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/ - 







B. N. BwraAL CIVIL aiBTica, 



















It is necessary that a word or two should be said in explanation of 
the system of spelling adopted in this book. 

Prom typographical and other difficulties, the varieties of consonants 
in the vernacular, have not been distinguished by the diacritical points 
sometimes adopted. To this, indeed, an exception is to be found in the 
nasal "n" which often closes Punjabi words, this is represented by "A/' 
The vowels in all purely vernacular words are either accented or 
unaccented. Of the accented vowels — 

& is always broad, as in the French " gdteau." 
e is always pronounced " ay," or as " d " in Prench, 
f is long, as " ee." 
o is long, like " 6 " in dep6t. 
li is long, as " oo." 
y is a consonant, as in " yes/' 
The unaccented vowels are — 
a always like the '' a " in " organ." 
ilike "i" in "pit." 
u like the " u " in " full. " 

The varieties of consonants need not, for the mere understanding of 
the terms in this book, be nicely attended to. 

Indeed, in any case, it is rare to find an European who really dis- 
tinguishes between the ^ and the u^ ; or between ^, y, i, 5. 

The only thing I could have wished would have been to distinguish 
the guttural ^ ghain, and the khe ^; but this was impracticable for want 
of type. 

I may add in the ain ^ is represented by an apostrophe (') before the 
▼owel to which it is attached. 

Any reader who wiU remember the vowel Kst, just given, will find 
no difficulty in correctly pronouncing the vernacular words in the book. 

• • 


I have not, however, thought it necessary to alter the received 
spelling of such common words as " Calcutta," " Punjab," ^' Lahore ;" 
but in the case of the teohiucal names of fabrics, tools, &c., every one's 
experience of the defects of such p.n uncertain method as that formerly 
in use will tell him that t^ere is no other system which securea 
accuracy but the "letter for letter " system, 



Xhtbodttctobt Sketch of the MAmTPACTUBBS of the PcmjABy 


... i — xxii. 


Dttisioh I.— Carp^tfly •>• ... t*« •«• ... ... ••• ... ... 26 

Woollen fabrics, ... ... ... ... 28 

DinsiOH n. — Manufactures of Pashmina or shawl wool, 83 

ouawiSy •.* •*• ... ••. ••• ... ... ... ^a. o9 

Vrbiier laorivSy ... ••• ... ••■ ..• •«, .« ,,, 4/ 

DiTisioif in. — Pabrics of Hair, Ac.^ 49 

Beport on Shawls, ..« ... ... ... ••• .,. «•• 63 

Division I.— Silk woven fabrics, ... ... ... .. ..* ••• ••• 67 

Division II. — Miscellaneous Sill^ fabrics, ... ... 71 


Division I. — ^Pibrous fabrics, ... ... .^ ,,. 75 

Division n. — Paper, ... ... ... .^^ .., „. 77 

Division III. — Other fibrous manufactures, 85 

Eeport on Pibrous manufactures, ... ... ... 91 



CIMENS, ^ 101 

Note on dresses worn by Pakirs, .., 118 

Appendix on Costumes in the Lahore Museum, ... .,. ••• .f. 119 


Ifoto on Shoes worn in the Punjab, ., •• .„ 189 





• •• 

• •» 


• •• 

• ■• 

• •• 

• •t 




■ •• 

• •• 

• •• 


• •• 


Division I. — Non-Precious MetaLs, 

Works in Brass, ^., 


Cutlery, ... 

Report on Cutlery and Hardware, 
Division II, — Preciotts Mbtals — 

(A & B) Gold wire drawing and fabrics woven with gold lace and wire, 156 

(C) Ye'^sels of precious metal for use and ornaxnont, inlaid or 

otherwise, ••• ... ... ... — ... ••• 165 

(D) PlatiTi'y in Gold and Silver, ... ••. ... ... ..• 172 

Note on process of Gold beating, ... ... ... 173 



JAkt of ornaments worn in the Panjab, 
Jury Report on Jewellery, Ac, 
Note on the art of Enamelling, 

Pearl boring, ... 

Gem- cutting 

Seal encrraviug. 

Foil or Tinsel making, 
Note on the History of the '^ Koh-i-n4r " DiamoHdy 


DnnsiON I. — Furniture, 

Division II. — Carved and Inlaid work, ... 

Jury Report on Furniture and Wood Carving, 
Division HI. —Turned and La.cquered wave. 




• • 



• •• 

• •• 

• •• 


Divjsiow I. — Glazed Pottery, 
Division II. — Unglazed Pottery, 

Jury report on Pottery, 






















Nbte on Looking-QIass making, 289 

Class xx. ornamental or fancy manufactures, ... 241 


Intbodttctobt SketcH| •«• ••• ... ... ... ... ... ••• 



Division I. — Machines for raising water, 243 

Division II.— ( Unrepresented,) 

Division III. — Carriages, Ac, ... ••• ••• ... ... ... ... 244 

Jury report on Carriages, ... ... ... ... ... ... 249 

Division IV. — Railway plant, ...^ ... ••• ••• ... ... ..« 263 

Division V.*-~Soatfi, ... ... ... *•• ... ••* ... ... ... 253 






Division I.^— Stringed Instruments, ,r. ... 272 

DnrisiON II.— Wind Instruments, 277 

Division III. — Miscellaneous, 278 

Division IV. — Drums, .., • 279 



Division L— Ordnance, 283 

Division II. — Firearims for Warfare or Sport, ^ .., 286 

Division III. — Swords and Daggers, 291 

Division IV.— Miscellaneous, ... „, .., „^ 29^ 




Division I. — MaxtUaL Trades^ ..• ••• ,*. ... ,n ••• ... 296 

DiviBioN n. — Agricultural Impl^meiitSi ..* * 310 

Division HI. — Hotticultural Implements, .*. ..* .4, m ..* .*< 821 

CLASS XXX. { Not f Resented.) 


Division L-^House Building Oontrivanoes, ... ,.* .•• < 822 

Division II. — Bridges, *.. ••• •<• •♦• ••• ••• ••• ••• 833 

Division III* — Wellsj .<« .<• ..• .• ... ^* •<* •** •*• 836 


Intboductoby Skstgh, •«• ... .4. ..• ••• •*• •*• mti 841 

CLASS XXXII. ( JJnrepreamteiy 



CLASS XXXV. MODELS, ... ... -.,, 858 

jury Report on f^ine Art S^>e€imenB, ... .,. .n ..4 ..« 854 

Index of English Terms, 

Index and Glossaby of Tbohnical Vbbnaculab Tebms, 


Tlease to correct your book or you may be misled as to Vernacular terms. 

Page vii, line 14 from Uyp,f(/r *' Bisliahr, " read " Sasahir." 

„ viii, (p. 3 ), for ** coarse blankets called b6rd and mats for the floor called o#a»," read 

" coarse blankets and mats for the floor called " bhur4." 
„ 7, No. 70, for " K&labagh," read " from Kil4b&gh." 
„ 11, line 16, and tlirou^hout the page,yw» " gori," read " ghori." 
„ 13, No. 197, ^r " in shamyana,* read " a snamyina." 
,,25-28, askd passim, for "lohi," read "lo(.'* 
„ 28, line 14 from the bottom, /or " Bishair," read " Bas&hir." 
„ 29, the heading " galim," should be read galim. 
„ 30, No. 279,/or " a thick rug." read " a thick ring." 
„ 34, line 8 from the top,/or ** Un Kampuri," read " U'n Eampiiri." 

„ 47, No. 392, for * lirmuk,' read * urmak,' and for ** earners hair," read " ahecp's wool 
roughly embroidered." 

: tl: £6frSJhe^?*'*''"*''"}>-"t'«ddles."r««£heddles. 

„ 71, „ 538, /or • sash,* read * leash.* 
„ 72, „ 646,/ar " bamchi," read " penchi." 
„ 73, (Prize list ),for * twilled silk,' read " twisted silk." 
„ 74, line 4 from bottom, for " course," read " coarse." 
„ 98, line 7 from bottom, /or *' one," read " some." 
„ 99 No. 602, for chabbad&r, read " jhabbad&r." 
„ 111, line 13 from bottom, /or * strap or tape,* read " strip of paper." 
„ 117, No. 668, f&r " kufshi," read " kafshi." 
„ 118, line 8 from bottom, for " stationery," read " stationary." 
„ 130, line 8 from top, /or " integrument, " read "integument." 
„ 130, last line but one, /)r " tasse," read "tassel." 
„ 132, last line,/or " brought, " read " wroucht. " 

„ 139, line 12 from bottom, for " karihi, a flat iron, &c.," read " kardhf an open canldron 
see p. 143." 

142, last line, ybr "bindli," read " jagjagan." 

145, No. 736,/or " mottled brass, " read " mottled brown." 

162, line 8 from top, for " treddles, " read " heddles." 

164, line 6 from bottom, /or " ch6n," read "chin." 


„ 180, line 10 from tojp, for " broad thin rings, " read " broad plain rings." 
, No. 29, for "durichah," read "bunda" or "bundlela," (bein 





181, No. 29, for " dunchah, read " bunda or " bundela," ( being most worn by 

Bundelas or people of Bundelkand ). 
181, No. 32, /or " pipal-watta, " read " pipal-watra." 

181, „ 34, ( last Ime from bottom ), for " fig. 18," read " fig. 17." 

182, „ 43, for " cartilidge," read " cartilage," and at No. 62,/or " fig. 1/' read *'fig» 12*" 

187, line 9 from bottom, for "military metal," read "military medal." 

188, last line, for "engraves," read "polishes.** 
194, line 11 from top, for " ndth ** read " nath." 
197, last foot note, for " kair," read " k&n.'* 

199, line 9 from bottom, /w " set out from, *' read " set out for." 

216, line 12 from top,/or " should," read " show.*' 

222, line 8 from top, /or "is," read "are.** 

237, No. 839,/or " course blown," read " coarse blown.*' 

244, line 2 from top, /or "las,** read "l&o," 

276, line 2 from bottom, />r "parkar,** read "parkar." 

S'uS:^^^: \^'- "^'''-'"" "^""^ "^^^^'^'•" 

300, line 16 fcrom bottom, /or "nimgaz** read "nimgaz." 
304, ( 2nd heading ), for " Jild saz,'* read " Jild s&z." 

307, (3rd „ ), Bh4rpun3 a, the second time should be without the accent (Bhamunia) 
327, line 13 from top, for ** curves," read "eaves.*' i* J /• 

331, foot note, for " p. VIII," read " Vol. VIII.'* 

333, line 10 from bottom,/or " for either,** read " from either." 




2%ose marh^ with an asterisk (*) are replaced in the 'presentation copies* hy the original 

























To face page. 




























Kashmir shawl, with white centre. 
*) A square shawl, Amritsar wove. 
3 A shawl designed by Mb. B. Chapman. 

A group of embroidered Telvets, &o. 

Group of Bah^walpur silks. 

Specimen of *' Xarchob " embroidery in gold -on Tehret. 

Black net shawl embroidered, (Delhi). 

Shawl embroidered with gold, (do), 

Thibetan prayer-wheel and sceptre. 

Group of earthenware. 
Do. of embroidered saddlery. 

Straw shoes and sandals. 

Shoes worn in the Panjab and provinces adjacent. 

Group of brass work. 

Diagram of apparatus used in goldwire -drawing and tinsel- 

Group of Kashmir silver ware. 

Ornaments worn by hill tribes. 
Do. do. in the Derajat. 

Figures of ornaments worn in the Panjab. 

Do. do. do. do. 

Do. do. do. do. 

( " Pontha, " " Khandi" and ear-stud). 

Jewelled ornaments for the exhibition of 1864:« 

Carved and inlaid table b;^ Mb. J. Gobdon. 

Chiffonier and carved chair. 

Simla furniture, &c. 

Group of lacquered ware and Kashmir table. 
Do. of ivory carving and inlaid work. 
Do. of papier mache ware. 

Diagram showing section of a potteiy kiln. 

Group of glass and ceramic- ware. 

Diagram snowing the construction of native carts, Ac, 

} Group of models of boats. 
Plate to illustrate details of boats. 
Facsimile of a native drawing showing the practice of BhinO' 

plastic art in Xangra. 
Group of musical instruments. 

} Plate showing form of musical instruments. 
Do. do. do. do. 

Diagram showing construction of native locks. 
Group of arms. 

Diagram of rifle-boring apparatus. 
Groups of inlaid armour. 
Diagram showing the parts of a loom. 

Do. of rope-twister's apparatus. 

Do. of ploughs. 

Do. earden and field tools. 
Carved cemng in the province of Pangi. 



tii tM *iAs* V^OLXtiiti of this \^orkj th^ pi*oducti^ descl*ibeci W^§ 
only those which ate utili:^ed in the state in which iiaturd prodtlceiS thrill, 
or which, though subjected to Various pi*o(5esdes of niatiipulation, altei*a^ 
tion of Refinement, are still considered as fAw inaterial, — beiilg destiiied 
for furthi^r ti'eatnient, eithei* to bd dressed ds food, Woven Up to fornl 
clothing, oi* Wrought, adapted and blended togethei* to form other* 
objects of use ot olrnameni 

Accottlingly, in the first Volume We pilssed m review the irietallic ore^ 
and crude metals, the stones, the earths, the grains, the timbers And the 
fibres, which are either found in the I'anjab and its adjacent Countries, 
or else are imported to meet the Wants of its population* In thi^ the 
second volume We have to obsel^ve the results of these crude Substancep, 
and to see how they are turned to account and Used fot manufac- 
turing the Various articles Which are demanded by the habits and 
customs of the several classes of people inhabiting the pfovinceSi 

The intei'est which attaches to the study of the manufactures of & 
country is widely different In kind from that Which attaches td thd 
contemplation of its natural productSi In the lattei* we feee only th^ 
tesulfei of physical conditions of soil and climate^ more) ot* less modified 
by cultivation, and by the amount of skill (itself Indidative of civiliza* 
tion) with which the Valued plants of other (joutitries haVe beeil 
introduced and Uaturaliiaed } and our throughts are carried aWay 
to the study of their botany and chemistry in an economie point 
of view, while the ultimate practical result attained is the de-- 
velopment of produce that k valuable cotomercially bf excellent 
for local consumption. But when, among the manufactures,- We 
see the hand of man brought to bear on the raw material, and can notices 
Low for he hs^ rendered it jsiubbervient to his purposes; Wer are ai ofliM 






in possession of a standard by which to mark the degree of skill 
which the people possess ; while by observing the classes of articles 
xnade, and how far the wants of civilized life are supplied by them, we are 
enabled to fix the degree of civilization to which they harve advanced ; 
lastly, the form of the objects made, the colour and the pattern 
worked out, give us insight into the sesthetic peculiarities of the 
manufacturers, — their perception of beauty, their appreciation of colour, 
— their inventive faculty and other similar powers, which may help us, 
even though it be only partially and to a limited extent, to fix the 
place which the producers should hold in the ranks of the intellectual 

Separated from the manufactures only for the convenience of 
classification, i§ the division wh^ch embraces machinery, tools and imple- 
ments — the aids which man has invented, and gradually improved 
on and elaborated, with a view to reduce his labour, to save time, and, 
in not a few instances, to do for him what his own hands are unable to 

In this department still more may be learnt and inferred as to 
the Qtate of progress in which the people are, and also the inventive and 
reasoning faculties they are capable of exercising. 

Lastly, and appropriately concluding the collection, as summing up 
what we can learn of the mind from the works of the hand, comes the 
department of fine arts. I cannot here dwell on the indications afforded 
by this department ; indeed it would be unnecessary, for though I have 
not yet applied these principles of examination to the collection which 
has to be described, yet, with regard to fine arts, every one must feel 
before approachiug this section, that these indications are of a mind and 
a power which has scarcely yet taken the first steps in progress and culti- 
vation. Among a highly civilized people, as the eye wanders over their art 
productions, we read the workings, not only of the general but of the in- 
dividual mind ; we trace in one, the grand aspiring mind that has grasped 
and rendered in its work the noblest ideal of form ; in another we see the 
loving spirit dwelling in ecstasy on the calm beauties of nature, — the 
gleaming lights, the soft shades, the clear blue skies and the sunny foliage 
of the homestead and the winding lane ; in another we feel the sanctity gf 


hallowed conception and of the spirit heavenward tending in its flight ; ia 
another the sympathies of human suffering and the touch of tendernesa 
that never fails to awake its response in the gazer*» heart ; — iii all, the aima 
at what is capable of calling forth the best feelings of human nature, be 
it the deeper affections and emotions of the heart, or the happy spirit 
and the harmless mirth of its lighter hours ; but in a country like this,, 
we must not expect to find anything that appeals to mind or to deep 
feeling ; delicacy of finish, beauty of colour, wonderful imitation, all 
are to be met with, and these said, we have concluded the enumera- 
tion of what the art of ihe period can furnish. 

How far education, the diiRision of European knowledge, and 
above all the spread of a purer faith, will expand, improve, and exalt^ 
it is for coming years to show, and will be for the exhibitions of futura^ 
time to display to public notice. 

But we must pass on to the consideration of the classes before uSj^ 
and the application to their study, of such principles as have beea 
above indicated. 

I shall deal at present only with the 1st section — that coatainiBig^ 
manufactured articles, reserving any comment that may be offered 
to illustrate the others for the appropriate plaices which they occupy. 

The manufactures present themselves under the following classes i-^ 


Cotton M anuf actures. 
These consist of native cloths worked with native thread,^ batf^ 
coloured and plain. The coloured cloths are generally either striped and 
check goods, with or without borders, such as ^'lungkia.** and ^^siisis, 
or fabrics woven in a pecular diagonal method and called **khe8. 
Coarse cloths dyed red, called " sdlu" and " khdr-wd," and the same^ 
dyed with indigo called " nllahy^ are much in use. Of course other 
coloured cloths are used in all shades and varieties, but are not dis^ 
tinguished as hinds of cloth, as " nila ** and " hhdrwd ^ are.. 

Of white cloths : there are, 1st, damask cloth, principally mader aft 
Jdlandhar, Hushyarpiir, Patyala, and also at Li^dhi]&na« This fab*. 
ric is about the best of all the thicker cotton fabrics^ and ahowa iilitt 




greatest advance in workmanship ; it is generally patterned with 
diamond-shapes, fancifully called "bulbul chashm" (or nightingale's 
eyes). Fabrics of this kind are often woven with a red or blue 
border, for *' chuddars,'' the sheet or wrapper used as an over-dress. 

^^Chautdhis" and "dotdhW are also white cloths, patterned with 
diamonds or a " herring-bone " in the fabric ; sometimes red and black or 
black and white thread are intermingled in the pattern. 

Thick white cloth is ^'dosuti,'' which means literally a fabric with 
two threads or two fibres in each thread ; there are varieties *^ chausi " 
^^paimi" &c, according to the number of fibres in each thread, which of 
course causes a variety in the thickness and compact texture of the cloth. 

Coarser than ^'dosuti" is the one thread fabric or ''ekstiti,'* this is 
a cheap cloth, much used for dusters, &c., and worn by the poorer 
classes, *^ Ga^s^zi " is a thinner and also common class of fabric, but if 
well made, like some of the specimens from the jails, it is a very service- 
able article, 

Ne:^t are several varieties of thin cloths, varying in fineness, down to 
the softest ^* maimed,*' or muslin, Stiff muslin like European ^* book 
muslin " is unknown, 

The varieties of printed calico goods, gay floor cloths or covers, 
*' lihdf,'' and ** toshaks " or cjuilts, are merely varieties of the above cloths 
coloured by a process already described in the dye department of 
section A, (vol I.) 

The ne?.t and a very useful class of cotton fabric is the " dart '' 
( durree ) or cotton carpet, This is a thick floor cloth, the web being of 
etout cotton threads and the woof consisting of similar threads of thick- 
j^ess varying according to the quality of the fabric, and dyed of various 
CQlqura, Almost any pattern can be produced with care, if only the forms 
be composed of right lines \ but the comnxonest patterns are series of 
ptripes, which is ^ell arranged as to colour, have a very pleasing effect^ 
^specially iu ^ large room, There are several varieties of durree, — the 

IwgQ ones are called ^*ahc^r(mjV* The manufacture will be more 

particularly described hereafter, 

Cottoft rugs are made with a pile like Turkey carpets in some 
places, e$pecially Mult^, 


Another cotton manufacture is broad tape, or ^^newdvy^ made exactly 
on the same principle as the durree, only varying in width from 1 inch 
to 2^ ; it is also applied to the manufacture of horse girths. 

Cotton rope, coloured .and plain, horse nets, fringe for a horse's 
li ead to keep off flies, and narrow tape called "^^a," are also among the 
manufactures of this class. All the above are made with native thread. 

The next class is of articles made with European thread, and con- 
sists of finer white fabrics, such as the richer classes wear. The great 
bulk of the white cloth used for turbans and for dresses, is Glasgow 
or Manchester cambric, and fine linen occasionally is to be met with. 

There is no difference in form of the articles made with English 
thread, and the loom is the same, — only the cloth is finer. 

Lastly, there are the jail manufactures of table cloths (damask), 
table napkins and towels of all sorts, fine and rough ( Turkish towels ), 
which are made principally by the convicts, with the native looom, and 
native or English thread, according as the fabric is to be of finer or 
i^oarser sort. 

I cannot here enter into a description of the looms einployed for 
weaving ; this belongs to the section devoted to machinery and imple- 
ments ; — I may mention here however that the loom is of one universal 
construction and entirely of hand power. 

Much improvement has been efiected in jails as to the fabric pro- 
duced, by greater attention to the preparation and evenness of the 
threads, by the more regular working of the shuttle and the compacting 
together of the threads of the woof, and the skilful joining of the 
. ends of the threads ; — but nothing has been done to improve the loom 
itself. It is not often that the excellent weaving thus learnt in the jail 
is turned to account on the release of the prisoner, though to this there 
ftre some exceptions, one of which is noticed by Mr. Cowan in his 
report on Kachi in the old Leia district, where the manufacture of the 
blanket had flourished, consequent on the exertions of a man who had 
learnt in jail. As a rule, however, the natives are so attached to the 
custom of their &mily, that if a man should happen to be in a butcher's 

family, he will not leave the occupation. I once asked a man of this 


class who had attained great excellence in weaving while in jailj what 
he would do when he was released, and reminded him that he might be 
the best weaver in his village; but he remarked that his caste or business 
was ^' kasai " (butcher's) and he should return to that occupation. I 
believe this is very much the case with other trades, even with those 
who learn to perfection in the Lahore Central Jail the somewhat hign 
art of manufacturing Turkey carpets. 

To turn, therefore, to account the manufacturing skill that 
can be acquired in the best of our jails, such as Lahore and Gujrat, 
the officers in charge should endeavour to apportion to the various 
works, men of such castes ( or rather hereditary occupations, for this 
kind of distinction is hardly ^ religious castfe so mtich to dttstomary 
prejudice ) as will be likely to carry away with thefti and put iiito pi-ad- 
tice, on their release, the knowledge they have acquired, 

The next fabrics of textile manufacture ate those made of wooL 
In this province woollen manufactures are either of (1) *' pushmina/* 
Thibet goat hair, (the process of preparing and collecting which has already- 
been 4©scribed uiider Class II in Section A), and of Kirmani wool and 
Bamptir wool ; or (2) dountry sheep's wool ; or (3) goat and oam^l hair* 

Of **p(tshmina'' there is plain ^^ pashmina paitti/' i. e.> wcxven 
cloth, which has been felted ; it is mlwle of various degrees of fineness^ 
and in coloiir generally black, white^ g^^Ji a^d shades of brown ot drab. 
Pashmina is also woven into a fine class of coloured, black or white 
fabrics, which are afterwards richly embroidered round the edge with 
silk of the same colour ; this class of manufacture is more recent^ and 
articles of European clothing and i^awls are the principal maQufacttires. 

The next dlass of pashnoina goods are the " cUwdn " and " sdda *^ 
shawls, being fine pashmfta fabrics coloured and woveft intoa long 
oblong sha^l without pattern of embroidefy ; they are inttcfh esteemed for 
soflnese and texture. 

Lastly, come that wonderftil class of mantifacftures whi^b are known 
as Kashmir shawls. They are of two kinds, loom wove, where the 
whole pattern is wrotighi in the Icote, wiih an? endless series 
of threads of all colours^ — the other '^ cmilik^/' where a foundatioti 


is made of a plain fttbrio, or a fabric in portions of different colours, 
the Burface of which is then minutely worked over by hand with a 
pattern embroidered in fine pa^hm thread or sometimes silk. For this 
class of work only the finest pashmlna is used, the threads are fine 
twined and do not " felt." 

In other pashmlna goods there are qualities of softness and fineness 
dependent on the wool used, for the same animals yield a fleece which 
has to be separated into qualities — of the inner wool or pashm, which 
is the finest, and then the second and third and the outer hair, which is 
coarse. The fine wool of the sheep of Kirmdn is largely imported, and 
second class pashmfna goods are made of it, but Kirmdnf wool is also 
largely used to adulterate real pashmina, being mixed with it. The 
subject will be noticed when we come to the class of shawls. At Ram- 
piir, the chief town of Bishahr, the wool is of such exquisite softness, 
almost like Kirmdni, that it is largely imported and madp up at Lildhidna 
and other places into plain shawls or wrappers of great softness and 
durability called *' Rdmpur chaddara," 

2. Country wool.—HhiB is the wool of the ^'c?«iwta," or flat tailed 
sheep of the Salt Range and of Pesliawar, and black and white wool of 
the common sheep. From these the ^*kambal" or blanket is made. 
The best come from Rohtak, Sirsa, Gugaira and Leia, and good blankets 
are also made in \he hills ; — very good blankets are made in the Lahore 
district, but the thread employed is twisted too hard, and this deprives it 
of the property of felting, and produces a more open texture and a harsher 
feel.* In many places they are also finished without subjecting them to 
any process of rubbing and working in with any softening agent such as 
European fabrics are treated with. In some places they are softened 
by men's feet repeatedly treading themj after saturation with the liquor 
of the soap nut (" Hta "). 

Beyond blankets made in the plains and a coarse flannel or pattU in 
the hills, v^ry few other woollen fabrics are seen. The climate of the plains 

* Thf property o{felUng whicli wool possesses is dependent on the stmottire of the wool fibres. 
Under the microsoope they are found to consist of a series of rings or joints fitting one inta the other, Hka 
the joints Pf the well known marestail plant (Eqnisetnm) ; the edges of the jointed rings are serrated^ and 
when a nnmber of fibres are rubbed or pressed to^(»ther, the serratures become entangled and feH together. 
Bxcessire twisting of woollen threads or passing the fibres oyer a heated iron oomby'-as is done in Europe 
for wonted— destroys the felting property. 

Viii iNT&ODtOMolfw 

does not demand the use of wool for warmth during sevefal moni^y 
and when the winter does set in, either pashmina or European flannel 
is used, or more commonly the ordinary cotton cloth made double and 
padded with cotton wool. In some of the jails attempts have been made 
to make plaids and coarse cloth< The Kashmiris also make woollen 
cloth something like our tweeds< 

One other class of fabric remains to be noticed, vhi., pile or Turkey 
carpets. A number of these are made of great excellence at Multan^ 
while others are imported, chiefly of small size, from Bukhara, Yar- 
kand, and Kashmir — for which latter carpets pashmfna is employed. 
The Lahore Central Jail produces very fine samples, manufactured by the 
convicts whose term of imprisonment is sufficiently long to admit of 
their learning to perfection the art, which requires much more skill 
than the ordinary mechanical operations of the loom. 

3. Goat hair Sec. This is principally used for making coarse bags 
in which grain and other burdens are carried on the backs of cattle and 
camels. Coarse blankets called " hora " and mats for the floor called 
^' asan " are also made of goat's hair« In some places ropes are also 
made of hair but are not strong. 

There is in Peshdwar a fine kind of goat hair worked into A 
pattii or cloth. 

Camel hair. The soft inner wool is woven into chogahs, (long over* 
coats,) and some kinds of cloth. But these are mostly made in ih0 
Kdbul, Bukhara and Kohkan states. 


This class embraces a Very important article of maniifacfcurey which 
has been for ages carried on in the Panjab, though it is said that a^ 
present the silks made at Multin and Lahore are of less value and 
excellence than they formerly were* 

In the exhibition of 1864^ hoWevei'y an AmritsaT firm^ Mussr^, 
Devi Sahai and Chumba Mi/ll, by reviving expressly the manufacturey 
and making up silks of the fine old qualitie^y denionstrated thai the^ 
art is not lost, but that there is no longer thai demand for the better made 
and JLuore expensive class of fabric which there was in the day&» of 


native f ule, when the court patronized the manufacture and required 
the richest products of the loom for its wear. 

At present the best silks are made at Multdn, Lahore and Bahawalptir. 
The former are principally plain, striped, or shot silks. Silk pieces 
made plain or unicolourous are called " dari/ai ;" if they have a metallic 
texture or " shot," produced by the silk of warp and woof being differ- 
ent colours — ^the silk is called *' daryai dhupchdfiy 

Neat check silks are also made ; these find the readiest sale among 
European ladies ; and as they will wash and wear well they are really 
valuable and useful articles ; they are called " daryai chdrkhdnah.'' 

When the silk pieces have a plain ground colour, but variegated 
by stripes of a second colour in the direction of the length, the fabric 
is called " gulbada7i" Large silk scarves, generally square, with a rich 
gold border, are called " Sdfd" Turbans and waistbelts are also made 
of long pieces of silk with silver gold thread borders and fringes. 

The BahfiwalpAr silks are remarkable for their design ; they often 
have patterns in two or three colours or variegated by the introduction of 
gold or silver thread, and sometimes are unicolourous, the pattern being 
of the nature of a damask produced by the arrangement of the threads. 

These fabrics also are often varied by the intermixture of satin 
or glossy portions with the plain silk. Regular satin is called " atlas,'' 
and is not produced at Lahore or Multdn, or even Bahdwalpilr. That 
which is sold in shops is imported from Europe, or more rarely from 
Bukhdra, Yarkand and China. Russian satin also is sometimes met with. 
A kind of striped satin is brought from Hindustan and Bombay, and is 
called " mashnV 

There is another curious fabric produced in the Bahawalptir territory ; 
this is generally made striped as a gulbadan, and is a very close woven silk, 
or a mixture of silk and cotton artifically glazed. In fact, these fabrics 
look exactly like a piece of common glazed furniture chintz, and to our 
European ideas it seems a great waste of silk to make such fabrics out of it. 

Notwithstanding the local manufactures, silk '* dopattas/^ or 
scarves worked with gold, are largely imported from Benares, which 
latter place supplies the silk " dhotis" ( large silk sheets, worn by Hindiia 
in lieu of the ''pat jama,'' or loose trowsers of the Musulmans ) and 
spotted handkerchiefs called " htindC 


Silk fabrics, very thin, almost like muslin, and inwoven with gold 
thread, are also used in various parts of the Panjab, both as ** dopattas " 
or scarves, and as " majidils/' which when twisted up into narrow rolls, 
like a rope, are worn coiled round the head for a turban, 

Kamhhdb ( " kincob " ) a rich silk fabric worked all over with 
patterns in gold thread ( something like the cloth of gold of ancient 
days in Europe ), is not made in the Panjab except perhaps at a few 
places, as Nabha, and a little at Amritsar ; it is principally imported 
from Benares, or from Ahmadabad ( Bombay ). 

Occasionally the silk '' khes " and ^' sdH,'' or thick silk scarves of 
the Dakhan and Central India, find their way up to the Panjab from 
Jhdnsi, Gwalior, and via Delhi. 

Velvet, called " makhmal'^ is not made, as far as I know, in any part 
of India, and certainly not in the Panjab. It is in demand for native 
saddles and saddle cloths, which are made of velvet richly embroidered 
with gold. It is also used for " masnads,'' the small carpet on which kings 
and great dignitaries sit, and for cushions, and for the covering of sword 
scabbards. It used to be imported from Russia via Bukhdra, and was of a 
thin quality ; but the superior velvets of France and England have driven 
out the trade, and the imports are from Calcutta and Bombay. Kussian 
velvet is still to be seen on the scabbards of Irdn or Persian and Bukhara 
swords. Cotton velvet is imported also, none is made in the Panjab. 

The fancy articles in silk, that is, articles made without the aid of 

the loom, are more numerous than those of the cotton or wool classes. 

First there are the '' izdrhandy^ or netted sashes : these are universally 

employed as a string or girdle by wliich the paijjimas are fastened round the 

waist, they are made of silk netted, either plain or coloured, and the long 

ends of silk are knotted off and end in tassels, which are sometimes 

ornamented with gold thread and beads &c. The making of these articles is 

a trade by itself called ^'paiholi " or " ildkahandi'^ Various head ornaments 

are made of silk ; among them the female ^^ pardnda" which consists of 

long skeins of crimson silk, which are not plaited or twisted but left 

loose, only secured at each end by being bound up and the lower end 

being formed into a long tag ending with a tassel, generally highly 

ornamented with gold thread tinsel &c. This long tail of silk is 


plaited by the women into their hair and hangs down their back, the 
tassels of the " pardnda " giving a finish to the plait. 

Hor^e trappings of all kinds, fringes for the nose, the long tassels 
that ornament the trappings of the saddle, and leading ropes, called 
" hcugdaxiVy^ are also made of silk. 

Another kind of fancy manufacture is curious, and confined chiefly 
to one or two men resident of the Gujran walla district, who also visit 
Lahore : — ^it consists in working pieces of coloured chenille (or piping of 
long piled velvet ) side by side on to any cloth, in such a way as to 
form patterns or designs in leaves and flowers ; the cloth so worked 
in is made up into cushions &c., — or else the chenille is neatly glued 
on to the surface of a glove box or trinket case ; these present a very 
pleasing appearance when well made. 


Fibrous Manufactures. 

This class gradually takes us out of the division of " Textile 
Manufactures." Its first division is intended for fabrics not included 
in the previous three classes. 

The necessity for such a division is almost exclusively of Euro- 
pean creation ; it will contain the canvas woven of the flax grown at 
Sealkot, and also some linen fabrics of European manufacture but from 
Indian fibre. 

One indigenous fabric of this class is the coarse sacking or " t&t^^ 
answering to the " gunny " of Bengal : it is used for packing, or for a 
floor cloth, or for making sacks and bags for grain, &c., &c. 

The second division of this class contains ropes of all kinds. 
The commonest forms of these are the ropes of " ban milnj,' or the 
sheaths of the flower stalks of the Saccharum munja already described ; 
ropes of hemp, and of '' san^' and also of the ''sanhokra" or 
Eozelle plant are commonly used. The coarser kinds of grass rope 
used as make-shifts by the villagers for agricultural purposes, aro 
hardly to be classed as manufactures, and are exhibited with the fibroua 
products of Section A. 


The next division contains native paper, either plain or colored ; 
it differs not in kind, like European note paper, foolscap, tissue 
paper, printing paper, &c., but only in quality and excellence of 
manufacture and in the size of the sheets. 

The paper of Kashmir is however different in kind, and is 
superior yet to anything produced in this province. 

Sealkot is or was the famous place for paper, — but the jails 
now all produce paper, and that ( in some of them ) of excellent 
quality. In the jails also was originated the paper made of " maddr ** 
fibre, of daphne and desnwdium bark, of plantain fibre, of flax tow, 
and of " dhdk " bark and other materials. Old tdt chopped into pieces 
is the ordinary paper material, not old rags. 

The last division in this class comprises a series of mats, of 
baskets, and of chicks or light screens for doors, which keep flies and birds 
out without excluding the light and air. Punkahs and hand fans and mats 
manufactured from the tough fibrous pieces of the palm leaves, and also 
of the *' patha/' or Chamcerops Ritchiana^ are very common, and are 
imported largely from Peshawar. There are also baskets and screens 
of the culm of the ^^sirki" or Saccharum miinja, ornamented with 
patterns, &c., of woollen thread. 

In this class more perhaps than in any other is the special skill 
of the native artizans displayed. It includes embroidery of all kinds, 
the rich gold embroideries of saddles, * masiiads/ and * chogahs,' the 
beautiful silk needlework in pashmfna, cotton, and net, — and lastly 
the wonderful Kashmir " amlikar " or needle-worked goods, consisting 
of shawls, caps, coats, and chogas, whose substance is pashmina, but 
the pattern is worked by hand stitching to a degree of fineness that is 
perfectly marvellous. 

In these works, the great patience and extreme delicacy of 
finger of the workman is exhibited to the utmost. Many of the 
embroidered specimens must have required the patient minute labour of 
consecutive months, — and the beautiful arrangement of colour, and 
great variety and elegance of design in pattern are very striking. 


Tlie perception of colour appears purely intuitive ; they have an 
empiric knowledge of what the complementary colours are, and know 
that setting one beside its complementary throws out both to the greatest 
effect, — or gives them " zeh " — as the native phrase is. It is however 
needless to observe that they have no knowledge of the principles of 
colouring, and hence it not seldom happens that their colour degenerates 
into glare, and their contrasts into gaudiness. Much might be done by 
educated supervision, in leading and restraining this natural impulse, 
so valuable in itself as a foundation in design art. 

Hie elegance in pattern of these embroideries as also in the 
woven shawls, is scarcely less remarkable than the selection and 
arrangement of colour ; and this is a very noteworthy circimistance, 
because it shows that the power of design in tracing patterns, whether 
it be on a shawl, or on an enamelled cup, or on a gold inlaid shield, 
is a diflTerent power from designing in solid. In the late exhibition 
for instance, on all sides we could see beautiful patterns ; — there were en- 
amelled wares from Mult^n, chased silver from Kashmir, glazed tiles from 
Mult An again, embroideries from Delhi, Lahore, Amritsar, Kashmir and 
Ludi^na, elaborate borders and illuminated titles to manuscripts, — all 
covered with designs as beautiful in conception as they were faultless in 
execution, but for beauty of form we looked in vain. The few articles 
that had anything like elegant shape were almost entirely copied 
or made to order, and under supervision. But take any purely native 
article, say one of the carved marble chairs figured in Class XV. The 
back and sides are covered with tracery in pattern most beautiful, 
but the general form of the chair is hideous and clumsy to a 
degree. The same thing perpetually appears also in native drawings : I 
have before me as I write a native portrait of His Highness the Maha- 
rajah of Kashmir and Jamil ; the figure is seated resting against a 
velvet cushion, which is placed in the centre of a carpet, with an attendant 
behind : in the first place the paper is bordered round with an 
edging of flower tracery, very beautifully complete ; as to the 
picture itself, the velvet cushion on which the king reposes is wrought 
out with all its little pattern of gold embroidery, and the blue carpet 
on which the masnad is placed shows a miracle of tracery in gold and 
white, — ^but the figure itself, the ^fm^i ' part of the picture, is 


contorted, and the graceful folds which the soft muslin in which he 
is clothed would naturally assume are represented by lines conventional, 
stiff and utterly impossible, drawn without a thought of the original. 
The explanation is easy : the artist had the oriental perception of 
tracery and flat designing, — of solid form he had none. 

It is not a little remarkable that the countries where form has 
been most appreciated have been less prolific in patteims, or traced 
design. In ancient Greece and Rome, for instance, where grandeur 
of form and severe truth of outline, coupled however with the 
most perfect grace, are pre-eminent in every sculpture and building, 
we see comparatively little of fine pattern design. We have, no doubt, 
tesselated pavements, and Etruscan and Greek borders, but the patterns 
are few, and constantly repeated, rigidly simple, and always occupy a 
place entirely secondary and subservient. 

It may be objected to this depreciation of the native perception 
of form, that considerable elegance is displayed in their vessels and vases, 
but this is not a fair test ; for when the clay is placed on the wheel 
there is a tendency in the gyrations of the wheel to produce certain forms 
in themselves elegant. When the first potters pressed their hands on 
the clay and the vessel came forth of a shape that was elegant, it was 
a chance : the potter had no design to make it with the particular 
curve that gives grace and beauty. But when once the vessel was made, 
and beautiful or not answered the purpose for which it was intended, 
whether a long necked ^'siirahi" or water bottle, or a ^^hdndi" or a 
*' chdtti, " it became an established form, and was copied ever after, and 
copied not only in pottery, but in metal ; hence the elegance of a few of 
the surahis and cups in silver is easily explained, and in no way 
militates against the general principle that traced design is separata 
from form design. 

I have extended this notice beyond the limits of a preliminary 
sketch; but the class of embroidery is one so remarkable, and the 
subject of pattern in general is forced on our notice by the whole 
collection so strongly, that it is impossible to avoid devoting some pages 
to it. Perm and design in pictures and in architecture have been 


excluded from this place, but I shall recur to this interesting subject 
when we come to the fine art collection in Section D. 


This class gives an opportunity for the display of the peculiarities 
of dress to be found within the varied districts of the province. The 
wild marauding tribes of the hills and Peshdwar and down to the Derajat, 
the inhabitants of the peaceful and settled plains, in their several 
occupations or castes, Hindu and Mussulman, Jat, Arain, Banya, Khatri, 
Brahmin, Munshi, the hill people of the Kangra and Simla States, as far 
as to the borders of Thibet, of Ladak and Spiti, of Kashmir and Kabul, — 
all are represented in the province in one part or another ; and their 
distinctive dresses, turbans, or shoes, &c. &c., form interesting articles 
for exhibition. Under the same class are also included the articles of 
clothing which are exhibited as specimens of work, and not for the sake 
of the form of the dress. Also all articles which illustrate ethnogra- 
phic peculiarities, or have reference to particular customs, ceremonies and 
superstitions, are here included. 


This class is for Leather Goods. The original native manufactures 
of leather are not extensive. Common shoes, saddlery, book-binding, 
water-bags and buckets, are almost the only leather articles in common 
use; but the intestinal skin of various animals is made by moulding 
when wet into bottles or jars for holding oil &c. and camel hide is 
occasionally employed for the dishes of weighing scales &c. The more 
promising kinds of leather manufacture in this class are the result of 
European demand on the one hand, and European instruction on the 
other, and now superior book-binding, saddlery, harness, and English 
boots and shoes, very well made, form a part of the collection. 


Thia^ is a large and important class, embracing all manufactures 
in metal. The class is sub-divided according to the metal employed, and 
primarily into the two main divisions of work in the precious and 
non precious metals. 


The sub-classes A and B contain samples of the work in copper, 
brass and bell metal, chiefly in the form of vessels for cooking, drinking 
and holding water. Such vessels are always used wherever the people 
are rich enough to have them, it is only the very poorest that are con- 
fined entirely to earthenware pots. Rough iron-work was included in the 
exhibition ; bolts, screws, nails, iron pans, and implements, were shewn, 
but formed neither a large nor an important collection, but one in which 
there was very great room for improvement ; it is possible however that 
many exhibitors were deterred from sending specimens by the great 
weight and consequent cost of carriage, and also by the unsightliness of 
the objects themselves. The exhibition prize for the best piece of rough 
filed iron- work could not be awarded. Sub-class C contains cutlery, the 
best samples of which are the manufacture of table knives from Shahpdr, 
and of various articles from Gujrat and Sealkot, but all on the European 
model, some of the latter under European superintendence also. A 
portion of the large collection of swords and daggers exhibited for the 
sake of their blades came under this class. It may be added that 
there is some difficulty in classifying these articles, and a number will 
be found in this class, some more among the works in the precious me- 
tals, a few under jewellery, and a number in section C, in the class 
XXVIII — devoted to arms. The principle of classification is derived 
from a consideration of the prominent characteristics of the specimen. If 
a weapon exhibits a peculiar form and name, — as the long juggling 
sword, the twisted bichwd or dagger, or the katdr, it is included in the 
proper class as a weapon; but if the form presents nothing remarkable, but 
the blade is of beautiful metal, or finely tempered and watered, it is shown 
as a sample of steel under the present class ; if it is inlaid with gold 
the specimen will consort with " koftgari " or inland gold work, — 
if the handle and scabbard are richly jewelled or enamelled, it forms 
part of the jewellery collection. In one instance daggers, whose han- 
dles and sheaths were of finely carved ivory, and the blades quite 
ordinary both as to shape and metal, have been included as "ivory 

The next great division of this class contains work in the precious 
metals. In the exhibition there was a collection of considerable beauty. 
The first sub-class is divided to illustrate the manufactures of gold 


'mre, such as gold thread, and spangles, gold military lace, gold edgings 
and ribbands, Ac, called " Jcalabatiin* '* mvJcesh,'' ''laus/' '' anchal,'' &c. 

In the next class the gold thread and fine flattened wires of the 
former are found woven into gold cloth by the aid of a silk warp and 
forming the rich patterns of a Benares kimkhab, or ihe golden sheen 
of a " mandil " or " dopafta,^' 

Leaving these light fabrics of gold, illustrating the wonderful 
malleability and ductility of the precious metals, we come to another 
class, where the same metals are exhibited in a more solid form, in cups 
and vessels both plain and ornamental, or chased over with the beautiful 
flower work in relief as in the Kashmir silver. 

In this class are also included a multitude of trinkets whose endless 
shapes and names are as curious as they are puzzling ; several of these 
are local, and worn only by certain tribes, and will receive full notice 
in their proper placa 

Next come the beautiful koftgari work, arms and shields, pen- 
boxes and caskets, combs, buttons, paper-knives, letter weights and 
many other articles of iron, polished and wrought all over with curious 
devices in gold lines made by hammering in gold wire. 

Last in this class, is a sub-division to receive a few samples of plating, 
both water and electro-plate. The former has been done for years in the 
eities of this pi-ovince by overlaying with thin gold,— but the latter i» 
quite new, and has been practised by a few workmen with fair success. 


Contains the samples of native jewellery and enamelling. The latter 
is noticable chiefly on the backs of set jewels, many rings and bracelets 
being finished with enamelling in this way ; but the most showy pieces of 
enamelling are the silver vases from Kashmir and Multdn and the ena- 
melled jewellery of Kangra ; — a pattern is formed on the silver in high 
relief and the lower parts filled up with coloured enamel, so that the 
surface presented is that of a coloured ground, with silver leaves, and 
flowers, delineated upon it 

The jewellery, properly so called, consists of gems cut and set in 
gold for rings, necklaces, armlets, &c. The native names and varieties 


of jewels are perfectly endless, and vary in different districts. Trinkets 
and ornaments in silver and gold, all included under the general term 
'* zewardt " are worn by both sexes, but especially by women. 

Almost the only gems esteemed by natives for their finest ornaments 
are rubies, emeralds, diamonds and pearls ; all the others are despised, 
and sapphires are quite uncommon, and only worn in the " nau raJtn^ 
or armlet with nine gems.* The lower order of jewels, such as agates 
and cornelians are condemned to the rank of " naginahs'^ or " manhis,'^ 
stones for signet rings or beads for rosaries. The gems are all imported ; — 
rubies from Ceylon and Burmah, diamonds from Central India, but many 
from Calcutta, from Brazil, &c. ; emeralds are not found anywhere in 
India, but stones of immense size are to be met with, filled however with 
flaws ; — they are all imported. An account of these gems will be 
found in section A, under the class devoted to minerals used for 
ornament, at page 49 of vol. I. 

There is another class of jewellery which deserves notice, viz., 
that of Delhi made in European fashion, with stones cut as in Europe, 
which latter are chiefly brought from Calcutta. Very good native work 
in imitation of European also done at Kangra — but principally in gold 
and enamel not with stones. 


Is a class designed to include rock crystal cups, and handles, 
agate bowls, jade vases, and other articles of vertu not strictly to 
be classed with gems. 


We pass on to a different series of manufactures, viz., those in 
which wood and ivory are the chief materials. 

First comes furniture. This is principally by European hands in the 
regimental workshops, or by natives under European superintendence. 

Natives use so little furniture beyond chairs, beds and boxes, that 
there is no scope for a native collection of furniture. 

The second division of the class contains all the wood carvings, 
some in the form of articles of funiture, such a« legs of beds, boxes, 

• The Raja of Chambah has an immense sapphire for a head jewel : stones of this siie are rery !«• 
funong native jewellery. 


walking sticks and other articles. A few articles are of wood inlaid 
with ivory with great neatness and skill. 

The third division is expressly for the turned wood ware of 
P^k Pattan and other places; the turned vases, boxes, &c., being 
afterwards covered with variegated lacquer and polished. 


Contains all the delicate ivory carving of Delhi and Amritsar. 

Almost specially constructed for the wares of Kashmir ; for beyond 
a rude papier mach^ from Muzaffargarh, there is hardly any made in 
the province. The Kashmir boxes, pen-trays, card cases, &c., are some of 
them of wood, and some of papier mach^— the pulp of old paper, moulded, 
pressed and dried into the desired form. The surface of these articles 
is most beautifully and delicately painted over in gold, or colours, or 
both, on a ground of some colour previously laid on. Nothing can 
exceed the delicacy of the flower patterns or the shawl patterns which 
are delineated on them ; the gloss is given by a varnish of copal. 

Includes all the ceramic art of the province. 

Generally speaking, nothing is made but rude porous earthem 
vessels of the various forms of water bottles, cups, pans, and " degchis " 
or ^'chattis'' (cooking pots) ; but several districts have produced beautiful 
thin paper pottery, unglazed, and the Rohtak district has a very pleasing 
variety formed of brownish clay, the surface of which is ribbed or 
marked and indented with patterns, and then has a pearly lustre given 
to it by the addition of finely powdered talc. 

Some of the pottery is of a pale yellow, and a little of a black colour ; 
the latter is exhibited with a pattern worked in on it with quicksilver 
and tin leaf, which is not permanent but to look at has a sufficiently 
pleasing eflfect. There are a few specimens of pottery painted over, 
and of pottery to which the lacquer of the turned wood has been 
applied, the latter is very fairly durable when well made. 

Some of the jails exhibited glazed pottery, which shows great progress, 
both as to form, colour, and quality of glaze ; but still the art is rude and 
imperfect, and the apparatus and substances employed need improvement. 


From Ludbidna the exhibition had a large series of ceramic y«96s 
made on classical or quasi-classical models. The glared tiles under this 
class are some of tbem very good and of brilliant colour, being both 
ancient and of modem manufacture. 


This represents the attempts of the province at glass making. 

The crude gl»m is a thick greenish material from which bulbous 
bottles are blown, but no advance in this ha» hitherto been made ; the 
tools, Uie furnace and the annealing are all on the smallest scale, and of 
the rudest and most unsatisfactory kind. The few white glass articles 
that are made, are made of broken European articles melted down. The 
best glass is made at Fanipat and Kamal, they there also silver glass 
with some success. Some tolerable white glass candle shadles were sent 
from Patydld, and some fancy articles from Lahore. As yet glass is not 
used for drinking out of by natives, and that employed by Europeans is 
imported, as is also window glass ; hence there is no stimulus given to 
the manufacture. 

Which concludes the section, is designed for the few articles of 
ornament or of fancy work that could not be conveniently included in 
any of the regular classes. Native ingenuity is often and not altogether 
unsuccessfully exercised in producing fancy or ornamental goods. 

In the foregoing sketch it is hoped the reader will have gained soma 
idea of what he may expect to find detailed under the various classes* 
He will see there, the result of patient industry straggling with rude 
materials, imperfect tools, and ignorance of any principles by which 
to learn to improve them, and opposed, albeit unconsciously, by that 
apathy and dislike for change which produces an almost insurmountable 
obstacle to the introduction of new methods, even when their superiority, 
actually exhibited, cannot be denied. 

In other branches of manufacture, where the material is more 
pliant and seems dependent on patient delicate handling, combined with 
a power of pattern making and colour arranging, — we see all the 
excellencies of the best manufacture displayed at once ; tbe embroideries^ 
the shawls, the inlaid work are without rival It only remains to ask 


could not this excellence be produced with leas. laboiiTj^ less tima and 
leas expense ? 

Notwitfastftnding* the generfti backwardness; of maanfacturing skilly 
the commwicement of Earopean influence of the best kind on the 
manufactures^ is clearly perceptiWe. New matermfs^ are being- turned to» 
account, better tools are beingtried, in spite of the^apathjr and dislike jusfc 
alluded to ; better form and better finish is already discemiWe in the- 
articles of furniture^ cutlery,, jewellery and many others ; while even in the: 
exclusively native art of shawl makings the value of Eiiropean design^ 
and colour teaching fe to be traced in several of the productions of 
Amritsar looms. 

The survey of the manufactures is on the whole an- encouraging- 
one ; advance though very slow is being made in almost every departments 
Our jails introduce better styles of work, and should be encouraged 
to go still further, and with still greater care and attention to see that the> 
skill acquired is not throwfi away or lost; private manufacturers,, 
regimental workshopsj^ railway industrial workshops and mission 
industrial schools are all tending to. giva the on.ward impulse, 

The establishment of good industrial and design-art schools is now^ 
a desid^atum ; in many places, the people are ripe for them and would 
gladly learn. The establishment of such, a school at Lahore has been 
determined on, and will no doubt become tho centre of impro;srem6nt on 
all hands. Not a little will be gaiiied if we can succeed in teaching the 
manufacturers the principles on which the processes, of dyeings metal 
workings weavii^ and the like depend; guided by^ such knowledge, 
it is possible to effect those improvementa which are urgently required 
both in mat^*ial and implementa; mere empiric knowledge of 
certain rude processes, can he handed down as in this country from father 
to son, but never can lead to any advance or improvement. A very 
important point which should occupy the attention of the educational 
authorities is the necessity of teachings and spreading a knowledge of 
the elements of natural science,, especially Chemistry, Botany, Electri- 
city, Hydrostatics and Mechanics. Almost every process of art or 
manufacture is dependent on one or other of these sciences ; and if a 
knowledge of them were to begin to prevail among the educated classes^ 


improvement would gradually spread as it has in Europe to the masses, 
and the result would be that every manufacture in the country would 
eventually be benefitted ; we would then see improvement carried into 
paper making, cutlery, pottery, glass blowing, in which it is most 
required, and even the old cotton and silk weaving loom might give 
way before a simple, cheap and improved substitute. 



This Section is at present destined to occupy but a small space in the 
account of the Products of the Punjab. The distribution of Classes under 
it, given at page xxxiii of Volume I, is rather intended for an 
Exhibition where both native and imported machinery is displayed, 
than a scheme of classification adaptable to the actually existing in- 
digenous machinery of the Punjab. Accordingly, these Classes in the 
scheme that are noted below as containing nothing, will be omitted in the 
descriptive catalogue which follows : — 

CLASS XXI. — Prime movers, &c. This class is blank. 

CLASS XXII. — Distributed under four divisions : we have a few 
samples thus : — 


Division I. — Machines for raising water, — There is the Persian wheel, 
the " Lao-charas" the " Dhankll " and the " Chal^r." 

Division II. — Machines for raising weights ; — is blank. 

Division III. — Carriages.* — There is no great variety, but the indigen- 
ous carriages are admirably adapted for the purposes they are 
built to serve ; and the " Ekka, *' being built on the very principle 
adopted some years back in the Hansom cab, will deserve notice. 

Division IV. — Railicay Plant. — Although under effective supervision 
native workmen are able to build railway can-iages, and to do a 
great deal of useful metal and other work in repairing and fitting 
machinery, all the specimens in such a division being purely of 
European origin, will have no place in this book. 


Division V. — Models of Boats. — This Section will contain an account of 
the boats that have been in use on the Punjab rivers from time 
immemorial. Like almost everything else the art of boat building 
is stationary ; and I doubt not that traces of Alexander's boat 
building may still be found in the Jhelum boat of to-day. 

CLASS XXIII. — Instj'wnents for weighing and registering: — lA 
separated into two divisions : — 

Division I. — Horological instrmtiente, which is a blank, except in tho 
remarkable instance to be noted in its proper place* 

Division II. — TTeighing Instruments are represented only by the com- 
mon tardzu or scale, with the suspended trays at either end of the 
beam. It is generally made of wood and with leather and basket 
work for larger work, while for jewellers and others a small steel 
beam carrying little hemispherical brass cups hung on with three 
silk threads is used. The balance is indicated by the pointed tongue 
" kantha '^ of the beam, just as in European scales. They are 
always fitted into a little wooden case, in which one cup lies over 
the other, and the case is shaped thus 

The steel-yard is unkown. 

CLASS XXIV. — Contains Mathematical and Pliilosophical 
instruments y and is unrepresented, save by the instruments ( still to be 
found) used by native astrologers, including the astrolabe, and instruments 
for determining latitude and longitude, the equation of time, and so forth. 

CLASS XXV. — [Surgical instruments) VfWi ^xeBQut a small, but 
somewhat curious collection, showing how far the surgical art has gone 
among a people who consider the noble art — one of the great powers 
whereby we contend against the host of suffering and misery in the world — 
as only fit for barbers and blacksmiths ; and who found their surgery, 
like their medicine, on a purely empirical basis. The patience of the native 
character, however, is admirably exhibited by the known surgical processes, 
most of them being as slow and tedious for the operator; as they require 


patience and determined submission in the subject. The delicacy of 
handling and skill in usuig rough weapons, which natives undoubtedly 
possess, will further appear in their operations for cataract, and for 
restoring the cartilage of the nose. 

CLASS XXVI. — {Musical instruments) will contain a series 
which is certainly curious and interesting, however unmelodious to 
European ears the twang of the *^ madham " or guitar may be. 

CLASS XXVII. — Locks and small machines. — This Class is 
represented by a few small articles, which show however an embryo 
ingenuity which might receive great development in future, and under 
suitable guidance. 

CLASS XXVIII. — Contains specimens of Arms and Ordnance. 

CLASS XXIX. — Machinery and Trade Implements. 

I)ivisi0H L — Used m Manual trades* — A great many of the implementai 
which are required for various manufactures have already been 
described in Section B. of this Volume. I use this Division 
to contain a variety of miscellaneous information as to Tools 
and Trades which I could not include elsewhere. 

I)ivisiON II. — Agricultural Instruments^ are represented by the somewhat 
rude, but by no means inefficient implements used all over 
the country. They have at least the merit of extreme cheapness. 
The common cultivator would be almost ruined by the price of 
an English plough ; at least by what it would cost out here. 

Division III. — Shews a similar series of tools used in horticulture^ 

CLASS XXX. — {Photographic Apparatus) is blank. 

CLASS XXXI. — Contrivances used in architecture. Under this 
Class will be given some notes on the houses built in various parts of the 
Punjab, and some remarks also on the construction of wells. 

The Class Machinery, which occupies a large portion of the great 
European Exhibition Catalogues, is thus reduced in the Punjab to very 


narrow limits. All the progress that has been made in the introduction of 
machinery is of European origin. Nor is this to be wondered at, for the 
manufacture of machinery demands many aids w^hich the Punjab at 
present has not. First, there must be the inventive mind long trained by 
close study of the successive processes which one by one have perfected 
the construction of machines in Europe. Next there must be large foundries, 
and abundant supply of fuel for large and powerful furnaces ; metal- 
lurgy must be brought to a high degree of perfection ; fine and malleable iron, 
pure and even tempered steel, well compounded metals, must be produced 
in abundance. Again, the making of one machine requires the aid of 
many others. All the machinery requisite for casting metal, all the contri- 
vances for turning, planing, boring, and shaping metal, that are now seen 
in the great engine factories of Europe, must be brought into play. Still, 
the day is perhaps not far distant when we may have machinery of native 
manufacture. Already the workshops of Rurki, Madhopur, and of the 
great railway stations, employ hundreds of native artisans, who are thui? 
becoming familiarized with the arts of forging and casting metal, and 
with the control of powerful engines and prime movers, whether worked 
by water power as at Madhopore and Rurki, or by steam as at the 
Lahore and other railway workshops. These abundantly prove 
that the native workman is not wanting either in sagacity or in power ; 
and these works under European supervision are but the first step 
towards works where the learners have become teachers, and whence 
the arts imported from abroad have gradually become naturalized and 


Class V. 

CL-A.SS "V". 


To trace the process of manufacture upwards from the first gathering of the cotton 
pods to the final egress from the loom of the woven fabric, we must refer to the class of fibres 
where> under the head of raw cotton, the first part of the story has 1)een told ; suffice it 
here to say that the uafeive cotton fibre is of much shorter staple than the American turieties, 
and that even the latter when acclimatized shew, except under very favorable circumstances, a 
tendency to shorten also. 

When the cotton is gathered and separated from the husks of the pod, the first step is to 
separate the fibre from the seed to which it is attached. This is effected by the " helna** 
a very simple little apparatus, consisting of a pair of rollers, supported between two 
uprights fixed on to a wooden stand: the rollers are just sufficiently far aparrt to allow the 
cotton but not the seed to pass between. The ends of the rollers are cut into wormed screws, 
which work one into the other and cause both rollers to revolve, when force is applied to a 
wooden lever handle attached to the upper one. 

The cotton having passed through this process, is cleaned from broken bits of seed and 
dirt, and also frayed out and separated, by a very simple apparatus called a ^^pinjan,*' This 
is little more than a bow loosely strung and sus{>euded from the ceiling of the room. The 
operator sits on the grouud, and the bow lies nearly on the ground; the operator twists a little 
stick round the string in the centre, and placing the bow-string over a little heap of cotton, 
by the aid of the little stick, twangs the string against the cotton, which is frayed out and 
cleaned simply by the vibration of the string ; the passer by can constantly hear the twanging 
of this bow as he approaches the shop. 

When the cotton is thus cleaned, it is formed into spindle shaped lumps or balls, called 
"puui" from which thread is drawn out and twisted. This is done by the aid of a " charha^^ a 
very simple instrument, consisting of a large lantern wheel* about a foot or eighteen inches in 
diameter, which turned by handcommunicatesby a band with a very small reel-like wheel which 
revolves rapidly ; from the side of the reel or small wheel an iron spike projects, over which 
a hollow grass straw is slij)ped and on which the cotton thread is wound as fast as it is spun. 

The thread l)eing thus obtained, it is wound off from the reels of the charkha and con- 
verted into the form of large skeins by winding it over a wooden frame called " dlerati,^* In 
this state it is put into the weaver's hands. The weaver opens out the skein into a circle which 
he then places on a sort of skeleton cylinder, or rather pyramid shaped wheel, from which, 
while revolving, the thread is again wouud off on bits of reed for use. Next, the web of the 
fabric has to be prepared, which is of course double. In order to do this, a smooth piece of 
clean ground is selected, and pnSf rs of pegs are set up, at intervals of two yards or less, in two 
paralled rows. A person then takes in each hand a stick, at the bottom of which is a revolv- 
ing reel charged with thread ; he fixes to the first peg one end of the thread on the reel, and 
then walks along the pegs, first down one row and up the next, and so the thread unwinds as 
he goes, and he takes care to let the thread fall alternately outside and inside each peg : — thus 

* The wheel oonsiBte of two iliRos of wood separated by pieoes of wood to the diatanoe of 2 or 3 
inclies ; the edge of the wheel U formed bj a net work of striug stretched between the two diaoH, over this 
surface the baud revolves. 

Class V. 

a number of thread 8 are deposited on the ground over the pegs, and the workman goes on 
unwinding till there are threads enough for his pur[)ose. The requisite number of threads is 
calculated a<'cording to the breadth of the intended fabric; the threads are then carefully takeu 
up off the ground. The double rows of pegs having served to keep the two sets ofth reads apart, 
sticks of " sarkand" grass are also inserted breadthwise to keep them from becoming re- 
entangled. The workman next spread out the threads to the breadth of the intended web; 
one end of the web is then tied to a stick fixed in the ground and the other held by another 
man and stretched out to its full length, when it is well brushed with a broad brush (called 
** hich") to cleanse the threads from the little particles of cotton seed and other impurities 
that invariably stick to the thread. It is now ready to be transferred to the loom. 

All native cotton fabrics are made in one or other of four stvles : — 
1st. These are plain cloths, either wove with a single thread or with two or three or 
four threads, according to. the required stoutness of the fabric, from the thinnest " malmaC* 
or** elcsitti" to the thickest *' durreei'* for all these the web is unicolorous. 

2nd. Are cloths witb a longitudinal stripe, of which the type is the end; or with a 
clieck pattern as the " hnigl\* the web here has coloured threads introduced at intervals 
for the stripe. " Jabbalptin" durrees are also made on this principle. Both these kinds 
are wove plain and called " sadab/iff." 

3rd. Are cloths with various diagonal patterns, such as the " Jt7w«," and are woven 
on a different principle and. called " khesbdfi." 

4th. Are those fabrics which are not. woven merely by passing the shuttle across 
and across in a straight line, but which exhibit in their texture a damask or pattern, 
generally in diamond shapes, and fantastically called " Btilbitl chashnC^ or "Nightinale's eye." 
This is commonly seen in the " ghdtV^ and in the " ckddar'^ worn Jis wrappers or cloths. 

The weaving of towels, table linen and the like, is of purely European origin, and 
is only practised in jails, &c., under European supervision. . Such cannot be counted as 
a class of native indigenous manufactures. 

Notwithstanding the simplicity of the cotton manufacture, the varieties of the cloth are 
numerous, as the following list of names of cloths met with in the Punjab will testify. 
The names sometimes indicate the number of threads constituting the brea<lth of the web, 
and sometimes the number of threads, whether single, double, &c., with which the shuttle is 
charged. Sometimes the colour gives a naTue, sometimes the pattern. Besides these general 
aiaiues there are varieties of fabrics known locally by peculiar names. These are not given here, 
but will bo found in the catalogue which follows. The Gugaira lists will furnish a good 
example of this. Foreign piece goods, whether European, or imported from Kdbul and 
Tiirkistan, or from India, have also distinctive titles : all such are indicated in the sequel. 

With regard to the distribution of cotton manufacture in various districts of the 
Punjab, — it is, of course, scarcely possible to exclude any city or town from the list of 
cotdyon manufacturing localities. In every place will be found shops of weavers employed 
in producing at least the coarser cloths required in quantity* by all classes. 

In the large cities, as Lahore, Amritsar, Multdn, Ludhifina and others, eveiy kiiid 
jof fabric almost is woven. Ludhiiina has a specral notoriety for drills, check cloths, and 
.other fdbrics resembling European, as well as for " lunglm^* and other native fabrics. 

Multan is noted for cotton pile carpets, and for printed and painted calicos or chintzes, 
^sailed " chit," and fur " dhotia" with a red printed border. 

Class V. 


But the mosti important seat of all tUe finer cotton weaving was and still is the Do^bah, 
or districts of Hasliyarpur, Jalandhar and Kanofra. It is true indeed, that the excellence 
and cheapness of Baropean fabrics has almost caused the manufacture of the finer cottons 
to cease, but still the **ghatis'* ofRahunand the muslin turbans of Bajwara are cele- 
brated even to Hindustan . 

Coarse cloth, which is generically called *7;ai7ta," (which liteiullj means" wo ven,"justlitd 
the Persian '*bd/ta,^*) is also largely manuractured in the Doilbah, and is exported to the 
hills beyond Kulu and Spitu 

In other parts of the Punjab there is equally a demand for thin kind of fabric for export 
to E^bul and Turkistan, in those towns through which the Paracha merchants pass when they 
return to their own country after disposing of their goods in Hindustdn and Bengal. 

In this way it is that the districts of Jhung and Shahpur, the latter especially in the 
towQ of Khushab, have a considerable trade in coarae cloth. Chintzes or printed fabrics are 
also much in demand, and are largely exported; Mult^u, which is a great rendezvous of 
Poviuda merchants, has a considerable trade in them, as indeed in all the articles that consti- 
tute the export trade to the Western frontier. 

Gdgjiira, and especially the towns of Syad walla and P4kpattan, are noted for the weav- 
ing of an improved variety of '* luughi " and ** khes.*' 

Ehushab in Shahpur is also noted for its lunghis, both silk and cotton. The lunghis of 
Peshawar are also famous, and the dark blue scarf with its crimson edge, woven in the 
Eoliat district, is quite characteristic. A similar kind of scarf is largely manufactured in 
Hazara, both plain and ornamented with a border of gold. Tlie Deputy Commissioner 
informs me that of the plain kind universally worn by zemindars, from 5 to 6000 are made- 
yearly, and valued from 2 to 15 rupees each. Of the gold bordered kinds worn by Khans and 
the l)etter classes, and valuing from 10 to 70 rupees, about fifteen hundred or two thousand 
ai-e annually woven. 

The Panjab. districts bordering on Hindust/in are principally remarkable for muslin. 
Turbans of this fabric are largely manufactured at Delhi. In the Sirsa disti*ict, the principal 
manufactures are coarse doths called *' gasU ** and ^^painsi " and " ddbha khes '* or khea of two 

It must be remarked generally with reference to the prices attached to articles in the 
following, list, that they are not constant. The price of durres and all cotton goods alters 
with the price of raw cotton : — 

" LUSQHI. " 

The first class of cotton fabrics to be 
noticed is the ^' lunghi." This is a long scarf. 
They are made everywhere, but esi)ecially 
in the Peshawar division, where they are 
woven of exquisite fineness, and with most 
beautiful borders^ in which coloured silk and 
gold thread are often tastefully introduced. 
The lunghi is universally worn by the in- 

habitant of the Peshawar and 'l>erajat 
divisions. The long ends With the coloured 
1>oinler9 hanging down, present a very elegant 
and pit^tui'esque appearance. When the lunghi 
is not worn as a. turban it is used as a scarf, 
being cut in half and the. two pieces sown • 
together, A lunghi is either plain cloth of 
any colour, ofteuest white or dark blue, or 
else a small check like the Peshawar lunghi. 
The exhibited samples were as follows :-^ 

Class F. 

1. — [5736.] Yellow and black check 
Rirofl lunghi with silk borders, by 


2. — [3787]. Another, black and blue. 

3.— [5763-4]. Check liinglii (charkhina) 
Amb&lft. ^y Muhammad Baksh. 

4.— [5765-8]. FourKSnghis bj Habib- 
ULLAH, valuing Bs. 4, 17, 25 and 27, re8|>ec- 

6.— [5820]. Tliree Mnghis by Nathu of 

Husliyarpiir. Kanpui-. 

6.— [5823-43]. lAinghis.Talue Bs. 15 and 

Amritsar. 35» ^^^^ borders. 

7.— [5881] . '• Lunghi Takiri," an exces- 
sively cheap kind of cloth, 
L&Il0r6* worn by Fakirs or beggars, 

its value is 9 aunas. 

8. — [5889]. Is an orange coloured lunghi 
by Thakur Das of Lahore. 

9.— [5899]. Is a Idnghi by the Superin- 
tendent of the Central Jai). 

10.- [5935]. One from anjranwalla, 

11— [6002]. One from the Jihiam jail 

12. — [6027-31]. Are various coloured 
luughis made at Khushab in Sliahpilr (which 
is celebrated for them) by Ahmad Dm and 
PiR Bakhbh. 

13.— [6147]. Is a lunghi from Jhung. 

14 .— [6165] . A Itinghi from Dera Ismail 

15.— [ ]. Check lunghi called *^Sirdfir 

Khori," which means " check 

6llgair{l« ^ot the chieftain," said to be 

so called because when 

first invented the new fabric was presented 

to a certain Sird&r whose name, however, is 

not remembered, value Bs. 4-8. 

16.— [6064]. "Liinghi Chautfini," so 
called because the warp (tinf) is divided into 
four (cliau) breq^dhs, each of which is of dif- 

ferent coloured threads, red, yellow, green, 
and white. 

17— [60871. ** Lunghi tirtanf," similar 
to the preceding, except that the warp is 
divided into three parts inste^Ml of four, each 
beiug a different colour. 

18.- [6065]. '* Lunghi tirkandi," called 
from * three threads ' (tirkandi) of red. green 
and yel low color being employed in weaving it. 

19.— [60661. *• Lunghi safid reshami 
manchawali." Of this fabric 1 part.s are cot- 
ton and one part (maucha) is silk (reshami)* 

20.— [6067]. "Alachi uda." Puqile 
coloured (uda) check. The check is so very 
small that the marks are like the seeds of 
cardamoms (ilachi). 

2 1.— [6068J. •* Chak-1 L'' ' Chak * means 
a piece — aud M& ' a kind of cloth. 

22. — [6069], "Lunghi diaugarri,'* a. 
check of two colors^ generally worn by- 

23.— [6070]. Lunghi chirwfn.'' Thisia 
a plain uuicolorous fabric except that at re* 
gular intervals a siugle thread of another 
color ia woven iu» 

24.— [6072]. " Lunghi safed.'* A plain 
white scarf. 

26.— [6073]. "Lunghi JalW khori- 
walla.'' A check with three colors in it, first 
made by a weaver named " Jallfi.*' 

26.-[6U74]. Lunghi Siivi." Made of 
five parts green thread and one white. 

27.— [6075] . ** Alacha Siyah " by Bhani- 
MAL of Pak Pattan, black small check, 
(see No. 6067 above). 

28.— [6184]. Is a green lunghi by 

29.— [6085]. "Lunghi Khesf/* as its 
name implies, a lunghi made like" a khes.*' 

30.— [6088], "Lunghi anfirddui." A 
check, but not a square check ; the marks of 
the check are elongated like the grains of 
pomegranate fruit (auarduna). 

Class V. 

31.— [6173]. Lunghi witli silk borders, 

Peshawar, ^^-i^e ^' s*s» ^y Miyan 

Nizam- UD- DIN. 

ThoAe lunghis are of extreme fineness of textare 
and great beauty. They are uuiverBally worn by 
Jkfgh&u8 ; Rome further account of thom will be found 
nnder the head of articles of clothing. There ia one 
kind of lunghi which i^ chiefly worn by the agricultu- 
ral population, it is of a uniform dark bine color with 
a border of criumon and yellow nilk ; the best of these 
are made at Uangu in Kohat, and can be made of 
any value up to Rs. 100. 

32.- [6174]. " Lunghi langotali," value 
Bs. 60. ' Laiigotah ' means waistoloth or 
girdle, iudicuitiiig the use to which this kind 
of lunghi is put. 

33._[6175]. Liinghi Hindwini, value 
Bs. 25, for Hindus' wear. 

34. — [ ]. A small check lunghi, 

fine wove, with deep border in stripes of black 
and turquoise blue silk alternating with broad 
stripes of twilled gold thread, value Bs. 100. 

36.— [6176-8]. Three Idnghis, used either 
as head dresses or scarves, called '* chaddar 
chamkaui" and " purra.' 



This fabric is generally woven in pieces, 
which are sown together to make a square 
**chaddar'* or upper wrapper, worn by. all clas- 
ses that can afford it. The fabric is remark- 
able chiefly as exhibiting a different kind of 
weaving to the others. The natives acknow- 
ledge three kinds of weaving : " Sadabifi," 
commencing when the pattern is all in lines 
or cheeks and ruus either straight down or 
straight across the webs. '* Khes bafi," where 
the pattern may be either plain or check, but 
the thread of the weft entwined alternatelv 
with those of the warp that the make of the 
fabric api>ears to be diagonal or cornerwise 
across the £ibric, instead of the threads cross- 
ing at right angles. The looms for this kind 
of weaving are more complicated than the 
other, having a greater numl>er of tr eddies 
&c., and the shuttle being differently em- 
ployed j the looms will be fully described 

tinder section C. Machinery. The third kind 
or "Bulbul chashmbafi" is where the fabric is 
damasked with a pattern of diamond shapes 
produced by interweaving the threads of 
warp and weft. The khes b&fi includes two 
kinds of coverlets called ^'dotahi and chauta- 
hi," white sheets with a red or dark blue edg- 
ing. Sometimes however the chautahis are 
made with a large check pattern. Occasional- 
ly cotton kheses are made with a silk edging. 

The exhibited samples were as follows :— 

36.— [5731]. Black and yellow plaid, half 

silk and half cotton, made 
SirS&. ^^y Wazir of Banea, Sirsa 

Two coloured kheBes are in this district called 
" dabba khes." 

37.— [5732]. Bed and yellow plaid by 

38.— [5733]. Black and white plaid with 
silk border, by Wazir, 

39.— [5734]. Bed and white plaid with 
red edge, by Jiwan Bam. 

40.— [5735]. Coarse khes made at Saho- 

There were also kheses exhibited from the 
following districts : — 

[5729 ', Eohtak. [5733], Ludhiina, by Kavhta 
Lal. [5890], Lahore. [4918], Chuoian, in La- 
hore district, a plain white khes, worth Bs. 7. 
[5948-51], Bawal Pindi Jail, and also [5951-2], 
Checks valne Bs. 2-10 and 10 respectively. 
[6158-61], Leia (Dera Ismail Khan.) [6033], 
Shahpur. byMuHAXKAD Bakhsh of Bhera. [6168], 
Dera Ghau Khan, from Dtijal. [6200], Patyala. 
[6214], Maler KoUa. 

A s|>ecial collection deserves notice from 

4 1.— [6077 J. « Khes Bulbul chaahm," a 
white damasked wrapper with red edge. - 

These are worn by the better classes, who can 
aiford them. A very good specimen of the fabric is 
sent by the Tehsildar of Chuntan (Lahore district) 
Yalued at Bs. 10, (No. 59-9) under the name of 


Chss V. 

chautahi. (Soe explanation of term " chautahi" 
lower down.) Another khen called chautahi of this 
pattern with a red edge is Rent from Nabha (No. 
6199) ; this is Bmooth and glazed exactly like the 
** ghati ;" a similar one oomes from Jhiud (No. 
6196), and one also from Pat^ala (No. 6201). 

42.— [6078]. " Kiies cliaiulaiia." Black 
and white klies, by BHA.Nt Mal of Pak 

The pattern ia of alternate diamond 8hax)e6 of black 
and wbite. 

43.- [6079]. 'Khes Gailra.'' A khes in 
"wliich: thread of two colore is woven together 
into^a large check like a plaid shawl. 

44.— [6080]. "Khes charkhfina." Com- 
mon check khes. 

451- [6082]. White khes. 

46.— [609i]. "Khcanila." Dark blue 

The remaining specimens under this head are ex- 
hibited as " chautahi" aad " dotahil" These are 
made on the same principle as the khes, but with this 
diiferAnoe that they are used only for bedding and 
covefTets, except perhaps in the neighbourhood of the 
Jhnng and Gugaria districts, where they are occasion- 
ally worn as wrappers by the zemindars. 

The terms chautahi and clotahi have reference to 
the size. 

They aire always made to fit an ordinary sized 
" charpoy" or bed ; if by folding (tahi) iii two, or 
once across, (do) they fit the bed, they are called 
" dotahi," if the piece is so larg^e as to require to be 
folded in four (char) to make it the size of the bed it 
is called " chautahi." 

They are made of various qualities and thickness, 
from a value of a little more than a rupee, up to 10 
or 12 rupees. 

47. —[5887] . "Dotahi kanni sijah,** or a 
** dotahi" with a black border of the common 
quality, and worth Rs. 1-5, by TsAKtya 
Das of Lahore. 

48.-* [6076]. Is a chautahi with silk' 
border front Gngaria. 

49.— [62ia]. One from Maler Kotla. 


This fabric is either plain or else damasked 

or diapered with the ** Bulbul chasm " or 
diamond pattern. 

Both fabrics are highly glazed; the manu- 
ffujture is almost oonOued to the Jalandhar 
Doab, including Kangra. 

There are however apecimens of the work 
from Paty^la and Nabha, and the Ambala 

The exhibited samples are — 

60.— [5804-7]. Qhati from Rahun, 
Jalandhar district. 

61.— [5807]. « Do-Wnghi," Jalandhar. 

62'.— [5815 and IG] Khes of two qualities, 
made like white ghati, by Abdulla. of 


Tins is a narrow cotton fabric, universally 
used for making pyjamas or trowsers, especial- 
ly the large loose garments worn by females. 
The fabric is also occasionally worn round 
the waist. It is distinguished by having 
stripes lengthwise down the piece, of a 
different color from the ground work ; — dark 
blue with white stripe, blue and red stripe, 
green and white stripe, are the patterns mo:jt 
commonly seen, but other varieties are made. 
This fiibric is plain woven or made by 
Sdda hdfi. 

63.— [5774j]. 5 yards of " Dorya" by 

MiTHAMidAD Baksh, worth 
Rs. 4-6 a yard. 
54. — [5775] . Borya of coarse quality by 
Natha. Mall. 

' 66.— [5776]. Black susi, at 4 annas six 
pies a yard, by DEstr Mall. 

66. — [5777]. Pink susi, at the same 
price, by Qobind Lal. 

57._[5896J. Green susi, by Thakur 

Das, value 12 annas for 6^ 

fe8.-r[.58a7]. V Susi " cVukinni, value 
Ri 1-8 for the piece of 9 J yards. 

The terms " cbaukaani" &c., refer to the breadth 



Class r. 

of tho coloared stripe on the piece, a chankanni Buai 
haa the stjoipea font threads broad, a " dok&nui " 
has it two threads broad, and so on. 

69. -[5898]. " Susf dokanui," value Rs. 
1-4 i>er piece of 6| yards. 

60.— [5899''. " Susi sandali," value Es. 
1-4 for 7\ yards. 

' Sandali ' refers to the drab or brown color. 

6 1 .— [588G] . " Dosila," bl ue and orange 
8tri{)e, 10 yards worth Rs. 2-8. 

The other " S<L>nn " exhibited were from the Jhnng 
Jail (Nos. 6137 and 6149), Dera GhaziKhan (Donila 
No. 6167), Peshawar (6170.) Agra JaU, one of 
English thread ftno' woven (6255) and one of Dacca 
thread (6256). 


and btlier plain cloths. 

These arc a series of coarse woven cloths 
dilTcriiig in thickness, according as single, 
double, or treble thread is employed in weav- 
ing tViem ; the coarsest and loosest textured 
is *• gazzi," then comes " garha," and eksuti, 
and then dosuti, and the thicker sorts, 
tinsuti, chausuti, <&c. 

These cloths receive different names when 
dyed. There are a few such samples, which 
are given at the end of the list. 


Is a thick cloth much used for dusters, it 
is also used for clothing by the poorer popu- 
lation, also for bedding and other geueraji 
purposes. As its name implies, the thread 
is double (do-siit) with which! it is woven. 

The samples sent were from — 

62.— [5717] . The Jail of Delhi. 

63.— [5723]. KarnUl, value 8 yards for 
Bs. 1-4. 

64 . — [5 741] . Sirsa ^Tail, 4 ans. per yard . 

66. — [5780]. Ludhiana, by Mehtab, at 
3^ ans. per yard. Also an mferior quality 
at2.V ans. per yard. Also from the Jail 
(3799) at 4 ans. per yard. 

' 66.— [5868]. Lahore, by Haku, at 10 
yards the rupee ; there is also another piece 
(5881) value 11 annas for 8^ vards, and^a 
sample from the Central Jail (5M)5). 

67.— [5934]. From Gujranwalla. 

68— [{5953]. Eawalpi^dl. 

69.— [5 138 and 39]. Jhung Jail, both 
white and dyed, " kh&ki " or grey. 

70.— [6169 and 70]. " Kalabagh." 

71.-1:6181]. Kohat. 

72.— [6218 and 19]. Maler.Kotla. 

When the threads of the oloth are doubled, trebled 
or quadrupled the cloth i« called tinsuti, charduti, 

7 3. — [6240] . ^ Chausiiti, Agra jail. 
74. -[6241]. Tinaiiti, ditto. 
76. -[(5242]. Dosuti, ditto. 

There reuiain to be mentioned a few ya- 

. • ■ .' ■ •• ' '' " ■' 

rieties of this cloth uuder the names paiusi, 

chauusi, <&c. These refer to the breadth of 

the cloth, indicating that there are 500, or 

400, &c. threads in the warp. The reader 

should remember the difference between 

chsLumti and chauai ; the foriuer refers to .the 

thickness of the weaving thread, the latter 

to the breadth of the warp. 

The specimens are — 

76.— [5738]. " Painsadi " cloth, value 3 
annas 1 pic per yard, made at Banea, Sirsa. 

77.-[5739]. ." Rethi " by Jewan Ra V 
of Sahowala, 3irsa; the value of this 2? 
annas j)er yard. 

78.— [5885]. ." Painsi '! cloth, Lahore, 
value 5^ yards for 9 annas. 

79— [6203]. " Chausi " cloth, Patyila. 


Is a cloth similar to the last, but woven 
with only one thread, as its name implies. 
A sample is sent from Amritsar [5^24], by 


Many of the following specimens are 
hardly dLitinguhihable from eksuti. 


Class F. 


Is a cheap and tliiti fabric, woven with one 
thread ; it is used for the common purposes 
to which cloth is applied. It can be verj well 
made however, as is the sample [No. 6245]. 

Samples of this cloth were sent from — 

80.— [5718]. Delhi jail. 

81.— [5800]. Ludhiina jail, value 2i 
ans. a yard. 

82.— [6898]. Lahore Central Jail. 

83.— [G032]. Shahpiir. 

84— [CUl 2-3]. Jhung JaU. Three 

The trade of this jail is wonderfully gV99kt ; the 
merchants from tUe North West retnming from 
Calcutta and HindustfCn readily purchase at the jail 
quantities of oearse cotton cloth ; hence the manu- 
facture thrives. 

86. — [6245], Agpra jail, fine quality. 

" QAZZI." 

Is also a thin cloth, somewhat inferior to 
^' girha ; " the specimens are from the fol- 
lowing district's : — 

86. — [5744]. Sirsa jail, value 2 annas 
3,0 {^ies per vard. 

^7^ — [5782]. Ludhiana, value 1 anna 6 
pies pepr yard, by Mehtab. 

:88— [.^54j. Rawalpindi. 
89. — [6jL9^3 and 4]. Jhung jail, three 
qualities (Of«oanie white cloth. 

90.-^[e588]. » JEadak," (equivalent to 
*' baftah,^-' ) ]^ashm|r^ This is the Kashmiri 
V^iQifi for j^ soft kind of «l9th, like gazzi. 


Is a useful cotton fabric, being % kind of 
drill, made exactly on the same principle as 
t}ie cottoa carpet, abo called darrt, but not 
to be confoumdad with it» 

The specimens are from-* 

91.— [5778 and 6779]. Ludhiina, one 
80>mple value 7 ans. a yard by Muhammad 
Saj^^H; and the other worth 5^ ans. a yard. 

92.— [5792-5]. Ludhiiua Jail, 3 samples 
valuing 5 annas ten pies, 4 annas five pies, 
and 4 annas a yard respectively. 

93.— [5817]. Hushyarpdr, value Rs. 7 
for 18 yards, made at B.wsC by Alladata. 

The remaining samples of cloths of this 
kind are miscellaneous, as follows : — 

94.— [5878]. "Kora Kapra," coarse 
cloth ; Lahore. 

95. — [55 SO]. Another quality, valuing 
6 annas for 5| yards. 

96.— [5873]. Piece of " Nila," clark 
blue cloth worn as a turban, worth Bs. 1-10-0. 

97.-[5867]. "Silu," cloth dyed with 
madder, Lahore, (European turkey red 
cloth is also called " Salii or alwan" ). 

98. — [ ]. " Kharwa," coarse cloth 
dyed with madder, is known by a black stamp 
always impressed on it ; it is used chiefly 
to make bags and coarse covering for pro- 
perty, also for screens or purdahs. 

99.— [5875-76]. " Kapra Majithi," La- 
hore. Madder dyed cloth as its name imports. 


The next series of cloths are generally 
light in texture and soft : tliey are of very 
different qualities, and made for tui'bans, 
both the " s&fa " or under turban and the 
" dastar " or upper turban. In the Panjab, 
both are usually worn and of different colours, 
which has a pleasing appearance, but some 
castes wear only the safa. The " pagri " is a 
peculiar kind of head dress worn by itself, 
and different from either of the foregoing. 
Of a similar fabric are also the " dhotis " or 
sheets worn round the waist by Hindus. 

The exhibited samples are as follows : — 

100.— [5719]. Dhoti from Delhi Jail. 

Samples are also sent from Amritsar (No. 5825) 
by QuLASAB HusAiN, who also sends a varietj 
of cloth called '* Qoripat " similarly worn. (58:26) is 
from Lahore, (No. 5879) by Thakur Das, who also 
exhibited a dhoti lU yards in lonifth. 




The turbans Exhibited are as follows : — 
101 .—[5724-26]. Three turbans (pagri) 
of cotton thread) Bohtak. 

102.— [5759 J. Bbwk Dastdr, (outer tiir- 
ban) worth Bs. 10, bj Ghula.m Kadib of 

103.— [5760]. A white Dastfir, by th^ 

104.— [576i]. Check Dastar, worth Rs. 
1-8-0, by HiiiTHAMMAD £uKSH of Ludhidiia. 

105.— [5762]. Unbleached (korhi) tur- 
ban, worth 1 riipe^, by Kirpa "RliA of Ludhi&na. 

108.— [5883.] Coai^se "pagri," Worth 9 
annas, Lahore. 

i07.— [5975-76]. 1?wo " pagris '^ made 
with Bnglish thread, in the Gujrdt Jjail, (one 
of them has a gold border). 

108— [6121]. Pagri from (Jugaifa Jail. 

109.— [6120]. is a "chaddar," made at 
the saihe place. 

110.— [6215-26]. Two turbans from 
Mal^r Eotl^. 


The samples are yery few, and the mahii- 
&cture does not appear to flourish in the 
Punjab. The best muslins come from itclhi, 
there are also some of tolerable fineness troui 
Hushyarptir and the Doilbah, and Ludhi&na 
exhibits one or two of good qiiality. None 
are however equal to the Dacca and Hindus- 
tan musliiis. 

111. -^[5715] . Six Specimciiis df intisliiis^ 

TheM masHn tarbana are nlanufaotarecl in great 
t|aantities of dhinese ootton ; about two lakhs of 
rapeei worth are aniitiaUy exported. 

112.— [3819-20-21]. T^hr^e turbans of 

%bite muslin by Nathu of Khahpdr — Hush- 

113. — [ ]. "Dhotar" coarse iriuslin 

of narrow width, by Thakub Das of Lahore. 

!!*•—[ ]• "Silara," muslin with 

Coloured stripe used for wonien's dresid and 
for a lining to other garmentSi 

If, B, — Some specimens of muslins are included 
as " Pag^ris " in the foregoing list ; such are those 
from Boktak, which gained one of the special prizes 
for muslin; 

Principally in the European stylO; 

This class of fabric has been kept separate 
since they are all either inade at jails under 
European supervision or else have been made 
fi'om European patterns. 

116.- [5772]. "(iambroon,*' worth 0-5-i 
per yard, by MxrHAMMAD IBaksh, Ludhidna. 

il^,_[5818]. Burdan or *'Ticken," at 
1 rupee per yard. 

A thick striped cloth like English bed-ticken; 
made by Allady A of Bassiin the Hashyirpur district* 

117.--[5819] . '*Lachak" Or drill, at Rs. a 
per yard, by the same. 

118.— [5897]. Drill, at 8 aniiasayard, 
by the Lahore Central «tail. 

Il9.— [59i6]. American drill, at2 rupeeH 
a yard, by the Gujranw411a Jail. 

120.— [5917]. Double drill cioth, at M 
annas a yard, by the Gdjrdt Jail. 

121.— [6005]. Jean, at 6i annas a yard, 
by the Jhilani Jail. 

122.— [6007]. ''Gumti/' by the Jihlaia 

The following are "checks" :— 

123. — [5766]. Blue checkj 1 rupee per 
yard, by the Sirsa Jail. 

124.— [S773]. Check cloth, at 12 annad 
a yard, by Muhammad Baksh of Lddhifina. 
126. — [5174]. Blue cheoki Lahore. 

126.— [6046]. Lady's check dress, Mfil- 
t6n Jail, value Bs. 3. 

127.— [6047]. Black and white ditto. 

128— [6048]. Striped ditto. 

129— [6234-35]. Check doth made witi 
English thread, Agra Jail. 


Glass V. 

130.— [6236]. Green cloth made Tvifcli 
English thread, Agra Jail. 

131.— [6250-51]. Check cloth and check 
horse clothing made with Dacca threadi 
Agra Jail. 


This series is exclusively the product of the 
Tarious jails in the Punjab. Many of the 
articles are made with English fine thread, 
especially the table linen ; — but the dusters, 
towels, &c. are usually made with the best 
class of native thread. It is scarcely neces- 
sary to remark that all these fabrics are of 
English patterns. 

132.—[5770]. One dozen Handkerchiefs, 
value Es. 2-4, by Muhammad Baksh, of 

133.— [5841-52]. Handkerchiefs, by the 

Amritsar Jail. 

134.— [5813]. Table cloth, value Rs. 32, 
by the Jalandhar Jail. 

136.— [5901]. White damask table cloth, 
at Es. 1-4-0 per yard, by the Lahore Central 

136.— [5902]. Fancy table cover, Rs. 2, 
Lahore Central Jail. 

137.— [5896]. Table cloth, made with 
cotton grown in the Jail garden. Qdjrat, 
with sample (5888-89) of thread used in 
making them. 

Table olothB are also sent from Ferozpiir, value Bs. 
9.12-0, from Rawalpindi (5956), Gujrat Jail, accom- 
panied by a sample of the English thread from which 
they are made ( Noa. 5971, 73, 93, & 5985 ), from 
Jhilam (5996), and from Agra (6237) where the 
damask for table cloth is called white "Mashajd." 

138. — [6987]. One dozen table napkins, 
piade from cotton grown in the Jail garden, 

Table napVins are also sent from Lahore Central 
Jail (590?). From G6jrat (various qualities 5972, 
41, & 94). From Jihlam (6002). From Multan, 
value Kb. 4 a dozen, (605G). 

139.— [5771]. Towels, by Muhammad 
Paksh of liudhi&na. 

Towels are also exhibited in great yariety, 
as follows : — 

140.— -[4795-8]. Ludhiana Jail, samples 
of towelling at 0-6-8, 0-5-4, 0-4-8, and 0.4-O 
each piece. 

141. — [5900] . Lahore Central Jail, seven- 
teen samples of towels, plain pattern, 'honey 
comb/ 'Baden-baden,' Tile,' ^Turkish,' Acu, 

Besides there are towels made at all the 
jails of the Punjab. 

142.— [6720]. Dusters, Delhi jafl. 
143.— -[5741]. Do., black bordered, worth 
3^ annas each. Sirsa. 

144.— [5756]. Do., worth Rs. 3 a dozen. 
Amballa jail. 

145.~[5896]. Do., value 3 annas each. 
Lab ore Central Jail. 

(All the Jails exhibited dusters.) 
146 . [597 7] . Diaper cloih, Gdjrfit jaO, 
value annas 6-4 per yard. 

147 —[6057-8]. Napkins, (Diaper) Mul- 
tan jail. 

148. — [6231-2-3]. Colored table covers, 
woven with English thread, on the principle 
of a fine "durree." Agra jail. 

149.— [6244]. Screen or curtain for a 
door, of English thread, Agra jail. 


These are in universal use in India. They 
are variously called " dari" or "satranji," 
according to the size : fciatranji being a largo 
carpet, and dari a narrow piece just bigenot^h 
for abed to stand on, (which is what natires 
generally use them for,) but Europeans call 
all sizes indiflferently by the name "durree." 
In pattern they are usually striped with 
bands of several colours, arranged according 
to taste ; but a clever workman can produce 
various patterns in a durree, such as squares, 
diamond shapes, &c., provided only that the 
figures of the pattern be not too complicated, 
and are made up wholly of straight lines. 

Class V. 


The method of manufacture is very simple. 

All that is requisite is a flat smooth space 
of ground as large as the intended, durree. 
At either end of this a long roller is set up, 
and to either roller the ends of the web are 
attached just as in an ordinary loom. When 
the web is properly stretched out, it only 
remains to provide a simple agency for cross- 
ing and recrossing the threads of the warp 
in the usual way, as the thread of the woof 
is passed across and across. 

This is effected by placing a long pole 
supported at either end by two legs, trestle 
fashion, across the whole width of the warp. 

This pole is called a " gori" (which literally 
means '^mare," and so called from its rude 
resemblance to a quadruped), from the ''gori" 
are hung two bamboos, each of which carry a 
number of threads, which are attached to the 
under and upper threads of the web respec- 
tively. When it is desired to cross the threads 
of the warp, it is simply necessary to pull up 
one of the bamboos and lower the other: as 
the bamboos are merely hung to the ^' gori" 
by ropes at each end, the raising and lower- 
ing is easily done by tightening or loosening 
the suspending string by means of a stick 
attached. Ko regular shuttle is used. A num- 
ber of workmen sit in a row, on that part of 
the durree which has already been completed, 
and pass the thread along between the lines 
of the warp, from hand to hand. The thread 
is wound in a long egg shape on an iron 
skewer or needle. 

If the pattern is elaborate there will be a 
considerable number of these thread shuttles 
at work: each workmen has charge of his own, 
and passes it along according to the pattern, 
taking the thread out and allowing the 
next workman to insert and withdraw his 
shuttle in the same manner, and so on ; the 
threads aa they are passed through the threads 
of the warp, are kept close together and the 
work is rendered compact and even by strik- 
ing between the lines of the warp with a kind 

of fork, having a wooden handle and iron 
teeth and called a " kaugi." The " gori" 
above described, with its bamboos and threads 
for raising and changing the lines of the 
warp, can be shifted down the web as the 
work progresses. 

I have seen a large durree worked with at 
both ends simultaneously, with 2 " goris," 
the workmen approaching each other till they 
finish in the middle. The simple apparatus 
for durree making can be taken up and put 
down anywhere. 

Samples of durrees were exhibited from 
most of the Jivils. 

There is also a special kind of ribbed dur- 
ree called Jabbalpuri (because first made at 
the Jabbalpur School of Industry), it is made 
on the Kidderminister carpet principle, the 
coloured lines being longitudinal (made in 
the web), and not transverse in the woof 
as ordinary durrees are. They have also a 
peculiar wavy or corrugated texture. 

Common durrees are made not only in 
jails but in the cities and bazars. I never 
saw the Jabbalptlri durree made elsewhere 
but in jails. 

It is only necessary to notice two samples 
which are specialties in this kind of manu- 
facture : they are as fallows : — 

150.— [5927]. A fancy "durree" from 
Bahawulpur (Lahore Museum). This is made 
in white red and blue^ and has a cleverly 
designed border. 

151.— [5980]. Durree from the Gujrat jail. 

This was the most elegant durree exliibited, the 
pattern consisted of plain stripes of white, grey, black 
and torqnoise bine, with an occasionally thin line of 
red against the black. It was very neat in Btyle« 
and peculiarly regular and well finished in make. 

162. —[5981]. A sample of the thread 
used in the manufacture accompanied it, 

FiLB Carpets. 
A few specimens of Kdlin or soft pile 
carpeting; made of cotton instead of woolj 



Class Pl 

were exhibited. Multinjail is noted for the 

163.— [5730], Kmn from Eobtak jail. 

164. — [5756J. Soft carpeting, Amballa jail. 

166.— [5970]. " Kdlin siiti," value Re. 59i 
Gtijrat jail. 

166.— [6034]. Cotton carpet, Mfiltdn, 
yalue Rs. 29-8. 

167.— [6281]. Cotton rug, Agra jail. 

T^'Pe, string and Hiscellaneoii^ 
(Jptton lUpnfactnres, 

These articles are much manufactured at 
jails, they require no remark ; the most useful 
of them is the broad coarse tape c^U^d ** ne- 
-^ar," this is always used to form the webbing 
pf beds: the oharpoy being a mere pblpng 
frame supported on four feet, the centre is 
filled in with this broad tape, pi;t on length- 
wise and then interwoven crosswise, thus 
forming a firm and elastic web on whicU the 
bedding is placed. 

The poorer people who cannot a£Pord new&r 
of cotton, use string for the same purpose. 

168. — [5748] . Newfir, broad coarse t^.pe, 
3irsa jail, value Bs. 2 a seer (29^s). 

It is also exhibited from various other jails. 

159.— [6051-53]. White, red, and black 
"tape, value 1^ annas to 2 annas a yard, from 

160.— [6140]. Bed tape from Jhung jail. 

161. — [6055]. Lamp wicks, 6 ai^nas ^ 
je^rd, from ^dMn jail, alsq from !^walpindi 
(5966), and from Jihlam jail (6004), 

162.— [6135], Wblj, cloth, Jhung j^il, 

163.— [6172], ^'Izdrband" or pptton 
sash, Peshawar. 

164.— [P209.10.12], Cotton rope, and 
fine twine called " dpri patang," (or stringy 
for %ing a kite) from Paty&la. 

I65t — [5828], Cotton rope, Amrits^. 

l§6.r^[5926]. Tarious colours and pat- 
0rnfii of cotton rope, X^ahore Central Jail. 

167. — [6914], Cotton tassels, Lahore. 

168. — [5905]. Pairs of cotton socks made 
by the prisoners in the ]Pe^[iale Penitentiary 

169.— [6126], Various coloured threads, 
prepared at Gugaira. jail. 

170.-— [5928], Common -natiy^ spun 
thread from Lahore. 


171.— [6249] . Horse n^t^ Ag^^ i^^* 
172.— [6236]. Boilers and surcingle pf 
English thread. 
6252 is one of Dacca thread. 

173. — [6264]. Double net for horse roller*. 

174.— [6125], Horse's he^ frings, Gu-. 
gaira jail, 

175,— [5130] . "BAgdaur," horserhaltera 
and girths, Amritsar, 

176.—- [ ] .. Several patterns of horse-i 
girths, Lahore Central Jail, 


The last remaining specimens in the classy 
of cotton fabrics aro more specimens of dye« 
ing and printing art than of cotton m&iiu« 

For the various names descriptive pf the 
sorts of printing, see the re|)ort of the j^ury 
at the end oX the class. 

Almost any kin4 of light cloth is us^d for 
the purpose of printing. These fabrics are 
used for bed covers, for furniture covers, or 
for floor cloths. 

Coarse stout cloth is often stamped and 
printed in this way and used to line tents with. 

The process of calico printing has already 
been noticed in the Baw Produce section 
under the head of dyeing. 

generally speaking, the prints are not 
permanent aqd will not ^^ash, 

Sometimes they are effected by dipping 
the cloth i^ bpiling solutions of dy^s which 
take on certain portions of the doth but do 
not affect others which have been previously 
prepared by stamping ^ith a block charged 

Class V. 


with dome insisting material, A good in- 
stance of this kind of printing, resulting in a 
pattern in shades of red and black, is ex- 
bibited from Muzaffargarh and has been 
described under the head of Dyes, 

The other kind of calico printing is done 
without immersing the cloth in any colouring 
solution at all. The colour is simply applied 
by wooden blocks, of hard dark wood, on 
which the pattern projects in strong relief) 
the blocks are charged with colour and then 
pressed down o^ the cloth previously damped 
a^d stretched out. 

^he exhibited san^ples of this work were as 

follows :— 

177.— [5784-85] Bed covers, '* pfllang- 
posh," value Bs. 2 and 1-8 each, by Sup^i 
and Dasi of Ludhi&na. 

178.--[58(}l-62] . Printed cotton carpets, 
Kasur (X^hpre district) i^prth Bs. 15 each. 

179,— [5863-67]. Coarse printed clpths 
used as coverings, I/ahore, valine 13 anQas to 
Ba. l-4!iBach. 

1 90. — [5916]. Dosfiti prhited in j^ellow 
and black, for tents. Thuggee School of 
Industry Lahore. 

181,— [§035] . Floor cloth, value Bs. 25, 
Multdn. fhis is a very elaborate and elegant 
design and ii^t irpdi^ces a great variety of cplour. 

182.— [6036-37] . Bed covers from Mul- 

183.— [6038-39]. 'Chintz,'(print) Iful- 

184.— [6182]. 'fHhin chet," piece of 
chintz or print from Sultaupur, Kapurthala 

' Abrah' means oolonred or marbled pattern. 

18e.— [6184]. ^* Toshakrchet," printed 
coverlet, Kapurthala. 

187._[6185]. " Palang posh," bed cp, 
Ter, E[apurthala. 

188. [6187-71]. 4 patterns of " chet*' 
or print, Kapurthala. 

1 89, — [6099] . " Angocha," sma,ll print, 
ed sheet, worth Bs. 1*4, made b,^ Kamalia, 
Oiigaira district. 

190,— [6100]. "Gilaf takya," piUowr 
pases, from the same place. 

191. — [6104]. Printed counterpanOj 
from the same place. 

1 9 2.--[6105]. Printed floor cloth, call- 
ed j^jam. From Kamalia, Gdgaira. 

193. -[6118]. '*Thinchet,"piece of print. 

194.— [6119].— " Nainu," from Gdgaira. 

195.— [6114], "Lihif," counterpane. 

Before closing the list of cotton prints, it 
should be remarked that English and Bussian 
glased chintzes, chiefly of gaudy patterns, are 
much ycblued for sale q^cross the frontier, in 
JC&bul, Bukh&r^, a^d Turkist&n, generally; 
the varieties are known by different names, 
a8<<Nasrkh&nl,'' '^I^geri,'' Sh^karl(U!|(," &c. 

J 9 6 ,— [ ] . Dhoti from Multjn. 

This is a white soft cloth worn either as a 
dhoti or for a scarf or even for a pagri ; its 
distinguishing characteristic is that it is 
white with a crimson printed border* Thi3 
^icle is compionly worn^ 


Some tents being entirely of cotton are 
included in this class. 

197. — [6040 to 6045]. Large tent of colour- 
ed cloth including a ^^8hf|.my4tia" or canopy, 
with "kanats" or side scre^ps of yarigated 
doth and richly embroidered, from Multdn. 

10^,— [6221']. Small model of tent ip 
-vfrhite and t^6L cpfton cloth. Maler Kotla. 


Then follow also same fabrics which aa 
being made oi both cotton and wool come 
between class V Qnd VI. 

199. — [6191], Striped sheet made of mix-9 
ed cotton and wool, yali^e |Ui, 3, Kashmir, 

200.— [6192]. Is another variety of the 
same material. 

301,— [6194]. Flannel made of cotton 
and wool, value Bs. 3-8. 

202. — [6194]. Is another specimen of 
the same, but of slightly better quality. 

The Jury's report on this large and im^ 
portant class now follows ;^ 

14 Class V, 


The Jury for this class consisted of :— 

Mr. D. P. Macleod, 0. B, Mr. F. E. Moore. 

Major Farriugton, Mr. Coldstream, Beporter. 

DiwAn Battan Chand. 

It is unnecessary here to dwell upon the great importance of cotton fabrics to the 
world generally, or to the natives of India in particular. It would be difficult to name a 
manufacture on which the latter are more dependent. From the highest to the lowest, all 
classes employ it for the commonest articles of their clothing. Everywhere, from the hilla 
of Kabul to the swamps of Burmah, the cotton plant is cultivated. In every age, from the 
earliest historic times down to the present, the Hindu has gone clad in cotton cloth. 

These manufactures are effected without any exception by hand looms of the simplest 
and rudest construction, and there is no reason to believe that any, the slightest alteration 
or improvement has taken place in the form of the loom for centuries past. Notwithstand- 
ing this, many of the fabrics produced are conspicuous for their regularity of workman- 
ship, for durability, and in some instances for extreme softness and fineness of texture. 

The muslins of Dh6ka long outrivalled the fabrics of European looms, and till verj 
lately held the highest place in the markets of the West. In fact, in particular places in 
India, and with regard to particular fabrics, cotton manufactures have probably attained 
as high an excellence as is possible without the aid of intricate machinery. Tet this superi- 
ority is confined to a few fabrics, and to a few places : and very much remains to be done 
in most localities to encourge the cotton weaver to do the best with the means at his disposal. 

The Government Jails doubtless contribute much to this end throughout the counti-y ? 
their produce (as will be seen in the sequel) being superior, to the unguided native manu« 

What effect a great increase in the growth and exports of an improved staple will have 
on Indian manufactures on the one hand, and on the import of English piece goods on the 
other, it would be difficult to predict. Certain it is that the extended cultivation of im- 
proved cotton must eventually influence the quality of native manufactures. 

Indications of this may be seen in the collection under report. There are several 
specimens of fkbrics woven in jails from cotton raised experimentally from the imported 
seed, and the samples of the thread used in the manufacture and spun from the foreign 
cotton shew to what a degree of excellence we may hope to attain. 

Hence the importance of giving to cotton fabnesdk prominent place in the Punjab 

A separate court in the north-west comer of the building was allotted to the display 
of articles in this class. The specimens were numerous, and more than occupied the space 
assigned to tiiem. Fifty shares of the Prize Fund, (one-twentieth of the whole,) were at 
the disposal of the Jury. Its distribution will be recorded at the close of this report. 

Class V. 15 

In describing the Tarious kinds of cotton manufactures wbicli c&me under tbe notice 
of tbe Jury, tbe order of texture will as niUcb as possible be followed — tbe finer varieties being 
described firsts 

Muslin in tbe sbape of pagris Was elbibited from Delbl, and tbe adjacent district of 
MuBlin. Native name Robtak, and from Husby irpur very fine specimens were exhibited^ 
" Halmal.*' by tbe Municipal Commissioners of Delbi j to one of tbese, as also 

to a Bobtak pagri, a pri^e was awarded. It would seem tbat as far as tbe Punjab is concern- 
ed tbe manufacture of tbe finer muslins is carried on only in Delbi and tbe adjacent districts, 
and in tbe Do6bab or country about Husbyarpdr. Tbe manufacture in tbe latter place is 
very old.* A very fine piece of Doria ( or muslin witb stripes of a tbicker texture at 
regular intervals ) was exhibited from tbe (Government l^osbakbanab i but it appeared tbat 
this was a Dh£ka fabric. A coarse kind of Doria is made in tbe Do&bab. 

Coarse muslin of narrow width, called Bhotar, was exhibited from Lahore fits manu- 

facture is largely carried on throughout the Punjab. It is com- 
monly used for coats, dopattabs, Ac.: when shot with coloured 
lines it is called SU&ra^ and is used for women's clothesi 

A still coarser fabric of the same make is gaaL It is much used by the poor for cloth- 

ing s and by the richer classes for lining coats Ac.: also As the 
middle ply in tent cloth. The several kinds of gazi are distin- 
guished by various names } as baKiri, dtbsi^ chisi, painsi, chausi, &c. These have reference to 
tbe number of threads in the than or Warp, thus painsi has 500 threads, chausi 400, Ac. It 
is commonly made all over the Punjab. Specimens were exhibited from Sirsa, Bawal'>Pindi 
and other places. 

Very coarse gaei is called garha. It is much used as tent-»clotb \ its manufacture is 

not confined to any particular district. Qaai or garha, dyed ted, 
if narrow, is called sdM \ if broad, khdrwd i s61d with embroidered 
edge, and used for a woman's shawl, is called choh* 

Tbe Hngiy perhaps the commonest and most universal article of clothing with the liativesi 
^ . was exhibited in great variety. It is usually made of fine stuff: 

but stout warm ones are common. The * Itingi ' is * dopat ' or 
* tfnpat,' according as it has to be cut and joined in two or three parts before it is wotti. It is 
usually less than two feet in breadth, and the ends are adorned with a border and fringe (hasbya) 
often wrought in gold or silver thread. The kinds of lungi are very numerous, often taking 
tlieir names from the place where they are manufactured. Thus, there is tbe Mdnjha lungi, the 
pattern of which is a check in light and dark blue : or a plain dark blue like the " Batt&la 
lungi ;** another kind is checked redi tbese are worn by Hindus onlyi blue being the dis- 
tinctive colour of tbe Mussulman Idngi. LtidhiSna manufactures blue check lungis in im- 
mense quantities, and of late large consignments of them have been annually sent to Peshawar* 
Lfingis are also much manufactured in the Peshawdr and Derajat divisions, always either 
a dark blue plain or blue check, being blue upon black or blue on white ; in tbese districts 
the lungi is worn as a turban, as indeed it generally is by the Pathdn and Wazfrl tribes. 

The Peshawar lungis are generally of fine texture, and have silk or gold thread borders 
at either end. 

* The old Doabah masline -wete o£ two kinds. — Biriadf^ and Adras^ 

16 Class V. 

The mo6t handsome Idngi that came under the notice ot the Jury was a Peshawir 
fabric, exhibited by Kazi Nazirullah Jdn (No. 7659). It was upwards of 2 feet broad, and 
nearly 6 yards long^ the ends consisting of a border in which stripes of black silk alternated 
with torqaoise blue, between which again was a very rich broad stripe of gold twilled thread 
(kalabatun)^ of about 2 feet in depth. The coloiii^ of the scaff itself was a Very light blue 
checked with a darker shade. The texture Was remarkably fine^ The value of this olie scarf 
Was Bs. 190, shewing what talile can be giren to fabrics of this class ; it was made 
expressly for the Exhibition^ and was considered at Peshawar as a master^piece. l?o this 
handsome specimen the Jury awarded a prize of two shares^ 

The Jury also took paiticular notice of the idngi fii'om Hazara (No. 7333 ) of stouter 
texture and a uniform dark blue colour, also adorned with a gold embroidered ' hishya.' 

The word ' khes ' includes a gifeat Variety of fabi'ics ; and is the nanie giveil to a kind 
j-^ of shawl or upper garment worn by all classes in the Punjab ; in 

equal favor with the 8ikhSirdarj and the Mussulman Jat. ''Khes 
patpatti^' id the name applied to the white and red checks of the Manjah. " Khes tukrid&r " 
to the white and blue checks of Pakpattan. For the finer white clcrthG( ( Used as ' khes' ) 
the Do4bah has long been famous^ especially the towns of Rahdn and Kangra^ 

Cloth u^ed for ' khes ' is usually Woven so as to shew lines running diagonally, hence this 
{>articular mode of weaving is called khesbdf, Khes of all kinds were exhibif^ed. To a khes 
from Kangra (5815), (white 'bulbul chashm' pattei'u ) a prize was awarded} also to a 
specimen ( No. 6077 ) from P&k Fattan in the Gtugaira district. 

Among the most excellent of the native fabrics exhibited were the specinlens of the 
^y^ ghdti of Eah<in and the Dodbah generally. This is a fine white 

cloth, of strong texture and highly glazed^ not unlike English 
diapef^ tt is Used foif sheets, pyjama, angarkoM, &(i,, and is in great repiite. They are 
^several varieties of it. If very fine and plain, it is called hdftaJi : wrought in rhomboidal 
check, it is hdbtU chdshm : With diagonal lines it is hkesbd^i if very coarse it degenerates into 
Hhaddar. The Jury awarded two prizes for ghiiti : one to Jhind and one to Paty^la. 

Dotahi, is a sheet Usually Used foi' a bed covei'. tt is geUerally of fine white <^th^ 
i mui IK'* tesembling coarse ghdti. If it has to be folded four times before 

being Used, it is called ckaviaM. A beautiful ckautahi with gold 
embroidered edging was exhibited by the Baja of Nabha ( 7396 D ). To this the Jury 
awarded & prize. 

Another excellent fabric of purely native manufacture is Siisii a fine colored clot&, and 

striped in the' direction of the warp with silk or cotton liue's of 
a different colour. Battala and ^ealkot are famous for its mditiu- 
facture, and export it td otheV parts of the Punjab ; to a specimen from the former place 
a prize was awarded. 

It is now chiefly used as a material for women s pyjama : Mussulnian wonie^ of the 
loWet ctass usually wearing a black ' susi * shot with red lines. If the stripe has two lines in 
it, the fabric is called dohmni, if three UnJcanni, and so on. Susi was formerly Used by men 
also for the tight fitting trowsers of the P'unjab, bitt since English goods have been largely 
imported, it has gone out of fii«hion, and except at Multan, no men but thoEte too old to 
change with the mode of the day Wew: * susi/ 

Clase K 17 

There are several varieties of cotton cloth, which although unknown before the English 

itde was extended to the province, have since become widely manu^tured, and as it were 

nwrn tHoih rT/OAid naturalized. Such are the Lddi4na durria, a stout closely woven 

fabric like a * twill/ much used by Europeans for clothing : dosiUif 
HnstiH, chauedti, coarse cloths of great strength, used principally for tent cloths and dusters, 
and * gambroons ' or * dabbis,' fancy clothes woven in checks, lines, Ac. in various colours 
and patterns. All these are chiefly manufactured in our jails : but excellent ' dosutis * and 
' gambroons ' were exhibited by private manufacturers in Ludi^na. 

A piece of drill, and blue striped ticking after European patterns were exhibited by 
Goods manufactwed after Allah Dya of Bassya, Hushyirpdr, and were deemed worthy by 
European pcUtema, the Jury of the award of a medal and 3 shares of the Prize Fund ; — 

such njanufactures being in the opinion of the Jury deserving of encouragement. 

It is needless here to enter into detail regarding the various Jail manufactures on Eng- 
lish models. Their general appearances and uses are known to all. Suffice it to say, that 
the Jails of Gujrat, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Jihlam, Dera Ismail Khan, Firozptir, Ltididna, 
Miiltlin, Sirsa, Gujrawalah,* Ambdla, and the Lahore Thuggee School of Industry, are all 
represented in the Prize List : the excellence of the table cloths, napkins, towelling, dusters, 
and a large durri contributed by the Gujrat Jail being very conspicuous. . 

Before the English occupation of the countryi thick durri carpets were not largely 
manufactured in the province ( of old, AmbAla and Bareilly appear to have been particularly 
famous for them). Now they are produced in every Jail, and here and there by private 
manufacturers. Very beautiful specimens of plain durri and Kidderminster carpet were 
exhibited, the latter is called Jabbalpdri durri as having been made at the J abbalptir 
School ; they are of narrow-breadth like a stair carpet, and their texture is waved or 
slightly quilled on the surface i the coloured longitudinal stripes are produced by introduc- 
ing coloured threads into the warp, not like other durris in which the warp is white and 
the colour only is the woof* 

The colours of a vei*y large and fine durri from Gujrit Jail, noted above, were much 
admired, consisting of a well arranged alteration of white, grey, turquoise-blue and blackr 

A variety of durri, a large cotton carpet with a * chaupar* board woven in the centre, and 
t&sed for playing that game, is called Shahnashin : one specimen of this was exhibited. 

The above noted varieties of cotton fabrics include almost all those represented in the 

Exhibition which come directly within the scope of the Jury. But a prize was also awarded 

^ . for a handsome ' sozni,* or quilted bed-cover, embroidered in a 


shawl pattern, the contribution of the Maharaja of Kashmir 
(exhibited in the cotton court), and the Jury especially noticed some printed cloths of fair 
design and colour. 

Printed cloths, if the pattern be continuous are called chail : if composed of separate 
designs, flowers, &c., they are called chit. Dyed cloths with spots of a different colour are called 
hhdndu. They are principally used for women's clothing, for floor cloths and for bed covers ; 
and some large print floor cloths of this kind were exhibited from Kasur and Multfin, and 
£[ap(irthala, and also a number of lihdf or " plang posh," bed covers. As the excellence of 

* Gajranwalah obtained prizes for dusters and dosuti. It is presumed they are from the Jail, althou|;h 
not so marked in the list. 

18 Class V. 

these consisted solely in the process of printing in the colours with blocks, the examination 
of them was made over to the Jury on the processes of djeing &c. 

Two collections to which by the rules of the Exhibition shares of the Prize Fund could 
not be awarded deserve especial notice, viz., that sent by the Government of Bombay, and 
that from the Central Prison, Agra. These did not come into competition with the Punjab 
contributions, but the Jury feel it their duty here to record their appreciation of the great 
excellence of the collections as wholes, and the high merits of many of the individual 
specimens, and beg to recommend to the General Committee, in the event of medals being 
available, that one be awarded to Dr. Birdwood, Curator of the Bombay Ghovernment 
Museum, through vhose agency the Bombay articles were forwarded, and one to the 
Superintendent of the Central Prison, Agra. 

The following is a list of the prizes awarded by the Jury, 

Atoard of Special Prizes, 

J. 1. Gdjrfit Jail for excellent quality of its table and 1 Mr. Scarlett's special 
house linen, ] prize, Es. 25. 

(^Municipal Committed 

Delhi, special prize 

2. MuslinpagrisfromDelhi (No. 7430-1) and Bhotak,-{ B*s. 25. £s. 15 to 

Delhi and Bs. 10 to 
^ Bohtak. 

N. B. For special prizes offered for fire-proof durree or tarpaulin, no competition* 

Award of Shares of General Prize Fund. 

JI. To Gdjrit Jail for the excellent quality pf its toweU- ") a -i 

ings, tahle^cloths, tahle-napMns, difnUy, and jean > ^ T^®^ .r^ . ^ 
anddriU, ±' ^ f !f> J ^ shares of fund, 

Nos. 5995, 5996, 5984, 5992, and 5993. These articles also gained the 
special prize, see No. 1. 

TIT, To Alia- Dya, Hushiiirpur, for the excellence of his ) A silver medal and 3 
duck or drill and ticken (Nos. 5818, 5819), / shares of general fund. 

Towelling. IV. (1.) Vide No, 1. 

(2.) For a piece of superior towelling from Dera \ -i i^ 

Ismail Khan, (6163), j ^"*'^®- 

V. For Turkish towelling from FIrozpur Jail, (5945), 2 shares. 

Dusters, VI. For close textured thick dusters, Lahore (5596), 1 share. 

Ditto ditto Gujrinwalla (5933), 1 share. 

Chautahi. VII. For fine textured c^aw/a^t, (No. 7396) from N6bha, 2 shares. 

Ghdti. VIII. For very fine ghdti, 1 Patyala, 2 Jhlnd (7394), 2 shares, certificate. 

JjUngi. IX. (1.) For broad, fine textured, ornamented lungi ) « i 

(No. 7659) Peshawar, Kazi Nazirullah Jan, / ^ sUares. 

(2.) For lungi (No. 6178) by Local Committee of ) , , 
Peshawar, / ^ ^^^^^* 

(3.) For fine textured Itingi, Jalandhar, 7 i i, 

(No. 6i District List.) j ^ ^^^^^' 

(4.) For Amritsar Hngi (No. 5823), 1 share. 

(5.) „ Haziira, embroidered (7333), 1 share. 

(6.) „ brown „ (supposed to be Sirsa), 1 share. 

CUm y. 







X. Bat^lah Local Committee^ Gurdaspdr (5858) 

XI. (1.) For khes red border (6077) PUk Pattan, 
(2.) „ white (5815) Kangra, 

XII. Lddidna (5792) Superintendent of Jail, 
Xni. aujr^nwalla (5934.) do., 

XIV. (1.) Gtijrdt (vide No. 1), 
(2.) Lahore Jail (5897), 

XV. Lahore Jail (5898), 

Dh^r. } ^^^ Thakxir Dass, Lahore, 

Tickin. XVIL (Vide No. 2). 

Printed \ XVIII. For excellence of dye and pattern. 
Cloth, J 1. Hukmi of Bahdn, 

2. Giigaira (6104), 
Somi, XXX. Embroidered from Kashmfr (6195), 

Cloths. XX 

1 share. 
1 share. 

1 share. 

1 share. 


1 share. 

1 share. 
1 share. 
1 share. 

check cloth for horse ) ^ ^^^^^^ 

• For striped sheeting, mixture of cotton and wool, 1 i i, 
(6193-4), His Highness the Maharajah of Kashmir, / ^ ^'^^^^ 

ToMahammadBakhshofLudhiiLna for Gambroon (5772) 1 share. 

Superintendent Eawal Pindi Jail for ditto (6453), 2 shares. 

Ditto ditto 

clothing, (5952), 

Multan Jail for Gambroons, 2 shares. 

Kallah of Ltidhiana for ditto, 1 share. 

Sirsa district, check cloth, 1 share. 

Tik Pattan in Gdgaira, do. for coverlets, 1 share. 

Local Exhibition Committee Ambdla, for embroidered ) i „i,„.^ 
red cloth (No. 5747), ] ^ ^^^^* 

Ditto ditto Gtigaira for ditto ditto (6083), 1 share. 

Carpets, XXI. Superintendent Jail, Sirsa, for thick white carpet- ") ^ ahAve 

ing (5746), ) 

Gujrdt Jail for elegant durri in white, grey, black and 1 q «i,«^^« 
ui„^ ^fi ^^^ji A^r.: :i 11 J.L _i_ f o snares. 

blue, of good design and excellent work. 
Ditto ditto for another durree, 
Jihlam Jail, for a durri, 

Ditto for Kidderminster carpeting, 
Amb^la Jail, ditto ditto, 

Lahore Central Jail, ditto ditto, 
Multdn Jail, for rich cotton rug. 



1 share. 
1 share. 

1 share. 

Certificate of merit. 

Bawal Pindi Jail, for durree, 

Tapes, \XXI1. His Highness Maharajah of Paty41a, for fine") Certificate of merit. 
rope, &c. 5 cotton twme, ) 


Class F. 

. His Higlmess Maharajah of Patyfla for " Newdr," 
. Lahore Thuggee School of Industry for ditto, 
Lahore Central Jail, cotton ropes of sorts, 

Miilt&i for large tent and embroidered kan&ts. 

1 share. 
i share. 
^ share. 


and a silver medal. 


• Be^orier, 

For convenience of reference I have added, at the end of each of the classes devoted to 
fabrics in cotton, silk and wool, a list of the fabrics commonly met with. I take 
the opporttmity also of reminding the reader that special information about the 
looms and machinery for weaving will be found in the sequel under Section 0. 

chst r. 





Latb&, long cloib, 

Khisi or Nainsiik, ( a soft white cloth, * nainsook/ used for all white garments worn 

bj the more respectable classes of servants, Moonshees, Clerkfl, &o. 
MalmaJ, (muslin). 
Sltan, ( corruption of * sheeting/ ) 
Jin or Zin, ( Jean, the word being corrupted. ) 
I>abal Jin, ( double jean, thick white jean. ) 
Makkan Jin, ( ' Duck,' has a sort of nap on the surface. ) 
Kamrak, ( corruption of ' cambric' ) 

Faunf, ( a coarse long doth or calico in one quarter thelength of ' lathi/ ) 
S&ltin, not now in use— a fabric resembling verj fine long cloth. 
iKhes-b&ft, called also tul ( twill ) is ribbed diagonalljr 
Oumtf , diaper, either of linen or imitated in cottonir 
Mezposh, i^ble linen. 
Bum&l, handkerchiefff^ 
Chfkan, any white figured or embroidered mfusliu ( also applied to* edging^ 

' insertion work' &c., &c. ) 
J&lf , plain net. 

Nainu, a sprigged or figured net or muslin ^ all white. 
-{ Senii, the same but haying the worked sprig or pattern in colored thread on the 
white ground. 
Alwsn, ( Turkey red cloth in several qualities. ) 

Khiai rangin, ( same as Eh^si but colored and glassed ; glaasied calico. ) 
Malmal rangin, ( colored muslin. ) 

Dr6s, ( X expect thiais our word ^ dress piece' ; it is applied to all figured muslins, 
used among Europeans only for female garments, but among natives largely used 
for chogahs and light outer coats for summer wear. ) 
Chit, ( chintz or calico print ). The varieties are — 
Ghft, Gullinir, red print ; colored flowers on a red ground. 

Do. Do. nakli (imitation of European red print.) 

Do. Safed, ( white ground and printed pattern on it. ) 

Do. Bondri (spotted). 

Do. MiLrpech (striped) with a sort of corkscrew pattern or ^ serpent fold." 

Do. Bahdar, with a wavy line. 

Do. Kalamk&r, lined witii fi:ne stripes. 

Do. Butidar ( sprigged with flowers )* 

Do. Nakl-irdnf, ( lit. ' imitation Persian' has an arabesque or i&awl pattenu ) 

Do. £h&m rang, ( inferior prints the colors not being feLst. ) 

Do. ShikargAh, ( has figures of animal, 4&c., on it ). 



Malmal, ( muslin. ) 
Dastar, ( muslin turbans. ) 
Bum&l, ( kerchiefs. ) 

22 Clast V. 





oo ^ 

fFrom Bddhd Nagar. 
Popatta (scarf). 

Dhoti mdre dar (waistcloth worn by Hindus), 
Dorya, (striped muslin all white.) 
Ch&rkh6na, (check). 


From Bandrcbs, 

White dopatta or scarf. 

Photi, waistcloth worn by Hiudus. 

From Farhhdbdd, 

Abra lihaf, (calico print for bed, covers, Ac). 

Chit, (chintz or print). 

Jlljam (floor cloth) a kind of coarse red cloth nsed for flooring, and is generally 

stamped with a pattern in black on the red ground. 

From Agra, 

Dari ( '* Purrees," cotton carpets. ) * 

Shatranj(, (carpets). 

S^dlin suti (pile carpets in cotton). 

{The following have "been nearli/ all described in the text, hence no explanation is added.) 

From Delhi, 

Malmal pagr(, (muslin turban). 

Posutf, tinsuti, chaustui, &c., &c., ( P* ^* ) 

Gambroon, ( p. 9. ) 

Siri saf ($b kin4 of muslin). 

Garhd, ( thin cloth, p. 8. ) 

From various places, Lahore, Ac, 
''Adhotar (coarse muslin). 
Khadar ( coarse thin cloth. ) 
Chaunsf, painsf, dthsf, ch(sf, &c. '^ 

HvLzkvi (broad white cloth). > AU very much aliJee in qtiality, 

Oazzi (thin cloth). ) 

Photi, a cloth woven of a size for wear round the loins. 
Gh^ti, ( stiff glazed white cloth, p. 6. ) 
PoryU, muslin striped with two lines together, all white, 
Silaf Khata, plain striped muslin ( stripes close together. ) 
Ch^rkhdna, check muslin. 

TdfUi, a fabric of ' tafta' ( twisted thread, made both in silk and cotton. 
Mahmddi, ( a fabric which used to be made as long cloth, but is supersede j 
by imported * latha ;' it was made of cotton and also of sUk. 

Potahf, ( pages 5, 6. ) 
'g' \ Chautahi. 
Palang posh. 
Lungi, ( p. 3. ) 

^^ I Khes sndfi, ( p. 5. ) 

§* I Khes dabba (check large). 

Khes tukriddr showing pieces of different colours joined together. 

Khes dorukha (different coloured plaid on either side), 

Khes Jat k&, ( jat or villager's khes). 

Susi sftdi, ( page 6. ) 
Po. dokanni. 
■Po. chaukann(. 



Claes Vm 





f^Sdsf panjkannf. 
Do. satkannf. 
Do. Balai khattiy a sdsl with five lines ; the field and the stripes being equal thick« 

Do. sdfiyanll, a aiisi partly of silk and partly of cotton, so as to be lawfal for 

Mohamadans to wear. 
Sal&rf, a thin cloth with double stripe used as a scarf or as a '' tahband'' by boys. 
Liingf, (all the varieties are not here given, many have been named in the foregoing 
descriptive lists). 
Do. Fakiran£, a scarf with white ground and a large check pattern on it in red, 
black or blue. 
Shamir, ( a scarf for winding into a loose turban, three yards long. ) 
Lung( Charkhina (check) . 
Do. Safed kin4radiLr (white with coloured border). 
Tahband or Lting, (waistcloth). 
Ldngi Peshawri sad&, ( plain check lungC. ) 
Do. Amir&na. The Peshawar lungi with gold border, &c. 

Printed or StampecL 

Samb& Chit, ( print made at S&mbli in Jummoo, generally flowered on a green 

ground. ) 
ChitMultani ( Multan prints. ) 

Bugcha ( a square piece of print used for packing up bundles, &c. 
-{ Abra, ( a printed piece ) an upper bed cover. 
Tolai, ( a printed piece for an under sheet. ) 
Jajam, (prmted floor cloth). 


Salu, (red dyed cloth. ) 

Band, ( a cloth with a pattern made by tying up tight, little knots in the cloth, so 
that when the whole is dyed, the parts remain uncolored. 

ChoguU, the same, only the uncolored spots are again dyed a different color from 
the ground. 

Bannu — a woman's veil,-^coars0, dyed with madder with a pattern made the same 
way as ' Band,' 

Dotiya — the same ; met with in Kdbul, Peshawur, <&c. 

Makhi—a red veil, stamped with a black pattern like ' flies ' (Makhf.) 

Chaskii, stamped pattern on a red ground (Kussumbha red.) 

Jalandhari chunniA, a sort of fabric stamped; is fine cloth and dyed with 
' Kussumbhd.' 

Eharw^ coarse red cloth or printed in black. 

Phulkari, a coarse red cloth worn as a veil by peasant women, it is lightly embroid- 
ered in green and yellow silk, and costs from 8 to 12 annas. 
I Bag, a similar veil, but heavily embroidered and costing 4 or 5 rupees. 
Chop, a similar veil embroidered at the edges only. 

Sirga, a kind \)f " chop." 

Bund, a spotted sheet worn by women. 
^Dopatta, a scarf of cotton, ( two breadths sown together. ) 


JVow Kashmir, 

Kadak or bUfba, cheap and very coarse cloth. 
Chunni, ( from Bombay ) a kind of spotted cloth. 

From Turhistdny &c. 

Simsun, cotton cloth 8 yards long, and 10 girahs broad. 

Dokb, ditto 4 yards long, and 10 girahs broad. 

r ^ 


Class n. Z5 



This class is subdivided into three ** Divisions," on account of the exceedingly diverse 
nature of the trade and manufacture under each division. 

The first division comprises such fabrics as are made of sheep's wool. They are few in 
number, though useful and traded in to a considerable extent. As in the plains, the season 
when warm garments are requisite is limited, it is natural that this class of manufacture 
should not have received anything like the attention it has in the more rigorous climates 
of northern Europe. 

In the plains no great care is taken of wool, and all that is woven from it is blanketing, 
generally coarse and hard: a finer kind of woolen wrapper called "lohi," and occasionally a 
coarse clotb or "pattu." Nothing like the fine broad cloths and tweeds, the soft wool shawls, 
the lambs' wool clothing, and countless other woolen fabrics of England, are known here. 

One class of woolen fabrics however deserves to be added to the list ; but this is prin« 
cipally carried on in the jails and is the result of European supervision. I allude to the 
manufacture of pile or "Turkey" carpets. These carpets are produced, in a great degree of 
excellence, and some of them have been sent to Europe, where they have fetched high prices. 

To the statement that woolen manufactures receive but little attention in the Punjab 
one general exception must be made in favor of the Hill districts. In these the climate is 
most rigorous, and the dress of the people consists almost wholly of wool, both sheep's and 
goat's, hence from the districts of Kangra and Simla, including as they do Spiti, Lahaul and 
Kanawar, the collection contains many specimens of stout and well fulled woolen cloths 
and blankets. The Kashmir territories also exemplify this class to a considerable extent. 

The second division contains a very different class of articles : the fabrics in this 
division are wholly woven of the wool of the Thibetan shawl goat, known as "pashmfna." 
In it wUl be found the celebrated shawls of Kashmir, all of which are woven with the finest 
varieties of this wool. In it also will be found the shawls woven by the Kashmiri colonies, 
who have settled at NArplir, Amritsur, Gujrdt, Jel^lpur, and other places, who can only 
get the second best wool from the districts of Ch^ngthdn and Bodok (since the Maharajah 
of Kashmfr holds the strictest monopoly of all the finest class of wool that comes from the 
frontier districts of Turfan and Kuchdr ) and who strive in vain to equal the bright tints 
and delicate weaving of the genuine Kashmir Shawl. 

In this division will be found all the series of plain pashmfna piece goods, such as 
Puttu or cloth, Malida, and Alwan, which also furnishes the ground work of the beautiful 
silk embroidered articles of dress, which are produced so plentifully in Kashmir, Amritsar, 
and Ludhiana. In this division have further been included the well known Rdmpore 
Chaddur, which from the soft fine texture resemble the real pashmina, though in reality 
they are made of Eampore wool. Many fabrics made of this wool and of the Kirmdni wool 
are called at LudhiAna and elsewhere ** nakli-pashmina " imitation pashm. 

The third and last division of the class contains all the fabrics made of goat's hair, 
and camel's hair, — the coarse ropes so much in use about the Derajfit, — the huge bags in which 
merchandise is loaded on to camels, — the * khoorjas ' or sacks in which the farmers carry 
their grain to market, — the coarse cloths or mats which they spread out to winnow and 
clean their grain on, — and, lastly, the camel hair chogas, and the "bark" or camel hair 
eloth, imported from Kdbul and Tui'kistan, 

fi« Class n. 

»— < 

Taking these diyisions in this order we have. 


Fabrics made of Sheep's Wool. 
8ub-0lass v.-0abpet8. 

Carpets are called "K41in" and "Kalicha." The method of manufacturing the "Kflm" 
or pile carpet is characterized by that simplicity which is observable in all native loom work. 
The foundation for the carpet is a warp of the requisite number of strong cotton threads 
according to the breadth of the carpet. The warp is however not placed flat on the ground, 
but is worked erect, being attached at either end to two rollers, which are supported between 
the extremities of two upright posts, the lower roller is below the sur£M)e of the ground in a 
pit or trench dug out for the purpose, the threads of the warp are passed over this, and reach 
to the upper roller, which is about 5 feet above It, all the superfluous web is wound round 
the upper roller, and as the carpet gets done, the finished work is wound on to the lower roUer, 
and more web is unwound from the upper one. The workmen sit in front of the warp on the 
ground with their feet in the tench or pit above alluded to. The process of weaving consists 
in dexterously twisting short lengths of coloured wool into each of the threads of the warp 
in a straight line, so that the two ends of the wool stick out in front. When a whole line is 
completed the (colours chosen being of course regulated by the pattern) the projecting ends 
of wool are clipped to a uniform length, and a single thread of wool Is run across the breadth of 
the carpet^ between the threads of the warp, just as in ordinary weaving, and the threads of the 
warp are crossed as usual : then another row of ends of wool is put in the same manner, an« 
other line of wool passed between the threads of the warp to keep the woollen tags in their 
places, and so on. The lines of work are compacted together by stricking them with a blunt 
fork or ^'kangi " in the manner described in the manufacture of "durrees.*' Line after line 
is thus completed, the workmen putting in the proper colours, either by their own know- 
ledge if they are very skilful, or at the word of command of one who 'retids out' the pattern. 
When the whole is completed, the surface is clipped or sheared all over, to reduce the pile 
to a uniform length and smoothness, and the carpet is complete. 

Cotton rugs are sometimes made in this way, especially at Mdltdn. A little bunch of 
cotton thread being substituted for the pieces of wool, in the process. Perhaps the best 
carpets of any are made at the Lahore Central Jail. The prisoners here recently succeeded 
in producing pictures pf birds, dogs, &c. in the carpet work, almost like the beautiful 
pictures that are so often seen on Brussels and pile rugs in England. 

The following series BUfQ from IiAhob^ 
Obntbal Jail ; — 

The exhibited specimens of carpeting are 
as follows :— 

203.— [6259-60]. 2 carpets, Delhie Jail. 
204.— [5262]. Woolen carpet from 
Hansi — Hissar. 

205.— [6263]. Carpet from the Hissar 

206.— [6350], Bugs from Nurpur, worth 

207*— [6409]. Ijarge carpet in the pat« 
tern called '^ ij^andah^ri," which couHists of 
large squares placed diagonally and woven in 
consecutive shades of colour, — it has a very 
rich and pleasing effect, value Ks. 313-5-4. 

208.— [6410]. A carpet in the "new 

Bb, 7« . I sbf^wl " pattern. Tlxis was the pattern sent 

Ctast VI, 


to the Inteniatioiiid Exliibition of 1862, 
"where it gained a prize* 

209.— [6411]. Carpet bag, the pattern 
being pictures of dogs, hawks, Ac. 

2 1 0.— [6418] . A rug, " shawl " pattern. 

211 . — [6414]* Two small carriage rugs. 

212 . — [6415]. Seyen samples of various 
patterns in Turkey carpeting : some of them 
are European, others native patterns : among 
the samples are also designs of birds, dogs, 
Ac., in carpet work, also a new style of 
carpeting in black and white wool. 

218. — [5809]. Large carpet, Brussels 
flower pattem/value Rs. 216, Jalakdhab 

214.— [5810-11]. Are rugs in Persian 
and English pattern by the same jail. 

215. — [6432] . Woolen rugs made by the 
prboners in the Female Penitentiary Lahore. 

216.— [6416]. Turkey carpet, in soft 
wool from Yarkand. Exhibited by T. P. 


217.— [6448]. A carpet from Khuttan 
imported vid Tarkand, exhibited by Pundit 

2 18.— [6432]. Woolen « durrees " from 
Bah£walptir, ( Lahore Central Museum )• 

These carpets we made precisely like the cotton 
'dnrree,' hut are of stoat woolen thread. There is 
a Tery cleTjSt ly wrought border and fringe to each 

219.— [6452]. A woolen "durree" by 
the SawaJpindi JaU. 

220.— [6454, 6, 6, 7, 8]. Five carpets by 
the Sawalpindi Jail. 

221.— [6463, 4]. Two hearth-rugs, of 
various patterns, by the Gdjrat Jail. 

222.— [6465.6]. Small rugs for carriage 
use, by the Gujr6t Jail. 

These are accompanied by a sample of the woolen 
thread nsed in the mannfaotnre (No. 6471) and of the 
raw wool before it is spnn into thread (6472). The 
District Jails of Jihlam and Multin also sent 
carpets and mgs. The Mdltin carpets are of great 
excellence and regularity of make. 

The following District Jails also exhibit 
carpets and rugs :— • 

228.— [6506-7 and 6509]. Carpets from 
Barkhan, exhibited by Jamal Ehan, — Dera 
Ghazi Ehan. 

Ko. 6506 is called ' Lnnga,* ralne Bs. 24. 
„ 6507 a msr, " (^alicha," yalning Bs. 12. 
„ 6509 is called (Hrfri, Talning Bs. 15. 

224.— [6508]. Is a carpet from Barti, 
sent by the Lund chief. 

226.— [6509-10]. Woolen dunrees, lo- 
cally called '' Phal^si," value Bs. 4 each, 
from Barti and Bajhan, sent by the L&nd 
chief and Im&m Bakheh Kh^n, 

226.— [6523]. Bug from Marwat and 
(6226) carpet from Waziri Hills. — Deputy 


227. — [6588]. Persian carpet, value Bs. 
60, sent by £i.zi Nasb-ullah Jan ef 


88 Cla89 YI. 



As before remarked^ the districts of the plains have not attained any great excellence 
in the manufacture of woolen articles, nor are there any variety in the manufactures. The 
collection however represents very well what the present state of the manufacture is. The 
jails will often be found in this, as in the last class, to take the lead in excellence. 

It is certainly a remarkable fact, that in the plains during the cold weather natives do not 
like woolen goods, it is only the poorer classes who resort to the kambal or blanket. Every one 
who can afford it, much prefers wearing several thicknesses of cotton cloth, and coats padded 
with cotton wool are universally worn. Of course, pashmina shawls and fine woolen " lohis " 
are much used for wrappers, but for all kinds of made up articles of clothing, cotton &c., and 
padded cloths are preferred. The same is observable in the bedding : natives seldom if ever use 
blankets, but prefer the " razai," or quilt padded with cotton wool. This preference for cotton 
is quite remarkable ; perhaps it may be due to some extent to the extreme liability of woolen 
goods to destruction in the rainy season from the attacks of moths and insects : the most vigi- 
lant care will scarcely preserve cloth goods from being pierced with holes, while an article of 
cloth left to itself in a box, and not exposed to the sun, will be totally destroyed before the win- 
ter comes round. These facts should not be overlooked is estimating the causes of the low state 
of woolen manufactures in the plains, but these remarks apply to the districts of the plains only. 

The places most noted for woolen manufacture are Sirsa and Bohtak, and also Leia for 
blankets. At these places thick and well felted blankets are made. In general native 
blankets are hard and coarse, the woolen thread is too tightly twisted ; and also the manu- 
facturers take no pains when the blanket is made to cause the wool to felt, that is to make 
the fibres combine together (which they do by virtue of microscopic serrditures on the joints 
of the fibres). In Scotland the blankets are felted and softened by a sufficiently disagreeable 
process, which consists in working and rubbing them with putrid urine. In this country 
the method adopted is to spread the blanket on a previously smoothed and prepared piece 
of ground, and then to moisten them with soap -and water and " rita " ( the soapnut ) : 
when the mixture is poured on, men tread on and work about the fabric with their feet. 
This has the desired effect, but unless very carefully done, is apt to make holes in the blanket. 

Ludhiana may also be mentioned as the seat of a considerable wool manufacture, apart 
from its well known trade in the plain shawls known to Enropeans as " lUmpur Chaddars." 
From information recently received from the district, I find that the annual import of sheep's 
wool from Rampur ( Bishair ) is 250 maunds, worth Rs. 10,000 : this fine quality of wool 
is worked into " doshdlas " or cKaddurs and passes as an imitation of pashmfna. The 
annual import of common country wool amoimts to 500 maunds, worth also about 10,000 
iTipees. Out of these imports goods to the value of 1,30,000 rupees are yearly manufactured, 
and also stockings, and " pattu " or cloth, to the yearly value of Rs. 20,000. There are about 
500 shops of wool manufacturers in the city, in which no less than 2,000 persons are employed. 

The large cities of Lahore and Amritsar also have considerable woolen manufactures 
besides theii* trade in pashmina. Lahore has a special manufacture of Kabuli pashm or 
Kabul wool, which is woven into " Lahori Chaddars." 

It will be seen however on a mere glance at the lists, that the hill districts of Kangra 
and Simla, and the Kashmfr valley, produce the greatest variety of woolen fabrics. The 
rigorous climate of these more northern districts demands this class of fabric, and moreover 
the extreme scarcity of cotton prevents recourse being had to those kinds of clothing which 
are more in favor on the plains. 

daaa Vt. 



From the districiB of Kangra and Simla we have not only blankets of yarions degrees 
of fineness, but series of stout woollen cloths, or flannels termed "pattd," and these in 
Several yarieties. The trade in wool and Woollen articles is one of the most important among 
the hill people. 

The woollen fabrics of iCashmtr are remarkable for their yarietj, as well as for the 
closeness of texture. From these territories there are striped and checked woollen pieces, 
imitations of European plaids and checks, flannels and other fabrics, as well as seyeral 
▼arieties of " pattd." 

It is now time to enumerate the samples exhibited under the class, giving the various 
kinds of articles, as they are most conyeniently grouped together. 


Thej are genelralljr made either of the natural brownish black colour of the wool, or else 
in a check pattern, sometimes but rarely they are white* 

None of them are anything like the Witney blankets of English make ; but they make 
tolerable horse clothing, for which purpose the European community chiefly employ them, 
while the poorer classes of natives wear them as wrappers. 

The specimens were s — 

228.— [6261]. Blankets from Delhi Jail, 

value Bs. l-8« 

229.— [6264]. Black, white and check 
blankets from Bohtak. 

'tiro check blanketB of superior quality Be. 7 ectch. 
F<mr others at Bs. 6 each. 
White blanket at Bs. 5. 
Check blanket at Bs. 4. 

The checks are large, in black and white> black 
mad red« and black and orange color. 

230.— [6278]. Check blanketing at 4 
annas per yard from Sirsa Jail. 

231.— [6421]. Blanket, Lahore city, by 

Thakur Das, ( coarse, worth Bs. 2 ]. 

232.-*[6422]. Another, inferior, worth 1 
rupee, by Jawinba Mal. 

233.— [6244]. Striped blanket, by the 

234.— [6425]. Blanket from Kasdr, 
black and white. 

235.— [6426 & 27]: Check blankets with 
crimson border, worth Bs. 6, 7 and 9 each. 

236. — [6442]. Lahore coarse blankets 
for use in the Female Penitentiary, made by 
the prisoners. 

237.— [6450]. Ferozpur Jail,horseblan- 
ket with rollers and surcingle* 

288.— [6374]. Blanket by Badha of 
Haryanah, Hushyarpur, worth Bs. 1-14. 

239.— [6460]. Do. from Bawulpindi 
Jail, worth Bs, 5, other specimens were sent 
from the Gujranw&lla and G-ujrit Jails. 

240.— [6474-47]. Jihlam Jailt horse 
cloth and blanket, also white blanket at 9 as. a 
yard, cheek blanket at 12 as. and black ditto 
at 9 as. a yard. 

24 1 .—[64821. Blanket, worth Bs. 3, by 
Harbans Singh of Nurpdr ( Shahpur dis« 

242.— [6595 & 96]. Fattyala, black and 
white blankets. 


The finer Woven woollen wi^pper or coVer« 
ing, was exhibited in the following yarieties :—* 

243.— [6274, 75 & 76]. Lois by Zaloc 
Chukd and FATtiH Chund of Sirsa. 

244 .—[6429] . Lois, worth Bs. 8-8 each, 
by Bahim Buksh of Lahore. 

245.— [6500] . Loi, worth Bs. 2-4, from 
Kamalia, Gugaira. 

246.— [6531]. "Loi Kashgari,'* value 
Bs. 5, imported from Eashgar, FjssHAWAa 


Clcus VI. 

247.— [6582]. « Loi Peahawarl," value 
Es. 7. 

248.— [6540]. " Black loi," of Kdghfai, 
Hazara, worth Bs. 4. 

249.— [6541]. " White do.," of Pakli, 

TTorth Bs. 8.8. 

Miscellaneous "Woollen. Manufactures. 

These present a variety of work, including 
some goods machine made (for the first tinie) 
at Sealkote, including also the woollen knitted 
work of various schools and orphanages, and 
other miscellaneous woollen manufactures of 
the plains. 

The yarious fabrics of the hills and the 
Kashmir valley present so distinct a charac- 
ter, that it appeared proper to separate them 
and bring to an end first the list of goods 
made in the plains. 

250.— [6272]. Sample of woollen thread, 
fiirsa, by Pattih Chund. 

261.— [6320 & 21]. Gloves by Ahsan 
JBhah of Ludhiana. 

2B2.--[6310— ]. Knitted work in 
Berlin wool and worsted, by the pupils of the 
JUissiOK Orphan School, Ludhiana. 

Neckties ( various colors ). 

Baby's jackets. 

Gaiters, brown, snuff-colored, blue and 

Biding gloves. 

Baby's socks, ( various colors). 
Baby's hoods, ( various colors ). 
Lamp mat. 

253.— [6889— 6896]. Knitted wool work 
by the Ambitsab Female Orphanage. 

254.— [6304]. Redpattiiat Es. 2 per 
j^rd, by Kala. 

255.— [6305] . White check pattd, at Bs. 
1-12 per yard. 

256.— [6306]. Pattti with long stripes, 
at Es. 1-4 per yard. 

267.— [6808]. Hue check, at Bs. 1-8. 

258.— [6309]. Plack check, at Es. 1-8. 

259 .—[6428]. Sample of tweed or wool- 
len cloth made at the Lahorb Ojbictbai. Jaii*. 

260.— [6430 & 31]. Knitted wool work 
by the prisoners of the Fekalb Psnitbnti- 
ART Lahore, viz., 4 pairs colored wool socks, 
2 paii's knitted wool cuffs. 

261.— [6444]. Scarlet wool tassel, bj 
AziMULLAH, Lahore. 

262. — [6458]. Qambroon, wopUen, Ba- 
walpindi jail. 

2 63 .—[6477]. Sample of woollen thread, 
Jihlam jail. 

264.— [6481]. Is a sample of dyed 
thread ( woollen ), 

265.— [6483 and 45]. Thipk felt rugs, 
felt coat and felt saddlp cloth, by Ahmad 
Din, of Bhera, Shahpur. 

This is a tUQl^ white felt mi^e inthf) dnttrictand 
a few other places — is a very neefnl artiole, and 
shows that the felting properties of wool are well 


The following woollen articles are from 

Gugaira : — 

266.— [6492]. Pair of « Khos^/' or 
mufflers for cattla, from Hujra. 

This district beix|g gf eat in the cattle stet^g line, 
( vast herds of both buffaloes and oxen being fed in the 
''Bar'* tracts), the thieves employ woollen mufflers 
to put over the feet of the cattle, which prevents the 
impression of the hoofs in the ground, and thus ffaUi 
the uj^most skill of tl^e trapker o;r " khp}i." 

2 67 — [6494] Namda, or felt for saddle 
cloth, from Syadwalla. 

268.— [6495]. " Khojar," or saddle pad 

used with native saddle, and made of felt. 

269.— [6496]. « Indawdjat,"athicknig 
or coil of wool worn like a porter's pack to 
assist carrying a burden on the head. 

270.— [6497]. " Tang," or saddle-girth. 

Class Vt 


J7I.^[6501 A6.]. Colored wooften 
threads from Hujra. 

27^.— [6505]. WMt6 woollen tlireiad, 
made in the jail. 

273.— [6601]. Bed braid of English 
wool, AoBA. Jail. 

274. — [659T]. Soclcsand gloves, exhibited 
by His Highness the Maharajah of Paty41a.' 

it 5.— [6520] . Woollen bag, Dera Ghazi 

276.— [6521]. Samples of woollen 
thread, l>era Ohazr Khan. 


The &brics nlan^fketured in the hill states 
Or imported from Kabul and Turkistan, 
&c. are now enumerated : — 

An the term* " pattd " frequently occurs 
in the following list, it will be proper to ex- 
plain that woollen cloth is usually woven in 
pieces about \ a yard broad, and only a few 
yards long : such a piece is called " patti;" 
when' 4 or more o!' these pattfs are joined 
together, making a large piece, perhaps 2\ 
or 3 yards broad and from 10 to 12 yards 
long, such a piece is called " pattu." The 
*^ pattl " is folded as often as may be con- 
venient* and used as a wrapper. 

The following collection is from Simla: — 

277.— [6339]. " Kaddma," a kind of 
blanket from Basilhair, by the Eajah of 

278.— [6840]. " mra," a woollen cloth 
of a whitish color, Basiihir. 

279.— [6647] i Blanket from Barmaur, 
by the Bajar of CkAXBAH. 

Pattii is largely imported from Changthin 
ahd Bodokh, from' Gbar or Garo, through 
Leh, and thence by Bampdr, especially a 
kind of pattu called " Thirma" or Balmor.* 

The next series i» from Kakosa, Ktjltj 

AND SPlTI : — 
* See Mr. Bayies' report on the Trade of the North 

^Mt Frontier, pag« CCSSIOI, App«adtf 223Y. 

280'. — [6344] . Blanket from Kulu, value 
Bs. 3. 

281.— [6345]. "Pattd" woollen cloth, 
piece of natural color of the wool frt>m Kulu* 

888.— [6346]. Black patti, from Kulul 

283.— [6348 & 49]. 2 samples of pattb, 

284.— [6347]. Pattu from Palich, [by 
T^fi Kakgba Local Committeb.) 

285.— [6350 & 61]. " Doran," wooUen 
cloth, from Kulu. 

The woUen oloths of Kuln are all home-made, by 
the zemindars, who rear vast flocka of sheep. These 
are taken over the snowy range dnring^ the hot season 
to pasture in the mild regions of Sfiiti, Laddkh and 
Obangthin. They are shorn twice a year. The 
cloth when made is sold by weight. 

The pattu is worn round the shoulders, and ifl 
faatoned there by two pins forming a kind of broocht 
not unlike those worn by the Highlanders of Soo^ 

286.— [6352].— White patU, Kulu. 

2 87. —6353]. " Pattd Dhdridlu-," (strip- 
ed wrapper), from Palach. 

288.— [6354]. White pattd, from Sukait, 

289.-[6355]. " Safed chadar," white 
wrapper or loi, from Kulu. 

The following are made in the DaASX« 
SAL A Jail: — 

290.— [6360]. Pattf, ** khud-rang," u e. 
natural color of the wool, Ist sort, value I 
rupee for 2 yards. 

291.- [6361]. Do. second sort, value 13 
annas for 2 yards. 

292.— [6362.] White pattf, 1st sort, 
value 14 annas for 2 yards ; and 

298.— [6363] . Do. 2nd sort, value 11 as. 
for 2 vards. 

294._[6864]. "Pattfi Gadiyda or Ga- 
dind," value Rs. 6. 

295: -[6365]. *' Pattd Gard or Oardl^. 

The following are from Spiti, exhibited 
by Philip Eoebtok Esqb. 

296.— .[6369]. Yellow cloth called 
"Nimbd Sarpd," value Ss. 2-12 for tha 

. piece of 7 yardfl. 


Class VI. 

297.— [6370]. Bed cloth, "Sarpd MarW." 

298.— [6371]. Black cloth, " SarpA 

299.— [6372]. Cloth of the natural color 
of the wool (khud-rang) " Thirine" (He in 
onginal caUdoqtte) 

The following fabrics are imported and 
exhibited from the Pbshawab District : — 

300.— [6527], ^ Pattd safed," from 

A large quantity of wool is imported from Kabul. 
In Lahore there is a regular manufaoture of chadars 
made of " K&bnl pashm," a very soft wool of a 
brownish color, which is however not sheep's wool, 
but of a goat, resembling the shawl wool. Kdbul is 
also celebrated for its postins, or coats lined with 
the skins of yoong lambs, which are reared in the 
province of Kar&knl to the south of Bnkhard. 

301.— [6528]. " PattA nab&ti," value 
Ss. 60, from K&bul, by Kazi Amib Jan. 

302.— [764.6]. " Choga pattti nakhMi, 
or cloak made of pattu (color of nakhdd or 
gram), value Bs. 30. 

303.— [7647]. "Choga pattti, khud- 
rang," cloak of natural colored woollen cloth, 
Peshawar, by the Municipal Committee, 
value Bs. 25. 

804.— [7649]. "Choga K^shgari,'* by 
Kazi Nisb-ullah Jan, imported from K&sh- 
gar, as its name indicates. 

305.— [7650] . « Kosa KandihAri," doak 
of white felt of Kand4h&r. 

306. — [6531]. Loi KiLshgari wrapper, 
from Kdshgar. 

Of other Imported Woollen FaMcs. 

807.— [6682]. Loi Peshawuri, Es. 7, of 
local manufacture. 

306.— [6589]. Pattti from K^h^, Ha* 

ss&ra, value Bs. 6. 

The wool of Kigh&n has always been of excellent 
qnaUty , recently attempts have been made to farther 
improye it by the introduction of the ' Merino * breed 
of sheep, (see chapter on Wool in Yol. I). 

The following is the collection from Kash- 
^19, contributed bj His Highness the Maha* 
r^jah of £ashm(r. 

309.— [6566]. " Salang'' ( blue or lij- 
wardi color). 

A very ooajrse tough cloth made into ooats ironi 
by Pathans ; it is also much used by the natirea of 
the Thibet and proyinoes of Ladikh, Balfch, Ao. 

310.— [6566]. Another piece of a lilac 

3U.--[6670]. " Namda,'^ felt. 

Felt Is largely produced in Elohi of Ehotan, where 
they also me^e felt caps, which are used by Euro- 
peans. The import is by Leh. Of other imported 
fabrics several are mentioned as imported from Yar> 
knnd, though they do not reach the Punjab : these are 
called <*Shirn" and "Garn," fabric of sheep and 
goat's wool mixed together, another is called " Khoja." 
These articles derive their names from the places 
of manufacture, ( see Mr. Pavies^ Beport, Appendix 

312.— [6673]. "Pattd, thud-rang,** re* 
taining the brownish color of the natural 

313.— [6574]. Pattd ch&rkhlhia, checked 
cloth, value Es. 4-8. 

314.— [6575]. White pattd, value' Bs. 
6-4. No. 6580 is another sample. 

316.— [6576]. Khiki, or grey pattd 
striped with a very fine stripe called '^ Kalam 
kdr" from " Kalam," a straight reed to which 
ilie stripe is likened, see ( No. 6597), No. 
G578 is another sample of this. 

316.— [6577]. Woollen cloth printed 
like a chintz, called *' pattd chhet." 

This fabric consists of the ordinary woollen patti 
but stamped or printed with a very small uniform 

It is in general use for making the " firan " or 
long coat worn by Kashmins, value Bs. 5-4. 

3 1 7, — [6579] . " Pattd Abshfir." Com- 
mon striped woollen cloth or flannel. 

The stripe is in the fabric, like that of the ^'sdsi** 
in cotton, it is a straight plain line, whije the " Kalam 
kir " stripe is much finer, and the stripe beings differ- 
rently inwoven into the material is not a oontinous 
line but appears Uke a fine waved line or suooeesiaia 
of little marks, forming a stripe thus ;-^ 


Kalam k4r. Abihir. 

Class VL Division 11. 33 


Pashmina Goods. 


{Loom woven.) 

Both sub-classes of ibis division are distinguished from the first and tbe tliird by tbe fact 
that they are manufactured from tbe " Pashmina" or wool of the shawl goat of Thibet. 

For a minute account of the production of and trade in this wool I must refer the 
reader to the division which treats of wools, under *^ Animal substances used in manufac- 
tures," in volume I. 

It may however be advisable to recapitulate so far as to remind the reader, that the 
Thibetan shawl wool varies in quality according to the districts it is produced in. There is 
also a difference between the wool from the domesticated goat and the wool from the animal 
ia its wild state: the latter is called '' Asli tus." That, the best, which comes from Turffin, 
Kiichdr, TJkturfiin, Aksu, Khutan, Yarkand and K&shgar, is strictly monopolized by the 
Maharajah of Kashmir : it is imported from Yarkand via Leh. Indeed, the Maharajah has 
the monopoly of the wool of Changthfin and Bodokh in Thibet. It is exported from Garo 
and, goes via Leh to Balti, Kishtwar and Kashmir ; a portion of it however is brought down 
by the traders of Bampur Basdhir, and also by the merchants of British Lahaul through 
LadAkh, • and thus the Kashmiri shawl weaving colonies in the Punjab ( of whom more 
liereafler) are supplied. 

Pashmina in its natural state, i, e, before dyeing, when clean, is white, but there is also 
a sort which is comparatively rare, and is of a grey color called " Tus," or '* T&ha," This 
IB highly esteemed as of exquisite softness. 

The Ohangthan pashmina is of two sorts, ' Khulchak ' and ' Balchak,' being first and 
second qualities, this is ordinarily white in color. 

A good deal of confusion results from the miscellaneous use of the term '^ Pashm " as 
applied to shawl wool : it will be advisable on first starting to describe the different kinds 
of soft wool that are in use. 

1. There is the genuine Thibet shawl wool of Kashmir, of its two kinds, white and tds. 

2. The very rare Ibex wool, which is also of " tAs color." The costly Ibex shawls of 
Thibet and China are made of this ; this wool is never seen in the Punjab, probably rarely 
seen even in Kashmir. A small sample sent to the Exhibition was obtained from Zangskdr. 

3. The Changthdni wool, of 2 or 3 qualities, being real shawl wool used by the shawl 
weavers of Amritsar and other places* 

4. The Kirm&ni wool, a very soft white wool, which is imported from Kirm&n, a pro* 
Tince of Persia : it is used to adulterate Pashmina at Amritsar and other places. 

5. ** Kabuli Pashm," a very soft hair of a goat, not unlike the Thibet shawl wool 
only not so fine ; it is principally in Lahore, where it is used for making the " Lahori chadar** 
or soft wool wrapper. 

* AH the wool that comeB from the Chinese provinces of Eastern Torkijitftii and the Pamer steppes 
is called ia Saahauri Tucfaai and Moliaii* 

34 Glass VL Diviaton IT. 

I have obtained it of two or threer quaHties,' aome of them white, other a brownish grey, 
with the ends of the hairs a darker color than the rest, giving it a varigated appearance. 
They call this " Khud-rang" or " Tusha." 

It appears that this wool is produced in the mountainous portions of Kandahar and 
Herat. Khelat also produces a- fine, weol^ from the fat^ tailed variety of sheep. 

Also a shawl wool called pat is obtained from Kokan through Bukhara. 

The K4buli pashm appears to be » goat^s Wool iknd not a sheep's. 

6. "XJn Rampuri." A very fine wool is obtained from Bampur probably from 
Changthin and Bodokh, which is worked at Ludhiana as the E!irm&ni wool is at Amritsar, 
to produce an adu:lterated or " nakli pashmina/' in imitation of real pashmina. 

We are atJ pi*esent to consider the fabrics woven of real shawl wool. 

The fabrites may be generally stiated' to be of two sorts : — 

1st, regular shawls. — ^The material used for these fabrics is thread very finely spntf of 
pashmfna, and dyed of various shades ; the Weaving is effected in a rude kind of upright 
loom, more Kke the carpet loom than the ordinary loom for piece goods, but it is dfdtincfc 
from either : Ao shuttle i's employed, but the different kinds of colored thread' required in the' 
pattern h»ftg down on as many little reels or bobbins, and the pattern of the shawl is iiidi- 
c»ted! on p&per, by a regular pattern alphabet or " memoria' fechnicw " of written signs. 

The other cfaas of pasllmina goods are plain and woven in the ordinary way. Kne 
pashmitia cloth is called " Alwdh ;** this is used for shawls or* chadars, plain and dyed'of various 
colours, but the same all over. When pashmitia cloth is carefully felted and softened by 
repeated' working and treading with water and " rita **' or soap-nUt, it shrinks; felts, and* 
BOfbensi and is-caUed ** Malida" (literally "rubbed fhbric'*) ; this is used foi- a variety of articles 
and forms the ground- work of the silk embroidered chogahs, capes, jackets, uecktieffand other 
embroidered^ fitbrics so common in Eashili(r, Amri tsar and Ludhiana. Thin pashmfna " AlWan,'* 
generally unprepared, is also the ground-work for the beautiful " Amlikir" work of Ka&htiilr, 
which consists in elaborate patterns and devices in colored silks etecuted on' shawl bonder^,* 
chogahS' and other articles*; this Amlik&r is qaite distinct froih the embroidetied fabrics 
previously described, on which the pattern of the silk is always of one color, generally the 
same color as the pashmfna or else white or black on a colored pashmina ground. The art 
of this last,. rich and beautiful as it is, is utterly inferior to the renowned Amlikar, whidiis 
unique, and which is practised in Kashmir itself in a style so much superior to any othw 
place, that an experienced eye can detect in a moment the genuine work of Kashmir. 

These articles however do not come into this class, but are reckoned as embroidery; it is 
only with shawls woven>in a loom that Sub-class A has to do, and only with plain pashmina' 
goods exhibited for the sake of the fcibric that Sub-class B contains. 

There are a few misoellaneous fabrics woven of pashmina in Elashmfr, such as " paripurz" 
and some varieties of pashmina cloth introducing checks, and other patterns, . but this will 
be noted in situ. 

It only remains to add that the pashmfna is the inner wool of the goat. At the com- 
mencement of summer the animal is shorn with a knife in the direction of the growth of 
the hair, i, e. from head to tail. When this is done the wool is combed down in a reverse 
direction, and this separates almost entirely the upper hair froifL the wool underneath, the hair 
is soft and is wrought up into coarser.£abric& The wool is cleaned in the first instance by 
WMhing mtii lime-water. 


1 1 

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Class VL Division IL 85 

In the Punjab, when the pashmfna is first imported, it is bought up by the wool- 
pickers, who separate the various qualities, the finest wool, the second, and the goat hair, and 
sell these sorted wools to the Kashmiri shawl weavers, who spin it into thread for the different 
kinds of manufactures. 

In the following list the genuine loom-woven shawls of Kashmir are first enumerated. 

Shawls besides having a very considerable number of varieties in form, 9izj8^ pattern^ &c*| 
4c., afe mainly divided into two classes. 

Ist. — Shawlsloom- woven, called Tiliwalla, "Tili kfir" or "Kani ki.r/' whereof the patterp 
is produced in the loom. They are sometimes woven all in one piece, but oftener are woven 
in distinct portions, which are afterwards most skilfully joined together by hand ; the suture 
is so delicate as to be quite imperoeptible except on minute iUi^ction^ and tbev witb 

2nd. — Shawls ** Amlikdr " wherein the ground work is a plain pashmina piece, and the 
pattern is entirely due to minute and most elaborate needlework in pashmina thread all over 
the wbole sur&ce. Borders, which are always made on a warp of silk, are attached to loom- 
woven shawU ; the stiff edging serves to spread ouji) the shawl and make it set properly whem 
worn. Shawl borders are made quite separate from shawls and at different localities : no 
shawls, for instance, are made at Sealkote, but shawl borders are. 

This second sort of shawl is not included in this class, which is solely concerned 
with loom-woven fabrics. There is a separate class for needlework done by hand and em- 
broidery. It has been remarked that the shawls of Kashmir have never been equalled 
by the colonies of Kashmiris who have settled in the Punjab ; not ouly i^ the yaj^hynir 
shawl wool finer and purer in thread, but the workmen pretend that there is something in the 
nature of the air and the water of Kashmir which allows of brighter and purer dyeing for 
the thread ; and also the process of washing the shawls, which is quite an art of itself is 
always better done in Kashmir. 

The very high price of Kashmir shawls even at the places where t^ey are made, has 
often excited wonder • since the actual cost of the raw wool necessary to make a shawl is only 
a few rupees. But it must be remembered, that the wool lias to be sorted by hand with 
great labor, and the fineness of the shawl subsequently will much depend on the care bestowed 
on this operation ; next, the fine thread has to be spun with great delicacy : this is done with 
the aid of a common * Oharkha,' as used for cotton, but requires great nicety of work. The 
thread is extremely fine. A pound weight of fijrst class thread will sell as high as 25 rupees. 
The thread has now to be dyed, which is a difficult operation, and some of the colors are 
costly ( they are all made permanent ) ; and then the weaving process begins : this is slow 
and indefinitely elaborate and difficult in proportion to the intricacy of the pattern. The 
wages of the skilled labor for such work are extremely high. 

Tears of patient toil have to be passed by the apprentice before he is perfect in bxlj one 
branch of the art ; when therefore he does become a practised artizan, his wages must 
remunerate him for the expense and long delay of his education. It is no wonder therefore 
that shawls should becostly. On to the price that they command when exported, we must add 

• A first rate ^oveji shaw), ^eighifig 7Ibs. will fetoh in Ksalhmx as muob as ^300, 

which price is made qp of, M 30, the ooet of ipateriaU 

}50, the wages of ^bor. 
70, Duty. 
50, Misoelkaeoofi expenses* 

Total, ...800 


Ctasa VL Division IL 

to original cost, the customs duties, the cost of carriage, the risk of robbery — which bj somd 
routes is great, the risk of the bales damping and becoming mildewed inside, the cost of the 
commission charged by brokers who manage the export and sales, besides rarious other inci* 
dental charges that occur between the workshop of the shawl weaver and the market of final sale. 
Before entering on the list of shawls exhibited, it will be necessary to present the reader 
with an account of the process of shawl wearing. This has been already so well done by 
Moorcroft that it would be hopeless to attempt a better description « Ajb Moorcrofl's work 
is now scarce and inaccessible to the general reader, I shall make no apology for* eltractii<g 
his account in extenso :-* 


" The first task of the spinner is to separate tke 
different materials of whioh the fleeoe oonsists, usual- 
Ij in about the following proportions i — 

Coarse hair, li seers« 

Seconds, or Phiri, ... ... Of 

Bust and foreign substances^ 2| 
Fine wool, ««• ... ... 2 

6 seers, or 1 

Muck attention is required to free the wool from 
the hair, and the process Is a tedious one* The next 
step is (deaning and separating the wool. A quantity 
of husked rice is steeped in clean cold water, for a 
day and a night, or longer, until it becomes softj 
when it is ground or bruised upon a stone slab to fine 
flour« Thin layers of this and of the picked wool 
are laid alternately, and squeezed witii the hand 
nntil they are completely intermixed. A little water 
may be occasionally sprinkled over the heap, if the 
Weather is hot and dry, else it is not necessary. Soap 
is never used, as it makes the wool harsh } and its em« 
ployment in Hindustan being communicated to the 
Kashmlrians, induced them to boast that in this 
matter at least they were more knowing than 
Europeans. After being thus treated for about an 
hour, the flour is shaken out, the wool opened and torn 
to pie6es, chiefly by the nails^ and made into somewhat 
square, thin, elastic pads, called Tumbu. In this 
process the Fhiri, or second shool, is extricated* 
Though too coarse for fine shawls^ it is used in the 
manufacture of those of inferior quality, and of a 
strong shawl cloth called patt6. The tumbu is then 
worked out into a thin flat roving, about half a yard 
long, which is called a mila. The rnUa is folded up 
to the size of the ±umbu, and deposited in a deep 
pot of red earthenware, called a taskas, to be out 
of the way of dust or accident till required for the 
spinning wheel. 

The wheel is constructed on the same principle as 
that used in Hindustan, but varying in neatness of 
form and finish, according to its price ; the rudest, 
the Takhtidar, or Pachindar, costs a half rupee \ the 
Katsker, which is the most serviceable, three or 
four rupees ; and the Pakchedar, which is used by 
those who spin for amusement only, costs from six 
to sixteen rupees. The iron spindle is enclosed in a 
cylindrical tube of straw or reed crrass, and instead 
of one line of radii or spokes, supporting a continued 
circular wooden rim, there are two circular and 
parallel walls of fiat spokes in contact at their edges, 
leaving between them at their outer circumference an 
empty space. A hair cord fastened to the loose end 
of the one spoke, is oarried aorosB the spaoe or 

trough, to the end of the liexi spoke but one on ihm 
opposite side, and having been passed tound, it re* 
turns to a spoke on the side from which it begui. Sy 
a continuation of this process a rim is formed of a 
surface of hair cord, over which runs a smaU band, 
that is said seldom to be cut by the friction to which 
it is exposed. The principle kept in view by thitf 
arrangement of spindle and of rim, lA to produce » 
continuance of soft elastic movements without Jerk or 
stiffness, to prevent the yam breakirg on the ooour* 
rence of any slight interruption in dittwing it out. 

Women begin to wotk at daybreak, oontiitiie 
with little interruption the whole day, if not takea 
off by other domestic affairs^ and extend their labor 
nntil very late in the night, spinning by nioon-liglkt 
when available^ and when they cannot afford to pnr« 
chase oil for a lamp. The fine wool is spun oom^ 
monly into about seven hundred gaz, each gas consiat* 
ing of sixteen girahs, about equal to two nails. This 
yarn is doubled and formed into twist, which is out 
into two hundred lengths, each length of three gks 
and a half } this measure being suited to the leni^th 
of the warp for a shawl. From the Phiri, or seconds 
wool, about one hundred gtiz of /am ate also pto* 
duced. The yam of the fine wool is sold sometimes 
by measure and sometimes by weight. A hundred 
lengths of yam of fine wool doubled, and eaoh three 
gas and a half, bring ordinarily seven tangaSf or 
about seven-pence. But if the same kind of sram be 
sold without being doubled and twisted, the price is 
regulated by weight, a " pal " bringing from twelve 
annas to one rupee four annas, according to the 
demands of the maiket. The yam from FfairS^ or 
seconds wool, is sold only by measure, but the gas 
employed consints of no more than twelve girahd, or 
nails, that is, of four glrabs less than the gas ia 
ordinary use. A hundred yards of Phiri twist, and 
each of two short gaz, or of twenty four girahs, sdl 
for one and a half tangti^ three pice, or about thtee 
half -pence. Although oedculations upon this metier 
can be little more than approximations, yet three 
pence or three pence-half penny a day, or from thrve 
rupees to three rupees eight annas, or from six to 
seven shillings a month, may be taken as the general 
earnings of an industrious and expert spinner in 
Kashmir^ out of which, however, must be sabtraofted 
the price of the wool,* leaving only one rupee aght 
annas for her labor. 

If shawl-wool be furnished to a spinner to eleea 
and to spin, eight annas are paid for spinning one 
pAl, or three and one-third rupees weight of yan of 

* Thirty two Tanga or aniiMj equal two reyeeSi 

Class VI. Division II. 


Ihe requiaite qoAlitrf for shawls. Sheep's wool, spnn 
by contract, is paid for by the pao, or quarter of a 
seer, at the rate of from two tangas. or four pioe, to 
twelve annas per pao, according to the fineness of 
the yam ; and the spinning of this quantity into 
yarn soited for shawls will oconpy a woman for eight 
days. There are several varieties of thread, dis- 
tingaished by different degrees of fineness. From 
one pao of clean fine shawl wool a spinner will draw 
from a hundred to a thousand threads of three and a 
half gaz eaoh. There is not such a difference be- 
tween the price of coarse and of fine yarn as might 
be expected, owing to the greater expenditure on the 
former of a material that is dear, and on the latter 
of labor that is cheap. Shawl wool is sometimes spun 
by men, with a loose spindle like that used in Ladakh. 
These men are called Trakhans, and the yarn thus 
spun is finest, but very little of it is now made. 
(Hrls begin to spin at the age of ten, and a hundred 
thousand females are employed in this occupation iu 
Kashmir. About one-tenth of this number are sup- 
posed to spin for the purpose of obtaining shawls for 
themselves, or for other members of their families, 
and nine tenths to earn their livelihood. 

The Puiraangn keeps a shop for the purchase of 
yam, but also sends people to collect it from the 
houses of the spinners, who give uotice of their 
approach by ringing a bell. The yam is sold to 
the weavers at a profit of from one pice to a tanga 
in the rupee. As a large stamp duty is levied on 
shawl-goods when finished, the exportation of the 
yam is forbidden, and prohibition is enforced by 
heavy fine and imprisonment. Much of it is, never- 
theless, exported to those places in the Punjab where 
the expatriated weavers have settled. 

Having ascertained the kind of pattern most likely 
to suit the market, the weaver applies to persons 
whose business it is to apportion the yam iccording 
to the colors required ; and when this is settled, he 
takes it to another, whose function it is to divide 
the yam into skeins accordingly, and each skein is 
delivered to the Bangrez, or dyer. When the body 
of the cloth is to be left plain, the Phiri, or seconds 
yam, is alone given to be dyed. This is generally 
about the thickness of common cotton sewing thread, 
is loosely twisted, of a coarser quality than the yam 
used for the cloth, and is preferred for employment 
in flowers, or other ornaments, from its standing 
higher, and bein^, as it were, embossed upon the 

The dyer prepares the yam by steeping in clean 
cold water. He professes to be able to give it sixty- 
four tints, most of which are permanent. Each has 
a separate denomination, as for instance : the crim- 
son is termed Gnlanar (pomegranate flower) ; the best 
kind is derived from cohineal, imported from Hindus- 
tan ; inferior tints are from Lac and Kirmis (Cher- 
mea), distinguished as Kirmisi, Kirmdana, and Kir- 
misi lac, or cochineal and lac ohermes : log wood is 
used for other red dyes ; blues and greens are dyed 
with indigo, or colouring matter extracted by boiling 
from European broad cloth. Logwood is imported 
from Hultan and Indigo from India. Carthamus 
and Saffron, grrowing in the province, furnish means 
of rarions tints of orange, yellow, &c. The occupa- 
tioii of a dyer is invariably hereditary. The whiter 
•ad finer the fibre of tiie wool, and the finer the 

yarn into which it is made, the more capable it is 
said to be of receiving a brilliant dye ; and this is one 
reason why the fine white wool of the goat is pre- 
ferred to that of the sheep. 

The Nakatu adjusts the yarn for the warp and for 
the weft. That intended for the former is doublo, 
and is cut into lengths of three gas and a half, any 
thing short of that measure being considered fraud- 
ulent. The number of these lengths varies from 
two thousand to three thousand, according to tho 
closeness or openness of texture proposed, and the 
fineness or coarseness of the yarn. 

The weft is made of yam which is single, but a 
little thicker than the double yarn or twist of the 
warp. The weight of the weft is estimated at a half 
more than that of the warp. The Nakatu receives 
the yam in hunks, but returns it in balls : he can 
prepare in one day the warp and weft for two shawls. 

The Pennakamguru, or warp dresser, takes trom 
the weaver the yarn which has boon cut and reeled, 
and stretching the lengths by means of sticks into a 
band of which the threads are slightly separate, 
dresses the whole by dipping it into thick boiled 
rice water. After this the skein is slightly squeezed 
and again stretched into a band, which is brushed and 
suffered to dry : by this process each length becomes 
stiffened and set apart from the rest. 

Silk is generally used for the warp on the border 
of the shawl, and has the advantage of showing the 
darker colors of the dyed wool more prominently 
than a warp of yarn, as well as hardening and 
strengthening, and giving more body to the edge of 
the cloth. When the border is very narrow it is 
woven with tho body of the shawl ; but when broad- 
er, it is worked on a different loom, and afterwards 
sewn on the edge of the shawl by the " rafugar," or 
fine drawer, with such nicety that the union can 
scarcely be detected. The silk is twisted for the 
border warp by the " tabgar." The warp differs in 
breadth, the narrowest consisting of twenty, and the 
broadest of a hundred threads. From the tabgar 
the silk is hai del to the " Alakaband," who reels it, 
and cuts it ii>to the proper lengths. 

The operalion of drawing or of passing the yams 
of the warp through the heddlea, is performed pre- 
cisely in the same way as in Europe, and the warp is 
then taken by the shal-baf, or weaver, to the loom. 
The weavers are all males, commencing to learn tho 
art at the age of ten years. In all transactions tliere 
are two parties, the Master, or Ustad, and the scholar, 
or Shagird, the former being the capitalist, the 
latter the mechanic. Work is executed under four 
different conditions. First, for wages, when it al- 
most always happens that a system of advances has 
occurred, by which the workman is so deeply in- 
debted to his employer that he may, in some sort, 
be considered as his bond-slave. Secondly, upon 
contract, of which the common term is, that one pice 
is paid for every hundred needles carrying colored 
yarn that shall have been each once passed round as 
many yarns of the warp. Third, a sort of partner- 
ship, in which the Ustad finds all the nuiterials, and 
the workmen give their labour. When a shawl is 
sold the outlay of the Ustad is deducted from the 
price, and the remainder is divided into five shares, 
of which one goes to the maeter, and the other four 
to the workmen. The fourth mode is an equal divi- 


ClaBs VI. Division IL 

«ion of the proceed g ; in which case the master not 
only finds the materials, bnt feeds the workmen. 
Three men are employed npnn an embroidered shawl 
of an ordinary pattern for three months, bnt a very 
rich pair will occupy a shop for eighteen months. 

The loom differs not in principle from that of 
Europe, bnt is of inferior workmanship. An Untad 
has from three to three hundred in his establishment, 
and they are generally crowded together in long low 
apartments. When' the warp is fixed in the loom, 
the nakash, or pattern drawer, and the tarah-gnrn, 
and talfm-gnru, or persons who determine the pro- 
portion of yarn of different colors to be employed, 
»re again consulted, The first brings the drawing 
of the pattern, in black and white. The tarah-guru, 
having well considered it, points out the disposition 
of the colors, beginning at the foot of the pattern and 
calling out the color, the number of threads to which 
it is to extend, that by which it is to be followed, 
and so on in succession, until the whole pattern has 
been described. From his dictation, the talim-gnru 
writes down the particulars in a kind of character or 
short hand, and delivers a copy of the document to 
the weavers. 

The workmen prepare the tojis, or needles, by 
arming each with colored yarn of the weight of 
at>out four grains ; these needles, without eyes, are 
made of light, smooth wood, and have both their 
sharp ends slightly charred, to prevent their becom- 
ing rough or jagged through working. Under the 
superintendence of tarah-guru, the weavers knot the 
y^rn of the tuji to the warp. The face or right side 
of the cloth is placed next to the ground, the work 
being carried on at the back or reverse, on which 
hang the needles in row, and differing in number 
from four hundred to fifteen hundred, according to 
the lightness or heaviness of the embroidery. As 
soon as the Ustad is satisfied that the work of one 
line or woof is completed, the comb is brought 
down upon it with a vigour and repetition apparent- 
ly very disproportionate to the delicacy of the 

The cloth of shawls, generally, is of two kinds, 
one plain, or of two threads, one twilled, or of four. 
The former was, in past times, wrought to a great 
degree of fineness, but it has been of late less in 
demand. The various twilled cloths are usually 
from five to twelve girahs, or nails wide, shawls 
are twilled, and aro commonly about twenty-four 
nails broad and differ in their extent of field. Two 
persons aro employed in weaving a cloth of this 
breadth. One throws the shuttle from the edge as 
far as he can across the warp, which is usually about 
half way. It is there seized bv the second weaver, 
who throws it onwards to the opposite edge, and 
then returns it to his companion, who, in his turn, 
introducing his fingers into the warp, forwards the 
shuttle to the edge whence it started, and then re* 
commences the operation. The cloth thus made is 
frequently irregular, the threads of some parte of 
the woof being driven up tightly, and in others left 
open, from which results a succession of bands, suf- 
ficiently disting^ishabhi whilst withont colour, but 
still more obvious when dyed. The open texture is 
in a degree remediable by the introduction of fresh 
threads ; but there is no sufficieot cure for that 
which has been much compacted. One might be led 

to suspect that there existed some radical defective- 
ness in the principle of this mode of weavijig nofe 
readily mastered, were not pieces of oloth found, 
occasionally of an almost |M3rfect regularity of texture- 
But the greatest irregnil&rity is discoverable in those 
shawls which have the deepest aad heaviest borders, 
and a further examination compels me to retract an 
observation somewhere made, of the artist being so 
much engrossed by attention to the work of the 
pattern as to neglect the structure of the field. The 
edge of the warp in the loom is filled with the heavy 
thread of the phiri, or seconds yam, charged also 
with colour, so that in a few lines the &ont of the 
worked part advances beyond that of the plain part 
or field, and an endeavour to equalize this betraya 
the weaver into a work which proves fruitless ; and, 
in general, the heavier the embroidery on the border, 
and, of course, the higher the price of the shawl, the 
less regular is the structure of the oloth. 

Such, indeed, in some instances, is the degradation 
of the cloth In the field, as to induce some forei^pi 
merchants to cause it to be removod, and another 
piece to be engrafted within the edge of the border. 
But in this case there is no other remedy ihao. in & 
judicious selection of a sheet of the same breadth and 
fineness ; for, although two breadths of the narrow 
cloth might fit the vacant space, yet these must be 
joined by the refugar in the middle; and althougb 
this can be so done that the baud differs not in thick- 
ness from the rest of the cloth, yet the joint is dis- 
cernible when held between the eye and the light, 
from the threads in the joined breadth beiiig not 
continuons in the same line, whereas any irregularity 
of this nature is drowned in the edge of the border. 
The best practice to ensure a good field seems to 
consist in weaving the border, in every case, separ- 
ately, and inserting the field by the refugar. 

When finished, the shawls are submitted to the 
pnrnsgar or cleaner, whose business it is to free the 
shawl from discoloured hairs or yam, and from ends 
or knots : he either pulls them out severally with 
a pair of tweezers, or shares the reverse face of the 
cloth wi^h a sharp knife : atiy defects arising froin 
either operation are immedately repaired by the 
refugar. At this stivge of the manufacture the 
shawls are sent to the Collector of the stamp duties, 
1)/ whom an ad valorem duty of twontyifeiJc per cent ie 
levied, and each piece is then stamped and registered. 
The goods are now handed over to the wafarosh, 
or person who has advanced money on them to the 
manufacturer, and to the mokklm, or broker, and 
these two fix the price, and effect the sale to the mer« 
chant ; the former charges interest on his advances, 
the latter a commission, varying from two to five 
per cent. The purchaser takeb the goods unwashed, 
and often in pieces, and the "fine drawer and washer- 
man have still to do their part. 

When partly washed the dhohi brings the shawTtf 
to the merchant, that tbey may be examined for 
any holes or imperfections ; shooH sneh ocour, they 
are remedied at the expense of the seller : if there 
are none, the washing is completed. This is done 
with clear cold wator, using soap very oantionBly, id 
white parts alone, and never to embroidery : coloured 
shawls are dried in the shade ; white ones ars bleaohi> 
ed in the open air, and their colour is improved by 
exposure to fumes of sulphur. After being washed. 

Class TT. Division IT. 


tbe ahawla are strotched in a manner whioh answers 
hi some deg^roe to calendering : a wooden cylinder 
in two parts is employed for this purpose, round 
which the ahawl, folded so as not to be quite as broad 
as the cylinder is long, is carefully wrapped, being 
occasionally damped to make it fold tighter ; the 
end is sewn down : two wedges are then gradually 
drireu between the two parts of the cylinder at the 
open extremitieB, so as to force them asunder, and 
the surrounding folds of the shawl arc thus stretched 
to as great an extent as is consistent with its texture. 
The piece, remains in this state for two days, when 
it is removed to be packed. The packages are of 
various dimensions, but they are formed on one priu- 
oiple : tlie shawls ore separated by sheets of smooth 
glazed, and coloured paper, and they are placed 
between two smooth planks of wood* with exterior 
transverse bars, which, projecting beyond the planks, 
offer a purchase for cords to tie them together : the 
whole is then placed in a press, or under heavy 
weights for some days, when the planks are with- 
drawn, the bale is sewed np in 8tfoi>g cloth, and the 
whole is tfewad up as smoothly and tightly as possible 
ill a raw hide, whioh, contracting in drawing, gives 
to the contents of the package a remarkable degree 
of compactness and protection. 

An immense variety of articles of shawl stuff are 
manufactured in Kashmir, besides the shawls them- 
selves : of them also there are two chief varieties, those 
made in the manner described, and the worked shawl 
(doshali amli), in which the whole of the embroidery is 
wurkoA on the cloth, with neecUes having eyes, and 
with a particular kind of woollen thread, instead of 
the silk employed in the usual embroirlercd work. 
In the amli shawl the pattern, which is in every case 
deliheatud, but which at the loom is read ofT in certain 
technical terms from a book, is covered with trans- 
parent paper, upon which the outlines of the com- 
position are slightly traced with a charcoal twig and 
the traoed lines are permanently defined by being 
pricked through with a small needle. The cloth in- 
tended to receive the pattern is rubbed strongly upon 
a smooth .plank, with a piece of highly polished 
agate or cornelian, until it is perfectly even and regu- 
lar. The pricked pattern is then stretched upon the 
clcth, B,ud Home line colored powder, charcoal, or 
chalk, is passed slightly over the paper, which pene- 
trating through the holes, transfers the outline to 
the cloth uuderneath'. This is next more accurately 
delineated with some coloured powder rendered tena- 
cious by nuicilage of gum arabic, whioh, when the 
work is completed, is readily detached in dust by 
the hand. 

The use of patterns by the chain stiteh embroider- 
er, and the carpet weaver of Kashmir, is more 
restricted to a confined number of forms, by being 
transferred from a wooden block to the cloth, in 
regard to the former, and to paper ia respect to the 

The following are the chief articles of this Bumu' 
factore, with their usua^ pricest 

Shawls in pairs form the principal article of this 
msanfaoture, and hava different names, according to 
their na^aze and quality, as plain white coloured, 
embroidered in tiie loom, or by the hand with the 
needle : vis : — 

f^tt4 PftwhmTni; sometimes mcMle of ' Asol tus,' bat 

more frequently of the coarse kinds of shawl wool, ia 
in length four gaz, and in breadth one and half gaz. 

This is tliick, and used as a blanket, or for outer 
clothing. Price fro n 5 to 6 rupees per gaz. 

Shala phiri, as its nane denotes, is made of phiri, 
or of seconds wool. Its length is from three and a 
half to four gaz, and breadth one and a half gaz. 
Price from 20 to 30 per piece. 

Alwun, or plain white cloth, of fine shawl-wool, 
without flower, border, or other ornament, differs in 
length, but ia twelve girahs in breadth, and is used 
for turbans and for dyeing. Price from 3 to 6 rupees . 
per gaz. 

Jowhar Shala 9adu, or shawl with a narrow edging 
of colored yarn, is from three and a lialf to three 
and three quarters gaz in length, and one and a half 
in breadth, price from 50 to 60 rupees per piece. 

As all the following shawls are of the same di- 
mensions, viz., three and a half gaz in. length, and 
one and a half g^z in breadth, it is unnecessary to 
affix the measures to their several names. 

Shala hashiadar, ia edged by a single border, 60 
to 70* rupees. 

Shala dohashiadar, has a double border, 40 to 70 

Shala chahar hashiadar, has four borders, 60 to 
70 rupees. 

Hashiadar Khosar, or Khalil Khanij has two 
borders and two tanga, sometimes with, at others 
without, a flower in the corners, 40 to 50 rupees. 

Hashiadar kiungreedar. This has a border of the 
u<=!ual form with another within side, or nearer to the 
middle, resembling the crest of the wall of Asiatic 
forts famished with narrow niches or embrasures 
for walls pieces, or matchlocks, whence its name ; 100^ 
to 150 rupees. 

Dhourdar, has an ornament running all round the 
shawl, between the border and the field, 200 to 2,000 
rupees per pair. 

Mathandar has flowers or decorations in the 
middle of the field ; 300 to 1,800 rupees per pair. 

Chauddar, has a circular ornament or moon in the 
centre of the field ; 500 to 1,5U0 rupees per pair. 

Chautahidur has four half moons, 3 JO to 1,500 
rupood per pair. 

Kunjbnthadari has a group- of flowers at each 
comer, 200 to 900 rupees per pair. ' 

AUf dar, has green sprigs without any other colour, 
on a white ground or field ; 120 to 1,150^ rupees per 
pair. y 

Kaddar, has larger groups of flowers somewhat in 
the foruL of the cone of a pine, with tlie ends or 
points straight, or curved downwards. 

Dokaddar, has two heights of such groups ; Se- 
kaddar has three rows ; and so on to five and up- 
wards : in the latter case, however, the cones are 
somewhat small ; 100 to 800 rupees per pair. 

The ornaments of shawls are distinguished by 
different names, as Pala, Hashia, Zanjir,. Dhour, Ac, 
and these are divided into different parts. By the 
term Pala is meant the whole of the embroidery at 
the two ends, ori as they are techzuoally o&Ued, the 
heads of the ahawL % 

The Hashia, or border, is.disposed o oraqionl y oott* 
at each side in the whole length, and if doobla* or 
triple; gives particttlAr deiiomin»tionji to the sbawL 


Class VI. Division Ih 

The Zatijir, or chain, rans above and also below 
the principal mass of the Pala, and as it were con- 
fines it. 

The Dhonr, or mnninp ornament, is situated to 
the inside in regard to the Hashia and the Zanjir, 
enveloping immediately the whole of the field. 

The Eunjbutha, is a corner ornament, or cluster- 
ing of flowers. 

The Mattan, is the decorated part of the field or 

Batha, is the generic term for flowers, but is 
Bpeoifically applied, when uaed alone, to the large 
cone like ornament which forms the most prominent 
feature of the Pala. Sometimes there is only one 
line of these ornaments, extending from the lower 
Zanjir to the upper one When there is a double 
row, one above the other, the Butha is called Dokad, 
Sehkad, up to five, after which it takes the name of 

Each Butha oonsistR of three parts ; viz. the pal 
or foot, or pediment of l^ivos generally ; the shikam 
or belly, and the sir or head. The head is either 
erect, or straight, or inclined. If the butha slope 
generally, it is named butha kaj. The shal or net, 
is the work which separates the different bnthas, 
but sometimes the interstice is without ornament. 

Jamawar, signifies literally a gown piece. The 
length of this cloth is three and three quarter gaz, 
and the breadth one and a half gaz. 

This article branches into many varieties, as 
Khirkhabntha, large compound flowers, consisting of 
l^ronps of smaller ones. It is used by the Persians 
and Afghans. 

Bs. per piece. 

Kezabntha, small flowers thickly set,... 200 to 700 

Shaldar, net work, ... 500 to 1.700 

IsUmi, ... 250 to 400 

Kehramat, ... 150 to 300 

Khatherest, ... 150 to 750 

Marpech, ... 200 to 350 

Kahnkar, ... 300 to 1,000 

Laklie Angnr, ... 300 to 500 

Chaporast, ... 300 to 7,000 

Dogul, Sehgnl, Chahargul, Ac, ... 600 to 1,000 

Barghebed,* ... 250 to 400 

Gnlisaut, ... 200 to 900 

Duazdhekhat, ... 700 to 1,600 

Duazdehrang, . . . 800 to 1 ,400 

Guleparwane, ... 800 to 450 

Kaddhar, ... 300 to 2,000 

Kayhama, Snbzkar Safed, ... 120 to 130 

These are made by the shawl weaver alone, and 
largely into Hindustan, where they are dyed, the 
Bmall green flowers being previously tied up in hard 
email knots, so as to be protected from the action of 
the dye, and are of course, when united, each 
surrounded by a small white field. Small eyes of 
spots of yellow, red, and of other colours, are sup- 
I>o8ed to harmonize with the green flowers and the 
new ground, and these are added by embroiderers or 

Kasabeh, or rumal, women's veils, square shawls. 
These are from one and a half to two and a half gas 
siiuare and are called : — 

Khathdar, ... Bs. 300 to 500 

Mehramat, ... „ 150 to 300 

Islimi, with the thirteen other pat- 
terns of the Jamawars ; and in ad- 
dition there are, 
Cliaharbagh, ... „ 300 to 350 

Hashia, ... „ 100 to 175 

Chand, .. ,, 50 to 200 

Chautahi, ... „ 150 to 400 

Shash Mantahi, ... „ 250 to 200 

Feringi, ... » 100 to 50d 

Exported chiefly to Bnssia, 

Tara Armeni, 100 to 250 rupees; exported chiefly 
to Armenia, and Persia. 

Tara Bumi, 120 to 300 rupees ; exported chiefly to 

Sada, 12 to 15 rupees ; for domestic use. 

Shamlas, or girdles for the waist, worn by the 
Asiatics, are eight gaz in length, and one and a half 
gaz broad, and of various colours and patterns, and 
vary from 50 to 2,000 rupees a piece, according to 
the richness of the work. 

Doshala, or shawls, which contain three palas in- 
stead go only to Tibet, and sell for 100 to 1 50 rnpees . 

Goshpech. or patka or turbans, are in length front 
eight to ten gaz, breadth one gaz, and of all colours ; 
one variety has two palas, two zanjirs, and two 
hashias. 1 50 to 800 rupees. 

Mandila, another variety, sometimes has a zanjir^ 
and sometimes is without this ornament. This latter 
is from eight to ten gaz in length, ^and about twelve 
giras broad, 45 to 70 rupees. 

Khalfn Pashmina, shawl carpet. This is sold at 
20 to 40 rupees the square gaz of only three quar- 
ters, and is made of any size in a single piece. 

Nakash, trowsers. Some are with, others without, 
seams. The former are made of two pieces, which 
are sewn together by the refugar, the latter by the 
jarab saz, or stocking maker ; 200 to 500 rupees & 


Chaharkhdna, check cloth. Length indefinite ^ 
breadth one and a half gaz, used by women ; 5 to 
10 rupees per gaz. 

Lungi, girdles, length three and a half gaz, breadth 
one and a half gaz. These differ from Shanalas by 
being in narrow check and bordered by lines of 
ditTerent colours ; 50 to 70 rupees. 

Takhin, caps, 8 annas to 4 rupees. 

Jartlb, short stockings. Guldar and Mehramat, 
flowered and striped ; 1 to 5 rupees. 

Moze Pashmina, long stockings, 5 to 25 rupees. 

Sakab Posh, canopies, 800 to 1,500 rupees. 

D&rparda, curtains for doors and windows. Same 
price as Jamawar by measure. 

Kajjari Asp, saddle-cloths, by measure. 

Kajjari Fil, elephant's housing, ditto. 

Bilaposh, Palang Posh, quilt or ooverlet, 300 to 
1,000 rupees. 

Gnluband, cravat, 12 to 800 rupees. 

Pistanband, neckerchief, 5 to 15 rupees. 

Langota, waist-belts, 15 to 30 rupees. 

Postin, cloths left long in the nap to line pelisaeB, 
500 to 1,000 rupees. 

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Class FT. Division II. 


Paipech, lesf^ngs. Length twe gaz, breadth one 
pra, of all colonrs, 2 to 10 rupees. 

Yezar, or Izarband, waist strings, 1 to 15 rapeee. 

Takkia, pillow bier. Same price as Jamawar. 

Khalita, bags or parses, 8 annas to 2 rupees. 

Kabbar Poah, shrouds or coyers for tombstones. 
Same price as Jamawar. 

Takposh, covers or hangings in front of recesses 
or cupboards. 

Ankhw&nposh, dish coyers or napkins, of various 
qualities and patterns, from from 30 to 500 rupees a 

The following were imported from Kashmir 
bj Mbssrs. Dbyi Saha and Chamba Mai^ 
of Amritsar : — 

318.— [7141 k 42]. Long sbawk. 

319.— [7143 & 74]. Square shawls. 

320.— [6402-6405]. Shawls, long and 
square, Kashmir, bj Goybbnhbnt Tosha- 


The series exhibited bj His Highness the 
Maharajah of Kashmir, were as follows : — 

321.— [7347]. Shawl of colour called 
Mushki, a kind of maroon, worth £U. 1,250. 

322.— [7848]. Shawl, " Shfil kharddr," 
Talue Bs 1,000. 

323.— [7349]. Shawl, *'Sur4hI dar," 
Talue Rs. 1,000. 

324. — [7350]. Shawl, rose color ground, 
Talue Rs. 725. 

325.— [7351]. Dark brown shawl, 
(Mushki), value Es. 845. 

326.— [7352]. Shawl in turquoise blue, 
(zangari), value Es. 945. 

327.— [7353] . Another worth Rs. 950. 

828.— [7354]. Another, "Miishki" color, 
Talue Bs. 800. 

329.— [7355]. White J£maw£r or long 
piece of shawl stuff, striped in the '^ Kalam- 
kir " style, value Rs. 1,109. 

830.— [7367]. "Jorah Shfih Pasand," 
Otddndr, pair of scarlet long shawls, value 
Bs. 900. 

831.— [7358]. Paurof grey do., value 
Bs. 256. 

332.— [7359]. Pairofscarletdo.,h£shiya. 
diur, i. e. with worked border, value Bs. 210. 

333.— [7361]. Pair of scarlet shawls 
called "kad-dar," value Rs. 87-8. 

334.— [7632] . Pair with scarlet borders 
on all four sides, '' charh&shiya gulinir, " 
value Rs. 134. 

335. — [7633]. Rumalor square shawl» 
color "Mushki," value Rs. 825. 

336.— [7634]. Another, worth Bs. 850. 

337.— [7635]. «R{im41 safed kharddr,** 
with white edging, value Rs. 700. 

338.— [7638]. White Riimdl, worth 
Rs. 600. 

3 39 .—[7369] . RiimAl, rose color, worked 
with gold, * Zark^," worth Rs. 250. 

340.— [7370]. Rum41, rose colored, of the 
sort called **M(ikhtir sh^hi," worth Rs. 200. 

341 .—[7373]. White Rdmdl, with edging 
"Kinara dar," value Rs. 100. 


In turning next to the samples of shawl 
weaving in the Punjab it will be interesting 
to offer a few remarks on the colonies of 
Kashmiris who have emigrated from their 
home and settled in the great cities of Amrit- 
sar, Ludianah, JaUlpur in the Gujrdt district, 
Dinanagar — (Gurdaspur district), NiirpAr 
and Tiloknath (Kaugra district), and a few 
other places where small bodies of Kashmiris 
are to be met with, as in Lahore. 

Tbese people are known by their fair com- 
plexion, their peculiar dialect, their way of 
closely shaving the head and wearing small 
skull caps. 

In Nurpur especially, they are quite the 
characteristic feature of the place. 

These people have emigrated at Tarious 
times from Kashmir, but especially in the 
time when General MihiLn Singh was Gover- 
nor of Kashmir under Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh, between thirty and forty years ago, 
at which time a fearful famine raged in 
Kashmir and numbers of the people emi- 
grated to the Punjab. 


Class VI. Division TI. 

Thd following extract from Mr. Barnes' 
report on Kangra, is primarilv applicable to 
the colonies in that district, at Tiloknath 
and Nurpdr, but the author's remarks are 
equally true of Kashmir colonists generally. 
Tiiey maintain their distinctive habits where- 
ever they go. 

" The Xaehmfria reside almost exolnBively in Ntkr- 
pur and Tiloknath There. are a few scatterod fami- 
Ues in other p^rts of the distriot, bnt not exceeding 
a hundred tegetfaer. The total number of Kash* 
mirla is 6,656. They are divided among themselves 
into eevera) g^i^dations, and like all Musulman races 
have no restrictions on marriage, ercept immediate 
relations, marric^^s with first cousins are not only 
allowable, but frequently oocur. They are almost 
exclusively employed in the shawl trade. There are 
two classes in the profession, the master workmen, 
or "Ustads," and the apprentices or " Shagirds. " 
The former supply the capital, and the apprentices 
earn their livelihood by task work. The more opulent 
Kashmiris not only keep large manufactories for 
shawls, but trade in wool and other produce of 
JA^\t^h and Chinese Tartary, The rooms devoted to 
the workmen, are long apartments with looms placed 
in the centre, and benches ranged parallel for th^ 
weavers ; they are well lighted and airy. The work- 
men, all males, sit hard employed the whole day, and 
sometimes enliven the labor by singing choruses. 
They are a discontented and quarrelsome race, very 
deficient in personal courage, but so litigious, that 
their disposition for law has become a proverb. It is 
a common saying that two old women will wrangle 
all' day till night sets in ; they will then caU a truce, 
and put a stone dowu in token of the armistice, 
next' morning the stone is removed and the dis- 
pute is renewed with double acrimony. Tlie men 
fight with each other, and it is not uncommon for 
one to bite off the ear or nose of his antagonist. The 
apprentices will often receive advances and ab- 
scond, and the master workman cheats his labourers 
by withholding their just dues. They are remark- 
able for their dirty and immodest habits. The women 
wear a wadded rod cap, and a loose linen frock, 
quite open to the wind, filthy, and unbecoming. 
The men wear better clothes and are remarkable 
for high foreheads and Jewish features. They speak 
a dialect intelligible only to themselves, though 
they are also conversant with the vernacular. The 
shawls of "Ndrpilr and Tiloknath are not much prized: 
the work is inferior, but the great cause of inferiority 
is the hardness of the water, which oommnnioates a 
roughness to the shawls, greatly detracting from 
their marketable value.* The Kashmiris themselves 
Bay that there is no water like the river Jhelum, and 
that the superiority of the ^haw^ o^ tilie valley is 
mainly ascribable to the virtue of the water. The 
weavers of Kashmir possess also greater artistic qoa- 
lifioiitions, si^ae none but th^ worst, who. fail to get 
a livelihood in their native country, would consent to 
leave' ttie charming valley for the heats of the Punjab 
fuid the discomforts o f a strange country. The 

t This »t loMt is sttid to be the caose. B. P. 


present population conswts almost enttrely of th9 
descendants of original emigrants, and are now 
acclimated. They still retain the dress and dialed^ 
of Kashmir, and are constantly reinforced by nevr 
arrivals from the valley. I» the odd winter months, 
the women adopt a peculiar custom of carryioip 
under their frocks little pans of heated charcoal over 
which they warm their haads, and mafnta i n the 
circulation like English ladies with their muffs.". 

The shawls of Nurpiir we sQ^urcely ever 
found in the foreign market, while these of 
Amritsar and Gdjr£t are sold in London 
and in IP ranee in considerable numbers : 
recently however they have fallen somewhat 
into disiepute. 

In the case of Amritsar this if said to. be* 
owing to the adulteration of the wool^ of 
which I shall speak preeestly. . 

In Gujrat it is partly owing to this caQse- 
and partly to that inferiority whii^hthe Bhawl»> 
markedly display in contrast with those from 

TheDeputy CofnmissikwerofGi^ rat, writing: 
in August 1 864, informed me that the weavers 
of Gujrit and Jaldlpur were in a very depres* 
sed state ; at the last sale in London, the- 
Gujdit shawls had sold at a loss of four ans* 
in the rupee, and those of Amritsar at a lose of 
Bans, or 50 percent., the Ktishmirl genuine- 
shawls realising a profit of 25 per cent. 

In Ludhiana there are as. many as 500 shops, 
of pashmina workers, giving occupation to- 
more than a thousaud persons ;. the regular- 
pattern shawl is much less woven than plaio. 
pashmina alw4n, gloves and stockings, &c. of 
pashmina thread. Qf thl^se fabrics about £s, 
70,000 worth are annually exported,bttfc by far 
the largest man'VLfacturefis thatof theshavls. 
and chadars made ef soft RampAri wool, and 
which is often pasi^ed off ; as paj^hBoina pt 
genuine shawl wool. Of these fabrics no le8» 
than IjSOjOOQ jrupeee wiwtitv arje anauallg^ 
madeand exported. The import of real pasb* 
mina wool from B^mpur aTHounts to about 
30 or 40,000 rupees a year, that of Bimp^ri 
wool about 2P,000 rupees, .A.numbeirof 
<' Bamptir Chadars ** are however made of 
real Kashmir pashm* 

Class VI, Division II. 


The Amritsar sbawl weaving approaches 
nearest in ex»eileiice to the Kashmir valley. 

In this city also several European mer- 
chants and agents have dohe inudi in super- 
vising the manufacture and in furnishing 

Some of the shawls exhibited in the 
tion were of great beauty, very far superior 
to many of the samples from other cities. 

The number of Kashmiris in the Amritsar 
district is large. According to Mr. Cust,* 
the total number othotuies of Kashmiris or 
Skil b^f, is 6,493, of Which 5,111 are in the 

Amritsar besides being the seat of mann- 
facture is also an emporium of the Kashmiri 
sbawl trade. Of late vears the shawl manu- 
fiaCtnre of Amritsar had deteriorated so from 
the use of mixed or adulterated' pashin, that 
the trade was threatened With extinction in 
Europe ; large meetings were accordingly 
held at Amritsar with a view to the adoption 
of measures to prevent adulteration. It is 
proposed to effect this by a provision of con- 
tract law, which shouM compel persons under 
contract to furnish ^nly genuine wool. It 
was also proposed to establish a guild or trade 
company, who should have a stamp or mark 
to be afBxed as a warrant in all genuine 
pflLshmina articles. The Indian Penal Code 
would then become usefully operative, inas- 
much as it provider for the punishment of 
persons who affix a false trade mark, or a 
mark indicative- of an article being of a 
certain quality when in realityit wals inferior 
or adulterated. 

I here extract a portion of the proceedings 
of one of these great meetings held in 1861, 
which contains an extract from the remarks 
made by the London Brokers, Messrs. Brown, 
Buckley '& Co: of Great Tower St. London, 
on the adulteration of Amritsar shawls : — 

* Statistical Report of Amritsar Diriaion, 1861, 
Appendix VIII- 

" Never haa been so large a proportion ot ooarse 
apd defectiye shawls ; and in addition to the former 
irregnl^rity in the work, ihahofactnrets are now 
making nse of a coarse sort of sheep's wool« which 
they work up with the pashm ; the effect of all this 
has at length paralysed the trade, buyers viewed 
these shawls as altogether nnmerohan table, only to 
be pnrchased at an enormous reduction from their, 
former rates. 

"The fact of the deterioration of the trade, especial- 
ly as regards the Umritsur manufactures, being est^« 
lished beyond the shadow of a cavil, the qneation of 
the alleged and actual cause of this deterioration 
was ent<N:ed into at considerable length by the meet- 
ing, and while it was admitted that some amount of 
over-trading and haste in making up goods to be in 
time for the recent auctions had probably aff eoted .tho 
later sales in London, it must be conceded that there 
is too much reason' for agreeing with the brokers 
that a considerable and frandnlent admilture of 
coarse sheep's wool, such as Kirmauee ( Persian ) 
Thibet, and even country lamb's wool had taken 
place. On the other hand it was maintained that 
there are two material obstacles in the way of cor- 
recting the evil. These .the medting deemed it 
right to place in a most prominent point of view. . 
Thdy are :— First the difficulty of ascertaining even 
by the most experienced judges before shawl goods 
are washed and > exposed for a whiler to the action of. 
the air, the amount of admixture if anjr that may 
have taken place in the weaving of shawls ; —and it 
may be here mentioned that the length of the staples, 
of sheep's wool offering great facilities in spinning 
the thread is the chief induoement to its being nsed*. 
the pashm being very short and conseqiiently' more 
difficult to spin :- -secondly, the total indifference 
and worse than indifference of the mannfaoturera 
(notwithstanding the promises of .amendment and' 
positive contracts to the contrary) to the frequent 
and urgent remonstrances of the dealers against 
practicea which thej are asstired would lead as they 
now have done to the discovery of frauds that must 
affect all interested in the trade and manufacture of 
shawl wool goods. 

The beauty of the shawl, whether Umritsur or 
Kashmir, > depends as much on the brilliancy and 
durability of its hnrivalled colonrfl, and their being^ 
carefully harmonized, and the material of which it is 
made, as on the quality of the workmanship. The 
sheep's wool however fine, never will assume that 
permanent brilliancy of color which is tlie peculiar^ 
character of the pashm, and the meeting were fully 
alive to the reasonableness of the brokers' assurances, 
thatunloRS remedial and repressive measures be adopt- 
ed to check the evil, the trade will dwindle io insigni- . 
ficance and perhaps be lost altogether to the Punjab. 
There are the numerous weavers of the raw material 
in the hiUs far north^ the carriers to the plains who^ 
purchase return produce, ^e dealers and brokers con- 
cerned in the buying and selling of this produce, the 
numerous hands engaged in picking, cleaning, spinning, 
and dyeing the wool, kiiloanting in Amritsar alone to 
from 18 to 20,000 hands of all ages and both sexes, all 
these are dependent on the trade for their subsistence. 
The weavers cannot be less than from 7 to 8,000 in. 
number, after whom come the washers, the fullers, 
tailors, darners and workers of needle-made shawW 


Class VI. Division IL 

The principal kind of wool used in adul- 
teration was a soft white wool imported from 
Kirman, a province of Persia. The follow- 
ing table prepared for the meeting alluded 
to shows the rates at which real pashm and 
Kirmani wool were sold at respectively for 
the years 1850 to 1861 in the city of 
Am ri tsar ; the gradual increase in the price of 
genuine pashm and decrease on that of Kir- 
mani is no less remarkable in itself than 
indicative of the state of the import trade of 
both articles and of the increasing facility for 
and temptation to the adulterative use of 
the wool of Kirmani. 

BxAL Pashm. 


KiBXANi Wool. 

Year in 
whioh sold. 









Bate per 
ratti, i. e., 
2 Srs. 2 Ch. 






* • • 














Tear in 
which sold. 

1850-51 [ 
1851-52 i 


• • t 

■ • • 

• • • 


1854-55 i 



1859-60 [ 

Bate per 
ratti, i. e., 
2 Sra. 2 Ch. 




















• « 




• ■ 



• • • 






• • « 


With regard to the export of shawls from 
Amritsar to Europe, the following informa- 
tion was obligingly furnished to me by Mr. 
BicHABD Chapman of Amritsar, Agent to 
the firms of Messrs. Les Fils De. C. OulmaUy 
of Paris. He writes : 

** About the time of the arrival of the first 
French Agent in India, in 1850, the total 
yearly value of shawls exported to Europe 
was ^685,00 to ^100,000, sterling; since 
that time the trade has steadily increased, 
and may do so still more. The amount rea- 
lized by public sale in London is shown in 
the following table. Mr. Chapman observes 
that, justly to estimate the trade, we must 
take into consideration the shawls that are 
exported direct to Paris and other places by 
the agents of European firms in India, the 
value of which exports is very considerable. 
In 1853, shawh were sold in London 

to the value of £ 101,000 

£ 106,500 

„ 1861, 
„ 1862, 
„ 1863, 




























£ 173,900 
& 250,600 
£ 147,900 
£ 247,600 
£ 217,500 
£ 264,586 
£ 222,360 
£ 272,784 
£ 226,279 

Since the European agents settled in the 
country considerable improvement has taken 
place in the patterns. It is to this fact that 
the increase of the trade is in a great measure 
to be attributed. At first (and in fact until 
within a few years) much difficulty was ex- 
perienced in persuading the native designers 
to alter or amend their patterns. 

They were attached to their old style and 
would not accept an alteration ; but now this 
difficulty has been overcome and the weavers 
are willing to adopt hints, in fact they now 
seldom begin to work till the pattern has 
been inspected or approved by the agent for 
whom they work. 

Class VL Divmon 11. 


Mr. Chaptnan remarks that the people do 
not understand the loss that occurs hy adulter- 
ating the wool, although there is hope that 
they will amend when they find the shawls 
selling at an actual loss in Europe. 

A shawl even of adulterated pashm, still 
sells for douhle what a shawl of sheep's wool 
would, though the work be otherwise the 

Tlie samples of Punjab woven shawls were 
as follows : — 

From LuBHiAKA : — 

342.— [6281]. Jamawar, worth Bs. 30, 
by AnsATir Shah. 

343.— [7082]. • PatkV or scarf, by the 

344 —[7083 & 84]. White shawls and 
rdm^ls (pashniina), by Aziz of Ludhiana. 

345 — [7085]. Black shawl, called 

346 — [7086]. Red shawls, do. 
347 _ [7087]. Red shawl, (tikah,) by 
Kashi Rah. 
Tlie following series is from Ahditsaii : — 

348.— [7119], Long shawl (woven), 
value Rs. 400, by Data Shaitkab. 

349 — [7120 & 21]. Two others, same 
value, by Abdullah Khak. 

350. — [7122]. Another, of same value, by 

351 — [7124]. Square shawl, rAm41, by 
Lasju, value Rs. 315. 

352. — [7125]. Jdmaw£r, shawl piece 
(pattern in stripe), worth Rs. 125, by Ghu- 


353.— [7126]. Another, value Rs. 100, by 
Muhammad Shah. 

354. — [7 127] . Square shawl, by Muham- 
UAD Shah. 

355.— [7128-32]. Square shawls, worth 
Rs. 85 each, by Muhammad Shah. 

The following series were made expressly 
for dna on the original designs of R. W. 

358— [7136]. 
359.— [7137]. 

361.— [7139]. 
362— [7140]. 

Chapmak Esqb. of Amritsar, and under his 
superintendence they gained the first prize 
for the best Shawls in the Punjab. 

356.— [7133 & 34]. Two long shawls, 
each value of Rs. 400. 

367.— [7135]. Another, value Rs. 380. 

Another, value Rs. 370. 
Another, value Rs. 350. 
Anotlier, value Rs. 375. 
Another, value Rs. 850. 
Square shawl, Rs. 375 

Two of the long shawls are made on a, 
plan now for tlie fii-st time produced by 
Mr. Chapman, on his own d^^sic^n. The shawl 
is so woven as to have two distinct patterns 
in it, — wlieii folded it can he worn to shew 
either pattern, and thus appears as if there 
were two different shawls.* 

The next series was exhibited by the firm 
of Devi Sara and Ciiamba Mal. 

363.- [7145 & 46]. Two long shawls, 
woven at Amritsar. 

364.— [7147 & 48]. Two square shawls 
woven at Amritsar. 

365— [643 1.5-6]. 3 " Jamawars," worth 
Rs. 00 and 70, by Ghul.\m Nabi, of Lahore. 

366 — [7188]. Striped shawl (Jamawar), 
value Rs. 40, from rnthankot, Gurduspur 

367.— [7189]. A ji\mawnr, value Rs. 85, 
by GuuLAM MUBTAZA, of Batalah. 

3g8. — [7191-05]. Pashmum shawl edg- 
ing or kinfira (woven). Feveral specimens by 
BuTAii, SuBUAN, Mm Kamaldab, and Piba 
of Svalkot. 

359 —[7108 & 09]. Two pieces of shawl 
woven " kiiiAra" or bordering, from the La- 


* Four of these long shawls were exhibited in 
the case occnpying the centre of the Exhibiiioii 
hailding : the case was coniitnicted in the >.linpe or n 
four pointed star, each ray having 2 fncen. and one 
shawl being hnng from the top of each, tlie two halvca 
oi a long shawl were displayed half in each face, to 
great advantage. 


Class VL Divisivn II. 

370..— [7219]. "Chfirbdgh pashmina," 
exhibited by Habsahaimal, Liibore, a shawl 
divided into 4 parts, each of a difierent color, 
value Ks. 32. 

371— [7221]. " Doslifila," by the same, 
called * Doshdla tilawsila." 

3.72 —[72731. Shawl borders from Guj- 

The following are fVom Qujrat : — 

373.- [7286, 87 & 88], Three »carf 
shawls, " Dopatta Shdl," viUue lis. 200, by 
Sadik, of Jalalptir. 

374 —[7289]. Patka, or scarf of blue 
shawl work, value Ks. 13, by the same. 

376.— [7290]. Another, grey. 

376.— [7291J. Another, uhite. 

*77.— [7202 & 93]. T\yo otheM, scarlet. 

In concluding tho list of Shawls, I take occasion to notice the practice of skilful mer 
chants as to altering Shawls. It has before been remarked that many shawls are made up of 
pieces sewn together by a " raftigar " with such dtrlicacy that the suture is imperceptible. 
Merchants take advantage of this. When they bu}' a shawl which they think only partly 
good, they cut out of it such parts as displease them. They then draw on paper a design for 
a new piece to fill up the gap, and give it to a shawl weaver to execute. As soon as the new 
])iece is com|)leted, it is sewn into the shawl, which is entindy changed in appearance, and 
often immensely increased in value by the jjrocess. Shawls are often purchased with indiffer* 
ent borders and improved by putting new ones on. Tlie border is always worked on a web 
of silk, as this gives it weight and solidity and causes the whole fabric to set well. In Paris 
and other places, the merchants frequently exchange shawls for parties who are tired of or other- 
wise displeased with their own : tho sIkiwI so taken will be washed, and parts tjiken out and 
replaced by new pieces, so that eventually it comes out like a new article. 

I should also add that, in Kashmfr, when a shawl is about to be made, a snnill square 
])iece shewing the design, by way of pattern, is made and- carried to the Maharaja's 
Inspector. On approval, a duty according to the quality of the future shawl (as indicated by 
the pattern) is taken, and a seal mark impressed in token of such payment. The ]«iece ia 
afterwards worked into the shawl and tlie seal or stamp di^^appears when the fabric is washed. 

Class VL Dimsion 11. 



Tins division includes the various species of plain pashmina cloth, malida and alwan 
exhibited, it also includes many arfcicles made of Rampui-1 wool called •* Nakli Pashmina," or 
wool resembling the real Thibetan pashm in softness and fine texture ;— the principal of these 
being the RAmplirl Ch&dar already alluded to. 

For the rest, knitted fabrics, such as stockings, are often made of pashmina tliread ; and 
there is the plain woven cloth called alwlin. When this has been pulled, slirunk and softened 
by soaking in a mixture of water and soap-nut (ritfi), and then by treading by men with 
bare feet, it is called malida. 

The specimens were as follows :— 

878. -[6282]. Rampuri shawl, value Rs. 
80, by AusAN Shah. 

379 —[6301]. Another white chfidar, by 
the same, and worth lis. 35. 

380.— [6283 to 6300]. 19 specimens of 
RdmptLri Ch4dar, in green, orange, white, 
brown, red, blue, pink, crimson, and grey 
colors, at prices from Rs. 24 to Rs. 26-8 each, 
by Bhib Bhan, merchant. 

881.- [6330, 31 & 32]. Pairs of men's 
and children's socks of Pashmina, made by 

382.— [5802]. ChMar, from Bas^hir, 
contributed by the Raja of Basahib. 

The following are from Ahbitsab :'— 

383.— [6357-8]. Colored " Alwdn," or 
plain woven pashmina pieces, by Messbs. 
Dbyi Sahai and Chamba Mal. 

384.— [6379-388]. Pieces of MaUd4 or 
Blinink and pulled pashmina cloth, Messbs. 
Devi Sahai awd Chamba Mal. 

Some of these were imported from Kashmir 
and some made at Amritsar, without specifi- 
cation in the onginal lists. 

385. — [6412]. Plain shawl, made up in 
the style of a European travelling shawl, of 
pashmina, made at the Lahore Central Jail, 
exhibited by Db. Penny. 

886.— [6443]- Pashmina pattti, by Niz- 
AKiTDDiN; Lahore; worth Bs. 35. 

A good deal of doth and material fbr wrappers 
19 made at liaiiore from the K^bul eoat's wool called 
" Kabuli pasbm/* 

387.— [6444]. Another, " khud-rang/' by 

the same, worth Rs. 25. 

y, B. — The tenii " pattd ** is not properly applied 
to pashmina articles : " pattua " are made of sheep'a 
and goats' hair. 

388.^— [5859]. Comforters or neck-ties, 
made of pashmina and wool, machine wove^ 
by Ma. Spencb, Sealkofce. 

389.— [6445-47]. Three pieces of Malida^ 
worth Rs. 13-2, 24-9 and 17-4 each respective- 
ly, by Kabm Cuand, of Lahore. 

390.— [6544]. Rdmdl, woven (KK doz) 
by HiB Highness the Rajah op Kapue- 


The following collection was from Kashmir: 
391.— [6408]. 3 pieces of pashmina 

cloth, woven in imitation of European plaid 

patterns. (Government Toshakhana). 
392 —[6548]. Pink '^firmuk*' of pashmi- 

na, worth Rs. 42, (by His Highness thi 

Mahabajh of Kashmir) . 

" Urmuk " is a cloth usually woven of camels* hair, 
the fabric here mentioned is woven in the same stylel 
only of paflhmiua; it is stout and thick and used as 
a saddle-cloth. 

893.-[6549]. Check Itingi of pashmina, 
worth Rs. 24. 

394.— [6550]. Pink colored ' Dorya,» 
or striped cloth, worth Rs. 49. 

396.— [6551]. « Par-i-tatis" safed (Wnf- 
kar, or loom wove). 

Par-i-taus or Peacock's feather, is applied to silk 
or pashmina goods which aro " aiiot " with a different 


Class VL Division II. 

color, and so Iiiivc a ohnngefal lustre like the pea- 
coc'k*H feather. Scarlet Rnd green are the two colors 
usually woven together, but in the sample the ground 
is wliite, shot red, value Us. 450. 

396.— [6552]. ** Par-i-purz, zangdrizan- 
jiriddr," i. e. light blue par-i-purz with a 
fringe or edging, value Us. 53-1-3. 

The fabric calied '* par-i-purz " ( •* Purz " means a 
shred or fragment) Iihs a pile or nap like coarse vel- 
vet, except that the pile consists of innumerable little 
loops qf the thread ; this piece has a border fringe or 
zanjir {Angl : chain) sown on to it, hence its name, 

397.— [0553]. Qulbadan of pashmina. 

This is a red striped pieoe made exactly like the 
< gulhadan/ wL ich properly is always silk. Value 
Ks. 22. 

398. — [6554]. *AlwAn,' shot with two 
colors (par-i-tals) . 

399— [6555]. "Alw6n, yak tara safed," 
value Us. 28-7-G 

" Alwan " is called either " yak t/ira" or " do tirn" 
according as a single or double line or thread (tiir) 
is used in weavintr, just like the * eksuti ' and ' dosiiti ' 
of cotton weavers. 

400— [6536 «t 57 as also 6561 & 62]. Are 
similar pieces of scarlet, green, white and lilac 

401.— [6558]. "Alw4a dotArah " rose 

402.— [6559, 60 <& 63]. Are also double 
thread alwin, of lilac, blue and grey colors. 

403.— [6564]. Malidl alwfiu " asl tfis," 
value Rs. 43-10, that is, of the finest and rar- 
est kind of pashm, which is of a grey colour 
( Bee Vol. I, page 180 ) but wool dyed to this 
color is called also " Tds." 

404.— [6555]. A large carpet iu the 

Pile or Turkey Carpet style, all of pashmina, 

with occasional introduction of silk for 

flowerings and patterns, value Rs. 3.000. 

This was a very beautiful sample of the style of 
carpeting and of extraordiuarily fine workmanship 
and design. 

-^tOS.— [6571]. Pashmina ' nfm tus.' 

*Vhtit is, cloth dyed grey of a color resembling the 
natural " tus " above alluded to, hence called 'half 
(nim) tus color. 

408— [6581]. Pashmina pattu, worth 
Rs. 26-13-6. 

407. — [6593]. A specimen of pashmina 
carpet, Pattyala, ( by His Highness tue 

Class VI. DUisiiin III. 



Thi8 last division of tlie class of woollen fabrics comprises articles that are made of 
goats' liair and camels' hair, <^c., they are not many in number, but are useful and highly 
characteristic of different parts of the province. 

Nose bags for horses, — huge bags for carrying grain on the backs of cattle (called jhiil), 
stout pattu or mattiiii;. and occasionally rope, are the principal manufactures to which the peo- 
ple of the plains apply goat hair. 

In the Denijllt, in Sirsa tmd Qugaira, where camels are much used, goat's hair is employed 
for the large bags or (khurjas) in wiiich merchandize is carried, and for the various fantastic 
ornaments with which in these places both camels and horses are decorated. Such ornaments 
are made of plaits and tassels. &c., of goat hair, wrought with crimson wool, and white cowry 
shells sown on : they are qnite characteristic of these districts. 

In the hills, waist ropes or girdles are made of goat hair, as also bags, and.manv other 

The collection exhibited the following spe- 
cimens : — 

408.— [6273]. " Tang," horse girth, by 


409.— [6277]. Girth for camel-saddle, 
made at the Fazilka jail, Sirsa. 

410— [6279]. Goat hair waist-girdle, 

This rope is a collection of strings antwisted and 
of s dark brown color ; it i.4 universally worn in the 
hills together with the thick woollen tunic. 

411.— [6341]. Cloth made of black 
goat's hair at Kannaum, in Kan & war, ex- 
hibited by Capt. Houghek. 

412. — [6342], Bound rope made of the 
hair of the ' Yak ' (Bos grunniens) at ShylLl- 
kar, KanHwar (Capt. HovchbK). 

This rope is made by placing the wool in position 
aad working it with hand and foot till it 'felts' 
together as wool does; (See VoL I, — ** Wools.") 

413.— [6843]. Flat rope of goat hair, 
red, white and black, made at Chinf. 

414.— [6365]- 

416.— [6367]. 
by Taka CHAim. 

by Tasa Chahd. 

Goat hair cloth bag, from 
Qoat's hair rope, Lahaul, 

Bope of yak hair, Lahaul, 

417.— [6373]. Twine made of goat hair, 
at Spitf, exhibited by P. Egebtok Esqb. 

418— [6118, 19 & 20]. Setof 'Khdrjaa' 
or camel bags, ornamented with tassels, fringe 
and cowry shells, made at BahHwalpur, 
(Lahobe Cektbal Museum). 

419.— [6423]. " Tfit patti," of goat's 
wool, a sacking cloth used for bags and also 
for floor cloth, Lahobe Centbal Jail. 

420.— [6443]. Bope of goat's hair, by 
Chaudbi Imam Baksh. 

421 —[6462]. Bag made of goat's hair, 
Gujbat Jail. 

4 22.— [6486]. Rope of goat's hair, made 
at Shahp^r, Tahie 4 ans. a seer. 

423.— [6487]. Rope of camel's hair made 
at Khushab in Shahpfir, value 4 ans. a seer. 

The following are from Guoaiba : — 

424— [6497]. Saddle girth, made at 
Syadwalla in Gugaira« 

426.— [6498]. Ornament for camel's 

426.— [6499]. Ornament for horse's neck, 
called " SailL" 

427.— [6504], Bag for grain, caUed 
" Chatti " or ** Gtin.'* 

The next series represents the Dxbajat :— * 



Cbu8 VI. Divinan IIL 

428— [6512.15]. Saddle bags or '< khor- 
jin," value from Rs. 5 to 9 each, made at 
yarioas places, as Tibli, LUiid£, Barkhan 
(capital of the chief Jakax Kuan) Barti 
and Rijhanpdr. 

429.— [6616-20]. Horse's nose-lyagii, 
(Tobra) value He, 1-2 each, made at various 
places, as above. 

430— [6524]. Grain bag, 'chat,' from the 
Waairi hills, Bunnti, made of camel and 
goat's hair. 

481— [6529]. Camel hair cloth, "Baric 
8hutri," value Rs. 30, imported from Ka- 
bul by Kazi Nasa-vlljLH Jan, of Pesha^ 

432.— [6580]. 'Bark DaheaugC another 
kind of camel bair doth from Kabul, sent by 
Kazi Amib Jav. 

433 —[6542]. Goat's hair doth, and hair 
from which it is made, value Re. 1-0-6 per foot, 
bj the KouAT Jail. 

434 —[6582]. ** Zangoz Khatii," from 
Yarkand, by His Hiohkess the Mahaba- 
JAH OF Kashmir. 

Thti is a ooane floor cloth imported from the 
Chineiie provinces by Yarksnd, hence its name of 
" KUaUi." 

436 —[6592]. A " Jhm BaiH" or grain 
bag used for loading on cattle. Patyala, by 
His H10HKE88 THE Mahabajah. 

436.— [6594]. '' Pattd Kh&r/' goat's Jbair 
sack cloth, Patyala. 

437— [0595]. A'Ohapna,* Patyala. 

The Charna is a long narrow open bag of goat's 
hair set out with pegs stuck into the sround, by 
way of a pocket or trough, out of which cattie 
are gfven tbek gtais* 

438.— [6597]. Travelling bag, for horse 
<ir camel, Patyala. 

The following is a list of all the woollen 
and pashminil maniifacturea used in the Pun- 
Jab ;— 


Baaat (broad cloth). 

Merino (Marina). 

Pashmin4 Nakli. 

Alpaca (Alpaka). 




Gloves -and Stockings. 


Paiijab and its Dependeucies» together with i^V 
territories :-*- 

Sh&l FtahminL 

Do. S4d&. 

Do. Kanik.^. 

Do. AroHk&r. 

Do. Dori d&r. 

Do. KitauikHr. 
Fard sh&i. 
Do. Yak t&rfi. 
Do. D6 t6ii. 

Do. Yak arz. 
Do. Do arz, 
Do. Till arz. 
Do. Laborf. 
Do. Kiuai*& d6r. 
Do. S4d&. 

Pattd Ttitfh. 
Do. Khndi^ang. 
Do. Absh&r. 
Do. Ehat d6r. 
Do. Ch4rkh&n6. 
Chiiit Pattu. 


(Twisted thread.^. 


Pattii Garrd. 
Do. Giidmi 


Cla^s in. Division III. 



Pattii Malidd— a soft or felted ( lit " rubbed '' ) 
woollen fabrioo 

Pattii Fodak or Fruk : a pattu made in Lad&kh. 

Do. Ramuagari : made at li4mnagar, Jamu. 

'Parm-narm* — a name given by Akbab to the 
soft fine and rare fabric of Ibex wool. 

Lahore and Amritsar. 

Bbura ; — a coarse blanketing. 

X4ni : — a long piece of * bhura.' 

Ix)i :— a fine blanket or woollen shawl. 

Kalin : a pile or * Turkey ' carpet. 

Asan: a small carpet used by Mussulmans to 

kneel on at prayer time. 
Khah : tough cloth of asses' hair. 
Javal : or Ghhat : bags of do. 
Namad : felt. 
Tosha : double felt. 


Shatranji : a large pile carpet. 
Kaliu and Asan as before. 



Pattu Ch&nthani. 

Do. Durma. 

Do. Zangoz Khatai. 
Takya, badshahi. 

/Kinds of wool- 
1 len cloth. 


Raling— ( pashmlna ) a cloth 22 yards in length, 
6 girahs broad, price 35 rupees a piece. 

Kalin and Kalimcha, Yarkand carpets. 

Ralanamd, black felt. 

Khos4 : a thick felt. 

Loi Kashgari— a kind of loi. 


Pashmfna Irani. 

Kaliu Irani, Persian carpets. 


Khosa : thick felt cloth. 

Dhus4— coarse woollen cloth. 

Namd : felt. 

Bark : cloth of camel hair used for chogahs. 

Kai'k : cloth of sheep's wool. 

Patti Shutri, fine camel hair cloth. 

Urmak ; a coarse cloth of slieeps* wool, roughly 
embroidered, used as a mat or as a saddle 

Pattii Dahzangi : a soft cloth made at Dahzang 
near Ghazni. 

Bard Yamanf : a green sheep's wool cloth made 
like those of Yam^n. 

Kurat : a cloth of goat's hair. 

Kagmak : a cloth of camels' hair. 

To this notice may be added that in the 
Derajdt, carpets of several kinds are made. 
The names appear to indicate carpets of diflfe- 
rent sizes. A caste of people called "ChinAU* 
are the principal manufacturers, and the 
carpets are made either out of wool from the 
hills on the frontier or of the wool of the 
plains of the Derajdt. 

These carpets are of the descriptions called 
"farsh," "galim," " faldsi," "langa/* 
" gharari," " kamal," " chhul chamba dar," 
(flowered), " falasi reta," and " falasi pateli, 
the last four kinds are made by Biluchis. 



Class VI. Division III. 


The juries for silk and woollen fabrics in the exhibition of 1864 met several times, 

and awarded the prizes noted below. The Reporter to the Jury, Mr. Henry Cope, whose 

great experience and knowledge would have made his report on these subjects peculiarly 
valuable^ did not send in any report on either class. 


District orLocaUty. 

"Prize taker. 


H. H. the Mahardjdh, 



Darogah of the Jail, ... 






Local Exhibition Comt., 




Supdt. Central Jail, ... 





Shahpur ( Bhaira ), 



• • ■ 

H. H. the Mah&r4jah, 

Description of articles. 



Woollen Manufactures, 

Do., Carpets, 

Rugs, &c.. 

Woollen Carpet, (No. 6489), ... 

Nurpdr worked Rug (No. 6358), 

Carpet of Kandah&ri pattern, ... 

Collection generally, 

Pattu, ( pashmCna fine quahty ) 
No. 6433, 

Hearth rugs, ( No. 6484 ), 

Felt, (Nos. 6670 and 6671 ), ... 


In concluding this class, it is necessary to remark, that the shawls, both loom-woven 
and needle- worked, were submitted for inspection to the same Jury which examined tlie 
Embroidery class. As most of their report relates to shawls, it is annexed to this class. 
J have already called attention to the impossibility of retaining the old classification 
in the original catalogue : not only were woven and worked shawls indiscriminately admit* 
ted with " embroidery," but plain Rampuii chaddars and alwans, because they were 
denominated * shawls/ went thither also. 


Class VL Division III, 53 


Major Farringtoo; LalU Duni Chand. 

Captain Pollock. Thakurdas. ( Tosliakh^iiah. ) 

G. R. EUinie, Esquire; Kunya Lai, son of the Vakil of the 

Babu Mohau Lai. Maharajah of Eashiuir. 

The class on wliich this Jury had to form their opinion is very important and extensive j 
the articles were chiefly contributed from Delhi, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Lahore, Kashmir, 
Jliind, Nabha, Patiala: Other districts of the Punjab also contributed to this class, but it 
ifi one in which Kashmir, Amritsar and Delhi must necessarily take the lead. 

The Jury had under their inspection shawls woven and worked with the lieedle; 
embroidery with silk-braid, gold and silver thready tinsel embroidery^ plain pashmiua 
pieces &c. 

Owing to the articles belonging tb this class having been laid out in several differ-^ 
ent }>B.tiB of the building, considerable delay occurred before they could be arranged so as to 
ensure a satisfactory inspection. 

Tbe Jury have decided in awarding prizes in shares as noted in the accompanying list ; 
they wish it to be understood they have allotted the full number of shares, the money value 
of each must therefore be raised to correspond with the number of shares recorded. 

The remarks are sufficiently full to obviate the necessity of entering at any length 
into the merits of the articles that have obtained prizes. 

There were many articles for which probably the Jury might have been inclined to 
a^V-ard shares, but the amount of money at their disposal was too limited. 

The Amritsar shawls can never compete with those of Kashmir, but the 
Jury consider those for which prizes have been given are very good of their kind. It is well 
known that the Amritsar shawls do not go beyond a certain price, the wool is not so pure, and 
therefore they cannot bear comparison in texture with the fabrics of Kashmir. 

The shawl trade has not decreased ; on the contrary, there is every reason to believe 
it has increased, but its character has changed considerably ; formerly, the trade was limited 
to a certain number of well known firms. There used to be a large demand for shawl fabrics 
at the Courts of Delhi, Lucknow, Sindh, <&c. ; now, numbers have embarked in the trade, and 
awongst them many are mere speculators : this is shown by the result of the half yearly sales 
that take place in London. The appointment of gentlemen from England and France, as 
agents of large firms in those countries, has brought about a considerable change in the 
designs and patterns ; these are of course a matter of taste, and there are many purchasers who 
still wish to see a considerable amount of the Oriental characteristics in the patterns. The 
careful supervision exercised by these European agents has caused an improvement in the 
work, those who export direct to Europe still endeavour to throw inferior articles into the 
markets. It is believed the Maharajah has this year set on foot some arrangements for 
checking this. 

The collection exhibited by the Maharajah of Kashmir deserves mention. The Jury 
feel they cannot, with reference to the funds at their disposal, award many prizes. The collectioa 
from the Maharajah is large and valuable. The would award a medal for the wholes 

54 Class VI. Division IIL 

Next to this, the collection contributed by the firm of Devee Sahai and Chumba Mull 
of Amritsar, is the most worthy of notice ; this firm has shown great interest and zeal in 
adding to the success of the Exhibition ; the articles displayed are numerous and of superior 
quality. The Jury award a medal to this firm. 

The Jury are led to imderstand that certain gold medals are at the disposal of 
the General Committee for distribution to contributors in the Punjab territories ; the Juiy 
would bring prominently to the notice of the General Committee, the claim of the firm of 
Devee Sahai Chumba Mull to so valuable a mark of the appreciation of their services. 

It is now requisite to report regarding the special prizes. To Mr. £. Chapnuu 
of Amritsar, it will be observed, has been awarded Lady Montgomery's prize for the best long 
shawl made in the Punjab. This gentleman has exhibited 6 or 8 other shawls of superior 
quality. Owing to some misunderstanding, they were withdrawn before the Jury had arrived 
at a final decision, others were presented in their stead ; the Jury consider them of superior 
quality, and award a silver medal for the collection. 

The Jury have awarded Lady Rundheer Singh's shawl prize f<M* No. 7085, of Ola® 
IX, B Section : they consider it meets the stipulations in preference to any other of the 
same sort. 

The competition for Mr. Chapman's prize for the best Jamewar of certain 

dimensions manufia,ctured in the Punjab was very limited. The Jury award the prize for 

No. 7106. The Catalogue shows this article was manufactured at Amritsar, but they are 

of opinion it was made at Niirpur. 


Reporter to the Jury* 

Class FL Division III. 




No of 

Description of Articles. 

No. of 



B E M A B K S. 



White Jamawar, ... 

• a. 


The texture of this is very fine, worked all over, the 
design new. 



Blaok Shawl, 



A long woven shawl, fine texture, pattern in good 



A Chogah, 



A red woven ohogah, work of fine texture. 






A puce colored dressing gown, extensively embroidered 
with needle-work, the peculiarity of which is, that 
the stitches are not carried through the other side. 



A Square Shawl, ... 

• •• 


Color black, pattern and work good. 



A Long Shawl, 

* * *i 


The price of this is Bs. 1200. A beautiful specimen 
of needle-work. 



A Square Shawl, ... 

• . . 


Color black, pattern and work good. 



A Square Shawl, ... 



Bose color, work fine. 



A Do. Do 

• .. 


Black gronnd. 



A Do. Do., ... 



A turquoise bine, needle-work. 



A Do. Do., ... 



Needle -work. 



A Pair of Bed Shawls, 

» ••• 


Embroidered with gold and silk thread needle-work, 
borders embroidered with figures of men and ani- 



A Square Shawl, ... 

• •. 


Bichly embroidered with gold. 



A Square Shawl, white... 


Pattern and work good. 



A Bed Cap 



Embroidered needle-work. 



A Long Shawl ( woTen ), 


Good pattern and work, Amritsar manufacture. 



A Square Shawl, ... 


Ditto ditto. 



A Bed Lace Scarf,... 


Black lace scarf for a native lady, em- ^ 

broidered with gold and silk, Delhi, C Very pretty 





A Bed ditto ditto. 3 



A Velvet Masnad, ... 


Handsome velvet masnad with a deep embroidered 
border of gold, pattern bold. 



A Green Scarf, 


This is handsomely embroidered with gold. 



An embroidered Chogah, 


Handsomely embroidered with gold throughout. 



Red Scarf 

. t 


Fine material, needle-work border. 



A piece of Lace with Gold 


A piece for a native lady's bodice, fine work. 



Embroidered edging. 

• •• 


Shawl pattern, worked by prisoners in the Lahore Jail. 



A Bampur Chaddur, 



Fine texture. 



A Masnad and pillow case, 


A handsome amber colored velvet masnad and pillow 
case, from Nabha, handsomely embroidered with 
gold and silver and also beads. 



Green Velvet Saddle cloth 
(or Charjdma), 



Handsomely embroidered : this deserves honorable 


Class VL Division III. 








Name of article. 



A Long Shawl, contri- 
buted by B. Chap- 
man, Esquire, 

Jimawar, Mahomed 
Shah of Amritsari 

A Square Shawl, 

The prize awarded. 

Lady Montgomeiy's 

Mr. Chapman's prisci 

Lady Bnndheer 

Singh's prize. 

To the Maharajah of Kashmir. 
B. Chapman, Esquire, 


„ Dayee Sahai Chumba Mnll. 

B E M A B E 8. 


Amritsar work, first rate work for that pkco 
considered the best coming within the terms 
on which this prize is given. 

This article comes within the terms for ths 
prize, in the catalogae. It is recorded as the 
manufacture of Amritsar, the native mem* 
bers pronounce it from NurptLr, the prise 
however is open to the Punjab. 

This shawl is the best of thQ description for 
which the prize was offered. 

The articles under this class are many of them 
very fine, and equally deserving of notice. 

Class VIL 57 


For the history of silk in its raw state, as well as for an account of the localities of 
its production, and the details pf its trade, the reader is referred once more to the first 
volume. It will be ever thus as we come to class after class of manufactured products. 
The substances described in volume I are applied to use in volume II. 

I shall therefore at once commence the class with a sketch of the method in which 
the manufacture of silk is conducted, and then pass on to notice the various kinds of 
silken fabrics which the province and its adjacent countries produce, and the particular 
localities which are famous for the production of them. 

The silk most commonly used by manufacturers and by them esteemed best, (although 
bv Europeans it would be considered inferior to Chinese or Italian silk) is that from 
Bukhiira and Khor&s^n. The silk is of two descriptions, called respectively '' Khora 
Ehundadar" and " Ehora Singal.'^ The first nanaed, though to ordinary eyes the same 
as the second, is really superior and contains a less quantity of refuse. 
Amritsar and Mlltan are the principal marts for raw silk. 

It appears that silk now commands a much less price in the market than formerly, 
though the manufacture has not diminished, at any rate in total quantity.* 

Although the large demand for fine silk has passed away with the Sikh Durbar, yet 
there is still a large quantity consumed by the people, and the progressive wealth of the 
community of late years has increased the general use of silk, while the facilities of trade 
under British rule have also opened the gates of exterqal commerce. 

Silk, the produce of the Punjab, is also beginning to enter the market, and the result 
of present experiments is to shew that silk can be produced which will sell quite as well 
as the Bukhara silk, though often from defective manipulation and other causes the 
indigenous silk sells somewhat cheaper. 

Mr. Oope (writing in 1858) remarks that the price of silk is generally from Es. 11 
to 13 • that is also approximately true now. He adds that 18 to 20 rupees was formerly 
the value. The weight by which silk is purchased is calculated at 105 rupees Nanak Sh^hi.f 
The Hindu caste of * Khatris' are the principal silk holders ; they furnish the weavers 
with the raw material throguh the hands of brokers ( " dalil"); the finished fabric again 
returns to their hands for sale to the public. 

The raw silk as imported is found to be so badly wound as to require that operation 
to be done over again in order to separate the fine silk from the coarse and from the refusa 

The first workman therefore to whom the silk goes is the * Pat-ph6ra* or winder. 
Some of them only wind on behalf of the merchant, receiving payment according to the 
i?eight wound off, and others (a less numerous kind) purchase silk on their own account, 
which they then wind and retail. 

• See Mr. Cope's valuable paper on Silk in the Jonmal of the Agri-Horticultnral Society of India, 
tolume X. part. 2, and at page 4 of the reprint cironlated in the Punjab. . ^^ ^v 

t The " Nanak Shibi" rupee of the Sikh time weighs half a mftsha, ». «. 7t graina less than the 
goremment rupee, which is 180 grains. 

58 Class VIL 

The first thing the winder does is to open out the large skein or hank in which the silk 
comes to him, and to divide it into two or more parts according to its siase. These are stretched 
tight over two reels callod " uri " or *• charkha/' one at each end of the skein : — the upper 
reel is then fixed against the wall about 8 or 10 feet high, and the lower one is fixed close to 
the ground, so £ar away from the wall as to incline the whole skein at an angle of about 45''. 

The winder sits on the ground in front of the lower reel, being furnished with 3 or even 
4 little reels or '* uras" on which to wind the sLLk as it comes off the skein. These reeU 
revolve on a stick called " gaz," being made to spin round bj the workman continuously 
giving light jerks to the end of the " gaz ". Having found the end of the thread on the skein, 
lie fixes it to the first little reel, and then begins rapidly winding. The silk thread passes 
thorough hM left hand, the stick with the reels being hftld and kept revolving with the right 
hand and against the right side. The winder's hand being delicately experienced, he feels 
the quality of the thread as it passes through his left hand : as soon as he perceives a change 
in its fineness he stops the reel, bites off the ailk with his teeth, aud winds this new quality of 
fiiik on to the next reel, and so on. 

When the winding reels are already charged with a certain portion of silk, the end 
on the reel is joined to end on the skein with the utmost adroitness with the tongue, and 
the knot is so fine that the joint becomes imperceptible after the silk has been dyed. 

Three qualities are usually obtained on three different reels in this way.* 

The first is fine and regular, and is twisted to form the threads of the warp (tani) of 
the intended fabric, the second quality is used for the weft or shoot, called " vana" and 
<*peta." The third kind is a coarse refuse called " kachar." 

Mr. Cope mentions that a seer of raw silk or " khora " yields from 2 to 3 tolahs of 
refuse silk ; the smaller the quantity of refuse the higher the price of the silk. The 
** kachar" is however by no means useless ; it is dyed, converted into thread, and used for 
embroidery and other purposes. 

The wages of the winder are Re. 1-8 per seer of raw silk. He can wind a seer of silk 
in from 8 to 12 days, and the merchant gives him about 3 or 4 seers of silk at a time to wind. 

The second and third qualities are made into skeins and given to the " rangrez" or dyer. 

The first quality kept for the warp, passes on the reel as it is to the ** todi," who 
twists the thread to make it strong for the warp: he answers to the *' thrower" of tho 
European loom, who makes the silk into " organzine." This consists of two threads, 
which are first separately twisted in one direction, and then the two are twisted together in 
the reoerse direction ; this is effected by considerable art,— it was long unknown in England, 
and organzine ready twisted was imported from Italy in the early days of England sUfc 
manufacture, until at last the art of " throwing" was spied out and brought over. 

The native process of twisting does not appear to compass the double twist, which is the 
peculiarity of the organzine ; the process simply causes two lines of the tdni silk to twist 
together into one thread, 

It will be easiest to describe the * todi'a ' apparatus first, and then say what he does 
with it. 

He works under a long open shed with a smooth dean floor of the bare ground : on this 
a number of little frames (called * khfoa ' ) made of four pieces of * sarkanda' (the onlm of 

• A fourth c»Ued * Fambi ' which ia very soft, is rarely obtained* 

Class Vn. 59 

the Munj grass ) are erected. They are arranged in two parallel rows, consisting each of 
16 frames, each placed one behind the other, and at two yards interyal ; each frame carries 
on it a small ring or " chdri " made of * lac* 

The * todi ' now takes two reels jnst as they come from the ' patphera,' charged with 
first quality silk for the ' t&ni ;' he sticks them into the ground, and then finding the end of 
each reel's thread, he puts them together and with his hand passes the united threads succes- 
Bively through the little rings on the frames, taking the threads down one row of the frames 
and up the other. When the two threads emerge from the last frame and ring they are 
attached to a simple arrangement called the '* dukh :" this is nothing more than a bit of 
thin bamboo 4 inches long, with a little ball of clay fastened to the lower end, which 
swings about 3 feet above the ground. When the two threads are attached to the bamboo 
piece, it is given a sharp turn between the hands of the operator (like spinning a '' tee- 
totum '*) : the result of this is, that the two threads as they lie along in the rings and 
frames are twisted together into one, through the whole length. As fast as they are 
twisted, the thread is wound off on a reel revolving on a " gaz," just like the origin^ pro- 
cess of winding, but the action of the reel in this case is so much more violent, owing to the 
strength of the double twisted line, that the winder has to put a pad of cloth against his right 
side on the place where he rests the end of the " gaz " or reel stick as it revolves. The silk 
loses weight in twisting, owing to the friction of the rings, to the extent of one tolah per seer. 

As soon as two reels are charged with twisted thread, they are given to the **ikm wallah" 
to prepare the warp of the fabric to be. He does this just like the cotton weaver ; he has 
two long light sticks of the sarkanda grass stalk, one for each hand; at the end of each stick 
is an iron wire upon which the reel is placed and can revolve easily : the reel is kept on to the 
wire by the aid of a little knob carrying a ring, the thread on the reel as it unwinds has to 
pass through this ring. The warp maker now sets upon the ground two parallel rows of 
sarkanda sticks ; the rows are at a sufficient distance apart to allow the warp man to pass with 
a stick and reel in each hand between them. The upright sticks in each row are placed two 
and two, each pair being two yards distant from the next, and the pairs of sticks in one row 
are of course exactly opposite to those in the other. 

The workman now fixes the ends of his thread, on the two 
reels, one to each of the first pair of sticks on the 1st row, 
and th en walking up the row passes the threads as they run off 
the reels held downwards, inside one stick and outside the 
next, each hand having one reel : two threads are thrown down 
at once in this way over the pairs of sticks. As soon as the 
workman, throwing down silk as he goes, reaches the end of the 
first row of pairs of sticks he turns round and walks down the 
next, or parallel row, setting out the silk alternately inside and 
outside the sticks as before described ; the whole length of the 
two threads, thus put down in and out of the pairs of sticks 
both on the up-row and down-row is 108 yards. 

60 Class VIL 

The next process is td fasten a tie wbeirejver the threads of the warp cross each other, 
iso as to prevent their agaiti becoming cailght, and the warp is taken off the sticks and dyed. 
The other qualities of silkj the " vina " and the refuse or " kachar/' are dyed just as they 
come from the winder. . The various kinds of dyes used have already been treated of 
in the first volume. I will only recapitulate the principal colors used, deriving from 
Mr. Cope's paper a list of the costs of dyeing each; Before dyeing, the skeins of silk 
are boiled in a solution of sajji (impure carbonate of soda) and then in soapsiids; 

To make white silk, the skeins are merely taken out. washed in several waters, and then 
bleached over the fumes of sulphur. The other colors which are produced best are : — 

Tdlow, dyed with " akalbir," the root of (Dattsctis Canndbin'ua) ; also with " asbarg,'' 
the flower of a species of Delphinium j which comes from Kabul. 

Orange color, oi* golden " suneri " with " harsinghar," the flower of Nydanthes arbor- 
tristie, and some red of cochineal. 

Scarlet dyed with cochineal which produces crimson and given its vermilion tone with 
** harsinghar " and its mordant, " kishta " and ** bozgand," the galls of Pistada Terchinthttg* 

Crimson, with cochineal alone, and "bozgand" as the mordant. Mr. Cope remarks that 
the cochineal is not obtained at the " pansaris ** or grocers and druggists, but the silk 
merchants ihemselves supply it to the dyers. A paler shade of cochineal dyeing produces jnwi, 
and the paler shades varied with yellow dye will give shades of orange, salmon color, &c. 

Beep purple " uda," is dyed with crimson and indigo blue. 

LUaCy " n^farmani,** is dyed with the same materials in lighter proportions. 

Blv^ can be produced from several shades almost black, to deep blue, bright blue, and 
pale blue or ( ** 6bi " ) all with indigOi 

Bla^k is dyed with indigo acid. 

Oreen, of shades, very dark, bright green or " zamrtidi," pea green or " anguri " ( a 
favorite color with natives when woven with a scarlet stripe), and pale green or ** pista," 
&C. are all produced with shades of indigo and the various kinds of yellow dye, " asbarg,*' 
" ekalbir," " harsinghar," &c. 

Brown silk is comparatively uncommon, and is used principally in the form of thread by 
the persons who etiibroider on pashmiua and want silk to match, or who weave brown and 
white silk check pieces in the European fashion. The colors are deep brown, ('tusha"), brown 
("dar chini*'), pale redish brown, ("saudali," sandal wood color)and "badami" (almond color) 

drey or ihdM is also a color much used, it is produced with " kahi," (sulphate of iron) 
and galls (main). 

Madder is not used in dyeing silk. Indigo when employed is first dissolved in acide, 
forming what has been called " sulphindylic acid" or " murabba-rang" by the natives. I am 

• Mr. Cope, at page 11 , calls them *flower buds,' identifying '* bozgand " with " gul-i-pista,*' and seems to 
consider Dr. Boyle wrong in calling them galls. The native name is no proof at all, seeing that the little 
bulbous galls look like unopened flower buds, but all the samples I have seen of " bozgand " are most certainly 
galls, or some similar ezcresoenoe, certainly not flower buds. (The word is also printed Vozgund instead of 
Bozgand.) It is doubtful whether " kusumbha** is used in silk dyeing. The wily Khatri knows too^ well 
what he is about to allow his valuable silk to be dyed with the worthless safflower, which fades in the air and 
light, and leaves a dingy palo yoUow red, which would of course »ell for nothing j crimson is always produced 
with cochineal. 

Oats VII. 


not aware that lac dye is usedi except perhaps for purples or with blae. 


LoBsin weight of the 

silk after the process of 

dyeing is complete. 

Cost of dyeing. 

How long the 
operation ti^es. 

B B M A B K S. 

WLite, ... 

4 or 5 chittacks out 
of 16. 

8 annas per seer, of 
raw silk delivered to 

3 days. 

TTeUow, ... 

One quarter, w 

1 Rupee perjseer, .. 

3 days. 

Greens, ... 

Noforther loss after 
the first dyeing of 
yellow is completed, 

^ per seer, «.. 

Somewhat longer. 


One quarter. 

For i and | to 1 Be. 

6 days, and more 

The cochineal is 


per seer, the dyer 

for the colours 

given to the dyer; it 


gets 8 annas as his 

that have two 

costs from Rs. 6-8 


dips of coloui*. 

to 6 or more a seer. 


For the various 
shades of pink, criin- 
soii, scarlet, from L 
to 4 chittacks will bo 
used per seer of silk. 

I have only to add, that the use of the Aniline dyes of Europe is now extensive. At Urst 
nly the red or ^ Magenta " was used, hut now the fine mauves and purples are common. I 
confess I have not yet seen the heautiful hlue, or the green ; hut these will follow no douht. 

The silk is, when dyed, ready for the weaver, who is called Daryaf-h&f. 

The loom is exactly like that for cotton weaving, it is arranged on the ground ; the weaver 
sitting with his feet in a large hole previously dug out, which hole also contains the treddles and 
foot-hoards, hy means of which the threads are depressed and raised. 

The treddles are the two frames which hang transversely across the threads of the 
warp, the threads of the one heing attached to the lower threads of the warp, the other to 
the upper. By raising and depressing them alternately hy aid of foot-hoards underneath, 
and ittaehed hy strings, the threads of the warp are crossed and recrossed as the 
weft is put down. The treddles are supported over the warp hy strings from the roof of 
the room. There is also a frame called the hatten or lay, divided hy a numher of fine wires, 
or thin slips of bamhoo, through which the warp threads pass ; the object of this is to 
strike it against the weft as the work goes on, thus tightening and compacting the whole 
fabric. It is also suspended from the roof by strings;— the weaver moves it, when required 
to strike i^inst the weft, with his hand. The only other parts of the simple loom, are two 
beams called the warp and cloth beams, the cloth beam supports the warp at the end where 

63 Class VIL 

the weaver sits, on it the cloth is wound as it is woven ; the beam at the other end carries 
the end of the warp stretched out, and also all the superfluous lengths of the threads wound 
on it, which of course can be unwound, as the finished cloth is wound on to the beam at the 
other end. 

To prepare the loom, the threads of the warp are passed by hand through the two 
treddles, and the batten or lay, the weaver seats himself with his feet in the hole, and with 
his shuttle in hand; he is ready for work, the silk being previously reeled in small reels 
ready to be transferred to the shuttle. The solid parts of the loom and the shuttle are 
inade of the khair wood ( Acacia catechu ). 

The number of the threads in the warp varies from 350 to 1,700. A very broad silk 
would be worked with 2,000. Some silk of this extra breadth was prepared for the Exhibition 
of 1864j, by Mbsshs. Chamba-Mal and Devi Sahai of Amritsar. 

In the days of the Sikh Court, Mr. Cope mentions, Maharaja Sher Singh introduced 
a silk of 2,400 threads broad, but the day of these very fine and large silks has passed away. 

Mr. Cope gives the following particulars of the weaving of a piece of * Gulbadan ' or 
striped silk : — 

The length of the warp is reduced in weaving from 54 to 46 yards ; the breadth being 
1,700 threads, the weaver takes from 50 to 60 days to complete the piece, doing a yard 
in a day ( very narrow silk can be woven at the rate of 3 yards per diem ). In the completion 
of the piece, 3i seers of dyed silk are required ; 12 nipees are the wages for weaving 
one piece such as this, of 46 yards. When taken off from the loom, it is cut into 3 lengths, 
and is ready for sale. The ends of the silk that project from the piece in weaving are 
picked off with pincers. 

I will now describe briefly the kinds of silk made. 

Most of the silks are very thick and close, according to this their value is fixed ; they 
do not shine, nor have they a beautiful gloss and lustre like European silks and glac&s. Such 
are extremely despised by natives as far as their value goes, although they cannot help admiring 
their beauty, and employ them for chogahs and gowns of state. 

The most common perhaps of all the native silk fabrics, is the " Gulbadan " or striped 
Bilk. It is a plain fabric of any colour, striped down its length with lines of another colour ;— 
the favourite colours are pale green with scariet stripe ; dark green, nearly black, with scarlet 
stripe ; yellow with scarlet or crimson stripe ; purple with yellow stripe ; white with dark 
stripe ; crimson with white stripe ; besides these, other varieties are occasionally met with ; 
This kind of silk is much used for the close fitting pyjamas worn by the wealthier classes 
of Hindoos and Sikhs. 

Plain silk without a stripe is called Daryai. If it is shot with two colours, ( usually 
red and green, but others are intermingled also ) it is called * DhAp ch&n. ' In the Kashmir 
Collection, fabrics shot with different colours are described as Par-f-ta us— "peacocks' feathers," 
the application of which name is obvious. The native shot silk is by no means so lustrous 
and beautiful to the eye as European. 

Silks are now often woven in a small checks of black, brown, blue, or black and white : 
these are principally used by European ladies, and are described as " Daryai chai'-khana." 

Class VII. G3 

The * lungt ' or scarf described under Class V, is also manufactured in silk, sometimes 
of a plain color, sometimes of a fine check. 

When made of silk, it is usually enriched by a beautiful border of gold or silver and 
variegated silk, and finished off with a silver or gold fringe. Silk lungis are not so much worn 
for head*dres8efl as the cotton lungs are, but are much admired for aearve& and waist-belt^ 
or sashes. 

The * kh^s ' is also woven in Silk, either check pattern in squares, or plain silk, with a 
gold border, and edged with some fancy pattern edging on either side of the gold ; beautiful 
thick scarlet kheses of the kind are made at Lahore, and are much sought after. The silk in 
these latter, is quite plain, but it is woven on the principle of a khes, and in that style of 
weaving called " Kh6s bid '' which is different from the ordinary " Daryai baff.*^ 

These are the principal varieties of plain silk. Next come those which have a silkerr 
gloss, and are soft like satinette. They are woven on the '* Kh6s bdlT' principle, and exhibit 
the "bulbul chashm," or damask pattern, in their fabric, either in one color or two ; sometimes 
they are striped, with figures on the stripe, and gold threads are introduced. Such silks are 
principally produced at Bhawalpur, and are distinguished by the generic name ** Shuja 
khani,'* probably from the name of the person who was the first to introduced them. 

All figured or damasked silks are thus called, but it must be remarked, that the varieties 
as yet woven are not very many, — all the damask patterns being some combination of right 
lines or diamond sliapes in small patterns. The native weavers are not able to produce any 
thing like the groups of fiowers and other patterns that beautify the silks and damasks of 
the European looms. Shuja khani silks all have a lustre of floss silks, are soft, and not 
stiff like the "darydi.** 

Silk enters into the manufacture of various other fabrics that are not included in this 
Class. In all brocades or kinkh^b pieces, silk is the foundation on which the gold is woven. 

Fine silk, and muslin and net, ''malmal" and ^'dulmiydn," is also much used, but principally 
for brocading with gold for mandils or turbans or kerchiefs, and dopattas or scarves^ which 
are much worn at weddings and on ceremonial occasions. 

Several fabrics are also imported from Europe, the art of making which is unknown. 

Velvet or " Makhmal " is not made in India, but it used to be imported from Kussia ; 
that trade has almost died out on account of the facilities of the English and French trade, 
which supply a much superior article. The Russian velvet was thin, and also often mixed 
with cotton. 

Satin also, called ' atlas/ is imported. Tlie English and French are the most beautifu>, 
bat are thinner and much less valued than the Russian, which is thick. 

The Russian satins are both plain and flowered, as damask satins. I have seen among the 
irticles presented by the Khok&n Envoys who came to Lahore in 1864-^5, several pieces 
of most brilliant and gaudy flowered satins, which are apparently much admired by 

Oriental connoisseurs, but would, if worn in Europe, excite a suspicion of madness in 
the wearer ! 

Besides woven fabrics, silk is extensiyely employed in embroidery, and also in kinds of 
manufactures which are included in the present collection in this Class. These consist of netted 
U>rics, such as girdles or iz&rbands, which are long netted sashes, ending in ornamental tasselsi 

U Class VIL 

and are universally employed to fasten the pyjdmas round the waist. Next come every variety 
of silk rope, cord, and- tassels,— used both in native horse trappings, and also for tying down 
the coverlets of beds in the native fashion ; tassels, head ornaments of silk for plaiting 
into the hair ; necklaces of silk threads to carry charms or gold coins worn round the neck ; 
loops and buttons for chogahs and other articles of the same kind. They are all made 
by men called "kin&ra b&fs," (that is * edging or fringe-weavers*) or " il6ka band " or ** patoli**. 

In specifying the contents of the Silk Class, I must not forget to mention a rather 
clever manufacture, worked only, as far as I am aware, by one or two men who reside 
in the Gujranwala District, and come into Lahore to sett their goods. This is the work 
^n coloured chenille. 

The chenille or thin velvet piping, is, I believe, imported, and the art consists in 
Arranging lengths of it as required, in circles, loops, lines and patterns (the colour and form 

being according to the taste and design of the workman ) on some surface, either of cloth or 
wood, so as to form a pattern. In this way the wx>rkman will produce on a cushion beautifVil 
groups of flowers and leaves, all made of pieces of chenille of shades sown on, the ground 
work being filled up uniformly with rows of blaek chenille. 

If the work is on cloth, as for sofa cushions, the chenille is delicately sown on with 
silk; if on wood, as is often done with trinket boxes, glove boxes, and also on leather shoes^ 
the chenille work is stuck on with gum or glue. 

The manufacture of silk in the Punjab will be found to be very much more confined to 
certain localities than others. 

The great place for daryai and gulbadan weaving as well as for plain khes, is Lahore.. 
Amritsar also shares the manufacture to a considerable extent. 

Multan is also celebrated for its Silks, especially for its khes and lungjs of Silk with gold 
borders, which are of great richness and beauty. Some ' Shuja khanl ' silks are abo produced 
at Multan. 

Bahawulpur is especially noted for its Shuja kh£n( silks, and ako for a peculiar fabric woveft 
like a gulbadan ot striped piece, but made of silk and cotton thread together, which is 
afterwards highly glazed like European chintz. 

At Peshawur silk is woven to a considerable extent^ and there ia an export trade to 
Kabul and Turkistan. 

In Kashmir the silk manufacture flourishes in all its branches. 

There are several other localities in the Punjab noted for peculiar fabrics. The weavers of 
Khushfib and Bhera in theShahpdr District make silk lungts and kheses, a few of them are 
also made in the neighbouring district of Jhelam. There is a silk manufacture also at B£taU 
in the Gurdaspiir District, in which also the most successful of the attempts to produce rair 
silk in Punjab, have been made. 

The manufacture of netted silk and miscellaneous articles is more widely spread. They 
are always to be found wherever the original silk weaving goes on, but aie extensively made 
in Nnrpur, Pattiala and Nabha. 

The following is a list showing the principal varieties of indigenous and imported 
silk fabrics known in the Punjab. 

Class VIL 65 


Silk ( general name. ) 
" Qovemet " — lining silk. 
Makhmal, (velvet). 
Atlas, ( Satin ). 

Musliajjar, flowered satin ( from Arabic Shajr, a * tree,' Mushajjar " having trees " or 
branching flower pattern). 

Debai Rumi. Thin crimson silk of Turkey. 


Eiukhab : brocade, stiff silk with gold pattern. 
Jamdani, silk with sprigs or flowers wrought in the loom. 

liungi Banarsi : scarves of Benares, made either '* yak rukha" t. e, with one right 
Bide, or * do rukha ' or both sides right sides. 

Dopatta : a silk piece made for a veil or women's scarf. 

Pitambar ; a soft silk worn by Hindus for ' dhotis* : it is 10 yards long (see Glossary) . 

Mutka: a coarse silk, 10 yards long and 1\ broad, generally of green color, worn by 
Hindus for dhoti or waistcloth. 

Korfi : — a pofter kind of mutka : generally white. 

Thalla-bund : the same as * kord * only of white silk with colored spots. 

Bund — soft spotted silk for kerchief. Stiif spotted silk is called bund-mdmi. 

Tassan r a silk cloth worn like a * mutka, ' now out of use. 

Tafta: Silk tafeta made of twisted ( tafta) thread. 

Mahmudi : a silk fabric not now in use. 

Jhirmil: — thin silk cloth (soft). 

Rajmahali (not now in use ) : thin flowered silk made in Rajmahal in Bengal. 

Mushka : a cheap and coarse silk, striped green and white. 

Ghakla : a fabric in broad stripes of green and black. 

Ambri : coarse sUk, in green and white stripes : not now used. 

Kapiir dur or Kaptir thuria : — Silk gauze with or without a narrow satin stripe. 

Badia : very thin gossamer like silk cloth. 

Zarbaft, a similar fabric woven with gold. 

Mandil Guzrati : a close woven thin silk and gold fabric for tux-bans of that sort 
which is formed of coils of cloth tightly twisted up almost like rope. 
Bulbul chashm : Silk woven in a diamond pattern. 

Mashru i, e. ** permitted." — As noticed under Shuja khdni silks, pure silk is not' 
lawful for wear by Mussulmans. A fabric made with a cotton warp and woof ( peta ) of 
soft silk in a striped pattern, and having a satiny lustre, is ^* permitted," and hence called 
mashrii. ''Sufi" — or Bahawalpur silk and cotton ' gulbadan,' is also lawful, and differs 
from mashrd, that it has no satiny lustre, and indeed looks like our glazed calico. 

Daryfii (plain silk) Gulbadan (striped silk) and Dhiipchah (shot silk) lungi^ khes^ 
and sufi, are all described in the sequel (p. 06 4&c.) 



Class Vn. 

China, Thibet and Centred Asia, 
Cliini — ^large flowered china silk. 
TAwar khatai : narrow, thin silk used for temple banners. 

Mashrii, solchi ) i • i r x- xi i. -i m i 

badshahi ( ^^^^s. of satm on cotton warp as above descnbed. 

Ndnka — namkin silk, green with black lines, offcen used for chogas by Kdbulis. 
Makhmal Irani : Persian velvet: also Persian satin (atlas). 
Darai Irani : plain silk of Persia. 

Kanawez : — Shot silk — with a lustre of two colors : the best comes from Bukhiuu 
or from Yazd in Persia, 

Par-i-paslia — very soft striped silk of Bukhara. 
Rawa : a plain soft silk kerchief or veil 5 yards long. 

A14cha — silk cloth 5 yards long, and hat* a sort of wavy line pattern running in the 
direction of the length at either side. 

Darua : a fabric of silk and cotton ( Yarkand and Kok^n ) in a pattern most hideous 
to European eyes : it consists of splashes of color as if one had run into the other. 

Bumdl Andijaui. Andijdn silk is famous in Central Asia; this 8x>ecies is a very 
soft thin silk used for kerchiefs. 


The samples of this striped silk are 
numerous, and in great variety as to colour. 
There are usually two qualities observable, 
differing principally in their thickness. 

The first set are from Amritsar. 

439.— [6613], Silk piece, value Rs. 9. 

440. — [0620-4]. 4 pieces of gulbadan 
by Messbs. De^'i Sahai and Chamba Mal. 

These were woven expressly for the Exhi- 
bition of 1804, being of the finest quality and 
the greatest breadtli (2,000; threads ; one of 
the pieces is dyed with the * Magenta ' or 
Bosanline dye imix>rted from England. They 
value from Bs. 4 to 5 per yard. 

The next from Lahobe : — 

441.— [6637]. Gulbadan, Lahore Central 
Jail ; a narrow silk in drab and white lines of 
equal breadth, after European fashion. 

442.- [6038 & 40] . Two Gulbadan pieces 
one blue and white stripe ; the other dark 
brown and white, ( Lahore Central Jail.) 

443.— 6054 to 6666]. Series of silk 
pieces by Pal Shah, Merchant, of the follow- 
ing colors : — 

Green and white, ... value Rs, 



Rose color, ... 





40 10 




Shot, green and red, . . . 




Grirason (yellow stripes), 




Grape green. 



Do. with scarlet stripe, 




White with green stripe, 




Yellow with black stripe. 




444.— [6670 to 6690]. a series of Lahore 
made Silks by Messbs. Nathumal akd 

Stass VIL 


Bed and green, shot silk, Value Us. 41 4 

Lilac, Bs. 80 14 6 

Bose color and black stripe, „ 86 2 6 

Pale lilac and scarlet line, „ 46 8 

Black with crimson line, „ 88 4 

Green, „ 13 12 

Scarlet and black line, .., „ 48 8 6 

The following are from Multan s — 
445.— [6850]. Blue and white check 
gulbadan, ' gulbadan ch6r kh&nf,' value Rs. 22. 

446.— [6851]. White and crimson gul- 
badan, value Bs. 25. 

447.— [6852]. Pink gulbadan, value Bs. 

And from Deba Ghazi Khak. 

448.— [6872^5]. Samples of gulbadan 
value from Rs. 1-8 to 1-12 a yard. 

The collection from Nab ha contains the 
following : — 

449.— [6902 P to J]. Samples of gulba- 
dan in red, white, scarlet, green and pink, 
exhibited by the Baja of Nabba and 

460.— [6907]. 6 pieces of gulbadan of 
vaiious colours exhibited by His Highness 
the Maharajah. 


These include, check silks, shot silks, 
silks made on European patterns, handker- 
chiefs and all plain fabrics. 

The Ambitsab collection contains of: — 

461.— [6630-1]. Two pieces of silk of 
25 yards each, green and rose colour, value 
Bs. 37-8 each, by the Ambitsab Jail. 

462.- [6616]. Piece of silk called 
"Dargi " • value Rs. 30, by Gujab Mal. 

463.— [6617]. Piece of silk called "ftarbi," 

which is half Silk and half cotton, value Bs. 7, 

by the same. 

The following is from the Lahobe collec- 
tion : — 

464. — [6336]. Broad ribbon in European 

style, pink and white plaid, by the Lahobe 

CEirrBAL Jail. 

* I believe this is only n corruption of " daryai * 
in the sender's list.- fi. F. 

466.— [6642— 6653]. Series of plain 
( DaryAi ) and ( dhup chdn ) shot silks by 
Pal Shah. 

Shot, lilac and scarlet, value Bs. 32-8 
the piece. 

Shot, green and red, value Rs. 82 the piece. 
Green shot silk, ... Value Rs. 27-11-6 

Green and purple shot, „ 82-13-0 

Purple shot, „ 38-10-0 

Blue and crimson shot, „ 37- 8-0 

Black and white check, „ 31-11-6 

Brown and white check, „ 31-14-0 

Blue and white check, „ 32-13-0 

Plain scarlet silk, ... „ 34-11-0 

„ gurple „ 28- 3-6 

„ bright green, ... „ 29-12-0 

„ dark green, ... „ 26-14-6 

„ amber coloured (kaf&ri) „ 27- 1 2-0 
„ rose colour, ... „ 33. Q-O 

„ crimson, ... „ 24-14-0 

466.-[6674 to 6685]. Series of plain 
and shot silks by Nathumal and Bhaq- 


2 samples of shot silk, value Rs. 29-8-6 and 
41-12-3 the piece. 

Black and white check. Value Rs. 29- 6-6 

Blue and white check, „ 28- 2-6 

Dark green, plain silk, „ 31. 6-6 

Purple silk, „ 39. 6-0 

Yellow silk, „ 31. 6-6 

Scarlet silk, „ 49-0-0 

Dove color ( fakhtaf ), „ 82-13-0 

• 467.— [6669]. A dozen crimson silk 
handkerchiefs, and [6669 A]. 7 white 
silk hjindkerchief by Messbs. Nathumal 
and BuAGWATA. 

468.— [6671— 3]. Three dhotfa or soft 
silk waist cloths worn by Hindus, in yellow 
white, and crimson. 

Value Rs. 27, 14 and 28 each, respectively, 
by Messbs. Nathumal and Bhagwata. 

Dhotis in silk of a yellow color, are imported 
in numbers from Benares, under the name of 
" Pitambar/' 


Ckss VIL 

Thes« are woven plain like daryif, bat are soft 
ailk, like a European silk pocket-handkerchief. 

The following are for the Mul^ak Jail. 

459.-'[6860]. Neck handkerchief, pink 
and white plaid, value Bs. 2-8. 

460.— [6863 & 3]. Lady's dress, grey, 
striped with black. 

461.— [6864]. White and black check, 
Talue Rs. 9-15. 

462.-'[6855J. Pink and white small 
check, value Bs. 18-6. 

4e3._-[6866]. ditto hirger check, value 
Bs. 18-12. 

464.— [6867]. White and grey stripe, 
value Rs. 10-15. 

486.— [6869]. Black and white stripe 
oroad, value Bs. 18-12. 

46e._-L6868]. White and rose colored 
value Bs. 18-6. 

And from Dsba Ohazi Ehak . 

467.— [6870— 1]. Bed and yellow hand- 
kerchiefs ( '* rumW dary ii," ) by Allamtta. 
468.— [6875 & 6]. 2 specimens of "daryii." 
469.— [6877]. A sUk cap, a skuU cap 
worn by Pathana Ac., under the turban. 


470.— [6890 & 1]. Silk handkerchiefs, 
worth Bs. 4-1 each. 

471.— [6892]. "Aliicha" silk piece for 
pyjamas. ^^^^ 

472.— [6902 A to E.] 'Daryfir from 
Nabha, contributed by the Baja oif Nabha. 
viz -.-green, purple, red, pink, yeUow. 

473._[6904]. 8 plain silks, Patyala, exhi- 
bited by Hifl HiOHKBSB THE Mahabajah. 

474.-«[6996]. Bed silk mudlin, Patyala. 


These article will be found manufactured in 
the greatest perfection at Multan, Shahpur, 
Bheraand Khushdb in the Shahpur district, 

and at Jhelam. A few come from Batila of 
Gurdaspur, they are generally woven with » 
gold or ornamental border. The Lnngi and 
Khes are woven exactly as in the cotton 

The Khes are sometimes plain, sometimes 
checked but woven on the same prindple. 
The distinction, as before observed, consists 
in the fact in the khes bifi, the weft is by 
a skilful design woven in and out of the warp 
by the aid of multiplied treddles, so as to 
display the colour of both warp and weft, 
one thread npon another thread forming 
a pattern or damask. 

The collection in this department in 1864 
was rare and very beautiful, the manufactures 
being quite peculiar and characteristic of the 
cities above named. 

The Ambitsab district contributed :— 

475.— .[6614]. A scarlet and green check 
lungi, gold border, value Bs. 88, by Mbajt 
Mahomed Shah. 

476.— [6615]. Kamarband or waist sash, 
value Bs. 7, by Gvjab Mal. 

477.— [6629]. Another sash, value 
Bs. 5. 

478 —[6618]. Silk pagri, value Bs. 6, by 
the same. 


479.— [6834 & 5]. 2 plain Khes, of silk 
and cotton mixed, with gold edges, value 45 
and 86, respectively, made at Bat41a. 

480.— [3814]. 6 turbans of silk, made at 
the Jalandhar Jail. 

481 ^[6889]. White patka, or silk scarf 
with border in silk and gold (kal&baiun, 
value Bs. 176, by MB8SB8. Natuumal and 


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Class VIL 


482. — [6890]. Pair of Laliore scarlet 
Khes, of thick twilled silk with gold border, 
and narrow edging in black and white, value 
R3. 175, by Messrs Nathumal and 


4 8 3, — [6808] . Lungi or pattern of Klies, 
value Rs. 61, by Labinda • Shah of Pind 
Dadan Khiin. 

484.— [6801] . A short silk Lungi by the 
same, value Bs. 31. 

486.— [6810]. Purple Lungi, by the 
same, value Bs. 22. 
The next collection is from Shahpub : — 
486. — [6811 — 14]. Lungis in purple, 
white, scarlet, and with crimson border, 
(Lungi kindri surkh) from Khush&b, (valu- 
ing Bs. 55, 48, 75, and 25 each. 

487. — [6814-12]. Turbans in crimson, 
white, dove colour, white with black edges, 
made at tbe Shahpub Jail. 

The following are from Multan : — 

* " Seven hundred maunds of raw silk are 
** brought to Multan every year by the Lo- 
" hanis, chiefly from Bokhara and Turkistan: 
*^ these are manufactured in one hundred and 
" fifty workshops. One man will finish an 
" ordinary khes or silk scarf in six days, 
'* perhaps three yards long and a foot and a 
" half wide, taking eight days previously for 
" the arrangement of the weaving apparatus. 
" A very handsome khes is finished in sixteen 
*^ days. That of the red colour is most valu- 
'^ able : it is dyed with cochineal, which is 
" brought from either Bombay or Bokhara ; 
" that from Bombay is rupee a seer, about 
" a shilling a pound." 

488.— [6986-3]. Turbans in red, blue, 
black (surmi) and shot yellow, exhibited by 
Kazir Khaib-ullah Ehan. 

489.— [6789]. Purple khes, gold border- 
ed ; by the same. 

490.— [0833-9]. Series of Kheses in silk 
contributed by the Multan Local Com- 
mittee : 

In purT>le, ... 
" scarlet, ... 

value Bs. 70 

• •• ••• )f /t> 

" crimson,... 
" Yellow, ... 
" crimson * s4da ^ 
Another, ... 

• •• ••• fi ijjj 

... ..• ,, oU 

' or plain khes, " 35 

* Extracted from a perflonal " Narrative of a visit 
to Ghaznee, Kabul and Afghanistan, by G. T. Yigne, 
Bsqnire," page 21. ( " Khes" is spelt in the orighial, 

491.— [6840-3 & 6856 & 7] . Specimens 
of Iklahi or square scarf, in khaki ( grey ) 
green, black and yellow, crimson and lilac, 
value Rs. 28 to 30. 

492.— [6844-49 & 6855]. Turbans (das- 
tar) in crimson, scarlet, white, sky blue, grey* 
lilac and blue black, fit>m Bs. 21 to 23. 

493.— [6858-4]. Specimens from the 
Multan Jail. 

Sky blue turban, gold bordered, value Rs. 12. 
Check silk pagri, ... value Rs. 4-8 

Grey turban, ... „ 6-0 


494.— Called also Suft, or lawful for Ma- 
hamadans to wear, instead of pure silk, which 
is not lawful. 

They are made at Bahawalpdr ; they are 
exactly like gulbad^n (or sometimes susi) 
pieces, striped on colored ground ; but the 
fabric is of silk and cotton mixed, the warp 
being cotton : it is rather stiff and hard, and 
is glazed with a mucilaginous emulsion of 
quince seeds. 


These are soft silks made for scarves or 
wrappers, having a satin lustre and a pat- 
tern produced by the loom ; and gold thread 
is often interwoven ( ** zar b6ft" ). 

496.— [6705]. Lungf in pink soft silk 
and gold. 

496.— [6706]. Blue and gold lungi in 
striped pattern. 

497.— [6707]. Check in crimson, black 
and gold. 

498.— [6708]. Khes, showing a different 
color on either side, called ' dorukh^/ the 


Class VIL 

499* — [6719]. Dove colouared. satinette,, 
is unicolorous, but a pattern is damasked iu 
the fabric. " 

600.- [673^3- F4nc7 satiuette;, from. 


601,.— [jB73B] . Pink and grey " sari " or 
■wrapper, (GovBaNMjENT Toshakhana.) ' 




The principal of tliese are European, 
Vrench, English, and Knssian. 

A few^ as the Dakhau silks, Mashru, are 
fetched from Hindustan, Ahmadabad, Gaz«> 
rat. Ac. 

Dopattas, or fancy, scarves, ara brought 
from Benares, together ivith the yellow, silk 
** pitambar,!* and white spotted black, silk, 
called " Bund." 

There are also the silks imported from^ 
Kabul and Bukhara by the North- Western 

The samples exhibited were from Lahore: - 

[6(592]. Blue plush velvet (has the pile 
flattened down sideways). Euglish. 

[6003 and 4] . Samples of rich green, and 
purple velvet. English. . 

[6695]. Figured, striped and shot silk 

[6696]. Striped fancy satin, brilliantly 
shot m scarlet and green (Lyons). 

[6697] . Another of thf» same pattern, but 
shot with brilliant purple instead oi sciu'let, 

These were«elected for exhibition from the 
Government. Toshakhaua, on account of the 
extreme beauty and lustre of the colouring,. 
as well as for the clever grouping of the da- 
mask pattern iutroduceJ. 

[6698]. Green satin, with yellow, orna- 
mentation (Lyons). 

[6699]. Black rich silk, damasked with 
groups of flowers in satiu, (Lyons). 

[6782]. Black satin damasked with small 
bunches of flowers in colors. 

The following were iqipor4jed from China:-^ 
502.— [6726] . Brown figured silk. . 
603.— [6725]. Yellow figured satin.. 
604.— [672.4] . Figured satin. 
605.— [6893]. China silk cloth, import- 
ed overland, contributed by His Hiounjsss 


A.few from, Central India, contributea* 
by Brij Nath, Darogah of the Lahore Cen- 
tral Jail*. 

Gl-eeu' silk> shot with. 
Red and gold " siLri/'' 

506.— [6727]. 

gold. (Dakhan). 
807.— [6728]. 
flowered border. 

5.0 8.~[6729] : Shot silk scarf. 

;5j09.— 6774]. Purple, Mashru, ( a satin, 
worked wi til gold in € tripes) Dakhan; contri- 
buted by the GbvBBNMENT "Tospakk an a, 
. Prom- Bbkaebs, contributed by the Go- 


610.— [6871].- Ehes dorakha, Kalaba-- 
tdni" gold bordered khes, exhibiting purple- 
face on one side, and yellow on the other. 

511.— [6782]. Crimson and gold khes.. 

5 1 2:— [67B3] . Gromson and yellow (Do- - 

From Kabul AND Bukhara,. contributed 
from the Peshawar District, 

513.— [6880]. "Kanawez banafsh," value 
R3. 12 for 10 yards, from Bukhara by. 
Muhamai;ad AziBT. 

614.— [6979]. "Kanawez Par-i-taiis- 
chikini," shot silk kanawez embroidered,. 
Bukhara — the same value. 

615.— [68S1]. "Gulbadan Kannidar," 
value Rs. 15 for 7 J yards, from. Bukhara ;, 
contributed by Kazi Amir Jan. 

516,— [6S82]. Kanawez, ( red ), from* 
Kabul, by Muhammad Azim. 

617:.— [6882]. *Rawa Surkh,'— Bukhara. 

618.— [6884]. "Chuiini zard, guldir," 

"flowered yellow chunni" — Peshawar. 

519. — [6905"]. Two i^Ieees of Kanawez,. 
a green and purple, contributed by His- 


The Kashmir Collection exhibited some- 
peculiar fabrics in silk. 

620.— [6567]. Piece of " BMshalii." 
6Jtl.— [6568]. "Tuwar" of grey (mushi) •. 
color,, with gold sU'ipes.. 

CUs8 VII. 



A few of the«e are mere corionties, bat others 
ace a ttandiag lOMUifachune, auck is the Isar- 
band, which is a long netted silk sash, ending 
in two tassels more or less ornaaaented, it is 
used to fasten the pyjmas round the waist. 

The followiQg are from AnitiTSAa. 

522.— [eeidj. Silk braid mH string by 

523— [6624]. Sets of artificial fowvrs, 
iQsesy ^. ia bozes^ 

524'— [«2$]. Sfcrins of twisted sewing 
•ilk| plain and speckled* 


626.— {6682 & 33]. Two Iz&rbands or 
waist girdles, from Bat41a ; another maker 
nent 13 specimems of a superior make, which 
were net iuelnded in the original catalogue. 

From GujBArwi.LLA were sent : — 

526.—C6807] . A silk pillow of patchwork 
of various silks, made at Bamnagar. 

527.— [68OI1]. Silk nets from llamnagar. 

The next collection is from LAftOBi. 

528.— [6641]. Broad grey bnud, made 
on European pattern, contributed by B. 


529.— [6787— 41] . Netted sUk neckties, 
(European style), made by the prisoners in 
the FsKALB Pevxtentiaby. 

The next^series are made by Azimitllah, 
kinira b&f of Lahore. 

530.— [6743]. Silk tassels for akdy*s 

531.— [6747]. Silk cord and tassels. 

582.— [6748]. Crimson "" Sej band" or- 
namented. The Sej band is a long cord and 
tassel used to tie down the coverlet of a native 
bed to the posts of the bed ; only used by people 
of rank and wealth. 

[6749]. Is a&other sample, but 
plaiB. ^ 

533.— [6760 ft 51]. Silk fly-fnnge for 
horses' head. (Makherni). 

The next series are by Muhaicmied Bakhsh 
of Lahore. 

534.— [6758]. Crimson MtUtary sash. 
CSirdaw&l') vahie Be. 10. 

536.— [67S4]. Do. in erimson and black. 

636 —[6755 to 6759 k\ Iz&rbaads in all 

[6765 to 6769]. varieties of eolour, 

and with tassels variously oniaiBente<l. No. 

6747 is one is ia variety white and green, 
of nther elegant appearance (from the 
Lahobs Mirwuv). 

637.— [6762]. Three Tsrietiee of ''pa* 
r&nda.^ The par&nda consists of a long band 
or cluster of silk threads, finished off at eiUier 
end with tassels, ornamented with gold tiiread, 
beads, Ac. This is plaited into the long plaits 
or tails of hair worn by native womeiii wd 
especially by giris* 


[6745 and 6746]. Are two ornaments of the 
kind, one in black and silver, the other in 
crimson and gold* 

688.— [6770]. Red ''doria,*^ or silken 
sash. They are worn round the neck to-oarry 
gold coins or charms. 

539._(;6771]. •* Riktt dawil •• fmi pur* 
pie silk ) bands holding the stinrop iron in an 
native gentleman's saddle, sinJlar to the 
stirrup leathers of an EngKsh saddle. 

540.— [6772— 6]. *' BUg daur, •♦ silken 
eord halter for leading horses. 

These are in yellow, green, and pink silk. 

When a native gentlemen goes in ceremony, 
or in a procession, one of these is attached to his 
horse, and his attendants on foot run beside 
him holding the leading rope. 

541. — [6675]. Bfig or reins of crimson 

The next are from Multak :— 

642.— [6819 to 6825]. Izirbands in 
various colours. 


Clas$ VII. 

543. — [6826]. Yariegated sash, called 
•* Izarband haft rang " ( literally 7 colours ). 

544.— [6827]. Sejband " Pinjriwalla."* 

545.— [6828 & 9]. Do. " Bamchi walla." 

546;— [6880]. Do. " Ba6cbi walla." 

And from Peshawttb : — 

547.— [6885 to 89]. Series of Izarbands 
valuing Re 1-4 each. 

From Kashmir : — 

548. — [6894]. 4 Sej bands, (silken cords 
and tassek) from Jammu, value Rs. 75, contri- 

549.— [6895 to 6902 ] . Specimens of dyed 
floss silk in skeins of white, turquoise blue, 
black, crimson, yellow, bright green (Zamrudi) 
light green ( Angdri) and scarlet. 

From Nabba. 

550.— [6902H]. "J&l reshami" netted 
silk sash. 

561.— [69021]. Iz&rband. 

552— [6902K]. '* Takma," buttons and 
loops of silk — work for chogahs. 

The long pipes, both fixed and flexible, at- 
tached to hukas, are often wound over outside 
with variegated silk which has pleasing effect. 
It is quite a trade in itself. The flexible tubes 
are coils of zinc wire covered with Birch 
bark ( Bhojpatr ) and then with cloth, and, 
lastly omamanted with silk and gold threads. 
The stiff tubes are made of reeds round over 
first with cloth, and then with silk. 

* ( Vide ' Glossary and Index* for the meaning 
of these. ) 

The forms of these pipe tubes or nechas, will 
be seen in an illustration to the chapter on 
Intoxicating Drugs, in vol. I. 

Nechas with silk work were sent as 
follows :— 

[6805] Six Pipe tubes from Ramnagar 
and Gujranwalla. 

This Class is concluded with a mention 

of the chenille work ( K&r-i-Makhmal) made 

by K&imdtn of Wazirabad in tlie Gujranwalla 

663.— [6776 and 77 6790 and 6802.] Are 
cushions for a sofa, worked with groups of 
flowers and patterns, «&o. 

654.— [6778] Sets of tassels of colored 
chenille, and silver thread ( such as are used 
by natives to ornament horses on state oc« 

655.— [6779 and 80]. Boxes ornamented 
with chenille work. 

656.— [6791 to 803]. Specimeps in 
chenille work as follows ;— 


A necktie. 

A bracelet. 






Oass Vlh 


■ NOTE. 

No report on silk fabrics has been reoaved from the Jar; of the Exhibition of 1884:, 
but their award of prizes is as follows :— 


District or 

Prize taker. 

Description of articles. 






( Devi Sahai and ) 
( Chamba Mai, J 

Seven finest and fast pieces 
of silk, Nos. 9620—9624,... 





Nathn and Bhagwantai 

Collection of silks, ... 






Collection of silks of local 





Muhammad Baksh, ... 

Netted and twilled silk 
manufactures, Nos. 6751— 





Kaim D(n, 

Chenille work, 


• •s 



Superintendent Jail, ... 



• •• 



Ditto Ditto, ... 

1/0., «•• 


• •• 



Manfactarers of the 
town of Mnltan. 


•• • 

• •• 

* Lady Montgomery's prize of Bs. 60. 


74 ^flofis VJJL 


This Class is of ooune intended to include only sach misceUaneoos fibres as are used in 
manufacture, and other than cottoPi joikf or wool. 

The^Clasa has been auUdiyided iato three Di^yiaons, a oc or din g io the different kind^ of 
articles made. 

The first Division will include loom woven fabrics, which are hpw^yer Ysacf &w in 
number : Flaxen and Linen fabrics which would occupy so large a portion of this Class in 
an European 'Exhibition, are akaost entirely wantto^ here. In a few jails, a 9tout cajuras haa 
been made from flax, but that is all. As to the native flax, it has never been utilized, except 
to produce a coarse sting. ]^o other jEybce as «o«ea in (the ptoiTiftee eseept * saa ' ( Oroiolmia 
juneea)f and that only into a. sack-cloth or matting called "t&t" 

The second Bivbion contains the Taiio«s kinds of paper. The original and ordinary 
kind of native paper would be the only one in the 4^1ass, wenr ii n^ fonthe more r^oeat 
experiments in paper making ia the various jiujs^ aad tbe varieties introduced by the attempt 
to utilize ^tfious fibres, as tow, mad&r, daphme^ straw, and others. The third DivisiMi 
includes ropes, mats, baskets, and all miaeellan^eus Jfibrous manufactures tjeoarally • Bepet art 
manufactured principally of san, or of *' b&nmunj, '^ ( Saoeharum munja—fnM ). Then 
is not of course generally that demand for cables of all sizes and strength that there is in a 
maritime country, but still the demand is considerablie for agiiealtBiral and general purposes. 
Various fibres are pressed into service as occasion requires, and many species of grass, as wnU 
as the bark pf the mulberry tree, the fibrous sorts of ^e Dh&k ( Bfdfia frmdoi^ ), and many 
others— are included in the class of Baw Fibres, as useful for rop^ manufacture^ 

The reader is invited to examipe this Class . in conjunction with the former Class, ( III 
sub-class E. ) in Volume I, as all the botanical and statistical information that could be 
obtained relative to the fibres themselves, is there detailed. 

In the hills, the inner bark of the Dhaman ( Orewia opposU'^oUa), resembling gardener's 
^ bast,'— is much used for ropes, as is also the bhabar, and bagar grass ( .^ru>pAonifa 
eoirmabimm^ )• Straw and grass are used in the higher hills for making the rude sandals 
worn in crossing the precipitous and rocky passes of those regions ; and the rope and 
twig bridges, which are ofben the only means of crossing many mountainous torrents and 
rivers, bring into use many strong fibrous barks, twigs of Fotker^iilla ifwohicraiaf and the 
nettle tree bark ( OeUisJ and others. 

The use of these fibres is universal all over the tracts of country indicated, and beyond 
this it is impossible to say that there is any special locality celebrated for fibrous manu&ctoresi 
except in the case of a few specialites, which will be below enumerated. 

Baskets and chicks are made of the invaluable bamboo cut into slips, and but a few articles 
of thb Class are made of the thin flower stalks of the munj grass. Large chicks are also made 
of the stout munj, then called ^ kdnOf " or of strips of bamboo. Course baskets are made 
of pilchi, the pliant branches of the smaller Tanuirisk. Feshawur and other places are noted for 
mats and baskets of '^atta'\ and where the date palm grows, date leaves are utilized for fima 

andmats, B^eds QoUod Dab a&d dib ftro paade into floor mattingt 

Oka nn.^Pifnsion 1. 



FiBBOus Fabbics, 
The fibroua manufactures in the form of piece goods or fabrics, are few ; ' San, • fop 
matting, and flax recently introduced in a few of the jails, are the only fibres employed. To 
these may be added the maJ6r fibre, or rather flo«s for the seed-poda* This has been at 
tried ; but is present more of a curiosity than a useful fibre. 

[6908]. "T&4 pati " from the 
Jail Sirsa. 

ThiK is a coarse matting maJe in narrow 
pieces from string of 'san' fibre ( OrotcUaria 
juncea) : the sample in question costs 0-2-3 
, per yard. It is much used for packing pur- 
poses, and for coarse flooriug. It is made at 
every Jail, and is common all over the country. 
ParticuIaKy good samples were from Uushyar- 
pur, [6927] by Mr. Christie, and from Lsihorcy 
also [6935 A.] [ 6967 <& 8 ] from Gujrat. 

567.— [6938]. Caavas^ made from Flaae 
grown at Syalkot. 

668.— [ ]. Several scarves and hand- 
kerchiefs of fine linen made at Belfast from 
flax grown at Syalkot by the Indian Flax 

Canvas was also sent from Lahore Jail and 
from Multan, of two qualities, valuing 6| anas 
and 0-4-8 per yard, respectively; also from 
Agra Jail (704.1) and Gugaira (7008). 

559.— [7019]. Table napkin made from 
mad^p floss, Dera IsmaU Khan. 

Tlie Shahpiir Jail gained a medal in the International Exhibition of 1862 for its manufac- 
tnits of madar. 

In the Punjab Exhibition, besides the above, some towels were shown made of mad£r 
and cotton mixed, also a rug made of madir (coloured). 

This fibre which is short, smooth, glossy, and looks like short lengths of pale yellowish 
white floss silk, is produced from the ripe seed-pods of the maddr or Ak {CalotropU 
EamUtonu). Dr. Forbes Watson reported on it thus :— It is deficient in strength and difficult 
to spin on account of the smoothness of the individual fibres. Attempts in England to work 
it by means of machinery have hitherto practically failed. 

• •#•••#• 

Some of the fibre has been sent to Messrs. Thresher and Glenny, who have for a long 
time been devoting attention to the subject. Thelse gentlemen are at length enabled to report 
their ability to turn it to account, if obtainable here in a good clean 'condition at 35£ a ton 
(3|d. a ft.). Dr. Walker (of the Agra Jail) reported that it might be collected at about Re. 1-8 
per maund, or about Ifd. a lb. From experiments made at Dera Ismail Khan, however, it ap. 
pears that the collection of the floss has not been accomplished at the desired rates. 

The fibre requires bleaching, and answers best when mixed with cotton. 

It has been tried with the cloth made by the warp of cotton, and the weft of pure madilr 
or the warp half cotton and half madar, and weft three parts madar to one cotton. Also it 
has been tried with cotton in various proportions, uniform for all the threads of the fabric. 

The fibre only requires cleaning and separation from seeds and dirt by aid of the usual bow. 
No eharka is required when made into threads. Before weaving, the thread requires steeping for 
four and five days in water, sometimes a little Methi seed {TrigwieUa) and gum is added.* 

* Journal of the Agri-Horticultnral-Society of fiengal, Yolome YIJ, page 2&. 

76 Class VIIL^Division I. 

Ifc is important not to confuse the fibre of the seed-pod, which I have called floss, with 
the fine strong fibre which is obtained from the stem of the plant. 

To produce the latter fibre, sticks of the madir are cut about 12 or 18 inches long ; 

the outer bark is then carefully peeled off, and the fibre is drawn from the inner part next the 
stem. Several threads are then placed together and twisted up by hand. No water is used 
at all. Madiir fibre is used on the Indus for fishing nets. 

The fibre is very strong, and is also suitable for weaving, as it amalgamates with silk. It is 
valued by the Agri- Horticultural Society of Bengal at 90£ to 40£ a ton.* 

Besideii giving these two fibrous products, madAr is useful medicinally. Its wood makes 
charcoal (especially the large species, (A. Oigantea) common in the lower provinces ; and 
its juice yields a substitute for gutta-percha. 

• Journal VIII, page 74. 

Class VIIL— Division IT. 77 


Leaving aside the subject of imported papers, and those manufactured at Serampore, 
the papers used in the Punjab may be divided into three classes. 

1. — Native paper, which is made in many places, but especially at Sealkote. 

2. — Native paper made in jails. These are often made of various fibres, and made experi- 
mentally. In this class I include Daphne paper, &c. 

3.— Kashmir paper. 

Ordinary native paper is made of various sized sheets, and of different qualities, which 
are known by different names ; the material from which it is made is almost always the 
same, the old "tat patti" — which is bleached, washed, and reduced to pulp. The only other 
material commonly used is old paper; but European paper, as also that printed or written 
on with English ink is useless, the former from the difficulty of reduction to pulp, the 
latter from difficulty of bleaching and removing ink stains. ♦ Native paper-making as 
practised without assistance from Europeans, is yrorse than it was ; no improvement has been 
made in machinery, and the makers will not adopt new fibrous substances. The process of 
making paper is simple, but is such that even with the utmost care, fine and thin paper can never 
be produced by it. Even at Qujrat, where the best jail made paper is produced, the paper 
is only excellent as native paper. 

At first the fibrous material, chiefly old g^nny cloth, or t&t, is cut up by hand into little 
pieces with a rude iron chopper ; the dust is then shaken out of it ; it is next moistened ; 
mixed with a certain quantity of ** saj^ji,*' and is submitted to the " jhandar " or pounder. The 
pounder consists of a heavy beam of wood, working on a pivot, so as to form the long arm of an 
unequal lever ; the end of the arm is fitted with a cylindrical block of wood, on which is fixed a small 
iron tooth or central hammer, which strikes upon a stone placed below : this lower end of the 
lever strikes down into a pukka trough, which is partly filled with the fibre to be pounded. A 
workman stands with one foot on the shorter end of the beam or ** jhandar," and by pressing 
it down, forces the loaded end up, which in its turn falls by its own weight, crushing 
the fibre that is beneath it. A man crouches down in one corner of the trough, and keeps 
throwing the fibrous material on to the stone under the beam each time as it descends with a 
heavy thump. Of course the quantity of fibre submitted to the blow each time is very small, but 
by gradually throwing one piece after piece, the whole gets pounded. The material is then taken 
out, washed in a stream of water, made into square cakes with more sajji, and left exposed 
to sun and air for some time, after this it is again pounded, and again washed. When the 
whole is in a rude pulp and tolerably clean, it is mixed with water in a masonry 
trough, stirred up continually by men with bamboo sticks, and when the ^ whole pulp is of 
a proper consistency, the paper-maker sits down with his strainer frame, and dipping it in with 
a peculiar knack, catches a fine layer of pulp on the strainer, which, when the water has 
drained off, forms a sheet of paper ; these sheets are placed one over the other as they are 
made. When a sufficient number has been collected, the mass is taken away to a dry wall 
previously prepared with a smooth coating of plaster. The workman then takes a thin broad 

The difficalty hM recently been overcome in the Lahore Central Jail. The paper produced is good, 
Imt by no means cheap. 

T8 C&W5 VIIL-^Dtvisim IL 

*nd stiff brosb, like an English house brush, only thinner, and detaching sheet by sheetj^ spreads 
«ach flati^ainst the wall, to which it adheres by its own moisture; the workman gently smooths 
it over with the brush. When dry, the paper readily peels off, and is then ready to be 
polished. This is effected by smearing each sheet all over with a kind of starch prepared from 
wheat, and when this is dry a gloss is imparted to the paper by rubbing over and over each 
sheet with a round smooth flint stone over a concave surface of smooth wood. 

The frame or strainer on which the pulp forming the sheet is collected, is a wooden frame 
covered with a strainer of fine grass stems. It is obvious that by this means a very thin or 
fineps^er-canaet be made; to make fine paper, requires a strainer of inconceivably fine 
metallic wires. 

This process is followed with but slight variations wherever paper is made, the difference 
in quality of paper results from the fineness and good pounding of the fibre, the quantity and 
dearness ^f the water available for washing the fibre,* and the skill of the workman in straining it. 

I now proceed to enumerate the known kinds of paper, beginning with the ordinary paper 
manufactured at Sealkot. The manufacture at other places of the common sorts need no 
special remark. 

560.— [10105]. «eaJket paper made by 
AlfH, Sealkot. 

[10118]. A sample of the 
paper imported into Lahore, and shewn by 

HaB BHA0WA]!r. 

The following account of paper making has been received from Sealkot : — 

*' Nothing can be ascertained as to when the manufactories for paper started, and who was the 
•originator. The origin of the manufacture is however supposed to have been about 600 years 
«go, in Imperial times, when Sealkot was a city of great importance. The common story runs, 
that a man whose name has net been handed down to the present time, used to have the pulp 
beaten by the people, but lifting the pulp firom the water was done in secret, in a walled 
enclosure, and each sheet was valued by him at the then current Rupee. One day his son-in- 
law was rather curious to know the art, and through a hole in the wall of the enclosure peeped 
and found out the way it was done ; after this it became quite common. The chief places 
for paper manufacture in the Sealkot District are Bangp^, Hfrapdra and N^kapdr, 
suburbs of the city of Sealkot. From excavations and ruins it seems that the site where 
these villages are were the old manufactories for paper. The mountain stream, the Aik, 
flows by these villages, and the manufacturers attribute the excellency of their paper to some 
quality in the water of the Aik. The paper of first quality manufactured in this district is 
called Jah&ngiri — is named after the gireat Mogul £mperor. It seems he came to 
Sealkot and ordered a superior kind of paper to be made, the quality made was what is 
now produced. It is the most expensive, and lighter in weight than other descriptions of 
native paper. It is chiefly used in manuscripts of the Kwra/n; the Poihia of the Hindus; and 
for Sanads. The rest are, for common use, of different qualities. One half of the total 

** This 18 a very important point. The excellence of the Kashmir paper is no donht largely owin^ 
to the abundance and clearness of running water available for manufacturers. At Sealkot also the 
mannfactnrers employ the water of the Aik, a hill torrent, which runs freely at certain seasona. Jail 
Officers wishing to improve in paper making, will do well to turn their attention to the means of increasing 
ihe faciUties of washing the fibre. 

doss VIIL-^Livision IL 


quantity of paper manufactured is sent to Amritsar, and the other half taken by the Eakezais, 
who are Bopdris, as far as Peshawur : very little finds its way lower down than Anuitsar. 

The paper makers are a mixed community of Awdns, Tark&ns, and Lohfirs. Each faetory or 
K&rkhana is a sepai-ate firm. In the time of the Emperors the yearly proceeds used, it is said 
to amount to 8 lacs. The paper was in popular use at Delhi ; during the Sikh rule th^ 
business declined to 20 factories, and a sale of Rs. 25,000. Under British rule, the manufac- 
tories have again increased : there are 82 factories in all, giving employment to nearly 1,000 
men, and yielding an income of f ths of a lae yearly* 

In 1855, the statistics* of the paper manufactories of Sealkot and neighbouring villager 
were as follows : — 












5 S 

at .W4 






No. of 
























Quantity and value or papxb 


Number of 



Yalne at Rs. 8-8 

Bs. 31,237 



Rs. 60,134 

561.— [10116]. Quality of paper called 
Jahangfri, (a quality supposed to have been 
ordered only by the Emperor). It is of 
extra large size. Ha.b BsAGWAiir of Lahqbb. 


562 .—[10,028] . Country paper from Delhi 
Jail, at 4 anas a quire. 

563.— [10,036]. From Sirsa, and 
[10,037]. The same made from old paper. 

564.- [10,04.1]. From Ambilla JaiL 
[10,060]. FromKotla. 

[10071] From Kangra. 

[10192—10204] From Jhang, of all colons 

[10210]. Muzaffargarh. 

[ 10240] . Dera Ghazi Khaiu 

[10258]. Peshawur, 

[10271]. Malerkotla, and Agra. 

All these are manufactured in the manner 

above described, either of old ikt or of old 

paper ( raddi ). 

565 —[10,135]. Paper made from Mad&r 
fibre, Sirsa jail, value, Rs. 3-4-0 a Gadi or ream. 
In both white, red, green and yellow colors. 

[10,448]. From Dharmsala. 

The process of making the paper is thus described by the Assistant Commissioner in 

charge of the Sirsa Jail :— - 

Thia paper is made from the flbrons stalks of the Madar plant. The stalks are picked daring the 
winter months after the plant has flowered. They are then dried; the fibre separated by hand, and thick 
ropes made. It is from old and worn out ropes that the paper is manufactured. The old rope, which is 
much used in this District and adjoining Bikanir territory, is cut into small pieces, well pounded, and 

^Extract for F rinsep's Settlement Beport, pnge 25. 


80 Class VIIL— Division II. 

gofiked for 8 dayi with sajji and chnnam— lime ( slaked ). This material after being well washed, fonns a 
pulp from which the paper is manaffiotared. Rope made from this fibre is undoubtedly stronger than flax 
rope, and at the same time possesses the fineness of silk. The finest cord and twine can also be mann- 

The paper in the Exhibition wag of the fibre of the stem, bat it is equally possible to make 
it out of the silky flos.s of the pods. This requires bleaching, but is by nature so short and 
fine a fibre, that the labor of pulping it is inconsiderable. I have not yet seen a piece of this 
paper from the Punjab. 

566 — [10,05e5 ], Daphne paper by Mr. Q. 
Jephson, Simla. 

567* — [10057]. Daphne paper for Sangaum, 

Kanawar, by Captain G. Houchen. 
568— [10,063]. Daphne paper from Kangra 

(Dharmsala ) Jail. 

Several species of Daphne and Desmodium, yield an inner bark, which furnishes a strong 
and supple paper. The species commonly used are Daphne papyroLcea and oleoides — 'Jiku', SutUj 
valley', *Katilfir, Kaghan\ *Laghunai' ( Pashtd) ; 'Nigi* Ku(lu\ *Sanarkat' Kashmir', and Des- 
modiumtiUasfoUum/Kilimiitt^ 8uUejvaUey\ 'Bre or Kathi,* KvUu and 


The latter is more easily prepared than the former. It is used in the jails of Dharmsala 
and Rawalpindi. The Daphne is more confined in its range of growth than Desmodium, 
and is also of a smaller size and more difficult to work. 

The following account of the growth of Desmodium and Daphne, and the method of prepar- 
ing the lower bark for paper making, is extracted for a paper communicated by Dr. Cleghorn, 
to the Agri*Horticultural Society. 

Daphne oleoides. — This appears to be one of the characteristic plants of the valleys of the onter 
Himalayas, occurring at an elevation of 4,000 to 8,000 feet, the basin of all the Punjab rivers from the Tonae 
to the Nainsakh. 

Local namef. — ^These vary in the different provinces : " Jekn'* in Bnssahir ; *' Nigi" in Knlla 
" KntiUl" in Hnzara and Khaji^an ; and " Sanarkat" in Ka^lirair. The yellow berries are considered purfra- 
tive by the natives, in this respect the plant coincides with its congeners, snd finds a place in the Materia 
Medica ( see Honigberger's Thirty years in the Ease" p. S68.), but the use of the fibre is not known. 

Procets of f>reparinff fibre.— The mner layer of bark is separated from the pliant branches withont 
any skilled process or other treatment, than the careful removal of the outer bark or epidermis, with any 
knots or asperities attached tn it. The manipulation requires patience, but may be easily done by women or 
boys j^a fair price for the labour would probably be about 2 Us. per mannd. 

The inner bark is the best part, and the properties which render it valuable are toughness and good 
color. The way in which I prepared the fibre was this : twelve smull boys went to the hill side returning- 
to my tent with freshly stripped bark ; they sat down and cleared off the epidennis with their own blunt 
knives ; the fibre was then placed in the sun and when thoroughly dry it was tied up in small bundles The 
boys received one anna each in the evening and returned next morning in gpreat numbers. In this way 12 
boys in two days cleared 40 pounds of dry fibre under my supervision, but with practice a larger quantity 
might be expected. 

The main points are, to see that the fibre is cleared of woody iAtegwmmul and epiierm$t and that it is 
received and kept dry. 

Experience pained. — Several fact* havp been ascertained which may be mentioned. (1) The plant 
does not suffer from free cutting of the branches, throwing out vigorous shoots in a few months. (2) The 
bark of one year old shoot separates more easily than that of old branches. (8) The operation becomes more 
difficult as the weather becomes colder. (4) Plunging the branches into hot water for i hour facilitates the 
stripping process. The bark should then be steeped for several days in running water and bleached in the 
sun. I have not tried the boiling in a Ige of aehee but this operation would probably apply equally tcfU to 
the bark of Daphne oleoidee, ae to that qf Broneeoneiia papyrifera, which ie thue treated m China and Japan, 

The cleaning might be done more cheaply by machinery than by hand — ^the bark ■honid be plaoed in 
hot water and then dried in the sun. It should afberwards be passed under rollers — (ss in a commoa mangle} 
when the remaining portion of epidermics will fall off« 

Class VIIL—Dividon 11. 81 

TWs^ al DharmMoIla. — Two bandies of the fibre were sent for experiment to the Jail at Bbarmsnlla, 
and vpeciinens of jMper manufactured from it are submitted to the meeting. Major Mercer states that too 
much time was employed in bleaching, hue being satisfied as to the excellence of the material, he is in treaty 
for a supply of 200maands from Chumba. 

Dnmodmm Hli<BfoUum.-~l have to notice another plant which attains a larger size than the Daphne, 
occupies a wider range (in the same valley), and grows much lower, so that the fibre will be available at a 
leas cost in the plains. 

Native Namet. — There are Shukeinff, i, e.. Paper tree on the Rotang Pass ; — Eanti, at Dalhonsie, — 
KulaneM at Marree, — and Chamkdt in Kbagan. 

My attention, was drawn to this plant more recently. The baric has also been used as a paper material 
in the Dhnrmsalla Jail, and also in that of Rawulpindee. The fibre is coarser, but more suited for the native 
proress, and it certainly can be procured at a cheaper rate than that of the Daphne from the ease with which 
the layers of bark are separated. 

When it is remembered that the quantity of paper manufactured in our Jails depends very much on 
the quantity of tat (». e. old ropes and g^nny bags) procurable that the supply of this material is uncertain, 
and that usual cost is about the same, viz., 2 K4 per maund, I trust these remarks may not be considered as 
wholly nseless. It remains to he seen, if the preparation of these fibres can be conduated on a large scalo 
how far they would be remunerative if so conducted." 

When made into paper, the Daphne or Desmodium fibre is usually treated in the same 
manner as the ordinary tILt fibre ; paper made of it usually turns out the same colour as 
ordinary native paper ; but it as such tenacity, that the paper can be made very thin, and yet 
of surprising strength and durability. 

In 1863 1 experimented on the fibre at the Sealkot Jail. I found that it would not answer 
if it was merely submitted to the ordinary pounding process under the ** jhandar." The paper 
turned out was indeed of great strength^ but was full of flaws and bits of black looking iibre. 
Very fair paper was made by mixing tat-pati Ac, or old paper with it. To make really 
good paper, the fibre requires boiling with alkaline lye : this I observe is always done in 
KepaL The paper made at the Dharmsalla and Rawalpindi Jails is more remarkable for its 
strength, than for its excellence in their respects : the other varieties of the paper are especially 
suited fur lining or packing tea boxes. 

In Nepal, the manufacture of paper from Daphne is celebrated. It would be foreign to my 
purpose to give a detailed account of the process ; but the reader can obtain information for 
himself by consulting Volume V of the Transactions of the A^ri- Horticultural Society of India, 
at pp. 220—231. 

The Nepalese process consists of first boiling the slips of inner bark (which they 
commonly take fresh from the tree) in a strong alkaline solution obtained by passino* water 
through the ashes of oak wood. After the boiling has gone on about half an hour, the bark 
will be quite soft, and have nearly absorbed all the liquid. Next the mass is placed in a 
shallow stone mortar, and continually beaten with a mallet or pestle till reduced to 
a pulp. 

The pulp is then mixed with a little pure water. To make paper, a wooden frame, the 
size of the sheets required to be made, is taken (the frame being covered with Yerj porous 
cloth, or fine grass or wire meshes as usual,) upon the pulp the frame or sieve is placed, and 
both are floated in a cistern of water. A quantity of the pulp is put in the sieve, which is then 
shaken about, the fine pulp passing through on to the paper frame, and the workman, by 
skilfully agitating the latter, causes the pulp to spread all it over, after which he withdraws 
it io the usual manner, and the sheet of paper is made : the sieve retains all the lumpy or 
coarse particles of the pulpy matter. 


Ctasa VIIL^Dmsian 11. 

Some samples of Daphne fibre have been sent to Europe, and fine letter paper, admtrabi j 
suited for " foreign post," has been made therefrom. I have seen a specimen of this light paper 
which could only be torn with the greatest difficulty. The Daphne paper is said to resist the 
ravages of insects, and specially of the Iropisma, or fish insect, so destroctive to paper. The 
Nepalese frequently prepare the paper by coating it with a surface of yellow arsenic (harfdi) 
afterwards glazing it with rice starch; but it seems that the paper is almost as durable unprepared. 
In one of the papers in the transactions of the Agri Horticultural Society before quoted, Dr. 
Campbell, mentions that he had seen a work in fresh and perfect preservation, 150 years old, 
and adds that the natives say the paper lasts unchanged for 800 to 400 years. The arsenicated 
paper just now described is admired for manuscripts from its gloss and yellow colour. Dr. 
Campbell mentions that the paper has been successfully used for making ceilings of rocms : 
the paper can be made of any size up to thirty feet long by twelve broad. 

for common paper is made of tan. The Rawalpindi 
specimen, which is valued at 6 annas a qair«^ im 
apparently made from the fibre. 

The refose, or tow, of flax, is an excellent paper 
material. At Sealkot, the IncUan Flax Company pro* 
duced a large quantity, bnt the Commissariat I>epart- 
ment bonght it up at so high a price for paocing 
and other purposes, that the jail manufactory co«ld 
not afford to buy it ! In the Gujrat Jail the pro* 
cess of making the papers is thus described — the 
frequent repetition of the pounding process under the 
" jhandar" at every stage is not usuid. 

The material after being cut up, is put msder the 
" jhaudar," after this it is washed, and after beins 
mixed with a proportion of sajji ( crude soda) and 
lime, it is continuously pounded for three days. The 
fibre being then moulded into great cakes or flat 
lumps called ** thoba," is exposed to the air and sun 
for thirty dayn ; after this it is again pounded during 
two days under the jhandar, after which the fibre is 
washed and again pounded for another day. This 
washing and pounding is next repeated for another 
day ; the fibre is once come collected into cakes called 
** chaklis," and exposed to the sun for 10 days laow. 
When thoroughly dry it is ponuded during S days 
in a dry state, then moistened and pound^ aguu» 
after which it is wa8he«l, and then undergoes a final 
pounding for 2 days ; after which the pulp can be 
prepared in the maiuMiry tank, and the paper made 
in the usual way. I should observe that^ the fine 
thick even quality of this paper, and its good colour, 
is the result of the fVeqneuc washing and pounding 
to which the fibre is subjects : none of the common 
qualities of paper get half so much labor expended 
on them. 

In order to produce on the above principle, one 
** gadi " or ream, and 6 *' dastas " or quires of paper, 
a period of two months is requisite, and the labor 
of 98 prisoners.** 

5eg._[101d9]. Paper from old rags, 
BAWiiLFiNDi Jail. 

Paper made from this material is the normal kind 
at home, but in the Punjab it is rare, and only made 
in jails : ordinary native manufacturers never use 
cotton rags. Although cotton forms the universal 
clothing of all classes, yet rags are not abundant as 
they are in Europe. This is partly owing to their 
not being in demand, partly that the very poor 
people continue to utilize, in some way or other, cloth 
which would in Europe be consigned to the pigier- 
maker. Practically, 1 believe there would be consider- 
able difficulty in collecting a few tons of rags even 
in a large city. 

570- — [ 10 1 48]. Paper made from date tree 
lesLveB (Pkanix sjflvestris) Rawalpindi Jail. 

The paper is of a green colour, and is seldom made : 
it is very tough. The leaves of the palm are used for 
mats and baskets, but would no doubt yield a paper 
material if well boiled with alkali and pounded. 

671 .—[10149] . Paper made from Bhdsis 
Bawalpindi Jail. 

This paper is made of chopped straw or bhiis^; it 
in not a g^d paper, though it might be used for 
packing purposes : it is also interesting as showing how 
even a brittle, stiff, siliceous substance can be made 
into paper. In Europe great advance has been made 
in the manufacture of straw paper by subjecting the 
material to the chemical action of substances which 
destroy and remove the siliceous coating of the straw 
leaving only the fibre ; bnt the paper hitherto made 
in the jails has not had the benefit of such treat- 
ment. If the bhfisd is mixed with a proportion of 
old tAt, or other soft paper material, the quality of 
the paper is much improved. 

572.— 1 10152]. Paper made from flax 
fibre, refuse or tow, G-ujbat Jail. 

In a vernacular account of the manufacture of this 
paper, which I have before me, it is stated that the 
flax is in the form of taut before it is cut up and 
made into paper. I do not know the reason of this, 
nor was I previously aware that fiax was ever made 
into "taut "; the common country tdt which is used 

* Pounding paper for 22 days ^ 8 men per day=s66 
Washing &c., 6 days @ 8 men =18 

Sizing 1 4 men = 4 

Polishing paper v = 6 

Making paper .«• ... ... =4 

Total 08 

The profits yield 1 anna per diem per man. 

Class VIIL— Division 11. 


The materials need 
A maund of (rfd flax, taut, worib Rs. 8. 
Sajji 1 maDiid »». as lis. 1-9. 

Ghana (lime) 5 seers ... = 1 anna. 

8<Mp> Wood, Oil &c., ... 8 annas. 

Total ns. 6-2. 

The price of the paper per dasta is 12 annas, so the 
lotalTidiie produced is Us. 11-4, and the profit K8.6-2. 

678-— [10160] . Paper made from Chichrd 
root {Butea frcndo8a)—Q[Tjj^AT Jail. 

This paper is made of the following materials :— 

Boot of chichra, 80 seers, ... s=: 6 annas. 

Old tant and paper 10 seers^ ... = 12 annas. 

8ajji one maund, •• =' Re.1-9 

Chuna (lime) 5 eeers^ ... = 0*1 
HJsoeUaneonsi ••• = 0-8 

Total Rs. 8-4 

The root is first ponnded and cut up, and then sub- 
mitted to the jhaudar for two days, after which it is 
washed, then siyji and lime is mixed in, and two days 
more pounding given ; then it is dried in the sun for 
four days ; afterwards, the earth and sand is washed 
oat, and the pounding repeated but in a dry state ; 
tlien it i;* soaked for 8 days and pounded again and 
then washed and again pounded for three days. 
The fibre is now made into flat cakes called (chakli,) 
and dried in the sun. It is ag^in pounded first in 
a dry state, and then after being wetted once more 
It is washed and pounded. At this stage the rough 
pulp is mixed with old taut and old paper, ( 10 
seers) and the whole pounded together for two days, 
and then washed. After this the pulp is ready for 
the tank. 

The cost of paper of this kind, is as above stated, 
Ba. 8^ and it takes 4 months to make two reams, 
worth Rs. 5, so there is a profit of Re. 1-12 for the 
prisoner's labor. 98 men are employed as before : 
8 pie is the profit per man. 

The paper does not sell weQ, nor is it strong, bat 
breaks when folded. 

674.— [10156]. Paper from plantain fibre, 
with a specimen of the plantain leaf fibre 
employed — Gujbat Jail. 

This paper is made of— 

Plantain stems, 20 seers, Bsr 4 

Old taut and paper, 20 ,, „ 1 8 

Sajji, ... 80 „ „ 12 9 

Xime, ... 4 „ ,,010 

HisceUaneous, ... „ ,,068 

Total, 8 6 

The plantain is cut np and ponnded much as before, 
with a slight difference as to the time required for 
poandiog, as the fibre is more easily reduced to pulp. 

The cost is Rs. 8-6, and the result 2 reams, worth Ps. 
6, and it takes only li month to make. So the profits 
are Ke. 1-10, and only 68 men are employed;* the 
profit of labor of prisoners is 4 pie per man. The 
paper is not yet in use and was made for an experiment. 

675 —[510150]. Blotting paper— Rawul- 

PiNPi Jail. 

This paper, as also that from Gujrat (10161), is 
▼ery well made, and almost equal to European 
blotting paper. It is however rather thicker, and not 
so soft and bibulous. It consists of rather a fine 
class of native paper, left unsized, but smoothed and 
dyed pink with kussnmba (safflower). The Gujrat 
price b 6 annas a quire. 

576.— [10109]. Paper made from the 
fibre of maize, and of the Sorghum eaccharatum 
or Chinese sugar-cane. Mb. B. Powell. 

The leaves and sheaths of the plant yield a fibre 
from which paper can be made, and is used very 
largely in Austria. The sample exhibited was made 
only experimentally. I do not know where it was 
made, probably at oneof th« Jails, See Vol, I^pa^ebie* 

577.— [11010]. Kashmfri paper. Lahore. 

This beautiftd paper, the best of all native mann- 
factures, can be purchased everywhere. It is in great 
demand for making manuscript copies of all the 
more valued authors ; it is also used for complimentary 
letters and polite correspondence amongst natives gen- 
erally. It is distinguished by its fine gloss and polish, 
its evenness and freedom for flaws, also by its white 
wax-like color and appearance. 

678. — [ ] Several qualities of paper 

from Kashmir, HibHighiiessthbMahabaja. 

1. " Dah Mushti." 

2. " Reshami." 
8. "Sadarjft." 

Some of these such as Dah Mushti, refer 
to the size of the sheets — viz., so many hand broad, 
(dah) ten (musht) hand,^paper ten hands 

679— [10111]. Series of gold ornament- 
ed papers. Lahobe. 

These papers are for oomplimentanr letters or 
"Kharitas." They usually have a gold and colored 
ornamental border, and are prepared by hand labour 
on Kashmirf paper. 

The varieties are— 

• Pounding at the Jhandar 18 days @ 8 men 
per diem, -- ng 

Washing at 6 days @ 8 men^ .„ s= 15 
S>*»ng, , „, — 4 

Polishing, ... =. Q 

Paper makmg, , -. 4 




Cflass VIIL^^Divimn 11. 

"Zar iUh&n/' (sprinkled with gold all over). 

*Tikli dar/' having 8(k>U or iluwered sprigs in gold 
paint arranged over the paper. 

A letter written on this paper is placed in a large 
envelope of brocade with gold embroidery, or of cloth 
of gold, the strings of which are then closed and 
settled with a hagh solid mass of sealing wax bearing 
the seal of the Uaja or dignitary sending the letter. 
The letter is sometimes still further enclosed in a bag 
of white net, which is called ** Dul miyin." t>everal of 
these were exhibited from Lahore by Paitdzt 

680.— [1039]. Coloured papers. Bawal 
PiNDi Jail. 

These papers were also exhibited from several other 
Jails They consisted of the ordinary native psp<^ 
colored pink with safflower ; yellow with turmeric ; 
bine with indigo, and various other mixed colors. AU 
the summons of the District Criminal Conrt^are printed 
on yellow paper, and warrants on lilae, ao these 
papers are in some demand. Colored papers are much 
used by natives for making fenry lanterns used 
at festivals, and at this they are very expert. The 
lanterns are made up of bits of talc, colored paper, &c , 
the frame work being of slips of bamboo, or rarely 

Dhss VIIL-^-Divmofi IIL 85 

iPiBROus Manufactures, other than Fabrics. 

In this department not much novelty, and very little elegance is displayed ; but tliere 
are many articles which are extensively useful and extensively traded in, which come under 
this Division. The materials which principally come into use for these manufactures are— 

1. Straw. 

2. " Dib, " the Bulrush, ( Typka elepltantina ), 

3. The leaves of the Palm, ( Fhcenix sylvestfis ), 

4. Leaves of the Dwarf Palm ( CkdmcBrops BUehiana ). 

5. Slips of Bamboo, f B. arundinacea and A, utilis ). 

6. The sheaths of the flower-stalk, and also the flower^stalk itself, of 

8accKarum mUnjcu 

Besides these, the materials for making string rope <fec., both in the hills arid plains, are very 
Varied ; every tree or plant that has a fibre, or is known to the people of the places where it 
abounds, can be occasionally pressed into service. 

681. [ ] Matting of the Bush— Ty/7^ ^Z<$pAA»^tmt. " Chatai'* — LA.fiottB. 

This is the best and most durable kind of matting made in the 'plains, and is seen in 
all houses. When dry, the flag or reed, is flat, tough, and pliable ; the mat is made somethiiii^ 
on the principle of a "durree." A long pole, the breadth of the intended mat, Is perforated With 
a series of holes about an inch apart, through these holes a number of parallel lines of 
string made of *munj' are passed, forming what would be the weh of an ordinary fabrics. 
This toe& being stretched out to its full length, is attached to a pole or bamboo at one end ; 
and the other end of the stnngs are gathered in twos or threes and fastened ofl^ on a row 
of pegs. The workmen now sit down on the \Veb, and commence at one end with the rushes, 
twining them in and out, and over and under the milnj strings forming the web, as in clotli 
weaving. The beam with the holes can of course be moved further back as the work 
progresses, and the web is by this means kept 6rm and tnut. The rushes are moistened and 
well beaten with a wooden mallet, which makes them flat as well as pliable for the weaving 
process. The sides of the mat are finished off as the process goes on, by collecting the long 
ends into little bunches, and then turning one under the other, which forms a long sorb 
of plait at the edges of the mat j the ends of the mat are secured by being sewn up with 
long stitches of double munj string. If the mat is well made, it has a Arm, clastic, and 
Btriated surface, of a light brown color. I have seen them so well made as almost to 
supersede the use of a carpet. They are generally used under a durree or carpet on 
Account of the floors which are usually of pucka or lime plaster. The price of such matting 
is about Us. 12 per 100 square yards. 

582. [ ] Matting of the Palm leaf. 

This species is almo^tt as much used as the former for a floor cloth ; but the flbrous flat 
leaves are also split and made up into haiid^fans, fly-flaps, and baskets. The long palm leaf is 
cut down, and side leaflets are torn ofl" the central mid^rib or stalk ; each leaflet thus forms a 
pieoe of smooth, flat, and very tough flbre, of a pale drab-green color, and can be utilized as it 
i«i or may be split up into fine pieces, according to the work required of it. 

9S ChLSs VUL-^Divrnm IIL 

Fly-flaps are frequently made of bunchcB of the leaves split up into fine ehreds, aud 
secured on a wooden handle ; for this purpose also some kiuds of grasses are used. 

The mat:$ lof date leaved are not made like the * dib * mat, on a foundation of atring, 
but ^r« solely fdi*m«d of ftti tutMrlacement of long narrow IvaTes^ and fiuishod off at tlie 
etad« with the aid of (tiing, lyeing atitcbed round th« sides --muiij string is not used 
for tlii« purpose, but " sail " ( Crotolaria J, 

The fans and baskets are made on a similar principle, only the work and the 
slips used are finer, and greater care is taken in finishing off and-cuttiug the projecting end^i 
which are carefully turned in. 

These date palm leaf mats, Ac., are only made ite districts where the trees grow. In 
the southern parts of the province, as &r aa the Dorajati tlie tree abounds^ aud thef^ we have 
Uiese fiiaaufactures in the greatest excellence, 

683. [ ] Matting of the Chamcerops Bifthiajia, from Pbshawitr, Kohat, &c., " Paita,^* 
Thi^ee tnnts are made from the (Jham^grops^ which is indigiinotts in the Salt Range and beyond, 
in Hamra, Peshawar^ Baunoo and Wasirastan. The leaf is more fan shaped than the date 
palm, and is familiar to all who has seen the PalmMo leaf; but it has no stem to speak 
of. The flower rises from a tall thick stalk covered by a tiximber of overlapping^ scaly 
8|>athes, on this the flower-lread rises covered witli branches. The flowers wlienthey burst forth 
arc like those of other palms, small colourlei^s fleshy bells, growing in clusters on tlie ends 
of the little branches of the flower stalk. The fruit is a round, Imrd stone or berry, which haiigs 
at the end of the branches of this stalk, and is used to make rosaries. The local name 
(ia Pashtu) of the plant is " mazdr^ " and in Sindh ** Plk " 

From Peshawur I have received the folldwing aceouut f— * 

** Smooth matting is made from the smaller and mote slender strips of the " patta,'* 
aud where a particulurly fine kind is not obtainable, the object is gained by splitting ap the 
larger .patta into slips of tlie required bfeadth. Matting is made both at Peshawur and 
Kolwit, but usually of a coarse kind The finest and most exi>en6iveis that obtained from the 
Boiba, and made by Mohmands and OtmlinkhaUs in the hills ; those of Pindyilf are 
locally fiuned for their expertness i4i this Work. The prices vary according to quality, the 
smoother sorts being aomewhat expensive. 

Bas'kets are made of tlie finer matting, and they sell at from 4 to 20 per rupee. A 
piece of smooth matting. Usnially about 4 or 6 fbet long by 2 or 2i feet broad, sells for a rupee 
if of the Very best ; and the coarser "kinds vary in pric^es, some even selling as cheaply aa 8, 12, 
and iBven 20 pieces per rupee. 

The mats are very neatly made, are compact, glossy, and of a pale yellowish or drab color ; 
they ^m inatiulaG^red on the «atne principle as th« date mats, but can be readily distinguished 
by their superior texture and smoothness. Fans and small mats from Peshawur are lai'gely 
imported into Lahore, and other places where the Patta is not found. 

584. [ ] Baskets and other vessels of Patia— Buwnoo. 

They aiHJ n«tde of tlie sanse material as the last, but exliibit a peediarly neat and w>Kd 
texture unlike tl>e interlacing of the mats. Thfey look v^ if iJotistructeJ of a series t>f wnnotTi 
riuga closing compactly one over the other. They are made doubtless xxpon a fotmdation «C 

• iroyle'fi Fibrous Plants, p. 925. 

dm VIIL^J>msion IIL 87 

circular ribs, woven over with very fine alips of patta. Sonne of the articles were in the form 
of flat dishes; others of baskets ; and some were ixadQ round mouthed like ^* lotas '* and gharas» 

585. [ ] Chicks — Lahobv and Qujrat. 

These are of two kinds : one a fine close meshed sort, suitable for windows, and the other ot 
stouter material and more open, suitable for enclosing verandahs. The former are made of 
thin strips of bamboo, whioh are strung together upon longitudinal strings, each strip of 
bamboo bring lefb at a little distance from the other : the whole is painted green, and bound 
round the edge with cloth. Hung before doors they keep out flies, &c» and yet admit light 
and air. 

In the Lahore museum are two Chinese chicks made of some kind of small grass, 
stalks. These are of ezijuisite fineness, and far superior to the best chicks made here. The^ 
best and finest bamboo chicks I have seen were made in the Gujrat jail. 

The large chicks for screening verandahs are either of stout parallel slips of baoiBoo 
strung on longitudinal strings ; or else made of the long glossy f)ower-^taIks of the mvinj, 
8u£ekarum munja^ whiph are strung parallel to each other in the same way. If the stalks 
are not long enough for the whole breadth of the screen, the ends of two are spliced, and the 
necessary string passed through thus — 

686. [ 3 MAnj ropes, twine, Ac, Laijio«i:, GiraAnuL, ( »sxipm$m ). 

Thitf gra»s, Sao^harum munf0, may be seen growing everywhere in tall munfHtn or t«fts of 
mfffow green leaves, firooa the centre of which ^ at the end of the rainy season, the tall flower^ 
rtalks with their graceful feathery flowers rise. It springs up readily where it can get n Uttle 
moisiiire, by road «dea or river stdes« and indeed anywhere. In some places it ooFers wjhol^ 
tracts, And the sale fiftt » very produeftivd. The letvef themselves (contrary tothe opiQi<>u 
of one author ) «re quite meloss for *U purpoaea w^t thatching, for they «re rough, and mi^ 
tibe haad if rudely grasped. 

The ueeful^^ is the Bo«r^ltelk( called JEr(iie4): ^feng hanging sheaths en4 apetke 
coveriag thw ans fiarefully semoved, aod these when yhredded up Aae, form the material ealUd 
"BiaHoriajf'' tut etring making* The gloisey flower stalk, as high up as it remains of a unifom 
iUckoeai, ie ent fc isake efaioke ae before d^seribed, while the tapering top of the stalk ie oul» 
off for another purpose, viz. t to form *^irki." Theae emootb thin stalk endfs are plaoed side by side 
tonaiag even sheets of ftalka« and then axe all (at the thijsker euds) kept together 1>y being 
bonad aloog vitb gjeaie e<%n)f « wUeh keepe the whole pi^ce firm together ; the other endji 
taper ^ te their natwal p^ts> These mats or pieeea of roofing can now he utiliased : they are 
often set up pent house like, tied to a Ijamboo, to shelter a cart and keep the contents dry ; 
or they are laid flat over the roof beams of a room, piece overlapping piece ; on the top of 

88 aas8 VIIL—Divisim III. 

tbiA lie the other rnaterials of a flat roof, tiles, earfch Ua., This way of roofing is of course 
strange to English ideas, but is too familiar to an Indian to need description. 

The thin part of the culm is in some places called ''tilt". Inside the culm is a pith 
called "khil" or "khul," which is eaten ii> the Mu-^affargarh district. The tops of the grass as 
it comes into flower are given to cattle to increi^se the mi}k. 

There are several grasses which, in general appearance, somewhat resemble the S. munja, 
and are sometimes mistaken for it ; but 8, muf\Ja is far the largest in sisse. The three species 
are — 

Saecharum sara. 

Saccfiarum spontancum, 

Saecharum munja. 

The first reed yields k^nfi. but not of a good quality, for this purpose the culm requires 
to be smoked, fvnd dried up, which turns it brown. 

The 8. spontanewn is the cdsd of Sanskrit writers, and is known by its beautiful wavj 
feathery flowers of silky whiteness. 

The Qugaira district had quite a large collection of articles ingeniously worked from the 
tili, or fine upper stalk of the munj. 

These were often worked over in places with patterns of colored worsted, and 
adorned with shells ( cowries ) sewn on to the borders. There was as a fan, or '* Panka ; " a 
sieve call " Ch^j," used for winnowing grain ; several baskets called " Phaohhi," or " Khawa ; " 
the latter used for holding cotton. Of the munj fibre there was a large net called "Tangar," 
used to hold hhdsa or chopped straw when transported from one place to another. Another 
article is called ** Chinka," and appears to be a kind of string or net in which to carry plates 
or crockery. The porter's knot replaced here by a thick ring of rope for the head, is exhibited 
under the name of " Indavi." Some mats of munj, used for sitting on, and also for spreading 
out grain to dry &o. are shown under the names " Khirf " and '' Fid" 

The string of munj is easily made : the thin slips are first of all wetted, one end made 
firm to a sort of weight or bobbin, and the fibre is twisted with the fingers, the bobbin at the 
end spinning with it and keeping it straight ; as the string is thus twisted, it is wound on 
to the stiek or reel which the operator holds in his hand. When the damp fibre dries it retains 
the twist, and evinces no desira to open out. Bope is made in the same way, only of seyeral 
strands of string and then twisted together till it forms the required gauge. In the Bukbs* 
where the munj abounds, it is cut and purchased in a peculiar manner. Four persons join 
together on purpose to buy up all the munj cut in a certain place, the four men get a lot of 
coolies armed with short sickles or datris, and go out to out the munj stalks. Each joint- 
purchaser's share of the whole quantity cut is represented by so many '' dj^tris " or * sickles.' 
Supposing forty men are employed, all the day's cutting will be put up into 40 bundles, and 
the owner who has 10 sickles, will take only ten, and the man who has 20, will take hit 
20 bundles, and so on, paying the coolies accordingly. 

The common ropes used for agricultural purposes are made In the rudest way. A long 
bundle of the fibre is made fast to a tree, and the fibres rudely twisted on till a long 

• Traoti of waste land covered with trees, 'icrab' or firewood. 

Class VIIL—Divimn IIL 


loose rope is attained. A man then fastens a stick to the other end, holds out the rope 
at full length, and twists the stick round and round till the whole fibre is duly twisted 
up ; he then secures each end of the rope, and the operation is finished. Other ropes are 
exhihited made of san — (Crotolaria juncea), and prepared with the aid of a rude machine 
described under Class XXIX s. v, ' Implements of the rope-twister or Rassi-bat.' 
Snnkokra, Patsan, ( Hibiscus cannahinus.) 

This is made into a good rope, as its fibre is of great length, it is less strong than ' san. ' 
The Lahore Central Jail sent a door mat made of tufts of this fibre ; and some dyed to shew 
that the fibre will ta](e a color. Nearly all the Jails make n profit, by manufacturing 
coarse netted bags of ' san ' string ; these are in common use at all treasuries to hold rupees, 
1,000 in each. 

587- CoUonropeM, — These are principally 
made for punkah ropes, Sec , being an even 
and finished rope, which is twisted of two or 
more colors for the sake of appearance. 

588. Bope of the Palm ipaJthe. — MuzA.r- 
ViLBGJLRH. This is almost peculiar to the south- 
ern districts. The central branch of the palm 
Fhcenia sylvestris, comes forth enveloped in a 
shroud consisting of an interlacement of fibre, 
this, when separated, is converted into ropes. 
The reticulum is called ^' Kabal." 

589. Bope of the Palm Zea/.— Tliis is 
called Patta-ka-rassi. 

590. Bope from (he harh of (he Behul. 
HusHYABPUB. Kanoba, &c. — Qrcwia oppo- 

as san rope in the plains. The bark from which 
it is made, is the inmost bark of the tree. 
It is not unlike the Russian bass of gardeners, 
which is derived from the Lime or Linden- 
tree ( Tilia. ) 

Several species of rope prepared as curiosities, or 
to exhibit the fibre, have been mentioned in Volame 
1, Chapter IV, Subclass E. to which the reader is 
referred for particulars. 

690.— [ 6936-6950 ]. Straw Hats made 
at the Central Jail, Lauobs. 

This is a new branch of mannfiictnre introdnced 
by Ur, Gray. Very creditable hats, in great 
variety, were sent to the Kxhibition. We had white 
straw, and black, also mixed, • and fancy chip, and 
straw plaited np with velvet ; also straw dish mats 
and other articles, the work ol' the prisoners. The 
black straw is obtained by dyeing. 

sittfolia. This is common on the lower hills, 

The fibrous samples in the Ezhibifcion were examined by the Jurors, one of whom 
undertook the class of paper, and the other the remaining fibrous fabrics : their reports are 
here printed. The former jury alone furnished a detailed report, the latter jury supplied the 
list of prizes awarded. 


CUm VJIL^'DiviaioH 111. 


IHitrict or Loci 


Prixe iahsr. 

Description of Article. 




Tit or Canvas, 




L. £. Committee, 

T^t bags, 









Multan Jail, 





Central Jail, »». 

Flax Canvas, 








Jail, ••• 

Door mat. 





Door mat of monj rope, 

Dehra Dh^n, 



Aloe fibre, 

Hemp and other 


• i • 




L. S. Committee, ..« 

Pine twine, 



Dy. Commissioner, 

Mats and fans, 






Hira Naad* 




L. SI Committee, ... 


D. Q. Khan, 

• •• 




• •• 

L. E. Committee, ... 

Floor matting of Patta, 


• •« 

Central Jail, »«, 

Straw hats. 









• •• 

• M 

• •• 


• •• 

• •• 



Oms VIIL^DivUmt III. 91 



Jwy : — 

Mr. A. M. DaIIas. Hiy<v J. E. Ormorofb. 

Mr. B. Powell. General VanCortlandt. 

LaUa Kttnhya LaU. Mr. T. H. Thornton, 

Major r. W. Mereer. Mr. C. P. Elliot. 

Mr. W. P. Woodward, Reporter. 

Tlie paper made in tbia ooiintry by the natives is of one kind only, ♦ but of several 
qualities — all are however thicker, heavier, and coarser, than the commonest description 
of English paper. 

It is imposjuble now to determioe ex^,ctly when or by whom paper making was first 
introduced into India. Native historians are silent on the subject, as they are on most 
interesting and nutterial questions ; bat it would not be far from the truth to fix the 
date some time between the lOth and 11th centuries A. D , or contemporaneous with th^ 
iavasiou of Hindustan by the Moslems. That it was not brought here before that, the 
following facts would appear to put beyond doubt. 

It is weU known that the art of making paper from cotton was flourishisig in China so 
early as the 2nd century of the Christian era. A commercial intercourse existed then, and 
for some time previously, between China and India, and India and Europe, vid Egypt. But 
paper of cotton was not known in Europe till about the f 9th century, wben it was introduced 
into the southern couutries by the Arabs, who, it is recorded, found a large manufactory 
of this paper at Samarkand, when they conquered Bukh6r&. It was by the same route that 
vthe silk worm, thougli at an earlier date, was introduced into Europe from China. If then, 
it be supposed that paper making was known in Hindustan before the rise of the Moslem 
power, it is unaccountable why it was not caiTied into Europe at a very much earlier period, 
seeing the intimate intercourse that existed between tiie countries. 

The above idea is also favored by the fact that all the private manufacturers to be met 
with now ai*e Mahommedans, — a Hindd paper-maker being unknown. Caste objections 
would also have been an invincible ditficulty to the Hindus initiating an experiment 
of this kind. 

It is believed that previous to the introduction of paper, the leaves and bark of trees, 
ttie palm and plantain — ^and especially the "Wiojpatr" and **ta!p«tr," — were used for 
writing on. Perliaps also Papyrus was brought from Egypt, for it used to be made into a 
kind of paper in smaTl sheets, formed \yy the tlim {Tbrous membranes of the plant being 
^aipped o^ and preseed ibogether. Tiie use of v>elhtm (oalf-sMu ), or purchmeni, (sheep skin), 
ffs lined in Europe, may be seen in the case of Mohanmedau Si^^S. in the l^eliii Mosq«ie. 

Whetlrer nntrt)dueed from Ghimi, <or by the Moslems on, ©r subaaqsont to, the invaaion of 
M6hm&d of Ghazni in the 10th century, it appears certain that such m was tlie process of 

* 3Iade only from inferior kindM of flax and heinp, called tat. 
t See Hallam's Middle Ages, and Taylor's Modern Europe, and Roberston'e Disquisition on India. 

®2 aas8 rilL^^vislon HI. 

manufacture at the time it was introduced, so it continues to this day. There is of course 
every allowance to be made in respect of the non-improvement of the apparatus, on the score 
of an absence of the inventive talent in the matter of machinery, and the cheapness of 
labor not making this a necessity ; but what is remarkable, is the non-improvement of the 
description of paper, and the non-utilization of the variety of raw materials which abound 
in the country, as it has been thought that there is not a country on the surface of the globe 
which is more adapted, from the nature and variety of its indigenous, as well as cultivated 
plants, to supply an almost infinite quantity of raw material for the manufacture of textile 
fabrics, of great diversity and commercial value, and from the refuse of which aJone we have the 
means of manufacturing paper. Besides, there are innumerable fibres which, from their 
coarseness and shortness of staple, are unsuited for weaving purposes but still are eminently 
useful for the purpose of paper making. 

The process of manufacture is as follow :— 

The material having been procured, the manufacturer proceeds to reduce it to a state of 
pulp. Ten mauiids of the t4t is cut up into small fragments by means of a common axe, after 
which it is thrown into a vat made of bricks, generally four feet deep, seven in length, and 
six in breadth. In the bottom of this vat at one side of its lesser diameter, is imbedded a 
large block of stone, procured from the beds of rivers ; these vary in size, but are for the most 
^art two feet broad by four feet long, and one and a half to two feet in depth. A portion of 
water, sufficient to wet the whole mass, is then added, and it is now subjected to the prooess 
of pounding. 

This is effected by means of the following apparatus, viz : — » 

A beam made of bibul wood, ten feet in length, and nine inches in breadth and thickness, 
into one end of which is fixed an up-right round piece of wood or pestle, four feet in leng^th and 
nine inches in diameter, and bound at the lower end with iron ; on the under surface of this 
pestle, two teeth, or rather beaters, are inserted, made of iron, and placed parallel to each other ; 
these measure five by tliree and a half inches. Four feet from the pestle end of the beam 10 
driven around piece of wood right through ; this is supported on two notched up-rights driven 
firmly into the ground, and forms the fulcrum on which the lever moves. 

The power is applied five feet from the fulcrum, and the space through which the end of 
the lever traverses is eighteen inches. 

It is worked by six men, three on each side. Tlie lever is depressed by the men simul- 
taneously applying one foot on the beam, and the force is delivered at the pestle, and by their 
suddenly taking their feet off, and in this way the work proceeds. Two men sit in the bottom 
of the vat, and feed in the cut t&t <fec., in small qualities between the beaters and the block 
formerly mentioned. This pounding operation is carried on for three days successively. 

The stuff is then washed and dried, and exposed to the snn for three or four days. It it 
now returned to the vat, and has added to it 100 pounds of 'Vajji " a very impure sub-carbon- 
ate of soda, and 50 pounds of slaked lime, moistening with water at the same time, and 
mixing all well together. 

It is now beaten for eight days more, waslied, and dried in the sun as at first ; then sajji 
aud lime added in the same quantities, beateu for eight days, dried, and exposed as before ; theu 

Class VIIL— Division III. 93 

60 pounds of sajji Is added and 25 pounds of Itme ; again beaten till fine enough, which is 
geuerallj' three or four days ; then washed, and put into the paper making vats. Washing 
tlie pulp is performed as follow :— It is put into earthen vessels or ndnds, at a river side if 
possible, and trodden with the feet, adding from time to time fresh water ; then thrown into a 
sheet tied at the ends round the waists of two men ; they take this into the middle of the 
stream, and allow the running water to pass through the sheet (not over it), shaking at thts 
same time the pulp to and fro ; this constitutes tlie process of cleansing. Tiie pulp is now 
considered ready to be made into paper ; this is accomplished in the following manner, pre* 
misingthat four vats are considered the proper complement to one beating machine. Tlie vats 
are four feet square, and also four feet in depth ; they are filled with clean water, and a quan- 
tity of the pulp is placed on a space at the right hand of the spot on which the paper maker 
squats ; he breaks this pulp up with his hands, and with an earthen cup adds water from the 
vat, with which he washes portion of the pulp into it, this operation goes on until all the pulp 
is got into the vat. He then with a long bamboo diligently stirs it about in the water, giv- 
ing a striking motion every now and then to break up any larger portions ; after this has been 
continued for about an hour, the pulp is allowed to settle down in the vat ; the heavier parti- 
cles of course reach the bottom flrst^ and leave all the finest of the pulp uppermost. When 
this is effected, the paper maker then puts two bamboos in a longitudinal direction from the 
front of the vat across the top. He then takes a barred frame of wood, upon which he puts 
a screen or chick made of fine grass, fixing two pieces of wood at the sides to regulate the 
breadth of the paper, its length being determined by the length of the chick : the usual size 
is twenty two inches long by nineteen broad. He takes hold of this frame in both hands, 
and after passing it frequently across the water, to bring up some of the pulp, he dips it 
vertically into the vat, and then brings it into a horizontal position on a level with the water. 
He moves the frame gently to and fro so as to spread the pulp equally ; raises it, and again 
dips it into the pulp, repeatin<i^ the same process as at first ; he then raises it, and puts a bamboo 
horizontally across the two longitudinal ones formerly mentioned, and rests one end of the 
frame on this, in an oblique direction, the other edge being placed on the side of the vat ; 
tlie superabundant water thus is allowed to escape, and after removing the two small 
pieces of wood from the screen, he turns down the top of it a little, so as to facilitate the 
separation of the sheet, and puts it down flat on the space at his side from where the pulp 
was washed into the vat In this way he goes on laying one sheet on tlie top of the other 
without any intermediate cloth or substance of any kind, until he lias got ten quires made, 
or a '* Gadi," consisting of 240 sheets ; this generally takes him the whole day to accomplish. 

Tliis heap is pressed by means of a board about two thirds the breadth of the paper and 
twice its length, two men adding their weight to this. The board is first placed at one side, 
and the moisture as far as possible expressed, and then it is removed to the other side of the 
upper surface. It is now allowed to remain all night, and in the morning the process is repeated. 

This is all that is thought sufficient before the paper is dried. Drying is accomplished 
thus :— each sheet is separated, and spread by a brusli upon a wall which has been made smooth 
for the purpose. Inline weather this is done in the open air, and then the process is a yery 
easy mattor, but in wet weather, or during the rainy season, it is difficult to get space enough 
to put the paper upon as soon as made in a hirge mauufactory, owiJig to the time it takes to drj. 

W aas8 VIIL—Dimtm IIL 

When dry, the surface wliieh was in co^t^t with tbe^ wall is tolerably, siiK^th, the other 
is still rough ; this roughness is ribbed down where ^lost conspicuous, by pieces of burnt brick«. 
The paper now is ready for sizing. This operation, like all tlie rest, is sufficiently primitive. 
The sheets are arranged smoothly in heaps ; a size made of wheaten starch is applied with a 
kind of mop made of rolls of coarse flannel or blanket, dipped into the starch, and passed 
over tl>e paper ; it is afterwards hung up on lines to dry. 

The paper has still to go through another operation before it is fit for use. This consists 
in polinhing it, which is effected as follows. 

A curved piece of wood, about three feet long and nine inches broad, is fixed firmly on the 
ground, having its concaved surface uppermost (this is generally made of mango wood). 
The workman leans down on his knees, and takes a cloth slightly moistened with oil. He lays 
a sheet of paper on the wood and passes the oily cloth very gently over its surface ; 
he then with both hands commences polishing it with a piece of common agate 
or bloodstone, made convex, and generally about two or three inches long. This stone ia 
imbedded firmly in an elliptical piece of clay, about six inches long, so as to allow a firm hold 
bein<y taken of it with both hands. The workman passes this rapidly up and down the paper 
with considerable force until a polish appears on the surface ; having tilrned the sheet, Mh 

repeats the same process. The paper is now folded, sorted, cut, and made up into quires and 
gadis, two of which make an £nglish ream. The quantity of paper that one man can 
polish, if expert, in one day, is five quires or 120 sheets. 

What a contrast is the result of the present process in England, where successive improve- 
ments have brought the art to such a state of perfection, that a continuous stream of fluid 
pulp is now passed round the cylinders with unerring precision, and not only made into 
paper, but actually dried, pressed smooth, and every separate sheet cut, round the edges, in the 
brief space of five minutes ! 

In the Serampore manufactury alone, it is believed, has, machinery been employed. la 
1625, Mr. Marsliman of Serampore imported one of the famed self acting cylindrical machinea 
of Messrs. Donkin & Co., the celebrated paper-machine makers. But how this has Worked, 
and what have been the practical results, the outside public do not appear to have been at 
any time informed. The official public are however familiar with what is called Serampore 
paper, made from cotton, which is served out to public offices, and is used in matters of an 
e[.hemeral nature. It answers very well for printing official reports and text books, and for 
any purpose not requiring any rough or frequent handling, as it is far from durable. 

Very excellent paper is made at Kashmir. It is particularly smooth and white, and by 
far the best specimen of the collection exhibited. It is held in high estimation all over the 
country, especially at native Courts, and is uHud only for first quality writings and correspondence 
with native Princes and Chiefs. Nothing is known of the process by which .the paper is made 
in Kashmir, owing to the extreme jealousy with which any communication between the 
manufacturers and natives of the plains is guarded. A Kashmiri paper inaker is D ever met with 
out of the territory, as they can leave it .only at their peril, or when bound to .silence laud^r 
the severest penalties. But. therp is no reasop to. suppose that the any tiling 
.different from what it is all over Indi^, the superiority in the texture being, unquestionably 
due to the natural abundance of water and to the . us^ of (nUls moved by streams, auch as 

Class VIIL'-Division III. i95 

existed at Fabriano in the PicQnum, and at Golle in Tui^cany, the Tat-made paper of which' 
places was pronounced " superb " by the Jury of the EngliBh Exliibition of 1851. 

Paper making has long been one of the chief manufactures in Oo?emment Jaila, as afford- 
ing one very appropriate description of " hard-labor, " and ensuring a maximum of profit from a 
minimum of capital. The paper heretofore mada has been of the coarsest kind, the native 
process and materials being used. ' But of late years increased attention has been paid to the- 
subject, and not only has the old description of paper been improved in qtiality, but new 
materials have been laid under contribution, as the marginal* list indicates, with more or lesfr 
suecessful results. 

• PI fib - Q 'rat. ^® great draw-backs which exist, and 

Dhakroot !!.!.. "!!^.!!.!!!"!".V...'......* do. will continue to exist until the subject is 

S^/(S':::::::::::G^™r.nd R.wal Ku,B. r^^^^y taken »p bj European enterpnze, 

GanDi (old) Do. and JbeUm. M *he want of machinery to cut and beat the 

BhSi**''*'' ' '"' Kawal Pindi. p^p fi^^ enough, and of a continuous and 

i)aphne!'//.!. .IkangifiCs^^^^ lihore. regular flow of water to wash it clean enough. 

mroTd)^"^^^^^^^^^ The specimens from the Gujerat Jail 

MAdir Sirsa. attracted special notice, and there is no doubt 

R5S?»';:i;io-^i;ir::::::::: t **>** «^' »**«'''5«" .^•« ^^^ p»'d to the 

subject in this district. In the Bawul Pifid€(»- 
Jhilam and Sirsa Jails aUo, great improvement has been made. 

A large and flourishing native manufactury exists in the district of Sealkote, where paper 
known by that name is ma<le of an excellent quality. The jury are surprised to And none 
of it in the exhibited specimens, nor from Delhi and Ludhianab, where there are private 
manufactories of no mean pretensions. 

The following is a list of the prizes :— 

I. — Kashmir paper, 

••. ) Ij^, Special prize, f By Mr. C. Gordon, 
j value B». 50. < Editor Lahore 

( Chronicle. 

II. — Gujrat Series of papers from i)hak root) „ , * C By Lieutenant 

or Ch'ichira, Gahni, Plantain leaf and > J:'i„^ tT W \ Nisbet, Assjstanfe 
Flax fibre, and Blotting paper, ... ) ^*^"® ^' **^- ( Commissioner. 

HI.— Jhilam— For excellence of manufactures ) 3 shares, ralue Bs \ By Exhibition Prize^ 
cleanness and freedom from blemishes, ... | 30. ) Committee. 

I^.—Qujrat— Paper from old rags, ... ) 2 shares value Es. ) -n j^ 

[20. i ^y ^^ 

V. — Sirsa— For application of M&dar fibre to ) ^ ..g , 

paper making, ... j 

VI««*Bawal Pindi — For skill in dyeing paper, - Certificate. 


96 Class IX. 

cdhaJ^^^ is:. 


Two bpanches of art are involved in the maimfacture of goods of this class. For in 
the first place, the gold and silver hns to be prepared in the form of tinsel, spangles, 
ribbon, thread, Ac. &c., before the embroiderers can use it, and next there is the art of em- 
broidering itself. 

The manufacture of the gold thread, &c., will be considered afterwards, under the head of 
Works in the Precious Metals. 

The bulk of gold embroidery is done with kaUb^tdn, or the common gold thread — a 
body of silk over wound with a thin flattened wire of gold or silver, as the case may be. 
Gold is wound on orange colored or red silk ; silver on white. The former is called kaldbdiun 
surJch ; the other Jcaldbdtun safed. 

There are two principal kinds of gold embroidery ; one of a solid and rich kind called 
'' hdr-choh ;" the other an ordinary and cheap kind of work, being merely a gold thread 
described as " tila kfir " or " klir-chikan." 

Gold and silver embroidery of the kind called " kdr-chob '* is principally employed for large 
and handsome articles, such as cushions of State, elephant trappings, saddle cloths, masnads, or 
carpets spread out before the seats of princes. 

The second kind of embroidery is principally employed in articles of dress, in ornamented 
caps, and in edgings to garments. Chogahs, or long coats, richly embroidered with gold, 
are worn on State occasions. 

At Delhi, a variety of other articles of dress are made up, figured with gold and with 
embroidered borders, — ladies* scarves, ** dopattas,* ' shawls, and various other articles, especially 
of native female attire. Such glitteiing raiments figure greatly at marriages and other 

A number of very elegant articles are prepared on a foundation of net or fine muslin, the 
material being merely worked over with sprigs of flowers here and there. Such fabrics are 
called " butiddr,** and are finished off with a bordering, in which not only embroidery takes 
its place, but fringes, spangles, and pieces of tinsel polished and sewn on to produce the 
effect of jewels, are introduced. Such articles are very brilliant, but are rather outrd^ and gaudy 
to European taste. 

The embroidery of a heavy and rich character is worked upon velvet or cloth, for the 
purposes of jhdls, or saddle cloths, masnads, &c. and which is termed '' Klirchob," is 
so called because the velvet or other material to be worked on is, in the first instance, stretched 
smooth and tight on a wooden frame, — (chob). The frame consists of two stout side pieces, 
the ends of which are perforated ; into the holes are inserted the pieces that form the remaining 
bars of the frame, these are moveable, and held in their places by wooden pegs, and by placing 
the pegs in one or other of a series of small holes in the bars the frame can be enlarged and contract- 
ed at pleasure* To the edges of the cloth on which the embroidery is to be done four flaps of 
stout cloth are next sewn, and the flaps are tightly lashed by string to the bars of the framCi 
and stretched till the whole is tight. The pattern is in the first place lightly printed or stamped 
on the material with a wooden carved block, as in calico printing, or else is drawn out with 
the hand by a brush charged with yellow paint made of hartlil or orpiment* and the 

1 1 lubaequently learned that this is done in the way deicribed at the top of page 99 «y9* 


.1 * 

. I 

*• 'I 

• 1 

1 1 

-.'■■. .1. 

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r * 



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A .y \ 

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Class IX. 97 

workmen commence by working over the pattern in long stitches of yellow silk or thread, to give 
it body and make it stand out in relief; over this the gold tliread is laid down and fixed in its 
place by sewing it down with a fine needle charged with either orange or white silk, according 
as the work is in gold or silver. 

Where a continuous surface of gold is required, the gold thread is laid on in consecutive 
TovfUy generally in a herring bone pattern ; and the foundation or cloth being already worked, as 
above described, wttl; a substratum of yellow thread or silk, it is soft and impressible, and 
thurt tile result \a that the pattern appears quilted on. Variety is obtained by quilting some parts 
in higher relief than the rest ; and also by changing the direction of the threads. Tlie texture 
will be easily seen as well as the method of quilting, by closely inspecting the annexed illustra* 
tion, which repn sents a chdrjama or saddle cover made at Lahore. 

The bulk of the work being in the ordinary gold thread, the rest is varied by the 
occasional introduction of pieces worked over with flattened and waved wires or ribbons called 
"mukesh," * of bright gold, overlaying one another like the scales on a fish : a suprisingly rich 
and gorgeous appearance is thus obtained. A most splendid elephant cover was exhibited of this 
work: the foundation being velvet, the whole of the immense surface was richly quilted over with 
gold and silver, and finished off with a fringe of twisted gold wire two feet in length ; but the 
beauty of these works is familiar to every one who has seen a native durbar. 

The value of the embroidery is entirely dependent on the quality of the gold thread 
employed. If the silk thread is richly and well covered with gold the weight is greater, and the 
woi-k presents a richer appearance; if the silk thread is only lightly and sparsely covered with 
gold, and shewing silk between, the work looks poor. Consequently, when a man commencefli 
a work, he always asks what sort of kal^batiiu he is to use ; how many rupees per tolah it is 
to cost ? 

The art of embroidery in this style does not now flourish. Formerly, in the days of native 
rule and brilliant courts, all sorts of embroideries were in constant demand. Now, in 
British territories, these things are lef^s in demand, and the manufacture would die out all 
together, except for the courts of the native princes that remain, and the demands of a 
few of the wealthier inhabitants. A few men are found in the large cities who can work 
well : they never make anything except to order, and require an advance to enable them to 
buy materials. 

In Lahore and Amritsar there are only a few shops where this work is carried on, and 
even in Delhi, I am informed, there are only about 10 or 12 establishments giving employ- 
ing to about 150 individuals, who are not confined to any particular caste. They begin as 
children to learn. At first, when a shagird or apprentice goes to an employer, he presents 
his master with a dish of sweetmeats, and is then installed and set to work first in thread 
only ; when he has advanced sufficiently, he pays the master a fee of 20 rupees, and then is 
allowed to work in silk or gold thread, till he is perfect in the art. 

Such embroidery as comes into use for ornamental caps, chogahs, and other articles of 
male and female attire, still flourishes, indeed is rather spreading since a number of articles 
for European wear are now made for export at Dehli. 

This kind of embroidery is much less troublesome then the work called k£rchob, for it 
is all done in one operation with the needle charged with gold thread, somtimes plain, sometimes 
in chain stitch. The k&rchob is occasionally employed in embroidering caps, and chogahs. 

* Ths art of making this wire which appears Hlxm^^^^j^^^^^^^m described Airther on ia the book. 


in Kashmir, the embnnderiec are eapocially beautiful, both in design and execution. 

The Kuhmiri enibroiderj reaches its climax in the hand-worked or 'amlik&r' shawls : 
the«4 have alread; been to some extent described. 

They also work floor cloths, and table covers and other articles, with gr«at soccess, 
ftometintei introducing figures of men and animals into their work. 

At Ludliiaiia also, a considerable quitntity of work in colored silk emhnAiery is done, bnt 
principally for sale to Europeans. Slippers, caps, that are worked on cotton or cloth, or merino, 
grounds, in colored silk, both in patterns of arabagque device, or in leaves and flowers. 

One of the commonest kinds of embroidery is that done ou paslimtna olotb, usually in silk 
of the same color. This is principally used iu making ohogahs, and also articles of Eurt^an 

It is best done in Kashmir, whence some rery magnificent ^tecimens are occauonally 
■ecn'; but it is also done with considBrsble success both at Amritaar and Ludbiana, 

This is in fact a kind of braiding done with silk thread, and in a peculiar stitch. It looks 
rich and hanilsome, as the worlc, owing to the tltickness of the silk, stands in ^ght relief on the 
ground maferiul. 

As to pattern, though considerable variety is exhibited, and great intricacy iu com- 
bination, yet the basis of the design is usually the same. One of the most commonly intro- 
duced form is that pear shaped figure, so often seen in shawls, which is called "saro," or cyprasa 
tree, from a fancifuL idea of the form of a cypress,— the slender top beut over by the wind— 
and is a form something like this— 

This form, more or less elongated, is a ground work of many designs, the spaces b«in;. 
Ailed up with sprigs of flowers and leaves; and Ibn^ curved lines "daurij" the bordering 
and edgings are quite conventional and have various names, according to the idea of form which 
has suggested the pattern—one of the names are- described in Moorcroft's accouht of shawl 
weaving qnot«d previously. 

I «n infonned,- in Delhi, that the people have no settled rules as to pattern, but desoribe 
.the variooafanss, as '*sa»,'' and along pattent having a stem and flbwerets branch off, 
"bel" — sprigs " butt, " AOt Ao. There is not much originaUty in design, and tnosVworks 
a« pow executed from copies already made; though a clever workman will vary them. 
Host patterns are merely diff^nt arrangeqieats gf th« irrepressible " saro,'* " bel," and so fwth. 

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Tlie pattern is usually drawn on paper, pricked out with a pin: this paper being 
8titched over the cloth to be embroidered, color— generally yellow orpiment — is put on over 
the lines of pin holes, and small specks of color penetrate the holes, and mark very sliglitly 
the cloth beneath. The em,broiderer then works over the marks. In other cases the 
pattern is liglitly stamped on the cloth by means of a wooden block charged with color 
just as in colico printing. 

Delhi Embroidery. 

592.— [7045]. Scai*f embroidered with 
gold, value Ua. 70. 

603— [7046]. A chadar, or scarf, with 
gold (chadar kalabatunf) value Rs. GO. 

594. — r^^^^- ^ square shawl (r&m&l) 
embroidered, valud Rs. 25. 

595. — [7048]. A mantilla (peshwILr) em- 
broidered, value Rs. 60. 

596— [7051]. A scarf, " dopatta," em- 
broidered, value Rs. 135. 

597.— [7000]. A small scarf, "patka," 
embroidered on pashmina. 

598.— [7055]. Daman alkh&lik. 

599.— [7057]. Madikhil. 

600— [7050]. Angiand kurti, (boddices,) 

601.— [7061]. Embroidered csp with fur, 
** topi samuri.'* 

602— [7062] . Cap, « topa chabba dar." 

603.— [7065]. 'Partla' or sword-beltem- 
broidered in gold. 

604.- [707 1]. Battda " in gold thread. 
These are the peculiar loops and buttons for 
fastening the choga. 
Scarf embroidered in floss silk on net. 
Do. Do. in floss silk on merinor 

Muslin piece embroidered with sprigs and 
flowers in gold : — '* JJUndani.'* - * 


605.— [7088]. Caps embroidered in col- 
ored silk by Ahsan Shah, upon cotton cloth 

606.— [7096]. Mat or flower vaae stand, 
embroidered by Aziz. 

607,— [7095]. Embroidered fan. 

" Zfnposh," saddle cover, 

608^— [7100]. Embroidered purses and 
tobacco pouches. 

609— [ ]. Slippers, embroidered on 
cloth and merino. 


610* — [7152]. Gold embroidered shawl, 
(shfil zar-doz). 



612. — [7155]. Masnad, on velvet, with 
rich gold embroidery (kajchob.). A carpet or 
cover used for covering the throne or dais oii 
which grandees sit on State occasions. 

613.— [7156]. Chogas embroidered all 
over in gold, ( Messrs. Dkvi Sahai and 
Chamba Mal.) 

614.— [7170]. Rampdr scarves embroid* 
ered in silk, " kar-i-sozan." 

616.— [7176]. Embroidered neckties, 
waistcoats Ac, pashmina ground, embroidered 
with silk of the same color, Lahors. 

616.— [7202]. Embroidered velvet masnad 
(kar-chob) exhibited by Raja Harbakb 

617.— [7203]. Zfii-posh, saddle cover, 
( karphob ). 

618.— [7204]. " Jhill," or horse housing, 
embroidered on scarlet cloth, by AsiMrLLAH. 

( The embroidery is gold and silver relieved 
with silver spangles (sife&ra), and ornaments 
of the green beetle-wing ). 

619.— [7206]. Green velvet choga em- 
broidered all over with gold thread, '*zar*doz," 
GovERSiiSKT Toshakhava. This was made 
in Kashmir. 


Class IX* 

620.— [7207]. Masnadof paslmiina, spot- 
ted with gold. 

621.— [7218]. Purple Bilk " angarka,:' or 
frock embroidered in gold thread (* zar-doz '') 

Some of the coarser kind of embroidery in 
cotton and ailk was also exhibited Such work 
is used principally in ornamenting the chadar, 
dopatta, or scarves usnally worn ; the com- 
monest and coarseHt kind are made of dull-red 
cloth dyed with madder, embroidered with silk 
generally in rude flowers in sprigs of green 
and yellow. 

Such are the following : — 
622.— [7247]. Cotton " b^h " embroid- 
ered, value Us. 1-5-0, by Thakue J>a8, 


623.— [7268]. " Phdlkari " ( lit. ' flower 

work ' ) scarf, value Rs. 11 as. only. 

624.— [7250]. Skirt or "Lenga" em- 


This kind ol embroidery U especially notice- 
able among the articles of clothing from 
Bunnoo and the Derajat, aud from these locali- 
ties it is very well executed. The work is 
done with thick threads of floss silk, and is 
worked by women on the bodies of their 
Presses, also on the " chola " or stomacher : 
some of the devices are very quaint. 


626.— [7371]. Square shawl embroidered 
with the needle, " amlikar." 

626.— [737 Jj] A table cover worked in 
figures of men and animals, (chikan-k&- 

627. — [7376]. Square shawl embroidered 
with gold thread (rum^l zei"f-kar). 

628. — [7379] . Khes or scarf of pashmiua 
embroidered with gold thread (zari kar). 

629. — [7382]. Embroidered cap. 

630.— [7390]. Two " lungis ** or scarves 
embroidered with gold or silk. 

631,— [7391]. A saddle embroidered all 
over with silk. 

632.— [7392] . A saddle embroidered with 
gold thread. 


638.— [7395]. "Anga chikni" or em- 
broidered frock. 

684.— [7396]. **Chant»hi zartedar," or 
embroidered red coverK't. 


635. — [7413]. Specimen of embroidery 
in gold thread. 

636.— [7415]. A "chop" or woman's scarf 
embroided in silk, ( kar-i-chikau ). 


637. — [7423]. A piece of muslin worked 
with silk. 

638.— [7224]. Muslin and spotted with 
gold and silver. 

Sozni, bed cover— Kashmir. 

This is a favorite kind of work. It consists 
of a double surface of cotton cloth slightly 
padded and quilted down, not in square*, but 
in curved patterns of flowers Ac. The qnilting 
work is done with pale blue or )>ale pink silk, 
and the rained parts of the work sometimes 
appear to be tinted !»y having a colored cloth 
below the outer surface, the color of which 
partly shows through the white. 

This work is best done in Kashmir ^ bat 
also at Lahore, Amritsar, and elsewhere. 

The fidlowing are specimens of embroidered 
leather : — 

Most large cities have workmen who 
embroider shoes and sword-belts. At 
Kasdr, in the Lahore district, there is an 
embroiderer who has cArried off more than 
one prize at Local Exiiihitions for his em- 
broidery in plain gold thread, or in gold 
thread and colored silk worked on leather, 
aud for his embroidered saddlery. 

[7001]. Sword brlt.^ by lUMiMALof 
Delhi. Specimens also from Ainrilsar, 
Uushyarpiir, Ludhiana Ac., &c. 

[8712]. Saddle trappings, of gold 
and velvet by Mustakim of Kasub (Lauuicje 


[8073]. Letter bag elegantly em* 
broidered in gold and silver thread. 

[8174]. A gold embroidered belt, 
and leather powder tiask (belonged to tlitt 
late Raja Teja Sing ) 

(For an account of Horse. Camel and Ele- 
phant Trappings, see Chws XI— Llaxusk). 

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Class X. 101 



Tills class is designed to embrace those specimens which are always to be met with in 
museums, having been brought by travellers, or sent in by collectors who have intuitively 
Almost, taken them up as indicative of the rellgioa, manners, dress, food, habits, and capabilities 
of the people they have visited. 

To some extent the whole volume furnishes an ethnographical sketch, inasmuch as the 
various manufactures are all more or less special : the fabrics, th'e vessels, the pottery, th^ 
jewellery, the fine arts, all exhibit some peculiarities, but there are neverthieless a few articled 
which might Ue called ethnographic specimens, as specially illustrating the habits of thd 
people. A large portion of these specimens exist in forms of clothing dnd costume mbre or 
less remarkable, and hence the prominence given in the heading to *' Articles of Clbthing^.'* 
The Punjab territories are made up of tracts of country so wonderfully different in climate, 
physical appearance, and geographical position, that it is not surprising to find the utmost 
difference between the various races inhabiting the province and its environs. 

In the hill country we have all the varieties of Indian and Thibetan raceii ; thd districtf 
of Kangra, Simla, Ladak, Lahul, Spiti, Kandwar, Kashmir, Kagh&n, and Kabul, all furnish us 
with ditfereuoes of dress, appearance, manners, customs, and implements of trade, art, dr religion. 
In the plains we have all the distinctions of Kashmirii^, Biluchis, Pathans, Hitldus, and Moha- 
medaus, Hindustanis and Centrallndiaus. Among the Hindus again we have different castes, 
and all sorts of people who belong to no caste at all : Gipsies, Chiiras, Oh^ngars, and the like* 
All these exhibit, more or less, differences, and especially in their dress. 

I have expressly avoided all mention of such physical pectiliarities^ as Ethnologists lay most 
stress on, viz: conformation of the skull, height, carriage, strength of fdrm, and so fbrth; 
such matters could not form a portioii of a work like this ; indeed if they cotild be 
l^itimately included, I have neither space to give to the delineation nor knowledge to complete 
it. For a similar reason, peculiarities of language are not here noticed, save incidentally in giv» 
ing the local vernacular names of the articles described. 

All that can be attempted under my present heading is t6 describe those articles of dress^ 
and other objects of manufacture and art, which are ethuographically interesting. 

With this preface 1 may now proceed to an ent^meration of the collection. The first series' 
are dresses of castes &c., inhabiting the plains. 

We have first two clashes of them : those who are agriculturists, and those who Ihre in 

The former will be found principally to include the following classes, vis. Sikh Jats, 
Mussulman Jats ; Baiens, Dogars, Qujars, Brahmans, Bajputs ; but in some places there are 
some considerable aggregations of castes called Lubllnas, excellent agriculturists, who, in the 
Lahore district are much collected together along the banks of the Bavi, and they have a dialect 
so peculiar as to be with difficulty understood by ordinary people. Kambo is another rather 
prevalent Hindu caste in some places, so is the Arora. In the Frontier districts we have 
different races altogether : Wazfris, BiMchis,* Afridis, Pathans, See. These will appropriately form: 
a class by themselves. 

102 Class X 

In the districts just below the hills, and in the lower hills, Rajputs predominate. 

Besides these regular cinsses, all over the country other classes are to be found, the enamef* 
ation of which is not within the scope of this work ; but, as far as dress is concerned, t)i9 
several classes of persons who have more or less distinctive dress and occupations, as Fakirs, 
Nais ( Barbers — who also arrange betrothals ), Mirdsis, wandering bards ; also the verv low 
castes, Bhangis, Churas, and others, are to be met with everywhere : but they generally ar« 
rery poor : they wear very little clothing at all, and nothing at least that deserves the nara« 
of a distinctive costume. 

In the cities, we have besides the native gentry, Hindu and Mohamedan, Khatris, and 
shop-keepers of all classes, banyas and various Hindustani traders, Sikhs, Mussulman Kaslv- 
xniris, Munshis, to say nothing of all those individual traders and occasionHl visitors who 
represent castes and tribes having no local domicile. The dresses of such will be described. 

Costumes of Lahore, Amritsar^ and other similar districts. — In the cities, Mussulmans 
of the higher rank generally wear an angarka, or coat with a skirt, the body fitting 
tight: over this a choga ; in cool weather this may be made of figured muslin or 
else, of silk, very gay colors being ofben selected ; in colder weather embroidered pash^ 
mina, or European merino, or other warm material is made use of. White stockings are 
worn, and shoes of fine leather, more or less eml>roidere<i with gold ; white or colored turbans 
are worn according to custom. The ordinary class of respectable Munshis will wear a simi- 
lar dress, but without the gay colors, generally a plain white dress ; if any part is colored it 
is a scarf Ac, of the printed muslin which in Europe is only used for female dress. 

When trowsers are worn they are usually narrow and long ( Qhar&radir wa tang). Bat 
some classes of Musulmans wear loose trowsers, and Hindu merchants, slmp-keepers and others 
wear a waist-doth or dhoti of white cloth, sometimes with a red printed edg^ ; this is worn so 
as to fall in folds on each leg, and fastened up in the middle and tied round the waist. 

Females wear loose trowsers, a sort of shirt or kurta of fine cloth, and a large ' dopatta ' 
or scarf, which is gracefully folded over the head and covers the whole body almost. 

Kashmiris are abundant : those who trade, and are called S£dhu, wear dresses like other 
merchants ; their females wear a long shirt or kurta, trowsers of siisf, blue striped with whit^i, a 
small cap on the head, and a veil called ' burka.' * Their shoes are of red or green leather, of a 
somewhat peculiar shape, and called * kaush ; ' other Kashmiris who work as shawl weavers 
Ac. generally shave their heads and wear a small quilted skull cap and loose trowsers, oftea 
wear no clothes on the body at all, except perhaps a dirty chaddar or wrapper ; they are nearly 
always very dirty. 

Jul^ and weavers and many other working people wear instead of trowsers, a 'tahband' or 
sheet worn round the waist like a skirt and tied up in a knot in front of the waist. 

Of Hindu castes : among the Munshis, Kashmiri Pandits are common ; they wear 
white angarkas and chogas and turbans like other Munshis, and black leather shoes. The 
wealthier classes wear a white angarka, and sometimes for a wrapper a silken scarf with gold 

* The hurka it not a veil bat a bag^, like a bottle cover on a largret scale. It constats of a cylimlrical 
bag for tbe head, baving boles cut out, and covered with net work to see and breathe throiifrh : wbilo 
Attached to the head bag a pleated skirt covers the whole figure downwards : the woman so encased looks 
Ikis a maminy, and is of coarse invisible to eyes profane. The whole dress is made of coarse white doUu 

dla&s X lOS 

border, or a shawl, and these also wear ornaments round the neck, and gold karas or hracelets. * 
The Hinda shroflPs or money cliangers (sardf ), the cloth seller ( bazaz ) Ac., wear * dhotis* 
or large sheets tied up into loose trowsers, close folded pagris of white, or often pink 
cloth. NoMriycuif a class of traders from Bikaulr and thereabout, wear a very long turban 
of red cloth and a white dhoti, which is worn like other Hindu dhotis, but is confined by a 
silver chain girdle furnished with a clasp ; the ends of the chain are visible and hang down 
for ornament ; such a chain is called ** tardgi." The Hindu castes of Kayaths called 
' Bharpuiija' ( literally grain roaster ) ; also engage in mercantile and clerks' business, some- 
times they wear a cap, and sometimes a turban. 

The Sikh gentlemen wear trowsers tight fitting round tbe calf of the legs ; they wear also a 
kurta or shirt with a scarf round the wai.'^t, and some adopt a ohoga, others wear a khes or 
scarf : they otten wear a double turban, as presently described. 

Sikh ladies wear a kurta. of silk or fine muslin ; trowsers, which are tight and made of 
striped silk or gulbadan ; sometimes a skirt or lengd is worn over this and the usual scarf 
or dopatta of fine muslin, which covers the head as well as the body. 

Sikh villagers generally wear very little clothing. They will wear a coarse pagri. and a khes 
or chaddar for a scnrf ; — and often wear short drawers coming down to the knee, or else 
a sort of ' tahband ' or waist-cloth. The women wear a skirt or leng&, a chAdar, generally 
of red coarsff cloth embroidered with rudely executed sprigs of flowers in (;reen and yellow 
silk, — some also wear a *'choli" or sort of stomacher, which generally leaves the'arms bare and 
also exposes part of the body down to the waist. 

Among the Sikhs, the class called Nihangs or Ak&Us should be noticed*:*very few are now 
to be seen, but the}* dress entirely in dark blue ; having a high peaked turhan, which carries 
tliree steel flat ring* — the war quoit of ancient Hinduism — and also certain'short knife-like 
pieces of steel stuck into the body of the turban. They wear a large iron flattened ring round 
the neck and iron rings on the arms. 

The villagers usually at work wear nothing but a coarse *patka' or turban, and just such 
a waist>cloih or '* safa," as serves for a covering, f If coming into town they put on a chadar, 
or wrapper. They wear shoes of stout coarse leather called " dhauri." The women wear 
a lenga, or skirt, sometimes coarsely embroidered, and pajamas or loose trowsers generally of 
sdsi (already described). Some classes of Mussulmans, Malis and Itaefns, wear dark blue cloth 
instead of white, and a waist cloth tied in front like a tight skirt. 

The better class of villagers and the headmen or lumberdars wear white turbans and a 
white shirt, also a khes, also probably a well woven lungi for a wai&tcloth, or a white cloth 
of better texture than usual. 

I will only add to this note a word or two concerning turbans. 

Hindus, especially banyas and shop-keepers, wear a " pagrf,*' which is a turban closely 
bound in regular folds on the head, and the proper binding of it is an art in itself. 

Others who do not wear the pagri choose a loose full turban wound on without any 
particular care, and called " dastlir." 

* I slmll describe the jewellery of tbe country in its proper place. A Kara is a thick ring which 
not a complete circle, but tbe two ends are brought together and beut op^n to put on. 

t CaUed by Uinaus " laugoU." 

U)i^ Clq9S X. 

Sikhs sometiqieB wear the pagrl, sonoetixnes the " dasUi^" but Sikh gentlemen ofteo wetr » 
double turban. 4 ^^^^^ close fitting, turban (colorisd) called " s^fa " coidps down over th« 
forehead, and a loose d^st&r, generally white, or of a diffibrent color to the safa, is so dispofedas 
tp shew a little bit of the latter underneath and just oyer the forehead ; tlie effect, when the cdors 
^re^W®^ assorted is pleasing. 

Mohamedi^ns wear a dastlir usually, or else a large? and loosely folded turban of shawl or 
Bcarf material ; tliis is called " am Ama '* or '* shuinla ; " the large turbajis formed by endless 
coils of muslin tightly twisted into a rope are called by the same name. 

I now proceed to give extracts which describe the dress and habits of the people in special 

The Ambala Disfript — The dress of the men consists of a turban, twisted round a skull 
cap ; a dhoti, or cloth fastened round the waiRt, and drawn up between the legs ; slices ; and 
in the cold weather, a sheet or counterpane stuffed with cotton. Only a few of the better, 
dressed men wear the chapkan (jacket,) or qifrzai (coat,) so common in the proTincfk. 
The fact is that only a few of the zemindars have hitherto been sufficiently well off to afford 
these luxuries. Those who can afford it wear a thin cotton jacket, in the hot weather aik|> 
rains, and one of dyed cotton stuffed or padded, in the cold weather. 

S^e Sirsa DUtriet, — ^The principal castes in the district wear dress as follows : — 

Sikh Jats wear a turban (dastir), a kurta, a short coat or jacket, a short cloth worn 
round the loins called " kach," and over all a *' khes " or *' chidar " as a wrapper. 

The women of this class wear on their heads the " orna,*' a sheet sometimes embroidered 
on the edges with silk ; a '* kurti " or chemise ; and paijamas of which the lower part fits close 
round the leg, but being very long is gathered into folds or wrinkles ; this article of clothings 
if called '* suttan " pr '' pi^ijama c^uridiir ;*' a skirt is superadded called " lenga ; " the richer 
classes, hltve tins of silk, or '* mungash&ri " (uuxed cotton and silk). 

Another caste Ls called " Bajnv" They wear a sdfa.or short turban. (The dast4r ia i^ 
very long cloth, wound round the he:vd ; some classes wear a dast^r of one colour, and wind 
the shorter turban or safa of another colour innide,^ only leaving a little piece of the color 
exposed). In this district the**s6fa'* is called " potaba." The body is covered by a 
"kamri, *• or short coat reaching to the waist (kamr), which is the same as an "angarka" 
only half the length ; it opens down the middle and fastens by strings below the . breast ; 
below this is a " dhoti " wound round the loins, and hanging loose about the legs. A 
" chddar " is worn over all, or a shawl oLwool ( lohi ) in cold weather. The women wear an 
•• orna/' a^ before, and an ** angya, " a small stomacher covering the upper part of the person 
only. A skirt or " lenga " complete^ the di-ess. 

The next caste is the '* Bishnavi." The men wear clothes like the Bajra Jats, — tb^ 
women wear a head veil or sheet always of wool, — either in the form of " orna " or ** lohi," — 
a wQoUe^ stQixkach^r or '' angya, '' and the skirt with its tying string ( called dhaila) is al^ 
of wool. 

Class X. 108 

Bmhmans, Arniras, Bak&ls, fte., wear a dasf6r on the head, on the body an '' anga *' 
Wore dtMcribed, and around the loina a '' dhoti " — and as a wrapper, — a '^ khee/* '* dbhar*' 
( doable dhect ), *• dotahi/* " chadar " or blanket ** lohi •* according to the season. The 
women wear th» same dress as the rest ; they call the *' lenga," ** gagra.** In the Punjab 
proper there ia a diffePenoe ; the " gagra ** is r cheaper or common kind of *' lenga.'* 

The Mussulmans, Lohanas &c , wear on the head a pagri (dastar) and some a saUrf-^ 
( a cloth, which is white striped vfith blaw4c lines. ) Some of then wear on the body aa 
anga, others nothing. — round the waint they wear a '* taimat *' or taiwand ( ausweriag to tW 
*' dhoti *^ of the Hindus ) and over all a ** lunghi ** or a chadar. 

Women wear the usual head sh(>et or veil, "oma.*' — on the body the angyaor kurta,, 
and either tlie *paijamas " or *' lenga, " or in cold weather both, 

TkA Shahpur District^. — The every-day dress of the male portion of the Mahomedan popu« 
lation living north of the Jhelam river consists of Ibur garments — a " mujla,*' a.*' kurta," a **ch4- 
dar," and a " turban," or *' pag " a^ it \a here called. The first is a piece of cloth about three 
yards long and ayai-d and a half wide, which is tied tightly round the waist, and allowed to hang 
b loose folda over the lower part of the body. The " kurta " is a full-cut tunic, with large 
open sleevea reaching a little below the waist. The '' ch&dar " is made of three breadthr of 
€loth, in length about a« many yards, and is worn something in the manner of a plaid. Of 
Vie turban notlungfiirther need be said^ than that its site depends much on the social 
positjion of the wearer, and increases with his importance. Soutli of the Jhelam the " kurta ** 
ia diftqarded> in the B&r it is never seen» indeed the man who' would wear such a garment 
there must be posMMsed of more than ordinary moral* courage to endure the jokes that would 
certainly be made at his expense. The material of which this simple clotliing is made, is the 
ordinary coarse country cloth, except that along the rivers, especially ihe Chenab« colore^ 
lungis are often used^ as '^ mujlas.'* The '^ Kaliars,*' the chief camel owners of the Shahpdr 
Tehseel, &re also much given to wearing '* lungis.'* The Hindus to a gi>3at extent follow 
tiie faahions of the Maliomedaiis among whom they liv«y in regard to the u.««e of the ** kurta,* 
but their mode of tying tlie turban is somewhat different, and the '* dhoti" replaces the 
*'mujla," the difference between garmenta being -in the> manner of putting them on. 

The Mahomedan women also wear the " mujia/' (tying it somewhat differently to the 
men), and this is usually a colored '* lungi."' Their other garments are two, the "choli,** 
and the "chadar.'* The former has short sleeves, and fits closely round the breasts, leaviiig 
the remainder of the budy bare, except where a small lappet hangs down and hide? the 
stomach. The *' ch6dar '^ is a piece of cloth about three yards long and one and a half wide^ 
worn aa a veil '.over the head and upper part of the body, from which it falls in graceful folda 
nearly to the feet behind j The '* choli *' is generally made of strips of many colored silk^ 
the'^ch4dar" of % coarse but thin description of country cloth called " dho tar," sometimea 
dyed) bat- more often plain. To this the '^ Thai " is an exception, wliere veils of many colors^ 
the patterns fi)rmed by spots disposed in a variety of ways on a dark ground, are the rule. In 
the bills, colored garments are scarcely ever seen. The Hindu women of the Khatri class 
wear, full txowsers called' '''«uttan," made of a striped material called " susi," the ground o£ 
which is usually blue. Over the head is- a thrown a ** chddar " of coarse cloth, prettily 

* From Major Davies' Settlement Beport. 

lOe Clns$ X. 

embroidered in many colored gilka, called " phullcari," and round the upper part of tlie bodjr 
18 worn a loose " kurta " of silk or muslin. The women of the " Arora " class are dothed 
like the Khatranis, except that in place of the trowsers, they wear a skirt called a " gagra," 
imd sometimes the" mujla." It may be added, that it is the invariable rule, even 
Mahomedans, that a girl shall wear a " kui-ta," and plait the two front tresses of her liair, 
until she is married. 

For the costumes of hill districts, and those about the foot of the mountains the following 
series will serve as descriptions. 

Tn Hushyarpur, the Jats. Raifts. Musulman Rajputs, and Hindu Rajputs, Gnjars, Brab- 
mans, abound. The Gujars and the Hindu Rajputs and Hrahmans are mostly in the hills, and 
the Gujars are here described as peacable and quiet, unlike other districts where they are 
the reverse, — being great thieves of cattle. 

The costumes of the plain-dwellers do not differ from the foregoing descriptions. For the 
rest the following extract will supply information. It is taken from Barnes* Report. 

Kcmgra DUtrict, — " 291. The ordinary clothing of the poorer classes are, for the men, a 

* topi • or skull cap, for a turban is seldom or never worn, a *kurti* 
ClotMnff. Men. ^^ ^^^^ reaching to the waist, or a *cholu' which is afsimilar 

garment only extending somewhat lower, and * kach ' or breeches, for long trowsei-s are not 
" in vogue. In addition to these three articles, the peasant usually carries with him his 
•* * pattu ' or blanket, which in hot weather he twists as a turban to defend his head from the 
** rays of the sun, or in winter wraps round his body, as a highlander flings his plaid. 

" The frock and breeches are usually made of cotton woven by the village weaver or 
" julaha, and cut and sewn into shape by the village ' sui ' or tailor. The pattu is of home 
** texture, generally in alternate squares of white and black wool, the only variety being in the 
'* size of the squares. In the rains people travel about bare*foot, as the wet weather spoils the 
" shoes, but in all other seasons they usually possess a pair of slippers or * jiita.' 

*' The higher classes of course wear whatever they please. Their clothes are usually made 
*' of English fabrics, and formed into shapes to suit the fashion or pleasure of the wearer. 
^ The only peculiarity is that the ' kurti ' is commonly retained by all, and in the head- 
" dress they all shew great coxcombry and taste. 

" Two or more turbans of different colours are artistically mixed together, and bouikd 
** round the head so as to -display the colours to advantage, and to fall in heavy yet graceful 
" folds over the right ear. The usual mixture is a red ground with a white exterior turban, 
** and the effect is always becoming. Like all other fashions, it is sometimes ludicrously 
" exaggerated, and I have seen as many as seven turbans of different hues, not Yery judiciooslj 
'^ chosen, wrapped round the head of a hill dandy. The hill people are also v^ry fond of 
*^ wearing colored vests and scarfs. They also adopt the effeminate habit of wearing ear-rings 
** of gold, graced sometimes with pearls, and those who can afford it will display gold or 
^ bracelets, and necklaces of beads alternately with gold. 

Class X. 107 



** The female dres* is also very picturesque. On ordinary occasions they wear the 
^ ^^ * g<^gra * or petticoat, the * choli ' which covers the breasts, 

** and the ' suthan ' or long trowsers, with a * dopatta * or mantle 
•• to form the head dress. In the winter they adopt a gown, called * doru ' which covers the 
^ whole body, fitting close under the neck. For ordinary wear, these garments are all made of 
** simple colors and are both modest and becoming. Bat on gala days, though the habili* 
** mentH are the same, the texture and colors are strikingly altered. The petticoat is adorned 
with printed silver or gold patterns, which set off the extremities, or the whole garment is 
made of streaked colors tastefully associated. The ' dopatta ' or mantle instead of being a 
simple white is transformed into a pink or yellow scarf. The ' choli ' is made of equally 
«' gay material, and the person is ornamented with various articles of jewellery. The nose ring 
** or ' b&lu ' is the most common ornament. Every woman who is not unmarried, nor a 
*' widow, displays this piece of finery. It is a sign of married life, and shews that the wearer 
'^ still rejoices in the society of her husband. The lower clas:«es are restricted to silver, other- 
^ wise the ^ hSl\i ' is always made of gold, in circumference limited only by the taste of the 
** possessor. 

** There is a great variety of female jewellery, which it is rot necessary to detail. The 
* Girth women are very fond of a profusion of necklaces ; some are constructed of coloured glasy 
** or pieces of porpclain ( kaoh ) and beads, the vegetable produce of the forest. This dress is 
** tlie costume adopted by Hindus. The Mahomedan women do not evince such taste or 
** coquetry. They never wear the gagra or petticoat, and very seldom the doru or gown* 
** They restrict themselves to loose trowsers and a mantle. The gown of the lower classes is 
" made usually of coarse chintz. There is another dress, confined, however, to the higher ranks, 
** the paswaj, which is a cotton gown of very light texture almost approaching to muslin, and 
** made of various gay colors". 

Lakul, — The Lahul people wear a dress of which the principal^material is woollen cloth^ 
and which resembles the dress above described. 

The men wear a coat ( chola ), trowsers called '* sutni, ** a waist-cloth '* g^hi, " and 
shoes made of a thick leather sole oblong in shape save that it is extended at one corner to 
nuke room for the great toe, the upper part of che shoe is a net work of string : such a shoe 
is called " pdla." In the very wild parts shoes or rather sandals made of " bagiir " 
grass ( Eriapharum sp: ) and also of plaited straw are used, especially for crossing over 
rocky paths and snowy places. The upper covering of all is a thick '* ch&dar '* or wrapper 
of woollen cloth, fastened over the shoulder by the aid of a kind of brass brooch called 

The scarf that the Lahul women wear is called " pecha." 

JCtfZtf. — ^The Kulu men wear a dress not unlike the Lahulis, the topa, or cap, the g^hf 
or girdle a frook called chola, and also *' khuntf," and other articles the same. 

The Kulu women's head cap is called " dh^thii, " and they also wear a long tail of black 
woollen thread plaited into their own hair like the *' paranda " of the plains and called " jathi.'* 

The shawl or wrapper is called '* dhdmkar, " and the women wear long legging^, which 
being made far too long for the leg are worn gathered in folds round the leg, and this is for 
the sake of warmth in the winter ^ such leggings are called " paunche." 

ICB ClcM X. 

As ornaments weoien also wear enormous ankl«ts, like huge fetters, of sine and lead, 
rudely carved with patteriiB &c. : these are called '^gunkare " and another variety ' kaugnu.* 
The weight is considerable. 

Ztidakh Ckuiame, — The following account is extraieted nearly verbatim from Ounnint^ham's 
Ladakk^ p. 303. *' Tiie men of Ladakh w«ar a cloak of woollen, thick and warui. * * 

*' 7 he cloak is called la-pa^9ka, it is made like an ordinary chog^ or dressing gewn, either 
*' white or * khudrang, ' the natural dirty grey of the wooL it is never washed and never 
"* taken off till it falls ofL 

'* Round their legs firom knee to ankle they have coarse woollen leggings (called rKang" 
" Phying) of felt^ fitting tightly or else wrapped close round the leg and secured by a garter 
*^ (called rKaaig-gDub) which is wound spirally round the leg from the ankle upwards. The 
'* garter ia generally black (a woollen tape) but sometimes red^ On their heads they wear 
" either quilted skull caps, as filthy as their cloaks, or caps of sheepskin witli the wool inside 
'^^aud with a large flap behind which covers the back of the neck as well as the ears. 

" Those in better circumstances have fur caps of the same shape. Their boots artf of felt 
with soles of sheep or goat skin, which are turned up all round and sewn to the felt. 

'* The upper part of the felt boot is open to the ft^ont, and Is allowed to fall over something 
*^ in the manner of the boots worn tn England in Chsirles Il's time. The ** Lamas" wear red 
^ boots, and the others mostly have theirs ornamented with small bits of colored cloth iii the 
•* front. 

'* The Ladakhi women wear a black woollen jacket with a large striped petticoat of many 
** colors (and stamped with a pattern on the stripes) generally green, blue, red and yellow, 
*< reaching below the mid«-leg. Overall they wear a sheepskin witii the wool inside, seeured 
*^ or rather skewered in fro^t by a large iron or brass needle. 

" The poorer classes have the outside of the skin plain, but those in better circumstances 
*' cover it with coarse woollen baize, either red, blue, green or yellow, and with a broad border 
^' always of a different color. The upper classes cover this sheepffkin cloak either with brocade 

or with silk. Their heads are always bare, the hair being arranged in a border of narrow 

plaits which hang round the head like a long fringe. 

" From the forehead over the crown of the head they all wear a long narrow band of 
'' (red) cloth studded with coarse many-flawed turquoises, which hang^ down behind as low aS 
" the waist, and is usually finished off with a tassel of vvool or a bunch of coiJfrtfeS.* The ears 
**are covered by semi-circular wooHeti lappets, fastened to thef hair and edged with broihri or 
** black fur, generally of the otter sbiw, called kundaa, • • • • They aie miad^ coarse 
^ or fine according to circumstaaoes ; for the Ladakhi women seem to pride themselves upon 
** th«.style>o4 material of their >apf ets, just as much as European ladies do upon the fashioa 
** of their bonnets. 

s This it the " perak, " to be clMcribed protently. 

Class X. 109 

Costumes op Spiti. 

It is now time to describe the dress of the remote province of Spiti. Excellent 
illustrations of this will be found in photographs ( which are better than pa^es of letter-press) 
m Mr. Egerton's volume on his tour in Spiti. 

The dress of the men consists first of a pair of boots, of which the foot is of leather 
and the legs of woollen cloth of different colors, first a bit of yeJlow or red, and then a bit 
of black, secured under the knee by a garter. These are called " hlam." The upper garment 
IS a loose coat of thick home-made blanket, with long skirts, belted round the waist with a 
coarse scarf. 

Theyallvear ear-rings and necklacesof turquoises, coral'and amber beads : every one has 
an iron pipe stuck in his belt ; a tobacco pouch with its flint and steel hanging to it ; and a 
little wooden bowl in the breast of his coat used as a drinking vessel. On their heads they 
generally wear a little round cap, but some wear a kind of Scotch cap, the loose top of which 
hangs down over the neck. Youths, except those in high position, ordinarily go bareheaded. 
The women also go bareheaded. The unmarried ones have one or two turquoise beads in their 
hair, but the married ones a most stupendous ornament called a " perlik." * The dress of tho 
women is a long gown like that of the men, and a pair of long loose trowsers tucked into the 
boots, which are worn like men's. They have no pipe or flint, for to their honor be it 
said the Spiti women do not smoke. Wlien working in the fieJds ( for all the farm work 
except ploughing is performed by women ) they remove the perik (which is heavy \ 
from their heads and let it hang down from the two ends, one of which is fastened to the 
shoulder, the other to the belt 

Captain Hay mentions that the large cloth boots being much larger than are requisite for 
the size of the \q%^ the vacuum is filled up withbhiisa, i. e., chopped stmw, or else with wool. 

The women wear their hair in a number of plaits. The men also have their's done up into 
one long plait. Women are not secluded. The Lama has a variety of head-dresses, but in the 
Chinese fashion. The food of the people consists of wheat, barley and pease; they eat yak's 
flesh and make soup of it also. Animals are killed by strangulation to avoid shedding their 
blood. Tea is much drunk but prepared with butter and salt, t 

The collection illustrating the Kangra, Kulu, Lahul, and Spiti dress, consisted of tho 
following : — 

639. — A perdk or women's head ornament from SpitL 

This consists of a long leather strap or cloth strap ending in a double tassel, which 
hangs down from the back of the head ; in front there is a gold, silver or brass fan^haped 
ornament, which comes down to the forehead ; on each side of the face two long ornamented 
tassels hang down, and behind hangs the tail of the per^k, the strap before alluded to, 
Which is covered with large turquoises pierced, and sewn on ; they are not fine stones 

• "R 

Egerton'i Spiti, pag« 20. f Captain Ha^'e Soport. 

110 Class X. 

but large coarse pale blue pebbles full of flaws, and not worth above 5 rupees an oz. : they are 
brought from China. Mr. P. Egerton mentions he had great difficulty in obtaining the 
Bpecimen (an inferior one) which went to the Exhibition of 1864, and even for that 
he had to pay Rs. 80 or X8. Only married women wear these peraks, but every married 
woman must have one \ consequently, as the turquoises are obtained with difficulty, fathers 
have sometimes long to wait before their daughters can be married. 

640. — Hill woman's dress flowered with silver and gold (Kangra and Kulu.) 

This is a scarlet skirt made of imported cloth and covered gaudily over w ith sprigs 
and flowers in gold and silver. It is made by first stamping the desired pattern on the 
cloth by means of wooden blocks charged with a gummy mixture, over this common 
gold and silver leaf is put, which adheres where the gum is, thus forming a pattern in 
gold or silver on the cloth ground. Such gaudy dresses are worn on festival occasions. 

641. — ^Woollen girdle, Kulu. 

This is nothing more than a long rope or rather piece of felt piping which is wound 
round and round the waist for a girdle : it is not twisted up like a rope, but is a smooth 
piece of " piping, *' the wool holding together owing to its felting property. 

642. — Woollen jacket, Kulu. 

643.— Woollen gaiters or leggings, Kulu. 

g44^ — Cap, Kulu. This is a thick ring of felt, which encircles the head, the middle 
of the ring being covered with cloth. Otherwise describing it, it may be said to be a small 
cap of coarse black cloth, the edge of which is developed into a thick roll or ring. 

645. — Coat and Trowsers, (Kangra.) The coat of the whitish blanket seen commonly 
in all the hills from Hazara to Simla. The trowsers are of a thin soft toad-colored leather 
of great pliancy and softness, and are, I believe, peculiar to Kangra ; I have not seen them 
worn elsewhere. 

646, — Shoes of Bagar grass. 

These are a rude kind of sandals paade up of Eriophorum eanndbinum : they are 
bound on to the feet for walking or rather clambering over jagged rocky paths, and narrow 
ridges where the bare foot would be cut, and where the ordinary shoe could not be worn. 

647. — Shoes of hemp called " Shell." The best are made at Plfich, and are ofter seen 
on the road between Kulu and Simla. The sole is either of felt or of hemp made up 

in to a thick mat and shaped t >. j the foot is sustained by a rim of closely woven 

net-work of woollen thread. \ 

648. — Shoes made of wheat straw, Kulu ( vide infra ). 

649. — Dress from Lahul — Revd. H. A. J^esche, and Tara Chand — consisting of a 
man's coat and tix)wsers ( all of wool ) a wom&n's dress, and socks, and shawl, and cap, and 

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Class X. Ill 

a girdle, — also some straw shoes. In Thibetan the woollen cloth is called "rNambu " — ^^ 
nouneed Nambu* 

The warp is of Chan^h£n wool, used on account of the length of hair, the short 
Lahul wool ia used for the shuttle thread. A eoat costs Rs. 3-0-0, the trowsers Rs. 1-4-0, 
the girdle 6 annas, and cap 8 annas. The trowsers are of immense lengthy but this ki 
remedied by wrapping or rather gathering them in folds round the leg up to the knee, for 
the flake of warmth. 

The straw shoes are made by soaking the straw in water^ after which it. is beaten 
with a mallet and twisted into the requisite form. ETeiybody makes his own shoes. Cooliea 
on a long journey usually carry as many pairs with them, aa thej expect to spend days oa 
the march* 

650. — Lama's dress, girdle and shoes. — Lahul, Revd. H. A. Jjescbb, 

This appears to be a mere woollen gown and girdle of the common Orders : the 
superior Lamas and Abbots wear yellow robes on state occasions, and other satin rcbes on 
iv^hich are Chinese figures : their head-dresses are gigantic pieces of carved wood work. They 
are illustrated in Mr. Egerton*s Journal. 

I hare since seen a very curious dress of a Lama of tho Dengpa sect : it 
consists of a jacket of dull red woollen cloth ( dyed with madder ) eaUed stod-ts© 
{pronounced totse ) ; trowsers, a cloak called blagos ( pronounced lago ) ft '^ meditation band,'^ 
which is a broad strip of red cloth, which is strained tightly across the shoulders and helps to 
sustain the devotee in the peculiar stooping posture he adopts when engaged in meditation. 
This belt is called * sgom-thag.' " 

This dress was accompanied by three instmments : one, the prayer wheel, called 
''manuaphanna" ; it consists of a copper cylinder which turns on an axis of iron wire fixed 
into a wooden handlew Sometimes the cylinder is made of silver,^ or ornamented with silver 
letters embossed on it j the cylinder contains a central core of cloth, &c., round which is wound 
the strap or tape on which prayers are inscribed ; the cylinder is made to rotate by jerking it 
with the hand, and as to the upper part a short piece of chain with a weight at the eml 
is attached, when once set going it is easily kept in motion : tbe prayer is supposed to be 
said when the cylinder turns. Prayer wheels of this kind are often set up near vUlages on 
the side of a hill stream and so turned by water-power. Another sacred emblem is a dorji or 

sceptre, a small implement made of a bell metal called, "khro" {pronounced tho). Its 
shape will be seen in the annexed plate. 

A third implement is a blunt dagger, the blade of iron, the ha;ndle shaiped sona/ethiug 
like the dorji and of the same metal ; it is used not for fighting purposes^ but for incantation^ 
and charms, &o. 

661, — ^Woollen cap — ^Revd. H. A. Jjesche, This is a felt hat something like our Eng- 
lish wide-a-wake : it is made either white or black of thick coarse felt, very easily turned into 
any shape, the rim can be worn up of down &c. : these are made by Chinese workmen at 

112 Class X. 

Yarkand. Those sent to the Exhibition had first received a binding round the edge with 
velvet. A cap costs lis. 2, but if made of pashm or shawl wool Rs. 4. 

It w^as interesting to find in the Exhibition among the curious products of the wild 
regions of Lahul, a set of worsted stockings made by Lahuli girls under the superintendence 
of the ladies of the Kyelang Mission. 

Chamba Costumes. 

The people of the Chaurdh district wear the usual greyish white woollen cloth, a girdle of 
dark brown woollen or felt rope ; their head-dress is a tall woollen peaked cap of the same color 
and material as their dress;— the cap has a deep rim which is turned upwards, and the rim 
being cut through in front ends in two projecting points into the top of the cap. The 
people frequently have a string or garland of dried yellow and purple flowers strung on 
alternately with pieces of white talc : this has some religious import. 

The men here, as all over the hills, have rude silver ornaments and great beads of 
amber, sometimes also coral and turquoises of a coarse kind. Samples were sent of a 
cloak or choga, a tall cap and waistband and gii-dle ; these came from Barmaor. 

The women of the " Chaurah " district of the Chamba Hills, wear a small cap of 
cotton cloth, with a triangular peak or tail hanging down behind, a woollen coat, and narrow 
trowsers gathered into folds on the leg. 

In the Pangi district the men wear a short thick grey woollen coat reaching to the 
knees, secured by a heavy girdle, either of woollen rope or of a blanket, wrapped round the 
waist. The legs are usually bare, except in the case of the richer agriculturists w^ho wear 
woollen trowsers. Straw shoes called " pula,*' are universally worn. On the head is a 
woollen skull cap : small necklaces of amber, coral, &c., are worn. The women wear a large 
blanket as a skirt, a broad girdle of woollen cloth, and the body is covered by a blanket 
worn round the breast and with the ends thrown over the slioulders like a plaid and secured 
with brass pins. On their head they wear a high woollen cap, the crown of which is broader 
than the base and hangs over. Their ornaments are large ear-rings, neklaces ^of coral, &o. 
Every woman also wears a large round brass plate suspended by an iron chain, and 
hanging over the breast, a brass bell, and generally a bunch of brass pomegranates, which 
are hollow and jingle together : zinc bracelets or * karas * are also worn. 

The Buddhist villagers of Pangi are rather better dressed — at least the vealthier 
classes. The men wear woollen caps, small ear-rings, and a woollen coat. The women wear 
a cotton jacket with tight sleeves, woollen trowsers, a blanket for a scarf. They also wear 
the bell and the plate, together with an immense profusion of long and short necklaces of 
cowries, beads, amber and coral chains. On the head a small cap lying in folds on the top 
of the head. A silver fan-shaped ornament hanging over the. forehead, and chain and fringes 
descending on either side of the face. Anklets of bunches of brass pomegranates are also 
worn : the * pula/ or straw shoes complete the costume. 

Cla8B X. 113 

The furdiest province of Chamba cousifits of Chota Lahul : the Lahuli costume lias 
already been described. 

Costume of the Hill Tribes of Simla. 

Men wear a long woollen coat, and rather baggy trowsers, tight at the ankles ; a long 
rope or piece of cotton cloth serves as a girdle ; the cap is usually of black woollen felt, 
having the thick edge or ring, such as before described, and which is also worn in Kulu 
and figured in a photograph at page 8 of Mr. P. Egerton's Spiti Journal before quoted. 
Their shoes are of woollen felt with leather soles. 

Women wear a dress consisting of a body and petticoat stitched together, or made in 
one. They do not wear trowsers as a rule — unlike the other hill people. The hair is plaited 
and make into long tails with black wool, the ends being finished off with red wool, and a 
gaudy colored kerchief is thrown over the head. 

The people in the lower Hill States appear excessively fond of dresses covered with 
silver flowers, &c. : all cotton cloth is imported from the plains. 

The Simla collection contained several pairs of shoes, and also snow shoes ; men 
and women's caps, and several excellent blankets. The people here dye their wool with 
madder, <feo., and occasionally vary their fabrics with lines or edgings of i-ed. I have not 
noticed^ however, the check or plaid so common in Kulu. 

Costumes of the Fbontieb. 

Leaving the Himalaya we now proceed to the costumes of the frontier. Any one 
who wishes to gain a good idea of the people themselves and their customs, I would refer 
to Pollock's account of Dera Ghazi Khan ; to the Dera Ismail Khan Settlement Report ; 
to the late Major James' charmingly graphic Report of Peshawur ; and to Dr. Bellow's 
Yusufzai Report; besides the works of Burnes and Elphinstono on Kabul, and to Vigne and 
to Jacquemont's Travels. 

652.— Dera Ghazi Khan. Of the clothing worn in the Derajat I have obtained 
the following particulars :^ 

There are two principal classes, Hindus and Biluchis. Hindu men wear loose paijamas 
called " sharai, " and sometimes dhotis — generally white, but occasionally colored. 
" Angarka" is a long coat reaching down to the knees. " Pairdhan " is an under-shirt 
worn under the angarka ; a wrapper or ch&dar is worn above the angarka, when requisite. 

Dast&rs or turbans are not manufactured in the Derajat. A* ' thfin * or piece of muslin 
is divided into three pieces down its whole length and forms three turbans ; sometimes red 
or pink turbans are worn. A cotton cap is worn under the pagri. 

Mussulmans wear paijamas reaching to the ankle ; instead of these a sheet called 
locally " dedha," or " tiwad" or " taiband," it is worn either dark blue or white. A pairlUian 
or kurti is worn as an under-shirt, and also a chfidar for a wrapper, or else the chddar is 
replaced by a '' patka" or scarf, sometimes embroidered on both sides. 

114i Claw X 

The BildohkweAr loose paijamas with many fokLs, and tiie kurta as before, and the 
chddar or patka. 

Hindu women weai* a pleated skirt called '^ gagra,'' a bodice or Btomachor called 
" chhola," embroidered, and a scarf called •* pochan«'' 

Musstilman women wear either a '^ gagra'' or trowsers^ and a chola or stomacher 
** slnaband," sometimes both, and a " pochan," 

The Biluch women wear a '' kakka " or long bodice in lieu of the chola and 

663^ — Hazara CosTirxB. 

The dress of the residents of the plain country differs little from that of the inhab- 
itants of the Punjab generally. A loose white kurta and flowing paijamas, the latter 
liometimes loose and open at the ankle, and sometimes di-awn like a Turkish trowser, consti- 
tutes the dress of the majority, to which the higher class add a lungi as a girdle and another 
as a turban. The Khans wear the latter embroidered with gold. In the hill country, near 
the border, the garments, both tunic and trowsers, are often dyed of a deep blue, with a small 
skull cap for a head covering. 

The prevalence of the dark blue dress and the blue turban, often with a bright crimson 
border, will strike the traveller in Hazara. On passing through the district from Ahbottabad, 
the people struck me as looking much better dressed than is usual in the plains ; there 
were none of those dirty looking, half naked men, whose costume is made up of nondescript 
pieces of cotton very dirty and ragged. 

664* — Waziei Costume, Banu District, and Banuchi Costumk. 

The following particulars were kindly obtained for me by Mahomad Hayfit Kh£n, 
Extra Assistant Commissioner at Banu. 

The Waziris ai*e the hill people in the territories adjoining the Banu and Marwat 
plains ; the Banuchis are the inhabitants of the Banu plains. 

The people eat wlieat, maize, barley, and bread made of them, and mutton — meat is 
mudi used, also porridge of roughly pounded maize. 

The clothing of the men is as follows : — A turban, dostdr, is locally called " dastur,'' 
It varies in length from one yard to six, and is of coarse cloth; it is usually of a dark bhie 
color, and in the branch clan of Tew^r Khel, red, and in some other clans white : some of 
the Maliks wear turbans of still lai'ger size. 

The next article of dress to be described is the chadar, which in Waziri direct is 
called ''patki," it is usually white and of coarse texture : some few Maliks wear a blue 
^'iungi.** The body clothing or shirt — kamiz — is of three descriptions: the first is made 
of coarse sheep's wool, either of its natural color or white : it is a large loose article called 
^'angarka,'' and on the breast of this shirt the Waziri women work embroidered 

Clan X. llg 

patterns in silk or cotton. Such a shirt is called locally '^ shiri^" and its price ytuies from 
one rupee to three, this is rerj commonly used. 

Maliks and rich people wear "angarkas, " made of white cotton cloth, without 
seams, and which are locally called '^ halka." 

Other clothes are made to fit the body (z. e. are made with seams " chin," and not left 
loose like the rest) — these are called "etkoi," 

Paijamas or trowsers, called in Pashtd "pardek" or "partok>" are worn loose and 
large, and of white cloth ; and in the Masud clan, the poor people and laborers wear them 
made of white wooL 

The women's clothing is thus described :— 

They generally wear on the head a " sipatta" of dark blue color, and made of coarse 
cotton cloth — they locally call this " takral" Old women do not wear blue cloth,, but one 
dyed grey with earth; and young women (as they call them in Pashtti Kiyazmana Shanzai ) 
do not wear a ^'sipatta," but another scarf called "jamai," which is white and embroidered 
with sprigs of colored flowers ; for this a scarf called " lang^i " is sometimes substi- 
tuted. It is a striped cloth, in black and white, and with a silk border. 

The "kurta zenana," or body garment, called in Waziri dialect " khat," isof two kinds : 
one "jal^na khat " and the other " giridana khat/' The first sort ib worn by unmarried 
women, and is loose and seamless, and of red colored "chet" or print; the second kind is worn 
by man-led women. It is made of dark red or dark blue coarse cloth, and is often embroidered 
with silk down the front : the Waziri women work this themselves. Just below the breast 
the skirt commences in a great many pleats, and reaches down to the feet. When these 
women go out on a journey or to work in the fields, <fcc., they tie the end of this skiii; up 
on to their backs. 

The women's trowsers are called " partek " or " pardek ": those for unmarried women 
are white, and for married women are made of "susi." There are several kinds of " susi," 
called " vegamai," " zadr khesh/' " sisar khesh," which are used for making paijamas ; their 
fashion is this, that they fit ti^ht to the leg as far as the knee, and above are loose. 
Children's dress does not differ from the former and is called by the same name ; difiTereuce 
only being made of course in size. Young childrea do not wear the paijamas, they only 
wear a kurta (jacket) and kamlz or shirt. They wear on their feet sandals^ called '' jabli* 
mizri " and '* kalbal chirmi," and exceptionally shoes. 

The food of the Banuchis consists chiefly of barley and Indian com. They rarely 
use wheaten flour, and the females are never allowed this luxury. A singular feature in 
the Banuchi costume is that the men never wear woollen clothes out of doors. In the 
coldest weather they generally appear in linen (cotton) garments, and this not from poverty, 
nor from any prejudice of caste or religion. The only cause they can assign is custom, 
and its origin is not to be traced, ( Correspondence on Settlement of Dera Ismail Khan, 
Sec. 25. ) 

116 Class X 

The Banu people wear dark blue clothes and lungis with a red border. I notice 
the following account of them from Masson's travels (1826 — 1838)* which may be interesting 
to the modem visitor of Bannu. 

" On the same plain as Marwat, the Bannu people have besides a difference in their 
** costume, a smaller stature than the inhabitants of the former place. The Marwati is 
'' generally clad in coarse white linen (cotton), in much the same manner as the Pathans on 
** the banks of the Indus. The people of Bannu wear dark clothing, and are fond of lungis 
*' with ornamental borders. Both in dress and appearance they assimilate with the moun- 
" tain tribes. They are very brave, and remarkable for entertaining an esprit du payi. 
** They are eloquent in eulogiums upon their country, and fhe exclamation * My own dear 
« Bannu 1 ' is frequently uttered by them. ' " 

g55, — Peshawur Costumbs. 

The dress of an Afghan — male or female — ^has been correctly described by the Honorable 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, at page 313, Vol. I., of his "Caubul. '* it may be mentioned hero 
in addition, that the lungi or scarf, of various degrees of cost and excellence, is cominon to 
all, from the Chief or Khan who struts about consequentially, displaying the gold embroidered 
border of his finer scarf, to the humble ploughman, who must be contented with one made of 
the coarsest material, with a border and edging of a difierent colored thread merely. These 
scarfs are of various colors ; but the most common are blue, whether of the finer or coarser 

Amongst the agricultural population, a scarf of the darkest blue, with a deep border 
of crimson and yellow silk gaudily, but not inelegantly, intermixed, is much in fashion and 
sure to be worn at fairs and festivals. The best of these are made at Hangd in Koh^t. The 
prices of scarves vary from Rs. 4 to 100, or more even, according to the costliness of the 
embroidered border. The lungi is often twisted into a head-dress, the border, whether colored 
or embroidered, being conspicuously displayed. It is also sometimes used as a waist-band, 
and occasionally to cover the whole body like the plaid of the Scotch highlander. 
The usual mode of wearing the turban amongst Afghans is graceful and becoming. Ajnongst 
the young men much stress is laid upon the proper twisting up and adjustment of this 
adornment to the head. The most approved are generally worn around a small Persian 
skull cap, the tip of which peers from amidst the compressed folds of the patka. The 
trowsers or " paijamas" are invariably loose : amongst agriculturists, of a blueish grey color 
streaked with crimson. The better classes wear white, or silken trowsers of various colors. 

The dress of the hill tribes is an inferior imitation of that of the peasants in the 
valley. Some tribes have a distinguishing peculiarity, as for instance the Swatis and 
Bonairia who recognize each other at once by certain stripes peculiar to the trowsers worn 
in each country, somewhat analagous to the distinguishing stripes of tartan amongst the 
Scotch highlanders. Amongst the AfridLs who trade most with Peshawur and Kohat, as 

,•" "^ • Vol. I., 97. ' 

Class X. 117 

the Adsunkhail and others, drab or " khiki " seems to have become a favorite color, 
mainly, it is presumed, on account of the concealment it affords to the masses of filth which 
these wild men cherish around their persons. 

The Peshawar collection contains a number of interesting specimens. 

656.— [7645]. Kazlb^hi hat, called " pup^kh." A tall black curly lamb-skin hat 
made of " post barrd sya" (skin of black lamb of Ejar^kal.) 

657. — [7647]. Choga or long over-coat of gram-colored pattu, ( choga pattu 
nakhiidi ). 

658.— [7648]. Choga of camels' hair? Choga kurk. 

659.— [7649]. Choga from. KashgHr. 

660. — [7650]. Khosa Kandahdri. A stout cloak with sleeves of solid white felt.' 

661.— [7651]. A woman's head dress, chauni or par£ndl A long silk band ending 
in gold tassels, used for plaiting in with the hair. 

662. — ^[6532], Small cap of Kandahar, also one from Peshawur. These are small skull 
caps quilted, of cotton or silk, and embroidered — similar caps were sent from Kabul. The caps 
are in various styles, called " Jamrodi, " "Lalpura, " " Peshawar!" : the cap itself is called 

663. — [7667]. Shoes for men and women from Peshawur, Kabul &c. These are often 
of green leather or " kimukht," and embroidered with gold or colored silL 

Postin, a wool lined cloak — " ddlah khafak." — Bad^han. 

Khaftdn of sam&r or Russian fur. 

Postin kirs&k, frobi Bukhara. 

Khaftdn of sanjiib or sable — Russian. 

664. — [7678], Belts containing powder horn, steel and flints, &c. These are very 
curiously embroidered on leather with silk, and contain a retort shaped leather horn, with 
a mouth-piece like an European powder flask, for powder ; a number of tubes fixed side 
by side and cut off slantwise at the mouth to hold shot or bidlets ; a pouch or an appar- 
atus for fiint and steel and tinder, and places for knives, &c. 

665. — [6769]. Clothes worn by dancing girls. Principally a robe with a tight 
body and sleeves, and a skirt rather short and having an immense number of pleats or 
gathers ; and over all a largo ornamentally bordered scarf, which the dancer moves 
about and folds gracefully in different postures as she moves : an immense nose-ring, 
rings, thumb-rings, ankle-rings, complete the ornamentation. 

666. — Paijamas worn by Afridi women. 

667. — Coat and trowsers worn by Yuzitfzai men. 

668. — Shoes made of "patta" or palm leaves, called "chapli." The collection 
also contained some leather shoes called "justah," and another kind called "kufehi," 

669.— [7686]. Caps m^de of gtraw. 


Class X. 

The ordinary dress of the Yuziifzafs consists of a loose kurti or " kamiz," and wide 
trowsers called "partog, " with a "patka" or turban to wind round the head. All are of 
coarse cotton cloth of home manufactuiW; and are frequently worn without a change till in 
tatters. The dress of their Chiefs and well-to-do men is of the same kind, but of better 
material, and of English manufacture. The of dress the women only differs from that of the 
men in the substitution of the " oma " or chequered sheet for the turban. The sheet is of 
the same material and pattern for the whole tribe. * 


Some of these of course wear no clothing at all but a thin bit of cloth for the waist, 
ftnd wander squalid and filthy with matted and rank hair for place to place, staff in hand, 
and with the beggar's bowl often made of a large kind of cocoanut shell. 

A class of Musulman fakirs, called Banawd, wear a sort of white high cap, worked 
over with blue thread, and on the body an " alfa " or white shirt, having no sleeves^ and 
embroidered over with blue thread : this is generally very ragged. 

Baba Ndnak's fakirs often wear a similar dress ; some of them wear an ordinaiy 
turban, except that several lengths of hair rope are bound round it. 

Basdl Shahi fakirs cover their faces with the white ashes of wood ; wear a tall cloth 
cap on their heads, their bodies naked, a waist cloth ( tahband ) and plain shoes. These fakirs 
use spirits and eat meat with broth and rice. 

Sanydais and Udd^ are wandering beggars, who are partly naked, and wear what 
clothes they do wear stained with ochre, and have a bowl in their hands, either of a cocoanut 
shell or of turned wood. 

Bairagis are stationery fakirs, and wear large marks and streaks ( iiha ) on their 

" Jangam" fakirs wear on either side of the pagrls, and in hovX also, three brazen 
concave plates indented at the edges to represent the sun. 

Sarawi or Puj fiikirs are the Gurus of the Bh^bra caste; they always wear ft 
bit of cloth over the mouth to avoid killing any little insects in the air with their breath, 
also they carry a stick headed with a sort of brush to clean away insects from being 
trodden upon : they wear no shoes. 

* Bellew'fl YuBufzai, page 215. 


Class X. 119 




Ceniral Asia. — (A Lama of the higher order) — A flowing tunic of dark blue satin, with 
veiy long sleeves like a modem barrister's gown, the sleeves having broad stripes of green and 
scftrlet silk. An apron of blue satin hangs in front, on which is worked the head of a huge 
dxagon, his gaping mouth and fierce eyes being very prominent ', over the shoulders hangs a 
sort of cape hanging down in a point before and behind. It is in fact a square bit of brown, 
satin edged with yellow, with a hole in the middle for the head. 

A L£ma of an inferior order has a dress of common red woollen cloth dyed with 
madder or kuami root ; it is a long gown reaching to the feet, secured by a girdle of woollen 
cloth; a scarf of woollen cloth is worn : his head-dress of red cloth, being an immense 
head-dress like a very large Scotch bonnet, projecting in front. On gala days a Ldma wears 
a peaked red cloth cap edged with fur (foxes skin), and has the boots of cloth already 
described. The implements of a Lima are also held in the hand — the dorji or thunderbolt, 
and saored knife. The most curious article of the Lima's dress is his pocket handkerchief, 
a piece of thick woollen cloth about H feet long and 8 inches broad, dark colored, but 
striped across with white, blue, red and green. In his girdle he carries an iron pen case 
containing a pen, viz., a slip of bamboo. 

A Bfilti man is plainly dressed in a grey or dirty white woollen suit, a tunic with belt, 
and pyjamas all of the same material ; shoes like list slippei-s, all made of wool : ho has 
a black skull cap. 

A Balti woman's dress is not represented, except by a cap of red woollen cloth hanging 
down in a long peak or tail behind. 

There are two Ladakhi men's dresses : one sent from the Kangra district has 
pyjamas and tunic of whitish woollen cloth with a woollen shawl ; a leather bag 
to hold food, a rude tobacco pipe, a pouch for flint and steel, and a knife or dagger 
m a wooden sheath completed the Lad^khi's requirements. His cap is of brown wool some- 
what rolled up by way of a brim : the top of the cap is red. A plume or bit of artificial 
flower is stuck in the cap, made of bits of talc and dried flowers tied on to a slip of 
bamboo. His feet are bare, or he wears grass shoes. The other dress, a Ladfikhi 
shepherd's,* sent by Dr. Cayley, has a long coat with red facings, no pyjamas, but bits 
of felt bound round the leg by goat hair laces; boots of grey cloth with leather 
soles, ornamented by a triangular bit of purple cloth over each instep. The girdle 
is a black woollen fringed one : his dagger, pipe, &c. ho carries like the other. Two 
caps were sent, both like long bags, which, placed on the head, hang down on one 
side like a night cap; one is of soft black cloth, the other of brown cloth with a pattern rudely 
embroidered on the front. 

The Ladakhi woman's dress sent from Kangi-a district has a coarse and thick coat of dark 
brown wool, and pyjamas of the same ; her feet are protected only by grass shoes : a gii-dlr 
of woollen cloth completes her attire, and she wears on her head the pcrdk. 

120 ClOBB X. 

The Ladakhi woman's dress sent by Dr. Cayley appears to be a winter dress : the gown, a 
body and skirt, is made up of strips of cloth alternately dark red, dark blue, black and dingy 
yellow, and printed with a pattern. She wears a woollen girdle, from which depends a 
"chatelaine" of strips of leather with tassels of cowrie shells, also a very long string with an 
immense bunch of goats* hair tassels reaching down to the ground — ^sometimes this last is 
suspended from the head ; for a cloak she has a square shawl of thick sheep skin, the fur 
worn inwards. The outside is covered with rod and gr6en cloth. The head dress consists of 
two large lappets of black fur over each ear, and kept in its place by the hair being bound 
round and round in plaits : she wears the per6k, and, in front, jingling ornaments over the fare- 
head. Woollen boots, the tops the same material as the dress, completed the costume. 

The Spiti dress has already been described, but I will describe the dresses in the 
Museum. The woman has loose red trowsers of woollen cloth ; clumsily made boots of leather 
the tops being of wool. Her tunic is black and short, confind by a red girdle, all the red 
being a dull madder tint ; over her shoulders a small woollen kerchief ornamented at 
either end with a fringe and a border of large white spots : on her arms are bracelets 
made of circles of white conch shell. An immense necklace of white beads also cut out of 
shell is round her neck, and a smaller necklace of large liunps of crude amber and turquois 
with coral beads between ; on her head she has a per&k. 

The Spiti man has boots like the woman's, no pyjamas, but a long woollen coat 
reaching to his ankles ; his cap is a little skull cap of red, with a black border. 

A woman of Ydrkand's dress was sent by Dr. Cayley. It consists of white 
cotton pyjamas fastening at the side, while the man's fasten in front ; a tunic or vest 

of the stiff Ydrkand silk of curious pattern — crimson with white blotches edged round 

the neck and at the opening with a band of green silk ribbon, two or three bars of which 
green are also sewn on to the body of the tunic over the left breast only ; as a girdle she 
wears a white kerchief embroidered with silk, and over all a choga of Russian print ; her 
boots are like small Wellingtons, the tops of pale leather with a black border, the lower 
leather of darker color, ornamented by a strip of green leather over each instep, and a 
crest of green floss silk down each foot; under the boots large felt socks are worn : a small 
skull cap of black cotton, prettily embroidered with silk, covers the head in summer^ and a 
thicker cap, lined with fur, in w^inter. 

The Chamba State sent some articles of dress from Barmaur. The dress 
consists of a thick grey woollen coat called chui (choga), with a long twisted 
dark brown girdle of goats* hair — the hair generally felted together into a solid rope 
or piping \ fi;ray cloth trowsers are worn, or, when the snow is on the ground, the legs are 
wrapped in strips of woollen cloth. The cap is of grey wool, peaked with a flap to cover 
the back and sides of the head, but generally w^orn turned up against the peak : the flaps 
turned down are worn in mourning for a relative. A kalgl or tuft of pheasant's feathers is 
sometimes struck in the cap, as in Kulu ; also a * bid ' or bunch of flowers, made of pieces of 
tide tied to bits of stick, or dried red and yellow flowers, forming a primitive idea of 
artificial flowers. 

Class XL 121 


Three classes of leather are to be met with in the Punjab : one the country leather, 
bulls,' calves,* buffalos' hide, goat skins, and occasionally camels' hide, with some few others 
of local manufacture. The other includes leathers from Kabul and Peshawur. The third 
consists of European imported leathers. 

In the Ist class there is little to notice in a manufacturing point of view. The greater 
part of the leather produced is thick and hard, but of strength inferior to European. The 
process of tanning is uniformly rude and troublesome, though the results are occasionally 
satisfactory as regards softness of the hide. The slow process by which the skins are allowed 
to soak for days together, only to receive another soaking when the first is done, is the best 
calculated to produce a pliant and supple le'ather, and is quite suited to the slow, patient, and 
sedentary habits of Oriental workmen. 

Bullocks' hides yield the strong leather used for shoes and general use ; buffalo hide, 
the thickest of all, where great strength is required ; goat skins furnish thin leather and 
camel hide is rarely and locally used — Delhi being the only district which sent a specimen to 
the Exhibition of 1864. 

The process of tanning consists in soaking the skins in lime water for some days to 
loosen the hair and surface of the skin, the hide is then scraped, and, after washing, is sewn 
Tip in the foim of a sack, the interior being filled with the bark of the kikar ( Acacia arabtca); 
-water is frequently proved over it, the skin bag is then reversed in position, and the water- 
ing repeated. The length or duration of each stage in the process varies according to the 
nature and thickness of the skin to be tanned. 

The finishing process consists in taking the skin when still just damp and spreading 
it on the ground, it is then rubbed over with a wooden block or mallet furnished with a 
handle, and called " hatheli : " it is rubbed on both sides. 

The finer skins are polished by a bit of horn or of agate, let into a lump of clay 
or wood for a handle. Among the best varieties of leather made in the plains are the 
soft wash-leather and hides of the Kangra and Hushyarpdr Districts, and ^e red skins 
of Ndrptir. The former are of very soft texture, generally a greenish buflP color, so soft that 
the thinner skins are made into gloves and constantly worn as breeches by the Eangra 
hill-men. The same art applied to skins produces a pleasing result to the fancier, inas- 
much as all about Kangra leopard skins and other ornamental fura can be obtained, the 
leather being beautifully and completely preserved, but with all the fur uninjured. 

I have obtained from the Kangra district the following account of the manufacture :— 

Firat the skin is wetted and then steaped in a ' matka ' or earthen pan full of lime and 
"water, the mixture to be sufficient in quantity to cover the skin completely. Every day 
the earthen pan, which is kept carefully closed over, is opened and the skin turned and 

122 Class ZI. 

shaken in the lime-water ; if the skin is thin, 20 days.of this treatment suffice ; if thick, 
one month. After this the skin is washed in clean water, and then the skin is well ruhbed 
with the diied and powdered leaves of the Dhao tree ( Gonacarpus lati/olia) for two honis 
successively. After the rubbing is over, the leaves and skin are put together in a 
vessel and water added. Next day the skin is tied on to a stick and wrung out ( as a 
dhobi does clothes ). Again it is steeped in a fresh solution of leaves, and this process of 
steeping and wringing out is repeated for four days consecutively : fresh leaves are to be used 
each time. The skin ia then sewn up with munj string into a hollow saek and filled with 
<*dbao" leaves, and hung up like a "massak"^ on being taken down it is reversed and hung 
up again by the other end; this ensures both ends very well impregnated — the hanging process 
occupies two days. After this the skin is opened out and dried, and then rubbed with oil, 
and eventually washed. When dry it is scraped with a sort of iron scraper called 
* rambi,' * after this it is again rubbed with oil. After 3 or 4 days it is washed in cold 
water and dried. After that it is rubbed with a mixture of curds and water, and again 
washed. The leather thus prepared is then soft. The skin principally used is that of the 
Sabur or Simbar deer ; but other skins can be used — goat's, buffalo's, deer's, Ac. : the color 
is a sort of toad color. The leather is made into gloves, gaiters, and also trowsers, worn by 
the hill men about Kangra, &o. Besides the art of making this soft leather, the people 
are very skilful in dressing animals' skins with the hair on. The same process appears to 
be followed as that above described, but the hair is carefully preserved, and the scraping 
rubbing, &c., done on the inner side. Skins of tigers, bears, leopards, cheetas, &o., are 
thus prepared. 

Two men in a year can prepare 18 scores of skins. The process cannot be carried 
on during three months of the rainy season. 

Much of this pteparaticn of ^ins is done in the village of Bulw^n, il&ka Jtjun of the 
Hushyarpur District. 

The Nfirpiir leather manufacture has been thus described in a letter from the Nur- 
ptir 'Tahsildar : — 

"The leather prepared is of two kinds, thick and thin: the thickest of all is the buffalo 
hide, and next in thickness the hide of cows and bulls. The thin kinds are made of the 
hides of goats, sheep ( dumba ), rams ( menda ), Kakrel ( deer skin ) ; and besides 
these horses' asses' and and camels' skins are utilized. The thick kinds are made 
of two colors, black and red, and the thin kinds in black, red, yellow, and green : the red or 
crimson is the commonest. The method of preparing the small skins is as follows : — ^The 
Bkins are taken off and rubbed with two chittaks of salt, and put in the sun ; in one day 
they dry, after that they are washed, and afterwards rubbed with wood ashes, and the hair, 
which is thus loosened, scraped off with a piece of wood. Again the skins are put into water 
and rubbed with pieces of rough potsherd, which completely removes the hair, &c. : again 
the skins are washed. When 40 skins have got thus far, they are together put into a great 
earthen cauldron or *n4nd,' together .with barley meal 6 seers, and salt 2 i seers, and water 

• Rwnba 10 the short epode or trowel UAed bj gardeners : xamhi ig ^ snaU one* 

Class XL 123 

is poured on. Fot four days the Bkins are left to soak, after that 2 seers of ^ ban- 
kath ' ( coarse catechu extracted from the Acacia catechu ) are added. The soaking is 
continued for four or five days longer, after which the skins are taken out and scraped 
with an iron ' khurpa ' or scraper : this completes the final cleansing from hairs, &c. After 
this the skins are again soaked in a nand with 7 seers of barley meal and 3^ seers of 
salt in fresh water, for 3 or 4 days. By this time the skins are clean and almost color- 

In order to make red skins, 4 seers of *lac' are boiled in water with two chittaks of 
* sajji ' ( coarse soda ), and two chittacks of the bark of the Lodar tree ( Symplocos panicidcUa)^ 
the skins are then dyed in the mixture, and after that 20 seers of the bark of the 
AmalUis ( CcUhartocarpus JUtula ) are ground fine, and then being infused with water, the 
skins are thrown in and allowed to lie for 3 or 4 days. Oi;^ being idmoved, the color is 
fixed by rubbing the skins with 4 seers of salt ground to powder. 

The cost of preparing 40 red skins is as follows :— 


12 seers salt, ... 

13 seers barley meat, ... 
2 chittaks sajji, 

Lodar Bark and Catechu, 
20 seers Amalt^s, 

••• •<# ••! 

.*• t«« ••! 

•* • •.• 

..a ••« 

••• ••» ••• 











Total Rs., ... 12 9 6" 

Before concluding the account of the best leather prepared in the plains, I should not 
forget to mention that, at Gujrat, one or two men have the art of preparing goat and sheep 
skins into fine soft leather, which, in texture and general appearance, is hardly, if at all, inferior 
to European. The men will not divulge the method of preparation for fear of spoiling their 
trade. The leather is principally used for " covering the very comfortable easy chairs 
known as the Gujrat or "Cappeidna" chair, which was the design given them by 
a former Deputy Commissioner named Capper. It is highly probable that the process is a 
more or less satisfactory imitation of the European process of softening, dyeing, and polishing 
leather; the skins in all probability owe their softness to that patient and long 
continued process of washing and. soaking above described: the dyeing, finishing, and 
polishing being the special art. The colors are generally dark green, and claret color 
or maroon. The former is produced ^either with the aid of indigo and some yellow, 
or with an extracted dye stuff obtained by infusing pieces of brightly dyed English 
cloth — a practice much resorted to in obtaining a dye from cloth — the red is .pro- 
duced with lac. After the dye has been applied, the dry skin is carefully polished 
with a bit of horn or cornelian fixed into a handle of clay. I can, however, obtain no 
further particulars of tho work. Any native foctor with the curiosity to look into an 

124 Cla88 

English manual of manufactures, and copy the proceQp described, would, after a few 
exix3riments, and possible failures, eventually equal or surpass the Gujrat wort 

Of the second class ; the leather that comes from Peshawur, and is also imported 
from Kabul, is the best in quality, and most pretentious in variety and color. 

Thus we have besides the usual plain brown, red, and black country leathers, a 
black leather with mottled surface like imitation morocco ] a mottled green, and also 
turquoise blue leather, much used in making shoes worn by certain sects of Mussulmans, and 
largely exported to Kashmir, where it is used for shoes. It is also made use of in 
embroidering or ornamenting saddlery, belts, and the hunting and warlike accoutrements 
common to all the border tribes. 

This leather is made in Kabul ; not I- believe in British territory. There is also a 
sort of bronzed leather imported from Kabul, called "kimsan.** A note on the Kabul and 
Peshawur leathers was sent me by Lalla Piyari Lai, Extra Assistant Commissioner at 

Bulghdr leather (the fragrant noted in No. 646, page 167, Volume I, ) 
comes from Russia, and is not made in India. The manufacturing process is not 

■ « • • • • • • 

I have been informed, however, that the skins which sell from Rs. 15-0-0 to Rs. 25-0-0 
each, are said to be horses' hides, are of a brown color, and marked with the small diamond 

■ • • • • 

check often seen on " Russia leather." It is said that the delightful scent is due to long 
and careful tanning with bircli bark : the tanning is certainly imequalled. 

My native correspondent had however different views as to the cause of the fra- 

" The people believe that there are great pits in Russian territory in which the tanners 
collect bullocks' and other hides after first cleansing them. About the date of the appearance 
of the star * suhail ' (Canopus) by the disposition of Providence such a breeze sets in as by its 
contact causes the leather to become altogether fragrant." On the completion of the process 
the owners remove the leather from the pits sending it in all directions for sale. 

As the scent is derived from soaking in the pits ( ghdr ) the leather is called " bal 

Both European gentlemen, and the rich classes in Afghanistan, spread these skins 
to sleep on in the hot weather. No insect will touch them. 

About 100 skins are annually imported into Peshawur. 

Another kind of leather is called " Chamra Ir&k." It is considered a valuable kind, 
and is made in Persia ( or those provinces included in the somewhat indefinite term Iran, 
which, I believe, is hardly confined to Persia proper ). The hide is bullock's hide : a second 
quality is made in Kabul As it is much used in the manufiacturo and ornamentation of horse 





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Class XL 125 

trappings it has got the name of '' ir^k."* Leather of this kind is sold of red and roan 
( bad&miy color of the almond ) color ; about 50 skins are imported into Peshawar and are 
sold by tonight at lis. 2-8 a seer. '' Kimukht'' is another kind of leather. It is made of 
asses' skin, and of two colors, black and pale green or turquois color ; in texture it is 
rough with speckles . ( ddnaddr ) : as many as 300 skins are annually made in Peshawar, 
of which about 100 skins are reserved for export down country. I hare seen 
numerous specimens of Kashmiri shoes made of this leather, and also horse trappings orna- 
mented with it in Beraj&t, I therefore suppose that it is made in Kabul also, and is 
among the north-western imports. The green shoes are worn by Mussulmans of the Shfa 
sect, but Sdnnis would object to wear them (See note to No. 719, post, ) 

The last class of leather now commonly met with, is imported from Europe. In 
every large town shoemakers and saddlers are to be found who work with European 
leather ; and book-binders also buy calf, imitation morocco, and other leathers. A good 
deal of harness and shoemaker's work, which really is of Cawnpore work or made of better 
sorts of native leather, but in European fashion, is palmed off as European w^ork. 


Specimens illustrating this class are as follows : — 

670.— [5523]. Bullocks' hide.— Skin of kid.— Camels* hide.— Buffalo hide. 

Sheep skins and goat skins are called '' nai*i '' as a general term. 

The leather of the first kind is used in shoemaking ( see note on Shoes ). 

The raw hide is soaked one day in brine, and for one monlli in lime-water, after 
which the hair easily comes off with scraping. The hide is then steeped six days in an 
infusion of kikar bark ( Acacia arabica ) or dmla ( Fhf/llanthu8 emhlica). It is then rubbed 
with alum. 


671. — Leather hukfl. — This is a leather vase for holding the water of a huka, it 
w ornamented with stripes of green kimukht leather and studded with little nails of silver. 

[8222]. Is one with brass mountings. 

[8223]. Of plain leather. 

Very pretty hukas are made in Chuni£n of the Lahore district, the leather being 
stiffened with bands and studs of bright engraved brass. Tlie Hissar district also sent 
amilar specimens ; also the Mukatsar pergunna of Ferozpore district [8275]. 


• Ir»k U the name applied to a tract of country between Persia and Arabia, indudine th« 
Ohaldea and Media. The adjective " irdki" ii applied to the breed of hones produced in iheM 


126 Class 

672.— [8225]. Chlgul— a leather water vessel. This very gracefully shiaped vejffld 
is figured in the annexed plate ; it is carried on journeys/ and as for miles in this part of this 
country you may go without seeing a village or a well, such provision is necessary. 

673— [8215]. Bridles— BoHTAK. 


674.— [8255-6-7 ic] Oi-namontal leather work exhibited by the Rajas of Kyunthal, 
Billspur &c. 

These articles consist of glove boxes and other fancy boxes, cigar cases, &c., made out 
of stout black leather lined with red leather ; the surface is sometimes variegated with patterns 
of red, green, and gilt leather, but the distinguishing feature is tliat the whole is embroid- 
ered over in a white pattern with narrow slips of the quill of the peacock. The worfc m 
done, not at Simla, but in villages in the Kangra district and elsewhere, the work being 
mostly taken for sale to Simla. The men can work to order, initials and even crests on 
the leather. The work is remarkably cheap — a cigar case costs from 14 annas to 1 rupee* 



675. — Specimens of the soft greenish yellow Sabar leather before described. 
[8242 — 5 &c. ] Pantaloons, value Rs. 5, or Rs. 10 per pair. 
[8244]. Socks, value Re. 1. 
[8245], Gloves. 
[8246]. Purse. 
[8247]. Gaiters. 

676.— [8249] Red dyed skins from Nurpiir. 

These skins are called L&khi or lac-dyed skins. Specimens of book-binding in black 
and red leather of tliis kind were sent. The process of manufacture has already been 


677.—[8263 &c.] Kakrel skins of various qualities, from Re. 1-2 to Rs, 2-4-0 each. 
These are prepared at Gurshaakar and Hushyarpdr. 

678.— [8254]. Waist-belt worked with gold thread ( petl ) by Jiwan of Anandpur. 
679.— [8255], Black embroidered sword belt ( gatra ). 

^ Formerly there was an extensive manufacture of this article in the Hushyitfpdr district : 
now it has fallen into disuse. 

680.— [8208]. Leather breeches made at Garshankar— of similar fabric to that 
described in the Kangra District, 

Clam ZI. 127 


681. — [8276]. Shield of " genda '* or rhinoceros hide, said to have belonged to Gunx 
Gobind Singh. These glossy black shields were once in general use ; many of the MultHni 
and Frontier Chiefs still carry them. 


682, — [5635 (fee] Series of hides — ^buffalo, bullock, goat, and slieep. 

683. — [8300]. Shoes used by thieves ( khosa) to muffle the feet of cattle so as to 
prevent their being tracked. 

. Shahpur. 
684.— [8313], A leather huka vase. 
686. — [8314]. Horse trappings, value Rs. 2. 


688. — [8302]. Skins of polished leather by Umra of Gujrat. I have already alluded 
to this special manufaci{}^re. 

Montgomery — ( Gugaira )• 

g87.— [8338-9]. Leathers from Sayadwalla. 

688. — [8334]. Red leather from Harrapa. This is made like the red leather of 

689. — Leather rope. 

690. — Ornamental huka vaaes. 

691- — [8334]. An inflated hide used as a float for crossing rivers on, called "sandhrf' 
or samil ; in the Peshawur list it is called "shinfiz. " The word sarn^ is applied to 
an inflated bag, also to a bag-pipe ; " shinaz" is derived from the Persian "Shina" or 
shani swimming. Properly speaking the sam^f is a small float made of a goat skin ; 
while the large skins used in the hills ai*e called " dren," or " darain." They 
are in use on most of the rivers in the hills, and below, for crossing : the large 
skin is thrown into the river, the swimmer throws himself on it on his face and paddles 
along with surprising rapidity. Europeans and others often cross rivers seated on a four-legged 
bed or charpoy which is placed crosswise over two skins places together, other men on single 
^ins with paddles accompany the machine and conduct it on its joiurney. In the proper 
season, wheii violent floods are over, a most pleasant journey can be made in a few hours on 
one of these charpoy floats : the Ravi and Satlej are constantly navigated in this way. 

The following particulars concerning the preparation of the skins was obligingly 
fumishd me by Mr. G. 0. Paxil, in the employ of Messrs. Brassey, Wy thes, Henfrcy, and Co. 

" The skin is only taken off a bullock that dies a natural death, because, if the throat 
were cut to kill it, the cut would interfere with getting the skin off whole ; for the iskin of 
tkehead, too, is taken off. 

128 Cla88 XL 

The skinning commences by slitting open the skin from the inside of the right hind 
leg, a little below the knee joint, to the root of the tail The ankle and hoof of each of the 
three remaining legs is cut off and thrown away, and then the whole skin taken off from the 
slit in the right hind leg. Turning the skin inside out, the openings of the ears, eyes, nose, 
mouth, and horns, and any other openings about the body, are then sewn up in such a man- 
ner as to make them perfectly airtight. 

After arranging the above mentioned openings, turn the skin right side out and gently 
scrape off the hair from the skin, and then firmly tie the ends of the two forelegs and left 
hindleg. Through the large opening in the right hind leg fill the skin with either pounded 
bark of the " kCkar " tree, or with dried leaves of the * als ' * ( a tree which bears a long 
fruit, about 2 feet in length and 2\ inches or 3 inches in circumference, the inside of which is 
black and sweet ) and hanging the skin head down on a tree, pour as much water into it as the 
bark or leaves will absorb, and for three days water must be continually added as fast as it 
oozes through the pores of the skin. On the fourth day the skin is emptied and allowed to 
dry. The slit of the right hind leg is then closed by gathering the skin in folds into a neat 
knot, brought as near as possible into the part where the tail was ; through this knot make au 
opening sufficient to let in a piece of wood about \ inch thick, and 1 inch broad, then, 
placing a stick of this size in this opening, tie the knot firmly and make it airtight. The 
length of the above mentioned piece of wood must be 7 inches over what is necessary for 
fitting into the entire thickness of the knot, and these 7 iuohes project out in the same line 
as the three legs. This done, the end of the left hind leg is no longer -permanently closed, 
but a cord is attached to close the end when through it the skin has been inflated. The 
"dren" is now ready for use. Sometimes the word "masak** is substituted for " dreii," 
but it is a mistake, the word "masak** can only be applied to the skin bags 
used by "bhistis" or water-carriers, to whom the word "mashki" is also applied. 
Throughout the Punjab " dren" is the compression, except when "khah-a" is used; 
but this may be applied to any kind or form of skin or leather — " khal " means skin. 

The man using a *'dren, " uses a paddle, of which the handle is aliout 18 inches 
long, and the blade about 8^ x S'^ x •§'' ; the thickness of the handle corresponds with that of 
the blade. The paddles are made of " deodar " wood, that they may float : if the man 
drops his by chance he • can pick it up. 

Before using a " dren " about two quarts of the oil, extracted from the very oily 
parts of a piece of " deodar " are poured into it, and by thoroughly inflating the skin every 
two or three hours during one day, the oil is forced through every pore of the skin, thereby 
rendering it, to a great extent, proof against damage from wet. Great care and every 
precaution should be taken to guard the skin from the sun. When using it on the river 
it must b« kept wet by splashing water over it occasionally ; when carrying it by land it is 
carried inflated ( for which purpose a cord about J^th of an inch in diameter is tied loose roun, 
about the breast of the skin ) with a wet cloth thrown loose over it, aiXd when not in use the air 
is expelled, and the skin folded up into three folds, but must never be allowed to become 

Class XL 129 

yery dry from want of the oil, or the creases formed by folding will split when the skin is 
again inflated. Also, always before inflating the skin or opening the folds, immerse the folded 
skin in water till it softens, in order to avoid all chance of the skin splitting ; and, when 
not in use, the skin must be kept safe from the attacks of rats. 

When by accident . an opening is formed in the *' dren, " the knot to which the 
stick is attached is opened, the skin tui*ned inside out through that leg, and a piece of leather 
sewn on so as to again make it air tight. 

As regards the management of the "dren," when using it on the water it 
is placed legs upwards, and the head of the skin to the right of the man. He 
throws himself on so as to allow as much of his breast to go beyond as will be balanced by 
his legs, and to keep the skin from being carried away from under him, he presses it with the 
left arm from the elbow upwards, and the right leg from the knee upwards. The skin is then 
propelled by working the legs from right to left against the water, and a wooden paddle used 
in the right arm. The " dreii " can only be forced in the direction of the right ann of 
the man, but to avoid a breaking wave an experienced man can back his "dren** a little. 

The use of the stick which projects in place of the right hind leg is to allow of one 
man on a " dren " placing himself face to face with another. When each man holds with his 
left hand the stick of the other hide, ond by this means they help one another to a 
great extent, 'especially when crossing a rough river with loads. In this way the two men 
will cross 5 pucka maunds safely." 

With a few exceptions the " samai" or goat skin is prepared in the same manner 
as the "dren." These exceptions are : — 

1. The head is cut ofl* leaving as much of the neck as possible, and when the skin 
has been taken off ( in exactly the same manner as that of the " dren,") the end of the 
neck is tied firm. 

2. Instead of the " deodar" oil, the oil of the " til " seed is put into the " samai," 
and only one quart, or less, if it be a small skin. 

3. The stick is not attached to the knot of the right hind leg, nor is it used at aU 
in the " samai." 

Besides these, the only difference is in the management of the " samai," it 
is placed legs upwards, and the man rests himself on it so as to get the neck between 
his thighs and the two fore legs also pressed between the thighs. His head and shoulders 
thus project beyond the hind legs of the skin ; then he passes his left arm round the outside 
of the left hind leg and holds the knot of the right hind leg in that hand, by which means 
he can keep the skin stationary and pressed to his chest He works his legs and right 
arm exactly the same way as in swimming. 

130 Class 

On a lai^e '^ samai " a man can take a load of about 30 pucka seers, and two men 
on '^ sarnais ** can cross a third man by each holding the end of a stick, and the third nuta 
holding it in the middle, his body hanging in the water. 

692. — Kuppa and Kuppi. 
[8335]. Specimens also sent from Sibsa, Rohtak kc,^ dbc. 

The kuppa is a huge vessel made of a leathering material, which is, in some cases, I 
believe, made of hide — camel hide and others — but more often, especially in the smaller sizes, 
of a glutinous skin, made by boiling the intestinal integrument of horses, cows, dec., into a gluey 
mass. A large clay block of the size and shape of the intended vessel is taken, and the 
softened material plastered all over it, well beaten together, and left to dry. After this is 
finished the interior clay is broken up and picked out. 

The Bohtak collection exhibited some small vessels of tliis material, in the most fan* 
tastic shapes, some like jugs, others flattened and perforated apparently with large holes, which 
of course can open only longitudinally in the thin flat body of the vase. The jars are some- 
times ornamented with patterns cut out in white parchment and struck on. The smaller 
vessels (kuppi) are used for holding oil, Ac, and the large ones ( kuppa ) for holding 
oil, molasses, <fec., in store : some of them are so large as easily to realize the familiar oil jars 
in the story of Ali Baba and the forty thieves. 

They are mended easily when worn into holes by plastering on fresh integument. 

Kuppas are sold according to size — a kuppa to contain one maund so much, or six 
maunds so much. 

693. — A water bag called kdni. 

694. — Scale dishes ( tarfizti ) made of camel hide. 

This sort of scale is very common in many districts for weighing grain, ko. 

695. — [8341]. Native horse trappings. I describe these in a separate note on 
Native Saddlery, <kc. 

698.— [ 8U2 ]. " Khopa "—Hollow leather caps put over the eyes of cattle when 
employed in turning wells, oil mills, &c. 

697.— [ 8343 ]. "Khosi\^'— Mufflers for feet of cattle ( before described). 

- Bannu. 
698.— [ 8359 ]. Camel's head gear— Marwat. 

An apparatus of leather adorned with strips of green and red leather, tassels, and white 
cowrie shells stnmg together. Camel trappings in Uie Deraj^t and Bannu are often exceeding- 
ly ornamental ; woollen rope and tassels, and bridl-os of cowrie shells being the prevailing 
fashion. A large necklace is added covered with cowries or little bells, and a laige tAssel 
dttnglingiu front. 

Class XL 131 

609.-- [8162], "Khal sabz," green leather. 

Some account of this has been given already, but the secret of making the color is not 
disclosed. I believe it is produced with acetate of copper. 

700.— [8766]. Black leather, value Re. 1 a skin. 

701. — [8363.] Fine leather (chamra irdk, above described ) called '* Mesha Badami/' 
value Rs. 2. 

702. — [8365.] A "ShUghla," or leather bag for carrying flour, rice <Src., on 
ft journey. 

703. — Shakh, or horn or leather powder flask shaped like a horn. 

These were used all over the Punjab, and by the Sikhs, someti;nes made of leather 
highly embroidered with silk and colored leatlier, as in the Berajit specimens, sometimes 
made of metal ; the powder is extracted by a small hole with stopper in the flat covering of 
the broad end of the horn. 

704. — " Kamr Khisa," soldier's or hunter's belt, having attached to it a small leather 
flask with long neck for shot, a knife or series of knives, flint and steel, and slow match for tlie 
matchlock, and a series of short bamboo tubes sewTi together side by side and covered with 
leather to hold bullets. These are eveiywhere worn in the Derajdt, and by the frontier 
tribes ; the Derajlit ones are of soft rough leather, but prettily embroidered with colored silk. 
The various implements including the powder flask hang from the belt by straps after the 
fashion of a lady's " chatelaine." 

706. — Wkter vessel of leather for a journey, value Rs. 2 called Mathara or Ch^guL 


706, — [ 5681 ]. Hide from PalkL Deputy Commissioner Hazara. 

Skins are soaked first for 15 days in water and lime, then cleaned and the hair removed, 
the akin ia then sown up, leaving one aparture, and filled with particles of oak or cheer bark 
or " bfoi," ( Rhus cotinus ) or leaves, and on these water is constantly poured until the skin 
is thoroughly saturated. The price is about 1 rupee per hide. 

182 Class 

Native saddlery is generally much more ornamwited than European- 

The saddle ( zlu or kiithi ) is niade of wood covered with . leather or cloth, or velvet, 
and padded : it is very high both behind and in front, so that it is almost impossible to fall 
off. Under the saddle a namda or felt is placed to protect the horse*s back from rubbing. 
Poorer people use a fold of blankets &o. ; D(iiddle class people the felt; and nobles and rich 
people a chdrjfona or saddle-cloth of velvet richly embroidered and padded with felt 
Sometimes the saddle is ornamented by a number of huge sUk taftsels which hang down on 
either side of the horse, both in front of the saddle and behind, being attached thereto 
by leather straps : these are only worn on gala days. A saddle so ornamented is called 
'< laryanw^li kathi," or in the Derajdt and Multin, where the ornament is oftener used, 
" dhikfiwali." The girths are madq of " newir." ^ 

The stirrups are made of leather covered with red cotton cloth, or silk, or brocade ; 
a crupper is commonly used, and called "dhumchi." The horse has on the head a "sirdawal," 
or puzi (head stall); the "zerband mah nukta," nose band and martingale, and round the neck 
a ** hainkal " or necklace of great glass beads, or shells, or gold coins, or coral A hainkal 
taken in * lute ' at Lucknow, was found to be made of beautiful amethysts, set in gold. 

The bit is called " lagam " of whatever pattern it may be. Native bits are nearly 
always very severe ones, furnished with rings, spiked or barbed bars, &c. The 
reins are called " big." 

A riding or sowari camel is furnished with a double saddle for two riders, called 
** kathi, " and is ornamented with a neckband called hainkal, which usually has a large 
colored worsted tassel hanging down in front. On grand occasions silver ornaments 
are worn. 

A camel of burden has a pack called "p^laii," made of rough " tit " or matting stuffed 
with straw, d:c., in lieu of the saddle. 

An elephant is fitted with a gadela or felt pad, over which a " jhul " or richly 
embroidered housing is thrown. It is the jhul that looks so brilliant on State occasions on 
the elephants of the nobility. Immense sums are spent on embroidering in gold on velvety 
these huge saddle cloths. 

The haud^ is either an open one flat, like a shallow box or tray, or is made hke a 
chair, ^r has a dome or canopy — the latter is called ' hauda amdi'L' Haudas are often 
covered with plates of silver chased and brought into patterns. 

\ • 


Class XL 133 


I reserved this subject for a separate note, with an illustrative plate, as it is a suffi- 
ciently curious one. Nothing so well indicates the strange diversity of tribes in the Punjab 
territories, as the curious variety of shoes worn. Thus we have shoes suited for the 
snows and mountain paths of the Himalaya ; broad strong shoes for the frontier warlike 
tribes strangely sewn with leather thongs and bright with silk embroidery; we have the green 
slippers with high iron shod heels worn by Mussulmans at Peshawur ; delicate little gold 
worked shoes for the ladies of the Jach Doab ; gorgeous brocade shoes from the Delhi bazars ; 
classical Greek buskins from Bannu ; descending at last to the imported patent leather boot, 
now esteemed by the smarter class of office baboos. 

Hill Shoes. 
707.— [ 7456 ]. Hill shoes from JubaL 

708.— [ 7458 ]. Do, from Basdhir. 

709. — [ 7570 ]. Do. made of Bagar grass ( Eriophorum Sp, ) Kuhi. 

710, — [ 7511 ]. Do. wheat straw — Kulu. 

711. — [ 7532 ]. Pair of snow shoes (Spiti) called in the local list " feolum momani." 

712. — [ 7532 ]. Wooden shoes for walking on snow — Spiti, called "kair'* or "ker," 

The design of nearly all these shoes is alike. The straw ones are represented 
in the annexed plate. The grass shoes are made \ip of wisps of the dry grass 
plaited together, the principle in all cases being to make a thick hard sole, with or 
without'a covering over the toe, and with straps to secure them like sandals. Every traveller 
takes two or three pairs with him, and as soon as one is worn out he takes a new pair ; it is 
almost impossible to slip on either rock or snow with them. Grass shoes are called 
p * ph'ulharru ' in Kashmir, and * patawa ' towards the plains. " Pdla" is also a common term 
in Kulu and Chamba. 

A more pretentious kind of shoe is that to be met with all about Mandi, Pl^h, and 
Rampur : near Plfich the people told me they were called " shelli." The sole consists of a bit 
of mat woven up of strong hemp string and rudely shaped to the foot, it is kept in its place not 
by straps or string, but by a close edging of woollen net work sown up over the toe. Some 
shoes of this kind have felt, and some leather soles. They are very comfortable for an Euro, 
pean to walk in if he has soft leather socks to wear under them. Shoes of this kind 
have already been described. 


713. — [ 8350 kc. ] Shoes from Rajanpur, Dera Gh^zi Khan, &c. 

These are made of stout rough leather, sewn with leather thongs or thick cotton 
thread, and ornamented with cloth and with silk embroidery. 

134 Class XL 

Figure 2 represents a pair of men's shoes with thick soles called "chuni rilmi" from 
Bukmlla. A pair a little less thick are called " Bakhmfila zen^ni kdbiili *' in the Museum. 
A curious pair of shoes of a very squat fonn, were sent from the Maziri hills by Imam 
Bakhah Khan. The shoe is of coarse reddish colored leather, sewn with leather thongs, but 
elaborately embroidered all over with silk. The structure of the shoe is curious — see 
figure 3. The toe piece is sown on last, the sides and heel being formed of one curved 

714. Sandals. — Specimens are included in the lists of Dera Ghazi Khan, and Dera 
Ismail Khan, and Hazara, under the name of " chapli." They are much worn in the hills 
skirting the Deraj^t and Biluchistan : the specimens came from Bozd^ hills, Harand, <fec., «kG- 

Some of the specimens are of grass or patta ( palm leaf), but the prevailing chapli 
is a leather sandal, made of folds of leather, and secured to the foot by the aid of straps. 
One pair from the Derajat hills, now in the Museum, I have drawn {^g. 4,) and it is worth 
describing. The sole is made of two or three folds of hide, sewn all over fantastically with 
thick white string, shewing the stitches on both sides ; towards the heel the sole is 
slit up on either side, and thongs of leather thus detached, forms the support of the maia 
brace which holds the sandal over the instep ; this brace or strap is covered with little bits 
of lead sewn on like beads : two other broad straps, Rudely embroidered with silk and 
gold thread, go over the foot, being held together by a longitudinal strap also covered with 
lead beads. 

715, — " Kheri " — Leather sandals much worn in the Salt Range, 

716.— *< Chapli "—Leather sandals, 

7 17. —Leather boots, like ancient Greek buskins, worn by the Khans and better class ; 
they lace up the front with a leatlier thong passing through little iron rings sewn to either 
edges of the opening in front; the boot e^^tends a little above the ankle and is of flexible brown 
leather, and has the rudest attempt at ornament in the shape of two bars of silk work on 
the instep. The pair in the Museum were given by Major Urmston from the Marwat ilaka» 

• Shobs op the Plains. 

Common shoes of bullocks' hide of various qualities are made everywhere; the com- 
monest kind are worn by poor people ; for the middle class a little ornament is introduced — an 
edging of red leather,' and so forth. The wealthier classes wear shoes of fine leather 
embroidered or stitched with gold. Some tracts of country are sjieciaily celebrated for 
shoes — the Chaj or Jach Doab, the Do^ba ( Hushyarpur), and Delhi, 

: T , 

iStraxr- sJu>tis ■fffmuil<ty<iH'J 

B^a^dt yrass, ^ leai/iar soKdals 

Chaph. (j«A'^7J4-. 



Class XI. 135 

All about Pindi and Jhelam shoes may be had quite different from common country 
shoes ; the ladies' slippers are uniformly finely made, neatly lined with leather or red velvet 
worked with gold, and finished with a rosette of purple or red floss silk on the toe. 

The men's shoes are much neater and smaller than common country shoes, of smooth 
brown leather, uncolored, and edged with a neat stitching of gold thread. A sketch of 
these shoes accompanies. 

In the Hushyarpur district, country shoes of bullock's hide for general wear are largely 
made ; they are always stitched with thick cotton thread unwazed, the consequence is they 
are easily out, but the leather is much softer and loosely sewn than in a European boot, 
consequently there is not so much strain on the sewing. 

Shoes are always made with the pointed toe, a little tag of leather bending over, plain 
sides and heels slightly rising. 

Delhi is the great place for shoes, principally for ornamental shoes; gold and tinsel 
being the material worked on leather or on cloth over leather. Five pairs of shoes were 
sent to the Exhibition in 1864, under the names of, "jdta sulraa wa sitdri "— " juta 
kalibatuni— jutaghettaornagphani, ofsulma and ^itar^" — " kafshi of sulma work." 

The pair of Delhi slippers called "ghetta" ( figure 6 ) in the plate, are strange in ap- 
j^earance, very gaudy with gold thread and red leather, the lining being red, with an open work 
ornamentation of silvered leather; the toes curled up, and the whole shoe so broad that it is 
difficult to understand how it can be worn. The broad curled toe resembles the head of the 
cobra snake when erected) henpe the shoe is fancifully called nagphani — the snake's head shoe^ 

Delhi shoes are es^ported chiefly down country to the value it is said of 4 lacs of 
rupees yearly : there are some 100 shoe manufacturers in Delhi. The Hindi word ghetta 
is simply used to signify a shoe with no back leather to support the heel — it is practically 
the same as the Persian ' kafshi* 


718,— [768T]. Shoes called imtab^ made of leather covered with embroidered cloth, 
lined throughout with stamped leather. 

719^— Slippers called kafshi-^** Kafshi " are slippers without sides or back, the sole 
towards the heel being narrow, and excessively raised by a small high heel shod with iron. 
The specimen sent is figured in the annexed plate. The shoe is of green leather, the sole of 
double brown hide; the inside is prettily variegated with a spray of green leather flowers 
stitched down on a ground of gilt leather. The price is Rs. 2-8 a pair.* 

* I also alluded to the ciroumstance that these green shoes are only worn by the Shfas : green is the 
oolor of the Im&ni Husaln, whom the Shias venerate, and red is the color of the Imam Hussan psteomed by 
the Sunnis. I heard an old Mussulman relate th%t onoe the Almii^hty sent to the Prophet two 
garments, one creen, the 'other red ; he offered the choice to Hussan and Hnsain, who chose the red and 
green respectively. A saint, whose name escapes me, forthwith predicted that he who had the green robo 
should be poiBoned, and he of tho red should be killed with the sword, which duly oame to pass. 

136 Class XL 

720. — Lama's boots. — Dr. Caylet. 

These come out of place here, but I must not leave them altogether. They are worn 
in Thibet by Lamas: they are ot Chinese manufacture. He upper part is of thin 
Russian broad cloth, embroidered in shades of blue with Chinese silk; the sole, which is the 
most curious part, is of immense thickness, and consists of a series of folds of cotton cloth 
closely packed and sewn together. This (Turious boot is figured in the plate. 

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<Sa88 XIL—Dimsum L IS7 

OXjJJlSS 22:11. 





The collection is not very interesting, consisting of ordinary works in brass, copper, 
mixed metal — zinc and pewter. 

721.— [7734]. Betel nut cutters, ' Sarota.* 

These are of brass with iron blades, thej are like a pair of sugar nippers, two 
brass handles and short blades ; the upper blade has a brass edging from which projects 
small ornaments, one in the shape of a peacock ; the brass handles are rudely ornamented 
by being set with bits of tinsel and glass to look like stones. 

The sarota is used to slice up the betel nut preparatory to mixing it with the 
lime and spice and wrapping it in the pdn leaf. 

722.— [7735]. A SurmadAn. 

A small Tase for holding powdered antimony. To the stopper is attached a brass 
bodkin or blunt spike, with the aid of which the powder is drawn out and applied under 
the eyelid and lashes. These little toilet articles are made of brascf, silver, wood, and iYory 
in various shapes. 

723. — ^A brass box. 

This manufacture appears peculiar to Earn&l. It offers the neatest and best 
specimen of native work in metal that I have seen. The box is of metal covered with red 
velvet, and over the velvet again is an open work case of brass with solid edges and 
comers. A very pretty one was sent to me fitted with blue velvet, and the brass open-work 
silvered. The boxes are oblong, true and straight, and well made. A box sells for about 
Bs. 18. 

724. — [7802]. A brass huka vase, ornamented. 
725. — [7803]. A large brasen vessel to hold water. 
726. — [7806]. An open work brass bird cage. 
( The illustration shows the design.) 

At Amritsar a good deal of work is done in the way of manufacturing vessels from 
eopper, sheet brass, and the mixed metal or bell'-metal called " phtil " and '' kdnsf '*• 
Specimens of cups and platters of the latter metals beautifully chased and engraved in 
various patterns, may be had. Two good specimens are in the Lahore Museum ooUectioii, 

tSS Class XIL—Divisian L 

727* — Series of brass vessels of household use. 

Under this head I note, once for all, that large class of goods which really forms 
the staple of the work in metals of the Punjab. The number of fancy articles is few ; 
but in every large town great quantities of metaJ vessels, drinking cups, cooking pots, 
lamps, &c., — in short, all articles of household use, are made for local consumption and 
export. Amritsor, Ambala, Ludhiana, J6landhar, all export brass vessels ; they go up 
into the hills and across the frontier into K^bul and Elashmir and to every part of the 

Metal vessels in a native household supply the joint place of porcelain, glass, and 
silver plate in a European family. Hindus use brass vessels and Musalmans generally 
copper vessels, except in the case of small drinking cups, <&c. There is hardly any one so 
poor but he has not some brass pots, if no more than the " lota " in which he boils 
his porridge, drinks his water, and holds water to wash in. The wealthier a man is the 
better off is his house as regards his vessels. In the ' rasoi khana, * or kitchen of a big 
house, the array of brass vessels, cooking pots and water holders, all scoured bright with 
earth every day or oftener, is quite formidable. The native gentry use silver drinking 
eups and some other articles of silver, but the staple article is brass or copper. I 
believe, however, that glass and crockery are coming more and more into use, even 
among those who do not ape foreign manners at all. The lamps employed in a great 
house where European candles and lamps have not found their way, are huge brass 
candelabra with a broad dish below and a number of branches for little lamps filled with 
oil and having a wick in the spout of the oil holder. The dull light, quantity of smoke, 
and dreadful smell these " chkr-divlls " (lamps with four wicks) emit, would be intolerable to 
the European idea. Such a lamp is figured in the plate annexed. Brass vessels are 
sold by weight, so much being allowed extra for workmanship. They are nearly always 
made of imported sheet brass and copper. Some mixed metal including brass are 
made by natives, but in small pieces, and useful only in inaking smaller articles. The 
process of making these vessels is described further on. 

The common vessels are as follows : — 

Lotd.—A small brass pot, round, contracted towards the mouth, and having just 
above the neck a short lip all round. 

Kaul or Kaiora, — A rather flat drinking cup, supposed to resemble in shape a 
lotus flower ( Eaid, Kanval.) 

Ahkhora. — A drinking pot more or less like a lota or shaped like a vase, sometimes 
made with a handle, cover and spout. Those with spouts are called ' Abkhora tdtfdir.' 

OUds. — ^A straight drinking cup shaped like a tumbler ; with or without a cover. 
The name is a corruption of our word ** glass " in the colloquial sense of a drinking 

BaUoa,-^A, large vessel for holding water-^a brass bucketi with or without rings at 
the dde. Hindus use a baltoa to boil a large supply of food for distribution at a feast. 

BoZ, or DofeM.— A rouad vessel to hold or draw water with, sometimes made of' 
iron ; Hindus^use it 

eiuss XIL— Division I. 189 

Oanga Sdgar. — A large brass ewer with spout for holding water. 

Degchd, — ^A large cooking pot, broad mouthed and round, with a lip ; used by all 

DegehL^A smaller size of the same shape. 

Oarwd — A vessel for drawing water and holding it for drinking purposes ; used 
bj Hindus. Ganoi la a smaller size. 

ThdlL—K flat plate. 

Pardt. — A flat brass tray with a rim. 

Tahalbdz, — A brass bowl used to hold curds &c. at feasts ; the name is derived firom 
the kettle-drum used for hunting to frighten the game, it being of the same shape. 
Silfclii or ChUamchi. — A basin for washing the bauds in. 
Aftdha.--A brass ewer from which water is poured. 
Patili, — A small cooking pot with a cover used by Musulm^ns. 

Tumhiya, — A drinking cup shaped 

Chakla, — A stone slab ( or wooden — ^when used by Hindus) to grind spioei and 
prepare pastry on 

Belna. — The rolling pin used with chakla. 

Pauni — A cullender or straining ladle ; skimmer. 

Chalni. — A sieve. 

Eharchd, Kharchi, — ^Ladles. 

Sikk. — A spit for roasting meat on. 

Hawcmg-dasta ( vulgarly ham&m-dasta ). A brass pestle and mortar. A wooden ont 
of the same shape is called '* Chattd." 

Phahauri. — A sort of shovel to rake out ashes from the oven. 

Sahdnei or Sanddsi. — A pair of tongs with broad curved hooks at the end] to grasp a 
cooking pot round the neck and remove it from the fire. 
Kardh and Kardhi,- -A flat iron baking plate. 
Kafgir. A ladle for taking the scum off cooking pots. 
Taioah or Loh. — A thick iron plate. 

Raftda. — An iron plate on a long handle by which a baker reaches a cak^ when 
formed into the oven. 

728. — Sur^hi, of zinc — La^hobb Bazaab. Water goglets of zinc can be had for 
camp and travelling use ; not liable to break. 

729.— Water goglets and cups of pewter ornamented with braas-^DACRZ. 

A few miscellaneous articles fromLahul, Kulii, <&c., are more interesting. 

730. — Inkstand. " Nakdu" from Spiti. This is a mere steel or polished- iron ttdbe,. 
with a cap or sliding lid, having a small receptacle for ink. The Thibetan writing if per* 
formed with a small flattened and pointed bit of J)amb&. 

140 Class XII.—lHvision L 

In sereral of the Hill States very pretty InkstaadB are in nse. I saw one at Enm- 
lianen, near Simla : the ink pot was of brass with a prettily closed lid, and the receptacle 
for pens attached to one side at right angles ; two small chains were feistened to it ; the whole 
was beautifully though roughly carved. Such pen cases are always worn, stuck in the girdle. 

781. — ^Tobacco pipes, ' Eangu padam,' Spm ahd "Lamxtl. 

Every L^hlili is seen with one in his girdle : it is a long iron or brass tube slightly 
fluted for ornament, curved slightly at one end, the curve being terminated by a small bowl, 
all in one piece with the stem. 

733. — •*Dung8mo — ^ a tea pot, Spitx. 

A most remarkable article : it is a broad wooden cylinder about 18 inches high and 
6 inches diameter, bound at intervals with rings of brass and edged with the same ; some of 
the rings are set with bad turquoises ; the cylinder is fitted with a central stick or piston, the 
lower end charged with a disc of wood fitting to the cylinder. The tea in use is hard brick 
tea, or tea cemented with gum of some kind and a little blood. The portion of tea to be used 
is put into the cylinder with a portion of a salt called " phulli," (See Vol. I, page 97) and 
ghl or rather butter (for gh( is not used in Lithdl), and the whole poimded and churned 
with hot water ; the result is a thick soup, which is much relished. It has this advantage 
that there is no waste of tea leaves ! 

When prepared duly, the tea may be transferred into a rather el^ant shaped cop- 
per jug with a handle and spout ; the sides of the jug are prettily ornamented, and tin- 
ned in a pattern. 

The skill of the people of Thibet in metal ornamentation is not to be despised, it is 
rude indeed, but often shows a great idea of ornamental design. I have seen flat copper 
boxes to contain amulets and charms (famished with little rings to tie them round the 
waist or hang them about the neck) very prettily worked over in a sort of filigpr«e bmsswork. 
In Dr. Leitner's collection there was a bell with the handle and sides beautifully ornamen- 
ted in relief. I believe that this art has come from China ; the best specimens of bdUs (used 
in worship) ** dorj6i " or sceptres, coming from the Chinese territory, where the work is 
beautifdl, and have been imitated, and so a certain facility of ornamenting metal has become 

733. — ^A Eashmfri tea vase. 

This is in the Lahore Museum : it is an elegantly shaped jug with handle and spout 
covered all over with a pattern of little sprigs and leaflets raised above the surface, — a 
pattern familiar to all who have seen or purchased the pretty silver * surahis/ or goglets of 
Kashmfr. The material is copper tinned. Whether the tea is infused in this or is first 
worked up in some other vessel I do not know, but I believe it is simply boiled with water 
in a cooking pot or degchf . Qreen tea is always used, and that imported overland from China 
is sold as high as 7 and 8 rupees a seer. All Kashmiris and E^bulis are great tea drinkers. 
(See Chap. « T^ " in Vol. I.) 

734.-^Iron vessels from Mandi territory, consisting of ' Laonda *•— an iron pot for 
COoidng. '' Dharmchi," an iron ladle for carrying fire or for use as a ladle. " Earihi,** 
an iron shallow cauldron used by confectioners for boiling milk, syrup, Ac., Ac., (used 
everywhere ). ** Sijrf ** a small iron stove for carrying fire. 

CIcas Xli—lHviwm I. HI 

I will now describe the two kinda of factories in which vessels are made : that of 
Che ** bhartya,'' and that of the ** tatj4r/* 

The workman who makes small solid, and large hollow, vessels by casting, whether 
in brass, copper, sine, or other metal, is called Bhartja. 

For all small kinds of articles he has a pair of iron shallow boxes called " halka.'' 
They are made horse-shoe shaped, and one fits exactly over the other ; at the centre of the 
curved side each box has a hollow lip, being in fieict half a tube ; when the two are put 
together there is a hollow receptacle with a tube in the upper part though which metal can 
be poured. The two boxes are held together with small clamps at the side. To use these 
halkas : they are separated and each filled to the edge with a composition of oil, wax, resin 
and clay, well kneaded together ; on this bed the mould is formed : it is generally done by 
taking an article already finished and which it is desired to reproduce, and pressing it into 
the clay so that one half is in the clay and one half out : the other ' halka ' is then put 
over, and this takes the impress of the other half. The article is taken out and ■ 
there is of course a complete hollow mould ; the halkas being now clamped together a spike 
IB passed down the tube at the top to put it in communication with the mould and metal is 
poured in. This form of mould is used for small and solid articles. The halka varies in 
sise from 6 inches x 4 and 1 inch deep, to four times that size. For large vessels, vi», caul« 
drons, deghchas Acy the following process is adopted. A solid block mould is made on the 
ground of the shape of the inside of the hollow vessel required. It is made of clay. 
Over this is spread a layer of \k\ mitti or clay found with a red tinge, mixed with m6nj 
fibre chopped fine ( to make it bind ) ; over this again a layer of red clay and cow-dung, and 
over this a layer of red clay mixed with munj ; again, and lastly, a coating of red clay mixed' 
with finely chopped blanket. This being complete, wax is taken and beaten into thin plates, 
as thick however as the brass vessel to be made is intended to bo, and the mould is covered 
all over with wax plates. Over the wax four layers of day and material as before are 
smeared. The rationale of the process is now evident : a wooden fire is lighted about the 
mould, the day layers harden, and the wax layer melts in the midst, part of it running 
out by a little hole left at the botton, part being absorbed by the clay ; a hollow space is 
thus left, which is a hollow mould fit to receive the mdted metal. A close earthen crudble 
is now prepared with melted brass, usually three parts copper to one of zinc ; a hole is made 
in the top of the mould and ihe small hole below carefully dosed, and the molten metal run 
in. When cold the mould is broken up, and the vessel taken off, it is finished by being 
mounted on a turner's wheel and turned with sted tools till it is even and fit for use. 

The other workman called " Taty£r " makes the lighter sort of vessds of copper and 
sheet brass, while the Bfiartya casts the heavier and more solid vessels. The TatyAr's 
implements are — 

Akron. — ^Large square anvil without points. 

SanMn. — An anvil with two points, smaller than fiiraa. 

Chauroi mekh.—A, ** sandin" with both points cut off, leaving only the square centre, 

KfMn MM. — ^An anvil which has the head hooked thus :— * 


€la8S JUL'^Divitidn L 

Tundi Meikh, — The one-armed anyil^ an anvil with one point only. The word 
' tunda ' is applied to a man with one arm. 

8anni. — Pincera. 

Hathaura. — Hammer. 

Pariiir.— Oompaages, 

Ohawasa. — ^A hammer, sha^^ed like an adze. 

Uddla and uddli. — ^The same, only the blade of the hammer is narrower and broader, 
the section giving an oblong instead of a square. 
iJiaurasi.—A small chaurasa, for fine work. 
Domuht. — A hammer, with a striking surface at eithef end of the head< 

Kharwa. — An iron form on which small vessels are fixed while being hammered 
into shape. Kharwdnt is a wooden frame which holds the kharwa in position ( sometimes 
called ** dosdngi." ) 

Nil. — A round iron rod to dean tubes, spouts &c , with files. 

Thej use either sheet brass and copper imported, or else they make an ingot of mixed 
metal in a crucible and then hammer it — these vessels are cold- wrought. 


In Patilda, N&bh&, Lahore, Amritsar and most large places, gold and silver leaf is 
made, the metal being beaten out under sheets of jilli or gold-beater's skin : of this hereafter. 
Tin foil is made, and sheets of bright brass foil or orsdew, in pieces about 8 inches broad 
and 2 feet long — and called " bindli.'* This is used for decoration purposes on gala days. 


dlass XlL — Bhjimon 21 



If the Sub-Class A was iiuinteresting, this is stUl more so. Hardly anything is to 
be noted. The iron employed is either Natire or European, and an account of imported^ 
iron will be found at page 7 of Vol. I. 

Nails of soft flexible iron are made, and screws — the latter more rarely. 
Baking plates for cooking the uniyersal bread or chap&ti are made of hammered iron, 
and large shallow bowls or open cauldrons, made of sheet iron bolted in pieces, called 
'* karihi" are used both by saltpetre makers, dyers, sweetmeat makers, and in all sorts of 
manofkctures where any substance has to be boiled in large quantity in an open Tessel. 
Iron stoves and chafing dishes are in use but require no special notice. 

Looking over the catalogue of the Exhibition of 1864>, I do not find a single speci- 
men under this class worthy of record. 



H* OlcM Xn.—Diel»im I. 




There is more variety under this class, and in some cases a fair siq>erio!ritj of work- 

The common articles of daily use, knives, scissotti, tweesfenr, horte bits, stimip iron*, 
and such like, when of native manufa^cture and pattern are generally rough j but the prao' 
fice of making articles with something approaching to European finish and in European 
style, has taken root in the Sealkot district and at Wazir6bad and other places in the 
Gujranwalla district, as also in Gujrat. 

Still more recently Mr. Spenoe, a gentleman employed in the Medical Store at Sealkot, 
has taught certain workmen at Sealkot with the aid of European steel not only to make 
scissors, penknives and table cutlery equal to European, but to prepaid and finish in the 
highest style delicate surgical instruments. I had the satisfaction of sending to Paris in 
1867 sets of instruments for operation in cataract and other eye diseases, sets of dental 
forceps, amputating knives, scalpels and lancets, that must have been xvspectable even in 
the city, jpar excellence^ of such manufactures. 

In Delhi the cutlers are very clever in imitating surgical instruments, knives 
fish-hooks, and other European instruments : but they have not been iaughi like the 
Sealkot men, and it is said that their instruments when once blunted will not readily 
take an edge and polish again, but remain harsh and rough. The workmen use 
principally old sword blades, European and Persian, for steel instruments ; but for small 
instruments, requiring toughness and strength, they seek for an old steel ramrod and 
work it up. The Delhi cutlers are all congregated in one part of the city. 

The facility for learning such work is traceable to a cause. In former days, there 
was a demand for weapons of all kinds ; swords, daggers, battle-axes and spear heads were 
made, and the corresponding defensive weapons — shields, chain armour and plate armour. 
Very early in the history of India the blades of Ir&n or Persia were famous, steel was im- 
ported from the south-west, and also from Central India, and workmen soon acquired skill in 
making it up. The best workmen also learned to nse other kinds of iron, to weld and temper, 
to produce water-mark in steel, to color it blue, and in short to do all that the best sword 
makers of Europe can do. Nor has the art died out : where the demand survives, in 
Kashmir and in Peshawar, and just beyond our frontier, men of considerable skill work 
at these handicrafts. I have seen a S[ashmiri blade of welded bars of several varieties 
of iron, a small quantity of silver being hammered in to produce a beautiful wavy " water 
mark.** But in other parts of the country, and especially in the settled provinces of the 
Punjab, no sooner had the stormy days of the kter Sikh rule passed away, than the 
demand for such wares ceased or was gpreatly diminished. The men who wrought the 
arms turned their attention to works of peace, and settling in the districts of Gujranwalla, 
Sealkot and Qujrat, took to making guns, hunting knives, table knives, clasp knives and 
other articles, having imitated European articles given them for the purpose. 

The class of workmen whose special branch was the ornamentation of arms and 
armour in inlaid gold and steel chasing, have mostly settled down into the dasa 
Ckf ' Eoftgan * whom I shall describe presently. Bat inlaid annS| chain armour and 

Olass XlL'^Division L 145 

■words are still to be had, — ^mostly being specimens preserved from past years. It is 
needless to add that tbe operation of the Arms Act has done much to diminish the 
number of weapons ; but a few of the best makers who still remember the Sikh days or 
have learned from the armourers of those times, hold licences and are able to ply their 
trade. I should here mention the steel employed is either imported steel or steel made 
by heating iron bars in contact with charcoal till it has imbibed the necessary quantity of 
carbon, steel being a carburet of iron. Steel I am told used to be imported in flat plates 
or discs, probably made in this shape for facility of carbonizing, from Central India. I am 
not aware whether any of the iron ores of India are spathose or producing in fusion a 
crystalline carbonized iron like the German Spiegdeieen, 

The specimens illustrating this class, are as follows : — 

735.— [7743]. Office penknifes (handles made of betel nut. ) 
This is a favorite fancy work. Pen-holders, rulers and knife handles are made of betel 
nut cut to shape, and the various pieces cemented together and held by an iron shaft down 
the centre. The appearance of the mottled brass and white nut, which hardens and takes 
a slight poli^, is sufficiently pleasing. Price of the knives 1 rupee each. 


73g.— [7748]. A sword. 

This is of rather soft native iron polished by Gtirmiik. Gtirrndk appears to h% 
fhe best cutler at Ludhiana. 

17317, [7762]. "Mochana," tweezers. Every native barber has a pair. 

738.— [7764]. Native penknife. 

The usual penknife is a small pointed blade fixed in a rather long handle. The 
common clasp knife ( when a Earopean pattern has not been imitated ) is a very rude affair, 
and is mora like a razor. Of all native cutlery it is observed, that in the cheaper and 
smaller articles, the surface of the iron rarely has a smooth or lustrous appearance but 
exhibits the scratchy surfitoe left by rough filing or grindstone work. 

739.— [7765]. Penknife. English pattern. 

740.— [7766]. Scissors. 

It is difficult for an European to hold native scissors : they are often made so that 
one blade serves as a knife, and the finger holes are made one smaller than the other, so 
that when closed one falls under the other : such scissors are held with the little and middle 
fingers, not with the thumb and first or middle finger. ' »arzis ' ( taUors ; nearly alwayt 
use scissors made in European flEUthion. 


741._[7778] . Eazors, " XJshtara.*' 

Very rude, though sharp. The process of shaving with them would be eminently 
unpleasant. They fold between two side-pieces very like an European razor, only they ar« 
smaller and shorter. 

146 Class XIL— Division L 

742.— [7780]. Knife. NAligarh (Simla Hills). Rude knives with wooden 
handles, used indiscriminately for all purposes, are carried in the belt in a leather sheath 
bj every man in the hill districts. 


743,— [7826]. Office Eraser. 

744.— [7827 1 . Penknife, 3 blades ; another with 4 blades. 

745. — [7829]. Scissors, large ; and a pair of small scissors. 

746.— [7831]. Hunting knife. 

747.— [7833]. Bread knife. 

748.— [7834]. Tobacco cutter. 

These and many other articles, some of best native iron and others of imported 
English steel, are made by Sealkot workmen under tuition of Mr. W. Spence of the 
Medical Store Sealkot, (see " Surgical Instrumentsv") 

749.— [7835]. A sword, worth Es. 120, by Karmdfn of Kotli Lohfiran. This is a 
blade well made of plates of different kinds of iron welded together and tempered. 

The collection included a Persian knife, daggers, a battle-axe, and a hatchet 
made at the same place, all well finished and polished. The following account of the 
Sealkot cutlery manufacture has been received. 

Forging. — They forge cast steel at red heat ( my correspondent uses throughout, 
the phrase, ''cherry red heat" ), and shear* steel at a low white heat. The work is 
then cold hammered. 

Filing, — The forged article is put into shape and has the scales and blurred 
surface removed with files, leaving the edge rather thick ( the process described is of 

ynnlriTig kuivOS, SWOrds, &C. ) 

Hardening. — This is effected by heating the article to a " cherry " red in a fire 
of charcoal and old leather, and then plunging it into cold water with a layer of oil 
floating in the surfiebce, sometimes it is plunged into pure oil : this depends on the nature 
and quality of the steel and the purpose for which it is intended. Percussive tools are 
mostly hardened in sweet oil. 

Tempering, — I quote the account sent me, verhaHm. 

** This is done either in the common way, or by placing the articles to be tempered 
" in a vessel containing oil, along with some alloy, the melting, point of which answers to 
** the temper required. Springs, if small, or if equal in thickness, are blazed off in the 
" usual way ; but if otherwise, they are roasted in flaming oil, in order to render unequal 
*^ thicknesses alike in temper. The alloy consists of lead, tin and bismuth, melted 
" together in various proportions to suit the diflerent tempers required in cutlery." 

* Steel is of three kinds — " common,*' " shear," and " cast." Shear steel is tongh and elastio. '* Tools, 
says Dr. Ure, " which require great tenacity withont great hardness are made of it, snch as table kniveSy 
plane-irons, Ae. * Cast ' steel is made by melting steel injcovered omoibles with bottle gl&ss, and casting 
in iron moulds, the ingots are hammered into rods ; the steel takes a good pdish ; and BCisaors, p6BkAiT6B 
and raiort, are made of it." y 

Class XIL — Division L 147 

The finishing processes are — (I) grinding, (2) glazing, (3) polishing. For an 
account of the European raethod see " Ure's Dictionary of Arts, under Cutlery." 

At Sealkot these processes are done with the aid of wooden wheels, some of which 
are faced with thick buff leather, others with lead. The grinding is done on stone 
wheels ; glazing on the wooden wheels with emery of various degree of fineness, according 
to which also, the size of the wheel varies. These wheels are known as " buff wheels," 
" wood glaze wheels," and, " lap wheels." They are turned by an endless band and a 
fly wheel.* 

The emery used is known according to fineness, as " con-emery," " washed-flour 
emery," and " double washed flour emery." The corundum, or " karund pathar " ground 
to powder is sometimes substituted. These are used with -ihe wood and hard wheels. 

Polishing is done on the leather wheel, the surface being covered with per-oxide 
of iron, a yellow oxide called " crocus of iron." 

All this the reader will observe is a simplified copy of the European process. 
Common and cheap native cutlery is, after gorging and rough filing, ground on a 
grindstone, which is turned either by a boy, who keeps pulling a twisted leather 
band round the projecting end of one axle, or by a bow and leather such as the native 
carpenters substitute for a centre bit. Polishing is not done at all : but for the better 
class of work a little corundum powder or European emery is used on a wheel with a 
leather edge. The *' Sikli-gars," men whose trade is to clean and brighten arms and iron 
work, remove rust and stains with a set of smooth hand-iron scrapers or small chisels, 
which they laboriously rub and scrape up and down, and they finish with rubbing, with 
iron rust mixed with a little acid, and with powdered corundum and oil, with the aid of 
leather or rags. Brass they polish with soft earth and rotten-stone and oil. (See also 
under the head of " Trade Implements," v, Sikligar). 


This district has settlements of cutlers at Wazirab&d and Niz£m&bdd, who 
imitate European cutlery : these men make self-acting tobacco cutters, neatly finished 
with blue steel catches, engraved brass plates, &c., all at a cost of Es. 5 (!) 

The commonest manufacture is a Large sort of pocket knife with implements, as 
button hooks, corkscrews attached, or campainger's sets, consists of folding knife fork 
and spoon ; but the cutlery as a rule is not nearly so well done as that at Sealkot, and the 
use of iron of the class called ' aspat ' is commoner than of steel, also the final processes 
of glazing and polishing are badly done or not done at all. These men seem to excel 
in making guns, and mechanical works like the self-propelling tobacco-cutter. 

The following specimens will give an idea of the work turned out : — 

750. — Eazors. By Umr Baksh of Ramnagar. 

751. — [ 8020 ]. Crochet needles, by Mubfirak of Nfzfimabad. 

752.— [ 8026 ]. Knife and Fork, value Rs. 3. 

NoTB. — Tlie native names of the wheels wiU be f onnd further on, and in the glossary. I had not 
aaoortained them when I wrote the above. 


Class XIL — Division L 

763.— [ 8085 ]. Letter Clip in blue steel, ( by the same makers. ) 

764.— [ 7988 ]. Pocket knife, WazlrabicL 

766. — Tobacco cutter. — The action of the knife or cutter propels the cake to be cut. 

756.— [ 7991 ]. A pair of Pistols— value Ee. 16, by Husain. 

757. — [ 7993 ]. A double-barrelled grun,— -ralue B«. 46, by Fazldin. 

758.— [ 7794 ]. A Carbine— value Es. 80— by the same. 

759. — [ 7795 ]. A single-barrelled gun,— value Bs. 25. 

760.— [ 8000 ]. Horse's bit, ^snaffle, Ac. 

761.— [ 8001 ]. Spurs and Military Chain Straps Ac., Niz&mabid. 


762. — [8059]. Iron horse bits. — Jhelam seems to produce tbe best cutlery of 
this description. 

There are two specimens : one is called ** nari/* which is I suppose a sort of snaffle, 
an European snaffle is called ** kajai " The other is the " dh&na,'' which means * curb/ 
The cost is only 6 annas each. Made at Bhot^s. 

763. — Stirrup irons. They are made occasionaTly on the European model. 
These are almost circular, narrowing up to the point of suspension. 

The commonest stirrup iron has a flat broad plate at the bottom for the foot 
to rest on. 


764.— [8806 Ac.]. Carving knife, bread knife, table knives and forks, large [Bs. 
18 a dozen, small 15 a dozen] ; also penknives. 

These articles constitute almost a specialty of ^ahpur, and are made with 
bandies of bone, or of a pretty translucent green stone, which is pZcwma, or with the 
mottled and variegated marble or limestone found in the Salt Eange and elsewhere. 

The green stone handles deserve a more special notice. The plasma is & 
green silica brought from beyond Kabul. The native name is ^' Sang Yesham,'' which 
is the term applied to jade or nephrite. Jade diffiers however from plasma. The 
constituents are as follows : — 




«•• ... 






••• ••• 


Alumina, ••• ••• 




••• ••• 


Xron, ••• ••• 

.. • 



••« ••• 



••• ••• 



••• •»• 


Class XlL^Division I. 149 

Plasma has been found among the rums at Rome. It is infusible, while jade melts 
before the blowpipe into a white enamel. The best jade comes fi*om Persia and Chinese 
Tartary t it occurs in granite and gneiss. Plasma occurs in beds associated with chalcedony. 
Plasma, it will be obserTedy contains no magnesia and a much larger proportion of silica 
than jade. 

The following account of cutlery, kindly communicated by Major Davies, then Deputy 
Commissioner of the district^ I transcribe verbatim :— " Information received from Shuruf- 
din, Loh4r of Bhera. The iron is obtained from Bombay. The process of manufacture 
of cutlery is as follows : — A seer of iron say, is heated and hammered continuously for 
about a day. Borax ( solUga ) about a chittack in quantity, is put on this iron when hot, 
and it is then fit for manufiEMsturing into the required shapes. 

'^ These shapes are roughly obtained by means of hammers and moulds, then filed 
and again heated ; they are cooled in water with an eighth part of oil floating over the top, 
which hardens the surface of the iron. 

" The polishing process is now begun, and is performed by means of the ''s^n" and 
the 'matsdn,' of which descriptions must be given. 

" The 's&n' is formed by heating a kind of fine sand obtained from the Salt Sange 
in a vessel and then mixing ' Ukh ' with it, until the whole is formed into a sort of 
dough, after which it is well kneaded and then forced into a mould, which, when it ia 
cold, turns it out in a round shape with the appearance of a very thin grinding stone. 

'' The 'matsdn' is made in the same way : a stone con^taining much silica called 
'kurand' being, when pounded, substituted for the sand. The kurand is said to come from 

The article — a knife say — to be polished, is first moved backwards and forwards on 
the 84n, turned rapidly, with a very little fine common sand applied. 

The article is then applied to the matsdn in the same manner; the mats^ 
however is first prepared by the application of oil and a piece of 'kurand,' after which 
charcoal is rubbed on it and it is well dried with a cloth. This preparation takes place 
three times during the polishing, which from first to last takes about two hours. Large 
articles, such as talw&rs &c,, are not polished in this elaborate manner, but oil and pounded 
Ocurand' are merely rubbed on with a piece of wood. 

The pale green plasma called 'sang-i-yesham is cut by means of an iron saw, and 
water mixed with red sand and pounded 'kurand.' It is polished by application to the sdn 
wetted with water only, then by being kept wet with water and rubbed with a piece of 
Sratf (a smooth fragment of stoneware, crockery, or potsherd^ and lastly by rubbing 
very finely pounded burnt song-i^yesham on it. This last process must be done very 

The other stones used for handles come from the Salt Bange and the hills near 
Attok. Each is polished by being rubbed with 'watT and its own burnt powder as 
above; when the stone is very hard, oil is used in the process instead of water. 

ISO Class XII.— Division I. 


Some of the coarsest class of native cutler's work was sent from this district, including 
the usual knife, scissors, tweezers, razors, and a pair of " camel shears " from Shirgarh in 
this district, — and costing 4 anas. 


The cutlery works of this district, as might be expected, are principally of a warlike 
nature. The workmen have the advantage of the iron from Bajaur, which is excellent 
in texture and easily convertible into steel, ( see Vol. I, pp. 8 and 9). 

The Settlement Report has the following brief notice of the Bword factories, 

** Sword blades of a coarser quality are manufactured at Peshawar, but those in 
" greatest request, other than Persian and Damascus blades, are those [ called ] "'Tfrai, " 
*' made in the Makzai hills of Tfrah at what is known as the Mirzakh^ni fietctory. The 
'' temper of these swords is highly appreciated, and some, purchased perhaps at a small 
" price, are valued nearly as much as lxin( ( Persian ) blades.^' 

The specimens exhibited as cutlery can hardly be separated from those coming under 
the class of " Arms.'' I beg to refer the reader to that class for the strange variety of 
swords, knives and daggers this district produces. 

The works of cutlery here are principally arms ; ordinary rough knives, scissors, 
tweezers &c. &c., are made in this district as well as in every other. I may here mention 
that a few cutlers, like those of Niz^mabad, seem to have settled at Kastir, and that a few 
articles, superior as compared with ordinary native cutlery, were sent to the Exhibition of 
1864 from that sub-division of the Lahore district. 

The specimens are as follows : — 

765. — [ 7856 ].— A sword, ' Talwfir,' with waved edge. 

766.— [7866]. — Steel sword made by Am4n Ali of the Mochi Gate Lahore, 
value Bs. 12 ( an inferior quality). 

767. — [ 7857 ]. — A sword of steel finished with water-mark, by the same, value 
Bs. 80. 

768.— [7858 ]. — ^A sword with a device engraved on the blade, Rs. 20. 

769.— Small curved daggers, made at Lahore. 

770. — ^A dagger made of embossed steel by Am&n Ali. 


771. — [ 8176 ] . — A steel mirror. Before the importation of European glasses, and 
before the process of silvering Aleppo and European glass for mirrors was known at 
Delhi, small round mirrors of polished steel were in use, and still are to be had. This is 
one : its value is Bs. 7-8. 

In bringing this class to a dosey I most enumerate fbe tools used by the blacksmith 
in metal works. 

Class XIL — Dinision 1. "151 

The details of tlie blacksmitli's work are familial*, and there is nothing special in 
the native method. Charcoal is used in the forges. 

The tools emplyed are : — 

(1). — " Ahran."— (anvil). (2) Wadhfe (Sledge hammer) for hammering large works, 

used with both hands. 

(3). — Hathatira (hammer.) 

(6). — Hathauri, small hammer. 

(7). — " Sannja, " pincers of five kinds and sizes. 

(8). — " Chaini, " cold chisel for cutting iron. 

(9;) — " Sumbh^, " to make holes in hot iron. 

(10). — "Dedhi," an iron- piece with a hole in it placed under the iron to be drilled 

with the Sumbha. 

1 1. — ** Chaurasi reti," square file, for filing with either side or face. 

1 2.—** Nimgird reti," half circular file. 

13. — " TirsAl reti," triangular do. 

14. — *' Eeti,** common file. 

16. — " Katira," pair of shears or pincers with sharp edges for cutting metal. 

16.—" Golrfi reti," round file. 

17. — " Parklir," compasses. 

18. — " Hathkali," hand- vice — "b4nk" is a big vice for bench use. 

19. — *' Miis," screw mould in which screws are made — the female screw. 

20. — " Jandri," plate bored for wire*drawijtLg. * 

21. — " Tappa," a shaping block. 

22. — " Kundi," hook for stirring iron in the forge. 

23.—** Khalwa," bellows, or two skins to form bellows. 

24.—" BUol," mouth-piece of the bellows. 

26. — ** Khal," single skin used for a pair of hand bellows. 

26. — " Kaimcha," forge tongs. 

27. — ** Sanddn," small anvil with points at either end. 

28. — " Bank," a vice (copied frpm the Iluropeamimplement ). 

29.— " Nimgira." 

80.—" Tappa golf," a round block for shaping ro\md plates in. 
81.—" Bhattf," forge. 

32.—" Muddhi," wooden block let into the ground on which the anvils are fixed. 

IM Class XIL— Division I. 

The Jury Eeport on the Collection of 1864, may be printed as a suitable conclusion 
to this class: — 



Colonel Sim. G. Bumell, Esquire, 

H. Gunn, Esquire. Dr. Elton. 

Nawab Allee Reza Khan. B. Powell, Esquire. 

Nawab Abdool Mujid Khan. T. D. Forsyth, Esquire, Rep(nier. 

The articles exhibited in this class comprise a wide range of utility, and being sudli 
as are intended for the daily wants of life, rather than for ornament, it is necessary to 
look carefully to the workmanship, design and ultimate use of the articles displayed. 

In this department novelty of design is not likely to be met with, for, as a general 
rule, the implements of trade, and the articles coming generally under the head of hard- 
ware, are produced in greater perfection by Western nations than by Orientals. 

Thus it is foimd that, whilst most of the articles manufiactured after natiya 
models are comparatively rude and uncouth, those made according to English patterns 
have some pretensions to neatness of finish and utility. 

The exception to this is to be found in the swords fuad large knives, exhibited 
from Peshawar and the frontier. The manner in which match-locks are made, and 
native gun-barrels are twisted, is curious ; but this is not a trade which is likely to be 
fostered under the British Government. 

The articles exhibited may be divided into two heads :— 
Ist. — Culinary or household. 
2nd. — Sporting or warlike. 
Under the first heading there are knives and forks, penknives, scissors, erasers^ 
from TJmballa, Loodiana, Sealkote, Lahore, Goojranwalla, Goojrat, JShahpore, and Jheend. 
Scales and weights from Umballa and Loodiana. 

Padlocks from Ilohtuck, Simla, Umritsur, Lahore, Goojranwalla, Bawul Pindee^ 
Oooffaira Dera Ghazee Khan, Bunnoo ; a door-lock of excellent construction after aa 
English pattern made at Umritsur. 

A large collection of brass and copper cooking pots, cups, goglets, hookah bot- 
toms, and other native utensils. 

Under the hdad of sporting and warlike— there are swords, daggers and long 
kpives, from Umritsur, Sealkote, Lahore, and the frontier districts, and some presented 
by ttie'chiefs of the Ois-Sutlej States ; a sword from Loodiana, a *ktikri* from Simla, 
^porting knives from Sealkote, Goojranwalla, and Dera Ismael Khan. 

Guns after English patterns were sent from Goojranwalla and Cashmere, and a 
specimen of a twisted gun^barrel has been supplied from Kohat by Mr. B. E. Egerton. 
whose interestU^ account of the manner in which these barrels are twisted is appended.* 
Native matchlocks and pistols are sent from Peshawur. 

• 8«f Class * Arms.' 

Class XlL-^JHvisimi L ilSS 

Horse bits and stirrups &om Hissar, Rohtuck, Lahore, Goojrauwalla, Jhelum ; 
horse shoes firom Her Majesty's 89th Begimental Workshops. 

Knives and Forks, Ac, — Most of the penknives and scissors are of exceedingly 
poor and rude construction. 

The way in which some of the purely native made cutlery is got up is clever, as 
far as appearance goes, but it will not bear close inspection. 

The external imitation of English cutlery is excellent, but does not stand the test 
of use, there being scarcely a blade which would bear ordinary trial. The natives in 
some instances have evidently procured English steel, but not imderstanding how to work 
it^ have destroyed the temper in making up the blades. 

The exceptions are — 

[7826 to 7833.] — Knives, eraser, 2 penknives, 2 pairs scissors, sporting knife, and 
bread knife. These are by far the best articles of cutlery exhibited, and are really 
good specimens. The blades are made of English steel apparently, but it is understood 
that they have been worked up by native artificers . under English superintendence. They 
axe neatly finished with ivory and horn handles. 

Good specimens of penknives are exhibited by Goojranwalla workmen. 

[7997.98-99].— by Amir. 

[8002 ] A knife 


[8005.] Very good specimen. 

8007 1 f ^'^^^^^^y Shahabooddeen. 

[8012.] Knife by Gholam. 

[8024. ) Knives, forks, '\ 
to > erasers and > by Nubbee Bux. 
3030.] 1 penknife. ) 

Carvers ' } ^^ ^"^^rooddeen. 

8030.] ) penknife. 

[8031.] ) 

to > the same by Mobarik. < 

[8035.] ) 

The scissors exhibited by these manufacturers are very poor indeed. 

[8063. I Shurufdeen, of Shahpoor, exhibits good looking carving and dinner 
to > knives and forks, with imitation jade handles. But they are worthless 
8067.] y for use, not being made of good steel. 

[7749.]— Sfca{e9 amd Weights. 

[7750. ) Scales and set of weights, letter scales, by Goormookh of Loodiana. These 
7751.] j eire after the English pattern, and ar^ remarkably .well made. 

The ordinary native padlocks are supplied in abundance, and are not worth notioe* 

[7739 ] A lock on Chubb*s principle is sent from the Bohtuck Jail, but it is 
quite a misnomer to use Ohubb*s name in connection with the lock exhibited, for it is 
of the most ordinary and rude nature, the principle of the lock being that which would 
be turned by a large watch key. Externally the lock has an impocing appearance. 

A curious puzzle lock from Bokhara is exhibited by Misr Meg Baj, Lahoreu 
No. 7874. 

Ifii Clags XIL^Dividan I. 

[7872.] Ib a yery bad specimen of a common English padlock. 
[8009.] Letter padlock ( brass ) by Oolam. 

% SSiy eJ; ^T' } I^ =^^'*i<« Committee. 

are very good specimens of padlocks, for which the workers deserve honorable mention* 

[8005.] A deverlj oontriyed native padlock, on an English pattern. 

Door Lock. — Sirdar Bhugwan Sing exhibits an excellent specimen of a door lock. 
No. 7808, made after an English pattern. It would be yerj desirable to encourage the 
mana&.ctare of such articles, as they would be much sought after if produced at a 
moderate price, as doubtless they could be. 

Sporting and WarUke.—There is a rery small show of guns, and none hare been 
sent from Eangra, where formerly very fieiir specimens used to be seen ; the best Mundee 
iron being procurable in the neighbourhood, and dever workmen being found in a 
colony at or near Teera Sujanpoor. 

[7994] Gun, double-barrel, price Bs. 45. 

[7995.] Carbine, breech-loading, price Bs. 80. 

[7996.] Oun, single-barrel, price Bs. 25. 

[8004.] €Km, double*barrel, price Bs. 60. 

ore exhibited by Shahabooddeen, who deserves special notice for the workmanship and 
feinli of his weapons* The manner in which the breech-loading carbine has been bored 
is highly creditable. The locks of No. 8004 are very superior. 

The guns from Cashmere are well wrought, and the finish is excellent. 

A hunting knife, no number, sent from Nizamabad, is well made, and appears 
to be of good steel. 

[8000.] An English bit made by Shahabooddeen, Nisamabad, deserves notice. 


Quoits ) Specimens from Soldiers' Workshops are highly creditable^ 

Horse shoes > and deserve special notice. 
Wad cutter i 

Pbizxs, Ac. 
The Jury do not consider any articles in this class of sufficient excellence to 
deserve a medal, but they would, as much as possible, encourage this branch of manu- 
facture by the grant of money prizes and recommendatory certificates. 

They would award to Shahabooddeen of Ghx>jranwaUa for his guns, three shares 
, of "pnze money. 

To Mr. Spence, Sealkote, Sir Bobert Montgomery's special prize might be given 
for general superiority of finish and excellence of material. 

To Gk)ojranwalla, 5 shares of prize money might be sent for distribution to Ae 
. diiferent workmen employed by the Local Committee ; and to the following exhibitony wbo 
' ought also to have certificates : — 

Shahabooddeen. Oholam. 

Amerooddeen. Mobarik. 

Shurufdeen. Nubbee BuksL 

Clas$ XIL'^Pivision L 


Tiro sliares to Sirdar Bhogwan SiBgh for the superior sample of a door lock. 

Three shares to Goormookh, Loodiana, for his brass scales aad weights. 

Two shares to Sergeant Ord, Her Majesty's 89th Foot. 

One share to Sergeant Bates, Her Majestj's dSrd Highlanders, for snperior Bp6ei-> 
mens of hard^ware. 

Honorable mention should be made of the guns from Cashmere, and of the air gun 
from Puttiala ; a certificate should be given to Local Exhibition Committee Eangra for 
delireiy to the maker of an ivory and steel letter dip of superior make and finish. 

For ICr. Bumell's prise for sudder hMr Uock| or rough-filed iran>work^ tber» 
no competition. 

29ih March 1864. 




159 Class XIL — Division IL 




The demand for fabri(» of this claeii is immense. Every wealthy man has his shoes 
embroidered with gold, for which spangles ( sitira ), and thin tinsel ( snima ) are reqtdred. 
€k)ld ribbon (ghota, kinara &c.) is largely used in trimming dresses, both male and female : 
^Id thread (kalibUun) is. tised in embroidery ; and A>r the heavy rich embroidery, already 
described as kar-chob, tinsel wire of sizes ( called mukesh ) is required. Silk cloth with 
patterns woven in gold wire,* is called kimkhab, is used for dresses of the wealthy, for 
cushions and state covtsrlets and cushions ( masnad ), and for the envelopes in which 
royal, and. princely correspondence is enclosed (called kharfta). Native ladies 
demand muslins figured with tinsel, and public dancers wear the gaudier and more 
showy kinds of tinsel ornaments. Small skull caps covered with gold work and tinsel are 
much worn on gala days, especially by children. Delhi is the great place in the Punjab for 
shoes embroidered with gold, or with spangles and tinsel wire worked on to them. Such shoes 
are said to be made with '* sulma wa siULra," and the neater and quieter article is worked 
with gold thread, which is less sparkling and showy, is said to be " kaUbatunf." 

Dehli also is the manufactory for caps showily embroidered with tinsel and 
spangles : sheet tinsel being offcen sewn on to imitate jewels. All kinds of embroidered 
muslins, gold edged turbans, and fancy articles of tinsel ware, are to be obtained at Dehli. 

At most of the large cities, embroidered shoes are made, and at Lahore and Amritsar 
the kar-ch<5b is done, the manufacturers being the relics of the once flourishing class who 
supplied the Sikh Oourt and nobles with embroidered velvet coverlets, cushions, floor 
dollis, saddle cloths, SbG. The demand has now fallen off, and the embroiderers obliged to 
take to other classes of embroidery more in demand by the general public. Kimkhib 
( corruptly kincob) is not made in the Punjab : it is possible that in some places a stray 
workman from other parts may be found, but that is all ; all our kimkh&b is brought from 
Benares or from Ahmadabad in the Bombay Presidency. The qualities of kimkhib am 
very various in inferior sorts: the last yard or so. is fairly well woven, the gold flower 
standing out bright and glistening from the silken -surface, the '' th6n" or piece is so folded 
for sale that the good parts form the few outer folds ; on going towards the inner lengths 
the gold flowering gradually becomes thinner and poorer. The unwary purchaser who 
only looks at the outer folds is thus often sadly cheated. 

I do not think there is any great demand for kimkhAb now ; the fashion of wearing 
European silks and satins for chogas and robes is so prevalent that kimkhab seems to be 
driyen out. 

The Maharaja of Kashmir has however imported kimkhdb makers into his territory, 
and in 1868 presented to the Lahore Museiim a piece of very elegant material, gold flowers 

* I must adopt throngrkout this olass some general word to indicate the narrow tinsel ribbon wbioli 
is formed by flattening a gilt wire of various thickness according to the work it is required lor. I oatt it 
tinsel aooordinglj. A gold thread means ( kalibitim or ) gold tinsel npon silk. 

Class. Xlt^Dtvision 11. 157 

on a white ground, and so neatly worked as to bear inspection on both sides ; the work is 
equal to Benares, but hardly to the hett ** Dakhanf " work. 

To illustrate this class I must describe the process of making:-— 
Silver and gold tinsel wire, plain and fancy — sulma, tila, mukesh, gokru, Ac. 
Oold and silver thread — ^kal&bdtdn. 
^ Tinsel spangles — sit^ra. 

The foundation of all worlp in this class is the ** kandla " or silver ingot. 

At Lahore the kandla is particularly pure : it is never allowed to be alloyed with 
more than a fixed quantity' of copper. The whole ingot weighs 63 rupees or tolas 
standard, and 68 rupees Ninakshahi ( Sikh rupees. ) This size has descended from long 
custom. The Municipality tax the ** kandla-kash " or kandla making community, at so much 
per cent on the value : a contractor farms the tax, it being put Up to auction, and he col- 
lects the per-centage due on each kandla. If the number of kandlas made that year 
isTery Utge, the total of his pier*centage will exceed the price paid for the farm and he 
gains, otherwise not. The present contractor tells me that about 1500 kandlas are made 
in the year, but l^at the nuinber varies.' 

The kandla consists of a round bar of silver, slightly tapering at each end and covered 
with gold all over. To make it, the first thirtg is to get a long narrow silver ingot about 
8 or 9 inches long and 1 inch thick, called ** raini ;" this is made by melting silv^ in a small 
knthilior open crucible with sohfiga (borax) as a flux, which leaves the silver perfectly pure : 
it is then mixed with the proper quantity of copper alloy and poured into an iron mould 
having a handle and called '' feza." The reza is simply a thick narrow bar of iron with a 
trough in the middle, long enpugh to admit the required quantity of metal. 

So soon as the ''raini*' or ingot is oold it is taken to the Municipality office to' 
be tested. This is done to prevent the deterioration of the Lahore manufacture and conse- ' 
quent depression of the trade : if it were not, the kandla could be easily adulterated, and 
also those bankers who give over silver to be worked up would be defrauded; For this 
reason also all the kandla^kashes work together in the old mint buildings '' Tankshil " of* 
Lahore ; this facilitates supervision. AU the kandla-kashes are in one partnership, • 
sibout 15 or 20 of them, and their earnings are thrown into a common stock and divided' 
out : if a member is sick and unable to work he gets his share all the same ; it is only when 
a person renders himself obnoxious or becomes lazy that they refuse to give him a sharoi and * 
then the.matter often ends in a law-suit. This arrangement is a matter of ancient custom. • 
Becently a workman from Hindustan made his appearance, but has been obliged to go 
and sit in the Tanksh&l, being looked on with much disfavor by the others as an interloper. • 

The testing operation is performed as fc^ows :^ 

Each kandla has in it 64i rupees N4nakshahi ( Sikh coinage ) weight of pure- 
silver ; fiY« kandlas are taken aad a small portion cut off each. Of the fragments, one • 
rupee, weight (according to a standard rupee kept for the purpose) is taken, and mixed with 
a proportion of lead and melted in a crucible. The pure silver when taken out ( the lead 
i^d copper being separated from it in the melting ), ought, if of proper quality, to wei^h 
exactly against another standard rupee made S2 rice grains weight less than the fint» i. e., 
ejrerj true kandla contains 32. rice grains «« four rattis * of alloy to tiie tola : if more . 

• 8 rice gxmhia eqxuJ eae ratti, the r«d Msd ef Ahrm grewtoriat^ 

1,59 Chss XIL^-?Dimion IL 

than 32 rice grams weight is lost^ th« kondla is immediately destroyed as spurious ; if 
it is correct, the kandla is stamped with a die bearing the letter '* L. 82." L for 
* Lahore,' ' 32' to signify that in the testing 32 rice grains weight of alloy ezkts in the tola. 

The oblong ingot when stamped is called ** raini." It is then made into a kandla 
by hammering and filing (when the shape is that of a candle, round and somewhat tapering 
at the ends,) and by covering it with gold. The gilt bar thus ready is also called loiiidla. 
The raini by .being filed into the kandla (" kandla kilsf hul*') loses 1 tolah in weight. For 
making a kandla the rate is Bs. 2-8 to Bs. 3, including 1 tolah of silver which comes off 
tiie raini or ingot in the process of making it into the kandla. 

The gilding process is done by means of gold in thin narrow plates, and quite pur^ 
(*' sona patra"), which, by the aid of fire and hammering, are plated on to the sur£eu3e ; the 
dtoing this part of the work well is the kandla-kash's art : he makes no secret of it now, 
and will teacli any one who wishes to learn. 

The quantity of gold put on is more or less according to the color and qualitf of 
the tinsel ultimately required : if but little gold is put on^ the tinsel will be of a pale 
yellowish color, if plenty, it will be of rich gold-red. The tensile capacity <rf the gold is 
wonderful, for however fine the bar may be drawn out, the gold surface always remains ; 
the fine wire used for making thread must be j^roduced by drawing out the kaodla to- 
thousands of times its original length, and yet the gold surface, and also the color of the 
gold never changes : if the kandla is thinly gilt and pale in color, so is the wire, and if 
the kandla is dark red, so is the tinsel. 

The kandla has now to t>e drawn out by the ** t&rkash/' His apparatus is simple, 
but powerful. A small oblong trough about 8 feet long or 4, and 2 feet broad, is dug in 
ths g^und and bricked round. Across this a stout roller of wdod is laid, supported at its 
two axle ends in wooden sockets at either side of the trough. Through the roller pass stout 
wrooden arms, or spokes, one sloping one way, the other the other, like the letter X. 

The roller is called "jandar." A stout chain, called '^ sangal," terminating at one 
end in a ring, and at the other with a pair of pincers or a crab, is now fixed to it foj 
simply passing the ring over one spoke and turning the roller half round ; the chain is 
thus secured with a good purchase, is now extended towards the opposite end of tM 
trough; here, just to where the chain readlies, are fixed two very stout posts deeply 
driven into the ground, and having the upper end projecting about a foot above tlie ground 
afid cut with a dit of say four inches broad down the centre, these are called ** kila.'' 

A stout steel plate is now produced having a series of holes in it, just so large 
that the kandla cannot pass through any one in its present state, though the tapering 
end ( made tapering for this reason) can. The kandla is well rubbed wi& wax and the 
end forced though the *' jandri" hole : this is then placed point inmost against the two posts 
of the *' kiU," and hdd IJiere by a man's foot. The projecting point of the kandla is 
firmly caught and held by the pincers, and then by turning] the roller, exactly on the 
principle of a rack, the kandla is stretched out and gradually dragged through the hole ; 
in length it is now about trebled or quadrupled. This process is repeated with finer 
boles unttt the wire is drawn as fine as ordinary small wire, and then it is made up into 
coiUef no tnany tolahs weight. In this state it is called ** veri.*' The ttrkask's WMk ii 
BOW oyer. The annexed plate shews the three machines described. 

t < 

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• • • 


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(Hati XIL-^Division 11. 16i) 

The veri passes to Che ** kataya'' or fine wire drawer, who has to draw it out still 
finer, but his apparatus does not require to produce such a powerM tension as the 
t6r*kash's. He has merely a low board supported on four short legs : this is called 
• patra.' On it is fixed an upright iron spike (" kil") on which a imiall wooden wheel — 
broad edged and rimmed (to prevent the wire wound on it slipping off) — reyolves. This 
is called " charkhi." The wire has to be softened before it is drawn, this is done by 
putting it on a copper drum or charkhi, and then after heatings transferring it to the wooden 

The coarse wire to be fined is wound on this : one end of the wire is passed through 
a pierced steel plate — the hole being gauged to the fineness of the wire required. The 
steel plate called "jandri," is held in its place between two little iron uprights 
suitably placed, called " mareli, " by help of a little wooden wedge made of " pilchi " or 
other soft wood and called " tor " — ^the point of the wire passing through the jandri 
hole is puUed by the hand gently till a sufficient length comes out to fasten the end to 
a larger and much heavier wooden wheel (charkh) revolving horizontally at the other 
end of the patra. The workman sitting before the patra then turns the heavy 
wheel by a dexterous application of his hand to the flat top of the wheel or drum, 
which has a little dent in it to catch his finger : sometimes the drum has a little 
hole in it, and is propelled by a small tool like an awl whose point goes into 
the hole: this is called "bailoni." The drum is heavy enough to exert a force 
sufficient to draw the flexible wire though the hole and keep winding it off" till 
all is finished. In order to commence work, the end of the coarse wire has to be 
grotmd down, so as to make it pass through the hole, after which the man catches 
the end in his fingers and exerts force enough to compel the wire through the hole, thus 
drawing it out till he gets a bit long enough to attach to the wheel, after which the 
weight of the revolving wheel continues the drawing. The patra is furnished with two 
little round bits of rough glazed china or pottery, (bits of an old cup or 'saucer 
rounded and beveled) called " pewan," the end of the wire is sharpened by rubbing it 
between them. 

I must say now something of the jandri. It is a small tongue or plate of hard steel 
pierced with a series of holes, called '' bdra." Each b4ra or hole is made with difficulty aa 
it requires the successive use of 82 small steel punches called *' kat&r.'' One is first 
applied and given one blow with the hammer, then another, and then another : the result 
is a beautifully smooth even hole. Each hole, as originally made, is of the same size : but 
as the wire requires to be drawn finer for some work and coarser for others, the workman 
has accordingly to acljust the hole in the jandri, which he does by hammering it up dose 
with a little steel hammer, having one end pointed, ( and called " chindi") and then 
:Xe-opening it of the required sise by passing a steel spike or needle called " siUi," thnmgh 
it— ^uged to the size of wire required. Another sort of spike is also used, called 
" chsurasa" ( the silai is round, the chauraai has four facets terminating in a sharp 
point) The finest gauge draws the wire so thin as to be almost invisible : the art of 
sharpening the end of the wire so as to get it through the ^^ hole and have a handle 
\a oomnienoe pulling firom, requix^s no little delicacy and skiLL It is needless to say that 
the hole is always smaller than the wire, otherwise the wire would only pass through 
without becoming longer and thinner. 

160 Class XIL— Division 11. 

All these operations being done, the owner of the veri or coarse wire, reqaires 
an equal weight of fine wire to be deUvered. The tdrkashes and katayas are moi^ 
numerous than the kandla-kashes. 

The fine wire is genericallj called ^' tand/' t. e. * pulled material/ 
Four gauges of wire ( tand ) are made : — 

1. The coarsest, t£rf ka tand, for making spangles (tin or sit&ra). 

2. Mukesh ki tand ( for mukesh, used in embroidery. ) 

8. Kin4rii|^ tand, for making kiniri and gota or gold edging. 

4. Wattan ki tand, or tila ki tand. the finest of all, for making ** tila," the thin kind 
of tinsel used for making gold thread, and for sulma, and for weaving chunibldla, and the 
thinnest and lightest gold wire fabrics. 

The fine wire now goes to the " dabkai " who flattens it out into * tila,* * mukesh,' 
'* gokru-mukesh,* * mukesh bati-hui,' for ribbon and lace making, according to order and 
according to the fineness of the wire. 

The dabkai*s apparatus is simple : a stout block of hard wood is driven into the 
ground, leaving only the rounded head projecting ; this forms a solid anvil into the centre 
of which a piece of steel is let, curved slightly on the surface, as being a segment of the 
dome shape; this is finely polished and always kept perfectly free of all dust and scratches; 
the operator sits before this, hammer in hand, and hammers the wire flat on the steel, with 
the aid of a rather heavy but small eteel hammer, one end being beautifully polished and 
slightly concave to fit the surface of the anvil. The end of the handle is thickened b} a 
good covering of wax, which gives a firm grasp. The wooden anvil is called "kunda," and 
the steel plate let in to it " nihai/' the hammer '* hathaura ". 

But the means of applying the wire has to be described : — 

A long reel is taken, being 15 compartments ( called ''girdh£nak*' ), it revolves on an 
iron pin between two uprights, and at one end of the axle pin, which projects, a wooden reel 
is fixed. The wire owner who hands over the " tand '' to be flattened, gives it over by 
weight, wound an to the compartments of the reel, leaving one blank. The object is to hav^e 
,an exactly equal quantity of wire on each compartment, and this is a<^usted by xemoving 
any surplus and winding it on to the reel at the end of the axle pin. The compartment reel 
and its stand and uprights is now placed on a little three-footed stool called '' tirwai " 
( corruption of tirpai ) opposite the workman and some little distance in front of his anvil, 
and it is kept from revolving on its axis until wanted by laying a flap of leather against it, 
and on the leather a heavy square iron weight called " d4r ". The wheel is let go a litUe 
.and 14 strands of wire drawn out to a sufficient length. 

Just at the end of the steel nihai on the anvil, between the anvil and ih» giirdhfaak 
frame, two tiny little bits of leather, the edges sliced like the teeth of the comb, stand up : 
they are kept there by strings : the strands are taken and passed over the combs of leather 
' seven irtirands between the slits of each : they are thus gathered into an even skein, which is 
slowly pulled over the steel with one hand and simultaneouely hammered flat with the 
ot^er. Tn order to keep the wires separate between the girdh&nak and the leather combs, 
small weights, called ^* dhellor,'^ consisting of a string with a courie shell at either end, 
are hung over the strands : this keeps them taut and prevents the fine spider lines firotti 
becoming entangled. 




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Ch9i XlL-^LivisioH 11. 161 

The wire when flattened is thrown into an earthen pan as it comes off in pieces, this 
being the best way of keeping it clean. It is then gathered and tied up in skeins, called 
" lucha," and weighed : it is sold by weight also. 

According as the gold has been applied, thick or thin to the kandla, so is the color 
of the wire rich or pale. For silver wire, the kandla is of course left ungilt 

The fancy kinds of tinsel are made in the following ways : twisted mukesh, (bati-hui) 
is made by taking the fine wire * tand ' and winding it by means of an ordinary * charkh 
or spinning wheel, on to a long narrow steel spike, so as to form a narrow ringlet : this is 
opened out till the wire is waved only, and then flattened ; the mukesh when thus waved, 
is much used by karchobs for a gold ground work, being sewn on edge over edge. 

Sulmais made of very fine wire wound on to a steel needle (sil^i) so as to form a thin 
close curl like the tendrils of a creeping plant, only very much finer and closer, and comes 
off in pieces a few inches long. This is the prettiest form of gold tinsel. The pieces of 
sulma look like pieces of fine chain,or,if I may be allowed the comparison, like gold vermicelli. 
Two kinds were sent me from Delhi : ' sulma kora,* which is rather looser in texture and 
made of plain drawn wire ; and * sulma dabka hua,' made of fine wire slighly flattened and 
having a closer wound appearance : the difference is hardly appreciable to an uneducated eye. 

The winding is done by fixing the needle on to the common charkha, and attaching 
a reel of gold wire : one end of the wire is made fast to a bit of string fixed at the end of 
the sildi, and it is then wound off close and fine, row against row, on the silai, and when 
finished the little curl, now called " silma " or *' sulma, " is slipped off : it is used in em- 
broidery of caps and shoes, principally. 

Spangles f^t4ra or sitAra) are made of the thickest wire, (though still very fine) 
which is first wound off on to a wire shaft just as the sulma, only coarser. The long curl of 
wire is called *'phogli." The silAi is turned up at one end to prevent it slipping, off. 

The " dabkaya " now sits down opposite his steel anvil, and spreads all round him 
a dean cloth, and sets up a sort of wall or low tent of cloth round him to prevent losing 
his spangles, which fly about ; he takes the phogli in one hand and with the other cuts the 
coil of wire up the pide with a pair of scissors having fine points, but one blade much shorter 
than the other ; the point of the short blade goes in under the wire coil and the other 
presses on it, the result is that when the silai is shaken and turned up, little coils of wire, 
shaped thus (C) fall off; as each drops on the steel anvil a single blow with the hammer 
flattens it out into a spangle thus (^j and the work is done ; the spangles lie all about 
the doth, and are afterwards carefully collected. 

The materials are now ready for use : the tila or plain thin flattened wire goes to the 
kalibatun sfiz— ( in Panjabf til^-bat ) or gold thread maker, and to the kindre bfif or weaver 
of gold lace, edging, &c. The mukesh, and the sulma and sitara, go to the embroiderer 
and shoe omamenter. ' Gokru mukesh * ( which is mukesh puckered up, or crimped with a 
pair of iron tongs ), also sulma and spangles, go to the embroiderer of caps. 

Palse tila and mukesh ar^ made of brass gilt, and come mostly from Delhi. 

Kaldbatun is made by twisting the fine gold tila or flattened wire on to fine red 
silk, if it is gold (surkh), on white silk if it is silver (safed); it is simply done 
by fixing two threads of material to a small iron spmdle, just the same shape 

162 Clan XIL—Viwiiion It 

M an ordinary spindle ; this is kept perpendicular by the thi^ead passing tmder a 
little hook at the end. The spindle is set spinning bj a twist of the finger and thumb v th^ 
finished thread is wound off on to reels. 

The kindra^b^f makes gold lace ( military ) and ribbons of aU kinds. Lace is 
made on a warp of firm and thick yellow silk, with ' tand/ or wire not yet made into 
thread : the end of the web is tied round a small stick and secured by a string to a nail 
in the wall, the other end of the web is fixed to a roller, it is crossed by 2 or 4 small 
treddles ( gulla ) to lift the upper and lower threads of the warp : these are suspended from 
the ceiling by strings, and a " kangi," to close up the woof, is hung on the warp just 
like a miniature loom. The woof thread in lace making is gold : it ia applied, ,not with a> 
shuttle, but on a plain spindle shaped stick called ** kainthd/*" 

Gold ribbon is made with a .tiny loom like the above : in making it the web iB 
of gold wire flattened ( tila ) and a single strand of silk at each side for the edge, to give 
strength to the whole ; the woof is very fine red silk or white, according to color of the 
metal : silk is always used, even to make ribbon of imitation tinsel. 

The narrowest ribbon is called " dhanak " ( No. 786 Ac. ) : it is made of 5 to 7 
strands of gold in the web ; it is used in making " dori." " Qtotk" is a brosder plain ribbon 
with 20 strands. " Pattah" is a ribbon still broadw— aa wide as the finger. " Kinari " 
is wider still. " Anchal *' is the widest of all. 

Gold fringe is also made by the kinAra-bfif : the fringe is twisted by hand and the 
tags kept together by the band along the edig^ woven in a loom. 

The variety of articles, in the nature of materials for gold embroidery, may ba 
illustrated by the following lists : — 


772.—" Laus sunehrf guldar "—Military gold lace epaulettes. These are after the 
European fashion. The origin of the word laus for epaulettes I do not know : perhaps ii 
is a corruption of " lace," but the word " lais," which is evidently our word ''^ lace,** is used 
for gold lace also. 

773.— [7398]. Gold and Silver lace. 

Native gold lace is only used by European tailors for the bands of 
MUitary caps; it is too heavy or expensive, being of gold wire (tArsurkh), much 
more heavily gilt than the European, and therefore more expensive. " Lais " is admired by 
natives for waist-belts, sword-belts Ac., (peti, partla, g4tra &c.^) and worn in native cavalry 
regiments <&;c., <&c. 

7 74 .—[7399] . Bo. of silver gilt. 
775.— [7400]. Sulma of gold and silver. 

776.— [7402]. Gokru-i-mukesh. This has been described above, it is merely tinsel 
crimped or puckered up. The term ' gokru is applied to the prickly seed vessel of the 
burr ( Trihulus ), thence the word has passed into other meanings. A round spinous orna- 
ment for the ear is called gokrd ; the spiked three-pronged irons, which, being thrown 
down, are so curved that one prong must project and so harass the advance of cavalry^, aie 

Class XIL — Division IL 168 

oalled gokm. Just in the same waj the Delhi jewellery in gold, pointed all over with little 
points, is called b&bnl work, from its resemblance to the round balls of yellow stamina 
which form the flower of the b&bul or acacia. 

777. — Sit4ra safed and snrkh are the roimd spangles before described. 

778.'--Gota, snrkh and safed. Gota is a bordering of gold made in a loom as above 
described. Juta, ( or false ) gota, is very cheap— the tinsel being merely brass and water- 

779 —[7402] . Dhanak ( safed and snrkh ) . 

780.— [7408] . Zanjirah ( gold ). 

781 — [ ]. Silver wire gilt 

782. — [7412]. Mukesh (described above). . 


783.— [3437.]— Gota, gold ribbon called * Hor ' in local list 
The same from Ludhiana, Ambala <&c. &c. 


784. — [8684].— Mukesh, — and gold thread made from it (kalabatnn), reeled gold 
wire, and reeled red floss silk used for making kalabatun. The little wooden reel is called 
** pechak." The same with silver wire and white silk for silver threads ( hence the use 
of the names * safed ' and * surkh' for silver and gold thread). 

785. — " Kaitun mothradar," a kind of edging of green and scarlet silk and gold. 

788. — [8(589]. — Kaittin mothradar, gold lace edging : this is woven with gold 
thread in "the web and woof ; not like gota, which is made of tinsel. 

787. — [8694]. — Kaittin "safed," silver braid by Muhamad Baesh. This is a 
harrow braid, such as ladies use in embroidery or braiding work. 

788. — *' Dori siibz wa siya," g^rcen, black and gold edging or braid : a narrow braid 
made by plaiting gold or silver dhanak (q. v,) with silk. 
789.-.[8700].— Anchal safeda. 

790. — [7801]. — Kindri, edging. Anchal and Kinari are ribbons of silver and 
gold, either plain or woven in a pattern. The manufacture has been described above. 
The plain ribbon of the broader sorts has often a pattern pressed on the material so as to 
stand out in relief, by printing with a hard iron block or die after gentle heating. 

791._[8703]. Gold '* Sarpech." 

This is a strip of thin gold woven ribbon, a foot broad, worn round the turban by 
the bridegroom on the day of his marriage ; when so attired he is called " Nau-Shah," 
the new king. The sarpech was formerly only worn by Kings and Emperors and such 
nobles as they chose to allow the distinction of wearing it. The bridegroom who wears it 
is king for the occasion. 

792. — [8706]. Chdni badlf, a scarf of fine muslin woven with gold, worn at 
weddings : it is very light, hence called " bfidli," and glitters prettily enough. 

1S4 (Mss XIL— Division IL 

793. — [8706]. *^ Son-sehra/' an ornament consisting of a piece of rerj deep 
fringe ( a foot deep ) made of thin strips of gold tinsel ; it is tied round the forehead 
of the bridegroom at his wedding and allowed to hang over the face. 

794. — [8707]. — Kalghiy a cockade or aigrette of gold tinsel and feathers, worn in a 
child's pagri on gala dajs i&c. 

795- — Tinsel ornaments for the ears. These are rosettes not xmlike a guelder rose, 
stalks and flowerets being imitated in tinsel, and worn stuck into the ear by dancing girls. 
They are called " Kamphul." 


796. — [9095].— Gold thread ( Russian ) worth Bs. 1-1-0 a tola. 

797. — [9096]. — Gold thread made at Peshawar, Es. 1-4 a tola. 

Russia gold thread is sold in Peshawar, both real and imitation, (" jiita kal^batdn.") 

Nabha. « 

798.— [9163.] "Sanj6^" a border of brocade ( silk is often substituted) and 
sewn inside the lining of a garment at the edge. 

799. — [9166.] Patha or fita, a narrow edging. 

800. — [9176]. ** Zari," gold and silver, the same as " chuni bddla." 

801. — [9183]. Gokru, gold and silver. 

The collection also included sit&ra, sulma, mukesh, dhanak and gota. 


The following are the specimens. 

802. — [7396], KimkhSb, woven at Nabha. This was, I suppose, woven by a 
workman employed by the Chief of this State. 

803. — [7422 ^c.]. Specimens of muslin woven with spots of gold and silver. 
Males Kotla. 


804. — [8441 &c.] Series of fancy gold woven fabrics by Liila Rami Mai. The 
names, tol, chin &c. mean thin fabrics of net or gauze embroidered. 

" Toi ganda," Ks 2-8 a yard. 

" Toi bljdCir," ( spotted or speckled with small spots or seed — blj ) @ Bs. 2-4 

" Toi Saburja "— @ Es. 1-2. 

^ Toi phdldar " (flowered) @ Rs. 1-7. 

« Ch6n phuldar." 

" Chuneria," @ Es. 1-1 a yard. 

805.* '[8711]. Muslin, printed in gold, ( chdni malmal di4p tilaC ) by Ana&d 

This is simply gold leaf applied to muslin, by printing the pattern firet in some 
glutinous size, and then applying the gold leaf. 


Obua XII.^ Division II. I6& 




I do not here include personal ornaments ; putting them by preference under the 
bead of " Jewellery." The class does not exhibit any very interesting articles. 

For design and variety in the form of articles we look in vain ; but in this class of 
vrorky as in many others, great delicacy and ingenuity is discovered in chabing, ornamenting, 
and engraving patterns on the various articles. 

Most of the silver and goldsmith's work is rude, and always exhibits a want of 
finish, and a carelessness of accuracy which is distressing : circles are always out, the lines 
of a casket never true or straight, a vessel is often slightly lop-sided, or the work showi 
marks of the file and the burnisher. 

The silver vessels in use in rich men's houses are the ugliest things imaginable ; 
all that is wanted is to have pure silver, dull, white, and heavy. Polishing silver, and th9 
contrast of bright and frosted silver is unknown and hardly appreciated. 

But under this sub-class, some of the inlaid work of Sealkot and Gujrat, and the 
flower-chased vases of Kashmir, redeem the series from being utterly uninteresting, 
and, fortunately, form and design are here both excellent. In the case of ' Sloftgari,' or 
inlaid work, besides arms and armour, caskets vases and ornaments are made, but on 
European and other good designs, wherein the indigenous taste for delicate tracery comes 
out in full force in the inlaying work. The Kashmir work again is almost confined to the 
production of the water goglet or " 8urahi,"v copied from the clay original, whose elegant 
shape I have before remaked to be probably fortuitous. A few other articles are made^. 
such as little cups with covers, and ti-ays of a very pretty pattern— four cornered—the 
comers being like a Muhamadan arch. 

The following articles in silver will illustrate the class. I have uot repeated the 
names of the household vessels, drinking cups and so forth ; almost any of the vessels 
mentioned under No. 727, ante, except the very large ones may be found in wealthy 
kouses, made of silver instead of brass. 


806— [84611]. Salt-cellars (silver) by Ourmukh of Malondh. 
807. — Silver water-goglet and cups. 

808. — A pair of silver slippers ( fancy article, for ornament ). 
809. — Silver " dibba " or round box for keeping trinkets, ^. 
810.*-Sllver snuff-box. 

The snuff-boxes in use are either made of silver, or else of a b^l fruit dried and 
mounted with metal, or even of glass ; but all are on the principle of a hollow e^^ with a 
very small opening, and stopped with a little stopper : ' to take a pinch ' out of such a 
bo^ would be difficult. 

Snuff is principally taken by Ksbulis, Peshawris and by Biluehf people, rarely if 
ever by ths Pa^Jsbis, asid never by Sikhs. 

166 Class XII.—Dimsion IL 

Simla Statbs. 
811. — Silver box from Kanaitf . 

812. — Silver pen box and inkstand.. Jubal. This is prettily chased. 

Each of the jsmall Hill States having his own Chief, RAja, fUlna or Thakur, a silver- 
smith for the Court is required, and a workman with sufficiently rude art is generaUr 


813.— Q-ilt box. This is of silver gilt ; a casket ornamented with flowers, done in 
sort of repousse work. 

There are one or two workmen at Lahore and Amritsar who make very handsome 
patterns chiselled out in relief on very bard wood or brass ; and then hammer a thin silver 
plate over it till the silver takes the impression of the pattern in relief. Such workmen 
can make pretty caskets, or designs for book covers, in any style. 

814. — [ 8522 ]. Silver Surmadan or antimony holder. A small vase or bottle for 
holding antimony, applied as a cosmetic to the eyes. Such vases, having a narrow 
neck and a silver bodkin with which to apply the powder, are made in great variety of shape 
and style of ornamentation. 

815. An " Atar-dlLn." A casket for holding little pots of attar or otto of roses, 
jessamine, &c. Some of them are very elegant. There was one sent by the Nawab of 
Patondhi to the Paris Exhibition in 1867. It is probably Delhli work. In shape it is 
oblong, with the sides gracefully curved like the body of a guitar and the comers rounded. 
It is mounted on claw feet, and has a raised lid ; the work is partly plain and partly silver 
open-work, the latter portion being gilt. Tl# whole is set with turquoises, and the lid 
surmounted by a small peacock in enamel. 


816. — " GuUb pAsh." A vase with a long narrow neck and a perforated mouth 
piece, for sprinkling rose water. 

817.— [ 8658 ]. "Abkhora tdtfdar." A silver drinking vessel, with a spout, cover, 
and handle. 

818. — ' Kulfi.' A small silver vessel with cover, used for preparing ices in. 
819.— A scent bottle—" Atar-dfin." 

820 — A silver huka vase, with stem, bowl, and every thing complete. Such a silver 
huka would be used by a nobleman or Eaja : it is an extremely handsome affair. 
821 . — A perforated silver ball. 

Whether this is meant for a toy, or to be used as a ** salki," to infuse tea in a cup 
or other vessel, instead of using a teapot, I do not know. 

822.— [ 8678 ]. ** Keta nukri," silver marbles for children's toys. 
823.— A Chauri or fly-flap, with silver handle. 

The servants in attendance in every great man's house has one or more, standin^^ 
behind the chaip and waving the chauri gently to keep off the flies. They are either made 
of peacocks feathers (for state ceremonies) or of the tail of the yak (see Vol., I, «. v. ). 

Clou XIL—DivisioH II. Uf 

• •• 


824 — ^Dates imitated in silver. 

826.— Series of vessels of glass covered with filigree silver. 

There is a Kapurthalla workman and one at Amritsar. The stems of the glass 
and the rim are covered with silver gilt and flowered ( not filigree work ) and the bowl 
with a covering of silver net, made of fine wire. Drinking cups and vases are made in 
this way. 

The Kashmir work made, both in silver and gold, at Srinagar, is the best work 
imder this class, but wants finish and neatness. The work is uniform in design consisting 
of a pattern of small sprigs of leaves all over the vessel in relief : it is done with a 
hammer and tiny steel chisels and punches. Sometimes the work is made with the ground 
silver and the sprigs gilt: this is called " Gangd-jamni " work. 

To <yive some idea of the prices, I enumerate the following : — 
The prices are rather high, as might be expected at an Exhibition. 

Silver cup, partly gilt, ... ... ... Rs. 20 — 13 

Large surahi, Do., ... ••• ••• « 70 

Silver dish. 

Cheroot case, ••• 

Salt cellar, 

Silver surahis, ... ... .^ 

The purchaser in Srinagar can hardly be cheated, except in quality of work, as 
all these goods are sold by actul weight in silver, with a* fixed rate for workmanship added. 

Inlaid Ware. 

The inlaying is mostly on steel or iron, in gold, and occasionally silver, and sometimes 
both ; when gold and silver are employed in unison, the work is called " Gktnga-jamnf." 

The inlaid work of steel and gold is called " Koft-gari, " the people who do it 
are " koft-gars." ' 

I have already explained that originally arms and armour were the only things 
in demand, but now, in times of peace — Othello's occupation gone — the workmen have 
nearly all settled in the Gujrat and Sealkot districts, and make inlaid work on caskets, 
Tases, pistols, combs, brooches, bracelets and so forth. In Sealkot the workmen have 
been greatly improved by the teaching of Mr. Spence, before alluded to. This gentleman 
has induced the Sealkot workman to apply that care in finishing, in which native work is 
usually so deficient. The rough undersides of the inlaid work and the joints, which were 
formerly left bare or rudely marked with silver in a check pattern, are now finished 
by the aid of electro-gilding. 

Eoft-gari is done by first drawing out the pattern on the steel surface with a 
bard steel needle or sil&i. This leaves a line sufficiently deep to catch the very fine wire 
laid on. The wire is of pure gold, drawn through a steel jandrf, just as described under 
the head of " Gold wire drawing, " only that the wire is gold, and not silver gilt. The wire 
if then hammered into the iron according to the pattern and lines already drawn, the 


6 —11 
50 and 65 

168 Clasi XIL—Divmon 11. 

whole is then heated and again hammered, and the surface is polished with a white, 
porous stone ; where the soft gold is required to be spread, the rubbing and hammering 
are repeated with greater force. The gold used is pure and very soft. 

Recently Mr. Spence has introduced inlaying on bronze, and some pretty 
specimens were sent to Paris in 1867. The gold for this must be of the richest and darkest 
color, or it does not show out. 

For a particular accoimt of the implements used in koft work, see note to No. 833 
(Multau) poHi. 

826.— [8490]. Axe inlaid with gold— Kyunthal. 


827.— Specimens of inlaid work, in silver on iron — a pen stand, a buckle, and » 
knife. This work is rather rude, and has little to recommend it — made at Una and 

' 828.-^Koft-gari arms, contributed by Sirdar Bhagwan Singh of Amritsar, consist- 
ing of the long native gun, daggers, swords, helmet and armour. There are still 
some workmen, relics of the Sikh days, both at Lahore and Amritsar, who can, to order, 
work up swords Ac, in gold inlaying, and do it beautifully, if allowed expenses for a 
liberal supply of gold wire. Im£m Baksh, Mehtdb Singh, AmanuUa, and a few othersp 
are the Lahore workmen. 


829. — [8749]. Hunting sword, the blade inlaid with devices of tigers, dogs Ac, 
*^, ^alue Rs. 35. 

830. — Inlaid shield, value Rs. 125. 

881.-*-lBilaid pistol, on blue steel. 

832.— Huka vase and pipe, inlaid. 

These samples are sufficient to show the slyle of work done. 


SToftgari was exhibited bom. Gujrat and Sealkot, and some from NizamAdd aad 
Wazirfibad, and Miiltan. 

The Sealkot work is now the best, owing to late improvemefits. 

There ii no interest in a long list of articles. I may say that the men will work from 
full siee diuwings and copy a«y vase, of caard tray, &c. Ladies' trinkets, caskets, pen- 
cases, inkstands, letter-weights, are all to be had. A very oo)mt>lete model of an Armstrong 
gun, with tke Bcr«w aad smaller parts in electro*gilt, was sent to Paris in 1867 and 
priced £A&. 

I subjoin die following list to give an idea of the price : this is taken from the 
is list of 1867, and thd rates are decidedly higli. 

Caskets of all patterns, fromEs. 20 to 180 

Card trays and dishes, ^i 20 to 85 

Chss XIL—Dinision 11. 169 

Model of Armstrong gtra, finished to scale, and 

complete in every respect, ... ... Rs. 450 

Paper weights, various, ?» 8 to 20 

Letter clips, ... ••• ••• >> 5 to 10 

Penknife, 2 bladed, ... ... ... ... » " 

Octagonal cigar stand, which, by turning a 
knob on the centre, reverses the sides of 

the case, displaying cigars in racks, ... ,9 . 200 

Bracelets, 99 6 to 10 each. 

Can be had with Persian inscriptions wrought in gold : these are much admired. 

Brooches, various, ... ... ••• ... Bs. 6 to 10 

Solitaires, buckles, <$bc. ... ... ... ... ,, 10 to 25 

Scent vases, ... ..» ... -.- ... 99 '0 

If inlaid on brass with fine gold they cost more. 

Shield inlaid with gold, u 140 and upwards, 

according to richness of work. 

Inlaid gun, „ 150 to 500 

Paper knife, ... » 5, 8, 12 

Table bell, n 20 

Set of scales and weights ... ,9 75 

Centrepiece, ... ... „ 250 

"Writing sets, consisting of pen tray, inkstand, candlestick and portfolio can be had. 

833— Koft work from Multdn. My correspondent writes : — 

** The invention of this art dates from the time of the great physician Luqmdn,* 
who first introduced it into India. It was not known in Multan some two hundred 
years back, when it was first introduced and practised by one Muhamad Murad, a resident 
of Multan. The art is not carried on to any great extent here, nor are the articles of 
this description of manufacture generally exported to any foreign country : in tlie time 
of the former rulers the manufacture of such articles was confined to the requirements 
of the city. I believe it was not the intention of the artizans solely to derive their 
means of livelihood from this profession. They had occasionally, but not often, to go to 
Sind or Bh^walpur to execute this sort of workmanship. *' 

The following are the names of implements used in the manufacture. 

Hammer or Hathanra made of st^el. 

Mohfirf or rubber of agate or cornelian (ghori ). 

Sohan or file made of iron. 

Chimta or pincers made of iron. 

Kalam-faulad, or carving pen made of steel. 

Pathraini made of * rukh.' a sort of iron. 

Kath or goldsmith's scissors. 

Parkir or compass made of rukh, a sort of iron. 

Chama or splitter, do. do. 

Bfiwati or file made of common, do. do. 

Silai or pencil made of * Tava* iron. 

, - ' . . - f ■i_.i III I 

* This is, probably, nonsenio. B. P. 

170 Class XU. — Division IL 

Jandri or an instrument for drawing wire, made of riddi iron. 

Zambur or pincers made of rnkh iron. 

The gold wire used, if of «ttperior description, is that which is drawn to a length 
of 12 yards from a single masha of gold : but as the task is delicate and difficult, it 
requires a person of good sight and strength. 

The inferior description of wire is only drawn to a length of one yard from a 
mfisha of gold, but as the work is not superfine, it can be done by a person possessing 
ordinary strength and eye sight. The process of wire drawing by passing it through the 
jandri hhA already been described. 

The rate of wages for workmanship is entirely dependent on the quality and descrip- 
tion of work done. If an artist was to manufacture a gold worked hand axe, like the one sent 
to the Exhibition of 1864, which was the best that could be made here, the wages would 
be 12 rupees for every tola weight of gold thus wrought. But if the work done were of 
an mferior quality, it could be executed for five rupees per tolah. 

The following are the terms and phrases used by artisans of the above profession. 

Khvngri,--A. kind of clinker or porous scoriss from potters' kilns — ^it is used 
in cleaning and smoothing the surface of the article on which Idie inlaid work is to be 

Pechah or Reel. — Made of wood or paper, is used for coiling the gold wire. 

Tdncht. — Is the process of carving the pattern on the surface with a steel 
pen or style. 

The method of working is as follows : — Suppose a hand axe is to be inlaid. The 
blade of the axe is first made smooth with a rdwati or file, after which it is polished 
with the khingri or pumice stone, on this being done a rough wooden handle is inserted 
in the hollow part of the hatchet ; the outer end of the handle is pressed inside the arm, 
and the hatchet is placed on a stool one and half feet high, and then the process of 
carving is done with the steel pen, according to the design which the workman is 
furnished with. 

The hatchet is then heated for a few minutes in a fire of charcoal, quite free 
from smoke, until the steel changes its natural color into azure blue. The gold wire 
is then also heated so as to make it soft, and is coiled on a reel. 

Again the hatchet is placed on the stool in the manner above described ; the 
artist takes the wire and presses it into the lines with the iron pencil, pathraini, following 
the outline design engraved with the style. When one flower or the whole work is 
completed, it becomes necessary to cut the wire, which is done with " kath " or gold 
smith's scissors. Should the wire, after being first fixed, become loose in any part of 
the hatchet, it is again heated in the coals, and the wire is beaten with a small hammer 
which refixes it. The hatchet is then rubbed with mohfiri or stone rubber^ so as to draw 
out its brilliancy and lustre. 

After the above process is completed, the hatchet is well rubbed with sour lime- 
juice, but as this changes the color from azure to white, it becomes necessary again to 
put it on a clear tire, so that it may resume its former color of azure, together with its 
brightness and lustre. 

Class XIL— Division 11. 171 

CHU, — ^If an article is to be plain gilt all over, it is first smoothened witli the rdwati 
or file, and afterwards cleaned with khingri or pumice stone ; it is then drawn over 
with chequers with the carving style, and sprinkled with lime-juice, after which it 
is heated ; gold or silver leaves ( $ia the case may be) are then applied with pincers, and 
lightly hammered, and are rubbed with the moh^ri or stone rubbers, which causes the 
gold to adhere to the surface roughened by the chequered lines — and then the soft gold 
spreads out under the rubber, and covers the whole surface. 

The rate of wages is as follows : — 

Oilding, per tola of weight, 8 Bupees. 
Silyeringy do., do*, 12 Annas. 


172 Clas^ XII. — Division II. 


This class is a very small one. The art of electro-plating in the European method 
has become known to a few persons ; and, in Lahore, it is easy to get silver dishes, spoons 
and forks, replated, with very fair success. 

The specimens in ISSis were but few, and only from Amritsar. 

[ 7810 ]. — Iron hinges gilt ( one by Sirdar Bhagw^n Singh himself). 

[ 7810—1. ] — Coffee pot and milk jug, plated. 

A large silver bird intended for a centre piece, very rude and ngly ; plated. 

What is called water gilding is also done, in imitation of the European process. 
The original native process of gilding, applied by them to large works, as gilding temple 
domes, elephant howdahs, &c., is now described. 

In plating such articles, they use the process called " thanda mulamma." In 
small articles they use water-gilt. If the article be of copper, it is to be well scraped, 
cleaned and polished, and then heated in the fire to remove all oil or dirt that may have 
been left on the surface by polishing. After this it is dipped in an acid solution of the 
' kishta,' or dried unripe apricots. After this it is rubbed with the powder of half burned 
bricks, or some other earth. The surface is then rubbed with mercury, which adheres by 
combining with the metal. The article is next placed in clean water for some hours, and 
again washed in the kishta solution, and dried with a clean cloth. Gold leaf is now 
applied to the surface, to which it adberes, being adjusted by the workman blowing it 
with his mouth or touching it with a cloth. The gold then, by reason of the 
effect of the mercury coating, appears all white. The article being subjected to heat, the 
mercury sublimes, and the dull yellow metallic tint returns ; more gold leaf is now applied, 
and is all rubbed and ground into the surface by means of agate rubbers called " mohari." 
These are merely convenient shaped points of jade and agate fixed into iron or wooden 
handles. The quantity of mercury used is always double in weight that of the gold : the 
plating is of course done more lightly or more heavily as the work requires. This is the 
process employed in plating the domes of temples, &c., they are of copper gilt, plated 
in sei>arate pieces, which are afterwards joined. 

If it is desired to plate with silver, the surface of the copper is scratched with 
chequered lines and heated, when the metal turns black they put on silver leaf and rub it 
in with the mohari while still hot, and after that the remainder of the silver 
intended to be consumed is put on: the final polishing is done with agate or jade. 

Where gold and silver leaf is required to be applied to an iron surface, as in the 
case of armour, knives, or ornamental work, the surface is scratched over with chequered 
lines, this process is called ( * khizlin' ), and washed with hot solution of kishta ; and then 
dried it is heated to what the workmen called " shitab*' ( corruption of siya Uh, * black 
heat' ) I. e., the greatest heat it will reach without becoming red hot. In this state le&ves 
of gold or silver, as required, are layed on, and rubbed in with a " moh^i." 

In plating on brass, if gold is to be used, the process is as with copper ; if silver, the 
process is that for iron. 

Class XIL^Division 11. 178 

I do not describe the water-gilt process — it is done by means of a solution of gold 
in nitro-miiriatic acid : it is only known in the Punjab since the days of the British rule. 
The process is therefore <mly a copy of the European art. 

These people consider themselves possessed of a great art, inasmuch as iJie 
possession of gold-beater's skin ( jillf ) is necessary, and the art of making it is supposed 
to be difficult. I was informed that an elaborate composition of 23 ' mas&las ' was necessary. 

These are given for mere curiosity. It is obvious that two-thirds of the substances 
are quite useless, and added only for show and to involve the process in seeming mystery. 

Gold-beater's skin is prepared from the scarf skin of the sheep— that thin skin 
which lies immediately below the wool, and can be removed separately. 

Persons of the " Katik" caste take 100 skins with the wool on, and soak them for 
eight days in a mixture consisting of 3 seers of wheat flour, IJ seer of rock salt, 
and one seer of the milky juice of the mad^ plant ( Calotropis ), the whole being diluted 
with water to suffice for soaking 100 skins. 

When the soaking is completed, the hair is scraped off with an iron scraping rod 

* rambhi.' The skins are then spread on stones and the scarf skins removed entire : this 
seems to require practice and delicate manipulation. The upper skins so removed are 
tiioroughly washed with 1 seer of dahi or curds and water, and after that twice with 
dean water. They are now dried in the sun. 

Next a mixture is made of the following drugs, in proportions of 32 to 34 m^has each. 


Jalauntri (mace). 

Kangumandi ( a round root, probably of 

Crocus Saiiws), 
Nakhun. They look like broad dirty brown 

wrinkled nails, as if from the foot of 

some animal. 

Cocoa-nut kernel ( garf ). 

Akarkarha ( Spilanthes oleracea), 

Jaiphal ( nutmeg). 

D^Ichfnf ( cinnamon). 

Z air an ( saffron). 

Sandal sarkh, ) o ^ i i 
Do. safed, j Sandal wood. 

Dichf— cardamoms, both small and great. 

These spices are boiled over a slow fire in 4 seers of water till the liquor is reduced 
te 2 seers in bulk. 

Then another set of 23 drugs <&c., is taken, in quantities varying from 4 to 8 tolahg. 
Batanjot ( Onosma, used as alkanet root). Balchir — ( Nard root). 
Chalchalfra ( a tree lichen Parmelia). Kaptir kachri (aromatic root of Medychium). 

Buddhi-budha, ( a common tree lichen, Pdn roots. 

black underneath and white above.) Tej bal — aromatic leaves. 

Malkangni ( Cdastrus). Bed « ratti," ( Ahrue ^eeatariui seeds). 

Birmi ( yew wood). Isabghol, ( Plantago seeds). 

Indarjau ( seed pf H. antidysenterica). Tamil patr ( aromatic leaves). 

Kahi kahela ( Myrica sapida). Pipla mdl ( fruit of Plantago amplexicavlU). 

Taj— aromatic bark. Mothrim ( root of Oyperus longus). 

Bahman, eafed and surkh— ( Centaurea). Camphor, which is to be ground up with 

Phul dhiiwl ( flower of Conocarpus). safl&on. 

Belgiri— ( J^fo fmrmelos fruit). Ghee, 8 totalis. 

174 Ctm XIL^Division U. 

' Tho aboye substances, which are mostlj astringent and aromatic, are to be well 
mixed in one maund of water, and the camphor and ghee added last ; the whole is to be 
boiled down to 20 seers. This done, the clear liquor is strained off through a biuikeli 
lined with " dhdk " leares, into an earthen " kun£l " or naund, and the " phog " or 
dregs on the strainer, thrown away. The first prepared liquor is now mixed with the 
second, thus making 22 seers an all, which is again gently and slowly evaporated down 
to 15 seers. It is strained through doth, and then the camphor and ghee of the 
last list, are added, after which it is again warmed and the 100 skins will soaked in it. 

The object of the liquid appears to be to affect the fine skins by a sort of tannings 
with the astringents, to preserve it from decay by the aromatics, and to soften it by the 
oil and other demulcent substances employed. The skins are now spread on separate 
clean stones to dry, after which each skin is cut up into leaves of a convenient size ; 100 
hides thus yield 1200 'jilli' leaves. They do not all turn out of equal thickness, 
so the " daftri kut " selects the thicker ones for silver beating, and the ^er for gold. The 
skins are separately rubbed with plaster of Paris made by burning and grinding ' ropar ^ 
stone, also called ' makol '. 800 of these skins after being separately dusted with a cleaD 
doth are collected into a book and tied up in a leather case, which is subjected to hard 
beating on a stone with the gold beater's pestle : this goes on for 2 days, after which each 
skin is again rubbed with a dean cloth. Qold intended to be beaten is made in 
thin strips of plate called '^ diw^i." The slips are ^iclosed between layers of skin^ 
till a sort of book or pile is formed — 120 plates go between the 800 sldns — ^they are 
tied up in the leather case, and beaten with an iron hammer on an anvil of 9tone ; the 
blows are delivered first round one edge of the parcel, then it is turned half rom^d 
and the other edge gets beaten, and so on. Four times the packet has to be opened and 
the position of the gold bits shifted to prevent the skins b^ng cut. After that the gold 
is too thin to be moved again. A ^^ daftar " of gold leaves i» ready in 8 or 4 days, and 
requires a lakh and a half of blows with the hammer. 

176 Class XIII. 

The subject of jewellery will be best treated in the following order : — 

1. Description of hill ornaments Western Hiinalaja, Chamba, Pangf, Lahul^ 

Spiti, Laddkh, and Kulu. 

2. Ornaments used in the plains generally, and in Shahpur, Qug&ira (Montgomery), 


3. Imitation of European jewellery and Delhi work. 

The people in Hazara and K&gh^n, in the Western Himalaya, wear ornaments in 
silver and zinc, and some few of gold. 

The names given are those current in Hazira, and the names in brackets are the 
ordinary vernacular equivalents • 

" Pairkar^ " (chura). Silver rings worn on the ankles by women — they are flat worked 
metal ; the elaborate anklets with fringes, little bells, <&c. are here, as elsewhere, called 
" pazeb." 

Plat rings called guthy4n are worn on the toes. Pinger rings, commonly 
known as *^mundri"are here called '* cb^p ; '* and the big thumb ring (^rsi) is calle<l 
" onguthrfi." 

Small bracelets worn on the wrist are called" wan gan/' whether of zinc, glass or silver ; 
these are the " churis " of the plains. An amulet fixed on the upper arm with a silk tie is 
called " bhawata." Por necklaces, a " dulra," consisting of metal beads on a silk thread ; 
" hansam " (hasll) a silver ring or. collar (worn also by children) ; chamkali ( champakalli) 
( literally the " necklace of charnpa buds " ) an elaborate ornament with pendants ; 
" hamayal " ( har ) another necklace with pendant ornaments, complete the list. la 
Mansera, a necklace consisting of a broad chain work is called " pajiitra.'* 

In the ears, plain rings—** chala" (dandi, b^li.) are worn by women also, '* Chitkan '* 
(zanjir) ear-rings of chain work, hanging about tlieears; also ** Itirke," colored glass ear-rings. 
A " jedu " is an ear-ring consisting of a metal cup or bell hung by a silk thread to the ear. 
" Paizwan " ( bulakh) is a plain nose ring worn by women ; and ** ch^rgul " ( four-flowers ) 
a nose stud worn by married women ( called laung in common vernacular ). 

" Tawlz " — Amulets, are worn on the arra^, on the forehead, and round the neck, by 
both sexes. ** Daditak " a silver ornament worn by women hanging over the forehead. 

A plain small cup-shaped metal shield, called " Main, " is worn on the head on 
great occasions. 

Panqi, Lahul, Chamba, Ac. 

The women wear a sort of flat folded cloth cap, from this depends over flie 
fore-head, a silver moon-like ornament with pendants, and a border with a fringe of silver is 
worn over the temples following the angle of the hair. 

Bound. the neck a profusion of necklaces are worn, some fitting close, the next set a 
little longer, and the largest hanging down to the waist. 

The close ones are made of larij^e shell beads or silver beads ; several more are of 
small glass beads, coral, amber. <fec. A number of brass beads are also worn, and necklaces 
terminating in small hollow brass pomegranates, which, having a metal pea inside, clink and 

• For thia list I am indebted to Mr. A. L. Home, Assistant Conservator of Forest (Jhekun Di>'isio]L) 


aa8s Xltl 177 

jingle like small bells. Eacli woman weal's suspended by three chains of iron, a round con- 
cave plate of bf ass, v^hich ha&gs doWn from the right shoulder ; on the other side a brass 
bell is Worn. 

The ear-rings are either large round rings of silver, or chains terminating in great 
studs. The stud is stuck into the ear, and the chain hooked into the hair above. Some 
of them wear round the ankles bunches of jingling brass pomegranates. 

Bracelets are not worn in any profusion, and then only the thick *' karas " of zinc 
or silver. 

SpiTt AiTD Ladakh. 

The Spiti men Wear found ear-rings, and one o1^ niore long necklaces of amber and 
turquois beads round the neck. They do not appear to wear any armlets or bracelets. 

Every man has an iron pipe stuck in his belt, his tobacco pouch, and a flint and 
steel. Unmarried girls wear in their hair one or two beads of turquois ; * ear-rings and 
necklaces of beads of amber and coral. Bracelets are usually made of beads cut out of shell, 
or circles made by sawing off a round section of a conch shell : these are imported. 

The married women fix to the front part of the per^k ( already described in Class 
10 ), a large moon-like silver ornament which hangs over the top of the head, tlie fringe 
of it drooping on to the forehead ; on each side of this, a broad flat plait of silver chain- 
work hangs down on either side of the face, and terminates in a silver tassel. Every 
woman has at her waist a tassel of leather ornamented with cowry shells.f 

LaddJch, — The women wear, as in Spiti and Lfihul, a profusion of long necklaces of coral 
and amber and turquois beads rudely strung together with conch shell beads and European 
glass beads ; also great amulets of brass studded with turquoises or silver. As in Llhul 
the LadAkh women wear round the neck, suspended over the breast, a round brass plate 
sometimes replaced by a huge bit of conch shell. Their bracelets are of silver or shell as 
above described. 

The women likewise carry a brass spoon, a convex brass mirror, and a case of 
small needles attached to their girdles ; to these may be added a small metal or wooden 
cup, a single or double flageolet, a metal spoon and plate, all of which are stuffed into the 
slackened breast of the dress next the skin, along with a ball of wool, a coil of rope, and a 
few unleavened wheaten or barley cakes. J 

The men wear necklaces, but I think not bracelets. The necklaces serve principally 
to carry amulets; these consist sometimes of small tubular boxes containing written prayers 
or charms, sometimes of flat boxes ornamented rather prettily, and sometimes of flat 
engraved plates of silver. 

Both men and women have a pouch edged with steel for flint and tinder puiposes : 
the leather part of the pouch is prettily ornamented with brass or silver. 

* Ei^rton's Tonr in Spiti, p. 25. 

t See the Photograph at page 30 of Mr. Egerton'a book on Spiti* 

{ Cmmingham'B Ladak, p. S05. 

178 Class XIII 

Simla States. 
Tlie Kandwar people, and also those toward Simla States, wear huge zinc rings 
t>r tubes round the ankles ; silver or zinc bracelets, round silver ear-rings/ and have also 
€t large open brass brooch, of which the characteristic form is — 

This brooch serves to fasten the upper shawl, or waist girdle : the plate at pa^e 
]304 in Cunningham's Lad^kh shews it to advantage. Necklaces of glass beads, and coral 
and amber, are here in fashion also. 

Kulu.—The profusion of large bead, aml>er, and coral necklaces disappears amon^ 
the Kulu people ; they wear mostly silver, not a little of it is prettily enamelled : this latter 
work is done at Kangra and at Jagat Sukh. 

A Kulu woman wears round her neck chains of small coral or glass beads, and 
chains of silver beads cut into facets, and having small enamelled pendants hanging therefrom. 
Tliey wear a nose ring of gold or silver with a pendant spoon-shaped ornament hanging 
from the ring. 

They wear also round ear-rings with bunches of silver bobbins and chains attached ; 
also bracelets like those in the plains. Some of the richer women wear a head ornament, 
which is fixed over the forehead under the plaits of hair and woollen thread, which 
form a coronal. The ornament consists of two broad plaits of silver wire work, which, 
separating from the Cxcntral point of suspension, are worn like braids of hair on either side of 
the face, and terminate in silver tassels : they resemble those worn in Spiti, but are smaller. 

Ornaments worn in the Plains. 


The ornaments worn in the Derajat are described as follows, from a set sent to 
me by Jamal Khan, chief of the Lugh^rf tribe. 

The necklaces are — 

Hassi, a * torquea * of stiff solid metal. The plate shews one. 

Chamkalli, a necklet consisting of a string of twisted silk, on the edge of which a 
number of long narrow and pointed gold beads, like the pointed buds ( kalli ) of the 
jessamine ( chamba ) are fixed. The effect is of a collar or fringe of gold rays or spikes. 

An amulet of silver on a black silk chain ( see plate ). 

Kath-m&la, a necklace consisting of 4 rows of gold beads about the size of small 
peas ; they are tied round the neck with a silk chain ending in tassels. 

The handsomest neck ornament is a thick twisted silk chain from which hang, by a 
number of silver rings ( which fit tightly over the silk ), 3 ** takhtas " or flat amulets, one 
large one in the centre and a smaller one on each side ; attached to the lower edge of the 
amulets is a fringe of little silver bells. This ornament is called * patri.' 

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Class XIII. 17 1 

For the arms there are the usual Mzuband, — a flexible band of gold tied round the 
upper arm by silken ends and tassels. A pair of '' dasti " or •' ponchis " being just like- 
bazuband in style, only worn on the wrists, and consisting of a number of long gold beada 
strung on silk and ending in large colored silk tassels* 

" Kangan." — Small bracelets on the arms, which open with a hinge and are fixed 
together by a rude sort of stud and pin — these are the " karas " of other parts. 

On the feet there are *'kari," a huge pair of hollow rings, which are bent 
round the ankle, and the two ends where they meet, end in square pieces as the- 
plate shows. 

" Tora." — ^Apparently the same as " jhanjar " of the plains, are hollow rings of 
silver, which open by a hinge ajid are fixed by a stud, worn round the ankle. The peculiarity 
is that inside the hollow, small bits of metal are placed so as to rattle when the wearer 
moTes. These rings are sometimes worn on the arms towards Sind and Shikarpur. 

** Pontha** are a pair of ornaments for the ankles, worn by children ; they are stiff 
silk thread circlets, to which are fixed all round, small hollow pomegranates in silver 
with metal inside, that they may tinkle like bells. 

Ear-rings of the common sort are worn as elsewhere. The usual b^li with its 
pendent tassel ( patra ) is drawn in the plate. The nath or nose ring is also worn« 

^ Shahpxtb. 

From Shahpur we having an account in the interesting report by Major Davies^ 
The original report is accompanied by a sheet of v^ell-executed drawings* 

The neck ornaments consist of the following : — 

j^dr, — A broad collar, being a net- work of silver chain, worn both by Hindus an^ 

Hasli. — A silver solid torquea or stiff ring of silver, tapering at either end, is put 
on by opening and bending, and dosing up again when in position i the front is adorned 
with pendants. 

Tdinz, — A thick necklace of crimson silk threads clasped at intervals by silver 
rings, from which hang silver flower-shaped pendants : in the centre a large oval silver 
amulet depends. 

The bracelets are — 

Churie, thin silver rings, opened by bending. 

Tdd. — A broad silver ring worn on the upper arm. 

BaMta or " blizuband " a flexible armlet, composed of silk strings and silver 
plates, tied round the upper arm, the tying strings terminating in silver tassels. 

OoJerUj a thick silver bracelet, so called from having its edge nicked with points 
like the burr fruit : it is worn by Hindu women. 

Chankangan, — A band of silver with small chains and pendants all round, worn 
above a set of the chtiris by Hindu women. 

Bahin. — A sort of silver tube wrought in a checked pattern, clasped round the ftrm^ 
and is about 4 inches long. 

180 Class XIIL 

The thick armlet called " kara " is worn by both sexes. 

Finger rings are called challa, and one having three prominences like acorns is called 
" tridodya " — it is worn by Hindu women on the first finger. The firsi is worn here, as 
elsewhere, on the thumb. Ear-rings are in some variety under the name of " bAld *' or 
•' b^H." 

The baU is thicker, like a small " hasli." The h6M is a larg^ thin circular ring of 
silver wire ornamented at one side by broad silver studs. The hkli or v41f, worn by 
Mussulman womoQ, is a silver ring terminated at either point of junction by a silver stud, 
on it hangs a bunch of small silver chains terminated by little silver balls. 

On the toes broad thin rings are worn called " challi " ; on the ankle a flexible 
coil of chain work with small pendants is worn : it is called " p6zeb.'* A rather gnkcefuL 
silver pendant or ch&telaine, called khariti, is worn at the girdle by unmarried women. 

The most characteristic ornament is worn on the top of the head by women of the 
Arura caste, it is called " choti-phul," and consists of a small round shield or sJver plate 
worked and chased in circles. 

The Montgomery district collection in 1864 contained the following list : — 
Chandan hfir. — A silver necklace for women. 

Hasli. A thick ring like the * torquea ' of Roman and British antiquity, worn 
round the neck ; it tapers at either end, and the thin ends meet when it is 

bent into shape. 
Kanthi. A necklace. 
Champakalli, do. 
Diilra, do. 

Ham&il galo, do. 

Tavetari, a gold charm or amulet. 
Sliorah, a necklace ( gold.) 
Lar, a necklace of several threads (silver.) 
Dughdugi, a necklace. 

B^lf-patar, ear-rings worn by men and women. 
Murki, do. (gold) do. do. 

Dhedi5, do. (silver or gold, either.) 

Bahdduriya, do. (women's.) 
The following are all kinds of finger rings : — 
Chala, angtithi, gokrd, birmgand. 

The bracelets appear to be much the same as the Punjabi ones generally, viz. 
bawatta, paunchi, b&zuband, kara, <&c. 

Genebaji List of Jjcwxls. 
A list of all the jewellery worn in the Punjab generally, and excluding local peca« 
liarities, shews the following copious vocabulary :— 

Class XIII. 181 




I. — Hbad Osnahbnts. 

1. Sarpech — Jiglidn, the jewelled aigrette worn in front of the turban. 

2. Kiit bil4dar. — An oval pendant worn over the forehead ( fig. 1 ). 

3. Kjilgi. — Plume in jewelled setting. 

4. Turah-i-marwarid. — Tassels of pearls worn on the turban. 

5. Mdkat or Mutakh. — A head dress worn bj Hindus at weddings &g. 

7. Sisphdl, chaunk, or choti phtil.— A round boss worn on the hair over the forehead, 
it is cut or indented so as to resemble a gold flower like a chrysanthemum. 

8. Phiil. — A boss like No. 7, only smooth, hemispherical, and set with jewels ; it 
is worn on the top of the head — one or two are worn at pleasure. 

9. Mauli. — A long chain made of rows of pearls separated by jewelled studs, about 
8 inches long hanging from the head on one side. 

10. Sir mang. A chain and pendant worn on the head by Hindus. 

12. Boda.~ An ornament of silk and silver plaited into the hair of children. 


( By women only ). 

13. Dfimni, or daiini. — A fringe hanging over the forehead on either side of the 

face ( fig. 2 ). Some of these are richly jewelled. 

14. Do. Zutbf ) y^^tiea of No. 13. 

15. Do. Sosani, j 

16. Tfka or kashka. — Small ornament on the forehead ( pendant). 

17. Chdnd hinL — A moon-shaped pendant. 

18. Tawft. — Small amulets worn on the head. 

19. Jhumar. — A tassel-shaped ornament or pendant (fig 24). Mostly worn towards 

Delhi, not in Punjab. 

20. Guchhf marwarfd. A cluster of pearls. 
22. Bindlf.— Small tinsel forehead ornament. 

22. Barwata. — Tinsel stars worn over the eye-brows, ( not to be confounded with 
Bhaufota an armlet ) 

III. — Eab-Obnambnts. 

f 23. B&IL — Very large thin rings worn by Khatris, Sikhs and Dogras. They have a 
I pearl or so strung on the gold wire of which they are made. 

I 24. Murki. — Smaller ear-rings of the same shape. 

-{ 26. Zanjiri. — A chain worn with the bala to keep it up. 

27. Dar ( gold ) — A small ear-ring with three gold studs one on side — ( fig. 8 ). 

28. Birbaii. — A broad ear-ring with 3 studs ( fig. 4 ). 

[ 29. Durichah. — A ear-ring with pendant tassel (fig. 6 ). 

^30. Bali or goshwdra. — A set of rings worn all round the edge of the ear. 
Bdl( bahdduri, (see fig. 18) — it has a large pointed stud in the centre. 

31. £arnphul, dhedu, and jhdmkd. All forms of tassel-like ornaments, made with 
silver chains and little balls, fringe of silver chain work, &c.^ &c. A handsome 
pair of £amphul is figured in the last plate of the series. 

32. Pipal-watta, or pipal pata, like a murki, but has a drop or pendant to it 
ending in a fringe of little gold *' pipal " leaves. 

33. Kantal^. — A similar ornament, has a stud besides the pendant^ ( see fig. 6. ) 

34. B&U khdngri-dir. — A heavy firinged ear-ring ( fig. 7 )• 
Bil& katoriwalla s4d& ( see fig. 18 ). 

.35. Ehalil. — Small ear-ring; ( fig. 8 )• 


Cldas XIIL 




I 39. 







Jalil. — Just the same, only that the central stud is jewelled. 

Phumni. — Silk and tinsel tassels. 

Machh Machlian. — A small gold figure of a fish worn as an ear-ring. 

Tid, — patang. — A crescent-shaped jewelled pendant ; along the lower edge of 

the crescent hang a row of gold pipal leaves. 
Tandaura, dedi. — A huge star-shaped jewelled stud. 
Mor phunwar. — A pendant of jewels being a rude imitation of the figure of 

a peacock. 

rV. — NosK Obnaments. 

Nath — A large nose ring, one side of the ring being ornamented with » 

belt of jewels or a few pearls, and gold spangle ornaments &c. hung on to it. 
Bulfik.—A small pendant (fig. 10) either worn hung to the cartilage of the 

nose, or else strung on to a ' nath.' 
Latkan.-^A sort of ornament of pendants put on to the thin gold ring^ 

called a nath, and hanging from it. 
Momf . — ^A small pendant for the above, shaped like the spread out tail of ar 

Laung. — ^A small ' stud ' let into the flesh of the nostril on one side, generally 

of gold, w^ith a pearl or turquois on it. 
Phuli. — A small ring with a single emerald, or other stone of an oval shape, 

as a pendant. 
Bohr — ^A jingling pendant of gold pipal leaves — ( see fig. 11 ). 
Machhlidn be- sir. — ( Headless fishes ) . 
Kekh&fi, made of gold and worn on the teeth -y — a stud of gold or silver fixed 

into the front teeth. 














MaU. — A necklace of large beads hanging down lon^ and loose. 
Kanth-kanthi, ( worn by women also ) ( fig. 1. ) This fits rather close to the 

neck— the pendant may be omitted. 
Nam. —An amulet, round or star-shaped, suspended from a twist of colored 

silk thread fastened round the neck by tying at the back (see ** jugnf"' 

below ) . 
Tawiz. — A square amulet, jewelled, or otherwise. 
Takhti. — A flat square plate engraved with figures, Ac. 
Hainkal. — A chain of twisted silk, from which depend, by little golden loops, 

various coins, amulets, <&c., all round. 
Zanjlri. — A set of chains. 
Chandarmah. — A large gold flat medal suspended by a single ring on a silk 

chain or cord^ 

Chandanhir. — A collar or necklace of a great number of chains (fig 22 ). 
M41a. — Hdr. — A plain necklace of pearls or gold beads &c. hanging down long. 
Ghampakali. — A necklace like a collar with pendants, &c. described under 

* Derajat * ornaments. The pendants or rays are eithei* plain metal or set 

with stones. 
Jugni. — ^A single jewelled pendant, hanging from a necklace of silk — like the 

" N6m," only more elongated in shape. 
Mohr&n. — ^A gold mohur or coia hung by a silk necklace. 
Haul dil. — ^A sort of amulet of jade ; not square as a tdwiz always is, but cut 

in curves round the edi^Q, 
Saukan mohri. A small gold medal or large coin Worn like No. 67. 
Hassf, or hass, like a torquea. A ring or collar of silver, thick in the middle, 

and thin at either end. 

Class. XllL 


f 66. Guluband. A jewelled collar (fig. 13 ) 

67. Mohnmdla. A long necklace made of large gold beads, with an interval of 
I gold twisted thread between each bead. 

68. Atrdan.- A square jewelled (or plain gold) pendant, attached to a silk chain, 
at the back is a small box like our vinaigrette to contain ' atr' or perfume. 

69. Kaudl. — A chain of silk carrying amulet cases ( fig. 14. J 

70. Siiwatta. — An amulet case shaped like a small gold pillow or bolster, with 
two rings attached to suspend it. 



















VI — Arm Obnaments. 

71. Bazuband — A broad belt-like ornament, generally mounted on silk and tied 

on the upper arm. 

72. Nau ratn, is tbe same, the ornament consisting of a band of nine gems set 

side by side, and tied by silk ties. 

73. Taviz. An amulet worn on the upper arm. 

74. Anaut — (" the endless.") A large thin but solid, ring of gold or silver, used 

chiefly by Hindus. 

75. Bhawatta. — ^A square gold ornament, worn on the upper arm (fig. 23.) 

VII — Bbaoelbts. 

Ponchi, worn on the wrist. A series of strings of shells or small gold elongated 

Kangan or kara or gokru. A bracelet of stifif metal, worn bent round the 

arm ; when the edges are serrated it is called gokru. 

Ponchian kutbi.* 

Chuadandf (^rats' teeth. ) 
Il^chid^na, ( grain of cardamoms. ) 
Kangan or kar& zanana ( as before. ) 

Banka, thick gold bracelets. Hindus wear them ( fig. 15. ) 
Gokru (as before.) 

Q-ajra. A flexible bracelet made of square gold studs mounted on a silk band. 
Chiiri of sorts, as ch : kantakhdrat, cb : chauras^ ch : kangani-d»^r. They are 

generally made of a flat ribbon of gold or silver, bent round, ( fig 16. ) 
Bain, or long silver sleeve or tube worn on both arms, like a lot of churis 

fastened together. 
Band — An armlet, broad and heavy ( see fig. 19. ) 

Jhankangan. Small hollow ' haraa ' with grains introduced into the hollow 
l^ to rattle. 



Vin. — FlNGEB EiNGS. 

Angushtri. — A ring set with stones called also ** mundri '* (Hindi) or anguthf. 

Challa. Large challas are worn on the toe also. The challa is a quite plain 
lioop or whole " hoop *' ring (with or without stones) being gold or silver, but 
the same all round. 

Anguslit^na, angutha. A big ring with a broad face, worn* on the great toe. 
Khan panjdngla (a set of finger rings of ordinary ^hape). 
Shah^lmi or khari, a ring of long oval shape (fig. 20). 
Birhamgand, a broad ring figured at No. 21. 

* There are Beveral sorts of Ponchia called Kiitbi : ohdadandi (the beads like rata' teeth) ; iliM)hidaii% 
like cardamom grains &o. 

184 Ckss XUL 

IX. — Ajs(Ki.wt^ &t, 

95. — Pahfi^bi — Ydfioils aUkle ornaments made witb cbaind and pendants of silver, 
which clink together when the wearer walks* 

96. — Chlinjar. — A large hollow ring, which rattles when the Wearer walks. 

97. — KariiLn-pair or khalkhal. Like karas, worn on the ankles. 

98. — Khdngru. —A ring or ankle of long ornamental beads of sUver, worn on the feet. 

99. — Zanjiri — A set of chains with a broad clasp— called also tora. 

The enormous variety of names cannot fail to strike any one : every little change in 
the pattern or size of an ornament seems to secure it a different name. The general form 
of each kind of jewel is always maintained, but of course the details of ornamentation vary 
immensely. Very fine jewellery is but little made in the Punjab ; most of the necklaces 
and turban ornaments made for the nobility are got at Jaipur £c. The design for them is 
drawn out by the head jeweller himself, and he gives the drawing to workmen. All the finer 
specimens of jewelled ornaments are beautifiilly enamelled on the back, ( unless the stones 
are clear set). 

The fine enamelling is done at Jaipdr and Benares, <&c. Only inferior enamelling 
( compared to Jaipur work ) is done in the Punjab. 

The gold and silver work, as far as the plain form of the article required, or as far 
as it can receive the required pattern by merely hammering on to a die or into a cold mould, 
is done by the sundr or goldsmith, ( also called zargar or sunyar.) 

If the ornament has then to be ornamented with bossed patterns, <bc. it goes to the 
* chatera,' embosser and chaser. 

If jewels are to be set, the enamelling at the back is done by a 'm(n£kar,' and then the 
stone is set into the places prepared by the goldsmith, <ftc. by the ' murassiak^ ' or ' kundan- 
sUz,' whose sole work consists in putting some lac into the receptacle or hollow in the gold 
prepared to receive the stone, putting in a tinsel or foil prepared by the " bindligar, " and 
then pressing in the stone, putting on a gold rim to keep it in place. 

It will be proper to describe the tools used by each workman in his separate 

The first operator is the goldsmith or sunar. 

He makes up gold ornaments as far as their mere form is concerned ; he neither 
finishes nor sets them with stones, nor does he ornament his work, except when he can 
do so with a die-mo\ild. 

He has a small anvil or square block of iron slightly convex on the surface, on 
which he works the metal. This is held firm in a block of wood. It is called " ahran." 
His tools are : — 

" Hathaura '* — ^hammers of sizes. 

" Nil "—a blow pipe. 

*' Sannu " — forceps, plain pointed. 

" Bez6 " — a mould. 

" Katfra "^a pair of pincers with blades for cutting metal. 

« Sanni " — a long pair of pincers with the claws turned down. 


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^ Jandri ' '— « ttoei pittto fixr wire diftwing* 
'^ Zamb^ " — heavy pinoeray «tnught blades. 
" Ohaurasi *' — a small square beaded hammer. 
** Tappa "—dies, to produce patterns. 

A bit of silver or gold is placed over the mould or die and struck ( while cold ) 
with the hammer ; silver bracelets ( chdris ) are given their pattern in this way. The 
'tappas' are Biade id UbbI or bell-metal, which is hard. The tappa only impresses a 
small part of the metal at once : it exhibits perhaps \ an inch of pattern. 

The roughly formed metal now goes to the chat^ra or embosser and chaser. He 
uses a broken pot to hold fire called "* taur ** ( it is just the curved portion of the bottom 
of a'ghara'); a crucible, kuthili; a small anvil with a point at either eud, called 
* Bkwif ;' and the omameuting is done with a great variety of steel tools to be described 
presently in detail^ but whose general characteristic is that they are all like large steel 
nails with a head to receive the blow of the hammer, and the points variously rounded, 
flattened, slant-edged, straight-edged <fcc., and there are also differences in the size and 
thickness of the tools. They are like stone-mason's chisels and pitchers on a small scale 
as &r as appearance goes. f 

Those with the point flat and edged, are called ^ ch(m&," and these are in four 
sizes. The same still broader and flatter is called ^' chaini." When the edge is slightly 
curved like a gouge or scoop the tool is ' kauema ' ; when the point is flat and tlxe edge 
bjunt, the ' chiraa ' becomes a ' l<irti ' ; and when the tool is thick and large and has 
its point squared o% showing a neat smooth sectional square, it is called '' thaliia." 
' Skwi«a thalni ' is similar, but the point slants off so as to exhibit a sectional 
iliomboid. Each <me of these tools is made in four or more sizes. 

I should add that these * thalnas ' are specially used to polish and burnish the 
pound work of metal or field, from which the embossed flower ^., stands out. 

Another tool of this sort has a smooth round point with a small hole drilled in the 
centre of the cone ; when this is struck on a piece of metal and the blow repeated, 
-while the tool is moved along, a series of small points are raised on the metal which has 
BomethJTig like the effect of our ** engina-tuming." l^is tool is called ' gul-sam.' 

The same tools with smooth blunt points, and loitlKytU the hole drilled, are called 
' gcdra,' and are as usual made in four sizes. The same form, but where the point is 
slightly more conical and point like, receives the name of ' stimbh^.* 

With these tools all sorts of ornamental work and flowers are produced. The men do 
both chasing and embossing, and also repouss6 work. When chasing &c., on a hollow 
ornament, the workman fills it up with resin to get a firm basis to work on. 

There is a verb, ^chitaraa' to paint, adorn, emboss, from which the word 
' chatera ' is dmved. 

I mxist here add that it frequently happens that small filings and bits of gold are 
dropped on to the earthen flour of the workshop ; this repeated over a number of years 
renders the soil valuable, and when a goldsmith leaves his shop, the people called ny&rias 
or gold-washers, buy the right to dig up the earth, which they wash by means of a ' k£tr& * 
or wooden tray and collect the gold grains. 

186 Ol(M ^12I* 

If the ornament lias been made of gold, and is to be set with jeweb, it will hare to 
go to the * mnrassia-klur ' or kmidan s&z. If it is intended to be highly finished, i, e,^ to be 
jewelled in front and enamelled on the back, of course it goes to the enameller or ' minfi- 
klr' first, but I will leave the enameller for the present. The "murassia-kir's" tools are : — 

A tirpai or workstool; chimta or forceps ; and a number of polishers, besides siliis or 
steel probes. 

Let us suppose he wishes to set a stone in a ring : the ring has been made by the 
sun&r, who has left a hollow place for the stone. 

The jeweller will place a little lac in the hollow, and on that will press down a 
« dfink " or bit of foil, provided by the " bindligar," of whom presently. 

He rubs the " d&nk '' into the requisite curve, and presses it with a small tool con- 
sisting of a wooden handle brass boimd, and carrying an agate point to polish with. 
Where the point is large and rounded the tool is called ''ghota"; where a very hard bit of 
agate is set so as to make a very small point, suitable for preparing the place of setting a 
very small gem, it is called '* khilauri" : another size of agate polisher is called '' rokhi." 
The foil being in place and the stone placed on it, sometimes the edge of the cup in 
which it rests is worked up all round so as a over-lap the stone ; this is the European way, 
only the natives rarely do it neatly. The esteemed method however is to put a '* kundan '* 
on : that is, to press with a probe or sil&L thin gold foil all roxmd the edge of the gem 
till a rim is formed, and then the foil by continual pressure consolidates and is burnished. 
The process reminds me more of a dentist stopping a tooth with gold than anything else. 
The size and quality of the rim put on, as to thickness and purity of metal, can be varied 
to suit the means of the purchaser. They sometimes set jewels " clear," but more usually 
with a foil behind, and sometimes they color the back of the stone to deepen it, but they 
never color the foil itself. The art of fixing gems by little claws is only done by those who 
have learned the way of making European jewellery. 

Jewellery in the European fiEtshion is now largely made in Delhiy at which place 
almost any kind of work can be executed to order. In most of the large cities some kind 
of work can be executed in the European fashion. I have seen rings very well made at 
LsLhore and at Kangra, and even watch chains of simple pattern. The 'chateras' can imitate 
the European method of chasing admirably. 

The most original work of Delhi jewellery is that know by Europeans as bibul 
work. The native workmen call it '^ khdrddr, " literally work of thorns (khir ) or points. 
Gold ornaments f generally spherical, or in such form that a number of circular convex 
pieces can enter into the pattern ) are covered all over with a number of minute golden 
points,* and then this surface, like a tiny hedge-hog's back, in gold, is ' frosted.' Indeed, no 
comparison describes the work so well as the term b^bul work, which indicates its resem- 
blance to the flower of the Acacia Arahica (hkhvl or kikar) femiiliar to every Indian reader ; 
but for the sake of others I may describe it as a little ball of yellow filaments. The 
ornamentation of gold by raising on the surface a number oflittle points was probably 
suggested by the slight of the flower, or perhaps originally by the seed vessel of the buir 

• It Ib often aaid that pore gold is necessary to make the points with, but while the gold used amsi 
always be less fasible than the t&ok' or gold-solder, it need not be quite pure, and I have seen soioe of yvj 
poor metal indeed. 

Class XIIL 18t 

(gokni) : indeed a coarser work of this sort, and made for native wear, is called * gokru/ The 
work was first brought to notice abont 80 years ago, and his since been increasing in demand, 
and has improved in quality up to a certain point, though purchasers must now be on their 
guard against bad gold, gilt over and frosted so as to deceive the eye. As I said before, the 
ornaments made are always spherical or at any rate convex ; thus we have ball-shaped ear- 
rings, boss-shaped studs ; solitaires, brooch settings composed of a row of little bosses &c. 

Thy are all hollow and are sometimes filled up with lac ; each point is separately 
made and fixed on the surface. They are not ^' repou8s6 " work, as one might at first 
8uppose, though the convex metal base is so. 

Through the kindness of Majob MAcMiiHOir of Delhi, I have obtained further 
particulars about this manufacture, to imitate which all efforts in England have, I under- 
stand, failed. 

In the first place, as before said, the ^ points ' and the convex base are of different 
qualities, the latter is generally of inferior gold, while the points are made of gold at 
Bs. 17 or 18 a tola. One of the manufacturers, however, says in his answer, that 
the alloyed gold is preferred, and he gives Bs. 14 a tolah as the value of the gold used. 
The workmen get &om Bs. 2-8 to Bs. 3 per tolah as the price of their labor, and are allowed 
from 12 annas as to Be. 1 per tolah of gold advanced to them, as " chij " or wastage. 

The goldsmiths are usually Hindus, and have their residences in the tahsil Basauli, 
at the following villages : — 

£ewali. Badna. Bohat. Mangal KaUn. Morthal. Eakrohi, 

Bilri £al^n. Mohana. 

The work is of some antiquity, as various castes wore ornaments of this sort before 
its suitability for the European market came to notice. The J^t men wear as an earring a 
* gokru,' but generally women do not wear them ; Ohumir women however wear them 
without objection. 

It is now time to examine the process of manufacture. 

As before intimated, the little points are all separately made and afterwards soldered 
on to a convex surface in regular rows. 

In order to make the points, a ' tappa,' which is a flat circular block or ingot of 
^'k4nsi," ( the hardest sort of bronze or compound metal, ) is requisite. Two and a half 
tolahs of the metal are melted in a small ^ kuth^li ' or crucible over a charcoal fire, with 
the aid of the brass blow pipe. When melted, 4 mashas of * soh^a ' (borax) and one of black 
Bajji (impure soda) are stirred in, and the whole poured out into a circular mould (kalbut ) 
about the size of a military metal, and deep rough to hold the 2^ tolahs of metal. When 
the metal is set, but still hot, it is hammered out fiat, but not thin, on an anvil, and in the 
flat surface 5 or 6 small holes, the size of grains of poppy-seed, are hammered in with a 
punch, taking care that the holes do not entirely perforate the plate. Next, the gold has 
to be prepared for use on this mould or block. 

Four -and a half mitshas of gold are made into wire, and then drawn fine through 
the hole of a wire drawer's plate or " jandri " till it is as fine as possible : • it is wound 
on a metal rod or reel, and thrown into the fire till red hot ; when taken out it is soft and 
flexible, and is cut with scissors into shreds of short length, which are set to 

• The whole art of gold wire drawing has been described a lew pagee back. 

soak in a little disli of oil. Thifi done, the wottawua takee yxp flMred by dired irith 
the forceps, places it over the little hole in the * tappa' before described, and wkfc a <any 
hammer, no heavier than 2 tolahs, gives a dexterous blow, which drires the gold iato ihe hrfe. 
Turning the ' tappa ' upside down, the workman taps the back lightly and the grains of gold 
having no disposition to stick owing to the ofl, readily fall out and Mippoar like so many 
seeds or tiny pyramids with flat base and conical ^)ei. 

The points being ready, the convex base or matrix on to whidi they are to be fixed 
has to be made; it is geneiaUy of inferior gold. This is made by hammering out a flat IJiia 
plate of gold and then knocking it into a mould ( in the maimer of ropouss^ work ) wUoh 
leaves a smooth convex surface. On this Uie gold points have to be arranged in regular 
rows. Tbii operation is one of great delicacy, for if the rows of points aro not perfeetly 
regular and parallel, the appearance will be spoiled. 

In order to make the points stick in tiieir places before the final soldering, they 
are immersed in a sticky compound, made by boUing half a tola of tha *dil' or split pulse of 
the sort ceiled mdsh,. with one chitak of water and six ratis of * sohiga' ( borax ) till quite 
soft ; the grains of gold so prepared, are taken one by one with the forces and pla4»d in 


The solder is prepared thus :— Take one mfaha of gold and one rati of copper, and 
melt together ; hammerit out till as thin as a sheet (rfpaper, cut the foil into shreds as fine as 
hair, and across into minute pieces ; having mixed these shreds with some of the dil mixture 
before described, the prepared oroament is anointed all over with it, and the whole put into 
the fire, and urged with a blow-pipe with great accuracy. The solder melts, while the points 
do not at so low a temperature ; and this is the reason why the ornament must be made of 
gold superior to the solder. The melting solder is so spread by the heat of the fire and the 
dexterous use of the blow-pipe, as to settie down evaily on the sur&oe, leavis^ the p<»nts 
Exposed, and they are thus firmly coagulated and fixed together. Should the solder be too 
thick at any part, it would of course cover the points and spoil the appearsAce^ and the melt- 
ing has again to be resorted to till the required even deposit of the solder is attained. All 
this requires great niceness of handling, and much experience also ; for if the fire is too hot 
or applied too long, the points would melt as well as the solder, and the work be irretrievably 
spoilt. The ornament is returned in its present state to the jeweller who employed the 
workman, but it is still dirty and unpleasing in appearance, and has to be cleaned by lighty 
heating with borax, and then receives the clear yellow frosty appearance by being plunged, 
when clean and perfectly hot, into a strong acid solution of * kishta,' or unripe dried apricot 
brought from Kabul. 

Ear-rings and other ornaments are often made perfectiy spherical. This is done by 
making two hemispherical bases in the mould as before described, they are bound together 
by iron wire, and then with ordinary jeweller's solder joined into one globe or baU : the iron 
wire can now be removed. The points are afterwards put on in the i^anner already detailed. 

This class will be now brought to a close by an extract from the Eeport of the 
Jury in 1864. ; and this will be followed, by way of an appendix, by notes on the art of 
enamelling, and of the trades of the pearl-borer, the seal engraver, and the lapidary 
( hakiik ) who engraves stones for signet rings. 

(^M$ Xm* 169 




Jury r— 

Mr. F^ CoDper. Bittu Mvill, and 

Mr. Lepel Qriffin. Mr. E. L. Brandreth, Beporter. 


Delhi was, and perhaps 18 stfll, the principal place in India for the mannfiwture 
of all kinds of jewellery ; but since the extinction of the King a^d Court after the mutiny, 
the trade in jewellery is n,ot what it was, and the best artizans are enugrating to the natire 

Delhi has contributed a great variety of silver brooches, several beautiful turquoia 
ornaments, goid rings, jewels set in gold for necldaces, bracelets Ac. Ac., enamelled bracelets^ 
b&bul ornaments, gold work &ns, &c. Eurnal, Ehotuk, and Umbala, sent a few gold and 
silver ornaments ; Loodianah a silver jug and cup, pair of silver shoes, and some silver 
and gold personal ornaments ; Simla several silver and other ornaments ; Eangra fiome- 
enamelled and other ornaments ; Amritsar a large collection of ornaments of different kinds : 
bi:aeelets, ear-rings Ac. Ac. also gold inlaid daggers and sword handles. Iiahore had a very 
large collection of oniamental work of various kinds : silver scent bottles, jewelled sword 
hi^ndles, mindkiri work^ jade cups, enamelled armlets and bracelets, diamondhead ornaments 
diamond bracelets, ear-rings, and various other ornaments for the person. Mooltan sent 
some enamelled silver goblets, and gold worked knives. Googaira ( Montgomeiy ) had a 
very large, and a most complete collection of every kind of the ordinary silver ornaments 
worn by the great mass of native women. Dera Ghazee Ehan, Bunnoo, Peshawur 
Kupoorthulla and Chmnba, exhibited a few gold and silver ornaments. Cashmere exhibited 
some very beautiful gold and silver cups and surahis and other silver ornaments. 

A few of the most interesting articles exhibited in this class may be mentioned. 
Among personal ornaments, a superb diamond, emerald, and pearl necklace, very beautifully 
set, and richly enamelled at the back, exhibited by BehM L^ of Delhi.* A magnificent 
diamond and emerald turban ornament with emerald pendants, richly set, exhibited by 
Lalla Hurjus Eae of Lahore. Among the Kashmir contributions, a richly embossed 
golden chalice, and the silver and gold richly embossed flagons, deserve special notice. 
Some glass bottles and cups, ornamented with silver net work and gold border, exhibited by 
Ealyd E&m, appear of a novel character. 

Of the koftgarf work, the shield exhibited by Emamdeen and Shurfdeen appears the 
most striking ; there were also some beautifully and richly inlaid caskets and inkstands. 

The following is a list of the prizes awarded. 


1. A magnificent necklace, exhibited by Behdn L41, ... ... 50 

2. A magnificent turban ornament, No. 8822 exhibited by Lalla Hurjus Eae, 25 

8. Eich diamond crescent necklace, clear set in silver, emerald and ruby ) 

pendants, exhibited by Haz^ree Mull (? ) ... ... ... | ^5 

* This ifl shown in the plate, the last of the jewel 8erieB.~B. P. 

100 &(ua xnL 

4. Bracelets, stucU, and brooch, set jn turqaoises with enamelled backs, by ) 05 

Haziree Mull ( ? ) ... ... ... ... ... ... j 

5. Buby bracelet with enamelled sides, No. 8411, by Jowahir Lai, is well ) ^q 

finished, imique, and tasteful, ••• ... ... ... J 

6. Pair of diamond armlets set on green colored chequered ground, flowered ) ^o 

setting, No. 8482, bj Jowahu: Lai, ... ... ... ... j 

7. Necklace of emeralds and pearls, veiy graceful, by Beharee Lai, ••• 10 

8. Bdbul work solitaries and brooches by Hazi^ree Mull, ... ... 10 

9. Enamelled bracelet set with diamonds, dove colored ground, chequered pat- ) 05 

tern, No. 8836, by Harjus Eae, ... ... ... ... j 

10. Blue Bhawulpore enamelled silver personal ornaments, consisting of) or 

anklets, armlets, necklace, <Sbc. No. 8778, exhibited by Lahore Museum, j 

11. A large and curious collection of silyer rustic ornaments. No. 8972, and ) 05 

f<9lowing numbers, by Local Committee Qoogaira (Montgomery), j 

12. Cashmere gold cups, No. 9118 and 9129, exhibited by the Maharajah^ ••» 50 

13. Glass bottle with silver net work by Baly& B^, ... ... ... 10 

14. Koftgari work, especially shield and dagger No. 8929, exhibited by) 

Imamdeen and Shurfdeen, ... ... ... ... j 

15. Eofigari inkstand, richly inlaid. No. 8572, by Lnamdeen, ' ... ... 25 

16. Eioftgari box and other contributions. No. 8652, by Gholam Aindeen, .- 10 

17. Eoftgari richly inlaid casket^ No. 8584, by Futtahdeen and Kurmdeen, 10 

18. A richly embroidered gold waistbelt^ with diamond and emerald buckle, *) m 

^/eini. ... •#• ••• ••• ... ••• ■•• J 



Ctass XIII. 191 


Eoamelling ( miniLldLri ) is done in the soutli Punjab, ( Mnlt&n and Bah&wtilp6r ), 
and also at Sjmgra. It is also rarely done by indiyidual workmen elsewhere. There is a 
man at Lahore who knows the work, but who states that he can only make a sort of black 
enamel, and that he has to get the green, red, and blue, in pieces from Multan. 

In Multan it is said that the first maker was one Naulii, who worked 400 year^ 
ago, and that since then the art so increased in excellence, that Multan enamelled ware 
was highly esteemed and exported to other districts. 

The tenn " mfnA" means, in Persian, a glass vase or blue glass ; also applied to the 
•kjr **the azure deep" Ac., and hence to the blue vitreous enamel, which is the commonest sort. 

The enamel is usually seen in flat, vitreous cakes : there is opaque white, yellow, 
pink and red, green and blue. All these are vitreous in substance, the melting glass being 
prepared with various metallic salts or compounds, as oxide of cobalt, iron, manganese <&c.| 
and thus colored. 

A rude kind of black enamel is made without any glassy substance, as will be 
described hereafter. 

The article to be enamelled is never made of pure gold or silver, but is one-half 
alloy, to stand the heating and the treatment ; generally the metal used for the work is 
therefore said to be " nfmfi chUndi " &c. 

The silver vessel to be enamelled is first heated and made quite clean with the *kishta* 
solution before alluded to. The pattern to be engraved is marked out with a probe or 
8ildi, and the pattern is then finished off like '* chatera's " work, with such tools as he uses : 
in Multan these implements are called " toghra " and *' handi." The pattern is pro- 
dnced in relief^ so that the lower parts being filled up with colored enamel, the silver leaf 
or whatever it is, may show out on a colored field. A small quantity of the enamel is 
now finely powdered with a tool called bilohi ( Multan ), and the powder is mixed with a 
little borax into a paste with water. The paste is put on to the engraved silver, so as to 
fill up the dents and hollows cut by the engraver, and leave a clear pattern on the enamel 
ground ; the tool used for applying the colored paste is in Multan called ' s^rjan.' 

To bum in the enamel is the next work. A bit of clean talc is put at the 
bottom of the furnace and on it the article enamelled ; over this again a small iron cage 
or dome (to keep off the ashes of the furnace) and the whole is surrounded with lumps 
of charcoal, well burned and well washed, so as to yield no ashes, and is set on fire. 

If on taking the vessel out it is found th^t the enamel has not spread evenly, or 
has coagulated or run over the edge, Ac., the excess has to be ground down with a 
file and tool called barbd, consisting of an iron bar coated with a mixture of lac and 
corundum or emery jpowder. When the enamel is level and even, it has to be heated 
again, and it probably requires a further filing down, which is done with sand and water 
and a bit of soap-nut. It is now finally heated, and after washing in the kishta solution, 
tlie work is finished. 

The black enamel that the Laliore workman makes is not vitreous, and merely 
shows a dull black ground, on which the silver flower pattern appears more like the ^'bidri" 
work of Central India* 

192 Clan XIU. 

The black enamel called bj the Kajbutis (whence the art oame ) * isaw&th/ is made 
by melting two parts of silver, one part of lead, and four parts of sulphm* together, but this 
is done in a closed crucible and with exposure to a fierce heat ; when eufficientiij melted 
the material is poured into a mould ( reza ). The black substance which results is 
finely powdered, and being mixed with borax into a paste, is applied in the manner described* 

The enamelling on the back of jewellery is oalled '^ pharftiray" and is done at 
Jaipdr, not in the Punjab. 

The Mooltan enamelling is principaQy of cups and plates &c ; that of Bahawat- 
pur of large necklaces, bracelets, and other ornaments for the person, In Kangra, smaller 
works, amulets, belt clasps, and even articles of European form^ are enamelled. 

Enamelling is understood at Delhi also. 

The best enamelling comes for Jaiptir ; no one will tell the art by which the colors 
are produced, but I have gathered the following : — 

Dead white enamel is made by a ** calcine," made by reducing lead in a crucible over 
a slow furnace, by tossing in a few bits of tin the lead gradually runs into a white powder : 
this is the basis of all of the opaque colors, when mixed with ( kanch ) glass powder and 
borax. Yellow is produced either with oxide of lead or iron filings reduced by calciniiig- 
repeatedly with a little salt. Blue is produced mth 4reta* ( see Glass XIKi^OiBi), with or 
without white enamel, according as a deep or pale blue is required. 

The Bahawulpur and Multan enamellers produce an opaque red or salmon color, 
obtained with white enamel and some litharge or lead, reduced further tban the yellow 
oxide, and approaching the ' minium * or red. Fink and purple are produced witii 'aajanl,' 
( oxide of manganese ) and the white enamel. 

The Jaipur enamellers have a beautiful transparent red, which I cannot find out, 
but expect it is made by boiling acetate of copper with sugar, and obtaining a peroxide 
of copper, which, if skilfully applied at a moderate heat, gives this cedar (see Ure's IMctionary 
of Arts, s, V, — ** Enamel"). Green is produced with calcined oxidized copper and 
'kanch ' ; opaque green by mixing the said copper color with yellow enamel. I have of 
course no information as to the exact quantities used : a great mystery is made of all this. 


The pearl borer, " moti-winh " ( from winhna to bore ), fixes 
the pearl into a little hole in a block of very soft wood, 
generally seinbdly Ac, The boring is done with ^e usual 
mechanical contiivance : a pointed tool set revolving bf a bow 
and string passed round, and moved to and fro with a sawing* 
movement. So here the borer is a light pointed torf with » 
long handle. To make a loose handle tor ^tis, the worhmaa 
selects the end of a cocoanut shell, the extreme end bit of 
which makes a mushroom-shaped piece, this he holds his 
hand upon, while the end of bis boring tool revolves in 
the hollow. The bow used is of somse vexy small and li^id. 

JPearl horer^s tool. 


Hia tools are, — a grindatone, which rerolTes on & vooden axis between two upright* ] 
the upri^^hts and stand are called ' adda.' The wheel or grindstone called ' ain, ' ia a diao 
made of corandum powder and lac melted together : it is kept revolving by a bow and 
leather string, like a turner's wheel. The sto is made of two sorts : one to grind coarse, the 
other fine. ' Mitta s^.' is one to grind finer, this is made with sand instead of corundum. 

A third wheel is called 'chil^* and is smaller, and serves to polish the stone 
with the aid of a paste called " bari," made of ponnded burnt crystal or flint. 

I may add in this place, that no one in the Punjab knows how to cut diamonds ; they 
«»y only one or two people at Jaiptir and at Benares do : they have not the diamond powder 
necessary, and they say it costs two or three thousand rupees to set up a wheel. Other 
atones they can polish, because the powdered corundum or emery they have, will suffice. The 
lapidary's wheel is a heavy 'lap* ordiso mounted on the end of a wooden spindle, the spindle 
is supported between two uprights, and worked with a bow ; the wheel is often weighted with 
lead to increase its rotatory power : the edge is charged with a mixture of lac and emery. 
The stone to be polished is stuck with lac on the end of a wooden holder, this is pressed 
vitb the right hand against the wheel, and the left works the bow : the facets are prodoced 
by the eye only, and are often not very regular. 

The seal is used by all classes, not so much as a seal, but as a signet, especially 
witen the wearer cannot write his name ( which is unfortunately very often the case ). 

The ' mohr-kand ' or engraver's stand, consisto of a solid heavy pyramidal box, on 
the top of which is a long wooden ledge carrying three uprights ; one at either end is fixed* 
but the third can be slid along and fixed with a screw, so as to hold the graving tool, 
which is mounted between the end and middle^ in a horizontal position, with the 

The tool itself is set revolving by the 
Usual process of the bow. The point being 
adroitly pressed against the seal stone, and 
touched with oil and corundum, kept in a cup 
below, a dot or line, or other mark, is en- 
graved : the stone is stuck with lac on to » 
Wooden handle for convenience of holding. 
The graving tool or ' barma ' consists of 
' a light turned wooden shaft carrying a steel 
spike, at the very point of which a small 
copper head, like a pin's head, is fixed, 
This little head touched with oil and corun- 
dum does the work. If a fine line has to 
~ be engraved, the headed barma is removed 

and one placed iuthe proper position, which 
carries a little disc of copper at the end ; 
the disc is perhaps i of an inch in diameter, 
JBn^ava'i " Adda." and the edge can be filed exceedingly this. 

194 Clou XIIL 

It is this thin eA%^, wlien pressed revolving against the seal stone^ that cnts a fine line 
The whole process, howeyer, requires the workman to be exceedinglj adroit in adjusting 
and turning about his stone so as not to get the lines too thick or too deep, to get the 
curves smooth^ &e, Yery niee seal-cutting is done with letters c^ amazing smaUniMW aad 
%niees ^t Pelhi, but perh^>s the Eashmiris are the best of all i^t this trad^, 


Bindli mea^ % ^^U sp^gle, In Eangra thej are worn stucfc (m to the faoe mA 
fQrehead with gum. 

The bindligi$r makes tho * foil ' to place beneath stones set in jefr^Uerj, and alse 
the sip^ gold pendants like tiny hollow spoons : they form % fringe to ni^hs (noee-nngs) 
a^4 other ornai)ientB| lUid a^TQ call^ '^jhainki^.'* 

his tools are— 
jihran,—iL small anvil. 
Chamra c^otitm.— Parchmeiitk 
Mxkrqz. — Scissors of sisses. 
CJiwM, — Forceps of sizes. 
8€mni. — Small pincers. 

Fire holder j agate polisher ( mohirf ) ; a smooth btone i and a three-legged stand 
or low work table. 

They have thin sheets of gold or silver called ' sitta/ and cut out the form of the 
' bindli ' with scissors ; tiiese they color y^ow or red. l^ey give them a concave form by 
joreBsing on the leather with an- agate tool called ^* goti." 

CtM Kill. l%% 


I have a series of papers communicated to me by the late Diwah Hukm Chand 
Peshawria, which were prepared by the late Fakir Nur-ud-din. In the form in which they 
rjsached me they do not pre«lent any connected narrative, I have therefore extracted 
th^ information they contain, and having added other matter, have arranged a note on 
the history of this celebrated diamond, going as far back as it can be traced. I have 
tflso bfeeii able to donsnlt Taverhier's Voyage des Ilid^s, now flk l*ather rare boolc. There 
are also some good, but not |>erfeetly accaraie, notices of this dialnond ill the MncyclopcBdid 
BriUanied, and the Catalogue of the G-reat Exhibition of 1851. The Encydcrpoedia has 
TC^rodnced Tavemier's drawing of the diamond. 

The legend of the origin of this diamond is, that it was found in the mines o^ the 
south of India, and was worn by one of the heroes of the Mahdbharat, Kama^ ^ing of 
Anga; ttis would place it about 5,000 years ago, or 3,001, B. 0.* 

Nothing more o^ it is heard till it appears as the property of Vikramaditya,f 
( Ba±am4j{t of modern Indian vernaculars ) the famous Eaja of the great Central Indian 
kingiaom of Ujain ; it descended from him to the Mfilwa t&ajas, who kept it till overthrown 
by the Muhamadan power. The Muhamadan power was first felt in the Dekkan towards 
the clofie of the thirteenth century ; Al^ud-din Khiljf, nephew of Fifoz, the first sovereign 
<tf the 2nd Ghori dynasty, several times invaded the Dekkan, and his General, Kafdr, as 
eiirly as 1810^ brought back from the Dekkan a treasure consisting of seve^ ch^ df 
jewels, peatls &c,X 

AlA-ud-din died in 1316.§ I take it that this A14-ud-d(n is the one intended, and 
not the other princie of the same name, once the slave of a brahman astrologer, and who 
afterwards became the founder of the Brahmani dynasty in the Dekkan ( he died' in 135? ) 
For if it is this latter, it is difficult to understand how the diamond found its way to the 
Delhi tteasury, seeing that the weak and disorganized monarchies that characterized the 
dose df the 2nd Ghori dynasty were never able to cope witt, or to overthrow, the Dekkan 
powet. There was also another Al^ud-dfu in 1446. Assuming then that the diamond 
was ^th AU-ud-dIn Khilji^ it must have remained there in possession of his successors, the 
liurt of whom was SultAn-Ibrahim, son of Sikandar, son of Bahlol todi. The possession of 
tbe diainottd by AlA-ud-dln and his successors is stated as a fact by Sultdn B&h&t in his 
memoirs, who fixes the date of Ali-ud-dfn's acquisition of the diamond as 1806 A. D. 

It was at this time that B&bar, a descendant of the great Taimdr-leng after 
several invasion^,!! at length, in 1626 (A. D. ) attacked Sultan Ibrahim, and entered 
Delhi : Ibrahim was defeated and slain. One of the native historians says that> on reaching 
Delhi, B^bar shewed great kindness to the fiEunily of the late emperor, assigning a 

• Gatftlogne of the Greftt Exhibition of 1851, Vol. n., p. 695. 

t Aooording to the Memoirs of Bdbar, the diamond was aotoally in possession of Baja Bikramajft 
oi C^walir at the time when Humiynn (Babar*s son) took it. The said Bikramajit was holding Agra on behalf 
of Snltan Ibrahim against Babar's foroe. Perhaps this gave rise to the idea that the great Bikramajit 
had it. 

t See Mill's History of India, Vol. n.» p. 203. 

§ Mill, who alwoAfa garbles Indian names, calls him * Alia,' whieh is Ho B«Bke at tJL He abo oallfl 
t]^min Qangd — Kongoh ! 

II He inyaded India flye times between 911 and 932 Hijra. 

19« Class XIIL 

pension of 7 lacs of rupees td the mother. She, in gratitude for this, presented Bihar 
with the diamond, or as the Khulisat-ul-tay&rikh, calls it, a * piece of diamond/ sajing 
it weighed ' 8 miskals.' 

The weight, of which I shall speak presently, is quoted from Bihar himself, who 
does not say that it was actually 8 miskils, hut was about, or probably ( ghiliban ) 8 

In Wilson's Glossary of Indian Terms, the miskil is equal to 63} grains troy, which 
would make the diamond weigh 508 grains or ( taking 4 grains aa I carat ) 127 carats. 

The native historians fix the weight differently. Ferishta makes 8 miskils equal to 
224 ratis ; and the translator of B4bar's memoirs, to 320 ratis : but the weight of the 
rati also differs.* The miskil also is sometimes estimated at 72 grains : this would make 
the diamond 576 grains, equal 144 carats. 

This story of the diamond being given by Ibrahim's mother is not countenanced 
by Bihar himself, who ( p. 308 of the translation ) relates as follows : — 

' The family of Bikramajit and the head of his clan, were at the moment in Agra, 
' [ Bikramajit, not the earlier celebrity of that name, but the Baja of Gwalior, was at Agra 
' holding the city for Sultan Ibrahim]. Upon Humaydn'sf arrival they attempted to escape, 

* but were stopped by the parties stationed to watch their movements, and were brought in 
' prisoners. Humayun would not permit them to be plundered, and of their own free will 

* they presented to him a peshkash, consisting of a quantity of jewels and precious atones, 

* amongst which was one famous diamond, which had been acquired by Sultan Ala-ud-din. 
' It is so valuable that a judge of diamonds valued it as half the daily expenses % of the 
' whole world ; it is about 8 miskils in weight. On my arrival Humayun presented it as 
' A peshkash to me, and I gave it him back as a present.' 

Jean Baptiste Tavemier, who visited India about the middle of the 17th century, gives 
a different account of the origin of the Koh-i-nur, and if his story is true, that of Bihar's 
cannot be; nor is it possible that there should have been two diamonds of such extra- 
ordinary size at Delhi at the same time ; for Tavemier, who was allowed to handle and 
weigh all the jewels, would surely have noticed the fact. It is of course possible that the 
diamond which Bibar had and gave to Humayiin, was not the one which descended to Shah 
Jahin and Aurangzeb. The writer in the Official Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of 1851 
concludes that Tavemier's account is not true. There is nothing in the method of cutting the 
Eoh-i-nur ( as it was seen in 1851 ) which would lead me to suppose, necessarily, that it is 
the work of an European, nor can there be any objection to the greater antiquity of the 
diamond on the ground of the art of diamond cutting being unknown. It was not known 
in Europe before the end of the 15th century ( or 1486 A. D. ), but it may have been, and 
probably was, known long before that in India. 

Tavemier does not seem to have been aware of the existence of Bihar's account, 
and does not relate any special enquiry as to the origin of the diamond he saw. His 

• Some flrive it aa 1'953 of a grain, others 2i graina. Natives say that one rati equals 8 average aiied 
grains of clean husked rice. 

f Babar's son, who was sent on the expedition. 

X I suspect we should read * income * instead of * expense.' The copyist wrote ^j^ instead of ^\Sm 
the * ftlif ' was omitted. C^ Ts ^ 

Class XIII. lOr 

drawing and description do not certainly correspond exactly to the shape and facets of the 
£oh-i-nur as it was in 1851, and there is no reason to suppose that it had been touched 
between the date of the Mogul reign and its possession by the Sikh power. On the other 
hand, if the diamond really had its origin in only the preceding reign, there must have been 
persons at the Court who were well aware of the truth. There is, however, a great improb- 
ability in one particular about the story, and that is, that the rough diamond weighed 
900 ratis, equal to about 787 carats ! The diamond Tavemier saw and weighed was only 
280 carats, so that there must have been 500 carats lost in cutting, which is hardly possible* 

Tavemier's story is as follows : — 

After mentioning that on 1st November 1665 he was shown the jewels in Aurangzeb's 

* treasury, he says,* * the first jewel put into any hand was the great diamond, which is a 
' round rose diamond, very convex on one side ( fort haute d'un c6t6 ) ; on the under side 
' there is a small nick with a little flaw in it.t It is of fine water, and it weighs 819|> 
' ratis, equal to 280 carats ( of 4 grains ) : the rati equal to 7-8ths of a carat. When 

* Mirgimala, ( sic, ) who betrayed his master the King of Golconda, presented the stone to 
^ Shahjahiin, it was uncut, and then weighed 900 ratis, equal to 787| carats, and had several 
^ flaws. Had this stone been in Europe it would have been differently treated, some good 
' pieces ( pendants) would have been taken off it, and the stone itself lefb much larger ; as it 
' is, it has been quite polished away. It was Le Sieur Hortensio Borgis, a Venetian, who 

* cut it, and who was poorly recompensed for his pains. They reproached him with having 
' spoiled the stone, saying that he could have left it much larger. Instead of paying him for 
' his work, they made him pay 6,000 rupees, and would have taken more if he had anything 
' more for them to take. If Hortensio knew his work better, he could have taken some good 
' pieces off without doing wrong to the King, and without having had so much work to 
' polish it, but he was not a very skilful diamond cutter.* 

Whether this account of the origin be accepted or Bllbar*s, there can be no doubt 
that this diamond came from the Golconda mines. Tavemier expressly says that it came 
from a mine which he calls Gini:|: (or Ooulour, in Persian) which is seven marches east from 
Golconda. This is the Gdni Partiila visited by Dr. Yoysey in 1823 ; and the early history of 
the stone in Babar's memoirs points to the Dekkan as its origin. Now these mines of 
Golconda were known to yield larger diamonds than any of the others of Baolconda and 

It is commonly said that this diamond used to adorn the 'peacock throne.* 
This, however, was certainly not the case in Aurangzeb's time. Tavemier (p. 241) gives a 
minute description of this splendidly jewelled couch, but the great diamond is not described 
afi being in it. One Ifurge diamond is described, but that weighed 80 or 90 carats only, and 
does not correspond in size to the Koh-i-nur. 

In Chapter XXII there is a further description and a plate of this large diamond : 
it is represented as cut in uniform facets, and there is an irregularity in the shape at one 
side, he says : — 

• Voyage deg Indes < Paria, 1676, voL, H., p. 249.) 

t See foot note to page \dSpo$t, 

% The vord ganf or kair, means mino* 

m Class Xllh 

<' Ce dkLmaat appartient an Ghcaad Mogol leffoel me fit rhonneur de me le &ir9 
'' montrer avec toias ses autres jojaux. On Toit la forme ou il est demeur6 etant taille, et 
'' m'ajant este permis de le peser, j'ay trouve qu'il pese 3l9^ ratis qui font 279 ^ de 
'^ X108 carats. Estant brut it pesoit comme j'a^* dit ailleurs 907 ratis qui font 793^ de 
'' nos carats. Cette pierre est de la m^me forme comme si Ton avoit coup^ un euf par le 
« milieu." • 

Tayernier also mentions that Hie rati used in weighing diamonds at Ooloonda and 
Vkftpiir^ is I less than the European oanut of 4 grams. 

The writer of the Note in the 1851 Catalogue, before quoted^ qnestiextt Tttf^mier's 
m^asuremeilt of the weight, as, if a vati is equal ae he spiTS te 7-8thfl of a oarat, it should 
tiqual abomt %\ grttins, which no rati eyer does; the maximum beiog 2 I. and ijbd 
tfyerage leoeited weight 1*9 grains. If weighed bj the higher scale It giyes 700 grains 
dt 175 carets, Which is yerj near the actual weight of the Eoh-i-ndr, vix. 186 caraiSi 

The diamdhd I'emaihecl hi the liands of the Mogul soyereigns down to ETing 
^shan Aktar Muhamad Shah (who cU^cended the throne in 1720) at the tiine When K^ir 
i^hah Ihyaded the Einpire of Bhidlist&n. N&dir Shah, after the battle of Earnil entered 
l)elhi in Utarch 1789 A. D. He seized ttie entire treasury of Delhi, including the peacock 
throne and the great di&imond, which he billed K6h-i-nDr or "moiihtain of light" : this is 
the origin of the name by which the diamond has since been Imown. There is no teason io 
Stippose anjf truth in the story which represents Nidir Shah as chaiiging tutbantf With 
iiuhamad Shah, and taking the diamond along With the turban. V&dir Shah took ^e 
Itoh-i-uur With him, but liine years after his retui*n to Persia he was murdered by his 
AepheW Ali ISixAi Khan. Sooh, hoWeter, the counti'y fell into a state of anarchy, and 
Ahmad shah DurAni, who had been a yasiLwal ot chief porter in iJfidir Shah^s seryice, 
became King at Kandahar and Kabul, A. H. 1161. The Kingdotli of Persia, however, did 
not ininiediately pass into the possession of the Ifurani. £arlm Kh&n Zind reigned seyen 
years aftef ITddir Shah, and possessed the diamond ; his brothers Jifir Khan and Lutf Ali 
Khan succeeded, and had the diamond alsd. Liitf Ali was eyenttially defeated by Agh£ 
Muhamad Slian Kdj&r, and fled for his life. t)uring his flight he fell in with 90 Seist£ni 
troopers, to whom he shewed the diamond, which was then worn as a b&zuband or aimlet 
iot the nppet* arm ; the diamond he offered to them as the price of his safety. With 
characteristic treachery the Seist^nfs took the diamond, deserted Lutf Ali after hamstring- 
ing his only horse^ and made their Way with the precious jewel to Kandahar. In tlds 
city they attempted to sell it, but Ahmad Shah Purani haying heasd of this, sent for tiid 
nien and seized the diamond. Ahmad Shah died A. H. 1184, and was suoeeeded by hiason 
Qhdmtir Shah, who, a^r a reign of 23 years, was succeeded by his son Zamik Shah. JSamia 
Shah was defeated and deposed by his brother Mahmiid Shah. 

Zaihdn Shkh Whdn defeated at Ghasni, fled towards the Khatbai*^ andHook refuge m 
the f6rt Ashik ( dc in Nturdin's papers ). In the walls of the fort Zamid Shah hid tfie 
Koh-i-nAr along with some other yaluables. Shah Shujd, a younger brother of Zam^ Shah^ 
did not allow his brother Mahmud to reap the fruits of his yictory, but, haying gained oyer 
a considerable body of troops, established himself on the throne. To him Zam&n Shah 

* Tills ifl yery like the real atone, whicli is quit flat beb^ and is nearl;^ oval, except a slioe oat off out 
idde ; viewed endwise, and from the end opposite the gash or slioe, it is quitch likir Tay^mier's plate. 


(Hass XIIT. 199 

i!evealed the hiding place of the Koh-i-ndr, and it was dug ont and given over to Shah 

6hnjA. Shah Shnp4 was however unable to hold the throne against Mahmtid Shah, but 

Was defeated and forced to take refjige at Rawalpindi, carrying the precious diamond with 

While there, the Govempr of Kashmir pent to a8sur^ him of fidelity, and invited him 
to Kashmir, Shah Shtgi believipg him, moved to Hassan Abd^l, and flience to Attpd?. 
Meanwhile, Mahm6d ShiA, Shah ShujTs snccessful riyftl* »e»t thougl* bifJ Wa^ir, yatih 
Khan, overtures for the friendship of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 

The Kashmir Governor ( Ata Muhamad Kljan ) no sooner heard of this, than l^e 
Bent renewed solicitations to Shah Shuja to come to Kashmir. Shah Shujfi did so, but. 
first despatched his wife Waf4 Begam to I^ahore, carrying the diamond with h§r. 
Shah Shuja, as is well known, i^lmediately on reaching Kashmir, was treacherously seiss^ 
and imprisoned. 

Wa£& Begam wa§ well received by the Maharaja, and suitably lodged and enter- 
tained a^ I^ore. Sp soon as the new^ of the Shah's fate reached her, she sent to ibo 
Mahar^a, begging his assistance i|i prpcuring his liberation, and offering the Kot4-niir as- 
a reward for the service. 

Meanwhile Wazfr Patih Kh&n ( Mahm^d Shah's Wazir ) had made stiU further 
interest with the Maharaja, and induced him to aid in the Wa?jir's design of invading Kwh. 
mir. Eanjit Singh advanced as far as the Rohtds fort ( Jbelam ), and instructed a number 
of his Chiefs and Bajas to assist Wazir Patih Khan in his expedition against Kashmir, 
but secretly ordered them to secure, at all hazards, the liberation of Shah ShujS, 

The Maharaja returned to Lahore and imqiediately aoquainted the Begam with 
the measures taken for the Shah's release, demanding the promised diamond as his reward ; 
the Begam prudently, however, declined giving it up tiU she saw her husband with her 
own eyes. M^araja Eanjit Singh was obliged to be Qontented, md made arrangements for 
conveying the news of the success of the Kashmir eappediJtio^ 9P §oon as the ^ven* would 

The Kashmir expedition succeeded, Ata Muhamad Khan, the (Joypmor, in great dis- 
tress Teleaaed Shah Shuji, and placed him on the throng of Kashmir. Wazir Khan and 
the Sikh army were, however, completely successful. 

It is needless for my present purpose to detail the intrigues which follow^ the 
^coess^how Ata Muhamad Khan njade oyertures to flie Sikh conquerors, and how 
Fatih Khan was afraid, in consequence. Shah Shuj£, afraid to trust either Ata Muhamad 
or Patih Khan, adhered to the Sikh Dfwan Mohukm Chand, who, according to his in- 
stnictlcmft, set out from Lahore, taking Shah ShujA with him. 

On reaching Ihe capital the Sikh Chiefs left Shah Shuj£ at Shahdara, and reported 
the events of the expedition to the Maharaja. Next morning Shah ShujA, accompanied by- 
Prince Kharok Singh, entered Lahore with royal pomp, and was lodged in the " Mubirik 

TThe Maharaja now made several efforts to get possession of the diamond : on one 
occasion it is even said that one of the Maharaja's Sirdars kicked the Shah. Li Npr-u-din's 
papers, some extracts from Sohan Jj&Ta histoiy of the Maharaja are given, from which 
I gather the following particulars ;-^ 

200 Class XIIL 

Bhaja Earn Singh and others were sent to solicit the deliyeiy of ilie diamond. 
They pressed him exceedingly, but he made pretences to avoid giving it up. Ho 
was therefore put under a strict guard, and *• every day served to add to the severity 
of his confinement." Shah Shuj6 sent a deputation to the Maharaja saying, that the 
diamond was mortgaged for 6 crores of rupees due at Kabul, but the Maharaja was not 
satisfied. At last it was agreed that the Mahajara should pay three lacs of rupees in 
cash, and grant a jagfr of the annual value of 50,000 rupees. On receipt of the Maharaja's 
promise, Shah Shujd said he would deliver the diamond within fifty days. 

"On the 29th Jamfidi-ul-awal, (Ist June A. D. 1813,) Fakir Azfz-ud-din, Bhai 
*^ Gurbaksh Singh, and Jamad^r Khushdl Singh, went to Shah Shujd and demanded the 
" diamond. The Shah replied that Maharaja Eanjit Singh should come for it himself. 
" The Maharaja on hearing this, cheerfully mounted his horse, and accompanied by troops 
** on the right and left, and taking with him a sum of 1,000 rupees in cash, went to Shah 
" Shuj&'s haweli. The Shah received him with respect and bended the knee to him. 
" The Maharaja then sat down • • • • The Shah produced the diamond 
" and gave it to the Maharaja, who signed an a^eement to secure the Shah from further 
'* molestation." Presents were then exchanged, and the Maharaja returned to the Fort. 

In Nur-ud-din's papers a number of statements are given of various persons who 
were questioned as to whether the three lacs a^eed to be paid were ever granted. It seems 
quite clear that, although from time to time sums of money were presented to the Shah, 
the agreement alluded to was never fulfilled. 

As to the weight of this diamond, I already stated that the Khulas^t-ul-taw^rikh, 
speaking of the diamond in Bihar's time's says, the weight was 8 mi8kals= 144 carats. When 
obtained by Eanjit Singh, " wise examiners " of the time gave its weight as 42 mashas = 
836 ratis = 735 grains «« 183{ carats, which is close to its exact weight. 

The diamond was set in gold, and worn as a bfizuband or armlet, and is still 
remembered at Lahore by the name of the b&zuband diamond. It was in the state in which 
it was exhibited in 1851, 186 carats in weight and worth & 270, 768 : it has since been 


No one in this country had an adequate idea of the value of this stone. It is 
commonly said that Ranjit Singh on being asked the value said it was " ikb£l,' or the 
power which could conquer the state which possessed it ; but what the Maharaja really 
said more humorously, was, that the price was * shoes '— t. e., he who could give his enemy a 
beating ( shoe beating is the oriental sign of defeat ) and take it from him. The meaning 
is, however, the same. 

Fakir Nur-ud-din writes as follows, about what he heard Waf£ Begam say on this 

subject : — 

A few months after the diamond in question came into the possession of the Maharaja, 
" I was called back from Jdlandhur to Lahore, and deputed by the Maharaja to Waf4 
« Begam, to find out what opinion she had of its value. By order of this Highness I 
*' visited Wafa Begam, and begged her to inform me what she had heard or knew to be its 
" value. Wafa Begam, in reply, said that its value could not be described in one way, but 
« in several ways. According to what she had heard from her ancestors, its value is equ^ 
»* to a heap of precious stones and gold mohrs filling a space marked by five stones, each 

Class XIIL 201 

•' thrown on four sides and upwards by a strong young man. Some have said this even to 
be an inadequate value ; others have said that its value is equal to half of the daily income 
of the whole world. And the real price by which it has passed from one hand to another, is 
presentation of a weak to a powerful party, which price brought it in the possession of 
Saduzai family, and at last into the hands of the Maharaja. 

The subsequent history of the diamond is too well known to need repetition. It was 
ceded to the British in 1849, taken by the Marquis of Dalhousie, Governor General, 
to Bombay in 1850, and entrusted to Lieutenant Colonel Mackeson, C. B., and Captain 
Ramsay, who sailed with it to Europe, reaching Portsmouth on 30th June 1850. They 
handed it over to the Board of Directors East India Company, and, on the 3rd July 1850, 
it was delivered to Her Majesty. It has since been re-cut in a completely round form, 
losing considerably in weight, but gaining vastly in beauty and brilliancy. It can be worn 
either in a bracelet or in a necklace ; there are two pendants mounted with it. 

202 -CImb XIV. 


All tbat cfin be dpne in this class is to gire a list of thQ more r^uiarl^able specimen! 
that have come to notice. 

J^owderrhprn, made of poUphe^ shells of some Urge species of Turbo ; the moutk 
being clo8^4 with coppev gUt ooveri^g, 

There ww one from Ai^rits^r in the 1864i Exhibition [ No. lOlOO]. 

[ 8772 ].-^Hor8e trappings of gold repouss^ work on velvet, ( value Bs. 2,900) 
belonging to Baja Harbans Singh of Lahore. 

[8774]. — Necklace of gold and coral for horses, ( value Ks. 370). Another of 
large white glass beads. Another of jade beads. Another made of gold coins ( ashrafies ) 
strung on silk cord. Another of large beads of cut rock crystal. 

[ 8778 ]. — Small cups of rock crystal. These are brought from Yarkand, Ac., and 
are much admired in the houses of the wealthy. 

[8780]. — A cup of green serpentme. This is called " zahr mohra," because, if 
poison is poured into it, the stone is supposed to crack, and so '' reveal the poison." , 

[ 8781 ].--A jade cup, inlaid with precious stones. 

[ ]. — A large onyx stone cut into the shape of a frog ( Kabul ) in the Lahore 


[ 8784 ]. — ^Various sword handles of jade, amulets and charms of the same, inlaid 
and set with stones. 

[ 8800 ].— A fly-flap, yak's tail, in gold and jewelled handle ( Eaja Harbans Sing, 
Lahore ). 

[ 8803 ]. — Series of agate knife handles. This stone is brought from Cambay. 

[ ]. — A jade cup. These jade articles are all brought from Yarkand, and are 

not made in the Punjab. 

[ 8809 ].— Ornament for the point of a scabbard, set with rubies. Another of jade. 

[ 8810 ]. — Figure of a tiger carved in agate. 

[ 8811 ].— Beads of clouded amber. 

[ 8813 ]. — Vases of dark green jade ( loot from China ). 

[10123]. — A hooka vase of carved marble. 

[ ]. — A marble book-stand — two plates of carved marble, crossed like the letter 

% ; the Koran is rested on this in a mosque at prayer time ( it is called " rihl " ). 

[10087].— A crystal bowl, value Es. 150. 

[10090]. — An onyx cup, value Rs. 100 ( or agate, " sang ghauri"). 

Also a series of pen holders, little dishes and salt-cellars, of agate and serpentine 

( zahr mohra ). 


[10264, ^.]. — A boat carved out of white Jaipur marble. A pen*case ditto, ditto. 



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Ohm XV.—Dhhim I ioB 


Division I. — ^Furniture. 


II. — Carved a^d Inlaid WoiiK. 

Fiimitare is so little used by natives, that this class is a small and uninteresting 
bhe. A ricli man's house is often well furnished with carpets, hangings, low cushioned 
divans, and " masnads," but ornamental furniture is unkno\^ save to those few who have 
adopted the European style. Tables, often ihlaid, or 'W^ith legs covered with silver plate, 
ftnd arm chains, ai*e alone in use, and low wooden stools for sitting on. 

The number of natives who are skilled in wood carving is however considerable^ 
l^he form of articles produced by them is rarely good aud never beautiful ; it is only 
in surface design that they seem to excel. 

All the furniture that was really good in the Exhibition of 18^^ t<ra« made by cftN 
penter« who had taken patterns from European articles, and brought their own skill iri 
desi^ and carved tracery to bear on the Work. 

The foUoTTiitg articles m^ty be toefltioiied a^ fthewift^ the more ctitioiis drticles 6f 
fbmitiire :— » 


[ 9571 ]. — An arm chair, entirely made of white marble ; the back and sides being 
perforated and carved. A similar one was seut from Lahore (Sirdar Bhaqwan Sino^ 
exhibitor, ) Amritsar. 

[9578] — An arm chair entirely covered with plated of ivory and mother- o'peatl 
(nimru), Nawab Jahanqir Khan, Lahore. 

[ 9681 ]. — Tiin wood table inlaid with ivory. 

[ 9581 ]. — A watch case ornamented with gilt brass. This is a copy of the ' Louia 
Quatorze' style. 

[9707]. — A chair painted and gilt, " kari-kalamd&ni (See Lacquered Ware) 

[ 970S ]. — A round table in painted wood. The design of this being of the shawl 
pattern, was really beautiful, and th^ coloring ch&dte and subdued. The cost of such a. 
table is 81 Bupees. 

The following specimens are all of European fashion : — 

[9570].— Round table, the top inlaid with 50 different kinds of Punjab wood, 
the stem and base representing reeds on a lake, with swans supporting the table, carved in 
white wood, and with water lilies. The plate shews this elegant piece of work' executed 
by native carpenters under directions of Mr. J. Gordon, c. b. 

[9568].— A drawing-room chair, elaborately carved (Sirdar Bhagwfin Singh ). 
This shews how delicately natives can carve ; the material is tali or shisham wood. 

204 Class Xr.— Division I. 


[ 9554 &c., ]. — Book cases, chiffoniers, small tables, arm chairs, couches, &c. 

Simla is celebrated for its carved ware. Several carpenters may be seen in the 
bazar at work. The patterns are supplied them, and the imitation is excellent. Tiie 
woods most used are walnut, and a beautiful zebra wood known as *" kakkar " ( PUiacia ). 
The work is cheap enough : a pair of teapoys cost Bs. 20 ; a book-stand for the table Be. 3 ; 
a flower-stand Bs. 20 ; a couch ( the wood work ) Bs. 25. 

[ 9565 ]. — A side-board or chiffonier carved in shlsham wood. This elaborate carv- 
ing is figured in the annexed plate. 

Othbb Distbictb. 

In Shahpdr, a remote and rather wild district, Major Davies, the Deputy Com- 
missioner, got some native carpenters to make excellent furniture. At Lahore, in the 
Bail way Workshops, with the aid of good tools and effective superintendence, almost any 
article of joiner's work, plain and fancy, can be produced. The Baja of Kapurth^la sent to 
the Exhibition a table with a marble top, and a carved arm chair, very well finished and 
polished. The last item is not often well done ; as a rule native workmen are contented 
to varnish with copal instead of actually polishing. 

I should not close this class without alluding to the " dl-ujrat Chair.'' This is an 
instance of how an article of manufacture can be introduced and localized within narrow 
limits and then rendered permanent. Some years ago a Deputy Commissioner of Gujrat, 
named Capper, interested himself in manufactures. Mrs. Capper gave some carpenters a 
pattern of a folding easy chair. It was at once imitated in tun wood, and has a loose 
hanging cushion of leather. I have already alluded to the leather.* These chairs are 
made only at Gujrat, and have obtained a Punjab celebrity : they are called by the natives 
Gujrat or " Capperlna' Chairs." 

• See page 123. 

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aass XV^.— Division 11. 205 



It • ardly worth while to make a separate class of the carved and inlaid work. 

I have already described under the last head the skill many natives possess in the art of 

carving ; but for want of suitable objects, almost the only articles on which the art is 

exercised are pen-cases, boxes, cups, and legs of the universally used charpoy or flat bedstead. 

The following specimens may be mentioned : — 


[ 9102 ].— Carved sandal wood box, the sides bound with silver, and set with oval 
** Delhi miniatures " ( of which hereafter ). These sell, according to size and number of 
paintings, from Rs. 250 to Rs. 25 each. 

[ 9207 ]. — Carved spoons and forks, for salad Ac. 

This work seems to have been learnt from Sah&ranpdr, not far off, where beautiful 
carved work of the soft white wood of the Wrightea is executed. 
There are a variety of similar carvings from Ludhiana. 


[ 9279 &c. ]. — Boxes of dark shisham wood, inlaid with a flower pattern in ivory. 


[ 9339 ].— Walking sticks of olive wood, and of the " RSims " ( Cotoneaster ) 
carved. A favorite sort of carving is on a short stick, carried, I believe, by Bair%f fakirs, 
and consisting in inscriptions carved in relief in GurmtSkhl, Hindi, and Persian characters. 

[ 9349 ].— A carved vase for a hdka, of wood. 


A model in carved wood of an elaborately carved verandah of arches and pillars, 
in an ancient bfoadari. This piece of work may be seen in the Lahore Central Museum. 
It is a faithful representation of a very elegant and interesting specimen of domestic 
architectural wood carving. 


I may note from this district neatly turned and polished cups of shfsham wood, 
and a similar series from Shahpur. 

The Jury Reports on "Furniture" and "Wood Carving," prepared for the 
Exhibition Committee of 1864, may conveniently be printed as an Appendix to this Class. 

208 Class XV. 


Furniture, in the common acceptation of the word, is unknown to Orientals. The 
articles requisite to the inside of a house diffef in little beyond the material of which 
they are itiad^, in thd halls of an Indian prince and the hat of A t>eas£tnt. tlsteh mu^t hare 
his oharpoy, but one will have it of silver, while the <rther Will have it of wood- 
As in their ordinary dress and food, so in their domestic comforts, all dasses are more 
or less ec^ual. Tables are as superfluous to them as knives and forks ; chairs are tMd 
on occasions of ceremony rather than for comfortable repose, and are chiefly looked upon 
as a species of social thermometer by which a man's position may be at once determined. 
Only persons of quality sit on chairs at a visit ) dependents and inferiorshave to sit on the 
ground. The idea of household comfort is but faint in the native mind^ but it is 
increasing with their advance in civilization. In no country is comfort so well understood 
as in England. Continental habits in this respect have decidedly an oriental teudency. 
TJncarpeted floors, uncurtained windows, uncovered tables, and uncomfortable becl 
rooms, are the characteristics of ordinary French and German houses. On special occa- 
sions they make a display which English houses seldom pretend to $ but seen in the garb 
of every day life, the solid qualities of an English home come out to the best advantage. 
The difference is not in any one thiug, but in the whole tone of the furniture and 
fittings. This love of solid comfort, as opposed to cold display, ia gaining ground rapidly 
among our fellow- subjects in the east, as if by sympathy. In the Presidency towns rich 
natives display their wealth rather in an extravagant indulgence in European luxuries, 
than in the barbaric pageants of former days. One of the most magnificent chandeliers 
ever made is now under prepai*ation for the Nizam of Hyderabad ; and nearer the locale of 
the Exhibition may be see a suite of rooms in an Indian palace that make the spectator 
forget he is in the East. 

The result of all this is that in calling for an exhibition of furniture, even in the 
Punjab, it is needless to look for articles invented by natives and intended for purely 
native use. The designs will be European, and the articles will be such as Europeans 
are likely to approve of. That this has been the case, the contents of the Furniture Court in 
this Exhibition will show. The specimens exhibited are few in number, and with one or 
two exceptions, commonplace both in design and execution. In this, as in so many 
other departments, it is evident that much more 6ould have been done habd tndre time 
been allowed, n,nA had the objectd of the Exhibition been better understood. As if< Hf 
there is sufficient in the articled eihibited to show what can be done in the province^ 
Woods of all kinds exist in abundance ; skill can be commanded to almost any extenl 
It needs only a steady demand to bring out the real capabilities of manufacturers in 
this respect. 

A circumstance that opefates strongly against €he manufacture of ^aoA and 
valuable furniture is the migratory character of the European population, from whott 
encouragement for the manufacture is chiefly io be looked for at present. A fkmily seldom 
lites in one station for ihore than two or thi'ee years at the mo^ ; bence econoxtiy and 
durability are the points kept in view in furnishing a house, rather than elegance and cost- 
liness. It will be long before this depressing influence will cease to operate, but there ore 
symptoms of its decline discernible even now. The style of furniture of a mofussil 
house is very different now from what it was ten or twenty years ago. On the other hand, 

Class JiTF. 20? 

there lire circumBtanoes wbich will always tell strongly in favor of an indigenous manufacture 
of furniture. One of these is^ the serious expense of getting any other ; another is tha 
unsuitability of finely polished or veneered European furniture for such a climate as this : 
it cannot last any time. The defects are in the material as often aff in the style of work. 
The desiderata in furniture for Anglo-Indians are that the wood be suited to the climate, 
that it be left as much as possible in its natural state without the unpleasant adjuncts of 
sticky varnish, cracking veneer, or jagged brass binding ; that it be portable and light, 
80 as not to incommode a traveller ; that it be elegant in shape, and calculated for coolness 
both is appearance and practice, and that it be moderately cheap. These qualities are 
rarely found together in Indian furniture. One of the objects of the Exhibition is to 
ascertain what improvement can be made in thi9 respect and how. There is perhaps 
GK^arcely a house in the Punjab that contains a complete set of furniture, that is, a series 
of articles all of the same wood and in the same style. Houses are furnished pieces 
meal, one article being the production of one man, another of another, living in far distant 
ages : most of the articles have a history of their own full of interest if they could but 
unfold it. These anomalies are the result of stem necessity, and not of choice. A few 
years may see them vanish. 

To the European eye there is nothing in the Furniture Court equal to the chififonief 
made in the 89th Regimental Workshop, for finish and solidity ; the joining is excellent, 
the polish and the exact fit of the shelves and doors are all that can be desired. Native 
made furniture always seems unfinished ; the artificer seems to tire of his work as it 
approaches completion. The superiority of the work of European soldiers over that of 
natives is very noticeable. The inlaid table from Amritsar, however, shows that under 
European superintendence native workmen can attain a high degree of success. 

The districts contributing furniture are Loodiana, Simla, Jullundhur, Amritsar, 
Lahore, Goojrat, Shahpure, Mooltan, Gugaira, Kuppurthula, and Kashmir. The 
following Regiments also sent contributions : — Her Majesty's 89th, Her Majesty's 93rd 
Highlanders, Her Majesty's 101st Regiment, and the 2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade. 

The following articles were specially noticed : — 

[ 9570 ]. — A round drawing room table, the top inlaid with 64 diflTerent Punjab 
Woods ; and with an elegantly carved and ornamented pedestal. Both in design and work- 
manship it leaves nothing to be desired, while it derives additional value horn, its exhibiting 
ai » glance the resources of the provmce in woods suitable for flimiture. 

[ 9764 ]. — A chiffonier exhibited by Sergeant Ord, 89th Foot, made in the Regi* 
mental Workshop. It has been already noticed above. 

[ 9679 ],--A carved side board ftom. Shakpur* The earving ia vathev eoarse, 
but i% is effective, pdortioularly at a^ Utile distance, 

[ 9980 3i — ^A round table from Shahpur^ not very ornamental, but serviceable and 

[ 9554^^^-04: }.— ^Ten pieces of furniture from Simla* l^y are all in i^e same style, 
or noarly so. They imtq chiefly of ^ kakkar ' wood. The carving is clear and effective, 
and the sha^ qi s^ll the articles good. They form a very elegant set, and are oreditabl^ 
tgi tt^ i»a|i\tfact\^rer. 

208 Clas6 XV. 

[ 9675 ]. — An iron easy chair from the Gujrat jail. It consists of a piece of fine 
durri stretched on a light iron frame. It moves easily and is well balanced. 

[ 9578 ]. — An arm chair made of ivory and mother o'pearl, exhibited by Nawab 
Jahangeer Khan. The shape is not elegant, but the construction is curious. The blend- 
ing of the two materials gives it a very silvery appearance. 

[ 9579 ]. — An arm chair carved in marble, exhibited by M. Ter Arratoon. A 
beautiful piece of work, in thorough oriental style. 

[ 9768 — 71 ]. — A wire chair, a stool, flower stands, Ac., from the Kegimental Work- 
shop of the 10 1st Regiment. These are the only specimens of this elegant and useful 
kind of work in the Exhibition, and are very creditable to the makers. The flower 
stands would ornament a verandah, and the wire seats would prove very convenient in 
a garden. This species of work might be largely developed in the Punjab, and would 
prove most suitable. 

[ 9779 ]. — ^An ice box — Rifle Brigade. This is very well constructed in zinc and 
• wood. 

[ 9784 ]. — Easy chair, 3rd Battalion Rifle Brigade, very solid and comfortable ; 
wood well cut and polished, well stuffed and mounted on castors. 

Wood cabving. 

The specimens in this department are very few in number, and are not generally of 
high merit. This cannot be for want of good woods to carve in, as these are known 
to exist in abundance. The native idea appears to be to have their small ornaments and 
figures cut in ivory or stone, or moulded in precious metal. They like a little rough 
carving in wood over a doorway or on a balustrade, but they do not seem to care so 
much for that minute artistic carving which pleases the European eye. An exception 
must be made in favor of the hill districts, where wood carving is practiced to a 
considerable extent, as well as stone sculpture. This taste is, in them, much more 
advanced than their social and intellectual condition in other respects would lead us to 

After all, fancy carving i;i wood is not an art that is ever likely to meet with much 
encouragement, except, in as far as it can be made subservient to utility in connection with 
furniture or architecture. 

In this, as in all other arts practised by the natives of India, it is surprising what 
creditable results they arrive at with the use of the coarsest and simplest of implements. 
The idea of subdivision of labor, even in turning out small articles in large quantities, 
would never enter into a native's mind. He would commence, carry on, and finish, each 
one himself, not leaving a single one of the various processes to be performed by another. 
The hill carving, in particular, is executed with the rudest of tools, and must occupy the 
patient artist many a weary day. The remuneration would be incommenserate wilJi 
the labor expended, in any country but this. 

Some of the best carving in the exhibition was the work of other provinces. 

The style of carving displayed in the massive black furniture of Bombay, and its occasional 

imitations in the Punjab, is characteristie of a different department of the art altogether, 

and one which is calculated to play a much more important part in the manu£EU)tur8B of 

Class XV. 209 


ihe country, and the social comforts of its inbabitants, wbetber native or alien. It must 
be admitted, however, that thecbief excellence of the Bombay specimens, sent to the Punjab 
Exhibition by way of comparison, is in their color and boldness of design. As far as 
workmanship is concerned we do not see what is. to prevent the artificers of Simla from 
equalling their brethren la Bombay. The chief want about the specimens of Punjab 
carved furniture, is a want of finish. The last touches are left undone, and the result 
is an appearance of incompleteness,, which is fatal- 

^ Didrids^. — The districts wliich contributed specimens of wood carving, are Delhi 
Kumal, Umballa, Loodiana, Jullundhur, Kangra, Hooshyarpore, Amritsar, Lahore, 
Ougranwala, Simla, and ShahporOr This list includes, some of the districts under Class 
XV, because wood carving can scarcely be separated from furniture where the articles are 
of an ornamental character. It includes also districts which contributed apecimeus of 
simple wood turning, not sufficiently ornate to be styled carving, and yet not capable of 
being classed under lacquered turnery. 

"Xifwfe.— The kinds of articlea exhibited are sandal wood boxes, boxes of other 
kinds of wood,, some of them on the Bombay pattern, charpoy legs, walking sticks with 
fancy heads, ornamental spoons and forks, spices and fruits in wood, paper knives, paper 
weights, combs, card cases, cups, carved furniture, and a few miscdlaneous things* 

•* ArUdes noticed. — A carved chair — Wo. 9568 of Class XV — exhibited by Sirdar 
Bhagwdn Sing, made by Karm Sing of Amritsar. This is one of the most striking 
objects on entering the Furniture Court. It is evidently not intended for use, and cer- 
tainly not calculated to ensure comfort, but for elegance of form and excellence of 
execution, the Jury consider it a most creditable specimen of Punjab workmanship. All 
the lines are in flowing curves \ the feet consist of the claws or paws of some animal, 
probably unknown to naturalists, proceeding out of the mouths of many teethed 
dragons : rather a grotesque combination, but pardonable for its very extravagance. The 
sides and back are adorned with similar fancies. White bone, or ivory studs are inter- 
spersed with the carving, and the whole is sturmounted with the Eoyal Arms, evidently 
showing that the chair is of recent production* We believe it was specially made for 
the Exhibition. The carving in some places may be considered rude,, and only saved from 
condemnation by a liberal coating of varnish ;. but the same delicate work is not expected in 
an article of this kind that we look for in a jewel casket or an imitation of fruit and leaves. 

** [ 9570 ]. — A drawing-room table ; the top inlaid with 64 different Punjab woods, 
exhibited by Mr. J. Gordon, Executive Engineer of Amritsar* This table is mentioned here 
on account of the beautiful carving on the pedestaL The base consists of a mimic pond 
formed of mirrors, on which rest a few water-lilies carved in white wood, and two swans of 
similar wood, stretching their necks up the pedestal, which is surroimded by carved rushes 
rising out of the pond below. The whole effect is excellent. As an artistic work, there 
is nothing in any department of the Exhibition to excel it. 

** [ 9192—98 ]. — ^Delhi Boxes, exhibited by Ismail Eihan. These were noticed in 
ihe Pine Art section on account of the ivory paintings on them, but the carving is deserv- 
ing of notice here* 

210 Class XV. 

[9206]. — Spoons and forks exhibited by the Local Exhibition Committee of 
TTmballa. These are very cleanly carved in good wood, and are remarkable for their 
delicate finish. 

[ 9211 ]. — Cardamoms of wood — TTmballa. 

[ No. ]. — Similar ones from Lahore and Amritsar. These imitations are most 
deceptive in their semblance of nature. 

[ 9564 — 64 J. — Ten pieces of carved furniture from Simla» exhibited by Lieutenant 
Colonel Lawrence, particularly two flower^stands, which are beautifully carved, with 
double serpentine stem, and leaves roimd the top, 

[ No. ] — A *^ chowri " made of sandal wood, also one of ivory — Puttiala. The 
patience with which each separate hair or fibre of the fly-flap has been separately cut is 


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Clasa XV.— Division III. 211 


There are two prominent kinds of work which desenre separate mention : one is the 
'Eir-i-khar&t' or turned and lacquered ware, known to Europeans bj the name of P4k* 
patan work ; the other, the turned work of Dera Ismafl. Khin. 

The khar&t work consists of turned wood boxes, cups and tojs, the outer face of 
^hich is prettily colored with a coating of mottled lacquer. 

The best work in the Punjab is done in the Montgomery district ( late Gugaira ) 
at a place called Pakpatan ; but the art is by no means confined to this place, I have 
specimens from Delhi, Amritsar, Lahore, ( both the city and the sub-divisions of 3harakp<ir 
and Kasiir,) Shahpilr and the Derajat. Of the Derajat work I shall give a separate notice 

The lacquered work has a fine polish and generally a marbled or mottled ap« 
pearance, often in two or three colors, and the article finished with a flowered border, 
which latter is done by a species of handiwork different from the rest, and certainly affording 
a good instauoe of the delicacy of native handling. 

In describing the work of P4kpatan, I may be excused for introducing the account 
given of this remarkable town in the Settlement Import : — 

*' The census gives P4kpatan five thousand ( 5,000 ) inhabitants, a number which 
the appearance of the town would cause a stranger at first sight to believe to be imder 
estimated. The conspicuous situation of this town, on an elevated mound which overlooks 
the plain for many miles, creates, at first sight, a very favorable impression, which a 
nearer acquaintance however soon dispels. The streets are narrow and steep, the houses 
are badly constructed, and the place is especially noted for its sanctity and filth. The 
latter requires no further remark here, but, from its peculiar construction, this town is 
not likely to be improved by any sanitary measures, unless at a vast expense. Its sanctity 
is renowned throughout the Maiomedan part of Asia. It contains the tomb of the celebra- 
ted saint and martyr, B&b& Furreed, who converted a great part of the southern Punjab to 
MaliomedaniBm, and whose miracles entitle him to a most distinguished place among the 
^* pirs " of that religion. The fair held near his shrine, which is still kept in good repair by 
liis descendants, attracts annually between fifty and sixty thousand pUgrims, The miracu- 
lous wooden chapatti, dates, &c., which the worthy saipt is related to have tied to his 
stomach when he felt hungry, and which 0OI^pos^d his sole nourishment for thirty 
years, are still preserved for the reverence and worship of the feithful. The most remark- 
able part of the proceedings at this fair is however tiie passage through tha *' Gate of 
Paradise,'' a narrow opening in a wall, about five feet by two and a half, through which 
jthe pilgrims force their passage during the afternoon and night of tha fif^ of the 
Hohurrum. ^very d^▼otee who contrives to get through the gate at the prescribed time 
is assured of a free entrance into paradise hereafter. The crowd is therefore immense, 
and the pressure so great that two or three layers of men packed closely over each other 
generally attempt the passage at the same time, and serious accidents, notwithstanding 
every precaution taken by the Police^ are not unfre^uant." 

212 Ckss XK—Dimsion 111. 


The process of usttking the lacqfuered w^re may now be described i-^ 

The turner's apparatus is very simple : he has first a strong^ wooden frame made 
fast to the ground and furnished with two uprights,, betwieen whicb tilie block of wood on 
which he is to operate revolves^ One upright is fixed, and furnished on the inner side 
with an iron spike which forms* one- point of suspension ; the other upright is capable of 
B^^ustment at a quarter or less* distance; according to- the size of the work — it slides along 
the under bar of the frame, and is fixed by a peg in one of a series of holes in the bar. 
When adjusted to the required distance, a piece of hard wood, generally shisham or box, is 
supported by the iron spike in the fixed upright^ and a rather long iron pin run through a 
hole in the second,, and thus the block is freely suspended on points between the two 
uprights. The iron pin is prolonged beyond the support, and* is turned by a Bow. The bow 
is fitted with a leather cord, whiclr, being once twisted round theprojecting end of the pin; 
is worked bawkward and forwardis saw-like, thuB communica;ting a rotatory motion. The 
turner sits on the ground, gains a fine purchase by putting his foot against the &ame work, 
and moulds the article with, chisels. The machine is kept going by a small apprentice,, 
who saws away with the bow, and is supposed to- learn the art meanwhile; 

So soon as the article has* attained the required sht^, it is ready to be lacquered.- 

The coloring matter consists of thick short sticks ( battf ), of a composition of 
lac, resin, coloring matter, and,, it is said, with a eertain admixture of sulphur and bees wax. 

Mineral colors are mostly used. The yellow is made witii* orpiment;- green with 
arsenite of copper ; red with red lead or yermillion ; blue with imitation ** lajward " 
( see Volume I, mib voce ) or Prussian blue ( * wilaiti nil * ). But a pretty transparent 
crimson is produced with the red of the lac insect ; and black with lamp black. When 
about to apply the sticks of lacquer color, the wooden article duly smoothed 
and clean, is set on the turner's frame and made to rotate. If the color to be produced 
is an uniform surface of lac color, the lac-stick is pressed rather hard against the wood 
and the color comes off, as the heat produced by the friction is sufficient to soften the laa 
and detach, a portion. When enough color has been applied, the article looks dull and 
streaky, but a piece of bamboo is taken and a fine edge put on it with a chisel: ; this is 
skilfully rubbed over the surface of the article till the color has evenly spread, and by 
skilful manipulation a polish, begins to show on the surface, which is enhanced by a gentler 
application of bamboo edges> and finally completed with oil and a rag. To produce the 
mottled ai^earance so much admired^ the sticks of color are selected of a rather harder 
composition, and less easily softened by heat. The article to be colored is set revolving, and 
the workman, holding tlie color stick against it very lightly, allows a point here and a point 
there of color to attach itself; the wood soon appears to be sprinkled over with colored dust. 

The workman takes another color, and repeats the process, moving the stick up 
and down along the revolving blodc, when by his skilfi:d manupulation ike second color 
adheres ofi points which the first color has left blank; sometimes a third color is 
touched in in the same manner. When enough color is on the surface, the diflferent 
points of colors are rubbed together asnd combined into a mottled or marbled appearance 
by rubbing, as before described, with a bmuboo edge,, and finishing with a rag and oik 
The prettiest mottle is that of crimson and black, crimson and white, and blue and black. 
Around the rim of a box or lip of a cup, a border m often put on,, with a flower pattern oa 
it, which is done in a different way. 

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Class XV.-^IHvmm III. 213 

The article is agadn set spinning on the frame, and color applied where the desired 
border is to come, in a uniform band, and well rubbed in and smoothed with the bamboo ; 
a coating of red is always giren first, over the red, a coating of green is applied till the 
red disappears, and oyer the green, black. 

The flower pattern is produced by hand with a small sharp chisel ; so delicatelj 
does the workman adjust the force and depth of his cut, that he will, for the flower, let 
us say, make it appear red by cutting away the black and green coats and exposing the 
red layer, for the leaves he will scratch down to the green one, and for a white line he 
will cut down to the wood. A mistake seems never to be made in this work : a slip of the 
tool would of course spoil the whole. 

The turned work from the Derftj£t (Dera Ismail Khan), differs from that of 
PakpatiLn. Tbe variety of articles made is much less : the favorite artide is a round 
box with a domed lid. The mottled surfaoe is not given ; but three coats of color, red, 
green and black are applied as just described, and the pattern entirely produced by the 
chisel. The lines produced are often silvered with an amalgam of mercury and tin-foil^ 
and the appearance is very pleasing. The boxes are farther ornamented by carved ivory 
knobs, &c. 

It will not be interesting to give a list of specimens. At P4kpatan all kinds of 
cigar boxes, glove boxes, vases and trays, croquet mallets and balls, children's toys, &o., 
are made, and a list of them would be useless. 

I conclude the class with a descriptive list of the turner's tools : — 

( 1 ). ' Nan.' — A large, heavy, narrow bladed chisel, for the first operation of rough 
clearing the wood. 

( 2 ). — ' Nih&n.'— A broad chisel, rather heavy, with long wooden handle, for neat 
catting, also called M&thna. 

^ 3 ), — ^They rest their tools on an iron bar ^ addi \ placed close below the revolving 
block of wood, and press the edge of the tool against the wood, moving it from side to side. 

( 4 ). — * Burikf.' — A pointed chisel to cut out screw, grooves, Ac. 

( 5 ).~Chfmi. — A heavy iron bar, terminating in a flat blade at either end, only 
the point of which is sharpened edgewise. Grooves can be cut, and a cylinder separated 
into pieces by this. 

( 6 }.— ' Bachi,' and ' Boda '—A bar worked into a blade at either end. 

The * rachi,' blade being shape as (a) 0*)/\ 

and ' Boda,' thus Qi) ( 

( 7 ).— * Sathra' ' Sathn. '—Narrow edged chisels oWsses. 

( 8 ).— * BArikiya '—for cleaning out the inside of vessels intended to be. turned 

hollow. It is like a hooked bar, the edge of the hook being flat and sharp 

(9).-<Tesha'— Adze. ^ 

( 10 ). — Bang^ta — the polishing stick. 

( 11 >.— Yarma of sixes — This is the universal tool for boring holes. 
He has also saws and files, which need no description. 

214 Cku$ XVI, 


The pla^^es where iTOiy carFing is done are numerons^ but the only respectable 
work comes from I>elhi and Amritsar. I exclude PatyiUa, because I understand that a 
workman there, who far excelled every cme else in the Punjab, is dead, and I am not 
informed that the manufacture is sufficiently established to find him a worthy successor. 
A few articles are made in Ambala, Ludhii si, and Lahore. 

The best work, even of the Paty&la artist, is feur inferior to Chinese work. 

The ivory with which these carving are executed is obtained from the tusks of wM 
elephants. The natives say that the tusks of domesticated elephants yields only a brittle and 
inferior ivory, liable to crack on exposure to air. I quote the remark, but am unable to 
produce the result of any practical test applied to judge of its correctness. But my 
iinformant further asserts, that the cause of the brittleness of the tusk of the domesticated 
animal is the salt that is given him with his food. 

The tusks of tame elephants are, however, far from valueless, and I am told the 
Native Princes — Gwalior, Jaipdr, ^., — dispose of ivory obtained in this way. The Maharajah 
of Paty^ is said to have store houses of ivory, which he does not sell, but makes into ivoxy 
bracelets, (churis) and distributes them on the occasion of weddings. The ivory sold at 
Delhi varies is price from Bs. 3 to 12 per seer. The Tarai in Oude, to the south«west 
of N4ip4l, called by natives " Khajli ban," appears to yield a large supply of ivory. The 
inhabitants collect the tusks of dead elephants and dispose of them. My informant 
mentions a place called '' Ganj b^lerf," in Bareilly, as a local market. 

The manufacture is dependant on the skill and patience of the workman ; the carv- 
ing is wholly done by the aid of the rudest files, chisels, knives, and steel styles. Hie 
workman often holds the bit of ivory firmly between his toes as he sits on the ground, 
and carves it with his hand. 

The Delhi specimens are various boxes, crochet needles with tiny figures carved 

on the handles ; minute toys representing men^and animals are among the best. 

A workman, Panah of Ludiana, seems to produce a variety of work for the 
liudhiana city. 

One of the commonest form of work in ivory, is the mantifacture of colored ivory 
bracelets, slender I'ings, worn by women on the arm in dozens. The bracelet maker ia 
called ' Churgar,' and his tools are the following : — 

1. — * Bachi ' — A pointed chisel. — (a> (a) /\ (6) 

2. — * Ghfma ' — ^A pointed ditto, but with fine 
These blades are generally groimd at either 
the same iron : there is no wooden handle. 

8. — ' Boda ' — A thick flat iron ground to a flat edge shaped thus (e) 

« A 

e point.— (5) I J 
dther end of UwiJ 


aass XVI. 213 

4._« Kharifc *— The tisual turner's frame. The workman mounts a bit of ivory 

on the turner's frame, and works it till it is in a smooth cylinder, then he divides 

the hollow cylinder into the number of circles required for bracelets by a pointed 
tool which cuts into the ivory and separates 

the circles while revolving— this tool is called ^^^ 

* flinghiri ' and is shaped thus : /r^ >0^ 

The cutting points being at either end. V ^ — ■■ > - ^ 

In order to color the rings, they are mounted on a wooden cylinder called ' kalbtit,* 
which is set turning by the lathe wheel. The rings are colored with lac to a deep 
crimson, and polished with a * rangAta ' or polishing stick of date tree wood ( khajdr ). 

The following extract from the Jury Report on Ivory to the Exhibition Committee 
of 1864, notices the best specimens of work exhibited. They should great delicacy of 
style, and patience in handling. Pew people would like to sit down to cut a fly-flap out 
of a bar of ivory, each hair having to be produced by a separate cut of the fine saw ! 

^* The articles included in this Class are more ornamental in their character, 
than useful. The actual number of articles exhibited in this department is great, as 
may be seen from the Catalogue, when the series extends from No. 9192 to 9549, but 
they do not make a great show, or occupy a large space, being for the most part of 
small size. 

** The East has long been famed for its ivory manufactures. From the very earliest 
times of which we have any record, India has not only had a sufficiency of ivory for its 
own requirements, but a large surplus for exportation. It is not improbable that 
cargoes of ivory from the west of India, with the gold of Ophir, were carried 
in ships of Tarshish to decorate the palace and temple of Solomon. From 
the presence of this valuable material in such abundance, and the luxurious tastes 
of the Princes and nobles who successively surrounded themselves with all that skill 
could produce and wealth command, it is natural that India should produce the 
most cunning workers in ivory. This has been to a certain extent the caee, but 
the skill attained in the art has been chiefly confined to certain localities such 
as the neighbourhood of Moorshedabad in Bengal, and has not been co-exteneive 
with the distribution of the material. Ivory carving, as distinguished from mere turning, 
is, from its very nature, an art that will always be most extensively practised in Oriental 
countries, where the people have plenty of leisure, require very little for their support, and 
have xmlimited patience. The agency of machinery can never be largely introduced ' into 
such an occupation, and there is therefore little fear of Western competition. The 
monopoly of the manufacture will long lie between India and China. If the demand for 
ivory ornaments has declined m India itself, which probably it has done with the decline 
of Eastern power, it has largely increased in the most opulent countries in Europe. There 
is therefore every reason to encourage the art among the manufactures of this couatry, and 
to direct it into such lines as will ensure success. The tendency of Orientals is to keep 
for ever to the same beaten track. Originality of design will only be the result of pressure 
from without. Skill in manipulation exists, it has only to be utilized by the suggestion 

216 aass XVI. 

of new fields of labor. Our ideas of ivory work, as well as of almost all the beautiful arts 
practised by the natives of this country, are formed from the travelling pedlars who bring 
round their wares for sale. We have little information regarding the process of the 
manufacture, the numbers of artificers engaged in it, or where they are to be found. We 
know that from father to son for many generations such arts as ivory oarving are handed 
down, but it is with the utmost difficulty that we can find a carver when we want one. 
This difficulty must have been noticed in almost every department of the Exhibition. The 
only way to remove it, is to encourage something like a commercial spirit among manufac- 
turers, to teach them the value of their trades, and to point out gradually the best means 
of making themselves and their manufSeu^tures, known throughout the country and abroad. 
Many an Indian art is languishing for want of some stimulus of this kind. 

" A glance at the collection of ivory articles in the Exhibition shows that the contri- 
butors have not sent their best specimens.* If the Punjab can produce nothing better 
than what this collection contains, the art is at a low ebb ; but there is reason to beliere 
that the manufacturers have not done themselves justice, and that when the objects of an 
Exhibition of this kind are more generally understood, and encouragement is held out, 
a much better display will be made. 

^' Among a collection of ivory articles of all kinds, may be noticed an elegant and 
delicately cut bouquet-holder. It catches the eye at once by its superiority to the rest of 
the thines, but it is somewhat disappointing to find it marked ** China," though apparently 
exhibited by an Amritsar gentleman. There is nothing either in the quality of the ivory, 
or the skill of the manufacturers, to prevent the natives of India equalling those oi China 
in this department, but the Exhibition contains no proof of their present abUity to do so. 

" The districts from which ivory manufactures have been received for exhibition are 
Sirsa, Umballa, Loodiana, Simla, Julltmdhur, Kangra, Hooshyarpur, Amritsar, Lahore, 
Goojrauwala, Shahpore (?) Dera Ghhazee Khan, and Patyala. Those which contribute 
moat largely, are Lahore, Amritsar, Loodiana and Patyala. The kinds of articles exhibited 
are numerous, but may be included under the general heading of boxes, paper knives, 
chessmen, figures of men and animals, muffineers, combs, bracelets, rings, walking sticks, 
and dagger handles, and a few miscellaneous articles incapable of classification. 

" The most noteworthy articles are the following : — 

A camel with two riders, from Loodianah, No. 922, exhibitor Paaah. It is neatly 
cut, and in good proportion. There is no great ornamentation about it but it is a fiur 
specimen of work. 

[ 9S83 ]. — A camel similar to the above, Lahore, exhibited by Khuda Baksh. 

A collection of ornamental combs and paper knives from Amritsar, included under 

No. 7812, exhibited by Devi Sahai and Chamba Mall. 
[ 9384 J.^-An elephant, Ehuda Baksh, Lahore. 
[ 9523 ]. — A native bullock carriage. 

• I am inolined rather to doubt tliifl. I do not think that better work, as a cIms, could have been 
produced. Individual workmen could, when urged and enoooniged, do bettor work, but ivory cairinf at a 
trade is at a tow ebb in the Punjab— B. P. 

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[ 9524j ]. — A boat with rowers, contributed by the Maharajah of Patyala. 
These and the following are the best specimens of Punjab ivory carving in the Exhibition. 

Two daggers with ivory handles and scabbards. These are very handsome, and 
exhibit an application of the art not very common. 

Chauris from Patyala, with carved handles — and thin strips of ivory forming the 

[ 9356 ]. — A small pen box, carved, with a minute pad-lock cut in ivory — Khuda 
Baksh, Lahore." 

-■v wv<»-^'»"V'^" 

218 Class XVII. 


This is a class which is constituted solely for the benefit of Kashmir : the work 
known as k4r-i-kalamdaui is quite peculiar to that country. 

The work is by no means always of papier mach^, indeed it is the method of glazing 
and ornamenting the surface, rather than the nature of the material that is to be looked 

The work goes by the name of kar-i-kalamdimi, or " pen case work," because usually 
applied to the ornamentation of pen cases, and small boxes ; but since an European demand 
has arisen, tea-caddies glove-boxes, paper cases, and vases, have been made at Srinagar to 
order, and even articles of furniture ornamented by this art. It is also called ' kar-i-muna- 
kash ' or * painted- ware.* 

The work is done on articles either of smooth wood, or papier mache prepared by 
pulping coarse native paper, and moulding the softened material to the required shape. 
The article is covered with a coating of white paint, on the surface of which a delicate 
pattern in colors, chiefly crimson, green, and blue, is drawn with a fine brush; flowers, and 
the cm-ved designs seen upon shawls, are most commonly produced. A very pretty 
pattern is also done by painting with gold paint a spreading series of minute branches 
and leaves on a white ground, — a border of brighter coloring is added : sometimes figures 
of men and animals are introduced. Wlien the painting is done, the surface is varnished 
over with a varnish made by boiling the clearest copal ( sundras ) in pure turpentine. I 
do not think boiling in oil, (which is the ordinary carriage varnish) woifld yield a 
clear enough varnish. The varnish has to be perfectly transparent, or it would spoil 
the appearance of the painting. I am not sure that mastic varnish is not used: 
(Mudagi Bumi) mastic is abundantly brought from Kabul. Referring to the material " papier 
machc,'* the only other specimens I saw in the Exhibition of 1864, were some cups and bowls 
rudely silvered with mercury and tin-foil, sent from the Sitptir parganah of the Muzaf- 
forgarh District. 

The following extract from the Jury Report of 1864, will be read with interest :— 

" Papier mache is, as the name expresses, " mashed paper ". It is siurprising to see 
the beautiful forms into which this material can be wrought. The art of working it in 
its more ornamental phases has only become general in Europe within the last 20 or 30 
years, but it has probably been known from a very early period. There are various • 
modes of preparing the pulp, but the general principle is to reduce strips of coarse paper 
by boiling or soaking to a kind of paste, which is then stiffened with gum or some other 
glutinous substance. In this form it can be worked or moulded into any shape, and 
when the required outline is attained, the surface is hardened and glazed with lac, or 
some similar substance, and sometimes lamp black, and colored according to the intended 
design. Sometimes another process is adopted : sheets of coarse paper, saturated with 
flour and gum, are laid upon each other on a metal mould to the required thickness. 

• This does not rofor to the native manufaoturo.— B. P. 

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Class XVIL 219 

this is dried in a hot room, tbe surface is glazed with lac and lamp black, and the 
ornamentation is proceeded with. A surface of this kind is impervious to moisture, and 
even to heat. The chief diflference between the two processes is, that in one the paper is 
reduced to a paste, and in tbe other it is fastened together in layers : sometimes the two 
are combined. The black varnish so common in Europe does not seem to be used in 
India. In Europe, the introduction of mother o'pearl imparts great brilliancy to the 
work. This does not appear to be done in India, or at least it is not to be seen in the 
specimens exhibited ; nor is it usual to blacken the material, which process gives such a 
suitable ground for ornamentation in European work. The art in India is chiefly applied 
to small articles, such as pen cases, salvers, cigar cases, and the like. The successful artificer 
in this department is more dependent on the excellence of his outer coloring and varnish, 
than on the quality of the paper pulp. Color and design come greatly into play, but the 
specimens in the present Exhibition show very little variety ; nor does the work last long, 
for by keeping the varnish darkens, and the colors lose all their brilliancy, as may be seen 
in the specimens of old Kashmir work exhibited from the Lahore District. The work is 
peculiar to Kashmir. 

" There would be a great demand at home for fancy articles of tbis description, not 
that they can equal European papier macho, but merely on account of their being Indian, 
and indeed quite different in appearance and style of ornament from European papier- 
inacho. The fact that the native demand for them is properly understood, seems to be 
fully proved by the number of " kalamddns *' exhibited ; they are always likely to sell. 
O^her articles also are made, which are equally suitable for European and native use^ 
Buch as trays, salvers, caskets, chess-boards, ornamental cups, and the like. 

" The following articles here noted by the Jury : — 

[ 9708 ].— A lacquered table contributed by the Maharajah of Kashmir. It 
exceeds two feet in diameter. The whole surface is colored richly in flower work wiiich 
predominates. The varnish used is very transparent, and gives a fine smooth surface. 
The effect is very pleasing, but unfortunately the top has become warped, which seriously 
detracts from its beauty, and will probably never be remedied. This defect is probably 
caused by the thinness of tlie wood. Had the top been made of a thicker piece^ the table 
would have formed an elegant drawing-room ornament. 

" [ 9707 ].— A lacquered chair from Kashmir. In the same style as the table^ but 
much inferior. 

[9726—9727]. — Cups and saucers, Kashmir. These are very highly wrought. 
They seem to be in the Chinese style, and have a very soft appearanccw The coloring is 

220 aass XVIIL 




It does not appear tliat the natives o£ the Punjab ever practised generally the art 
of glazing pottery for domestic use. A few samples here and there indicate the existence 
of the art in a rude form, and the greatest progress has been made in the manufactories 
attached to the larger jails, where special efforts have been made to improve the 
color and the nature of the glaze. But the art of glazing and using encaustic colors 
has existed from an early date, and has, strange ta say, in the form in which was 
practised with success, almost entirely perished. The fonn I allude to, is that of the 
glazed encaustic tiles, or glazed flower work composed of inlaid pieces of encaustic work, 
used to ornament mosques, tombs, and public building. 

The Wazlr Kh^n Masj id in the City of Lahore, built A. H., 1044, in the reign 
of Shah Jah^n, is covered all over witli encaustic work. The Shalim^r gardens • have 
various buildings similarly ornamented : these latter have the patterns inlaid like mosaic 
work, each piece being separately colored and glazed, and afterwards fitted together with 

The whole vicinity of Lahore abounds with ruins ornamented with glazed work ; 
BO in the Districts of Multan and Muzaffargarh are numerous tombs, some of them of 
great age, ornamented with glazed tiles. The Shams Tabrez, in the Multan Fort, is a 
notable example. 

This art is not actually lost. The Exhibition of 1864 contained specimens of tho- 
modem glazed tiles executed at Multan, and there was one specimen of a rather elaborate 
pattern executed by a workman resident at Jalandhar. 

A workman at Sealkot also furnished large tiles glazed of a deep blue color for the 
churches in that Station.t Glazed pottery is made at a few places : I have seen it at 
Multan and in the Peshawur Bazaar. In the Kawalpindi, Sealkot and Lahore Jails, 
glazed pottery is made, and in the latter jail especially ; the work, though not equal to 
European, is remarkable good. The art was introduced by a native. 

A small pamphlet has been published at the Central Jail, Lahore, from which 
I derive some particulars as to the method of producing glazed colors. The pamphlet 
should be procured by any one who wishes to carry the processes into practice, for, 
in spite of the author's lame style, and faulty phraseology— a combination of high 
Persian words with very ordinary Urdu phrases — it contains a good deal of useful 
matter. Two substances are of cai'dinal importance in the process : one is kanch, a 
vitreous glaze ; the other is a calcine or oxide of lead. As regards kanch, the specimen sent 
one is a pale clear bluish gkss, like English bottle glass in lumps. There is Angrezi hdnehi 
and native or " destV The former is made of " sang^^safed " and pure alkali ; the deai 

* Made in the time of Shah Jahdn. 

t See the note on this Bubject in the Jury Beport appended. 

Class XVIIL '221 

kind is made either out of reh or alkali earth with sand, i. e., a natural efflorescent alkali 
and fine siliceous sand ; or with ground stone and potash, or with stone, borax and 

To make kinch on the English plan : take " sang-i-safed," ( a quartzose rock 
obtained in the form of rolled pebbles from the bed of streams near the hills ) 25 parts, 
pure soda six parts ; purified borax ( sohdga telia ) three parts ; salamoniac, ( natieddar ) 
one part Each ingredient is finely powdered and sifted, and mixed with a little water, 
and made up into white balls of the size of an orange. These are burnt in a furnace, 
till they become red hot ; they are allowed to cool, and again ground up and sifted. 
The material is again put into the furnace till it melt« ; when thoroughly melted, 
one-fourth seer of fine, clean, picked saltpetre ( shora Tculmi ) is stirred in. A foam 
appears on the surface, which is removed with a skimmer, and set aside for use. It is the 
*« k4ch-lAn " of the druggist. 

A glass making material is however to be obtained ready ground in powder from 
England, and requires only burning and melting as above. The native kdnch is less 
dear and transparent, and has a dirty green tinge. In making kanch a small quantity 
of oxide of manganese may be added ( anjani ) ; but too great fire must not be applied, 
for if the manganese gets too highly oxidized, it will color the mass pink or lilac ; at 
a low degree of oxidization it parts with a portion of its oxygen, which facilitates the 
destruction of carbonaceous impurities, and also destroys the green color, by imparting 
more oxygen to the iron, which causes the color. The den kfinch is made by grinding the 
ingredients already named, sifting, burning, and treating as just described. The pro- 
portions are as follows : — 

/ -j^ \ Sang-i-safed or ' sang-i-surkh nagori *, a siliceous grit, used for mill stones, 

and sajji, c^Ma^i>«^. 
( 2 ) .— Sang-i-safed, 4 jparU ; sohdga, three parts. 
( 3 ).— Siliceous sand, and sajji equal parts. 

Two maunds of dry wood will fire a furnace to produce 10 seer of kanch ; 
Kikar or Karir (Capparis) wood is preferred, cut into small pieces. 

The next important articles are the calcines, or oxides of lead. There are " sikka 
safed," the basis of white and of most of the blues, greens and greys; " Sikka zard" the 
basis' of yellows &c.; " Sikka sharbati," a pale reddish oxide ( litharge ) ; and "sikka l/il," 
a red oxide. Sikka safed is made by putting two parts of lead and reducing by tin. The 
furnace used is a closed one, and consists of an hemispherical open crucible, resting on a 
base or pedestal of clay, and surrounded by fire, with a conical covering of some dried 
bricks ; holes are made to enable the workman to introduce his iron skimmer and 

The lead being melted in the crucible, one part of tin is gradually added in 
Utile bits ; vapour rises, and a white powder forms on the surface, which is raked on 
one side and lifted out into a vessel placed for the purpose : the melting material is 
constantly stirred. This goes on till the whole is reduced. Care must be taken that 
no particles of uncalcined metal remained : this preparation will be spoken of hereafter as 
sikka safed. Six seers of lead and three seers of tin can be reduced in hot weather in one 
day in winter in two days. The furnace to produce this quantity requires two maunds of 

222 aass XrilL 

Jhand wood ( Prosopis,) drv and in large billets ; the fire must be steady, neither very 
fierce nor very slack. " Sikka zard " is made by exactly the same process of reducing one 
seer of lead with only one-fourtli part of tin or one half the quantity used in the last. 
" Sikka sharbatti " is made by reducing one seer of lead with four chittaks of zinc 
instead of tin. This is, I presume, a yellow oxide or litharge of lead, which is partly 
oxidized above the yellow stage, and approaching the minium or red oxide stage. Sikka 
.lal is the metal oxidized till red, and made by calcining one seer of lead with four chittaks 
of zinc. The above materials form the basis of all the glazes. The color and the glaze is 
ax>plied together. 

White glaze is made with — 

One part " sikka safed," 
One part k&ach, 

well ground and sifted and mixed, put into the kancli furnace and stirred with a ladle. 
When melted, borax, in proportion of two chittaks to the seei:. is added. While this is 
being done the fire must be slack. If the mixture gets a little blackish, add a small quan* 
tity of saltpetre. When all is ready, the material is taken out and thrown into cold water, 
this splits it into fragments, which are collected for use in the manner to be presently des- 

A white glaze used at Multan gives a better and more opaque white than the 

Take sang-i-safed two parts, kanch one part, and grind together ; a little borax 
improves it. It is mixed with m^w^, the gluten of wheat in solution, and applied to 
the vessel ; over it again a coating of finely ground glass powder is spread. This glaze 
is not so of ken used, as it is liable to crack and come off. 

This white glaze, if mixed with certain other ingredients^ will give the tints shown 
in the following table. The glaze is mixed with the required coloring matter, and both 
ore ground together to an impalpable powder ready for application to the vessel. 

I should add that the '* reta *' or zaffre, spoken of in the table and elsewhere, is a 
powder consisting of the black oxide (ore of cobalt) which has been roasted in a furnace 
and powdered, mixed with a little powdered flint and siliceous sand. The cobalt ore is 
found in Central and Southern India, and has been known for hundreds of years post. Tlie 
calcining of the ore drives off the sulphur, arsenic, &c., which it contains, and completes 
the oxidization of the cobalt, which is important : I expect some of the zaffre is imported 
from Europe. It sells in the bazaar at 4 rupees per seer. In the j^amphlet I am referring 
to, it is said to come from '^ Kiruua Jhanjhana." 

Chss XVIII. 




Weight of 

the white 

glaze used. 

1. Firoza — tnrqnoisblae, 

2. K&sni — pink or lilao, 

3. Sosni — yiolet, 

4. Ud£ — pnrple or pace, 

5. Khaki — ^ash grey, ... 

6. Nfla — deep blue, ... 

7. ABmani — sky blue,.... 

8. Halka-dbl— very pale. 

blue. • . • 

0. Flrozl-abf— palePma-. 
sian blue tone, 

1 seer, 





Material to be mixed in order 

to produce the required 


" ChhU tiittba," thin flakes 
of oxidized or oaloined 
metallic copper, 

t B • ■ • I 

Anjani — oxide of manganese, 

Do., do., mixed with 
rota or saffre. 


Beta — Anjani, 
ZafFre or Beta, 

«•• ». I 

.• ••• •*. 

•• ••• •.. 

•• ... •.* 

•• «•• •.. 


ChJ^il tftmba as abore, 

.• *•• •«• 

1 chittak. 

1 do. 
11 do. 

2 do. 
Ik do. 
4 do. 
li do. 

1 do. 

l<24th of 
a seer. 

B B K ▲ B X 8. 

These are merely shades 
of the laiue tints. 



Dikto Ditto. 

Thisis apivle shade of No. 1. 

Auother method of prepaxuig the dark blue glaze for use by itself. The ingifedienta 


Flint powdered, 

... 4 parts. 


... 24. do. 

Ldl Sikka^ 

... 12 do. 


... 7 do. 


... 5 do. 


... 5 do. 


... 5 do.* 

All thQse are burnt together in the kanch furnace as before. Whenever they have s 
white ground, thcj are able to produce patterns, flowers Ac, on it^ in blue and other colors.. 
For turquois blue calcined copper is used ; for purple, manganese ; zaffre for blue : the blue 
zaffre and " chhil t^mba " require to be burnt before use. ** LoM chun " ( iron filings ) 
when prepared as hereafter described, gives a yellow. The colors are applied with a paint 
brush, after being very finely ground up with gum and water. To produce green flowers 
they mix " Kahi Ul " ( bi-chromate of potash ) one tolah, with a little *> sikka safed/* and 
dissolving them in a seer pf clear water, filtered through unglazed paper, the powder that 
is collected in the filter is used and gives a green mark. Orange color patterns are done 
with surma (black antimony); and blue with sulphate of copper (iuiyi,) 

• This ia said to be " the English method;" and various other colors are given at pages 38—3^ 
of the pamphlet; which I. have not quoted. 


Class XVIII. 

Just as the white glaze is made to be the basis of a set of colors, in a similar 
manner a yellow glaze is formed, of which the " sikka zard " is the basis, and this forma 
the foundation of a series of tints. 

The yellow glaze is made of : — " Sikka zard " 1 seer. 

" Sang safed " or mill-stone, or burnt and powdered flint, 4 chittacks. 

These are fused in the furnace, and when melted, some borax ( 1 chittak to the seer ) 

is added. 

The tints produced are : — 


Proportion of yellow 

Material added. 


Zamrudi, deep greexi) •.• « 

Sabx-— >fn]l green, ... •■• • ,%» ••• 

Pistaki — bright g^reen, ..• ... «• 

Dh^Tii— pale green ( color of shoots of young 
nee, cinftTi, f >•* ••• !•• ••• •<• ••• 

X BOer, la. ... a,. 

■*■ A'O.j ••• «,i (.1 

A A'O., a.t (•• taa 
A UO*t #•• .at .1. 

Calcined copper, 
chhil tamba. 




3 ohittacks. 

1 ditto. 
li ditto. 

Another green is produced by burning one seer of copper filings with ' nimaJr shor ' 
(sulphate of soda). The dull red or 'sharbati' color is made in Bawal Pindi by mixing 
one seer of sharbati sikka, one seer of sang-i-safed, or powdered burnt flint, and melting 
them together as before with ** sohigo.,** In Lahore and elsewhere a similar effect is 
produced by simply applying a transparent glaze of two chittaks of borax and half a seer 
of kanch, which shows through it the natural red of the pottery. 

The dark copper color producing a burnished metallic lustre is made as follows : — 

" Jjohi chun," or fine iron filings, are calcined in a crucible in a fire made of " upla, " 

( cow dung cakes ) which give a slow smouldering fire. They are calcined with a little salt, 

and when cold are ground fine in a pestle ; the burning and pounding is re])eated four 

times, when the iron is completely reduced. 

To one seer of borax, 4 chittaks of the prepared iron are added, and the yrhole is 
stirred up with the gluten used in applying the color, and is put on to the yessel prepared 
to receive it. 

*^ Ldkhi," the glossy deep br^vh generally seen on jugs and teapots, is made by 
a similar mixture, but substituting l-16th of a seer of a manganese ( anjani) for the iron. 

" Kakrezi " a blackish green or olive color, is produced by— 

jxancu, ••• ••• ..a aa. ^ seer. 

Prepared iron ( as above ), ... 1 chittack. 

Calcined copper ( Ohhil tdmba ), ... 1 chittack. 

The color having been prepared and reduced to a fine powder, it has to be applied 
with a brush to the surface of the unbaked pottery. The vessels to receive it must 
therefore be carefully smoothed over^ and cleaned with a bit of wet rag. Inasmuch as the 




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Class XVIII. 826 

pottery clay is red when burnt, there is fear of the more delicate colors being injured; 
accordingly they first prepare the surface of the vessel, after cleaning and smoothing it as 
just described, with an ' astar ' or coating painted on, of kharya-mitti, a soft soapy-feeling 
whitish clay, brought vid Multan from the Derajat and elsewhere. 

The kharya-mitti is prepared as follows : — One seer of it is finely ground for two 
'pahars ' with two tolas of the * bhimbri ' gum. (Acacia modesta ), and * ch&i ' * gum 
( OonocarpusJ two tolas ; this is worked up with half a seer of water, then four seers mora 
water are added. The whole mixture is strained through a cloth ; tie residue is ground 
up again with more gum tUl all passes through. The whole being left to stand, a fine pre- 
cipitate is deposited, the clear liquor ia drawn off. Two chitaks of borax, and two of finely 
powdered glass are mixed in, and the preparation is ready to be appliei. With this mixture 
also they tip the points of the supports which hold the vessels in the baking furnance. 

The vessel b^ing so coated, the color. glaze to be applied is mixed with one seer 
of *^ miwi," a liquid glutinous substance made with * nishajta,' the gluten obtained by 
washing wheat flower and collecting the subsidence. 

The * nish&sta ' is ground with the color and a little water, for J of an hour, then 
again with more water till the required consistence of a paint is obtained, and the mixture 
can be applied to the vessels. The vessels being carefully dried are placed in the furnace. 
The. furnace is shewn in the plate. It consists of an outer bee-hived shaped dome or 
covering, perforated with ventilators ; and an inner hollow cylinder, underneath which is 
a furnace fitted with four flues, one passing up each side of the cylinder. The bottom of 
the cylinder is grated, and on the grating, which has a circular area of size according 
to the structure of the kiln, the vessels are placed. Each is separately supported on small 
stands (sip^), being tripods of burnt clay, having three points on which the vessel 
rests * these are tipped with the ' astar,' because otherwise they would stick to the glased 
surface when it melted, and require to be detached by force, leaving little holes on the 
surface of the vessels. The * sip^is,' require to be made fresh for each changing of 
the kiln. 

The kiln is fired with " ber " ( Ziz^pKuB ) or " kikar " wood, cut in small pieces ; 
these give very little smoke, which of course is a desideratum. Five maunds of wood 
supply a furnace of the size given in the plate. After five hours of heating, the fire 
begins to take effect ; after seven the color swells ; after nine, it melts and begins to 
spread, after ten it is transparent and smooth ; the fire is then stopped and raked 
out, and water poured on. 

Every ventilator and hole must now be carefully closed, for draughts of wind 
or dust would ruin the bake. On the third or fourth day, according to season, the 
the kiln will be cold, and the vessels may be taken out. 

The great difficulty with native pottery is the extreme coarseness of the pottery 
clay, which gives a red color, and its liability to crack in the furnace, thus throwing away 
the glazer's trouble. The clay cannot be worked up very thin. 

The jail potter recognizes the usual three kinds of clay : whitish, red— -( or rather 
clay having a cast of red, ) and black (having a grey tinge, — it is not a Uack), He says that 

* Also called kathi good. 

226 Class XVIIL 

no good clay can be got at Lahore ; even that from the Tillage Kot Ehoja sai (black ) U 
aot good ; he gets good day from Gujranwalla and Hushjarptir, 

The following articles are included in the list of glazed pottery in 1864. 

[ 9826 ].— Enamelled tiles, prepared under directions of E. Gabstxn Esq., of 

[ 9833 ], — Glazed bricks for flooring (cost 8 annas each ) by Kutba of Sealkot. 

[ 9835 A ]. — Cups and saucers, bowls and cream pans, by the same. 

The following were from the Lahorb Jail. 

[ 9837 — 9850 ]. — BreakfJEust service, turquois blue ; Jars — ^pale lavender color ; 
rases in green glazed pottery ; — Soup tureen and dishes — 10 pieces. 

Jugs in yarious patterns, embossed with designs ; Ac. Plates glased in burnished 
copper color ; brown teapot ; candle-sticks ; basin and ewer ; cheese corer and dish ; two 
large glazed earthen vases suitable for a garden. 

[ 9854 ]. — Two vessels, one glazed, one unglazed, experimentally made from TCuAil^ 
obtained at Dalhousie. 

Disintegrated granite rock may be seen in various parts of the Himalayas, 
and some of it would probably be found to yield a fidrly tenacious EAolin. The 
difference lies in the pureness of the color. It frequently happens that a slight 
yellow tinge is acquired in baking ; this is ascribed to the presence of oxide of iron, but 
may be due to some fault in the furnace. Ihiring 1869, a bag of an apparently fine and 
white Kaolin was sent for trial from the Agror Valley ( Hazira ), but proved a fidluze : it 
had no tenacity, and was merely a disintegrated quartz rock. 

[ 9855. ] — Two pieces of pottery in black clay, which have been glased with the lac 
colors described under the process of wood-turning and lacquered ware. A specimen 
of the same on glass was also sent, the lacquer seems to stand well on the pottery, but 
on glass shows a tendency to crack and peel off. — ( The specimens were from Kasdr 
in the Lahore District). 

[ 9867 ].— Specimens of variegated encaustic tiling (modern)— Jilandhar, exhibited 
by Pandit Mahpktil. 

[ 9877—9890 ]. — Various glazed vases, basins, articles for table and domestie 
use, mostly plain, green and brown— Eawalpihdi Jail. 

[ 9897—9903 ].— Glazed articles for household and table use, Jhblam Jail, and 
Pind DAdan Khan, ( by Mbgha Singh and Ganbsha Singh of Fmd Dadan Khan ). 

[ 9909 ]. — ^Various glazed bricks, ancient, and modern ; glazed pottery in bloe 
and white pattern and in plain colors, Mitltan,— ( from the Jail and City manufacturers.) 

[ 9948 ]. Encaustic tiles from ancient tombs.— Muzaffargarh. 

[ 9958 &c., ]. The same from Dera Ghazi Khan. 

[ 9966 ]. Glazed cups and basins, white, with a pattern in blue, and other plain 
colors ( Peshawur Bazar). 

[ 9970 &c.f ]. Porcelain cups and teapots — imported Eussian manu&cture. 

[ ]. Specimens of glazed pottery from the Jilandhar Jail. 

In a memo, on the Delhi District by Mr. Thornton, there is the following notice of 
indigenous glazed pottery :•— 

OasB XVIII. 227 

" A rude kind of pottery, with a red and yellow glaze, is manufactured, but used 
ehiefly in making toys and ' chillams ' ( the bowl of the ^ huka ' ). The glaze is produced 
by an application of oxide of lead and borax. There is also a rude kind of porcelain, 
known as " Hindustani chini ", not unlike old Majolica. It is manufactured from lurhura 
( a powder formed of disintegrated felspathic rock ), and coyered with a glaze produced 
from powdered glass (kanch) and a quartz powder. A blue color is produced by 
adding the powder known as rang nila* and brought from Jaipur ; green is obtained 
from copper ; and yellow as above described. This porcelain is not much used, except to 
make the small round ink-pots ( dawat ) for holding native ink, which are exported in 
considerable numbers.^' 

* Thia ia lold in the Bazar in the form of a blaokieh sand, and is an oxide of cobalt, the sftffre ftbOTS 

«»8. Class X nil— Division II. 



The only diBtinctive kinds of unglazed pottery in the Punjab are — 
( 1 ).— Ordinary clay pottery, either red or black when baked, made in all districts, 
in some better than others. 

( 2 ).— The fine pottery work of Rohtak. 

(3 ).— The pale yellow and grey clay ware of the Derajat ; the texture is gritty 
and very porous, hence the * surahis ' or water-coolers, are very excellent. 

■ Under the first head however there is a considerable variety. In some disUicts 
there are skilful potters, who make bowls of pottery clay almost as thin as stout paper ; 
they being porous, if filled with water, soon render it extremely cool owing to the rapid and 
easy evaporation. Such bowls are made in the Gujranwalla District. In Lahore I have 
seen thin pottery vases made double, — one vas^ within the other, and the outer layer 
perforated to show a pattern. 

In some places the pottery is ornamented with an amalgam of mercury in patterns. 
Kangra sent some thin earthen vases, first silvered, and then covered with a coating of 
transparent lac coloring over tlie silver. 

All pottery of every kind is done with the same rude apparatus. The 
kumhar or potter has a heavy wheel, made of clay mixed with bits of cotton, wool, or other 
material to bind it. A wooden axis projects from the centre of the under side, and works 
on a pivot of wood let into the ground ; the workman sits with the wheel in front of him. 
In order to communicate a rapid motion to the potter's wheel, a small nick is made 
on the upper surface, in which the workman impinges a stick, and with a series of jerks 
urges it in spinning. The wheel remains only tolerably level while at its full speed, 
and soons begins to have an irregular eccentric motion, this renders it very difficult 
to mould any vessel perfectly true with such a wheel. The wheel is called " chak," and 
the turning stick "danda." The wooden block on which the axle turns is called " chopat." 
In the Upper Punjab a larger and steadier kind of wheel is made by a disc mounted on a 
wooden spindle. On the lower limb of the spindle a second disc, but made of wood, is fixed. 
A hole is now dug, across which two perforated bars are firmly fixed. The spindle or axis 
is held by them, so that the upper disc revolves just above the surface of the hole, and the 
lower one serves as a tread- wheel. The workman sitting on the edge of the hole, 
with his feet inside, turns the wheel by pushing the lower wooden disc with his foot. 
This produces a steady motion ; this wheel is preferred for all large sized vessels. More 
information will be found in the Jury's Report which is printed further on. 

Whichever wheel is used, a lump of kneaded clay is placed on the centre, and the 
workman moulds it in the usual way, constantly dipping his right hand in water, a bowl of 
which he keeps at his side. When the vessel is formed, he detaches the base of it from the 
wheel by dexterously sliding a tight stretched string across ; this cuts the clay. If it is de- 
sired to make a very large vessel, such as a gharra, the workman uses a sort of short wooden 
mallet called " tathwa," to aid his right hand with which the moulding is done ; in bis 
left hand he holds another round mallet called 'kariru,' which he uses inside the 
vessel as it forms up. Natives do not take any very great pains in preparing the clay. They 

class XVIIL^Bivision 11. izr 

■elect material from a place which is known to yield it, and bring it in on donkeys, Ac., in 
bags. When dry, they pound it well, and sift out all the coarse particles, putting the fine 
powder aside. The coarse pieces are ^thrown into water to soak, and when they are 
dissolved, the liquid clay is mixed with the fine powder already obtained, and the whole 
is trodden and kneaded with the feet. 

In some jails, a masonry tank is built, and the clay well agitated with a large 
quantity of water ; the coarse particles at once fall to the bottom owing to their weight, but 
the water above is thick like pea-soup, this is poured off, and after a while settles, leaving 
a very fine mud deposited, and clear water above ; the dear water being cautiously drained 
off, a fair tenacious pottery clay results. The coarse particles in the first tank are 
worked up with water till they dissolve and foirm a similar liquid. 

The potter's clay found in the alluvial plains of the Punjab is of four kinds : white, 
grey, red and black ; or rather is recognized under these names, by each kind having a 
whitish, reddish, or grey cast color. The first is not common ; the Derajat and Multan 
Districts alone have pottery made from it, and under this is included the Dalhousie 
Kaolin, aafed maiti, A sort of pipe clay is abundant however in the Salt Bange, and at 
Aurangpur near Delhi ( see vol. I ). The red and grey clays are the common ones ; 
they turn red on burning. Beally black clay is not commonly foimd, but is so ocoasion* 
ally ; black clay, when of good color, makes very neat vessels, when burnt it is still black, 
but is aided in color by mixing in lamp black. 

The specimens of unglazed pottery may now be described| with such notes to eaoh 
specimen as may appear necessary. 


[9787 &c., ]. — A series of vessels executed in well burnt pottery, the surface orna- 
mented with engraved devices aud patterns. The articles are of a well tempered material, 
and of a pale reddish brown (haddmij color ; the pottery is finished with a shiny pearl-like 
substance, probably talc ground to an impalpable powder. This is the best pottery 
(unglazed) I have seen from any district. The collection consisted of fancy-shaped water* 
vessels, plates, cups, pipe bowls, covered pots &c. 


[ 9813 ]. — Series of vases, jugs, Ac, in baked clay. The vessels consisting of rather 
indiffe;pent copies of classical and quasi-classical vases, are made of ordinary burnt clay 
with devices moulded in relief, and are colored with an unbumt smooth coating of dead 
white or pale pink paint ^butsee Jury Eeportj^o^^.) 


[ 9819 ]. — Two small vases of thin unglazed pottery ; the surfiftce has been silvered 
over with an amalgam of tin-foil and mercury. In one instance the silver was covered 
over with transparent purple lac varuish, giving a purple metallic lustre ; on the other was 
partly painted with green, shewing green and white (silver) pattern, and varnished over 
with lac varnish. 

SW. Class XrilL— Division 11. 


[0822 <&c.,] — A large "degcha" or water cauldron, of Teiy well burnt pattetjp 
would hold several gallouB. Another gpecimen, showing suooessful burning of Tejy laige 
Tessels in this district, is a huge oval jar, about five feet high and two feet in diametw, used 
for storing grain. 


[ 9832 ]. — ^Besides other ordinary potterj, some of them well baked, there was alaigdu 
terra«cotta garden vase, made under the directions of J. Oobdov, EsquiBK, C. E. 


A number of toys in potterj were in the collection ; and also an excellent series from 
Hushyarpur. They are made by pressing thin clay into hollow moulds, half the figure 
being formed in one, and half in the other mould, the two halves are afterwards joined, 
the figures are burned, and eventually colored by hand. Figures of men, birds, animals 
Ac., are thus produced. 

[ 9869 ]. — A set of vases of burnt clay, painted with a white ground, and then with 
flowers on the white field, the whole being thickly varnished over with copal varnish. 
This is a very poor and perishable substitute for glassed pottery. 


From this district I have received some well burnt drinking cups and baaina in 
perfectly black clay, very thin and porous ; also some brown clay basins as thin as paper 
almost, by Hay&t, potter, of Gujranwalla. 


[ 9982 ].— Some very well polished and burned water goglets, of a bright even red 
color ( Tahsil Chakowal. ) 


There are some classical looking water goglets of rough gritty porous clay, spheri- 
cal and much flattened, narrow mouth, and two handles on either side : the form is xather 

The plain pottery of this district ( Khush&b Tahsil ) is well finished and good. 


A great variety of pottery was also sent from the Montgomery district, Tehsils 
of Hi:gra, Eam^lia, and Pik-Patan ( No. 9920—9947 ). 

DxBA Ismail Ehak. 

We have here the specimens of white gritty porous pottery already alluded to. The 
material seems suitable in color and texture for producing large terra-cotta articles for 
garden use. 

Class XVIIL— Division 11. 231 


De&a. Ohazi Khan. 
[ 9955 ], — ^Yessels similar to those last described of pale porous clay. 
The pottery of E&Ub6gb ( Bunnoo district ) of a similar kind also deserves notice. 

[ 9974 Ac. ]. — ^There are some black clay basins ornamented all over with an 
mmalgam of tin and mercury, which, unlike those of Kasur and Ludhiana district, have the 
silver pattern burnt in. The vessels are accordingly useful, as the silvering does not wash 
off, A large *^ surahl" of smooth red clay was similarly ornamented. 


[ 9975 ]. — Here again we have pottery of pale yellow or white porous clay, like that 
described under Dera Ismail Khan. The vessels sent were a water jug of classical shape^ 
a butter dishy and some other articles, 


Specimens of the ** Kangre, ^ a sort of chaumiire were sent. They are earthen pots 
contained in a peculiar sort of basket work, with a handle at the back, and are carried under 
the clothes for warmth in winter. 

««t Class XFIIL^Livision II. 



The following is printed from the papers of the Exhibition of 1864 :— 


1. Dr. A. M. Dallas. 6. Major J. E. Cracroft. 

' 2. Mr. Baden Powell. 7. Qeneral VanCortlandt. 

8. Mr. O. DeCortanze. 8. Mr. T. H. Thornton. 

4. Lalla Kunhya Lall. 9. Mr. C. P. Elliott, 

5. Major T. W. Mercer. 10. Mr. W. P. Woodward, B^orier. 

#••••• rphe process of manufacture in India is simplj as follows :— 

The day having been procured, is mixed with water, and after one or two days stand- 
ing thus, is well kneaded for four or five days more. . A lump of the day is then taken and 
turned on the wheel, until, under the dexterous handling of the potter, after going through 
a variety of forms, the requisite shape is attained. The vessels are then gently removed, 
being dissevered from the wheel by a string passed along while on the turn. They are 
first dried in the sun, and then baked, being closely piled together in a sort of kiln, the 
smaller articles being enclosed in large vessels kept for the purpose. Some few artidas 
are cast in moulds. 

The Indian potter's wheel is a rude and dumsy looking thing, but is not in all 
places of the same make and shape. In the lower provinces it is a large circular stone, 
resembling the upper mill-stone, turning on an iron or wooden pivot securely fixed in the 
ground. It is turned with a stick, and as long as the impetus lasts the potter works the 
clay in the centre, and then again uses the stick to quicken the motion. In some places 
the wheel is not unlike that of a common cart, but is fixed and turned in the same way. 

In the upper parts of the Punjab, however, the construction is different. A hole 
is dug in the ground three feet or more deep, and the same in diameter. In this is fixed 
vertically, by two horizontal supports, an axle of wood, carrying at the lower end a wooden 
disc, and in the middle the working disc or table. The potter then sits on the edge of this 
hole with his feet inside, and turns the lower disc with his feet, and works the clay 
on the upper. This wheel has none of the defects of those first described, as it ensures 
a regular motion, without any delay or trouble in turning or throwing. 

In the Punjab, and it may be said in India, there is no indigenous manufacture 
so common as pottery, almost every village having its potter. In some places they excd, 
as at Agra and Aligarh. At Bohtak, Gujranwala and Jalandhar, it is made remarkably 
thin, so as to be distinguished by the name of paper pottery ; but generally the out-tum 
is a rude rough description of pottery, though of great variety of form. It is made neaiiy 
altogether from the clayey deposits of marshes, tanks and canals, called *' chikni " an d 
** kdli matti," with a slight admixture in some cases of river sand, but of no stony ingre- 
dient. This is pronounced to be the great defect which renders the pottery liable to suffer 
if subjected to the heat necessary for the commonest glazing. 

The generality of articles made are water jars, drinking and cooking vessels, 
and other such vessels of great variety used by the poorer classes, though the tot 

X)hs8 XVilL— Division IL 233 

fere in general requisition by rich and poor Europeans and Natives, and woTild not 
be improved by glazing. la some articles a rude sort of glazing is attempted, as in toys 
fwid ebillams.* 

In all the imperial cities of India, and as regards tbe Punjab, especially in Lahore 
ft.nd Belhi, nllay be seen on the -^alls of the public buildings and mosques, specimens 
of tiles. "iPhis art has been thought to be dying out, and among the specimens 
of glazed tiles exhibited, the Jury were struck with one set> which they at first supposed 
to be antique, but it has been since ascertained, very much to their surprise and satisfac- 
tion, that these were mad^ expressly for the Exhibition by one Sharfdin of Jallandar ; very 
good specimens of glazed tiles have also been contributed from Multan. 

This art is known under the name of " kasi." According to local tradition, it was 
introduced from China through iPersia, by the Moguls, through the infiuence of Taimdr 
Lang's Chinese wife, and it is remarkable that the commencement of the practice of oma- 
taienling the Walls of mosqUes with colored porcelain, appears to be synchronous with the 
Mogul conquest of Persia; on the other hand, the art of glazing bricks, &c., was known 
to the anx:icnt Semitic mces, — a. ^., the Chaldeans and Arabians, and was introduced by the 
latter into Europe, and it is noteworthy that the word " kfisi," is not a Hindi or a Tartar 
word, but an Arabic word, akin to the Hebrew " kas " (A cup or glass.) 

It has been remarked as somewhat surprising and unaccountable^ that having 
advanced so far in the manufacture of porcelain, as to be able to cover their buildings with 
a coating of enamelling of the most brilliant coloi's and tasteful designs, the artizans seem 
to have come to a stand still, and never to have applied the art for purposes of domestic 
utility. The truth appears to be that they received no encouragement, there was no dfemand 
for such articles, and there is none still ; among the natives themselves, as the highei* classes 
universally use gold, brass, silver or copper dishes, there is no taste for ornattiental 
crockery. Among the HindAs. a religious prejudice prevents Ihem from using an earthen 
vessel twice, so that to break a China dish every time after using otie, the cost being 
about four times greater than common pottery, would not answei* in a pecuniary point of 
view. As regards the Mahomedans, they were ever moving about in camps, in the train of 
the Emperors, and to them, costly vessels of porcelain Would be a nuisance. 

Attempts have lately been made in some of the larger Punjab jails to manufacture 
glazed pottery, and as the Catalogue will show, all kinds of articles of ilnglish design 
have been attempted. By far the greatest attention has been paid, and success attained, 
in the Lahore Central Jail, but the energetic officer undei* those intelligeiit superinten- 
dencc the experiments were conducted and have advanced so far, Will be the first to 
acknowledge that the results, though encouraging, have not been thoroughly satisfactory. 

Some specimens of ornamental plain pottery, urns and vases, from Loodiana, attrac- 
ted attention. The designs, being uncommon and even elegant, bespeak an intelligent 
workman. It appears that about 25 years ago Colonel Claude Wade, for sometime on 
political duty at Loodiana, and known there as " Bakshi Wade Sahib," gave the 
manufacturer of these specimens, Jassa, some patterns of English pottery, which 
he has followed very successfully. He uses no glaze, but a paint made of chalk and 

• A description of the Delhi glazed pottery U omitted, au it has already been noted in the texi. 


Class XVII I. — Pmsion II. 

The following is a 

list of the prizes : — 


Lahore Central Jail, 

•• . 

For best speoimenB of 
glazed pottery, 

Ist special prize — 
value Bs. 50, 

Sir B. Montgomery. 


Ludhiana — Utum, 


For elegancy of design 
and snperiority of finish 
of specimens of plain pot- 
iJery J ,,, ,,« ,.. 

6 shares, value Bs. 

Ol/j ,a* !•• ... 



Jalandar— Sharfdin, 


Glazed ornamental tiles, 

2nd Special Prize, 
value Bs. 25, 

Major Medley. 


Multaiii ..• t.« 


Ornamental do., 


Lahore Central Jail, 


Fonr large glazed garden 

Vwlfvt?! ata «•■ ••• 

3rd Special Prize, 
value Bs. 25., 

Mr. J. Gordon. 


Bawalpindi Jail, . . , 


For good attempts at 
glazing, ... ... ... 

8 shares, value Bs. 

Ov, ... ..( ... 

Exhibition Prizo 


Bohtak, ..1 •«! 


For skill in mixing the 
materials,.., ,., 




Moltan Jail, ..• 


For attempts at glazing. 

2nd Ditto 20, ... 



Gngaira (Montgomery) Jail, 

Ditto ditto 

Ist Ditto 10, ... 



Gnjranwala, ,.• 

•• t 

For paper pottery, 



Kasur, .,, ,,, 


For application of kha- 
radi work to ornamenting 




• I 

» ,•♦ 

Class XIX. 235 


. Tliis manufacture is still in its earliest infancy in the Punjab. Tliere is neither good 
material forthcoming wherewith to make pure glass, nor suitable furnaces to melt and 
to anneal it. 

Two kinds of glass are made : white glass, and coarse blue or green glass, generally 
full of iiaws and air-bubbles. White glass is made either of fused glass imported from 
Europe in the lump, • or of melted fragments of European vessels. The pieces are melted 
in a crucible and blown into the required shape. 

Only small articles are produced. There is a tolerably good workman at Paty^la 
and one at Lahore ; both these can make small candle-shades, small yases, glass 
globes, and bottles. Lamp chimneys are so much in demand that they are often made 
but these articles, in common with all native glass, from want of proper annealing, are very 
brittle and stand heat badly. To save the lamp chimneys, it is the custom to boil them in 
a pot-full of hay and water before putting them on a lamp. 

At Lahore the workman was intelligent, and I succeeded in teaching him to draw 
gla-ss rods, and thus to make flower stands of tlie pattern well known as " Exhibition 
vases." He also produced some twisted or spiral glass rods, which, fitted on to a dish 
of tin or glass, made a pretty flower-holder, the twisted handle appearing above the leaves 
and flowers which conceal the less sightly part of the strand or dish. 

The coarse kind of glass is made by re-melting lumps of a crude greenish glass 
slag called " kanch.*' 

This is made by collecting the sandy soil in certain places where it has a natural 
admixture of carbonate of soda efflorescing from the soil, and melting the mass over a 
fire. The ** Reh " or * Kalr * soil described in Vol. I, has generally a predominance of 
sulphate of soda, but in some places it is carbonate, and not sulphate, and the soil, if sandy, 
can be easily melted into glass. In some parts of Oudh the reh soil is full of carbonate, and 
it is melted into coarse glass, from which glass bracelets or bangles ( churis ) are made. 

In places where the natural soil is not to be had, glass ia made by melting quartzose 
pebbles ( sang-i-safed ) ground to powder with khar ( potash ) in equal parts. I believe 
this latter is the commonest way of making glass in the Punjab. 

The only specimens of glass worthy of mention, came from — 
Lahore, Hushyarpur, Patyala, and Karnal. 

The specimens are enumerated to show the sort of article produced, and a note of 
any peculiarities is added. . 

834. — [ 9999 ]. — Flower baskets, with crystal glass handles ( see annexed plate. ) 
835. — [ 10000 ]. — A glass ornamental centre-piece for flowers ( see annexed plate. ) 

* See extract from Jury Beport after the Patyala specimens. 

236 Clem XIX. 

836. — [ 10001 ]. — Table vase iu the pattern of three small amjiAaro? joined together, 
htn] Rtandjqg on three points. 

837. — [ 10002 ] . — A small chandelier, with glass drops ; samples of glass rods, gum- 
pots, bottles, lamp glasses &c., were also sent, all these made by a man named Azim Beg and 
his pu] ils. I vifeited this man's workshop, a dingy little ho^el^ furnished with two 
or three dome-shaped furnaces covered in and made of clay^ 

The glass is melted in a crucible in one, and when melted a portion of the gla89 
in withdmwn on the tip of an iron blow pipe and blown out^ If the glass is to have a wide 
mouth it is opened out with a pair of iron compasses whieh are passed round ittside while 
the glasa is Scoft, and till an even circular rim ia obtained. When bottles have to be made^ 
the glass is blown, and while st^ll soft, shut into a mould to keep it to the right shape.. 
I believe the old man knows how to cast fused glass in a mould, provided the article i& 
small enough ; but he did not show me this. When the glass vessel is ready,, it is put into* 
another furnace, which consists of a hole in the ground with a flattened dome buitt over 
it, having a hole in the centre. The articles to be annealed are placed on the ftat dome 
near the aperture, through which the heat escapes,, the whole is co,vwed over with a second 
dome of clay furnished with a dooT* 

Sometimes the furnace ia made in the ground, with a small passage down to the flue^ 
and the surface of the ground above then forms the resting place of the vessel, the fire 
being underneath : there ia an ear them covering built up outside. The fumacea are verjr 
small, — not above two feet in diameter. The Lahore workman h^.d made some retorts an<) 
other vessels, including a good siz^ed alembic of bluish semi-transparent and very vesiculojr 


838. — [ 9993 ]. —A glass jar ( price Bupee 1^ 

Small drinking cups, ( 3 annas each, ) by Ka.bim Baksh of Dasyta. 

These are of a deep blue color, but full of air-bubbles. 

Some similar glass vessels were sent fi-om Nurpur in the Kangra district, imae«-^ 
companied by any description. The following account has been received from Hushyarpdr* 

Karim Baksh, " Churgar " ( the glass maker or maker of glass " chnris " ) saya 
that the manufacturers select a sort of stone which is known by its readily pulverizing 
and yielding a white powder. ( This is I suppose a quartzose or siliceous i)ebble.) This is 
powdered fine and mixed with fine flour in equal parts. Small lumps being made of the 
paste, they are dried on afire, and baked in a forge, when a white powder or *gach' results. 
If it is to produce white glass it is mixed with a solution of saltpetre and again burned ; 
if they wish to make blue glass, they mix with two seers of gach, two tolaha of prepared 
or dead copper ( mard hud ) which are burnt together. The more copper, the deeper the blue. 
b order to prepare the copper, two tolahs of metal beaten out thin are taken, and spread 
over with a mixture of six mashas of salt, mixed with the ' gul' or refuse of the huka bowl, 
and then ilm whole mass is burned in a forge all day. The copper comes out bhick and 
powder like. This is collected in an iron ladle and once more heated, after which it ia 
ground fine and mixed with the *gach'. 

Class XIX. 937 

The *gacb* melts under heat into glass, which is conrerted into vessels with a blow- 
pipe. A green color can be given by adding to the gach, tin and lead prepared (tnard hud). 
Black anjani (manganese oxide), which can be had at Niirpur in Kangra, being added to 
the gach, a purple color ( uda ) is obtained ; paler or deeper according to the quantity 
added. Tin and lead prepared and mixed with the gach together with a small proportion 
of anjani, give a yellow color (hamnii.) 

There is nothing remarkable in the method of blowing glass. They separate the 
vessels from the blower's tube by a touch of cold water, and mould the vessels while 
soft with an iron tool to adjust the size of the mouth and lip of the vessels. 

The processes which now remain to be described, are first, the manufacture of 
silvered glass of Kamal and P4nipat ; second, the manufacture of glass churis, ornaments 
which are worn by the dozen as bracelets on either arm, chiefly by the lower orders ; and 
thirdly, the manufacture of looking glasses, practised only, as far as I am aware, at Delhi. 

The Kamal District collection consisted of— 

839.— [ 9988 ]. — Large pear shaped vessels of thin and course blown glass, used 
in subliming salammoniac ;— Prom Kaithal. See Vol. I p. 89. 

840.— [ 9989 ]. — Glass globes silvered inside. These are intend to be hung up for 
ornament ; they are not unlike the silvered globes sold in Europe, but are not so well made, 
and the orifice being very large, has to be clumsily filled up with bits of glass and a fringe 
of gilt tinsel. 

A string of large beads, silvered inside, was exhibited from Pfinipat. 

The following account of glass making, and glass silvering, has been kindly furnished 
me by Major Parsons, Deputy Commissioner of Kam&l. 

" A mixture of powdered and sifted " sang^.surkh," ( red sandstone, obtainable 
at Agra ) and sajji in equal parts, with a seer of saltpetre to each maund of the 
mixture, is baked in a brick tank or oven, until the material becomes white. It is then 
subjected to further heat in a closed furnace, in which the mixture is kept at a high 
temperature for two days and nights until completely melted. A seer of the mixture 
is then removed at a time on the end of an iron blow-pipe (dhanydn) and blown out 
gradually into a globe. When the globe is complete, a wet cloth is passed round the 
neck, after which the globe can be separated from the pipe by a slight blow from the 
edge of the fire-tongs ;— the concussion causes the neck to snap through at the wetted 
part, and the globe which is resting on the ground, becomes detached. An iron rod 
smeared at the end with lac is then applied to the bottom of the globe outside, 
*^^ ' to which rod the globe adheres ; the globe is then held 

in the mouth of the furnace and again heated for a few 
seconds, after which it is taken out. While held at the 
end of the rod, neck upwards, a spoonful of the silvering 
mixture ( afterwards described ) is poured in through the 
neck, the globe is tiumed round and round while the 
mixture spreads all over the inner surface, adhering as it spreads. The rod is now 
removed by a slight wrench ( this however inyariably stars the bottom of the globes). 

238 Class XIX. 

" Silveriiig mixture ;— A seer of pure tin ( kalai ) and a maiind of lead, are melted to* 
getker, and 4 tolas of quicksilver are added to the mixture. An anudgam is tlius 

*' The glass globes, are generally made about the size of ordinary gharas : they 
are then broken up and sold in pieces, to be subsequently cut into different shapes^ for 
spangling women's dresses, or ornamenting the walU of ceilings of rooms • &c. 
A few globes are occasionally kept intact for disposal, but there is no trade in them. 

** The manufacturer is not able to dispense with the breaking of the necks of the 
globes. I got him to make some glass bottles for tlie IMspensaries, but as the necks were 
all broken off, and he was unable to make lips to them^ the bottles were not of 
much use. 

" The art has been practised for four or five hundred years ; especially the manu<» 
facture of silvered glass used for ornamenting the walls of palaces^ for trinkets as " arsis "' 
and necklaces, and for making studs of pieces ef looking glass which are put on to 
women's scarves in parts of the country ; such a dress has already been described.'* 

The remaining specimens of fairly well made glass consisted of the fallowing r — 

841.— [ 10015 ].— Candle-shades. 
842.— [ 10016 ].— Two ink-stands, 
843.— [ 10017 ].— Two glass plates. 
844.— [ 10018 ].— Two glass bottles. 

The Jury Report on glass gives the following note of Patyfla glass. 

" Good specimens are exhibited of glass articles made at Paty41a and Lahore ;: iher 
former being the clearest and best. This is, however, owing to the material. The 
manufacturer of the Patydla articles is in the employ of the Maharaja, and he has two* 
assistants. The raw material is imported from England in the shape of bricks or blocks- 
weighing about 4 lbs. each ; it costs at Patyala RsJ 40 per maund. He alsa uses bits of 
broken white bottles, which are melted down and blown through an iron tube. The 
articles exhibited are little inferior to similar articles of European manufacture. He 
acknowledges having learnt the art about 30 years ago from a gentleman at Gawupore,. 
whose name he forgets. 

*^ The Lahore manufacturer uses only broken English glass, and the result is veiy 
fair. The designs of the articles exhibited were furnished by a member of the Jury. ** 

Before closing this Class, a note must be made of the churis or glass bangles of 
colored glass. Some were sent from Gurgaon, Karnal, Rohtak, ( Jhajjar ), Hushyarpur, 
Jhelam and Maler Kotla. Some of them were. I expect, made of the natural alkaline 
earth, particularly those of Gurgaon, Karnal, and Maler Kotla. 

Tliese glass bracelets are worn, a good many on each arm, by children and the poorer 
class of women, who cannot afford silver or gold ornaments. 

* Most of my readers will have seen the '^ Shish mahaln " in the Lahore Fort imd at DeUii, and 
•Isewhere^ the ceilings are covered with bits of looking glass fixed in stucco. 

Class XIX. 239 

The art of making glass bracelets or churls is as follows : — The workman is called 
ehuri-gar. His tools are : — 

Eundi, of sises —Iron hooked rods with wooden handes. 

Tirkala — A long iron wire pointed, mounted in a reed handle. 

M&ld — A long narrow iron spoon, shaped like a spear-head. 

Sinkh ; A long pointed iron rod. 

Sarhindi — An iron rod with a cone of clay on one end, so that circles of different 
sizes can be obtained by using the point of the cone for small circles and 2)ushing it farther 
in to produce a wider aperture. 

Kharchi — A small ladle. 

Nali — Blower's tube, 

SiUi — Iron spikes of sizes. 


Tongs and furnace. 

A wooden cylinder — ^ muttha ' — to keep the bracelets on. 

They have three furnaces : one called " haus,'' in which they prepare the ' kach ' 
or glass ; one, in which the melted material is kept for use by the maker of glass articles ; 
and thirdly, a small furnace in which they make the mini or enamel glass coloring for 
ornamenting the bracelets. 

The furnace is fed with ' karir ' ( Capparis ) wood, as it gives a fiercer fire. 

Glass is made by melting * lal-pathar,' a red sandstone with sajji. They make the 
material into balls ( pinnf ), and burn it all night with a slow fire. Next day they heat 
it more fiercely, and then it fuses into ' kach.' The glass is then removed with the aid of 
the kundis or hooks. 

To make bracelets, some kach is placed in an earthen pot and melted, the progress 
being tested with an iron rod. The workman tlien takes a '' sinkh, " and lifting a portion 
of the glass, makes a thick ring on the rod ; he loosens this when cool, and hanging it 
on the pointed end of the rod, puts it into the furnace, spinning it round and round 
on the rod till the ring opens out and forms a bracelet, he then withdraws it, and 
slips it over the conical mould or * sarhindi, * so as to adjust it to the size required ; when 
cool, it is finished. 

Tlie coloring is done afterwards, with lac applied to the glass while warm, 
so that the color sticks, or else ornaments are made by melting small points of colored 
glass rods ( mini ) and applying them. 


Last of all, I have to make a note of the " 'ainasaz," or looking glass-maker's trade. 
The art is almost entirely confined to Delhi, where also the glasses are set in a variety of 
ornamental wood and ivory frames, and the backs finished up with a sheet of plain glass, 
painted in rather gaudy patterns on the inside to give the effect of enamel. In a note on 
the Delhi District already quoted, Mr. Thornton says ;— 

240 Chm XIX. 


" This is a thriving mantifieu^ture. The glass is brought in an unpolished state front 
Damascus and Halb ( Aleppo ), via Calcutta." t should say that the glass is of two kinds : 
first, that intended for looking glasses, which is always extremely thick* A native or 
Delhi mirror is at once recognized by its nearly always having the edge of the glass bevelled 
off or cut down towards the frame, showing how thick the glass is. Some are however 
made flat and plain like fSnglish glasses. The second kind of glass is the clear white glass, 
generally oval in shape, used for covering the Delhi ivory miniature paintings. These 
glasses require to be T^ell smoothed off at the edges and to exhibit a beautifully clear and 
polished sur£a.ce. Mr. Thornton continues, " the glass is polished first with * burbura' 
(a powder of disintegrated felspathic rock) and afterwards upon a hone made of the 
wood of the semal ( Cotton tree — Bomhax ) sprinkled with powdered flint or emery. 
# # # There are about thirteen manufactories, and about 200 artizaus employed." 

The looking glass maker " aina*s€z " is ^he/Workman who silvers the glass. 

His tools and materials are the following : — 

1. Diamond pencil ( cutter ). 

2. A flat perfectly smooth stone slab '^ sil/' generally of the red sandstone of 
Jaipur &c. 

8. Pincers, files, compasses, saws^ scissors* 

4. Corundum or emery powder. 

5. " Potli kh&kistaf." — A small bag or dabber filled with Wood ashes. 

6. Mercury, tin-foil, and glue» 

He first spreads tin-foil evenly on the stone slab, and pours over it the quicksilver, 
which he gently spreads by the aid of his bag or dabber (Ko. 5 ); the mercury adheres to 
the foil, and the surplus is allowed to run off. The sheet of glass is now let down delicately 
and exactly over the silvered surface ; the silvering adheres of itself to the glass. The 
plate being removed, is left for a time in a slanting position, so that an excess of mercury 
which still remains, may completely drain off. This done, the glass is ready to be framed. 


CloBs XX. 24] 


There is not much to be entered in this Class, but my account of Punjab manu- 
fectures would not be complete without an enumeration of a few of the fancy articles which 
Punjab workmen make. The enumeration is quite heterogeneous like the Class itself. 

845.— [ 10042 ].— A small round box, made of transparent horn, by Kanyha lil of 
Kotla, ( Ludhiana district ). ^ j j 

846.— [ 10043].— A parrot imitated in paper, price Es. 1-8, by Bhawini of Ludhiana; 
847.— [ 10045 ].— Paper flowers by Teka of Ludhiana. 

Natives are very good at making paper flowers : the green leaves accompanying {heu 
are often made of talc stained green. 

848.— [ 10100 ]— A narrow necked bottle, in the interior of which letters in Persian 
and English are painted in black — ^Ambitsab. 

Seyenl of these articles were exhibited. In some oases ; the letters wen out out in blaok iM^er and 
stack on after the fashion of the now somewhat bygone art of " Potiohomanie," others were pointed with a 

840.— [ 10103 ].—Wax flowers— AmritsAr (exhibited by Sirdar Bhaowah Snro); 

850.— [ ].— A toy, consisting of a ronnd looking glass to represent a pond^' 

with a nnmber of small paper ducks thereon^ haying their heads suspended so as to move 
at the least shake. — Lahobb. 

851.— [ ].— A peep show. A small square box with a lens to look throvghy 

displaying a small gilded temple, trees, and flower beds, multiplied by reflection in «^^^ 
mirrors placed at the sides. ( Lahobb. ) 

852. — [ ].— A small cannon of silver, mounted on a marble slab. This is flir- 

nished with a sun dial. Over the touch hole of the cannon two upright pieces support a bur- 
ning glass, with a slide to incline it to a proper angle, and to the dial. The angle being such 
that the focus of rays converges on the touch hole at midday— the gun is supposed to flre 
of itself at noon — ( I doubt this article being of native manufacture.) Exhibited by 
Kawab Jahakoib Khak of Lahobb. 

853. — [ 10170 ]. — Boxes made of straw — Chakkowal, Jbhlam. 

854. — [ 10269 ]. — ^A boat carved in marble, also ducks of white marble, made hoI« 
low, so as to float ( Pattala. ) 

855.— [ ]• — A '^ Jack in the box". A narrow wooden box, on drawing the 

lid of which, a cobra snake, made of horn, starts out. 

856.— C ]. — ^Boat made of pith. This is an article made as a toy, of narrow 

strips of pith joined together. 

857*— [ ]• — A glass bottle with a narrow neck, which contains a wooden char* 

poy, a ball, and other articles. The wonder is how these articles were introduced. 

858) — [ ]• — Ornament made by shaving up a piece of soft white flg wood 

( FicoB glomerata ), these shavings curl up, and so a sort of Catherine wheel ornament is 

243 Class XX^ 

Paper lace. — This is most ingemous. It is all done with hand catting and fine 
scissors. The patterns are beautiful. It is executed by Karfm Baksh, Gulam Husaiuy 
and Kallu, of Shahabdd in the Ajubdla district. 

859. — [ ]. — Siphon toy in pottery. Being a large cup, with a female figure 

in the centre, holding a child on her head. The cup is filled with water, but so soon as the 
water reaches the brim, the whole runs out through an aperture underneath the figure^ 
This is effected by some syphon ?irrangement, but I have failed to discover it. The toy is 
supposed to represent the mother of Krishna, who crossed the Jamna with the child on her 
head : fear for the child^s safety being excited by the depth of the flood, she was gratified by 
finding the water suddenly recede so soon as it touched the child's body. 

860. — [ ]. — Lac bracelets, ornamented with beads, Delhi. 

I must add to this class an account of making lac bracelets or churis, which are 
worn like the ivory and glass churis already described. They are made in many places, 
especially Delhi, and the process in the Punjab exactly resembles that described in s 
report on one of the Central Indian Districts, which I have unfortunately mislaid, but 
which I have used for the purpose of quoting the recipe for making the gold solution that 
gives the gold lustre to these pretty but fragile toys. 

Eefined or purified lac, is mixed with the fine powder of burnt bricks, and the two 
are heated together in an iron pan and stirred till perfectly combined. The lac is drawn 
out into sticks of the thickness of the intended bracelet, and this is done by rolling the 
sticks on a flat board while still hot. Pieces of the requisite length are ctit off, and each 
piece iff bent round and joined, and placed on a wooden cylinder to cool,, and to be further 
ornamented. The glazing with gold solution and silvering is- generally done before the 
sticks are cut up. 

To silver the sticks, tin leaf or foil iff mixed with half its weight of dry glue, and 
these are pounded and ground together for a long time, till in about six hour's time they 
amalgamate. The mass is then thrown into very hot water, when it crumbles into little 
pieces. They then stir this up and pour off the water, repeating the operation till all dirt 
and impurity in the water disappears. When the solution is quite pure, they boU it up 
and let it stand, carefdlly cevered, for the night. 

Next day the silver solution is found deposited. TMs- is spread with a brush on tlio 
lac, and burnished by rubbing over with strings of glass beads. If it is desired to produce 
the effect of gold, the sHvered lac is painted over with a transparent yellow varnish pre- 
pared as follows ; — 

Gum myrrh ( bol) is boiled in sweet oil in proportion of 40 to 48. The liquid ia 
strained through a cloth ; the sediment thrown away and the oil set aside. An earthen pot 
is now smeared with clay on the underside, and its mouth is closed up with an earthen 
cover, the edges of which are luted over with clay, so as to render it air tight. This is 
heated red-hot over a fire. When quite red, the mouth is opened, and little bits of sundraa 
( copal ) are thrown in. The same weight of sundras as of bol is used j the mass is stirred 
and the mouth again closed. The stirring and heating are repeated tiU the copal is 
thoroughly reduced. Tlie mvrrh and oil solution is now added to it, and the whole heated 
and stirred, after this the mixture is stmined through a cloth and is ready for use. The 
lac bracelets are often further ornamented by having Uttle glass beads and bits of tin foil 
stuck along the edge. 

Class XXll. 248 


This Class is unrepresented. 

CXjA.SS xsiii. 
division i. 

machines for raising water. 

The only machines which are used for raising water are, the Persian wheel, used 
in most wells in the Bari Doab, and but little used in those parts of the Punjab 
bordering on Hindustan; the ''chalar", or small wheel on a similar principle, used for 
raising water from tanks, ponds, and low level canals; the ''Lao-charas" or rope and bucket, 
used in the Ambala District and elsewhere ; and the rude long armed lever and pot called 
'' Dhankli,"* used in Hushyarpur and elsewhere. 

I have given a drawing of the Persian wheel, and described all the above named 
machines in Vol. I, at page 206 et eeq, where the subject of irrigation is treated of. 
But under this Class I can appropriately inform the reader of the different parts of which 
these machines are made ; nor will it fail to strike the student of languages how minute 
the people are in their nomenclature. Every peg and bit of iron or other material used 
in making up these implements has its appropriate and distinctive name.f It will be 
observed also that the name varies according to the District. This change of agricultural 
nomenclature has already been noticed when we spoke of the various soils in Volume I. 

The parts of the ' Lao-charas ' are those given by Mb. Wthtabd. 

* L^ ' — the hempen rope. 

* Bhawan ' — the wheel over which the rope passes, (made of * kikar ' or ' shisham ' 

wood and iron. ) 
" Eohar " — the groove on the edge of the wheel for the rope to run in, 

* M&n dal ' — an iron hoop which keeps the mouth of the water bag open. 

• This has been in the first Volume, inoorreotly written " Bhenkli." 

t The •^^'^ remarkable variety of namea will be observed hi the jewellery list, and above all in the 
names for the kinds and varieties of cattle in nse among the Gujars or Bar tribes, whose principal oocnpa- 
tlon is cattle nanng. Not only is every shade and combination of color distinguished by an appr<>pnate 
same, but the turn of a horn, the shape of a tail or ear, is sufficient to give nee to a distmot epithet 


Class XXIL 

' Charas ' or ' charsa ' — the leather water bag. 

' TTili ' — the pin which unites the Ids and the yoke. 

Partala— a leathern apron, worn behind by the driver of the bullocks — ^this prevents 
his getting cut by the tight strained rope. 

The parts of the Dhankli are merely ; — The long lever of * s61* or ' shishani ' wood 
called '* dhankli." The earthen pot, wide mouthed and large, in which the water is raised 
is called * karwila ' ; and the rope which is attached to it is ' berah.* 

I wiU now give a table showing the parts of the Persian wheel, both in the Panjabi 
and in the Cis-Sutlej dialects. 

The reader is referred to ihe sketch of (he Persian wheel at Vol. J, p. 208. 

Parts of the well gear. 


1. The horifontal latitoni wheel, 

2. Its shaft or axle-tree, 

S. The upper rim of the lautero, also the lower, . . 

4. The bars between the rims, into the interstices 

of which the teeth of the vertical wheel 
work, ... 

5. The small wooden pegs which secure the ends 

of the *' Khabba " projecting through the 
6Urfhce of the upper ** Ganyi," 

6. The beam resting between two pillars which 

form the socket into which the upper point 
of the axle of the Dhol works, 

7. The crooked stick which passes through the 

beam and holds the axle of the Dhol. 

8. The vertical wheel, the teeth of which work in 

the lantern wheel, 

9. The teeth of it. 


10. Its axle Of shaft carrying at one end the 

ehuhakli, and at the other the well wheel 
( bair, ) 

11. The cross beam or main spoke of the ehuhakli, 

12. Two lighter spokes crossing it at right angles, 

13. The catch which prevents the vertical turning 


Panjabi Name. 






Makra, (?) 









Cis-Stttlej Name. 






Add& or Katta. 

* In GisStitl^ it either rests on walls or pillars, or on a forked pole "tsk" at one end, or an upright 
cn"Dho'i" at the other. 

aass XXIL 


Parts of the well gear. 

14. The beam fixed across the centre of the 

weirs mouth, which supports the shaft or 
*^ lath ** of the skeleton wheel on which the 
ropes and water pots are fixed, 

15. A hole in the Jallan to sen'e as a socket for 

the end of the axle '' lath, " 

16. The wheel at the end of the Jallan, 

17. The rope frame which hangs over the bair 

and dips into the well, 

18. The water pots fixed on the mk\k at intervals, 

19. Sticks which project from the side of the well 

and touching the * Ba*ir * wheel, keep the 
mal or rope work in its place. The two 
act as forestay and backstaj, 

20. Cross bat's, like the rounds of a ladder 

between the two ropes of the mil&, 

21. A wooden splash board or gnard, fixed at 

the inner side of the well to prevent dirt 
being kicked down by the bullocks in pass- 

The water being raised in the pots, pours 
into a series of troughs over the well's 

22. The first which is fixed nndcr the wheel and 

pai'allel to it, 

23. The second at right angles to it, 



The third leading from the "Bdri" to the 
field or reservoir &c. 

The pole with seat for the driver at the end, 
formed by two forked branches, and with 
a webbed seat of stri ng, 

Cis-Sutlej Name. 




r Jal t^man on the 
< one; side Stittar,ion the 
( other. 




(N. B.— 'See also the claas " Agriooltarol Implementa." ) 


**8 O&Ms XXIL—Diviaion III. 


Is not represented by any indigen^ous ezmaples. 


• The common forms of carriage are three : — 

(1). The country cart is called " gM." or " gadah,"* and with the epitket 
" do-baldf," char-baldl," according as it is drawn by two or more bullocks. Less than 
two are never employed. The term hackery, t so often used by Europeans, is not known 
in the Punjab. 

(2). The " Ekka" or " Yakka" (i. e., the one horse) and 

(3). The " Baili," a sort of large " Ekka" drawn by two bidlocks. 

The '' Bath*' is a large four-wheeled vehicle, with a domed and ornamented pavilion 
of cloth and tinsel over it ; though seen towards Delhi, is not used in the Punjab. 

A country cart, though very clumsy, is very well adapted to the style of travelling; 
great speed is not required, and the roads traversed being '' kacha," that is, made without 
metal, are soon worn into deep and irregular ruts, which would tell sorely on a cart of neater 
manufacture, and with much stiff iron work and joinings. The native cart, from its style 
of build, and the few joints it has (and those always of wood) gives and yields, creaks and 
groans along, but never breaks down ; even a wheel giving way is a rare occurrence. 

A cart with two bullocks will carry 20 maunds of 80 lbs, and do 15 miles in a daj- 
A three bullock carries 30 maunds, and a four bullock gari 40 to 45. More than this is 
not ordinarily wanted in a cart. 

The wood work of a cart is made of Kikar (Acacia), Ber (Zusyphvs) or tut (Mulberry) 
or Shisham {DaJhergia Sissu), The Coniferous woods are neither strong nor elastic enough 
to stand the wear and tear. 

The cart is framed upon the principle conveyed by the conjunction of the lines in 
fig. 1 of the plate. 

The bottom of the cart is formed by two stout shafts called (M) inclined to one 
another, as in the lines a. a. a. These are kept in place by cross bars h. h. h. h. h. h. called 
*' tik^nl". The ends of the shafts (Hi) meeting into one, form the pole on either side of 
which the bullocks are yoked ; at the point where they meet a wooden but or cap ii 
fixed, called " sunni," to which the yoke beam, " jhula" is transversely tied. To form the 
platform at the bottom of the cart, short planks are filled in between the bars (tikini — h&c) 
The wheels are supported by iron axle-pins, between the axle '* tura" under the shafts a a» 
and the outer beams d. d, called " painjni." These beams are supported by two cross 
beams fastened under the platform of the cart (c. c. c.) and called " tir." 

* Called chakr& in Bohtak and neighbouring districts. 

t What this word is I cannot discover. It is neither Arabic, Persian, Hindi nor Bengali, and had H 
boon ono of the Southern or Western dialects, Profbssor Wilson would have noted the fact. In Wilson** 
Glossary a derivation from a Portuguese word "acouretai" (to carry) is suggested. The nearest Hi»di 
word is " hakama" to driyo cattle. 


^ t 

i , 

t ) 1 • •» ' 

- \ 

/ * 






4 • 



y '/;? 

• ' 





> • • 



Class XXll— Division III. 247 

G^oods placed on the platfoi^m ai^e prevented from falling off by a high railing on 
eithet sidd, called ** munni " or " khalliah" (Cis-'Sutlej), the poles of which are stuck out into 
the shafts a; a, a. a.^ and which can be filled in either i^ith net trolrk, matting, or simple 
railing bars, according to the nature of the goods to be carried. 

The wheels of a ciirt are made with a very heavy felly, in separate pieces, itnd no 
tite (fig. 5). The spokes are six in number, each consisting of two parallel bars, as in the 
cut. The pieces of the felly ftre deeply mortised one into the other as indicated by thd 
dotted lines : no Hails or bolts are used, except thsit occasionally an iron plate is nailed ovet 
the joint. The wheels are consequently very tough, but yielding, and are well adapted to the 
deep«rutted coimtry roads. 

In the Gis-Sutlej, Mr. Wynyard gives the following names for parts of the carti 
The body without the wheels is " rera ; " the axle " awan ; " a ring of iron round the axle 
" dnda I* a second and smaller ring '' iindi." The other names are as before given. 

The *• bahli'' is a carriage for conveyance of people, and is drawn by two bullocks; 
it is comparatively light in actual drawing weight, though clumsy in appearance, being 
constructed principally of bamboos covered with leather. The frame work^ or basis on 
which the whole depends, is illustrated by fig^ 2. 

Two bamboos, a< a., curved at the lower end, are inclined so as to enclose a broad 
space at the one end and come to a point at the other, these are called " phar." They are 
crossed at the commencement of the curve down aud at the extreme end by cross bars C. C, 
and Ci c; called, the front one, "tikanf," the hinder one "&nk.'* The space between is filled 
up with five bamboos called **maj4" and little cross bits "dandia" (not shown in the figure) ; 
and the whole is strengthened by the iron side bits between C. and c , and by a cross bar of 
iron called "talwatti." A small curved bamboo, indicated by the dotted line K. jBT., joins the 
bottom of the curve with the shafts and various wooden cross bits, indicated by the dotted 
bats/. /, support it, and a cross bar underneath, parallel to D. (called mair&b) holds the 
whole firm. This entire frame work is covered with leather. 

The wheels are supported by two bars (called tulawai) which meet at the point G* 
At this point the axle pin of the wheel is inserted, and the other end rests in the curved 
beam S, If. (painjnf), which besides receiving support from the under beam " mairab," is 
firmly tied at either end by ropes to the knobs of the cross bars C. C, c c. 

The whole frame work amd wheels in this state is called " t^g.l," and is used to 
carry large loads of grass, cotton, &c. If it is used for carriage, then a flat frame ot 
platform, with the bottom of webbing like a bedstead, and carrying four uprights^ form«« 
ing a canopy, is put on (fig. 4). 

The whole canopy is fited on over the sloping frame in the last figure, so that the 
pole ee. d., ( saongi ki talwatti) rests on the pole C. C, in the former figure, and the front 
of the platform on the pole C. C, to which it is firtnly tied down with ropes. The whole 
of the seat alid canopy is collectively called **piri " or " saongi.*' The webbed seat is 
stretched over a wooden frame, of which the two side bars are called " jeru" and the fore 
and aft ones **b^i.'* Pieces of wood let in at the comers for strength and to hold the 
Uprights, are called " dhiWat'* ; the four uprights are called " dandd ;" and the cane work 
roof and the cloth covering called " chatri ;" the ornamented bars behind, (see fig.) mne in 
number, are called '* tariya." The bullocks are yoked just as in a " gari." 

2^8 Ohm ZXIL—Piviptqn JIl 

The '' Ekka" or " Yakka^' being drawn bj one hprse^ it is not pOMibl<9 to udopt the 
arrangement whereby the bamboos forming the frame work are brought together so as tq 
form the pole of the yehiclei otherwise the principle of the coAstruotion 19 the same 
(see fig. 8.) 

A. 4.» are the shafts, made of an tipper fuid lower bamboo, with crosv sticks ; k (. is the 
dandya on which the driver puts his feet, g, g. is another bar, and from this the space is filled 
in by seven bamboos, and the frame work covered with leather* XhQ lower cross bar of the 
frame carries two wooden blocks (addi) which support the ade tree M dhttra/-^ It is in 
the method of supporting the wheds t^at the *' yakka" differs Ifom fhe •• bahli.!' In the 
former there is a regular axle-tree, which the support of the wheels in the "bahli" has been 
explained to be without such a piece. The seat and canopy, ** pfri" Q.nd ** chain'' are 
fixed on to the frame from g. g, to e. e. just as in the case of the " bahli." The shafts arq 
famished each with a stick attached by a ring near A and called " supai/' by which the 
carriage can be propped up, otherwise the balance when the horse is out would be to 
throw it down on the shaft ends. The wheels of an ** ekka," are made like tiiose of the 

* * ■ 

cart, only lighter, and the pieces of the felly are not mortised together, but joined by 
small iron plates on either side secured with bolts. 

In connection with this Division, I think a suitable opportunity occtms to print the 
report of the Jury at the Exhibition of 1864, which describes the carriages in tliat collec- 
tion. Though of European fashion, and nearly all made under European supervision, the 
actual work is native. There is one native carpentering firm, Bhujjan Lai and Co, of 
Jullundur, which builds European carriages ; and at eveiy large station native workmen 
are to be found who can paint, repair and restore carriages. A great deal of the success 
attained in such work is due to the knowledge of iron work and painting acquired in the 
workshops attached to the Punjab and Delhi Railway at Lahore. 


tiasB XXlI. ^Division HI 249 


Jury : — 

Mr. G. Stone. Captain Mercer. 

Lieutenant Colonel Wintle. Mr. L. Saunders. 

Mr. H. Giinn. Captain Black. 

Sirdir Bbogwan Singh. Mohamed Shisih. 

Lientenaiit Colonel A. Taylor. R Socquet, Esquire ( Locomotive Superinten- 
dent; ]Punjab and Pelhi Sieulwaj) ttepoHer. 

CliiSd 23* of the Catalogue forms a prominent feature in tlie Exhibition 1>uilding, and 
itt deserving^ of more ilt>llce thaii the public has bestowed upon it. TVhien we consider the 
great skill, technical and mechanical, requisite in all tHe followers of the trade, and its 
necessity as afibirdiiig tlie means of inter-coiamunicatibn and comfort to the public, we 
<!ahndt but uptiold all eiideatroilrs of enterprisinfif people in the Punjab to acquire that 
Vi talit J, which w^ould' tend to invest them with the same importance as the richest among 
the risiiig mei'chatits of the country. Although the trade is in its infancy in the Punjab, 
and its' folioi^ers perhaps necessarily despised/we feel assured that the period is not far 
distant when cskrrikges, as complete and comfortable as those procurable ih Calcutta, will be 
maiitifEU^turied lier«0 aV far moi'e reasonable prices, possessing the advantages of being con- 
structed of well seaSoilecl timber and properly welded iron work. It would indeed prove 
a boon to the public generally if any competent parties would devote their capital and 
time to so laudable a pursuit, for laudable it undoubtedly would be, if the intense and 
continuous application necessary to combine and adapt the manifold intricacies of carri« 
ages, which leaves but little leisure for any other purstdt, be taken into consideration* 
Those people who have been put to the trouble, ahxiety, and ex|>ense| of obtaining convey- 
ances from Calcutta, will readily concur in the above. 

The catalogue mentions upwards of 4(J articles belonging to. this Class. A large 
rittthberorthese'are roughly constructed, represerita:tions of the different cotmtry vehicles 
used'by' the liatites •/ ther^ is nothing novel in the design or excellent in the workmanship. 

The first full size carnage, we notice, if taken in the order in which th^y stand in 
the !E!ihibition annexe, is a species of Victoria Park Phaeton, with a hood and coach-box. 
The outlines of this carriage are, on the whole, good, and the interior is neatly fitted, and 
presents a very cosy appearance. , It is strong and serviceable, but has evidently been 
constructed by some one who shares in the popular, but delusive idea, that weight is 
strength. Next come three very light, elegant, and strongly bnilt, open carriages. One a 
Stanhope Pliaeton or Waggonette ^ the second a Droshky on four wheels, and lastly, a Mail 
Drag by Mr! Chapman of IJmritsur. These sniall carriages are strikingly bold in their 
outline, and with their double-spoked wheels, finelj tempered springs, and masterly style 
of under-framing, -contrast strongly with the heavy looking wheels, short springs, and to say 
the least, cumbersome under-framing of the other four-wheeled conveyances on show. 

• ( Claas XXlI, Dmsion III, of this Book.) 

250 Class XXIL— Division III. 

Of the Waggonette, we bave to obaerve that it has a very tasty outline, and looks 
very light and smart, with room enough to carry six persons with comfort. The height of 
the back and front wheels are well proportioned , the springs lengthy, and the deep black 
colored side panels show well against the chocolate colored wheels, picked out with 
Vermillion and black. 

Of the Droshky, we have to notice that the design is original. The curves are easy, 
and flowing well into one another. The wheels are light and high, the springs lengthy, 
the fittings are drab morocco with green trimmings. This carriage is painted a neat bottle* 
green, picked out with bright green. This trap is got up with great taste, and presents a 
very favorable specimen of the conveyance adapted for one horse or a pair of ponies. 
The splinter bar can be removed in such a manner as to form a perfect one horse vehicle. 
The Mail Drag by Mr. Chapman of XJmritsur stands close by. It is unpretending, very 
neat, and forms a vehicular link between the four-wheeled Dog-Cart, and the Mail Phaetoa 
so much in fashion at the present time. It is very well mounted on a neat iron framing, 
has elastic springs, and tapering wheels. The tastily shaped body tooks well j the side panels 
are of sheet copper over toon wood. The iron work is blackened, the body, springs, and 
wheels are painted bottle-green picked out with bright green, The cushions, etc., are of 
drab morocco leather, which tends to give this trap a similarity of decoration to most othera 
seen in this part of India. We are of opinion that on this account the appearance suffeia 
from this sameness of hues, but these are the favorite colors for this style of conveyance. 
The trimmings are of rich drab silk ; and handsome circular lamps set off the whole so well, 
that the Jury has justly awarded to this unique specimen of coach«building by an amateur, 
the prize medal. 

Bhujjun Lall of JuUunder has on show two specimens of his work: a four-wheeled 
Dog-Cart with canvass top, and a two-wheeled Dog-Cart without. Of the four-wheeled 
Dog-Cart we have to remark, that as a native production it deserves great praise, but it is 
v^holly unadapted for one horse, or even for anything but good roads ) not only on aocount of 
its appearance of weight, but also on account of its short springs and the absence of springs 
in the cushion. The canvass top is an admirable contrivance, and it is a pity that some sort 
of arrangement of this kind has not been adopted in the case of the open conveyances 
above noticed. The Dog-Cart on two wheels and spider springs presents a method of dis- 
connecting the shafts from the body, the object of which however is not obvious. It is 
consequently, rather of doubtful advantage, as it entails much extra weight and complicated 
iron work. The finish and general workmanship however has gained a certificate of honor- 
able mention from the Jury. There is one other two- wheeled dog cart on show, which is 
in the opinion of the Jury much better adopted to the uses to which this class of convey* 
ance is usually put, than anything that has yet appeared in this part of the country. The 
driving seat is something like that of the Mail Coach of England, and of very easy access. 
The wheels are of convenient height, and the shafts very elastic, obviating totally that 
disagreeable oscillation known as " knee motion." The price of this cart, 350 Bs., comman- 
ded a ready purchaser. Bhujjun Lall's cart at Rs. 500, is, as has been observed, a peculiar 
specimen of its kind, entailing expensive iron work, hence the difference in price. This 
last specimen was constructed in Lahore. 

A pair of Buggy wheels, by Mr. Bumell, deserve to be noticed. They are varnished 
f Shlsham/ with very stout tires. They are heavy iu themselves, but are strong enough for 

Class XXII— Division III. 251 

the heaviest two wheeled conveyance. The idea seems to be to show, how strongly and of 
what good materials they have been constructed. They have won the prize which has been 
offered for the best pair of wheels, and as there are no others on show, it has been thought 
fit to award it to the mistree who made them, and whose name appears upon the boss of 
each wheel. Two '' dandies,*' one by Mr. Watson, the other by Captain Dyas, well deserve 
the prisses awarded them. They are a very considerable improvement on the wretched 
contrivances that are everywhere to be met with on a cruise through the hills. 


The Mail Drag by Mr. Chapman of XJmritsuri Medal. 

Dandy* by Captain Byas, ••• ... 20 Bs. 

„ by Mr. Watson, ... .„ 20 „ 

£kka by Bhugwan Singh, (Model)... •,. 20 „ 

Carts by Bhujjun Lall, ... ... ... Certificate of honorable mention. 

Phaeton by Francie, ,„ „• ... Ditto. 

Special Prizes, 

Model of a Waggon suitable for conveyance of troops to be awarded by the Inland 

Transit Company ... 100 Kb. 

One pair of wheels to be awarded by Mr. Bumell, ... 60 „ 

t JAght sort of chair or hammock, stnm^ on a pole, for carrying 4 lady or gentleman in the hillB. 


S5« CUm XXIL—Hwinm IV. 

JflYimO^ IV. 

Tk^re k'VOtbifDg' m tliiv &0as of kidiigenoiis PMjab Worit; buti I ttaiy take thtt 
6]f)ipi»ktiAi%' of m^tioiiiiigf a model of a first class 6settmg^ madb to sbale' by native 
earpeaters, #h6 bad leariH) m^ tk^e Wofksboj^s, wMcb ^Iras E^iblted iti 1^64, akid is now hi tii^ 
Lahore Central Mubeum.- K is finie^ed'm eveiy respect ai^ a t^oarriag^yereii to tbid door- 
locks, band-rails, windows, roof lamps, springs, grease boxes^ buffers, &c. <&c., every thing 
being workable. It wfiMr diade- ioWisiytd^hS: or su^^rviiiioh; A4 Aid same time I may notice 
a full siz^' odi^nage intended for use on- the Punjab Line, aleiO made by native v^orkiiien. 

The following, description is taken from the Jury Bepbrt (Lieiitdnaitt Oolond 
O. Sim, Seporter. ) 

*' The Jury* examined also a beautifully executed model of a 1st QHboa Cafriagei 
such as is -now in use on the Punjab Railway, but which is not included in the Catalogue, 
as it was stated to them it had not been registered or sent when the latter was compiled. 

'' The model was made by five Ifativ^^oitoiieti' belonging to the Railway Workshops, 
btftmade in tii^ city, wi^odtilny aidw^atever from Euibpedi^ Itison^tlie»saleof 1% inch 
to the^fooi^. dbmplete in every detail of iron, wood,;bira68, ahd- external and internal arrange- 
ments. I<> is a marvel of correctness^ even' to tiie giasr windows and' Venetians; w;hicfa'can be 
pulled up or let down, to the buffers, and buffer springs, wheels, axles, grease-boxes, steps, 
door handles, guard's locks, doors, hinges, bolts ; and also to the rails, chairs and sleepers 
on which it rests and runs. The Jury consider it a remarkable specimen of the skill 
and minute carefulness in execution, to which, under the teaching and example of Europe- 
ans, the Native artisans in the Punjab have attained since the railway was first com- 
menced. It proves also how useful in all the handicraft requirements of a railway the 
Native workmen are found to be ; a result that the officers of the railway have often 
cordially acknowledged in their official reports. 

*^ No. 10,458 — A first Claas Carriages made for the Punjab Bailway, — This carriage 
was of course built in the railway shops, and will be used on the line. The work was done 
by the native workmen under the usual European supervision of the Carriage Building 
Department. It is of the Saloon pattern, with seats at the ends and sides, but open in 
centre. The cane work of the seats is of an improved and more regular pattern than 
ordinarily given, the seats not being cushioned. The windows are of much larger openings 
than usual, as the carriage is intended to be used if required by Sirdars and Native 
gentlemen with their suites, and the ventilation has been more carefully studied. The 
joiner's work is very accurately done ; the wood carving to the window and sash frames 
being of tasteful design, and the relief being more deeply undercut, showing, on the part 
of the native workmeUi a great improvement over the ordinary style of the country, which 
is flatter." 





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Class XXIL^Division F- 253 


In the province of five rivers this Division may be expected to be well represented. 
The boats, however, ai'e very clumsy in construction, and have remained lonaltered for ages. 
The following kinds are mostly in use : — 

1. " Berf " — This is the large traffic boat on the Bavi, Chenab, and Jhelam, and 
also on the Indus. It carries from 500 maunds or less, up to 1,000 maunds. 

The '' Beri " is always of the same shape, except at Attok, where it is of a narrower 
and more tapering shape. Thus the " Beri " of the Ravi, Ac, is shaped like the model in 
the Imcer group of boats in the annexed plate, viz., the small boat immediately in front of 
the one with the mast; the Rawalpindi ( Attok ) ** Beri " is figured in the upj^er group, 
being the little model to the extreme left. 

In the Rawalpindi District however the form seems to have undergone a change, 
for the catalogue of the 1864 Exhibition contained two models, " Beri namuna sdbik " 
( former shape ) and '' Beri namdna h£l " ( present shape ). The boat just described is the 
former pattern ; the '' namuna hal " is a square stemmed and square stemed boat^ like 
those on the other rivers. 

A rather larger outline will better illustrate its general shape. 

The flat bottom or hull is constructed on a skeleton of longitudinal beams with 
transverse ribs ; the sides are not, however, ribbed up to the top, but are constructed of 
stout deodar planks, which, as shown in the cut, are scarf-jointed together, and afterwards 
further secured by small iron, clamps. The sides and the bottom are held together by still 
larger iron clamps. The scarf-joints, are not secured by nails, but by pegs of bamboo driven 
slantwise through the edges of either timber and then smoothed off on the surface. 

Imay give a more particular account of the " Beri" described from one on the Ravi. 
These large boats perform the journey down to Sakkar, and when they do so, avail themselves 
of a sail. The mast, " kua," merely rests on its end in a hollow socket in the mast beam 
( adda ), which crosses the boat from side to side and flush with the edge, about two-third 
of the length from the stern. The mast carries a large square or rather oblong sail 
called " sidh " or " sii-h," wider than the boat. ' The sail is made of coarse cloth called 
"khaddar." The mast is supported by two stays "geru," which are fixed to the sides of the 
boat, close to the ( adda ) and are immoveable. Two other stays (chotfye) support the mast 
lengthwise to the boat, and are fixed at stem and stem. There are also two moveable stays, 
on loosening which the mast can be let down, called ( tdliye )• The mast canies its pulleys 

Class XXU.-^Divmon V. 

fyir()-with pully wheeU (riwat,) oa which move a rope "usran" fixed between tiia 
" Uliye " or fore-ataya. Thia rope is the HUpport for the cross yard " fir " which carries the 
saU A similar lower beam or boom extends the sail below. The sail can be reefed by aid 
of string tags called " bandar." The sail carries two other ropes, one at each end of 
the yard " vera," and two others attached to either end of the boom " hanj " these aid 
in shifting the sail. There are other ropes, but I do not pretend to give them all. The 
above are the principal. The boat is buUt of deodar, or when built towards Sindh, my 
Lahore informant said, of woods which he called ' sdl, ' dipW, ' dnii ■ and ' pona.' At the 
end of the boat in the figvire wiU be seen a set of arches, these lead into the " khanji" 
or places for the boatmen to sleep. 

The 'Beri' then represents the heavy traffic boat of the principal rivers, but is need 
on the Chenab and Jhelam for a ferry boat also. On these latter rivers, however, a flat boat 
pointed at bow, and square and very low at stem, ifl now often used for a ferry, because being 
placed stem on to shore, the carriages, Ac., which are to pass the nver can be so easily 
rolled down an incline made on the bank— and the gradual slope of the stem end forma as 
it were a continuation of the incline, so that there ib little difficulty in 

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C&iw XXIL-^Dmnien V. 255 

Mulberry (tj&t.) Q?he clamps are also oftdt. The pointed prow is joined by a sort of 
dovetail to the bottom and is secured bj cu|:yed clomps of hard wood at the edges. 

Th9 term kishti or narak is also applied to the flat boats mostly of fiuropean or 
qnasi-Suropean pattern, used in constructing the bridges of boats which span our large 
rlTers as soon as Ihe monsoon floods subside. 

The natiye boat (kishti) may be constantly seen as a ferry boat on the Skitle}, and 
as an ordinary traffic as well as ferry boat on the Bis^. The Bias not being a tra4ing river 
(it runs into the Sutlej at Hariki, too high up to be a trade route) the 'beri' does not 
appear to be in use. 

The smaller boats are known by the names of dondd ' or 'dondi' (aiecording to siae) 
and chapd (?) 

The " Dondi" or " dfindf* is. rnuph ^s^d at Jhelam ap, a fenjy boat i it i« mueii 
smaller an4 lighter than the ** ber^^ an4 has its stem and stem both pointed, the stem 
having a longer point and raised higher than the stem : it is not unlike the small boat 
in the upper group. Similar small boats were in the Dera Ghazi Khan collection for 
use on the Indus. 

A ferry boat used at Koh£la on the Jhelam is sh^iped a^i^ost like a filbert, n^ut^ very 
n^uch bowed and curved, the ^royc pointed, but the, huU curving upw^jr^ towards, t)^t 
p^ow, and the stern square Qut. 

In Eashmir, as elsewhere, besides the ordinary boats, a number of fantastically 
shaped pleasiire boats are in ude.: the up^er figure: ^ ^l&ch, of tl^ese groups shows 
specimens of such. 

In Eashmir th^ ^pulation is so. aquatic, ^d its^ city sa Hke an Eastern 
Venice, a^ i^ aa its ^ater tra£&o ». concerned, that a apecial notice m.ust be devoted tot 
Eashmir boats. A large and heavy boat Hke the Punjab '^ beri'' will be found much in 
use, while on the lakes and rivers around Srinagar the higher clas^ adopt as a pleasure 
boat a long narrow boa.t fitted with an awning, and called " parind^^" the " flyer," ftom thja 
speed at whi^h it can be ui;ged by it^ Tnany q^a, : sucl^. 9i boat is figured in, th^e upper gvojii^^ 
A variety of this boat of smaller size, for hunting and fishing, purposes, is called " parufid '^ 
or ** shikari " ; and a broad boat or punt in the collection of 1864 was marked '* Dung^,'^ 
The large heavy boats so often the dwelling place of whole fiEunilies in Eashmir, are tjbii^. 
described Ijy Lieutenant Lputheic :— * 

*' The vessels are curious contrivances, the fiurthest from architectural improvement 
I ever beheld. The larger craft are not bad models of ** Noah's Ark," equally solid, aoid 
equally capacious, built entirely of fir (deodar) timber ; the bres4th.of beam, enormous, 
and the length so unmanageable, l^at it often takes a whoU day to turn round into a 
CBJuJ. iJter discharging t^e freight. Those employed as '^lodging houses" are even 
mprB unwieldy, and ofteA contain a stcsAge medley of sodety. They are thatched nearly tQi 
the water's edge, and any nples, which time, and the poulti^ may. ha^ pezp^mted* iu thO' 

ing tnem, and assisting in the general uproar and impurity, ^very qabin has its firiB-place, 
and every fire-plax^Q itoatt^sndant volumes of nauseous smoli^^, the of wet sticks 

• Journal A. H. 8., ¥oliimo VIII, 

256 Class XXIL— Division V. 

or still more unfit matenalfl. From Bttnrise till Btitiset) this crowded community furnish a 
fearful picture of debased humanity, too idle or too helpless to work, or what is more 
probable, quite shut out from the opportunity of Working (except occasionally gratis on 
the tyrant's account). Subsisting on wild fruits and weeds, with goat's milk, ( their poul- 
try, and its eggs being kept for the white visitors, whose money paid for the same will 
perhaps benefit some watchful soldier ),^^their persons barely clad with rags, and unap- 
proachable as bad-living, dirt and vermin, can render them, — their angry jabbering in 
constant warfare with each other, altogether form a hideous Babel of human misery in 
the centre of Nature's most lavish gifts, and which reveals the gross system of misrule 
under which the people are struggling.** 

In concluding this Division, 1 shall extract a detailed account of the boats used 
on the Indus, which will be found in Volume XYII of the Bombay Selections^ called 
« Sindh,**— Part II. 

** The boats upon the Indus are of simple construction, and their figure perhaps the 
best that could be given considering the kind of navigation in which they are employed. 
They are easily constructed, not very expensive, and for stowage of cai^o no form could 
be better devised. Their proportions, though not elegant, are pleasing, and tacking or 
under sail their appearance is pretty. The employment of the Indus craft is confined to 
harvesting the crops, serving the ferries, and keeping large towns in fuel 5 for these pur- 
poses the supply is ample. 

** Between the sea and Attok two kinds of vessels are in use : the Zohruk on the 
upper, and the Doondee upon the lower Indus. In boats belonging to the latter classes 
a slight difference in the build gives rise to a further classification, and of this description 
of vessel, the mohana (boatman) enumerates more than one variety ; but before particu- 
larizing each, a description of the Doondee is necessary. Her good and bad qualities are 
shared alike by them all, and the following notice of this boat is therefore applicable to 
every vessel upon the river. 

" Form and Method of construction. — The hull or body of the boat is formed by the 
junction of three detached pieces, namely, two sides and bottom— at variance wili otir 
ideas of naval architecture ; the three parts are first separately completed and then 
brought together as a cabinet-maker does the sides of a box. The junction i^ thus 
effected : —When each of the three parts that are to form the whole is complete in itself, 
the sides are carried to the bottom of the boat, and at once secured by crooked pieces of 
timber to the flat future bottom of the Doondee. To bring the bow and stem up to the 
corresponding parts of the sides is more difficult, and to effect this many days are neces- 
sary. Where the bow and stern are to rise, the planks are lubricated with a certain com- 
position, which gives them a tendency to curve upwards, and this is further increased 
by the application of force. The extremes thus risen, a trackle is stretched between 
them, and by a constant application of the heating mixture, and a daily pull Upon purchase, 
the ends rise to the required angle and are secured to the sides, while an advantageous 
curve is imparted by this process to the planks in the boat's bottom. The bow of 
the Doondee is a broad inclined plane, making an angle of about 20'' with the surface of 
the water. The stern is of the same figure, but subtends double the angle. 

** To the slight curve in her bottom planks, she is indebted far the following advan^ 
tages in descending a river. Should she strike upon a sand bank, the boat turns like a topi 
and presents no stationary point for the stream to act against. 

" The Jumptee is the State barge of the Sind Amirs, and is used by them and theif 
principal officers on all occasions whether of business or of pleasure. Perhaps the 
appearance of this boat, as she approaches the capital, is more charEicteristic of the Indus 
and of Sind, than aught else to bo seen in the country. On this day her Meerbar puto oil 
clean clothes and the national cap received from the Amirs in a recent river excursion : 
the bright hues of the cap formed of the gaudiest colored chintz, vie with those of a Kil« 

Class XXIL-^Division V. ^5f 

mamock bonnet or a Paisley tattan. 'Ihe crew ai^e drddsed becoming the occasion, and aa 
they bend to the rope the breeze distends their ample robes, and a further character of 
Btateliness is imparted to the Jumptee. Large red flags wave over her stern, and from the 
raking mast streams a long party-colored pennant that anon skims the water as the 
breeze lulls and freshens. In the bow of the boat is a small crimson pavillion, in which 
royalty reclined^ and in the other extreme of the tesdel is a roomy cabin of elaborately 
carved work for its numerous attendants. The steersman on an elevated platform stands 
out in bold relief, and while he guides the boat, encourages the rowers. The Jumptee*^ 
crew are a noisy set, but for aged men, Wonderfully good humored ; they are divided into 
two gangs or watches, and are as partial to a cup of good bhang as bailors are to grog ! 

*' l^hese boats are decked, and of considerable tonnage. One which I saw at Hydera-* 
abad measured 120 feet over all, with a beam of eighteen and a half feet ; her draft of 
water was two feet six inches, she pulled six oars and a crew of thirty men. They are 
built of Malabar teak, chiefly at the ports of Mughribee and Karachee. 

" The Zohruk. — ^What the Doondee is in Sind, the Zohruk is on the Uppet Indus^ 
namely, the common cargo boat of the country. The planks of this vessel are held 
together by clamps instead of nails, and the junction is often neatly enough executed. 
This class of boats is not so strong as the Doondee, but they sail faster and draw less 
water. They ^e more roomy than the Doondee, and though less adapted for the convey* 
ance of goods, are much superior for transporting troops. 

** The Dugga.-^This is the clumsiest, and, at the same time, the strongest brtilt boat 
tipon the Indus. She is confined to that rocky and dangerous part of its course lying- between 
Slalabagh and Attok. The form of the boat differs but slightly from that of the Doondee ; 
the Dugga has neither mast nor sail. Her name is the Sindian word for a cow, and the 
awkward, sluggish motion of this boat, shows that it has not been misapplied. If the 
Dugga drops down the river to Mittun, there she must remain, and be sold for whatever 
sum she will bring, for to drag her up against the stream of Kalabagh would cost more 
money in the hire of men than the boat is worth. 

" Boat building materials — Suggestions. — The Upper Indus is principally supplied 
from the banks of the Chenab, where the Talee tree, the Sissoo of fiindustan, is seen with 
a trunk measuring twelve feet in circumference x three such trees furnish plank enough to 
build a large sissed Zohruk. 

" The Attok boats are built of good fir, brought down the BTabool river, and from 
the forest, of the lower Himalaya. 

" Iron work — The Lower Indus is supplied from Bombay, and the Upper portion 
of the river from the mines of Bunnoo and Bajour." 

858 dan X^Ilh 


][Jn4^ this Division t}iere were only two speciine^s in ihe Exhibitip^i^ of 1864. 

One a large dock, made entirely by a native, bat with materials and tools obtwicd 
from Paris ; and another, a small clock which worked a musical box, and bad a 0oit of 
mock waterspo]at| wbich played when liie dock worked. It consisted of a spind of glasffy 
which turning rapidly caught the light against the edges^ and produced the ^ect of 
flowing water. The works of this clock were pot of native make : t^hey were p^ tqgeftft«r 
by a native workman in the service of the IM^iharaja of Patyala^ They are allodad to 
in the report on philosophical instrumentfify which will be found a few pages on. 

The second division of this Class is imrepresented. Natives are however weQ able 
to copy^ and that with fair accuracy, European scales, letter weights, &c. &c. 

cidsB sxir. d80 

^e ExKibitibn of 1864! contained not a few specimenis of modern instruments made 
under European superyision. Ilr. Spenoe of Sealkbt produced aH, , Electro-Magnetic 
battery. The workshops of Burk( ( North- Western Provinces, ) and Madhopur^ produced 
Ibvelling^ lind ^treyin^ instruments; The somewfakt elaborate mabhitiaty of Colonel 
Dyas* rain-guage, as improved by Mr. J. L. Watson, i» successfully turned out at the 
Madhopiur foundry. There can be no doubt that almost any amount of success may be 
obtained' in tills direction : the fine materials however have to be imported, and constant 
siipervisioii exercisedl 

A report appeared in 1841, on the construction of philosophical instrument i^ 
Iddia, by Captain J. Campbell^ Assistant Surveyior GFenerali From tliis paper I make tlie 
Hollowiirg ektnu^' :-^ 

** Sir' John' Hfersctfell in' his " Discourse upon Natural Philosophy," has thought it 
neeessafey, fbt fear the fact should be doubted, ' to assure the reader that balances have 
' beettr oonstructed capable of rendering visibly . sensibl0 a quantity .of matter to even the 
' millienih part of the whole ' ; yet this which bv the passage is evidentlv considered 
m, great effort of mechanical skUl, I have been able to effect by the hands of an' Indian 
workman, totally untaught, except by myself ; and with regard to its outWard appearance, 
Ao- one who has yet seen it but has remarked — 'How .beautifully it is worked ' or that 
'no one would' for an instant believe tiiat it was made in India.' 

** It might be remarked in contravention of my propositions, that I endeavour to 
assert' ih^ possibility of rivalling in India the productions of the genius of Bamsden and 
Troiighton, and that the idea id absurd ; but however such' it is my intention' to assert. 

^ From theil'^utiimp^i^sioned character, their slow and qtdet habits, th'i^ir delicate 
appreciation of touch, and their untiring application, it is probable that a clever native, 
if once taught properly the art of dividing the circumference of a circle, might very 
probabi/ su^p^s the best effect of the most celebrated workmen of London. 

*' It is supposed by many, that modem discoveries in optics have improved refrac- 
iAmg teleseopids by" the lenses being better m&de ; but such is not the fact. The lenses of the 
present day axe not in the least better than those which Oalileo and Huygens weie able to 
make ; ajid it is probable there is hardly a Chinese workman M^ho does not possess a great 
dis3l'vli6T6 skill in polishing a lense, than the l^est optician in London. I once bought in 
Iiondon a Chinese toy, an imitation of a compound microscope, from which I took lenseb 
00 beautifully polished, as to be admired by one of the first opticians in London, and I 
hater little doubt th&t a clever workman m India could fashion lenses with which a 
refractiag telescope could be put together quite as good as the best which Tully or 
I>ollond ever made. 


'^ Th^ al>o>re'may' appear' a startling assertion, but no optieian'will deny the 
possibility of its being correct ; for the £B>ct is, that workmen are totally unable to give a 
particular required figure to a lens, and lenses of required focal, distance for forming the 
aehromatie object are selected from among numerous failures ( whence the high price ). 
Modem science has only improved these instruments by teaching the proper theoretical 
priftciples upon which to compound their variotis parts." 

Fui^ther^ di^tail cannbt however be permitted to thici subject, my plan confining 
a descriptive account to those articles which are of pUrely native sianufacture. 

260 Class XXIV. 

- - 

Almost all the instruments that were exhibited, vrere astrolabes, dials, and 
other instruments used either in the fancied computations of astrology, or in those real 
calculations of ancient astronomy in which it is well known the Hindus attained consider- 
able excellence. His Highness the Maharaja of Kapurthala exhibited two fine astrolabes, 
one a small hand one, the other represented in the plate. £ach is famished with a 
number of variously engraved discs or plates, which are v^ed in turn according to the 
purpose of the observation. 

The method of taking the time by this instrument is described in the report 
Other observations can be made. 

The following list of astronomical instruments was compiled for me by Pandit 
Badha Eishn, late astrologer to the Court of Kanjit Singh, and by Pandit Durga 

J. Digyantram — A brass disc with a moveable index, used for finding the exact time 
of the sun's crossing the meridian, and for fixing the quarters of the heavens. 

2. Trikon shankii yantram — Consisting of a wooden tringle with a cross bar, like the 
letter A ; the cross bar is graduated, and a string and a ball depending from the 
apex shows how much out of the perpendicular it is, and what the angle of tha 
ground is. 

8. Sambhumf yantram — An ordinary spirit level. 

4. Ghati yantram — A water clock. A copper bowl perforated with a little hole, which, 

placed in a vessel of water, gradually fills and sinks : exactly one hour is consumed 
in filling. This article is in common use, and by it all police guards, <Sbc., keep the 
time, striking their gong as each hour comes round. 

5. The hour glass of sand is also used, called * hM ka ghati yantram.' 

6. Shankii yantram — Graduated scales used in measuring. 

7. Pratod yantram — A long graduated beam for finding out the time by the aid 

of the shadow. 

8. Chakra yantram — A graduated disc, and needle, for determining the a^nith distance, 

and the altitude of the sun. 

The " chap yantram " is a half disc, also used in determining the zenith distance. 

9. Tdri yantram— The quadrant. 

10. Samay prabodhak yantram— A dial graduated so as to show the sub-divisions of 


11. Dhruv bhraman yantram — A square plate, having circles inscribed on it and an index 

rod, by means of this the time is ascertained at night, by the polar star ( Dkr%9 
polar star — bhrcuman — going, wandering.) 

12. Ratri pradip yantram— Another instrument for telling the time at night ( roW— night 

pradip — lamp.) 

13. Dakshinodak bhiti yantram— ( Lit.—^' from south-northerly separation " ) —A squwe 

plate with graduated quadrant of a circle, an index, and plumb line, used in 
ascertaining azimuth distances. 


%• I 


t > 

■k 1 

i 1 

• / 

[ .• I* : 

* . I 

' t < ♦ « I 

« '.. 

' '.• -i 

■ ■ I ■ I > . I ■ t 

>c : lA'i 

* , 

. ' » • ', i»'' 

^ t 


■« . I 

a*N < 

■' !\ ■ 

• . 

•v. 1.- 

> I • • ^^ 

• 1 

.' !. ^ • . 

' . -- 1 

I 1 • ■ •' 1 


M- .., - ' 

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1 • « (. 


Class XXIV. 261 

14. Sextant. 

15. Octant. 

16. B6m yantram — ^used to abow tbe declination. 

17. Y&mjottara yantra — ^A dial with tube for shewing zenith distance and tbe meridian 

shadow of a Qnomon, when the sun is in the equinoctial line — ( ydmi—aonih MUara* 

18. Falk yantra — A graduated oblong plate, with inscribed circle and bar to give the 

shadow — for measurement of hours, angular distances, &c. 

19. Yashti yantra ( or ishti ) a dial for computing time. 

20. Digansh yantram — ^In geodesy, to ascertain the bearings of a giren object. 

21. Niri balay yantram— Shows the time according the Indian division of " N&ri" — ^the 

hour of 24 minutes. 

22. Samrat yantram — The form of the instrument is a semicircle, 6ux>erscribed on the 

hypothenuse of a right angled triangle ; the circle is graduated and intersected at 
its extreme ends by another arc. The brass plate on which the whole is engraved 
carries an observing tube. The instrument is used in measuring zenith distance 
and declination. 

23. Jaya prakash yantra. 

24. Yauti rij — The usturUb of the Yunani or Arabian astronomy. 

25. Budhi yantra — ^A large gnomon, the shadow of which is observed when the sun is in 

the equinoctiaL 

26. Jar kaliya yantram — To show altitude and ascensional difference. 

27. Gol yantra— To show the motion of the planets, according to the Hindi divisions of 

the sphere. 
S8. KdLnti yantra — declination instrument. 
29. J^tul haika yantri — For finding longitude, &c, 
20. Bhugol yantra— Globe. 

31. Swayambahu yantra — ^A revolving disc, set turning by a stream of water, which flows 

by a siphon tube out of a vessel properly placed and dropped on to the cogs or teeth 
of the disc. A revolution is maintained at a certain rate, and by this means the 
time is ascertained after the machine having been once started at a known hour. 

32. Yakra darsanii bhang{ — A vessel showing the reverse revolution of planets. 

The Jury Report of 1864 is as follows : — 

JusoBS. — Colonel Maclagan, £. E. 

Major MacLeod Innes, B. E., Y. C. 
Kanhya Lall, Executive Engineer. 
A. Neil ( Meteorological Superintendent ) Seporier, 

The articles to be reported on were in the Exhibition, contained in Section C. 
Those most worthy of notice are now described. 

[10676—7]. — Two Hydrometers, made of brass, exhibited by Qoormook of 
Iioodianai of ordinary form, and very rudely finished. 

s«r doss xxir. 

[ 10683 ]. — ^BrasB tubulal* beam-oompasa, exhibited by J. D. Smithe, "Bs^foSte^ 9t 
Madhopdr, and constructed in the Baree Doab Canal Workshops. Their fitting np imM 
rough and unfinished, but the instrument iteetf ia Metably well fliBde. T&e' jui^ 
■ w rwrd e i an) Hontmaaj Otetificate. 

[l06S4i]. — ^Blectro-Magnetic Bktterj, of ordinary construction, but well fimshedi 
Gihibited by Hr. W. Spence, Sealkote. 

[^ 10685 ]. — Clock, scientifically and elaborately finished (original cost Bs. 4,000 )| 
exhibited by Bajah Hurbuns Singh of Lahore. 

This clock is made to strike the hours and half hours, and shews the diurnal 
position of the sun in the ecliptic throughout the year, and the lunar rotation through- 
cut the month. It was constructed' under the immediate management of Bhugut' Bam 
Sohai, in the time of Bunjeet Singh. The finishing is in most of itia parts exceedingly 
goo^ and very elaborate. The Jury awvurded' a medkl. 

[ 10686— 692 ]:— Astrolabes, exhibited by the Eajah of Kapurthalla. These 
Instruments are now almost obsolete, and there seems nothing in the constroctMMi of 
either of those exhibited worthy of being noted. A short description of one of them wfll 
Buf&ce. In Hindi, the instrument is called Yantra Baj, in Arabic, ITstarl&b. On the ba^ of 
the dial there is a moyeable copper tube attached to a flat narrow plate, each end of which 
is pointed. Here the mttr^is diirided into 800% and thes^ again into fourths by a vertical 
audi transnnsrsft line, whieh interaeoi each other «t thecentt^ of the^ dial. lb the fh>Bt'(ir 
anterior side of the dial, the margin is divided into 60 gharies— 2| of these being eqml 
to one English hour. Each ghariia divided into 6 equ41 partr. TYithtntlie' anterior 
margin,. which is raised, there is a moveable circle of brass attached to the centre of the dU 
by a pin. On the edge of this the twelve signs of the aodiao are masked, each 
compartment being divided into 15**. 

Hou) to me the Instrument, — Baise the tube to such a position that the'rays'of the sift 
may pass through it. Mark the position of the tube with referenee to the degreeffY>tt tlie 
margin, counting from the transverse line. Ascertain from the calendar in what sign of 
tiije'zodiae ttw-sun istogether with the degree. Bring the sign and degree to bear on the 
itiner circle on the anterior sid^, and on the transverse line then mafk the degree 
opposite the" projection of' the inner circle. The degree marked on the posterior 
8id»' of' the dial should be traced on the flat plate on the anterior side^ 
Bring the^ sigtt» and- degree of tb& i^vper circle i:qKm the plate, and'niarV agi»n the 
degree opposite the projection of the circle. The ghariee contained between the tvo 
marks made opposite the projection will be the time of the ^y; 

[ 10698—6 ].— Gold and Silver mounted Magnetic Compasses, exhibited by the 
Maharajah of Kashmir. Creditably constructed; 

The object of thesenbi to fdmierh the-Mudulm&i.wi'Q)^ the means of knowing which 
way to turntoniTarda-thi&'KiUa (iMeoca) lat^rayertinie.' 

The Jury .awarded aa Henorary <fartffloaie; 

[10698.]— A clock, said to be.madB4>y a^wcrkioaii in thto sevtlee'^of ihe Maharajah of 
Paj^ala.. There-iaaonusical apparatus attached to it,- but nobody can make out the 
tunes. An orfiamental water-spoutz is' ako attached, in which- ft. fihort twisted glass ' tA 

Oass XXIV. 263 

is tlie water $ the light catclies the edges of the spiiul, and as this is kept in motion 
produces a glancing like the glinuner of falling water. Workmanship very creditable* 

[ 10699. ] — A model of the Slectrie Telegraph appoiwtnsi also made by a workman 
in tbo service of the Maharajah of Patyala, neatly finished. 

The Jury award an Honorary Oertiflcate. 

[ lQ702'-'7 ].-*A set of Surveying Instruments^ made in the Borkl WorlishotMi» 
%nd consisting of an Eyerest Iievel ( 20 inches ), levelling staves, tdesoopio staves^ 
case of Spirit Bulbs ; ground agates for compass needles, and small pocket campass* 
{inhibited by Ifiy^r AUeu. Tbey are all beautifully construoted| the Ererest Level 
especially so. 

Tb« Jury awarded an Honorary Certificate. 

264 CUut XXV. 


Native Sui*gerf is tinfortiinately in an extremely backwarcl state. The operation^ 
known are very few and very rude. The implements are mostly so coarsely made, that it is 
woiiderM how any result whatever can be effected with them. Fortunately, howevefi the 
natives of the Punjab are extremely willing to profit by European art and science in 
surgery^ much more than they are in the case of European medicines. They still cling 
desperately to the exploded foUacies of the old Greek school with its dry and moist, hot 
and cold, remedies. 

There are no books on surgery worUi reading. The art of surgery was looked on 
with contempt, and was consigned to barbers and such like craftsmen. A respectable 
physician hardly dared to attempt the practice of surgery, or he was nicknamed ' barber.' 
Hakfm Muhamad Ishik, a physician of some note, who came to Lahore in the reign of 
Alilmgir (Aurangzeb), and entered the service of Nawab Aminat Kh^n, Subad&r of Lahore, 
turned his attention to surgery, but was much derided in consequence. He had learnt 
something about surgeiy from an Italian in the Naw&b's service, named Antdn (Antonio). 
Muhamed Ish^k wrote a treatise on surgery, called '* Tashkara Ish^kiya".* Although it is 
one of the best extant, it contains very little that is useful. Of several diseases, the (sme 
of which is perfectly easy, he makes no mention, and declares some of them irremediable. 
Thus of stricture of the urethra he says — '* The cure of this disease is known to Qoi 
only." They had only a rude idea of lithotomy, and nearly always killed their patients, 
although the native surgeons, who have learnt the operation in the European method, are, 
from their impassive and steady manipulation, particularly successful in it. The native 
operation for stone consisted in passing the finger into the rectum, and feeling for the stone 
till by pressure it protruded so as to make the exterior of the perineum bulge, the operator 
then with a lancet or razor, cut a gash over the protrusion, taking his chance of what 
membranes or tisses he cut through, and pulled out the stone. It is needless to add, that 
in many cases the laceration and injury of delicate structures was such that the patient 

did not survive. 

It was hardly possible to have a limb amputated, although the frequency of battles 
in those days rendered it compulsory to make some attempt. I was quite unable to find 
any native surgeon who knew anything of amputation. Many told me that they could 
extract a bullet with a sort of hook and forceps, and that when a limb was shattered by 
shot they would remove the splinters of bone, and trim the ragged edges of the wound, 
and heal it. Whenever amputation was attempted, the flesh being cut, or the bone 
sawn through, (they generally however availed themselves of the fracture of the bone, by 
pulling out the splinters as before said,) and then hemorrhage was prevented by dipping 
the limb into melted rosin or hot ghee ! This agreeable method of dispensing with liga- 
ture of arteries and suture, in one process, was occasionally practiced in the case of criminals 
in the Sikh days, who had a finger or a limb amputated as a punishment. Nature seems 

* A good mannsoript copy of thia has been obligingly lent to me by Fakir Syad Jamal-nd-din, of 
lAhore, among whose ancestoni, the physician was nnmbered (he was the Fakir's father's mother's great* 
grandfather). I take this opportunity of acknowledging the freijaent MsifitaDoe I have rsceivtd from this 
gentlemaa in pxeparing the Tasions noctions of this Tolnme. 

Class XXV. 265 

to have gifted these people, as a compensation for their lack of knowledge, with a propor-« 
tionatelj powerful irtd niedicatrix, as regards suffusion from veins, &c. It is uniformly 
noticed h6w mudh fewer veins a native |>atient needs to have tied ihah an ^luropean. 

Dr. Farqiihar told me that after the battle of Chilianwala he was aboilt to render 
assistance to a Sikh soldier who had been wounded in the leg bj a cannon shot ; ampu-* 
tatioii was necessary. The man loudlj pi'otested, thinking he was to be killed, biit wheu 
he was pacified as regards his safety, he was again horrified hf seeing, as he thought, 
nd means of staying the bleediilg, and cri^d out for the ' hot ghee' whereiii to dip the 
stump; He iiras qiiite astonisheid at the use 6f a tourniquet &nd ligatures for the 
arteries. The use of the hot ghee always incapacitated a nian for work for several 
weeks^ and even moilths afterwards, always producing a paihfill sore, with sloughing, 
and not unfrequently mortification. No naitivd sui'geon Will kt the present day attempt 

The different surgical operations are performed by the following classes of people .— » 
(I.) • Shikasta^baUd'. — ^These men reduce dislocations, arid attend to fractures*" 
they have no apparatus of any sort. They reduce dislocations by the application of force 
and apply stoUt bandagcjs. They are, however, tolerably skilful at reducing simple disloctt-* 
tlons, and frequently effect considerable relief to the patient by th^ir system of rubbings 
ptiUingj and manipulating the muscles in cases of straining. The pelople who perform thesd 
operations are often ' Kamangars' or bow makers, and also wrestlers. 

(20 Banj&ras or oculists^ — The most reniarkable operation is that for caiaract, iit 
Whieh^ in dpite of their rude apparatus, they are very fairly successful. As far as I am 
aware, their operation is always for depression. For instruments they have a very small 
lancet, ^hich consists of a ilhort handle, wound round with silk, and eihibiiiUg the trian-* 

gular point of a blade thus |i|l|||||l|||^ 

This is used for incising the coiliea; 

They have also a probe of steel, but niore often the probe (' adi* ) is replaced 
by one of the long fine white thorns of the Acacia* The younger trees have very long 
and finely pointed thorns, which have a beautiful white siliceous coating, and certainly 
offer a smoother and finer point than any steel work toade by ab ordinary workman. 
The thorn is extremely tough. They have also two hooked instruments ( " kundi " ), one 
rather thick, made of tfopper^ the other of steel, and much m6te slender and finely pointed, 
ftnd also a blunt probe. 

fftie prol>e or thorn is used in operations where they simply pUnctute ilie cotnetL 
tmd c^prcM the cataract. In otber cases they make an incision with the lancet (in lieu gf 

266 Class ^XV. 

the Beer's knife of modern surgery), and tlien introduce the copper hook to open a 
passage for the depressing instrument : the smaller hook being used in depressing the 
film if it cannot be removed by the probe alone. A small razor (ushtra) is among the 
instruments of these practitioners. The Banj4ras occasionally brand the temples, with a 
view to strengthen the sight and prevent blindness. 

(3.) Jardh. — This term is, perhaps, a more generic word for 'surgeon,' than indica- 
tive of a special class. AH operations, however, such as bleeding with lancets, lancing of 
tumours, swellings, treatment of hemorrhoids, extraction of teeth, is done by the jar^. 
His instruments will now be described. In the Lahore Museum there is a case of mother- 
of-pearl and steel containing a series of implements inserted through holes in a plate which 
stops the mouth ; this looks more like a lady's work case for scissors; crochet hooks, &c,j 
than a surgeon's box, but in it the tools are better made. There is an attempt at polishing, 
and the various knives, <&c., are made to screw into handles. 

The usual instruments are as follow :-^ 

*' Sanni ". — A rude pair of iron square pointed pincers, one handle of which is hooked 
at the end. This frightful apparatus is for drawing teeth. 

*' Nahemi". — A thin iron blade, with a sharp slanting edge or point, used for lancing the 

gums previous to extracting a tooth. Some rather broader bladed 
^* nahemas" are used for paring nails, and chiropodic operations. 

*' Patri " — A hone for sharpening instruments. 
' Chamuta " is a leather strop for the same purpose. 
* * Mochana " — Tweezers. 

** Ushtra" — Small razors, used either for shaving any part to be operated on, or else for 
making a deeper incision or gash than the lancets ( nashtar ) will make. 

'< Toka" — A small hook, the point of which is flattened at the sides and sharpened. The 
stem being flexible, it is placed in position, and being drawn back, is let go and 
strikes smartly on the place, which is punctured by the sharp edge. It is used 
for opening veins in the forehead. 

** Mikraz " — Pointed scissors. 
*' Nashtar " (fasd-ki) — Lancets for bleeding. 
Needles and thread ; Bandages, &c, 
** Zambtir and Zambtiri " — Forceps of sizes. 
*' Dastur " — A sort of syringe tised in administering an enema. 
<* Su4 and Silai "—Probes. 

" PichkarC suz^k"— A syringe for injecting remedies in urinary complaints. 
For bleeding and cupping they have the following :— 

The use either a horn, or an earthen cup called ' rummi ', or a hollow vessel called 
" tumbiya " or * kuppi '. When they apply the horn after cutting the vein, they apply the 
mouth to the point of the horn and draw in the breath, thus exhausting the air aiid caus- 
uig the blood to flow and fill the vacuum ] or else they prick the skin over with a lancet 


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Class XXV. 267 

and then apply the earthen pot which is heated, so that the air on cooling may contract 
and a vacutnn be formed, to fill which the blood will exude. 

In some cases they merely wish to excite a tumour or boil, and they heat the 
*' tumbiya" or kuppi and tie it tight over the place, which causes it to riso and swell, or to 

When bleeding by venesection is being done, the surgeon gives the patient a short 
round stick or " latti ", which he is expected to keep twirliug with his hand, thus keeping 
up circulation by the motion. 

The case alluded to, contained a small saw (^ri), and a "pech'*, an iron wire 
terminating in a spiral like a small cork-screw, used for worming out foreign matter from 
the ear or from a wound. In the Montgomery collection a looking glass was added to 
these articles, and the whole enclosed in a leather case called " rachyani ". 

(4.) Gagras— These people are solely occupied in the application of leeches 

(5.) * Mad^ri'. — These people cure the bites of snakes and animals, not by 8urgi« 
cal or medical means, but by spells, incantations, and charms. These are invariably resor- 
ted to by the people in cases of snake bite ! 

" Kfin madyas ",— Ear surgeons. These men occupy themselves with the treatment 
of ear-ache, and with removing obstructions in the passages. The use of a syringe is un-* 
known. Their favorite remedy for ear-ache is the introduction of a little sweet oil. 

They use a pair of forceps, " chimta, ** — a broad pointed probe used for digging out 
foreign matter, and called, " silai ajriz nok-wali, " — a blunt probe, " gol-nok-wali, " — and a 
probe for inserting cotton wool for cleaning the passage—" silai-pamba wali ". 

The paring of nails, removal of corns, and other work of the chiropodist, is done by 
the barber, " haj&m '* or " nai." 

I must here mention one of the few operations in which the surgeons of the country 
are eminently successful. One, that of the cataract has been described, the other that I 
allude to, is the work of the Kangra " Khangars" in restoring the nose. Jealous hus- 
bands bite or cut off the point of the nose of their wives in spite, and cutting off the nose 
seems also to have been used as a punishment in former days. The annexed plate, copied 
from a native drawing, will show the process. The patient is laid down, and the surgeon, 
with a lancet, or rather with a small razor (ushtra ) cuts a triangular bit of skin from 
the forehead,* which he turns down, and then dexterously and lightly twists just at the 
junction of the nose with the brow, so as to bring the right side of the skin in front j he 
lays this down over the nose, and having by dexterous manipulation and working draiVa 
down the remainder of the original cartilage so as to form a basis, he disposes the new 
skin over the whole, and fixes it by strips of planter and bandages. The gradual treatment 
of the healing surface, and the patients lying by^ flapping away the flies, are quaintly, but 
accurately, portrayed in the plat«. The only implements the " Khangars*' use are 
a razor or laoicet, a needle for sewing, and one or two tools for smoothing down the skin. 

* Tho akin is taken from the forehead, and never I beHeve from the oheek. 

3^8 Class XX V^ 

These are all the cl£)«ses of people -v^hich malce any pretence to b^ s'urgeonfl. The 
practice of obstetric art in any form is unknown ; midwives or d4J8 attefid, if n^e^aiy, 
but are unable tq render any assistance beyond i^hat t^eir bauds can afford. It is needless 
to remark tbat they are utterly ignorant. In the list qf drugs of the first volume will ba 
^een various remed!ies given to women before and after child-birth. It is to be remarked, 
however, that especially among lihe lower orders of the agricultural population, cases of 
difficult parturitibii or birth appear to be comparatively r^re. Should such a case occur, 
the life of the child or the mother, or both, is invariably sacri^ced through ignorance of 
any proper treatnient. 

Under this chapter, I may mention that veterinary surgery is no better understood 
than that applied to the human frame. The B6t&r or Salotrl has a few lancets for bleed* 
ing and some bandages : branding with ^ hot iron is a fayqrite remedy for most diseases 
in cattle. The pious Hindu will not touch the sacred animal himself, letting it die rather, 
he performs the operation however, mcarioudy by a Mussulman, and it is ail right ! 

I may take this opportunity of including a notice of the Bh^tra or ear-borev. 
Every native woman considers it necessary to have the ears bored, and some times not only 
one hole but many are made, to admit of all the mass of b&lfs, b&las^ niurkis, &c., &^ 
that are fashionable tq wear. ^ 

The Bh&tras tools are as follows :— ? 

Murl^i— ^ stout zinc wire bent round so as to form a nearly complete drcl^ the 
two points are sharpened. One of these points is forced though the lobe of the year, 
and the idng drawn though and left there till the wound, which is a severe one, heals. 
When the murki has done its work, a '^ bunda,^' or second zinc ring, thicker than the 
murki, is inserted to enlarge the hole. l%e bunda has also a small weight hanging 
froift it, sq as tq pulj dq^a the par and ei^sure the hole being made. lam told 
that the operations necessary to gratify the hideous vanity pf wearing clusters of ear- 
rings are so painful, that women sit in the house for days crying with pain, and the 
pounds do not heal for three months sonaetimes. 

I append the Jury Beport in the collection of 1864, which shows alsp how far European 
instruments are in^itated by native workman (seei also the class " Putlkby." ) 


J\iror9 ;— T 

Dr. Parquhar. Dr. Thorn. 

Dr. Penny. S. A. Surgeon Baheem Shan, 

Dr. Dallas. Dr. J. B. Scriven, Reporter. 

The Districts exhibiting articles are, Kangra, Hooshyarpore, Sealkote, Lahore, 
Shahpur and Goojranwala. Besides these, articles ar^ included in ^i^^e c^t^qgup from 
Apititsur and Patyala, but hPiVe nqt oppip tp hand. 

f The sight of these rings ought to onre European l^ea at least of the b^barona practice of 
boring holes in their flesh to stick ornaments in ! < ' ' 

Class XXV. 


The collections reported on are eleven in number, vi» ; — 

lst.^-A rudely constructed razor and la4C6t sent i^p by the Iiocal Exhibition Committee 
at Kangra. 

2nd. — A set of three ivory handled vaccine lancets, ei^hibited by Pr. Aitchison of 

3rd. — A similar set of lancets with horn handles, also eiphibited by Dr. Aitckison 
of Hooshyarpore, 

4th. — A case of Lithotomy instruments. These are of the kind commonly provided for 
hospitals in India. They are not of the newest or best pattern, but their finish is 
good, in fact equal to that of the instruments usually supplied to Medical Depots 
from England. They are highly creditable to native artificers, and the jury think 
they are deserving of a prize of Bs. 20. The exhibitor is Mr. Spence of Sealkote. 

5th. — ^A case of midwifery instruments. The finish of these is also creditable. The silver 
cathetelr is particularly well made, but the pattern of the forceps is not good. 
The jury consider this case deservii^g of a prize of Bs^ 10, The exhibitor is Mr. 
Spence of Sealkote, 

6th. — A case of instruments for extracting teeth. The key and gum lancet in this case 
seem to be very good. The forceps and elevator are made after a pattern not much 
lised in the present day, and certainly not to be recommended, nevertheless the finish 
of all is excellent, and the jury recommend a prize of Bs. 10. The exhibitor is Mr. 
Spence qf Seall^te, 

7th. — Au abscess lar^cet ; and 

8th. — A bleeding lancet, both by Mr. Spence. These two instruments are well polished, 
^harp, i^d apparently of good quality. 

dth. — A case of razors and other instruments used by the Native barber surgeons : these 
belong to the Lahore Museum. 

10th. — A lancet and probes used l(y natiye Qurgeous in the operation for depression of 

cataract, exhibited by Dr. Henderson of Shahpore. 
11th. — Tvfo ri|dely made bleeding lancets and & gTini lancet, frofu the district of Goojran« 

WftUa : the name of the exhibitor is Qot given. 

The prizes above recommended arp as follows : — 







{iithotomy case. 
Midwifery case. 
Dental Instruments. 


Mr. W. Spence. 

Rs. 20. 
Bs. 10. 
Rs. 10. 

270 Class XX VI. 


The musicians of the Punjab, whether Hindu or Mussalman, use the Hindu system 
exclusively. The Arabic System of music is not known. 

It would be impossible for me to give imder this Glass any account oi the musical 
iydem, I have only to describe the musical instruments in use as one of the branches 6i 
mechanical manufacture. 

I may however add a few words in preface to a descriptive list of musical instru- 
ments, and explain as much of the system of notation, tuning and melody, as will render 
what follows intelligible. 

The musicians who accompany regular n&ch players,"^ are always Itussulmans of 
the caste of Mir or Mirdsi ( barbers and astrologers &c. ) and are cf^Ued *' Dom " ; this 
term is hot however considered complimentary, and would be a positive insult if addressed 
to any one else. The Doms use only a " sarangi " a sort of fiddle, a pair of little bells or 
small cymbals, and a drum ; but at more elaborate nautches, in the houses of the wealthy, 
I have seen other instruments introduced. Some classes of Hindus perform as nautch 
dancers, and accompany them with music, such persons are called Efisdhari. Professional 
-players on the tambura ( a sort of guitar ) are called " KaUnwat " ; those on the bin, are 
* Bin-baz." Amateur musicians are called ** atai," whatever instrument they prefer. 

I should note that music is strictly forbidden to Mussulmans, excepting only a 
drum called " dftf, " at marriages or ceremonies, and then apparently only for the purpose 
of publicity or proclamation of the event. It is needless to say that this prohibition is 
little attended to ; and as early as the reign of Kai Kubad ( 1285 A. D. ) one Amir 
Khisro, in spite of the prohibition, introduced the guitar known as the " tambura," which 
accompanies the voice ; and this has ever since been a veiy popular instrument. Amateur 
musicians are rare, and professional ones are looked on with a sort of contempt, like 

The Hindu system of music does not appear to be very different from our own, 
at least as regards the division of the scale or gamut. T?he octave, with seven full tones, 
( the eighth being a repetition of the first ) is recognized, and called * saptag.' Instead 
of the letters of the alphabet C. D. E. &c., or the notation do, re, mi, the notes are named— 

Do — Khaij. 


Mi — Gandhir. 
Fa— Madliam. 

Sol — Pancham ( * the fifth ' ) or dominant. 

La— Dewat. 

Si— Nikidh. 

Do— Kharj— again, &c. 

* This word is now almost naturalized as " nautch«" 

Class XXVI. 271 

Sub-division of tones ( ' sur ' ) are recognised, and a halftone is called '' miirclilian." 
The quarter tone is recognized, and both half and quarter tones are easily produced, even 
on the fretted instruments, by putting the string to one side of the fret, which of course 
tightens it slightly, and raises the tone. In a " saptag " there are 21 ' mtirchhans ' or sub« 
divisions, as will be seen by dividing the scale into fractions of tones as, C. C.jJUp , ^'^ip!?* 
G ^i^^ D. <&c. 

The term ' ras * is used apparently as our * base *; '' dirg '* as tenor; and '' palutt ''. 
as treble. 

I should remark that the instruments are tuned to a convenient pitch to the voice 
or to about half a tone lower than our full concert pitch. To tune an ins^orument is 
' sur karna.' 

I will now proceed to a description of the instruments in use. 

272 Class XX VL— Division I. 


The most farorite of these appeal' to be the yarieties of guitar.- 

When these have more than one string, it wiQ bef invariably found that 6iAj onef 
string is designed to be fingered ; the others, remaining as open strings,, and form the 
commoii chord of C. major, which is played Sbs an unvarying drone or accompaniment 
with the thumb, and while the " chantarelle " or melody string is sta*uck with the finger, 
Ivhich is generally armed with a skeleton thimble made of iron or steel wire, and called 
^* nnzribJ* iTho^e instruments \^hich havd frets ( siinc(ri ) have them moveable, as it is 
the invariable practise to set the frets according to the r^g or melody to be performed, and 
there are certain set tuiies appropriate to the different hoilrs of ddy or evening^. 

861. — [ ].-7-Tambdra — This guitar has only four strings, and no frets. It is 

a very favorite instrument, and accompanies the voice. The tctmbiira is called " chhefwala,"' 
viz,, *' the accompatiier/^ as it is shaken ( chhema ) or twanged to thetoice. ^Hhe strings 
consist of '' madham '^ or finst string, which gives the melody ^ and three others form the 
base or drone, tuned to the octave and fifth. The tambuzU is a large gtdtar, iHth a lai^ 
hollow body made of a goilrd^ faced with wood, and with a lottg irtem or handle. It carries 
four strings, one of bxloss and three of iron wire t the strings are much thicker than those 
of the ** sit^r " ( Which follows ). One string gives the melody, and the others the baser 
or drone, but uisrually the instrument being used to accompany the voice, the dbanges of 
tone in the first string are feW^ 

862.— [ ] ** Sitar "— Therie ar'e several kinds, all of the varieties of guitar, ta 

which Word the name has a ciear affinity. In form these instruments are not inelegant. 
The body is gourd shaped, auid exceedingly bulging ; in fact consisting of the half or section 
of a large gourd, with a flat face, the shoulder sloping off into the loUg Wooden handle : the 
manufacture will be described presently. The instruments are often prettily and elaborately 
inlaid with ivory or eke painted in gold and colors and varnished. The vafrieties of 
" Sitar " to be noW described ai'e the " Madham Sit&r, '' the ** Chirgah SitAr," and thef 
*' Tarbd^r Sitdr." The favorite form of " Sit4r " is called " Madham''. This is the ins- 
trument introduced at Dehli by Amir Khisro in the retgn of £ai ISLxxlM, as already 

The Madham 9iiAr has the handle long and hollow, or deeply colicave, hvtt faceJ 
with a thin piece of ** tfin " wood. The frets are of brass, atnd grooved in the middle, bo 
as to retain the cat-gtrt belt which holds the fret to the handle, but adtnits of it being 
moved up and down to the position proper for the '* rig '^ or miislc ta be perferiaed, a» 
already explained. 

The frets are 16 in number, that is, prepared to prodtfce on Che first string, tw<y 
octaves ; in compass, a large iuBtrument ia sometimes made with twenty-^ne frets ot 
three octaves. 

The Sitdr has commonly five strings, bixt sometimes six. The first string, caOcid 
madham, is of thin steel wiroi obtained from Pelhi or Sarell^ the others avo two of braat^ 
And the third of steel wire. 

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The three last are the drone or accompanying^, And always open, strings, being tuned 
to th6 k^ note, fifth or * panchtoa,' and the lower octave of the key note ; if there are 
«ix strings, the k^ note is doubled in Unison? if seven> the third is given as well as the fifth, 
thus giyiAg the \vhole chord. 

^6l.— " Ohdi^gah Sitar/* is like Ihe Madhani, \aA foiir strings^ and no frets> but pet* 
toanent marks on the handle indicating the position of the fingering. 

864.—** iarbdir Sitfir>" or Sympathetic Sit&if, has th« handle slightly concave, and 
^nd^r the frets abd lihder the playing wires a set of Very thin steel wires are extended, 
tuned to the asceilding notes of the gamut. l?he pegs which hold these strings are at 
the sides of the handle^ those helding the splaying strings at the head. The " tarb " are 
purely sympatbetic stringd, vib^atiiig and ptodiiciug a shrill twang in unison, and by 
sympathy With the corresponding note sttiick on the upper strings^ jthe ftdmirers of 
the Sympatbetic Piano>-forte of modern times will perhaps be surprised to note so very 
Ancient a recognition of the principle. 1?he * tarb^ strings appeal^ to me to be tuned rather 
Aat of tlie true tones^, Which pi'oduces a greatet tWaUg) ajid there is always one tone below the 

Irey note. 1thUs> suppose the first strings of the drone strings is tuned to C> 

then the lowest of the " tarb ^^ strings Will be tUned to the B beloW and so ^ 

^n, upwards. 

865—** Btn. '^—^The toexl instrUtnetit of this class Is a * bin.* It cotasists of a 
long liollow bar or tey board, fiat above, and concave beloW ; on this the Wires rest, and it 
is supported at either eiA by a large gourd. The form will be more readily understood 
Irom the plate. 

The ** bm '^ is tbe best bounding oi all the striuged instrunieUts played by aid of 
the fingers and the " mizrib '^ or Wire guard. 

It kas six sU^gs> and moveable frets \ the first string alone. Which is ))layed with 
the frets, is called " b4j.'* The other si* strings are struiig at some distahce off the ** b4j,'* 
so as to leave room for the play of the finger The second and third are of steel wire 
the fourth of brass, the fifth of steel, and the sixth of steel also> but with fine brass wirj 
coiled upon it. This string is called " larz» *' 

They are tuned tbus-^ 

Snd.—STiarj C. } . ^ 

3rd.-gharj C. | "'^'«^^- 

4th. — Panciiain G above. 

6th. — Madham O. octave below. 

6thv — Lars C. octave below the secoud string. 

The bin has also the synipathetic strings called " tarb,** whose screWs are Oil the 
Hide of the handle. They are nine m number,— that is, eight notes of the gamut and one 

below ; thUs the secohd string of the Upper set being tUUed to * middle C. *' Kharj " 

the lowest note of the tarb Will be B natural^ the second C natural, corresponding to the 
(Second string above, and so on up the scaler 

The bfn is frequently made of a very large site with proportionately stout wired, 
and can then produce a loud sound * it is used more for instrumental music than accom« 
panying the voice, tt is Uot to be confused with a sort oi pipe also called ' bin.' 

27* Class XXVI.—Divmm I 

866. — Rabdb, — Is an instniment much used in Lucknow and in Hindnstan, but 
not in the Punjab. It has six strings, and a long handle about three feet long. The 
strings are attached to screws in the broad head of the handle, and arranged in a peculiar 
manner, which will be understood from the figure in the annexed plate. 

I have now only to add a few instruments, which are hardly fit to be called instru* 
ments at all, being rude and unmusical . sounding guitars, fitted with only one or two 
strings, and capable only of affording a sort of accompaniment to the voice. Soch are 
generally used by fakirs and wandering singers. 

867. — '* ITingf." — A rude instrument, deriving its name from the twanging shrill 
noise it makes. It consists of a single wire stretched over two small bridges resting at 
either end of a stick or bamboo, which passes through a small half gourd at either md, 
like our basket stick : the face of the gourd is left open ( fig. 1. ) 

This instrument is used by Brahman beggars when singing for alms, Ac. 

868. — ** Yah tdra,*^ — This is a rude instrument with one string, for accompanying 
the voice, and used by fakirs sometimes : also accompanied with the ''kart&i" or '* bofnes.'' 
It consists of a long bamboo handle, with a small circular body made of half a gourd, and 
with parchment strained over the front, on this is a small bridge over which the brass 
wire passes. The wire is secured to the end of the bamboo projecting slightly through 
and beyond the body. A large wooden peg or screw at the end of the handle enables the 
plsbyer to adjust the tone of the string. 

869 — ** ChdrtcmiJ^ — Played with a wooden stick or plectrum, ( ' jawa ' or jaba ), 
which is a thin piece of wood shaped as (fig. 4.) The chiLrtiLra is shown in (fig. 2.) It has 
four strings, three of steel and one of brass wire. An instrument I saw of this name at 
Delhi, had only two strings, and was played with % bow like the * Elam^uch ' ( fig. 3. ) 

870. — " 8ar6d,'* also called llabib, from Bunnoo. This instrument is mostly used 
by Klibulis and in Khorasau, and so is found in our frontier districts One specimen in the 
eoUection of 1864 was described as "* rabab.'* Tlie instrument, which is rather elegantly 
shaped, is figured in the plate. The great depth of the body, as shewn in the side view, is 
remarkable. The body and a part of the handjle, ( as far as the fret marks ) are hollow, 
and made of ' tdn * or ' shisham * wood. 

The handle and body as far as the central bend or waist, are faced with wood, and 
the rest of the body with parchment. There are six catgut strings which are played on 
with the ' jawa ' like the last described instrument, l^hese strings pass over a small 
wooden bridge on the parchment, and are secured to a piece of leather, which is fixed to 
the bottom of the instrument, and has the end split into tags, to each one of which a string 
end is fastened off. There are also five sympathetic brass wires. ( tarb ) which pass into 
the hollow body of the handle through small holes made for the purpose, and are wound 
on screws the handles of which project at the side. 

The Kabab called "Eabab Banarsi'* — Benares rabab—is an instrument with a bow. 

The next series consists of three stringed instruments, which are played with the 
finger, or with small sticks or hammers. These instruments no doubt suggested originally 
the design of the Virginal, Clavichord and Harpsichord, which have been improved into 
the modern Piano- forte : they correspond with the Dulcimer and Psaltery of ancient 

Ckss XXVL—Dmrnn L 276 

Of these instrumentBr onlj oae exists in the Museum of Lahore, as in xise in the 
Pai^ab, the others are obsolete. 

S71. — **Kdnim," — This is the psaltery or sort of harp. It consists of a 
frame shaped as in figure 6. The strings, which are steely are twenty-three in number, to 
include three whole oetaves : they are fixed by moveable screws at the upper end. It differs 
from oixr harp in principle of eoustruction, inasmuch as the strings which are fixed to the 
sounding board, are thence cai^ied, not diagonally upwards to the curTed upper beam, but 
horiBontiilly to a beam opposite the sounding board. There are 28 strings. 

872.-—^' Kantura "—"This instrument consists of a hollow and fiat sounding board, 
made of tfin wood, and of an oblong shape, supported partly on a hollow square box, and 
partly by two tressd legs or rests. The specimen I describe from was about 20 inokes 
long and 8 broad. In the upper part ( the end opposite the box ) the screws for holding 
the wires are fixed upright and perpendicular to the face of the sounding board ; the 
strings, twenty-^two in numtber ( 8 octaves ) are of steel wire, and of equal length, the 
requisite adjustment as to length being attained by the wires passing over or rather 
through some ivory pegs arranged diagonally across the board. 

The instrument is played with the finger and ' mizrab.' It is tuned from one not# 
below the key note, and then regularly up the scale by full tones. 

We now come to the stringed instruments, which are played with a bow ( gaz of 
kumani ). There are several varieties : the most pretensions is the — 

873. — *• TduB^—A long handled instrument, of which the body is in the form of a 
peacock, whence the name. The upper part of the body is covered with strained parch- 
ment, and the lower part highly colored, gilt and varnished to resemble a peacock. This 
curious instrument is figured in the plate annexed. The handle, which is very long, is 
hollow, but faced with a thin slip of ti^n wood. It carries sixteen moveable brass frets. 
Along the left side of the keyboard or handle, a small bar of wood is attached, which 
carries sixteen pegs, which hold sixteen sympathetic steel strings " tarb, '' which ar# 
arranged slightly diagonally, so as to come down to the bridge of the instrument,, which 
supports the four main strings on the upper edge, and the sixteen '' tarb " strings through 
sixteen small holes in the centre of it. The four strings are arranged as usual : one alone at 
the .right side, which is changed by fingering to produce the melody; the other three tuned 
to the key note, fifth and octave form the bass or drone accompaniment : the four strings 
are made, the first three of steel, the fourth of brass wire. All are of equal length and 
attached to four large pegs, two in front and two at the side of the extreme end of the 
handle, but as the second string produces a shriller tone than could be got by having the 
full length and tightening the screw, it is shortened by a small ivory peg through which it 
passes, just below the fifth fret. The instrument, which I have heard played with consider- 
able skill, is played with a bow fitted with a number of black horse hairs, and stiffened with 
renin ( biroza ) ; the hairs of the bow are not arranged flat as in an European violin bow, 
but in a bunch, with a piece of wood at one end, which can be adjusted to tighten tho 
hairs. When once set right ihej are tied down with string, there being no jEtcrew 
arrangement as in the European bow. 

276 CfetM XXVI— division I. 

874- — ** Sdrangi.^'-Is the c<tt[imoB fiddte wed by all the nautcb plajen. It has a 
thick ah OTt handle, almost as broad as the body, and is like it, hollow. The body is alsa 
hollow, and faced with parchment ; it is chamfered or pared away at tiie sides towavds the 
middle. The strings are of catgut, four in BUmber,^ a^d attached ta scvews with large knoba 
fixed in the handle, two in froni and two at the sidea There are also eleven or tlurteeo. 
brass wire ' tarb ' or sym,patheiio strin^s^ T^ich are fixed ta screws or peg& arranged 
in two rows i these pass thirongh the body of the hauidjie aud project at the side* The eoi, of 
the wires are iutroduced through small holea iA the suorfatf^ The sound of tius ii^tnuoent 
is very harsh bjsA disagreeable^ The first strio^*^ and the seconjd„ iij^ oirdw* to^ shorten the 
length, rest on a small bridge neai? the tighteAi^g ^OK^'^x cadledi '' ftl^" ov '' p(Uk i" the 
third rests on a tag of tightly woui^ sUk^ possibly to d^en the sound :. thia. tag, which 
can be pulled imdei: the string at plea8u;re„ i^ c^e4 " bflitti " The curious sha^ of the 
head aad handle will be seen vix the plate^ 

Another instrument was described to mie as. in nee in ]Pattuiibi!„ aa tiie Gfal^g, ( fig^ 
7 ). I have some misgiyings that thia is either the fiame as ^arai^a,, or only a yari^t^. I 
have not been able to procure a specimen, bijit a*ft told that it ia at once recoguis^ by the 
hkody being ijk the shape of a kite (paitang,) Tbe body i* njiade of i^cood, and the upper part 
is hollow aAd open, the loT^er pa,rt i^ <?<?Lvered ^th pfi^rchment aad cairries the bricl^e. Tbora 
l^e fiye stringa attached to* screws placed thu3 < 
in the handle, and also eleven sympathetic strings^ ^ 
i^hich are attached at the side. The instrument; | 
is played with the " gazi *' or bo^. I 

87ft.—" 5PmI " or ** T(u?."— This iaa mi:^hr^;^eriustruji9eAt than a»y of the forego* 
ing. Its body is of roughly c^t deodaj* ^ood, shap^d a^ in, fig. 8,^ the upper part being 
tiollow, the la^er covered ^ith parchment ;^ it haa fowr stnugs,, three of steel wire„ and the 
fourth of thick tyifiated copper Mcire> afl^d is played with ai rude bow. This, in^tnun!^t 
ifi only ta be fatyid iii yillages, ap,d ia saad to^ be much used, iu Miryrar.. 

876,—**' Dotira."— An inatrtweut cabled dot^ra^but hq.ying however fouff^atri^gs^ is 
ILot unlike in shape te the Ch^rtara,, but ha9 a short thick b9^^ like a sairangii. 

8f 7. — ^* ChMxa — ia the fakir fiddle, it ia represented iu fig. 9.. The thiee stringa 
are made of bunches of black horse hair^ and there atr^ five 9ym,pathetic striugs« The handle 
is covered with yrood aud ia hojlo^, the lov^r part, of tho bod^ is. coyered i^iih parchment.. 

979. — ^^ Kcmdnchi^* — is a sort of large ^dle, twi.ce the si^e oi 9i ^' 9araugi| '^ aa4 
used mostly by Kashmiris ( fig. S. ) 

Before passmg on to the wind instruments, I should nibention that the mauufactws 
of striuged instruments is a apecialty o| oue oiasa of yBrorl^en ' Kh^ta mb ai x d ' >. they 
never make drums or pipes of any sort. 

Their tools are like those of ordinaiy carpenters^ but capable of doing smaMer and 
finer work. They have the *^ tesha " or adze } some saws, a *^ chos4^' or long thin rftsp> 
a " tikora."'* or three cornered file, a '* miy^n-tarish," or gouge or scoop to make Uie hoHow 
handles of instrunients yrith j a " nimgira ** or half round file j a ^* kanassi '* or two edged 
file with a fine or *^ smooth '* cut ; a " sathri '^ or " ohaurasi '* ( small chisel ) ; " saani,*' 
fbrceps j '* parkar *' or compasses, and a *^ barma,** to bore holes. The wood used is 
invariably ^ t^^U," ^hich is tolerably h?krd, does not split, has no resin or oil, poHshes weU, 

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Class XXVL— Division II. 277 

Md is not lif^ble to inaects orto decay. The dry shell of the great gourd ((hcurUta maxima) 
and Lagenaria ( the battle gourd) are in request for the bodies of all sorts of si t4rs, 
bins &c. ; ivory is reqi\ired for inlaying and for the bridges ( ghori or surdh6r( ) of the 


These are not so numerous as the stringed instruments, nor are they commonly 
tised, except perhaps the binsri or flute, and a sort of flageolet ; snake charmers carry the 
^* bin/* and trumpets are used in heathen worahip. 

The following is a list ; — 

879. — '* Banart " — A flute or flfe with four holes, made of bamboo. 

880. — *' Nai " is a straigl^t pipe somewhat similar. 

881. — *' Alfkoza" — A sort of flageolet also made of bamboo, has seven holes, 
U slightly funnel-shaped, and played either singly or with two in the mouth at once. 

882. — " Sitmd " — vulgarly of^led ** tutf " — A wooden tube with a trumpet shaped 

tend, Xn fact a sprt of clarionet. 

883, — *' Wolr* "— A flageolet played by Eashmirfs, very like the last named. 

884. — ^* -Pm." — This instrument consists of a double flageolet, fitted to a hollow 
find narrow necked gourd. It is figured in the annexed plate. It is principally played by 
vaake obannera. 

885. — " Skamao" — ^From the Bunnoo hills, and also to be met with in other hill 
plaxses of the west Puiyab. Is a regular bag^pipe, or set of pipes fitted with an inflated 
goat's skin. 

886. — '* Mardang " — is a sort of postman's horn, 

887.—" 2V*n'"— isavery long, and loud sounding stwight brass trumpet, used at 
inarriages, religious festivals, &c. When curved it is called <• kamii." Horns (narsingha), 
iwd concb shells (shank) are (4so used on such occasions, 

878 Class XXVI.-^DMsions in ^ IV. 


The following are miscellaneous : — 

888. — " Jottaran^,"— consists of a seiies of l^in porcelain caps of sizes, partly filled 
with water, according to the note required, and so tuned to two or three octaves, 
note bj note. Thej are played with small bamboo sticks, like our harmonicon, Ac, 

889. — " TaUi " — a small bell worn round the neck. 

890.—" Jora or Kaitm "—two amaU bells, struck ojve In the other. 

891. — " Santiir *' — a steel triangle, similar to that used in bands with us. 

^92< — *' C^ina"— Large cymbals. 

Bfl8<— " JMf^ "—Also a kind of cymbal. 

894. — " Mejra *' — A name for cymbals appeajcing in the Ougaira (Montgomesy) 

895. — *' KatrtM " — two pieces of hard dark wood, generally shisham, played just as 
the " bones" are by Negro singers. 

896. —' Mtinchcmg or mucha/ng " ifi the Jew's harp. This toy appears to be of great 
antiquity ip India, and is of exactly the same form ,and construction as those used by 
children in £ux<^. I am told that at Kalka (Ambala District) at a certain season of the 
year these toys are made and sold by hundreds. 


Drums are so universally admired, and foi^n such a necessary aocompmiiment of 
«V0ry entertainment, prooesston, or ceremony, that it is not surprisiiig to find a gieat 
variety of every possible size and shape. 

897. ** Tatnhur " — is an English Military drum.* 

898, ** j)hol " — Is a very large barrel-shaped drum, .held horizontally, bo4h ends 

being fitted with leather or parchment, and struck with slightly curved sticks. 

899. '' Dholki ** or Dholdk — is the same shape, but somewhat smaller. 

9Q0^ « paJedwaj** — A large drum of barrel-shape, but much more elongated, and 

consequently having the parchment end much ttnaller in diameter. It is used in processions. 

901, ** NaJedra " — Is a kettle drum. 

902. " Dhanssa^* — A military kettle drum carried on horse back. 

903, — " Naubat "^ A very large kettle drum carried on camel back. 

•^ Not to b« confused with tambura, the sort of guitar before described. 

au88 XXVI.-^Divisim IV. 279 

90i.---IVtMa.— Tke pair of small drums played onto accompany the ''sarangi '' at a 
nautch. The body is made of turned and lacquered wood ; the bases being rather broader 
than the upper end, they stand mpright, and have parchment at the upper end only, 
vhich can be adjusted and tightened by long leather thongs. The tabla are always in 
pairs, tuned differently ; the one with a Mgh note is marked with a large black spot on the 
jMivehment, and is called ** agaura ; *' the other or lower toned drum is called ^' pichaura ** 
^t '^dMma'' — played with the band. 

905.—'^ Teuiha'^ is a sort of tambourine. Its body in fact consistsof asort of basin of 
pottery ware, covered with goat skin and played with sticks. A hole is made through the 
basin at the back. The instrument is worn suspended from the neck by the performer 
by strings, and used in processions, weddings, &c. 

906. — ** Daira or Darya " is a large tambourine without bells. 

907. — ** Khanjri^* is a smaller tambourine with bells, set in the rim, just as in the 
Suropeasi tanbofirine. 

A natite book of musical instruments I have seen, contains a small but rather deep 
■Hide tambourine, with bells caUed '* daftt." 

908. — ^* M4xmdil " is a small bwrreUshaped dmm, of turned wood, hung by a string 
«ound the neck, and played on at both end's with the hand. This is used by itinerant 
showmen ike 

909« — " Ik^^' — is ^ Bort of tambourine, used only by bhangis, and chi&ras (sweeper 
<xuste). A circular wooden frame, the front eorered with parchment and the back by a 
network of catgut < or rather goat-gvt ) tearing, however, a round hole in the centre. 

dOl,.^«« Dauru** —A small drum, need by Kah^rs ( hill carriers) and also by itinerant 
Aowmen z it is shaped Hke a 'd«mb*beil,' is of turned wood, and has a parchment face at 
^ther end; two small strings mre attached, each armed with a pellet covered with cloth. 
The little instrument is grasped in the middle by one hand, and then being twisted about, 
the pellets hit the parchment and produce the sound. 

The Eahirs, when sitting round to sing, will finequently use an earthem * ghara ' 
for a drum, or will support a metal plate on au inverted ^ ghara, ' and lay a bracelet or 
bangle on the plate, and strike it as a drum ; the bracelet causes a jingling sound, as well 
as the drumming noise. 

911.-^Tumkandri, — A drum ussd by Slashmiris. It consists of an earthen pot, 
narrow at the bottom and wide at tha mouth, shaped in £Eict like a flower pot ; the mouth 
is closed with parchment or skin, and the instrument is held under the left arm and 
drummied on with the right hand. 

280 CUiss XXVII. 


This Glass cannot be expected in the present state of advance to which this cotintry 
has attained) to be very uumei'ously represented, or to exhibit any tery great skUl^ I shall 
have little else to offer by readers, than a list of the best of such articles as were exhibited 
in 1864, and have been elsewhere met with. 

The first kind consist of locks^ 

812.— Ordinary native padlockd^ 

Every man fastens his house door, and evidn his boied, by meaiis of A chain ancl 
staple with one of thei^e padlocks. 

The padlocks are of two kindd, oti^ of Which \t considered insecure) and the other 
other more difficult to open. 

The upper one ( fig 1 ), In the annexed ptate, is closed simply by & catch which is 
pressed forward by a spiral springs so ad to fix the end of the handle which projects 
downwards for the purpose. 

The key is a mere screw ; it is inserted at the mouth of a short tube, which carries 
at one end the iron catch, and is surrounded by the spiral spring. It is Wound in till the 
thick part touches the outer shell of the padlock, when the leverage causes the internal 
spiral to be contracted, by which means the catch is withdrawn and the handle let 
loose. A thief could of course effect the same thing by inserting almost any old screw key 
of the same size. A single blow would also remove the end of the case, and then the catch 
could be pushed back with ease. A glance at the sections shewn iu the sketch will explain 

The second kind of lock, though still ruder in appeatUnce, and having the 
awkward bar or iron ( shewn at fig 2 ) for its key, is yet stronger and resists the burglars 
of this country better. In this lock there is a strong iron bolt thrown across ( fig 8, a ) 
and is held there by the upper bolt (&), being furnished with a stiff spring in either side 
( c. c. ) This cannot slip through the hole at the end of the case ( d ) Without being first 
compressed by the fork of the key. A thief, unless he happens to have a key of the right 
size to catch the springs ( which may vary considerably ), has to break the whole lock. At 
best however this is a very rude and by no means secure padlocks Some remarks about 
native locks will be found in the Jury ^port on Cultery and Hardware at page 152, H teq. 
They should have more properly been inserted here, but it Was foUnd imx>ossible to break 
up the report. 

Among the most noteworthy of these locks, is that sent ttom fiasahhr ( No. 7779 ), 
and used in other parts of the hill districts also. In principle it is not unlike the second 
figure in the plate, as it consists of a bolt thrown across the aperture in the lower part : 
the key is however different, it has to be inserted vertically through a slit in the upper 
part, which is made with a fiat top, and then being inserted, has to be pushed sideways till 
it catches the spring inside, and allows the bolt to be pushed back* The key is shaped ai 
at fig. 3. 



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Class XXVIL 281 

Omitting locks imitated from European models, the ones worth extracting from the 
Catalogue of 1864 are — 

913. — [ No. 7870 ]. — Monster lock of polished iron ( valued at 40 Rs. ) made by 
Ilahi Baksh of Lahore. This is on the principle of figure 2, and opens with a lever bar. 

914.-^[ No. 7873 ]. — Puzzle padlock. — This is in shape like ahorse : it is from a 
maker in the distant province of Bukhdra. It is certainly difficult to open. The key is fixed 
in it, but has to be properly applied, so as to enable the bolt to be withdrawn. In shape it 
is made to resemble a horse. I had no opportunity of discovering the secret. The great 
difficulty is to find out how to insert the key, which carries a small moveable bar at one end* 
If the key is once inserted the puzzle is overcome, as a push throws back the bolt. 

916. — [ No. 7890 ]. — Was a padlock, made in the form of a tiger, and gilt. It was 
made by Pir Baksh of Lahore, who valued it at 20 Eupees. 

A series of neatly made scales and weights for postage purposes was sent from 

2^2 Class XXVIIL— Division I. 


In former days, as already intimated, the art of making swordB and guns, as well 
as of defensive armour, was successfullj practised in the Punjab. It is at present onlj to 
be found in the workshops of a few artificers, relicts of the Sikh days, and of apprentices 
who had learnt from them. In Kashmir, however, both swords and firearms are woll 
made, and the sword blades of Peshawur are famous. The cutlers of Sealkot, NizimAbad, 
and Waz(r4b4d (Gujrlnwala district ), and of Gujrat, are still able to make such weapons, 
but not of a yery good description of metal. 


It may be as well to make some mention of the art of cannon founding as 
practised in this country. 

The casting of cannons in brass was understood, and a few well finished 
specimens may be seen in the Lahore Fort Armoury, and one good specimen ( Mohamadan 
work ) in the Lahore Museum. 

Outside the latter building stands the once celebrated gun called '* Zamzama," 
or " Bhangiwalla top." 

It was cast in the time of Ahmad Shah Bdrdni, and was evidently considered a 
wonderful work, even after making allowance for the Oriental metaphors of the inscription. 

The gun is 14 feet 4^ inches in length, exclusive of the cascabel, and the aperture 
of the bore is 9^ inches. 

The following is a transcript of the descriptive account placed in the Central Museum. 

The great gun called " Zamzama, '* or the " Bbangfanwali top, " was cast A. D. 
1761, by Shah Wall Khan, Wazir of Ahmad Shah Durdni. 

After the departure of Ahmad Shah, the gun was left in the possession of the 
Sikh Sirdars of the Bhangi misl ( whence its name ** Bhangianwali top.") It came to be 
regarded as a talisman of supremacy among the Sikhs. Eventually, Banjft Singh 
possessed himself of it, and it was used by him at tlie siege of Multan, in A. D. 1818. 
From that date it used to stand at the Delhi gate of Lahore, until removed in 1860. 

The gun now stands near the Central Museum, facing the Sadr Bazaar, in which 
position it was placed on the occasion of the Duke of Edinburgh's visit to Lahore, in 
February 1870. 

Class XXVIIL— Division L 283 

The inscription on the gun is translated as follows : — 

" By order of the Emperor [ Ahmad Shah ] Ddr-i-diSran, 
Shah WalC Kh4n, the Wazir, made this gun, named 
Zamzama, the taker of strongholds. 
The work of Shah- Nazr. 

" In the reign of the Emperor, possessing dignity like the Peridfin, 
Dispenser of Justice, robed in equity, 


[In the reign of ] his present Majesty, Ahmad Shall Dur-i-Diir&n, 
A Prince occupying a throne mighty as Jamshid's, 


There was issued unto the Cliief Wazir, 
From the threshold of His Highness, 

An order to have cast, with every possible skill, 

A gun, terrible afei a di'agon, and huge as a mountain : 

[Yea, the order was given] to his heaven^enthroned Majesty's devoted servant, 
Shah Wali- Kh£n, Wazir. 

So; in olrder U^ effect this great achievement. 
The master-workman called up his endeavours ; 

Till, with consummate toil, was cast 
This wondrous gun — Zamzama,-^ 

A destroyer even of the strongholds of heaven— 
Under the auspices of his Majesty. 

I enquired of Reason for the date of this gun ; 
Season angrily replied — 

" If thou wilt give thy life in payment 
I will repeat to thee the date." 

I did so, and he replied ; — * Whai a gun is thda ! ' 
' The form of afire raining dragon.' ** 

The last lines give the chronogram of the date of the gun, 1174 A. H., or 1761 
A. D. 

The letters in the words have a numerical yalue, according to fhe *' Abjad '' 

Class XXVIIL— Division I. 

This gtin is mounted on a large carri^e ( takht ). The Sikha nsed ahiBhain wood 
for the cairriageH, but always preferred Eikar ( Acacia arahica ) for the wheels, on account 
of its tougbneas. The; thought this of so much importance, that for the supply to the 
arsenals in Kashmir, the Sikhs attempted to form a plantation of the Efkar in the 
uncongenial climate of Srinagar, where a few of the trees may still be seen. Besides 
gnns cast in brass, long narrow iron guns may be seen at Lahore, and also a few of 
wider bore, made of bars of iron secured by iron rings or bands. 

Iron small bore cannons, mounted on the wooden saddles of camels were in use, 
and called Zambi^rak. 

The principle of making guns in bars with rings, was considered as the early and 
rude idea, and was abandoned when the art of casting was invented. 

The casoabel of a cannon is called " dumeli" or " badeli" ; the trunnions " hathiSa." 

The frame of the carriage on which the gun rests is " parh" ; " makkl " is the 
sight mark on the muzzle; and "dldb&n"the sight at the other end. The touchhole ia called 
" pifila". 

Oulib Singh invented a very small gun ( of iron ) mounted on a small carriage 
for hill warfare, it was drawn by a man or by a goat. 

The " Obchi " or howitzer, was only introduced after the contact of the British 
power with the Sikhs, and was used to discharge shells ( gola-s^l ) made of rinc, 
because they did not know how to cast hollow iron shells. 

The Obchl is said to be kothidar, or having a chamber at the end of the bore, 
which the cannon has not. 

The shell is made in a mould having a solid centre and a layer of wax over it ; 
over the was other layers of clays are smeared. The wax is melted (as described at page 
141 ) and thus a hollow is left, wiiich is filled by the melted metal. 

An other way is to take an iron " reza, " or hollow iron mould, which separates 
into two halves ; each is filled with a mixture of sand and oil, and a wooden ball of the 
required size first impressed into one half and then into the other j a hollow sphere is 
thus formed when the halves are closed together, but in the middle, an earthen ball 
( bacha mitti ka ) is fixed to an iron pin, projecting from the bottom of the mould. The 
*' bacha " is made of the same size as the interior hollow of the shell ia to be. Metal is 
then poured in. 

ClasB XXVIIL— Division II. 285 

The mouth of the shell is fitted with a tube of box wood, through which passeli 
a fieilita ( or fatQa ) or slow iuat<ch, made of cotton thread soaked with a paste of powder 
and spirits. 

The ** obchi " was made for shells of 10 seers, 15 seers, or 20 to 25 seers. 

The next kind of gun to be described is the ** H6th " — always constructed of the 
length of nine times the diameter of the aperture ; either shell or shot could be fired, and 
could be sent much further than by the obchi. This gim was also made without a 
chamber ( kothi. ) 

The large mortar was called " Ghubfira ;" the length of the piece being half as much 
again as the diameter of the mouth : it was made of gun metal, never of iron. 

Large shells were made with a series of thin iron bars, called " kap^nch " inside. 
This was done by simply taking an earthen bacha, or ball, to keep the centre clear, over 
this the iron bars were arranged aU round, fixed with wire at the bottom and round the neck. 
Each kapanch was shaped thus < ^ ~~2 I> Over this frame wax was spread, and 

then earth. The wax being melted out, as before described, and metal poured in. When the 
shell case was thus complete, the earthen bacha was broken up, and picked out in pieces, 
leaving the collection of '^ kapanchs " inside, which remained attached by the neck to the 
shell by the contact of the melted metal. The explosion of the shell caused the plates 
to separate, and a dangerous discharge of these sharp pieces of blade-like metal was the 

Several guns called " jazail " have been used in forts. They are merely very large 
long muskets, so big that a man could not use them. 

These particulars were given me by Nidhdn Singh, an old man who used to cast 
guns in the Sikh times. He tells me he has cast 700 pieces in his day, and originally 
learnt through his father from a K4bulf. 



These will be best illustrated by enumerating, with the addition of descriptive 
notes, where necessary, the oollections sent to the Exhibition of 1864» 

916.— [ 10364 ].— A pistol (the English term is used in P&ijdbf— pistdl.) 
917. — [ 10365 ].— A blunderbuss, called *' kar^bfn " in the vernacular catalogue. 
It is a short and somewhat wide mouthed piece, but the short and trumpet shape barrelled 
weapon generally known as the blunderbuss, is not called karfibfn, but " sher bachi." 

918.— [ 8731 ]— Matchlocks inlaid with gold. 
These matchlocks aiQ of the form which will be seeu in the plate representing 

286 Class XXVIIL^LivUions II. 

* a grotip of arms/ There is one near the right edge of the pillar. It is fired hj a 
*^ falita " or slow match, and called ** banduk tora dir." This latter word is said 
to be derived from the " taur " or "tor," the Elephant creeper, the fibrous stalks of which, 
when dry, were used for slow matches. The air roots of the *' pipal " ( Ficua reUgio»a ) 
and of the " bar " ( Fictu IncUca ) are similarly used. 

" Banddk pathar kalah." — A long barrelled piece, firing with flint and pan. 

" Bharmir lahori." — A kind of weapon that has both flint and a slow match, in 
case either should fail to go off. It was invented in Banjit Singh's time by a Hindustani 
called Mirza Bharmar, whence the name. 

" Eafl." — This is merely a corruption of the English term rifle, and is made on 
the European model. 

" Banduk masala-dar " — " Mas£la-dar " means a weapon that is fired by a cap 
containing tlie explosive composition or " masala." 

" Kar^bin." — ^A short barrelled gun, with the muzzle slightly trumpet-shaped. 

'* Sher bachi " — A short barrelled and very trumpet-shaped weapon, not larger 
however, than a large old-fashioned horse pistol. 

*' Banddk rakh-d&r " has a rifle bore. 


919. — [ 8107 ]. — An air gun. ( This is imitated from the European model. ) 

920.— [ 10301 ]. — A native matchlock — Sirmur State. 

Deba Ismail Khan. 
021.— [ 10409 ].— A Pathan matchlock. 

Deba Ghazi Khan. 
922.— [ 104il3— 34 ].~A matchlock from the Khurisan, exhibited by the Luhd 

923.— [ 10414— 312 ].— Another from the Bozdir hills. 

924.— I 10416—314 ].— Another from Rijanpur. 

926— [ 10417—315 ].— Another sent by the Gubchain Chibtf. 

926.— [ 10418— 316].— Another from Rfijhan by Imam Baksh Khan. 

Shooting belts, called *' Kamr-khisa," accompany most of these guns. They 
are furnished with a series of parallel tubes bound together, for holding bullets, a shot 
flask, a powder horn or " shdkh, " flint and steel, and a knife. 


927.— [ 226 ].— ' Tofung Sindi '—value Rs. 500, from Sind, exhibited by MuhaiT- 
HAD Ali Khan. 

928.— [ ]. — ' Banddk mah sipaia '—The long heavy matchlock usedhy the hiU 
tnbea : it is always known bv having two prongs or metal aupports to steady the baireli 


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the we»|>oii being too long and beaTj to ensure tin accurate shot without such support. 
Though these guns take a great time to load and adjust, yet, in the hands of AfrEdfs and 
others, when thej do go off, they prove very deadly weapons. 

It is now time to describe the method of making guns and boring the barrels. 

The stock of a native gun is an unimportant part, and is generally narrow in form 
aa will be best seen from the plate, showing a group of arms on the wall of the Ezhibitioa 
of 1804. 

The matchlock farthest to the left, and next a huge double-handed sword, is the 
usual form of a native gun: the one represented is " tora-dAr," i. e., fired by a slow match ; 
the stock is of sbtsham wood. The two guns next to this having curiously carved stocks, so 
broad at the but end, are ^om Sahawalpur. The stocks are made of stained shisham, and 
have some silver and ivory inlaid ornaments. One of the long guns from the Derajit has 
a sort of knob or pad at the end to protect the user from the effects of the recoil. Such 
a piece is shewn in the centre of the group in the plate. 

The locks of guns need no remark. There is first the simple matchlock, which 
consists merely of a trigger, with a small bar, which allows the piece of hooked metal which 
holds the ' falita ' or match, to drop and come in contact with the pan ; there is also the 
common flint and steel lock, in no way differing from old fashioned pieces of European 
manufacture. Such locks as are now made with nipple and cap, are copies of the simpls 
European model. 

Gun barrels are made in three ways: — 

First the common way, which is inferior ; but guns for the rank and file in the Sikh 
army were thus made. The gun so mode is called " patta-ka-banddk." It consists simply 
in bending a fiat broad bar of iron round a mandrel ( l&thi ) into a tube, and hammering 
together the edges till they are thoroughly united. One good point about these guns was, 
that if they burst, which they ofl«n did, they did not do much harm. 

The second way is to take a series of strands ( gai ) of iron : each strand ia 
originally square, and then called kandla, but has to be first twisted, so as to form a spirals 
sixteen of these strands are then longitudinally arranged round a shaft or " lAthf " of 
iron, and tied in their place with iron wire, " Ohikni mittf " a sort of fire clay, is next 
smeared over, and then the barrel iBheated,a few inches at a time, and hammered together. 
The spiral twist of the strands leaves a peculiar water-mark in the iron, hence the barrel 
made in this second way are called " jauhar-dllr." 

The third way diffei's from this, in that no " Uthi " is used, and the barrel is made 
of a spiral hand of iron, over which strands are again wound the rCTerse way. This sort 
of gim is said to be " chun'dar." 

This species of gun is said to be best made in Bali^wfilpur. and nest to that at Eohat. 
Oun barrels are mostly made with " Ouleri " or with " Bi^aur " iron. 

288 Class XXVllL— Division IL 

I shall only add, that in these '' watered" guns, the outer surface is either round, or 
filed into eight facets, whence called *' pahldar." 

The following account of the Kohat manufacture has been kindly communicated 
to me by Mr. Robert Egerton, C. S., who saw the process. 

" This is the piece of forging from Kohat, which I saw the gunsmiths there do 
before me in about an hour. 

'^ They take a flat bar of Bajaur iron, straighten the edges, and reduce the bar 
to a uniform thickness by hammering and heating : they then hammer the bar to a point, 
and work it with a hammer under several heatings to a coil. No rod down the centre is 
used. The coil is hammered tight by hitting it on the ends, and is welded by covering it 
with a yellow clay (common at Kohat) and heating it. The clay has a reducing effect, and 
the surface of the iron becomes very fusible under its influence, so that when heated, the 
joints of the coil are easily welded with very light hammers and light blows. When the 
first coil is welded, another coil of finer iron, or of mixed metal, used to give a fine grain, 
is hammered on, the twist of the coil being reversed so as to break joint with the first 
coil. The upper coil is welded in the same way as the lower, and the whole mass becomes 

" The barrel of a long gun is made by the process above described, more strips of 
iron being welded to the end of the first piece of the coil. 

The points about the forging worthy of note appear to me to be — 

Xgt. — The quality of the iron, which is remarkably fine and free from scale in 

2nd, — ^The curious effect of the yellow clay. I think the clay should be analysed : 
its effect on the iron is surprising. 

Si-j. — The forging being completed without a mandril or a^iy contrivance of 
preventing the sides of the barrel from collapsing under the blows of the hammer at 
welding heat." 

I may here mention that the broad strip of flattened iron which is made into the 
inner tube or coil, is called " patta **. The thin rod which is used in the outer coil is in 
its first stage merely a thin square rod, and is called kandla ; before its application to the 
barrel it is twisted into a spiral stick ( in the state called '* kandla bata hua " ) and it is 
this spiral, that when the rod is coiled on the barrel, leaves the water mark. 

Gun boring is done as follows : — A gun, smooth^bored, ia caUed s4d4 ( i. e, plain ) 
and rifle*bored is said to be '* rakh-dar." 

Every gun barrel, whatever kind of bore it is designed to have, is first cleaned with 
a number of iron tools called '' silai," shaped like the '* burkd,'* which is the nextapphed. 

This is a round iron bar about \ inch in diameter, furnished with a handle thus : 


aass XXVIIL— Division II. 


At the end the bar is squared for about three inches of its length, and the square end is 
generally made of harder iron than the shaft ; this end has also two plates of hard 
iron ( aspat ) welded in on either side, so as to give two sharp edges. This tool is touched 
with oil and forced into the rough barrel, and twisted about till the barrel is smooth 

The next tool is a " b&Gl,** shaped like a burku, but the squared end is not onlj 
three inches, but a foot and a half or more in length, and is armed with welded plates on 
two of the sides as before, but the plates are not of aspit merely, but of the hardest and 
finest steel ( faul4d.) 

After this, a tool called '^niz^k'* is used. 

Tlie niaak consists of an iron rod about 4 feet long, with a short wooden handle. 
At the end of a rod are attached by a point, two half circular files, which hang down like 
the limbs of a flail t the flat sides being together and the file surfaces facing outwards. 
When put together they form one cylindrical file, which fits the mouth of the gun barrel, 
and is made to do so accurately by the introduction of one or more slips of leather 
between the two files. 

This is worked up and down the barrel by hand, till the final smoothness and 
polish are given. 

For the smooth bore, the process Concludes with the use of the " nizdk." 

To produce the rifle bore, the above processes are followed, and when the nizdk 

has been applied, the rifle bore toolj " rakh-bur,'* is applied. This consists of a long 

shaft of iron, at one end is an if on head shaped thus : 

The head is thus milled, in order that it may be fixed firmly to the apparatus 
presently to be described, which gives the peculiar spiral motion required. At the other end 
is the head with which the groove is made. It consists merely of the end of the shaft, split 
down the middle, so as to be capable of being widened by the insertion of a " patri " or 
little wedge-plate of iron, and furnished on either side with a little bit of file about 
1^ inch long, and made of the hardest steeL 

290 Class XXVllL— Division 11. 

Wlien the end of this is first forced into the barrel, the files make only a slight 
mark ; but as by the working of the files ( by the motion presently described ) the grooTes 
get deeper, it is necessaiy to widen the filing end. This is done by knocking the * patri ' 
farther and farther into the slit, till the greatest distention is produced that can be required. 
But this file head cannot be merely forced into the barrel and worked straight up and down 
the groove, but has to be regularly cut in a spiral, hence it is necessary to communicate to 
the " rakh-bur " an uniform spiral motion, coupled with considerable power. 

This is effected by the following piece of simple machinery. First, a long and solid 
plinth or bench of brickwork and clay (a. a.) is built : it is about 7 feet long, 2 J feet high, and 
2 feet broad, the surface is not perfectly horizontal, and has one end slightly higher than 
the other. On the surface of this slope a stout plank is fixed, the end of which projectg 
some distance beyond the plinth. On to this two stout parallel bars (c. c.) are fixed ; secured 
at one end by a cross brace (/), in which there is a hole, and a central pole or shaft oi hard 
heavy sal wood (e) passes through it. The other end of the pole or shaft is held by a moreabld 
cross bit, (f^) which slides up and down in appropriate grooves in the side bars ; the project- 
ing end of the central shaft is furnished with a knob and two stout arms (cT), which the 
workman lays hold of to push the shaft forward and draw it back. The milled head iron 
shaft carrying the files as before described, {h) is now firmly fixed into the end of the wooden 
shaft, and the barrel to be bored is fixed with iron staples down to the end of the pro- 
jecting plank, so that the end of the iron rod enters the mouth of the barrel ((^). The 
arrangement will be easily understood by a glance at the diagram. 

As at present described, however, the motion of the central pole or shaft would be 
straight up and down, whereas it is required to have a spiral motion. The hard wood 
pole is, therefore, deeply grooved by two spiral incisions, and the upper cross brace P, is 
perforated, not merely by a round hole, but by a round hole armed with two teeth, which, 
catching in the groves, cause the shaft, although simply propelled by the arm, to 
assume a spiral motion. 

The barrels are bored usually with four grooves of mote, two only are made at • 
time, and the position of the barrel then changed to receive two more. 

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Class XXVIIL—DmsioH III. 291 


Nearly all good blades are imported, and we bear constantly of ' Irdnf ' as a term 
implymg excellence in a sword blade, meaning tbat it comes from Persia ( or from 
Syria even. ) 

Sword blades of tolerable quality may perbaps be made by a few remaining 
workmen in some parts of the Punjab ; but not many. The Kashmir State has an 
armoury, in which good blades are still made, or might be made. But the best blades 
are made beyond Peshawur. The late Oolonel James's Settlement Iteport contains the 
following brief notice : — 

** Sword blades of a coarser quality are manufactured at Peshawur, but those in 
** greatest request, other than Persia and Damascus blades, are the Teerahf, made in the 
** Oruckzye (Urakzai) hUls of Teera, at what is known as the Mirzd Kh^ni factory. The 
** temper of these swords is highly appreciated, and some, purchased perhaps at a small 
** price, are valued nearly as much as Ir&ni blades ". 

In form the swords do not vary much. The varieties most known in the Punjab 
are the ' talw&r' and * kirch' ; shamsher, the Persian word, is the equivalent of the Hindi 

The talw&r has a slight curve in the blade ; the handle has either a side guard or 
not. The straight cross handle shaped in the sketch is generally seen in Persian and 
£hur&^ and K&bul swords. 

The basket guard like our Infantry sword, or like the Highland sword, is called 

The '^hirch*' is a straight sword. The European Infantry sword would be called 
by this name. The Sikh Artillery men had heavy straight swords with iron or brass 
guards and hilts. 

The " khanjar " is a dagger with a curved blade, like the bichda, afterwards 
described, only bigger. 

Sword sheaths, " miyan," are made of thin slips of * sembal ' wood, covered with 
velvet; leather, or kimkh&b. 

aass XXVIIL— Division III. 

The daggers known in the Punjab are the " katir, " the ' pesh kabs, ' and the 
" biehiSi." The long Afghan knife is known aa " chhura," and in the Peshawnr liflto » 
dagger or kuife called " babudi " appears. 



' Eatir ' ia the name of a triangular and heavy bladed d^ger, whose chief pecn< 
liarity ia in the handle, which consists of two side bars to protect the hand, and one croas 
bar by whioh it is graeped at right angles to the direction of the blade. 

The " peahkabz " has a blade quite straight at the back, and sloping at the edge 
to a fine point ; the handle ii usuall; of ehtrmahi, the white bone of a large Cetacean, apokeii 
of by Kichardaon as the " seer-fiah," a sort of Tunny.* The sheath, (either of leather or 
velTet) ia worn bo ae cover a part of the handle. 

The " bichiii " ia a dagger with a waved blade, and has the handle either of uxin 
gilt and shaped like the sketch, or else has a handle with a side giiard also like a eword. 

The handles of d^^^gers are often of ivory, of " m&rpech" or jade, of agat«, 
or of rock crystal, 

The blades of all these are often prettily inlaid with gold, and then are described as 
'koft,' or ' kfir-i-tilfr.' The handle of the katar, which is always of steel, is generally 
inlaid with gold. One of the prettiest daggers of the ' bichlii ' kind I have seen, was one 
found, ( not made ) at Lahore, which had a hollow slit cut down both sides of the blade, 
the alit being filled up by a row of amalt pearls let in. 

Swords are inlaid with gold, usually just below the hilt, for a workman will not 
spoil the appearance of the water of a fine blade by working it over ; but common aword 
blades are frequently inlaid all over, and especially hunting awords, called "talwir 
shikjirg^h, " which are worked all over with figures of tigers, dogs, antelopes, £e. 

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aas8 XXVIIL— Division III. 298 

Generally, it may be observed for the benefit of those who have a taste for collect* 
ing specimens of inlaid armour, the best are those old pieces preserved from the 
Sikh days, or which have travelled from Kabul or elsewhere. The few remaining 
workn^n ( who hold licenses for the purpose, and tell you that they are " license- 
d»r " • ) are ready to furbish up and inlay with gold, such weapons, on the conditions 
of an advance wherewith to purchase the necessary gold wire and other material 
and a good long time to do the work in. The latter condition is indispensable' 
for the work is, in its nature, one of great delicacy, and requires the deliberate and patient 
work of an oriental hand, and the workmen knowing that they have a monopoly 
indulge their fancy as to the amount of labor they choose to undergo in the day. 

This is said mostly of the few old armourers who remain at Lahore and Amritsar 
reminiscences of the Sikh times : they have each a few apprentices, who will no doubt 
pursue the trade after them as long as European travellers visit India and demand such 
wares. These to my mind do better work than the more modem schools of Sealkot and 
Gujrat, which seem to excel rather in producing caskets and fancy ornamental work 
than in the much admired armour and weapon inlaying. 

I need not extract from the collection of 1864 a long list of weapons to illustrate 
the above remarks ; there were endless repetitions of the same forms of daggers each 
perhaps having its own special merits in design, but offering no tangible feature to 
discriminate it in a printed list. There were swords of the kinds above described som 
new, — some old,— some exhibited for the sake of the blade,— some for the inlaying —som 
for the hilt and handle, others for the scabbard gay with jewels and velvet j but the 
Peshflrwur list will give an idea of the real varieties of swords made. 

I should not, however, omit to mention that Sirdar Bhagwdn Singh of Amritsar 
exhibited two or three swords of an unusual character. One was a huge blade, figured 
in the plate representing a group of arms, and carrying not only a solid basket hilt of 
steel, but an arm guard of steel also 5 there was also a sword of the cut and thrust 
order, intended to be used double-handed, figured on the upper and extreme left hand 
of the group, this is called ♦* hata " ; it belongs to Hindustan, and is used in show fightini?- 
when very long it is called " saif." Another sword in Sirdar Bhagwfin Singh's collection 
is in the lower part of the group. Still another, but not a Punjab specimen, was a huge 
Jciud of broad sword with a round point, used in show-fighting, and called * katah,' 

The Peshawur list contained the following :— 

[202].—" Shamsher MisrI."— Supposed to be an Egyptian blade, valued at Es. 200. 

[203] — " Shamsher Irani — chin^r Jauhar".— An Irdni or Persian blade with the 
jauhar or water mark, like the chindr (or grain of plane wood). 

[204], — Shamsher dozab&n&h. A two * tongued ' or two-edged sword. 

[213].— Talw^r Tirahi, exhibited by Ghtjlam Jan, and made in the Tira 
District already alluded to. 

[214].— Shamsher Shah-Husaini Irani— A sword of the Shah Husain fashion (the 
blade is ribbed longitudinally ) from Persia. 

• Under the Amis Act 

294 Class XXVIIL— Division IV. 

[216]. — Shamsher cbin&r jauhar Khurfis^ni — from Khurasan as its name implies. 

Then we have kniyes and daggers. The name of one of these I do not find in anj 
of our dictionaries. 

[193].—" Babiidf tildkdr," value Es. 45, by Kra of Peshawur.— A gold inlaid knifo 
or dagger. 

[ ]. — ChhurA jauhardAr, is an Afghan knife, worth Es. 120, 
Chhur^ TfrAhi is from Tira, as before noted. 

[223]. — * K&rd khurd.' — Two small knives, one rather larger than the other. These 
are not used in fighting, '< Kird " is the Persian equivalent to *^ chburi." 


There is not much of any interest remaining. The defensive armour perhaps 
is an exception, as it often exhibits skill in taste and workmanship. 

In former days finely made chain armour was worn, called " zira : " it was either 
worn with or without lining. I have seen one suit entirely cased in velvet. There is a 
short coat, " kurta zira," and leggings, " paijama zira," a helmet called " kulla zira," 
generally consisted of a globular shaped steel cap, surmounted by a plume, and protected 
all round, except over the face, by a curtain of chain work. 

Over the chain armour the *^ chdraina " was often worn, consisting of fotu* pieces 
or curved plates, one for the front of the breast, one behind, and one smaller one for each 
side, attached by straps ; armlets of steel accompanied these. Steel helmets called ' khod ' 
were worn, and were furnished with a sliding bar, which could be slipped down so as to 
protect the bridge of the nose. 

The whole " chiraina," when worn by the Sikh nobility, was beautifully inlaid 
with gold. 

Shields were in former days imiversally used, and are so still by all the Bilocfa 
Fathdn, and Afghan tribes. 

In former days they were either of steel inlaid with gold, or of rhinoceros hide 
(genda) or buffalo hide (the commoner ones), generally studded with four gilt bosses, or 
one larger boss in the centre ; they are always circular, and about 18 to 20 inches in 
diameter, but the size varies. 

Among miscellaneous weapons, the battle axe or " tabar,'' a broad edged axe, waa 
oGoasionaJly used ; and the armoury at Lahore contains one ( beautifully wrought with 
steel carved work ) said to have belonged to Guru Qobind Singh. 

Class XXrilL— Division IV. 295 

A large iron mace is also in the collection, consisting of a stout short rod, headed 
"writh a crown-shaped series of stout steel ribs, projecting or radiating on all sides from 
the central shaft 

The "chakra," or war quoit, has never been used in recent times, but the 
* Nihangs,' or Sikh fanatics, always carried, as part of their strange dress and accoutrements, 
a large quoit, which consists of a large thin circle of steel, the outer edge being sharp. 

Bows and arrows, as weapons of defence and offence, are now so out of date, that I 
could with difficulty find at Lahore or Amritsar a single workman who knew how to make 
them. They are still carried by the Hill Chiefs of Bajput descent ; and a bow is presented 
as a *' nazar," or offering of respect, to a paramount chief or power. 

Some of the bows are shaped like ours, me., a single curve or arc ; but those in 
the hills are mostly made with a double curye, like what we now see in pictures and 
sculptures as " Cupid's " bow. 

The bow consists of a central piece, often of horn or bone, and to this two other 
flexible pieces are joined and firmly bound; these are made of mulberry wood, 
first inserted into the centre block or hand-piece, and then bound with strips of cat^t or 
thin hide ; they are tipped very skilfully with horn : the whole bow is then painted, 
ornamented with flower patterns in gold and colors, and varnished. The bow string 
is of crimson silk tipped with catgut loops to attach it to the bow. 

The arrows are straight shafts of the munj grass stem ( kitna ), and tipped with 
solid points of steel ; the feather apparently of some kind of grey goose, — called ** *ukAb.'* 

The bows are made by a '' kamfingar," whose trade is distinct from that of the arrow 
maker, or " tir-gar. I foimd one of the latter at Lahore, who gave me the following account 
of his tools. 

His implements are : — 

" Kdlib "—an iron tube or mould through which the kana or shaft of the arrow, 
made of kana grass, is passed, to straighten it and pare off knots, &c.: it is heated if 

" Tirpai" — work stool. 

" Barma "—to bore holes. 

Arrow head or *' phal," which is made for him by an ironmonger. 

The arrow shaft is headed with wood, neatly bound on, so as to bear the incision of 
a nick to catch the bow string : the nick is called '' b^ar ;" the feather is made by attaching 
the feather stripped off the quill with glue to the shaft — four feathers are applied to each 

296 Class XXIX.— Division I. 


>/V>/WN/>il'VN < <*0»»V>i' V <>S/W^rWI 


T?hid Division is, I fear, a very miscellaneous one, nor have t aHy eiplan&tiofi to 
ofTer of the arrangement, or even of the contents of the pi^es devoted to it^ 

Whereveif it was possible, in describing special . mannfactures, I have incltided a 
description of the tools or machinery employed in the production, and henoe there woidd 
be no object in repeating them here* 

In some few cased) however, I had either omitted the details, Which it afberwards 
occurred to me might be Useful, or I had not obtained the requisite information ; for it 
is literally impossible to understand from a native description, unaided by any diagrams^ 
the tools and appliances used in the various handicrafts. It is necessary to go to the 
workshop and see both the form and use of each kind for oneself. 

But there are not a few trades and occilpations which could not be separately 
described except thi'ough the medium of a class like this, and on such groundsj I trusti the 
disorderly appearance of this chapter will meet with indulgence. 

It opens with some details of tools Used in trades already described. YhuSy we 
have the tools of the weaver, the silk fringe-maker, and the silk dyer, also the workman 
who ciimps and pleats cloth, a fashion once extensively in vogue. 

Then follow the implements of the following trades, which, as before suggested^ am 
merely residuary, and purposely exclusive of all such trades and occupations as have been 
otherwise noticed in the preceding page& 

Carpentei", " Mistri^ or tarkhan.'' 

Metal cleaner andarmoUrer, *^ SikHgar." 

Coinery " TangsAliya.'* 

Keedle mafcei*^ " Sozangar.*' 

Tinman, " Tingar." 

Pipe stem tiiaker, " Nech^band." 

Kite maker, " Patangsaz. 

Firework maker, " Atishbdz." 

Mat weaver, " BorjibiLf. 

Bope maker, " Rassi-bat. 


Gilt leather maker, " Pannigar.*' 

Book-binder, " Jildsiz." 

Cobbler and Saddler, " Mochi and Sirij/' 
Paper maker, 

Stone cutter, " Sangtar&h.*' 

Mill-stone rougher, ^' Chakerlih.'' 


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Chus XXIX.— Division I. ' 297 

There are a few connected with the supply of articles of food, such as : — 

Dosdlf. — The man who makes up cups, &c., of leaves, in which confectionery 

and other edibles are sold. 
Halwai. — The sweetmeat maker. 
Panirgar. — The cheese maker. 

Papargar. — A man who grinds pulse, and also makes a sort of thin cake or 
biscuit called p4par. 

Bharpunja. — A grain parcher. 

And lastly some miscellaneous trades : — 

The tobacconist ( Tamaku farosh. ) 

Soap-boiler ( Sabungar.) 

Ink seller ( Siyahi farosh. ) 

Wrestler ( PahlwAu. ) 

Tight-rope dancer ( Bazigar. ) 

" JZ7L4'."—Weaver. 
The parts of the loom can be understood by reference to the diagram annexed. 
Beginning with the front we have — 

(a.) The " Tur," or beam on which the cloth is wound as fast as woven. It is 
Bupported between — 

(6.) " Mekh," two upright posts, and the ttir beam is turned by means of— 
(c.) " Girdhiuak, " a straight stick passing through a hole in the " tur." 
(d.) Tfini is the web. The method of preparing it has already been described. 
I should mention that the web is kept extended at the point where the finished fabric com- 
mences by a stick underneath. The stick is furnished with an iron point at either end, 
which is stuck into the edge of the cloth : this is called " panak. " 

In order to keep the upper and under threads of the web separate, moveable sticks 
are inserted at intervals. When it is desired to push them forward as the work pro- 
gresses, the weaver beats the web with a stick called " channi," and the jarring thus 
produced shakes the sticks forward. 

The other end of the web, or that farthest from the " tur," is held by a rope, 
" l£ns," fixed to a short peg in the wall. 

The weaver seats himself on the ground in front of the tur, his feet being in a hole 
dug underneath. In front of him hangs the " shana " (e.) or coinb.. which consists of a 
number of fine slips of bamboo, and keeps all the threads distinct. 

The " hatha ** (f, J is a rather heavy wooden frame, which fits over the " sh&na," 
and is suspended from the roof; it moves backwards and forwards, and as soon as the shuttle 
has passed between the threads of the web, the workman pulls the hatha forward and 
strikes the thread home, thus compacting and closing up the weaving as it progresses. 

Behind the sh&ua and hatha hang ( gr. ) the heddles called " rach '* — two in a plain 
loom, four in a " khes bafi " loom — by means of which the threads of the web are al- 
ternately brought over and under each other. 

298 Class XXIX.^Piviswn I. 

This is shown separately in the diagram to avoid confusion. The heddle consists 
simply of a pair of light bits of k£ua or reed, with a series of threads, which have to be 
passed on to the warp before the loom is set up. They are suspended from a stick called 
** kala " ( h.) and ultimately to the roof of the building. The heddles are weighted and 
kept in place by sticks under the warp, baring notched ends and called " painsar " (»-)• 
The treddle underneath, by which the rach is raised, is called " karaon " (k). 

The shuttle is called nal, and is made of Khair wood ( Acacia catechu). It is 
shaped like a small boat, having a spool of thread inside, which can be removed when the 
thread is expended, and replaced by another full one. 

The thread when woven is first wound on to a skeleton drum, called " dhera, '* 
supported in a square and light wooden frame called ** uri *'; from this the thread is woven 
off on to the spools or shuttle spikes by means of the *' charkha " already described ( see 
page 1 et seq of this volume.) 

Silk weaving is described at page 61 ; and shawl weaving, which has a special kind 
of loom, at page 38, and there is an illustration taken from a photograph of a loom 
which was at work in the Exhibition of 186^. 

UTU-KASH-^oTsrs^ who pleats and pikks cloth. 
(1.) Matt— large earthen vessel with a narrow mouth and broader base, which, 
being inverted, serves as a table or stand to work on. 
(2. ) Angiti — small furnace. 
( 3. ) Dhatri — a curved iron like a small sickle, 
(4.) Charcoal. 
( 5. ) Fan. 

This art is not so much followed as formerly. Gentlemen would have the whole 
coat pleated over in a chequered pattern, or even in arabesque or flowered pattern. Thia 
was much in fashion in the Sikh army. The pleating could be done on any material, silk 
muslin or satin. It is rarely seen now. 

ILA'KABAND or PA TROLL — Fancy bilk and fbinge makbk. 
His tools are — 

An " adda " — upright stick stuck on a flat stand, serving to fasten the ends of 
thread in plaiting, fringe making, &c., * silai,' or steel spikes, scissors, and needles. 

He makes fringe, fanr»y buttons, borders, plaited strings for necklaces, izarbands 
or netted silk girdles, tassels, and the like. 

He makes also gold ribbon of the kind called kaitun, and fringe, on a tiny kind .>r 
loom which has no frame work, and moreover is worked sideways. The ordinary loom has 
its web at right angles to the workman's body— this is parallel to it. The threads are changed 
not by heddles, but by small leather adjuncts called "kathila,*' which are simply turned by 
the hand to invert the web threads. 

Fringe is made partly in this manner ; the tags of the fringe being made by hand 
and the edging which holds them in place on the loom. 

Class XXIX.— Division L 299 

His tools are — 

* Earah ' — iron flat caldron. 
*Deg*— caldron. 

' Kuual '—earthen ' naund ' to bold alum solution ; another to hold sajji solution. 

* Danda kasanwala ' — stout sticks used in ajjplying force to wring out the wet 
' lachha' or skeins of silk. 

* Danda chalaiwAla,' — for the same purpose. 

* Dandf joriwdli ' — a small sized stick. 

' Chattu, ' — large wooden mortar with its " moU," or pestle. 

* Hangi'— large horse hair sieve. 

' Sil-batta * — stone and pestle for grinding up dje stuffs. 
Bopes and bamboos. 

* Piri,' a stand or frame to support a deg or a strainer, over the receptacle below. 
The dyeing processes have been elsewhere described. 

''MI8TEI" or '* T^i2ZJ3Ll'JV "— Cabpenteb. 
His tools are as follows :— * 

' Tesha,' ( or basola ) adze. Carpenters are very clever in using this tool, and 
with it they will do a number of operations for which other and special tools are provided. 
In the hills a small adze is used, called '* bela. " This is smaller and lighter than 
the regular adze, and moreover the edge is curved. 

The specimen I am describing from, came from the Pangi province of the Chamba 
State, on the Upper Ohenab river. The coarse, but nevertheless effective and well designed 
carving on old houses, ' nags ' and temples in the hills, is almost always done with a tool 
of this kind.* 

* Kuhari or kulhara '—is the ordinary work axe. 

* A'l-a," * ari " — saws, small and large. 

* Paruai ' — a small and narrow bladed saw. 

* Martol,' or " hathaura ", " hathauri " — hammers. 

* Ohan, • a large sledge hammer, mostly used by wheel-rights. 

* Barma kumancha'— is the revolving awl, worked by. a bow with a leathern string, 
whiidi supplies the place of our gimblet, and also of our centre bit. The awl is made 
of various breadths: a point of any size can be fitted into the handle at pleasure. The 
leather string ( called « tandi, " ) of the bow is twisted round the moveable wooden reel in 
the centre of the handle, and by a saw like action the tool is kept revolving. 

Chisels are used as follows : — 
" Sathr^ "—a large chisel. 
" Sathri "— a small do. 

''Chaurasi"— aso rt of chisel which has a narrow stem spreading out into a broad edge. 
• A drawing of a bit of this carving will be found further on ( Clau —ArcJiUectural GonMvane$t,) 

800 Class XXIX.—Divisim J. 

" Chauras hivk " — a very narrow chisel, shaped j 

" Gird, or " gol bird*' — ^a small chisel with a round edge. ? ^^ j 

*' Chapu-bira " — a small gouge or cunred chisel for cutting grooves. 
" Miyangi" — another, only smaller. 

" Nok " — a chisel like the chauras bird, only again filed off till the edge, is reduced 
to a sharp point. 

The planes are — 

** Bandd " — common plane. 

** Draz " — a narrow plane for squaring and straightening edges. 

" Golah " — a small plane with the blade semi-circular, so as to make a rounded 
moulding at the edge of a plank, &q, 

" Cheri-randd " — a plane for bevelling edges, <fcc. 

" Gilmi-randA "—a plane for cutting out a groove. 
Carpenter's files are — 

" Elanni-reti " — a two bladed file for sharpening and setting saws. 

** Chossa " — a coarse rasp. 

** Eetf "—files of sorts. Nim-gird, ( " Jialf round " file) &c. 

And he also requries — 

" Gunyd " — the cai'penter's square or gnomon. 

" ParkAr "—compasses of iron. 

'' Khatkash"--a tool to mark lines on planks: being an iron spike in a wooden 

" NCmgdz " — a foot and a half rule. 

The sawyer, called * parnaf-kash,' or " ArC-kash," uses only one implement tbat 
need be alluded to, viz,, his adda or triangular prop, whereby he supports, in a tilted position, 
the log he intends to saw up. It consists simply of a triangular arrangement of bars, the 
third bar being moveable, so as to adjust the opening to the size of the log. 

8AIKAL0AB or 8IKLI0AR ( corruptly ) Ci*baneb op Arms ahd Mbtal Wobk. 
His implements are — 

" San " — a grinding and polishing wheel ; and "diwal charmi," a leather rope, which 
is passed over the end of the axle of the san, and is alternately pulled by either of two 
men seated at opposite sides : this causes the san to revolve. It is larger and heavier than 
the wheel used by the ' hakk&k ' (q- v.) and so cannot be turned by the bow and string. 
Two uprights, or " kel," support the sfin. 

" Kurund " — corundum or emery. 

'^ Bandd" — flat edged scrapers, made like the blade of a plane and used for scraping^ 
iron. They are made of various sizes. 

"Maskala" — an iron polisher shaped like a crescent; held by one point, or by both 
if a flat surface has to be polished. 

Clais XXIX.—Dmtim L 

Horn polisher — piece of horn let into a flat handle. 

" Patri" — a stone fllab for a hone. 

" Kaf " — a mixture of oil and corundum or emery, which is rubbed on the article to 
be cleaned, after which it ia scraped with a randa. 

" Oaddi," a pad of woollen cloth, on which the article is polished. It gets in time a 
coating of oil and corundum because of the rubbing that comes off the articles polished. 

" Tor &hani." — a pick to clean out holes, tubes, &c. 

TANGS A LIYA.-Coissa. 
His implements are— 
' Bhatti ' — forge. 
' Euiwang ' — bellows. 

Pincers, anril, hammers, as in other trades. 
' Keza ' — a narrow iugot mould. 

* KuthAli '—a crucible. 
' Chimta ' — tongs. 

• Wadh&n ' — a sledge hammer. 

' Tappa ' — die with which coin is struck. A bit of rounded and weighed silrer u 
placed between two dies, and both sides struck at once with a sledge hammer. 
This represents the old fashion of mint work. 

SOZAN OAR. — Kbbdleiuksr. 
This man makes large needles of iron wire, still used by cobblers and fur 
coarse work, as they sell at four annas or five annas a thousand : the thimier they are the 
more they cost, 

" Iron wire is taken, and a prescribed length cut off with a pair of heavy nippers 
called "kainth;" a blow with a hammer on a flat anvil, on one end of the wire, flattens it to 
receive the eye. The needle is then dressed to make it straight by rolling it under a 
wooden pin on a slightly concave surface of a tliick wooden stick. These are called 
" dar&ri-danda," or " math &n a- dan da." The needle is sharpened with a file, and 
then ground on a wheel. This wheel is a vertical shaft about a foot long, shod 
with an iron point, which revolves in the ground, and the upper end being a point which 
runs into a wooden arm or transverse bar, which is supported by a wooden rest. 

This wheel, called ' charkh ' or " bartd, " is a mass of lae and corundum melted t^ 
gether. It is set spinning by a bow and leather 
string, as is usual in all apparatus when a 
rotatory motion is required. After the polishing 
the eje is bored with a "barma, " but the 
barma consists of a mere iron lilai or spike with 
a hollow bit of cocoa-nut shell called " toi, " 
which forms the handle on which the workman's 
band rests, while the spike revolves with the 
action of the bow string ( See illustration 
under " Pearl Borer " pt^e 192.) 

«0a Olass XXlX.^Pifdsion I. 

The needles are polished by being rolled upon a piece of leather leith some ** chAn," 
or bran of wheat, and a little water ; being rolled and rubbed together^ they get smooth. 
About 250 are made in a day. 

TIN GAR {sic). (Tin-man.) 

His tools require no mention. The iron with which he heats the solder or "rauga" 
is called * k&bya ' or * kawya.' 

NECHABAND.'-ViPi^ Stem Maker. 

They take a small bamboo of the hollow stemmed kind ( the Anmdinaria falcaia or 
Nirgal of the higher hills ) and place it on a sort of iron neck or vice, supported on three 
feet, ( called sip^wa,) over a charcoal fire ; they are thus able to bend the tube to the angle 
required for the huka stem ( see plate at page 288, volume I). When the bend is effected, 
and the stem is cool, it is sawn to size with a small saw; they tie cloth over the outside, 
and then insert into the end a stout curved iron wire, which is roughed all over so as 
to stick to the inside of the tube; this gives them a handle whereby to spin the tube round 
and round while they wind silk or gold thread on for ornament. The iron is called " t6r. 

A long iron wire, similarly rou|?hed with points, like the twig of a fir tree, is called 
nimgaza, and is used for hoUowing out and clearing the inside of the tube. 

The tube of a huka which supports the cfailam or bowl is made of a hollow reed 
(nar{ or nai-abi ) and the smoking tube of the small bamboo. The tube of a "pechwin" 
is made of a coil of zinc wii'e covered first with birch bark, then with doth. 


The passion of the people for kite-flying may be understood by the mLaker having a 
.separate trade. 

He requires cmly knife, scissors, a board, a pestle and mortar, a *' duUu," « round 
earthen vessel to hold water and a big shell to polish the paper. 

The kites are made of thin bamboo, and polished paper. The form of kite is usually 
(that of a rude attempt at the outline of a butterfly or bird. The kite-fly hi^ that is most 
fashionable, is that by two oppcmenta, each of whom endeavours to cut the other's string, 
for tihis purpose the kite^maker covers the string with a colored paste called "msjha," 
consisting of ground glass and corundum mixed witii flour paste and red lead* 

ATI8H BA' Z—FiB.EWonK Maker. 

*' MohU *' — wooden pestle, thin in the middle for the better grasp of the workman's 
'JbaoEid, and thick 4uid cylindrical at either end ; this is used for pounding up the saltpetre 
Ac, m the — 

^'Chattu**— or mortar, both being made of mango wood to prevent the possibility 
of striking fire. Only the rough pounding is done in this. 

*' Chakki"— flat circular mill or grindstone for grinding materials. 
" Chaj"— a sort of basket or frame in which material is winnowed from dost 
and dirt, by being jerked up and down. 

€ta98 XXIX.-^DmBiofi 1. dOS 

" Cliaimi"— a seive of horse liair, or of pierced parchment. 

" Sfincha" — a mould or pattern tube to guide the size of the tubes in which the 
fireworks are formed. 

'' Sil batta/' grindstone and slab for grinding. 

<* Levi," paste, and " san " for tying up &a Nearly all the binding of rockets 
and tying up tubes &c., is done with strips of untwisted ' san ' dipped in paste. This, when 
dry, is an excessively tight and firm binding. 

" Khurpi," small scraper. 

" Kharcha," small ladle for filling tubes with composition, Ac. 

" Tesha," adzeJ 

'^ Hathaura," hammer or mallet. 

" Barma," awl or centre bit. 


Materials required — 

Paper, bamboo, jilK ( gold-beater's skm ), charcoal, sulphur, saltpetre, ** deg" 
steel filings brought from Hindustan— common iron filings are not used. 

H&rtAl (Arpiment) gives a blue color ; Mansil (realgar) (written in my vernacular list 
manchir) gives white. 

The gold-beater's skin is used to bind over certain tubes to prevent the material 
burning too fast, or bursting all at once. 

BOBYA BA'F^Mxr Weatbb. 
His tools are- 
Wooden pegs ; string and rope ; " hatta,** a long beam perforated with holes. This 
last forms the ' weaver's beam,' though which the moonj strings for the web of the mat are 
passed and thus kept in place : the otb^r eud&of the strings, at the extremity of the intended 
length of the mat, are fixed to a bamboo, which is kept in its place by wooden pegs. 
The material used is the dry flag, Typha anguslifolia, ( dib ), which is collected in bundles. 
When required for work, a handful of the long leaves is taken, slightly damped and made 
flexible with blows from a wooden mallet. 

Matting made of date palm is done without any string web : broad plaits of the 
fibre are made and stitched together. 

EAS8I-BAT—lSJovii Twister. 

They have a wooden board shaped as fig. 1 pierced with holes, called "charkh"; through 
these are passed sticks, usually roughly broken off boughs of a tree shaped as fig. 2 
and caUed '^ sabila " ; the knot on the shoulder keep« the stick from passing through the 
hole altogether. To the short end of each stick a length of rope-hemp, or other mMerial, 
is tied. The perforated board is now fixed firmly to two uprights, and a second and similar 
perforated board is put over the long ends of the sticks and is turned round and round : 
this causes the short ends of the sticks, with the hemp strands attached, to revolve, and 
thus the strands are twisted together. To secure uniformity, the strands ( ' l&r ' ) are 
passed over a wooden block called " k&lbtit" (fig. 3) with grooves in it j beyond this the ends 

801 Class XXIX.^Division L 

of the strands are caught by a hook, which hook is fixed to the end of a bit of rope^ which 
is made fast to a weight. ( When seven strands are required, then one strand passes though 
a hole bored in the middle of the block ). The block is at the end of the strands furthest 
from the turning board, and close to the weight ; as the rope is formed the closing strands 
force the block forward, as fig. 4. 

String is made by twisting on a big wooden spindle called " taowfr," suspended by 
leather thongs. 

For rope which is not sufficiently thick to require the first described apparatus, 
they use a mere woodeh frame, carrying four revolving spools at the comers, each spool 
ends in a hook, to which the strands to be twisted are tied. The spools are set revolving 
with a band passed over them and a fly-wheel or charkha. This frame^is called 
** takla." 

PANNIGAB — Gilt Lsatheb Maker. 
His implements are, a file, a flat stone, leather, '* raughan gtina/' silver leaf. 

They take small pieces of sheep skin, six fingers long and four broad, called *' pannf, " 
and place them on the stone, where they are carefully scraped ; then they place the silver 
leaf over the leather, and fix it there with a size made by boiling the gelatinous tendons 
of the goat's foot with nishasta ( wheat starch ). The silver being fixed, it is burnished 
(jiU kiya j4ta) with agate, and varnished with a yellow varnish consisting of copal 
(sundras) boiled in linseed oil and colored yellow with musabbar (bitter aloes). The 
finished leather is of a coarse brassy color. Pauni is very cheap, a piece only costing 
a few pies : it is used in native saddlery and shoemaking. 


The book-binder uses these tools : — 

* Kap.' — A curved knife for cutting paper. 

* Sil.'— A stone tablet. 

* Koba.'— A mallet to beat paste-board covers, &c. 
' Sui.' — Needle, and 

' Rambhi, a leather cutting chisel with slanting edge ; also rulers ; screw press 
called " sikanja," scissors, <&c.; chedni, a tool like a rambhi, but with a straight edge, for 
scraping leather ; ' chossa,' a rasp, to smooth the edge of paper, 

lfO(7fl*I— Cobbler ; akd 8IBA'J — Saddler. 

They use the following tools : — 

A'r— awls of sizes, being made with tapering points, but thick and heavy above, and 
■hort flat heavy handles, thus, 

< < . 

■ :. • t 

•\ -. 

' i; 

t..- ' • - 1 '• 

: 1 


t 9 

« • !■ 

I '!■ 

» .. 

jl " 

'. I 

' \ t . V I 


. 1 

' s. \ . ■ 

* ,N 

I ' 


*-• \ 

C ^ 

, 1 

. ' », 

• t , 1 » ' ' 


.. . =■'.' 

•s. • • 


I . 


Cflass XXlX.-^Division L 803 

An awl witli a little notch in the side of the point, to allow the thread being passed 
oter it at the time of boring the hole, is called * ar kundiwalla. * 

" Chedn( " is a tool for paring and scraping leather thin \ it is an iron blade coming 
io a broad slanting edge, and is fixed in a tnmip-shaped handle of wood. 

" Ohirnl " is a sharp slant-edged tool for cutting leather. The leather to be cnt id 
placed on a flat tabular wedge of wood called ' katfra ' : this is made of ' karfl ' wood^ so as 
not to turn the edge of the tools. 

" Koba '* is the sqUat* formed pounder olr mallet used for beating leather. 

l?he saddler has a wooden ' tree * to make up his saddles with, called ' fe^tra.* Thd 
shoe-maker requires a " kalbut *' or last, with " phdr4 ** or wedge to make it fit. Both 
artizand use a * phafni, * or tool for polishing leather, and a gota chobi, a wooden bar cut 
to an edge for a similar purpose. They have also a ' gamcha * or little lump of doughy 
with which they clean the tinsel or lace they put on their work4 

l?he implements of a paper-maker have been already partly described in the course 
of the description of paper making given at pages 92 and 93. 

The pounding apparatus is called " jandar.'* 

The frtime \^hich carries the fine screen oh which the pulp is deposited to foi^ 
the sheet is called " kh&shf." 

" Mir " is the screen laid over it, arid formed of a series of parallel stalks of tho 
•*pattnf" grass, selected for their evenness and thinness. Two sticks, used to extend the 
* mir ' and keep it straight on the kh^hi at either side, are called " such." 

The brush for spreading the paper against the pi^epared wall to dry is called 

Sis tools are— =• 

Hathauraj— hammei^ ; and " gah," sledge hammer. 

Danchi (of sorts) —stone cutting chisels without handles* 

" Chin!"— a chisel for dressing or squaring building stones. 

" Tinki "—a thin flat chisel of hard steel for splitting slates. 

Tirpdi— (stool) to put the work on. 

Guny^ and parkdr — gnomon and compasses. 

Sohan — a rasp or coarse file. 

Pathri — a hone to sharpen chisels. 

A copper saT^. 

An iron do» 

A large cross^saW, Worked with sand* 

San — a polishing wheel. 

Kuraud — corundum powder. 

g06 0Za5« JSXIX.—Diviston L 

Bartd— a wooden bar covered with a mixture of lac and corundum, used for 

"Pacharkari" is tlie art of joining in stone. Tlie PacharHr has small tfaichia, 
hammers, a small saw, «oh4n, iron wire, bow with iron wire for cutting stone, a tube, 
which being worked with corundum powder, bores a hole and withdraws the interior 
cylinder ^ a *harmp.* is also, used. 

In quarrying &c., the following tools are used: 

" Kanmdi "—the scoop (a long wire with spoon shaped scoop at the end) for 
cleaning blast holes. 

" A'gal " — crowbar. 

" Jabbal "— j^^P^^^ ^^ed for smaller blast holes, being pointed at either end and 
bulging in the middle. 

" M^Ti "— ( " Dig " lower down, but both in hill districts ) a lever. 

The millstone rougher's whole business is to rasp or roughen the surface of the 
grindstones. This he does with a small pick or hammer called " chakir^h." 


A class of people who make " dhdna, " ( little cups ) and " pattal, " ( plates ) out of 
leaves, in which Hindus eat food or carry sweetmeats from the shops, &c. They fasten 
the leaves together with the strips of the bark or sheath " tili " gathered from the stalks 
of the " munj," and even work patterns on the leaves witli thin strips of the same. They 
originally were hill people, but some few are found in Lahore, Amritsar, and elsewhere. 

HAL WAT — Sweetmeat Sellee. 
The halwai or sweetmeat maker uses the following vessels — 
Kar&h and kar&hi — open iron hemispherical cauldrons. 
Thai — plates of brass, or trays. 

Khwincha — ^large brass tray. The itinerent seller carries one of them to hold'his 
wares when selling : he supports the tray on a sort of stool made of 
kana reed, called " taraunf." 
Taw& — an iron plate for baking. 
Dora— a cup attached to a rod, or deep ladle. 

Pauni — a' cullender (various sorts) some to drop ' bcd^na' through, ( which consists 
of drops of thin paste passed into ghee and fried,) some to make '' bundS,'* 

which is finer. 
Belna and chakla — paste roller and board. 

Khurpi — an edged tool for scraping the inside of kettles and pots. 
Knives (churi). 
Masad chobi— a round mallet used in beating the sugar used in making ^ halw&«* 

Cla$s XXIX.— Division L 8Q7 

Sieves (channi). 

Wooden moulds to make sugar images in, as used on festival days. 

Dabi-*a wooden scraper. 

PANIROAB — Cheese-maker. 
His implements are — 

Chiku — a shape or mould made of bamboo in which cheeses are made. 

An iron pan (kariLhi), 

Shird&n — rennet ? 

Dori — an iron strainer to separate the curd. 

Bojha, a stone weight to press the cheese. 

Natives have only one kind of cheese. They heat the milk first, using ewe's 
milk, goat's, cow's or buffalo's ; of these ewe's milk is mostly used, — and then stir it with 
rennet mixture. The curd is placed in the mould or chiku, which is first lined with cloth, 
and is then pressed with the addition of a little salt. These cheeses do not keep long, 
S^abull cheese is imported into the Punjab. A cheese made as above is ready for use in 
a few hours after pressing ; the cloth is changed twice during the process. 

PJ.'PilEG?^J2— Pulse Grinder AND "Pa'par" Maker. 

This man makes *' p^par," that is to say, thin flat cakes made by mixing m&ng 
or mah ( pulse ) flour with salt, black pepper, spices, zira, &c., into a paste with water, 
and then rolling it out with a rolling pin. 

They first of all take d41 or split pulse, soak it in water, add the spices, and make 
it up into little balls of the weight of half a chittak each, one ball rolled out thin makes 
a papar. This is a separate trade. 

Pipargars only make these cakes, or else "barydn," a kind of fried savory cake, 
or "piti," which consists of mah pulse ground up with water, and is sold in that state, 
being cooked according to taste by the purchaser. They ^so grind up gram in the same 
way, and sell it to halwais, who make the sweetmeat called '4addti" out of it 


His implements are — 

Kauncha — shovel to take out the sand, which they first heat in the oven and 
afterwards use to parch grain on. 

Kharchd — a ladle. 

Bhatti — the oven. 

K&rchi — iron plate. 

Chdnni —sieve, and " chaj," winnowing basket. 

" Daur " — earthen vessel like a naund. 


*' Muttha tflf "—a sort of whisk or brush, with which they agitate the grain 
along with sand ia the karahi over the fire. 

808 Class XXIX.— Division L 

** Hathfkra gilli ** — a hollow earthen vessel filled with kunkur to make it heavy, 
and then used as a pestle in crushing parched pulse so c|a to fuake it into 4^1 PT 
split pulse. 


Requires only a l)it of matting or taut to spread the tobacco on, and a ^ mtinglf " 
or wooden mallet to bruise it with ; a ^* toka " or small chopper tp cut it up, and a 
^* channi " or iron sieve to sift out the coarse bits of stalk, 

The powdered tobacco is mixed with molasses and beaten with the mdngli : some 
people add sajji to make it strong. 

To make tobacco into the " khanaira," or mixture for an^olcing by wealthy per^oo^ 

various spices and perfumes are added, and apple preserve, <&c. 

Hindustanis chew tobacco with Un^e or betel nut ; Punjabis do np^, 

8A'B C'jVffAE— SoAp.poiLB^.. 
His implements are — 

K\mdl — earthen cauldron. 

Chamcha — ladles . 

Chdhbacha — small masonry tanks, 

Pahauri — a wooden scraper. 

Dora — a deep ladle, with a cup attached to a stick. 

Channf — a sieve. 

Karahi — a cauldrou, or curved iron pan, used by a soap boiler, is built into masonry, 
^o as to form a fire-proof bottom to the tank, and then the soap lye is boiled iu it. 

Twelve maunds of crude soda (sajjl ) and 6 maunds qf whitewash ( kalai ) are mixed 
in a masonry tank ( chahbacha ) and sufficient water pound over them to cause the water 
to stand two fingers depth over the ijiixt\ire ; after being well stirred it is left to settle. 
The clear liquor is drawn off info a second tank placed below the first, and then into » 
third, in which it is mixed with 20 maunds of sweet oil j the mixture is stirred and left to 
stand for 15 or 20 days ; after which it is put into the tank with an iron bottom and a fire 
place underneath (bakhari). It is well boiled. Swe'et oil is used {viz,, sesamum oil) 
fiot '^saron" (rape seed ), which yields a coarse, hard, ai^d iusoluble so{^p, 


Boils his lamp black with gum in a karahi, and when boiled down thick, either 
makes it into little balls with his fingers for sale, or smears it on a reed frame oUled 
^ pathhal/ ofi^ which it falls in scales and is collected when diy, 

TAEL TT^'^'— Wbbstleh, 
He uses the following weapons : — 
** Mungli " — the callister or Indian sceptre. 
♦* Bugdw: "—short cylinders of wood, with a place cut out in the side for a handle, 

Class XXIX.—Bivision I. 809 

" Sapgttlr or Bangtola " — a much longer wooden cylinder, three or four feet long, 
which is held by handles cut out iu the thickness of the wopd, r^is^d with both hands, 
and thrown backward over the head, 

•*Tam^n" — a sort of bow, the extension of which strengthens the muscles of the arm. 

The clothes they wear consist of a ^ saJ40sa,' or head cloth, worn to keep the hair 
confined, ' Khainch ' ornamental strips of cloth, worn oil the hips and hanging down 
on either side \ ^ laiigoti and jangya ' — ishort drawers ^d w^'ist-ploth, 

BA*ZIQAE^'Iiaw2 Rope Pancbb, 

His apparatus consists of a stout bai^boo pole held by fom: stays j up this he climbs 
l^nd fixes on tbp tpp ^ *' ]p^tr( " or small wooden ^tage; or footrboard, from which he 
exhibits feats. 

Qe dances on a rpugh rope or on a slippery one ; the lpi.tter is called ^'p^ra," or rope 
of leather thongs, He ties 9. cow's horn to ^ach ankle, so that the tip of the horn may 
curve outwards ; he then wallfs on the rope, the rope b^ing between the sole of his 
foot and the ci^ryed honi, he is th\;s enabled to maintain a bailee on thp smooth surface, 
On a common hemp rope he dances with the aid of thp balancing pole. Pe generally 
makes a show of lifting heavy beams called '' sohdga," and jumping over several cp^mels 
placed side by side, ^hese peopl3 mostlv come from Bajam^i and Punchy and ar^ 
said to be Kashmiris, 

The - ' lakribfiz '' is also a performer of this cUss : be fights with the ' gatka ' or 
basket-hilted singlestick, also with the * bank,* a huge two-handed straight bladed 
sword ; or with the ^*saif " or "phat<," a kind of bpoad-sword j he performs tricks also with 
t}i0 '' maratti/' a bamboo pole with a lighted torch at either end, 

910 Class XXlX.—Divisvm II. 


Uuder tlie division of agricutural implements I have included those mde 
machines which are used for cotton cleaning, oil pressing, sugar-cane crushing, and 
raising water from wells. I have also taken occasion to note some experiments which 
were instituted to compare the efficiency of the native cotton cleaning apparatus with 
improved saw and other gins. A series of rude implements will also be mentioned, and 
all will be described under the three divisions, which in the first volume wp found 
convenient in agricultural matters. Thus we shall have to describe the tools and their 
names as used in the Punjab, ( 2 ) as used in the Cis-Sutlej districts, where the vernaculars 
approach more to those of Hindustan, and ( 3 ) those used in the hills. 

The cotton cleaning machines have already been noticed. The separation from the 
seed is done by passing the cotton through two wooden rollers carried between two uprights ; 
the ends of the rollers are formed into screws, which impinge one on the other, so that when 
a handle at the opposite end of the upper roller is turned, both upper and lower rollers 
are moved. The rollers can be adjusted closer to one another, according to the nature of 
the cotton., Such a machine is called " belna " or " velna." The cotton has to be carded 
and cleaned, which is done with a " pinjan," which has already been described as like a 
large* strung bow, hung from the roof, and the string twanged and let fly against the 
cotton with the aid of a small wooden billet held in the hand ; the workman is called 
* nadaf. To supersede those rude processes, which, however, are cheap, and considering 
all things, wonderfully expeditious, various designs of saw-gins and other machines have 
been tried. 

The following extract from the Report on the Dharwar Cotton-Gin Factory ( a 
Government institution ) will explain this subject : — 

" The Supreme Government at Calcutta challenged invention by offering prizes in 
money of a large amount sufficient to induce the best mechanical skill of the country to 
enter the lists, and at the appointed trials many and varied inventions and modifications 
were broug