketim tabalar portable boileTi un skids complete witli'drj 
pipe under ataam outlet, ashpit front with dolors and'bMts ind 
injector, 100 )b. prMSUre, cost as follows: 

WeisHt Pint 

H. T. iilb, (. 0. b. New York 

iS 7100 n.nso 

10 moo i,ito 

i! 9 iS 

m IMtO UM 


The outside of the boiler should be kept drj at all timea and 
the inside of it should be as nearl; free from scale and rust as 
possible. Different kinds of water will have different elTeots 
upon the life of the bailer, and the Teeults to be obtained from it. 
In a limestons country the boilers will scale rapidly. This ecale 
is a poor conductor of heat and bb soon as it reaches a 
considerable thickness will cayse a marked decrease in a, boiler's 
steaming efficiency. In alluvial country, where the water contains 
much vegetable and loamy mat:te^. tl^e boilers will gather an oc- 

Fig. 3S. Ketum Tubular Boiler on Skids. 

cumulation of heavy mud and should be blown at least once each 

Hr^ John W. AlvoM, of Chicago, gives a" table' show4ng the 
history of thirty-two horitonta] tubular "boilers uaed in water 
pumping stations in Illinois. Iowa and Michigan. The active life 
of these boilers wax found to have ranged from six: years for 
two boilers at Sterling, 111., where artesian water was used, to 
twenty-three years for two boilers in Oskaloosa, la,, where river 
water was usied, the latter boilers being still in service. The 
average life of this group of thirty-two boilers was fifteen years. 


This would indicat« that the rate of depredation (m boilera should 
be 20% where artesian water is uswi, 10% where lake water 
is used and 5% where soEt river water is used. 

Estimating the Honepowei of Contractors' Boilers. A boiler 
la usually estimated to give one horsepower for every 10 sq. 'ft. 
oE heating surEace. Henee the borw^ower of a vertical tubular 
boiler is found thus: 

Rule: Divide the total l^eatiiig;, surface .<)f the tubes and flrC' box 
(expressed in square EWi^4>f ten, snd Hte quotient is the horse- 

The square foot heating surface of a tube h quickly calculated 
by multiplying the length of the tube in feet by 0.26 and then 
multiplyirig by the outHide diameter of the tube in inches. BincB 
tubes are ordinarily 2 inV, the total heating surface of the tubes 
ia found by multiplying the niimbei' of tubes by tlielr length ih 
feet by 6.S2; 6r, for a U prttctieal purposes, take half the product 
of the number of tubes by the length of tube in feet. To this 
heating surtace of th« tubes must be added the heating surface 
of the &x« bov, which is ascertained thus: Multiply Uie citcum- 
ferenne'of the Tire box in feet by its height abwve the grate in 
feet a'n,d add the square foot area of the lower ,flue,.ebeet. 

The diameter of the fire tioz or Eurnaoe is UHuotly 4 to 5 in. 
leas thi^i the outside diameter of the boiler. The heiglit of the 
lire bdx'is usually 2 to 2^ ft. The amount of coaJ required for 
a contractor's boiler is about 8 lbs. per horsepower per hour, or 
60 lbs. per hdrsepower per day of ten hours. Heactiy one gallon 
of water will be required for each pound of coal. About 2% lb. 
nf dry w«od are equal to I lb, coal, or 2 cords of wood equal 
1 ton of coal. 

BoiLEB Room Tools 

1. to 1 in., no to un. 



The citj of Baltimore in 1D09 iDBUlled a " rattler " for tefltine 
vitriAed blocks. The machiae is 28 in. in diameter, 20 is. long 
within heEtds. The barrel ie a regular paragon of fourt««i 
3id«a and contains about 12,01S cubic inches. It is driven I;^ t 
5 bp. single phase electric motor making 1,710 revolutions per 
minute. The speed was geared down at the " rattler " end of 
the belt to produce thirtj revolutions per minute. The coat of 
the outSt and the expenditures during the first year were: 

One vilrified blocli rsttkr with belt Wt.W 

OnB 6 hp. motor ]6I),» 

C«8l alee] <ihol 12,(» 

Freight and dr«j;Bje »^ 

Buildins fonndition and ramodelinc Rbed 53.11 

Elertric iutilmllirion XIM 

Eleelric coiii|>in7's couDeetioiu '.... 3.TS 


Contractors' bucketi are of two general typeg: (1) that which 
is filled by hand, or other agency outaide itself, and (2) that 
which fillB itself by digging into the material to be conveyed. 
The lirHt type of bucket as used by contractors, is usually a dump 
bucket, and the bowl is cleared by either tilting it, or allowing 
a door or grate in the bottom to open, thereby releasing the mate- 
rial. The second type of bucket is usually either clamahell or 
orange peel, but is sometimes made in special ^apes. ' 

The following table gives the approximate weights of materials 
commonly handled with buckets: 



Matfrial yd., lb. 

Dry Hind 2,TII0 

Wet sand -. 3,«0 

Looae rartli 2,«0 

WM itay 3,W» 

Anlhricilo coal l.SOO 

Crnshed glone ..'."\''^\\'.'.\''^l'.'.'.'\'.' ['.['.'.' '.','.'.'.'.'.'."'.'.'.:'.'.'. 3,000 

Iron ore 4.KKI 

OranaUted slag '. . l.BOB 

F]g. 40. Bottom Dump Bucket . 

I .,G(.K)tjl>J 


Bottom dumpily buckets similar to Fig. 40 c 

Caiitwily Appraiimald 

in cu. ft. weight, lb. 

Coal tubs Bimilar to Fig. 41 coat as follows: 

Cojiacity Weiehc' 

ciwi. loiu Cii.rt. Inlb. 

Contraeton' tub*, Fig. 42 cost as folkiwi! 

Oapaeily Length Width Deuih 

Contraoton' and minen' round tnbi, Fig. 43 cost as follows: 

Capacity Lcnglb Width Drpth 

cu. ft. incbaa inches incbH Price 

Bottom dump bnoketl, similar to Fig. 44 cost as followa: 

Cipscll;. Top Bottom 

StlalKlit aide self -dumping, self-righting tip bucket, which 
dumps itself under load when the catch is released and auto- 


el f nn. 

Center domp bucket for general use is built with the bottom| 
of the bucket larger thin the top eo that -no difficulty ie met in 
dumping at) kinda of material whether wet or hardened. Tli« 
operating lever locks and unlocks the bucket automatically. 
This bucket is reinforced and stated to be practicaJly grout 

CsTiacity Npt veiibt Price | 

In eu. ft. in poaudi t. o. b. (actrar 

J ra ; ■ 2011 pBO 

\ _ Tow Ltee Bottom, Sump Bucket. This backet is a controllable 
diticharge bucket with all four sides tapF»hg outward toward the 
bisttom, making it larger at the bottom than at 'the top. It 
nla; be used to handle concrete of an^ consistenej, aggregates, 
earth and rock. It ia praeticallf groutiight and is operated bj 
ivip lines, and may be had with a double -operating hook which 
brioga the holding line and the operating line' 'toother in a unit- 

ia en, ft. In pounds f, o. b. taetory 

n several sixes 

ControllaUfl' Fonn Bnrtett. TheM buckets are used for placing 
concrete in [orjng where a narrow controllable bottom discharge 
is advaDtageous (Fig. 45). 

Fig. 45. Controllable: Form Bucket. ■ ' ' 

Clau Shell Buck^s 
A ttfong, flhnpl^, dam ehell bncket to bpCi^te on two hoisting 
cables eotits as follttws. 

Oapaaitr A-pproKinflte Bhiypiai Fries 

incpijrd. weight in lb. t.o.b. lectors 

U 1120 ' ' t 450 

Tbe above prices are for buckete without teeth. If teeth s 
wanted add from $35 to S«0. 

A more powerful bucket operating on two hoisting cables cot 
as follows : 


OmpasUa AppreiiDate ahlpplnc Price 

in en. yd. weight in lb. [. o. b. (artory 


The above prices are for buckets without teeth. Teeth : 
from $35 to $00 extra. 

The above bucketn arranged to be operated with a four p. 
hoisting cable cost $60 more for each size. 

A bucket of another niake costs as (ollowa: 

Ospseity Approiimal* ehippine 


The above buckets are designed to be uaM with a Ave part 
reeving when operated with a counterweight, and three part 
witliout the counterweight. Price includes biicket, complete, willi 

Equalizer bars may be added to thetie buckets to take two hold- 
ing lines. These bars aie mounted on the hold line pin at head of 
bucket and arranged cither parallel or at right angles to hinge 
pin. These bars cost from $21 to $40 for the 18-in. size, $26 to 
$50 for the 24-in. size and from $30 to $75 for the 36-in. size. 

Single line, automatic, clamshell buckets when operated by 
derricks may be UMd for handling sand, gravel, coal, ele,, and 
excavating in loose soil. Thej may also be attached to portable 
cranes, steam shovels, and other single drum rigs without the 
necessity of additional druina. They may also be used on cable 
ways without any change in engines or lines. They cost as 
follows : 

heavy material. 



in «u, ri. 

veigbt in lb. 

f . a. b. f BCtOTT 









a! 100 

ore and es^tra hard 

Fig. 46. Scraper Clamshel) Bucket. 

Obanoe Peex Buckets 
Standard omagt peel buckets are adapted to all classeB of 
dredging and excavating. They are good all around digging 
buckets, and are eometimeB used for handling ore. 

Xnlti^ower OTan^B peel bu<dtet* are uaed for digging olay, 
compact Band, and other hard material, and are built about ao the 
extra heavy atandard, but differ in the cloning mechanUm, which 
in this «ase hu tvice the doHlng and half the lifting power. 




Three-sided orange peel bnOketa are especially w«ll adapted for 

the handling at' boulders, broken rock, and other odd-shaped j 
materiale difficult to hold unleas an even force is .exerted on 
bearing part. This ie possible with this three-bladed bucket. 

An excellent illustration is given in Fig. 47 of what a three- 
bladed orange peel bucket can do The points of three-bladed 
buckets coming in contact with a boulder, or pile will cither 
force it inside the bowl or wHl grasp the object 'aa in the 
illuxtration in such a manner that' the holding force will be 
positive and the strain equally divided. 

Capacitj' Approiimate ghipidne Price 

1 fl.500 

1» 2.200 

2 2MI0 

Fig, 47. Three Bladed Orange Peel Bucket 

Hinlatnre Exea^wtixg: BncAetta. The (oHvwing notes aib from 

Bttgineerin^ Record, Ftb- 26, 1910. . ■ , . . 

In tlie: special foundations of a part of tlie New York' rapid 
transit «u^w.a;s and some adjacent but Id in gs, about 350' e^iindii- 
cal stpcl and concrete piles, about 14 in. in diameter and varying 
in length, froni H it. undrr Hnioe buildings to Cp ft. under the 
subway, have been sunk through strata of earth, sand and 
gravel. intcri^perKed with stones of considerable si^e. The piles 
were constructed by putting down a, steel shell and then filling it 

1/ . ' BUCKETS 101 

with eoncrefo, but vwing to the limited lietjidroom and 'contracted 
working- spttce none of the usual methods' of placing concrete 
piles could be used. It was necsHsar; to drive the %8'in. steel 
easing in successive lengths, 2 ft. long and overlapping each 
other atKMit a foot, by means of a hydraulic jack or drop ham- 
mer. This could be accomplUhed without much trouble by ubing 

Fig. 48. Dwarf Bucket in Use. 

a cap on top of tbe upper section of the easing to prevent injury 
to It, kut the removal of tbe material inside the citBfng proved 
decidMlly troulilPBomD at flmt. 

It waa derided to use Uiiiisture orange peel budieta weighing 
about 28 lb. apiece. They were operated, like the ordinary 
sizes, with two lines, one at the head of the Inicket and the other 


ftttafrbed H> iha bull ivheel, which were carried up to the leaves ! 
of .a double block and managed by two men, one for each line, and 
removed all the. material succexB fully. 

Tliis kind uf exi-HVatin^ was neteH^tarily conducted in a biic- 
ceesion of Btageti. After the casing wan foi'ced down a few feet 
by tfae jack, tlie cHp wati lifted off, and tlie material taken out 
with a bucket. Other Hections of the easing were then placed on 
top of those already sunk, and the driving wan rennmed until it 
was necessary to use the bucket again. If a large stone was 
encountered it was broken up by a drilling bit, which was churned 
up and down until the rock was broken up. The siite of some 
of the pieces of stone brought up by these little buckets, when 
compared with the sii^c of the buckets themselves, was surprising. 
After a casing hud lieen sunk and tested to see that it had the 
bearing capacity required by the Public Service Commission, it 
was filled with concrete, thus completing the pile. The buckets 
frequently operated in 25 ft or more of water, and one of them 
could excavate from 3 to 8 lin. ft. of material in a day, depending 
upon its character and the working conditions. 

It is apparent that these little buckets are adapted for other 
classes of work which often cause trouble, such as digging and 
cleaning wells and handling materials heated in kettles or cal- 
drons. For es:ample, articles thrown into a hot bath could be 
removed in this way by perforating the blades of the bucket 
to allow the liquid to drain out. 

Fig. i'.h Counterweight Drum. 

CotiBterwalglit Dmiu. Where a double drum engine ia ttsed in 
connection with a bucket, and the boom of the operating machine 
is to be raised and lowered, a counterweight drum' will take 
the place of an additional drum on the engine at considerably 
less cost. These drums may also be used in connectioD with 


a single drum enpne when opprating the TBrioua types oferange 
peel and dn» shell bucketn. 

The dnun ie in no way connected to the hoisting engine and 
may be placed in any convenient location for the leading of the 
holding line to the bucket and the counterweight line to the 

In operation, the bucket, being lowered, raiseB the counter- 
weight; when being hoisted the counterweight rotates the drum, 
taking up the slack in the ctosing line, and when the dumping 
point is reacbf^ the hand brake holds the bucket at any desired 
point. The band brake may be operated by a foot or hand brake. 

A drum, similar to the one shown in Fig. 4!), weighs approxi- 
mately 1,100 lb. for shipment and costs $235 f. o. b. New York. 

Oatoline escaTatoT for operating a. clam shell or orange peul 
bucket has a 30-ft. boom and is equipped with a two-drum control 
to operate any standard bucket. The manufacturer claims that 
with a %-yd. bucket in sand, stone or gravel the daily average 
h 10 to 15 cara per day. This machine has the following gen- 
eral uses: digging sewers, cutting gravel banks, removing over- 
Ijurden, dredging, excavating and rehandling material. The aver- 
age working speed ia estimated to be from 1 to 3 buckets per 
min,, with a capacity in ten hours of from 400 to 600 eu, yd. 
depending on the material. The shipping weight is approximately 
32,500 lb. and the price is $0,500.00, bucket extra. 


In building irrigation ditches in the Modisto and Turlock dis- 
tricts along the San Joaquin ri-ver in California in sand and 
hardpan a land dredge .or grab bucket exeavator was used for 
part of the work. The machinery is mounted on a skid plat- 
form 18 X 30 feet which rests on movable wooden rollers running 
on pianks on the ground. The diedge moves along the ajjial 
line of the canal receding from the breast as it is excavated. It 
is moved ahead from 3 to 5 feet at a time by means of a steel 
cable anchored to a " dead man " and wound on a drum driven by 
the engine. The A-frame which supports the boom is 20 feet 
high. This boom inclines about 45° and may be swung 180° 
horizontally by a bull-wheel but has no vertical motion. The 
bucket is of the clam shell type, one cubic yard capacity, weigh- 
ing 2,800 lb. The operator stands on a pla<tform on the A-framc 
and controls the machine by 3 levers and 2 foot brakes. A 26 
hp. single cylinder gasoline engine furnishes the power and 
drives a series of combination gear ani friction brake drums 
controlling the motion of the excavating bucket. The machine 


•soat $S,000. Wages of the crew of 5 men and a team during 
oiii- tniinlh amnimtrd lo $30->,r>0. The fluiiplica, wbieh Included 
400 feet of %-in. hoiating coble costing $1)0.40^ rollera cotiting 
$21,110, a lar^f intermeiliale gear cobtiny $14.-00, deprecintiDn of 
marbine 9'"). Of), and sasolfne, oil. exploeiven, etc., amounting to 
$216.24. Fourttvn tiioUHand cubic yards were excavated at a coat 
of $0,035 per cubic yard. 

Fig. 50. Clam Shell Dredge Cleaning Canals in Imperial Valley. 

Traction driven machines (Fifr. 50), equipped with 15 c« ft. 
clam shell buckets, wpre used hy the California Development 
Co. for cleaning canals too small to float drcd^s. Thcae ma- 
chines have a 40*ft. steel boom carricil on an all ateel frame. 
The maximum width of cut is 14 ft. The power is supplied by 
a 15 hp. gfli^olinC engine The machine ha^t two forwnril' trac- 
tion speeds and one reverse TTic*c machines cost $5,000 each 
(atiout 1910) and tho co-it of handling material with them was 
about 13 cents per cu. yd. 



The only buildings that prapeil; need be described in a bo<^ 
of tliiH character are tlioke of a temporary or semi -permanent 

ContTMtort' Portable Iron BnildinKi. The following notes ap- 
peared in the Engineering Record, Ort. 26. 11)12. 

Several portable iron buililin^H were erected to provide quarters 
for tbe coiiHtruction force, and to hautie materialx and hiipplics 
used in building a power plant for the Nortlicrn Ohio, Traction & 
Light Co. near Akron, Ohio. The smalleBt building is a powder 
house, 12x12 ft. In plan. An office 12x32 ft, shown in Ibc 

Fig. 61. Sectional Metal Building for Construction Work. 

scTOmrmnying itlnntrstion, a bunk houw. 12x2H ft,, and a stor- 
age bouBe, 12x28 ft., also were provided The biiildinsa are 
conatrueted in units so the width or length may be increased l>y 
any multiple of i ft. Bills of 8x 10-in. timliers, pinned together 
at the corners, were proviited. ^Yith these in place for each 
building, the front corners of the latter were bolted down and 


then the balance of the sections were ereefed in successive order. 
Eaeh section is fastened to tlie next by means of three bolts. As 
fast aa the sides were in place the roof could he erected without 
any framing, as the buildings are complete in themselves. 

Jlry HoQse. Mr, R. E. Tremoureux in the Uinitig and Scien- 
tific Press, June 17, 1H18, has written the followinp; 

A new dry -house was built at the Champion mine, Nevada 
City, California, in November, 1015. to accommodate 320 men, 
at an approximate cost of $S per man. The house is built on a 
level waste-dump, with concrete walls four inches above the 
floor-level. The floor contains 2,160 square feet of concrete put 
in at the following cost per square foot: 

Lsbot :.. »M* 

suppijBB O.Ota 

ToUl ».aj 

The floor is built with a grade to the centre of tlie shower- 
baths. The building is 36 by GO ft, and 12 ft. high, with a. 0-ft. 
rise in the roof. The building contains 6,254 board- feet of 
lumber, built at the following cost per M board-feet: 

L»bo( - »1*.80 

Suppliei !tl!0 

The roof and sides, having 5,407 square feet of outside surface, 
including doors and windows, cost per square foot: 

Irfbor W.*08 

Supplies 0.143 

ToUl W.lBl 

The house is built to contain 8 sections of suspended lockers, 
each locker containing 40 compartments. The lockers are counter- 
balanced on the outside of the building and can be raised and 
luwered easily by one man. When raised the bottom of the 
locker is eight feet from the floor There are four showers in 
the main room and one in the foreman's otGce. The wash-standit 
are built along the sides of the showers. The dry is heated 
through 2-in. pipe-radiatois, by an Ideal hot-water boiler. The 
total summarized costs are as follows: i 

Mater lain 

Labor kadaupplJas Total | 

Oradioc I 19.E0 I »£• I 

CoQcrele walls 13.13 £S.») 44.63 

Contrele floors S3.75 149.BE !«.» 

BuildiDg T7.7S llt.S* IB914 



Labor aDdsnppliw Total 

RMf and lidei 41. ») 779.(18 SiOM 

Window! and dnori £900 IM mns 

Locken 217 » 2J7.B4 4U S4 

IdOBl boiler eri-clion 12.a 2W30 2129J 

BoUer TBdiilori 10315 IWM 2».30 

Hot-water boiler ,. 13.37 KISO 34.17 

Eleclrlcal work 20 98 10 DO 30 98 

Showan ... . 2B3S il.t2 U.fiD 

ForemaD'a oIBcb 11,75 750 1».25 

Pipe work 2()«2 3«65 67.27 

W&ita.waahfPt 2< 60 3.W 27.70 

SiindIT 3875 2.63 «.38 

Sup«rmleDd«nc« 60,00 60.00 

TolBli t32>.8S tl.7t7.iT t2.6T7.13 

Car CampB. The following was taken from Engineering yewt 
Record, Feb. 27, 19]9. Car renips on wheels with a bunkhouae 
and mesB-hall unit In each outfit repay their cost each season 
on road maintenance in Gogebic Count;, Michigan, by reducing 
lost time of men and wear and tear of camp equipment, An 
outfit, with a mess-hall unit complete, as illustrated, and an 

Fig. 52. Portable Car Camp. 

eiHctly nmilHr hunkhouae unit without fumiiihings. was built hy 
a local wagon maker for 9676, 

The wagons are standard-gear, with % x 4-in. tires. !i% k 13-)n. 
skeiiia, 28-in. front wheels and 36-in. rear wheels The tralsters 
are made aa wide. as possible; in this case they are 40 in., and 
the front bobiter is ao arranged that the front wheels can turn 
under the t>ody aa far as the reach. 

The bunkhouBC unit will atKommodate cott for 12 men. A 
7,i)00-lb. trkotor hauls each unit easily. 

The City of San Francisco has adopted a stHndard design for 
bankluMues on the Hetch Hetchy project. This is not only to 
simplify' nlBteria) billing and construction, but in order to fit 
in with the ' nscesiity for moving camp fre4)oenlly. Becauw 


practirally all parts of the work are reached hy the city's 
SS-mile railroad, it 19 de^iiable to use bunkhouMa that can be 
readily loaded on a. flat car. 

Two standard flizefl are in uae, a 10-ft, x IG-ft. bouse for eight 
men and a 10-ft. JtSO-ft. house for sixteen men. Both uae two 
tiers of buDks. The deaign calls for 2-in. x 4-Tn. stildding, 4-iD. 
X 4-in. corner poxtn and battons over the joints betw^een the 1-in. 
aheathing. There is nothing unusual about the design except, 
perhaps, that the 4-in x 6-in. floor plates are always used in 
full length pieces to aPTord a substantial " bottom " on which 
the house can be jacked up and akidded. The frame ia well 
braced to with.stMnd the racking inci'lental to moving, and a 
tar-paper roofing keeps the weight to a minimum. The lumber 
in the larger si:?e structure totals only aliout 3,000 ft. bm. 
Where a camp ia to be maintained for a ^hort time only, the 
custom is to skid the bunkhoufe from flat car onto a crib built 
up alongside to suitable height and \eave it there until tlM next 
move ia in order. 

Portable Sectional Bnnkhonses. The following Is taken from 
Engineering News Record, Jan. IT, inig. The standard design 
adopted by the Fennsjivania B. R. for wooden buildings of 
thiH sort is shown in Fig. 53. - 

The buildings are of light framing, with sheathing of tongued- 
and-grooved white pine, and roof panels of plank covered with 
tar paper They are built in lO'^-ft. lengths, and have a uni- 
form width of 20 ft. and heinht of 16 ft. from floor to ridne. 
The exterior is covered with pebble dash roofing paper. For 
semi 'permanent structures, aa at railway shops, the floors are 
set on concrete piers almut 18 in. above the ground, and roof 
gutters and downspouts are provided. 

The btiildings can l>e made of any desired length, and equipped 
for various uses. The bunkhouse has usually five aectiona. It 
has steel double-deck bunks, and is fitted with lockers and sta- 
tionary washotands supplied with xunninjf hot and cold water. 
Shower baths are provided whenever, possible. A 73^i-ft. mess- 
room has two sections {21 ft.) for the kitchen, and live aeotiona 
(52>^ ft) for tho dining room. This latter . has nix rows of 
benches and two. tables. The commis^ry buildjng for the store- 
keeper or timekeeper has two sectioils. 

Sidaa, ends, floor and roof form i^parate sections or panels. 
These are packed flat for shipment, and material - for four 
buildings can be transported easity tm a Aat or gondola car. 
When erected, the Mctioosare put ti^ether.with hooks aid eye- 
serewa. Tbe sepatate panels are remlity treated witk' dUinfec- 
taiits, applied by brush or spray, >and this workis' Msite and 

mora Hfwtire IhtB diHtnfecting fCAt. Cost ol' construction' is 
aboDt 7W wdlH per eui fl; UnTnailin* «»•> iTectJ«g vosts abbot 
$5 per vnity disnuntllng snd loftdidg 'tihe Mmai' 

Fig. C3.. P. R- R Standard Portable Bunk Hoiue. . i 

Censtnictian Camp for the Town of Torrance, Cal. Mr. Ralph 
'Bfmmttt-.itiiiinffimttTinf Jiews, Aug. 27, 11114,-haB written tlie foli- 
lewingi. .' < , I 

A.ftUDp, whether tMnpoiary .or permanent, ehouldibe iloeated 
on geotly sloping ground >vbicli will ptiovtde Hatiafa«torj drain- 
age.. . ■.. ■ .. I ■.;..-,■ . 

The no«t importanti requidite is water. Pri»vji«ioD shmild be 
made. for accuring. a. supply .uhiih-will be ample tuird,uof.'<mtam-- 
iiiwt«d> duiing tlM entire duration of the work. Water tihouldi 
cOEie: to the itamp unlv-x agfTicient <preBsui:e for ortLinHr.yntaQk 
uae and ihauld be auppjied.tliioiigh fnpee 3. or 4 in. ^n diametw 
HO that rone' or tnoiifaiE-iiwd lire strAaraa ean be used. Tberis 
shouldi.h* a 2-in. hoae.outlet'with 100 ft. of 1^-in. cotton fac-. 
tory flra.hoae ioctUtd to cot» every bwildioie.- ;. , ,.i 


Ab a matter. (A fire protection, as well as «f eonTenunce, all . 
building* ehouU be wired for electric lights, and the us« of ' 
lanterns should be restricted to thoec clasBca of . work whicb 
require portable outdoor lights. 

The structures composing a permanent camp 'are usually a 
cook house, dining room, one or more bunk houKes, aatdble for 
horses and a commiseary or company store. To these there is 
frequently added a wash house and sometimes a number of 
cottages for married men. 

In the cook house, the item of most particular intereiBt is the 
roof and window arrangement. A shed roof is poneiderably 
cheaper lo build than any other style. In the design shown 
(Fig. 55), necessary stiffness is secured for both the rooj and the 

building by the use of a simple nailed trnte under erery 
rafter. The window openings are practically continuous, are 
screened on the outside and have tfao sash mounted against 
the inside of the boarding without frames. These sashes can 
be leaned back during the summer or pulled up to close the open- 
ings, as the climate warrants. This side of the cook house 
should preferably face the east or northeast in order to obtain 
the early morning sunlight without becoming oserhmted dnring 
the afternoon. The high windows furnish aneven light ron all 
tables and prodiKe satisfactory ventjlation with biit little draft. 
In a cook home larger than the one shown there should be a 
door opposite each runway. All doors must lie, of ample size 
and arranged to swing out. All (qienings must be Bereentd. 



The main stove should be of atnpk size and should be set on 
a concrete or brick or rock base large enough to be safe from 
accidental ignition. 

The stove should have a water-back with large storage-tank. 

Tbe larger the sink and drainboard the less trouble tliere is in 
retaining flunkejs. The tables should be covered with white oil- 
cloth. White enamel ware appears to give better service than 
Bay other st^le of table (umiehiug. Benches and tables ahonid 
be aubetantial. The tables should be 4 ft. wide. This clast of 
furniture is thoroughly aatisfactorj for camp use. 

Fig. 55. Cook House and Dining Boom, Torrance 
Construction Camp. 

If, as is now frequently the case, the management provides 
an occasional lecture or moving- picture show, this high-ceiling 
room is quite satisfactory. 

Tlie bunk house (Fig. 56) is in its general arrangement 
typical of a large number of b^nk honses in use in California. 
The use of a shed rotrf with high windows fumishes better light 
and air than does the old stjie peak roof. In this particular 
bouse the bunks are usually commodious and are provided with 
a continuous seat alongside of each lower biuik in preference 
to a single central bench. Steel bunks are sometimes substituted 
for wooden frames. They have the advantage of being vermin- 
proof, but the disadvantage 'of leaking loose straw and other 



nutterial ibore or 1««b : covtiBUOiuly. Exitept ' in very gi 
elimates, no stove Bhould be ptrmitted in a biuik house, ii tkeit 
is a very conaiderble number of employeei, the aonMruoUou of a 
number of medium -sized buak hsaees in mvch to be prtferrad to 
the use of a abigle large building. The lotai in gate ol fire ii 
lees and the meh ' are better eaiieied in th&t tiuy' can acparatt 
)7 natitmalitiee and trades. 

Certain clastea of cmplOjeeB, such as co^b, atftUe men, fore- ' 
men and HuperiRtendents, nequire separate lutsaes ia any caw. 

Fig. 50. Cross-Seetion of Bunk House. 

Shed-roof buildinga of the same type can be used btd; aubdivide<! 
cvoaewise intO'the; necesnary number of apartments. 

A oombined loaliag roinni bath and n-ash room ehquld he con- 
structed in a cArap housing lees than 100 men. In Urger campn 
these can be aeparwted to advtittagei The atove here should 
have a tvater-baek ta supply, water fer the shower hatha and for 
lEBBhiDg. the mCBi'g. cktt^ing;. There should be with it a tank of 
very consideraible ei^e. If Uie tinployw furnishes small wash 
tuba in pltjee of the traditional fr-gal. oil cane, the men will ap- 
pteoiatw than. For iraAbitig the. face and bands, there should 

BUILDtNOS ' 113 

be ft row of faucett iMHrted out of-doon in the sno abort k 
wooden tvoBgh equipped irith granitenrBre wash baiina. ' 

The sa»itBtioD irf the ctmp awl minor policing should he i« 
charge of a aweflper or ewMpers who would clean up daily, 
supply netcMarj wood and start the waab-houie Are befort 
the end of the day. ' He riiaiild keep all bnildiitga locked- dnrisg 
the day' and when unooeupied. 

Ample suppllM ol diEuillectant ahonld be allowed atld thera 
should be a periodical whitewashing of the entire property. 

Night shift employeei should he, bo far ae is possible, seg- 
regated into a separate bunk house. 


Fig. 67. Fly Trap for Construction Camp. 

Water cloeets equipped with flrst-clasB plumbing should be 
installed in any camp where the duration of the work will war- 
rant it. They art more sanitary arid agreeable in every way 
than the heat possible sinks, and have the very great advantage 
that they can be so 8Ci>eened aa to minimis the possibility of 
fly-transmited infection. ' 

The most serious fbe of health in the eanip is the fly. Flies 
live on garbage and b^ced in manure, ' Manure should be hauled 
away daily and garbage should b« kept' covered. A number of 
fly-trapa similar to the one shown 1^ Fig, oT should be located 
around the camp and emptied very frequently. ' The trapped 
flies can be stuniMd by dashing distillate or gasoline into, the 
cage and can then be shaken out and burned, ' 


A camp of any site employti a large number of faorfeee and they, 
with their feed and equipment, occupy a stable of coaeiderable 
magnitude. The preferred arrangement of ump Btat^a places 
the manf^ra lengthwise of the center line with the feed on one 
side and the animals on the other. Centerpoat coii»truation will 
tie more economical here than a, single-span shed roof- . If the 
Htalls are on the south side of the building and are tomewhat 
sheltered from the prevailing wind, that side of the stable can 

Fig. 58, Portable Dry Closet for Camps. 

be left almost entirely open. The depth back of the, animals 
should be ample for a convmieat runway. The haniess of work 
ajiiraals is nearly always hung an a bracket opposite the animal, 
but there should be • looked kameea room for .storing and repair- 
ing spare equipment. The bigger tke corral ud the bi^r use 
there is made of it, the leas trouble there is in nuiataining the 
health of the* animala. A great many horse diMase« are com- 
municated by dirty watdr in drinking troughs. Series troughs 
should not be used cm aocouat of this possibility. Si^alli abort. 


individually -filled troaghs, emptied and cleaned once a day, are 
much to be preferred. 

Folding Portable Dry Clout. Tite following appeared in 
EngiTieering Neu>» Record, Jul; 17, 1910. 

A standard design of dry closet, ,wi.tb folding portable build- 
ing, designed tor temporary use bj bridge gauge, etc., on the 
Kaebville, Chattanooga ft St, Loi|iB„Il. K., and adapted alto fM' 
use at construction campsj is Bltown-in the accompanying cat. 
One end is hinged to the back and the other to the front, ao 
that the buildfng Can be folded np for traUiportation. Three 
heavy 0-in. trap hinges are used 'at eaeh ot these eornera. The' 
other two comers- are each fitted with ttro 4x4-in. loom plin 
butts for holding the building together when it has been aeeem- 
bled, a box being provided for boMiag the pins when the tniilding 
ie dismantled. 

The drip board is provided with two pieces of No. 27 galvanized 
iron, 12 x 19 in,, centered on holes at the front of the seat. The 
foot board, drip board and seat are connected by S-in. strap 
hinges so that tbene three parts can be folded ti^ther. 

For the roof, the plank sheathing receives a coat of white lead 
and linseed oil, and while this is wet it is covered with heavy 
roofing canvas secured by flat-bead copper tacks. Two coats of 
white lead and mi are then applied. Screws and cement-coated 
nails are used in the building, which gets two coats of paint 
inside and outside. 

Standard portable m^tal garages coat as follows f. o. b. Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

2S ij>ui« lingle nail 
Bint osUlli* In lb. Price 

SOb; a 

26 gauge double wall 

10 by le tllS 

10 by 18 1K5 

lObr a) 

19S4 513 

90 (sag« altt'iili wall' - ^ ■- 

17SS tm 

ioaa .1 XI' 

■ iSJ . » .. .. ■■ 

Mbrw . ifiiot- wc - ' ' 
for swinging dMir add IJ.DO' eaA, let iiiriitgiDr wladbwa kdfl ItJU'eat^b.' 

10 19 11 
12 by 10 

"' ■ '' '." ' ., ' ■ "SECTION 17 ■ ■^,^. ■■ '^^ ■ ■ : ■' 
, OABtEWATS , . 

The follqwing notea cu cftUew*j« are from Cbnpter ^III of 
Gillette's." Earthwork. a^id Ita CoHt." .. . , 

Cableways propcrlp ucliide,o*lf those neaiu (d huilage wherein 
the load is Buepended beuestii a. cable bf nnanaof a carriage 
whoBB gropved whwli run oArt^iP "^ the cable. 

Fig. S9. StandOird Cablewa^ Carriage. 

Cableway. The term cablewa; was coined in order to indicate 
an aerial transportation macliiiie in which the ,Bltig1b load was 
hoiated ae well ae transported on a single strand of cable. The 
term, "aerial, tramway " applifft tp. a nachlne In which the 



loctds, -often gnftll' and ^numerooB, are hiialed aliM^ a 'flsM trtttk 
by a rooviBg traction rope. On tfie aerial t]<amw«7 tlie'c8iTf«r 
may be armnged tit pass the towers or Other etipperts, aid tblfe 
is one ot iUe difltiTirtive points of dlfferMiiJe between an aetlal 
tramway and a eibl^Wf. tn the aerial trimwa; th« cables art 
tightened by roeana of weights or litUitar'tengioD' device, bat la 
the case of the coaBttng'or gravity 'eabIewb.y'tio tension deVfcea 
are required. 

A cablewniy conslBts eeientiaily of a mtin' 'cable smptnitA 
between two towers or anchorages, aerviug at the track for a 
trolley carrying the load. Thia load ia pntled back and forth 
by umaller .cables, n'here the track cable U ao arranged that the 
slack may be increaeed or diminished at the will of the operator, 
thereby directly raising or lowering the load, the machine is 
termed a " slack cableway." Similarly, when one end of the 
cableway can bq rained or lowered ao that the load may slide 
through gravity to the other end, the mfichine ia termed a 
"coasting" or "gravity eablaway." When the loads on a cable 
way are all to be carried in one direction it will often pay to 
have the dump end of the cableway at a lower point than the 
loading end. 

Another type of cableway is that in which the track cable is 
also the hauling and Tetnm cable, the cable being continuous 
from one end of the apan to the other and back againt, The 
bucket is either firmly fastened to the cable or held in place on it 
by friction. 

tke IboBomlo Vm' of cableways is limited bj^ the following 
conditioils: (If A sOfBcient quantity of work to pay the cost 
of the-Srst installation, pins the cost of ensuing removals' and re' 
install ations, and (2) a riuflltient qu*hlfty of work' WitWn the 
length of ipan and within -economical rSaching distance' each 
Bide of thfe tableway to' repay the Cost of tne installation and 
removal. These conditions are often fulfilled On trenchand canal 
excavatioit and in the construction of dam foundatiiMiS. 

Cableway Ctitta. The colt of a eableway depends «t>on Uie 
length ot^pan, height and type of towers, ahd the quantity and 
kind of pOwel- required: In general, a caMeway, deslgmd M 
operate lb earth escaVation or for conveying bQckAs, coste ffom 
tS to $15 pef ft. of span, for spans of 46^ to 800 ft., asdl'frow 
W to «12 itei''ft. of span, for spans Of I,(WO 'fo 2,000 ft: ■" ' 

A Duplex (^blewayt two coinplete cables, IS' to SO ft.- apart, 

on cofflmoh towers) wHI "cost about Sll.SO'jjer it. of apan, for 

spans of'^,0O0 ft.,- whenthetowers are from n to 130 ft. higfc. 

OableWVy SyitMu. T. T: KtfMdga,ln' En^iie^-ing ahrf ©ff* 

trwUng, Jan. 6, 1008, gives the following: Hrr ttuMdgedefilHa 


on incUtMd cableway aa one having sutBeiant inoUnation so that 
the pQwer required to hoUt liie . load ia leas :thftD th&t required 
for conveying. Xbie ^enAbles the uae of a. aingie rope for both 
hoiiiting and conveying.. Where the inctinatMn. of the 'cablewa; 
14, less than thip, it ia^claBBed «« horizontail,' though- the ends of 
the.epan may, be at dJAerent leveU. 

. ^orisonfffl CabieKay. In this syatera, in addition to the 
mble and carriage that travels upon it, there must be provided 
indefic^adent mean^ Jcir hoisting and conveying the load. 

F^. 60. Balanced Cable Crane Horizontal Cable"wiy. 

.« case where the motor Ib installed upon the carr^ge, the 
latter is propelled hy gearing to the sheaves traveling ifpoa the 
main, fable. As a cahle with both ends filled takes the ftpproxi- 
owte form of an ellipse, it would be impoBsible for the cftrringe 
to. cjijnb the steep part of the curve at either end. To pvercome 
this, the bents or towers are free to move at the top in the 
direction of the cable and they are bo weighted that the main 
cable is under constant tenBion. This causes . the caj'riage to 
travel »» approximately uniforni grade.. This device U called 
the Balanced Cable CraJie. The fact that the i-able must sustain 
the .additional weight of the motor and motormau is a dixad' 
vantage but in many c^ is offset by the adyantage qf having 
(he pptifator cbwe iv the points of loading and dumping. . 

Arrangemmt of.lfMtting imd Conveying ftopea. Ii) cases where 
the engine or, motpr is. located at the end of tlie.Hp^jif iropetv in 
addition to the ma^n cable are neces^arf, the one for hoisting, 
thei ather for conyeyifig. : When an «range-peej or «thKr<B«iU-fllIing 
bucket is used, a <third rope and an; extra di;H^ im ^..enginp 
iBtut be provided., t . 



Fig*. 81, S2 and 88 Aovi tbru different atrBngenMtg of hdbtn 
ing and conveying ropes which have been adopted b; the Lidger- 
wood Mfg. Co., the Lambert HoiBting Engine Co., Mid the TreDtoa 
Iron Co., reBpectiv ' 

Tn the arrangement adopted bv the ' Lidgerwood Co. the load 
in first hoiBted to the dealred height. f>uring eoiive;ring, Kotli 
hoisting and convening drums must be In operation, and of th« 
same diameter bo that the toad may remain at a constant dis' 
tanee from the cable. 

Fig. 02. Arrangement ot Lambert Cabkwaj'. 

In the arrangement used bj the Lambert Co., the engine druma 
have different diameters, the larger being the conveying drum. 
This permits simultaneous hoisting and conveying, and a con- 
veying speed greater than the hoisting speed. 

The arrangement used by the Trenton Iron Co. was devised 
to obviate the necessity of ueing carriers to prevent sagging of 

Fig. 03. AirangMnent of Trenton Iron Co.'s Cableway. 

the boisting rope. The hoisting rope is attached to an endless 
rope at tbepoint A by meanH of a specially construoted swivel 
connection. The endlees rope is passed a number ot tines around 
an elliptio'faoed drum, to- give sufficient friction for boieting the 


load. In operation both hoisting and OMivafii^ drums are in 
motion during conv^ng, and'beth must be of the sane diamet«r. 

Fail-Rope Oarriers. The eoonomieal operation of a cahleway 
depends in no small meaeure upon the carriera employed, llieir 
function is to prevent excessive tension (due to ia^) in the 
hoisting rope, ao that when the load ia detached from the fall- 
block, the latt*r, while free, will not ascend to the carriage. 
Even with the uae of carriers it is necessaary to use a weighted 
fall-block, Bo that it may be raised or lowered ly the engineman 
when no load ia attached. ' 

The following are styles of carriers in use: 

(I) Chain-Connected Carriers. These consist of a supporting 
sheave {Whfch travels upon the main cable, below which, in the 
same frame, are sheaies for the aupport of other necessary rppes. 
The aide plates which form the frame for. the Reaves must pro- 
ject bqiond them, so when ad j agent carriers strike each 
other the sheaves will not come into contact. The connected 

Fig. 04. Lambert-Delaney Carrier. 

9 are attached at one end to the lower and at the other 
to the carriage. When tht carriage is close to the head tower 

(engiie end ) , the carriers at-e all in contact with the chains hang- 
ing in loops below. J\a the carriage moves toward the tall tower 
the carriers are'a^ced along the cable with the chains hanging 
in festoons below. 

(2} ButtonrKope Carriers. With this carrier an additional 
rope across the span is required. It is fixed at one end and kept 
at a constant tension by a weight at the other. At intervals 
along the rope are affixed " buttons " with a gradation of diam- 
eters, the smalleat being the first from the head tower. The car- 
riers are provided with eyes having a corresponding gradation 
of diametera, slightly smaller than thehuttons, through which 
the button rope Is thredded.-'The carriage is provided with a 
projecting arm or " horn," which picka up the carriers as each is 
met during the trs(«l of carriage toward the head tower. All 
the carriers are ridlfig upon the arm when' the head town ia 
reached. On moving' away from the head tower, the ftret button 
passes throiigh'the eyea of all the carriera but the. last. This 


one is snlrtehed from the «r]n and deposited- upon tlw cable. Tht 
second button aelecti the next carrier, and so on. 

(3) The Lttmiert-OeUmeg Cmrriar. This it ratber as ingenl- 
OUB device, depMidi^ upon the fact t^at pointe aloiig tbeteslidid 
diameter of a horizcoitallf rolling wheel travel at dia'H<«nt to- 
locitieB. The rollioif wlie«l in the ease «f the <arrier>ii biverted, 
and rolls upon the under tide of the main cable: me'ciArt«ring 
rope is the rolling force, and is applied at dttfereiitdlstaDces from 
the center of the rolling eheave to obtain 'the required i variation 
in veloeitT^ of trarel. Pig. 04 illultrates the Canbtmctloh. Ib'will 
be noticed that, in the quaiter s]<eed earriev, it-yvike wttli Mt 
screw ifl naed to Increase the friction' between Ue liolllog' sheave 
and cable. 

Th* advantages and disadvantages of the 'above types of car- 
riers are M folkrws: 

Ckain-c<mnf<eUd Carrien. Advantages: -fa) Sfm^lefl}', (b) 
Not easily deranged. 4c) Pneltlve s{iacing. ' DisadvantafMi 1b|- 
Extremely heavy, (b) Omuiderable wear, (c) "Power ^eqiilHd 
to stretch chains as carriage neara tail towern 

Buttotirrop9 Carrien. Advantages; (a) ■ Estremeli' Hfht. 
(b) Minimum wear to both carrier and cable. (c> -Positive spa»' 
ing. Disadvantages: ta) Maintenance of bnttoH'Tope:-' 

Laittibert'Delomfif CdrrUrt. Advantages: (h)-' Neither I'ope 
nor cbains requited for spacing, ^b) Weight of ■ carrtart -utii- 
formly distributed at all times between carria^ and Mwera. (c) 
Moderl^te weight. DisadvantsgeS: (a) Doulile bending of Con- 
veying rope wbitc pssBing through'asing' short ISfe! of 
rope, (b) Variable spacing due to stVp between rolling sheaved 
and cable, (c) 'Largfl tiumbet'bf sbeateH to mBintaln. 

The BrrsTigmnent' altftwn in Fig. •»■ ia " the Lnurnit-Cherrv " 
ayatem, whkh employB no carriers, as above ineHtioned. Tbi 
advantages arer (a) A minimum of working part^ not easily 
accerisible. (b) A minimum of dead wsigfati to tn sustained by 
cable. The disadvantages are: (a) The'endlces boi^ting rop^'is 
subject to considerable near owing to coitatdnt -slipping 00 ell^tie-' 
faced dram, (b) When hoisting from a eonsldcralile depth bcIoW 
the main eabte and conveying toward the tail to«-or, there Is K 
limit to the distance of approach to the tail tOw«r, (nrtttg *b 
the fact thkt oonnectton at A, Fig. 63, Cannob-pass over tiio t«ll 
tower sheave.' On 'this account a greater spBn Is necessary nnde:^' 
such comTitiobs than iii tbc'othcr arrangelnents. 

The Incline Cahleicay. It is obvious that whew t^ Inclination 
of the cable is such that greater power is rtqnirM for 'eonviyihg 
than for hoisting, tb* carriage will rem»In stBtionarT- -on the 
cable while the load is being hoisted, even though no conveying 


or endleaa rop« U uxed, Should the load be hoisted ulitil the faJI- 
block cornea into contact with the Mirriagc, the further pull oi 
the hoi»tmg rope will Mtuse the carria^ with the loBd to movi 
ftloDg the cable. A single drum engiite is, tiierefore, alt that ii 

The simplest toria of incline cubleway Is used where the load- 
ii^ and unlcading are always done at the'same point. In this 
case a. stopping block is clamped to the main cable to prevent the 
carriage running below the point of loading, and a wlf-enga^injc 
latch is clamped to the cable at the unloading point to Aold the 
carriage in positioa while the load is lowered. 

Where it is necasBary to provide means for loading and un- 
loading at any point, an endless rope is used as in the horizontal 
cableway, hut no power is necessary for iU (qteratioD, ite function 
being merely to hold the carriage at any desired point. This is 
accomplished by passing the aidless, rope a number of times 
around an elliptic-faced drum provided with brake only. , 

The A-crial Ihimp. The range of the cableway is largely in- 
creased by the posMbility of dumping the contents of the akip 
at any point in- its travel by the manipulation of a lever at the 
eagine. The skip employed has an open end, so that tilting is all 
that is necessary for dumping. The skip is suspended from the 
hook of the fall-block by chains with hook ends attached to the 
sides and ends ot the skip. The end of the skip is also attached 
to another fall-bloek reeved with the dump Una. The latter neces- 
sitates two additional' sheaves below the calile in the carriage, 
and is reeved in a manoer similar to t^e hoisting rope. In the 
Lidgerwood wlf-dumping device the dump line i» wound on the 
hoisting drum, and when it ia desired to dump the skip, the line 
is shifted t^ a anitable mecjianism upon an inoreased diameter of 
drum. Thii oauses the dump line to be drawn in at a higher 
rate of speed than the hoisting rope, and reanlts in the tilting of 
the skip for discharging the contents. 

In the Lambert aystem the dump line is attached to .its own 
drum mounted on a shaft with the hoisting drum, in glese con- 
tact with the latter and so arraoged that the hoixting drum, 
when released with a load, can make only a half revolution while 
the dwnp line drum ia stationary. During hoisting, -the hoisting 
drum drives, tlie dump line drum and, both being <if the same 
diameter, the skip remains horii!<M>ta!. Wh^ it is desired to 
dump the skip, the brake is applied to the dump line drum and 
released on the hoisting drum. 

Lv^Tioati<». Hie fact that the sheavea in the oarriera, car- 
riage, and tape of towers are not easily accessible renders self- 


tnbricating baghtnga dmlrable,' and tbef tire genentilf used. TbMv 
Bfie. however, does not mean that little attention (b leqnirtd. Tlis 
tsrrisge and hoiating rope Mpeciallf sbmild be cKrefully exBmined 
dnily. for, while tlie appaTatUs is s^dont used to tranHport men. 
the load is )^nerall}' conveyed above them. 

Tovrert. Either tower ma; be Axed or movable. When both 
are movable the tracka must be parallel. The parallel track ar- 
rangement wag used estenuTely lb the gTr^vnf|in£ ol the Chicago 
drainage canal. A cinunon. acraagemeut Ja..Ui£ radial cablewa;, 
where one tower is fixed and the other movable. ', 

Movable lower* am uaualtj mounted on Btanidafd railroad 
wheels. Thtf track oOi|Mts of six or seven lines (tf rails, and rail- 
hraceg ntfd plentifully. _.PoHer for mivdng tbe tower 
may be obtained ^rom tbe wineb-head on the cableway engine, or, 
if the tower must be moved often, a special engine is provided. 
Movement is Bccompliahed by block and tackle between the engine 
and anchorage at either end of the trark. Considerable powen is 
neeessary on account of 'th» large amount of friction betweeit 
Rangea of wheels and rails. . . 

Pw low towers in fixed positions tbe "A" frame iscomibluilTi 
Daed, but the head tower sbould not be 'fa "low. or the engine 
HO close t(y it, that the fleet angle of the ropes becomes excessive. 
In some cases, aspecially in incline cableways, the tail tower 
may WdlapenSed with and ^ rock.aiichurage BuMltilUd. High 
towers are cobmion nliere heiglit in deiiired for dis|iosal of ma- 
terial beneallk the latble. and In very low Sfmns where thie deflec- 
tion of the cable is nec(«!iBrily large. 'Biey are nsAally con- 
structed of wood, for the reason that the cost is lees and in most 
cases they will last .as long as the cableway is rniuirtd. The 
bsse of the tower is usually from onn-^rd to ortfl-half t\if height. 
Steel masts lire sgawtiines used for tail towers. They iA)uire at 
least tbre^ Mron^; and well anchored guy lin^x. The bMe has a 
ball and^Mcltet' joint d -al«el castings, and the cuatomary wood 
saddle ii bolfM to theTCo;^ for.the main cable. 

Slain Cable. The essential features of the main cjtble ar^ 
strength, lightness, flexibility, and a surface which will not only 
receive the least wear but impart the least weaj to the sheaves 
rolling upon it. The standard hoisting rope is objectionable from 
the standpoint laet mentioned. Though t««a flexible than the 
hoisting rope, tbe lOeked-wire rope is generally used for the reason 
that the other qualities are possessed to a mncfa greatei' degree. 

Fig. 05 shows the socket used on tbe lodced'-wire ropa. There 
arc six wedge segments' in each'cone, with- tJie sxception of the 
snialle«t, which contains f6ur. 

Means are provided for taking up the main rable when the 


deflation has bseamreKceeaive, ive tc ab'stcbing. In ehort spane 
a turnbitokie, k in»ertei. in the aliog wliiclt pamieg around the a 
chorage and tiieBce tbcou^ a aheave attacli^ to the end • 
the eatile. Far long Bpaiu, -apecial double or triple. rii<«ve blocks 
are uaed, reeved with wire rope. The take-up is UBualiy located 
at the head towcj'fend'ao tbai the engine may be utilized whea 
taking up ii 

Pig. S5. Step Soek«t for Main Cable: 

Aitehoraget, The- tenHion of the main cable ia nanally from tive 
to six times the load, depvnding upon.. the deOection. Anchorages 
aeeure beyond all poBsible doubt, are «saential, aa tbcir failure 
vrould ppovs' diaottroUe to the aablevS|y aad ivperil tha lives of 
men.'! Since it ii ImpoaMble to otdculate the resjatance offered 

by the earth to a buried anchorage, it is usual to find a much 
•troDger anchoMge than ie neceaaarj. The usual form for mod- 
erate tenaiona — aay up to' 30 tons — ja a weU tarred oak log 
about 18 in. in diamoteF and 16 ft. Jong, buried to a depth of S or 
10' ft. If longet )i&i t a desired, or if the tension la greater, a, con- 
crete anchorage maj be aubstltuted. A. iatm which bas been suc- 
c^aafnlly used is Fig. (tOi 



' A CoktUng OaMemir. Ifiia n sj simple device- ottbe Utvtf 
of {v'ttRbtmBf m whidk b line,' steTting at*, point* about 'Oi « 
level with the base of & pile driver or derrick it rnn orw & 
alieave cm the tap of the leads or modt mud down to the' engone 
drnm. A uiatah block travels on Itaia cable. A tag rope ia 
fastened to thii block and may be controlled by ennbbiiig around 

Fig. C7. Coagtiii(r Conveyor. 

a post w a winch or drum w the engine. Heavy loads can be 
moved easily by raising or lowerii^ rnie or both of the linas, a« 
illustrated in Fig. 6T. 

The author has used this device on a email job for handling 
heavy timbers and pile caps. A floating derrick was utilized for 
the same purpose ill the coastruption of the pile folindationfori a 

Fig. .68. A Cahleway tor ConKeyiog Materials in., building Coiv 
;cr«t« fiws, «jt^9rthumberland, K. Y. ^ . 

large eewer in New York (see Tronri, ,Am,..Hoe. 0. S., Vol. 31, p. 
673). Itimay be adapted for moving' flarth. i .i . ,„: ' .. .. 

Parker asd Slynn uwd an intxpoDsiva cablevay 1(9' ctmitiruct- 
iag cMtrrfitc^ piers at Northumberland, iN'ew Yttfk- ,Xl4S- device 
was illustrated by them in EMffi^etrina Neu>», Jime 2fl, 1902, It 
coasisted of a 65-it> guy dartiek, H)ithout boom, placed near th« 
edge of the bank at ibe aide of'the tiyer, and » t>^o>-lesg«d bent 


plaaed initW middla of tke river. Tlie ocMe vbS of :%^d:' steel 
*nd < was 'Stretched from 'a<de*d man on the lAore ab(t«t 150 ft. 
back of the derrick, past and just croesing thA derrick to the 
bent. Under the top of thebent at the end of this cable hung 
two weighte which eoneisted of' scale pans loaded with concrete. 
In passing over th? bent the oableiivaj' was carried on a 16-in. 
block. The boom fall of the derrick was then hooked onto the 
cable at the foot of the mast. The carriagvon the cable (ft>n- 
Riatcd of two 16'Jn. cable-sheaves with iron straps, forming a 
triangle, and carrying a chain on whfcl( the backet was hooked. 
In operation the bucket was Iwofeed t^ the carrier on shore, i 
single drum hoisting engine wound up the, boom fall and the cable 
was hoisted until it'liad a pitch down toward the river of IS < 
20 ft. in the apirn of 450 ft. The loadiM tucket travelled under 

Fig. e». Cableway in Which Sag in Cable ie Practically Ikme 
Away with by Oacillating Ttfwera. 

gravity away front the shore. After thebucket had been dumped 
the h^m .tftll was low^tred until the aableway l^d a reversed 
pitch of li or 2D ft., whdn thv^okftty bucket returned -to ihe-ehore. 

The speed of the bucket was governed by the slope of the cable. 
When the cable was at its extreme grade the buekfet would run 
from the platfbrm to the beht a distance ot 450 ft. in 35 seconds 
and return in about the same time. This device might be em- 
ployed fof- earth excavation. 

A Balanced Cable OTane. En^neering imd OoHfaeting, NoV. 
13, 190T, grres'the following^ This cableway<wa6 inatalkd at A 
coal Htofafee plant at 'Watertown, N. Y. It Is equipped with 
electric motorB not only ta the trolley or carriage, tmt aiso on 
each of the oscillating 'towefA. In this manner each tffwer c 
lip propelled along the single rfcil traekr It Is not necessary that 


tiiB two ttann move tlnultancouely. Iade*d, one tower cia 
travel 26 ft. without moving the other tower. The towm hg*e ft 
traveling speed of 43 ft. per min., «lien it t> desired to shift th«m. 

The electric load carriage, or trolkp, handlce' a 3-cui ^d. <jdni- 
ehell buchet.'Hid hma & traveling epeed otlfiQO It.'per min.'aiid a 
hoisting speed of 80 ft. per mio., with a 6IMip; mobn. 

It is intereetinft to not« that this cableway as built commands 
about 9,000 cu, yd. of materJaT'per ft. of d~epth. It mighf easily 
be economical equipment to use on an emavating job. 

A (kmbination Cableway find Derrick. Ei>gineering a^d Con- 
tractittf, Feb. 24, 1006, gives the following: 

To-day the use of cableways for building Mwers U rapidly in- 
creasing, as is also the use of p«rtable derricks. With both ma- 
chines good work can be done both in excavating the trerfch and 
In placing matei lals in Ihe cunsti uutiuii "of tlwsewern. xht this 
page w« illditrate a combination cableway and derrick designed 
tor spans ap to 600 ft., that promises to And a great field of 

Fig. 70. Comhination,C«Mew*y Jind Derrick. 

usefulness in not only building sewera^bit^ it>' inaU^ other classes 
of construction. 

The general plan is extremely simj^ ^e derrick is built on 
a car with a hoisting engine and boiler. Over the A frame 
for the derrick is erected a for tile cableway. A tail 
tower is reeled at the other end of th* work and the cableway 
strung and anchored to dead men as shown. In moving the cable- 
wa;, only the tail tower need be taken dirwn. 

It is possible to -Use both the derrick and cableway at the same 
time, or work a^ be cai-ried on with either. This arrangement 
means a saving- iff time in cairying on work. This design was 
jrotten up by the Kew/Vork Cableway It Engineering Co., 2 Rector 
St., New York. 

life of Hals Cable. A %-in. wire eatilft used on an incline on 
the Chicago Main Drainage Canal tasted from 100 to 160 days, 
during 7hich time it made from 30,000 to 60,Q(>O trips, carrying 
from SOjOOQ to SO.OOO on. yth-of solid rock. AasUming^lM rock 
H> weigEJpOD' lb. per cu. jd..the life of the cable was fr«n 108,000 
to 172,1»0 tons, 

A Telpher iTitflm.' Ettginefrin^ and (hntraetinff, Oct. tS, 1910, 


deBcribMiia method of ' dUpoeiiig^< of aubw&y aKcaTftiioi) in New 
York City, by tetpher^e. 

The power for boi»tiiig aad triJleTiag was f limited by a 
SO-hp. SSO-volt direot current!. motor. A' Lidgervood 2-drum 
liolst nag used 'for heiating and trolieying. The eac wftS a. home- 
made affair, com poeed of four atAiidard out 'iron iirbealB &-in. 

Fig.^Tl. ArrangesteDt of Cable8<f>w Telpher BjBiem.- 

diameter, which run on two 18-in. I-beams. These wheels sup- 
ported two standard cast iron sheflvea, 16-in. in diameter, through 
which the hoigting cable ran. The cables wer^ arrai^ed as ahown 
in Fig. 71^ 'steel buckets and skips were used for handling ma- 
terial, tiie former holding about 1 yd., the tha Uttei 2 yd. ot ma- 
terial. .- - — 

Fig.i 72. Skip DnnipiDg^ for Gablaw»:f«v, 


A Skip Dumpintr Scvloe. Thia was developed in conneotion 
with the Aehokan Beservoir work of the Catskill Aqueduct and 
is described in finyineertnjf and Ctm-traeting, Nov. 9, 1919. The 
cableway used was of the Lidgerwood type and was equipped with 
Ijjcber skip dumping mechanism. 

As shown in Fig. 72 the dump line and the hoisting rope are 
wound on the same drum C in the eablewa; tower and all their 
motioDB coincide. Tbe dump rope, at the tower, runs down 
through a fall block A, then up orer the sheave B, and thenc« to 
the main drum O. By pulling down the fall block A, which is 
suspended In the loop of the dump line, this line is shortened, 
lifts the rear of the skip and thus dumps it. It is the method 
of pulling down this fall block which is novel. The old method 
was by a cable which wound upon a small drum. This method 
worked well, but was slow. The new method consiBts in pull- 
ing down the fall block by means of a cable which ia fas- 
tened to the block and passes from there through a stationary 
sheave D directly below, thence through a sheave E fastened to the 
end of a piston rod, operated by a compreMeed air cylinder about 
12x72 in. in size and thence back to a stationary anchorage 
F on one of the heavy timbers of the tower. By passing the cable 
through the sheave E on the end of the piston the distance through 
which the piston acts is only one-half the distance through which 
tbe fall block is moved. The piston is operated by compressed 
air which is uaed for operating all the machines in the work. 



Jjoeation Span toner Engine Remarks 

in (t. in ft. cjiiindere— hp. Co«t 

Koch«t8r, N. Y... «3» 60 i-8*4iWin.S0 .... 2 rablewaj* 80 It. 

SodaiD Dam. N. Y. «T 

ireuch work 200-300 20-3E Z-TilO In. 

ChicBEO canal OO-nS TI-«J 2-10il2in. 

rage cableway. 

Concrete cablewa; g2S 
Dam No. 4. Ohio 

e,500 thi in. cabk; 


Karlne, Bo ok- Transporting Cableway. The following notwE 
appeared in Enginetring A'chjs, Dee. 8, 1910. 

The problem was to exi'avate into a solid hill of gianite and 
to load this stone on bargee which, on account of the shoals, 
t.'ould not anchor nearer than 600 ft. to shore. For the work, the 
contractors, Messrs. lYaser & Chalmers, Ltd., of London, Eng- 
land, called in the Lidgerwood Mfg. Co., of New York, and 
this firm designed and built the plant described herein. The 
transporting plant consista of a so-called " quarry cableway," 

Fig. 73. Layont of Rock Transporting Plant on 
Island of Kalagouk Bay of Bengal 

paralleling the rock face, and a marine cableway " croa'ing the 
former at right angles and reaching to a fixed tower alongside 
of which the transporting barges anchor The quarry cableway 
consists of a fixed pivotal head tower 85 ft high and a traveling 
tail tower 74 ft. high, moving on radial tracks through a 48° 
arc. The cable is 840 ft. long, and the distance between towers 
is 757 ft. 7 in. The marine cablewa> has a 3l>-ft head tower and 
a cable extending 585 ft. out into the sea to a M ft tail tower 
built on piling driven into the soft bottom These marme towers 
were built on the " duplex " plan so that if necesaarv a second 
parallel cableiray might be added if required Both cables are I 



controlled from & steam boiler plant, shown on the drawing, from 
tiieir head towers on shore near the plant. 

In operation the brolien rock is loaiied by hand labor on the 
open skip traveling on the quarry cableway. The skip is then 
pulled in towards the head tower and dropped immediately under 
the marine cableway, where it is picked up by the carriage and 

Fig. 74. Head Tower of the Quarry Cableway. 

(Showing the Bklp an IhH qniirry line and the dumping cBrriage on the 

marine lin« at rigtai angles to it.) 

swung out on the marine cableway to the barge. These skips 
measure 8 X S X 2 ft. and carry approximately 6^ tons, with 
each load. The carriage speed upon the cables is 1,000 to 1,200 
ft. per min., and the hoisting speed is 200 ft. per min. The 
main cables are of locked wire rope 2t4 in. in diameter. 

Fig. 74 shows the head tower of the quarry cableway with 
the boiler house in the background. . Crossing at right angles to 


the cableway from thie head tower may be seen the matine cahle- 
way with its traveling carriage in air. Fig. 75 shows the towei 
at the ocean end of the marine cableway. It was necessary In 
have at least 20 ft. of water here, and as there ia a 20-ft. 
tide the base of the tower proper had to be at least 40 ft. abovt 

Fig. 75. Barge Loading Rock at the Tail Tower of the Marine 
Cable way. 

bottom. The additional 13 ft. to the tower deck, in order to clear 
the deck of the barge, makes a very high structure, which hud 
to be thoroughly interbraced. It will be noted that the head 
piece is provided in duplicate, in case additional service is re- 


Donbl« Side Bteel Damp Can. A make of ceitb of this typ« 
coat as follows: (Fig. 76| 

Cmpscity Gange ApproiinuiW Price 

in CQ, ft. in inches weight, lb. f. o. b. Pa. 

A cradle double-side steel dump car having a capacity of 31^ 

■u. ft., weighs about 1,200 lb. and i-osU $165 f. o. b. Pennejlvania. 

A rocker double side steel dump car of 2 cu. yd. capacity, 38-in. 

^uge, weighs approximately 2,400 lb. and coats $290 f. 
Another make of double aide rocker dump cars is as foil 



cheB weight in lb. 

A make of rocker dump cars equipped with end lock that will 
automatically lotk itself in three position a. and with roller 
bearings, coats as follows: (Brakes can be furnished if desired 

In ezcsTatinff a bank of hardpan with a 14-ft. face in 190T, 
the following equipment and men were used: 

10 sMel donble side dump esra, 3fl cu. H. «apBcitj, M-in. 

EBUge at I72.B0 I T2S.O0 

2 brake cars at t»a.B» 188.09 I 

2BwiUhea complete at pD.OO 60.00 

1,600 ft. ot 301b. rail and pUtea, elc.= 600 ft. of track 

and 1 turnout at 19 ct. per ft , i«5.00 

2O0 lies, e"x4' apruce, EH «. long M.60 

Spikes and bolts 40.O0 

Total cost ot plant : I1,3«.E0 

1 foreman at ta.OO t S.OO i 

6 pick BDd bar men at |1.60 ».00 

lasliovelf™ at J1.50 18.00 

1 borae and drirer at P.eO 8.50 

« trackman at tl.BO .76 

1% dumpmen at Jl-EO 2M 

Total labor coat per 10 hours t 36.B0 

The earth, which waa extremely hard, waa undermined and 
pried down with picke and bars, and loaded into a train of six 
cai'B. The whole gang then started the train, which ran down 
the 4% grade to the dump by gravity. After being dumped, it 
was hauled hack by one horse. Thirty-three trains or 108 cars, 
well loaded, per day, was the output. A car was found to contain 
about 1 cubic yard of earth place measure. This gives a labor 
cost of about 18.5 cents per cubic yard. About $1.75 per day 
was spent on repairs to the equipment. : 

On another job two trains of ten cars each i 
gang was as follows: 

1 trackiQBi] . 

TotBl 161.40 

The earth wan of bardpan and sand and the cut ranged from 
to 15 feet. The till was about S feet in height. The average 
haul was 800 feet. Thirteen hundred feet of track was laid at 
a eoHt of $75. The average daily output was 330 cars, or yards, 
making a labor cost of about 10 cents per yard. 

Fig. 77. 

Cars similar to these were loaded by a 30-ton traction shovel 
for 10 cents {contract) per yard, and dumped and hauled back 
by horses for 7 cents per yard, average length of haul 1,600 feet. 
The repairs on cars were very high, amounting to about 4 cents 
per yard. 

Two-way side dump oars similar to the one shown in Fig. 
77, without brakes, cost as tollowa: 


A make of two way side dump cam cost as follows : 

12 2e,8(» 2,51: ' 

10 14.500 1,187 

The above cars with the exeq)tion of the lO-yd. size are, 
fitted with air brakes. All these oars have wood beds and arel 
dumped hy air. The gauge is standard. These cars are all of 
standard construction and are built to the requirements of thcj 
Interstate Commerce Commission. 

An S-yA. dump car fitted with air brakes and dumped by bandj 
weighs 17,300 lb. and costs $1,549. 36-in. gauge. This car mav 
also be had with air dumping device. | 

Smaller dump cars of the same make without brakes and a^ 
ranged to dump by hand cost as follows: 

ight ia lb. 


M 18 1000 113 

The above cars are of standard construction and are fitted 
with wood beds. They may also be had with steel beds, i 
foot brake is fitted without extra charge to every fourth car 
when ordered. Additional brakes are charged for extra. 

Bottom Dnmp Cars. A 12-cu. yd. bottom dump car with oati 
bed, of standard construction, standard gauge, weight about 
18,000 lb., without brakes and arranged to dump by hand, cost; 
$1,794 f. o. b. factory. This car may also be had with air brakes. 

A similar car with a capacity of cu. yd. weighs 9,400 lb, and 
costs (903. 

Theee cars are useful for ballasting purposes, either on electrir 
or steam railroads, for filling in trestles, hauling cinders, coal. 
gravel, crushed stone, etc. 

Standard platform can with lour wheels having frames of 
steel and platforms of wood cost as follows: (Fig. 78.) 


In the above table the cars priced at $65 base platforms 6 ft. 
by 36 in., those priced at S75, bave platforma 6 (t. by 48 in. and 
tlie one at $95, 8 ft. by 60 in. 

Steel Tops or Wood Tops 
Gauge Nel weight 

Flat care of still anotber make Pont a 
Capsrity Gauge Approx 


Fig. 7!}. Revolving Dump Car. ' 

RotATy dump cars, self -dumping, provided vith automatic lock- 
ing device which prevents dumping and rotation while the car is 
being moved, ^me in the following sizes: 

3 cu. fd. 3S S4S0 E26 

Qable hottom cars, designed for use in minea and quarriee 

have bottom sheets with steep an^le of slope which inaurea 
complete and rapid discharge. Locking levers prevent dumping 
when oar is in motion. Equipped with roller bearings, brakes 
fitted if desired. 

Skip Car. This car is designed to be used as an automatic 
dumping shuttle car between the point where the materials are 
delivered on the job and the storage bin. The rear wheels are 
eaat with a stepped tread for carrying this end of the car up 
the discharge rail for automatic dumping. 

CapacitJ Osage Qmga Net weight 

f. 0. b.facloiy 

1% 56 64 1431) Z35 

Comparative Coat of Handling Earth on Tlat and Air Dump 
Cars. Tbe following appeared in Itailicay Age Oazette, June IS, 

In excavating far the new passenger terminal and belt tine at 
Kanaaa City it was necessary to remove over 2,000,000 cu. yd. 
of eartK and rock. This material was handled on flat cars and 
on 12-yd. Western air dump cars. For two months, the cost of 
handling material with these two types of equipment was care- 
fully compiled. The conditions nnder which the two kinds of 
equipment were employed were very similar, the material in each 
case consisting of at feast 15% solid rock. If conditions favored 
either type of equipment, tbe advantage was with the flat cars as 
the interference with traffic was greater at the dump when the 
air dump cars were used. 

The following tabulation gives the relative cost of operation 
for the two months: 

First Month 

EogiDM .. 
Libor on c 
L»l»r on t 

VlSRi (o.iis: 


LmboT on csri OSJT .ODTT 

Lnbor on Irack 09» JBTO 

Eng. aTid lupar OniS .0060 

UucfUtnwus 0083 .0043 

Total per en. yd W-2882 fO.USS 

It will be noticed from tlie above that tliere was conaiderablf 
dilTerence in the cost of car repairs. In juetice to the flat care 
it should be said that the repairs shown fnr these two months 
exceeded the average cost up to that time by approximately 1 V: 
ct. per cu. yd. The flat cars were of wooden construction witli 
capacities of 60,000 lb and 80,000 )b., and had been in constant 
service tot 18 months at the time thJH infoimation was collected. 
The dump earn were of ateel frame construclion, of 80,000-lb. 
capacity and had been in aervicc five months. 

The cost of engine service includes the rental of the engines 
and the pay of the crews from the time of their arrival to the 
time of the departure of the trains at the dump. A sufticient 
track force was always maintained to assure no delays to th« 
trains waiting for the dump tracks to be put into condition. 
During the two months under consideration tlie unloading was 
done in yards exclusively, and for this reason the cotit of engine 
service was not as great as later when the material was un- 
loaded on the main tracks, which carried a trallic of approxi- 
mately 150 trains per day in addition to many switching move- 
ments. Very lillg unloading was done on the main tracks by 
means of a Lidgerwood engine and plow because of the dan^r 
of delays both to the construction trains and to tralTic. On llic 
other band trains of dump cars were freijuentiy sent out to 
unload a few minutes ahead of passenger trains with only slight 
danger oE delaying them. 

The third item of cost, that of{[erwood and airmen, arosr 
from the fact that it was found desirable to have a mechanii- 
operate the Lidgerwood to reduce delays and for the same 
reason to have a mechanic with the air dump cars. In addition 
to taking care of the air valvea and pipes, ibis man also made 
light repairs on the cars. The cNpense for labor on the cars was 
much greater on flat than on dump cars, especially during the 
winter months, as would be expected because of the dilRcuKy 
of keeping the ear fioora and aprons clean to prevent dirt from 
accumulating and freezing. 

The cost of track labor was dependent more on the height of 
the fill and other conditions than on the type of equipment used. 
Where it was practicable to use only one track a saving in track 
labor was effected by the use of the dump cars aa they could be 

CAIffl 141 

unloaded more quickl; and thereby esa%e less delay to the track 
laborers. Where two dumping tracks were available this differ- 
ence did not exist. 

While the last two iteme in the tabulation do not depend on 
the type of equipment used, it was found that more emergencies 
aroee from the use of flat cars with Lidgerwood unlaaders and 
plows than from the use of dump ears. Alao, it was found pon- 
sible to unload at the end ol a spur track on a fill successful!}' 
with dump cars, while this could not be done with flat car» and 
plows siDce the blow at the end of the train occupied a space of 
at least 20 ft 

Cabs Used in ConcBETB Plant 
Itadlal Qat£ Hopper Car used for the distribution of concrete: 

Controllable Bottom IHiinp Car, mounted on a skeleton truck 
for placing concrete in forms where a narrow controllable bottom 
discharge is needed: ^ 

Side and End Dnmp Hopper Can. These discharge through 
. controllable radial gates of a ^ire to empty the ears quickly and 
to handle any aggregates generally used in construction work. 
The gates are practically grout tight for concrete. 

Side Dpmp Hopper Cabs 


Emd Dump Hoppeb Cabb 

welcouerete Net weight Pric 

54 1808 2S0 

The gauges for these cars are the (tame as tor the side dump. 
Side Dump Backet Cars. This car differs from the hopper car 

in that the ends o( tlie bucket are vertical, the length of the 
gate being the full width of the bucket. The longer gate is bet- 
ter in placing concrete which is somewhat stiff, and in handling 
aggregates, earth, etc. The gate is of the radial type and is made 
grout tight for concrete. 

wet concrete Net weight Price 

Fig. 80. Hand Car. 

Inspection and Hand Cars. Inspt^etion car having platform 
6 ft. long by 4 ft, 5 in wide, with seat for passengers and 
furnished with either single or double end lever, and hand brake 
in front of seat to be operated by passengers, weighs approxi- 
maUly 500 lb, and is priced at $80 f. o. b. manufacturers' works. 

Hand car, standard gauge, with platform G ft, long by 4 ft. 6 
in. wide weighing about 575 lb. for shipment, costs $52. One 



-vrith plfttform 8 ft, long by 5 ft. 8 in. wide weighing about TTO 

lb. for ahipment costs $74. 

Orderin?. In ordering cars or making inquiries from maoii- 

f acttirerg the following poimta should be noted. 

Gauge of 'trade. 

Weight of rail on which cars run. 

TtadiuB and length of sharpest curve. 

Style of car (give number of catalog cut nearest to your require- 

Material to be handled and its weight per cuhiu foot. 

Capacity of car in tons or cubic feet. 

Give dimensions of car, if possible. 

Any limitations as to height, length or width. 

Style of coupling and drawbar. 

Distance from top of rail to center of drawbar. 

Method of operation — hand, animals, steam or electricity. 

Whether to be deed singly or in trains. 

Number ears to a train. 

Diameter of wheels and axles already in use, if new cars are 
to be used with old ones. 

Style of axle boxes, if inside or outside, roller bearings, etc., if 
with or without springs. 

Any other points to be considered. 

Depreciation and Bepalis. The following tables give the 

original cost and average repairs per month on about 22,000 cars 

on a large railroad system. I am indebted to Mr. J. Krutt- 

suhnitt for the data from which it has been compiled. 

Steel or Steel Undebpbaue Cars 

Type of ear 





No- of 








(About l»a) 


-^ 1.M5 


■ MS. 


Wooden Cab 


Elk ■■::;:::;;; 


The average coat of -repairs on steel uoderframe cars wae 
$2.79 and od wooden cars $4.04 per month. 

Beports from various railroads indicate that the average cost 
of repairs of wooden cars varies from 835 to $85 per car per 
year, and of steel or atecl uiiderframe cars varies from $9 to 
$10 per car per year. Tlie average life of a wooden car is about 
15 years, and of steel cars about 25 years. 

The cost of repairs on cars per year in percentage of the 
original cost is as follows: 

8t«el Wood 

T;pe am cars 

% % 

BsllsBt T.O 9. 75 

Furnilare B.4 16.8 

Gondola or ore S.l 

Oil B.7B 8.7 

Stock 1.3 9.6 

In the Railroad Oazeite, October 11, 1S07, Mr. William Mahl, 
comptroller of the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific railways, 
gives some valuable data as to the life of equipment on the 
Southern Pacific Railway. 

The follouing arc averages for the period of six years, 1902 
to 1907, the costs being the average cost per year. 

Bnmber ^"'^ P" Bnnum 

Olsu BorviceRble Retiairs Vacated 

LocjmotlTeB 1,M0 niGS (ISS 

PasbengTir cars fM 759 104 

Freight cara *2,9SS TO 17 

In " repairs " are included the annual expenditure for repairs 
and renewals of each locomotive or car, other than the expendi- 
ture for equipment " vacated," In " vacated " is included the cost 
of equipment destroyed, condemned and dismantled, sold or 
clianged to another class. 

From 1801 to 1907, a period of 17 years, the average number 
of freight cars " vacated " each year was 3.03 per cent of the 
total Dumber in service. Dividing 100 by this 3 63, we get 27^4i 
which is, therefore, the average lite in years of each freight 
car. These cars were nearly all wooden cars, of which the 
cost of a box car did not exceed $450, excluding air brakes. 

On the Panama Canal work during the six months ending 
June 30, 1910, the cost per day of repairs to cars of all kinds 

was $1.03. For tbe Mtme period the cost of repairs to plant and 
equipment per unit of work done was ae follows: 

Item Cn-yd- Pereu.yil. 

Dry excavKtion 10,S15,4M tO-0796 

Wet eicaraiion ' 5.!7t.ejS 0.0711 

Concrets :, CG:>45a 0.IJ41 

S«nd 311,028 27S9 

Stone 581,812 0.2410 

Dry fill I,»13,!)61 0.0086 

Wet HD 1,55«,74B 0.05*7 

The Compartment Type of Eock Car aeed by the Los Angeles 
Pacific Railway Co., has proved very sueceasful. In this type of 
far a bos is built on an ordinary flat car having a floor raised 
about 2 feet along the center line of the car and eloping to each 
side. This box is divided into twelve or more compartments, 
each having two doors, one on each side of the car: The team- 
ster drives his wagon along the side of the car and adjusts a 
Imard between his wagon and the car which prevents the spilling 
of any rook on the ground. He then, with his shovel, loosens 
the hook holding the door in place, which allows it to awing up 
and discliarge the whole two yards which each compartment con- 
tains. Tlie whole operation is consummated in about one min- 
ute. Mr. H. R. Postle gives the following bill of lumber for 
building such a box on a ^4-foot flat car: 

« — 2x 41n.xl8fl, 12-41 4in.i Stt. 

e — 4k nin.iintt. 4 — 2il6in.il6rt. 
60 — 2il2iB.iMK. 

Total, 2,043 tt. at 122 per U (t.= ^58.15. 

He does not give the amount of bolts and iron required, but 
eays that the shop foreman of the railroad told him that each 
ear coeta a total of $B60. 



The following notes are from " Earthwork and Its CobI," bj 
H. P. Gillette; 

The method of hauling with one-horse two-wheeled dump-earts 
ia especially adapted to work in narrow cuts, hasement excava- 
tions, and wherever the haul is short; hwt in such plaices whwl 
scrapers are ordinarily better, unless the haul is over street 

The great advantage that earts possess over wagons is ease of 
dumping (one man cau dump them) and especially of dumping 
into hoppers, scows, etc. The data of Morris, who kept account 
of the cost of moving 150,000 cu, yd. of earth with carts, are the 
most reliable in print. In his work one driver was required for 
each cart. Trautwine erroneously assumes that one driver can 
attend to four carts. For the short hauls upon which carts are 
ordinarily used one driver can attend to not more than two 
single horse carts, Morria found the average speed to be 20O ft, 
a minute, and the average load 14 '^^- y*^- (bank measure, 
equivalent to 0.37 cu. yd, place measure) on a level haul; V, cu. 
yd. on steep ascents, and there were 4 min. of " lost time " load, 
ing and dumping each trip. As above stated, the coat of picking 
and shoveling average earth .is one hour's wages per en. yd., while 
if earth'is loosened by plow the cost of loosening is about i^-hr. 
wages of team and driver, and the cost of loading plowed earth 
ii ^-hr. wages of laborer per cu. yd. 

Upon these assumptions, and accrediting a driver to each cart 
with an average load of ^ cu. yd., we have: 

Enle. To find the cost per cu. yd. plowing, shoveling, and 
hauling "average earth" with carts, add together these items: 

To which add 1^ hr.'a wages of cart, horse and driver for each 
100 ft. of haul. With wages of a man at -10 ct. and of a horse 
at 15 ct. per hr., this rule becomes: To a fixed cost of 35 ct. add 
2.25 ct. per cu. yd. per 100 ft. of haul. 

CABT8 147 

If one driver attends to two cart«, as is yerj often the case, 
tlie hauling item is %o hr.'s wages of a man and two horses, 
or 1.5 ct. per cu. yd. per 100-ft. haul at wages above given. 
In cities where streets are level, and hard, even if not paved, 
one-horse carts holding % cu. yd. are used; furthermore horses 
travel faster than the 200 ft. per minute given by Morris on 
railroad work, 220 to 250 ft. a minute being the speed at a walk 
over hard level roads. With large %-jd. one-horse carta and one 
driver to each eart, the cost of hauling per cu. yd. per 100 ft. 
is therefore, 14^ hr.'s wages of horse and driver, or 1 ct. per 
cu. yd. per 100 ft. of haul. 

Fig. 81. Two-Wheeled Cart. 

Cost with Carta Engmeenng and ( ontracttng Jan 22 1108 
gives the following 

The job was earth excaiation in the construction of a. rail 
road. A cut was taken out with arts which were loaded by 
men using ahort haodled shotela The work uas done in the 
late fall and earh u inter when a fair amount of ram fell 
but snow falls did not ocLur \t nl^ht the ground froze to a 
depth of a. few inches and naa generally thaived out b\ the sun 
during the day This made the runuat muddy and made some >f 
the shoveling liardcr The material nas red claj that readily 
absorbed water The average length of the haul uas 900 ft 

The earth was loosened bj picks two pickers keeping three 
shovels going Tliree mtn sloveled into a cart two carts being 
loaded at one time Four carts Here used one driver attending 
to two carts vhich be toik to the dump together One man on 
the dump with the aid of the diner dumped the carts 

The wt^es paid for a 10 hr diy were as follows 


Fommn, tSjEO 

WbIw ^'■■■■^■---■■■■■"■■■■--■■'■■■■-■■"i" lioO 

2 Mrts uid 1 driver tSO 

The cost per cubic yard of doing tbe Tork w>b : 

Fonnan |0,OBO 

ShovHiai; oiiao 

DusipiBS 0.021 

Water boy 0.014 

The output of thia g&n^ per daj was TO cu. yd. This is t 
high cost, aa a greater yardage should have been e\cavated. 
The pickers loosened about 18 cu. yd per man day, while about 
11 cu. yd. per man day were shoveled. The man on the dump 
took care of 70 cu. yd. per day A careful analyHis of this and 
a comparison of costs of similar n'ork show that the cost of 
hauling is a little low, while the other costs are all high. Thia 
leads to the concluaioa that there were not enough carts for this 
length of haul. 

As the foreman was experienced and realized that he was tihort 
of carts, he did all he could to keep them going continually and 
loaded them as heavily as the ground over which he had to haul 
would permit. The result was that be worked the horsen harder 
than they are ordinarily worked, as will be noticed from the cost 
of hauling, which was 11 ct, for a distance of 900 ft. With Ihf 
waires given above, the cost of hauling per 100 ft. with carts 
would be about 1 ct., and adding to this the lost team time Ihf 
total cost should have been for a OOOft. haul about 12 or 13 
ct., while the cost, as stated, actually wbh 11 ct. That tbe fore- 
man did his work well is evident from the fact that with a \tA 
of carts that was bound to make his men idle at times waiting 
for the carts to come back from the dump, he got an output of 
about 1 1 cu. yd. from his shovelmen per day. 

It two more carts had been used, the ahovelers could no doubt i 
have loaded 14 cu. yd. to the man, and instead of using only 
three men loading to the carta four men could have been em- 
ployed. This would have made the output per day 112 cu. yd 
instead of 70. Thus a saving on the total cost of nearly 20% 
could have been effected. 

With the material that had to be excavated, a man could ; 
readily loosen with a pick, by caving in a bank, from 2S to 30 I 
C1I. yd per day, and a man could load into a cart with a shovel 
14 cu. yd. The dumpman could easily have cared for the 112 cu, 
yd. that were sent to the dump. 

CAKTS 149 

The CMta as given illiitftrate in a striking manner how one 
detail of a job that is not properly managed can materially 
increase the cost of all the other details and that of the whole 
job and yet that particular cost may be low. Such facts can 
only be learned by keeping udetail coat data and then carefully 
analysin;; them. 

A contrartoT's dump cart, body made of white oak, ironed and 
braced, white oak wheels, tire sii-e 3 by ^ inch, height of wheels 
5 ft., body size 3 ft. wide, 5 ft. long, 1 ft. deep, weighs complete 

Fig. 82. Grout Cart. 

660 lb., price $75. The end board lifts out and by releasing the 
bo.\ at front end, dumps automatically. 

Brick Cart. This is designed for hauling heavy material and 
is made of hard wood throughout. This cart has a bed ot 5 ft. 
length, depth of 26 inches, width at bottom ot 3 ft. rt'/j in., fiare 
board 12 inches wide; capacity 361^ cu. ft.; wheels 54 inches 
high. Appro\imate weight 1,000 lb., price $B3 f. o. b. Aurora, 

Trasb Cart. Similar to the above but of lighter construction. 
Capacity 36^ cu. ft., weight approximately 800 lb„ price $01. 

Piok-np Carts or beam trucks, having two wheels and a raised 


axle, are used for picking up and hauling iron pipe, til 
structural stiapea, etc. 

They are usually drawn by hand. " 

weight, lOo II 
Keiiht, '450 II 
veight, 690 II 

Grout Csrt. A cart similar to the one shown in Fig, 82 is de- 
signed ao that the paddle wheel », which keep the grout well 
mixed, are on the same axle ae the wheels proper and revolve 

with them. The price of this cart ia $55 f. o. b. distributing 

Concrete Carts. These carts have two wheels and are made ol 

A patented gasoline truck fitted with an automatic dui 
^>oAj, Fig. 83, has a capacity of 1 cu. yd. of dry mix or 18 i 

CARTS 151 

ft. o( wet mix. It has an dll-metal bod; of the hopper tjpe and 
automatically spota and dumps its load in any desired plat^e. 
It will take wet mix directly from the central mixing plant 
to the roadway or dry mix from the storage pile or bin to the 
mouth of the mixer without rehandling. It is equipped with 
wide faeed steel wheels to prevent cutting up the finished subgrade. 
It haa three wheels, the load being carried by the two front driv- 
ing wheels and the steering being done by the single wheel in 
the rear. It operates at speeds of txom 'A to 12 miles per hr., 
with an average gasoline consumption of 3 gal, per day. This 
machine weighs 2,400 lb., and costs about $1,700 i. o. b, factory. 



The cement gun ie illustrated bj Pig. S4. It has two chamberB. 

the upper being fitted with a hopper and oontaining two bell i 
valves, the lower containing the feed wheel, air motor, and air I 
jet. It is mounted on wheels no that it maj be readily moved j 
MH the worlt progreases. The standard equipment conaiats of ' 
50 ft. of material hose, 50 ft, of air hoae and 50 ft. of water : 
liose, together witli complete nozzle having water valve and , 
water connection. These machines may be had in the following 

150 (o IW S5 to »l 150 to 160 1,400 1.400 2no M (a eo ass i.eoo i.soo 

The aliove capacities are based on a surface 1 inch tbick i 
S hrs. 

Operation. The following notes on the operation of the cemen 
gun were by Mr. Byran C, Collier. 

In operating, the material is firut mixed dry, and placed in th 
upper chamber of the machine from which it travels in consecu- 
tive stages to the lower chamljer, and thence through the hose to 
the nozzle. It la well to bear in mind that a normal percentage 
of moisture in the sand {i% to 0%) is advantageous, aa oth- I 
crwise there is too great a tendency of the sand and cement ; 
particles to be segregated. The water is introduced through 
the walls of the nozzle in needle jets under higher pressure than 
the air, thereby causing these jets to puncture this stream o 
flowing material- The action of the air in the main hose cause 
the water from these jets to become atomi/ed, resulting in th 
covering of all the particles with this fine spray. When thii" 
hydrated material is impelled against the surface to be coaled 
the flrst efl'ect is to cause a very marlied rejection of material. 
which, examination has shonii, is sand only, showing that the 
cement has adhered to the surface forming a film of neat cemeni 
which acts as ft matrix. When thia matrix assumes a perceptible 


thirkneas the Band finds a Rent, and the reJH'ted material grows 
markedly leu. There continuee a certain amount of rejection 
of this inert material, each grain o£ which, however, hne per- 
fornied the fuiietion of acting as a tamppr to drive the preceding 
grains deeper into the matrix in which they are seated. The 
result of thin pounding action is to produce a very dense, hard 
and durable mortar. 

Although this " rebound " has a definite and useful action, it 
also presents a difficulty which must at all times be reckoned 

Fig. 84. Cement Gun. 

with in order to insure proper and satisfactory work. It is the 
custom to use air at a pressure of about 35 lbs. at the " Gun " 
under normal conditions of operation, and with from 50 to 100 feet 
of hose in use. This will mean that the impelled material will 
have sufficient velocity to result in the " rebound " being thrown 
back BUfflciently to clear the reinforcing wires. If, on the other 
hand, too low pressure is used this rebounded material lacks 
sufficient velocity, and (auaes it to fall behind the reinforcing 
wire in loose piles forming what are termed "sand pockets." In 


veiop«d. to overcome this. 

Cost of Cement Gnn Work at tbe Elephant Butte Dam. The 
followiog notes from Compreaged AW Uagazine, May, 1916, il- 
luatrEit« very welt tbe detailed manner of cement gun operation. 

The upstream face of the Elephant Butte dam of the United 
States Reclamation Service vai waterproofed with, port land- 
cement mortar mixed in the proportion of one part cement to 
two parts sand and applied with a cement gun in a coating about 
1 in. thick. Advantage was taken of rising water in the reservoir 
to work from rafts specially constructed for the purpose. There 
were two of these, each D x 13 ft., made of planking on a frame- 
work laid on and attached to 16 oil barrels. One raft contained 
the machine, operator and helpers, small mixing box and a few 
sacks of cement and sand, while the other was loaded with cement 

The coating was applied in horizontal strips about 10 ft. high 
and the length of the dam at water level. The surface was first 
cleaned thoroughly with scrapers and wire brushes and then gone 
over with a sand-blast, using coarse sand, passed through the 
machine to olitain tbe necessary pressure. This roughened the 
surface sufficiently to cause the mortar to adhere to it. The 
surface wag then thoroughly moistened with a hose and the mortar 
immediately applied. The mortar was put on in four layers, e.ach 
about <4 in. in thickness. It was found that a thicker coat than . 
this applied on a vertical wall, without reinforcement, would, . 
on account of Its weight, slough off before setting. Each layer 
followed tbe preceding one before it had attained its final set. 
Numerous samples taken from the face showed perfect adhesion 
to the concrete, it being impossible in every case to break the 
morlar from the concrete at the line of contact. The cost per 
square foot for the first 100,000 gq. ft. of this coating was as 
f oUows ; 

OperULnE ■id repair work, including cMt of air snd water tO.lIS 
Staging, cleaning wall, moving, etc .006 

Deprecialinn o( Eun and equipnunt -.. .010 

Ehibtotal WOTS 

Orerliead ■ -WT 

Total coat |jer iq. ft MOTS 

Some experiments were also conducted at Elephant Butte to 
determine the feasibility and probable cost of troweling the mortar 


placed by cement gun, with the ide» of using the machine for 
the lining of canala or for repairing lining that had disintegrated 
aud required a smooth finish. The area treated waa 75 ttq. ft. 
TliiH was covered with murtar averaging % in. in thicknetis in 15 
mia. working time, or at the rate of 300 eq. ft. per hr. for this 
average thickneBe. One good tinieber troweled 56 eq. ft. in 25 
min., or at the rata of 135 aq. ft. per hr. Possibly two men 
eould keep up with the gun. The finishing waa not done to a 
screeded surface. The surface ia wavy, but much smoother than 
a. formed surface would be. It could be screeded to a plane, if 
thought necessary. Care must be taken that too much material 
is not deposited in one coat, or horizontal cracks will occur, due 
to settlement. Some cracks appeared in this e.iperiment, and in 
each one the material was found to be from 1 in. to 1 V'j in. 
thick. The cost of this particular experiment, not counting coat 
of setting up, equipment, etc., was as follows: 

Per eqaare fool ».M14 

Depreciation, staging, moving, etc., would depend on the job, 
but it is probable that the total cost of placing thia coating, 
including the troweling, under average conditions would not 
exceed 5c per sq. ft. 

In using tUe cement gun the sand must lie clean, sharp and 
not too fine. It must not be bone-dry, or trouble with feeding 
wilt occur. The air pressure should be about 30 lb. in the gun 
and the water pressure over GO lb. It has been figured at 
Elephant Butte that 30 ft. of free air at 100 lb. pressure at the 
point of delivery to the gun and 10 gal. of water are required 
per minute. 

Cost of Lining a ReserrolT with Concrete by the Cement Qnn. 
The following notes by Mr, E. C. Eaton appeared in Engineering 
Xewt Record, July 24, 1019. 

The total area to be lined was 114,000 sq. ft., and speciiica- 
tions called for a gunitc lining I in. in thickness, with a mix 
of one part of cement to 5'^ parts of sand; no lime was used in 
the mixture. The lining was reinforced with galvani2e(l poultry 
netting, ll^-in. mesh, No. 19-gage wire, placed in the center of 
the concrete to confine cracks due to ctpansion to hair cracks, 
and no expansion joints were used. 

This work was let by contract at a price of lOl^c. per square 
foot, including the trinaming and preparation of the banks. 


Work was commenced Jan. 14, 1919, and completed Mar. 19. 
Because the work had to l>e done during the winter months the 
actual num1)er of working days in this time waa on); 39. 

The cement gun uHed wae what is known as the N2 size. 
was kept on the upper bank of the canal at a ma>:iinum distance 
of 600 ft. from tlie compresGor, to which it wag connected with 
a 2-iu. iron pipe. Tlie compressor was of tlie portable tjpe. 
direct -con nee ted to a semi-Diesei typo of engine; it was 12 <( 12 in, 
and ran at a speed of 300 r.p.m. A pregeure of 42 lb. per square 
inch was maintained at tlie eompreesor, giving about 32 lb. at the 
gun. A 2-in. rubber hose 200 ft. in length was used from the 
gun to the nozi^le, and the rubber tips in these nozzles lasted 
nearly one week before requiring replacement. The depreciation 
on the hose for the period of the job was $200. 

In lining the 114,000 sq. ft., 2904 sacks of cement were used, 
or nearly 39 sq. ft. of lining per sack of cement. The average 
rate of progress throughout the work was 200O sq. ft. per working 
day. Tlie maximum day's run was about 5000 sq. ft., though 
better average pro^reas would have Wen made in the dry season, 
as the principal delays were due to wet sand clogging in the hose 
and necessitating frequent cleaiimg out of the niaihine. A 
certain amount of moisture is necessary in the sand for this 
class of work, and the best results were obtained when sufficient 
water was present so that the sand just failed to hold its shape 
when squeezed in the hand. 

The total quantity of sand used on the work was 000 tons, and I 
the total cost of sand per ton was as follows: ^ 

Per ton 

Londing charge «t sand pit tO.30 

Ttrigbt .«• 

Un'o.Jing .12 ' 

Hanlins la Bile i.'M i 

Total KK . I 

The hauling over the wet roads a distance of two miles was the | 
biggest item. The weight of a cubic yard of sand, which was ' 
wet, was 2,600 pounds. 

The cement was $3.45 per barrel delivered at the site, after 
an allowance of $1 per barrel was made for sacka. The poultry 
netting delivered at the site cost $1.17 per 100 square feet. 

The construction crew employed was as follows: 

Per Day 

I Compressor engineer I 7.00 

1 NoMbmaii B.OO 

1 Man pUcing Hire . . B.M 

2 Miiera at » 8.TO 


1 Man loading gun *,00 

1 NDzstemaa nelper t.OO 

Total payroll MIJW 

One HMD was kept coulinuausly cloie to the n'oszlemau, his 
dutiea being to brugb back the rebound at the junction of new and 
old work and to raiae the reinforcement b; means of a hook to 
insure its being placed in the center of the lining. 

The fuel used conaisted of a fuel oil having a gravity at 
27 -[-. Ten druniB of this oil of 104-gal. capacity per drum were 
used. The coat of the oil wag SB.BS per drum, delivered to site. 
The loss by rebound in percentage of the sand uaed was SVi; 
this was not wasted, however, as it was collected, screened and 
used over again with good reaults. except that only 30 sq, H. of 
lining per sack of cement, or 23% less than with new aand, could 
be gotteo when rebound was need, due to the material being 
coarse and requiring more cement to fill the Toids. 

Particular attention was paid to the curing, by sprinklit^, of 
the newly completed lining for a period of two days, and up 
(o this time no cracks other than fine hair cracks have devel- 

Coit of Cement Sand Coatine. The following costs of cement- 
sand coating of an experimental mine were taken from an article 
by Mr. George S. Rice in The Coat Indrntry, Jan,, 1918. 

For coating 379 feet of entry, averaging 5.0 feet in height aJid 
9.15 feet wide, the cement averaging about 2 inches in thickness 
on the ribs and % inch thick on tha roof, the coats were aa fol- 

Labor and Repairs 

Labor '. tisSM 

Super»i»ion ISM 

Cleaning sod reiutiring gun lO.Tt tlTS.M 


Cement, 280 *aclu, or TO bbl. at tlJO p«r bbl. ... T7.0C 

Sand, a toni at .89 87.88 1W.3S 

Total 1281.02 

The cost per lineal foot of entry averaged 79 cents, and the cost 
per square yd. of surface averaged 32 cents. This job took 10 
days and the speed was 4.7 lineal feet per hour or 11^ sq. yd. 
per working hour. In a subsequent job, the total cost per lineal 
foot of entry was fl3 cents and the average cost per sq. yd. was 
40 cents. 


One of the companieB m PennBylvania reports that the actual 
TOBt was $3 per lineal foot of heading The beading averaged 
22 square feet in section making the coet aliout 13 b tents per 
square foot or $1 22 per square ;ard of gunite deposited This 
cost IS based on cement at about $2 20 per barrel and sand at 
$2 per ton at the site The thieknesa was about one inch no rein- 
forcement being used but it was most carefully done and prob- 
ably includes all coats 

At a mine in the ConnelH^ilte district the cost of cementing 
6 220 square feet was accomplished m 12 days the daily coat 
as follows 

The total labor a 

Kt was tU4.82. 


60 (.. mininj m«,h 

Grand lotnl 


Tile post per square foot woa, therefore, 6.38 cents, or per square 
yard, 37 cents It will be observed that theae figures vary widely, 
but it ia thought that under average conditions with men fully 
trained in the use of the cement gun, that work can be done for 
at least 50 cents per aquare yard on the baais of wages prevailing 
prior to 1S17. 

Information obtained in January, 1319, relative to costs in a , 
Pennsylvania mine: 

Main Slope 

TrimnilnK and handlins rook I TO.W 

Milling cement outside -■ B6.B0 

Labor oD cemeDt-gun IKS.SS I 

2»14 bbl. cBmeot at n.7fl B'.B3 



On large concrete jobs it ie desirable that all cement shall 
be tested. The usual practice is to engage a apecialiat, who 
iKnds a representative to obtain samples from the job for teeting 
at his own laboratory. This is undoubtedly the best way, but 
where work is located far from large cities testing in this manner 
is very expensive. This diffieulty is general lyn overcome by select- 
ing samples from the care immediately before they leave the 
factory and then sealing the cars. On worlc where these methods 
cannot he used a field laboratory can be installed. 

Such a laboratory, exclusive of the building, water supply, and 
few pieces of furniture will cost as follows: 

Chmsnt ttBling machine with Wnaion BttBChmeot 


BTSn bulanea »™le witii braw weighu 

Three section gang moulda »t tl6 


88t c™ent teat ■■»*«, m. m ftnd »», wilh lid and hM 

I Set 8«nd leM sieves, 20. 30, with Ud tnd bottom, 


Where any considerable amount of testing is to be done several 
more gang moulds with some sort of damp closet are desirable, 
costing an extra $40 or $50. 



(See Belting for Power Purposea.) 


Cliftina possess about % the strength of alogle bars of iron-j 
They should be very carefully tested, as one weak link means 
that the whole chain is weak. The diameter of sheaves or' 
driima should not be less than thirty times the diameter of thf 
chain iron used, and for hoisting purposes, chains should he of 
short links with oval sides. The lite of a chain is greatly in- 
creased by freqiient lubricating and annealing. 

B. B. B. Chain is of iron of 4S.0OO to 50,000 lb. per sq. in. 
tensility, about 28^ elongation in 8 in., and 3S to 40% reduc- 
tion at fracture. 

Special Iredse chain is of iron of 48,000 to 52,000 lb. per sq. 
In. in tensility, with about 30% elongation in 8 in. and 50% 
redurtion in area. In the following table the safe load should 
be taken as % the " proof." The breaking strength is about 
double the proof. 

Pipe ok Sto:<e Chains with Hook abd Ring Cost 

% ineh U Coot lunsth ( g.2S 

Log Chains, 16' long, heavy, short link, ^g" swivel i 
weight, 30 lbs.; price, $3.25. 




i ||y*_s.s^.. 


of Iron 
In laches 

Breaking Tesling 

Weiqht of Studded Liuk Cable (Ui 





For moTinj; loadi Tertically where great power in not oTitain- 
able and speed is not a requieite, chain blocks are the best means. 
Tliese are made in three types, spur geared, screw geared and 

Spue Ceabkd Blocks 

Ciipacitr Ho[at Weiiht. lb. Eitra holat 





1 .80 

1 .00 

I « well M a 

a upper block. 

Geared Buwks 

rclirhl. lb. 


Extra hoM 
pet ft. 






















Fig. 85. Chain Block in Use. 

Chain blocks kept well oiled and kept under cover where grit 
and dirt cannot enter the gears shoald have' a life ot from five 
lo twenty yeara. On outnide work where sand and grit is alloned 
to enter the geara the life of a block is reduced very much, and 
repairs may cost us muck as 50% of the first cost annuallj. 



Chut«B for stone or, in fact, almost anj mLtsrul must be lined 
with sliwt iron or steel to prevent, excesnive wp«r. Sooner or 
latcc a Iiole wears in these sheets and it is then necessary to renew 
the entire piece. 

VVilhorW, Sherman & Co., at Slineville, N. Y., use bar steel for 
lining their ore eliiitcB. The lars are % x<5 inrhes in size, and 
when worn are. replaced by s new piece. In this way no steel 
is waited an'I the time spent in repairs is much lessened. 

Dolese &, Shepard, in their stone-cruuhing plant in Chicago, at. 
mH points where the cruiihed stone drops, have made pockets 
where a certain amount of the materia) collects, and saves the 
chutes and bins from excessive wear at these points. 

Angle Extension Wagon Chates for hard and soft eoal may he 
economically used in ronslruction work for placing concrete and 
tranHporting other materials. They are adapted to indefinite 
extension, but each section is in itself an independent chute. 
The prices <^ chutes IS in. wide at top and 17 in. at foot, made 
of Xo. 13 black sheet steel witli heavy end baiids, weighing ainiut 
5% lb. per foot, are as follows : 

6 ft. tengOu. each H.OO 10 (i. tenphs, e»rb » 9.« 

e (I. lenBdn. B.i» 11 ft. laoKthi, csch iOJfi 

S It. knttiii, each , . 


A chute constructed of sheet steel and angle iron so as to hook 
on any car or wagon is made in three stock sizes and in many 
cases great saving, in the cost of unloading material from 
cars. (See Fig. 80.) 

This chute is manufactured in two si/es. The 1 cu. yd. size 
weighs approximately 3Sj lb. for shipment and costs -$flO. The 
H^ cu yd. weighs about 410 lb. for shipment and costs S70. 

A loader used for unloading cars to trucks or wagons, having 
a capacity of 30 cu, ft., is made in two parts, the bowl and frame. 
It weighs about 400 lb. for shipment and costs $65 f. o. b. New 



York ^tat«. The manufactuTers give the saving on & job hy 
the use of these loaders as follows : Before the loaders were put 
into use the time for a round trip per truck was 1 hr. 30 min. 
By use of the loaders, four of them, the 5-ton truck made the | 
round trip in one hour, s. time saving of 33i^%, 
deliveries of 50% reducing the lost time t 
creasing the earnings almost $22 daily. 

Gar Chnte. The following description of a home-made device 
appeared in Engineering Xeu:a Record, May 15, 1619. 

Fig. 86. Car Chute. 

It coneistB of a simple box made of old lumber and meaBuring 
about 6x7 ft. in plan by 1 ft. 6 in. deep. It holds about 2 cu. 
yd. of material and loads a motor truck by one operation io a 
few minutes. The box is arranged to rest on the side of the open 
railroad car in which the material ia received, is slightly over- 
balanced outward, and is dumped by the release of a rope at 
the end of a lever at its back, which is fastened to the opposite 
side of the car. 

On the job where this was used it took as long to fill the truck 
by the ordinary hand shoveling as was required for the truck 
to make a complete round trip. The device, therefore, practically 
doubled the number of trips per day for each truck. Further 
more, the loading laborers were continually busy filling the bov 
and did not lose time waiting tor the truck to c< 
I he car. 



A Boiler Boiit Bnoket that automatically places itnelf under 
the miier at the bottom of the tower to receive the concrete and 
delivers it with the same automatic movement into the receiving 
hopper at the top, coeta aa follows: 

Oftpacitr Wvight In Price 

in CO. ft. pounds f. o, b. fsctoT; 

» m I14G 

u Tn sm 

M tC» S40 

H U71 30« 

This bucket is 11861! where a large amount of concrete worit 
is to be done with the hoist bucket permanently fixed at one 
tower position, such as work on bridges, dams, viaducts and all 
construction where the height is limited. 

Qniek Shift Eoiit Bnokets used in building construction and 
work of considersblo height where it ia necessary to uhange the 
position of the tower hopper cost as follows: 

CsjMcitj' Weight la Price 

incu. ft. pounds f.o. b. facMry 

Vertical Back BeeeirliiK Hopper. This hopper is used in con- 
nection with plants employing chutes for taking the concrete 
away from the hopper proper. 

Extended Gate ReoeiTing Hopper. This hopper ts used where 
it is neoeesary to carry the concrete away from the hopper by 

carts or cars. 



Capacity Weight in Price 

Floor BeoeiviDK Hopper to he placed on the floor to chai^ 
carts or cars for local dirttfibution, that may also be used as a 
charging hopper for the hoist bucket at a. relay point, costs as 
follows; . , ■ 

Katerial and Hopper Bin Oatet cost as tollowe: 

Si™ in W-'ig^tin 
Sby 12 K 

'dii 1 IS 



Tower Sheave Bett cost as follows: 


■ Wamelerof Weight in 
aheavo in inohM pounds 


■ Sliding Frane Fixtures for Oiilok Shift Plants. These can 

be anpHed to either steel or wonden towers atid are designed 
ao that quick change of the position of the receiving hopper may 
be effected. 

Weijht Price 

Hopper elldlnt frame tor wood or Btsel toweni 4H %Vn 

Wood tower boom niant Blldmii frame 13S4 330 

Steel lower boom plant Bliding frame 2353 370 

Chutes. A type of chute section used in concrete placing equip- 
ment having a hopper at the receiving end, and an apron at the 
discharge end, is as follows ; 



. . Weight 

in Ih. Pri( 

These sections may be bad in various lengths as above, wit}i 
flanges, hoppers, joints or aprons at the ends. A line gate for 
the above Beetlons weighs 263 lb. and costs $70. 

Another type of chnte section having elbows at the ends instead 
of hoppers and aprons, is made in the same lengths as those 
above and eosts about $12 more for each length. It may he had 
with elbowD flanges and joints at the ends. Bo 
this t}*po cost as follow^: ' 


Continuous Line Chnt«B are made in lengths ae follows, with 
flanges on the receiving end. an4 joints on the discharge end. ' 

Leneth Weieht 

Id ft, iaIL. Price 

A two wheel trolley to support these chutes weighs 40 lb. and 
costH Sin.50. 

Line Oateg may be set in the eontiijuoiw .line chujtea. from 
which distiibutint!, ECctionB of ,t)ie above type pay ha run, A 
line gate in a lO-ft. section ^tted. w;ith a flexible joint wej^s 
322 11). and co4« .$S0.' 

Ilexlble Chute Sections can be used where tV ^n|:i;etfr, i; to 
flow in vertical oi^ nearly vertical lines, . They . arei connected 
together with chains. 

" LenKlh Weieht 


A three-ft. section fitt^. with a 24 by e4-in. hopper weighs 
SO lb. and cants $20.00. ... , ■ 

Flat Bottom Tapered Cbute Sections are made in two staBdur^ 


lengtbg. The S-ft. length weighs 140 lb and coHta $20. The 
20-It. length weighs 280 lb. and costs $40. 


Heavr Steel Towen for roller hoiet buckets are made in a wide 
varietf of siies. A few of these are giveu as follows: 

Relgbt CspMiV for PriM 

inlt. contiauouB tbuta in (t. f. o. b. tnetarj 

Steel towers of the light type having a rated capacity of 
% yd. for use with the buckets, hoppers and chutes of the concrete 


ISO vew i.m 

Steel towers of one yard capacity are made In the same sizes 

as the above and cost from $5S to ?125 more for each height. 
Towers of heights other than those shown above may be had at 
prices in proportion to the height. 

A KoTBble Wooden Tower was used for placing the concrete 
in a grand stand built at the University of Chicago, The grand 
stand was 404 ft. long by 114 ft. wide, and it was necessary 
to move the tower four times in order to place all the concrete. 
The tower was 72 ft. high and 8 i R ft. in section (See Fig. 87). 
A %-cu. yd. mixer was set on the bottom framework of the tower 
so that it would discharge into a bucket, which in turn elevated 
the concrete to a hopper on the side of the tower, 00 ft, above. 
The chutes were of the open-trough type, 10 x 12 in. in size, of 
galvanized iron, and were suspended from cables ran from the 
tower over the grand stand. The tower was placed on 6-in. wooden 
rollers placed on a plank runway, power for moving being sup- 


piled by a cable from the hoiBting engine. Six men were re- 
quired to place rollers, runwa; and cables while moving. A 
move of 50 ft. occupied (.bout 4 hours. The cost of the tower, 
including labor and material for erection and labor for dia- 
mantling was about $600 (about 1910 prices). 

Fig. 87. Movable Wooden Tower for Concrete Chuting System 


The eo«t of a wooden tower ia about ©800. If we figure that 
it will be good for only one job, that job must be Urge eaough to 
warrant the expeoditure of $600 to avoid UBin|; the Drdinai? 
wheelbarrow method. The difference in cost of placing concrete 
by the two metkode ie usually about 75 eta. per cii. yd. of concrete 
ao that if we liave a job containing more than 800 cu. yd,, or 
say 1,000 eu. yd., the chuting system will he the more economical. 
If the tower is built carefully and so that it may again be 
erected on other work it will pay to build one for smaller jobs. 
It will cost about S2i}0, however, to erect audi a tower on any 
job, BO that on a job containing less than 200 cu. yds. It would not 
be practicable to use a tower, especially a tower of euch size. 

There will be no difference in the coat of concreting as between 
wooden and steel towers, as their operation ia practically the 
aame. The dilTerence in first cost is the main conai deration and 
for towers 75 ft. high this is about $400. The wooden tower can 
not, however, be expected to maintain its rigidity for more than 
a half dozen joba and there ia no doubt that if a permanent 
tower ia deaired, a ateel tower will be more economical than a 
■wooden tower after five or aix joba have been built. ThiH ia very 
well illuatrated by ctHuparing the 'oost of setting up. Resuming 
that the cost of the erection of the wooden tower is S200 and 
the cost of erecting the steel tower ie $100, we have added $S0O 
to the original cost of the wooden tower by the time it has been 
erected for, its fifth job. The money inveated in it then ia S600 + 
^00 or $1,400. By the time the ateel tower is erected for its 
fifth job the money invested in it is $1,000 -)- $400 or $1,400, an 
equal amount to that inveated in a wooden tower. The wooden 
tower may stiU be in fair condition but it is reasonable to believe 
that the steel tower will remain in good condition for a 'much 
longer time and it will coat only about half as much to erect. 
We may assume, therefore, that a portable wooden tower ia 
economical for jobs above 1,000 cii. yda. and until it has been 
erected five times, and that a portable steel tower would be more 
economical if itg uae is contemplated for more than live jobs. - 
The first towers used for hoisting concrete were naturally of 
wood and were located entirely within an area to which chutes 
could be run in all directions. Later, auxiliary towera were used 
in connection with very high main towers to carry' concrete to a 
conaiderable distance, thia diatance always being controlled by the 
angle of the chute (about 23° to 30°), and the height of the main 
tower. The ateel tower was primarily auhatituted for the wood 
tower to provide a permanent " knock down " structure which 


(-ould b« uaed over and over. Its rigidity as compared with the 
wooden tower has finally led to the portable feature. This feature 
makes the steel tower more economical than wooden towers as 
auxiliary towers and alao makes the steel tower more economical 


Pig. 88. View of Concreting Tower. 

than a fixed wooden main tower under the conditions illustrated 
in Fig. 186, which pictures the construction of a thirty-stall 
concrete roundhouse for the Lake Shore A Michigan Southern 
Railway, and is described in Engineering and CrmtTOcting, August 
2, 1012. Here, it was at first planned to build three wood towers 


for the construction of this roundbouM, which u 405 ft. in 
uneter. These were eetimated to coit at l«BBt $2,200, as against 
$1,000 for a single steel tower, which could be moved fiom place 
to place. 

Other towers built for tbis purpose will no doubt be improved, 
as the experience with tbis one baa shown to be advisalile. 
swivel post should be placed at tbe top to fasten the guys, : 
that the tower ma; be turned around more easily, and probablf 
some sort of truck placed underneath would facilitate the shifting 
of the tower. 

Figure S8 shows the construction of the tower which is 72 
ft. high. The steel work is carried on wooden skids whicb lie 
across two railway rails forming a truck. On the bottoms of the 
skids, where tbe; rest on the rails, are steel plate shoes which 
are fitted with clamp butts for anchoring tbe tower to the rails. 
The tower is also guyed, tbe guys running through blocks at the i 

Referring to Fig. 88, it will be seen that attached U> the tower 
is a main spout 60 ft. long consisting of a U-shaped trough 
10 in. across at the top and 10 in. deep, nude of galvanized 
sheet iron. Tbis trough is open, except at its lower end, where it ' 
discharges into the 30-ft. swivel pipe leading to tbe forms. The 
concrete can be spouted 96 ft. with this arrangement of 110 ft. 
with an extension pipe, which is kept at hand. This trough is 
supported by a light steel truss, which is shown in the photo- 
graph. A special feature is the support of this spout and truss 
by a 40-ft. boom which is ri^ed from the top of the tower and 
held in place by a steel cable running to a winch placed at the 
foot of tbe tower. The construction of the trough on top of the 
truss is such that tbe wearing parts may be easily removed and 
replaced without disturbing the truss itself. 

Comparative Coit of Wood and Steel Tawen. The following 
notes appeared in Engineering and Contracting, Jan. 24, 1012. 
During tbe construction of a reinforced concrete building in 
Chicago the contractors used two hoisting towers, one of wbii.'h 
was the ordinary wood tower and tbe other a steel tower made of 
light structural shapes. The towers were operated under the 
same conditions and the comparative cost of the towers for the 
work was in favor of the steel tower, although the whole cost of 
the tower was charged against the first job. 

The coat of the tower given by the contractor follows: 

Lumber UTB 

TitmiBg EO 

Ermlins WO 

DiunaMUnc lOg 

Tottl t«i 


The cost of the Bteel tower wai as foUoWH: 

TOwec tU5 

Erection 40 

Diemsnlling 40 

Total f545 

Thia is a saving of about 5% id favor of the ateel tower on 
the iirst job. - If the cost of the tower were charged off on the 

first joh, then on the eeeond job the cost would evidently be only 
$90, or a saving of about 85%. Thia U probably a somewhat 
! estimate as some minor Items would no doubt ent«r in, 


but in the long run it is quite erident that the atfiel t«wer would 
be more economical than towers built af wood. 

The steel tower is built in 12-ft. secliona, ia of structural shapes 
throiuihout and is supported by g\iy» entirely independent of the 
building. Thi4 it an advantage because the tower can be oon- 
Btrueted to full height before the building is erected. The weijfht 
of the tower is about flO lb. per lineal foot, so that it id not 
necessary to dismantle the bottom section, which oan be easily 
handlf^ Uy three men and set up and leveled ready for the erection 
of the other seetions. These can be erected piece by piece in 
place or the sections can he set up on the ground and hoisted 
to place by a derrick. Thrpe men can erept three aectiona a day. 

The tower is designed primarily bh a hoist for an automatic 
dumping ronc:rete bucket, and this bucket and a hopper is pro- 
vided. The hopper ean be set at various points on the tower for 
distributing the conrrete by gravity. 



OF 38,000 CU. TD. OF WORE.* 

The accompanying photograph (Fig. 00) illustrates a portable' 
concrete mixing and conveying plant which was used by the Great 
Lakes Dredge & Docks Co on foundation work for a blant fur- 
nace plant near Chiraso. The concrete plant is Imilt on a plat- 
form 20 ft. square which is mounted on rollers. On (he platform 
a 75 hp. hori7ontn1 boiler is mounted wliicli furnishes eteam for 
the operation of the Rsnsome mi\er and Lidgerwood hoist. The 
l-yd. miver in placpil near the rear of the platform and a hopper 
bin is erected above it, which has a capacity of 10 co. yd. of 
stone and 5 cu. yd. of sand. The bins were filli'd from ears on 
a parallel track, by means of a locomotive crane and clamshell , 
bucket. Storage is provided for 500 liagi of cement on the ; 
platform at one side of the mi>;er. The material from the storapv i 
bins i» dumped into a l-yd. butch hopper. From the mixer the 
concrete is delivered to a Ransnme tower bucket whifh ia raiieil 
7.) ft. and delivered into the <'Inite. The chute consists of a 13- 
in. galvanized pipe, supported by two 80-ft. booms. From the 
ends of the liooms lines run to equidistant points on the chute 
thus supporting it uniformly and keeping it in a straight line. ; 
The booms are swung horizontally over the work by hand. The 

* Dnta lak»n from s tabic appenacd to paper by Viftor WindcM. pri- 
Bcntrd to ^VE»IPrn Society of EnelncRi's on ^une 1, ISll, published in Bigi- 
niering and OtiUraetinB July E. 1911. 


lower 60 ft. of pipe is made in movahlo Ipngtiis of 8 ft. The 
plant itnelf is pulled aloD^; on its rollers by attaching a line 
to a deadtUBD and taking it in on the hoist. 

The cont^rete work consisted of foundations for power house 
and blast furnace buildines. The work was started in 1010 and 
continued through the winter and spring of IBll. 

The work on the Waat furnace building was massive concrete 
work, the blast furnare foundations conHiiitin!; of concrete slabs 
. 50 X 70 ft. square, and having a firebrick rare averaging 23 ft. 
in diameter. There were IO,)>OS) cu. ;d. of concrete placed at a 
complete labor cost as given below ; 

8q. ft. tonim per ou. yd 7.57 

Sq. It. footing *iiKHe (do lariuil 8.54 

ToUl dun irork 110 

Actual concreting tiiiui, days S8 

Iiiilar dHviiof 9 honni B,020 

Oonireto pliiivd prr day ot Roni-rptinK dHjg (jd.' 
OonrT«te plfl^'^ pf^r day of total timfi (yd.) -.,. 

Total coal per 

per ca. yd. per day per nun 1 0.4fi 


The iTork on the hot blaat etove and boiler foundations was 

} work, including 10,064 en. yds. of concrete placed during 
r at the following cost: 

Sq. tt. form BurfiCB, per ou. yd ».74 

8ii. ft. Burlace without forms, pec ea. yd 16.1 

TDt»l days wort 79 

Total d»y« concrelins B7 

TdtHl labor dava of » taoon . 3,977 

Concrete per day at total time (yd) 128 

Concrefe pUcnl per day of concreting time (yd.) 1^ 

Oo«l per cu yd. per man, per d*y I 0.40 

Total labor com per yd t 1.2* 

This wort was done in the winter. The power house founda- 
tloDB consisting of light piers, floors and flome massive piers, 
Including in all eome 3,733 tn, yd., were placed as follows: 

surface witboul forma, per c 


crclo per day of concreting 

The casting machine building foundation!) were built in the 
Bprini;. The»e consisted of light piers and walls amounting in all 
to 1,225 en. yd. This concrete contained no reinforcement. 

I. farm surface per yd. . • ■ < 

Total dsfs work 

TMsl d«78 macTtting 

Totsl labor days of 9 hours 

Total cost per en, yd ( 2^1 

The work on the wharf conaieted of 3,344 eu. yd. of concrete 
in maseive work. Two rows of piles were capped with concrete 
formin); a base for. the wallti Hupporling the rails of thC unload- 
ing crane. This work was done in the winter and early spring. 
The data on the work arc aa followe: 

Sq, (I. form surface per cu. yd 6.1 

8q. ft. surface withont forms, per cu. yd 

Total dwB vorkcd Z* 

Tola] days concreting iff 

Tolal labor days 1.290 

Yd. ofconcrele p*r day oE (oial limo 139 

Yd. of concrete per day of concretinc Ume 1«T.E 

Coat per yd. per day per man t 0.39 

Tola! cost per yd t - l.!l 

The conetruclion of the piera for the steel trestle consisted 
of moderately heavy work amounting in all to 6,Q71 cu. yd of 
concrete. The work wae done in the winter and the chuting 
Bjatem wae not used. Instead the concrete was delivered in 
hand pushed Koppel cars of 1 cu. yd. capacity. 

Sq. ft. form surface per cu. yd S.fiS 

Sn. ft. Hurface without forms, |ier cu. yd 14.7 

Total days worked , 70 

Total daya concreting 112 

'niial Isbor days 3,900 

Yd. CDDCrele per day of tolal time 100 

Td. of concrete per day of concreting time 113 

Cost per yd. per day per man t 58 

Total coat per cu, yd t 1-74 

The general averages and totals taken from the above data 
urnish the following': 

Total yd, concrete plaecd M.Ut 

Sq. ft, forms per cu. yd, . 

Sq. (t. conorete surface withont form> (pel 

Total day. . 

Total days concreting , 
Total tabor days of 9 hi 
Yd, concrete placed pel 

A : 

Included in the above tabor coats is the placing of 500,000 
lb. of steel reinforcement, or about 14 lb. per cu. yd, of concrete. 


and the labor for erecting and diflinantling the plant for handling 
the concrete. The rute of wagea jiajd averages $0,344 per man 
per hour inclmling tlve entire force employed. 

Qravlty Concrete Plant Carried on a Barge. A gravitj plant 
mounted on a 38 hy 120 ft. barge confuting of a steel tower 104 
ft. high, roller hucket of 34 cu. ft. eapacity, hopper capacity 54 
cu. ft , boom chute of SO ft. and counterweight chute SO tt. long 
was used in thn construction of revetment on the banks of the 
Miatjisaippi River. The plant ie atated to have placed 182 squares 
of pavement on ita first day of operation. 



Adjustable attel aidewHlk and curb forma are extensively uwd 
ind where the amount of work Is large, their extra cost U justi- 

Side Rails (Rigid) 
ID ft. lengths 

Rails aboTter than 10 ft. used in " ending up " work e 
he had in lengths of from 2 to S ft. 

Fig. 92, Use of the O-iuoh Hadius Curve. 


Flexible rails are to be had in the aame lengths and heights u 
the Bide rails at about 50% higher prices. 

Radius rails ma; be had ia the same lengths and heights 
as the side rails at a price of about 100^ higher for the smaller 
heights and 60% ^igber at the greater lieights. 

Flexible and radius rails are usually furnished in sets; that 
is, one for the inside and one for the outside curve. Separate 
inside or outside rails can be furnished when required. 

Sidewalk Division Plates 

wdewilk 4" depth G" depth 6~ depth 

CouBiNED Curb and Gutteb Dividino Plateb 

Height Thlckriees Width 

CUBB DiviDiNo Platib 

It Thickneu 

Steel Faoe Rails used with rigid aide rails to form the front 
fat* of a gutter cost as follows; 

1 in. hlBh by 10 ft. long M.IO 

B in. hich by 10 ft. ionj *,30 

8 in. high by 10 It, long 4.60 

7 in. hijh by lOlt. long 6.00 

S in. high by 10 ft. long E.40 

Steel Bpaeen need in curb construction for suspending the in- 
side rail, and to space that rail the proper distance from tlie 
outside roil fost 2S cents each. 

Battered Rtgld Side Rails 10 ft. long cost $7.40 for the lO^-in. 
height and $8.10 for the 12i^-in. height. 

Beveled Zdge Rigid Steel Side Rails 10 ft. long cost $S.30 for 
the S-in. height and $8.70 for the 6-in. height. 

Bteel Sidewalk Radlui Coineit to attach to the rigid eide rails 
$1.40 each for the 4, 6 and 6-in. height b^ 18 or 24'in. radius. 

Steel atokei cost as follows: 

18 in. tang JO.lg 

a* IB. long S* 

27 in. long 26 

30 in. long SI 

3« in. long 30 

42 in. long « 

For longer stakes add 8 cents for each additional 3 in. of length. 

Stake Clanps cost 14 cents each. 

Steel Road Rails especiall; designed for use with concrete 
road finishing machines are furnished in ail heights. The stan- 
dard length is 10 ft. The prices f. o. b. factory are as follows; 

4 in. bigh (5,40 

6 In, high 8,10 

Steel Strike Off weighs approximately 8 Ih, per ft. and costs 
tB follows, f .0. b. factory. 


Steel Bnlfeheadi for Concreto Koedt, fitted with angles toi 
facilitate handling, are priced as follows: 

U ft. ro«d W7,M 

18 ft. ro,id 3I.Be 

IS a. rood 34.M 

a) It. roHd -.- 38.50 

The-ie bulkheads may be had in any size and type at special 

Steel mvUlon Plates for Concrete Boads, made of %-in. steel 
plate to conform with, the crown of the road are priced ae fol-! 

14 It. road jaCOO 

Ifi It. rond 25.W 

18 ft. rosd jr 00 

20 ft. road 29J» 

All the. fnrpnoijij: prices are f, o., b. faitory. 

Cement Workers Tools. Tlic folluwln? are net prices at rbiea<;o 
for tools uted in constructing and 6ni»hing .cemeat sidewalks. 
The prices are for iron nitkel plated tools. 

■ JOINTE* ^ - 

2% in. wide, 8 In. lone, *ach .--.,. , -/?;..•,■■■■ .Wt5S 

Narbow Jointf^ 1 .. 

1?4 tn. wide. 8 in. long, % in. biade, each .'.-..rjO-ffT ' 

1% in. wide, 8 in. long, M, in. blade, each XJ 

Straiobt End Jointer 

3 in. wide, ti in. long, ^ in. deep, each fD.GT , 

Narkow Straiout .Iointek 

VH in. wide. S in. long. % in. biadr, each !.... 10.67 I 

15 in. wide, 8 in. long, S in. blade, eseli .;.;.;. ja I 

Driveway Groover 
The following are net prices for driveway groovers, 3 in. wide 
and 9 in. long: 

Orooier, % in. deep, each W-K 

Ornover, half round, earh M 

A 6-in, Vgrooier, % in. widii, W in. deep, costs E2 el. *aph. 

. , , Stb.vight., E.\D Gboqveb 

$-ia. V-grooTer, % in. wide, U in. deep, eaoh .- tO.ET 

The net prices of edgers, % in., 2% in. and 6 in. long, are 
follows : 

Concrete sidewalk and curb forms i 

in. turned edger, »Mh ;0.5S 

iD. torned edger. 10 in. long, each 1.35 

8 in. lone, Hi in. wide, eHcb lO.CT 

e in. long, IH in. vide, with lulde 5S 

A reversible handle edger, right or left, 1 in. turned edge, % ii 
radiuB, 3 in. wide and in. long, cotttn S7 ct. 

ClBCLE Edcebs 

A square edger 3 in. wide, 6 in. long, both edges Toundwi, 
with H^-in. cutting edge, coats 83 ct. Bevel edgers, 2% in, wide, 
6 in. long, with either %-in. bevel or %-in. bevel, can be bought 
at 57 ot. each. Corner tools, one end etraiglit, the other cniring 
back, 6 in. long, !V> in. wide, «l*o cont 9T ct, each. Curbing 
pdjrers with 2 in. turned back with rndius of \% in., 314 in. wide, 
814 in., long, cost $1,20 each. Rai^4ed (tuck), pointers, y^, 14, 
^B. % or M-ia. Bize. eoKt 50 ct. each. 

Long handled finiishing tools coft as follows: 

Trowel with one long adjustahie handle, one short handle, one ' 
wrench; price 15 in., $iJO; 24 in., $0.00, Jointer, with one long 
bandle, one. sbert handle, one wrench; pric«, $4.50. lUger, same 
equipment, $4.50. Six-ft. compasses, $3.85..' 

Long; Handled Sidewalk Tools .with patented double action 
device cost as follows: 

Finiiiiine UawBl, 24 in. lone, E in. vide VIM 

Float, 21 in. long, 8 in. widB , 7«t 

Divided float. 16 In. long, 6 in. wide 7.50 

Jointer. 16 in. lone, 5 in. ¥-idP ...: ; 7.00 

Floor header, 10 in. lonz. 3H in.-wido ,. 4,» 

Edfer, Id to. long. *% fa. wide *,75 

Long huidlPd BidewaUi mirlcei. iteet hMde, 1 (1. Undle. tbst will cnt 

itrouBli 5 in. of foncrrlo ctwt (I.K. ' 
Opdi.nt tomiK, S in. squnre.wilh 4 it. baudle ooat tl.60. 10 in. aquBie, %2. 

Sl«■^FWH-AIrtB^■»n^■■to^e(■d ateel Blade WTn. long, Tin. wideVcMts W. 
Midewnlk roll-ra with line patlerna, 6 ft. handle, 7 la 12 in. long, icon, ooal 
„ t3.7j. Dot. iwltprn, M.25. 

Steel mortar b"n hnvine an amnio cap » city tor H pu. yd, wplghn approil- 
iBatelr iOa lb. for ahlpment and ia priced at fll f. 0. b. factor;. 



Belt Ctmvejm* were first used in 186S and since thAt date have 
attained great popularity as a means of conveying all sorte of 
eolid mat^rialx. Tbe great advantages of belt conveyors are the 
Bmall horsepower required to drive tbem, their noiseless operation 
and large capacity. 

PoTei Kcqnired. In a concrete nii:cing plant in New York Citj 
a belt eonvejror 24 inches wide, traveling at a speed of 400 feet 

Fig. 94. Diagram Showing Power to Operate Belt Conveyors. 

per minute, and carrying the concrete from the mi-ier to the 
forms, required but I horsepower to drive it. The belt which 
carried the materials to the mixer was 20 inches wide, 228 feet 
long and had a rise of 34 feet. It traveled at & speed of 360 
feet per minute and required but 6 horsepower to drive it with 
its load of 100 tons per hour. In the Transvaal a belt with a 

COin'EYOES 187 

horizontal carry of 200 fe«t and a verticH.) lift of 43^ feet, con- 
veying 71.4 tons per hour, required 8.1 horHepower to drive it. 
A belt with a horizontal carry of 600 feet and a vertica) lift of 
i-)'^ feet required 8.6 horsepower to convey 90 tons per hour, and 
2.9 horaepower to drive the unloaded belt. 

The capacity of belt conveyors is shown in two diugramB 
(Figa. 94 and 06), published by Mr. R. W Dull in the Chemical 
Engineer, August, 1009. These are based on good feeding con- 
ditionB and variations as great as 50% are iikely. Some of the 
curves are stopped off at certain sized belts, as with large pieces 

Mai[nium CapaiHy, 1bni ptr Hour 
_o ooooSoSoSoooooO 

Pig. 95. Diagram Showing Capacity of Belt Conveyors. 

It is not advisable to use a conveyor any narrower, regardless of 
^hat capacity is required. It is advantageous to install a feeding 
device of some hind if the feed is irregular. Materials should 
^ delivered to the belt in the direction of motion of the belt and 
"ith aa near the same velocity as possible. 

Wear. Small belts of stitched canvas or woven cotton are 
o'ten used and are usually well oiled. For large, permanent con- 
''eyora, rubber belts composed on a cotton duck foundation are 
moat satisfactory. Mr. George Frederick Zimmer in Caaaier'K 
^"gazine for August, 1909, gives the following table showing the 
Wear wi different materials aubjected to a uniform sand blast 
for 45 minutes: 


- Rabbet belt 1-0 

EoLed Bleel 1-S 

Oa« Iron : '. 8^ 

BbUM belt, includinc kbdi aovtt G.O 

Woven cotton belt, higfi grade fi^ 

Btifched duck, high pile S.O 

Woven cotton belt, low grade D.O 

The rubber covering performa two officeH, that of reaiating wear 
and that ot preventing moisture froqi reaching the body of the 

The ItnmbSf of Flies ITecessary is given hf Mr. C. K. Baldwin. 
Belts 12 to 14 inches wide, not leas than S-ply; 16 to 20 inchCR 
wide, not less thafl i-ply; 82 to 28 inches, not less than 5-ply, and 
30 to 36 inches, npt less than 6-ply. The tension on a belt must 
not be more than 20 to 25 lb. per inch per ply and a. good belt 
should have a breaking atrain of 400 lb. per inch peT pTy. 

Belts are usually troughed because thia increases the pafpacity. 
A sufficient number of idlara should be provided, as this lessens 
the chance of damage. Idlers should be kept well Inbrfcated with 
a viscous lubricant as oil is liable to spiH (Hi the belt. The 
best method of joining belts is with a butt-joint held together 
hy [damps. 

(Josti. For eontf act ■ purposes the belt conveyor is generally 
mounted on a more or leas elaborate wooden framework, housed 
or otJterwise, the cost of which must be estimated in accordance 
with the special conditions and design ot the outfit. The belt 
conveying apparatus proper consists of a driving mechanism, 
which is often belted or somethnes directly connected to electric 
mcAors; the idlers and belts; and the troughing rollers. 

Xhe following notes on the costs of^ belt conveyors are taken 
from " Mechanical and Electrical Coat Data," by Qilletle and 

In talcing up the: cost of belt conveyors, the. questions of deterio- 
ration and amortization must be duly considered. In the handling 
of certain materials, fighter and cheaper belts — and the belt is 
the most eaLpesBivE item entering into the equippient of,, a belt 
conveyor — may sometimes be recommended than that required for 
more severe service; but ordinarily the best grade of belt is none 
too good, no matter what so^pvice it may be subjected to. The 
IttTge capacity of ithe equipment makes the question of initial cost 
of secondary importance. The genersl formula given in Fig. 96 
and the coats graphically depicted thereon are those for the aver 
age high grade belt conveyor with suitable rubber belting and 
wdl dieaigned grease lubricated idlers. The coat of the belt is in- 
cluded in the first term of the second member of the formula, so 


that the cost of the conveyor with a cheaper belt U readily ob- 
tainable from the same formula simpl; by reducing the coefficient 
of the length by the difference of the coet of two ft. of high grade 
rubber belting with that of two ft. of the cheaper belt. Couveyora 
equipped nith ball bearing idler, etc., eoat about 5% more than 
the figures indicated by Fig. 90, but this difference in coet is 
frequently offset on shipments to distant points by the decrease 
in freight rates, ball bearing idlers weighing lees than grease or 
oil lubricated idlers. 

An arbitrary charge which covers most simple installations of 
belt conveyors of ordinary length is about 1.5 cents per hour 
per inch width of conveyor for Installations with grease lubri- 
cated idlers, or a charge of 1 ct. per in. width for CMiv^ors 
equipped with ball-bearing idlers. 

s'Z I 

I": i 

5 », > 

Fig, 98. Average Coat of Standard Troughed Rubber Belt Con- 
veyors with Grease Lubrication. 

The eicpenee entailed for grease or oil and the other incidental 
supplies required to keep the equipment in good operating condi- 
tions is, in a conveyor in frequent use, very nearly directly pro- 
portional to the hp. consumed in operating the conveyor, and 
averages about 0.Q26 ct. per hr. per hp. Of this charge about 
0.5 ct. per hr, is the cost of the grease required, so that the fwer- 
age BUj^lies charge for roller -hearing conveyors is hut about 0.125 
ct. per hr, per hp. consumed. 

Deterioration and amortization of belt conveyors constitute an 
exceedingly complicated subject anii one that here must, perforce, 
be treated in a very general manner. Depreciation is due not only 
to wear but to constant and quit« apparent continuouH deteriora- 
tion of the belts, whether they are in use or not, so that the de- 
preciation charge is little affected bj careful use, provided, of 
course, that the equipment is operated a reasonable amount of the 
time. This deterioration is largely due to the hardening of the 
rubber cover and the loss of resiliency, and is more apt to be ac- 


centuated hy idleness than by sane and careful use. The rest 
of the mecbaniBm is not more greatly affected than other mechan- 
ical equipment, if well eared tor and not abused. Ordinarily ti 
depreciation charge of about 25% on the belt and about 10% on 
the balance of the equipment covers all reasonable wear and tear: 
the general formula on Fig. 07 is baM>c1 on such apportionment. 
The curves shown are plotted from data compiled in a more in 
tricate and Exacting manner, but the diserepaney between the 
results obtained from the general formula and the readings de- 
rived from the chart is ao slight that dependence may be placed . 
on either the figure readings or the formula. For conveyors 
with roller-bearing idlers the depreciation charge is reduced 
about 10-?^. 

Fig. 97. Annual Depreciation of Standard Belt Conveyors, 

Belt conveyor installations are, of course, subject to the usual 
burden of fixed charges, consisting of interest on investment, 
insurance, and taxes. These ordinarily amount to about 8.5% of 
the initial cost per year {<l% interest, 1% insurance and 2% of 
three quarters of the value of the property for taites). 

Kote. At speed of 300 ft. per minute a 12-in. belt should not 
carry material more than Vj-in, in diameter: 8-in. belt, matf 
not more than IVj-in. in diameter; 24-in. belt, not larger than 
3-in.; 30-in. belt, not larger than 4-in.: 3C-in. belt, not larger 
than fl-iu. in diameter. 

When speeds up to 600 ft. per minute are used material larire 
than 2-in. size is not likely to stay upon the large belts and for 
mnlerial I-in. and larger a belt no smaller than 18-in. should be 

Economic SpeedB of Conreyori for Tarlons Hateriala. The 
following tables appeared in l«du»trial Management, Nov., 1916, 
in an article by Mr. R. Trautathold. 

EcosoMio SPEEse OF BEa-T CoNvmoBg fob Vabioub Maiebialb 



e (GMTU) .. 

Sand »nd grneX 110 316 

Fina cosl 50 *00 

Economic Speeds fob Dl'cket Costeyobs fob Vabivub Materials 


Crnslied 9 
Sand snd 

The following notes on bolt conveyorB for concreting material 
appeared in Engineering ^'euw, Nov. 26, 1914, 

Belt conveyors have been installed at BandaH's and Ward's 
Ifllanda, New. York City, for handling concrete matpHal from 
BC0W8 to storafte piles, in the construction of the Hell Gate Brldse, 
oroBHing the East River. The belt at Ward's Island is 380 ft. 
long by 24 in. wide and inclined at 21°. At Kandall'a Island a 
20-in. belt is used. 

The receiving dock for materials at Ward's Island is double- 
decked. The loose materials are unloaded from the scow into a 
common hopper on the upper deck of the dock, by a derrick 
equipped with a grab bucket, located on the dock. The belt is fed 
by a chute from the hopper. The bags of cement are lifted from 
tfae scow in 9-bag sHngs, by means of a gasoline hoist on the 
scow. Four men, working two snd two, unfasten the alings and 
place the individual bags on the belt. As many as 1600 bags 
per hour have been handled in this manner without confusion. 

The sand and stone or gravel are lifted by the belt, above 
storage piles, where thoy are dropped by a tripper. From the 
piles they are later rphandled into car:! fur diKtrihuting to differ- 
ent parts of the work. Coal for the dinkey engines is conveyed 
by the belt in tlie same manner. The bags of cement are dis- 
charged from the belt on a table in a storage house, where they 


The number of men employed on tJiis work at Ward's Island U 
as follows: A gaBoline-lioiat operator on the scow; a man to 
direct the sling; three to make up the slings; four to place tht 
bags on the belt ; one to operate the tripper, and 12 to 15 men 
in the cement-storage room. 

At Bandaira Island the scheme of handling ia eascntiallj' the 
same, but instead of having a eeparate hoist for the cement, the 

Fig. 98. Belt Couveyot 

one derrick on the dock unlnada all materials. To handle cement 
out of the »cow, the grab bucket is lowered into the scow and 
ahoat 12 bags placed ia it and lifted to the dork. At this plant, 
abra, a second belt, 18 in. wide, runs from the storage piles to 

Mr, Edwin IT. Mcssiter says that for ordinary mine run ore 
the largest lumps of which do not contain over I cubic foot, a 
30-in. conveyor is auilable. Siies of lumps which may be carried 
by the Bcveral sizes of tonveyors are: 

Lamps OmmyoT 

a Id. 30 in. 

6ia^ 30 In! 

■ Lost colamu is CBpscltj- (or on weiehing 100 lb. per cu. tl. st a bphiI 
I 400 ft. per minote. 

Speeds up to 400 ft. per mmute may be used and 700 ft. in 

Inclination should be limited to 20° from horizontal, but 20° 

lay be used with steady feed and fine material. Life of belts 
aries with tnnnage. If correctly designed and made of proper 
lateriala on large conveyors, belt renewals will approximate 0.1c. 
I'r ton of ore. Cost ia greater on small conveyors than on large 
nes. Horwpower required will average alwut O.OHfil 3 hn'-'^e- 
io«-cr per ton per foot of Loriiontal dintanee carried, plus 0.001 
oraepower ton per foot of height elevated. 

Fig. 00. Movable Tripper. 

Belt conveyor equipment of one make costs as foUowa: 
Aatomatlo Tripper. Thcae trippers are desijnied to distribute 

naterial carried by belt conveyors on long piles or large J^ins. 
[Tiey travel on a track between two pointa, automatically re- 
umint; and diacharging tbeir loads continuously. They can be 
regulated as to diiirharge at one point. The following gives 
he appro^Limate prices of these trippers without chutes: 

iVLdlhotbeU Width of belt 

inches Prioe inchei Price 


Hand Ftopelled Trlppen discharge materiala at fixed points 
to which they arc moved aloog a track by hand. They cost at 
follows without chute; 

Width of belt 

TronehitlS Idleri and return idlers with side cUmp boxes 
wood Htringers cost alxiut as follows: 

Fig. 100. Troiighing and Return Idlers. 

Flight Conreyon. The following is takm from " Mechanical and 
Electrical Cost Data." When great quantities of material which 
is not liable to damage by direct contact with the propelling flights 
have to be handled at a rapid rate in a limited space, when Iht 
cost of power is not a governing condition and the initial invest 
ment is a seriuus consideration, Ai^ht conveyorii are frequently 
resorted to. Their capacity is great owing to the compact IobiI 
per foot, notwithstanding the comparatively low speeds at which 
they have to be run. 

As in the case of belt conveyors, the economic sptieds for various 
materials vary conDideral>ly, and the economic value of a flighi 
conveyor depends upon its operation at the highest speed suii^abli 
for the load. Good practice is listed in Table II. 

u 1 > 1 1 1 j 1 

?:; ^. '^■^'^^ // 

1 „ '■'•^%%'r'^"*" / / 

k " i*'^ 

5 ' A.'^y^ 

£ " fJ^^* 

* ^'^\ 

&" "4^ 

* ' ^ y 1 

"^ > 

/ 1 






2? "[3; - ^^ 

± = -± 

Fig. 101. Horsepower liequircmenlB of Flight Conveyors. 

A general formula for calculating the power requirements of 
flight conveyors with double etranda of chain, the usual typo 
found in the manufacturing plant, and a graphic preaentation of 
calculated resulte are given in Fig. 101. The reduction in power 
coniiumptiuD carried Ijy equipping the flighls wilh rollers or 
wheels is not as great as is generally claimed, for the main con- 
sumption of power in any flight conveyor is in dragging along 


the load, the power consumed in dragging forward the chains and 
flights being appreciably secondary. Sliding-nhoe flight conveyors, 
when fully loaded, consume but about 10% more power than 
similar flight conveyors in which the fliTlits are mounted on 
rollers. Equipping the flights with rollers adds to their coat 
to some extent, but reduces the rate of depreciation, and ia in 
reality an economic gain. 

The depreciation of flight conveyors is naturally rapid, for 
the load exerts a very destructive scouring or abrasion on both 
the flights and the trough. This deterioration is naturally much 
more pronounced when handling certain materials than it is when 
less destructive materials are dragged through the trough. The 
deterioration due to the handling of certain materials is bo very 
much more marked, Jn fact, that the character of the load must 
be taken into consideration in any reliable investigation o( the 

Fig. 102. Depreciation Factors for Standard Flight Conveyors. 

average depreciation charge. Arbitrarily assuming a convenient 
basis of compartBOD, an average depreciation factor is arrived at 
in the general formula on Fig. 102, which, when multiplied by the 
" depreciation factor coefficient " given on the same chart, gives the 
average annual depreciation in dollars. The depreciation amounts 
to about the same in similar conveyors whether they are equipped 
with sliding-shoe flights or with roller flights, although the rate of 
depreciation Is slightly less for the more efficient type. 

Flight conveyor's are usually shorter than belt conveyors, and in 
addition they require more attention in the way of opening gates, 
etc., 80 that the labor charge per ft. of conveyor is higher than in 
the cane of belt conveyori, and averages between 2 and 3 ct. per 
in. width of convpyor. It is not correnpondingly higher per ton- 
nage handled, however, because of the large capacity of a flight 
conveyor of the same width and length of flight. 
- The charge for incidental supplies, as in the case of belt con- 


v^ors, is nlmoet directly pToportional to the power requirementa; 
Mid OB a number of iacidental repaira can logically be charged to 
the same eicpense, safe figures for this it«m are 2 ct. per hr. per 
hp. for conveyors with Bliding-shoe flights and about 10% lesB, 
or l.S ct. per hr. per hp. couBumed, for conveyors in which the 
flights are furnished with rollers. The incidental repairs on the 
latter tjpe of coQTeyor, chargeable to the item of " supplies," are 
lesB costly than those on flights with sliding shoes, but the 
lubrication charge is higher, so that the saving of the more 
^tGcient construction is only about 10%. 

The burden of interest on investment, insurance, and tases is 
proportionally no higher than in the ease of other conveying 
equipment and on the average amounts to about S^% per year 
of the initial cost of the installation, in addition to which there 
is usually an annual renewal charge of about 20%, which is in 
esceas of the depreciation usual to other conveyors. 

Belt Elevator. The life of belts of the same grade varies widely 
between limits according to tonnage carried, the length of belts, 
and the economic layout of the whole arrangement. On large 
belts of course the cost for repairs per unit of material delivered 
will be considerably smaller than on small belts. For special 
work, such as crusher plants and outHts of similar kind, the 
operation is almost automatic and with the exception of renew- 
als which can be made rapidly there is practically no interrup- 
tion to continuous service. 

At the Union Stock Yards in Chicago a belt carrier with 24-in. 
x24in. buckets and a vertical lift of 58 feet with a 38-ft. hori- 
zontal run bad been in operation about five years handling an 
average of 2,500 tons of coal per week, with no cost for repairs, 
and in 1908 was not likely to need repairs for another five years. 

In Pittston, Pa., operating on a 35° incline and conveying coal 
355 feet with 48-in. wide buckets, a belt carrier installed in 1902 
handled 130,000 tons a month and after four years was in excel- 
lent condition. Cost of repairs av«raged: material, .04c per ton 
handled; labor, .06c per ton handled, these repairs being the re- 
newal of the carrier rollers and the driving pinion of the head 

The illustration (Fig. 103) shows a twenty-four inch conveyor 
one hundred feet long supplied Charles F. McCabe of the Robins 
Conveying Belt Co., for removing 10,000 cubic yards of earth 
and rock at ISlst street and Jerome avenue, New York. The 
picture shows the very disadvantageous circumstances under 
which such a. belt conveyor will work to advantage. Earth 
was shoveled on to the conveyor by hand and was discharged 
from the head end to wagons. Pieces larger than a man's head 


were frequently placed on the conveyor, and were carried suc- 
cessfully, although it ran at timeR at an upward inclination of 
over 23 degrees. A Mundy engine, located in a pit beneath the 
tail end, drove the conveyor. 

In the installation illuetrated and described in the foregoing 
it was impoBsible to support the eonv^or by any other than 
the most crude supports. This fact, however, did not interfere 
with the successful operation of the conveyor, nor did it injure 
the machinery to any appreciable CKlent. The belt itself, when 
the work was completed, showed little signs of wear. 

Fig. 103. 

Figure 104 shows a Robins Belt Conveyor used by Ryan & 
Parker in excavating for the foundation of the power house of 
the New York Gas and EHeetric Light, Heat and Power Co. The 
earth was delivered to the conveyor from wheel scrapers through 
bridges, and the excavating was done by practically the same 
means, employed more recently by F. M. Stillman & Co., for their 
work at East 12th street, New York. The conveyor was driven 
at its head end by a small horizontal engine, very little power 
being required. It was subjected to the roughest kind of usage; 
rocks weighing over 100 pounds were constantly dumped upon 
it, but never caused a moment's stoppage during the entire 
work. The width of the belt was 30 inthes, and the actual 
quantity removed exceeded 1,200 cubic yards per day. The 


work was all done during very cold weather, in December and 

A Steel Incline and Tipple is often uapd to convpj earth from 
ft steam shovel to the top of a hij>h bank where it Is dumped. 
Such a machine is illustrated in Figs. lO.I, 106. The steel truss of 
the incline weiglis S,500 lb., and the tntal load of boilers, with- 
out ears, etc., is 100 tons. The engines are Il-in. x 18-in., double 

e\ linders, and their cost with the boiler was $2,700. The shovel 
cut was 20 ft. wide, 18 ft. deep and the best month's record was 
020 cubic yards per 10-hour shift. The whole machine cost aljoiit 
$4,000, prior to 1912, 

Estimated Cost of Unloading and Storing Coal "with T Bttcket 
EIcTBtor Conveyor. The following not*a by Mr. G. P. Carver 
appeared in the American Wool amd Cotton Reporter, May 20, 

Unloading a car of coal by hand requires about twenty hours 







labor, and with six men it reijuireB from three to four hours, or 
poflsiblj more, depending on tlie c(r[cien<'y of the men. The cost 
to unload and trim coat back from cars by hand ia from $20 to $30 

With the use of a concrete t^a<^k hopper and a V-bticket elevator, 
with supporting frame-work, coal can lie uiilouded from cars bv 
one, or not more than two men at the rate of a car per hour, 
and at a cost of Bl>out $3.00 per ear for power and labor. The 
cost per car char^ctiblc to infeiest on the investment in thi' 
unloading plant and for depreciation in the machinery runs from 
' S4.00 to $^,00 per car, accordinj^ to the yearly tonnage handled, 
making a total cost to unload of $7 00 to $11.00 per car, against 
$20.00 to $.10.00 for hand unloading. 

The total cost of a discharging plant, including a concrete track 
hopper, a V-bucket elevator-conveyor, and supporting structure 
for same, with ehufe to ground storage, will run from $4,000 to 
$10,000, according to its height and the amount of coal to lie 
stored. Tlie cost will also be (governed somewhat by the condi 
tions at the site of the proposed work, such as condition of the 
ground, availability of labor and material, etc. 

As a comparison of the cost to unload and store a ear of coal 
under certain conditions the following table of estimated costs 
is of interest; 

MO 7S00 3.00 4,87 7.87 1B.74 et. 

Portable ConveTors, mounted on wheels and having a self 
contained power unit which may be either a gasoline engine or 
eleetric motor, have many uses. They can load materials from 
storage piles into wagons, or from wagons or trucks to stor^iP 
piles, or in combination with fixed conveyors can build np high 
storage piles. These machines are efficient in that they greatly 
decrease hand shoveHng and also cut down haolasre costs by 
reducing the loading time for trucks. Figures 107 and 108 illus- 
trate two of the u-'t's cjf portable conveyors. 

These conveyors have proved their ability to reduce handling 
costs from 50 to 90%. Single units have replaced from 3 to 
20 men. 



In the service of the Western United Oas A Electric Co. at 
its plant in Joliet, III., twu B-0 portable belt convejors are 
operated in series in loading eoke into railway cari. Tbese 
earn are loaded in from two to four hours, according to sikb 
and type, with lean than half the labor that waM preriously re- 
quired to load them in from 7 to 10 hours. The saving in cost 
is about 50%. This is typical of results secured by nse of am- 
veTore in many places. 

For elevating at angles under 25° a plain Iwlt Is employed. 
For angles of 30° to 35° a belt e<|iiipped with steel flights is 
provided to prevent the material slipping down the (trade For 
chemicals that will corrode metal conveyors of similar design 
are provided with wooden frames. 

Fig. 107. Sketch Showing How Conveyor Is Uaed to T-oad a 
Railroad Car from a Motor Trnek — the Truck Dumping 
Directly into the Hopper End of the Conveyor. 

Fig. 108. Sketch Showing tlie Use of Permanent Conveyor, a 
Clinic and Portable Conveyor for Building Storage Piles Well 
Back from the Bailroad Track. 

Coat Of Loading; Bricks into a Box Car Uiing b Portable Belt 
Conveyor. The following oliservatiOns are by Mr. A. C. Haskell 

in Engineering and Contiacthg, Sept. 15, 1015. The ho.t car was 
on a siding and the bricks were; (a) in piles about .10 ft. away 
and (b) brought in on small Hat cars on an industrial track 
parallel to and about 40 ft from the siding. 
"' I ted on two wheels of about 4 ft. 

by a smalt motor supported on the 
I 20 in. wide, 20 ft. lon^ flnd had * 
The lower end was 1.5 It above the 

diameter, and was dri 
frame work. The belt 
speed of 240 ft. per m 


ground and the uppor end about 2 ft. above the car floor and 
extending about a. foot witliin the car. 

One man stood a^ the foot of the convej'or and received brirka, 
four at a time, passed to him hy two others alternately from 
the piles and placed them on the conveyor. Two men Htanding 
at eilber aide of the belt in the car, took them ofT and patuted 
tliem alternately to two others, at either side, who piled them 
in tlie car. The following time atudy was made when loading from 
the piles: 

On this liaBis in an S hr. day 4I,G00 bricks would be loaded, 
wbieh is between 3 and 4 carloads. Allowing 45 min. for shifting 

the conveyor, etc., the total would be reduced to 37,700. 


or $10.75 -=- 3T.7 = 52.4 ct. per thouxand. 

Therefore to load a car with 12,000 bricks which is about the 
average would cost 3sG.aO. 

A time study waa made when they were unloading the bricks 
from the flat Koppel cars with wheelbarrows and transporting 
them to the conveyor. The average number of men loading wag 
two, and the average number of hricks per wheelbarrow was 73. 
The distance of travel to the foot of the conveyor was 30 ft. 
The averngi! time to deliver the load of each wheelbarrow waa 2.57 
min. On thix baHJa the tolal number of bricks handled per day 
by the three wheelbarrows would be: 


„-rrX3 X 73 = 40,000 

, as Ijefore, the time to uhift, the number would be 

Dflding It 11.75 I 3» 

ratifli>ortinff at fl.TG ....,...■■.. SJS 

It conwyor ml |1.75 15.7S 


or $28.50-;- 37 = 72.2 ct. per thouaand, or at the rate of $B.28 
per carload. 

Cost ot Sooop Conveyon. The following table given tbe cost 
of scoop conveyors. The^ conveyors may be had with either a low 
cleat belt or « b>gh flight belt. The low cleat belt is uied fur 
conveying boxes, tile, brick, stone, aand, gravel, etc.. and the high 
flight is intended only to handle coarse gravel and large lump 

8ii« of macbine Approximate ehlpplag Price 

width o( belt length weight in lb. (. o. b, (Mtory 

12 )n. 14 ft. BOO t*^ 

The above prices are for conveyors with power unit included. 
This power unit may be either a, gasoline engine or electric motor. 




Machines for crushing rock, ore and similar hard materials a 
in two usual formg. Jaw cnisliers and gyratorj cruidiers. Jsb 
i;ruahers are usually of smaller capacity than are gyralory crush- 
ers. The jaw crusher operates in general in the following man- 

Fig. lUS. Jaw truuher 

end. At a point between the power end of thia arm and the 
fulcrum is a " toggle " to which is imparted a forward and bai'k- 
ward movement by the arm and whiph in turn imparts the s 
movement to the lower end of a eorrugated ateel or cast 
crushing plate free at its lower and hinged at its upper end. 
Opposite this plate is a somewhat smaller llxed plate and the 
two together form the " jaws/' By changing the toggle f 


larger or smaller, the " set " or size of the opening at the bottom 
of the jawA ia regulated, and thereby the size of the product. The 
*' jaw opening" is the width by the length of the opening between 
the upper ends of the rruahing plates and determines the great- 
est size of stone that can be introduced. 

Fig. 110. Geared Elevator. 

The jaw crusher is of limited capacity, its product is not uni- 
form, and the machine itself is subject to frequent breakages 
due to the severe shocks it has to sustain. For these reasons 
tlie gyratory crusher was invented and is used wherever a uni- 


form product of grmt quantity is essential. The principal objee 

ciou to it is ita nun-poi tability. In this type of crimher a per 
pendicular shaft, to which arp fastened the inner crunking plates 
revolves with an eccentric motion, inside of the etationary outei 
crustiing ptatea. Tlii> actions of thv inner jaw plates are hoiA 
rolling aiid crushing Ttie huri/ontal distance apart of tho lower 
ends of the concentri'^ jaws determines tho aize of the produd 
and is regulated by rai::ing or lowering the inner jaw. 

Jaw Cboshees 

Oapacit;, ton* Approximate PHee 

pet hour weigLt in lb. t. 0. b. t«f tory 

3- 4W 3,T00 % 72* 


Elevators for use in connection with crushers are illustrated 

by Fig. HO. The price for a 14 ft. length is given in the following 

" Back Gear Driving Connection " is an arrangement for driving 
the elevator and screen, partit'Ularly used with tho smaller sizes, 
and takes poner from the breaker. 

A gravel crushing and screening plant consisting of an elevator. 
the frame of which Ih constructed of steel channels, attached to a 
cru!iher by means of heavy angle bars and having an elevatoi 
with extra large buckets to convey the material from the pit tn 
the crusher, capable of turning out about 150 yd. of crushed and 
screened material a day is illustrated by Fig. 111. This outfit 
weighs about 20,000 ]b. without the power unit and costs $3,200 
f. o. h. factory. It is operated by an engine or motor of 30 hp. 

A portable gravel screening plant consists of a portable bin 
with revolving screen mounted on top therpof,-an elevator of 
proper length attached to and formins a part of the outfit and a 
hopper placed in the ground under the elevator into which the 
gravel to be screened is put. The bin has a capacity of 20 tons 
and is driven by a 7 hp. gasoline engine placed under the bin. 
It weighs approximately 11,000 lb. and coats $1,600 f. o. b. 
factory without the engine. 

A Belt-Buatained portable rig coDsietB of tte following: 

Wheels, «l«s, truck frame .nd bin g«t™ t 1 

2^ lip. tomiilelB ' 

g wiin chute BtK^n f, 

niDlete rig with rotsry screen 2.. 

CrD^hnr. 1 by 12 In. . 

Ossolir- " ■■■ 


Kg. 111. Portable CruBhing and Screening Plant. 
Gybatoby Obusiiebs 

10-25 "*.000 1.IW 

2ol4S 22.«00 2.600 

Power required for the above crushers is from 8-10 hp. for 
the 6-12 ton size, 10 to 15 lip. for the 10-25 ton she, and- 12 to 
20 hp. for the 20^8 ton size. Thia type of crusher is illustrated 
bj Fig. 112. 

A reduction crusher or secondary crusher of the gyratory type 
which will fake the tailings of a primary crusher up to 41^-in. 
cubes with a minimum discharge opening of Ms-'n. weif^ha. about 
14,000 lb. and costs $2,450 f. o. b. factory. This mackine requires 
about 20 hp. to operate it. The approximate hourly capacity 
with a Vj-in. opening is from 10 to 12 tons, and with a 1-in. 
opening is from .10 to 22 tons per hr. 

The cost of moving a B x 15 crusher plant with non-portable bin 
a few miles and setting up ready for crashing ia about S125 under 
average conditions. 

Bepain. In crushing 224,203 tons of roclt in 188&-7 an aver- 


age of eight sets of crusher apparatus being in operation, ' 
following new parts Were required. 

U lerera O 125.00 »3l».0O 

9 iaw pl«tB( @ 15.50 139.50 

la i»w plaits @ 12.00 m.oo 

Timles, check iilatfs and sundries SIT.SO 

Total 1831.30 

Fig. 112. Gyratory CruHher. , 

or an average of about $100 per crusher. This does not include 
babbiting the bearing or labor of making repairs. 
Kepairs for Solli. 

7 pairs tires @ 1120 ) BtO.OO 

Qau wheels and pinions 135.00 

Tolal (1,175.00 

or about 9147 for each pair of roUe. The tires of the rolls 
used for coarse crusliing are not turned when worn, but are re- 
placed by new onen. For the screens 21 sets of perforated plates 
@ $60.76 = $1,275.76 were required, or an axerage of 2.6 eets per 
year per screen. The average life of the wearing parts of a jaw 
crusher is therefore about eight months; a, set of screen plates 
about four months. 

In Camp's " Notes on Track " there is a description of a crush- 
ing plant installed b^ the Pennsylvania railroad for the crushing 

CHU8HER8 211 

of track ballast. It consisted of a g7ratory crusher of 40 to 60 
cubic yards per hour capacity and a smaller nuxiliarj crusher. 
The stone from a large crusher was taken t>; a belt conveyor to a 
revolving plate screen 12 feet long by 4Vj ttxt in diameter, 
divided into three sections having one-incU, two-incb, three-inch 
liolea. On the outside of the onerinch hole screen was an auxili- 
ary screen of ^-inch mesh. The rejected material was led 
through a chute to the smaller crusher whence it was aj^aln 
conveyed to the screens. After the stone had been screened it 
dropped into tour bins. The products of the stone were 17% 
screenings, 6% %-iDch atone, 33% I'^-inch stone, 42% 2^ inch 
Blone, From the bins the material was chuted directly into cars 
Tliis plant was operated by a 150- horsepower engine The labor 
necesBary consisted of one fireman, one oiler and four laborers 
whose total wages per hour were $i.lil'/j The repairs and 
renewal of broken parts coat SSOO for four hundred working 
hours. Tbe above prices are prior to 11112. 

The Dolese & Shcpard Company of Chicago have estimated the 
life of tlieir new 1912 atone crushing plant at twenty years with 
5% annual depreciation. Tliey have found from experience that 
repairs to crushers cost 5% snnually, repairs to screens ami con- 
veyors 13%. The large size atone wears the acrcens and conveyors 
miU'li more rapidly than tbe small si/e stone. Tor example, the 
iK-reen for No. 9 crushers had to )■• renewed in nine monllis. 
wliereaH the other screens had been in service eight months and 
showed no wear. 

Tbe Illinois Stone Company, at Lemunt, 111., had in 11)12 a 
stone-crushing plant with a capacity of TOO cu. yds. in 10 liours 
The plant is a timber structure and cara are hauled up a short 
iiii'line to the main crusher where they are dumped automatically 
Tlic stone passes througb a No. 7% and two No. 4Vi gyratory 
crushers, and 3 ft. cylindrical acreeuH of sizes from % In. to Vj in- 
The original cost of tbe machinery, the three iruahcrs, screen, 
lu'lts, etc , was $2.t,000. Tlie coat of repairs given below is for 
new parts and does not include the labor of making repairs. 


rem n,9C»M 


fiflh yean. -.. 1,«».00 

To(»1 tor flva yen'n «,90n.00 

Aierage per jifor .. t 7SO.0O 

The \i in. steel plates bave been replaced about twice i 




The followin*; cslimated cost of eonstructing and operating a 
quarry plant tiuilHlile for manufacturing Im11<i»i( for railroads, is 
obtained from the Proceedinga o( the American Kailway En- 
gini^ring and MaintenaiU'C of Way ABsociation, 1D09. 

Cost of Plant. From published figures, the cost of Iniilding a 
plant of 1,000 tons daily capacity, and its cost of operation to 
quarry, is as follows; 

Cmnsrilj-, l.WIO louB daily SOn,«M tana aruHwIly 

MOpu ]d. Irun ]>fr liI'LnuT dnr 270,000 eu. yd. anuuully 

Oru^rrs, t, ZMiod Farren, at n,2S0 f S.noo 

Eneinpi. 4, «» hp , 14x12 U tM> i'lV 

Foiindallons ino 

Beltini, 13 in, 300 tt.. at tS.TS GEO 

Eksles, SO [t., includins (oundatiaiu and timber 1,225 

Biua 600 

Eieralon with pialtn-ma. 4 at tl.fWi (tor tailinia) e.nOO 

Piimn Car valor •iiimly, G,EWI eallona i«r liour ZOO 

T^nk, M.OflO gallons 1.S0O 

Stoam drilJB »ith triitods roDnHlioB hon, 20 at t24& 4,900 

Serpens, rolary, H in , 1 at ».'« 2,800 

Small toola, forgei, bars, wedgm, bamioerB, etc 1.200 

Land, SO acrea al fl5n per acre 7,HW 

Cable railway and dump cars for hani lo rniHlier, 
thig being » varying Item aa quarry ia worked .... E.MM 

ToUI cost o( quarry (19091 ^,478 

Cost ov Opimatiox op Quarry Plant 

IS drillera at tl per day, 36a diss * tfi.a» 

I8hflp*ra at (ITS rier day SW daya ., 9,150 

3 hlarkamiltia at ta rrr day, SOD day! 2.TD0 

50 bar sli-dEPrs at H./r per day. 3") Jays ai,KO 

[HT day im di 

r day, 31» d*) 

F. Sno daya 

300 daya . 
■m dajT 

Ipnglnwr al tS ixt day, 3Cn ilaya MO 

4 bin men at 11,75 per itay. VKl daya 2,100 

Fnel, 2.7110 lona of coal at » 70 .... 

Oil waul"-, Mf 

Dynamiti', 7 lb. i<«r cu. yd.; 270,00 


Drill Tep»ii», 1 mmcbiaist »t M l.»0 

1 helper at ta.BO 760 

Suppliei »t $1.2S per montb per drill 2TD 

Bl*dcnait)u included above 

Tot*l Il«,410 

4% on flnl cost ot plant »2,«S 

10^ depreciation on macbinery. «xc«pt crushera .. 2,160 

1«%% deprHistioa on cmshera 883 S.411 

Contingeniiei, 87„ ll.TBO 

Thli Bbovs a cost per jnrd of W ct. (1909). 

The folloning notes on the um of electric motors in grEurel 
and Btone plants appeared in Engineering and Oontracling, Mar. 
21, 1017. A email rock crushing plant driven hy a 30-hp, 
motor, was turning out 6 cu. yd. per hour, and the motor not 
onlj drove the crusher and elevator, but was used to operkte a 
winch for hauling cars of rock up an incline. 

In and near cities, electricity can usually be purchased for 
power at prices under 5 et. per kilowatt- hour. As a kilowatt is 
one and one-third horsepower, this is equivalent to aliout 4 ct. 
pn horsepower-hour. But this does not mean tliat a 30-hp. 
motor would use $12 worth of current in a 10-ho\ir day, even at 
4 irt. a horsepower-hour; for the tact is that the full power of 
the motor is used only occasionally, and then for but a few mo- 

In cniabinf; and elevating a cuhic yard of stone with a small 
jaw crusher about 15 lb. of coal are required for limestone, and 
about 18 lb. for tough trap. Considering the fuel losses in- 
volved in operating a 20-fap, boiler and engine, it is likely that a 
consumption of 9fl0 lb. of cosi per day of 10 hours Indicates an 
Rctual 10-hour average of less ttian 10-hp. and perhaps as low 
»5 8-hp. If, then, a 30-hp. otflfitric motor averages only TV^-hp., 
or 75 horsepower- hours per Iff-hour day, and if the price of the 
current is 4 ct. per horsepower-hour, the current cost is $3 a 

A small i-msher using 0,4 ton of coal a day at £4, requires 
only $1.60 for fuel; but this is only a "starter" in the e.xpense 
of the steam power. There is the wage of the engineman, and the 
interest, repairs and depreciation ot the boiler and engine, be- 
sides the cost of water, lubricating oil and other incidentals. 

OntpTltS ot Stone CnnherB. Very little has appeared in print 
regarding the outputs of atone crushers, therefore the accompany- 
ing table showing the actual output of a numher of stone 
crushers may be of interest; 


sIm Dt bJoke'n%Wne;io:'.';.'.;.*.*.":;.''";.**" a?* 2W,iii.lV4 "iVi si 

Number of men feeding crusher 2 12 2 

Omput in cu. yd. per 100 hr SW 600 3S0 a)tolM 

Aierage output in cu. yd. per 10 hr 300 600 4SI>* 

Beat output Id cu. yd. per 10 hr 450 150 £00* .. 

* TaOB. f NolhinK larger tban wiU pass a 2 In. screen. 

( 1 ) Information furnished by the Brecken ridge Stone Co., 
Breckenridge, Minn. The roek was a limestone. In addition to 
the two men feeding the crusher, a.bout 45 others were employed 
by the company on other work about the crusher and quarry. 
12) Information furnished by the l-ake Shore Stone Co, of Bel- 
gium, Wis. The rock was a, very hard dolomite limestone. The 
" one man " referred to in the table keeps the stone from " bridg- 
ing " and keepg the hopper free. In addition, 44 men were eai' 
ployed loading atone into cars going to the crushers, (3) In- 
formation furnished by the Elk Cement & Lime Co., Petoskey. 
Mich. Tlie crushers were side by side, the Gates being used for 
rejections. Hie rock was a hard limestone. The size of broken 
stone from the crusher ran up to 2'% in. (4) Information fur- 
nished by Holmes & Kunneke, Columbus, O. The rock wu a hard 




The Boston Finance Commission, in 1908, made a Btatement 
to the efrect that in 12 years the cily of Boston had waMrd 
$1,000,000 by operating its own stone crushing plantfl inntead of 
buying crushed stone from contractors for street work. Cpon 
the request of certain city employees who professed confidence 
in their ability to turn this tide of extravagance, the mayor 
promised that for a limited time one crushing plant would be 
placed at their disposal to demonstrat« their claims. The em- 
ployees choHe for the experiment the Church Hill Ave. plant and 
the Boston Finance Commission placed the work of recording 
the results in the hands of its engineer!, Metcalf & Bddy, of 


Boston. The full report or the engineers is given In Vol. Ill of 
Finance Commiesion'H report recently made public and from this I 
take the following data: 

The crusher plant occupies an area of 570,000 aq. ft., pur- 
chased in 1RH2 for $30,000 and having an assessed value in 1907 
uf $79,800, The tract is used in part for other than quarrying 
and crushing purposes. The plant consists mainly of a 30 x 13-in. 
Farrel crusher, a 72 x 16-in. Atlas engine, a 66-in. x 17-ft. tubular 
boiler, the usual elevators, bins, extra parts and tools, and of 
three tar^ and one baby steam drills. The estimated cost of the 
plant was $16,653; interest was calculated at 4% and deprecia- 
tion at 6.75% annually, which gives an amount of $1,791 which 
in the costs following was applied on a monthly basis. The 
charge for steam drills is based oii a rental of 50 ct, per working 

Form Employed, The force employed, with wages, was in gen- 
era] as follows: 

Labor Bl Ledge : Per day 

1 tUiiliHBith at t3 S.OO 

1 blMltsmiUi's helper at K.X Z.26 

Stlatm drilltra at e,7t 

3 iteam driUers' help*™ at 12.25 8,75 

10 Btone breafcers at (2.25 2250 

Shand drilleri at »2JS 11.25 

1 powderman at «,25 2,26 

Sloadlra at I2.2S ■. 305S 

Total t 78.50 

L^ibor at Ornahct: 

1 eniioeer at t3.C0 t 3,B0 

1 flreman at 13,25 3.25 

1 weigher at tt.BO 2.60 

Teamirfg : 

6 lin^ teams at J3.60 % 21,00 

Total $121.0(1 

The force consisted largely of men who were in some degree 

skilled in rock work. The majority of the men were young and 
all were vigorous and skilled to such an extent that the force aa 
a whole was ekilful and efficient. There was a marked lack of 
interest on the part of some of the employees, which undoubt- 
edly had ite effect in reducing the amount of work done eon- 
sfderahly lielow tlie amount which would be done under cootract 



eonditionsi on the other hand, it ahovld be stated that eome of the 
men took a lively interest in the work and did their fuU dut;. 
Freparstory Work. To put the plant in condition for the test 
there were expended the following amoynts: 

Hems CoHt 

Labor |2ff7.Bl 

This made a charge of 80.028 per ton of output during the test 
trun. Th?re were also $68.44 expended on repairs to scales ^rhich, 
being permanent repairs, were not charged to the test; thej 
amount to a charge of $0 0076 or about ^i ct. per ton of output. 
To house and prepare plant and tools for the winter after the con- 
clusion of the test run coat $18 or $0,002 per ton oE output- 
Method of Operation. The quarry was first stripped of the 
earth overlying the le^e, after which holes were drilled in the 
rock hy means of steam drills. These holes were loaded with 
dynamite and exploded, thus throwing out great 4|uaDtities of 
stone. Much of the stone thus thrown out was in large blocks, 
which required breaking before they could be put into the crusher. 
In some cases this conid be done by sledging and it) other cases 
holea were drilled in them by means of a bftby steam drill and 
hand drills, and the blocks cracked by use of dynamite. The 
stone thus prepared for the crusher was hauled to the loadin>! 
platform, where it was dumped into the crusher and upon thi' 
platform- Men were stationed on the platform to feed the roci: 
into the crusher. After passing through the crusher the broken 
stone was delivered by elevator to a revolving screen where it wae 
separated into two grades; the very fine, or dust, being conveyed 
to one set of bias and the cracked stone to another set. These 
bins hold aH>roximately 400 tons; and when the demand for atone 
tor use upon the streets was not equal io the output of the 
crusher, and the bins were full, it became necessary to haul the 
balance of the output to a pile in the yard — about 2,25!) ton? 
of broken stone and 194 tons of dust being stored in the yard 
for this reason. 

There was a misunderstanding with regard to hauling of stone 
from the bins to the pile in the yard, which cauwd a elightj 
delay on July 1, 2 and 3, during a portion of which time thel 
crusher was abut down. This delay amounted in the aggregate ui 
not over two days of erusher service, during which time tha 
quarrying was proceeding as usnal. After July 3 there wag no 
appr«eiable delay on account of causes beyond the control of tbel 


fareman, except such oMasionitt delays as are inevitaUe upon 
aiKh work due to temporarj disa.bleiDetit of the plant. 

In this coniiMrtlon it sbould be noted that the capacity of the 
bins being only about 400 tonsi they were sufficient only for 

about 2\ii days output oE t!ie cruehcr as it was operated. The 
normal capacity of the crusher is claimed by the manufacturers 
to be about 250 tone per day, while the maximnm output tor any 
one day during this teat was 22,1 tons. 

During three weeks in July, three drills were operated, but this 
was found to be inadrisable because the force of laborers was 
unable to handle the rock as fast as it was blown out. 

Periods of Operation. The results of this test have been di- 
vided into three periods, so that the comparative progress from 
time to time can be noted, as well as any improvement in the 
Mst of operation. The dates of closing these periods were so 
selected that the amount of uncrushed stone which had been 
quarried was comparatively small, being in no case in excess 
of 200 tons. 

First Period — The first period was from May 28 to July 13, 
inclusive, but included only that drilling and Jtlackamithing done 
Dp to July 0, inclusive, which corresponded to the output ot the 
first period. The work and expense of this perio* may be sum- 
marized as follows : 
Work Done: 

aiTinpIng rcmoied 17* lona 

Holes drilled <£%'lii. diuneler) b; strain drills 1,IW9.B ft. 

m«ted) 2«l taaa 

Broken iilons ready for rmsher at snd nf period. oona 

ToUI ou^nt oFcrugbed Htone dmlBg this period 1,K1 louB 

Idbor and teaniiBg per tnn ol ootpnt fl.21 

ToUl cost per Ion ot ontynl |lJt2 

In this summary, as in the summaiies of the other perioils, no 
account is taken of interest, depreciation or rental ot plant, and 
certain general items ot expense, or a few incidental supplies. 
The final summary covering the entire period, however, includes 
all of these expenses. 

It should be noted, in the consideration of the first period, that 
the cost per ton of output includes all of the preliminary work, 
which amounted to approximately J0.I5 per ton of the output ot 
this period. Deducting the cost of the preliminary work from the 
cost per ton of output. $1.32, for the first period leaves the net 
cost for this period $1.17 per ton, which cost can be compared 
with similar costs for the second and third periods. 


Second Period — The Beeond period extended from Juiy 14 to 
11 a. m. of July 2\, incluBive, and inclndee the drilling and 
hla^^ltsmithing applicable to this period. Tlie vork and expense 
of tlie Becond period may be Buntmadzed ae follows: 
Work Dons: 

airipplog remOYBd 85 tong 

HoloB drilled 13% in. diameUr) by ete>m dill]!i 402.7 ft. 

Dnbroken etone dd liaad at eipiration of period (eBli- 

roaled) GO tons 

Broken elone ready for crueber at expirallon ot period none 

ToUl ontpat ot crualied stone daring this period HOG ions 


MalerialB osed '^'.\'^"'.'.'^'.'.'.V.'.'.'.'.'. OM 

Total roat per U>a of output 10.88 

Third Period — The third period extended from II a, ni. of 
■Itily 21 to September lO, inclusive, and final date of the test. The 
work and expense of the third period may be summarized as 
follows ; 

Work Done; 

Stripping removed 125 toni 

Holea drilled <2%-in. diameter) by sleam drilki 2,08T.»ft. 

Unbroken stone on band at enpirallDn ol iieriod (esti- 

maledJ .' 200 tons 

Broken aloae ready for cruaher at eipiration ot period none 

Totel oulpnt of crualied stone during thia iierod 0,S97 lona 

Labor and teaming per (on of ouliiul VIS 

Materials used 0.08 

Total cost per ton of output t0.8t 

It should be noted tliat the cost per ton of output during the 
third period was very close to that of the second period. The 
reduction in cost of stone crushed during the second and third 
periods below that of the first period, after deducting the cost 
of preparatory work, shows the result of the experience acquired 
by t]ie force and improvement in organisation. 

Sesulta of Entire Test. Ah already stated, the duration of this 
test was from May 28 to Septcmiier 10, inclusive. The details of 
the cost of this test are given in Table B, The work accom- 
plished during the test may be summarized as follows: 
Work Doner 
Stripping removed (a largo part of (be itripping bad 
been done prior to tbe beginning ot thia teat and 

is DOt included herein) 3S1 toaa i 

Holea drilled (2:K'iD. diameter) by aleam drill 4,1(0.1 ft. 

Unbroken atone on hand at beginning of teat none 

mated) ...'.." 200 tout I 

Broken atone ready for crusher at eijiiration of lest.. sane 



Tutsi output ot cnuked iloiie dorinc Hal : 

Dual I.ITO tma (22%)- 

atone «,9S3 1ons (78%) 

Tlie -cost t(i the tity of producing the 8,053 tons of cruslied 
stone, exclusive of S6S.44 paid for permanetit repairs to the 
scales, may \>t Hummarized as follows: 

L.alior sDd (eamlng |0.S8l 

Maleiial used 0.1« 

Interot. deprcriation and reulil at toob and macbiiwrj. 0.06S 

ginnine or t«t .. 
Total cost 

Het cost at crushed stane iiroduced 11 ,OTS 

The major items of the foregoin<- stimmRry may lie 8iil)d)vided 
into a oompara lively Bmsll nomli^r of items whiuh will show 
the cost of the various parts of the proeeas of preparing crushed 
ntnne. (See Talile A.) 

Table A — Summaby Showiso Afpboxiuatc Distbuution of 
Expenses at Chestnut Hiu. AvE\rE Cbisbeb 

OoM per ot total 
lOD flgnn^ rhsr(«d 

Qmrrjinf^ jnd brcskinc ItM Iiavlnc 

lie pnd ot 

deducted • 

Stripping UtS4 

Snipping done jirior to lest mtimilpdj . 223.S3 .uid ^.> 

Loidinj and dellTery to ornaher l.SSO.W .2S1 M.E 


Operation (includinr feeding crniheM .. 1,25B.M .HO 13.0 
Interest and depreciation on planl (3 

apeciBl expense* : 

n'eighiDg (tone in.SI - .MO tS 

Weighing itrippmi 19.67. .1X12 0.2 

HaqliDgTjIna to pile {2,<53 loni) 281.15 .032 S,0 

Holidaya TIB.TS .079 7.3 

Abtent witli pa; 27.5S .003 0.3 

Total charged to output (9.831.99 t).l)7& 100.0 

F^rmanenl repaln lo icalai 68.44 

Total cart of teat 19.700.43 

* Output equala S,S&3 tons o( cmalied aloue (inolnding duat). Ilnae unit! 

Qnirrying and breaking 80 749 

Cruahing 214 

Holiday's and alneot olth pay 0082 

Total I1.07S 


DlBtrlbntion of Cost of Foreman, Bmgliiecr, Flrem&n &ad Coal. 

The Foreman devoted his time almout wholly to work of quar- 
Tjing ftnd breaking the rock for the crunlier, and only a Email 
portion to the operation of the crusher. We have, therefore, 
charged 30% of liia lime to the quarrying, 00% to the breakint; 
and 10% to the erushinj;. 

The steam for running the steam drills waa furnished from the 
boiler, which constituted a part of the crusher plant. This boiler 
was under the general direction of the engineer and was cared 
for hj a Qreman. We have not charged any portion of the lime 
of the engineer to quarrying, but have charged one-half of the 
lime of llie fireman aa well as one-half the cost of the coal used. 

Stripping. In certain places the ledge was covered with a 
layer of earth, which it was neceaaary either to remove before 
blasting or aeparate from the stones after blasting. A portion 
of this material had been removed from the ledge prior to the 
beginning of Ibis test. The quantity of stripping removed dur- 
ing the experimental run uas 384 tons, and pur eatimate of the 
amount which was moved prior to the beginning of tha run (the 
cost of which should be charged against this experiment) would 
be 350 tons, or an amount nearly equal to that removed durinj! 
the test. The cost of stripping done during the test was $0 637 
per ton of soil stripped from the surface of the ledge. At thia 
rate, the stripping done prior to the test would have cost $222.ii5 
had it been done by the same force aa a part of the experiment. 
This estimated cost of preliminary stripping amouDts to 30.025 
per ton of output. 

Allowance for Bock Dnarried but Fot Slatted. As already 
stated there was no quarried rock on hand at the beginning of 
the test, but there was a quantity of about 200 tons remaining 
' at its close. This should, of coume, be credited to the experi- 
ment, which has been done by deducting the cost of qijarrying| 
it from tlie entire cost of tbe experiment. The cost of quarrf' 
ing, including stripping, was about $0.2S per ton of rock 4}uir 
ried ( 8,9S3 tons of output -|- 200 tona unbroken rock = 0,103 tone 
quarried). The coat of quarrying 200 tona was therefore t-iO. 
which amounts to $0,005 per ton of output, which has been d^ 
ducted from the total cost of output. I 

Beromt of Eeanlts of Test. This test has covered a period of| 
time sufllciently great to demonstrate with accuracy the cost of 
producing crushed stone at the Chestnut Hill avenue crusher ht 
day labor, under the conditions of the test. The force apparently 
consisted of men skillful and cMnpetent aa could be selected froa 
the entire organization of the division, and certainly gave 
dence of being reasonably akillfu! and able-bodied. So far 11 


Foutd be seen the faremon in charge of the work was given an 
absolutel; free hanil to organize his force as he deemed best, 
and to adopt snch methoda of handling the work b« be might 
deaire. With very slit^ht and unimportant exceptiona he was fur- 
niEbed with tools and Bi^jpliee promptly, so that there is no rea- 
Bon to think that the output could have been increaaed by the 
improyement oE conditions depending upon the co-operation of fain 
Bupcrior officers in the Street Department. The net renult of 
IliiB teat appears to be that tbe crushed atone wat produced at a 
^oet to the city of $1,075 per ton. These figures make no allow- 
inee for the cost of the quarry to the city, or tlie cost of ad- 
miniftration and clerical serviceB at the office, the latter of 
which is estimated at ^.05 per ton of output. 

This experiment has been carried out under tbe very best of 
conditione. Tlie quarry and crusher selected was tbe mosl favor- 
able of any which the city haa worked in the post, and pro- 
duced crushed stone in 11)05 more cheaply than any other cruehcr. 
During that year each of five cruahera produced more than 
30,000 tons of broken stone — tbe Bleiler, Centee Street, Chestnut 
Hill Avenue, Codman Street and Columbia Road crushers, Of 
these the Chestnut Hill Avenve crusher yielded the smalleet out- 
put, although the coet per ton of cnisbed etone, $1,148, was lower 
than that of any of the others. The cost of producing crushed 
stone during tbe test was therefore reduced less than ^.OS below 
the cost of producing crushed stcoe at this crusher during the 
fear 1»05. 

We have already called attention to the marked increase in 
efficiency of tbe force employed at tbe crusher during tbe second 
and third peiiods of tbe experiment. It is reasonable to ittquire 
nhat tbe cost of tbe output would have been had all the work 
been done with the same efficiency. Such an estimate may be 
obtained by adding the coat of interest and depreciation, rental 
of machinery and tools, temporary repairs, and the stripping done 
U-fore tbe beginning of tbe test, to the cost of any particular 
period, 4r tm assumed cost. Theee items amount to over $0.10 
per ton of output, so that it is reasonable to estimate tJie cost 
of operating tbe crusher at $0.06 to $1 per ton of output, based 
upon tbe efficiency attained during tbe sectrnd and third periods. 
This estimate, as in all other cases, doea-not include any charge 
tu account of administration or office expense, nor does it include 
any char;^ for the cost of owning and maintaining the quarry. 

Comparison with Harket Fiioei of Cmihed Stone. According 
to tbe report upon stone crnehers already cited, the market piii^ 
of crushed stone f. o. b. ears at tbe crusher is 50 cts. per net 


ton. While it ia not possible to determine accuratet; the market 
price of crushed stone f. o. b. cars Boston, under a contract simi- 
lar to one which the city might negotiate, an eBtimate was given 
in the report, from which we have just quoted, amounting to 
SI per ton f. o. b. cars, or $1.10 loaded upon wagons ready for 
hauling to the atreeti. It thus appears that the cost of crushed 
stone produced during this teat was more than twice that of 
crushed stone f. o. b. cars at the crusher of a private corporation, 
or more than twice the price for which it could be produced at 
the Chestnut Hill Avenue crusher by a contractor, and that t\tt 
cost was about t0.02S lean than the estimated contract price of 
.crushed stone purchased in the local market and loaded upon 
wagons in BoBton. These figures include no part of administra- 
tion or office expenses, and no portion of the cost to the city of 
owning and maintaining the quarry. The administrHl ion and of- 
fice expense would doubtless amount to as much as £0.05 per ton 
of output, but wc aie not in position to make any estimate of 
the cost to the city of owning and maintaining the quarry. 

We made the statement that the cost of cruslied stone produced 
during the test was more than twice the price for which it 
could be produced at the Chestnut Mill Avenue crusher by con- 
tract, upon the assumption that conditions could be the same at 
this crusher as at the large commercial crushers in use. 

As we understand the law, a, contractor producing stone at this 
crusher for the use of the city would be obliged to confine the 
hours of labor to an eight-hour day, which would materially 
increase the cost of his work. It iii also probable that the city 
would find it impracticable to take the maiimum output of the 
crusher at all times, which would also be an important factor in 
the cost of operating this plant. 

As stated in our report, the companies furnishing crushed stone 
within reasonable railroad disluices of Boston appear to be very 
willing to dispose of their product at 50 cents per ton t. o. b. 
cars at crusher. We have one instance where crushed stone of 
one si/e {not the run of tiie crusher) was furnished at a coat 
of 55 cents per yard, or about 44 cents per ton delivered in place, 
including more or less freight expense. Obviously this stone was 
sold at a prii^e at least as low as 40 cents per ton at crusher. It 
should be borne in mind, however, that these plants are very 
large ones, much larger than the Chestnut Hill Avenue crusher. 
We have obtained the following data relating to the cost of 
operating a small temporary crushing plant on a trap rock quarry 
from April to October, 1908. The crusher was a IO14 by Ifi 
inch Acme — a smaller outfit than that in use at Chestnut Hill 

Avenue, The ctMt of producing the itoiie is given i 
the following table: 


Picking or drillini n,16E,03 

BreakioK 1,937.23 

Loading 1,S43M 

Haulinr aWJM 

Crushing 1,229.7S 

Suporlnlendeneo «7.H> 

Colli, oil, etr 6iiH» 

Dynamite and exploderi 418.iW 

Total t8,3«.IB 

Flint rental (fZlO per mo.) 

It appears from the foregoing table that the total amount of 
atone, 18,599 tons, was quarried and crushed for 43 ct. per t«ii, 
not including rental of plant. TIte rental of plant — actual!; a 
rcntod plant — was S0.07U2, which added to 45 c«nte would make 
n total cost of .13 rents per ton. 

It is important to note that during the teat run of the Chest- 
nut Hill Avenue crusher, the average output wan 120 tons prr 
day for three uionthB (75 dajs) of actual operation of crusher. 
The nominal capacity of the crusher being 240 tuns, it appeals 
that the output was just one-half of the capacity. Uniler good 
management there should b« no ditHculty in turning out 240 tonn 
of stone per day, and this could have been turned out during the 
test run without materially increasing the exp»i*e of the output, 
escept for the cost of quarrying and breaking. ThCBC items 
would have been materially increased if the methods, djei-ipline 
and character of labor remained the »ame. 

In considering this subject, it should be borne in mind that 
there is not euQirient rock available at this location to warrant 
the establishment of a very large crushing plant. There is 
prohably stone enough to supply the present crushing plant for a 
period of three or four years. (This is only a rough guess be- 
cause no measurements have been taken upon which to base 
an opinion.} 

Prom a further consideration of the statement in our report, 
which we have quoted above, we are of the opinion that a eon- 
traetor might produce crushed stone at the Chestnut Hill Avenue 
i^rusher for about one-half of the cost of crushing stone during 
the test run. This, however, would probably not Include the 
contractor'! profit, and would necessitate his having an abundant 
market which would enable him to work the plant to its maxi- 
mum capacity. It Is not probable that the city could let this work 


to a' contrnctor for- a aum aa low as one-lialf the eoat of the 
output during the test run for the reasons aJread; given. 

Cost of Hauling Cmilied Stone to the Streets. An examina- | 
tion of the teaming checks covering a period of alwut thre* j 
weeks, a portion of which was during snd a portion after this ' 
teat, showed that the cost of delivering stone amounted to about 
$0.40 per ton for the first mile, and about 80.10 per ton for each ■ 
additional mile. Thus, with stone costing $1,075 per ton in the 
bin, the total cost to the city of such stone delivered to the 
street, At a distance of one mile from the crusher^ would !>« ' 
$1,476 per ton, or at a point two miles from the crusher, $l.fl75 
per ton. For comparison with contract prices, this figure should . 
be increased by the amount of the coHt of purchasing and main- 
taining the quarrj and the proportionate cost of adajinistration ^ 
and office forces, not only on account of the quarrying and crush- i 
ing, but also on account of teaming. 

Table B — Data on Cobt of Opebatino Stone Cbusbeb at 

Chestnut IIiil Avbkue Lshoe, Bsiohton, Mabs., fbom 

Mat 2S to Sutembeb 10, lOOtt, Inclubivb 

Ilem Cwtper 

IiBbor : ' ton figured 

SupervlisloD (faisniaii): Total coat oa output 

breakiiij;, 90% t 253.S8 tons 


Innslliiig drlnlnE plant TT.El 

BamoTlas and iloring drilling pUnt 18.00 

Openting drilh 453.9S 

Furni'bing Ble*Di for opprntlng steam drills 111.16 

Clrnnine loc-k for drills and moving eame .. lOO.W 

Blacksmith an Imlge loidii and piiie fliliiica. 392^ 

Blasting and rare of exploalvea 1K2.;9 

Breaking elone 1,3B!.« 

Hand drUling (block holm) Glt.!>5 

Loading alonp l,0in.S7 

Jteaiaviag and loading atrlnping 124.00 

Weighing atODO. ISUT 


Oroahtir onaratkia (enrdnFar, flremaB, oiler 

and pitman) 639.74 

Crusher rppalra B5.it4 

Absent with pay Z!SX 

Holidaya 706.75 

Buildings i^ 

DrillinK plant SOD 

Hanling alone to crusher SE9,38 

Hauling BirimilDg 111.47 

Hauling product to rilo 281.15 

Total r.M'.efi 

|l|PI|i::ni;i:n!:iii iiliii 

m u 

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i: Intnli 

^! J:ii!l 

Jaw aod f^jrator; crnahere are the two distinct types of crueh- 
erB extensively used for the preliminary reduction of rock and 
ore. Tbe well known Dodge and Blake cruahera are the beat 
examples of the jaw type and have been widely used for inan,v 
years. Aside from some modilicationB in the method of apply- 
ing the thrust and in tbe construction of the frame, these ma- 
chines a> built today are similar to the early designa. The gyra- 
tory type of rock breaker waa introduced about ld8r>. Ita large 
cnpapity was its moat attractive feature and led to its rapid 
introduction. The early designs were faulty in many features. 
There is an improved design which has become more or less 
standard with the several manufacturers. This is the suspendeil- 
Bhaft, two-arm spider, drop-bottum type, with cut-steel bevel 
geartt, forced oil circulation, mangaaese-steel crushing head and 

Since it is possible to purcliaae either type of crusher in almost 
any size and with the aasuranco that the design and construction 
are adequate for the work intended, the choice of type can be 
made strictly on the basis of suitability and economy. There 
are fadd in machinery aa well as in millinery. The rapid devel- 
opment of the gyratory crusher, and its success in meeting 
severe requirements have led many to advocate the complete 
retirement of the jaw type. £ai;h type has a field in which it 
is superior, and it is easy to deilne tbe. limits of each. There 
are certain advantages and disadvantages that are inherent in 
each type of machine, irrespective of size or service, and these 
are generally fairly well recognised Of greater importance and 
less generally appreciated, are the characteristics of each machine 
for a particular size and service. 

Table I baa been prepared to show at a glance tbe compara- 
tive features of the two types over a wide range of sizes and 
services. Ail the machines quoted in the table, except the two 
largest sizes of gyratory crushers, are standard sizes. The 
weights, capacities, required power, etc , are those guaranteed by 
the maoufacturera for average conditions with hard, friable 
rock. The machines quoted in the table to deliver a certain 
sized product are tbe medium sizes adapted to that product, as 
both larger and smaller machines, witliin amall limits, could 
l>e adjusted to produce a certain size of material. The par- 
ticnlara of the 3Sx282-in. and the 42x345-in. gyratory crushers 
are only approximate, as the largest standard size manufac- 


tured is 24 x 108 in. Gyratory cruBhera Ui^r than 24 x 198 in. 
have been liuilt to special design. 

Size of Feed. Inappction of the compiled and calculated data 
in Table I reveals the following intereBting comparisons; It 
develops that in each cane the gyratory is a machine of greater 
weidht, capHpJty and horiepower than the Btake cruhher for the 
same size feed and product. The ttti opening of the Blake 
type ia rectangular, that of the gyratory ia neceBearily the seg- 
ment of a ring. From this fact it follows that the weight and 
capacity of a gyratory crusher will increase more rapidly with 
an increase in the width of the receiving opening than will the 
Blake type. In other words, we may vary the width or the length 
of the feed opening in the Blake type Independently of each 
other, while in the gyratory type the width of the feed opening 
controla the entire design, and the whole maehine m'lst be pro- 
portioned accordingly. This ie an important charftcteriBtic and 
has great influence in deflnini; the field of earh type. 

Weight, Capacity and Horsepover. Table II, which is com. 
puted from the data given in Table I, indicates a notable 
superiority of the gyratory tjpe aa refn>rds cffiKienoy of power 
conHumption and capacity per twi weight of crusher. In all 
canes tabulated, except the first (cruahing from 7 to 1% in.), 
the relative capacity of the g>-ratory ia greater than either thf 
relative weight or required power. Referring to the third col- 
umn of Table II, it appears that in this case the weight of the 
gyratory ia l.C times that of the Blake cruaher for the same 
size few! and product, but the capacity of the gyratory is 2.9 
timea that of the Blake, and the relative power required is onlj 
1.66. This comparison l>etwe«n the two types is also emphaaized 
by the values of capacity per installed horsepower which wen 
computed for Table I. The gyratory is shown to vary from 
68 U>a per hour iniitalled horsepower, in the smalletit siae tabu- 
lated, to 4.60 for the largest siM, while the Blake has the vAlun 
O.RO to 2 for the same condllione. The greater duty per installed 
horsepower in the gyratory type is due to several reasons. A jav 
cruHher must break a rock by simple compressive force, bigti 
stresses l>eing obtained by impact. The gyratory has the adsan- 
tase of breaking a large nombcr of pieces by beam action he- 
cause of the eonrave shape of the shell and the convex shape of 
the cruahing head. This action introrinrea both compressive and 
tensile atresses in the piece of rock, causing it to break with lew 
exertion of force because the tenaile strength of rock ot ore ia 
only a fraction of its compresKive strength. 

The gyratory is more economical of power owing to its cmi- 
tinuoua action. A jaw breaks consumes a large amount of 


energy in oTeTcomiug the inertia of the heaTf and rapidly re- 
ciprocating parte. Another feature which helps to aicnunt for 
the relatively large amount of power that is installed for Blake 
crushera is the intermittent character of the work. The demand 
is irregular, and ma; temporarily far exceed the average, so a 
crusher of the jaw type must be liberally equipped with power. 

Couparlion of Operatlnt Adranta^i. Referenee to Table 1 
shows the marked advantage of the BlaVe over the gyratory 
type as regards the height of crusher. This ie an important 
item, ai it coirtrols the height of buildinga. Tn addition to the 
greater actual height of the gyratory it requires much clear 
headroom both above and below the machine for the necessary 
raising and lowering of the parts. The floor space oocunied is 
about the same tor either machine for a certain size feed and 
prod net. 

The concave shape of the rigid shell of 'the gyratory, resulting 
in breaking some of the rock by beam action, causes the mate- 
rial to he more cnbieal in form than tjie product of a jaw 
crusher. For this reason tbe gyratory nsually gives the most 
uniform product from a given ore or rock. 

Other conditiottB being equal, there is less actual wear on the 
liners of a }aw crusher, because the tendency toward a certain 
grinding action cannot be entirely eliminated from the gyratory 
type. Owing to the conical shape of the concave liners of a 
gyratory they cannot be reversed when worn at the bottom. 
The plates for a jaw crusher can be arranged to be turned end 
for end when the lower part becomes badly worn. For these rea- 
sons the renewals for the gyratory type are a greater expense 
than in the jaw type. 

Provided the feed is previously reduced to proper size, attend- 
ance is tbe same for one machine of either type, which gives 
an important advantage to the gyratory in those esses where 
its larger capacity enables It to replace two or more jaw crush- 

Sepaln. Repairs are more difficult to make, and possibly more 
frequent, with the gyratory type. Tbe critical mechanical fea- 
ture of the gyratory is the eccentric drive on the lower end of 
the main shaft. With hard rock and heavy feeding it requires 
efficient lubrication to keep the bearings cool. A well designed 
Blake crusher Is easier to keep in order. The introduction of 
Steel casting* for the main frame of the jaw" crushers has 
Increased the strength and lessened the weight of that important 
part. Ab regards vibration during operation the gyratory ie 
superior, as it rune very eteadily. 

The consideration of relative merits for a specifled capacity. 


and the compariBoas drawn therefrom are all on. the basis of a 
giveD size of feed and product. It would be desirable to compare 
the two types on the basis of given capacity ae well as sice ol 
feed and product, but this is not possible. When we desi^ate 
tiie feed and product, the si)^ and capacity of the appropriate 
crusher of each type is determined thereby, and these vary widely 
for the two types. . Tlie bearing that the required capacity has 
upon the compariaan of merits, although left for the last, is 
all -important, as will tic shown. 

Consider the case in the first column of Tables I and II. This 
is the only case of those tabulated in which the gyratory does 
not excel in capacity per ton weight of machine. If, however, 
a particular installation required the capacity afforded by the 
T)[58-Jn. gyratory (seven tons per hour), it might be selecteii 
in place of two 10K7-in. Blatie crushers, becauseof the economy 
of one machine, one foundation, and one attendant If, however, 
advantages are to be gained, as in small stamp mills, by dividing 
the work between several small crushers so as to avoid conveying 
the crushed material and to gain bin storage without additional 
height, two small Blake crushers might be selected in preference 
to one gyratory. It should lie noted that the relaitive weight 
of the two types is not an exact index of the relative Hrst cost. 
because the gyratory crushers are sold at a higher price per pound 
than the Blake type. There are othM factors affecting first 
cost besides the price of the machine at the manufactiirer'B works. 

Eock Breakers ts. Bolldoiine. Referring to the kst columns 
of the tables, there is a most interesting case which is not 
generally well understood. We are dealing with large receiving 
openings and coarse crushing. During the last few years a 
demand has arisen for crushers of this magnitude in order to 
introduce economies in the mining and milling of ores. It has 
long been recognized that rock breaking is cheaper tiian stamp 
milling down to a size of alwut I in., and now it is begiuDing 
to be understood that rock breaking is cheaper than bulldozing 
and sledging pie^'es several feet in each dimension. This, of 
course, applies only to large-scale operations where the amount 
to be handled and the transportation equipment render such an 
installation feasible. To show the economies possible in this 
direction it may be noted that at the Treadwell mines in 1903 * 
the amount of powder used in Htopin^ was 0.34 lb. per ton of 
ore mined, while it re<|uired 0.H5 lb. per ton mined to hutldoze 
this rock after it was stoped. It required one man breaking rode 

•The TrCDdwplI Group of UJdm, Douglas Id.. Aluka. br ft. A. Kiniii', 
Trans. A. I. M. E.. 1»M. 


for each machine drill. Much labor was necessary on the feed 
floor of the cruBher. The ftyrttory t<nisber8 in use did not receive 
large pieces. It is understood that improvements in this dlreo- 
tion are now planned. 

Returning to the tabulated features of the crushers with Isrge 
feed opening, one Is Impressed at once with the enormous capac- 
ity and colossal siie of the gyratory mHchioes for this class 
of work. While the calculations show that the f»yratory cruahera 
in these sizes have marked advantsfirefi in efliciency, their tre- 
mendous size and cost are prohibitive unleas their lar^ ^npac- 
ities can be utilized. The 3«x282-in. gyratory in estimated to 
have a rapacity of 900 tons per hour to a 12-in. product, and the 
42x345-in. 1.200 tons per hour to IS-in. Tt would be a re- 
markable mining or quarrying operation that would furnish 
large material at such a rate, and that is why we do not hear of 
Kyralory cruahers of such dimensions. Some machines have been 
huilt larger than 24 k ins-in., but they are not likely to come into 
general use. On the other hand the laree Rlake cruahera are 
commonly built and successfully installed. Their capacity is 
HBually in'excess of the requirement, but. as is evident from Table 
1, not to the prohibitive extent that is true of the gyratory type, 

Cnublag Flant for S00-8tamp Mill. As an illustration oC the 
application of the preceding data and conclusions, the design of a 
crushing plant for a 20I)-Htamp mill will he considered. Assume 
a wide body of hard ore, which can be mined cheaply if the ore 
does not have to be blasted beyond what is necessary to break 
it from the solid, and adequate transportation facilities are pro- 
vided to convey the large material to the crushing house, I 
further assume that a knowledge of the character of the vein 
and the general conditions of mining are such that it will be 
desirable to provide for receiving pieces up to 38x42 in. Assume 
that the stamps have a capacity of 5 tons per day, then for the 
200-stamp mill 1,000 tons per day crushed to pass a 1% in. ring 
(equivalent to H4-in. cube) must be delivered by the proposed 
crushing plant. It is apparent that the ore must lie crushed 
in stages. Since the initial crushers of large receiving opening 
will of necessity iiave a large capacity, it will be best to con- 
centrate the crushing into one S-hour shift, thus introducing 
economies in operation. This calls for a crushing capacity of 
125 tons per hour. 

Tn Table III the distribution of sizes in run-of mine ore is 
obtained from experience. The percentages of the different 
sized particles in the product delivered by any particular crusher 
may be found by consulting the diagram shown in Fig. 113. For 
example, when crushing to pass a 6-in. ring, 81% will pasa 


a 5-iii., and about 20% will go through a l^-in. ring. Thia 
diagram was constructed by the Power and Mining Machinery 
Co., and ie stated to be the result of the compilation of a large 

Fig. 113. Diagram Showtni? Proportions of Rock Cruabed to 

Various Degrees of Fineness. 

amount of experimentBl data. The redults obtained are stated 
to have been unifono, and the diagram is recommended to be 
need to determine the percentages of certain sized products from 
any crusher, roll. Or screen. The diagram Is apprgximatel; 

CRUBHBRS . . 233 

correct for hud friable ore, and proper aDowonee must be made 
if the rock baa any inherent tendencf to break in a certain way. 

Taking the required capatities and duties as arrived at in 
Talde III and rfferrinjt to Table I, it ia apparent that we would 
select the 42x3a-in. Blake c^uaher fw the initial breaker. This 
macltine han exceaa capacity over what is required, but not buch 
enormouB excess eoi-t and capacity aa a gyratory for the same 
work. For the aecoadary crushing one 12x6S-iD, gyratory )b 
strikingly superior, aa it would require three 24 x 12'in., or two 
40 X I2-in., or two 36 x 18-in, Blake cruahers fur the aame capacity. 
For the final crusliing two lOxSO-io. gyratory orushera would be 

If tile ore foundation and conditions of mining and transporta- 
tion were such that an initial crusher to receive pieces 24 x 36-in. 
was Hufficiently large, it would be found, iipon making a size 
analysis similar to that showu in Table 111 lor 3S x 42-in. that one 
36 X 24-in. Blake machine cTUsbing to 4-In., followed by two 
10 K 80-in. gyratory crushers each giving a product to pass a 
1%-in. ring, would meet the conditions. 

In an installation of the aise considered above, the crushing 
plant would be separated from the mill, the crushed product 
being delivered to. the ore bina by conveyara The large initial 
crusher must have a solid foundation, preferably resting directly 
on the ground. The large pieces to be handled make it imperative 
that the ore be dumped into a receivii^ hopper that feeds directly 
to the large crusher. If a gravity-plant site is not available or 
desirable, there is no diHicultJ' in elevating the product of the 
initial crusher for further reduction. 

The conclusions reached above are" in accordance with the most 
advanced practice. The economy of breaking by crusher over 
bulldozing and sledging ia beginning to be appreciated. Recent 
installations in South Africa employ large Blake crushers for 
initial breakers, followed by gyratory machines preliminary to 
stamp milling. A notable installation in the United States is 
'yiat of a 6'>x42-ia. Farrell-Bacon jaw crusher capable :of breaking 
down to 16-in. the largest pieces of hard Iron ore ihat can he 
handled by a 70-ton steam shovel. Other plants where economies 
have been secured by Introdufing large initial crushers of the 
Farrel-Bacon jaw type are the Qranby mines, Phoeni.t, B. C, the 
Briti:<h Columbia Copper Company and the Natomas Consolidated 
of California. 

In conclusion it may be said that while each type has a field 
in which It is superior, no sharp 4ines can be d^awn because of 
the many factors involved. It is believed, however, that with 
the aid of the data here pre8ent«d an iavestigatioa along the lines 


a H§-s~ - ss s 

i i*M«i*o^oo3o- a tea - 

I s "I'la |s2"|« ^ as ^ 's 

I i S a s I J 

3 .. 

£ ■- /LOivliO 1 ^ ^ J 


I 111 

I 1 



Ji I i*StS 



indicaUd will quickly disclose the moat desirable machine for 
any particular service. 

Note particularly that the capacity in tona per hour of a 
crusher is a very uncertain quantity. The data in these tables 
have been gathered from various sources and are believed to !« 
fairly accurate, but the author disetaims responsihility for what 
any one crusher may do on any particular job or on any particu- 
lar kind of rock. The only safe course is to leave a liberal 
margin for,, contingencies. The guaranteed capacity of a manu- 
facturer, even if accompanied by Bpecifi cations and a contract, 
may mean only the guaranteed capacity for a run of an hour, and 
at the end of the hour the machinery may need to stand still 
for another hour to cool off. Crushers have been sold on such 
a baais more than once to the sad discomfiture of the contractor. 

Table. III. — Size AitALTSia. 
Crushing Plant Designed for 125 Tons per Hour. 

36 and "i'^d "s ind*™* in. 
IZ Id. 3 in. IK in. and under 
Run in mine , 5S 40 K 15 

Product of second croshet .. JO 40 

Fe«d to third cnuher 60 . . ■ 

Product ol third cruBber ,. .. 60 

In asking for estimates on crusher plants, the following in- 
formation should be given the manufacturer: 

The nature of the material to be crushed. 

Tons or cubic yards to be crushed per day of ten houra. 

Sizea into which the material is to be screened. 

The different sizes to be obtained. 

Storage capacity for crushed stone desired, 

(This information will enable the determination of the proper 
length- of elevator if one is needed.) 

Whether power plant is wanted. 

(If. so, kind of power preferred, steam or electrical. If elec-. 
trical, advise whether direct or alternating current, and voltage, 
phase and cycle.) 

System of delivering rock to the crusher best fitted to local 
conditions : 

A — incline and automatic dump cars. 
B — Level with end dimip cars and tipple. 
C — Level with side dump cars. 
D — Incline chute. 


E — Incline track. 

F — Dump ears on tramway. 

G — Horse and cart. 

Give an idea ae, to tbc character of the ground in the proposesd 
location; wheUier level or on a hillaide. If on a hillaide, give 
approximately the grade with a rough sketch of the site, if pos- 
sible, showing the position of the quarry Relative to the plant 
and the position of railroad tracks. 

Answers to the above questions, together with each other sug- 
gestions and directions as may be otTered by a prospective cus- 
tomer, will facilitate very much the preparation of plans and the 
selection of appropriate machiDery for the plant. 



Bulky Derrick having a capacity of 2 tons, timber of 4 by 4 in. 
bf 12 ft. apnice or pine including two single blocks and 50 ft. 
steel wire rope or 100 ft. manila rope coBtB $142. (Fig. 114.) 

Four Ltg Derrick 4 by 4 in. b; 12 ft. of spruce or pine, with 
iron drum and gear, but without blocks or rope costs $76. 

Three leg Derrick 3 by 3 in. by 11 ft. of spruce or pine with 
wooden drum 6 by 30 in. and no gpar, blooks or rope costs $38. 

Tripod Derrick constructed of black steel pipe and steel drop 
forged fittings costs aa follows (no blocks or rope included): 

Cipuitr tn tb. Wsl(ht In lb. Price 

CapaeiQ' lyp« LenfUi Frice 

3.C00 Top point IS 118.41) 

4,000 Becnlu 18 E«.«0 

If longer lengths are desired add $1.10 per ft., for more capacity 
uid $2.20 per 1,000 lb., fish tackle to swing derrick in and out, 
with 5 blocks and 50 ft. rope, $7.20. 

light Pole Derrick capacity 1,400 lb. with 100 ft. cable and 
winch, not geared, complete with no guy lines, 18 ft. $44. 

Pole Derrick complete with winch, 126 ft. steel cable and block: 

Ospacity Length Price 

2.500 to 3,BI» 1» t B2 M 

4,D0() to E.OOa IS 71 DO 

8,000 to 10,000 IS 126 60 

For additional lengths add $1.10, $1.05 and $2.20 respectively 
per ft 

A-Frame Derrick. For hoisting and setting timbers, columns, 
beams, etc. Complete with 125-tt. cable, block, geared winch, 
height 21 ft., capacity 2,S00 lb., price $70. Combination pole and 
derrick $S«. 



Tower Boom with 14-ft. boom $60.50. Add $1.10 per ft. for 
additional lengths up to 24 ft. FittJngB $45.50 per eet. 

Circle Swing Bnilder"! Derrlok. Capacity 1,000 lb., weight 
200 lb., can be operated by hand, horse or power. Height 74 
ft., boom extends 6 ft., equipped complete with llO-ft.eteel cable. 

Fig. 114. Sulky Derrick, 

Capacity 2,500 lb, weight 350 lb., height 8 ft., swing 10 ft., 
equipped with 150 ft. cable. 

Hand and power Tlio 

8t«l boom e«r» 4.1S 

Stiff Leg Serrtoks. Complete fittings without timber for der- 
rick to 1» operated by a double drum uteam or electric hoist cost 
as follows: 


Three p»r» line 

Guy Derrick. Complete fittings without timber for gu^ derrick 
to be operated by a double drum hoisting engine cost as fo)lona: 

Another roalie of derrick costs as follows; 

Gut Debricks for Standabd Work 
CspBcitf Apjiroiinuite shipping 

Our Derricks fob Bucket Woek 

Loaded bucket Auproiimste shipping Prlr;e 

in lb. weight d( fltttap In lb. f. o. b. New Jerger 

6000 4G&e I WO 

BOOO E115 710 

lOOOO SS55 ftSO 

moo B56& 960 

Stiff Leg Derricks for Standabd Work 

Capscit; Approiinuta (hipping Price 

in tons weight of fltlings in )b. (, o. b. New Jeney 



Stiff Leo DESBioKa i 

; Bucket Work 

Iiaaded bucket 

0. b. Now Jeraey 


The prices of the stiff leg and gay derricka include all neces- 
sary fittings, bolts, sheaves, blocks and 12 ft. all eteel bull 
wheels with guide sheaves, but do not include any timbers or 
wire rope. 

Fig. 115. Stiff Leg Derrick. 


The price of the three ton size includes a pair of in. double 
sheave tnanila mpe blocks and the manila rope snatch block for 
the boom fall line, which is usually snagged to a cleat on the 
A frame when the derrick is 1» operation. Two 9 in. double 
manila rope blocks and a single drum purchase hand power are 
also included for the main fall. No timbers or rope are included. 

The price of similar material for the 5 ton size to be operated 
by an engine, which is the UMial rig, is given above. The price 
for this derrick to be operated by hand power is approximately 



The following list, to accompanj Fig. 116, enameratei the moflt 
important metal parts of stiff-leg derricks to be operated by 
power. It doe« not include guide BheaVe», bloidrs, or other rutmiDg 

Fig. lie. Iron Work Complete for Power Stiff-Leg Derricli — Aa 
Regularly Furnished. 

MHt Top with ■traps and Eud- 


1 Single Boom Sheavs with 

^taat Bottom complete with 

boie<, for centra at must. 

1 Double Sheave MmI BraekM. 

atop, double aheaves aod strap 


these rurnlsbed). and sll neces- 

for boom. 


Flat Boiled Boom Baud with 2 


swj- bolls. 

In building 1,000 ft. of 15-tn. pipe sewer at Big Rapids, Mich., 
a trench 4 ft. wide and about 15.5 ft. deep was dug in graral and 
bouldera. About 8 cto'ds of stone, manj of them Urge siie 


and near the bottom of the trench, were removed, A fuller 
description of this work ia in Gillette's " Cost Data," p. 817- 

The firat 5 ft', were taken out with a scraper and a team and 
driver. The remainder was removed in buckete with a derrick 
having a capacity of 1,500 lb., 18-ft. mast and 18-ft. boom, 
with sheaves arranged for three lines in the bottom tackle and 

Fig. 117. Parker Derrick No. 4 — Hand Power. 

three lines in the hoisting tackle. About 50 ft. of sewer we 
completed per day at the following cost: 

oan at JZ.flO j a.OO 

3*r Iram slid driver K »3.75 3.7S 

holding Bcr.per st «-50 UO 

1 mui dumping scraper s( tl.SO LW 

9 meu puiiing nheMiDg and carrjinE it St HM 1.00 

. man pulliDE aheetiug and carrriu it at H.SO LW 

hone and driver on haul ]iD« atn.611 2.E0 

' aUiog two itcu. yd, bucket* at »» IM 

lajing i)ipa at BOO tM 

layer'* helper at tl.EO 1,50 


This gives a coat of 60.6 cents per lln. ft. of sewer. Tiie 
BRtaal coat of excavation wag 20 centti [ler ;d. for scraper and 12.0 
rrata for derrielt work. The derrick waa moved two or thrw 
times a day, which tfHsk almut seven minutes each time, 

Mr, Saundere git-ea the following detailed cost of a large 
quarry derrick with a capacity on a single line of 20 tons. 

Timber for miit J4'ii a". 7S' f 46.0I> 

Timber for boom SB- 28.00 

Expenw p( deliierlng limber ItM 

Carpfntef . wotk on mut and boom at tl2^ > day 

Derritk irom, nbptTPt 2W.00 

i.lOO' ol beat gilTSnlied 1" iron rofie for S cuy 137M 

Thimbles. cIbdiik, etc 26.W) 

SOO' steel hoiiting ropa, 1%" 240.00 

Labor on d»Bd men. 4 men, 2 day! M tl,4A 1120 

Labor rsiiiiDg derrick, S men. 2 dars at t\A(\ E2.10 

Labor fliini; got'. B "en, ! daj-a at tl.40 82.40 

Total (prior to 1912] JKI1.50 

On railroad work hi Newark it took six men and a foreman 
one day to move a etitf-leg derrick with a 60-ft, boom 150 feet and 
one day to Bet it up, at a total coat of $24.00. This includes 
moving the engine and the stone used to weight the stiff legs. 
Two guy derricks with 70-tt. maats and 80-rt. booms were used for 
two yeara in building a concrete filter. Dnring that period they 
were erected once, moved five times, and Anally removed once 
at a cost of $1,400. an average of $100 per move. As a rule, 
however, a guy derrick can be shifted more easily than a stilT- 
leg derrick, as there are no stones to be liandled. Above costs 
were prior to 1912. 

Derricks should be provided with a bull wheel where possible, 
as the wages of two tagmen will soon pay for it. 

Sizes and prices of steel bull wheels complete with braces: 

Diameter, For booma, Weight 

feet lengrthinfeel complete Price 

s 40 isoo noo 



3000 BBO 

A derrick formerly known as the Kearng derrick was used in 
the construction of a 14-ft. concrete sewer at Louisville, Ky, The 
sewN^ was 4,230 ft. long and had an average depth-of 30,3 ft,; 
the average number of yards per ft, was 26.5. The derrick 
excavated to within 14 ft. of the bottom, and a Potter macbine 
excavated the remainder and carried it to the rear for barklill. 
The derrick operated a ^iyd, clamshell bucket, which loaded 
into wagons for spoiling or into Koppel cars for backfllh The 
output was aboHt 1^00 eu. yds. per week. 


The machine conaUted of a stiff-leg derrick mounUd on * 
turn-table. The power plant was a 7 x 10 in. engine with three 
druma, and a 30 hp. boiler. Th« entire outBt cost about $6,500, 
prior to 1912. 

Kethod of DepoiltliLK Material by Derrick Beyond Beach ot 
Boom. The following notes by Mr. M. A. Miltiff appeared in 
Engineering and Contracting, Feb. 2, 1916. 

The fitting of the derrit-k and the mode of operation are shown 
by the diagrams 1 to 5 in Fig. 118. Three lines are employed. 
From the back drum the load line runa through a sheave at 


Fig. 118 

the mast bottom, thence through a aheave at the boom end. and 
its end ia made fast to a steel block. Prom the middle drum the 
trolley line runs through a stream at the mast bottom, thence 
through the boom end stream, thence through the steel block and 
thence to the top of the gin pole wher« it is made fast. From 
the ilrst drum the boom line runs through a sleeve at the mast 
bottom, thence to another at the mast top, thence to boom end 
sleeve, thence back to a second sleeve at the mast top and thence 
it is dead ended to the middle of the boom. 

If a two-drum engine is to be used, the boom line oan be 
carried on a hand crab, as only an occasional change in the 
position of the boom ia necessary. The block wed is an ordi- 


naiy single-slieave at««l block with swivel hook. It i« oMeaaarj 
to cut out the rWet or bolt In comer fkeing derrkk, ai trollc^ 
csble would rub on it durtog operation. 

The material boc is an open-end skip of 1-cu. yd. capacity, 
fitted with «hains — one to each bask corner and one to the 
middle of the front end. The front chain is ^tted vith a trip- 
hook. The ring in end of the chains ia hooked in the hook in 
the block. 

For the gin pole or tail tower, 26-ft. yellow pine pilee were 
tued, set up on a suitable foundation to pr«vent sinking into 
(he ground under strain. Old hointing cable was used for guys. 

I sboHs poeitloa when picking up the loaded box. The 
operator hoists the load by picking up on the load line, bringing 
the trolley line tight as the load is raised and swinging the 
derrick around so that the boom will face the gin pole. The load 
in hoisted to the desired height and the trolley line tightened as 
Bhown in 2. At this point the operator, holds the trolley line 
tight with the foot-iirake and then releases friction on the drum 
carrying the load line, which allows the bos to trolley toward the 
gin pole as shown in 3. When the box is over desired dumping 
place the foot-brake holding the trolley line tight is released, 
Blloning the box to drop as shown in 4. The hook on the front 
rhoin is then tripped and the box is dumped by bringing the 
trolley line tight, as shown in S. The box is returned by pulling 
is on the load line and slacking off on the trolly line, bringing 
the bos back into position for loading. 

The derrick can be swung around by swinging gear or swinging 
engine and bull wheel as in other derrick work. It was found, 
liavever, that it was necessary to put an attachment on the end 
oF the boom to prevent the trolley line from jumping out of the 
theare when worked at an angle greater than SO degrees each 
aide of the line from the derrick to the gin pole. 

Two derricks were lued on this work, both being 10-ton steel 
guy derricks with SO-ft. masts and 7S.-ft. booma,. One derrick 
was equipped with a three-drum 7^ by 10-in. hoisting engine 
with swinging gear attached, and the other with a two-drum 
S^x 10-in. engine with independent swinging engine. The 8^ 
I lO-in. engine did the work more eatisfactorl^ than the snuiller 

The trolley line arrangement has been ofierated for a distance 
of 300 ft. with a 12-ft. drop. The load necessary to operate it 
depends on the condition of the hoisting engine and the ease 
with which the drums overhaul, hut It is believed that a 2,500-lb. 
load will be found necessary to operate trolley on this flat slope. 

In bailing elush out of' a hote wher« Ave men flUed the braes 


with buckets and one foreman, one hoisting engineer and a 
laborer to dump the boxei completed the crew, 137 boxes have been 
moved in eight hours. In harder digging, where it wae necessary 
to load the boxes with BhoveU, an average of 70 boxes in eighl 
hours has been maintained with the following crew; One lore- 
man; one hoisting engineer; and eight laborers. 

Fig. IIB. Derrick Arranged to Prevent Twlstiug of Fall Block.) 

Method of Keeping Fall Block on a. Derrick from Tvlstioi 
and SwlngiiV' As shown by Fig. IIH a cable is fastened along 
the boom with about 3 ft. of slack. One end of the cable \» 
fastened as close as possible to the sheave near the end of the 
boom, and the other end of the cable is fastened about 10 or 15 
ft. from the luise of the boom. Two flat pieces of iron almul 
^ X 2 in. X 2 ft. are fastened together with two sheaves between 
them, one sheave at each end, as shown in the sketch. This is th^n 


put on the derrick with the slack cable and the fall line paeBiog 
between the aheaves. aa shown in the operation of the derrick. 
Thig guide elides up and down on the cables. When the boom 
LB being lowered the guide slides up. Besides preventing the 
twisting of the blocks it also serves, to some extent, in preventing 
the load from swinging. 

Floating Serrloki. A floating derrick was purchased by the 
cit; of Chicago in 1905 at a cost of $6,2S7.26. It was used on 
the hydraulic filling of the Lincoln Park extension in 1910 for 
various purposes. It was in commission ten hours per day and 
wHB operated by a crew consisting of an engineer, llreman and a 
varying number of deck hands, usually tour. The cost of opera- 
tion during 1910 was as follows: 

Hoan In cammiuion 1.7SJ.G0 

Libor of opwMion tl.871.a 

Fuel BUd lappliM cm.OI 

InauTUiee 100.00 

Lsbor npiin S68.J0 

TawiDI riM 

Total |2,8S6.«S 

Tolal cml of repair* I8S.3Z 

Total c«l of opcratian 2,5TD.M 

Total COM v>i hour 1.60 

Total coat per da; 18.00 

During 191 1 the derrick was in commission for 440 hours 

with a crew of two men, and for 1,254 hours with a crew of six 

nien. The cost of operation and repairs for the 1,694 hours in 
service is given as follows: 

Cost op Derbick Opeeation and Kepaibs 

Operation Per honr 

Idibor, watching: | 1J8.07 

Fuel 2S7.M 

Sappliei i«,e3 

Inanrance H.SO 

1 TBT.M tO-45 

lAbor t 188.70 

Haterial 140.75 

Trams U.OO 

f 343.45 Vt.Sa 

Total operation and repair*, eiceptiat operat- 

lor labor (1,10051 (D.tE 

April 1 to Anc. 1, 4W boon. 

Operatins labor % SE8.ES (1.29 

Fuel, snppliea and repain 0.65 

Cost per hoar. 440 hours %IM 


Alter 4.0S. 1, 1,264 hoorai 

OperatiDs labor tS.lES.Se t2Sa 

Fuel, tappliM sod repairs DM 

Cost per hour, l.ffi* hours 13,17 

ToMI COM for TStH- {UU) t4,8!S.43 


sirmo OUTPITS 

A diver's outfit conBiata of & metal helmet or head covering, 
a breast plate, an air-tight diving suit, and shoes with weights. 
Weights are also attached to his waist to overcome buojutncj. ' 
The helmet always has one window in front, usually oua on 
«acb side, and sometimes one near the top. The air hose runs 
from the pump to a valve either in the helmet or breast plat^. 
Besides this one, a safety and a regulating valve for controlUng 
the pressure are provided. The diver is raised or 'lowered- by a 
rope attached to his waist called the safety lin*. .. 

The air pump is always operated by hand power, may luive 
from one to three cylinders, Toay be single or double acting, and 
of either the lever or fly-wheel type. 

The following are the prices of several diving outfits. The ' 
equipment furnbhed with outfit number 6 is . itemized; that 
furnished with the other outfits ia aimilar but more extensive. 
In outfit No. 1 for two divers the equipment ia duplicated, 
with the exception of the pump which ia designed ao that it may 
be used for either one or two divers. 

There ia a large number of extra fittings and equipment not 
included in the following outfits, auch aa electric lanterns and 
generator outflta, chafing clothing, cushions, pads, etc. 

Helmets cost $175 to $205; suits $60 and $65; air pumps $226 
to $726; hand dynamo with cable, tamp, complete $140. Electric 
breast lamp fitted with lens and 16 c.p. lamp, 126 ft of cable 
$40. Submarine electric lantern $75. Magneto for blasting 20 
holes $35. 40 holea $65. (See Blasting Machines and Supplies.) 

DiTlnr Outfit No. 5. This is designed to bt used in very shal- 
low water and for light work. It is for one diver only and will 
supply air in 30 ft. of water. It is made up as follows; 

Pump on Dl 
1 imprciTed dmnE heli 
1 rnbbar diving dreM . 

cylindsrs. lingle action 
-in Dlanlc, without csae. 
' 'met, tbree liKhtB. c 

... ... -. ...indard wbile air hose, two pIscOT, coupling .. 

1 get diflni veighta. borseahoe mtteru 

IpaiT dhring abiKi, lead soles 

1 pair cuff eipsuders 



I pair riaea and cUmpa 

1 pair rubW diTing miiwns 
1 Ufe or liciiBl line, 100 (t. . 
1 pail cliafiD^ paoU 

y, yd.. robWt 
1 can rubbei 


Price of complete outfit with pump on plank and without case, 
$573.35. Shipping weight of the above outfit is 350 lb. 

DlTlnK Ontftt ITo. 4 is adapted for examinations and all nork 
of brief duration in shallow water, as for water works, sewer 
departments and contractors. Is for one diver only and will 
supply air to flO ft. of water. Complete outfit with single cyl- 
inder, double acting air pump, helmet, dress, etc., $662.20. 
Shipping weight 475 lb. 

DtTing Ontflt No. 3 is especially designed for river and harhor 
work. Used by contractors, engineers, railroad's, etc. With two 
cylinder, single action pump and complete equipment for one 
diver, $1073.35. Shipping weight 1,000 lb. 

Diriug Outfit Ho. S for special work in deep water for one 
diver, is designed for general work, deep sea or shallow water, 
harbor and dock work, wretking, salvage, etc. Will supply air 
to 180 ft. of water. Price of complete outfit with three cylinder 
single action pump, $1,203.3.1. Shipping weight 1,100 lb. 

Diving Ontflt Ho. lA. Complete with one cylinder, double 
action air pump for one diver in 95 ft. of water $923.35. Ship- 
ping weight 1,000 lb. 

OlTing Ontflt So. 1. For general use of contractors, divers, etf. 
Complete outfit for one diver, $1,2BR.3S. Shipping weight l,20fl 
lb. Complete outfit fop two divers, $1,871.70. Shipping weight 
1,800 lb. 

AH the foregoing prices are f .o. b. Boston or New York. 

The manufacturer states that outfit No. 2 or No. 3 is ^enerall; 
called for by contractors. 


In the selection of an outfit the following points should be 
given caireful consideration: 

1. Duration or the work. 

2. Whether it is to he conducted with long or short 8pac<'» 
of time intervening. 


3. Depth of wat«r. 

4. Whether the outfit is to be used on rockj or sandy bottom. 
J. Character of the work. 

U. Selection of the pump. 

The selection of the pump is the most inipoi'tant point, and 
in view of recent experiments and tests of the work that can be 
accomplished by a diver at different depths, buyers are apt 
to order pumpa of too small capacity. A volume of air equal 
to tliat ordinarily breathed at the surface (about 1^ cubic feet 
per minut«) should be introduced into the helmet. The volume 
of free air that muat be taken in by the pump at the surface 
to deliver 1^ cubic feet per minute at £> fathoms is about 3 
cubic feet; at 10 fathoms, about 8 cubic feet; at 27 fathoms, 
about cubic feet, ete. 

The following table gives pressure in pounds per square inch 
at a given depth of water: 

30 feet. ISK poundi. 150 Itel. «&t4 pounda (luail limit). 

SO f«et. Z6U poundi. ISO (e«l, T8 pounds. 

90 feet. 39 pounds. 310 feet, 01>4 poundi. 

120 feet. E2K pounds. 240 feet, tM ponnds. 


Tlie following notes have been taken from a, manufacturer'* 
catalog: Due to the strain and excitement of BUbmarine work 
the diver is not quite in normal condition. The greater his 
exertions the more air he will need, as is the case when a man 
runs rather than waliJs. 

The average male adult breathes at the rate of 15 inhalationa 
per minute or approximatply .25 cubic feet, taking 30 cubic 
inches as tjie average inhalation. Exhaled air contains on the 
average about 70.1% nitrogen, 16.5^ osygen and 1.4 carbonic 
acid gas. 

Tbe superficial area of an average man is 2,160 sq. in., at 
atmospheric pressure (15 db. per sq. in.) the total pressure on a 
man is about 32,400 lb. At a depth of 33 ft. of sea water the 
Pfeasure would be about 65,000 since the pressure increases nearly 
half a pound per sq. inch for each foot in depth.- The pressure is 
''alanced by the air supplied from pumps or compreasors. 
nesaure gauges are generally graduated to show presmires in 
excess of atmospheric pressure, that is, tlie reading of the gauge 
'e alnayg about 15 lb. less than the absolute pressure. For 
ordinary diving work the above data will be entirely adequate. 

In cotnputing the air necessary for a diver it must be re- 
membered that the volume of a gas under pressure varies inversely 


with that pressure. (Boyle's Law.) Experiments sliow that 
the same volume of air should be maintained for all depths, that 
is, the supftly must be proportional to the depth. For instance, 
if a diver U receiving 1^ cu. ft. in t^ unit of time at the surface, 
be must be receiving 3 eu. ft. in the same unit of time when he is 
at a depth of 33 ft. where the pressure is 15 lb.-, at 165 ft., S 
cu. ft.; and at 297 ft., 15 cu. ft. ot air. However if two or three 
times this amount of air be available, so much the better. 

The minimum circulation of air through the helmet should be 
equal to: 

Depth in feet 

■ -ii {ii if fresh wate: 

B pressure (water)! 

L 14-7 J 

or 1.6 times the number of atmospheres absolute pressure, cubic 
feet (measured at atmospheric pressure) per minute. 

On entering the water the increaeed pressure drives the air 
from the lower portion to the upper part of the diver's dress, 
forcing the water against the lower part of the diver's body. 
If the escape valve is wide open the diver will probably feel the 
effects of the increased pressure and find some difficulty in breath- 
ing. The escape valve should be regulated so that an. amount 
of air sufficient to overcome the pressure ot the water will be 
retained in the dress and helmet. 

The formation of nitrogen bubbles in the blood and tissues has 
been found to be the chief difficulty in deep diving. This danger 
can be obviated to a large degree by reducing the time spent 
in deep water and by making the descent and the first part of 
the ascent as quickly as possible. The last part of the ascent 
being made in fixed stages. The old ijheory that a'' diver should' 
descend slowly has been exploded, for the diver will absorb nitro- 
gen as the descent is made. Occasional distress occurs in rapid 
descents from pressure on the ear dnims althn few good divers ar; 
troubled in this respect. During test conducted by the U. S. 
Navy all the divers were able t« descend at the rate of 100 ft. 

Sometimes on arriving at the surface, a diver will experience 
difficulty in breathing and even become unconscious. If partly 
dressed he should be dressed at once and lowered to slightly more 
than one half the depth at which he was working and brought 


up according to tUe tables.* The fact that he i 
makes no difference ae thia is the only way to aave his life. 
When possible another diver may be sent down to tend the 
afflicted diver. Occasionally paralytic symptoms appear within 
& few minutes and sometimes as late as a Jialf after the 
diver comes to the surface. The diver should be lowered and 
promptly brought back to the surface. If the diver is afflicted 
with the " bends " it will be found that these pains invariably 
pass off shortly, but immediate relief may be obtained hy recom- 
pression followed by proper decompression. If he fails to answer 
signals he should be brought to the surface and artificial respira- 
tion applied." 

full initruetiona lor naipi diving 

together with f 

sot. may lie bad fn: 

m the DUDIlfutU 


ied. The (orpgoinr 

rew J. Morw A So 

: use 

or ■living eqoipmer 





(See Grading Machines.) i 

Under this heading are included all machines that fill buckets 
b; dragging them along the ground. The simpler form of drag 
Ncrapere pick up the load, nhen being pulled toward the power 
unit, carrying the material in and ahead of the bucket. The 

bucket is then pulled back along the ground, and the operation 
repeated. With this type of acraper a "dead man" la put down 
and a line is fastened from the front of the bucket to the drum of 
the power unit, the line then going to a block on the dead man 
and to the rear of the bucket, so that the bucket is pulled back 
and forth by operating the drums. 

Drag scraper exeavatorH in general, use are so controlled that 
the bucket is lifted above the ground, after being filled by 
scraping, and carried to the point of dificharge. It is then 
dumped and returned, above the ground, to the point of excava- 
tion, lowered, and the operation repeated. This type of apparatus 
may be operated by a cableway, or self-contained machine. The 
cahleways may he run with st«am, electricity, or gasoline and 
may lie stationary, or operated on rails. The self -contained 
machines are furnished with wheel, caterpillar and walking trac- 

Bottomleii Drag; Seraperi hold from 0.5 to 7 cu. yd. and cost 

from £300 to $700. These scrapers are furnished with renewable 
cutter edges or teeth. Gillette says it requires a 35 to 80 hp, | 
engine, % to 1 in. haul back line and 1 to IK '". pulling line. 
With a 600 ft. haul approximately 15 trips per hr. should he 
made; with a 1,500 ft. haul about 6 trips. An output of about 
500 cu. yd. per 9 hr. day can be averaged under favorable con- 

This type of excavator will work to any depth and to any width 
and is adaptable to railroad work, stripping, irrigation ditches- 
river work, trunk sewers and work of like nature. 



Prior to 1012. 
By James C. Bennett.* 

The goM-dredging industry of California has given rise to a 
method of lereling ground that offers possibility of a consider- 
ably more general application than has been developed to date. 
The method, by the electric drag acraper, was originated in the 
(Jroville field, where one of the dredging companies wan required 
by the municipality to restore to an approximately level surface 
the ground that it had dredged within the city limits. Although 
some such leveling had been done by meann of horses and 
scrapers, prior to the development of the electric drag scraper, 
it had been on small tracts only, and the cost had been almost 
prohibitive when the acreage involved amounted to more than 
one or two, or possibly three, acres. 

A few months ago, the writer was called upon to arrange for 
grading a piece of ground. The work involved leveling down 
some piles of gravel to a grade suitable for building lota, makinj; 
a roadway 60 ft. wide by 600 ft. long, half the width being a 
cut and the remainder a fill, and filling a targe water hole to a 
grade above the level of standing water. Practically all previous 
work had been done hy owners on force account, and, since the 
only object to be gained was to level the ground to any con- 
venient grade, no attempt had been made to determine the yard- 
age involved, hence no unit cost was available. Tlie nearest 
approach was based on the co!«t per acre, which ranged from 
$175 to $200 per acre. Tn this, however, it was impossible to 
secure any suggestion even as to the approximate yardage rep- 

In preparation for the proponed work, an attempt was made to 
determine the approximate yardage involved by a rough measure- 
ment, but without aucress. Some idea mty be gained of the difS- 
cultiea of making measurement^^ on ground of thi^ character 
from the statement that, for purposes of railroad construction in 
this field, it was found ncceiwary to make cross-sections at lO-ft. 
intervals. An estimate based on previous acreage costs would 
be unreliable in this instance, owing to the' necessity of working 
to grade. The writer and the eontraetorg made a joint estimate 
of the time required to do tlie work. Aa the approximate daily 

■ Abatraded tuna Enffmetring Newt. 



ezpenBe woB Icnown within fairly nurow limits, this afforded the i 
moet ecjuitabJe ba«is of coet. ' ' 

Seventy-five working days wm a^eed upon «a sufficient tim^ . 
to complete the work. This was to include lo«t time on account 
of repairs, setting deadmen, moving linea and blocks, and moving 
machine from one position to another. During, and upon com- 
pletion of the work, the following data were obtained: 

Daily Gxpeneee 

ZBelpen & (2.50 

1JJ.J3 kw.-hr. e eu ct 

Uaking s total dailf cost of 

Hme Required 

Md. diiTB sctuaDf Dcrspiai 

No. dBji Du>vin( linea and winch and naktat 

HakiDg toU] dayi worked 

No. workine days in whicb no work was done. 
UakiHS elapsed working time dara 


LIB @ tH.0O H,0OS.I)O 

■^, inalerialB only ""■ 

4^borae leam, man and acraiwr, aurfacJDi street 

id, 14-in. back line MM 

DeprecialiOD at ID^ 

III the foregoing figures, as will be noticed, a charge is made 
against the job for the full coat of the ropes. In doing this, the 
job is being charged with a little more than is really legitimate. 
as the same ropes are good for probably two to three thousand 
yards additional. Also, the depreciation charge is probably lib- 
eral, as there is very little severe wear and tear on anything but 
the scraper. 

A tlose tally was kept of the number of trips made, or load^ 
hauled, and, from time to time, the loads were measured. An 
average of ly cu. yd. per trip is believed to be very nearly 
correct. The total amount of material moved, baeed on the 
number of trips made, was 15,300 cu. yds. Tlie actual coat per 
cubic yard was thus 8.2 cents. 

For the 92 days of actual scraping, the average running time 
was seven hours per day. 


Atdtbes hmrlh of haul 17S ft. 

AversgB day's duty 217 cu. jd. 

Largest dar'H duty <25 m. yd. 

Averaee Lonrly dnly S5.? eu. yd. 

The equipment consisted of a winch, motor, tran8forTDer<, drag 
rraper. hauling and liack lines, and snatch blocks. The winch 
Taa of the type commonly used on gold dredges, having hpen 
aken from a dismantled dredge. It was driven hy a 5fl-hp. 
uotor, throiiffh one belt and two gear reductions, giving a rope 
ipeed — both lines — of about 130 ft. per minute. There was but 
me drvm on the winch, having a central flange to separate the 
■opes. The hauling speed proved a very satislartory one, but the 
eturn rope should have been speeded up to at least 150 ft,, and 
raasihly would have worked satisfactorily at 175 ft. per minute, 
n fitting up the winch for the scraping woric, the original caat- 
ron frame was discarded in favor of a much lighter timber 

Fig. 120. Section Through Bucket Used on Electric Drag 


Tame, in which skids were made a part of the machine. For 
.ransmitting power from the transformers to the motor, an 
irmored three-conductor cable was used. This permitted the 
'inch to be moved about the field with its oivn power, and made 
unnecessary any moving of transformers. During the execution 
if the work, the winch was moved twice, that is, had three posi- 
ions, iiicluding the original. 

The transfca'mera were not disturbed after being originally 
■onnected, as the nature of the ground permitted the ieleetion of 
I location within reach of the several positions of the winch. The 
lower company made no extra charge for running the necessary 
pole line — some five or six hundred feet — and connecting the 
iritngformers and motor. 

The scraper was made of 2-in. ptanks, the cross-section being 
of the shape shown by the accompanying sketch (Fig. 120) . The 


inside measurements were IB x 18 id. and it was 12 ft. wide, 
little experimenting was necessary at the beginning of the worii 
to determine the correct angle at which the bail irons should 
be set. It was found nece^ary to make one or two changes of 
this angle during the progress of the work, owing to different 
conditions of the ground and material. The planks were well 
strapped together with bar steel, and the ends were of steel 
plate. One, and some of the time two, pieces of rail were 
fastened to the top of the scraper for added weight. Both 
hauling and back lines were second-hand mine hoist ropes, 


very good condition, but discarded for mine use in compliance 
with state mining laws. With the exception of one or two i 
portions of the work, the hauling line ran over only one snatck 
block, while the back line ran over three blocks a large portio* 
of the time. A fairly liberal use was made of deadmen, it beio^ 
more economical than to move the winch. 

A Dragline Scraper ExcaTator having novel features was ustJ 
on one of the New York State Barge Canal contracts held by th? 
Atlantic, Gulf & Pacific Co., New York City. This exca 
is known as a Field Tower Scraper, being named from it 
ventor, the superintendent for the company at Comstock, N. Y. 
As shown by Fig. 121, the essentials of the excavator are a mov* 
able tower, a cablewny and hauling lines and a special scrape 
bucket. The tower carries a double drum engine. From one drum 
a line passes up the tower and over a sheave located from out- 


fourth to one-third its. height snd thence down to the bucket. Thig 
is the hauling line. The second line passes up and oner a tower 
liead sheave and thence to a pulley block on the oppodite side of 
the prism. This pulley block rides on a i^-'n. cable about 200 ft. 

Pig. 122. Details of Tower for Field Tower Excavator. 


long, Htretched parallel to tbe prum between twu deadmen, mor- 
ing along the cable bb the tower moves. This second line is tbt 
cableway on which the scraper bucket travels back and forth 
across the canal, being pulled toward the tower by the hauling 
line and eliding back bf gravity. 

Fig. 123. Saiierraan Type of Movable Tower, Used on Levee 
Work, Deepening and Widening Hivers, et«. 

The Tower. The tower is a framed timber structure of height 
HUiiable to cover the width of the excavation for which it U 
intended (the standard tower being 75 ft. in height). This tow*i 
rests on a trussed platform or ear which carries the hoisting 
enpine, coal and other suppliea. The tower is rigidly secured 
to the truBs and g«yed by back stays to the projecting back end 
of the platform. The platform or car runs on four solid double 


flange tasf steel wheels, 16 In. in diameter and 4 in. tread. 
The track consists of two 90.1b. rails each npiked to 6 s 8 in. x 4 
ft. ties spaced 2 ft. apart and bolted to two 2 x 12 in. x 30 ft. 
planks. The engine maj Ije any good make 10x12 in. engine 
with double drums and two niggerheads. The haoling line is 
% in. and return cable is % in.; 13 in. sheaves are used. 

Fig. 124. Type of Built-up Timber Mast. Photo Taken o 
Reservoir Cleaning .lob. 

The tower is moved forward or back by a ly^ in. manita line 
secured to a deadman suitably placed, passing through sheaves 
secured to the platform and around the niggerhead. The track 
is also moved ahead by the same means, the deadmen being 
dispenRed with and line passing around the end of a boom which 


is n part of the tower. The line around the niggerbead is op- 
erated by the firemsA. 

The operator's cabin is placed up about one-third the height 
of the tower id full view of the work, and the eogine is manipu' 
lated bj Buitable levers and brakes connecting the operating 
cabin with the engine. 

Scraper Bucket. The distinctive feature of the excavation 
is the scraper bucket which is shown bj Fig. 12S. This bucket has 
a capacity of 48 cu. ft. level full, but in ordinary material it will 
" crown up " to 2 cu. yd. capacity. Particularly easy and certain 
control are claimed for this bucket. These advantages are 
brought about by the combination of two eheavea placed at the 
rear end of the scraper at right angles and vertically to it, the 
return line passing reversely over the upper and under the lower 
sheave, while the bottom of the scraper is fitted with two curved 
cradles or shoes, resulting, in connection with the pulling line, 
in such control of the cutting edge that the scraper can be sus- 
tained at any vertical angle at the will of the operator. 

Celt Sata. The chief first cost of this plant is in the hoist- 
ing engine and cable, which are all standard eonunercial designs 
and usable for other purpoaee. The following is an estimate 
furnished by the Atlantic, Gulf &■ Pacific Co. of the cost of a 
tower scraper plant, including everything: 

5,080 n. B. M. lumber at (38 per M % W3M 

3«0 II. B. M while osk bI MB p«r M. 18.20 I 

5fci lb. ironbolU »nd nnta at 6 ct. M.M 

lao ft. H'ID. wire rope bscluUye USA 

2 H-ln. tumbocklei M 

1 headblock iheave »nd bearing 10 00 

1 tiauUng Bheave and bearing 4.00 I 

1 S>4 z 10 Lidnrwood double drum haialinc engine . . l,0gS.0a 
1 BCraper budlet, coniplete with cutting edge, iheavH, 

etc 800.00 

Labor directing bsied on condition in northern 

Kew York, earpentera at *i,60 per 8-hour day .. 200.00 

ToUl (prior to 1912) tLS&S.M 

The following is an estitnato of the operating cost of the plant ; 
also furnished by the Atlantic, Gulf &■ Pacific Co.: 

Item per month 

Wire rope tUO.OO 

20 toni coal at 14 SOM 

Oil. wula and repair* U.Ot 

Total (prior to 1912) W5S.00 I 

To this is to be added the labor cost. Each shift requires the 
following force: 


1 foremBD st 37H rl. per hour t 3.00 

1 engiuBfr Bl J7H rt. per hoot S.OO 

1 OrBmsn « 22 cl. per hour 1.76 

1 aigDsl maD at Si ct. per honr 2.M 

E Isboren •( 20 el. per hour 8.00 

And an addilionsi 

1 Uboren st 20 ct..per hour 6,10 

Total (prior to 1912) B4.1S 

Aaeuming 26 working daya and two shifU per day, the labor 
coit for one month ih ¥1,250.32, which, added to S255 given above, 
makee a total cost for operation of $1,511.32. Atiauniing interest 
on plant at '/S% per month we have an additional S9.30, making 
the grand total $1,520.62. Assuming an output of TOO cu. yd. 
per day we get a cost per cubic yard of 8,4 ct. This cost 

Fig. 125. Scraper Bucket for Field Tower Excavator. 

included, however, a proportion of the field ofSce Mcpensee. In 
regard to the life of the cables used, the Atlantic, Gulf & Pacific 
Co. writes : 

" While the life of the wire rope used depends almost entirely 
upon the character of material to be excavated; in clay and loam, 
the plant working two eight-hour shifts per day, 26 days each 
month, excavating approximately 700 cubic yards per day, w-ll 
use 800 to 1,000 ft. of wire rope per month." 

Cost of IhUK Scraper Buckets. The following table gives the 
cost of these buckets without teeth. 


ir teeth are wanted a set of 4 for the %, 1 and IV^ nize conl^ 
$S2. For the 2 and 2Mi Bize the cost is $112, and for the 3 and 
3Vi Bize. $180. 

Coit of Cableway D»e Scraper OntAti. The following tn the 
eost of buckpt and carrier equipment including exoftvator bnuket, 
[carrier, traveler bloek, dump block, atup button and patented 
[■bain mountings. 

Approiimale Price 

diippin; wdftit in lb. (. «. b. Cbicigo 


A 50O ft. qpan dragline cablewa; ext^avator ini^luding bucket 
and carrier equipment, mast top PSBemlily, bridle and anchor at- 
tachmentn, wire rop« a ppc ideations, without neceseary engine or 
limbera for mant or tower costa an follows: 

Aaseinbl; of the Sauerman (Shearer and Mayco l^P^) 
Dragline Cableway Bucket. Carrier and Mountings. 

son le by 16 72 31300 t6» 

fiOO 1« by 16 30 MOO 170 

The following notes on a, cableway dra|; scraper by Mr. J. B. 
Slattery appeared in Engiiteering A'ews Record May 25, mfS, 
Thia installation is illustrated by Fig. 130. 

The first cost of a machine of this type, erected and equipped, 
in about 946,000. It has a clear apan of M2 ft. The towers am 





11 l| Jr^ 

>!b 'ays a'stsw 


I «; lailiSSSsosssgasB | |S js|siissa!is| 1 1 


e 8'aas°'*-*"'KSS5S3;! 

_g ^-a32sas2sa3as=^-s "^ -* 




of steel, 8& and 45 ft. high respectively, and support betwesn 
them a 2^-in. cable. On this c&ble travels a carriage which 
carries a 3-jd. drag- line bucket. The carriage is moved back 
and forth hy mMins of an endlsu line, operated by one of the 
drums of the main engine. The bucket is loaded bj means of a 
cable which leads from the front end of the bucket t« another 
drum on the main engine, and is lifted bj means of a cable 
which is attached to the bail of the bucket and runs thence 
around a sheave on the carriage, ovtr a sheave at the top of the 
head tower and thence to a third drum on the main engine. 

Fig. 128. Diagram of Dragline Cableway Excavator Installed for 
Excavating Sand and Gravel from Shallow Deposits in River 
600 ft. Wide. Includes a 100 ft. Self. Supporting Movable 
Tower on which h Alounted the Hoistiog Engine and Grav- 
ity Screening Equipment. 

A pull of 50,000 lb. for loading the bucket is developed by 
means of a specisl engine, which operates a hau|.down rope which 
runs from the drum of this engine around one sheave of a double 
tandem block (the second sheave of which rides on the drag or 
loading line) and thence to the frame of the tower. 

The bucket is dumped at will by means of a haul-down rope 
which pulls down on the dumping line attached to the back of 
the bucket, and running thence to the conveying drum, thus 
accelerating the movement of the rear of the bucket relatively 
to that of the front end and consequently causing the hack end 


of the bucket to lift and the materUl to dump. This hant-donn 
rope in operated by meana of a piston and steam cylinder. A 
special engine is provided on the head tower to move the EUtme. 
The tail tower is moved by means of a friction dram operated by 
the conveying line. 

The crew of this machine consists of one foreman ri^^r; one 
operator; one rigger's helper; one engineman; one flreman; otM 

Fig, 129. Diagram of Sauerman Dragline Cableway Excavator 
Installation for Digging Gravel from Itiver Bottom and 
Delivering Material to Gravity Screening Plant. 

signalman; eight laborers (trackmen), three on tail toWer and 
five on head tower; three laborers (dressing levee) ; three team- 
sters (ploughing, dressing levee and hauling supplies). 


Yardage plai 
Uontb during moii 

Apra 5.211 

UVr 13.239 

JuM ,.. !O,060 

Jnlj' 3»,85(l 

Aoffuit 19,0511 

Beptfinfcsr ..,,',.■,, i,rm 

Odobrr 2i.80O 

Novamber 26,600 





The very high costs of September were dne to practically'the 
entire month having been lost on account of high water, wet pits 
and delays incident to renewing the main Gallic — the 1att«r due 
. purely to bad management. The high cost ul December was dne 



Fig. 130. Lidgerwood Drag-Line Cableway Excavator Used in 
Vicksbnrg District to Build Hissisaippi Levees, 

to a flood and to the necesnity of stopping work some days before 
adually drowned out, in order to prepare for a prolonged high 
water. Shortage of coal and the holiday season also cut down tlie 
output of this month. The past season was an exceptionally bad 

Kg. 131. Tower Drag Scraper Excavator. 

one for levee work, and progress was retarded throughout by 
wet pits. 

The Tower EsMTator. The principal parts of this apparatus 
are a hoisting engine; a tower 65 ft. high, guyed to caUes ex- 


tendiDg to the grouod on each aide, where inateod of being 
stationary, they slide on other cablee stretched parallel to the 
ditch and fastened to deadmen, thus giving stability to the tower, 
while allowing it to move parallel to the ditch; the scraper 
bucket in which the earth ie moved; and cables for operating 
the bucket. The machine is built upon a platform and is moved 
on rollers by winding a cable fastened at one end to a deadmsn. 
A more efficient provision for moving the machine would doubt- 
less result in considerably reducing the cost of operation. The 
operation of the machine is illustrated in Piga. 131 and 132. Its 
cost was about $1,600 prior to 1012. With the strengthening 
of parts neceaearj to fit it for estra heavy work the cost would be 

Fig. 132. Bucket Used with Tower Drag-Scraper Excavator. 

about $2,000, of which $1,200 would represent the cost of a 
hoisting engine ( 1BI2 figures). 

In operating the excavator the bucket is loaded by pnlling il 
toward the tower by winding up the cable, which, passing over 
the lower sheave on the tower, is attached to the front end of 
the bucket. The bucket is then dumped by winding over the 
drum the cable which passes over the sheave on top of the tower 
and which is attached to the back end of the bucket. The bucket 
is returned to the ditch by further tightening the upper cable 
and loosening the lower one, then it quickly slides back by 
gravity to the starting point. The earth is deposited between 
the ditch and the machine. 

The following is the cost for each eight hour shift in operating 
this machine: 

Engineer t SM 

Flremm !.0» 

Foreman t.DO i 

Sign»l man 2.00 

Csble BhlflCT 1.80 


Horsa ■cd mun, nmiag track 3,00 

4 Liiboreri, n KM «k1i S.W 

Itt ton* o( cMl to the «hift, «t »3 per ton tM 

ToWl IptlOT to 191!) »» 

If to this 18 added ^1.50 per shift for maintenance, depreciation, 
interest, and repairs at tlie rate of 50% per annum on the 
irij^nal cost of the investment, the total cost per shift is $27. 

By arranging for the operator to work from a station in the 
tnw«r, where the woric would be in full view, the signal man 
.vould be eliminated, and by plaeing the machine on a track vrith 
in arrangement for moving the machine ahead on the work b; 
means of gearing attached to the axlee probably two or three 
more men could be dispensed with, thus further reducing ther coat. 

The bucket used on this machine had a capacity of about 2 
yd., but in ordinary operation at least 3 yd, were carried at 
pach load. While in operation about 1 bucketful wag excavated 
and deposited in each forty seconds. This would make a rate 
of 4 cu. yd. a min., and the contractor was of the opinion that 
he could maintain an output of 1,000 yd. per eight-hour shift for 
an entire acason's run on continuous work of a favorable char- 
acter. The work actimlly done wu not carried on continu- 
ously, and the beat record made wfCl 40,000 cu. yd. per month 
for two shifts for one machine. At a cost of $50 a day for two 
shifts this would amount to about 3 ct. per yd, fof the month's 

The machine has a reach of 210 ft, from the far side of the 
ditch to the near side of the waste bank. Tha,t ia, all the dirt 
must be excavated and deposited in a space t>f 210 ft., making a 
waste bank about 20 ft. high if necessary. The bucket ia le- 
markably well under control. 

This machine was in many ways crudely built, and its excellent 
record is due apparently to the exceedingly simple principle of its 
operation, and to the economy of power, motion and time in ex- 
cavating. The bucket moves on a straight line, across the ex- 
cavation and onto the waste bank, and when dumped alides with 
great rapidity down the tightened cable to the position tor dig- 

With a construction including modern devices for moving on 
Ihe work and the improved bucket, it seems that this should be a 
very important addition to the types of excavating machinery. 
It is fitted tor digging ditches 20 to 100 ft. wide and 2 to 30 ft. 
deep, though its greatest economy of operation ia in constructing 
the larger sectionB. 




The Drag ScrapCT Excavator haa been used with great suc- 
cess on the Neiw York Barge Canal. Where canals are being 
dug and a large waste batik munt be built, or where a heav> 
fill is to be made in ground which i» average and hae no 
large boulder or tree stumps, this machine is very aucccesful. 
The scraper bucket is auspended by caliles from the end of a 
long boom. Booms 00 ft. or 10() ft. long, giving a refkch of 100 
or lift ft. from the center of the machine Ui the end of the boom, 
are practicable. The entire machine swings on a circular tum- 

1 New York Bargf 

tal>le. The bucket ia filled hy pulling it directly toward th« 
center of the machine by means of a cable so there is no strain 
on the boom except that due to its own weight and the weight 
of the bucket and its load. As a result the liooma of thU typ< 
of machine can safely be made lighter and consequently longer 
than is the case with the booms of dipper dredges of similnr 
size and strength. A machine of the type illustrated (Fig. 133). 
U8ed on the New York Barge Canal, has an S5 ft. boom, a reach 
of 06 feet and weighs 147 tons. A 2 yd. dipper is used which in 
operation is usually filled full and sometimes earried 4 jrd, at a 
load. The engine is of 16 hp. capacity and the boiler 54 bp. 



The machbe is probably strong enough to operate a 3Vi yd, 
dipper. It excavated earth 00 ft. from tlie center oE the machine 
an one side and deposited 100 ft. from the center on the other 
aide. It can deposit material on banks from 20 to 3S ft. in 
height. A machine is usually moved forward b; means of cables. 
During May, 1910, the items of cost "of operation were as fol- 

EDgioeer, it UO per tDtmlh t 90.00 

Engineer, u tSS per monlh 84.01 

"d-y"'..^™.''."^'!'..'!?,".."''.'!.'.'! .'f",.'....;....1*! sss-oo 

Cosl, at |3per tan 147.00 

Total .,. ISS8.86 

The hrst cost of thin machine was $10,000. The cost of opera- 
tion of this machine on the Kew York Barge Canal was as fol- 

Item April May Jnne July AnguM 

3U.T4 (£84.29 t74T.TT t BSO.SS tl,lt8.ET 
. tS.Si 62.00 4li.!a 7(i.l2 

175.00 I7B.0O 175.00 175.00 175.00 

Shitting on work .... 
Tats) '..1921.54 »375.11 »So.37 n,lR).94 11,368.08 

Averan CM( per yd.. .. tO.177 ta.04S (O.OSBS t0.0Q4S (0.0289 
Yards complete duriog 

month S,a05 18,366 26,333 33,055 17.S63 

'Uacbine fell inla canal. 

Eleatrlcallj Operate! Drag line Macbinei. Average cost for 
the season, including all charges, 4,1 ct. per yard. Two large 

electrically operated drag line scrapers were used on the Calu- 
met Sag Channel near Chicafto. These machines had 100 ft. 
steel booms and were equipped with 2V2 cu yd. seraper-buck- 
ets, and each weighed about 120 tons. The following description 
id reprinted from Enginrr'rirtg and CoKlrru^ing, Jan. 22, 1013: 

The arrangement of the operating machinery is shown in the 
accompanying drawing (Fig. 134). The double drum hoist is 
operated directly liy a gear on the shaft of a 112 hp., 60-cyc1e, 
^■phase motor, making 000 r. p. m. A 62 hp., 00-cycle, S-phaae 
motor, 955 r. p. m., operates the bevel swing gear as shown. The 
sir brakes are operated through power furnished by a 25 cu. ft. 
motbr-driven air compressor. Tlie current is furnixhed by a 
public service company and is brought from Blue Island, several 
miles away, over a high tension liae at 33,000 volt to « trans- 



former house on the work where the voltage ia stepped down 
to 2,300 volts. It ii agiun stepped down to 440 volts through 
B portftble transformer which is attached to the dragline ma- 
chine by a cable and is pulled along on ita trucks a,s the machine 
moves ahead. On the machine the current is. stepped down to 
110 volts for the incandescent lamps and to 3S volts for the 
Bcarchlight which is placed on the front of the house and just 
under the boom. 

The maobine ia operated by two men on board and two men 
outside for handling the track. While moving to position or 
commencing work one of the machiueB was moved 410 ft. in one 
day. The track sections upon which the machine runs are 15 ft, 
long and are built up solidly. They are built of a solid 3-in. 
plank bottom upon which are fastened the ties set about 8 in. 
apart. On top of the ties are B x 10 in. timbers cm edge under the 
W-lb. rails. The whole is bolted together and has eyebolts near 
the ends of the 6 x IS in. timbers bo that it can be handled by a 
four-way chain. 

The work upon which the machines are engaged consists of 
about 8,000 ft. of canal section from 31 to 37 ft. deep, 36 ft. wide 
on the bottom and with slopes of 2 on 1. The south berm will 
lie about 90 ft. wide or will extend 150 ft. from the center tine 
of the canal and the north berm will be 40 ft. narrower, accord- 
ing to the plans. About 8 to 12 ft. of the bottom work on Section 
5 will be rock and it is not yet decided by the contractor how this 
will be handled, though it is likely to be handled in skips by a 
derrick with a very long boom. The dragline machines are set 
on opposite banks. The one on the aouth will excavate half the 
canal nection in two cuts. 

That the use of electricity will be economical is illustrated by 
machines in California which actually used ^ of a K.W.H, per 
cubic yard of material handled. The coat of the current there 
was on a sliding scale ranging from % to 1 ct. per kilowatt 
hour. On the New York Barge Canal, electrical machines were 
used where the coat of current at about 2^ ct. per kilowatt hour 
was about 1 ct. per cubic yard. 

The reliability of power is a most important argument in 
favor of the uae of electricity. The uncertainty of securing fuel 
Knd water, especially in bad weather, is a iource of trouble to 
the contractor. 

The cost of hauling coal for a steam machine of this size would 
likely amount to $40 per day, and the coal itself (about 10 tons) 
would cost about S30. These itnns are eliminated where electric- 
ity is used, and the cost of the current is substituted. 


EIectri« Dragline Work on the BoIbc FTOjoet. The follviriiig 
notes are from The Ea:oavating Engineer, April,- 1916. 

In the spring of 1918 the Reclamation Service made a careful 
survey of the district and proposed the construction of a system 
of open-cut drainage ditches. This plan called for the construc- 
tion of 50.4 miles of open draina varying in depth from 7 to 14 
ft. and in bottom width from 5 to IS ft. with side slopes of 
1^ to 1. The system contemplated 2,000,000 cu. yd. of excavation 
besidas many culverts and bridges, the total expenditure of which 
was $226,000. Actual construction was started in Nov., 1913, 
and completed by June 5, 1916. The excavatimi was done by two 
Bucyrus electrically operated dragline excavators mounted on 

A third Bucyrus electric dragline, similar to the two above 
mentioned, woe used for digging drainage ditches oh the Fargo 
Basin of the Boise Project proper. This work was completed 
in April, 1915, and consisted of 275,044 cubic yards of excavation 
or about 5^ miles of open drains. Some of the records given 
later refer to thia work. This work, liecause of softer material 
and less water, was comparatively easier than that «i the Pioneer 
Irrigation District. Consequently, this must be kept in mind in 
reading the records of output. 

Conditions existing demanded the use of electricity to operate 
the machines. The water throughont the district Is uniit for 
boiler use, due to the large amount of alkaline salts which it 
contains. Furthermore, for a large part of the time, the machines 
were working In swamps where it was at times impossible to 
drive a loaded wagon close enough to the machines to supply 
them with fuel. Power was secured from a 44,000-volt tranamie- 
slon line that passes through the district. This voltage was 
reduced to 4,000 volts at a held substation, from which it wa^ 
delivered to sub-stations at the excavators where the current was 
again reduced to 440 volts, i 

Power was purchased .for one cent per K. W, hour. The 
average aniount of power used per cubic yard of material moved 
was 0.9 of a kilowatt. 

Each dragline had a 50 ft. boom, a Wt yd. bucket and weighed 
about 65 tons. The main machinery was driven by a motor of 
50 hp. continuous and SO hp. intermittent rating and the swinging 
machinery by a 25 hp. motor. The character of the material 
over which the excavators operated was so soft that a cater- 
pillar mounting was chosen. 

The following is the performance of machine No. 1 during 
August, 1915: 



0. I Dragline 

East Caldwel 






P«r Shift 




Total uid ST 

W.B.., 7,910 




Highest run per shift this month: 1,573 cubic yards. 
Numlwr of shifts dug: *OVi- 
Excavation started August 14, 1915. 


Machine Efficiency, Machine No. 1 



iniort »^*lra U:30 

Elect ri( 

BlMtint; : 45 .1 

Total tM:K 100.0 

The total yardage excavated by the two machines on the 
Pioneer District under tbft original contract wax 1,755.238 cubic 
vards neat meaBurement. Probabl; 20% of the mat'-rial would 
class as hardpan, A total of 16,200 pounds of dynamite was used 
in blasting. All of the material was saturated and often very 
Boft and miry. Both excavators were operated continuously, three 
ei^ht-hour shifts per day, with the exception of the month of 
Januarj', 1015, when work was suspended because of deep frost 
snd a lO-day delay on one uiachlne in Septem1)er, 1914. 

The best month for one machine on the original Pioneer con- 
tract was made in March. 1915, on the Solomon Slough Drain. 
We give this below. 

Total yardage *t,633 cu. yd. 

Average per hour 155.3 cu. yd. 

ATeraga prr shift 99« cu.yd. 

Higheel shift l.tWcu.yd, 

On the original contract from Feb., IdU, to June, 1915, in- 
clusive the hfgh«at k*erage per hoar was 133.) cu yd. Average 
number of hours actually worked per g-hour shift was 6,13. The 
highest average per shrft was 850 cubic yards, working an aver- 
age of 4.T1 hours per 8-hour shift. 

As stated, the work on the Fargo Basin was somewhat easier. 


and below is the average for the month of March, 1916, on the 
Laht and Griffith Drains. 

Total y«id»(e M,743iu.rd. 

AT9r»gB per hour 180.3\:u.7d- 

AverBce par shift 1.1T8 co. yd. 

Hisbsit rnn par ihitt 1,701 cu. yd. 

ShiftB worlied TC 

In September, 1S15, on the Midway itnd Nampa Drains of the 
Pioneer District, under the supplemented contract, the follow- 
ing were recorded: 

Total rard«KB 64,lMcu. yd.- 

AvemgB per hour 1T7 eu. yd. 

A«er»Be p«r shirt l.lSTen.i'd. 

Highest run per shift 1.8K en. yd. 

Shffti worltBd M 

Cost of Operation 

The crews employed consisted generally of three men, an oper- 
ator, an oiler and a laborer. The laborer, however, was only 
used when blasting was necessary. - 

Below is the unit coat of the work per cubic yard on the Pioneer 
Irrigation District accomplished under the original contract, 
exclusive of depreciation and overhead cost. 

On repairs ....'.l\'.l\'.''.'.\''.'.''.'.'.'.'.\'.\''.'.''.\'.\"\'.l '.WM* 

Onblasling tni driUing Wit 

On moTing machine .0019 

On clearing right et way and trlnoiiiii hunks . . .0006 
On eniinfering and auperlnteadence .0033 

Electrical power at .Ca per hw. honr tO.OOSS 

fiepair parts and mlacMlaaeoas luppllea .0077 

Wire rope and armored cable . .0015 

Blaaling euppliea .0015 

•Total unit malcrial and snpply cost tO.DlK 

Electrical inatalUtlon of transmiision hnes 012E 

Total unit cost ¥>MO 

Cost of Draglines. Draglines may be had in a wide number 
of aizes and capacities. They are operated by steam, electricity 
or internal combustion engines and are furnished on skids, trac- 
tion wheels, caterpillars or trucks with or witboat the self- 
propelling feature. 

The steam operated machine is the moat widely used at the 
prsHcnt time and the following prices are for that t^pe of 


A steam operated dragline mounted on ekidB, with a 45-ft. 
boom and 11^-cu. yd. bucket, weighs 30 tons and roHta . $20,800 

Fig. 134A. Stesm Operated Dragline MouDted on Caterpillars 
Building a Levee in Missouri. Length of Boom, 45 ft.. Size 
of pucket 1% c«. yd. 

f. o. b. factory. Thia same size machine mounted on caterpillars 
weighs 60 tone and costs $29,000. 
A draglme mounted on skids, with a 60-ft. boom and 2-cn. yd. 

Fig. 134B. Steam Operated Dragline with a 125.ft. Boom and 
6-cu. yd. Bucket on Levee Enlargement Work on the Mis* 
sissippi River. 

bucket, weighs 62 tons and costs $26,700, mounted on cater- 
pillars the machine weighs 30 tons and costs $3S,30o! 
A dragline mounted on skids, with a 100-ft. hoom and 3>^cu. 



yd. bucket, weighs 145 tods and cobU $46,000, mounted on eeU- 
propelliug trucks the machine weighs 166 tons and costs $56,800. 

A dragline mounted on self-propelling trucks, equipped with a 
125-ft. boom and 4-cu. yd bucket, weighs 210 tons and <nisIs 

Various conlbinalionl^ of boom lengtlis and bucket capacities 
may be had. For certain work, such as levee building, it is very 
often advantageous to have a machine with a longer boom and 
a bucket of smaller capacity. The manufacturer is prepared to 
meet special conditions by designing machines accordingly. 

Electrically operated machines are economical where no great 
dietaucee are to be moved and, of course, where electric power 
suitable for the operation of the machine is available. 

Fig. 135. At Work in a firavel Pit. 

Gasoline or kerosene engine power may be applied to the 
smaller si/es of machines; two machinee being described below. 

A gasoline engine operated drag line excavator (Fig. 135| 
weighs approximately 32,000 lb. for shipment and costs S6,000 
coigplete The engine is 40 hp. for either gaaoline or kerosene. 
It is p(|iiipped with a % cu. yd. bucket. 

This machine will, on open work, dig and place tile in the trench, 
and then backfill the trench. In this kind of work, two men are 
necessary for the operation of the machine; one man for the 
actual operation and one to do the incidental work around the 
machine during the operation. The machine may also be u»ed 
ill ditch cleaning and repairing, and other work where a light 
drag scraper machine can be used to advantage. 

Gasoline Dragline Excavator having a 30 rt. boom, operates 
a %-yA. bucket and is furnished with caterpillar traction. Thi? 


lacbine U operated by a marine type gaaoUne motor, hae an 
atimated capaoity of 300 to 600 cu. yd. in 10 hr. depending 
n the material and a traction speed of from Hi to IH miles 
er hr. It uses from 35 to 45 gal. of gasoline, keroseite or dia- 
illate in a 10 hr. day. The approximate shipping weight of 
he machine is 38,000 lb. and it co«U $0,530 f. o. b. factory without 
be bucket. 

The XolloniDg cost data of a traveling excfivator appeared io 
n article by Mr. W. W. Patch in Enginetrittg Record, Dec. 12, 

When operating under the most favorable conditions this ma- 
hine, with a crew of four men, excavated 400 cu. yd. in a day 
if ft hr. While for a period of seven months the average per- 
urmaDre baa been at the rate of 40 cu. yd. per hour, even when 
ime lost on account of repairs and moving from ptarc to place 
B included. If blasting is required, or if the ground is so soft 
la to require planking beneath the wheels of the machine, then 
he crew is increased to a total of six men. 


Item Coal eu. yd. 

UbOT, rwTi t2.G70.8S fO.MTS 

LsbOT. boTHi m.3i) ■ .IXI3> 

Eiplosiy^B -...: 321.97 .OOSS 

Fwl, (Baoline 29U.03 .0C62 

Snppliea (greue, oD. lumber, etc.) E24.T5 .WH 

DcprwiatiOD. tnaebine I.IM.OD .0213 

Gewrsl eipentM 712.15 .0111 

Totil t«.S55.8S 10.1188 

The work comprised deepening an old ditch which carried 
Jrsinage water constantly. The old aection was about 2 ft. deep, 
4 ft. wide, and had 1.5 to 1 side «lopes. The new section was 6 
'1. deep, 5 ft. wide at the bottom and had 1.6 to I side slopes. 
Tfce ditch was about 4 mi. long, and for approximately one-half 
<•( its length the bottom 2 ft. was in indurated materials which 
r^uired blasting before it could be excavated. 

The crew compriHcd frdm 4 to men and 2 horsea at the fol- 
lowing wages: Machine operator, $130 per month; gas-engine 
"lan, (80 per month; powder-man, $3 per day; 2 laborers, each ' 
*2.48 per day; 2 horses, each Sl,25 per day, A day's work com- 
prised 8 hr. on the" job. The total material moved was 56.017 
•^a. yd. or approximately 40 cu, yd. per hour. 


Drawing boards of thoroughly seaBoned, xelected narrow Btrip« 
of white pine, and either finished natural or with a light coat of 

shellao, coat ae follows: i 

One face for drawing i2 1 17 in. %1S& 

One face (or dr» wing Ifl»!lin. 2.(» 

One lace for drawing MxiSin. S.» i 

Bolb rices (I 
Both fBcee f< 
Both faces fc 
Both facM [< 

30 1 M in. 


r dcaviUE 31 1 

Drawing boards of white pine, with hardwood ledges attached 
by BcrewB, arranged to allow for contraction and expansion : 

One face for drswins 31i42ia, S.80 

One face Car driving SSxBSin. 16.00 

One faee for drawing 36i60iQ. HJW 

Extra large drawing boards of pine; 

SB X 71 in t 28.00 

42 1 «0 in. 
42 X 73 in. 




Trestles and horses for drawing boards. Wooden horses, light 
construction, 37 in. high, 35 in. long, per pair, $6.60. 

Ditto, fine quality, 37 in. high, 35 in. long, per pair, {9.75. 

Ditto, fine quality, with removable sloping ledges, 37 in. high, 
35 in. long, per pair, $10.60. 

Adjustable wooden horses, best workmanship, 30 In. long, adjust- 
able for height from 37 in. to 47 in. on level or slope, per pair, 

Adjustable drawing table with iron supports: 


There are four types of dredges: (1) The dipper dredge; (2) 
the grapple dredge; <3) the bucket elevator dredge; (4) the 
bjdraiilic dredge. For harbor work or where the water is rough 
the 8COW ccmtaining the machinery also has pockets for the 
inat«rial, which it conveys to sea or some other dumping place. 
Thie is called a hopper dredge. 


A dipper dredge is really a long-handled steam shovel mounted 
on a ecow. The dippers range in size from ^ to 15 cu. yds. 
This type of dredge is adapted to work in all kinds of materials. 

Mr. Gillette, in "Earthwork," describes a home-made dipper 
dredge, the cost of which was as follows; 

1 Hnsling eagina sod boilei tslsile drum, dbl. cyl., 

8 hp., )«H1 in.; weiBM S.EOirib.) t 6IXI.D0 

2 Scows, S,m (t. B. M. (t 1 34 ft.) 

10 BhMTM, fl in ».' 

liO n. ^e In. bolBtint chklD. 260 lb.. ® 8 ct W.i 

IW Ft. » In. iron, 256 lb., ® * ct lO.i 

„_.'. 1^ yd., 400 lb., © 10 it 

10 Ft. cut iron FKli, 2m lb.. 9 10 ct 

- ~ table piBlP and rim. 100 lb., Q) 10 c1 

100 Bo1l_, ., _ 
1,000 Ft. B. M. ] 


This dredge can be loaded on two flat cars or four ordinary 
wagons. The erew consists of three men and the total cost of 
operation is about $6.00 per day. fn di^fting a trench IS ft. 
wide by 12 ft. deep the average capacity in 10 hours is 60 yards 
of hardpan or 175 yards of river )jravel. 

In Engineering News of October 30, 1902, is described a dipper 
dredge with a 2^ cu. yd. bucket which excavated in clay 20 ft. 
below the water, depositing the material in two scows, each 
having a drop poeket of 140 cu. yd. A tug boat towed the 
scow containing material to the dumping ground. The total 
coat of tlie outfit was $43,000. Six per cent Interest plus 6 per 


eent depreciation over 100 working days g^ves a coat of $51,611 
per day. The usual rental of such a plant itt $100.00 per da.v. 
The daily wages and coal bill average about $30.00. The etveragF 
output in 10 hours was 745 eu. yd. at a total cost of He per cu. 

Land Dredgres of the dipper type are made b; one manufac- 
turer in two desiipiB; the walking and track type. They tnav 
also be adapted for floating work. 

These dredges are adapted to a very wide range of -work, 
but are more frequently used in the conatrtiction of drainage 

Fig. 136. Dipper Dredge — Walking Type. 

and irrigation ditches having approximate dimensions of from 
6 to 6(1 ft. top width, 4 to 20 ft. in depth, constructing the rp 
quired slope of bank, ranging from Mi to 1^ ft. back to 1 ft. 
in perpendicular, also establishing a berm width ranging from 
6 to 10 ft, ■ ' 

They are well adapted to the recleaning <rf old drainage or 
irrigation canals where small yardage is encountered, necessi 
tating the installation of only such machinery as can b« moyed 
on to the work at a small first cost, and can be operated rapidiv 
at a minimum of cost for labor and supplies. 

When not on work incident to the ctmstruction of new ditcher 
or the recleaning of old atructurea, they can be adapted t« 
handling gravel from bank or pit into auto trucks or gondols 
cars when used in connection with general conKtruction. 



The yardage handled bj thia type of eqoipment depends quite 
largely upon the clasa and nature of the soil being handled antt 
upon the ekill and familiarity of the principal operator with 
hia equipment. Under normal - eoodrtions, the i^ yd. equipment 
will handle from 400 to 800 yd. of earth per 10 hr. shift, while 
the 1 yd. capacity will handle from 000 to 1,100 yd. for the 
same length of time. While an experienced operator who is 
willing to make use of hia skill can attain the best results, it is 
not essential to provide such a man, as one with average mental- 
ity and willingness to do the thing as directed can attain & 

Fig. 137. Dipper Dredge — Track Type. 

sufficient knowledge of this equipment to operate it safely and 
with satisfactory results within a period of from two to six 
days. The manufacturer states that the mechanics furnished to 
erect the dredges in nearly every case instruct new men in the 

The walking and floating types of land dredge are frequently 
and generally handled by a chief operator and helper, the helper 
heing the understudy of the operator. He does lubricating, 
provides water for the cooling system of the oil engine, and many 
small jobs incident to the operation. The track type dredge 
requires a principal operator and a man to lay track on either 
side of the dredge under favorable conditions, and additional 
men to lay track when soft eArth is encountered or diRicultieH 


incident to new work through timbered areas. When used in 
the work of loailing trucks or cars the principal operator is the 
only one required. 

The coBtB of BUpplies and operation depend largely upon thone 
of labor, fuel and lubricating oil, cable, and repairs, in the local- 
ity where the work is being done. Under reasonably favorable 
conditions these vary in the case of the walking type of dredge 
from «15 to »25 per dayrin the case of the track type from fl-S 
to $30 per day. 

The approximate cost of these dredges is as follows: 

Walking Dbedoe 




Id ft. 

Vl.iBlb. t 

0. b. IGchifU 














. B.OOO 











Type Dbedge 



wt. ia lb. f 










26 or 30 











Dredges of this make are operated by oil engines of either the 
single cylinder or double cylinder opposed type, using tor fuel 
either gasoline, kerosene or distillate. These engines are mounted 
on a structural base, which is in turn mounted upon skids, these 
skids carrying as a separate unit the engine fuel and cooling 
tanks. In this manner the power plant is intact. The engine is 
controlled by the operator from bis position in the front of the 

The dredges are of all steel construction, and are designed to 
dismantle into sections for ea«y transportation, the entire equip- 
ment being divided into from ten to fifteen loads for the ordinary 
wagon or truck. 

Hethodt and Costa of Dre^e Ezoaration of Drainage Ditoliet- 
The following notes by Mr. D, L. Yarnell are from Bulletin No. 
300, Ofllce of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, on " Escavat- 


ing Machinery ue«d in Lanil Drainage." The cost figures are aa 
of 1015. 

The cost of dredges advanees lapidl; aa the size and capacity 
are increased. Dredges of the same rated capacity also vary 
eomewhat in coat with the different manufacturers. All of the 
machinery ia usually made at the shops of the manufacturer. 
The material for the hulls may also be supplied by the manufac- 
turer, but usually the purchaser obtains lumber in the op^i 
market and builds the hull in the field. The coat of hauling 
the material and machinery from the railroad to the place of 
erection, the local price of labor, and the conveniences for hous- 
ing and feeding the workmen are factors which will enter into 
the cost of a machine of any type. It requires at least two 
cars to transport the material for a small dipper dredge, while 
for a machine of large size from four to nix cars are required. 

The following table gives the approximate costs of the various 
sizes of dredges ready for operation, though these would be 
largely ejected by the difficultiea and expense of transporting the 
material and aasembling the machine: 

Aproximate CoflTB Of DivsEB Dredges 

Cost of Coat of 

Siie mschiaerr wood hull Total 

Kyard 13,700 $1,8W % B.iM 

l-ysrd 6,400 2,K» 7.lln0 

H4-r»rd S,iOO 3,IGD 8,350 

ItiTBrd . .. T.ino 4,B0ll 11,*10 

VA^jtri 14,000 »,000 11,000 

It requires practically a month for ten men to erect a 1-yard 
ilredge, six weeks to erect a 1^-yard dredge or 1%-yard dredge, 
BJid eight weeks to construct a 2-yard or 2^-yard Biachine. It 
•requires lees than one-half the time given above to dismantle a 
machine. A l-yard dredge which cost $8,000 was shipped about 
400 miles and hauled by wagon 18 miles. The dumantling cost 
about C490; the freight charges were about $700; hauling, $36l>; 
and rebuilding about $STO. These costs are fairly representative 
for tbia size of machine. 

Method of Operating. With a floating dredge the conatruction 
should, where practicable, b^in at the upper end of the ditch and 
proceed downstream. Sometimes it ia not feaaible to transport 
the machinery end material to the upper end of the diteh and 
the dredge must then woilc upatream. This is undesirable, un- 
less the fall be slight, since in working upatreain dama must be 
built behind the boat to maintain the necessary water level. In 
working downstream the ditch remains full and the dredge, float- 
ing high, can dig a much narrower bottom than if working up- 


[itream in shallow water. Moreover, whea floating low, the dipper 
may not properly clear the spoil bank. Again, in working down- 
Btream, any material dropping from the dipper into the ditch 
will be taken out in the next ehovelful; whereas if working up- 
stream any material dropped or any silt washed behind the dredge 
is left to settle in the bottom of the ditch. If work is Iwgun on 
the natural ground surface a pit must lie dug to iBUndi the boat; 
or if in a stream, it may be necessary to build a temporary 
dam in the channel to raise the water high enough to float the 
boat. The depth of water required varies from 2 ft. upward, de- 
pending on the size of machine. 

The floating dipper dredge moves itself ahead by means of the 
dipper. The spuds are first loosened from their bearings and the 
dipper is run afiead of the machine and rested on the natural 
ground surface in front of the ditch. The spuds are then raised 
and Uie engines operating the baching drum are started; the 
dredge, being tree, is thus pulled ahead. The spuds are then low- 
ered and eTicavation continued. 

In timbered country the right of way must be cleared. In many 
cases the timlier cut will supply sufficient fuel for the dredge. 
It is poor |iolicy to fell the tree« and leave them on the ground 
to be removed by the dredge. The stumps should always be 
shattered with dynamite, as the strain on the machinery is thus 
rendered much less and the life of the dredge increased. 

An engineer, a craneman, a fireman, and a deckhand are re- 
quired to operate a dipper- dredge. The output, loss of lime due 
to breakdowns, and the cost of repairs, depend almost whully 
upon Iheir skill and efficiency. The engineer should be an all' 
around mechanic as well as experienced in dredging. 

Tlie amount of fuel consumed depends upon the size and type 
of boiler used, and upon the burning and heating qualities' 
of the fuel. A very great saving <'fln he effected by covering the 
lioiler with an asbestos coat. Ordinarily, about i5 lb. of coal 
pbr horse power -hour are consumeci on dredges. Tlie cost of re- 
pairs depends largely upon the operator; a careless operator will 
cause many unnecessary breakdowns. It is not only the high cost 
of repairs for machinery hut also the time lost which nids in 
in<'reBnirig tlie actual cost of the output. It is a well -established 
fact that it is not the initial cost of a dredge or of any maehiiie. 
but the operating and overhead expenses, that reduce the profits. 

Colt of Operation. The cost of dredge work depends upon a 
number of factors. The loiality of the work, the kind of soil. 
repairs, delays, labor, etc., greatly influence the actual cost of any 
work. If the water level can naturally be maintained within a ' 
foot or so of the surface of the ground, the cost of excBvation ' 

^■D be reduced very low with^thu tjpe ol nuu:hia«. The dait. 
jhen in t^e following pages w^re obluiited from the actual ooet 
records of the varitaia projects. Unfortunately, tbe flgucaa Kre 
not alwayi strictly comparable, one project with anotber, oving 
!» variations in the items of coat isduded, UnleiH; otherwise 
stated, interest is taken at 6% and depreciation at 35% |ier 
aniiuiD OD the cost of the dredging outfit. Intereat and deprecia- 
tion are, however, charged only for the interval of time wpoD 
iiliich the unit cost is tiased. This is nut st'rioUy oorrect, ae- « 
certain vaount of tine consumed in getting the machine on luid 
oFT the work should be diarged to each project. In most castiB 
it nas impossilile to aacer^ain the time that.ehould be charged 
tu moving, building, etc,. And therefore the item has been ignored 
in all cases, for the sqke of uniformity. On aome > pf ojects figures 
for operation over an extended period were not obtainable. lii 
eui'h cases the unit cost is based upon the daily coat of opera- 
tion and the average amount of ditch dug per day, no allowance 
being made for interest and depreciation. 

In the construction of a ditch in North Cai-oiina a' new 1^- 
yard dipper dredge was employed. This dredfje had a 5 x 2C x 70- 
ft. hull and was ef[uipped with 8% x 10-in double-cyttitder hoist- 
ing engines! TxT-in double cylinder, reversible swingil^ •ligines; 
a 50-hp. Scotch marine return-flue boiler; a Hi-)*ara 'dipper, 
31-ft. dipper handle, and 45-ft. boom. The spuds were conVjerti- 
Ue to liank or vertical and were operated by the hoisting engjne?. 
The cost of this dredge, erected, was $10,-142.19. The dredge was 
operated eonlinuously, each shift working 11 hours per daj"- 
The men were paid at the following rates per montbj Superin- 
tendent ' in charge, $110; engineers, $100; cranemen, $00; fire- 
men, 848; deck bands, $36. Tlie men furnished their own sub- 
sistence. The ditch was 9^ miles long and ranged from 22 to 30 
it. wide on top and from 8 to 10 ft. deep; it had side slopes 
uf K to 1 and a berm 8 ft. wide. The water level was easily 
inainfained near the ground surface. Very little right-of-way 
i:learing was required. In the construction of this ditch the 
ilredge excavated 350,720 cu. yd. of earth. One year was re- 
i|uircd for the dredge to complete this work. The following cost 
data were taken from the records of the drainage district which 
owned and operated the dredge : 

Co^t of operBliim, indndiiiK labor and fuel fl^SBS.Ol 



Total ,. 122,077,47 

Omi per cubic yard. 10.0620. 

new, dredge -of the same size and type as the one just 


dcMribed was need in the extravatlon of a drainage dit«h in tht 
same locality as the foTegoing project. The ditch fallowed an 
old creek channel for the greater part of its length. The cosl 
of the dredge, erected, was $0,365.34. It wag operated in om 
shift of 11 hours; the actual time of operation was not recorded. 
The erew and the rateg of pay were the same as in the foregoing 
example. The ditrh was 3% miles long and ranged in top width 
from H2 to 28 ft. and in depth from 6 to 10 ft. The side slop« 
were ip^ to 1 ; the berm was 8 ft. wide. The dredge worked down- 
stream and the water level was easily held near the ground aur 
face. Practically no right-of-way clearing wag done. The ma- 
terial excavated was a loam top soil underlain by stiff clay; 
very little rock was encountered. The coat of the work was con 
siderably affected by the expense ($1,490) of passing three bridges. 
The tot«l amount excavated in a period of about 10 months was 
121,200 cu. yd. The dredge was owned and operated by the 
drainage diiitrict. The following costs were recorded; 


OmI per cubic jrard, tO.OSlT. 

A dipper dredge with a 5^ x 16 x 60-tt. hull, 7 x 8-in. doubl^ 
cylinder hoisting engines, friction awing, 1-yard dipper, 35-ft 
boom, and telescopic bank spuds was utied in the construction ol 
about 5 miles of ditch in western North Carolina. No reliable 
Information was available as to the amount of material moved; 
but the following figures as to the cost of installing the dredp 
are of interest: 

Hschinery ; 

MMerial 4.800.00 

Preijht --.. "OiO 

ilnyaga 72.S0 

losUnlng SIO-W 

Bxira equipment Horge tooli, etc.) M.OO 

Ue>>''°K equipmeul (engine and drDBina and wiring) . . 9)7.00 

ToUl tJ,(62.53 

In Colorado, a dipper dredge having a 24x75-lt. hull, Ihiy^ 
dipper, and 60-ft. boom, was used in cleaning out and enlarginj 
about 20 miles of canal. The equipment, complete, ineludiu 
cook and bunk boats, coat $16,500. Two shifts of 11 hours esrt 
were run. During the year for which the data are given th 
dredge was actually in operation but 187 days, or 58% of tk 2fll 

(otal working days. The following crew weTe paid the given 
rates per month, including board: Head runner, 8120; 1 runner, 
$110; 2 franemen at ?55; 2 flremen at $45; 2"deckhands at $40-; 
] teamster, $40; 1 cook, $50. No right-of-way clearing was 
required. The water for the boiler was talien from the canal, 
and as a result eonsiderable trouble was experienced from mud 
and scale. The cost data below are based on the amount of 
material moved from inside the grade stakes during tlie year, 
amounting to 394,387 cu, yd. It was eetimated that an exceaa 
of 25% was actually moved. The following was the cost of the 
work for one year ; 
OperstiOD : 

Liibor opeTBtlnE dredfe t $,243.70 

Ooal, iDdudiug (reigbt, l,m.SS loos, at t2.S5 i-OOBJl 

HiuliiiE coairi.27lt.G5 tons, at Sl% ct 1.<1SSM 

Oil. WMIle, and mincdlBiieaua suptilies 1S2.» 

Cost of (antrolling waier to floul dredco 3ei3t 

Repairs, labor, and material 3,8»4.fl7 

Rumoving ■nd fsplacing brldg« gOT.TS 

loMrnt Rod deprenialiOD S.IKM 

Total |!2,8H.G( 

Coat pei cubic ;ard, U.OOB. 

Building up ditch baok and making road on Ion d.T21,T5 

Right ol way and le— 

EuEineet-iog a 


d legal e: 

Total t 8,768,27 

Tlie coat of the dredging outfit wae as follows; 

Hull ; 

Material t l.SSOM 

Labor, iiiohiding hauling l.9^J99 

Mafhiner? : 

Coat, including freight »,9»7.72 

Hauling and inatalling S17,^ 

Cook and bunk boats; 

Material 663.90 

Labor • <53.«6 

Equipment 648. S5 

Total „ 116,600.00 

In connection with a drainage project in southwest Louisiana 
a sfeam-opprated, floating dipper dredge, equipped with a 1-yd. 
dipper, 40-ft. boom, and convertible power spuda was employed 
in the excavation of about 10 miles of ditch which varied in 
width from 18 to 50 ft. and depth from 4 to 6 ft.; Ifl-ft. 
lierme were apeciiled. The cost of the dredge on the work is 
Mid to have been $10,000. Two shifts of 10 hours each were run, 
Imt the actual number of days of operation was not recorded. 


The crew and monthly rates of pa^, including aubgLitence, werf 
Hs fullowH; Two runnel's, at $100; 2 cronenien, at $60; % firemen, 
at $G0; 1 deckh^d, $40; 1 eook, $30. The materia) exeavatfd 
was a hard, KtilT elay. The tolnl amount oKeavatt^ in about H 
months was 147,000 cu. yd. The average cost, per month. «i 
.upnraliun was bh [dHowb: 

Ldlior ( Eio 

Bo»rd ... ■ li» 

On another project in southern Louisiana there was emploved 
a floating dipper dredge with a Sx22x73-ft. hull; 8xI0-in. 
double-cylinder hoisting engine; 6 x 8-in., double -eylinder reversi 
hie swinging enyines; l^-.yd. dipper, ami 40-Jt. boom. The ma- 
chine was equipped with bank spuds. The cost of the dredge, 
readj to operate, was $13,000. The ditehes averaged, about Sd 
ft. wide and were from 5 to 6 ft. deep. The lard was nearly level 
and the water surface was easily kept within a foot tif the ground 
surface. The material was a top muck underlain by an alluvial 
mud which was hardly solid enougli to hold ita shape when 
dropped from the dipper. There were few submerged logs or 
stump'. The dredge was operated the year around for two years. 
No record was kept of (lie aetnal time of operation. The averB<!e 
output per shift (12 hours) on a SO-ft. ditch 5 ft, deep waa 1^ 
cu. yd., at a coat as folIoHs: 

Labor (4 men) llO.Bn 

Tola! f9& 

Coat per en. rd., euIuHve of ialarest sad dcpreciBtioa. Vt.vSl. 

In the sane general locality atf the foregoing ease,' and under 
the same soil conditions, a 1-yd. dredge which was, except in re- 
spect to capacity, equipped similarly to the above'de^ctibed ma- 
chine, was ppeeated in the CDnstruction, of, ditehetj, wbiclj averaged 
30 ,(t wjde and 5 ft. deep. The cost of tbe dredge, erected, n-»' 
,$11,000. The average output per 12-hour shift during a 2-year*^' 
.run was 1,000 cu. yd. Th6 cost per shift was as follows: 

Labor (I men) |inj)0 

Fnfll. EhW oil, mltl.75 ,,, .'. .. .. gm 

Repilri, oUi and grtate E£0 

Total ..,. 

Cmt vr cu. rd.. exdutlTe of 

Id another draiaage project in southern Louie iana. eereral 
ditches*, cfceh three milee long, were constructed by a dipper 
dredge intttalled on a SMt x 18 x 70-ft. bull The power wsh ob- 
tained from a 00-hp. interna I -combust ion engine. The dredge 
)iad a IH-yd. dipper, 40-ft. boom, and conveiUlile power^ spuds. 
The total cost of tlie outfit, including house-boats and email 
towboate, was S12,000! Two shitta of 10 hours eKl-h were run 
for 26 days in each month. The crew were furnished subsistence, 
and eavh shift consisted of: One runner, at $123; 1 craneman, 
at $D5; and 1 engine tender, at $40 per month. One cook, at 
$35, and one general utility man, at $60, were also employed, 
making a total labor cost of ^55 per month. The nvertis.'B 
ilijoena^ojjB ot the ^ditA were: ,mTop.,width,,^ ft.; bottom width, 
18 f^.|-and',ai;ii(!>, ^-fl., t>e'gfeu^.i'.w«8 'nVarly level ai|d \hfi 
Kate'i; (Stood, a!»ut 3 ft, bflow ^fie groynd, surtagp, : Tlie e.\cav«ted 
material^ w.a's stiff ^^ndyiclay. Apout 3.4, mtlea .of tltt v/ork con- 
eisliMl i|i_ ;cleaning Hie old <tlianpel,^.wbifh required ^retment, mi^y- 
ing and' gave pn alleys rdagp. ,,Ilie, tqtal, exc^vaiion i^ fiv^ roqnths 
was alKiut 216,001) (jj,' yd. The cost' wap as.followa: 

LbW Biii'board '. tl.SSi 

JSlfl md-tril ,. J.3TO 

Itepkirx. ...,.,.... '.1. «0 

Interest and depreciation ,, 2,030 

"Total J- ,..; ','. J8,895 

CobI per cubic y»rd, W41i. 

A steam operated floating dipper dredge, mounted on a '5x 15 x 
90-ift. liuli and equipped with a 1-yd. dipper, 38 (t. boom, ftnd in- 
clined telescopic bank spuds, was used in the excavation of alMut 
10% miles of ditch:in North Carolina. The cost of the dredge is 
stated to have been >«,613.8a. One shift of 10 hr. per day was 
run. The actual niimijer of days of operation was not recorded 
Thu prew and rates of pay were- as follows: One engineer, 9126 
per mo.; 1 craneman, £2.00 per duy; 1 fireman. $1.25 per day; 
1 w»t<;h»an,'i$ISO pwday; the crew furnislied their own Sub- 
si efinl*.' ■' The dilch''WRB ai«lrt IB 'ft. in t6p rftdth, 1* ft. deep, 
and had V- to I slopes. It followed an old creek b*d' 'Por- a 
large 'p«rtr<rf tlie distance. The tnaierlHl Excavated' was a (lay 
thoiinfc' ' sDfns'J'Wk was encouWtered. Based iipon- the ffiven 'di- 
wensiwrts *>f (he (Ulch,'aie 'tothl excavation a Wouiilrt to 2M,0M 
cu. yd. .Blghf««i - BKththB were . required tO (onVpIete the- wlwb. 
The coHl *a9 aV tb)loW6;' - ■ I 

pjjeratJ^; , . . . „ i ,,; I .,..,.. ..... 

■Lubor ..'.. '.....','....'...'. "i 8.310.84 

Fuel 2,310.30 


Labor 1,88002 

UaterUl I.IM.TI 

Intenst and depreciation 4,067.00 

Ooat per cubio Tud, tO,0612. 

UlscetlaoeouB eipenaea; 


aearing right of way 

Rebuilding bridges 

Total t 1,219.26 

Some Costs of Dredgework on the Loi Anselcs Aqnednct, 
Tlie following costs of dredging are taken from the monthly 
report for Februarj, 1911, on a section of the Los Angelea 
aqueduct through the Owens Valley. The dredge conaiBta of a 
scow on which ia mounted a No. 00 Marion electric shovel with a 
li^-cu. yd. dipper. The cost of the dredge was $lB,8fl7, and it 
was built according to the specificationg of the aqueduct engineers. 
The yardage is based upon the theoretical aection of the aqueduct, 
or 14.81 (cu. yd. per lineal foot. This is exceeded to a small ex' 
tent by excess cutting. The following are the data for February: 
Teams and Renewals 

and niFn Operalion and rep. Ulsc. Totala 





t mm 




Live stock. No. of dW> 




Power cMt 

Tolal eoala 

Cnit cost per Co. yd. 




The unit coat per euhic yard tor the month flgurea 5.6S cents, 
but the unit cost given for the work of the dredge to date is 
tl.T cents. 

Grapple Dredge. Grapple or grab bucket dredges are also 
known as clamshell or orange peel dredges, according to the type 
of bucket used in excavating. They are adapted to work in 
very deep water or in confined places, such ae caissons. 

In Engineering Neica, February 2, 18B0, an Osgood 10-cu. yd 
clamshell dredge is described. The crew consisted of ten men, 
and five tons of coal were consumed in ten hours. The machine 


had a pBpacitj' of one bucket load per minute and averaged 
about 400 cu. yd. per day. 

The Ubl« on pages 2S&-20S faaa been compiled from the report ol 
Gen. Bizby, Chief of Engineers of U. S. A., for the fiscal year 
of the U. S. Grovernment ending June 30, 1911, and contains 
some important data. The column headed " Total Coat of 
Dredging " is understood to include cost of repairs, hut not 
iaterest and depreciation. The oldest of these dr^ges wemB 
to have been built in 1869, which would make its age at the 
time of the report 42 years. It is hardly safe, however, to 
consider this the standard age for computing depreciation. At 
the age of 30 a dredge is either so antiquated aa to make repairs 
very heavy, or so out of date as to make it uneconomical to 
operate. Therefore, fixing 30 years as the life, which is more 
than that of the averagi> locomotive in the I'nited States, and 
allowing interest at 0%, the annual interest and depreciation on 
the total cost of the dredges would be $82,061, or about 2c per 
ou. yd. in addition to the average figure of 13.6c given in the 

A oiam shell dredge, Delta (Fig. I3B), was used by the Cali- 
fornia Development Co. from Novemtier, 1906, to 1912 in places 
where it was necessary to build up levees to greater heights than 
could be reached by the dipper dredges. The following dedcrip- 
tion is compiled from a paper by Mr. H, T. Corry, Trans. Am, 
Soc. C. E., November, 1012: 

The dredge had a hull 120 ft. long, 54 ft. wide, and 11 ft. 
ileep, and was equipped with a clamshetl bucket mounted on 
a 150-ft. boom. The machinery comprised a 150 hp. internally 
tired, circular, fire-tube boiler, and a 20 x 24-in. engine on each 
aide. Work on the hull ^ was started May 1, the hull launched 
.August 15, and the machinery in place at the end of October. 
The total cost of the dredge was $80,000, including $34,000 for 
machinery f. o. b. San Francisco. The weight of the craft was 
S50 tons. 

1 cspUin »t I12K to »160 per month and bo»rd. 

a leTeiDien at t8S per moDth SDd bmrd. 

i Bremen ii t«0 per montli and board. 

3 d«Mi»ad> at (SO per month and board. 

1 cook al IM per month and boaid. 

1 blackamitli at tW per month and board. 

1 rouataboul at ^40 per montb and board. 

Three shifts were worked, making a total of 22 hours actual 
work per day. The average time in operation was 28 days per 
month. In good ground, with side swings averaging 70 d^reea 
on each side, the time per bucketful was 40 seconds. The ^uan- 

Class C— Bucket 

built ouuic 
Dredee Year Dollars 

AaaiBOn '9> HMO 

AUbmsu ......: '91 32,30» 

Albany '. '»8 U,731 

AMalla 'Ot 17,000 

AuU«« 'OS 13,*« 

arroilton '(B 22372 

PranWort ."...■08 10.19S 

Orecn Rirar 'M 4,0M 

Kfntudky ,,..:'00 3U0O 

K«aslBd :..!... '99 11,001) 

Sapfllo •B4 K,<m 

Tenneaiee '10 37.613 

Dpatol |0l- 16,T1» 

No. 1 d!'b""!"!!"'08 g,SI)0 

Dradee No. 1 'Ot 18.9S0 

No. 18 '06 4.B)» 

Totals t2«S,«ll 

Aiai- "W - ll,a» 

AlBOina .-. '72 29,600 

Apophe '95 15,255 

ArriieiflB '7G' 'Unoo 

Farquhar CoL 'G3 15.500 

PrnnlPnac '91 14.650 

HaruDOe ■- i.."S* W.OOO 

Omro '78 B.509 

Oshkoih 'OS 89,529 

OtlPrtail'-.v..... -m 12.600 

Pboi'oii ,..., ,..'85 19,525 

Vulcan -83 19.19) 

DrM«a Nn. a ■" 

Aiat" ■.".■.'.■.'.?*.■.■.■. 'M^Ib'bH 

ChwKw -K «.»00 

Hercnle* '07 M.6« 

Sfuppfrnong '04 10,300 

Derrick A .,..*J..... 'OT «,00« 
BsDk DenkkNo.-l.. ■» ; *.tS7 

Bsirk Derrick No. 2. . '10 2 7ST 

Total! tlM.120 

Oa«cade 'OS «,OSS 

Chjtmpoej '01 

Oowliti "95 . 4,750 

Totsla ^ *J1,'i« 

U>v>B^lie ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. -K 26^000 

M*lls 'IW lT,"on 

Ohio '73 35,000 

OBweEo '83 2-inn 

To'ala 1127.112 

hpHshIi. 's9 2'-^ono 

Dredic Ka. 1 '01 17,5«e 

»r«dgo No, 1 'W M,*» 

Total)-, |G4.ira 

'■■Wanfltotate .:.:■' 1879,5*3 

























7Bifii« CB 6-f. f. Krfni 
7^2410 SB IH ' 38 

!eOO 80i3«i7 BD 




















JrSB 30, IDH. 
and Supper DredgcB. 

. b ■ Qh ' ' Haleriil Total 

- S ■« - S -fr^ b' dredged coal Co^l 

l8 a§ •SS'SS'"™ , dnrtnr To«l per of 

e= H I 2E E S-bOHmMUrof year vwl 0( cu. re- 

Irs QJ (DBiSQSi dndied 1*10-11 dredjim yd. pair. 

in. ft. lip. lb. meo c.jd. msUrisI Yd. DoLan Ot. I 

I. M IKU 60 90 8 31 O. 3d. St. ■ 15,30C 3.T21 IAS 115 

M 80 17 40 90 7 as SM. O • 137, OSS 8,888 601,921 

U' ■ » 10 *J"lftO 7 50 BR • lg.5Jl 4,4J3 US 342 

r 78 li!4 60 180 7 60 9d, Q, BR • 12.000 4,866 40.5 13i 

L 4S U% 45 100 9 120 3d, 6. Ul • 25.464 2,835 11.4 499 

T 61 16 70 110 9 90 Sd, S, Ud t 40.6lD 4.1SB 10.3 438 

FbT 60 15 40 125 9 50 Sd, S, Ud t 37.^5 7,]3» 18 9 292 

Ij 48 14 61 liO S 50 Md, L. 8d, St.* 36.118 4.7U 13.1 340 

L 88 » 10O MO 10 175 L6 .- tJM.SOO 14,617 B.O 1,381 

I, 41 15 40 IK 8 87 HP, R t 4a.ttE 5.9tG 14.8 5,-21)2 

TT »e 8 45 U» 10 ■ 40 sa r f ii,'«lt 1'0«0 908 4no 

Ij 88 20 100 lis 10 150 o, tt. n«0.»O- 22,6SI 14.0 tKO 

I. { « }T} 135 ISO 10 126 ^ g g ^^^^ ^.^ ^j. ^ 

L 41 Ifi 40 100 6 10 aa t 11.100 2.2M 18 4 3,048 

V 51 sy, 60 1*0 15-60 Sd t 60.575 B.sis 170 3.095 

L 42, 12^ 40 IBO 6 7& Sd, B f 14,470 1,013 7,« JSO 

ST 43 8 30 12S 3 40 M4. R t 1,700 400 24J) 70 

9«J,1T7 ttl4,«75 UB 

<0 O, Md, B • BS,987 6.384 19.1 1.40! 

'" ~- —• ~ -.■221,980 a«61 9.7 J,«2 

62 14H-40' 90 8 105 Ui. 
64 17« 75 90 8 « bS 

.- - C. Md, Sd. R..' 74,055 4,963 6.7 1.4"8 

„ 60 ID .. SO .3 66 Sd, C, 6. 8h..t 4E,1T1 7 263 16.1 1,«S7 

1, 48 15 K,T100 8 SO ui, 9d. Si, G.t 48.810 ,-7.423 152 475 

L 66 19- 100 70 W 175 Ud. B.. • 72,i!90 23,548.92.4 4,846 

8H 84 11 35 110 6 30 c, Md, 8d * 94,820 3,438 3.8 S36 

SH MB 10 140 125 -S 200 C, Mk, Sd '135,776 8,Wa 60 3.880 

L. tt'lt- 40' 90 10 «n TO • 42.100 6.m 15,33.504 

FB 80 15 75 125 6 70,R,6,.O • 4J.430 7,889 .18. « 7»0 

FB «0'17' ^75 108 « lOO-R ,,, f 2I,6» 8,ni V7£ B19 

I, 64 19 ■ 125 . W ? 100 Bd. C... t 97.746 U TOl Hj6 600 

: . ,, 940,OM U20.T14 12.9 

L S4 W 125 80 a l'< Sd. Md, Oi Sp.* 642 1)37 28,476 -58 ... 

BT 72 'IS 150 90 U S') Hd. Id, -8p. ...• 91,132 12,683 1213,416 

■ L 84 23' 160,9ft n 160 .ad. Md, C. 8p.' 666,631 ..W.117 60 ... 

L *2 20 ■ too ' 'R 11 36. Md. HP, R..,.* Sl,6SB 13,098 15.8 1.146 

VT' 48 8« .. m 10 2^ .8 ■ J.ISO 1,251 393 81 

PF 48 8» 60 126 S 40 8d, . Hd, So...* 27004 8.3B6 124 ... 

PF »■ 9 25 100 3 35 Sd. Md, Sp...' 2J,6« 1022 12.8 ... 

1,342,1S8 t 96,402 71 

V 68 ' S« ,50 90 8 59 Si • 34,180 . 6,30* 15B 1,3»I 

L 4! I5l| 40 9* 10 69 G • 43.433 10,383 91.0 1,9(4 

RT W 12- ■ SO 90 10 75 Si G, C • 67JS8 . •,483. US 1,708 

131.779 J22.17B 16fi 

I, 80 .. 80 '100 6 200 Md, C« • 6S,M0 6.0"3 7* 787 

L 54 .. 60 100 6 90 ,Md, Cs. B ■ ilSJS 6.502<.1B» tOlB 

L 48 17 56 » 9 -120 sa, a, Md, B." 91.763 13,913 15 2 2.0=3 

RWT .. .. 150 120 14 250 Q, ad, B • W.BTB ■ 3BMi. KVt.ll 

BWT .. .. 120 120 11 250 gJ R '122967 20.736 M.7 2.874 

. 43».fil4 t 67,336 15.6 ... 

ML ■ »« 14 ' M Ttl 11 100 t ll.S6«rt U,Oa». 135.0 I,B« 

64 IS J . 

LV -80 8""70 no 9 100 Md.' LR..:,...t S4,S50^ 2S,S22 33,9 8M 

64 18 

LT tS 7 75 100 9 87 7)16.614 1 26.162 22.8 1,287 

212,330 171.007 21.t .-■ 

4.032,086 490.»Oe 11.1 ■■, 

BUCKET TYPE. BD— BoElom Damp; 0— CtaDUlUll : CB— Chain 
Bucketa: D — Dipper; Q— Grapple; Gb — Clrdb: OP — Orange Peel; 
SB— Blidiiig Bottom; SD — ficor- "' -■ "" fA... .. i.. 


FT— Fire Tubular; i.— i-oic 
PF— Plain Flue; RT— Belur 

rubular; BWT— Roberts V 



I I 

SU,SGE i&.0 £.301 

«,-m 1,118.480 

e,TM 1,148,802 

B,«44 5R9,6t4 

G,OSS 838,88E 

8,318 l.U4,«IG 

e,380 1,03I,«»4 

8,917 1,017,187 

«,3S2 936,322 

8.700 1.194.148 

g's82 'su'.sn 

0,402 1,388.844 

8,900 l.!81,aBl _,. 

3.K2 683.927 42. 

.S OSS 0.52 O.DS 

.9 0.82 0.49 O.Oe 

- 1.77 0.9! 0.iS 

IJS 0.89 ... 

1.21 0.82 O.CS 

Mai poaaible time in resr'i 

tr-belt, and new I 


Bfotth ll.rii»; T— Tnlraliri U— Upright TnblilU'; V— Verticil: 
VTWVsrHcsl Tobe. 
BtMled Rock; O— Clay; Ci—Oiudsn: O— Gravel; HP— Hard Pan; 
L— I*«ve»: LG — Loom Oravil; LR— Ledte Kock; Md— Mnd; Mk— 
" ■ : Ml— Marl: R— Rotk; Sd— Band; 8h— BhaU; Si— Silt: 8M— 
"" ' " 3t— Stooa; TO— Tanaiioua Clay. 


£ d I 

C(. CI. ot. 

1J7 !.» ».« 

l.» OJG O.IS 3.e< 

3W 0.» 0.20 E.M 

U< (1.28 0,22 !.S! 


DlSeult [round, in pU«u cenunMd craTei. 

lUlllenlt rronnd. 

DIffleuH aisfinE. 

DIIBcdK dtsfinc. 

Mediam fraTel with conaldaraUe titj, maeh broah 

Ijim88 iritai, heavy Dm-burden of aandy loam. 
Loose navel. hsiTT orerbDrden of umdy foam. 
Difficult dlgsiii«, worhing acainit 24-ft. bank. 
Diflicull digglag. s^aiBl coarse, partly cemeotsd.* 

OompBft graTBli heavy digging. 
Compact gravel, heavy diggn^ff. 
Compact grayel. 

Med Rim compact bench gravel. 

1 with hydraalic tail inn 

dlEcing, 20- ft. bank 

O.oe 1.30 Fine 

"Depreciation chart 
'Afrt. dredge is i 
' Thlg dredge aiicee! 
Mold not handle the 
' Segregated enla n 

<■ included 
fnljj replaced 


n open-cenneeted backet-dredge whicb 





iip*ip uDlpng c 


ISISiiiiSiiilliliilli ' s 


tity handled varied with the kiird of material from 3 to 8 
cu. yd. extremeH, On the Sacramento River, under good con- 
ditions, 150,000 cu. yd. per month were handled. 

Maothly eipentea: 

Uaialeaance stuI aperalon tZ.EOO.Oa 

Intetest on inTHtment at B7e KNI.OO 

Tbim and iuonnM 200,00 

DeterioTation 100,00 

The foregoing "monthly expensea" is a luiDimum; ordinarily, 
in Mexico, the monthly expense was £5,000. The average coat iu 
Mexico was 4 to cents per cubic yard. 

Ladder Dredges. Bucket elevatijr dredges are known as bucket 
ladder dredges, chain bucket dredge* or endless bucket dredges. 
They are used principally abroad, and in the United States mainly 
on canal work. They are very good where the cutting is light and 
also in finished work, for they leave a smooth bottom. 

In Trans. A. 8. of M, E., 188ft-7, Mr. A. M, Robinson says that 
i hp. on an elevator dredge will excavate 6 to S cu. yd whereas 
in a dipper dredge 1 hp. will excavate about 3% cu yd. in 32 ft. 
of water. 

In Engineering A'eiM, August 4, 1892, a Bucyrua bucket ele- 
vator dredge is described. The average daily output was 1,180 
yards in 10 hours in soft sponge material, '[he crew con- 
sisted of six men and the cost of excavation per cu. yd. waa 
about 3c. 

In a paper read before the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 
of 'Great Britain on April 1», lOOS, Mr. E. Seaborn Marks and 
Mr. Gerald N. Marks gave descriptions of bucket dredges used 
for dredging gold in Australia. A total of 60,000 to 70,000 
sup. ft. of timber are used in building a pontoon which will 
measure from 70 to 90 ft, or more in length, about 30 ft. in 
width and ft. 8 In in depth. These dimensions vary with 
the weight qt machinery and the general arrangement and 
design of the plant. Auxtralian hard woods are sKceltent ma- 
terial, on account of their strength and durability, but their 
weight is an objection should a shallow draft be required. In 
this case Oregon pine would be preferable for planking, with 
hard wood framing. If hard wood is not procurable, pitch pine 
should t>e used for framing, as Oregon does not hold spikes 
securely. All pontoons are coated with tsr to preserve the 
timber, after the seams have been calked, and are plat«d with 
W-in, Bt^l plate for C ft, at either end as « protection from 
sunken logs. In countries where transportation is difficult and 

skilled labor scarca, pontoone are constructed of iteel plates 
aod girders. These are built in the worka and afterwards taken 
(o pieces and shipped in sections. The cost of building thr«« 
plants and pontoons ia given below, but these pricea will 
necessarily vary with the cost of transporting, tabor and such 

(1) A pontoon of hard wood with an Inner skin of Oregon 
pine cost 85,760. The complete iilant cost $32,500. This machine 
is a screen dredge with a discharge into a sluice run. A similar 
plant with a tailings elevator (in which case the screen would 
be lowered to within a few feet of the deck and power thereby 
saved in pumping up the water for washing purposes} woujd cost 
approximately $5,000 more. 

(2) The pontoon constructed of Oregon planking spiked to 
hardwood framing of cheap and effective design cost $4,140. 
The complete plant cost 927,500. The frame has diagonal struts 
forftard, on the lower one of which the frame is pivoted and 
tAa be moved up and down to alter the dredging depth. 

(3) A pontoon, built on somewhat different lines with diagonal 
and croHs braces, is constructed of Oregon planking with hard 
nuod frames and is suitable for working light, shallow grounda. 
The (-aiitry from which the ladder is swung is constructed of 
sleel in the first two pontoons but in this case it is of Oregon 
pine. This dredge has a combination of sluice box, screen and ele- 
vator and can be lengthened so as to do the combined work of a 
screen and tailings elevator. The coat of the plant complete 
vas $30,000. The buckets rn general nse were of 4% cu. ft. 
capacity of 5-18 to '^ in. Bteel. They varied, however, from 
3 to 12 cu. ft. capacity. The boiler generally used is of the 
return tube marine type irlth internal flue working up to 120 
lb per sq. in. It is usually 6 ft. G in. in diameter and S ft. 
long (12 ft. over ail with combustion chamber and amoke box), 
fitted with 48 tubea and will give 75 I. H. P. The engine is 
from 16 to 26 hp,, making 125 revolutions per minute. The 
IS hp. one has compound cylinders H x 14^ and 14 x 14^ in, 
A belt from the fly wheel connects with the first motion shaft, 
and the pulley works a 12-in, centrifugal pump,' 

The following table is the result of two dredges used In dredging 

No. 1 Dredie No, 2 Drsdm 

FaU workine time loi a year B2 wk, or 7,*88 hr. la eusb ciso 

Actual time worked B.lSl hr. E.BIZ hr, 

PeneoXige of loat lime IT.70% 25.g% 

Gross cspaelly ol dredge 130 cu, yd, li:,S en, yd. 

Uiterial iclnally treated 32MHJ eu. yd. ittCsW eii. ji. 


worked 40.«% «% 

OoLd recoTMed J,198 oi, 12 dwi. JUS! oi. 17 dwt, 

Nrt T«lB« 14,»IB tfa U £S,l»riS« Id 

TaUl working exponae t:t,321 !«■ 8d £1,119 l«ii id 

Net profit £1.49t CH H fl.SH Is Gd 

ViTsr Vfr cu. yd. of msleriil tr«al«d.. I.Tft gr. or 3.B d t.a kt. or 4d 

Coal D( tnataent p«c cu. id 2.U l.U 

•0«lciilated io each CREa wilb Vi ev tl. budkMa, hit in tiM im U 

The following table gives the expenditurei during the week 
(Hiding Aug. 17, 1005: 

' No. 1 Dredsa No. 2 Dredoe 

s. • i f s d 

..S »■ 15 11.2 

U « 10 1.7 

.4 5 15 11.9 

(pain a I 

Id re: 







3 19 97 
1 1 2.0 

I 1.8 , H 4 2 

6-5 17 72 m 11 5.7- 

, A bunket ladder dredge and special conveyor were built at 
Adamn Basin on the New York Barge Canal during the surainer 
of 1!)0!)I 

The dredge itself it floated on two steel pontoons which are 
parallel to each other and are braced togetlier bf a nigid framp- 
work. A gantry projecta in front of and between the pontoons 
and supports the ladder i whii:h extends to the bottom of the 
canal. Tlie bucket* each have a capacity of B eu-.ft. From a 
hopper at the top of tie ladder th£ material i«. dieeharged 
upon a belt which in turn diachaTges into n eegond hopper and 
a second belt at the rear of the dredge. A third belt ig carri»l 
on a separate pontoon, along a steel cantilever frame which 
carries the belt 40 or 60 ft. to the bank. Each belt ia operated 
by a separate motor receiving powe^ from the dredge. The 
plant cost S70,000, 

The cost of the work for the first threr months, wu aqifqltows^ 

August, 1900; 1S,S34 cu. yd. e:«cavat«d: 
Coal a 

I - .1 DREDGES . . 305 

Interest and deprenKtion, etc., were not to be included, on 
account of commencing nork in thia month. 

Dram* Atti scrapertl aiipplement^d lAedredeei. luavin^ li^44 

;d. lor a total of $1,280:50, or 20.5 ct. per cu yd. The coat 

of wooden liman and of spreeiUng und e(«ipBctJi^ amounted to 

Cl,193.35 *6r iO,Oi5 ou. yd. o! embankment, or 11,9 ct, per tu.,yd. 

Septem^l-, 190^; 32,0Wen.yd.-eseavated; 

Inlerent, deWialion sod Vepeirg .....' t2,JW.90 

180 1ODB oMi, U' (£ tOIU.'per abilt) ....; GUM 

160 e»l. jasoline « 12 ct. 18.00 

Oil (80 («L at 19 It.; SO gal.' 6 1 SB el;)'..', SB.aO 

i.XO lb. giease st 8 «t ..^-.... .'. i .- H.OO 

ZflOlb. WBslB Bl Bet, 16.00 

Teams : ; 24S.W 

Labor ;,.,: ,....-.....: 2.887 .(W 

Tolal cost' *. '.' ■. ...■. fS,936.20 

Cost iler .cubic yard. !*« ccnti; - . 

A total of, 90, eight-hour ahift* were worked The cost of the 
embanlunent ; WHS an fallows; 

Labor; rprcadlng' anrt coWpaeliDg ■.■...:..■.. t3;l31.B0 

Hauling 1«m imrtitr .,..;..-,,,..■, 17I.1B 

<i»t form liimtier , 1,12500 

Genfral r....'.'. ; 2Bn.09 

LalMT M' roma -> S2SM 

Hauling supplies E6.00 

Itotal .,: Ki,SM.S8 

Only 11,000 eu. yd. were allowed for the above work on em- 
bankment, as the forma gave way and thi^ soft material liad to 
be scraped back. , This brought the cost of embankment for the 
montji up to 51.1 ct. per yd. 

October, 1909; 35,500' cu. yd. excavated; 

rnteresi and depreciation .' !'. ; t2,lE1.68 

31Wlanaooalat.ta.a5' ■. 6-)010 

Teams" \v^\\\\'^"'.\y^l'.y^\^z\v^'.'^'.'.'^','.'.'.'.\'.'.'.'.'.'.\" ' fno 

on. snaae and wasM ; 153.00 

Oaioliiw , IS.fiO . 

Bepairs ■.. ..'L....... 18.90 

■ToUl cost tftSJ 

<^)Al per cubic jatd, 2iA ccnta. 

A total of QS eight-b<jur riiifts wer« worked. The coet of 
embftukmewt was as followB: 

_Labor, aprcading and compacting '...'...!.... tZ,S9S,25 . 

finfllsn ..-.. ,, lOSia) : 

Hauling 95.* 

ToWl 1-.- ,. - - ,■■■..-. «,fi69.26 


This givei for 21,800 cu. yd. of embankmeDt a coat of 10.0 ct. 
per cu. yd. 

Recent Ezamplei of C&IlfoniU OaM Dtedtrea with Coat* of 
Sredslnff. A concise atatement of practice in California in dredge 
ronatruction for reclaiming gold from underwater gravela is taken 
from an elaborate paper by Mr. Charles Janin in the bulletin 
for March, 11)12, of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 
The paper also gives a table of costs ^ich are of general 
interest in view of the increasing favor with which elevator 
dredges are being considered in America. 

The modern California type dredge, with close-eonnected buck- 
ets, spuds and belt conveyor for stacking tailings, was a gradual 
development through years of experimenting. This dredge em- 
bodies the ideas of successful operators, and it is generally 
conceded that dredge construction and operating methods in 
California are far ahead of those in any other country in the 
world. The dredges built in California cost from $25,0O0 to 
$265,000 each! a standard S.S cu. ft. boat costing from $150,000 
to $175,000, according to conditions to be met in operation. With 
the great improvements made in dredge construction, and corre- 
sponding reduction in operating costs, areas that were at first 
considered too low grade to be equipped with a dredge are being 
profitably worted. 

California dredges vary in size from 3.5 to 16 I'u. ft. buckets. 

In Alaska some dredges are equipped with buckets as small 
as i.25 cu. ft. to dig shallow ground, and are reported to be 
working profitably. While electricity is the ideal power for 
operating dredges, steam has been succMsfullj used on a number 
of installations, and experience has proved the merits of the 
gasoline distillate engine for this work. There seems little 
doubt that the successful development _of the gas producer 
for the generating of electric power will prove an important 
fsctor in considering future dredgihg of gravel areas in districte I 
where electric power or water power for the installation of i 
hydro-electric plants is not at present availabic. 

One of the larjieat gold dredges operating in California was 
put in commission at Hammonton, in Yuba River basin, August 
10, 1011. This dredge was built by the Yuba Construction Ca 
and is one of five practically similar dredges built by the same 
company this year It required 820,000 ft. of lumber for the 
hull and housing the hull; its dimenBions are 150 x 58.5 x 12.5 ft, 
witli an overhang of S ft. on each aide, making 69.5 ft. total 
width of housing. The digging ladder is of plate girder con- 
struction and designed to dig 85 ft. below water level, and is 
equipped with ninety 15 cu. ft. buckets arranged In a close 


rauDeetcd lioe. The entire wei^t of tiie digging ladder and 
burket tine ie approximately 71)0,000 lb. The washing screen 
JB of th« revolving type, roller driven, and is 9 ft. in diameter 
by SO.O ft. long and weighs 111,721 lb. Two steel spuds are 
used, each weighing over 44 tons. The ladder hoist winch has 
a double drum and weighs 67,016 lb. The swinging winch con- 
Msts of eight drums and weighs 34,183 lb. Tbe stactier hoist 
winch weigbe 3,722 Ih. The gold saving tables are of tbe 
double bank type and have an approximate riffie area of 8,000 
sq. ft. The tailings sluices at tbe stern can lie arranged to 
discharge the sand from tbe tables either close to the dredge 
or at aome distance bt^hiiid. The conveyor stacker belt is 42 
in. wide and 27n ft. long, on a slacker ladder of the lattice 
girder type, 142 ft. long. Nine motors are In use on the dredge 
with a total rated capacity of 1,072 hp. Tbe total weight of 
bull and equipment is 4,640,S62 lb. 

Natoma No. 10 dredge, now under construction, is equipped 
with Ifi cu. ft. buckets, and will have a steel bull, being tbe 
flrst dredge operating on a steel hull in California. The hull 
will be 150x66x10.5 ft. and will have a total weight of 020,000 
lb. Tliis will be about one-half the weight of a wooden hull 
to carry tbe same machinery, and the draft of the boat will 
be considerably lighter. This boat will be in operation in April, 

The machinery of some California dredges lias been dismantled 
and moved to other fields and installed on new dredgee. The 
estimated cost of dismantling the Bcott River dredge, which was 
equipped with 7,5 cu. ft, buckets, building a new hull, installing 
macliiuery, including a 28-mile haul, with a freight cost of over 
1 cent per pound and building a 5-niile transmission line, was 
$t<0,O0O. Tlie Butte dredge was put in operation in November, 
1902, end dismantled in July, 1010. It was equipped with 3.5 
cu. ft. buckets. The machinery is being placed on a new hull and 
includes a new bucket line of 4 cu. ft. buckets. The cost of the 
installation has been estimated at «30,000. 

The dipper dredge has been successfully operated on small 
areas at Oroville and elsewhere, but does not meet with approval 
among dredge operators in general, who contend that tbe effi- 
ciency of these boats, both as to yardage and gold saving capac- 
ity, is not up to that of the standard type. These boats have a 
low first cost (about ^6,000, f. o, b. factory) and are built with 
buckets of from 1.25 to 2.6 cu. yd capacity. It is claimed by 
the dealera and some operators that under the following con- 
ditions there is a Held for this type of dredge: (1) Where tbe 
ground is somewhat shallow; (2) where tbe extent of tbe ground 


is' not sUfBcient to wa^rraut the insWIatian ot a ooBtly dredge; 
(3)i where tlie material is oi a rough, character, bouldera and 
itvuDpe;- (4) where the ground is mixed with more or less tAa,f, 
as the dipper will irelieve : itaetf notwitliBtaKdiag the . adhesife- 
nesB of tite OMterial. > 

What se^iis to . t>e a rscoEd is dredge/ conttraction ia the 
building of the dredge .f«r 'the Julian Gold Milling & Dredging 
Co. 6n OBbottrM ereeh, near Nome, AlaaksL .This dredge' was 
constmetad by the liuton CoastructJon Oo.- of San PraBciseo, 
The dredge, was shipped from San FranciBCo on June 1|' arriving 
at Nome June 13.'. On June 17 tJie eompanj' commented haulwg 
material, and on July 2Z the dredge was completed and opera- 
tions staifted. The dredge hull is SOxdOxB^S ft, It ii equipped 
with 34 open connected 2.76 en, ft. buckets, and is designed to 
dig 14 ft. below water leVel. Power is furtaithed by - gasoIiTie 
engines as follows: One 50 hp. for digging ladder^ winches 
Bnd screen; one 30 hp. for pump; one 7 hp. for lighting 
apparaJ^uK; a total of 87- hpi. Distillate costs at Nome Bl cents 
per' gallbn. Operating expeuBes at present range from JllO to 
S1J5 per. day, and the capacity of the dredge is from 1,000 to 
1,300 eu. yd. per day, indicating an operating cost of from 10 
to 11 cents per cubic yard, exclusive of repairs. The cost o( 
the dredge complete and iuoperation was $45,000. 

The operating cost of dredging is always a matter of interest, 
but working costs cannot be fairly nsed in comparison unless 
uniform methods of det«rmining them are empl<^d, and also 
unless operating conditions are' somewhat similar. As in other 
branches of the- mining industry, it ihay also be said that the 
apparent operating cost is in, a great measure a matter of book- 
keeping. It is interesting to note the following average oper- 
ating cost per cubic yard of the large companies working in 
California during IBIO. The Yuba Construction Co., for the 
year ended February 28, 1911, handled 13,970,72* cu. yd. at a 
total cost of fi,67 cents per cubic yard. The Natomas Cmiaoli' 
dated handled, for the year ended December 31, 1910, a total of 
I5,Q89,523 cu. yd. at a total cost of 4.62 cents per cubic yard, 
and during the aix months ended June 30, 1911, a total of 10.- 
703, 8Q1 cu. yd. at a total operating cost of 3.7S cents per cubic 
yard. This company has put in commission during 1012 three 
dredges -with buckets having a capacity of 15 cu, ft. These 
two boats are now satisfactorily handling ground that for s 
long time was considered too difficult for ecannmical dredging. 
The gravel is deeper and more compact than any other in the 
district, and dredge No. 8 is handling ground containing much 
Rtifl clay. The Oroville Dredging, Ltd., for the year ended July 

; ' :: 'I, DRJBDeDS ■■■■•' '309 

31, 1910, handled SfieifiUcu. yd. st a total cost of 5.05 cente 
pel cubic yard.. 

Hydranlic Dredgei. The omlitiaTy hydraulio dredge has a 
cantritugal pump. to raise, the tarth and -water, and a int«.ry cutter 
or a wate> jet to- h«M«a the material. The discharge is carried 
through pipes supported' on scows. Tough cisy witli very large 
boulders', cannot i* handled, und lebile sharp sand JB excavated 
readily ip cuts ths pu«p and disobatgo pipa badlyi hut for soft 
material the hydraulic dredge ia very sWiMfaoflory. 

Id .the TEawai)t.iona 'oE A. &. 0. E., ISM, Mr. L.- J. Le Cbnte 
l^ives the coF^t of dredging in Oakland Harbor, Cal. The average 
output was 30,01X) cubic yards per month for eight months. 
T]ie best output was 80,000 cubic, yards in 2>3 daysof 10 hours 
Mch, with delivery pipe 1,100 ft. Icog. An output of 46,000 
cubic yards in 19 days of 10 hours each was aocomplished when 
the lift was 20 ft. above the water, with a pipe 1,000 tD 2,000 
ft, long. The dredge was equipped with a 6 ft. centrifugal pump, 
tno 18a 30,.iii.i eqg^es for the pun^i two 13x12 in, engines 
tur operating the, cutter,, etc., and t*e lOO hp. boilerB. .On an 
average, . 15.% of the Jnateriai pumped- was Boilid,.hutnpto 40% 
ill solids cotfjd be carried,! The daily oost was m followe: 
CMU olCMia-WMta ■..,■.."... t.lB.iS 

Cook Ai 

Mr. J. A. Ociterson, in the Tranaaotions of A. g. C. : 
given the following cost of operating three dredges; 

Oipuclty, and p«r ht. ..,. '■ KNJ en, yd. ?,000 cu, yd, SCI) ca, 

Drift ,:.. i (t, 10 in. « ft. 10 in, 4 (t, 3 

JItin engines '. 3«0 hp, 2.000 hp, BOO b 

sn. renlrifuB»l pumpg 1 2 I 

7 ft 

leter peqtrifufal pumpa 

Wsnieier diurhuge Dive ■ . 

wliTprr hud J -".■.- " ". -■ ■- 

^eturily ot discbarM. t>ei 
wrond 10 (t. 14 ft, 10 It, 

A(iUtoi-8 01 lutter. «-2V.-iii. jela B ctlerK S-SW-in. jetc 

Coil uHd, 2* hour* SOttbu. 2,08Shii, woliu, 

Cdsi Dt mnDim per day . , . »T.OO t!21,«S. tlOO.EI 

'Add |3T (or rteam tender and W tor pile sinker per 12 hour, 
Mr, Emile Low describes a small dredge used by the Unitei 

States Government at Warrood River, Minn. The dredge ii 


of the " aeftgiHiig hopper type " with stern wheel, but is mlso 
adapted and equipped for Uie with a supported ditcharge pipe 
for river channel and river hftrbor dredging. The dimensions 
are; Length of hull, 100 ft.; width midship at main de<^k, 27 
ft.; depth of hull midahip, 8 ft. 6 in,; length over (.11, including 
stem wheel and revolving outter on the bow, 158 ft.; height 
of hull and superstructure, 26 ft. 4 in.; draft light, 4 ft. 2 in.; 
draft loaded, 3 ft. 4 in. The machinery consiHtH of the following: 

Two 12 in. centrifugal pumps. 

One 16 hp. vertical engine operating the revolving cutter. 

One 20 hp. horizontal engine operating the cutter hoitt, chain 
drums and rope spools. 

Two 10 X GO in. stem wheel engines. 

One 6 X 10 in. duplex force pump. 

Four hand power worm gears for manipulating the sand pit 

Two 75 hp. Scotch marine boilers. 

The pumps are arranged to take material through trailing 
suction, ends from both sides of the dredge and one pump is 
' alao oonnected with the suction end of the cntter for dredging 
in clay and other hard material. The dredge, complete ^ith 
wood barge, pipe floats and small boats, cost $29,130. It com- 
menced operation on May T, 1904, and between that day and 
June 30 accomplished the excavation of 1,380 lin. ft. of channel 
with an average width of 100 ft. and a mean depth of 9 ft. The 
total excavation was 8,625 cu. yd. at an average coat of 21?^ 
cents per cu. yd, tor all expenses, including labor, fuel, supplies, 
subBiatence, etc. The cost of subsistence per ration was 44 
cents. The material dredged was equal quantities of hardpan 
and mud, the latter full of tough, fibrous roots. Stormy weather 
delayed the work 5^6 daya. The total excavation for the fiscal 
year July 1, 1904, to June 30, 1005, was 55,205 cu. yd. The 
average cost of excavation, including charges on account of the 
plant used, was 13.03 cents per cu. yd., and the cost of subsistence 
per ration 36 cents. 

The following tables give some data concerning the best six 
liydraulic dredge in use on the Mississippi River. 
Obiginal Cost op Pi^aRt 

Name Dredge Tender File sinker Total 

DeUa tl24,9*0 |4'.862 M.SSl 1176,88* 

Epsilon 102,l»» 47,862 2.884 161,746 

Zeis 106,000 47,SS2 S,SS4 1S9,74« 

•lots 1I»,4S0 .... 100,490 

•Ksppa 134,600 .... 184,600 

•Pl»d 184,600 .... 134,600 

• Solf-propelling. Atw«b« cost lot nnn-prap^lns, tl«i.7Mi ««r»Be nut 
for Belf-prapelling, 1121,^; average coat of one plant, $142,876+. 



Repairs, Renewals, Altebations ani> Betterments to Plant 

Dale of Repairs aad Altanttiom and 

Name delivery renewals beMermenta Totals 

Delta, Ang., IWT t28,'r«I.IH f20,«34.!0 t49,3K.Tg 

Ep«ilon, March. IS»S 21,331.17 1.094.3E 22,4TE.G2 

Zeta. March, 1808 ^0,318.06 1.IZS.17 EI.IU.SS 

Iota, Aug., 1900 13,155.28 g,174.1» 21.3i9.17 

Kappa, Jal7, IMl -.- 4.se4.9t ia.lSS.U 

Flad, July. 1»01 fl,605.63 4,737,n U,S13,M 

Tenders. Opt.. ISM nO.Tlg.M 

Pile sinkers, Dec, 1S98. 'iSX.K 

•Average o( i. Repain and renewals, averacf of 8. tlS,2»2.4g: repairs 
tnd renewals (omit DelU), aieriKe of £, ^3,798.66; aHeratiani and better- 
DMnts, sTersge al 6. 16,738.81; alleratiang and betterments (omit Delta), 
sterase of 5. f3.%>.BS. 

The dredges Delta, Epeilon and Zeta are non-propelling, re-, 
qniring the eervice of. a tender and pile sinker, and Iota, Kappa 
and Flad are self- propelling. 

The average repairs, etc., per dredge for the last 3 years were 


COBT OF FlBLD Opebatioss 

Number Total T> 

of seasons costfletd boi 

Name operated operatians comn 

Delta J 1115,951.40 If 

Ep«iloD T ia),44t.42 14, 

Zeta 7 100,114.57 13, 

Iota B 8ftM!.51 12, 

Kappa * 58,780.57 9, 

Flad 4 82,218.32 9. 

Cost at 




Ineluding field repairs, average monthly cost for operating a 
non-propelling dredge with tender and pile sinker, $5,711.14; same 
for a BeU-propelling dredge, $4,661.41; excluding coet of material 
tor field repairs, the monthly cost of. operating a non- propel ling 
plant, $6,506.23; same for a self-propelling plant, $4,523.32. 

The rated capacity ot these dredges, baaed on an assumed 
Telocity of 13 ft. per second in the discharge pipe and a carrying 
capacity of 10 per cent, of sand, is 1,200 eubic yards per hour 
for the Delta and 1,000 eubic yards for each ot the other dredges 
delivering through l.OOO ft. of pipe. In tests made in 1907, the 
follovring results were obtained: 

Capacity I^bt of Thb^; Dredoeb 

Awr. Telocity Per cant. Average 

Nuae per (econd of sand aandpra-lioar 

Oelt» 15.10 It. 11-6S 1,850 cu. yd, 

EpailoD 16.7Sfl. SO.SS ^563 cu. yd. 

Zeta 18.48 rt. Ill* 1,364 cu. yd. 

Field tests under actual conditioDB were made in 13BS. 



per hour 

,. 27 3B 


Sand, ma 
Blue clay 

I. rate 3^0 

ZMa "..'".'.'. 

Tests made with 
deductions ;. 

only water 

pumped i 

a I9m wou 

CAPAcrrr Tests 


^Cu. ,d. 

»r hour-. 

16 76 




WKS- land 


■ I,'b60 

•With ibro 



The actual a\arages of all the dredges in all materials from 
clay to sand were 190! 5B70 yarda; 1902, 431.6 yards; 1903, , 
42^8 yards 1004 537 1 yards average, 500.0 yards. This aver- | 
age of 500 yards per hour ean be depended on, under normal con- i 
ditions. for 20 hours per day and 25 days per month. Allowing , 
10% for idle time, this gives 252,000 yar. e per month, The 
season of 1904 lasted four months, on which basis 90S^0 cubic , 
yards per season could be accomplished. I 

The contract price of the Harrod. under construction in 1907, ' 
complete with pipe line and all auxiliaries, was $239,9!)8.l7; Its 
rated eaparity baned on an estimated velocity of 23 ft, per 
second in the dirtcharge pipe and a carrying capacity o£ 10% 
of sand ia 2,100 cubic fardt per hour. The coat. of operating 
the. Harrod is assumed to be $5,500 per month .while in cmd- 

The following Botes on the hydraulic suction dredge are from 
U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bui. 230: 

For the construction of the larger levees the' itae -of th« 
hydraulic iSuction dredge ia entirely feasible In coititfotjoo with 
the use of other excavating machines. Ilyithe cflTOti!uot**>n of 
the muck ditch a retaining bank will be built, to as great height 

JWiaiOES 313 

u the earth can be made to itand. A aimjlar retaiDtug bank 
will be constructed at the othar toe of the levee by depotiting 
earth excavated from the nearest margin of the ditch. The 
apace between the twcr retaining' walls can then be filled by a 
hydraulic suction dredge, the discharge pipe being supported 
by a cantilever. This machine (Fl^. 139), in its pretent state 
of development probably repreients the most economical method 
now til use for e^teavating very la rg^e . channels, unless the ladder 
dtfdge be excepted. 

The following table indicates the cost of operating a hydraulic 
auction dredge on the New York Barge Canal jn 1908. The 

Fig. 139. Hydraulic Suction Dredge, Showing Discharge Pipe 
, Supported by Cantilever. 

Aredoe in question is of modern construction, has a 20- inch 
discharge pipe, and cost $115,000. A large part of the excava- 
tion was in stiff clay, though a part was in sand. The clay 
BUB of such fitm texture that after remaining on the ground 
over winter the pieces had the same shape as when they were 
discharged from the end of the pipe line, still showinft the 
marks of the cutter While removing the old rock wall of the 
canal, the dredge was stopped sometimes twenty times a day, 
it is said, fpr removing Imuldera from the pump. Once during 
the season the dredge waw sunk to the bottom of the canal. 
Otherwise the work was favorable, and the excavation made 
was representative of the capacity of the machine in ordinary 
clay soil. The charge against plant is Intended to cover interest 


and depreciation at 1S% p«r annum. Under " Material" are 
included coal waste, tug hire, and Blmilar itema. 

Cost op Opbkation of Htdbaulic Suction Dbedge on the New 
YoBK Babge Canal fob the Seasob of 1908 

Item. Awil- M»y- Jane. July. 

Labor I3.«7».%' t^US.St $£.616.75 t 5.S3SJ4 

FUnt 408.30 1.3«T.«0 l,«n SS 1,135.50 

Mlterua I,900.fl2 2.55g.8S J.aBilg Z,44S,4B 

ToUl for montli .■. |5.»7?.87 jB,095.n $9,868.78 110.017.08 

Yard! eics*Aled 120.573 301,Si3 203,474 BOT.SSO 

Item. Auk. Sept. Oct, 

Lsbra- |5,9gB,S7 14,993.11 M.8S4.14 

Pl«nt : 1,531,(55 1,692.86 1,791,16 

Ub^UI 2.320.92 2,430.06 2,573.60 , 

Total (or month I9.937J4 $9,116.01 $9,188.19 

YardB excBiated 174,385 231.473 :i4.43g 

Unit cost for the season, 4.03 cents per yard. 

An examination was made of several xucfion dredges on the 
New York Barge Canal and of the material excavated by them. 
In only one instance was the material at all comparable with 
that to be excavated in huilding the flood way levees, and in 
that instance the material was being removed at a cost of 
about 2^ or 3 cents per cubic yard, including all cost of 
maintenance, depreciation, repair and interest. The work planned 
for this type of, machine on the St. Francis project is the 
excavation of large ditches outside the floodways, using the ' 
earth for constructing levees, and in dredging the channels of 
Tyronza and Little rivers. In the former case the work is 
estimated at 10 cents per cubic yard plus the cost of clearing 
and grubbing the ditch section at $150 per acre. In the second 
instance the work is estimated at 9 cents per yard, including 
the cost of clearing Imnks to enable the material to be deposited. 
This dredge can be used to advantage also for constructing two 
or three of the largest lateral ditches, which empty into ditches 
along the flood way. 

In Engiittering-ConiracHng, Vol. XXXV, No. -8, the following 
description is given of a, hydraulic dredge, its tenders and 
capacities, etc, : 

This dredge was used to fill in part of the Lincoln Park 
extension, Chicago, and was purchased in 1007. It is of the 
open end type, with a steel hull 148 ft, long by 38 feet wide 
and 10^ ft, deep, Tlie main pump has 30 in, suction and 
discharge, and the main engines are of the triple expansion 
marine type of 1,200 i. h. p. The two double-ended marine boilers, 


10 ft. 6 in. hy 18 ft, long, with eight corrugated furnaces, wer» 
fitted at the beginning of last season with underfeed stokers. 
The installation of engine room auxiliaries includes condenser, 
independent air pump, independent circulating pump, fire and 
bilge pumps and an electric light outfit. The rotary cutter is 
adapted to hard clay material and its edges are of hard ateel 
and are movable. Two seasons' work have worn the cutting 
edges ba^ty and manganese ateel will probably be substituted. 

Fig, 140. View of Pontoon Discharge Pipe Used in Connection 
with the 30-in. Hydraulic Dredge. 

The dredge Is anchored by heary spuds operated by power. 
It can make a radial cut of 175 ft. wide with a maximum depth 
of 35 ft. The dredge is provided with a complete repair shop 
and living quarters for the crew. 

The pipe line adopted has a central conduit 30 in. in diameter 
carried by two cylindrical air chambers 33 in in diameter. The 
sections are 95 ft. long and are joined with the usual rubber 
sleeve. The material excavated was very stiff gumbo. 

r. Time Repobt of Dbedge " FsANCia T. Simmons" fob 1910 



II. As'ALveis OF W<«Kivc Time 




Oredgo worked 3M 

Otiara , ,-.- 218 

GannB or I>elay>: Bn. 

WMtlwr 67 

Short pipe 21 

Suction pip^r pumping and pluic H 

SwiBBias cabiei IG 

Hsin engine 3* 

Cntti^ BBKine 

Mnrme dri^^ lo new cul - & 

TowiDK and pieparation 34 

MiM-plianf.ou> 1 



Per. lir. 

fuel n.fmM a,»s3s 

SujmliM, loob. kleeTes. oil, etc. . i.'.a.':Z l.<in>i^ 

OommlHai? labor and Bupplie* . G,nin9ft U914 , 

Field repafrs, labor and material e.'»OM 1.39S3 

Tub aerrice 13.eST.S3 3.H53 

DpTTiek aeniee 827 20 .0757 

Motor boat 5S4.0ft .ISSa 

Insurance 3.5IM.00 ■ .OOS • 

Winter repaire and flltine up: 

Labor G.267.68 l.ttSt 

MHferisl a.l« . , .6M 

Fuel comnjiaiaiy and toon 1,«2S41 . .M7* 

Tin service 753.06 • .1743 

Ouec 'lion S5.230.07 15.0996 

Repairs 9.M0.4a a.liW 

Operation and repairs ....r4.«0 4» (17.2316 i 

IV. FouE Ybabs' Opekation of Dredge 

Cubic jarda 45T,2<2* m.SW fil8,921)* 

Cost |54,MI.1»* W8,a59.n' »69,2fl!.»2' 

Coat per cubic yard lO.llS tO.131 (0.133 
Hours in eomnda- . 

Hou™ pumpine-'.' 1.088=37 % 4,500=60.6% 1117=64.3% 

Houro delated ac 

count weather .. 683=13.2% 686=14.4% 294= ».0% 

Hour" deUyed. 

mi.eelUneoua .. 1.169=89.8% 1.100=26 % 830=26.7% 

Hourg delayed, to- 
tal 1,852=83 % 1,736=39.4% 1,174=3C 7% 1 

« of the dredge is ae folloi 

1 AwisUnl onerMor 


1 ABBiBtant ciipf etiginMT 

. - . llft.W 


1 I>nrt«r M.6o 

The following data are for -the year 1911: 

V. Time Bepobt of Dreooe, lOfl 



time, persenlage of « 

The best month's work was in November, when the i^'orking 
lime efficiency was Ifl-SI^. The dredge was started for tlie year 
on April 15. during month tlie working .time was 85% of 
the total. The dredge went out of commiBsion November 30. 
The worldn^ seaaon. then, was 7M moiithH. or 62.5% cf the 'year. 
In calcnlating interest charges on this equipment, the monthly 

interest must be taken at 1/12 X fT^ X annua? interest. 

VI Cost 


DRrowB Opbhatio 




I-bor ■ 



AdminiatrHion . 

Tot»l '. »19,8e5,W 




covering the bottom tfiird of the pipe. This %-iDcb ebeet was 
worn and was replaced for the 1912 seaaoit's work. The rubber 
sleeves joioing the Bections of the discharge pipe gave fairly 
good service. The average life of u sleeve was 41 days; but 
eliminating those sleeves which were damaged due to the condi- 
tion of the pontoons, the average life of a Hleeve was 64 days. 
The cutter blades required to be renewed each year. 

Cost of Stedge. The following table gives the list of items 
which together make up the cost of the dredge as it was put in 
operation in IfllO: 

Engineering, plana,^ inapeolion, ele ., ,,| _9,M8.IB 

Tenniaul pooloon scow (199?) .,.. 
S Jones undertcud Kokara (1908) . 



MiseellBoeouB - 

Total |1SO.B06,B6 

Cost of Tendbhs 

A motor boat costing $1,150 was used for transportation of 
the men, etc. One hundred and forty-six days of its time, at a 
(■ost of $4.00 per day, were charged to the dredge, 

A hydraulic dredge was employed in the harbor improvements 
at Wilmington, Cal, The following statement shows the cost 
of dredging from April 1 to June 30, l&OS; 

Rantine omos work, labor f 073.JS 

e of plant sod properly, labor 180.00 

urveys, labor »nd .aupnlies 1C5^ 

owing ind dispatch work, labor, fuel and auiip'— *"' "" 

Iterationa and rscaira to dredging plant, labo 

E dredge, intluding ai 

I. fnel, trcah water, lubrleanti 

ippnee ....'. 10,081.M 

lerloraKon of Dlant and properly, estimaled 2,2«3J4 

Cost per cubic yard, $0.0708. 

In addition to the hydraulic dredge, the following auxiliary 
floating plant is employed: A gasoline launch, lenj^h over all 
•K) ft. 11^ in., 7 ft. beam, depth 3 ft 7 in., propelled by a 18 hp. 
" Standard " engine. Also nine pontoons, each 35 ft. x 10 ft. x 3 
ft; IB pontoons, each 21 ft. 3 in. x 10 ft x 3 ft.; one water boat, 
34 ft. » in. X 10 ft. X 4 ft. in.: one oil boat, 34 ft 9 in. x 10 
ft X 4 ft. 6 in.; one derrick boat, 29 ft. 6 in. x 10 tt. 7 in. x 
3 ft. 10 in. The original cost of the dredging plant was as 
follows : 



SVInpb sriritiOn dredge .i i ' ;..f 99.453 

'OscriiB* lauDcli' j , 1,TJ3 

EUsrharae uliw line tor dredge >,MI 

Bubbei- aleeroa i 1,276 

■ Ponioont and bBrgwi 6,aH 

: Skift. .,.; ■■■■■• .,,,-... IH 

..;.-■ 1112,139 

On the Chicago eanal two dredgea were used, which are 
destrilied in Engineering N&wa, September 6, 1894. Each dredge 
was equipped' with a 6-inch centrifagal pump and a' BSD hp. 
engine. The discharge pipe was 18 in. in diameter, made in 33 ft 
lengths, coupled with rubber hose held by iron clamps. Each 
dredge averaged 1,732 yards in 10 hours. 

Fig. ]41. 20-inch Hydraulic Dredge Designed and Gqnipped to 
Work on New York State Barge Canal. This Dredge Has 
Delivered 45S.0O0 Cubic Yards in One Month and Cost $76,- 
000, Not Including Pipe Line or Pontoons. 

In Engineerinif Hew*, Octob^ 30, 1002. Mr. John- Bogairt, in 
charge (if the Masiiena |N. Y.) ranal. pivea the cost of operating 
two dredges. Dredge No. I cost $10,1)00. It had a. 12-inch 
wrought iron discharge pipe, a rotary cutter, and a centrifugal 
pump driven by: a Lidgerwood compound condensing engine o( 
125 hp. It lifted the material 30 feet above the water and 
discharged it through a 2,000-1001 pipe. The di^plh of cut was 
22 feet below tho water surface, llie output averaged 1,125 
yards in 22 hours, at a cost of $05,80, or 8'A cents per yard. 
Dredge No. 2 cost $00,000. Its discharge pipe was IS inchea in 


diameter. The output averaged 1,554 cubic yards at a coat of 
$145, or 9.4 centB per yard. 

Engineering an4 Contracting, May 15, 1918, gives the follow- 
ing on the conBtruction of 18,000 ft. of 42 ft. top width, 21 ft. 
high embankment by the hydraulic dredge method. The ap- 
proach embankments to the Columbia River Interstate bridge 
were construeted by the hydraulic dredge method. The embank- 
ments have a total length of about 18,000 ft., an average height 
of about 21 ft. and 'side slopes of 2 to 1. The Hayden Ave. 
embankment 1,480 ft. long and the main approach to Union Ave. 
Eire 42 ft. wide on top. The embankment of the secondary ap- 
proach to Derby St., 5,800 ft. long, has a top width of 40 ft. 
The Vancouver approach embankments, total length 500 ft., have 
top widths conforming to the streets occupied. 

The embankment for the Union Ave. approach, having a total 
net volume of 821,000 en. yd., was placed in 160 days or at the 
rate of about 5,000 cu. yd. per day. The material was excavated 
from the Oregon Slough hy means of a suction dredge with a cut- 
ting bead and was transported to plaoe by being pumped through 
a line of pipe 24 inches in diameter. The operation was liy 
electric power and the main pump on the dredge was operated 
by two 500 hp. motors. The pump was of capacity to give a 
discharge through the 24 inch pi|)e at a velocity of from 12 to 15 
ft. per second. Operations continued 24 hr. per day during the 
time specified and the dredge was actually running atiout 14 hr. 
per day. For periods of a few hours at a. time the dredge 
pumped as mui'h as 1,000 cu. yd. per hr. There was of course 
a very considerable run-off- of sand from the embankment, as well 
as a certain amount of fine material which tlowed away with 
the waste water, and it is estimated that about 2,i0,0D0 cu. yd. 
more than the above net amount was transported. The dis- 
charge pipe line was extended to a length of about 5,500 ft. 
working from the dredge alone. For greater distances a booster 
pump was installed in tlie line to give greater impetus. This 
pump was operated by a single 1,000 hp. motor operating with 
ccnaiderahle overload. The dredge and booster 'pump together 
transported through a maximum length of 0,000 ft. of pipe. 
Such long distance dredging into an embankment bo compara- 
tively- narrow and high is believed to mark a record for work of 
this character. The pipe was of the ordinary riveted variety with 
slip joints made of 7 ga^ materiel on the pontoons and of 10 gage 
material elsewhere. It was moved aliout hy teams and wagons. 

The embankment was formed by the use of timber bulkheads. 
The«e were built of 6 hy 8-in. posts, about 10-ft. centers, support- 
ing 2 by 12-in. sheathing, surfaced both edges. The sides of the 


embankment were built up by these means in steps 8 ft. wide and 
4 ft. bigh. The first bulkheada were placed upon the natural 
ground surface by driving in the S bj S-in. poets with a band 
maul and setting the lower plank into a small trench so that the 
bulkhead aheathing extended perhaps 8 to 12 in. below the 
ordinary ground surface. When the sand had been filled in about 
the top of such first bulkheads, posts for succeeding bulkbesde 
were set in place and the lower plank placed ao that it extended 
about 12 in. below the top of the first bnlkhead below. These 
posts were tied back into the embankment by 2 by 6-iii. ties 
spiked on near the top of each post and extending back to a 
short post, in front of which were placed a few pieces of lagging 
to offer additional resistance. The pipe was laid to discharge into 
the middle of the embankment and was carried forward from 
the river, bringing the embankment up to the final grade and 
working away from the dredge. A framework of bafOelioaTdB was 
placed under the discharging end of the pipe, causing the water 
to spread out and spill over the ground below and run forward, 
distributing the different sizes of material as the velocity de- 
creased. At some convenient low point there was provided 
an outflow down the side of the embankment for whit^ the 
steps of the embankment were paved with plank to prevent 

The methods of constructing the bulkheads and of the dis- 
charge arrangement are shown by the accompanying illustration 
After sections of tbe flnisbed embankments became thoroughly 
drained as the work proceeded, the posts of the bulkheads were 
cut away and the planks removed and carried forward for re- 
peated USB. Parts of the posts and of the 2 by 6-iff: ties therefore 
remain in tbe embankment- The finishing of the slopes was done 
by hand with shovels, and the successive steps were so located 
that the upper corner of each step filled into the lower corner of 
the step i>elow, to provide the proper slope. The actual pumping 
and transportation of tbe sand in the bands of the contraetMri 
were the simplest parts of tbe work, and they found it economicai 
to permit a very considerable wastage of material where such 
wastage saved in the construction of bulkheads. 

Tlie secondary approach to Derby St. was oonstructcd in ■ 
similar manner by an electrically operated auction dredge with 
20-in. diameter pipe equipment. The maximum distance the 
material was carried was about 6,B00 ft. This embankment con- 
tained about 515,000 cu yd. 

The embankments were constructed by the Tacoma Dredging 
Co., tbe unit price for tbe Hayden Ave. and Union Ave. approach 
being 13.24 ct. per cubic yard; the price for the Derby St. ap- 
proach was 16 48 ct. per cubic yard. J. L. Harrington and E. E 


Howard were Consulting Engineers for tlie bridge. The matt«r 
given aboi-e is sbBtracted from their final report. 

BGlection and Operation of Sredglng Equipment. The follow- 
ing notes have been abBtracted from a reprint of eome admirable 
articlea in Engineering Record which were called to the attention 
of the author by the writer, Mr, Shaw's notes on the handling 
of dredges should be read carefully hy everj' one undertaking 
work of thia character. Certain well-developed types of dredges 
will work economically under a considerable range of conditions, 
but there is do one machine which is best suited to all, or even 
te most conditions. 

This diecue»ion of various types of equipment and the power 
plants used to operate them ie confined principally to those 
used in the reclamation of lands in tlie lower Mississippi delta. 
Tlie types considered are dipper dredges, orange-peel and clam- . 
shell dredgea, hydraulic dredgea and dragline dredges. 

In a number of cases moderately large dredgea have been 
moved intact over considerable dietances across land, but the 
writer has yet to learn of any iudividuBl owner who has made 
such an experiment and who is ready to attempt it a eecond 

The greatest variation In the details of floating dipper dredges 
is found in tile types of spuds used, in the manner of raising 
and lowering the spuds and in " pinning up." There are two 
general types in common use — the vertical and the bank spuds 
Vertical epudii are comparatively simple, are adaptable to a 
wide range of depth and are independent of the width of canal. 
They are usually raiaed and lowered by independent engines, 
either by means of cables or by compound gears engaging a 
heavy rack which is attached to the spud. Cables are now quite 
generally preferred, though the rack is still in common use and 
is preferred by some. Neither type has any marked advantage 
in the matter of simplicity. The cable system haa one con- 
siderable advantage in that it permits setting the engines far- 
ther aft, where they can be more easily attended to by those 
having the care of the main engines. 

The power for raising spuds on some dredges is compounded 
by means of worm gears, but the writer considers a worm gear 
a necessary evil, to he tolerated on some machines but never on 

Bank spuds give greater stability to the hull, being, as their 
name implies, set out on the berm or bank. They permit the 
nse of B. much longer boom on a dredge of given width than is 
possible by the use of vertical spuds. On some machines the 
liank Bpuds act as an outward support, the strain twing carried 


to the hull bf a well-braced structure acting as a beain. In 
other cases the strain ie transferred direct to the t«p of tb« 
A-frame. That portion of the spud which'TesU on the bank 
is in the form of a plajik platform, and for work in soft material 
these piatforme are extended so as to cover a considerable ares. 
In eome cases these platforms are hmged aloi^ the center m 
that they may be more easily raised out ot sticky material. 
One of the principal objections to bank spuds Is that thej often 
crush down the berm, inducing slides in the leree or waste bank. 
It is impracticable to use bank spuds in wide canals or open 
water of any considerable depth. 

Owing to the powerful thrust of the dipper acting in various 
directions, the rigid bracing of spuds and fastening of all spud 
connections, whether of the vertical or bank type, are most im- 

Comparison with other types of dredges is most favorable to 
the dipper type when working in hard, compact material such as 
cemented gravel and ledge rock. It is usually preferred for dig- 
ging through heavily timbered country, especially through trees 
having lai^e tap roots. Its ability to bring a tremendous 
amount of power to bear at a single point contributes to its 
popularity in heavy timber work. Whenever possible, however, 
all large stumps should be loosened and shattered before the dredge 
reaches tbem. 

Dredges are designed for handling earth, and there ia no 
economy in delayinjr and overstraining them in grubbing stumps 
when it is reasonably practicable to i^move, or at least loosen, 
the stumps by other means. In soft ground, blowing stumps 
entirely out of the ground should not be attempted, as the ground 
beneath tbem does not afford sufficient resistance to make this 
possible without an excessive cost for dynamite. A better plan 
is to bore a hole into the stump and place tbe explosive where 
its shattering effect will be the greatest. 

Hard gravel and rock should be blasted ahead of the dredge 
even though it may be possible to make some progress without 
first loosening the material. Dipper - dredges equipped with 
crowding engines on the boom and with special teeth on the 
bucket will make fair progress without preliminary blasting in 
soft limestone rock which is in fairly thin layers. It will nstially 
be found more economical, however, to do some preliminary blast- 
ing in all such material. 

Loss of time frequently occurs in the use of a dipper dredge 
by the Jamming into the bucket of a large stump or boulder, 
though a skillful operator will seldom permit this to occur. 

In mucky soils dipper dredges often dinintegrate the material 
tji such an extent (Jiat much of it is carried in suspension in 


the canal for several houre, to be deposited later in the bed of 
the canal and materially reduce the section. In. the very soft 
trembling prairies of southern Ijouisiana this will occur to a 
certain extent with any type of dredge, but is most noticeable 
with dipper and dragline machineH, nhich require a long move- 
ment of the bucket in filling. 

Variations in mounting and methods of moving are much the 
aame with grab-bucket dredges as with the dipper typei Spuds 
are usually cable -operated. The spuds are used as anchors only, 
since there is lesB necessity for pinning up a. dredge with thin class 
of machinery. For levee construction and other classcB of work 
on which the bulk of the material is to be dumped to one side of 
the excavation, gravity swing outAts are preferred~on account of 
their simplicity, Ion first cost and economy of operatiMi. 

Orange-peel and clamshell buckets are most efRcient in handling 
gravel, sand and soft material, though boulders, pig iron and 
blasted ledge rock are handled economically by the larger, tbree- 
bladed orange-peels of extra-heavy constructkin. In hard, pai'ked 
sand the clamshell is most suit&hle, as it gathers its load by the 
scraping actiim of the blades. In hard digging teeth are placed on 
the edges of clamshell buckets for loosening the material. 
Thougb, owing to the lurge number of wearing parts, repairs are 
frequently required with grab buckets, tbey are readily made, 
usually by the subatitution of small bushings and pins. A lib- 
eral supply of these repair partti should lie kept in stock. It is 
usually found moat economical to keep an extra bucket on hand 
so that at least one may be in perfect condition at alt times. 

' Orange-peel buckets are preferred to clamshells for dicing 
stumps, widening canals and other work where it Is necessary 
for the bucket to fill on irregular surfaces or grab hold of mate- 
rials of varying density. For digging stumps other than those 
having large tap roots the orange-peel dredge of large size is 
fully equal to any other type. Its ability to dig on all sides of 
a stump, tearing loose each individual main root, makes up for 
its lack of the great lifting and shoving power of the dipper 

While not well adapted to digging hard sand, the orange-peel 
bucket may be used in such material with moderate success if 
properly handled. To insure economical loading the bucket 
ibould be dropped into the pit in a partly closed position, the 
blades being held as nearly vertical as practicable. After drop- 
ping, the closing line should be overhauled slightly and released, 
repeating this operation as many timcH as may be necessary to 
load the bucket. It is not usually feasible to secure a full load 
by this method, nor is this desirable, as the " suction " in such 


material ie eo great that it ie almost imposBible to break Ioom 
with a full bucket of packed Band. 

Though carelens manipulation of dredger of anj type when 
working in aoft muck will stir up the material in much the sitme 
manner ae will a dipper dredge, grab buckets, if iatelligenti}' 
handled, will excavate such material much better than any other 
bucket dredge. When working in material eanily carried in eua- 
peneion by the water, the bucket should not be permitted to burj 
itself in the bottom of the canal, but should' be held by the 
" standing line," eo that it will load with only sneh material ae 
it can take out of the canal. Overloading and con^iequent drop- 
ping of broken material back into the water is the cause of moat 
of the loss in section through sedimentation of canals dug b; 
grab buckets. In cleaning out old canals which have become 
partly filled with Ane ooze especial care is necessary to insure 
tight closing of the bucket. In the tough muck and Sharkey claf 
which are typical of the lower Mississippi delta grab buckets 
may be loaded 30% to 40% beyond their rated capacity without 
danger of any considerable portion of the'load dropping off. 

Until quite recently most of the river leveea on the lower 
MiaBiaaippi were built by wheelbarrow or team work. These 
methods are now largely superseded by land dredges and by tower 
and cable rigs, though a few floating dredges are also used. As 
the material for building these levees ie taken from the river side 
and land equipment cannot be operated excepting during moder- 
ately low stages of the river, the working period is reduced to a 
few months of each year. It would seem ae though, by making 
a, slight modiRcation in the Hpeciflcations for the construction of 
these leveea, it would be posaible to use floating dredges with 
extra-long booms for a large portion of such work. 

It is seldom that a dragline dredge is mounted on a barge, as 
its operation tends to form a mud roll ahead of the bucket which 
cannot easily he removed excepting as the machine backs awsT 
from its work. Dragline machines are moved on rollers, trucks 
or caterpillar treads. The "whirler" type is usually preferred, 
as it can reach hack for sectionB of track which have been passed 
ovet and transfer them ahead. An escellent type of track for a 
heavy skid escavator operating on soft ground is described bv 
D. W. O'Bannon in the Eixa-vating Engineer for July, 1016. 

The dragline machine has a marked advantage over other types 
in that it can handle a larger bucket for a given power unit than 
any other bucket dredge. Little if any lifting force is required 
while the Inicket is Ulling, and the power for loading in applied in 
nearly a direct line from the winding drum, thus making it pos' 
aible to ^xert practically the entire power of the engine in filling 

and cutting through obstructione. The dragline embodies many 
of the advantages of both grab-bucket and dipper dredges, with 
some of their disadvantages, aa well as some peculiar to itself. 
It can dig around a. stump in much the same manner, though not 
3o well, as an orange-pesl and can bring great power to bear at 
a single point in an effort-to ovr^rtum the stump. Large stumps 
cannot be lifted clear of the pit without the use of chains, and in 
making an extra hard pull there is always present the danger of 
overturning the machine or of pulling it from, its supports. 

These machines will handle almost any matciial that can be 
excavated by a dipper dredge. Thep are not iceCI adapted for 
digging soft material which vxuhea eaeily. The stirring action 
is much the same as that of the dipper dredge and the bucket ia 
not so well able to retain the material. Obaervation of a dragline 
machine engaged in excaivating material deposited by a sluggish 
current in an old canal showed that the bucket was taldng out 
only about 30% of its rated capacity at each load. In suitable 
material, howevfr, it will load considerably beyond the rated ca- 
pacity. Under skillful manipulation a dragline machine is capa- 
ble of dressing aft a levee much better than can be done hy any 
other type of bucket machine. 

Hydraulic dredges are often preferred for interior canal con- 
Btruction on account of their ability to spread the excavated 
material over a wide area, thus avoiding wasteful and unsightly 
banks. They are not often used for levee building on reclamation 
projects, though they have been so employed with good results. 
The preferred method in cutting new canals is to make a first cut 
with a small bucket dredge, dumping the material in about equal 
quantities on either side, to form a barrier which prevents the 
material excavated by the h}'draulic dred°e from flowing back 
into the canal. In other cases a small hand-built levee serves the 
same purpose. A levee or rid-'e of sod 2 ft. in height will usually 
retain the discharge from a 12-in. hydraulic dredge, provided the 
point of discharge is 30 ft. or more beyond the levee. For canals 
having a section much in cKcese of 10 yd. per linear toot a larger 
levee will be required. 

Suction dredges are subject to delays through the stoppage of 
suction pipes and pumps from grass, roots and other debris, 
though the larger sizpA are seldom troubled by anythin;^ smaller 
than stumps. Nothing less than a 10-in. pump should be used 
for work of this class, owing to frequent stoppage of the suction 
line, while the very large si^es are usually unsuitable because 
they require so large a hull that they cannot be used in the 
smaller canals. A 12-in. dredging pump with all necessary equip- 
ment can be mounted on a barge 24x80 ft, which will be found 


suitable for digging 30-ft. canals — a common size for the emaller 
systems. A 12-in. pump, equipped with a suitable cutter, will 
pass a surprising amount of soHd articles. In cleaning out the 
Chalmette slips below the city of Neir Orleans a solid cannon 
ball from the Chalmette battlefield, pieces of ship's rigging and 
TarioUB other bric'fl-brac were brought out by the suction dredges. 

The greatest variation in these dred^s is found in their cutter 
heads, their design and speed of rotation being dictated by the 
character of the material eicavated. In .hard, gravelly material 
a rugged cutter head is required which will produce the msxj- 
miim agitation in the material. In the muck and soft clay soils 
of the lower Mississippi delta, on the other hand, a slicing action 
of the blades secures better results, especially it combined with 
only moderate speed of rotation. 

The effective work of a hydraulic dredge depends to a great 
extent on the percentage of solids discharged. This percentage 
will drop with a dull, sickening thud If the dredge is operated 
carelessly or if it is not equipped so that the cutter head may be 
kept close up to the work and so regulated that it will not clog. 
In deep excavations care must be used to prevent undercutting to 
such an extent that heavy material can drop down onto the ladder 
and cutter head and choke the pump or wreck the end of the 

Hydraulic dredges for canal excavation should be equipped so 
that they will discharge normally through a V connection on 
both sides of the canal. The point of discharge should be not 
less than 50 ft. beyond the side of the hull, the pipes being sup- 
ported by gallows frames or A.frames with cables. Each dis- 
charge should be equipped with a valve so that it can be closed 
temporarily for passing obstructions or intersecting canals. 
Where growing crops or other improvements do not prohibit the 
discharge of water and mud over adjacent lands hydraulic dredges 
are preferred to any other type for cleaning out old canals which 
have lost much of their original section through sedimentation. 

Ruction dredjics may handle stumps by first undermining and 
then dragging them out with a line from a winch head on board 
the dredge. Although stumpa may be taken out in this manner 
this type of dredge cannot be operated economically in a heavily 
timliered area. 

Most of the power problems in dredge operation and design are 
common to all the classes of equipment described. Heretofore 
steam power has been used almost exclusively, the smaller dredges 
being equipped with the simplest type of slide-valve hoisting en- 
gines. Hydraulic dredges have usually employed a better grade 
of engine in their main power unit. 

DREDGEfj 326 

Great difficulty la eiperiesced near t^ coast in securing suit- 
able boiler-feed water. The unlimited use of raw water from the 
<:anal0 results in expensive delays and repair bills through the 
rapid deterioration of boilers, steam piping and engines. This 
trouble is reduced, though not eliminated, 1^ the use of con- 
densers. A dredge equipped with a complete salt-water outfit, 
including condeneer, circulating and vacuum pump and a high- 
speed evaporator, was constructed by the writ^ in one instance 
for use in waters which were exceptionally had. This plant has 
now been in nearly continuous operation for three years with 
no serious delays from the steam end of the outfit. Although 
the steam auxiliaries cost nearly the same as the boiler itself, it 
appears by comparing the operation of this dredge with th*t of 
others operating in the same water, but not similarly equipped, 
that the extra equipment has paid for iteelf several times over. 

The intermittent but frequently e:(cessive demands for steam on 
most types of dredges makes it necessary that an ample capacity 
for producing dry steam should be provided. Condensers, evap- 
orators and steam separators are an aid, but nuthin^^ will fully 
make up for a deficiency in boiler capacity. Foaming, due to 
overcrowding the boilers, eepecially when supplied with poor 
water, reduces the available power of engines, carries away the 
lubrication and contributes to a large extent to engine break- 

Another factor in limiting the power supply is curtailment of 
draft through the unnecexsary abbreviation of the stack. There 
is no reason why the average floating dredge should not carry a 
smokestack more nearly approximating the length eatabtished as 
good practice in other lines of steam engineering. In spite of 
this fact it is not uncommon to see an SO or 100-hp. dredge boiler 
supplied 'With a 20-tt. stack. The design of the stack, however, 
should be based on the coal burned per hour rather than on the 
rated horsepower of the boiler, which should be considerably in 
excess of the theoretical requirements. 

The accompanying table illustrates the writer's ideas as to 
suitable proportions for a H^-y^- orange-peel, gravity-swing 

Suitable Pbopoetions fob Ii^-Yard Okanob-Peel Dbedqe with 

50- Foot Re.\ch 

Width of hull 38 ft. 

LeDSth of hnll 80 ft. 

Depth of hull 6 tl. 

Length of .boom ..,..,......■.-.,. ...■■. 75 ft. 

I^ollble^!Jlinlle^ main engine -^^--■■■"-^.---■■■■■iilil2 in.'. 

Boiler 80 hp. 

Diameter of eUek !7 in. 

Height of sUck 60 ft. 


dredge designed for a given reach of 60 ft. from the aide of the 
excavation. Theee proportions contemplate eetting the machiner; 
down in the hull. If set on deck, it would be advit<able to in- 
crease the dianiet«r of stack to 30 in. and reduce the height to 
40 ft. Such an outfit should operate on about 300 lb. of coal 
per hour. 

Gravity awing dredges may be operated satisfactorily by single. 
conBtant-speed engines, the speed of lioisting lines and other 
operations being regulated by the slipping of friction clutches. 
The control of hoisting speed b; the slipping of frictions ia con- 
sidered by many as wasteful and unsatisfactory, but with a prop- 
erly designed device it has b««n found satisfactory, especially on 
machines of moderate size. For such service, the friction blocks 
should be of generous dimensions and turned true so that there 
will be complete contact over a large area. Maple seems to be 
preferred for friction blocks by manufacturers of dredging and 
hoisting machinery, but the writer has secured better results at a 
smaller cost by using well-seaHOned black gum. Any good pat- 
tern maker can turn out a satisfactory set of blocks if given an 
aceuMte set of drawings to work from. A small gravity swing 
dredge has been operated from a constant- speed, internal -combus- 
tion engine for a period of oveii three months without renewal of 
the black gum friction blocks used iu controlling the main hoist- 
ing drums. 



Hand HamineT DrilU adapted tt> work in hard rock on excava- 
tion jobB of all kinds where holes are to be drilled downward 
fither vertically or at an angle, except where very deep holes 
or those of large diameter are required, are illuetratd by Figs. 

Fig. 14Z, Hand Hammer Drill, Sullivan "Botatflr." 

142 and 143. In addition to their use for general rock excava- 
tion, these drills have a wide application in demoliBhing old 
masonry, breaking up concrete, removing pavement and kindred 
jobs for which service they effect a saving over hand work. On 
many jobs hand hajnmer drills have demonstrated their ability ta 


turn out more work than mounted drills due to the fact that no 
time is lout in setting up and moving tripoda. 

All self-rotating hand hammer drills require hollow drill steel 

Fig. 143. Hand Hammer Drill, Ingereoll-Sand " Jack Hammer." 

and ma; be had with either an air jet device or with a device 
feeding both air and water to the i)ottom of the drill hole to free 


¥ig. 144. Mounted Hammer Drill. LeyneT-Ingeraoll Type Set Up 

on Column with Arrangement when Water Tank Is Used. 

The prices are as 


Fig. 145. Air Feed Hammer or Stope Drill Fitted with Dust 


Konated Hanner Drllte adapted for use in tnimel driving and 
mining are operated with a tripod mounting where the drilling 
is downward and a colunm or bar where the drilling is horizon- 
tal. They are illustrated by Fig. 144 and are generally of the 
water feeding type, employing hollow drill steel. For their work 
capacity they are lighter than the reciprocating type of drill. 
The price without the mounting is aa follows: «300 tor the light 
type weighing about 100 lb.; «3flO for the heavier type weighing 
aboat 160 lb. These drills are operated by air only. 

Air Feed Hammer DrlUi or stope drills generally used in min- 
ing may also be used in trimming the roof of a tunnel. They 

Fig. 14S. Sullivan Rotating Water Stoper. 

are designed to work at an angle above the horizontal. One 
make may be had in two types; the dry weighs about 85 lb. and 
costs $200; the wet type weighs about 00 lb. and costs S225. 

Another make costs as follows: automatic feed, dry type $276; 
wet type $300; both of these weigh about 120 lb. Hand feed, 
dry type $200; wet type $225; both of these weigh about 86 lb. 

An attachment for use in allaying the dust from the cutting is 
illustrated by Fig. 146 and consists of an attachment on the 
drill with a connection to the air supply and a bucket or other 
receptacle for the water. This attachment costs SIO. 

Hounted Piston Diilli used in quarrying and open cuts are 
mounted on either a tripod or quarry bar. They may be operated 
on either compreseed air or steam. The cost as follows: 

DiHDieter ApproiimBte Price 

of piatOD in In. weight in lb. f. o.b. fulorf 

Electric Air Drlllt. Some of the conditions that particularly 
favor the selection of this type of drill are as follows; 

(1) High altitude, which impairs the efficiency of the ordinary 
compressor. • 


(3) Long tranemiBBion lines, wire being cheaper than pipes. 

(3) Cheap electric power, of the right voltage and frequency. 

The electric air drill is driven hy pulsations of compresBed 
air cauaed by a " pulsator," which is driven by an electric motor. 
The air ia not exhausted, but is simply used over and over 
again, working liackward and forward in a closed pneumatic 
circuit, from which some leakage of air is neceaaarily inevitable. 
This leakage is provided for by compensating valves on the 
pulsator, adjusted to automatically maintain a constant average 

Fig. 147. "Electric Air" Drill at Boutwell Milne and Vamum 
Quarry, Barre, Vt. 

pressure in the circuit. The drill is practically a. cylinder con- 
taining a moving piston and rotation device, without valves 
chest, buffers, springs, side rods and pawls. The cylinder is 
larger than that of the corresponding'air drill, but the piston 
IB shorter, thus involving no great difference in weight between 
this and the older types. The pulsator requires no intake and 
discharge valves nor water jackets. It is geared to a motor 
which may, of course, be of either direct or alternating current, 
and is mounted on a wheeled truck for convenience in handling. 
The pulnator and drill are connected by two short lengths of 
hose, each of which acts alternately aa supply and exhaust. 
It IB claimed by ttie manufacturer that with the electric air 


drill there in far leas Iobb of power than in the case of the 
ordinary air or steam drill, and this claim eeems, on theoretical 
grounds, to be well founded. 

Complete electric air drills average about $1,000 in price- 
Similar machines driven by a gasoline engine instead of an 
electric motor are also manufactured. 

Drill Eepain. In the South African gold mines the cost of 
drill repairs was, in 1S12, about $300 per drill per year, or 5Dc 
per shift for two-shift work, and the site of the average drill is 
about 314 inches. 

Mr. Thomas Dennison is authority for the statement that the 
average monthly cost of keeping a drill in repair when working 
in the Michigan copper minea is as follows : 

Suppliee ll.M 

"'-''■"■ •■ ,., 8.4B 

Blsckimilh labor 

Total per mooth ni.3< 

Number of drills in shop at one time is about 15% of the total 

Mr. A, R. Chambers has used 25 Sullivan U. D. drills for 11 
months' work in hard red hematite. The holes varied from 6 to S 
feet in depth, and a drilling record of 104 feet was made in one 
ten-hour shift. The drills were mounted on columns with arms, 
and the cost of repairs was: 

. 2.00 

per month per drill, or about 30 cents per ten-hour day per drill- 
Mr. Josiah Bond kept record of drill repairs for three years 
and they show a coat of $102, $101.60 and $93.75 per year per 
drill, respectively, for the three years. It is his opinion that a 
drill used night and day for one year is sufficiently worn at 
the end of that time to scrap and that its life for single shift 
work is three years. 

Mr. Charles H. Swigert is authority tor the following data 
on tunnel work in very hard basaltic rock. In 9^4 months the 
total of 85,400 feet of hole was drilled, being an average of 29 
lin. ft. of hole per drill. The drills were of 3-in. size. Cost of 
repairs for four drills was as follows: 

Per Lin. Ft. PerCu.Yd. 

Repalra of Hole Eicaiatfld 

Labor DMcenta 2.60 cents 


The total drill repaira amounted to 68c per eight-hour shift. 
In g)^ monthe 2,262 ebifts were worked. 

Mr. Hftuer states that on one Inger soil- Sergeant drill of 3%-il). 
size, elaes i', the repairs, not including repairs to hose, amounted 
to $5 per month for a period of four to five months. 

i am indebted to Mr. John Kice, vice- pre si dent of the General 
Crushed Stone Co. of South Bethlehem, Pa., for the following 
infQrmation as to drill repairs: 

<lu»rt»ila — IMS. 
3SJ.S 8.57 

Limeslone — ]903. 

The Injereoll-aei 

i rnKetsol 

Mr. Bond (quoted above) observes that a well-made heavy 
bar or column ahoUld outlast four drills, and arin^ are generally 
strong enough to finish three drills. He considers that repairs 
and depreciation on a stoping drill are about 50c per shift. 

The cost of repairs to two Ingersoll drills 3^ inches in siM 
at the Melones mine was $91.00 for over 2.600 feet of tunnel. 

The following drill repair eoata are given in "Rock Drilling," 
by Dana and Saunders; 

The cost for putting in shape tor work nine drills on the 
D., L. & W. cutoff was $1,100. Repairs on fourteen drills for 
the first 13 months after the commencement of the work 
amounted to $695.02, or an average of $3.80 per drill per month, 
or 38 cents per drill per shift. 


At Thornton, 111., the repairs on fourteen drills during nine 
monthH in 1900 cost $3,059.47, or 93 cents per drill per day, single 
shift work. 

The foregoing eostg of drill repairs are all prior to 1912. 

Drill Sharpening KaohlneB. These machines are Illustrated hj 
Pigs. 148 and 149. A machine weighing 4,400 lb. for Hhipmect 
costs $1,225 without dies or dollies. Another make comes in 
three sizes, 2, ISO lb. costs $1,200, 1,700 Ih. costs $900 and a 

Fig. 149. Leyner Drill Sharpener. 

small machine for bitting and shanking weighs about 925 lb. 
and coats S600. All the foregoing prices are f. o. b. factory. 

Complete Hhsrpening shops generslly have intluded in their 
equipment a punch for opening a hole in hollow steel after 
sharpening and shanking and a grinder for dressing drill shanks 
and light grinding. Both of the^e mscbinee are air operated 

One drill sharpening machine was operated by one man who 
attended his own forge and made necessary repairs. It ran on 
an average of 4 hours per day and sharpened approsimatel; 
36,000 drills, averaging 50 drills per hour. The amount of fuel 


used was about one-half that required in band work. To form 
and Bfaarpen nen drills required 1% minutes. The life of a bit 
sharpened by this machine ie longer than when done bjr band, 
the bits being better compacted, and drills can be eharpened 
at the same machine b; the eame dies. Before this machine was 
uHed 'two blackamithe and two helpers were neceseary, the ma- 
chine showing a saving over hand labor in 6 months of $1,738.60 
and saving in coal for 183 dajs, $S3. Total saving for 9 months, 
$1,821.60. (No record as to machine cost.) 

Fig. 149. Sullivan Sharpener on a Tunnel Contract in Arizona. 

in the South African 'gold mines each drilling machine uses an 
average of twenty drill points per shift, which amounts to 
600 lb. of drills removed to and from the job for each machine 
per shift. One blacit smith with a helper will keep 5 to 7 
drills supplied with sharp bits. In medium rock a bit mast be 
sharpened for each 2 ft. of hole, in hard rock, for each 1% ft,, 
and in soft rock for each i ft. The direct cost of sharpening 
bits by hand is about as follows: 

Blucknnith tl.TO 

Charcoal 80 

Totst (ISl! flcaru) 140 bits at i cents = 15.60 


Mr, T. H. Proske saya: 

" The power drill-ebftrpeoer has removed many of the ghort- 
comiogs attendant upon the hand iharpeniog prooesa, with the 
reBUlt that where these machines are used it is possible to ae- 
eomplish from 25% to 100% more drilling than under the old 
methoda." I take this to mean 25% to 100% more drilling per 
trip to the ahop on the part of the drill tender, which etat«ment 
ia well within the facts. Especially is this true when the ma.- 
ehine sharpening is combined with the selection of special drill 

Hand Hammer DrUU, Hecnd Hammer Dritla are light, power- 
ful, small toola which are adapted to light work in mines and 

These drills cost about $05. Drill steel in small quantities 
costs about 20c per lb. for the hollow and about 13c per lb. for 
the solid. 

Riveting hammers cost from SOO to SlOO and weigh from 15 t« 
30 lb. Scaling and chipping hammers weigh from 7 to 15 lb. and 
cost from $60 to $70. 

PertoTmance of Small Hand Hammer Siill, The author exam- 
ined with some care the operation of a small hand hammer drill 
in the Held operating in granitic schist in a New Hampshire 
quarry. The operation of changing steels required an average of 
H% seconds on the part of a highly skilled operator. The field 
notes of this test were aa follows; 

Honra Minutes Scronds 

Start of first steel 1 42 3 

FiQisb of first steel 43 25 

3(Brt at secoad st«el 43 37 

Finish of second steel H M% 

SUrt of third sterl 45 BVl 

Finish of third Bteel 46 20 

StsM of fourth Bteel 48 SW4 

Finish of fourth steel 47 ami 

Start of fifth steel -- .. • 47 IMS 

PinbH of fifth Bl«el 48 »» 

TotsI depth of hole, BBW in. 

Average depth per iteel, 11 in. 

The steel used was T^-in. heiBEOnal hollow rolled itcsl. 

First Nt, dismeter. IK in, 

LsM hit, dismelsr, 1>4 in. 

After the hole "was flniahed, dust filled the hole to about a 
depth of 8 in. until blown out, which time for blowing out is not 
included in the above time study. The elapsed time for the 
entire operation was 6 min. 19^ sec, or 8.32 min. The toUl 
time to change steels was ii% sec., or .75 min., making 5.67 
min. for drilling time, or practically 10 in. per minute. Thia, of 
course, did not include the time of getting ready for a, new hole 


or blowing out the old hole, both of which operations could easily 
be accomplished in 30 Heconda by an average operatov. ThiB 
example is given to show the adaptability of these small hand 
machini^B for rapid and economical work on comparatively shallow 
holes. In addition to the air ]upe is showh a pipe running to the 
pressure gauge, which registered 102 lb. when the drill was 
not working and 85 lb. with drill running. The former pressure 
represented the pressure at the compressor. In this drill some 
of the exhaust goes down through the bit and blows the rock 
cuttings up out of the hole, producing a heavy cloud in a strong 


There are two general methods of sulimarme drilling ( I ) 
" Platform Method," so called from a platform or staging ^up 
ported on "spuds." This method is applicable where currenfa 
are excessively disturbing influences (2) The 'Barge Method" 
pmploys a floating scow or barge carrying the drills and other 
equipment, anchored m place by cables or chams. The height 
of the framing, length of feed etc and resulting price of equip 
ment, depend upon depth of drilling 

A number of plants for subaqueous drilling are described >n 
" Rock Drilling," by Dana and Saunders, from which the following 
data are abstracted: 

The Platform Method Ct lindrual telescopic tubes with a 
conical taper, fitted with an ejettor attachment, rest on the rock 
with upper end above the surface of the water Drilling, washing 
and charging are performed through these tubes The use of the 
water jet is usually very eionomieal The boilers, ships pumps, 
diving apparatus, etj? , are usually carried by barge or scow 
moored to the platform and by author^ 

In the operations on Black Tom Reef, New ^ork harbor, which 
commenced May 2, 1881, 344 actual working days were occupied in 
drilling 1,736 holes, a total of 17,658 lineal feet (av. depth iai7') 
and removing 5,136 cu. yd. 

The cost of plant, including alterations and additions, was aa 

Baree No. 4, hull and equipment t S,«40,00 

Drill Flost, Ko. 1 4,O96.T0 

Drill Float. No. 2 4.88T.40 

MscMnerr, el« 3,816.61 

Totjl «»,53g.61 

The foregoing cost of plant and the following cost of operation 
are excessive, due to the experimental work prior to the introduc- 
tion of the improved methods of operation. 

The operatiDg exp«nftes were oa followe: 

Al^tnK1 repairs to plsi 
Repnln to drillfl 

Total CMt 
... >,4ei.Da 

per Lin. Ft per Ou. Yd. 

ire.'^TT!* lb."!!!: 
cir coaaectloDB. 7 

Total (ISSZ) 

Ares drilled oier 

Dynnmtto nwd 

Exploders used ........ 

Wnmh»r ot drjniiig mu 

iSPd (oct«(con 1M»") 

Bai^e Ketliod. The drill boat used t^ the Great Lakes Dred^ 
Dock Co. at West Neebish Channel, St. Mark's Eiver, in 1909, 
was of timber, 126 ft. long bf 30 ft beam, covered b; a bouse 
in which were boilere, shops and men's quarters. The equipment 
included the following: i 

1 Scotch marine (3 fire) boiler. 14' loa( i 13' diameter. 
1 Eieh blaelumilh'a torEe. aniil. block villi stack, bench, viae, pipe clamp. 
IT Span drill bits. 
1 I^draulic c^Under, ISTx IE' C with 3'A" platou and traction cbalu lor 

1 Small feed pump. 

2 Force pumps, 

1 dyaamo (and Bwilcbboard) driven br one cylinder belted englae; drnaico 
110 TOltl and 42 amperes, D. C, S h. p., 1,«C0 r. p. m. 

1 Small Ferlical waahoot boiler. 

E Drill machinea, Bli" on trailc of 2' 6" I beama. 

4 apu" e[S'ne"a.-''F'l iW". 
Tbe coat of the pUnt was approlimataly 135,000.00. 

The drill boat "Earthquake" uaed by Dunbar ttnd Sullivan on 
Section No. 3 of the Livingstone channel, Detroit River channel 
improvement, hod a steel hull 106 ft. long, 30 ft. wide and ' 
5 ft. 9 in. deep. The deck was of 2-in. planking, and the house, 
89 X 19 X 13 ft. high, also of wood. The framework of the hull was 
composed of standard anj^Iea and brackets, and divided into 
four watertight compartments by transverse bulkheada. 

The equipment includes tbe following: 

4 Drills and equipment. 

4 Spud anct'om. 

4 Sivud anctaor engines. 

2 B((«in opatani. 
IT Bits, 

r:„|. :iMG00tjl>J 

f Miiiiiiiilliliiil 


I if 1 1 

4S'r,As isssisjsi liin^iii I s s 
■-I illllllllllll Jill II 



1 Hydraiilic cslinder. 11 ft: timg i 1! ia. diameter for ijiilting drill 
1 Boiltr, 12^4 1 1<A ft. 

1 InJe«tor. 

1 Dtdbdio and imaU eDEiue for liEhla. 

1 Tank. 7 i 21 X S ft., (or heating leeA. water for hydraulic lift in winter. 
1 Cutter and 1 powder boat. 
ThL> cOBt of the plant wa> approxiniat«l; tlS.Om. 

On tbe Hay Lake and Neebish Channels improvement of St. 
Mary'H River, Mich., Section No. 4, the following plant was used: 

Fig. 150. 15 Ft. Feed Turntable Drill Wagon. 


The drill boata have wooden hnlle, 98Tt25x6 (t., 90x30i['6 ft. 
and 65 X 16 X 5Mi ft., the two largest having 3 drills each and the 
smaller 2 drills. 

The tabulation on page 343 of the coat of subaqueous drilling is 
also abstracted from "Rock Drilling"; 

Deep Hole Drill Wasons. This type of drilling rig ia adapted 
to work in the excavation of rock in quarries, canals, railroad 
cuts, and work of a similar nature, where the material to be 
drilled is too hard to use the ordinary rigs. They may be op- 
erated by a crew of two men, and are illustrated by Fig.' 150. 
The following types are to be bad: Portable wagon mounting 
for single drill, mounting for three or more drills; turntable 
drill wagon, and portable wagon mounting *' electric air " drill, 
with or wilJiout turntable. 

hisceilauxoits drills 

Channelers. These machines are used generally where the 
output of quarries consists of dimension stone, but sometimes, as 
on canal work, it is more economical to channel rocks to a required 
face than to drill and blast beyond the " pay " limit. Another 
definite advantage in the use of channelers ia noted in the building 
of the Cbicago Drainage Canal, where the walls were required to 
be left smooth and solid. The depth to which a channeler can 
cut depMids upon the character of the rock. A cut as great as 
17 ft. has been accompliahed, but very rarely. The general aver- 
age is from 7 to 10 ft. With a 9 ft. cut in ahale, a machine 
under my direction, in February, 1908, cut from 80 to 250 sq. ft. 
per day of three shifts with a total of 3,139 sq. ft. for the 
month. The width of a channel cut will vary with the conditions 
from 1^ in. to 6 in., more or ^eas. The coat per square foot 
channeled was 13.6 cents labor and atiout 4 cents for coal. These 
costs are exclusive of plant, superintendence and overhead charges. 

In the fixed-back channeler the movement of the steels ia 
limited to two vertical planes and the cut is vertical witti square 
ends. The swing-back track channeler is intended for angular 
cutting in quarries where the floor is to be enlarged. And it is 
desirable to follow it without removing overlying rock. The 
Broncho channeler has a purpose intermediate between the heavy 
track channeler and the light quarry bar and drill. The under- 
cutting track channeler is designed to meet conditions in rock 
in which there are no free horizontal beds, and the cleavage of 
the stone is nearly vertical. 

A steam operated double acting channeler with hotter, complete, 
weighs about 25,000 lb. and costs about $11,000. A similar 


machine siogle acting, wn^is about 1S,000 lb. aod costs about 

Gadder. The Gadder is used to drill a nomber of parallel holes 
in a plane, at an; angle from horinNital to vertical, or, in con- 
□ection with the channeler, in drilling the horizontal undercutting 
holes. Id " plug and feather " wort it ia nsed to bre^ the 
large blocks cut free by the chaunelers. 

The equipment includes the following; Drill and standard 

Fig. 151. Sullivan Steel Gadder. 

muunted on carriage, with steady plnet and adjusting screws, 
crank handle, oil cans, wrenches, etc., and does not include hose. 
Its weight complete, set up ready to run, is 4,100 lb. and it costs, 
about $1,400. 

ftnarry Bar. Complete quarry bars including carriage, weights 
and wrenches are made for drills having cylinder diameters of 
from 2 to S in. in lengths of from 3 to 12 ft. The shipping 
weights for the complete outfits are from 1,000 to 2,200 lb., and 
their cost is from $400 to $650 f. o. h. factory. 

DtaLLS 347 

Eleotrie Air Chaaneler. Thta machine is opersUd on the mme 
principle as the electric air drill heretofore described. It costs 
about 96fiOO t. o. b. factory. 

WheD requesting quotatione on rock drilling machinery, the 
following information should be furnished the manufacturer: 
In QnaiTrlnC- 

1. Give the location of work, whether on aarface or under- 

2. Describe the nature of the rock, whether sandstone, alate, 
limestoite, granite, marble, etc. State whether the material is 
hard, medium or soft. 

3. Is the quaTTf output in dimension stone or simpi]' broken 

4. If the material is shell;, state whether it is tight or loose. 

5. What is to be the extreme depth of holesT Are there man]' 
or few of these deep holes? 

6. What is the average depth of the holes to be drilled! (This 
is important.) 

7. What is to be the average diameter of the holes at the 
bottom T If undecided, state whether dynamite or black powder 
is to be used. 

9. What is the greatest distance to which eteam will have to 
be piped or will ever be used? 

ft. A rough sketch of ths quarry is very useful and also a 
small sample of the material to be quarried. If the latter is sent, 
it should be properly labeled with the name and address of the 
sender and prepaid; a, 3-inch or 5-inch cube is a good size. 
In Railway Cut or Ezcavatlon. 

10. Give the full dimensions of the cut and in addition answer 
such questions in above list as may apply to the case. 

In Sewer or Trenehlngr Work. 

11. Give answers to questions Noi. 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 8 above. 

12. Give the width and depth of the trench, stating the depth 
of the rock nhich is to be removed, and depth of earth (if any) 
over the rock. 

In Ketal HtnlnE- 

13. Give full information as to the nature and quality of the 

14. Describe the general system of mining. 

15. Give the dimensions of the shafts, drifts, stopes and winzes 
which are to be driven. 

10. If a compressed air equipment is desired, answer the ques- 
tions under the heading of " Compressed Air." 
In Tunneling. 

IT. What is tlie nature of the material which is to be passed 
through T 


IS. Dimenaions of tunnell ! 

IB. What is to be the total length? 

20. Are heading and bench to be driven together, or will » \ 
heading be driven first and the bench removed afterwardl 

21. is the tunnel to be driven from one end only, or from both! 

22. Are intermediate shafts to be sunk? If so, give their depth 
and cross -section, and describe the material to he ]>enetr«ted. 

23. If compressed air ie to be used, distributed by pipes leading 
from a central station, these stations should be located where 
coal and water are most readily accessible. In such ca»ea answer 
the questions under the heading " Compressed Air." 

In Shaft Work. 

24. What are to be the dimensions of the shaft! 

25. Give the depth proposed and nature of the rock or ore 
penetrated. If compressed air is to be used, answer the ques- 
tions under that head below. 

In Snbmarine DrlU Turk. 

26. Give the greatest depth of water over the rock to be 

27. Give the depth of rock which is to be blasted and the 
depth of the holes to be drilled. If possible, state a maximum 
and minimum depth required. 

2S. Give the rise and fall of the tide, if any. 

29. Give the velocity of the current, if any. 

30. State whether the drilling ia to be done from a scow, pon- 
toon, platform or whatever support is used. 

31. State whether the rock is covered with mud, cla,y, gravel 
or sand, and if so, to what depth. 

Where Comprised Air Is to Be ITaed. 

32. State the altitude above sea level at which the compressor 
is to be located. 

33. Give a general idea of the location and arrangement of the 

34. State how near the plant is to fiiel and water, and the 
kind and cost of the fuel. 

35. State haw far the compressing plant is from the work to 
be done. 

3G. If other machinery than drills is to be ran by air, give 
the cylinder dimensions, the speed, the pressure necessary, thf 
running time, the location, and other information likely to be of 

37. State whether the compressor is to be run by steam. 
electricity or water power. 

3S. Give the steam pressure which is to be used. 

39. State whether the compressor is to run condensing or non- 

DBILI£ 349 

condensing. If condenijng, state quality, temperature and quan- 
tity of water available. 

40. If a boiler is alreftd; available, state its rated horae-power. 

41. State how long the work is to last, and whether the most 
economical or a cheaper plant is contemplated. 

42. If electric power is to be used, state character, volts^ and 
freqiMDc; of current available. 

43. If water power is to be uaed, state head and quantity 

44. If the compressor must be sectional ized, state limit of weight 

FncTtmatle FiBton Drills. Pneumatic piston drills are used tor 
drilling metaU, boring wood, tapping, reaming, flue rolling, etc. 
They are made in the reversible, n on -reversible and close quarter 
types. They weigh from 10 to 75 lb. and are priced at from $75 
to $105. Attachments may also be had for operating grinding 
wheels and saws. 

Chnrn nriUi. Churn drills or portable drilling machines are 
made in about fifteen bizes, some of thcr largeiA of which are also 
built with a traction attachment. The small portable and all the 
traction maj^hines are usually equipped with a folding pole der- 
rick, which takes up less space than a ladder derrick. 

The prices of machines are about as follows: 

Table op Chubn Drills 

50) Traetion f 

3500 Friction hoist de«p well ng 2^.000 4.3» 

The 400 ft. macliine is adapted for blast hole drilling and ma? 
he had with either steam, gas engine or electric motor at ap- 
proximately the price given above. This type of machine is il- 
lustrated by Pig. l.'Ji 

A rotecry shot drill attachment including worm feed on rope 
reel, rotating table pulleys, and complete outfit that can be uaed 
with the 500 ft. machine in the above table, is uaed when it ia 



neceasai? to penetrate strata that cannot be drilled with tlie cable 
Tig, coats $1 160 f. □. b. factor;. 

E4]vipmetit for blast bole drilling adapted to tbe 250 and SOO 
ft. size ie as folbwe: 

IS ft. bl<ul h(we . 

Fig. 152. Churn DrilL 

Tlshinr Tools. Bope knife for cutting cable oS close to top* 
socket, used on 1 in. gas pipe coata $14.00. Rope apear for fishing 
out a lost cable or sand line costs $10.50. Spuds ior cutting 
around bit of tool that baa become lost cost from f32 to ^ 


according to eize. Sockets for fishing out tools cost iToja 935 to 
$100 according t« size. 

Mr. W. G, Weber, in the Wiaoontin Engiwecr, described the 
use of churn drilla in exploring low-grade copper ore bodies in 
Arieona. A drilling crew uauallj coittisted of raie driller and 
one helper or toed dreaner, working in twelve-hour shifts. The 
costs of operation were as follows; 

CtfcT Of DaiixiKO 



2 driUe 

driUere at tS per day 10.48 

helpen Bt 14. S) per day 3S 

Bsmpler at |4 per dsy 16 

totemsn M K per day (2 machiats) ., .12 


Water .10 

Tcsming .10 

AaaayiaE. afflce and incidsntalB. etc .10 

InlercHt at &% and depreciation (life 4 yra.) oo IO.0OD 

oolflt -ZO 

ToWl coat per foot of hole (prior to 1S12) %2M 

The monthly average of the cost per foot of hole drilled 
varies with one company from $2 to $3. In another instance, 
where holes are drilled further apart and the drilling Is poorer 
the oost per foot has run as high as $5. When drilling is the 
only means of development being used on a property, the cost 
of camp maintenance and incidentals coosidcrably swells the 
coat account. 

Mr. H. P. Gillette gives the cost of drilling blasting holes 
on tbe Pennsylvania railroad work. The drills used were the 
ordinary portable churn drills having engines of from 4 to 6 
hp. driving a walking beam which raided and lowered a rope, 
to -which was fastened the churn bit and rode. A 5^-inch bit was 
uRed in this work. Each drill averaged three 20-foot holes, or 
80 feet, in shale per 10-hour shift. In limestone, however, and 
in hard sandstone, not more tlian 10 feet of hole were drilled 
per shift. Had the bits been reduced to 3 inches, and the drill 
roda suitably weighted, much better progress would have been 
made in hard rock. 

AdTantag^ei of Cknni Drills. Certain advantages of this type 
of drill over the regular rock drill are sa follows: 

( 1 ) A drill will not so readily stick in the hole because of the 


powerful direct pull of the rope that operates the drill rods; (2) 
there is no limit to the depth of the hole aod the deeper it is (up , 
to any limita possible in blasting) the better the drill works, , 
due to the increased weight of the rods; (3) this tjpe of drill 
consumes less fuel than the ordinary stenm drill; (4) the weight 
of bite to be carried bat-k and forth from blacksmith shop is 
much less than for the ordinary machiue drills; (5) the driller . 
will drill through the earth overlying the rock, bo that no 
stripping is neeeasary; (6) the hole at bottom is much larger 
than with the ordinary drill, thus allowing the bulk of the 
powder charge to be concentrated at the bottom of the hole, 
where it should be. For the same reason a lower grade of 
explosive ean be used. 

Holes drilled with bits to give 3 inches diameter at tbe 
bottom of the bole, with depth of 24 feet in solid brown sand- 
stone in Eastern Ohio. In 14 days of Ifl hours each the driller 
put down 092 feet, or practically 50 feet per day. 

C bu. (490 lb.) coal »t 10 et 60 

Total tor SO If. o( hole tS.20 

This gives a cost of 12^ cents per foot of hole, not including 
interest and depreciation, and bit sharpening. The best day's 
work in the brown sandstone, using all the weights, was 53 
feet, hut in blue sandstone, which was softer, GO feet were 
drilled per day, using light weights. 

In the same brown sandstone cut an S-day test was made 
with a 3Vi-iiith Rand drill for comparison. The holes were 20 
feet deep, 1% inches in diameter at the bottom (as against 3 
inches with the well driller), and 28 holes were drilled in the 
8 days, making 70 feet the average day's work. A 10 hp. boiler 
furnished steam. The daily cost of operating the Rand drill was: 
Drill runner IJ.OO 

10 bu. (800 lb.) toHl at 10 el 1.00 

Tola! for 70 ft. of hole K.2B 

This was equivalent to ll.S cents per foot of hole, not including 
interest and depreciation, and bit sharpening, or slightly less than 
with the churn drill. 

Mr. William R. Wade, in the Mining World, 1908, gives some 
coats of churn and cor? drilling in exploring for turquoise mines 
in the Burro Mountains, New Mexico. The machines used cost 


$4,300, fully equipped and on the work. About 3I> feet of 4-infh 
hole were cut in 8^ hours at a cost of $1.00 per foot, including 
interest, repaire, iiuperint«ndence and incidentals. Six barrels 
of wuter and % cord of juniper (equal to pine, cedar or similar 
soft wood in fuel value) were used per day. Mr. Wade statea 
that nith a crew uf three men the actual drilling cost about 
50 cents per foot, including labor, interest on the drill, supplies 
and $1.00 per day for repairs, but not including office expenses, 
superintendence, aaaaying, etc. 

Eiectrlo DriTcn Well Driller Used for dnanyliir Ornsbvd Stone 
as described in EngiHeering and CotMracling, July 21, ItKM), is 
equipped with a 10 hp. specially geared motor placed over the 
rear truck and belted to the drilling mechanism, which is back 
geared and balanced. The controller box is located at the front 
uf the machine close to the driller's hand. The drilling tools 
comprise a stem weighing alwut 1,000 lb., a drill bit weighing 
150 lb,, and a rope socket weighing about 50 lb., or about 1,200 
lb. altogether. The bit cuts a 5%-in. hole and the stem is 3% 
in. in diameter and 22 ft. long. As the stroke is from 30 to 30 
in., a blow of from 3,000 to 3,500 lb, is obtained at each stroke. 
The macliine is built with gear hoist, capacity 500 ft., or with 
friction hoist, capacity 350 ft. The makers consider the latter 
style of machine probably the best for quarry and rock cut work 
where the tools are being constantly raised and lowered as in 
tamping a ciiarge, and wliere the holes will rarely exceed 150 ft. 
in depth. 

In operating at the full speed of the motor the tools make about 
60 strokes per minute. As the hole becomes deeper or clogged with 
cuttings, before sand pumping, the rapidity of the stroke is gradu- 
ally reduced to spy 60 strokes per minute in older that the 
cutting bit may deliver ita blow with best effect. This change of 
Hpeed is produced hy reducing the, speed of the motor. The best 
results, it has been found, are obtained with a 5%-in. hole. This 
aizs obviates the necessity of squibbing charges, which must be 
employed in smaller holes. A 5%'in. hole is also more easily 
and cheaply drilled than a hole of larger or smaller diameter; 
the larger hole involves more cutting while permitting no corre- 
sponding gain in size and weight of drill bar; i. e.. the heaviest 
practicable tools can be operated in a 5%-in, hole, while a smaller 
hole necessitates a reduction in the diameter and weight of the 
stem and bit which cuts down their elficiency. 

Besides doing the drilling this machine is used for loading the 
holes. For this service the regular drilling bit in removed and 
in its place a wooden rammer \u placed on the drill stem. From 
5 to 9 sticks of dynamite having been dropped into the hole the 
drilling tool is lowered after them, forcing them to the bottom 


The tools axe then withdmwa and the operation repeated untU 
ajl the charge ie placed. Ihe placing of the firing cap and wires 
and the tamping are done by hand. 

The machine was furniahed by the makers oo the guarantee 
to drill to a. depth of 60 ft., at the rate of 4U ft. per lO-hour day, 
or 4 ft. per hour. Id the tests mads on delivery of the machine 
the following records were obtained : The machine waa aet up 
on June 5 at S o'clock and ran for 1 hour, drilling 9 ft. of hole. 
From the following Monday morning until Friday forenoon, 
Bomething over 4 days, working 10 houra a day, four 66 it. holes 
or 264 ft. of hole were drilled. In the following week four holee 
106 ft. deep or 420 ft. of hole were drilled. These figures are 
furnished by the Keystone Quarry Drill Co. In actual work the 
machine averaged 40 ft. of 6%-in. hole per lO-hour day. The daily 
operating expenses are as follows: 

One drill runner at KM |2.m 

One belpsr at >2 a.TO 

ToU,l per d»y (1909) ....|8.0O 

Thia gives a cosb per foot of hole drilled of 20 ct. 
Ship Angers. A 3-in. ship auger, welded to a e-ft. shank 
threaded to screw to a standard 1-in, water pipe, was used very 
satisfactorily by the Author in 1910 for making test borings in a 
clay pit to a depth of 30 ft. Where the clay is fairly dry this 
method is effective to a depth of 50 ft. The apparatus, shown in 
Fig. 153, consisted of a wooden tripod 12 ft, high when erected, a 
1-ton chain-block, a rope tackle with one single and one double 
block, the 3-in. ship auger with welded shank and a couple of 
12-ft. lengths of 1-in. standard water pipe. The cost of the outfit 
in October, 1919, was about as follows: 

3 inch ship »uger with welded shank t XSa 

Tripod made on the job from i[r«en timber bj S men, 1 dav. 

and 1 team % day 27.00 

Rope tackle, 1 aioile, 1 double block S.W 

Olioin block, 1 ton eft.QO 

2 StiJIson wrenthes ior revolTing the aujer ■ B.OO 

MiM«llaiieoos and orerhead 86.W | 

Total (1919) tl60.«) ' 

The auger was found to be extremely well adapted to sinking a 
hole rapidly, taking out a core which gave a sample typical of 
the material at the bottom of the hole. The cost of the borings 
varied from about 25 cents per foot to one dollar, according 
to the condition of the material. Some holes were abandoned 
on account of striking rock or large boulders. Bard aand wae 
an impediment, usually surmountable; and helow a certain depth. 


usually between 20 and 30 ft. the wet clay squeezed in the sides 
of the holes lu soon as the bit was withdrawn, parti; closing 
the hole, and thus making it impoBsible to go further with the 
neit boring. This condition of plasticity of the clay thus 
defined the depth at nhich this method was practicable. After the 
bit was put down 8 in. or bo into new material, it was pulled out 
for several feet with the block and tackle, using the chain block 
to start it where occasionally necessary, after which it was 

Fig. 153. Ship Auger and Tripod for Test Borings in Clay. 

lifted out by hand. Four men comprised the crew, which was 
directed by Mr. R. D. Sandford, of Litchfield, Conn. 

Wash Boring. Wash boring is the most rapid and economical 
method of penetrating unconsolidated material. It is not a suit- 
able means of prospecting where samples are required as all 
strata penetrated are mixed together and brought up by the 
water jet. It is particularly adapted to sounding the depth to 
rock when the overiiurden is too thick to be economically pen- 
etrated by augers. Where diamond drilling is to be done, wash 
boring is often used to penetrate the overburden. 


Hand augers are used t« bare through surface materials in 
starting a well. The; are to he had in sizes of from 2 in, to 6 
in. in various types. The price of the 3 in. si2« is $8.20. 

Hydraulic, jetting and revolving drills used in rotary boring 
machines for enlarging a liole in order that a pipe casing may 
follow, may be had in a number of styles and are carried in stock 
in sizes from 2 to 16 in. A 3 in. drill coits $16. 

Diamond DriUinK. Diamond drills are uned where it is neces- 
sary to obtain samples. The cores obtained may run from 10^ 
to 100% depending on the condition of the material drilled. In 
cases where the rock is hard and uniform, core recovery is high- 
est, and where the' rocit is loose and soft, recovery is low. Near 
the surface, where tlie rock ia decomposed, recovery is less than 
at the lower portion of the hole. 

A hand diamond drill outfit complete without diamonds, for 
400 ft. depth, weighs approximately 2,200 lb. and costs $1,000, 
A gasoline driven outfit, same depth, without diamonds weighs 
approximately 4,000 lb. and coata $1,600. The aame outfit driven 
by steam costs $3,500 and weighs approximately 11,000 lb. 

For this type of'drlll six one and a half Itarat stones are used. 
The present price of a good quality stone is $1 15 per karat. 
The best practice is considered to have two sets of stones. The 
price would be $1,035 per set, or $2,070 for both sets. 

Tbe^cost of diamond drill borings in the Colorado coal measures 
was given in Engineering and Contracting, Mar. 13, 1907 as foi- 

The outfit used was a Sullivan Class CN coal prospecting drill, 
with a capacity of 500 ft., and 2-in. diameter core. This was 
complete with all necessary apparatus. Three sets of tubes were 
drilled, one of nine holes, one of seven holes and one of three 
holes. The drilling gang in each case was made up of one fore- 
man at $1S0 per month, who had charge of the day drilling; one 
night driller at $3.50 per day; two assistants at $2.50 per day; 
one teamster at $2 per day, and a cook at $50 per month. The 
foreman kept records, set diamonds, bought supplies, etc. The men 
all received board and lodging. 

The following figures are average costs per foot for each set of 

Camp account 



tuhea- In Set 1 nine holes were drilled a total depth of 4,738 
ft.; in Set 2 ievwi holes were drilled a total depth of 3,040 ft., 
and in Set 3 three holes were drilled a total dopth of 1,767 ft. 

The figures as will be seen do not include interest and deprecia- 
tion on plant, transportation, etc. 

Botary Shot Drills. Rotary sliot drills are used for the same 
purpose aa diamond drills. In this type of drill steel shot are 
used to cut instead of diamonds. This machine is illuBtrat«d hy 
Fi^. 154. A machine driven by either steam (no boiler in- 

Fig. 154. Core Drill. 

eluded), gasoline, horse or belt, capable of drilling to a depth 
of 300 ft. and recovering a'2>^-in. core weighs from 2,800 to 4,000 
Ih. depending on the equipment, and costs from $000 to $1,300, 
Similar machines -for depths of SOO ft. weigh from about 4,500 
lb. to 7.000 lb. and cost from Sl,900 to $2,000. The size of 
core in this machine is 3Vj 1". These machines are manufactured 
in sizes recovering cores to 19 in. in diameter and drill to any 
practical depth. They may be had with various power equip- 

The following cost data are from a report by Mr. F. R. Fisher on 
a drilling and grouting job at River Mill, Oregon. The total 
net cost of drilling and grouting was $47,770.65 or $1.40 per lineal 
foot. Of the total footage drilled 32,91!) lineal feet were put 


down by roteiy shot drills and 1,119 feet with dimnond drills. The 
holea put down with the diamond drille cost about one-third 
more than those with the shot drill. 

Rook Bonndlne Big. The following description of ft* rock 
sounding rig appeared in Engineering Jfeiog, Apr. 8, 1915. 

A eimple rig which has been used both to obtain the thickness 
of earth caver over rock and as a drill for blast holes in soft 
shale or hardpan has been devised by J. L. Weller, Engineer in 


Fig. 15& Bar and Attachments for Rock Sounding Rig. 

Charge of the Welland Canal, St. Catharines, Out., and has been 
used on the revision work in that canal and on an earthwork ' 
contract in Nova Scotia. 

The rig essentialiy is a light piledriver which is used to hammer I 
a long bar into the ground. The piledriver is about 25 tt. high | 
and weighs about 200 lb., so that it is easily portable by two '. 
or three men. It carries a 135-lb. hammer operated by hand 
through a single line over a sheave at the top of the leads. The 
bar is 3 in. in diameter, with an upset head and a tenon point 1 
into which fits a driving point of conical shape and slightly 


larger outside diameter. New driving points, at a cost of 2c. 
apiece, are provided for each operation, the old one being left 
in the hole. For pulling the bar a clamp in the shape of a bi- 
furcated cone ifl fitted under the head of the bar and the pile- 
driver rope slung around the clamp. A pull on the rope tends to 
bind the clamp to the bar and at tbe eanie time to pull the bar 

The rig was used extensively on the Welland Canal work to 
locate the rock surface, which lay in a fairly uniform plane 
beneath the gronnd surface. The easily portable rig made quite 
easy and cheap the determination of rock depths at close spaciugs. 
On the Nova Scotia job the rig worked ahead of the Bteamshovel, 
making blaat-holes (or anisll shots to break up the sbaly forma- 

Sand Pompa. " Down " holes in rock forming a mud which 
will not aplash out must be cleaaed at intervals — usually at 
«very change of steels. For this purpose the sand pump is used. 
It is a section of wrought iron boiler tube having a valve at its 
tower end which opens to admit tbe slush, but closes when tbe tube 
U lifted. At the upper end of the tube a chain should be at- 
tached, made up of several links of rod by which the pump is 
forced to the bottom of the hole. A ring at the last link pre- 
vents the chain from dropping in the hole. The two-foot length 
is used for cleaning holes without moving the drills; greater 
lengths BJe intended for deep holes. Standard sizes and prices 
are tabulated below. 

Sand Pump with Bah. 


o. b. ttclory 

Sand pump bottoms of east iron cost $2.20 for the U^g-in. 
size, $2.60 for the aiiHs-'O- size, $2.90 for the 3%-in. size, 83.30 for 
the 4^-in. size and £3.T5 for the 4%-iD. size. For cast steel add 
100% to price. 

Blacksmith drills operated by hand power, for drilling holes up 
to 1^ in., weigh from 90 to 150 lb., and cost from $12.00 to 



Electrie motors used by contractors m general conBtruction 
work range in size from a, fraction of a hp to about 150 hp 
Direct current motors may b« furniehed shunt series or com 
pound wound Shunt wound motors maintain a perfectly con 
stant speed regardless of load They are used when constant 
speed IB required under changed loading conditions and are par 
ticularly suitable for dnvin)f line shafting or groups of ma 
chines operated by one motor Series wound motors vary in 
speed m proportion to the load carried They e^ert a veri 
strong start torque and will race if allowed to run free They are 
particularly suitable for operating cranes howts etc where 
frequent reversals are necessary and where the speed of the 
motor In (.onstantU under the control of an operator 

Compound wound motors combine the advantages of the shunt 
and of the series wound motors They will \ar> in speed under 
thanged loading conditions more than a shunt wound motor hut 
the^ will not race nor slow down under a lieayy load to such an 
extent as a series wound motor They are adapted to driving 
pumps etc where fairly steady speed and starting torque are 

The single phase alternating current motor has been quit« well 
developed during the last few years but it hai* as yet come into 
rather limited use The polyphase motor tas come into very 
general use its relative simplicity being a strong feature These 
induction motors mav be either ol two general types the 
squirrel cage type and the slip rin^ or wound motor type The 
squirrel cage t\pe is the more simple and has no moving con 
tacts and hence no wearing parts except the bearings Relative 
freedim from sparking is assured and the motors can be used 
with some safety in locations surrounded by inflammable or 
explosive material For c nstant speed service with fairly m 
freiuent starting or with frequent startings on circuits where 
lo-ie voltage regulaticn is mt essential the squirrel cage is the 
preferable type The slip ring type however liy the use of ad 
justable starting resistance in series with the secondary will 


start a given load with lesn current, and is therefore preferable 
where frequent atarting with heavy load is neeessary and where 
cloae voltage regulation is essential. The slip ring motor is 
also useful for some kinds of varying speed service, notably 
hoists and cranes, where its service 'is comparable to that of a 
seriea wound d. e. motor- 
Motors for a variable speed use are designed for interinittent 
service of a maximum of S(i minutes duration and this reduces 
the coat. Motors when well protected have a long life. The 
brush is the quickest wearing part and one will last from 1 to 4 
years, depending on the care given and the kind of service. 
Klicn a motor is overloaded the brush sparks and, therefore, 
wears out very rapidly. A brush will last longer on alternating 
current than on direct. 

The following fable gives the average prices of direct current 
motors, also the "weights. There is a variation in the cost of 
about 159!> either way, and of the weights a variation of about 
30% either way. These figures are useful in estimating and are 
for machines rated at StlQ r.p.m. Machines rated at other speeds 
cost more for the slower types and less for the faster types per hp. 

Size in hp. Weight in lb. Price {. o. h. Isctory 

The following is the average cost of alternating current motors 
BO cycle for 110 to 220 volts two or three phase rated at 1200 
r.p m. The same variations of weights and prices apply to these 

D. C. KotDts. The following table gives the prices of one make 
of motors and applies to motors operating on 115,230 and SOO 
volts. The prices are for complete machines with base, pulley 
and starter. 






t 77-102 




























D. C. Oeneraton. The following givea the cost of a make of 
generatorB. These mat^hines are rated at voltages of 125 and 
250 and the prices include sliding base, puUe; and Held rheostat. 

2& 580 2750 1130 

GO 900 3175 1400 

A. C. Hoton, squirrel cage, are made for voltages of 110, 
220, 440 and 560 for 2 or 3 phase 25 and 60 cyctea (moet com- 
mon). The following table gives the prices of these motors for 
60 cycles. The prices given are for motors rated at 1,200 and 
1,800 r.p.m. no load speed. These motors may be had in no 
load speeds of 600, 720, 900, 1,200 and 1,800 r.p.m. The speed 
at full load is from 30 to 50 r.p.m. less. 

A. C. Moton, slip ring, are made in the same voltages as the 

squirrel type. The following are for motors rated at 1,200 
r.p.m. for 2 or 3 phase, 60 cycle. 

Approjiinule Priee 

bp. iblppiDE weight Id Ik f . o. b. fsetoir 

1 280 ; ZIO 

S 395 2»4 



The prices for these a. c. motors are for the complete motor on 
base with pulley and starter. 

In general the prices are less for the higher speed motors uid 
more for the slower speed. 



These machines are geaerally drawn bj twelve iioraes (eight 
in front and four hitched to a push cart behiod) or more, or b; 
a traction engine. The machine consista primarily of a plow 
which caste a furrow on a transversely moving belt that elevates 
the earth, and dumps it into wagonn or at one Hide. 

An all steel elevating grader equipped with an IB ft. elevator 
which can be shortened to 15 ft. by removing one section weighs 
approximately 7,080 lb. for shipment and costs 81,250 f. o. b. 
factory. A larger sized machine weighing 7,650 lb. costs $1,450 
f. o. b. factory. The manufacturers claim that theae machines arc 
capable of throwing 1,000 yd. of earth into embankments, or load- 
ing from 5 to 600 I^-yd. wagons in 10 hr. work where the con- 
dition of the soil is suitable for their operation. 

The following is the cost of stripping a gravel pit, covered 
with sandy loam, with a number of pockets of varying depths up 
to 10 in. The contract called for the stripping of a space 3,000 
feet long and 250 feet wide, and the placing of the material in 
storage pif^s in the rear. 

The outnt consisted of 1 elevating grader 6 l^->;d. dump 
wagons, 4 No. 2 wheelers, and 2 plows. Wheelers were used to 
excavate the pockets. More wagons should have been provided 
aa the grader was delayed waiting for them, 

ll),fl70 cubic yards were atripped during the month of Septem- 
ber, 11)00. 

Orad»r — 

51j Teams 

V. heelei 

3 TesDU B 

Labor — 

Foreman 8B.00 

Mucker 24 dBye & KW 48.00 

Corral man 2S dB>B @ (2 00 E«.l» 

Qrader driTera 24 dafB ® K25 lOS.tO 

Total coat at WA ceuta per yard ;2,4R2.D0 




Mr. Daniel J. Hauer gives the coat per en. yd. of earth excava- 
tion with elevating graderjs on eeverat railroad joba. The fol- 
lowing rates of wages were paid (or a 10 hour day: 

TBder . 

and 2d 
and Id 
■Dd ] d 

.' mi 

: 206 


■ ^4^ 

3 Hone tetaoB 















.. 6.25 

10.151 toaoo 

SS-fc ■:::::;■:■ 

.050 .029 

I0.4S0 fo.zes 

Cu. yd. per <Uy -, 

^m ^ 

Mr. Gillette places the average output of elevating graders 
loading into dump wagons at 500 cu. yd. per day, and estimates 
the interest and depreciation as 20% of the firat coat distributed 
over 60 working days per year. The author has found that 
the life of a grader is from 5 years to as much as 12 years when 
the grader is well cared for. 


Simple, Center Crank Euglnei without boilerB cost aa follows: 



The prices of the same engines mounted on locomotive boilers, 
which in turn, are mounted on either tvheels or sills, are as fol- 

On Wheels 

hp. Weight iD lb. Price, f . o. b. factory 



Fig. 1S7. Center Crank Engine on Skide. 


A single cylindeF, renter crank. h«ri;;ontal steam engine similar 
to the one in Fig. 157, complete with nub-baHe and all fittings, 

Fig. 158. Single Cylinder, Center Crank Horizontal Steam 

The above ratings are based on a steam pressure of about 80 
lb. at the throttle. 

Portable Engines and Boilers od skids similar to the one shown 
in Fig. l-i8 have locomotive type boilers and the same engines as 

B followH f. o. b. Racine, 

Thi*e engines are complete with locomotive type boilera and 
aide or disc crank engines. They are mounted on lar^ wheels 
with wide tires. 

Estlmatiiig the Hone Power of Coatractors' Engiaei. The 
SIM of an engine is usually expressed in terms of tlie diameler 
of the cylinder bore by the length of the piston stroke. In a 
6x8 engine, the cylinder has a bore of 6 in. and the piston has 
a stroke of 8 in. This stroke is, of course, just twice the length 
of the " throw " of the crank arm. Bear in mind, therefore, that 
the "size of cylinder" as given in catalogue i« the bore of the 
cjlinder by the stroke of the piston, and not by the full length 
of the cylinder. 

If a contractor's engine is designed te have a piston speed of 
SOO ft. per minute, and is using st^am with a boiler pressure of 
loo lb., it Is an easy matter to deduce a very simple rule for 
estimating the horsepower of the engine. The following rule 
is precisely correct when the product of the piston speed by the 
mechanical efficiency is equal to 1,050; and this is ordinarily the 
case with contractors' engines having cylinders of 8 in. or more 
in diameter. 

EfLE; To ascertain the horsepower, square the bore of the 
cylinder and divide by four. 

Thus, it the engine is 8 x 8, we have a' cylinder bore of 8. Hence, 
squaring 8 we have 64, and dividing by 4 we get 16, which is 
the horsepower. This is the actual delivered, or brake, horse- 
power. For small engines, whose piston speeds are usually less, 
it is sate to divide the square of the bore by five instead of by 
four. A 6x6 engine would, therefore, have 7 horsepower. 

If the engine has two cylinders (duplex) of course the horse- 
power is twice that of a single cylinder. 

Oasoline BnKlnei are usually furnished with the machinery 
they are designed to operate, and for that reason when machinery 


whicli may be operated by gasoline ia described, the price of the 
engine ia included in the total cost. However, at timea, it may 
be desirable to equip a piece of machinery now driven by steam 
or other power, with a gasoline engine. 

A gas, gasoline or Iterosene driven engine of a horizontal water 
cooled type is of four oycle, with built in magneto, centrifugal 
goTernor, and hag the fuel supply tank in the bane of the engine. 
The price of the engine on iron suh-baae is as follows: , 

ApproximaW Price j 

bp. shipping weight in lb. f , o. b. (actor; i 

This price includee complete equipment. 
The same type engine mounted on an all steel truck i 

ApptoiimaW Price 

In the above table the 1^, 2, 3 and 6 hp, sizes are mounted on ; 
hand trucks; the 8 and I2hp. sizes are mounted on trucks with pole 
and may be had witli single or double trees at an additional cost. 

Care of QasoUne Engines in Freezing Weather b; Vse of 
Antl-FrecEing Uixttiies. The following are rules for avoiding 
freezing of water in the cylinders, pipes, radiators, etc., of the cool- 
ing system of water -cooled automobile engines and stationary ei- 
plosive engines. As soon as freezin» weather approaches or when 
the temperature drops as low as 40 degrees F. all water should 
be drained from the radiator, cylinders and pump, says Oa» 
Review, and the radiator filled with one of the solutions given. 

1. A mixture of glycerine and water in the proportion, by 
weight of 25%. of the former and 70% of the latter, to which is 
added 2% of sodium carbonate. 

2. Chemically pure calcium chloride dissolved in hot water in 
the proportion of 4 pounds to one gallon of water. t 

3. Sodii'm chloride (common salt) or magnesium chloride dis- 
solved in water in the proportion of 1^ to 2 pounds to the gallon. 

4. Wood alcohol in the proportion of 20% alcohol to 80% of 
water. This solution has the advantage oE being sufficient for 
average winter weather, and it has no ill effect of any kind on 
metals nor does it leave any sediment. 

Fig. 159. Gasoline Engim 

Fig. 160. Gasoline Engine on Skids. 

r:„|. :iMG00tjl>J 


Should the thermometer reach ag low aa 15 degrees F., a go- 

lution of about 25% alcohol and 75% water should be used. 
For temperatures below zero, use 30^o alcohol and 70% water. 


(See Buckets, Drag Scraper Excavators, Dredges, Elevating 
Graders, Grading Machines, Shovels, and Trenching and Ditching 



Nature of Ezploslre Action. The value of explosives in con- 
atruction work ie derived from the volume of gas generated upon 
detonation or explosion, and the speed at which the generation 
takes place. The pressure of the generated gases ia equal in all 
directions (contrary to the belief of many "practical men"), 
but a, alow burning black powder will take many times aa long 
to generate the gas aa a detonant like nitroglycerine. Dyna- 
mite will shatter a rock without even a mud cap. because 
the gases are liberated with such extreme velocity that the effect 
is produced on the rock before the atmospheric air can overcome 
its own inertia and yield. 

Chupowder. There are tbe following general claaaes of black 
powder manufactured: 

Nitre Powder, the highest grade, consists of- 75% saltpetre 
(KNO,), 15% charcoal, and 10% sulphur. It usually comes 
in 25 lb. kegs, and costs about $9.25 per keg. 

Soda Powder contains sodium nitrate (Na NO,), which de- 
teriorates in time by absorbing moisture from the air. It 
usually comes in 25 lb. kegs and costs about $2.25. The average 
weight of loose powder, slightly shaken, is 62^ lb. per cu. ft., 
or I lb. occupies 2B cu. in. 

Jndion Powder, which Js a free running black powder, comes 
in 50 lb. kegs and coats about $7.25 and under. It is a soda 
powder and contains from 5 to .10% of nitroglycerine. 

Nilroglyeerine 6% 

Sodintti nitrate «% 

Sulphur 16% 

Cannel coal 1E>% 

Dynamite consista of any absorbent or porous material satu- 
rated or partly saturated with nitroglycerine. The absorbent 
is called the " dope." If 40% of the weight of dynamite is 
nitroglycerine it is known aa 40% dynamite; if 75%, it is 
known as 75% dynamite. 

High explosives are usually packed in oases containing 25 and 

50 lb. " Car load " means 20,000 pounds dynamite net welgbt, 



except where the railroad Tequirea a larger minimuin quantity, 
in whicli event that minimum quantity is conaidered a. car load. 
Prices on 200 pounda or more uaually include deliveiy to the 
nearest freight station. The prices of high esploaivea vary in 
the different aections of the country aa much as $2.00 or $3.00 
per one hundred pounds. For instance, in greater New York and 
most points in Colorado and Florida the; are high; in Maryland, 
Pennsylvania and the greater part of New Jersey they are low 
as a rule. The price in any aection is liable to change without 
notice and their variation is due to many different causes, h-ucIi 
as high or low freight rates, local ordinances regarding the 
method of delivery, etc., hence, the rates given below are aver* . 
age and are mainly of use in determining the relative prices of 
different kinds and grades of explosives. 

Average Pbices of Hioh Explosives , 

Strencthi Frtce p«i lOD lb. 

% Ton lota beat than ton Iota 

flS.M I 

PisutssiBu: Explosives 

!T 100 lb. 

Kind Ton lota 

MonobBlB 1 * « laSW . »23.ffi 

Monobeli 2, 8. 4 4 5 20.50 it.TS 

OsrbonilM 1*2 1B,0» 20.25 

Catbonites 3 A « 17.00 18.36 

Red Cross Explosives are especially valuable in cold weather 
because although they will freen-, they do not freeze readily and 
will thaw when ice melts. Identical in appearance and similar 
in action to other standard grades. 

Ammonia Dynamite has a strong heaving aiid rending effect, 
producing a minimum of fine material. Fumes not objectionable. 
Difficult to ignite by " side spitting " of fuse. Suitable for open 
or underground work. 

&emi-Oelatln is an excellent explosive for wet work. No ob- 
jectionable fumes. 

Qelatin Dynamite is dense, plastic, fumes not objectionable. 
Little affected by water. 

Blasting Qelatin is a very high power, quick-acting explosive 


6 Is*"- 
S 4 Si 

6&^ . 

assssssa sa 



with good ttater resistinft qualities aad a lack of objectionable 
fumes For nhe in rock too hard for 80% Gelatin Dynamite 

A permissible explosive le one which has been approved b\ 
the Lnited btatea Government a* permissible (or use in gaseous 
or dust; coal mineii 

Monobei No 2 and (. arbonite No 1 are recommended for 
antliracit« coal bituminoua ciking co&I and other coal nhere a 
quick acting explosive n needed 

Monobei No 3 and Carbonite No 4 are slower in action and 
should be used where a maximum of large lamp is desired 

Carbonite No 2 is slower than No 1 and quicker than No 3 i 

Monobei No 1 is designed for use m quarries and ore mines . 
It docB not require thawing and ib practically tumeleaa 

Judson powder la intermediate between dynamite ani) blasting ' 
pow der It It especially valuable m soft and friable work I 
Judson R R P has already been described 

lodBon F FF and FFF are put up in cartridges like dvnamite 

The weight of dvnamite per in(h of stick is about as follows I 
and all of the grades weigh about the same per stiik | 

DiB of stick (in ) Wt per in of leneth (lb ) 


Professor Courtenay de Kalb, in his " Manual of Explosives," 

" Storage (of explosives) in caves, tunnels, earth or stone cot- i 
ered vaults and in log structures should under no circumstances 
be tolerated. The chief objection in all theses cases is that the 
structure will hold dampnesR, and any dampness in a magazine 
containing any explosive into which nitrates enter as an essential i 
or accessory ingredient is certain to affect its quality and render | 
it more or less dangerous in subsequent use. This applies to gun- 
powder (common black powder) and to practically all dyna- 

Professor de Kalb recommends a building of tongued and ' 

grooved boards, blind nailed, with tar-paper covered roof, and if J 

danger of lire is apprehended, steel shingled covered roof and ; 

walls. An ordinary tool box covered with tin or sheet iron | 

and painted red with large, distinct " danger " signs on all sides : 




ia excellent. However, it is possible to obtain rehdy made 

On October 1, 1011, Me,saachu setts, New Jersey, Ohio, Cali- 
fornia, and Oklahoma ha.d lawu regulating distances at which 
specific quantities of explosives might be stored with reference 
to dwellings, putilic buildings, railroads, etc. Almost all cities 
and towns have laws regarding this and all who intend to store 
pxplosivcB should inform themselves on all state and local laws. 
Where no laws affecting storage of explosives are ia force, we 
recommend .that magazines be locai«d in compliance with the 
.American Table of Distances, to-wit: 








\\here municipal regulations do not prohibit storing explosiwea 
within city limits, powder or d\namite in quantities of 10(> 
pounds or less mav be kept in a small portable magazine Al 
ways mark on this maga/ine the words Powder Magazine ' 
(use may be kept in store and blasting caps or electric fuses, not 
ticeeding 600 each Alwais keep magazine locked 

Sidewalk Magazine Without Wlieela A magazme built of 2 in 
boards covered entircij on the outside witli No 20 flat iron, 
having the lid secured bv ordinary hinges and fitted with hasp, 
staple and padloik (No maga/fne should be allowed to rest on 
the ground because powder absorbs i 

For 50 lb poiidfr : 
For 100 lb powder ! 
For m lb dfoBQiile 
For 1«0 Ih dynamite 
For 200 lb dynnnile 
For 300 lb dynamite 


Sidewalk KagOEine with Wheels. Similar to that without 
wheels, but supplied with four 6'in. cast iron wheels on the 
outaide at the bottom. 


(Una earns dimeiuioiu u thoea without wh«elal 
For 60 lb. powdBT tlZtotM 

Tor 3( 

>' %nZ 

Iron Haeazlnei lor storing explosives are of two kinds; the 
portable sidewalk magazine on wheels, and the storage maga- ' 
zine. The former in furnished in five sizes from that with a 
capacity of eight kegs, size 24x23x36 in., weight 150 pounds, I 
price $3S f. o. b. Ohio, to that with a capacity of thirty kegs, size 
30x30x60 in., weight 450 pounds, price $86. The latter kind 
comes in ten sizes, from the smallest, capacity 108 kegs, sise . 
3 X S X Q ft., weight 800 pounds, price $115, to the largeqf, capacity | 
1,84S kegs, size 11 x 8x21 ft., weight 4,700 pounds, price $675. 

General Speotfloattont for Sand Filled Dynamite ]IaKazia« are 
as follows: 

> n««d, . 

spaced G tt. c. to c. I 
wall stepped to li or 

Sills and PUtea 




I ID. 

%-ln. (onfue and groove, or shiplap. 

Sheath inside at bnilding tram sjlle to plate with H-jn. 
tontrup end groove blind nailed, or irfdplap with uib 


Bullet Prooflng; 

As inside sh«a(hing is put on Btl space between tbe oIL 

pUle, studding. ouKide end inside sheatbinR wrth coarsa 

sand, well tamped. Da not n<e graval or stone. 


Ratters: 2i4 in., spaced Si in. c. to e. Bhe«thlnc. Ma. 


No. U galv. eorrugaMd iron. 




ICndw ant) So. afaalv. flat iron. To make roof bullet- 
prool from aboie, uail plank on raftvTs «tid flit vith 

8id« aod Bod- to be covered with No, 34 or Ko. 2S bUck 
or ,alv. flat or corrujaled iron. 

plilF. All binges to be secured b; liolti passlnt ihrouth 
to iniide. 

i-in. Dt globe Tentilator Id root. VoDtiUtor holeii u, 
bt cut in toundalion. 

Iron CvTBTlnc; 



For storinB 

LWlb., >Ee SxSft tmtofllD 

B.O(»lb., aiMSxS ft 160 M 140 

DiataDce from ground to door, 3 fe«t. From floor to cavea, 
8 leet. 

Brick Magatlne. Tbese htive 8 in. walls, have floora of and are 
lined with %-in. plank, and have roof covered with corrugated 
galvanized iron. 


For alorinj I.nno lb., aits 7 
For Btorinf 1,000 lb., Ilia T 
For (torinc 3,0nn bl., ilie T 
For atoHni 4.nno Ih., al™ T 
For atoring l>,OOD lb,, site T 

7 ft, . 

. . nZO to lltO 
. . tto to 200 




Cbemical Engines. This engine, Fig. 161, has proved to be a 
most valuable piece of fire fighting apparatus for use id ware- 
houses, factories, lumber yards, private reaidencee, etc. 

The construction consists of a forty gallon steel cylinder, 
tinned inside and out, set up on two euitable wheels 42 inches 
in diameter, either of the sarvan or all steel wide tire pattern, 
the cylinder being properly balanced lietween the two wbeeU 

Fig. IGl, Chemical Engine. 

so that when the engine i« set upright on its bottom the wheels 
clear the floor or ground ; suitable handles are provided by which 
the en$>ine .is easily run from place to place and when required 
tor village fire department u^e a suilahle drag rope is furnished. 

The equipment consists of 50 ft. %in. chemical hose with 
couplings and shut ■off nozzle. Dimensions, height 62 inches, 
diameter 16 inches, width over hubs of wheels 35 inches, track 
2!1 inches. 

Finished in aluminum, bronze or any color Japan. 

Charge consists of 17 lb. bi-carbonate of soda and 10 lb. sul- 
phuric acid. 


The price of thia engioe, lead lined i 
A fire extiDguisber aimilar to the on 

Fig. 162. Standard Underwriter Equipment- 

mode of copper and is tested to 350 lb. pressure. The 3 gal. size 
costH $13.00 net. An extra thargo for this extinguisher costs 
(0 50. 
Carbon Tetrai:hloride lire extinguishers are made in Heveral 

Fig, 103. Fire Extinguisher. 

eiiCB. One having a capacity of Hi quarts coats $12, an extra 
i^liarge coats $1,85, 1% quarts capacity $16, extra charge $2.50, 


;al can of fluid $5.00. These extinguishers are made of 
and are worked bj a pump handle 

Standard Undebwkiter Equipment 
(As illustrated in Fig. 132.) 

Linen Fire Hose tented to 600 lb. pressure, in SO ft. lengths witli 
couplings coats as follows: 

Cotton KnbbeF Ilsen Hoie coats a 

Fig. 104. Linen Fire Hose, 
-e made in various styles and f 



A small rivet forge of the lever type weigha 80 lb., and coBts 
with hood $14.50. A aintilar forge operated by a crank gear 
costs ¥25.00. 

A larger forge simikr to the one shown in Fig. 105 ia auitabte 

Fig. las. Forge. 

for horse ehoaing aftd small repair work. These forges are made 
in a wide variety of styles and sizes and coat from $40 to $60. 
They weigh from 200 to 400 lb. 

Stone or Ballast Forks. Net prices for extra grades atone o 
ballast forks in quantitica, at Chicago, are aa follows: 


Length Width WeiEht 

No. Tines Fork per 3oi. Prit 

The above prices are for forks with natural finish, wide strap 
ferrules and heavy caps, with wood " D " ash liandlea. 



Building, light wall and foundation, and column steel forms 
may be either purchased or leased. For miscellaneous work such 
as foundation construction or house building it may be economi- 
cal to piuchase a suitable outlit of moderate size, as the format 
can be used over and over again. For the larger jobs it i$ 
usually more economical to lease the necessary forms. 

Building forms for contact surface work may be rented at 
about $0.25 per sq. ft. This includes the labor of handling thf 
forms on the work. 

Steel forms for light wall and foundation work may be rented, 
and cost, together with the furnished labor, about Sl.OO per 
»q. ft. 

Column forma used with flat slab construction are rented si 
$21,00 per column form including the labor on the job. For »se 
with beam aod girder i»>UBtnietioD the cost h about $18. 



(See Asphalt pt&ots.} 

A goaoline lead or leadite furnace (Fig. 166) is made in aer- 

eral sizes. The small size furnaec has a gasoline capacity of 
4 gal.^ the pot has a capacity of ^)0 lb, ; it is fitted with three 

Gasoline Fnmace. 

burners and coats $62.00 f. o. b. factory. A larger size has a 
gasoline capacity of 6 gal.; it baa a pot capacity of 325 lb. of 
lead or 60 lb. of leadite; it wdghs approximately 170 lb. for 
shipment and costs IM.OO t. o. b. factory. 


A lead melting furnace Himilar to the one shown in Pig. 187 
ia made in tbe following sizes. The price includes pat, bar, grate 

and ladle. 

Fig. 107. Lead Melting FimftCe. 

Fig. 168. Kerosene Fiirnai?e. 


Pressed ateel pouring pots are made in si/«s of from 50 to 125 
lb. capacity and cost from $4.50 to $7.00. Heavy cast iron melt- 
ing pots are made in sizes of from 200 tu TOO lb- capacity and 
oost from $6.00 to $10.00. 

A portable kerosene lead melting furnace (Fig. 188) costs aa 
follows : 

Csparitv at Oil cooHuiDntion Approiinii 

pot in lb. gal, iierlir, pVng weigl 

Fig. 169. Tar Heating Kettle. 
Tar Heating Xettles. Cost as follows: 
2 Wheel KtarLn 

OapBcitf Anpr(>iiiiu(e*ihip' 

in ftl pIdk weight in lb. I. > 

SO son 

100 i.ito 

ISO 1.140 

4 Wheel Kettle 


(See also Elevatiog Qraders.) 

HacbineB which more earth by aliding or rolliiig over the 
ground and by either puebing the earth betore them or into them 
by a combination of the two actions, thereby conveying the earth 
to the place of deposit, are known variously ag scrapers, road 
machines, graders, spreaders, levelers, ete^ and are of many 

The commonly used scrapers are of three kinds; wheel, drag 
and buck or Fresno. In all three, as in the case of all scrapere 
anil levelers, except where the soil is very sandy and loose, the 
earth must first be loosened by plows or picks. Tn the three 
kinds of scrapers the cutting edge of the machine digs into the 
soil, thereby loading itself, and the drag scraper slides over the . 
ground carrying its load, the wheel scraper rolls along carrying 
its load and the Fresno scraper both drags, and carries and 
pushes a load in front of it. 

Drag scrapers are efScient for b, short distance only, from 50 
to 100 feet, while Fresno scrapers can be used economically up 
to about 275 feet, when wheel scrapers should be substituted. : 
The drag scraper is pulled by two horses and the driver dumps ' 
the scraper as well as drives. An eictra man is usually needed 
for loading. In the case of the Fresno scraper, which is usually 
pulled by three or four hor»ea, the driver is able to both load 
and dump the machine and to spread the earth to the proper 
depth while dumping it. The wheel scraper, however, needs • 
loader and an extra snatch team at the pit. 

Wheeled Sonpen. The theoretical capacities ot wheeled 
scrapers cannot be attained in actual work, the actual being 
about one-half. 




BepalTS. Six new wheel drapers: Aret cost, $46.00 to $50.00. 
Repairs, for fl months averaged $2.60 per scraper per month; 
life, i years. Second-hand wheel scrapers, original cost $45 00 to 
$50.00. Repairs, blacliBmitb at $3.60 per daj over a period of 
S months, averaged $3.50 per Kcraper per montb; lite, 4 yeara.i 

Fig. 170. Wheeled Scraper. 

These scrapers were two or three years old wh»i these data 
were collected. 

lto«K Seraperi likewise hold ahout half the listed contents. - 

(Opacity Approiimste Price 

CD. ft. wslgliimlb. [. a. b. Ohio 

3 TS tSDO 

Fig 171. Drag Scraper. 
Double Bottom Deiao Scbapebs 

Prices of the double bottom scrapers are f. o. b. Chicago. 
Fresno Scrapers. This type of scraper is ideal for building rail- 
road embankments from side ditches and for wasting earth taken 


from cutB when the earth is free funn Urge stoneB and roots. 
It has been the author's experience that if the Bcraper is pulled 
at right anglce to the line of the plow furrows the loading will 
be completed in a much shorter time than when the scraper is 
pulled parallel with the fiirrowe. 

No. 1, 5-foi* cutting edp-, cspatity 18 tu ft,, weiehl 30ft lb, |2«,W to »3I),HI 
N'o. 2, 4 toDt fultini edge, capuity 14 en. ft., weiglit 27E lb. 28.00 to 30.m 
No. 3. J^'ft. cutting edge, capacity 12 en. [t„ weithi ISO lb. ZT.60 to 29.U 

The listed capa^^ity of the Fresno Scraper has been found by 
the author to be about twice the actual place measure capacity. 

The following notes, covering an exhaustive examination of 
economic ecraper work, are from an article by the writer in 
Engineering and Contracting, 1914. The prices, wages and costs 
are of that year. 

The Eoonomlo Handling of Earth by Wheel and Treano 
Scrapers. The cost of earth moving is a anbatantial factor in 
the total expense of nearly all construction work, and a consider' 
able part of all earth moving operations is for work where it is 
not economical to use locomotives and cars, either because of the 
length of haul or because the magnitude of the work is not 
sufficient to justify the preparatory costs of a, large plant 
■ Under such conditions a choice must be made between wagons or 
carts and one or more of the various types of scraper, 

A careful study and analysis of scraper work was made under 
the direction of the writer by Mr. A, C, Haskell for the Construc- 
tion Service Co. of New York, and the results are given below I 
to enable those who have scraper work to make rapidly and con- 
veniently those computations without which no work of this kind 
can economically be done. The general economic formula for 
transportation is as follows: ' 

Symbol Psctor 

- The IDlal etpenaes per diy in cents. 

a The net load, for the average trip, in ponnda, or other 

fl The apeed (average! when loaded, in feet per minnte. I 

KS The ape^d laverage) when relnmiDi;, in feet per min 

D Thelenglh of haul in feet. 

1 The time loet in turning, reating. and waatfd fpr an 

W '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.Tbe number of minulea in the working day. | 

"nie following facia are dedncible alKebraieaDr : 
~ Time for a loaded trip, in minntei. 


Time for the empty haul. 



..ActQHl time doI occnpied in transportliu nuierlal. in 

. .Average lime for one round trip, in miaatea. 

. .ATeraffl number of trips p«r dar, Thie value must be 
an Intefral qnablit^, lor the averaie work for ani 
one day. 

..ATerage total amount tnniported per day. 

n=C Coat of traniportatlon per pound, or other eMtrenlent 

Wv unit. 

The value for C will depend upon the Dumber of horgea uMd 
in a team, whether extra teaoiB are employed in loading, the gen- 
eral organization of the gang, and to a lesser extent on the cost of 
repairs and depreciation of the scrapers themaelvcB. The valtie 
to of the net load will depend entirety upon the type and size of 
equipment, and the care with which loading is done. It is likely 
to vary much more with wheel scraperH than with FresnoH. In 
heavy ground which has not been well looaened, particularly 
where there are'many roots of trees and occasional boulders, the 
wheel scrapers often fail to get more than a 60% or 70% load. 
The value for u> was determined by taking the average of several 
hundred trips, the amount of each load being estimated by the 
inspector on the basis of the space occupied loose, multiplied by 
a density factor and afterward checked by the place measure com- 
putations. The check on the wheeler capacity was not so accurate 
as that with the Fresnos, in which case the computed amounts 
from several cellar excavaliona checked the estimated loads within 

In a well organized scraper gang the speed loaded and that 
light are fairly constant tor constant conditions, changing as soon 
BB the local conditions vary. These conditions are the wetness of 
the ground hauled over, the " sea room " available for each team 
■nd the grades and curvatures along the line of haul. The length 
of haul is nearly always a constantly varying quantity. Ita 
average value was determined by measuring it at regular inter- 
vals, and averaging the figures thus obtained. The time lost in 
turning, loading, etc., varies somewhat but for a given set of con- 


ditiona was taken as an average of a large number of obeerva- 
tions. The data obtained in this way by an inspector who timed 
scrapers for two bours or so each day were afterward com- 
pared with a eount liept by a bay with a tally machine at the 
dump, resulting in very close agreement, except that the average 
coete obtained by the time study method were nearly always a. 
few per cent less than the probable attual costs kept by the tally i 
boy over the whole day's work. The main reason for this seemed 
to be that when under the eye'of an inspector with a watch in one , 
hand and a note book on hia knee the drivers keep their teams : 
going a little faster when not loaded find are a little more prompt ; 
in dumping and turning than when observed by a boy. 

In the following tables the columns headed " Transportation 
Cost " show the cost for actually moving the material, while i 
the columns entitled " Static Cost " are for the coat of waiting | 
at the loading point, loading, dumping and miscellaneous delays. ' 
No accouitt is taken of extraordinary delays, such as breakdowiis,etc. 

Wheel Scraper Work. The following observations of wheel 
ecrapera cover a period of some three months and were made i 
under various conditions, 

The wheel scraper is a modified form of the drag scraper, being , 
suspended between two wheels in such manner that the pan drags 
along the ground when loading and then, when full, may be raised 
by a, system of levers, so that it rides suspended several inches i 
above the ground. The operation of loading ordinarily requires 
the assistance of a two or three-horse snatch team and driver, 
and a " loader " whose duty it is to lower the pan, guide it while 
being filled and to raise it when full. At the dumping point the 
pan is unbooked and lowered and the dumpman by an upward 
thrust upon the attaiheil handle causes the pan to make a quarter 
turn, thus dumping and partially spreading the material. 

Distinction has been made between wheelers in loam, clayey 
loam (Table I), etc., and wheelers in sand, fine gravel, etc., owing 
to the fact that the nature of the soil materially affects the size 
of the load, and consequently the speed of transportation more or 
less. Although it may take less time to get a full load in soft 
sand, it usually takes more time to get started after the snatcli 
team has been unhookeji owing to the wheels being deeply buried. 
And during transit the sand will waste much more than the 
loam, so that the load actually dumped is considerably less. 
. In Table I column 12 gives values of fi in the transportation 

From Table I it wiU be seen that the average cost per cubic 
yard was 6.2 ct. for the fixed or static cost, which includes «08t 


of loading, dumping and idle tine, and 4.1 ct. per 100 ft. of 
haul for the traDsportatiou cost, based on the time study figures. 

Table I.— Wheel Sckapebs in Loam and Clayet Loah. 

(Arranged in order of static charge.) 


i . 





1 " ■ 





■1 S^ 




So. 8c. D. 

K O.Y. 



1 ii 













40 1K.2 


3 3.0 

6... 190 






5"! 345 






39 Iflls 


) si 

5.,. 335 





1... 510 





43:6 lOJ 



1 3.3 








S3.3 23.0 

4... 350 







5«' IM 

7;!: 335 








73J 22.8 

4... 126 




89.0 16.2 




B2.4 2T.0 


I «!fi 

4'.'.: 195 








7T.1 18.0 


! 4.5 

7... 2» 



■ .» 


Uin. 4.. 126 



3£J) u!d 


i 3.0 

ky. 5.5. .332 








«0J 19.1 



M«x. 7.. m 






In the Bbove 






s tollows: 

No. Se 

Nnmber at scraparg 


LeDglb at 
Ungth of 

»nlpty ha 

{, tet 


at tr 


KB ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 






ded B|>eed. 

Load 0. Y. . 


n dump. 

Oth»r'"i""tiine . 



w fdle tim 

; til* 

in addition 



ng time. 

The ohgervstlons in Table II were made where a road had been 
cleared through the woods. The soil, a rich loam, was mor« or 
less interspersed with roots, to extricate which required the labor 
uf two men. In this instance the static cost is high, due In a inea- 
BUre to tko time required to load. Owing to the root* running 
through the soil sometimes it was necessary- to make Aiorb tban 
one att«mpt to load, bnt good full loads were obtained, which. Is 
really more essential than saving a few seconds and starting for 
the dump. with a half loaded scraper 



The principal tiling to be called .to attention here, liowever, 
in a fault verj frequently observed, the wrong appoTlionment 
of scrapers to lengtb of haul. In this case there were toci 
many for so short a haul, thereby causing frequent delays both 
at the loading point where they hecame bunched' and en route to 
the dump, which forced up the attttic cost. The rate of progress 
in transit was also reduced, eapecially on the return from the 
dump, as is shown by KB, when the teams were obliged to slow 
down to allow those ahead room to turn, load, etc. This is a atate 
of alTalrs which should never be permitted: scrapers should main- 
tain a steady progress in both directions, and at no time should a 
scraper be obliged to wait idle at the loading point for the ones 
ahead to be loaded. 
Table II. — Wheel Scbapeh Wobk, Loah, Obstbdcted bt Roots. 



D'-Enpty luu 



1...M ...... d'irt,.,::;: 


KS— 190' 1 m., 



D/8 + D'/Ka 

....D.12S o'u, yd. 




iS.l tt per «u. sd. 

= 8.3 cl. malic cgiil + 6,E ct. per 



The observations in Table III were taken where the top soil 
was very dry, clouds of dust being raised at each attempt to All ' 
a scraper. 

Both the static cost and the transportation cost per 100 ft 
of haul are excessive. The former is due partially to the time 
wasted at the dump, which observation showed to be prolonged 
beyrald all necessity. Drivers were wont to stop, take long 
turns about, etc., when really there was no need of stopping «t 
all, and the scraper should have been turned about immediately 


-Wheel Scbapeb Woek i 

Load! DC. loaded. Damp 

Uin. Sbc. Min. S«c. Min. 

Vkby Dby Loam (1914). 


At.O 39 g £1.2 1 

D-Loaded hsnl 275' 

D'— Empty hanl ....SZG' 
S-2TG 1 m. 1«.2 a.. ..216' min, 
KS— 62S Z m. 3S.1 s...2t4 min. 
K—Ztt/216 1.13 

D/S + D'ka ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 3 min! 

w 0296 en. ' 

C-«l30/8 S38.3J cl. 

W 600 min. 

S3S.33 5.T2 

8.3 ct. itatio cost -t- 6.6 cl 

BFt«r dumping, in the Bhorteat possible radius. Tlie i 
transportation cost per lUO ft. baul,'to which maf be directly 
traced the high eost per euhic yard, was owing to the extremely 
lung empty haul 1/ ae compared to the loaded haul D, whereby 
considerable time was consumed. The haul should always be 
tha shortest route to the dump, and the return, it it is not 
frasible to use the same route,>Bhould he as direct as possible. 
The loads were small, due to the dry, dusty nature of the 
materia), which could not be heaped, and wasted considerably en 
route to the dump, which, of conrse, runs up both static and 
transportation costs. 

The obeervatioDS of Table IV were made where a gang was 
removing top soil from a piece covered with tall weeds, the 
roots of which prevented full loads. The soil was dry and 

Here is another example of too many scrapers for the length 
of haul. This fact, combined with the small loads, produced the 
high costs. The time " Waiting and Preparing to Load " is alto- 
gether too high. The speed K8 on the return is less than S loaded 
speed. When this state of affairis exists it can invariably be 
traced to too many scrapers, for they become bunched about the 
loading point and the returning drivers, seeing this, slow down, 
Ihns wasting considerable time. 

D/S(l + J/l) +1 

In the formula, K = all the quantities 


Fig. 172, Curves Showing Coats Per Cubic Yard of Handling 
Loam and Loam Clay with Wheel Scrapere for VariouB Sizes 
of Load and Length of Haul (1914 Figures). 

Table IV. — Wheel Scbafbb Wobe in Dbt Son, Full op Tall 
Weeds (1B14). 

prepnting _ .• _ .. 



. Sec. 


MiD. Sec. 


Sec. H 

Min. Sm. 

1 W 




S— !B0, 1 min., 08,5 Me-. 18 per min. 
KS^S", 1 min... «3 gM^K per min. 
K-afl/MS H S3 . 

D/S + '"6' /ks'V ".''.'.'.'.'.'. 2 mm'. Dsls se 

o-i^o/i "..'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. '.m ct. ' 

it Df 7 scraper gang... 


Data Usrat m Calcduttka Cubvcs Fig. 172 for Wheix. SoKAf- 
sxa IN LoAu AKP Clayey Loaic (1914 Figures). 

C 838 ita. D YiilM. 

w Vsrie*. S EOS ft. min. 

I 1.54 min. K 1.1 

W «00 mln. t/S O.W ■ 

Valne t« for S-ienper ekhc (!•■ 

lOmDUf at H-Tt m.6l> 

G driven itt tl.SB 9«S 

1 kMder M t>A -- 
1 dumpD - - - — 

dumpinaD i. ,_ 

_ 3-mDle iDBteh «t K.26 .... S.» 

1 S-rnule uinteh driTsr at %iX tX 

1 D. B. »t 3% per monlh 1.01 

ftnwDBn at KM 4.00 

Waterbo; at Il.OO 1.00 

Talue of icraper 

-v] ^i[' 


'8H X l.n D 1.B4 X sg 

M S.14 SI .28 S5.U 

majr have fised values determined from observation assigned to 
them, except IF uid D, the load and haul, which will va.ry ac' 
cording to the kind of scraper employed and the nature of the 

Curves, Fig. 172, maj be drawn showing costs for varying loads 
and lengths of haul. 

The observations of Table V were made where the material was 
a mixture of sand and loam, without enough of the latter, how- 
ever, to lend stability to the whole. Boaldere were numerous, 
often interfering with the obtaining of good loads. 

The above coets are a good example of how conditions affect 
results, and the above method of analysis readily shows this. 
The static cost, 8.4 et. per cubic yard, is SQmewhat above the 
average, due partly to the boulders making loading difficult, and 
partly to the small loads carried to the dump. But it is the 
high transportatioQ cost which attracts attention. This was due 
to the road to the dump being exceedingly rough and muddy after 

Tablb v.— Wheel Soupeb Wobs in Sandt Loaic (ISU). 

Wsltinc and 

prepuins TruuportinE Damping and Traniportioi 

to toad. Ijoadiai. loaded. tnmiDi. emplr- 

Min. Sec. Mio, Sec. Uiu. Sec. Uin. Sec. Min. Sec. 


(6S0 fSE.OO 

_ tSS- I .>..i/-h 

S— 585, a min. 13.8 sec....lSl' per mii 
KS— «2t. 2 min. G7.2 *ec.,2U' per mil 

K— 212/181 U7 

1 1 min. 30 » 

D/S + D'/KS « min. 10.8 

o-TSM/io '""',',!!',!!',!'.'. ms It. 

loremui .. 

B X = *a cl. cu. yd. = 8.1 ct. aUtic + 6,9 pt per lOD-tt. haul 

«00 0.22 

recent raioB, the scrapera ginking at times almost to the hubs. 
The loads were consequently small, wasting away, and the rate oi 
moving (S and K8) materially reduced. Observations were 
taken in the afternoon of the same day when a new and less 

Tabu; VI. — Scbafbb Wobk in Coabsb Sand (1914) 

Waiting and 
preparing TraoeportiDg Dumping and Transporting 

toload. Loading. loaded. tureiog. empty. 

Av.l 40,4 16.7 2 3S.5 MA 

D 685' ■ 

D' MO" 

S— 586. a min, 30.6 sec... 220' per min. 
K8— «l», 2 min, 21 sec .258' per mtn. 

,''7^'f.:::::::::.::::::'A., ».. .„. »■• •' • "»•« »•. ■ 

D/S + iy/KS 5 mio. 00.5 bcc. 

w 0.26 ou. Td. 

C-68.46/B - ■.,.. 760.5 ot. 

60O 0.26 • ' ■ P^ ''' 

lion per IDO-tt. haul. 


difllcalt path was uied, and the effect was thowii directly. S 
increaBiug to 101 ft. pet minute and K8 to 234 ft. per miDut«, and 
tlie transportatioti cost being reduced 1.1 ct per cubic yard. 

The obBervatioiiB of Table VI were made where the m«.t«rial 
handled was a coarse MLnd with a Hprinkling of loam. 

In this instance the reveree of the last esse oited is true. 
Here the transportation co«t is normal, but the static coit Iwhich 
showB fluctuations in coet doe to all operations except actual 
transportation), is very high. Sihall loads w^re again responsi- 
ble in part, but the oliief reason was because of a long turn of 
about 220 ft. around a pool of water at the dump. The time con- 
sumed in making thi* extra long turn aftei the material bad 
been dumped so increased I, the time when the scrapers are not 
actually engaged in th« handling of material, that in consequenoe 
the static coet w«s exoessive. It will he noticed in the time study 
that two or three of the serapers turned about shortly without 
waste of time, and the foreman should have seen that all did 

The obserTations of Table VII were made where the material 
was a coarse dry sand which wasted a great deal en route to the 

Olwervation has shown that high costs are more often due to 

Transporting Dnmpliie tad Trsuaportini 
Loadine. loaded. turiAiig tmpis. 

Urn. Sec, Min, Sec. Mio. Sac. Min. Sec. 

....224' min. 
»B(.2TV min. 

.«0f.lch and driver 

«««tor ■::;:,::::: 



E-!!!!x— - 


«. c». yd. -^ B.7 «t- 

BtB«« + 3.E ct. per 

lOft-ft. haul. 


carrying poor loads to the dump tban to snj other cause. It irill 
be noticed that in the gang a sbovelman was employed whose 
duty it was to follow a srraper as it was being loaded and without 
delaying the progrei^B of the work to fill up the scraper kb mudi as 
possible. By thin meauH the wedge^thaped space at the back of the 
scraper, invariably left empty whra using a snatch team alone, 
wBH filled. BesideH causing much larger laadH t« be delivered at 
the dump, the scheme prevented the drivers from standing in 
this space and riding the scrapers loaded, a thing frequently 
observed under the excuse that it was {tecesBary to keep the 
scrapers balanced and prevent the material wasting out the front, 
but which should under no conditions bo allowed. The diaterial 
here was very soft, however, and a great deal wasted off, as the 
haul was rather long and rough Front gates upon the scrapers 
would have made the retaining ot the good loads produced by 
the shovelman's efforts possible, and correspondingly decreased 
the unit costs. - 

In order to plot curves for various loads and length of haul 
for wheel scrapers in sand, average values would be substituted in 
the formulas as follows, on the basis of a 5-scraper gang: 

w. D = 10ft' BW lOOO' 

C 8M ct, .10 S9.J7 

1 1.7:. min, .15 !B.» S1.S3 

w Tsrlsbk) .20 U.68 ^H 

a .2]S ft. per min. .25 1E.TS 36,98 <3,U 

K j.i .81 18.70 ».8! a.a 

l/K .C.91 .SB 1I.2S M.41 «.I7 

D TSriable .10 ggl 23.11 39.70 

W SO^nHii. . M 8.75 DtM SEJS 

1 /B9«X1.91D g96Xl.ra\ 1 

R ^ - ( + 1 = — (0.0132J D + 8.«1) 

w\ 215X«)0 600 / w 

The time studies given abova show how important it is to have 
full loads and the proper apportionment of the number of 
scrapers to the length of haul. In order to make this latter point, 
which is ot prime importance, more specific, one or two illus- 
trations will be given to show: (1) How, if too few scrapers are 
at work upon a given haul, the addition of another will lessen the 
cost per cubic yard, and (2) if there is already a sufficient num- 
ber at work to produce economical results, how the addition of 
one more may make the unit cost per cubic yard higher, and in 
addition may actually reduce the total amount of material han- 

The following observations were made where the material 
handled was a loam and clay mixture, rather sticky, but which 
loaded well and did not waste on the way to the dump. The 


length 4^ haul was about 325 ft. From 6:45 a. m. to 2 p. m., 
6^ boon, omitting one hour at noon, with tour scrapers 
working, 330 loads were dumped = 110 cu. yd. at three loads to 
a yard. 

tterapen at KM 421.00 

lanatcli team and driver TXO 

aVt 3591 

Cost per ou. yd. = X =20.4 ot per cu. yd. = 6.3 

10 110 r- / 

ct. per cu. yd. per 100-ft. haul. 


At the above rate of handling X330 = 62S loads, or 176 


en. yd. would be dumped per 10-hour day. 

From 2 p. m. to 6:4S p. in. 3% bourn, with five scraperH 
working, 2S2. loads were dumped := 84 cu. jd. 

Cout: As above, with addition of 1 scrap«r=:41.41. 
3% 4141 

Coat per cu. yd. = X =18.6 ot. per cu. yd. =5.7 

10 84 r- ■> 

ct per cu. yd. per 100*ft. haul. 


At above rate of handling ,X 252 = 072 loads or 224 cu. 

^ 394 
yd. would be dumped per 10-bour day. 

Thus It will be observed that the addition of a scraper in this 
instance was all for the better, as for an increase of 15% in cost, 
27% more material wonid be handled per day at a decreased coat 
of 10% per cubic yard and 10.6% per cubic yard per 100-ft. haul. 

Another instance was where a coarse sand was hauled about 325 
ft. The loads were not very good and the coats were 
high, but the case serves well aa an example of the point in view. 
From S:4E a. m. to 12 m., 6^ hours, with five scrapera working, 
275 loads were dumped = 75 cu. yd. The cost was: 

SwbMlBra at K.EO ..(H.IW 

I iBalcb laata and drtnr ,. 7.50 


Cost, per PM. yd. = 



= 29 et. = 88 ct per ( 

, yd. 

per 100-ft haul. 

At the above rate of haiK^^g, ^ loa<)B, or 143 cu. yd. would 
he dumped per lO-hour day. 

From 1 p. m. to S:A5 p. m, 4^ hourn, with six ecrapers work- 
ing, 324 loada = 88 cu. yd. were dumped. 

CoBtt As ahove plus one wliceler = $40.01. 
4% 46!) I 

Cost per cu. yd. — X — ■ = 25,3 ct. 

10 88 

= 7.8 ct, per cu, yd. per 100-ft. haul. 

At this rate of handling 083 Inada, 185 pu. yd., would 1)# dumped 
per 10-hour day. Thus for an increase in cost of 13%, 29% more 
material would be handled per day, at a decreased unit cost of 
18V4% per cu. yd., and 14% per cu. yd. per 100-ft. haul. 

It is not easy to comprehend a.t first glance the efTects pro- 
duced by having too many scrapers for a certain haul. It Beems 
natural, without analysis, to suppose that the more scrapers tbere 
are working, the more work will be accomplished. , Proof of this 
waa evidenced by such conditions existing. In order to look 
more oloaely into the details of this case, it is worth while to 
present the complete time study. Table VIII. The material was 

Table Vlll. 

tt 12 Z 

AtJ) «J 12,1 2 

D mttt. 

D' 6Snft. 

a «SK.min. 

K8 aKft.miQ. 

K ...J.l». 

1 Iniin.i3.4ip 

D/8-|-D'/KS 4inin.*g,5se 

w (I.30(!u.yd. 

O sao.Tct. 

W «»£nin. ■ 

B ^ 820.7 X S.OS - 27.4 et. pet cu. yi 
per IWti. h»nl. 

Omt at 7 acnpe 

L. ;d. ttitic + 3.65 rl 


EL mixture of ctaj and sand, with eoongli of the latter to cauie 
it to break up well when plowed. Seveo scrapers were at work. 

At the above rate of hauling 210 cii. jA. of material would 
be dumped per lO-hour day. 

The ohBervationa in Table IX were made whea eight Bcrapers 
were worl;ing in the game nmteriaJ and hauling to the same dis- 


At the aiove rate of handlinflr X 8 X 0.3 = 205 eu. yd. 

will be dumped per day. 

Thus, be it observed, actually less material was handled wiUi 
eight Bcrapers than with seven, so that in consequeuee the unit 
coeta per cubic yard were higher- This result was due to the 
fact that the time lost at the loading point was nearly doubled 
(compare time etudiea) owing to the scrapers getting bunched 
up there and being obliged to await their turn to he filled with 
the snatch team; the time of transportation was materially 
increased owing to the enforced reduction of the rate of travel' 
ing due to overcrowding, so that the time necesearily lost bj 
the gang due to this congestion more than overbalanced the 
extra amount of material which an additional scraper would or- 
dinarily handle. 

Table IX. 


Min. 9ec. 

Cost of S icraper gi 


The above preeeatB a typical example of conditioni very fre- 
quently observed, conditiona for the exiaUnce of which there is ■ 
no excuse, especially when the work is being carried on ooder 
the supervision of a roan of long experience in Buch work, who, 
if he opened hia eyes to facts and took an interest in his work, 
could not help but determine what conHtitntei the effieloit 
handling of hia gang. But experience has proved that the great 
majority of foremen do not take enough interest to sit down after 
working hours and figure out how the efOciency of their gang 
may be increased during working hours. Scraper work may be 
divided into the following: Loading, transporting and dumping. 
Each of these operations is distinct !n itself and yet each so 
depends upon the others that if there* Is any flaw in one the 
whole work must show the effect. For example, a few moments' 
observation of a piece of work shows tliat the scrapers are con- 
stantly in motion with no idle time at the loading point except 
that required to turn and get into position for loading and 
the progress to and from the dump is brisk, but there are periods 
when the snatch team is idle for several minutes waiting for a 
scraper to load and the dumpman sits idle upon his shovel. 

Again, if the loading team is hooking into one scraper after 
another in rapid succession and the dumpman has no sooner 
spread one scraper load than the next team comes along, but 
gathered a/ound the loading point idly awaiting their turn to be 
loaded are several scrapers, the drivers laughing and joking, the 
horses nosing about on the ground, the progress to the dump 
reduced because of congestion, is it not self-evident that too many 
scrapers are on tbe work and enough should be taken off to keep 
them moving all tbe time? When things are going briskly the 
entire atmosphere of the work is charged with energy, felt alike 
by man and beast, but when obliged to wait for minutes at a 
time in idleness a feeling of inertia pervades the work which, in 
its results, it must necessarily reflect. Keep everything in mo- 
tion. See that the loader, snatch team, and dumpman are kept 
busy, that the scrapers are continually on the move, and worb 
will be performed economically. Have regular intervals for 
letting the whole gang rest. If necessary, but while at work let 
each individual unit of the whole be performing its function to 
the best of its capacity. 

The greateit trouble with wheel scrapers is likely to be caused 
by the heavy pressure on the collars of horses and mules, due 
to loading in heavy ground. For this reason tbe collars should 
be made to fit as perfectly ae possible, and tbe animals exam- 
ined every night for sores on the necks or withers. 

When loading wheelers with a snatch team the cbaia should 


be hooked to a point as near as possible to the acraper Iteelf, 
otherwise the puJl of the snatch team will throw a heavy load 
on the backs of the n heeler team. 

The working speed of a team is snch that when beaTllj loaded 
the t«am proceeds a little more slowly than the ordinary man 
will walk, but when "light," horses (more than mnles) are apt 
to move faetor than the ordinary walking gait of the driver. 
Consequently it is a good plan to require all drivers to ride In 
the scraper (which can be done with wheelers, but not with 
Fresnos) when light, and never to sit on the loaded scraper. 

When dumping a wheel acraper it ia important, so far as pos- 
sible, to have the team on ground at least as high as that on 
which the Bcraper rests. Otherwise the heavy load that always 
comes on the collar or saddles by the act of dumping will be in- 
creased by gravity, often to the great distress of the animals. 

In loading a scraper, care should be exercised not to allow the 
team to pull it farther and overload it after it is Mice full, since 
such extra effort is utterly useless and ia very exhausting. Con- 
versely, each load should be a full one. The first mark of a 
badly handled job is improper and variable loading of the 

It should be borne constantly in mind when laying out and 
directing earth moving work with small equipment that the 
" normal haul " for a wheel scraper is longer than for a Fresno 
and shorter than for a one-horse cart. 

Fresno Soraper Work. With this type of equipment, each 
acraper is hauled by frdm two to four horses, or mules, depending 
upon its capacity; but the Bervices of a snatch team and driver and 
usually of a dumpman, regularly required for wheel scraper work, 
may be dispensed with. The salient features of the Fresno are the 
speed and ease with which it can be loaded and dumped and also 
its much lower first cost. The capacity of the Fresno ordinarily 
hauled by three hoe»es is from T to 8 cu. ft. as against a capacity 
of S to 10 cu. ft. for the No. £1^ wheelers. As mentioned at the 
t>eguu)ing of this paper, in comparing two methods to determine 
the more economical for the handling of material it boils down to 
a question of amouat carried and speed of handling. Now, it is 
evident that of two> methods of practically equal coat of opera- 
tion if one is sufficiently more speedy than the other it will do 
work more economically even though handlipg less material per 
unit. On the other hand there may come a point where the 
haul gets so long that the advantage gained in speed of loading 
and dumping (the time consumed in transit of course assumed as 
being the same in both instances) will be overcome by the fact 
that the other method handles more material. 


For example, assume, Table X, two gangs, one composed ol 
live Fresno acrapers and one ol five wheel acrapers. For this 
gang the unit cost per scraper u practically the same, aa-y 900 
ct. For each round trip the wheelec loads in 1^ minutee and 
dumps and turns in ^ minute. The Fresno loads in ^ minute 
and dumps and turns in 14 minute. Then in the (ormula. 

The Fresno ia not suitable for work including many roots or 
boulders, and is not generallf used with snatch teams for loading. 
When the ground is too hard for Fresno loading it may not be 
too hard to be loaded by wheelers and snatch teams, but where 
the haul is short it fs generally much more economical to loosen 

Table X. 


220- vtr min. 

it with a plow and haul with Freenos than to use the wheelers. 
The purpose of this paper is mainly to show comparisons be- 
tween methods where both or all are possible, bnt when one 
and one only can be economic. For hauling the material up 
heavy grades, such as a railway embankment, the Fresno is 
much more satisfaetory than the wheeler and second only to 
the smalt scoop. A peculiar advantage of the Fresno for certain 
kinds of work ia that It can be made to take a heavy or light 
cut at tlie option of the driver. In grading lawns, finishiDg cuts, 
etc., the Frenno can take a thin slice of an inch or a deep scoop 
of nearly a foot with equal facility, and is controllable in load- 
'ng by one hand on the dimiping lever. 

2 4- 2 . 2 + 0.75 

R = 900. — — = 1 8 ct. per cu. yd. tor wheelers. =900. 

600 X ^ 600 X W 

^ 16^^ ct. per cu, yd. for Fresnos, showing the latter to be more 

Or suppose the assumptions are as in Table XI, 

Table XI. 

iW <«• 

220'permln. tW 

!S0' per min. 220' 








-Fbebko Scbafe8 Costs (1)114) 


> 1«6 m 210 1,09 

3 200 WO 226 ilS 0.97 

3 UO 120 228 234 1.03 

3 S& 106 1S3 2IS 1.12 

2 120 145 264 199 0.7B 

3 IK 19S 18T 1S9 1.01 

2 ss 105 sen 2M O.OS 
i 13E ISO 198 222 1.12 

3 112 135 18T 238 1.27 

2 120 140 an 2W 1.04 

3 SOD 235 212 24g 1.17 

3 140 150 ZOE 236 1.14 0.1 

S 175 210 211 KS 1.21 ' 

3 1B6 18G 2IS 214 0.9S 

3 130 155 136 208 1.12 

3 156 180 201 153 0.S1 

3 200 300 204 211 l.OS 

3 24S 2TD 220 212 0.9« 

2 IK 236 IM 108 D.8G 

3 300 315 214 224 1.05 
3 120 170 217 195 0.«0 

.51 .280 8.5 

i. i ^ 

I J It 

.250 21.0 
.2M 13.0 
.230 12.7 

' 177 1«3 0.75 0.39 0.230 8.2 

' 16S l»S 212 220 1.05 " " "" 

300 315 2C6 283 1.38 

■■-0. and L.. clayey loam; 8. and C. cUj-er 
iiism. a., nQou. ir — Loodfd hMil Id fMt. D' — EmptT litul In 
Loaded *p«d la ft. per min. KS — Emplr speed in ft. per i 
Ratio of empty and loaded speed. I — Timo otber thaa that ot ti 

Coder " HaterUI 


4 + 2 4 + 0.75 

R = 900. = 27 ct. per cu. yd. for wheelers = 900. 

600 X w eoo X % 

= 29W ct. per cu. yd. lor Fresnoa. 

Showing that now the wheelers an working the more eco-, 

Table XII gives resuUt of a large anmber of coet data on 
Fresno work in various materials, arranged in the same manner 
as those on wheelers in the early part of this article. 

Below are shown in detail time studies of various observations, 
with remarks upon the ironditions affecting the results. 

The ohservations in Table XIII show the Fresno to have been 
working very well. The material was a loam and clay, enough 
of the latter being present to form an ideal track for the scrapers, 
hard and smooth. The loads were of good size. 

Table XIII. — .Fresno Scrapeb Wosk in Ci^tey Loau 

WBilingandpTe- Trsmportinj TranaportinB Other 

prsparinr to load LotdiiiK loaded emptj' dslHvs 

MiD. See. Uin. 3ec. Uin. Sec. Min. See. Uln, dec. 

At. U 81* «» « 4 

D 126' 1 scMDsra and drlTer* »t IT.20 $28,80 

D' 16!!' 1 loadpr US 

a — la'rt? tt ■ ITTpwinlii. 1 torenmn 4,(0 

KS-r-iee' (7 ■ nO'permiD. I waterbor l.W 

K — 210/in 1.19 ■— 

1 ...O-Zm W6.J6 

D/S + D'/K8 l-a»S 

w 0.24eu.yd. 

O — 3B.TS/4 «»*et. 

R = — X = 27.4 ct. per cu. rd.= 2.4 ct. elallc + 7.4 ct, per IWtt. haul, 

600 0.24 

The static cost here is considerably below the average, which 
shows at once that there was very little wasted time, and that 
the work moved smoothly. He transportation cost is somewhat 
above the average uid a glance at 8 and KS, the rates of moving, 
which are low, makes the reason apparent, showing that as a 
whole the work went smoothly, but slowly. No doubt the general 
speed of this work could have been considerably increased and 
still have things move nicely, bnt it is preferable to have the 


work nu unifonnly even at the expense 'of speed thaa to rneh in 
transit and wait idle about the loading point. 

Tho observations in Table XIV were made where the material 
handled was top-soil, rather sticky from recent rains. 

Table XIV. — Fbesno Sorafeb Wqbe m Heavy Topson. 

Walling at Transportinf , OVrBing IVanaporttns 

kwding paint LoBdIng losded atdump nopty 

IiGd. Sw. Htn. 8«c. MliL Sec. Min. £ec. Hin. Seo. 

At. 32.4. 1T.2 X3.S . 14 62.2 

D la)" 

D' 170' 

S — 12l>'/31.2 sec 217'pctniln. 

KS — IT0'/52^ IBS' pur min. 

K-19B'/21T J-^i„.n8(„<. Coit 0/ J Bcr»p«r B»De »!9.25 

b/'^+'iy/KS" '.'.'.'-'.'.'. -lmiB.2bAtet'. 

w 0,25cu.yd. 

C-S9ffi/3 STSi>t. 

W .SOOmin. 

976 2.BJ 

R — — X = 1*.7 ct. per on. jd. = lA ct. per e<x. yd. sttttie + 7.T ct. per 

600 oje 

lOO-rt. haul. 

In this instance the etatic'cost ia far above the average, due 
to excessive idle time. In the first place the time of "Waiting 
at Loading Point " is far too high and arose from a condition 
veiy often observed upon scraper work for the existence of which 
there is no excuse or reason except negligence upon the part of 
the man in charge. This is allowing the scrapers to get bunched 
together so that the work becomes spasmodic. Teams are idle at 
the loading point waiting for the ones ahead to be loaded and 
tvhen all are en route to the dump the loader is idle until the 
flrat arrives again. In consequence the whole speed of action is 
reduced. It is just as easy to keep teams equally spaced, espe- 
cially when there are but three or four upon a short haul, as in 
this case. Then the loader works with regularity, the teams move 
with uniform speed, do not get bunched, and there is no necessity 
of wasting time in idle waiting. In the second place the loading 
time is too great. This was due to the scrapers frequently hit- 
ting some bard spot not sufficiently plowed, overturning and hav- 
ing to turn about tor reloading. Having the ground well plowed 
ia of prime importance in Fresno work, as it cuts down the actual 
loai^in^ time, and keeps the whole work in motion better. In 
the third place the time " Turning at Dump " should be reduced 
one-half. There Is no necessity of stopping a second in dumping 


and onc« the Bcraper is empty the driver should turn hia team 
right about without moving from hia tracks. Too often a long 
sweep is made, wasting much valuable tim.e. The transportation 
charge is above the average due to the slow return from the dump 
{K and 8}, arising also from crowding and the material reduction 
of speed occurring when drivers see that teams ahead of them are 
idle at the loading point. 

In the work for -whicli the time study, Table XV, was made 
the material Ttas well plowed top soil in almost ideal condition 
for Fresno work. 

Tabu; XV. — Feesno Scbapee Work in Weil Loobk^ed Top Son, 

WiiUngat Traneporling Dnrnpins TraiuportiiiK 

loodinr poiat IfOHding load^ mnd turniaff emptr 

HiD. Sec. Uin. Sec. Min. See. Mia. Sac. Hid. See. 

At. 13.S 5.» 

D ....IW 

D' iay 

S 22B-perniii 

K8 .. Z34'|termii 

K — 231/226 1.035 

■ — 30 7 gee ''•'* "^ * '^'•P"' »»°B ■ 

'a + D'/K8 '.'.I — WAbbb'. 


-29.T6/3 TO2et. 

.,. SOttitiin. 

M2 l.S 

Hefe both static and transportation charges are below the j 
average. A more unifonn spacing of scrapers was observed witb j 
the result that tbe idle and loading timee were materially re- I 
duoed; and the rate of transportation was very satisfactory ac 
eoimting for the low transportation charge. i 

To secure cost diaj-rama, Fig. 173, for Fresno scraper work, 
average values may be substituted in the general transportation 
formula given above, where: C= 879 ct.; 1^0.67 min.; W = 
600 min.; S = 212 ft.; K = 1.0-5; I/K = 0.95, load and haul b*- 

The costs above given do not include anything for overhead 
charges, superintendence (above foreman), pKparatory charges, 


office expenses, contractor's profit, etc. This refers to both classes 
uf scrapers. These values are plotted on the accompanying chart, 
from which witb conditions approximately as assumed the cost of 
such work for various lengths of haul may be read directly. 

When Fresno scrapers are loaded from plowed ground it is in- 
finitely easier to load when dragging across than lengthwise of the 
furrow. Double plowing is often economical. The dumping op- 
eration should be accomplished by a quick, sharp lift on the han- 



Fig. 173. Curves Showing Cost Per Cubic Yard of Handling 
Loam, Sand, etc., with Fresno Scrapers for Various Sizes 
of Load and Length of Haul. (1914 Prices.) 

die, and preferably on a down grade. When the ground is very 
well loosened the driver can do his own loading as well as dump- 
ing. The path to the dump must be reasonably free from ob- 
structions, else the scrapers may dump themselves without in- 
tention on the driver's part. 

Oeaeral Hints on All Soraper Work. ( 1 ) Be sure to use the 
right kind of scraper. A Fresno with three mules is economical 
up to about 275 ft. of haul as against wheel scrapers with 2 


mulee, when it can load readily. Where the grovind is full of 
roota use wbeelero. 
To drivers : 

(2) Report any case of bad fitting hamesB to the foreman im- 
mediately. Don't let the t«am drag you hy the reins. ¥ou are 
uippoaed to tw abla to walk as fait a« a loaded team. 

To foreman : 

Malce a. personal detailed Inspection of each male's harness the 
first thing in the morning and at noon, and report any case of 
ill fitting harness to the timekeeper on his next round. Fore- 
men will be held responsible for allowing any mnle to work with 
badly fitting hariicBs. 

(3) See that each scraper is fully loaded. The coat of plowing 
is leHH than 1 ct. per cubic yard, which is lees than the cost of 
letting Bcraperg work when only partly loaded. 

(4) In loading the scraper when it is once full of earth do not 
let the mules try to pull it any farther and overload it. The last 

Data Used i: 

t Fresno Scbap- 

mpars in atsndkrd i[B>>i. Thtee anioiAla per aemp 

a «t I1.T5 tsf.. 

WaterbO)' *t tl.DD 

Total (UM flfOTw) . 

X1.J5D 87»X 0.671 1 f 1 

+ =- 0-0136 D + «.9eU 

SXBOD «00 J wL J 

-<S.01) for 3M' 

-(8.M) tor «0' 



two seconds of driig against the dead weight of earth { 

(5) On all Bcraper work drivers are required to walk at all 
times when tlie scraper ia loaded and they are to walk at all 
times with the Fresno serapei, whether loaded or empty. With 
wheeler scraper work drivers should ride on the scraper when it is 
empty. In stepping on or off of the scraper be sure not to delay 
the team in sjiy way. 

Fig, 174. Diagram Comparing Economy Up to 276 Ft. Haul of 
Fresno and Wheel Scrapers. 

(8) In dumping wheel scrapern try not to dump when the mules 
are on ground that is lower than the scraper, sa by doing this it 
bring! ft tremendous load on the mules' necks. 

(7) So direct the work that the loaded teams will have the 
shortest haul and the empty teams if neceenary may have a much 
longer haul, tmt in no case should the empty haul be unneces- 
sarily' long. It is better to let the mule team stand still to rest 
than to let it cover unnecessary ground. This Beems like a simple 
rule, but its violation has often been observed on several different 

(8} See Oiat the scrapers are spaced as even a distance apart 


as posaible. This will make the work lighter on the mules, easier 
on the drivers and will tend to avoid tonfusion. 

(9) The loaded acraper should alwajs have the right of way 
as against the unloaded scraper. 

(10) Whenever a aeraper gets stuck or ia in any trouble don't 
lose any time before notifying the foreman and sending for help. 
The snatch team is employed for the purpose of helping the 
acrapers at all timea and in all posaible ways. 

(11) Be sure not to have too few acrapers on a long haul and 
too manjr scrapers on a abort haul ; see that every acraper ia 
busy all the time; see that the loader and anatch teams are busy 
all the time; in short, that each unit of the work is contributing 
its maximum effort to the accomplishment of the whole. 

Figure 174 is a diagram showing that Fresno scrapers are more 
economic than wheel airapers up to 275 ft. haul. 

Fig. 175, Doan Scraper. 

Tonene Scrapers. This machine is composed of a wooden plat- 
form drawn at an angle of about S0° with the surface of the 
ground and the horses are hooked to the pole. It ia a very valu- 
able machine for lilling ditches, leveling roads or other uneven 
places. The author has found it an extremely economical machine 
for spreading topsoil which bad been previously stacked in piles. 
It has a steel cutting edge 4S inches wide, which can be easily 
replaced. The weight is 120 lb. and the price $10.00. 

Ihe Soan Scraper. This machine is very useful for cleaning out 
and back filling ditches or leveling uneven surfaces. Manufac- 
turers claim that it will back fill as much earth as 50 men with 
shovels. Price, $n.20. 

Graders and Kaad Hacfaines. The difference between graders 


and scrapers ie that the scrapers pick up a load, transport it a 
certain distance and unload it at once place, white the road ma- 
chine is used mainly for cutting off high places and filling up the 
adjacent low places while the machinu is in motion. Another 
function of the grader is that of moving earth into n' 
Bpreading it from winrows in thiu layers. 

Fig. 170, Fresno Scraper. 

Berenible Graders. A make of steel grader, the smalJest of 
which can be operated liy a man and two boraes, and the largest 
by a tJaction engine, costs as follows: 

Length ol Weight Price 

Made in tl. in lb. t. o b. ChicBio 

6 1,450 ) 250 

7 2,em 400 

Another make of graders costs as follows; 

Length of Weieht 

12 TOOO 8o0 

A machine that will rip ui old macadam road and grade it at 
the same time has the Cotlowinj, ^petiAcations Number of 
rnoter teeth j apa<.in^ center to (ei tcr 10 in length of grader 
Made ft approximate weight 8 400 lli price fob Th cH„n 


Two BUde Adjnit&ble Boad Srac. A drag similar to the one 
Bhown in Pig. 179 ia used to cut, crush, pulverize, pack, uuooth 
and cKiry eaj-th. The varloui operationa are accompUahed by the 

Fig. 177. BeTersible Grader. 

adjustment of the blades. Thia machlDe weiy;hi 280 lb. and costs 
$33.00 f. o. b factory. Another make of a similar drag weighs 
300 lb. and coata $30.00 f. o. b. Chicago. 

Fig. ITS. Reversible Grader. 

Three Blade Dra; similar to the above, but designed for much 
heavier work weighs 3S0 lb. and costs $40. The length of the 
blades fa 7 ft. 6 in., and the width 6 in. 


Boad Hone mounted on wheels Himllar to the one in Fig. ISO is 
u»ed for smoothing puddling and leveling dirt roads. It weighs 
complete 365 lb. and costs $70. It is operated by one pair o£ 

Fig. 170. Two-Blade Adjustable Road Drag. 

horses and is moved on its own wheels without tearing up the 

Three-way Road Drag, Fig. 181, will cover the entire width of 
the road in one trip. A drag designed for horse power weighs 
850 lb. and costs $80. Another make weighs approximately 1000 

Fig. 180. Eoad Hone. 

Ih. and costs $02. A heavier drag for engine power weighs 1^50 
lb. and costs $120. 
Coit of HoTlng Dirt with Power Kaohlnery. The following 


notea appeared in Engineering and Conlraoting, May 1j, lOIS, 
and exemplify in a striking way that we are moving in thv 
Epucli of Manufactured Power. 

Using power maciiiiierj only, 125,(100 cu. yd. at dirt were moved 
on an Illinois road job, at a, cost of 4.1 ct. per cubic yard. The 
work was done in connection with the improvement of a road 
k>ading north toward Pontiac, 111. The first 5 miles of this 
highway was changed from a narrow winding road to a level, well 
drained all the year road, 60 ft. wide between fences and 40 ft. 
wide between drainage ditches. 

Fig. 181. Three-Way Road Drag. 

Th k f I g th ght fw y was started on May 1, 

1917 1 mi I ted J IB lOlT d g which period 6 18 acres 
w 1 dF t^ldm fbsh and shrubs and over 

200 I t f m 3 t 3 ft d meter. Trees were pulled 
by 7 Ip t p II t t 100-ft. cable. Two cable 

tfit w Bed tl t th t t vas not delayed waiting 

f hth tbemd Th ostfl ring the roadway, includ- 

glbo ft tmtdn allowance of 20% for 

dp t f q p t $990 30 or »10I 29 per acre. 

Th g d g f t d J 18 1!)17. One 75-hp. cater- 

1 II t t wd t 1 II tw W stern graders, one 12-ft. 

t m k th t f II d 1 8 ft to tarry the dirt to the 

t f th d A Vl t 1 ting gradur pulled by a 


75-hp. cateniillar trsetor was used in some places in making 
fills. However, on some of the deeper fills it was necessary to 
use some other method, in order to make time, and a 751ip. 
eaterpillar tractor was used in connection with a caterpillar land 
leveler. This land leveler is a tool used e:(tens)vely in the West 
and is in realitj a large scraper having a capacity of approxi- 
mately 3<^ ;d. With this machine the dirt could be taken up and 
parried across the road and tlien unloaded gradually or all at one 
time as conditions required. 

The gravel for the road was taken from a nearby creek with a. 
drag line excavator which delivered it to a loading hopper. With 
the drag line excavator working steadily it was possible to keep 
the hopper filled, so that when the tractor train came up, which 
consisted of a TS-hp. caterpillar tractor with 6 reversible trailers, 
they could be loaded without delay or without shoveling. 

With this equipment a total of a little over 125,000 cu. yd. of 
dirt was moved in 75 working days. The total' cost including 
labor, interest on the investment and an allowance of 20^' on 
depreciation of equipment was $5,147 or 4.1 ct. per cu. yd. 

At no time were more than S men employed on the job. Horses 
or mules were not used at any time in the work, 

A OraTcl Spreader was used in the construction of the Colo- 
rado Ttiver Levee. This spreader was built on an ordinary flat 
car and is of extremely simple construction. A small, well- 
braced tower is built in the center and on each side S x 17 in. pine 
stringers are firmly bolted to the side sills and to stringers laid 
across the top of the car body. Ten H4"in. eyeholts run up 
through these stringers and from these ai'e suspended two 
isosceles triangular wings, one on each side of the car. These 
wings are raised and lowered by means of ropes and blocks at 
the point of the wings a.nd at the top of the tower and are 
raised by braking the car and hauling on the line by a loco- 
motive. On the outside the wings are faced with iron and have 
a reach of 16 feet. .The 46-yard side-dump cars were unloaded 
when standing still, so that the top of the dumps on either side 
was from 3 to 4 feet above the tracks. In spreading this ma- 
terial the machine is put through the entire length at a speed 
from 7 to 10 miles per hour. Several trips with the wings at 
different heights are sometimes necessary. The cost of spread- 
ing material per yard is aiiout 1/10 cent, the cost of constructing 
machine about $300.00, and its operation requires the service of 
a locomotive and of four men to handle the wings. This work 
was prior to 1912. 

Qradiug for Zoadi AoroM Slough* by BuII-DobIbe- The fol- 
lowing notes by Mr. L. U. Martin appeared in Engineering and 


Contracting, May 7, 1910. This method is particularly adapted 
to eloug^B containing standing water and to short stretches of bog. 
The grade tor this work should be carried from 40 to 60 ft. wide 
at the luiHe) or in the case of etanding water to a minimum width 
of 40 to 45 ft. at the water level. Wagons or scrapers are 
dumped as close to the edge as it is possible to drive the teams 
and the dirt is then pushed ahead by the bulldoser. A good 
operator on the bulldoser can handle the dirt from 5 to teams 
on an average haul of 600 ft., and more as the length of haul 
increaseH. With a good operator little time is lost over a straight 
haul on good ground. The outAt shown was pushing for five 
No. 2 whceters (15 cu. ft.) on a 400-ft. haul. A heavy steady 
team is required to handle this pusher. The actual cost per'yard 
over straight haul dirt with a good operator should not exceed 

Fig. 182. Pushing the Grade with a Bulldoser. 

2 ct. per yard, and may eTen run below this Unless dirt can be 
sent both vrays from the cut, however, or the fill is long enough 
to use the full outfit, an elevating grader is not worked at full 
capacity and the extra cost per yard on this account will be 
raised to perhaps G ct additional as a maxiinum- 

Tlie outfit was a home-made affair consisting of the front wheels 
of a dump wagon, a Ktraight telephone pole 8 in. at the butt anJ 
20 ft. long; and a putib board braced as shown, shod with a 3-in. 
by %-in. iron edge on tbe bottom. It was so made that the 
pole with l>oard attsihed could lie removed in a few minutes from 
the wlieck and loaded on a wagon. This method is much superior 
and cheaper than the old one of having shovelers at Ibn end of 
the grade pushing the dirt off with a shovel 

Jordan Spreader. On the Hudson Division of the New York 
Central & Hudson River H. R.. where considerable double tracking 
work was in progress, the Walsh-Kabl Construction Company 


were uaiii^ a dump car train and Jordan epreadera (Fig 183) to 
widen out shoulders iufKcientlj to lay a conetruction track ao as 
to clear the present main line trarka. With a good locomotive 
and crew a train load of 150 to 200 cu. yd. of ordinary material 
can be leveled so aa to clear passing trains in 8 minutes and can 
be leveled down to 2 ft below top of rail in from 10 to 15 minutes. 

Fig. 183. Jordan Spreader in Use on Four Tracking. 

The cost per da; of a spreader may be estimated as follows, 
SHSuming all items liberally to insure their covering the cost in 
any case: 

DepreciiUoD oa {5,000 mSFhine at IS jent Mte, SSt days 

TotsI {im flpiiaa) '..... I6.1S 

This does not include cost of locomotive and crew. 

This will indicate what may lie the cost of using a spreader. 
If the machine is taken care of it should be sold at the end of 15 
years for a reasonable price, but no account is tal>en of the 
scrap value in this estimate. 

The machine csn easily handle all material whicli can lie sup- 
plied by trains which might be anywhere from 1,000 to 20,000 
yards per day. 

Spreader Plow. A new type of spreader plow built by the 
Rucyrus Co., is illustrated by Fig. 184. It wei!;hs about 68 
tons having a larger wing area and wider spread than any o'her 
plow. The width of spread may be varied automatically with 


no loss of time and the winga mayJ)e opeaed or closed irreapective 
of their inclination. Thld plow will operate elTectivel; with an 
ordinary train presBUre of 70 lb of air and will operate with as 
low a pressure as 60 lb. The control is entirety automatic, one 
man being required for the operation. 

The maximum width of spread from the center of the track is 
22 ft 6 inches, 24 inches below the top of rail and 23 ft 5 inches 
on level with the top of rail. Any intermediate width of spread 
may be obtained The vertlral travel of the wing is 43 inches, 
from 10 inches above to 24 inches below the top of the rail 

The car body is heavily built, trucks being M. C. B Standard 
for 100,000 lb. capacity cars. Each main wing is made up of 
three heavy steel castings so designed that should the plow 

Fig. 184. Spreader Plow. 

encounter an immovable object, the pina would shear, allowing 
the wings to swing without any damage to them. 

The operating mechanism is entirely pneumatic, independent 
air cylinders being provided for each wing. 

The operator's station is located forward where he can obtain 
a clear view of the work at all times, all controls being placed 
in the cab. 

This machine is used for such work as spreading ballast, second 
tracking, grade revision, track elevation, bank building, bank 
trimming, ditching, spreading spoil dumps, snow plowing and yard 

The cost of operation consists of the pay of a single operator 
of about $5 00 per day, the cost of running the engine and a. charge 
nf about $5.00 per day for renewals and incidental expenses, plux, 
of course, interest and depreciation on the machine itself. 


A plow of tbis tjpe was used in embankment ^onBtTuction 
on the dumps of the Hull-fiuet Mine at Bibbing, Minn. The 
material bandied was mainly gravel with a sprinkling of Imulders. 
The speed meintalued in plowing uauallj averaged from 7 to 10 
miles per hour. 

The method of building tbe embankment was deecriljed in The 
Eamavaling Engineer, July, 1020, froDi which the fotlowiag notes 

A fairly level etretuh was selected and the track laid in sections, 
with tbe joints broken evenly, in order to facilitate handling. 
Tbeee sections were unloaded from a Hat car with a locomotive 
crane which spotted tbe sections ahead, these sections being bolted 
up as fast as laid. This track was made as level as possible by 
blocking up temporarily. The first procedure varied somewhat 
with the character of material encountered. Where this material 
contained considerable boulders, the load from the Grst.dtimp was 
spread level with the top of the rail, thus building a 24-io- em- 
bankment. The tracks were then shifted to the top of this 
newly constructed road bed It can I'eadily be seen that with the 
most careful blocking tbe track contained considerable depres- 
sions. The facility with which tbe alxive mentioned embankment 
waa made level, was accomplished by raising and lowering the 
wing aa the material was spread, thus assuring an even grade. 

When the material ran even and no large boulders were en- 
countered, the first procedure was to plow 12 in. below the bottom 
of the tie, attaining this depth in successive cuts. This provided 
space in which to dump material, thus eliminating the tendency 
of the material to flow back on the rails when dumped from the 

When this 24-in, embankment was completed, material was 
dumped to the far side in order to anchor the track. This pre- 
vented the shifting of the track, due to the side thrust of the plow 
during later operations, Tliis material waa usually spread ofT 
level with the ties. The next procedure was to dump trains of 
20-yard cars from the new track This was done where the cars 
stood without spotting as it proved to be unnecessary to make 
one continuous pile and to butt th<i contents of one car aeainnt 
that of another. This not only facilitated plowing, but saved con- 
Hiderable time. 

This dumping of material was spread in three atepa with the 
wing horizontal, on the level with the track, fixed at a min- 
imum angle of 12 ft. from the center of the track. The sec- 
ond step waa to plow the same material with the wing 
flxed at 16 ft. width of spread, and then at the maiiimum 
or 2214 feet width of spread. These operations were repeated 


three times, making a total of nine operations on this dumping. 
The tame Ht«pi were taken ea^h time except that the maximum 
width was reduced each time to two ft. or t« 20<^, 18 and 16 
ft. respectively, each time graduall]' lowering the wing horizon- 
tally until the maximum depth had been reached at 2 ft. below 
the top of the rail. The purpose of decreasing the width each 
time was to raise the material higher and to Imsen the aide thrust 
on the rail and the power required to push the plow, and further- 
more, to attain the object of throwing the material beyoml the 
reach of the wing. The object of feeding down was, as stated 
betore, to provide dumping area. 

The base of the material was now 10 ft. from the center of the 
track.' The wing was then raised horizontally to IS in. above the 
top of the rail and the same dumping was plowed at the maxi- 
mum width of 2214 ft- The purpose of this procedure was to 
carry the ridge over as far as possible and to build a shoulder 
at this width. It will be seen that this one dumping was plowed 
ten times. 

Then more material was dumped in the space provided and 
this was plowed with the wing horizontal. This is repeated until 
a Tiaxiniimi depth of 24 in. and a 12-ft. width was attained. 

The wing was then raised to the maximum of 19 in. above the 
track level and the material was thrown over as described before. 

At this juncture, a bank had be&n constructed 514 ft. In height, 
above the top of the rail. 

The tip of the wing was then raised to the maximum of 7 ft. 
above the inner end. This consumed about 15 minutes. More 
material was then dumped and plowed. The plowing was first 
done with the wing at this inclination at a minimum width of 
spread. This width of spread was increased in three steps or to 
12, 10, and 2214 ft., gradually lowering, the wing each time, dowu 
to the masimum depth, maintaining the same angle of iaclina- 

This was repeated as often as necessary or until the material 
lay in a line from the inner point of the wing, 2 ft. below 
the top of the rail, to the tip of the wing at 22^ ft. from the 
center of the track. This again provided dumping space for a 
new load^vhich was then dumped. 

The wing was then raised, maintaining the same inclination, 
until its inner end was level with the top of the track. The 
material was plowed as before in steps of 12, 16 and 221^ ft., 
feeding down each time, (with the wing at the minim'.im width 
of spread), as before described, in order to provide dumping space 
for the next load. 

More material was now dumped and the sajne procedure was 


r«pe«ted e&ch time changing the slope of the bank b^ bringing 
in the tip ot the wing 1 (t. This added BUcceasive wedge-shaped 
slices to the embankment. This procedure was repeated nntil the 
minimum width of spread was reaiihed, or 12 ft. 

The embankment by this time had attained a, height of T ft. 
with a, top width of iO^i ft,, thia last dimension being the differ- 
ence between maxinium and minimum width (^ spread with the 
wingat tbe maximum inclination. 

If it is desired to raise this embankment to a, still higher 
elevation, the tracks may be lifted b; a locomotive crane, sec- 
tion by section, and placed on this new embankm^it, and the 
above procedure repeated as often as necessary, as shown in tbe 
accompanying sketch. 

It must be remembered that tbe procedure here described Is 
that followed on the spoil dump of the Hull-Rupt Mine at Hib- 
bing, Minn., but it may readily be Been that conditions en- 
countered eliewhere might alter the method employed in small 
details. For instance, if boulders were not encountered, the wh<^e 
procedure would be considerably simplitied. It whs found that 
large boulders could be easily plowed ajid elevated if the wing 
encountered this boulder below its center. 

Shrinkage of Earth Embankments when made with various 
kinds of equipment. Specific instances of shrinkage of railway 
embankments were cited in a committee report submitted at the 
20th (1919) annual conventioit of the American Railway En- 
gineering Association. Information was given regarding 8 em- 
bankments between mileposta 540 and 553 on the Atchison, Topeka 
ft Santa Fe By. The following tabulation compiled from the 
report shows the percentage of material required to restore the 
several embankments to their original width after a lapse of 4 
years' time: 

UUBDtitisB rsQuired to 

in an at resUiTc All to Amount ot 

coiapletion. original width nhrinkage 
Nov., IBU of 13 ft, Percent. 

Ou. yd. Not., 19U! 


Embaakmeat Ho. 1 15.7G2 1,S£4 ll.S 

Erabantanent No. 2 H7.5SE S,996 *.7 

Embankment Ma. 3 1£5,S»> 2,3TI 1.9 

EmbaDknent No. 1 iSnST 99 .6 

Embankment No. G 1E0,S52 8St A 

Embankment No. 6 ET.70S 1,643 2.3 

The base of embankment No. 1 was eonstmeted from side- 
borrow with freanos. It was topped with wheelers and carts. 
The material was brown pack sand, gyp and joint clay. The 


bane of emtiankment No. 2 was also made from aide borroiv 
with fresnoB and wheelers. It waa topped with cars. Thf 
material was the same as for No. 1. For No, 3 the bane waa 
plated with fresnoa; it was topped with wheelers. The material 
was brown pack sajtd, gyp and joint ciay. Several rains oc- 
curred during the period this fill was being placed which acconnta 
for the small amount of shrinkaj^e. The base of No. 4 was 
placed with fresnos; it was topped with wheelera using gyp 
and pack sand. The bane of No, 5 was placed with freanos 
from aide borrow; it was topped with machine and wagons. The 
material was red sandj claj and gyp, Freanoa were need in 
placing the base of No, 6; it was topped with wheelera. The 
material was brown sandy clay and gyp. During the time this 
ftll was being put in there were several very heavy rains, which 
accounts for eipall amount of ahrinkage. The ill] for embank- 
ment No, 7 was made from aide borrow with freanoa; the material 
was black sandy loam and clay. The 1111 for No. S was made from 
side ijorrow, the base being placed with fresnos and the top with 
wheelers. The material was black aandy loam and brown sandy 
clay and gyp. 




A heBt«r consisting of a Bteel framework (Fig. 1S6) tlie eidee 
of which are built up of perforated shelves arranged so tliat the 
gravel or stone drops from one ehelf to another and is heated l^ 

Fig. 185. A Portable Gravel Heater. 

re built beneath. It will dry gravel or atone up to 2 in. 
, but cannot be used for drying sand. 

0»p»cily Weight 

No. OWt Tons per tour Lb. 


Heaters similar to the one showti hy Fig. 18S suitable for 
drying sand are made in three sizes, with and without external 
gratings. They cost as follows: 

Cipucitjf in ApproiiniBl* ihip- Price 

(oiu dBil7 pine weight in lb. (, a. b. factory 

Fig, 186. Sand Drying Stove. 

Portable Sand Brier L-onsi^ting of two dnuns, one within an- 
other, the inside one lieing 30 in. in diameter and 10 ft- long, 
and the outcT 48 inches by 11 feet, giving the two a total area 
of 21G sq. ft. of heating surface, is operated by an 8 hp. engine 
with a 12 hp. boiler. The time required for the material to pass 
through the drums is stated to be four minutes. The capacity 
per hr, is 6V2 eu. yd. of sand containing not more than 2% 
moisture heated to about 350° F. The heating is done by a 
kerosene or crude oil burner placed bo as to fire the inner drum. 
The approximate fuel consumption is 75 gal. per day. This 
machine is mounted on a steel frame and wheels; it weighs ap- 
proximately 7,500 Ih, and costs about $1,800 f. o. b. Chicago. 


A combination BHnd, stone and water heater is herewith illus- 
trated (Fig. 1S8). It was used to heat the materials used in 
constructing concrete culverts on the New York Central & Hudson 
Kiver R. R. It conaista of a Bemi-cylindrical sheet of steel 10. 
ft. long and 2 ft. high. One end of the arch is closed and a 
short Hmokestadc is erected on top. On the other end a water 
tank having a capacity of S7 gallons and with a radiation of 
12 square feet le construrted, A wood fire is built under the 

Fig. 187. Portable Sand Drier. 

work and the eand and gravel to be heated are heaped on the 
top and aidea. It weighs 1.20O lb. and can be built for about 

Big for Tbawlnx Froien, Groimd. The following is from a re- 
port by the author, on a method of thawiog frozen ground, during 
the winter of 1017-18, at the New York Navy Yard, while he was 
there in the capacity of Supervising Engineer. This method 
proved at leaet twice as efficient as any otlier previouely known 
to hitn or to the contractor on that work. 

In order to expedite the construction of the aircraft storage 
building at 3Sth Street, it was necessary to devise an effective 
method of thawing the ground within the building which had 
bera frozen to an average deptk of some 24 inches as a result 


of the exceedingly cold weather that commenced in the last week 
of December, I91T. 

Ae eoon as the building wai roufed and the eaeh glased the 
contractor's expert devised a method that was substantially as 
follows : 

A considerable number of %-inch eteam pipes, each one con- 
nected with a, valve and fitted with an elbow, were connected 
to a 26 hp. boiler through a 2-inch main in such a manner that 
a steam jet from each of these pipes could be directed into the 
ground into which at proper intervals to fit these pipes holes had 
been previously made with the aid of very hot iron bars worked 
into the soil by hand. These holee were spaced in the oeighbor- 

hood of three feet apart and after the pipes had reached to the 
bottoma of the holes previoualj driven, the entire affair, which 
measured some 20 feet x 50 feet, was covered with a tarpaulin 
stretched about 3 feet above the ground with enclosed ends and 
sides. Upon steam being turned on, the condensation resulted 
in each of the holes being filled with water which was kept at 
the boiling point by the issuing steam, and the hot water grad- 
ually thawed the ground and percolated into tlie ground between 
the holes, finally producing a boggy mass which had the merit of 
not being frozen. It had the disadvantage, however, of being 
so wet as to be unsuitable for the laying of concrete floor, and the 
method had the further disadvantage that it required about 4S 




Iiours to thaw out the ground, several hours to adjust the ap- 
|)arati)B and several hours more for the water to drain away 
KiilDt^iently to enable concreting to proceed. The method wae 
very coHtly to the contractor and resulted in filling the building 
with moisture from the eteam that escaped through and under the 

After some six days of experiment with the above described 
arrangement the contractor was induced to make a test accord- 
ing to a plan recommended by tlie author. The test having- been 
very satisfactory, the method was adopted and is here described. 
The cost for labor and material per square foot of ground by the 
method proposed and described below is approximately one- 
third the cost of the method described above, and the time re- 
quired to thaw the ground by the method to be described is about 
one-fourth the time required by the previous method. It' is 
thereforo believed the method has sufficient merit to deserve con- 
sideration. It is not claimed that the method is new and it 
certainly introduces no facts new tq steam engineering or ther- 
mo-dynamicB, and it seems rather surprising that it does not 
appear to be generally known to contractors who have occasion 
to lay concrete where the ground is frozen. 

Few situations are more agonizingly baffling than to have to 
lay concrete on ground which one does not know how to thaw 
out rapidly, and it is believed that any method which may relieve 
such a situation at any time, no matter how simple or how 
crude, is deserving of being brought to the attention of those 
who have such work to do. 

The method proposed and adopted is as follows: Six unite of 
area for thawing were arranged, each unit consisting of 13 lengths 
of ^-inch pipe 20 feet long. Each of the six units or coils has 
at its supply end one 2-inch x %-inch reducer and one %-inch 
globe valve, and at its return end one % inch globe valve 
and the pipee are arranged as illustrated in the accom- 
panying figure. By arranging the pipes in the manner shown, 
it is not necessary to connect and thread the pipee to the exact 
20 ft. lengths, but they can be purchased as they come in the 
market, usually an inch or two overlength. A couple of pieces 
of 2x4-in. studding 18 feet long underneath each unit or coil 
is useful for moving the unit about from one completely thawed 
piece of ground to the next section to be thawed. It will be 
observed that in this manner ~^team is admitted to a unit of 
%-inch pipe amounting to some 260 feet in length and contain- 
ing some T2 square feet of external heating surface. These unite 
arranged six at a time, are laid directly on the frozen ground 
and covered by the tarpaulin, which is separated from the pipe 


by 2 or 3 inches, accMuplisbed by laying 3x4 pieces of wood 
up<Hi the pipe at 3 or 4 foot intervals. The seccMtd tarpaulin i9 
placed over the tirst and separated from it by the apace of 3 or 
4 inches in a similar manner. 

6. A teat was made on January IB, 1018, on an area of 2,000 
square feet and the following figures obtained: 

Ares coYpred 2,000 eq. ft. 

Depth ol froit IS lnch« 

Oil (door temperature (BveriEeJ 2T des. V. 

Indoor lemverature (BTersjs) 33 d«t< ?■ 

Trpe at bailer TO tap. iBOomotlve 

AversEe sleun presmua 90 1b. 

Budiation : 
2" supply piping: 

Outdoor 30 feet 9) sq. ft. surface 

Indoors 110 (eet exposed to sir 7B >q. ft. surf see 

■%" hSBtiDg rdiIb; 

l.Tn feet, covered vitb tarpaulins iN. tq. ft. surfsce 

An efficiency test was run from 10:00 p.m. to 8:30 a.m., or 
10.5 hours. The results obtained were aa follows: 

Water used 816 cal. 

T^miwratnre (Bv«r»Be) JS del:. P. 

Gondeiuale SSO jar 

Temperature (Bverage) KB d«. F. 

Oncondansed BteBm lt£% 

The cost of thawing out the ground was as follows: 

Eopipmenl cost: 

TranBportatiaa (both vbtb) and ersctioD. Z boilera tU5.00 

Pipe and flttinjB, (531 lesa 50% 8»W«(» 265.50 

CBnTBa corera. (SOO teaa 75% ealrsEe 185.00 

Area of baildinn OSft-xSOQ-), 111,000 aq. ft. t O.OOW 

GoBt per Square Foot. 

jLalwr (enilneera, lendint coils and morliiE appantoal. TTSGJW 

Boiler rent «1.50 

OoBl 08.00 


Ares thawed 23,000 iq. ft. 

Coal per aquare fool t 0.0389 

Total cost per square foot (1018 figures) t 0.0<36 

7. During the thawing process a trial was made of covering the 
steam pipes with sand and placing the canvas covers as t>efore. 

This method, however, did not give as good results as when no 
sand was used and was therefore discarded. 


Steam driven engines are manufactured in a 
of styles. Below are given the average prices of tbe tjpes most 
generallj used These prices and weights vary greatly, but they 
are accurate enough to be used for estimating. For the purpose 
of tabulating, hoisting engines have been arbitrarily divided into 
tlie foUowine pIshspb: 

Double Cylinder Single Prictlon Drum Engine adapted to work 
in bridge building, pile driving, log skidding and general hoisting. 
Approxtm ate ship- Price 

DauhU Cylinder Sonble Friction Drum Engine. Adapted to 
hauling car9, pile driving. bTi<lge building, operating derricks aid 
general hoisting purposes, cirrular saws, concrete mi\ers, centri- 
fugal pumps, etc. 

Approiimole ehin. Price 

Hp. ping WPijlii in lb. f .». b. factory 

8 6,ft.50 (1,600 

Double Cylinder Tbree Trictlon Drum Engine for boom derricks 
with, orange peel and clam shell buckets. 

SO 18.^00 3,350 

Dovble Cylinder Double Friction Drum Engine with reversing 
gears and drums for swinging boom derricks. 

ApT>r6:iiinBf« ship- Price 



Fig. ISO. Double Cylinder Single Friction Drum Engine. 

Electric Hoisth 
-Single Frictio.v Drum Electric Hoist 

ApproiiaiBlo ship 













ouble Fiiction 

















Fig. 190. Double CylJnder Double Friction Drinn Engine. 

Double Friction Drum Electric Hoist 
with patent revereing boom, ewinging gear and driuna 

Double Cylinder Double Friction Drnm link engine with ratch- 
ets, pawls and winch for general hoieting and operating material 
elevator and elevator sheaves, etc. 

The prices for the foregoing hoisting engines are for the com- 
plete outfit. If the hoisting engine is to be used in connection 


Fig. 191. Hoisting Engine with Boom Swinging Drum 

Fig. 192. Double Friction Dnira Electric Hoist. 


l>redgt Enerines. A double cylinder, double friction drum 
dredge engine with brake bands and boiler coBts Si folloira: 

Appraxfmitte Bhip- Ptice 

Hp. ping weight in lb. f , D. b. IsctoiT 

' 20 15,K« t!,400 

Hetbod of Compntinf Bope Capacity of a Dram. The method 
of computing rope capacity of a drum used by the A. Leachen 
&. Sons Rope Company ia as follows: Add the depth of flange 
in inches to the diameter of the drum, and multiply this result 
by the width (out to out) ot the drum. This product is then 
multiplied by the figure below corresponding to the size of rope 

. i% in. 


.G72 2 in. 



Hi in 

W4 in 

Cost of Operating Steam and Electric Motor Eolat. The follow- 
ing notes cm an electric hoist as compared with a steam hoist 
appeared in Engirteerittg imd Contracting, Jan. 21, 1014. 

The electric hoist does not require a licensed engineer. Almost 
any intelligent workman can learn to operate it. The control 
is very simple, and the motor requires no attention when operat- 
ing. A single handle controls all motor operations. Throwing 
it one way startn the hoist in one direction, the speed depending 
upon how far the handle is moved; throwing the handle in the 
opposite direction reverses the hoist, the same speed range being 
also available. 

The electric hoist requires no fireman, no fuel or water. There 
are no ashes to handle, no objectionable smoke and exhaust, 


and nQ sparks, which eliminateB the fire risk. The electric hoist 
is also lighter and more compact than the steam hoist with its 
boiler, and is therefore cheaper to move. 

Where the steam hoist is driven [rom an independent iKiiler, 
steam pipes, which are leaky and awkward to handle, must be 
laid. The electric hoist, on the other hand, gets its power from 
. flexible cables which can be tun anywhere with ease. 

Another advantage of the electric hoist is that it consumes 
power only when actually in use, and when at rest involves no 
expense for power whatever, whereas with a Bt«am hoist, steam 
must be kept up, and*frequently the staud-t^ expense exceeds the 
actual operating expense. 

The motor-driven hoist is in general less likely to be out of 
commission than a steam hoist. It can be started at any time 
without delays for steaming up. There is nothing about it to 
freeze up and hence it is independent of weather conditions. Tbe 
simple construction of the motor, with its two bearings only and 
no reciprocating parts, insures minimum delays for repairs, and 
as for reliability, motors designed especially for crane service 
are as strong and rugged as any steam engine. 

There remains nothing but a consideration of the coat for 
current as compared with that for coal. This will naturally 
vary with local conditions, but it can be stated that In general 
the cost of operating an electric hoist will not be greater, all 
factors considered, than that of operating a steam hoist. 

For example, with a coal hoist in Pittsburgh, where a motor 
wag directly substituted for a steam engine, all other factors re- 
maining the same, the following results were obtained: 

Coat of coal p«r month t W 

Cost o( wat«r per month IK 

Totals pea nra 

Thus the electric hoist showed a saving of $4S per month. 
But it also proved itself able to handle more coal With the 
8t«am hoist a bucket containing 42 bushels was lifted every 60 
seconds whereas the electric hoitt required only oO seconds for 
Uie trip because it could he accelerated more rapidly Hence in 
a 10 hour day the electric hoist can perform 120 more trips, or 
handle over 5 000 bushels more than the steam boist 

Tlie cost m labor of unloading from cars and setting up a 
hoisting engine ready for work averages from $35 to $50 (1910 

0a«oline Eolit The following are some prices of gasoline 


driven hoists. Th«ee are furnished complete with magneto equip- 
ment. If battety reserve is aUo required the price is $10 extra. 

CiLAjN Ubiven Single Deum Hoihth 

Back geared — non reveraible 

ApproitmMe ship- Price 

Chain Dbiven DorBi-E Druu Hoists 
Back geared — non revemible 

Approiimste ship- FrJFi 

Ip. , prng weisfat in lb. 1. a. b, fa 

6 3,584 t SW 

9 4.400 l,«i: 

3 6.10(1 1,161 

Fig. 193. Gasoline Hoist. 

A small chain driven gasoline boiat, portable, non-reversible 
having a single drum, horse power 3<^', approximate shipping 
weight 1,850 lb. is priced at $445 f. o. b. factory. A similar ma- 
chine of the same horse power with a double drum weighs about 
2,200 lb. for shipment and is priced at $625. 

Gasoline hoists of another make are priced as follows: 


Heavy Duty Double Dkvu Hoists 

(nou- reversible, with magneto and friction cintchj 

Appniiimale ablp- PriM 

Hp. piDE weifbt in lb. t. o. b. taetarj 

none 2.2SO % TM 

S 3,«» i.n^ 

10 4.0EO 1,]20 

15 4,«)0 1,560 


Double boom sninger for tlie above, complete, S200. If friction 
clutch gear is not wanted deduct $46. If Boach magneto ta not 
wanted deduct $60. 

Heavy Duty Single Dbum Hoists 
(non-reversible, no magneto or friction clutch) 

ApproKiinatB ship- Prico 

IS 3.360 1,^ 

In the above hoists the drums hold 1,250 tt. of ^i-in. cable, 
and have a line speed of 150 ft. per min. If an independent winch 
head is wanted add $57 to the above prices. 

These machines may also be had in a light duty type having a. 
drum capacity of 750 ft. of "4-1". line and a line speed of 125 ft. 
per min. The n on -reversible double drum type may be had in 
three sizes 4^^, 8 and 8 hp. It weighs 1550 lb. without engine, 
1,S60 to 2,400 lb. for shipment with the engine. The price is $455 
without enifinp and from $C55 to $800 with engine. 

The reversible light duty double drum type weighs about 100 
lb. more, and costs $50 more for each size. 

The light duty single drum non- reversible hoists weigh 800 
lb, and cost $250 without engine. With a 4 hp. engine it weighs 
about 1,450 lb. for shipment and costs $455. The 6 hp. size 
weighs about 1,650 lb. for shipment and costs $530. 


The light duty reversible single drum hoists weigh about 100 
lb. more and cost ¥55 more than the non-reveraible tfpe. 
!Extras for the light duty hoists cost as follows: 

Double boom swinger, eomp1«(a 

Indepbndeat W]Dc1Ui+:ad, compkto ■' 

BoKCb magneto 

Friction dutch eogine gear 

T.ight single drum hoists having a drum capacity of 750 ft. 
of ^-111. cable, a line speed of 100 ft. per min. and a. single line 
pull of from 750 to 1,350 lb. cost for the non-reversible type as 

Approiimstfl ship- Price 

Hp. ping weight in tb. t. o.b. factory 

none .150 I 80 

Hi ST5 242 

The reversible light elngle drum hoiate weigh about 100 lb. 
more and cost about $70 more than the non- reversible for each 
size. Magneto $56 extra. 

Fig. 194. Reversible Belt Driven Hoist. 

Small Belt Driven Hoist. A reversible friction hoist designed 
to be operated l^ a gasoline engine or motor through a belt has 
ttw following speclScations; 

DiMENsjONs AMD Capacity 

Weigbt. lb. 

Floor ipBce, 3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 

Capncity of drum, S.ftOO lb. on a einile line. 

Drum: Diameter, 6 in,; between Singet. 18 in. 

ElevBtor sheave, M in. diameter ; capacily, 400 lb. lift. 

Hoisting Bp«ed. IM ft. per minule. 

Hp, required. B. 

Complete with winch head, drum, elevator, and puUej'. but not 

Compressed Air Hoist. A hoist intended for light lifting work, 
having a capacity of one-halt ton, U adaptable to various kinda 
of hoisting, BUch aa materials and toola in structural work, plac- 
ing concrete forms, laying sewer pipe, drain tile, etc., and for 
moving dump cars over a limited distance, etc. It will accooimo- 

Fig. 195. Air Operated Hoist Tor Construction Work. 

date a length of 700 ft, of ^-in. rope or 450 ft, of ^9 rope. The 
capacity is 1,000 lb. at a rope speed of 85 ft. per min. at a pressure 
of S5 lb. It will operate on either compressed air or steam, has 
a single drum, moving parts except drum enclosed, weighs less 
than 30O lb. and cosU $350. 

Traotlou Power Hoist. A light self-propelled power hoist capa- 
ble of lifting 3 tons at a radius of ft. is operated by a gaso- 


Traction Power Hoist. 

line oigine with friction clutch controls tor hoisting, swinging and 
traveling. The fuel eetimate is 6 gal. of gasoline per 10 hrg. The 

speed is from ^ to 1 mile per hr. The shipping weight 
nplete is about 5,650 lb., and the priee is $2,800 f. o. b. Chicago. 




Material elevators co(istriict«d bo that one platfMtn is moving 
up at th: same time the otlier ia moving down are built of 
wood reinforced with iron. The price includes all the neceBaary 
sheaves and %-in. 6 x 19 crucible steel rope. 

Leoetbof , — Weight in Lbs. , , ; Prioo-; , 

Fig. 197. 

The following table is for eingle platform mat«ria] elevators 
with wooden platforma. 

The following prices are for Biagle platform material elevaton 
vith steel platforma 6 ft. by 6 ft. 

These elevators may also be hail in lengths of 40, 55 and 65 ft. 
at corresponding prices. 

A single or double cage elevator without cable, cable sheaves, 
or sheave bearings costs $110 and weighs 910 and 940 lb. respec- 
tively, for shipment. Upper sheaves with hearings cost $10.60 
each and the lower sheaves with bearings cost $4.75 each. The 
double cage elevator is similar to the one shown in Fig. 197. Jt 
has two cages 3 ft. by S ft. The single cage elevator has a cage 
5 ft. 8 in. hf 6 ft. 

A light traveling elevator illustrated by Figs. 19S and 199 
was described in Vol. 71, No. 24 of Engineering Record by Mr. 
Robert Shannon. He states that this rig has cheapened by 40 to 
50 cents per cu. yd. the cost of placing relatively small volumes 
of concrete in piers and floors of building work. This saving 
per cubic yard is over the cost of doing similar work with a dis- 
tributing system depending on a tower elevator. A complete ele- 
vator of'this kind, including the skip, has been built for less than 
the coat of the average tower alone of the same height. One of 
these towers, 3S ft. high, has been set «p and material handled 
on it 45 min. from the time it arrived on the job. The elevator 
is rolled along on a track beside the wall, floor or pier forms into 
which it is delivering, saving wheeling materials on long runs. It 
is built in 12-ft. spliced sections, and can be easily knocked 
down and taken to another contract or to another part of the job. 
The one illDstnited has a 6-cu. ft. skip, and was used with a port- 
able mixer mounted on a truck which discharged directly into 
the skip. The concrete mixer was built with a special hoist added 
for the purpose of hoisting lumber and forms, as well as concrete, 
BO that it is a combined mixer and hoist. 

A separate gasoline hoist, however, may be u^ with this ele- 


vator, and it or the mixer or both movfd only at intervals. In 
thia event concrete may be carried to the skip in eflrts. On one 
job where the line needed to reach the extreme poBltJon of tlie 
elevator wae too long to be coiled on the drum of the hoist when 

Fig. 198. Elevator in Use. 

the elevator was near by, the end of the rope was coiled up aiHl 
clamped above the bail of the bucket. 

Where the elevator ie moved and the hoist remains stationarf. 
it JH impossible to mark the cable ho the engineer can tell when 
the skip is in a dumping position. Neither Is it always poesiblr 
for the engineer to see the skip in this position. In place af 



having the ordinary b«ll, pulled with a wire hj some one on top 
of the form, an electric contact device mounted on the ^ideg 
on which the bottom wheels of the skip run rings a, signal at the 
hoist when the skip reachee the dumping position, and discharges 
its load. This device, made of a brass spring and contact fastened 
on with carpet tacks, is shown in the accompanying drawing. 

The elevator is ehown arranged as an A.frame straddling a 
aeries of pier forms or a wall form in the drawing. It may also 
be used without the back l^a and the second track by leaning it 

Fig. 19a. Details of Traveling Elevator. 

against the form work or against the site of the building. As 
it is very light, it is easy for one or two men in the latter case 
to hold it out from the building while it is being rolled along 
the traek. It may also be held out from the building by a guy 
line attached to its top. The elevator has been used in the con- 
struction of the Danforth Theatre, a swimming pool known as ths 
Peoples Palace and several other buildings in Jersey City. 



The price of horses and mulee varies very greatly with the 
locality, BeaBon of the year and also from year to year. Gen- 
erally speaking, a good horee or mule coats from $200 to $350. 
A mule weighing 1,100 lb. will do as much work as a hoTse 
weighing 1,400 lb., and is less liable to Hicknees, can stand 
harder treatment, and eats slightly less than a horse. Twenty- 
eight mules bought in Kentucky and Missouri in 1910 were of 
an average weight of 1,100 lb., average age 6 years and cost on 
an average of $255, including expenses of transporting to New 
York, As a rule a mare mule is more desirable than one of the 
other sex. A freight car load of horses or mules contains 22, 
an espress car load 28. It takes about three weeks to acclimate a 
green animal. The annual depreciation of a horse used on con- 
struction work is about 15%. In figuring the cost of feeding 
horses on construction work it should be appreciated that the 
horses will eat hay the whole year round, while they will require 
grain only during the period when they are actually working. 
Hay necessary for one horae for one day is 14 lb. of hay grown 
by irrigation or 22 lb. of cultivated timothy and red top or 30 
lb. of natiye hay. One horse or mule eats as much as three 
burros or jaeks. 

The average daily feed of each horse or mule nsed by the H. C. 
Frick Coke Company during a period of six years was 26 ears of 
corn (70 lb. per bu.), 6 qts. of oats and Ifl^^ lb, of hay, A 
water supply sufficiently large to give 14 gallons of water to each 
horae should be allowed for. 

In the southern portion of the United States horses on large 
jobs may work almost every day, but in the north it ia ordi- 
narily possible to obtain 180 days' work each year only. 

In a Brooklyn St Ry. cost of feeding 2,000 horses was $20.00 
per month each prior to 1910 and the depreciation per horse was 
considered to be 25% per annum'. Besides about 4 galltniB of wa- 
ter per day each animal consumed the following amounts of 



straw . 

1. ToUl (IbB.) 

::::::: !fiS 


per Eoru. 


prior to 1910 



According to some records in Manhattan, Bronx and Brooklja, 
the coat with the average number of haraea kept for this period 
were as ehown below, the costs and averages being figured on the 
bttais of 36fi days per yew: 

ToUle und 

namber of horses kept l.lTf 
eotel t n-** 

268.00 £48.00 
and bedding 171.00 

Feeding and bedding 171.00 ITI.OO 171.00 


Tatak, prior to 1010 *4T3.43 1475.77 

Mr. Kichafd T. Fos of Chicago, In a report to the Street 
Cleaning Department of Boston, gives the following figuree; 

Total number of iiorses owned b; the deputmenl 12S 

MalnUinsd directly by the dt-partment K 

Boarded bf the Sanlury Depirlinrat 13 

Net c«l p«r hone per year lor rent, repalri, ahoelag, 
Teterlnary (errioee, medicine and feed, prior to 1910. ...(B1T.83 

Mr. Fox found that 8. S. Pierce A Co., wholesale grocers of 
Boston, paid $27.95 per horse per month for maintenance and 
shoNng, veterinary services and boarding in a public stable. 

For shoeing, the Street Cleaning Department's bill amounted 
to $33.43 per year per horse. He found that Pierce &. Co. paid a 
little less than 312.00 per year for veterinary services and 

In constructing the water purification works at Springfield, 
Mass., the teaming and horse work was done mainly by teams 
owned by the company or faired and kept by it. The greatest 
number of horses owned was 43 and the greatest number hired 
and kept was 10. Hired horses cost $1.00 per day per horse for 
rent. A stable 100 ft. long by 30 ft. wide was constructed, and 
the equipment consisted of 20 bottom dump wagons, 6 wheel 
scrapers, car&vans, express wagons, et«. The roads were in bad 
shape and had very heavy grades. All tlie horses were yonng 


and cost on an average S230 each, coat of shoeing and keeping 
these horsee, including all expensea, was ae foUowBi 

Cost of Teauinq Work — 72,474 H<»SE-Houiis 

Bnildinp. Par Hcne-hoar. 
Coat of miMrlBli used in bnUding lUble Kt.OOS 

ToW ««t of building! (0.0104 

DepiecistioD and Repairs : 

Cost of depreciation on hwua. including freieht fO.Ml 

Coit of depreciKtion on harnenei and rspain <m «me . .01 
Cknt of dfjirecistion on wagons and repair parts tor same .01 
Ceet of labor on wagon repairi 0O38 

Total co«t of depreciation and repair* i .MM 

Cost of Inenrance W.OOe 

Coit of rent paid tor birrd hones .0£ 

Cost of tcainstprs and barn men JUT 

Cost of labor sboeing M.WWB 

Cost of malerlsla shoeing .001 .OOGT 

Cost of fodder al M kinds .0S4S 

Oraad total cost of keeping horses per horse-hoar acta- 

aJlr nsed tO.Wn 

Cost of single tasnu per bour ,.,V>3I» 

Cost of doable leanu pet boor .(OG | 

The entire cost of the stable and a fair proportion of the cost 
of the blBckamith shop is charged against this one season's I 
work. Had the horses been kept for the two seasons, the figure 
would have been reduced one-half. , 

The depreciation on the horses represents the value of five 
horses lost and shrinkage in value of the remainder after one 
season's work. This figure would also probably show some ini' ' 
provement if extended tbrough two or more seaaons. 

The wagons received rather severe usage under the steajn 
shovel, and repair bills were correspond it) gly large. 

A 4-horBe team averaged 16^ miles per dky over floe macadam i 
rotids as follows i 

Case I. Case II. 

Loads per day 1» 7 

Lenrtb of lead, ft 3,IX» B.10O 

Lerel. ft a,«» S,«0 

B% Grade, ft 800 3,900 I 

Gross load, tons S.ffi 815 I 

Ton 0.05 0.S 

Net load, tons I.OQ 1.G0 | 

Tractive force on level, lb 2565 !»,B 

Trsetire force on 5% grade, lb W6,0 B78J) 

Dnty per da/, foot ponnda U,000,DaO n,aD«,aOI> 

Mr. H. P. Gillette has nuiint«ined teams at the following per I 
month per team: 


H Vtm ot h>;, a fl0.oe . 

30 Ba. of oats. @ 3S cenU . 

Straw tor bedding 

SluHitis snd meiloine 

Twenty-five horses workingi for a. period of 12 muilJis on road 
constmction in San Fraociaco, cost per horse per da; as follows: 

2S Lb. vbest bar § nS.BO per ton t0.31S 

12 Lb. ndled bailey ® U.IO per ton D.IKI 

1<AU>. oata m 2T.40perton O.IMO 

14 Lb. brwi S a.SOpOTWm O.flOS 

IK Lb. straw baddiDf # IS.BO per ton O.OOI 

WaEBB oE ilaUeman (JTIE for 12 mot.) snd basliDC forage 
(jail for la moa.) 0.113 

Tot»I, prtor to 1910 »51D 


Interesting data on the maintenanee of tMrBes b; manicipal 
departments are girea in s recently issued report by Uie Rochee- 
ter Bureau of Municipal Research, Inc., on the collection of 
refuse in the Cit; of Roeheet^, N. ¥. : 

Coat of KaintalntnK Hones at CalamhnB, 0. According to 
the report of Super intMidcnt E. W. Stribling, of the Division 
of Garbage and Refuse Collection, the cost of maintaining 142 
horses by the city irf Columbus, O., in 1816 was. 83.7 ct. per 
borse per day. Tliia included a coet of 41.S3 ct. for feed; 

13.53 ct. for veterinary services, shoeing and supplies; and 

25.54 ct. for stable labor. In 1616 the unit cost was 83 ct. 
pw horte per day, including 45.77 ct. for feed, 11.08 <^ for 
veterinary services, shoeing, and supplies and 2S.2S ct. for 
stable labor. The labor force nmsisted of IS men and a night 
watchman. The coat of feed wa» «bont ?14 per ton tor hay, 75 
ct per buahel for «om and 50 ct. per baihel for oata. StT*w coat 
about J7 per ton. In 1916 each horse consumed daily 30 lb. 
of hay, and 13 lb. of grsiin, 6.3 It>. of straw were used in bedding 
each horse. In 1915 tbeee quantitieB were 31 lb., 12.75 lb., and 6.3 
lb. respectively. 

Coat of Hofse Kalntenaiiee at ClueinnatL Similar costs for 
1916 in the city of Cincinnati, given in the report of Fred Maag, 
Superintendent of the Department of Street Cleaning, Sewer and 
Catch Basin Cleaning, indicate tJiat 34.9 ct. per horse per day was 
the cost of feeding and 39.4 per ct. was the cost of " other stable 
cEpenses," the totAl coet being 74.3 ct. per horse per day. Ap- 
proximately ISO horses and 80 miiles were maintained in 17 


Btables, practically one-half of thie number being boarded in one 
Btable. Each borse consumed 14.7 lb. of bay, lU lb. of oats and 
2.8 lb. of nutritja daily. Hay cost about, CIS per ton, oats 45 
ct. per bushel and nutriti^ $1.60 per hundredweight. (No allow- 
ance apparently was made for bedding straw.) 

Co*t of FeedlnK Horse at Waitalnffton. In Washington, D. C, 
according to the report of the Engineering Department for the 
fiscal year, lBld~16, the cost of feed amounted to 40.2 ct. pet 
horse per day. The daily allowance per home was 3.3 lb. of drj 
straw, T lb. of long timothy, 7 lb. of mixed clover hay, 12.8 lli, 
of oats and 1,7 lb. of bran. Straw cost at t^e rate of (16, long 
timothy at $20.80 and mixed clover hey at $20 per ton, oats at 
64 ct'. per bushel and bran at $1.27 per hundredweight. The cost 
df shoeing was stated to be 2.9 ct. per borne per day. 

Cost of Kaiutalnlns Hones by Hew Tortc Street Cleaning 
Department. In the annual report of the D^artment of Street 
Cleaning of New Yorlc, in 1016, Commiwioner J. T. FetheTBton 
states that the cost of " labor, materials, supplipg and consumable 
equipment used directly in the care of horses " amounted to 91.0ST 
per borse per day and that this cost represents prices of forage , 
and supplies considerably alwve normal. About 64<% of the total 
cost reprenents the cost of forage, 30% the direct labor cost and 
6% the cost of maintaining stable equipment. In the 2S stables 
maintained by the department, 2,400 faOTBea were cared for. One 
hostter and one stableman were empk^ed for each 13 horsee. In 
ISIT, the daily allotment for ea^ih horse was 23 lb. of oats, IS lb. 
of hay, 3^ lb. of bran and 3 lb. of BtTa,w. In addition to this 
each horse was given 1^ lb. of coarse salt and ZVt lb. of rock salt 
per month. When idle the horses were given half ration of oats. ' 
In leie, the daily ration was 21 lb. of oats, 16 lb. of hay and 
1^ lb. of bran. The other items were practically the same a« 
for 1917. This appears to be an unuxually heavy ration and the 
coat of feed altme was practically TO ct. per horse per day. 

Stable Costa at noohester. For Rochester it was possible to 
obtain from James M. Uarrison, formerly superintendent for the | 
Grenesee Reduction Co., data of the cost of maintaining horses 
employed in garbage collection from lIKtS to IRIO. On Jan. 1, 
1617, the Department of Public Works took over the operation of 
the garbege plant stables and the 1017 costs, therefore, are avail- I 
able also. 

In 1017 the 08 horses quartered at the garbage plimt stables 
eost about 63 ct. per home per day to maintain. The approxi- 
mate cost of feed amounted to 50,7 et.; the direct labor coat of 
stable operation, 0.4 ct ; and the estimated cost of bam supplies, 
shoeing and haruesH repaire, 7.0 et. per horse per day. No exact 


ration Bllotment was maiile, bnt aceoMing to the total qnantltiM 
purchaeed during the y«ar eftch hone c^oneumed about 11 lb. of 
oats and 22 lb. of hay per daj'. The approximate average coit 
of oats was 60 ct. per biuhel and the coat of haf was about $1B 
per ton. The stable forea conaieted of one barnman and three 
helpers, the barnman and one helper working- seven ' days and 
the other two helpers six days per week. The drivers cleaned 
and harnessed the horses and gave them tJieir noon feeding. 

The foregoing data and certain additional data as to the coat 
of maintaining horses hy the Genesee Seduction Co. before 1BI7, 
are shown in Tables I and II. ... 

From the foregoing and other data it appears that a boree 
used in collection work should be fed on the average abont 
20 lb. of hay and 14 lb. of oats per day, in addition to possibly 
2 lb. of other feed, consisting principally of bran, salt, etc. Also 
each horse should be bedded with approximately 6 lb. of dry 
straw daily. On this basis and with hay costing $1S per ton, 
oata 80 ct. per bushel, other feed $1.60 per hundredweight and 
straw $12 per ton, the total daily cost per horae of feed and 
bedding would, amount to the following: 

Zaib. of btj st HS p«r ton ».lg 

1* rb. of oaW at JB.Sfl per bu M 

% lb. of other lend at fl.50 per cwt OS 

5 lb. of Rtraw St fl£ per ton ■' ' .OS 

Total eslinialed coat of feed and beddint per horse per dsy.tO.ra 

In addition to this the cost of veterinary services, maintenance 
of stable equipment and supplies, shoeing, and harness repairs 
should not exceed 12 ct. per horse per day. If one hostler at 
$800 per year and one stableman at $750 per year were provided 
for every 20 horses, the direct labor cost of stable operation 
would amount to about 21 ct. per horse per day. This would 
include the cost of all work involved in feeding, bedding, cleaning 
and otherwise caring for horse«, and all labor about the etahlea 
such as cleaning stables, handling and moving equipment, cleaning 
equipment, etc. 

The total cost per horse per day, therefore, might be estimated 
at 92 ct, distributed as follows: 

Feed, and bedding fO.GS 

Direct labor' coat of ■labis openUon. .'.....'. Si 

Total maintenanfe coat per horae per flay |0.« 

The annual cost of maintaining horses at this figure would 
be $330.65 per horse, exclusive of the cost of overhedd super 


vUion ; fixed charges on first cost of horees, stable sites and stable 
buildings, depreciation of horses, and depreciation and mainte- 
nance of stable buildings. 

The annual (purchase) cost of the horses used in garbage 
collection in Rochester since 1912 haa been about $31 per horse, 
which includes replaoenunts aa veil as the purchase of three 
horses during the six years in addition to the number owned at 
the beginning of the period. (Se« Table 11.) 

t »'! ST 

B, 570.47 



Eatiniates as to the economic life of a horse used in eollectioo 
work vary from 4H to 8 ;'ear«. U is believed, however, that a 
good horse should give at least aix years of useful service in this 
kind of work. AsBuming a first cost of $275 and a salable value 
of $76 at the end of six years, the annual depreciation would be 
$33.33 per year per horse. 

Cost of Horse Maintenance at Boston, Kats. The average coat 
in 1918 of maintaining the horaea of the sewer and aanitary 
division of the Public Works Department of Boston, Masa., waa 
$1,6S per day per horse, according to the recently issued annual 
report of the department. An average of 171.6 horsea was kept 
The iteniiied coat was as follows: 


Knlei for Pack Anlmali. Material packed on animals should 
be divided into two equal portions and hIuhj; on eath side of the 
back. A fair load for a horse is 300 pounds, for a mule 200 to 300 
pounds, for a burro 100 to 150 poundu, for a South American 
llama 50 to T5 pounds. However, the proper load for a pac-k 
animal varies with the size of the animal and the condition and 
grade of the road to be traveled. 

Table for Estimating the Cost of Teaming. The accompany- 
ing table prepared by Mr. E. B, Iliatt, engineer of Madison County, 
Iowa, has been of service in estimating (he cost of team hauling 
on work for that county. The figures are based on a rate of 
travel of 2 miles per hour with loads and 3 miles per hour re- 
turning empty. Forty minutes is allowed for loading and un- 
loading 3,750 lb. with shovels. This weight was the average 
load, season of 1018. The vehicle considered wee a common farm 
wagon. A comperisiHi of the schedule with the flat rate of 1 ct. 
per bushel per mile for hauling wheAt in northern Iowa end 
southern Minnesota shows that at 11 miled the rates are practi- 
cally the same, while at 6 miles the county would pay $.138 man, 
and at 15 miles $.0S5 less. 

Schedule i 

Prices fob Hauling One Tor 

l.SU 2.(178 2.S1S 

'■^ "r 











S.395 2^13 




Rubber water hose, regular construction. 

, Price n 

<i InFb DUmeler. 

SPly ».» 


* Ply 21 

flPiy 3114 

DiuneUii ran from U inch to 8 inchee. 

Rubber 8t«am hose, Tpgnlar construftio: 

. Pn 

14 Inch Diameler. 

S Ply lO.M 

4 Ply .38 

SPly 49 

8Pte .69 

7 Ply m 

8 Pl» 79 

The following table shows the proper ply hose for pressures of 
from 30 to 100 pounds: 

; 30r mi^inr 1-5- 

'rK 1^; *-piy i«; 

Hi^tpiy Hi" s-iiij 

;6.plr IW^Sply 

-.- 8-pty 

114" 10-ply 

SeamlesB cott«n rubber lined bone. 

114" IM- 

■ -"1 10.35 ) 

Price V>M 1 

These prices do not include couplings. Unliaed linen hoM 
costs about half of the above. 

Coverings for rubber hose designed to protect it from excessive 

wear may be woven cotton, wire wound, marlin woven or marlln 

wound. The disadvantages of various covers are as follows: In 

wire wound hose the wire is liable to cut the hose when the 



latter is stretched, woven cotton and marlin absorb moisture and 
rot, marlin wound covering is liable to became loose as soon ae 
ore Btrand is cut. These coverings add about 15% to the price 
of plain hose- 
Metal tube hose consists of a metal armor with asbestos pack- 
ing and a rubber coating. It is adapted for use with steam, gas, 
oil, or any fluid whicb haa a tendency to qause rubber to de- 
teriorate rapidly, 

8tie. diamfter W %- 1" IVi' . IW 

Prlce per toot n.ZK (1.33 tl.GS K.IO 12.90 

A flexible metallic hose designed especially for hot water is a 
peculiarly prepared rubber cover with non.rustable metallic 

SlM, dUDietrr :(4" 8" Zli' 814" 

Priue. per toot W.98 (1.65 |1.J5 J1.95 

A llexibiG metallic hose designed to withstand the action of oil 
and air and fitted for rougli service is covered with braided wire. 

Siie. diimetar "4" H" %' 1" Hi" !»" 

..I0.!5 »JS ».« 10.62 t0.3T tl.lO 

Price, BiDgle ™wr ..10. 

An especially strMig flexible hose is armored inside and out, 
adapted for hard service with drills, etc. 

Siie. di«meWr %~ \' 1" !«' IW" Hi' ^ '^' »' 

Price, per foot t0.«3 tO.TT W.fiS tl.lO tlM tl.15 t2.10 t2.S0 »3.50 

Suction hose reinforced spirally with flat wire is made with 
smooth bore for use on large dredges and centrifugal pumps and 
rough bore for use on diaphragm and small steam pumps. 

Inlemal diameter %' 1' US' r 3" B- 

PricB per foot, ronih Tian...t0.31 10.60 tO.84 11.30 ;2.S0 M20 

rpugh"^bor8 " t5.30 tg,40 |U.!0 |11.30 

■moo^' l»re E.wi 3.M 18.50 16.00 122.00 ISB.M (12.00 



The nozzlee Gret used in hydraulic mining ranged from plain 
pipe or hoee to simple nozzles. The first improvement in dia- 
cliaree pipes wa,H a flexible horizontal iron joint formed by two 
elboWB, one working over the other, with a coupling joint be- 
tween them. These elbows were called " Qoose Necka." These 
joints were very defective, the water pressure causing them to 
move hard and " buck." The evolution of the hydraulic nozzle 
was from the " Goose Neck " to the " Globe Monitor "; then, euc- 
cesBively, the " Hydraulic Chief," " Dictator," and " Little Giant." 
The " Hydraulic Giant " is a modification of the Little Giant, and 
is ehowu in Fig. 200. 

Fig. 200. Hydraulic Mining Giant. 

Under high pressure the " deflector," which is fitted to the butt 
of the discharge and carries the nozzle, should be used. By 
means of the " deflector " the Giant can be turned with the 
greatest ease. In the table of sizes, weights, etc., of Giante, the 
column headed " Approximate Amounts of Gravel Washed in 24 
Hours " is based on the assumption tliat the water carries about 
2.89% of solid material. This percentage varies widely and 
depends upon a number of conditions, but mainly upon the nature 
of the soil, direction of washing, and slope of the sluices. Under 
extremely favorable conditions it is possible to carry as large a 
perceittage as 20 or 25, but in many cases the proportion of earth 
to water is a« 1 to 200 or more. 


^ -MwaBB^a : ^ S S 

fl,i s " '- ' 

— =>! « ^ £ s 

lll^ I'sslitislsssglsiS 

g^S^^J I ^ £ ± 

B| p«H a^llMjita 

(■ililJni) ' ' "" ~^ 

4V Bino(j mi* A « w s 

■HUB JO ■"■«! 

(■■oi) »wiil B t. 8. - 

»did JO -niBia a 

'raqmiiKiiig e m •• ■> 

■ r:„i- j-,Gl.K)tjl>J 

Flain Hjdraulic Jacka 

Uaxlmam Wdgbt 

liss in in. In lb. 

Broad Base Hydraulic Jacks 

30 19 . 24a 185 

40 22 MT 2IT 

In the above typM the plain jack i» used where a firm rest 
or footing can be obtained for the base luch an a cement floor, 
hard ground, wood, Htonc, etc. The broad base jack is uaed where 
a firm rest or footing cannot be obtained tor the base, or where 
the load is unsupported and etcadineas is required. It ie used 
largely under locomotivca, cars, et«. 

A aerew jack operated by a lever, of either the worm gear or 
bevel gear type coats as follows: (Lift 10 inches.) 

Oipadtr Wsitht 

Locomotive jack screws cost, f. a. h. Chicago, i 
Capuitr Height oTerall 

b. factory 



Lead coeie about 8 cents per lb. in ton lote. i 

Lead Wool is put up in elrands whi<^ abould be placed in the ' 
joint one at a time and eacb strand thoroughlj' calked before 

the next strand is added. It is extremely valuable where the | 
trench ie wet or where the pipe is under pressure, aa it can be 
used under water, whereas molten lead cannot. Calking is some- 
what difficult if ordinary methods are pursued, but by tie use of 
an outfit such as is described under " Air Compresaors " this 
difficulty is obviated. The' manufacturers claim a saving in 
amount necessary to calk a joint as compared with cast lead, 
as shown by the following: 

DIuD. of pipe, inches 3 4 6 B 10 12 16 20 24 3D ;» I 

Cast lead nquired, Foonds & 6 9 13 17 20 SO tO 65 «0 103 
Maiimutn b mount o[ lend 

wogl t«qaited, Poands ... 6 ID 12 14 20 28 40 60 86 

It costs, in lots of not less than 200 lb., including calking 
tools, U^ cents per lb., and in ton lots 10% cents per lb., f. o. b. , 
New York. (See Air ComprcssorB. ) 

Leadlte, a substitute for lead used in jointing cast iron water 
mains, comes in powder form, packed in sacks of 100 lb. and 
barrels of 350 lb. One ton of this material is equivalent to 
four tons of lead and requires no calking. Price for less than 
car load, 12 cents per lb., f. o. b. Philadelphia, 

Cost of Pnenmatlo Calking of Lead Joints. Engineering and 
Contracting, Dee. 17, 1913, gives the following; 

In work done in New York City in 1910 for the. Consolidated 
Gas Co,, on a 48-inch line about 750 joints were calked with I 
compressed air. These joints were air calked at a coat of about 
$5 30 per joint. The cost of hand calking would have been about 
$7.00 per joint, so there was a saving per joint of $2.00. On the 
36-in, line the cost of air calking was $2.15 per joint, including 
labor costs, coat of operating compressor, cost of yarninir and 
depreciation on the outfit. The cost per joint of calking by 
hand on this line would have been about $.'(.'7. This gave a 
saving per joint in favor of compressed air calking of tl.02 or 
about 32% — very close to the average percentage of saving on 

LEAD 463 

the 48-ii). work. On the 30-m. work a. pair of calkere, with a 
little practice, could air calk five joints per day as against two 
joints by hand. This gave a iaving of about 30^ in the acpeoBe 
for caltdng. 

Since the foregoing data were given oot by Mr. Oolin C. Sinipaon 
in 1010 the cost of pneumatic calking has been reduced materially. 
The decrease in cost has been due largely to the improremeatfl 
in the air hanuner for calkijig purposes whioh have reduced air 
consumption and increased the efficiency of the tools. 

It has been dffucaiBtrated repeatedly that lead wool joints 
calked by a pneumatie hammer are tighter. than hand-calked joints, 
and that the time and expense of making the joints is at times 
cut in half by the u«e ot air. Even better records have been made. 
Mr, Charles Dougherty gives the following data on a comparative 
test of pneumatic and hand-calked joints. 

A test was conducted in the presence of representatives of 
various gas and water companies, from the vicinity of BoetMi, in 
the yards of the M^den Gas Co.^at Maiden, Mass., to determine* 
the relative effieiency of a hand and pneumatically calked joint for 
hi^ preasure water service. About 15 miles ot suoh high pressure 
pipe is to be laid for the fire department of the city of Boefow. 
These mains will be under a continuous hydrostatic pressure of 
300 lb. 

A special hub and cap-with a special double groove high pres- 
sure joint was provided by the water department, for pneumatic 
calking, against time. The demonstrator first yarned the joint 
with about 1^ in, of hemp rope, the remabder of the space 
beine filled with lead wool and calked, strand by strand, in a 
t«tal time of two hours. This included the preparation of the 
yarn and lead wool for insertion in the joint. Tbe hammer 
used a calking Iran with a round shank. 

The record made is noteworthy as compared with calking a 
similar jmnt by hand. Fast records show that with two men it 
required an average of two days, of 8 hours each, to complete 
such a joint, making about 32 hours per man, by hand. 

After tbe calking bad been completed, the joint was submitted 
to a test, under the direct supervision of the water department, 
calibrations^ere made at different pregsuiee, so as to determine 
the expansion of tbe joint under varying conditions, up to a 
point when it showed a tendency to pull away. Up to a pressure 
of 600 lb. there was no leak apparent, although the joint had 
spread coasiderabtj, about .015 of an inch. The test for tight- 
ness shows up very much in favor of the pneumatically calked 
joint, as similar joints made with cast lead and calked by hand, 
would raise as much as 1% in. under a pressure of 600 lb. 


The .a.boTe mMitioned teat wa« made under i^ther adverse c<m- 
ditiona. In the first place, the hammer used had been in service 
a number of years. Id addition the calking irons provided were 
not of just the right size or shape for the special joint under 
teat; OS a result a grent deal of Ume was lost in the calking of 
the joint. 

The reeulta of this teet show that the pneuoMtic calking process ; 
is faster and at the some time gives a better jmnt than hand 
calking, using lead wool, and that it is also far superior to poured I 
lead joints whether hand or pneuma.tica)l7 calked. I 

Cast Lead Jotntc. — A test was made for the D^artment of i 
Water Supply, Gas and Electricity of N»w York City, of the 
efficiency of pneumatically calked cast lead joints with the i 
reeulta here described. The joints selected for teste were on a ' 
36-in. tine. One cap and one regular pipe j<Hnt were calked by i 
pneumatic tools and one cap by hand. I 

The time to calk the cap by the pneumatic tool, including the , 
cutting off of the slug or iip, which weighed 7 lb., required SO ' 
minutes, while the ordinary joint required only 22 minutes. 
The difference in time of eight minutes ie doubtless due to the i 
fact that the operators had to work between the four extension 
holts that were provided as a means for retaining the eaps. 
The joints calked by the pneumatic tool contained an average of | 
IBO lb. each of lead. The air preaaure used waa 70 lb. The 
standard H^S-in. yarn with 3Vi in. of lead was likewise used, i 
The cap calked by hand required 1 hour and 45 minutes to com- 
plete. Two men were used on each joint; that is, two hand men i 
and two men with the pneumatic hammer- 
After being completed and pronounced aa satisfactory looking 
joints, the water t«st was applied by means of filling up the pipe 
sections and capping all outlets. The pump was started until 
a pressure of 2l>0'lb. hod ahown when the huid-calked cap started 
to leak. The retaining bolts were then removed and the pump 
started again and the hand-calked cap let go mtirely when the i 
gage showed a pressure o! 140 lb. The city's representative fig- 
ured that the pressure exerted against each cap was 83 tons. ' 

The eaps were then removed entirely and a section cut fnm) 
the hand-calked cap and the machine-calked cap- Inspection of 
these sections showed that the machine-calked cap was much 
denser and had likewise been pressed agalnat the yam so firmly 
that it required quite an ^ort of the fingers to separate the 
yarn from the lead. The hand-calked aectfon did not show raeh ■ 



An engineer's dumpy level with an IS-inch teleBcope coate, 
'With split tripod, $115. The weight complete ie 13 lb. 

Ad engineer's Y level with an IS-inch telescope costi, vith split 
tripod, $140. The weight complete is 20V^ lb. 

Hand levels cost from $4,00 to $7.00. 

A patented reflecting hand level costs about $16.00. 

An architect's or builder's dumpy level, with an 11-Inch tele- 
scope, weighs 4 lb., and costs $40. An architect's or builder's 
T level, with an 11-inch telescope, weighs 6 lb., and costs $50. 
With CMnpasB, $65. 


Some construction work must be done at night, and much of 
it can be expedited if certain portions are done after the regular 
day shift has knocked oft. 

For instancy a macadam road must be flntshed in a limited 
time, the road to be surfaced is straight-away from the quarry, 
dock or siding where the stone is procured and the only econom- 
ical way of hauling the stone is along the finished road. It is 
almost impossible, or at least very difficult, to use more than 
one gang. In such a case it is obvious that if the stone is un' 
loaded, hauled and spread at night the work will be facilitated. 
There is no reason why this should not be done. Proper lights 
are necessary however. 

Many steam shovels, cranes and derricks are operated at night. 
Darkness <^ers no cjjstacle to the working of eahleways, belt 
conveyors and other conveying machinery if the loading and 
unloading places are properly illuminated. The means of light- 
ing work may be anything from candles to electric light. Kero- 
sene consumed fiva timet) and candles sevvn times aa miH^i 


oxygen as acetylene. Kerosene gives off nine and candles ten 
times the product of combustion given off by acetylene. The 
light of kerosene and candles is obscured by the smoke given ofT 
by them; whereaa, the light of acetylene and electricity is not 
thus interfered with. 

cohtbactoas' liqets and tokcees 

Contractors' lights are made in a number of different typea 
of which we iHustrate the most important. 

Kerosene Bnrnlng Lights are made by aeveral companies and 
the usual form consists of a cylindrical tank, with proper valves 
and feed pipes, and a support for the burner. They can be used 
for heating aa well aa lighting, and are very useful as paiat 
burners, for boiler repairs, and for melting lead joints in water 

Fig. 201. Kerosene Light. 

A kerosene light and heating burner similar to Uie o 

in Fig. 201 costs as follows: 

power per hour shipping wei^t in lb. f . < 

Another kerosene light is mode in three sixes, ae folloWB: 

3000 m SS 80 

4000 2 »■ M 

Carbide burning ILampi consist of an outer tank holding water, 
an inner tank holding carbides, and the pipe and burner. These 
lights are not usually affected bf wind or rain and burn water 
and calcium carbide in about ereu proportions. Pig. 202 givei 
an illustration of this type of light. A tight capable of burning 
six hours at an operating coet, manufacturers claim, of 6 cente 

Fig. 202. Carbide Light. 

per hour, is fitted with a single reflector. It weighs 63 lb. for 
shipment and costs $50. 

A similar light capable of burning 12 hours at 5 ct. per hr. 
weighs 80 lb. for shipment and costs $55. 

A light similar to the above but fitted with a double reflector 
and double burner capable of burning 12 hrs, at an operating 
cost of 10 ct. per hr., weighs 121 lb. for shipment and costs $75. 

A hand light of the same make burns 8 bra. at a cost of less 
than 1<^ centa per hr. It weighs 14 lb. for shipment and costs 

Derrick light, capable of burning 12 hours at an operating 


coat of 5 ct. per hr. provided with 21^ ft. of pneumatfc ho«e and 
reflector, weighs approximately 100 lb. for ihipniKit and costs 
$75 compJete. 

Carbide cakes for use in the above lights are to be had in 100 
lb. drums and cost $6.30 per drum. 

Cakes for the band light are furnished in 75 and 40 lb. dnimB at 
a cost of $6.60 and $3.85 reapectively. 

All above prices are f. o. b. Dunufacturer'a warehouse at point 
of shipment. 

Another make of carbide lights cost as follows: 

Candle Op«r&tiiig c«t Bumll 

... , . _.. «. - a. b. fn;t€>r7 

Fig. 203. Fig. 204. 

Another lamp is illustrated by Fig. 204. This type is adapted 
to attachment on a steam shovel, crane, etc. It is rated at 15,000 
candlepower and costs from 6 to 8 cents per hr. to operate. It 
weighs 140 lb, for shipment and costs $100 f. o. b. factory. 

f.ii.i.iii' ' 

Carbide in drums of 100 lb. for the above lights costs about $7 

Oasoline Llgbti. A gasoline burning lantern rated at 200 
candle power and stated to burn IS hours on one quart of gasoline 
weighs 31^ lb. net and coats $7.50. 

A hand Bearchligbt rated &t 5,000 candlepower, which throws a 
beam 50 ft. wide and 300 ft. long weighs 30 lb. and costs $63. 

A portable flood light rated at 12,000 candlepower, stated to 
eonetime a gallon of gasoline in sia hours, the rays covering an 
area of 250 by 400 ft., weighs 80 lb. for shipment and costs com- 
plete $120. 

Fig. 205. Gasoline-Electric Generating Set, 

Oil and Vapor Torches, familiarly known as banjo tort-lies, con- 
tiisting of a pan shaped tank for holding the kerosene or gasoline 
fviel, a gravity feed pipe, and a burner, for use in lighting small 
apacea are manufactured in many varieties, but are alike in the 
general method of operation. A novel use of these torches was 
for heating green concrete sewer pipe during cold weather. 

Price with single burner $2.10. Double burner $3.25. 

Electric Light Plant. An automatic plant consisting of a single 
cylinder 1 7 hp. 4 cycle gasoline engine, a generator, control 
1)oard and starting battery arranged ao that the unit can be started 
from a remote point, weighs approximately 600 lb. for shipment 
and costs $490 f. o. b. Michigan. This outfit is rated 7S0 watta 
at 110 volts and' the manufacturer claims it will operate on a 


load of 600 wB,tt8 for 6 hours otrntinuouBly on one g«Iton of 
gasoline. A load of 600 watts is obtained b; burning 30 twenty 
watt lamps. 

A gasoline-electric generating set illustrated hj Fig. 206 is to 
be bad in three sizes 5, 10 and IS Kw. The 5 Kw plant will 
operate 200 twenty oandtepower lampat It weighs approximately 
1,800 lb. for shipment and costs $3,000 f. o. b. factory. 

The 10 Kw plant will operate 400 twenty candlepower lamps, 
it weighs approximately 3,000 lb. and oosts $4,000 f. o. b. fac- 

The 15 Kw plant will operate 600 twenty candlepower lamps, 
weighs about 4,000 lb. for shipment and costs $5,000 f. o. b. 

During the war the army used a number of machines similai 
to the above mounted on auto trucks. These machines thus 
mounted were used where flexibility of electric power was needed. 
Tbe application of such rigs to couatmction work is practical 
where fcnditione will warrant it. 



These machines are commonly steam driven, but may be had ar- 
ranged for gasoline or electric drive. Steam cranes are usually 
equipped with double cylinder enginea. The several motions of 
rulation, transfer on the track, moving the load and boom, are 
ordinarily accomplished by use of friction clutchee; the engine 
then Ireing of the non-reversing type. The boiler is placed behind 
the rngine, thus serving to counterbalance the crane. The fuel 
and water tanks are also placed in the rear for the same purpose. 

The following are the usual spec iRcat ion s : 

Gangs of tTKlt 4 ft. »» In. or 8 ft 

Boiler presaurt lOO lb. to 12G lb. 

Cat-off 6/10 to 8/10 of stroke 

RevolutionB per min. (engine) 80 to 200 

Car wheels 24 lo. iii»m. 

Truk speed 300 lo SOO (t. per min. 

Truck pDHH'. lerel track i to 4 loaded cars 

SlowiuK apeed 4 rovdutiana per rain. 

Fig. 206. 8-Wheel Type Locomotive Craae. 


Owing to tbe limitations of the counterweight the crane will 
raisa its ^eateet load when working. at its shortest radius. 
These cranes are generally able to pull eeveral loaded cars on 
level track. The boiler should be large in order to demand only 
occasional attention from the operator. 

Locomotive cranes eimilar to the Mies shown in Figa. 20S and 
207 cost as follows : 

Steau Driven 

— 4 Wheel Type 



(. 0. b. ffctoiT 






( Wheel Type 




Fig. 207, 4-VVheel Type with Bucket, 

In the above the maximum capacities are at a radius of \2^ 
ft. and the minimum capacitiea at 40 ft. 

For prices of the above with oil burning boilers add S%. For 
electric drive add 4%. 

One type of locomotive crane is made in the following 


Sated Approximate Friw 

capaFily Sid. boom stiippiDE f. o. b. 

Ho. in Um> ^pe ten^h wt. in lb. t>Ftory 

6 3tM0 8 wtael « ft. 4 In. 136,000 |23,S0a 

4 1&-20 S wheel 35 It. 4 in. 87,50) I4.O0O 

2 10-12 4 wheel 31 n. 5 in. SO,0OO 10.B00 

1 3-5 4 wheel 20 tt. SO.OOO 7,600 

Of the above. No. 1 is to be had with gaeoline power wbich adds 
ftbout 15% to the cost. 

If electric power is to be used, the prices of the above are about 
6% higher. 

Fig. 208. Crane Hoisting Buckets of Concrete. 

Eleetro UBgrneta. St«am turbine generating seta, eomplate 
nith magnet, frtmi $4,000 for 10 KVV set with 55-inch magnet, such 
aa IB uxed on the larger cranes, to $2,500 for a 6 KW set with 
3fl-inch magnet, as used on the smaller cranes. 

A machine primarily designed aa a steam shove), but which 


can be equipped with the locomotive crane boom and arranged 
to operate a clam abell bucket, coats aa follows: 

SCandard type A, locomalive crane cap. » tons, 2« ft. boom tT.2M 

Standard type A, sboTel cap. ii cu. yd 7,200 

Standwd type B,' (hoTel ~cap! % cu.'yd. .'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. S,200 

Approsimate shipping weight of type A Is 24,000 lb. and of 
type B h 40,000 1I>. Prices f. o. b. Pennsylvania. 

A tractor crane similar to the one sbown in Fig. 209 has the 
following speciilcationH. It consists of a stiff leg derrick with 
a couDter weighted mast mounted on a steel car. It is operated 
by a steam-driven hoist and due to the counterweight no out- 
riggers are required, permitting the boom to be swung through 

Fig. 208. Tractor Crane. 

an arc ot about 300 degrees. The capacity is rated as follows: 
a hook load of 5,500 lb. ; a I yd. clam shell bucket with coal 
weighing 50 lb. per cu. ft.; a ?4 y<i. bucket with material 100 
lb. or lees per cu. ft.; and a % yd. bucket with wet sand or other 
material weighing 120 lb. or less per cu. ft. The maximum reach 
Is :iO ft. from center of mast. The hoisting speed is rated at 175 
ft. per minute for bucket work and 100 ft. per minute for hook 
work. The travel speed on a 4% grade is 75 ft. per min. The 
approximate shipping weight is 25,000 ib. and the price is 
S6,500 with tractor wheels and $7,500 with caterpillar wheels. 
A patented auto crsne has the following specifications. Ca- 
pacity as a derrick, 4,600 Ib. at a 20 ft. radius. Maximum dead 
load capacity, 5,000 lb. Length of car body 17 ft. 10 inches, 
width 6 ft. e in. Length of boom 30 ft., weight without bucket 


n tMks. Propelling speed ISO ft. per mln. on hud level ground. 
This outtit may be had witii either steam, gasoline or electric 
ifriTe and costs with wheel traction $6,000 not including bucket. 
With [Caterpillar traction the cost is more. For car unloading 
a % cu. yd. bucket is used and for excavating a. ^ yd. bucket. 
The bucket costs about STOD extra. The approximate ihipping 
weight of the outfit is 13 tons. This machine is illuetrat«d by 
Fig. 210. 

Fig. 210. Auto Crane. 

A gasoline driven crane has the following speci float ion b : multi- 
pedal traction, Btandard boom of 30 ft., capacities of from 4,500 
lb. at a 30 ft. radius to 13,000 lb. at a 10 ft. radius. The trac- 
tion speed is from ^ to 114 miles per hour. 

This outfit weighs about 33,000 lb. and costs $9,600 t. o. b. 

Locomotive Crane Equipped with an Attachment for File Driv- 
ing. A novel device for driving piles has been used on the 
Kickel Plate R. R. in its grade crossing elimination work in 
Cleveland. The contrscfor has fitted this crane with a simple 
and inexpensive attachment for driving the piles. The accom' 
panying cut shows the crane with this special attachment driving 
piles for an elevated switih. 

Two 25-ft. guides are hi;ng from the end of the crane boom, 
being held by a bolt, and they are free to swing back and forth. 
When driving, the guides are held rigid by a brace fastened to 
the completed portion of the trestle. The piling is securely held 
in the guides by several cross braces on the back side, and on the 


front Bide by an iron b*r placed cross the two books at the 
bottom of the guides. The hammer ie operated 'with a single 
hoiBtisg rope, and hook, controlled by the operator of the crane. 
The trigger for releasing the hammer at the top, ia a bolt, inserted 
Id one of the guides. The crane hoista the piling up into the 
guides for driving, nitb the same hoisting rope that operates 
the hammer. While this is being done, the hunmer is held aX 

Fig. 211. Crane and Pile Driver Attachments Operating on a 

the top of the guides with a holt, placed through the guides by 
one of the workmen. The guides are equipped with a ladder as 
shown in the cut so that the workman can reach the top. 

The railroad has ueed 40-ft. pilea and has driven them 20 ft. into 
the ground, which conaiats of practically all shale. The contrac- 
tor claims that he can drive four of these piles in leas than an 
hour. The guides are eaaily and quickly attached to or removed 
from the locomotive crane. 



The tractive force or drawbar pull of a locomotive ia its 
pulling Btreugtli in pounds measured by a dynamometer. The 
larger the cjlinda-s and the greater the ateam preemre, the 
grearter the tractive force; the larger the diameter of the driving 

wheela, the leis the tractive force. 

Let T reprswDt the trnotive forw. 

Let D represent the dimneter at the cylinders In inches, 

Liet L. represent the leajth o! atrake of the pialooa In inches. 

I<et O.SSp represent SG% of the boiler preeeure in poundB per aqoare inch. 

I^t d represent diameter of the driviAg wheelg In inchea. 

Example; To find the tractive force of a locomotive with 
cylinders 10 in. in diameter by 16 in. stroke, 150 lb. boiler 
pressure, and driving wheels 33 in. in diameter: 

Mr. H. P. Gillette says : " It is very commonly stated that 
20 lb. is the force required to pull a 2,000-lb. load aver light 
rails. This may be so over carefully laid, clean traclt, with ties 
cloae-spaced and with car wheels well lubricated; but over the 
ordinary, rough, contractor's track 20 lb. is much too low an 

" In the ' Coal and Metal Miners' Pocket Book ' is a table giving 
actual results of traction teats, including eeveral hundred sep- 
arate teste under varying conditions. Prom these tables I have 
summarized the foilowing; 


Pan to start mine cars (old atyle) loaded BDIb. 

Poll to «tart mine can (new alyje) 

PnU to keep np *H-mi!e per hour speed (old atyle fulil',.. 
Pull to heap up 4U-niiU per honr apeed (new style mipty) 
Poll to koep np 4H-aitle per hour a^eei (new style f ulfj . . 


" The foregoing was for trains of I to 4 cars, but with a train 
of 20 cars the pull was 46 lb. for old style cars and 26 lb. for 
new style cars per short ton on a leTet track. The mine cars 
need had a wheel base of 3% ft.; they weighed 2,140 to 2,415 lb. 
empty and 7,886 to 9,000 lb. loaded. The diameter of the wheels 
was 16 in., and of axles 2% in. for old style car to 2Vi in. 
f<y new style car, with a steel journal 6^ in. long, well lubri- 
cated in all cases, in fixed cast-iron boxes. The new style cars 
bad better lubrication, the importance of which is well shown hj 
the resulte of the teste. The track in the mine was level and 
in good condition. We know of no tests on car resistance of 
small cars tJiat are as extensive and trustworthy as the fore- 

Fig. 212. Saddle Tank Locomotive 4-Coupled. 

Based upon these data, and upon the assumption that the 
resistance to traction is 40 lb., per short ton, an 8-ton dinkey ia 
capable of hauling the following loads, including the weight of 

the cars: 

L*tb1 track TO 

1% grade W 

2% (Tads 31 

3% grade , SS 

4% grade a 

6% srads 17 

6% grade 14 

B% grade 10 

Mote: On s pwr track not even sa ireal loads aa the abom can be 

Due to the accidents that frequently occur from the breaking in 
two of trains on steep grades, and from the running away of 


engines, it is advisable to avoid using grodee of more thaa 6%. 

When heavily loaded, a dinkej travels S miles per hour on a 
straight track; but when lightly loaded, or on a down grade, 
it may run 9 miles an hour. 

Foiir-Coupled Tank Lopomotivea of one make are aa follows: 

E by 10 2' 11,700 175 t^aoa 

1 bj 12 y 17,200 3SS 5,500 

8 hj U S' 21,000 BIB 6,200 

10 br li 3' 35,700 S55 7,200 

11 br U 3' 3S,S00 lOOO £.700 

The hauling capacity on a i^% grade is about one-half of that 
on the level. Ou a 6% grade it is about 6% of the hauling capac- 
ity on the level. 

Six-Conpled Locomotive for contracting service la built in stan- 
dard gauge. The cylinders are 16 by 24 inches, boiler pressure 

Fig. 213. 6-Coupled LoctHnotive. 

180 lb., the weight on the driving wheels is S6,300 lb., weight 
with tender 15«,(MJ0 lb. The hauling capacity in tons, exclusive 
of the engine and tender, is 2,035 on the level. The hauling 
capacity on a %% grade is 960 tons; 1% grade, 590 tons; 2%, 
310 tons; 3%, 195 tons. This locomotive costs about ?21,2(>0 
f. o. b. works. 

LoctHUotives of another make cost as follows; 


Saddle or side tanks, fuel box in cab. 

C^lloden Gauge, in. Tract. elTart Weight Price 

10 by U 

11 1^ M 
13 b7 U 

with rear fuel buDk» 

I 11,000 66,000 t 9,500 

L 14,)0» 30,000 12,000 

1 21,400 98,000 16,000 

12 by 18 
14 by 30 

16 by 24 

The Hteam pressure for the above locomotives i» from 160 to 
ISO lb, per sq. in. 

Qear Drive locomotlTei egpeciftllj designed for conetructioa 
nork, are ae follows: 

Six Wheel 


Qauie in Tract, effort 
inclea iapoQada 




10 bjM 

Uli by H 

24 to 36 6)700 

FouB Wheel 




24 to 36 mIbOO 




The boiler pressure of the above is 160 lb. for the smalleT sizes 
and ITO lb. for the larger. The foregoing prices are all f. o. b. 
factor; in Iowa. 

Chwoline locomotlTe. A gaBoHne locomotive similar to that 
shown in Fig. 214 is built in two sizes. The 3 ton size has the 
following specifications; Gauge, from IS to 56^ inches; speed, 
up to 10 miles per hr.; draw bar pull, 1,200 lb. at S miles per 
hr.; aOO lb. at 10 miles per hr,; coat, f. o. b. Ohio, $2,200. 

The 6 ton size has the following specifications; Gauge from 
24 to 56H inches; speed, up to 10 miles per hr,; draw bar pull, 
2,400 lb. at 5 miles per hr.; 1,200 lb. at 10 miles per hr.; cost, 
$3,650 f. o. b. Ohio. 

Mr. Andrew Harper says that the life of a dink^ locomotive 
used on construction work is about 20 years. During that time it 
will need 2 or 3 sets of driving tires, and brasses. 

Upon Investigation of a very large number of locomotives upon 
the Great Northern, Northern Pacific. and other railroads made 
by Mr. Gillette tor a railway commission, the average life of a 
locomotive in railroad service is not far from 25 years, so that 
a fair average for depreciation may be i% if figured on the 
straight line formula. This does not represent the life of the 
diflerent parts of the engine however. 

On the Southern Pacific R. R. in six years there was an average 


of 49 locomotives out of 1,540 vacated per year or 3.2 per cent, 
which would eBtablieh the life of these locomotives at 31 years. 

From July, 1807, to June, 1908, the cost o£ repairing looomotivea 
for the Isthmian Canal Commission averaged about $S1.45 per 
month per engine valued at about $7,500, or at a rate of 13% 
per year. 

Mr, R. Price Williams contributed & paper on the maintenance 

Fig. 214. Gasoline Locomotive. 

and renewal of average railway freight locomotives for the 
Institute of Civil Engineers of Great Britain, from which have 
b«en abstracted the following data on the life of various parts of 
locomotives : 

Brui tubes, tUd fermiea. 
Crmnk aileB, mourda, ecc. 
Tina, preaanre Raugea, buffer planlu, apindtei, bros* 

Boiler, /onrnal boxen and 

capa, braaaea, braw Talvpj 

.nd ajphona, firebox ahel 

1 ends, tabs plate and back 

firebox, copper receas plal 

Mtchidide blocks, blaat pine. 

Mb pan fiutaide .rd 1. 

laido aprinia, apriiig liaka, 

airing pfna. eK. 


30 Plain ailM, whmla, ODtside crsaks, bilaDce wei(hU, 
■lide bar brockela. slide bars, dislsace blocks. ec«D- 

D Oak piuuc. 

"Tlie standard Vklue of &n engine" (on the parabolic 
tion) ^% net cost, and the normal dilapidation i^ net coat. 
The life of locomotive tubes ia a, very important part of this 

Mr. VV. Garstang is authority for the statement that on the 
Big Four the average life of charcoal iron tubes was 75,000 miles 
and on freight aervice 5S,0OO miles taken from engines with 
flhallow firehoses. When the firehoses are deep the tubes accom- 
pliflh 15% more mileage. The data were obtained from No. II 
tubes weighing 2% lb. per foot and it was the practice to con- 
tinue to piece the beet tubes until the weight was reduced 1.4 
lb. The average tube was pieced about 10 times before being 

Mr. B. Haakell, of the Pere' Marquette, believes that the life of 
locomotive tubea varies from 5 to 9 years, depending upon the 
quality of water used. The tubes worked an average of 15 
months in service before being removed. 

C. E. Queen's experience was to the effect that with alkali and 
incrusting solids in the water the tubea failed in as short 
a time as 3 months, while with no scale and good water the tubes 
will last as long an 15 years. 

Mr. D. Van Alatyne, of the Chicago Great Western, Bays that 
the average run on the road was 16 months, with average life of 
7 to S years, steel tubea being limited to months' service in one 
engine. Life of the deep firebox is longer than that of the 
shallow one 

Mr. Thos. raxton, of the A., T. & S. F., does not know of a 
single feature of locomotive maintenance subject to wider varia- 
tion than tuliee. On the Middle Western division of that road, 
in freight service, it was difficult to get 18,000 miles per tube, 
while on the west end of the Chicago divlBioD S0,000 miles was 

In the year 1907 the cost of maintenance of engines on several 
representative American railroads was as follows; 


These show an average of a little over $2,000 per locomotive 
per year, whicli is probably not far from 20% of the original 
cost of each engine. 

locomotive Eepalr Coiti, Panama. The cost lA repairs to loco- 
motives, 2S^ in service, at Panama for the year ending June 30, 
1010} was as follows per locomotive: 

Item Out 

Labor t R18 

Totol n.iS* 

The total cost of repairs during the 8 months ending June 30, 
1910, for 31,055 daye' service was an average of $0.94 per loco- 
motive per day. 

The following is a detailed statement of the coet of repairs 
to engine No. 7, Danavifle & Mt. Morris R, R., under the charge 
of the author. This engine bad been operating for over a. year 
with nothing but minor repairs and was no longer in fit condi- 
tion for regular operation. These repairs include a pretty gen- 
eral overhauling and are about what would be neceseary, aside 
from minor work that can be done by a roundhouse man, to keep 
it in fair condition for one year with a performance of about 
15,000 miles. This is on a small railroad in the central part of 
New York. The tractive power of this engine was 11,100, the 
total weight 43 tons, and the weight on the drivers 29 tons. 

■ ""si ^ t 

a sm-in. W. C. 6WiS!i, 4.496 n 

176 viz cop^r imulM %xm il^rss"ib''®"s3H' '. '. 
43 New stay boto, "Ha 1 7'. © .0° 

5 New itay bolls l«a' iron, 10 1b. 6 .OBMo 

13 New ^6^ twist drills (broken drillins slsy bolt bolea) 
2 New aheete ^s" Unk steel (tank botUrnO, SM lb. O 

1 N8w'9heet'?iB""isnii,'*B 'ib.'ij'zio'!!!!;!!!!!!;!!!"!;!! 

2 New sheet) 0. R. itcket steel No. 22 1 2S x 73". 56 lb. 

@ 2.80 

1 New O. I. drJTinr box ihoe und wedge. SO lb. O M^i- 

Babbitt metal tor crosebeads, m lb, & JH ..'. 

Wrought iron^ 72 lb. © .02% 

1" BM pipe, «\4 « 

1 Air boke complete with couplincs 

iW lank bose. 3 ft. @ .B8 

1 1" brsM plog eock 

lS!4ia' bolls with nuts and washers, ,08 

3E H-IW bolla with nuts and waaheri, .014 

a «-l" bolts with nuls sad washera, .Olli 

Z%»15- bolta with nuts and washera. .OT 

4gi[8- bolts with nuts md washers, .06 


6 H" wMfcers At 

Nsile iOd,, 1 ib. .OS, IM., dp 1 lb. ,03 .« 

RiYBH, Ki%. Bib d 

BiTMs, Hi%. M lb l.« 

EiTMs, Sil. : lb Ji 

Blvett, HilM. 2 lb II 

SIB" KqauTt buUrd fllei, O J8 ,« 

1 ler half round b&itud file J] 

eC«ndl«, O .02« II 

1 HMkgDW biftda li 

Coke, flO lb « 

ii Cord wood (bating Ure«) IJ) 

Wool waalB, 1! lb, « SHVi ,6 

T»r p»per. S8fL X 

Powdered emery, 1!4 lb 

4 Piecpi f)ni>''cd pioe 3x8x19 ft. ,.. 
« Pieees BnithPd pine 2 x g 1 19 ft. . . . 
3 Pii-cei finiclied nine I'lixiniS ft. . 

1 Plere Snished oah 2x9x13 ft 

1 Pioro flnubed oak 2 1 g 1 10 f t. . . . . 

A-phalium, 1« g 

Glow Mack. % ?. 

Drop black. S lb 

Cab giwn, W g. 

Tdrptnline, 1 K 

Linteed oil, K (. 

Wbite lend, 2 lb 

Red lead, lib 

Bonla jtct^t floiahi 1 E 

B'aok engine Bniah, l<i^g. . 

Credit tor scrap, u toUowa 
4 8t«el tin*. 2.490 Ib. Q 12 50 T 
Tobe and tube ends, ^ lb ^ rent lb 
92 Second-hand tube., rxlO-O" & 10!i 
Copper temiteK, E lb. 10<4 lb 
Star bolls, 38 lb. O H-cenl Ib 
Tank cteel, 8T4 lb OH cent Ib 
C. I. tboe and «>ed7e. 5S lb WA cent Ib 


This included the following items of repair: 

New 3>^-in. tirefl. 

Examine crank pina. 

Take up aide motion in driving bosee. 

Turn engine truck tires. 

~ driving bos brftsees, 


Examine front end, 
Xew Btuda tor front door ring. 
Cross bead gibs babbitted. 

Bemove fliies and copper both ends when replaced. 
Examine ata^ bolta and drill tell-tale holes. 
Examine boiler as per form No, 2, Public Service Com. i 

examine all cornera of mud ring for leaks. 
Examine flue sheet. 
Teet steam gauge and pops. 

Take out 9i-In. air pump dry pipe and replace with 1-in. 
Examine tender bottom, protubly renew. 
Stay sheets in tank gone, replaced. . 



Lathes cost from £200 for the small eizea to $2000 to the 
larger sizes depenilmg on the type. A 24-iiich swing 12 ft. bed 
engine lathe weighs about 5,600 lb. A second-hand machine of 
this type can be bought for about $500. 

An upright drill, 20-in. weighs 700 lb. and costs $200. 

Fig 215. 20-in. Upright Drill. 

A bolt cutter to thread bolts or tap nuts % in. to li^ in., 
right or left hand, weighs 1,200 lb. This machine can be bought 
second-hand for about $400. 

A single end punch or shear weighs about 4,600 lb. and will 
punch a 1 in. hole through ^ inch plate or will shear a 4 by ^ 


inch bar. A aecoDd-hand one will coat atx>ut $550 and a new aae 

GrindBtone, maehintet's : 30-in., heavy, mounted on an iron 
frame, with shield and water bucket, weighs about 1,500 lb. and 
costs new about $100, 

fartable Shops as Developed by the Engineer Department of 
the v. S. Aimy. 1. Earl; in 191T, the advisabititj of supplying 

Fig. 216. Bolt Cutter. 

Engineer troops in France with portable shops was considered 
by the Engineer Department. Designs were aoon drawn up and 
orders placed. 

2. The units decided upon form a train, consisting of a port- 
able machine shop, carpenter shop, blacksmith and tin shop, and 
a portable supply or material unit. Each consists of a special 
body, mounted upon a 5^-ton tmclc. The train can be operated 
as a whole, or each of the units can be operated independently. 
The shops were designed for the repair of the equipment of 
practically all classes of Engineer troops. This includes equip- 
ment for Roadmaking, Forestry, Quarry operational Pontoon and 
other Bridge aetiyities, Water Supply, General Construction and 
Railroad Construction. 


3. The moxt interesting unit of the four is the Machine Shop, 
the equipment ot which ib outlined below: 

A sti>el l«ly with solid wood floor, supported from proper 
sills, waa arranged to be easily mountahle, or demountable, at 
will, yet seture when under wevere running eonditiona. 

The floor spaced body closed is 8 ft. !) in. x 13 ft. While with 
the platform sides swung down to floor level, the floor space 
becomes 11 ft. 3 in, wide by 15 ft, 3 in. long. The head room h 
appro.vimately 7 ft. 

Suitable canvas covers provide shelter 
covered by the folding up of the platfor 

Within the shop the equipment is an 

Fig. 217. Engineer Field Machine Shop. 

ing room about each tool and bench, and, at the same time, all 
tools or equipment may be removed for temporary use outside. 

The principal tools are a 14. in. LeBlond lathe with 5 ft. bed, 
driven by a 2 hp. 110 volt motor, the lathe has the usual comple- 
ment of attarhments and controls. An 18-in. drill press — motor 
driven and capahle of drilling with a %-in. drill in steel; a 
2-wheel 10-in. x 1-in.— 2,000 R.P.M motor driven grinder; a 
work bench with vifie and 6 drawers — the top made of 1^-in. 
OHh being 2 ft, 3 in. x 5 ft. 6 in, long; an electric portable 
drill, good for 1-in. holes in nteel: 2 electric portable hammers, 
2 eomplefe ovyacetjlene weldins and cutting outfits; a reason- 
able complement of bench ajid hand tools, «bra*ivei, drills, sup- 
plies, jacks, measuring tools. These latter arranged for with 
proper fastenings in place. 

TTie shop is electric lighted, the wiring being carried in r^uU- 


tion conduit, and with suitable outlets for cutting in or out, 
to or from the engines, tools or other units outside ot the shop. 

A suitable comer crane with a 1,000 lb. Yale Triplex Hoiat 
Berres the purpose of lifting heavy articles onto or off of the 
floor and ground. The power plant ia an independent unit, direct 
connected, 4 cylinder, 1,000 R.P.M. Winton Gasoline Eigine, ■ 
and a 5 K. W, Generator complete with switchboard, tanks and 
cooling aystem, arranged for power and lighting circuits 

The cost of the complete outfit — truck, body, and coWipIements 
of tools at war prices was less than $8,500. The entire train 
complete cost $27,800. (The body and tools weigh around 11,- 
WO lb.) A number of the complete trains were used in France, 
others on this aide at the training camps and schools for En- 
gineer Troops, giving excellent satisfaction and receiving favor- 
able comment from those who used them extensively. 

The speed of this machine on ordinary roads is about 6' miles 
per hour and on good roads is about 10 miles per hour. The 
time to set up ready for work under ordinary conditions is gen- 
erally 10 minutes. It would lie more for accurate work. 

It ia believed that the outRt should have a place in the equip- 
ment of any contractor who handles projects of reasonable 
size. The investment is not large, and the service capable of 
being rendered on the spot, in quick order, would save much time 
of delivery of parts for repairs usually sent to a village shop. 
The body could be demounted at the site and the truck used 
for other work in the interval. Interest on the investment 
added to a. 12% depreciation amounts to about $1,200, which, 
for 300 working days, makes a cost of 84.00 per day added to 
Bupplies needed- On this l]a=is, it is not bari to fiirure the 
volume of yearly business which would wsrrant the maintenance 
of such an outfit. 

The author is indebted to Major Gen. Black, Corp. of En- 
gineers, U, S. A. for the above notes, and tor the photograph of the 

Shop Boatt fot Eeeplns Plant in Eepair. Maior H. Burgess, 
in Professional Memoirs for December, 1915, has written the 
following: A machiae shop l)oat and carpenter shop boat not 
only keep the plant in repair but also manufacture small repair 
parts. The machine-shop boat carries a small ice plant and a 
blacknmith sliop. The equipment at Kogers Island includiu 
two dipper drudges with 11^ yd, buckets, one lowtMjat and one 
small ateam tender, three derrick -boats equipped with 1-yd. 
orange-peel buckets, two full-sized drill rafts and tenders, one 
hfllf-si/ed drill raft and small tender, and a number of scows, 
barges, quarter -boats, launches and ^Iffs. 


The laj'out of the floating carpenter shop is shown by tii« 
lown Bketi-h. A Hhop building 106x24 ft. in plan 1>v II ft. higli 
waH coQstrueted on a detlied barge and equipped with a wood- 
worker, a lathe, a bandEiaw with adjustable table and a grind- 
stone, all driven bj a 10-hp. gaeoline engine. There is also an 
electric borer. At one end are two derricks tor handling heavy 
timbers, small launcbea and skifTs, one of which is rigged with a 
double and triple block, the other with a differential ehainblock. 
The derrieks place heavy pieces on roller cars, which can be 
moved readily about the shop. 

The floor space is auffieient for simultaneously working on 
two or three of the longest and largest boats used in the fleet, for 
building at one time several skilTs or for repairing a launch at 
the same time that skiffs are being built. When the demand for 
carpenter work is light, the floor space can be utilized for stor- 

The barge cost $4,375 to build and $2,000 to equip with cabin 
and machines. 

The hull of the machine-shop boat is exactly like that of the 
carpenter-shop boat. Its total cost equipped was about $11,- 
620, The steam for operating engines, pumps and generator set 
ia supplied by a GO-hp. boiler. 

Shop Cost ajtd Puechasb Pbice of Dbedoe Pabts 

Bhop Cost froni 

Dipper dredga parli cost dealer 

Dinpw (hafl, weieht BO ib. I 2.J5 t 5.00 

C boll, weight 125 lb fl.50 13,fiO 

Lslch kwper. weight «0 lb 4.75 9.R0 

Lilch bar, veieht 38 lb iM 6.H 

Botlom bind, wrwbt 200 lb S.50 13.K 

BbpIc hitcf, wrlEhl 108 lb 4,80 S.M 

Door plBte, weigbt 3« Ib 14.00 1S.9S 

The blacksmith shop occupies the full width of the cabin, i-f 37 
ft. long and contains two forges, two anvils, one power blower 
and the usual equipment of tools, quenching tanks, etc. The tioor 
is covered with a 2-in. carpet of mixed coal dust and cinders, 
which is kept damp for fire protection. There are three shifts of 
one man each. Comparatively heavy work can be done here; for 
example, a broken 6-in, wheel shaft of one of the tow-boats was 
successfully welded and the wheel again in service in 48 hr. An 
important duty of the smiths is to keep ready for use an extra 
fticket of each size and shape for installation on any dredge or 
derrick boat. 

Tn the ma chin e-shop, power is furnished by a I5-hp. Dayton 
center-crank vertical engine. The general layout of the shaft- 


ing is about what ia found in a, amall machine shop on land. 
The principal work of the mechanics is keeping ready for service 
the full number of drills needed for one half-eized itnd Four full- 
Bized rafts — that is, about 54 drills. The service of the drills, 
especially in the flint, ia aevere, and four or five are broken a 

The actual co«t of making certain dredge parts at the shop 




■«»« — _ _ 





Fig. 218. Layout of Two Federal Shop Boats — Machine and 

and the purchase price from dealers, according to the experience 
of the past two years, are tabulated altove. To the shop coat 
should be added about 10% to cover depreciation, overhead 
charges, and other elements of total cost. 

Coit of Electric Power for OperatlnK Haotatue Shop. The fol- 
lowing table ia taken from bulletin No. 38 of the Iowa State Col- 
lege Engineering Experiment Station. 






S-ioot borinj mm 




Concrete mixers are UBuallj' divided into three classes: (1) 
Batch mixerB, (2) Continuous mixors, and (3) Qiuvity mixerB. 
In batch mixers the ingredients of the concrete in a, proper amount 
or " batch " are placed in the machine, mixed, and discharged 
before another batch is placed in the mixer. In continuous mix- 
ing, the materials are allowed to enter the machine and the con- 
crete to discharge continuously. Qravity mixers consist of ea- 
pecjallj' constructed hoppers, troughs, or tubes so arranged that 
the ingredients flowing through them under the influence of 
gravity are mixed together into concrete. 

1. Batch mixers are commonly of two types: One, that in 
which the drum is tilted in order to discharge the mixture; the 
other, that -in which the drum is not tilted, but the ccmcrete on 
being raised f^ the mixer by the mixing paddles drops on the 
inner end of a discharge chute which conveys it to wheelbarrows 
or other placing devices. 

Th» following prices, etc., are those of a tilting mixer In which 
the drum, supported on horizontal axes, is tilted in order to dis- 
charge the concrete. The drum of this machine ia formed of 
two truncated cones with their large ends joined and the con- 
crete is mixed by means of steel plate deflectors: 

Description No. 1 No.! Ko.S 

Usted opuity p«i batch mixed concrete, en. n Vii 4% i 

Uixer od ikidi, band or belt power, wt. 425 lb t SS 

Uier on (bid*, tight end looae pulley, wt. SEE lb tl3S 

Ifixer on ■bida, tight and loose puUey, 1.1TG lb t 300 

Miner iiHKinl«d on band pMtable truclte, 47B lb SG 

Miior on extpnded irurks (or mitine. 960 lb ... MB 

Kiior on Iruek. with 2 hp. engio*, »75 lb MO 

Uixer on trucki, 3 hp. aniine, 1,550 lb 3% 

Uiier on trucks. 3 bp. enclae and hoist. 1,S75 lb. OS 

MiMr on trneki, 3 hp. enjine and loader, a,4S0 lb SS5 

Uiier, tmcki. S hp. engine, kMder. hoiet, ttok, 3,115 lb, . . . 790 
Uixer, trackB, 5 hp. engine, loader, water tsnk and 

power donp. weight 9.92S lb 1.(60 

Miier. trucki, S hp. engine, loader, boitt, water tank 

■Dd power dump. w»ght 4,S10 lb ... 1,!9G 

Plaola; Plaat, including mixer, designed for eliminating as 
much labor as poHiUe in the placing of c(mcret« in forms on 


such work Bs foundations, piers, abutmente, slabs, floors, roofu, 
arches, bridges, etc., consists of an inclined track ma^le up In 
five sections, each 10 ft. long, skip car, hopper at end on track to 
receive bat«h, self- supporting spouts reaching 25 ft. Additional 
spout and track may be had if desired. The mixer is complete 
with engine and drum for operating the hoist, power loader and 
tank. The outfit comes with two sizes of mixers; with mixer of 
8 cu. ft. mixed concrete per hatch, the complete weight is 7,880 
lb., price $1,835. With Iniser of 4^ eu. ft. capacity, weight 
5^85 lb., price $1,270. 

Fig. 219. Mixer Capacity 3 to 4 cu. ft. Unmixed Materials, or 
About 2Mt cu. ft. Mixed Concrete. 

In the installation of this equipment, the manufacturer sug- 
gests a, rise of not more than 4 ft. per section. With regular 
outfit of 5 sections the top of the last section w^itld be 20 ft. 
from the ground, 10 ft. of this is needed for the fall of the 
spouts which leaves 10 ft. for the height of the forma. If higher 
forms are used it is necessary to use more sections. Extra sec- 
tions of 10 ft. weigh 200 lb. and cost $55. 

A paver of the type given in the table above is made in one 
■ize. It has a capacity of 8 cu. ft. of mixed CMicrete per batch. 
It is equipped with open end bucket, water tank, power dis- 

charge, platform for operator, traction forward and r«verae, 
difTerential gears, knuckle joint steering, one-man control, apout, 
8 !hp. engine, cnnplete. The weight of this machine ia. 6,750 lb. 
and the price ia $3,105. 

Tlie prices of all the foregoing machines are f. o. b. factory in 
<0)iio. The general typ^ of the mixer is as follows. The drum 

Fig. 220. Mixer 8 cu. ft. per Batch, with Power Loader. 

has a single opening, of the tilting type, the manufacturers 
claiming the following points in euperiority to the non-tilting 
type: larger capacity for its si^e; requires less power to operate; 
produces a better mix in less time; a larger opening to load; 
discharges more rapidly and stays clean. The drum eonsista of a 
seQ)i-st«el bowl which forms the lower half of the drum, the steel 
cone forming the upper. 


. ft. per Batch Paver. 

MIXERS 4!>7 

The bowl has two flat pieces on opposite sides which help to 
bring material from the bottom forward, the cone part carryiDg it 

Mixers of the non-tilting type, of one make, are priced as fol- 

SiM of bilch in on. ft 5 7 10 IS 

CapBcity io eu. yd. p«r hour 7W B(4 15 2i 

Horae power S-4 S-5 5-6 8-II) 

Shipping weighc without powKr ou trucks .... 1.600 3,400 3.400 4,900 

I extra for power loader and tank . 

Fig. 223. Low Charging Mis^. 

Another make costs as follows: 
Onpacitf pec bsteh in cu, ft. loose materiiil. 

Horse power with power loader 

Stiiprieg weight without power on trucks . 
Sbippiag weight with steam eniian anil hoili 
'"■ir—tfin TF-nii-ht '-".h irtiwili 

Price wltioat power on trucke '..... t 3*5 (475 » 566 (1325 


Fries vith itesm ptuit »• I 

Price with gHoUne eogiae 47E «H> T95 19:S 

Priea wtr» (or power losdar 6» M TO W 

Price eitrs (or wster lank 35 M ») 15 

Price eilTB for plsttorm 25 t5 25 

Bakli mixers of another make, complete on trucks with gasoline 
engines without hopper, tanks, etc., are priced as follows: 

With st«am engine and boiler complete. 

so 18.000 «0D. 

In the above the weight and price for the BO yd. size are 
the outfit with Bt«am engine and do not include the boiler. 

For the above mixers there is a wide variety of additional 
attachments and space does not permit them to be listed in detail. 

Extra equipment for the 6 yd, machine: batch hopper $110, 
water tank $U0. 1(1 yd. size: batch hopper $75, water tank $85, 
power loader with tank $250. 26 yd. size: batch hopper $150, 
water tank $100, pivoted power loader and tank $625. 40 yd. 
size; batch iiopper $180, water tank $170, pivoted power loader 
and tank $750. 50 yd, Hize: batch hopper $250, water tank $200. 
80 yd, size: batdi hopper $oOO, water tank $350, 

A Concrete Mixer EeatisE Attachment consists of a tank con- 
taining oil under pressure that is forced through a burner in. 
serted throuRh the hollow trunnion of the mixer. The flame heats 
the revolving aggregate. 

This outfit is regularly made in two sizes. The smaller is for 
use on mixers up to % yd, aize. It consists of an oil tank with 
12 gal, capacity, Htted with a powerful hand pump and gauge. 
bu^ne^ complete, and one length of hose. It consumes 2 gal. of 
kerosene per hour, weiglis approximately 160 lb. for shipment and 
costa $1 10 f. o. b. factory. 

The larger size is adapted, for use on a mixer up to % yd. 
capacity. It consumes 2\^ to 3 gal. per hr., weighs approximately 
175 lb. for shipment, and costs $125 f. a. b. factory. 

KortBT Hlzer similar to the one shown in ITig. 225 is operated 
by a 4 hp, gasoline engine, rated at a capacity of material enough 
for 25 masons, weighs 1,500 lb. on trucks and costs $443 f. o. b. 
factory. j 


Qront Kixer and Placer. The machine illustrated in Fig, 22S 
is designed foi mixing and placing grout under preseure by means 
of compressed air. It is used to seal the fissures, rifts, etc., in 
tunnel work and to check the flow of water; to close and eliminate 
voids where absolutely water tight work is required; to repair 
washouts under dams, walls, foundations, etc.; to solidify bad 
rock foundations, back fills, etc. 

m^mm '■■■■■■,"" ■ ■■""■^ 

Fl^.'224 Concrete Mixer Heating Attachment. 

The size of batch is two sacks of ennent and 2 cu. ft. of sand 
and whatever water may be required. Under ordinary conditions 
and when working under a bead of 175 ft. or less, the batches 
placed per hour will average about forty. The air consumptioD 
per bateh is approximately 260 tt. of free air per min. at the 
required pressure. 


This machine cornea in three types; the etandard type operatce 
at a presBure up to 150 lb,; the high pregswe up t« 300 lb.; and 
the extra high preesure up to 600 lb. 

Thia machine is rented by the manufacturer at from $100 to 
J150 per month according to the type. 

Adapting a Concrete Hlzei to Road Work. The great derveiop- 
ment of the last few years in the use of concrete for roed build' 
ing has brought out many concrete mixers eepecially desigiicd I 
for road work — paving mixers or " pavers." With a little in- I 
genuity, however, almost any mixer may be made over into a 
traveling unit for road work. 

Fig. 225. Mortar Mixer. 

In order to adapt it to road uee and to facilitate quick moving, 
the expedient of mounting the mixer upon a truck was resorted 
to. The boiler of the machine was dismounted, this preserving 
the balance of the apparatus as mounted upon the truck and 
reducing the dead-load to be moved. The truck ran upon rail- 
way traeks built in 8-ft. sections, the 3-ft- rails being bolted to 
3-in. flat planks and moved as one unit. The units were bolted 
together with fishplates as the truck was moved from one aec- 
tion to another. Motive power was furnished by a tandem eteam 
roller, not only supplying the steam for the mixer engine but 
' also acting as a tractor in moving the plant. 

With the above arrangemMt on an average 300 tin. ft. of con- 
crete pavement per day were laid, IS ft. wide, with average depth 
of concrete of 6^ in. 

TrttTeling Bin for Cbai^ue Klxer. The following description 
of a bin appeared in the Engineering Neuia Reeord, Fob. 5, 1820, 


A mfxer charging machine, which comprises storage bine, a 
measuring cylinder and a track incline, all mounted on wheels, 
reduced the coat of handling materials to the mixer on two Wayne 
County, Michigan, concrete roada built in 1919. The structure 
is steel with the bins and measuring device at the forward end 
and the track inclihe arrangement shown by the accompanying 
viewl The capacity is 8 cu. yd. of stone, sand and cement 
Cars of stone and sand arriving at the top are discharged into 
the bins aad then returned to the surface tracks. Cars carrying 

Fig. 226. Grout Mixer and Placer. 

cement in bags are held at the lop while the bags are untied as 
needed and emptied through a hopper and chufc into the mixer 
charging hopper which, when lowered, extends under the qverhang- 
ing platform on top of the bins. 

Two 24-in. gage industrial tracks spaced 10 ft. apart on centers 
on the subgrade carry the apparatus. These tracks connect 1^ 
switches with the industrial track on the shoulder of the road. 
A stiff coupling connects the structure with the mi.ver so that 
when the mixer moves ahead it pushes the bins along. 

Contlntioiia Ulzers. A continuous mixer, of one make, illus- 
trated by Fig. 227 costs as follows: 


OipaeH; in Weight Price 

en. yd. per hi. tap. In lb. [, o.b. (vtory 

4 to & :K E.Om t4M 

K to S 34 2,300 4R6 

12 to IS 4U S.WO 645 

20 M 35 a t.TOO 880 

The above prices are for mixerB with battery ignititHi. Far 
High Tension Magneto add $35. All the above are mounted on 
steel wheels. 

A mixer similar to the above fitted with pullej for belt drive, 
rated at from 6 to 10 eu. yd. per hr., is mounted on skids and 
weighs 1,200 lb. The price is $in6. 

Fig. 22T. Continuous Mixer. 

A mortar mixer of the same make as the above, is rated to 
supply from 35 to 75 masons. Fitted with a 4^ hp. gasoline 
engine, it weighs 2,450 lb. and costs $430. With high tension 
magneto, $36 extra. This machine is mounted on trucks with 
titeel wheels- 
All the above mixers may alao be driven by electric motors. 
the 12 to 18 and 20 to 35 cu. yd. sizes may also be had with steam 
engines and boilers. 

Comparison of Rented and Owned Concete lllzeri. From £h- 
gmeermg Record, New York. The figures in the accompanying 
tables have been compiled from the records of the Aberthaw Con- 
struction Company, of Boston, who ran a ledger account for each 
mixer. The oldest mixer is nearly seven years old. The original 
cost, repairs, and other expendl.tures are charged against the 
machine and it is credited with so much per day for the elapsed 
time it is on a job. This rental credit is based as nearly as pos' 


sible on what it wonld coat to rent this ptuit instead of buTing it 

Int«re8t is figured at the rate of 6% per annum on the original 
purchase price and compounded annually Jan. 1. All the flguree 
are brought up to Jan. 1. 1!1|0, and the inventory value of the 
machines taken at this date. The yardage is a very close approxi- 
mation of the actual amount mixed. 

Comparison of the owned and rented plant cotite for each mixer 
shows that there is very little saving by owning the mixers when 
they are over 5 years of age, as in the cases of Noi. 2 and 3. In 
fact. No, 2 shows a small balance in favor of renting. On the 
other hand. No. Q, a comparatively new machine, working on 
large yardage, shows a lees economy than No. 3. Mixer 4, owned 
a little less than 4 years, rented 62.7% of the time and working on 
comparatively email yardage, auch as reinforced concrete build- 
ings, shows the largest economy from an owner's standpoint. 

I. — FiBBT Cost anb Repaibs for Fovk Mixbrb 

(Actually Owned) 

Mixer So. i i * 6 Total* 

D»t9 of pnrchMe SAS/Oa S/IO/M S/7/0S fl/B/Cr7 

Origiait cost } 626.01) f 975.00 ) 975.00 t 936.00 t3,6I0.«O 

Inlereet at «% tn Jen. 1. IMO 281.51 368.90 220.67 153.37 1,021.S6 

Repairs to Jan. 1. mO B41.S7 3G0.29 21«.43 437.01 1,946.60 

Total Cfwt U> Jan. 1, 1910 ... l.S48.3g 1,691.19 1,412.00 1,52S.38 6,479.95 

Inmntory vahie Jan. 1, 1010 125.00 3S5.00 400.00 500.00 1.360.00 

Net coat to Jan. 1, 1910 1,723.38 1,369.19 1,012.00 1.92S.8S G.129.95 

Tetal Tda. mixed 12.350 15,600 10.500 19,000 67,X.W 

Plant con per yd 10.1395 |0^S3 t0.09S4 tO.0640 fO.WM 

II. — Bestjj, Cbeihts fob Foub Misers 

Ifiier Ho. 2 3 4 S Tclala 

Daya owned to Jan. 1. 1910.. 2,32S 2,029 1.302 938 6,596 

Daya renti'd to Jan. 1. 1910.. 827 718 816 536 2.997 

Per cent of daya rented 28.1 2S.3 62.7 67 46.4 

BanUI rate per day 12.00 n^ t2.26 (2.25 

Total rental to Jan. 1 n,666.00 tl,61lt.26 11,836.36 11,304.50 16,311.00 

Total ydi. mlied 12,350 15.500 10,600 19.000 57,350 

Plant coat per yd 10.1340 10.1043 10^748 t0.0C34 tO.UOO 

Ill.-r CoMPAHTBON OP Owned and Rented Plants 

Wxer Ho. 2 3 4 6 Totals 

Plant coat per yd.. Table 1.. tO.1396 tD.0S33 tO.IWM t0.054D tO.0S94 

Plant eofil pi>r yd., Table 2.. 0.1340 0.1048 0.1T4S 0.0634 0.1100 

Per eant aanut by ownlns 

pUnt, baaed on rental coat. 4,1 15.26 44.8 14,7 18.72 

Ths cost of unloading and placing in condition for work aver- 
ages about $05 (a tT6 per mixer. 

Ontvttj Kizen. The moat common form of gravity mixers 
coneists <rf two or fotir small hoppers (depending upon the size 


of the mixer) set upon a frame support, which l&tt«T also Cftrrim 
a platform on which the men are etatiooed to load the inat«Tial3 
into the hoppers. Below these top helpers three large hoppers 
&re Bet, one below another. To operate the mixer after the top 
hoppers have been charged the gates oE these are opened, and 
material allowed to pasa into the hopper below, where it is 
caught and held until this hopper is full, upon which the gatee 
are opened and the material allowed to flow into the next 
lower hopper and bo on until the concrete ia received in the 
bottom hopper- ready to be taken to the forma. This is properly 
a batch mixer, but the charging is carried on while tite material 
is being mixed in the lower hoppers. 

Fig. 228. Plan of Screening, Crushing and Mixing Plant, 
Springfield Filters. 

Mr. Chas. B. Gow, in a very complete paper read before the 
Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 1910, givee the cost of concrete 
oruahing, mixing and placing plant. 

This plant is shown in Fig. 228. The engine used waa a 40 
hp. gaaoline engine, but a 25 hp. was all that the plant required. 
The crusher waa a 10 x 20 in, jaw crusher which was fed by 
hand with stone dumped by teams on the crueher platform - 
The gravel and sand were dumped on the platJorm and shoveled 
on to an inclined grating which allowed the sand to drop into a 
34.ft. buckei elevator, while the larger gravel was «hut«d to the 
crusher and thence to the elevator. The rotary sereea separated 


the aa.nd and atone into bins from which it dropped to s measur- 
ing hopper and thence to a skip car. This car was provided with 
the pruper amount of cement from a hopper, waa hoiated up 
the incline and its contents automatically dumped into a one- 
yard mixer which discharsed into a one-jard hoisting bucket on 
a flat car. These cars, whith had room for one emptj and one 
full bucket, were drawn by cable.s alonj; a track to the placing 
derricks, of which there were two, with T5-ft. guyed masts and 
80-ft. booms. 

This plant cost about 85,000 at the factory, $800 tor treipht 
and tra asportation and S3,»00 to install and maintain in working 
condition; total coat, therefore, $0,500. It was capaTile of mixing 
60 cu yd. per hour, but actually mixed lesa than 15. The total 
numljer of yardi) of conorete placed was 13,282, which was leaa 
than the amalleet amount ne<%ijBary to make the use of such a 
plant eeonumical. 

Coat per cubic yard for crushing, mixing and placing: 

Transporting to Work: ParOa.Td. 

Freight of pUnI to Weatfield t0.0139 

Cost of nolamliDg pIsDl from cars D.OItS 

Cost of Wsmlnc pUnl (o work OJHSl 

Total cost of Isndiug on job tO.OUg 

Final Reraoiai of Plant: 

Gobi of labor dnmantling and loading (0.0302 

■nd UaiDtaining Crveh«r and Concrete Flani; 

Cement SiorehooBP, BO Ft. by 25 ft.: 

Cost or materula uaed ¥0.0205 

Coet of labor buildioK DJ1I20 

Total coal qf cement house 0,0326 

Erecting, Moving and RemoTlae Derrii^ks and Hoistera: 

Coat of labor (0.1008 

Coet of miMelUoeoas mppllei O,0C33 

Coat of miscellanMuB teaminc O.OOU 

Total coat of dertitla 0.106! 

DepreciallDH on Plant; 

Coet of deprrclalioa on concrete plant RfOOS 

Cost of depreciation on emxIiR plant OJ3T0 

Total deprEciWion 0.1062 

Goal and Oil Dsed in UEiin[ and in Operating Dirricks: 

Cost of CDBl 10.1222 

Coat of oil OOUO 

Total cost 0,1J3I 

Qrand total cost of cruaher and coacrete plant 10.8893 


Lieutenant L. M. Adfwns, Corps of Engineera, U. 8. A., in 
" Profesaional Memoirs" for January-March, 1911, describes a 
mixing and handling plant mounted on a barge for use in work in 
locks, dams, etc. Thia plant is supplied with sand and gravel from 
barges alongside and the concrete ia removed from it by a derrick 
set up on the forma or on a boat adjacent. The general Beheme ia 
shown in Fig. 229. The coat waa as followe: 

Hull of Imrge (4,000.00 

Coal, sand {S) cu. fd.) snd imvel (40 ea. yd.) bins ... «ao.00 

Boikr baiiRe and ccmeDi ehed a.OOO barrele) 300,00 

Derrick (EG ft, boom) comiilete vith (SftxlO tandem 
drum) hoiFit, two dnpricale boilerg (ekob W hp.), 3 

strand 19-wite plow eteel rope 3,300.00 

114-yard clam sheU bncket eOO.OO 

Wier. complele I.30B.00 

Cement c«r (« bagel and hoiel «0.00 

Total »10,B0tl/» 

Labor cost of operation per 8-hour daj ahift 

Coal W turniih *0 hp. per abifl 

Capacity, twenty Hi cubic yard batches per 24 hours .. 

In an article by Mr. Wm. Q. Fargo, of Jacknon, Mich., in the 
proceedings of the Michigan Engineering Society, 1906, aeveral 
typea of concrete handling planta are described, Mr. Fargo con- 
siders that on work requiring the placing of 1,000 cubic yarda of 
concrete or over, it is usually cheapest to inatall a plant for 
handling the materials. The wheelbarrow, on large concrete 
works, should seldom be used. The tip car with roller bearings 
will enable one man to push, on a level track, from 5 to K times 
a wheelbarrow load of concrete. Wagons or cars for bringing 
materials to the mixer may be drawn by teams on grades of 2%, 
and by locomotivea on grades of 4% or 5%, Steeper grades will 
require cable haulage. On long retaining walls or dams the 
cableway is especially valuable. A cablswaj of 800- ft. apan, 
capable of handling a yard ot concrete, will cost complete with 
boiler, hoist and stationary towers 45 ft, high, from ?4,500 to 
$5,000, and for the movable towers about $1,000 more. 

Such a plant should be capable of handling SO cubic yards per 
hour. Where the area is wide more cableways are necessary, but 
if not too wide derricks may economically rehandle the loa^d. 
On work where the total width is a large fraction of the length 
and where other conditions are favorable the trestle and car 
plant may be much cheaper than the cableway. When the dis- 
tance from the miners to further boundary ia less than 500 ft. 
this is especially true. The following figures give the coat of 
a car plant having a capacity of ZOO yards p«r day with length 
of 500 ft. out from the mii:ers. 

r:„|. :iMG00tjl>J 



TreBtle — Double track, 24'm. gauge, 6 ft. between centers of 
tracks; 6in. x Sin. stringeTB, ZZ or 24 ft. long; 2-in.s:C-in. ties, 
2-ft. Q'ia. centers, 2-iu. s 12-iii' running boards betwe«) rails, 12-Ib. 

Trestle legs (30 ft. average length) of green poles at 6 coits 
per ft., will cost complete about $1.S0 per lineal ft. of double 
track, or for the 150 ft..- i 

At Jl-50. crectfd .■: »»;(» 

Five split fwit;:ta€9, with iprinE bridlei, (tt tl^.OO 90.00 I 

Two iron turntEblBB, at faP.OO 80,00 ■ 

Three ;^;d. btwl tip cara, with nillBr bearings 1M.0O 


This outfit, with repairs and renewals amounting to 10%,. 
should be good for live seasons' work. If labor costs $I.TS per 
day the cost of handling 200 cu. jd. of concrete would be 4% 
cents per yard. This, according to Mr. Fargo, would be a saring 
of aliout 5% cents per eu. jd. 

Pneumatic HizinK, Conveying and Placing of Concrete. A 
patented outfit for the pneumatic mixing and placing of concrete 
consists of a series of hoppers suspended above a machine for 
the pneumatic placing of the concrete. This process ini\~eB the 
concrete and delivers it to all parts of the work in the same 
uniform mix, either wet or dry, as whrai it first left the machine. 
The delivery pipe is either three, four, five or six inch wrought 
iron pipe depending on the output required. The pipe may termi- 
nate in a rubber hoi^e of the same diameter as the pipe. 

The mixer consists of two conical hoppers connected ti^ether 
by chains so that they hang one below the other. The ingredients 
are put in the top hopper as follows: the broken etont leveling the 
top surface, then the cenient leveling the stone, and then the sand. 
The proper amount of water, determined by experiment, is then 
sprayed over the top. The door of the hopper is then opened by 
hand and the coptenfa are allowed to flow into the hopper below, 
where they are caught and held. The hopper door of the second 
hopper is then opened and the mixed concrete flows into the 
conveyor below. The operation is then repeated. The lower 
section of the conveyor ia of the same general outline as the hop- 
pers. The top of the chamber is closed by a flap door operated 
by an air cylinder. At the bottom of the conical chamber is a 
SO deg. elbow to which is attached the discbarge pipe and air 

The compressed air plant should supply air at a pressure of 
from 80 to 100 lb. The following table gives the capacities in cu. j 
yd. per hour at the indicated distances. i 

Rated eapMiiy in cu. yd- per bonr. 

ng. 230. 

An adaptation of this machine ia Bbown in Fig, 230. This rig 
is used where it ia necesuary to move the outfit. Special riga are 
used for each particular job. This machine complete without 
compressor, for four ur six inch discharge coBts about $2,S00. 



(See Treilerg) 

The veJu« of an automobile truck for handling nutterials and 
supplits depends on a good tntuij factors that are ott«n not famil- 
iar to a contractor, especialiv when he haa no data except those 
furnished hitn (/or nothing) by the willing salesman. The motov 
truck has certain marked characteristics that place it in a distinct 
class by itself. When comparing it with two-horse wagons these 
pecuiiftiities must be considered to avoid an erroneous conclusion. 
The common unit of passible comparison is the tMi of " live 
load " transported. The cost of loading and unloading may be 
assumed to be the same with motors as with horses. The easential 
factors are, therefore, as follows: 

W rz net live load in Ions. STerage. 

p. wALtint to load and unload. 
D = deprecimlion, 

m ^Dumber of nilout«g in the working day. 
n = numbw of ronnd tripa per working day at a 
Then we have the lollowing farmalie: 
(1> — = time in mlnulw tor a loaded trip. 

(21 L +■ — = actual non-productive 1 
(3) L-H — -HD/S- total aTeragfl tii 


—total nnmber of round trips per dw'. ThtB in the 

D / 1\ mnjority of cHsex muBt be eith-r an integral number 

I.H — (1+--) or sn iDleeral vha W, since the trnek must usually 
B\ K/ lie up for the nlifal at one end of ths trip. 

— Average load tranayorted per daj, in tons. 


insportation per I 

- welgkt al load divided by weifbt a 

M + W 

There are eight factors composing the quantity R, and these 
seven formulas give us all the csiiential relations for detrTmining 
the economic policy to be pursued for any given conditions 
from vhit^li the values of the eight factors can be determined. 

Several of these may he taken as standard, while two, namely, 
the practicable net load and the distance of haul, will vary with 
the nature of the work and the hourly conditions on the work. 

To make proper comparinnns between an automobile truck and 
other means of transportation, the cost curves for each method 
should be plotted and the costs thus readily be estitnated. 

Motor trucks vary in price from aliout $1,000 for a half-toD 
delivery wagon to about $6,500 for a 7^i-ton truck. 

The prices of several makes of trucks are given as follows: 

Oapaclty I. o. b Clevelend 

*i Ion chassis, weight 2,960 lb |2,*)l) 

\ ton conii,[ete, witU eiprees body 2,S75 

2 ton chassis, weight 419) lb 3,301) 

2 ton comiilplf, with eipreea bndy ...3,600 

2 ton complete, with pisiform laiily 3,560 

1 ton power dump truck, witU l>odj 3,900 

SH Ion rhaisis. weight 7,750 lb. (.WO 

314 ton complBlo, wLlh plalform body 4 576 

m ton power dum|. Irurlc. with body, weight 10,225 lb, 4.9no 

B ton rhassie, WPight 7.tl2S lb. B.IW 

5 ton fomplelB, wllh platform body 5,275 

S ton power dump truck, with body, weight 10,470 lb. .. 6,6110 

Another make is as follows: (Prices for chassis.) 


Truck o[ unolher tnakc coste as follows: 

Another make costo as fallown, f. o 

2 Inn .-hHisis G,10O 4m 

Z ton bodr 1,500 EGO 

The prines for the bodies include the hoist and power take-ofl 
arraiigeniente necessary to operate them. 

Prices as given are usually for the chassis alone and do not 
Inpludp the liody, which latter may be had in a variety of forms 
at little abore actual cost. Some typpa of body are very in- 
genioiiKly dpsigned and the remoi-able body is of especial interest. 
This is made separate and of a eiie to «uit the work it has to 
perform, and ie mounted on rollent and can be removed from the 
chassis and rolled onto a hand truck or other support and while 
it is being loaded or unloaded the chassis is performing ite work 
with another body of the name type. This is very valuable on 
short hauls, or where material vhicb is difficult to handle is being 
carried, where the loading charge would be a, large part of the 

A make of standard straght side dump bodies built for any 
motor truck, trailer, semi-trailer, wagon or railroad car gear 
which dumps automatically by gravity and discharges the load 
clear ot the wheels, costs f. o. b. Chicago, as follows: 

Oapacit; Weight 

IS Steel eoren 



SeotlonRl Side Dnmp Bodlet, the hoppers of which operate 
tndependetitly of one another, allowing mixed loadt to be oiTrhid 
and dumped at eeparate points, are as {ollowai (The CBpaoitieg 
shown &re total capauitiea and prices are for complete outfits.) 

Prico WelfM ' 

Jotal op. "-- "^ — ■"— - '" — ■"- 

Jvui cap. 

Fig. 231. SCajidikra biue Ounip tSodf. 


Tbree-Way Dnmp Body which iriU dump to either iide hj 
gfavity and also eodwise bj meftiis of a, hoiat, Nthei band Oi 
hydraulic, ie as followH: 

Fig. 233. Standard Automatic End Dump Body. 

Automatic End Dump Bodies, the dumping being controlled bv 

a worm and gear operating mechanJBm, allowing the load to be 
dumped fa«t or slowly as required, cost as follows : 


A truck bod; tbat elevates to a " tailgate height " of from 
7 ft. 3 in., to S ft. in., and then dumps, is operated by a,n S inch 
hydratilic hoist. The following data apply: 

The maxitnum height that the tallgajto may be raised above the 
ground depends on the wheelhase of the trucic on which it n 
mounted. For most trucks of laVj ft. wheelbase this distance 
is 7^ ft. and with a 15 ft. wheelbaac, 9^ ft. These elevations 
of the tailgate give the body suHlcient slope to cause hard coal or 
any other similar material to slide to the rear and out through 
a chute. A slope of 50% which gives a tailgate height of 
about 5^4 ft. ia suitable for a clean dump of any adhesive 

Holat for Dump Bodlea. A hoist that wili raise a load of from 
1 to S tone to an angle of from 35 to jiO degrees, and is operated 

Fig. 234. Hydraulic Hoist Body. 

by one man, furnished complete for mounting on any truck 
chasaiH costs $126 f. o. b. Kansas City, Mo. This hoist can also 
be used with a commercial wood body by using rear dump bed' 
hinges with a cross rod at an additional price <it $1170. The 
approximate shipping weight of the hoist is 400 lb. 

All Hetal Dump Bedf, co«t as foltowB, f. o. b. Kansas City, 

[:„l- j-,C(K)t(l>J 


ii Ut » 

42 to M 

GSto 81 
82 la 96 
96 10 108 
IW to 135 

BhippiBff iruifht in lb. 


1175 *55 

Dry und Sbulifn K 1.1 1.8 2U 2.« 2 3K 4U 

J Rock S .9 Hi iS -" °" - 

Discounts to apply to the above for atraJght tiAaa 35 — 10%, 
flare sides 30 — 10%.' 

Vabdaqe of Diffebettt Matebials to Load Tbucks 

OommodiEy to be Caoacitr of Truck (Toiib) 

hsndled 1 114 2H J Sli 4 5 « TW 

A«h« of Sort Coil .... IK »i 4M &U « 1 »K lOM 13 

Hard ..™™!'...."!'.. .« *i m IK a 21i 8 SH 4« 

Ponland OemeiU K 1.1 !£ 2U S.a 8 8K M B» 

Cinder* 1% 2(4 4W 6% 6 7 S5i 1014 13 

Clay, irr, in Lumiw .. li 1% 3 3U 4 4% B 7 8^ 

Cod. Anthriclle Hi 2 2^4 314 41A B flW Tit W 

Coal. Biluminout lU 2!4 3% 4H Eli 6 714 S^ 11 

roTii-rrte WM \4 H Hi Itt Hi a 2(4 3 3* 

Earth, Hoiit. Packed.. K 1.1 1.8 21i SA 3 3\ 4(4 S(4 

Gravel 8 .9 Hi 1.8 2.2 214 3 114 4?! 

Mn-onry r ' * - ,., . «. 

Sand. Dry . 

CruBhfd Rork . 

Gnutaed Granite Si .8 1.3 l.S 1.8 2 2.6 3.2 4-]i 

Mr. Charles L. Gow, in a paper read before the Boston Society 
of Civil Engineers, cites an instance where the S^^-mile road 
from the railroad to the work was in such bad condition and 
of such steep grades that 2-horse and aometimes 4-horse waji^DS 
were unable to make more than two trips per day, carrying 3,000 
pounds. A steam traction enj;ine failed of greater aucceea on 
account of the bad roade and hecauFie the steep grades going up 
hill caneed the steam dome to be Hooded and going down caused 
the crown sheet to be uncovered. A gasoline traction engine 
failed besauee of the presence of sandy patches in the road which 
destroyed the tractive force of the wheels. A 2-ton 38. S horae' 
power automobile truck was introduced with great success, 
making six trips per day over a longer but better road. However, 
the use of the truck on the steep, icy roads became too dangeroue 
and was stopped diiring the winter. Mr. Gow aaya: 
highly probable that had two of tbeee trucks been purchased at 
the beginning of the work great. saving would have been effected 
in the oost of handling materials." 

Forbes &, Wallace put a gasoline machine in service Hay 1, 
1000, to. deliver bundles from their d^artmevt SIM'S. Hie resalt 
of eight months' use is as follows; 

. . , Mf!TDRi TEUCK8 . , ■ 517 

Tatal nnmb«r of bandits delitered '--"v r- ^^^i 

EKpanae ladndlns atorace. ml.' ptiiti ind labor ...!...( 3SS.IKI 

Tirw and Tflpeite ....... 1!17«* 

GaiMliue IM-OO 

Regii'ti-atiDn .--- lOlW 

Total .,...'. '.'. |l,"2Ta.OO 

Depreciation, 33^% per annum. Cost of delivering bundles bj 
automobik. 6^c, by hprse, 9^^. ... 

Four Overland delivery cars were UBed,>y the United States 
Mail Service at "Indianapolis, for .eighteen montha. Each <^ar 
replaced three horee-iiriveii wagons apd covered sisty to aev^ty- 
Sve tiiileB a day. ',■..;. 

Duriiur the winter of IBIO in New, York City a motor truck 
carried ten cubic yards of snow ,^8 compared with five eiibii; 
yards can-ied ^y an ordinary contractor's wagon, T1)b ?etu);ij 
trip from the unloadini; point to the, dock took the motor truij^c 
OD an average forty miuutea, while the best record trip with 
a two-honw truck was one hour and. twenty minutes. At. the 
rate of 36 cents per cubic yard, iM motor truck earned $7.90, 
while the best of its horse-drawn c^mpetitiors earned $1 nv. A 
New York contractor hauls heavy sbinie to the crusher and broken 
stone away from it. A 3-ton motor truck in one and a half days 
does the work that five teams took two days to accomplish. 

In New York City a 5-ton truck delivered 963 tons of coal in 
twenty-six working days with no delay from breakdowns; it aver- 
aged twenty -eiglit ipjlea,,pfr ,48y imi tl»irty-sevffn.jtqn»,jpiM. .day. 
A 10-ton truck delivei^ eighty-four tons a ,day siod covered' twA 
and a half miles, on eac^ gallon, 5>f gii^line.. 

An industrial concern on Stfiten .Islfind used ffne 3-tan gospline 
truck, one 3-horge truck:an4 pop. Srh^rae. truck, oyer « niund trip 
of twenty miles. .The horse-drawQ triKks. made one tcipieach and 
the motor truck two trips per day. 7he 3-horse tnick. Iwuled 
41^ tons at a cost of $10.03, the 2-hor8e trunk hauW. tbree-tona 
at a cost of ST.3I. The. motor truck hauled aii .tons at aiooat 
of $13.40 

The Chicago Public Library has been using six 1 -ton gasoline 
wagons to deliver books to their branches. . Xhey,w«re, installed 
in November, 1904, and tlye; following statement ,wa<|,»stimatad 
to April, 1009. . .,;-,. 







Average, miles per day, 33; average coat per ton mile, 1 

This service formerly co^t 20c per ton mile with liorge drawn 

The Maoz Engraving Company replaced four double teams with 
one 3-tQn truck which made two trips daily on a round trip oE 
more than fourteen miles. Five gallons of gasoline were ui 
per day. 

In the Boston American Economy and Reliability contest, held 
in October, 1910, for motor trucliB, the cost of gasoline and cylin 
der oil per ton mile ranged from *0 0068 to «0.n8<)2 and for the ' 
twenty-eight cars the average was $0026, with gasoline casting 
16 cents and oil costing 60 cents per gallon. 

Standard speeds for motor trucks were formally adopted at a 
convention of the National Association of Automobile Manufac- 
turers held in 1612. Those speeds, as reported in the Povjer 
Wagon of Chicago are as follows: 

Losd Ifilea Load lOet 

Typ«» Of Truoks. There are several types of motor dump trucks 
for use by contractors and others who handle material in bulk. 
These trucks are so made that the body, together with its load of 
from three to ten tons, can be raised at the front end and the 
load slid out or else raised vertically to a sufficient height to 
permit chutes to be used. One of these trucks has a body that is 
raised at the front end by a pair of chains moved by a train of 
gears driven from the transmission set of the truck. Another is 
similarly operated, except that the chains are wound up on the 
drums, which are worm driven from the primary shaft just 
back of the clutch. 

There is also a dump tmek that is operated by compressed 
air. A vatve on the dash is opened to admit compressed air to 
a long vertical steel cylinder behind the seat. This raisea a 
plunger whose rod is connected to the top of the front end of 
the body, thus hoisting the body with the load. Releasing the 
air from the cylinder allows the bod; to settle back to normal 
position. The compressor is operated by the vehicle engine. 
A new and valuable feature o£ some of the dump trucks are the 
automatic tail boards with which they are equipped. These are 


hung on trunnions at the top and «o connected to a afBt«m of 
toggle arme at tbe lower rorners that they open automatically 
as the front end of the bodf is elevated, thus enabling the 
driver to dump tbe load without leaving hia seat. Upon lower- 
ing the body the tail board iHosea and Ib locked into positicai. 
CoBti of KotAi Track Operfttion. The following table ie from 
Engineering and Contrwitinff, Jan. 17, 1917. 

Operating Costs: 

Tone oapBcity Tolst coet Total cmt p«r annum ton mile 


The above table has been computed on tlie baeU of: 

Interest on half total investment of 6%. 

Fire insurance at Z% on 80% of total inveetment. 

Fixed d^reciation exclusive of tires at 10%. 

300 working days per year. 

30 miles per day. 

9,000 miles per jear. 

100,000 miles life of truck. : 

25 ct. per gal. cost of gasoline. 

60 ct. per gal. cost of lubricating oil. 

$20 per month wages. 

$20 per month garage charges. 

The following notes appeared in Engineering aitd Contractittg, 
Oct. 13, 1915. 

Firet Cost. — "Hie first cost varies with the kind of body, the 
general finish, the appurtenances and other items. A very general 
figure for the cost of different trucks is given in Tabic I. 

Table I. — Fibst Cost of Moiob Tbccks for Refcse Collbgiioh 

Bated esptcit;, Ont of tmek. 

tons, oompUM. 

1 (2,600 

3 S,4C« 

S *,»» 

4 4,800 

e 6.400 

« e.000 

^ e.6W 



Operating Ooatt. — The rost of operatii^g VHTieB (considerably 
from one locality to another. Rome gettcral data are available. 
Table 11 givee the manufacturers' eitimate of the d&il; coat of 
operation, based on a trarel of '40 mtlee per day. 

Table IIi— Cost ow (^er»ti;40> QAeouifK Teikss: Fm DaT'of 
40 Miles Travel 

Rated capwity, I 

tons. Cod per day. 

1 17.40 

2 7,80 

5 SM 

6 '.['.'.^il[[','.ll[l'.''^^'.[ll'.[\\['.'.'^['.ll'.]^'.'.i'.ll"['. 11,00 
e ,. U75 

7 1S.W 

These figures, of couree, are only approximate. They iDclude 
all charges, both fixed and operalinK. 

The Electrical World has compiled operating costs for electric 
motor trucks in commercial eervice from .10 plants taken from all 
parts of the United States. The coats include interest, deprecia- 
tion, insurance, licensee, upkeep of tiree, Itatteriei, meehanical 
parts, power, supplies, garage charges, drivers' wages, and^ super- 
vision. The dai^ mileage is not recofded but the total -co&t per 
day is as follows for the various sizes Of trucks;' '' 


These are quite representative figures, and are only slightly 

higher than the manufacturers* costl 

A study of a number of records indicates that the daily mile- 
age of trucks will range from. 25 to 40. A mileage of 30 fnilee per 
day would give the following approximate costs per ton mile, com- 
puted' from the average maitufacturer'a figures: ' 

Table III,— Total Cost or Opebatisg Motob Trucks per 

■:, ■ 1 I TOlt-MlLB 

Coat per 
Rated c»padtT, toi>-mtle.lnclud- 

tOB«. log flxed cbargea. 


The Chicago Civil Servife ComiBinrian, after ftn extended stud;, 
found the operating eoet of a 3-ton gaaoline tru(4( to be (0.13 per 
ton mile. A 3-ton ekttric truck coat SO.ll per ton mile with 
euCT«iit at 0.6 ct. per kilowatt-hour. Hiia is a v^ry low coat for 
eleHric power. 

The Automobile Chamber of Commerce, after eompiling a lar^ 
number of cost data, for comniercial vehicles at various sizes, ar- 
rived at an average cost of operation,- including ilsed charges^ 
of $0.11 per ton mile. 

The Department <A Public Worka in Chicago usea a 5-ton and a 
2-ton gasoline truck for delivering materials between city yards 
snd construction jobs. The average coat of operating the 6-ton 
truclt was 13 ct. per ton mile- The coat of operating the 2-ton 
truck varied from 14 to. 32 ct. per ton nule. The cost by teams 
under contract was 26.0 ct. per ton mile. These coats were from, 
actual service records during the lastiMK months of 191t and 
include &xed charges and all other cost«- 

These figures are from truck operation only fad do not iac]ude 
the wages of helpers, for loading in. collection service. 

A study of the coat of operation indicates that the. .flued 
rhargea amount to about 58% of tlie total cost. The power cost 
ia generally less than. 10% of the total. Consequently the cboiee 
between gasoline mul electric .trucks docs sot^depeod wholly upon 
the power item, but rather .upon special. local conditions. 

Gontractnn' Cost nf EanUng Blasted Hock- The foUoWHf- 
data (about 1!)10) on motor truck work. hauling blasted rock' 
were furnished by the Charles P. Boland Company, engineers and 
contractors of Troy,.K. Y, The contract called for the e:(cavatioii 
and removal of 23,000 cubic yards of rock. The rock was blasted 
and Jtauled in two 3-ton trucks., These were .et^uipped with' 
patent dumping bodies and V'ere. used -coatknupuety, day and 
night shifts- The excavated material was hauled in some cases 
a diata^oe otjwie; and « b»14 piiea,,.. i^^he eeronia »bow that itese 
trucks carried about twice the auonnt usually hauled in a l^i 
cubic yard dump wagon and made tlie trip to the dumping 
ground and return in just half the ,time re<^ired for & t«am to 
make it. , Experience proved that it was necessary to keep the 
trucka continuously on the move in order to work them eco' 
nomically. and with thin id^ in mind large steel bottou dump 
bucket* were u»ed in loadiog t^ trucks; thus no,,tTO& was loat. 
in loading, as several bupket? were full, .at. all time* and the 
operation of reloading the tracks tooH only the time required to 
hoiet the buckets over the. trucks, . The actual leading operation 
required but a. few minutes.. 

In the hauling of materia)^ from the fr^igbt- house to the build- 


iog sit«, the records show that hauling cement co«t about IV^ 
cents per bag, or 30 cents per net ton. Eighty bogs were car- 
ried OD each trip and eight trips were required to unload a car 
containing S40 bags. Increased efficiency was obtained by baving 
at least six laborers to do the loading, aa little time ie lost if 
the loading force is large enough. The average reoord of each 
car of cement friwi the freight house to the site of operations, 
a distance of about I^ mile*, was a» follows; 

Total UXl 

Referring to their experience on this work the contractors write 
as follows; 

In the care of an automobile truck, onr experiaice has taught 
UR that it is economical to keep every part well lubricated at 
all times. A cheap or an inferior grade of oil should not be used, 
as the carbon forming qualities of a cheap oil more than offset 
the saving in the price. Where more than one truck is in use at 
least one chautTeur should be employed who is a thoroughly 
practical mar. This will enable one to have each tmck carefully 
looked over each day and any disarrangement corrected before 
damage is done. We have bad little or no trouble with these 
trudcs. The main expenee in connection with tbe maintenance 
of tbe trucks is tbe wear and tear on tires. We are now using 
a wire mesh tire made by the Diamond Rubber Company which 
- seems to give us good service. The company referred to sells 
these tires on a guaranteed mileage basis, and if renewals are 
necessary before tbe mliesge is completed, a replacement is made 
by them and an adjustment made on tbe basis of the mileage 

OpenitlEg Cost of Kotor Tmok In DeliTeriiie Butd and OraveL 
The following is from Engineering and GoKtracting, Mar. SI, I 

A Pacific Coast sand and graTel company is using a 5-ton 
truck for delivering sand and gravel. The material is nearlj 
always mixed and usuajly is quite wet. It runs 4 yd. to the | 
load and 3,400 lb. to tbe yard, ajid is hauled over country roadn 
of various kinds; about equally divided between gravel and dirt. 
There are many hills, some of thetn quite steep, necessitating going 
in flret and second gears. Most of the trucking was for deliverino 
gravel on county roads, and spreading it with the attachment 
on the truck. The following operating cost*, furnished by the i 
company, cover a 5-months period last year; 


ATersge diatanc* of dellverr. mile* S.1 

Cost on ysrd mile tO.lOBS 

Cost per ton mill MTl 

VoM talinge 7,»(» 

Y>rd> deliTwed S,190 

iVeifht ol rra'eli ^ 

a hanled lS,StO 

-i-on mu™ hiinlsd JS,83B 

HetluNl of ngurlDc' 

Wlu per day ysrdB yuda ■ 

X = per dw 

The track was new last jesr. Tbe driver wae paid for an 
extra hour each day the truck wae operated. This extra time he 
put in screwing down the> grease cape and inspecting parts on 
the truck. The driver was, therefore, held responsible for any- 
thing happening that could have been prevented by his inspection. 
In several instuices he discovered that there was a loose nut, 
missing bolt, cup gene or something of minor importance, which 
if neglected might cause lost time and more or less expense. 

These things were immediately attended to and as a conse- 
quence no time was loBt on account of truck trouble. 

The following data on hauling with motor trtKHcs are from ft 
1920 issue of The Ocrmmereiai Car JourtuU: 

R. H. Gumz, paving contractor in Milwankee, paid 91-50 per 
cu. yd. for hauling concrete aggregatee SVj miles from the pit 
to the job. The trucks hauled 6 eu. yd. to the toad and usually 
made six trips a day. The cost of hauling aggregates this 
distance by team would have amounted to nearly twice that price, 
even it tee^s could have been secured at, $1 an hour. 

During the construction of the Beloit-Janesville road in southern 
Wisconsin, the contractor paid for the delivery of aggic^tea as 
follows : 

Hie AtwoDd-Davis Sand k Gravel Co., from whom the aggre- 
gates were bought, delivered thein on the job for the above prices, 
using three trucks, two trucks hauling. 40 cu. yd. per day and <>ne 
truck hauling 24 cu. yd. per day. 

The following tables show the cost of hauling aggcegates on 
a highway job in Luce county, Michigan, under oonatructim 
during the summer of iS18, Two 5<t«n trucks were .used. The 
interest on track investsMnt was taken at 6% per year, and no 
1 included: 


The cbmrgu tor track Ho. 1 ware: 

DtpreciiittoD, lOO.DOO iiiUea (track nine minaa timj ..t 26Ejt 

Tot«l w»ge« of driver 119.74 

Qawline, 1,37T esI. st 25 cl MSB 

LubHcatmg oil, U7 gal. at Be ct es.53 

Hard oil, 128,B lb. M « tl , 7.71 

WuM, 20 ih. At 20 ct 4,00 

Tire derrecistioa, i.3W mil«B st S et. US. IS 

Repair* and renewala 180.00 

Total operatlDg chargw tl,SUM 

Filed chargea (intereal) i 28S.0O 


Average haiil In milee 5.U 

Number of yarda hauled 1.S83.0O 

Total namber yard miles nFrformed, lO.SZl ....fO.lU ji. mile 

'Total number ton miles performed, lB,m 0,104 toa mile 

The eharse»,for truck Sa..2 were: 

Deprcciiiion, milee (truck lala'e minua tirea) ...t 237.40 

'■ To fill wages of driver .-■. ■,.. »700 

GawliDa. 1,£3& gal. at 3S et J08.T5 

LubricBliiiE oila, 117 gal. at 65 ct BS.Sg 

Hafd oSla, 12S.S lb. at 8 ct 4.0B 

Waalei gU lb. at » ct , 4.J0 

Tire deiireciallon at 3 ct. per mile 148^3 

Bepalra and renewala 131.00 

Total operating chargna , '. H.UO.TS 

FiiAd .charxa (imerwl) i88.00 


A\inga haul Is wUea ..; iM 

Number of yarda hauled 1,780.00 

Taial numluT of yard milm perTonnad, 9,8^ M.IM fd. mile 

Total Qnmbw-ol loa mile performed, 1^791 0181 toa mils - 

The cost of baullng ag(^pgat«s by raUor trudt for' the conatnic- 
tion of it one-couree concrete road in Alien cOunty, Indiana, was 
$0,011 per sq. yd. iif'paveMent. The Muling was done wHb 3 and 
4-ton trucks, the a'ei'ttge length of haiil 'beiiig 1.7 init«H. The 
materials were loaded me<^hanicaUy at a' cost of a'ppro:tihiftteij 
!l ot. per cubic yard, the actual cost of bauliag being 42 ct. per 
lubic yard. 

A saving of about $1,000 per mile was effected by Itasca eotinty, 
Minnenota, by using motor tru<;ks instead of teams for hauling 
materials on tti6 construction df the Grand RapidsDuIuth high- 
way In the fall of IfflS, Two motor trucks of 6 bh; yd. capacity 
and'tTiree of 3icn. yd. (*ii«city were usfed, Fipurliig in all ex- 
penses for operation of trucks,' and including deprMiation «nd 
interest, garage charges, repairs and overhauling on 'completion of 
the work,' 'it was found that the cost of hauling was 91 15 per 
yard, the average Hauling being 3 miles. ' Ifthe hauling had been 
done 'by- teaniit, the cost would have beeta very'sekr to 92"per 


cubic j%rd and the cost of the toad would hare been incieased by 
$1,000 per mile. 

During the construction of the Belair road of the Maryland 
State Highwaj' Commission, in tbe eprlng of 1&I9, vet ctmcrete 
was delivered from a central crumbing and mixing plant to the 
road surface by motor truck over hauls ranging from ^ to 4 
ntileB. Extensive rebandling of materials was thus dispensed 
with and the cost of the work reduced. In spite of the lengtb 
of the haul, there was no apparent injur; to the quality of the 
coneret« mixturtt. As there was e:tcellent atone in the hills adja- 
cent to the road, a location was selected about midway on the 
contract, a, quarrj opened and a crushing and mixing plant in- 
Ht&lled. A 3 ft. strip of concrete S inches thick was built on 
each side of tbe macadam road. Tbe mixed concrete was dumped 
from the trucks upon the surface of the old road and shoveled into 
the forms at the side. Forty cubic yd. of concrete were placed 
per day, tbe average cost of hauling being $1.76 per cu. yd. 

Cost of Operating Tmak and Trailer. The following appeared 
in Engineering Wewa Record, Nov. 28, 1914. 

A test was made recently at Kenoaha, Wis., to determine tbe 
possible saving in tbe use of a four-wbeel drive, brake and steer 
motor dump truck with trailers for hauling material 2.7 mi. 
from railroad cars in connection with the building of a concrete 
rood. At the time of the test tbe work was being done by mulea 
and wagons, at a cost of from $54 to $60 per day. With th6 
motor ontflt it is asserted that a saviAg of $35 per day was 

Uaing the mulee or horses with 1%-yd. Bain patent duitap wag- 
ons four trips per day were being made. The charge was $6 for 
team, wagon and driver. Hence the cost per cubic yard of ma- 
terial hauled was $1. Tbe contractor usually employed nine 
or tetl ertra teams for this work. About 2,000 cu. yd. of material 
to the mile bad to be hauled. For the stretch over which the 
test was mode half the distance 'was good concrete road, while 
about % mi. was loose sand. 

After several test trips with the motor equipment it was 
found that tbe best results wpre obtained by using four trailers, 
leaving two at the t«un track to be loaded while the others 
were being hauled; hiring enough extra shovelere at the team 
tra^ to keep the specially devised S-yd. hopper full for tbe arrival 
of empty trailers; using one of the teams on the Job to reverse 
the trailers while the truck was being turned arouiid at the 
construction end, and letting the driver do nothing else but drive. 
Under these conditions it was found possible, with liberal allow- 


ances for delays, to m^e the iime Indicated under tbe taUe 
" Time Required for Round Trip." 

TiuB Required roB Round. Taip 

Item. Time. 

Time to iMd track S min. One. 

Time M pidk up loaded, trillers D min. 4S lee. 

Time lo dump truck and trailen, turn traiien 

trDuDd, leietse truck knd coujri« up agsiii ... 3 min. 46 aec. 
Bunning: time to team track, empt; ■■' — i5 min. 15 gee. 

SvMMABizEfi Combined Costs op Tbuck asd Tbailebs 

Filed eOBta per day: 

Trucka '. (6.17 

Trailers 0.88 

Total , fS.W 

■■ VariiAlB oosU per milt ; ' '" 

Truck i 10.86 centi 

Trailera , 2.30 centa 

Tot*] centa 

At.tliiB rate. twelve round trips per 10-hr.: djij can be made. 

The truck was a "Quad," furniahed by Uie Thomas B. Jeffery 
Company, of Kenoeha, Wis., which company conducted the test 
and gBFe the results in a copyrighted pamphlet from which the 
foregoing was abstracted. The contractor was George Wade. 

The following article appeared in Engineering and Contracting 
issue of. Jan. 1, .1019. 

In . nnintaining county roads in the vicinity of Denver the 
Colorado Highway Department is employing a tractor, trucks, 
and a sand ^levator, screen and loader. The complete outfit con- 
sists of the following: One C. L. Best caterpillar gas tractor 
of 40-hp. drawbar capacity, weight 28,00Q lb., costing $6,000; 
one grader with scarifler and blade attachment, coating $800, and 
two light drags; 2 White 5-ton trucks and a Kelly- Springfipid 
5-ton truck, costing £0,000 each; and a, £!allion sand elevator; 
screeD and loader, costing $1,500. 

The traetpr, grader and one drag are generally used together 
and can be operated by two men. If the work is simply dragging, 
or smoothing with the grader,' a distance of 20 miles might be 
covered; that is, if one round trip is. made they would cover 10 
miles of road; if two round trips were necessary, then S miles 
of road would be covered. The latter figure might be taken as an 
average in all kinds of materials for the dragging. 


In many places it is neceBBary to tcarify 'the eu'rface in order 
to reBhape it and remove the.chuckholes and wavee. On work of 
this latter class the tractor and grader are used very guccess- 
fiiUy, except on macadam or very solid gravel roads, where 
it is found that the scarifler la too light and it is necessary to 
uae the heavy-toothed scarifier. On scarifying and reshaping it 
has been found that about ^ mile per'day would be an average 
day's work. 

The sum of $50 per day hae been taken as the cost of the 
operation of this parti<'u1ar outllts This tignio-^^ obtained 
as follows^ 

Cslerp'Usr tractor, expense per day: 

Gag and oil (IJ.OO 

Maintenance 9.U) 

Operator 5,00 

Depreciation (based on aesamption of lilc of 4 
jean for enfiae and ISO working day* in eaeh 
year) 8.B0 

MaiDtenaaefl I (.00 

Ijibor 4.5» 

Depieciation (based on ISO vorkins davg per year) Z.KI 


Total (50,00 

Some vn satisfactory features should be noted; The trac- 
tor is very heavy and aa unaaf» load on many of the old [bridges. 
It is unwieldy, requiring a cross-road intersection or a full 
width road for turning. The lighter .size tractor of 36-hp. at the 
drawbar ia free from these objections, and will do most of the 
work that caji be done with the larger size. 

In charging up the work to the various . roada the following 
has been adopted,: 

Gxpense tor the year : 

■ Operator, lOtnontds, at tlW (1,000 

Malntcoute, oil and iss 1,000 

DeprecUtion, K% of Bis coat 1,500 

OrerhSad and incidental 9O0 

Total : JB,400 

For IBO working days this equals $30 per day. The charge for 
the sand elevator and loader is based on the following; 

Operator, 180 dam at WW , ,. t flJO 

Gaa and oiL 18(1, da— " " -^ ■ "^ 

1 ISft.days, at »1.50 .. 

Depreciation, 211% of eort'..... 

OverhaiHl, labor, teams and InaidenMln 



For 160 wcvking days this equals $26 per day, and this rate is 
charged to the road upon wbieh th£ work is being doue. 

The following is -from Enginetrittg a»d Oontrvcting, Apr. 2, 

The cost of hauliDg with motor trucks ia highway work in 
1S18 in Luce County, Jriiehigao, aversged Bbaut tO ct per ton 
mile. Two 5-toD White trucks were employed. The interest on 
the truck investment was taken at 6% per year and amounted 
to 82H8 for each truck. There was no insurance. The chai^^ 
for Truck No. 1 were as follows: 

Dopreelation lOO.OOO mllea (trncsk TSlne mlDiu tins) t 2^.18 

ToWl WBg« of driTer 319.74 

Gsaolme, 1.3n tal. at » ct UtM 

Lubriri ling oil, 117 u1. It G> el. tS.SZ 

Bsrd oii, laS lb at 6 «. 7.71 

WmM, » lb. at M rt 4.0O 

Tin d'ureriilian— li.ns mtlH St act IBa.4S 

Bepalrs sad nuwala 160.00 

TMal ^MTatiDK chaiKM (1,316.86 

Fixed obsrgea (interest) £88.00 


AvpraKe hani in milei G.5I 

Number of yarda bauled Ut) 

Total number of yard inilea itfrformed. 10.321 ».1S5 rd. mils 

Total number at toD milea isrfomed, 15,481 O.IM (on mite 

fieveiL and One-Half ton Tracks. The following ia from the 
Sept. 22, 1916, issue of Engineerinff and Cotitracling: 

The Northern Construrtisn Co. xublet the hsiilinR of the ag- 
gregates from their plant to the road to the C. A. Milter Cartage 
Co., Elkhart. This company used three l^^-ton motor trucks 
huilt by the Ma«k Brothers Motor Car Co., Allentown, Pa. Two 
of the trucks were bought in 1914 and the third is a year older. 

The minimum length of haul, which is from the plant to 
the beginning of the road, is 2 miles, and the maximum 5 miles- 
E.icept for a short distance over city pavements, the route which 
the trucks have to follow U over deep sand roads which cut 
down their capacity of 125 miles per 10-hour day by about 20%. 
As an average, for their first and longest haul, the trucks made 
ten round trips per day, carrying a load %>f 4 cu- yd. of material 
each trip. 

The working day was from 10 to 12 hours long, five days 
a. week, and on Saturday from 6 to 10 hours. As nearly as 
could be determined the average came very cloa» to 10 hours 
for six days; SO hours a week, and it is on this basis that the 
cost of hauling is computed in the following table. As the C. A 
Miller Co. uses the trucks to haul coal in thff winter, they are 


idle very little of the time. In figuring iatereat on capital 
invested, etc., it was assumed that -the trucks were in operatiim 
275 full daja out of the year. 

Cost of Haulino Sasd ahd Obavel bt Mcttob Tepck 

Lenrth at bsnl. nne wst, 6 mike 

per 10. 

Labor: ' "' 

Driver «t W per week t 3-IW . 


latsmC. etc.: 

I«M«iMon eo«t. 1(1,350 at S% .'1 tlB 

DeprMialioB, U% |>er aanun t.SI 

Insuidnco (Uifaillt}' and CreJ, tX per ■dduib ^ 

Repairs .". .38 

Running ncpeneea: 

Oai, IBgal. »tn et t 2.JB 

Oil 2*4 ga[. M « c[ 1.00 

Hardsrcaie, K lb. at £8 ct M 

Tirei renewBd once eierj- two years at t«00 .73 

. ilS.22 

Total cost pel tniclt 

Cubic 7ardi liauled one mile In one day (return trip empt)'), 

10 X G I i = 200. 
Ooet per ca. fd. per mile, 10.0611. 

Awuming tliat wet eand and gravel wei^s 120 lb. per en. 
or 1.62 tona (3,240 lb.} per cu. yd. 
Cost per ton mile, $0.0377. 



Paiut spraying outfits are efficient on large jot«. The manu- 
facturers claim that one man operating a paint gun caJi do the 
work of from three to ten or mtM'e skilled palntcTs, depending 
on the nature of the work. Painting hy machine has also the 
following advantages over the liand method. Finished coats are 

Fig. 235. Paint Spraying Outfit. 

uniform and free from brush marks, rough surfaces difScult to 
coat with a brush are easily covered, and where single coat work 
is required, either a lighter or heavier coat can be obtained than 
is possible with hand brushes. 



The type of paint spraying outfit geDer&lly ia uie conshts 
of a. source of compreaaed air, wliich ma; ba either a. portable 
compreaaor or piped from the main, a tank into which, ii put the 
paJnC, the cwtrol tiead of the. tank, the paint gun, or hand device 
which is fitted with the nozzle and trigger valve, and suitable 
hose with ccmnections. ' 

A paint spraying outfit without the compressor ia illustrated 
by Fig. 235. This consists of a paint gun nitfa tdjuatable 
Hpreeder attachments, a preasure control head, a i-H gal. material 
container, a 12 ft. length of ^ in. flexible, metal-lined material 
hoae, and a 12 ft. length of % in. heavy rubber air hose with 

Fig. 23ft. Complete Paint Spraying Outfit. 

necessary renewable couplinga. The shipping weight of thia 
outfit ie approximately TO lb. and the price is $123 f. o. b. factory. 

Another make of painting machines costa as followa: 

Outfit No. 62, ueed on larg« painting jobs, consisting of a 3-hp. 
gasoline engine, air cooled compreasor, 20-gal.- tank, 8-gal. paint- 
ing unit, air brush, 25 ft. of hose, all mounted complete on. a 
steel truck. Shipping n-eight approxii)ul,tely:l,250.1b.| priee.-H^- 

Oatflt No. 60, same as above, with 3-hp. eleotrie mot«r, 4SdO. 
Metal housing for either outfit $35, shipping weight 95 lb. 

Outfit No. SS, rated to do the work of 4 meii, 2-bp. engue. 20- 
gal. pressure tank; air eooled compressor, 8-gaL painting i unit^ 
air bru^ and 25 ft. hose, all moueAed on eteeil truck cofiplete. 
Shipping weight about 675 lb., price $300. Also to be had with 
electric motor at tjie same price. , Fig. 230. 


Outflt No. <BB, 20-ga]. painting unit complete 'with hose ftid 
air brush mounted on wheels, shipping weight aboot 100 1I>., 
price 9164. 

Outfit No. 66, Bimilar to above, weight 120 lb. for AipmMit, cost 

Nap Saak Outfit, S-gaJ. capacity cMnplete, shipping weight 18 
lb., price $56. 

itaok Painting Eqalpment used without scaffolding, consieting 

Fig. 237. Stack Painting Equipment. '' 

of an 9-giil, tonic, air brueh, 50 ft, of air line hoae, 260 ft. rope 
and safety block and tackle costa $150. Fig. 2S7. 

'Other equifODentB are 8 and 4 gal. units mounted on a 
stationary base, weighing 60 and 45 lb. for shipment oand costing 
$7B KBd $68' respectively. H-gal. unit, vertically mounted on 
wheels^ iVeighB about 35 lb. and costs $S5. A double tank, two 
color fainting oatfit coats complete $134 and weig{ia 12S lb. for 

All prices tor this make are f. o. bv Chicogo. 


A comparati^^"test of a[ip>1jift^ paint With a arraying maebitie 
and 1^ haHd'Wttti' Utadeit the' United Stated Naval Hospital 
in Sept.. 1919. ' 

In the wall test an experienced spraj brush <q>erator started 
the epraj' on one side of the building, and two experienced paint- 
ers with 4i^inch brushes started on .the other aide of the building, 
which was exactly the same in size, etc., as the one selected for the 
machine work. After about ^e-fltlh, of the building was coated 
by machine, the operator of tile Hpmy brush was changed to a 
man unfamiliar with the use of the gun. The following is a 
summary of Ore data obtSitied from the test. 

Wall Tests (Extebiob) 

Metliod at Ares of Paint Time, lag nte . Time to 

Bpplicstion surf ace used, Iman, pernl., coat 100 

Pint coat: aq. tt. gai. boon aq.R. (^.^.,10111. 

Uocbine 4.1S2 «.S S% GIO U.G 

Bnuh i.HM G.»7 £0 e*B 2» 

Second coat; 

MaehiBB - 4,lSa 1.3 10« S«3 IS 

Braih 4,104 3.9 21 M2 30.T 

In addition to the above, data were obtained on the coating of 
a large area of the roof with the machine. Nearly 9,000 sq. ft. 
of aurface were coated with 22^ gal. of paint in 14 hr. by one 
man. This included the time to mix the paint, place it in the 
containers, raise the machine to the roof, etc The average 
journeyman painter, working on wall work will do about 200 sq. 
ft. an hour and about 250 aq. ft. an hour on roof work. .It will 
be seen from the preceding test that the painters were evidently 
interested in the test and speeded up thir hand brush work, and 
accordingly have made higher averages than the figures juat 
given. The results of the roof test follow: 

Method of Area of Paint Time. lag rale Tide to 
application ani-lBcc itaed, Iman, per sal,, mat 100 

The paint used in this t«8t was a whit« lead paint, the materials 
were mined by the men. It was tinted with ochre. The first 
coat weighed 17.6 lb. per gal., and the second coat 20 lb. Both 
paints were easily handled bj the paint gun. From observations 
it is apparent that the spray machine will handle paint of almoet 
any weight per gallon. 

On the flrat coat the hand work showed a smoother appearance 


than the work done with Ute gun. ,0n tbe ■^t no ftppre- 
cisble difference was noted- Both kinds of .applicatifro toi^ about 
the game time to dr;. 

Si», White Na. SB White No. 100 

fe«t D. 8. Army D. S. Aims 

7t>; T t *^ I SJ3 

■ brio i-oi lOvW 

SbjrlS *M UM 

ubru UJ> ».w 

u bjr u axo nas 

14 br 14 1»^ 4L00 

16 by so 4IA «J« 

18 by *2 TO.*9 Tf.TB 

23 bf GO 106.00 IStM 



No construction work, however small, should be carried oil 
without the aaaistance of the cafnera. For motion ntudf- It is 
intliapen sable, and, as an adjunct to the keeping of records^ 
nearly so. Photographs of conntructioD work have saved man; 
dollars to the contractor in empioyees'damagpg eniita, and to tba 
owner or contractor in other legal cases. . . 

On unimportant work, pictures leas than .4x5 inches are ,Ku(fi- 
cientl; Urge for all purposes*, as small pictures, ckb. be enlarged 
to 8x 10 inches or more, if necessary. After much eq>erimeut- 
ing in this line, the author uses an Eastman folding pocket 
kodak N'o. 3, which holds a 6 iir 12-exposure film roll, and takes 
& picture '3>^ xHi inches. This type of camera is convenient as 
it occupies very little spae« when folded. The picture is large 
enough to show fair sized groups and details. 

On important wort .tflrge' pictured should be taken not lesi 
often than once each month, and more frequently if the work 
is of sufficient size and progress to ^arrant the expense. For 
this purpose the Empire ^tate plate camera, taking a picture 
8 X 10 inches, ia recommended. For geBpiid %ke a No. 5 Qoerz 
Dagm- F: 6,8 or V. 8. 2,9 lens is very good. When this lens 
is wide open it covers a 7 x9 iuoh plate; when »{>«» at F:iS or 
U. S.iia it covers an 8 s 10 inch plate, and at FiSa or U. 8.!«4 it 
covers a 12 x 16. For a wide angle lens the No. 2. listed to coraf a 
6x7, has a greater speed and better definition than a regular wide 
angle lens. While this lens is listed to cover a amallcr plate 
than 8 X 10 it is actually large, enough. This lens is convertiUe; 
the full combination — equivalent focus 10% inches — may b« used 
for general work and the 1>ack combination — ^uivalent focus 21 
inches — tor objects at a distance. 

For glossy prints, to show extreme detail, use glossy, V^ox; 
for general results, but extreme detail, velvet Velox. In order to 
secure compactness use the ready made developer. The " Tab- 
loid " brand is very handy. Always keep a 10% solution of 
bromide of potash at hand to slow down the developer. A room 
4 ft, X 6 ft. is all that is necessary for developing pictures. 


If there is a window, cover it with a piece of red gtuM and ^ 
eheets of jiellow P. 0. paper, or with the red and yellow fabrics 
made for photographic purpoaeH. 

For much of the data in the forgoing article I am indebted 
to Mr. A. A. RuBsell of Flushing, L. I. 

There is an excellent article. ia Engineering Nevta, Nov, 19, 
1908, page 552, on " Industrial Photography," by 8. Ashton Hand. 

Except where construction wori, is in.-ifolated places, it is not 
necessary to develop fihns or plates on the job as practitially 
every towb whether large or small has a photo developing ata- 

When it is necessary to have an outfit on the job, it should 
include, beside the dark room, a suitable number of trays for 
developing^ washing and fixing, graduate glasses, wide mouth bot- 
tles, printing frames, photo clips and a l-uby lamp. The chemicals 
and full directions for their use are to be had at any supply store. 

■HiePO is «. wide variety of patented developing machines and 
other like appHaneet, some of which are arranged so that it is pos- 
sible to develop without the uso of the dark room. 



Net prices at Chicago for picks and mattocks, in quantkies 
are as follows i 
Sallroad or Clay Hoka weighing 714 lb. cost tl6 per doi., 

weighing 9^^ lb. cost $18 per 6oz. 

Drifting TUkt weighing i% lb. cost $15 per do£., weighing 6 
lb. cost S1T.50 per doz. 

Kattoeki, adze eye, with long cUtter weighing 6 lb. cost $17 
per doi., weighing 6^ lb. with short cutter cost $19.50 per doz, 

Plak Mattookl weighing 6 lb. coet $17 per doz. 

Aiphalt Kattooks. The net prices tor asphalt mattocks in 
quantities, at Chicago, arc as follows. For a mattock with cruci- 
bla steel'cutter and chisel ends, weighing tl lb., the cost is $24 per 
do2. A mattock with double cutter, weighing 10 lb., can be 
bought for 9S3 pet doz. 



Plen wid ronndatlDDB for the Chloagg, HUvankee ft PaK<t 
Sound. By. Bridge CtouIuk. tlie Colsmila Birei.* The bridge 
crossea the Coliunbi» lUv^ about 420 milw irom |te moutb. At 
this point ttta river bu & nridtb at lov irater ot 1,050 ft., at 
average high nater ot 2,800 ft, and at jaxtreme high water of 
4,500 ft. The bridge ia M0S,84 ft. lon){) its approacbm 4re 
timber trestle on concrete i>edeeta1)) and are 1,319.5S ft. and 
323.68 ft. long renpectively Tbp principal dimenHione of the 
piers are given in Table I. All piers have a batter of '^ in. to 1 
ft. on the aide* and downBtream end of 3 in. to 1 ft. on the cut- 
waters. The footings vary in width from 13 to 32 ft. and in 
length ffMn 82 to 60 ft 

Total . 

For IS land pISN, fcSl* en., ral.; an trettgt CMt vn ea. rd. at ■■■ > 

coocftp ., I!1.«. 

Pot i linr pitn. T.7Z6 on. yd.; B««Ke eoiA pfr en. yd. of oobcrcle iXM 

• Condeued Irom t Mper by R. H. Ob«r, bcTora tbs pMlflo Hortkrat 
Society oTBttgineBra. FrBeeedinEs Vol IX, W i. Deeemhcr, Ulf 


TrBBtpartlne Constmotloii Ihterialt. About 14,000 tons of 
material and Buppliea were required for tbe conatruction of the 
bridge guhstructure and of the- line near the river. The cost of 
freighting materiel acroag country by wagon from the nearesl 
railroad, a distance of about 35 miles, was estimated at {12 per 
ton. This coet and the character of the service, with its delays 
and uncertainties, made this impracticable, and it was determined 
to handle all freight by river if posBible. Navigation between the 
site of the bridge and a supply point on the river below the 
Cabinet Rapids, about one-half mile from Vulcan Station on the 
Great Northern R. R. and S milea below the Great Northern 
bridge, was considered to be practicable for light draft river 
st«amefB. Arrangements were mad* for the constrnctlon of a 
stern wheel rivei' steamer of the type generally uaed on the upper 
Columbia River, and the steamer 8t. Paul waa built at Trinidad 
'and placed in commtsBion on October 30, 1906. The principal 
dimeneionB of the Ht«anier are as follows: 

■Lenjth of hall UB (t. 

Draft llgbl about IS In. 

"~" — '-' abput 8*1. 

about 200 (ODB 

't loaded . 


1 stroke, boiler 

This steamer cost about $11,000 to build and was used not onlj^ 
for handling materials and supplies but also for towing and 
tending at the bridge, handling barges, etc. The operating ex- 
pense for a period of about 27 months wae a^ follows: 

Fuel ;.-.. (IftMO 

Wse«B of craw BDd cbsrtcr of gt«amer £9.801) 

TotsI .-.'■ W.000 

The cost of unloading and handling freight from the cars a( 
Vulcan to the steamboat landing, about one-half mile distant, by 
wagon, was about C2 per ton. The cost of handling by steamer 
from Vulcan to the bridge, a distance of about 36 miles, ranged 
from about $1 to M per ton, varying at different stages of thr 
river, averaging approximately Sl.80 per ton. making the cost of 
freight from the cars to the bridge about $3. SO per ton. 

Contract. A contract was entered into, on a pereentAge basie. 
for the construction of tbe substn>cture and trestle, approaches, 
and for the erection of the falsework tor the superstructure. 

Under this contract the contractor furnished all tools, outfit, 


machineiT and equipment necessary for the doing of the work, 
with the exception of equipment of a nature not generally used 
lij the contractor and of a character peculiarly required by the 
nature of the work to be done, which latter equipment was fur- 
nished by the railway company- The plant furnished by the 
contractor included the following: 

8 boiitiut mtinft. - " . ; " 

E ■tationary •D(ineB. 

I rock cnuher and engine. 

1 aiCht-iucti oenttifuul Immi«. 
I slz-lmcli senttlragaT pnlipa. - 

3 Heun MTeri, 40, SO and M hp. 

12 dump CI 

11.0I» feet iteel nili, 

li Meel hoisllnf bncketi. 

t or*Dge-p««I dredgee. 
1 clun-abell drediiP. 
ST toil! of Uanil* Tiqx. 
10,001) lineal leti ol V" wire rope. 
14.060 lineal feM of %' wirt Tops, ' 
12.700 UDe»l.(eet»t!i^ wire tap.. ■ . 

MO lincil tnt of 1' wire rape. 

SmBD'toDll ■nd'flHinprK Teqnirefl. 

The tot^l ntus of tbla pUat was arproiiDuWIf ^48,000 (1 



There are three typpB of pile drivers: 

1. Free fall, in which the hmnmer is detached from the hoist- 
ing rope and allowed to tall freely upon the pile. 

2. Friction clutch, in which the hammer remainfl always 
attached to the hoisting rope, and by means of a friction clutch 
on the hoisting engine the drum ia thrown into gear or out of 
gear at will. 

3. Steam hammer or pile hammer, which is described tinder 
that bending 

A free fall hammer strikes about 7 blows a minute when the 
fall is 20 ft. and a hoisting engine is tised. A friction clutch 
strikes about 18 blows per' minute when the fall is 12 ft., and 
25 blows per minute when the fajl is'fi ft. A s^eam hammer 
strikes about 3(*0 blows per niinnte. A railway pile driver is a 
heavy driver of the overttanging type, mounts on a Hat car, 
either drawn by an engine or self propelled. Similarly, a scow 
pile driver is a pile driver mounted on a scow.' A' scow pile 
driver will drive more piles per day than a railway pile driver 
because there is no delay engendered by the sawing off and 
capping of each pile in order to allow the machine to pass 

Pile drivers range in height from 30 ft. up; the highest pile 
driver in the world in 1908 was one 108 ft. high. 

A large pile driver traveling on a track was used by the 
government on the Columbia Biver Improvement. Its equipment 
consisted of boilers and engines for hoisting a 5,700 pound ham- 
mer and of boilers, pumps, etc., for operating a water jet. The 
machine had a reach on each side of 30 ft. and the height of 
leads above the cut-ofT of the piles was BO ft. The largest 
pile which the leads would take was 26 inches in diameter 
and piles up to this size were driven by using the hammer in 
combination with the water jet. Files 31) inches in diameter 
were driven by resting the hanuuer on their edges and driving 
with the jet. Piles as long as 150 ft. 
The total weight of the machine was ' 
$12,000. ' 



The LouisTilU A Nashville R B. Co used a railway pila driver 
oi their own make. Mr. O. W. Hinman gave the ooat of operatioa 
per day as follows: 

FoTBOmQ and W men (22.00 

EnginHT, fimoan mnd wsWlUMin 8.80 

Condudor ind 2 flKgrnen T.OO 

Coal, oil mnd w«le 2.50 

Uw of iMomotive 12 00 

ror me o( drjrer aad looU 2.60 

Total (prior to 1810) 1^.80 

The above crew was used for building short trestles, say of 30 
to 40 piles. When longer trestles were built a larger crew proved 
more economical because of fewer delays to trains. This pile 
driver was also used hh a derrick and material of all kinds waa 
unloaded vith it. 

Mr. Aaron S. Markley said that the Chicago & Eastern Illinoia 
Railway used a Bay City pile driver. This was eelf-propelling 
and made abont S miles per hour under its own steam. It wan 
able to haul 5 or 6 cars on a level grade. When the pile driving 
was done within H^ miles of a side track an engine was rarely 
used to haul it The operator was paid $2 SO per day. The 
hammer weighed 2,800 1h., and the orgjnal cost of the entire 
machine was $4,600. Very few repairs were necessary; the 
chains and sprockets being alxiut the only parts Which needed 
renewing, and they had a life of from 1 to VA years. The 
machine, when working, drove from 40 to 50 piles per 'day. 

Pile drivers mounted on sills for operation by a st^m engine 
coat as follows; 

Price complete without blocks, lines or engine: 

li -4 c i 11 lit n k 

I m 



Pile drivers mounted on sills are usually operated by horse 
power. When so operated the hammer on the small sius is 
raised direct; on the large onea the end of a line is fastened 


to a poet or other deadman, carried throngli a tackle block on 
the main hoistinf;; line, and tied to the whiffle trees. Winchee, 
bolted to the ladder, can be used to raiee the hammer but are 
very slow. Prices complete without blocks, lines or engine, are 
HB per table following: 

Sizes and Costs or Pile Orivess on Sills. 

(Prices without blocks, lines, or engines.) i 

'1 Ss 

1° •S^JV'S.S'dSS' 

t»g 2*1 Itr aheeliiiK 

... in' square or ronnd pi 

... 12" nqvKte or i-onud vV 

. . . Hmtt concrete pilis 

Dg the length of stroke, cost: 

E.50O vi n no 

A small pile driver 30 ft. high with a hammer head weighing 
2,200 lb. was constructed at the following cost. Bill of lumber 
for the driver is as follows: 


TOO feet B. M. atliOMI tUM 

"-' d DSill "" 

BolU and d 

Lmbor 18.00 

340(»rt of 1-in. rop« 10.00 

ToWl, prior to 1910 (102.00; 

The City of Chicago Id 1001 coi»truct«d some inteTce[iting 
sewers by day labor. Wakefield sheet piling 2 x 12 in. x20 ft., 
!4orway and Georgia pine lumber, surfaced one side and one 
edge, was used. It was found that Norway pine would stand 

Fig. 238. Special Traveling Pile Driver. 

about 50% more blows under a drop hammer. The city built 
with its own labor a turntable drop hammer pile driver. The 
hammer weighed 3,000 lb. The driver was equipped with a 7 x 10 
inch double-drum hoisting engine and a duplex steam pump for 
jetting. Tlie leads were 40 ft. long. It coet $2,200. In op- 
eration it was found practical to swing the driving apparatus 
about oncfl each day. In ordinary driving the crew averaged 00 
pieces of sheeting in 8 hours, which is equivalent to 45 ft. of 
trench. The pile driving crew consisted of 13 raen costing {40.66 
per day, which gives a fost of 00 ct. per ft. of sewer. The bill 
of material required for 60 ft. of piling was as follows: 



lO.BH.. B. M. 2xl2iilchxa>faot tlmtwr. O moO t2S7M 

HO HI D ipikM. & li.% per 100 U 86 

1 t4>n of coil for pile iriycr IM 

ToW t2e4.» 

This gives a roat ol $3.87 per ft. of trench, or a total cost of 
$6,77 per ft. 

During the six months ending June 30, 1910, the cost of repairs 
to all pile drivers on the Panama Canal work was an average of 
$9.42 per day for 442 days of work. 

The pile drivers used on the work of improving LiDColn Park, 
Chicago, during- 1010 and 1911, were of the drop hannner type, 
equipped with 45 ft leads and 2,400-lb. hammers. The coat of 
operation of Oliver No 1 during 1910 was as follows: 

Hours <D tolnniiHfon TM 

Libor owrsiiun tiSIS.TO 

Part aod supplits iH.M 

Libor repilrk E1E7S 

Toning. iM hours. Si tt.72 JZ.M 

Iniurkace SEOO 

ToWl ecKt t3,T2g.U 

Cm( per hour 4.74 

The cost of operation and repairs on Drivers No. I and No. i 
during 1011 are here given. The extensive repairs, including 
a new deck house and a new boiler to fit driver No. 2 for work, 

accounts for the high repair cost for that machine. 

Cost or Operation and Eepaibs o? Pile Driver No. 1 

Hmn in conuniaion 1,U6 

OperiUon-. Per hour 

Lsbor t1,»SB.a «J7 

Poel ilfiU .18 

Suppli™ KSM XI 

Wslchlnt 22S« M 

iDiUTUiee 7»20 ,07 ] 

f 5,MT 91 tG IS 

Labor' t BSOJg tO.IS 

HkMrial m,« .17 

ToMl operatioa ma repairs K-iKM ■ tG,TT . 

Cost of Operation and REPAtRs or Pile Dbiver No. 2 | 

DUrs In commiBBfon ,.,.- .,,..,. 

Rmffi " 

OpfTBlion : Per hour 
. LalNT . 


Buppliea ,. \ti.Tt 

.witRhins •, ixiaa 

InniTBiice 79,20 



Labor H.237.89 «45 , 

Mwertfll 678.57 1.06 

Darrlvk .., W.U .10 

Total Dperuin and repair* • p,te$M .(8.31 . 

Steam or Alt Hammer. The principle of DpcfaUmi is the 
alternate rapid rising and driving down of a ram of considerable 

Fig. 239. Steam or Air Pile Driver- for 3-in. Sheeting. 

weight, by steam or compressed air. It gives a lighter ■ blow 
than tjie drop pile hammer, bnt its blows follow ea(4i other so 
rapidly that the pile and the ground do not have time to settle 
back into their Dormal static condition before the n«st blow 


etrikei the pile. It does not split or hToom the pile head aa much 
EB the drop hammer does, and it holds the pile more steady. 

The hammer illustrated in Fig. 192 can be euspeuded in the 
leada of a pile driver or hung from a derrick, crane or beam. 
Table 127 gives the sizes, weights, prices, etc., including fittings 
for attaching hose to hammer but no hose. Hose costs as follows: 

Sin, ineb 

Kumbftr of pUei 

A Patent Steam Drlren Pile DrlTcr designed so that in operation 
the pressure of steam in the cylinder is added to the weight of 
the hammer, is built in the following sizes. 

Boiler bp. Oa. n 

rsqvlred « fren air at 

SO lb. pmiare 89 lb. pnaiare 



0. b. factory 


Steam driven pile drivers, of another make, cost as follows; 

Bollarbp. Co. ft. 

SInAea . Ft. lb. rtqnirei 

par noln. per Uow SO lb. pi 








t KO 

















Uble. the 

dntr of ham 

<o«n i. uauato 

HammcM driving i-iil2- aheeting wUl driTo 9" >hwC ateel 
plUng to »■ penetrMtion. 

Hammen ariTioK 3"i U" sheeting will drive 12" eheet Mcel 
piltn* to 20' penatration. 

Hammen ariTini fxW Bfaeetlng wUI drive 13" aheet ateel 
plIlDK to iS' peactration, 

Bammera driTing 14' roand piles will drtve It" aheet ateel 
pRInl to W penetraKon. 

Hammeia (btripg W round pika will drha IB^ abeet aleil 



TTie prieea of piles vary conaideralily depending: on the diatane* 
of the delivery point fiom the distribution point. AloHt dektera 
include the freight ehargeg in the pricen quoted. The followiDg 
prices were in efTect the flrat part of 1020 for yellow pfne pilea 
ot 12 inch butt and fi inch top. Prices are per ft., f. o. Ii. New 
York, >f. y. Short leaf, 30 to 40 ft., Ifl ct .; 40 to 50 (t., IB ct.; 
50 to 80 ft., 22 et Long leaf, 30 to 40 ft., 28 ct.; 40 to 60 ft., 
30 ct.; 60 to 60 ft., 32 ct. 

Coat of piling and piles in the construction of an ore dock for 
the Duluth & Iron Range R. R., is abstracted from an article by 
Leiand Clapper, in Engineering and Contracting, July 17, 1912. 

The following tables give the time of the various classes of 
labor and of the outfits used in carrying out dilTerent parts of the 
work. The time allowed for outHt includes only the time. while 
actually in use. A 40 bp. gasoline boat did most of th« towing 
and the time of its engineer is included in the tables. 

Id Table I for sheet piling, the item " preparing and handling " 
includes spiking on the tongues and grooves, using about dO 
% X 8-in. spikes per pile, also sharpening, loading by derrick from 
skidway to seow, and unloading at the drives. The item " waling 
and tyiog " covers the placing uf the temporary inside guide tim- 

I. — Time Cost op Sheet Piung (2,^0 Pin») 

Honra pec 100 

Preparing and handling: Hours aheetuUe* 

Foreman 370 ' 16.58 

OarpcnMn G!0 21.8S 

Skilled labor l.SSO 70.73 

Common labor 4,»60 ai8.« 

Enflneer < 340 14.S1 

Toe "nd crew ia l.« 

Dsrrick icdw ZSO 10.53 

Skilled labor 1,890 TsIbt 

Comnon WMf !JW »0,»1 

EngiDeer 830 34.91 

iMrtn B7» M.OO 



Cutting off: 

ComnKiii labor 1.700 71.5T 

'Wallnt >Tid t;ioi; 

PoremsB TM ».(» 

OarMDlera 2,Mi> 100.20 

Stifljd l-bnr 0.3TO amA9 

Oobuddd bb«T U.JTO 662.88 

Enpnew l.MO Si.M 

Tng »nd wew 40 

Derrick icow 1,0«I *3.78 

DriTen 670 M.OO 

bere, tlie temporcir^ outeide waling timberB and all temporary 
KDd. permanent bolts, a^ ancborB- 

Table IT for round pilex includeH ciUf. those piles in the dock 
proper. The item ."pointing and Jiandling " includea sorting, 
pointing, rafting and deliTeiring to drivers, The cutting includes 
the removal of the old pile head. 

. II.-T-TiME Cost Of Bousb Pile, Wobk (183,500 Piles). 

Pvintlns Ud baa4]ip«: . ^o^m lOOIin.ft. 

Poremsn " 20, .0122 

' Enginser ■..-.. :':...: ' '3(W .»3B 

■ Skig«d tebor u..',,-.. iW I.42W 

Common Inbor 4390 l.<579 

■ ■ Dt&idlt ifeoir' ..■1,...; ..■■ 1» .crr9s 

T««,. ..,,.... :.,...v.-i. »60 .8106. 

'iFarUiui iz: ..,.'...■ 1, ...'..'. ' I7» ' .4087 

VingiaetT , i WO .WB7 

amti labor 8,670 , 16287 

<':Cunm6B labtn IfiM * 1.6WB 

Pile driver. „....., 660 .M!6 

:- CBIting off iililar.: • 

Cost of firlving Fllei with a Oasoline Hoist. ' The following Is 
froni the July 18, 1914, issue ot Engineering Netoi-Record. 

A reversible gasoline hoist with a 81^-hp. engine and operating 
a 1650-lb. dropbammer has been used for driving 1,300 pilea to sup- 
port a stage tor 7,000 singers during the St Louis pageant. These 
piles .were driven from a scow about 6 ft. deep in the bottom of 
the Miasisaippi River at Forest Park. The niggerhead of the 
hoist was used to pull the piles in place and the drum was util- 
ized for hoieling the ram. In addition, a pulley on the flywheel 
ran a pentrifu^l pump for keeping the si^ow dry. 

In the chart. Pig. 240, are shown the total number of piles 
to he driven on schedule and the actual number ot piles .driven, 



the estimaied «oiBti ofdrtTing 1,300 piles And the actual Met of 
labor oa piW drlvou. The largnt' number of pilcft driTen in one 
day wfts Beventj'five. In the eHtimate were included 17,106 lin. 
ft. of piling'at a cost of IT eenta, giving a total coet of $e,007.8S. 
The average length per pile was eitimated to be 13.16 ft. 

Actua.li7 l^e6< piles, aggragatnig 10,104 lin. ft. and averagtng 
]4,4 ft., wprp driven. Of this number 26 piles were driven out ot 
lino, eo tblit Ute n«^u|. number was 1,301 pilei, aggregatinf^ 18, 
735 iin. ft. Aliowmg 1011% d*pre<:iBtioii on ei^ine and ioow, the 
cost of driving 18,7S5 lin. fti was 92,148.88, at 11.5 cents per foot. 
This depreciatimi, of course, » exMBBivs, and if S0% is allowed on 

engine and mow and 15% for ovvrhdad cfaargN the total coat o4 
driving waa «e,0(H)02; or lfl.7 cent* per linearfoot. The coat td 
the pi-lea dnliveicd waa t-1 ,439.80 c>r 7.G cents per linear foot; so 
that with* cost of drlvihgot 10.7 wnt« the cost per linear foot ot 
pile in place was 18.2 centa. The brew consiatedof foil* men. 

The itenaitad ooBts were aa. follows! Cost of piles delivered, 
S1,432.B0; toial payroll, S1,053.S3; engine and hoisting outfit, 
£340; .araw, ¥154.40. .. ' :. 

Pile Penetnttkoi With' aad Witkont a WUer Tet. The fotlow^ 
ing is frew an rarticlfebj Mr. F. T; Parker, in Engine«ritty A'eaw- 
Record. Mar. 2S, 1615. 

Bxtanstvei^obmMtidna'of! the twkavfor ot wood piles drWen 


in dik« conitructiDD along tbe MiBBieaippi River between the Ohio 
Bj]d Hieaouri Rivers were made during the sprfng and Huminer of 

The dilies consisted of three rows of three-pile clumps, 9 ft. 
apart, the ctnmp piles being drives at tlie apexee of approximatel.v 
equilateral triangles tbe aides of which were between 3^ and 
4 ft. long. 

The Boil was for the meet part sand and quicksand, althot^ 
a certain amount of mud and some gravel were ^countered. 

Single-acting ateam hammera and ordinary drop-hammere raised 
bj hoisting- engines with friction clutches were used on the work. 
The drop-hanunere weighed 2,40(1 lb. each; they were used with 
400-Ib. Casgrain pilecaps. The total weight of each steam ham- 
mer was 7,000 lb., of which the ram constituted 5,000 lb. These 
hammers could deliver a. maximum of 60 blows per minute; but 
unless the piles were fairly large and straight the joarimum could 
not be reached without danger of breaking the pite. The rate of i 
delivery was between 45 and 60 blows per minute for all crooked 
and small timber, which allowed tbe pile to recover between blows. 

The drop-bsjnmer drivers were equipped with Hooker 12xGi4^ 
IS-in. jet-pumps running between 60 and 60 r.pjn.; the jet- 
pumps oa the steam-hammer drivers were 10x6xl0-in. Gordon 

Under 100 lb. of ateam and water each Gordon pump made 84 
r.p.m., discharging (through 50 ft. of 2'^-in. iron pipe and 50 ft. 
of rubber hose) 420 gal. of water at 65 lb. per sq. in. from a !%• 
in, nozzle. With, tbe nozzle submerged, tbe impact at various 
distances therefrom was as follows: 120 lb. at 1 ft., US lb. at 2 
ft., 100 lb. at 3 ft., 60 lb. at 4 ft. However, for jetting purpoaea 
both the Hooker and the Gordon pumps approximated 60 lb. 
noEEle pressure (under water) lOO ft. from -the pumps. 

Each jet-pump was connected to a stbtionary 2^^-in. gas pipe. 
extending from the pump to the second platform, in the piledriver 
leads. A hose connected this pipe to coupled sections of 2^-in. 
gas pipe with the end section reduced to a I^-in. nozzle. 

Before placing the jet-pipe the pile was driven several feet into 
the ground; driving was then stopped and the pipe placed against 
the pile and carefully lowered to the river bottom. The pump 
was then started and the pipe churned below the foot of the pile. 
A rope leading from the pipe through a snatchblock to the spool 
of the hoisting engine was used for this work. As soon as the 
jet became effective, driving was resuioed, and the jat kept a few 
feet in advance of the pile until tbe desired penetratim waa se- 

When no further penetratimi waa attained the jet-pipe w»a with- 

PIUNO 551 

drawn mmI relocated Bgainst'the pile. Occatioiially eereral relo- 
cations failed to give tgbiUIb. Often a pipe "froze" in tbe 
ground and diCBculty was experienced in withdrawing it ( this WM 
overcome by keeping the pipe-te-spool line taut, and tapping the 
pipe with a hanuner or sledge. 

Difficult; wai always eneonntered in forcing the Jet^pipe' through 
the brush foundation-mattresB of the dikes, which had been made 
and sudIe in place before piledriving started. 

After starting the jet the pile would sometimes drop several 
feet under its own weight plus that of the hamitter, and this drop 
WBB followed by a marked tncraase in pendn«t4on pei* Mow. This 
usually immedia,te1y followed each relocation of the jet. 

Neither shoes nor rings were used on the piles, but vatIous 
experimental pointings were giv«) to butts and tips. 

The controlling factoT in " hntts or tips down " was to have, 
after driving, the greatest pile cTM<-seetKni at the point of maxi- 
mum bending moment. The deaired penetration (about -25 ft.) w«s 
a constant; but the depth of -water and the coning of the pilee 
were unknown. Soundings gam the depth at pile clump loca- 
tioDs; pile eoningE. were flitimatad. From these dsta was esti- 
mated the greatest cross-section. In very deep or very shallow 
water' it was only necessary to estimate tbe pile coniugs. 

A number of tables were compiled giving pile lengths, penetra- 
tions and drop of hammer for each blow, diameters of ptlee and 
dimensions of sharpoied points. From these records certain-facts 
were deduced: 

1. Compacting of the soil occurred at pile dumps wlien the 
water jet was not in use. The accompanying view shows thfe 
effect. The piles of this green-cypress clomp were driven by a 
steam hammer without jetting, to the Mime penetration. The 
imprint of the ram on tbe pile head shows whieh pile was driTen 
first and whloh- last. 

2. Both hard and soft woods were i»ed for pile timber. When 
driven in connection with the jet no appreciable difference was 
noticed in their resistance to bTomning and splitting. The kind of 
timber, wbether ' green or dry, crooked, bowed or straight, bark 
on or offt. butt or tip down, tip sharpened or square, seemed to 
influence "driving time" v^ry little provided the jet was kept 
in proper position. Some crooked pilee took lon^r to drive due 
to inability to follow pile movements with the jet. 

3. Apparently the most im|iortaDt requisites for rapid driving 
were to keep the jet on ibie ■mth, and a few feet in advance of, 
tbe sinking pile and to maintain the pile plumb in the piledriver 

4. Hie records indicate that chisel pointings, especially for tips. 


are prefevable to square «nda or pencil poiaUi WUen tke jet ■was 
not in use, the tendency of the piks to euit was lega nith the 
unpointed Bqunje-ejidEd pitea. ■ 

6. Th»t gneat differenccK sKist in Uie pMiettsbilily af sands wae 
evident; the meet pronounced irregularitiee appear fn quickBands. 
A mixture of. sand and gravd was easki to petketrate tban either 
sand OT gravel aloue^ . ., . < 

6, The superiority ofeteain ovei drop-hanunera is irnqoeationed. 

7. Instances ocsiMCed where thp pra-formance of the jet ■was 
disappointing; hut the .water jet is an iSTaluahle adjunct of the 
hammer and. a aeoesau'j'part ol «ver7 iuptodat« piledriver equip- 

For driving average timber in ordioajy soils, the 'writer advo- 
cates a medium-weight doubie-aictingateam. hammer striking 180 
OF more blows per minute in ooojunction ^wilb a. single-pipe water 
jet. The- jetrpump eluwld furi^eh, at a. diiitanee of 100 ft., 17S 
lb. pressure at a 1 ^tin. iKMBle IsubmergM 10 ft> With this n«(ezle 
preMure the hammer would be'merely an adjunct of the jet, and 
its use limited to:a few blowta at the-beginaing and end of each 
operation. Moreover tha time''sifik-a pile woiild be re- 
d lined, to a minimum. 

The standard dovelailedi sheet-piling of the Southern Pacific 
Railwajr used J3y< Mr: Kruttschnitt in. cloeing breaks on the 
Miasiseippi leveee, >a described aa follows in the Realamtttio* 

"The main bod; of each pile is composed of a 4xl2'in. plank 
W^h, the lower end adzed ilio a slope of about L6 dsgrces with 
the horicontal, so as to. force, thel piliag in driving against the 
preceding one. On one edge of the body' are nailed two strips 
made of. I-in.boarda, -having their Ulterior edges ia the plane of 
the face of the pilei and thMri interior edgea beveltd bo as to form 
a trapezoidal groove between them with a larger base adjacent to 
the body o£. the pile.' Thie larger. baae is jnjule Bbont'3 Inches 
in length, tha shorter base a^at 1 inch .in loDgth. On the other 
edge of the main, body of the pile w nailed ft sugle- strip made of 
1-in. board;, and aa Waled 08 to pemit it to ttip^ itug^y betwees 
the beveled opening, on the adjacent pile. The strips aj» nailed 
to the main pile with UM wire naila spaced 6_ in." : 
, The 09Bt of joaking I sq^.ft.|.ot.4hie piling would be about as 

li-il2"»ir ptiiiili.lROpir My' B. ,«,...,,.,..'...,,. W4« 

■ Si-x l"i 12" planks ■( tSO per M.,B.H. .OIB 

- Sliad.Tiia ■■■i[a:*tt2.20 par keg ........^j... ....,..; >.... .ttt 

'A hour at cirpcnMr st 60 cents pet hour .liS 

• iSWal t»M)- j........;.-..,.l...'.t/.l...v..iL.;...i ftJtt 



Plle.Band Puller. Fig. 340A ia a iketch, kindly contributed b; 
Mr Shfl^, Consulting Enaineer, ol a pilp ^nd puller 
that ban been found very useful in removiog tbe iron bands from 
tbe top^ of pileH. It in made out of rnthi^r beHuy matviUI but 
should be available to any organization that haa a blackamith 


-Pig; aWA.- 

Pulling Sheet Piling with Steaa^ ttammpr. The following 
uifteB arc from Engineering Newa-Reoord, Dec. IS, 1915. 

An iny(!rted steam bammur pulled, in 90 eec. each, pieces of 3&-ft. 
Bietl Bheet piHng vhiih were used in coffer-daniB for conatructing 
tbe faunilalions of the Pittaburgti & Lake Krie Ilailroad'a new 
warehouse in Piltaburgb, Masa concrpte for the footinga, 5 ft. 
thick, n-HH poured directly a^ainat. the sheeting with no attempt 
(o prevent a. bond, and the ebfferdftma were backfilled to the top 
bi»Fore, any pulling was done. K^vertbeless, a majority of the 
pilm were ntarted and drawn in one minute less than the average 
driving time on each pile. 

The ringing conBiated of a wire-rope filing suspended from the 
crane, hook suppoitliiB tbe,iov«-t*d,'ham«pr. Ovor.tbe.aavil block 
of the Utter, puswd.a heavy strap of at'eelj ahaeklei at tbe lower. 
end to pulling ntrapa pinned to the pile. Tlul hammer, a. Xn. B 
MiKieniBn T:»rrff„jn ratfld a* 2'5 Woffs * minutR.with an 894-in. 
stroke. It waa swppJieduith «t*aru trom thecrafle. 

Out of several carloada drawn with the hajnnwr at Pittshurgh 
practiealiy espry pile waa in conditio^) for immediate rsdrivii^. 

Wemllncer &baet Bteel Piling coetK i o. b. New York, u fol- 
lows : 


With Full Length Clips 

Laokawanna Bteel Filing illustrated by Fig. 241 costs f . o. b. 
Pittsburg from £2.70 to S3.00 per 100 lb. (Jan., 1Q20, quotatitu). ' 

Fig. 241. 12i^-ir. Piling, %-in. and i^-io. Web. 

Special pieces sucb aa tees, crosses, corners, etc., takt, an additional | 
90 cents per 100 lb. It comes in any length up to 70 tt and its 
other dimenaione are as follows: 

Thick- Wcllhtper DiBt.Cnil«r WciKht 

neu ol Bquarr Fool lo Otnlw of per Linail Width of Jmnl 

Web, In. o?W«ll, Lb. Jolnls. In, Foot, Lb. Over AH. In. 

A B C 

H 40.00 1!K 12.5m 31E/C4 

H 35.110 124i 1T.1S7 S«/«4 

Thia piling drives easily. In a test a 50-ft. kngth was driven 
4T ft., uiider a 6-ton hammer striking 90 b1owa,'wrth a penetratitm 
of 1 inch at the last Wow. 

Test of Driving Bteel Sheet Filing, Cleveland, 0. Ond place 
on the short line of the L. 8. & M. S. K. R. around Cleveland, Ohio, 
required tunneling under the grounds of a manufacturing plant- 
The tunnel was to have two standard grade tracks at an eWatioo 
Of about SO ft. below yard level ol thii plant. ' The Wadi t«Bt bor- 
ings taken at this point showed: 

piUNG see 

BtJov frade 

Yard I«ie1 to 5 ft Slu and cinden. 

E ft. below to 20 ft TeDow cIbt and irnel. 

ZOft. below to 30 ft. Fine cravel. 

S1 11. b»low - ■" " " ' 

40 ft. below to EO ft. 

BO ft. below to U ft 

66 ft down , Hard pai 

U R Coane aand and paiel. 

The fine Mad, 40 t« 60 ft., wab in the nature oF quicksand, and 
there was a surcharged load at the eidee.' 

The engineers of the l^ke Shore R. B. decided on eteel sheet 
piling- This work required BO ft. penetration. Five bars of 
]29i-'n t^-in. Lackawanna eteel sheet piling, weighing 40 lb. 
per Bq. ft and SO ft. long w«re ordered for this test. These 
bars wer« driven by a No. 1 Vulcan hammer, weighing 10,150 
lb., total striking part 5,000 lb. with a 42'in. stroke. In goieral 
the record was as follows: 

No. 1 Pile teipetlmeotlng, etc. Accnrate TMord not taken.) 


No. i FileiO mln. actual drivlDC time I.IM 

Ni. IPIleS3M Diln. aclaal drlrlDff time 

So. * Pita 36 mlD. actual drlviiw lime 2,!84 

No. 6 Pfle 20'i mln. actual driving time i.OS 

No. S pile was followed down to 10 ft. below the surface of 
the ground in 18"^ minutes, with 1,163 blows. AIT" Ave bars were 
driveu to tbs surface of the ground, making a penetration of ' 
50 ft. 

Fig. 242. 


Jonei A LoncliUn Pllli^r, illustrated in F^r'^42. costs about 
3 ct. per lb., ft o. b. Pittsburgh. It is made in any length. 

8tie W(, per 8q. Ft. 



TTnited StBtes' Steel She«t Tiling la rolled in three sizes: M 
106, M* 104 and M 103. Tt wae luofed in Jan., 1920^ at about 
».80 per 100 lb. f. o. b. Pitteburgh. 


Straliht wction Bwnl V coran 

Widtb weight in lb. weiBht in lb. 

Svetioit lulu. peraq.ft. pO' iio. ft. 

91 pieces of the 12>i-in. piling should drive 100 ft. of walL 130 
pieces of the 9-iii. piling should drive 100 ft. of wall. 

Friestedt InteilooklnK Channel Bar PlUncr, fabricated from 
chaanels and zee h&re, do^ee not possess high interlocking Btiengtli 
but is adapted to ordinal; conErtmctloa work. 

Id Id. 

Poandi'pCT ftmt 

Zmb BegnliT Cornel 

Fig. 243. Symmetrical Interlock Channel Bar Piling. 

gymmetrleal tnterlDok Channel B^r Filing EJmit^ r to the Frie- 
Btedt piling, suitable for difficult driving wWe' ^reat interlock 
strength is not required, is oa follows; (See ^Fig, ^3.) 


' Founds per foot 
lannola Z«a Repjiar Corner 

DrivlnE. United States piling ehould be driven with the ball 
Bide afaecMl so that the looae material will not interfere with the 
driving. Symmetrical piling should be driven with the long Z bar 
aheAd, which serves to stiffen the free edge of the pile, Friestedt 
piling may be driven alike in either direction, plain pile following 
Z pile alternately. 

Sheet steel piling is driven in the same manner as wooden piling. 
In shallow trench work wood^i mauls hung from a tripod may be 
used. In heavier work a power driven hammer is to be preferred. 

The Bush Terminal Oo. of Brooklyn, N. Y., decided in 1010 to 
substitute steel for wood sheet piling in the con^ructiijn of 
the foundation pits of their new buildings. Each of the 28H 
reinforced concrete columns in these buildings requires the dig- 
ging of a foundation pit 10 ft. k 12 ft. x 12 ft, deep. In excavat- 
ing some of tie first of these pita, the sheeting was of 2 s '10-in. 
wood piling which cost $1.00 per horiiiontal foot, including 
rangers, bracing and removal, making a coat per pit of about $44. 
This wood was good (or onJy 2 or 3 drivings, an' average o^ 2'^. 

Two hundred and fifty tons of steel piling simtlar to the 
above, of the 8-in. x 12-ft. section, weighing II lb. per, ft., were 
purchased. Thil qtiantity was sufflcieat for about 40 pits, uid it 
haa already been re-used over 14 times, and is jet in verj good 
condition. The bracing conHista of 2 'Sets of 6 x 8-in. rangers with 
one cross-bar of the bame -dimensions, btit it has been found that 
lighter bracing can be used. Thii piling was driven ; by -hand, 
with wooden mauls for about one-half the diatance, and with 
iron sledges for the remainder; a flpdcial cap being employed. 

The averse coat of 40 pit« she^'tbed with' st«el piling has been 
$14.63 for driving and S4.R4 for pulling, or about 2% ct. and 1 
ct. per sq. ft., respectively. The steel piling cost $222 per pit, 
or 43 ct. per eq. ft. For the 14 times it has been re-Osed, this 
uiakes a total cost as follows: 

Stad mstfrW |2!!.M 

Total fw U piU 

Averaca eoM of 1 pit , . 



i :1 i 

Ml : 

Ml ; 










it ■'" 


t Si 

61= J? 

tfl £ IS EOO'Q So m X 


ill ■ 

'jaatoisq JO »Ux,aiP>ap.E>eiBia§r!a§§aB,a§a.B 

3 -o) 'mp!* aaaH;jHTJsa!iHHaH33sa33a 

sgoSi si s- r^ s 2*^^-i*^ S-3J 


This BhowB a saving over wood of about ^ per pit, or 20%, and 
the steel material is still available for future use. 

The above matter bss been compiled fTom an article b; Mr. 
F. T. Lewellyn in Engineering Record. 

The table on followiog page has been abstracted from the 
Carnegie Steel Co.'b booklet, " Steel Sheet Piling." 

Concrete piles may be divided into two claases, those molded 
&nd hardened before driving and those molded in place. There 
are several patented methods of driving and molding piles in 




Fig. 244. "Tig. 246. Fig. 246. Fig. 247. Fig. 248. 
FiE. H*. A core and cylindticsl cuing ire flnt drlvw to (he reqDlrcd 


Fie. 2/a 
tlie Tiotui 

3 feet 

nov remoTed ■ 

■ chsrie of cooerMe d 

24fi. Ths » 

The core ii a 

of the MIJDS. 

~ ii QDw aged u a ramnMr, to coapraca Via* eoncrate 

e Ducrauuuiuii aoU. The proceu la repaated until (he hue la about 
In dlametar. 
24T. The enlaried baae being Mmpleted Ibe caaing la flllad to Uw 

ll caainf from tha 

Dcd. The completed I 

place, some presenting advantages over others under different 
conditions to be met in the work and soil. 'Kia Simplex pile em- 
ploys a cylinder to which ia Atted a cost iron or steel point; 
when the pile has been driven to the required depth the cylinder 
is filled with concrete- and is then pulled out, leaving the point at 
the bottom and the wet concrete, settling, completely fills the 
hole. The Pedestal pile is constructed by driving a cylinder and 
core tc^ther. When the required depth is reached the core is 
withdrawn, some concrete is poured in and the core is then used 

iSlfi ;: 

■Mi -~ 

■Ssi ii 



a lis ii . .U3S 

^^ ^ ■ . .- 59* ^ui -^u 

■« Jad »)' 




J -qr'wi(»M,s!SgSSSSSS$SS?S5RS35*SgSSS 



Hioca a< ^SuHM b chCQtt I 


as a t«tmp«r to coiDpreeg the concrete below the fylinder into th^ 
ground to form an enlarged bearing foot or " pedestal." 

It ia evidest that in soft, water bearing ground or in grouad 
below water the above methods cannot be uaed or, if used in 
very aoft grovnd, there cannot be any certainty that a perfect 
pile has been made, and the mult at beet must be doubtful. 
Sui^h conditions are met satiafactorily and well by the Kaymond 

Fig. 24fl. Two Views of the Foot of a 
Pile. The large Irregular Projectioi 
Cemented into the Foot. 

Baymond System of Concrete FiUng. Of the two classes of 
concrete piles, pre-caet and ca*t in place, this system is the only 
method of the cast in place class wherein a permanent form is 
provided for each pile. 

This system consists of a collapaihie steel mandrel or core 
tapering from S inchea in diameter at the point, at the rate of 
.4 inch per ft. in length, until in a length of 37 ft. the diameter is 
23.2 inches. Upon this expanded mandrel or core is placed a 
spirally reinforced sheet metal shell, the reinforcement of which 
is grooved into the metal on 3 inch centers and for the entire 
length of the core or pile. This reinforcement provides rigidity 
to the shell and renders it capable of withstanding very severe 
soil pressure. It also prevents foreign substances from entering 
into the green concrete. 

The combined mandrel and shell is driven into the ground tcF 
the point of refusal: the mandrel is then collapsed and withdrawn 
from the shell leaving a permanent form for the pile. The she]) 
is then inspected on the inside and if in perfect condition from 
tip to top is filled with concrete and completed. 


The extreme taper of the shell, combined with the friction be- 
tween the ahel] and the surrounding soil increases the carrying 
upacit; of the pile. The safe load on a. RayintHid pile varies 
from 25 to SO tons. 

The John Simmons Co. are supplying sectional casings in 
lengtha of 4 ft. to 20 ft. The sections are fitted together ob the 

Fig. 35l>. Raymond Piling. 

driving proceeds by means of an interior sleeve i the pile may be 
driven with a ca^t point, or if without a point the dirt or sand 
may be jetted out, the concrete in either case being poured in 
when the pile has reaj?hed tiie required depth. The particular 
advantage of this pile is that it can b^ used where the head 
room i» limited. 

Cast piles may be made in any section, circular, square, Iri- 



angular, or corrugated. They are reinforced with bars or meeh 
or with bars and mesh, or with bars and hoops or even with 
built-up aectione, ae I-l>eams; in short, piles are reinforced jiiat 
as columns. They are driven in the same way aa are wooden piles. 

Fig. 251. 

Piles are cast in horizontal molds lihe beams, or in vertical 
molds, like columns. They are allowed to set hard before forma 
are removed and to harden thoroughly for 30 daya before being 
driven- Often an iron pipe is molded in the pile at its center 
throughout its length for use of a water jet to help in the driving. 


L Pipe — Black i 

D GALVAmzst 

per ft. 



o apply to the above are 


3K to« 

The above weights are per length to lay !2 feet, including atan- 
dard aockete; proportionate Allowance to be made for any varia- 

Clay Tttain TUe. The foUowing a 
quoted in New York Jan., 1920. 

theipnriees per 1,000 lin. ft 





. J.,. > 


Hi If. 

^. |liis8 liiii iiililiii I 


*|Sa3S S|i|| |3g| 
|. |lj^|5§3gsliSiiiiiiii|| 


( per ft_ quoted in New 

36 SK 3E0 6 1>J 

Ooit of lipe Laying. The following is from mj notes in ltll4. 

The coet per linear foot of pipe laid depends upon the kind of 
pipe, involving its weight, size and mode of lowering into the 
trenc)i, on the depth of the trench sjid obstructions to lowering 
due to sheeting, etc., on the kind of joint, whether bitumen, lead 
or cement, and on the directorship of the foreman and the skill of 
the workmen. A& in the case of sheeting, pipe laying requires 
skilful workmen. Men should be' carefully trained to do this 
work and should then be kept at it. 

Unit Coalt for Small Pipe. In Table 1 will be fonnd unit costs 
and other data on 5, 6, 10 and 12-in. sanitary aewer pipe. This 
pipe was vitrified salt-glazed clay pipe, and had joints first calked 
with oakum and then filled with hot bitumen. Two or three 
lengths of pipe were joined together on the surface of the ground, 
the hub and spigot being first cleaned of any foreign subetances 
by washing with a solution of bitumen dissolved in gasoline. The 
joints were next calked with oakum and then, with the pipes In an 
upright position, the joints were filled with melted bitumen. 
When the joints were cool and firm, a rope having $, hook on one 
end wae placed through the pipes and hooked to the lower edge, 
in which position the pipes were lowered. Another method of 
lowering was to pass a rope through the pipes so that both ends 
might be grasped by men on the surface and the pipes lowered 
horizontally. The lowering and, in fact, the laying were retarded 
greatly by the braces which held the sheeting, and also by the 
great depths of trench. 

Aft«r a «ection wae towered- into the trench and properly lineal 

T Ont, No. pipe. 

Solid ineetinc 
Solid ■twetlns 
Solid iheatins 
Solid ihefltlnx 


No. MDU p*r Out, No. 
Obc. Ud, ft. (t. nuQ 

T4T Oaknm BnoArki 


-Unit Costs (1914) and Othe^ D.\ta fob Stobh 
DaAi:4s, Sizes 12, IS, 24 and 36 In. 

1^33 Mo nbrPliiic 

3M No >hiN!llng 

1 Jl No ah^lDK 

1.(1 iro*b»rtini 

4.TS No ih»aioi 

Nn hhrrtins 
No Kb'Minc 
Ha iheMins 




Tor Oalnitti ' Kemaris' 
81 ' BhKtiaK ' 

'&A . . BImtInc 

41 No she^iEtB ' 

Solid »iinUn« 
Solid iheclinE 
Solid sbesliDK 

Aiersee widUis of Ircncb, lZ-ii>. pips, 36 id.; IEid.. 30 In.; Mia., a In.; 
36iu, W in. 

In the above unit (roata crmenling tfap pipe jointa it included with the ]»y- 
iug, iIbo ft iiroparlion ol ihe cbargee [or (oTeiniiD and waterbof. 

in both horizontal and vertical planes the joint was calked with 
oakum and filled with bitumen, using a " snake " in the same 
manner that a leaded joint is run. One man on top was in charge 
of jointing, and another man was responsilile for supplying the 
men in<the trench with hot tar, alno astiixting in lowering the 
pipe. When not so engaged he should asiiist the first man to 
prepare the pipe. A third man was needed to assist in lowering. 
In the trench one regular man and an atiaiatant had charge of the 
jointing and alignment. When not so engaged they made grade 
For the next two !en;;the, using the material thus removed for 
backfill over the pipes last laid. 

Unit CoBit for Large I'xpe. In Table 2 will be found unit coxts 
and other data on storm-water sewer pipes, 12, 15, 24 and 36 in. 
in diameter. All joints were cemented after the pipe wea lowered 
into the trench in single lengths. The 12*in. pipe was of circular 
section, some cement and some vitrified. Lowering was done by 
hand, using a rope pasued 'through the length of the pipe. 

The 15 and 24-in pipe uwed in the work were made of cement 
and were egg-shaped. To lower these into the trench a tripod 
rigged with a difTerential block and tackle wae used. The 3S-iB. 



pipe was vitrified and circular In iection. A tripod and a block 
were bIbo used here in lowering. 

Average widths of trench, 6-in, pipe, 30 in.; fl-in., S2 in,; 10-in., 
36 in.; 12 in., 38 in. 

In the above unit coeia are iaclnded the cost of preparing pipe, 
lajint;, calking and tarring, and a proportion of the charges for 
loremBn and waterboy . 


-. - ps«5S3S= 5Sa§ |]J| 

S I « 33325 55S31S333S ||l|= 
- 5§ 5sss353jj,jgj lite} 




Zead Heltln^ Furnace, pot, bar, grate and ladle on two wbeela 
with handle and stand. Of heavy boiler plate with vrou^ht iron 

C»p«eilj Priea 

Id lb. On nhMle On 1«gi 

A Qasoline X«ad Helting: TnmaCe havinif a c&[NRity of 200 
lb., ciBts $62; capacttv of 325 lb., $54. ' " ^^ , 

CalWnE Hammers, 3 lb., $1.00; 4 lb., $1.25 handleiL; 

Calking Tooll, set of 5 tools and yarning Iron, weigKt 9 lb., price 
40c per lb. 

Lead Wool Tools, cost 50c per lb. ' . . -;; 

Dog Diamonds, 4 lb., $I.7S, 

DoK Chiseli, 2%, 3, 3<4 and i lb., 40o per lb. '' 

Hand Chisels, % octagon at«el, 40c per lb. 

Hand Diamond Foists, Yg octaj^n steel, 40e per lb.- 

Bursting WedKCS, 8 in, long, 1 Vj to 2 lb., 30c per lb. 

Asbestos folnt Knnners, range from $2.40 (or the % in. aqu&re 
for 4, S and 6 in. pipe, t« $14.40 for the 1^ in. square for 48 in. 

Pipe Jointers cost from $3.30 for 4. inch pipe to $9.50 for 20 
inch pipe- 
Sewer Builders Kanls of hickory having a diameter ot 7 in. 
and 12 in. in length »eigb about 2< lb. and coat $4.00 each. j 

Steel Plank Caps. Box caps 2 b; 6 and 2 by 8 in. cost $2.75 < 
each. Open end caps 2 by 6 in. coat $2.00 and 2 by 8 in. coat $2.50 I 

Plank Pnller of coat steel, for 2 in. plank $5.00, 3 in. plank | 
$7.00. I 

Trench Braces with 1^ inch pipe barrels and 1^ in. screws ex- 
tend safely 10 tn. cLre made up t4> 3 ft. in. length. The Ioniser I 
braces have 2 in. pipe barrels and 1 % in. screw, and extend safe^ ! 
13 in- ■ 

572- I 


Length vhe 

All the foregoing prices a 


per dm. 






3. New York. 

Fig. 252. Laying 48-in. Water Main at BiifTalo, N. Y. Width of 
Cut &i^ ft. Size of Brace Uaed 4^ ft. (Ctoaed). 



The following lint ot rental charges for construction equipmcnl 
WHS BUbmitted b; an eastern contractor. Tt in taken frozn an 
article in Engineering and Coniracling, Jan. 21, 1920. 


Backel, cUmsliBll, %-j-d 

Curs, »liip, H4jd 

Cars, iil»l. 1 ;d. and emullfr 
Oniilier onlr, Acnm No. 9^ . 

1. 3D to Kl [t., wmdeii. borne id 

En[lns. akeletoD, Z-dniin, 20 hp 

Eniine. guoliue. to 8 hp S.Oft 

Entiae, gtaotlnt, K bp 5.K) 

engine, 11 to IS tt. »p. . 

MolOTB, 10 hp 

Hotori, 2B hp 

Molon. 60 hp. ..,, 9.1 

Pump*, ecalrifugel. lO-in., belt driien, with engine " 

Pumpii, pnlwmeler, to 4-in 

Pumps, 3-in.. with gRBolins engine .. ., 

PumpB. diBphrsgm. with gasoline engine 

In aubmitting tbe list, the contractor wrote as follows concern- 
ing his ftrm'H policy on equipment rental : 

The plant rental sheet was revised the first o( this year and will 
be revised again for another year, probably upwards. Our rental 
basis for our own work is entirely that ot replacement cost. AW 
plant costing $160 or more whose lite extends over a period of 
years or oTer several jobs is shown on our detailed list, which is 
compiled from our experience of the proliable life ot each tool. 
There are three classes: 



Class A — Tools which will ls«t through 60 weeks of ctaitinu' 
ClaBH B — Toots which will last through 7S weeks at contiauoiu 
riass C — Tools which will last through 100 weeks of eonttauoui 

Our rental is sufficient to produce enough revenue to make 
'xtraordinary repairs B.nd to replace the plant at the end of this 
IpDgth of time. 

You will And that these rentals are naitonnlf low because the; 
ire at cost to ourselvM and apply on jobs where wc are operating 
Ihe plant. These plant rentals go into a costplus or fised'fee 
ntntract as a part of the jolt cost on which profit is figured. 

If we rented the plant to outsiders we would char^ about half 
UN oMcb again for it. 

Our method of handling small tools such as shovels, picks, bam- 
mers, etc., is to oharge their entire cost to the job. If they are 
worn out they ljecoTni> part of the job cost. At the completion of 
the work an inventory is taken and each tool is appraised In co- 
operation with a representative of the owner. We have five 
gradeH: (1) New, 100% of first cost; (2) good, 75%; (3) fair. 
50%; (4) poor, 26%; (S) worthless, 0%. We take them back as 
per inventory. 

The following notes and tabic of rental values of construetion 
equipment are from an article by Mr. F. J. Hertihy in Enfftmetring 
.Vew« Record, .Jan, 15, 1920. 

The cost to the contractor of owning equipment may be broadly 
defined as comprising; 1, capital investment; 2, interest on 
capital investment; 3, insurance; and 4, storage eipenee during 
idle time. 

The column In the tabic headed Original Capital Cost is in- 
tended to show typical results only and ia given as a bails on 
which the details of plant rental (both costs and percentages) 
are worked out. 

In actual prafctice the true first coat of the equipment should be 
substituted for that shown in the talile and the analysis worked 
out accordingly, using as the other (actors, the fixed percentages 
"hown. Where the contractor owns several machines of the same 
claas, siie and type, which cost different prices, the average 
original cost should he used. Average depreciation only is eon- 
'idered in fixing the various factors of accrued costs, and charges 
shown in the labte as depreciation will vary for the different 
makea of equipment on the same clans of work and will be de- 
pendent more or less on the nature of the work for all classee of 
equipment. Average equipment working under ordinary coadl- 


tiooB, covering the entire time the cootractor nuiy be in bnainees, 
is considered. The figures shown in (he table for repair itema. 
a,-n based on present [iricea ajid average conditions. They nill ' 
vary with the fluctuation of the la.bor and material market and 
withthe different makes of equipment, depending more or leae on 
the cha'racter of the work and the manner in which the equipment 
is handled. The perccot^e rate of depreciation »nd the average 
esrniMg days per annum are quantities that experience alone can 
measure, a perusal of the records of contractors who have been 
using the class of rquipment undtr consideration for an appre- 
ciable time being the only source of infonnation. The factors 
need in the table for depreciation, average earning daja per 
annum, and ^op and Held repairs show the writer's concluHions 
of their values based on his general experience, a perusal of ex- 
tensive data on the subject and the records of a large grading 
Dootractor.' Additional information was secured from several 
months' attendance at arbitration proceedings in which more than 
$600,000 worth of - rental charges on equipment, similar to that 
shown in the table, were part of the issue. Several weeke were 
spent on the principles and rates of rental esclusivslj, and much 
expert tcstimoiij was adduced b; both sides. The finding of the 
afbitrators, while not allowing all rental claimed for other rea- 
sons, approved the rates of rental contended for and the principles 
thereof in most instances. The rental rates in that case were 
based on practically the same percentaees and principles as those 
ir the table shown here, the cost of repairs l)eing praotic&lly the 
obly departure. As the rental factors in that case were based on 
pre.wac cotiditions, this departure is necessary to bring tbe cottt 
of these items into conformity with present values. Proceeding 
to analyze the different coat elements, we have: — 

DtCerent Cost Elements. Original Capital Coat. This element 
represents the first cost ol the equipment which must be recov- 
ered by changing oft the depreciation periodically and from the 
proceeds of its sale at the end of its useful life. In fixing the 
annual rate of depreciation (average between idle and working 
time) due credit haa been given the first cost of the equiptnmt 
for- its scrap or otisolescent value. The rate shown represents 
simplytlie rate of depreciation reduced to terms of original cost 
which, if applied annually, against the first cost, -will take care 
of the difference between first cost and the sale price at the end 
of the useful life. Obsolescence is considered as being reached 
with any piece -of equipment when it must be discarded for one 
that will do the work more economically. 

Interest on Capital Inveitment. The rate shown in the table 
represents Che. rate, which, if applied annually i^ainst tlM first 


coat o[ the equipment, will take care of interest charges against 
the capital investment throughout the useful life of the equip- 
ment at the customary rate of 6% per annum on the average 
capital value. Assuming the sate price of the equipment at the 
end of the useful life at 25% of the first cost, this makes the 
average capital value of the eqiiipment 82^% of the first cost. 
For machines which have no gale value at the end of the useful 
life this becomes 50% of the first cost. 

Ininrance and Storage SnriuK Idl< Time. These two items of 
expense have been combined in the table because the; are more or 
less related and the insurance Item is less than 1% per annum of 
the original capital cost. The charge tor these elements of coat 
include interest, depreciation, and maintenance of storage facili- 
ties, and all expense incurred for the storage of equipment. It 
also includes the expense of insurance on storage facilities and 
construction equipment. The annual percentage rate shown in the 
table is based on an annual cost of $15,000 to cover these items 
of expense on a construction plant the first cost of which was 

The columns headed " Rate of accrued charges on original cost " 
and " Total annual charge " in the table sum up the percentage 
and money charge respectively, that must be applied annually 
against the first cost of each piece of equipment. These columns 
bimply sum up the interest, depreciation, insurance and storage 
items just described. The values in the column headed " Total 
annual charge " will vary with the original capital cost, but those 
shown in the percentage column will remain constant and they are 
the key to finding the actual annual charge to be made in all cases. 

Having arrived at the annual cost to the contractor of owning 
tlie equipment, the next thing to ascertain is how to apply the 
charge against the different contracts in order to come out whole. 
In making this application, it is necessary to understand that 
there is of necessity a certain amount of idle time between con- 
tracts during which the contractor has no work against which to 
apply the accrued costs of owning the equipment, and that con- 
tractors engage tn the contracting business to stay indefinitely. 
It naturally follows that the contractor must carry on hand at 
all times enough equipment to enable him to hid on work with a 
certainty that he can equip the work in the time provided for by 
the specifications. The contractor, therefore, who fails to include 
charges in his plant rental rate during the earning time of the 
equipment that will absorb the accrued costs during the idle time 
between contracts upsets the very foundations of sound business 
principles and faces inevitable losses, either by way of being 
forced to dispose of the equipment quickly at the best price oh 


tainable, or by assuniing (he accrued cobIb of holding it during 
the idle time between covtiactB. Of courBc, there is the alterna- 
tive of renting the equipment during the idle time but that too 
haB its nncertaintiee, as a renter will jiot alwavB be available 
If these premisea are correct the nnmber of earning days, or 
the Diiinber of calendar day^ on which the equipment is assigned | 
to nork per annum is the factor to apply ta the total annual I 
charge in arriving at the correct daily rental charge to be made 
against the work. By thia method, the total accrued costs of 
owning the equipment is abeoibed by tlie earning time of the equip- 
ment and the enforced idle Costa properly accounted for. The 
average number of earning days per year for the different claasea 
of equipment, based on the information described at the beginning ' 
of thia analysis is shown in the table. The values shown repre- 
sent the number of calendar days and not actual working daya 
intervening between the time the equipment has been shipped to 
the work and its return to the storage plant, or until it has been 
assigned to another Job. In other words, rental should be charged 
against the work for each and every calendar day on which the : 
equipment is assijjncd to tbe work, working days being too uncer- ' 
tain a factor on which to base. The column headed " Daily charge 
for interest, depreciation, insurance and storage" represents the ' 
values arrived at by dividing the annual charge for accrued ex- ; 
penses and cbargea by the avejage number of earning days per 
year. The rates shown in the column should be used only in mak- I 
ing charges on work of such duration as to permit of shop and ' 
field repairs being charged directly against the work, 

ilainlaining Equipment in Vaeful Condition. Having disposed 
of the cost to the contractor of owning the equipment, there re- 
mains the expense of maintaining it in useful condition. This ex- 
pense, as before stated, comprises tbe elements of general or shop 
repairs, and of field repairs All construction equipment must be 
overhauled, and renewals and major repairs, commonly designated 
as shop repairs, made periodically. The cost of these repairs 
per earning day, U shown in the table. The expense of naaking 
these repairs cannot ordinarily be charged directly against the 
work, as they usually accrue on several contracts. The moat , 
satisfactory method of handling them is to provide a sinking fund i 
by charging in the rental rate an amount daily that will accumu- ! 
late a fund sufficient to cover the cost of these repairs at such 
periods as they are required. It is this daily charRe that ia shown 
in the column headed "General ahop repairs daily" in the table 

Daily Rental Value Including Shop Repaira. In the column 
of the table headed "Daily rental" will be found the values of 
rental per earning day for the different classes of equipment, in- 


eluding the allowance fw ainking fund to take care of shop repaire. 
ThU represents the daily rental cliarge that should be made 
against eaeh piece of equipment on ordinary work to take care 
of the annual charge and uhop repairs. It is the values shown 
in this column of the table that bhuuld be used for all jobs except 
tboae which are of too short duration to allow for field repairs 
to be charged directly against the work and those which are long 
pnough to allow both field and shop repairs to be charged directly 
against the work. 

Field Repairg. Field repairs are generally charged up directly 
against the work. They comprise simply such minor repairs and 
replacemente as are due to the ordinary breakage and wear of 
parts that must be taken care of on the job to keep the equipment 
running. The column beaded "Est. cost- field repairs daily" 
gives the value of these repairs per earning day. 

Total Rental Charges. There is a final columo. in the table, 
headed " Total rental charges daily including fteld repairs " in 
which the daily charge shown in the column headed " Daily 
rental " is augmented by the addition of the field repair charge. 
This colnmn is given for the information of the estimator who 
is concerned only with the total cost daily of equipment to the 
work, as his charges must also include the field repairs in making 
up the tender. The values in this column are also used in charg- 
ing out rental on jobs of short duration where there will be 
practically no field repairs, thereby preventing the charging of 
the field repairs directly to the work. 

In cases where force account jobs come up, requiring the use 
of equipment for short intervals of time less than weeks, it is 
recommended that charges be made on a working day basis instead 
of the earning day basis shown in the table. In this manner the 
lost time, including holidays will be taken care of. It will be 
usually found that an increase of 2S70 on the total rental rate 
including field repairs will cover this condition. 

It should be kept in mind that all valuer shown in the table 
for equipment rental show actual costs and do not include any 
element of profit. Should the equipment be rented to outsiders 
a profit should be added to the above. 



Bentai. Rates for GsAone 

OImi of •quipment 
Steam Bhorel 

SUndBrd i>c« lacomotlTB. 
Standard gsie loromotlTe. 

Dinliej' locamotiTe 

Dlokflf toeoinotiTe .--.,-,- 


Bail per Ion 

Track throwing machine . 

It-yd! air dump cars '.'.'.'.'. 
i2ji. air dump cars 

l»-yd. dump cara 

I'M. dump caia 

Flat cara 

Oaeollne locomoliT" 

1-yd. Koppel can, V ataape 
Motor truck. 6-K.n 

Caterpillar Wacior "gnii".'.'. 

EHeam pump 

Centrltunl pump, d. c. , 

Bcltrd pump 

DMp wan pomp 

Oaaoline ea^ne 

St«am engine 

Holating engine 

Horae pile drirer 

Steam pile driver 

IVsrk pile dviver 

Steam pile hammer 

Electric motor .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'■ 

Deep wen drill 

Steam tripod drill 

Jack hammer drill 

Olam ebell bncket . 
Rock channfler mai 





III ir 
ill i! 



CoKivACTOBs' Eqcipment 

1 'II 



Cum or EQcmfEirT 

-= S"* 

Eba3^ w*« 

i-hi. call, ptpc par IW H. 
M-iB. BdT. Pip* p. U* ft. 
I-Ql C>I*. pip* per Ut ft. 


5^ =|t l|i i;=; 

1 III ill --i ^'si 








is P 



t Grading Plows 

AH Steel Rooter Flows to be operated by from 2 to 12 horaes or 
the equivalent tractor depending on the character of tbe work 
weigh 2S0 lb. ajid coat $60. Eixtra revereible points weigh 26 lb. 
and cost ¥7. 

Hard Fan Rooter Flows for tearing up hard Btreeta, cobble 
pavements, shaly rock, gravel, hard pan or for an; work where a 
common plow cannot be used cost |3Q and the extra points cost 

Plows, of one make, suitable for road work are as follows; 

Weight Price 

Type Horses in lb. f. o. b. Obieago 

Township 2 100 |2I.TB 

•Railrosd ond lowDship 2 IK) 26.T& 

•HfaTj railroad 10 MO 43.25 

•HesTy mil road 12 IGO GT.50 

Rooter plow 4 2ffi 30.BO - 

Rooter plow, with extra point « 310 M.OO 

Rooter plow 12 BIS TT.50 

Plows marked with asterisk are furnished with extra share. 

Wing or Dltoh Flowg, These plows are dCHigned for making, 
cleaning and filling ditches, tile trenches and sewers. A. plow 
for use with two or three horses costs $46.50, one for use with 
tour to six horses costs $4H.50. and one for use with from eight to 
ten horses coats $70.00. All prices f. o. b. Chici^o. 

Using Flow to Open Favementi. The following by Mr. G. A. 

Bryan is from Engineering Record, July 25, 1914. Plowing was 


PLOWa 585 

the method adopted to break up stoue- surfaced streets in Carliile, * 
Pa., aa the preliminary operatioD in the conBtruction of a new 
eewerage BjBtem. The beam of the blow, vhich was designed to 
looEen the material to a depth of 12 in., was made from a wdl- 
Beaaoned piece of hickory, 8 in. square and 12 ft. 4 in. long. 
The point or ripping device was rigidly attached to one end of the 

Fig. 253. Contractors' Two or Four Horse Plow. 

beam, and at the other a substantial iron eye was provided through 
which stout chains could be passed to a.ttach the plow to the ma- 
chine that was to haul it. The point or ripper was of manganese 
steel 1^ in, thick and 3TVj in. long and was beveled at each 
end; the bevel amounted to 6 in. at each end. The point projected 
S in. in front of the cutting edge and was rigidly attached to it by 
steel plates ^ in. thick placed on each side of the cutting edge 

Fig. 254. Rooter Plow. 

and securely bolted t*> it by %-in. bolts. These same plates were 
similarly bolted to the point or ripper. 

The cutting edge was made of a piece of steel I^ in. thick and 
18^ in. square. Tb« front or cutting edge was V-sbaped in or- 
der to decrease the resistance of the plow in passing tlirough the 
ground. As a piece it was rigidly attached to the under aide of 


the beam b7 meaiiB of two 3 x 3\i, x %-in. angles. The abon , 
legs of iMith siiglen were Iraked to U\v Ijeam bj %-iii. bollu whith | 
paused entirely through the beam, and the cutting ed^ was in 
tuin bulled tu the long legs of thene angles bj %~iii- bolts passing 
tiiTOUgh both the 1 14-iii' plate and the leg of the angles. The 
point ur ripper was thus secured about 24 in. below the beam. 

To strengthen the siden of the beam a piece of band iron G x 60 
X 14 in. was secure); t>olted to eaeh side at the rear of tbe plow, 
and two narrower piecex served the same purpose at the front 
end.. Tlie plow wax guided b; means of handles. 

To faeiiitale moving the plow from place to place a two- 
wheeled truck was built. This truck carried a sort of iron loop 
into which the point or ripper could be slipped, thus raising it 

Fig. 265. ^^o^king Plow with St«am Itoller. 

about 6 in. above the ground and allowing the plow to be easily 
hauled about. An iron wheel about 6 in. in diameter was at- 
tached near the front end of the plow. 

The plow was designed to be hauled behind a steam roller, to 
which it was attached bf means of heavy iron chains. The 
method of operation was as follows; The center line of the sewer 
trench was first located by the engineer, who drove nails 50 
ft apart in the surface of the street. A line was then stretched 
from nail to nail and a laborer passed alonj; it, distributing red 
clay as he moved. This line of clay clearly defined the center line 
of the ditch and acted as a guide for both the man operating the 
roller and tbe men steering tbe plow. A hole was then dug at 
one end of the block to be ripped up and made large enough to 
set the plow info it. The plow waa put into place, the engine 


B.ttaclied and tbe plow dragged elowlj along, following the center 
line BM marked. 

Generally it was found neceBsary to drag three or tour timeB 
over the ditch in order to loosen completely the stone surfacing. 
In this way it was found that the stone surfacing would 1>e 
looBened for a width of about 1 ft. each side of the center line of 
the ditch and for a depth of between 1 and 1^ ft. below the 
surface of the street. The gang wbh conipoaed of four or five 
men — one man to operate the roller, two to steer the plow and 
one or two on the fiont end of the plow in order to hold it down, 
as it Always exhibited a tendency to rise. Usually between two 
and three hours were required la plow up the surfacing on m 
block averaging 500 ft. in length. 

The results obtained were very successful, as the plow left 
the surfacing materials so thoroughly loosened that they could 
be eaisily removed with pick and shovel. Stones fully 1 cu. ft. 
in size were removed by the plow. It was found that the plow 
would loosen almost any stone that was used in constructing a 
road, but it could not, of course, affect solid rock. It would 
a-lao rip up without much difGculty crosswalks built of grouted 
paving brick. On some streets conaiderable ditTieulty was ex- 
perienced, this tieing especially noticeable on those Htrpet,) where 
the solid rock projected into the street surface. In one instance 
this resulted in the breaking of the plow Iieam. It wa?t also found 
that the cutting edges required frequent sharpening in order to get 
the best results. 

The accompanying table gives the estimated cost to the con- 
tractor of the work of ripping up the street surfaces on all the 
blocks on which this plow was used. 

Costs of Rippixo Up Patemestb with Piow 

ForenuD. 147 houn M 25 eenia I U.7G 

Ro...!, iiic.uuins en^iiicei. oil, (ual, etc.. Mil boon at 

BO «Dta ia6.M 

Lsbor, «0 hours H IIM eenU T8.TS 

Originul con of plow K.OT 

Repsln (eatimslad) 20,00 

ToUl c«rt to eontraetor WSB.BO 

LflDeir feet ol itrcet lurfsclng ripp«d Dp (»st1ni«ted) 22.000 

Eitimaled cost per lluesr loot of ireneh lO.Olfi 


SECnOX 72 

Po«t bole diggers, ntt prict* S. a. h. St. Lonis, >re ma follawB: 

Lnictk «( Wi. per Prwf 

HcdriaiB. du. prr dm. 

ChMBjitOB. inm hsndla C U> flS.M 

Eurtka. •rood hiodln * 112 19.(U 

InTincibte, wood bindla 10 im aOO 

BDck>7C. •rood baiidla CM 115 

Post hole augcn. 

Diimder of W(. per Prin 

Ivan pattern . 

10 130 MSe 

Stag tttoSO 1S.TG 

Fig. 266. Using Post Hole Augers to Dig Holea tor Posts for 
Office Building, Forest Hilts, N. Y. 




(See Boilers.) 

Mr. Wm. 0. Webber, a consulting engineer of Boeton, has pub- 
lished some very interesting and moBt important ltgnre» to show 
the comparative cost of gasoline, steam, gas and electricity for 
small powers. Uis data have been compiled on the basis of 
yearly operation, the year comprising 3,080 hours, and for pur- 
poses of work in the Northern climate these will have to be modi- 
fied to suit the special case in point. I have, however, ab- 
stracted the tables without attempting to change them. 

I. — Cost of Oasounb Powbb (1012) 

Siie of pltmt in horse- 

... 2 t 10 20 

« tlM.OO t 32S.0I> I GOO.OO t 7E0.00 


€iiKiDe i 
per B. 

H. P.' 


ptT 3,m 


sup„ii«. 2im 

t 323.00 

t 0,20 

0.19 t 0.18 

97613 |1,388,(» 
37 J» 

3 space occupied, as 

Talne of Bpsee occnpied tlOO.OO 

II.— Cost of Electric CuaeiuT (1012) 
The costa for the electric current which are ueed in this table 
are figured from the discount table shown aa followa: 

DiBconnU on Monthly BiU. 
Uonthly Bill. Discounts. 

t 5 10% 

10 twJM 1K% 

» to 26 20% 

. B0% 

ffl.US =^ t7M.5fi, . 

wilhout dUcount 

(1.7*6 X J0.135 X 45% 

Monthly coat = IISO, DiMOunt ; 
For lO-horsepower plant: 

ft = 1298, DiKom 
3 080 X 20 X 0.7+ 

With wirlnn, rtr. 
Cost of eleelricitr, 

. AtttndsDce 

tnt«nRt, 6% 

DrprrciMSon, 10% . 

B^pslm. !>% 

SoppliH. 1% 

I^iea. 1% 

Tutsi e 

3,0e0 hrBj529.5a 

tinnm ..tG73.GS tl.D3T.:0 H^Z.W t2,Bn.«) 

in.— Cost of Gas Power (1012) 

B. T. D. 
8_<M pUnt 

. a. at EU leu 20%, it paid in 10 d>yi = tl.20 net, 

„ t i( in pl«ce ...|2C 

Ob* per hp. in fe*t 

Value of ia> oonaumed, 1,080 

t37s.«o fKs.oo ti,as 

Bapplln, 20% . 
Innraaen, t% . 
Taxee, 1% 

... i.oa 

Poirer cdM -: ItlS.TS 

Annaal charEe for apace , . , 3.00 

Total t(M per annnm . . . .tfi£4.7t 
Cost of 1 hp. per 

















IV.— Coax OF STEiM POWBB (1912) 

of «oH] at K per |i 
idance, S.OSO houra . 
waaW and mppliea 

...tlM.OO llffl.OO fSS.' 

. 75.00 50.00 

Cost 1 hp. per aannm, 10-hr, basis fZ7». 

Cost of 1 hp. per hour t0.09 

Mr. Webbn' baa eleewhere observed tbe fact that a gas-oigine 
of single cylinder type, which will operate on i,^ gal. ot fuel per 
hp. at full load will perhaps require over a gallon of hp. at a 
10% load; and a small steam engine, which will run on 6 pounds 
of coal per hp. per hour at full load may need 15 pounds at ^ 

Mr. W, 0. Webber has also given, in the Engineering Magazine, 
some interesting detailed figures on the cost of eteam plaJit in- 
stallation, which are given in the following table: 

Cost tw Installation or i. lO-HoseEPOWSS Si^am Plant (1612) 

Land for engine and biriler room. 300 aq. ft. ® tlfSOO.OO 
B^er and eagiue room building, SO(F iq, ft, @ 

11.60 450.00 

Chlmnej-, lO-iW 400.00 


lO-honepower boiler tU.OO 

BoUn foundation *nd eettluB, 3,IKW 0. B. EM F. B. IfiO-M) 

Blow-off Unk 31.00 

. Damper «nd legulBim T5.D0 

Fnnip snd TBCuiim 122JM 

Peed wster hesler 40.«0 • 

Pipe OOTeriBg 60J» 


Engine, 7 by 10 J184.00 

PouodBUon lor same W.OO 

8te*m Hper4lor %,00 

on eepsrator 26.0Q 

Piping 95.00 

Freight and earUge ■ SO.W 



Cost of Installation «w a 60-Hobsepowbb Steam Flakt (1912) 

Land for engine and boiler room (2.600.00 

. BuildiDgg for engine and boiler room 1,EOO.OO 

Chimney 1,200.00 

80-borBBpower boiler t TM-OO 

Aah pan [or boiler (behnr high tide level).,. 130.00 

Bailer and engine geUings I,£83.e0 

BlovolF tank 81.00 

" r regnlator TE.OO 



Watei __. 
Piping for 
Pamp and 

reed w»t« 

Pipe corerlng T0.T5 

fngine, 12 by 80 H.OOS.OO 
an (or engine fly-wheel TZ.DO 

aiaun aeparator W.OO 

Oil Hperalor 41.80 

Piping, freight and eartace 1,0».41 

Sharttng in place t 660.00 

Belting in ^a« 285.00 



tU.»TT.9» -I- M = flBa.SI per hp. 

Mt. Wm. E. Snow haa contributed to the engineeTing press some 
extreme); useful tables of the various costi of steam plant for 
different siEes of instalktion. 

From his fignrea of 1^06 I have compiled tbe following tbree 
diagrams, Figa. 257, 2fi8, 259, wliicli show graphically the elTerl 
of size of plant upon the various elements of cost. 

Tint Cost and Goit of Operating Power Flantt for Vrlvln; | 
North UlTei Tnnneli of Pennsylvania Kallroad. New York City. 

(Extract from a paper entitled "The New Yorlt Extension ol 
the Pennsylvania Railroad North River Tunnels," by B. H. M. i 

POWER 5fl3 

Hewett and W. D, Brown, Proceedings Amerieein Society a! Civil 
Engineers, 1010, Vol. XXXVT, p. 690.) Two power plants were 
conatruct«d, one on each side ot the river. The plants contained 
in the two power houses- were almost identical, there being only 
slight differences in the details of arrangement due to local con- 
ditions. A list of the main items of the plant at one power house 
ia shown in Table I. A summary of the Hrst cost of one plant is 
given in Table II. 

Fig. 257. Approximate Yearly Costs of Steam Power, 150 Days, 
10 Hours per Day, Simple Condensing. Plotted from Data 
Compiled by Wm. E. Snow, 1&08, 

Table I — Punt Ar Obe Powiai House (ifllO) 

Description of Hem. Coat. 

SEOO'hp. watertube Sterlln? boilers t 15,ISB 

2 feed pumps, Oeorge F. Bliilie MsnufocturiDe Ctf. 740 

1 Henrv R. Woribineton surface condeiuer .°. 6,539 

2 eleclriciJlj' driven cLrculating puini,a on river front ... B.961 

3 low-pressure compressore. In ^r soil Sergeant Drill Co. S3,780 

a hrdraulie power pumps, George P, Blake Mff. Co 3,OTS 

2 OenersI Electric Co.'b gcneralors coupled to Ball and 

Wood engine! 7.82* 

Total cost of main items ot plant (1310) 179,572 

Table II — SdHiuBY of Coar of One PL&nt (1910) 

ToWi coBi of nmin llenm of plant t 7»,BW 

Coal or tour Hhierds (includiaj iasUllation. demolition, 

of ofl^ and all mnci llHOeoui 'plaoU ...' im.SlS 

Ooet of insWUstlon, includiuf prepKrallon of slle 3S,53i 

Total prime eoet of one power hoaie plant (13101 %m,tSi 

lij Dollor*; \t ^i 

Fig, 258. Approximate Costa per Horsepower oE Ste&m Power 
Plants Complete, Simple Condensing. Plotted from DaU 
Compiled by Wm, B. Snow, 1908. ' 

Fig. 258. Approximate Yearly CoBte of Steam Power, 150 Daye, 
10 hrs. p<>r Day, Simple Non-Condenaing. Plotted from Data 
Compiled by Wm. E. Snow, 1908. 

In order to give an idea of tbe general cost of running these 
plants. Tables III and IV are given as typical of the force em- 
ployed and the general supplies needed for a 24-hour run of one 
plant. Table III gives a typical run during the period of driving 
the shieldfl, and Table IV ia typical of the period of concrete 
construction. In the latter case the tunnels were under normal 


air pressure. Before the junctioD of Uie ohieldB both plants 
were running continuously; aft«r the jnnction, but while the 
timuelB were still under compresBed air, only one power house 
plant was operated. 

Table III — Cost of Ofboatino One Powes House roB 24 HouBs 
During Excavation and Metal Limno (1910) 

Labor. Rate per D»y. Amount. 
t Knelneen *3.00 t 18-M> 

1 Pompraeo 3.00 6.0B 

1 ForfiDiAD electrician ..-.-.-...- fi-00 tt.OO 

1 Electrician 3M 8.09 

1 Laborer I.OO S.OO 

Total per day t 2S.IM 

Total for 30 dBya SMM 

SupplieB. Bate per Da;. Amoaut. 

Ooal (14 tons per day) » I.lfi I 44.10 

Oil (4 gala, per dayi fl.BO 2.00 

Watw 13.00 IS.OO 

Other Buppliea 2.00 JM 

...» 81.1( 

... XfSt.K 

T 30 daya t.CTl.OD 



1 have taken, the following clarification of pomps from 
Turneaure and RuBsell's "Public Water Suppliee": 

Pumps may be claaaified in various waya, but for the consid- 
eration of their mechanical action they may be best Considered 
under the following heads : 

1. Diaplacement-pumps. 

2. Impeller-pumpa. 

3. Impulse- pumps. 

4. Bucket-pumpa. 

Fig. 260. Submerged Type. 

The various subdivigions of the claesifii^tbn ore shown ii 

_ 1 Plabu. fIo«iiir-p»eked 

irmnger |_ceiil8r-pBcked 

I Hieb-presBoie 
f Oompouud 

^,, , Surface (iuMion) 
RoUry ^^' i Submereed or de 

inngoi-flow Li>o^^^ting 

[minilH (a> name ImpHea) — WsMr-t 
Bucket (recepUcte alternatety fiUed t 

Centrifi^ftl Pnmps. The centrifugal pump (Fig. 260) has ben i 
HO developed and perfected that it is now recognized as a simple, 
reliable pump of great range. | 

The princijial trouble with a centrifugal pump, eBpecially ' 
when tlie pump is at a substantial height above the water, is in 
starting it. When the pump sucks it .must be reprimed and 



started again. Therefore, if the amount of water to be- handled 
is not as great as the minimuiu capacitj there will be many 
Btopa and knock-offs to prime. Before starting up a steam pump, 
especially in cold weather, it nhould be well warmed up by live 
steam from the end of a hose in order to thaw out an; ice that 
may have formed in the cylinders and to give the iron parts a 
chance to expand gradually. 

Iron Vertical Centrifugal Vnmps, submerged or suction type, 
furnished complete with short shaft and coupling, one bearing, 
pulley for connecting shaft and discharge elbow, are used exten- 
sively for irrigation purposes, sewage pumping, and for any 
place where a pump may be placed in a pit. Suitable for ele- 
vating water 50 to 80 feet. 

IBON Vebtical CENTBiPuaAL Pumps 

1 16 lO.IVM fl'fl" 

'Refen to lovlitt pumps ti 

(Lb.) Price Complete 

I ^ I S 

7S5 140 210 

Fig. 2S1. Horizontal Type. 



lion Horteontal CentrlfiiEal Piunpi for belt drive. A pump 
used extaniively for all purpoaeB. 

Iron Houzontu. CESTaauau. Puups 










1 fi 



:; ta 




S 5' 





3 m 


tl 8 


< 260 


8* 8 





6 TJS 


g 1.050 





\2 3,000 



16 i.m 




t 4,200 





20 10,000 

40 1 10 










A liwa 


pnoips tor 


DS up to 





The above pump, fitted with a direct eonneet«d vertical steam 
engiDe costs: 4 in. side auction, 4x4 in. engine $420; weight, 
l,2eo lb. S in. Bide auction, 5x5 engine, $450; weight, 1,440 

6 in 


auction 6x6 in. engine, $475 

weight,- 1,570 lb. 


Connected Dbedoino Pumps 



Cylinder. jj| ^= 

1 1 lil 

1 ' 




Direct Conneoted IHtigtag Pnrops, complete with auetion and 
lischarge elbow, flap viklve and steam primers, lubricator and 
>il cups. Cast iron impellor. The shipping weight and the price 
nay vary 20% from the averages given in table. 

Belt IMtcb Siuid and Dredgtng Pnmpa, complete except for pipe 

Belt Dbiven Pumps 


RS 1 

•^ 1; 


Fig. 202. Standard Side Suction Volute Pump. 

sntrifugal pumps costs as fol- 

ea\. per min. Wt. in Price 

din A. lb. f.o. b. facUHf 

IM 147 190 220 260 280 30« 

200 310 380 430 480 GIO »0 

350 fiSO 6O0 700 770 850 020 

600 850 lOOO 1130 1270 1400 1500 

■reo 1050 130E 1E70 1620 1770 1905 

1280 1880 2100 2400 27O0 2900 3100 

20M 3000 3fi60 4200 4700 4500 1000 

2200 4200 4960 5400 5800 6040 8200 


The above mkchiDM are of the single siictiou open impeller •typ< 
and are used for law lifts and gritty water. 

Donble Bnction Centrtfngsl Pmnps used for general set-vice a-rt 
made in a wide diversity of eizes and capacities. In this typt 
of centrifugal pump each different condition requires a apecia. 
design of pump and equipment and it is impossible to give sizec 
and other data within the available apace. 

Moltl-Stage Centrifugal Pumps used for heavy duty and higli 
lifts are also specialty designed for each particular job. 

Fig. 263. Direct Acting Piston Pump. 

Direct Acting Pliton Pumps designed for general service, made 
ivith iron water cylinder, bronze lined, and bronze piston rod, cost 
is follows; 

Vertical Plunger Binkliig Pump used 
etc., for gritty water, requiring a 
costs as follows; 

The capacities in gallons per minute of the above two types nravt 
be reduced 20% if the lift is high. 

Fig. 264. Vertical Plunger Sinking Pnmp. 

Contractor'! Differential FlnnKer Fnmp, adapted to work where 
the lift iB light and the water contaios conHiderahle sediment is 
rated at a displacement of from' 60 to 03 gal. per min., neighs 
630 lb. and coBts $260. The diameter of the suction pipe is 3 in.. 


diBcharge, 2^ in. Diameter of the Bteam pipe U % in,, exhaust 

Pulaometer. A very well known steam operated vacuum pump 
is the one illustrated in Fig. 265. It eonsistB of two bottle shapeil 
eylindera with the neceBsary valve inlet and outlet pipes. The 
operation of this pump is Buatained by alternate pressure and 
vacuum. Steam, cushioned by a layer of air automatically ail- 
mitted, is brought to bear directly upon the liquid in the pump 

Fig- 205. 

chambers and forcee it out through the discharge pipe; the sub- 
sequent rapid condensation of the steam, effected by the peculiar 
construction of the pump, forms a vacuum in the working cham- 
bers, into which atinoepheric pressure forces a fresh supply of 
liquid through the suction pipe. This action ia majntained quite 
automatics I l.v, and is governed by a self-acting valve ball in the 
neck of the pump, which obeys the combined iofluencee of steam 
pressure on one side and vacuum on the other. The valve ball 
oscillates from its seat in the entrance to one chamber to its 
seat in the entrance to the other chamber, thereby distributing 
the steam. 

This pump will do all classes of rough service raieing yrater 
up to 75 feet elevation. It has no piston, no packing, no oil, 
!Lnd seldom breaks down, but is very uneconomical of steam. 



6 % 3>4 3H 30O 2«5 200 12 3S5 43T 5T0 

T % 4 4 425 J7B 275 IS 480 OJO T45 

SI 5 5 TOO 625 450 25 «90 755 1,975 

11^ 11 S l.COD »00 050 36 900 970 2,100 

10 2 8 8 2,q00 1.8O0 1,400 70 l.BOO .... 3,800 

Each pump is furnished complete with either basket or mush- 
room strained steam and release valve connection, and pump hook 
for suspending when necessary, but no piping. 

These pumps will work, admitting 30% of air or 2S% of grit, 
and a continuous run of four months has been recorded. Th^ 
are especially valuable in quicksand and wherever the quantity 
of water is variable. The coat of repairs is nominal. 

These pumps are made in two types; the standard consists of 
two vertical cylinders, each with a discharpe and suction valve, 
topped by one simple, three-cylinder horizontal engine, with the 
necessary air cocks, lubricator and condenser piping, but no 
steam, suction or discharge pipe is supplied. 

Steam Opebated Vacuum Pumps 

The capacities in the above table are calculated on a head or 
lift of 20 ft. They diminish at the rate of about 4% for every 10 ' 
ft. additional up to 150 ft., the highest head recommended. 


Capacity in Approiimslo ihip- price 

^■1. p«r min. ptuK weight in lb. I. o. b. tacWrr i 

TE 2TS ttlO 

im 360 138 

The Junior consists of a single cylinder, a steam pist<ai yalvt 
suction valve, discharge valve, condenser pipe, check valve and 
stop cock, and is furnished with the patented foot valve and quick 
cleaning atrainer. 

Capacities stated in table in gallons per minute and per hour 
are calfulateil on a. head or lift of 20 feet. These c*pftcitiea 
diminish at the rate of about e% for each 10 feet of additional 
head up to 100 feet, the highest lift. 

Hand DiapbraKm Pumps, uned upon colTerdams, pier founda- 
tions, trench work and all work of similar kind, are made in sev- 
eral sizes. Two sizes of one make are as follows; Capacity per 

Fig. 266. Diaphragm Pump. 

stroke 1 gal., 3'iit. suction, weight 185 lb., price $36; capacity per 
stroke 2 gal., 4-in, suction, weight 200 lb., price $60. Prices in- 
clude hand brake or handle, but no hose. 

Hand Trench Fump of the diaphragm type rated at from 600 to 
800 gal per hr. when operated by one man, and rated to lift 
water 20 ft. and to force it 50 ft. higher, is mounted on a board 
and costs £23. Price of this pump Including 10 ft. of suction hose 
and 25 ft. of linen discharge hose, all coupled up, is $50. 

Pnmplng Uniti. There are a great many makes of gasoline 
driven pumping units of several types on the market. The follow- 
ing are the prices of a few of the makea. 


DiAPHB&GM PuMPB FOR Long amd Contisuous Opebatiok 

3-ln. pump on skida witliirat eDgine, CBpuitr 3000 eal. pe 
3-in. pump on skids. 2^ bp. engin'-. Blii;ipiiiE veifpn 580 
3-iii. pamp on lni<ik>, 2^ Ip. engine, ehippfne * fight K 
4-iii. pump OD skids wlihont rn^ine, fapacitv 450ii anl. pe 
4-iii. pomp on skid«, 2hi hp. eoEind, abipping weiglit «50 lb... 
4-ln. pump on (rucks, 2^ lip. engine, shipping weight 850 lb. 

Double Diaphragm Pumps Mounted on Trucks 
OMseilyin Hp.of Sbii 

f . o. b. Micbip 

Triplex Pumping Outfits Mounted on Skids 

CBpaelty in Hp. of Shipping Pt 

SU. perhr. engine weilht in lb. f , o. b. t 

3.000 e i^ioa soo 

3,000 S 2,2^ 000 

4,800 10 5,000 1,336 

In the above add $25 for hand trucks. Pump operates at { 

preunre of 150 lb., the total head in ft. is 350. 

F^. 287. Triplex Pump. 

HioH Pbessvbe Fobob Pumps on Skids 

^•mcity in Hp. of Shipping Prtc 

gat. per hr. engine weight in lb. t. o. b. Hi 

In the above, add $20 for hand trucks. The total head for the 
above is 400 and 515 ft. the pressure i» 175 and 225 lb, per sq. in. 
Magnetos for all the foregoing typee coet $50 extra. 

Fig. 268. Force Pump. 
Pump AcccfisoKiES 

BrMS hose couplinga lor S-inch, per sel S.BO 

HraHa h<we rovplingv (or l-jDch, per Get .■■-....-....-.-..... LQ.AS 

Gstvanised strainer and foot Talie for 3-iDch 3M 

OalTaniMd strainer and foot valte (or Jinch 6.2G 

Hose hands for 3 inch, each M 

Hose bands for 4inch. each .«5 

Rubber diaphragm for 3inrh pump 3.00 

Kuhb^r diaphragm (or <inch pump 3.50 

Another make of pumpa coxtn as follows: 

OutJit No. 1, engine 1^ hp., 3 in. suction diaphragm pump, ca- 
pacity 3,000 to 5,000 gal. per hr., depending on conditions, weight 
050 lb., price $230. 

PUMPS 609 

OutSt No. 2, eogine 2 hp., 4 in. Buctjoa diapbn^m pump, ca- 
pacity 7,200 to 8,400 gal. per hr., depeodiiig on conditionB, weight • 
926 lb., price S270. 

Outfit Ko. 3, engine 3^ lip., two 4 inch diaphragm puin[e, ca- 
pacity 12,000 to 17.000 gal. per hr., depending on conditions, 
weight 1,530 lb., price $410. 

Outfit No. 4, engine 2 hp., connected to 3 inch Cesspool dia- 
phragm pump, cap^ity 2,000 to 4,600 gal, per hr , weight 950 lb., 
price $310. 

Outfit No. 5, engine 3% hp., connected to a 3 inch suction cen- 
trifugal pump, capacity 160 to 250 gal. per min., weight 1,260 lb., 
price $430. 

Outfit No. 6, engine 2 hp., connected suction and force pump 
of piston type, capacity 1,000 to 18,000 gal. per hour, weight 725 
lb„ price $260. 

Outfit No. 7, engine 3^ hp,, connected to piston pump cylinder, 
capacity 2,000 gal. per hr., weight 050 lb., price $336. 

Outfit No. S, engine 3% hp , connected to 3 in. centrifugal pump 
and diaphragm pump, capacity of centrifugal pump 12,000 gal. 
per hour, diaphragm pump 0,000 to 84,000 gal. per hr., weight 
1,600 lb., price $550. 

High hand Wock » 30 

One hone truck with shatls »« 

Two horse truck wHh pole lOS 

Meek ^oke single ind douhle trees 12 

Tf eagines are wanted withont trucks dednct 30 

Uhcb for above. Outfits 1 and 2 for trenches and excavations, 
etc, where water can flow away by gravity. 

Outfit 2 has large capacity and can be used to remove water 
from two places at the same time. 

Outfit 4 used for removal of sewage water from ceespoole and 

Outfit 6 used for low lifts and gritty water. 

Outfit 6 used for pumping from drains and culverts and small 
excavations; for filling tanks, watering carts and boilers^ for 
supplying concrete mixers; will elevate water to maximum height 
of 235 ft. 

Outfit 7 used for road work, will deliver water for distance 
of two railee, or elevate water to height of from 100 to 300 ft. 

Outfit 8 combining advantages of outfits 2 and 5. 

Hose and FnriNas 

Suction hoae, S inch, per ft 1 1.50 

Suction hose, 3 inch, per ft IM 

Suction hose, 4 inch per ft 3.00 

Discharge hoae. lU inch, per ft M 


Diictiarge hou, 2 Inch, p« tt 48 

Dischsrite hoie, 3 inch, pw fl. TI 

Br«H coupling*, IW inch, per wt 1« 

ron and toot valTg 




steel KaUi. 


SUDdard B. _ 

Sttndaid own heurth r 
Light rails. 8 to IC '" 
Lizht mils, 12 to It 
Light ri ■■ - 

I the quoUtioDB Ju., 1920, f. o. b. 

■mils, 25 to 46 lb 2.45 per IW 

Track StippUei. Jan., 1^0, f. o- b. Pittsburgh. 

Standsrd spikes. %t In. and larger 

Prices in fair eised lots Jan., 

Wood Place 

Flr-grenn San Francis 

FHrcreOTOted San Prnnr-i- 

most generally used and their 

One flat car will hold about 60 rails 


The ordinary R. R. rails 

classifled about aa Mlowai 

ill i8sl 



1^ ^ 

g saw -ja -flail! sisSSffiSSEJSSSaffiSKSSR 
5 ■«!!« JO ii|a!»M"i5;^s^!Sngsi^geE2ag3|S2^ 

;3 ■not -18 gsss23s»^g553;s5«BPe 

I "W'» ■"i""i'|||||i||i|i||||||i| 

^ Mioq JO i3qnmN||m^m|l|im|§| 


I. Fit for main track on a standard railroad. 
II. Sides worn from curves but perfectlj smooth. 

III. In good condition but witli bettered ends which can be cut 

ofT and the bolt holes rebored. 

IV. Fit onlf for sidings. 

Fishplates and Bolts Requibid fok One Mile Sinqle Tback 

Oomplete OomplMe 

Lentpholrftil ]alala I«nKtli ol rail j«iut« 

All 21 (eel 603 All 30 teat 352 

All 21 feet MO SOW, 50 fevt I 

All 28 feet V» 10%. »liorWr| 

All £S reet STI ; -388 

Each joint consists of two plates and four bolts and nuts. 
Therefore the number of plates required is twice as many as 
the number of complete joints, and the number of bolts required 
is four times as many. If six bolts are required for a joint, then 
the number of bolts will be six times the number of complete 

Railboad Spikes 


meai- Rail 

ured AierBgs namber Tiei 2 fe«t between lued. 

under per teg ef eentere, * Bpiles weight 

head £00 pounds per tie needed per mile per yard 

«eo pgand* — £3U kepi 

>uQda-EO k^eO 
jundB - ir.V4 liegs I 

2%i% 1S42 1G75 poondB - m >««■ 12 to IS 

Portable Tracks are used mainly for industrial purposes, espe- 
cially in plantations, mines, handling lumber, quarries, wharves, 
power and industrial plants, but many times in general con- 
tractors' work the use of such track is economical because of its 
liglit weight, compactness, and portability Portable track is 
usually shipped " knocked down " to save freight charges. 

DepTMlation. Rails in general lose value from the following 

Through loss of weight due to » 

Frcnn becoming bent and unlit for smooth operation. 

From the weakening ^ect of attrition or wear. 


The flrat of thes» cauam dependa partly upon the climatic 
conditioDB and partly upon the nature of the traffic that goes 
oTet the rails. Befrigerat*ir cars containing a large atnount of 
brine are very deadly to steel rails beeause the brine leaking 
slowly upon the rail tends to keep it more or Icse saturated with 
a salt solution whith rapidly combines with the iron to form 
hjdrated iron oxide or rust. 

The second cause outlined above obtains principally on con- 
tractors' light rail, where the rail is too light for the track «nd 
where the ties are spaced too tar apart. If contractors would 
appreciate the fact that a rail which bas been thoroughly kinked 
is fit only for scrap and that it need not be kinked at all il 
the tie a are proper I >■ spaced, their depreciation on ordinary 
equipment of this kind would be much less than it usually 
averages, and there would be the collateral advantage of fewer 
derailments. Today the habit is growing among contractors 
to use a rail of heaiier section than formerly, and also to space 
the ties nearer together. These ties should never be more than 
three ft. apart and seldom more than 30 in. A good weight of rail 
for narrow gauge track ia 40 lb. 

Mr. Thos. Andrews has published the results of some exam- 
inations of the loss of weight per annum of 11 rails-of known 
Bge and condition under mail train trathc in England. The 
first ten of these were in the open and the eleventh, with a life 
of 7 years, was in a tunnel. The average wear and life of each 
are given in the following table: 

Timolife islperyd. 

21 ycBtB «.)») 

25 yesn 0.420 

IT TP»r« 0.S20 

18 years O.MO 

IS jenrs O.280 

1» rears O.BSO 

21 years, avarBje (10) 0.324 

7 rears 2.800 ■ 

Ckmtractors' light track <^ 30-lb. rail with 36-in. gauge was 
laid on a grading job in 1009. Teams and drivers coat 65 ct-; 
labor, IE ct., aiid_ foreman, 35 ct. per hour. The rail and ties, 
which latter were of x 6-in. spruce, 6 ft. long, were gathered 
from various places on the work and hauled hy horses an average 
distance of 1,500 ft. to the site of the track; 1,000 ft. of track, 
including 2 complete snitches, with ties 4 ft. apart, were laid, at 
a total labor cost of $58.65, or «0.057 per ft. 


1^00 lin. ft. of track, including twi; switchea, Bimilar to above, 
fere laid on another job in five days gl the following cost: 

lt««D at 6.00 2S.i» 

Tot*]. 1909 1121.25 = t0.O81/fl. 

Ibe lakx>r cost of unioailiiig and setting up industrial track 
in buildings und«r conxtructitm whs in IfllO about 3 ct. per lin. ft. 
of track. It coatB- about the same to move such track from floor to 
floor and set up again. 

Portable Kailways for Hanline Katerlals fat Boad Constmo- 
tlon. The following is from Engiiteering and Contracting Mar. 4, 

These railways consist of track rails and ties made up into units 
capable of being carried b; two men, and of similar turntable, 
switch and other special units, all of which are laid down on the 
ground and connerted up to form a continuouR line. Transporta- 
tion over these railways is aecomplit-hed by special small cars 
hauled either by horses or by " dinky " locomotives. For roadwork 
the portable track is- laid along the side of the grade or along tbo 
shoulders, and extcsids from the railway siding, gravel pit, atone 
quarry or other source of supply to the plaoes where work is being 

The equipment used consisted of about four miles of narrow- 
gauge portable track, 40 36 k 24-in. dump cars and two 5-toD dinky 
locomotiTea. The cars were hauled in trains of 12 oars each, the 
arrangement being so made that there was always one train of 
loaded cars on the way to the site of the work, one train of emptiee 
returning for material and one train of cars being loaded. The 
average amount transported was BO cu. yd. per day 

While hauling stone three milen from a crusher at the quarry 
to the road the cost of operating the trains was as follows: 


Item Amount ru. yd. 


Foel ud oil for iMomativiw and cars | 8.00 tO.lDO 


: eagineer* at 12.75 B.SO 0.««9 

ZbriVemen at fl.TE 3.» O.OM 

1 track tonman at f3 3.00 0.03T 

1 track laborer at 11.79 1.75 0.02! 

TOUIt I21.T5 10.272 

As' the material was hauled three miles the unit cost was ct. 
per cubic yard per mile. The average cost of grading the shoulder 


or berm of the road ready for track laying and laying track was 
between 2 and 3 ct. per foot of track. 

Partiettlars Seqnlred for Inqnlriei and Orders. In order to 
facilitate the making up of offers and eatimatee and to save time 
and uimecesBary correspondence, buyers should always answer the 
following questions as completely as possible; 

For RaiU. State weight per yard, name of mill rolling the 
rail and numbor of section (both of which con be found on web 
of rail), or send sketch of section or a short sample piece. Also 
state drilling of same; distance from end of rail to center of firnt 
hole and distance from center of first hole to center of second 
bole, and diameter of holes. 

For BwiitAtt. Besides the foregoing, state gauge of track, 
length of switch points, number or angle of fri^, style of frog, 
kind of groundthrow or switchstand, radius desired, whether 
rl^t, left, two-way or three-way, and whether for wooden ties 
or mounted on steel ties. 

For Crouingt. Besides rail eeetion, drilling and gauge, as 
above, for all tracks that are to be connected by the croHsing, 
state angle of crossing, curvature, if any, and atyJe of crossing. 

For Turntables. Besides rail section, drilling and gauge, as 
above, state weight of car, including load to be turned, its 
wheelliase (wbeelbase is the distance from cent«r to center of 
axle on one side of the car), diameter of whnels, and whether 
turntable is to he used inside or outside of buildings, and portable 
or permanent. 

For Wheel* and AaiUs. State gauge of track, diameter of 
wheels, diameter of axles, outside or inside journal and dimeii' 
sions, load per asle, width of tread, height of fUnge. 


Two-Han Eakes. Two-man rakes, used in levying broken 
stone, sell at the following net prices, for quantities, at Chicago: 

lO-Kwg 'i«M 

14-tooUi 49.00 

Asphalt or Tar Sakes. Asphalt or tar rakes made of solid 
steel, with drop shank, strap ferrules, S-ft. selected white, ash 
handles and 18-in. square iron shanks, sell at a net price, tat 
quantities, at Chicago, of $24.00 per doz. 



On large jobs where a camp ot considerable size is tnaiotained a 
refrigerating plant would often be ver; aatiefactorj'. A 3-hp. 
motor and air compressor with a direct expansiMi system and 
brine tank auxiliary for storage will take care of a box 0x6x11 
ft., containing 1^ tons of perishable foods. The first coat of 
such an equipment would be about $2,000 and the operating cost 
of electricity about $26.00 per month. 


The following are the prices of a make of riveting guns; 

BivaU Cu II. rr«« air Weiiht Price 

apto per min SO lb. inlb. t. o. b. facto 

IS in. sa.ll 23 SO 

On Pierson & Son's work on the East River tunnels for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad 200,000 rivets were required in each of 
2 caissons. The record day's work on the caisson was 1,406 
rivets by a gang with a Boyer riveter working from a regularly 
suspended scaffold. One extra man worked in the gang. 1,200 
rivets were the ordinary day's work. All rivets had to be tightly 
driven ao as to render work absolutely water tight. 


Fig. 289. Riveting Gun. 


Steel Bivete. The foUowing were tlie prices f. o. b. Pittebargh, 
January, 1920, per 100 lb. j 

Stnirtiiral, « in, ind lirgn- 14.10 

OoDii hud boiler, ^ in. and larier 4.30 

% ind iWo 4.45 

W »nd *i8 4.TO 

heagtha shorter than l-in. take an eitra 50 rents. I 

Lengths betireea l-in. and S-in. t^e an extra, SS cents. 




(See Grading Machines) 

Soad Constroctfon Plant of the Boaid of Eoad Commiulonert 
of Wayne County, Kichigan. (From Etiffineering-OantracHng, 
Nov. 8, 1010.) Some years ago Wayne County, Michigan, adopted 
a plan for the construction of good rottds thTou^lioiit tlie county. 
In accor'dance with this plan a, board of county road commiseioners, 
reporting to the county nupervisoTs, was appointed to handle 
and dlshurse all money Appropriated for county road purposes. 
A definite HyHtemetic plan of road construction corering a period 
of years was adopted, and work under this plan haa now been 
under way for four years. The work of the romm i as i oners is 
extensive, covering, as it does, the main highways leading into 
tbe city of Detroit and the main highwayn radiating from the 
smaller communities in the county. One feature of especial inter- 
est in the work of tbe commissioners is the comparatively large 
mileage of concrete paved road» that have been constructed. Of 
this type of road about 16 miles have been completed or are 
under way at the present time. Most of the road work has been 
done by day labor, at times as many at 250 men being in the 
employ of the commission. 

In its road work the board ha« eliminated all band and horse 
labor wherever the same or better results could be achieved by 
machinery. Stone, cement and sand are hauled in trains of from 
two to HiK cars holding seven ton loads by road engines. Water 
is piped and pumped by gasoline engines wherever possible. 
Plowing- and grading are done behind an engine. Concrete is 
mixed in a mechanical batch mixer which travels under its own 
power and from which a long crane projects over the work, on 
whit'h tt clamshell bucket travels with the mixed material. The 
accompanying figures taken from the fourth annual report of the 
roBil commisHioners tor the year ending Sept. 30, 1010, show the 
original cost of the plant used by the commissionera in their 
road work : 


r:„|. :iMG00tjl>J 


Hauling and Grading MaohiDery and 
Equipment : 

Steam enginra i %tiraii 

Road rollers 4 

Seven Ion Slono dump wagons 24 

Top boips (or Bsme 24 

8erap«TB, Doan . 
Serapers, hnnd .. 

Concrete Equipment: 

l^crele carw 



2-in. blick lead pipe, feet, B.3CT 

OanTMea for prolmting concrelo 




Taquaree (jrsding ban) 


t 4.740.M 

Scythe and '"'"i v- ■ 


SprinUiDK rans 



Blackamlthing Outfit and Toots; 

Ratchet drill . 
Brean drill .. 
Drill tnl« 


Shovels and Handled Toola: 

Shovels, D. H. 
Shovela,. icoop 

Poat hole dimier ■ 

Concrete Tile M&king Equipment: 

IbUt, 8-tn 

HoMa, la-in 

Top rings, 8-iii 

Ibp Tioga. IZ-in. . 

BoWom ringg. I 

I, «-iD. . 

Camp Equipment: 

tiea ftnd bunk li 

O- blanket! 

Dlibea, eatlerr, pote, ketttw, i 

38 J3 

Id addition to the above the commiBsionera own the following: 

0»rpenter»' tool* t 82.73 

UiKeUsnwus 131.96 

Eoginenring Bnd oKri' pquipmenl 1,IB5J7 

Oemeot teating sppnmtuB 56.05 

The total original coat of the plant and property was $33,185.38. 
The depreciation for 1609 was pla<^ed at $3,850.88 and the depre- 
ciation for 1910 at 1S% wae placet^ at $4,400.18. 


Erad-KkkUtg ftent. The following U the approiimjite coat of 
a road-making plant, operating in the State of MisHouri, figures 
of 1910. 

Six dump can •nd 300 ft. ot trackage for aee in qnuir ■ t WO.OO 

CrDBhar. 11 In. t^ 18 in., 35 Mas p«r bonr opuct^ TTS.oo 

Bin — S wctioni KO.OO 

KtaTBlor — U fL IBO.OO 

Rerolviag KTeeD — 30 in.. 4 ft. kmg IS.IM) 

Two Ir.clion cngimw— aOhp 3.000.00 

One loton WEBm roller — la hp i,B00.00 

One e-bonr grader 300.00 

Sii dump wagoni — 1)4 co. yd 800.00 

TVeWe hand drilli, 12 piekg. 12 crowbnr*, » shovels 60,00 

One road plov. tS — 11 in, out, 4 horM 30.00 

8ii wheelers. No. 3 — 12 en. ft. capacitr J9O.0O 

BiidriK*, No, 2 — 4S m. ft. tnpaetly 40.00 

Sprinkling wagon No, i — MO gal, oapaoitj 3XM 


Moving the plant 12 milee overland and setting it up at a new 
quarry cost $500. After the move, the plant, new to begin with, 
which had only been used to build four miles of 10-ft. roadl>pd. 
eost 4200 for new flttinijs and repairs, which, for six months' 
use, is an annual depreciation on plant of 5% of the cost. 



A reversible horse roller of the latest type, with two rolls 
having a total face width of 5 ft., ts manufactured in sizes from 
3<^ to 10 tons of ^-ton variation and is sold for $IG5 per ton. 
The diameter of the rolls varies from 4^^ ft. on the lightest rollers ■ 
to 6 ft. on the heaviest. 

Hand Roixebs 

Diameter Length Sections Weifbt 

Fig. 270. Cast Iron Reversible Road Roller. 

»2» .(Ic 


Stemm Roller* eire made in two types: the mocBdam or three 
wheel type and the tandem. The macadam type is generall.v 
made in two sizes; the average cost of the 10 ton size ia $4^50, 
and the 12 ton S4,S00. The average prices {or the tandem type 
are «l,700 for the 21^ ton size, 82,875 for the 5 ton size, $3,500 for 
the S ton size, and $4,200 for the » ton size. 

A simple road roller, steam driven, that may be converted into 
a hauling engine and designed so that the engine can be used for 
stationary wdrk, hoe a. rolling surface width of 6 ft. 6 in. It has 

Fig. 271. Ten Ton St«am Type Boiler. 

a short wheel base that allows short turns, differential gear for 
two wheel drive and a mechanical steering device. It is made 
in two sizes. The 10 ton size costs $4,000 and the 12 ton size 
$4,500 f, 0, b. Wisconsin. 

Cost of Kalntenance and Operation of Steam Bollen. The 
following table shows the cost of maintenance and operation of 
the six ateam road rollers owned by the city of Grand Rapids. 
Mich. The figures have been taken from the annual report of 
the City Engineer for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911. 

Cost of Maintenance and Operation op Steam Road Rollers 

No, 1 No, » No. 3 No.* No. B Ko.t 

Haintsnancf : Roller RcUer RoUer Roller Roller Roller 

Labor, ihop % 117.37 f 106.72 f 149.«7 f 116.67 f 2B.11 t 99.61 

Repair paru 33S.94 126.46 £21.16 12S.12 tiSJ 43.U 

IT^ a^Vooi.-::; 









Hand bole dtmj* .SB 

PadJocks «n<l ehsing 80 .75 

Tolsl t *fl6.71 t 479.23 t *2Ut t 255.31 I1W.90 t 1ES.63 


Labor. TUDiiinE | SVT.48 t 822.40 t 783.00 | 835.05 ;390.00 f 831.30 

Labor, cleaumg 34.1)0 34.00 32.00 58.00 3.60 6.00 

Tools 1,34 4.19 .26 1.40 2,08 1.85 

Coal 847.3! 356.17 3iS,73 215.01 178.46 278.86 

Kindling 26.00 25.00 21.60 15.60 UXO 19.50 

Oil 20.47 2B,80 20,61 37.68 1056 14.90 

Lanterng and Elabes. 1 

GrcBSB ■. 


Total Op. and Main!.. tl,71) 
Total OperatioD I1,2B1 

Repairs on two rollers of the convertible type during the first 
eeaeon of operation coet $86.00; S77.0O of this was for one roller 
which had not been kppt in good shape and $0.00 was for the other 
roller, which was operated by a particularly efficient engineer. 

In 1905, on 16 steam rollers belonging to the Massachusetts 
Highway Commissioners, cath roller averaged 90.3 working days 
per year and the average cost of repairs was $1.12 per day per 

In 1906 the total days' work of 16 rollers under the control of 
the Masaachueetta Highway Commission was 1,719.5, an average 
of 107.5 days per roller per season. Total cost for maintenance 
of these rollers was as follows: 

tl,725.00 for practically rebuilding two rollers which had been 
in active service about ten years, and an average of $53.14 each 
on 14 others. The total cost of repairs on 16 rollers was, there- 
fore, $2,468.06, or an average of $154.31 each. 


Fig. 272. 5-Toii Tandem Roller. 

Id 1907 the above 10 rollers did 1,808 days' work, an aTerage 
of 113 dajH per roller per season. Two rollers were prarticall; 
rebuilt for $1,8SS.00 a^nd ordinary repairs on the 14 others cost 
$e51_.69. The total average cost was, therefore, {158.73. 

Mr. Thomas Aitken, the English author, states that the repairs 
on a roller up to the 14th year were small, with the exception 

Motor Road Roller. 


of Dew driviiig wheels and repaiis to the flrebox and tubes. All 
repairs amounted to an average of JjoOO a year. At this time 
heavy repairs, oosling $850.00, were needed. The total cost per 
year during a, life of 25 years, of 100 working days each, is 
$105.00, or b% of the first cost. The rear wheels of a roller 
lasted T years, during which time they consolidated 60,000 tons of 
road metal. 

Fig. 274. Ten Ton Two-Cylinder Kerosene Motor Boiler. 

Motor Koad Koller of the tandem or three wheel type, operated 
by gasoline or kerosene is made in five sizes as follows: 

The 10-ton or larger sizes will haul a scarifier, grader or road 

This machine has a trussed frame made of heavy steel plates, 
which carries the engine, thereby eliminating a great defect 
found in steam rollers, that of making the boiler act as the frame, 



1. No Hinoke, steam, sparks or soot blowiDg about. 

2. No daily water supply needed. 

3. No daily coal supply needed, 

4. No nightly banking of fires. 

5. No time lost raising steam. 

0. Licensed engineer not neoesHary. 

7. No laying up for boiler repairs. 

The great divadvantsge is the uDreliabilit}' of all gasoline 
eofiines. However, in situations where coal transportation is 
expensive, a motor roller is the proper mscbiiic to use, as it hss 
a tank capacity for 10 to 20 hours' fuel, and can trail s tank 
wa^n carrying a month's supply. 

The tandem type is built in four sizes, ia operated by a kerosene 
engine and cMts as follows: 

8ii«in Net weight Price, 

Comparative Cost of Operatlnr Steam and QatoUne Rollers. 
The road building outfit of the Highway CommiBsioners of York 
County, Ontario, includes two 12^-ton and two Il^-ton steam 
road rollers and a 12-ton 2-cylinder gasoline road roller. In the 
report of the Commission covering the year 1912 Mr. E. A. James, 
Chief Engineer of the Commission, gives the following figures to 
show the cost as nearly as can be judged of operation of the' steam 
Hnd gasoline machinei?, both rollers working under similar con- 

CoBT OF Ofebatinq Steam Rolleb 

For 10 Hours' BolUnf. 
roBl — 

Kindlinjt wood W.OS 

Goal. SSOIb. at tS.86 poi- ton 1.30 

Water — 

600 gal., bauliDi 3 hr. at BO et. per hr l.GO 

Oil. etc, r!7. 0J» 

Engineer — llli boor* at 30 et. per hour 3.46 

Total I6.36 


For ID Hovn' SpikLnf and ScarityioS- 


Eiadliag wood lO.OS 

0«1, tSO lb. at W.86 psr ton .: l.M 

Wmler — 

SOU gal., hauling 2.00 

Oil 0.06 

BDsinmr — IIU honra at 30 cl 3Ai 

Total I7.1S 

Cost of Opebatino a Gasoline Rolleb 

For 10 Honla' Railing. 

Fnel — 1! gaL gasoline at IB et. per gaL (1,80 

Water - 

Coolin(, qnailer hoof O.Utt 


Engineer — 10% hoars at 30 ct S.OTli 

Tolal J5.0J 

For 10 Houn' Spikinc sod Besritylng. 

Fne1-a) B»l 8»o»ae afu et. per gi^ KM 

Water — 

rVw cooling O.IS 

Oil 0.07 

Engineer — lOU hoan at 3D ct S.OT 

TWal WJ9 




wire Kope. The firBt wire ropes were constructed largely of I 
iron wire, but the modern wire re|>e is made of varionsi; manipu- ' 
lateil and treated carbon Eteele. The usual claeBifications are: 

Crucible steel. I 

Extra strong crucible steel. j 

Plow steel. I 

The so-called Iron ia a mild Bessemer or Basic steel of from ' 

60,000 to 100,000 Ui. per square inch tensile strengtli ; the Crucible ! 

Steel is a carlion open heartfa steel of from 100,000 to 200,000 ; 

lb per square inch tensile strength; the Extra Strong Crucible ■ 

Steel raii<-iti in Hlrengtb from 200,000 tu 240,000 lb. per sijiiare I 

inch, and the Flow Steel ranges from about 240,000 lb. per aquare | 

Up to May 1, 1000, the breaking strengths of wire rope man- 
ufactured in the United States were based upon the strength ol 
the individual wires in the rope, but «inee that time all manu 
facturers have adopted strength figures compiled from results 
of actual tests. 

There are a vast number of arrangements possible in wire rope 
construction, but the usual construction is one iu which a number 
of wires are built up on a hemp core. 

SlBOonnts to apply to the following, which were in effect in 
January, 1020, are as follows: 

Flow Steel 

Crnolble Cast Steel 


i> J3%-10% 

List price lesi »)%— 10% 

Standard Iron Hotating Rope 

6 by IB LUC price len E%— 10% 

GalTBDlced Steel Boiinliis Rope 

S by li. fi by Z4, T hemp coreB List price leu T %— 10% 

aalvanlzed Etteel nigging Bope 

« by 7 List pri™ less 7%— 10% 

Qalvanlied Extra Flexible Holstln; snd Koorlitfr Lines 

« by 37. Net 

Oalvaftlied Iron Rigglae Bope 

e bt 1. Net 
Standard Iron Tiller Sope 

6 by 6 by 7 List price less 5%— 10% 

Hon-Sp inning Bope 

18 by 7 Lisl prise less 10%— B% 

Transmission, HEinlBg« or Standing Rope. Six strands of seven 
wires each built on a hemp core make what is known as haulage 
rope. This is one of the oldest types and was formerly largely 
used for power transmUsion, but now its use is largely confined to 
mines, for slope baulagc systems emlwdyin;; endless and tail rope 
applications, on coal ilocks, in oil well drilling, and, when gal- 
vanized, as guys for derricks. It will etand considerable abrasion 
and rough handling, bat is stiff, and its use, therefore, is lim' 

Pbioeb Tbanbmihsion, Hatjlage ob Standino Hope 
(Standard St ng hs Ad pted May 1, 1910) 

e-Straods — 7 \ 

to h S and — One Hemp Core 
coun n page 630 ) 



1 I 


HAXt»t3>^K or t:f>N'?iRixTi>:'X EtjcrrifENT 

CrwihfeCtMt Seed 

Extok Strang CrociUe Caat Steel 

ffi I- 

Uonitor Plow Steel 

All ropes not listed herein and composed of more than 7 and lees 
than 19 wires to the atnnd, with the exception of 6x8, take 19, 
wire list. 

Standard Holltins Bope. Six Btrands of nineteen wires each 
make a hoisting rope which has a wider and more varied applica- 
tion than any other tjrpe. It combines both flexibility and wear- 
ing serrice and is used in mining shafti, for operating the cages 
and elevators, derricks, coal and ore handling machines, togging, 
dredges, skip hoists, conveyors, etc 

Pbices Standabd Hoibitno Rope 
{Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910) 

1^ i 

■Hi 111 is 




Hff ala-J bS'oJ "flS-S 

Crucible Cast Steel 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast 8t«el 



MoDitor Plow Steel 



;»;- sale 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of strands made up oi 
more than 10 and less tlian 37 wires, take 37 wire list. 

" Where the requirements are severe, we reeommend Monitor 
rope. It is the strongest and most efficient rope produced. 

" It is indispensable for heavy dredging, logging, stump pulling, 
derricks, coal and ore hoisting service." 

Extra Flexible Steel Hoisting Kope. KIght strands of nineteen 
wires each make an extra flexible rope whose application is con- 
fined to a. somewhat limited Keld. It is used on derricks and is 
similar places where sheaves arc of very small diameter, and in 
flexibility is about on a par with the 6 x 37 construction, differing 
only in the fact that it is not quite as strong, owing to its large 

List Pbices Extra Flexible Steel Hoibtino Rope 

(Standard Strengths Adopted Ma; I, ISIO) 

Eight Strands — IB Wires to the Strand — One Hemp Core 

Crucible Cast Steel 
I. S i i.oa « 



ktS g-52S s.a££ .a-S-g? 


% H4 .35 73 H 

Jia IVi jn 6.7 I.l 

% IK .20 4.2 S 

«8 1 -13 2-75 .5 

•A % .<S 1.80 .3 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

s|J III " 

Monitor Plow Steel 

m Ji5 ss 

Speoial Flexible Holitlug Hope. Six strands of thirtj-seven 
wirea each make a apecial flexiWe rope which ia largely uaed on 
electric travel cranes and for large dredge ropes. It permits the 
use of fairly amall sheaves and bends over them easily. This 
rope DOtnes in diameters of ^^-in. variation, but is much better 
in tfa« larger aine than the extra strong on account of the smaller 
hemp core. 



LiHT Prices Special Flexible Hotgnxa Ropes 

(Standard Strengths, Adopted Uaj I, 1910) 

Six Strmda — 37 nirea to tbe Strand — One TIemp Core 

Crucible Cast Steel 

£l IS BS= 2^ 8 11^ 6^1^ III? 

j^ a- -c^" ^^ ■*^-" £-^°* saffita 

ExtTB Strong Crucible Cast St«el 



HS8 HttE3 J|o3 A=Sfi 

III paitoill? 


Monitor Plow Steel 


Ropes composed of strands made up of more than 37 wiree add 
10% to lint priee of G x 37 

Tiller Rope or Hand Hope. The \ x T construction is kntnrn 
ae tiller rope and is the moat flexible rope manufactured. Its first 
applirations were to the bleering gear of boats, hut its greatest 
■ppIicBtlon today is for hand rope on elevatorn. This is made up 
of si*: Btranda of fartj'two wireii each and seven hemp cores and 
comes in diameters of Me''" variation. 


Pbices Tilleb Hope or Hand Rope 

— Lilt Price per Fool — WeiEbl 

Cracibls Dimmeter Circnmtrrence per Foot 

,07"i .11 W 1i .07 

The wiree are very fine. Care should be taken not to subject 
it to much abrasive wear. 

It is used to a limited extent for steering lines on jaehts and 
motor boats. Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht Bope, 6 
atranda, ID wires to tlie strand, 1 hemp core, is preferred bj 
many [or motor boats. 

% and Vi-in, diameter Iron Tiller or Hand Rope is used for 
starting and stopping elevators. This rope is klso called Elevator 
Shipper Rope. 

Tiller Rope of tinned or galvanized iron or Bt«el is furnished 
if reijuired. 

Fig. 275. 

Flattened Strand Rope. Flattened Strand Ropes are used for 
heavy derricks, hoiata, etc., where great Qexibility and long life are 
required. They are made in a variety of types and steels. Those 
with an odd number of oval strands are particularly difficult U) 
aplice. The best type is that composed of 6 triangular shaped 
strands of wire, each strand made up of 12 large outside steel 
wires, 1 large triangular inside iron wire, with 12 smaller round 
steel wires between. This comes in the various iron and steels, 
but we give prices and capacities of Monitor plow steel rope only. 

FLATTENEn Steakd Rope 

Type A — 5 Stiande, 2S Wires to the Strand, One H«np Core 
Type B — 6 StraadB, 26 Wires to the Strand, One Hemp Core 


— Type A— 

-Type B- 











































Type C — Strands, 9 Wires to the Strand, One Hemp Core 
Type D — a Strands, S Wires to the Strand, One Hemp Core 

SoB-SpiniiliiK HoittliiE Kope. Stand nrd strenf^hs adopted 
Ua? 1, 1910. Eighteen strands, seven wires each, one hemp core. 


Non-Spinning Rope is necessary in " back'haul " or single lin 
derricks, in shaft sinking and mine hoisting where the buckc 
or eage ewlaga free. That of the beat type is composed of si 
straiida of seven wires each, laid around hemp core and co' 
ercd with an outer layer of twelve strands of seven wires ead 
regular lay. It is made in Swedes iron, crucible cast steel, exlr 
strong crucible cast steel, and plow steel. With a rope of thi 
type the Vermont Marble Co., of West Rutland, Vt., hoisted 
large hlocji of marlile, hanging tree, 250 tt. without its making] 
half turn. ( Fip. 276 ) 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Ste«l 


Fig. 276. ■ 

Plat Wire Xope. Flat wire rope ia eomposed ot a number of 
wire ropea called flat rope strandB of alternate right and left lay, 
uaually of crucible steel placed side by side and sewed together 
with soft Swedish iron or steel wire. This' sewiitg wire, being 
softer than the steel' strands, acts as a cushion and wears ont 
much faster than the strands themselves. The rope, however, is 
very easily repaired. As a large reel is not necessary for wind- 
ing it, it is used principally where space is limited. It comes in 
widths of !^-in variation. 

^ Inch Thick 

height p*c SI 

Foot in T 

!B Tons of 
2,000 Pound 


Weight per Str»s* Worki 

Tone of 
2,1)00 Pound! 

• Crucible aUel vlU STerBin 3D% to 50% stronger than the Otcanm in these 

The approximate price per lb., erueible steel, is 21 cents. 

Unless order dietinctl; apecifles to the contrary, the rule for 
thickness applies to siee of strand before sewing. 

Wire rope is as flei^ible as new manila or hemp rope of the 
same strength, and when used ae hauling, hoisting or standing 
rope is generally more durable. The working load for hoisting 
and haulage ropes should be about ^ the breaking strength; 
standing rope about U : in shafts and elevators from ^ to ^o- 

Uee the largest drums and pull^s possible, and have them 
truly aligned with the rope. To increase the capacity of hoisting 
rope increase the load but not the speed, as the wear ineressea 
with the latter. Do not " fatigue " the rope unnecessarily by re- 
peated shocks. A wire rope should be discarded by tlie time half 
the diameter of the outside wire is worn away. 

Galvanized ropes have about 10% legs strength thaa ungalvan- 
i^ed, and the latter may be protected from the weather 1^ the use 
of one of the many oil, tar or grease mixtures. 

In wire rope the outer fibres of each wire going round the 
sheaves are in tension, and the inner wires are in compression 
with a neutral point within the circumference of the rope. As 
the rope goes round the drum or sheave the result of these 
differential stresses is to produce a crawling or creeping .or 
sliding of the wire upon each rope. It therefore follows that 
when thoroughly greased the life of wire rope will be very greatly 
increased. In Engin^ertTig d Mining Journal it is reported that 
the same kind of rope well oiled made 386,000 turns over 24-)n. 
pulley before breaking, as against 76.000 turns when not oiled; 
a difference in favor of oiling of over 500%. In mine work when 
a rope is coated with cable compound once a week a steel wire 

BOPE . . 046 

rape of best graJe 1%-in. m diameter with an ultimate strength 
of about 100 tons will last from 1 to II^ years. To prevcait kink- 
ing, the cage Hhould be lowered to the bottom of the shaft and the 
rope removed, being allowed to hang loose to uneoil. 

In the Rix^erj Building, Chica^, 44 Swedi^ iron hoisting 
cables, %'in, diameter, of eix etrands of nineteen wires each, four 
cables to an elevator, have been running twelve years, without 
replacement. They are lubricated twice a year and carefully in- 
spected each mtMith. The hand rope in Uie same elevators, how- 
ever, wears out vary rapidly on account of the abrasion caused 
by the eye holes. 


48,002,412 £2,142.000 ST t 

47,810,000 25,292,890 212 T.S 


The life of Htreet railway cable is likely to range fr<»n SO to 
115,000 miles where the cable itself is between 13,000 and 33,000 
feet long. The average o^ 12 cables of which we have record is 
74,017 miles. 

A cable used op. a Lidgerwood Uuloader Plow on the Panamft 
Canal .work was installed April 12, 1!)0D, and was first hiokea 
Ma; 6, 1910. In the thirteen months it unloaded 1,830 nineteat- 
car trfi|iis of spoil from Culebra,. This is a record, as the jwll 
on these cables ranges from 00 to 125 tons. The life of the cable 
on this work averages from 350. to 500 trains. After breaking, 
the cables are spliced and u^d again. 

The principal causes of destruction of wire ropes are; 

(ft) The wearing of lie outer surface of the outside wires. 

(b) The fatigue of the steel where the rope is worked over 
small pulleys. 

As an esample of the first case, the cable on cable tramways 
is worn by the grips; therefore, use a stilT cable.with large wires; 
as an example of the second case, ropes used over small blocks 
break frequently; therefore, use a rope with small wires. The 


stTengtfi fff la wire rope is about 10^ lese Clwn the enm of 
the strengths of the wtres composing tiie rope. ■ 

A wire' ro|]p' way was («ii^lructed for' the Plimosas Line con 
aisting uf an emilodg rope 20^230 feet"1oDg supported at interraU 
of from 104 to 1,935 feet on not^Ii sheaves. " After the rope had 
been running about two jears the splicea' (ommenced to give 
w»y Bt the points where the two cable etrandg are inserted into 
the rope to take the place of the hew p heart. " ' * When new 
rope ia spliced with oU the new Btrands stand out somewhat 
more than the oM ones and the wear is very rapid, ■" * * A 
flexible wire rope (19 wires to the strand) cu) be spliced so 
that there will be little difference in the wear; but, in a rope o( 
seven-wire strands made out of, plow- (fe«l, at. the point just 
above and below where the two steel strands are inserted into 
the core and take the place of the hemp heart, there ia a spot 
(about an inch in length) where the rope is seven strands instead 
of sik: on the circumference. This makes the diameter greater 
and iacreaaes the wear on the splice. " * " In a flexible rope 
the strands can be set together with a mallet so that tlie splice 
cannot be noticed." 

DireotlouB f« Splicing Wire lope.* Wire rope is susceptible to 
the most perfect splice; a smoother and better splice can be put in 
a wire rope than in any other kind of rope, for the simple reason 
that it. is made with a view to this purpose., It, has the desired 
number of strands and a hemp core which provides a place for 
fastening the ends. It is a plain, simple process, and but the 
wdrfcof «n hour for any one to learn. 

To Qet the Length of the Rope to Be Spliced Endless. In most 
ca«ee the ropes can be applied endless, and in such chsch the ropes 
can be forwarded spliced ready to go on. Ropes ready spliced 
can'be procured by giVing the exaH distance' ffoiU center to center 
of shaft, and the exact diameters of the wheels on which the rope 
is'toruBi This measure can begot best by atretchihg a wire from 
shaft to shaft, marking the distance from center to center of 
shaft and eartfully measuring th^ Wire;' 

In ceaea whe(e the endless rope cannot be pUt on, the rope has 
to be put around the sheaves, hove taut %''pulley blocks, and 
the splice made on the spot. See Flg.l in diagram of splices. 

The Xeceiaary Tools. A hammer and sharp cold chisel for 
cutting the ends of strands; a steel point or Inarlin spike for 
opening strands; two slings of tarred rope with sticks for un- 
twUting' rope; a'po4'ket knife for cutting the "hemp core; » ' 
wooden mallet and block. i 

■ Abetrscted rrom ciitiiloifup ol Broderlck ft BMeom Rope Co. ! 



First. Put tlie lope aiound the BbQei;«B, and Jieave it tight 
with block and fall. (See Fig. ,1.). The blocka should be.hitclved 
far enough apart so as, to give ^oom l>etween to make a. 2p-ft. 
splice. A small clamp may . be used to prevent the lashing 
from slipping oo- the rope where the blocks are hitchetl- ISee 
Fig. 1.) Next, aee that the rop«s gverlap about 20 feeti about 
ten feet each way from thje center, a» sbown by theairow li]ieB 
in Fig. I. Next mark the center on both ropes with a piece of 
chalk, or bf tjiing on a BniaU string. . Now. proceed to put in tlie 
splice, with the blocks remaining taut when it is necessary; but 
the better way is to remove the blocks, throw ofT the rope from 

tlie aheaves, let it hang loose on the shafts,, and. proceed jivitb 
the splice on the ground or floor, or HCanol4, a^ the ee^Be may Tite. 

SecQtid- Uijlay the strands of both ends of the rope for ajiia- 
tanee of ten feet each, of to the center ma*k', as shown in Fig. 2. 
><ext. cut off the hemp cores cloae up, as shown in Fig. 2, and 
bring the bunthea of strands together sp that the opposite 
strands will interlock regularly with eaoh other, (See Fig. 3.) 

Third, t'nlaj any strand. A, and follow up with strand 1 of 
ttie other end, laying it tightly in open groove made by unwind- 
ing A, make twist of the. strand agree exactly with the twist of 
the open groove. Proceed with this until all but twelve inphes 


of 1 are laid in, or till A haa become t«n feet long. Next, cut oS 
A, leaving an end about twelve inehes long. 

fourth-. Unlay a strand, 4, of the opposite end, and follov 
with strand D, laying it into the open groove as belore, and 
treating this precisely as in tlie first case. {See Fig. 3.) Next, 
pursue the same rourse with B and 2, stopping four feet short 
of the first set. Next, with li and E, stopping as before; tben 
with C and 3; and laetlj with S and F. The Htrands are now 
all laid in with the ends four feet apart, aa shown ia Fig. 4. 

Fifth and Last. The ends must now be s«cured without enlarg- 
ing the diameter of the rope. Take two rope slings or twisters 
(see Fig. 5) and fasten them to the rope as shown in Fig. 6; 
twiHt them in opposite -directions, thus opening the lay of the 
rope. (See Fig. 6.) Next, with a knife, cut the hemp core about 
twelve inches on each side. Now stcaightaii th« .«n<ls, and slip 
them into the place occupied by the core; then twist the slings 
haclt. closing up the rope, taking out any slight inequality with 
a wiKiden mallet. Next, shift the slings, and repeat the operation 
at the other five places, and the spliee ia uiado. 

If the rope becomes slack, in time, and runs too loose, a piece 
can be cut out and the rope tightened up. This will require a 
piece of rope about 40 feet long and two splices, oim aplice to 
put on the piece of rope, and Uie other splice to join the two 
ends together. 

Cost fob Labor of Sfucina Bofe to Make Ehdlbsb 

IMBineter ot Diameter of 

Rope "Liiit"f<tt Rape Lial tor 

"ta^so'' \u\<l Vm* 

X«) llilolW *.B0 

»to% 3.60 

The above charge to be in addition to the extra rope used in 
making splice. These prices apply only On wire ropes spliced 
at the works of the manufacturer. 

Hanila anfl Sisal Kope. Manila and sisal rope ar^ sBually 
classed aa " regular " rope or rope having three strands, four 
strand rope, bolt rope or eB|)ecially selected long Jams and trana- 
misaion rope which is of yam selected and woven with great care. 
The prices are computed from a " base " which varies with the 
season and according to the condition of the trade. 

The table below gives the standard sizes, weights, etc. 

Sisal rope has approximately the same weight as Manila. 

Iklanila about 25% stronger than aisal. 

Hawser laid rope weighs about one-sixth lees than 3 strand. 



.. in. 
. I i&. 

'. < in! 

( Transmission Ropf: 

weishl in lb. 


Mr. Oeorge J. Bishop in IS9T made some records to determine 
the life of Dianila rope in pile driving. The drum of the engine 
and the sheave on the top of the leads wise 14 in. in diameter. 
The nheavc at the front of the pile driver was 10 in. Tlie hammer 
weighed 10,000 lb. The rope was of three dilTerent makes of 1>^- 
in diameter. Common manila three-ply rope made the best show- 


i ^» a 

5 « ll »-. ■^". IS- :8 

- K I -sIlRSSSa safest saasa s*"" " 

I ! "1 

5 8. Ill >!f:i_„, ~ « «SSS :5 

1 I if """"■ 

^ « 5 9 gosSR--" 

s- e .£ 

« I ^ -„«... ^.- 

I I -'-^ 

■ i V |13 a.-, . 

"Sis 5-ls : ■ ■ : : ^SSSS aSJSSa S'-^*'' : 

? ! S-- 

I 3 St^ Htttl ':]■;■■. : -. ^SI^SS : 

S a "^SiS ^i£!-2 !2ese gsass -»Jrf« : 

I I III pll--= ^sss!. ^^^^s ^s;S2; 

E g is" iS 

S ^ £§■:-- :enii9 Sa"*- -""--i : 

l-SiSiS^^^S! £^J2 ;^tsa(#* jsjS*^* 



ing. The l^gtbpf ri;^ w^ 12?; ftj^nd, its weight iftasti frw 
74 to-B^ fb.^ aveTFige 85 1^., or nea^l; O.T lb. per Soai. , T^e prioe 
of tbe rope v/aa fi^ic^nts pei ib., or S6.63 per a.vfc«ge /op«, T«a 
ropeH weirp )i«ed up in driving 1,335 piles tp bjj ^vernge penatr*- 
tion'o^'20 ft. J hence, each rope averaged .^3i) piles pt a coat o£:4 
cents per pile per rope. However, 6 ropes averaged only 101 piles 
each, and S averaged 160 piles each. 

The Plymouth Cordage Company in 191i>-ll conducted a series 
of tents on various brands of rope to determine the extent to 

K ' 


835 r T"" "\,i(\i^ Ky ) 


„■ S'^rn^ 3 L t " 

^ ± 3l i- "=1" 

: I _J- ■_ vt \t 

J "•-.--«*, "5 -f 

"i ■ T;"r^'' " "^ 

;; ' Tpp ■■ ^ ~ ' 

t '1 8 1 ■) i t> 1 1 1, i 1 11 ,li 

Fig. 278. Diagram Showing Variation of Wire Rope from' Stan- 
dard Plymouth Cordage. / 

which manila rope mi^ht \ary in (|uallty. An average Plymouth 
cordage sample was used as a standard and from this the varia- 
tions plus or minui in sue iieight and strenglli were plotted 
on the accompanying diagram TWenty-two sampleti of rope 
nominally 3 in in c)rbu inference made by various jnanufacturers, 
were tested The strongest rope failed under a load of 9,010 
lb., while the neakeat was able to stand only 4,04(! lb. Glancing 
at the tabk it .will be seen that in several cases where the size 
curve shows a defidpd rise the weight curve dips. It. would be 
natural to suppose thtbt the weight would inereaee correspond- 


tnglf wHh the bim, but this does not seem to be the case and 
murt indicate that lome brandg are more looselj twiated than 
others. Ab will be noticed the weighta vary between minus fl.fll^o 
and ptne 20% and the table showe that so-called 3-in. rope le not 
alwaji 3 in. in circumference. 


A BBDd blast tank machine eonsiating of a eteel tank, hose, 
connections, operator's hood, g1ove« and respirator, of 1,000 lb. 
sand capacity, costs $310. The tank meaeures 30 bj 30 in. A 
compreaaor for this outQt should be capable of supplying lOO cu. ft. 
per min. at a pressure of about 60 lb. per sq. in. A screen 
hopper for the above costs $85. Several eizefl and capacitiea in 
this type of machine may be had. AU' prices f. o. b. Chicago. 
The approximate shipping weight of the above outfit is 1,000 tb. 
This machine will clean front 2 to 3 ft. of surface per min. de- 
pending on the condition of the surface. 

At the United States Naval Station, Key West, Fla., steel sheds 
were cleaned and painted by compressed air. These sheds were 
used to store coal and the action of heat and the impurities in 
the ooal, combined with the salt water used for extinguishing 
spoutanedus combustion fires, rapidly corroded the steel and ne- 
cessitated a thorough cleaning and painting every time the sheds 
were emptied. The following outfit was purchased and cost 

i horiionUI guoline tagiae. about 26 bp. 

(The iboTe appsmtDB wh« all monated on etMl trsnut . 
vBKon wilh wDadBa bauBing.) 

: sand biMt mscliincs, Fipai^Uy 2 cu. (t. of aand euh. 

2 paint ipraj^ng marhlnps, one H hand machine of % lal. ca- 
pacity for one operator, the other ot 10 gal, capaetty for 

lOOltn. (t. ot Band' Wart hoes, 

iOOllp. ft, oF pneumatic hasa (or aand blaaC macbiSeB. 
*00 lin. (t. of jineumatic boae (or painting machiuM. 
100 lin. ft. of air and paint ho«e for painting macbineB. 

1-kbaki halDeiii. witb inicB-cw«red opeoiiagi for t^e nym. 
200 lin, ft ,ot £-in. galvaniied iron pipe. 


Cleaning by hand cost over 4 cents per square ft. In IBIO. The 
:abor cost per day of cleaning by machine is shown in the follow- 


1 eoEins Waiai t 3,W 

1 helper (id charge ol the work and lending machines) .... 2.24 

E laborarg on mschineB al tl.76 each 3.E2 

1 laborer arying Band, fllllng machlDea, Dl« 1.78 

Total (1910 figurea) tlO.B« 

9,000 square feet of surface were cleaned at a cost for labor 
it 997.6S and for gaaoline of 91815, or at the rate of less than 
1!^ cents per square foot; 9,000 square feet of surface were 
painted at a cost for labor of $ and for gaaoline of $3.80, 
or at the rate of % cent per square foot (1010). The intercBt, 
depTeciation and repairs to plant would add an inconsiderable 
amount to this. 


A portable Sand and Gravel Washing Hachfne, rated bj the 
manufacturer at 10 to 12 yd. per hr., costs $2,750 f, o. b. Chicago, 
This machine is equipped with a gasoline engine and is mounted 
on wheels. In operation the elevator carries the material from 
the ground level, spouting it into a preliminary scrubber from 
which it goes into a conical screen which removes the oversir^, 
producing one grade of gravel and one of sand. The oversize, 
gravel and sand, are spouted from the machine in separate chutes. 

A Patented Sand and Oravel Washer consisting of a hopper 
into which is put the material to be screened, and the water for 
washing, a screen made up of several conical, nested screens, and 
suitable arrangement for driving, but not with power equipment, 
coats aa follows: 

Oapaoily in Approiimate FrUe 

cu. jd, i^er hr. weightinlb. f . - "- "' — 

20 to 30 ZIOO 



S&w Tables- A belt driven circular «aw, of a Bimple tjpe. tha 
will cut timber up to 10 inches weiglts 300 lb. for shipment ain 
coetB $3I>. A eimilar saw with an extended table that will swini 
a HBw up to 30 in. in diameter weighs 330 lb. and costs $32. An 
other rig with countershaft weighs 335 lb. and costs $37. 

These saws are primarily designed to cut up wood for fuel, biii 
may also be used for more exacting work within certain limits. 

Portable Combination Bwii^ Cnt Off and Kipping Sawa. Ar 
outfit consisting of a complete adjustable table, with cross cul 
gauge and saw guard, ripping gauge, mitre gauge, saw dust guard. 

Fig, '27ft. Combination Swing Cut-Off *nd' Ripping Machine. 

complete idler with lever and brake, swing frame with idler, 
leather belt for swing frame, 14 inch rip saw, 16 in. cross cut ea«, 
all mounted on yellow pine skids, costs S265 without engine and 
engine belt. Complete outfit with 5 hp. gasoline or kerosene en- 
gine, «400. 

An outfit similar to the above with 16-in. rip saw and 2010. 
proas cut saw without engine costs $300. With 7 hp, engine, $5n0. 

An outfit similar to the two above with 34-in. rip saw and 34'tn. 

roBB cut saw coats without engine $450, 
Jete, $750. 
Extras tor the above 

A Universal Toni I'nit to attach to any of the ftlime raartilncs 
s composed of a 6 in. jointer and guard, adjuptable jointer beds, 
adjuiitable jointer gauge, boring machine with %, % and' 1-inch 

Fig. 280. Portable Woodworker. 

bits and complete adjustable sliding boring and sanding table, 
10 in. Bander, mandrel, and iron frame ready to attach to the 
awing frame. Price complete $114. 

A Portable Woodworker similar to the one shown in Fig. 2S0 
i^oatB aa follows: 

1-12 inrh rip »w 1 8.25 

1-Htnch inni cnl ■•w 7.91 

1— g Inch dumclrr dado far araoTiiic and ralibcttlne, 

■wldlhB^lfl 10 Hi In., depths up to Wi in RTE 


1— « incb jointer oomplete 

1- S incl emery wbeel 


:::::::::::: tS 

1-Wood saw table wilb ripping gauge, combi 
and cross cot gauge bbw mandrel 
bait tightener with bbw guard 

1 — 3 hp. engine with magneto and belt 

alion mitre 
vilb pulley, 


Woodworker with li in. rip aaw, H in. croi 

table Bnd gancea, 3 bp. engine <na 
ii-ioch band saw attacbment comidele wilb on 



Portable S«w Bin Bimilar to the one shown in Fig 281 are 
made in aeveral types. A rig designed for aawing pole or cord 
wood consisting of an «)giue complete with batter; ignition, 

Fig. 281. Portable Saw Rig. 

A patented rig simitar to the above, arranged io that the 
»aw attachment can be removed ao that the engine can be used 
IS a portable costs as follows: 

Appraiimate ihiv- 

ping welgbt In lb. 

Portable Saw Kill similar to the one shown in Fig. 282 hat U 
average enpaoity of about 4,000 ft. per day when operated with * 

SAWS , , , «67 

horee power of (rom 15 to 20. Wide ya^i^tJcin £ri^ this figure 
is possihle depending on the kind of wood cut and the experience 
of the crew. 

A mill with a carria^ 16 ft. b; 2S in., having a variable fric- 
tion feed with a length of track and ways of 40 ft., weighs 
complete 2,800 lb., and costs $404. The standard saw for this 
machine is 48 in. in diameter at a coat of $108 extra. 

Another saw mill with a patented feed will swing a S2-ia. 
saw. It has a carriage 20 ft iy 36 in., length of tr^ck-56 ft. It 
wei(fhii complete 5,550 lb. and costs $713. e2-in. saw, $141. 

A saw mill having a 20 ft. by 40 in. carriage and a 66 ft. track 
weighs 7,500 lb., and coats $1,170. Saw s^mf as ,bef9re. 

Fig. 282. Saw Mill, 

Ontfiti for Cnttlng oS Piles Below Water Ltae: An elTectine 
arrangement for sawing oH piles under water is employed by 
Whitney Bros. Co., general marine contractors, Superior, Wii. 
Their equipment consista of a machine very similaT in appeaninefl 
to a amall swing pile driver. Instead of the drop hammer in tlie 
teada, there is a 3-in. shaft,- which la raised and lowered by the 
usual hoisting cablex. The shaft runs throtigh boxe^i whicli .are 
attached to guides which run up and dnwn the leads according 
to the depth required. A 12'in. belt drives the shaft which runs 
from a drum on the hoisting engine. This engine also furnishes ' 
poWer for turning the leads to the position reqnired. A '48-iD. 
circular saw is attached to the bottom of the shaft. The whole 
equipment is usually mounted on a flat scow, at each end of which 
is placed a steam winch which furnishes the motive power. 

The procedure, for instance on an ore dock foandatit»i, is to 
start with the leads swung in line wilh the center of the first 
row of piling and then proceed the length of the row with tlM 


use of the steam wincfaee. The mflchiiK i^ then swung around 
and the secand row in cvt off by the eanie mMbod. Each row in 
turn is sawed olf, it being only necessary to swing the driver 
the distance required to be in line of the center of each euu- 
eeeding row. 

It has been found that this equipment makes a very accurate 
cut at depths down as far aa SR ft. Tbe average capacity is 
approximately 500 plies per 10-hour day. However, on several 
occasions an average run of 960 piles and over per day has been 
kept up for two weeks running. The cost of cutting the piles 
varies, of courses, with labor and material conditions. It ranges 
around 19 ct. to 50 ct. per pile according to depth. 

In extending the ways at the steel ship yards of the O. M. 
Standiter Co. at Vancouver, Wash., last summer the special 
outfit shown in the drawing was employed for eawing off the 

The launching ways consist of 3!l bents of piling of 8 piles 
each, spread 6 ft. center to center of bents. All underwater 
bracing wae done by divers before starting cut-off operationa. 
At the stage of river at which the work was to be done, the 
lowest cut-off was some 7 ft. below water level. The two out- 
side rows of piling were cut off by hand on a grade parallel to 
the required .true grade and T ft. above it, thus bringing this 
temporary cut-otT at water surface at the lower end. A 12-in X 
12-in. cap was then placed tbe full length of the way on this 
temporary cut-off. This cap was fitted with a 3-in. X 4-in. atrip 
on top to act as a guide on which the carriage support was to 
move. The remaining inner rows o! pilii^ were not cut. 

The carriage support consisted ,of two lO-in.X I2-iu. timbers, 
cross braced S ft. apart and fitted with truss rods bo as to span 
tbe space between the two temporary caps. On these two tim- 
bers were fitted 2-in, X 2-in. strips with a 2-in. X 2-in. angle 
iron to s»rve as a rail for the traveling -carriage. On the car- 
riage was mounted a 25 h p. motor which drove the saw shaft 
with a quarter-turn belt. The saw shaft wag set square with 
the carriage framing and so varied from the vertical an amount 
equal to the grade angle. 

The 4S-)n. circular saw was fitted at the lower end of this 
shaft at the elevation of 7 ft. below t^e temporary cut'Off — 
that is, so it would cut on the true grade line. A hand wind- 
lass with light cable anchored at the ends of the carriage support 
provided means (or movement of the carriage transversely. TIip 
carriage support was pulled ahead from bent to bent bf cable 
line from a donkey engine on shore. 

In operating the saw the carriage was moved to the upper end 

SAWS 659 

of the way with the «*w on the lower aide. The dcmkey line 
skidded it aheud along the temporary caps to the first bent. 
The saw was started in the center space and cut the piling on 
one aide of the center line, being fed through them by the hand 
windiasa. The outside pile waa only cut about three-fourths 
through on account of its supporting the saw, Tlie aaw was then 
fed through the piling at the opposite aide of the center line, 
and returned to the center ready to be skidded ahead to th«, next 
bent. The outside piles were cut the remaining amount by hand 

Fig. 283. CutKjff Saw tor Cutting off Piles below Water Line, 

after the saw had passed oi'cr. Caps were placed in the usual 
way by divers using block and tackle. The lull equipment was 
easily transferreil to the next way, 

A distinct advantage of the saw cutting waa that it {ireserved 
a very true and even grade in spite of the small irregularities 
in the driving of piles. The time actually required for cutting 
off one way after the preliminary work was done, waa about 2Vi 
or 3 hours, one way of 216 pllea actually being done in 1 hr. 
and 60 min. 




Portable Platform Scales adapted to the weighing of all kinds 
of general merchandiae. 

CapRcIti' Size at pUtform PrlM 

in lb, in inche* (. o. b. New Twk 

600 in bf 25 tUM 

1000 IS br n auo 

ISOO 22 by 31 44,80 

2SD0 25 br S4 KM 

Wheelbarrow Scales with rune on both sides for wheelbarrows 
and hand trucks. 

Capacily 8iie ot pUtfonn Price 

in lb. in inches t. o. b. New York 

IDOO 42 bv 3« |T«.W 

2000 44 bj 35 »6.0D 

Steelyard or Welghinaster's Beam with a. capacity of 2,000 
lb. beam 7 tt. 10 in. long, weighing 1E7 lb, coats 87fl f^.b. New 

Track Scale for weighing of material in smalt cars with i 
capacity of 4 tons weighs about 820 lb. and coats $112 f,o.b. 
New York, 

Cost of Track Scalts,* On the New York Central a 100-ton 
tratk scale, 42 ft. long,- cost as follows, in 11)02 : 

BcBlea and materials fl.TSO.OO 

Labor ft40.0« 

■ttrtal ..-..'. (8,400.00 

8.7 tons mita (rdajerB), at ISO t 174.00 

. ,16 lies at»,» ..-■. ■.., - ».«> 

Siscellaoeos* material ., -.---j WO.OO 

ibor lading tract, etc 70.00 

.' ';.Wnd toM , !'..-„,: itioM 

No piles were usied In foiindation. 

The cost of SOlon track scales, 42 ft. long, on the Northern 
Paciflc, in 1890, averaged as follows; 
■Hand Booli of Cbst Data, b; H. P. Qillette. 


Scam, dsliiertd I G8O.0O 

Other DwUrislB 170.00 

Labor (HTBtoMOO) S6O.O0 


The coBt of 80-toii track acalea, SO ft. long, in 1905, was 

8ii*1m and mal«i»la 11,260.00 

Labor (tSOO ta t700> SGO.OO 

TUtal |l,»0O.0O 




A Bcarifler illiistTftt«d by Fig. 284 in so designed that it ma 
be ete«red independently of the hauling engine and can tur 
around in its own tracks. The t«eth can be lowered or lifte 
instantly by a lever and the angle at which they enter th 
ground can be adjusted to suit conditions. It may be haulC' 
by a road roller of 10 t»»B or more and two men, one on Ih 
Teller and one guiding the scarifier constitute the crew. Thi 
machine costs $700 f.o.b. Chicago. 

Fig. 2B4. Scarifier. 

A pneumatie scarifier for attachment to a motor road rollei 
consists of a cylinder attached to the rear of the roller fratw 
and is operated by air pressure from the storage tanks. He 
teeth are forced downward by the air pressure on the piston. 
The air is supplied by a small eompressor mounted on the engine 
cylinder and operated by the engine from the crank shaft. Thii 
attachment coets $1,100 f.o.b. Chicago. A similar attachment 
for a steam roller operated by steam costs $700. 

A scarifier for attachment to a steam roller weighs 1,1511 lb. 
and coets $460. 

Another type of scarifier, built on the same general lines as t 


road machine, uid klBO fitted with a grader blade, has 5 rooter 
teeth on 10 inch ceiit«re, the width of the blade is ft., the 
weight is approximately 8,400 lb.; price $1,600 S. o. b. Cliicago. 

The fotlowing is the cost of ripping up pavement by htuid com- 
pared with the cost of doing this by machine. 

30 men with piekg b1 K.OO per imf t 40.00 

8lmr(*nlnf il picks « 10 ct. 8.00 

ForcBUUi 3,00 

Owt per day for ITO ft. of rMd 16 ft. «id> t Gl.OO 

Oo«t pur mile I1.68S.00 

, The coat by machine was as follows: 

Operator on machine - f t^SQ 

Sharpenine picka SJO 

vafi'eS^..'..'.y.]^'.'.'.\['.y.'.'.'.]'.'.'.'.i[i['.'.'.i'.'.'.^'.'.\'.y.'.'.'.'.'.[i'. aim 

Bent o[ roller W.OO 

Com per day for 1818(1. at rtMd It H. wide ...- 126.00 

Cost per mile (67.00 


(See Grading Machines, page 388) 



(See Crushers.) 

Ordinary sand and coal screens cost from. Sft to $18 each. 

A make of revolving screen mounted on a wooderi frame and 
furnished with shafting', gears, etc., but no power, is made in 
two standard diameters. Any practical length or number of 
sizing sections ma; be had. The following are the prices of 

Screens in permanent plants should be made of the beet steel, 
A carbon steel screen of %-in. plate, after handling 10,000 to 

Fig. 285. Wagon Side Screen. ' 

14,000 yards of crushed trap rock, was reduced to ^ inch at the 
point where the chute delivered it. The holes had been enlarged 
from I^ig inches to 1i?4b inches, and from 2H inches to 2"«^ 
inches. A ^-inch rolled manfianeae steel plate screen replaced 

the first screen, and after handling 10,000 cuhic jards showed Do 
appreciable wear. 

Another make of screens mounted on frames with no power 
costs ae follows: 

iZ Qrv driT«B 16 597 

61 Roller driven 20 l.SW 

ID Roller drtren 24 E,SOO 

The above screens ma; be had in other lengths than thoSe In- 
dicated at corresponding prices. 

Wagon Side Screen. A screen illustrated by Fig. 283 was 
described in Engineering flevis-Recorii hj Donald A. Thomas. 

The screpn is supported by props and by one siile of the wagon 
being loaded. Using the ordinary mason's screen, the cost of 
this work averaged alwrnt 44 ct. per yd. for the screened product, 
including loading. About oiie-thJrd of the material handled was 
waste. By throwing the material against the wagoD screen, 
allowing the waste to drop to the ground and the screened 
gravel to roll into the wagon, the cost given was cut to about 
22 ct. per yard. 

The screen used was 3 ft, wide, and the length of the dump 
wagon about ft. The frame is made of 2 x 4-in. .scantling 
with two croas-hraces of the same material. It is covered witnl 
screen wire having 14"in. to l^-in. mesh, which gives a. satisfactory 
product. The angle at which the screen is set can be varied to 
suit the material being dug. The lower edge of the screen le 
provided with hooks to hang on the side boards of the wagon, 
while the other side of the screen is supported by posts hinged 
on t)oltB to the edge of the frame. 



There IB not much difference in coat between a poor shovel anf 
a good one and this difference is quickly made up, with the u» 
of a good ahovel, in the added life and the increase in thi 
material handled over that of the poor type. For each particu 
Ur kind of work there is a shovel deaigned which is best suited 
to produce the most work with a given effort. Id esoavating 
a long handled shovel is generally to be preferred and it shouli 
be of a type having the handle nearly parallel to the blade 
For loose material a square pointed shovel is better than s 
round pointed one. as more material can be handled with it than 
with the round, using practically the same effort. 

In unloading material from a steel car a pointed end ahovel 
is beat to start the work. After the bottom of the car has been 
reached the square pointed shovel is the best to use. This type 
of shovel should have a bend near the blade so that the ahovel 
can be gripped close to the load, which will add to the ease of 

In mixing concrete on a platform a square pointed shovel i^ 
to be preferred. A shovel for this purpose should have a Ion 
rib so that the material will not stick to the blade 

A shovel for packing the concrete in forms should not ban 
much rib that may hecome clogged. A perforated shovel is good 
for this USB but it should be carefully cleaned as the concrete 
will harden and fill up the perforations. It it hardens, the 
shovel is liable to break when hit to dislodge the concrete. 

Concrete Facing Spades with long handles and perforated 
blades cost about $22.80 per doz. with handles 4% ft. long. 

Concrete Shovel* with hollow back and square point, D handler. 
cost $24,70 per doz. 

Ore Shovels with hollow back and D handle cost $24.70 per 

Back Strap and Hollow Back round and square point shovels 
cost from 822. SO to S24.40 per doz. 
Back Strap and Hollow Back Scoops cost from $24.70 to $27-10 

Breakdown Sooopa cost from $28.50 to $30.90 per doz. 


T«l«Erftpli Post Hol« Shovels cost abont ^4 per doz. with 
i-ft. handles. 

TeI«Kraph TmI Hale Spoons with 8-ft. handles coat about 
124 per dozen. 

A Stvd7 of ShoTeUng as Applied to Mining. The following 
Lot*B from a paper by G. Townserd ITarley in the Bulletin vf the 
Itnericatt Itutitvle of Mining Engineer* are quoted here nith 
:ern admiration for their scientific value and scholarly presen- 

Stoping methoda in which ahoveliii^ plays an important part 
ire gradually being replaced by other and cheaper methods. 
iiit there will always be considerable shoveling done under- 
jround in Btopea as well as in dritta, tunneln, winzes, and shafts. 
it the mines of the Phelps-Dodge Corporation at Tyrone, N. M., 
.lie cost of slioveling in all stopes in 1917 amounted to 24 ct 
ler T. In the top-slice stopes for the same period, it coat 
n rt. per T. or ie% of the total cost of theae stopes. The 
.onnage for shovelers from all stoping was 0.3 T. per inan, 
■ nd for top-slicing 8.2 T. per man. These atopes were not 
jnduly hot, and there was not more than the usual amount of 
timber to interfere with the work of the men. 

The tonnagea obtained per ahoveler were considered low; first, 
lecause of a poor grade of Mexican labor, many of the men hav- 
ing come in from ratlroad grading camps; and serond, because 
i\ a poor spacing of raises, eapecially in the top-slice atopes, 
»here, in geni>nil, they were spaced 25 ft. by 68 ft. centers, 
rhe average wage per laborer ahift was $2 67 during the year. 
it waa thouglit, however, that even under theae conditions the 
men were not producing the tonnage that they should, and with 
the poQpent of the management, the writer, undertook to deter- 
nine how the general efficiency of tlie underground shoveling 
^ould he improved. 

ftellminary Work. As a first step, several weeks were spent 
uodergroiind makiiig a general survey of the Held and making 
time studies on various men, in order to see what points would 
need to be determined for a full consideration of the subject, 
rhe following factors wertf soon iccognii^ed : 

1. The type, weight, size, and deeign of sliovel giving the 
zreatest shift tonnage without too much wear and tear on the 
man would have to be determined, Tliia work would also de- 
termine the point at which a shovel should be discarded as worn 

2. A standard of comparison would be necessary if the ill 
pITecls of mine air, powder gas and smoke, temperature, humidity, 
and poor light were to he estimated. 


3. The layout and spacing of cbutes would Imve to be atndini 
with regard to their effect on ahoveliog directl; into the chute)', 
or loading into wbeelbarTowB or car» aitd tranuuing to them. 
This work would determine the proper distance at whic^ shovel- 
ijig into a. chute should leave off and loading: into a wheelbarrow 
or car be taken up.. The information would also be of ver; 
great use in pl&nning the development of a slope. 

Table 1. — Weiqhtb and Volume of Bboken Qbk 








.0683 307 

0G« 327 

U ■ ill 

D.OMC 471 

4. Hindrancea to work such i 

timber standing in line of 


throw or very closely apaced, men and supplies passing back 
and forth through working apace, etc. 

6. Manner of placing the shovelers to obtain n 
from them, number of men in one wording plac 
working place required per man. 

6. The hours of actual work and the cause and amount of 
delays, such aa shoveler interrupted to help in other work, etc 

7. Tlie capacity of a man for work as the day progresses. 

8. Proper rest periods for men to maintain maximum efflciencj. 

9. Best means for instructing men and supervision work. 
At the time this work was started, three types of shovels wer( 

in general use at the mines; a No. 2 scoop, used principally bj 
contractors in development work, but favored by some of lb* 
shift bosses tor use in the stopes; a No. 2 or a No. 3 aquare-poiDl 




i 1 



W.P. = Weglarn Pattern Scoop. 

D-handle ahovel for shoveling off of a mat in the stopea; and 
a No. 2 round-point long-handle< shovel, . for scraping down a 
muck pile, shoveling .pff of a rough boilom, cleaning up, etc. 
The first task was t« determine the average load that the various 
tfpea and Bizea of shovels i^quI^ handle, in order to be a,ble to 
deterqitine whether the 21-1^. load, aa advocated by Br, Taylor, 
applied to underground work as well as to the surface work, and 
whether it was the. best load for the average Mexican laborer of 
the Southwest' These average rapacities were obtained by 
repeatedly shoveling a weighed pile of ore with each of the 
Bbov«la and counting the number of shovel loads required to 
move it. Table 1 gives the number of cubic Inches of ore in 
» 21-lb load, for ore breaking to different volumes per ton; 
and Table 2 gives the sizes and types of shovels that will average 


up to an; given content. Owing to the variety of conditioOB in 
underground tilioveling, bucIi as the material of which, the ehov- 
itling jilatfarm h made, whether of wood, iron, or natur&l bot- 
tom: the unsized material Hhoveted; and the amount of moisture 
in the ore, caueing it to be sticky at times; these average shovel 
capacities ware found not lo accord with actual practice, except 
over test periods of long duration; for short periods the; would 
vary as much as % lb. from the average, while single shovel 
loads would vary as mui-h as 3 lb. For Burro Mountain ore. 
the tables show that it requires a specially made shovel with a 
10- by t3-in. hUde to hold the Z-l-lb. load, or 363 cu. in. In 
practice, however, we are ui'ing at the present time a No. 4 
square-point shovel holding 373 cu. in. and a No. 5 round-point 
shovel holding 340 cu. in. 

During the period of preliminary work, it was discovered that 
the work of a shovelcr can be classifled into the following 
divisions, each susceptible to comprehensive study and analysis, 
and to each of which can be given a definite relative time value. 

Time spent actually shoveling, which may he divided into: 
Penetrating mass, lifting mass, throwing mass, and return to 
start of first motion. 

Time spent picking down, considered as a rest. 

Tramming and dumping time, with wheelbarrow or car. 

Time spent resting, divided into: Definite rest periods and 
delays due to interferences, blasting, men and supplies pass- 

Timo spent other than in shoveling, not counted in shoveling 
time, but included delays before starting to work, lunch period, 
quitting early at end of shift, and time spent on other work, 
helping mai'hine man, timbermen, etc. 

By studying each motion separately, it was possible to estab- 
lish a standard time for each and, cotisequently, A standard of , 
performance for the whole. It was possible, also, to discover 
which were the most tiring motions and how each was afTected by . 
length nf lime worked, length and distribution of rest periods, ' 
size of shovel, design of shovel, and length of throw. 

It was, of course, impoKsihlc to tiutc all the motions made with | 
any one shovelful; consequently these figures had to be obtained 
in rotation, each figure set down on the sheet being an ayenge 
of 10 consecutive readings. All delays and rest periods wer* ' 
timed and all wheelbarrow and car loads counted. As a check 
on the tonnage handled, a record was made of the number ofj 
shovelfuls making up a load, the average capacity of the showl 
and of the wheelbarrow or car, an estimate was made of the ton- 
nage in the original pile and, in many rasea, the tonnage dram 

out of the chute into which the man was Bhoveling of dutaping 
the ore. 

InTCStleattoni Hade on Snitaoe, In order to obtain some 
standard of compariBon for the underground work, some of the 
mine ehovelers were brought to the surface and a record made 
of their work under ideal condttionB; that is, with good air, 
good light, no timber to interfere, stead; shoveling for various 
lengths of time, and standard lengths of throw for the muck. 
A platform was built on. the aide of the mine-waate dump, 
about 12 It. below the yard level, with a slide from the track 
above 80 arranged that no matter what quantity of mock was in 
the elide the toe of the pile was always in the same place on the 
platform and the ahoveler did not have to move up as shoveling 
progressed. At several places on the platform, trap doors were 
installed so as to obtain any desired length of throw into what 
corresponded to a ehute in the mine. The muck thrown through 
these doors rolled down the side of the waste dump, out of 
the way, so that the opening was always clear. A track was 
laid along the side of the dump at the platform level, so that 
testa oould be conducted in which the shoveler loaded the mudc 
into a car, which he then had to tram a distance uf about 
100 ft., dump, and return to the muck pile again. 

Tests were carried on for 2 mo., thiee different shovelerg, 
taken from the mines, being observed. Each of these men 'was 
warned that he bad to work at Iuh best speed, all during the 
job, but that fae was not to overtax himself. He was told that 
when he became tiled he was to tako a few momenta rest; as it 
uaa better for him to rest at intervals than to try to work all 
the time, at the expense of speed and capacity. 

SbovellnK Directly Into a Chute. All u( the underground 
shoveling testa may be classitled under one of three headings, 
shoveling directly into chutes, shoveling into wheelbarrows and 
tramming to chutes,, and shoveling into ears and tramming to 
chutes. Each of these seriea was conducted independently of the 
others, and was complete in itself.. The men undej observation 
worked for periods varying f lom I to 8 hr , and for each length 
of job they threw or trammed the muck over a wide range of 
disiances, with various, types and sii:es uf shovels. In all the 
underground tests, the work was doAe under the actual mining , 
conditions, with the one pjcception that the men were always 
under observatioD and consequently were working at a good 
speed for the full period of the teat. In no case did the men 
overtax thtmselves and. we feci confident that all tonnages ob- 
tained and indicated, oi) the charts are easily obtainable by a 
good, ifitt not wcceptional, Alexiean laborer after he has been 



properly instructed, and under close and intelligent superviBion. 

It Hoon became evident that the great majority of shovels be- 
inji tested were not Kuitablc for efficient work, and although wc 
continued to work with them to some extent, we have charted only 
the V'ork of the No. 4 shovel, which handles the 21 -lb. load, 
togetlier with the No 2 scoop, which was held in high esteem 
by many of the men in the operating department. In each of tlie 
charts, the results obtained during the surface tests are plotted 
alongside of corresponding results from underground, in order to 
accentuate the adverse effects of underground conditions on 
shoveling capacity. 

In Fig. 286 will be found the number of shovels per minute 
thrown into a chute at a distance of S ft. from the ore pile for 

Fig. 286. Effect of Length of Job o 
per Minute. 

Number of Shovels 

jobs varying iu length from 1 to S hr. In all of these charts, the 
length of job should be understand to mean the total working 
time, and when it is said that the length is 4 hr., the man v/m 
actually occupied at shoveling ore for 4 hr,, and then his work 
was Gnishcd. All points on tbe curves are corrected averages 
tor the time periods to which they correspond. 

In connection with Fig. 280, the following facta will be noted: 
Tor all lengths of Job, the number of shovels per minute U 
greater with the No 4 shovel than with the No. 2 scoop. Both 
on the surface and underground, the speed of shoveling decreawa 
more rapidly Vith the scoop than with the shovel, as the len^tb 
of the job increases. A man working with a scoop underground 
can perform at only 72% of hit speed on surface for 8 hr. while 
with a No. 4 shovel, he can work at 82% of his surface spe«(t. , 
Tlie percentage reduction in speed between surface and under- 
ground work is the measure, in part, of the effect of mine air, 


xiwder gas and amoke, temperature, humidity, and poor light, 
Under the eamo condition of work, tbe ditTerence in apeed lie- 
;ween the No, 4 shovel and the No. 2 scoop ia due