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HANDBOOK FOE TEAVELLEES 

IN 

RUSSIA, 
POLAND, AND FINLAND. 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS ' 



IN 



RUSSIA, 

POLAND, AND FINLAND. 




• ;A5.:i- ■•■■•■. .^■-s- 



SECOND BEVISED EDITION. 



WITH MAP AND PLANS. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MUEBAY, ALBEMABLE STBEET. 

PARIS: A. W. GAUGNANl b CO. ; AKD A. XAVIER, 22, RUE DE LA BANQUE. 

ST. PETERSBURG: Mbs. WATKIKS. NEW YORK: WaET. 

1868. 



liU»*«^»«»l«««<.««r«i^"^^"'^^°Sle 



TH6 ENGLISH EDITIONS OF MUBRAY'S HANDBOOKS MAT BE OBTAINED OF THE 
FOLLOWING AGENTS : — J? ; ^\^ f . 

Germany^ HoUandy and Belgium, /v/ > 



AIX-LA. 1 
CHAPRLLR / 


I. A. MATER. 


KISSINGEN . C. JUGEL. 


LEIPZIG . BR0CKHAU8.-DURR. 


AMSTERDAM . 


J. MULLER.~W. KIRBERGER. 


LUXEMBOURG BOCK. 


ANTWERP . 


MAX. KORNICKER. 


MANNHEIM . ARTARIA A FONTAINE.^ 


BADEN.BADEN 


D. R. MARX. 


LOFFLBR.— ROTTER. 


BERLIN . 


ASHER. 




BRUSSELS 


MUQUARDT.— KIES8LING 


--ANSTALT.^1. PALM. 




ft CO. 


NURNBBRO • SCHRAG.— ZEISER. 


CARLSRUHE . 


A. BIELEFELD. 


PEST • • HARTLEBEN.~G.HECKBNA8T. 


COLOGNE. . 


GUEVEN.— NELTE A CO. 


— OSTERLAMM.— RATH . 


DRESDEN . 


ARNOLD. 


PRAGUE . . CALVE. 


FRANKFURT . 


C. JUGEL. 


ROTTERDAM . KRAMERS.-PErRL 


GRATZ . . 


LEUSCHNER ft LUBENSKT. 


STUTTGART . P. NEFF. 


THE HAGUE . 


NIJHOFF A CO. 


TRIESTE . . MUNSTER.-COEN. 


HAMBURG . 


MAUKE. SOHNE. 


VIENNA . • C. GEROLD.-BRAUMtTLLEK. 


HEIDELBERG. 


MOUR. 


wibsbaden ».KREIDEL. 




Switzerland. 


BASLE . . 


H. GEORG.-H. AMBERGER. 


NEUCHATEL . 0ER8TER. 


BERNE • • 


DALP.— JEUT A REINERT. 


SCHAFFHAUSBN HURTER. 


OOIRE 


GRUBENMANN. 


SOLEURE. • JENT. 


CONSTANCE . 


MECK. 


ST.GALLEN . HUBER. 


GENEVA » • 


IL GEORO.-.DESBOGIS.- 


ZtJRlCH . • H. fCsSLI a CO.-HBYBR 




CHERBULIEZ.-MONROE.-. 


AZELLER. 




GHISLEITY. 


H. F. LEUTHOLD, POST- 


LAUSANNE . 


T. ROCSSY. 




LUCERNE. . 


F. KAISER. 






Itc 


^y. 


BOLOGNA 


M. RUSCONI. 


i PARMA • . J.ZANGHIERL 


FLORENCE . 


GOODBAN. 


PISA . . . NISTRI.-JOS. VANNUOCHL 


GENOA . 


GRONDONA ft CO.-ANTOINE 


PERUGIA. . VINCENZ. BARTELLI. 


LEGHORN 


BEUF. 
MAZZAJOLL 


ROME . . SPITHOVER— PIALE.- 
MONALDINI. 


LUCCA . 


F. BARON. 


SIENA . • ONORATO PORRI. 


MANTUA . . 
MILAN . . 


NE6RETTL 

ARTARIA. - DUHOLARD 


TURIN . . MAGGI.^L. BEUF.-MA- 

RIETTI. BOCCAFRBRE8. 


MODENA . . 
NAPLES . . 


FR"teRES.-G. BRIGOLA. 

L. RONCHI. 
VINCENZI A ROSSI. 
DORANT. - DUFRESNE. 


VENICE . . MtTNSTER. -COEN.— 

MEINERS. 
VERONA • . H. F. mCnSTER.-MEINIERS. 


PALERMO 


PEDONE. 






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AMIENS • . 


CARON. 


HETZ . • WARION. 


ANGERS . . 


BARASSE'. 


MONTPELLIER LEVALLE. 


AVIGNON 


CLE'MENT ST. JUST. 


MULH0U8E . RISLER. 


AVRANCUES . 


ANFRAY. 


NANCY . • GONET. 


BAYONNB . 


JAYMEB0N.~LA8SERRE. 


NANTES . : PETIPAS.-FOIRIER LEOROS, 


BORDEAUX . 


chaumas.~mOller,-sau. 


-ANDRE'. 




VAT.-FERET. 


NICE • . BARBERY PR^RE8.-aOU6LA 


BOULOGNE . 


WATE L.— m RRRIDE W, 


ORLEANS, . GATINEAU.-PESTY. 


BREST . 


HEBERT. 


PARIS . . GALIGNANI.-XAVIER.— 


CAEN . . 


BOISARD. - LEGOOT. - CLE- 


PAU . . . LAFON. 


CALAIS , . 


RISSE*. 
RIGAUX CAUX. 


PERPI6NAN . JULIA FRiSRES. 
REIMS . . BRISSART BINET^ 


CANNES . 


BARBERY FRIrES.- 


GEOFFROY.— GIRET. 




ROBANDY. 


ROCHEFORT . BOUCARD. 


CHERBOURG . 


MiLB. LECOUFFLET. 


ROUEN . • LEBRUMENT.— HAULARD. 


DIEPPE . . 


MARAIS. 


SAUMUR . . GAULTIER BRIE'RE. 


DINANT . , 


COSTB. A 
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ST. ETIENNB . DELARUE. 


DOUAI . . 


ST. MALO. , HUE. 


DDNKERQUE . 


VANDENBUSSCHE. 


ST. QUENTIN . DOLOY. 


GRENOBLE . 


VELLOT ET COMP. 


STRASBOURG . TREUTTEL ET WURTZ.~ 


HAVRE . . 


BOUKDIGNON.— FOUCHBR.— 


GRUCKER—DERIVAUX. 




Mmb. buys. 


TOULON . . MONGE ET VILLAMUS. 


LILLE • 


BEfGHIN. 


TOULOUSE . GIMET A COTELLE 


LYONS . • 


AYNE' FIL8.~SCHEURING.— 


TOURS • . GEORGET. 




ME'RA. 


TROYES . . LALOY.~DUFEY ROBERT. 


MARSEILLES . 


CAMOIN FRERES.-LE 
MEUNIER. 






Spain and 


Portugal^ 


GIBRALTAR . 


ROWSWELL. 


1 MADRID • . DURAN.^BAILL1ERB. 


LISBON <• . 


MATT. LEWTAS. 

Rm 


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ss«a. 


ST. PETERS- 1 
BURG. S 


ISSAKOFF.-RdTTGKR.-WOLFF 


MOSCOW • W. GAUnER.->DEUBNER.-LANG. 
ODESSA . • CAMOIN FRBRBS. 


Malta. 


Imiam Islands. 


, jTized Dy v_T 


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CORFU . J. W. TAYLOR. 


WICK. ATHENS . A. NA8T. 



PEEFACE. 



Tee present Handbook for Bnssia, Poland, and Finland will be 
fonnd to vary materially from the edition corrected in 1849. 
The Bussian empire has since passed through a memorable 
struggle on the shores of the Black Sea, and the Emperor Nicholas 
has been succeeded by Alexander II., the Emancipator. The 
changes evolved by Ihese two events have been so much in 
favour of travellers, and have made Bussia a country so highly 
interesting to those who study the political progress of nations 
and the consequent increase of their well-being, that a new 
edition of the Handbook has become a matter of urgent necessity. 

Becent travellers ii^ Bussia will attest that there is now no 
country on the Continent where foreigners are more free from 
the vexatious proceedings of custom-house and police officers. 
The passport-system of Bussia, once so strictly enforced, at 
present only demands that the traveller should be provided with 
a national passport bearing the visa that will be readily given by 
any Bussian diplomatic or consular authority ; and even during 
his residence and his travels within the empire the stranger is 
subject to no farther police regulations than the exhibition of 
his passport at the hotel or house where he resides. He may 
converse on politics as freely as in his own country, and study 
the social condition of the empire in all its interesting phases of 
transition without let or hindrance, and without any fear of the 
liabilities described by writers on Bussia ten years ago. 

The introduction of railways is among the most important 
changes that the traveller will find in Bussia. The fact is not 
sufficiently known or appreciated that the journey to St. Peters- 
burg may be performed throughout the entire distance by rail 
in three and a half to four days. Nor is there any longer the 
necessity of posting through a country of which the language to 
a Western traveller is incomprehensible, and of which the roads 
were, perhaps, the worst in Europe. A railway connects Moscow 

Digitized Dy v^vgv^v iv^ 



VI PREFACE. 

with St. Petersburg ; and express-trains convey the European 
to meet the Asiatic at the fair of Nijni-Novgorod. A few other 
short lines already run between places of commercial and histo- 
rical interest, and are described in this work ; many others are 
either commenced or projected. The great trunk line in course of 
construction between Moscow and the Southern, most productive 
provinces of Bussia, and the line that will unite it with the Baltic 
Provinces by way of Witepsk, will open several new routes of 
much importance. There is no doubt that the complete intersection 
of the empire by railroads will attract, in addition to the travel- 
lers for pleasure and instruction, numerous commercial and 
financial agents, who will eagerly seek their profit in developing 
the resources of such a new and fertile country. The adoption 
of a liberal tariff, obviously impending in the interest both of 
the Bussian people and of the Imperial revenue, will still further 
promote individual and commercial intercourse with England, 
to the immeasurable advantage of the agricultural interest of the 
one country, and the manufacturing industry of the other. 

A Handbook for such a vast empire as Bussia must neces- 
sarily be a compilation; and the text of 1849 having been almost 
entirely abandoned, the difficulty and tediousness of preparing 
this edition have been much aggravated by the want of recent 
guide-books for St. Petersburg and Moscow even in the Bussian 
language. For the new materials which constitute the present 
edition I am indebted to many kind contributors. Mr. J. Savile 
Lumley, Secretary of Embassy, has given the Handbook the 
advantage of his artistic knowledge in the description of the 
Picture Galleries of the Hermitage. To the Diiectors and 
Curators of the Hermitage I owe much assistance in pre- 
paring the guide to the Sculpture Gallery and Painted Vases, 
the index to its Art collections, and the catalogue of the prin- 
cipal objects in the Museum of Greek Antiquities from Kertch. 
The Boute through the Crimea is by Mr. Nicholas Bowe, who 
visited it in 1864. Mr. Sutherland Edwards, whose works on 
Bussia and Poland are well known for their correctness, has 
supplied the Historical Notice on Poland; while Mr. B. G. 
Watson, late Attache to H.M.'s Legation at Teheran, has afforded 
the greater part of the information contained in the Boutes to 

Digitized Dy vJV.'Vv'Vlv^ 



PEEPACE. vii 

Persia. My grateful acknowledgments are also due to several 
other literary coadjutors at St. Petersburg and Moscow; and 
beyond all this assistance I have consulted many Eussian works 
descriptive of local interests and curiosities. The remainder 
is tiie result of personal travel and observation diiring a resi- 
dence of many years in Kussia. 

T. MicHELL, F.R.G.S., 

Attache to Her Majesty* 8 Ernbassy at 
the Court of Bussia, 
London, May, 1865, 



PEEFACE TO SECOND NEW EDITION. 



The exhaustion of the previous editions affords an opportunity 
of msiking considerable additions to the Handbook for Eussia, 
and of altering such parts of it as were no longer applicable 
to existing circumstances. At the same time, the sudden and 
rapid extension of railways in Eussia, particularly in the more 
Southern parts of the Empire, renders it impossible to present to 
the public a work which shall give a faultless description of the 
several routes, liable as they are to almost daily modifications. 

In the present edition the traveller will, however, fiind more 
detailed reference to the History of Eussia in connection with 
the towns through which the lines in construction or already 
completed will enable him to pass, as well as a less imperfect 
sketch of the routes through the Crimea. 

In re-arranging and amplifying these, no unsparing use has 
been madB of Mr. H. D. Seymour's excellent work, ' Eussia on 
the Shores of the Black Sea.' 

It is also right to acknowledge that the ' Geographical 
Dictionary of Eussia,' edited by Mr. P. Semenoff, Director of 
the Statistical Department of the Imperial Home Office, has 
contributed much useful information. 

T. M. 

St. Petersburg, July, 1868. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( viii ) 



CONTENTS. 



Sect. L— EUSSIA. 



iNTBCTDirCnON 



Pagel 



ROUTES. 



[The names of places are printed In itaiUes only in those routes where the places are deteribed] 



ROUTE PAGE 

1. London to St, Peter^rg^ over- 

land, yiH Berlin, Kowno^ 
WtVna, and Ps*o/ 65 

2. London to St. Peteraburg, by 

Sea, via Crows^oc?* 157 

3. London to St. Petersburg, vift 
Archangel 157 

4. Berlin to Reoal, by Riga, Dct' 

paty&c 163 

5. St. Petersburg to Novgorod the 

Great 173 



ROUTE PAGE 

6. St. Petersburg to ifoaoow .. 176 

7. Moscow to the TroUsa Monaa~ 

tery (Troitskaya - Ser^eva 
Lavra) 217 

8. Moscow to Nijni Novgorod, with 

branch line to Shuya and Ivan- 
ovo, and excursion up the Oka 
to Murom, Elatma, and Ka- 
simof 220 

9. Volga: Tver to -45<ra*Aa» .. 228 



Sect. n.--SOUTH EUSSIA AND CBIMEA, CAUCASUS 

AND SIBEEIA. 

Introduction Page 235 



ROUTE PAGE 

10. Berlin or Vienna to Odessa, by 

Lembeig, Czemowitz, and Eish- 
enef 236 

11. Berlin or Vienna to Odessa, by 

Lemberg, Brody, Volochisk, 
Bar, and Balta 237 

12. Riga or St. Petersburg to Odessa, 

by Diinaburg, Witehsk, Orel, 
and Kief—ihe South of 
Russia 238 

13. Moscow to Odessa, by Ttila, 

Orel, Kursk, Kharkoff, Pol- 
tava, KremenchvJi, Elizavet' 
grad, and Balta 253 

14. Moscow to Voronej, by Biazan, 

Biajsk, and Kozlof, Branch 
lines to Morshansk and Elets 264 

15. St Petersburg, Moscow, or Riga, 

to Taganrog and Rostof (Sea 
of Azof), by Kharkof .. ..270 



ROUTE PAGE 

16. Odessa to the Crimea overland, 

by ^i^ofo^ and JE^erson .. 273 

17. Odessa to the Crimea by sea: 

Eupatoria to Kertch, and ex- 
cursions through the Crimea,, 277 

Eertch to Tsaritsin on the Volga, 
hjBostof 317 

Rostof to ^ooocAtfr^osA .. ..318 

London to Tifiis, by Constanti- 
nople — ^The Caucasus .. .. 319 
21. Tiflis to Teheran, hj Ararat and 

Tabreez 323 

Tiflis to Teheran, by Baku or 
Lenkoran, and Resht or Astra- 
bad, on the Caspian .. .. 325 

Lenkoran to Teheran, by land, 
ri§LBesht 326 

London to Persia, by way of St. 

Petersburg 328 

25. London to Pekin, vift St. Peters- 

borg, Kiakhta, and Mongolia 328 



18. 

19. 
20. 



22, 



23. 



24, 



( ix ) 



Sbot. IIL— POLAND. 
Introduction Page 333 



ROUTES. 



BOUTE PAGE 

34. Berlin to Warsaw, Ti& Brom- 

berg and Thorn 351 

35. St. Petersburg to Warsaw, viA 

Wilna 360 

36. Vienna to Warsaw .. ;. .. 361 

37. Warsaw to Lodz 362 

38. Warsaw to Sandomir, up the 

• Vistula .. ' ., .. .. .. 362 

39. Warsaw to Prussian Frontier, 

down the Vistula ' . . .... 362 



BOUTE PAGE 

40. Warsaw to Cracow, Yi& Radom 

mdKieltse 363 

41. Warsaw to Kovogeorgieysk .. 364 

42. Warsaw to St. Petersburg, via 

Pultuskf Ostrolenka^ and 
Eowno 364 

43. Warsaw to Moscow, vift Brest- 

' Litevski and Bobruisk . . . . 364 

44. Warsaw to Kief, vift Brest . . 365 

45. Warsaw to Lemberg, yil Lvhlin 366 



Sbot. IV.— FINLAND. 

iNTBODUCrnON 369 



ROUTE. 
55. Stockholm to Wyhorg, by Abo and ITelsmgfors 



385 



Index 



393 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



( X ) 



PLANS. 



PAGE 

St. Pbteesbdbq ., .. to face 71 

PlOFUBE GaLLEBIBS AT THE HEBMITAaB 88 

Mofioow 180,181 

OaTHBDBAL OF THE AfiSUHFTION AT MOSOOW 192 

TRAYELLma AND Glue Map OS* BuBSiA at ike end. 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 

IN 

EUSSIA, POLAND, AND FINLAND. 



SECTION L— RUSSIA. 



INTEODUCTION. 



PAGE 

1. Historical Notice - - - 1 

2. Stotistics - - - - 30 

3. Language - - - - 32 

4. Literature - - - - 39 

5. Measures, Weights, and Coins - 44 

6. Passport Regulations - - 51 

7. Custom-houses - - - 51 

8. Posting 52 



PAGE 

9. Cuisine and Restaurants - - 53 

10. Climate, Clothing, &c. - - 56 

11. Sanitary Peculiaiities - - 57 

12. Sport 58 

13. Society 62 

14. Seasons for Travelling - - 63 

15. Railways and Principal Routes - 64 



1. — Historical Notice. 

The space allotted to this sketch being sufficient only to furnish the 
traveller with a few historical memoranda of the remarkable events in 
Russian history and of the most celebrated sovereigns who have swayed the 
destinies of that empire, renders it impossible to give any descriptive details, 
more particularly of those monarchs who lived nearer to our own times, and 
who have figured conspicuously in European politics. The more salient 
and important points will, therefore, alone be mentioned. Further historical 
data will be found scattered through this Handbook. 

History and tradition concur in showing that Europe was peopled by 
three great families of the human race, who emigrated westward, at distinct 
periods ; the last of these migrations was that of the Slavonians, who esta- 
blished themselves on the Don about 400 years before Christ. In the days 
of Herodotus their mode of life was exceedingly rude and barbarous ; they 

^tfMiCt— 1868. Digitized DyVJV^v^pAv^ 



2 1. — Sistorical Notice. Sect. I. 

had no houses, and lived a nomadic and pastoral life, journeying from one 
verdant spot to another, and stopping at each only so long as they found 
sufficient pasture for their flocks and herds. Like all the other aboriginal 
races of Europe, the Slavonians dwelt together in more or less numerous 
colonies governed by elected or hereditary Elders of a patriarchal type. 
They held their councils of wise men, who administered Laws very similar 
to those of the Germanic races. Their principal occupations were the 
rearing of cattle, the chase and the management of bees, while their chief 
characteristics seem to have been in a degree analogous to those of their 
descendants, the modem Russians : — they were hospitable, courageous, good- 
humoured, contented, and immoderately fond of spirituous liquors ; like 
most barbarous nations, however, the courage of the Slaves frequently 
degenerated into cruelty, and murder was no uncommon crime amongst 
them. The law of vengeance or retaliation was acted upon until the intro- 
duction of the penalties or compensation in money known as weregeld in 
German, and vira in Slavonian. Their religion was idolatrous, and their 
mode of worship resembled the gross and degraded forms of the ancient 
Druids ; they not only offered up their prisoners as a holocaust to their 
chief deity, Perune, the Zeus of the Greeks and the Jupiter of the Romans, 
but would sometimes even immolate their own children to his honour. 

It was not till the fifth century that the wild Slavonians, who had over- 
run a large portion of European Russia, foimded any remarkable settle- 
ments ; these were Novgorod, on the Ilmen, and Kief, or Kiow, on the 
Dnieper ; where they afterwards became distinguished for their commerce, 
their riches, and incipient civilization. The tribal groups of the North 
began, about the middle of the 9th century, to feel a want of unity and of a 
system of government better adapted to the civilization which their inter- 
course with the Germans and the Greeks was introducing. Embroiled in 
dissensions, and subject on the S.E. to the exactions of Asiatic races 
encamped on the Volga and the Don, and on the N.W. to the depredations 
of the sea-kings, the Slavonians, according to an old chronicle, sent a depu- 
tation to the Variags, or Normans, with the message and the invitation, 
" Our land is great and bountiful, but there is no order in it ; come and 
rule over us." In 864 Rurik, a Norman prince, took up his residence at 
Novgorod, and there founded the Russian monarchy, the sceptre of which 
continued to be held by his descendants for upwards of 700 years. Two of 
Rurik's followers subsequently left him to seek their fortunes in the south,, 
and on their journey to Constantinople they attacked the town of Kief, 
gained possession of it, and it thus became the capital of a second Slavonian 
kingdom. 

I Six sovereigns succeeded Rurik, who, with their military comrades or 
drujina, were constantly making war upon neighbouring tribes or fighting 
for the right of succession to the throne of Kief, then the capital of Russia. 
These princes all followed the pagan worship of their fathers ; but Vladimir, 
the seventh in descent, who possessed himself of the throne in 981, was 
converted to Christianity, originally introduced, although not established, 
by Olga, who embraced the Greek religion at Constantinopte about the 
year 955. His nature became changed, the cruelty of his disposition gave 
way to clemency and humility, and when awarding punishments for crime 
he is said to have exclaimed, " What am I, that I should condenm a fellow- 

uigitized Dy \^kjkjw^i\^ 



JSussia. V 1. — Sidortcal ifotice. 3 

creature to death ? " He also endeavoured to overcome the violent preju- 
dices and superstitions of his subjects by founding seminaries, with professors 
from Greece ; and from that classic land he likewise procured architects and 
other artisans to instruct his people in their several crafts. His military 
conquests embraced the whole of Poland. Vladimir deserved well of his 
country, and the Russian Church has enrolled him among the number of 
her saints. His son Yaroslaf, who reigned thirty-five years, and died 
at the age of seventy-seven years, was a prince of considerable attain- 
ments and a great patron of the arts; the church of St. Sophia, at 
Kovgorod, was by his order decorated with pictures and mosaics, portions of 
which remain to the present time. His wars with Boleslas of Poland, as 
well as his acquirements and the splendour in which he lived, made his 
name known and respected throughout Europe. Three of his daughters 
were married to the Kings of France, Norway, and Hungary ; and his 
eldest son, Vladimir, who died before him, espoused a daughter of the 
unfortunate Harold, the last of our Saxon kings. Yaroslaf died in 1054, 
and, like his father, divided his territories among his sons. Vladimir 
Monomachus, his grandson, who died in the early part of the next century, 
did the same ; and as the princely house multiplied, the country was con- 
tinually a prey to internal dissensions and strife. In the year preceding 
the death of Monomachus, Kief was nearly destroyed by fire, and from the 
great number of churches and houses that fell a prey to the flames that city 
must have been of great opulence and extent. This calamity was followed 
in the succeeding reign by a still greater one, when the sister capital, 
Novgorod, was desolated by a famine so awful that the survivors were not 
sufficiently numerous to bury the dead, and the streets were blocked up by 
the putrid corpses of the inhabitants. 

The reigns which followed this period of Bussian history are distinguished 
by little else than continual civil wars, with this exception, that the town 
of Vladimir, built by Yury I., in 1158, became in that year the capital 
instead of Kief. But a formi<kble enemy drew near in the person of Tushi, 
the son of Zenghis Khan, who, emigrating with his Tartars westward, led 
tl^my about the year 1223, from the shores of the Sea of Aral and the 
Caspian, to those of the Dnieper. The Circassians and Polovtzes having 
endeavoured in vain to arrest the prc^ess of the horde, were at length con- 
strained to apply to their hitherto inveterate foes for assistance, and, the 
cause being now equally dear to all parties, the Russians made an intrepid 
stand on the banks of the Khalka. The impetuous attack, however, of the 
invaders was not to be withstood ; and, the Prince of Kief treacherously 
abstaining from taking part in the battle, the Russians were completely 
routed, and scarcely a tenth part of an army composed of 100,000 men 
escaped. The enemy then pursued his way immolested to the capital, 
which he took, and put 50,000 of the inhabitants of the principality of Kief 
to the sword. The further progress of the Tartars northward was marked by 
fire and bloodshed; but, having reached Novgorod Severski, they faced about 
and retreated to the camp of Zenghis Khan, who was at this time in Buk- 
haria. Thirteen years after, Baati Khan, his grandson, desolated Russia 
again, committing every species of cruelty and man^^ breachesj^ fakh with 



4 1. — Historical Notice, Sect. I* 

the towns which submitted to his arms. In this manner the provinces 
of Hiazan, Periaslavl, Eostof, and several others fell into his hands : for 
with incredible apathy, and contrary to their usually warlike inclinations, 
the Russian jmnces neglected to raise any troops to dispute the jJrogress of 
the Tartars ; and the attention of Yury IL, Prince of Vladimir, was at that 
important juncture engrossed in celebrating the marriage of one of his boyars. 
Boused, at length, to a sense of his desperate position, he placed himself at 
the head of some troops hastily called together, and left his family under the 
protection of one of his nobles, trusting ths^this capital would be able to sus- 
tain a long siege. He was^ mistaken T the Tartars soon made themselves 
masters of Vladimir, and fihe'T)rincesses, as well as other persons of distinction, 
were burnt alive in the church in which they had taken shelter. On hearing 
of this tragical event, Yury marched with his adherents to meet the foe : 
the contest was sanguinary and short ; but, after performing prodigies of valour 
the Russians were borne down by overpowering numbers, and the prince was 
left amongst the slain. There was now nothing to arrest the march of 
the ruthless Tartars, and they pushed forward to within sixty miles of 
Novgorod, when they again turned round without any ostensible motive 
and evacuated the Russian territory. The wretched condition into which 
the southern and central parts of the empire were thrown by these invasions 
afforded a most advantageous opportunity for other enemies to attack it ; 
and, accordingly, in 1242, and during the reign of Yaroslaf II., the Swedes, 
Danes, and Livonians, sent a numerous and well-disciplined army to demand 
the submission of Novgorod ; this, Alexander, the son of the reigning prince, 
refused, and, leaving his capital, he advanced, unaided by any allies, to 
meet his opponents, and fought the celebrated battle of the NevA, which 
gained him the surname of Nevski and a place in the Russian calendar. 
The personal courage of Alexander in this battle was of the highest order, 
and mainly contributed to secure the victory. 

A cruel and constantly fluctuating war with the Tartars, various incur- 
sions by the Livonians, Lithuanians, Swedes, and Poles, and the most 
frightful civil discord amongst the several, almost regal, provinces of Russia, 
occupied fourteen successive reigns, between Yury II., who died in 1237, 
and Ivan I., who succeeded his father in the principality of Vladimir in 
1328. At times, during this period, the Tartars arrogated to themselves 
the power of protectors of this or that interest ; and in the case of Ivan I., 
Uzbek Khan secured to him the possession of Novgorod, as well as of 
Vladimir and Moscow. Ivan's father had greatly beautified and improved 
the latter town, and Ivan followed his example and made it his residence. 
Here also resided the Metropolitan, and it therefore rapidly advanced in 
importance. Ivan's reign of thirteen years was remarkable as improving 
and peaceful ; and he exercised a sound discretion by building a wall of 
wood round the city, which supported a rampart of earth and stone. At 
the close of his life he took monastic vows, and died in 1341. In the 
reign of Ivan II., second son of the previous Tsar of that name, Moscow 
established its pre-eminence as a city, and became the capital of the empire. 
Ivan died in 1358. 

Towards the close of this century the Russians, under Dmitri IV., raised 
an army of 400,000 men, and met the Tartars near the Don, and defeated 

uigitized Dy vj^^Vv'v i>^ 



Snflfiia. 1. — Historical Notice. 5 

them with great loss; the victors, however, suffered greatly, and when 
Dmitri reviewed his army after the hattle he found it reduced to 40,000 
men : this success obtained for him the surname of Donski. Subsequently, 
however,* to this victory the Tartars again advanced, and Dmitri, betrayed 
by his allies, the princes of the neighbouring states, deserted Moscow, which 
fell by capitulation into the hands of the Tartars, who devastated it with 
fire and sword until it was utterly destroyed, no building being permitted 
to remain except those which happened to have been constructed of stone 
by the Grand Prince. The character of Dmitri is thus given by the Metro- 
politan Cyprian : — *^ He knew," says that ecclesiastic, " how to soften the 
kingly office by condescension ; he was impartial in the administration of 
justice, and delighted to promote the peace and happiness of his subjects ; 
his learning was small, but the rectitude of his disposition and the kindness 
of his heart supplied the defects of education, and entitle him to a dis- 
tinguished place amongst Kussian sovereigns.** His son, Basil II., wha 
SQcoeeded him in 1389, was destined to see his country invaded by the 
Tartars under Tamerlane, but they never reached the capital, for he pre- 
pared to give them battle on the river Oka, when they suddenly turned 
round and retired, as their countrymen had previously done on two other 
occasions. The Russians attributed this to a miracle performed by a picture 
of the Virgin Mary, painted by St. Luke. The horde, however, joined by 
the Lithuanians, afterwards laid siege to Moscow, but were repulsed by the 
inhabitants, the Grand Prince having retired with his family to Kostroma ; 
exasperated at this defeat, the Tartars in their retreat pillaged the sur- 
rounding country and slaughtered the defenceless peasantry. Money was 
first coined in Novgorod during this reign : hitherto its place had been 
supplied with skins and pieces of leather ; twenty skins of the marten 
were considered as equivalent to a grivna, the value of which was a real 
pound of gold or silver, of nine and a quarter ounces in Kief, and thirteen 
in Novgorod. 

During the reign of Basil Russia was thrice visited with the plague and 
famine, while the ancient city of Novgorod was shaken by an earthquake 
after the greater part of its buildings had been consumed by fire. Internal 
dissensions broke out on the death of Basil, a dispute having arisen 
respecting the succession to the throne between the son of that monarch 
and his uncle George : this was, by the consent of both parties, left to the 
decision of the Khan of Tartary, who determined in favour of the former ; 
nevertheless, a civil war followed, and George was for a short time in pos- 
session of the thYone, when, finding himself abandoned by his party and his 
family, he restored it to his nephew, and returned to his principality of 
Galitch. Complicated wars, Russian and Tartar, followed; the principal 
incident of which was that Ivan, the Prince of Mojaisk, in the interest of the 
traitor Sh^miaka, induced Basil to stop at the monastery of the Troitsa to 
return thanks on his arrival from the horde, and, having seized him there, 
he took him to Moscow and put out his eyes. A few years after the Princo 
of Mojaisk had committed this savage act Basil was restored to the throne, 
and died in 1462. 

The first exploit which BasiFs successor, Ivan III., attempted ^va3 the 

uigitized by VjOOQ Iv^ 



6 1, — Eistoncal Notice. Sect. I. 

reduction of Kazan, in which he succeeded after two severe campaigns ; 
the next was the suhjection of Novgorod, in which he also succeeded, 
incorporating that city and province with his own dominions, and, having 
received the oaths of the inhahitants, he carried off with him to Moscow 
their celebrated Vechd bell.* The next and most arduous undertaking was 
the destruction of the Golden Horde under Akhmet, which he effected in 
revenge for the insult offered him by that Khan in demanding the homage 
which he had received from his predecessors. Ivan spat on the edict and 
on Akhmet*s seal, and put his ambassadors to death, sparing one only to 
convey the intelligence to his master, who prepared in the following year 
to take his revenge ; but, awed by the preparations made to receive him on 
the Oka, he retired for a time, and subsequently took the more circuitous 
route through Lithuania, from which country he expected support; the 
Kussians, however, met and defeated a part of his horde, and were returning 
home, when the Khan was met on a different route by the Nogay Tartars, 
"who routed his army and slew him in the battle. His ally, Casimir IV., 
algo brought himself under Ivan's indignation, not only for this war, but 
because he attempted to poison him, and a raid that he made into the 
territories of the Polish king was eminently successful. This powerful and 
ambitious prince also made treaties of alliance with,- and received ambas- 
sadors from, the Pope, the Sultan, the Kings of Denmark and Poland, and 
from the Republic of Venice ; it was he who assumed the title of Grand Prince 
of Novgorod, Vladimir, Moscow, and all Russia, and changed the arms of 
St. George on horseback for the Black Eagle with two heads, after his 
marriage with Sophia, a princess of the imperial blood of Constantinople. 
In fact, Ivan IH. may be called the true founder of the modem Russian 
empire. The Russian historian Karamsin thus describes him : — " Without 
being a tyrant like his grandson, he had received from nature a certain 
harshness of character which he knew how to moderate by the strength of 
his reason. It is, however, said that a single glance of Ivan, when he was 
excited with anger, would make a timid woman swoon, that petitioners 
dreaded to approach his throne, and that even at his table the boyars, his 
grandees, trembled before him;" which portrait does not belie his own 
declaration, when the same boyars demanded that he should give the crown 
to his grandson Ivan, whom he had dispossessed in favour of a son by his 
second wife, "I will give to Russia whomsoever I please.*' He died, very 
infirm, in 1505, having reigned forty-three years. Wars between the 
Russians, the Poles, the Tartars, and the Novgorodians again arose on the 
death of Ivan ; and it was not till the death of Basil IV., his successor, and 
a minority of twelve years had elapsed in the reign of Ivan IV., that internal 
cabals and intrigues were for a time suppressed. This monarch, the first 
to take the title of Tsar^lf married Anastasia, the daughter of Roman Yury- 
vitch, who in the early part of his reign had the happiest ascendency over a 
character naturally violent and cruel. Ivan was at this period affable and 
condescending, accessible to both rich and poor, and his mental powers, 

* For the history of that ancient Republic, vide Boute 5. 

t The sovereigns of Russia had hitherto been called Grand Princes. Tsar is derived ftx>Qi the 
Greek Kaimr. Czar is a corrupt orthography of the title, and in Polish reads Char, 



:^00^ 



gle 



Eussia. 1. — Historical Notice, 7 

under her guidance, were employed in advancing the interests and happi- 
ness of his subjects. Ivan soon perceived that to preserve his own power 
he must annihilate the Tartar dominion ; to this he felt his uninstructed 
army was unequal : he therefore established, in 1545, the militia of the 
Streltsi, and armed them with muskets instead of bows, — ^hitherto their 
arms, as their name imports, from Strekb^ an arrow. He then laid siege 
to and captured Kazan, taking the Khan prisoner. He likewise defeated 
Grufitavus Wasa in a pitched battle near Wyborg, ravaged Livonia, taking 
Dorpat, Narva, and thirty fortified towns, and made war on the King of 
Poland because he had refused him his daughter in marriage. An unsuc- 
cessful campaign against this potentate, attributed by the boyars to the 
unskilful arrangements of the foreign generals, as well as the death of 
his wife Anastasia, whose controlling influence was no longer felt, led to 
the unlimited indulgence of his) naturally ferocious disposition ; and the 
remaining acts of his life, which this short sketch will not permit us to 
dilate upon, gained for him in the history of his country the surname of 
** The Terrible." Independently of the many and dreadful acts of barbarity 
of which he was guilty, he killed his^own son in a paroxysm of rage, but 
died a prey to the grief and remorse which this fearful crime occasioned, 
after having endeavoured to atone for it by giving large sums of money 
to different monasteries : he received the tonsure in his last moments. As 
a legislator he was superior to his predecessors, having, with the assistance 
of his nobles, compil^ a code of laws called Sudehnik, In his reign an 
English ship, conamanded by Richard Chancellor, on a voyage of discovery in 
the Arctic Sea, anchored in the mouth of the Dwina.* Ivan controlled his 
religious prejudices, and tolerated the Lutheran churches of the German 
merchants at Moscow ; but he never shook hands with a foreign ambas- 
sador without Washing his own immediately after the visitor had taken his 
leave. With a character so strongly marked by cruelty, superstition, and 
caprice, it is remarkable to find not only that he was enterprising and 
intelligent^ but that he should have entertained the idea of placing the 
Scriptures in the hands of his subjects in the mother-tongue : he ordered 
a translation to be made of the Acts and Epistles, and had it disseminated 
over his dominions. " In the memory of the people,^ observes Karamzin, 
"the brilliant renown of Ivan survived the recollection of his bad 
qualities. The groans had ceased, the victims were reduced to dust; 
new events caused cmcient traditions to be forgotten, and the memory of 
this prince reminded people only of the conquest of three Mogul kingdoms. 
The proofs of his atrocious actions were buried in the public archives, whilst 
Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia remained in the eyes of the nation as im- 
perishable monuments of his glory. The Russians, who saw in him the 
illustrioas author of their power and civilization, rejected or forgot the sur- 
name of tyrant given him by his contemporaries. Under the influence of 
some confused recollections of his cruelty they still call him Ivan * The 
Terrible,' without distinguishing him from his grandfather Ivan III., to 
whom Russia had given the same epithet rather in praise than in reproach. 
History does not pardon wicked princes so easily as do people." Ivan IV. 

• For history of intercourse between Russia and England, vide ' British Factory and Chapel.' '■ 

uigitized Dy ^^jkjkjs/i\^ 



8 1. — Historical Notice. Sect. I. 

died in 1584, having governed the Russian nation for a longer period than 
any other sovereign, namely, fifty-one years.* 

Theodore I., who ascended the throne after his death, and was a feeble 
and vacillating prince, died in 1598. His successor was Boris Godunof, his 
wife's brother, who, like our own Richard, compassed the death of his nephew 
Dmitri, sgn of John the Temble ; and therefore in Theodore ended the 
dynasty of Rurik, which during seven centuries had wielded the Russian 
sceptre. Consequent upon this deed came all kinds of civil calamities, 
and in 1604 a pretender to the throne arose in the person of a Russian 
monk. This man assumed the character of the murdered Dmitri, and after 
having drawn to his standard the Poles and the Cossacks of the Don, met 
Boris in the field, remained master of it, and in the space of one year seated 
himself on the throne. Nor was this civil war the only calamity which, 
befell the Russians during the reign of Boris; Moscow was, in 1600, 
visited by the most appalling famine that ever devastated the capital of a 
country. It is related that, driven by the pangs of hunger, instances oc- 
curred of mothers having first slain and then eaten their own children ; and 
it is recorded that a woman, in her extremity, seized with her teeth the 
flesh of her son, whom she carried in her arms. Others confessed that they 
had entrapped into their dwellings, and subsequently killed and eaten, 
three men successively. One hundred and twenty-seven thousand corpses 
remained for some days in the streets unburied, and were afterwards in- 
terred in the fields, exclusive of those which had been previously buried in 
the four hundred churches of the city. An eyewitness relates that this 
awful visitation carried off 500,000 persons from the densely-peopled 
capital, the population of which was at the time augmented by the influx 
of strangers. During this dreadful calamity, Boris, with justifiable violence, 
broke open the granaries which avarice had closed, and had the corn sold at 
half its value. 

Serfdom was instituted during the reign of Boris Godunof. By his advice 
a decree was issued, on the 24th Nov. 1597, a year previous to the death 
of Theodore, forbidding peasants to leave the lands on which that date 
should find them. This was the first enactment that bound the peasantry 
firmly to the soil. Earlier traces of their attachment are, it is true, to be 
found in the middle of the 13th cent., during the Tartar dominion, when a 
census was taken, in 1257, in order to secure the regular collection of 
taxes. The inhabitants of towns and villages were then forbidden to leave 
them without permission, and the custom sprang up by degrees of restricting 
the migrations of the rural population to the commencement or termina- 
tion of the agricultural season. The custom was legalized in 1497, and 
confirmed by John IV. in 1550 ; but the full and final attachment of the 
husbandman to the soil was not consummated until the close of the 16th 
century. 

Interminable and inexplicable troubles, a second false Dmitri, and other 

* For an account of the OpritchnikB and other acts of the reign of John the Terrible, vide the 
'iescription of Moscow. ^r^r^]r> 

Uigitized Dy vjvJOv IV^ 



Eossia. 1. — Historiccd Notice. 9 

impostors, led, after the abort reign of Shuiski (1605-1606), to the occupa- 
tion of Moscow by the Poles, in 1610, who entered the city with Vladislaus, 
son of Sigismund King of Poland, elected to the throne by the boyars, on 
condition that he should embrace the Greek religion. This gave great 
offence to the national feeling, and Minin, a citizen of Nijni-Novgorod, called 
his comitrymen to arms, and entreated the boyar Pojarski to take the com- 
mand. This he did without reluctance, and his army was quickly increr^sod 
by the arrival of troops and money from various towns, and by the Coawicks 
and Streltsi, who flocked to his banner. Thus strengthened, they marched 
to Yaroslaf, and afterwards to Moscow, to which they laid siege, carried the 
Kitai Gorod by assault, and made a fearful slaughter of the Poles ; when 
the occupants of the Kremlin, driven to the last extremity by famine, 
surrendered, and Vladislaus abandoned the country. 

In 1613, after the flight of Vladislaus, the States-General, convoked by 
the boyars and military chiefs, proceeded to elect as their Tsar Michael 
Romanoff, the son of the Metropolitan of Rostof, who was at the time only 
sixteen years of age. He was proclaimed Tsar of all the Russias, without 
the title of Autocrat, enjoyed by the Sovereigns after John III., and 
the Act of Election stipulated many important rights to the people. 
Civil strife and foreign wars continued after the accession of Michael ; 
and that in which the Tsar was involved with Gustavus Adolphus was 
terminated, not much to the advantage of Russia, through the mediation 
of England, France, and Holland. A treaty was signed by the belligerent 
parties on the 26th of January, 1616, which gave to Sweden Ingria, 
Carelia, Livonia, and Esthonia, the Russians retaining Novgorod. 
The Poles were at that time masters of Smolensk, and ravaged the 
country up to the walls of Moscow, against which they made a night 
attack, but were repulsed ; they remained, however, in possession of 
Smolensk, after sustaining a siege of two years. Dragoons are mentioned 
for the first time in this reign, as forming part of a Russian army, and the 
Tsar was assisted in his wars by both German and French troops ; these 
regiments served him as models for the organization of the Russian army, 
which was further improved by the discipline introduced by Scottish 
officers. After a reign distinguished by an enlightened policy and virtuous 
habits, the Tsar died in July, 1645, at the age of forty-nine years. His son 
Alexis, who was a prince of a mild and benevolent disposition, succeeded 
him. The chief events of his reign were the marauding expeditions of the 
Cossacks of the Bon, led by Stenka Razin, a rebellion in the city of Astra- 
khan, and the appearance of another Pretender, who was brought captive 
to Moscow, and put to a violent and cruel death. In this reign shipwrights 
came over from Holland and England, and a Dutchman named Butler built 
a vessel called the Eagle, at Dedinova, a village on the Oka river, near the 
mouth of the Moskva. This was the first ship that the Russians had seen 
built on scientific principles. The Tsar Alexis directed his attention to 
legal reforms, and his reign is most remarkable for the improvements which 
he introduced. The States-General, a body composed of delegates from all 
classes, and first summoned in 1550, after the suppression of the old Vech6 
or Wittenagemotes, were convoked in 1648, for the compilation of a new 

uigitized Dy vjv^'v^^gv^ 



10 1. — Historical Notice. Sect. I. 

code of laws. Little Eussia and Bed Eussia (Galicia), conquered by Ca- 
simir the Great in the 14th century, submitted to Alexis. An account of 
his quarrel with the Patriarch Nicon, and of .the origin of dissent in the 
Eussian Church, will be read in Route 6. Alexis di^ in 1676, and was 
succeeded by his son Theodore III., who died young in 16S2. During the 
short period allotted him for the exercise of power he evinced every dispo- 
sition to carry out his fiather*s plans ; he directed his attention to the im- 
provement of the laws, and rendered justice accessible to all, and, in the 
words of a Russian historian, " lived the joy and delight of his people, and 
died amidst their sighs and tears. On the day of his death Moscow was in 
the same distress that Eome was on the death of Titus." The sovereignty 
of the Cossacks was secured to Eussia in this reign. Theodore left no chil- 
dren, and named no successor, expecting, no doubt, that his own brother 
Ivan would succeed him. That prince, however, was both mentally and 
physically incapable of holding the reins of government, and, in conse- 
quence, his sister Sophia was intrusted with the affairs of state by the 
Streltsi, who had arrogated to themselves the power of the Prsstorian bands, 
and decided that the Tsar's half-brother, Peter, afterwards the Great, the 
son of Natalia, Alexis's second wife, should share the throne with him. 
The two boys were therefore crowned together by the Patriarch on the 
15th of June, 1682, but Sophia actually reigned. Subsequently to this 
the Prince Khovanski, leader of the Streltsi, not only neglecting to cultivate 
the princess's friendship, but allowing her to perceive that he and his men 
watched her proceedings, she determined upon his ruin, which was further 
hastened by the intrigue of his known enemy, Miloslavski. This boyar 
accused him, in a public placard, of having, with his son and his Streltsi, 
conspired to effect the death of the two Tsars and the destruction of the 
family of Romanoff ; and, under this accusation, Khovanski and his son 
were seized and beheaded. Their followers, at first furious at B^hovanski's 
death, afterwards becoming disheartened at the preparations made to resist 
and punish them, proceeded to the monastery of the T'roitsa, and made 
their submission to Natalia and the Tsars, who had fled there for refuge. 
Subsequently Sophia still contrived, with the assistance of her Minister, 
Galitzin, to govern Russia, until she affronted Peter, who retired to the 
town of Kolomna, to which place he was followed by a large party ; and 
soon after this, being informed that the Streltsi were again in revolt, under 
Sophia's influence, Natalia once more removed him to the fortified walls 
of the Troitsa. It was in vain that Sophia disclaimed this accusation. 
Peter neither believed her nor forgave her ; and, failing in her attempt to 
reach Poland, she was incarcerated in a monastery for the rest of her life. 
This princess was, considering the times in which she lived, a woman of 
extraordinary taste and literary acquirements. A tragedy, written by her 
when she was involved in state intrigues, and apparently absorbed in poli- 
tical turmoil, is still preserved. On Peter's return from the Troitsa to 
Moscow, his brother resigned to him his share in the government, and in 
1689 he became sole Tsar, being, at this time, only seventeen years of age. 
Ivan survived till 1696. 

The ruling passion of Peter the Great was a desire to extend his empire 
and consolidate his power ; and accordingly, his first act was to make war 

uigitized Dy \^kjkjs/i\^ 



EtLssia. 1. — Historical Notice. 11 

on the Turks, an undertaking which was at the outset imprudently con- 
ducted, and consequently unsuccessful ; he lost 30,000 men hefore Azoff, 
and did not obtain permanent possession of the town till the year 1699, and 
then by an armistice. In the followiog year he was defeated at Narva by 
an inferior force, under Charles XII., then only a boy of seventeen ; and on 
many other occasions the Eussians suffered severe checks and reverses. But 
at length the indomitable perseverance of Peter prevailed. St. Petersburg 
was founded in 1703, imder the circumstances detailed in the description of 
the city. In 1705 he carried Narva, the scene of his former defeat, by 
assault ; and two years after, by the crowning victory of Poltava, where he 
showed the qualities of an able general, he sealed the fate of his gallant and 
eccentric adversary, and that of the nation over which he ruled. In 1711 
Peter once more took the field against the Turks ; but his troops were badly 
provisioned, and, having led them into a very disadvantageous position near 
the Pruth, he was reduced to propose a peace, one of the conditions of which 
was that the King of Sweden should be permitted to return to his own 
country. From this period to 1718 he was constantly occupied in pur- 
suing with vigour the plans which he had originated for extending the 
frontiers of his kingdom towards the sea ; and in 1718 he drove the Swedes 
out of Finland, made several descents upon the coast near Stockholm, 
destroyed whole towns, and finally, in 1721, by the peace of Nystadt, re- 
tained Esthonia, Livonia, Ingria, a part of Carelia and Finland, as well as 
the islands of Dago, Moen, Oesel, &c. Having now no enemy on this side, 
he turned his arms eastward, and took Derbend, on the Caspian, in 1724 — 
an inglorious conquest, for only 6000 men were opposed to his veteran army 
of 11,000, besides Cossacks and Kalmucks. This was his last military 
achievement, for he died in 1725, in the fifty-second year of his age. 

"We have said that the Tsar's ruling passion was to extend his empire 
and consolidate his power, but he likewise possessed in an eminent 
degree a persevering mind and a resolute will, which bid defiance to 
all difficulties. By the assistance of his foreign officers he succeeded 
in [forming and bringing into a high state of discipline a large army ; 
he found Eussia without a fishing-smack, and bequeathed to her a 
navy, to which that of Sweden, long established and highly efficient, 
lowered her flag ; he built Petersburg, which may be said to float upon the 
waters of the Neva ; he caused canals and other works of public utility to 
be constructed in various parts of the empire, endowed colleges and univer- 
sities, and established commercial relations with China and almost every 
other nation on the globe. The Tsar likewise possessed the capability of 
enduring privation and bodily fatigue to an almost incredible extent, and 
seemed to act upon the idea that by his own personal exertions and the 
versatility of his genius he could accomplish for Eussia that which it had 
taken centuries to effect in other countries, and fancied he could infuse into 
her citizens an immediate appreciation of the mechanical and polite arts, 
as well as a taste for those things which are seen only in an advanced stage 
of civilization. Peter devoted his whole attention and energies to this 
theory, and, though he could not compass impossibilities, he was enabled, 
by the uncontrolled exercise of the imperial will and inexhaustible re- 
sources, to effect a most extraordinary and rapid change in the political and 

Digitized Dy vjv^v^v iv^ 



12 1. — nistorical Notice, Sect. I. 

physical condition of his country. The States-General were no more 
summoned. The Tsar now reigned alone, without even the old Chamber 
or Council of Boyars, that had existed through so many previous reigns. 
In their place he founded the Senate, or High Court of Justice, which is 
preserved to this day. His system of administration was founded on the 
Swedish Collegiate Institutions. Dissent from the Church was very much 
increased by his reforms, which even included the shaving of beards. The 
opponents of the ritual of Nicon styled him the Antichrist. 

The manual dexterity and mechanical knowledge of Peter were great. 
Against the expressed wish of his boyars and the clergy, who thought it 
an irreligious act, he left Russia to make himself acquainted with the arts 
and inventions of other European nations, and worked with an adze in 
their principal dockyards — ^he not only built, but sailed his own boat, which 
is still to be seen in St. Petersburg, as are specimens of his engraving, 
turning, and carpenter's work. He rose at four, at six he was either in the 
senate or the admiralty, and his subjects must have believed that he had 
the gift of ubiquity, so many and various were his occupations. He had 
also the virtue of economy, a quality rarely seen in a sovereign. He even 
found time for literature, and translated several works into Russian ; 
amongst these was the * Architecture ' of Leclerc, and the * Art of Con- 
structing Dams and Mills ' by Sturm ; these MSS. are preserved. During 
the Tsar's visit to London he was much gazed at by the populace, and on 
one occasion was upset by a porter who pushed against him with his load, 
when Lord Carmarthen, fearing there would be a pugilistic encounter, 
turned angrily to the man, and said, " Don't you know that this is the 
Tsar ? " " Tsar ! " replied the man, with his tongue in his cheek, " we 
are all Tsars here." Sauntering one day into Westminster Hall with the 
same nobleman, when it was, as usual, alive with wigs and gowns, Peter 
asked who these people might be, and, when informed that they were 
lawyers, nothing could exceed his astonishment. "Lawyers!" he said; 
" why, I have but two in all my dominions, and I beheve I shall hang one 
of them the moment I get home." His vices were such as to have been 
expected in a man of his violent temperament, despotic in a barbarous 
country, and who in early life had been surrounded by flatterers and dis- 
solute associates. But it would be foreign to the purpose of this work to 
enter into a discussion of this nature. The Russians date their civilization 
from his reign; but a slight glance at the histoiy of some of the early 
Tsars will show that, in many of the points on which the greatness of his 
reputation rests, he was anticipated by his predecessors. Dark and savage 
as the history of the country is, an attempt at public education had been 
made, religious toleration and an anxiety to promote commerce existed, and 
the institution of a code of laws had already occupied attention. The 
untimely deaths of some of these princes deprived Russia of monarchs far 
more benevolent than Peter, men of finer and more generous minds, and, 
though not so ambitious, quite as anxious for her welfare. Under their 
sway no such rush at improvement would have been made ; no such influx 
of foreigners would have taken place ; but, if not so rapidly, at least as 
surely these sovereigns would have effected quite as much real good. 
Peter left no code of laws established on the broad principles of justice ; he 

Digitized Dy vj^^v^viv^ 



Bussia. 1. — Historical Notice. 13 

trayelled in England and Holland, but thought only of their navies, and 
wholly overlooked the great principles of their government, by which he 
might have ameliorated the condition of his own. Trial by jury never 
appears to have attracted his attention. The Tsar, it is true, reigned over 
a nation of serfs— so did Alfred, and iu the 9th, instead of the 18th 
century. The death of his son Alexis, in the fortress of St. Petersburg, 
whether by violence or from the effects of torture, is an indelible blot on 
his character. The unhappy Tsarevitch was opposed to his father's 
reforms, and fled his dominions. Induced by Peter to return to Russia, 
he was thrown into a dungeon, where he suddenly died, after a cross 
examination, conducted by the Tsar in person, and a frequent application of 
torture. The Empress Catherine survived Peter only two years, dying at 
the age of thii*ty-nine. The reduction of the capitation tax was the most 
popular act of her short reign, and Delille, Baer, and the Bemouillis were 
the most distinguished members of the Academy of Sciences which Peter 
had left her to open. Peter, the son of Alexis, and grandson of Peter the 
Great (by his first wife Eudoxia, who survived Catherine), died of the 
smallpox at the age of fifteen ; in him the male line of the Eomanoffs 
became extinct. His intellect was good, and, though so young, he gave 
great promise of being an honour and a blessing to his country. Ajane, 
Duchess of Courland, who succeeded this youthful sovereign, was daughter 
of Ivan, half-brother of Peter the Great ; she died in 1740, after reign- 
ing ten years. Her chief 'merit was in. advancing the commerce of the 
country, and establishing silk and woollen manufactories — her chief folly, 
the building of a palace of ice, to which she sent one of her buffoons and 
his wife to pass the night of their wedding-day, the nuptial couch being 
also constructed of that cold material, as well as all the furniture, and the 
four cannons which fired several rounds. 

The Duchess of Courland was elected to the throne by the nobles, who 
caused her to subscribe to a constitution or charter, of which the principal 
points were that — "Without the advice of the council, rendered irre- 
movable, the sovereign could neither declare war nor make peace ; nor 
could he choose a successor, appoint to the higher offices of state, or impose 
new taxes. The sovereign .was not to punish the gentry, either corporally 
or by the infliction of fines, without ''submitting their offences to the or- 
dinary courts of justice." The empress availed herself of the discord 
which soon reigned in her council to re-establish the absolutism she had 
surrendered. A sham revolution was organized by exciting the jealousy of 
the inferior nobility, and by acting on the ignorance of the lower classes. 
A populace having assembled in front of the palace, and asked to see the 
empress, she pointed out to Prince Dolgomkof, the High Chancellor, that 
the ])eople were desirous that she should govern like her ancestors. 
" What," she asked, " have you said in your Constitution ? " Taking the 
, Charter from the trembling hand of the prince, she tore it into pieces 
before the applauding multitude. Her favourite, I3iren, Duke of Courland, 
caused all the members of the Dolgoruki faction to be either broken on the 
wheel or banished to the mines of Siberia for ever. 

A war which was prosecuted against the Turks in this^eimended to 

Digitized by VjOOQIv^ 



14 1. — Historical Notice, Sect. I. 

the'disadvantage of Russia, and, as the price of peace, Azoff, Otchakof, and 
Moldavia were given up to the Porte. Intrigues drove Ivan VI., the 
infant son of the Princess o£ Brunswick, niece of the Empress Anne, from 
the throne, and in 1741, Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, took 
possession of it. Ivan was first imprisoned in a monastery, but, having 
attempted to escape, was removed to the Castle of SchlUsselburg, where he 
was put to death. 

The reign of Elizabeth was one series of wars and intrigues, and wholly 
unfavourable to the intellectual improvement and progress of the people. 
The Swedes thought this a favourable moment to recover their ancient 
possessions, but were obliged to agree to a peace on the basis of that of 
Nystadt. Detesting Frederic for some coarse remark levelled at her mother, 
Elizabeth made war with Prussia, which lasted from 1753 to 1762, the 
year of her death. The taste of this empress for architecture greatly con- 
tributed to embellish St. Petersburg, and the Academy of Fine Arts in 
that capital was instituted by her ; but she was a model of hypocrisy, and, 
while from feelings of pretended humanity she abolished capital punish- 
ments and deplored the miseries her troops suffered in the war with 
Prussia, she established a kind of Star Chamber, in which justice and 
mercy were unknown. Peter III., son of the Princess Anne, eldest 
daughter of Peter the Great, succeeded Elizabeth, and, being a great friend 
of Frederic, he immediately made peace with Prussia ; he also suppressed 
the secret council established for the examination of political offenders, 
softened the rigour of militaiy discipline, permitted his nobles to travel, 
lowered the duties in the Livonian ports, reduced the price of salt, and 
abated the pressure of usury by the establishment of a loan bank, and 
instituted other salutary and wise measures. He was, however, of a weak 
and vacillating disposition, and his tastes were entirely German, which 
amounted to a crime in the eyes of the nobility ; this and the intrigues of 
his wife, afterwards the Empress Catherine II., whom he grossly neglected, 
led to his downfall, and he died by suffocation at Hopsha in 1762. 

The reign of Catherine 11. is one of the most remarkable in Russian 
history. In the early part of it she interfered in the affairs of Poland, 
which produced a civil war, and ended in the conquest of that country. 
In 1769 the Turks declared war, which was at first favourable to their 
arms ; they were afterwards defeated with great slaughter on the Dniester, 
and abandoned Khotin. At this period was fought the celebrated action 
before Tchesm^, in which the Turkish fleet was completely destroyed, 
an achievement that was mainly owing to the gallant conduct of Admirals 
Elphinstone and Greig, and Lieutenant Dugdale, Englishmen in the 
Russian service. In another campaign the Russians carried the lines of 
Perecop, defended by 57,000 Turks and Tartars, and thus obtained pos- 
session of the Crimea, while Rumiantsoff gained several victories in the 
Danubian provinces. These conquests were, however, dearly purchased ; 
the plague passed from the Turks into the Russian armies, and the frightful 
malady was carried by the troops into the very heart of the country"; 800 
i:>ersons died daily at Moscow, and the disease subsided only with the 

uigitized Dy vjiv^v>»v iv^ 



Eossia. 1. — Higtorical Notice. 16 

severity of the winter. It was in this year that the Kahnuck Tartars, who 
had been upwards of half a century settled near the steppes of the Volga, 
north of Astraldian, suddenly, and to the number of 350,000 souls, left 
the Russian territory for their old haunts on the Chinese border — ^an 
affront offered to them by the empress is said to have been the cause ^of 
this extraordinary flight. Every attempt at negotiation having failed, tibe 
contest with the Turks was renewed in 1773 ; and though the Russians 
again suffered severe losses, Rumiantsoff brought the war to a successful 
termination ; and, by the treaty of peace concluded in 1774, his country 
obtained the fi*ee navigation of the Euzine, the cession of Einbum, 
Yenikal^, with a tract between the Bug, the Dnieper, and Taganrog. Russia 
restored her other conquests, and the Turks paid into the Russian Treasury 
4,000,000 of rubles towards the expenses of the war ; they also acknow- 
ledged tbe independence of the Crimea, which in the year 1784 fell alto- 
gether into the hands of Russia, as well as the island of Taman and part 
of the Kuban. Shortly after this, Catherine and the northern courts, with 
France, jealous of British maritime power, brought about a combination 
against England, which was hastened by the following singular incident. 
The British minister, fearing that this intrigue was going on, desired 
Fotemkin tolay before the empress a memorial that he had drawn up, which 
the prince promised to do. Of this memorial the French governess of his 
nieces contrived to possess herself, and, after allowing the French minister 
to make his notes in refutation of it in the margin, replaced it in Po- 
temkin's pocket, who, ignorant of the circumstance, laid it before 
Catherine ; when the empress, conceiving the notes to have been made by 
her favourite, formed a league with Sweden and Denmark, and announced 
her intention of supporting it with her navy. In 1787 she made, in com- 
pany with Potemkin and an immense suite, her famous progress to the 
Crimea, and the following year found her once more at war with the Turks. 
Finland was invaded by Gustavus III. soon after. This contest was 
settled by a pacification in 1790. In the close of that year Constantinople 
trembled at the forward movement of the Russians, and the fall of Ismail 
under Suwaroff, after the ninth assault, closed the war on the 22nd of 
December. In this extremity Europe combined to save the Porte from 
destruction, and in 1791 Russia relinquished all the territory she had 
acquired, excepting that guaranteed by the treaty of 1784. In these wars 
with the Ottoman Empire there were destroyed 130,000 Austrians, 200,000 
Russians, and 370,000 1 urks, in all 660,000 men. About this time the 
intrigues of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, for the partition of Poland, com- 
menced, and, carried on for several years, were brought to a conclusion by 
two sieges of Warsaw ; in the first Kosciusko was made prisoner, and in 
the second the Poles, unassisted by his genius, gave way in that fearful 
assault which, on the 9th November, 1794, consummated the ruin of 
Poland as a nation. Catherine's subsequent plans of aggrandisement in 
Daghestan and on the shores of the Caspian were cut short by her death, 
on the 9th November, 1796. The great talents for governing which the 
empress possessed are universally admitted ; and, though her energies were 
principally displayed in carrying out her schemes of foreign conquest, she 
by no means neglected the interior economy of her empire. Her views on 

uigitized Dy \^kjkjsii\^ 



16 .1. — Historical Notice. Sect. I. 

all subjects were far more enlai^ed than those of her predecessors, and 
upwards of 6800 children were educated at St. Petersburg at the public 
expense. She invited Pallas, Eiiler, and Gmelin to survey her terri- 
tories and describe their characteristics, and requested D'Alembert to 
undertake the education of her grandson, the Grand Duke Alexander, 
which he declined. The empress also confirmed the abolition of the secret 
state inquisition, and, by dividing the administrative colleges of the empire 
into separate departments, facilitated the despatch of business, and rendered 
the administration in each more efficient. With a view to check corrup- 
tion, she raised the salaries of the government officers, put down many 
monopolies of the crown, and issued an ukaz, which prevented any pro- 
prietor from sending his serfs to the mines, or to any distant part of the 
empire, except for agricultural purposes. She purchased the praises of 
the French philosophers, corresponded with Voltaire and D'Alembert, and 
complimented Fox by asking him for his.' bust, which she placed between 
those of Cicero and Demosthenes. 

Catherine came to the throne eager for fame and anxious to put into 
practice the philosophic doctrines of the age. It may even be said that 
she was desirous of reigning constitutionally as far as serfage would permit 
her. But she was most anxious to be a lawgiver, and her more liberal 
advisers took advantage of her ambition and promoted the cause of representa- 
tive government, such as had existed in Russia under the form, first of 
Vech^, then of meetings of the States-General. AConamission was composed 
of 565 deputies from the nobility, the inhabitants of towns, the military 
colonies, and the foreign races subject to the empire, as well as from 
the senate, the synod, and other public offices. This Commission — a Par- 
liament all but in name — met on the 31st July, 1767, at Moscow, and, 
after listening to the representations made by the seveml interests, drew 
up the drafts of laws which Catherine subsequently enacted, and which 
contributed greatly to the glory of her reign. But the Assembly having 
commenced an inquiry into the evil of serfdom, the empress dissolved it 
on the 29th December of the same year. 

The Empress Catherine introduced important changes into the condition 
of the nobility and clergy. The history of these may be here epitomized. 
The comrades, or drujina, of the early princes of Russia long retained a 
nomadic character. They passed from one prince to another as those 
princes ascended in the scale of primogeniture and passed on to the throne 
of Kief. They acquired no lands, and lived on the contributions which 
they levied on the Zemstvo, or " people of the land," as distinguished from 
the servants of the sovereign. On the. establishment of the throne of 
Muscovy, the drujina of the deposed princes repaired to Moscow for em- 
ployment in the service of the State, and styled themselves bondsmen of 
the Tsar. At his court they quarrelled perpetually about the right of pre- 
cedence. Each family guarded jealously its position in relation to other 
families ; and each individual above the condition of a labourer had an 
hereditary right, most intricately regulated, to a certain social position, which 
he spent his whole life in asserting. The nobles having become unruly during 
the reign of John the Terrible, that sovereign put to death a considerable 
number'of his servants, and kept the rest in subordination with a new class 

uigitized Dy vjv.'V^v iv^ 



Eussia. 1,— Historical Notice. 17 

of nobles, the Opritchna, who carried out his instructions with unflparing 
brutality. They murdered their victims openly in the streets, and, fed by 
the Tsar, visited villages during the night and razed them to the ground. 
It was with the assistance of these servants that John lY. subjected all his 
lieges to despotic government. The old boyars deserted to the Prince of 
Lithuania, and many were caught and punished. After that reign the 
older families succeeded in causing Shiuski, one of their order, to be elected 
Tsar : but on the accession of Michael Bomanoff all their privileges were 
abolished, and the code of 1649, drawn up by the States-General, or Zemstvo, 
rendered all subjects equal before the law. The nobles, however, now 
b^an to acquire lands, which they at first held as feudatories under the 
Crown, liable to military service. Peter the Great converted those lands 
into freeholds, and at the same time bound the proprietors to perpetual 
service. The Senate called up the young boyars from the country, and 
allotted civil and military functions to them. In 1736 the period of service 
was reduced to 25 years, and in 1761 the nobles were allowed the discretion 
of serving the State or not. As every nobleman had been obliged to serve, 
so every man that served the Crown acquired nobiUty through his chin, or 
official rank. The nobility are still styled '' courtiers " in the Russian lan- 
guage, and a chinovnik is always a nobleman. 

An important feature in the social life of Russia is that the right of 
primogeniture does not exist, except in a few great families. By an 
ukaz of 1713, Peter I. desired to introduce an inheritance in fee of the 
eldest son, but this was so much opposed to the customs and traditions 
of the people that it was abandoned. Peter IL cancelled the ukaz in 
1728. 

Under the predecessors of Catherine the courtiers had assumed a con- 
siderable amount of power, and now demanded a better position in the 
State. Catherine II. granted them a charter in 1785, by which the nobles 
of each province were fonned into a corporation, with the power of electing 
judges and various rural officers. They moreover acquired the right of 
meeting triennially for the discussion of their wants and interests. A 
property qualification and official rank were required of the members of 
these assemblies, who were exempted from corporal punishment, com- 
pulsory service, and personal taxation. They had already acquired in 
1754 the exclusive right of holding serfs. The Emperor Paul annulled this 
charter, but it was restored by Alexander I. 

The vicissitudes of the clergy have been as follows. In ancient Russia 
they enjoyed many special privileges and the right of administering justice 
on all Church lands. John IV. prohibited the attachment of land to 
churches, and sought to make the Metropolitan dependent on his will. The 
patriarchate was established under his son, but abolished by Peter, 
who, warned by the example of Nicon, substituted the Holy Synod. The 
present metropolitans have ecclesiastical jurisdiction only within their 
several bishoprics or provinces, and are subject to the Synod. Peter the 
Great considerably limited the power of the clersry. He converted the 
monasteries into hospitals, and filled them with soldiers. Monks were not 

Digitized Dy vjiv^v>»v iv^ 



18 1. — Historical Notice. Sect. I. 

allowed the use of ink in order that they might not publish libels, and the 
clergy generally were made amenable to the civil law. Peter the Great 
also established a scale of fees, to which, in the reign of Nicholas were 
added regular salaries, the village priest receiving 70 mbles per annum 
(lOZ.), and his clerk 30 rubles (4Z. 10s.), in addition to a glebe of 33 dessi- 
atinas (about 85 acres). The churches in towns likewise possess houses and 
other real property, which pay no taxes, but their priests receive no salaries 
from the State. Catherine II. took away the serfs and lands held by the 
monasteries. They had acquired no fewer thani 900,000 male serfs ; the 
Troitsa monastery alone possessing 100,000. In return, she freed the monks 
from the liability of quartering troops, from corporal punishment, and from 
compulsory service. Some of the monasteries were placed in direct de- 
pendence on the Holy Synod, and others were left under the control of the 
several bishops, who were, however, disqualified from depriving a priest of 
his holy office without the decision of the Synod. 

The inhabitants of towns were much improved in their condition under 
Catherine II. They were not anciently distinct from the agricultural popu- 
lation, and the town lands were held by private individuals. The Tsar 
Alexis however declared that those lands belonged to the Crown. Peter the 
Great gave them special courts of law, and generally promoted the welfare 
of the mercantile classes ; the Empress Catherine gave them a charter in 
1785, on the model of the nobility charter, with the right of electing 
mayors and magistrates. The merchants were divided into guilds, and 
obtained an exclusive privilege of trade. Nothing was, however, done 
during her reign to remove the evils of serfdom ; on the contrary, alarmed 
at the readiness with which the peasantry joined a formidable insurrection 
under Pugatchef, the empress placed them still more under the control of 
the landed proprietors, who were then invested with judicial and executive 
powers. 

Catherine, possessed of great beauty in her youth, preserved the traces of 
it to the end of her life ; in matters of religion she was tolerant from 
political motives, extravagant in an extraordinary degree, and, with a 
woman's liberality, paid well those who served her ; and, though there are 
many acts in her reign which cannot be defended, she did more for the 
civilization of Russia than any of her predecessors. She was succeeded by 
her son Paul, whose short reign, to 1801, was not of any great historical 
importance. At his coronation he decreed a law of hereditary succession 
to the crown in the male line, and afterwards in the female, instead of 
leaving it to the caprice of the reigning Tsar. The emperor declared war 
against the French in 1799, sent an army into Italy to oppose the repu- 
blican generals, and through the intervention of England, Suwaroff, wlio 
had been banished from the capital by Paul, was recalled, and placed at the 
head of it. But the campaign in Italy, successful at first, ended un- 
favourably to the Russian arms — when the emperor suddenly became a 
great admirer of Bonaparte ; and, with the same inconsistency that exiled 
Suwaroff, he liberated Kosciusko; subsequently the eccentricity of liis 
actions led to the conclusion that he was of unsound mind. Amongst his 
ukazes was one against the use of shoe-gtrings and round hats ; and in the 

Digitized Dy ^^jkjkjw^ik^ 



Buflsio, 1. — Historical NoUce. 19 

number of his eccentricities was a rage for painting, with the most glaring 
colours, the watch-boxes, bridges, and gates throughout the empire. The 
career of Paul was closed in March, 1801, in a similar manner to that of 
Peter III., at the castle of St. Petersburg, where he then resided. 

Alexander, his eldest son, succeeded to the throne, being then 24 
years of age. In the same year he recalled the Siberian exiles, sup- 
pressed the secret inquisition, re-established the power of the senate, 
founded in 1804 the University of Kharkoff, and emancipated the 
Jews. In 1805 the emperor joined the Northern Powers against France, 
and on the 2nd December the Austro-Hussian army was defeated at 
Austerlitz. In 1806, Mr. Fox having failed in negotiating a peace between 
France and Russia, Napoleon overran Prussia, and, Benningsen having 
evacuated Warsaw, Murat entered that city on the 28th November. On 
the 26th December the French were beaten at Pultowsk, and in February, 
1807, the severely contested battle of Eylau was fought, each side having 
three times lost and won, the deciding move being made by Benningsen, 
who took KSnigsberg by assault. On the 28th of May Dantzig capitulated 
to the French, and on the 14th of June they won the battle of Friedland; 
ten days after, Napoleon and Alexander met on a raft moored in the 
middle of the Niemen, and concluded an armistice, which was a prelude to 
the treaty of Tilsit, concluded on the 27tt July of the same year. Alex- 
ander by this act became the ally of France, which enabled the French to 
carry on their aggressive policy in Spain. But the* injury inflicted on 
Russian commerce by Napoleon's continental system against England, and 
his interference with Alexander's conquests in Finland in 1809, roused that 
sovereign to a sense of his true interests. He broke with France, and the 
invasion of Russia by the French was the consequence. To prepare for 
and carry on his defence against this, the emperor made peace with the 
Porte, and re-established his alliance with Great Britain. The operations 
which took place during this memorable struggle are so well known that 
they will only be briefly adverted to here. 

On the 23rd of June, 1812, the French crossed the Niemen and pushed 
on to Wilna, the Russians carefully retreating, and leaving Napoleon to 
pass that river on the 28th, and enter the town unopposed. Here the 
French emperor remained 18 days, and then, after considerable ma- 
noeuvring, marched on Vitepsk, where he fully expected to bring the Rus- 
sians, under Barclay de Tolly, to action. The Russian general, however, 
declined ; and Napoleon, instead of following the advice of his marshals, 
and wintering on the Dwina, crossed the Dnieper and marched on Smolensk. 
On the 16th of August he was once more in front of the Russian grand army 
near that town ; but the wary and intelligent De ToUy had occupied it 
only to cover the flight of its inhabitants, and carry off or destroy its 
magazines; and on the following morning Napoleon, to his great mortifica- 
tion, learnt that the enemy, in pursuance of his- Fabian tactics, was again 
off. Smolensk was now taken by assault, the last inhabitants that remained 
having set fire to it before they left. Up to this time the Russian Com- 
mander-in-Chief had been able to adhere to his plan of drawing the 

Digitized Dy vjv^v^v iv^ 



20 1. — Historical Notice. Sect. I. 

French into the country without risking a general engagement until a 
favourable opportunity should occur — tactics which were not liked by his 
army ; and Alexander, yielding to the clamour, appointed Kutusoff to the 
command. The battle of Borodino, sometimes called that of the Moskva, 
fought on the 1st of September, was the result of this change of leaders. 
The combatants amounted on either side to about 120,000, and the killed 
and wounded in both to about 80,000. On the 12th Bonaparte again 
moved forward, his troops by this time nearly famished, and heartily tired 
of the war, for the day of Borodino Kad given them a clear idea that the 
enemy would yield only after a desperate struggle. On Sunday the 13th 
the Russian army marched out of the old capital, with silent drums and 
colours furled, by the Kolomna Gate, and left the city to its fate. In the 
afternoon of Monday the advanced guard of the French army caught the 
first view of her golden minarets and starry domes, and the Kremlin burst 
upon their sight. ** All this is yours," cried Kapoleon, when he first gazed 
upon the goal of his ambition, and a shout of ** Moscow ! Moscow ! " was 
taken up by the foremost ranks, and carried to the rear of his army. In 
Moscow they bivouacked the same evening. Ere the night had closed in, 
their leader arrived at the Smolensko Gate, and then learnt, to his 
astonishment, that 300,000 inhabitants had fled, and that the only Russians 
who remained in the city were the convicts who had been liberated from 
the gaols, a few of the rabble, and those who were unable to leave it. On 
Tuesday, the 15th September, the mortified victor entered Moscow, and 
took up his residence in the Kremlin ; but here his stay was destined to 
be short indeed, for on the morning of the 16th it was discovered that a 
fire, which had at first given but little cause for alarm, could not be re- 
strained — fanned by the wind, it spread rapidly, and consumed the best 
portion of the city. " The churches," says Labaume, " though covered 
with iron and lead, were destroyed, and with them those graceful steeples 
which we had seen the night before resplendent in the setting sun ; the 
hospitals, too, which contained more than 20,000 wounded, soon began to 
burn — a harrowing and dreadful spectacle — and almost all these poor 
wretches perished ! " A few who still survived were seen crawling, half- 
burnt, amongst the smoking ruins, while others were groaning under heaps 
of dead bodies, endeavouring in vain to extricate themselves. The con- 
fusion and tumult which ensued when the work of pillage commenced 
cannot be conceived. Soldiers, sutlers, galley-slaves, and prostitutes, were 
seen running through the streets, penetrating into the deserted palaces, and 
carrying away everything that could gratify their avarice. Some clothed 
themselves in rich stufiTs, silks, and costly furs ; others dressed themselves 
in women's pelisses ; and even the galley-slaves concealed their rags under 
the most splendid court dresses ; the rest crowded to the cellars, and, 
forcing open the doors, drank the wine and carried off an immense booty. 
This horrible pillage was not confined to the deserted houses alone, but 
extended to the few which were inhabited, and soon the eagerness and 
wantonness of the plunderers caused devastations which almost equalled 
those occasioned by the conflagration. " Palaces and temples,'* writes 
Karamzin, " monuments of art and miracles of luxury, the remains of past 
ages and those which had l^en the ci*eation of yesterday, the tombs of 

Digitized Dy ^^jkjkjwi\^ 



Eussia. 1. — Historical Notice, 21 

ancestors and the nursery cradles of the present generation, were indiscri- 
minately destroyed ; nothing was left of Moscow save the remembrance of 
the city, and the deep resolution to avenge its fate." 

On the 20th Napoleon returned to the Kremlin from the Palace of 
Petrofski, to which he had retired, and soon tried to negotiate with Kutusoff, 
who replied that no treaty could be entered into so long as a foreigner re- 
mained within the frontier. The Emperor then requested that he would 
forward a letter to Alexander. " I will do that," said the Russian general, 
" provided the word peace is not in the letter." To a third proposition, 
Kutusoff replied that it was not the time to treat or enter into an armistice, 
as the Russians were just about to open the campaign. At length, on the 
19th of October, after a stay of 34 days, Napoleon left Moscow with his 
army, consisting of 120,000 men and 560 pieces of cannon, a vast amount 
of plunder, and a countless host of camp followers. And now the picture 
of the advance was to be reversed. Murat was defeated at Malo-Yaro- 
slavets on the 24th, and an unsuccessful stand was made at Yiasma on the 
3rd of November. On the 6th a winter peculiarly early and severe, even 
for Russia, set in — the thermometer sank 18° — ^the wind blew furiously — 
and the soldiers, vainly struggling with the eddying snow, which drove 
against them with the violence of a whirlwind, could no longer distinguish 
their road, and, falling into the ditches by the side, there found a grave. 
Others crawled on, badly clothed, with nothing to eat or drink, frost-bitten, 
and groaning with pain. Discipline disappeared — the soldier no longer 
obeyed his officer ; disbanded, the troops spread themselves right and left 
in search of food, and as the horses fell, fought for their mangled carcases, 
and devoured them raw ; many remained by the dying embers of the 
bivouac fires, and, as these expired, an insensibility crept over them which 
soon became the sleep of death. On the 9th of November Napoleon 
reached Smolensk, and remained till the 15th, when he set out for Krasno^. 
From this time to the 26th and 27th, when the French crossed the Beresina, 
all was utter and hopeless confusion ; and in the passage of that river the 
wretched remnant of their once-powerful army was nearly annihilated — 
the exact extent of their loss was never known, but a Russian account 
states that 36,000 bodies were found in the river alone, and burnt after the 
thaw. On the 5th of December Napoleon deserted the survivors. On the 
10th he reached Warsaw, and on the night of the 18th his capital and the 
Tuileries. The army that had so well and enthusiastically served him was 
disposed of as follows : — 

Slain in fight 125,000 

Died from fatigue, hunger, and the severity of the climate 132,000 
Prisonei-s 193,000 



460,000 



The remains of the grand army which escaped the general wreck (inde- 
pendently of the two auxiliary armies of Austria and Prussia, which knew 
little of the horrors of the retreat) was about 40,000 men, of whom it is 
said scarcely 10,000 were Frenchmen. Thus ended the greatest military 



uigitized Dy s^jkjkjw^ik- 



22 L-^Bistoncdl ifoUce. Sect. 1. 

catastrophe that ever "befell an army in either ancient or modem times. 
To return to Napoleon. Europe was now exasperated, and comhined 
against him ; and though in the following spring he gained the battles of 
Lut2en and Bautzen, and on the 27th of AliguSt that of Dresden, fortune 
deserted him on the 18th of October of the same year on the field of 
Leipsic. On the Rhine the Allies offered him peace atid the etnpire of 
France, which he refused, and on the 31st of March, 1814, Alexander had 
the satisfaction of marching into Paris at the head of his troops. After 
the general peace in 1815 the Emperor devoted himself to the internal im- 
provement of his country, making many judicious alterations in the 
government, in which he evinced much liberality of feeling. He had good 
abilities, but not brilliant talent, and his greatness of mind was not fully 
developed till the invasion of his country by the French ; this aroused all 
his energies, and exhibited him to the world conducting himself with con- 
summate discretion and unflinching steadiness of purpose in that alarming 
crisis. His disposition was kind and generous, his manners mild and 
amiable, and his moderation prevented him from ever abusing his Tin- 
limited power. Under the influence of his mother and the empress, the 
levity and extravagance of the court were materially repressed. Attended 
to the last by his wife, he died of erysipelas, in a small.and humble dwell- 
ing near Taganrog, when on a tour of inspection through the southern 
provinces of his empire. When the news of his death spread over his 
vast dominions, he was universally deplored, and the murmiu of regret 
in other countries responded to the grief of Russia. 

The subsequent history of Russia is within the memory of the present 
generation, and we need, therefore, only give a summary of the principal 
events in chronological order. 

Alexander I. was succeeded by the Emperor Nicholas on the 25th 
December, 1825 ; Constantine, his elder brother, having married a Polish 
lady and resigned the crown. The natural order of succession having been 
broken and Nicholas proclaimed, St. Petersburg became the scene of a military 
revolution, which was suppressed by the Emperor in person. The troops 
had been excited to revolt by the members of a wide-spread conspiracy 
for introducing a constitutional form of government. When the leadere 
cheered their men on with the cry of Constitutsia ! the soldiery believed 
they were fighting for Gonstantine*s wife. This outbreak made a deep im- 
pression on the mind of the Emperor, and had great influence on the system 
of government by which his reign is best known. Nicholas declared war 
against Persia, which terminated in 1828 by the payment of a large in- 
denmity on the part of the Shah. A war with Turkey followed, and was 
closed by the Treaty of Adrianople, 1829, by which Russia acquired a con- 
siderable augmentation in territory on the coast of the Black Sea and other 
advantages, in addition to a certain amount of influence in the Danubian 
principalities. An insurrection broke out in Poland in 1830, and was sup- 
iressed, after a hard struggle, in 1831 (vide Poland). The territory ceded 
y the Treaty of Adrianople having included the Caucasus, the Emperor 
Nicholas had recourse to arms in order to bring the independent races of 
that mountainous region to submission. By a treaty signed at Constanti- 



I 



Ki 



.nsBia. 



1. — Historical Notice* 



23 



nople on the 8tli July, 1833, between Russia and Turkey, the Porte 
engaged, in return for the military aid of Russia against the Pasha of 
Egypt, to close the Dardanelles against all foreign vessels of war. The 
I^eace between the Sultan and the Pasha having again been disturbed in 
1839, the Ottoman empire was placed, on the 27th July, 1839, under the 
common safeguard of the five great European Powers, instead of exclusively 
under the protection of Russia. This was followed by a convention, 
signed at London on the 15th July, 1840, " for maintaining the integrity 
and independence of the Ottoman empire, as a security for the peace of 
Europe." In 1844 the Emperor Nicholas visited England. In 1849 Russia 
assisted Austria in repressing the Hungarian insurrection. A dispute 
between the Greek and Latin Churches relative to the guardianship of the 
Holy Places produced demands on the part of Russia which the Porte refused 
to admit. Thereupon the Russian troops, amounting to 80,000, entered the 
Moldo-Wallachian provinces in July, 1853. The combined fleets of Eng- 
land and France entered the Dardanelles on the 14th October, at the request 
of the Sultan, and on the 1st November Russia declared war against Turkey. 
The Turks then crossed the Danube, and conducted a campaign against the 
Russians with much bravery and success. On the 30th November the 
Turkish fleet was destroyed while at anchor in the harbour of Sinope, not- 
withstanding the declaration on the part of Russia that she intended only 
to act on the defensive, and to repel the advance of the Turks into the 
Principalities. The combined fleet was immediately ordered into the Black 
Sea, and hopes of a peaceful termination of the difficulty were abandoned. 
The Russian ambassador quitted London on the 4th February, 1854. 
France and England declared war against Russia respectively on the 27th 
and 28th March. Odessa was bombarded on the 22nd April, after an 
English flag of truce had been fired upon. The * Tiger* steam^frigate 
stranded near Odessa, and was captured after an attack by the artillery on 
land ; the flag of one of her boats fell into the possession of the Russians. 
The allied squadron anchored off Eupatoria on the 13th September, and 
next day landed their troops at about 12 miles below that town. The 
battle of the Alma was fought on the 20th September. 

The following account of the battle of the Alma is condensed from 
Lient.-Col. Hamley*s * Story of the Campaign of Sebastopol :* — 



The allied army, having landed, on 
the 14th Sept., at a place about 12 m. 
below the town of Eupatoria, com- 
menced its march on the 19th at 7 in 
the moniing. In all, the British mus- 
tered 26,000 men and 54 guns ; the 
French 24,000 men and about 70 guns ; 
and the Turks 4500 men, with neither 
ravahry nor guns. At night the Allies 
bivouacked on the Bulganak. The 
next moniing, between 9 and 10 o'clock, 
the army marched onward for about 
2 hoozs under a bright sun. The front 
of the Allies was oblique, the Turks on 
the right being about 2 m. in advance 



of the British left. Surmounting the 
grassy ridges which formed their hori- 
zon, the scene of the coming struggle 
disclosed itself to them. The plain, 
level for about a mile, sloped gently 
down to a village, beyond which was 
a valley sprinkled with trees, and 
watered by the river Alma. On the 
opposite side of the stream the bank 
rises abruptly into steep knolls, termi- 
nating in plateaux, behind which rises 
another and higher range of heights. 
Both these ranges were occupied by 
masses of Russian troops, numbering 
altogether, according toGen.Todleben. 



24 



1.— ^fl««fo)icaZ Notice, 



Sect. I. 



33,600 men of all arms and 96 guns. 
Such was the position in front of the 
British. In fit)nt of the French, who 
formed the centre of the line, the first 
range of knolls grew more and more 
abrupt. These were defended by in- 
fantry, and field-artillery were posted, 
with more infantry, on the plains at 
the top of the heights. 

The French advanced steadily and 
incessantly, and attacked a small tele- 
graph station on the plain at the top 
of the heights, and succeeded in plant- 
ing their fiag upon it. During the 
attack on it, the right of the British 
had gradually come under the fire of 
the heavy artillery on the knolls. 
Pennefather's brigade of the 2nd divi- 
sion, advancing in line along the slope 
of the plain, lay down near the walls 
of the village for shelter from the de- 
structive fixe of the enemy, and then 
moved onward to the river ; while the 
light division, passing into the valley, 
on the left of the second, pressed on 
until they passed the river, nearly up 
to their necks, and then began to 
ascend the slopes beyond, which were 
held by the Russian battalions. 

The battery now in front of them, 
covered with a thick low bank of earth, 
swept the whole front of the British, 
and its fire was crossed by that of the 
guns from the knolls, which searched 
the village and ploughed up the plain 
beyond it. A wide road, bounded by 
low stone walls, leading to a bridge 
and a ford, intervened between the 
1st and 2nd divisions ; and the latter 
point, being nearly intermediate be- 
tween the principal lines of fire, was 
probably the hottest of the cannonade. 
Many of the 55th fell there, before 
advancing into the villages. To oppose 
the Russian fire, some guns were at 
last brought into action on the OT)posite 
bank, and their fire took the Kussian 
centre and guns in reverse, while the 
French, pressing up the heights, had 
driven back the left. The Russian 
artillery now began to retire, soon after 
followed by covering masses of in- 
fantry. It was at this moment that a 
brigade of the light division, consist- 
ing of the 7th, 23rd, and 33rd regts., 



very gallantly led by Gen. Codrington, 
advancing up the slope, under a terrible 
fire of musketry, took a gun from the 
epaulement or low wall of earth al- 
ready mentioned ; but, with a loss of 
600 killed and wounded, the brigade 
was forced to retire down the slope 
and re-form under cover of the attack 
of the first division, which had been 
led across the river by^the Duke of 
Cambridge to support them. The 7th 
Fusileers, going up to the breast- 
work with a cheer, retook and kept 
possession of the Russian gun; the 
33rd and 95th came to the support of 
the 7th ; the 19th and 47th also ad- 
vanced ; and after a terrible slaughter 
the Russians were driven back. Sir 
George Brown rode gallantly in front 
of his light division and fell in front 
of the battery. The 55th. and 30th 
regts., coming up on the right of the 
95th, drove ^k the enemy on their 
own front, and the 3 British brigades 
formed line on the ground they had 
won. 

The battle had thus rolled back to 
the right rear of the Russians. On 
the extreme right of their original 
position, at the top of the heights, was 
a battery behind an epaulement, with a 
flank for 7 guns, thrown back to pre- 
vent the right being turned. The 
brigade of Highlanders, under Sir 
Colin Campbell, being on the left of 
the British line, formed themselves, 
when the 1st division crossed the river, 
directly in front of this battery, which, 
before it followed the other guns in 
their retreat, poured upon them during 
their gallant advance a heavy but 
ill-directed fire, doing them but little 
damage. At the top of the hill they 
met some battalions of the enemy still 
showing a front, and compelled them 
to retreat with the loss of a good many 
men ; and two troops of horse-artillery, 
which had crossed the river higher up, 
coming into action, played upon the 
retreating masses with great effect. 
Thus ended, after a contest of 3 hours^ 
the battle of the Alma. 

The retreat was effiected in good 
order, with the loss of 2 gims and 
Prince MenschikofiTs carriage with hia 

Digitized Dyvj WW viCO *•"***« 



Bussia. 



1. — Htdancal Notice. 



25 



papers. The loss of the Allies was 
about 3000 in killed and wounded. 
Gen.Todleben attributes the loss of 
the battle mainly to the superior dis- 
cipline and arms of the Allies. 

Prince Menschikof^ having made 
good his retreat to Sevastopol, caused 
its fortifications to be strengthened by 
Todleben, and ordered Admiral Kor- 
nilo£f to sink his sauadron in the road- 
stead. On the 23rd the Allies reached 
the Katcha and encamped there, with- 
out finding the enemy as they had 
expected. On the 24th they bivouacked 
near Belbek. Meanwhile Prince Men- 
schikoffhad quitted Sevastopol in the 
night, to proceed with his aimy to 



Bakhchisarai by the Mackenzie road, 
leaving only 16,569 fighting men in 
garrison, and losing some carriages 
with baggage and ammimition on the 
plain. Gen. Todleben is of opinion 
that neither the exaUation of the 
Bussian troops, nor their resolution to 
fight to the last, would have been able 
to save Sevastopol if the Allies had 
attacked it immediately after the pas- 
sage of the Tchemaya. However that 
may be, the AlUes moved on the 26th 
September towards the east, in the 
direction of Mackenzie's farm, and suc- 
cessfully accomplished the manoeuvre 
of transferring the army from the N. 
to the S. side of Sevastopol. 



On the 26th Balaclava harbour was occupied. Sevastopol was attacked 
by sea and by land on the 17th October. The Light Cavalry charge of 
^laclava was made on the 25th October ; out of 607 men only 198 re- 
turned. While the siege was progressing large reinforcements were pour- 
ing iqto the Bussian camp. The Bussians attacked Uie English positions 
in front of Inkermann on the 5th November, but were compelled to 
letreat. 

' The following account of the battle of Inkermann is likewise condensed 
from Lieut.-Col. Hamley's « Story of the Campaign of Sebastopol :* — 



During the night of the i-5th of 
November the Bussians had assembled 
in force in the valley of the Tchemaya 
between Inkermann and the harbour. 
The olnect of their enterprise, accord- 
ing to General Todleben, was to drive 
back the right wing of the besiegers 
and take firm possession of the ground 
occupied by tibem between the town 
and the shore. A force of 18,929 
men and 38 guns was to start at six 
in the morning for ' Careening Bay,' 
and to be joined by another body of 
15,806 men and 96 guns passing over 
the bridge of Inkermann. On their 
junction they were to be under the 
command of General Dannenberg; 
while Prince Gortschakoii; with 22,444 
men and 88 guns, was to support the 
attack and endeavour to efiect a di- 
version. This plan was not entirely 
carried out, for the body of 18,929 
men proceeded to a different side of 
the ravine from that originally con- 
templated, and thus prevented the 
mecutated junction. 

lttifnd-.1868. 



At dawn they made their rush upon 
the advanced posts of the second di- 
vision posted on the crest looking down 
into the valley, and which fell back 
fighting. upon the camp behind the 
crest, 1200 yards in rear. The out- 
posts being driven in, the hill was 
occupied by the enemy's artillery and 
guns of position, which commenced a 
heavy fiie down the face of the gentle 
declivity, crashing through the tents 
left standing below. Captain Allix, 
of General Evans's staff, * was dashed 
firom his saddle, not far from his own 
tent, by a round shot, and fell dead. 
The plan of the Bussians was, after 
sweeping the ridge clear by their 
heavy concentrated fire, to launch 
some of their columns over it, while 
others, diverging to their left after 
crossing the marsh, were to have 
passed round the edge of the cliffs 
opposite Inkermann, and turned the 
rfritish right. The artillery fire had 
not continued long before the rush 
of infantry was made. Crowds o*' 





26 



1. — Historical Notice^ 



Sect. 1. 



skinnishers advancing through the 
Coppice came on in spite of the case- 
shot) and passed within the British 
line, forcing the artillery to limber up 
and retire down the slope. Two com- 
panies of the 55th, lying down behind 
a small bank of earth, retreated as the 
Russians leapt over it, firing as thev 
went back, and halted on a French 
Regiment that was marching up the 
hifl. The Russians retreated in their 
turn, and the French, with General 
Pennefather riding in front, went gal- 
lantly down the slope under the tremei^- 
dous fire, driving the enemy before 
them. Almost simultaneously with 
this attack on the centre, a body of 
Russians had passed round the edge of 
the clii!^ and met the Guards there, 
who had thrown themselves into a two- 
gun battery on the edge of the slope 
opposite the ruins of the old castle, 
with the Grenadiers extending to the 
right, the Fusiliers to the left, of the 
battery, and the Coldstreams across 
the slope towards the British centre. 
The Russians came on in great num- 
bers with extraordinary determination. 
The Guards, having exhausted their 
ammunition, attacked the Russians 
with the bayonet, and, after losing 
nearly half their number, were com- 
pellea to retire, but, being reinforced, 
returned and drove the enemy out of 
tl^e battery. 

Four or the guns of Towns^nd's bat- 
tery of the fourth division, which 
came up at the left of the position, 
were taken by the Russians almost as 
soon as unlimbered, but some of the 
88th and 49th retook them before they 
had been many seconds in the enemy's 
hands. In all these attacks on the 
!^ritish right, the Russians were pre- 
yented from turning that flank by 
Oodrington's brigade of the light di- 
vision jested on the further bank of 
the ravine. When the Russian infan- 
try was driven back, a cannonade re- 
commenced along their whole line, to 
which the British guns replied warm- 
ly, though overmatched in metal and 
numbers. The ships in the harbour, 
«nd the battery at the Round Tower, 
threw shot and shell on the slope, 
is cannonade was tiie preface to 



another infantry attack, which now 
again threatened the British right, at 
that moment absolutely without de- 
fence. By advancing resolutely the 
enemy would have turned it, but the 
men who had retreated- from the low 
entrenchment already spoken of ral- 
lied and lay down under it. Then 
reinforcements arrived for the support 
of the remnant of the defenders of the 
2-gun battery. These fresh troops at 
once charged the enemy, routed them, 
and pursued them to the very verge of 
the heights, When, returning victori- 
ous, they found the battery, as they 
repassed it, again occupied by Rus- 
sians, a fresh force of whom had 
mounted the cliff from the valley. It 
was while collecting his men to meet 
this new and unexpected foe that Sir 
George Cathcart was shot dead. 

At this juncture the remainder of 
Bosquet's division came up on the right, 
and, passing at once over the crest, 
threw themselves into the combat,' 
and, fighting side by side with the 
British troops, pressed the Russians 
back. A tremendous cannonade was 
now again opened by the Russians, and 
replied to by English and French bat- 
teries of artillery and two I8-pounder8 
ordered up by Lord Raglan. Between 
these two opposing fires of artillery, a 
fierce desultory combat of skirmishers 
-went on in the coppice. Regiments and 
divisions, French and Engli^, we:^ 
here mixed, and fought hand to hand 
with the common enemy. About noon 
the fire of the Russians slackened, and 
further French reinforcements took up 
a position on the hill. The battle was 
now prolonged only by the efforts of 
the Russian artillery |o coyer the ?e« 
treat of their foiled and broken bat< 
talions. At three o'clock tiae French 
and English generals, with tiieir staffs, 
passed along the crest of the disputed 
hill, and half an hour after the whole 
force of the enemy retired across tiiie 
Tchemaya. 

Until the arrival of the fourth 
division and the French, the ground 
was held by about 5000 British troops, 
presenting a thin and scattered line, 
while the body of Russians immedi- 
ately opposed to them was, according 



Russia. 



1. — Historical Notice. 



27 



to General Todleben, 15,000 strong. 
In all, 8000 English and 6000 French 
were engaged. The total Bnssian force, 
estimated hj Lord Raglan at 60,000, 
is put down by General Todleben at 
34,835, of whom 6 generals, 256 offi- 
cers, and 10,467 rank and file were 
pnt hors de combat — more than double 
the loss of the Allies. The loss of the 
battle is attributed by General Todle- 
ben to the want of simultaneity in the 



advance of the Bussians (owing to 
conflicting arrangements in starting 
from Sevastopol), the superiority of 
the French and English small-arms, 
and the omission of the Russian ar- 
tillery to follow and support their 
infantry. 

Lar^e trenches were dug on the 
ground for the dead; the Russians 
lay apart, the French and English 
were ranged side by side. 



A- hurricane destroyed a great amount of shipping in the Black Sea 
on the 14th November, causing the Allies to suffer considerably from 
the want of supplies. General Todleben now assumed with much 
success the direction of the defences of Sevastopol, and soon gained 
great renown ; the Allies in the mean while were repulsed in a naval 
attack on Petropavlofski, in the Pacific. In 1855 Sardinia joined the 
Allies with a contingent of 15,000 men. On the 17th February the 
Russians made a formidable attack on Eupatoria, defended by the 
Turks imder Omer Pasha and by a French detachment, but were 
obliged to retire with great loss ; the intelligence of the repulse reached 
the Emperor Nicholas but a few days before his death, which took place 
very unexpectedly on the 2nd March. A conference was soon after opened 
at Vienna with the object of concluding peace, but after sitting six weeks 
it was dissolved without any satisfactory result. The war, however, was 
being actively prosecuted. The second bombardment of Sevastopol was 
opened at daybreak of the 9th April, 1855, and produced no decisive result. 
The third bombardment commenced on the 6th June, and was followed 
next day by successful attacks on the Mamelon and Quarries. General 
Liprandi having attempted to raise the siege, the battle of the Tchemaya 
was fought on the 16th August, and resulted in the complete success of 
the French and Sardinian troops engaged in it. On the 5th September an 
"infernal fire" was opened .by the AlSes and kept up until the 8th, when 
the French stormed the Malakoff and the English the Redan, which was, 
however, abandoned after an unequal contest of nearly two hours. The 
French loss on that day amounted to 1489 killed, 4259 wounded, and 1400 
missing ; and the English to 385 killed, 1886 wounded, and 176 missing ; 
the Russians, according to their own account, losing 2684 killed, 7243 
wounded, and 1763 missing. The south side of Sevastopol being no longer 
tenable, the town was evacuated during ihe night; the magazines were 
exploded, the fortifications blown up, and the ships in the harbour sunk. 
The Allies took possession of the ruins next day. The operations of the 
Anglo-French squadron in the Baltic consisted, in 1854, of a reconnaissance 
off Cronstadt by Sir Charles Napier, and a boat action at Gaml^ Karbely, in 
the Gulf of Finland, when the paddlebox-boat of the 'Vulture' drifted on 
shore and became a prize. The flag of this boat is shown at St. Petersburg, 
being, together with that of the * Tiger's ' boat, the only English colours 
preserved in Russia as military trophies. ITie forts of Bomarsund, on the 
Aland Islands, were captured on the 15th July, 1854, by a French force of 
10,000 men and a small contingent of English marines and seamen. In 
1855 the Baltic fleet bombarded Sveaborg and cruised off Cronstadt, under 

c 2 



28 h— Historical Notice. Sect. I. 

the command of Admiral Dundas and Admiral Penan d. The war in Asia 
terminated with the surrender of Kars to General Mouravieff. By the 
intervention of Austria, preliminaries of peace were agreed upon at a 
meeting of pleni|)otentiaries at Paris on the 26th February, 1856, and peace 
was signed on the 30th March and ratified on the 27th April following. 
By that treaty the territorial integrity and the independence of the Ottoman 
empire were recognised and guaranteed. Hussia and Turkey mutually 
agreed not to keep in the Black Sea more than six steam-vessels, of 800 
tons at the maximum, and four light steam or sailing vessels, not exceeding 
200 tons. The navigation of the Danube was opened to the vessels of all 
nations, and the Russian frontier in Bessarabia was rectified. No exclusive 
protection over the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was in future 
to be admitted ; and in case of the internal tranquillity of the principalities 
being menaced, no armed intervention can take place without the general 
sanction of the contracting Powers. 

The Emperor Alexander II. was crowned at Moscow on the 7th September, 
1856. His accession was marked by the introduction of vast reforms in 
the administration. Corruption was prosecuted and punished. The army 
waa reduced to the lowest limits compatible with the dignity and safety of 
the country, and the term of military service was shortened. Railways were 
projected and commenced, and commercial and industrial enterprise of every 
kind was liberally promoted in view of restoring the prosperity of the empire, 
much impaired by the war. Overtrading, however, induced by an artificial 
encouragement, added its disastrous effects to financial embarrassment, and 
assisted in depreciating the currency of the country, no longer metallic. 
New loans were made, and a system of financial publicity was adopted. But 
the most gloiious monument of the reign of the Emperor Alexander II. 
will ever be the emancipation of the serfs. Their manumission had been 
frequently contemplated. The delegates in Catherine II. *s parliament had 
suggested it ; Alexander I. had counsellors who ardently desired to see 
its abolition, and even the Emperor Nicholas had contemplated a more 
mitigated form of personal bondage. In 1838 a section of the nobility 
petitioned for its entire abolition. In 1852 the Minister of the Interior 
actually drew up a plan of gradual emancipation, which was to hay« beea 
carried into execution in the spring of 1854. In 1859, the nobility of the 
province of Lithuania having ofi'ered to free their serfs, the Emperor 
Alexander II. convoked a commission at St. Petersburg, which was charged 
with the preparation of an act of general emancipation. This was pro- 
claimed on the 3rd March, 1861, when all the serfs (about 23 millions) 
acquired personal liberty and civil rights. A period of two years was 
allowed for the appropriation of land to the peasants, who have acquired 
the ''perpetual usufruct" of the houses and plots of ground which they 
occupied at the time of emancipation ; the allotments of land being, how- 
ever, circumscribed by a scale which varied according to the locality and 
quality of the soil. The compulsory appropriation to each peasant varied 
from a minimum of 1 dessiatina (2^ acres) to a maximum of 12 dessiatinas 
in the steppe districts. In the central parts of Russia the extent of the 
allotments was, on an average, about 4 dessiatinas (10 acres) to each pea- 
sant. Beyond this, the enfranchised serf is permitted to acquire additional 
ands on terms of mutual agreement with the landed proprietors. Those 



Eossia. 1. — Historical Notice. 29 

terms were r^ulated by a body of officials, called '' Arbitrators of the 
Peace,", who drew up and registered the deeds of sale or lease. The 
Government in such cases advanced the purchase-money to the peasant 
by the issue of redemption-bonds, bearing 5 per cent, interest, and is 
refunded by a series of payments extending over a certain number of years. 
The communes being responsible, as corporations, to the State for such 
repayments, their members are circumscribed in their liberty of locomo- 
tion until they have paid their share of the heavy liability incurred. It 
is calculated fiiat the Government will have advanced 300 millions of 
rubles in these transactions, by which each peasant is enabled to become 
an independent and considerable landed proprietor. The larger estates of 
the nobles are in the mean while to a great extent deprived of agricultural 
labour, and are being very generally thrown out of cultivation or partially 
farmed out to the peasantry. In the ancient provinces of Poland, since 
the insurrection which broke out in Poland and Lithuania in 1863, the 
proprietors are forced by ukaz to cede such portions of additional lands as 
the peasants may desire to purchase ; but the measure has not been applied 
to Itussia Proper, llie emancipation was carried out peaceably, with 
only a few partial agrarian outbreaks, produced chiefly by erroneous 
interpretations of the law. 

Among the many other important reforms which followed the Act of 
Emancipation we may signalise the introduction- of new courts of law on 
the basis of open trial by jury, which came into operation at Moscow and 
St. Petersburg during the course of 1865, and in other parts of the empire 
later. Corporal punishment was abolished in 1863, and the penalty of death 
is now only inflicted on the sentences of courts-martial in cases of incen- 
diarism and other crimes requiring special measures of repression. The 
Jenvi has entirely disappeared as an instrument of punishment. The dis- 
abilities of the Jews have been removed ; the commerce of the country, 
although still retarded in its development by one of the worst Customs 
Tariffs in Europe, has been relieved of many oppressive regulations, and 
thrown open to natives and foreigners alike ; municipal charters have been 
conferred on St. Petersburg and Moscow ; the liberty of speech and thought 
denied under the previous reign may now be fully exercised, except in the 
form of public meetings for political purposes ; and the censorahip of the press 
has been reduced to a mitigated form. Public instruction is being vigor- 
ously pursued, and education brought within the reach of the humblest. 
The Universities and superior schools have been remodelled and deprived of 
their once semi-military character. A classical system of education is being 
promoted, and the clergy are being raised socially and intellectually. These, 
and many other wise reforms of the Emperor Alexander II., too numerous 
and complex here to be specified, form, as it were, the basis of those Repre- 
sentative Institutions with which the edifice of government will sooner cr 
later be crowned. 

Among the events in Russian history that have occurred since 1865 may 
be mentioned the attempt on the life of the Emperor by Karakozoff on the 
4-l6th April, 1866 ; the marriage of the Tsesarevitch Alexander with the 
Princess Dagmar, sister of the Princess of Wales, and the visit to Russia of 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, on the occasion of the marriage, in November, 
1866 ; and th§ second dastai-dly attack on the Emperor at Paris, by Bere* 



30 



2.Stati8tic8. 



Sect. I. 



zowski, in June, 1867. His Imperial Majesty was invested with the Order 
of the Garter by Earl Vane on the 16-28th July, 1867. In 1866 a squadron 
was sent out by the Government of the U. S. of America, with Mr. Fox as 
envoy, to convey to H. I. M. the congratulations of the people of the United 
States on his escape from assassination. This complimentary mission v^as 
preceded by the visit of Mr. Atkinson, Mayor of Hull, who delivered to 
H. I. M. an address on the same occasion, from the Town Council and 
Chamber of Commerce of Kingston-upon-Hull. 



2.— STATIBTICa. 



The Area and Population of the Hussian Empire are shown in the foU 
lowing Table taken from the Beport of the Central Statistical Committee 
for 1858. 





Sq.Geog. 
Mllea 






Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Bussia in Europe . . . . 

CaucRfliis 

Bussia in Asia 

Kingdom of Poland . . . . 
Grand Duchy of Finland . . 


90,134 

8,034 

262,746 

2,258 

6,870 


29,367,422 

2,247.172 

2,163,099 

2,298,113 

818,274 


29.963,330 

2,061,348 

2,067.839 

2,466,333 

818,275 


59.330,752 
4.308,520 
4,230,938 
4,764,446 
1.636,549 


Total .. .. 


370,042 
or 

7,770,882 
Eng. sq. m. 


36.894.080 


37,377,125 


74,271,205 



It will be seen that the population of Russia is veiy unequally distri- 
buted, being at the rate of 706 inhab. to the sq. m. in European Russia, 
524 inhab. in the Lieutenancy of the Caucasus, 16 in Asiatic Russia ; 
while Poland has 2110 inhab. to the sq. m., and Finland 238. 

In Russia Proper (about 59 millions) the population professing the Busso- 
Greek religion numbers about 51 millions ; the Dissenters are estimated 
at about 802,000. The Roman Catholics form a total of 3 millions, the 
Protestants 2 millions, the Jews If million, the Mahomedans 2 millions, 
and Idolaters about 200,000. The class of nobles, including Government 
functionaries, is estimated at nearly 900,000 ; the clergy at 611,000 ; the 
inhab. of towns at 4,700,000; the military (including families) at 4 mil- 
lions ; and the peasantry at 49i millions. The foreigners residing in Rus- 
sia, irrespective of those who have taken the^ (>a|J^ qf^^J^^^ce to the 
'i:mperor, number 86,611. '^ '' ^ ^ 



Eussia. 



2.— Statistics. 



81 



The Budget for 1867 anticipated the following revenue and expendi- 
ture : — 

1. Bevenue : 

Direct taxes .. '.. 52} million rouhles. 

Indirect taxes 174f „ 

Duties and stamps 12f „ 

Boyalties (post and telegraph , &c.) 17| „ 

Btate domains 63 „ 

Miscellaneous receipts 46| „ 

Bevenue of the Traiiscaucasus .. 3} ,, 

Portion of Budget of Poland .. 16} „ 



Total ordinary revenue 
Extraordinary revenue (loans) 
Special receipts 



Grand total of revenue 



387 millions (53}^. mill at 88J.). 
40i 
16 

i43i milUons (612. mill.). 



This Revenue was to have been expended as follows in 1867 : — 



Public debt, repayment of, and interest 

Superior State Departments 

Church, pay of Clergy, &c 

Imperial Household (Civil List) .. .. 

Foreign Affairs 

Army 

Navy 

Finance Department — Cost of collecting 

taxes ; pensions, &c 65} 

State domains 7 

Home Office 15f 

Public Instruction 7| 

Public Works 22} 



73| million roubles, 
li 



9 
2i 
120} 
16i 



Posts and telegraphs 

Justice 

Audit Office 

Imperial studs 

Poland 

Transcaucasus 



14i 
8J 
If 
0} 

20 
4i 



Total ordinary expenditure .. 398 J million roubles (54 JZ. mill.)* 
Extraordinary expenditure — 

Construction of railways 25} „ „ 

Special expenditure 16 „ „ 

Ajitioipated deficit in receipts .... 4 „ „ 

Grand total of expenditure . . 443f million roubles, 



From an account of the actual appropriation of the votes taken on the 
Budgets, published in 1866, for the period between 1832 and 1861, it is 
apparent that the yearly deficits between the revenue and the expendi* 



32 ^,— Language, Sect. I. 

ture of tlie Russian Empire are very considerable. The following are tlie 
deficits officially shown since 1853 : — 

1853 51 million roubles. 

1854 123J „ 

1855 261| „ 

1856 265f „ 

1857 38J „ 

1858 5 „ 

1859 5i „ 

1860 .. .. • 51i „ 

1861 2J „ 

Bui the financial expedients to which the Russian Goyemment have bad 
recourse between 1862 and 1866, in order to cover the difference between 
the ordinary revenue and the gross expenditure, show that the actual 
deficits for the last five years have not been much under 100 million 
roubles per annum (about 14 millions sterling). 

Russia is divided in matters of education into six districts, with gym- 
nasia and schools, frequented by 1,155,773 scholars. In 1866 the number 
of scholars in village, parochial, and national schools amounted to 928,000. 



3. — ^Language. 

The Russian language belongs to the south-east group of Slavic languages, 
to which belong also the Bulgarian language (with its obsolete dialect^ 
the ancient or ecclesiastical Slavonian, now the liturgic language of all the 
Slavonian-speaking followers of the Eastern Church) and the Serbian or 
Illyric, with its numerous dialects spoken throughout a great part of Turkey, 
and to a considerable extent in the empire of Austria ; while the north-west 
group of the same family comprehends the Polish, Bohemian, and Lusatian 
languages, with their dialects. The Russian language presents three 
dialects — the Little Russian, which is spoken in the south-west provinces 
of Russia (Volhynia, Kief, Chernigov, Poltava, Kharkof, part of Voronej, 
Ekaterinoslaf, Kherson, the Taurida, Podolia, and part of Bessarabia) ; the 
"White Russian dialect, spoken in the provinces of Mohilef and Minsk, ia 
the greater part of those of Vitejisk, Grodno, and Bialostok, and in a small 
part of the province of Vilna ; finally, the Great Russian or Russian proper, 
'which is the official and literary language, as also that of a large majority 
of the population. The total of the Slavonian-speaking population amounts 
to 55,600,000, of which more than 35,000,000 use the Great Russian dialect, 
llie difference between these three dialects, however, is not so great as to 
prevent the people s[jeaking the Little Russian or the 'White Russian from 
understanding the Great Russian, so that it may be said that the Russian 
language is spoken from one end of Russia proper to the other. Even the 
Pole and the Russian can understand each other to a certain extent. 

The Russian language is extremely copious and flexible ; its grammatical 

construction is somewhat complex, and offers many difficulties to a foreigner, 

owing to the great variety of inflections peculiar to some parts of speech, 

and to the absence of such other elements of speech as are in other Euro* 

ean languages considered quite essential in ordeF to^attain precision. 



Buflsia. 



3. — Language. 



33 



Thus nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, are declinable in seven caaes ; 
adjectives have a full and contracted termination ; the diminutive, aug- 
mentative, and deprecative terminations are next in expression, strength, 
and grace only to the Italian ; but there is no article, — a deficiency which 
causes great perplexity to a foreigner. Again, the Russian verbs are to a 
foreigner most difficult of comprehension, for they are quite different in 
system from anything that exists in the Western languages :— namely, the 
verb, while denoting in its inflections the numbers, persons, and in some 
cases even the genders, has only three tenses, and the deficiency of the 
other tenses is partly made good by so-called modes, which determine 
the frequent or unfrequent, precise or unprecise mode of an action, partly 
redeemed by an almost unlimited freedom of inversion, which, however, 
can afford but little help to one not perfectly conversant with the language. 

The Eussians have an alphabet different from that used in the rest of 
Europe. The invention of this alphabet (which is called KirUlitsa) is attri- 
buted to St. Cyril and Methodius, who lived in the 9th centy., and are con- 
sidered as the principal apostles of the Christian faith among the Slavonian 
tribes, and who translated the Holy Scriptures, or at least some parts of 
them, into their native language ; for which purpose they are said to have 
compased an alphabet, or rather to have adapted the Greek alphabet, with 
the addition of a certain number of new characters for such sounds as were 
peculiar to the Slavonian language, and for such as they found no signs in 
the Greek alphabet. These characters are now only used in printing 
devotional books. The characters in general use were introduced by Peter 
the Great ; they are the same Cyrillian alphabet, with the omission of a 
few unnecessary letters, and somewhat remodelled so as to resemble more 
closely the forms of the Latin characters. 

The sounds of the thirty-six letters of which the Russian alphabet is 
composed are given below in English characters. Throughout this work 
Russian sounds, absent in the English language, have been rendered by a 
simple combination of English letters, to be pronounced as in the Italian 
language : d^ as in far, 6 as a, i as ee, u as oo. 

A a a, has the sound of a in £etr. 



6 d 


b^ 


b 


bay. 


B B 


ve 


V 


vale. 


r r 
i\ A 


S : 


1 


day. 


E e 


e „ 


e 


met. 


m m 


je 


z 


azure. 


3 8 


ze 


z 


zeal. 


H R 


i 


e 


me. 


tt 11 


i 


y 


coy. 


I i 


i 


e 


me. 


R K 


ka 


k 


keen. 


A I 


1 


1 


lay. 


11 M 


m „ 


m 


may. 


II II 


n „ 


n 


nay. 





o 


o 


open. 


U n 


P 


P 


pay. 


P p 


r 


r 


ray. 


C c 


S n 


s 


say. .git 


T T,m 


t 


t 


tay. ' 



dbyGoOgl^ 



c 3 



84 



3. — Language, 



Sect. I* 



y y 

X X 

^ ^ 

in m 

m m 

!> I 

bl u 

B h 



■B 

a 

K) 

e 

V 



h „ oo book, 

f „ f fat. 

khi, „ h aspirated, 

ts^ „ ts in its. 

ch^ n ^^ chaio, 

sha „ sh shade, 

stcha ,t sch discharge, 

yer has no sound — a semi-vowel, 
yery has something like the sound of e in ble, die. 
yer has no sound — a semi-vowel used to soften 
consonants. 

^ \ have the sound of a in any, 

yil ;, u unit, 

ya „ ya yam. 

f<6 „ I feet. 

i „ 6 me (seldom used). 



The following are a few words and phrases which the traveller may find 
uiioful, if pronounced according to the sounds given above.'*' 



The Emperor 
The Krapress 
The Crown Prince 
A Grand Dake 
A prince 
A count 
A noble 
J>ir or Mr. 
The head of a village 
An employ^ 
A peasant 
Ditto 
The police 
A blacksmith 
A drosky or sledge-^ 
driver J 

A coachman 
A postilion 
A waiter 
A porter 
A water-caiTier 
A foreigner 
Chief city / 

A town I 

A street 
A cross-street 
A square 
A market 
A row of shops 
A shop 
A quay 
A gateway 
Outer door 



Tsar, 

Tsaritsa, 

Tsesarewtch, 

Veliki Kniaz, 

Kniaz. 

Gr&f, 

Dvoryomin, 

Gospodin, 

Starosta, 

Chinovnik. 

Krestianin, 

Mujik, 

Politsia, 

Kusnets. 

Iswstchik, 

Kutscher, 
Yamschik, 
Chelovek, 
Dvomik. 
Vodovos. 
Inostranets, 
Stolitsa, 
Gorod, 
Ulitsa. 
Pereuhk, 
Plosckad, 
Rinok. 
Biad. 
Zafka, 
Naberejnaya, 
Vorota, 
Fodyezd, 



An island 
A garden 
Afield 
A cathedral 
A church 
A belfry 
A cemetery 
Altar-screen 
A monastery 
A palace 
An hotel 

A i^taurant | 

A i-oom at an inn 
A dressing room 
A ladies' room 
A house 
A courtyard 
A villa 
A room 
A chemist's 
The parade-ground 
A barrack 
A fort 
A bridge 
A river 
A village 
A road 
A hill 

The bath-house 
A post or railway'i 
station / 

The Great Bazaar 



Ostrof. 
Sad. 
Pole. 
Sobor. 



Kolokolnia. 

KladbishcM, 

Ikonostaa, 

MoncLstir, 

Dvorets. 

Gostirmtaa. 

" Pestoran " or 

Trakiir. 
NomeTf 
Ubomaya, 



Barm. 

Dvor, 

Dacha, 

Komnaia, 

Aptika, 

PlatZ'parad, 

Kazarma. 

Krepost or " Fort: 

Most. 

Eeka. 

Deremia. 

Doroga, 

Gora, 

Pania. 

Stantsia. 

GosttJinoi-Dvor. 



• The best Russian vocabulary is CJornet's. Reirs • Manual of the Russian Language » and 
i'a * Russian Grammar/ may likewise be consulted. The best dictionary is ReifrsT^ * 



Bussia. 


3. 


^Language. 




The Exchange 


Bifja, 


Wine 


Vino. 


The Embassy Posolstvo, 
English Ambassador Angliski Fosol 


Com brandy 
Beer . 


Vodka. 
Pico. , 


English Consul 


Angliski Consul. Coffee 


Koffi., 


American Minister 


; Americansky 
lannik. 


Pos- Tea 
Sugar 


Chai. 
Sahar. 


American Consul 


j Americansky 
\ sul. 


Con- Water 

A glass of water 


Vodd. 
Stakan vodi. 


To write 


Pissat, 


Hot water 


Goriatchei vodi. 


Paper 


Bvanaga, 


Cold water 


Bblodnoi vodi. 


Ink 


ChemUa, 


Salt 


Sol. 


Pen 


P€ro, 


Pepper 


Pereta. 


PencU 


Karandash. 


Vinegar 


Uksus. 


To eat 


Kusshat, 


Mustard 


Gorchitaa. 


To diink 


Pit. 


Atnink 


Sunduk. 


To break&st 


Zavtrakat. 


Portmanteau 


Chemodan. 


Breakfast 


Zavtrak. 


Travelling-bag 


Meshoh. 


To dine 


Obedat. 


Box or case 


Yaschik. ' 


Dinner 


Obed. 


A tea-um 


Samovar, 


To sup 


Ujinat. 


A tea-pot 


Chainik. 


Sapper 


Ujin. 


A pail 


Vedro. 


A poi-tion 


Portsia. 


A bottle 


ButUka. 


Soup 


Sup. 


A glass 


Stakan. 


An ice 


Morqjenwye, 


A cup 


Chaahka. 


Cabbage soup 


Stchi. 


A wine-glass 


Biumka. 


Pie 


Pirog. 


A plate 


Tarelka. 


A roast 


Jarkoe. 


A knife 


Nojik. 


Beef 


Goviadina. 


A fork 


Vilka. 


Veal 


Teliatma, 


A spoon 


Loshka. 


Alutton 


JSarantnci, 


A table 


Stol. 


Cutlets 


« Cotekttes." 


Abed 


Postal. 


Beefsteak 


'^Bifstek." 


Sheets 


Prostiny. 


Fish 


Ryha. 


Pillow case 


Navolotohka, 


Ham 


Vetchina. 


An utensil 


Gorshok. 


A fowl 


Kwitsa. 


A stove 


Petchka. 


A chicken 


Tseplenok. 


Fire 


Ogon. 


Ahare 


Zaiets. 


A candle 


Svetchka. 


A partridge 


Kurapatka, 


Matches 


Spitchki. 


Hazel -grouse (^Te 


'\ Biabchik. 


A napkin 


Salfetka. 




A duster 


Triapka. 


Blackcock 


Teterka. 


A hat 


Shliapa. 


Capercailzie 


Glukhar. 


A fur cloak 


Shuba. 


Potatoes 


Kartoffel. 


An overcoat 


Paletot. 


Peas 


Gorokh. 


A coat 


Surtiik. 


Cucumbers 


Ogurtsi. 


Trousers 


Pantahny, 


Peans 


Grushi. 


A pair of boots 


Sapogi. 


Apples 


Tabloki. 


A bath 


Vanna. 


Nuts 


Orekhi. 


A basin 


Umivalnik. 


White bread 


Bely-khleb. 


A towel 


Polotenzo. 


Black bread 


Chomi-khleb. 


Soap 


Mylo. 


Pancakes 


Blinni. 


A dressing-gown 


Khalat. 


Cheese 


Syr. 


Washerwoman 


Pratchka. 


Butter 


Maslo. 


A boat 


Lodha. 


Efi:gs 


Tditsi. 


A caniage 


Kareta. 


Cream 
Milk 


Slifki. 
Mohko. 


iree. -«--^4&e 



S5 



36 


3.- 


-Xan^iio^e. 


Sect. I, 1 


The pole Dishio, 




Ice 


Liod, 1 


The wooden arch| 




Half 


Poforina. ' 


over the horse's 1 r»..^, 
head in a drojky ■^"^*- 




A quarter 


Chetvert. 




Great 


Bohhoi, 


or sledge, J 




Little 


Maloi. 


A cord Ven'ovka, 
An axe 2'opor, 




Beautiful 


( Prekrassnoi (fem, 
\ -aya). 


A ship Korah, 




Old 


Staroi (fem, -aijd). 


A steamer Parohod, 




New 


Aocot (fem. -aya). 


A»'>-«y {'"^:^^' 


Father 
Mother 


Otets. 
Mat. 




Pospe8hny,ovPotch- 


Brother 


Brat. 


Fast or express ti-ain 


tooy (Post) 


Po- 


Sister 


Sestra. 




yezd. 




Wife 


Jena. 


A horse Loshad, 




Husband 


Mij. 


Horses Loshadu 




Ooitch, or evitc) 


, son of-^as Pavel (Paul), 


Hay 8em, 




Pcnhvitch. 




Straw Solbma. 




Ovna, or evna. 


daughter of— as Feodor, 


A hook ^ni/ii. 




Feodorovna. 




A snow-stoiin 


Viiigay or Jfe^e/. 







Dialogues. 



I am an Englishman 
I am an American. 
I do not speak Russ. 

VVhei-e does the j^grijjan ^'onsul reside ? 

Where is the English Church? 
Good day. 
Good night. 
Good bye. 
Yes 
Ko 

Good, yery well 
Not good, not well 
Bring 
For 
More 
Less 
That 
Enough 
Not enough 
Too long 
Give 
Give me 
Give us 
Now 

It cannot be done 
Do better 
If you please. 
Thank you. 
-» is there ? 
Vee, sir. 



Ya AngUdianin. ' 
Ya Americanets. 
Ne govoriu po rttsski, 

<^<^^ i^* -^^ (^<^^^ 

Gd€ Anglxshaya Tserhofi 

Sdravstvuite,^ 

Dobraya notch. 

Prostchaite, 

Da. 

Net. 

Horoslio. 

Ne horosho, 

Prinesi. 

Dlia. 

Estcho. 

Menshe, 

Etto. 

Dovolno. 

Ntfdotolno. 

Otchen Dolgo. 

Dai. 

Dai mne. 

Daite namm 

Tipper. 

Nelzia. 

Zdelai Jutche. 

Pojalusta. 

Blagodariu — Spas8ibo. 

Khto tarn i 

Sdess. 



Uigitized Dy VJ 



OO' 



gle 



Bnssia. 


d.-^Language. 3^ 


Come here. 


Padisudi. 


Hollo! here. 


Poslwhi. 


I come directly. 


Seichas pridu. 


1 hear and obev. 


Slus/Miu. 


Directly. 


^eichas. 


" 1 clothes ? 




Give soap. 


Dal mi/lo. 


Let as go Ton foot). 

Let us go (in a cairiage). 


Poidem, 


PMem, 


Goon. 


Poshol. 


Drive gently. 


Tfslie. 


Never mind, or nothing. 


Nichiho. 


HuiTy quick. 


Skorei, 


Drive &ster. 


Poshol skorei. 


Have a care. 


Beregiss, 


Give room, give place. 


Padi, padi. 


To the right. 


Na pravo. 


To the left. 


Na levo. 


Go further on. 


Poshol dakhe. • 


Drive home. 


Domoi. 


I'T 


Stoi, 


Tell me. 


SkajUe'Tnne, 


What is it? 


Ckto takoei 


How do they call it? 


Kak zavutf 


Whatdoesitcost? 


Chtostoiti SkolkostoU. 


How much the ai-shin ? 


Potchom arshin ? 


How much the pound ? 


Potolumfufdi 


It is dear. 


Eto dorogo. 


It is much. 


Eto mnogo. 


It is cheap. 


Dechevo (dioslievo). 


Can you give change ? 


Sdachi yest f 
Ne znayu. 


Xot wanted. ' 


Nenado, 


1 won't have. 


Ne hochu. 


Is it ready? 


Gotovolif 


i^theioirnm. 


Postav samovar. 


Give us a spoon. 


Dai loshku. 


What's to be done. 


Cktodelati 


What's o'clock? 


Katori chass i 


It is 1 o'clock. 


Tepper chas. 


!!"! " 


Tepper dva chasd. 


It IS 3 „ 


Tepper tri chasd. 


It IS 4 ^ 
ItisS „ 


Tepper chetyr€ chasd. 


Tepper piat chasof. 




(The latter termination is us^d fcr the re< 




mainder of the hours). 


Haveyouaroom? 


Yest-linomerf 


Empty thrt. 


Oporojni, 


Oeanthat. 


Chisti. 


Dry that 


Prosushi, 


Inhowmany honn? 


Cheres skolko ohasajf 


» Intpoaaible? 


Mojnolii 


Where is the inn? 


Qde Traktirf 


How many vei-sts? 
Where is the landlord? 


Skolko verst ? , ^ ^ Cooalp 

Gd^hoziain, g'-dby^OOgie 



88 

Where is my servant? 

Where is the waiter ? 

Waiter! 

I will pass the night here. 

When do you stait? 

To-day. 

To-morrow. 

In an hour. 

It is time to be o£f. 

Bring the bill. 

The bill is too heavy. 

It must be reduced. 

T, . cold 
Bring ^ water. 

Which is the way to ? 

Pray show me the way. 

What kind of a road is it ? 

Are the horses to ? 

What is to pay for them ? 

Drink money. 

Tea money. 

I will give you drink money. 

I will not give you drink money. 

What will you charge ? (To a droshkyl 

or sledge driver).* J 

No, I shall only give 20c., &c. 
What station is it ? 
How long do we stop ? 
Where is the refreshment-room ? 
Where is the W. C. ? 
Where is the telegraph-office ? 
Where is the luggage ? 
The luggage is lost. 
Give me a ticket. 
First class. 
Second class. 
Smoking compartment. 
Is smoking allowed ? 
Can hon>es be obtained at the station to 

go to — ? 

How far is from the station ? 

How far can I book ? 
I wish to telegraph. 
To the station master. 



3. — Language, 



Sect. L 



Gd^ moi chelovekf 
Gd€ cheUmekt 
Chehvek 1 
Zdess nochuyit. 
Kogda wy uyedete ? 
Segodnia: 
Zavtra. 
Cheres chass, 
Pora yehat, 
Prinesst schot 
Schat alishkom velik, 
Nado sbavit, 
^ . . ..holodnoL 
Pnnesn vodt 



goriachai, 
Katoroi darogoi mne itti — ? 
Proshu pokasat mne darogu, 
Kakova daroga f 
Zapriajini'li-loshadi ? 
Skolko progon ? 
Na vodka. 
Na Choi. 
Dam na vodH, 
Nedam na vodkit, 

Za skolko ? 

Net, Dvadsat kopeck, 4c, 
Kakaya Stantsia ? 
Skolko minuti 
GdeBuffetf 
Gde Otk/iojie mesto ? 
Gde telegraph ? 
Gde bagaj f 
Bagaj pottfrian. 
Dait€mn^ billet, 
Pervi class, 
Vtoroi class, 

Kur%telnoy€ Otd^l^niif, ' 
Kw'it mojno ? 
Mojno-li loshddH dostat na Stantsii 

chtob yehat v ? 

Daleko-li ot Stantsii f 

Do kotoroi Stantsii mogii poluchit billet f 
Sochu telegraphirovat, 
Nachalniku Stantsii, 



Names of the Months, Days op the Week, &c. 



Januaiy 


Janvar. 


February 


Fevrail, 


Maich 


Mart. 


April 


Aprel. 



May 


Mai. 


Juue 


Ian. 


July 


m. ' 


August 


Avgvst, 



• In engaging a droshky or sledge driver, it is merely necessary to mention the name of the 
street, square, &c., Tvith the addition of tlie question skolko— how much? A baivain then 
•nsiies, wljich generally terminates in the driver running afM'We°^&feller with the worts 
fiU%y pajaluit^~~f* Very well, come in." 



Eussia. 




4.- 


"Literalure. 39 


September 


Sentiabr, 








October 


Oktiabr. 






Winter Zima, 


November 


Noiabr. 






Summer X^o. 


December 


Dekabr. 






A year God, 


Monday- 


Ponedelmk. 




A month MesiaU. 


Tuesday 


Vtomik. 






A week Nedelia. 


Wednesday 


8ir€da. 






A day Den, 


Thursday 


Chetverg, 






An hour Chasa, 


Friday 


Fiatnitaa. 






Half an hour Polchassa, 


Sfttorday 


Subota. 












The Numebals. 


one, odm. 








twenty-one, dvatzat-odm. 


two, dca. 








twenty-two, doatzat'dv& ; 


three, tri. 








And so on, always adding the unit up 


four, chetiri. 






• 


to ten, and then 


^vejpiat. 








thirty, tritaat. 


six, shest. 








forty, joro^. 


seven, sem. 








fifty, pia^swi. 


eight, vosem. 








sixty, ahesdesiat. 


nine, deviat. 








seventy, semdesiat. 


ten, dedat. 








eighty, vosemdeaiaU 


eleven, odinrnatzat. 








ninety, devianosto. 


twelve, dvi-natzat ; 








one hundred, «^o. 


And so on, always adding 


natzat to 


five hundred, piatt sot. 


each number up 1 


to 






one thousand, ^»5ia^(^. 


twenty, doatzat» 








• 






4.- 


-LiTERATUBE. 



The modem literature of Russia dates, as almost everything else in 
modem Russia, from the political and intellectual reforms effected by Peter 
the Great. After the liberation of Eussia from the Mongol yoke, which 
had for several centuries completely arrested the intellectual development 
of the Russian nation, the Muscovite Government and the mdre enlightened 
citizens became conscious of the necessity of restoring science and art. 
The task was a difficult one. They could no longer look to Constantinople, 
from whence at an earlier epoch Russia had received the first rudiments 
of Christian civilization ; science and art had fled from Byzantium to the 
West of Europe ; and from immediate intercourse with tnese, Russia was 
shut out by her geographical position, and still more perhaps by difference 
of religion and by the animosity of powerful neighbours. Polish letters 
were the only channel through which Western civilization exercised some 
amount of influence on Muscovy. Indeed, at Kief and in several other 
cities in the Russian provinces then incorporated with Poland, schools were 
established, where classical studies were conducted on the same plan as in 
the West. In these schools were formed most of the writers of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, and even later, many of the contemporaries of 
Peter the Great, among whom we will only name the most zealous partizan 
of reform, the Archbishop Theophanes Procopovitch. These schools were 
also taken as a model for the tirst classical school established at Moscow, 



40 4. — Literature. Sect. I. 

under the name of the Latino - Greco - Slavonian Academy. It is 
from Poland also that the first essays of a drama were introduced 
into Russia, in the form of miracle plays, which, from the ecclesiastical 
schools of Kief, Wilna, and Moscow, penetrated into the houses of some 
rich boyars, and even into the palace of the Tsar. But although the 
influence of Poland and of Polish letters on the literature of Bussia 
cannot be denied, there were two circumstances which did not allow it to be 
so great or so beneficial as might have been expected : firstly, Polish letters 
were then in a complete decline, owing to the lifeless scholasticism intro> 
duoed by the Jesuits, under whose sway society had fallen; secondly, 
the obstinate efforts made by the Roman Catholic aristocracy and clei^y 
to bring the Russian subjects of the republic within the pale of the Church 
of Rome, produced a violent struggle and engaged all the best intellects of 
the country in religious controversy. The printing offices of Kief, Wilna, 
Lemberg, &c., on which the reading public of Muscovy chiefly depended 
for books (the printing office established at Moscow being appropriated 
almost exclusively to the use of the Church and the Government), produced 
scarcely anything except devotional books and controversial tracts. Thus 
Polish influence not only failed to free the literature of Russia from its 
most exclusively devotional and ecclesiastical character, but, on the con- 
trary, strengthened it in that direction. A more direct communication 
with the civilised world alone could have put an end to that state of things, 
and have roused the nation from its secular intellectual slumber. This was 
felt by some of the Tsars of Moscow, and they tried to undertake the task. 
Boris Godunof sent young noblemen to study abroad ; he is even said to have 
contemplated the establishment of a university at Moscow. In general, 
however, these efforts of the Tsars were of a veiy timorous nature, 
and they were frequently frustrated by the animosity of jealous neigh- 
bours. Many instances are recorded of professional] men, engaged for the 
service of the Tsar, having been prevented by the Polish or Livonian 
authorities from proceeding on their way to Moscow. At length Peter the 
Great did in a violent way what his predecessors had been unable to do by 
milder means. He broke through the wall which had hitherto separated 
Russia from Western Europe, and forced his nation into the main diannel 
of European civilization. In the execution of this plan he exhibited the 
same restless activity, the same faculty of taking an interest in the nriost 
minute details of a scheme, which he showed in his other acts. Not con- 
tent with issuing general measures for the diffusion of knowledge among 
his subjects, with erecting new schools and reforming old ones, with pre- 
paring the plan of an academy of sciences (which was however opened only 
after his death), he also found leisure to choose the books that were to be 
translated (generally elementary books of science), and sometimes to revise 
translations and to inspect their printing. It is even related that he 
corrected the proofs of early numbers of the first newspaper published by 
his ordera at Moscow in 1703. 

The first classical writer and reformer of letters in Russia was Lomo- 
nossof, the son of a fishei*man at Archangel, who flourished in the reign of 
the Empress Elizabeth, a man remarkable lor the universality of his genius 
and acquirements. Having left his home as a boy of seventeen, he studied 
first at Moscow and Petersburg, and finally at the universities of Germany ; 
m his return to Petersburg he was appointed professor of chemistry to the 



Bufifiia. 4. — Literature. 41 

Academy of Sciences, and devoted his whole life to the promotion of 
science and letters in his country. He was not a poet in the modem and 
stricter acceptation of the word; and his odes, his tragedies, and his 
unfinished epic poem are little more than clever and well-written imita- 
tions of German and French models. However, he is not quite un- 
deservedly considered as the creator of the modem poetry of Russia, for 
it is he who banished the clumsy syllabic verse which had been introduced 
from Poland, and replaced it by the tonical prosody which is used until 
now, and which has proved so congenial to the Russian language. He 
also rendered great services to the language by rejecting from it, although 
not completely, numerous ecclesiastical Slavonian expressions and forms 
which had crept in under the influence of ecclesiastical writers, and by 
tracing a line of separation between the two languages. But his most 
important right to the gratitude of his country is his having been an 
indefatigable champion of science ; he was alternately grammarian, philo- 
logist, lustorian, chemist, natural philosopher, metallurgist, statistician, and 
worker in mosaic ; his name appears in the beginning of ahnost every 
branch of knowledge and art ; he was, to use the words of a great writer of 
more recent date, *' the only promoter of science in Russia in the period 
between Peter the Great and Catherine II." 

At a time when the whole of Europe was under the influence of the 
artificial pseudo-classical school of France it is not surprising that Lomo- 
nossof submitted to the same sway, and that his example engaged in the 
same direction a host of less gifted writers, with whom literature became a 
mere rhetorical exercise, a childish aping of French models. A profusion 
of epics, tragedies, odes, &c., appeared eveiy day, and Russia in the 
raptui-es of her newly won civilisation, boasted alr^y of possessing her 
own Comeilles and Racines, Yirgils and Yoltaires, whose works, however, 
can now scarcely be got through, even by those who devote themselves to 
the historical study of literature, if we except Derjavin, the first Russian 
poet of eminence, whose odes and other lyrics, although not free from the 
rhetorical bombast which was then held to be poetry, present many flashes 
of a genius i)owerful and truly poetic, and which will save his works from 
oblivion, notwithstanding their many defects. Satire and comedy were the 
only kinds of literature at that time, and these, although strictly imitative 
in their forms, were of some originality as to their content*. The comedies 
of Von-Wisin, those of the Empress Catherine II., the satirical essays of 
Novikof and his imitators, the fables of Khemnitzer, are until now read 
with pleasure as interesting illustrations of the manners and ideas of their 
epoch. Von-Wisins comedy of *The Minor' still appears on the stage 
from time to time. 

A new period in the literature of Russia begins with Karamzin. In one 
sense he may be called the continuator of Lomonossof s reforms, for, while 
he still more strictly separated the vernacular Russian from the Slavonian 
language, he also banished the heavy Latin phraseology introduced by 
Lomonossof, and replaced it by the more simple and natural construction 
of modem languages. He thus created in Russia an elegant literary style 
adapted to the wants of modem civilization. On the other hand, he 
abandoned the pompous rhetoric of his predecessors, and introduced the 
sentimentality which was in such vogue in Europe at the end of the 
eighteenth and in the beginning of the present century. By his periodicals, 



42 4. — Literature. Sect. I. 

in which he published his * Letters of a Traveller ' (a lively and brilliant 
description of his tour through Europe), sentimental tales, original as well 
as translations, and popular scientific and critical essays, he more than any 
other writer contributed to spread a taste for reading among the public. In 
the task of popularising literature he was much assisted by Dimitrief, who 
did for the language of poetry what Karamzin had done for prose writing. 
A further step in this direction was taken by Krylof, whose fables are 
equal to any similar productions in other countries, and are justly 
considered as most perfect models of elegant and idiomatical language. 
A similar style is met with in Griboyedof's comedy * Sorrow comes from 
Wit/ a most telling satire on the society of Moscow, which was greedily read 
and learnt by heart many years before it was allowed by the censor 
to appear on the stage or in print. Great influence on the literature of 
Russia was exercised by Jukovski, who, by his masterly translations of some 
contemporary English and German poets, introduced into Russia the then 
arising romantic school of poetry. At the same time Martinof, by his 
translations of Greek classics, and especially Guaditch, by his able transla- 
tion of the * Iliad,' gave to their countrymen a more correct idea of the true 
character of classical poetry. 

But the great national poet of Russia is Pushkin. His works are very 
numerous and varied. After having been an imitator of Byron in some of 
his earlier poetical tales (* The Prisoner of the Caucasus,' * The Fountain 
of Bakhchisarai,' *The Gipsies'), he exhibited in his more mature works a 
truly original and national genius, which fully justified the admiration 
which is paid to him by his countrymen. His poetical novel (* Evgheni 
Oneghin '), a tale of a Russian homme hlme, ofiers lively and interesting 
pictures of provincial and metropolitan life in Russia. His * Boris Godunof ' 
is a magnificent historical drama, after the model of Shakspere's plays, repre- 
senting Russia at the highly interesting time of the appearance of the first 
false Demetrius. Among his other works we shall only tx)int out his poem 

* Poltava,' some fine dramatic sketches (* The Stone Guest,* * Mozart and 
Salieri,' * The Covetous Knight'), and a delicious story in prose, * The Cap- 
tain's Daughter,' presenting a pictm-e of provincial life in Russia at the time 
of the Pugatchef rebellion. A great number of Pushldn's lyric pieces re- 
commend themselves as well by vigour of thought and deep feeling as by 
elegance of style and melody of verse. Lermantof holds the next place after 
Pushkin in the consideration of his countrymen, and, indeed, although he 
died before his talent had come to full maturity, the vigour of thought and 
passion, and the strength of expression, which unite in his poetry with an 
exquisite harmony of versification, would undoubtedly have gained him a 
prominent position in any literature. 

Of other modern poets, the most remarkable are Baratinski, Yazikof, 
Khomiakof, Countess Rostopchin, the peasant poets Koltsof and Nikitin. 
Among living poets we may mention Maikof, Stcherbina, Nekrassof (a most 
bitter satirist), Polonski, and Count A. Tolstoi, author of an historical drama, 

* The Death of John the Terrible,' which has had a great success on the 
stage. 

A writer whose popularity and whose influence on the literature of his 

country are equal, if not even superior, to those of Pushkin, is Gogol, tbe 

reat humourist of Russia, a man who possessed to a high degree the art, to 

ehis own expression, of " laughing a laugh under which are bitter tears;'* 



Eussia, 4. — Literature. iS 

to analyse " the mud of trifliDg things with which life is shackled ; to ex- 
pose the triviality and meanness of life and of man," — ^such is the usual 
theme of his works, and this theme he realizes with striking truth and 
inexhaustihle humour. His chief works are a comedy, * The Reviser,' which 
holds permanent possession of the stage, and is considered as the b^t 
comedy in the Russian langui^e, and a tale entitled * The Dead Souls/ of 
which an English translation has been published* 

As almost all the modem poets of Bussia are more or less indebted to 
Pushkin, so the influence of Gogol may be traced in a greater or smaller 
degree in almost all the branches of Russian novel- writing. The modem 
novel-writers who hold the highest place are Turguenief, Gontcharof, 
Fisemski, Dostoievski, and Count A. Tolstoi. 

The writing of historical novels, which had been quite abandoned for 
some years, has been resumed by Count A. Tolstoi, who has published an 
historical romance describing the epoch of John the Terrible, and by Count 
L. Tolstoi, whose romance entitled ' War and Peace' purports to represent 
the social life of Russia during the first quarter of the present century. 

Of modem comedies those of Ostrovski alone deserve to be mentioned. 

Scientific literature can be but poor in a country where science has been 
introduced so recently, and where, until of late years, literature has been 
imder the control of rigorous censors. The history of Russia is almost the 
only branch of science in which some remarkable original works are to be 
found. The first, most celebrated historian in Russia is Karamzin, who, in 
his * History of the Russian State,' gave for the first time a trae work of 
science and art, and not, as his predecessors Tatischef and Prince Stcher- 
batof, a crude and clumsy digest of the old chronicles and annals. Not- 
withstanding the progress made by historical investigation since it was first 
published, his work is until now not only widely read by the general public, 
but even studied and considered as a book of reference by every writer on 
national history. Among the numerous more modern historical writers, we 
shall only name.Polevoi JSolovief (Professor at Moscow, whose work is now 
considered the best history of Russia), Ustrialof (author of a very detailed 
history of Peter the Great, of which only a few volumes have as yet been 
published), Kostomarof (author of several historical works on Little Russia 
before its incorporation with Russia, on the ancient municipal constitutions 
of Novgorod and Pskof, on the false Demetrius, &c.), Beliayef, Stohapof 
(author of a good work on the Russian dissenters) ; Miliutin, Minister of 
War, author of a work on the Italian campaign of Suwarof, and Bogdano- 
witch (a history of the war of 1812). 

Until a very recent period, all the other branches of scientific literature 
were almost exclusively (and even now are to a great extent) supplied by 
translations from foreign languages. It was in the reign of Catherine 11.^ 
whose influence on the intellectual development of the Russian people was 
very marked, that translations began to be cultivated. They continued 
with great activity during the first jjart of the reign of Alexander I. ; but in 
the last years of his reign this activity was arrested by a sudden increase of 
the severity of the censorship, which, far from abating in the reign of 
Nicholas, grew at last to such a system of censorial terror, that not even the 
most innocent novel could be translated without considerable mutilations. 
Under the more liberal system which has been inau|umted during the 
present reign translations are again published with gi-eat activity. The 



44 6. — Measures^ Weights, and Coins. Sect. I. 

works of Macanlay, Buckle, Adam Smith, J. Staart Mill, and many other 
standard English works, may now be read in the Russian langus^e. 

The present period is marked by a cultivation of political writing, most of 
the intellect of the country being absorbed in administrative reforms. The 
political economists and statists form a comparatively small school, but are 
nevertheless well known to the scientific societies of Europe. The news- 
papers employ a very considerable number of writers. The foremost journal 
is the * Moscow Gazette,' with a circulation of about 15,000. The only 
other newspaper of any note at Moscow is the * Moscow,' supported by the 
Panslavist and Protectionist parties. At St. Petersburg each minister of 
state has his organ. The * Journal de St. Petersbourg' is the mouthpiece 
of the Imperial Foreign Office. Of the monthly magazines the most im- ' 
portant are the * Moscow Herald,' conducted by Mr. Katkef, and the 
* Hemld of Europe,' conducted by Mr. Stassulevitch. The scientific pub- 
lications of the War Office and Admiralty, and the Reports of the Minister 
of Public Instruction, are of high interest. The several scientific societies of 
Russia publish jouruals, whose valuable contents are almost entirely lost to 
Western Europe, owing to the language in which they are edited. 

Although the periodical press is no longer subject to a preventive censor- 
ship, yet it is far from being free: it is under the control of the Minister of 
the Interior, and the system of avertisftements and suspensions^ which haa 
been borrowed from France, weighs somewhat heavily upon it. 

5.— Measures, Weights, and Coins. 

Measures op Length. 
dium = 1 inch Eng. = 0*0254 metre. 

12 dium = 1 foot „ = 0-3048 „ 

versliok = 1*75 inch Eng. 
16 vershoks = 1 aj-shin = 28 inches Eng. 
3 ai"shins = 1 sajen or fathom = 7 fget Eng. = 2' 1336 metres, 
(N.B. a nautical sajen has 6 feet). 
500 sajens = 1 verst = 0*66 or } mile Eng. = I "06 68 kilom. 

2400 sq. sajens s 1 desiatina = 2*86 acres Eng. 

Measures of Capacitv, 
shtof = 1 vedro. 

8 shtofs = 1 vedro = 3*25 galls, wine, and 2*66 galls, beer measure Eng. = 

0.1230 hectolitre. 

Dry Measure. 
gaitieis = 0*34 peck Eng. 
8 garaels = 1 chetverik = 2*73 pecks or 68 bushel Eng. 
8 chetveriks = 1 chetvei-t or quaiier = 5*46 bushels Eng. 

Weights.* 

1 zolotnik = 2*41 drams avoirdupois = 4265 milligrammes. 

96 zolotniks = 1 funt = 14*43 ozs. arordupois, or 0.40952 kilo. 

40 pounds = 1 ptid = 36*08 lbs. „ „ 19 kilo. 372. 

10 puds = 1 berkovets = 360*80 lbs. „ „ 163 „ 720. 

• The principal weights and measures will probahly soon iM'^^^B&S^ll^e^'orf^e basis of the 
metrical system. 



Eussia. 5. — MeoBures^ Weights, and Coins, 45 

(7o*w«.— The coinage of Russia is decimal; thus — 100 copecks- make 
1 rable. The ruble, of which the standard is silver, contains about 
18 grs. of pure silver, and an alloy of about 13 per cent., or 83^ in 96. Its 
IMir value in English money is 38^, but the rate of exchange has occa- 
sionally lowered it to 25<^. 

The only silver money in circulation are pieces of 20, 15, 10, and 5 
copecks. The intrinsic value of these coins was reduced by 12 per cent, in 
1860. The copper tokens range between 1 and 5 cops. 

The lower classes, particularly in the interior of Russia, still speak of the 
" Grivna," an old coin of the value of 10 cop. Thus, " Grivennik " is 10 
cop., and " Dvugrivinny " 20 cop. 

Taken at par the sovereign is worth 6 rs. 28 cops., and the shilling 
31 cops ; but the rate of exchange enhances their nominal value in paper 
currency. 

The paper-money in circulation is inconvertible, but has a forced cur- 
rency. Tribe notes represent 100 rubles ; 50 rs., 25 rs., 10 rs., 5 rs., 3 rs., 
and 1 ruble, and are plainly stamped with their value. Those recently 
issued are very elaborate in design, and bear portraits of Russian sove- 
reigns. 

The Treasury Bonds are for 50 rs., and bear 4J per cent, interest. 
Hussian paper-money may now be freely exported and imported.* 

Example to find the value of 50 rubles Russian money in British 
sterling, at the rate, say, of Z2d, to the ruble ; — 

Bable. Fence. Rubles. 

1 = 32 X 50 
50 

12)1600 



20)133 4 




Aiwwer £6 13 4 




or 60/. in Russian rubles at the same rate : — 




Pence. Copecks. Pence. 
32 = 100 X 12,000 = 

100 


£50 


32)1,200,000(375.00 
96 




240 
224 




160 
160 





000 Ansujer R. 375.00 Cop. 

* Travellers will receive the current value of their money in Russian mbles, and vice versft, 
at the frontier staUons at Wirballen and Eydlcuhnen. It is, however, best to cany only the 
«UDoaut strictly requisite, and to keep the rest in circular notes, or with a twnker at St 
Petersburg or Moscow. 



46 5. — Measures, Weights^ and Coins, Sect. I« 

The value of a sovereign in Russian tnotiey^ at the exchange of 32(^., will 
be found thus : — 

i*eiloe; dtfpecks. i^encet 

32 = 100 X 240 s 20i. 
240 



d2)24,000(7»So 
224 

160 
160 



AnsiJoer Rs. 7.50. 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



Bussin. . 5. — Meagures, Weights, and Coins. 



47 



^ 



•3 
■3 



I" 

I 
II 



1^ 






1 

1 

I 
•9 

I 






'^ 






I 



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I 



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1 



^ .f-if-4p-)rHOOOOOOOOOOOO 



I 



I 



j:cj:::J:rri:rsscfcJi 



2S{®i5S*'?^^*i*^*^'**5«« 



iCO04O4r-lrH 



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P» f^ rH tH 

fe^l*C0OC0rt C«5 Cfl « <N *l « « <N 1-1 »-• fH 



a '^ •* CO « iH O OOOCOCCi^Ot^iOOOOO 



^ 



"g r 5 fc t 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



48 



5. — Measures, Weights, and Coins. 



Sect. I. 



t 

I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



i 

I 



M 



•I 
e3 



Ti 
SJ 






I 



I 

J 



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Pk 



1 

^ 


'^'e O l> N » •* ^ <0 fH 00 « O Oi « t* e ift "* CO M rH 
t «iOi44.i44eQe0040!104i-Hr-lOOOOOOOOOO 


1 

33 


fe'^f-«lftf-«IOf-««f-<»Oi-lCOOiH(3iOOl*<0»«CO<Mr-l 
S e5»OIO^^COCO««iHr-lf-lOOO©OCO©0 


3 

1 
1 

P^ 
P^ 


1 


8SSS58§S§JSS^*^^*^^«*'^. 


^ 

^ 


r^'i^iCO ACD(NOXUSrH A^OeO O tf) O t* (M O) lO 
S ojODiACq^CDOOar-ieO^COOO t« t^ t« i;0 CO lA tf) 
lSc^(M«HiC0C0N««iHr-lOO ©OOOOOO 


1 


,*4OI>C0>O«OOr-l«a>000i •*0'*010010 
♦5™ r-l ri r-l fH r-l 

6 -• <* CO 00 CO CO 00 Oi oa oi oi o Oi » oo oo t» i> co co 

^j^rHrHrH rH iH rH iH 

£e^'«KO'«^eocoe4 0!iiHiHOO ooooooo 




5 

1 

Pk 


s 


gOOO.OOt^«>iO^«(N^|.gOgOgOg 



dbyGoOgl 



BflSSiA. 



5. — Measures, Weights, and Coins. 



19 



•2 

I 

I 
I 

I 



I 



i 
! 

d 

03 



I 

2 



e3 



JBfiMia— 18G8. 



o 



11 






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I 



li3 aepXi-ff-ir-lOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



5 
1>. 



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^ 

P^ 



-<<* ^ OO 00 <M « r-l rH 



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^•^OdOOiHr-1 O 00 CO •« C^l rH 1-H Cd t* CD 
; i-H i-H i-H i-l i-H r-l 

fi ^ "^ iH 00 ift e? N N«(Ne!lNr-lrH iHrH 
fc« r-liH 



g 

^r^CDOCOOCO '<i4 C4 O O 00 CO ^ iH iH Oft 

^ rH iH 

SG «i l^ -^ O t* CO CO CO CO (N <N « « (N i-f iH 
»^ ^ rH rH rH 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



50 



5. — Measures^ Weights^ and Coins. 



Sect. I. 



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Russia. 7. — Custom-Tiousea. 



6. — Passport Regulations. 

By an ukaz of the 31st December, 1864, foreigners arriving in Russia, 
either by sea or by land, with passports duly vised at one of the imperial 
Embassies, Legations, or Consulates (in London, 32, Great Winchester- 
street, City), may reside in any part of Russia, and travel throughout the 
empire, with the same passport for the term of 6 months. The passport 
must be exhibited on arrival to the local authorities (through the hotel- 
keeper, to avoid inconvenience), who will register it. Should the traveller 
desire to stay longer than 6 months, a regular passport for residence 
must be applied for at the Alien OfiBce. Travellers who have not 
stayed in Russia beyond the term of 6 months may leave the empire, by 
sea or by land, with their national passports, after a second visa by the 
authorities to the effect that there is no impediment to their leaving the 
countrj'. The latt-er regulation is intended to prevent the absconding of 
debtore, or of parties in a criminal or civil suit, before the verdict of the 
Com-t. 

Obs, — The principal formality which the traveller has therefore to observe 
is, to have his passport vised by a Russian diplomatic or consular ofiBcial. 
The rule applies equally to Finland and. Poland. The passport regulations 
are now more strictly applied than ever, particularly at St. Petersburg, 
notwithstanding that in every other country on the Continent the passport 
system, so obnoxious to the modern traveller, is almost entirely abolished. 
Tourists should keep this in mind, for any neglect of the Russian regula- 
tions is visited with severe discomfort, if with nothing more. 



7. — CuSTOM-HoUSES, 

Travellers will meet with every civility at the hands of the Russian 
Custom-house ofiBcers. Although the tariff is still highly protective, persons 
evidently travelling for pleasure, and not for the purposes of trade, are very 
little molested by the search for articles liable to duty. There has hitherto 
been some difficulty in passing books, maps, guides, and other products of 
the press, but a recent regulation permits the introduction of all such 
printed works as Continental travellers are in the habit of carrying with 
them, excluding the publications of the Russian revolutionary press in 
London and elsewhere. Travellers are cautioned against introducing the 
latter works. Bibles and Prayer-Books are not touched, nor need the 
Handbook be any longer concealed. When the books are in large parcels, 
they will be forwarded by the frontier authorities to the Censorship Com- 
mittee at St. Petersburg, by which they are examined, and ultimately 
restored to the owner. Engfish and foreign newspapers are not seized, as 
formerly, when used as wrappers. Scaled letters, lottery- tickets, playing- 
cards, and books of an immoral or irreligious tendency, are liable to seizure. 
Pire-arms cannot be introduced into Russia and Poland without special 
licence.' Travellers coming to Russia for the purpose of shooting should 
deliver up their guns to the Customs' authorities, by whom they will be 
forwarded to the place of destination, there to be applied for^g^jj^val. The 
proper office will be indicated, and a receipt will be given. ^ 

«twia,— 1868. ^ ' 



52 8.— Postage. Sect 1. 

The proceedings of Government officials are far stricter in Poland than 
elsewhere in the Russian dominions, andtheir searchings are tedious, both 
at the frontier and the entrance to Warsaw. The oflScers are, however, 
civil and courteous as long as the traveller is so, and a Custom-house 
officer cannot have much to say to a person whose baggage is confined to 
his own personal requisites. 

N,B. — Any well-founded complaints against officers of Customs will be 
strictly inquired into and redressed by His Excellency the Director of 
Customs at St. Petersburg, to whom representations should be addressed. 



8.— -Posting, 

In order to travel post in Russia, it is necessary to have a podorqfna, or 
order for horses, in which is inserted the name of the place to which the 
traveller is going, the distance in versts, and the number of horses required. 
The cost of the podorojna depends on the number of versts and horses, at a 
rate which varies from IJ cops, to 5 cops, per horse, according to the 
locality. This document is obtained from the governor of the town which 
the traveller is leaving, or at an office specially appointed for the purpose. On 
making the application it is necessary to produce a passport. The greatest 
care must be taken of the podorojna, and it should be kept at hand, for it 
will be required at each post-station as an authority for the postrmasters to 
furnish horses; and, if mislaid or lost, the unfortunate owner will be 
obliged to continue his journey with a peasant's horses, subject to all his 
caprices as to charge, hour of starting, and distance of each day's journey. 
A table showing the distance from one station to another is hung up in 
every post-house, frequently a mere hut ; also the charge for each, horse is 
stated. A book is likewise kept in which travellers may enter their com- 
plaints. Should any difficulties arise, a request to see this book m^ have 
some effect upon tibe dilatory and extortionate post-n>aster. This oflacial is 
bound to furnish at least the number of horses ordered in the podorojna ; 
but he may oblige the traveller to take more if the roads require it, and this 
he does sometimes to the extent of making him journey with 6, and in very 
bad roads 9 horses ; he may also, and often does, on the cros&-roads, affirm 
there ai-e no horses left but those which he is bound to keep for the mail 
or Government courier. A little persuasion will however generally secure 
the requisite number of quadrupeds. The drivers expect a fee of 10 to 
20 cops, for the stage, according to its length. This varies greatly, viz. 
from 12 to 30 versts. Many of the post-masters in the South of Russia are 
Polish Jews, and, though not more rapacious than their Christian brethren 
of the same trade, are quite as bad. 

The traveller should take especial care never to travel post just before, or 
immediately after, a courier or other man in authority. The saving in 
time and temper will be considerable if an avant courier is employed when 
travelling in the steppe. The speed when posting is sometimes great, the 
horses going ventre a terre ; but so much time is lost at the post-houses in 
changing, that, including stoppages, the traveller will not clear much beyond 
8 or 9 miles an hour. If the traveller is not provided with his own carriage, 

-* should he not bonow or hire one at the place of starting^ he must content 



Bussia. 9. — Cuisine and Bestaurants. 63 

himself with the accommodation afforded by a telega, a small open wajrpjon 
without springs, but strongly constructed, so as to withstand the roads of 
the country. The jolting is most painful ; straw, and not unfrequently a 
bed, is placed in the cart by Eussian travellers. Gathering up his 6 or 8 
reins, for there are 2 to each horse, and grasping his short severe whip, tho 
yamstchik leaves the post-house at a furious gallop, and keeping the horses 
at this pace nearly the whole stage, not xmfrequently retnms to his station 
with one less than he set out wiSi. The kibitka in winter is an improve- 
ment on the telega, as it has a hood and an apron. 

In the winter sledges will be found even as far South as Odessa, and in 
this season from 10 to 12 miles an hour may be accomplished. The price 
of posting in the Finnish provinces is, perhaps, rather less than in Kussia. 
In the provinces of Esthonia, Livonia, and Courland, a considerable dif- 
ference exists, the charges in the latter district being much higher than in 
any other part of Bussia. In Poland the charge is 1 zlot (9(^. English^ per 
Polish mile of 7 versts for each horse, and about half a zlot for the driver ; 
but it is customary to give them 1 zlot per mile. The whole system is 
much inferior to that established in Russia, or in the provinces of Livonia 
and Courland ; even where the roads are as good as any in Europe, as in 
the neighbourhood of Warsaw, the traveller is unable to make much speed, 
and the constant delays from the horses not being ready are vexatious in 
the extreme. As alterations are frequently made in the post-stations, 
and sometimes in the roads, it wiU be desirable for the traveller, should he 
purpose visiting the more distant provinces of the empire, to purchase the 
printed routes published on authority for the year, and have the names of 
the stations read over to him, so that he can write them down in English — 
this will preserve him from the idea that he is imposed upon, sometimes as 
great a vexation as the reality. The post-maps are very accurate. The 
price of the posting is always paid before starting. 



9. — CUISINB AND EeSTAUBANTS. 

The Btner-k-la-Russe, as known in England, differs widely in substance, 
though not in form, from its prototype of Moscow. 

The following is the itienu * of a Russian dinner, which the traveller is 
invited to read in Russian accents to the proprietor of the " Palkin Traktir " 
at St. Petersburg, or to the landlord of the " Novo-Troitski," or the 
** Mosoovski Traktir," at Moscow, 

J, — Zakuska, 

This is the vorschmack (dinette) of most northern nations. It consists 
of various relishes, such as fresh caviar, raw herrings, smoked salmon, halyk 
(sturgeon dried in the sun), raw smoked goose, radishes, cheese, butter, 
and other comestibles. These need not be specified, the word " Zakuska " 
comprehending everything of the kind in season. A glass of Kiimmel 
(Alasch), or of " Listofka," an excellent spirit flavoured with the young 

* It to Kftroely necessair to point ont that this is not the menu of a recherOie dinner, bui 
eimply of a repsuat composed excluBivdy of national ptatt. 

£ 2 



64 9. — Cuisine and Bestaurant$, Sect. I. 

leaves of the black currant, is highly recommended. The curious may- 
try the other liquors, or vodkas, which will be served up. 



//, — The Ohed, or Dinner. 

1. Soups: — 

Okroshka ; a cold iced soup of kvas (a beverage made of fermented rye), 
with pieces of herring, cucumber, and meat floating in it, 

Batvenia : another cold soup of green colour, scarcely more palatable. 

Stchi : a very go^jd cabbage soup ; the sour cream served round should 
be added. 

Ukha, or fish soup : this is rather expensive if made of sterlet, but is 
very good of ershi, or stone-perch. 

Travellers would do well to order small quantities of each description of 
potage, in the ratio of one portion for three or four. A mere taste will 
suffice in the case of the two cold soups. 

2. Rastigai : patties of the isinglass and flesh of the sturgeon. Very 
much like mufiins with fish. 

3. Solianka, Krasny Ferets: a dish composed of fish and cabbage. 
Recommended. Use cayenne. 

4. Pojarski^ kotlety : cutlets of chicken k la Pojarski, the patriot. Very 
good. Veal cutlets are also a speciality of Moscow. 

5. Porosenok pod khrenbm : cold boiled sucking pig with horse-radish 
sauce. Not a pretty dish, but very eatable. 

6. Barany-bok s-kashoi: roast mutton stuffed with buckwheat. Au 
excellent opportunity of tasting the buckwheat, the staple food of tho 
country. 

7. Jarko^ : the roast, consisting of melody^ t^tei'eva, or young capercailzie 
Tup to September) ; riabchik, a kind of grouse (all the year round) ; and 
dupelia, or double snipe (in September). Salted cucumbers as salad. Vege- 
tables will not be served unless ordered. 

8. Pirojno^ ? sweet dishes, Gurief pudding, made principally of buck- 
wheat, is not a bad dish. 

Order Nesselrode pudding, an excellent combination of plum-pudding 
and ices, and Moscovite, something between mi ice and a jelly, flavoured 
with the fruit of the season. 

. Should digestion require it, the Syr, or cheese from the Zakuska, and 
even the caviar, may be served up again, though it is not customary at a 
Russian table. 

With reference to wines and drinks, it is indispensable, for the sake of 
harmony and comparison, to order nothing but what is produced on Russian 
soil. The sherry of the Crimea is a very tolerable brown sherry ; the 
imitations of Bordeaux and Champagne, provided they are really of the 
Crimean grape, not of the manufactories at Yaroslaf, are better tham many 
inferior marks of the genuine article. Prince Woronzoff's wines are highly 
recommended. The wine of the Caucasus comes in very appropriately as a 
Burgundy. Be sure to ask for Kahdtinsko^, a very sound and pure wine. 
The ladies will be pleased with Gumbrinskod, a pleasant sweet wine grown 
in the Gumbri district of the Caucasus. The champagne of the Don, 
Donsko^ Champansko^, very often appears on Russian tables disguised as 
'^Ucquot, and is really a very potable wine ; all the sparkling wines of the 



Eussia. 9. — Cuisine and JHestaurania, 55 

Crimea have a slight taste of apples, and the others have the goiit du 
ttrroir. 

But besides the wines, there are several delicious beverages, under the 
denomination of Kvas. Order lablochni kvas, or cider ; Grushevoi kvas, 
or perry ; Malinovoi, or raspberry kvas. The best, however, of all, is per- 
haps the goblet of cool Lompopo, the recipe of which is supposed to have 
travelled from the Baltic provinces. There is excellent beer to be had at 
St. Petersburg. ** Cazalet's or Kalinkinski Pale Ale " is almost equal to 
English draught ale. At Moscow " Danielson's " beer is alone drunk. 
Mead is likewise very pleasant to the taste. All these drinks are served 
in old silver tankards and beakers of German work. Coffee, liqueurs, 
and cigarettes complete the feast. Fruits can be had if demanded ; 
excellent in season. 

The service is very good; the slightest want is quietly and promptly 
supplied by the most civil of waiters, attired in bright-coloured silk shirts, 
worn over another garment of equal effect and neatness. 

The cost of a dinner like that described above, exclusive of the zakuska, 
sterlet soup, wines, kvas, coffee, and fruit, will not be less than 2 rs. 50 cop. 
per head (7s. 66?:),- and perhaps 5 rs: (15s.) in a dear season. The charf;e 
for a plate of sterlet soup is from 1*50 to 3 rs (4s. 6d. to 9s.) according to 
the size of the fish ordered. 

The wines are very cheap compared with those of France or Spain. 

The dinner should, if possible, be ordered a day beforehand, although a 
few hours will suffice to secure most of the dishes named. In ordering it, 
special mention should be made of the wines of the Crimea, of the Don, 
and the Caucasus, as well as of the Kvas, as the former are not generally 
kept on the premises. If the party be numerous, two or three rubles 
should be distributed among the waiters. 

Having finished dinner, the visitor to Moscow should proceed to inspect 
the rooms devoted to tea-drinking. A seat close to the barrel-organ is the 
best point of observation. While sipping Joltoi Chat, or yellow tea, 
observe the bearded natives refilling their small teapot ^vith a never-failing 
supply of hot water, soon converted into the palest beverage, sweetened 
with the piece of sugar kept in the mouth. The conversations carried 
on over the Chai relate to the transfer of rubles for value received or to be 
given. Events of a more festive character are celebrated at establishments 
where the bottle and the glass replace the more steady teapot, especially 
since the price of Vodka has been made very low. Those establishments 
need not be inspected ; their effect will be painfully seen in the tottering 
moujik and the oblivious woman jolting home in a drojky, or waiting to 
be picked up from the g^utter. 

The climate must to a great extent be responsible for the habit of 
drunkenness unfortunately so prevalent in Russia, for it is older than the 
reforms in the excise to which much of it is now attributed. Master George 
Turberville, secretary to an English embassy to Moscow in the year 1568, 
says of the Russians that they are — 

•* Foike fit to be of Baccbiis' train, so quaffing is their Idnde. 
Drink Is their whole desire, the pot is all their pride. 
The sob'rest head doth once a day stand needful of a K^ej^OQ P 
If he to banket Wd his friends, he will not shrinke 5 

Ou them at dinner to bestow a dosen kinds of drinke ; 



56 10. — Climate, Clothing^ dte. Sect. I. 

Such liquor as they have, and aa the oonntnr gives ; 

But chiefly two, one called Kwas, whereby the Mousike lives. 

Small ware and waterlike, but somewhat tart in taste. 

The rest is mead of home-made, wherewith their lips they baste. 

And if he goe unto his neighbour as a guest, 

He cares for little meat, if so his drinke be of the b^st" 

Hospitality is still, as then, one of the chief virtues of the Russian 
people. 

10.— Climate, Clothino, &c. 

The subjoined Table of the mean temperature at various places in Russia, 
by Fahrenheit, will give the traveller an idea of the climate of Russia :— - 

Annual Winter. Summer. 

Mean Temperature. Dec. Jan. Feb. June. July. August 

St. Peterebui^ .. + 38*7 .... +18-3 ..•. +60*6 

Moscow .. .. +39-6 .... + 14:*7 .... +64*9 

Helsingfors.. .. + 38-7 .. .. + 20-5 .. .. + 59-0 

Kief +44-4 .... +22-5 .... +65-3 

Odessa .. .. +49-3 .... + 25'2 .... + 70*7 

Tiflis +55*2 .... + 35»6 .... +73*9 

Archangel.. .. +33*3 + 9*3 .... +57*7 

Irkutsk .. .. +31'1 .... - 1'3 .... + 61*5 

Yakutsk .. .. +11-1 .... -37-9 .... +57-9 

The winter season sets in at St. Petersburg about the banning of Novem- 
ber, when the Neva freezes, to open again about the end of April. In summer 
the prevalent winds are ftom the W., S.W., and N.E., and in winter those 
from the S.W., S., and S.E. Paradoxical as it may appear, the cold is in 
reality much less felt in Russia than in southern countries. The houses 
are adapted to resist the greatest amount of frost, and are even too warm. 
It is fallacious to suppose that the cold is ever so intense at Moscow or St. 
Petersburg as to prevent people from issuing out into the open air. Twenty- 
five degrees below zero of R^umur * is a very pleasant and exhilarating con- 
dition of the atmosphere when not accompanied by wind. Even the cold 
at Yakutsk, which is sometimes twice as intense as that of St. Petersburg 
or Moscow, is quite bearable, for it is seldom accompanied by wind. 
Frostbites may be avoided by taking the most ordinary precautions. The 
ears are liable to freeze if long exposed. In very cold weather they should 
be occasionally rubbed, in order to promote the circulation of the blood. 
Snow is the best application in cases of frostbite. 

The climate of St. Petersburg is more variable than that of Moscow, 
owing to its proximity to the Gulf of Finland. Rain and a complete thaw 
will sometimes suddenly succeed 18° of Fahrenheit. Travellers in winter 
should, however, take no notice of such variations, but continue to wear 
their fur clothing. Any change of dress in winter is sure to produce a 
violent cold. Cloaks of the racoon (Shuba) are mostly worn. They may 
be purchased in Germany for about 100 thalers, but their quality will be 
found inferior to those of Russia. A walking coat thickly wadded, and 
with a fur collar, will be found very useful. Ladies wear cloaks or jackets 
wadded ^vith eiderdown or lined with fox-skins. A sable collar and muff, 

A degree of BtomnTilr is equivalent to about 2J degrees of Fahrenheit, or rather 9° l\=49 R. 



Kussia. 



11. — Sanitary Peculiaritiea. 



67 



and a small round hat of sable, complete the winter costume of a lady. 
These furs should be purchased at St. Petersburg (at Efimofs, Gostinnoi 
Dvor), where they will be found much cheaper, and far better than in 
England or in Germany. The journey to St. Petersburg may very well be 
made by ladies throughout winter in tnickly wadded coats or cloaks without 
fur collars or cuffs, which will only be found requisite in driving or walking. 
Boots lined with fur or long boots of felt are indispensable to both sexes 
for this journey in winter. 

The following table (taken from the Academical Almanach of St. Peters- 
burg) will assist the traveller to convert degrees of R^umur into their 
equivalents by Fahrenheit : — 



¥• 


B. 


F. 


R. 


F. 


fi. 


F. 


R. 


F. 


R. 


-40 


-32-0 


- 6 


-16-9 


+28 


- 1-8 


+62 


+18-3 


+ 96 


+28-4 


38 


31-1 


4 


16-0 


30 


0-9 


64 


14-2 


98 


29-3 


36 


30'2 


2 


15-1 


32 


0-0 


66 


15-1 


100 


30-2 


34 


29-3 





14-2 


34 


+ 0-9 


68 


160 


102 


31-1 


32 


28-4 


+ 2 


13-3 


36 


1-8 


70 


16-9 


104 


32-0 


30 


27-6 


4 


12*4 


38 


2-7 


72 


17-8 


106 


32 -g* 


28 


26-7 


6 


11-6 


40 


3-6 


74 


18-7 


108 


33-8 


26 


25-8 


8 


10-7 


42 


4-4 


76 


19-6 


110 


34-7 


24 


24-9 


10 


9-8 


44 


53 


78 


20-4 


120 


391 


22 


24-0 


12 


8-9 


46 


6-2 


80 


21-3 


130 


43-6 


20 


23-1 


14 


8-0 


48 


71 


82 


22-2 


150 


52-4 


18 


22*2 


16 


71 


50 


8-0 


84 


281 


170 


61-3 


16 


21-3 


18 


6-2 


52 


8-9 


86 


24-0 


190 


70-2 


14 


20-4 


20 


5-3 


54 


9-8 


88 


24-9 


210 


79-1 


12 


19-6 


22 


4-4 


56 


10-7 


90 


25-8 


212 


80-0 


10 


18-7 


24 


3-6 


58 


11-6 


92 


26-7 






8 


17-8 


26 


2-7 


60 


12-4 


94 


27-6 







.* The freeEiug-point of Fahrenheit is 32^, and the tx>iliiig-point is represented by 212^. 



11. — Sakitaby Peculiarities. 

The most common disease among the higher and middle classes in Kussia, 
and one, indeed, from which few families are exempt, is scrofula. Con- 
sumption, on the other hand, is far less prevalent than in Great Britain, 
although most of the causes which are supposed to favour the development 
of tubercle may be detected in Russian life ; such causes, for instance, as 
wretched ventilation, and sometimes even no ventilation at all, and frequent 
changes in the weather, from hot to cold, and from dry to damp; and, 
among the lower classes, an insufficient quantity of food, and an excessive 
indulgence in intoxicating drinks. Scurvy and rickets are very common 
diseases among the lower class of Russians who live in towns. Both com- 
plaints are the results, no doubt, of want of Jbod, and of strict observance 
of the Church fasts, the sum total of which covers nearly five months out 
of the twelve. Not only is meat forbidden, but all products of the anima] 



68 U.—SpmL Sect. L 

kingdom, such as e^s, milk, cheese, &c., as well. The poor, therefore, 
have a very small diet- table to choose from, aud it is these who observe 
the fast most strictly. If it were not for the acid rye-bread which they 
eat, and the sour kvas which they drink, scurvy would perhaps be more 
common even than it is now. Diarrhoea and dysentery are very prevalent, 
I I It n I nr r i i i MMiiiaMMMBBMhiMMMMMB 



In the immediate neighbourhood of St. Petersburg the ground is all 
strictly preserved, either by private clubs or by the Crown ; but a 
drive of a few hours, or a short trip by rail, will give the sportsman aii. 
unlimited extent of moor and forest, where he can range at will. He miAat 
not, however, ex|)ect to make large " bags ;** from 5 to 10 brace of woo^- 
game, or from 10 to 15 couple of snipe, in a good snipe season, is about -^lie 
average of a fair day's shooting. 

The shooting season commences on the 15th (27th) of July, and the 

f];ame to be found in all tlte northern forests comprises the foUo^wing 

"rds: — capercailzie, black game, willow-grouse, and hazel-grouse, or -ye^f- 






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Uigitized Dy '^ 



■^^ 



^^ 



58 12 JSpoi't. Sect. I. 

kingdom, such as eggs, milt, cheese, &c., as well. The poor, therefore, 
have a very small diet-table to choose from, and it ia these who observe 
the fast most strictly. ^L^j.^^y^ not for the Rcid rye-bread which they 
eat, aiiiJlBnflHlilflHHHMlriril^^HUSKJBSilfaLEeriiA^^ be more 
oon 
«fc.ndj 




^iirictly preserved, either by private clubs or by the GrovJn^.^^ \f ^^^ 
I, rive of a few hours, or a short trip by rail, will give the rtv^A^ * 



^rive of a few hours, or a short trip by rail, will give the st^^' 
^^-nlimited extent of moor and forest, where he can range at ^n?^ t^^^ 
^^^t, however, ex^iect to make large '*bags;'* from 5 to IQ bra ^^ 



aw 



j^-n limited extent of moor and lorest, where he can 
^^^t, however, ex^iect to make large '*bags;'* from 5 to IQ br^**^' ^etawst 
r^me, or from 10 to 15 couple of snipe, in a good snipe seaanrT^ ^^ ^ood 
-^reraerfi nf a foii. A^.jr, aV^nntincr »*«»vm^ Ig about 



the 



^-^eruge of a fair day's shooting. " ' ^^* is aboul 

The shooting season commences on the 15th (27th) of j 
^^^,me to be found in all tlte northern forests comprises i-v ^* ^^ ^^^ 
-|-^irds:— capercailzie, black game, willow-gi-ouse, and hazeUoJ^ foUowiutr 

srouse, or ^/,: 



^^me 



i 



Russia. 12.— Spor/. 59 

notie ; and on many of the tracts of cultivated land the grey or common 
English partridge. These last, however, are not, strictly speaking, indi- 
genous in the northern provinces, and their presence in the neighhour- 
hood of St, Petersbui^ may be attributed to the fact that many of the 
clubs are in the habit of procuring these birds in considerable numbers 
from Courland and elsewhere, and turning them out in the spring. 

South of Moscow the quail abounds, and the bustard is still found on 
many of the Steppes. In the Caucasus the sportsman will find plenty of 
pheasants. Of migratory birds, besides innumerable kinds of wild-fowl, we 
may mention the woodcock, great or double snipe, single and jack snipe, 
golden plover, curlew, corncrake, &c. &c. 

The woodcock arrives early in spring, and considerable numbers remain 
and breed in the vicinity; the autumn flights arrive about the end of 
August, or first days of September. Legends of by-gone days tell of 
wonderful cock-shooting at no great distance from St. Petersburg ; but four 
or five cocks are now considered a very good day's shooting. Of the three 
species of snipe, an inconsiderable number stop on their passage northwards 
in the spring, and breed ; their reappearance in the autumn is very uncer- 
tain. Some seasons there is capital snipe-shooting, and from 15 to 30 
couple of snipe to a single gun is by no means a rare occurrence ; while 
sometimes you may walk all day without a shot. The double snipe arrives 
about the 12th (24th) of August, and the flights continue till about 
the 7th of September. These birds are very shy of the cold, and a night's 
frost drives them all to the southward. The single and the jack are rather 
later in their arrival, and the last-named little fellow remains until the 
frost is sufficiently severe to freeze the bogs and pools. 

Dogs, — The best dogs for the rough and varied shooting in Russia are setters, 
English-bred, but broken in the country. If first-rate, they should be close 
rangers in the woods, and wide on the moors. Many dogs will leave their 
" point " and return to the sportsman, showing by their movements that they 
have found game, and then bring him quietly up to the point. This is an 
invaluable quality, as much of the shooting is in thick cover, where it is 
impossible to See your dog farther than a few paces. By the middle of 
August the capercailzie and black-game are very difficult of approach, and 
run long distances before they rise, generally out of shot. A clever dog 
will sometimes make a round and head the game back to the sportsman. 

A pointer, as a less hardy animal than the setter, will often not face the 
cold water on the moors and marshes, while his legs, unprotected, like 
those of the setter, by the long feathering hair, are more liable to injury in 
ranoring over the rough broken ground. 

The best way for a stranger to see sport is — having first ascertained from 
some fellow-sportsman the most likely localities for game — to put himself 
imder the guidance of one of the peasant Nimrods of the district. They 
are all capital walkers, and generally amusing companions, and by no means 
despicable shots. 

Matttie-Shooting, — ^By the end of September all shooting with dogs is 
over for the season, the capercailzie and black-«:ame have retired to the 
thickest woods, the willow-grouse are packed and defy the most wary dog, 
and the snipe and woodcock have all left for warmer climes. Battue-shooting 
now commences, and although a large head of game is seldom bagged, there 
U a pleasant variety in the game driven forward, M^^^aNvildness in the 

B 8 



GO 12.^Sport. Sect. L 

vast woods and moorland, whicli possesses a charm for the true sports- 
man. Besides the birds already enumerated, there are plenty of 
hares, — the white hare, which frequents the woods and moors, and weighs 
from 7 to 10 lbs. ; the red hare of the plains and cultivated lands, weighing 
from 10 to 15 lbs. Vulpecidism is not here considered a crime, and many 
is the gallant fox who has fallen before the deadly barrel in a battue. The 
visitor will have little difficulty in procuring an invitation to one of these 
shooting parties, which are organized at most of the clubs once a week. 
The number of beaters generally employed is from 80 to 100, according to 
the extent of the ground to be beaten. Fifty head of game to ten guns is 
considered a very good day's sport. These battues continue until the winter 
regularly sets in, when the deep snow renders it impossible for the beaters 
to get over the ground. 
The winter shooting comprises bear, wolf, elk, and lynx. 
Bears, — Bears are to be found in considerable numbers in all the ex- 
tensive forests in the North, and of late years their number has rather been 
on the increase. The general way in which this sport is followed is this : — 
as soon as the first snow falls, peasants start from their villages in search 
of bear-tracks ; as soon as they come upon traces they follow the track 
until they know by the numerous turns and twists which Bruin has made 
that he is thinking of choosing some snug corner for his winter quarters ; 
they then proceed with greater caution, and, when they consider that the 
bear is not very far ofif, they leave the track and make a circle, returning to 
their starting-place. If they have not again crossed the track, they know 
that the bear must be within the circle ; they then advance a little further, 
when they again make a detour as before ; and thus they proceed, giTdually 
narrowing the circle until they have enclosed the bear within a compara- 
tively small circumference. They then set off to town and offer the bear to 
any sportsman whom they happen to know ; if he decides upon taking the 
bear at the price offered, he invites some of his friends to join him in the 
hunt, and they set out, either by rail or in sleighs, as the case may be, to 
the village nearest the spot where the bear is. Beaters are then collected, the 
number varying according to the extent of the circle ; they are placed in a 
semicircle, while the sportsmen stand in a line at distances of from fifty to 
eighty yards from one another, according to the number of guns and the 
nature of the ground. The bear, roused from his slumbers by the shonts 
and cries of the peasants, makes a bolt for it, and generally comes within 
shot of one or other of the guns, which either wounds, kills, or misses him, 
although it but seldom happens that a single shot suffices to put an end to 
Bruin's existence. When wounded, the bear, more especially if it is a 
mother with cubs, is a dangerous customer, and it requires both nerve and 
courage to deal successfully with so formidable an antagonist. The sports- 
man, however, is generally provided with two guns, and a spear as a dernier 
ressort, and most of the accidents which have happened have arisen either 
from foolhardiness or a want of nerve. When " ringing '* a bear, as it is 
termed, should the peasant when making his ring again cross the track of 
the bear, he knows that he has gone out of the circle, and accordingly, 
instead of returning to his starting-point, he follows the fresh track, and 
nrooeeds as before described. Many sportsmen are not satisfied with tho 
ncertain prospect of a shot at a bear held out by a joint battue, and adopt 
lother plan, for the success of which it is necessary that the peasant who 



Russia. 12.— 'fi^port. 61 

has " ringed ** a bear should wait until he has settled himself for the winter, 
and then discover the spot where he has made his den; this accom- 
plished, he gives information to the sportsman, who goes to the place, 
either alone with the peasant, or accompanied by a friend, generally taking 
with him three or four rough dogs, who answer the double purpose of 
rousing the bear from his lair, and distracting his attention from the sports- 
man. In this way the hunter is almost sure of a shot, and has generally 
only himself to blame if he returns empty-handed. Some of the most 
noted and successful bear-hunters make a regular campaign against Bruin 
for several weeks together, camping out at night in the forest, and often 
pursuing for days together a bear who has escaped the bullet when started 
from his lair. The best season of the year for this sport is January and 
February, at which time the snow is in a favourable condition for running 
on snow-shoes, without which accessories the hunter, sinking at every step 
to the middle in the deep snow, would be powerless. The snow-shoes are 
about 7 feet long and 6 inches broad, slightly curved at the point, with a 
foot-piece in the middle, to which are attached thongs or straps for securing 
the snow-shoe to the foot. Some of them are covered underneath with the 
skin of the reindeer, which is of great assistance to the hunter in ascending 
hills. In the absence of this under-covering of skin, the hunter provides 
himself with a pole about 8 feet in lengthy with a curved point of 
horn or bone, with which he guides himself in descending, or prevents 
his feet from slipping backwards in ascending any rising ground. It 
requires considerable practice to become an adept in the art of running on 
snow-shoes, but without them it is quite impossible to attempt to follow 
game in the winter time. 

An Englishman, who for many years was a mighty bear-hunter in Russia, 
was in the habit of attacking and pursuing these animals armed only with a 
spear ; and although many were the deadly struggles that he had face to face 
with his grim opponent, he never met with any accident. To use the spear 
with any certainty requires great dexterity and strength of arm, with 
nerves of iron, and should on no account be attempted by a novice. 

The Emperor Alexander II. is a keen and experienced sportsman, and pas- 
sionately fond of bear-shooting, and every winter adds several skins to his 
already numerous trophies. Bears, as well as elk and wolves, are often 
shot within 40 miles of St. Petersburg. 

Elk, — Elk-shooting is conducted much in the same way as the ordinary 
battue for bear. The peasants, however, will sometimes follow them for 
days for the chance of a shot. 

Wolves, — ^Wolves are shot by hunting with dogs, by an ordinary battue, 
and sometimes by riding down ; but this requires a peculiar condition of 
the snow, as well as rideable ground. They are to be found in consider- 
able numbers in the immediate neighbourhood of St. Petersburg, as well ae 
all over Eussia, and, unless hard pressed by hunger and in packs, are 
seldom dangerous. 

Lynx, — ^The lynx is occasionally shot in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, 
and the species most generally found is the Felis virgata of Nilssen. They 
are a very wary animal, and even when " ringed " are very difficult to drive 
from their lurking-place. 

There are no reindeer in the immediate neighbourhood of St. Petersburg, 
"but they abound in the provinces of Archangel, Olonetz, &c. &c. 



62 13.— Society. Sect. I. 

Fox 'hunting, — A subscription pack of foxhounds is kept up by the 
Enghsh community at St. Petersburg. The kennels are about 12 m. out 
of town, and are well worth seeing, even out of the hunting season, which 
begins towards the end of August and ends about the middle of October, 
when the ground begins to get haixi and slippery. Many a good run has 
been had with the "Gor^loe hounds," notwithstanding the marshy and 
wooded nature of the country. A fox-hunting traveller will be most 
cordially welcomed and even mounted, provided he have no objection to 
bestride a Cossack pony — an animal which is however well adapted to the 
sort of work expected of him at Gor^lo^. 

Fishing, — Finland is famous for its streams and lakes stocked with the 
finest fish, and it will no doubt be one day as much visited as Norway for 
the purposes of sport ; for descriptions of which vide " Grand Duchy of 
Finland." 

13. — Society. 

Winter is the season for gaieties in Russia. Travellers w:ith letters of 
introduction will find salons of St. Petersburg as brilliant as those of 
Paris, but they are unfortunately not many. During a good season 
dinner parties, receptions, soirfe, and balls, occur in such rapid suc- 
cession, that the man of fashion will find the winter too short, rather 
than too long. There is no dancing during the forty days that precede 
Easter. Christmas and the Carnival are the gayest periods. Two or three 
court balls are then given, and ** distinguished strangers*' who have been 
presented at home will sometimes receive invitations. . Travellers wishing 
to be presented to H. I. M. must apply for an audience through H. M.'s 
Embassy. 

It is necessary to wear a uniform at court. French is the language 
spoken in society, but English is generally understood. Strangers are 
expected to make the first call, which is returned either in person or by 
card. In leaving cards on persons who are not at home, one of the edges of 
the card should be turned up. It is necessary to leave a card next day on 
any person to whom the stranger may have been introduced at a party. 
Those who are introduced to the stranger will observe the same politeness. 
Great punctuality is exacted at St. Petersburg in the matter of leaving 
cards after entertainments and introductions. Visiting on New Year's Day 
may be avoided by giving a small contribution to the charitable institutions 
of the city, which will be duly acknowledged in the newspapers. 

No presents are given to servants, except at New Year and Easter, when 
the porters of much-frequented houses will offer their congratulations in 
anticipation of a donation of 1 to 5 rubles, according to the number of visits 
paid. The hours for calling are 3 to 5 p.m. ; dinner parties are generally 
convened for 6 or 6*30; and receptions commence at about 10 p.m., and 
last very late. Guests are expected to be punctual where members of the 
Imperial Family are invited. Ladies wishing to pass a " season " at St. 
Petersburg should recollect that Russian ladies dress very richly, though in 
great tast«. The charges of dress-makers at St. Petersburg being exorbitant, 
it is advisable to come provided with all the necessary toilettes. At balls, 
the only dance in which the stranger will not at first be able to join is the 
zurka, a kind of cotillon imported from Poland. It is also necessary to 



Eussia, 14. — Seasons for Travelling, 63 

observe that partners are not engaged for the whole of a waltz or polka, but 
only for a turn. 

In summer there are generally two or three salon% out of town open for 
evening receptions. Ladies can wear rrjbes rmntantes, and f;entlemen light 
trousers and white waistcoats, with dress coats. The same costume for 
dinner parties in summer. 

Travellers should not forget that a Russian invariably takes off his hat 
whenever be enters an apartment, however humble ; and an omission to 
pay this respect to the holy image suspended in the corner of every room 
will immediately be noticed, and hurt the feelings of the host or hostess. 
Top coats must always be removed on entering Russian houses, as a point 
of etiquette and politeness. 



14. — Seasons fob Travelling. 

Winter is naturally the most appropriate season for travelling in Russia ; 
for the prevalence of ice and snow during a great portion of the year is the 
characteristic feature of the country. The mode of life which the long dark 
nights of winter induce, the contrivances of man to overcome the obstacles 
presented by the climate, the dormant aspect of nature, with its thick 
covering of dazzling snow, and its ice-bound lakes and rivers, now bearing 
horses and the heaviest burdens where ships floated and waves rolled, 
perhaps only a fortnight before : — all these scenes and peculiar i)hases of 
life render a journey to Russia very interesting and desirable in winter. 

But we cannot expect many tourists to submit to the hardships of travel- 
ling very far at such a season ; nor do we recommend it beyond a visit to 
St. Petersburg, where a very good idea of a Russian winter may be obtained, 
and where sight-seeing and amusements of a social character entail no dis- 
comfort. Moscow might, indeed, in winter disappoint the traveller who 
seeks the picturesque, and should therefore be visited in summer, when the 
sun lights up with an extraordinary brilliancy the striking panorama of that 
city of churches and gilded cupolas. 

As, moreover, the great mass of tourists only visit the Continent during 
the months of summer, our counsel in the matter of travelling in Russia 
is scarcely needed ; but as, on the other hand, there are many who can dis- 
pose of their time at all seasons, we may as well summarise our advice and 
our experience as follows. 

1. Summer. — Proceed by steamer or yacht to the Baltic, and visit the 
towns on the coast of Finland. Spend a week at St. Petersburg, in seeing 
the churches, art collections, and other sights. Go to Moscow for a week, 
which will be fully occupied in viewing thoroughly all the places and 
objects described in Route 6. Novgorod the Great and the monastery of 
the New Jerusalem may be visited on the way by those who can spare 
three more days. If at the proper season (middle of August), the fair of 
Nijni should be seen. The voyage down the Volga and across the Caspian, 
the tour in the Crimea, the journeys to Pekin and Teheran, should also 
only be performed in summer. From St. Petersburg return overland, by 
way of Poland. 

Travellers are attracted to Warsaw principally b^^^pol^itol sympathies, 
or by a desire to see a country which has occupied so much oitne^ttention 



64: 16.-^Bailway8 and Princvpal Boutes. Sect. I. 

of the statesmen of Europe, It may be visited indififerently, either in 
winter or summer, on the way to or from St. Petersburg. 

2. WiNTBB. — Travellers should visit St. Petersburg specially in winter, 
with the object of seeing Russia in her natural garb. The collections of the 
Hermitage, the exhilarating sports, the rapid sleighing, and the gay life of 
the great capital of the North, will afford much enjoyment, and amply re- 
compense the time spent> and the somewhat heavy expenses which such a 
trip will entail, 

16.— Railways and Prikcipal Routes. 

Railways are being so rapidly pushed on in Russia in various directions 
that it is as yet impossible to reduce travelling in that country to any 
system. The tourist*s course must for some time continue to be zigzag and 
erratic, for a methodic route traced to-day would probably not be available 
for more than six months after. The accompanying map will show the prin- 
cipal directions which the railways are taking, the line of most importance 
to tourists being that which will connect the Crimea with Moscow and 
St. Petersburg. Until that line is opened throughout its entire length, 
few travellers for pleasure will go beyond Moscow or Nijni. Two years 
hence (when a new edition of this Handbook will probably become neces- 
sary) Moscow will not be, as at present, the Ultima Thule of the great 
majority of travellers. It will only be visited en route from or to the 
Crimea. In the mean while it may be stated generally, for the encourage- 
ment of travellers, that the Russian railways are the most comfortable in 
Europe. On the line between St. Petersburg and Moscow the traveller 
may regularly go to bed in a sleeping compartment; he may ask for a 
table and play at cards; and he may even naake his morning ablutions in 
the train. The stoppages are rather too frequent to please the impatient 
traveller, but on such long journeys it is frequently very refreshing to be 
able to stretch one's legs even for five minutes at a station. 

Railway travelling being somewhat new to the Russian people, the tra- 
veller will sometimes be surprised to see a certain amount of disorder in the 
taking and keeping of seats. On entering a train all the seats will at first 
appear to be occupied, but an application to the station-master will soon 
cause a removal of the cloaks, bedding, &c., with which the carriage is 
packed. However, these artifices are not peculiar to Russia alone. As a 
rule, the traveller will find every comfort and civility on the lines of rail- 
way, &c., described in the following pages, where it is to be hoped sufficient 
information will be found to render the journey interesting. The words 
and dialogues given in the " Vocabulary " have been found amply sufficient 
to enable the tourist to reach Astrakhan without any previous knowledge 
whatever of the Russian language. 

The arrangement of skeleton routes and systematic tours must be re- 
served for the next edition. 



Notice. — A Railway Guide for Russia, or * Ukazatel Puteshestviya,' is 
published at St. Petersburg by Messrs. F, B. Froom and Co., in the 
Russian language (with the headings of the Tables in English), and may 
be purchased for 25 c, at all the principal stations. 



ROUTES. 



[The luunefl of places are printed in italics only in those Tontes where the places are daeribed.} 



BOUTE PAGE 

1. London to 8t, PetersburOfOver- 

land, vi4 Berlin, Kovmo, 
Wilna, And Pakof. .. .. 65 

2. London to St. Petersburg, by 

Sea, via Cronstadt . . . . 157 

3. London to St. Petersburg, vi^ 

Archangel 157 

4. Berlin to Beval, by Riga, Dor- 

pat, &c 163 

5. St. Petersburg to Novgorod 

me Great 173 



B0X3TE PAGE 

6. St. Petersburg to Moscow . . 

7. Moscow to Troitsa Motms- 176 

tery (Troitskaya - Sergieva 
Lavra) 217 

8. Moscow to Nijni Novgorod, 

with branch line to Shuya 
and Ivanovo, and excur- 
sion up the Oka to Murom, 
Elatma, &nd Kasimof .. 220 

9. Volga: Tygt to Astrahhan .. 228 



EOUTE 1. 

LONDOK TO ST. PETER6BUEG, OVERLAND, 
VIA BEBLDT, KOWNO, WILNA, AND PSKOF. 

By travelling without intermission, 
St Petersburg can be reached from 
London in 3J days. 

Through tickets from Charing- 
cros.s to St. Petersburg, available for 
30 days, and enabling travellers to 
stop at the principal continental 
towns on the route, are issued at the 
following rates : — 

fr. c. 

1st class via Ostend 355 10* 

I>itto vl& Calais 359 60 

Mixed ticket (2nd class between 
CologDe and St. Petersburg)— 

▼lAOstend 283 30 

viaCalais 287 20 

* These rates vary slightly every week, ac- 
cording to the Use or fall of the exchanges. 



Each passenger Is allowed 60 lbs. of luggage 
free of charge. 

As the Russian 2nd class carriages arc not 
equal to those on the German lines, tlie English 
or American traveller, with a mixed ticket, is 
recommended to pay at Wlerzholow the differ- 
ence to St. Petersburg between 1st and 2nd 
class. 

The route from London to Berlin and 
Konigsberg is described in Handbook 
of North Germany. 

The journey is broken at Berlin, 
where travellers may remain 12 hrs. 
or go through. In case of fatigue, a 
night may be passed at Konigsberg or 
at Eydkuhnen, on the Prussian fron- 
tier. The carriages throughout are 
comfortable and roomy, and present 
facilities for sleeping. BuflFets fre- 
quent and good. Money can be 
changed either at Eydkuhnen (the 
last Prussian station), or at Wierzbo- 
low, where the exchange of the day is 
given. 

Digitized by vjv^v^viv^ 

560 m. from St. Petersburg, at Wir- 



66 



Boute 1. — Kotono, 



Sect. I. 



ballen (or Wierzbolow), passports and 
luggage are examined. Porters charge 
5 copecks for every parcel they carry. 
Good bufffet kept by a Frenchman, 
and plenty of time for refreshment. 
The first 4 stations beyond are, like 
Wirballen, in the kingdom of Poland, 
and the train only enters Bussia at 

506 m. Kowno. Chief town of pro- 
vince, at the confluence of the Vilia 
and Niemen. Pop. 24,000. On the 
23rd June, 1812, the French army 
crossed the Niemen, near Kowno, on 
their advance to Moscow, and some 
rising ground on the opposite bank is 
still called " Napoleon's HUl." The 
town was occupied by a large corps 
d'arm^e, and suffered considerably. 
The remnants of the army recrossed 
the river at the same spot on the 13th 
December, in a very bad state of disci- 
pline. In the centre of the market- 
place, in front of the town-hall and 
barracks (established in an ancient 
Polish ch.), is a monument commemo- 
rative of the retreat, and bearing the 
following inscription in Eussian:— 
** In 1812 Bussia was invaded by an 
army numbering 700,000 men. The 
army recrossed the frontier numbering 
70,000." 

Kowno formed part of the ancient 
Duchy of Lithuania, now called one of 
the N.W. provinces of Bussia, whose 
history will be read at Wilna. The 
scenery around is mountainous and 
wooded. In the days of paganism this 
site was of great repute as the residence 
of several mythological divinities. The 
town is supposed to have been founded 
in the early part of the 11th centy. 
In the 14th and 15th cents, the castle 
of Kowno played an important part in 
the history of Lithuania. It was fre- 
quently attacked by the Teutonic 
Knights; but in 1400 Vitovt, Grand 
Duke of Lithuania, ordered it to be 
blown up, in order that it might not 
fall into other hands. After that 
event, which took from the town its 
military importance, Kowno became 
gradually a centre of trade, particu- 
larly after 1581, when it was made 
the seat of a custom-house for all 



goods exported out of Poland. The 
establishment of an English Factory 
at Kowno in the middle ages is like- 
wise a proof of its great commercial 
importance. Subsequent religious dis- 
sensions reduced the inhabitants to 
such extreme poverty that in 1654 
they were released from the obligation 
of paying taxes. In 1655 Kowno was 
burnt and pillaged by the Bussians, 
who occupied this part of the country 
until 1661, and into whose hands the 
town fell definitively in 1795. A 
fire destroyed ^ of the town in 1808 ; 
and in 1812 it was deva.stated and 
pillaged by the French. There are 
several old churches still extant ; that 
dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, 
in the 15th centy., being the largest 
Boman Oath. ch. in Lithuania. The 
church of St. George was built in 
1471, and the chapel dedicated to St. 
Gertrude existed in 1503. 
Five small stations beyond is 

Wilna Stat., 441 m. from St. P. 
Pop. 58.000. ^ofeZ.— Hotel de I'Europe, 
recommended. Chief town of the 
ancient independent Duchy of Lithu- 
ania, connected with Poland in 1386, 
when its Duke, Jagellon, espoused 
Hedwiga, Queen of Poland. The 
dynastic union of the two countries 
imparted the strength which they re- 
quired in order to repel the invasions 
of the Teutonic Knights, to arrest the 
incursions of the Tartars, and to keep 
the Dukes of Moscow within the 
limits of their territory. The Union, 
commenced by the Convention of 
Wilna, 1401, became organic two cen- 
turies later by an Act passed at a 
Common Diet held at Lublin in 1569. 
The history of Lithuania remained 
that of the kingdom of Poland until 
the Third Partition in 1795, when it 
was incorporated with Bussia. Divided 
later into the provinces of Wilna, Grod- 
no, Kowno, and Minsk. Lithuania 
now constitutes, together with the 
provinces of Mohilef and Witebsk (also 
called White Bussia, and detached 
from Poland in 1772), the N.W. pro- 
vinces of the Bussian empire, in- 
habited by the following races : — 



Eussia. Boute 1, 

1. The dominating elements : — 

a. Poles, represented by the nobi- 

lity, the Catholic clei^^, and 

the inhabitants of towns . . 580 , 000 

b. Great Russians or Moscovites, 

consisting of government oflB- 
cials, the Russo-Greek clergy, 
and colonies of Dissenters from 
the Russo-Greek Church .. 212,000 

2. Rural p<^ulation : — 

a. White Russians (Slavonians).. 2,157,000 

b. Lithuanians, Samogitians, and 

Letts 1,556,000 

3. Jews 535,000 

4. Other elements 6&,000 

Total 5,105,000 



-WUna, 



67 



Of these 2J millions belong to the 
Russo-Greek, and 2 millions to the 
Boman Catholic Confession. A very 
large proportion, however, of the popu- 
lation, considered orthodox by Russian 
statists, were, before their forced con- 
version in 1839, Uniats, or worship- 
pers in the amalgamated Churches of 
the Greek and Roman faith. The 
Uniat denomination had been intro- 
duced in 1599, under the influence of 
the Jesuits, with a view to Romanise 
the Lithuanian people, then of the 
Greek Church. The converted of 
1839, then about 2 millions in num- 
ber, preserve to this day a leaning to- 
wards the United Church, which is 
certainly more Catholic and Polish 
than Orthodox and Russian. 

The political vicissitudes to which 
these provinces have been subjected, 
and the mixed nature of their popula- 
tion, afford a fertile and disastrous 
source of disagreement between the 
Russians and the Poles. By the 
former they are regarded and governed 
as Russians, subject some time to 
Poland, but now reincorporated by 
conquest and treaties of partition ; 
while the Polish element, composed of 
the aristocracy, landed gentry, and 
educated classes generally, maintain 
that the N.W. provinces are Polish, 
and, as such, entitled to a national 
administration. The imperial Govern 
ment ignore the claim, and deny that 
the Poles, subjects of the Emperor, 
entitled to certain political privileges 
by the Treaty of Vienna, are the Poles 
of the N.W. provinces. The claim 



is, however, unfortunately asserted at 
every available opportunity. The in- 
surrection of 1831 in the kingdom of 
Poland was one of those opportunities ; 
the revolution of 1862 at Warsaw was 
the latest. The repressive measures 
of Gen. Mouravieff in 1863 and 1864 
were dated from Wilna. Here the 
leaders of the hopeless insurrection 
in the provinces were confined, tried, 
hung, or shot. The reduction of the 
population in the N.W. provinces by 
deportation to distant parts of the em- 
pire is variously estimated at 50,000 
to 100.000 souls. Their landed pro- 
perty has since been transferred, by 
confiscation and forced sale, to native 
Russians. 

The town of Wilna lies in a hollow 
at the foot of several hills which rise 
to some height on the E., S., and W. 
The Vilia river runs out at the northern 
extremity of the hollow, and, winding 
through deep and intricate ravines, 
clothed with foliage of the fir, the birch, 
and the lime, presents a most pictu- 
resque and smiling panorama, little in 
keeping with the stem deeds of retri- 
bution which have made Wilna so 
famous. Wilna is supposed to have 
existed in the 12th centy., and was the 
capital of Lithuania in the early part 
of the 14th centy., when its population 
was still pagan. A perpetual fire was 
kept burning at the foot of the hill 
which Gedemin crowned with a castle 
in 1323. The remains of the old 
castle, with an octangular tower of 
red brick, are still seen commanding 
the town, in pleasing contrast with the 
verdure around. A famine destroyed 
more than 30,000 inhab. in 1710, and 
in 1715 the town was almost entirely 
burnt down. 

The house of the Governor-General 
was formerly the Episcopal Palace, and 
the present post-office was the resi- 
dence of Cardinal Radziwil. The 
churches will repay a visit ; the most 
ancient being the Cathedral of St. 
Stanislaus, built in 1387, and tUo 
ch. of the Assumption, founded in 
1364. They possess considerable ar- 
chitectural merit, and among tlieir 
moniunents wi^ze(^^ vS^S^, those of 



68 



Boute 1. — Bilnaburg — Ostrof, 



Sect. I. 



several families whose names are fa- 
miliar to all readers of Polish history. 
The UAiversity, established in 1803, 
was suppressea in 1832. 

Wilna was occupied by the French 
army on the 28th June. 1812. It had 
been evacuated by the Russians during 
the night. The Emperor Napoleon 
occupied in the Episcopal Palace the 
rooms which the Emperor Alexander 
had left the previous day. Sir Robert 
Wilson's Memoirs give interesting de- 
tails about Wilna. Tyrconnel, his 
aide-de-camp, lies buried here. 

The main line runs hence to War- 
saw, but a branch turns off at Land- 
warowo (the next station after Wilna), 
for the Prussian frontier. 

366 m. Swentsiany, Buffet. Town 
of 4000 Inhab. on the western Dwina. 

331 m. Dunahurg, Buf. Town of 
27,000 Inhab. in province of Witebsk, 
formerly known as White Russia. 
Dunaburg has a first-class fortress, 
built in 1825, on the site of a fortifi- 
cation raised by Stephen Batory in 
1582. A t^te-de-pont commands the 
floating bridge over the river Dvina. 
John the Terrible of Russia took the 
town in 1577, after which it was oc- 
cupied by the Swedes in 1600. The 
Russians retook it in 1656, but re- 
turned it two years later to the Poles, 
who in their turn were compelled to 
cede it finally to the Russians in 
1772. 

The fortress is now the most im- 
portant strategical point on the Dvina 
line of defence. As a place of trade, 
Diinaburg holds a high position among 
the western towns of Russia. Large 
quantities of flax, hemp, tallow, and 
timber are collected here for shipment 
or carriage to Riga. The opening of 
the railway to Orel will still further 
increase the traffic through Diina- 
burg. 

As yet there are no hotels at Diina- 
burg where travellers bound from 
Berlin to Moscow vi& Witebsk and 
Orel can find comfortable quarters. 
Information respecting the inns of 
the country should be obtained from 
^he station-master. 



There is a branch line from Duna- 
burg to Riga (m0 Rte. 4), and another 
to Orel (Rte. 12). 

330 m. Antonopol, But 

230 m. Eorsofka, Buf. 

204 m. Ostrof, Buf. Town of 2500 
Inhab., in province of Pskof, on river 
Veliki. The town takes its name, 
whicli signifies ** island," from an 
island formed by the Veliki, and on 
which a fortress existed in the 14th 
centy. Three of the towers, bmlt of 
a grey flagstone and red limestone, 
are still to be seen, together with the 
church of St. Nicholas in the centre 
of the island, built in 1582. Ostrof was 
burnt by the Lithuanians in 1601, when 
4000 inhab. perished ; and in 1581 it 
was taken by Stephen Batory. A large 
trade is carried on in flax, carried 
hence to Riga, Narva, and St. Peters- 
burg. Travellers sometimes telegraph 
from here to the hotel at St. Peters- 
burg for a carriage. 

171 m. Pskof, Buf. Chief town of 
province of same name, 15,000 Inhab. 
This was anciently one of the three 
republics of Russia ; the others being 
Novgorod the Great, and Khlynof 
(now Viatka). Tradition points to the 
year 975 as the date of its foundation. 
It was, like Novgorod, the seat of a 
great trade with Germany in the 
earliest times, and formed part of 
the Hanseatio League. The wave of 
European civilization and commerco 
first met the tide of Slavonic barbarism 
at this point. CJommercial prosperity 
introduced political freedom and much 
popular turbulence. The citizens of 
Pskof elected their own princes, de- 
posed them at pleasure, and held in- 
cessant Vech^f or popular councils 
almost identical with the Witenage- 
motes of the Saxons. The assembly, 
convened by a bell, sat on an elevated 
moimd, approached by steps, and on 
which a club or heavy stick was set 
up, emblematical of the majesty ot 
the law. There is a record of a Veche* 
at Pskof in which the citizens deli- 
berated in their shirts, so urgent was 
the danger to their privileged city. 



Eussia. 



This form of government was retained, 
ua at Novgorod and some other towns, 
even during the Tartar dominion, but 
it succumbed at last to the autocracy 
established by John III. and John the 
Terrible, who incorporatedall thepetty 
principalities of Bussia with the Grand 
Duchy of Moscow. The liberties of 
Pskof survived those of Novgorod 
82 years. Taking advantage of some 
factions proceedings at the Vech€, 
John the Terrible perfidiously impri- 
soned the boyars and citizens who had 
been sent to do him homage at Nov- 
gorod, and sent an envoy to the Veche 
demanding the instant submission of 
that body. The envoy sat down on 
the steps of the Yech^, and long 
waited for an answer. The citizens 
could not speak for their tears and 
sobs, and asked to be allowed imtil 
the morrow for reflection. It was a 
most dreadfal day and night for Pskof. 
'^InfiEoits at the breast,'' continues 
the Chronicle, ** were the only ones that 
did not cry for grief. The wailings of 
the people were heard in the open 
street and in every house : they em- 
braced each other as if their last hour 
had come. So great was the love of 
the citizens for their ancient liberties." 
But resistance they felt to be useless ; 
and the next day, the 13th January, 
1510, they took down the bell of the 
Veche at the church of the Holy Tri- 
nity, and, gazing at it, "long cried 
over the past and their lost freedom." 
Three himdred of the most distin- 
guished families were thereupon re- 
moved to Muscovy, and replaced by 
Muscovites. 

A town with such a glorious history 
is well worthy of a visit. It stands 
at a distance of 2 m. &om the rly. stat. 
and cannot, therefore, be inspected 
during the 15 or 20 minutes which 
travellers are allowed there for re- 
freshment. But to those who will 
hazard the discomfort of a native inn 
under the protection of a guide, we 
point out the following objects of 
curiosity : — 

The Kremlin, of which the stone 
walls were built in 1323, occupies an 



Bcmte h— Pskof : TJie Kremlin. 



69 



elevation 200 fathoms in length, and 
80 in breadth. It faces the river 
Pskova on the E. and N., and the 
Velika on the W. Another wall, called 
Dovmont*s Wall, constructed in the 
latter part of the 13th centy., springs 
from the southern face of the Kremlin 
and forms a square, on which once 
stood the castle or palace of the Prince. 
There is now but one ancient building 
in that square,— a house of stone, 
built in the early part of the 15th 
centy., by Macarius, subsequently 
Metropolitan of all Russia, and which 
was the residence of the Archbishops 
of Novgorod when they visited Pskof, 
placed under their ecclesiastical ju- 
risdiction. The huge mass of the 
Cathedral of the Trinity occupies nearly 
the whole of the interior of the Krem- 
lin. The original ch. on that site is 
supposed to have been built a.d. 957, 
by Olga, converted to Christianity at 
Constantinople two years previously. 
The cathedral became thus early a 
centre from which the Christian reli- 
gion was dif^ised among the pagan 
tribes around. The ancient ch. was 
replaced by a stone edifice in 1138. 
Dovmont, a Lithuanian chief, was bap- 
tized in it, together with his family and 
followers, in 1266, prior to his election 
as Prince of Pskof, but that building 
only lasted till 1363. A third cathe- 
dral was built on its foundation in 
1368, and lasted long enough to witness 
some of the most important events in 
the history of the town. Within its 
walls, in 1510, John the Terrible 
caused the citizens to swear allegiance 
to the Grand Duke of Moscow. In 
1581 the cathedral was besieged and 
stormed by the forces of Stephen Ba- 
tory, who was repulsed by the defend- 
ers of the city, stimulated to valour 
and enthusiasm by the exhibition of 
a miraculous image of the Holy Virgin. 
ThePskovians had "washed the whole 
floor of the ch. with their tears " be- 
fore the danger had passed. 

The present Cathedral was built on 
the site of those ancient edifices in 
1682, but has been much restored 
since, especiall]^ itt^ a fire which 



70 



Boute l.—Pslcof: The Cathedral 



Sect. I. 



took place in 1770. Its style is Russo- 
Byzantian, of considerable beauty. 
Some of the images of saints are ancient 
and curious, and the traveller will be 
shown numerous relics. The most in- 
teresting of these is the tomb of St. 
Vsevolod-Gabriel, the ejected Prince 
of Novgorod, and elected ruler of 
Pskof, who died a.d. 1138, after leading 
a life of great virtue and sancity. The 
Novgorodians demanded his relics, but 
tlie coffin would not be moved, evi- 
dently expressive of the desire of the 
departed prince to abide with his faith- 
ful Pskovians. Several other miracles 
are attributed to his remains. A sword, 
with the inscription, " Honorem meum 
nemini daho" is shown as having be- 
longed to Vsevolod, who was as warlike 
as he was godly. 

The cross which St. Olga raised at 
Pskof, and which was destroyed by fire 
in 1509, is represented by a crucifix 
suspended against the second pillar on 
the right-hand side of the altar-screen. 
The lamp which burns in front of it 
was presented by the Grand Duke 
Constantine Nicolaevitch in comme- 
moration of the birth of his daughter. 

The tomb of St. Dovmont, in a chapel 
to the right of the Ikonostas or altar- 
screen, is not of silver, like that of 
St. Vsevolod, but of plain oak. It 
bears an inscription recording the his- 
tory of this Lithuanian prince, who 
appears to have assumed the name of 
Timothy at his baptism. His sword, 
frequently wielded in defence of the 
city, hangs near his tomb. It was held 
in great reverence by the Pskovians, 
who invested their princes with it at 
their consecration in this cathedral. 
Alongside of this tomb is that of " the 
sainted Nicholas Sales the Idiot," who 
saved Pskof from the fury of John the 
Terrible in the following manner: — 
•Having persuaded the citizens to pre- 
sent bread and salt to the angry Tsar 
immediately after mass, he rode about 
on a stick like a child, constantly re- 
peating ** Johnny, Johnny, eat the 
bread and salt, and not the blood of 
Christians." The Tsar ordered him to 
be seized, but the saint suddenly 
vanished. Struck with awe, John the 



Terrible, entered the cathedral with 
all meekness, and was met by the 
clergy carrying the holy crosses. An- 
other version is that Nicholas offered 
the Tsar a piece of raw meat. " I am 
a Christian," said John the Terrible, 
" and do not eat meat in Lent." " But 
thou drinkest the blood of Christians," 
replied the saint, while he exhorted 
the Tsar to be merciful. The tyrant, 
however, only listened to the warning 
after the saint had caused his horse to 
fall, at the moment the bell of the 
cathedral was ordered to be taken 
down. 

The sacristy contains many ecclesi- 
astical antiquities, and some ancient 
seals and coins of Pskof. 

There are several other churches 
worthy of a visit, each with a legend 
or traidition of miracles performed to 
the discomfiture of foreign foes. The 
interposition of saints appears to have 
been frequently needed by the good 
old city. The small chapel opposite 
the market commemorates the victims 
of an insurrection which broke out in 
1650. • 

Some of the houses are of ancient 
date ; that occupied by the " Viciuallinrf 
Department" once belonged to the 
Pogankins, a race of merchant-princes 
now extinct. The tiles of the roof are 
curious. The Trubinski house is not 
as perfect a specimen of ancient Russian 
architecture as it was before a fire 
which partially consumed it in 1830. 
Peter the Great visited it. 

Travellers should cross the Pskof 
river and examine the churches and old 
buildings in the suburbs. Gustavus 
Adolphus besieged Pskof from that 
side in 1615. There are several mo- 
nasteries, rich in ecclesiastical objects 
of ancient date, beyond the Velika river, 
A village, 8 m. up the latter river, and 
called Vybutina, was the birthplace of 
St. Olga. The fortified monastery 
of Pskof-Pechersk, celebrated for its 
catacombs and for the sieges whidi it 
has sustained, lies about 20 m. to the 
W. of Pskof. 

Two stations beyond Pskof is 
BeUya, 139 '^VBiMGIi '^ 



Bussia. 



Boute 1. — GatcMna — St, Petersburg, 



71 



85 m. Lugaj Buff.; chief town of 
district in province of St. Petersburg. 

53 m. Divenskaya, Buff. 

28 m. Gatchina, an imperial resi- 
dence, founded by Prince Gregory 
Orloff, and purchased on his decease 
by Catherine II., who presented it to 
her son, the Grand Duke Paul. The 
grounds are very extensive and well 
laid out, but somewhat neglected, since 
the palace is rarely, if ever, inhabited. 
It was built by Prince G. Orloff, after 
a plan by Einaldi. The emperor keeps a 
kennel there, which may be inspected 
on application to the Master of the 
Hounds. Many of the pictures which 
the palace contained have been re- 
moval to the Hermitage. The trout 
of Gatchina, caught abundantly in the 
lakes and streams by which the park 
is intersected, appear on every good 
Russian table. In the ch. are some 
relics brought from Malta, and in a 
building, which will be pointed out 
as the Priory, the Knights of Malta 
were wont to assemble under the pre- 
sidency of their Grand Master, the 
Emperor Paul. Travellers who have 
time to spare should make this a 
separate excursion under the guidance 
of a commissionaire. 



St. PETERfiJBUBG TERMDnJS. 

Hotels. — The English or American 
traveller who prefers home comforts 
and the use of his native tongue to a 
foreign mode of life and speech, is 
strongly recommended to the board- 
ing-house kept by Miss Benson, No. 78, 
on the English Quay . {AnglUhaya 
Goetinitsa, AngUikaya Ndberejnd). The 
apartments are quite English in their 
neatness and cleanliness. The table- 
d'hote is well loaded with substantial 
English fare, varied with dishes taken 
from the " Diner a la Russe." The 
charges vary from rs. 3*50 to rs. 4*50 
per diem for bed and board. The 
waiters understand English, and the 



worthy and obliging proprietress is 
ever ready to assist the helpless travel- 
ler with her knowledge of the country 
and its language, and particularly 
with information respecting the sights 
of the capital. A commissionaire in at- 
tendance. 

The other class of tourists, accus- 
tomed to foreign hotels, and who can 
make themselves understood in French 
or German, should ask for the " Hotel 
de Kussie" (or Klee's Hotel) (" Gosti- 
nitsa Klay**), on the Place Michel, in 
the centre of the town. This is an 
old-established house, fashionably fre- 
quented. There are about 200 rooms, 
at 1 to 15 rs. {Ss. to 458.) per day. A 
reduction is made if the rooms are 
taken by the month. Cold, warm, and 
shower-baths on the premises, as well 
as the indispensable tub. The traveller 
should ask for the apartments down- 
stairs, recently fitted up. Dinners by 
a French cook in separate rooms at 1 r. 
to 1 r. 50 (3«. to 4«. 6d.). A table- 
d*h6te at 5 o*clock, 1 r. (3«.) English, 
French, and American newspapers 
kept. Commissionaires in attendance. 

Another hotel, much to be recom- 
mended for its cleanliness and cuisine, 
is the " Hotel de France," kept by L. 
Croissant, and situated in Great Mor- 
skoy-street, near the Winter Palace. 
The charge for apartments is from 
75 cop. to 15 rs. (2«. 8d to 45«.). All 
languages spoken. Baths on the pre- 
mises. 

The other hotels are : — 

Hotel Demouth, near the Police. 
Bridge, close to "Nevsky Perspec- 
tive," a large and commodious hotel, 
with an excellent cuisine. 

Grand Hotel, Little Morskoi-street. 
Recently established, and therefore 
clean. 

Hotel Bellevue, on "Nevski Per- 
spective." Very good, and well re- 
commended. 

Hotel d'Angleterre, opposite St. 
Isaacs, also very good. 

An omnibus from each of the foreign 
hotels meets the train. 

Vehicles. — A crowd of conveyances 
of every descri^tip^ijy^^be^fp^nd at 



72 



Boute 1. — St Petersburg. 



Sect I. 



the station. Miss Benson will send a 
carriage if telegraphed to, bnt there 
is no difficulty in making a Russian 
coachman drive to the addresses given 
above. Travellers with much luggage, 
and unwilling to enter an omnibus, 
should secure one of the large four- 
seated carriages driven by a coachman 
in Bussian dbress, leaving the price to 
be settled at the hotel. The small, 
uncomfortable drojkies wlU charge 
40 to 50 copecks. For sight-seeing 
or business, engage a carriage at the 
hotel. The charge is 6 to 7 rs, (18«. 
to 21«.) a day, to any hour of the 
night. 

Police Regulations, — ^The principal 
police regulation, to which the traveller 
must pay careful attention, is that which 
relates to passports (vide chapter on 
Passports). Smoking in the streets, 
which was once absolutely prohibited, 
is now permitted, except in the neigh- 
bourhood of palaces,on wooden bridges, 
&c. Notices to that effect, in four 
languages, will be found in several 
parts of the town. 

History and Topography of St. Peters- 
burg» — The region comprised between 
Lake Peipus and the Narova river on 
the one side, and the lake of Ladoga on 
the other. Was anciently called Ingria, 
and belonged first to Novgorod, then 
to Moscow, until the year 1617, when 
it passed to the Swedes, and it was 
only reconquered bjT Peter the Great 
in 1702, who, desiring to have *'a 
window looking out into Europe," laid 
the foundation of St Petersburg in 
1703, after dispossessing the Swedes of 
their fort and townlet of Nyenschanz, 
on the Okhta. The Neva, rising in 
Ijake Ladoga, flows through the city. 
After receiving the waters of the Okhta 
river, it disembogues in the Gulf of Fin- 
land, separating into many branches 
and forming several islands. The first 
branch is called the. Great Nevka, and 
an arm of the latter the Little Nevka. 
From the point where the Nevka rises 
the river bears the name of the Great 
Neva, in distinction to the second 
branch, which it sends off to the N.W., 



called the Little Neva. Thus the Bay 
of Gronstadt receives the wators of the 
Neva by four channels of considerable 
volume and breadth, which are further 
distributed through tiie city by 4 canals. 
{Vide Plan). 

In the spring of 1703 Peter the 
Great caused a great number of 
Russian and Finnish peasants to be 
concentrated on the banks of the Neva 
for the construction of St. Petersburg, 
and soon aftor 40,000 men were drafted 
annually for several years &om the 
most distant parte of the empire, the 
Tsar superintending the works in per- 
son, and dwelling in a small cottege, 
still shown. The first private houses 
were built in 1704 on the N. side of 
the river, in a part of the town now 
called Old Petersburg. Elegant houses 
began to be erected by foreigners in 1705 
in a street still called the Millionaya, 
where the Hermitage at present stands. 
The large island between the Great 
and LitUe Neva was soon after in- 
habited by the dependante of Prince 
Menschikoff, to whom Peter the Great 
gave it It was called Yassili Ostroff, 
or Basirs Island, after the name of 
the commander of a battery placed at 
the E. extremity of the island. Here 
Prince Menschikoff erected a palace, 
now a military school (at the comer of 
the "1st Line ") ; and here also rose the 
" French Colony," a group of pret^ 
houses in which Peter located his 
foreign workmen, but of which no 
traces remain. The first brick house 
was built in 1710, by the chancellor. 
Count Golofkin, at the spot where the 
Nevka branches off from the Neva. 
The Admiralty began to be recon- 
structed in brick in 1711. The palaces 
of the Nobles, originally of wood, were 
soon after replaced by more durable 
and elegant buildings. Prince Men- 
schikoff erected anotiier residence on 
the site of the present Senate House. 
The marshy natureof the soil presented 
obstacles which were only to be van- 
quished by the most indomitable 
energy and perseverance. - For many 
years, every cart and each vessel enter- 
ing the new town was bound to bring 
a certain number of stones, which were 



Soute 1. — St, Petersburg, 



73 



uM in paving streets. On the death 
of Peter the construction of St Peters- 
) burg relaxed in vigour, although 
Cayenne I. continued to inhabit &e 
city. Peter II. preferred Moscow, and 
died there. The Empress Anne fixed 
her residence at St Petersburg, and 
occupied the palace of Count Apraxin, 
on ike site of the present Winter 
Palace. Many buildings were erected 
In her reign. The elegant spire of the 
Admiralty was then added. The soil 
was raised in places where the river 
threatenai to overwhelm it, and the 
streets assumed a more regular aspect 
Thenceforward the court of Bussia 
sctUed pemianently at St Petersburg. 
Bnooessive sovereigns erected monu- 
ments, and strove to embellish their 
new capital The Empress Catherine 
caused a quay of fgranite to be built 
alone" the left bank of the rapid Neva, 
whidi did not,however, save the capital 
from inundations in 1728, 1729, 1735, 
1740, 1752, 1777, and 1824. On the 
last occasion the waters rose 18 ft 4 in. 
above their ordinary leveL 

The historical associations of the most 
remarkable buildings of St Petersburg 
will be mentioned in proper order. 
The traveller who wishes to obtain a 
Hiore accurate Imowledge of the topo- 
;n^phy of the city is recommended to 
ascend the dome of St Isaac's. From 
^lere, looking N., he will see the Vassili 
Ostrof, or Basil Island, and on it the 
Exchange, tiie Academy of Sciences, 
the Univerai^, the 1st Military School 
(or Corps do Cadets), and the Academy 
of Arts, aU feeing the river. A little 
to the leH is the Citadel, and beyond 
it, to the N. and W., are the islands of 
Aptekarski (with the College of Sur- 
jreonB), Kamennoi, Petrofski, Krestof- 
ski, and ElaghinskL To the E. of the 
Great Nevka, and the N. bank of 
the NewAt are barracks, factories, and 
various government establishments. 
The csommunication between the main- 
land and these islands is limited to 
Uixee bridges: the Nicholas Bridge, 
on magnificent granite piers, and 
i'le^^tkni iron arches (cast at Baird's 
vork« at the month of the river) ; the 
Ihrorlsovy, or Palace Bridge, of boats, 



between the Exchange and the Winter 
Palace ; the Troitski Floating Bridge, 
between the fortress and the Champs 
de Mars, and opposite to the British 
Embassy (on the S. side of the river) ; 
and lasfly, the Voskresenski Floating 
Bridge, also of boats. The islands 
themselves are connected by numerous 
other bridges: and ferry-boats and 
small steamers still further complete 
the means of communication between 
them. 

On the islands, as well as in every 
other part of the ci^, may be descried 
the wateh-towerSf from which strict 
look-out is kept day and night for 
fires. They are lofty circular build- 
ings, with an iron apparatus projecting 
many feet above "tiiem, designed for 
making signals to show in what part 
of the town the fire has broken out. 
This is done by hanging out balls by 
day, and lanterns by night, varying 
their number and arrangement accord- 
ing to the situation of the conflagra- 
tion. These towers are the best places 
for obtaining views of many parts of 
the capital. In a city built so much 
of timber as St Petersburg a fire 
spreads with the speed of lightning, 
and the destruction caused both to life 
and properly is frequently fearful. 

South of the Admiralty the most 
important part of the city presents 
itself, stretching along that bank of 
the Neva, which for nearly 4 miles pur- 
sues a south-westerly course. Hero 
reside the court, the nobility, and 
more than half tiie population. The 
closely built masses of this side of 
the river are divided into 3 semi- 
circular divisions by the Moika, the 
St Catherine, and the Fontanka canals, 
and these are intersected by 3 principal 
streets radiating &om the Admiralty, 
— ^the Neva Perspective (Nevski-Pros- 
pekt), the Peas-street (Gorokhovaia- 
Ulitsa), and the Ascension Perspec- 
tive (Vosnesenski-Prospekt). As these 
streets thus diverge from the Ad- 
miralty, a person stetioned in the lofty 
gallery of that building may, with tho 
aid of a telescope, see what is going 
on at their remote extremities. The 
direction of these 3 great thorough&res 

Uigitized Dy ^^JKJKJWiy^ 



74 



Boute 1. — St Petersburg, 



Sect. I. 



and the canals determino that of most 
of the other streets, of which the most 
remarkable are the Great and Little 
Morskaia, the Millionaya, the Mes- 
chanskaya, and the Sadovaya, or 
Garden-street. All the streets are, 
without exception, broad and con- 
venient, blind alleys and narrow lanes 
being wholly unknown. They are 
classed, indeed, in prospektSt (formerly 
streets with 2 rows of trees) iditsi, and 
peretdolcs or cross streets, but even 
these pereulohs would be thought in 
most continental towns quite spacious 
enough for main streets. They are, 
however, very badly paved. Beyond 
the Fontanka, along the banks of which 
is ranged a succession of palaces, lie 
the more remote portions of the city, 
which merge by degrees in the swamps 
of Ingermanland, or Ingria. To the 
E., on the rt. bank of the Neva, are 
the villages of the Great and Little 
Okhta, and these, with the suburbs 
on the Ligofka and Zagorodni canals, 
are peopled by the labouring classes. 
The front of the Admiralty, towards 
the vast open space of the same name, 
is nearly half an Eng. m. in length, 
and its 2 sides at rt. angles to it, and 
running down to the river, are 650 
Eng. ft. long ; one of these sides faces 
the Winter Palace, the other the 
" Isaac's Place " and the Senate House. 
The effect of the light and graceful 
spire of the Admiralty is very pleasing, 
but the gallery at its base is greatly 
disfigured by some emblematical figures 
in plaster. Over the principal entrance 
are some gigantic frescoes in relief, 
emblematical of Russia's power and 
strength ; one of the groups is intended 
to represent Peter the Great receiving 
a trident from the hands of Neptune. 
A considerable portion of the Ad- 
miralty is devoted to schoolrooms for 
naval cadets ; the rest is occupied by 
the civil departments of the navy, and 
by a naval museum. Only vessels of 
very small burden are built at the 
dockyard of the Admiralty, the slips 
for frigates and ships of that descrip- 
tion are lower down the river at the 
end of the English Quay. 
On the S. front of the Admiralty is 



the noble Ploschad, or square, called 
after it, round which are grouped the 
chief buildings of the capital ; amongst 
these is tlie ** Hotel de TEtat Major," 
where the Foreign Office and the De- 
partment of Customs are likewise 
located. The War Office stands 
alongside the Cathedral. The Senate 
and the Synod flank the Admiralty 
Place on the W. On the rt., and 
skirting the river, is the Winter 
Palace. The circumference of the 
open spaces, bordered by the public 
buildings just mentioned, is not muqh 
less than an Eng. mile. At one 
extremity, near the Senate and the 
Synod, stands the colossal equestrian 
stetue of Peter the Great, while the 
other is gracefully ornamented by the 
smooth and polished monolith raised 
to the memory of the Emperor Alex- 
ander I. The quays and the Neva are 
as much animated by shipping as the 
streets are by carriages and tlie canals 
by passing boats. But, beautiful, re- 
gular, and vast as this view of St 
Petersburg really is, the traveller will 
look in vain for anything approaching 
the picturesque. No buildings are 
raised above the rest ; masses of archi- 
tecture, worthy of mountains for their 
pedestals, are ranged side by side in 
endless lines, and the eye, nowhere 
gratified either by elevation or group- 
ing, wanders unsatisfied over a mon- 
otonous sea of undulating palaces, 
vainly seeking a point of antiquity or 
shade on which to repose. This is 
particularly obvious in winter, when 
streets, river, and houses are all covered 
with snow. In spring, when the sun 
removes the pale shroud from the 
earth and the waters, the lively green 
of the painted roofs and the bright 
cupolas of the chs. enable the eye again 
to revel in the long untasted enjoy- 
ment of colour, while the river gaily 
mirrors the palaces that grace its 
banks. 

No one can have a just opinion of 
the daring position of St. Petersburg 
who has' not mounted one of her arti- 
ficial heights, and viewed the immense 
body of waters in which she floats like 
a bark oyerMen^mth .precious goods, 



Russia. Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : Isaac Cathedral, 



75 



while the waves seem as if, deriding 
her false foundations, they would over- 
turn in a few hours that which the 
will of man had raised with such un- 
tiring labour and energy. When a 
S.W. wind is lifting the Gulf furiously 
towards the city, and the Neva, re- 
joicing in its strength, is dashing along 
the quays and tossing to and fro the 
vessels moored close to them, it requires 
no further evidence to show the stranger 
what might be the fate of the thousands 
who inhabit it. 

Presuming, therefore, that the tra- 
veller has followed our directions, and 
taken a bird's-eye view of this city of 
palaces and its suburbs, and made him- 
self generally acquainted with their 
topograpliical position, he may descend 
into the streets, and traverse the bridges, 
islands, great thoroughfares, quays, and 
squares, with a view of acquiring more 
in detail a knowledge of their chief 
characteristics — the external appear- 
ance of the great pubUc buildings, 
shops, and population ; and then take 
the sights at leisure as they present 
themselves most conveniently, or as 
his individual taste may suggest. This 
plan of a general survey will in some 
degree satisfy the feeling of restless 
curiosity consequent upon a recent 
arrival in scenes utterly strange, and 
better prepare the mind for the quiet 
contemplation of the great sights which 
have subsequently to be examined — no 
small undertaking in a city where there 
is so much to see. To a person ac- 
customed to the moving crowds of 
London or Paris, the frequently quiet 
and deserted appearance of the vast 
squares and spacious streets of St. 
Petersburg is peculiarly striking ; and 
this is owing to the insufficiency of 
the population to fill the frame allotted 
to it Such, however, is not the case 
in the Nevski, the Regent-street of St. 
Petersburg, 4 versts (3 m.) in extent, 
and nearly in a right line. Here all is 
life and movement, and no ten yards of 
ground are passed that do not present 
a scene or a subject that will arrest the 
attention of the stranger. It has been 
observed that the Nevski might be 
called Toleration-street, from the num- 



ber of churches of divers persnasions 
in it : Greek, Eoman Catholic, Dutch, 
and Armenian. Here also will be seen 
the Kazan Cathedral, the Gostinnoi 
Dvor (the Great Bazaar), and one of 
the two great national theatres. The 
houses are magnificent, rising to 3 
and 4 stories. The most agreeable 
hour to promenade the Nevski is the 
afternoon, when the ladies do their 
shopping, and the men go to look 
at the fiskir purchasers. Pedestrians 
always prefer the northern side, where 
the most fashionable shops are situated. 
The favourite promenade, however, in 
winter, is the Court Quay. 

The pleasure of a walk in the Nevski 
is qualified in summer by the dust, for 
there are no water-carts ; in winter this 
inconvenience is not felt, and during 
that season we think no capital in 
Europe can present a more singular, 
and in its way a more magnificent 
spectacle, than the display of sledges 
and costumes which crowd this street. 

The traveller is referred to the plan 
for the names of the streets. The prin- 
cipal buildings are also marked on it, 
and they may be visited in the order in 
which they are here described. 

According to a census taken in 
1864, the Pop. of St. Petersburg is 
547,422. 



Sights of St. Pbtebsbueo. 

1. Isaac Cathedral (dedicated to Si 
Isaac of Dalmatia). — ^This edifice can- 
not fail to excite the admiration of 
those who appreciate grand propor- 
tions, a simple but lofty style of archi- 
tecture, and noble porticoes. The 
situation also is highly suitable, for it 
stands in one of the largest open spaces 
in the capital, surrounded by its finest 
buildings and monuments, and it will 
give the stranger some idea of what 
Russian quarries, mines, and workmen 
can produce. Nothing can exceed 



76 



JRoute 1. — SL Petersburg : Isaac Cathedral, Sect. I. 



the 8iinplicity''of the model ; no orna- 
ment meets the eye; the architect 
(Mons. Montferrand) has left aU to 
tiie impression to be produced by 
stupendous proportions and costli- 
ness of material. On the spot where 
the Isaac Church stands, the Rus- 
sians had been at work upon a place 
of worship for the last century. The 
original one was in wood, erected 
by Peter the Great in 1710, but this 
was subsequently destroyed, and the 
great Catherine commenced another, 
which was finished in 1801. This 
edifice vanished, however, in its turn, 
and the present magnificent structure 
has been erected in the course of three 
reigns, having been commenced in 
1819, and consecrated 1858. To make 
a firm foundation, a whole forest of 
piles was sunk in the swampy soil, at 
a cost of 2O0,O00Z., and a further outlay 
has recently been made in order to 
prop up and prevent from sinking that 
part of the cathedral which faces the 
river. The present building is, as 
usual, in the form of a Greek cross, 
of four equal sides, and each of the 
four grand entrances is approached 
from the level of the Phice by three 
broad flights of steps, each whole 
flight being composed of one entire 
piece of granite, formed out of masses 
of rock brought from Finland. These 
steps lead from the four sides of the 
buUding to the four chief entrances, 
each of which has a superb peristyle. 
The pillars of these peristyles are 60 
ft. liigh, and have a diameter of 7 ft., 
all magnificent, round, and highly- 
polished granite monoliths, from Fin- 
land. They are crowned with Corin- 
thian capitals of bronze, and support 
the enormous beam of a frieze formed 
of six fire-polished blocks. Over the 
peristyles, and at twice their height, 
rises the chief and central cupola, 
higher than it is wide, iu the Byzan- 
tine proportion. It is supported also 
by thirty pillars of smooiii polished 
granite, which, although gigantic in 
themselves, look small compared to 
those below. The cupola is covered 
with copper overlaid with gold, and 
Utters like the sun over a mountain, 
^m its centre rises a small elegant 



rotunda, a miniature repetition of the 
whole, looking like a chapel on the 
mountain-top. The whole edifice is 
surmounted by a far-seen golden cross.* 
Four smaller cupolas, resembling the 
greater in every particular, stand 
around, and complete the harmony 
visible in every part The embellish- 
ments of the facade and windows have 
been intrusted to various artists. The 
group of figures on the pediment of 
one of the former was designed by a 
Frenchman, a Monsieur Le Maire ; the 
subject is the Angel at the Tomb, with 
the Magdalen and other female figures 
on the one side, and the terrified 
soldiers in every attitude of consterna- 
tion on the other ; these bronze figures 
are 8 ft. in height. The great dome ia 
of iron, and, as well as the whole of 
the bronze-work, was manufactured 
at the foundry of Mr. Baird, of St. 
Petersburg. In the interior of the ch. 
the malachite columns for the ikono- 
stas, or screen are more than 30 ft. in 
height, and exceed anything that has 
yet been done in that beautiful stone. 
The pillar of lapis-lazuli on either 
side of the door of the screen is very 
valuable, 12,000?. the two, but has an 
incongruous appearance next the ma- 
lachite. The " Royal Door " of the 
ikonostas is of bronze, and is 23 ft. 
high by about 15 ft in breadth. Both 
the malachite and lapis-lazuli pillars 
are merely tubes of cast-iron on which 
the stone has been laid in mosaic 
work. 

The inmost shrine is placed in a 
small circular temple, the dome sup- 
ported by 8 Corinthian pillars of mala- 
chite, about 8 ft high, with gilt bases 



* We may here correct a popular error re- 
specting the significatioii of the Crescent, so fie*' 
quently seen in combination with the C^oss on 
Russian cupolas. It is not anblematical of the 
triumph of the Greek Church over Mahomed- 
anism after the expulsion of the Tartars frtm 
Russia, for it was a device used in the earliest 
Russian churches long before the invasion, and 
was imported from Byzantium on the tntrodac- 
tion of Christianity. The Holy Virgin is repre- 
sented in the most ancient Greek pictures with 
her feet resting on a crescent, and the cross sub- 
sequently placed over it by the Russian Church 
is therefore supposed by the Suffragan Bishop of 
Moscow to typify the issuing of the Cross from 
the Mother of God. 



fiussia. Boule 1. — St. Pekrimrg : Church Ceremonies. 



77 



and capitals ; the exterior of the dome 
} is covered with a profusion of gilding 
on a ground of malachite, and the 
interior is of lapis-lazuli. The mala- 
chite of the 8 pillars weighs about 
34,000 lbs. EngUsh, and its cost was 
25,000Z. It was worked by Messrs. 
KichoUs and Plincke of the " English 
Magazine" at St. Petersburg. The 
walls and floor are of polished marbles of 
various colours, which have been found 
in the Russian dominions, and the 
whole is raised on steps of polished 
porphyry. There is, perhaps, too 
much gilding about this very beautiful 
work, but this is in accordance with 
its position in a Greek church. It was 
presented to the Emperor by Prince 
Demidoflf, who procured the malachite 
from his mines in Siberia, and sent it 
to Italy to be worked ; its value is said 
to be as much as 1,000,000 of rubles. 

All the pictures on liie walls are by 
Russian artists. Many of them are 
of mosaic work executed at a manu- 
fectory close to the Academy of Arts. 

It is from the rotunda over the great 
dome that the traveller is recom- 
mended to view the capital on a bright 
and clear day ; and in this ch. also he 
should, if so minded, witness some of 
the ceremonies of the Greek Church. 
The hours of Divine service are from 
6to 8 AJL, 10 to 12, and from 4 to 6; 
and on Saturdays from 6 to 7*15 p.m. 
On holydays of the Church these hours 
are advanced by 30 minutes. The 
i«inging is the most effective portion of 
tlie service, and most of the prayers 
are intoned. The choristers of this 
cathedral rank in efficiency next after 
those of the Court Chapel, whose re- 
iicarsals may be attended on applica- 
tion to the Director of the School at 
the "Singers' Bridge." In the cere- 
monies of the Russian Church, boys, 
as in OUT cathedrals, take the soprano 
parts. Considerable expense is in- 
curred for deep basses, the best voices 
being everywhere sought for and 
liberally remunerated. They are not 
^ exactly for the choir, but for certain 
half-recitative solos, occasionally re- 
quired in the service, and which must 
always be delivered by amazingly 
strong and deep bass voices, such as 



" Gospodi pomilui :" The Lord have 
mercy ! or. Lord we pray thee ; Grant 
this, O Lord, &c. It has somewhat 
the effect of as many double basses all 
executing the same short arpeggio 
passage, and repeating it without any 
variation in the chord, time, or tone ; 
it is therefore tedious when frequently 
heard. One of the most impressive 
portions of the service is towards the 
close ; the doors of the Ikonostas are 
then shut, the chanting ceases, the 
incense-bearers withdraw, and every 
one seems breathless with attention ; 
at length the "Royal doors" in the 
centre are reopened and thrown back, 
and the priest, carrying on his head 
an enormous voliune, which he steadies 
with both hands, comes forward and 
commences a long recitative: during 
this every one bends low in a humble 
attitude of adoration : the large volume 
contains the Gospels ; the prayer is for 
the Emperor. 

In Russia the outward forms of 
the Greek Church seem to have taken 
as firm and enduring a hold of the 
men as of the women, all classes 
alike participating in this strong 
feeling of external devotion. The 
first proceeding of a Russian on 
entering a church is to purchase a 
wax candle, a supply of which is 
generally kept near the door, and the 
sale of which constitutes a very lucra- 
tive traffic ; bearing this in one hand, he 
slowly approaches one of the shrines : 
at a short distance from it he sinks on 
one knee, bowing his head to the pave- 
ment, and crossing his breast re- 
peatedly with the thumb and two 
forefingers of his right hand ,- having 
at length reached the shrine itself, he 
lights his votive candle at the holy 
lamp, and sets it up in one of the 
various holes in a large silver plate 
provided for the purpose, and falling 
low on his bended knees kisses the 
pavement before the altar. His prayers 
are few and short, and he retires slowly 
with his face to the altar, kneeling and 
crossing himself at intervals. 

This kindling of lamps and tapers in 
Russian churches is a pleasing custom ; 
the little flame is so living a symbol of 
V 2 



78 



Boute 1. — SL Petersburg : Clergy, 



Sect. I. 



the continued life of the soul, and, be- 
yond all other material things, flame is 
the best representation of the spiritual. 
The Russians have so closely adopted 
this idea that there is no interment, 
no baptism, no betrothing, in short, no 
sacred ceremony, without lamp or 
taper; fire is for them the pledge of 
the presence of the Holy Spirit ; and 
hence illuminations play the most im- 
portant part in the ceremonies of the 
Greek Church. 

The following extract from the last 
edition of the * Encyclopfedia Britan- 
nica,* relative to the rites of the Russo- 
Greek Church, may here be read with 
advantage. 

** The Greco-Russian Church guards 
vigilantly against the introduction of 
any doctrine open to the slightest 
suspicion of heresy, and has its own 
censorship and journals. It is also 
very observant of hierarchical subor- 
dination. Generally, however, the 
Russian clergy, although jealous of 
their dignity, have not the spiritual 
pride or priestcraft of the Roman 
Catholic order, attributable no doubt 
in part to the kindly national character, 
and in part to the humanizing in- 
fluence of marriage, which prevents 
the overwhelming concentration of 
all the human passions into one single 
channel. The Greco-Russian Church 
is mostly antagonistic to the Roman 
Catholic, and diflers from it in the 
following essential particulars: — 1. In 
not recognizing the primacy of the 
Pope. 2. In denying that the Holy 
Ghost proceeds from the Son (JUio- 
que). 3. In rejecting a purgatory, pre- 
destination (except in the omniscience 
of the Deity), indulgences, dispensa- 
tions, and works of supererogation, 
although admitting the intercession 
of saints by prayer. 4. It holds^the 
necessity of complete submersion of 
the body at baptism, unless in urgent 
cases, when even laymen and women 
may perform it ; but they must immerse 
the infant with the baptismal words, 
' In the name of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost,' if the infant can bear the 
immersion ; if not, then sprinkling or 
ablution is used. Should the priest 



arrive in time, he reads the supple- 
mentary prayers, and performs the 
mystery of anointing with chrism. 

5. Whilst admitting the doctrine of 
transubstantiation in regard to the 
eucharist, it affirms that the holy 
bread (irpoff^opa) must be leavened; 
the wine and water being placed in 
the chalice; and it is only at the 
prayer of transubstantiation that part 
of the agntbs is placed in the chalice. 
The element of wine with water is 
"alone administered to children up to 
the age of seven, for fear of the elements 
being ejected or falling to the ground. 

6. Another important distinction is 
that marriage is obligatory on the 
secular clergy, although monogamy is 
a strict tenet of the Church. A priest 
may continue to serve after his wife 
dies. 7. No instrumental music is 
allowed, but vocal music forms a most 
attractive portion of the service. 

"This Church rejects all massive 
images of the Saviour or saints as 
idolatrous ; but pictures, mosaics, bas- 
reliefs, and, in short, all that is re- 
presented on a flat surface, is not 
held a violation of the law which 
says, * Thou shalt not make imto 
thee any graven image 1' Broadly 
stated, and besides some of the pre- 
ceding tenets, the Greco-Russian re- 
ligion differs from the Anglican, in so 
far as the latter Church approaches 
to the Lutheran. The general har- 
mony, however, with the Anglican is 
greater than with any other church; 
and several attempts have been made, 
but not successfully, to unite them, 
particularly in 1723. Addresses still 
pass at intervals between the two 
Churches ; and independently of the 
Irvingites, the ritual of Hatherly*s 
new commimity at Liverpool so 
strongly resembles the Greek service 
that it has attracted the notice of the 
Russian synod. 

"There are four great fasts: — 1. 
Lent, or the great fast, between the 
carnival and Easter, of seven weeks* 
duration, and of which the first and 
last are the most rigidly observed, 
being more specially devoted to re- 
pentance, confession, and prepariiig 
for the sacrament; 2. The Petroff, 



Euflsia. Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : Church Service. 



79 



or Peter's fast, before St. Peter's 
day, in June, of two to five weeks' 

> duration, accordingly as Easter Sun- 
day falls ; 3. The Uspenski, or Con- 
ception fast, called by the people 
the Gospbzinki, from the 1st to 15th 
August. 4. The PhUippoff, or St Phi- 
lip's fast, of six weeks before Christmas. 
The first fast, or Lent, is the most 
rigidly observed. Besides the above, 
Ahe Wednesday and Friday of every 

■^^Jxffeek are fast-days, and the common 
people scrupulously keep them all. 
Catechising and preaching are prac- 
tised, — ^the latter frequently, the former 
at set intervals. Confirmation is not 
practised, the chrism used at baptism 
being held to comprise a mystery, 
rendering that ceremony supereroga- 
tory. The Church festivals and saints' 
days, kept with Eastern splendour, 
are numerous, and consequently form 
drawbacks to the business of life, 
although they greatly relieve the 
labouring classes. 

"The venerative feeling of the 
people is profound, and they are 
zc^ous church-goers, early and late, 
being due observers besides of all 
the outward forms of religion, in 
which the essence is sometimes ab- 
sorbed. There is, however, much 
genuine piety to be met with; pil- 
grimages to monasteries are frequent 
among all classes ; donations, free 
gifts, offerings, and alms, being liber- 
ally bestowed by both rich and poor. 
There are no entrance-fees, no distinc- 
tions for great and little, no pews, no 
reservwi places in Russian churches : 
the congregation stand : all are equal 
before God. The Sabbath is not much 
observed, except as a church-going 
day. The shops are shut during the 
hoars of worship, but all public places 
of amusement are afterwards thrown 
open; yisits are made, and business 
in bat little affected by obedience to 
this salutary ordinance of the supreme 
lawgiver. 
••The Church service is performed 

^ in the ancient Church Slavonic, and 

' the lower classes cannot therefore 
<^»mpletely follow it, except as a thing 
thi-y take for granted, although they 
comprehend its general signification. \ 



The Bible, however, is now partly 
translated into the vernacular Russ. 
The congregation fervently join in 
the choral parts, the responses, and 
the ejaculations. This portion of the 
service, and the great pomp investing 
the whole system of worship, together 
with the procession of banners, pic- 
tured saints, and relics, have no doubt 
been the great means of originally 
impressing on a rude people the holy 
awe they entertain for Tsar and 
Church; which two, with them, are 
identical. Church service usually con- 
sists of the VdzglasSy or call to wor- 
ship; singing of psalms or hymns; 
the Ektenid, a series of prayers, mostly 
intoned, for the welfare of the Church 
and her chiefs, for the peace and union 
of the Christian. Churches, and for 
every separate member of 4he imperial 
family; the reading of the epistles 
and evangel ; choral and part singing 
of unexampled harmony; a sermon, 
always in the common language, ex- 
plaining the evangel read; prayers, 
preparing for the Communion, and 
during which the priest prepares him- 
self; the consecration of the elements, 
and the administration of the sacra- 
ment, which the clergyman takes 
every time, and the congregation at 
will ; then, thanksgiving for the sacra- 
ment, and parting benediction ; the 
chanting and incense-burning through- 
out being frequent. Asperging with 
holy water is also used. The Old 
Testament is read only during even- 
ing service, which is intended to 
prepare for the morning or principal 
service, and it therefore has a pro- 
phetic tendency, the psalms and hymns 
being all appropriate. The morning 
service represents the fulfilment of 
these prophecies. Service much of 
the same kind is often performed — 
sometimes exorcisms too — at private 
houses, on special occasions ; and the 
remembrance-service, or PaminJdj forty 
days after a person's death, is a pious 
custom ; as is that of the yearly visita- 
tion of family graves, although this 
often degenerates into revelling. It is 
another laudable custom of the Rus- 
sians to remove their hats, in the 
streets, before all funerals '&^ pass. 



80 



Boutel, — St, Petersburg: Kazan Cathedral, Sect. I. 



Every Russian is obliged to take the 
sacrament at- least once a year. 

"The calendar i^use is the Julian or 
Greek, which is twplye days behind the 
Gregorian or Latin. The antagonism 
of the two Churches is perhaps the 
chief objection to a reform in this 
respect. The superstitious belief of 
the common people in good and bad 
spirits, in house-spectres, forest and 
water demons, is fast dying out, 
although too much credence is still 
given to omens and witchcraft." 



2. Kazan Caihedraly dedicated to 
Our Lady of Kazan. 

This ch. stands in the Nevski Per- 
spective, and will be easily recognised 
by its colonnade in imitation of St. 
Peter*s at Rome. It was founded in 
1802, and consecrated in 1811, after 
an outlay of about 600,000?. Built 
on piles, it has the shape of a cross, 
with a length of 238 ft. between its 
extremities, and a breadth of 182 
ft. The cupola and cross rise more 
than 230 ft. above the ground. Inside 
the ch. a colonnade extends in 4 rows 
from the 4 pillars which support the 
cupola towards the altar and the 3 
principal doors of the cathedral. It 
consists of 56 monoliths of Finland 
granite, 35 ft. in height, resting on 
bronze bases and terminating in 
Corinthian capitals of the same metal. 
The ikonostas is of silver, as well as 
the balustrade in front. An inscrip- 
tion on it states that the silver of 
which it is made was a " zealous offer- 
ing of the Don Cossacks," after the 
campaign of 1812. The name of the 
Almighty is rendered in precious 
stones, in the centre of the principal 
door of the screen ; the glory around 
is only gilt. The miraculous image of 
the Virgin, brought from Kazan in 
1579 and removed to St. Petersburg in 
1821, will be seen in the ikonostas, 
covered with fine gold and precious 

ones valued at more than 15,000?. 



The huge sapphire was presented by 
the Grand Duchess Catherine Pav- 
lovna. The other paintings are by 
Russian academicians. Four immense 
candelabra of silver stand .before the 
principal altar-screen. The pulpit, 
the imperial seat, or rather stand, and 
the floor are of coloured marble, with, 
steps of highly polished jasper. 

The tomb of Greneral Kutusoff-Smo- 
lenskoi will be seen under the trophies 
of wars with France, Turkey, and 
Persia. He lies buried on the spot 
where he prayed before setting out to 
meet the enemy in 1812. The btlton 
of Davoust, Prince of Eckmuhl, and 
the keys of many fortresses, are sus- 
pended against the piUars of this 
military-looking cathedral. Among 
the keys are those of Hamburg, Leip- 
sio, Dresden, Rheims, Breda, and 
Utrecht. 

In front of the cathedral are two 
well-executed statues ; one of Kutuspfif 
of Smolensk, the other of General Bar- 
clay de Tolly. 



3. Winter Palace. — ^Having inspected 
the two nearest and principal churches, 
the traveller is advised to view the 
several palaces and their treasures. 
The Winter Palace, the residence of 
the Emperor and his court during 
winter, stands on the left bank of the 
Neva, on the site of a house which in 
the reign of Peter the Great belonged 
to his High Admiral, Count Apraxin, 
who bequeathed it to the Emperor 
Peter n. The Empress Anne, after 
being crowned at Moscow, took up 
her residence in Apraxin's house, but 
had it pulled down in 1754 and rebuilt 
by Count Rastrelli, by whom it was 
completed in 1762, in the reign of the 
Empress Catherine. A oonflAgration, 
which is supposed to have originated 
in some defect in the stoves, consumed 
the whole interior of the building 
in December, 1837, notwithstanding 
every effort made to save it. It soon, 



Enssta. 



Boute 1. — St» Petersburg : Wilder Palace. 



81 



however, rose again from its embers. 
In 1839 the Winter Palace was en- 
tirely restored. The huge pile is now 
four stories high, or about 80 ft. The 
frontage is 455 feet in' length, and the 
breadth 350 feet. The principal en- 
trance, or " Perron des Ambassa- 
denrs," is from the I^eva, and leads 
by a magnificent flight of marble 
steps to the state apartments of the 
palace. A gateway in the centre of 
the building, facing Alexander's Co- 
lumn, opens into a large court. Visitors, 
after procuring a ticket,* are admitted 
by an entrance to the right of that 
gateway. One of the Imperial servants 
will conduct them through the several 
apartments, of which the most magni- 
ficent are — the Throne-room of Peter 
L, where the diplomatic corps gene- 
rally present their congratulations on 
New Year's Day; the White HaU; 
the Hall of St. George, a parallelo- 
gram of 140 ft. by 60 ; the GaUery of 
the Field-marshals, with portraits of 
those who fought against the French, 
including the Duke of Wellington; 
and the Alexander Gallery, with the 
portraits of the generals who resisted 
the French invasion in 1812, executed 
by our countryman, George Dawe. 
Several rooms will be passed contain- 
ing pictures of battles in Poland, in 
Italy, in Germany, and the Crimea. 
The Englishman may pause at a large 
picture of the battle of Balaclava, 
placed in a small dark room, and 
remember with pride the charge of 
the gallant six hundred. The' battle 
of Sinope is among the representations 
of naval engagements in which the 
Russian flag triumphed. The follow- 
ing is a list of the principal rooms, 
and a summary of the pictures which 
they contain ; — 

Alexander EaU. — 1. Portrait of Em- 
peror Alexander I., by Dawe, 2. Battle 
of Kulm, 18th (30th) August, 1813 
(Vandamme beaten by Barclay de 
Tolly). 3. Battle of Leipzig, 6th 

• Tickets to view the Palace may be had at 
the entrance to the Council of the Empire, close 
to the little canal which rises in the Neva. The 
servants who show the several apartments 
fihoiUd have DuiaU fees, 



(18th) August, 1813. 4. F^re Gham- 
penoise, 13th (25th) March. 1814. 5. 
Taking of Paris, 18th (30th) March. 
1814— tlie last four by Sauertoaid, 

Beserve Boom.^I. 1. Battle at Bash- 
Eadyk-Lar, defeat of the Turks, 19th 
Nov. (Ist Dec.). 1853, by (TT.) WiVs- 
walde. 2. Defeat of the Turks at 
Kuruk-Dar, 27th July (8th Aug.)» 
1854, by Baikov. 3. Taking of a 
bastion at Varna, 25th Sept. (7th Oct.), 
1828. by Sauenoaid. 4. Taking of 
Akaltsykh, 15th (27th) Aug. 1828. by 
StJthodohky, 5. Storming of Gunib, 
where Shamyl was taken prisoner, 26th 
Aug. (7th Sept.), 1859, by Grmimky. 

6. Battle of Poltawa, 27th June (9th 
July). 1709. by Kotz^me. 7. Battle of 
Kersk, 17th (29th) Sept. 1855, by 
WiUemdde, 8. Taking of Akhta, by 
Baikov, 

II. 1. Naval engagement off Revel, 
9th (21st) May. 1790. 2, Naval en- 
gagement off Krasnaya Gorka (near 
Cronstadt), 23rd May (4th June), 1790. 
3. Naval engagement at Wiborg, 29th 
June (10th July), 1790, all by Aiva- 
zovshy. 4. Naval engagement off Mount 
Athos, 17th (29th) July, 1807, by 
Bogolubov, 5. Battle of Navarino, 20th 
Oct. (1st Nov.), 1827. 6. Destruction 
of the Turkish fleet at Sinope, 18th 
(30th) Nov. 1853.— All by Aivasmjsky. 

7. Defeat of the Turkish army at 
Tcheleti (Asia), by Prince Makmtov. 

III. 1. Battle of Smolensk, 15th 
(27th) Aug. 1812. 2. Battle of Va- 
lutino, 7th (19th) Aug. 1812. 3. 
Battle of Borodino, 26th Aug. (8th 
Sept.), 1812. 4. Battle of Klestizy, 
19th (31st) July, 1812. 5. Exploit of 
General Newerowsky, at Krasnoe', 2nd 
(14th) Aug. 1812. 6. Battie of Taru- 
tino, 6th (18th) October, 1812. 7. 
Battle of Malcf-Yaroslavitz, 12th (24th) 
October, 1812. 8. Battle of Polotsk, 
7th (19th) Aug. 1812. 9. Battle of 
Losmin, 6th (18th) Nov. 1812. 10. 
Battle of Viasma, 22nd Oct. (3rd Nov.), 
1812. 11. Battle of Krasnoe, 6th 
(18th) Nov. 1812. 12. Passage of the 
Berezina, 16th (28th) Nov. 1812.— All 



82 



BotUe 1. — St. Peteri^rg : Winter Palace. 



Sect. I. 



IV. 1. Taking of Berlin, 28th Sept. 
roth Oct), 1760. 2. Capture of Col- 
berg (Pomerania), 5th (16th) Dec. 
1761. 3. Battle of Trebia, 9tli (21st) 
June, 1799. 4. Battle of Novi, 4th 
(15th) Aug. 1799. 5. Suvorov at the 
DeviFs bridge, 14th (26th) Sept. 1799. 

6. Battle of Muttine, 20th Sept. (let 
Oct.), 1799. 7. Suvorov crossing the 
St Gtothard, 24th Sept. (6th Oct.), 
1799.— All by Koizebae, 

V. 1. Battie of Narva, 17th (29th) 
Nov. 1700. 2. Capture of Noteborg 
(Sohliisselburg). 11th (23rd) Oct 1702. 

3. Battle of Gross Jagerndorf, 19th 
(31st) Aug. 1757. 4. Battle of Zom- 
dorflf, 14th (26th) Aug. 1758. 5. En- 

fagement at Ziillichau, 12th (24th) 
uly, 1759. 6. Battle of Kiinersdorff. 

7. Suvorov and the Grand Duke Con- 
stantine on the Pannix, 1799. — All by 
Koizdme. 

(xuard Boom. — 1. Taking of Otchar 
kov. 6th (18th) Dec. 1788, by Sukho- 
Msky, 2. Battle of Elisavetpol, 13th 
(25th) Sept 1826; Abbas Mirza, heir 
apparent of Persia, beaten by Paske- 
vitch, by the same artist 3. Death 
of a young Russian drummer, 18th 
(30th) March, 1814, by Bmchlin, 4. 
Don Cossacks crossing the Theiss 
(Hungary), 16th (28th) June, 1848, 
by WiU&ujdde, 5. Taking of Erzerum, 
20th June (2nd July), 1829, by &uklio- 
doUky. 6. Taking of Ears, 23rd June 
(5th July), 1829, by the same. 

Dark Boom, near the Guard Eoom. — 
1. Death of General Moreau at Dres- 
den, by Steuben. 2. Battle of Leipzig, 
by Beuchlin. 3. Battle of Balaclava, 
13th (25th) Oct 1854, by SukhodoUky. 

4. Death of General Slepzov in the 
battle near the river Gech, 10th (22nd) 
Dec. 1851, by Pririce Maksutoff. 5. 
Skirmish of Bussian* and Turkish 
tioops near Sevastopol, by Willewalde. 

Corridor. — Several battle-pieces by 
Bourguignon, T. Parrocel, and others. 

Portrait GaXUry.—l. Field-Marshal 
Prince Volkonsky, bv Kruger. 2. 
General Prince Chemycheff. 3. Field- 



Marshal Prince Wittgenstein. 4. 
General Prince Orloff. 5. General 
Count Riidiger. 6. General Count 
Kisseleif. 7. Admiral Prince Menchi- 
koff. — All by Kruger. 8. Count Nessel- 
rode. Chancellor of the Empire. 9. 
General Count Benkendorff. 10. 
General Prince Vassilchikoflf. 11. 
Field Marshal Prince Bariatinsky. 1 2. 
Prince Kotchubey, Chancellor of the 
Empire. 13. Prince A. Galitzin. 14. 
Prince S. Galitzin. — All hy Bothemann. 
15. General Count Adlerberg. 16. 
General Count Kleinmichel.— Both by 
Kruger. 17. Field-Marshal Count 
Berg, by Simmler. 

Fidd-MarshaVs Boom.—l. Taking of 
Wola, 25th Aug. (6th Sept.), 1831, by 
Horace Vemet. 2. Gorgey surrender- 
ing the Hungarian army to General 
Count Luders, Ist (13th) Aug. 1849, 
by WiUewald. 3. Prince Suvoroff, by 
Frost. 4. Count Paskevitch, by Kruger. 
5. Count Eiunianzoff, by Bies. 6. 
Prince Potemkin. 7. Prince Kutuzov, 
hjBakhtine. 8. Count'Dibitsch, by the 
same. 

Hall of Peter the Great.— PQ\Bt at- 
tended by the Genius of Russia. 

The most elegant and glitterinj^ 
apartment is the drawing-room of 
the Empress, of which the walls 
and the ceiling are gilded. The 
light of day can however scarcely 
do justice to all the magnificence 
which will be shown to the visitor. 
The art of illuminating at night is 
nowhere so well known as in Russia, 
and candles are still happily pre- 
ferred to gas. No court in Europe 
presents such a brilliant appearance 
as that of Russia seen in the Winter 
Palace. The arrangements are on the 
most sumptuous scale, and sit-down 
suppers are always supplied at a ball, 
whatever the number of the invitcxl 
may be. One of the larger halls is 
sometimes converted into a garden of 
delicious verdure by the inl3t)duction 
of exotic plants and fruit-trees. On 
such occasions two rows of tables 
extend down the room, each over- 
shadowed by a beautiful tree in full 
leaf, under whichthe dames and tlieir 
cavaliers, in groups of eight, partake 



Eussia. 



Boute 1. — St Petersburg : Crown Jeweht. 



83 



of an elegant supper after the fatigues 
of the waltz and the Mazurka. An 
f Imperial table, raised and apart, com- 
mands the whole view. 

After passing through the state 
apartments and galleries the visitor 
will be taken to see the Romanoff 
Portrait Gallery, which contains tlie 
likenesses of all the Sovereigns of 
the reigning House since Michael Fe- 
dorowitcb, and those of their consorts. 
Peter the Great will be seen suspended 
in many frames. At the door of this 
gallery, to the right on entering, ob- 
serve a green curtain drawn over a 
tablet It conceals the rules which 
Catherine enforced at her conversazioTie 
in the Hermitage, which begins here. 
The following is a translation of those 
rules: — 

1. Leave your rank outside, as well as your 

hat, and especially your sword. 

2. Leave your right of precedence, your pride, 

and any similar feeling, outside the door. 

3. Be gay, but do not spoil anything ; do not 

break or gnaw anything. 

4. Sit, stand, walk as you will, without refer- 

ence to anybody. 

5. Talk moderately and not very loud, so as 

not to make the ears and heads of others 
ache. 

6. Argae without anger and without excite- 

ment 

7. Neither sigh nor yawn, nor make anybody 

doll or heavy. 
' ^S. In all innocent games, whatever one pro- 
poses, let all join. 

, 9. Eat whatever is sweet and savoury, but 
drink with moderation, so that each may 
find his 1^^ on leaving the room. 

10. Tell no tales out of school; whatever goes 
in at one ear must go out at the other 
before leaving the room. 

A transgressor against these rules shall, on 
the testimony of two witnesses, for every offence 
drink a glass of cold water, not excepting the 
ladies, and further read a page of the Telema- 
chiade* aloud. 

Whoever breaks any three of these rules dur- 
ing the same evening shall commit six Hues of 
the Telemachiade to memory. 

And whoever offends agamst the tenth rule 
shall not again be admitted. 

Beyond this gallery is another long 

narrow room, in which the traveller 

will find numerous oil paintings repre- 

, senting St. Petersburg at various 

stages of construction. 

* By Tretiakofeky, an unfortunate native 
poety whose muse was thus reviled. 



Before going down stairs to see the 
room in which Nicholas I. died, ask to 
see the Crown Jewels, deposited in a 
room on the 2nd floor. 

Croum Jewels. — The great Orloff dia- 
mond surmounts the Imperial sceptre 
of Russia, and is a worthy ornament 
for the emblem of a dominion so ex- 
tensive. This splendid diamond was 
an acquisition made in the reign of 
Catherine H. Its previous history has 
been represented by stories, not only 
different, but contradictory. One tra- 
dition rife in Bussia and the neigh- 
bouring Asiatic countries has sought 
to explain the great difference between 
the weight of the Koh-i-noor and the 
original weight of a vast diamond 
which belonged to Shah Jehaun, with 
which it was confounded by Tavemier, 
on the supposition that the Koh-i-noor 
and a slab now at Kokan are the 
severed fragments that once combined 
to form that huge diamond of 793 
carats, and it has even been suggested 
that the Orloff diamond formed once 
a part of the same stone. Tavemier, 
however, mentions that this stone was 
ruined in the process of cutting, while 
the true history of the Koh-i-noor goes 
back to at least the time of Baber; 
whereas Bernier describes the huge 
diamond alluded to as having been 
found in Golconda in the time of 
Shah Jehaun. Furthermore, the Orloff 
diamond exhibits to a practised eye a 
faint tint of greenish yellow, while 
the Koh-i-noor is colourless. The 
most authentic of the many stories 
about the diamond appears to be this. 
It once formed the eye in an idol in a 
temple at Seringham, near Trichino- 
poly, in India. Into this temple a 
French renegade soldier introduced 
himself in a menial capacity, and took 
his opportunity to despoil the idol of 
its precious eye. Escaping to Malabar 
with his prize, he sold it to a ship's 
captain for a sum of 2000 guineas, 
from whom a Jew acquired it for 
12,000 guineas. An Armenian mer- 
chant, Lazareff (called in one account 
Schafras), purchased it from the Jew, 
and offered it for sale at the court of 
the Russian Ii:ffii)i^k. Catherine II. 
p 3 



84 



Boute 1. — SL Peteri^urg : Crown Jewels, 



Sect. I. 



did not accept the terms of the Arme- 
nian, and he bore it back to Amster- 
dam. It was here that the name of 
Orloff became associated with that of 
the splendid jewel; for the famous 
Connt purchased it, and laid it as a 
gift at the feet of his Imperial mistress. 
The price is stated to have been 
450,000 silver rubles, a life annuity 
of 2000 rubles, and a patent of no- 
bility. Another account makes it a 
part of the spoils of Nadir Shah, and 
an ornament in the throne he took 
from the Mogul Emperor; and the 
traditional French grenadier in this 
account escaped with it at the death 
of that conqueror. This, however, is 
evidently only an echo or a tradition 
of the authentic story of Achmet Shah 
and the Koh-i-noor, and the history 
as given above would seem to be the 
most authentic. The English jewel- 
lers call the diamond the "Effing- 
ham." The word is probably a 
traditional corruption of the name 
Seringham. 

This stone weighs 194J carats (the 
Koh-i-Noor as it came from India 
weighed 186^^. It exhibits a flaw in 
the direction probably of a cleavage 
plane in its interior, a little way from 
one of its edges, and a slight feather 
or black stain in another part of its 
internal substance. In other respects 
it is a stone of the greatest beauty, and 
is the largest, as the Pitt diamond, of 
France, is the most beautifui, of all 
the Crown diamonds of Europe. 

The Imperial Crown of all the Rus- 
sias is, as might be expected, adorned 
with noble jewels. In outline resem- 
bling somewhat the dome -formed 
patriarchal mitre, it carries on its 
summit a cross, formed of five beau- 
tiful diamonds, and supported by a 
very large uncut but polished spinel 
ruby. Eleven great diamonds in a 
foliated arch rising from the front and 
back of the crown support this ruby 
and its cross, and on either side of 
this central arch a hoop of 38 vast 
and perfect pearls imparts to the 
Imperial diadem the mitre-like aspect, 
which may be held to typify the 
saltation of the Sovereign into the 

►here of the ancient superseded patri- 



archate. The domed spaces on either 
side of these arches of pearls are filled 
with leaf-work and ornaments in silver 
covered with diamonds, and underlaM 
by purple velvet. The band on which 
the crown is supported, and which 
surrounds the brows of the Emperor, 
carries 28 great diamonds. The orb is 
surmounted by a large sapphire, of a 
rich but slightly greenish blue colour, 
with a large diamond of the finest 
water, and of elongated form. 

The coronet of the Empress is 
perhaps the most beautiful mass of 
diamonds ever brought together into 
a single ornament. Four of the largest 
of these stones are of perfect beauty, 
and beside these are 16 or 18 similar 
to them, but of somewhat smaller 
dimensions ; there are 70 or 80 other 
diamonds of no less exquisite water, 
and the whole are surrounded and set 
with a great number of stones, fit in 
point of quality to be associated with 
them. 

Besides these costly emblems of 
royalty there are several other speci- 
mens of jewellery worthy to bear them 
company. One of these is a diamond 
necklace, each stone of it worth an 
argosy, composed of 22 single vast 
diamonds, from which 15 huge pendent 
stones are supported. 

The plume of Suvoroff, an aigrette 
composed entirely of diamonds, was 
one of those gifts which the wealthy 
but weaker neighbour makes to the 
man of strength. It was presented by 
the Sultan of Turkey to the conquering 
Russian general. 

Another of these memorials of the 
respect entertained for Russia by her 
Mohammedan neighbours is the un- 
mounted but beautiful diamond pre- 
sented by the younger son of Abbas 
Mirza to the Emperor of Russia on 
the occasion of his visiting the Im- 
perial court. It is named "the Shah." 
It is a long crystal of diamond weigh- 
ing 36 carats, and but very HUle 
altered by cutting from its original 
form. It has, moreover, Persian 
characters engraved on it, and a small 
groove cut round its end to give 
attachment probably to the mounting 
that once may have supported it 



Bttssia. 



Bouie 1. — SL Petershurg : The Hermitage. 



85 



Among ihe many other curiosities 
preserved as crown jewels are several 
strings of truly Imperial pearls, a fine 
spinel ruby, and an order of St. An- 
drew, with five pink diamonds and 
two large Siberian beryls or aqua- 
marines, one of the greenish, and one 
of the more blue tint, mounted in 
diamonds. 

JRoom in which NicJiolas I. died. — ^A 
melancholy interest attaches to this 
room, which will be shown last to the 
visitor. On a narrow iron camp bed- 
stead, in the smallest and plainest 
apartment of the vast Palace, the 
Emperor Nicholas expired on the 2nd 
March, 1855. He was suffering &om 
influenza, and had just heard of the 
unsuccessful attack upon Eupatoria, 
and his stem, proud spirit refused to 
submit to any further earthly ills. 
His gray military cloak lies folded on 
the hard bed. His sword and helmet 
are where he left them. On the table 
* is the report of the Quartermaster- 
General on the strength of the House- 
hold troops, delivered to the Emperor 
on the morning of the day he died. 
The simplicity around is that of the 
barrack-room. The elegance of art 
and the luxury of civilization are alike 
absent. The appurtenances of the 
toilet, still in their place, are few and 
simple. A peculiarity of habit will 
be observed in the pocket-handker- 
chie&, which lie on every available 
article of furniture. A Grenadier of 
the Golden Guard of the Palace is 
always on duty over these relics of the 
*' never-to-be-forgotten Tsar." 



4. The Hermitage* — This gallery 
and museum was founded by Catherine 
the Great, originally in a small 
pavilion attached to the Winter Pa- 

* Admission gratis. The Hermitage is closed 
the whole of July and August (old style) as 
well as on all great holydays, but at any other 
time is open daily, except on Fridays, between 
February and July from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and 
from September to February between 10 a.m. 
and 3 p.m. But even on Fridays, or during the 
months of July and August, exceptions to the 
rule will be made by the Director in favour of 
the traveller. 



lace, and built by Vallin de la Motte, 
a French architect, in 1765. The 
Pavilion was intended by the empress 
as a refuge from the cares and duties 
of government, and hence was called 
the Hermitage. Her leisure moments 
and her evenings were spent there in 
conversation with philosophers, men 
of letters, and artists. Ten years later 
Catherine caused the second part of 
the Hermitage to be built by Velten, 
for the reception of pictures. It was 
imited to the Pavilion by an arch in 
the form of a bridge. The Theatre of 
the Hermitage was added in 1780, 
and joined to the other parts of the 
building by an arch thrown over a 
small canal at a point where the Mo'ika 
rises in the Neva. But the Hermitage 
as it at present stands was entirely 
reconstructed by Leo von Klenze, of 
Munich, between 1840 and 1850. The 
architect selected the Greek style in 
preference to that of the Renaissance, 
which would have been more in keep- 
ing with the buildings in the imme- 
diate vicinity ; but for elegance, purity 
of architectural forms, and for the 
beauty as well as costliness of the 
materials employed, this museum has 
scarcely any equal in Europe. It 
forms a parallelogram 515 ft. by 
375, with two large courts, and is 
approached by a noble vestibule, sup- 
ported by ten figures, of a hard grey 
granite, measuring 22 ft. with their 
pedestals. Statues of celebrated 
painters, sculptors, and other artists, 
ancient and modem, fill numerous 
niches in the walls, to which an ex- 
cellent appearance of stone has been 
given. The roof of the hall is sup- 
ported by 16 columns, monoliths of 
the finest granite from Finland, ter- 
minating in capitals of Carrara marble. 
The stairs, in three flights, are of 
marble, but the walls on eiiiier side 
are only scagliola. A gallery runs 
round the top of the staircase, adorned 
with twenty monoliths of grey granite. 
In this stand 16 marble ste.tues : Cain 
and Abel, by Dupr^; a Bacchante, by 
Bienaime; and others. Two magni- 
ficent stands for candelabra of tho 
finest violet jasper from Siberia stand 
at the dooffe^Eteachendof the gallery. 



86 Boute 1. — SL Feteishurg : The Hermitage; Pictures. Sect. I. 



It is advisable to begin with the 
picture galleries on the first floor, 
leaving the museums below for a sub- 
sequent visit. 



First Floor. 

Picture Galleries. — The Hermitage 
Gallery is chiefly composed of three 
celebrated collections. — 1. That of Mr. 
Crozat, Baron de Thiers. 2. TheWal- 
pole Collection, purchased in 1779 for 
35,0002. The best pictures* in the 
gallery are from Houghton Hall ; viz., 
89 Italian, 75 German, 7 Spanish, and 
5 English. 3. Eleven pictures from 
the Choiseul Gallery, purchased for 
107,904 livres. Many other additions 
have subsequently been made. Thirty- 
eight pictures of the Malmaison 
Collection, formed by the Empress 
Josephine, were bought in 1814 for 
940,000 francs, many of them having 
belonged to the Landgraves of Hesse 
and Cassel, spoliated by the French in 
1806. The Spanish Gallery of Mr. 
W. G. Coesvelt, banker at Amsterdam, 
was acquired in 1814 for 87002. ; and 
Dr. Orichton, an English resident at 
St. Petersburg, afterwards knighted, 
sold to this gallery seven of the pictures 
in his collection. On the death of the 
Queen Hortense of Holland, thirty of 
the best pictures of the collection passed 
over to the Hermitage for the sum of 
180,OOOf francs. The Barbarigo Col- 
lection was purchased by the Emperor 
Nicholas in 1850, as well as some fine 
pictures from the celebrated gallery of 
the late King William II. of Holland. 
From the Soult Collection the Her- 
mitage possesses a Sebastian del Piom- 
bo (No. 17), a Zurbaran (349), and a 
MuriUo (373). The most recent ad- 
ditions are the fresco pictures pur- 
chased by Mr. Guedeonoff in 1861, at 
the same time as part of the Campana 
Museum. 

The Hermitage Gallery at present 
contains 1635 pictures, selected from 

' * The letter W. will denote these whenever 
iccur In the observations that follow. 



amongst more than 4000 specimens, 
the remainder being distributed in the 
several palaces. The Italian school is 
represented in the gallery by 331 pic- 
tures, the Spanish by 11 5, the Flemish, 
Dutch, and German by 944, the Eng- 
lish by 8, the French by 172, while 
the specimens of native art are 65 in 
niunber. It is more especially rich in 
the Spanish and Flemish Collections, 
having no less than 20 Murillos and 
6 Velasquez, 60 Rubens, 34 Van 
Dycks, 40 Teniers, 10 Van der Heists, 
41 Rembrandts, 50 Wouwermans, 9 
Potters, 40 Jacob Ruysdaels, and an 
equal number of Snyders. This is, 
moreover, the only gallery on the 
Continent that contains a collection of 
English pictures. 

The Hermitage Collection was care- 
fully examined and brought into its 
present perfect order in 1861 and 1862 
by the learned and celebrated critic 
Dr. Waagen, of Berlin, whose work, 
' Die Gemaldesammlung in der Kaiser- ' 
lichen Ermitage zu St. Petersburg * 
(Munich, 1864), contains most valu- 
able information respecting the pic- 
tures of the Hermitage. 

The rooms in which the pictures are 
placed are described in the order in 
which they should be visited.* 

The Gallery of Historical Painting 
at the top of the staircase need not 
arrest much attention. The frescoes 
on- the walls represent the progress of 
Grecian art. There are eight good 
specimens of modern sculpture by 
Vitali, Gothe, Houdon (Madame Du 
Barri as Diana), Bienaime, and others. 
The vases and tables of porphyry and 
malachite are as it were an introduc- 
tion to the magnificent specimens in- 
side. 

Room II. — (The numbers are marked 
over the inner doors in Roman nu- 
merals : vide plan.) Larger pictures 
of ItaMan Sdtool. (Beginning opposite 
the door leading from the staircase.) 

* The ' Catalogue de la Galerie des Tableaux/ 
by Baron de Koehne, may be had of the porter, 
and very good photographs of the best pictures 



Enssia. Baide 1. — St. Peterahurg : The Hermitage ; Pictures, 87 



No. 69. Holy Yirgin, by Francia.* 73, 
St Sebastian, by Luini. 145, Dead 
' Christ attended by Angels, one of the 
few pictures by Paul Veronese painted 
with any sacred feeling. 18, Descent 
from the Cross, a rare picture of great 
value by Sebastian del Piombo, pur- 
chased for 29,000 florins, from collec- 
tion of late King of Holland. 59, 
Adoration of the Shepherds, by Garo- 
falo. 61, Christ carrying his Cross, 
by same artist, life-size figures, 
witii very fine and characteristic 
heads. 89, Portrait of an Artist, by 
Dcmenico. 135, Perseus and Andro- 
mfida, a very fine Tintoretto; the 
figure of Andromeda for colour and 
bMLuty of form is equal to the finest 
effi)rt of Titian. 121, Jupiter and lo, 
by Schiavone, remarkable for its 
landscape bcuskg^round. 133, the Ee- 
Fnrrection, by ^Kntoretto ; original de- 
sdgn, in small proportions, of the 
enormoas picture at Venice, and illus- 
tratiTe of his later decorative style. 
181, David with the head of Goliath, 
by Guido Reni, with dark shadows in 
style of Caravaggio. Above it, 166, 
Christ being anointed for the Sepul- 
chre, a fine specimen of Lodovico 
Caracci (W.). 187, Dispute of the 
Doctors, a capital picture by Guido 
Eeni, of which the engraving by 
Sharp is so well known fW,). 180, 
Cupid, by Domenichino. 184, Repose 
in Egypt, and 185, Saint Francis, are 
beautiful works of the same period by 
Guido : the expression of trvLai and 
repose, the harmony, clearness, and 
warmth of the colour, render 184 one 
'•{ the most attractive of that artist's 
jrtctures. 191, the Virgin at School, 
slso by Guido, is much admired 
for the grace and childlike inno- 
rience of the group engaged in needle- 
wf»rk. There are 11 pictures by Sal- 
Tator Bosa in this room, 5 of which, 
220 to 223 and 225, are from the 

• It will eaOce in inost cases to mention the 
namtiei' of the picture and the x>ainter to whom 
ve desire to attract attention. CrlticiBm may 
■j« oofukSered ont of place in a handbook ; the 
I ;«;AveUer will form his own Judgment of these 
•.oiia of art, but at the same time we shall 
•"j^tuvoar to point oat the most remarkable 
^.tunw. with the addition of any Information 
■' -■• BMj make them interesting to EngUbhmen. 



Wal. Coll. No. 220, the Prodigal 
Son, was one of the treasures of 
that gallery. 215, Ecce Homo, by 
Caravaggio, painted in a colder tone 
than his Young Man singing and 
playing the Guitar (217), which is 
more transparent in the shades than 
usual with that master. 236, Portrait 
of an Actor, by Domenico Feti. 319, 
Doge of Venice marrying the Adriatic, 
by Canaletto. 318 (pendant to 319) 
represents the Eeception at Venice of 
Count Gergi, Ambassador of Louis 
XV.» a magnificent and most interest- 
ing work by that master. 307, Por- 
trait of Pope Clement IX. by Carlo 
Maratta (W.). 317 (above), the Feast 
of Cleopatra, who is seen dissolving 
the Pearl, by Tiepolo, one of the best 
and largest pictures of that artist. 
255, St. Cecilia, by Carlo Dolci, in the 
style of the famous picture in the 
Dresden Gallery, but superior to it 
in the pleasing drawing of the head ; 
and 254, St. Catherine, also by Carlo 
Dolci ; heads very well drawn. 

The malachite tables and vases are 
very handsome. The 4 candelabra are 
of violet jasper. 

Eoom UL—Flemuh School The 
collections of this School begin appro- 
priately with rich and numerous speci- 
mens of Rubens and Van Dyck, of 
which many of the best come from the 
Walpole Collection. 

Beginning on the rt. hand: 543, 
Mary Magdalene washing the Saviour's 
feet, is the principal picture, by 
Rubens, in the Hermitage (W.) ; there 
is a copy of it by Jordaens in the next 
room. 535, the Expulsion of Hagar, 
a perfect gem, by Rubens ; a sketch 
of this same picture is in the Gros- 
venor Gallery. 626 is a portrait that 
will interest every Englishman ; it is 
that of Inigo Jones, by Van Dyck 
(W.). 616, Portrait of Philip Lord 
Wharton at the age of 19, by Van 
Dyck (W.). 612, Archbishop Laud, 
by the same artist (W.). 633 and 634 
are portraits of English ladies by the 
same great master. 627, Portrait of 
the painter Snyders and his Wife. On 
the same wall is, 576, Portrait of 
Helen Fourment, Rubens' second wife. 



88 



Boute 1. — St. Peteriburg : The Hermitage. 



Sect. I, 



PLAN OF THE PICTURE GALLERIES AT THE HERMITAGE. 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EuBsia. Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : The Hermitage; Pictures, 89 



by her famous husband. This most 
graceful full-length figure is fre- 

> quently copied; tiie same head will 

► be found in the picture called the 
Chapeau de Faille in Sir Kobert 
Peel's collection (W.)- Very close to 
it on the rt. is, 609, King Charles I., 
signed "p. Sr. Ant. Vandike;** fof 
this picture Yan Dyck received 251. 
610. Queen Henrietta Maria is the 
pendant to it, both being from the 
Houghton Collection. 603 is the cele- 
brated Vierge aux Perdreaux, by Van 
Dyck, so called from the two par- 
tridges seen flying away. The beauty 
of the group of children is remark- 
able (W.) ; 618, above the portrait of 
Henrietta Maria are portraits of 
the Ladies Elizabeth and Phila- 
delphia Wharton, also by Van Dyck 
(W.). The grim figure of the Earl 
of Danby, painted by the same 
master, will be seen in 615 (W.). 617, 
Sir Thomas Wharton, by Van Dyck 
(W.). 635 is Rubens* Wife and Child, 
painted by Van Dyck; compare it 
with 575 (near the door on entering), 
Rubens* wife at a later period, painted 
by Rubens ; the dress and gold chain 
are Ihe same in both pictures. 611 is 
a pleasing portrait of William II. of 
Nassau, ifence of Orange, when a boy. 
by Van Dyck (W.). 549, Venus and 
Adonis, a repetition by Rubens of the 
picture on panel at the Hague. 551. 
a Bacchanalian Scene, by the same 
artist, is in his most spirited style ; the 
satyrs are such as only Rubens could 
have imagined (W.). 620, Portrait of 
Sir Thomas Chaloner, by Van Dyck 
(W.). 632, Portrait of a gentleman, 
by Van Dyck, is a fine specimen of his 
iw'armest colouring, probably painted 
at Genoa. 614 is a sketch by Van 
Dyck of the celebrated large picture of 
the Pembroke Family at Wilton ; the 
Karl of Carnarvon has another sketch 
of it 629 is a fine portrait by Van 
Dyck. 

There are 2 candelabra and 3 tazza 
of Tiolet Siberian jasper in this room. 

^ Boom I. — Spaniah School, The 

"best and most varied collection of 
Spanish pictures out of Spain. On the 
left-hand wall there are no less than 



18 pictures by Murilla Begin with 
369, the Holy Family, a perfect little 
gem, but obscured by the shadow 
which falls from its heavy frame (W.). 
375, Celestine and her Daughter in 
prison at Seville. 364, Adoration of 
the Shepherds ; interesting sketch and 
variation of the same subject in the 
Gallery at SevUle. 360, Benedic- 
tion of Jacob ; Ha pendant, 359, Jacob's 
Dream, is perhaps one of the most 
picturesque productions of the artist. 
372, Angel delivering St. Peter ; from 
the Soult Collection. Under it is one 
of the most lovely inspirations of this 
great artist, the Repose in Egypt 
(367). 365, St. Joseph. 379, St. John, 
a contemporaneous copy of the cele- 
brated picture in the National Gallery 
in London. 378, a Peasant Girl, and 
377, a young Beggar, are pendUints. 
363, Adoration of the Shepherds, a 
specimen of the early style of the mas- 
ter (W.). 362, the Conception, treated 
in the same grand manner as the large 
picture at Seville. Leaving the Mu- 
rillos for the present, look at 349, St. 
Lawrence, a very characteristic speci- 
men of Francisco Zurbaran; but a 
rarer and more pleasing example of 
the master will be seen in 348, repre- 
senting the Holy Virgin as a child, 
397, a sleeping Child, is by Antolinez. 
in the clear tender tones of Murillo. 
371, the Assimiption by Murillo (W.). 
In this beautiful picture the Virgin 
has the same youthful form as in the 
celebrated picture of the Sala Isabella 
at Madrid, to which for grace and 
purity of expression it yields in no- 
thing, while the action of floating in 
mid-air, and the eifect of immense 
depth beneath the buoyant clouds on 
which the lovely group of children aie 
borne upwards with the Virgin, were 
never better rendered. 373, Appari- 
tion of the Infant Jesus to St. Francis 
of Padua, must conclude our mention 
of the pictures by Murillo. The best 
of Velasquez's, out of the 6, are 419 
and 420, Portraits of Philip IV. of 
Spain, and 421 and 422, those of his 
Minister, d*OUvares. The full-length 
portraits came here from the Hague. 
418, Pope Innocent X., is a spirited 
portrait, also by Velasquez, from the 



90 Boute 1. — St. Fetershirg : The Hermitage; Pictures, Sect. I. 



Walp. CoU. 331. Death of St. Sebas- 
tain, by Blbeira. 

The stands for candelabra of large 
masses of rose-coloured porphyry or 
rhodonite, and vases, tazza, and tables 
of lapis lazuli in this room, are re- 
markably handsome. 

BapkaePs Frescoes. — The nine fres- 
coes in this room (which may be entered 
from the gem-room) were until 1856 on 
the walls of the ground-floor of the 
Villa Mais (Villa Spada) on Mount 
Palatine, at Rome. They were pur- 
chased with the Campana Museum in 
1861. Mr. Gue'deonoff, tlie talented 
purchaser of that collection for the 
Russian Government, considers these 
fine paintings to have been executed 
by Raphael and his pupils between 
the years 1512 and 1515. The great 
master probably made the sketches 
and only superintended the painting. 

Professor Waagen Kjonsiders that 
Nos. 47, 48, 49, 51, and 53 are by the 
hand of Giulio Romano. The Abduc- 
tion of Helen (No. 55) is a celebrated 
composition, frequently repeated on 
majolica, as seen in the Campana col- 
lection in the Louvre, in the Bernal 
collection at the British Museum, and 
in Mr. Abingdon's collection. Waagen 
says it must have been painted by one 
of Raphael's best scholars, for it was a 
favourite subject with the great mas- 
ter, as evident from the drawings at 
Chats worth and Oxford. It was de- 
tached from the wall of Raphael's 
villa near the Porta Pinciana. 

Room IV. — 1, Holy Virgin, by Ve- 
rocchio, marks the early epoch of the 
Italian School, as also does 2, another 
Holy Virgin, by Roselli. No. 8, Infant 
Jesus, by Lo Spagna. The most flou- 
rishing period of Italian painting is 
represented in the following : No. 24, 
Holy Family, a very fine picture by 
Andrea del Sarto, superior to the du- 
plicate in the National Gallery. No. 
17, Christ carrying his Cross, by Se- 
bastian del Piombo, on slate; one of 
the finest pictures from the Soult col- 
lection. No. 19, Portrait of Cardinal 
Me, by the same artist. The Floren- 
e School is well supported by No. 



14, the Holy Family, by Leonardo da 
Vinci; this bears a striking resem- 
blance to Foster's well-known " Vierge 
au bas-relief." But the oldest and 
finest picture by this master has just 
been purchased of the Duke di Litta 
of Milan :— 14a, ** The Holy Virgin 
suckling the Infant Jesus " (on a stand 
near the window). No. 15, Portrait of 
a lady, by the same painter (W.). No. 
22, Nativity of Jesus, by Granacci; 
one of his best works. 

One of the most remarkable objects 
in this room is an unfinished sketch of 
a small crouching figure in marble by 
M. Angelo, called the Tour de Force, 
evidently rough hewn from the stone, 
without model or preparation. That a 
figure of this size could be produced 
from a small block of marble, not 
larger than would be required for 
a full-sized bust, is extraordinary 
enough ; but the position seems pur- 
posely to have been chosen by that 
great genius, in sport as it were with 
the greatest difficulties; while at the 
same time it may have served to dis- 
play his knowledge of the Toi-so of tlie 
Vatican, or his idea of the original 
position of that celebrated fragment. 
It is also said to be the result of a 
wager. 

Room V. is attractive on account of 
its Raphaels. On a stand near the 
window will be seen a beautiful little 
picture (39), by that great master, re- 
presenting St. George and the Dragon : 
it was painted in 1506 by order of the 
Duke d'Urbino, who wished to present 
it to Henry VII. of England, in return 
for the Order of the Garter. It was 
first in the Pembroke Gallery, then in 
that of Charles I., and was purcliased 
by the Russian Government with the 
Crozat Collection. It long served as 
an imago in the Hall of St. George, at 
the Winter Palace. No. 37, Holy Vir- 
gin, painted in Raphael's Florentine 
style, and known as the " Ste. Famille 
au St. Joseph imberbe," p. in 1507. 
No. 38 is the celebrated Virgin de la 
Maison d'Albe. No. 40, a remarkable 
portmit by Raphael, incorrectly called 
that of Sannazaro. No. 74 is the por- 
trait by Luini variously termed " the 



Eussia. Boute 1, — St. Petersburg : The Hermitage ; Pictures. 91 



Columbine," « Flora/* and " Vanity," 
and well known to the lovers of art : 
) from the Hague, where it passed as a 
» Leonardo da Vinci. No. 82 is a sm^ 
sketch for the ceiling of the cathedral 
at Parma, by Correggio. Another 
picture by Correggio will be found 
in No. 82a, " Marsyas and Apollo," by 
Correggio, one of the four pictures of 
the Litte, collection recently purchased. 

Koom VI.— 112, Judith, by Moretto 
da Brescia, of whom it is one of the 
finest specimens. 113, Faith, by the 
same artist. 101, Portrait of Pope 
Paul III., by Titian. 

Room VII. contains the celebrated 
Titians, from the Barbarigo collection : 
—98, Mary Magdalen. 99, Toilet of 
Venus. 100, Danae, from the Crozat 
collection. There are also some fine 
sketches (Nos. 142, 149, and 150) by 
P. Veronese. 

Boom VIII. 174, Christ in the 
Garden of Olives, by Oaracci. 177, A 
young girl sleeping, by the same ; very 
carefully painted, and evidently from 
nature. 176, Portrait of Annibale 
Caracci, by the artist himself, on a 
panel which had been destined for 
another subject. Through the trans- 
parent dark colour of the background 
may be seen the outlines of a life- 
sized head. 192, Beatrice Cenci, re- 
petition after Guide. 224, Portrait of 
a poet, by S. Bosa. 218, Portrait by 
Oarayaggio. 223, three soldiers play- 
ing at dice, very characteristic of S. 
Bosa. 264, Betrothal of St. Catherine, 
by Procaccini, suggestive of Etty. 
The tazzas near the window are of 
syenite and aventurine ; the one in the 
centre of the room is of jasper. 

Room IX. 289, Pretty head of a 
boy, by Luti (W.) ; resembles a draw- 
ing in pastel, for which this artist is 
chiefly known, 257, Holy Virgin, by 
SasBoferrato. 260a, Head of the Ma- 
I donna, likewise by Sassoferrato. 309, 
" St. Sebastian, by Balestra. There 
are several pictures by C. Maratta and 
Schidone in this room. The small 
marble statue of a Cupid, with an arch 



look, is by Falconet, whose masterpiece 
is the equestrian statue of Peter the 
Great in the Isaac's Square. 

Boom X. is the last of the Italian 
School, and is called the Cabinet of 
Luca Giordano, the painter of the large 
picture, 293, Bacchus asleep (W.), and 
of 294, the Judgment of Paris (W.). 
229 and 230 are marine pieces, by 
Salvator Bosa. 820, the Bialto, by 
Belloti, is quite worthy of his cousin, 
Canaletto. 

Boom XI. Early German and 
Dutch Schods.— The portrait of Sir 
Thomas Gresham, the founder of the 
Boyal Exchange, by Sir Antony More 
(480), will be of interest to the English 
visitor ; it is, moreover, one of the best 
specimens of that painter. 481 is 
Lady Gresham, by the same artist 
(W.). 444, the Crucifixion and Last 
Judgment, by Christophsen. 445, St 
Luke, a very good, though solitary, 
specimen of Memling. 449, Corona- 
tion of the Holy Virgin, by Quentin 
Matsys. 443, the oi3y specimen of 
Jan Van Eyck, The Salutation, Waa- 
gen says, must have been painted be- 
tween 1433 and 1434, for it bears 
a greai resemblance to the picture by 
the same artist in the National Gal- 
lery, and which is known to have 
been painted in 1433. 466, a Portrait, 
by Holbein. 467, Portrait of Edward 
VI. of England, is either a copy or a 
repetition of Holbein. It was once in 
Charles I.*s collection, and was pur- 
chased by Lord Walpole on the death 
of that monarch, whose enlightened 
judgment and taste for art were so 
remarkable, that, if his gallery had 
remained the property of the nation, 
we should have possessed the finest 
museum of pictures in the world. 
Nineteen of the best pictures in the 
Louvre, 44 of the most valuable in 
the Museo at Madrid, three or four in 
the Belvedere collection at Vienna, 
and the two in the Hermitage, will 
give some idea of the treasures we 
have lost 

Boom XIT. — PotteXprpV'kr^fWoiwer- 
mans. Pauf 1^t>1l^>^n055, Watch 



92 BmUe 1, — St, Petersburg : The Hermitage; Pictures, Sect. I. 



Dog, the perfection of animal por- 
traiture ; the brilliancy of the eye, and 
the texture of the dog's matted coat, 
are admirably rendered; for freedom 
of treatment it offers a remarkable con- 
trast to the careful finish of 1051, and 
the bold large signature on the kennel 
shows that tiie artist was not ashamed 
of it. 1058, Bull. 1059, a little Boy 
looking at a white Horse. 1056, Land- 
scape, a beautiful study of trees and 
plants, with a charming peep of dis- 
tant landscape ; the figures in the sun- 
light and those in the shade, equally 
good; the latter are fishing, and a 
perch can be distinguished in the net. 
1051, the Farmyard, considered to be 
Potter's masterpiece, signed 1649; a 
picture of inestimable beauty and 
value, displaying in perfection every 
quality for which this great painter 
was remarkable. 1052, the Hunter's 
Life. This will be found one of the 
most amusing pictures in the gallery : 
in 12 compartments it represents dif- 
ferent sporting subjects, and in 2 
others the ultimate revenge of the 
animals on the cruelty of* man : 1, St. 
Hubert; 2, Coursing; 3, Diana and 
ActsBon (painted by C. Poelenburg) ; 
4, Chamois-hunter; 5, Ferreting; 6, 
Bear-hunt ; 7, Leopard about to spring 
into a trap, attracted by his own reflec- 
tion in a looking-glass placed within 
it ; 8, Catching Monkeys by means of 
a dish of gum-water, with which they 
glue their eyes in imitation of men 
washing ; 9, Wolf-hunting ; 10, Boar- 
hunt; 11, Lion-hunt; 12, Bull-baiting. 
The upper centre compartment shows 
the hunter caught and brought to 
judgment before the lion, who presides, 
surrounded by his counsellors ; the fox 
acting as clerk. The bear performs the 
office of head constable, and a wolf on 
each side of the huntsman keep him in 
safe custody. A bear and a boar are 
bringing up two braces of hounds, the 
accomplices of man, while the stag 
stands proudly waiting to give evi- 
dence. The sentence of death is car- 
ried out in the lower division, where 
the hunter is being roasted over a fire, 
and basted by a boar and a goat, 
while 2 bears turn the spit. A mon- 
key and an elephant are bringing up 



faggots; the wolf and the fox mean- 
while hanging two of the accomplices. 
A monkey on the top of the gallows 
a^ts as assistant executioner. The joy 
of the animals at their deliverance is 
wonderfully portrayed; the goat is 
cutting capers, and the wolf roUing on 
the ground with laughter and delight. 
1053, tiie Hunter's Halt 1054, the 
Cows, and 1057, a Landscape. There 
are 9 specimens of Paul Potter in the 
Hermitage; 1051, 1052, and 1055 are 
from the Malmaison Collection. 

Teniers. — 699, "Kitchen seized by 
Monkeys. 672, the Arquebusiers of 
Antwerp. The figures are mostly por- 
traits of the period ; Teniers himself is 
being admitted member of the corps. 
Between these two screens will be 
found every description of picture that 
Teniers painted — landscapes, cattle, 
historical portraits, and even a sea- 
piece (710). 669 and 670 are land- 
scapes by Teniers the elder. 708 and 
709, in circular frames, by the younger 
Teniers, are pleasing subjects, charm- 
ingly treated. 673, the Guardhouse, 
painted 1642 ; 677, the Wedding Ban- 
quet; 674, Village Fete, are all by the 
same master-hand, as well as the large 
picture, 698, Interior of a Kitchen; 
the artist appears here as the land- 
lord (W.). (679, 688, and 706 are also 
from Walp. CoU.). 

Wouvermans. — These are too nume- 
rous to be particularised. 1031 and 
1032 are perfect gems. The pictures 
by Wouvermans in the last compart- 
ment are equally good. 1017 is one of 
the few pictures known of that artist 
without a white horse. They are all 
well worth exainination. 

After inspecting Room XIL the 
visitor will do well to relieve the eye 
by proceeding to gaze on other objects. 
A door in the next room, XIII., opens 
on the staircase of the Council of the 
Empire. An immense vase of mala- 
chite stands at the top of the stairs. 
The door to the right leads to the 
apartments of the old Hermitage 
(French gallery— reached from the 
Gem room). The door on the left 
opens into a gallery, beyond which is 
a small ball-room of white marble, 
fitted up in the most exquisite taste. 



Russia. Boide 1. — St. Petersburg: The Hermitage; Pictures. 93 



This is the original Pavilion built by 
Catherine II. Light galleries of gold 
I trellis-work, supported by elegant 
white columns, run round this beauti- 
ful room, which was designed by Mr. 
Stakenschneider, court architect. The 
style is Renaissance, with an admix- 
tare of the Moorish and antique. A 
portion of the floor is inlaid with 
mosaic. Two marble fountains, after 
the model of a celebrated fountain at 
Bakhchisarai, in the Crimea, stand at 
the further end of the room. The 
water, when laid on, falls from one 
shell into the other with the most deli- 
cious murmur. Glass doors open into 
a conservatory of exotic plants. Balls 
are given here in winter to a limited 
number of guests. The view of the 
river from the windows is most charm- 
ing. A portrait of Catherine II., by 
Lampi, the best ever made, is sus- 
(lended in this room, together with 
that of the consort of the Emperor 
Paul, by Mme. Lebrim. 

Boom Xin. Engligh School and 
Bembrandfs GaUery. — The first small 
compartment is devoted to English 
pictures. Conspicuous amongst tiiese 
is 1391, the Infant Hercules strangling 
the Serpents, painted for the Empress 
Catherine II. by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
It is an allegory of Russia vanquish- 
ing the difficulties which beset its 
youthful state. This picture, finished 
two years before his death, was painted 
by order of the Empress Cattierine, 
whose commission was unlimited both 
in subject and in price. The price paid 
for it was 1500 guineas. Soon after 
the picture arrived at St Petersburg, 
Count Woronzow, the Russian ambas- 
sador, waited on Sir J. Reynolds to 
inform him that the empress had re- 
ceived the picture, as well as two sets 
of his Discourses, one in English and 
one in French, which, at the desire of 
H. L M. had been sent with the pic- 
ture. This message was accompanied 
by a gold snuff-box, with the empress's 
portrait encircled with large diamonds. 
' The ambassador also left with Sir 
Joshua a copy of the following let- 
ter : — 

" Monsieur le Conite Woronzow— I 



have read, and I 'may say with the 
greatest avidity, the Discourses pro- 
nounced at the Royal Academy of Lon- 
don by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which that 
illustrious artist sent me with his largo 
picture; in both productions a most 
elevated genius may easily be traced. 
I recommend you to give my thanks to 
Sir Joshua, and to remit to him the 
box I send as a testimony of the great 
satisfaction the perusal of his Dis- 
courses has given me, and which I 
look upon as perhaps the best work 
that ever was written on tlie subject 
My portrait, which is on the cover of 
the box, is of a composition made at 
my Hermitage, where they are now 
at work about impressions on the 
stones found there. 

" I expect you will inform me of the 
large picture of the subject of which 
I have already spoken to you in an- 
another letter. Adieu— I wish you 
well. (Signed) Catherine. St Peters- 
burg, March 5, 1790." 

The large picture here referred to 
may be No. 1392, the Continence of 
Scipio, which was probably sent to St 
Petersburg after his death, as it is still 
in an unfinished state. This may be 
seen in the arms of Scipio and in tlie 
hands of another figure, which show in 
an interesting manner Sir Joshua's 
mode of painting ; the shadows being 
laid on in a green tene, preparatory to 
the warm glazing with which he so suc- 
cessfully imitated the glowing tones of 
the Venetian School. 1393, Dido and 
iEneas, in a landscape equal to one of 
Wilson's finest, by Thomas Jones 
(1730-1790). 1390, Cupid unloosing 
the Girdle of Venus. This picture, 
painted for Prince Potemkin for 100 
guineas, is the portrait of a pretty 
Englishwoman, whose obliquity of 
vision is artfully concealed by the 
position of her hand. There are two 
repetitions of this picture in England. 
1389 is an interesting portrait of the 
sculptor Grinling Gibbons, by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller, who also painted 
1388, a likeness of Locke ; both from 
the Walpole Collection. 1387, Por- 
trait of Abraham Van der Dort, by 
Dobson (W.) ; and 1386, Oliver Orom- 
weU, by Robert Walker (1600-1658). 



94 Boute 1. — St Petersburg : The Hermitage; Pictures, Sect. I. 



The pictures arranged on the re- 
maining screens in Koom XIII. now 
claim attention: they are chiefly by 
Rembrandt. We particularise some of 
the finest, but all are worthy of atten- 
tion. Nowhere can this great master 
be studied with so much advantage, 
since here are found specimens of 
every period and subject of his art. 
828 and 827, two portraits side by 
side, show his earliest and his latest 
style, the former bearing the date 1634, 
and the latter 1666. 806, 825, 823, 
and 821 are a series of equally charac- 
teristic heads. 803, the " Benedicite," 
or Grace, a small cabinet picture of 
great simplicity, and full of reveren- 
tial feeling. 802, Danae : though un- 
fortunate in his model, Rembrandt has 
produced in this unique picture a chef- 
d'oeuvre of execution. 771 and 772 
are excellent specimens of Franz Hals. 
The following are all by Rembrandt : 
— 808, Lieven van Copenol, the cele- 
brated calligraphist, a highly-finished 
portrait of the same period as that of 
the "Lesson of Anatomy" at the 
Hague ; 818, one of his noblest por- 
traits, very badly hung ; its vis-k-vis, 
809, which suffers from the same cause, 
is a fine classical head, called indif- 
ferently Joan of Arc or Minerva ; 805, 
an old woman, an admirable portrait 
in his freest style — the hands, exe- 
cuted with a freedom which borders 
on coarseness, appear highly finished 
when viewed at a proper distance; 
797, Return of the Prodigal. Son, 
though painted in a coarse decorative 
manner, tells its story with much 
pathos ; beneath it is a bold landscape, 
830, and, on the opposite screen, a 
marine piece, 831, very warm and 
transparent, probably left uncompleted 
by Rembrandt, for the foreground 
seems, to be finished by an inferior 
hand; 817, a beautifully-coloured 
small female head; 798, the parable 
of the Lord of the Vineyard, a remark- 
able sketch in brown glaze, the piin- 
cipal figure a highly-finished minia- 
ture ; 816, head of an old man in pro- 
file, a masterpiece of free handling — 
observe the effect produced by the use 
'f the sharpened stick of the brush in 
e treatment of the beard ; 826, Child 



at a Window — this picturesque genre 
portrait is a fine study of chiaroscuro ; 
796, the Holy Family, was valued by 
Smith at 2000 guineas ; 800, Descent 
from the Cross by Night, an admirable 
composition, replete with sentiment 
and mystery; 807, Rembrandt's Mo- 
ther, a highly-finished cabinet picture ; 
799, Peter denying Christ, another 
striking candle-light effect; 811, a 
most characteristic portrait in this 
master's best style — it was long, but 
erroneously, supposed to be that of 
Stephen Batory, or John III., Sobieski, 
of Poland; the pentimenti or alter- 
ations in the position of the baton 
held in his hand, are evidence of tlie 
care bestowed on this picture; 810 
passes for the likeness of old Thomas 
Parr — ^it is in his latest style, but 
Rembrandt, instead of showing symp- 
toms of weakness, appears to have 
become more daring with age, to judge 
from the impaste and the masterly 
treatment of this fine portrait — it 
hangs unfortunately too much in the 
dark to be seen with advantage (an- 
other portrait of Thomas Parr, also by 
Rembrandt, may be seen in Prince 
Lobanoff's collection). 792, Abra- 
liam's Sacrifice, one of Rembrandt's 
earliest, signed and dated 1635 (W.) : 
there is a copy of this picture by 
Eckout in a private collection at Bnis- 
sqIs. The Hermitage Gallery is also 
very rich in pictures by Ferdinand 
Bol : see the excellent portraits by this 
artist under Nos. 853. 854 (W.), 849, 
848, 856, 851, and 847. 

Room XIV. — The principal objects 
of attraction in this room are six 
sketches by Rubens for the decoration 
of the triumphal arches raised at 
Antwerp in 1635 to greet the solemn 
entrance of the Lifant Cardinal Fer- 
dinand, brother of Philip IV. of Spain 
(Nos. 561 to 566). The paintings 
were executed by Rubens* pupils, 
after these sketches. The allegorical 
representation of Peace and War eon- 
tending at the Temple of Janus (566) 
is ingenious and masterly (W.). Nos. 
572 and 573 are of interest to English- 
men, being sketches by Rubens for 
the ceiling of the Palace at Whitehall, 



Eufisia. Bouie 1. — SL Fet^shurg ; The Hermitage; Pictures. 95 

EaufmanD, represent episodes from 
Sterne's * Sentimental Journey.* 



made by order of Charles L; the 
^ former represents James I. seated on 
his throne, with Pallas, Juno, and 
Venus accompanied by Cupid, before 
him; the Genius of Peace is below, 
burning armour. This sketch once 
belonged to Sir Godfrey Eneller, but 
was purchased of Crozat for the Her- 
mitage. No. 573 is the Apotheosis of 
James L, formerly in the Walpole Coll. 
No. 546, Descent from the Cross, by 
the same great master, is a repetition 
of his famous picture at Antwerp. 
There is a very good copy of it over 
the altar of the English church at St 
Petersburg. 594 and 595 (opposite to 
each other) are excellent specimens of 
Eubens's landscape-painting, the for- 
mer conveying well the effect of moon- 
light (W.) ; the latter, *• the Rainbow," 
is in the great master's best style. 
574 is another admirable sketch by 
Rubens in grisaiUe, with the exception 
of the portrait — it is signed near the 
left side of the head. 537, the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, on paper, has passed 
for a sketch by Rubens, but Prof. 
Waagen is inclined to consider it a 
copy of a picture of the same subject. 
592, a Lioness between two Lions, is 
a portrait taken by Rubens at the 
Zoological Gardens at Antwerp — 
treated in the same masterly manner 
as the celebrated picture of Daniel in 
the Lions' Den, now at Hamilton 
Palace (W.). 605, Christ on the 
Cross, most spirited sketch by Van 
Dyck; and 658 is the copy, by Jor- 
daens, of 543, abeady mentioned. 757, 
Repose of the Holy Family, by Poe- 
lenburg, is a very unusual subject for 
that artist. 

Two candelabra of rhodonite, and a 
large tazza of violet jasper, will be 
noticed in this room. 

Room XV. — This small room is de- 
voted to a portion of the German school 
in its decadence. 1289, an Orgie, and 
1290, a Concert, are by Platzer. 1303 
is a portrait of Mengs by the artist 
himself. 1299, the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, is an exquisite specimen of 
Mengs ; imusually fine in colour and 
expression. The Denners are 1284 to 
1288. 1304 and 1305, by Angelique 



Room XVI.— On the eight screens 
in this room are numerous specimens 
of the Dutch school in its most flou- 
rishing period. 777, Presentation of 
the Bride, a masterpiece by Van der 
Heist, to the left on entering, at once 
strikes the eye; very much restored, 
especially the head and dress of the 
bride (from King of Holland's Collec- 
tion). 778 and 779 are fine specimens 
of that artist's portrait-painting, rarely 
seen out of Holland. 900, Game of 
Trictrac, by Jan Steen, who is seen in 
the picture playing with a lady ; the 
specimens of this artist are numerous, 
affording an excellent opportunity of 
studying his style. 874, the Musi- 
cian, by Terburg; the white satin 
dress of the lady is beautifully painted. 
903, the Alchymist, is a splendid spe- 
cimen of Gerard Dow. 878 is one of 
the best pictures by Metzu. 962, a 
Winter Landscape, by Ostade, — 
signed ; it is painted in his latest and 
best s^le.. 1246 and 1247 are the 
two well-known pictures, by W. van 
Mieris. 1136, a Morass in the middle 
of a Forest, is an excellent Ruysdael. 
1143 (opposite) is another specimen of 
that master. 1211 (on stand VII.), a 
Street at Amsterdam, is one of Jan 
van der Heyden's best pictures; the 
figures were painted by A. van der 
Velde. The specimens of this artist 
are numerous, and extremely good and 
valuable. 1 148, View near Groeningen, 
by Jacob Ruysdael — full of sunlight. 
1145 is a beautiful and cleai* specimen 
of the same artist. 1117, one of the 
best efforts of Van der Neer — a View 
at Sunset. 1162, Marine View by 
Pynacker — one of his best. 1102, a 
View of the Meuse, by Cuyp. 1150, 
Study, by C. Decker ; a beautiful spe- 
cimen of this master, whose pictures 
are rare. 895, a large picture by Jan 
Steen, Esther before Assuerus ; consi- 
dered by Waagen the best of that 
artisf s serious pictures. 979 is a good 
specimen of Van der Poel. 1081, a 
graceful Landscape, by Berchem, in a 
warm golden tone. 1262, a Landscape, 
in grisaille^ by Begeya. 1076 and 



96 HouU 1. — St. Peter^urg : The Bermitage ; Pidures, Sect. 1. 



1077 (opposite) are two more excellent 
Landscapes, by Berchem. 1 1 35, Mouth 
of the Scheldt, by Everdingen ; very 
bold: and picturesque. On a stand is 
another small picture by Van der 
Heyden (1206) ; a little harsh in out- 
line and cold in tone, but the figures 
beautifully painted by A. van der 
Velde; it represents a street at Co- 
logne. 

Room XVII. is devoted to pictures 
of fruit and game by Snyders, Vos, 
Weenix, Verendael, and others. 1324, 
Concert of Birds, by Snyders, is cu- 
rious. (Petef the Greafs Gallery is 
reached from here. There is a studio 
for painting on porcelain above this 
room, and a small collection of old 
majolica, not generally open to the 
public.) 

Room XVIII. contains numerous 
paintings of fish, fruit, and game on 
the largest canvas, by Snyders, Vos, 
and others. 1161, Stag-hunt, is an 
excellent specimen of Hackert; and 
1323 (on a stand) is an amusing study 
of cats* heads by Snyders. 

There is a marble statue by Canova 
in this room, well known from popular 
reproductions. 

Room XIX. — This room, like the 
next, is set apart for the Bussian 
Schoolj founded in 1759 by Lossenko. 
1626, Sunrise on the Black Sea ; and 
on the other side of the door an extra- 
ordinary picture, " the Deluge," by 
Aivazofsky, a marine painter. 1622, 
a View of Odessa, by the same artist. 

1629, View of Wladi-Kavkas, a small 
town in the Caucasus, by Willewald. 

1630, The Kemmse or Fair at 
Amsterdam by moonlight, by Bogo- 
luboff ; the double effect of the moon- 
light, and that of the variegated 
iMups, is beautifully rendered. 1568, 
the capture of Kazan by John the 
Terrible in 1552 ; the Tsar of Kazan 
is kneeling in submission to John 
IV. 1569, the election of Michael 
Romanoff to the throne of Russia ; the 
boyar Sheremetieff is bearing the 
crown, the sceptre, and a gold cross ; 
ihe mother of Michael Romanoff and 



several high ecclesiastics stand near 
him. Both these historical pictures 
are by Ugrumoff, a pupil of Lossenko. 
Near 1568 will be seen one of Avai- 
zowski's most extraordinary efforts, 
"the Creation of the World." 

A marble statue of Paris by Canova 
stands in this room. 

Room XX. — Russian School conti- 
nued. — 1594, a Nymph going to bathe, 
by Neff, is an admii*able specimen of 
flesh - painting. 1593, by Ivanoft*, 
Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene ; 
the figure of Sie Magdalene is not 
deficient in pathos, while that of 
Christ is executed with the cold for- 
mality of the pseudo-classic school. 
1590 is an immense picture by Bixini 
of the Brazen Serpent: a startling 
academical picture. The most striking 
picture in this room is 1580, the Last 
Day of Pompeii, by Briilow; it is 
considered to be the most important 
work of the Russian School. 1595, 
two Nymphs bathing; one of the 
figures in this picture is from the same 
model as 1594$ which it resembles in 
mode of treatment. There are more 
copies taken of these two pictures by 
Neff than of any other in the Hermit- 
age. 

Two candelabra and a tazza of very 
fine jasper stand in the centre of the 
room. 

Rooms XXI. and XXH.—Numimna'- 
Uc Collection, — This consists of more 
than 200,000 specimens, and was com- 
menced by Catherine II. The original 
collection has been increased by pur- 
chases and gifts, principally firom 
Baron de Chaudoir, M. Reichel, Count 
Perofsky, and M. de Beule. 

The coinage of Russia is shown in 
more than 7000 specimens, of whicli 
the most precious are 4 gold coins of 
St Wladimir, 10th centy. (in Case 1). 
On a small stand will be found a rich 
collection of "Poltinas" or half- 
pounds of silver, current throughout 
Russia from the reign of Wladimir the 
Great to the 15th centy., and of 
" roubles," or quarters of a pound of 
silver, introduced about the 15th centy. 
Those without any stamp are the most 



Eussia. Bouteh — St, PeterSmrg : The Hermitage ; Pictures. 97 



ancient Some Poltinas of the Golden 
Horde of Tartary are under the same 
glass. The modem "rouble" takes 
its origin from these rude lumps of 
metal, the name implying a piece 
chopped off. The square copeck and 
half-copeck of iron are supposed to have 
been used in the payment of miiicrs 
in the province of Olonets, near the 
White Sea. By some the name " Ko- 
peika" (copeck) is assumed to be 
derived from the word fcopiV, or lance, 
from the eflSgy of St. George and the 
Dragon originally stamped on the coin ; 
but by others the name is supposed to 
be of greater antiquity. The 4-comered 
flat rouble of copper cast at Ekaterin- 
burg in 1725 will be noticed with 
interest in Case 5, as will also the 
round rouble of copper cast in 1771. 
The coins of countries and provinces 
once independent, but now subject to 
Russia, are exhibited in a magnificent 
series. Thus the coins of Poland 
from the 10th centy., and numerous 
medals (vide that of Sobieski in Case 4), 
form a fine collection in 7 cases. On 
a stemd will be seen the medals struck 
in Russia since 1702 ; and the visitor 
will notice that in the reign of Peter 
the Great gold coins bearing the eflBgy 
of the sovereign were worn as Orders 
of Merit, after the ancient custom of 
Byzantium. A case is devoted to a 
fine collection of the coins of the Sla- 
vonic races, Servian, Bulgarian, &c. 
The mints of foreign States are very 
richly represented. An English or 
American visitor will inspect with in- 
terest the valuable collection of English 
coins arranged in 3 cases at the lower 
part of Room XXII., and consisting of 
several hundred specimens of El£el- 
(Ired U., Canute, Hardicanute, &c., 
niany of which have been excavated 
in Russia. Anglo-Saxon coins have 
been found in every part of Russia, 
from Oranienbaum (opposite Cron- 
stadt) to Chemi^off in the S. They 
were largely current in the early 
Russian principalities, which then 
I supplied Europe with black marten- 
skins, and other products of the 
chase. The coinage of Jaroslaf, son 
of Wladimir the Great, was after an 
Anglo-Saxon model, as may be seen 



in the numismatic collection at Stock- 
holm. 

Among the ancient coins is a splen- 
did series representing the Greek colo- 
nies of Olbia, Chersonesus, Pantica- 
psBum, Phanagoria, and many others. 
The collection of corns of the kings of 
Pontus and Bosporus is particmarly 
rich, the specimens ranging between 
Leucon and Rhescuporis (the contem- 
porary of Constantino the Great), and 
ineluding Mithridates VI., Asander, 
Cotys, Polemon II., his wife Tryphaena, 
and Eupator. As there is unfortu- 
nately no printed catalogue of this 
collection, it may be as well to give 
here a few particulars respecting the 
number and character of the coins 
from the principal colonies of ancient 
Greece : — 

1. Olbia (the most important Greek dty N. 

of the Eaxine; situated at confluence of 

Dnieper and Bug) :— • 

Skilurofl, King . . . 4 copper coins. 
InLsmeus^ „ ... 1 sUver coin. 

Coins of the Emperors . 22 of copper. 

Tesseras 41 „ 

Fishes 34 „ 

2. Khersonesus (near Sevastopol) :■—• 

Silver coins ...... 16 ' , 

Gopper „ ..... 89 

3. Panticapcmm (the present Kertch) :— 

Gold coins 12 

Silver „ 33 

Gopper „ .88 

4. Phanagoria (on Asiatic coast of Euzine ; 

capital in Asia of kings of Boi^nis) :-~ 

Silver coins 2 

Copper „ 20 

6. 2Vra« (the present Akennan):— 

Copper coin » i 

6. Sindi (near Sea of Azof) :— 

Silver coins 2 "'j 

7. Gorghipia (near the present Taman) :~ 

bilver coin , i 

Copper „ 3 

8. Heraclea (on S. shore of Euxlne) : — 

Copper coins 2 

9. Dioseurias (near the present Poti) :— . 

Silver coin (very rare) . . 1 
Copper „ 2 

10. TAeocZosia (Kaffa) :— 

Copper coins 2 

11. Cercina:^" 

Copper coin 1 

(Very rare, heing one of only two known ', 
specimens.) r^^]^ 

12. Of Greek colonies or towns unknown;— 

19 pieces. 



98 Baute 1. — St Petersburg : The Hermitage ; Pictures. Sect. I. 



Among these is a com similar to 
that which is mentioned in Harwood's 
* Populorum et Urbium selecta Numis- 
mata Grseca" (1812), as being of 
Tyras, from the monogram on it 
There are, however, several pieces at 
the Hermitage, with different mono- 
grams, but with the same effigy on 
one side and a Scythian bow-case on 
the other. 

The collection representing the 
Kings of Pontus includes 16 coins of 
two different sovereigns, whose names 
are indicated by monograms which 
have not been deciphered, but from 
which it is apparent that their names 
began severally with E and R. 

In the galleries above Room XXI. 
are more than 15,000 specimens of the 
coins of ancient Greece and Rome, 
and amongst them more than 40 
etatere of Asia Minor. The fine col- 
lection of Athenian coins, purchased 
from M. De Beule, contfitins more than 
400 specimens of Tetradrachmx. 

The earliest dated inscription in the 
Russian language yet discovered is 
preserved in Room XXI. It is called 
the Stone of Tmutarakan, whose 
Prince, Gleb, caused the distance be- 
tween the seat of his sovereignty and 
Kertch to be measured over the ice 
and recorded on this stone in 1068. 

The numismatic collection is not 
open to the general public, but an 
application to one of the learned cura- 
tors will always secure admittance. 

CoUecticm of Gems.—Boom XXIII. 
(entrance from Room I.) — The collec- 
tion of gems is one of the largest in 
existence. It has been made up of 
various collections, purchased at dif- 
ferent times by the sovereigns of Rus- 
sia, and conspicuous among which is 
the renowned Cabinet of the Duke of 
Orleans (Philippe Egalite). The gems 
from that collection may be distin- 
guished by their rims presenting a 
surface of deadened gold. It would 
be difficult to criticise in a short notice 
so vast an assemblage of engraved 
stones and camei, or even to direct 
attention to objects in it of especial 
interest and beauty, and the more so 
as at present the antique gems have 



not been separated from the very large 
majority of modern and cinquecento 
works with which they are mingled, 
their arrangement being founded only 
on the subjects engraved, irrespective 
of the dates of the artists that engraved 
them. 

In this room is a large clock, re- 
markable for the perfection of its 
mechanism. A poor widow, to whom 
it had fallen in a lottery, sold it for 
about 30002. It executes overtures 
with the effect and precision of a 
band, and is sometimes wound up to 
gratify travellers. There are also 
3 very curious bureaux along the 
walls of this room. 

Theatre. — The Hermitage Theatre 
is approached through the Gem Room 
(XXIII.). It was built by the archi- 
tect Quarenghi on the site of an old 
palace, but has recently been reno- 
vated inside. It is constructed in the 
semicircular form of an antique theatre, 
and will contain about 500 persons. 
The Empress Catherine had comedies 
acted there, which were generally 
composed by her court, and in some 
cases even by her Majesty. The 
actors were frequently amateurs, and 
sometimes professional, both French 
and Russian. The empress sat on one 
of the benches of the second row, the 
stalls having only been placed in tlie 
reign of the Emperor Paul. In front 
of her, and at her feet, sat the privi- 
leged persons described in M. de Se- 
gur's Memoirs. Up to the year 1837 
fancy balls used to be given at the 
Palace on New Year's Day, to which 
as many as 30,000 invitations were 
sometimes issued. 600 covers were on 
those occasions laid for the sovereign 
and the court in this theatre ; a floor- 
ing between the stage and the benches 
converting it into one immense ban- 
queting hall of great beauty. Two such 
balls were given, in 1839 on the mar- 
riage of the Grand Duchess Marie 
Nicolaevna, and in 1841 on that of the 
Emperor Alexander II. The Hermit- 
age Theatre is thrown open 3 or 4 
times during the winter to a very 
select circle. \^\jvj% • 

Contiguous to the meatre are the 



finfisiii. BotUe 1. — 5^. Petersburg : The Hermitage ; Pictures. 99 

Room XXXVII.— Mignard and De 
Troy. The larger picture in the 
centee of this beautiful hall (1450) is 
by Mignard, and represents Alexander 
and the family of Darius ; it once be- 
longed to the Duchess of Kingston. 
The other 2 pictures, Susanna and the 
Elders, and Lot and his Daughters, 
are by De Troy. The columns over 
the mantelpiece are of a very beautiful 
riband-jasper; the mosaic-work is 
Eussian. The doors, made iu Paris, 
are of very fine and costly workman- 
ship. 



barracks of the Transfiguration Regi- 
ment, a kind of Praetorian Guard, 
which has the privilege of entering 
the palace through the Hermitage by 
a private door. 

Boom XXV. — BaphaeVs Loggie. 
(Reached from Room I., Spanish.) — 
Catherine II. caused this gallery to 
he added to the Hermitage in order 
to receive the copies of the famous 
frescoes in the Vatican by Raphael. 
The originals suffered much neglect 
until tlie occupation of Rome in 1813 
))y the Neapolitans ; and these copies 
have the advantage of representing the 
Loggie at a period when they were 
better preserved. 

In cases in front of the windows in 
this gallery is a collection of Oriental 
coins, commencing with tlie early 
Khalifa, and ending with a Turkish 
iL«signat for 20 piasfies. The Persian 
war contribution (1828), in Case 12, 
contains some interesting specimens. 
The Khans of the Golden Horde, the 
Khans of Bukhara, and many other 
Asiatic rulers, are here represented 
in their gold and silver coins. The 
collection of Khalife and Djudjids is 
particularly fine. Russians never fail 
to look at the decoration worn by 
Schamyl, which lies in Case 11. 

French Gallery. — (Reached from 
IlaphaeFs Loggie.)— The paintings of 
tlie French School form a separate col- 
lection, which is now placed in the old 
part of the Hermitage. The view from 
the windows of these fine apartments, 
occupied by H.R. H. the Prince of 
Wales in 1866, embraces a vast and 
beautiful panorama of the Neva. 

Room XXXIX.* — This contains se- 
veral pictures by Vemet. 1550, View 
of Palermo; considered to be one of 
his best pictures. 

B4x>m XXXVIII. has some excel- 
lent landscapes by Gaspar Poussin, 
several marine pieces by Vemet, and 
one of the oft-repeated convent inte- 
riors by Granet (1528). 

* These nnmbera are not at present over the 
doora, bat they are retained here for the pur- 
puae of rPDderiog the plan of the Hermitage 



£uMta.— 1868. 



Room XXXVL (to the left).— 1518, 
a fine bold sketch of a head by Greuze, 
very like a Gainsborough. 1521 to 
1525 are 5 animated and highly- 
finished landscapes by Marne; the 
Louvre has only 2 pictures by this 
artist. The small cabinet pictures by 
Chardin, Lancret, and Watteau are 
suitable ornaments to this pretty 
apartment. 1471, portrait of a young 
lady by Santerre i& worthy of notice. 

Room XXXV.— 1520, Death of the 
Paralytic, the celebrated picture by 
Greuze; one of the series in the 
Louvre. 1516, by Fragonard, a 
charming subject, with . an effect of 
chiaroscuro suggestive of a serious 
study of Rembrandt. Here are also 
2 Lancrets and a pretty little Le 
Moine, Cupid asleep, the subject of 
his large picture at the Louvre. The 
mosaic table in the centre of the room 
was made at Rome for the late Em- 
press of Russia. It represents views 
of the cities visited by H. I. M., and 
the statues and pictures which the 
empress most admired. 

Room XXXIV.— Here are 4 inte- 
resting landscapes by Claude Lorraine. 

Room XXXIIL (Claude Lon-aine 
and Van Loo) contains 6 fine land- 
scapes by Claude, representing differ- 
ent periods of the day ; 2 mythological 
subjects by Van Loo ; and a copy by 
Le Moine of Correggio's Jupiter and 
lo in the Berlin Gallery. 

Room XXXII. (Claude Lorraine, 
Van Loo).-— 1433 and 1484, 2 charmiiijr 



100 



Soute 1. — Si, Petersburg : The MermOage, Sect. 1. 

which marks his height does of his 
almost gigantic statiu*e. The small 
open gilt chariot in which Peter occfi.- 
sionally drove has an anomalous ap- 
pearance among so many plain and 
practical appliances. His effigy, in 
the dress of the period, emhroidered 
for him by Catherine I. for the cere- 
mony of her coronation, is appro- 
priately placed in the centre of this 
interesting workshop and museum. 
The sword which he wears, with a 
handle of nephrite, was the gift of 
Augustus II. On each side of the 
effigy are casts and portraits taken 
from the features of Peter after death, 
by his painter Tanhauer ; and the por- 
trait, in mosaic, over the -chariot, was 
executed by the poet Lomonosofll The 
victor at Poltava sits opposite to the 
horse which he rode at that battle; 
but his diminutive charger must have 
shrunk considerably in the process of 
stuffing, being now not many hands 
higher than the wolf-hound which 
runs alongside. Two other favourite 
dogs are preserved under the same 
glass cover. There is also a case con- 
taining the medals struck by Peter to 
commemorate the more important 
events of his reign, while another con- 
tains specimens of his coinage, with 
a few of a later date. On the top of a 
press, near a window, stands a small 
effigy of his housekeeper in Holland. 
Above the presses the walls are covered 
with portraits of his coadjutors in the 
work of founding the Russian empire. 
Scotchmen observe with satisfaction 
the portrait of Count James Brace, 
immediately on the right of the door 
by which the gallery is entered. 

But perhaps one of the most interest- 
ing objects in this museum is an addi- 
tion which has been recently made to 
it : nothing less than a cast of Peter 
the Great* s face, made when he was 
alive. The cast which is of wax and 
furnished with long black hair and 
small moustaches, was attached to a 
wooden bust and presented by Peter 
the Great to his friend Cardinal Va- 
lenti at Rome. An engraving taken 
from it is preserved at the public 
library at St. Petersburg ; but the ori- 
ginal had long been missing wheu 



landscapes by Claude. 1477, by Su- 
bleyras, the Emperor Valens and Saint 
Basilius, a small repetition of the cele- 
brated picture in the Louvre ; the 
mass of light formed by the robes of 
the priests in the centre group is ad- 
mirably treated. A copy of this pic- 
ture, the size of the original, is in the 
church of the monastery of St. Alex- 
ander Nevski. 

Room XXXI. (Poussin, Mignard, 
Boucher).— 1486, Repose in Egypt by 
Boucher ; an unusual subject for this 
painter, whose pencil was chiefly de- 
voted to mythological amours, flirta- 
tions of fashionable shepherdesses and 
their swains, bathing nymphs, and 
other nudities. 1399, a powerful and 
uncommon picture by Poussin, repre- 
senting the body of our Lord at the 
foot of the cross. 

Room XXX. (Poussin).— 1414 and 
1413 are 2 noble classical landscapes, 
the first representing Polyphemus, the 
second Hercules and Cacus. The 
silvery moonlit clouds, and the eftect 
of twilight, in the latter, are rendered 
with great truth. The centre-piece 
(1400), Neptune and Amphitrite, is 
remarkable for drawing, composition, 
and freshness of colour, as well as for 
the beauty of the female figures, which 
are evidently studies from life. 

Room XXIX. — ^Le Brun, Poussin. 

Room XXVIII.— Le Sueur. 

Peter the Great's Gallery is en- 
tered from Room XVII., although it 
forms part of the Winter Palace. It is 
devoted to a collection of objects of art 
and industry illustrative of the life and 
activity of Peter the Great. Here will 
be seen the turning-lathes and instru- 
ments for carving, with which that mo- 
narch worked. Numerous specimens 
of his handicraft stand about the room 
and in the cases which line the wall. 
His telescopes, mathematical instru- 
ments, books, and walking-sticks, are 
ill objects of curiosity. A heavy iron 
^aff" which he carried about tells of 
s great strength, as the wooden rod 



Russia. Soute 1. — St Peter Aurg: The Hermitage. 



101 



Mr. Gu«i6)noff, the talented director 
of the Hermitage, discovered it at Borne 
at the banker Torlonia's, purchased it, 
and gave it with generous patriotism 
to the gallery, where it now stands. 
■ Through a glass door at the end 
of this gallery the visitor will proceed 
to inspect the wonderful timepiece, in 
the shape of a gilded peacock, which 
once expanded its brilliant tail, pre- 
paratory to a cock of the same hue 
flapping his wings and crowing to 
announce the hour. The owl also rolled 
his eyes, and the grasshopper fed vora- 
ciously on the mushroom, in harmony 
with the chief actors in this compli- 
cated and now broken piece of me- 
chanism. It was made by a Prus- 
sian in London for a Kussian noble- 
man, at whose death Prince Potemkin 
bought it for the Empress Catherine. 
Around it, in glass cases, is a large 
and valuable collection of snuff-boxes, 
left by various sovereigns. The one 
presented to the Empress Alexandra, 
consort of Nicholas I., by Mahmoud 
n., Sultan of Turkey, with his por- 
trait in miniature on ivory, is resplen- 
dent with large diamonds of the first 
water. It contained a fine shawl. 
The snuff-box, No. 4044, with portraits 
of Marie Antoinette and her children, 
was presented by Louis XVI. on the 
scaffold to his valet-de-chambre Cl^ry. 
The miniature on No. 4042 portrays 
the Holstein army of Peter III. In- 
side the box is a bust of Duke George 
of Schleswig-Holsteui, uncle of Peter 
III. The beautiful painting on No. 
4043 represents the arrival of the first 
bride (Natalie of Hesse) of the Em- 
jieror Paul at Revel. No. 4023 is a 
snuff-box which Frederick the Great 
gave to one of his generals, with the 
Ibllowing lines written on a piece of 
paper inside : — 

•• Hier schenk Ich ibm waa, 
Heb er es wohl auf 
Denn es ist kein Dreck." 

In frames against the walls are 
numerous historical miniatures of great 
interest. Frame J contains very fine 
miniatures, by Benner, of sovereigns 
of the house of Bomanoff Frame L : 
Wallenstein (36), Frederick William 
the Great, Elector of Brandenburg (48), 



Louis XIV. (45\ Frame M ; Portraits 
of Charles I. and his Queen ; Cook (19), 
Milton (22), Cromwell (12), George 
IV. as Prmce of Wales (20), Moreau 
(21), taken after death ; Miss Porter 
(24). 

Beyond this again is a long gallery, 
with presses and glass-cases full of 
articles of virtu, curiosities, and his- 
torical knicknacks. At each side of 
the door is a toilette-case in silver, 
made at Augsburg for Sophia, sister of 
Peter I. The first press on the right, 
numbered 20, contains a valuable col- 
lection of jewelled watches and other 
costly objects. 

Press 19. Two very fine dishes of 
Limoges enamel, signed by Pierre Rex- 
mon, and six enamel plates by Jehan 
Court. No. 2925, the gold cup, in the 
form of a snail, belonged to Frederick 
William, Elector of Brandenburg. No. 
2880, the last cup on the top shelf, in 
the form of a shell, is a relic of John 
Sobieski 

Press 18. Model of a Lapland hut and 
household, carved in ivory. The two 
ivory vases, on either side, were pre- 
sented by Alexander I. to the Emperor 
of Japan, who sent them back, on the 
ground that he could not accept pre- 
sents from an inferior. 

Press 17. Toys of Catherine II. and 
Marie Feodorowna. A large salver, 
with the topography of the province 
of Wologda, produced in nieUo-work, 
present^ by the province to Alex- 
ander I. Potemkin's plume, glittering 
with precious stones, presented to him 
by the Sultan of Turkey. On the upper 
shelf is the golden goblet used at the 
marriage ceremonies of the Imperial 
family. On the first shelf a cup, sur- 
mounted by an eagle holding a balai 
ruby, which bears the name of Francis 
Drake. 

Press 16. No. 2627, magnificent 
casket of vermeil^ ornamented witli 
pearls, precious stones, and camei, pre- 
sented by Sigismund I., King of Po- 
land, to his friend Joachim I., Elector 
of Brandenburg, 1533. Monster pearls, 
mounted in a variety of forms by the 
Dinglinger family, jewellers to the 
court of Augustus Hj^Jl^presden. No. 
" JeromB' Bonaparte 
G 2 



2682, inkstand of , 



102 



Bouie 1. — St. Petersburg : The Hermitage. Sect. I. 



(king Lustig), taken at Cassel by 
Chemytcheff. 

Press 15. Filigree ornaments.— 2594, 
Inkstand of IV^urice of Orange, in- 
herited by Frederick I. of Prussia, and 
containing his seal. 

Press 14. Silver objects.— No. 2503, 
model of Strasbourg Cathedral ; two 
magnificent vermeil goblets; dish, with 
arms of Riga, on which the keys of the 
town were presented to the Empress 
Anne. 

Press 13. Japanese and Chinese 
articles of gold and silver plate. 

Press 12. Crystals.— 2366, small 
oval cup, that once belonged to Pope 
Clement VIII. Aldobrandini. On 2nd 
shelf large crystal cup, mounted in ver- 
meil and ornamented with diamonds 
and rubies, from the celebrated convent 
of Maria Zell, in Austria. Crystal cro- 
codile of Italian work. 2377, small 
tun, mounted with gold and precious 
stones, attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. 
On fifth shelf, spoon, with coral 
handle, belonged to John Sobieski of 
Poland. 

Press 11. Japanese and Chinese cu- 
riosities, in silver. 

Press 10. Kussian curiosities. — Four 
small groups, in schistus, by Weneft*. 
Several old cups and a casket, in 
enamel, called Tsenina, an art learned 
from Byzantium. Mosaic head of John 
the Baptist, by Siewers. 

The inspection of the presses is 
here interrupted by an object of some 
interest, placed on a stand. It is a 
massive silver goblet, by Schlick, of 
Copenhagen, on whicii the apotheosis 
of the Emperor Nicliolas appears in 
high relief. 

Press 9. Old Japanese and Chinese 
filigree work. — On upper shelf a silver 
wig, worn by Narishkin, Grand Mar- 
shal of the Court, at a fancy ball given 
by Catherine II. 

Press 8. Fine collection of old clocks 
and jewelled watches. — Two watches, 
in the shape of silver ducks. 2034, 
watch of an abbess, in form of a cross. 
2059 and 2060, two fine clocks of 
Augsburg work, early part of 17th 
century. 2035, on third shelf, watch, 
'~ shape of a Nuremburg egg, by cele- 
xl Kussian mechanic Kulybin. 



Press 7. Specimens of lapidary's art. 
— Handle of walking-stick, represent- 
ing a sphynx, in blood jasper, covered 
with diamonds ; belonged to Empress 
Elizabeth. No. 1904, parrot formed by 
a single emerald, presented by King 
Pedro II, of Portugal to his bride the 
Princess of Savoy. A casket of Flo- 
rence mosaic, with arms of Francis I., 
husband of Marie Th^se, destined 
for a collection of gems. Two magni- 
ficent bouquets, one of fleurs-de-lis^ 
composed of pearls and diamonds : the 
other of several flowers, formed by 
splendid topazes, sapphires, rubies, 
and other stones. 

Press 6. Lapidary's art— No. 1794, 
on second shelf, inkstand, in form of 
sofa, presented by Stanislas Ponia- 
towski to Catherine II. No. 1865, a 
large cup of pudding-stone, supported 
by St. Christopher, and surmounted 
by a figure of the Infant Christ. Two 
bouquets of precious stones. 

Press 5. Oriental jewellery. — Plume 
of Suwaroff, given to him by the Shah 
of Persia, and presented by the General 
to Catherine IT. 

Press 4. China. — Complete tea-ser- 
vice of china and enamel ; belonged 
to Augustus II. of Poland. A ca^et 
of Dresden china, ornamented with 
diamonds, and containing the card- 
markers still used at the empress* 
card-table. 

Press 3. No. 1609, glass drinking- 
horn, of the time of the last Crusades, 
with figures of 4 Evangelists, mounted 
in vermeil, of early part of 16th centy. 
No. 1612, a tankard of vermeil, orna- 
mented with crystals; cover, sur- 
mounted by the eagle of the house 
of KadziwiU, descending from the old 
ecclesiastical princes of Lithuania. On 
third shelf, No. 1630, a large cup of 
Anglo-Saxon work, found in Russia ; 
and at the back of the same shelf a 
large silver cover, in the same style, 
discovered in Siberia. No. 1629, ewer 
and basin, with arms and cipher of John 
Cherban III. Kantacuzen, Voevod of 
Wallachia. 

Press 2. On third shelf small crystal 
cup, mounted on vermeil, with the in- 
scription " Vsibus Annx CUvens Henr, 
VIII. Reg. Angl uxaris, Ao. 1540." On 



Russia. Boute 1. — St Fet&i-shurg : The Hermitage. 



103 



the other shelves will be seen a very 
t fine collection of Kubin glass, in- 
vented by the celebrated Knnkel, of 
Potsdam. 

Press I. An Inkstand, made to com- 
memorate the battle of Tchesm^ ; be- 
longed to Prince Orloflf, 

At the end of the room are a few 
specimens of ccirving in wood, some of 
uhich are by King. Passing by the 
{^lass-case with stones and the model 
of the monument at Poltava, the visitor 
will proceed to inspect the cases on the 
other side of the gallery. 

Glaas-cas^I. Chinese figures. 

Press 26. Head of Madonna, sculp- 
tored in mammoth-bone by Scheer, of 
Moscow, from model by Prof. Vitali ; 
height 23 in., breadth 20 in. Gives 
SMne idea of the size of the antediluvian 
animal whose tusks are so frequently 
fomid in Russia. No. 3394, chess-men, 
French work of period of Charles IX. 
Xo. 3411, a superb ivory dish, of Ger- 
man workmanship, representing hunt- 
ing scenes. 

Case II. More than 100 ornaments 
in gold filigree, from the toilet of a 
Japanese lady of quality; equal to 
Greek work for fineness, though not 
for design. Observe the magnificent 
necklace in the shape of a streptoa. 

Press 25. Collection of ivory figures, 
&c. 

Case III. Chinese jade cups. 

Press 24. Specimens ot carving in 
bone, from Archangel. 

Alongside, the visitor will view a 
modem work of art, illustrative of a 
recent page in history. It is a silver 
salver, which, in the allegorical forms 
of Hercules and the Hydra, records 
the triple alliance against Russia 
(1854-56) and its result.' Conceived 
and executed by Benjamin Schlick, of 
Copenhagen, and offered for sale to the 
Emperor. 

Press 23. Russian work, in ivory. — 

Portrait of Lomonossoff, the poet and 

I fisherman, bom at Archangel. Models 

' of monument to Minin Kusma Minitch 

Sukhomkoff (a butcher from Nijni 

I Xo vgoroil) find Prince Pojarsky erected 

u% 3U«?ow, 



Case V. Carving in ivory, from 14th 
centy. — Portrait of Christian V., King 
of Denmark, of Duke Augustus of 
Brunswick (4415), and of a Duke of 
Schleswig-Holstein (4414). 

Press 22. Articles which have be- 
longed to members of the Imperial 
Family. — Set of buttons painted by 
the wife and children of Emperor Paul. 
Lockets, with hair of Peter the Great, 
his father, &c. Dinner and breakfast 
services, used by Alexander I. in all 
his campaigns. 

Case VI. Collection of pocket-books. 
— Largest one in centre (7), enamelled 
and ornamented with diamonds and 
rubies ; belonged to the wife of George 
William, Elector of Brandenburg, and 
to both wives of Frederick William the 
Great, and containing autographs of 
Gustavus Adolplius and of most of the 
German Princes and Princeses of the 
time of the 30 years* war. Memo- 
randum-book in morocco ^28), with 
gold and enamelled cipher of Sophia 
Charlotte, wife of Frederick III., after- 
wards first Queen of Prussia ; given by 
her to Peter the Great at Konigsberg. 
Small book (27), with gold cipher of 
Augustus II., King of Poland. Book, 
with tortoiseshell cover, studded with 
sapphires and rubies; belonged to 
Peter III., husband of Catherine II. 
Also a few specimens of niello-work. 

Press 21. Filigree work. — Silver 
peacock, presented to Nicholas I. by 
Viceroy of Peru. Model of a Sardi- 
nian cannon, with the cross of the 
Annunciation. 

On small stands near the press are 
marble busts of Charles of Anjou, King 
of Naples, and his wife, Margaret of 
Flanders. 

Case VII. A very valuable collection 
of rings. — Ring, with portrait of Peter 
I. under a pink diamond; another 
with likeness of Frederick the Great. 
Several betrothal rings of the Imperial 
family will be seen in the upper small 
case. The ring of greatest interest is 
engraved with the arms of E. Fries- 
land ; it was given by the Princess of 
Frieslnnd to Sophia Ciiarlotto, the un- 
happy wife of tiie Toarevitch Alexis, 



104 



Boute 1.— 5<. Petersburg : the Hermitage. Sect. I. 



The jewelled walking-stick handles 
belonged to Catherine II. Under the 
case will he found an umbrella, made 
at Tula for the great empress. 

Visitors withdraw through Peter the 
Greafs gallery. 



Ground-floor, 

The ground-floor of the Museum is 
occupied by galleries of antique sculp- 
ture, by the Kertch and Siberian collec- 
tions, by a library, and by a gallery of 
original drawings, which should be seen 
in the order here given. 

Sculpture.— Isi Room. Entering by 
a door on the 1. hand, guarded by two 
very tall candelabra of rhodonite, the 
visitor is introduced to a few Egyptian 
and Assyrian fragments of sculpture, 
six sarcophagi, and, to some casts from 
the bas-reliefs of Nemroud. 

2nd Room. Fragments of Greek 'and 
Roman sculpture.* On a bracket 
against the wall (rt.), bust ofApollonius 
Tyaneus, the Pythagorean philosopher, 
whose portrait lias hitherto only been 
known by a medal. 44. Head of Statue 
of Juno ; hair and drapery modern ; 
discovered in the Taurida palace; 
origin unknown. 87. Panther, from 
the Campana collection. f 60. Large 
bust of Antinoiis, found at Adrian's 
Villa (C). 

3rd Room, 147. Omphale with at- 
tributes of Hercules (C). 148. Mer- 
cury (C). 171. Mars. 152. Colossal 
statue of Jupiter ; considered largest in 
the world ; found at the Villa Barberinl ; 

* For details purchase of the porter • Cata- 
logue du Musee de Sculpture Antique.' Price 
20 cop. The collection of Egyptian antiquities 
has been enriched by the valuable gifts of Kha- 
lil Bey, Turkish minister at St Petersburg. 

f In 1861 Mr.GuedeonofP, the present Direct- 
or of the Hermitage, purchased for the Russian 
Government a considerable portion of the col- 
lection of the Marquis Campana at Rome, whose 
defalcations in connection with the Mont de 
Piete, are well known. The French Govern- 
ment bought the lessl valuable portion at a 
^■eat price. The most important of the objects 
^nf^lng to the Campana collection will be 
ced and marked with the letter C. 



very much repaired (C). 173. Bacchus. 
154. Very fine statue of Venus Genetrix, 
in best style of Grecian art (C). 175, 
Niobe (C.) ; excellent specimen of the 
antique. 176. Colossal head of Minerva, 
in Parian marble, probably of epoch of 
Phidias. The .two marble sarcophagi 
at the head of the room are remarkable 
for the beauty of the figures in relief 

(C). 

4th Room. 193. Well-restored statue 
of Augustus (C). 194. Beautiful statue 
of Marius, found at Otricoli (C). 200. 
Arsinoe Philopator ; nose, lower lip, and 
lobes of ears restored. 209. Pompey ; 
and 210 Julius Csesar (C). 207. Only 
existing bust of Sallust (C). 

5th Room. In centre immense Tazza 
of green jasper from the Altai mount- 
ains. It was placed before the windows 
were built; diameter 16 J ft. ; more than 
8 ft. high. 240. Titus Quinctius. 

6th Room. Near door on rt. 274. 
Very fine statuette of Silenus. 266, 
near the window. Faun and Satyr 
(C). 

7th Room. Kertch collection, which 
see separately. 

8th Room. The Nine Muses, from 
the collection of the Marquis Campana, 
but of various origin. ' 303. Caryatide 
Muse, in style of school of Phidias ; 
bought at Venice in 1851. 332. Bas- 
relief of Ganymede. 337. Niobides ; 
very fine fragment (C). 316. A Faun; 
best specimen out of lour in the Her- 
mitage ; given by Pope Pius IX. in ex- 
change for some land on Mount Pala- 
tine, purchased by the Emperor Nicho- 
las in 1846, for the purpose of making 
excavations. 

9th Room. Venus of the Hermitage. 
343. Very beautiful Greek statue found 
in 1859 at Rome, in the Vigna Man- 
gani, near the Porta Portese; well pre- 
served ; only right hand, fingers of left 
hand, and small portion of neck re- 
stored; purchased 1859. 347. Venus 
from the Taurida Palace; Peter the 
Great caused it to be purchased at 
Rome in 1719, with some other an- 
tiques, and thus laid the foundation of 
the present sculpture gallery. There 
is another Venus with a Cupid (351) 
near the door. Cupid has been added 
by the sculptor Bernini (C). 



Eussia. Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : The Hermitage. 



105 



Kertch CoUecUon. — ^7th Boom. An- 
tiquities from Cimmenan Bosporus. 

Medals and other monuments attest- 
ing the existence of Greek colonies, 
founded nearly 600 years before the 
birth of our Saviour, be^an to be dis- 
covered in the early part of this cen- 
tury on tlie northern shores of the 
Black Sea. The classical names of 
PanticapaBum, Theodosia, and Phana- 
<;oria, reappeared on the surface. 
Many discoveries were made on the 
sites of those ancient settlements in 
1820, but the earliest prizes of any 
value were obtained in 1831, at the 
gates of Kertch (Panticapseum), on 
opening a tomb concealed-in a mound, 
long known to the Tartars as the 
" Hillock of the Brave." In a chamber 
built of hewn stone were found the 
remains of a Scythian prince or ruler, 
side by side with his favourite wife, his 
equerry, and his war-horse. His crown, 
his weapons of gold, his ornaments, and 
golden robes, had lain untouched for 
more than two thousand years. Nume- 
rous vases of bronze, some gilt, others 
more simple, and still confining the 
remains of provisions which had been 
placed in them, were also found, and 
carefully conveyed to the Hermi- 
tage. 

Within the last few years the search 
for these treasures has been conducted 
at the expense of the crown with 
greater method and care, which were 
rewarded in 1866 by the discovery at 
Taman of the tomb of a Priestess of 
Ceres, buried with all her rich orna- 
ments, and with her four horses. The 
tomb was found within the "Great 
Tumulus," or Blimitsa.* 

The Kertch antiquities have been 
supplemented by many specimens of 
ancient jewellery and pottery dis- 
covered in other parts of the Crimea, 
particularly at Theodosia and Nedvi- 

* The traveller is referred for a learned, de- 
scription of theae treasures to the valuable works 
of the curator of this museum, Mr. I^ Stephani : 
' Compte Rendu de la Commission Imp. Arch^ 
logique pour I'annee 1859; Idem, pour led 
annees 1860-6Y.* These 9 volumes may be 
pnTx:hased at 5 rs. each at Ej^ers' Library, St. 
JPetersburg. They may also be purchased at 
Leipzig. A short description of the Museum, 
in French, may be obtained at the door of the 
Hermitage. 



gofka, at the mouth of the Don^ tho 
ancient Tanai's. 

A study of these treasures will reveal 
two species or phases of art, tho one 
Greek, the other local. Attracted by 
commerce, and by the riches of tlu^ 
Scythians, the Greeks engrafted their 
ancient civilization on them, aud min- 
gled their mythology and their classical 
forms and legends with the customs, 
the emblems, the costumes, and even 
the physical types of the barbarians. 
The classical scholar will be able to 
distinguish in this museum the gems 
of art purely Greek, and the scarcely 
less b^utiful productions of the Greek 
artists and their disciples of the colonies, 
which form together the most perfect 
and interesting collection of objects of 
antique art in the world, immeasurably 
superior to the analogous collections of 
Naples, 8md other favoured localities in 
Italy. The Turks and a few sailors, 
quite as many French as English, be- 
haved very badly at Kertch, but fortu- 
nately only a very few Greek antiqui- 
ties were destroyed or carried away by 
them. The museum there, founded in 
1823, had only been a temporary de- 
pository of the antiquities ; and, with 
the exception of some duplicates, all 
the riches hitherto obtained from tho 
classical shores of the Cimmerian 
Bosporus had been removed to St. 
Petersburg in 1852 ; and even the 
more valuable of the duplicates were 
taken away at the breaking out of the 
Crimean war, and have since been 
restored. An Englishman, however, 
may always deplore that any repository 
of the fine arts should have been plun- 
dered in the course of military opera- 
tions in which his country was con- 
cerned. 

In a magnificent room, of which the 
roof is supported by twenty monolith 
columns of grey granite, the treasures 
of the Cimmerian Bosporus are dis- 
played under the windows and against 
the walls in the following order : — 

To the rt. of the door on entering 
is a sarcophagus of wood, found in 
1860 in a tumulus near Kertch. To 
the 1. of the door is the case or coflSn 
found inside the sarcophagus, and 
which contained the skeleton deposited 



106 



Boute 1. — St, Petersburg : The Hermitage. Sect. I. 

evity (407) ; wheateaxs of beaten gold, 
probably worn as ornaments in the 
hair. 

4th Window. Gold ornaments found 
in the " Great Tmnulus " at Taman. 
Case rt., vases, 36a and 36&, Paris and 
Helena, of magnificent workmanship. 
Case 1., vases: 13a, Education of 
young Bacchus. 

Opposite 4th window, magnificent 
vase with figures in relief, coloured 
and gilded, representing combats be- 
tween the Griffins and Arimaspi ; one 
of the principal personages, named 
A6rokomas, is on horseback; the other, 
Dar^ios, is in a chariot drawn by 2 
horses ; one of the griffins has a lion's 
head with large horns ; an inscription 
says " Xenophantos of Athens has 
made it : "—a Greek artist, probably 
domiciled in Khersonesus about the 
3rd or 4th centy. B.C. 

Between the 4th and 5th windows is 
a collection of female necklaces in 
gold. No. 148, a most perfect gold 
filigree necklace or hormos^ found at 
Theodosia, in same tomb with 3 other 
necklaces alongside. Victories with 
quadrigSB will be seen on close inspec- 
tion to form the design of the 2 filigree 
earrings (84i). Beautiful gold and 
enamel necklace withmyosotes (164c); 
necklace (160) with pendent charms ; 
gold necklace with pendent bull's 
head (163), of magnificent workman- 
ship; beautiful gold necklace, ter- 
minating in head of Medusa, with 
pendent amulets against various ills 
(161). 

5th Window. In the 3 cases are 
placed the various objects found in the 
tomb of Kul-Ubk 

Case rt., ornaments for male attire : 
530a, 5306, silver staffs, supposed to 
be heralds' ; 432, gold lunbo of shield 
weighing 25 oz. ; 456, group of 2 Scy- 
thians drinking out of the same horn, 
with an intimacy which betrays the in- 
fluence of Bacchus ; 433, part of scab- 
bard ; 431, handle of sword ; 436, re- 
mains of stirrups, iron and gold ; 434, 
handle of whip, wood, with thin spiral 
gold plate. The other objects wortli 
notice are 3 knives, and (447) the 



there 400 years B.C. The vermilion 
with which some of the ornaments 
were coloured is still to be traced, and 
the wood itself, supposed to be cypress 
and yew, appears almost new. 

1st Window. — Under window, terra- 
cotta figures. Case rt. terracotta 
figures of children playing with vari- 
ous animals; a child's doll, with 
moveable legs and arms: found in 
tombs of children. Case 1., masks 
and other objects in pottery. First 
from door. Pyramidal Stand I. : do- 
mestic utensils of silver, of graceful, 
classical form. 

Between 1st and 2nd windows. 
Pyramidal Stand II. : small objects 
in silver, strigils and ampulla; 643 
and 515, drinking-cup ; 575, head of 
calf, finely chased, 5 centuries B.C. ; 
cyathus for wine, and mirror, 

2nd Window. Cases on each side 
with glass vessels; 796, a painted 
glass vase, with " Enrion has made 
it." Case under window — glass orna- 
ments, chiefly amulets; walnuts, al- 
monds, and filberts ; 994, hucklebones 
for game of Talus (Astragalos). 

Between 2nd and 3rd windows, 
Pyram. Stand III., with 6 funereal 
crowns of beaten gold. 

3rd Window. Under window : 186. 
Small ivory box still containing the 
red pigment used by the Greek ladies; 
3 dice; a wooden small-tooth comb 
with Greek inscription, " Present from 
sister ; " a splendid bronze cover of a 
looking-glass ; small ornaments from 
dress ; and remains of a wooden lyre. 
Case rt., painted vases ; centre vase in 
best style of Greek art ; subject, the 
toilet ; a vase alongside, same design. 

Opposite 3rd window, iron casque, 
with gold and silver ornaments. Be- 
tween 3rd and 4th window, octagon 
case full of female ornaments of gold ; 
buttons, pins, necklaces, gold escallop- 
shells, gold filigree wine-strainer 
(527a). Bracelets of silver on which 
links of gold were once passed ; small 
gold chain of exquisite workmanship, 
with precious stones inserted between 
links ; heads of stag— symbol of long- 



Bii8s!a. Bctde 1. — SU Petersburg : The Hermitage, 



107 



stone for sharpening them; brace- 
lets (427), weighing 6 oz. each, and 
(426), weighing 3 oz., of gold, bearing 
a representation of Thetis defending 
herself against Peleus, and Aurora 
carrying away the body of her son 
Memnon, killed under the walls of 
Troy. The streptos or collar (424) of 
twisted gold wire, weighing 16 J oz., 
and terminating in two Scythian horse- 
men, is of great beauty; the blue 
enamel still preserved at the extre- 
mities of the ring or collar. 458, small 
Scythian figure with bow and arrows. 

Under window. Fragments of a lyre, 
probably of mammotii tusk, found 
abundantly on the Don ; on it is a most 
beautiful etching in the highest style 
of Greek art, the Judgment of Paris 
being one of the subjects ; broken by 
the falling in of the tumulus. 451, 
electrum vase, with repousse figures of 
Scythians mending their weapons, &c. 
The principal figm-e appears to have 
been woimded in the mouth and leg ; 
he is seen a second time submitting 
to an operation which looks like tooth- 
drawing, and a third time having his 
wounds dressed ; the costumes resemble 
tho^ of the peasantry in Bussia at the 
present day, the shirt being worn out- 
tide the trousers, which are tucked 
into the boot. 573, a silver rhyton or 
drinking-horn ; 574, ditto. 

CJase 1. Female ornaments, &c. : 428, 
gold bracelets, each weighing 3 oz., of 
finest workmanship; fel, earrings, 
weighing 2 oz. each. It is necessary 
to have a microscope in order to see the 
delicate figures concealed in the ex- 
quisite ornamentation of tliese jewels. 
There are four female figures in each, 
representing Thetis, followed by her 
Nereides, bringing to Achilles the new 
arms forged for him by Vulcan. These 
were probably supported by Victories, 
detached, perhaps, by accident. Blue 
enamel visible in some parts. The 
gold collar (425) is inferior to the one 
opposite. The use of these ornaments 
was Barbarian, not Greek. 439, neck- 
lace of plaited gold thread, terminating 
in lion's head, not so delicate as the 
one in last window ; 450, mirror with 
gold handle; the small gold lamina9 
proceed from the dress, to which, judg- 



ing by the holes in them, they were 
attached. 

Opposite 5th window is one of the 
finest Greek vases in the world, repre- 
presenting the Toilet; of beautiful 
design. Found near Kertch. 

Between 5th and 6th windows, oc- 
tagon case with gems. 2 gems re- 
presenting a heron flying, signed 
" Dexamenos," are the finest and most 
important in the Hermitage, or per- 
haps anywhere. No. 292^ was found 
in a tomb at Kertch, and probably 
dates 4 centuries B.C. ; gem 290, 
Marsyas and Apollo ; 296a, Medusa ; 
329, Ceres ; 295, a griffin ; 296, Venus 
at bath; 292, figure of a Scythian. 
Two largest known thumb-rings of 
gold, with heads of Minerva in cor- 
nelian; gold rings, plain and en- 
graved; 246, Scythian trying his 
arrow, most curious ; 247a, a weU-pre- 
served Victory on gold signet-ring. 

Bth Window. Case rt., painted vases 
with bacchanalian scenes. 

In the case under the window are 
chiefly objects found in the tomb of a 
young woman at the Pavlovsk Battery 
at Kertch : 650, looking-glass, necklace, 
earrings formed by Victories, and a 
ring containing the bone of her finger ; 
247/, blue enamel ring, representing 
2 Scythian dancers ; 247a, a ring with 
Venus at the bath; 2 boots of one 
piece, except the soles; fragments of 
embroidered dress, partly worked witli 
gold thread; 110, painted vase in 
terracotta, representing a Scythian 
dancing. 

Case 1., painted vase with baccha- 
nalian subjects. 

Opposite the 6th window, on a stand 
will be found the painted Greek vase, 
which is the second for beauty in the 
collection. It was taken from the 
tomb at the Pavlovsk Battery near 
Kertch. The figures are those of 
Triptolemus, Hecate, Ceres, Hercules, 
Proserpine, &c. 

Between tlie 6th and 7tli windows 
is a collection of female ornaments 
from dresses, and earrings; five fe- 
male heads wearing the stepharuf, 
some showing the bull-headed pen- 
dants ; enamelled Cupids and Sirera 
• G 3 



108 



Bmiie 1. — St Petersburg : The Hermitage, Sect. I. 

The remains of the sandals worn by 
the priestess will also be seen with 
interest. The splendid ear-ornaments 
(84;) were worn suspended from the 
crown over the ears, in addition to 
earrings. The square gold plates 
from the dress of the priestess are 
stamped with ^ the head of Medusa, 
whose tongue ' protrudes as a charm 
against the evil eye. The cases rt. 
and 1. are full of the most graceful 
little terracotta figures, with subjects 
from domestic life ; also^ alabastra 
and lamps. On some of the figures 
will be seen a head-dress (jmIos), 
which was probably the origin of the 
nimbus. 

On a stand opposite this window are 
a vase and basin of gilt bronze, with 
handles in form of serpents springing 
from the head of Medusa. In the 
pyramidal case (No. VI., at the end of 
the room) are 7 gold crowns or 
wreaths of beaten gold, some with 
gems and precious stones. The largest 
and finest, with a representation of 
combats with grifl&ns, belonged to tlio 
Priestess of Ceres. 

In a recess beyond this window the 
visitor will see some large vessels of 
brotize, in the shape of a modern car- 
penter's basket, which contained the 
mutton with which the corpse at Kul- 
Uba was supplied. At the head of 
the room are tlie remains of a beautiful 
marble tomb with 2 recumbent figures ; 
the bas-reliefs evidently represented 
Achilles at Syros; work of the 2nd 
centy. b.c. Along the wall on the 
opposite side of the museum are nume- 
rous funereal tablets and sepulchral 
monuments bearing inscriptions and 
figures of Greeks and Scythians ; 22c 
is an unfinished marble bust, found on 
Mithridates' Hill; the colunm of a 
temple of Venus at Khersonesus ; a 
bronze urn, enclosed in the stone, 
showing the way in which it was de- 
posited, and a votive tablet witli a 
figure of Proserpine and other mytho- 
logical personages, may be noticed. 
On a stand is a beautiful silver helmet 
of Grecian work and imusual form. 

The sarcophagus of Kul-Uba stands 
in a glass case;." the carving of the 
wood and the figures in relief are 



in various positions; 73a, 2 Bac- 
chantes of delicate workmanship. 

7th Window. Case rt, painted vases ; 
43c, Orestes and Pylades in the Areo- 
pagus. 

In case under window, silver salver, 
with border and centre of niello-work, 
and a monogram combining the let- 
ters A. N. T. B. ; a gold mask, which 
had covered the face of a female ; gold 
spindle ; small amphora for perfume, 
studded with garnets; gold bracelets 
and ornaments from dress ; fragments 
of dress. 

Case 1., painted vases with human 
figures (see 111 and 112). Opposite 
tMs window is a fine urn of gilt 
bronze. 

Between 7th and 8th windows. 
Pyramid, stand IV. with funereal 
wreaths ; the 2 upper crowns have an 
impression from coins of Marc Aure- 
lius and of Commodus with Marcia. 

8th Window. Case rt, bronze vases ; 
2 pairs of greaves. 

Under window. Bronze scales from 
harness ; arrow-heads (6186, with a 
single barb); three ladles for wine; 
strigils. 

Case 1., fragments of harness and 
trappings of bronze and iron, studded 
with stones. Opposite the window is 
a vase representing a scene evidently 
Hymeneal. 

Between 8th and 9th windows. Py- 
ramid, stand V. with funereal wreaths. 

9th Window. The case under this 
window contains the richest treasures 
in the museum. They were found in 
1866 in the ** Great Tumulus" at 
Taman, and constitute the ornaments, 
&c., of a priestess of Ceres, and the 
trappings of the four horses that were 
buried with her. Among the orna- 
ments, the visitor will be struck with 
the extraordinary beauty of the re- 
jwusse work — Venus and Cupid — on a 
looking-glass cover of bronze-gilt. 
The bracelets, diadem, and necklace, 
and the buttons of her dress, are all 
of exquisite workmanship, as are also 
*Ve 4 rings, of which one, the gold 
•ab»us (241 F), is quite unique. 



fiossia. Boute 1. — St, Petersburg : The Hermitage, 



109 



very fine ; the gilding and colour are 
still partly preserved. 

The 2 stataes of a Greek lady and 
her husband may well be noticed for 
their beauty and perfection, not hav- 
ing been in the least restored; pro- 
bably of the 1st centy. after Christ. 
The other objects on stands, a helmet 
and greaves (Knemides) of bronze, 
will have the parting glance in this 
interesting and unequalled collection. 



Scythian Collection, 

After leaving the Kertch room, the 
visitor shoald return to the Gallery of 
tlie Muses, and, admiring once more the 
'* Venus of the Hermitage,** pass into a 
room devoted to a collection of Scythian, 
Siberian, Oriental, and ancient Kussian 
objects of antiquity. Here the progress 
and influence of Greek art may be 
studied in another stage. Although the 
Scythian ornaments found near Nicolaef 
and the Don, at a comparatively small 
distance from the Greek colonies, are of 
the most exquisite workmanship, and 
might well have come from Athens, yet 
the greater part are somewhat inferior 
and different in point of art, and were 
po-haps manufactured by the Greek art- 
istB of Panticapseum or their scholars. 
The mythology of the Greeks appears 
r^laeed by representations of the do- 
mestic usages of the Scythians, or con- 
fined to the reproduction of £a.bulous 
animals, not persons. Gold was cheaper 
inland than on the shores of the 
Bosporus, and the jewellery of the Scy- 
thians of the Don is consequently more 
massive than that of tlie Greek colo- 
nists. The gold objects, again, found in 
Siberia, perhaps the countoy of the Ari- 
maspi, are still more solid and heavy, 
and are generally in the lowest style of 
art, with scarcely any Greek attributes. 
The same may be said of the gold orna- 
ments of the oriental Scythians, whom 
Strabodescribeswandering between the 
Oxos and the Jaxartes, and as wearing 
*• in combat girdles of gold, and round 
the head bands of gold ; the bits and 
plastrons of their horses are of gold." 
' Strabo, book xi.) 

The most important objects in this 



room will be found on the three centre 
stands. On the first circular stand will 
be found the gold corytos or bow-case of 
the king (421). It b^irs a mythological 
Greek subject, in repouss6 work, pro- 
bably of local interest to a Scythian 
ruler. In the next compartment is the 
gold scabbard of his sword, representing 
a battle-scene between Greeks and Scy- 
thians, in which the fate of the battle 
appears equally balanced (424) ; the 
hilt of the sword, with handle of solid 
gold (425); other swords of inferior 
workmanship will be seen in Nos. 428 
and 436; No. 419 is a sharpening 
stone. The other things exhibited in 
this case are gold ornaments from the 
dresses of the king and the queen, 
buried with them, some of them being 
evidently of barbarian- origin ; Medusa 
heads frequent; the dog engraved on 
ring 374 is a good specimen of art. . 

On the 2nd stand is the splendid vase 
of silver gilt discovered in 1863, with the 
dish and ornaments on the remaining 
stands, in the tomb of a Scythian king, 
on the banks of tlie Dnieper. The vase, 
28 in. higli, is in the most perfect style 
of Greek art, and cannot be of later date 
than the 4th centy. B.C. The magnifi- 
cent relief figures round the upper part 
represent Scythians taming and other- 
wise attending to horses, which pro- 
bably belong to the king's stable. The 
repousse griffins attacking stags are 
mythological allusions to the country 
inhabited by the Scythians, in which 
the fabulous animal was supposed to 
exist. Instead of being poured out with 
a cyathus, the wine evidently flowed 
out through the heads of the Pegasus 
and lion below, after passing through a 
fine strainer inside. Probably the work 
of an Athenian artist of the period of 
Praxiteles. 

A large silver dish and ladle, found 
with the above objects, is placed on 
the 3rd centre stand ; they are of pure 
Greek work. 

Other specimens of Greek art, with 
a considerable admixture of barbarian 
imitations, will be seen in some of the 
cases in this room. They are numbered 
consecutively, but must be described 
here according to the groups or collec- 
1 tions to which they beloi^^^ 



110 



Boute 1. — St, Petersburg : The Hermitage, Sect. I. 



Cases 4 and 6 form an entire collec- 
tion of the Scythian objects found in a 
tumulus on the banks of the Dnieper. 

Case 5, Objects found in the same 
tomb as the vase, dish, &c., on the 
centre stands (Nos. 1 to 3). On the top 
of the case are some gold cups of large 
size, found at Serai, the ancient capital 
of the Khans of the Golden Horde. 

Case 7 contains gold and silver ob- 
jects found la a tiunulus near Novo- 
cherkask, and which must have be- 
longed to some king. From the style 
of the diadem and the small Cupid in 
gold (13), they must be contempora- 
neous with the Emperors of Rome. 

Cases 8, 9, 12. Gold and silver ob- 
jects removed here from the Academy 
of Sciences. They were mostly found 
in the Southern Steppe provinces, and 
only a small minority in Siberia. The 
traveller will notice in the case nearest 
the door a Streptos of solid gold, ter- 
minating in the bodies of lions and 
weighing 3 lbs. Some of the orna- 
ments aie studded with turquoises. 
Case 12 is under the left window. 

Cases 10, 11, and 13. These will be 
found near the windows. They contain 
objects attributed to the Chud or Fin- 
nish race, anciently inhabiting the 
confines of Siberia and Russia Proper. 
The bronze weapons of the same people, 
such as daggers, knives, and mining 
implements, will be found in a case 
near the window. 

Cases 14 and 18 contain a collection 
of bronze objects from the Kirghiz 
Steppes, such as celts, arrow and spear 
heads, &c. 

Case IG, imder 2nd window, holds a 
collection of Byzantino-Slave objects, 
found principally at Kief The gold 
earrings with enamelled figures of 
Sirens are of the 11th centy., as is 
also the large gold medal of Chernigof 
seen in the centre of the case. The 
inscription round it, in Slavonic, is 
** Lord aid thy servant Basil." In the 
centre is the head of Medusa and a 
dragon being vanquished by a figure 
representing Christianity. This was a 
kind of amulet worn round the neck by 
the early Russian princes and their 
•onsorts in the 11th and 12th cents. 

s Basil was the name taken by St. Vla- 



dimir when he was baptized, it is not 
improbable that the amulet belonged 
to that sovereign. 

Case 17 is full of Mongolian pottery 
found in the ruins of Serai. 

Case No. 20, under the 3rd window, 
contains 2 well-preserved dishes of Per- 
sian (Sassanide) work, of the early- 
part of the Christian era ; also the re- 
mains of a gold sheath, with Assyi-iaii 
winged figures. The most remarkable 
object in this case is, however, the silver 
patera, with a border in bas-relief, re- 
presenting crocodiles, pelicans, leopards, 
and the lotus-flower. In the bottom of 
the dish are the repousse figures of a 
man standing on the back of another 
and chiselling the first 5 letters of the 
Greek alphabet on a tower of 2 stories. 
The subject is evidently the Nilome- 
ter. Found in the province of Perm, 
on the borders of Siberia, and probably 
Roman work of the 2nd centy. a.c. 



Library, <fec. 

The room next the Siberian Gallery 
is occupied by a collection of engrav- 
ings, the basis of which is formed by 
those of the Walpole collection. It is 
said to contain 200,000 plates, some of 
which are exposed in glass cases ; but 
they cannot be particularized, ns they 
arc changed several times in the 
course of the year. 

The Library is contained in the 
next room. It was formerly composed 
of the libraries of Diderot, d'Alem- 
bert, Voltaire, and many others ; but 
the greater part of the books and 
MSS. have been removed to the 
Public Library, leaving only 10,000 
vols, on Archajology (some of which, 
are of great value and interest), and a 
collection of works on art, together 
with documents relating to the dif- 
ferent museums of the Hermitage. 
Only a portion of the Archseological 
Library is here; the rebt has been 
removed to remote rooms. 

Part of the library is railed ol? 
and appropriated to a collection of 
archffiological curiosities and small 
bronzes, many of them being Pom- 
l^eian, and dug out of the ground iu 



Russia. Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : The Hei^iitage, 



111 



the presence of members of the Im- 
perial family. The spears at the en- 
trance are Etruscan. The 1st case at 
the window (A 4) contains 3 paterse 
and other small objects. Case B, large 
silver salver (413) of Eoman work, 
foond near the river Pruth, in Mol- 
davia. Another dish (446), of re- 
pousse' work, representing the chase, 
also Soman, found in S. of Kussia; 
Mirror; 406, "Venus and Adonis/' 
remarkable. Last Case : 14 mirrors, 
principally Etruscan, and engraved. 
The Etruscan helmet (364), found at 
Bolsena, is one of tlie most valuable 
objects from the Campana collection. 
It is of bronze, with a thin covering 
of silver, like the helmet (682) in the 
Kertch collection. It is surmounted 
by a crest, covered with a thin plate 
of gold, on which some ornaments are 
engraved. The indentation seen at 
the top was made by the stone which 
killed the wearer, whose fractured 
skull was found inside, and lies under 
Case B. Over the helmet are an 
Etruscan javelin and shield, and a 
pair of greaves. Against the wall on 
the other side are 6 bronze helmets, 
Etruscan and Roman. There is an- 
otlier fine Etruscan hebnet (423) on a 
stand by itself, found in the necro- 
polis of Vulci by Lucien Bonaparte ; 
the 3 gold crowns have been restored 
from antique models. Over it a bronze 
cuirass and 2 shields. Opposite it, 
on a stand, is a large and massive 
bilver pail (431), found in Moldavia, 
with figures of Leda, Cupid, Hylas, 
Daphne and Apollo, &c., in reponsse 
work. The vase, 373, with relief 
figures of amazons and handled, formed 
by Centaurs, was found with it. 
Roman work, 3rd centy. a.o. 

The cases on the other side, 9 to 12, 
are full of statuettes in bronze and 
terracotta, lamps, small vases, and 
other articles of pottery. On the top 
of Case 3 two bronze statuettes, found 
in S. Russia (553), with a Cliristian 
inscription. In Case 1, a steelyard. 
An elegant Etruscan tripod will be 
noticed on a stand. 

The long gallery alongside, opening 
into the library, corresponds with that 
upstairs painted in imitation of the 



Loggia of Raphael. It is called the 
Gallery of Drawings by ancient mas- 
ters (about 12,000 numbers). The 
drawings exposed on tlio walls and in 
the glass cases being clianged period- 
ically, it is impossible to indicate the 
numbers. Among the most interest- 
ing in the collection are the follow- 
ing : — Landscai)e and head of an old 
man, by Rembrandt. Van Dyck : 
portraits of Breughel '* the Velvet," 
Francois de Moncade (whose eques- 
trian picture is in the Louvre), and 
head of the painter Sebastian Vrancx ; 
a sketch for the picture in the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Buccleuch. Ru- 
bens : Helen Fourment, Cleopatra, 
and the sketch for the large picture 
in the Hermitage, Magdalen washing 
the feet of Christ in tlie house of the 
Pharisee. Charming sketches of fe- 
male heads, by Lancret ; a nude figui-e 
and pretty head, by Boucher ; and an 
old woman spinning, by Wntteau. 

After leaving the gallery the visitor 
passes through 4 rooms, containing a 
very large and well-arranged collec- 
tion of Greek and Etruscan vases, of 
every possible shape and form, and 
more than 1300 in number, and the 
finest, in point of quality, though not. 
in extent, in the world. They be- 
longed principally to a collection made 
by Dr. Pizzati, and were for some 
time deposited at the Academy of Arts ; 
but the most valuable specimens are 
from the Campana Museum. Anti- 
quities of this description being well 
known in England, it will sullico to 
mention the 3 principal vases in the 
collection. In the centre of Room 17 
stands the gem in this department. 
It is the beautiful and perhaps match- 
less vase found at Cumse, purchased 
with the Campana Museum, and called 
" the king of vases." The beauty of 
the relief and the freshness of the 
gilding and colours render it one of 
the most interesting specimens of ce- 
ramic art. The subject represented 
is the Mysteries of Eleucis; of 4th 
centy. B.C. 

The other vase or amphora next to 
it in beauty and size is No. 523, to tho 
1. of the Cumse vase. Subject, Battle 
of the Gods ^i^d ,^yite6wgBL4'^^ ^^ 



112 



Boute 1, — St Peiershurg : Cathedral, 



Sect. I. 



another fine Apulian amphora, with a 
representation of Priam asking Achilles 
for the body of Hector .♦ 

The mosaic floor in this room was 
excavated in the Crimea. 

The visitor will pass out through a 
room in the centre of which is a large 
tazza of aventurine. The stands for 
candelabra at the door in the hall bear 
the date of the birth of the Emperor 
Alexander I., to whom they were pre- 
sented. 



5. Marble Palace^ on the Court Quay. 
— This was erected by Catherine, 
between 1770 and 1783, as a residence 
for Prince Gregory Orloff, who died 
before its completion. It was designed 
by Quarenghi, and was the residence 
of Stanislaus Poniatowski until his 
death, when it became the property of 
Constantino, brother of the Emperor 
Nicholas. At present it is inhabited 
by the Grand Duke Constantino Nico- 
laevitch. The extraordinarily massive 
Walls of this sombre building are built 
of blocks of granite ; the supports of 
the roof are iron beams, the roof itself 
sheet copper, the window-frames gilded 
copper. There is very little marble in 
its construction to justify its name. 
Over the riding-school and stables 
alongside is a colossal bas-relief by 
Baron Klodt, a Russian sculptor. 

This palace is not generally in- 
spected by tourists. 



6. Fortress and Cathedral of St, 
Peter and 8t, Paul, — Peter the Great 
laid the foundation of a fortress on the 
16th May, 1703, but the present forti- 
fications of stone were commenced in 
1706 under the superintendence of 
Tressini, an Italian architect. The 
corner stone of the cathedral was laid 
in 1714 on the site of a church built 
in 1703. Consecrated in 1733, it was 
struck by lightning for the third time 
in 1756. The spire fell in and de- 
stroyed a Dutch clock which had been 
placed in the tower at great expense, 

* Vide 'Catalogue des Vases Peints/ 1864. 
Price 25 cop. Sold at the door of the Hermitage. 



besides doing much, other damage. 
The body of the ch. was restored in 
1757, and Balles, a Dutch architect, 
drew the plan of a new belfry and 
spire. The former was finished in 
1770, and the latter was put up in 
1772. The frame-work was covered 
with sheets of copper, as well as the 
globe, the angel, and the cross which 
surmounts the spire. The gilding of 
the copper cost 2814 ducats, or 22 
pounds of pure gold. The present 
clock, with chimes, was put up in 
1774. The angel and cross showing 
symptoms of decay, a Eussian peasant 
undertook in 1830 to repair them. He 
accomplished the feat with extraordi- 
nary daring, aided only by a nail and 
a rope, and repaired the damage ; but 
in 1855 it was found necessary to 
erect a scaffolding to the very top of 
the spire in order to secure it more 
thoroughly. 

The cathedral, as it stands at present, 
is an oblong building, 210 feet in 
length and 98 in breadth. The walls 
are 58| feet high. A small lantern- 
shaped cupola, painted white, rises over 
the altar. The western end is sur- 
mounted by a four-cornered belfry, 
112 ft. high, above which rises the 
pyramidal spire, so conspicuous for its 
elegance amidst the many domes and 
cupolas of St. Petersburg. The spire 
alone is 128 ft. high, the globe 6 ft., 
and the cross 21 ft. The summit of the 
cross is therefore 387 ft. above the 
level of the ground, or 26 ft. higher 
than St. Paul's. It is the tallest spire 
in Russia, with the exception of the 
ch. tower in Revel. 

All the sovereigns of Russia since 
the foundation of St. Petersburg lie 
buried in the cathedral, e'xcepting only 
Peter II., who died and was interred 
at Moscow. The bodies are depositeil 
under the floor of the ch., the marble 
tombs above only marking the sites of 
the graves. The tomb of Peter the 
Great should be visited first. It Ilea 
near the S. door, opposite the image 
of St. Peter. The image with its ricli 
gold frame gives Peter's stature at his 
birth, viz. 19i in., as well as his 
breadth, 5J in. His consort, [^Cathe- 



Russia. BmUe 1. — SL Petersburg : Academy of Sciences. 



113 



rine I., lies buried in the same vault. 
The tomb of Catherine 11. is the third 
to the right of the altar-screen. The 
row of tombs on the N. side of the 
cathedral begins with that of the 
Emperor Paul. The image of St. 
Paul, opposite to it, also gives the 
height and breadth of that sovereign 
at birth. . The diamond wedding-ring 
of the Emperor Alexander is attached 
to the image near his tomb. The 
sarcophagus of the Grand Duke Con- 
stantine, brother of Nicholas I., will be 
recognised by the keys of the fortresses 
of Modlin and Zamoscz, in Poland, 
which lie on it. The Emperor Nicho- 
las lies in the aisle opposite the tomb 
of Peter the Great, while the grave 
of his grandson and namesake, the 
deeply -lamented Tsesarevitch, who 
died at Nice in 1865, will easily be 
recognised in the same aisle by the 
palm-branches and garland of roses 
deposited upon it by those who so 
deeply mourn his loss. 

The walls are almost concealed by 
military trophies, standards, flags, 
keys of fortresses, shields and battle- 
axes, taken from the Swedes, Turks, 
Persians, Poles, and French. The 
devices on the flags will be a sufficient 
indication of their origin. 

The fortress is used as a state 
prison. Alexis, the eldest son of 
Peter the Great, having been per- 
suaded to return from Germany, was 
arraigned for treason and imprisoned 
in the dreary casemates of this dun- 
geon, where his father visited him 
immediately previous to his sudden 
death. The conspirators of 1825 were 
confined and tried, and some executed, 
witlun its walls. The cells are not 
shown to visitors, but the ch. is open 
all day. The Imperial Mint stands 
within the walls, and may be viewed 
on application. 



7. Peter tlie Greafs Cottage.— Thia 
was the first house and palace built 
. by Peter on the banks of the Neva 
f in 1703. It stands to the right of 
the fortress, at a little distance from 
it, but on the same island. Its 
length is- about 55 ft, and its breadth 



20 ft. It contains two rooms and a 
kitchen ; that on the left was Peter's 
bedroom and dining-room, and is now 
used as a chapel. A miraculous image 
of the Saviour, which accompanied 
Peter the Great in his battles and 
assisted at Poltava, is suspended there, 
and receives the salutations of nume- 
rous devotees. Two guardians of the 
house were foully murdered by a sol- 
dier in 1863, for the sake of the dona- 
tion box. Numerous relics of the great 
reformer of Russia are kept here : the 
boat which he built, the remains of 
its sails, and the bench on which he 
sat at his door, are all preserved under 
the -casing with which the entire 
building has been covered to protect 
it from decay. 

The wooden church between the 
fortress and Peter the Great's house, 
at the foot of the Troitski bridge of 
boats, was .consecrated in 1710, and is 
therefore the most ancient sacred edi- 
fice in the capital, the cathedral of 
St. Peter and St. Paul having been 
rebuilt since its foundation. 



8. Academy of Sciences, on the Vas- 
sili Ostrof, between the University 
and Exchange. — By desire of Peter 
the Great, Leibnitz drew up the sta- 
tutes of this Academy, and it was 
founded in 1724. It is now divided 
into three departments : Mathematical 
Science, Bussian Language and Lite- 
rature, and History and Philology. 
Many eminent men have been mem- 
bers of it, the earliest being Baer, 
Euler, Miiller, Pallas, Gmelin, and 
Schubert. It is now presided by 
Admiral Count Liitke, a circum- 
navigator of the globe, whose contri- 
butions to science, and particularly to 
geography, are well known. There 
are 21 ordinary members, 55 honorary, 
among whom 7 foreign, and its coiTe- 
spondents are above 200 in number. 
The State contributes about 41,000/. 
per annum towards its support. The 
Astronomical Observatory at Wilna is 
attached to it. 

The Library contains 147,000 books 
and MSS. ; among tlie latter may bo 
mentioned those of the celebrated 



114 



Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : Academy of Sciences, Sect. I, 



Kepler in 18 volumes. One of its 
greatest treasures is the * Code Rrtdzi- 
will/ or MS. of the Chronicle of 
Nestor, written about a.d. 1280. It is 
ornamented with numerous illumina- 
tions, which show that the earlier 
costumes of the Russians were the 
same as those of England, France, or 
Germany ; the present Asiatic dress 
having been only introduced since the 
14th century. 

In the Asiatic Musemn is a further 
collection of books and MSS., number- 
ing nearly 12,000. Of these, 1369 vols, 
are in the Chinese language ; tiie re- 
mainder are in the various characters 
and dialects of the East, and relate to 
its history, religion, and literature. 
There is likewise a cabinet of Eastern 
coins and medals in this museum, 
21,536 in number. An interesting 
collection of Mongolian idols, in gilt 
bronze, illustrating the religion of 
Budha, will also arrest the "eye. , 

The Egyptian Museum has surren- 
dered its mmnmies to the Hermitage, 
and now offers little of interest. 

The Ethnographic Museum consists 
of the dresses and implements of the 
various races that inhabit the Russian 
empire : likewise some of Chinese, 
Persians, Aleutans, Carelians, and of 
the populations of many other regions 
little known except to Russian tra- 
vellers. 

The collection of medals and coins 
contains numerous specimens collected 
chiefly by Count Suchtelen, and pur- 
chased by the Academy. The progress 
of the art of coining money in Russia 
may be well studied here. There are 
long gradations between the leather 
tokens of antiquity, the platinum 
coins of Catherine, and the gold half- 
imperials of the present reign. 

The Botanical Collection has been 
enriched by the herbarium of the late 
academician Meyer. 

The Anatomical Cabinet contains 
an exhibition of subjects by no means 
pleasant to view, although of interest 
to the pathological student. The head 
of a lady whom Peter the Great loved 
is one of the most interesting curiosi- 
ties. 

TheMineralogical Collection is large 



and useful for the purposes of instruc- 
tion, and the greater part of its riches 
are due to the labours of the learned 
Pallas. It is not, however, conspicu- 
ous for many very remarkable speci- 
mens. One of these is a large and 
rich twisted branch of native silver 
from Siberia; and another, of much 
interest, is the large aerolitic stone 
that fell at Smolensk in 1807, present- 
ing the usual black crust and pris- 
matic form of these remarkable bodies. 
There is also one of the largest me- 
teorites in Europe, though surpassed 
by those in the mineral department of 
the British Museum. It was foimd 
at Krasnojarsk in Siberia, and is re- 
markable for containing the mineral 
olivine, in some cases crystallized, 
whicli fills the cavities of the great 
sponge-like mass of the iron. 

A large artificial globe, constructed 
by Euler, may be seen in one of the 
rooms. It is no longer a curiosity 
since Wyld's Great Globe was put up 
and taken down in Leicester Square. 

Although as yet incomplete, the 
Zoological Collection will perhaps be 
of greater interest than any other to 
the English traveller, for it contains 
the unfossilized remains of the great 
mammoth and rhinoceros. These are 
especially remarkable from their hav- 
ing been preserved through countless 
ages in the ice of Siberian rivers, 
and from their flesh and integuments 
having been from this cause so pre- 
served from decay, that wolves and 
bears came down to feed on them as 
soon as they were revealed. The mam- 
moth was discovered in 1799, by a 
Tungusian fishermen, on the banks 
of the Lena in Siberia, in lat, 70°, and 
was afterwards brought away by Mr. 
Adams in 1806 ; and thus the break- 
ing away of a cliff brought the men 
of the last generation face to face 
with a si)ecies of elephant that had 
ceased to exist, as a living creature, 
for a period which the modem geolo- 
gist carries far back in time, to what 
may be called the geological dawn of 
human history. 

The monster whose remains are 
here very in^nei^fes^tj^^^dn^ited was 
comparatively biit a small, and per- 



Eusfiia. Baute 1. — St, Pelershurg : Academy of Sciences, 115 

Besides these, a large assortment is 
here seen of the bones of this extinct 
species of elephant (EUphas primi* 
(j€niti8, Blumbach), some of the indivi- 
duals of which seem to have surpassed 
this specimen in size as much as the 
latter exceeds the elephant by its 
side. The remains of an extinct 
species of rhinoceros {Ehin. teichoT' 
hinw) are scarcely less interesting 
than those of the mammoth. A head, 
on which the skin is almost entire, 
and the feet similarly clothed, and 
having even fine hair still on parts 
of them, form the most important 
portions of these remains. The skull, 
owing to its great length and the 
arching of the upper jaw, has some 
resemblance to that of a bird, and 
may, perhaps, have given rise to the 
fables which circulate among the 
savage tribes on the shores of the Icy 
Sea respecting a colossal bird of old 
times, the bones of which are said to 
be occasionally found. The learned 
curator of the museum has analyzed 
the remains of food found in the cavi- 
ties of the teeth of this huge beast, 
and discovered that he fed on young 
branches of the fir-tree. There are 
about 15 skulls of the animal kept 
here. In these remains we probably 
see the animals of whom the ancients 
had heard from the Arimaspi. It is 
at all events certain that the tusks of 
the mammoth were well known to the 
Greeks, and obtained from their trade 
with the Scythians. 

Amongst other objects in the Zoolo- 
gical Collection are well-stuflfed speci- 
mens of the sea otter from the N. 
Pacific, one of which is 5 or 6 
ft. long, and whose skin alone is 
valued at 200Z. The birds from 
Kamchatka are also a valuable series, 
including some of the duck tribes of 
great scarcity. The sturgeons of 
every sea may be here seen, including 
species from the Amur and the Cas- 
pian. The skeleton of a huge Du- 
gong {Butya stillagis) is supposed to 
represent a species that has become 
extinct since 1745, but the claim thus 
urged on behalf of this skeleton has 
been disputed bf ^^fc^dt^h'^hysiolo- 
ffists. 



haps a young, individual of his race. 
The huge skull of one of his kindred 
lying in the same room shows that 
the mammoth must have attained a 
size one-fourth, if not one-third, larger 
than the one here seen ; the skeleton 
is also incomplete. The tusks do not 
belong to the same individual as the 
bones, and some of the bones of the 
legs of the left side, which was that 
most exposed to the ravages of wild 
beasts and to the influence of the 
climate, are made up of wood and 
plaster, but the bones of the right 
side are pretty complete, and the feet, 
like the head, are covered by the in- 
teguments. Only nine of the ribs 
belonged to the animal. A mass of 
the skin may be seen alongside ; and 
in the glass case is a piece of skin 
with some of the reddish-brown hair 
still adhering to it. The hair was a 
distinguishing feature of this denizen 
of northern latitudes. 

A small stuffed elephant and its 
skeleton stand side by side with the 
mammoth, for the purpose of com- 
parison, but they look. small when 
compared with the mammoth, which 
is at least 2 ft. higher and longer in 
the same proportion, the latter beiAg 
13 ft. long. The difference between 
the two skeletons, in the position of 
the tusks, immediately attracts notice. 
In the mammoth they approach closer 
together at the roots than in the ele- 
phant, and are in this specimen re- 
presented as extending laterally like 
two scythes in the same horizontal 
plane, and not in two parallel verti- 
cal planes as in the elephant. But 
this would appear to be an erroneous 
restoration of the tusks of the mam- 
moth, the true direction of which was 
first forwards, and, at some distance 
firom the head, inwards, exactly in a 
contrary direction to that here repre- 
sented. Some of the mammoth-tusks 
in this museum are 8^ ft. long. The 
mammoth is also distinguished from 
the elephant by the greater length 
and compression of its skull, as well 
as by its superior height, giving the 
elephant the advantage of an appa- 
rently greater intellectual develop- 
ment. 



116 



Souie 1. — SL Petersburg : University. 



Sect. I. 



The Academy is open on Mondays 
to the public. An introduction to a 
member of it is of service in seeing 
the different collections at any other 
time. 



9. The University stands on the 
Vassili Ostrof, near the Exchange. 
It was founded in 1819. It has, in 
addition to the Faculties of History, 
Physics, and Jurisprudence, that of 
Oriental languages, of which a great 
variety are practically taught here. 
There is no chair of medicine, which 
is banished to a special a^mdemy, 
situated a little higher up the river, 
and founded in 1800, under the super- 
intendence of the late Sir James WyUe, 
Bart., a Scotch physician, who did 
much towards advancing his science 
in Bussia. {Vide "Monuments.*') 

This University is attended by about 
400 students, the matriculations being 
rs. 50 (7Z. lOs.), as at Moscow. The 
nobility only began to send their sons 
to Russian universities under the reign 
of Nicholas, when Count Ouvaroff, 
Minister of Public Instruction, set the 
fashion by sending his own son to the 
University of St Petersburg. In tliat 
reign education received a more na- 
tional impress, and somewhat of a 
military tendency, since abandoned. 
The students no longer wear swords 
and cocked hats, and are in every way 
liberally treated. The policy of the 
Emperor Nicholas in reference to edu- 
cation was summed up in three words 
contained in an instruction to Count 
Ouvaroff: *' Orthodoxy, autocracy, na- 
tionality." 

Tiie library contains 63,000 vols. 
The scientific collections are unim- 
portant. The remaining universities 
of the empire are situated at Moscow, 
Kief, Kazan, Kharkof, Dorpat, and 
Helsingfors. 



10. Academy of ^Aris,* on Vassili 
Ostroff.— Peter the Great bestowed 
much attention on the introduction of 

• Open (Jaily, gratis, from 10 to 4. 



the fine arts into Bussia, and sent 
many young men to study in Italy and 
other countries. Three of those pupils 
attained some celebrity in Bussia by 
painting images for the Church in the 
style of the Italian masters, as, for 
instance, those in the Church of the 
Fortress. The chamberlain Schouva- 
loff, founder of the University of Mos- 
cow, induced the Empress Elizabeth in 
1757 to establish an Academy of 
Fine Arts. Lossenko was one of the 
first academicians. In 1764 the Em- 
press Catherine II. granted new sta- 
tutes, and patronised the productions of 
native artists, who had to be checked 
in their tendency of painting in a 
Byzantine ecclesiastical form for the 
ornamentation of chs., by which they 
obtained much lucrative employment. 
Under the direction of Lossenko, the 
Academy produced Ugruimoff, the 
painter of two pictures in the Bussiau 
department of the Hermitage Gallery. 
In the reign of the Emperor Paul the 
pupils of the Academy were much given 
to fresco-painting in the style of Wat- 
teau and Boucher, and it was only in 
that of Alexander I. that any great 
talent began to be exhibited. The 
Ivanoffs, father and son, and Bruloff, 
were the most eminent artists of that 
period. Then followed Brunni, Stche- 
drin, Bogoliuboff, Aivazofski, and 
many others. The present curator of 
the picture gallery of the Hermitage 
is a celebrated Bussian academician, 
Mr. Neff, a very successful painter of 
nymphs. 

The Bussian school has lately pro- 
duced 2 pictures of striking merit — 
* The Last Supper,'-by Gay, a realistic 
conception of great boldness, since it 
entirely departs from the conventional 
representation of the position of the 
Saviour and His Disciples at table, and 
portrays them reclining on couches, in 
accor(te,nce with Eastern custom ; the 
other picture is by Flavitzky, * The 
Princess Tarakanova in prison during 
an inundation.* She is depicted with 
much pathos, struck with terror at the 
rising of the water which was soon to 
swallow her. The princess was an im- 
postor and a state prisoner, and is 
erroneously supposed to have met her 



Eussia. Boute 1. — SL Petersburg : Academy of Arts, 

death in the fortress of St. Petersburg 

in the manner depicted {vide Descrip- Picture GaMeries, 

tion of NoYospaski Monastery at Mos- 
cow). Scnlptnre and architecture have 
not as yet inspired and rendered very 
famous any pupil of this Academy. 

The present building was erected 
between 1765 and 1788, by a Russian 
architect, partly after designs by La- 
motteandVelten. It forms an immense 
pile, 1722 ft. in circumference, and 70 
ft. in elevation. The facade on the Neva, 
about 400 ft. in length, is adorned with 
columns and pilasters. The portico 
in the centre is ornamented with the 
statues of a Famese Hercules and a 
Flora, and is surmounted by an elegant 
cupola, on which a colossal Minerva is 
seated. On the parapet in front of the 
Academy are two superb granite 
sphynxes, brought from Egypt. 

Under the enlightened directorship 
of Prince Gagarin, the building has 
been entirely transformed, and its 
contents rearranged. The lower floor 
is now devoted to sculpture, speci- 
mens and casts of which are arranged 
chronologically in a series of rooms, 
beginning with the early Greek and 
Boman schools, and terminating with 
the sculpture of the present day. 
Visitors will recognise casts, of many 
familiar and celebrated objects of art. 
Above this floor are the galleries ap- 
propriated to painting, whfle the upper 
story contains a large collection of 
drawings, &c., illustrative of the pro- 
gress of architectural art. A well- 
lighted hall in the same flat is des- 
tined for an exhibition of pictures, to 
be held annually in September. The 
Picture Gallery, once of little interest 
except to those who might wish to 
study the Bussian school in its earlier 
stages, has been made very attractive 
by tlie fine collection of French, Bel- 
gian, and German pictures, bequeathed 
to it by Count Kouchelef, who died in 
1864. As the internal arrangement 
of the picture gallery is not quite com- 
plete, the following description must 
necessarily be brief and imperfect. 



117 



Ascending the handsome staircase 
of the Academy, the visitor will enter 
by a door on the left of the landing 
into the 

Ist Boom. — ^Walls covered with copies 
of Baphael's cartoons by Bruni, Hof- 
man, and other artists of the Bussian 
school. 

2nd Boom. — Medals and gems in 
centre. Cartoons of boar-hunts and 
sylvan sports. 

3rd Boom. — ^A few pictures by Van 
der Heist,* Teniers, aod other Duteh 
artists. Portrait of Mosnier, the 
painter. Allegorical picture, with 
Catherine 11, in the centre, by Torelli. 

4th Boom, — ^Marble statue of Count- 
ess Ostermann, by Thorwaldsen. A 
few small pictures by Greuse, Mosnier, 
and Ingres, and a study by Haydon. 

5th Boom. — (The Kouchelef collec- 
tion begins here.) Cussingen's marble 
statue of Sappho. 2 pictures by Ary 
Schefter. Very good specimens of 
Messonier, particularly '* the Smoker." 
A tolerably good collection of Diaz's, 
near the door. On the wall to the 
left, a startling picture by Horace 
Vemet, his daughter being carried 
away by the Angel of Death. A pool, 
by Daubigny, is a very pretty little 
picture. A 'Sea View,' and 'A 
Fisherman,* by C. Hoguet, are good 
specimens ; and Isabey's * Eetum 
from tlie Chase ' will strike the visitor 
by its bright and pleasing colouring. 
The most remarkable picture in the 
collection is, however, Paul Delaroche's 
well-known * Cromwell contemplating 
the dead body of Charles I.' This is 
one of three pictures of that subject 
painted by the same artist. Near it 
is *The Death of Correggio,' by 
Tassaert ; also * Scenes in Morocco,' 
by Delacroix. The * Sheep-pen/ by 
C. Jacques, is a very happy specimen 
of the French school. Brascassat's 
Bull is of great merit. The other pic- 
tiu*es of note in this room are * Blow- 
ing up of a Ship,' by T. Gudin ; a 

• As the pictures are destined to receive new 
numbers, they can only be designated by the 
Danies of the s^rtists. 



118 Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : Mining School, Sect. I. 

Chestiakoff, 'The Mother of VassUi 
the Dark snatching the girdle of 
Dimitry of the Don from Vassili the 
Squint-eyed, at the marriage of her 
son.' The girdle was to be always 
worn by the heir to the throne of 
Moscow, and "Vassili the Squint- 
eyed" had possessed himself of it 
wrongfully. Next to this is ' John the 
Terrible listening to the Priest Syl- 
vester,' his good mentor in the early 
part of his reign, by Pleshanof. The 
picture of * Sviatopolk the damned,' 
who killed hia three brothers and then 
fled to the woods pursued by remorse, 
is by Sheremetef, a very promising 
dilettante. In the next room is the 
famous representation of the Last Sup- 
per by Gay. There is little to be said 
of the remaining specimens of Bussian 
art. Two rooms are devoted to the 
portraits of members and presidents of 
the Academy, while in the 14th room 
are some curious, ill-executed like- 
nesses of Cossack Ketmans, and a 
rather good picture of Shah Murza- 
Kula-Khan. The last room contains 
portraits of the Emperors Paul, Alex- 
ander I., Nicholas, and some early 
sketches by members of the imperial 
family. Near the door is a portrait of 
Peter the Great, taken after death. 



* Sea Shore,' with an excellent effect 
of distance, by F. Ziem ; a * Young 
girl in a wood,' by T. Couture; 2 
pictures by Leopold Robert ; 4 by C. 
Troyon ; Gerome's well-known picture 
of the • Duel after the Masquerade ; * 

* View on the banks of the Nile,* by 
P. Marilhat; a charming bouquet of 
flowers, by S. St. Jean ; and, lastly, a 

* Study from nature,' by T. Rous- 
seau. 

6th Boom, — German and Belgian 
schools. 2 pictures by Gallait (see 

* The Duke d'Egmont '). 4 pictures by 
Leys, and a very toucliing picture by 
C. Stevens, *The Organ-grinder and 
his dead Monkey.* The *Lady and 
Page ' is by C. Becker of Berlin. The 
most successful picture in this room is 
perhaps *The fire at a farm-house,' 
by L. Knaus, one of the earliest pro- 
ductions of that artist. Opposite to it 
is a good specimen of Hildebrand. 
There are also two or three pictures by 
Achenbach in this room. 

7th Boom.— This will be recognised 
by the marble bust of Count Kouchelef 
over the door leading into the library 
beyond (38,000 vols.). The pictures 
here are mostly by ancient masters. 
There is a landscape attributed to Rem- 
brandt, and therefore rare. * Infant 
Jesus with attributes of healing,* by 
L. Cranach ; Terburg, * Portrait of a 
lady ; ' Mieries, * Boy blowing bub- 
bles;* Breughel, * Adoration of the 
Magi;* Cuyp, *A gentleman leaving 
for the chase ; * and a pleasing Greuse. 

From the 5tli Room, or from the 
top of the stairs, opposite the door 
leading into Room 1, the visitor will 
enter the 

Russian Gallery, with windows 
facing the court. The collection of 
pictures by Russian artists is con- 
tained in no fewer than 15 rooms, but 
the pictures, although of large dimen- 
sions, are not numerous. They are 
arranged chronologically, and it will 
be seen that the first 3 rooms afe de- 
voted to very feeble attempts. In the 
4th room are pictures by Brulof and 
Stchedrin, and a very curious represen- 
itioQ of a Calmuck menage. In the 
bh room is an interesting picture by 



11. Corps des Mines, Mining School, 
— This large and important establish- 
ment forms a striking object on the 
right- bank of the river, near the 
western extremity of the Vassili Ostrof. 
It is a government college for Min- 
ing Engineers on a military basis, 
and contains a fine collection of models 
and a noble Mineralogical Collection. 
The pupils are about 250 in number, 
and dresaed in military uniform. The 
collection was commenced in the latter 
part of the last century, and its ex- 
pense was at first defitiyed out of 
certain sums paid by wild Bashkir 
tribes. The superintendents of mines 
were subsequently ordered to contri- 
bute all the most remarkable specimens 
of minerals that might be discovered. 
In 1816 the mineralogical collection of 



Eussia. BoiJUe 1. — St. Petershurg : Mining School, 



119 



the Hermitage was brought here ; and 
in 1823 specimens of gold, and later 
of platinum, were added. 

The models of mines, and of the 
machinery used in working them, are 
very interesting. Miners are repre- 
sented in miniature going through 
the several operations of their craft, 
underground as well as "to grass." 
The illustrations of copper and other 
lodes give a very good idea of those 
metalliferous deposits; nor are the 
models of the processes of auriferous 
sand-washings and workings less in- 
structive. 

The collection of minerals is the 
richest perhaps in tlie world, its only 
competitor being that in the British 
Museum, which, as a scientific collec- 
tion, is more complete in its material 
and in its arrangement, although it 
does not contain such an accumulation 
of the most splendid and costly pro- 
ductions of the mineral kingdom. The 
specimens of gold are alone worth 
nearly 10,000Z., and vast sums have 
been spent on the beryls, tourmalines, 
topazes, and other sumptuous minerals 
of Siberia. The enormous mineral 
wealth of the great portion of tlie globe 
under the Russian sceptre is lavishly, 
although perhaps not very completely, 
represented in this national collection. 
A very cui-sory inspection of some of 
the cases will satisfy the visitor of the 
extent of this wealth. A large curled 
bar of native gold, and several imggets 
and some good crystals of that metal, 
are exposed to view ; but the greater 
number of the specimens of gold are 
preserved in an iron safe. The whole 
of these are fi-om the Siberian gold- 
fields, especially from those on the 
eastern slopes of the Ural ; except a 
few specimens from the quartz-veins 
of the neighbourhood of Ekaterinburg. 
One nugget is valued at above 4000Z. 
A platinum nugget of ten pounds, and 
a smaller one, may be seen by the side 
of the gold specimens, and among the 
oth^r treasures of the collection may 
}ye mentioned the following :— 

A mass, weighing 67 Russian pounds, 
of the rare mineral petzite, composed of 
feilver and the rare element tellurium, 
from near Barnaul in the Altai chain. 



A very large mass of native copper 
from the Kirghiz Steppes. 

A monster crystal of topaz of a 
yellow brown hue, given by the Em- 
peror, and valued at about 5002. 

Another magnificent and equally 
unique topaz crystal of the blue variety, 
found at Murzinsk in Siberia, of a fine 
colour, and with its crystalline planes 
well developed. 

The beryls from Siberia also form a 
magnificent suite, worthy of such a 
treasure-house as the Griine Gewolbo 
of Dresden. Among these are con- 
spicuous a flesh-coloured crystal from 
Murzinsk, and on a stand by itself a 
large crystal of green beryl, with a 
weight of about 5 pounds avoirdu- 
pois, and valued at 5000L There are 
also several other fine transparent 
crystals of aquamarine, and of the 
most precious variety of the beryl, dis- 
tinguished by its colour as the eme- 
rald ; the crystals from Ekaterinburg 
in this collection are extraordinarily 
fine, and although rarely so clear and 
limpid as those from New Granada or 
Peru, they far excel them in the size 
which their crystals attain. 

The tourmalines, and especially those 
of the rose-coloured variety of this 
mineral termed Rubellite; which Si- 
beria produces in the greatest beauty, 
are also a very rich series. 

A crystal of the rare and almost 
exclusively Russian mineral Phenakite 
(a silicate of glucina) is perhaps the 
finest known specimen of that sub- 
stance, which may be also said of a 
specimen exhibited here of the emerald- 
green garnet called Ouvarovite. The 
Siberian variety of chrysoberyl (an 
alurainate of glucina) termed Alexan- 
drite (after the Emperor Alexander II.) 
is represented by magnificent speci- 
mens. This mineral, which is of an 
emerald-green in daylight, presents 
a lilac or amethystine colour when 
seen by the light of a candle. 

Among the larger specimens in tlie 
galleries of the Corps des Mines atten- 
tion may be drawn to a solid mass of 
malachite, weighing 29 cwt. ; to a fine 
crystal of semi-opaque greyish quartz, 
weighing 19 J cwt. ; and to some very 
line crystals of Siberian amethysts. 



120 



Boute 1. — SL Petersburg: Imperial Library, Sect. I. 



Among the minerals less conspicuous 
for their size or beauty are many of 
high value and scarcity, but they pos- 
sess an interest almost exclusively for 
the scientific mineralogist. 

There is a very curious model of a 
mine in the garden of the school, and 
through its winding passages the 
visitor is led by the guides, provided 
with lighted tapers, and initiated into 
the general character of mining pro- 
cesses. Open daily from 10 to 4. 
Ticket on application, gratis, on the 
premises. 



12. The Imperial Pvblic LUfary. — 
One of the richest libraries in Europe : 
it occupies a building that adorns one 
of the best sites in the city, between 
tiie Bazaar and the Alexander Theatre, 
a short distance up the Nevski Per- 
spective. It is open to readers on 
ordinary days from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m., 
and on holidays from 12 to 3 ; and for 
inspection on Tuesdays and Sundays, 
when a librarian accompanies the 
visitors and explains the various ar- 
rangements. The library now contains 
more than 800,000 printed vols., and 
about 20,000 MSS., in various lan- 
guages, modem and ancient. 

Itowes its origin to a collection which 
once belonged to Count Zaluski, a 
Polish bishop, and numbered 300,000 
vols. On tlie capture of Warsaw by 
8uwaroff, in 1794, the Zaluski library 
was transferred to St. Petersburg, and 
deposited in the present building, the 
construction of which was then ex- 
pressly commenced. As the library 
grew in extent the building was en- 
larged, until it is now three times the 
size of the original depository. The 
last addition to the building was made 
in 1862, when a reading-room, which 
only yields in beauty and magnitude 
to that of the British Museum, was 
constructed, having been much needed 
on accoimt of the increasing number 
of students who resorted to the library 
for reference. In 1854 the reading- 
room was frequented by 20,000 per- 
sons, and in 1864 the number had 
grown to 73,000. The library owes 
luch a remarkable result to the ad- 



ministration of the late director, Baron 
Modesto Korff, who succeeded in ob- 
taining a considerable increase in the 
government grant for the purchase of 
books and MSS., and for bringing the 
catalogues into their present useful 
condition. 

The collection of MSS. is more 
particularly important This, as well 
as that of the printed books, was 
enlarged by further importations from 
Poland, and particularly by the valu- 
able books and MSS. of Peter Du- 
browski, purchased during the early 
troubles of the French Kevolution. 
The MSS. of the latter collection 
chiefly relate to the history of France, 
and form an invaluable series. They 
consist of letters from various kings 
of France and their ambassadors at 
foreign courts, reports, secret state 
documents, and correspondence of 
European sovereigns. These interest- 
ing papers were dragged from the 
archives of Paris by an infuriated 
populace, and sold to the first bidder. 
Dubrowski purchased them ; and thus 
some of the most valuable of the state 
papers of France adorn the library of 
St. Petersburg. A volume of MSS. 
letters from English sovereigns is ex- 
ceedingly interesting. The library and 
MSS. of Count H. Suchtelen have been 
added ; and the numerous acquisitions 
of MSS. during the wars with Turkey, 
Circassia, and Persia, have contributed 
to form one of the finest collections in 
the world. The printed volumes are 
catalogued in MS., according to lan- 
guage, names of authors, and matter ; 
and there is now a catalogue of the 
MSS. A list of tlie most curious may 
be useful : The Ostromir MS., the 
oldest extant Russian manuscript, was 
written for Ostromir, an ancient 
governor of Novgorod, and is in the 
Slavonian character, which bears much 
resemblance to the Greek. It contains 
the Evangelistarium, or Evangelists, as 
read in the Greek Church, and bears 
the date of 1056, about 50 years al'ter 
Christianity was introduced into Bussla . 
A Codex, containing the 4 Evangelistj*, 
on purple vellum, and in letters of 
gold, is interesting to the theologian. 
M. Edouard de Muralt, minister of the 



Enssifl. SoiUe 1. — St. Peterahutg : Imperial Library. 



121 



Eeformed Church, and the learned 
editor of an edition of Minutius Felix, 

> has published an account of this MS., 
with a facsimile of the character. It 
was taken by the Russian troops under 
Field-marshal Count Paakewitch, dur- 
ing the Bussian war in Asia Minor, 
A.D. 1829. For some centuries it had 
remained in the convent of St John, 
near the village of Jumish Khan, and 
was supposed to be the work of the 
Empress Theodora. Several charac- 
teristic marks denote it to be of the 9th 
or 10th centy.; and, if it be really 
from the pen of so illustrious a person- 
age, we may conclude that it was 
written by the Empress Theodora, 
wife of the Emperor Theophilus, who 
Uved in the middle of the 9th centy. 
The characters are clear and accurately 
formed ; nor are the contractions nume- 
rous. The marginal notes are in let- 
ters of silver. Age has altered the 
colour of the parchment, which is now 
almost black; the gold still retains 
much of its original brightness. There 
is too the Codex San Germanensis, 
formerly appertaining to the celebrated 
convent of St. Germains. It contains 
the Epistles of St. Paul, and has been 
referred lo the 7th centy. Several 
Latin MSS. of tlie 5th centy., among 
which may be mentioned the 6 books 
De Civitate Dei; one of the most 
ancient MSS. of the works of Si 
Gregory, copied by Paul of Aquileia ; 
in the same volume is a letter of Paul 
the Deacon, the historian of the Lom- 
Ijards, to Adalhard, abbot of Corbie. 
The works of Isidore of Seville, 7th 
centy. Historia Ecclesiastica tripar- 
tita et CoUecta in unum, ex Socrate, 
Sozomeno, et Theodorito, in Latinum, 
translata a Cassiodoro, Senatore et 
Epiphanio. In the first page we read, 
" Hie codex hero insula scriptus fuit 
jubente sancto patre Adalhardo dum 
exularit ibi." Adalhard was abbot of 
Corbie in 774. CoUectiones Cassiani, 
from the Abbey of Corbie, of the 7th 
centy. The works of St. Ambrose, of 
tlie 8th centy. ; of Menspus Felix Ca- 

) pKjlla, of Cicero, of Columella, of the 
i>th centy. ; several religious composi- 
tions, and MSS. of various portions of 
the Scriptures, brought from a convent 



on Mount Athos, chiefly of the 9th 
centy.; and numerous richly illumi^ 
nated MSS. from Byzantium, adorned 
with miniatures. The history of £u« 
tropins, which M. de Muralt believes 
as ancient as the end of the 9th centy. ^ 
and consequently one of the oldest 
extant of the works of that author. 
One of the most important additions 
to the MSS. is a copy of the Four 
Evangelists, purporting to bo written 
in the 11th centy., and presented to 
the Emperor by the Zograph Monas- 
tery, on Mount Athos. 

The collection of MSS. is further 
enriched by ancient Hebrew and 
Karaite MSS. that once belonged to 
the Firkowicz family, well-known 
Karaite Jews. It is generally ac- 
knowledged to be the most unique 
collection in the world. It contains 
MSS. more ancient than any co- 
dexes of similar contents to be found 
in the libraries of Europe. At Lcydeu 
and Bologna there is only one MS. of 
the kind of the 10th centy. ; in France, 
there is no Hebrew MS. older than the 
11th, and in England none more 
ancient than the 14th centy. The 
Firkowicz collection, however, con- 
tains 25 MSS. earlier than the 9tli 
centy., and 20 "written before the 10th 
centy. The MSS. on skins, so rare 
that even the British Museum pos- 
sesses only a single copy, are decidedly 
the most ancient of any known. Nor 
can mention be omitted of the extracts 
from the Koran in the Cufic character, 
originally deposited in a mosquo at 
Cairo, and brought thence by M. Mar- 
cel, member of a French scientific 
expedition in the days of Bonaparte. 
One of these extracts belongs to the 
earlier period of Islamism, and the 
rest, of a later date, were probably 
used as specimens of Cufic calligraphy. 
They may be of great use in the 
interpretation of Cufic inscriptions. 
The collection of Oriental MSS., re- 
cently enlarged by that of Mr. Khani- 
koff, a distinguished Eussian Orient- 
alist, is very extensive. Two presses 
in the MSS. room are filled with the 
spoils of the last war with Persia, and 
a collection of MSS. of extraordinary 
beauty, presented to the Emperor 



122 



Boide 1. — St. Petersburg : Imperial Library, Sect. I. 



Nicholas by the Shah of Persia, is also 
to be seen. Among the works of the 
early French writers may be men- 
tioned, * Les Amours de Rene, Roy de 
Naples et de Sicile, et de Jeanne. 
Gille de Guy Oomte de Laval, qu'il 
epousa en seconde noces,* rich in de- 
signs, which, though extravagant 
enough, still retain much brightness 
of colour. The book concludes with 
the following lines, beneath the arms 
of Anjouj Naples, and Laval : — 

'* Icy sont les amies dessoubs c€ste couronne 
Du Berger dessudit et de la Bergeronne." 

It is said to be an autograph work of 
Rene ; but this may be doubted. The 

* Roman de Troye,' from the library of 
Charles V., very rich in miniatures 
and arabesques. Breviaire d* Amour ; 
Jeu d' Amour, very curious; Roman 
de la Rose; and the works of Guil- 
laume de Guilleville ; a Seneca and 
Cicero, with exquisite miniatures, by 
John of Bruges; the Works of St. 
Jerome splendidly illuminated; the 
Missal of Louisa of Savoy, adorned 
with 24 miniatures, said to have been 
executed under the direction of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci. 

Among French historical works in 
MS. may be. mentioned, *Histoire 
de Godefroy de Bouillon,* of the 
13th cent.; *De Origine et Gestis 
Francorum,' of the 11th cent.; *Les 
Livres Historiaux,* of the 14th cent. ; 

* Les Chroniques de Jehan de Courcy,' 
2 vols, in folio; the original MS. of 
the ' History of France' of Du Tillet, 
dedicated to Charles IX., and adorned 
with miniatures of the kings of France, 
&c. There is also a missal here of 
great interest to the Englishman, as it 
formerly belonged to Mary Queen of 
Scots : it is quite perfect, except that 
in the illuminations, with which it is 
abundantly ornamented, there have 
once been numerous coats of arms, 
every one of which, from the beginning 
of the book to the end, has been care- 
fully erased, and the shields left va»- 
cant. It is difficult to guess with 
what object this has been done, as no 
other mutilation is apparent. The 
chief interest of this missal lies in 
numerous scraps of the queen's hand- 



writing which are to be found in it, 
breathing, in general, of her unhappy 
fortunes; though, it must be owned, 
much cannot be said in favour of her 
poetry, the exact meaning of which is 
not always very clear. Near the be- 
ginning is written across the bottom 
of the two pages, " Ce livre est a moi. 
Marie Reyne, 1553" — the last figure 
is very indistinct. 

In another page are written the fol- 
lowing lines in the queen's hand : — 

•• Un coeur que I'outragte martire 
Tar Tin raepris on d'un refus 
A le pouvoir de feire dire, 
Je ne snis pas ce que je fus. 

Marie." 

In another place, in the same writing, 
are these verses : — 

" Qui Jamais davanfage eust contraire le sort 
Si la vie mVst moins utile que la mort, 
Et plutost que changer de mes maus Tadven- 
ture, 
Chacun change pour moi d'humear et de 
nature. 

Ma&ie R." 

Below these lines the queen has 
scrawled a memorandum — " escrire au 
Secretare pour Douglas." 

In a collection of original letters is 
one from Mary to the King of France, 
written during her imprisonment, in 
which, addressing the king as Monsieur 
mon Frere, and signing herself voire 
honne Sosur Marie, she speaks of Doug- 
las, recommending him to the future 
favour of his most Christian Majesty, 
whom she at the same time thanks for 
his attention to her former request in 
behalf of the same person. In another 
letter from Fotheringay Castle the un- 
happy queen expresses her too well- 
grounded fear of never being released 
from prison. This collection includes 
autographs of Henry VII., Henry VHI. , 
Elizabeth, James I., Charles I., and 
his Queen Henrietta, with those of 
many distinguished persons: among 
others, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 
in whose hand are 2 or 3 letters to the 
King of France, expressing the deepest 
gratitude and devotion to his most 
Christian Majesty, and entreating for su 
continuance of his favour. Among the 
most interesting letters"^^ long ono 



123 



illustrated by numerous portraits ; the 
specimens of writing materials used 
at various periods; and the series of 
prints, produced by every known 
method from woodcuts of the 15th cent, 
to the art of photography, will all 
arrest the eye of the visitor. The 
features of Peter the Great may like- 
wise here be studied in 400 various 
lithographic likenesses, and particu- 
larly in a Tartar costume of the latter 
part of the 17th cent. The traveller 
will find occupation for days if he be 
inclined to inspect with any degree of 
minuteness all these literary treasures, 
and others too numerous to mention. 
A room is appropriated to the reading 
of foreign and Bussian newspapers. 



Bussia. Boute 1. — Si, Petershurg : Michael Palace, 

dated at St. Germains, from Henrietta, 

Queen of Charles I., to the Sieur Grig- 

non, begging him, if possible, to procure 

from the Speakers of the two Houses 

and ihe General a pass for herself and 

her attendants to enable her to visit 

her husband in England, and to remain 

with him as long as can be permitted. 

The queen expresses her fears that this 

pass will be refused, but she reminds 

the Sieur Grignon how much she has 

the object at heart, and assures him 

of her eternal gratitude if he succeeds. 

She then offers to make out for the 

inspection of the Speakers and the 

General a list of the attendants whom 

she proposes to bring with her, in order 

that the name of any person to whom 

they object may be omitted in the pass. 

Amongst the letters of French monarchs 

are those of Louis XI., Charles VIII., 

Anne of Bretagne, Louis XII., Fran- 
cis I., Henry IV., and Louis XIV. A 

writing exercise of the latter prince 

consists of this liberal maxim — 

"Uhommage est deue aux roys; ils 

font ce qu'il leur plait." It is re- 
peated 6 times, and, as history has 
proved, with considerable effect. 

In the collection of printed books, 
the volumes most interesting to the 
traveller are those which relate to 
Russia {Boesicd)f in all languages, 
ezeept the Bussian. This collection 
was formed by Baron M. Korff, and 
now contains more than 30,000 works. 
The collection of books in the Russian 
language numbers 90,000 vols. ; that 
of Russian books in the old character, 
printed before Peter the Great, is very 
interesting, containing, as it does, the 
first printed version of the Acts of the 
Apostles, Moscow, 1568. Early Euro- 
p^n printing is represented by about 
11,000 vols., beginning from Gutten- 
berg to the year 1521'. These are 
partly deposited in a room fitted up 
in the style of the middle ages. 

Many literary curiosities are ex- 
hibited in glass cases. The series of 
printed versions of the Bible in all 
the known languages of the world is 
most complete. Here the traveller may 
Hurvey with pride the amazing acti- 
vity of English missionaries. The 
autographs of historical celebrities, 
Bu88ia,—lS6S, 



13. Foundling Hospital.- -This esta- 
blishment was originally foupded in 
1778, as a branch of that at Moscow. 
It was transferred to its present site 
on the Moika Canal in 1788. The 
buildings occupy a space of 26,325 
square fathoms. About 6000 children 
are annually admitted on the same 
principles as at Moscow, and the 
average daily number of infantine in- 
mates is about 750. A lying-in hos- 
pital and a school of midwifery are 
also attached. For particulars respect- 
ing the management of such institu- 
tions in Russia the traveller is referred 
to the description of the ]d'oundling 
Hospital at Moscow. Admission daily, 
on application to the Governor. This 
institution is admirably conducted, 
and is very well worth the seeing. 



14. Michael Palace. — This Palace, or 
rather Castle, as distinguished from 
the Palace of the Grand Duchess Helen 
Pavlovna, stands on the site of the 
old Summer Palace on the Fontanka, 
which was pulled down by the Emperor 
Paul, who built this of granite in its 
stead, fortified it as a place of defence, 
and dedicated it to the Archangel 
Michael. The castle has a more gloomy 
exterior than the other palaces of St. 
Petersburg, and'lt^ Wun extraordinary 



124 



Boute 1. — SL Petersburg : Taurida Palace. Sect. I. 



stylo of architecture. It is in the form 
of a square, of which the four facades 
all differ in style one from the other ; the 
ditches which originally surrounded it 
are now partly filled up and laid out 
in gardens, but the principal entrance 
is still over some drawbridges. In the 
square before the chief gate stands a 
monument which Paul erected to Peter 
the Great, with the inscription, " Pro- 
dedu Pravnuk " (the Grandson to the 
Grandfather). Vide " Monuments. " 
Over the principal door, which is over- 
loaded with architectural ornaments, 
is inscribed in golden letters a passage 
from the Bible in the old Slavonian 
language: "On thy house will the 
blessing of the Lord rest for ever- 
more." 

This palace was built with extraor- 
dinary rapidity, between 17&7 and 
1801 ; 5000 men were employed on it 
daily till finished; and, the more 
quickly to dry the walls, large iron 
plates were made hot and fastened to 
them for a time ; the result was, that 
soon after the Emperor's death it was 
abandoned as quite uninhabitable; the 
cost of building it is said to have been 
18,000,000 rubles ; had sufficient time 
been taken, it would not have amounted 
to six. The haUs and apartments of 
the castle are large and numerous. A 
fine marble staircase leads to the first 
story, and the vestibules and corridors 
are paved with beautiful kinds of 
marble. The floorings of the saloons 
were taken from the Taurida Palace, 
because the new ones were not ready. 
They have since been restored to their 
old places. The room in which the 
Emperor Paul met with his tragical end 
is now converted into a chapel, after 
having been walled up during the two 
preceding reigns. The painted ceilings 
have considerable interest. In one is 
represented the revival of the order of 
Malta, and Ruthenia, a beautiful virgin, 
with the features of Paul, seated on a 
mountain. Near her, the mighty eagle. 
Fame, flying from the south in terror, 
announces the injustice done her in 
the Mediterranean, and entreats the 
mighty eagle to shelter her under his 
"'ing. In the distance is seen the 
'.nd threatened by the waves and 



the hostile fleets. In another hall all 
the gods of Greece are assembled, 
and their physiognomies are those 
of persons of the Court The architect, 
whose purse profited considerably by 
the building of the castle, appears 
among them as a fl3ring Mercury. 
When Paul, who was a ready punster, 
and who knew very well that aU the 
money he paid was not changed into 
stone and wood, caused the different 
faces to be pointed out to him, he re- 
cognised the face of the Mercury 
directly, and said laughing to his 
courtiers, " Ah ! voilk Tarchitecte, qui 
voU." 

The palace is now the abode of the 
School of Engineers, under the direc- 
tion of the famous General Todleben, 
to whom application must be made to 
view it. 



15. Taurida Palace, — This was built 
in 1783, by Catherine II., and given 
by her to Field-Marshal Potemkin 
after he had conquered the Crimea and 
received the submission of the King of 
Georgia. The Empress subsequently 
repurchased it. The palace is famous 
for the entertainments given there by 
the magnificent Prince. Later it was 
tenanted by Louisa, the beautiful but 
unfortunate Queen of Prussia ; by the 
Persian Envoy, Khozro Mirza; and 
lastly, in 1830, by Oscar, Crown Prince 
of Sweden. The Emperor Paul turned 
the entire palace into a barra<3k for his 
guards ; but his successor restored it 
to its more befitting purpose of a royal 
residence. It is now occupied by super- 
annuated ladies of the Imperial Court. 
The garden is very extensive and well 
laid out. The best pictures have been 
removed to other collections, and there 
remains but little of interest within to 
gratify any curiosity beyond that of 
viewing the palace built for the favour- 
ite of Catherine the Great 



16. Arsenal Museum. — Admission 
gratis, daily from 11 ^3^ except on 
holidays. Tickets lo oi^ obtained 



Eussia. Boute l.^St. Peter shurg : Arsenal Museum, 

at the Artillery Department, Sergief- 
sky street. 

This Museum, which is situated 
near the Taurida Palace, and opposite 
the new Courts of Law, will well re- 
pay a visit. In front of the building, 
which is that of the " New Arsenal," 
is a long array of cannon, Russian, 
Turkish, Persian, and Swedish. A 
brass gun of huge dimensions to the 
right of the principal entrance was 
reduced in length by the extraordi- 
nary process of a piece being taken out 
of it, and by the remaining parts bein": 
welded together. Peter the Great, in 
whose reign this was effected, ordered 
the statue of the man who conceived 
and carried out the project to be cast 
in bronze, and it will accordingly be 
seen in a recess of the lobby, which 
the visitor will enter, and where also 
stands a Russian cannon of the 17th 
centy. A winding staircase leads to a 
gallery of great length, in which the 
Museimi is arranged. The sergeant 
who will accompany the visitor will 
first take him to the left of the stair- 
case, and beginning with the cases on 
the right-hand side of the gallery will 
point out the principal objects of in- 
terest in the following order : — 

(1.) Case containing military uni- 
forms worn by Alexander I., and in a 
small case next to it the uniforms of 
Peter ni. 

(2.) Next to it the huge standard of 
the Streltsi troops, made of pieces of 
silk sewe^ together and adorned with 
many highly original pictures charac- 
teristic of that fanatical Kussian prse- 
torian band. In the middle of this 
flag is a representation of God the 
Father holding the last judgment; 
over his head is the azure sky of para- 
dise, beneath him blaze the flames of 
the infernal gulf; at his right hand 
stand the just, that is, a chorus of 
Russian priests, a division of Streltsi, 
and a number of bearded Russians; 
to his left the unbelievers and the 
-wicked, that is, a tribe of Jews, Turks, 
and Tartars, negroes, and another 
crowd in the dresses of Nyemtzi, or 
Germans. Under each group the 
national name is inscribed; and so 
also, by those tormented in the flames 



125 



of hell:— "a Turk," "a German,* 
(or foreigner) "a miser," "a mur- 
derer," &c. Many angels, armed with 
iron rods, are busied in delivering the 
rest of the unbelievers, the shrieking 
Jews, Mahomedans, and other in- 
fidels, to the custody of the devils. 

A number of the accoutrements of 
the Streltsi lie in the vicinity of this 
extraordinary standard, and imme- 
diately under it are some primitive 
Russian cannon from Old Novgorod. 

(3.) Stenka Razin's Stool. This is 
one of the greatest curiosities in the 
Museimi. The great robber chief of 
the Caspian delivered judgment on 
this seat, and with the aid of tlie 
eight pistols which are set round it, 
he generally carried into immediate 
execution the verdicts which he pro- 
noimced. His stick, studded with 
brass nails, likewise a formidable 
weapon, stands behind the stool, as an 
emblem, probably, of authority. After 
committing many horrible depreda- 
tions he was at last captured and 
beheaded (vide Hist. Notice). 

Behind the stool is another standard 
of the Streltsi, of the reign of Peter 
and John, with a representation of 
St George, and, in the vicinity, hal- 
berts, maces, partizans, and battle- 
axes of the 17th centy. 

(4.) The objects next in importance 
are the revolving batteries, mounted 
on wheels, like ordnance, all of the 
17th centy. The one that moves hori- 
zontally is composed of brass mortars, 
while the "Organ" (No. 1049) is a 
machine for firing off 105 pistols simul- 
taneously. In tiie neighbourhood of 
the other "organs ".is a collection of 
halberds, partizans, etc., of the reign 
of Alexis, to which epoch the three 
breech-loading culverins likewise be- 
long. 

(5.) The gun, with a mouth almost 
square, will be pointed out as the 
" Drobovik," or shot-gun, of Peter 
the Great. The inscription on this 
curious piece of ordnance shows that 
it was cast at Olonetz, near the White 
Sea, A.D. 1722. 

The array of a:(;tnj5^^ on this side 
terminates with a row oJM)ld Russian 
culverins. 

H 2 



126 



Boute 1. — SL Petersburg: Arsenal MiiseUm, Sect. I. 



* (6.) The vehicle to which the notice 
of the visitor will now be directed is 
** ShuvaloflTs car." It is of a strange 
structure, and besides being profusely 
gilded is painted bright red. The 
elevated seat is flanked by kettle- 
drums, and protected from behind by 
an allegorical figure holding a spear. 
The artillery trophies with which this 
car is decorated on every side indi- 
cates the purposes for which it was 
constructed. Drawn by eight horses, 
it bore the banner or standard of the 
artillery, which was fixed in front of 
the carriage, while the seat was occu- 
pied by a drum major, who played on 
the two kettledrums. The car is 
called after Shuvaloff, who was Gi and 
Master of the Ordnance in the reign of 
the Empress Elizabeth. There ap- 
pears no foundation for the assertion 
that Suwaroff harangued his troops 
from it. 

(7.) The automaton drummer at the 
end of the gallery was brought from 
Riga. Probably of the reign of Peter. 
History unknown. 

^ (8.) At the upper part of the gallery 
is a very large collection of the helmets 
*nd accoutrements that belonged to 
the Holstein troops of Peter III. On 
one of the drums will be seen the 
inscription — 

« QeschickUchkelt und Glflck 
Ma^het deii Konig." 

In a case near are the military 
sashes, Russian and foreign, worn by 
Peter III., and the four small cannon 
are likewise his. 

(9.) The two mounted horsemen 
represent the bodyguard of the Em- 
press Elizabeth. The man in European 
armour is mounted on a Kirghiz 
horse, while the other will easily be 
recognised as a Chinese cavalier. They 
both preceded the carriage of the 
Empress on state occasions. Close to 
them is a suit of black armour, wora 
in the funeral procession of the same 
sovereign. 

(10.) Stand 1112 holds pistols, 

swords, and other weapons of the 

j^ign of the Empress Anne. Opposite 

a cannon with seven chambers, 



dated 1750. Her colours and a brass 
howitzer stand near. 

(11.) Arms, &c., tempo Peter the 
Great, 

(12.) On the top of a glass case 
near tiie window is the hat worn by 
Peter the Great at Poltava; beneath 
are his sword and other accoutre- 
ments. 

(13.) Case 102 contains the white 
leather coat which the Tsar wore at 
Saardam, and in case 101 is a leather 
garment which he sometimes wore 
under his military dress. In the same 
case are several uniforms. 

(14.) Among Peter the Great's relics 
will be found Sie cabriolet with which 
lie measured roads, the number of 
revolutions made by the wheels being 
shown by the machinery contained in 
the box behind. On the lid of this 
box is a curious old picture, represent- 
ing Peter's mode of travelling. It is 
a drawing of the cabriolet itself, 
drawn by one horse, and driven by 
Peter. Behind him are newly-built 
houses and gardens, laid out ; before 
him a forest and a wilderness, to the 
annihilation of which he is boldly 
proceeding ; behind him the clouds 
are serene, before him the clouds are 
heaped up like rocks. As tliis picture 
was probably designed by the Tsar 
himself, it shows what he thought of 
himself. 

(15.) A curious revolver of large 
dimensions, made by order of Peter 
the Great. It stands opposite to a 
picture on glass of the battle of Pol- 
tava. 

(16.) A case of uniforms, being 
those of the several military ranks 
through which Peter passed as private, 
captain, and colonel. No. 74, is the 
identical coat he wore at Poltava. 

(17.) The stand No. 1856 holds the 
key of the fortress of Derbent, surren- 
dered to Peter's troops. Guns and 
colours of the same period will be seeu 
in the immediate vicinity. 

(18.) The case which will be reached 
next, and which will be found close to 
the top of the staircase, contains, 
among other uniforms and some colours 
of the militia of 1812, the uniform iu 
which Geneiral Miloradovitch waa 



Bodsia. Boiiie 1. — St, Petersburg : Arsenal Museum. 



127 



shot during the rebellion that broke 
out at St. Petersburg, on the 14 th 
Dec. 1825. The hole made by the 
bullet that pierced his heart is to be 
seen. 

(19.) In the case at the window 
(No. 1850) is a cast from the face of 
the great Suwaroff. 

The gallery is in this part decorated 
with Russian weapons and armour. 

(20.) Chinese and Japanese war- 
riors. Next to these are accou- 
trements, guns, and colours tempo 
Catherine II., and her portrait. 

(21.). In a small case near (No. 238) 
the cross of the Kussian military order 
of St. George, presented to tne Em- 
peror Francis I. of Austria by Alex- 
ander I., in commemoration of the 
allied campaign of 181^1815, and 
returned after his death. 

(22.) Case No. 9. Uniform, &c., of 
Frederick the Great. Collection of 
foreign swords. 

(23.) A row of captured cannon, &c.; 
1 , Prussdan ; 2, Swedish (with a saddle 
and spurs said to have belonged to 
a king of Sweden, and found in Biga) ; 
3, Turkish : shields, pasha's tails, and 
the brass cupolas of mosques, taken at 
Bender and Ismail in 1786; 4, Per- 
sian, with a mountain gun on a saddle ; 
Persian uniforms taken in 1826. Can- 
non from Biga, and French, Portu- 
guese, Italian, and Bavarian ordnance ; 
and lastly, Polish guns in the comer. 

(24.) At this extremity of the gallery 
is a bust of Alexander I. Behind it 
and on each side are regimental colours 
of the reign of Paul. 

(25.) 12 brass field guns, presented, 
as showtL by the inscriptions on them, 
to the Emperor Alexander I. by Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, " not as trophies, but 
in token of friendship, in the war of 
1807." They were cast in 1779. 

(26.) " Musket Battery.*' A very 
curious park of artillery, consisting of 
16 pieces, presented to the Emperor 
Nicholas by the King of Denmark in 
1853. Eight of these diminutive guns 
have 3 clmmbers, and the rest have 
only one small bore. . 

(27.) The visitor will come next to 
the 2 cases containing the military 
costumes of the Empress Catherine JI. 



Next to these, in 3 cases, are the 
uniforms, &c., worn by the Emperor 
Nicholas. Behind them are full-length 
portraits of Alexander I. and Nicho- 
las I., and in the comer the " drojky " 
which the Emperor Alexander I. drove 
through France and Germany during 
the campaign of 1812-1^15. Opposite 
is a portrait of Paul I. 

(28.) A steam gun, No. '^, in- 
vented by General Karelin, in reign 
of Nicholas I. 

(29.) Two horses of Catherine II. 
stuffed. The Empress rode the white 
horse astride when die entered Peters- 
burg to take the throne on the 28th 
June, 1762. {Vide Princess Woron- 
zow Dashkoff's Memoirs.) 

(30.) Cases containing orders of 
knighthood, &c. : 1, orders worn by 
Nicholas I.; 2, decorations worn by 
Alexander, jewel, star, and garter of 
the Order of the Garter ; 3, swords, &c., 
that belonged to Alexander I. The 
visitor wiU be struck by the great 
number of orders here preserved as 
those worn by Alexander I. The broad 
ribbon of the Bussian Order of St. 
George is not among them. The Em- 
peror would not accept it, although it 
was decreed to him several times by 
the Chapter of the Order and the 
senate. This order is only given for a 
great battle won, for the preservation 
of the empire, or for the restoration of 
peace by a series of military exploits ; 
and the Emperor, who could not 
ascribe any of these deeds to himself 
personally, refused the honoiu*, in 
order to maintain the credit of the 
order and its laws. 

(31.) Banner and armour, of which 
one black, the other gold, used in the 
funeral procession of the Emperors 
Alexander I. and Nicholas. 

(32.) Having returned to the top of 
the staircase, the visitor will tlnd 
opposite to it the rocking-horse of the 
Emperor Paul; and, lastly, exactly 
opposite the top of the staircase, near 
the ceiling : — 

(33.) A large Bussian eagle, whose 
neck, body, and legs are composed 
of gun-flints, while the pinions are 
sword-blades, and the eyes muzzles 
of two black pistols. Having viewed 



128 Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : Imperial Caniages, Sect. I. 

the rt. on the next floor is another 
fine piece of old tapestry depicting 
the expulsion of Hcunan from the 
Temple, while opposite to it is " Ha- 
man imploring pardon of Esther." 
The two former are from pictures 
painted hy Raphael, and the latter 
is the copy of a picture by Le Bruny 
painter to Louis XIV., and Director 
of the Gobelins manufactory. At the 
top of this staircase is the skeleton 
of the favourite charger of the Em- 
peror Nicholas. The three rooms on 
the upper story and their contents will 
be seen in the following order; — 



this ingenious object, and inscribed 
his name in a book which wiU be 
handed for the purpose, the visitor 
will leave by the same winding stair- 
case, not forgetting to give a fee of 
50 0. (or 1 rouble if the party be 
numerous) to the military cicerone. 



17. Museum of Imperial Carriages. — 
Admission daily by application on the 
premises, end of Stable-street. 

The fine collection of carriages con- 
tained in this museum should be 
visited by every traveller who wishes 
to carry* away with him the conviction 
that he has seen all the remarkable 
sights of St. Petersburg. 

Commenced in 1857, the "Historical 
Museum of Imperial Carriages" was 
finished in 1860. The lower story is 
devoted to the travelling and town 
equipages of the court, while the upper 
flat contains the splendid gala car- 
riages of successive sovereigns of 
Russia, many of them decorated with 
paintings by Watteau, Boucher, and 
Gravelot. 

The tapestry with which the walls 
of the musemn are covered will alone 
repay a visit. Most of it is from the 
Gobelins manufactory, having been 
removed hither from the Taurida 
Palace, where the precious webs had 
long lain packed up and unused. 
There are also a few specimens of 
Kussian tapestry made at a manu- 
factory founded at St. Petersburg, in 
1716, by Peter the Great, but no 
longer extant. Around the court- 
yard of the musemn are the work- 
shops in which the Imperial carriages, 
harness, &c., are made and repaired ; 
also the stables and offices for the 
grooms and other servants attached 
to the department of the Master of 
the Horse; and altogether the esta- 
blishment is on a scale so large and 
costly as to be unique of its kind in 
Europe. 

On ascending the principal stair- 
case, the visitor will be struck with 
the beauty of the Gobelins tapestry 
^presenting the apparition of the 

'ross to Constantine the Great ; to 



1st Boom. GcbeUns Tapestry. "The 
Triiunph of Mordecai," from picture 
by Le Brun, and five landscapes, &c. 
The furniture is covered with tapestry 
bearing the Polish eagle. 

Carriages : — Nos. 19 to 27, made at 
St, Petersburg by private coach- 
builders ; three sedan-chairs, of which 
one, surmounted with an imperial 
crown, and with small jewelled crowna 
at the four comers, was made at the 
Imperial Carriage Works for the Em- 
press Alexandra Feodorowna in 1856. 
Lastly — 

2nd Boom. GobeHtis Tapestry, Ara- 
besques, vases with flowers, Aurora 
(after Guido) ; the Alliance of Love 
(also after G. Bent) ; and arabesques 
(20 to 22), with border after Baphad. 

Carriages : — On rt. (No. 1) : carriage 
sent in 1746 by Frederick the Great 
to the Empress Elizabeth, restored in 
1856. The arms of Bussia are en- 
crusted on the panels in imitation 
stones, and the imperial crowh which 
siurmounts the carriage is similarly 
decorated. Seat in &ont for pages. 
The Princess Dagmar of Denmark 
made her solemn entry into St. Peters- 
burg in this carriage, seated next the 
empress. 

(2.) Four-seated carriage, brought 
in 1762 from Paris, restored 1856. 
Panels by Boucher. The arms of 
Bussia will be seen in the midst of a 
group of Naiades. The Princess Dag* 
mar rode in this carriage on the occa- 
sion of her marriage. 

(33.) Phaeton of hiojm gilt, built 



Busfiia. Bouie 1. — St. PetertMrg : Invperial Carriages. 



129 



1856 at the Imperial Works, and used 
by high officers of the court at corona- 
tions. 

(4.) Carriage obtained in 1765 from 
Count Orloff, and used by Catherine 
II. Panels by Gravelot, a distin- 
guished painter of allegories in reign 
of Louis XV. 

(34.) Caliche brought from Eng- 
land in 1795 by Prince Orloff for 
Catherine II. Restored 1856. Panels 
said to be by Boucher ; on the sides, 
Labour, Abundance, Commerce, In- 
dustry ; Cupids strewing flowers ; be- 
hind, Apollo and the Muses. The 
driving-box is upheld by two eagles 
richly carved, while the back of the 
carriage is guarded by two figures of 
St. George and the Dragon. An im- 
perial crown, jewelled, on roof. 

(30, 31.) Phaetons, like No. 33. 

(9.) Carriage purchased 1794. Panels 
with cipher of Nicholas I. 

(10.) Purchased 1797, and used by 
PaulL 

On left :— 

(8.) Carriage built 1793 by Bouken- 
dahl for Catherine II. Restored 1826 
and 1856. Arms of Russia on panels 
in imitation stones. 

(14 to 17.) Carriages made at the 
Imperial Works, 1853-1856. 

(3.) Carriage purchased 1762. 

(12.) Purchased at Paris, 1825, by 
Prince Wolkonsky. 

(6.) Carriage purchased by Cathe- 
rine II. in 1793. Painting by Gravelot. 
In front " Venus leaving her bath ;" 
on rt. panel, Juno ; on 1., a Shepherd 
guarding his flock; and b^nd, 
Olympus with Catherine bringing 
Peace and Plenty. The interior of 
this carriage, and the driving-seat, are 
richly decorated with Spanish point. 

3rd Boom. rapeg%.— Arabesques 
(49 to 51, after Baphael) ; 52, Triumph 
of Bacchus {G. Bent) ; 53, Triumph of 
Cupid {G. Bent). 

Carriages: — On rt. (32). Phaeton 
{vide S3), 

(5.) Carriage purchased by Cathe- 
rine II. in 1796. Panels by Boucher. 
Cipher of Catherine with allegories 
on doors. On panels, Cupids ; and on 
panel behind the carriage, a likeness 



of the empress. Two stools in front 
for pages. 

(13.) Carriage made at the Imperial 
Works, 1850. 

(11.7 Brought from Paris, 1797. 
Panels by Boucher. Allegories with 
incrustations of mother of pearl. Paint- 
ing remarkably fine. 

(7.) Purchased in 1780 by Catherine 
II., and used by consort of Nicholas I. 
at her coronation. Cipher of the Em- 
peror on panels. 

On left (41). Sledge for ten people. 

(36.) Vis-a-vis presented to Cathe- 
rine II. by a Russian general, 1763. 
Cupids, very finely painted, attributed 
to Boucher. 

(47.) Sledge, 1799. 

(42.) Sledge for ten persons, pur- 
chased of Boukendahl, 1793, for Ca- 
therine II. Small sledges for twelve 
persons more can be attached to it. 
Used by the court in Carnival time, 
out of town. 

(29.) Phaeton, presented by Count 
Bluhm, Danish Minister, to Empress 
Marie Feodorowna. 

(37.) Vis-a-viSf presented to Cathe- 
rine II. by Count P. Tchemisheff, in 
1766. Painting and incrustations of 
mother of pearl, very fine. 

4th Room. Gobelin Tapestry. — Or- 
pheus and the Muses (Baphad) ; and 
three landscapes. 

Carriages :— The greatest curiosity 
in this museum is (38) the sledge of 
Peter the Great, made entirely with his 
own hands. This interesting object is 
protected from the influence of time 
by a glass case. The trunk behind 
the sledge contained the clothes and 
provisions of the great Tsar when he 
travelled. It will be seen that the 
windows are of mica. Alexander I. 
caused the sledge to be brought from 
Archangel-, where Peter the Great had 
left it after a journey from St. Peters- 
burg, whither he returned on wheels. 

Ajnong the other sledges in this 
room, the most remarkable is perhaps 
No. 40, "The Masquerade Sledge/' 
built in 1764 by Brogantz, an Italian. 
It is of very peculiar form, the seat 
being composed of a peep-show box 
carried by a show-man, A figure ?" 



130 



Boute 1. — St, Petersburg : Naval Museum. Sect. I. 



the dress of a harlequin is placed in the 
front ; while another, in the garb of 
a Levantine, is between him and the 
person driving. Another sledge, pro- 
bably likewise used for Carnival pur- 
poses, is No. 43, in the form of St. 
George and the Dragon, the seat being 
formed by the Dragon. The harness 
for both these sledges stands close by. 
No. 49 is a mechanical Drojky made 
in 1801 by a peasant at Nijni-Tagilsk 
in Siberia. It has an apparatus behind, 
which once recorded both time and 
distance, and played a series of airs. 
No. 50 is a diminutive brougham pre- 
sented by a merchant of Moscow in 
1847 to the eldest daughter of the 
Emperor Alexander II.* 

In rooms leading out of Room 2 is 
kept the harness of the State carriages 
(No. 1 is the harness for nine horses 
of the Consort of Nicholas I., and No. 
2, also red and gold, that of the Con- 
sort of Alexander II.) ; and in separate 
rooms beyond are the State liveries for 
about 800 men, and the saddles and 
bridles of H. I. M., a set representing 
each regimenty used according to the 
uniform which the emperor wears at 
reviews, &c. In the furthest harness- 
room will be seen the lift and the 
turn-table by which the carriages are 
raised to the second story of the build- 
ing, and moved in the direction of 
their proper place in the museum. 
It should be remembered that these 
magnificent carriages and trappings 
are used at each coronation at Moscow, 
whither they have to be carried care- 
fully packed up. 

Lastly, the staircase beyond Room 
4 (by which the visitor will some- 
times leave) is decorated with tapestry 
of which only 61, "The School of 
Athens," and 62, arabesques, are from 
the Gobelins looms; the rest are 
Russian, viz. (60) " Juno in her Car," 
(63) "America," and (64) "Asia." 

Within the spacious court of the 
museum are the Imperial Stables, hold- 
ing, in winter, more than 300 horses. 
The new stables opposite, built in 
1868, contain about 150 saddle-horses, 
which, like the carriage-horses, are in 

^ For description of other curious and his- I 
al c^Iages, viae *• Treasury," Moscow. ] 



siunmer dispersed over the various im- 
perial residences. The stables may be 
seen on application to the officer in 
charge. They will give the visitor an 
idea of the lavish magnificence of the 
Russian Court, as the sum expended 
in feeding the horses alone cannot be 
far short of 10,000^. per annum. 



18. Naval Museum, — (Gpen Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays from 
10 A.M. to 2 P.M.) This will be found 
in the Admiralty building, under the 
archway, over which rises the con- 
spicuous gold spire surmounted by a 
ship under full sail. To naval men in 
particular the museum will be of great 
interest, as it contains a varied collec- 
tion of naval models, including also 
those of the Russian iron-clad .fleet. 
Besides these, there are many naval 
curiosities, mineralogical and ethno- 
graphical specimens, many portraits 
and sea views, carvings of figure- 
heads, &c. There are also full-sized 
figures of Russian sailors of the time 
of Peter the Great, and of the present 

Eeriod, and the flag of a British war- 
rig taken at Archangel in 1 810. The 
collection, replete with interest, occu- 
pies two large halls. 



19. Agricultural Museum. — Open 
on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fri- 
days from 12 to 4, and on Sundays 
from 1 to 3; admittance, 20 cop. 
This is established in a large riding- 
school close to the Winter Palace. 
It should be visited if the traveller 
has time. Here the different pro- 
cesses of agriculture employed in Rus- 
sia may be studied, as weU as the 
produce of its various provinces, very 
prettily arranged. It is under the 
patronage of the Department of Do-, 
mains and of the Agricultural Society. 



20. The Smolni Church and School.— 
A long ride will bring the traveller 
to the '* Institution dea Demoiaelleg 



Eussia. Boute 1. — St, Peterd)urg : Nevski Monastery. 



131 



Nobles," at the end of Voskresenski- 
street, situated on a gentle elevation, 
round wliich the Neva bends to the 
west, and not far from the Taurida 
Palace. This structure, originally a 
convent, is a vast pile of building, de- 
signed by Count Eastrelli in 1748, and 
finally opened in 1834. The church is 
of white marble, with 5 blue domes 
spangled with golden stars; and the 
interior is an exception to the sur- 
charged style of every other in St. 
Petersburg ; its walls of stainless white 
being unpolluted by flag, banner, or 
trophy that tells of strife and blood. 
A high and beautifully designed iron 
grating, of which tlie rails, or rather 
pillars, are wound round with wreaths 
of vine-leaves and flowers in iron- 
work, suri-ounds the court-yard, and 
above it wave the elegant birch and 
lime. This edifice may be seen from 
the eastern suburb, from the extremity 
of Voskresenski-street, a mile and a 
half in length, and from all quarters 
of the city, its elevation being 335 ft. 

On eitlier side of the ch. is the Insti- 
tution des Demoiselles Nobles, a build- 
ing dedicated to the education of young 
girls of noble and citizen birth, of 
whom not fewer than 400 are here 
brought up. The Empress Maria, wife 
of Paul, the foundress and benefac- 
tress of the school, has a simple monu- 
ment in the ch. dedicated in her 
honour to St. Mary. A home for 
widows is attached to this establish- 
ment. 



21. Monastery of St, Alexander 
Nevslit. — This is one of the most cele- 
brated monasteries in Russia— a Lavra, 
that is, the seat of a Metropolitan, and 
inferior only to the Lavra of the 
Trinity in Moscow, and to the Lavra 
of the Cave in Kief; other monastic 
establishments are only ^^monaetirs" 
Its proper name is Alexander Nevskaya 
Sviato&oitdkaya Lavra (the Alexander 
Nevaky's Holy Trinity Lavra). It 
stands, as the* traveller will have no- 
ticed in his drive, at the extreme end 
of the Nevski Prospekt, where it occu- 
pies a large space, enclosing within its 
walls churches, towers, gardens, and 



monks' cells. The ch. and convent 
were foundeJ by Peter the Great in 
honour of the canonized Grand Duke 
Alexander, who, in a great battle 
fought on this spot, defeated the 
Sw^es and knights of the military 
orders, a.d. 1241; his remains were 
brought here with much pomp by 
Peter from Wladimir. The ch. and 
monastery were originally built of 
wood, in 1712 ; but stone was substi- 
tuted some years after. Peter's suc- 
cessors increased the possessions and 
buildings of the cloister, and Catherine 
built the Cathedral, one of tiie largest 
chs. in the capital. For the decoration 
of the interior, marble was brought 
from Italy, precious stones from Siberia, 
and pearls from Persia. It is further 
adorned with some good copies after 
Guide, Rubens, and Perugino; the 
altarpiece, the Annunciation, is by 
Raphael Mengs. 

On two great pillars opposite th^ 
altar are portraits of Peter the Great 
and Catherine II., larger than life. 
The shrine of Alexander Nevski is of 
massive silver, and, with the • orna- 
ments around it, weighs aboqt 3250 lbs. 
of pure metal ; the design is pyramidal, 
15 ft. high, surmounted by a cata- 
falque, and angels as large as life, 
with trumpets and silver flowers ; also 
a quantity of bassi-rilievi, representing 
the deeds of tlie Saint. The keys of 
Adrianople are suspended near the 
tomb. 

The Nevski cloister has profited by 
the presents sent from Persia when the 
Russian ambassador Griboyedoff was 
murdered in Teheran. The Persian 
gifts consisted of a long train of rare 
animals, Persian webs, gold stuffs, and 
parls. They reached St. Petersbm-g 
in the winter. The pearls, and gold- 
stuffs, and rich shawls were carried in 
large silver and gold dishes by mag- 
nificently dressed Persians. The Per- 
sian prince, Khosra Mirza, drove in an 
imperial state equipage with 6 horses ; 
the elephants, bearing on their backs 
towers filled with Indian warriors, 
had leather boots to protect them from 
the cold, and the cages of the tigers and 
lions were provided with double skins 
of the northern polar bear. A portion of 
H 3 



132 



Boute 1. — St, Petersburg : Churches. 



Sect. L 



the pearls were given to this monas- 
tery, which also has a rich collection of 
mitres set in jewels, pontifical robes of 
gold brocade, and souvenirs of indi- 
vidual metropolitans and princes; 
among them an episcopal staff turned 
by Peter the Great, and presented by 
him to the first metropolitan of St. 
Petersburg; another of amber, from 
Catherine II. ; and a number of other 
valuables which, found elsewhere, 
singly, would be admired and described, 
but here, in the mass of treasures, are 
unnoticed. The crown of St. Alexander, 
and the bed on which Peter died, are 
among the most interesting objects. 
The Library, of about 10,000 volumes, 
independently of a number of very 
valuable manuscripts, contains many 
rare specimens of the antiquities of 
Russia. 

The small chapel attached to this 
convent contains the tombs of several 
illustrious Russian families; that of 
the Naryshkins bears the following 
inscription : — " From their race came 
Peter the Great." Here are also the 
tombs of Suwaroff (a plain marble 
tablet); Rumiantsoff; the chancellor 
Bezborodko; Betskoi, the favourite 
minister of Catherine II. ; Panin, her 
minister for foreign af&iirs, &c. ; and 
of numerous members of the imperial 
family. In the cemetery attached to 
the building many of the great Russian 
families bury their dead, and large 
sums are paid for permission to repose 
in this holy ground. The graves are 
consequently very close together, and 
the new ones generally covered with 
flowers, a pleasing trait of feeling 
frequently seen on the Continent. 
The anchor at the foot of the cross, a 
favourite emblem, is placed above 
many of the monuments. There are 
between 50] and 60 monks here who 
superintend an ecclesiastical academy. 
The service is well performed at this 
monastery, and, being a fashionable 
church, the singing is good. The 
Emperor is generally present at a mass 
celebrated on the 30th August, O.S. 



22. Preohrajemky Church. — This ch., 
\e *' Spass PreobrajensM Sober," be- 



longs to one of the oldest regiments of 
guards founded by Peter the Great, and 
is one of the most considerable of the 
city, and more than any other adorned, 
both without and within, with trophies 
from conquered nations; consecrated 
1754 ; rebuilt 1827. The railing that 
surrounds the churchyard is formed of 
Turkish and French cannon. Around 
the cannon chains of different thick- 
ness, gracefully twined, are hung like 
garlands between the columns ; on the 
summit of each is a Russian double 
eagle of iron, with expanded wings. 
Within the ch. is adorned with flags 
and halberds; the pillars look like 
palm-trees, of which every leaf is a 
lance. Here travellers are also shown a 
production of Russian inventive talent, 
the work of a common peasant. It is 
a large splendid piece of clockwork, 
made by him in his native village, 
bought for lOOOZ. by his lord, and 
presented to the ch. Some baldaquins 
— canopies used in the funerals of the 
deceased Tsars — are preserved in this 
ch. with the veneration with which 
Russians delight to hand down to pos- 
terity every relic of departed royalty. 



23. Church of the Holy Trinity.— 
Near the Warsaw rly. stat. Conse- 
crated in 1835, and attached to the 
Semenoff regiment of Guards. Its 
cupola is of a dark blue colour, be- 
spangled with stars. Among the 
trophies in the interior is a boat flag 
of the * Tiger,' wrecked on the coast of 
the Crimea, and another which fell 
into the hands of the Russian troops 
in a boat engagement at Gamle- 
Karleby, during the allied naval ope- 
rations in the Baltic. 



24. Soman Catholic Churches.— The 
principal ch., which is in the Nevski, is 
a most graceful building, with a finely 
proportioned dome and slander Co- 
rinthian columns. In the interior is 
a tablet of white marble edged vnth 
black, which bears the nameof Moreau, 
and tells of the brilliant achievements 



Enssia. Boute 1. — Si. Petersburg : British Factory. 



133 



and sad fate of the conqueror of Hohen- 
linden. 

The second ch., within the building 
of the **Page School," opposite the 
Bazaar, is of some interest, having 
been buQt by Paul when he became 
Grand Master of the Order of the 
Knights of Malta. It is in the style 
of the old churches of the Knights of 
St. John, and still contains the chair 
on which the Emperor sat as Grand 
Master. This ch. is fashionably at- 
tended, and the singing is particularly 
good. 

The Duke of Leuchtenberg, Consort 
of the Grand Duchess Marie Kicola- 
evna, lies buried there. 



25. Eussia C&mpany, British Fao- 
lory, and CJuipel, — A brief sketch of 
the intercourse between England and 
Russia may here prove of Interest. The 
earliest mention in history of any 
connection between the two countries 
is about the year 1070, when Gyda, 
the daughter of Harold, was given in 
marriage by the King of Denmark to 
Wladimir, Grand Ihike of Muscovy. 
Embassies between Russia and the 
countries of the Continent were first 
exchanged in the 15th centy., and 
about this time the English Court ap~ 
pears to have begim to notice Russia. 
Henry Stafford, Earl of Wiltshire, and 
Baron Fitzwalter appeared in Russian 
dresses at a fancy ball given in the 
Parliament Hall at Westniinster A j). 
1510. 

The trade with Russia had long 
been in the hands of Flemish and 
Lithuanian merchants, when our more 
enterprising merchants began to devise 
means of getting the furs, wax, hemp, 
and flax of Muscovy more cheaply and 
expeditiously than by way of the 
Hanseatio towns. Adventurous spirits 
even contemplated reaching India 
through the Russian dominions. Se- 
bastian Cabot, bom at Bristol in 1477, 
conceivefd the design of reaching India 
and China by sailing northwards 
round Norway, and by his exertions 
was formed " The Mystery, Company, 
and Fellowship of Merchant Adven- 



turers for the Discovery of Unknown 
Lands, &c." In 1553 three ships were 
fitted out by this company under the 
command of Sir Hugh Willoughby 
and Richard Chancellor. Sir Hugh 
with two of the vessels entered a bay 
on the coast of Lapland, where he 
perished miserably with his com- 
panions — frozen to death. Richard 
Chancellor in the * Edward Bonaven- 
ture,' having been separated &om the 
other ships in a storm, entered the 
White Sea alone, and reached the 
mouth of the Dwina. Having ascer- 
tained that the country which they 
had discovered was " Russia or Mus- 
covie," he declared to the astonished 
fishermen that they were " English- 
men sent into these coasts from the 
most excellent King Edward VI., 
having from him in commandment 
certain things to deliver to their King, 
and seeking nothing else but his 
amitie and friendship, and trafiQque 
with his people, whereby they doubted 
not but that great commoditie and 
profit would grow to the subjects of 
both kingdoms." The fishermen, hav- 
ing understood, it is to be presumed 
by signs, the object of the expedition, 
" heard those things very gladly, and 
promised their aid and furtherance to 
acquaint their King out of hand with 
so honest and reasonable a request." 
John the Terrible was then Tsar, and 
in the zenith of his power and glory 
as conqueror of Kazan and Siberia. 
He received Chancellor, and the two 
merchants, Burton and Edwards, who 
accompanied him, very graciously, and 
entertained them at a feast of great 
splendour. In compliance with Chan- 
cellor's request that the establishment 
of commercial relations might be per- 
mitted between England and Russia, 
a letter was despatched by the Tsar to 
King Edward assuring him that " his 
shippes and vessels may come as often 
as they please;" "and," wrote the 
Tsar, *' send me one of your Majesties 
councill to treat with us, whereby 
your countrey merchants male with all 
kind of wares, and wheare they will, 
make their market in our dominions, 
and there to have their free market 
wil^ all free liberties through my 



134 



B&uie 1. — St Peter^rg : British Factory, Sect. I. 



whole dominions, and goe at their 
pleasure, without any lett, damage, or 
impediment, acoordmg and by this 
our lettre." 

This letter found Queen Mary on 
the throne : and on the 26th Feb. 
1555, a new CJompany was formed in 
London by special charter of Philip 
and Mary, conveying the exclusive 
privilege of trading with Bussia. 

Chancellor returned to Moscow in 
1555 with a reply from Philip and 
Mary. Two merchants, George Kill- 
ingworth and Eichard Say, went with 
him, and remained there as commer- 
cial agents. The Tsar then gave the 
Company a charter to trade through- 
out his dominions without paying any 
taxes ; on the strength of which the 
Bay of St. Nicholas, where the English 
ships had first anchored, soon became 
an important place of trade. In 1556 
Chancellor left Russia with 4 heavily- 
laden ships and an ambassador from 
John the Terrible, Nepeya by name, 
with a suite of 16 persons. A storm 
scattered the ships, and only one 
reached London in safety. The * Ed- 
ward Bonaventure' parted from her 
anchors on the coast of Aberdeenshire 
and was wrecked, by which Bichard 
Chancellor with his son and? Bussians 
were drowned. The ambassador, saved 
almost by a miracle, proceeded to 
Edinburgh and thence to London, 
where he was received with great 
pomp in 1557. Voyages and embassies 
now became frequent. 

At first the trade was most prosper- 
ous, but the English merchants began 
to quarrel amongst themselves, and 
had many complaints against the 
Tsar's officers. In 1567 Queen Eliza- 
beth granted a new charter to the Com- 
pany, and stipulated with the Tsar that 
none but English ships should be em- 
ployed in the trade. The Company had 
a right to seize any foreigner attempt- 
ing to reach India, Persia, or China by 
way of Bussia, and to confiscate his 
goods. The merchants obtained permis- 
sion to smelt down foreign dollars and 
to stamp them anew as current coin. 
Under such advantages they seized all 
'"6 most important commercial centres 
Bussia. They had an agency at 



Moscow, a factory at Holmogory (at 
the mouth of the Dwina), and depots 
at Novgorod, Pskof, Jaroslaf, Kazan, 
Astrakhan, Kostroma, &c., where they 
sold their goods at 200 and 300 per 
cent, profit. The people complained 
of their proceedings, and the Tsar ex- 
pressed his displeasure to Mr. Thomas 
Bandolph, ambassador in 1569. The 
English, on the other hand, retorted 
that they were fast being ruined by 
the execution of so many of their 
debtors. They had certainly much to 
contend with — civil commotions, pesti- 
lence, and famine : their house at Mos- 
cow was destroyed by the Tartars in 
1571, when about 15 English men and 
women perished in the flames. 

John the Terrible made an over- 
ture for the hand of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and wished to enter into a 
treaty to the effect that "she would 
be kind to his friends, but hostile 
to his enemies, and he would be the 
same to hers." The Queen was to 
allow persons skilled in shipbuilding 
and navigators to come to Bussia, to 
permit a^illery and other warlike 
stores to be sent from England; and " it 
was to be ratified by oath between her 
and himself that either sovereign 
might take refuge in the country of 
the other in case disturbances in their 
own realm should compel them to do 
so." Queen Elizabeth merely thanked 
John the Terrible for this manifesta- 
tion of good-will, and proposed in 1581 
that he should marry Lady Mary 
Hastings, daughter of the Earl of 
Huntingdon. The Tsar*s envoy re- 
ported that the lady in question was 
30 years old, " tall, well-built, though 
thin," that she had " a clear com- 
plexion, grey eyes, red hair, a straight 
nose, and long fingers." The lady 
was at first not averse to themarriage» 
but slie soon asked the Queen to spare 
her; "for being," Hume says, "in- 
formed of the barbarous manner of 
the country, she wisely declined pur- 
chasing an empire at the expense of 
her ease and safety." In return for 
the hand of Lady Mary the Tsar 
had promised most important privi- 
leges to the Company, but the mer- 
chants were soon after informed by 



Eussia. 



BcnUe 1. — St. Peter^rg : British Factory, 



185 



the boyars that ** their English Tsar 
was dead/* . 

The Tsar Boris Godunoff (a.d. 1598), 
although favourable to the English 
trade, refused to renew those exclusive 
privilegesr which it had enjoyed, and 
other nations were allowed* to partici- 
pate in the commerce of the coimtry. 
In 1646 the native merchants com- 
plained that the English " were ruining 
them by their exactions, " and the fol- 
lowing year the Tsar took advantage of 
the civil wars in England, and, con- 
demning the people "who had put 
their Charles to death," closed all the 
ports against them with the exception of 
Archangel. CromwelFs envoy was not 
admitted by the Tsar, who subse- 
quently corresponded with Charles II. 
when the latter was in exile. At the 
Restoration the Earl of Carlisle was 
sent to ask for a renewal of the ancient 
privileges of the Russia Company, but 
iiis mission was unsuccessful. 

Another class of Englishmen began 
to visit Bussia about this period. These 
weieofScers, mostly Scottish, who were 
then seeking their fortunes in almost 
every country in Europe. The most dis- 
tinguished of these was Patrick Gor- 
don, who, imder Colonel Crawfurd, 
assisted in forming the first regu- 
lar Foment that Bussia posses^. 
About 40 English officers were em- 
ployed in drilling the soldiers who 
saved Peter the Great by discomfit- 
ing the unruly Streltsi. The next 
;?reat event in ^e intercourse between 
Bussia and England was the visit 
of Peter the Great to London, for an 
account of which the traveller is re- 
fcriBd to History. We may mention 
here, as an interesting fact in connec- 
tion with Peter the Great's visit, that 
his boon companion in London, Lord 
Peregrine, Marquis of Carmarthen, 
obtained by ukaz dated 16th AprU, 
1698, the exclusive right of supplying 
Bussia with tobacco. In the reign of 
Catherine II. English naval officers 
came over in considerable numbers to 
I enter the Bussian navy. Many of 
their descendants are at present in the 
d .'rrice of the Bussian crown. In the 
r»ign of the Emperor Paul an em- 
bargo was laid on British shippmg in 



the expectation of a war with England, 
which liappily never arose until in 
1854 it became necessary to maintain 
by arms the integrity of the dominions 
of the Sultan. 

The British factory, in the mean 
while, originated at Archangel in 
1716, when the English merchants at 
that place embodied themselves into a 
company, and fixed a rate on goods 
imported and exported and a port- 
charge on British ships. They at the 
same time applied for a minister of tlie 
Church. Until the trade was removed 
to St. Petersburg by Peter the Great 
it was the practice of the Factory to 
reside at Archangel during the sum- 
mer and at Moscow in winter, having 
a chapel at both places and taking 
their minister with them. The Factory 
removed to St. Petersburg in 172ii. 
The principal objects which from tho 
first engaged the attention of the 
Factory were the maintenance of 
the Church establishment and tlie 
regulation of charges on British ships 
and goods. In 1753 the Factory bought 
with their own funds, assisted by 
voluntary contributions, their present 
church premises on the English Quay. 
A treaty of commerce, signed betweeij 
Great Britain and Bussia in 1766, 
having expired in 1787, 6 members 
of the Factory left the corporation and 
traded separately as '* Foreign Guests," 
a denomination established by the 
Bussian Municipal Code of 1785. " The 
Factory continued to exist neverthe- 
less, but only as a Committee for the 
Management of Church Affiiirs, and, 
notwithstanding some tedious disputes 
with the Bussia Company, succeeded 
in establishing their right to elect a 
chaplain and to levy port-charges— a 
right which the Bussia Company 
asserted only belonged to themselves. 
The factory charges fall very heavily 
upon British ships, which have thus 
been forced to support a church for the 
almost exclusive use of British resi- 
dents at St. Petersburg. 

The continuance of the charge of 
" church money " is an abuse of ancient 
custom much complained of, particu- 
liirly since the charge has not the 
direct sanction either of the Bussia^ 



136 



Boute 1. — St. Peterihurg : Monuments. 



Sect. I. 



or British Government. Moreover, 
the accumulations of the *' Committee 
of the Chapel of the British Factory " 
are not far short of 35,0002., invested 
in Bussian funds — a sum which, with 
proper management, and, if necessary, 
supplemented by pew rents, would be 
amply sufQcient for the maintenance 
of the church establishment and the 
relief of the British poor. As far as 
Great Britain is concerned, both the 
Bussia Company and the British Fac- 
tory in Bussia have been abolished 
by Act of Parliament. On the strength 
of an Ukaz of 1807, the greater part of 
the members of the Factory became 
" Foreign Guests," and continued to 
trade as such imtil recent enlightened 
enactments removed all the disabilities 
imder which foreign merchants had 
laboured, and gave them in respect to 
their commerce the privileges of 
natural-bom subjects of H. I. M. 

The British Ambassador was ordered 
to leave St. Petersburg 27th Oct. 1807, 
and during the continental war, which 
lasted until 1812, the British mer- 
chants were not permitted to trade. 
In 1813 the Russia Company agreed 
to contribute 4000Z. towards the repairs 
of the chapel, and in 1814 a grant of 
5000Z. was procured from Parliament 
for the same object. The chapel, re- 
built in 1815, is one of the handsomest 
places of English Protestant worship 
on iiie Continent. The copy of Ru- 
bens's * Descent from the Cross ' over 
the altar was presented in 1815 by 
Sir James Riddell, Bart. The pews 
are free, and will contain a congrega- 
tion of about 600. 

The total number of British resi- 
dents at St. Petersburg and its vicinity 
is estimated at nearly 3000. The ser- 
vices at the chapel, on Sundays, com- 
mence at the hours of 11 and 4. The 
chaplain resides on the premises, 
where an extensive circulating library 
has also been established. 

The American or Methodist Chapel, 
supported by voluntary contributions, 
is situated near the Post-office. 



26. Monuments. 



1. The Equestrian Statue of Peter the 
Great ranks first among the monuments 
of St. Petersburg. It stands opposite 
the Isaac Cathedral, in the Adnuralty 
Square. It was cast by Falconet, a 
Frenchman, but the head wa€ modelled 
by Marie Callot. The Emperor is 
admirably represented reining in his 
horse on the brink of a rock, on both 
sides of which, as weU as in frcmt, 
steep precipices threaten immediate 
destruction. His isuce is turned to- 
wards the Neva, his outstretched 
hand pointing to the result of his 
thought and wiU; while a serpent, 
emblematical of the difficulties which 
Peter encountered, is trodden under 
foot by the spirited charger. The 
whole is wonderfully balanced on the 
hinder legs and the tail of the horse, 
into which a weight of 10,000 lbs. has 
been thrown. 

The hugh block of granite which 
forms the pedestal, and weighs 1500 
tons, was brought from Lakhta, a 
Finnish village, 4 m. from St. Peters- 
burg, and may have been torn by the 
Deluge from the Swedish mountains ; 
it was originally 45 ft long, 30 ft. 
high, and 25 ft. in width; but in 
cutting it the mass broke in two pieces, 
which were subsequently joined. It 
is now only 14 ft. high, 20 ft. broad, 
and 43 ft. long; the statue is 17^ ft. 
in height. On the two long sides are 
chiselled the following inscriptions in 
Russian and Latin ; " Petru Pervomu, 
— ^Ekaterina Vtoraya.'* " Petro Prime, 
Cathaxina Secunda.'' sroocLXZxn. 

2. The Jleaeander Column. — ^In the 
open space between the Etat Major 
and the Winter Palace stands the 
greatest monolith of modem times, 
the column erected, 1832, to the 
memory of the Emperor Alexander I. : 
—a single shaft of red granite, which, 
exclusive of pedestal and capital, is 
84 ft. in height. This beautiful monu- 
ment is the work of M. Montferrand, 
the architect of the Isaae Church. 
The shaft originally measured 102 ft., 
but it was subsequently shortened to 



Eussia. 



Boute !• — St. Feterf^rg : MonumenU, 



137 



its present dimensions from a fear tliat 
its diameter (14 ft.) was insufficient 
for so great a length. The base and 
pedestal are also composed of one 
enormous block of the same red granite, 
of the height of about 25 ft., and of 
nearly the same length and breadth ; 
the capital measures 16 ft., the statue 
of the angel on the summit 14 ft., and 
the cross 7 ft., in all 154 ft. 9 in. 
Turkish cannon were smelted down 
for the capital and the ornaments on 
the pedestal. As the whole of St. 
Petersburg is built on a morass, it 
was thought necessary to drive no 
fewer than 6 snccessiye rows of piles, 
in order to sustain so immense a 
weight as this standing upon so con- 
fined a base ; the shaft of the column 
alone is computed to weigh nearly 400 
tons, and the massive pedestal must 
materially increase the tremendous 
pressure. The statue was raised in its 
rough state, and polished after it was 
firmly fixed on its present elevation. 
On the pedestal — which, like the 
capital, is ornamented with bronze — 
is the following short and well-chosen 
iiiscription ; — "To Alexander the 
First, Grateful Russia." The eye 
rests with pleasure on this polished 
monument ; and in any other city its 
enormous size would make a greater 
impression. The inclemency of the 
climate has considerably injured the 
monolith. The frost has produced 
several fissures, which have been care- 
fully cemented. The polished surface 
of the granite exhibits several patches. 

3. Mtmdantsoff Obelisk. — On the 
VassOi Ostroflf, near the Academy of 
Arts, in the middle of a new square. 
It was originally erected, in 1799, 
on the " Champ de Mars," in honour 
of Field-Marshal Bumiantsoff Za- 
dunaiski. It was removed to its 
present site in 1821, and consists 
of an obelisk of black marble on a 
pedestal of a reddish marble, orna- 
mented with festoons and bas-reliefs. 
It is surmounted by the eagle of 
Bussia, with extended wings, resting 
on a globe, which, together with the 
eagle, is gilt. The total height of the 
monument is 70 ft. The pedestal bears 



the laconic inscription, " To the vic- 
tories of Bumiantsoff." 

4. Suvjaroff Monument, near the 
Marble Palace and facing the Trinity 
Bridge. — This is a bronze statue, re- 
presenting Prince Suwaroff on foot, 
dressed as a Boman, wielding a sword 
in the right hand and holding a shield 
in the left, in defence, over the crowns 
of the Pope, of Naples, and of Sar- 
dinia. Erected 1801. The house to 
the rt. of the statue is occupied by the 
British Embassy. 

5. Nicholas Monument, — Between 
the Leuchtenberg Palace and St. 
Isaac's. An equestrian statue, repre- 
senting the Emperor Nicholas in the 
uniform of the Horse Guards. The 
huge pedestal is formed of granite of 
various colours. The bas-reliefs re- 
present the principal episodes in the 
life of the sovereign, which, together 
with the emblematical figures at the 
four comers, wQl easily be recognised 
by those who have studied the history 
of the reign of Nicholas I. The 4 em- 
blematical figures have been cast after 
portraits of the consort of Nicholas and 
of his 3 daughters. , 

6. Equestrian Statue of Peter the 
Great, — Erected, as already mentioned, 
by the Emperor Paul, with the in- 
scription in letters of gold, "The 
grandson to the grandfather, 1800." 
The pedestal is of marble, and Peter 
the Great is represented on it riding 
a charger, and dressed as a Boman 
general, with a wreath of laurel round 
his head, and a baton in his right 
hand. It was cast under the reign of 
the Empress Elizabeth (whUe Paul 
was yet heir-apparent), by Martelli, 
an Italian artist. The reliefs on either 
side of the pedestal represent the 
battle of Poltava, and the taking of 
Schliisselburg. 

7. Monument to Field-Marshah Bar- 
clay de Tolly and Koutovsoff. — Opposite 
the Kazan Cathedral. These were 
erected in 1836. Barclay de Tolly 
beat Vandamme at Culm, contributed 
to the victory at Leipsic, and to the 



138 



Boute 1. — St. Petersburg : Monuments, 



Sect. I. 



capitulation of Paris ; while Koutou- 
Boff was considered the saviour of his 
country in 1812. Both statues were 
modelled by a Russian sculptor, Boris 
Orlofsky. 

8. Monument to Sir James Wylie, 
Bart. — Erected 1859, in the inner 
court of the Imperial Academy . of 
Medicine, in recognition of the services 
which that distinguished Scotchman 
rendered to Russia as President of the 
Academy under the reigns of the 
Emperors Alexander I. and Nicholas. 
The baronet is seated, in full uniform, 
holding in his hand the reformed 
statutes of the Academy. The square 
pedestal is of grey marble, ornamented 
at the 4 comers with cariatides of 
great size. On three sides of the 
pedestal are bas-reliefs representing 
various episodes in the life of the 
doctor, together with his coat of arms 
and those of the Academy. 

Respecting the career of Sir James 
Wylie, Dr. Lyall says in his ' Travels 
in Russia/ " Sir James Wylie, who is 
chief of the military division, is one 
of the most notorious and most pow- 
erful individuals in Russia. .... 
Through the interest of the late Dr. 
Rogerson he was appointed operator at 
the court, and I believe he retained 
tliis situation whilst he lived in the 
familjr of Count Stroganoff. A new 
and important epoch in his life ap- 
proached, and the whim of the 
Emperor Paul led to his rise in life. 
This monarch had raised one of his 
lowest attendants to the rank of count, 
and had bestowed upon him an ample 
fortune in money and property. Count 
Kutaisof, for this was the said count's 
name, was seized with a violent in- 
flammation of the fore part of the neck 
that terminated in a large abscess, by 
which his excellency endured great 
pain and extreme difficulty of respira- 
tion. Indeed he was threatened with 
suffocation. The patient was attended 
by a number of the first medical men 
at court, who never thought of the 
only means of relief, the opening of 
the abscess. In the extremity of the 
lisease some friends advised the count 
■) send for Dr. Wylie in the middle 



of the night. On his arrival this 
gentleman opened the tumour, and an 
immense quantity of matter was eva- 
cuated. In an instant Count Kutaisof 
was restored to comparative health. 
On the following morning Paul, as 
usual, sent to inquire respecting the 
count's state, and was astonished at 
the above relation. Paul then sent 
for Dr. Wylie, and appointed him to 
attend the court as physician. After 
Count Kutaisofs recovery, and Sir 
James Wylie's advancement, it was 
jocularly reported that *Dr. Wylie 
had made his fortune by cutting 
Count Kutaisofs throat* .... After 
Paul's death, and Alexander's ascent 
to the throne. Sir James Wylie still 
preserved his place, and has success- 
ively been appointed his majesty's 
body surgeon and physician, chief of 
the medical military department, 
president of the Medico-Chirurgical 
Academy, &c., and has had numerous 
Russian and foreign orders bestowed 
upon him. Besides, he has been 
chosen a member of almost all the 
learned societies in Russia, and also 
of a few in Great Britain and upon 
the Continent. In addition to all 
these distinctions, after sharing the 
dangers and the honours of the cam- 
paign of 1812-13, by particular request 
of the Emperor Alexander, he was 
knighted by the Prince Regent on 
board one of his majesty's ships at 
Portsmouth, Platofs sword being 
used on the occasion. He was also 
made a baronet of Great Britain." It 
was Sir James Wylie that amputated 
Moreau's leg after the battle of Leip- 
sic. 



27. Markets and Purchases. 

The principal market at St. Peters- 
burg is called the Gostinnoi-Dvor. It 
is situated in the Nevski Perspective, 
and was erected between 1755 and 
1785. 

There is in most Russian cities of 
importance, and generally in a central 
position, a Gostinnoi Dvor, where all 
the more important articles of com- 
merce are collectecMfer sale. It is 



Eiissia. 



Haute 1. — St. Petersburg : Markets, 



139 



usually a large building, consisting of 
a ground floor and an upper floor. 
The upper floor is chiefly reserved for 
wholesale dealings: the ground-floor 
consists of a multitude of shops in 
which the various descriptions of mer- 
chandise are sold by retail. The 
dwellings of the merchants are away 
from these markets; and, when the 
hours of business are over, each trades- 
man locks up his own shop or stall, and 
commits the whole building for the 
night to the guardianship of l£e watch- 
men and their dogs. 

The Gostmnoi Dvor of St. Peters- 
burg is a colossal building, one side 
being in the Nevski Prospekt, and 
another in the Bolshaia Sadovaia, or 
Great Garden-street, through which, 
And some of the adjoining streets, 
extend a number of shops and ware- 
houses, giving to that part of the town 
the appearance of a perpetual fair. 
The better description of Bussian 
goods will be found in the Gostinnoi 
Ihor ; those of an inferior kind in the 
adjoining markets, the Apraxin Binok 
and the Stchukin Dvor, which lie a 
little fiEirther on in the Bolshaia 8a- 
dova'ia. Following the last-named 
street, which is bordered throughout 
its whole length by shops, the stranger 
will arrive at an open place, the 
Senna'ia Ploschad, or hay-market, the 
principal provision-marketofStPeters- 
burgh, which is well worth seeing in 
winter on account of the odd appear- 
ance of the frozen animals and birds 
offered for sale. 

The lanes and alleys that intersect 
these markets are overrun throughout 
the day by a crowd of purchasers. In 
a city containing half a million of inha- 
bitants there must at all times be a 
great and urgent demand for a vast 
variety of articles ; but there are many 
reasons why this should be more the 
case in St. Petersburg than in any 
other capital. In the flrst place, there 
is no other European capital where the 
great bulk of the inhabitants, owing 
to the system of Customs' protection, if 
not prohibition, that prevails, make 
use of goods of such inferior quality, 
or where, consequently, they have 
such frequent occasion to buy new 



articles, or to have the old ones re- 
paired. Then there is no other capital 
where the people are so capricious and 
so fond of change. The wealthy Eus- 
sians are here one day and gone the 
next; now travelling for the benefit 
of their health, now repairing to the 
country to re-establish their finances 
by a temporary retirement, and then 
reappearing on the banks of the Neva, 
to put their revenues (much dimi- 
nished by the Emancipation) into cir- 
culation. This consent fluctuation 
leads daily to the dissolution and to the 
formation of a number of establish- 
ments, and makes it necessary that 
there should be at all times a greater 
stock of all things required for the 
outfit of a family than would be 
requisite in a town of equal extent, 
but with a more settled population. 

A Bussian seldom buys anything till 
just when he wants to use it, and, as he 
cannot then wait, he must have it ready 
to his hand. Articles, which in other 
countries are generally ordered before- 
hand from a tradesman, are here 
bought ready for immediate use. 

The traveller will resort to these 
markets, partly to observe, as he 
lounges along the arcades, the cha- 
racteristic manners of the dealers, but 
principally with the intention of buy- 
ing some few articles as presents for 
distribution at home. His first object 
is commendable, but there is very little 
on which he can lay out his money 
with advantage and satisfaction in 
the markets here described. The only 
articles really national and peculiar 
to be found there are the embroidered 
slippers, cushions, and sashes of Torjok. 
These should be purchased at No. GO, 
in the centre of the Gostinnoi Dvor, 
facing the Sadovaya or Garden-street. 
German is spoken, and the prices are 
fixed. In other shops a system of 
bargaining is pursued which always 
leaves the purchaser in doubt whether 
he has really paid the minimum value. 
Gold brocades are sold in a row of 
shops called the Perinny Biad. They 
are much used in England for furni- 
ture. There are several old curiosity 
and picture shops within the Apraxin 
Dvor, where old china and many 



140 



BotUe 1. — St. Peter^rg : Hospitals. 



Sect. I. 



articles of virtu may be picked up 
by those who know the language and 
can bargain. Stolen goods of every 
description abound in the latter market 
Both the Apraxin and the Stchukin 
markets were burned down in 1862. 
They have since been handsomely re- 
built. For purchases of jewellery the 
tourist is recommended to the " Eng- 
lish Magazine," where by far the best 
selection of goods in every depart- 
ment wiU be found. The prices are 
perhaps a little higher than in other 
shops, but the superiority of the 
articles and the advantage of speak- 
ing English afford full compensation. 
Schneegas, jeweller, in Great Morskoy 
Street, also keeps a large stock of 
malachite and lapis-lazuli ornaments 
at moderate prices. 

Travellers should visit Sazikof s shop 
in tiie Nevsky, famous for silver goods. 
Many pretty little articles maybe pur- 
chased ^ere for keepsakes. 

Circassian belts and ornaments, in 
steel and silver, are much in fashion, 
as well as Caucasian hoods, of bright- 
coloured cloth and handsomely braided. 
These are sold in two shops in the Per- 
spective, on the left-hand side, a little 
beyond the Kazan Cathedral. The 
best shop is Hazarof s. Views of St. 
Petersburg may be obtained at Daz- 
ziaro's, Beggrow's, and at the *• Palette 
de Raphael." 



28. Hospitals and Medical ADvicne. 

The capital is well provided with 
hospitals endowed by the State and 
supported by contributions. Small 
monthly payments are exacted, but 
there is a certain number of free beds 
in each hospital, to which the poor 
have access. The principal hospitals 
are: — 

1. Obukhoff, founded 1782. This 
is a building of 2 stories, with a front- 
age of 600 ft, and stands in very spa- 
cious grounds of its own. The number 
of beds is 450, but there is a special 
hospital in connection with it, for pri- 
soners, with 200 beds. Fifteen medi- 
il men are attached to it 



2. Kalinkin, established 1779, and 
now appropriated to female syphilitio 



3. Marie Hospital, established 1803. 
An immense building with 2 wings, 
400 beds. 

4. " Chemorabochy," or hospital for 
workmen. Supported out of a tax of 
60 cop. levied on the lower classes in 
towns. 

In addition to these hospitals, con- 
ducted on the most perfect systenis, 
are many charitable institutions, such 
for instance as the Hospital and Dis- 
pensary of the Sisters of Mercy, the 
Ophthalmio Hospital, the Hospital of 
St. Mary Magdalen, &c. 

A medical man will have no diffi- 
cfulty in obtaining admission to the 
civil and military hospitals of St. 
Petersburg. 

The average daily number of sick 
in the civil hospitals of St. Peters- 
burg, during an ordinary season, is 
4000. The average mortelity in the 
civil hospitals is 1 in 16 or 17. There 
is a lunatic asylum, with about 250 ' 
inmates, a few miles on the road to 
Peterhof The practitioners at all these 
establishments are mostly German; 
and the. mortality, from the weakness 
of the constitutions of the patients, and 
partly from their imbelief in medical 
science, is excessive, compared with 
that of other cities. The death- 
rate in European Russia is 3*43 per 
cent Great mortality has hitherto j 
prevailed in the naval and military ' 
hospitals : at the former the ratio of 
deaths to recoveries, in 1857, was 1 in 
14}, the surgical operations being more 
e3pecially &,tal ,* but a better system 
of diet and other improvements have 
been introduced with a beneficial 
effect. Travellers are warned not to 
drink the water of the Neva ; its dis- 
agreeable effects are sometimes felt 
even when taken in the shape of tea. | 
For further medical information, vide 
Introduction. 

Dr. Carrick, MD., is the physician 
to the British Embassy. 



DigitizediiiijOOQ IC 



Bossia. 



Bovie 1, — St. Petersburg : Theatres. 



141 



29. Theatres. 



There are four public Theatres at 
St Petersburg: 1, the Great Theatre; 
2, the Marie Theatre (both these in 
the same square between the Moika 
and Catherine Canals) ; 3, Alexander 
Theatre, in the Nevski Perspective; 
and 4, Michael Theatre, near the 
palace of that name : all under the 
management of government. 

1. The Great Theatre is devoted 
during the winter season (with the ex- 
ception of Lent) to the Italian opera, 
for which one of the best troupes in 
Europe is always engaged. The first 
gre»t musical work produced inBussia, 
Paisiello's * Barbiere di Siviglia,' was 
originally performed at St. Peters- 
burg in 1780. All the most approved 
operas are reproduced here, with much 
success. The mise en scene is always 
most perfect, and the costumes rich 
and true. A very large sum is de- 
voted yearly by the government to the 
cultivation of the histrionic art in all 
its branches, and a large school is 
maintained for the education of act- 
resses and ballet-dancers. The ballets 
liere given ',are very much frequented. 
Of these the 'Fille de Pharaon,' the 
* Tsar devitsa * or Maiden Tsar, and 
the 'Golden Fish' (both the latter 
being based on national popular le- 
gends), are admirably rendered*. The 
best ballets are generally given on 

Sundays. 

The Great Theatre was originally 
built in 1784 ; it was burnt down in 
1817, and renovated in 1836. There 
are 6 tiers of boxes and 17 rows of 
chairs, or room for about 8000 persons. 
The prices of the boxes vary from 
25 rs. to 5 rs. The pit-staUs of the 
first 3 rows are 8 and 6 rs. ; the furthest 
are 2 rs. On benefit nights the prices 
are considerably raised. Masked balls 
on a large scale, frequented by the 
£mperor and members of the Imp. 
Family, are given here during the 
^v-inter season. 

2. The Marie Theatre is appropriated 
^ tUe Bussian opera and drama. Pro- 



fane music has been much cultivated 
in Bussia of late years. Bortniansky 
was a great reformer of Bussian sacred 
music about the year 1780, and Alexis 
Lvoff was the first Bussian who com- 
posed operatic music. He is the author 
of the Bussian National Anthem. The 
most remarkable composer, however, 
is Glinka,, whose opera of ' Jizn za 
Tsaria ' (Life for the Tsar) is admirable 
for the correctness of its composition, 
and for the beauty of its melodies, 
which are all national. The subject 
of this very popular opera is the de- 
votion of a peasant who saved the Tsar 
Michael by leading a detachment of 
Poles who were seeking him into a 
deep and thick forest, where they all 
perished. Verstofsky has written the 
music of several vaudevilles, and some 
comic operas, of which the best known 
is * The Tomb of Askold.' The opera 
by Glinka affords an opportunity of 
studying Bussian melodies and cos- 
tumes, which should be eagerly seized 
by the traveller. The " Mazurka," a 
Polish dance, much in fashion in 
Bussia, is introduced into one of the 
acts. Shakspearian tragedies in a 
Bussian translation are occasionally 
given here. The prices are lower than 
at the Great Theatre. 

3. Alexander Theatre,' — Here Bus- 
sian comedies and dramas are acted. 
Griboyedoff*s comedy, * Sorrow comes 
from Wit,* a satire on Moscow so- 
ciety, and GogoFs ' Bevisor,' in which 
the corruption of the old Bussian offi- 
cial is weU portrayed, are well worth 
seeing for the sake of the acting and 
the scenes of Bussian life which they 
hold up to view, and which are in 
great part intelligible, even in the 
absence of a knowledge of the Bussian 
language. This theatre was opened 
in 1832. It has 6 tiers of boxes and 
9 rows of stalls. The prices are very 
moderate. It possesses none of the 
beauty and magnificence of the two 
theatres already mentioned. 

4. Michael Theatre, opened in 1833. 
French and German plays are per- 
formed here in winter by troupes as 
good as any on the Continent. A7' 



142 



Boute 1. — SL Peter f^rg : Clubs; Societies. 



Sect. I. 



the most popular farces of the Parisian 
stage are reproduced here with very 
great success. 

The Great and Michael Theatres are 
generally very numerously attended. 
Travellers should apply or send early 
for tickets. French spoken at the 
box-office. In summer, theatrical re- 
presentations are occasionally given 
at a theatre on Kamennoi island. 



30. Clubs and Beduurants. The 
principal club is called the English 
Club, because it was founded in 1770 
by an English merchant of the name of 
Gardener. It is situated on the Fon- 
tanka Canal, near the Anitchko£f 
Bridge. Admission through a mem- 
ber. Very few of the English resi- 
dents now belong to it. The club 
which is likely to be of most use to 
the English traveller is the Commer- 
cial Club, on the English Quay, be- 
tween the English Chapel and the 
Nicholas Bridge. Here travellers can 
be inscribed by their bankers or friends 
for the whole period of their residence 
at St. Petersburg, and enjoy all the 
advantages of members. Excellent 
dinners and a table-d'hote on *' ex- 
change days '* (Tuesdays and Fridays) 
are among those advantages. The 
'Times* and other English news- 
papers are kept in the reading-room. 
The Nobility Club, the German or 
Schuster Club (so called after the 
name of the founder), and the Club of 
the Russian Merchants, are large esta- 
blishments, where subscription balls 
are given during the winter season. 
The Agricultural Club, in the No- 
bility Assembly-house, combines ad- 
vantages of a social and domestic 
character with those of a learned so- 
ciety, where subjects of rural economy 
are formally discussed. The Imperial 
Yacht Club, which is the most exclu- 
sive, is in Great Morskoy-street. 

The summer station of the River 
Yacht Club is on Yelaghin Island, 
where the large collection of boats and 
the building-sheds of the club will 
well repay a visit. Vide Drives. The 

st Restauranta are Dusaux's, Mar- 



tin's, and Borers, in Great Morskoy- 
street, and Douon's, at the Singer's 
Bridge. Dinners from 1 r. to any 
price. 

Excellent luncheons may be ob- 
tained at Wolft^'s and Dominique's 
Restaurants, both in the Nevski Per- 
spective, 



31. Learned Societies. — Foremost 
amongst these is the Imperial Geogra- 
phical Society, established in 1845, 
and now under the presidency of 
H.I.H. the Grand Duke Constantine. 
It numbers about 600 fellows, besides 
honorary and corresponding members. 
Its annual report is published in Rus- 
sian. The proceedings of the Society 
contain most valuable contributions 
to geographical science, especially 
with reference to the distant and little- 
known countries of Central Asia. The 
library is well supplied, and there is 
a very interesting ethnological mu- 
seum, representing the costumes of the 
several races subject to Russia. The 
meetings take place only in winter. 
Admission on application to the secre- 
tary. Among the other societies are 
the Imperial Archseological, the Rus- 
sian Entomological, the Free Econo- 
mical, the Imperial Mineralogical, 
and the Historical. There are several 
societies of a benevolent character, 
and an excellent association called 
'* The Society for the Encouragement 
of Art," where pictures and other 
objects of art, by foreign and native 
artists, are exhibited all the year round. 
The rooms of this society are at the 
Police Bridge, in the Nevsky. Ad"- 
mission on payment of 25 copecks. 
Very pleasing and characteristic pic- 
tures by Russian artists may be bought 
there. 



32. Private Collections, — Besides the 
celebrated Leuchtenberg Gallery, for- 
merly at Munich, but now in the palace 
of the Duke of Leuchtenberg, which 
would require a catalogue by itself 
(see Waagen), the private collection of 
H. I. H. the Grand Duchess Marie con- 
tains several fine pictures by the an- 



Sossia. Boule 1. — St. Pet&rtbttrg : Summer Gardens. 



143 



cient Italian and Spanish masters, as 
well as many good specimens by 
modem artists. The palaces of the 
Russian nobles contain likewise very 
valuable €md interesting collections of 
art. The Counts Serge and Paul 
Stroganoff, who are both distinguished 
connoisseurs and lovers of art, possess 
pictures which would be considered 
valuable acquisitions in any public 
gallery. The collection of Count Serge, 
which is in the Stroganoff House, a 
fine building by Rastrelli, at the Po- 
lice Bridge, opposite the " Society for 
the Encouragement of Art," contains 
amongst other treasures an admirable 
head by Leonardo da Vinci, a sketch 
by Correggio, 2 excellent portraits by 
Tintoretto, 4 Rubens, 2 capital por- 
traits by Van Dyck, a beautiful and 
highly finished cabinet picture by 
Rembrandt, as well as excellent speci- 
mens of Teniers, Cuyp, Adrian Van- 
develde, Hackert, and Van der Heyden. 
The collection of Count Paul Strog- 
anoff is worthily lodged in one of the 
prettiest houses in St. Petersburg, at 
the comer of the Sergiefskaia and the 
Mohkovaia, a chef-ni'cevre of elegance 
and comfort, built by Monighetti, a 
living architect of great taste. The 
principal pictures in this small but 
choice collection are by Filippino 
Liippi (a small but beautiful specimen 
of this master), Cima da Conegliano, 
HebastiandelPiombo, Rubens, Van der 
Heist, Nicolas Maes, Peter de Hoogh, 
Adrian Vandevelde, and Ruysdael. 

A few doors from Count P. Stroga- 
notTa house in the Mokhovaia is the 
collection of Mr. Yakuntchikoff, con- 
taining some good pictures of the 
modem Butch, Flemish, and French 
schools ; amongst others, the repetition 
of the great picture in the Luxem- 
bourg, by Rosa Bonheur. Mr. Dru- 
jinin, a wealthy proprietor of mines in 
Siberia, who lives in the same street, 
has a beautiful sea-piece by Ruysdael, 
and some curious specimens of pre- 
cious stones and minerals from his 
mines. The once celebrated collection 
of marbles, bronzes, pictures, and 
curiosities of all kinds, which belonged 
to Monferrand the architect, is now 
dispersed. The collection of Senator 



Smirnoff contains some excellent por- 
traits: Catherine II., by Lampi; the 
painters Largilli^re, Rigaud, and Da- 
vid, by themselves; Cosmo I., by 
Bronzino; a portrait, by Antonio 
Moro ; the Infant Don Fernando, said 
to be by Rubens — an excellent por- 
trait, most probably by Van Tulden ; 
a fine head of a Monk, of the Spanish 
school ; and amongst the modem pic- 
tures by French artists, a small De- 
camp and Gudin. 

' The remaining collections of any 
note are those of Prince Gortchakotf, 
Count Peter Schouvaloff, Count Orlof- 
Davydoff, Prince Wladimir, Bariat- 
inski, and Doctor Kozlot 



33. Summer Crarcfen*.— This is the 
Hyde Park of St. Petersburg, and a 
favourite lounge of the inhabitants, 
especially in spring, before the capital 
is deserted for summer residences. 
The gardens were laid out in 1711, 
and are half a mile in length by a 
quarter in breadth. The walks are 
well shaded by fine old trees and orna- 
mented with marble statues, which 
are cased in wooden boxes during 
winter to protect them from the action 
of the frost. In one comer stands the 
Summer Palace in which Peter the 
Great dwelt, and for which, in fact, 
the gardens were created. It was also 
the residence of the Empress Anne ; 
and Biren, the tyrannical regent, was 
arrested there. A few articles of fur- 
niture used by Peter are preserved 
inside. Near this house is a hand- 
some monument to the memory of 
Kryloff, the great Russian fabulist. 
The bronze bas-reliefs and ornaments 
represent the subjects of his best com- 
positions. During the short months 
of the Russian summer numerous 
groups of prettily dressed children 
will be found playing under the 
shadow of him who wrote so well for 
their instmctioh and amusement. At 
the other end of the garden is a 
beautiful um of porphyry, presented 
by the King of Sweden, and of which 
an exact counterpart exists in Her 
Majesty's grounds at Balmoral. T^ 



34. The Exchange and Private 
Bankers. — A fine building at the ex- 
tremity of VassUi Island, originally 
erected 1784, after designs by Qua- 
renghi; but entirely rebuilt between 
1804 and 1816, by Thomon. The 
great hall of the Exchange ia of very 
largo dimensions, and is lighted from 
above. A colossal bust of Alexander 
I. is placed in it. Stately flights of 
steps lead from this noble edifice to 
the river, and on the open space in 
front of it are two massive " Columnse 
Rostratffl" above 100 ft. in height, 
decorated with the prows of ships, in 
honour of Mercury, and each sur- 
mounted by three Atlantas that sup- 
port hollow globes, in wliich fires are 
sometimes lighted. It should be 
visited during " change" hours between 
3 and 5 p.m. There is an extensive 
garden beyond, which is converted in 
spring into a market for birds, dogs, 
and other early importations on the 
opening of the navigation. The Cus- 
tom-house is immediately behind. 



The bankers' ofiices are situated 
near the English Quay. The chief 
banking-houses are "St. Petersburg 
Joint-stock Commercial Bank ;" 
Messrs. Thomson, Bonar, and Co. ,* 
and Messrs. Wyneken and Co. Busi- 
ness hours, 10 to 4. 



144 Boide l.-St. Peieriimrg : Exchange; Post Office. Sect. I. 

handsome iron railing fronting the 
Neva was put up in 1784, after a 
design by Velten, then Director of the 
Academy of Arts. In former days 
the sons and daughters of Russian 
merchants and tradesmen, dressed in 
their best apparel, assembled in these 
gardens on Whit-Monday to choose 
partners for life, but the custom is now 
almost obsolete. The large square 
alongside is called the ^'Tsaritsin 
Lug" or Empress* Field. Reviews are 
held there. 

At the entrance of the garden, 
facing the Quay, a Chapel dedicated 
to St. Alexander Nevsl^, marks the 
spot where the Emperor Alexander II. 
stood when his life was attempted 
by Karakozoff, in 1866. The text in 
letters of gold over the principal por- 
tico is "Touch not mine anointed." 
The chapel was raised by public sub- 
scription, and is therefore a monu- 
ment of the love and sympathy of the 
Russian people. 

Steamers leave from opposite the 
summer gardens for the several islands 
of the Neva. 



35. Post and Telegraph Offices, — 
These are almost contiguous, in Poteh- 
tamsky-street which runs off, and is 
partly parallel with, the boulevard 
that extends from the Nicholas Bridge 
to St. Isaac's. Letters for England 
and the Continent must be posted 
early in the morning. Delivery about 
3 P.M. The postage to England is 26 
cop. via Belgium, and 29 cop. via 
France, or lOd., and 10 cop. te any part 
of the interior. The tewn-post goes out 
several times a day. Boxes for town 
and country letters in all the princi- 
pal thoroughfares, and at the chief 
hotels. The town postage is 5 copecks. 
Stamps only sold at the post-oflSce, 
although kept at the hotels. Prepay- 
ment of foreign letters is not obliga- 
tory. No newspapers are transmitted 
by post to Russia that have not been 
subscribed for at St. Petersburg. The 
charge for a telegram to London is 

3 rs. for 20 words, including the ad- 
dress. The time of transmission varies 
according to the amount of business ; 

4 hrs. is about the minimum. Mes- 
sages in English taken. Telegrams 
may be sent hence to Teheran and to 
Kiakhta in Siberia for Pekin. 



36. Summary of Buildings, — Al- 
though the principal objects of interest 
which are to be seen at St. Petersburg 
have now been enumerated, a descrip- 
tion of the city would not be complete 
without a cursory mention of the fol- 
lowing buildings and institutions. 

1. Leuchteviberg or Marie Palace, 
behind St. Isaac^, built in 1844 for 
the Grand Duchess Marie ; fitted up 
with most exquisite taste, and has a 
large winter garden. The picture 
gaUery has been described. The pa- 



Bossia. 



Boute 1. — St. PderAurg : Buddings. 



145 



lace occupies the site of a house which 
once belonged to Prince Czemisheff, 
where the Emperor Paul entertained 
the Prince de Oonde. On that occa- 
sion the apartments were furnished in 
exact imitation of those at Ghantilly 
when Paul visited him in 1783. The 
servants wore the liveries of the Prince, 
and over the entrance of the palace 
an inscription stated it to be the 
"Hotel de Cond^." 2. Palace of the 
Grand Duke Nicholas^ at the Nicholas 
Bridge, recently constructed. 3. Pa- 
lace of Grand Duke Micftael on the 
CJourt Quay. 4. Michael Palace, oc- 
cupied by the Grand Duchess Helen, 
in Michael Square, built by Rossi in 
1822; a vast and elegant edifice, 
ornamented in front with pillars of 
the Corinthian order. A large garden 
is attached to it. 5. AnitchJcoff P&laxie, 
in the Nevsky, built in 1744, by Count 
Baatrelli, for the Empress Elizabeth, 
who gave it to Count Sazumofski. It 
reverted to the crown in 1791, when it 
became the seat of the " Cabinet," or 
that of the administration of the Impe- 
rial household. The widow of the 
Emperor Nicholas resided and died 
there, but it is now occupied by the 
Tsesarevitch and his consort Marie 
Feodorowna, late Princess Dagmar of 
Denmark. On the bridge beyond the 
palace are the well-known equestrian 
statues by Baron Klodt. 6. The large 
house over the bridge, on the rt., is 
the residence of the princely family of 
JBeloselshi' Beloserskif containing the 
most beautiful staircase and the rich- 
est suite of apartments of any of the 
private palaces of St. Petersburg. It 
is full of pictures and costly objects 
of art. 7. The State Bank in Great 
Garden-street, opposite the Stchukin 
Dvor. This handsome building is 
likewise due to the architect Qua- 
renghi. It is a State institution, 
ostensibly for the promotion of trade, 
but in reality a branch of the treasury 
and an agency between the govern- 
ment and the pubUc for sundry finan- 
cial transactions. 8. The estdbUshment 
for printing the notes of this bank and 
other government paper will repay 
inspection. It lies in the direction of 
the Peterhoff Railway Stat. There 



is an Artesian well on the premises, 
9. The Toton HaU, on the Nevski, 
surmounted by a signal tower. The 
business of the town corporation is 
transacted here. 10. Opposite the 
Gostinnoi Dvor is the Pasmge or 
arcade in which pedestrians take 
refuge in case of rain. The shops 
are principally kept by foreigners. 
11. Riding Softool of the Horse-guards 
and Barra^cks, along the boulevard 
near the Grand Duke Nicholas' Palace. 
These may be inspected by military 
men on application to some of the 
officers. 12. The riding - school at 
the opposite end of the square, near 
the palace, is now converted into a 
MiLseum of Agriculture, where the 
various processes of agriculture used 
in Russia are exhibited. 13. Military 
Schools, Technological Institute, &c. 
Travellers who desire to study the 
system of education pursued in Russia 
will probably obtain letters of intro- 
duction which will procure for them 
the information they seek. 14. Physi- 
cal Observatory, alongside the School 
of Mines, where the temperature of 
the atmosphere and other phenomena 
are carefully recorded. 15. TJie Ceme- 
teries of Smolensk and Volkova will 
afford materials for reflection, especi- 
ally on the first Monday after Easter, 
or "Recollection Monday." Thou- 
sands congregate to the cemeteries 
three or four times during the year, 
bringing with them provisions of 
every kind, which are consiuned over 
the graves of departed relatives and 
friends. Much taste and feeling are 
exhibited in the monumental records 
of the dead; they illustrate, better 
than words, the kindly and sympa- 
thetic temperament of the Russian 
people. 



87. Spobtb and Amusements. 

In summer the tourist can join the 
matches of the St. Petersburg Cricket 
Club, or the excursions of the English 
Boat Club ; he can play at Tennis in 
a court adjoining the cricket-ground. 



146 



Boute l.-r-St. Peiershurg: Drives, 



Sect. I, 



on Vassili Island, and shoot black- 
cock, capercailzie, snipe, and duck, 
from July to October. Fishing is not 
much cultivated, but there is good 
sport to be had a short way out of 
town, towards Finland. In winter 
there is bear, elk, and wolf hunting 
in the neighbourhood of the capital ; 
hares are so plentiful as scarcely to 
afford any sport. A subscription pack 
of fox-hounds has long been kept, 
with occasional intermissions, at a 
hunting-lodge called Gorelo^, sup- 
ported by the English residents. In 
winter, skating and going down ice- 
hills afford most healthy and mirthful 
exercise. Drives in troitas, or sledges 
drawn by 3 horses abreast, complete 
the amusements to which the traveller 
in Russia will be welcomed by any 
member of the British community at 
8t. Petersburg to whom he may have 
been recommended. For further par- 
ticulars respecting sport, vide Intro- 
duction. 



38. Drives. — The first drive the 
tourist should take in sunmier is to 
the islands of the Neva, a little before 
sunset, the hour at which the rank 
and fashion still in the neighbourhood 
- of St. Petersburg assemble at the 
"Point" (Strega) of Yelagin Island. 
Crossing the Trinity Bridge, he will 
be carried swiftly along the KamennO' 
OstrofsJii Prospect^ lined on either side, 
first with the houses of the poorer 
classes, and further on with sub- 
urban retreats of varying attractions. 
Beyond Kamennoij or Stone Island, is 
Krestofshi, or Cross Island, on which 
stands the Beloselski-Belozerski Cha- 
teau. Beyond this again is Yelagin 
Island, with an imperial residence, 
very prettily laid out and charmingly 
situated. The view from this chateau 
is delightful ; first the gardens, with 
their neat English-looking gravel 
walks and flower-beds ; then the broad 
sheet of the Neva, with its verdant 
banks, dotted with picturesque cha- 
lets standing out from a background 
of sombre pine-trees; and beyond 
again, the lofty golden spires of the 
capital rising in the distance and 



glowing with the last red rays of the 
setting sun. There are few above 
the condition of tradesmen who do 
not afford themselves the luxury 
of a cottage or a few rooms be- 
yond the precincts of the hot and 
dusty city. Men of business retire to 
the islands or to Peterhof after the 
hours of " change," and set in motion 
a great number and variety of con- 
veyances that enliven the chaws^es 
and make them look somewhat like 
the Epsom road on Derby day. Small 
river steamers convey great numbers 
from a landing-stage opposite the Sum- 
mer Garden. The tourist should visit 
the extensive establishment of the 
Eiver Yacht Club on Yelagin Island. 
On his way back to town he should 
drive to Isler^s establisliment for Min- 
eral Waters at Novaia Derevnia, the 
Cremome of St. Petersburg without 
the dancing. Several other (places of 
entertainment, with dancing, will bo 
passed ; but a visit to these we leave 
to the tastes and inclinations of the 
tourist. 

The Botanical Gardens on Apothe- 
caries* Island, open to the public, may 
interest the horticultiu-ist. The science 
of hot-house gardening is here brought 
to the utmost perfection, and one of 
the finest assortments of tropical plants 
has been collected amid the snows of 
the north. The collection of Orchi- 
daceous plants is one of the best in 
Europe. 

The more distant drives can only 
be undertaken under the guidance of 
a resident. Pergola, Murina, and 
other places further in Finland, are 
strewed with pretty villas, where 
merriment and hospitaUty abound. 

A very short drive through the 
streets of St. Petersburg will brinjij 
the visitor to the Moscow Gate or Tri- 
umphal Arch, where the old road to 
the ancient capital begins. It is in the 
Greek style of architecture, and was 
finished in 1838, by Stassof, Court 
architect. Twelve columns 7 ft. ui 
diam. and 68 ft. high, support an 
attic ornamented with 12 angels in 
bas-relief, while above is the inscrip- 
tion: "To the triumphant Kussian 
armies, in inlM^l7 of their deeds in 



Bussia. 



Boute 1. — St Petersburg : Cronstadt. 



147 



Persia, in Turkey, and in the suppres- 
sion of the troubles in Poland, in the 
years 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 
1831." On the city side the inscrip- 
tion is in Latin, on the other in Rus- 
sian. This magnificent monument is 
well worth seeing. (For description 
of Narva Triumphal Arch vide Ex- 
cursion 1.) 

The Gardens of BezhorodJco, a short 
distance up the river beyond the Sum- 
mer Gardens, may be reached in one 
of the small steamers that ply on the 
river. There is an establishment there, 
called the Tivoli, where a good dinner 
may be obtained, and where balls are 
given in autumn. It is also a place 
for picnics and skating under shelter 
in winter. 

The Gardens of Catlterinenhofj in 
the direction of the road to Peterhof, 
are only visited by the public on the 
1st (13th) May, to hail the return of 
spring. The j^old palace of Cathe- 
rinenhof is shown. 



39. EXCUBSIONS. 

I. To Cronstadt, Oranienbaum, Pe- 
terhof, Strelna, and Monastery of St. 
Sergius. 

This excursion may be made in one 
day, or each place may be visited 
separately, according to the time at 
the disposal of the tourist. The tra- 
veller may even reverse the itinerary 
and proceed first to Sergi or Peterhof. 
The following is, however, a sketch of 
the excursion in its entirety. 

Leaving the Quay of Vassili Island 
at an early hour (about 9 A.M.), Cron- 
stadt is reached by steamer in an hour 
and a half. 

Cronstadt, the port of St. Peters- 
burg, has a Pop. of 37,000 Inhab., in- 
cluding the garrison (about 25,000). 
The fortifications are extensive, and 
were begun by Peter the Great in 
1703, when he dispossessed the Swedes. 
The first fort that he erected was 
Kronschlott, opposite the entrance of 

BiiMta.— 1868. 



the present harbour. Prince Menschi- 
ko£f conducted the works under the 
directions of Peter, and one of the 
forts still bears his name. Succeeding 
governments have strengthened the 
fortifications, and secured the ap- 
proach from seaward by sinking ships 
and erecting batteries, especially after 
the visit of the Baltic Squadron in 
1854. It has long been the cliief 
station in the Baltic for the Bussian 
fleet, moored in a harbour in the rear 
of the fortifications. The western- 
most harbour is appropriated to mer- 
chant vessels, of which about 1300 
enter the port annually; no fewer 
than two thirds being English. The 
bar at the mouth of the Neva carries 
a depth of only 8 to 10 ft., and pre- 
sents a very narrow channel, navigable 
by ships of small burthen. The larger 
vessels discharge and load at Cron- 
stadt, their goods being transported 
to and from St. Petersburg in lighters. 
The declared value of the imports 
cleared at the custom-house at St. 
Petersburg amounts annually to about 
13,000,000i. ; and the exports (prin- 
cipally tallow, com, hemp, and flax) 
to about 7,000,OOOZ. 

This trade gives rise to considerable 
activity at Cronstadt between May 
and November, and enlivens the town, 
which in the winter season is exceed- 
ingly dreary. The only objects to 
interest the stranger are the fortifica- 
tions and the harbour, which he can 
view by taking a walk to the " Mole- 
head," or by crossing the " Merchants' 
Harbour " in a ferry-boat. The canal 
is bordered with granite and an iron 
railing, begun by Peter in 1721, and 
finished by the Empress Elizabeth. 
Another canal, commenced in 1782, 
unites the " Italian Pond " with the 
Merchants' Harbour. The dry docks 
will admit the largest vessels of war, 
and a splendid steam factory almost 
rivals Keyham in its mechanical ap- 
pliances. These can only be viewed 
by permission of the military authori- 
ties. Strangers may drive to the 
extremity of the island, 3 or 4 miles 
beyond the citadel-gate, where they 
will obtain a better view of the re- 
nowned forts of Cronstadt and of the 
I 



148 



Boute 1, — 8l Petersburg : Oranienbaufn. Sect. 1. 



South Channel, now dammed up, but 
Which Sir Charles Napier ascended 
to the parallel of the great Naval 
Hospital, near the pier for the boats 
to St. Petersburg. The Summer Gar- 
den, originally planted by Peter the 
Great, contains a restaurant where 
refreshments may be obtained. Near 
to it and to the governor's residence, 
on a square at the back of the middle 
harbour, is a statue of Peter the 
Great, by Baron BLlodt. 

There is a British chapel at Cron- 
stadt, frequented by seafarers and by 
the English residents, who are about 
50 in number. It is also the seat of a 
British vice-consulate. 

The British Seamen's Hospital op- 
posite the English chapel will be 
visited by those who take an interest 
in such institutions. It was esta- 
blished in 1867 by private subscrip- 
tion, and is under the patronage of 
H:R.H. the Prince of Wales, and of 
H.E. the British Ambassador at the 
Court of Russia. There is sufficient 
accommodation for 50 or 60 patients, 
although the nimiber of beds, when 
no epidemic prevails, is only 35. An 
inspection of the premises will show 
that nothing has been neglected to 
make the establishment equal to the 
best in Europe, or even anywhere, on 
the same scale. The purchase of the 
ground and the building and furnish- 
ing expenses amounted to about 
5500Z., of which 2000Z., were ad- 
vanced by Mr. Edward Cazalet, 
an English merchant at St. Peters- 
burg. This debt is to be gradually 
paid off out of the prospective con- 
tributions of the charitable, as well 
as out of the profits of the institu- 
tion arising from a compulsory tax 
on all British vessels discharging or 
loading at Cronstadt, at the rate of 
1 rouble per man of the crew of a 
sailing vessel, and 50 copecks per man 
of the crew of a steamer — a tax that 
brings in about 10,000 rs. per annum. 
The number of British seamen who 
have the advantage of this excellent 
institution during the months of 
summer is between 13,000 and 14,000, 
but indirectly its benefits have been 
extended to nearly 10,000 seamen 



of other nations, for whom another 
hospital has since been established on 
a similar basis. 

The affairs of the British Seamen's 
Hospital are managed by a committee 
of which H.B.M. Consul at St. Peters- 
burg is ex-officio chairman. Per- 
mission to view the institution will 
readily be granted by the resident 
Medical Officer. 

Befreshments may be had at the 
British Hotel, in the principal street 
of Cronstadt, or at one of the Clubs 
(the Naval and the Merchants*) if the 
tourist be introduced by a member. 
English is spoken in most of the shops, 
and even the drojky-drivers are able 
to converse in " pigeon-English." 

Oranienbaum.—Smoll steamers ply 
several times a day between Cron- 
stadt and Oranienbaum, about 5 m. 
distant. The traveller is recom- 
mended to engage a carriage or a 
drojky here to take him to Peterhof, 
or even to Sergi, with the under- 
standing that all the sights between 
these places are to be visited. A car- 
riage for the day will cost from 7 to 
10 rubles. Travellers may, if they 
prefer it, proceed from Oranienbaum 
to Peterhof by rail, a distance of 6 m. 
The palace of Oranienbaum is well 
worth seeing. Built on a terrace, it 
commands a lovely and extensive 
view of Cronstadt and its fortifications, 
and of an immense expanse of water, 
studded with busy craft under sail 
and steam. It was built by Menschi- 
koff in 1724, and confiscated on his 
attainder. Subsequently it became 
the favourite residence of Peter III., 
who surrounded himself there with 
his Holstein guard, and raised a 
mimic fortification, which is still to 
be seen. This imperial residence 
now belongs to the Grand Duchess 
Helen. 

There is an excellent buffet at the 
Railway Station in Oranienbaum, 
where dinner or refreshments may be 
had. 

Taking the high road to St. Peters- 
burg, the tourist wiU pass numerous 
summer residences and a thriving 
German colo^^^ ' M^^^^ ch&teau 



Bnssia. 



Boute 1. — St Pdersburg : Peterhof, 



149 



beyond Oranienbaum is Sergiefka, the 
property of the Grand Duchess Marie 
Nicolaevna. The house is most beau- 
tifully situated in grounds very taste- 
fully ornamented. Beyond this is 
Sobstvennaya, or " Mine Own," a most 
lovely miniature palace, built for the 
Emperor Alexander II. when heir 
apparent. Strangers are allowed to 
inspect it^ and should not omit doing 
so. The several rooms are most taste- 
fully and richly ornamented, and the 
garden behind, kept with the utmost 
care, affords a most charming pros- 
pect. The summer residence and the 
farm of Prince Peter of Oldenburg 
stand between this and Peterhof. 

Peterhof, — The construction of this 
prettily-situated residence was com- 
menced about 1720. The palace, situ- 
ated on an elevation of 60 feet, was 
built by Leblond, under the directions 
of Peter the Great, and is one of the 
principal attractions of the place. 
Although every emperor and every 
empress has made alterations and ad- 
ditions, the character of the whole is 
the same as that of all the palaces 
built by Pete?: ; even the yellow colour, 
which was its original hue, is always 
renewed, and its architecture, lite 
that of the other palaces, is very in- 
significant in style. 

Inside, however, are to be seen 
some beiautifol tapestries, countless 
articles of virtu, tazzas of porcelain, 
malachite, and marble, and a num- 
ber of pictures chieiiy representing 
the naval victories of Orloff and other 
llussian generals of Catherine II. 
There is also one highly interesting 
apartment, containing a collection of 
368 female portraits executed by a 
certain Count Rotari for that Empress 
during a journey which he made 
through the fifty provinces of Bussia. 
They are all beautiful young girls, 
whom the count has painted in pic- 
turesque attitudes, and in their na- 
tional costumes ; and one cannot but 
N admire the inventive genius of the 
■ artist in giving a different position 
and expression to so many faces. 
One pretty girl is knitting diligently, 
another embroidering; one peeps 



archly from behind a curtain, another 
gazes expectingly from a window ; 
another leans over a chair, as if list- 
ening to her lover ; a sixth, reclining 
on cushions, seems lost in thought. 
One slumbers softly and sweetly ; this 
stands before a glass, combing her 
beautiful hair; that has buried her- 
self up to the ears in fur, leaving 
visible only a pair of tender rosy lips, 
and soft blue eyes gleaming from 
under the wild bear's skin. There 
are also some excellent portraits of 
old people : two in particular — an 
old man with a staff, and an old 
woman by the fire. This collection 
is unique in its kind, and would be 
invaluable for a physiognomist, if he 
could be certain that these portraits 
were as exact and faithful as they are 
pleasing and tasteful. But this is 
doubtful, for they all bear, undeni- 
ably, rather the stamp of the French 
school than of the Bussian, Tartar, 
Finnish, or any other nationality 
within the Bussian empire. It is also 
a suspicious circumstance, that they 
were done by a gentleman for a lady ; 
and probably behind every graceful 
attitude some flattering homage to the 
Empress lies concealed. The other 
apartments do not contain anything 
very remarkable. In one are the little 
table and benches with which the 
Emperors Alexander I. and Nicholas 
played as children ; in another, some 
carving and turner's work of Peter 
the Great. 

From the palace to the sea-shore» 
the garden is laid out in terraces 
adorned with fountains and water- 
falls ; the basins, the Neptunes, storks, 
swans, and nymphs, the tritons, dol- 
phins, painted rocks, and grottoes, are 
copied from the engravings in Hush- 
field's * Art of Gardening.' 

The water-works are considered but 
little inferior to those at Versailles. 
The fountain called the Samson, in 
front of the palace, is a magnificent 
jet-d'eau, 80 feet high, and from it to 
the sea, a distance of 500 yards, runs 
a canal, wherein are many smaller 
fountains. On each side of the Samson 
so called from a colossal bronze figure 
tearing open the jaws of a lion from 
I 2 



150 



Boute 1. — St, Petersburg : Peterhof. 



Sect. 1. 



whence the water rushes, are other 
jets-d'eau which throw water vertically 
and horizontally ; these basins are at 
the foot of the elevation on which the 
palace stands. In the centre is a 
broad flight of steps leading to the 
palace, and on each side a continuous 
range of marble slabs to the top of the 
hill over which the water pours down, 
the slabs being placed high and far 
apart so as to allow lamps to be 
arranged behind the water. This is 
done at the Feteihof fetes. 

The smaller buildings of Marly and 
Montplaisir, in the garden below, re- 
mind the spectator of the modest 
domestic arrangements of the carpenter 
of Saardam, the great reformer of 
Eastern Europe. 

It was from Marly that Peter the 
Great loved to contemplate his infant 
fleet, moored beneath the batteries of 
Cronstadt. In Montplaisir, a low 
Dutch-built summer-house, the Em- 
press Elizabeth used to amuse her 
royal leisure by cooking her own 
dinner. In this lowly abode the great 
Peter breathed his last, and his bed 
is still preserved imtouched since his 
death. It contains a small collection 
of pictures of the Flemish and Dutch 
schools of the 17th and beginning of 
the 18th centy., purchased hj Peter 
the Great during his travels in Hol- 
land. 

The Hermitage is chiefly remarkable 
for the contrivance by whicih the dishes 
and plates descend from the table 
through grooves cut in the floor, and 
are replaced by others without any 
servant being seen. 

The famous Cottage of Catherine is, 
without, all plain, even to poverty; 
within, all glorious and radiant with 
^old, and mirrors reflecting each ob- 
ject, giving the tiny dwelling an ap- 
pearance of size and magniflcence 
quite astonishing. 

There is also a low thatched build- 
ing, called the Straw Palace, In a 
piece of water in the gardens are 
a great many tame carp, which are 
regularly fed, and come to the visitors 
as readily as the swans in St. James's 
Park. 



The EngUik Park, so called from its 
having been laid out by an English 
gardener, is on the right-hand side of 
the road coming from Oranienbaum. 
It contains an old building designed 
by Quarenghi, and called the English 
Palace, where subscription balls are 
given in autumn. Many ornamental 
cottages and pieces of water surround 
it. A pretty road leads through the 
park to a charming cottage belonging 
to the Emperor, and call^ Babbigan. 

Adjoining the lower garden of the 
old palace of Peterhof is Alexandria, 
the private grounds of the Emperor, 
where he resides while at Peterhof. 
There are several imperial cottages 
within the grounds (to which visitors 
are only admitted by tickets issued by 
the governor of the town), and amongst 
them is the small house of the Em- 
peror Nicholas I., from the roof of 
which, with a telescope still shown, he 
was wont to watch the movements of 
the Anglo-French squadron in front 
of Cronstadt. There are several beau- 
tiful views of the gulf to be obtained 
in these gardens. A little stream 
which flows through them sets in 
motion a miniature mill, constructed 
for the children of the Emperor 
Nicholas. 

Visitors preferring to dine or take 
luncheon at Peterhof will find a good 
hotel close to the steamboat pier, on 
the shore of the gulf. 

Passing out of the private grounds, 
the traveller should take the centre 
road, or that between the high road 
and the road along the coast. The 
first Imperial residence on the right 
is Znamenskyj belonging to the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, and prettily situated 
on the top of a high embankment. 
His farm, called KretUz, which the 
tourist should inspect, and where he 
should refresh himself with a draught 
of milk, is 1^ m. beyond. 

MihaUofsky, the property of the 
Grand Duke Michael, is about 1^ m. 
further on. It is built in the Italian 
style, and is really a princely resi- 
dence. If the traveller have a fancy 
for viewing palaces, no better oppor- 
tunity could possibly occur than during 



Eussia. 



Baute 1. — SL Peter ^urg : Strelna. 



161 



th& drive here described. 2 m. be- 
yond is 

Strdnay a palace of the Grand Duke 
Constantine, 12 m. from St. Peters- 
burg. It was originally built in 1711, 
and presented by Peter the Great to 
his daughter Elizabeth, by whom it 
was much neglected. In 1797 the 
Emperor Paul gave it to his eldest 
son Constantino, who resided there in 
summer, and considerably improved 
the grounds. It was almost entirely 
destroyed by fire in 1803, and was 
rebuilt by the Emperor Alexander I. 
The palace and groxmds were be- 
queathed to General Alexandroff, from 
whose family they have since been 
repurchased. It is a pretty Gothic 
building, situated on a commanding 
position ; but its iuterior is plain, and, 
with the exception of the ball-room, 
simply furnished. The gardens are 
laid out in the Dutch style. The 
marble bath was built for the consort of 
the Grand Duke Constantino Nioolae- 
vitch. 

A drive of about a mile will bring 
the traveller to Sergi, or the monastery 
of St. Sergius, which will well repay 
a visit. The monastery of Troitskaia- 
Sergieva was founded in 1734 on the 
site of a farm which belonged to the 
daughter of John, brother of Peter 
the Great. Her sister, the Empress 
Anne, bestowed the grounds on War- 
laam, the superior of the Troitsa 
Monastery, near Moscow, by whom 
the first church and cells were built. 
Until 1764 this monastery continued 
to be attached to the Troitsa. The 
principal church stands at the back 
of the grounds, on the edge of an 
elevation which overlooks the estuary 
of the Neva, and is certainly one of 
the prettiest in Kussia. Its open roof 
and its stalls of oak give it an air of 
elegance and comfort that few Russo- 
Greek churches possess. It bears 
some resemblance to Merton Col- 
lege Chapel at Oxford. The granite 
monoliths were quarried on the spot. 
' Below are numerous mortuary chapels, 

open to visitors. These are the sepul- 
chral vaults of many great families. 
They are full of tokens that the dead 



are not forgotten by the living. In 
one chapel the visitor will see, over 
the tombs of two little boys and their 
mother, a picture almost the size of 
life, and painted from actual portraits, 
representing the mother bringing her 
children to the Saviour, who receives 
them, saying, '^Suffer little children 
to come unto me." The monuments 
in the churchyard are very rich and 
handsome. On some, small lamps are 
kept perpetually burning, as if to in- 
dicate that Hope was not to be extin- 
guished by Death. Great crowds 
resort to this monastery on Sundays, 
and wander among the gravestones. 
The singing in this monastqfy is very 
fine, particularly at vespers on Satur- 
days, between the hours of 7 and 9. 
Several great Bussian families have 
erected handsome mausoleums, which 
may be inspected on application to the 
obliging Archimandrite, who continues 
to spend his private fortime in embel- 
lishing the monastery. 

From here the traveller is recom- 
mended to rejoin the railway, about 
1 m. to the rt. of the road. He may 
refresh himself at a celebrated restau- 
rant called August^Sy which stands 
almost at the comer of the road that 
leads to the railway station. A run 
of half an hour will bring the tourist 
to the station at St. Petersburg, where 
he will find numerous drojkies in 
waiting. 

Sometimes a carriage may be pro- 
cured at Sergi, and a tourist so in- 
clined may continue his journey to 
St. Petersburg by the high road (20 v.), 
passing many pretty villas, once 
tenanted by the nobility of Russia, 
but abandoned by them since the 
Court commenced to reside for longer 
periods at Tsarsko^ Selo. 

Twelve versts before reaching St. 
Petersburg a lunatic asylum will be 
passed. It may be inspected at any 
time on am)lication to the medical 
superintendent, who speaks English. 
It is one of the best establishments of 
the kind in Europe, the system pur- 
sued being only partly coercive for the 
more refractory patients. 

The average annual number of iji- 



162 



BotUe 1, — St Petersburg : Tear shoe Selo, 



Sect. I. 



mates is 400. The principal form of 
malady is dementia, the cases of 
melancholy being about 14 per cent. 
less than of the fonner, represented by 
33 per cent, of the total number. The 
cases of mania between 1859-1863 
were 13 per cent., and imbecility 15 
per cent. The number of cures per- 
formed between the above years was 
9^ per cent, of the whole. Mechanical 
restraint was used in 5*56 per cent, of 
cases, principally in those of females. 

The capital will be approached 
through the Triumphal Arch of Narva, 
so called after the road which passes 
through it, and which leads to Narva 
and the Baltic provinces. This fine 
gate commemorates the return of 
the Bussian troops in 1815. It is 
formed by very high columns of metal 
supporting the arch, which is sur- 
mounted by a triumphal car drawn 
by six horses, and conducted by 
victory holding the trophies of glory 
and of combats. Below, between the 
two columns, are warriors wearing 
Slavonian armour, and waiting to re- 
ceive their laurel wreaths. The in- 
scription above, in Latin and Bussian, 
is : " Grateful Bussia to its victorious 
legions." 

The other triumphal arch of St. 
Petersburg has been described under 
" Drives." 

2. To camp at Krasno^ Selo by 
Peterhof line of rail in f of an hour. — 
The Guards go imder canvas during 
the summer months, and the great 
bulk of them are generally encamped 
at Krasno^ Selo. The emperor re- 
views them about the end of August, 
when they engage in mimic warfare, 
and attack and defend neighbouring 
positions. The exercises of the troops, 
and perhaps their gymnastics, will be 
of interest to the military traveller, 
who should come provided with a 
tmiform, which will secure the kindest 
attention on the part of the officers of 
the staf^ including quarters and a 
good mount. Forty to fifty thousand 
troops are manoeuvred here. 

3. Tsarslco^ S^lo and Favlofdc,-— 
"his royal residence and favourite 



resort of the Imperial family is distant 
about 15 m. from St. Petersburg. 

The best and most rapid mode of 
proceeding to Tsarskod is by the rail- 
road, the first laid down in Bussia, 
but it may be reached by road, taking 
Pulkova Observatory on the way 
{vide Excursion 4). The train will 
land the traveller at a little distance 
from the palace, but drojkies, or, in 
winter, sledges, are in readiness at 
the station to carry the passengers on. 
At the entrance to the grounds of the 
palace are two small towers carved 
with Egyptian figures and hierogly- 
phics taken from the classical work of 
Denon on that country. 

The facade of the Palace^ built in 
1744, but embelUshed by Caliierine II., 
is 780 ft. in length ; originally every 
statue, pedestal, and capital of the 
numerous columns, the vases, carvings 
and other ornaments in front, were 
covered with gold-leaf, and the gold 
used for that purpose .amounted to 
more than a million of ducats. In a 
few years the gildings wore oflF, and 
the contractors engaged in repairing 
it offered the Empress nearly half a 
million of silver roubles for the frag- 
ments of gold-leaf; but Catherine 
refused, saying, "Je ne suis pas 
dans Tusage de vendre mes vieilles 
hardes." 

The only gilding which now re- 
mains is -on the dome and cupolas of 
the ch. The front of the palace, 
towards the gardens, is stained green, 
white, and .yellow. The first portion 
of the building generally shown is 
the chapel, a spacious room, fitted up 
entirely with dark-coloured wood, 
most lavishly gilded, even the ceiling 
being one bright sheet of gold; on 
the walls are some curious old paint- 
ings. A key of the city of Adrian- 
ople hangs beside the altar. The 
royal family have a kind of gallery in 
the chapel, communicating with their 
various apartments in the palace, and 
situated immediately opposite the 
screen or Ikonostas. 

The walls and floors of the palace 
are exceedingly richly decorated : the 
former are either simple white and 
gold, or hung with rich silks; the 



Easaia. BotUe 1. — St Petersburg : Tsarskoe SMo, 



153 



latter parquetted in the most graceful 
designs and tender colours, and still 
as fresh as when first laid down. One 
of the most elegant rooms is that 
called the Lapis-lazuli, ornamented 
with encrustations of that stone. The 
floor of this apartment is of ebony 
inlaid with large flowers of mother- 
of-pearl, forming one of the most 
splendid contrasts possible. The room 
itself is not very large, but the effect 
is beautifuL Catherine has been fre- 
quently accused of Vandalism in 
having the pictures in this room cut 
so as to fit the walls. The wall is 
certainly covered with pictures without 
frames, forming a complete lining, but 
their proportions have not been cur- 
tailed. The wonder of this palace is 
the famous Amber Boom, the walls of 
which are literally panelled with that 
material in various architectural de- 
signs, the arms of Frederick the Great, 
by whom the amber was presented to 
Catherine II., being moulded in dif- 
ferent compartments with the imperial 
cipher, the Russian E for Ekaterina. 
Accustomed to see only small pieces of 
tliis beantiful substance, one can hardly 
believe that the large rough fragments 
projecting from the walls are really 
amber; they are of a pale yellow, 
and in several places form groups of 
figures with frames composed of larger 
portions. 

The bed-chamber of Catherine is 
adorned with walls of porcelain and 
pillars of purple glass. 

In the banqueting-room the entire 
walls to the height of about 9 ft. are 
covered with gold, with which the ceil- 
ings of almost all the state apartments 
are lavishly covered. The Chinese 
room is remarkable for the taste with 
which everything is arranged after the 
fantastic fashion of the Celestial Em- 
pire. Two grand beli-rooms are also 
conspicuous, the upper end of each 
being occupied by a collection of the 
most splendid china vases placed on 
circular tiers up to the ceiling, and 
marked with the Imperial E. The 
whole palace, in fact, breathes recol- 
lecticms of the great Catherine; and 
here are to be seen her private apart- 
ments, and the gentle descent leading 



into the garden by which she was 
wheeled up and down, when infirmity 
had deprived her of the use of her 
limbs. 

The apartments of Alexander I. 
have been kept exactly as he left them 
when he staiied for Taganrog. His 
study was a small ligiit room with 
scagliola walls. Beyond this was his 
simple bed-room with a slight camp 
bedsteeid in an alcove. On one side 
is a small table with a little green 
morocco looking-glass, his simple 
English shaving apparatus, his brushes, 
combs, and a pocket-handkerchief 
marked Z. 23. 

The Alexander Palace was built by 
Catherine for her grandson Alexander 
I. It is of a simple, yet lofty style. 
The only objects on the plain walls of 
the great drawing-room are a small 
print of Admiral Sir Edward Codring- 
ton, and the busts of seven Imperial 
children in infantine beauty. The 
Emperor's own room, in point of heavy 
writing-tables and bureaux, is that of 
a man of business, but ^e military 
tastes of Nicholas are apparent in the 
glass cases containing models of the 
different cavalry regiments, executed^ 
man and horse, with the greatest 
beauty and accuracy. Paintings of 
military manoeuvres and stiff squares 
of soldiers are also dispersed through 
the apartments. 

The Arsenah a recent red brick erec- 
tion in English Gothic, is a most pic- 
turesque object in the noble gardens 
of the palace. For several generations 
the Russian sovereigns have amassed 
a collection of armour and curious 
antique instruments. These were in- 
creased in the reign of the Emperor 
Nicholas, who erected this building 
purposely for their reception, and in- 
trusted tieir classification and armnge- 
ment to an Englishman. 

It would be impossible to enumerate 
the objects here preserved, consisting 
chiefly of ancient armour, weapons, 
and accoutrements of every descrip- 
tion, for man and horse, from every 
warlike nation, both Christian and 
Pagan. Figures in armour guaid the 



154 



Boute 1. — St Peterihurg : Tsarskoe Selo, 



Sect. L 



entrance and lead the eye along the 
winding staircase, whence a lofty cir- 
cular vaulted hall is entered, with oak 
flooring, and walls hung round with 
carbines, lances, &c., in fanciful de- 
vices, and where, placed on higli pedes- 
tals in a circle round the room, are 8 
equestrian figures in full accoutrements 
and as large as life, like the kings in 
the Tower of London. Between these 
the visitor passes on to various little 
alcoves or oratories with groined ceiling 
and stained window, whose light falls 
on the gorgeously wrought silver cross 
or precious missal of some early pope, 
or on the diamond-and- pearl- woven 
trappings of Turkish luxury; or on 
the hunting-horn, with ivory handle of 
exquisitely carved figures, of some 
doughty German Markgraf of the olden 
time; or on the jousting instruments 
and other playthings of the Amazons 
of Catherine II/s court. 

In a glass case in the arsenal are 
preserved the small silver drum and 
trumpet given by Catherine to the 
Emperor Paul in his childhood, and 
beside them is the autograph letter 
of Bessi4res to Davoust, Governor of 
Moscow, ordering him to evacuate the 
city. 

In a recess are placed 2 sets of horse- 
trappings presented by the Sultan to 
the Emperor — ^the first on concluding 
the peace of Adrianople, when the 
"yellow-haired Giaours" passed vic- 
toriously the mountain barrier of the 
Balkan, and were well nigh at the 
gates of his capital. This saddle is 
superb, with its trappings of purple 
velvet studded with diamonds, and its 
stirrups of gold ; but the other makes 
its glories dim when seen together. 
This was given when the Porte sued 
as a suppliant to Hussia for an auxi- 
liary force to defend a tottering throne 
against a rebellious vassal, after the 
fatal field of Konieh had witnessed the 
overthrow of the only army the Sultan 
possessed. The diamonds on the pistol 
holsters of this saddle ai'e of unusual 
size, and their brightness perfectly 
dazzling, while every part of the 
saddle and bridle is actually covered 
with brilliants. Several swords, stud- 
^ "d with diamonds, are also preserved 



here ; for the most part presents from 
various sovereigns to the present Em- 
peror. 

But tliis arsenal would require a 
volume to itself, and offers inexhaust- 
ible interest to the artist in mind, 
and a very treasury of beautiful sub- 
jects to the artist in profession. They 
are minutely described in a French 
catalogue which may be purchased 
at the door. Visitors should ask to see 
the Polish standards, weapons, and 
uniforms, taken in the insurrection of 
1863, which are kept in an upper 
chamber of the Arsenal. 

Tlie grounds around the palace are 
18 m. in circumference, and contain 
plenty of larch, oak, and elm, which 
seem to flourish ; the gardens are cer- 
tainly the most carefully kept in the 
world ; the trees and flowers 9Jte 
watched and inspected with the most 
anxious minuteness. 

The odd caprices exhibited in the 
decoration of the grounds are really 
extraordinary, and so numerous that 
it would be difficult to enumerate them 
all. In one corner is the tower of an 
ornamental building of several stories, 
where Alexander II. resided with his 
tutor, when heir apparent ; in another 
are the baby-houses of the young Grand 
Duchesses, where they carried on a 
mimic menage. In front of a Chinese 
tower is a high pole, rigged like the 
mast of a frigate. On one of the ponds 
is a fleet of pigmy vessels, intended 
to amuse the Grand Duke Constantine, 
now High Admiral, in his professional 
studies. In addition to all these 
strange objects are a theatre, a Chinese 
village, a Dutch and Swiss cow-house, 
a Turkish kiosk, a summer-house in 
the form of an Ionic colonnade sup- 
porting an aerial garden, planted with 
flowers, a Gothic building called the 
Admiralty, a marble bridge with Corin- 
thian columns of polished marble, also 
rostral pillars and bronze statues, which 
Catherine erected to her favourites; 
amongst these is a column to Orloff. 
There are likewise some commemora- 
tive monuments raised by Alexander I. 
to his "companions in arms," inter- 
mingled with fields'^ol^'^d^s, hermit- 



JRussia. Bovie 1. — St, Petersburg : Pidhova Observatcyry, 

ages, artificial ruins, Homan tombs, 
grottoes, and waterfalls. 

One of the prettiest spots in the 
gardens is a Pavilion at fiie end of a 
small lake where the Grand Duchess 
Alexandrina, the amiable daughter of 
Nicholas, used to feed her swans, re- 
placed since her premature death by 
black ones. Her picture hangs there 
with one of her sayings under it : " Je 
sais, papa, que vous n'avez pas de plus 
grand plaisir que d'en faire a maman." 
Her fidl-length marble figure, with a 
child in her arms, stands in an alcove, 
surrounded by a handsome railing. 
The celebrated Statue of our Saviour 
by Danneker is shown in the artificial 
ruin of a castle in the park. 

From Tsarskoe the traveller is re- 
commended to drive to Pavhfsk, 3 m. 
beyond, in the carriage which conveyed 
him to the several sights ; returning 
to St. Petersburg by rail. Pavlofsk 
was built in 1780 and restored in 1803. 
The gardens are very extensive and 
well laid out over the most picturesque 
accidents of country. They are full of 
ch&lets, pavilions, temples, and mor- 
tuary chapels. The palace is*of very 
simple architiecture, and belongs to the 
Grand Duke Constantme. A short 
walk in the grounds will afford all the 
pleasure and information that are to be 
derived firom a visit, not forgetting, of 
course, the excellent orchestra which 
plays daily at the Rly. Stat or Vaux- 
haU, where tourists may dine or take 
tea after their long excursion. 

4. — PuDcova Ohserpatory, — ^This ex- 
cursion may be made by road from 
St. Petersburg (20 v.), or by taking 
the train by tiie Tsarskoe Selo or 
the Warsaw line to Tsarskoe Selo, 
and driving thence to the Observatory, 
which is open to visitors on Mondays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays from 11 a.m. 
to 2 P.1I. Admission in the evening 
only by express permission of the 
Director. • 

The Imperial Observatory of Pul- 
kova was founded in 1838, by the 
Emperor Nicholas, on a scale of great 
magnificence. The splendid instru- 
ments which it contains were purchased 
from the best makers in Europe for 



155 



about 38,000Z., while the cost of con- 
struction exceeded 300,000Z. It stands 
on a considerable eminence, isolated 
from other buildings within a circum- 
ference of about a mile. Since its 
foundation the Observatory has made 
many important contributions to the 
science of Astronomy ; the name of 
Struve, father and son. Directors of the 
Observatory, are too well known in 
Europe to need any comment here. 
Struve's measurement of the arc of 
the meridian between the Danube and 
the Polar Sea was one of the greatest 
achievements of astronomical science. 
Another measurement, equally well 
known, was made subsequently be- 
tween Valencia in Ireland and Orsk 
in Siberia, comprising 52 degrees of 
latitude. 

All these works were executed by 
officers of the Imperial Etat Major and 
by the corps of Topographers edu- 
cated at St. Petersburg. Within the 
last 25 years the learned Directors of 
the Observatory and their coadjutors 
have published nearly 200 works on 
Astronomy and Geodesy. The State 
contributes a sum of about 5000Z. for 
the support of the establishment. 

5. For excursion to Gatchina Palace, 
see route from Frontier to St. Peters- 
burg. 

6. To ScUussdhurg and Lake Ladoga, 
— Small steamers leave several times a 
day from a stage opposite the Summer 
Garden, for SchlUsselburg, at the mouth 
of the Neva, in Lake Ladoga, a dis- 
tance of 40 m., which is made in 4 to 
5 hours. This trip affords an oppor- 
tunity of viewing the extensive manu- 
factories, works, and buUding-slips, 
established on the banks of the river, 
most of which are under the manage- 
ment of English mechanics. At a 
place called Alexandrofiki is a large 
steam factory. The works are sur- 
roimded by a very large village, com- 
posed of the dwellings of the artizans 
and their masters. About 1 m. further 
on are the Imperial Porcelain Worlis 
where tiie ceramic art has been fos- 
tered since the days of Catherine II. 
A great perfection has been attained 

I 3 



156 



B<mte 1. — St, Peter^urg : ScUusseJburg. Sect. I. 



here in the manufacture and ornamen- 
tation of china. Some splendid vases 
are exhibited, and many exquisitely 
modelled figures of biscuit. An ex- 
cursion to these works alone might be 
profitably undertaken. The long line 
of cottages beyond are occupied by a 
population engaged in the manufac- 
ture of porcelain, which is all stamped 
in blue witii the Bussian initial of the 
reigning sovereign, surmounted by an 
Imperial Crown. The Alexandrofski 
Manufactory jlhighei up the river, was 
once a thriving place, under the super- 
intendence of our countryman, Gene- 
ral Wilson, where numerous English 
cotton-spinners, weavers, and other me- 
chanics obtained lucrative employment. 
The Government have now abandoned 
the manufacture of cotton and linen 
fabrics, and the principal buildings 
are occupied by a Bussian Iron-works 
Company. Higher up, after passing 
the large German colony of Saratof^ 
the banks of the river become prettily 
wooded. Many country seats, once 
of great splendour, occur at intervals. 
The picturesque ruins of an old castle, 
called Pella, will be seen at the rapids 
of the Neva, 17 m. from St. Petersburg. 

SchlHsselhurg is a fortress on an 
island at the source of the Neva. It 
belonged anciently to Novgorod the 
Great In 1324 George, Prince of 
Moscow and Novgorod, raised a fort 
on it during an expedition against 
Wyborg, and a trade with Bevel soon 
sprang up. The Lithuanians then took 
it, but were driven out by Magnus 
King of Sweden, a.d. 1347. The 
Novgorodians retook it in 1352, and 
raised a stone wall round the island. 
From that date to its final occupation 
by Peter the Great in 1702, Schlus- 
selburg, or, as it was called by the 
Swedes, Nateborg, remained a fruitful 
subject of contention between the two 
countries. The fortress has often served 
as a state prison. John VI. met with his 
death in it. The town of Schliisselburg, 
on the left bank of the Neva, has 
4000 Inhab., engaged in navigating 
the Ladoga Lake and the famous canal 
vhich forms part of the fluviatile 
3tem oonnectiug the Boltio with the 



Caspian. Tourists should inspect 
the locks, and after strolling a little 
in the country return to St. Petersburg 
by the boat that brought them, and 
which will take them down the rapid 
current of the Neva in less than 2 
hours. (For description of country 
beyond Lake Ladoga, vide Bte. 3). 

7. The Monastery of WcHaxim^ on 
Lake Ladoga, should also be visited if 
the traveller have suflScient time, par- 
ticularly between the 27th and 30th 
June O.S., when an annual fair is held 
there. Steamers ply regularly. 

This monastery is reputed to have 
been founded between a.d. 973 and 
980, before the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into Bussia, but it is disputed 
whether the 2 Greek monks who lie 
buried at Walaam, Sergius and Ger- 
manicus, flourished in the 10th or in 
the 14th centy. In the 12th centy., 
and in 1577 and 1610, the place suf- 
fered much from the inroads of the 
Swedes, who crossed over from Serdo- 
bol, on the mainland of Finland, 40 v. 
distant, where an excellent dark gra- 
nite is now quarried. The monastery 
was destroyed by fire in 1754, and re- 
stored to its present condition in 1785. 
There are 5 chs. within it, and in one 
of these (the Cath.) lie the remains of 
the two Greek monks in handsome 
shrines of silver. 

The situation of the monastery is 
very picturesque, and the islana on 
which it stands is divided by a pretty 
rivulet The traveller will visit with 
interest the many cells and subter- 
anean caverns in which the more 
pious monks pass their lives in great 
austerity. 

In 1819 the Emperor Alexander 
passed two days in prayer and fasting 
at this monastery. 

Tolerable accommodation will be 
found, although, by the exercise of a 
small amount of interest, the traveller 
will probably be able to induce the 
captain of the steamer to allow him to 
pass a night on board, which will be 
found preferable. 



d by Google 



Eussia. 



Bmte 2,—Boute 3. 



157 



ROUTE 2. 

LONDON TO ST. PETEBSBTJBG, BY SEA, 
VIA CBONSTADT. 

This route is cheaper than the over- 
land journey. Steamers ply constantly 
to Cronstadt and St. Petersburg from 
London, Hull, and Leitk. 

The London steamers charge about 
61., exclusive of provisions (about 68. 
per day), and make the voyage gene- 
rally in 6 or 7 days. 

The most popular Hull boat is the 
Emperor paddle-steamer. Fares : 1st 
cabin, 51.58.; second cabin, 31 3«. Pro- 
visions 68. a day. Voyages performed 
in 5 or 6 days. 

Steamers leave Leith fortnightly for 
St Petersburg. Fare 6Z. Provisions, 
68. a day. Voyage 5 to 6 days. 

All these steamers stop at Copn- 
hagen. Some of them proceed direct 
to St. Petersburg ; others stop at Cron- 
stadt, and forward their passengers by 
river boat or by rail via Oranienbaum. 
Travellers wishing to avoid the land 
journey fix)m Berlin may embark at 
Lubeck or Stettin for St. Petersburg, 
which may also be reached by way of 
Riga, Stockholm, and Finland, for 
which see Rte. 4, and " Finland." The 
best months for the Baltic are June, 
July, and August. 

(For description of Cronstadt vids 
Rte. 1.) 



ROUTE 3. 

LONDON TO ST. PBTEBSBUBG, VIA ABCH- 
ANGEL. 

Steamers loading for Archangel, and 
having accommodation for passengers, 
may be found in London and in the 
North between the months of May and 
August. An earlier or later voyage 
should alike be avoided. The usual 
fare is 6Z. first class, and a charge of 
68. to 78. per diem for provisions during 
a voyage that lasts 7 or 8 days under 
favourable circumstances. 

This route should not be under- 
taken except by those who are pre- 
pared to brave the difficulty and dis- 
comfort of posting 750 miles, the 
distance between Archangel and St. 
Petersburg. Its choice can only bo 
justified by a desire to cross the White 
Sea, or to visit the interesting monas- 
tery of Solovetsk, situated on an is- 
land about 150 miles from Arch- 
angel, a town which, however, pos- 
sesses a certain amount of interest to 
the British traveller from its having 
been the " cradle " of the trade be- 
tween Great Britain and Russia. (For 
description of Early Intercourse with 
Russia at Archangel, vide Rte. 1 — 
" Russia Company.") 



ARCHANGEL. 

Hotels.— TheTe are no hotels properly 
so called at Archangel, but accommo- 
dation will be found in the ordinary 
hostelries of the country, described 
under " Posting." 

History of Archangel.— Fo]p. 20,000. 
Lat. 64° 33' N. 1104 versts from St. 
Petersburg, and 1206 versts N. of 
Moscow, on right bank of Northern 
Dvina. uigitizedoy vjww^i^ 



158 



BoiUe 3, — Archangel. 



Sect. I. 



The history of the town is traced 
back to the 12th centy., when John, 
Archbishop of Novgorod the Great, 
founded a monastery on the coast of the 
White Sea. In 1419 the Nortlunen 
made a descent on that part of the coast, 
destroyed the churches which be- 
longed to the monasteries of St. Ni- 
cholas and St. Michael, then already 
existing, and put to death the monks. 
It was at the former monastery that 
Sir Bichard Chancellor landed in 
1553, as related in the history of the 
early intercourse of Great Britain with 
Kussia. A wall was subsequently 
built round the monastery of St. 
Michael, and in 1584 the town which 
had sprung up within the enclosure 
began to be officially named New 
Holmogory. In 1637 the town and 
the monastery w^re destroyed by fire, 
when the monks removed their shrines 
to a place then called Niachery, where 
they still remain. A church, dedi- 
cated to the Archangel Michael, marks 
the spot where the old monastery 
stood. Fires devastated the town in 
1637. 1667, and 1678. In the latter 
year two foreign " builders of towns," 
Peter Marselin and William Scharf, 
built a new fortress or wall of stone, 
which was divided into three parts. 
The upper part being called the 
** Russian," and the lower the " Ger- 
man" (or foreign) enclosure. Peter 
the Great visited Archangel in 1693, 
and founded a naval wharf on the 
island of Solombola, connected with 
Archangel by a floating bridge, and 
which he peopled with seamen and 
artizans, while on a neighbouring 
island, called after Moses, he built a 
summer residence, which can still be 
seen. In 1701 Peter founded the for- 
tress of Novodvinsk, 18 v. from Arch- 
angel, on the Berezof branch of the 
Dvina. The town was again burnt 
down seven times between the years 
1724 and 1793. Ruins of the old stone 
wall are alone to be found, but the 
** Russian court," or enclosure, is 
partly extant. The custom-house and 
harbour-master's offices are contained 
within it. Two walls, very much 
crumbled, mark the limits of the old 

closure for foreigners. Archangel 



was made the seat of provincial go- 
vernment in 1702, the voe'vodes or 
governors having previously resided 
at Holmogory, now a district town, 
71 V. from Archangel, and celebrated 
for its fine cattle. 

On the principal square are the 
cathedral, the churches of the Arch- 
angel and of the Resurrection, the 
courts of law, &c. ; and a monument 
to I^monosof, the poet fisherman of 
Archangel, erected m 1838. On this 
square formerly stood the houses of 
the early English merchants. The 
Archiepiscopal Palace, built in 1784, 
is one of the oldest houses in Arch- 
angel. Travellers may visit the old 
monastery, from which the town takes 
its name, and which was removed to 
its present site, 2J v. from Archangel, 
in 1637. It contains 2 stone chs., of 
which one was built in 1685 and the 
other in 1705. 

The port is visited annually by 
about 800 vessels, of which nearly 
200 are British. Oats and other grain, 
flax, linseed, tar, timber, and blubber 
are largely exported (value about one 
million sterling) ; but the import trade 
is very limited. 

An English ch. and a chapel-of- 
ease, where divine service is performed 
during the months of summer, are 
still maintained for the benefit of the 
shipping and of the English com- 
munity, now reduced to very few 
members. A British consul likewise 
resides at Archangel. 



1. Excursion to SoloveUh Monastery, 

A steamer proceeds twice a week to 
the monastery of Solovetsk, one of the 
holiest places in Russia, founded in 
1429 by Saint Sabbatheus, assisted by 
Germanicus and Zosimus, two holy 
monks. Zosimus having been made 
abbot in 1442, the monastery began to 
grow in wealth and power. The Arch- 
bishop and Possadnik (governor) of 
Novgorod made large grants of land, 
while the inhabitants of that ancient 
city presented the monastery with 
gold and silver p^JHiMd^^ch vest- 



Bussia. 



Bouie 3. — SlovetsJc Monastery, 



159 



ments. In 1465 the relics of Sab-! 
batheus were removed from their place 
of sepulchre at the mouth of the 
river Vyga, and deposited in the 
Cathedral of the Transfiguration, 
where St. Zosimus was subsequently 
rIbo buried. In 1485 and 1538 the 
monastery and its churches were 
destroyed by fire ; but in 1552 the 
then Abbot Philip (afterwards Metro- 
politan of Moscow) began to rebuild 
the churches in stone. During tlie 
reign of Theodore, between 1590 and 
1594, the monks built at their own 
expense a wall of granite boulders, 
with towers and embrasures, 3 to 4 
fms. high and 3 fms. in thickness, and 
running along a length of 421 fms. 
In 1667 the monks refused to receive 
the new books sent by the Patriarch 
Nioon (vide description of the " New 
Jerusalem"), and broke out into open 
rebellion after ejecting their Archi- 
mandrite, Joseph, and refusing to 
listen to the envoy of the Tsar, the 
Archimandrite Sergius of Jaroslaf. 
But the leaders of the disaffected 
monks, having been carried away to 
Moscow, the remainder of the brethren 
flew to arms, and shut themselves 
up within their walls. The rebel- 
lion lasted nine years. After many 
ineffectual attacks by the Streltzi, 
the Vo^vode, Prince John Mestcher- 
ski, besieged the monastery for the 
space of two years, and it only 
fell by the treachery of one of the 
monks, who disclosed to the enemy a 
subterranean passage on the 22nd 
January, 1676, when many of the 
rebellious monks were put to the 
sword. A large number of them 
were either executed later or sent 
into exile. The remainder were kept 
in awe and submission during a 
whole year by 300 Streltzi, under the 
oommand of Prince* Vladimir Vol- 
konsky. 

In the 16th and 17th cents, the 
Solovetsk monastery was the place of 
banishment or retirement of many 
celebrated men. Sylvester, the monk, 
who exercised such a beneficial influ- 
ence over the earlier days of John the 
Terrible, lies buried there, together 
with Abraham Palytsin, the patriotic 



monk who roused the people to action 
during the Polish occupation of Mos- 
cow. Nicon, subsequently the famous 
patriarch, took the cowl at Solovetsk. 
Simon Bekbulatovitoh, the deposedTsar 
of Kasan, and subsequently the friend 
of his conqueror, John the Terrible, 
was sent here in disgrace by the false 
Demetrius, and forced to become a 
monk, circa a.d. 1609. He was re- 
moved in 1811 to the monastery of St. 
Cyril-Beloozersk, in tiie province of 
Novgorod. Peter the Great visited 
Solovetsk in 1694 and 1702, on the last 
occasion accompanied by his ill-fated 
son Alexis. A chapel now stands 
over the spot where he landed, while 
within the gates will be seen the 
models of the two vessels in which 
Peter crossed over. One of these was 
a yacht that had been built in Eng- 
land. 

The monks will point with pride to 
the unexploded shells which were fired 
from the British White Sea squad- 
ron in 1855. They were summoned 
to surrender to the ** squadron of 
horse," as the interpreter incorrectly 
put it to them; but they refused, and 
their only gun having burst and killed 
their only artilleryman, the holy 
fathers formed themselves in proces- 
sion, and walked round the walls, pre- 
ceded by the cross, while the shells 
were flying over their heads. An 
obelisk, next the 2 chapels, commemo- 
rates these proceedings. 

Churches. — This celebrated fortress- 
monastery now contains 6 chs. — 1. 
The Cathedral of the Transfiguration, 
built of wood in 1438 by Zosimus, but 
rebuilt of stone by St. Philip in 1558, 
and consecrated 1566. It has 5 altars, 
erected contemporaneously, dedicated 
as follows : — o, to the Archangel Mi- 
chael ; 6, to Saints Zosimus and Sab- 
batheus, whose relics are there pre- 
served in shrines of silver-gilt, of 
which the covers, weighing 180 lbs. 
avoird. were made at Amsterdam in 
1660, at the expense of tiie Boyar 
Boris Morosoff ; c, to the 70 Apostles ; 
d, to the 12 Apostles ; e, to Theodore 
Stratilatus ; and /, to St. John of the 
Ladder. The body of St. Phili^^ 



160 



Boute 3. — Kern, 



Sect. I. 



Metropolitan of Moscow, having been 
removed from the Otrotch monastery 
near Tver, where the exiled metro- 
politan had been put to death by order 
of John the Terrible, was originally 
buried under the porch of the Cathe- 
dml of the Transfiguration, but in 
1652 they were removed to the Cathe- 
dral of the Assumption at Moscow. A 
part of the relics of the saint were, 
however, left in the monastery, where 
they lie in the slirine which was made 
for them in 1646. The Ikonostas was 
put up in 1697, by order of Peter the 
Great, as seen from an inscription 
above it. Near the catliedral are two 
chapels, built in 1753, and containing 
the tombs of Germanicus and of other 
reverend fathers of local repute. 2. 
The Cathedral of the Assumption, 
built of stone, together with a refec- 
tory by St. Philip, in 1552, and con- 
secrated by him in 1557 ; in the upper 
part of this church are two altars 
which were restored after a fire that 
occurred in 1717. 3. The Church 
of Nicholas Thormaturgus, built of 
stone, and consecrated about 1590. 
4. The Church of the Annunciation, 
founded 1596, consecrated 1601, and 
restored after a fire in 1745. 5. The 
Church of the Metropolitan Philip, 
built 1687, renovated 1798. And 6. 
A church outside the wall of the 
monastery, in the cemetery, and dedi- 
cated to Onuphrius the Great ; conse- 
cmted 1667 ; the belfry, constructed in 
1777, is of a height of 20 fms. 

The Sacristy is one of the richest in 
Kussia, being full of valuable gifts 
made by various sovereigns and 
nobles. Among other objects of great 
price are the vestments, covered with 
pearls of unusual size, given in 1550 
by John IV. (Terrible), and a gold 
cross with relics, adorned with pearls 
and precious stones, the gift of the 
same Tsar in 1558 ; a silver shrine, 
weighing 25 lbs., made in 1766 ; an- 
other shrine, presented by the Grand 
Duke Constantine in 1845, and a large 
copy of the Evangelists, weighing 
about 18 lbs., in a binding of silver- 
gilt. The following other treasures 
will be viewed with interest :— 1. The 
white linen chasuble of Zosimus, pre- 



sented to him by Archbishop Jonas of 
Novgorod, and in which St. Philip had 
said mass ; this venerable garment is 
still worn on great occasions by the 
Archimandrite of the monastery ; 2. 
The Psalter of Zosimus, mended by 
St. Philip, and an image of the Holy 
Virgin, brought to Solovetsk island by 
Sabbatheus; 3. The armour of the 
followers of Abraham Palytsin, who, 
though a monk, wa.s one of the most 
active agents in the war that termi- 
nated in the expulsion of the Poles 
from Moscow in 1613 ; 4. The swords 
of Prince Michael Skopin-Shuiski, and 
of Prince Pojarski, presented by him- 
self, and preserved in a scablmrd of 
silver-gilt, and studded with precious 
stones — (for the history of those 
princes, vide Historical Notic^ ; 5. 
Many original charters of the Veche 
(or Wittenegamote) of Novgorod and 
of Martha the Possadnitsa, or elected 
governor of that republic, granting 
lands to the monastery ; and 6. A 
large collection of ancient Russian 
and otlier weapons, and of banners 
bearing the emblem of the cross. 

Very tolerable accommodation will 
be found at the monastery, and the 
traveller who comes provided with an 
introduction to the archimandrite, 
easily obtained through the British 
residents at Archangel, will find a 
stay of two days at Solovetsk Monas- 
tery both pleasant and instructive. 



2. Ex^mrnon to Kem, 

A tourist who will go as far as 
Solovetsk may as well proceed by the 
steamer which leaves the monastery 
once a week for Kem, an interesting 
settlement of the Staroveri or Old- 
Believer sect, who pursue the avoca- 
tion of fishermen, and to whom indeed 
the greater part of the fishing stations 
and vessels in the White Sea belong. 

Kem.— Lat. 64° 56' N. Pop. 1750. 
Distant 280 v. by sea and 521 v. by 
land from Archangel. 

This town is very prettily situated 



Bossia. 



Boute 3 . — Onega — Kargopol. 



161 



on the river Kem, which falls into 
the White Sea on its W. shore. In 
the 15th centy. it belonged to Martha, 
the *• Possadnitsa " of Novgorod, who 
in 1450 mfide a gift of it to the Solo- 
vetsk monastery. The Finns took it 
in 1580, when the Voevode of Solo- 
vetsk and many Streltsi were killed. 
In 1590 the Swedes took possession 
of the entire district. A wooden for- 
tress, erected in 1657 by the monks 
on Lep island at the niouth of the 
Kem, was destroyed by inundations 
that occurred in 1749 and 1763. 

The inhabitants are almost exclu- 
sively occupied in summer in the 
herring and cod fisheries, the women 
alone remaining in possession of the 
town. During the long absence of 
their husbands, however, they fre- 
quently make pilgrimages to the 
shrines of Solovetsk. As the inhabi- 
tants of the Kem district principally 
consist of Carets and Lopare the 
traveller will have an excellent oppor- 
tunity of studying the characteristics 
of l£o8e northern races; and the 
excursion might be made still more 
interesting by returning via Onega, 
and ascending the Onega river to 
Kargopol« instead of posting to the 
latter town from Archangel. 



3. Sxeurgion from Kem to Onega, 

Should the steamer not touch at 
Onega on her return from Kem, the 
traveller can proceed by the high road 
to Archanget the distance between 
Kem and Onega being 289 v., and 
that to Archangel from Onega 232 v. 



Onega is a place of some trade par- 
ticularly in timber. An English 
company has for m^ny years had a 
concession for cutting and exporting 
timber fiom this district. The com- 
pany has 3 saw-mills — 2 on the river 
Ponga and one on the Anda, tribu- 
taries of the Onega, which is a very 
fine and broad stream, 400 v. in 
length from Kargopol, in the vicinity 
of which town it takes its rise. 



The town is supposed to have been 
founded in the 15th centy., but its 
existence can only be authentically 
traced back to the end of the 17th 
centy. It has a Pop. of 2000, and 2 
chs. Here the traveller will be able 
to get advice and assistance from the 
agents of the English Timber Com- 
pany, who will gladly put him on his 
way up the Onega river, the rapids of 
which,combined with very fine scenery, 
are well worthy of being visited. 

It is almost needless to say that 
game of every kind abounds through- 
out this part of the country, but the 
proper time for killing it is of course 
the winter, when only the most enthu- 
siastic sportsman would venture to 
carry his gun so far and to such a 
climate. 



Journey to 8t Petersburg, 

Having provided himself with a 
Podorojna, and attended strictly to 
all the injunctions of his countrymen 
at Archangel, who will most willingly 
give him every assistance in their 
power, the traveller bent on posting 
to St. Petersburg must resign him- 
self to the jolting of a tarantass and 
the rapid driving of a yamstchik. A 
considerable part of the bad road (or 
150 V.) may, however, be avoided by 
taking advantage of a steamer which 
runs regularly up the Dvina to Siva, 
the 7th post station from Archangel. 

Thirteen stations beyond Siya, or 
445 V. from Archangel, is the tovm of 

Kabgopol, where the traveller will 
rest. 

As regards Hotels, the general rule 
in Bussia applies: — There are none 
at Kargopol; but the traveller will 
find a night's lodging at the post . 
station. 

History of the Toxon. Situated in 
Lat. 61' 30" N., in province of Olonetz, 
on left bank of Onega River. Pop. 
2000. 

Kargopol is one of the most ancient 
colonies in the N. of Russia, but tho 
first authentic mention of the town 
occurs in 1447, when Prince Dmitry 



162 



Boute 3. — Vytegror — Petrozavodsh 



Sect. I. 



Shemiajka and Prince John Mojaisky, 
sought refuge in it from the persecu- 
tion of the Tsar, Basil the Dark. 
From a charter, dated 1536, it appears 
that Kargopol was at that time a 
pUce of considerable traffic, and pos- 
sessed of a privilege for trading in 
salt. In 1565, John the Terrible 
ordered the supplies for his household 
to be drawn from Kargopol, and he 
left the town by will to his son John. 
The Lithuanians and Poles set fire to 
the outskirts in 1612, after three in- 
effectual attempts to take the town 
by assault, and it was again besieged 
for a considerable time by Cossacks 
and lawless bands from the Volga. 
As a place of banishment, Kargopol 
received in 1538 the Lady Agrippina 
Cheliadnina, the governess of the 
young Tsar John IV. At the in- 
stance of the Shuiski faction she was 
here made to take the veil. Solomonia, 
the consort of the Grand Duke Basil 
of Moscow, father of John the Terrible, 
was imprisoned at Kargopol on ac- 
count of her barrenness, in 1525. In 
the reign of the Tsar Theodore, Prince 
Anthony Shuiski was put to death 
here, a.1). 1587. The wall of the old 
fortress in which these state prisoners 
were confined is still partly visible, 
together with the remains of the moat, 
on the banks of tlie river Onega. 
There are 19 chs. within the town, 
and a convent (the Uspenski or the 
Assumption); but there is nothing 
within them of any great note. 

The inhabitants of Kargopol are 
principally occupied in the dressing 
of skins, of which about 2 millions are 
annually sent to Nijni-Novgorod and 
St. Petersburg. A market is held 
every Sunday, in summer, when the 
country people come in with their pro- 
duce. 

Continttaiion of Journey. Ten sta- 
tions beyond is 

Vytegra, district town in prov. of 
Olonetz, 668 v. from Archangel, Lat. 
61°. Pop. 2500. 

This town is prettily situated on 
both banks of a navigable river bear- 
ing the same name. Until the reign 
of Peter the Great it was only a station 



or wharf for vessels laden with grain, 
&c., but the Vytegra river having 
later become pcui; of the •* canal sys- 
tem " that unites the White Sea with 
the Baltic, it was raised from the 
rank of a village to that, of a town. 
Vytegra has therefore no historical 
interest, but to the geologist the 
rugged banks of the river will offer 
many attractions, being composed of 
red sandstone of the Devonian forma- 
tion, full' of fossil remains, particularly 
of fishes. In the limestone- near 
DeviatinsM will be found fossils of 
Chaetetes radians, Leptxna hardremiSt 
Cidaris romcus^ Natica Marissy &c., 
while in the sandstone specimens of 
the Stigmaria ficoides abound. 

Travellers are recommended to ter- 
minate their land journey at Vyte- 
gra, by crossing over in a boat to Vos- 
nesenie, on the opposite side of the 
lake of Onega (about 50 v.), and thence 
taking steam to Lake Ladoga, which 
will be reached by means of the river 
Svir. 



Excursion to Petrozavodsk. 
I 
After arriving at Vosnesenie the 
more enterprising tourist will endea- 
vour to reach Petrozavodsk, on the 
western shore of Lake Onega, which 
is 220 V. in length and about 75 in 
breadth. Steamers run regularly 
twice a week between St. Petersburg 
and Petrozavodsk, touching at Vos- 
nesenie. The entire voyage is made 
in 2 days. 

Petbozavodsk. — This town was 
founded by Peter the Great, with the 
view of developing the mineral re- 
sources of that part of his empire. 
The province of Olonetz is rich in 
copper, iron, and mica, which were 
worked in the earliest ages. It was 
anciently called Corelia; and its in- 
habitants, the Corels, embraced Chris- 
tianity at the beginning of the 13th 
centy. Oorelia was annexed to the 
republic of Novgorod, which granted 
permission to Dutch and other mer- 
chants to cut wood and raise iron and 
mica in the vicinity of the lake. Later 



Enssia. 



Boute 4. — Berlin to Beval. 



163 



the Swedes and Lithuanians made 
frequent incursions. 

The town of Petrozavodsk dates 
from 1701, when Peter the Great es- 
tablished there works for casting can- 
non, but which were afterwards des- 
troyed, and replaced by other works 
completed in 1774. Guns continued, 
nevertheless, to be imported into Hus- 
sia at great expense from the Carron 
Works in Scotland, owing probably to 
the unsatisfactory state of the esta- 
blishment on Lake Onega. In order 
to improve the latter, Catherine II. 
invited Charles Gascoigne, the ma- 
nager of the Carron Works, to come 
over and rebuild the gun-foimdry, 
which he did in 1794, when the town 
that had sprung up around it took 
the name of Petrozavodsk. Gascoigne 
was accompanied by two English arti- 
zans, George Clarke and James Wilson, 
who subsequently rose to great emin- 
ence in the service of Russia. Guns 
for the navy are to this day cast at 
Petrozavodsk. 



Continuation of Journey, 

Returning in the steamer to Vos- 
neseni^ the traveller, who does not 
wish to go overland from Vytegra, 
will continue his voyage down the 
river Svir, which connects the lakes 
of Ladoga and Onega. The steamer 
will stop at Lodeinoe Pole (the Field 
of Lodi), more than half way down 
the river. This is a place of some 
interest as the spot where Peter the 
Great built his first galleys m 1702. 
He superintended their building in 
person, and subsequently employed 
them in taking the fortress of Schliis- 
selburg from the Swedes. A monu- 
ment of cast iron marks the site of a 
house in which Peter resided. 

Emerging on Ladoga, the largest 
lake in Europe, having an area of 
336 sq. geog. m., and after a voyage of 
some hours, the traveller wiU come in 
sight of the grim fortress of Schliis- 
selburg, where the river Neva takes 
its rise. For a description of this 
fortress, and of the course of the Neva, 
viile Rte. 1, Excursion 6. 



The overland route from Vytegra to 
St. Petersburg passes through liodei- 
no6 Pol^ (855| V. from Archangel) 
and the town of Novaya Ladoga (957J 
v.), in which there is nothing of in- 
terest, except the canal and locks. 
There are 23 stages between Vytegra 
and St. Petersburg, the longest being 
27^ V. and the shortest 10| v. The 
town of Schliisselberg, through which 
the traveller will pass during the last 
part of his journey, is 60 v. from St. 
Petersburg by the post road. 



ROUTE 4. 

BEBLIN TO BEVAL, BY RIGA, DORrAT, ETC. 

8ea Boute. — ^Riga may be reached 
by steamers from Hull, Stettiu, and 
Lubeck. 

Overland Boute. — A branch line from 
Diinaburg (vide Rte. 1) places Riga 
in direct rly. communication witli 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, and the 
Southern lines, as well as with the net- 
work of European rlys. 

Fare from London {via Calais) to 
Riga : 1st class, 324 francs 80 c. ; 1st 
and 2nd (mixed), 261 fr. 5 c. 



164 



Boute 4» — Livonia. 



Sect. I. 



Stations : — 
Dunaburg (vide Ete. 1). 
Lixna, 9f m. from Dunaburg, 
Kreutzburg, 65 m. Train stops 62 

min. 
Eomershof, 91 m. Train stops 10 min. 

'RiGA.—Hotels : Hotel de St. Peters- 
burg in the Castle Square ; Stadt 
London, in the centre of the old town ; 
Hotel du Nord, near the English ch. 

There is room for improvement in 
the hotels at Biga, but the prices are 
lower than those of the best hotels at 
St. Petersburg. 

Cafd": Kriipsch's, nearthe Exchange. 

Biga, the capital of Livonia, with a 
Pop. of 100,000, is the chief seat of the 
political, milltajy, and administrative 
government of the 3 Baltic provinces, 
Livonia, Esthonia, and Gourland, as 
well as the centre of their commercial 
and industrial activity. 

Livonia was almost unknown to the 
rest of Europe until 1158, when some 
Bremen merchants on a trading voyage 
to Wisby, on the Swedish island of 
Gottland, were wrecked on theLivonian 
coast, and soon after formed settle- 
ments on it, and established commercial 
relations with the inhabitants. Mein- 
hardt, an Augustine monk, converted 
the Livonians to Christianity in 1168, 
and became their first bishop, but it 
was not until the time of Albert, the 
4th bishop, that the Christian religion 
was fully introduced. Albert built 
Biga AJD. 1200, and made it the seat 
of the bishopric. Towards the end of 
that cent, the Baltic provinces were 
seized by King Knut VI. of Denmark ; 
they were subsequently sold by Wal- 
demar IIL, one of his descendants, to 
the Order of the Brethren of the Cross 
and Sword (Schwert briider) founded 
by Bishop Albert. 

In the full spirit of the name they 
bore, these warlike adventurers speedily 
enlarged the territories of the Hanse 
Towns. Ignorant of the language, and 
despising the habits of the natives, 
their principal weapon of conversion to 
the true faith was the sword by which 
they held their footing on the shores of 
'he east sea; though on one occmon 



the Bishop of Riga is reported to have 
edified the minds of heathen Wends by 
a dramatic representation of a variefy 
of scenes from the Bible. All writers 
concur in describing the cruelties prac- 
tised upon the unbelieving natives 
by these Christian warriors as of the 
most revolting and barbarous descrip- 
tion. They were not long permitted 
to pursue their career of conquest and 
tyranny with impunity. On the north, 
they were compelled to recoil before 
the arms of the Dane ; while the Rus- 
sians, alarmed at the near approach of 
such formidable neighbours, roused the 
natives to avenge the wi'ongs of half 
a century of oppression, and the flame 
of insurrection spread far and wide 
throughout Livonia and Esthonia. 
Many Gemians were cut off by the 
insurgents ; but at lenpfth Bishop Bern- 
hard, falling upon their tumultuous 
forces with Jiis disciplined chivalry, 
routed the Wends (the aborigines of 
Livonia) and tlieir allies, and slew 
them mercilessly. The Russian town 
of Dorpat was taken, and a German 
colony established there (a.d. 1220). 
The capture of the isle of Oesel, to 
the rocky &stnesses of which the best 
and bravest of the Livonians had re- 
tired as a last refuge, and the voluntary 
conversion of the Courlanders, esta- 
blished the power of the brotherhood. 
The Emperor Frederick II. (1230) 
conferred the conquered provinces as 
an imperial fief on Valquin, the grand 
master of the order, and everything 
seemed to promise the rapid rise of a 
mighty kingdom, when a sudden attack 
of the Lithuanians laid low the grand 
master and his hopes of conquest, and 
nearly annihilated the entire forces of 
the brotherhood. The scanty relics 
of this powerful body now called for aid 
on their brethem the Teutonic knights, 
who were anxiously seeking a fairer 
field for military achievements than the 
East, where they were alike harassed 
by the open violence of the Mussulman, 
and the jealousy of the rival orders, the 
Templars and Hospitallers. The pre- 
sence 6f these hardy warriors restored 
the Christians to their former superi- 
ority in the field, and these new comers 
80on riv9.1lGd the knights of the Cross 



Bussia. 



Boute 4. — Biga. 



165 



and Sword in craelty, burning whole 
villages that had relapsed into idolatry, 
and making, in the words of one of 
their own bishops, ** out of free-bom 
men the most wretched slaves." As 
allies of the Poles, they built on the 
Yistola the fort of Nassau, and, sal- 
lying forth from thence, took by storm 
the holy oak of Thorn, the chief sanc- 
tuary of the Prussians, and beneath its 
far-spreading arms, as in a citadel, the 
knights defended themselves against 
the frantic attacks of the pagans. A 
general rising of the natives, and a war 
of extermination, reduced their numer- 
ous forces to a few scanty troops, and 
their ample domains to 3 strongholds ; 
and, after various alternate defeats and 
victories, they were rescued from entire 
destruction by a crusade, under the 
command of the Bohemian monarch, 
Ottokar the Great, who founded the 
city of Konigsberg (a.d. 1260), and 
gave for a time new life and vigour 
to the falling fortunes of the nor^em 
chivalry. 

Internal dissensions, and the conse- 
quent establishment of a second grand 
master, who held his seat at Mergent- 
heim, weakened the growing power of 
the reviving brotherhood, and the 
fatal battle of Tannenbei^g (1410) gave 
a mortal blow to the importance of 
this " unnatural institution ;" but the 
knights still retained the whole eastern 
coast of the Baltic, from the Narova to 
the Vistula, and it was not until the 
end of the 15th cent, that the arms 
of Poland compelled them finally to 
relinquish their claims to the district 
of eastern and western Prussia. The 
ancient spirit of the order awoke once 
again in tbe Grand Master Tlettenberg, 
who routed the Russians in 1502, and 
compelled the Tsar to agree to a truce 
for 50 years ; but the stipulated time 
had no sooner elapsed than the Rus- 
sians again invaded them, and, too 
feeble any longer to resist such power- 
fid enemies, the knights were glad to 
purchase peace and the undisturbed 
possession of the province of Gourland 
as a fief of the Polish crown by sur- 
rendering Esthonia to Sweden, and 
Livonia to the Poles, while the districts 
of Narva and Dorpat were incorporated 



with the empire of Russia. Still the 
brotherhood existed. Without import- 
ance as an independent power, but 
valuable as an ally, its friendship was 
sought and courted in the various 
intrigues and commotions of the Rus- 
sian throne during the early part of 
the 18th cent 

Esthonia and Livonia were finally 
given up by Sweden to Russia in 1721, 
at the peace of Nystadt. By the terms 
of the capitulation which preceded that 
treaty, the Protestant religion and the 
German language were guarp,nteed, as 
well as all ancient rights and privi- 



Courland was incorporated with 
Russia in 1795, at the 3rd partition 
of Poland ; Peter Biren, the last duke, 
son of the favourite of the Empress 
Anne of Russia, receiving as compen- 
sation the sum of 2,000,000 rubles 
pension for life. 

The town of Riga has been much 
embellished and enlarged since the 
removal of the lines of fortification in 
1858. It has quite the appearance of 
a German town. The majority of the 
inhabitants are German Protestants; 
Russians are next in numerical im- 
portance. There are many Letts and 
Poles ; among the foreigners the Eng- 
lish are the most numerous. Riga is 
the second commercial city of Russia. 
During the season 2000 ships load 
opposite the town. The principal ex- 
ports are grain, linseed, flax, hemp, 
and wood; the chief imports, salt, 
herrings, coal, iron, machinery, colonial 
goods, &c. There are 70 factories, mills, 
and other similar establishments in 
the town and suburbs. 

The principal learned and scientific 
societies are the Society of History and 
Antiquities of the Baltic Provinces, the 
Society of Naturalists, and the Society 
of Praictical Literature. There are a 
high school for technical science, two 
gymnasiums, a school of navigation, 
and several other public and private 
schools. The town is very richly en- 
dowed with charitable institutions, 
many of which are of ancient founda- 
tion ; amongst the number are an ex- 



166 



BotUe 4. — Biga, 



Sect I. 



cellent orphan asylum, and several 
asylums for widows of citizens in re- 
duced circumstances. 

Music is the most cultivated of the 
fine arts. 

A good operatic company, a musical 
society, and 5 singing clubs are among 
the amusements of Biga. 

The sights of the town are — 

The Imperial Castle, a massive build- 
ing with 2 crenelated towers, dating 
from the time of the grand masters of 
the Teutonic Knights. Over an arch- 
way in the court is a stone statue of 
the Virgin Mary, .protectress of the 
German orders; also, the statue of 
the celebrated Grand Master Walter 
von* Tlettenberg. The castle is now 
the residence of the Governor General. 
In front of the castle is a monument 
raised by the citizens in honour of 
Alexander I., to commemorate the 
campaign of 1812. 

The Citadelj with an arsenal, mili- 
tary barracks, and a handsome Busso- 
Greek cathedral, dedicated to St. Peter 
and St. Paul. 

The Mansion House, containing most 
interesting archives connected with 
the ancient history of the town. 

TheB^aZZo/^eJ5ZacfcAeacfo(8chwartz- 
hauptem), one of the oldest buildings 
in the town, built early in 1200, and 
often restored. This is a most interest- 
ing building, not only from its peculiar 
style, but also from the relics which it 
contains, including a curious collection 
of silver plate. 

The Guildhalls of the great and small 
guilds; handsome modern buildings in 
the Gothic and medisBval styles, con- 
taining many curiosities of the middle 
ages. 

The Cathedral Church, a large build- 
ing of the 13th and 14th centy., con- 
taining the tomb of the 1st bishop of 
Livonia. 

St, Peter*s Church, with a lofty spire 
of a peculiarly bold construction, from 
the galleries of which extensive views 
may be obtained. 

The English Churchy a building in 

'^e purest style, where service is per- 

led by a resident clergyman. Built 



and entirely supported by the English 
merchants established at Biga. 

The Toum Library, containing many 
rare manuscripts. 

The Museum, containing a fine arch- 
iBological and zoological collection. 

The Braderlow Gallery of PainHngs, 
containing many originals by cele- 
brated masters. 

The Bitter-house, containing the 
knights* hall, and the coats of arms 
of all the Livonian nobility, who hold 
their parliaments there. 
* The Exchange, a handsome new 
buildiug, in the Florentine style. 

The Theatre, an imposing building 
of the handsomest description, open 
during nearly the whole year. 

There are also Club-houses, where 
balls are given during the winter sea- 
son, and where the national and foreign 
newspapers are to be found for the use 
of the members or of visitors, who can 
be introduced by a member free of all 
payment. 

Outside the town are the Imperial 
PMic Gardens, with an elm planted 
by Peter the Great; and the Wohr- 
man Park, with an establishment for 
preparing and dispensing mineral 
waters, which are taken early on sum- 
mer mornings to the music of a good 
band. 

The communication with the left 
bank of the river, on which are the 
Mittau suburb, the herring wharf, 
&c., is in summer maintained by a 
floating bridge, or long raft, about 
2000 ft. long, across which goods are 
passed from the large flat-bottomed 
barges that arrive in spring from the 
interior of the country, and which 
anchor on the upper side of the bridge. 
The ships frequenting this port lie 
in rows, head or stem on, at the lower 
side of the bridge. 

Biga is supplied vrifb. water and gas 
by establishments under the manage- 
ment of a town committee. 

The principal objects of interest in 
the neighbourhood are the Fortress of 
DUnamunde, 1 hour from Biga by 
steamboat, and the mole opposite, 
built to maintain deep water at the 
mouth of the Dwina; the large Mili- 



BusBia. 



Boute 4, — Diiheln — Mitiau — Dorpat 



167 



tary Hospital and House of Correction^ 
at Alexander's Hohe ; the old Buim of 
Kdkenhusen Castle^ on the Dwina, 
standing in the midst of peculiarly 
striking and beautiful scenery; ana 
the Livonian Stoitzerland, with the 3 
old castles of Cremon, Tryden, and 
Segewold, all in situations of great 
beauty. These are about 4 hours' 
drive from Biga, along a good road. 

Diiheln Stat., a watering-place situ- 
ated on the Gourland river Aa, distant 
about 15 Eng. m. from Biga, with 
which place there is frequent daily 
communication by steamboat. Fare | 
silver rouble ; length of passage about 
2 hrs. Diibeln is much frequented for 
sea-bathing during the season, from 
July to September inclusive, by visitors 
from the neighbouring provinces, as 
well as from St. Petersburg and other 
parts of Bussia. The village, consist- 
ing of small wooden houses, with a 
few of* a better class interspersed, is 
unfortunately situated in a sandy 
hollow on the bank of the river, 
and distant I m. from the sea, from 
which it is separated by a low hill 
covered with pine-trees. No houses 
are allowed to be built overlooking 
the sea. The hours of bathing for 
ladies and gentlemen respectively are 
regulated by the ringing of a bell, 
and any infringement by the one sex 
on the hours sacred to the other is 
visited with a severe fine when de- 
tected. To those accustomed to wit- 
ness the promiscuous bathing of the 
sexes in the immediate vicinity of Biga, 
this phase of Busso-German modesty 
appears somewhat exaggerated. 

Diligences run daily from Biga to 
Mittau (3 hours), Dorpat (26 hours), 
and other towns in Livonia. Steamers 
ply twice a week to Beval and St. 
Petersburg J and other places. A rail- 
way is in course of construction from 
Biga to Mittau. 



26,000), the capital of Courland, was 
founded in 1266, when the Grand 
Master, Conrad Medem, built a castle 



on the site of the present palace, the 
residence in 1798 and 1804 of Louw 
XVin., as Count de Lille. This re^ 
markable building was almost entirely 
built by Biren, the favourite of the 
Empress Anne, when he was chosen 
" chief of the Courish nobility." There 
is a museum and a library contain- 
ing 7500 vols. ; a gymnasiiun, with a 
library of 30,000 vols. ; and many bene- 
volent institutions. The carnival is 
the gayest period of the year at 
Mittau. 



2. Dorpat, Hotel de St. Peters- 
burg; Hotel de Londres. Pop. 14,000. 
The history of this town is a stirring 
and a stormy one. The Bussians from 
the E., the Teutonic Knights from the 
W., the quarrels of both with the 
aboriginal Esthonians, and the bloody 
wars between the Bussians, Swedes, 
and Poles, more than once laid it in 
ashes. Its University was founded by 
Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, the year 
of his death, and, after various vicissi- 
tudes, it took refuge in Sweden, to 
avoid the Bussian army in 1710. Pro- 
fessors, students, libraries, museums — 
all departed ; and returned only under 
the auspices of the Emperor Alexander 
L in 1802. 

Among the professors one name may 
be cited of great celebrity, that of the 
late Otto Struve, whose astronomical 
labours have procured him a well- 
earned reputation throughout Europe. 
The observatory on the Domberg, from 
the character of the work done there, 
is ranked among the most celebrated 
institutions in this branch of science, 
and well worthy of being seen. Here 
is a great refracting telescope, the 
work of Frauenhofer, mounted in such 
a manner that the iron roof, revolving 
round a vertical line, affords complete 
protection from the weather without 
hindering the view of any point in 
the heavens. This was designed and 
constructed by Mr. Parrot, and so 
beautifully is it executed that one 
hand is enough to impel and guide 
the machinery which moves the tele- 
scope and roof. The Emperor Alex- 
ander I. presented the telescope to the 



168 



Boute 4. — Eathmta. 



Sect I. 



University. Some of the apparatus 
which was used in measuring a por- 
tion of the meridian of Borpat is to be 
seen here. The library is curiously 
situated in the ruins of the old Dom ; 
the views from hence are very fine. The 
broad crown of the hill, adorned by 
nimierous avenues of trees, is called 
Cathedral Place; the ruins of a ch., 
destroyed in 1775, by a fire which con- 
sumed nearly thewhole town, explains 
the origin of this name. On the 
DomWg are likewise the Schools of 
Anatomy and Natural History, the 
museums, &o. The philosophical in- 
struments are remarkable for their hav- 
ing been made for the most part by a 
Eussian artisan of the name of Samoil- 
off. Of all the collections of the Univer- 
sity, that of the Botanical Garden is the 
most complete ; it contains more than 
18,000 plants, some of which are not to 
be found in the other botanical gardens 
of Europe. Dorpat, like Reval, had 
once its corps of Schwarzen Haupter, 
or *' association of citizens for the de- 
fence of the city ;" it is now merely a 
convivial club. Among its treasures 
is a magnificent goblet of glass and 
gold, 2 ft. high, on the side of which 
are engraved a beetle, a hmnming- 
bird, and a butterfly. With the ex- 
ception of the Dom no vestige remains 
at Dorpat of the ancient Gothic nucleus 
of the town ; all is new. The fortifi- 
cations have been converted into agree- 
able promenades. A granite bridge 
over the Embach, which is navigable 
up to Dorpat, adds not a little to the 
appearance of the town. 



3. Beoal (Pop. 25,000). SoteU : the 
Hotel WittestSrand ; and the Lion 
d'Or. 

Esthonia, too insignificant a country 
to govern itself, but, from its position, 
too tempting a prize to be disregarded 
by neighbouring states, has been 
roughly used by every northern power, 
and has exhibited scenes of sufiering 
and discord of which the history of the 
iwn of Reval, its capital, is siijBficient 

give an epitome. The first buildings 



recorded as occupying its present site 
were erected by Eric XIV., King of 
Denmark. 

"These consisted of a monastery 
dedicated to the archangel Michael, 
afterwards transformed into a convent 
of Cistercian nuns, the ruins of which 
are still standing, and whence the Cis- 
tempfortej one of the gates of the town, 
derives its name ; and a fortress called 
Lindanisse, and by the peasants Dani- 
Linna, or Danish town, whence the 
contraction Tallina, the Esthonian 
name for Beval at the present day. 
To these were added other buildings : 
but it was not unta 1219 that Walde- 
mar II. of Denmark pulled down the 
fortress, probably on the Dome Hill, 
and set about erecting a regular town. 
From this time it appears to have been 
called Reval, about the derivation of 
which many have disagreed, but which 
appears with the most probability to 
arise from the Danish word Refwell, a 
reef. Reval now became of sufficient 
importance to be quarrelled for by 
the Danes, the Swedes, the Livonian 
Knights, then recently united with 
the Grand Order of the Teutonic 
Knights, and even by the Pope him- 
self, who, however, seems to have 
thrown his interest into the scale of 
Denmark, by which, in 1240, it was 
elevated to the seat of a bishopric. 
To this was shortly after added (1284) 
the privileges of a Hanseatic town. 
Trade now began to flourish, and was 
further encouraged during the regency 
of the Queen Mother of Denmark, 
Margaretta Sambiria, who selected 
Esthonia as her WittwensitZy confirmed 
and increased the privileges of Reval, 
endowed it with the right of coinage, 
&c., and enfranchised it from all outer 
interference. These privileges, how- 
ever, did not extend to the Dome, 
where the Stadthalter, or governor, 
resided, and which, as it still con- 
tinues, was independent of the town, 
and not considered Reval. But even 
this short age of gold was disturbed 
by many bitter quarrels about rights 
of boundary, &c., which have by no 
means fallen into disuse. This fertile 
province of Esthonia, with its wealthy 
little capital, from being a widow's 



Bussia. 



Boute 4. — Beval. 



169 



dowry, became a bride's portion, and 
in right of his wife, a princess of 
Sweden, was possessed for some time 
by a Markgraf of Brandenburg. After 
that it again changed hands, and was 
at length formally sold, in 1347, to 
the Grand Master of the Teutonic 
Order at Marienburg, and given, at 
first in trust, and ai^erwards as an 
independent possession, to his ally, 
the Master of the Order in Livonia." 

The luxurious habits of the nobility 
fell hard upon the neglected serf 
peasant, and an old saying still exists, 
that "Esthonia was an Elysimn for 
the nobility, a heaven for the clergy, 
a mine of gold for the stranger, but a 
hell for the peasant," who, agreeably 
to the history of most republics, was 
ground down to the most abject 
poverty. Consequently, in 1560, the 
peasants rose in immense numbers, 
attacked castles and monasteries, kill- 
ing and slaying all before them, and 
menaced Beval, where many of their 
lords had taken refuge, so seriously, 
that with Bussia, always a troublesome 
neighbour, invading their frontier, and 
unaided by their knights, who were 
fettered with debts, and had battles 
enough of their own to fight at this 
time, the Bevalensers and the rest of 
the province formally threw off the 
dominion of the Order, and, calling 
over the aid of Sweden, took the oaths 
of allegiance to King Eric XIV. in 
1561. 

*• The manner in which the provinces 
of Esthonia and Livonia were wrested 
from Charles XIL of Sweden, by Peter 
the Great, is too well known to need 
repetition. The Esthonians esteem 
themselves fortunate in being united 
to Bussia under so enlightened a Tsar, 
who left them all their privileges, and 
took much delight in his new ac- 
quisition, visiting Beval several times, 
and instituting public improvements. 
Beval indeed has received visits from 
all the sovereigns in turn, who have 
paid due homage to its beauty and 
salubrity; and also, among similar 
events, remembers with pride the visit 
of Nelson. 

" The province has been allowed to 



retain its own jurisdiction, which is ad- 
ministered by 12 Landr'athe, a strictly 
honorary oflBlce, dating from the 14th 
centy. The most distinguished names 
which fill the pages of Esthonian 
history, either in an episcopal, military, 
or civil capacity, are those of the Barons 
Meyendorf, Uxkiill (the Esthonian 
name for the same, but now a distinct 
family), Bosen, and Ungem, all of 
which still exist in very flourishing 
condition, with many others, of more 
recent origin, from Sweden, Bussia, 
and all parts of Europe, including 
even the names of Douglas, O'Bourke, 
and Lewis of Menar, whicli stand hero 
in friendly propinquity, their British 
origin being overlooked in their esta- 
blished Esthonian antiquity. 

" I will only add that Beval and 
Esthonia — for their histories blend too 
much to be separated — were more or 
less under the dominion of Denmark 
until 1347, under that of the Order of 
Schwerdt-brUder until 1561, under 
Sweden until 1700, since when they 
have proved themselves most loyal sub- 
jects to Bussia." 

Beval is divided into [2 partsi the 
upper and lower town; the former, 
perched on the top of a rocky emi- 
nence, about a mile in circumference, 
encloses within its old Gothic walls 
the Dom, the castle, with the residence 
of the governor, the commandant*8 
house, the gymnasium, and the houses 
of the nobility. The whole of this 
quarter is called the Dom, and no 
plebeian is permitted to possess ground 
on this aristocratic reef of rocks. The 
lower part, the descent to which is 
very steep, at one spot almost danger- 
ous for carriages, is of considerable 
extent, and in the broad streets, 
stretching to the flat sandy shore of 
the harbour, are the dweUings and 
warehouses of the merchants, the rath- 
house, the guild-house, the bank, the 
barracks, and the theatre. 

The diurches of Beval include 5 
Bussian, 1 Swedish, 1 Danish, and 4 
German. The Lutheran are of great 
antiquity. The Olaikirche, originally 
built in 1329, was struck and partially 
consumed by lightning no less than 8. 



170 



Boute 4. — Beval. 



Sect. I. 



times ; and it was only in 1840 that it 
rose from the ashes in which it was laid 
in 1820. 

" Its archives and library, however, 
preserve an unbroken history; and 
many of its architectural ornaments, 
coeval with its earliest erection, have 
been saved from the flames. Among 
the former is a piece of sculpture of 
great richness, consisting of two wide 
niches, the upper one empty, the lower 
occupied by a skeleton, with a toad 
resting on the body and a serpent 
crawling out of the ear— supposed to 
typify the destruction of an idol image 
recorded to have been filled with these 
reptiles ; and with a gorgeous breadth 
of stone-work in 8 partitions around, 
exhibiting the triumph of Christianity 
in the Passion of our Saviour, and 
other parts of the New Testament. 
This bears date 1513. The tower, re- 
built precisely on the former scale and 
form, is about 250 ft. high, and serves 
as a landmark in navigation. This 
edifice, the cathedral church of the 
lower town, is in pure early Gothic, 
with lancet windows of great beauty, 
and dedicated to St. Olai, a canonized 
King of Norway, who mounted the 
throne at the beginning of the 11th 
centy., and first introduced Christian- 
ity among the Norwegians. 

" The next ch. of importance is that 
of 8L Nicholas— q. large, 3-aisled struc- 
ture with a massive square tower — 
built by Bishop Nicholas in 1317. 
This appears to have eluded the zeal 
of the iconoclasts of reforming times, 
and possesses many relics of Boman 
Catholic times. The most interesting 
are the pictures of the altar, especially 
2 wing paintings containing small 
half-length figures of bishops, car- 
dinals, priests, and nuns — ^3 on each 
side — in Holbein's time and manner, 
on a blue ground, and of great beauty. 
Also a picture, placed for better light- 
ing at the back of the altar— a Cruci- 
fixion, including the 2 thieves, with 
town and mountains in the back- 
ground, and a procession of equestrian 
figures entering the gate. This is of 
singular beauty of expression and 
""rm, though much injured by recent 

ovations— of the school of Raphael, 



and especially in the manner of An- 
drea del Salerno. 

" Immediately at the entrance of the 
ch., on the right hand, is a representa- 
tion of the oft-repeated Dance of Death 
—coinciding not only in age and ar- 
rangement, but also word for word in 
the Plat Deutsch verses beneath, with 
the same subject in St. Mary's church 
at Liibeck. 

" The chapels of some of the chief 
nobility, with massive iron gates and 
richly adorned with armorial bearings, 
are attached to this ch., though all in 
a very neglected state. The Eosen 
chapel is now occupied by the unburied 
body of a prince, who expiates in this 
form a life of extravagance. The 
Duke de Croy — a prince of the Roman 
Empire, Markgraf of Mount Comette, 
and of other fiefs, &c., and descended 
from the Kings of Hungary — after 
serving with distinction under the 
Emperor of Austria and King of 
Poland, passed over to the service of 
Peter the Great, obtained the com- 
mand pf the Russian army, and was 
defeated by Charles XII. at the battle 
of Narva. Fearing the Tsar's resent- 
ment, he surrendered to the enemy, 
and was sent a prisoner at large to 
Reval, at that epoch under the sway 
of Sweden. Here, indulging a passion 
for ostentation, he managed to spend 
so much, that, though only a few 
years elapsed between his removal to 
Reval and his death, the residue of his 
fortune was unequal to meet his debts ; 
upon which the numerous creditors, 
availing themselves of an old law, 
which refuses the rites of sepulture to 
insolvent debtors, combined to deny 
him a Christian burial, and the body 
was placed in a cellar in the precincts 
of this ch. It remained in its unoon- 
secrated abode until, accident having 
discovered it, in 1819, in a state of 
perfect preservation owing to the anti- 
putrescent properties of the cold, it was 
removed into the Rosen chapel, and 
now ranks among the lions of this 
little capital. The corpse is attired in 
a rich suit of black velvet and white 
satin, equally uninjured by the tooth • 
of time — ^with si& stockings, full 
curled wig, and a ruff of the most 



Bussia. 



Boute 4. — Beval, 



171 



exquisite point lace, which any mo- 
dem grand duchess might also ap- 
prove. The remains are those of a 
small man, with an aristocratic line of 
countenance. 

** In respect of antiquity the Estho- 
nian chul-ch bears off the palm in 
Reval, being mentioned by Jean 
Bishop of Reval, when he -granted to 
the city the * Jus ecclesiasticum et epis- 
copale, after the form of the Liibeck 
statute, in 1284, a time when St. Olai 
and St. Nicholas did not exist. 

" The Russian church, or one adapted 
to the Russian service in later times, 
is also of great antiquity, but has been 
altered to the external type of all 
Greek places of worship. 
• " The Hdtd de ViUe has been also 
renovated with windows of modem 
form. AVithin, the magisterial chair is 
still held in the empty and worn-out 
forms of days of more importance; 
and the eflBgy of the burgher who had 
his tongue cut out for divulging a 
state secret, warns hi^ successors of 
less responsible times to be more dis- 
creet. 

** Several Guildhalls, with groined 
roofs, tell of those corporations of mer- 
chants who here met for business or 
feasting, and are now passed away 
with the commerce of Reval : with the 
exception, however, of the corps of the 
Schwarzen Haupter, les Freres tetes- 
noires—so called probably from their 
patron saint, St. Mauritius— a military 
club of young merchants formed in 
1343 for the defence of the city. These 
were highly considered— were endowed 
by the Masters of the Order with the 
rank and privileges of a military body 
— wore a peculiar uniform— had par- 
ticular inauguration ceremonies and 
usages— and bore their banner, ^ aui 
vincendum aut nwriendum,* on many 
occasions most gallantly against the 
numberless foes who coveted the riches 
of Reval. 

" The chief edifice where they held 
their meetings is adorned in front 
with a Moor*s head and other armorial 
pieces of scidpture ; but within it has 
been stripped of all antiquity, except- 
ing the archives of the Order, and 
portraits of the various crowned heads 

J2t«tia.— 1868. 



and Masters of the Livonian Order 
who have held Esthonia in their sway. 
The altarpiece from the convent of St. 
Brigitta — a magnificent ruin upon the 
sea-coast in full view of Reval — is also 
placed here, being a piece in 3 com- 
partments, in the Van Eyck manner, 
comprising God the Father, with the 
Infant Saviour in the centre — the Vir- 
gin on the one hand, the Baptist on 
the other— and greatly recalling por- 
tions of the famous altarpiece painted 
for St. Bavon's church at Ghent. On 
the back of the two wings, and closing 
over the centre-piece, is the subject of 
the Annunciation — 2 graceful figures 
in grey, of later Italian date." 

" This city is further strewn with 
the ruined remains of convents and 
monasteries of considerable interest, 
though too much choked with parasi- 
tical buildings to be seen to any ad- 
vantage. The outer circumference is 
bound in with walls and toujers of 
every irregular form, most of which 
have significant names, as for instance, 
* der lange Serrmann* a singularly 
beautiful and lofty circular tower 
crowning the Dom; and ''die dicke 
Marguerite* a corpulent erection lower 
in the town. 

"The Dom is equally stored with 
traces of olden times, consisting of the 
old CastU, which encloses an immense 
quadrangle, and is in part appropriated 
to the governor's residence ; the Dom 
Church, a building of incongruous 
architecture, is filled with tombs of 
great interest, of the Counts de la 
Gardie, Thum, Hom, &c., beneath 
which lie the vaults of several cor- 
porations of trade, variously indicated 
— the shbemakers' company by the 
bas-relief of a colossal boot in the 

Eavement — the butchers' by an ox's 
eady &c. Further on is the Bitter- 
schafts Saus, or Hotel de la Noblesse, 
where the Landrathe assemble, the 
Landtag is held, and all the business 
connected with the aristocracy of the 
province conducted. Every family of 
matriculated nobility has here its 
shield of arms and date of patent; 
while on tablets of white marble are 
inscribed the names of all the noble 
Esthonians who served in the French 



172 



Route 4. — Bevd,^ 



Sect. I. 



campaign, and on tables of black 
marble the names of those who fell ; 
and truly Esthonia has not been 
niggard of her best blood. 

*^ Beval Is entered by 7 gates ; they 
are all picturesque erections, decorated 
with various historical mementos, the 
arms of the Danish domination, the 
simple cross of the order on the mtmi- 
oipal shield of the city« 

^* In the summer there is an annual 
faiTf called the Jcthrmarhtt which is 
held beneath the old ehn-trees before 
the church of Sti Nicholas — a most 
interesting scene to the stranger — and 
forms the morning lounge of the inha-* 
bitants during that season of the year. 
In the evening Caiherinthal is the 
&ivourite promenadei This is an Im-' 
perial LustsdfdoiBf or palace, at a little 
distance from the town, surrounded 
with fine trees and well-kept grounds, 
or what is here termed ' ein superber 
Park,* which during 6 weeks of the 
Buomier months is thronged with 
fashionable groups, who eat ices, drink 
chocolate, taDc scandal, and make love, 
as people do elsewhere. 

" This residence^ which is literally 
a bower of verdure redeemed from a 
waste of sand, is the pleasant legacy 
of Peter the Great to the city of Reval. 
Being a frequent visitor to Beval, it 
was^ here that he first erected a modest 
little house beneath the rocks of the 
Laaksberg, from the windows of which 
he could overlook his infant fleet 
riding at anchor in the bay, and which 
still exists^ But a few years previous 
to his deaths the present palace, within 
a stone's throw of his Dutch house, — 
for aU Peter the Great's own private 
domiciles testify whence he drew his 
first ideas of comfort, — was construct- 
ed, which he surrounded with plea- 
sure-grounds, and presented to his 
consort by the name of Gatherinthal. 
It has been the temporary sqjoum of 
all the crowned heads of Russia in 
sudcession ; and the treaty of peace 
Concerning Bilesia, between the two 
most powerful women of coeval times 
whom the world has ever known — 
Maria Theresa of Austria and Oathe^ 
rine 11. of Bussiar— was here ratified 
'i^ 1746. 



" The population of Reval, which is 
18,000 (now 25,000), is greatly swelled 
during the summer by hundreds of 
Petersburgians that come here to 
bathe. The steamers from the capital 
are constantly plying, so overloaded 
with passengers as greatly to neutral- 
ize accommodations otherwise good." 

"A day may be profitably and 
agreeably spent in driving to Padis 
KloBter, distant 13 m. from the town, 
one of the finest ruins in Esthonia. 

"This monastery is mentioned in 
thd beginning of the 14th centy., 
when, owing to starvation without its 
walls, and doubtless a very comfort- 
able life within, the peasants rose in 
numbers around, murdered the abbot 
and monks, and so devastated the 
place, that in 1448 it received a fur- 
ther and fuU consecration at the hands 
of Heinrich Baron Uxkiill, Bishop of 
Reval ; at which time it was ordained, 
that whoever should in any way en- 
rich or benefit this Kloster of Padis, 
should, for any sins he might commit, 
have 40 days of penance struck off!. 
Hence, perhaps, arose the peculiar 
repute and custom in the sale of in- 
didgences which this monastery en- 
joyS." — Letters from the BaUic. 

Reval has an arsenal, and the fleet 
from Oronstadt rendezvous here at 
timesi Russian vessels of war are 
generally stationed in the harbour. 

The duh of the nobility and savans 
contains some handsome apartments, 
and a collection of portraits of Swedish 
sovereigns, arms, and relics of remark- 
able persons. The English, French, 
and German newspapers are taken in 
here, and a stranger may readily pro- 
cure admittance. At Reval is the 
mausoleum of Admiral Greig, the hero 
of Chesme, who was buried here with 
great pomp in 1788. 

St. Petersburg maybe reached from 
Reval by steamer in 24 hours< 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bussia^ 



• Route 6. — Novgorod^ 



173 



ROUTE 5. 

ST» JPBTEBSfitEG TO NOVGOBOb TfiB 
GBBAT. 

This is an excursion that eVei'y tra- 
veller who wishes to study Russian 
antiquities should make. 

The journey is performed in summer 
by train to Volkh(n>a Stat. (seeRte. 6). 
Fare, 6 rs. 15 c. Steamer from Volk- 
hova to Novgorod, and vice verBdy to 
correspond. Between 4 and 5 hours 
by river. In winter, passengers for 
Novgorod leave the tram at Chudova 
(on Moscow line, 75 m. from St. Peters- 
burg), and engage sledges, which are 
always in waiting, for Novgorod, about 
45 m. distant. In either case the trip 
need not occupy more than 2 or 3 
days. Stations at Chudova aud Volk^ 
hova small. Principal Inn at Nov- 
gorod, " Berezinskaya Gostinnitsa," 
m the main, or Moscow Street Very 
good, clean rooms, opened in 1867; 
prices moderate. The inn close to the 
steamboat pier not as good. Travellers 
are recommended to take a commis- 
sioner or servant with them. 

Novgorod, Pop. 18,000, on the Volk- 
hof river. The glorious history of this 
old city may be read in its churches, 
the only surviving monimients of its 
former greatness. It was the cradle of 
the Russian empire, for the Rurik 
dynasty first settled there in 862. The 
Grandnducal throne having been soon 
after removed to Eief^ the citizens of 
Novgorod grew in power fts the princes 
of the house of Rurik weakened their 
dominion by constant wars in dis- 



putes relative to the right of succes- 
sion. From 1136 the Nov^orodians 
acquired the right of calling m princes 
to govern them according to the laws 
of the city, and of " showing them the 
way out of it" when they gave no 
satisfaction. Their popular assem- 
blies,, or Veoh€, strengthened by the 
subdivision of Russia into petty prin- 
cipalities, assumed still greater autho- 
rity during the Mongol invasion. 
They devised in open council common 
measures of protection. The dominion 
of the intaders once established over 
the greater part of Russia, with the 
exception of Novgorod, which tho 
Tartars never reached, the princes, 
who had always sought merely their 
own personal advantage, were gained 
oyer to the Camps of the Khans by 
bribes and offers of support against 
their unruly people, who were thus 
driven into still stronger union. Re- 
lying on the support of his Tartar 
protectors and the power of his officers, 
y aroslaf. Great Prince of Novgorod in 
1270, neglected the conditions on 
which he had eiscended the throne, 
pursued a despotic course, and became 
deaf to the popular voice. The bell of 
the Veche soon struck the hour of his 
downfall. The citizens assembled at 
the Cathedral of St. Sophia, and at 
once resolved to depose Yaroslaf, and 
to put his ffeivourites to death. The 
chief of these was killed, the others 
fled to sanctuary, leaving their houses 
to be pillaged and razed to the ground 
by the angry populaee. An act of 
accusation was brought against tho 
Prince in the name of Novgorod. 
"Why," asked the citizens, "didst 
thou take possession of the palace of 
Mortkinitch? Why didst thou take 
silver from the boyars Nikifor, Robert 
and Bartholomew ? Why didst thoU 
send away the foreigners (merchants) 
who lived peaceably among Us ? Why 
do thy birdcatchers (ducks were then 
plentiful) deprive us of our river Volk- 
hof, and thy huntsmen of our fields? 
Let thy oppression now cease! Go 
Where thou wiUstj we shall find an- 
other prince." 

** Wbo can resist God and the Great 
Novgorod? " was a proverbial expres- 
K 2 



174 



Boute 6. — Novgorod^ 



Sect. I. 



8 ion of the time, evidently founded on 
a consciousness of popular power. The 
*' Lord Great Novgorod," as the State 
was quaintly styled, exercised all the 
rights of sovereignty until John III. 
incorporated it with the Grand 
Duchy of Moscow in 1478. The an- 
cient trade of Novgorod with the Han- 
seatic towns had made it a centre 
of immense -wealth. It once covered 
an area of 40 miles in circimiference. 
The first Eussian money was coined 
there in the early part of the 15th 
centy. John III. was obliged to re- 
move more than 8000 boyars and 50 
families of merchants to Moscow, be- 
fore he could extinguish the spirit of 
independence which so many centuries 
of freedom and prosperity had fostered. 
The Veche bell was likewise carried 
away to Moscow, with countless trea- 
sures in gold, silver, and precious 
stones. However, a still sterner fate 
awaited the city. John the Terrible, 
informed that the Novgorodians in- 
tended to submit to the Prince of 
Lithuania, suddenly appeared on the 
Volkhof with an army of Opritchniks, 
who sacked the churches and monas- 
teries, and during an occupation of 
six weeks threw hundreds and thou- 
sands of the inhabitants into the river. 
During the interregnum that followed 
the extinction of the Kurik line, Nov- 
gorod, and its "younger brother" 
Pskof, contemplated a union under a 
prince of Sweden. This was the last 
ineffectual effort made by the Nov- 
gorodians to re-establish their ancient 
self-government. It is now the chief 
town of a province of the same name. 

The principal sights are :— 
1. Cathedral of 8t, Sophia, anciently 
" the heart and soul of Great Novgo- 
rod." Here the princes were crowned, 
and in front of it the Vech^s were oc- 
casionally held. The firsf cathedral at 
Novgorod was built in 989. The pre- 
sent edifice was originally erected in 
1045, by the grandson of St. Wladimir. 
It was constructed by artisans from 
Constantinople, after the model of 
J'cstinian's Temple. It was pillaged 
A.D. 1065 by the Prince of Polotsk, 
and again in 1570 by the Opritchniks 



of John the Terrible. The Swedes, 
under Delagardie, in 1611, after kill- 
ing two of the priests, destroyed the 
charter granted to the cathedral in 
1504. The frescoes were executed in 
the 12th centy., but the entire build- 
ing, both within and without, was 
completely renovated and restored be- 
tween 1820 and 1837. As one of the 
oldest churches in Bussia, its architec- 
ture will afford an interesting study. 
The cupola is supported by eight mas- 
sive quadrangular pillars. There are 
two more similar pillars at the altar. 
Five chapels, or altars, stand within the 
cathedral, added at various periods 
from the 12th to the 16th centuries. 
The high-altar is of oak, and is ap- 
proached by two stone steps. The 
mosaic-work on the wall behind the 
altar is considered to be cotemporane- 
ous with the building of the cathedral, 
and consequently Byzantine work. 

The Ikonostas was put up in 1341. 
The most remarkable images in it 
are : — 1. The Saviour, a copy of an 
ancient image attributed to the Greek 
Emperor Emanuel, taken to the Cathe- 
dral of the Assumption at Moscow in 
1570. 2. St. Sophia, a copy, of the 
same date as .the church, of a Byzan- 
tine image. 3. St. Peter and St. Paul, 
brought, according to local tradition, 
from Khersonesus, together with some 
celebrated crosses now in the Cathedral 
of the Assumption, by St. Wladimir. 
The remaining images, 15 in number, 
are of greater or less antiquity. On 
pillars above the choir are fresco re- 
presentations of canonized princes and 
ecclesiastics. 

The chief shrines are:--l. Of St. 
Anne, daughter of King Olaf of 
Sweden, and consort of Prince Yoro- 
slaf I. She was tiie first to set an ex- 
ample of taking the veil, according to 
the custom of widowed empresses in 
Byzantium. She died in 1050. 2. In 
a niche of the some wall lie the 
remains of St. Vladimir, son of Yaro- 
slaf and Anne, and founder of the 
cathedral, who died a.d. 1052. These 
relics were placed there in 1652. 3. 
St. Nikita, Archbishop of Novgorod, 
reposes in a silver shrine. He was 
canonized for his great piety. His 



Bussia. 



Bouie 5. — Novgorod. 



175 



prayers extinguished the flames which 
once threatened Novgorod with de- 
struction, and hrought down rain on 
the parched earth. Ohiit 1108. 4. At 
the S. wall of the high-altar stands an 
empty reddish slate tomh, and over it 
a hronze shrine, in which repose the 
remains of St. Mstislaf " the Brave," 
Prince of Novgorod, who obtained 
great renown in the war for the succes- 
sion, and was prevailed upon by the 
Novgorodians to become their prince. 
He freed Pskof from its enemies, and 
compelled the Cliiids, or Finns, to pay 
tribute. In the midst of his greatness 
lie was overtaken by disease, and, 
having caused himself to be carried 
into the Cathedral of St Sophia, took 
the Holy Communion before the assem- 
bled citizens, and, after commending 
his wife and his 3 sons to the care of 
his brothers, crossed his once mighty 
arms on his breast and expired, 14th 
June, 1180. 5. In the N. chapel, in a 
rich silver shrine (1856), lies exposed 
the body of John Archbishop of Nov- 
gorod, who died 1186. There are 10 
other shrines of saints who lived be- 
tween 1030 and 1653. Nineteen arch- 
bishops and Metropolitans, between 
1223 and 1818, are also buried within 
the cathedral, together with many 
princes. Only 2 of the inscriptions on 
the tombs of the latter are now legible ; 
they record the deaths of Prince Mstis- 
laf Rostislavitch m 1178, and of Vasili 
Mstislavitch a.d. 1218. 

Among other interesting objects 
within the ch. may be mentioned : 1. 
The throne of the Tsar and Metro- 
politan, erected in 1560 ; 2. Large brass 
chandeliers, suspended in 1600. The 2 
doors which open into the Chapel of the 
Nativity are very remarkable. They 
are of oak, overlaid witii metaUic 
plates half an inch in thickness, and 
bearing various devices and scrolls. 
Tradition says they were brought from 
the ancient town of Siegtoun, in 
Sweden, pillaged in 1187 by pirates, 
among whom were some Novgorodians. 
The Korsun (or Khersonesus) door, at 
the W. entrance, is likewise of wood,- 
omamented with bronze, bearing 54 
inscriptions in Slavonian and Latin. 
The former are supposed to be of the 



14th centy., and the latter in the 
Gothic style of the 13th or 14th 
centy. It is in dispute whether 
this door came from Khersonesus or 
from Magdeburg. Another account 
states that the door was carried in- 
to Poland by Boleslas II., when it 
was placed in a Eoman Catholic 
churon, and subsequently transported 
to Novgorod. 

The Sacristy, which is in a room at 
the top of the cathedral, contains 
several ecclesiastical objects of interest, 
although the more ancient treasures 
have been removed, stolen, or burnt at 
various periods. There is a printed 
copy of the Gospels in a cover of the 
16th centy. The mitres, croziers, and 
panagias are of the 16th and 17th 
cents. Among the antiquities, not 
ecclesiastical, are: 1. A cap of main- 
tenance, of wood, covered with silk, 
supposed to have belonged to the 
princes of Novgorod ; 2. Archbishop's 
seal ; 3. Silk standard, with a mono- 
gram of the Saviour's name — ^tradition 
says it was carried before the ancient 
Governors of Novgorod ; 4. Large silk 
standard of Novgorod, presented by 
the Tsars Peter and John in 1693 ; 5. 
A collection of small silver coins from 
John III. to Peter L ; 6. Old dishes of 
German work. 

Library. — This was one of the richest 
in Russia, but in 1859 the MSS. were 
removed to St. Petersburg. A collection 
of 20 letters from Peter the Great to 
Catherine I., and his son Alexis, &c., 
is still preserved there. 

2. The KremUn, or stone wall, in the 
centre of the city, was foimded 1302, 
rebuilt 1490, and repaired in 1698 and 
1818. A pavilion, in a garden which 
occupies the bed of the old moat, is 
raised on the spot where Martha, sur- 
named the " Posadnitsa,'' or governor 
(in the female gender), lived in the 
middle of the 15th centy. The cathe- 
dral, the archiepiscopal palace, and 
several churches, stand within the 
walls. 

It is impossible to describe in tlie 
limits of this Handbook any other of 
the uimierous churches and monasteries 
with which old Novgorod is adorned. 



176 



Bouie 6. — St, Petersburg to Moscoio. 



Sect. I. 



They are mostly of groat antiquity, and 
will fully repay a minute inspection 
and inquiry on the spot. A work by 
Count M, Tolstoy, 1862, in the Bussian 
language, contains the most complete 
information. 

Travellers will see the great Monu- 
ment j erecte4 in 1862, to commemorate 
the 1000th anniversary of the existence 
of the Russian Empire. The ^gures 
on it are emblematical of tlie several 
periods of Russian history. The design 
is by a Russian academician, but it was 
cast by the English firm of NichoUs 
and Plincke, of the " English Maga- 
zine," at St. Petersburg. 

A band plays twice a week during 
summer in the Sim^mer Garden, which 
is unfortunately not kept iu very good 
order. 

An excursion might be made across 
the Ilmen lake in the steamer which 
leaves evejy other day for *< Staraya 
Jluss," a mshionable watering-place 
where salt baths are taken. The 
steamer crosses in about 3i hrs, J«»a, 
tolerably goo4, In winter the lake 
is crossed in a sledge, but Btaraya 
Russ is not wortb seeing fit that 
season. 

Travellers should^ Iiowcvgt, x^oi lUil 
to see the old MtimiMtury of Wiryeffy 
near Novgorod. It is »itu£ik4 *i m. 
out of Novgorod, bcstwoCTi tJie VolJdiof 
and Kniajevka rivrra, nn on olcvntion 
of considerable pjeturesque iJlHnit, 
Having been founded in 1031, by 
Yaroslaf , son of Vladimir, it is one of 
the most ancient and important mo- 
nasteries in Russia. There are 3 chs. 
within it; that dedicated to George 
the Martyr is the oldest, having been 
erected in 1119. They were repaired 
in 1807, at the expense of Countess 
Orlof of Tchesme, who also cauped to 
be built the handsome belfry. Among 
the treasures which this monastery 
possesses are the charters given to it 
in 1128 and 1132, an altar^loth of 
1449, and a cross studded with pearls 
and precious stones, presented in 1599. 



ROUTE 6. 

ST, PET^BSBUBG TO MOSCOW, 

By rail in 20 hrs, ; fare 19 rs. and 
13 rs. All luggage charged.* 

This line, 403 m. in length, was 
constructed by the Government. The 

grii^cipal stations are solidly and 
andsomely built. The refreshment- 
rooms are abundantly supplied ; and 
passengers have a liberal allowance 
of time for dinner, tea, and supper. 
The first stat, is. 

Kolpino. There is a very large steam 
factory here, founded by Peter the 
Great. Marine engines for the navy 
are made here, and guns cast and 
bored. 

Lubany the first large stat. (It will 
suflSce to mention the principal stop- 
pages or places to which any interest 
attaches,) 

Chtidova, The Volkhof river will be 
passed here. It flows from the lake 
ilmen into that of Ladoga, and is navi- 
gable for barges along its entire course. 
Station for winter route to Novgorod 
the Great 

Volhhovay next stat., at foot of the 
bridge. Steamers for Novgorod from 
hence in summer. See Rte, 5. 

Mah-Vyshera, 151 J v. from St 
Petersburg. The river Msta, which 
rises in the Valdai hills, and flows into 
lake Ilmen, will be passed halfway be- 

* lYavellere mqst aaoertain the changes that 
have been made in the management of ihe line 
since its sale to the «'QraQdo SociStd des 
ghepan8deF§r|iuBae8," vjww^i^ 



Bussia. 



Boute 6. — 8t, Petersburg to Moscow, 



177 



tween this and the next station. Im^ 
mediately outside the station is the 
immense iron bridge, built over a 
ravine, on the American principle, 
oyer a height of X90 ft. Another 
bridge, nearly as large, over the Jtfata, 
will be passed. 

OkuLofka, 2 stats, beyond is 
Valdai, near the small town of that 
name on the Valdai Lake (Pop. 4000), 
celebrated for its bells, which may be 
purchased at the stat. They are small, 
and when attached to harness have 
a very harmonious effect. Scythes 
and sickles are also manu^etctured 
here. Scenery wooded and hilly. The 
Dwina, Volga, and Volkhof rise in the 
Valdai hills. A monastery stands on 
one of the islands in the lake. It is 
called the Iverski, and was founded in 
1652 by the patriarch Nicon. A copy 
of the image of the Iberian Mother of 
God, brought from Mount Athos in 
1648, now at Moscow, adorns the altars- 
screen of the principal chapel. The 
Patriarch .frequently came here, 
Bologom. 2 stats, beyond is 
VyehnuVoloohoh, 836 v. from St. 
Petersburg, town in province of Tver, 
on the river Tsna. (Pop. 14,000.) 
A canal which rises here, by joining 
several rivers and lakes unites the 
Volga and the Neva, and the Cas- 
pian and the Baltic. The rly. and the 
improvement of a rival canal system, 
by way of the Svir and Sheksna rivers, 
have considerably lessened the import- 
ance of the town. 

Spirova. 2 stats, beyond is 
Ostashkoff nearest point (40 v.) to 
Torjok, a town of 16,000 Inhab., where 
Bussia leather is embroidered with 
gold, silver, and silk thread for slip- 
pers, cushions, bags, &c. Specimens 
of these wares will be seen at the stat., 
but they are as cheaply procured at 
St. Petersburg and Moscow. Torjok 
is the farthest point in this direction 
reached by the French in 1812. 

Tver, 447J v. from St. Petersburg, 
chief town of province. (Pop. 26,000.) 
Miller's Hotels the old posting-house, 
affords excellent accommodation. 

Here the traveller crosses the Vol- 
ga, and has the first glimpse of that 
mighty stream, which, rising 47 m. 



S.W. from Valdai, now becomes navi- 
gable, after flowing through several 
small lakes. Steamers ply hence to 
Astrakhan, A distance of about 2150 m. 
The town was founded in 1182, and 
was the seat of a principality. It is 
prettily situated on the bank of the 
river, and stands 175 ft above the 
level of the water. A cathedral, re^ 
built in 1682, and a very handsome 
belfry of 8 tiers, are the most con* 
spicuous objects. Many of the princes 
of Tver and their consorts (between 
1 272 and 1408) lie buried there. The 
church of the Holy Trinity, built in 
1584, is a flue remnant of ancient 
Bussian architecture. There are secret 
chambers in the upper story where 
the clergy and citizens concealed their 
treasure in time of danger. The 
Otrotoh Uspenski Monastery, at the 
confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa, 
was the prison of the Metr(^olitan 
Philip, whose cell is still shown {aee 
Cathedral of Assumption, Moscow). 
In this he was murdered by Maluta, 
an agent of John the Terrible, who, 
after committing the crime, announced 
to the monks that the venerable pre- 
late had died from the fomeg of thQ 
stove. 

There is a very oonsid^able trade 
in grain and iron, shipped hence to St. 
Petersburg by the Tvertsa river and 
several canals. The lion is brought 
from the Ural to be manufactured at 
Tver into nails, and in that shape much 
of it returns to the place of original 
production. 

Klin, town in province of Moscow ; 
5000 Inhab. 2 stats, beyond is 

Krukova Stat, for Monastery of New 
Jerusalem or Voskresenski {Beaurree- 
tion), which is about 14 m. distant. 
Post-horses and either a tarantasa or 
a common cart may be had here to 
take the traveller to the monastery 
for a charge of 3 to 4 rubles, there and 
back, retivning next dajr. 

Travellers should avoid takinff acom- 
mon cart, for the road is bad and dusty, 
and they should bring with them a 
basket of provisions, 

Tolerable accommodation will be 
obtained at the hostelry attached to 
the monastery, the last housej on tho 



178 



Boute 6,^ St Petersburg to Moscow, 



Sect. I. 



left, approaching the gate of the mo- 
nastery. 

An important page of the ecclesias- 
tical history of Russia may be read 
here. We come upon the life and 
doings of the Patriarch Nicon, who laid 
the foundation of the monastery in 
1657. On his frequent journeys to the 
Iberian Convent at Yaldai he always 
stopped at the village of Yoskresensk, 
and in 1655 built a ch. on some land 
which he purchased there. The Tsar 
Alexis, present at its consecration, 
named the ch., at the desire of Nicon, 
the New Jerusalem, The Patriarch 
then sent for a model of the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, which 
he set about to imitate. The neigh- 
bouring accidents of country he called 
after various sacred sites in Palestine. 
The river Istra was converted into the 
Jordan; a brook, pui-posely formed, 
became the Kedron ; a neighbouring 
village was dignified into Nazareth; 
and on the mound on which the Tsar 
stood when he bestowed the name of 
New Jerusalem he built a chapel and 
called it Eleon. 

But the fovour of the sovereign was 
suddenly withdrawn from the pre- 
late. Nicon arrogated to himself a 
power in civil as well as in ecclesi- 
astical matters, of which the Tsar 
and his courtiers became jealous. He 
also brought down upon himself the 
hatred of the clergy, whom he per- 
secuted most rigorously for intemper- 
ance and other irregularities. His in- 
novations in the ritual of the Church, 
induced by a warm zeal for the ancient 
Church and Empire of Constantinople, 
and effected by a comparison of more 
correct service-books from Mount 
Athos, encountered the strongest op- 
position, and swelled the number of 
his enemies. The people, driven into 
Dissent, founded numerous sects, which 
are to this day strongly inimical to the 
Orthodox Church and partly even to 
the State. He went so far in uphold- 
ing the Byzantine purity of the Russian 
Cliurch as to seize in the houses of the 
nobles, and destroy, all pictures that 
were not painted in the conventional 
forms of Greek art. In public docu- 
-^ents he assumed a title which was 



equal to that of the sovereign. But 
•at last his enemies triumphed. The 
Tsar, irritated at the insolence of the 
Patriarch, and annoyed at the unsuc- 
cessful termination of a war with the 
Poles and Swedes which he had un- 
dertaken by his advice, withdrew his 
friendship, and soon after, on a great 
festival of the Church, absented himself 
from the cathedral, in which Nicon 
was wont to sermonize his royal master. 
The Patriarch, enraged, threw off his 
episcopal robes, resigned his crozier, 
and, attiring himself in the habit of a 
monk, withdrew, amid the expostula- 
tion of the populace and the Tsaf s 
officers, to his retreat at Voskresensk. 
But his strength and greatness of mind 
were not equal to the occasion. He 
had expected to see Alexis with tears 
in his eyes, asking forgiveness, and 
entreating him not to divest himself of 
his high oflBce. The Tsar never came, 
and Nicon saw, when too late, that he 
had taken a fatal step. A Metropolitan, 
having been temporarily invested with 
the Patriarchate, considered himself 
justified in replacing Nicon at a cere- 
mony in which the Primate rode on an 
ass to typify Christ's entry into Jeru- 
salem; the recluse of Voskresensk 
protested against what he called a 
usurpation, under the plea that he was 
still a Patriarch, with the gift of the 
Holy Ghost to work cures, although 
by his own free will no longer Patriarch 
of Moscow. In 1664, 6 years after, 
his resignation, Nicon appeared sud- 
denly at matins in the Cathedral of the 
Assumption, arrayed once more in his 
pontifical robes. He wrote to the 
Tsar that, after long &sting and much 
prayer, he had been told by the 
canonized Jonah, in a vision, to re- 
sume his seat on the throne of the 
Patriarchs of Moscow. A council of 
the Eastern Patriarchs was soon after 
called at Moscow and presided over by 
the Tsar. Nicon was degraded and ba- 
nished to the Monastery of Therapon- 
toff in the province of Novgorod. In 
1681 he was pardoned by Theodore, 
the successor of Alexis, but died on his 
voyage down the Volga to meet the 
Tsar. ^^^^ 

It was during this quSrrel that 



Bnssia. 



Bmite 6. — Moscow: Hotels. 



179 



Nicon built the . greater part of the 
Monastery of New Jerusalem. From a 
small square tower beyoud the Kedrou 
he watched the progress of the build- 
ing, which he was never to see com- 
pleted, and even worked as a common 
stonemasoQ, making bricks with his 
own hands. He caused the Oliurch of 
the Holy Sepulchre to be copied in the 
minutest particulars, and it is therefore 
more like the old church in which the 
Crusaders worshipped than is that ch. 
itself, since it was destroyed by fire and 
altered in 1812. Nicon*s schemes for 
the aggrandisement of the Russian 
Church was indicated by the 5 patri- 
archal thrones of Constantinople, 
Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and 
Moscow, which will be seen in the 
Sanctuary. He lies buried in the 
chapel of Melchizedek, at the foot of 
the Golgotha, close by the spot where, 
in the actual Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, lie the remains of Godfrey 
of Bouillon. Over the tomb are the 
heavy chains which he wore round 
his body, and at his head is the small 
waxen picture which he carried about 
with him in all his wanderings. 

Many other relics of the great Patri- 
arch are preserved in the sacristy^ 
together with his portrait, and that of 
Alexis. The principal dome having 
fftllen in in 1723, the ch. was entirely 
restored by the celebrated architect 
Rastrelli in 1750. For further particu- 
lars respecting this interesting monas- 
tery the traveller should consult Dean 
Stanley's * Lectures on the Eastern 
Church.* 

A battle was fought in the vicinity 
of the monastery, June 18, 1698, be- 
tween General Patrick Gtordon and 
the rebellious Streltzi, who were there- 
upon suppressed, and decapitated by 
Peter in great numbers. 

The next stat. but one is 

Moscow (Pop. 380,000). 

Holds. — As at St. Petersburg, so at 
Moscow, a selection has to be made 
between the boarding-house system and 
the better class of Russian . hotels. K 
the traveller speaks no French or Ger- 
man, and feels helpless without the 
assistance of a landlord or landlady 



who can speak his own language and 
that of the natives of the country, ho 
should at once drive to **Lubianka" 
street Here again a choice has to be 
made in the matter of a boarding-house. 
Unfortunately, perhaps, there are two 
in the same street, almost facing each 
other, kept on similar principals, offer- 
ing equal advantages. Even the names 
of the proprietors are very nearly alike, 
with tiie difference only of a vowel. 
We therefore only mention them in 
alphabetical order, in indicating first 
Madame Billet's house, and second 
Mr. Billot's. Madame Billet has the 
advantage of her sex and parentage, 
for she is English by birth ; Mr. Billot 
is the type of an obliging, serviceable 
landlord, well conversant with the 
English language, and an excellent 
guide to Moscow. The charges at 
both establishments are similar, viz. 
4 rubles a day for bed and board, and 
a small charge extra for servants, 
which has, as usual, to be supple- 
mented. Both houses are principally 
frequented by men of commerce, espe- 
cially in winter. The dinners are 
good, substantial, and a la Busse, with 
a few homely English variations. The 
beds are soft and clean, and the rooms 
neat. The use of Persian powder forms 
an exception, not a rule. Tubs kept 
on the premises. 

The independent traveller, who pre- 
fers a French cuisine and an apartment 
of greater litxe, or one who has a 
prejudice against herding with his 
countrymen abroad, will probably pre- 
fer the "Hotel Dusaux," near the 
Kremlin, the "Hotel Chevrier," a 
house of old standing, or the " Hotel 
do Dresde," in the square on which 
stands the Governor's House. Du- 
saux's is modern ; the charges there 
are from 2 rs. (6s.) to any other price 
for a bedroom, or a bedroom and par- 
lour. Dinners a la carte, or at the taUe- 
d*h6te. Without detracting in the least 
from the merits of the above houses, it 
is right to advise the traveller once 
for all to be provided, when travelling 
in Russia, with remedies against in- 
sects of a vexatory disposition. 

Vehicles. — Take a drojky at the sta- 
tion, and leaf<i i3K(Mandlord to settle 
K 3 



M S C W. 



1 I'naftiiury. 

& MicLuL^H ?a]U!0. 

ti AA9imi|jEk>D. 

f AlJPlUTH^jHtLHt, 

JU SwsrLtty. 

It U irodd UntMvt, 

li AFioeiiiNjti Coijh-t, 
U AmetniJ, 
14 fiLJiii>Li|. 

Hi KiotHTwif Kt^U;^. I 

17 IWjuir. 

I'J UuiranlCv. 
MOGLltiiUiisScLcJLjt 




BAIL TO ST. HWaUUKUO. 



■owxunnPAitic 




182 



Boute 6. — Moscow: Hiatm-y. 



Sect. I. 



with the driver. There are also car- 
riages in waiting. " Billet," " Billot," 
** Dusaux," and " Chevrier '* will be 
sufficient explanation as to where you 
want to be driven. 

Commissioners from Dusaux's and 
other hotels generally await the train 
from St. Petersburg. 

Carriages can be ordered at the hotel 
by the day, at a charge of 5 to 6 rubles 
(15g. to 18«.) per diem, with the addi- 
tion of " tea-money " to the driver to 
the extent of another shilling. They 
may be kept out all day and half the 
night with impunity, allowing only 
two or three hours during dinner 
for feeding the horses. Drojkies and 
sledges are cheaper. 

Commissioners. — ^Difficult to be ob- 
tained, especially if a knowledge of 
the English language be demanded. 
Such agents will be found occasionally 
at the two boarding-houses, but the 
hotels will only be able to supply a 
French or German valet de place. 

Russian Restaurants, — The dinner 
described under the head of " Cuisine 
and Restaurants" (vide Introduc- 
tion), may be had at the "Novo- 
Troitski Traktir," near the market, 
visited by H.R.H. Prince Alfred in 
1862, and by H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales in 1866, or at the " Moskovski 
Traktir," close to the Theatre. 



The City of Moscow. 

The history of the Russian provinces 
through which the traveller has passed 
on his way to Moscow has reference to 
that of this ancient capital; for, though 
Novgorod and Tver were at one period 
independent, each in its turn, whether 
republic or principality, was sub- 
jugated by this their more powerful 
neighbour, and in the 14th centy. 
Moscow became the capital of Mus- 
covy ; Kief, and afterwards Vladimir, 
having till then enjoyed that distinc- 
tion. In the early part of the reign of 
Basil II. it was taken and ravaged by 
Tamerlane ; and later it fell again into 
the hands of the Tartars, who sacked 
and put many of the inliabitants to 



the sword. In 1536 the town was 
nearly consumed by fire, in which 
2000 of the inhabitants perished. In 
1572 the Tartars fired the suburbs, 
and, a furious wind driving the flames 
into the city, a considerable portion of 
it was reduced to ashes, and no fewer 
than 100,000 persons perished in the 
flames or by the sword. In 1611 a 
great portion of the city was again 
destroyed by fire, when the Poles had 
taken possession of it, under the pre- 
tence of defending the inhabitants from 
the adherents of a pretender to the 
crown. The plague of 177 1 diminished 
the population by several thousands, 
a decrease- from which it has never 
recovered. And, lastly, in 1812, the 
Muscovites gave up their ancient, 
holy, and beautiful city to the devour- 
ing element — the grandest sacrifice 
ever made to national feeling. The 
city was the idol of every Russian's 
heart, her shrines were to him the 
holiest in the empire — hallowed by 
seven centuries of historical associa- 
tions. 

But we have to describe the city as 
it is, rather than to revert to Russian 
history. The assertion sometimes 
made, that no city is so irregularly 
built as Moscow, is in some respects 
true ; none of the streets are straight ; 
houses large and small, public build- 
ings, churches, and other edifices are 
mingled confusedly together; but it 
gains by this the advantage of being 
more picturesque. The streets un- 
dulate continually, and thus ofier from 
time to time points of view whence 
the eye is able to range over the vast 
ocean of house-tops, trees, and gilded 
and coloured domes. The profusion 
of churches, 370 in number, is a cha- 
racteristic feature of the city. But 
the architecture of Moscow, since the 
conflagration of 1812, is not quite so 
bizarre as, according to the accounts 
of travellers, it was before that event ; 
nevertheless it is still singular enough. 
In 1813 the point chiefly in view was 
to build, and build quickly, rather 
than to carry any certain plan into 
execution; the houses were replaced 
with nearly the same irrcjgularity with 
respect to each 'tffit^f^^lWa^ffl^ streets 



BuBsia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Buildirhgs, 



183 



became as crooked and tortuous as 
before. The whole gained, therefore, 
little in regularity from the fire, but 
each individual house was bmlt in 
much better taste, gardens became 
more frequent, the majority of roofs 
were made of iron painted green, a 
lavish use was made of pillars, and 
even those who could not be profuse 
erected more elegant cottages. 

Hence Moscow has all the charms of 
a new city, with the pleasing negli- 
gence and picturesque irregu^rity of 
an old one. In the streets we come now 
to a large magnificent palace, with 
all the pomp of Corinthian pillars, 
wrought-iron trellis-work, and magni- 
ficent approaches and gateways ; and 
now to a simple whitewashed house, 
the abode of a modest citizen's family. 
Nearthemstandsa smallch., withgreen 
cupolas and golden stars. Then comes 
a row of little yellow wooden houses, 
and these are succeeded by one of 
the new colossal public institutions. 
Sometimes the road winds through a 
number of little streets, and the tra- 
veller might fancy himself in a 
country town; suddenly it rises, 
and he is in a wide "place," from 
which streets branch off on all 
sides, whUe the eye wanders over 
the forest of houses of the great 
capital; descending again, he comes 
in the middle of the town to the 
banks of the river. The circumvalla- 
tion of the city is upwards of 20 
English miles in extent, of a most 
irregular form, more resembling a 
trapezium than any other figure; 
within this are 2 nearly concentric 
circular lines of boulevards, the sites 
of former fortifications, the one at 
a distance of about 1^ m. from the 
Kremlin, completed on both sides of 
the Moskva; the internal one, once 
the moat of the ELremlin and Eitai 
Gorod, with a radius of about a mile, 
spreading only on the north of the 
river, and terminating near the stone 
bridge on the one side, and the Found- 
ling Hospital on the other. The river 
enters the barrier of the vast city to 
which it has given a name about the 
contral point of the western side ; and 
after winding round the Devichi con- 



vent like a serpent, and from thence 
flowing beneath the battlements of the 
Kjemlin, and receiving the scanty 
stream of the Jaousa, issues again into 
the vast plain, till it meets the Oka, a 
tributary of the mighty Volga, which 
it joins at Nijni Novgorod. 

On the N. of the Moskva, streets and 
houses, in regular succession, reach to 
the very barrier ; and though a vast 
proportion of ground is left unoc- 
cupied, owing to the enormous width 
of the streets and boulevards, the 
earthen rampart may truly be said to 
gird in the city. But in the other 
quarters, and particularly to the S., 
Moscow can hardly be said to extend 
farther than the outward boulevard. 

The centre of this vast collection of 
buildings is the ELremlin, which forms 
nearly a triangle of about 2 Eng. m. 
in extent. On the E. comes the 
Kitai Gorod (Chinese city),* which 
still preserves its ancient fence of towers 
and buttresses. Encircling these 2 divi- 
sions, and itself, bounded by the river 
and imjer boulevard, lies the Beloi 
Gorod (white city). The space en- 
closed between the 2 circles to the N. 
of the Moskva, and between the river 
and the outward boulevard on the S., 
is called the Zemlianoi Gorod. Beyond 
the boulevards are the suburbs. 

Before entering the Kjremlin it will 
be well to view it from one or two 
points on the outside, and the most 
favourable spot for this purpose, on the 
S. side, is the stone bridge across the 
Moskva; from the river that washes 
its base the hill of the Kremlin rises, 
picturesquely adorned with turf and 
shrubs. The buildings appear set in a 
rich frame of water, verdant foliage, 
and snowy wall, the majestic column 
of Ivan Veliki rearing itself high above 
all, like the axis round which the whole 
moves. The colours are everywhere 
most lively — red, white, green, gold, 
and silver. Amidst tiie confusion of 
the nmnerous small antique edifices, 
the Bolshoi Dvorets (the large palace 
built by Nicholas) has an imposing 
aspect. 

It is time, however, to reduce the 

* Several Russian towns have a "Chlncbe 
city," just as Calcatta bus ita " China bazaar." 



184 



Boute^G, — Moscow : Kremlin. 



Sect. I. 



sights of Moscow to some kind of order. 
Assuming that the traveller's first ob-^ 
ject will be to see the Kremlin, the 
following particulai's pwy be read on 
the spot :— 

Xr6mZ«n.— Russian archi8olop:i8ts are 
unable to trace the name of the Kremlin 
to any certain source. It is by most 
supposed to be derived from theBussian 
word Kremen or gUez, but it occurs for 
the first time in its present form in the 
year 1.446. Originally part of the site 
now occupied by it was enclosed by 
walls of oak. Demetrius of the Don laid 
the foundation of stone walls in 1367, 
which resisted the Tartars on several 
occasions, and were only seized by Tok- 
tamysh through treachery. In 1445 
the Kremlin was burnt, and the walls 
and gates partly destroyed. The in- 
troduction of artillery rendered the old 
walls, although repaired, no longer safe 
against invaders. John HI. invited 
Italians to build new fortifications of 
stone, which were accordingly erected 
between the years 1485 and 1492, and 
subsequently extended and strength- 
ened. These walls alone escaped the 
ravages of a fire that destroyed the 
whole of the Kremlin in 1737. They 
are now 7280 ft. in circumference, and 
pierced by 5 gates, the principal of 
which, the Spaski or •* Redeemer" 
Gate, nearest the ch. of St. Basil, was 
built by Peter Solarius, a Milanese, in 
1491. Christopher Galloway, an Eng- 
lish clockmaker, built the tower in 
1626, and placed a clock in it, which 
was, however, later replaced by another. 
Hence the style of the tower is Gothic, 
and out of keeping with the Italian 
battlements : it is the Porta Sacra and 
Porta Trifimphalis of Moscow. Over 
it is a picture of the Bedeemer of 
Smolensk, held in high veneration by 
the orthodox. An omission to un- 
cover the head while passing under 
this gate was anciently punishable 
with 50 compulsory prostrations. The 
traveller should not fail to pay the 
respect to old traditions here exacted, 
since the Emperor himself conforms to 
the custom. Criminals executed in 
front of this gate offered their last 
-irayors on earth to the image of the 



Bedeemer of Smolensk, which also 
witnessed the execution of the Streltai 
by oyder of Peter the Great. In his 
reign the sectaries who refused to 
shave their beards paid a fine in pasS' 
ing through this gate. 

The next gate in importanoe along- 
side the Spaski Vorota is the Nikolsl^ 
or Nicholas Gate. The miraculous 
image of St. Nicholas of Mojaisk, *' the 
dread of perjurers and the comforter 
of suffering humanity/* is suspended 
over it. Oaths were anciently ad-» 
ministered to litigants in front of this 
venerated image. The tower was ori- 
ginally built in 1491 by an Italian 
architect, but has, like the other build- 
ings of the Kremlin, been restored after 
suecessive disasters, The troops of 
Tokhtamysh, of Sigismund III., and 
of Napoleon, passed through this gate 
within 4 centuries. In 1408 it wit- 
nessed the siege of Moscow by Edigei, 
in 1551 the invasion by the Crim 
Tartars, and in 1611-12 the battles 
between the Poles and the Russians 
for the possession of Holy Moscow. 
It was also partly destroyed by orders 
of Napoleon, when it escaped with only 
a rent which split the tower in the 
middle as far as the frame of the pic- 
ture ; but not even the glass of the 
picture, nor even that of the lamp 
suspended before it, is said to have 
been injured. An inscription to that 
effect was placed over the gate by 
order of Alexander I. 

A gate near the western extremity 
of the Kremlin wall is called the 
Troitski or Trinity Gate. Its tower 
was likewise built by Christopher Gal- 
loway in the early part of the 17th 
centy. ; restored in 1769, and after the 
conflagration in 1812. The French 
both entwed and left the Kremlin by 
this gate. Before that invasion the 
buildings in the vicinity afforded a 
refuge lor vagrants, thieves, and mur- 
derers, who kept the inhabitants in 
great terror. 

The last gate on the B. is called 
the Borovitski. Its tower is curious. 
Having penetrated the Kremlin by one 
of these gates, the visitor will proceed 
to inspect the many interesting build- 
ings and objects which it contains. 



Enssia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Tower of Ivan VeliJci. 



185 



These are as follows, in the order in 
which they should be seen :^- 

1. The Tower ef Ivan Vdthi (John 
the Qreqi), — This remarkable structure 
should he ascended first. Tradition 

goints to a very remote origin, but 
istorieal focts assert that the tower 
was built in the year 1600 by the Tsar 
Boris Godunoff. It consists of 6 stories, 
4 being octangular and the last cylin- 
drical, the whole rising to a height of 
about 826 ft. including the cross. The 
basement is occupied by a chapel dedi- 
cated to St. John of the Ladder, of 
which, in feet, the tower is the Gam- 
panUe, In the next 3 stories are sus- 
pended 34 bells of various sizes and 
tones. The largest, named the ** As- 
sumption," hangs in the first tier above 
the chapel, and weighs 64 tons, being, 
therefore, five times as heavy as the 
iamous bell of Erfurt, and four times 
that of Eouen. It was recast after the 
partial destruction of the tower in 1812. 
The chapel below this part of the tower 
is dedicated to a St. ]Nicholas, who is 
the patrtm of all ladies about to marry. 
The most ancient of the other bells 
bears the date of 1650, The Veche' 
bell of the Great Novgorod was once 
suspended in this tower ; but all trace 
of it is lost. In the highest tier are 2 
small silver bells of exquisite tone, 
The ringing of all these bells on Easter 
eve produces a most wonderful effect. 
Here the traveller pauses to behold the 
panorama of Moscow. The view from 
the summit is certainly one of the most 
striking and unique in Europe. 

The custodey who will ascend with 
the traveller, will expect a fee. It is 
advisable to retain the services of one 
of the men at the foot of the tower for 
the rest of the siglits within the Krem- 
lin, making him a present of 60 copecks 
at parting. 

2. Oea«-BeK, *• Tsar Kolokol," Tsar 
of Bells.— This lies at the foot of the 
tower. The art of casting bells was 
known in Russia in the 14th centy., 
but was only brought to perfection in 
the 16th, when the first large bell was 
cast at Moscow (1553), which weighed 
36,000 lbs., and was suspended in a 



wooden tower. A Polish traveller, in 
1611, relates having seen a huge bell, 
of which the clapper was moved by 24 
men. Olearius, Secretary of a Dutch 
Embassy to Moscow, asserts that the 
Great Bell was cast in the reign of 
Boris Godunoff. During a fire in the 
reign of Alexis, this bell fell to the 
ground and was broken. In 1654 it 
was recast, and weighed 288,000 lbs. 
Its circtunference was 54 ft., and its 
thickness 2 ft. In 1674 it was sus- 
pended from a wooden beam at the foot 
of the tower, from whence it fell on the 
19th June, 1706, during a fire. Its 
fragments lay on the ground until the 
reign of the Empress Anne, by whose 
orders it was recast in 1733. By the 
falling of some heavy rafters during 
another fire in 1737, the side of the 
bell was knocked out, and it remained 
buried in the. ground until the year 
1836, when it was placed on its present 
pedestal by order of the Emperor 
Nicholas. Its weight at present is 
444,000 lbs., its height 19 ft. 3 in., and 
its circumference 60 ft. 9 in. Its thick- 
ness is 2 ft., and the weight of the 
broken piece is 700 pouds, or about 11 
tons. The figures in relief are those 
of the Tsar Alexis and the Empress 
Anne, and on the scroll below is a re- 
presentation of the Saviour, the Holy 
Virgin, and the Evangelists, sur- 
rounded by cherubims. The inscrip- 
tion gives the above facts. 

3. The Palace. — The ancient habita- 
tions of the rulers of Moscow were of 
wood, with the exception of the Grano- 
vitaya Palata, built by an Italian archi- 
tect in 1484, and still extant. Fre- 
quent conflagrations, Tartar inroads, 
and a Polish occupation destroyed the 
old Courts of the Grand Dukes and 
Tsars. On the transfer of the capital 
to St. Petersburg, the Kremlin was 
definitively deserted as a royal resi- 
dence. The fire of 1737, which con- 
sumed everything that was ancient in 
Moscow, obliterated all traces of the 
buildings constructed by the first 
sovereigns of the Romanoff djmasty, 
leaving only the stone basements on 
which the structures now seen have 
since been reared. The Empress Anno 



186 



Boute 6. — Moscow : The Palace, 



Sect. I. 



built a palace on their site in the style 
of the period, but this again made way 
for the gigantic palace designed by the 
Empress Catherine II., now exhibited 
in the Treasury as a model, and the 
construction of which was soon aban- 
doned. The French burned the palace 
facing the river which the Empress 
Catherine had rebuilt, and which the 
Emperor Napoleon occupied ; and be- 
tween 1838 and 1849 it was entirely 
removed and replaced by the present 
palace, which is therefore only a monu- 
ment of the reign of Nicholas I. 

The BoWkoi Dvorets^ or Large Pa- 
lace, is very lofty compared with its 
frontage, and its style is an odd mix- 
ture of different periods and forms of 
architecture. The incongruity of the 
exterior is, however, more than atoned 
for by the great beauty and grandeur 
of the aparbnents within. 

The exhibition of this Handbook 
will be a suflScient introduction to the 
porter in scarlet, who will detach one 
of the Imperial servants on the duty of 
showing the palace.* The vestibule is 
supported by handsome monoliths of 
grey marble. Beginning on the 1. with 
the First-floor, which consists of the 
dwelling-rooms of the Emperor and 
Empress, the apartments occur in the 
following order :—l. Dining-room. 2. 
Empress's Drawing-room ; white silk, 
and gold mouldings. 3. Attendants* 
room. 4. Empress' Cabinet; dark- 
red silk, and buhl doors. 5. Room 
for Lady-in-Waiting. 6. Empress* 
Dressing and Bath-room; malachite 
mantelpiece. 7. Bedroom. 8. Em- 
peror's Dressing and Bath-room. 9. 
Emperor*s Cabinet; the pictures re- 
present the French entering and leav- 
ing Moscow, and the battles of Boro- 
dino and Smolensk; bronze equestrian 
statuette of Napoleon. 10. Attend- 
ants' room. 11. Regimental Standard- 
room. 12. Attendants' room. 

Visitors will now be led back to the 
Vestibule, and shown, in a smaU room 
on the 1., a machine for lifting the Em- 
press to her apartments upstairs. As- 
cending a handsome granite staircase, 
with walls of scagliola, he will be taken 
to see the State Apartments. The large 
^)icture in the gallery round the top of 



the staircase, painted in 1850 by Yvon, 
a French artist, represents the battle 
of Kulikova, or the victory over the 
Tartars gained by Dmitry of the Don. 
The huge crystal vases at the' door 
are from the Imperial Glass Works at 
St. Petersburg, as also are the other 
vases and candelabra, which will be 
shown inside. Passing through an 
ante-chamber, the traveller will find 
himself in a magnificent Hall dedi- 
cated to the MUitary Order of St. 
George, founded by Catherine II., in 
1769. It measures 200 ft. by 68 ft. ; 
height 58 ft. The names of the in- 
dividuals and regiments decorated 
with the Order since its foundation 
are inscribed on the walls in letters of 
gold. The capitals of the columns 
(which are of zinc) are surmounted 
by Victories bearing shields, on which 
are inscribed the dates of the several 
conquests of Russia, beginning with 
that of Perm, in 1472, and ending with 
the annexation of Armenia, in 1828. 
On the shields are likewise the arms 
of the conquered provinces. The name 
of the Emperor Alexander II. is in- 
scribed on a marble tablet to the left, 
near a window which looks out on the 
terrace. H.I.M. won the Cross of St. 
George of the 4th class in the Cau- 
casus. The regiments thus honoured 
are 545 in number. The furniture is 
black and orange, the colours of the 
Order. Ask to see the view from the 
balcony which opens out of this hall. 

2. Gorgeous hall, pink and gold, 
dedicated to Order of St. Alexander 
Nevsky, founded 1725. Its length is 
103 ft. by 68 ft., and its extreme height 
68 ft. Here are placed 6 pictures by 
Prof. Moller, portraying the princi- 
pal deeds of the Patron Saint : — i. 
The Cardinals sent by Pope Innocent 
IV., endeavouring to persuade St. 
Alexander Nevsky to join the Latin 
Church, ii. His marriage with Alex- 
andra, daughter of the Prince of 
Polotsk, iii. Alexander in the Camp 
of the Tartars, bringing gifts. He is 
required to bow to idols, and to pass 
between 2 fires, but refuses, iv. Tri- 
umphal entry into Pskof, delivered 
from the Livonian Knights, v. A 



Eussia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : The Palace. 



187 



dream is being told the Prince, in 
which the Divine aid is promiBed in the 
approaching battle with the Swedes, 
vi. Battle with the Swedes on the 
banks of the Neva. Alexander fight- 
ing with the son-in-law of the King 
of Sweden and smiting him in the face 
with his lance. 

3. Hall of St. Andrew, the senior 
order of knighthood, established by 
Peter I., 1698 ; the arms of the pro- 
vinces of Russia appear on the walls, 
which are hung with blue silk, the 
colour of the riband. Iknperor*s 
throne; length of the hall 160 ft. by 
68 ft. ; height 58 ft. This splendid 
hall is lighted at night by 2095 can- 
dles. 4. Guard-room. 5. Hall of Or- 
der of St. Catherine, a female distinc- 
tion, conferred by the Empress, who 
is sovereign of the. order, and whose 
throne stands in the hall ; founded 
1714 in commemoration of the de- 
liverance by Catherine of Peter I. 
from the Turks on the Pruth, 1711. 
6. State Drawing-room; green bro- 
cade. 7. State Bedroom; white bro- 
cade; 2 pilasters of vert antique in 
mosaic-work; mantelpiece of jasper. 
8. State Dressing and Bath-room. 
Descending a few steps, the visitor 
will be shown a small chapel, and 
then, through a pretty winter-garden, 
to the apartments occupied by mem- 
bers of the Imperial family. 1. Ante- 
room. 2. Dining-room, hung with fine 
old tapestry representing the life of 
Don Quixote. The tables, lustres, 
and looking-glass frames of silver, of 
the period of the Empress Anne. A 
small model of the monument at Nov- 
gorod, The 7th and 8th rooms alone 
present some interest, as they contain 
some fime sepia copies of Jtaphaely Cor- 
reggio, and Guido Beni, by Zeidelmann 
of Dresden. 

The Picture Gallery comes next. 
The only pictures worthy of notice 
are the six that have been brought 
here from the royal castle of Warsaw, 
all painted by ^occiarcZZi. 180. Peace 
at Khotin iJetween Turkey and Po- 
land. 149. John Sobieski raising 
the siege of Vienna by the Turks, 
1683. 124. Union of Lithuania with 



Poland, at Lublin. 92. Oath of the 
Voevod Gabriel Baizen of Lithuania 
to Casimir Jagellon. 66. Restoration 
of Academy of Cracow by Ladislaus 
Jagellon. 35. Promulgation of Statute 
( 1347 ) by Casimir the Great. Betum- 
ing through the garden, the visitor 
will be led along a gallery into which 
open the windows of the apartments 
allotted to the maids of honour of 
H.I.M. 

The Zolotaya Palata, or Gold Court, 
is at the end of this gallery. A 
much larger room of the kind ex- 
isted in the ancient residence of the 
Tsars. It was the Audience-chamber 
and Banqueting-room. The "Gold 
Court " here shown is supposed to have 
been the state-apartment of the con- 
sorts of the first sovereigns of tlie 
reigning house. It was renovated at 
the coronation of the Emperor Paul, 
and again during the reign of Nicho- 
las, in the style of the 17th centy.- 
copied from old drawings. The re- 
cesses, which look like seats, are sup- 
posed to have held the gold and silver 
plate of the Tsars. The Hall with 
the high pointed roof is dedicated to 
•the Order of St. Vladimir (founded 
1782), and is consequently hung with 
black and red silk. The flight of 
steps at the end of this hall, called 
the "Bed (or Beautiful) Staircase," 
is only used on important state occa- 
sions, when the Emperor goes to the 
Cathedral of the Assumption. From 
the top of these stairs the Tsars of old 
allowed the populace to see *' the light 
of their eyes." Here John the Ter- 
rible gazed at the comet that seemed 
to foretel his speedy end ; and it was 
here also that he committed the in- 
human act of transfixing with his 
pointed staff the foot of the trusty mes- 
senger and friend of Prince Kui'bski, 
a valiant leader of his armies, who, in 
the apprehension of unmerited pun- 
ishment and death, abandoned his 
wife and fled to the Polish camp at 
Wolmar, whence he wrote to the Tsar 
setting forth the crimes and atrocities 
of his reign. The tyrant rested on his 
staff while the letter was read by his 
commands, the messenger meanwhile 
standing motionless and silent. From 



188 



Eoute 6. — Moscow : The Palace. 



Sect. I. 



the Bed Staircase the mangled body of 
the false Demetrius was thrown down in 
the court below by the inftiriated people 
of Moscow in 1606 ; and it was &om the 
same steps that the rebel Streltsi, in 
1682, tore the obnoxious Boyar Matve* 
yeff, and out him to pieces before the 
eyes of the terrified mother of Peter the 
Great, together with numerous other 
noblemen and adherents of the Court. 
By these steps also, Napoleon, followed 
by his Marshals, ascended to take pos- 
session of the palace of the Kremlin. 

The Granovitaya Palatay or Ban- 
queting-room, will be viewed next. 
An inscription over the door sets forth 
that it was built by John III., who 
married Sophia Paleologus, and re- 
stored by Nicholas I, It is a vaulted 
apartment with arches resting on a 
column in the ceptre of the room, and 
round which the Imperial plate is dis- 
played. Here the Emperor sits en- 
throned after the ceremony in the 
Cathedral, adorned for the first time 
with all the Imperial insignia, and dines 
amidst his nobles; crowned heads 
being alone seated at the same table 
. with him. Opposite the throne, near 
the ceiling, is a window, which was' 
in olden days occupied by the mem- 
bers of the Imperial &mily during the 
coronation banquet, their presence be- 
low being excluded by etiquette. 

The visitor now comes to a very 
interesting part of the palace -r- the 
Terem, anciently devoted to the Tsar- 
evna and her cnildren. The building 
consists of 4 stories, which gradually 
diminish till the upper floor is so small 
as only to contain 1 room. The 2 
lower stories, used as magazines, were 
built in the early part of the 16th 
centy., but the 2 upper were added in 
1636 by Michael Fedorowitch. The 
entire building was restored 1836- 
1849. Ascending the curious carved 
stone staircase, the first room reached 
is the Dining-room; the presses con- 
tain the old seals of the empire. 2. 
Beception-room ; bronze casket, con- 
taining old charters of the reign of 
Alexis. 3. Throne-room of Alexis; 
seals of sovereigns ; gold seal of John 
the Terrible, in a small open box in 
press, 1. of door; bronze casket con- 



taining act of election of Michael 
Bomanoff to throne of Muscovy. 4. 
Bedroom. 5. Oratory ; oopv of the 
Evangelists on parchment of 14th oenty, 
The room above is called the Coundl 
Chamber of the Boyars. Visitors 
should go out onl the gallery that runs 
round the outside of this building, 
and admire the view. A door under 
the staircase of the Terem leads to a 
suite of rooms where old Oharters are 
kept. These can only be seen by 
special permission. Alexis, and sub- 
sequently his sons Theodore and John, 
were brought up in the Terem. Peter 
the Great sometimes occupied it before 
his first journey to foreign countries, 
and its last occupant was the unfortu- 
nate Alexis, son of Peter. 

The guide should reoeive a fee, as 
well as the porter, for taking care of 
coats, sticks, and umbrellas. 

4. The Treasury (Orhfeinaya Pa- 
idta).*— This buadlng. erected in 1851, 
forms the right widg of the Palace, 
and contains a collection very similar 
in subjects to that of the Tower of Lon- 
don. The Treasury of Moscow was 
anciently, and still remains, the deposi- 
tory of venerated historical objects, and 
of treasures hereditary in the reigning 
house. The geographical position of 
BuBsia, and her ancient commercial 
intercourse with India, Persia, Aj> 
menia, and Greece, gave her prinees 
and boyars the widest opportunities fop 
the acquisition of weafth. The arts, 
first of the East, and later of the West, 
found munificent patrons at the court 
of Moscow. The interchange of pre- 
sents on the occasion of alliances, em- 
bassies, or the conclusion of peace, 
continued to the time when Bussia was 
no longer considered an Asiatic power, 
increased the store of riches m the 
shape of plate, precious stones, and 
costly manu&ctuFes of different kinds, 
which in those primitive days were the 
principal representatives of wealth. 
The churches, in the same manner, 
were more frequently endowed with 

* The Treasury is only open on Mondays 
and Thursdays, between 11 and 3. Tickets at 
the Chamberlain's office In ^e Senate, within 
the Kremlin. . . 



Eussia. 



Boute 6, — Moscow : The Palace, 



189 



pearls, diamoxids, and rubies than with 
lands or ducats. The splendour of the 
Tsar's court, like that of bis nobles, 
was manifested in a gorgeous magnifi- 
cence and profusion in the absence of 
a n^ore refined civilization. The riches 
thus amassed were naturally subject to 
political vicissitudes. In 1611 and 
1612 the Council of Boyars, during an 
interregnum, supported the troops of 
Poland and Lithuania within the walls 
of the Kremlin on the produce of a 
considerable quantity of plate con- 
verted into money, The favourites of 
the Tsar received frequent marks of 
approbation in the shape of vessels of 
gold and silver. A fire in 1737 de- 
stroyed many historical objects, and 
amongst them all the colours taken 
from the Swedes at the battle of Pol- 
tava, Later the sovereigns of Bussia 
transferred their capital, and more than 
once removed their household gods 
from ooe palace to another. During 
the French invasion they were con- 
veyed to Nijni-Novgorod. They were 
thus frequently dispersed and partially 
reunited, and there now remains in the 
Treasury of Moscow the collection, 
still considerable, to which the visitor 
is introduced, 

The hall and staircase are adorned 
with trophies of arms, principally Ger- 
man. The large bell, a sort of tocsin, 
bearing the date of 1714, when it was 
recast, anciently ran^ out alarms of 
fire, and of other pnblio dangers to the 
citizens of Moscow. 

The first room at the top of the stair- 
case is devoted to specimens of old 
Bussian armour, both of man and horse, 
and the appropriate weapons of steel. 

The second room is full of old Bus- 
sian fire-arms, arranged chronologic- 
ally, and dating from the X5th to the 
18th centy. The matchlocks and mus- 
kets to the left; are all of native 
manufacture. The fowling-pieces are 
inscribed as having been presented to 
the Tsar Michael in 1614, by Fabian 
Smith, an Englishman. They are near 
the door on the 1, Tbe standards of 
the Tsars of Moscovia, and of tlieir 
military households, are grouped round 
the pillars by which the vaulted roof 
of the room is supported. The most 



interesting colours will be found at the 
second pillar. Here are the colours of 
Peter's unruly Streltsi. Nos. 3697 and 
3698, bearing the lion and the unicorn, 
were carried by the Cossack Yermak 
to the conquest of Siberia. No. 3699 
was unfurled as long ago as the early 
part of the 17th centy. at the fort of 
Albazin, on the Amur, by a small 
body of adventurous Cossacks! who 
settled on that river, but were subse- 
quently driven out by the Chinese. 
The standard of Ivan the Terrible, 
planted at Kazan in 1652, will be found 
near the first window on the 1., and is 
numbered 3752. 

Here are also numerous trophies 
taken from the Swedes, and amongst 
them the sword of Charles XII., his 
spurs, and the litter in which he was 
borne at the battle of Poltava. 

The walls of the third room are hung 
with original portraits of the Romanoft' 
family. The coronation chair on the 
1. is that of the Empress Elizabeth; 
the chairs on the rt. were occupied by 
Paul I., Alexander II., and their con- 
sorts, as the visitor may perceive from 
the ciphers on them. The Emperor 
and Empress walk at their coronation 
under the haldachino in the centre of 
the room. The traveller will pause at 
the stand of colours at the farthest end 
of this hall, to the rt. of the door, while 
he reads the following translation of 
the printed inscription in Bussian 
characters, composed by the Emperor 
Nicholas himself: — ** Alexander I., 
the benefactor of Poland, gave these 
colours to his Polish army. Mag- 
nanimity was responded to by treason ; 
the brave, faithful Bussian army took 
these colours back, after storming 
Warsaw and sparing its Inhabitants, 
25 and 26 August, 1831." The con- 
stitution granted by Alexander I. to 
his Polish subjects lies in the small 
black box immediately under the in- 
scription. 

The glass case on the 1. contains the 
arms taken from the Polish general 
Bzewuski. A blade bears the name 
of Stanislaus Augustus, and tlie date 
of 1764. 

The room on the rt. contains many 
of the most interesting relics of Bug- 



190 



Boute 6. — Moscow : The Palace, 



Sect I. 



aian sovereignty. To the 1. on entering 
stands the throne of Poland, removed 
in 1833 from the throne-room of the 
Boyal Palace at Warsaw. It was used 
at the coronation of Nicholas I. as 
King of Poland. The cipher M. is 
the initial of his name in Polish 
(Mikolay). The insignia of Alexis, 
and of Ms sons John and Peter, are on 
stands close by. The ivory throne was 
brought from Constantinople by Sophia 
Palseologus in 1472, on her marriage 
with John III. The carving repre- 
sents the labours of Orpheus and the 
legend of Thrace, but several of the 
original panels were replaced in 1642 
by others with inappropriate subjects. 
It was, moreover, restored in 1856 for 
the coronation of Alexander II. The 
throne alongside came from Persia in 
1660, and was used by the Tsar Alexis. 
It is studded with 876 diamonds and 
1223 rubies, besides turquoises and 
pearls. The orb opposite these thrones 
is of great historical importance. It 
was sent to Vladimir Monomachus, 
Prince of Kief, by the Greek Emperors 
Basilius and Constantino, together 
with a crown» a collar of enamel and 
precious stones, and a chair, with a 
piece of the true cross. It is most 
splendidly studded with 58 diamonds, 
89 rubies, 23 sapphires, 50 emeralds, 
and 37 pearls. The coloured enamels 
are in the most beautiful style of Greek 
art, and represent the principal episodes 
in the life of David. The four sym- 
bolical figures of Byzantium, the eagle, 
the lion, the griffin, and the unicorn, 
divide the several images or enamelled 



The wardrobe next the throne 
brings very different recollections. 
The first object in it is a masquerade 
dress of Catherine I. Alongside this 
are her coronation robes, the military 
dress of Peter II., and other specimens 
of wearing apparel. The boots of 
•Peter I. and Paul I. stand on eithet 
side of the wardrobe. The next throne 
is that of Michael. Opposite to it 
stands the crown of the kingdom of Ka- 
zan. It belonged to Simeon, crowned 
Tsar of Kazan, and converted to Chris- 
tianity by John the Terrible in 1553. 
It is sui-mounted by a topaz, and 



adorned with rubies, turquoises, and 
pearls. The crown on the next stand 
was made for Michael by Russian 
artizans. It is richly ornamented with 
enamel-work, and surmounted by a 
large emerald. There are 190 other 
precious stones round it. The second 
glass case contains the coronation robes 
of the Emperor Alexander II. and his 
Empress. The throne of Boris God- 
unof comes next. It was the gift of 
Abbas Shah of Persia, in 1604, and is 
studded with very large turquoises 
and innumerable rubies and pearls. 
The crown of John, brother of Peter I., 
is on the next stand. It is in the 
shape of a mitre, or pyramidal cap 
of maintenance, surmounted by a dia- 
mond cross, rising from a ruby. The 
diamonds with which this magnificent 
crown is ornamented are 900 in number. 
The orb alongside was made at Con- 
stantinople for Alexis in 1662. The 
green enamel is profusely studded with 
diamonds and eight large sapphires. 
In tlie wardrobe opposite hang the coro- 
nation robes of the Empresses Anne 
and Catherine II. The double throne 
of Vermeil was made for the coronation 
of John and Peter. The usual Byzan- 
tine emblems will be observed. The 
crowns of those sovereigns lie opposite. 
The costliest crown is 3iat of ttie Em- 
press Anne, originally made for Cathe- 
rine I. by order of Peter the Great, the 
diamonds in it, alone, being 2536 in 
number ; but the jewel a£ most value 
in it is the ruby, purchased at Pekin 
in 1676 by the Ambassador of Alexis. 
The tJirone of Paul completes the col- 
lection. In the last wardrobe are the 
coronation robes of Paul, Alexander I., 
and Nicholas I., with those of their 
consorts. In the glass case in the 
centre of the room the visitor will find 
the Order of the Grarter, and the 
patent for it, sent to John the Terrible 
by Queen Elizabeth. 

A casket in this room contains the 
" Ulojenie'," or Code of the Tsar Alexis 
(1649), written on sheets of parchment 
measuring together 368 yards. 

It is impossible, however, to par- 
ticularise all the otiier treasures of this 
most interesting room, and we must 
close our description of it by directing 



Eossia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : The Palace. 



191 



the attention of the visitor to the Staff 
or walking-stick of John the Terrible, 
with the sharp point of which the Tsar 
was in the habit of transfixing the feet 
of those with whom he was displeased. 
It was with the blow of a similar stick 
that he killed his eldest son. The 
staff of fish-bone was the gift of Pope 
Gregory XIII. 

The fourth, or last room upstairs, is 
full of stands groaning with the richest 
and most curious articles of plate. 
Some of the objects here exhibited are 
of great antiquity, — a cup of silver bear- 
ing an inscription of the 12th centy. 
Every domestic vessel has a specimen 
in this collection, and their forms will 
be studied with interest by the lovers 
of art The work of nearly every 
country in Europe meets the eye. Our 
own silversmiths have contributed 
many articles presented to the Tsar 
by the ambassadors of James I., 
Charles I., and Charles II. Two jugs 
of chased silver, two vases of vermeil, 
the covers surmounted by a cavalier 
armed with a lance, a ewer weighing 
24 lbs., two large jugs, two candle- 
sticks, and four dishes, all] of silver, 
were brought by the Earl of Carlisle, 
ambassador of Charles II. For a de- 
tailed description of the plate vide * Le 
Tr^sor de- Moscou, 1861/ to be pur- 
chaifed at the door. 

Returning down stairs, the visitor 
wiU be shown some rooms on the rt., 
containing amongst other things the 
following remarkable objects : — 

In the first room is an immense 
model of a palace which Catherine II. 
proposed to construct within the 
Kremlin, and of which the first stone 
was actually laid in 1773. A theatre, 
in the shape of the Coliseum at Rome, 
waa to have been erected near the 
holy gate of the Saviour. The tra- 
veller may congratulate the Muscovite 
on the plan of such a building having 
been abandoned. The small field- 
pieces were cast at Tabreez during 
its occupation by Russian troops in 
1827. 

In the second room will be found 
portraits of kings of Poland, and of 
Polish men of eminence, together 
with 22 busts of Zamoiskis, Sapiehas, 



Wielopolskis, and other illustrious 
Poles. 

The old carriages of the court of 
Moscow fill the next and last room. 
The large vehicle on the right was 
presented, together with eight horses, 
by Queen Elizabeth to the Tsar Boris 
Godunoff. The panels are painted 
with allegorical allusions to a crusade 
which the Tsar had proposed to make 
against the Turks, and in which our 
Queen declined to join. The minia- 
ture carriage with panes of mica be- 
longed to Peter I. when a child. An- 
other large carriage on the right 
belonged to the Empress Elizabeth. 
The panels are painted in the style of 
Watteau. The carriage on runners, 
with a table and benches covered with 
green cloth, was used by the Empress 
Elizabeth on her journeys between 
St. Petersburg and Moscow. The first 
large carriage on the left, lined with 
crimson velvet, was made for the Pa- 
triarch Philaret. Two camp bed- 
steads which belonged to Napoleon, 
and were taken at the Berezina, stand 
at the upper end of the room. The 
cases along the waUs and pillars are 
full of saddles and horse-trappings, 
dating from the 17th cent. 

5. The Malm or Nicolaefski Ihorets, 
or Little Palace, facing the Great 
Bell, is scarcely worthy of a visit. 
Originally built by Cfeitherine, it was 
the residence of the Metropolitan 
Platon, who presented it, in 1817, to 
the Emperor Nicholas. The Emperor 
Alexander II. was bom here. The 
furniture and arrangements are of 
the simplest kind. In the Dining- 
room is a picture by CanaLetto, " Elec- 
tion of Stanislaus Augustus by the 
Diet ot Warsaw in 1764." There are 
2 other pictures, by a native artist, 
illustrative of the merits of Minin and 
Pojarski. In the next room are 2 
pictures by Aivazowski, the marine 
painter, "the Burning of Moscow," 
and "the Temple of the Saviour," 
now in course of erection. There is 
a Polish standard in the 3rd room. 



uigiTized by s^jyjKJWiK- 



192 Boute 6.—- J!fo«coto ; Cathedrcd of the Assumption, Sect. I. 



PLAN OF THE CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION AT MOSCOW. 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bossia. Boute 6t — Moecoto : Cathedral of the Asmmption, 193 



EXPLANAtlOlt OP REFERENCES* 



A. ** loonastasie," or Screen for the Sacred 

Pictures. *. 
R ** Benut," or Sancttiiiry. 
G. a "Soleas," or Choir. 

D. Nave. 

E. " Proaulion-'* or Porch, 

F. P. F. F. Columna. 

1. Principal altar. 

3. Throne of the Archbishot)^ Metropolitan, 
or Patriarch of Moflcow. 

3. Side altar, dedicated to S. Demetrias of 

TtiesBalonica. 

4. Side altar, dedicated to SS. Peter and 

Paul. 
These two side altars are separate pieces of 
the one diief altar | but placed here to 
allow of aooess to them without passing 
through the Sanctuary. 

5. Stairs leading to " the Chapel of the 

Blessed Virgin" in the cupola, where 

the election of the Patriarchs took 

place. 
6* Stairs leading to the Sacristy, containing the 

relics and cnrloi^tles of the Church. 
t. Tombof S. TheognoBtU8,>Tj*„x_,^i,*„„„ 
8. Tomb of B. Pete? } Metropolitans. 



a. a. a. a. Pictures of the Seven Councils. 

h. b. b. Pictures of the Last Judgment. 

c. c. e. c, c. c. Pictures of the Life and Death of 

the Virgin. 
(I. d, d. d. Pictures of the Patriarchs and. 

Fathers of the Church. 



0i Shrine, containing sacred relics. 

10. Tomb of S. Philip, Metropolitan. 

11. Sacred Picture of our Lady of Vladimir. 

12. Tomb of S. Jonah, Metropolitan. 

13. Tabernacle over "the Holy Tunic," pre- 

sented to the Church by Phllarct, 
Patriarch. 

14. Tombs of SS. Photius and Cyprian. 

16. The ancient throne of the Tsar (called " of 
Vladimir Monomachus"). 

16. Throne of the Patriarch. 

17. Throne of the Empress. 

18. Place of the platform on which the Em- 

peror is crowned. 

19. Totnb of Philaret, Patriarch. 

20. Tomb of Hermogenes, Patriarch. 

21. Royal doors. 

22. Platform in front of the choir. 



Th4 pidutU on the Mhr Screeh (A) are thut arranged. 



1. The highest Oompafttnent, the Patriarchs 

ranged atk each side of the Eternal 
Fatiber. 

2. The Prophets leanhig towards the Vil|ln 

and Son. 

3. Minute representatioiiti of the life of the 

Saviour. 

4. Angda and ApoHties on each side of the 

Saviour. 



5. The Sacred Pictures or Icons i 

(o) " The Blessed Virgin," brought by 
Vladimir from Khersonesus. 

(b) " The Saviour," sent by the Emperor 

Manuel. 

(c) " Repose of the Blessed Virgin," 

painted by Peter the Metro- 
politan. 



On the doors ("the Royal Doors,'' so called because the Tsar or Emperor paiSses through them 
on the day of his coronation) are painted the Four Evangelists, to represent that through this 
entrance come the glad tidings of the Eucharist On each side of the doors are represented (in 
ancient dhurches) Adam and the Penitent Thief, as the first fallen and the first redeemed. On 
the farther compartments are represented the Virgin and the Forerunner (the Baptist), and at the 
uorthem comer the Saint to whom the Church is dedicated. 

On each side of the entrance to the Nave are (sometimes) represented the Publican and the 
1*harteee, as the two opposite types of worshipers. Where the Porch is extended, It contains 
tb<i Pagan Philosophers and Poets, each with u scroll in his hand contahilng a sentence antici- 
patory of the OospeL 

l*be south side of the church is always occupied by the Seven CounclU; the north side either 
by the life of the Patron Saint of the Ghuroh (in the Uspenslcy Church, of tho Virgin) or by 
the Parables. In the Dcmskoi Ohnrch all the events of the Old and New Testaments are 
repfesented. 

Tbfl oolnmnf an painted with the fignres of martyn 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



194 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Cathedrals, 



Sect. I. 



Cathedrals. 

6. Uspenshi Sobor, Cathedral of (he 
Assumption, — This sacred edifice was 
formerly called the Patriarchal Cathe- 
dral, but is now known as the Church 
of the Assumption, or Eepose of the 
Virgin. The emperors are crowned 
in it, and the patriarchs formerly 
officiated there. The site was ori- 
ginally occupied by a church built 
in 1325 by the Metropolitan Peter, 
when it became the place of sepulture 
of the Patriarchs, just as the church 
dedicated to St. Michael, in the im- 
mediate vicinity, and founded at the 
same time, was destined to receive the 
remains of the sovereigns of Russia ; 
but it was reconstructed between 
J475-1479 by Aristotle Fioraventi of 
Bologna, with the assistance of native 
artists, after the model of the cathe- 
dral at Vladimir. It is solidly built, 
the foundations being about 14 ft 
deep, and the walls and vaults were 
wnsiderably strengthened in 1626. 
The domes were only covered with 
copper-gilt plates in 1684. But, not- 
wimstanding these alterations, and 
- others which were made after the 
great fire of 1737, the Cathedral of the 
Assumption retains almost entirely its 
primitive form, and is therefore one of 
the most interesting Christian monu- 
ments in Bussia. 

The architectural arrangements (a 
mixture of the Byzantine and Lom- 
bard) and the ornamentation are all 
minutely symbolical, and will there- 
fore well repay a careful study of the 
plan here annexed, taken' from Dean 
Stanley's work on the Eastern Church. 
** It is in dimensions,'* says that 
learned authority, " what in the West 
would be called a chapel rather than 
a cathedral. But it is so fraught 
with recollections, so teeming with 
worshippers, so bursting with tombs 
and pictures from the pavement to 
the cupola, that its smallness of 
space is forgotten in the fullness of 
its contents. On the platform of its 
nave, from Ivan the Terrible down- 
wards to this day, the Tsars have been 



crowned. Along its altar-screen are 
deposited the most sacred pictures of 
Bussia; that, painted by the Metro- 
politan Peter ; this, sent by the Greek 
Emperor Manuel; that, brought by 
Vladimir from Kherson. High in the 
cupola is the chapel, where, aa at the 
summit of the Bussian Church, the 
Russian primates were elected. . . . 
Bound the walls are buried the pri- 
mates of the Church ; at the four 
comers — here, as in aU Oriental build- 
ings, the place of honour — lie those 
most highly venerated." 

St. Peter, the first Metropolitan of 
Moscow, lies in a small chapel on the 
left side of the Ikonostas, where some 
sacred relics are likewise exhibited 
to the faithful, such as a nail of the 
true cross, and a portion of the robe of 
our Saviour. A picture in the Ikonos- 
tas— that of the Holy Virgin of Vladi- 
mir — will be pointed out as having 
been painted by St. Luke. The jewels 
with which it is adorned are valued at 
4o,000Z.,the emerald alone being worth 
10,000Z. It is one of the most ancient 
images in Bussia, and is painted on a 
composition of wax. The silver shrine 
of St. Philip, Metropolitan between 
1566 and 1569, which stands conspi- 
cuous on the right "wing" of the 
Ikonostas, is an object of more than 
ordinary interest in connexion with the 
ecclesiastical history of Bussia. 

Philip was a prelate, bold enough to 
rebuke £van the Terrible for his inhu- 
man cruelties. The Tsar had just caused 
many of his nobles to be put to death, 
and, surrounded by his Oprichniks (a 
band of lawless adherents who replaced 
his ancient nobles at the court), had 
devastated numerous villages in the 
neighbourhood of Moscow. The people 
entreated the Metropolitan to intercede 
for them, but he long hesitated, having 
given a covenant, prior to bia election, 
that he would not interfere with the 
Tsar's household. But, having con- 
tracted a fourth marriage against the 
canons of the church, Ivan was placed 
to a certain extent beyond its pale, 
and prohibited by the Metropolitan 
from assisting at mass, although he 
might listen to the Church service 
from outside its walls. He neverthe- 



Bussia. 



Soute 6. — Moscow : Caihedrals. 



195 



less appeared one day in the body of 
the cathedral, accompanied by a crowd 
of hid obnoxious followers. Philip 
continued to pray as if he were un- 
conscious of the Tsar's presence. " The 
Tsar demands thy blessing/' said the 
Oprichniks ; then the prelate, turning 
towards his sovereign, addressed him 
in the following words : " Pious Tsar ! 
whom dost thou emulate, having be- 
trayed the beauty of greatness ? Why 
hast thou come here, where the offer- 
ing to God is a bloodless sacrifice, 
— thou, with bloodstained hands? 
Whence does the sun stand still in the 
heavens? the Tsar is laying waste his 
dominions ! ** " Seditious monk," cried 
out Ivan, " I am too merciful to trai- 
tors ! I will henceforth be what thou 
hast called me!" The breach be- 
tween the Tsar and the prelate now 
became wider and wider. " Silence," 
said Philip, as he rebuked the Tsar, 
"lays sins upon the soul, and brings 
death to the whole people. I am a 
stranger and a pilgrim upon earth, as 
all my fathers were, and I am ready 
to suffer for the truth." One day he 
boldly told him, •* As the image of the 
Divinity I reverence thee; as a man 
thou art but dust and ashes." Accu- 
sations were soon brought against the 
Metropolitan, but the council, assem- 
bled to try him, separated with shame, 
after listening to his defence. He 
was officiating in the cathedral when 
a band of Oprichniks again entered, 
and, after reading the sentence of the 
council depriving him of his hi^h 
office, dragged the old man from me 
altar, replaced his pontifical robes by 
a monk's cowl, and, driving him out 
of the church with brooms, carried him 
off into confinement. His relatives 
and friends were seized and executed. 
Ivan sent him a hxunan head, with the 
inquiry, " Sorcerer, dost thou recognise 
this head ? " ** Yes," answered Philip, 
" it is the head of my nephew John ; " 
and he kissed and blessed it. The 
saint was ultimately imprisoned in a 
monastery at Tver, where he was put 
to death. 

This martyr in the cause of mercy 
and justice well deserves the honours 
of a shrine, and the devotion with 

i?ii««a.— 1868. 



which it is regarded. The emperor 
never fails to place his lips on the ex- 
posed and withered forehead of St. 
PhiUp. 

Hermogenes, Patriarch of Moscow, 
who fell a victim to the Polish inva- 
sion in 1612, is likewise buried here. 

The five domes are supported by 
pillars that are covered with frescoes 
on a gold ground. There is mucli 
gilding on the walls, but the glitter is 
somewhat moderated by the grim re- 
presentations of depeuH;ed saints of the 
church. At the same time it is im- 
possible to enter this time-honoured 
sanctuary without a feeling of venera- 
tion, nor can a grander sight be 
possibly imagined than a coronation 
within its ancient walls, or even a Te 
Deum performed in the presence of 
the emperor and the court, particu- 
larly on the 15th (27th) August, the 
annual feast of the Church, when His 
Majesty sometimes ^oes there in 
state. A coronation is of course a 
still better opportunity. " The corona- 
tion, "we again extract from Stanley, 
"even at t£e present time, is not a 
mere ceremony, but a historical event, 
and solemn consecration. Jf, is pre* 
ceded by fiisting and seclusion, and 
takes place in the most sacred church 
in Bussia ; the emperor, not, as in the 
corresponding forms of European in- 
vestiture, a passive recipient, but him- 
self the principal figure in the whole 
scene ; himself reciting aloud the con- 
fession of the orthodox faith ; himself 
alone on his knees, amidst the assem- 
bled multitude, offering up the pray^er 
of intercession for the empire; hmi- 
self placing his own crown on his own 
head; himself entering through the 
sacred door of the innermost sanctuaiy, 
and taking from the altar the elements 
of the bread and wine." 

The wooden throne which will bo 
shown to the visitor as the throne of 
Wladimir Monomachus (a.d. 988) is 
probably of the 17th century. The 
Tsars before Peter stood in it attired 
in their robes during Divine service. 

Behind the altar-screen, among 
other treasures, stands a Mount Sinai 
of pure gold, the gift of Prince Potem- 
kin. It contains the Host, and is said 

L 



196 



Boule Q.-^Moscow : CcUhedrdU* 



Sect. I. 



to weigh 120,000 ducats. Several 
state papers of importance are de- 
posited under it, such as the Act of 
Succession of the Emperor Paul, and 
the Abdication of his son Gonstantine. 
A Bible, presented by the mother of 
Peter the Great, is so large that it 
almost requires two men to carry it, 
and it is said to weigh about 100 lbs. 
English. It is studded with emeralds 
and other precious stones. 

7. Arkhangelshi Sobor, Cathedral of 
the Archangel Michael. — This church 
stands close to the cathedral of the 
Assumption, of which it is partly a 
copy. It is a square whitewa^ed 
building, with nine gilded domes, and 
was originally built in 1333 to com- 
memorate the deliverance of Bussia 
from a dreadful famine. The present 
building, however, only dates from 
1505. In ancient days the Tsars 
visited this cathednd immediately after 
their coronation, and on leaving it 
spread " largesse " of gold and silver 
among the people. Until the acces- 
sion of Peter the Great, it was the 
mausoleum of the Burik and Bo- 
manoff dynasties, beginning with John 
Kalitk, grandson or Alexander Ne- 
vsky. The vaults below contain the 
remains of numerous princes of those 
families ; their titles and ages are 
Inscribed on the pall-covered tombs, 
among which the stranger may wan- 
der. Bound the walls, above each 
coflSn, are the effigies of the dead in 
long white robes. The only emperor 
buried here is Peter II., son of the 
unfortunate Alexis. To the orthodox, 
the object of paramount attraction is 
the tomb supposed to contain the 
body of the young Demetrius or 
Dmitri, son of John the Terrible, and 
who, having mysteriously disappeared, 
is believed to have been assassinated 
by orders of Boris Godunoff, subse- 
quently elected Tsar. The appear- 
ance, later, of several pretenders, 
plunged the country into internecine 
strife, causing great bloodshed and 
disorder, which only terminated on 
the election of Michael Bomanoff. A 
miracle connected with the discovery 
if the coffin and body of the canonized 



prince caiises the shrine to be regarded 
with extreme veneration by the people, 
who come to kiss the forehead exposed 
to view. His portrait, in a frame of 
fine gold, is attached to a pillar above 
the coffin. The inhabitsoits of the 
town of Uglitch, where the prince was 
murdered, presented the tall silver 
candlestick which stands near the 
tomb. 

Historically, the tomb of greatest 
interest is that of John IV. or " Terri- 
ble," who, notwithstanding his nume- 
rous offences against the canons of the 
Church, now lies next the altar. Twice 
a year a funeral service is performed 
for the sins of all those that are buried 
here, the Church praying for "that 
burden of sins, voluntary or involun- 
tary, known to themselves or un- 
known," which the departed committed 
when on earth. Most of the prayers 
put up at this cathedral have been 
paid for in the most handsome manner 
in the shape of gorgeous vestments 
and massive ch. vessels, exhibited on 
application to the priest. Ladies will 
have to remain outside the Ikonostas, 
but the male traveller must have tlie 
patience to inspect the treasures of the 
sacristy, and, if permitted, to bring 
them out to the excluded. The erne* 
raids on the richer saJskos are huge 
and very fine. There is a magnificent 
illuminated version of the Gospels (one 
of the earliest copies in Bussia), in a 
splendid enamelled cover of fine gold, 
profusely studded with precious stones. 
Among other ecclesiastical objects, 
too numerous to mention, is a very old 
lantern of mica, brought away from 
Novgorod by John IV. It is in ex- 
cellent preservation, having been re- 
cently gilded, and is still carried in 
Church processions. 

A cross which belonged to John the 
Terrible is likewise remarkable for the 
size of the pearls in it ; the emerald is 
l-3rd of an inch in diameter. 

The altar-screen is very valuable, 
being much adorned with gold. One 
of the images or shrines in it contains 
a drop of the blood of John the Bap- 
tist shown through a glass. 

The priest should have a fee for ex- 
hibiting the antiquities, as well as tho 



Bnssia. 



Houte 6. — Moscow : Cathedrals. 



197 



sacristEUi, wIiQ will be found to speak 
excellent Frendi. 

8. Blagoveschemhi Sobor, Cathedral 
of the Annunciation, — ^While the Tsars 
were crowned in the cathedral of the 
Assumption, and buried in the ch. 
dedicated to the Archangel Michael, 
they went through two other very im- 
portant ceremonies in the cathedral of 
the Annunciation, for there they were 
baptized and married. Numerous 
relics attest the religious importance 
of the edifice. John the Terrible, 
when reduced, by his transgression of 
the canon law, to the state of a cate- 
chumen, listened outside the walls of 
the cathedral to the mass celebrated 
within, but the window at which he 
stood is no longer visible. The Rrench 
stabled their horses there in 1812. 
The frescoes are curious. Those in 
the portico representing the Greek 
Philosophers as heralds of the coming 
of Christ should be noticed. The 
floor is paved with jasper and agate. 

9. Church of the Bedeemer in the 
Wood {8pa88 na Borii).— This sacred 
miniature edifice is almost concealed 
by the huge palace buildings. The 
traveller is sure to catch a glimpse of 
it from one of the palace windows. It is 
one of the oldest churches in the Krem- 
lin, or even in Moscow, and was ori- 
ginally founded where a small wood 
once crowned the summit of the emi- 
nence now occupied by the Kremlin. 
It was a monastery In the 15th centy. 
The fires of Moscow and its invaders 
have left but little of antiquarian in- 
terest to attract the notice of the tra- 
veller. It is only interesting as the 
parent ch. of Moscow, and as contain- 
ing the relics of Stephen of Perm, the 
firat Christian missionary and martyr 
in Bussia. His life is depicted in 
frescoes around the walls, renovated 
in 1863. 

10. Sacrittyof the former Patriarche, 
and now of the HcHy Synod, Pairiarshaya 
(^Synodatnayd) Biznit$a. — This was the 
Treaaury, Library, and Vestry, first of 
the ancient metropolitans of Bussia, 
then of the Patriarchs of Moscow, and 



is now called the House of the Holy 
Synod, an institution which replaced 
the Patriarchate in 1721, in the reign 
of Peter the Great. It stands close to 
the Cathedral of the Assumption, and 
is open daily to visitors. The Sacristy 
contains many objects of art of great 
antiquity, a few of which have been 
brought from Constantinople. The 
sacerdotal robes and ornaments, the 
church vessels, and the plate of the 
several patriarchs are deposited here. 
Among the former may be noticed 
some very rich robes or sakkos; the 
most venerable of these is that of St. 
Peter, who was Metropolitan between 
the years 1308 and 1325. Most of the 
Patnarchs of Moscow were invested 
with this sacred garment at their con- 
secration. Among the sakkos. No. 15, 
of crimson velvet, is the most remark- 
able for the richness of its ornaments ; 
it is embroidered all over with pearls 
of a large size, although but few of 
them are characterised by the round 
and symmetrical forms that are valued 
in jewellery ; it is also adorned by a 
number of small gold plates with sa- 
cred subjects and devices produced in 
niello-work. The rubies, emeralds, al- 
mandines, garnets, and diamonds with 
which this gorgeous pontifical robe is 
further ornamented, contribute to the 
54 pounds which it is said to weigh. 
John the Terrible presented it to the 
Metropolitan Denys, in memory of 
the Tsesarevitch John, and probably 
in expiation of his murder. These 
ancient robes, in their lavish magnifi- 
cence, present a curious contrast to the 
more simple, although still gorgeous, 
vestments in which the Emperor Alex- 
ander n. clothed the venerable Plularet 
at his coronation in 1856. 

The mitres, seven in number, depo- 
sited in the second room, are no less 
rich and interesting. The most ancient 
was worn by the Patriarch Job in 1595. 
Four of them belonged to the cele- 
brated Nicon. The most valuable of 
these, called the great mitre, is studded 
with large diamonds, rubies, emeralds, 
sapphires, and pearls, and weighs 5^ 
pounds. 

In glazed cases at the windows will 
be found several panagias, or images 
L 2 



198 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Cathedrals. 



Sect. I. 



worn on a chain round the necks of 
bishops and other members of the 
hierarchy. The most remarkable are 
— No. 11, in gold, semi-oval, orna- 
mented with spinel rubies and large 
pearls, in the centre of which is an 
onyx bearing in cameo a figure of the 
prophet Daniel. This gem was worn 
by the Metropolitan Peter. No. 2, the 
figures of the Virgin and infant Sa- 
viour, cut in low relief in a Byzantine 
style, but probably work of cinque- 
cento date, on a magnificent sardonyx 
of three layers. No. 3, a sardonyx of 
equal splendour, on which a figure of 
St. John the Scholastic is cut in a 
brown upper layer, resting on two 
strata that form a vast nioolo of perfect 
beauty, the strata of the stone being 
well exhibited by the bevilling of its 
sides. The work on this stone is also 
probably of the cinqueoento period, 
and is supposed to have been executed 
for John tne Terrible, in commemora- 
tion of the birth of his unfortunate son 
in 1555. At the back of this gem is a 
reliquary containing a fragment of the 
purple robe in which our Saviour was 
in derision clothed, and a piece of the 
rock of Calvary. The enamel on the 
back represents Mark, Bishop [of Are- 
thusa, and Cyril the Deacon. These 
two great sardonyxes are of nearly 
equal dimensions, each being about 3^ 
inches long and 2} in breadfii. In 14 o. 
4 we meet with another gem, a dark 
onyx with a white surface layer, in 
which is cut in relief a representation 
of the Crucifixion. On the other side 
is seen a Greek cross, supported by the 
Emperor Constantino and his mother 
Helena. This panagia was worked for 
Job the first Patriarch, who was con- 
secrated in 1589, and who in 1605 was 
driven by a rebel mob from the altar 
in the Cathedral of the Assumption 
and divested of his Pontifical robes. 
Among the rest of the ornaments of 
this kind are several of very fine work- 
manship in gold and enamel, attributed 
to a very early period. 

Of the crosiers exhibited here three 

belonged to the Patriarch Philaret, 

and the other two were carried by the 

Patriarch Nicon. 

A copper vase, with a long narrow 



neck, overlaid with scales of mother-of- 
pearl, and caUed the Alabaster, is here 
shown as the original receptacle of the 
chrism sent from Constantinople. It 
is, however, evidently of more modem 
date. The few drops annually taken 
from it are by ancient usage replaced 
by an equal quantity of the new chrism, 
which thus represents to the fidthful a 
portion of the precious ointment used 
by Mary Magdalene. 

The plate of the patriarchs, kept in 
a large glass case, is chiefly of the 17th 
centy. Most of the goblets, dishes, 
and cups bear the names of their 
donors, or of the persons to whom they 
belonged. 

A complete account of the ecclesias- 
tical treasures of the sacristy will be 
found in a small work in the French 
language which may be purchased on 
the spot. 

In a contiguous room, shown on 
application to the Sacristan, is pre- 
pared, in strict accordance with an 
ancient formula, the sacred oil or 
"mir," employed in the baptism of 
every orthodox Bussian subject. It is 
also used in the consecration of all the 
churches of the orthodox communion, 
and in the anointment of the emperors 
at their coronation. At the baptism 
of children the priest crosses with a 
small camel-hair brush, or feather, 
dipped in the oil, the mouth, eyes, 
ears, hands, and feet, besides the back 
and breast : the eyes are anointed in 
order that the child may only see 
good, the ears that they may admit 
only what is pure, the mouth that he 
may speak as becomes a Christian, the 
hands that they may do no wrong, and 
the feet that they may tread in the 
path of virtue. The ingredient that 
hallows this preparation is an infi- 
nitesimal portion of the sacred oil 
transmitted from Constantinople when 
Christianity was introduced into Bus- 
sia. The chrism is annually prepared 
during Lent, with much solemnity, by 
the Metropolitan of Moscow and the 
higher clergy. It is composed of 
nearly thirty different elements, oil 
and white wine being intermixed with 
a great variety of gums, balsams, 
essential oils, and spices. Two great 



Bussifl. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Convents. 



199 



silver kettles and a still larger silver 
caldron, all presented by the Empress 
Oatherine 11., and kept in the plate- 
room, receive the sacred mixture 
during its preparation; it is then 
poured into sixteen silver jars, gifts of 
the Emperor Paul, and distributed on 
application to the bishops of the seve- 
ral dioceses. The ladles, the sieve for 
straining, and everything employed in 
the operation are of silver, and weigh 
together about 13 cwt 

The Library of the Patriarchs or 
Synod is supposed to have been founded 
by the ancient Metropolitans, but its 
greatest treasures were acquired during 
the Patriarchate of Nicon (1652-1658), 
for the purpose of comparing the cor- 
rupted ritual of the Russo-Greek 
Church with the more ancient manu- 
scripts, Greek and Slavonian. The 
printed books which the library ori- 
ginally contained have been removed 
to other collections. In 1823 the Sy- 
nodal Library boasted of 467 Greek 
MSS., of which 242 on parchment; 
and 956 Kusso-Slavonian MSS., of 
which 96 on parchment. Very few 
additions have been made since. Three 
copies in Greek of the Evangelists, de- 
posited here, are attributed to the 8th 
centy., and the earliest Slavonian MS. 
in this collection is supposed to have 
been written in the year 1073. The 
most ancient Slavonian version of the 
Gospels, in this library, bears the date 
of 1143. 

The Metropolitan, or the Suffhigan 
Bishop of Moscow, will, on application, 
give the student of patristic literature 
ready access to this extensive and im- 

S>rtant collection. A catalogue in 
ussian may be purchased of the 
sacristan, whose kind services should 
be rewarded. 

11. Chudof OT Mirade Monastery (ai 
the Eedeemer Gate). — ^The spot on 
which tliis monastery stands was occu- 
pied during the Tartor invasion hj the 
stables of Djanibek, the dommant 
Khan, whose wife, Taidula, having 
been cured of a disease by St. Alexis, 
Metropolitan of all Russia, presented 
the latter with the ground now so 
Uoly. In 1865 St. Alexis laid the 



foundation of the monastery, which 
thenceforth became the residence and 
Cathedral of the Primates. Successive 
fires destroyed the buildings erected 
by the piety of various princely bene- 
factors. The Cathedral was restored 
by the Tsar Michael and his father 
the Patriarch Philaret, but its present 
appearance is due to the munificence 
of the Empresses Anne and Elizabeth. 
It was sacked during a revolt in 1771, 
and pillaged in 1812, when it was 
occupied by the staflf of Napoleon. 
Before the spoliation of the monasteries 
by Catherine II., this establishment 
had no less than 18,681 male serfs 
attached to it. The church of St. 
Michael was built by St. Alexis in 
1365, rebuilt 1504, and restored in 
1779. Its canonised founder lies in a 
silver shrine near the S. wall of the 
cathedral dedicated to his name. His 
Sakkoi and other pontificals are pre- 
served in a glass case near the shrine. 
St. Michael's Church stands in the 
yard of the monastery, and is not open 
daily. It is, however, well worth 
seeing since its restoration in tlie 
ancient style. The sacristy contains a 
MS. copy of the New Testament exe- 
cuted by St. Alexis, and much treasure 
in the eiiape of jewelled vestments and 
religious msignia. The library con- 
tains 236 MSS. on parchment and 
paper, and 199 printed books. There 
is a Psalter of the 13th centy. and 
another of the 15th. The oldest 
printed books are of the 17th centy. 
By ancient custom, children before 
being put to school are brought by 
their parents to this monastery to 
invoke the blessing of St. Alexis on 
their studies, and the peasants of a 
village formerly belonging to the saint 
still come on his name-^y to pray to 
their Lord. 

12. Vomesemhi Devichi (Ascension) 
Convent, — This nunnery was founded 
by Eudoxia, wife of Dimitry of the 
Don, in 1393, who retired to it after 
the death of the Conqueror of Kuli- 
kova. Although the princess fasted 
rigorously and wore heavy weights, she 
was wont to appear in the world attired 
in costly dress and precious stones, 



200 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Arsenal. 



Sect. I. 



thereby giving rise to a certain amount 
of soandaX which she however refuted 
by exhibiting th6 withering effects of 
her self-imposed penance. At last, 
however, she retired entirely from the 
world, and devoted her life to prayer 
and the healing of the sick. Thence- 
£3rth the nunnery became the last 
resting-place of the princesses of the 
reigning house. Consumed frequently 
by fires, the convent in its present form 
was built in 1721, and renovated after 
the conflagration of 1737 and the 
French occupation. The cells occupy 
2 floors of a large stone building. The 
principal church stands in the centre 
of the court. The tombs of the prin- 
cesses begin at the S. door and termi- 
nate at the N. entrance, being ranged 
in two rows along the walEi. The 
most ancient is that of Eudoxia> or St. 
Eudoxia* bs she is called by the 
Church, adorned with a silver shrine 
placed in 1822. On the rt. hand near 
the wall lies Eudoxia, the consort of 
Michael, the first sovereign of the 
Bomanoff dynasty (obiit 1645) : next 
to her are the 2 wives of his son 
Alexis. The tombs of the 2 wives of 
John III. will be found on the 1., at 
the head of the tomb of Eudoxia. 
Next in the comer lies the first of his 
consorts, Mary, daughter of the Prince 
of Tver ; and by her side are the re- 
mains of Sophia, daughter of Thomas 
PalsBologus, brother of the last Chris- 
tian Emperor of Constantinople. An- 
other descendant of this Palaeologus 
lies buried in the churchyard of the 
parish of Landulph in Cornwall. He 
died in 1636. The mother of John 
the Terrible comes next. Beyond are 
the tombs of 4 of his 6 wives ; the last 
tomb is that of Eudoxia, first consort 
of Peter the Great, who died in 1731. 

13. Araenal and Cannon.— The arse- 
nal stands between the Trinity and 
Kicholas Grates, on the spot where the 
Streltsi once mustered, and where 
stood the houses of many puissant 
Boyars. Its construction, on the 
model of the arsenal of Venice, was 
commenced in 1701, and finished in 

'^6. The N.E. aDgle was blown up 
812, and has since been restored. 



The cannon taken during the retreat 
of the French are arranged in Ipng 
rows along the outside walls of the 
building. The French artillery is 
represented by 365 pieces, the Aus- 
trian by 189, the Prussian by 123, the 
Italian by 70, the Neapolitan by 40, 
the Bavarian by 34, the Dutch by 22, 
the Saxon by 12, the Spanish by 8, the 
Polish by 5, while Westphalia, Han- 
over, and Wurtemburg, make up the 
total of 875. The rest are mere orna- 
mental pieces of ordnance cast in 
Russia. The huge cannon projecting 
from the furthest angle of the arsenal 
is called the Tsar-Pushka or Tsar- 
Cannon, on account of its extraordi- 
nary size. It was cast during tiie 
reign of Theodore, whose eflBgy is on 
it. Its weight is nearly 40 tons. 
There is also a mortar which was cast 
by the false Dmitry. When Peter, 
after the battle of Narva, ordered the 
old cannon and many church-bells to 
be recast into ordnance, he spared this 
historical monument by a special 
IJkaz. The longest cannon was cast 
in the reign of Alexis. The building 
opposite is the Senate-house — the 
High Court of Appeal of Moscow. It 
was built by Catherine II., and re- 
stored 1866. In it are established the 
new Courts of Law, with trial by jury 
in criminal cases. The magnificent 
hall is well worth seeing. 



II. Kitai Gorod, or " Chinese Totvn" 
— ^The Kremlin having become over- 
crowded, Helena, the mother and re- 
gent of John the Terrible, ordered a 
large space to be enclosed outside the 
Kremlin, and to be called after her 
birthplace Kitaigrod in Podolia. The 
Kremlin was the CasteUum and the 
Kitai the Civitas. The walls were 
commenced in 1535 by Petroc^ an 
Italian. The following objects should 
be visited in the Kitai Gorod ; — 

1. CathedraZofStBaaaiheBeaiified, 
Vassili Blaj&nnoi (also called the Ca- 
thedral of the Protection and the 
Trinity). — This remarkable ch. stands 
on the Krasnaya Ploschad (Red or 



Eiissia. 



Bouie 6. — Moscow : The Ldbnoe Mesto, 



201 



Beautiful Place), outside the Holy 
Gate of the Kremlin wall. It is 
erected on the site of an ancient ch. 
and cemetery, in which the sainted 
Basil, a pqpalar prophet and worker 
of miracles, who, in the language of 
the Church, was " idiotic for Christ's 
sake," waa buried in the year 1552. 
Two years kiter John the Terrible 
ordered a ch. to be built over the re- 
mains of BasU, in commemoration of 
the subjugation of Kazan. In 1555 the 
wooden ch. thus built was taken down 
and the foundation of the present edi- 
fice laid. Its architect was an Italian, 
whose eyes, tradition wrongly reports, 
were put out by John the Terrible after 
the construction of the ch., in order that 
it might not be equalled or surpassed. 
It is supposed to have been fini^ed in 
the latter part of the 16th centy. by 
Theodore, the son and successor of 
John rV., who caus^ to be placed in 
this ch. the relics of another saint, 
John the Idiot, sumamed the " Water- 
carrier and Big-cap," from his habit of 
carrying water for others, and from his 
wearing a heavy iron cap on his head. 
Idiotcy is a form of mendicancy very 
common in Russia, the people being 
religiously compassionate in cases of 
mental aberration. Beggars of this 
description still go about Moscow bare- 
footed in winter. The ch. of St. Basil 
suffered frequently from fire, and was 
under repair from 1744 to 1784. In 
1812 Napoleon ordered the general in 
command of his artillery ** to destroy 
that mosque ; " but it was spared for 
reconsecration on the 1st December of 
the same year. 

The cathedral is grotesquely irregu- 
lar in appearance. It has 11 domes, 
eaxjh different in colour and design, 
surmounting as many chapels dedicated 
to various saints. The shrine of St. 
Basil reposes in the chapel below, 
which is alone open daily. In order 
to see the upper Chapels application 
must be made to the clergy of the 
church. Visitors will be shown the 
heavy chains and crosses which St. 
Basil wore for penance. The iron 
weights which belonged to the other 
idiot will be viewed in another chapel. 
His cap was lost in 1812. 



2. The " Ldbno^ Mesto** a circular 
tribune of stone outside tiie cathedral 
of St. Baail.— It was also called the 
" Kranievo Mesto," from cranium, its 
present appellation being also derived 
from lob, a skull, or golgothfb. But as 
the tribune was built by Italian archi- 
tects early in the 16th centy., its name 
is probably identical with the labium 
or loUa, in the dialect of Milan — a 
raised place or open portico where 
the citizens assembled to deliberate, 
suggestive of the lobby of the House of 
Commons. Popular tradition asserts 
that this tribune was anciently a place 
of execution; but modem archsaolo- 
gists dispute it, and insist on its having 
been merely a place from which the 
Tsar addressed the people, and where 
his edicts were proclaimed. The first 
mention of the Lobnoe Mesto is in 
1549, after a dreadful fire and riot, 
when John the Terrible stood on it, and 
weeping acknowledged his misrule and 
solemnly promised to be in ftiture the 
judge and defender of his subjects. The 
metropolitan and patriarchs of Moscow 
blessed the people from this tribune. 
Nicon stood here and gave Alexis that 
blessing which, having been ineffica- 
cious in overturning the Poles, brought 
down upon him the wrath of his sove- 
reign and laid the foundation of his 
disgrace. The ceremony of riding on 
an ass, performed in great state by the 
patriarchs before Easter, was opened by 
the reading of the Gospels on this 
Golgotha. The patriarch, carrying the 
cup and the Gospels, mounted an ass 
at the foot of the tribune, and the Tsar 
led it by the bridle to the cathedral of 
the Assumption. In 1682 the leaders 
of the Dissenters addressed the Mosco- 
vites from the Lobno4 Mesto in defence 
of their objections to the innovations of 
Nicon. The space in front remained 
the place of execution until 1727, when 
Peter II. ordered the gallows and stakes 
to be removed. 

3. The Bomanqff House (Palata 
Boyar JRomanovykh), — A visit to this 
palatium will afford the traveller an 
opportunity of studying the archi- 
tecture and mode of life of the Rus- 
sians in the middle ages. The Romanoff 



202 



BotUe 6. — Moscow : Bomanoff House. 



Sect. I. 



House, restored between 1856 and 1859, 
was the birthplace of Miclmel, the first 
sovereign of the reigning dynasty, 
whose father, the Boyar Theodore, 
known later as Philaret, Patriarch of 
Moscow, was also brought up tiiere. 
The external walls, built of stone, are 
alone of undoubted antiquity ; the in- 
terior, after having been ravaged by 
fire and sacked by the French, is now 
entirely rebuilt in the style of Russian 
dwelling-houses of the 16th and 17th 
centuries. It is more a museum of 
ancient domestic art than a monument 
of antiquity. 

The house stands on the slope of a 
small eminence, and haa 4 stories 
on the S. towaixls the court, and only 
one facing Varvarskaia-street, where 
it occupies a frontage of about 57 ft. 
The principal entrance is from the 
court. 

Cellars for wine, mead, beer, kvass, 
and ice, form the basement ; the next 
story is devoted to the kitchen and 
various offices. The apartments of the 
Boyar are above. These consist of a 
vestibule, to the right of which is a 
room for female servants; next to this 
again visitors will find a diminutive 
nursery, in which are exhibited the 
toys and primers of the period. The 
largest room on this floor is called 
the Chapel, or ** Krestovaya " (Chamber 
of the Cross). Here' the chief of the 
family received the priests who came 
to offer their congratulations at Christ- 
mas, Easter, and other great holydays, 
and assisted with his dependants at 
matins and vespers. The roof is arched 
in a kind of Gothic style with niches, 
the whole being richly ornamented 
with devices taken from patents deli- 
vered by the Tsar Michael. 

The family plate and other valuables 
were preserved in this sacred chamber. 
Some curious specimens are exhibited 
on a stand, which, in the language of 
the country, was called a gorka or 
mountain. The traveller will recog- 
nise a small equestrian statuette of 
Charles I., and by their make 2 ewers 
presented by Charles II. At great 
festivals the plate was piled up in the 
entre of the table. Goblets and other 
sels of silver were very much in 



I fashion, and were, in the absence of 
orders of knighthood and of medals, 
bestowed by the sovereign in recom- 
pense of meritorious . services. There 
are many objects of antiquity in this 
chamber illustrative of tho domestic 
habits of the Tsars. There are also 
several secret recesses in the walls for 
the concealment of treasure. A glass 
cupboard contains some ancient images, 
and among them is one with which, 
tradition says, Philaret blessed his son 
when he was elected Tsar, and with 
that image also the present metropo- 
litan Philaret blessed the Emperor 
Alexander II. at the benediction of 
the Bomanoff House on its restoration. 
Alongside this chamber are a small 
oratory and the " Boyarskaia Palata," 
a kind of study. On a table in the 
latter are writing materials and twd 
brass inkstands after the model of 
those used in England in the days of 
Chaucer. The lion and unicorn, with 
which these are decorated in relief, 
are Byzantine emblems, and have 
-nothing tf> do with the supporters of 
the royal arms of England. 

It is heated by a stove of coloured 
tiles with allegorical figures and various 
inscriptions; thus on one biick the 
visitor will see two birds separating 
from each other, with the motto, 
" Fidelity unites us ; " on another a 
tortoise with the humorous adage, 
** There is no better house than one's 
own." Mbo^*8 fables were frequently 
represented on the bricks of that period. 

A door leads from the Krestovaya, 
by a narrow staircase, to the top story 
or terero, a name supposed to be de- 
rived from a Greek word, signifying 
"upper floor reserved for women." 
The terem is built of wood, and in- 
cludes the bedchamber, the svetlitsa or 
reception-room, and a turret. 

Below are two rooms which formed 
the Nursery. In it will be seen a 
cradle, toys, primers, &c., of the early 
part of the 17th centy. 

The walls and ceiling of the bed- 
chamber are very richly carved in 
wood after ancient patterns. Benches, 
covered with brocade, line the walls, 
and an old 4-post bedstead completes 
the fiimiture of the apartment. There 



Enssia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow: Bazaar, 



203 



is a small box at the foot of the bed, 
which the curious are advised to look 
into. It contains, among other things, 
the slippers of the Tsar, and the 
chemise de nuit of a Tsarina. The 
room next to it is the hall of reception; 
its walls are covered with stamped 
leather. There is a charming view 
from the windows of this apartment 
towards the city, beyond the Moskva 
and Yaouza rivers. 

The roof, which is covered with tin 
plates, is prettily ornamented with open 
work in copper, and a pavilion on the 
west is surmounted by a vane, in the 
form of a griffin, holding a short sword 
in one paw and a shield in the other, 
being the offensive and defensive 
w^mons borne in the Bomanoff arms. 

The lions on the staircase bear 
shields wiih the same cognizance. 

A small fee should be given to the 
two servants at the door. Open on 
Mondays and Thursdays by ticket, to 
be obtained at the office within the 
Kremlin. 

In the same street stood the house of 
the first English merchants in Russia, 
where they also coined money. It is 
now called the Sibirskoe Podvorie, or 
Siberian hostelry. 

4. Strastny (Passion) Monastery, 
General View of Moscow, — The traveller 
will by this time be tired of viewing 
palaces and antiquities, and will be 
glad to see other objects. He is there- 
fore advised to proceed to the " Strastny 
Monastir," not far from the governor's 
house, which stands on some of the 
highest ground in Moscow, and affords 
an excellent view of the city, The 
belfiy may be ascended without any 
permission, the door leading to it 
being generally open. Although the 
tower of Ivan Veliki is loftier, yet the 
panorama seen from the belfry of 
the Strastny, situated in the heart 
o/ the city, gives a fej better impres- 
sion of its size and beauty. 

Inhere is nothing of interest within 
the " Strastny." It dates from the 
reign of Alexis, and was restored in 
1779. 

5. Gogtinnoi Dvorj or Bazaar, — The 



trade of Moscow has been centered 
VTithin the Kitai Gorod since 1596. 
The Gostinnoi Dvor is a colossal build- 
ing of 3 stories, and the shops and pas- 
sages form a perfect labyrinth. The 
statue opposite the bazaar represents 
Minin ue peasant urging Fojarsky 
the boyar to deliver Moscow from his 
enemies tlie Poles. The traveller 
should ask to see the Serebriani Biad 
or Silver Bow, where spoons and other 
small articles of plate of Bussian manu- 
facture may be cheaply bought ; brace- 
lets and snuff-boxes of Tulk or niello- 
work make very pretty presents, the 
former costing 3 to 4 r. There are 2 
or 3 curiosity shops in the same row ; 
but travellers unacquainted with the 
system of bargaining should be very 
careful in makmg purchases, and con- 
fine themselves to a general view of 
the market. (Purcha^rs of pictures, 
old china, and silver, should visit Bodi- 
onof s shop in Pokrovka-street.) The 
use of the stcheti or aba,cu8 (the Tartar 
suanpan) is a curious feature in Bus- 
sian trading, and will be constantly 
seen here. A little way beyond the 
bazaar, on the opposite side of the 
street, are some shops where Circassian 
wares are sold. Experience, however, 
speaks in favour of the assortments of 
these goods at St. Petersburg. The 
washing silks of the Caucasus, at about 
1 r. 25 c. the arshin, are very good. 
The secondhand shops along tiiie wall 
of the Kitai Gorod present an odd 
mixture of trades and mercantile types. 
The visitor may stroll past them. The 
only other market worthy of a rapid 
glance is, during the proper season, 
the winter market outside the Kitai 
walls. 

Immediately after tlie frost has fairly 
set in, an indiscriminate elaughter of 
live stock of all kinds commences. 
The carcase is exposed at once to the 
cold air and frozen, without being 
previously allowed to become cold: 
when wanted for use, it is immersed 
in water for a few minutes, and after 
being tims thawed the meat may bo 
used, but it has not the freshness and 
flavour that it would have if just 
killed ; when once thawed it must 
be cooked without^elaj^ If it has 
L 3 



204 



BotUe 6. — Moscow : Foundling Hospital, 



Sect. I, 



been allowed to oool before it is frozen, 
although no difference is perceptible 
while in its frozen state, immediately 
on being thawed the meat turns black, 
and is totally unfit for use ; and the 
same result ensues upon the &ost 
breaking up in the spring. But it cer- 
tainly is a good expedient, not only to 
save the expense of keeping the ani- 
mals so many months, but to have their 
flesh at any moment fresh, while its 
icy hardness is an effectual protection 
against the injuries it might otherwise 
sustain in being conveyed from one 
extremity of the country to the other. 
Early in the winter the first great frozen 
market is held in aU the large cities, 
and all prudent housekeepers lay in 
as ample a supply of provisions as their 
means will enable them. Merchants 
with provisions then crowd to Moscow 
and St. Petersburg from all quarters of 
the empire. The fish of the White Sea 
and of the great northern lakes are 
piled in huge heaps in the streets, side 
by side with the frozen oxen from the 
steppes of the Crimea, the sheep from 
the shores of the Caspian, and the 
deer from the banks of the Enisei and 
Irtish. The number of persons em- 
ployed in this traffic is enormous, and 
the entire interruption to it, caused 
by the occupation of Moscow by the 
French in 1812, just at ^e time of 
the great market, contributed not a 
little to increase the miseries of war. 

On one or two occasions a sudden 
break of the frost, after a week or 
fortnight's continuance, when imimense 
quantities of &ozen provisions have 
been thawed on their way to the 
markets, has caused not only great loss 
to the merchants, but serious incon- 
venience to the inhabitants of the large 
cities, who, relying on this regular 
supply, make no other preparation for 
their wants. 

6. Ivershi^ Vorota, Iberian Gate and 
Chapel, dedicated to the Iberian Mother 
of God. — This is the principal entrance 
and exit into the Kitai Gorod. The 
chapel contains a picture of the Iberian 
Mother of God, brought from Mount 
* "os in the reign of Alexis, and con- 
i to be of miraculous efficacy. It 
.ys beset by worshippers, whose 



donations amount to about 10,OOOZ. per 
annum, of which lOOOl. is contributed 
towards the pay of the Metropolitan of 
the see of Mx^cow. The devotional 
habits of the Russian people may be 
watched here with interest. 

Having viewed the Kremlin and 
Kitai Gorod, the traveller should drive 
to see the places below enumerated. 



Detached Sights. 

Foundling Hospital,— 'So traveller 
should omit a visit to this institution, 
for which an order is easily procured. 
The sight of this huge nursery is as 
curious as it is instructive, and will 
afford plenty of materials for reflection 
to the moralist, or the student of social 
science. It was opened in 1763 by the 
Empress Catherine IL, and organized 
in accordance with the views of Betski, 
an enunent philanthropist of that reign, 
whose portrait is exhibited in a gallery, 
together with the likenesses of succes- 
sive benefectors too numerous to men- 
tion. A Lombard bank or Mont de 
Piet^ now in liquidation, and a Savings 
Bank which still flourishes, have hi- 
therto been the sources of revenue of 
this establishment, but the facilities 
afforded by railways of bringing in- 
fants to a common centre threaten 
seriously to make inadequate the ways 
and means now suppUed by the Govern- 
ment since the concentration of all 
financial institutions in the State 
Bank. The yearly grant amounts to 
about ISO.OOOZ. 

A lying-in hospital, with secret 
wards, but open likewise to mothers 
who are only poor, occupies one of 
the wings, while the largest and 
best part of the square bmlding is 
devoted to an institution for female 
orphans. More than 2000 women have 
recourse annually to the secret wards, 
and about 200 to those reserved for 
cases of poverty. The Foundling 
hospital admits yearly about 12,000 
children, who are not left, as in 
some other institutions of a similar 
kind, at the door of the building, but are 
taken openly, either by their mothers 



Eussia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Foundling Hospital. 



205 



or some friend, into an entrance room 
set apart for liie purpose. Here the 
infant is at once received without any 
further question being asked than, 
" Has the child been baptised ? " and if 
so, "By what name?" The child is 
then registered in the books of the 
institution ; a number is assigned to it, 
which is henceforward worn around its 
neck, and figures on its cot, while a 
receipt, showing the same number, is 
handed to the bearer of thd child, in 
order to enable her to visit, or even 
claim it at any future period up to the 
age of 10 years. The infant is then 
passed into another room, where, after 
being undressed and washed, it is 
swaddled in the clothes of the Hospital, 
and handed to its future foster parent, 
she being the woman who happens at 
the moment to stand at the head of tiie 
list amongst a number who are always 
waiting in attendance. These women, 
who are generally peasants from the 
country, have fi?equently, it is believed, 
themselves been the depositors of their 
own children at the hospital a few 
hours previously, but probably the 
great majority are mothers who have 
left their own childem in the country to 
be brought up by hand, being attracted 
by the wages of 6d. and sometimes Sd, 
a day and the good fetre provided them 
in the institution. 

From the room where the Infants 
are received, the visitor wiU doubtless 
pass with interest from one ward to 
another of this vast hoe^ital, where 
he will not fail to perceive Ihat no- 
thing which good domestic manage- 
ment can suggest^ or medical art (ap- 
prove, has been omitted. The whole 
establishment is conducted with the 
regularity of clockwork under the 
management and supervision of an ex- 
perienced and intelUgent medical staff, 
while the smallest and most trivial 
operation is performed with the utmost 
delicacy of which the female hand is 
capable. The simple arts of washing 
and dressing are brought to a perfection, 
and executed with a rapidity, unknown 
elsewhere. The infants are bathed in 
copper tubs of the most convenient form, 
lined with thick flannel, and they are 
dressed on down pillows, instead of on 



the bony knees, or the still more cruel 
hoops, of modem nurses. There are 
distinct wards for every illness to whicli 
the children are liable, with the newest 
and most approved appliances fitted to 
each. In the ward for eye diseases, 
the visitor should try to see the eye 
syringe in use. The utmost attention 
is bestowed on infants prematurely 
bom, whose life is sustained by placing 
them in hollow copper bassinets, the 
sides and bottom of which are filled 
with hot water. 

The morning after their admission, 
the children, if not already baptized, 
are admitted within the pale of the or- 
thodox Church, receiving the Christian 
name of the saint who may happen to 
preside over that day in the Bussian 
calendar, and, for a surname, the 
Christian name of the priest who ofii- 
ciates, with the addition of the ** off,*' 
BO familiar in Bussian patronymics. 
After remaining in the institution for 
4 weeks, and having been vaccinated^ 
the infants, if strong and healthy, are 
sent, together with their nurses, to the 
villages to which the latter belong. 
Here the nurses receive about 4a. 6d. 
a month for the maintenance of their 
charges, under the supervision of tho 
doctor of the district. The coarse fare 
of the peasantry, however, and the 
rigour of the climate, cause about 50 
per cent, of the children to die before 
the age of one year, and about a quarter 
only of those brought to the hospital 
arrive at maturity. 

It may be argued that such institu- 
tions tend to recognise and increase 
immorahty, and statistics may be ad- 
duced to show, that, while the number 
of illegitimate births in the whole Bus- 
sian empire is little over 4 per cent., 
at Moscow and St. Petersburg, where 
Foundling Horoitals exist, the propor- 
tion is in the former town 37f , and in 
the latter 20^ per cent., and that there 
are about 10 per cent, more of illegiti- 
mate births at Moscow than at Paris. 
On the other hand, it may be questioned 
whether the proportion of legitimate or 
illegitimate registered births is a just 
criterion of morality. The proportion 
of the latter to the former is always 
greater in the large and thickly popu- 



206 



Route 6. — Moscow : Museum. 



Sect. I. 



lated towns than in the oountiy ; and 
as to the relative projwrtion between 
Moscow and Paris, this will only be 
really known when the science of sta- 
tistics shall have learut to give the 
numbers of undiscovered cases of in- 
fanticide iind other hardly less infa- 
mous crimes. Moreover, a great pro- 
portion of the children brought to the 
institution are not illegitimate, and are 
only left there by the parents from 
poverty or if in service. 

On the other hand, the increase of 
population effected by the Foundling 
Hospitals of Moscow and St Peters- 
burg is not so great as might at first 
sight be supposed ; for Independent of 
the great mortality among the children 
after they have left the institution — 
mortality owing, in a great degree, to 
the severe climate, and to the universal 
custom among the Bussian peasantry 
of leaving young infants alone for 
several hours at a time, with the 
" Soska," or kind of milk poultice, at 
their mouths, to nourish or to choke 
them, — ^it must not be forgotten that 
but too many of these illegitimate chil- 
dren are saved at the expense of the 
lawful offspring of their nurses, left at 
a critical age to be brought up by 
hand in the villages. 

The boys when they grow up are not 
amenable to military service, and are 
even exempt from certain taxes. The 
great mass of them become agricultural 
labourers. About 150 are annually 
brought up at the Industrial School at 
Moscow, where they are taught various 
trades, and 250 at the School of Sur- 
gery as hospital dressers. Some of the 
girls are taken back to the hospital, 
where they are trained as nurses, and 
even as midwives, for which a special 
school is attached. In case a girl 
marries in her village before attaining 
her majority, she is provided by the 
institution with a trousseau. 

The Nicholas Institute, which will 
be shown the visitor, is only for the 
female orphans of indigent servants of 
the crown; another for boys existing 
elsewhere. About 800 girls receive 
here a liberal education, intended to 
•^'•epare them for tuition. On leaving 
establishment they are provided 



with an outfit, and enjoy small salaries, 
proportionate to the certificates which 
they have gained on their examination 
— salaries which they receive during 
the 6 years which they are boimd to 
devote to the Crown as governesses 
and school teachers in the interior of 
the empire. 

Although this school is attached to 
the Foundling Hospital* no foundlings 
are admitted. 50 girls are brought up 
in it at their own expense. 

The register of the Foundling Hospi- 
tal is an object of interest to those who 
understand the Kussian language. It 
contains an entry in 1812 of 2 boys 
sent there by order of the Emperor 
Napoleon. Admission on application 
to the governor. The porter will ex- 
pect a fee. 



Public Museum (PuUichny Mus^e, 
domPcuJikom). — The Humiaiitsoff Mu- 
seum, bequeathed to the public in 1828 
by Count Rumiantsoff, Clianoellor of 
the Empire, was removed in 1861 from 
St. Petersburg to Moscow, where it 
now forms the nucleus of a collection 
that aspires to rival that of the British 
Museum. It occupies a splendid man- 
sion, once the residence of the Pasli- 
kof family, and which, from its impos- 
ing site, stands out prominently irom 
amidst the other colossal and pic- 
turesque buildings of Moscow. The 
original Bumiantsoff Museum has been 
considerably augmented by donations 
and by other collections, such as that 
of Christian antiquities and early Greek 
and Slavonic MSS., lent by Mr. P. 
Sevastianof, a patriotic archieologist. 

The Library, increased by imperial 
gifts and by purchases, now possesses 
160,000 volumes. It is particularly 
rich in ancient Slavonic M8S., which 
are arranged chronologically in glass 
cases ; 45 of them are on parcluuent. 
One of the moat ancient Slavonian 
MSS. of the Gospels, written *in 1164, 
is to be found here. No less than three 
MSS. on parchment or paper belong 
to the 12tii century, ten to the 13th, 
twenty to the 14th, and forty-three to 
the 15th. Tliere^ jBirealso very many 
well-executed dopiest w ancient MSS., 



Eussia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Museum. 



207 



and 42 copies of the Evangelists, rang- 
ing between the 12th and 16th cen- 
turies. The library is rich in historical 
and ecclesiastical MSS. and in speci- 
mens of early printing in the Bnssian 
characters. The room in which the 
bust of Nicholas I. is placed contains 
the library of his consort in hand- 
somely bound volumes. The private 
papers and correspondence of the great 
Chancellor are deposited here. <S)unt 
Bumiantsoff took great pains in collect- 
ing works, originals as well as copies, 
having reference to the relations be- 
tween Russia and other countries. A 
volume entitled *CJopies of Letters 
written and received by Sir Charles 
Comwaleys, Knight, during his Em- 
bassie in Spain, with other his Obser- 
vations and Negociations, 1606,' may 
interest the English traveller. The 
library is enriched by the valuable col- 
lection of Mr. Norof, whose Aldine and 
Elziverian editions are worthy of in- 
spection, as well as the works of Gior- 
dxao Bruno, and the *Atlantica* by 
Budbeck, the most complete copy next 
to those of Upsala and Stockholm. In 
the centre room of this library is a 
marble allegorical statue of Peace, by 
Canova, on a pedestal of granite, in 
commemoration of the Peace of Abo 
(1743), of that of Kainardji (1774), and 
of Freierichshamm (1809). On each 
side of this statue are placed two 
splendid vases, from the imperial 
manufEictory, presented by the Em- 
peror. Their value is 12,000 roubles. 
There are also a statue and a bust in 
marble of Count Bumiantsoff Zadunai- 
ski. None of these are of any extraor- 
dinary merit. The portrait of Chan- 
cellor BumiantsofE; the founder of the 
museum, is by Geo. Dawe. 

The sculpture gallery has been sup- 
plied with slabs from the Egyptian 
and Assyrian Courts of the Brit^h Mu- 
seum, and contains nothing original. 

A room is devoted in this museum 
to a collection of Masonic MSS. and 
books. It contains the Archives of the 
Lodges in Bussia, between the years 
1816 and 1821, although many manu- 
scripts are of an earlier date, Bussia 
having been declared an independent 
Masonic Province in 1781. Freema- 



sonry was formally abolished in 1823, 
but it nevertheless continued to exist 
surreptitiously some time longer, as 
proved by some of the documents pre- 
served here, bearing the date of 1830. 
In a corridor will be found masonic 
decorations, &c. To the right of the 
corridor is a numismatic collection. 
The next door leads to the Dashkof 
Ethnographical Museum. Proceeding 
along the corridor, the visitor will find 
on the rt. a room in which the various 
objects collected by Kotzebue during 
his voyage round the world have been 
deposited. Continuing along the cor- 
ridor a large hall will be reached, 
where figures the size of life are placed 
to represent the various races inhabit- 
ing Bussia. In the centre are speci- 
mens of the "Great Bussian" race, 
next come the Little Bussians, and, 
lastly, the Caucasian tribes. In the 
next room are tents of the Kalmucks 
and Kirghizes. To the rt., below, are 
the domestic utensils, &c., of the vari- 
ous races. A staircase leads to a hall 
in which are arranged figures of the 
Slavonian races not subject to Bussia, 
while in the gallery above are excel- 
lent photographs of all the Slavonian 
races. These figures or dolls formed 
the ** Ethnographical Exhibition," held 
at Moscow in 1867, which has since 
given rise to so much apprehension in 
Austria. 

An Exhibition of Christian Anti- 
quitiea occupies four rooms in the 
upper floor of the museum. It consists 
principally of specimens of ecclesi- 
astical art brought from Mount Athos, 
and of casts and photographs of Byzan- 
tine and early Bussian archsoological 
objects. An miage in mosaic of the 
Saviour, attributed to the 10th or 11th 
century, a gold cross of Byzantine 
enamel of the same period, and several 
manuscripts and specimens of early 
printing, are among the antiquities of 
which Mr. Sevastianoff, the owner of 
the collection, is chiefly proud. 

The Mineralogical collection is not 
very remar^ble, although a few speci- 
mens are worthy of notie. Among 
these are a mass of native copper from 
the Boguslaf mines in Siberia, and vari- 



208 



Boute 6. — Moscow: Museum. 



Sect. I. 



0U8 crystallized and other flpecimens 
of tlie same metal. A huge crystal of 
smoky quartz from Ekaterinburg, may 
also be noticed. Attention may b© 
drawn to a fine beryl and some good 
specimens of the rare chromate of lead 
from Siberia, to the axinite from Dau- 
phine, and to a fine specimen of crys- 
tallized natiye sulphur from the extinct 
locality of Conil in Spain. 

In tiie Zoological Department will 
be seen a small specimen of the mam- 
moth, and numerous skulls of that 
animal. In a glass case near the 
window are pieces of the" integuments, 
masses of hair, and a whitish substance 
taken oat of the socket of the eye of 
the huge beast, when found in Siberia. 
Tits Picture Gallery owes its origin 
to the gift, by the present Emperor, of 
a large picture by IvanofE^ " Christ ap- 
pearing to the People." Professor 
Waagen selected a few pictures for this 
museum characteristic of the several 
schools of painting from amongst the 
collection in the Hermitage, the value 
of which'splendid gallery has not been 
materially diminished by the abstrac- 
tion. Ivanoff's picture, placed in the 
last room, is very striking on account 
of the relief of some of the figures, 
especially that of the young man climb- 
ing out of the water ; and the head of 
the decrepit old man supported by a 
youth, who is probably his son, is cer- 
tainly admirable for expression. The 
picture is painted in exaggerated cold 
tones, but uie drawing shows evidence 
of most careM study. There is a 
considerable sameness in the faces, a 
monotony probably produced by em- 
ploying the same model, and altogether 
the picture has certainly not the attrac- 
tions of the more celebrated work of 
this native artist, that of " Christ ap- 
pearing to Mary Magdalen,** exhibited 
in the Hermitage. Close to it is a 
small picture (No. 201), "the Death 
of Pelopidas," by Andrew Ivanoff, 
father of the above painter. 

Travellers may study the rise and pro- 
gress of Russian painting in the gallery 
of Senator Prianitchikoff, removed to 
the museum in 1867. It contains 122 
pictures, of which 12 are by Briilow. 

The Flemish school is represented 



by originals of Breughel (No. 6), 
Bubens (Nos. 13 and 15, llie latter 
being rather doubtful), Jordaens (No. 
22, " Paul and Barnabas at Lystra "), 
Van Dyck (No. 32, portrait of Lady 
Wharton), Teniers (No. 40, "The 
Temptation of St. Antony"). There 
is also a Rembrandt (No. 75, " Decapi- 
tation of John the Baptist ") ; but the 
Italian artists only appear in copies 
more or less ootemporaneous. No. 66 
is a rather curious picture by Joseph 
Platzer of the parable of **The man 
without thte wedding garment.'* There 
is also a fine figure of a monk, in the 
first room, by Ludwig Knaus, the 
Dusseldorf artist. Recently added: 
*' Penitence," by Overbeck; and the 
"Angels smiting the inhabitants of 
Sodom vrith blindness,** by Wenig of 
St. Petersburg— striking pictures. We 
may also mention "Prince Mensohi- 
koif in exile," by Ford, and "The 
death of JosapbEit Kunsewicz," re- 
cently canonized ; painted by Simmler, 
1861. 

The English portrait-painters are 
represented by George Da we in a full- 
length likeness of Pmice Madatof ; the 
same artist painted the portrait of 
Count Rumiantsoff, exhibited in one of 
the halls of the museum. The portrait 
of General Isakoff, founder of tiie 
museum, painted by Dawe, ^^ like- 
wise be seen in one of the rooms, 
together with a beautiful vase with 
medallions of the year 1812. 

There is also a collection of En- 
gravings and Photographs, most of 
them being duplicates from the Her- 
mitage. The Arundel Society has 
contributed many of its publications. 

Admission gratis on Tuesdays, Thurs- 
days, Saturdays, and Sundays. 



Galitgin Museum, — ^Prechistinka-Btr. 
Open Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 12 to 3. Foreigners will 
obtain permission to inspect it at any 
other time, on application to the 
Director, who lives on the premises. 

This museum was formed by Prince 
Michael Galitsin, sometime Russian 
minister at Madrid, and who died 1860. 



Bossia. 



Route 6. — Moicow : Biding School, 



It consists of a library, picture gallery, 
and a collection of curiosities. 

The most remarkable books in the 
library are two xylographic volumes, 
entitled, 'The Sufferings of our Sa- 
viour,' and *Ars Moriendi,' produced 
shortly before the invention of printing. 
Next to these is a second book, printed 
soon after the introduction of print- 
ing with moveable type:— *Gulielmi 
Durandi Bationale divinorum officio- 
rum, 1459,' and * Cicero de Officiis, 
1465.' The first is edUio princeps. 
According to the opinion of Brunet 
one of the books in this library, viz. 
the *Tractatus de Sumpcione,' &c., 
was printed by Gutenberg himself. 
The visitor will also see here the first 
printed papal buU, and other curiosities 
of typographical art, as well as a fine 
collection of Aldine and Elziverian 
editions. 

In the picture gqUery the most re- 
markable painting is by Perugino 
(No. 1), representing our Saviour on 
the Gross surrounded by saints. The 
other valuable pictures are: No. 10, 
by Carlo Dolce, ** Tobit and the 
Angels;" No. 21, by Cima di Cone- 
gliano ; No. 33, by Francesco Francia 
and others, representing the Italian 
school. The remarkable pictures be- 
longin&r to the Dutch and Flemish 
8chool?iire : Van der Veyder (No, 45) ; 
Van der Meylen (No. 58) ; Caspar 
Netcher, Metun, &c. Three pictures 
of the French school from the Orleans 
gallenr are very fine specimens. There 
are also many original paintings of 
other schools, the total number being 
above 200, among which are very few 
copies. The whole of this almost 
entirely original collection was made 
by the Princes Galitsin. 

The collection of curiosities is well 
known to connoisseurs of all countries. 
There is a small earthenware jug 
(bibema) (No. 496) of Henri II., 
which is valued by amateurs at lOOOL 
Only 37 articles of this ware are to 
be found in the whole of Europe, a 
few being in England. The other in- 
teresting objects are : a chess-board of 
the latter part of the 16th century. 
Vases, once the property of Louis 
XVL and Marie Antoinette; a large 



209 



collection of cameos, antiquities from 
Pompeii, articles of Etruscan bronze ; 
an old steel lock and key in the 
shape of a temple, made in 1617 ; a 
group of figures made of pearls and 
gold enamelled, representing a Moor 
mounted on a camel; vases of old 
Chinese porcelain (Nos. 215, 502, 597) ; 
plates that belonged to the Medici 
(No. 498) ; a drinking cup with a like- 
ness of Gustavus Adolphus on the lid, 
and the story of Susannah round the 
body of the cup. 



Other Museume and Collections, — Be- 
sides the Galitsin Museum the follow- 
ing private collections are worth seeing. 
Soldatenkofs in Miasnitsky - street ; 
JBotkin's, in Pokrovka-street ; Zencker's 
on Stretensk boulevard. These may 
all be seen by permission of the pro- 
prietors. 

ClierikojTs Library, in Miasnitsky- 
street, is now open to the public, and 
may be visited at any time. It con- 
tains a collection of all the books 
written in foreign languages on Bus- 



The Great Biding School (Manege). — 
One of the most remarkable buildings 
in Moscow is the celebrated Biding 
School, supposed to be the largest 
room in the world unsupported by 
pillar or prop of any kind. Writers 
differ as to its dimensions, but we 
believe we are nearly accurate when 
we place its length at 560 ft., breadth 
158 ft., and height 42. The great 
town-hall of Padua is only 240 ft. 
long and 80 ft. broad; Westminster 
Hall is 275 ft. by 75; and King's 
College, Cambridge, 291 ft. by 45^ ; 
but that is an area small indeed in 
comparison, though great is the differ- 
ence between the two roofe. The 
ceiling of the Biding School is flat, 
and Qie exterior of the roof very 
slightly elevated. The interior is 
adorned with numerous bas-reliefs of 
men in armour and ancient trophies ; 
and the stoves, which cannot be 



210 



Boute 6. — Moscow : University . 



Sect. I. 



fewer than 20, made of white ehin- 
ing earthenware, and rising to the 
ceiling, have a very good effect. There 
are small windows at a considerable 
height from the ground, but owing to 
its enormous width the interior of the 
building looks, even when the sun 
shines, dull and sombre. Here, in the 
most intense cold, when even the Bus- 
sian soldier can scarce stand in his 
sentry-box, the troops can perform 
their exercises unobstructed oy the 
severity of the weather; and the vast 
enclosure gives ample room for two 
regiments of cavalry to go through 
all their various evolutions and man- 
oeuvres. 

The traveller will naturally be 
anxious to examine the peculiar struc- 
ture of the roof, and ascertain by what 
unseen support its massive beams are 
sustained ; and he was formerly allowed 
to do so by ascending the winding 
stairs in the comer of the Biding 
School, when he soon found himself 
amidst a forest of beams, stays, and 
rafters, of all forms and dimensions; 
but a special order for viewing it is 
now required. 



The University. — ^The University of 
Moscow, the oldest in Bussia Proper, 
was founded by the Empress Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Peter the Great, 
in 1755, and has ever since been a 
favourite national seat of learning. It 
has produced several statesmen, many 
officers of distinction, and men of 
letters, the most celebrated of whom is 
the poet Jukowsky. The statutes of 
all the Universities in Bussia were re- 
modelled in 1863, after some riotous 
proceedings on the part of the students 
at St. Petersburg and Moscow, who 
objected to the raising of the matricu- 
lation fees. The University of Moscow 
is composed of four faculties, — History, 
Physics, Jurisprudence, and Medicine, 
— and is a State institution, under the 
authority of the Minister of Public 
Instruction. There is also a chair for 
theology at each University for students 
of the Busso-Greek feith, and special 
lectures for the German, French, 
English, and Italian languages. 



There are 75 professors and lecturers 
attached to this University, which is 
frequented by 1600 students. The 
annual payment by students is only 50 
rubles (7^ 10«.). A few are admitted 
to the lectures in forma pauperis, and 
a considerable number as stipendiaries 
of charities, Grovemment schools, &c. 
The State contributes about 62.0002. 
annually towards the expense of this 
University, the total expenditure being 
about 68,0002. The several academical 
degrees confer a corresponding rank or 
tchin in the civil service. The Uni- 
versitiefl are open to all youths abovo 
17 years of age who shall have passed 
a satisfactory examination in one of 
the gymnasia or some other scholastic 
institution under the supervision of the 
Minister of Public Instruction, as well 
as to those who shall have undergone 
a certified course of tuition at home. 

The terms of admission being thus 
easy, a university education in Bussia 
is no aristocratic distinction. 

The Library contains 160,000 vol- 
umes, and is more especially rich in 
historical works. The scientific col- 
lections are considerable in size and of 
a practical character. The anatomical 
cahinet of Loder, and the microscopic 
preparations of Lieberkuhn, are worthy 
of notice. There are also some extraor- 
dinary specimens of human malforma- 
tions kept in spirits of wine, a very 
good collection of skeletons, and many 
curiosities in the way of foreign sub- 
stances extracted from the stomachs of 
animals. A camel's stomach, extended 
to its natural extent, with all its cells 
and subdivisions so arranged as to 
render visible every corner in which 
the food was retained till perfectly 
dissolved, and an instrument used by 
Peter the Great in drawing teeth, are 
likewise exhibited. 

The Zoological Cabinet contains 
78,688 specimens. 

The University has a good working 
mineral collection, not very remarkable 
for its individual specimens. (10,800 
in number). 

An hospital is attached to the Uni- 
versity, with lying-in wards ; also the 
Hospital of St. Catherine, where 1400 
patients are annually admitted. 



Eussia. 



BotUe 6. — Moscow : Suhareff Tower. 



211 



Suhareff Tower. — This conspicuous 
and elegant object marks the old N.E. 
boundary of the city. A regiment of 
Streltsi, under the command of Col. 
Suhareff, guarded this part of the town, 
and kept a gate which then stood 
there. When the Streltsi revolted 
in 1682, Suhareff's regiment escorted 
Peter and his mother and brother to 
the Troitsa Monastery. Between the 
years 1692 and 1695 Peter the Great 
caused the old gate of his faithful 
regiment to be replaced by the present 
bmlding. In his enthusiasm for naval 
matters, the great founder of the Eus- 
sian navy caused the tower to be built 
in the shape of a vessel, the tower 
representing the mast, and the gal- 
leries all round pretending to a re- 
semblance with the quarter-deck of an 
ancient flag-ship, while the eastern 
and western exiiemities were to typify 
the bow and stern. Peter the Great 
is supposed to have held secret councils 
of State in a chamber of this tower; 
and tradition says it was the place of 
meeting of a kind of Masonic lodge, 
Btyled, "Neptune's Company," of which 
Peter I. was the head. The people 
believed that their great Tsar and his 
companions practised the ** black arts " 
within the Suhareff. Comedies were 
performed there in 1771 by the first 
troop of foreign actors that ever came 
to Eussia. The boys of a Naval 
School, instituted in this tower, were 
taught to perform on the stage, and 
were at one time sent to Si Petersburg 
to drive piles into the marshes on the 
banks of the Moika. On the protest, 
however, of A dm. Apraxin, they were 
relieved of that duty, and sent to study 
in foreign parts. After having been 
appropriated by Peter to a Naval 
School, under the direction of a Scotch- 
man of the name of Fergusson, and 
later to one of the civil departments of 
the Admiralty, the Suhareff Tower 
has been used since 1829 as a reservoir 
for supplying the whole of Moscow 
with water brought in tubes from a 
distance of 10 miles. The tower is 210 
feet in height to the top of the vane. 
Its style is a mixture of the Lombard 
and Gothic. 



Temple of the Saviour^—Thia impos- 
ing structure, seen from every part of 
the city, was commenced in 1812, and 
is still in an unfinished state. It is to 
commemorate the French invasion, and 
when completed will certainly be a 
worthy rival of St. Isaac's. The stone- 
work of the interior, even in its pre- 
sent state, is well worth seeing. A 
considerable part of it is in " Labrador " 
stone of very high polish. The fine 
haut-relief figures with which the ex- 
terior of the chapel is adorned were 
commenced by Professor Lugauofsky, 
since dead, and continued by Baron 
Klodt and Professor Eamazanoff, like- 
wise native sculptors. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Moscow are very extensive 
quarries of the sandstone of which the 
ch. is built. 



Drives and Excursions. 

1. The Sparrow Sills and the Em- 
press* 8 FtWa.— Amongst the various 
drives which every stranger takes in 
the environs of Moscow, that to the 
Sparrow Hills is one of the most inte- 
resting, both as affording a fine view 
of the city, and as being the ground 
where Napoleon obtained his first 
glance of it. 

To the rt. of the Sparrow Hills is 
the Smolensk road, by wliich the 
French entered Moscow. 

The gardens belonging to the Ga- 
litsin family are prettily situated on 
the sloping banks of the Moskva, 
which flows in gentle windings be- 
neath them. Near here is the villa of 
the late Empress, formerly the property 
of Count Orloft', and presented by him 
to her Imperial Majesty. Tliis villa, a 
much more appropriate term for it than 
palace, which it is sometimes called, is 
very handsomely furnished, and com- 
fort, in the English sense of the word, 
is quite realised ; the Empress's bed- 
room and boudoir are particulnrly 
worthy of attention ; the walls are not 
papered, but hung with white mnslin 
lined with pink, and fluted with as 
much care as a goffered collar. The 



212 



Boute 6. — Moscow : Simonoff Monastery, 



Sect. I. 



view from the balcony at the back of 
the villa, looking towards the river, is 
very pretty. The gardens and shrub- 
beries are exceedingly well laid out, 
and the collection of hot-house plants 
very choice. 

A ticket of admission is required to 
see this villa, which must be procured 
from the office of the palace. It should 
be visited rather early in the afternoon, 
so as to give the traveller time to have 
a good view from the Sparrow Hills, 
the proper hour for which is towards 
sunset. The Kremlin faces these 
hills, and as the traveller gazes on 
it he will picture to himself what 
must have been the feelings of the 
French army when they caught the 
first view of the golden minarets 
and starry domes. After traversing 
the dreary plains of Lithuania, and 
fighting, with fearful loss, their way 
up to this spot, the limit of their long 
career, no wonder that those weary 
legions, unable to suppress their joy, 
shouted with one voice, ** Moscow." 



2. Simonoff Monastery, — ^Standing on 
the highest ground near Moscow, the 
tall belfry of the Sunonoff affords a 
finer and fuller view of the city than 
even the tower of Ivan Veliki or the 
Sparrow Hills. It is at least one hour's 
drive from the centre of Moscow, but 
should be visited at any sacrifice. 

The Simonoff Monastery^ founded in 
1370 by St. Sergius, was removed to 
its present site about the year 1390. It 
was anciently the most important mo- 
nastery in Bussia, and as such was 
enriched by princely and private gifts 
of immense value. A great number of 
villages once belonged to it, and, until 
1764, as many as 12,000 male serfs. In 
1612, notwithstanding the resistance 
offered by the stout defenders of its 
castellated walls, the Simonoff fell into 
the hands of the Lithuanians and Poles, 
who sacked it. During the plague 
of 1771 it was made a Quarantine sta- 
tion, and in 1788 it was suppressed as 
a monastery, and converted into a mili- 
tary hospital. In 1795, however, the 
Simonoff was restored to its original 



dedication, its prosperity being only 
once more checked, in 1812, when 
several of the buildings were burned 
down. There are 6 churches within 
the walls. The most ancient is the 
Cathedral of the Assumption, a mas- 
sive building in the Byzantine style, 
founded about the year 1379, and con- 
secrated 1405. An image in the ikon- 
ostas or altar-screen is pointed out as 
having been that with which St. Ser- 
gius blessed Dimitry of the Don when 
he set out to fight the Tartars. The 
cupola was gilt in 1836. The wall, 
2700 ft. in length, was built in the 
earlier part of the 16th centy. The 
towers are 85 to 126 ft. in height. 
Tiiere is a subterranean passage &om 
one of these to the pond in the vicinity, 
much frequented by the believing sick. 
There are many costly vestments to 
be seen in the Sacristy, as well as a 
gold cross, studded with precious 
stones; the Gospels in a binding of 
gold and jewels, presented in 1683 by 
Mary, the daughter of Alexis; gold 
vessels weighing 3 lbs.; and many 
other ecclesiastical treasures. St. Jonah, 
subsequently Metropolitan of all Rus- 
sia, lived here as a monk in the 15th 
centy. 

But the great attraction of this mo- 
nastery is the belfry, 330 ft. high, 
erects between 1839 and 1844, at the 
expense of a merchant of Moscow, who 
gave the sum of 400,000 rubles (banoo), 
in houses and shops, towards its oon- 
struclion. 

Under the guidance of the bell- 
ringer, the traveller will ascend to the 
very cupola, and look out of a small 
window, which his guide will open. 
Unfortunately the bell-ringer explains 
the magnificent panorama in Russian, 
but he can point out any locality that 
may be mentioned. 

The nearest white walls are those of 
the Danilof Monastery, founded in 
1272 by the canonized Prince Daniel 
of Moscow, but rebuilt in the reign of 
John the Terrible. There is nothing 
to see in it except the silver shrine of 
the founder. 

Beyond the Danilof will be seen the 
red walls of the Donskoi Monasteiy 
{vide Description), and further still i^ 



Enssia. 



Boute 6. — Moscow : NovospasJd Monastery, 



213 



the tall, golden-crowned belfry of the 
Novo Devichi (see under). The Spar- 
row Hills will be seen in the vicinity 
of the Donskoi. 

In the cemetery within the Simonoff 
are buried many remarkable men, and 
amongst them, xmder the refectory, 
Field-Marshal Bruce, of Scottish origin. 

Near the monastery is a small 
Reformatory for youthful criminals, 
founded in 1864 by a Society for the 
Diffusion of Christian Knowledge. It 
is the first establishment of the kind 
in Kussia Proper. It holds 15 boys, 
and is supported by private subscrip- 
tion. Travellers are invited to inspect 
this ** Ispravitelnyi Priyut," conducted 
by Prof. Kapoustine, 



3» Novospaski Monastery. — On the 
road to the Simonoff, as well as in 
returning to Moscow, the visitor wiU 
pass a very large monastery, called the 
Novospaski (New Passion), removed 
to its present site in 1490. In it were 
buried the principal members of the 
ftomanoff family, before it became a 
dynasty, and a palace within it, now 
destroyed, was for some time occupied 
by the Nun Martha, mother of the 
first Romanoff sovereign, and who lies 
buried under the floor of the cathe- 
dral. There are 5 churches within its 
-walls. The cathedral is profusely de- 
corated with fresco-paintings, repre- 
senting the genealogy of the sovereigns 
of Russia from St. Olga to the Tsar 
Alexis, and the descent of the kings 
of Israel. On either side of the stair- 
case leading up to the cathedral are 
representations of the Greek philo- 
sophers Solon, Plato, Ptolemy, Plu- 
tarch, &c. Behind the altar-screen 
are portraits of the ten patriarchs of 
Hussia. AU these frescoes, with the 
exception of the representation of 
the Last Judgment on the W. wall 
of the cathedral, were restored in 
1837. The male visitor should go 
behind the altar-screen, and see near 
the right wing of the Ikonostas the 
remarkable frescoes of the 17th centy., 
depicting the founders of the ch., the 
Tsars Michc^l and Alei^s, Many of 



the ancient Boyar families of Russia 
are buried here, but the grave of most 
interest to the foreign visitor is that 
which will be found in the court of the 
monastery, to the rt. on entering 
within its walls. The inscription on 
the tomb records the death of the 
Nun Dosythea, who was no other than 
the Princess Tarakanova, daughter 
of the Empress Elizabeth and of 
her chancellor Razumo&ky. It will 
be remembered that this princess 
was personated by an impostor, who 
was perfidiously seized by Gregory 
Orloff at Naples, and conveyed in a 
Russian ship to St. Petersburg, where 
she died, in the fortress, although not 
by drowning during an inundation, as 
assumed by the painter of a well- 
known picture exhibited at Paris in 
1867. 

The walls of this monastery have 
frequently repelled the enemies of 
Moscow. They were originally built 
of wood in 1571, in expectation of the 
inroad of Khan Divlet- Ghirei. In 
1591, when the Ehan invaded Mosco- 
via, this monastery, like the Simonoff 
and the Daniloff, was turned into a 
fortress. It was again put into a de- 
fensive condition in 1613 and 1618, 
when the Poles occupied the city. The 
present walls of stone were built be- 
tween 1640 and 1642, at the expense 
of the Tsar Michael and his mother, 
Martha. They have a circumference 
of about 430' Eng. fins., and their 
height is about 4 fms. 

The helfry, which rises 235 ft., is a 
very handsome object. Commenced 
in 1759, it was completed in 1785. 

In the neighbourhood of this mo- 
nastery the visitor will be struck by 
the remains of a gate in the Russo- 
Byzantine style of architecture. It is 
said to have belonged to an archiepis- 
copal palace which once stood there. 
The old gate now leads to the Kru- 
titski barracks. The ch. next to it is 
^he parish ch. of the Assumption, ** Na 
KrutiUakh" the name of the locality. 



tkyim 



4. Novo-DeviM 0<mtJe»i, opposite 
the Sparrow Hills, between the Mosk- 



214 



Boute 6. — Moscow : JDonskoi Monastery, 



Sect. I. 



ya and the Deviche-pole, or Maideus' 
Field, where the populace is enter- 
tained at the coronation of emperors. 
It was founded in 1524 by Yassili 
Ivanovitch, Grand Duke of Moscow, 
in commemoration of the capture of 
Smolensk, which was celebrated for 
its miraculous image of the Virgin, 
once deposited at Moscow, but restored 
to Lithuania in 1456. A copy of that 
image was transferred from the Cathe- 
dral of the Assumption to this convent 
on its foundation, and is now shown in 
the principal ch. Richly endowed, it 
became a refuge for Tsarinas who re- 
nounced the world. Boris Godunof 
and his sister Irene, widow of the Tsar 
Theodore, the last of the Buriks, re- 
tired here; but the patriarch, accom- 
panied by the clergy and people, came 
to entreat Boris, in 1598, to assume the 
reins of power, which had been in the 
hands of a Council for 6 weeks, and 
took him hence in state to the palace 
of the Kremlin : 12 years later the 
Novo-Devichi was the scene of san- 
guinary conflicts with the Poles, and 
it was at last burnt down and de- 
stroyed. It was, however, restored by 
the Tsar Michael. Sophia, the ambi- 
tious sister of Peter the Great, was 
confined here. Having incited the 
Streltsi to revolt against her brother 
during his absence abroad, she was 
forced to take the veil under the name 
of Susannah, and died in this convent 
under the strictest surveillance in 1704. 
She lies buried in the ch., together 
with several other princesses. The 
Foundling Hospital established here 
by Peter I., in 1725, when the number 
of children amounted to 250, was abo- 
lished on the construction of the great 
Foundling Hospital. The convent 
suffered but little from the approach of 
the French in 1812, the King of Naples 
having ordered that Divine service 
should be continued as usual ; but on 
the retreat of Napoleon, the belfry and 
other buildings were only saved from 
being blown into the air by the intre- 
pidity of Sarah and a few other nuns, 
who bravely extinguished the matches 
that were to have fired a train of gun- 
powder. There are 6 churches within 
the convent. 



5. Don$hoi Monastery. — This build- 
ing is also a considerable way out of 
town, beyond the Kaluga Gate. It 
was founded in 1592, by the Tsar 
Theodore, in gratitude for a victory 
over Kazy Girey, Khan of the Crimea, 
obtained on this very spot by the mira- 
culous interpjosition of the Virgin 
IMary, whose image was presented to 
the monastery by the Cossacks of the 
Don, whence its name. A church pro- 
cession still celebrates the defeat of the 
Tartars on the 19th (31st) Aug. It 
was once endowed with 7000 serfs, and 
6 inferior monasteries were subject to 
it. The principal ch., of red brick, 
was built in 1684 by Catherine, sister 
of Peter the Great. The frescoes on 
the walls were painted in 1785 by an 
Italian. The image of the Virgin of 
the Don will be seen in the altar-screen, 
ornamented with precious stones. The 
altar below was erected at the expense 
of the Tsars of Georgia. The 2nd ch., 
dedicated to the same Virgin, was 
built in 1592, and its chapels in 1659 ; 
2 of the other chs. were constructed in 
1714, the 5th is still more modern. The 
walls and towers were finished in 1692, 
having been commenced by the sister 
of Peter the Great. The cemetery is 
an object of great interest, being the 
last resting-place of many celebrated 
men and &milies. The tomb of Count 
Woronzoff, many years ambassador in 
England, bears the only inscription 
legible to the Western traveller, who 
should not fail to drive here in the cool 
of the evening, and stroll or sit under 
the trees in the churchyard, one of the 
favourite resorts of the Moscovites. 



6. Preobrajenskoyd' Kladbigtck^, or 
TransfigurcUion Cemetery, — Travellers 
studying the Bussian Church should 
endeavour to see some of the places of 
worship of the Dissenters. The sect 
of Bespopovstchina, or those who do 
not recognise any priesthood or sacra- 
ments, may be seen at the above ceme- 
tery, so called from its having been a 
burying-ground and quarantine-sta- 
tion during the plague of 1771, but in 
reality an ecclesiastical establishmenji 



EuBsia. 



BotUe 6. — Moscow : Gardens. 



215 



and woiMioxise, tinder the superyision 
of the Philanttiropical Society. The 
principal chapel was converted into an 
orthodox ch. in 1852, when permission 
was granted to perform Divine service 
in it according to the ritual used prior 
to tlie innovations of Nicon. It may 
be entered freely. The sect of Bespo- 
povstohina is one of the most numerous 
of the subdivisions of Bussian dissent, 
and is remarkable as being strongly 
opposed to the civil power, which they 
only profess to recognise under compul- 
sion. Even the Emperor is styled by 
them " the Antichrist," and no prayers 
are offered up for the reigniijg house 
iu their churches. The singing will 
be found very peculiar, and especially 
that of the women, who perform Divine 
service in a chapel apart firom the 
men. 

On the entry of the French into* 
Moscow the Bespopovstchina welcomed 
them with a pie filled with ducats 
and with a white bull. Napoleon gave 
them a pass of safe-conduct and a 
guard of soldiers. The services of the 
** Popovstehina,*' or sect who have a 
priesthood, and who only adhere to the 
old form of worship, may be seen at 
the " Bogojskoye Kladbistche." 



7. Petrofski Park and Palace,— Jf 
the traveller be in Moscow during 
summer, he should drive through 
the Petrofeki Park, beybnd the Tver 
Gate. The palace was commenced in 
1775, and finished in the reign of Paul. 
The Emperor occasionally visite it, 
and reviews are held in the field oppo- 
site. There is also a race-course in the 
vicinity for trotting-matches. ' Napoleon 
retired to this palace after the Kremlin 
became tmtenable. 

Saa^s Garden, within this park, is a 
favourite resort on summer evening 
when a band plays, and a short dis- 
tance out of the park is Peirofiko^- 
Bazumomko€, a very pretty garden, 
open to the public. 



the style of Bussian vehicles and the 
manner of holiday-making. Sunday is 
a fevourite day for picnics ; but the 
1st (13th) May is more especially the 
day of gathering. 



9. Zoological Gardens.— The Impe- 
rial Acclimatisation Society of Bussia 
founded this garden on some land 
granted by H. I. M., and embracing 
about 30 acres, very prettily laid out. 
The margins of 2 large ponds are 
planted with the willow, the birch, and 
the fir. In summer the greater part of 
the animals are out in the open air, 
but] in winter they are comfortably 
housed in buildings. The bisons from 
the province of Grodno and some 
species of antelope are among the most 
remarkable animals in the collection, 
which comprises the usual specimens 
of a menagerie. A band enlivens the 
scene, which will be found crowded 
with Moscow d'l^gants. In winter ice- 
hills and skating attract many visitors 
to these gardens. Open daily from 11 
A.M. to dusk ; admission 20 copecks. 



8. Sokolniki, the People's Park.— 
Travellers should drive there to see 



10. The Hermitage Gardens. — A 
place of amusement every night during 
summer. The grounds are most taste- 
fully laid out. In addition to many 
other attractions, the gipsies sing here 
their wild melodies, frequently accom- 
panied by dances. From time imme- 
morial the female gipsies of Moscow 
have been much addicted to the voctil 
art, and bands of them have sung for 
pay in the halls of the nobility, or upon 
the boardsof the theatre. Some first-rate 
singers have been produced amongst 
them, whose merits have been acknow- 
ledged by the most fastidious foreign 
critics. It must not of course, be sup- 
posed that the generality of these gipsies 
are exquisite vocaliste: the majority 
follow the occupation, but are very bad 
singers ; many of them obtain a liveli- 
ho<^ by singing and dancing at taverns 
and on the race-course; at the fairs 
of Nijni and Smolensk they also muster 
in great strength. Their songs are in 



216 



Route 6. — Moscow : Promenades ; Theatres. Sect. I. 



Bussiati and in their own dialect. In the 
provincial towns they follow the pro- 
fession for which they are so admirably 
fitted by education, borse-dealing and 
hocussing. Their personal attractions 
are sometimes considerable; and on 
great occasions they are arrayed in 
splendid dresses, and sparkle with 
jewels. 

Ladies may visit these gardens. 
There are, moreover, several guingv^eUes 
in the neighbourhood of Moscow, where 
the male traveller may study "life." 
Marina -Rostcha, frequented by the 
native merchants, is one of these. 



11. Promenades. — The middle dasses 
walk in the gardens of the Kremlin in 
the fine spring evenings. At the foot 
of the wall a number of artificial hills 
have been raised, where, on holidays, 
bands are placed. These hUls are 
hollowed out beneath and supported 
by pillars, and the benches with which 
they are provided aflford cool resting- 
places for the weaiy. 

The Tver Boulevards, surrounding 
the Beloi Gk)rod, are pleasant and fa- 
shionable, though less agreeable than 
the Alexander Garden. The Boule- 
vards are broad walks laid out with 
trees, shrubs, and parterres, far more 
rural and pleasing than the formal lime 
avenues of Berlin. During the Easter 
and Carnival weeks they are greatly 
frequented by the citizens in their 
sledges, and the niunerous booths give 
them all the appearance of a fair. 

The traveller should on no account 
leave Moscow without seeing the Krem- 
lin by moonlight. The Flower Market 
is a pleasant louuge in sammer. 



THEATRES, CLUBS, ETC. 

Theatres. — Moscow possesses two 
theatres almost adjoining each other, 
and facing the walls of the Kitai-Gorod. 
The "Bolshoi" Theatre is the largest 
">f the two. The inside of the house, 
^hich is most elegantly fitted up, will 
)ld about 1500 persons. It was de- 



stroyed by fire in 1852, and reopened 
in 1856. The receipts are about dOOl. 
a night Two companies perform here 
— ^the Russian Opera, and the Ballet.* 
The Russian Opera and Ballet 3 times 
a week, between 1st (13th) May and 1st 
(13th) September, and almost daily at 
other seasons. Stalls for Ballet and 
Russian Opera 1 to 3 r. ; boxes 5 to 
10 r. 

The lesser theatre, for Russian drama 
and high comedy, is open all the year 
round. It will hold 500, and its re- 
ceipts are about lOOZ. when fall. If 
the traveller have time, he may find it 
instructive to attend a Russian drama 
or comedy, for, although he may not ■ 
understand the dialogue, he may study 
the manners and customs of the coimtiy 
as depicted on the stage. The plays 
of Gogol and Ostrofski are particularly 
worth seeing. 

There are also theatrical representa- 
tions during summer in the Petrofiski 
Park. The first theatre in Moscow was 
built in 1780 by an Englishman of the 
name of Maddox. 

Hinnd*s Circus is in Wosdwijenka-«t. 
Boxes 5 to 6 rs. ; Stalls, 1 r. 50 c. 

Ciuhs. — The principal club at Mos- 
cow, as at St. Petersburg, is called the 
" English Club." It waa established 
by an English merchant in the reign of 
Catherine II., and has flourished ever 
since, with the exception of a short 
period of suspension during the reign of 
the Emp. Paul. Travellers are easily 
admitted on application to a member. 
All the newspapers may be seen there, 
and it is a place where the a£y rs of 
the nation are discussed every evening 
over a cigar and a cup of tea. 

The Merchants* Club is well sup- 
ported, and is still easier of access. The 
papers may likewise be read there. 

The Post Office is a large building 
on the road to the St Petersburg Rly. 
Stat. Letters are distributed at about 
3 P.M., and must be posted overnight at 
the hotels, or at the station before the 
departure of the train at noon. 

English ChapeL — There is Divine 

* The Italian Opera has been disoontmned, 
owing to the absence of ftinds, but the traveller 
should inquire whether it has not been again 
opened. 



Bussia. 



Boute 7. — Moscow to Troitsa. 



217 



Senice every Sunday, at 11 a.m., at 
tiie British chapel in Ghemishefski 
Pereulok. Established 1825. The 
English residents at Moscow and the 
neighbourhood are more than 500 in 
number. 

Boman Catholic Chapels, — There 
are 2 Boman Catholic chapels at Mos- 
cow; — 

1. German chapel, dedicated to St. 
Peter and St. Paul, in Little Lubianka- 
street. Mass at 8, 9, and 10 o'clock 
on week-days, and on Sundays at 8, 9, 
10, and 11 o'clock ; vespers at 5 p.m. 

2. French chapel, dedicated to St. 
Louis ; entrance either firom Great or 
Little Lubianka-street. Mass at 9 
and 10 o'clock on week-days, and at 
10 and 11 AM. on Sundays ; vespers at 
5 p.m. 

Britiih Consulate. — There is a Bri- 
tish Consul at Moscow. His address 
will easily be ascertained. 



ROUTE 7. 

MOSCOW TO TBOrrSA MONASTERY 
(TBOFEHKAYA-eO&BGIEVA LAVBA). 

By rail in 2 h. 20 m., distance 40 m. ; 
iare 2 rs. each way ; 8 trains a day. 
(This line is being extended to Yaro- 
slaf.) 

The facility with which this histo- 
rical monastery can now be visited leaves 
the traveller no excuse for neglecting a 
pilgrimage to the sbrinc of St. Sergius, 



its founder and patron. This is the 
Canterbury of Bussia, and a day may 
well be devoted to it. St Sergius, the 
son of a boyar of Bostof , at the head of 
twelve disciples, established a monas- 
tery on this spot about the year 1342. 
His piety, and the honour conferred on 
him by tiie Patriarch of Constantinople, 
soon rendered him and his brotherhood 
famous. The princes of Moscow sought 
his counsel, and the oft-mentioned 
Dimitry of the Don was blessed by 
him before he set out for the battle of 
Eulikova. Two monks from this mo- 
nastery, Osliabia and Peresvet, fought 
by the side of the victorious prince, 
und one of them fell dead, together with 
his Tartar adversary, in single combat. 
The intervention of St. Sergius on this 
memorable occasion was rewarded by 
large grants of lands, and thenceforth 
the monastery grew rich and powerful ; 
its abbot, however, the holy Sergius, 
remaining, as before, simple, self-deny- 
ing, and laborious, and cutting wood 
and fetching water to the last. His 
right to canonization was still farther 
established by the visitation (recorded 
in the annals of the Busso- Greek 
Church) of the Holy Virgin, who ap- 
peared in his cell, accompanied by 
the apostles Peter and John, about 
the year 1388. He died in 1392. The 
Tartar hordes of Ehan Edigei laid 
waste this holy habitation in 1408, and 
it was only re-established, together 
with the present Cathedral of the 
Trinity, in 1423. Thirty monasteries 
were subsequently attached to it, and 
much land, until, in 1764, St Sergius 
was the possessor as well as the patron 
of more than 106,000 male serfs. The 
most prominent portion of the history 
of the monastery is the siege, by 30,000 
Poles, under Sapieha and Lisofski, in 
1608, which was only raised, after six- 
teen months, on the approach of a large 
Bussian force. Later again, after the 
election of Michael Eomanoff, Ladislaus 
of Poland, styling himself Tsar of Mos- 
oovy, besieged the Troitsa Monastery 
once more, but he was repulsed by the 
broUierhooid. When the Poles were in 
possession of Moscow, the monks of St 
Sergius rendered considerable assist- 
ance to their countrymen in the shape 



218 



Boute 7. — Troitsa. 



Sect. I. 



of supplies in bread and money. The 
most interesting fact, however, in the 
records of the Troitsa Monastery is, 
that it was the place of refuge on two 
occasions of Peter the Great and his 
brother John, when they fled from the 
insurgent Streltsi. Since then the re- 
pose of the monks has not been dis- 
turbed by political events. The French , 
in 1812, went half-way towards the 
monastery, but returned without the 
expected booty. 

The plague and the cholera have 
never ventured within the holy walls, 
which were foimded in 1513 and 
finished in 1547. They extend 4500 
feet, and are from 30 to 50 feet high, 
with a thickness of 20 feet. They 
were put in order by Peter the Great, 
but their present appearance is due to 
a later period. Eight towers form the 
angles ; one of them, of Gothic archi- 
tecture, is surmounted by an obelisk, 
terminating in a duck carved in stone, 
to commemorate the fact of Peter the 
Great having practised duck-shooting 
on a neighbouring pond. 

There are 10 churches within the 
monastery. The most ancient is the 
Cathedral of the Trinity. The shrine 
of St. Sergius stands within it, weigh- 
ing 936 lbs. of pure silver. The relics 
of the saint are exposed to view. In 
the altar-screen, in a glass case, will be 
seen the staflF and ottier ecclesiastical 
appurtenances of the patron. Two 
pictures of the saint, painted on portions 
of his coffin, are suspended on the walls. 
That near the shrine was carried into 
battle by the Tsar Alexis and by Peter 
the Great, and the Emperor Alexander I. 
was blessed with it in 1812. On a 
silver plate at the back of the image 
are recorded the several military occa- 
sions at which it assisted. The inte- 
rior of the cathedral is replete with 
massive silver ornaments, and in the 
archbishop's stall is a representation of 
the Last Supper, of which the figures 
are of solid gold, with the exception of 
Judas, who is of brass. All the images 
are adorned with precious stones. The 
small chapel alongside was added in 
1552, rebuilt in 1623, and again in 
1779 and 1840. Next to this is a small 
chapel, erected over the supposed site 



of the cell in which the Holy Virgin 
appeared to St. Sergius. The large 
church, with 5 cupolas, was consecrated 
in 1585, and is called the Assumption 
of the Virgin. The frescoes were 
painted in 1681. One of its altars was 
consecrated in 1609, during the roar 
of the Polish artillery, and devoted to 
prayer for deliverance from the scurvy, 
of which disease 3000 of the inmates 
of the monasteiy had already perislied. 
The large two-headed eagle in wood 
commemorates the concealment of Peter 
the Great under the altar during the 
insurrection of the Streltsi. 

Ofi'the S.W. angle of the church, in a 
chapel, is a well dug by St. Sergius, and 
discovered in 1644, at a time when the 
monastery was in great need of fresli 
water. Between the Assumption and 
the belfry stands a monument erected 
in 1792, on which the principal events 
in tlie history of the monastery are re- 
corded. The fourth church, "The De- 
scent of the Holy Ghost," was founded, 
after the capture of Kazan, by the Tsar 
Ivan Vassilevitch in person. The tomb 
of Maximus, a learned Greek, stands 
in a small chapel close by. The next 
church in'importance is that of "Ser- 
gius Radonejski/' with an immense 
refectory and a gallery all round, built 
in 1692. The iron roof, added in 174G, 
after a fire, is of a very peculiar me- 
chanical construction. Over the church 
is a depository of nearly 4000 old books 
and MSS., amongst the most remarkable 
of which is a copy of the Evangelists 
on parchment, attributed to the early 
part of the 13th cent. 

The helfry near the Church of the 
Assumption was designed by Rastrelli, 
and finished in 1769. It is remarkable 
for its height and architecture, and 
rises 290 ft. from the ground. The bell 
in the second tier weighs nearly 65 
tons. Of the many other buildings 
within the walls of the monastery, 
we may mention the Palace, built by 
Peter 1., now occupied by the Eccle- 
siastical Academy, which alone, as the 
principal seat of priestly instruction, is 
well worthy of a visit. The learned and 
obliging rector willingly converses with 
visitors in one of the dead languages. 

Another church has been added to 



Bussia. 



Boute 7. — Troitsa. 



219 



the many saered edifices already con- 
tained within the ■walls of the Troitsa 
Mon. It was dedicated Aug. 5, 1867, 
to " Philaret the Benefactor " on the 
occasion of the 50th anniversary of the 
Episcopate of the Metropolitan Pliila- 
ret, who has since been buried within 
it. The venerable prelate died 19 Nov. 
1867, O.S. 

The Sacristy of the Monastery occu- 
pies four rooms in a detached building, 
and is the object of paramount curiosity 
to most travellers. Its principal con- 
tents must be specified and preluded by 
a few observations on the art treasures 
of Eussia. 

It would be futile to expect the 
monastic libraries and treasures of 
Bussia to be rich in antiquities of the 
kind that may be foimd in the more 
southern parts of Europe. Works of art 
of even mediaeval date are exotic in 
Bussia if they be works of art at all. 
In other countries — ^in Italy, in France, 
Spain, England, even in Germany, and 
everywhere in the Levant — the his- 
torian and the antiquary tread on 
ground more or less classic. The soil 
beneath their feet is at a greater or less 
depth Boman. That of "Bussia is Scla- 
vonic with alternating strata of Tartar 
dominion. Her only link with the 
classical associations of Byzantium and 
Borne is that of the marriage of Ivan 
Vassilevitch of Moscovy with the niece 
of the lastPalseologus emperor, — a link, 
indeed, and the last, in the long chain 
of Byzantine records, but from which 
depends whatever of inheritance Bussia 
may claim in the nominal empire of 
the East. Her Church was of earlier 
origin, but the Christianity of the age 
of St. Vladimir has bequeathed to a 
later period little indeed of its material 
productions in the form of manuscripts 
or ornaments. One of the oldest — if the 
date assigned to it be true— is.thevolume 
in the Troitsa Monastery, with the as- 
serted date of the twelfth century. It 
is stated to be a copy of the Scriptures, 
brought from Mount Athos. 

As might be expected, however, the 
greater part of the treasures of this 
placeof pilgrimage belong to datesmuch 
later than that claimed for this MS. 

jBiwsia.— 1868. 



Such is the resplendent copy of the 
Gospels given by the Tsai* Michael in 
1632, the covers of which are beau- 
tifully ornamented with floral and 
arabesque patterns in enamel-work. A 
large cross, with rubies of fine colour, 
is emblazoned on them, in contrast 
with emeralds and sapphires of great 
size and beauty. There is also a mitre 
that belonged to the Archimandrite 
Warlaam, a gift from the Empress Anne, 
and conspicuous for the fine spinel 
rubies and large pearls with which it 
is adorned. 

A printed volume of the Church ser- 
vice adorned with illuminations and 
a minute copy written in golden letters 
on Persian vellum of the thinnest and 
most delicate texture, hardly thicker 
than goldbeater's skin, are well worthy 
of notice. 

The rich robes worn by the priest- 
hood in the gorgeous ceremonial of the 
Bussian Church furnish excellent ob- 
jects on which wealth may be accumu- 
lated in a form naturally precious in 
the eyes of the dwellers in a monastery. 
The jewelled robes preserved in this 
far-fSamed fortress-shrine are hardly if 
at all inferior in costliness to those 
contained in the cathedrals within the 
precinct of the Moscow Kremlin. Im- 
perial personages have vied with each 
other in the ric4iness of their gifts, and 
even the pearl headdress that adorned 
the brows of Catherine II. at her coro- 
nation finds a home here as an orna- 
ment on a priestly vestment. But the 
interest attaching to these, as also to 
the enormously rich crosses and other 
pajraphemalia of the Church service at 
the Troitsa, lies rather in their wealth 
of jewellery, and in the high personages 
whose gifts they were, than in the 
beauty of the art displayed in them 
or in the antiquity of which they may 
boast. 

Among the more exceptional of such 
objects, however, is a casket, richly 
adorned with cloisonn^e enamel-work, 
perhaps of Venetian manufacture; 
while of the diamonds in a crown 
presented by the Empress Elizabeth 
some 3 or 4 might worthily adorn an 
imperial diadenii'-^^A lefucifix, with a 



220 



Boute 8. — Moscow to Nijni Novgorod, 



Sect. I. 



Siberian aquamarine of large size and 
fine colour, waB also an imperial pre- 
sent in 1797 ; and two singular objects 
are shown as natural productions in 
the form of representations, the one of a 
natural cross, in a sort of jasper or horn- 
stone, formed by two white veins cross- 
ing one another in the brown material 
of the stone: the other, an agate, 
adorned by half a dozen fine garnets. 
In the material of the agate a pattern 
is seen, pretty accurately representing 
a monk in adoration before a crucifix. 
It is produced in part, no doubt, by 
the pattern naturally assumed by the 
coloured portion of the stone, which 
has suggested to an ingenious hand to 
help the illusion by a little artifice, the 
concealment of which is considerably 
aided by the dilBScuhy of closely in- 
specting the stone. It may possibly 
prove to consist of two slabs cemented 
together. 

The sapphires forming a cross on 
an altar-cloth of the date of 1795 are 
marvellously beautiful ; nor should 
notice be omitted of an altar-cloth of 
the date of Boris Godunoff, adorned 
with an embroidery of magnificent 
pearls, and with many sapphires and 
emeralds en ccibochon disposed in orderly 
arrangement among them and equally 
lavish in their costliness. Mmgled 
with all this magnificence will be seen 
the wooden vessels and coarse woollen 
robes of the founder, more highly es- 
teemed by the pilgrims than the rich 
vestments of his successors. 

The shells exhibited as relics of the 
Polish siege will, on inspection, prove 
to bear the Napoleonic cipher. 

Travellers should inspect the studios 
of painting and photography within 
the Monastery. Beautiful specimens 
of ecclesiastical painting may be pur- 
chased there at a very moderate price. 

At about li m. from the Monastery 
is the hermitage or "skit" of Geth- 
semane, founded, in 1845, by Philaret, 
Metropolitan of Moscow. There are 
carriages in attendance at the rly. stat. 
to take the traveller to this prettily- 
situated retreat. The ch. is remark- 
able on account of the simplicity of 
its interior. The vessels used in the 
services are of wood, and the altar 



itself, after an ancient model, is of oak. 
Women are not admitted except on the 
16th (28th) and 17th (29th) August, 
the feast-days of the Church, which 
is dedicated to the ascent of the Holy 
Virgin into heaven. There are some 
catacombs in the vicinity, through 
which the traveller will pass with a 
shudder when he hears that the cells 
are inhabited by human beings, some 
of whom are fulfilling vows of seclusion 
from man and the light of day. There 
are still larger catacombs, about 3 m. 
farther, where each cell is surrounded 
by a wooden wall, and where the 
solitary recluse is effectually barred 
out from all communication with the 
world. There are some very curious 
toys, spoons of wood, little crosses, 
and other pilgrims* tokens, to be pur- 
chased at the Troitsa Monastery, as 
well as at the hermitage of Getnse- 
mane. The refectory should be visited 
during the hours of meals, when hos- 
pitality wiU be warmly offered to the 
stranger on a pilgrimage to St. Sergius. 
There is a g(X)d Hotel opposite the 
Monasteij. Excellent refreshments 
may also be procured at the Railway 
Station. 



ROUTE 8. 

MOSCOW TO NUNI KOVQOBOD, WiT« 
BBANOH LINE TO SHUTA AND IVAN- 
OVO, AND EXCUKSION UP THE OKA TO 
MUBOM, ELATMA, AND EASIMOF. 

To Nijni Novgorod by rail in 12 
hrs. by express every night during the 
fair, held between 27th July and 22nd 



Route 8. — Vladimir. 



221 



September, new style. (N.B. — the best 
time to visit Nijni Novgorod is at the 
end of August, new style.) 1st class, 
12 rs. 30 c. Ordinary train once a day. 
Distance from Moscow 410 v. (273 m.). 
Moscow time kept at stations. 

40 m. Pavlofsk Stat., Buffet. A 
small town on the Kliasma, 3500 In- 
hab., 12 silk-weaving and 6 chintz 
factories. 

77 m. PetushM Stat. Buff. 

118 m. Vladimir Stat. Buff: Chief 
town of province of same name ; 15,000 
Inhab. Stands high on the 1. bank of 
the Kliasma. The small river Lybed 
divides it into two parts. The ancient 
quarter of the town is surrounded by 
three walls, which form the Kremlin, 
the Blitai-gorod, and the Beloi-gorod, 
as at Moscow. Vladimir, founded, 
according to some authorities, by 
Vladimir Monomachus, in the 12th 
centy., and according to others by 
George Dolgorouky, was once the 
capital of on important principality, 
frequently ravaged by the Tartars. 

There are 22 churches at Vladimir, 
of which the most remarkable are — 

1. Uspenski (Assumption) Cathe- 
dral. Founded 1154 by Prince Andrew 
Bogoliubski, and finished 1160, in a 
style of great magnificence. It was, 
however, destroyed by fire in 1184, 
and restored in 1189 and 1193. Dur- 
ing the invasion of Baty Khan in 
1238, when the Tartars took Vladimir 
by assault, the Princess of Vladimir, 
her 3 sons and daughter and other 
relations, the Bishop of Vladimir, the 
clergy, Boyars and others, shut them- 
selves up in the cathedral, but the 
Tartars piled wood around it, and de- 
stroyed by fire both the edifice and 
those who had taken refuge within it. 
Some years after this catastrophe the 
cathedral was restored, and long re- 
mained the first ch. in Russia. Even 
after the seat of sovereignty had been 
removed from Vladimir to Moscow (in 
1328) the Grand Duke of Moscow con- 
tinued to be crowned in the cathedral 
until 1432. It was thoroughly re- 
stored in 1774 and again in 1834. 
Some of the pictures in the altar-screen 
are ancient, that of the Holy Virgin 



having been painted In 1299. The 
relics of 3 canonized princes of Vladi- 
mir repose in shrines of silver. A 
great number of princes of Vladimir 
are buried within. There is also a 
monument to Count Robert Woronzoff, 
who died 1783. The sacristy is full of 
antiquities, such as the robes of the 
old princes, and a copy of the * Evan- 
gelist ' of 1541. A picture by Tonci, 
representing the baptism of the Kie- 
vites in the reign of Vladimir, will 
likewise be shown. 

2. Cathedral of Demetrius of Solun, 
within the Kremlin. It was built 
1194. The white sandstone which 
forms its walls is curiously carved 
with representations of animals, birds, 
&c. Having been restored by order 
of the Emperor Nicholas, it is one of 
the best specimens extant of Russo- 
Byzantine church architecture. One 
of the finest monuments of civil archi- 
tecture of the same period will be 
found in the " Golden Gate " (Zolotya 
Vorota), built in 1158 as a porta 
triumphalis. The ancient ch. above it 
was destroyed during the Tartar in- 
vasion ; the present edifice is modern. 
The old earthem walls of the town 
may be partly traced. There are many 
fine biiildings of modern date at 
Vladimir, such as the Assembly House 
of the Nobility, with a fine hall, and a 
gymnasium with a good library. The 
city is celebrated for its fruit, particu- 
larly for its fine cherries. Many Veche 
or Wittenagemotes were held here in 
the earlier days of Russian history. 
The province is one of the richest in 
Russia for agricultural produce and 
manufactures. 

149 m. Shuisko-Ivanofsko Stat. Buff. 

At Novki, between these two stats., a 
branch line runs on to Shuya and 
Ivanovo, two important centres of the 
cotton industry. There is no hotel at 
either of those places, but as travellers 
will only go there on business, they 
will easily find accommodation at the 
houses of the Russian millowners, or 
in those of the English master spinners 
and weavers, 

158 m. Kovrof Stat., small town on 
rt bank of the Kliasma. Pop. 4000. ^ 

M 2 A 



222 



Boute 8. — Nijrd Novgorod. 



Sect. I. 



195 m. Viazniki Stat. Buff. Town 
of 5000 Inhab. Trade in grain and 
celebrated for linen manufactures. 

225 m. Gorohovets Stat. Buff. Small 
town on Kliasma, still in province of 
Vladimir. 

NuNi Novgorod Stat. 

Hotels. — These are decidedly unin- 
viting, and the traveller is recom- 
mended to go through the fair sys- 
tematically, in order to return by the 
express train, which leaves at night. 
Everything may be seen in a day, and 
nothing should detain him except the 
desire of making some further pur- 
chases, or of seeing something of 
"life" k TAsiatique in a special 
quarter of the town. The Hotel de 
Bussie, or Lobasheff, near the Kremlin, 
is considered the best. There is an 
hotel kept by Nikita Egoroff at the 
fair. Sobolef s hotel, also near the fair, 
combines the character of a public 
bath with that of a tolerable inn, fitted 
with modem appliances for comfort. 
But unless the traveller secure rooms 
beforehand, it is almost impossible to 
find shelter at any price during the 
fair. The usual charge is 9«. to 12«. a 
night for a room. In the case of ladies, 
it is advisable to make the railway 
station the head-quarters of the party 
for the day, and to sally out from it in 
various directions. 

Smoking is prohibited at Nijni, 
within the precincts of the fair, under 
a fine of 25 rs., which will be inflicted 
by the Cossacks and police on duty. 

DrojMes may be hired for 98. to 12«. 
for the day. 

There is generally a good ballet at 
the theatre. For other sights and 
amusements it will be necessary to 
consult an inhabitant of the town. 

Nijni Novgorod, or Lower Novgorod, 
as distinguished from the Great Nov- 
gorod on the Volkhof. Pop. 40,000. 
Chief town of province of same name, 
and seat of the celebrated fair, situated 
at the confluence of the Volga and 
Oka rivers, in lat. 56o 30' N. It was 
founded about 1222, and in 1237 was 
occupied by the Tartars, who also 
sacked it twice a century and a half 
^ater. Nijni, as an independent princi- 



pality, was absorbed by that of Moscow 
in 1418. The town walls were built in 
the early part of the 16th centy. by a 
Venetian architect, but the fortress was 
originally constructed in 1372. The re- 
sidence of the governor of the province, 
the courts of law, the barracks, arsenal, 
and telegraph station, are within the 
Kremlin, where there is also a monu- 
ment to Minin and Pojarski, the two 
patriots who liberated their country 
from the Poles in 1612, Nijni being 
the birthplace of the former. 

Churches. — 1. Cathedral of the Trans- 
figuration, •* Spaspreobrajeni^/*founded 
in 1221. Minin lies buried there. 2. 
Cathedral of the Archangel, originally 
built in 1222, but reconstructed in 
1620. A ch. in the lower part of the 
town is sure to arrest the eye on 
account of its eccentric colouring and 
peculiar architecture. This is the 
Church of the Nativity of the Holy 
Virgin (Rojdestva), built by a Stroga- 
noff in 1719. There are 51 churches 
of the Bussian communion, and 8 
belonging to various other denomina- 
tions. 

Before going to the fair the traveller 
would do well to cross over to the 
higher part of the town, and ascend, 
through a narrow and very steep 
ravine, to Minin's tower {Bashnia 
Minina). From this great elevation 
the most picturesque panorama pre- 
sents itself on every side. The fair 
spreads out like a vast town of shops, 
on a triangular piece of ground be- 
tween the Oka and the Volga, which 
can be traced here for many miles, 
with its steamers, like so many straws, 
fioating swiftly down to, the distant 
Caspian, 1600 miles beyond. The 
forest of masts looks like a floating 
town, and covers the surface of the 
broad Oka almost completely, making 
the bridge of boats look superfluous. 
The quaint barges, comiog as they do 
from the most distant parts of the 
empire, must be studied from below, 
where they will be seen discharging 
or taking in their cargoes, with the 
assistance of an army of ragged Tartar 
labourers. In an opposite direction 
the traveller will survey with interest 



Boute 8. — Nijni Novgorod. 



223 



the low arched gates, the whitewashed 
towers, and crenellated walls of the 
ancient Ej-emlin, while the gay roofs 
of the houses, appeariog &om amidst 
the thick green foliage of numerous 
gardens, afford both beauty and di- 
Tersity to the landscape. 

Descending from the tower, the tra- 
veller should drive to the " Otkos " or 
terrace, built by order of the Emperor 
Nicholas, from which one of the most 
singular and extensive yi6ws in Europe 
wiU be obtained. As far as the eye 
csku reach extends a vast alluvial plain, 
rich with harvest, and occasionally 
dotted with forests, while the Volga, 
flowing down from Tver, looks like a 
broad blue riband stretched over the 
country from one extremity of the 
horizon to the other. Much of the 
plain below is inundated in spring by 
the overflowing of the Volga, leaving 
a fertile deposit, which considerably 
enhances the value of the land. 

The picturesque must now be left for 
the practical. The realities of the fair, 
including clouds of fine dust, unpaved 
and' perhaps muddy streets, a heat 
sometimes tropical, a male population of 
unattractive appearance and unenticing 
&agranoe, will be found in strong and 
nnpleasant contrast to the scene just 
viewed; and we can only indemnify 
ourselves for the discomfort by plung- 
ing at once into the excitement of 
examining the shops and wares, the 
skiers and the purchasers. So much 
has been written about the Asiatic 
appearance of this mart that the tra- 
veller will feel a little disappointment 
in meeting no gorgeous Asiatics, no 
Chinamen, no wild-loo^dng savages, 
and no Esquimaux ; Persians, Arme- 
nians, and Tartars being apparently 
the only Asiatics present, and even 
those in no very great numbers. The 
men from Bukhara or Khiva are after 
all in dress and appearance only Tar- 
tara But it is not so much the types 
of the population as the extent and 
nature of the trade wliich the traveller 
should observe, for he here witnesses 
one of those rude, ancient forms of 
buying and selling which the introduc- 
tion (H railways, and the establishment 
of banks and credit, must very soon 



render obsolete. The iron stored in the 
mile of shops where nothing but that 
metal is sold has been brought from 
Siberia at an immense expense for sale 
and distribution, perhaps within 100 
miles of its place of production. Cus- 
tom obliges the producers to offer their 
goods at established markets, at cer- 
tain seasons of the year, involving a 
great loss of time in travelling, and 
adding to the price of the article. Tlie 
sales being periodical and infrequent, 
dealers are forced to buy larger stocks 
than they otherwise would ; conse- 
quently tiiey require 12 months* and 
sometimes 2 years' credit, which is of 
course also paid by the consumer. 

Railways have, however, not yet pre- 
judiced the operations of the fair, be- 
cause they do not extend farther E. than 
Nijni, and trade is very tenacious of 
old customs. Authentic records attest 
that mercantile gatherings were held 
at Nijni so early as 1366; and tra- 
dition points to a still earlier origin. 
Kazan, while an independent state, had 
a fair of its own, but Bussian merchants 
were prohibited from resorting to it by 
John the Terrible. Another place of 
gathering was allotted to them on the 
banks or the Volga ; but in 16^1 a 
charter to a monastery dedicated to 
St. Macarius, and situated 71 m. below 
Nijni, removed the fair to that place. 
The monks of the monastery very 
cleverly made Nijni a place of religious 
as well as commercial resort, and levied 
taxes on the trade which they fostei'ed. 
These were almost uninterruptedly in 
their hands until 1751, when the fair 
became the property of the State, and 
its revenues were farmed for about 150Z. 
In the reign of the Emperor Paul the 
farmer of the duties engaged to build a 
new bazaar, and to pay 4500Z. a year 
into the Exchequer. Between 1697 
and 1790 the trade of the place had 
increased in value from 12,000Z. to 
4,500,0002. In 1824 the fair was re- 
moved from the low site which it 
occupied at Makarief to its present 
position. The bazaar, governor's house, 
and shops were erected by the govern- 
ment, which stiU levies about SOOOl. a 
year to cover the expenses of construc- 
tions. uigitizedDy^ww^i^ 



224 



Boute 8. — Nijni Novgorod : Fair, 



Sect. I. 



The governor's house is the centre of 
the fair ; the lower floor of his residence 
is oonverted into a bazaar for tiie sale of 
manufaotured goods and fieuicy articles, 
principally of European production, 
although the stalls of hardware from 
Tula, of silks from Persia, of precious 
stones and various curiosities from 
Bukhara and other parts of Central 
Asia, and of geological specimens and 
cut stones from Siberia, make it in 
reality the cosmopolitan centre of the 
mart. Travellers will be attracted by 
the goods of the Tartar, who pretends to 
owe allegiance to the Khan of Bukhara. 
Beware of talismans and turquoises 
that appear to be cheap; they will 
probably be found cheaper and more 
genuine at St. Petersburg. The mala- 
chite and lapis-lazuli ornaments and 
other stones from Siberia are some- 
times good investments ; but in buying 
lapis-lazuli be sure to rub the stone 
well on cloth, or some other material, 
to see if there are no white spots con- 
cealed with a preparation of wax and 
indigo. This precaution is necessary 
even at St. Petersburg. There is a 
stall held by a Russian for the sale of 
ornaments in gold and silver, set with 
Siberian and Persian stones. Curious 
belts of silver may be purchased, but 
not without long bargaining. It is 
always safe to offer half the sum first 
asked, and to approach gradually and 
with caution to an agreement. Select, 
and inquire the price o^ all the articles 
you intend to purchase before making 
any offer, for the seller, once ac(]^uainted 
with your system of bargaiomg, in- 
creases his demands in proportion for 
any other articles you may wish to 
purchase. 

There is a very good restaurant 
under the governor's house, where an 
excellent dumer may be obtained. 

A boulevard extends from behind 
the official residence, leadiug to the 
cathedral, the Tartar mosque, and the 
Armenian church, which stand in 
laudable, tolerant juxtaposition. The 
shops along the boulevard are occupied 
by silversmiths, drapers, furriers, and 
drysalters. The plate and silver orna- 
ments are very curious and pretty. 
Travellers generally purchase some 



small articles as keepsakes. Old silver 
is sometimes to be picked up ; but in 
all these transactions it is necessary to 
have the assistance of a friend who 
understands the language, or that of 
an honest courier, llie price of sUver, 
however, is not so nncertain as that of 
other goods. The hall-mark is repre- 
sented by the number 84. Behind 
these shops is the *^ Chinese row," 
easily recognised by its Chinese archi- 
tecture. The tea-trade is not so 
flourishiug as formerly, since the re- 
moval of tne prohibition to import sea- 
borne tea, which now stocks the market. 
The trade is now in a transition state, 
the sea-borne and the land-carriage tea 
alternately triumphing. Much depends 
upon the relative quantities offered for 
sale ; the prices are sent down one year 
by an excessive importation, and they 
rise the next &om a short supply; 
but in the course of time Canton and 
water-carriage will prevail, notwith- 
standing the ill-fotmded prejudice 
against that description of tea. The 
Eussians, who are great tea-drinkers, 
are accustomed to the higher qualities 
of tea grown in the N. of China ; but 
these are quite as easily obtained from 
Canton as from Kiakhta, and the sea- 
carriage has no deteriorating effect 
whatever. The Ejakhta tea itself is 
brought by water from Perm without 
injury. There are some kinds of tea, 
however, which scarcely ever enter 
into the English trade, viz. yellow and 
brick tea, me former of a delicious 
fragrance and very pale, but injurious 
to me nerves if taken frequently ; it is 
handed round after-dinner in lieu of 
coffee. The brick tea is consumed by 
the Kalmucks and Kirghizes of the 
Steppe. Specimens of these teas should 
be purohased by the traveller. The 
best yellow tea is about 35«. per pound, 
done up in Chinese boxes, which make 
very pretty presents. 

The bazaar is surrounded by a small 
canal, for protection against fire, con- 
flagrations being of frequent occur- 
rence. The groimd underneath is 
intersected by sewers or doacie of 
stone, which are entered by the small 
whitewashed towers so frequently 
These vaulted passages are 



Eussia, 



Boute 8. — Nijni Novgorod': Fair. 



225 



flushed several times a day by pump, 
which draw the water from the adjoin- 
ing rivers. The sanitary precaution 
is much to be commended, and must 
have cost a considerable outlay. 

But the bazaar built by the Emperor 
Alexander has too confined a space for 
the trade of Nijni. The fair now 
extends far beyond, to the very banks 
of the Volga and the Oka, with its rows 
of shops, its restaurants, and even its 
theatre. The ** Siberian Line " skirts 
the Volga, and consists of innumerable 
warehouses of tea, cotton, iron, rags, 
&c. The wharves are well worthy of 
inspection, being quite 10 miles in 
length. It will interest the traveller 
to watch the sturdy Tartar labourers 
unloading the mediffival-looking craft, 
laden with grain, water-melons, hides, 
wooden boxes, wine-skins from the 
Caucasus, madder and cotton from 
Bukhara, and with almost every other 
description of merchandize that the 
earth yields or industry produces. The 
huge floating machines for towing up 
vessels are fast going out of use as the 
number of steam-tugs increases. There 
are no fewer than ^0 steamers now on 
the Volga* most of them having been 
built in England and in Belgium. 
Some have been brought down in 
pieces, and put together ; others have 
been skilfully piloted through the 
canals and nvers, which combine to 
form an uninterrupted fluviatile com- 
munication from one extremity of the 
empire to the other. It is an mterest- 
ing fact that the first vessel of war ever 
bmlt in Bussia was launched at Nijni 
by a company of merchants from BLol- 
stoin, who obtained permission in the 
nth centy. to open a trade with Persia 
and India, by way of. the Caspian. The 
vessel was called the Friodnch. The 
travels of Olearius were in connection 
with this undertaking. 

The outskirts of the fair are more 
interesting than its centre for observa- 
tion and study. The constant succes- 
sion of carts in long strings ; the crowds 
of labourers ; the knots of earnest-look- 
ing traders with long beards ; the itine- 
rant vendors of liquid refreshments and 
white rabbit-skins ; tlie greasy, slovenly 
monk collecting the kopecks of those 



who fear to withhold their charity lest 
their transactions be influenced by the 
Evil One ; the frequent beggars, plead- 
ing for the most part that they have 
been burnt out, and showing the most 
dreadful-looking sores as evidence of 
their veracity:— aU these men and 
things attest the present importance of 
the Fair of Nijni and ihe immense 
business which is transacted there. 
The sales and purchases represent the 
value of more than 16 millions sterling, 
which pass through the hands of 
150,000 to 200,000 traders, that being 
the average number of those who as- 
semble daily to exchange the produce 
of Europe for that of Asia. The bakers 
are bound to make daily returns of the 
quantity of bread which they sell, and 
it is in this manner that a rough esti- 
mate of the daily population is made. 

Great quantities of dried fish are 
sold at Nijni. The annual value of 
the sturgeon, alone, taken in the Volga 
is estimated at 2^ millions of roubles, 
and above 30,000 barrels of Caviar 
have been despatched from Astrakhan 
in a single year. 

Two other fairs are held at Nijni 
Novgorod, but they are very little 
visited by foreigners. The one, held 
in Januaiy, on the ice, at the mouth of 
the Oka, is devoted to the selling and 
buying of wooden wares, such as toys 
and boxes. Great numbers come in 
on this occasion from the neighbour- 
ing villages. In January, 1864, the 
ice on which the booths and inns were 
constructed gave way, and a consider- 
able number of men, women, children, 
and horses miserably perished by 
drowning. The other tail', held on the 
6th July (N.S.), is for the E»le of horses. 

The traveller may be inclined to 
enter some of the booths devoted to 
eating and diinking, where large 
masses of the population may be seen 
herded together, intent on some of the 
dishes described under the head of 
"Cuisine and Bestaurants;" but ho 
will probably content himself with the 
view from the tower and the terrace, 
with a rapid drive to the wharves and 
warehouses, and a saunter in the ba- 
zaar, where ^pe^^m^ j)^ha«3S may 
be effected. , ^ 



226 



BotUe 8. — Murom, 



Sect. I. 



The more inquisitive traveller will, 
however, ask for the " Armenian Kit- 
chen" or Restaurant, where he will 
get an exceedingly good and cheap 
dinner, of which the menu will be :— 
1, Chihotma or soup; 2, PiUaw; 3, 
Shisfdik, or small pieces of mutton 
delicioualy fried; 4, JJuli-Kohal; and 
5, Dolma, meat served in vine-leaves. 
A very sound wine, " Chkhir*' com- 
pletes the repast. Excellent horse- 
flesh is to he had at the Tartar Ees- 
taurant in the same neighbourhood. 



EXCURSION UP THE OKA TO MUROM, 
ELATMA, AND KASIMOP. 

Steamers leave Nijni 3 times a week 
for Elatma, on the Oka, one of the 
most important rivers in Russia (its 
length being 1400 v.), performing the 
voyage up stream in about 36 hrs., 
and returning to Nijni in about 30 hrs. 
The days are not given here for fear 
of changes. Inquire at the oflSces of 
tiie " Samolet Steam-ship Company " 
at Nijni. Leaving Nijni Novgorod at 
11 A.M., the boat will be at daybreak 
abreast of 

Pavlovo, a large village, of which 
the population is exclusively occupied 
in the production of cutlery, locks, &c. 
The scissors and knives of Pavlovo are 
superior in quality to those of Tula. 
Its locks, varying in price from 2 cop. 
to 20 r., are sold over Russia, and 
partly exported to Asia. A visit to 
this diminutive Sheffield will prove of 
great interest to the traveller who is 
studying the commercial development 
of Russia. 

MuROM will be reached in about 24 
hrs. after leaviug Nijni. This is a 
famous old town of 10,000 Inhab. It 
is supposed to have been founded by a 
Finnish tribe, which bore the same 
name, and which inhabited the banks 
of the Oka in the 9th centy. It be- 
came the seat of a principality in the 
11th centy., under Gleb, son of St. Wla- 



dimir, and who reigned there until the 
year 1016. The principality then be- 
came subject to the Princes of Chemi- 
goff, Rostof, and Riazan, and in 1353 
to the principality of Wladimir. At 
last it was annexed to the principality 
or grand duchy of Moscow. It has 
been frequently devastated — ^in 1087 
by the Bolgars, in 1096 by Isiaslav, 
son of Wladimir Monomachus, and 
thrice in the 13th centy. by the Tar- 
tars ; while in the 17th centy. entire 
villages of fishermen were rooted out 
by the Poles. The old Kremlin walls 
were taken down in the last centy. Of 
the 14 churches in Murom the most 
remarkable are : — 1, The Cathedral of 
the Nativity, built about 1170, on the 
hill of the Voevods, above the Oka. 
The founder. Prince George of Murom, 
and Prince David, with his consort 
Euphrosine (a.d. 1228), are buried 
within it. A fair is held round this 
cathedral on the 25th June (O.S.). 2, 
The Ch. of Our Lady of Kazan, built 
in the reign of John the Terrible ; 
3, The Nicologorod Ch., founded ia 
the 17th centy. ; 4, The Ch. of the 
Resurrection, built about 1650 ; and 
5, The Ch. of Cosmo and Damian, at- 
tributed to the 14th centy.* There are 
2 monasteries and 1 convent at Miux)m : 
— 1, Monastery of the Transfiguration, 
known to have existed in the 11th. 
centy. The son of Wladimir Monoma- 
chus, killed in 1096, was originally 
buried here, but his remains were re- 
moved later to the Cathedral of St. So- 
phia in Novgorod. 2, Monastery of 
the Annunciation. On its present site 
stood a ch. erected in the 12th centy., 
and which was restored in the 13th 
centy. In 1553 John the Terrible, 
passing through Murom on his way to 
the conquest of Kazan, swore on the 
tombs of the Princes of Murom, to 
build here a monastery in the event of 
his safe return. Its foundations were 
accordingly laid in 1555, and in 1563 
the monastery and its ch. were com- 
pleted. The holy relics of Prince 
Constantino of Murom, and of his sons 
Michael and Theodore, are exhibited 



• One of these churches fell in with a crash 
early in 1868, bat will be restored. 



Biissia. 



B<mte 8. — Elatma — Kasimof, 



227 



in a silver shrine. The Convent of the 
Trinity was founded in 1642. 

Trade.— Even in the 10th and 11th 
cents. Murom was a place of great 
trade, visited by the Bolgars, and by 
merchants from Chemigoff, Smolensk, 
Kief, Biazan, and even by Greek 
traders from the Crimea. Its dense 
and extensive woods were famed for 
their honey, and for the beasts of the 
chase that dwelt .within them. They 
were also infested by bands of robbers, 
whose deeds are still told in nursery 
tales. The position of Murom, on the 
borders of a manufacturing district, on 
one side, and on those of a rich agricul- 
tural zone on the other, has greatly 
contributed to its present prosperity. 
There is a great trade at Murom in 
wheat, flax, linseed, and timber. In 
1861 the town boasted of 10 linen manu- 
factories, which produced goods of the 
value of half a million of roubles. It 
was formerly celebrated for its leather, 
but this industry is now on the de- 
cline. There are also 23 flour-mills 
in the neighbourhood of the town. 
Their produce is principally carried to 
Rybinsk on the Volga. Markets are 
held on Saturdays, and are more par- 
ticularly animated in winter, when 
3000 to 5000 sledge-loads of com are 
brought into the town for sale. Im- 
mense quantities of fish are caught at 
Murom, as well as at other places on 
the Oka. 

The Vyksouruiki iron-works are 
situated on the opposite bank of the 
river at about a day's journey from 
Murom. They are worked by an 
English company, under the superin- 
tendence of a resident English director. 
Ltarge quantities of cast iron and rails 
are produced here, the ore being raised 
on the estate, which has been leased to 
the company by the Crown for a cer- 
tain number of years. It is needless 
to say that the English or American 
traveller, wishing to see something of 
the mineral wealth of Eussia, will 
meet with the greatest attention at 
Vyksa. 

After passing a village called Dos- 
chaty, of which there is nothing to be 
said, the steamer will reach the ut- 



most point at which the Oka is 
navigable, except by flat barges. This 
is 

Elatma. Pop. 7000. It stands on 
the 1. bank of the river, and is first 
mentioned in 1381, although it is sup- 
posed to have been founded by the 
Mestchera and Mordva tribes (vide 
Biazan). It was purchased by the 
principality of Moscow from its Prince, 
Alexander Unkovitch, of the Mest- 
chera tribe, from whom are probably 
descended the present numerous 
Princes Mestchersky of Russia. In 
the centre of the town is a square, 
bordered by an ancient ditch. A mo- 
nastery formerly stood there. The 
town carries on a small trade in 
grain, cattle, tallow, &c. Leaving the 
steamer here, the traveller must en- 
gage a' peasant's cart and " troika " to 
take him to 

Kasimop. — The town of Kasimof 
(Pop. 11,000), on the 1. bank of the 
Oka, 136 V. E.S.E. from Riazan, is a 
place of very great trade, being in the 
centre of the water communication 
between Moscow and Nijni Novgorod, 
and on the high road from Astrakhan 
to both those cities. The com of 
Tambof and Penza is brought there in 
large quantities for distribution over 
the less fertile parts of the provinces of 
Riazan and Wladimir, and the annual 
amount of business done is estimated 
at two and a halt' millions. The in- 
habitants of Kasimof are very indus- 
trious, and have such a high reputation 
for honesty that most of the waiters 
in the hotels at St. Petersburg and 
Moscow are " Kasimof Tartars." The 
principal industry of the town is the 
tanning of hides and the dressing of 
sheepskins. The bells of Kasimof 
are also much loved by the yamstchiks 
or postilions throughout Russia. 

The town is remarkable as having 
been the seat of a small Tartar king- 
dom which existed until 1667. It was 
given by Basil the Dark to Kasim, a 
Tartar who emigrated to Russia in 
1446, and became the ally of the sove- 
reign of Moscow. 

The hordr^Bf "-Kasimof did good 
31 3 



228 



Boute 9.— The Volga. 



Sect. I. 



servioe during the wars of the princes 
of Moscow with the Tartars, Novgo- 
rodiaiis, Livonians, and Poles. Its 
Tsars assisted John the Terrible in 
the capture of Kazan, 1552. The last 
Tartar ruler became a Christian and 
died in 1667, when his small dominions 
were incorporated with Bussia. Peter 
the Great caused a considerable portion 
of the population to be removed to 
Voronej, where they were attached to 
the dockyards. The mosque, supposed 
to have been built by Kasim, is still 
extant, but the minaret^ attributed to 
the same age, was rebuilt in the 18th 
century. There is a maiLsoleum near 
the mosque, erected by Shah Ali in 
1555, and another outside the town, 
built in 1616, by the Tsarevitch 
Orslan. Inscriptions prove the tombs 
within it to be those of ancient Tsars 
of Kasimof. There is no trace of their 
old palace, and the foundations of the 
palaxJe of Seid Burkhan, seen by Pallas, 
have been levelled to the ground by 
the present proprietor of the soil. 
There is a convent in the town, but the 
date of its establishment is unknown. 
The church within it was built 1715. 

Instead of returning to Nijni Nov- 
gorod, travellers can post from Kasimof 
to Biazan (90 m.)* and take rail there 
either soutiiwards or for Moscow. 



ROUTE 9. 

YOLQA : TVEB TO ASTEtAEHAN. 

(For journey to Tver and description 
the town, see Rte, 6.) 



Ptolemy and other ancient geogra- 
phers had little accurate knowlSge 
respecting the Volga, and called it 
the Great Biver. Its classical name 
was Bba. In remote times it was 
the main artery of communication be- 
tween Central Asia and the filack Sea. 
The Scythians and Sarmatians were 
anciently reputed as inhabiting its 
banks. The Huns, Khazars, and Bolgars 
subsequently formed powerful states 
on it ; but the Throne of Bussia having 
been removed to Vladimir, the Bus- 
sians began to possess themselves of 
the course of the river. Nijni Nov- 
gorod was founded on it in the 13th 
cent The Bussian provinces suffered 
much from the inroads of the Tartars 
of the kingdom of Kazan. The latter 
became the tributaries of John III., 
and were finally incorporated by John 
the Terrible, who also seized the Tartar 
kingdom of Astrakhan, and thus ob- 
tained possession of the entire course 
of the Volga. But its navigation was 
long rendered unsafe by pirates. All 
the popular legends of the Volga are 
connected with deeds of plunder and 
bloodshed by the population along its 
banks. The rebels Steuka Bazin and 
Pugachef were the last to disturb its 
tranquillity, and it is now a peacefdl 
highway of commerce, uniting, by 
means of its affluents and wi& the 
assistance of several artificial canals, 
the Caspian with the White Sea and 
the Baltic. 

The Volga rises in some small lakes 
about 47 m.S.W. of Valdai. At Tver, 
where it first becomes navigable bv 
small steamers, it acquires a breadth 
of 100 fathoms, and a depth of about 
l}ft. 

1. Boats leave Tver daily for Ta- 
rodaf. The following towns are 



Korchef, 57 m. from Tver. 

Kalicusifit 120 m. from Tver. 

UoLrroH, 125 m. from Tver. 11,000 
Inhab. 

The latter is a town of considerable 
historical interest The steamer stops 
here some hours. It is supposed to 
have been founded about a J). 950. It 
was long governed by princes from 



Eussia. 



Boute 9. — Byhimh — Taroslaf. 



229 



Wladimir. In 1237 the inhabitants 
submitted to the Tartars, who subse- 
quently ravaged it during a quarrel 
Mdth its prince. The toym continued 
the scene of an incessant internecine 
war between rival princes, until John 
III. annexed it to Moscow. On the 
death of John the Terrible, in 1584, 
the Council of Boyars persecuted the 
family of his last consort, to whom he 
was married in 1580. She was exiled, 
with her son Dimitry (or D^netrius), 
to Uglitch, where the young prince 
was assassinated (vide Oath, of As- 
sumption). Prince Gustavus, son of 
Eric King of Sweden, exiled from his 
country, was invited to Uglitch by the 
Tsar Boris Godunoff, who caused him 
to be imprisoned in the fortress of that 
town in 1611, on his refusal to marry 
his daughter. He was later removed 
to Yaro^af and then to Eashio, where 
he died. On the death of Boris, the 
town was treacherously surrendered to 
the Poles by a citizen, when 20,000 
of its inhabitants are stated to have 
been massacred and burnt in a huge 
bonfire. The monasteries on that occa- 
sion were pillaged of all their treasures. 
Fires and inundations in the 18th cent 
complete the list of misfortunes to which 
the town has been a prey. 

The palace of young Demetrius, built 
in 1462, stands in the principal square 
of the town. It has been restored. 

Myakkin, 168 m. from Tver. 

Mologa, 203 m. from Tver. The 
Tikhvin canal system begins here. 



123 m. from Tver, Pop. 
10,500, at the confluence of the Volga 
and Sbeksna. Although only made a 
town in 1778, Rybinsk is one of the 
most important commercial centres of 
the empire, especially for grain. The 
Mariinsk canal system begins here. 
By it the grain and tallow from the 
provinces along the lower course of the 
river, are carried to St. Petersburg. 
The goods are transshipped in summer, 
at Bybinsk, into smaller vessels &r the 
upper part of the Volga and the several 
fluviatile systems, employing 100,000 
labouiers. 4000 to 5000 vessels arrive 
there yearly, with cargoes valued at 
about 4,000,000?.; and 7000 to 8000 



leave it with goods to the amount of 
5^ nulhons sterling. Great detention 
is caused by the accumulation of so 
much shipping ; and although the grain 
reaches BybinJdE about the end of April 
or the beginning of May (O.S.), it is 
seldom delivered at St. Petersburg 
before June or July. A railway is 
much needed to accelerate and cheapen 
the transport of such immense stores. 

There are two hotels at Bybinsk, 
frequented by merchants. Travellers 
will do well to stay a day here, in 
order to acquire a proper appreciation 
of the immense resources of the Rus- 
sian empire. 

Bomanqf-Boriioglebsk, 267 m. from 
Tver. 24 m. beyond is 

Yaroslap, Pop. 32,000, at confluence 
of Volga and Kotorosl, founded be- 
tween 1025 and 1036 ; burnt by the 
Tartars in 1237 ; pillaged by pirates in 
1371 ; and constantly embroiled in the 
wars of the princes. The English mer- 
chants had a factory here in the 16th 
centy., and laid the foundation of the 
commercial prosperily of the town, 
which deals principally in grain and 
iron. There is a large and celebrated 
linen manufSactory here, estab. 1722. 
Mniczek (Mnishdc) Marina, the wife 
of first of the many pretenders, was 
killed here in 1606. Yaroslaf sur- 
rendered to the Poles in 1608, who 
were, however, shortly after driven out. 
In 1612 and 1617 it was a point of 
gathering for the patriots under Po- 
jarski and Minin. Biren, Duke of 
Courland, lived here in exile with his 
family between 1742 and 1761, and 
Prince Peter of Oldenburg was bom 
in the town. 

There are 77 churches in Yaro- 
slaf. The chief of these is the Oath, 
of the Assumption, originally built in 
1215. The present edifice, however, 
dates from ld46. The military stand- 
ards of the militia raised in 1812, and 
1853-1856, are kept in this church. 

The best hotel is in Pastukhof s 
house, where a table-d'hote is kept. 
There will soon be a railroad hence to 
Moscow. 

2. There are no places of importance 
between Yaroslap and^^^*^ 



230 



Bouie 9. — Ko$troma. 



Sect. I. 



Kostroma (20,000 Inhab.), 340 m. 
from Tver. 

Hotels: "London" and "Kostroma." 

Kostroma was built in 1152 by 
George, surnamed DolgoruM (Longi- 
tharm), son of Vladimir Monomachus. 
In 1271 Novgorod acknowledged the 
authority of the Prince of Kostroma, 
which then became the capital of 
Russia for about six years. Dimitry 
of the Don fled to this town on the 
invasion of Tokhtamysh (1382). The 
plague and a dreadful famine, in 1420 
and 1422, reduced the population, on 
which the Tartars had already inflicted 
much suffering. The town submitted 
to the Polish Pretender in 1608, and 
was occupied by Lissofski. The inci- 
dent on which the opera of * Life for 
the Tsar' is founded took place near 
Kostroma, where the estates of the 
Romanoff family were situated. A 
monument stands here, erected during 
the reign of Nicholas, to the memory 
of Ivan Susanin, the peasant who saved 
the Tsar. Great privileges and immu- 
nities were bestowed on his descend- 
ants, but they have recently been 
forfeited. 

The CaHhedral of the Assumption was 
constructed in 1239, and has imder- 
gone but little alteration since. Its 
antiquity is corroborated by the fact 
of the altars within it being directed 
towards the N., hot the E., as in all 
other churches in Russia ; the former 
being the direction in which a miracu- 
lous image of the Virgin, to which the 
ch. is dedicated, appeared to Prince 
Basil when out hunting. It is a most 
remarkable monument of ancient eccle- 
siastical architecture. The celebrated 
monastery of Ipatief lies outside the 
town, on the banks of the Kostroma. 
It was founded by the ancestors of the 
Tsar Boris Godunoff in the 14th centy. 
It was surrounded by a wall in 1586. 
The young Tsar Michael took refuge 
and accepted the crown in it a.d. 1613. 
It contains many holy images and relics 
of antiquity. The rooms in which 
Michael Romanoff lived are here 
shown. The furniture and stoves are 
of the period. A pillar of stone in the 

5ntre of the court records the several 



historical events with which this mon- 
astery has been connected: 

There are several manufactories at 
Kostroma, and an extensive steam 
factory belonging to Messrs. Shipoff. 
The Volga has a breadth here of 250 
fathoms. The high road to Siberia 
passes through the town. 

3. Kostroma to Nijni Novgorod. — 
A short distance from Kostroma is a 
Tartar village, founded in the early 
part of the 16th centy. by Nogai Tar- 
tars, who still retain their nationality 
strongly. The women make very 
pretty lace. The steamer stops at 

pies, a small town founded in 1409. 
There is a very large linen manufactoiy 
here, and a considerable trade in grain 
and hardware (in the shape of axes). 

Kineshma, 405 m. from Tver, is a 
district town in the province of Kos- 
troma, with a Pop. of 2500. Great 
quantities of linen are manufactured 
by the peasants of this district One 
of tlie best linen manufactories in 
Russia, with 20 Jacquard looms, stands 
a few miles beyond the town. 

Yurief^PovolJshi, 440 m. from Tver. 
The XJnja river fells into the Volga 
opposite the town. Hence to Nijni- 
Novgorod the population along the 
banks of the Volga are engaged in ship- 
building, and partly in spinning flax. 
The next stations before Nijni are 
Katunhi, a famous place for leather and 
the skins of cats, of which 40,000 to 
50,000 are annually dressed ; GorodetSj 
where Alexander Nevski died, 1263; 
and Bakikhna, frequently inundated in 
spring, where a fleet intended for the 
sea of Azof was built in 1695. 

For NuNi-NovGOROD, see description 
in Rte. 8. 

4. NiJNi-NovGOROD TO Kazan. — ^At 
Nijni the traveller will embark in a 
larger boat. The best steamers belong 
to the ** Volga " Company, but those of 
the " Samolet " Company are very- 
good. 

The banks of the river become more 
picturesque at Nijni, where the Volga 
has a breadth of two-thirds of a mile. 

Maharief, 72 m. from Nimi. The 
fair was formerly held herk'o^'^ 



Eussia. 



Bouie 9. — Kazan, 



231 



Vasil, 108 m., founded 1523. 

Kozmodemiansk, 140 m. from Kazan, 
Pop. 5000. 

ChMksary, one of the prettiest 
situated towns on the Volga» with an 
ancient monastery and leaning tower. 

Sviajsk, 25 m. — ^Most of these small 
towns were founded by John the Ter- 
rible during his expedition to Kazan. 

Kazan, 794 m. from Tver, Pop. 
60,000. Founded in 13th or 14th 
centy. The Tartar kingdom of Kazan 
was established 1438, after the town 
had been partially deserted by its 
original Mongol inhabitants. The 
Tartars were in constant conflict with 
the Russians at Nijni-Novgorod, who, 
with the assistance of the Grand Duke 
of Moscow, rfiequently marched upon 
Kazan, but without any signal success, 
until John the Terrible took it, in 
1552, with an army of 150,000 men. 
The Tartar Tsar Edigei was made 
prisoner, and all his troops were slain. 
Kazan was reduced to ashes by Pugar 
chef in 1774. In 1815 and 1842 it 
was almost entirely burnt down. The 
town stands about 5 m. &om the banks 
of the river. 

Holds: ''Odessa" and Hesanofs. 
Best dinners at Commonen's restaurant 
in Voskresensk-street. 

Sights, — 1, The Kremlin, attributed 
to 15th centy. 2. Within its walls is 
a cathedral, built 1562. 3. Sumbeki, 
a pyramidal tower, 244 ft. in height, 
probably built in reign of Empress 
Anne. John the Terrible caused every 
building within the Kremlin to be de- 
stroyed, and even the tombs of the 
Tartar sovereigns to be levelled with 
the ground. It is thei-efore doubt- 
ful that tMs tower is a remnant of 
Mongol architecture. 4. The Bogoro- 
ditsky Convent, near the Kremlin, was 
built 1579, to receive the miraculous 
image of " Our Lady of Kazan," dis- 
covered unscathed in the ashes of a 
conflagration. The church, which now 
contains this venerated image, was 
completed about 1816. The diamond 
crown on the head of the Virgin was 
presented by Oath. II. 5. At a mile 
from the tovm is a monument over the 
remains of those who fell at the siege 



of Kazan, erected 1823. 6. The Ad- 
miralty was founded, in 1718, by Peter 
the Great, who built a flotilla there for 
the Volga and Caspian. The hoige in 
which Catherine made her celebrated 
progress down the Volga is shown 
here. 7. The University, founded 
1804, consists of four faculties — his- 
tory, physics, jurisprudence, and medi- 
cine ; fretjuented by about 450 students. 
Principal library, 60,000 vols. State 
contribution, 1865, 33,000Z. An Eng- 
lish professor is attached to it. 

There are 126 factories of different 
kinds at Kazan. Soap and stearine 
works are the most important. Next 
to them are the tanneries, for which 
the town is widely celebrated. 

The steamer stays here long enough 
for travellers to inspect the town, which 
is full of life and animation. The 
Tartar population (7000), with their 
quaint costumes, impart an Eastern 
appearance. Education is very much 
developed among them, a school being 
attached to every mosque. Travellers 
visiting Nijni should not fail to run 
down to Kazan, even if they are un- 
able to proceed to Astrakhan. The 
various races inhabiting the banks of 
the Volga afford a most interesting 
study. The most curious of these are 
the Mordva, the Chuvashi, and the 
Cheremissi, of Finnish and Mongolian 
origin. I'he trip only occupies 24 
hours there and 29 hours back. 

5. Kazan to Smbibsk and Saratopt. 
— At about 53 m. below Kazan, the 
Kama river, 1100 m. in length, falls 
into the Volga, which is here 4000 
fathoms broad. The Kama is the 
great artery of communication with 
Siberia. It is navigated by about 
1700 vessels, besides rafts, which give 
occupation to 32,000 men. The goods 
brought by it to Nijni are valued at 
2^ millions sterling, principally salt 
from Perm, iron, and other metals. 
{Vide "Rte. 25.) 

Simbirsk, 937 m. from Tver, Pop. 
22,000, founded by the Boyar Hitrovo, 
1648. It was besieged by Stenka 
Eazin in 1670, and burnt. Pugachef 
was sent here in an iron cage by 
Suwaroff, after the defeat of the rebel 



232 



Boiite 9. — Astrakhan, 



Sect. I. 



by Colonel Michelson. The whole of 
the country at this part of the Volga 
had joined the rebellion, and Cathe- 
rine II. had great fears for the safety 
of her capital. In 1864 the whole of 
the town, with the exception of a very 
few houses, was burnt down, it is 
supposed by an incendiary. There is 
a great trade in grain there. 

Stavropoly founded in 1737, for the 
baptism of a Calmnck horde. Here 
the Volga makes a sudden bend to the 
E., and, after flowing in that direction 
for 40 m., turns to the S., aAd then 
again abruptly to the W., forming an 
arch or bow 100 m. in length. Nearly 
the whole of the country enclosed 
within this bend was granted in free- 
hold and perpetuity to the Orloff 
family, and is now in the possession of 
Count Orloff Davydoff. 

Samara, 1087 m. from Tver. Seat 
of great trade in grain and tallow. 
There is a celebrated establishment 
near the town where many cures are 
effected by means of Kumyss or fer- 
mented mare's milk. The mineral 
waters, 80 m. S.E. of Samara, are in 
great repute. Best hotel is Ushakoff's. 

Saratoffy Pop. 70,000. Large trade 
in raw produce. The Volga is about 
3 m. wide, opposite the town. In 
spring it attains a width of about 15 
m. Erfurt's Hotel. 

6. Saratofp to Astrakhan. — Kor 
mysJdn, 100 m. from Saratoff, was 
fortified, in 1668, by Colonel Thomas 
Baillie, an Englishman in the Russian 
service. The fortifications were verv 
useful in the suppression of Cossaot 
piracy on the Volga. Its inhabitants, 
in 1700, instigated by the Don Cos- 
sacks, rose in rebellion against the 
reforms of Peter, and murdered all 
those who shaved in compliance with 
the Tsar's orders. In the vicinity are 
traces of a canal, which was commenced 
by Devlet Girey, in 1550, in order to 
unite the Volga with the Don. Peter 
the Great began another canal lower 
down, which was likewise abandoned. 
The Volga and the Don are still the 
only great rivers in Russia of which 
the waters are not connected. 

Tsaritsyn, 1657 m. from Tver, and 



244 from Saratoff. It was treacherously 
surrendered to Stenka Razin in 1670, 
and again plundered by the rebel 
Bulavin in 1707. Peter the Great 
visited the town in 1722, and con- 
firmed its privileges; on which occar 
sion he presented the inhabitants with 
his stick, saying, *' Here is my stick ; 
as I managed my friends with rt, so 
you defend yourselves with it against 
your enemies." Then taking off his 
cap, and likewise giving it, he said, 
" As no one dares to take this cap off 
the head of Majesty, so shall no one 
dare to turn you out of Tsaritsyn." 
Both relics are preserved in the town- 
hall. 

There is a railway between this and 
Kalatch on the Don (vide Rte. 18). 
The mosquitoes are very troublesome 
here, worse than at any point on the 
river. 

Astrakhan, Pop. 49,000, 1962 m. 
from Tver. 

Hotel : The only hotel is the ** Ros- 
sia." 

This was the seat of a Tartar king- 
dom until 1557) when it was taken 
by the troops of John the Terrible, 
who assumed the title of Tsar of As- 
trakhan. Selim, the Sultan of Turkey, 
marched against it in 1569, but was 
forced to retire. The inhabitants 
broke out into rebellion in 1605, in 
fevour of the firat Pretender. They 
bound the archbishop hand and foot, 
and carried him ignominiously to Mos- 
cow. Marina, the wife of the false 
Dimitry, seized the town in 1608, at 
the head of a large force of rebel 
Cossacks. In 1660 the Tartars sur- 
rounded Astrakhan, but were soon 
driven away, with a loss of 10,000 
men. The Tsar Alexis directed his 
attention towards the commercial im- 
portance of the town, and entered into 
correspondence with the Shah of Persia, 
with a view to the establishment of a 
trade in silk and other produce. In 
that reign the Duke of Holstein ob- 
tained permission, through his embassy 
(of which the well-known Olearius 
was secretary), to trade with the 
countries beyond the Caspian, and to 
build ships on it. The rebellion of 
Stenka Razin, in 1665, checked the 



Eussia. 



Boute 9. — Astrakhan, 



233 



new trade. By the treachery of its 
defenders, Astrakhan was seized by 
him in 1670. Its voevod and arch- 
bishop were thrown down a precipice ; 
the latter after havmg been divested 
of his pontifical robes, and half-roasted . 
The town was retaken in 1671, and 
Stenka was executed and quartered at 
Moscow. Another rebellion broke out 
in 1705, but was speedily suppressed. 
In 1722 Peter the Great came to 
Astrakhan with a large force, when he 
took Gilian, Derbent, Baku, and other 
places on the Caspian. Companies 
were soon after formed to trade with 
Khiva, Bukhara, Persia, and India. 
In 1734 an English company obtained 
the privilege of trading on the Caspian, 
but it suffered a loss of 80,000/. on the 
death of Nadir Shah of Persia, and 
renounced the undertaking. After 
varying success, the Caspian trade is 
now in a flourishing condition, and 
employs about 1300 vessels. The 
imports in 1860 amounted to about 
500.000Z., and the exports to 800,000Z. 
Fifihing is very largely pursued on the 



A small flotilla is stationed 
on ft. The sights are : 1. The Krem- 
lin, built about 1582. 2. The Cath. of 
the Assumption, constructed 1698, 
containing many ecclesiastical relics. 
3. Museum. 4. Gallery of portraits 
of archbishops of Astrakhan. 6. Ad- 
miralty, built 1722, and two boats used 
by Peter the Great. 6. Library. 

From Astrakhan the enterprising 
traveller may take steamer to Bakii, 
and return by way of Persia and the 
Caucasus (vide Rte. 20). A trip to 
Astrabad should in any case be made. 

The voyage from Tver to Nijni by 
steamer generally occupies 2J to 3 
days, and that from Nijni-Novgorod to 
Astrakhan 6 days. The steamers do 
not go on during the night, and stop 
frequently to take in wood. There is 
every comfort on board, and excellent 
provisions. Some of the skippers speak 
English, and nearly all some other 
European language besides their own., 
The fare from Tver to Nijni, exclusive 
of living, is about 3Z. ; and from Nijni 
to Astrakhan about 52. 



Digitized by VjOOQLC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SECTION II.— SOUTH EUSSIA AND CEIMEA, 
CAUCASUS AND SIBERIA. 



INTRODUCTION. 

ROUTES TO ODESSA AND SOUTH OF RUSSIA. 

The traveller will see by the map that there are several routes to Odessa, 
viz: — 

By Water, — 1. From London to Odessa. English steamers from the 
London Docks (apply to Messrs. Smith, Sundius, and Co., City), and the 
packets of the Kussian Steam Navigation Company, maintain a constant 
communication with Odessa by way of the Mediterranean. 

2. From Constantinople to Odessa, by Russian Steam Navigation Com- 
pany's packets, leaving every week. Fares, 28 rs. and 18 rs. Passage 
30 to 40 hrs. 

3. From Yienna down the Danube to Galatz in Austrian boats. Travel- 
lers may proceed all the distance to Galatz by boat, or go by rail from 
Vienna to Bazias, and take the steamer which left Vienna the previous 
day. The same ticket and fare for both routes. The boats of the Austrian 
and Russian Companies correspond, so that travellers are not delayed at 
Galatz. As a rule, the boats of the Russian Steam Navigation Company 
are in every way to be recommended. 



By Land, — 1. Berlin or Vienna to Odessa, by Lemberg, Czemowitz, and 
Kishenef. Rte. 10. 

2. Berlin or Vienna to Odessa, by Lemberg, Brody, Volochisk (on 
Russian frontier). Bar, and Balta (railway in construction). Rte. 11. 

3. Riga or St. Petersburg to Odessa, by Dtinaburg, Witebsk, Orel, and 
Kief. Rte. 12. 

4. Moscow to Odessa, by Tula, Orel, Kursk, KharkofiF, Poltava, Kremen- 
chuk, Elizavetgrad, and Balta. Rte. 13. 

The following is a description of the several routes by land. Before 
proceeding by any of them travellers should inquire how far the railways 
in construction have been pushed on and opened. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



KOUTES. 



[Tiie names of pUces are printed in Uaiics only in tbose routes where the places are described.] 

EOUTE PAGE 

land, by Nikolaef and 
Kherson 273 

17. Odessa to the Crimea by sea : 
Eupatoria to Kertch, and 
excursions through the 
Crimea 277 

18. Kertch to Tsaritsin on the 
Volga, by jBo«fo/ .. ..317 

19. Boaiof to N(nH)eherha8k .. 318 

20. London to TiftiSf by Constan- 
tinople^ — The Cattcasus .. 319 

21. Tiflis to Teheran, by Ararat 
and Tabreez 323 

22. Tiflis to Teheran, by Baku or 
Lenkoran, and Resht or 
Astrabad, on the Caspian 325 

23. Lenkoran to Teheran, by 
leuid, yit Besht .. ..326 

24. London to Persia, by way of 
St. Petersburg 328 

25. London to Pekin, Yi& St. 
Petersburg, Eiakhta, and 
Mongolia 828 



BOrTE ' i PAGE 

10. Berlin or Vienna to Odessa, 

by Lemberg, Ozemowitz, 
6.nd Kishenef 236 

11. Berlin or Vienna to Odessa, 

by Lemberg, Brody, Voh- 
ehiskf Bar, and Balta . . 237 

12. Riga or St. Petersburg to 

Odessa, by Diinaburg, Wi- 
tebsk, Ord, and Kief, — 
the South of Russia . . . . 238 

13. Moscow to Odessa, by 2Wa, 

Ord, Kursk, Kharkoff, Pel- 
tava, Kremenchuk, Eliza- 
vetgrad, and Bdlta . . . . 253 

14. Moscow to Voronej, by Bia- 

zan, Biajsk^ and Kozlof, 
Branch lines to Morshanik 
and Elets 264 

15. St. Petersburg, Moscow, or 

Riga, to Taganrog and 
Rostof (Sea of Azof), by 
Kharkof 270 

16. Odessa to the Crimea over- 



ROUTE la 

BERLIN OB VIENNA TO ODESSA, BY 
LEMBEBQ, CZEBNOWITZ, AND EISHENEF. 

From Vienna by rail to Lemberg 
and Czernowitz in Austrian Galicia. 
(Vide Handbook for South Germany.) 
Omnibus from Ozemowitz to Novo- 
selitsa ; thence by post either to 
Kishenef or Tiraspol, according to con- 
dition of the railway, which will be 
completed between Cfdessa and Kishe- 
nef in 1870. 

NovosELiTSA, Russian village in 
prov. of Bessarabia, on frontier of Aus- 
tria, and also on frontier of Moldavia, 
on river Pruth. Pop. 2000. Hotdnot 
as good as the one at Czernowitz, 
where travellers will prefer to stop. 

This village is supposed to have 
^een founded in the 16th centy. by the 

Dssacks, who came under their Het- 



man Svlrgofski to assist the Walla- 
chians against the Turks. There is a 
considerable trade at Novoselitsa, par- 
ticularly in timber, which, after being 
floated down the Pruth, is carried over- 
land to the Dniester. In 1861 goods 
of the value of IJ million of roubles 
were imported through its Custom- 
house. ^ 

Travellers must here obtain an order 
for post-horses, and either purchase or 
hire a tarantass, the vehicle best suited 
to the country. The charge for posting 
is 2^ cop. per verst for eadi horse. The 
distance from Novoselitsa to Kishenef 
is 276 v., from the latter town to 
Tiraspol 66 v., and thence to Odessa 
by railway, now open, the distance is 
110 V. 

The towns through which the tra- 
veller will pass on this route are : — 

BiELTSi, 120 V. from Kishenef. Pop. 
7000, on river Beut. There is a great 



Bussia. 



Boute 11. — Berlin to Odessa, 



237 



trade here in cattle, of which 150,000 
head are annually sold for Poland, 
Austria, Moldavia, Wallachia, and 
Prussia. It comes from the provinces 
of Kherson, Taurida, Podolia, Vol- 
hynia, and Kief. There is also a con- 
siderable business in grain. 

Obgeiep, 41 V. from Kishenef. 
Pop. 5700. On left bank of river 
Rent. Until 1812 it belonged to the 
Turks, and was the residence of the 
Sirdars who governed the nortiiem 
part of the present province of Bess- 
arabia. The trade of the town is small, 
but a considerable amount of smug- 
gling is carried on via Kishenef. 

KiSHENEP, 66 V. from Tiraspol. 
Pop. 94,000. Chief town of Bess- 
arabia, on river Byka. 

A small town existed on the site of 
Kishenef so far back as the 9th centy. 
It is mentioned in a charter dated 
1420, but in the 17th centy. it was de- 
stroyed by the Tartars. In 1812 it 
passed &om Moldavia to Russia. At 
that time it belonged to the monastery 
of the Holy Sepulchre. A Russian 
metropolitan resides there since 1813. 
It is the centre of a very considerable 
trade in tallow, wool, wheat, hides, &c., 
carried hence to Odessa or to Austria 
vid Novoselitsa. The principal mar- 
ket-days are Mondays and Fridays. In 
spring large quantities of cattle are 
sold in the market, seldom less than 
3000 head, at about 20 roubles apiece. 
The inhabitants are much engaged in 
cultivating fruit, vegetables, and the 
tobcuxxvplant. Large quantities of 
prunes, grown principally by Bul- 
garians, are produced at Kishenef. If 
file railway is not open so far, the tra- 
yeller will have to post through 

Bendeby (Pop. 22,000), a fortress 
town, 58J V. from Kishenef, on the 
right bank of the Dniester. The 
Genoese bad a settlement here in the 
12th centy. ; by the Moldavians it was 
called Tigin, and its present name was 
given by the Turks in the latter part 
of the 14th centy. 

In 1709. after the battle of Poltava, 
Charles XII. established his camp 
here, and, calling it New Stockholm, 
defended himself against the Turks 
imtU 1711. 



The town has been taken by the 
Russians 3 times, viz. in 1770, 1789, 
and in 1806. It was only annexed to 
Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest, 
1812. The fortress is separated from 
the town by a square, on which is a 
mound called after Suworof. Tradition 
says that Charles XII. and Mazeppa 
reconnoitred the country beyond the 
Dnieper from its summit. Near the E. 
angle of the fortress is an ancient 
castle, on the Dniester. There is a 
considerable trade in wheat, wine, 
wool, cattle, tallow, and particularly in 
timber, floated down the Dniester. 
Large quantities of goods are imloaded 
here from boats, and carried overland 
to Odessa and Jassy. 

Tiraspol, 110 v. from Odessa in 
prov. of Kherson. Pop. 10,000. On 
left bank of Dniester. The fortress of 
Tiraspol is now dismantled. Trade 
inconsiderable. Grardening is the prin- 
cipal occupation of the inhabitants. 
Hence the railway is open to 

Odessa.— F*VZe Rte. 12. 



ROUTE 11. 

BEBUN OB VIENNA TO ODESSA, BY LEM- 
BEBG, BBODY, VOLOCHISK, BAB, AND 
BAI/TA. 

The railway from Volochisk to 
Balta will be ready in 1870. Until it 
is completed we need only give the 
following short sketch of the route, 

VoLocmsK, townlet in prov. of 
Volhynia, on river Sbrutcha. Pop. 
2500. Small trade with Austria. 

Bab, a small town in prov. of 
Podolia, on the banks of the Rov, an 
affluent of the Bug. Pop. 8000. In 
1452 this town, then called Rov, was 
destroyed by the Tartars. Soon after, 
Queen Bona Sforza, consort of Sigis- 
mund I. of Poland, rebuilt the town, 
built a castle, and gave both the town 
and the castle the present name of Bar, 
after Ban in Italy. In the 17th centy. 



238 



Boute 12.— PoZoteit. 



Sect. II. 



the cafltle was restored by the Hetman 
Stanislaus Kone^polski. In 1648, and 
again in 1651, it was taken by the 
Cossacks, but in 1672 it fell to the 
Turks, and was only restored to the 
Poles in 1699. The Polish Confedera- 
tion of Bar is frequently mentioned 
in history as having been formed in 
1768, three vears after which Bar was 
taken by the Bussians, but, having 
been again restored to Poland, it 
formed part of the Vo^vodship of Po- 
dolia until the partition of Poland in 
1793, when it was transferred to Russia. 
The Jesuits established a college th^re 
in 1693, and the building is now de- 
voted to- the purposes of a school. 
There are 3 ens. and a monastery of 
the Busso-Greek fia.ith, and 1 Boman 
Catholic ch. Eleven fairs are held 
during the year, but the transactions 
are not considerable. (For journey 
from Bar to Odessa via Balta vtde next 
route.) 



ROUTE 12. 

BIGA OB ST. FETEBSBUBG TO ODESSA, 
BT DUNABX7B0, WITEBSK, OBEL, AND 
KIEF. 

For journey from Riga to Diinaburg 
vide Bte. 4. 

For journey from St. Petersburg to 
Diinaburg vide Bte. 1. 

From Diinaburg the journey will be 
continued as follows : — 

Dbissa, 174 V. from Witebsk, at 
the confluence of the Drissa with the 
W. Dvina. Pop. 2000. A fortifica- 
tion existed at Drissa in the 14th 
centy., when it was destroyed by the 
Prince of Polotsk. In 1565 Drissa 
was occmpied by the Russians, but 
Stephen Batory restored it to Poland, 
to which it belonged until the annexa- 
tion of White Russia (or the present 
provinces of Witebsk and Mohilef), to 
Russia Proper. During the war of 
1812, the Russian General Barclay de 
Tolly retreated before the French to 



Drissa, and established an entrenched 
camp there, which he abandoned, how- 
ever, on the 18th (30th) July. 

There is a large trade here with 
Ri^ in flax and other produce. 

Polotsk, 5th stat., 150 v. from 
Dunaburg. Pop. 12,000. On river 
Western Dvina. 

History, — The history of Polotsk is 
that of tne whole of the country lying 
along the course of the Dvina, viz. of a 
considerable part of White Russia. Its 
foundation is attributed, on the faith 
of Iceland SagoMj to the 1st centy. after 
Christ According to the Chronicle 
of Nestor, Polotsk, with some slight 
variations in the name, existed prior to 
the arrival of the Norman princes, 
Rurik, Sineus, and Truvqr. The 
authentic and eventful history of the 
town begins in 864, when Polotsk was 
one of the principal colonies in the 
country of the Krevitchi. At his 
death Truvor gave Polotsk to one of 
his followers, and, in 980, chronicles 
speak of it as belonging to an indepen- 
dent Prince, Rogvolod, a Northman. 
The proud refusal of his daughter ' 
Rogneda to marry Vladimir Prince of 
Novgorod caused the downfall of 
Polotsk, for Wladimir came there with 
a large army, and, putting Rogvolod 
and his sons to death, carried Rogneda 
away as his wife. 

Aimexed to the principality of 
Kief, when Wladimir, afterwards cano- 
nized, succeeded to that throne, it 
became the portion of Isiaslaf, sou 
of St. Wladimir by Rogneda. Its ex- 
istence as an independent princi- 
pality was frequently menaced by 
the other descendants of Wladimu 
between 980 and 1129, when the 
Prince of Kief succeeded in taking 
possession of it. But the town and 
province of Polotsk continued to have < 
many enemies— the Pskovites, the Li- 
vonian knights, and the Lithuanians, 
who wrested the principality from 
each other by turns. A treaty be- 
tween the Prince of Smolensk and 
Riga in 1228 gave it to the former, 
and in 1235 it was conquered by Rin- 
holdt, a Lithuanian prince. During 
the internecine war tnat followed on 
the death of Mindovgus, Grand Duke 



Bussia. 



Route U.—Witebsk 



239 



of Lithuania, Polotsk was sold to the 
Church of Biga, but it was purchased 
again by the Lithuanians in 1307. Its 
privileges were then gradually assimi- 
lated to thoseof other provincial towns 
in Lithuania, and in 1498 the law of 
Magdeburg superseded the Lithuanian 
and Russian laws under which Polotsk 
had been previously governed. The 
law of Magdeburg and other privi- 
leges of Polotsk were confirmed by 
successive grand dukes of Lithuania 
and kings of Poland between 1510 and 
1634. The development of the new 
institutions was, however, frequently 
retarded by daneer from without. In 
1500 and 1502 tne Russians advanced 
as far as Polotsk, laying waste the 
country around them. Alexander, 
Grand Duke of Lithuania, hastened 
to put the castle in a state of defence, 
but a truce saved the town. In 1507 
the Russians once more entered the 
province of ^Polotsk, and again with- 
drew with a promise to leave it un- 
molested in future. In 1511 they 
returned and spread destruction around 
them, and in 1515 and 1518 they laid 
siege to the town, but without success, 
for the fortifications had been well re- 
paired. John the Terrible, however, 
naving come to an open rupture with 
Lithuania, advanced in person with 
his army, a.d. 1563, and took the town 
after a siege of two weeks, during 
which many assaults were made. The 
fall of Polotsk was celebrated all over 
Moscovy with the ringing of bells, and 
for 17 years it was governed by Rus- 
sian Voevods ; but in 1579 King Ste- 
phen Batory retook it, because •*the 
Voevods were bad, and admired the 
fair sex." There was great mourning 
at Moscow in consequence, and John 
the Terrible, in an impulse of rage, 
caused all the troops that had re- 
turned from Polotsk, or that had been 
made prisoners and released, to be put 
to death. 

Batory had the walls and towers re- 
paired, confirmed the ancient privi- 
leges of the inhabitants, the Grand 
Duke of Muscovy all the while at- 
tempting to regain the town by peace- 
ful negotiations, for which purpose he 
even invoked the aid of England. 



The death of John the Terrible and 
the troubles that followed enabled the 
Poles to retain peaceful possession of 
the unhappy town, which was about 
this time visited with pestilence and 
famine, and nearly burned to the 
ground. After many internal dissen- 
sions of a religious character the town 
fell again, in 1654, to the Russians, 
who held it until 1667, when they re- 
stored it to Poland under the Treaty of 
Andrussy; and it was not until the 
first partition of Poland, in 1772, that 
Polotsk and the rest of White Russia 
were finally incorporated with Russia 
Proper. 

In 1812 Murat and Ney established 
themselves in the neighbourhood of 
Polotsk, and, when they marched on 
Witebsk, Oudinot was left in their 
place. 

Witebsk, 4th Stat., 93 v. from 
Polotsk, and 243 v. from Diinaburg. 
Pop. 28,000. 

Hotel : "Brosi," with a restaurant 
below, rooms tolerable. 

History. — Situated on both banks 
of the Western Dvina, and on the 
Vitba rivulet falling into it, Witebsk 
appears to have been founded before 
the year 1021. In 1101 it was the 
seat of an Independent principality, 
which existed until tlie year 1320, 
when it was annexed to Lithuania, on 
the death of Prince Yaroslaf, who 
had given his daughter in marriage to 
Olgerd Prince of Lithuania. Oasimir 
King of Poland gave the town many 
privileges in the latter part of the 
15th centy. In 1562 Prince Kurbski, 
a Russian Voevod, who later incurred 
the wrath of John the Terrible and 
fled to Lithuania, burnt the suburbs 
of Witebsk, and, in 1563 and 1569, 
the Russians took the town and set it 
on fire. 

The Poles having subsequently re- 
gained it, Sigismund III. compensated 
the inhabitants for their losses by es- 
tablishing a fieiir, and giving to the 
town his castle of Lukishki, of which 
no traces remain. In 1616 Witebsk was 
again burnt down by the Russians and 
Cossacks. Seven years later the in- 
habitants rose and put to death Bishop 
I Kun9c^vicz, who attempted to introduce 



240 



Soute 12. — Smolensh 



Sect. II. 



the Uniate faith, for which offence the ; 
ancient privileges of Witebsk were with- 
drawn for a time, but restored in 1641 
by Wladislaus IV. The Russians, un- 
der Sheremetiefl^ again took Witebsk 
in 1654, after a siege of 3^ months* 
duration, and held it until «L667, when, 
together with Polotsk, it was restored 
to Litiiuania under the Treaty of 
AndruBsy. During the wars between 
Peter I. and Charles XII., Witebsk, 
which had sided with the Swedes, 
and had even sent them a subsidy of 
7000 thalers, was burnt to the ground 
by Cossacks and Oalmueks, by the 
order of Peter. It was finally incor- 
porated with Russia in 1772. 

In 1812, Witebsk, deserted by its in- 
habitants, was occupied by the French 
army. No one was to be seen in it but a 
few Jews and Jesuits. They could give 
no information. The French followed 
in pursuit for 6 leagues, through a 
deep and burning sand. At last night 
put an end to their progress. The 
soldiers, parching with thirst, could 
get only muddy water to quench it; 
and while they were busy in procuring 
it. Napoleon held a council, the result 
of which was that it was useless to 
pursue the Russians any further at 
present, and that it was advisable 
to halt where they were on the confines 
of Old Russia. As soon as the em- 
peror had formed this resolution he 
returned to Witebsk with his guards. 
On entering his headquarters in that 
city on the 28th July, he took oflf his 
sword, and, laying it down on the maps 
which covered his table, "Here," said 
he, " I halt. I want to reconnoitre, to 
rally, to rest my army, and to organize 
Poland. The campaign of 1812 is 
over ; that of 1813 will do the rest." 
Napoleon left Witebsk on the 13th 
August, after halting there a fortnight^ 
and on the 15th the army was in sight 
of Krasnoi, where it defeated the corps 
of Neverovski. 

Havjng gone through so many cala- 
mities, it is not surprising that Witebsk 
should have no monuments of antiquity 
to show the traveller. Its principal 
buildings are — the Palace where the 
Grand Duke Constantino of Russia, 
brother of the Emperor Nicholas, died 



in 1831 ; the Nobility Assembly House, 
the Gynmasium, and the Cathedrals of 
St. Nicholas and of the Assumption. 
It has also a theatre, and an hospital 
with 160 beds. There is a consider- 
able trade with Riga in com, flax, 
hemp, tobacco, sugar, and timber. 
The country beyond Witebsk is very 
pretty. 

Until the rly. in course of construc- 
tion is open for traffic, travellers will 
have to post hence to Oerl. 

Smolensk, 120 v. from Witebsk. On 
riv. Dniepr. Pop. 23,000. 

Hotd: Ratchinsky. 

History. — Nestor calls Smolensk the 
town of the Erivitchi, and alludes to 
its existence prior to the Norman con- 
quest of Russia. The Variague Prince 
Gleg took possession of it in 882, and 
untU the year 1054 it remained an- 
nexed to the principality of Kie^ when 
it fell to the share of Yiachesla^ son 
of Yaroslaf I. The "provmoe" of 
Smolensk at that time comprised the 
whole of the present province of Smo- 
lensk and part of the present provinces 
of Witebsk, Pskof^ Moscow, and Ka- 
luga. After passing under the govern- 
ment of various princes it became the 
appanage of Vladimir Monomachus, 
who constructed in the town of Smo- 
lensk the Cathedralof the Assumption, 
which, although destroyed by the Poles 
in the 17th centy., has since been re- 
stored in its original form, and still 
contains the image of the Holy Virgin, 
given to Vladimir Monomachus by his 
mother, daughter of the Emperor of 
Byzantium. When Vladimir suc- 
ceeded in his turn to the throne of 
Kief, Smolensk was governed by his 
2 sons. Rostislaf, son of the next 
Prince of Kief, held Smolensk for 34 
years as a vassal, and was drawn into 
all the wars which the Princes of 
Kief, Chemigof, and Novgorod waged 
against each other. 

Mention is made in old chronicles 
of the magnificent reception given 
to Rostislaf when as Prince of Kief 
he passed through Smolensk ou his 
way to Novgorod. His son Robert 
succeeded mm at Smolensk, and 
spent so much money in building 
churches and estabjishing ecclesi- 



Bussia. 



Bouie 12. — Smolensh 



241 



astical schools that the expenses 
of his funeral had to be paid by the 
inhabitants. Many Veche or Wit- 
tenagemotes were held about this 
time at Smolensk, as in other towns of 
Russia. The whole of the 12th centy. 
passed in constant wars betwerai the 
various princes. In the next centy. 
Smolensk was menaced by a new foe — 
the Lithuanians, who, in 1285, ad- 
vanced up to Smolensk, and committed 
great ravages, but without taking the 
town, which had b^ this time grown 
very wealthjr from its trade with the 
Baltic provinces and the Hanseatic 
League. The Germans even made a 
commercial treaty with Smolensk as 
early as 1229. A mutual right of trade 
and a free passage from Smolensk to 
Gothland in the Baltic was thereby 
secured, subject to the payment of cer- 
tain dues. This convention was con- 
firmed in 1284 and 1330. The size of 
the town may be estimated from the 
fact that in 1231 it lost no fewer than 
32,000 inhab. from the plague. 

In 1237 the Tartars advanced on Smo- 
lensk, but it was saved, according to a 
legend, by a Boman named Mercurius, 
who went into the camp of the in- 
vaders and killed the giant on whom 
they most relied for success in their 
enterprise. Having been killed by the 
Tartars while asleep from fatigue, Mer- 
curius was recognised by the Church 
as a martyr, and to this (my the helmet 
and greaves which the hero wore during 
the fight are sacredly preserved in the 
cathedraL The Lithuanians now 
made several attempts to possess them- 
selves of Smolensk, which compelled 
the inhabitants in 1275 to seek the 
assistance of the Tartars, who a^ain in 
1340 marched upon the city m con- 
junction with the forces of the Princes 
of Moscow and Riazan, but the expe- 
dition fedled, owing, it is supposed, to 
the Tartar chief having been bribed by 
the besieged. Continual wars with 
Moscovy and Lithuania, and another 
dreadfm plague, soon after weakened 
the principaUty, and it was at last taken 
by tiie Lithuanians in 1395. In 1401, 
however, Oleg, Prince of Riazan, 
agreed to assist his father-in-law, 
George, in the recovery of the throne 



of Smolensk, and, having appeared 
before the town with a large force, the 
inhabitants opened their gates. Prince 
George immediately put to death all 
the Boyars who had espoused the cause 
of the Lithuanians. Vitovt, Prince of 
Lithuania, attacked Prince George in 
1403, and after taking Viasma, in 
order to cut off his communications 
with Moscow, he laid siege to Smo- 
lensk during a period of seven weeks, 
but without success. Next year 
he came again, while George was at 
Moscow soliciting the aid of its prince, 
and. reduced the town by famine 
on the 26th June, 1404. Vitovt gave 
the conquered town many privileges, 
but its ruin was so complete that 
a most dreadful famine ensued, 
during which the inhabitants were 
reduced to the condition of cannibals, 
and **dogs were seen in the streets 
feeding off hmnan bones." 

King Casimir of Poland visited 
Smolensk about 1453, and confirmed 
all its former privileges. A truce with 
Moscow in 1493, and the marriage of 
Alexander, Grand Duke or Prince of 
Lithuania, with Helen daughter of John 
III. of Moscow, did not long preserve 
Smolensk from further disasters. Al- 
though the free exercise of the Greek 
rehgion had been guaranteed to Helen, 
yet Joseph, Bishop of Smolensk, soon 
began openly to preach the supremacy 
of the Pope and to interfere with the 
religious observances of the Grand 
Duchess. A dispute about boun- 
daries gave the Moscovites a pretext 
for attack, and the Lithuanians were 
routed on the 14th July 1500 at Doro- 
gobush (86 V. from Smolensk), but 
Prince Alexander had put the town 
into such an excellent state of defence 
that the Moscovites were forced to 
withdraw, after suffering much from 
the want of provisions. A regular 
peace was not concluded until 1503. 
This had scarcely expired before war 
broke out afresh between the Lithua- 
nians and Moscovites, at the instiga- 
tion of Glinsky, a Lithuanian noble 
who went over to the Russians. After 
many encounters and another truce, 
John the Terrible resolved in council 
to fight the Lithuanians '* as long as 



242 



Boute 12. — Smolensk. 



Sect. II. 



his liorso would carry him or his sword 
cut/' and in 1513 he advanced on 
Smolensk with a contingent from 
Pskof, which was so unaccustomed to 
fight that just before the assault their 
courage had to be sustained by the 
distribution of 8 casks of mead and 3 
of beer. 

A first and a second campaign proved 
unsuccessful, but a third siege,* under- 
taken in June 1514, with superior 
forces, provided with cannon, and with 
the assistance of mercenaries from 
Bohemia and Germany, compelled the 
citizens to surrender. 

The loss of Smolensk was keenly 
felt by the Poles and Lithuanians, and 
during the whole of the 16th centy. 
they endeavoured to regain possession 
of it. Even the Khan of Tartary was 
called in by King Sigismund to induce 
the Eussians to abandon it, but in 
vain. Stephen Batory tried to take it 
by force of arms, but failed, for the 
castle and fortifications had been care- 
fully rebuilt. In 1596 these were 
again strengthened under the super- 
intendence of Boris Grodunof, after- 
wards usurper of the throne of Mos- 
cow. He built a new wall of stone 
with 36 towers and 9 gates. The 
ancient trade of the town was renewed, 
but famine and epidemics continued to 
succeed each other. 

The 17th centy. was ushered in by 
further troubles. On the death of Boris 
Godunof, Smolensk surrendered to the 
false Demetrius, who gave it with the 
whole of the province to George (Yury) 
Mnishek, Voevod of Sandomir, his 
future father-in-law. 

On the 21st April, 1606, the citizens 
went out with church banners, and 
with bread, salt, and sable skins, to 
meet their " Tsaritsa" Marina, daugh- 
ter of Mnishek. But their loyalty was 
not of long duration. Tlie downfall of 
the Pretender was the signal for their 
marching against the Poles, then in 
Moscow. Between 1608 and 1611 
Smolensk held out against overwhelm- 
ing Polish forces, and at last had to 
sustain a siege of more than 20 months* 
duration ; nor would the old town have 
yielded, had not the weakness of one 
of its walls been betraved to the Poles 



by a citizen. On the 3rd July, 1611, 
that part of the waU was battered 
down, and the Poles broke into the 
town, killing an immense nimiber of 
the inhabitants. As many as 72,000 
persons perished on the Polish and 
Hussian sides during that memorable 
siege. The Boyar Shein, who had so 
manfully conducted the defence of the 
city, was put in irons, tortured, and 
then sent to Lithuania with otJier im- 
portant prisoners. The Poles now 
hastened to establish themselves and 
their religion firmly in the conquered 
province. They founded monasteries 
and Eoman Catholic churches, and 
gave the Jesuits and Bemardines full 
liberty of action. Important charters 
were at the same time granted to the 
citizens. The new Tsar, Michael, was 
forced by circumstances to acknow- 
ledge the annexation of Smolensk and 
other towns, except Viazma, to Poland 
by treaty, in 1618, on condition, how- 
ever, of his father, the Metropolitan 
Philaret, being set at liberty. In 1632 
that sovereign declared war against 
the Poles with the object of regaining 
Smolensk. Tlie conmiand of 32,000 
troops and 158 cannon was given to 
the same Boyar Shein who had de- 
fended the city in 1611. At first the 
Kussian forces Were successful, and 
many towns siuTondered ; but in 1633 
King Wladislaus came in person to the 
relief of the besieged citizens, and 
compelled the Russians on the 19th 
February, 1634, to lay down their arms 
under an armistice. The Boyar Shein 
surrendered all his war material, stand- 
ards, and provisions, and took oath 
with his troops not to carry arms 
against Poland during 4 months. It 
was a great humiliation to the veteran 
Boyar to see his troops march out of 
tlieir camp without beat of drum, and 
bow low to the hosts of Poland while 
they deposited their colours at the feet 
of the King. As an act of grace 
Wladislaus permitted Shein to take 
12 guns with him, but on returning to 
Moscow the imfortunate man was be- 
headed, together with his adjunct, the 
Voevod Izmailof. 

Twenty years later the war was 
renewed under the Tsar Alexis, who 



Eussia. 



S(yute 12. — Smolensh 



243 



in 1654 arrived in person with a large 
army before the walls of Smolen^. 
The first assault, made after a siege 
of 6 weeks, was repulsed, but after 
a second attack -the Polish com- 
mander, whose authority had been 
weakened by a tumult among the 
citizens, was forced to surrender. 
On the 23rd September, 1654, the 
Polish troops, this time, had to march 
out of the fortress ignominiously, and 
lay down their arms at the feet of the 
Tsar. Hostilities continued for 12 
years longer, and during that time 
Smolensk remained in the hands of the 
Russians, who re-established the Eusso- 
Greek churches, and did their best to 
Bussify the province. Great numbers 
of the Polish population wer^ deported 
to the Volga and the Kama, and re- 
placed by ** sons of boyars " brought 
forcibly from beyond Moscow. The 
Treaty of Andnissy (1667) secured 
Smolensk to the Russians for 13 years 
and 6 months, but the Poles took ad- 
vantage of the impending war between 
Russia and Turkey in 1678 and de- 
manded the restoration of the city. 
This, however, the Russians refused to 
do, and preferred paying an indemnity 
of 200,000 r. and surrendering several 
other towns. At last, by the Treaty 
of 26th April, 1686, Smolensk was 
annexed to Russia ** for ever.*' 

The latter part of the 17th centy. 
was passed by the citizens in peace, 
and their ancient trade with Russia 
and other countries was renewed. 
When the great northern war broke 
out at the beginning of the 18th centy., 
Peter the Great frequently visited 
Smolensk, and devoted much labour 
to securing it from danger. The great 
war did not reach it, but it was made 
the basis of the operations in Lithuania 
and Little Russia, and the Poles natu- 
rally regretted all the more the loss of 
the city they had so long held. Jesuit 
fathers penetrated into it and gained 
over many of the citizens ; and although 
their admission was prohibited by ukaz 
in 1728, when those who had already 
become domiciled in Russia were ex- 
pelled, they continued, according to 
Russian accounts, to enter the province 
of Smolensk in disguise, and to pro- 
jBti«wa.-1868. 



_ ;te Catholicism and allegiance to 
*oIand. In 1734 a regular plot was 
discovered, in which even the Governor 
of Smolensk, Prince Gherla^ky, was 
implicated. Their designs were di- 
vulged by one of the conspirators, 
and the measures which the Russian 
Government adopted dispelled the 
hopes of the Poles, and left the city 
of Smolensk in peace until the French 
invasion. 

The traveller is referred to the Hts- 
torical Notice for an account of Bona- 
parte's campaign in Russia, and we 
need only add the following particu- 
lars, as regards the city of Smolensk, 
taken from a Russian source : — 

" When the * grand army ' began its 
march from the Niemen in 1812, the 
Russian troops fell back on Smolensk. 
Although Barclay de Tolly encou- 
raged the inhabitants and assured 
them of their safety, he nevertheless 
caused the treasury to be removed, 
and all documents from which the 
enemy might derive any information 
about the condition of the country. 
The two Russian armies (one com- 
manded by Barclay de Tolly, the 
other by Bagration) reached Smolensk 
on the 22nd July (O.S.), and encamped 
on the 1. bank of the Dnieper. Tlu-ee 
days later they retreated further, leav- 
ing only one regiment in the town. In 
the mean while the French advanced, 
and, after the engagement with Never- 
ofski at Krasnoi, appeared on the 3rd 
August in the neighbourhood of Smo- 
lensk. Raefski, sent to assist Never- 
ofski, fortified as far as he could the 
suburbs of the town, and resolved to 
maintain himself in it until the ar- 
rival of the two armies. 

" On the morning of the 4th (16th) 
August the fighting commenced, and 
was continued the next day with great 
carnage, as the armies had advanced 
the day before. Many assaults were 
repulsed, the old walls withstood a 
fearful cannonade, and a dreadful fire 
broke out in the town. . . . During 
the night our troops evacuated the 
town, and on the morning of the 6th 
(18th) Napoleon entered it, but found 
nothing except snioulderiDg ruins, and 
no inhabitants Mi^V the old, the 

N 



244 



Boute 12. — Boslavl — Briamk, 



Sect.n. 



voung, and the sick, many of whom 
had taken refuge in the chnrches. 
Napoleon remained 4 days at Smo- 
lensk, and established a Commission 
for the civil administration of the 
town, with Caulainconrt as Military 
Governor. The Commission could, 
however, do nothing; a rising took 
place aU over the country; bands of 
partisans were formed, and destroyed 
foraging parties, and even larger 
bodies of the enemy, whenever they 
met them. The French tried to over- 
awe the people by acts of severity, and, 
having seized the leaders of two bands 
of partisans, Engelhard and Shubin, 
shot them at Smolensk. This only 
increased the animosity of the people, 
and when, on the 29th October (O.8.), 
Napoleon returned to Smolensk, he 
found nothing for the support of the 
remnants of the * great army.* 

" The further retreat of Napoleon was 
protected at Smolensk by Ney, who left 
the citv on the 6th (18th) November, 
after blowing up 8 of the towers built 
by Godunof, and a part of the other 
fortifications. The Russians who had 
remained in the town issued out of 
their places of refuge, and began to 
destroy with frenzy tibe stragglers who 
roamed about the town, throwing them 
into the flames of the burning build- 
ings and into holes in the ice. . . . 
The 20th regiment of Rifles entered 
Smolensk, and put an end to these 
outrages. The removal and destruc- 
tion of the bodies of men and carcases 
of horses were continued for 3 months 
afterwards, for many of the streets 
were literally encmnbered with the 
dead. At first the bodies were burned, 
piled in heaps half a verst in length 
and two fathoms Mgh, and, when 
the supply of wood failed, they 
were buned in trenches and covered 
with quick-lime. Epidemics subse- 
quently broke out in consequence. 
The losses incurred by Smolensk were 
at that time valued at 6,592,404 r. 
60 c." 

The mounds which cover tibe bodies 
of the unfortunate Frenchmen will be 
seen on either side of the old post- 
road from Moscow. Altiiough the 
demolition of the hlBtorical' walls of 



Smolensk has been commenced by the 
Town Council, there is reason to hope 
that this act of vandalism will go no 
further, and that the traveller, passing 
through the old city, will still catch a 
glimpse of its ancient defences. 

BosLAVL, 118 V. from Smolensk, on 
river Orcha. Pop. 7000. 

Vladimir Monomachus is supposed 
to have founded this town a.d. 1098, 
but its history does not properly begin 
imtil the middle of the 12th oenty. 
Like other towns in the principality 
of Smolensk, Roslavl was taken by the 
Lithuanians. In 1493 it was taken 
by the Moscovites, but in 1503 John 
III. gave it back to the Lithuanians. 
Later, Roslavl passed through several 
hands. In 1563 it was held by the 
troops of John the Terrible, who de- 
fended it successfully against the 
Lithuanians, whose leader. Prince 
John Lytchko, was taken prisoner. 
At that time the town was strongly 
fortified, and its walls were defended 
by many cannon and a large garrison. 
The citizens of Roslavl espoused the 
cause of the Pretender, and later, while 
the Poles were laying siege to Smo- 
lensk, they sent a deputation to King 
Sigismund with an offer of surrender. 
The temporary Polish governor of 
Roslavl, Nadolsky, so greatly irritated 
them that they impaled him. In 
1613, and again in 1632, the Mos- 
covites seized the town, but they were 
obliged each time to restore it by 
treaty to the Poles. It was finally 
annexed to Russia by a treaty made 
in 1686. The old martial spirit of the 
inhabitants revived dimng the French 
invasion, when they equipped a de- 
tachment of 400 horse and foot, and 
greatly harassed the French foraging 
parties. 

Bmansk, 145 V. E.N.E. of Orel, on 
both banks of the Desnia, and on those 
of 4 other small rivers, which divide 
the town into 4 parts, has a Pop. of 
13,000. This town is mentioned iu 
chronicles of the 12th oenty., and 
formed an independent principality, 
which fell in 1356, on the death of its 
prince, Vassili, or William. Wlien 
the Mongols invaded Russia, Briansk 
was seized by the lithuaniansi bat 



Bnssia. 



BofUe 12.—Kozelet8--Kief. 



245 



from time to time it was annexed to 
Moscoyy, as for instance in 1491. It 
was finally incorporated with Russia 
in the beginning of the 17th centy. 
The adherents of the first Pretender 
took possession of the town, but the 
citizens withstood the siege of the se- 
cond false Demetrius. Under the 
Empress Anne a shipbuilding yard was 
established there, after a plan by Peter 
the Great, for the purpose of building 
vessels to be employed against Turkey ; 
but the ships having proved useless, 
their further construction was stopped 
in 1789. In 1783 an arsenal was 
founded there for the manufacture of 
siege and field guns. It still exists, 
and supplies about 60 guns a year, be- 
sides gun-<»iTiages and other artillery 
appurtenances. There are 13 churches 
within the town. The Cathedral of 
the Intercession of the Holy Virgin 
was built in 1526, and restored in the 
17th centy. In the Sacristy will be 
seen a copy of the Evangelists, with 
the altigraph of the Tsar Michael, 
1637. There is also a convent con- 
taining 2 churches, in one of which is 
buried Oleg, Prince of Chemigof and 
Briansk, who flourished in the 13th 
centy., and afterwards took the cowl 
under the name of Leonidas. 

A considerable trade is carried on 
here in timber, hemp, and hemp-seed 
oil, produced in various parts of the 
province of Orel, in which the town 
is situated, and. forwarded hence to 
Moscow, Riga, and St. Petersburg. 
The inhabitants likewise purchase 
cattle in the southern provinces, and 
sell it in the capitals. 

Orel, vide Rte. 13. 

(For route firom Obxl to Etjbse, vide 
Bte. 13.) 

From Kursk the line of rail will 
pass through the following towns :— 

Belopoltb, on rivers Vyra and 
Kryga. Pop. 12,000. Founded in 1672. 
The citizenls of this town are noted for 
their industry and enterprise in trade ; 
wheat, salted fish, salt, pitch, and 
timber being the produce in which they 
deal. 10,000 to 12,000 chetverts of 
wheat are annually sold here. Tallow- 
melting is pursued to some extent. 

KozELETB, on river Ostra. Pop. 



5000. Thiswas a fortified town already 
in the 17th centy., when it suffered 
much from the fanaticism of the Uniates, 
and from the quartering of troops. It 
took an active part in the Cossack 
rebellion. In the latter part of the 
17th centy. it was frequently attacked 
by the Poles and Cossack Hetmans. 
There are 5 chs. in the town, of which 
the Cath. was built by Count Rastrelli 
in the reign of the Empress Elizabeth. 
It contains the tomb of the mother of 
a former Hetman of Little Russia — 
Count Cyril Razumofski. It is situated 
in the province of Chemigof, in Little 
Russia, in the fertile districts of which 
the traveller will observe some distinc- 
tive features in the landscape, such as 
the primitive windmills, and the use of 
thatch instead of wood for ttie roofs of 
the cottages, many of which have or- 
chards attached to them. The traveller 
will have observed on leaving Kursk 
that he was entering the fiat country 
of the ** Steppes ** — immense districts, 
where he will rarely descry anything 
between him and the horizon but a 
straggling tree or perhaps a tumulus. 
Before the construction of the railroad 
there was much danger in traversing 
these tracts in winter, — as in the dark 
or in a snow-storm the way was easily 
lost, and the bewildered wanderer would 
sometimes be frozen or overwhelmed in 
drift A few stations beyond Kozelets 
is 

KiEP. Hotels : H. d'Angleterre ; 
H. de Russie; H. de TEurope (very 
Mr) ; and severed others, almost equally 
good. Rooms from 1 to 5 rs. 

(Obs. Steamers ply twice a week in 
summer between Kief and Ekaterino- 
slaf, from whence travellers may proceed 
to Kherson, and take boat to Odessa, 
or proceed by Perekop through the 
Crimea. The steamers between Nico- 
pol, on the Dnieper, 'and Kherson, 3 
times a-week. Fare 7*50 rs.) 

History, — ^Kief, ''the Jerusalem of 
Russia," with a Pop. of 70,000, is one 
of the most ancient towns in Europe. 
Its authentic history begins with the 
arrivalof two Variagor Norman knights, 
Askold and Dyr, with their comrades, 
who left Novgorod to take possession 
of it. With a fleet of 200 vessels the 
K 2 



246 



Route 12.— Kkf. 



Sect II, 



Korman princes of Kief sailed along the 
Dnieper and the Euxin^ and reached 
Bvsouitium, where the knightsembraoed 
Christianity. In 882 Oleg came to 
Kief, with Igor, the youthful son of 
Hnrik, killed treacherously the two 
knights, and, taking pos8e£»ion of the 
city, determined that it should be '* the 
mother of Russian towns." 

From that period Kief became the 
capital of the Bussian principali- 
ties. Olga, Regent at Kief during 
the minority of the son of Igor, em- 
braced Christianity at Conste^tinople 
about A.D. 955. (Vide Historical 
Notice.) Under the Grand Duke Vla- 
dimir, who finally introduced tilie 
Christian religion into Russia, and 
during the reigns of several of his suc- 
cessors, Kief acquired much importance, 
and grew pro^rous &om its connec- 
tion with the Byzantine empire. An- 
cient writers atfirm that in the 11th 
cent, there were no fewer than 400 
churches within its walls. In the year 
1017 a fire almost entirely consumed it 
The death of Yaroslaf (1054) led to 
intestine commotions and wars, which 
more than once caused the city to 
change maaters. In 1240 the Tartars 
took it and sacked it. In 1320 Gue- 
demin, Duke of Lithuania, drove out 
the Tartars, and annexed the whole of 
that part of the country to Lithuania. 
In 1496 and 1500 the Tartars again 
ravaged the Ul-feited city. The sub- 
sequent fate of Kief will be best 
described in a short history of the S.W. 
provinces, of which it is now the seat 
of government. 

Volhynia, Kief, and Podolia have a 
Pop. of about 5 millions. Volhynia 
lies in the basin of the Prypet river, and 
is very fertile in its southern districts, 
which were once covered with castles 
and flourishing cities connected with 
the history of Poland, Jitomir is the 
only town that has risen since the an- 
nexation of Volhynia to the empire of 
Russia. Podolia is the country com- 
prised between the Bug and the middle 
part of the Dniester. From time im- 
memorial this has been a land flowing 
with milk and honey. The southern 
portion of the province of Kief is almost 
equally fertile. Beetroot is very much 



cultivated there, and many thousands 
of the population are engaged in ex- 
tracting sugar from it. 

This was anciently called the Uk- 
raine, or border country, and beyond it 
were the uninhabited Steppes by which 
the Mongols advanced to overrun 
Europe. The semi-nomadic population 
of the Ukraine were early called Cos- 
sacks. From the princes of the house of 
Rurik these provinces passed into the 
possession of Lithuania and Poland, 
after having been devastated by the 
Tartars in 1238. At the union of 
LitJjuania with Poland (1386) the 
whole of "Southern Ruthenia" was 
annexed to Poland. Polish nobles 
obtained large grants of unpopu- 
lated lands in Volhynia and Podolia, 
and built castles, under the sha- 
dows of which rose towns and vil- 
lages. By the union of Lublin (1569) 
the three provinces of Volhynia, Po- 
dolia, and Kief were recognised as con- 
stituent portions of Poland. But they 
were later ceded in part to Russia, 
which, however, by the treaty of Viazma, 
in 1634, recognised the right of Poland 
to Smolensk, Chemigof, and the whole 
of the Ulonine on both banks of the 
Dnieper. The Cossacks soon after 
became very troublesome. They were 
continually undertaking expeditions 
against the Turks and the Tartars, 
and laying Poland open to the imputa- 
tion of a want of good foith and a dis- 
regard of treaties. Recruited from the 
dregs of Polish society, and scorned by 
the Polish aristocracy, the Cossacks 
were very democratic in spirit. 

Religious dissension, caused by the 
conversion of a portion of the popumion 
of the southern provinces to Catholic- 
ism, gave them (the Cossacks) another 
cause of disaffection. Under the leader- 
ship of an ambitious and clever Polish 
noUe, Bogdan Khmelnitski, whom they 
elected Hetman, they rose in 1648, and 
devastated Volhynia, Podolia, and the 
Ukraine during 20 years. The Het- 
man, unable to resist the Polish arms, 
became a vassal of the Khan of the 
Crimea, and, finding his protection in- 
sufficient, swore allegiance to the Tsai 
Alexis of Moscow in 1657. 

By the Treaty of Andrussy (1667), 



Boute U.—Kief. 



247 



Poland and theTsar agreed to divide the 
Ukraine into two parts, the former re- 
taining the Ukraine on the right bank 
of the Dnieper, and Mofloovy taking the 
Ukraine on its left bank and the town 
of Kief. Southern Euthenia remained 
in the possession of the Bepublic of 
Poland until the second partition in 
1793, when the provinces of Volhynia, 
Podolia, and Kief passed finally under 
the Bussian sceptre. 

Topography, &c — ^Although deprived 
of much of its ancient grandeur, the 
city of Kief is, nevertheless, one of the 
most remarkable towns in Russia. 
Picturesquely situated on the right 
bank of the Dnieper, or Boristhenes, 
it is divided into three principal parts, 
the "Old Town," the ** Pecherskoi," 
also called the " New Fort," and the 
•*Podole," the "Low Town," or 
** Town of the Vale." Each of these 
has its own fortificatioos. The banks 
of the Dnieper are here lofty, and on 
two steep hills are situated the Old 
Town and the Pecherskoi division, witU 
their monastery, fortress, and bastions, 
separated from each other by a deep 
ravine, while the Podole occupies the 
space between the hills and the river, 
where the commercial affairs of the 
town are transacted. The site of the Old 
Town, in remote ages, was the Sclavo- 
nian Pantheon. There the worshippers 
of Perune, Horsa, Lado, and otlier 
idolatrous deities, rendered homage to 
their savage gods ; and there the rough 
Christian Vladimir erected the church 
of St. Basil (still standing), on the spot 
long decorated by the temple of Perune, 
the Russian Jupiter. At the northern 
end of the high land on which the Old 
Town stands is part of another church 
that was likewise erected by Vladimir. 
The immense earthen walls of this very 
ancient part of Kief enclose, within a 
small space, several churches, and the 
Cathedral of St. Sophia. This magni- 
ficient structure was built by the Grand 
Duke Yaroslaf in 1037, on me spot and 
in commemoration of his victory over 
the Petchenegans. It is replete with 
religious and historical recollections. 
On the pillan which support the cupola 
frescoes have lately been brought to 
light representing depfurted members 



of the Uniat hierarchy, wearing the 
Oatholic toosure, with close-shaven 
chins. The church of St. Sophia was 
in possession of the Uniats between 
1590 and 1633, when some of the fres- 
coes on its waUs were covered with 
whitewash, and thus preserved from 
the effect of time. There are some 
curious frescoes along the walls of the 
stairs leading to the galleries, descrip- 
tive of a boar-hunt and other sports, 
intermixed with drawings of musicians, 
dancers, and jugglers; all apparently 
cotemporaneous with the building of 
the church. Over the high altar is a 
picture of the Holy Virgin, in mosaic- 
work, by Byzantine artists. The Lord's 
Supper is also depicted in mosaic on 
the eastern wsdl of the ch., and there 
are many other specimens of the same 
work, more or less in a good state of 
preservation, and all of the liighest 
interest, considering their extreme 
antiquily. 

Hie marble tomb of Yarodaf stands 
in the chapel dedicated to St. Vladimir. 
It is curiously carved. The principal 
relics in the ch. of St. Sophia aro 
those of St. Macarius, Metropolitan of 
Kief A.D. 1495, decapitated by the Tar- 
tars in 1497. The church vessels and 
books are not very remarkable. Many 
princes of Kief lie buried here. 

There are many other churches of 
ancient origin in this venerable town. 
We can only mention the ch. called 
the Desiatinnaya, supposed to have 
been built a.d.* 989, by St. Vladimir, 
and that of St. George, erected about 
1052. A small monument is erected 
close to it over the ruins of an ancient 
monastery of St. Irine. The remains 
of an old wall are carefully preserved 
as marking the site of a gate of gilt 
bronze by which the town was ap- 
proached in the days of Yaroslaf. 

The palace of the Metropolitan is 
close to the cathedral, and shaded by 
venerable trees. Some remarkable re- 
mains of ancient art are preserved 
in it. 

The Pecherskoi Monastery, or Kievo- 
Pecherskaya Lavra, the first in rank 
in Russia, and the most ancient in 
origin, having been built in 1055, 
stands within the immense fortress of 



248 



Boule 12. — Pechershoi Monastery. 



Sect. II. 



Pechersk, and gives its name to that 
portion of Kief, which, from the eastern 
approach, has an exceedingly striking 
and picturesque effect. The churches 
and cathedral of the Old Town, grouped 
with those of this monastery, all gilt and 
coloured, and the massive fortress, walls, 
and hastions mantling the heights, 
seize at once upon the traveller's atten- 
tion at the close of his lahorious 
journey. 

The entrance to the monastery is by 
a splendid gate, ornamented by full- 
length representations of St. Anthony 
and St Tbeodosius, the two first abbots. 
The cathedral, dedicated to the Ascen- 
sion of the Virgin, is reached by a fine 
alley, on either side of which are the 
cells of the brotherhood. The interior 
of the cathedral is in an elegant style 
of architecture, and on its walls beau- 
tiful representations of scenes taken 
from Scripture history are many and 
various; it is also resplendent with 
gilding, gold and silver, applied to all 
decorative purposes in the building, 
and on the shrines, the most remark- 
able of which is that of the Virgin, over 
the doors which open into the Most 
Holy Place. The lights constantly 
burning about the church, and the pro- 
fusion of them about this particular 
shrine at the Vesper service, are in- 
sufficient to show to advantage the 
richly-decorated ceiling. The seven 
turrets of this church, with their gilt 
cupolas, connected by golden chains, 
and the superb belfry, which stands 
alone, and is upwards of 300 ft. high, 
add much to the external splendour of 
the place. It may be mentioned that 
the Russian annalist, Nestor, lived and 
wrote his Chronicle in this convent. 
Among the numerous other diurches 
in the enclosure, that of St. Nicholas 
is the most worthy of a stranger's in- 
spection. Within the walls of the 
fortress of Peohersk are the barracks 
of the garrison, tibe magazine, arsenals, 
and the houses of the officers. Near 
the fortress is a bazaar ; and the quarter 
of the town behind it, which is regularly 
laid out, is partly inhabited by Jews. 
The best part of the town, containing 
the residence of the Grovemor and other 
persons of distinction, shaded by fine 



old trees, is north of the Jewish neigh- 
bourhood. 

The renowned catacombs of St. An- 
thony, the founder of the monastery, 
are excavations in the precipitous cliff 
which overhangs the river; his re- 
mains are therein preserved at the 
extremity of the labyrinth. This 
passage is about 6 ft. high, but ex- 
tremdy narrow, and blackened by the 
torches of numerous visitors. The 
number of bodies here preserved is 
about 80, ranged in niches on both 
sides of the passage, in open coffins, 
enveloped in wrappers of cloth and 
silk, ornamented with gold and silver. 
The stiffened hands of the saints are 
so placed as to receive the devotional 
kisses of the pilgrims ; and on their 
breasts are written their names, and 
sometimes a short record of their vir- 
tuous deeds. These saints had died 
a natural death ; but the most distress- 
ing part of the scene is the row of 
small windows, behind which the 
martyrs had built themselves into a 
stone wall, leaving onjy those aper- 
tures at which to receive their food. 
The catacombs of Tbeodosius are to 
the south of those of St. Anthony, 
and are on a much smaller scale and 
simpler plan. They contain only 45 
bodies, which are not so highly vene- 
rated as those in the other catacomb. 

The pilgrims to this monastery and 
the catacombs amount annually to as 
many as 50,000, or more; some &om 
one part of the widely-extended Russian 
empire, some from another. A few will 
toil even all the weary way from Kam- 
chatka, collecting on the road the ofier- 
ings of those who are either not able 
or not sufficiently devout to undertake 
the journey themselves. A short dis- 
tance from the road which leads from 
Pechersk to the Podole, the traveller 
should notice a handsome monument, 
that marks the fountain in which the 
children of Vlaiimir the Great were 
baptized. It is a stone obelisk, 150 ft 
high ; and close to its base is a wooden 
crucifix, bearing, in Hebrew, Greek, 
and Latin, the words Jestts of Nazareth, 
the King of (he Jews, The administra- 
tion of the baptismal rite to the Russian 
people, at the period of the conversion 



Boiite 12. — Berdichef- — Vinrdtsa, 



249 



of their renowned Grand Duke, took 
place very near the spot on which this 
monument stands. 

The Podole portion of Kief is well 
and regularly laid out^ interspersed 
with trees and gardens, and forms a 
strong contrast to the old parts of 
the city, where, at almost every turn, 
the picturesque presents itself in great 
variety. 

The University of St. Vladimir, 
founded 1833, is frequented by about 
500 students. The library contains 
107,000 vols., and the collections are 
equally complete. 

The Nicholas Suspension Bridge 
over the Dnieper is one of the greatest 
modern triumphs of engineering art. 
It was built between 1848 and 1855, 
by an Englishman, Mr. Charles Vig- 
nolles. Its length is 6755 ft., and it 
cost about 375,0002. 



The railroad from Kief to Balta and 
Odessa will be ready in the autumn of 
1869. It will pass through the follow- 
ing towns : — 

Beedichzp, 194 V. from Kief, on 
river Gnilopiat. Pop. 53,000. 

History, — ^In 1320 the land on which 
the town is situated was given by 
Guedemin, Prince of Lithuania, to 
Tyskewicz, one of his subjects. At 
the close of the 16th centy. Tyskewicz, 
the then Vo^vod of Kief, built here a 
castle, and in 1627 founded a monas- 
tery of Carmelites, to whom later he 
bequeathed his castle. As Berdichef 
was subject to the inroads of Tartars 
and Cossacks, the monks built a wall 
and dug a ditch round the monastery. 
In 1647 Khmelnitzky, Hetman of the 
Little Bussians, took Berdichef and 
pillaged the monastery. The monks 
only returned in 1663, and commenced 
a lawsuit against the lord of the soil, 
who dispute their rights to the monas- 
tery. Their claim was admitted by a 
tribunal in 1717. In 1737 the monks 
began to build over the crypt which 
their predecessors had constructed 
about 1632. The superstructure was 
finished in 1754, when Pope Benedict 
jy. presented a valuable crown to the 
ancient image of the Virgin, given to 
the monks b^ Tyskewicz in 1627, In 



1700 the Hetman Mazeppa confined 
the celebrated Cossack rebel Palei in 
the crypt, which is still called after 
the name of the latter. King Stanis- 
laus Augustus permitted the holding 
of ten annual fairs at Berdichef, in 
1765, from which date the present 
commercial important5e of the town 
takes its rise. In 1768 Casimir Pu- 
lavski, chief of the confederates, after 
taking Bar, marched on Berdichef and 
fortified himself within the monastery 
with 700 men, and only surrendered 
by capitulation after a siege of 25 
days. The town now belongs to the 
Kaidziwill family, who inherited it by 
marriage. Berdichef is only second to 
Kief in the extent of its trade, which 
is entirely in the hands of Jews (nearly 
51,000). They purchase enormous 
quantities of goods at the fairs and 
seaports, and sell them wholesale 
and retail in the provinces of Kief, 
Podolia, and Volhynia. Markets are 
held twice a-week, and there are 5 
fairs during the year ; 14 (26) January, 
in March, 12 (24) June, 15 (27) 
August, and 1 (13) November. Those 
of June and August are the most 
considerable. The traders of Berdi- 
chef turn over about 40 millions of 
roubles during the year. The prin- 
cipal articles of trade are cotton and 
silk goods, glass-ware, hardware, salt, 
fish, cattle, wheat, and beetroot sugar. 

Vinnitsa, on river Bug. Pop. 
10,000. ' 

This town, now in the province of 
Podolia, was founded on the 1. bank 
of the Bog in the 14th centy., and was 
anciently protected by 2 castles, of 
which no traces remain. It was fre- 
quently attacked by the Cossacks and 
Tartars, particularly during the rebel- 
lion of the Little Bussians, under 
Khmelnitsky. In the 18th centy. the 
inhab. defended themselves against 
the Gaidamaks, or Cossack robbers, by 
shutting themselves up within the 
high walls of the Jesuits' CoUege, 
founded in 1649,1; by Wladislaus IV. 
The walls are still extant, but the 
building was devoted between 1813 
and 1847 to the purposes of a school, 
and later it was converted into a mili- 
tary hospital, The town was annexed 



250 



Boute 12. — Odessa, 



Sect. II. 



to Russia, together with Podolia, in 
1796. A Catholic monastery of Capu- 
cins, surrounded by a high wall, and 
a 'Russian oonTent, founded in 1635 
are among the sights of the town. 

A few stations beyond Vinnitsa the 
train will reach the Balta and Odessa 
line. 

Odessa, on N. coast of Black Sea. 
Lat. 46^ 28'. Pop. 119,000. 

Hotels, — H. de Londres, on the 
Boulevard, the best ; H. de 8t. Peters- 
burg ; H. de la Nouvelle Russie ; H. 
de TEurope. 

CZwftg.— Odessa, formerly the English 
Club ; the Russian Steam Navigation 
Club; German Club (the resort of 
merchants) ; and the Harmonic, where 
amateur theatricals are frequently 
]ierformed in German. 

CommissionerB. — Travellers should 
secure the services of a Jew ** factor," 
or commissioner, with whom accounts 
should be settled daily. 

Vehicles. — Drojkis are to be found 
at every corner ; they have generally 
2 horses; the fare is about 40 copecks 
the hour. 

History of the Town. — In the earliest 
ages settlements or seaports existed 
on the N. coast of the Euxine, between 
the Dnieper and the Dniester. One 
of these was called Odessus, after 
a Greek town in Thrace, and was 
situated at a short distance N.E. of 
the modem city. The great migra- 
tion of peoples which took place in the 
3rd and 4lJi centuries destroyed those 
settlements and their trade, and for 
nearly ten centuries there is no axicount 
of their being re-established. It is 
supposed that in the 9th centy. that 
part of the coast of the Euxine was in 
the possession of a Slavonian tribe. 
Somewhat later, when the Genoese 
began to visit the Pontus Euxinus, 
they gave the present site of Odessa 
the name of "La Ginestra," probably 
from the circumstance of its being 
overgrown with the genista tindoria, 
or dyer's broom; but they marked no 
settlements as existing there on their 
charts. From the 14th centy. the 
coast of the Black Sea between the 
Dnieper and the Dniester was claimed 
V the Pjrmoes of Lithuania. In 1396 



Olgerd, a Lithuanian general, defeated 
on that coast three Tartar chiefs, one 
of whom, called Bek-Hadji, had but 
a short time previously founded on the 
present site of Odessa a fortress which 
he named Hadji-Bey. First the Lithua- 
nians, then the Poles, held possession 
of the coast imtil the first part of the 
16th centy., when Hadji-Bey and its 
neighbourhood fell under the dominion 
of &e Tartars. Polish and Lithuanian 
merchants were, however, permitted 
to continue their trade there, and to 
raise salt from the lakes in the vicinity. 

When the Turks began to establish 
themselves on the Black Sea, they 
placed garrisons and raised fortifi- 
cations at several points along the 
coast Thus in 1764, while making 
ready for a war with Russia, they 
built the fortress of Yani-Dunya, at 
Hadji-Bey. In 1769 the Zaporogian 
Cossacks burnt the suburbs of Hadji- 
Bey, but having no cannon were un- 
able to take the fortress. The Treaty 
of Kinardji secured it to the Turks, 
who found it necessary to strengthen 
the works. When Russia went to 
war again with Turkey in 1787, the 
" Ataman '* of the Black Sea Cossacks 
attacked Hadji-Bey, and set fire to its 
stores, but the fortress only feU in 
1789, to Brigadier de Ribas, who com- 
manded the vanguard of the corps of 
General Gudovitch, then engaged in 
making a reconnaissance at the lower 
course of the Dniester. On the 14th 
(26th) September, 1789, De Ribas led 
his troops to the assault under a heavy 
fire both from the citadel and from the 
Turkish ships in the roads. In a 
quarter of an hour the left face of the 
fortress was penetrated, and the gar- 
rison yielded. By the Treaty of Jassy, 
1791, Hadji-Bey, with the whole of 
the province of Otchakof, was annexed 
to Russia. 

A new fortress was founded at 
Hadji-Bey in 1793, and m 1794 its 
builder, De Ribas, obtained permission 
to establish a mercantile city in its 
vicinity. The construction of the town 
and harbour was intrusted by Cathe- 
rine the Great to De Ribas and De 
Volant, who employed for that purpose 
the troops in garrison at Hadji-Bey. 



Bussia. 



Boute 12.— Odessa. 



251 



Greeks and Albanians were attracted 
to the spot, so that in 1795 Hadji-Bey 
had a population of more than 2000 
souls in addition to its garrison, and it 
was then named Odessa, after the 
ancient colony already mentioned. In 
1796 the new port was entered by 86 
foreign ships, and its commercial im- 
portance began to adyance rapidly. 
The accession of the Emperor Paul 
put a stop to the works, and De Hibas 
was recalled. In 1800, however, the 
privileges of Odessa were confiimed, 
and a sum of 250,000 roubles was ad- 
vanced from the Treasury for ihe pur- 
pose of finishing the construction of 
the port. The Emperor Alexander 
renewed the privileges for a term of 
25 years, freed the town from the 
quartering of troops — then a great 
hardship, — allotted one-t^ith' of the 
customs duties to the maintenance 
and improvement of the harbour, and 
caused two new piers to be built 
But the prosperity of Odessa is chiefly 
due to the talents and energy of Duke 
Emanuel de Bichelieu, a French emi- 
grant who was made its first governor 
in 1830. Eleven years later, when he 
was succeeded by Count Langeron, the 
population had grown from 9000 to 
25.000. 

The principal streets were laid out 
and lighted by him. He built the 
quarantine (in the old fortress), the 
mole, warehouses for foreign goods, 
and a theatre. With every opportunity 
of enriching himself^ the duke is said 
to have left Odessa with a small port- 
manteau containing his uniform and 
two shirts, the greater part of his in- 
come having been disbursed in reliev- 
ing the distresses of immigrants who 
generally arrived in a great state of 
destitution. His amiable and chari- 
table qualities endeared him to all 
classes, and his departure was greatly 
regretted. 

In 1817 Odessa obtained the privi- 
leges of a free port for 30 years. In 
1822, however, it having become 
known that the freedom was about to 
be abolished, the foreign merchants 
were on the point of quitting the town, 
when the obnoxious order was rescind- 
ed, and Ckrant Langeron, the governor. 



who had advocated the measiu-e, was 
dismissed . The town owes much of its 
present greatness to Prince Woronzoff, 
who came to reside at Odessa as Go- 
vernor-General of New Bussia in 1823. 
He .caused " the Duke's Garden " to be 
laid out, and a monster staircase on 
arches to be built from the end of the 
Boulevard to the shore under the cliff. 
Many educational and charitable insti- 
tutions were founded during his tenure 
of office, the harbour was deepened, 
and many other useful works were 
begun and completed. 

On the 10th (22nd) April, 1854, 
Odessa was bombarded during 12 
hrs. by an Anglo-French squmiron. 
The Tiger frigate went ashore on 
the 12th May near Odessa, and was 
set on fire by the shore batteries. The 
officers and crew were made prisoners 
of war, but not before they had 
burnt their colours and papers. The 
flag exhibited in one of the clis. at St. 
Petersburg as that of the Tiger be- 
longed merely to one of its boats. The 
freedom of the port was abolished at 
the outbreak of the Crimean war, and 
the town now enjoys an annual sub- 
sidy in lieu thereof! In 1861 gas was 
introduced, and in 1866-67 Mr. Fur- 
ness, an English contractor, paved the 
town very efficiently. Owing to the 
energy of Baron Ungern Sternberg, 
the railway was opened to Balta in 
1866. 

The imports of foreign goods at 
Odessa amounted between 1861 and 
1864 to the annual value of 10^ mil- 
lion roubles, while the exports were 
officially valued during the same 
period at 30} millions. Wheat is the 
principal article of export (17} mil- 
lions). It is brought to Odessa in 
bullock carts, in barges down the 
Dniester, Dnie^ier, and the Bug, and 
by the Balta rly. Wool is also ex- 
ported in considerable quantities (8} 
millions). The shipments of tallow 
are valued at a little less than a mil- 
lion roubles, and those of linseed at 21 
millions. The port is annually visited 
bv 1300 to 1500 vessels, of which 
about 200 are under British colours. 

Topography y Ac— Should the tra- 
veller have reached Odessa from the 
N 3 



262 



Boute 12.— Odma. 



.n. 



interior of Eiissia, he will be struck 
with the bright and European aspect 
of the great mercantile city, which, 
built principally of stone, is totally 
unlike any other Bussian town. Fa- 
voured, however, as Odessa is by its 
position on the sea, it is bordered on 
the left side by a dreary steppe of so 
intractable a soil that trees and shrubs, 
with the exception of the acacia, 
rarely attain any size, and in many 
places will not even live. A narrow 
slip along the sea-shore is about the 
only oasis of vegetation in the neigh- 
bourhood of the cihr. The climate is 
very unequal, and, the town being 
built on a limestone cliff of a very 
crumbling nature, the dust during 
summer is almost insupportable. There 
is sdso another and a greater evil — ^the 
want of fresh water ; the greater part, 
indeed nearly all, of this necessary of 
life is brought from a considerable 
distance through an aqueduct. Arte- 
sian borings have been made to a 
depth of 600 ft., but the water in the 
wells is rather brackish. Fuel is very 
scarce and dear. 

The principal promenade is the 
BotUevardy where a military band per- 
forms several times a week during the 
summer, when a stranger may see the 
^lite of the place. There is in the 
centre of this walk a bronze staitue of 
the Duke de Richelieu ; he is looking 
towards the sea, and &cing the mon- 
ster staircase already mentioned. A 
mcmument to Prince Woronzoff will be 
seen in the square next to the Cathe- 
dral, in which he is buried. His house, 
a princely mansion, is on the cliff at 
the end of the boulevard. 

At the other extremity of this is the 
Exchange, The Theatre, an elegant 
stone structure, witii a peristyle sup- 
ported by columns, is in the large 
square. Italian operas and Bussian 
and Frendi plays are performed in it 
throughout the year. There are 13 
Busso-Greek chs. at Odessa, and no 
fewer than 20 Jewish synagogues and 
schools. 

The Cathedral stands conspicuously 
in the centre of the town, and in the 
middle of an immense square sur- 
rounded by trees and by a balustrade, 



in which are four gates corresponding 
to the four cardinal points. This ch. 
is of considerable size ; it is built in the 
form of a cross, and is surmounted by 
a large cupola. Two of its facades 
present fine porticoes, each with a row 
of columns. The interior is very chaste, 
spacious, and elegant, and its floor is 
formed of white and grey marble. 
Among the principal buildings in the 
town may be mentioned the University 
of New Busgia, established 1865. This 
was formerly the Bichelieu Lyceum, 
founded by the duke. It is a very ex- 
tensive edifice, and in the form of an 
oblong square, divided by a line of 
buildmg m the middle. Some of the 
granaries are worthy of notice ; they 
are remarkably well built of stone. 
That of Sabanaky, on the ravine, is of 
immense extent, and has an imposing 
appearance from the streets looking 
towards the Quarantine, which was 
formerly the fortress. The Greek and 
other Bazaars merit attention, parti- 
cularly to a person landing here ; they 
afford opportunities for observing local 
and national peculiarities. 

Odessa is rich in public institutions, 
each as sohodlsejid hospitals. The Pub- 
lic Library, close to the statue of Biche- 
lieu, is small, but well chosen. The Jlfu- 
seum contains many objects of antiquity 
from the sites of ancient Greek colo- 
nies in this part of ^the world, par- 
ticularly from those of Olbia, Kher- 
sonesus, Panticapsdum, &c. &c. Some 
of the vases and medals are worthy of 
observation, and a gold one of the time 
of Alexander is in remarkable pre- 
servation. And last, though not least 
in interest, is a japanned flat candle- 
stick, once the property of the philan- 
thropic Howard ; it is preserved with 
great care. The sight of this relic 
will call up a host of feelinss connected 
with the remembrance of his fieite, and 
emotions of admiration and respect for 
his imwearied exertions in the cause 
of humanity. Howard's last words to 
his friend Priestman are character- 
istic : — '* Let no monument or monu- 
mental inscription whatsoever mark 
the spot where I am buried; lay me 
quietly in the earth, place a sun-dial 
over my grave, and let me be forgot- 



Eussia. Boute 13. — Moscow to Odessa : Serpukhof, 

ten." And truly this remarkable man 
seems to be forgotten. His remains 
lie mouldering in the steppe near 
Kierson, and those who pass by his 
tomb are alike ignorant of his yurtues 
and his name. 

Odessa enjoys an Etablissement de 
Bains, situated at the foot of the Boule- 
vard, and miineTal waters are sold at 
an establishment in the town garden. 
The public daughtering-kouaes are on a 
large scale. Many thousands of cattle 
are there boiled down for the tallow. 
It is a singular, but not a yeiy agree- 
able spectacle. A drive to the race- 
course and to the villas on the sea- 
coast should be imdertaken by the 
traveller. About 2 m. out of town is 
a fine country-house and garden which 
once belonged to a Goimt Bazumofski, 
who, having quarrelled with his next 
of kin, purposely squandered his for- 
tune in excavating vast subterranean 
galleries on his estate. It stands next 
to a public garden which was once 
Eichelieu's, and its present proprietor 
is Mr. Zarifi, a Greek merchant at 
Odessa, whose permission to visit the 
garden will be easily obtained. An- 
other place of resort out of town, and 
particularly in the eveninff, is the 
country house that once belonged to 
Count Langeron, Music, fire-works, 
&c., are provided there for the enter- 
tainment of the public. There is also 
a Botanical Garden outside the town, 
but, as said before, the difficulties of 
soil, drought, and firost are highly in- 
jurious to the growth of plants. Melons 
are raised in the gardens in the en- 
virons of the city; they are of the 
most delicious flavour, and very cheap. 

Divine Service.— -Theie is no Eng- 
lish ch. at Odessa, but Divine service is 
performed on Sundays at a private 
house, the clergyman being supported 
partly by the contributions of the Bri- 
tish inhabitants, who are, however, 
very few in number. 

Consulate. — ^A British C5onsul-Gene- 
ral resides at Odessa. 



253 



ROUTE 13. 

MOSCJOW TO ODESSA, BY TULA, OEEL, 
KUBSK, KHARKOFF, POI/TAVA, KUEMEN- 
C'UUK, ELIZA VETGBAD, AND BALTA. 

[A great portion of this route may 
now be made by rail. Travellers must 
inquire before leaving Moscow how far 
the lines of railway have been pushed, 
and they can then decide whether it 
wUl be best to proceed byway of Kief, 
or to take the more direct route by 
way of Kharkofi*, Poltava, Kremen- 
chuk, Elizavetgrad, and Balta, even at 
the cost and fatigue of making several 
stages by post. Until the Southern 
lines are completed, it is impossible to 
give more than a sketeh of the princi- 
pal towns through which they will 
p«.ss, especially since the fares, the 
time-tables, and other conditions of 
the sections already opened will bo 
liable to great changes.j 

Serpukhof, 92 v. from Moscow Stai . 
Buffet. Town very prettUy situated. 
A great manufacturmg centre, espe- 
cially of cotton prints. Pop. 10,500. 
Inn pretty good. From the earliest 
ages Serpukhof belonged to the princes 
of Moscow, but the first authentic 
mention of its name occurs in 1328. 
In 1382 it was pUlaged by Tokhtamysh 
on his march to Moscow, and in 1410 
it was again sacked, by the Prince of 
Lithuania. Prince John Belski, de- 
ceived by Khan Bevlet Ghirey, per- 
mitted the troops of the latter, number- 
ing 100,000, to approach Serpukhof, 
which was at that time occupied by 
John the Terrible and his Opritchniks 
(vide Historical Notice), who there- 
upon retired to Kolomna, near Moscow, 
while Prince Belski, to avoid the con- 
sequences of his error, fled to Lithu- 
ania. The town walls, which will be 
seen on an elevation, were built in 1556 



254 



Boute IS.— Tula. 



SeciU. 



and have a circumference of about 500 
fms. 

Tula. — 181 v. from Moscow. Pop. 
10,500. Hotels : London, ^posite Go- 
vernor's House; and St. Petersburg ; 
both indifferent. 

Tula, the Bussian Birmingham and 
Sheffield combined, is situated on the 
small Upa river. It is famed for its 
manufactories of fire-arms, and gene- 
rally for its hardware. 

■rile province in which it is situated 
was in the earliest ages the battle-field 
of the Slavonians and their enemies 
the Ehazars, Pechenegians, and, lastly, 
the Tartars. Hence it is that it was 
but little i)opulated, and its towns 
have preserved but few records. Tula 
is first mentioned as a city in a treaty 
of peace between the princes of Mos- 
cow and Kiazan in 1383, to the latter 
of whom it belonged until the first 
part of the 16th centy. The last prince 
of Biazan having, however, been sum- 
moned to Moscow in 1516 and kept 
there as a prisoner, all his territories 
were annexed to Muscovy. In the 
latter part of the 16th centy. Tula was 
the centre of a line of defence erected 
against the Tartars — a line which, on 
one side, passed through Pronsk to 
Biazan and Nijni-Novgorod, and on 
the other through Msensk and Kara- 
cheff to Briansk. 

Throughout the whole of the 16th 
centy. the Crimean Tartars continually 
devastated the southern borders of 
Bussia, and frequently laid waste to 
the lands which now constitute the 
province of Tula. In the year 1552, 
more particularly, Devlet Ghirey be- 
sieged the town, assisted by the 
Janissaries of the . Sultan, but was 
forced to retreat. In the early part 
of the 17th centy. Tula was the re- 
sort of robbers and criminals, who 
were permitted to escape thither in 
order that they might populate the 
province, and defend it against in- 
vaders. A celebrated band of these 
outlaws was the first to join the ranks 
of Otrepief, the false Demetrius, in 
1605, who for a time made Tula his 
capital. Here he received the Ambas- 
ladors of the Council of Moscow, and 



hither were brought the Treasury and 
the raiment of the princes of Moscow. 
On the death of Otrepief, when a report 
of his miraculous preservation was 
spread, the citizens of Tula marched in 
1606 on Moscow, but were driven back 
with the loss of their leader, Pashkoff. 
For some time Tula was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the Moscovite troops. At 
last the Tsar Basil appeared before its 
walls in person, but, still meeting with 
effectual resistance, the besieging army 
conceived the idea of reducing the 
garrison by inundating it with the 
waters of the Upa. A dam was accord- 
ingly constructed below the town, and 
in a short time the river submerged all 
but the highest parts of it, and the 
inhabitants were obliged to come out 
with offers of submission. The prin- 
cipal rebels were executed. Ileika, an 
impostor, who gave himself out as 
Peter, son of the Tsar Theodore, was 
hanged near the Danilof monastery 
(vide Moscow). But the peace thus 
restored was not of long duration. 
Other lawless bands succeSied, led by 
the second pretender, known as " the 
thief of Tushin." They tortured and 
killed the inhabitants for their loyalty 
to the Tsar. 

flJThe last military event in connec- 
ti^i with the history of this unfortu- 
nate town occurred in 1613, when it 
was burnt to the ground by the Poles. 
Its peaceful history only commences 
with the reign of the Tsar Michael. 

It is time, however, to mention that 
the town of which the history has been 
thus sketched existed some 10 m. to 
the N. of the present site of Tula. 
Nothing remains of the old city, and 
the new one dates only from the be- 
ginning of the 18th centy., when Peter 
the Great turned his attention to the 
mineral riches and industrial develop- 
ment of this part of his dominions. 
Although the more recent rise of Tula 
to the position of chief town of a pro- 
vince is due to the skill of its inhabit- 
ants in the art of gun-making, yet the 
first impulse to their industry was 
given so far back as the 16th centy., 
when iron-ore was discovered in the 
village of Dedilova, 20 m. from Tula. 
But for a considerable time the iron 



fiussia. 



Boute IB.— Tula. 



256 



produced at Dedilova continued to he 
almost useless for the purpose of 
making weapons of war, and conse- 
quently iron was imported from 
Sweden, and gun-harrels, swords, and 
guns from £^gland, Germany, and 
particularly from Holland. 

The Dutch were the first to esta- 
blish iron foundries and works in 
Russia. In 1553, Akema, a Dutch- 
man, and Marselius, from Hamburg, 
founded several iron-works and^a gun- 
factory, and in 1633, Winnis, another 
Dutclunan, established a foundry, and 
worked the metals by means of water- 
power, near the site of the old town. 
More than 600 artificers were brought 
■from foreign countries, to teach the 
Bussians the art of making guns, 
swords, locks, &c. Successive charters 
confirmed and extended the privileges 
granted to the manufactories, and 
from 1613 the Tula gunsmiths began 
to work exclusively for the State. 
Peter the Great caused a great num- 
ber of young men to be sent thither, 
and to be kept at work imder the 
strictest discipline. Small works were 
erected by the Government about 1707, 
but they were burned down in 1711. 
In 1712 works on a larger scale, still 
extant, were commenced, and finish '^d 
in 1718, with the assistance of the 
Swedish prisoners taken by Peter, who 
by the year 1720 had 1160 gunsmiths 
at work, producing annually 15,000 
muskets, 2000 pairs of pistols, and 1200 
pikes. Twelve years previously, or 
in i685, the number of artificers was 
only 122, and they did not make more 
than 244 arquebuses and culverins, 
many of which may be seen in the 
Arsenal Museum at St. Petersburg, 
and in the Treasury at Moscow. But 
the death of Peter the Great was a 
blow to the trade, from which it only 
recovered in the reign of Alexander I., 
when tlie Government arms-factory 
was made to produce about 13,000 
various weapons per month (1813- 
1814). 

like almost all Eussian towns, Tula 
has suffered frequently from fires, and 
particularly in 1834, when a large por- 
tion of its inhab. were reduced to 
beggary. The new small-arms fJActory, 



which is well worth seeing, was 
erected under the superintendence of 
Mr. Trewheller, an Englishman, who 
made the establishment one of the 
first in Europe. The lathes are turned 
by water, which runs through iron 
cylinders large enough for a man to 
walk in nearly upright ; and by meaps 
of a warming apparatus, the working 
of the lathes is not interrupted by any 
degree of frost. In addition to the 
government factory, there are many 
manufactories of sporting guns, and a 
great number of locksmiths, the total 
number of establishments where iron 
or other metal is worked being about 
200. Large quantities of cutlery are 
made at Tula, and an immense trade 
is carried on in brass tea-urns, used 
almost in every Bussian house. The 
Tula ware of nieUo, and its silver 
snuff-boxes, &c., have long been cele- 
brated in Europe. 

The recent discovery of coal in 
the province of Tula and the con- 
tinued richness of its iron-mines pro- 
mise much for the prosperity of the 
town, especially since it has been 
made a station on the Great South- 
ern Railroad. There is nothing to 
interest the traveller in Tula beyond 
its manufactories, excepting perhaps 
the old walls of the Kremlin, parallel 
with the rt. bank of the Upa. They 
were constructed in 1520, in place of 
an old wooden fortification erected 
1509. They are built partly of stone 
and partly of brick. Catherine II. 
caused the walls to be surrounded by 
a dry ditch and a glacis, one fathom 
deep and 2 fms. broad. The wall 
and " the towers, then very much 
decayed, were at the same time re- 
paired. 

Those who wish to study the coal 
measures of the Moscow basin should 
make an excursion from Tula in the 
direction of the village of Malefka, 
in the district of Epifan. There is a 
post road to Epifan, and from that 
little town to Malefka the distance is 
about 25 versts. The village belongs 
to Count Bobrinsky. The colliery of 
Malefka, which is superintended by 
Dr. Leo, a mining engineer from Ger- 
many, is now of considerable extent. 



256 



Boute 13.— Ord. 



Sect. II. 



It will afford great interest to the 
geologist, on account of its limestones, 
which are rich in very peculiar petri- 
factions, {RhyneoneUa panderi, Betzia 
tidemis, Spirifer inftatotj sp, amleatus, 
sp. ano8 offiy Produdus paitdeH, pr, 
faUax, Miehdinia romca, &c. The 
limestones are considered by Bussian 
geologists to be Upper Devonian. 
They lie immediately under the slate 
clays of the coal formation, and their 
fauma is a transition from the De- 
vonian faima to that of mountain lime- 
stone. 

Obel, 339 V. 8.W, from Moscow. 
Pop. 43,000. Junction with Riga, 
Diinaburg, and Witebsk Rly. Hotds : 
there are two hotels at Orel, superior 
to those at Tula. The first is the old 
Posting-house in Karachef-street, and 
the other in Briansk-street. The 
latter is pretty fair. Talysen's chain- 
bres gamie9 are much frequented by 
the nobility of the province. There is 
no taMe d'hStej but excellent dinners 
may be had at the Nobility Club 
House. Orel is the chief town of 
the province bearing the same name, 
and is a very important centre of 
trade. Its connection by rail with 
Riga, to be* effected by 1870, will still 
further increase the advantages of its 
position. It is situated on the slopes 
of a somewhat considerable ravine 
at the June, of the small river Orlik 
with the Oka, which here becomes 
navigable. 

Founded by John the Terrible, 
about 1565, for the defence of the 
Grand Duchy of Moscow against the 
Tartars, it was removed from its ori- 
ginal site on the Orlik to its present 
position in 1679, after a great &re. Its 
reconstruction was superintended by 
Jacob Van Frosten, who also built an 
earthen waU and towers, of which no 
traces remain. During the troubles 
at Moscow in the early part of the 
17th centy., Orel took the side of 
the rebels, and in 1605 a party that 
had declared for the Tsar was seized 
by the adherents of the Pretender, and 
cast into prison. In 1611, however, 
when the Poles attempted to place 
their Prince, Wladislaus, on the throne 



of Muscovy, the citizens of Orel swore 
allegiance to the Tsar Michael, which 
led to the town being sacked by the 
Poles. But Orel 1ms suffered less 
from its enemies than from conflagra- 
tions, of which the more severe took 
place in 1673, 1848, and 1858. In the 
latter year more than 600 houses, 
several churches, and a convent were 
destroyed, together with an immense 
quantity of wheat and hemp. 

The town at present contains 9 
churches of the Russo-Greek faith, of 
which the cathedral, dedicated to the 
Apostles Peter and Paul, was founded 
in 1794, at the cost of the nobles of the 
province, in commemoration of the co- 
ronation of the Emperor Paul, but was 
only finally consecrated in 1861. The 
bishops of Orel reside in a palace which 
was formerly a monastery, suppressed 
1819. There are also a Lutheran and 
a Roman Catholic Chapel. The Gos- 
tinnoi Dvor or Bazaar is a handsome 
and extensive building. Orel possesses 
a theatre, presented to the town by 
Coimt Levashoff, on condition of ite 
revenues being appropriated to the 
support of an asylum; also a public 
library and a public garden of nearly 
20 acres. The finest buildings in the 
town are the Courts of Law (founded 
1846), the Governor's house (1783), 
the Assembly-house of the nobility 
(1823), and a military gymnasium. 

Mu(^ of the taUow and hemp ex- 
ported from Russia comes from Orel 
and its neighbourhood. The yearly 
transactions of Orel in wheat amount 
to about 1 million roubles. It is 
brought there, for sale and shipment 
down the Oka, from the neighbouring 
provinces of Tula and Voronej, but 
particularly from Eursk. The sales 
of hemp and hemp-yam likewise re- 
present more than a million of roubles 
per annum, the raw material being 
grown principally in the province of 
Orel, and partly in that of Tula. Lin- 
seed oil, purchased in the provinces of 
Orel, Tula, and Kursk, is an article 
of some importance in the trade of 
Orel, its annual sales representing half 
a million roubles. 

Large quantities of cattle are driven 
to Orel from Voronej, Kursk, and 



Bussia. 



Boute 13. — Kursh. 



257 



other southern districts; they are 
partlj melted down for tallow, and 
partly disposed of at Moscow. Can- 
dles and soap are largely manu- 
factured out of the tallow. There 
is also a considerable trade in timber 
and salt. 

Hitherto the extensive commerce 
of Orel has had two outlets, one by 
land, the other by water down the 
Oka. The goods despatched down 
the Oka are destined to be discharged 
at Kaluga, Serpukhof, Kolomna, Mu- 
rom, Nijni-Novgorod, Bybinsk, and in 
part at St Petersburg, with which the 
water communication is uninterrupted. 
By land, the produce of Orel is sent to 
Moscow, and to the stations on the 
rivers of the province of Smolensk, for 
despatch to Riga and St. Petersburg. 
The completion of the line to Witeb& 
and Biga must necessarily change the 
character and direction of the large 
trade of this town. Fairs are held 
3 times a year : between the 6th and 
20th January, the 8th and 31st Sep- 
tember (O.S.), and during the 5th and 
6th wee^ after Easter. The first fair 
is the least considerable. The bazaar 
or market days are Sundays and 
Fridays. After the gathering of the 
harvest as many as 10,000 carts enter 
the town daily, laden with wheat, 
hemp, linseed, &c. 

KuBSK, 488 V. 8. of Moscow. Pop. 
28,000. Junction of Kursk-Kief rly. 
Vide route to Odessa. JSotd: Polto- 
ratsky's, in Moscow-street. 

The town is very prettily situated 
on the river Tuakor, near its junction 
with the Seim. The Kur, an afflu- 
ent of the Tuskor, likewise flows past 
the town. The gardens that abound 
at Kursk give it a very picturesque ap- 
pearance. Being in the centre of a 
ricli agricultural district, a consider- 
able tiade in grain, tallow, hemp, &c., is 
carried on, much of the produce being 
sold at St. Petersburg and Moscow. 
Fairs are held on the 23rd April (O. S.), 
and during the 10th week after Easter ; 
the mar£t-days are Mondays and 
Fridays. Two very large fairs (Ko- 
rennaya) are held at a spot 27 v. from 
Kursk, on the 9th Friday after Easter | 



and on the 8th (20th) Sept. of each 
year. 

History,— K^coids attest the exist- 
ence of Kursk in 1032, and in 1095 the 
town is mentioned as being in the pos- 
session of Isiaslaf, son of Yladimir 
Monomachus. From its foundation to 
the Tartar conquest, Kursk passed 
from the Princes of Chemigoff to those 
of Pereiaslavl, and suffered much from 
internecine wars, and from the incur- 
sions of the Polovtses. One of these 
incursions, repelled by Igor Sviatosla- 
viteh, in conjunction with Wsewolod 
of Kursk and other princes, is the 
subject of an ancient poem, well known 
throughout Bussia. In the 13th centy. 
the Tartars destroyed the town en- 
tirely. It was fortified in 1586, with 
other places on the southern frontier of 
Muscovy; and from that time to the 
middle of the 17th centy. it met with 
great disasters at the hands of the 
rebels (1612), the Grim Tartars (1600, 
1615, anji 1645), and lastly the Poles 
in 1634. The fortress, of which only 
a portion of the wall is extant, was 
erected along the edge of a . sloping 
hill, washed by the waters of the 
Tuskor and Kur, and having the ap- 
pearance of a triangle. It was pro- 
tected on two sides by those rivers, 
and on the other by a deep diteh, 
closed in 1783, and since converted 
into the ** Krasnaya" or red (beautiful) 
square. 

There are 19 churches of stone 
within the town; the cath. was built 
in 1733, and the ch. dedicated to 
St. Sergius in 1762. The latter con- 
tains a copy of the Gtospels printed in 
1698. In the Oh. of the Annuncia- 
tion, built 17414, is a silver cross, sent 
by the Tsar Michael. The ch. next 
in importance is that of St. Elias, built 
1768. There is also a Lutheran ch. 
in Kursk, as well as a monastery and a 
convent. ,The monastery, called the 
Bogoroditshy - Znamensky (Apparition 
of Virgin) was founded in 1612 by the 
citizens of Kursk to commemorate the 
retreat of the Polish Hetman Jolkevski. 
who had threatened to pillage the 
town. It was, however, burnt down 
by the Poles in 1634 and 1649, and 
was not entirely restored until 1680, 



258 



Route IS.— Kharkoff. 



Sect.n. 



by the contributions of the charitable, 
and particularly by the bounty of 
Prince Gregory Komadanofsky. The 
cathedral within it contains a holy 
image held in great veneration — that 
of l£e Apparition of the Holy Virgin 
—an event that took place at a monas- 
tery called Korennaya, 27 v. from 
Kursk, founded 1597, and where a 
great fair is yearly held. Immense 
crowds follow the procession of the 
holy image to that place, and the latter 
remains there from the 9th Friday 
after Easter to the 12th (24th) Sent. 

This image is reputed to have oeen 
found by the inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring town of Rylsk, on the 8th (20th) 
Sept. 1295, in a wood on the banks of 
the Tuskor. It was discovered resting 
on the roots of a tree, and fruitlessly 
did the good citizens endeavour to 
keep it at Rylsk; it always returned, 
until they were forced t6 keep it in a 
chapel on the very place of its appear- 
ance, during a period of 302 years. 
When at last the monastery was 
founded, it was deposited there, but in 
1615 removed to Kursk. 

There are many public buildings on 
a large scale at Kxusk, such as several 
gymnasia, an hospital, a lunatic asy- 
lum, and a house of correction. A 
large public garden attached to the 
latter establishment is the fieivourite 
promenade of the inhabitants of Kursk. 
It was presented to the town by one 
of its former governors, Patd Demidoff. 

The rly. hence to Kharkoff will be 
open for traffic in 1869. 

BLharkopp, 697 v. from Moscow, and 
209 V. from Kursk. Pop. 52,000. 

HM : " Vienne," in Moscow Street, 
dose by the bridge overlooking the 
river. Grerman spoken. 

History. — The town of KharkofE; now 
the seat of government of a province of 
the same name, was founded about 
1650 by a band of Cossacks, of whom 
the chief, Khariton, is popularly sup- 
posed to have given it its present 
appellation, although the anterior ex- 
istence of a rivulet in the vicinity 
bearing the same name is cited by 
others in refutation of that theory. 

Its history is however far more an- 



cient, as attested by innumerable tumuli 
and ruins, mentioned by chroniclers 
even in the 16th centy., as well as by 
the '* babi " or carved idols of stone, and 
the coins both of ancient Rome and of 
the Khalifs, found in great quantities 
throughout the province of Khark- 
off, and particularly along the banks 
of its nvers. Remarkable images, 
or idols of stone, are found ex- 
clusively in the southern part of the 
province, and continue to be met with 
in the neighbouring district of the 
province of Ekaterinoslaf, while the 
tumuli occur in greatest numbers at 
the southern and eastern extremities 
of the province which the traveller 
will now have reached. From the posi- 
tion in which these monumeTiia UHte- 
rata have been discovered it is argued 
by archfldologists that the southern 
and part of the western district of the 
province were anciently populated by 
two distinct races which nmde war 
upon each other, causing the inhabit- 
ants of the western and northern banks 
of the rivers Donets, Yorskla, and Psla 
to protect themselves from incursions 
by earthworks. Some of the more an- 
cient names of places may be traced to 
the Khazars, and others to the Tartars, 
by both of whom Russia was overrun 
in remote ages. At all events the 
races that inhabited the province of 
Kharkoff, and whose existence has left 
traces from the Enisei in Siberia to the 
foot of the Caucasus and the mouths 
of the Dniepr, must have passed away 
before the Christian era, for a Roman 
writer of the fourth centy. after Christ, 
while speaking of the Huns, compares 
their faces to the " roughly-hewn posts 
with the face of a man, such as may 
be seen on the shores of the Pontus 
Euxinus." The discovery of coins of 
Octavius (Augustus) and of numerous 
ancient weapons near the town of 
Chuguef (36 v. from Kharkoff) esta- 
blishes the fact of an early intercourse 
with Rome, while the coins of the 
Khalifs found near Sumi( 187 V. from 
ELharkoff) prove the existence of an 
early mercantile connection with Ara- 
bia. 

Panslavists assert that the whole of 
the country tt^^onsideration was 



Eussia. 



Bmte IS.^Kharkojf. 



259 



peopled by Slavonian races before it 
began to be mentioned by Greek and 
Boman writers, but more impartial 
authorities are of opinion that at any 
rate the south-eastern portion of the 
present province of Kharkoff was the 
camping-ground of ancient nomadic 
tribes, particularly of the Ehazars, who 
established their power from the banks 
of the Caspian to the very borders of 
Kief, the Norman princes of which at 
last drove the barbarians back. The 
northern Donets is frequently men- 
tioned by old Russian chroniclers when 
relating the wars of the Polovtses and 
the Petchenegians. Many towns ex- 
isted in its unmediate vicinity, and are 
mentioned prior even to the 11th centy. 

In the 13th centy. the province of 
Kharkoff became the high-road of the 
Tartar invaders of Russia, who, by their 
long possession of the coimtry, gave 
many of the localities and rivers their 
present names. But after their great 
defeat at Kulikovo, in the 14th centy., 
outposts or posts of observation began 
to be established on the Ebopra and the 
Don, and later still the watershed of the 
northern Donets and the Oskol is fre- 
quently mentioned as the battlefield 
of the Russians and the Tartars of the 
Crimea, who, in the latter part of the 
15th centy., followed in the footsteps 
of the more ancient enemies of Russia, 
the Tartars of the Golden Horde, in- 
habiting the shores of the Caspian. 
In the 16th centy. those outposts were 
pushed on far beyond the confines of 
the present province of Kharkoff, and 
a regular fortress, no longer extant, 
was at last built in 1598 at the junction 
of the, Oskol with the Donets. From 
that fime the country watered by those 
rivers began to be populated, but dis- 
sensions with the Poles in Little 
Russia, and the turbulent events at 
Moscow that preceded the election of 
the Tsar Michael, once more threatened 
to arrest its natural development. 

In 1638 a disaffected band of Little 
Russians, then subject to Poland, were 
permitted to place themselves under 
the allegiance of the Tsar of Mos- 
covy, and were by him established 
at Chu^ef. These emigrants were 
followed by others, who undertook the 



defence of the southern frontiers of 
Moscovia, and for that purpose were 
banded together under a military or 
Cossack form of government. The 
pretensions of Poland to this province 
were renoimced by a formal treaty in 
1647, which considerably increased the 
emigration from Little Russia, and led 
to the establishment of many towns, 
amongst which was Eharkoff, near the 
junction of the Kharkoff and Lopani 
rivers. 

The ancient fortress of Kharkoff 
was of oak, and round it was a 
moat two fins, in breadth and depth. 
Later it was armed with 10 cast-iron 
guns and 1 of brass, while its ammuni- 
tion consisted of 8 barrels of gunpowder, 
402 shells, and 8 rolls of lead. The 
defence of the town was intrusted to a 
regiment of Circassian Cossacks, who 
had likewise emigrated to these parts. 
The dissensions in Little Russia that 
followed on the death of the celebrated 
Bogdan Khmelnitsky once more dis- 
turbed the peace of Kharkoff, for in 
1668 the Hetoian Briuhovitsky, having 
raised the Cossacl^s of Little Russia, 
summoned all the Cossacks of the Don 
and of the settlements around Kharkoff 
to join him in his rebellion against the 
Tsar of Muscovy, then accused of 
desiring to transfer the Cossacks to the 
Crown of Poland. The garrison of 
Kharkoff refused to join the rebels, 
who, however, penetrated into the town 
and besieged the fortress, which was 
at last relieved from Chuguef. For 
their loyalty the Cossacks, or regiment 
of Kharkoff received several privileges 
and immunities in 1669. In the war 
that followed they took a prominent 
part, and, for the defence of their co- 
lonies, erected a wall between the 
Kolomak and Mja, and several new for- 
tifications on the Donets, the principal 
of which, called Izium, subsequently 
became head-quarters of the regiment, 
and ultimately gave it its name. 

Between 1679 and 1680 the Khan of 
the Crimea broke through the fortifica- 
tions of Valki, a town 51 v. firom Khar- 
koff, and, after devastating the country 
up to the walls of Belgorod, returned in 
safety, although pursued and partly 
beaten by the Cossacks of Kharkoff. 



260 



Boute IS.— PoUam. 



Sect. II. 



In 1693, 15,000 Tartars and Janissaries 
crossed the borders of the " Eharkoff 
regiment," and laid waste to the out- 
slorts of the town, but they were sub- 
sequently driven back with great loss — 
a victory for which the Eharkovites 
obtained a new charter and 2 guns from 
the Tsar. These inroads were continued 
even in the 18th centy., principally be- 
cause the Cossacks of Kharkolf refused 
to assist Mazeppa or the rebel Bulavin. 
Philip Orlik, proclaimed Hetman, in 
Turkey, after the death of Mazeppa, 
induceid the Khan of the Crimea to 
invade the colonies of the Cossacks 
with 50,000 men, who were accompanied 
in that expedition by the Zaporogian 
Cossacks (or Cossacks from beyond the 
rapids of the Don), and by roblier bands 
formed of the remnants of the defeated 
followers of Bulavin. The work of 
pillage and destruction was continued 
until 1720, when the Khan withdrew. 
No enemy has since molested the in- 
habitants of Kharkofi^ whose military 
organization was reformed with that of 
other Cossack towns in the same pro- 
vince in 1765, when it was also made 
the capital of the Ukraine. 

Trade and prosperity have since esta- 
blished the importance of Kharkofi*, 
now one of the principal centres of 
trade in Bussia. It has an immense 
trade in wool, and four fairs are annu- 
ally held tiiere — the " Krestchenskaya," 
or Epiphany fair, opened on the 6lii 
(18th) January, being one of the 
most important in Bussia. In 1863 
goods to the amount of 2^ or 3 mil- 
lions sterling were brought to that fair, 
the textile fabrics alone representing a 
value of about a million sterling. The 
wool sales take place exclusively at 
the Trinity fair, in June. Bazaars or 
markets are moreover held on Sun- 
days, "Wednesdays, and Fridays. They 
are particularly active immediately 
before Christmas and Easter. 

Kharkoff is likewise a seat of learn- 
ing, as it possesses auniversity, founded 
in 1805, and frequented by 600 students. 
It is situated, in the centre of the town, 
the principal building having been for- 
merly a palace of the Empress Cathe- 
rine 11. The scientific collections are 
kept in that building, but tiie library, 



containing 55,000 vols., is on the other 
side the street. The Zoological Cabinet 
contains a valuable collection of the 
birds of S. Bussia and of the fishes of 
the Black Sea. 

In the north part of the town is a 
Veterinary College, conducted on a very 
liberal scale and well worthy of a visit, 
as is also the Government Model Farm, 
about a mile out of Kharkoff, esta- 
blished 1847. The environs of tho 
town are very picturesque, and the view 
from the " Cold Mountains,'* or still bet- 
ter from the lower part of Ekaterinoslaf- 
street, is one of the most striking that 
can possibly be imagined. There is 
also a large public garden, the Chinee 
pagoda in which was erected at an ex- 
pense of 30,000 rubles. 

A railway will be completed in 1870 
from Kharkoff to Taganrog and Bos- 
tof, on the Sea of Azof, and it is 
probable that until then travellers 
proceeding to Odessa by the route now 
being described will have to post from 
Kharkoff to the nearest rly. station of 
the line which is being pushed on east- 
wards from Balta. It must be reserved 
for the next edition of this Handbook 
to give a more minute description of 
one unbroken line of rail from St. 
Petersburg to Odessa, the present break 
in that line being between Kursk and 
Elizavetgrad (vide the map). 

Poltava, 842 v. from Moscow. Pop. 
28,000. 

Hotels: H. de St. Petersbourg; H. 
de Paris ; H. d* Italic. 

History, — Very little is known of the 
early history of this town beyond that 
it was called Stava in the 12th centy., 
and that it was destroyed by the Tar- 
tars in the early part of the 13th centy. 
Known later as Platava, Oltava, and 
Poltava, it waa given in 1430 as an 
appanage to Lexada, a small Tartar 
prince, ancestor of the princes of 
Glinsk, who became related to the 
princes of Moscow through Helen 
Glinskaya, mother of John the Terri- 
ble. By other authorities the antiquity 
of Poltava is denied, and its origin is 
traced to the year 1608, when it bSaune 
the settlement of some Cossack families. 
But it is probable that both account^ 



Sussia. 



Soute 13. — Poltava. 



261 



are equally correct, for the older in- 
habitants still speak of the old and the 
new town, the former being situated 
on an eminence about a mile from the 
river Vorskla, and on which a cathe- 
dral, built in 1770, and a ch. erected 
1707, will be seen. The new town 
occupies a splendid position on another 
high hill, and the river flows between 
the two lulls and through the marshy 
plain to the wood beyond. During 
the revolt of the Cossacks under Bog- 
dan Khmelnitsky, Poltava beccune a 
regimental town — a character which it 
lost in 1764 when the Hetmanate was 
abolished. 

The battle of 1709 was fought in a 
plain about 4 m. 8.W. of the town. A 
mound of earth about 40 ft. in height, 
surmounted by a cross, covers the 
bodies of the Swedes who fell, and 
serves to mark the centre of the field. 
An iron column in the town itself 
commemorates the defeat of Chiles 
XII. 

The present province of Poltava, like 
that, in great part, of Kursk and Kher- 
son, anciently constituted the princi- 
pality of Pereyaslavl, later known as 
the Ukraine. Traces of old earthworks 
and innimierable tumuli are found 
throughout the province of Poltava: 
the most considerable of the former 
may still be seen in the vicinity of 
Gadiatch, a district to the N.W. of the 
town of Poltava. It is, however, diflS- 
cult to distinguish the more ancient 
ruins from those of a comparatively 
recent period, due to wars with Lithu- 
anians, Poles, and Swedes. The Tartars 
likewise gave many appellations to 
vDlages, but these are more generally 
called after names given to them by 
the Lithuanians and Poles during their 
possession of Little Kussia. 

When Guedemin of Lithuania took 
Kief in the 14th centy., the country in 
which the traveller will now have ar- 
rived was annexed to Lithuania ; and 
when the union between Poland and 
Lithuania was effected in 1386, Little 
Bussia acquired the same civil and 
religious rights as were enjoyed by the 
Poles themselves. In 1476 Casimir 
established Yoevodes and CasteUairui in 
the towns and villages of the Ukraine, 



whose oppression, according to Eussian 
accounts, led to the establishment of 
Cossack bands who migrated beyond 
the rapids of the Dniepr, and whose 
descendants are now known as the Za- 
porogian Cossacks. The new colonies, 
atta&ed in their turn by hordes from 
the Q'imea, were forced to unite under 
a military organization, which was 
subsequently governed by a Hetman, 
elected with the sanction of Sigis- 
mund I., King of Poland, who endowed 
the Cossacks with lands on both sides 
of the Dniepr. 

They were thus divided into the 
Zaporogian and Ukraine Cossacks, the 
latter occupying lands in the present 
province of Poltava, and partly in those 
of Kief and Podolia, and consisting of 
20 regiments. These military bands 
soon became the terror of the Tartars, 
and later still stood up in defence of 
their religion, that of the Greek Church, 
which was endangered by the intoler- 
ance of the Jesuits. The famous re- 
bellion under Bodgan Khmelnitski in 
the 17th centy. resulted in a treaty ,of 
peace with Poland in 1650, and led to 
the annexation of Little Eussia to 
Bussia Proper in 1654. The Hetman- 
ate was preserved imtil 1764, when 
the administration was brought into 
uniformity with that existing in other 
provinces of the empire. 

But Little Bussia remained for some 
time longer subject to the depredations 
of the Tartars, until the Ukraine line of 
defence was commenced in the reign of 
Peter the Great along an extent of 400 
V. from the Dniepr to the Donets, and 
finished in 1732. The fortifications 
and earthworks on that line were de- 
fended by 20,000 Cossacks, but Little 
Bussia was not finally freed from the 
incursions of the Tartars until Cathe- 
rine II. subjected the Crimea to her 
rule. 

As a place of trade Poltava occupies 
a very prominent position among 
Eussian towns, principally on account 
of the fair (Ilyinskaya) held there on 
the 10th July (O. S.) of each year, and 
lasting one month. The average value 
of the goods carried to this great com- 
mercial gatiiering is estimated at about 
3^ millions sterling; the number of 



262 



Boute 13. — Ejremenchuh — JElizavetgrad. Sect. IL 



carts which hring them from Moscow, 
Odessa, KharkofiC Ktirsk, and Yoronej 
being more than 20,000. Eussian 
manufactures are much sold, but wool 
is the great staple of trade. Horses, 
cattle, and sheep are likewise bought 
and sold in. great numbers at that fair. 
Poltava has also long been celebrated 
for its leeches, found in neighbouring 
pools and morasses, and despatched 
across the whole length of the con- 
tinent for exportation. 

Kbemenchuk, 955 v. from Moscow ; 
113 V.S.W. from Poltava. Pop. 36,000. 

Hotel : the Posting-house, tolerable. 

This pretty- and thriving town is 
situated on the 1. bank of the Dniepr, 
which, by overflowing in 1820, 1844, 
1 845, andl850, committed great ravages. 
The northern part of the town is pro- 
tected from inundation by 2 dams at 
Eriushi village. Two other small 
streams flow through one end of the 
town, which is supposed to have been 
founded in 1571. It was burnt down 
in 1663 during the revolt of the Cos- 
sacks, and two years later it was oc- 
cupied by a Bussian detachment. In 
1765 Elremenchuk was made the pro- 
vincial town of New Russia, and at 
that time the celebrated Prince Potem- 
kin of the Taurida Uved there in a 
palace of which only the foundations 
can now be traced. Fires occurred 
in 1848, 1852, and 1856. Nothing is 
left of the old fortress or earthwork 
built by the Poles in the 17th centy. 
Thfere are five churches of the Russo- 
Greek faith, of which the cathedral 
was built 1813. The finest houses are 
the Head-quarters of the Inspector of 
the Cavalry of Reserve and the " In- 
valides." The Town-haU is in the 
old Gothic style of architecture. The 
river runs at a very rapid rate opposite 
the town, and is passed in ferry-boats. 

A large trade is carried on hence in 
tallow, salt, grain, beetroot, sugar, &c. ; 
and the town is a great emporium of 
ike raw and half-manu£a.ctured pro- 
duce brought down the" Dniepr from 
tlie provinces through which that river 
fiows, and overland from Voronej, 
Smolensk, Orel, Kursk, and Little 
Russia. Between 1859 and 1862 the 



average annual amount of produce 
shipped at Eremenchuk was as fol- 
lows : — 

Salt 1^75,820 poudB. 

Grain 332,248 ,, 

Tallow, candles, and soap . 48,252' „ 

Wool 21,668 „ 

Linseed. ...... 41,680 „ 

Fairs are held on the 30th January 
(during 14 days), 24th June (11 days), 
and Ist Sept, (10 days) ; all old style. 
In 1862 the sales at these fairs amoimted 
to 85,000Z., and the value of the goods 
brought to about 110,000^. 

The rly. hence to Balta and Odessa 
will be open in the latter part of 1869. 

Steamers ply in summer between 
Exemenchuk and Kief. 

Elizavetgrad, 1071 v. from Moscow, 
and 116 v. from Kremenchuk. Pop. 
24,000. 

Hotel. — As the rly. from Balta will 
lead to the establishment of better 
inns, inquire at the rly. stat. 

This town was founded in 1754 by 
Colonel Hosvat, a Servian, acting un- 
der the orders of the Empress Eliza- 
beth, after whom it was originally 
called the " Fortress of St. Elizabeth." 
The fortress was demolished in 1805. 
Situated on the sloping Steppe de- 
clivities of the valley of the Ingul, 
Elizavetgrad has a very pleasing ap- 
pearance, and is well built. It has a 
"Great Perspective" street, full of 
shops and a boulevard of white acacias. 
In the suburb of Kovalevka are many 
houses of the neighbouring gentry. 
It is separated from the town by a 
large square, on which stands the so- 
called palace, inhabited by members 
of the imperial family whenever they 
visit the town. Barracks and a riding- 
school wiQ be found on the same pUice^ 
which is further adorned by a boule- 
vard of acacias and poplars. Elizavet- 
grad is a place of great trade in tallow, 
grain, &c. The most important of the 
4 £a,irs held there is that of St. George 
(held on the 23rd April, O.S.) the value 
of the goods brought to it in 1863 haying 
been above 300,0002. A large business 
is done at it in manufactured goods 
{brought from Odessa, WUna, and 



Boute 13. — Olviopol — BaUa. 



Berdicheff. A market is moreover 
held daily, and the transactions are 
considerable, particularly after harvest 
time. There is a large garden her 
longing to the government, on the river 
Sugakley, 2 v. out of Eliza vetgrad. It 
covers nearly 60 acres, and existed 
prior to the progress made by Catherine 
II. in New Russia. The tumuli of 
which the traveller has heard so much 
thi-oughout his journey southwards 
begin to be numerous here. 

The rly. hence to Balta and Odessa 
will be open in July, 1868. 

Olviopol, 306 v. fix)m Odessa. Pop. 
4000. 

Hotd — ^none. Travellers wishing to 
stay must continue to make the rly. 
stat. their headquarters. 

History, — Situated at the confluence 
of the Siniuha with the Bug (which 
is here spanned by a fine rly. bridge), 
Olviopol, although a mean-looking 
town of wooden hovels, is a place of 
considerable importance as regards 
trade, being in the centre of a district 
abounding in wheat. The rly. from 
Balta, opened 1868, will considerably 
add to its importance, which in early 
days was in a ^reat measure strate- 
gical. The Simuha river was in the 
17th centy. a Polish boundary, and a 
little below the mouth of that river, 
on the island of the Bug, once stood 
the fastness of Cossack sea-robbers, 
who more than once harassed the Poles, 
although not without paying dearly for 
it on several occasions. la order to 
put an end to the depredations of the 
Cossacks, the Russian government re- 
solved to fortify the course of the 
Siniuha, and, in 1744, erected some 
works on the 1. banks both of the 
Siniuha and the Bug. In 1764 the 
fortifications became the peaceful re- 
sort of traders and the seat of a custom- 
house. The great commercial highway 
from Poland to Otchakoff passed 
through it. In 1770 the fortifications 
were rebuilt, and in 1782 the site 
was raised to the dignity of a town, and 
called Olviopol, in memory of the 
ancient Greek colony on the 1. bank of 
the estuary of the Bug. 

The subsequent war with Turkey 



removed the Russian frontier to the 
Dniester, and Olviopol lost its military 
importance. The town now trends for 
about 5 m. along the 2 rivers, but it 
has scarcely any streets. Its southern 
part is frequently inundated by the 
Bug, which before the construction of 
the rly.-bridge was crossed with great 
diflSculty and danger. About ^ m. 
from the mouth of the Siniuha are the 
remains of fortifications. The inhabit- 
ants of Olviopol are much engaged 
in carrying wheat in barges to Niko- 
lae^ Yoznesensk, and Odessa. 

Balta, 194 v. from Odessa. Junct. 
with Odessa — ^Volochisk line (border 
ofGalicia). Pop. 14,000. 

Hotels : two, kept by Jews, but very 
bad. Travellers can wash at the rly. 
stat. 

History,— BsltA is the chief town of 
a district in the fertile province of 
Podolia, watered by the Dniepr and 
the Bug, and having more than a 
million acres of land under cultivation. 
The vine flourishes throughout the 
Balta district, and the grazing of cattle 
is pursued on a large scale. In 1 860 
it possessed 74,200 head of homed 
cattle, 11,300 horses, 38,000 sheep, 
14,800 swine, and 200 goats. The 
immense trade in raw products, which 
is the consequence of such fertility 
and riches, is principally in the hands 
of Jews, who constitute half the popu- 
lation of Balta. 

Thirteen stations beyond Balta the 
train will stop at Kuhkovo, the rly. 
stat. of Odessa, for description of which 
vide preceding route. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



264 



Boute 14. — Kchmna — SiazatL 



Sect.II. 



ROUTE 14. 

MOSCOW TO VOROmSJ, BY BIAZAN, 
mAJBkj AHD KOZLOF, WITH BRANOHES 
TO MOBSHANSK AND ELBTS. 

This line runs parallel with the 
railway to Eharkoff and the Azof, and 
is destined to be continued to the 
countrv of the Don Cossacks. It is 
opened as far as Voronej. Fare to Ria- 
zan about 12 roubles. The principal 
towns through which it passes are : — 

Kolomna, 107 v. (8 stats.) from Mos- 
cow. Pop. 17,000. Buffet at station. 
This town, situated on the rt. bank of 
Moskva river, is first mentioned hj 
chroniclers in 1177, and until the be- 
ginning of the 14th centy. it formed 
part of the principality of Riazan, but 
it has been annexed to Moscow (of 
which province it is now a district- 
town) since 1305. It was frequently 
ravaged between the 13th and 17th 
cents. ; in 1237 by the Tartars under 
Baty ; in 1380 by the hordes of Tokh- 
tamysh; in 1380 by Prince Oleg of 
Riazan ; in 1440 by Mahmet, Tsar of 
Kazan ; in 1525 by the Grim Tartars 
under Mahmet Girei ; in 1608 by the 
Poles under Lissofski ; in 1609 by the 
Pretender or Robber of Tushin ; and in 
1611 by Wladislaus, King of Poland. 
After the sack of 1525, John the Ter- 
rible caused the old walls of the town 
to be rebuilt, and they partly exist to 
this day. They had a circumference 
of 2 v., and were 8^ fms. high, and 2 
fms. broad, with 14 towers and 4 
gates. The Piatnitski Gate is alone 
well preserved, having been restored 
in 1825. Of the towers, those called 
the Kolonma and Tainitski (Secret) 
Towers are in a tolerable state of pre- 
servation. 

Kolomna was in ancient days the 

prison of many historical personages. 

In 1433 Vassili the Dark, the de- 

osed Tsar of Moscow, lived here. In 

1 reign of John the Terrible many 



of the most distinguished families of 
Novgorod the Great were exiled to 
Kolomna, which was also the prison, 
in 1611, of Marina Mniszek, the wife 
of the Polish pretender to the throne of 
Muscovy. In the 16th centy. it was 
thrice the gathering-point of the Rus- 
sian legions that marched against the 
Tartars. In the Oh. of the Resurrec- 
tion, within the Kremlin, Dimitry of 
the Don married Eudoxia, Princess of 
Suzdal. The present Oathedral of the 
Assumption was built in 1672 on the 
site of a cathedral built in the 14th 
centy. by Dimitry of the Don. There 
are also a convent founded 1552, and 
a monastery established 1799. In 
1866 there were 16 manufactories at 
Kolonma, of which 3 of cotton goods 
and 1 of silks. A considerable trade 
also exists in wheat, salt, timber, and 
cattle. It is favoured by water com- 
munication with the provinces border- 
ing the great Oka river, and by its 
fluviatile connection with Moscow. 

Between Kalonma and the next 
station of Lukhovitsi the train will 
pass over a fine bridge thrown over the 
Oka river. 

Riazan, 185 v. (13 stats.) &om Mos- 
cow. Pop. 25,000. 

Hotel : Steuert's Hotel in Astrakhan- 
street, very good. Rooms, 1 r. to 
150 c. per day. 

Riazan is veiy prettily situated on 
the small Lybed rivulet, which falls 
into the Trubej river at the eastern 
end of the town, and is distant only 
2 V. from the banks of the Oka. It 
stands in the centre of a rich agricul- 
tural district, and carries on a great 
trade in rye. The province of Riazan, 
of which the town is ^e seat of govern- 
ment, was anciently inhabited by 
Finnish tribes, one of which, the 
Mestchera, still retains some of its 
characteristics, and occupies a district 
on the Oka, about 80 v. from Riazan. 

The Mordva tribe holds large tracts 
in the neighbouring province of 
Tambof, and its members to this day * 
preserve their characteristic dress and 
a distinct language. The women of 
these ancient Finnish races may be 
known by the omaments which they 



Bussia. 



Boute 14. — Biazan. 



265 



Buspend lonnd the chin, and which 
principally consist of small silver coins 
on strings. 

The town of Murom, so called after 
another of those tribes, is mentioned 
as in existence before 862, but the 
principality of Biazan appears to have 
been founded at the latter part of the 
11th centy., and to have been tributary 
to the principality of Murom until the 
year 1155. Later it fell under the 
power of the princes of Vladimir, but 
regained its independence and enjoyied 
it until its absorption into the princi- 
pality of Moscow in the 16th centy. 

The old city of Riazan, founded in 
the 11th centy., was destroyed by the 
liordes of Baty in 1237, and thence- 
forth Pereyaslavl-Eiazanski, founded 
about the same time (1095), gradually 
succeeded to its importance, and now 
bears even its name. The fortifi- 
cations of Pereyaslavl were rebuilt 
1198. In 1294 the town is mentioned 
in connection with the miraculous 
voyage of the Bishop of Murom on a 
mantle down the Oka, first to Riazan, 
then to Pereyaslavl. In the 14th 
centy. the latter town was the scene 
of many stirring events connected with 
the history of Riazan. During the 
whole of the 15th centy., and until 
1517, it was the capital of the Princes 
of Biazan. Although frequently at- 
tacked by the Tartars in the 15th and 
16th cents., the town did not suffer as 
much then as in previous invasions. 
In 1513 the Ostrog or Citadel was 
taken by the Tartars, but they were 
repulsed from the town. In the 14th 
centy. Pereyaslavl was surrounded by 
a double wall, protected by 12 towers, 
and a wet ditch. These were extant 
in 1684, when the town was divided 
into two parts— the Kremlin and the 
Ostrog (Citadel). The former stood 
on an elevation at the mouth of the 
Trubej and Lybed, while the latter in- 
cluded the space between those two 
rivers. No trace remains of the ancient 
fortifications. 

The Cathedral of (he Asmmptifm, on 
the square of the former Kremlin, was 
built in 1690, and is, from its great 
size, one of the most remarkable build- 
ings in Biuwia. It was restored in 1800, 



and the belfry was rebuilt 1840. Its 
greatest treasures are 2 " miracle-work- 
ing " images or pictures of the Virgin. 
One of them was brought to the old 
city of Riazan from Murom by Bishop 
Vasili in 1291, on the occasion of his 
wonderful voyage above-mentioned ; 
the second ** appeared to the people " 
in 1487, in the village of Fedotief : its 
fete is held since 1618 annually on the 
2nd (14th) July, in commemoration 
of the deliverance of Riazan from an 
invasion of the Cherkesses. In the sa- 
cristy of the cath. is a cup which was gilt 
in the 17th centy. with the gold signet 
of Baty, who is reputed to have left it 
in the monastery of Bogoslof, in this 
province, on the occasion of his inroad 
into Russia. The Episcopal Palace 
stands near the cathedral. The Ch, 
of the Nativity was rebuilt in the early 
part of the present centy., on the site 
of a very ancient edifice. It contains 
the relics of the famed Vasili, first 
Bishop of Murom and Riazan, which 
were removed hither from old Riazan 
in 1592. In it are buried Prince 
Theodore of Riazan, his consort, 
daughter of Dimitry of the Don (14th 
centy.), and his son John; also his 
grandson and 2 great-grandsons. The 
inscriptions on some of the other tombs, 
now scarcely legible, show that they 
contain the remains of the Princes 
Tretny, descendants of Prince Theo- 
dore. Many of the bishops of Riazan 
of the 16th and 17th cents, are like- 
wise buried in this ch., and amongst 
them Bishop Stephan Yavorski, " De- 
fender of tiie Patriarchal Throne." 
In the sacristy may be seen the panagia 
or reliquary of Bishop Stephan; a 
great number of chalices and patens, 
mostly of the 15th centy. ; the mantle 
of Arohbp. Misail, who perished in ' 
his attempt to christainise the Mordva 
tribe; halberds, remains of ancient 
banners, &o. The Monastery of (fie 
Transfiguraiion, with 2 chs., is of 
unknown date, but it existed in the 
middle of the 15th centy. The Con- 
vent of Kazanski^Yavlmshi was re- 
moved to its present site in 1787. The 
Dvlchof, or Monastery of (he Holy Spirit, 
near the Episcopal Palace, was founded 
in the 16th centy. The date of its 



266 



Boute 14. — Biajsk. 



Sect. n. 



suppression as a monastery is not 
known. 

ExouBSiONS. — Some of the monas- 
teries in the province of Riazan are 
very ancient. That of Solotcht, at the 
junction of the Solotchi with the Oka, 
18 V. from Eiazan, was founded in 
1390 by the celebrated Prince of 
Biazan, Oleg, the enemy of Moscow, 
and of Dimitry of the Don, and who 
subsequently took the cowl there. His 
remains and those of his consort Eu- 
praxia, originally buried in a ch. which 
stood near the monastery, were re- 
moved in the early part of the present 
centy. to the crypt of the principal ch. 
within its walls, where also portions of 
their stone coffins, and of the coat of 
mail as weU as the greaves of Prince 
Oleg, nre deposited. The latter relics 
are considered to have healing powers, 
and are allowed to be put on by 
visitors. The monks will show an 
ancient image carved in stone repre- 
senting the Holy Princes Boris and 
Gleb. The Bogoslofski Monastery^ on 
the Oka 25 v. from Riazan, was founded 
in the early part of the 13th centy., 
and restored 1534. Within its 2 
churches are many ecclesiastical trea- 
sures, of which the most remarkable is 
a holy image of John the Evangelist, 
painted at Constantinople, and pre- 
sented to the Prince of Biazan. It 
manifested miraculous powers in 1237. 
Tradition says that Baty approached 
the monastery in order to destroy it, 
but, suddenly struck with awe, he not 
only spared it, but endowed it with 
treasure, depositing at the holy image 
of John the Evangelist the gold signet 
with which, as we have already seen, 
the cup shown in the cathedral at 
Biazan was later gilt. The handle of 
tlds miraculous image, preserved in 
the sacristy, bears an inscription re- 
lating its history, which is also men- 
tioned in a charter given to the monas- 
tery by the Patriarch Adrian in 1692. 
The monastery of Lgof Usfpemld.on 
the high bank of the Oia, 10 v. from 
Biazan, was founded by Prince Oleg 
at the end of the 14th centy. Its ch. 
was rebuilt 1667. The tombs of the 
princely family of Stchetinin-Yaros- 



lafski (of the 16th and 17th cents.), 
stand on the crumbling bank of the 
river, into which many ancient tomb- 
stones have no doubt fallen. 

An excursion may likewise be made 
to the site of the old city of Biazan, 
now a village about 50 v. from Biazan, 
on the rt. &nk of the Oka, and 2 v. 
from the small town of Spask. It is 
still surrounded by an earthen ram- 
part on 3 sides, while on the 4th or 
western side it is protected by the high 
bank of the Oka. The mounds in the 
vicinity have yielded many archsBologi- 
cal treasures. A pyramidal monument 
of cast iron, erected in 1836, marks the 
spot where the body of Bishop Vasili 
rested imtil its removal to Biazan in 
1592. 

There are many fine estates in the 
province of Biazan. We may mention 
those of Jeludiova and Lakasha (of 
about 40,000 acres), belonging to Mr. 
Eolemin, 80 v. from Biazan, near the 
town of Spask, and the site of old 
Biazan. levellers who would wish 
to make themselves acquainted with 
the Bussian system of farming will 
readily be initiated into the several 
processes by one of these large pro- 
prietors, to whom an introduction may 
without much difficulty be obtained 
at St. Petersburg or Moscow. 

Travellers bound from the S. of 
Bussia to the fair of Nijni can post 
from Riazan to the town of Easimof, 
136 V. distant, in an E.SJB. direction. 
At Elatma, a small town E. of Easimof, 
about ] 00 V. by post-road, but a very 
short distance across country, they will 
find a steamer which ascends to Murom 
and Nijni 3 times a week. See Bte. 8, 
Moscow to Nijni Novgorod. 

BiAJSK, 109 V. (6thstat.) from Biazan. 
Pop. 3000. This town is situated on 
the Hupta river, which communicates 
with the Oka by other tributaries. 
The date of its foundation is unknown, 
but it existed in 1502. Traces of its 
ancient earthworks are still visible. 
The merchants, who carry on a very 
large trade in ^in, tallow, hides, &c., 
reside principally in the villages of 
Ukholova (1st stat. on rly. to Mor- 
shansk) and Perevl5s, in the district 



Bu8sia« 



Boute IL—'MoreJiansh — Kozhf. 



267 



of Rlajsk, and therefore the town itself 
is but little enlivened by trade. It 
has now, however, acquired consider- 
able importance by its connection with 
Morshansk. 



\Bramk Railway from Biajsk to 
Morshansk. 

Trains run several times a day to 
Morshansk, distant 121 v. Moscow 
time kept. 

Morshansk, on river Tsna, Stat., 
Pop. 20,000. Hotels : there are several 
ordinary Russian inns. As the rly. 
recently establislied may cause some 
improvement in them, inquire for the 
best at the stat. 

History. — The site of Morshansk 
was given to the Bishops of .Biazan 
in the 17th centy., and from a village 
it became a town in 1779. There are 
8 churches, of which the cathedral is 
a fine modem structure, consecrated 
1857. The old cathedral of Sophia 
was built 1753. The town has been 
deemed worthy of a railroad on ac- 
count of its great trade, due to its 
position in one of the most fertile pro- 
vinces in Russia — Tambof. Tallow- 
melting is its principal industry. In 
1861 it had 13 melting-houses, which 
produced 8300 cwt. of tallow. There 
are also a soap-manufactory, a distil- 
lery, &c. The tallow is principally 
the produce of the cattle which the 
merchants of Mordiansk purchase in 
the country of the Don Cossacks, 
and in the provinces of Astrakhan, 
Saratoff, and Orenburg, to the ex- 
tent of 20,000 head of homed cattle, 
and 100,000 sheep. Large quantities 
of tallow, in small parcels, are also 
brought from other towns, and re- 
melted at Morshansk. The meat is 
carried to Moscow. In winter Mor- 
shginsk is visited by merchants from 
St.< Petersburg, Moscow, Yaroslaf, 
Vladimir, &c., who come to purchase 
the grain, linseed, tallow, potash, and 
other produce brought there from the 
provinces of Tambof, Penza, Saratof, 

Bussia.—ISQS. 



and Riazan. The purchases of grain 
alone at Morshansk are estimated at 
5,000,000 r. Saturday is the market- 
day. Hitherto all this produce has 
been shipped by the Tsna river to St. 
Petersburg and Moscow, but the rly. 
is intend&d to supersede the water 
communication.] 



Route to Voronej continued^ 

KozLOF, 198 V. from Riazan, and 
89 V. from Riajsk. Pop. 30,000. 
Inn: Rogof's Hotel. This is at the 
same time the exchange of Kozlof, 
where most of the transactions in 
grain are concluded over a cup of tea. 

History, &c. — Kozlof is situated on 
the river Lesnoi-Voronej, and was 
founded by Joseph, a hermit, in 1627, 
who was joined by other religious 
men, by whom later a brotherhood 
was established. Its cathedral was 
bmlt 1839, and the oldest ch. extant 
dates only from 1772. This is also 
one of the great centres of trade in 
Russia, being in the centre of a blswjk- 
soil district, rich in grain and cattle. 
There are 14 tallow-melting houses, 
2 soap-works, 7 candle-works, 3 brew- 
eries and distilleries, &c. But the 
principal trade of the town consists in 
the sale of grain, of which 900,000 
chetverts are bought up in the neigh- 
bouring districts, and despatched to 
Moscow. The tallow is the produce 
of 20,000 head of cattle slaughtered 
in the town, but a much larger num- 
ber is driven to Kozlof annually, from 
the banks of the Kuban and from 
Little Russia ; the cattle that are not 
melted down for tallow are sold in 
Moscow. A large quantity of salted 
meat is prepared at Kozlof, and there 
is also a large trade in horses, the 
province of Tambof, to which the town 
belongs, being celebrated for its studs. 
There are no fewer than 36 breeding 
stables in the district of Kozlof alone. 
The trade of the town is valued at 
4,000,000 roubles, and the railroad 
will very naturallj^^^ it to in- 
crease considerably. <^ 



268 



Bcmte 14. — EleU — Vormef. 



Sect. IL 



Gbiazi (3rd stat. from Kozlof)) 
on the rt. Matyra, a tributary of the 
Voronej. 

This is an agricnltural village of 
2000 Inhab. A considerable qnantity 
of fish is also caught here. There is 
a railrocul hence in oonstruction (1868) 
to Elets. 

The mineral waters (alkaline and 
fermginons) of Lipetsk, 3 hrs. drive 
from Griazi, are much frequented be- 
tween the 27th May and 27th Sept. 
Kmnyss, or fermented mare's milk, 
IS likewise drunk there. 



IBranch to EleU. 

Elbtb, on Sosna river. Pop. 
26,000. 

In the 11th centy. this was a fron- 
tier town of the principality of Biazan. 
It was destroyea by Baty in the 13th 
centy., and is not mentioned again in 
chronicles until the end of the 14th 
centy., when Tamerlane approached 
it on his march to Moscow, but 
suddenly turned back towards the