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a. Journey from England to Egypt. — 6. Expenses to Egypt and India 
by France. — e. Steamers from Marseilles to Egypt. — d. Steamers from 
England, by Gibraltar and Malta, to Alexandria and India. — e. Quaran- 
tine, on returning from Egypt. 

Sxci. I. — EGYPT. 


a. Season for Visiting Egypt — Time required — Expenses of the 
Journey. -~ h. Thing!» useful for the Journey in Egypt. — e. Mode 
of Living in Egypt, and Diseases of the Country. — d. Dress. — 
e. Presents. — /. Firmans. -— ^. Money. — A. Weights and Mea- 
sures. —t. Post Office.—/ Population and ReTenue. — A. Mo- 
hammed All. — U Chronological Table. — m. List of Caliphs and 
Sultans of Egypt. — a. Certain Points requiring Examination. — 
o. English and Arabic Vocabulary - • - 1 

Route 1. — London to Alexandria •> - - • 71 


1. Arrival at Alexandria. — 2. Hotels. — 3. Servants.— 4. Boats. — 

5. Things to be purchased at Alexandria for the Journey to Cairo. ^ 

6. History of Alexandria. — 7. Plan of Alexandria, and site and 
description of the Buildings. — - 8. Monuments outside the Canopic 
Gate. — 9. Present remains of Ancient Alexandria. — 10. Its Size 
and Importance. — 11. Inhabitants. — 12. Climate — The Lake 
Mareotis — Canals. — 13. The two Ports, Gates, Walls— The Old 
Docks. — 14. Mosks, and other Buildings within the Walls, — 

15. Amusements and Sights in Modern Alexandria - - 71 

Route 2. — Alexandria to Rosetta, by Land ... 102 

Route 3. — Rosetia to Atfeh and Cairo, by Water - - 105 

Route 4. — Alexandria to Cairo, by Land, through the Delu - 105 

Route 5 Alexandria to Cairo, by the Western Bank - - 106 

A. 3 


Sect. II. — CAIRO. 


Route 6. — Alexandria to Atfeh and Cairo, by the Canal and the 
Nile - - - - - . - 106 

a. Hotels. — h. Houses. — e. Servants. — d. Horses and Asses.— ^ 

e. Places of public resort — f. Quickest Mode of seeing Cairo and 
the neighbourhood, -i— g. Boats. -» A. History of Cairo. — i. The 
Citadel. — j. Oriental character of the Town. — k, Mosks — 
Early pointed Arches — Morostan, or Madhouse — Bab Zoo&yleh. 

— I Tombs of the Caliphs of Egypt. — m. Tombs of the Baharite 
Memlook Kings. — n. Tombs of the Circassian Memlook Kings ^ 
Tombs of the Memlooks. ^ o. Sibeels, or Public Fountains. — 
p. Palaces. — q. Streets. — r. Cafes — Punch. ^ «. Baths. — 
t. Slave Market. — «. Bazaars — Prices of Goods at Cairo. — 
V. Quarters of Cairo. — w. Walls and extent of Cairo — Canal. — 

s. Gates. — y. Antiquities in Cairo z. Population — Dogs. — 

€ta. Festivals and Siglits at Cairo — Pilgrimage to Mecca — Open- 
ing the Canal of Old Cairo — The Prophet's Birth-day — Fetes. — 
bb. The Magician. — ce. Institutions of the Pasha — Schools. -.- 
dd. Internal Administration — Police — Courts of Justice. — 

ee. The Mahkemeh, or Cadi*s Court - - - 117 

Excursion 1..— a. Old Cairo. — 6. Kilometer and Isle of Roda. — 
c. Kasr el Aineeand College of Derwishes. — Kasr Dubarra - 157 

Excursion 2. — a. Heliopolis (Matar^eh) — Balsam Plants— Lake of 
the Pilgrims — Old Jewish Towns — Red G^t^tone Mountain. — 

b. Petri6edWood - - - - - 166 

Excursion 3. — Gardens and Palace of Shoobra - - - 171 

Excursion 4. — Pyramids of Geexeh, Sakk&ra, and Memphis — 
a. Things required in going to the Pyramids. — b. Village of Geexeh 

— Egg Ovens.~ c. -History of the Pyramids. — d. Great Pyramid. — 
e. Second Pyramid. — /. Tliird Pyramid. — g. Sphinx. — A. Tombs. 

— I. Causeway. — j. Small Pyramids, near that of Cheops — Na- 
ture of the Rock. — k. Date of the Pyramids. — /. Pyramid of 
Abooroash. — m. The two Arab Bridges. «— n. Busiris. — o. Pyra- 
mids of Aboos^er. — p* Pyramids of Sakkdra — Tombs q. Py- 
ramids of Dashoor. — r. Memphis^ Name of the hill of the Pyra- 
mids - - - - - - 172 

Route 7. — Cairo to Suex. — a. Various Roads. — (. Distances. — 

c. The TariiTof Charges at tlie Stations. — d. Time employed — 
Remarks on the Road — Suex — Passage of the Red Sea by the 
Israelites — El Muktala — Kolxim — The Ancient Canal of Arsinoe 

— Herobpolis ----- 207 

Route 8. — Cairo to Mount Sinai — Charges for Camels — Tricks of 
the Arabs — Names of the Arab Tribes — Requisites for the Jour- 
ney — Distances — Manna ^ Remarks on the Road — Sardbut el 
Kbadem — Names of Ancient Pharaohs — Convent of St. Catlia- 
rine — Burning Bush — Rock of Moses — Town of Tor -. Primi- ' 
tive and other Mountains . • . ^ 212 


Route 9. — Mount Sinai to £1 Ak&ba — Distances — Aila, or Eloth 
— Journey to Petni« or Wad^e Moosa ^ Distances to Petra, He- 
bron, and Jerusalem ..... 220 

Route lO. — Cairo to Syria — Distances — Daphne, Felusium — 
Tomb of Pompej — £1 Areesli — Gaza(Ghuzzeh} - - S22 

Route 11. — Cairo, by Water, to Damietta — Distances — Bersboom 
— Benba>el-Assal (Athribis) — Semenood — Bebayt-el-Hagar 
(Iseum) — Manso6ni — Damietta — Other Towns in the Delta ^ 
Fetes of Sbekhs — Trillnguar Stones — Divisions of the Delta - 224 

Route 12. — Cairo, by Water, to Menzaleh and Tanis — DisUnces — 
Manso6rato Menzaleh — Tel et-Mai (Thmuis)— Papyrus — Canal of 
Menzaleh — Land of the Delta — Menzaleh and the Neighbour- 
hood — Matar^eh — Fish — Lake Menzaleh — Water Fowl — Ruins 
of Tanis - - * - - - 2S0 

Route ]3b — Cairo, by Water, to Bubastis, Pharbaethus, and Tanis ^ 
'Distances — Canal of Moez — Ruins of Bubastis, now Tel Basta — 
Zakaseek — Harbayt (Pharbsthus) ... 236 

Route 14. — Cairo to the Natron Lakes — Distances — Natron 
Springs -^ Convents — Productions — Animals — Petrified Wood — 
The Bahr el Fargh, or Babr-bela-ma ... 239 

Route 15. — Cairo to the Seewah, or Oasis of Amroon — Distances. — 
a. Road from Alexandria. — b. From Terdneh. — e. From the 
Fyoom — Ruins — Dates — Government and Customs of Seewah — 
Language — Town of Seewah — Conquered by Mohammed Ali. - 246 

Route 16. — Cairo, by Land, to the Fyoom. — a. Road to the Fyoom. 
6. Distances from Cairo to Medeeneh — Tomeeh — Senooris — 
Biahmoo (ruins) — Medeeneh — l*he Arsinoite nome. — c. Excur- 
sions from Medeeneh — Obelisk at Biggig. -~ d. Lake Moeris or 
Birket el Kom — Ruins at Kom Weseem <— at El Hammam — at 
Dimay, or Nerba. — e. Kasr Kharoon — Temple and other Ruins 
— Nezleh — Large Canal— Sites of old Towns — £1 Gherek - 249 

Route 17. —Medeeneh (in the Fyoom) to Benisooef (oo the Nile) — 
Distances — Pyramid of Howara and site of the Labyrinth »- 
Pyramid of Illahoon — Bahr Yoosef ... 256 

Route 18. — Cairo to the Little Oasis, the Great Oasis, and the Oasis 
of Dakhleh, by the Fyoom. — a. Different Roads to the Oasis. — h. 
Requisites for the Journey. — e. Distances. — d, Wadee Ry£n, and 
Motleb. — «. . Little Oasis — Ruins — Warm Springs — Dates — Palm 
Wine — Gardens — Origin of the Springs — Inhabitants — Distances 
in this Oasis. — /. Small Oasis of £1 Hayz. —g. Oasis of Far&freh. 
— A. Oasis of the Blacks. — i. Oasts of Dakhleh — Ruins — Popu- 
lation -» Productions. — j. The Great Oasis, or Wah el Khargeh — 
Temple of Ain Amoor on the road to it — Columbaria and other 
Ruins in the great Oasis — The Great Temple, Name of Darius, 
Inscriptions — Christian inscriptions and Tombs — Caravans from 
Dar-Foor — Population — Productions. — k. Distances in the Great 
Oasis, going to its southern extremity — Temples of I^asr Ain el 
Goaytah, and Kasr Ain e* Zay6n — Tomb of Emeer KhAled — 
Temple of Doosh. — /. Road to Abydus. — m. Road to £sn6 - 257 



Route 19. — Cairo to the Convents of St, Antony and St. Paul, in 
the Eastern Desert — Distances — The Arab tribes — Convents of 
St. Antony and St. Paul — Alabaster quarries — Primiiive and 
secondary mountains — Gebel e* Zayt — Porphyry quarries — Ruins 
of Myos Hormos — Granite quarries and ruins at Fateereh — Old 
Kossayr (Philotera)^ — Modem Kossayr — Wadee Jasoos - 268 

(For the Desert South of Kossayr, See Routes 26 and 27.) 



Preliminary Information. — a. The Soeed, or Upper Egypt. — h, De« 
nominations of Towns, &c. — c. Ancient Divlsiuns of Egypt — An- 
cient Towns on the Nile, mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus. 
— d, Egyptian Temples, their Plans, and principal Features - 272 

Route 20. — Cairo to Benisooef by Water — Attar-e'Nebbee — 
Toora — El Masarah and ancient Quarries — Helw&n — Dyke of 
Menes — Pyramids of Lisht — False Pyramid — Atf^eh — Boosh— 
Benisooef — Beggars - - - - - 277 

Route 21. — Benisooef to Minieh — Anasieh (Heraclcopolis) — Bib- 
beh — El Haybee, small ancient Town — Gebel Shekh Embarak 
— Excursion to Behnesa, inland, from Aboo Girgeh — Gebel e* 
Tayr, Convent — Gisr el Agoos — T^bneh (Acoris), Inscriptions, 
Quarries — Minieh - - ' - - - 282 

Route 22. — Minieh to Osioot — Kom Ahmar, Grottoes (Alabas- 
tron ?) — Curious sculptured Grottoes of Beni Hassan — The Speos 
Artemidos — Shekh Abddeh (Antinoe)— Sculptured Grottoes of 
E'Dayr e* Nakhl, Colossus on a Sledge — Reramoon — Oshmoo- 
nayn (Hermopolis) — Gebel Toona — Mellawee — Sculptured 
Grottoes and Remains at Tel el Amama — Dom Trees — Gebel 
Aboofayda — Crocodiles — Ruins at El Hare'fb — Crocodile Mummy 
Pits of £1 Maabdeh — Manfaloot — Mankabat — Osioot, sculp- 
tured Grottoes - - ~ - - - 291 

Route 23. — Osioot to Girgeh — Abooteg ( Abutis) — Gov, or Kow 
el Keber (Antaopolis) — Gebel Shekh Hereedce, Snake — Itfoo, 
(Aphroditopolis) — Soobag — The White Monastery, Atbribis, 
Ruins — Ekhmim (Panopolis), Ruins — Mensheeh (Ptolema'is 
Hermii) — Girgeh or Geergeh — Excursion from Girgeh to Aby- 
dus, Ruins ...... 313 

Route 24 Girgeh to Keneb — Bellianeh — Samhood — Farshoot 

— The How4ra Horsemen — Great Bend of the Nile at How (Dios- 
polis Parva), few Ruins — Kasr e' Sy&d, old Catacombs — Isle of 
Tabenna — Dendera (Tentyris), Temples — The Tentyrites ; 
Crocodiles — Keneh . - . . . 325 

Route 25. — Keneh to Thebes — Ballas — Koft (Coptos), few Re- 
mains — Koos ( Apollinopolis Parva), few Remains — Slienhoor, a 
small Roman Temple — Gam61a — Medamot, Temple - - 333 


Sect. IV. — THEBES. 

Prelimioaiy Informalion. — a. Arrival at Thebes. — b. Quickest mode 
of seeing Thebes ..... 333 


I. Temple — Palace of Old Koorneh. — 2. Memnonium, or 
lUmeseum. — 3. The Two Colossi — The Vocal Memnon. — 
4. Rise of the Land. — 5. Temples at Medeenet Haboo — 

The Great Temple; Battle Scenes 6, Other Ruins — Lake of 

Haboo.. — 7 . Tombs of the Queens. — 8. Other Ipmbs — Small 
Brick Pyramid. — 9. Dayr el Mede6neh. — 10. Dayr el B^ree. — 
11. Tombs of the Kings. — 12. Tombs in the Western Valley. — 
IS. Tombs of Priests and Private Individuals — Arched Tombs — 
The oldest Tombs — Large Tombs of the Assase^f — Tombs of 
Koomet Murraee — Tombs of Shekh A bd*el- Koorneh, the most in- 
teresting at Thebes. — 14. Eastern Bank — Luxor, Temple. — 
15. Kamak, Temples — Comparative Antiquity of the Buildings 
— Names of the Foreign Kings — Historical Sculptures - - 336 

Route 26. — |Keneh to Kossayr by the Moayleh, or Moileh, Road - 398 

Route 27. — Keneh to Kossayr, by the Russafa road . - 398 

Route 28. — Thebes to Kossayr — Several Roads from the Nile to 
Kossayr — The Russafa Road — Ancient Road and Stations — 
Breccia Quarries, small Temple, and Names of Kings in Wadee 
Foakh^er — arrival from India at Kossayr — Hints for those com- 
ing from India — The Ababdeh Desert — Gold Mines — Ancient 
Stations on the Coptos Road to Berenice — Berenice — Basanite 
Mountain — Nechesia *- Leucos Portus — Emerald Mines — An. 
cient Road from Contra Apollonipolis to those Mines, small 
Temple ^ The Bishiree, or Bishar^eh Tribe of Arabs . - 398 

Route 29. — Thebes to Asouan, the first Cataract, Elephantine, 
Sehayl, and Philse — Erment (Hermon this), few Remains — Tuot 
(Tu^ium), small Temple — Cro^odilopolis— Tofn^ — E'sn^ (La- 
topolis), fine Portico, Zodiac; Almeh women — El Helleh (Contra 
Laton) — Pyramid of El Koola — Kom el Abmar (Hieraconpolis), 
few Ruins — Sandstones — El Kab (Eilethyas), Ruins; Natron; 
Curious painted Grottoes — Edfoo ( Apollinopolis Magna }, 
Temples — Hagar Silsileh (Silsilis), Sandstone Quarries, Grottoes, 
and Tablets ; The God Nilus — Kom Ombo ( Ombos), Temples 

— Sandstones and Granites -^ Asouan (Syene) ; Supposed Tropical 
Well ; Saracenic Wall and Tombs ; Granite Quarries of Syene ; 
Syenite — Island of Elephantine ; Nilometer — Island of 
Sehayl — 1st Cataract — Isle of Phils, Temples, and other Ruins 

— Isle of Biggeh . - - - - 404 

S«cT. v. — NUBIA. 

Preliminary Observations. — a. Conquests of the Egyptians and Ro- 
mans above Phils, and the first Cataract. — b. The modem Nubians, 
or Barabras ,.---- 423 

A 5 



Route SO. — Asouan (by Philae) to Derr, by Water — Dabod ( Parem- 
bole), Temple — Old Wall, Column, Remains of a Temple — Gar- 
tassce, small Ruin, Quarry, Stone Enclosure — Waidee Tafa 
(Taphis), Stone Ruins — KaUbshee (Talmis), Temple, Inscription 
of King Silco, and others — Bayt el Wellee, Temple — Dendoor, 
Temple ; Sandstone Pier — Gerf Hossdyn (Tutiis), Temple — 
Kostamneh, Doorway — Dakkeh (Psclcis), Temple, Ergamenes 
King of Ethiopia — Modem Amazons — The White and Blue 
(properly black) Nile — Inscriptions, God of Pselcis — Contra 
Pselcis, Ruins — Korti, small Ruin — Mabarraka(Hierasycaminon), 
Ruins — Sabo6a, Temple ~ Bend of the River— £1 Khar^b — 
A'mada, Temple ~ Derr, the Capital of Nubia, Temple - 426 

Route SI. — Derr to Aboo-Simbel and Wadee Halfeh — Grotto on road 
to Ibiseem — Tomb near Gattey — Ibreem (Primis Panra), Citadel, 
few Remains, Petronius and Candace, Grottoes — Boston — Reefs at 
Tosko — Aboo-Simbel ( Aboccis?), two fine Temples — Ferayg, small 
Temple — Faras — Serra — Wadee Halfeh — Second Cataract — 
Sam neb, two Temples ..... 435 


a. Journey from England to Egypt. — 6. Expenses to Egypt and India by 
France. — c. Steamers from Marseilles to Egyot. — d. Steamers from 
England by Gibraltar and Malta to Alexandria and India. — e. Quarantine 
returning from Egypt. 


The most usual route from England to Egypt is by Gibraltar and 
Malta, or through France by Paris and Marseilles, and thence to 
Malta and Alexandria. There is another route through Germany 
by the Danube to Constantinople, and thence by Syra to Alex- 
andria, which has been described in the Handbooks of Southern 
Germany, and of the East ; and those who happen to be in the 
yieinity of the Adriatic, and do not wish to cross Italy to Naples 
or other ports in direct communication with Malta, may find 
their way by the Ionian Islands and Greece to Egypt ; or by the 

Austrian steamer direct frdm Trieste to Alexandria. 

. ■ • » 


Though the expenses of a journey depend on the arrangements 
made by the traveller, the following, for which I am indebted to a 
gentleman who passed through France in 1841, on his way to India, 
may ^iye some notion of the charges on the route by Chalons and 
Lyons to Marseilles : 

Fare in steam-boat to Boulogne 15 < 
Expenses at Boulogne 
Passport, passing baggage, &c. 
Diligence to Paris and dinner 
Extra for luggage by diligence 
Porters to and from Meurice*s 
Meurice's bill 

Fare to Cbalons by diligence - 
Extra for luggage 
Porter at Ch&lons and expenses 
on the road ... 

Bill at Cb&lons - 
Servants at Cbalons 
Passage in steam-boat to Lyons 
Bill at Lyons ... 

Porters to and from hotel 
Place in diligence to Maneilles 
Luggage at Marseilles 

Total from England to Marseilles 
or £10 12«. 9^ 

ft. lOUI. 

According to another Calculation. 

• 18 10 



London to Paris - 



In Paris ... 



Paris to Cbalons 


9 10 



3 / 


to Marseilles 





Total from England to 



6 • 

Thence direct to Alex- 


andria ... 





Alexandria to Sues - 


Total from London to 


Sues ... 



From Sues to Bombay 


is from 52 to . 
Making the total to 





A 6 


In returning from India there is an additional expense for 
quarantine, which may be calculated at 11/. lOs. for the 17 days at 
Malta (or less if shared by two persons), making the total, ac- 
cording to the second calculation, 139/. 10«. 

It may be observed — 1st. That the first of the above calculations 
appears to be made on the most economical plan ; — 2nd. That in 
both, the sum total does not include stoppages on the road, but 
allows only for the actual expenses of the direct journey ; — 3d. 
That 170/. is generally considered necessary for a person leaving 
India for England, who intends to travel economically by public 
conveyances, or 150/. if taking a deck passage. 


French steamers run direct from Marseilles to Egypt, and the 
old line by Syra is abandoned. 

There is also an English steamer between Marseilles and Malta 
which goes once a month to and from Malta, where it meets the 
packet coming direct from England. The fare from Marseilles to 
Malta is 9/., including board, for a 1st class passenger ; that of the 
2nd class being 5/., living also included. It leaves Marseilles on the 
9th of every month, arriving at Malta early on the third day, or the 
12th ; and brings with it the London mail for India, which is made 
up on the 4th, unless it should happen to fall on a Sunday, when it 
is deferred till the following day. By this junction-steamer letters 
can be despatched from London three or four days later than by the 
packet that goes round by Gibraltar to Malta. 

The arrangements of the Mediterranean steamers are frequently 
changing ; and it is therefore advisable to refer to the Tariffs issued 
annually by the different companies. 


Steamers leave Southampton to Alexandria and India on the 3rd 
and 20th of every month for Alexandria, calling at Gibraltar and 
Malta. They are connected with the overland journey to India. 

Those who have time to spare may visit Lisbon, and the neigh- 
bourhood, or Cadiz and Seville, by going out in one of the previous 
Gibraltar steamers, which leave England every week, (touching at 
Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon, and Cadiz, on the way to Gibraltar) and join 
the Alexandrian packet, the week or fortnight after, at Gibraltar. 

The following is the latest information published by the Penin- 
sular and Oriental Company respecting their steamers to Egypt and 



** Firtt Line, — England to Aleiandria, Aden, Bombay, Ceylon, Madras, and 
Calcutta, Penang, Singapore, and Hong Kong. 20th of every Month. 

" The Company^s Steamers (vessels of about 1500 tons and 450 
horse-power) start from Southampton on the 20th of every month, at 
2 P.M., and after calling at Gibraltar and Malta, and receiving at the 
latter place the mail of the 24th from England, brought from Mar- 
sdlles to Malta by Her Majesty's steamers, arrive at Alexandria in 
about sixteen days from Southampton. 

Passengers are conveyed through Egypt by the Transit Adminis- 
tration of his Highness the Pacha of Egypt. 

The mode of transit is as follows : — 1st, Alexandria to Atfeh, by 
the Mahmoodeeh Canal, in large track boats, towed by a steam- tug 
or by horses. (^See Route 6.) 

2nd, From Atfeh, at the junction of the canal with the Nile, to 
Boulak (the port of Cairo), by the river Nile, in steamers. (See 
Route 6.) 

drd, Cairo to Suez across the desert ; this part of the journey is 
performed in carriages. (See Route 7.) 

The entire journey from Alexandria to Suez is performed with 
ease in about sixty hours, including a night's rest at Cairo, and a 
sufficient time for refreshment and repose at the central station be- 
tween Cairo and Suez. 

The following are extracts from the Tariff of the Transit Admi- 
nistration : — 

* Passengers are furnished with three meals per diem, during the time they 
are en rtnUe, free of charge, but their expenses at hotels must be defrayed by 
themselves, as also wines, beer, &c. during their entire transit. 

' The portmanteaus, trunks, carpet bogs, &c. of ^ the passengers, must 
bear the name and destination of the owners ; such inscription to be legible and 
well secured. 

' On the arrival of each steamer the officer of the administration will at- 
tend to receive the luggage of passengers. 

' The administration will not be responsible for any loss or damage of 
luggage, nor unavoidable detention. 

* Tlie administration will at all times endeavour to employ the easiest means 
I of conveyance, such as donkey chairs, &c. for invalids and sick persons.'* 

On arriving at Suez passengers embark on board one of the Com- 
pany's steamers for Ceylon, Madras, and Calcutta (vessels of about 
1,600 tons and 500 horse-power), which start from Suez about the 
10th of every month, call first at Aden, where they coal, and trans- 
fer passengers and mails for Bombay to the Honourable East India 



Company* 9 steamers ; the steamer then proceeds to Ceylon, arriving 
there in about seventeen days, at Madras in about twenty-two days, 
and at Calcutta in about twenty- seven days from Suez, including 
all stoppages. 

Passengers for Fenang, Singapore, and Hong Kong, leave the 
main line at Ceylon, and there embark in one of the Company's 
branch steamers (vessels of about 1,000 tons and 300 horse-power,) 
and which arrive at Fenang in about six days, at Singapore in about 
nine days, and at Hong Kong in about sixteen days from Ceylon, 
including all stoppages. 

The length of time therefore of the voyage to India, and China, 
by the Overland Route, is as follows : — 

England to Bombay .... 35 days 

Ceylon . - - - 40 

Madras - - - - 45 

Calcutta ... - 48 

Fenang - - - - 46 

Singapore - • - . 49 

Hong Kong ^ ' - ^ 56 „ 

** Second Line. — England to Alexandria, Aden and Bombay, Sd of every 


" A second line of the Company's steamers leave Southampton on 
the drd of every month, for Gibraltar and Malta, where the pas- 
sengers and mails are transferred- to their steamer 'Ariel' for 

On arriving at Suez, passengers embark on board the Honourable 
East India Company's steamers for Bombay : the length of pas- 
sage from England to Bombay is about thirty-five days. 

The dates of the departure of the Company's steamers from the 
several intermediate ports, are about as follows : — 

Ist Line Outwards from Gibraltar 



25th of the month. 

Malta - 















Ceylon (Galle) 




















2nd. Line Outwards from Gibraltar 





Malta - 





Sues (Honourable East India 

Company's Steamer) 











** Ftrsi £tse.— Calcutta, Madras, Cejlon, Hong Kong, Singapore, Penang, 

and Aden to England. 

*' From Calcutta 10th of the month. 

Bombay (Hon. East India Co.'s Steamers) 1 5th „ 

Hong Kong 28th „ 

The Company's steamers start from Calcutta (Sandheads) on the 
10th of every month, except in May, June, and July, when they 
start on the 5th. From Calcutta they call at Madras, Ceylon, and 
Aden, at which last place they receive the Passengers and Mails 
G>rought so far by the Hon. East India Company's steamers) from 
Bombay. From Aden they proceed to Suez. 

On landing at Suez, generally about the 7th of the month, pas- 
sengers are conveyed through Eg3rpt in the same way as described 
in the outward route, and, on arriving at Alexandria, embark on 
board the Company's steamer for England, which conveys them to 
Southampton, calling at Malta and Gibraltar. There is now no 
quarantine upon this line of steamers, and passengers are allowed 
to land at once, the vessel merely calling at the Motherbank to 
receive pratique. 

'< Second Line, .» Bombay and Aden to England. 

^* The Honourable East India Company's steamers leave Bombay 
1st of every month, except in the months of May, June, and July, 
when they leave on the 20th of the month ; the length of passage 
from Bombay to Suez is about sixteen days. 

On arriving at Alexandria, passengers embark on board the Pe- 
ninsular and Oriental Company's steamer ' Ariel,' for Malta, where 
they go on board another of ~the Company's steamers for South- 

The dates of departure of the steamers from the several interme- 
diate ports homewards are about as follows : — 

Itt Line, Homewards - - Madras - 13th of the month. 

Ceylon - 17th „ 

Aden - 28th „ 

Hong Kong - 88th „ 

Singapore - 4th „ 

Penang - 8th „ 
Hon. East India Company's 

Steamers. - '- Bombay - 15th ,, 



1st of the month, 






**Snd Line, Hon. East India Company's 

Steamers from - Bombay 

Aden - 
Peninsular and Oriental Co.'8 

Steamers. - - Aleiandria 


" The Rates of Passage Money, — • Passengers for Aden, Ceylon, 
Madras, Calcutta, Penang, Singapore, and Hong Kong, are booked 
through at the Company*s Office, including expenses of transit. 

Passengers for Bombay are booked only as far as they are con- 
veyed by the Company's Steamers, but the cost of the passage 
throughout will be found in the table below. 

The Rates of Passage Money have been lately greatly reduced, 
and are 

From England to 





For a Gentleman - • . 





For a Lady - - - - 





For a Gentleman and his Wife, a 

whole cabin throughout - 




.' 317 

Children with their Parents. 

5 years and under 10 





2 years and under 5 - - 





Not exceeding 2 years 





Servants — European Female 





Europan Male - 





Native Female - 





Native Male . 





From England to 

For a Gentleman 
For a Lady - - - 

For a Gentleman and his Wife, a 
whole cabin throughout 

Children with their Parents, 
5 years and under 10 
2 years and under 5 - 
Not exceeding 2 years 

5eroai»te— -European Female 
European Male 
Natire Female - 
Native Male 











Hong Kong 















These rates will be proportionately increased according to the 
class of accommodation required. 

The aboTe rates include transit through Egypt, Steward's fees, 
and table, wines, &c., for first-class passengers. Bedding, linen, 
and all requisite cabin furniture, is provided in the Steamers at the 
Company's expense, together with the attendance of experienced 
male and female servants^ 

For large families an allowance will be made in the foregoing 

'* Baggage. — First*class passengers are allowed, in the Company's 
Steamers only, on either side of the Isthmus, 3 cwt. of personal bag- 
gage free of freight, and children and servants 1^ cwt. each. And 
passengers will please to take note, that the Company cannot en- 
gage to take any excess of baggage over that quantity, unless 
shipped at Southampton three days before starting and freight paid 

All baggage must be shipped on the day previous to sailing, 
except carpet bags or hat boxes. — All other baggage received on 
board on the day of sailing will be considered as extra baggage, and 
charged freight as such. 

The charge for conveyance of extra baggage, should there be 
room in the vessel, will be 2/. per cwt. between Suez and India, 
and 1/. per cwt. between England and Alexandria. 

Passengers will have to pay the Egyptian Transit Company in 
Egypt 16«. per cwt. for conveyance of baggage through, should it 
exceed, for first-class passengers, 2 cwt., and children and ser- 
vants 1 cwt. No package of baggage should exceed 80 lbs. weight. 
The best dimensions for a trunk or portmanteau are, length 2 ft. 
3 in. — breadth, 1 ft. 2 in. — depth, 1 ft. 2 in. 

Every package of baggage should have the owner's name and 
place of destination distinctly painted upon it in white letters. 

Passengers taking parcels or articles of merchandize in their 
baggage will incur the risk of seizure by the Customs' authorities, 
and of detention for freight by the Company's agents. 

" Passengers for Bombay, — As the Company do not book the 
whole way to Bombay, it is well that passengers should know that 
they will find no difficulty, or inconvenience, in securing the passage 
on, after leaving the Company's ships. If they proceed by the 1st 
Line (20th of every month), they have merely to pay on board the 
. Honourable East India Company's Steamers at Aden, for the pas- 
sage from Aden to Bombay. If they proceed by the 2nd Line (drd 

• •• 


of the month), they will have to pay for the transit through Egypt, 
on arriving at Alexandria, and on arriving at Suez will have to pay 
on board the Honourable East India Company's Steamers there for 
their passage from Suez to Bombay. 
The expenses of transit through Egypt are as under : — 


In Vans across 
the Deseru 

A Lady ------ 

A Gentleman . . . « - 

A Child above 10 years 
A Child of 5 years and under 10 
A Child of 2 years and under 5 - - 

A Child under 2 years . - - 

A European Female Servant 
A European Man Servant or Mechanic 
A Native Female Servant . - - 
A Native Man Servant on a Dromedary or 
Donkey ------ 

The Honourable East India Company's Rates of Passage Money 
are as under: — 

From Alexandria to Suez, 
and vice veni. 











For a Gentleman 
For a Lady 



For a Gentleman - - - - £27 10 

For a Lady 30 

The addition of the rate from Aden to Bombay (should the pas- 
senger proceed by the 1st Line, 20th of the month), to the rate 
charged by the Peninsular and Oriental Company from England to 
Aden, will give the whole expense of the passage from England to 
Bombay ; and in the case of a passenger proceeding by the 2nd Line 
(3rd of the month), the addition of 40/. (the Company *s rate to Alex- 
andria) to the Transit rate, and the Honourable East India Com- 
pany's charge from Suez to Bombay, will also give the total amount 
of passage money." 


By going direct in the Steamers from Alexandria to England, the 
quarantine is avoided, and pratique is given on reaching the 
Motherbank, provided they have a clean bill of health ; the voyage 
in like manner counts in going by tbe Austrian Steamers to Trieste. 

Those who intend visiting Southern Italy will probably stop at 


Malta, where the quarantine is less irksome than in most places. 
The full quarantine with a clean bill of health is 24 days, but the 
Toyage reduces this number to 19, and it will probably soon be 
less than at present ; but when the plague is at Alexandria it is 
increased to 22 and upwards. 

Shortly after the steamer is anchored in the quarantine harbour, 
an officer comes alongside to inquire about the number of the pas- 
sengers, in order to prepare for their accommodation in the lazaretto, 
and fix upon the part they are to occupy. They then go ashore to 
choose their rooms, leaving their baggage, properly packed up, to 
follow after them. The traveller must make up his mind to be de- 
tained some time before each person is satisfied, and he will be 
fortunate if the passengers are few. When numerous, there is often 
a scramble for rooms, and two persons are put into the same bed- 
room. A sitting-room is not given except as a' favour, or when 
there are few passengers ; but it is not refused to a party of five 
or six persons who intend to, dine together. If without a servant, 
the first thing after securing rooms is to take one, who may be en- 
gaged beforehand by writing to a friend at Malta, or may be found 
at the door of the lazaretto ; where many come to offer their ser- 
vices, with letters of recommendation from former masters, which 
may be read but not touched. When engaged, they come into 
quarantine jand perform the same number of days as their master. 
They are paid 1«. 8rf. a day wages, and 7d. a day for living. Two 
or three persons may employ one servant between them. The ne- 
cessity of a servant is very evident, when it is remembered that no 
guardian is allowed to render the stranger any services beyond those 
demanded by lazaretto duties, and there is no one to bring him a 
drop of water. Nor can the porters who carry his luggage from the 
boat on hand-trucks touch any thing, as they are in pratique^ and 
all must be put on and taken off by the person himself, or his ser- 
vant. This is sufficiently explained in the quarantine regulations, 
of which the following is a copy : — 

General Regulations to be observed by all Persons performing 
Quarantine in the Lazaretto of Malta. 

1. All passengers on landing are to give their names to the cap- 
tain of the lazaretto, which are to be entered in the registry of 
the office. 

2. The captain of the lazaretto will assign apartments for passen- 
gers, and each passenger will be provided with two chairs, a table, 
and a wooden bedstead, for which no charges are made ; but any 


damage done by the passengers to the apartments or furniture is to 
be made good by them before pratique. 

3. Passengers are not to be permitted to enter other apartments ; 
nor can they be allowed to receive visitors except at the Palatorio 
of the lazaretto, and that only during office hours ; nor are they to 
trespass the limits assigned to them by the captain of the lazaretto. 

4. Passengers must pay a strict attention to all the instructions 
they may receive from the captain of the lazaretto, and from the 
health guardians, and particukrly in every point that regards their 
baggage, clothes, &c., being properly aired and handled during the 
period of their quarantine , and their quarantine will only com- 
mence to reckon from the day on which all their baggage, clothes, 
&c. have been duly opened and handled. 

5. All letters and parcels, or other effects brought by passengers^ 
must be given up, in order that they may be fumigated or de- 
purated separately from them as the occasion may require. 

6. All cases of sickness must be reported immediately to the 
captain of the lazaretto, and all persons sick are to be visited im- 
mediately by the physician to the lazaretto, 'after which official 
visit passengers are at liberty to avail themselves of any medical 
attendance they think proper. 

7. Passengers are to pay the government fee for the guardians 
employed to attend them, for the number of days of their quarantine, 
at the following rates : viz. at 1«. Zd. per day for the guardian who 
attends one passenger ; and at 2«. 6^. per day for each guardian who 
attends more than one passenger. They are to victual the guar- 
dian or guardians during their quarantine, or to pay to each guar- 
dian an allowance of Id. per day in lieu thereof. It is to be clearly 
understood that the guardians are employed solely for quarantine 
purposes, and they are strictly prohibited to interfere in any other 
service whilst they attend passengers. 

8. The office hours at the lazaretto are from 8 a.h. to 12, and 
from 2 P.M. to 5 daily ; and all letters sent to the fumigating room 
before 9 a.m. daily will be delivered in Yaletta at 10, and those sent 
before 3 will be delivered in Yaletta at 4 p.m. by the letter messenger, 
who is entitled to receive from the passengers \d, for each note, 
parcel, or letter, as a remuneration for his trouble and for boat- 

9. A daily report of all circumstances is to be made by the captain 
of the lazaretto to the superintendent of quarantine and marine 


Superintendent of Quarantine and Marine Police. 



N.B. A trattoria has been established at the lazaretto for the 
convenience of passengers who wish to avail themselves of it, from 
whence they can be supplied with dinners, wines, &c. &c.' in their 
own apartments. 

Beds complete and other articles of furniture, if required, can 
also be hired from a person appointed to provide them. 

A note of charges for the trattoria, and for the hire of furniture, 
will be furnished to the passengers on their applying for it. 

The next point, or perhaps the first, is to order breakfast or 
dinner from the restaurateur ; who has a trattoria in the lazaretto, 
though he is in pratique, and brings over provisions every morning 
from the town. He will present every one with a tariff of prices, 
which are as follows : — 


Fixed Prices for Breakfast and Dinner for a ^Sii^h Person. 

1. Breakfast at Is. 2d. 

Tea or coffee with milk {at pleamre). 

Two eggs. 



2. Breakfast at Is. Bd. 

Tea or coffee with milk (at pleature'). 

One di&h of hot or cold meat or fish. 

Two eggs. 



S. Dinner tU 3*. 
Soup, fish, or boiled bee f {at pleasure). 
One entree. 

One roast. 

One vegetable dish. 



4. Dinner at 4s, Ad. 
Soup, fish or boiled beef {at pleasure). 
One entree. 
One roast. 
One sweet dish. 
Two dishes of vegetables. 

N. B. — Passengers will be supplied with table-cloths and dinner services, 
but they are to pay for any article missing, broken, or in any manner 
destroyed. Gentlemen wishing to alter the disposition of the above 
detailed dinners, are requested to inform the innkeeper, that the prices 
may be altered accordingly. Families having children pay according to 

If a dinner should be ordered for five or six persons, the innkeeper will give 
two entries in lieu of one without charging for the additional entree. 


When four or five persons club together, the restaurateur will 
make an arrangement to provide dinner and breakfast at a lower 
rate, and charge only Ss. 6d, each person for the two ; giving soup, 
fish, 2 entries, 1 roast, 2 dishes of vegetables, 2 of fruit and bread, 
and the same breakfast as in No. 1. ; sufficient remaining from the 
dinner for three servants. Wine and all other extras bad better be 
sent for from the town. 

Those who have their hatterie de cuisine^ a good cook, and other 
requisites, may find it more comfortable to cook at home ; and a 
spenditore, or caterer, will supply every thing required from 
Yaletta. This would be far preferable for those who wish to dine 
late ; as it is with great difficulty that the restaurateur can be pre- 
vailed upon to give dinner as late as 5 o* clock, his hour being 
usually 4. 

The next point is the furniture of the rooms. The government 
allow for each person a table, two chairs, a bedstead, and wooden 
horses for airing his things, gratis ; and the only payment is Is. Sd, 
a day for the guardian, and 7d, for his living. The upholsterer's 
low charges for hired furniture show how unnecessary it is to be en- 
cumbered with any of the articles mentioned there. But I should 
not recommend a traveller to abstain from carrying with him what- 
ever he may want for his journey, from any dread of the trouble of 
putting it out on the horses, on which all his things must be aired 
during his stay in the lazaretto. The bedstead furnished by govern- 
ment is frequently made into a sort of divan, or given to a servant, 
and an iron bedstead with mosquito curtains is hired with the other 
things mentioned in the following list : — 

J. Antony and Lewis Garcin, Brothers, supply articles of furni- 
ture to passengers at the lazaretto and Fort Manoel, at the following 

rates : — 

Iron bedstead with mosquito curtain - 2| per day. 

A mattress and two pillows - - 3 

A paliass ... . . 0} 

A pair of sheets . • . . i 

A pair of pillow cases . - . QJ 

Coverlids, each . . . . oj 

Small mat, bed-side table, &c. . . 0} 

Wash-hand table complete, and tub - 1 

Dressing table and looking glass > 0\ 

N. B. Passengers taking the whole set of furniture will only pay StL 
a day. 


Extra furoitare may be had, if required, at the following prices 
during the qoarantine : — 

For a large mat - - 3 

a sofa - - 5 

an easy chair - « 2 6 

a screen - - SO 

Passengers are to pay for any article of furniture missing, torn, 
or in any manner damaged or destroyed. 

If travellers happen to have any furniture with them, they can 
easily dispose of it, when they leave the lazaretto, or send it by sea 
to England ; and those who have carried a canteen, cooking things, 
and table services on their journey, may as well use them in 

There are two lazarettos at Malta. That of Fort Manoel is by 
far the most comfortable. 

The rooms in the lazaretto of Malta are not large, but they are 
sufficiently so for one person, and they have the comfort of fire- 
places, which, in winter, is a very great point. They are given 
gratis, and not as at the Pirasus, with the exorbitant charge of 5«. a 
day, as if the punishment of imprisonment were not sufficient ; for 
Quarantine has been justly defined " imprisonment, with the 
chance of catching the plague." 

There is one thing very deficient at Malta, the means of trans- 
porting luggage from the beach to the lazaretto, which might be 
easily improved, and calls loudly for the attention of all who have 
the direction of these matters. A traveller who has no servant finds 
himself on'^the beach without any one to move his things : even if 
the sailors are willing to take them to his room, he must wait a long 
time, until the boat has landed the whole luggage. Each box has 
to be carried some distance ; and if he is the last served, he may 
have to wait several hours before all his things are removed from 
the shore to the lazaretto. 

Every one on entering the lazaretto is obliged to unpack all his 
things, and put them out on wooden horses, during the whole time 
of hb stay, the last three days excepted, which are allowed-for pack- 
ing up ; and his quarantine does not begin to count until they have 
been so exposed. All sealed letters or packages must also be opened, 
unless he chooses to give up the former, and have them forwarded, 
after proper fumigation, by the post. Any thing may be sent for 
from the town, but nothing can be returned, unless it can pass unin- 
jured through the process of fumigation. The guardians are 


obliged every now and then to inspect the rooms, to see that the 
things have been laid out and properly exposed to the air. Great 
care must be taken to avoid touching any one not in quarantine, as 
he would be condemned to pass the same number of days in the 
lazaretto as the person so compromising him, who would have to 
pay all his expenses ; and these he might increase to any amount, 
in revenge for his confinement. Equal care should be taken not to 
come in contact with any new comer, after a portion of the quaran- 
tine is over ; as the person touched would be doomed to an additional 
imprisonment, or the same number of days that the other had still 
to keep quarantine. 

As things cannot be sent to the wash out of the laafaretto, it is 
necessary to engage a washerwoman from the town, unless the 
traveller has a servant who can perform this office. The washer- 
woman is, of course, subject to the same number of days* quaran- 
tine that remain to be performed by her employer, after the time of 
her coming into the lazaretto. She is paid Is. Sd. a day ; and for 
soap and labour, according to the things washed. If a party join 
together, they may share the expenses. 

The total expense of quarantine, for living, furniture, guardians, 
one servant, a washerwoman during the whole time (which is un- 
necessary), letters, coffee, fruit, and other extras for lunch or supper, 
for one person is about 11/. 10«., without wine. For two persons, 
or a party, less, or about 9/. ; for a large party much less, or be- 
tween 6/. and 71. each, the guardians then being charged only 1 U. id. 
each person. 

Visits may be received during the day, at the parlatorio from 
8 A. M., or even 6 a. m., till sunset The parties stand at a barrier, 
separated from each other about 10 feet ; but, as a favour, they are 
sometimes permitted to sit in the adjoining court, a certain distance 
apart, attended by a guardianoj to see that they do not touch each 
other, or pass anything out of quarantine. 

A person who is alone, and can find friends willing to join him in hia 
confinement, may obtain quarters for them in the lazaretto. Another 
privilege is being allowed to bathe in the sea every morning from 
6 till 8, under the surveillance of a guardiano. 

On taking pratique, you have only to send your things down to a 
boat, and across the harbour to the Marsa Much^tt stairs, from 
which they will be carried by porters to the hotel. For taking them 
from the rooms in the lazaretto to the boat, you pay according to 
the quantity of luggage. For two boxes and two portmanteaus, for 
instance. Is. 6cf., which is ample. The boatmen will probably en- 
deavour to impose on a stranger, but he should remember that the 


hire of a boat across the harbour is only 2d. each person ; and if 6</. 
be given for two persons with their luggage, it is more than enough. 
This is the price of a boat when hired for a whole hour ; and the 
same is paid to a guardiano, who accompanies any one on a visit to 
a friend in the lazaretto. You cannot pay a boat for less than half 
the hour, when taken by time. 

Porters at Malta are far more troublesome than boatmen, who are 
generally very civil and easily satisfied. They are generally paid 
6d. for each package, but if very heavy 8dl, lOdL, and sometimes Is, 
There are also carts with one horse, which will take a load from the 
Marina to the nuun street for the same sum. With regard to a 
Dumber of small packages, I recommend a traveller always to have 
as few as possible ; it is better to put things together in a single 
box, or case, than to have many little parcels, which are easily lost, 
and give an infinity of trouble in looking after ; and if it is thought 
necessary to have several of these encumbrances, they had better be 
put togedier into a bag when carried from place to place. The less 
baggage one has the better. Have as many comforts as possible in 
a small space, but no superfluities. No better name was ever 
applied to anything than ** impedimenta" to "baggage" by the 
Bomans ; and an old traveller will always have all he requires very 
compactly put away in a small compass. 

In landing from a ship in the great harbour, as, for instance, from 
the Marseilles, Naples, or Gibraltar steamers, the best plan is to order 
the boatmen to take you to the " custom-house," and on landing 
your things, give him U., which is liberal pay (in spite of his pre- 
tending to be dissatisfied), and call for one of the many carts that 
are always kept ready dose to the spot. Tour baggage being put 
upon it, take care to accompany, or to send your servant with it ; 
and on arriving at the hotel dismiss the cart with U., and the porters 
who have loaded it, and carried the things to your rooms, with 
another. They would not be satisfied with 5^., or any other sum ; 
but of this no notice need be taken, being well paid ; and the as- 
sumption of discontent is part of their profession. 

In the great harbour the hire ^f boats is, — from the Nix Man- 
giare stairs, or the Calcara gate, to the ships, or to the dockyard, 
^2d, there, and the same back: and from this harbour to St. 
Julian's Bay, 1#. You may pay more if you like, and give 6 J. in- 
stead of 2d, At night the prices are increased, 

Boiels at Malta, — The best hotels in Yaletta are, Morell's, in 
Strada Forai ; Dunsford's, in Strada Beale ; Madame Goubeau's, oc 



the Clarence, in the same street ; and the Victoria, in Strada Gio- 
vanni, opposite St. John's church. The smaller ones are, Yicary's, 
in Strada Vescovo, looking upon the Parade, lately taken hy another 
person, and fitted up under the name of the Princess Royal Hotel ; 
the Hotel de la Mediterran6e, in Strada Reale ; the Hotel d*Orient, 
in Strada Teatro ; and a few others of less note. 

Moreirs is very comfortable, and the prices there and at Duns- 
ford's are about the same. Madame Goubeau's is the only hotel 
with a tabie dhdte^ which is at 5 o'clock in summer and 6 in 
winter, and is pretty good. The house has the advantage of hot 
and cold baths. The Mediterran6e is small, but has the reputation 
of having by far the best cuisine ; it is therefore much frequented aa 
a restaurant^ and the prices are moderate. At Morell's a bed-room, 
furnished to answer also as a sitting-room, is charged d«. a day : 
breakfast, of tea, bread and butter, and eggs. Is. 6d,; with toast 
and coffee, 2^. ; with meat, &c., 2s. 6d. : plain dinner, with soap, 
meat, &c., d«., and with side dish, 4s. : tea, 6d., and with bread and 
butter, 15. 

Dunsford's is about the same, or a little cheaper. 

At the Clarence, a bed- room 2s., and bed- room with small sitting*- 
room 4«., larger apartments paying in proportion: breakfast 1«, 
and Is. 6d. : private dinner 3f . to 4«., and at table dThdte 2s. 6d.^ 
exclusive of wines. 

There are also lodging-houses, many of which are very comfort* 
able: two belonging to Dunsford, in Strada Forni, and Strada 
Zecca : Moreirf s, in Strada Beale, close to the church of Santa 
Catharina ; and one or two more in Strada Forni. They are well 
adapted for persons intending to make some stay in Malta, and 
then it is better to come to an agreement, according to the time. 
The usual price oi a bed-room and sitting-room is about 5s. a day, 
and small rooms are charged 8«. The average price of dinner is 4«.y 
and breakfast \s. 6d. 

English money is the current coin in Malta, from a sovereign to 

a farthing. 

Carriages and Horses. — Carriages, with a pair of horses, let at 

45 dollars a month ; a pair of horses, without carriage,, 40 dollars ; 

by the day, 3 dollars ; half a day, 1^ dollar. A saddle-horse for the 

whole day, os. to 65. ; half a day, 2s. 6d. ; from 9 a. u. until evening 

4s. to 5s, ; from 9 to 2 o'clock, Ss. to a dollar ; and from S o'clock 

till 9, 2s. 6d. to Ss. If you keep a calesse with one horse, the food 

of the horse will cost lOcL a day f and the calessier^ besides attend- 


ing to the hone and carriage, is expected to wash the floor of your 
house — an instance of the multifarious occupations of servants in 
this part of the world. 

Sights at JIfa/ta.— There are few ohjects worthy of a visit at 
Malta. The principal in the town of Valetta are the palace, the 
gOTemment library, the cathedral church of St. John, the fortifica- 
tions, the view from the two Baraccas, and the palaces of the 
knights, called Auberges, particularly those of Castille and Pro- 
yen ce. 

In the palace are the armoury, a few good pictures, and some 
carious tapestry. Many of the apartments are good, and not less 
so the ball-room. 

The armoury is well arranged, but the specimens of armour are 
not so curious, nor so varied, as might be expected in the city of the 
knights. The complete suit, of Yignacourt is very elegant and 
simple. It is the same he wore when painted by Caravaggio in a 
picture in the dining-room, a copy of which is placed above it. 
There is a large suit near the other end of the room, that appears, 
from its immense weight, not to have been worn : and not far from 
this is a very primitive field-piece, made of copper bound round 
with ropes, over which a composition of lime was put, cased in 

The Turkish arms are few, and remarkable neither for beauty 
nor curiosity ; which is singular in a place so long at war with the 
Osmanlis and the Moors. The library was founded in 1 790 by the 
Bailli de Tencin, who presented the public with 9700 volumes. It 
contains many curious and old works, and is composed of the pri- 
vate collections of the knights, who were obliged to bequeath their 
books to this public institution. Here are deposited some antiques 
of various kinds found in Malta and Gozo ; among which are a 
parallel Greek and Punic inscription, several strange headless 
figures from Crendi, two curious coffins of terra-cotta, and a few 
other objects of various styles and epochs. 

Of St. John's Church the most curious part is the floor, where the 
arms of all the grand masters are inlaid in various coloured mar- 
bles. They have been very useful for heraldry. 

The tapestry of this church is also very fine. It is put up at the 
fete of St John, and continues to be exposed to public view for 
several days, before and after that ceremony. The silver railing in 
the chapel of the Madonna, at the east end, is curious. It is said to 
have owed its preservation^ at the time of the French occupation of 

a 2 


the island, to the paint that then concealed the valuable quality of 
its materials. 

In on^ of the side chapels is a picture by Michael Angelo Cara- 
▼aggio, representing the beheading of St. John ; a good painting, 
but badly preserved. It is said that the artist made this a present 
to the order, on condition of being created a knight of Malta, ia 
consequence of the following occurrence : — One of the knights 
having offended the artist, the latter challenged him to single com* 
bat, and satisfaction being refused, on the plea of his not beings 
worthy io meet his antagonist in a duel, Caravaggio sought to obtain 
a position which should entitle him to this right. He therefore ap- 
plied to the grand master, in the hopes of obtaining the rank of 
knight ; which was granted, on condition of painting this picture. 
It was done, he became a knight, and fought his duel ; but in order 
to diminish as much as possible the value of a work, which the pride 
of a member of the order had condemned him to execute, he painted 
the picture on cotton instead of canvas, whence its decayed state, 
and the difficulty of its restoration. Such is the story at Malta, the 
truth of which may be doubted ; though the most important point is 
true that he painted the picture. 

In the crypts below the cathedral are the tombs of some of the 
grand masters. 

The principal objects in the vicinity of Yaletta and in the country 
are the ruins near Crendi, or Casal Crendi, the hollow called the 
Devil's Punch Bowl, or Makluba, St. PauVs Bay, Citta Yecchia and 
the Catacombs, the Garden of Boschetto, the Governor's Villa of 
San Antonio, the Grotto of Calypso, and the Aqueduct built by the 
Grand Master Vignacourt in 1610. 

These have been so frequently described that I shall only mention 
the ruins near Casal Crendi, excavated by order of the governor, Sir 
Henry Bouverie, in 1839-40. They are about twenty minutes* 
walk from that village, and are called Hagar Keem, " the upright 
stone.*' This name has been very improperly written Khem^ and 
has been supposed to bear some relation to Egypt, or the land of 
Ham (Khem). They consist of several apartments of various sizes, 
irregularly placed within one common enclosure, mostly connected 
with each other by passages or doorways. The rooms are either oval, 
or have one end of semicircular form ; and their walls are composed 
of large stones placed upright in the ground, or in horizontal 
courses. The principal entrance is on the S. S. £. A short pas- 
sage leads from it into a small court, in which, on the left hand side, 
is a small altar ornamented with a rude attempt at sculpture, repre- 


seoting a plant growing from a flower-pot ; and near it is a flat 
stone like a seat, above which are engraved on an upright block two 
Tolates, protruding on either side of an oval body. There are no 
other signs of sculpture ; but a peculiar kind of ornament is com- 
mon on these and all the principal members of the building, cou- 
aisting of round holes punctured all over the surface of the stones, 
extending little deeper than the surface. 

On either side of this court is a semicircular chamber ; and after 
passing on, through a door in a line with the main entrance, you 
come to a second court, at the upper end of which to the right is 
the principal sanctuary. It is of semicircular form, and its walls 
are built of stones placed in horizontal courses, put together with 
care, and breaking joint. 

Within this is a smaller enclosure of stones, placed upright in a 
drcle, with an entrance corresponding to that of the room itself. 
Ail the stones of the sanctuary have been punctured in the manner 
above mentioned. 

On the left of this second court are two large stone altars ; one 
on each side of a door leading to a small apartment, connected with 
which is another little chamber, also containing an altar. There 
are four more apartments at this (south-west) end of the ruins ; 
and in the outer wall of circuit are some very large stones placed 
upright, about 15 ft. high above the ground. A stone of similar 
siz^stands near the sanctuary to the north-east, and another of still 
larger dimensions is placed horizontally a little to the east of the 
main entrance. 

About 120 ft. to the north of these ruins are other semicircular en- 
closures, made with stones placed upright in the ground ; and about 
a mile to the south, near the sea, are some ruins similar to the 
Bagar Keem, which are also deserving of examination. 

In the same excursion may be included a visit to Makliiba, and 
even to the cave called Ghar Hassan on the sea-coast to the south- 
east of Crendi. 

Other ruins of a similar kind are found close to Valetta, at the 
Coradino, near Captain Spenser's monument and the new tank, 
which may be visited at the same time. 

With regard to the date of these peculiar structures and the 
people by whom they were built, I will not pretend to ofier any 
opinion. Their general appearance has rather a druidical character, 
and from their antiquity and the occupation of the island by the 
Phoenicians, we might attribute them to that people ; but the absence 
of aU inscriptions leaves the matter in uncertainty, and the small 


headless figures discoyered there (now preserved in the Govern* 
ment library at Valetta) in no way aid in solving the question. 

In Gozo is another ruin called Torre dei Giganti, "the Giants* 
Tower," inland on the eastern side of the island, which is on a 
grander scale than the ruins of Crendi, though of similar construc- 
tion, and evidently the work of the same people. 

Rowing and sailing boats go over to Gozo from Yaletta daily, 
and sometimes a small yacht may be hired for the occasion, which 
is cleaner and more comfortable. 

Yaletta has a small theatre, where Italian operas are performed 
during the season. Many public and private balls are also given, 
particularly in the winter. 


Page 86. line 18., for *< had not happened/* read ** had happened.** 

SI 8. second column, 4th line from bottom, for <* 20 monks** read 

•* 80 monks.** 
293. first column, Srd line from bottom, on the word ** Omar,** insert 
the following note : — ** I understand the river now flows again 
at the foot of the hill, where the caves are, which may be 
reached in ten minutes from the boat.** 






Preliminary Information^ 


vrr. — h. Things useful for thk Journit in Egypt. — e. Mods of 
LiTiNO IN Egttt, and Disvaszs of tur Country. — </. Dress. — e, Prz- 
■RNTs. — f. Firmans. — ^. Monet, — A. Wrights anb Measures. — ^t. Post 
Office. — j. Population — Retznuz. — *. Mohammed All — /. Chro- 
nological Table. — m, Lm of Califhs and Sultans of Egypt. — 
«. Certain points requiring Examination. — Ow English and Arabic 

kovtr page 

1 London to AlexRndria - 71 
to RosettR, by 

- 102 


RosettR to Atfeh, and Cairo, 

by water . - . ]05 
Alexandria to Cairo, by land, 

through the Delta - • 105 



5. Alexandria to Cairo, by the 

Western Bank - - 106 

6 Alexandria to Atfeh and 
Cairo, by the Canal and 
the Nile ... lo^ 

1. Arrival at Alexandria. 2. Hotels. 3. Seirants. 4. Boats. 5. 
Things to be purchased at Alexandria for the Journey to Cairo? 6. His- 
tory oi Alexandria. 7. Plan of Alexandria, and Site and description of the 
Buildings. 8. Monuments outside the Canopic Gate. 9. Present Remains 
of Ancient Alexandria. 10. Its Size and Importance. 11. Inhabitants. 
13. aimate, Lake Mareotis and Canals. 13. The two Ports, Gates, Walls, 
and Old Docks. 14. Mosks and other Buildings. 15. Amusements and 
Sighta at Alexandria. 


The best season for Yisiting Egypt is October, when the cool weather be- 
gins, and the northerly winds prevail ; and boats may thtti go up the Nile 
without the impediments of calms and contrary winds. At the beginning of 
that month the trareller may have an opportunity of witnessing the curious 


Sect. L 

Gridiron, E. or C, (if thought ne- 

20 okas of potatoes, A. or C, 

Tobacco, A. or C. 

Pipes, C. 

Wire for deaning pipes, put into a 
reed, O* 

Some tow for the same purpose, C. 

Mouth-pieces and pipe-bowls, C. 

A takkatoohni, or a brass plate, called 
SeHnSeh, and wire cover for pipe- 
bowl, are useful, A« or C. 

Salt, pepper, &c., A. or C. 

Oil, and distilled Wnegar, E. or C 

Butter, C. 

Flour, C. 

Rice, a 

Maccaroni. A. or C. 

Coffee, C. 

Portable soup and meats, -E. 

Cheese, A. or C., or English cheese,E, 

Mi$hmtsh apricots, C. 

Kumredeen apricots, C. 

Tea, E. or A. 

Wine, brandy, Ac, E. or A. White 
wine I believe to be better in a hot 
climate than red. 

Spermaceti candles, E. or A. 

Table with legs to fold up, ahd top to 
take off, E. or A. 

Foot tub (of tin or copper), &c., E. 

Washing tub, £. 

Flag, E. or A. (for boat on Nile). 

Small pulley and ropeforflag, E. or A. 

Coffee-pot, E. or A. 

Small bdkrag^ or Turkish coffee>pot, 
A. or C. 

Tea-kettle, E., or a tin one at A. 

Plates, knives and fark% spoons, glass- 
es, tea things, &c., in canteen, E. 

A large bttkrag might serve as tea- 
kettle and for boiling eggs, &c., A. 

Copper saucepans, one to fit into the 
other (HeM ft* Kttlbe-Md), may 
be bought at A. ; buy them not 
tinned, in order to see if they are 

Copper pan for stewing f Tawa), A. 

Baskets for holding these and other 
things, A. 

Candlesticks, E. 

BardakM ( GooUd), or water bottles, C. 

Zecr, or jar, for holding water, C. 

Almond paste {rooag or terwieg) for 
clarifying water, C. 

Some tools, nails, and string, E. 

A Kaddcm may serve as hammer and 
hatchet, C 

Charcoal in mats, C. 

Two fire-places {mtrngnd)^ A. In the 
boat going up the Nile have a set 
put together in a large fireplace 
with a wooden back ; the whole will 
cost about 54 piastres, if well made, 

Small bellows, £., or fim, at A. or C 

Fez caps (jUarbomh^tarabeeth) A. or C 

Mandthek, fly. flap, A. or C. 

Cafass, or kafass, a coop for fowla^ 
with moveable drawer at the bot- 
tom, in order that it may be kept 
clean, A. or C 

White, or light-coloured boots or 
shoes, being cooler, and requiring 
no blacking, E^ 

Red Turkish slippers, C. 

Biscuit, E. or C., or bread twice 
baked, C. The bread in the vil- 
lages in Upper Egypt will &ot 
please every one; but veiy good 
bread is to be had at Thebes {Koor» 
nth), and that of Osiootand sooie 
other large towns is by no means 

Small tin cases for holding coflfee, 
sujtar, salt, pepper, &c., A. 

BaUdti, or earthen jars for flour, rioe> 
butter, and other things which rata 
might eat, are useful, C. 

Candles in boxes, or in tin cases, but 
if in tlie latter not to be exposed to 
the sun, E. or C. 

Broom called makdah^t and a tin, 
for sweeping cabin, C. 

Gun, powder, and shot, &c, £• 

Ink, paper, pens, &c., E. 

Camp-stool and drawing table, E. 

Umbrella lined with a dark colour for 
the sun, E. 

Drawing paper, pencils, rubber, &c., 
and colours, in tin box of Winsor 
and Newton, £. 

A saddle and bridle for Syria and 

Tent (if required), ladder, and cu- 
shions, may all be made at Cairo* 



Tbcnnomcter, mountain baromeCer, 
if required, £• 

Measuring-tape and foot-ruler, E. 

For observations, a sextant and ar- 
tificial horisoot or rather. Captain 
Kater*a Repeating Circlet chrono- 
meter, &c«, £• 

Curtains for boat, of common or other 
cotton stuff*, A. or C. 

A packing- needle or two, and some 
string, thin ropes, needles, thread, 
buttons, &c , are useful : £., A., 
w C. 

A filterer is not necessary. Keneli 
jars and g^oBd^ or earthen water 
bottles, supply its place. 

A titm2jem$ikt or water bottle of Rus- 
sian leather, for the desert, or even 
for excursions to the ruins ; though 
lor the latter gooOel will answer 
▼ery well, without any trouble, C. 
The seams must be first of all rub- 
bed with a mixture of melted tallow 

and wax, and when this dries the 
Zemsemdeh may be filled ; but af- 
terwards it must never be left 
without some water in it. Another 
precaution, when on an excursicm, 
for prettrving the water, is to insist 
on the servants not drinking it. 

A donkey, if he intends taking a large 
boat from Cairo, or, at all events, 
a donkey saddle, but no bridle, the 
asses of Upper Egypt not having 
any knowledge of such a /ajntry, C. 

As many eatables, which will keep, as 
be likes, most of which may be had 
at Cairo. Portable soups, or meat, 
&c., preserved in tins, may be 
brought from England as occa- 
sional luxuries. 

An iron rat-trap for the boat, E. 

Two sheets of Mackintosh, about 7 
feet square, with loops here and 
there, against damp ground and 
rain, are very useful, especially in 
the desert and in Syria. 

* With regard to instruments, they should, when it is possible, be of the 
same materials throughout, wood and metal combined ill according with the 
beat of an Egyptian climate ; and in the top and bottom of the cases nails, or 
screws answer better than glue. 

In bis medicine chest, the most necessary things for a traveller are, scales, 
and liquid-measure, lancet, diachylon and blistering plaster, linl, salts, rhu- 
barb, cream of tartar, ipecacuanha, sulphate of bark or quinine, James's and 
Dover's powders, calomel, laudanum or morphine, sugar of lead, sulphate of 
nuc, nitrate of silver, and sulphate of copper (these 4 being of great use in 
ophthalmia), nitre, oil of peppermint, and other common medicines. They 
had better be brought from Europe, though they may be had in Alexandria 
or Cairo. Powders and other medicines should be put into bottles, well 
closed with glass stoppers. 

Nearly all the above-mentioned things may, indeed, be found in Egypt, 
but they are better and cheaper in Europe : many, too, will be thought 
unnecessary by many travellers ; it must therefore be left to them to decide 
if any, or what, can be dispensed with. 

The choice of a library (which cannot be collected in Egypt) will, of 
course, depend on the occupations or taste of each person : I shall therefore 
only recommend the most useful works, as vols. ii. and iii. of Larcher's 
Herodotus; Champollion's I'honetic System of Hieroglyphics, Letters, and 
Grammar ; Pococke ; Denon ; Hamilton's iEgyptiaca ; Savary's Letters ; 
Clot Bey's Aper^u G6n^nile de I'Egypte; Gliddon on the Hieroglyphics; 
Mengin's '* Egypte sous Mohammed Aly ;" Robinson's Palestine and 
Mount Sinai ; Lane's Modern, and Wilkinson's Ancient, Egyptians ; Hos- 
ktns's Ethiopia, and Visit to the Great Oasis; Colonel Leake's, Lapie's, 
or Wilkinson's Map of Egypt ; Captain Smyth's Alexandria ; Wilkinson's 
SuTfey of Thebes ; Costa's Delta ; and Parke and Scoles's Nubia ; to which 



may be added Burckhardt, I^aborde's Petni, Ptolemy, Strabo, and Pliny ; 
but of these three last, as well as Diodorus, extracts will suffice, if consi- 
dered too Tolumioous. (Of the libraries in Egypt see Sect 2. ) 


In winter, it is unnecessary to make any change in the mode of living 
from that usually adopted in Europe ; and most persons, unless they commit 
excesses, may eat whatever they are accustomed to in other countries. In 
the summer months it is, however, better to avoid much wine or spirits, as 
they tend to heat the blood ; and cause the hot weather to be more senubly 
felt; and some (though I may say, very few) will find that fish (chiefly 
those without scales), eggs, and unboiled milk, do not always agree with 
them. Bathing in the Nile is by no means prejudicial in the morning and 
evening ; and, except in the neighbourhood of sandbanks, there is no fear of 
crocodiles. Fruit and vegetables are wholesome and cooling, and mutton is 
better than beef. The fish of the Nile are not very good ; the booltee and 
kisher are perhaps the best. 

The diseases of Egypt are few. Fevers are very rare, except about Alex- 
andria, Oamietta, and other places on the coast; and almost the only com- 
plaints, to which strangers are subject in the interior, are diarrhcea, dysentery, 
and ophthalmia. The following is a good mode of treatment for diarrfacea, 
or even for the beginning of suspected dysentery. First take an emetic of 
ipecacuanha, and in the morning a mild aperient, as 15 grs. of rhubarb with 
2 grs. of calomel; on the following day, 2 grs. of ipecacuanha with \ gr, of 
opium morning and evening, nothing being eaten but boiled rice, sweetened 
with white sugar. But if this does not stop the complaint, and tenesmus 
gives the well-known sign of decided dysentery, a do^ of 20 grs. of calomel 
with 4 gr. of opium, should be taken, which must be followed next morning 
by a dose of castor oil. This generally cuts the matter short ; but it is as 
well to follow it up with 2 grs. of ipecacuanha and } gr. of opium three or 
four times within the 12 or 24 hours, for two or three days after. In severe 
cases, an injection of nitrate of silver (caustic) has been employed with great 
success ; but this can only be done under medical advice. 

For ophthalmia, in the first suge, mix 10 grs. of sulphate of zinc in 1 oz. 
of distilled or rose-water, and put one or two drops into the eye, reducing the 
strength for succeeding applications. In the purulent stage, mix 7 grs. of 
sulphate of copper, or blue vitriol, in 1 oz. of rose-water, and drop it into the 
eye once a day. Fifteen grs. of sulphate of zinc may even be put into 1 os. 
of rose-water, and one or two drops be put into the eye ; and I have been 
recommended by an eminent practitioner to use 7 grs. of nitrate of silver to 
1 oz. of rose-water in the same manner. 

In slight inflammation, a wash of 2 grs. of sulphate of copper to 1 oz. of 
rose-water may be frequently used. Warm water will often remove an irri- 
tation which if neglected often ends in ophthalmia; and spirits of wine 
will generally have the same effect, particularly if the hand be held over the 
eye to cause an external heat ; the eye being, of course, kept closed to prevent 
the spirit entering it. Steaming the eye over boiling water is also highly 
beneficial ; or bathing it in a decoction of poppy-heads. 

The cause of ophthalmia has frequently been assigned to the sand of the 
desert; but, in order to show the error of this conjecture, I need only 
observe, that ophthalmia is unknown there, unless taken from the Nile ; and 
I have always cured myself and others, after two or three days, by a visit to 
the interior of this dry tract. I do not, however, mean to affirm that sand 

EgypL diskases. — ^^BREsa. — fresents. 7 

blown into the eye, or a greet glare from the sand, will not produce it ; dust 
and the glare of snow will cause it in other countries ; but still they are not 
<4e causes of ophthalmia, generally speaking. There are, in fiu:t, both direct 
and accidental causes. Among the latter are a blow, dust or sand, glare of 
the sun, a draught of wind, and other things ; but the former must be looked 
for in a 6xed and specific agent, peculiar to Cgypt. This, I am persuaded, 
after many years* experience, and frequent attacks of ophthalmia, arises in 
the transition from excessive dryness to damp ; and though Egypt is, perhaps, 
the driest climate in the world, the diflerence between the generally dry 
atmosphere and the damp exhalations on the river, or in the streets of Cairo 
and other towns (which are not only narrow, but are watered to keep them 
cool), ik so great, that the eye is readily affected by it ; particularly when in 
that susceptible state, caused by the sensible and insensible perspiration, to 
which the skin is there subject. Hence it is, that during the inundation, 
when the exhalations are the greatest, ophthalmia is most prevalent. The 
facts of its non-existence in, and its speedy cure if a patient goes into, the 
desert, sufficiently substantiate this opinion ; and this is further confirmed by 
the comparatively comfortable sensation there imparted to the eye, by the 
dryness of the air. 

It is always advisable to avoid sitting in a draught, particularly of damp 
air; and if obliged to go out at niaht from a warm room, or the cabin of a 
boat, to wash the eyes and forehead with a little cold water, by which means 
die perspiration is not checked on going out, and the eye is prepared for the 
change to a cooler temperature. They must, however, be wiped dry before 
leaving the room. 

It is unnecessary to say much respecting the plague : every one will take 
care to avoid it, either by not going to £gypt when it rages there, or by leav- 
ing the country on the first alarm. If he cannot do the last, he may avoid it 
by remaining in Upper Egypt, where it never goes above Osio6t ; or he may 
keep quarantine like other Europeans in the countr}'. In Alexandria cases 
rarely occur from September to the end of January, and at Cairo from thee nd 
of June to the end of March ; and that only in certain years. A violent 
plague occurs about once in 10 or 12 years. It is less frequent at Cairo thail 
at Alexandria, and the worse plagues cease at Cairo by the end of June. It 
is now no longer dreaded as of old ; grest precautions are taken by tlie board 
of health, and the treatment is better understood. The first remedy should 
be an emetic, which will often stop it if taken in time; but bleeding is 

d. DEESS. 

If the traveller inquires whether the Oriental dress be necessary, I answer, 
it is by no means so ; and a person wearing it, who is Ignorant of the lan- 
guage, becomes ridiculous. One remark, however, I must be allowed to make 
on dress in that country — that a person is never respected who is badly 
dressed, of whatever kind the costume may be, and nowhere is exterior appear- 
ance so much thought of as in the East. 

e. pazsKNTs. 

With regard to presenU in Egypt, it may be laid down as a general rule that 
they are quite unnecessary ; which was not the case in former times. But it 
will sometimes happen that the civilities of a Sktkk Belied, or even of a 
Turkish governor, require some return ; in which case some English gun« 
powder, a watch, or a telescope for the latter, and a white shawl and tarbooih,or 
an amber mouth-piece for the former, are^ generally speaking, more than they 

a 4 


have any reason to expect. And although on those occasions, when their po- 
liteness arises from the hope of reward, they may be disappointed in their ei- 
pectations, yet they would only consider greater presents proofs of greater 
ignorance in the person who made them. But in all cases the nature of a pre- 
sent must depend on the service performedi and also upon the rank of both 

f, naMAvS. 

Firmans are no longer given by the Pasha, but a hooy^ardtt or taikrtk may 
be obtained from the Diwan d KhedUwee at the citadel, on application to the 
consulate, which it is as well to hare, and which is absolutely necessary if the 
traveller intends going any distance from the Nile into the interior. Indeed, 
I have known the governor of a town refuse protection to a traveller when 
applied to for it, on the excuse of his having no firman or booySordees and the 
want of one might, in some cases, be a very serious inconvenience. 


The most common foreign coins current in Egypt are the dollar, the sove- 
reign, Venetian sequin, and 5 franc piece. The dollar is rated at 20 piastres, 
though the Spanish colonnato, or pillar dollar, has latterly passed for 23, and 
the Austrian thaler at 21 ; and it may be observed as a general rule, that in 
mentioning a dollar 20 piastres are implied, unless the name of Spanish or 
Austrian dollar be specified. The value of the dollar, like other foreign coins, 
is frequently changing in Egypt, in consequence of the constant deterioration 
of the piastre. In 1 833 it was at 15, and the sovereign at 70 piastres. For- 
merly it was at 90 pturag, and to this day the sum of 90 panu is called reai or 
dollar. In Pococke*s time, the para or mSiydee was 3 farthings English, and 
the I L was 8 piastres. The small Constantinople coins were not then current 
in Egypt. 

Tlie principal gold coins of the country are kkereehs, b^shiUkMf and pieces of 
90 and 10 piastres. Those of silver are 3 and 1 piastre pieces, half and quarter 
piastres ; and the only copper coins are pieces of 5 paras. Large sums are 
reckoned by purses, a» throughout the Turicish empire. The purse is always 
500 piastres, now equal to 51. ; there is also the khdznehf wich is 1000 purses. 

The money of Egypt has lately undergone a change, and Mohammed AU 
has called in all the worthless coin of Constantinople, and issued a new cur- 
rency, which is very good. The only bad part of it was, that instead of calling 
in the old coins, and giving the people the price at which they received them, 
the Pasha merely altered thdr value, and treated them as we have the Maltese 
in the case of the dollar. 

In January, 1842, the Spanish dollar, hitherto passing for 22, was rated 
at 20 piastres 28 paras, the Austrian dollar of 21 at 20; and after various 
changes, a tariff was published, stating the different proportionate reductiona 
of the other coins. 

The following is the value of the different pieces of money circulating 
in Egypt, according to the new tariff of 1842 : -^ 


Plast. Par. Piast. Far. 

Portuguese pezxi dToro -.174 4 
Venetian sequini - - - 46 1 7 

Doubloons, doppi€ AT 3^3 

Spagna \ 

English sovereigns (re-\ - „ 

duced from 100) J - »^ asu 

Hungarian ducats, orl ak o^ 
Mugger j - -m xo 



Louk d*or of SO francs 
Old Mahmood^eht 
New Mahmood^ebs 
Fendooklce of Mah- 

New Fendooklee of^ 

New Fendooklce of' 

New Mahb6ob of Selim 
OUl Adlcch of Consttn- 1 

tinople. J 

New Adleeh of Con- j 

stantinople 3 

Old Zerilfe of ConsUn. 

New Zarifle of ConsUn' 


Attitrian dollar 

Spanish pillar dollar 

'Neapolitan §ewdo 

5 Franc piece 

American dollar 

Sardinian dollar 

Old Besfalik of Con- 

New Bcshlik of Con- 

Ekkeeltk of Constan- 

Old Tuslik of Constan- 

Old Altmishlik of Con- 

Alteelik Abd-el Meg^cd 


A'lteelik, Ham^edee 

FIsrt. Fsr. 

• 77 6 

- 60 2S 

- 50 S3 

- 43 10 

- 84 10 

- S6 


- 25 


- 17 


- 15 


- S 


- 8 


Old Khereeh (or Kbay- 
r^eb) of Constanti- 

New Khereeb of Coo- 
lant! nople 

New Kbereeh of Abd- 

Cairene piece of 100 pi- 

New Khereeb of Cairo 

Old Kbeiveh of Cairo 

New Kbereeh of Cairo 

Mahb6ob of Cairo, 

Mabb6obof Cairo, Mab- 

Saadeeh or small Khe- 
reeb of Cairo 




Plaat. Fsr. 




16 90 

2 24 


. 11 27 




Silver coin of Mahmood - 
Sitt^nee, Meg6ed - 
Half piastre, MegM 
Quarter piastre, Meg^d - 
Para of Abd-el Meg^dl 
for every thousand J 
Piastre of Abd-elMegM - 
C^airene dollars 
Cairene S piastre piece 

Piatt. Par. 
90 5 

17 10 
17 10 


20 O 
8 32 
8 32 

24 8 

20 34 

S 37 

PIstt. Par. 





- 10 17 


Cairene piastre 

Cairene } piastre 

Cairene ) piastre 

Maydee> foddai noos 1 

(noosf ], or 1 para piece j 


Piece of 5 paras, or 
KhAmsa fodda 









The best money to take to Egypt is English sovereigns, or Spanish and 
Austrian dollars. It is also necessary to have bills on London. They nuiy 
be drawn either at Alexandria or Cairo ; but it must be remembered that no 
money b to be obtained in Upper Egypt, and the traveller must take all 
be wants for his journey, before be leaves Cairo. He should also provide 
himself with a sufficient quantity of piastres, 20, 10. and 5 para pieces, as 
in baying fowb or other things in the villages, his servants will not always 
find change for lai^ger coins ; it is not convenient to be delayed, until a poor 
peasant can search for it ; and many object to taking gold, even of the 
country, from the natural fear of losing it, or of suffering from -some change in 
its value. Sometimes it is possible to negotiate a bill at {Ceneb, through our 

a 6 


ftgent Sayd Hossayn, who, though acting without any pay from our goTem- 
ment, is always ready to oblige travellers ; but this is of course only done as 
a favour, and cannot be relied on, unless the stranger is furnished with a 
letter to him from a house in Cairo or Alexandria. This, for one who in- 
tends making a long stay at Thebes, would be advisable. Circular notes are 
also very useful at those two places ; but some merchants prefer a letter of 
credit, as bills are m6re secure against loss on the way, when drawn in dupli- 
cate or triplicate. 

The piastre and the smaller Egyptian coins now pass throughout Ethiopia ; 
though, in the southern parts, the old prejudice in favour of the Spanish 
pillar-dollar of Charles IV. (once common throughout Ethiopia as low as the 
first cataract) may perhaps still remain. That dollar was preferred, and bad 
a greater value, partly from its having /our lines in the number, and partly, 
as they affirmed, from the superior quality of the silver. 


8 Mitk&l make 1 Ok4ea (wok^a) or Arab. os. 

12 Ok&» — 1 Rotl or pound (about 1 lb. 2 oz. 8 dwt. Troy.) 

2] RoU — 1 Oka or Wukka. 

100 to 1 10 Rotl ] Kantir (about 98] avoirdupois). 

108 Rotl — 1 Kantdr for coffee. 

103 Rotl — 1 Kantiir for pepper, &c. 

120 Rotl — 1 Kant4r for cotton. 

150 Rotl — > 1 Kantir for gums, &c. 

For Gold, Gums, ^e, 

4 Kumh (Grains) make 1 Keer&t (Carat) or Khar6obeh. 
64 Grains or 16 Keerat — 1 Derhm (4?! to 49 grains English). 
11 Derhm. or 24 Keerit - {^ MiUciUfrom about 1 drachm to 72 gr^ 

12 Derhm — P ^^i**.?' °*- ^^'®°' ^''^^ *** ^"^^ «^ 

\ English). 

12 Okdea — 1 Rotl or pound. 

150 Rotl — 1 Kantar. 

Meatureg of Length, 
Fitr, or span, with fore finger and thumb. 
Shibr, longest span with little finger and thumb. 
Kubdeh, human fist with the thumb erect. 
1 Drah beledee, or cubit, equal to 22 to 22| inches English. 
1 Drah Stamb6olee equal to 26 to 26} inches English. 
1 Drah Hindazce (for cloth, &c.) equal to about 25 inches English, 
3 Bah (braces) equal to 1 Kassobeh or 1 1) feet. 

Land MeatwrtM, 
22 (formerly 24) Khar6obeh or Kiilideh make 

1 Kassobeh, equal to 
from n ft 4| in. 
to 11 ft. 1\ in. 

IS} Kassobeh or rods -~ 1 Keerat. 

24 £eerat,or 933 Kassobeh — 1 Feddin oracre. 




Com Mttuure. 

In Lower Egypt, 

2 Koddah make 1 Melweh. 

— 1 Roob. 
~ 1 Kayleh 

— 1 Waybeh. 

— 1 Ardeb. 

4 Kuddah 
2 Roob 
4 Roob 
24 Roob 

In Upper Egypt, 

Roftow make 1 Mid. 

1 Mid. 

nearly 5 


3 Roob 

8 Mid or 
6 Waybeb 

— J 


t, ro8T orricx. 

There is only one Foreign post-oflSce in Egypt, which is at Alexandria. 
Letters to England (which need not be prepaid) can be sent to Alexandria, 
and forwarded without difficulty ; but those for Malta and other parts of the 
Mediterranean, which require the postage to be paid, roust be sent to some 
one in Alexandria, who will pay them there, as this cannot be done at Cairo. 

Those for Germany, and inland places in Europe, must be sent to some 
bouse at Marseilles, in order that they may be there prepaid and forwarded, 
as this is not to be done in Egypt. 

The following is a copy of the notice in the British Government Packet 
Office at Alexandria : — 

'< Mails are made up at this office only for the following ports in the Mediter- 
ranean by H. M.*s packets, namely, Malta, Gibraltar, Syra, and Marseilles ; 
and all letters for these ports (excepting Marseilles) must be prepaid at the 
following ratesy or cannot otherwise be forwarded : — 

Not exceeding \ an ounce 

1 ounce - 

2 ounces - 
9 ounces • 

9, d. 

O 6 

1 a 

2 O 

3 and so on." 


The population of Egypt, which 200 years ago was estimated at 4,000,000, 
now amounts only to about 1,800,000 souls, having been reduced since I800« 
from 2^500,000 to that number. Plague, and the Turkish system of Govern- 
meot, have lessened and still continue to lessen, the population of all Egypt, 
Alexandria alone excepted ; which, through increasing commerce, contains 
nearly ten times the number of inhabitants it had before the time of 
Mohammed AH. 

The revenue of Egypt is said to be about 2,500,000/. sterling. 


Mohammed Ali was born at C&wala, a small town of Roumelia, opposite 
Thasos, in 1769; the same year that gave birth to the two most illustrious 
persona of the present era. Napoleon and Wellington. 

Uis father was Rougher, peasant, or farmer; who followed the double 
occupation of tilling his lands, and deriving a part of his livelihood from the 
sea. A miliury life was the only one that suited the active disposition of his 
son ; and Mohammed Ali having entered the service of the ehdrbagee or 
governor of C4wala, received the rank of B6olook- Bdshi, or subaltern, under 
the chief of the guard (Agha-t-el bab, ** officer of the door**), at the palace. 

On the death of his commanding officer, he was appointed to succeed him 
as Agha-t-el bab, and married bis widow. She had two children, the 
present Ibrahim Pasha, born in 1789, and his young sister, the late Tafdedah 

B 6 


Hdnem, widow oT Moharrem Bey ; she aftcrwardi became mother of Tqob* 
Boom and Ismail Pasha. Mohammed All after hts marriage contintted to 
hold the same office in the govemor^s household ; and though he may have 
entered into speculations in trade, like many Turkish soldiers, he never quitted 
the military profession ; and when, in 1799) Ciwalawas required to furnish a 
contingent of 300 men for the army of the Viseer, then levying to oppose the 
French in Egypt, he was sent with them, and soon afterwards obtained the rank 
of Bin-bashi. His conduct on several occasions, when engaged witli the 
French, merited and obtained the approbation of the commander-in-chief, par- 
ticularly at the battle of Abookir ; and when attached with a corps of TuriiSy 
to part of the British army, he attracted the notice of several of our officers 
by his courage and activity in the field. 

At the period of the evacuation of Egypt by the Frendi, he had attained 
the rank of Sar-cheshmeh, Brigadier- General, and his courage having gained 
fur htm the admiration, as his manners the affection of the army, he soon felt 
himself possessed of an instrument for increasing his influence in the country, 
of which he was not slow in taking advantage. The discontent of the troops, 
in consequence of long arrears of pay, had already begun to manifest itself, 
when a threatening message of Khosrow Pasha to Mohammed Ali, was the 
signal for open rebellion. They looked upon him to be the defender of their 
rights ; and since he had displayed great anxiety for their welfare, they were 
ready to protect him from the anger of the viceroy ; and the rest of the army, 
when called upon to quell the mutiny, and seise the rebellious chief, was too 
much interested in his safety not to join in his defence. Thus strengthened 
in the affections of the army, his career became more and more successful ; 
Khosrow, and his successor Khoorshid Pasha, were expelled from Egypt ; 
and on the payment of a large sum to the Porte, Mohammed Ali was ap- 
pointed to the Pashalic in 1806. 

In the spring of 1807, our unfortunate expedition to Egypt under General 
Fraser took place ; the result of which is well-known : and the triumph then 
gained by Mohammed Ali over an enemy, who had attempted to interfere in 
a province of the Ottoman Empire, obtained for him fresh support at Con- 
stantinople. Many of the Memlooks also thought it a favourable opportunity 
for courting his friendship. This invasion, and the necessity of putting tlw 
sea-coast into a better state of defence, gave him an opportunity of ridding 
himself of the unwelcome interference of the Captain- Pasha; which, had it 
continued, would have stood greatly in the way of those projects he afterwards 
devised. Alexandria was fortified, and garrisoned by bis own troops; and 
thus strengthened at home, his thoughts were free to occupy themselves on 
more distant projects. But ere that could be done, it was necessary to crush 
the remaining power of the Memlooks. With this view a large force was 
sent Into Upper Egypt; and, after various encounters, a truce was agreed 
upon between the Pasha and the Beys, who were even admitted to the capital. 

The deliverance of the Holy Land of Arabia ftvm the Waliibees, who had 
taken possession of Mecca and Medina, was the next object of Mohammed 
Ali*s wishes. The only impediment was the fear of leaving Egypt exposed to 
the intrigues of the Memlooks. They, on the other hand, looked with eager 
anxiety for the opportunity which the absence of the Turks would afford 
them, of regaining their power, and of destroying the man whose talents had 
defeated all their plans. 

It was a question, which sliould perform the first successful act of treachery. 
The failure of one led the way to the other. While at Sues, superintending the 
preparations for the Arabian expedition, Mohammed Ali received a letter from 

Egypt. HOH AHMED AU. 13 

Mohsmincd Lax, bin Kehla Bey, telling him that the Memloolu intended to 
WBjwlay him on his return to Cairo. In»tcad, therefore, of remaining at Suei^ 
as expected, he left it that night on a dromedary, without letting any one 
know where he was going, and reached Cairo, with 4 out of 18 attendants, 
before day break next morning. This intended treachery, and another plot 
revealed to him about the same time, determined Mohammed Ali to he before- 
hand with them, and he laid his plans for their destruction. The expedition 
for Arabia was ordered to be hastened by every possible meafts ; and the 
investiture of his son Toosoom Pasha with the command of the army was tet 
fbrth as the prelude to its Immediate departure. The day fixed for this im- 
portant ceremony was the 1st of March,' 1811. All the principal officers 
attended at the citadel on the occasion, and the Memlcx>ks were invited to be 
present. When the ceremony was. over, they mounted their horses to retire 
from the citadel. On reaching the gates, they were 8urpri«ed to find them 
closed, and no one there to open them : the suspicion of treachery immediately 
flashed across their minds, and a volley of musketry from above revealed the 
horror of their position. Men and horses fell under a shower c^ balls : no 
courage could avail against an enemy protected behind walls ; and those who 
attempted to fly from the scene of slaughter were picked off by the Albanians 
wherever they turned. 

Emin Bey, who leapt his horse over a gap in the wall, was the only one 
who escaped. 

The houses of the Memlooks were now given up to plund^ : orders were 
issued to exterminate all who could be found in the city ; and punishment 
was denounced against any one known to harbour them or facilitate their 
escape. At length, on the second day a cessation of the persecution was 
proclaimed ; Mohammed Ali himself went through the city to stop the tumul- 
tuous licence of the troops ; and those who had escaped the general massacre 
were permitted to retire, or remain unmolested. It is said that about 440, 
with their chief Ibrahim Bey, perished in the citadel ; and in the city and 
country it is supposed that no less than 1200 were sacrificed. 

Those who were in Upper Egypt retired into Etliiopia, after having 
sufiered from the treachery of Ibrahim Pasha at Esne, and took refuge 
with the Mek of Shendy; until, on the approach of the Turks in 1820, ' 
they retired from the valley of the Nile, and crossing over to the westward, 
paned through Dar-Foor ; whence they at last found their way through Africa 
to the sea-coast of the Mediterranean. On reaching Tripoli, their numbers 
were reduced to fourteen or fifteen, some of whom terminated their wander- 
ings and tlieirlife in obscurity at Constantinople; the remnant of upwards 
of 4000, against whom Mohammed Ali had begun his contest for the 
posscssicm of Egypt. 

Some few who had remained in Egypt were afterwards employed by the 
Pasha. Osman Bey, and a few more, obtained the rank of governors of 
provinces ; and those who had the means of living independently were per- 
mitted to establish themselves at Cairo. One of these, Soolaynuin Agha, who 
has the honorary rank of weffee, or civil governor of the city, told me the 
following anecdote. At the time of the massacre of the Memlooks be was 
already a ftiend of Mohammed Ali's, from whom he received an indirect in- 
timation <* not to go to the citadel ** on that occasion ; and as soon as order 
bad been restored in Cairo, the Pasha made diligent search for him, hoping 
to find he had escaped the indiacriminate slaughter of his comrades. 
A confidential messenger conducted him to Mohammed .Ali. He was 


overjoyed to see him, and bia first queadon waa reapfcting bis escape. " I 
disguised myself aa a womaa," said the Memlook. ** How ! — With that 
▼oice and that beard ? " I am sure I should have discovered you.** *' I thiok 
not,** waa the reply ; and the conversation then turned to other matters. 

A few dajra after this, a stranger dressed in the usual veil and black 
Kdbbttrah of the Cairene women appeared before the Pasha, complaining of 
ill-treatment from her husband. He pronounced judgment in the case, and 
orders were given that the injured wife should be relieved from her husband's 
injustice; when the complainant, throwing up the veil and disclosing the 
face of a man, asked the Pasha if he acknowledged himself deceived by the 
voice and appearance of Soolayman Agha. This incident was the cauae of 
great merriment to the Pasha and his Memlook friend. 

It is surprising that the Memlooks, versed in and accustomed to all the 
artifices of treachery, as tliey had ever been, ^ould have fallen into a similar 
trap, which Mohammed All himself had shortly before avoided, when invited 
by Khoorshid to the citadel to receive the pelisse and title of Pasha of Judda ; 
and it is probable that, like a chess-player too intent on hia own game, tbey 
overlooked the intended move of their adversary, from being too aure of their 
own success. 

The destruction of the principal Memlooks left Mohanuned All free to 
prosecute the war he contemplated ; and in the autumn of 1811, the army 
was sent to Arabia. The young Toossoom, his son, took the command, 
aasisted by th^ ablest of his father's generals ; but he received a severe check 
from the valour of the Wahibees ; and it was not till 1818 that Ibrahim Paaba 
succeeded in taking the ci^iital of the Dra^h. 

Abdallah^ the son of Sa6od, was made prisoner ; and having been sent to 
Constantinople, was there beheaded in 1819, after having been eiposed to 
the gaxe of the people and every insult ; and the other chiefs were taken to 
Egypt, to be kept as hostages for the future tranquillity of Arabia. 

In the year 1 820, an eipedition was sent into Ethiopia under Ismail 
Pasha, with orders to annex the kingdoms and provinces of Dongola, I>ar- 
Sh^keeh, B^ber, Shindy, Seniiir, Kordofin, and the intermediate districts, 
to the Turkish empire. Nubia, between the first and second cataract, bad 
been previously overcome by Ibrahim Pasha, when driving before him the 
Memlooks who had passed through it, on their way south in 1811. The 
present expedition had for its pretext the pursuit of those enemies of the 
Pasha, who had taken refuge with the Mek of Shindy, and were said to 
threaten the tranquillity of Egypt. But the real motive of the expedition 
originated in far deeper views. The turbulent spirit of the Albanians and 
Turks precluded the possibility of introducing Mohammed Ali*s favourite 
project of European tactics : the removal of all the most obnoxious spirite 
was the only means of overcoming their opposition ; and the conquest of 
those countries promised increase of wealth, power, and renown. Hia in- 
tention was to send a large force into Upper Ethiopia, and bring from thence 
a body of Blacks, to be disciplined, and formed into Nizdm, or regular troops, 
in some out-of-the-way place unobserved by the Turks ; who too could not 
object to this system being adopted towards foreigners, and could forsee in it 
no danger to their own importence. 

For this purpose he employed Colonel Seve (now Soolayman Pasha), a 
French officer of great military tolents, who had fied from France at the tinrie 
of the Restoration in 1815; and having established a military school at 
Asouan in 1820, under the direction of Mohammed Bey Las, sent 500 of hia 


Memlooks to be driUet^md Uu^t the duties of officers. At the same time 
the Blacks were forwarded from Ethiopia to this depot, and drilled for soldiers ; 
and Mcrfiamroed Bey (if I remember correctly) told me that the project was 
to have 80»000 of them as infantry, with Turki^ii artillery and cavalry ; some 
ifTcgolar Arab honemen ; and a few Albanians and Turks as a corps de 
resenre^ to supply the divisions in Arabia and Sennar. 

But notwithstanding every care, the Blacks died off* so rapidly that it was 
found Dcccasary to supply their places by native Egyptians ; and this was 
the origin of the present disciplined army. Tliis was unfortunate both for 
the viceroy and the people ; as it drained the population of a thinly-peopled 
country, and diminished the number of hands required for the cultivation of 
the soil ; which were doomed to be still farther reduced a few years after by 
the establishment of numerous manufactories. 

The introduction of the cotton plant gave the first impulse to M<^ammed 
Ali*s scheme of making Egypt a manufacturing country ; the impractica- 
biUrf of which the experience of many years, the immense expense he hm 
incurred, the dralo on the population, the destruction of machinery by the sand, 
and universal opinion, have sufficiently demonstrated. The culture of the cotton, 
which is of very good quality, is certainly beneficial to the revenues of Egypt ; 
as are the indigo, and many other kinds of produce introduced or increased 
by Mohammed Ali ; and had he been satisfied with the manufacture of 
ooeinMHi stuffs, as in former times, for ordinary purposes, which did not 
require expensive machinery, he would Iwve found it more profitable in the 
end. The export of the raw produce was obviously more beneficial to the 
oountry, and the Pasha, contented with that, would have been a gainer in 
money and disposable hands. 

Indigo, cotton, and sugar-cane have been for many years cultivated in the 
valley of the Nile. The first of these is of very excellent quality in Upper 
Ethiopia, where the latter plant also grows ; and a coarse sugar from the 
cane was made long ago in Upper Egypt* But the indigo, as it now is, was 
broogbt from Nabloos in ^yria, in 1824, and the Indian cotton was intro- 
duced by Maho Bey, assisted by M. Jumel, about 1819, and first grown at 
Heliopolis. From him it received the name of Maho cotton, and It is a 
curious fmett that it has been found growing at Fazoglo, above Sennar. A 
sugar refining manufactory was established at Reramoon, in Upper Egypt, 
by Mr. Brine, an Englishman, in 1818 ; and the coarse sugar of the peasanto 
being sent there to be refined, was found to be very good both in sweetness 
and appearance. 

Ibrahim Pasha, who had returned victorious from Arabia, was sent to 
prosecute the war, and extend the Turkish conquests in Ethiopia; and Kor- 
dofSui, Sennar, and the other prorinces were annexed to Egypt. He then 
returned to Egypt, and other events soon called him to a new field ; 
for the moment had arrived when Mohammed Ali felt himself sufficiently 
strong to attempt the subjugation of the revolted Greeks ; and he sent to re- 
quest permission of the Sultan to undertake the war of the Morea, which he 
promised to terminate at his own cost, and solely with his own troops ; pro- 
vided he might withhold the tribute from Egypt during that time, for the 
expenses of the war. This apparently disinterested offer was welcomed by 
the Porte ; and the Sultan rejoiced in a proposition which promised to destroy 
an enemy, while it tended to weaken the resources of a too-powerful vassal ; 
and the assent of His Highness was returned in the form of a command' to 
Mohammed AH to put an end to the Greek insurrection. 

It is generally supposed that the order emanated solely from the Porte ; 


but the fact of Mohammed All's having propoaedit was known Co me be. 
tween two and three months before any order came from Constantinople, in 
the following manner : — Happening to be acquainted with a Turk in ibe 
Pasha*s confidence, and conversing with him on his probable intentions, I 
remarked that many in Cairo talked loudly of his kind reception of the 
Greeks, and supposed that he was likely to join them in their rebelKon against 
the Porte. He then told me, that, so far were they from being right in their 
surmises, the Pasha had sent to make the above proposition to the Sultan ; and 
in less than three months he added, '* You will see the permission arrive 
as an order from the Porte to send an army into Greece. ** The reault proved 
the truth of what he said ; and accordingly, in 1824, a fleet and army were 
sent, under Ibrahim Pasha, to the Morea. 

The results of this campaign, the intervention of the European powers in 
July, and the battle of Navarino, October SOth, 1 827, are well known, 
Candia not having been included in the independence of Greece, was per- 
mitted to be retained by the Porte, and Mohammed Ali, who had overthrown 
the revolted Greeks there, was afterwards allowed the complimentary distinc- 
tion of appointing a pasha to that island, in lieu of obtaining the pashalic of 
Syria, which he had solicited. 

The Egyptian troops having been taken back to Egypt, and his Greek 
projects having failed, Mohammed Ali turned bis thoughts to obtaining po»> 
session of Syria by force : this and the Morea, as one of his courtiers ob- 
served to me, '* being two doors that lead to the same place" — Constanti- 
nople. For I need scarcely observe now, what I had so often mentioned to 
Engliih travellers whom I met in £gypt, while the war was going on in the 
Morea, that the ultimate object of the Greek war was an attack on Constant!* 
nople ; though few would then believe that he had either the intention to 
attempt so ambitious a project, or the means to oppose the (reputed) power 
of the Porte. 

There is little doubt that Sultan Mahmood, by bis incessant animosity 
against Mohammed Ali, and his repeated attempts to destroy him, paved the way, 
in a great degree, for the success of his vassal's ambition ; that the supinenesa 
of European nations, in not preventing a collision between the Sultan and 
the Pasha, led to the late unsettled state of Syria ; and that their sub- 
sequent interference was misplaced ; but this subject is too long for discus- 
sion at the present moment, and does not, of course, come within the scope 
of this brief notice. Nor is it.neceasary to enter into the details of the Syrian 
war, which are well known to every rrader. 

In contemplating the private character and political career of Mohammed 
Ali, it is evident that, as an individual, he possesses many excellent qualities, 
and is kind, indulgent, and humane ; while in his public capacity he must be 
censured for ambition, for extorting money from the people, and for neg- 
lecting to relieve them from the sute of misery to which they have «beeo 
reduced by his expensive projects. 

On the other hand, it may be said, that, considering all he has done, which 
originated solely in his own energies, his endeavours to civilise the country 
have been highly praiseworthy ; and when we compare him io others of his 
nation, his superiority stands forth in a still more remarkable light. But 
it is certain that bis conduct may be presented under different aspects, 
according to the views of his enemies €»' his friends ; and this has led to the 
great discrepancy in the character given 'of this extraordinary man. It may 
be said that the various establishments set on foot in Egypt, the dykes, canals, 
and other public works* are as much for the benefit of the government, as for 




that of the people. Tht« is true; but what other Turk has done it? and what 
natiTe would have made the attempt ? and may not this be said of all great 
wotIls in any Country ? at the same time, how many prejudices of Che people 
has he not had to encounter? and how gradual must be the steps in the 
commencement of civilisation? For these, then, he deserves full credit; 
and the point for which he merits censure, is his having done Utile to amelio* 
rate the eondition of the people, though indebted -so much for his greatness 
to the DBooey wrung from their labours. 


The family of Mohammed All consists of Ibrahim Pasha, Said Pasha, 
Hossayn Bey, Alim Bey, and Mohammed Ali Bey ; Nusleh Hanem, 
his eldest daughter, the widow of Mohammed Bey Defterdar, and other 

Toossoom and Ismail Pa«has died many years ago, and the former left a 
watt, now Abbas Pasha, who will probably one day succeed to the Pashalic of 

Ibrahim Pasha has some children, the eldest of whom are Ahmed Bey, 
born in 1825, Ismail Bey, and Mustafa Bey. 

The other members of Mohammed All's family are his nephews, Hossayn 
Bey, Ahmed Pasha, Ibrahim Pasha the younger, IsmiSl Bey, and some 
younger ones. 


In order to assist those who are interested in Egyptian antiquities, I shall 
introduce a list of the kings which may be useful in examining the monu- 
ments, particularly at Thebes. 



Letter in 






Menes, Menai 


First King of Egypt, according 

to Josephus lived upwards of 
1300 years before Solomon. 

Athothis, his son 


(Other kings) 


Foundation of the kingdom of 


Assyria by Nimrod. 

Suphis, or Saophis . 


Built the Great Pyramid. 


Kingdom of Sicyon founded. 

Sen^Saophis - 


Built the Second Pyramid. 


Era of the Chinese Emperor 

Moscherisy Mencheris, 



or Mycerinus 

Built the Third Pyramid. 



Or Aphoph •< the Giant.** 


Abraham arrives in Egypt Pro- 



bably, the queen called Nicaule 
by Josephus. 


Foundation of the kingdom of 

Deluge of Ogyges in Attica. 



Menrooph, or Men- 


Perhaps the only king of this 


xvth Dynasty, and a Theban. 



Sect L 



Letter in 





XVL Dtnastt from 

LowsR Rgypt. 


Osirtasen I. - 


Reigned at least 43 years. 


Arrival of Joseph. 


•Amun-ni-Gori ? 



ArouQ-m-Gori II.?- 


Reigned at least 35 yean. 

XVIL Dtnactt raoK 

LowxR Egypt. 


Osirtasen XL - 



Osirtasen III. 


Called also NofH-ftep, or Kofri. 


Death of Joseph. 



Reigned at least 41 years. 




Phonetic name not found. 




Amosis ... 


Or Ames, '<the new king (or 
Dynasty) who knew not 
Joseph.** Reigned at least 
92 years. 


Moses bom. 


Cecrops founds the kingdom of 
Athens, from Sals. 


Amunoph L > 


Crude brick arches used in 


Thothmes I. - 


Flight of Moses, 1531. 

Qa Ra 

Amun-neit Gori ? - 

Included in the reign of 
Thothmes II. Perhaps a 
queen. Nitocris ? 


Thothmes II. 


Glass already known in Egypt. 


Deluge of Deucalion. 


Thothmes III. 


A great architect. 


Exodus. Moses died in 1451. 


Amunoph IL- 


His son. Came to the throne 


Thothmes IV. 


His son. 

(Some foreign kings n 

lied in ] 

Sgypt about this time.) 


Amunoph III. {whUea 


His son. Ilie supposed Mem. 


ndnorr hia mother^ 

non of the Tocal statue at 

Maut-m'$hoi, Zb, W€U 


probatiy Regent,) 

a2 b2 

Amun-Toonb ? 

- • 

A foreigner, cotemporary of 
Amunoph III. 


Horns - - • 


Iron first used in Greece, 1406. 


Remeses I. - 


Or Remesso. 


Osirei, or Osiri I. ? . 


A great conqueror. 


Amun-mai Remeses 


Or Remeses tlie Great. The sup. 

J 3.4 

or Remeses II. . - 

posed Sesostris, son of Osirei, 


{HUtwo Queent) - , 

or S(0- Ostrrt : hence, perhaps, 
confounded with Sesostris? 




His son. 




Letter in 







m n 


U V 
W X 




9, 10 

XIX. DnrASTY of Diostoutans, o« Tbxbams. 

Pthahmen- Se-Pthah 

Osirel II. 
Osirei III. 
B«meses III. 

Remeses V. 
Bemctes VI. 




(SethoB ?) not admitted into the 
Theban lists, perhaps from 
being a Memphite, or from 
having only married the 
Princess Taosiri. 

Argonautic expedition. 

His ton, called also Miamnn, 

and Amun-mai. 
His son. 

{Sons of Remeies III. 
taken 1184. 


XX. AKD XXI. Dynasty or Diospoutans. 

RemesesVIL - 1170 

Remeses VIII. - 1155 

Remeses IX. - 1140 

Remeses X. - - 1125 

Remeses XI. ? - 1110 

Amunmai Pouee ? - 1095 

Amunmeses?- - 1 1080 
(Other kings) 

This name should perhaps come 

before t C. 
To about 1068. 

XX IL Dynasty ot DiosrouTANs. 

Sheshonk I. 
Osorkon I. 




Shishak of SS. (Solomon.) 
Zerah, king of Ethiopia, battle 
with Asa, 941. 

XXIII. Dynasty ot Diospoutans. 

Osorkou II. - 

Sheshonk II. 

(More kings) 
Tnephactus, or Tne- 




Money of gold and silver first 
coined at Argos, 894. Age 
of Homer 907, or 844. 

To about 860. 

The Technatis of PluUrch. The 
father of Bocchoris. Name 
not found. 

XXIV. Dynasty of 1 SaItk. 

1, 2 I Bocchoris, or Pehor? I 812 

Called ** the WiK." 




Letter In 


S, 6 

9, 10 

11, 12 

IS, 14 
15, 16 


20, 21 








XXV. Dtnastt op Etbiofians. 

SalMco, or Sabak6thpb 
Sebechon, or Shebek, 

Tefarak, or Tirbaka 





Soof SS. 

Rome founded. 

I am not certain wbich of tliese 

two kings should come 6rst. 
CapttTity of the Ten Tribes. 
Setbos said by Herodotus to 

have ruled at Memphis at 

the same time. Sennacherib 

attacks Judah 7ia 

XXVL Dtxastt or SaYtbs. 

Psamatik, or Pkama- 

ticus I. 
Neco II. 

The 12 kings or monarchs. 

Psamiticus, or Psammiticbus, son 
of Neco I. 

Nechao of SS., defeated Josiah 
610 a. c. Era of Solon, Al- 
caeus, and Sappho. 

Captivity of Jeboiakim, 599. 

Or Vaphrea, the Hopbra of 
SS. Takes Sidon. Perhaps 
9a, 10a are bis name. 

It is uncertain whether he was 
the same as Apries. 

Married the daughter of Psa- 
maticus III. Era of Thcs- 
pis, Pythagoras, and JEsop. 

After 6 months Egypt 
quered by Cambjrses. 

XXVII. Dynastt or PaasiAXs. 

Psamaticus II. 

Psamaticus III. 
Amasis, Ames 

Psammenitu8,or Psam- 








Darius Hystaspes 
Xerxes « 



Xerxes II. 
Darius Notbus 













Canbosh in hieroglyphics. 

Ntareosh. Egypt rerolts. 

Kbsheersb. Recovers Egypt, 

Egypt revolts, and elects Inavos 
and Amjrrtosus Kings. 463, 
the Persians retake Egypt. 
Inaros is crucified. Herodo- 
tus visits Egypt, 460. 

Reigns 2 months. 

■^^^— 7 months 

1 9 yearn. 

XXVI II. Dynasty or omt Saitk. 



Egypt revolts, and Amyrtaeus is 





Letter In 





XXIX. Dtmastv or Msndisians. 




Ncfaorot Long vowels first 
used in Greek, 403. 


Achoris, or Acoris - 


Hakori. Death of Cyrus the 
younger. Retreat of the 
10,000, 401. 


Psammoutis, or Pw- 


Nepberotes and Muthis not on 

Maut ... 

the Monuments. 

XXX. Dtmasti 

r OF SKBawNrTX Kings. 

; 32,33 

Nectanebo, I. - 

387 Nakhtnebo. Nectabis of Pliny. 


Teoa or Tacboa 


Persians defeated, 362. 

Nectanebo II. 


Defeated b^ the Persians, 34a 



Ochus . * . 


In his 20tb year. Philip dies, 335 




Darius . . • 


Alezander conquers Egypt. 



BBiNO GovxaNoa of Egtft, 322. 


Pbilip Aridsas 


C Ptolemy made governor of 
X ^gypt in their name, 322. 


Alexander, son of 


Alexander the Great 


Its, OE Laoidjb. 


Lagus, or Soter 


Married, 1 Eurydice, 2 Berenice. 


Philadelphus - 


The Ethiopian king Ergamenes 
lived at this time. Afar» Ar- 


Euergetcs L - 


Mar, Berenice. 




Afar. Arsinoe. 




Mar. Cleopatra. 




Mar. Cleopatra. Aodochus in- 
vadea Egypt, 170. 


Euergetes II., or 


Mar. 1 Cleopatra, 2 Cleopatra 


Cocce. Also called Pbilometor. 


Soter I I.y or Latbyrus 


Mar, 1 Cleopatra, 2 Selene. Called 
also Pbilometor, expelled 106. 



Alezander I.- 


Withbb mother. Afar. Cleopatra. 
Lathyrus restored, 88. 

1 10 

Berenice . • - 


Daughter of Lathyrus. 


Alezander II. - 


Bequeaths his kiu0ilom to the 


Neus Dionysus, or 


Afar. Cleopatra. Ezpelled 58, re- 


stored 55. 

1 ^^ 

Ptolemy, the elder son 


With Cleopatra, his sister and 

of Auletes 



Ptolemy, the younger 

47 1 Afar. Cleopatra also. 1 




Alone, and then with Cmwrion 
or Neocaesar, her son by J. 




Sect. I. 





Visit of Adrian to Egypt ; and again, a.d. ISO. 

Taking of Alexandria by Diocletian. 

Council of Nic»a in reign of Constantine. Athanasius and Anus. 

Edict of Theodosiuik Destruction of the Temple of Sarapis. 

Conquest of Egypt by Amer (miscalled Ainrou). (See Table of 

Conquest of Egypt by the Turks under Sultan Selim. 
Rebellion of Alt Bey. 
Invasion of Egypt by the French. 
Expelled by the English. 
Mohammed Ali made Pasha of Egypt. (See above, p. 12.) 

In the era of Menes I have followed Josephus ; and by allowing 17 years 
for each reign from Apappus to Menes, which requires a sum of 323, his era 
would be about the time X have given, or a. c. 2324 ; though the number of the 
reigns intervening between those two kings is by no means certain. In the 
X Vth Dyna&ty I have been guided by the Table of Kings at Thebes, which 
gives one DiospoUtan between Menes ond the XVII Ith Dynasty. 

The contemporary reigns of Shishak and Solomon are the earli^t fixed epodi 
for tlie construction of a chronologial table ; but reckoning back the number 
of years of each king's reign, either according to Manetho, the dates on the 
monuments, or the average length of their ordinary duration^ we noay arrive 
at a fair approximation ; and the epoch alluded to on the ceiling of the Mem- 
nonium, at Thebes, in the reign of Remeses 11., seems greatly to confirm 
my opinion respecting the accession of that Prince. And, allowing for the 
reigns of the intervening monarchs his predecessors, the Exodus of the 
Israelites agrees with Manetho's departure of the Pastors In the reign of 
Thothmes III. 

Those who wish to compare the lists of kings given by Manetho and 
Eratosthenes, will find them in the History of Egypt given In my ** Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians,'* and in that very useful work, 
<* Ancient Fragments,*' published by Mr. Cory. 

Of the Shepherd Kings nothing certain has yet been discovered ; nor is it 
always possible to make the names given by Manetho and Eratosthenes accord 
with those on the monuments. 

The government of Egypt appears first to have been, as with the Jews, a 
hierarchy, which was successively composed of the priests of one or other of 
the principle deities ; but its duration is uncertain. We then come to the 
Kings, the fitst of whom, by universal consent, was Menes ; and with him I 
commence my chronological series. 

The 2 ovals contain their prenomen and phonetic name, and the third that 
of the Queen, whenever it has been found. Many other names of kings oc- 
cur on the monuments ; but as their -date and relative position are uncertain, 
I have not been able to place them in this list. 

Egypt- i-isT or EING8. 

















• ''?S5S£;i 5, »(Wi^ 





j' Wl l 


Sect I. Egjfpt. tke galifbs and svltans. 



• TIm Irequent noention of these Kingt, particularly in describtng the monu- 
menu of Cairo^ and tbe neceasity of knowing at least when tbey ragned» in. 
dooes me to give this Chronological Table 


Eventa during tbeir Raign. 

Aboo Bukr, or Aboo 
Brkr (e* Sad^k). 

(Vmar (ebn el Khut* 
tib^ or KhattabJ. 


A^i (or Alee), and 

Mo^wieh I. 

Tested I. 
Moauieh lU 

MerawAn I. 
Abd el M^ek. 

£1 Welc^ I. 

Omar II. 
Teemed II. 

El WeleM IL 
Tested 111. 
Meraw^n 1 1. 

Invasion of Syria commenced. 

Conquest of Persia, Syria* and Egypt. 

A'mer, or Amr (ebn el As) enters Egypt 
in June» 6S8. 

Conquest of Africa begun. 
Ali in Arabia reigns till 661 ; and El 
Hassan, his son, nominally succeeds him, 
and having reigned six months abdicates, 
A. D. 661. Death of Hassan, 670. Mo^- 
wieh in Egypt and Syria. 

Bomae of Ammawt&i ( Ommti*«Mb«). 

Alone. Fruitless attack on Constanti- 

tinople by the Saracens. 
His son. Hossayn killed at Kerbela. 
His SOB. 

[Abdallah, son of Zoba;^r, reigned nine 
years in the Hegii ( Arabia), from 64 
to 73 A. B., or 684 to 693 a. o.*] 

His son. Conquest of Africa completed. 
Abd el As^, bis brother, made a Nilo- 
meter at Helw&n. In 76 a. h. first 
Arab coinage. The oldest coin found is 
of 79 A.B. (699 A.D.); it is a silver 
Der'hero. The oldest gold deenSrs are 
of the years 91 and 92 a. h. 

His son. Conquestof Spain, 710. First 
invasion of India by the Moslems. 

His brother. Second failure l)efore Con- 
stantinople. Was the first who founded 
a Nilometer at the Isle of Roda. 

Son of Abd el Az6es. 

Son of Abd el M^lek. 

His brother. Defeat of Al>d e' Rahman 
in France, by Carles Martel, 732» 

Son of YiiM. 

His son. 

His brother. 

Grandson of Mersw&n I., killed at 
Aboos^r, a town belonging to the 
Fyo6m, in Egypt. 

Began to 

A. D. 










• Tbe H^gira, or Moslem era, begins fiSS A.n., dating from the "Jtl^M " of the prophet 
rmm Mecca. To reduce any jear of i he H^gira to oiir own, we have only to add fses to the 
given year, and deducts for e^tn 100, or 1 for every 3J$ e.g. lS33-|*Gtt»1855 ; then for 
tbe 190 deduct 36, and 1 for the S? » S7, IcaTCi 1818 a.m. 

c 2 



Sect. I. 


S in 

11 ^i 




9* 5 IP 

?} ti i fii 

^-■i Mil! 

It? fs^J ^f 

tiUi pi 



"5 e -^ G -g 2 g So 




lite II 

ll II 


s •= 3 I i 

M pa M W M 








• .••* Cm •P < 

•S -a -s ^ 




itr^-'i III! 

1 m^^ 
\ . illlJtiJ li. 

I o a as. 

"5 S-2 


1 p" 
1^ 11^ 

s » s « 





I a 





Sect. I. 





Oi ^ Qi 

ft . •! |T8 

al| s i 



• •a s 'is 'a s •* c„ 




^ I 

i 1^ .'? 


C 4 





ii i i i ^ 1 



si i'i 


lllilllll % k I : . 

Pall si:^ 




? - 

lilt I 


Jjllll 111 iiii^i 


U i 



1 ■ P 

1 *'^i. 


mttLOOX WhtAXB. 


^ to 

S 8 



•I f^ 







• < c *23 t 

II'? J 






? 3 

i ti 


a i 


_ - 

~ " 


• 1 


• s 


■ ' 



' s 



■ 1 









S S 

■i -is 


a. l--- 



ii i 



U i 







to 0« 
o «-• 
















CO «S 





Q » a B 
- « i 

o tfiJL 

■V4 C -O 


-0« e 6 


3 TJ pq ^S - 





is <& •^ ^ 















3 4 :a d *' A 




$ $ 

• • • 


^ (p dS 

$ $ 9 

-=* o ^ 
« • e 


• O O M. 



^ *© •" e ^ 

2 s J's^ 

g c s •• 

!• & 

B 8.a S 






H ■PQ*W' "W"W 







l^l«^f 111 




HI IJIilS ^W^- 
ifilaiPi- fills J 







. .». cn^TAiv toiwn BSQui&xva jczAxiirAziov. 

Ilie Attrataoii of tboM wbo are induced to make reMAicfacs miffikX be use- 
fully directed to the following points : •— 

I. AUxoadria, — AsceHein the sites of the buildings of the old «ity. 

5L jDamapw bramek, — Asoertatn the site of Naucnti% Antfaylla» and Arehan- 

dia, and the course of the Canopie bfmnch. 
1 &ifc — EacaTate^ and make a plan of SsSs; at least look for the temple of 


4. JkUtL — Examine the sites of the mined towns in the D^lta. Look for 

their name in hieroglyphics, and for Greek inscriptions ; but particu- 
larly fbr duplicates of the Rosetta Slona Look at Port Julian bek^ 
Rosetta for the upper part Iff that Btoue. A trilingular stoneissaidto 
be at Menouf, and others at Tanta and Cairo. 

5. ffOicpolU, -* Excavate (if possible) the site of the temple of Heliopolii. 
^ f^irawtuU, — Clear the Sphinx ; and look on the N. side for the entrance. 

Look for the hieroglyphic record mentioned in the Greek inscriptioh 
in honour of Balbillus, found before the Sphinx. 

7. Memphis Make a plan of Memphis. Excarate about the CoUmsus for 

the temple. Examine the moundsb 

8. Look for new names of Mmifhittkim^ about the pyremids, Sakkare, and 

the site of Memphis* 

9. About Cairo, — Ascertain the exact height of the column in the NHometer, 

or Mekkeeas at the Isle of Roda. Obtain from the Coptic Content 
at Babylon the inscription on wood of the time of Diocletian. 
IOl Look for trilinguhir stones in the mosks of Gutro. 

II. Sm€z. — Look for an arrow.>headed inscription to the N. of Sues, on the 

way to Syria. 
12. Onice. — Excavate the mounds of Onice, and look for the temple built 

by OniaSp 
18, Fyoom, — ExcaTate about the pyramids or pyramidsl buildings of 

Biabmoo, and at the obelisk of Biggig. Examine the site of M. Linant's 

supposed lake. 

14. ^IA]uie<eA..^Asccftain the hieroglyphic name of Ahnasieb (Heradeo- 


15. Otkmotmaffn, — Look for and excavate a small temple said to be there. 

Look for names of Bakfaan and other foreign kings. Visit Copt con- 
vents in the neighbourhood. 

16. Kom Ahmar,^' Inquire for fend visit alabaster quarry in the mountains 

near Kom Ahmar. Look for hieroglyphics there, and if any, copy them 
a)L Go with an Arab of the Deserts 

17. Metakara. — Copy kings* names at the tombs of Met/Uiara« and columns 

with full-blown loCua capitals. 

18. HermopoHttma and TkAdica PA^iaee, — Look for tomba in the neigh- 


19. Gebel Aboqfafda.-^ Look for and copy hieroglyphics in |he tombs of the 

90. Examine the white and red convents near Soohag and Itfoa, 
21. Eikmim, — Look for its tomba. Examine the Greek inscription. As- 

certain the hieroglyphic name of the goddess Tbriphia. [5m Ekkmim.] 
82. How. — Excavate the Ptolemaic temple there. 
8d> (;ova2£cAeer.— Look for the figure of the ^ Antaus, 
24, Katr e' S^Sdi. .— Look for old kings* names m the grottoes of the moun* 
'*' pun bebiad the villager 


55. Tluba. — Copf M tlw utToaomical cdllngt In the tomb of Mcmnon. 

andottKTMailMof Ibekliigi; ■liolhiMkalf anrlaof ibeMnlptarcmuid 
hicroglfphic* of one intir* Mrab. 

56. Ent. — LookforiniMr chambcnof tha tnnplebAInd thaportfcB. 
ST. AMMtain wkal torn Mood Mu El Kmtn, and the prnnild oTKoi^ 
SB. Ed/oe. — Copf tbe gmt faiaroglfpbMi iiwrHpifoB of 79 t -ol u miM. 

M. JMHtiBL. — I«ok for cMl; SiwctBlc bnildiDg*, tnd tin oldnt p«iMcd 

aO. Omdi. — AweHuQ the dus of lb* cniila brick pdntad txrii given b* 

Hi. Hakin* M Dooth. 
31. SAiBpU. — Cop; dw nuDM wmi (nilpturet of Upptr Edriopb, and 

Dukc ■ lilt of ElUapiu king* acConltDg to their wicCBiilog, and Mcar- 

tuin dieir dktea. 
3S. ttoiut SmaL — Hike ■ plan of the (Mnple at SoibBI el Kfaadem. 

There i* ■ moniinient in Am Mntor, *bich it ddd to be Enptiwi. If ao, 
it M prolMbtr WW of lb* 1dm of SMoMrii nentioncil b; HcrodMin, and ami. 
lar to thote an ihe L;ca«, near Bejroot, in Sjria ; and ii wortli naminin^ 
It ia the tgura of a aian, cut on the mck, near Nrmphio, the andant Njruph- 
BIUD, about If feet trora tbe ground, with aja*elln in hiaband; and wmi 
laen bjr the R««. O. Renouatd eome fiar* ags, who obierree that one of tba 
ancient road* firon Hjaia to Lj dia paned that way. Otben ai« tad to b« 
fbaodntar Tynt 

Th( Monk, a BUGliliit iMd b) 

lluu bjr it* Aratuc ortbographj, and ban cuim^ueiitljr m ftr titmgiaaaad. 


tkul have DOW and then intnidaoed a ^ whkhletttf dcietBotexirtiiiArablct 
but wbicb BeTcrtbeleH comet n«ar to Um proounciatioo in certain woida. I 
have also thougbt it better to double Bome of the emiionants, in order to point 
pot move clearly that greater etreee ia to be put on thoee letten, nther 
than follow the orthography of the Arabic, where one only waa uaed. JTd^ 
Au, Ann, at the end of words, should properly be written with an A ; but I have 
meteiy expressed it, as pronounced, with oo. For the verbs, I have preferred 
the second singular of the impeimtite, which In Artdiic gives their general 
fann better than either the present or perfect tense, and is preferable for a 
beginner to the m6ader or infiniti?e. Those in lulics aie either derived 
from, have been the origin of, or bear analogy to, an European or other 
loRign word. 

I may also observe, that I have sometimes introduced words used only by 
the Arabs (of the desert), and some of the common expressions of the people* 
in order that these (when of frequent occurrence) might not be unknown to a 
traveller; hut in general the first and second words are the most used* 
The four kinds of Arabic are the oaimee, vulgar or jargon ; dAri^t oommoa 
parlance ; iSghawee, literal ; and nahwee^ grammaticid. 


The A, as in father ; ay, as in may ; g or a very broad, and frequently nasal. 

£ , as in end ; <e as in seek ; ccA, nearly as t, in the Italian mi. 
jR and «t, as in German, or as y in my ; but at, rather broader* A single 
e, at the end of words, as in Doge, stroke, &c. 

/, aa in is. /, as in English, but for it I have almoat always used g. 
Ind ee d in Lower Egypt the g (gim), which aloidtf be soft, like our j, is 
made hard, and pronounced as if followed by a short i, like the Italian word 
Gkiaeeio; but whatever letter it precedes or follows, it should properly be 
pronounced soft. For the ghain, however, I am obliged to use ghf a Aord 
guttural sound. Dj as j. 

JET, as our h ; and A with a dot, a very hard aspirate. 

X^ as in kill. 

For the kaf, or gaf, I have used A with a dot, or line, below it. Its sound 
IS very nearly that of a hard g, almost guttural, and much harder than our c, 
in oough. Indeed it Is frequently pronounced so like a g that I have some* 
times used that letter for it. 

JEAy as the German ch and Greek x* but much more guttural. 

O, as in on, unless followed by w. 

O, as in g^; and d, rather broader ; oo, as in moon ; ov, as in cow. 

J2 is always to be distinctly pronounced, as well as the A in aA ; this A is 
iicqnently as hard as ch in loch. 

S^ and «A, as in English ; but f , a hard and rather guttural sound. 

T, as in English ; and with a line, I, very hard, almost as if preceded 
by u. Dth is like our th in thai. 

Uf as in bud ; 911, as in English, wAea fvBowed hjf another vowds as 
qwyit, or ^weii$f ** pretty." 

F, as in yet at the commencement, and as in my in the nuddle of syllables* 
Before woids beginning with t, tb, g, d, dth, r, x, s, sb, and n, the / of the 
article e/ is elliiwed, and the e alone pronounced; thus, ei them&l reads 
e dum&L, the l^ or with the consonant doubled, esh'ihemali e* raa^ or 
tT'TOMf the head. The doubled consonant indeed is nearer the pronunciation. 

Words within a parenthesis are either uncommonly used, as AAa6s, hUra 
fat " bieady'* or are intended, when similar to the one before, to show the 




pronuttciatioh, at makasktk (ma^otA^A), a ** broom ;* thoagb the two words 
•re often only separated by or, and a comma. Some gire another meanin|c. 

I ought to observe that the difference of letters, as the two A*«, t '«, and others, 
are not always marked, but those only which I have thought of most import- 
ance, and in some words only here and there, to show their orthography. 







Abusci V. 

Abuse, «. 

Abusive lan- 

By accident; see 
By force 

Accounts, or 

Add up 


Advantage, pro- 


I am afraid 




His age 
Long ago 
Agree, v. 
We agreed to- 


All, collectively 

AU together 

At all 
Allow, 0. 



fok, or foke. 






ghusbininee (i. e. 
in spite of my- 




f^da„ or flUdeh, 

ana kheif, a-khilf. 

ba'd^n, bad-silik. 
kummun, kummun 

n6ba, tinee. 
ittefiuk'na w^eabad. 

how'a, or how'eh 
nutr'woTf boorfcfr, 
hei, sAheh (awake), 
gimleh, gemm^can. 
kool, koolloo, pL 

koolloo weeabad, 

koUoohom sow'a, 
Ids, or lose, 


Alter, If. 






Amuse, 0. 



The ancients 


Et cartera 



To be angry 

Annoy, o. 
Answer, 0. 
You are answer- 
able for 



It appears 
Apple [maiai) 
L0V6 apple (tO" 

laHiher, gazllik, * 


d^iman, or d^m«n. 
Yen^ doSneea 

(Turkish, u e. 

the New World), 
mur'seh, h^lb. 
kade^m, antSeka, 
e* nas el kade^m. 

00 ghayr t^ika. 
maliktpL mal^iikeb. 
kahr, ghudb, semk» 

ez'muk, ugh'dub^ 


sal&n. FghayrooL 
wahed tinee, w£hed 
gowib (jow£b). 
rood, or roodd« 

nem'el, or neml« 
kohl (for the ejres). 
Ezek. zxiii. 40. ; 

S Ktiigs, iz. SO. 
kird, pi, kor6od 

lips (libs), hedo6ni, 

bain, or b^n. 
bedingin k6ta. 


Costard «|yple 
Aprioot (fireah 

or dry) 
— dned sheet 

la Arabic 
Arab (t.c of the 

Ardi, bridge 

The ark of Noah 

Arm (of man) 

Anns ( weapons) 

Arrange «. 





Be, or I sm, 


Ask* e. 
Ask lor, o. 
Assist, a. 

Awake, v. a. 

» ». a. 
Awning (of a 

Aie, or hatchet 



mish'misfa. . 

kumredien (knrnr* 

bil A'rabee. 

(Sbekh el Arab, 

an Arab chief)* 
sefie^net safdna 


siUi|i, soolUh. 
sollah, siiLlah. 
asta^hee, akhtSshee. 

room^. . 
esBal, aaal. 
sad, saad. 
fee, and. 
I esh'eh, tenda {Ital). 


fils, to&ree ( Coptic). 

dibr, kufia'. 
Bad (see Good) ridee, wihesh, 

kees, or keese; 






Bank of 


Bark, o. 


moz (mose). 
riTcr gerf. 

mezayin, mera^n* 
I^isbr (gifthr). 






Bat (bird) 


Bathe, e. 



Beads, string of, 

carried by the 

Bear, support, e. 


muk'ta^ k6ffidi. 

,, put 
with, 0. 
A bear 
His beard 
Beat, V. 
A beating 
Beau, dandy 




Before (time) 
Before (place) 
Beg, ©. 
The beginning 


Believe^ 0. 

I do not belicTe 



tusht, or tisht 
watwiit pL wauw^ 
barb, sbemmata. 
kbarras, hab. 


is'ned; (raise) er'fi 

[see Carry], 


dagn, dakn. 


id'rob (dmb). 

derb, halica, kutleh. 


queiisa, kouei&sa. 

qu^i-is, quiyis. 

seb'bub, besebliub. 

ibica (ib'ga). 

fersh, fursh. 


daboor (dabboor). 

nihl, nJib-l. 

labm bukkar, lahm 

goran or jor&n, 

el owel, el as'sef, 

aasl, el ebtid4h. 
warra, min kuflah. 
ana-ma aseddek'shee 

wr lem aseddek* 
gilgil, nak6os. 
ba n, or botn. 

* Beddowee and Arab have the msm meaning ; one S» tlngular, the other plural : thai 
■• that U on Anb^*' ** da Beddowee i " •* Ibote are Arabt," ** dM ^rab.'* 



Sect. L 

This belongs to 


Belotr ; (fee 

A bench 
Bendf », 
Bent (crooked) 
— , eioept 
The best 
You had better 

do so 
Betray, 0. 



Bill, account. 

Bird, small 

— — , large 

Bit, piece 

— of a horse 

Bite, V. 



Blow, V, 
A blow 

see Co- 

Blue ( 
Light blue 



A wild boar 

A board 


Boat, ship 

dehbetiee,/. deebe- 
tfttee (beUhtee it 
medtbut U vulgar'), 



et'nee, inten'nee. 

m^nee (mioog). 


ghr yr, khelif. 


el ab'>san. 

ah -tan, »-kh4yr. 

ah'san t4mel keddee. 




bad, warra (t» «. 








odd, or aod. 


as'wed, /. s6da or 
so'deh; as'rek 
(blue,or jet black). 


her&m, buttan^eh. 




derb; on the face, 
kuff (English, 

as>ek, k5h1ee. 

genz&ree, scander- 

bard (t. e. cold), 
sefi^eneh, ky6seh, 

nootetf mar&kebee, 



Boil, e. 

Boiled (water) 






•^»-*-* of doth, 


Borne, raised 


f square 

, earthen, 

.for water 
Bottom, of a 

box, &c. 

Bow and arrows 

Small box 







Roll of bread 


— — ^ extent 

Break, v. 







Crude brick 


pessed, bed'dan. 




idm, ajthm, athra. 

ket4b, pL ko6ctubu 


havC terf (turf). 





el ethn^n, wibed 
00 e*t4nee, dee 00 
dee (1. «. this and 

kez^ kesis (;. e. 

" giass). 

koolleh, d6rak, bar" 
~ dak (Turkish), 
kar (gar> 

kSs (kos). 

kos 00 nishibk 


send6ok, pL taut* 

eVbeh, or elbet 

e'neshok, a snui^ 

wslfef, or wuOmd 

(whence valet), 

ar'nikay (Arakee). 
n^Uiiss-iLsfer, csped- 



esh(khobs, kl'sra). 
ral^^f esh. 

maksoor ; (cut, as 
a rope), muktodi. 
s6dr (sidr). 
neffes (neffess). 

k&leb, toob ih-noar. 
toob ny. 






What is it es'moo £y ? esb es'- 



called ? 



lama — it if, yilma. 

M'bat is hia 

( es'moo iy ? esh es'- 

• niaft6oh. 




A calm 


Bring v. 

Sat, ge^b. 

Camd; (see 

gtrn'md^ pi, gemil. 






, female 

n^a (n4keh). 


me-kisheh (pro- 

, young 

I kaoot (gaoot). 

nounced magd- 



, young fe- 





His brother 

akhoo; my — akh6o- 


or'cke (whence 

» (ya). 








I can 

ana ak'der. 


ebz6em, beze4m. 

I cannot 








, wax 

shemma skander- 


i«|(£ngl. bug). 






A building 

benii, bin&ieh. 




t^r or idrt (townw). 

Cap, red 


Burden, or load hemleh. 

> white 

tak^ea (tak^'eh). 

of camels 







Bum, V. 

ah'rek, k^ed. 





Take care 


Bnrj^ r. 


Take care of 

ah'fuz, istah'rus. 



I don*t care 

ana m6Iee. 



about it 

ana m&lee oo maloo.. 

Bo^ adao^ 

14ken, Mkln, likin. 

(or him) 


semn, mes>lee. 


negir (ni^j^r). 

^, fresh 




Buy, o. 


f large 

keleem, boossat. 

By, /w. 

be (by kindness, 


fatees, iat^ese. 

bil mar oof). 

Carry, lift, o. 
, roise, 

sheel, ayn ; ^rfa. 



Carry away, ». 

sheel, wod'dee. 


makat (mag'at). 

Cart, carriage 

arabeeh, 6raba. 

^ inner 



rem'ieh, tam^erch. 

CabU, rope 

h&bl {oMt). 

Case {etui) 

serf, bayt, ^Ibeh, 


Musr, ^ Musr el 


K&herah, Misr. 


&oM (gott, f gotta) : 


k&hk (cdU.) " 

biss^ys ; bits. 


dur'rer, az^eh. 

Catch, T. 


Calculate, o. 


in the hand el'lcoof. 

Calico (origin. 



bah^em, book^. 

ally Calcutu) 





The cause 



en'da, hSBtm^ nii- 

A cave 





It is called 

es'moo, ikoolahoo. 

The centre 

el woost (middle). 





Sect I. 

Cerastes snake 

Chair, stool 
Chance, good 


A charm 
Chase, v. 
Chase, «. 
Cheat* V. 


Cherrystick pipe 
Child, boy 
Choose, V, 






City, capital 



Clean, v. 

— as a pipe 

Clean, aty. 





Close, near 

Close, V, 






A live coal 

h^i bil j^5r6on. 
malo6m, malo6- 

mak, helbet we 

sil'sileh, pi. sel&sil. 
koor 'see, pi. karaaee. 
o'da, pL d'ad. 
bukht, nus^eb, rizk 

{right riMque). 
has'aneh, Bow-6b, lil- 

ghushm, ghush-im, 


sh^book keriys. 
nusrdnee^f pL Nas- 


keer'feh (t. e. bark), 
deira, dyreh. 
hod, bode, 

zubbett zubbed^b. 
mar oof. 
r^i-ik, rf ek. 
garei-ib (gar^-ib). 


gooh. {See Linen.) 
ghaym, sah£b. 
bersim' (burs^em). 
fahm hag'gar. 
bus'sa, busaa-t-nar, 

Coarse, rough 



bur, shet. 




deck (EngL dkkt 






Raw coffee 

bonn, bon. 


b6krag, t^nekeh 

{tee Cup). 


gid'dat, or giddud. 



The cold 

el herd, e* sukki 


Collect, e. 





Ion (lone), pL elw£n. 

shikl, pL a&hU\. 


elwin, ashkiL 


as'wed, az'rek ; /. 

soda, xerlLa. 


ab'lad,/ ba^da. 


ah 'mar,/ bam'ra. 



dark red 

ah'mar d6od^. 

purple blue 








— of ashea 



ikhder,/. kliidra. 

dark blue* 

az'rek, / ser'ka. 


light blue 

genziree, skanderi- 


sky blue 



as'mar,/ sam'ra. 

light brown 



as'fer,/. saf'fk^. 

« orange 



menuk'rush (me- 

nug'rush), mun- 


dark colour 






Come, V, 


Come up, V. 

et1a fok (foke). 

I am (he is) 

&na (hooa; gei. (gy) 


taal hennee, tiSl gei» 

Come here 

• ** He thall be csUed a NasareM.*' 




Complain, v, 
— — oif v» 
Cotnpoaed of 
Consult, o. 

I came £na gayt. 

Common, low w£tee. 

Compass booafleh, bayt-^bree. 




mitruk'kib min. 

behay's in (tiace). 

bayt el K6naol. 

shoVer (show'wer). 
Constantinople Stamb6ol, Istam« 
Continent, land, b{ir (burr). [b6oL 

istamir, ber'dak. 







e' tarow'eh, tara- 

Continue, v. 




Cook, 9. 

Cooked meat 

Cooked, drest. 

The eool 


Coop, for poultry kaf &ss. 

Copper nahass. 

Acopy (ofbook) noosHcha, nooskheh. 

Cord ( See Rope) hibl. haba>el. 

Cork, of a bottle ghutta kez^. 

Com ghulleh. 

Indian corn, or Do6ra Shimee. 

Com, or wheat 



Corner, project- 
ing, of a moun< 

It costs 


Cotton stuff 

Cover, o. 



Count, r. 

A country 

The country 

A couple [half 

A couple and a 

i on mother^s 


kumh (gumh). 



koor'neh (gooma). 






kOhh, sehl. 

ed, &h-seb. 

belled, eMeim. 

el khuUa, el khal'a. 

goz, ethn^n (two) 

goz oo ferd. 

ebn am, / bint am. 

ebn khal. 

bukkar, bukkara,p{. 
bookar boog&r) 
{LaL Vaoca.) 





A crack, fissure 





Cross, out of 

Cultivate, v. 
Cunning, artful 




Coffee-cup stand 

Cure, V, 

To be cured 

It is cured 

Curious, wonder- 




Cut, 9. 

Cut with scis« 

Cut, parL p, muk-to^a, mekutta. 

Cut out, as fussel. 
clothes, V. 

The cutting out e' tufs^l. 



el khiluk. 


shuk (sbug.) 


tems&h, pL tema- 

xemkin, ziUn. 

moh'zee, 'h4see. 
az£eh, azab. 
ez'ra, i. «. sow. 
s&hab hay'leh, si- 

hab dubar'ra. 
koba, koobii, koo- 


l^ieb (t^-e|)). 
ag&fb, ghar^b 


diw4n [dowxne], 


sek^n, khdnger. 

— large 

gemb^eh, yataffdn. 

yatakan (Turk.). 

Damp, a. 



tariwa, rot6obeh. 

Dance v» 



khof (tVe. fear). 





Date tree, palm nakhl. 




y6m,pl, iy&m, nihr. 


el ydm, e* nahr dee. 

every day 

kool y6m,kooily^'m. 

D S 



Sect. L 

in days of old iuam e*zem^, ze- 

ft day *8 journey safTer y6m min 

from hence hen'nee. 
from the day min nibr ma g^yt, 

(or time), I min yom in gayt. 

in those days (fee or) fil aiam dol. 
now, in these el-yom, fee haza el 

days wakt. 

Sunday el bad, nahr el had. 

Monday el ethn^en. 

Tuesday e*theldt. 

Wednesday el e'rba. 
Thursday el kham^. 
Friday e' go6ma. 

Saturday e* sebt (see Morn- 

Dead, s. myit, m^i-it, pi. 


Dead, died, a. mat 

Deaf at'trush. 

Deal plank lob b^ndookee (t« e. 


A great deal kete^r kow'ee. 

Dear gb&Iee, az^es. 

Dear, in price gb41ee. 

My dear ya hab^ebee. 

to a woman ya hab^ebtee, ya 

aynee, ya ayniy, 
ya ay6onee« t. e. 
my eye, my two 
eyes; ya r6hee, 
my soul. 

Death mot 

Debt dayn. 

Deceitful mukkir. 

Deep ghareek, ghowcet. 

The Deluge e* tooflin. 

Deny, v. in'kir, unkoor. 

Derived ft-om mooshtiik min. 

Descend, v. in'zel. 

Descent nez6ol. 

The desert el burr^eh, e*gebal, 

(t.e. the moun- 

Destiny nes^eb. 

The Devil e" Shayidn,e\ EUu; 

Dew nedda. 

Diamond fuss, alm&M (Turk.). 

Dictionary karo6os. 

Die, 0. moot. 

Ht is dying bem6ot. 

He died 

mat, itwurfk. 


beshka, beshkeh. 


saab, war, tekeel» 



f aal, ef 'at. 






kawim; — in atawtr 

to a caUt hider. 



Disgust(to8igbt kur'ruf (gurruf)* 

or taste) 

I am disgusted 

ana ikruf min 00. 

with it 



Dispute, 9. 

hanuk, it-hanuk. 

A great distance meshw&r keeber. 


Divide, v. 





iimel (efaal, sow'* 


I have nothing ana mileesh d£va 

to do with it 


I cannot do 

without it 

taknash) an'oo. 


hakim (hakeem). 


kelb. ■" 

Dollar (coin) 


A Dome 


aleoba, a/ro9e). 


bab (see Gate> 



Double, 9. 






Draw, 9. 

sow'er; ik'tub, t. e. 


Draw out (as 

ek'la (egla). 



tassow^r, s6ara, • 




chest of 



libs ilipt). 

Dress, 9. 


Drink, 9. 


Drive, 9. 

sook (soog). 

Dromedarist, haggMi. 


Dromedary beg'gin. 

Drop, 9. nuVked. 

A drop nookteh. 




egh'-ruk, ghirrek. 


koolloo, k&mel. 








Dry, p. a. 


Equal to 

kud, &la kud. 

V. ». 


£qual to each kud-e-bad, zayb^d. 

Buck, gooae 


other, alike 



Escape, v. 

et'fusb, yetfush. 


troby trsb. 

he escaped 




he has escaped omroo tow6el, nef- 

it is my (his) wigeb-eliy. 

with his life 

fed be 6mroo. 


An estate, rented ard (or belled) elti* 

Dwell, V. 


' lim. 





Dye, dyer 

sab4gb, sabbagh. 



Eur&pa, b^led (heh 



led), el Frang, 

(every one). 

European kings el koronat el Frang. 


akiib, okib. 

European people ^ran^, AFraiig. 




Inffiies, Inklees. 


bed'ree, bed'ree. 






Fran so wee. 






siibii; sahleh. 

a German 



kool, &kool. 


Mo9ko, Moskow^eh. 



a Russian 


of a sword, 












Slus'ree, beUedee> 



i e. of the coun- 

a Greek 




Beled el Anfdaho*, 


Must, ard Must, 

Even, leveU 

mesow'wee (mes4« 




Upper Egypt 

\ e' Sa'eed 

Even, also 




Good evening 

messekoom bit 



(see Morning), khayr, sal khayr, 

Nothing else, 

f ma feesh bi^;^ 

sad mcssakoom. 

there \% no- 

ghiyroo; lemfi^e 

Tlie evening 

el messa, el ash^eh. 

thing else. 

ha shay ghiyr- 




On every side 

iee kool e* nahia. 



Every one 

koolle wilhed, kool- 



lohom (all). 

Empty, V. 

Every where 

fee kool e'-m4trab. 

The end 

el ilkher. 

fee kool e*do6neea. 

The end, ito end e' terf, ter'foo, k- 

Every moment 

koolle saa. 



bein (bain, byin). 

The enemy 

el £doo, addoa 




JuglSezt Inklees. 




b^s, bisee^eh. 


tem4m, i. e. perfect. 

It is enough 

ik'feh, yikfeh, ikef . 

Exactly so 


Enquire, 9. 

istuk'see. [fee. 

Exactly like it 

za^oo sow'-a, mit- 

Enter, v. 

id'-khol, khosb. 

loo sow'-a, bix£* 




l» S 



Sect. I. 

For example 


Fat, a. 

sem^en, ghale^ 

To excavate 

efit, fat. 

Fat, «. 


fat, fiat. 


ab, ab6o^ ab^ 





Your Excellency genibak, hidretak 



(your presence), 

It is not mjT 

' ma'leesh xemb» mi'- 

sadtak, ( — high* 


leesh daw'a. 

ness), pL gen&b- 

Do me the fa- imel mar6ol^ 

koom, kuidrat- 

vour, kindness ameini el mar6of. 


koom, sidetkoom. 

Favorisea, ( ItaL) tefod'theU t«^od'- 

Except, adv. 




bed-del, gh^er. 


khof, khofe. 


heg'geh, pi, heg*- 

A feast 


geg, oa'r. 



Excuse me, I 

ma takhosn&sh, el 



beg pardon 



netii, net^eh, DCt^^, 

Execute, deca- 

dya, deia, dei-ya. 






Expend, v. 

deia (dei-ya, d^- 


el ghayt. 





Expenses (of a 

\. masr6o£ 

Fight, e. 

Utel, hireh. 


A fight 

ketil, barb, sh^m- 

Explain, ex- 







An extraordio 

> shay age^b, ag^iib, 

FUl, e. 


nary thing 

shay ghar^b. 

Find, ». 

elOcah (elga). 

The eye 

el ayn,pL el ai6on. 


subi, (8oob4). 


habbet el ayn. 

Foje finger 



h^-geb, pL howi- 

Middle ^ 

subi el woostlLnee. 


Fourtli — 

bayn el as&ba. 



Little — 



kobbet el ayn. 

It is finished 

khaUft, kh4.1ca» 

Tlia fttee 

el wish (el wi4j> 



Faint, v. 


Fire, live coal 

btts'sa, bus'set-nib'. 

A fair price 

temn halUU temn 

gumr, jum'ra. 


Fire agun 

id'rob (or s^eb). 

Very fiiir, toler- 




The first 

el ow'-el, d owelA- 

A fairy 



Faith (creed). 

When first I 

ow'el ma g«^ 

testimony of 


Fall, V. 

uka, yo6ka. 

At first 



k^d&b. ~ 



His family 

ahl baytoo, &hloo. 


sf-id, semmUk. 




ba^rek, handa^ra^ 




How &r firom kud-ay minhinnea. | 






A farce, or ab- 












abbad, iibad. 







sahr, nowib. 

CtaOa (proBt) 



deb4n (debbin). 

Gallop, V. 




Game (ooccta) 

sayd. " 




ginnaynefat bostiin, 



pi. ginnein, bus- 





kuddum (gudm). 




after (attar). 




me-shin, ali-shin. 

Gate (door) 

bab, pL bibin, or 


ghusb. (ghusp) 


"By Ibroe^ in spite ghusbiniboo, ghusb 

Gather up, v. 


of hiiQ 



ghaz41, dubbee. 



A general 

§dree-^uker (sarof- 

r gebeen. 


part of 



barrinee, ghare^b. 

He is generous 

£edao maftooh, i. 

To speak in s 

I &rtun; tubtt, rutin. 

e. his hand is 

finvign lan- 




rigel lateef, rigel 

Forget, ». 




I finrgot 



be-shwo'-esh, &la 

Do not forget 

ma tinsish. 


Forgive me 

sud, mil^sh. 

Get up 


Fofgive, p. 



had^h, bak-sh^esb. 


shok (sboke). 





medii-hab, miitlee 

Good fortune 

bukht, nes^eb, risk. 

be d&hab. 





A fowl 

fur'-kher, iar6og. 


di-hab, dthihab. 


abooUhoasa^n, ti- 








Gird, V, 

haz'zem, it-haz'zem. 


Franz6weetpL Fran- 



z^es. Fran^gee is 

Give, V. 

id'dee, a'-tee. 

a oomiption of 



Fran9ais ; it is 

To be glad, v. 

4f>rah or effrah. 

frequently used as 


a term of re- 



proach, but never 


shur&b (i,e, ttockinp). 

as ^^leetnaa. 



Fresh, new 




Fresh (fruit) 

tar'ree ; /. tar^eh. 

Go, V, 


Fresh watei 

r moie b^lweh. 

Go, get away, v. 

im'shee, foot. 


Go in, V. 

id'-kbool, hosli'. 


siheb, hab^b, re- 



f6ek,"i. «. com^ 




Going in, p. 




Going in, #. 




I am going 

ana rye. 



He is gone 

bona rah. 


roelan, meliin. 

I went 

ana roht. 



Go out, V. 

ekh'roog, ^tla, ^tla 






Sect. I. 

Do not go out 


She goat 


God (our Lord) 

A god or deity 


Good, excellent 

Good for no- 

Pretty good, fair 


Gossip* V, 


The goTemraent 

Gradual, little 
by little 

A grain 

— weight 




A grave 




Ancient Greek 
Grieved (it has) 
Grind, o. 
A mortar 

Grind (in a 

mill), V. 
The ground 
A guard 


Guard, v. 

By guess 

A guide 

He is not guilty 




la-tetla, ma tetlnsh 


Allah (e^rob'boona^. 
Illah, as la ilUh il' 

AlUh ," there is no 

deity but God." 
teieb, t^eb, roe-16eh. 
midan (i. e. a mine). 
bat-t41, ma es-wash 


hdkem, hokmeh. 
el bayl^ek,el wes^eb. 
shw6'-ya be shwo'- 


ma'rcfet e* geme^l. 
toSrbeht pL toorob. 

kcbeer, pi, koobdr. 
Ro6me€, borrowed 

from Romanus. 
Yoon&nett i.e. Ionian 
hazeen (sab al^y). 
m6s-han, hon 


8J^-b, sefis. 


el ard. 

ghuffi^er, pi, ghiif- 



be tekh-me^n. 


mi. loosh zcmb. 


bendookSek (being 
originally brought 
from Venice by the 
Arabs), baro6t. 




In halves 

Halt, V. 

HammeTi axe 

A hand 



Hand, v. 


Happened ' 




Hare, rabbit 


To do harm, r. 
There is no harm 

(see Never 

In haste 
A hat 
Hnte. V. 
I have 
Have you ? 
He, it 
Heal, v. 
Hear, v. 
Heat, V 
Heat, s. 


— , paradise 



The heel 


^ligh ground 




Here it (he) is 

Come here 

ffips (gibs). 


noos, noosf. 


wuk'kuf (wugguf), 


eed, yed. 


mandrel, m£h-rama. 


eg'ra, yig'ra, yeseer. 

gerra, sar. 

fer-h&n, mabsoot. 

mer'seh, ttcAhi. 

gimcd, yibcs. 


dur'rer, doroora, 

door, idoor. 
ma feesh durrer. 

kawam, belaggel. 

homayta (from Ital. % 

bal'ta, kadoum. 

ek'rah, yek'rah. 





hooa {the — ), b^ea. 

rai, demiigh. 


kom (kome). 



sa'khen, bam'mee. 

bar, sokhn6eh, 


ffebranee, YlModee 
el kab. 

61.00, elloo, ertifth, 
ha-sh^esh, kbo-d^« 
hennee, hen'i. 
a-ho, a«b6 hennee. 
taal hennee. 


Hide, v. 





Hire, «. 





Hold, V. 

tnin del vikt^min el- 
yom, min-oo r^^e. 




k6m,g^bel (gebbel). 


kerree^ ar'nik, 6ge- 
ra; o. ek'reew 

bet4-4K>; betihtoo» 



Bored, pierced makhrook. 

His home 
At home 
Honest man 

Hook (fish) 

Hooks(and eyes) khobsb^t. 



fil bayt. 

rigel mazbo6t. 

aasal ab'iad, assal e* 




How do 

she^heh, waarhfUk 

ly, lei. 

^ora ; fL koroon. 

khf-^1, fiUres. 
hi^mee, sokbn. 

bayt, men'sel, mes'- 

you ka^fak, za^-ak, 
el-kayf, ^^eb^en. 
Human insan^eb. 

Humbug^ prera-shekleUin (sheg-le- 

rieator. bin), khab^bib. 

Humidity rot6obeb, tariweh. 

— ( dew") ( neddeh ). 

Hundred m^ea, maia. 

Two hundred meetiyn. 
Three hundred to61te-mete. 
Hungry gaya'n, jay&n. 

Hunt, 9. se»d, ist&d, ^t-rood 



la order that 
you may not 
hurt bis feel- 
ings, or dis* 
appoint him 



sy^, gbunniU, bofir. 

dee, toiih yim. 
l^leh ma teks^- 

shee khitroo. 

fel-Uh; p/. fella- 
goz, zoge. 
dob'h, dobbb. 












In jest 


Ancient Jews 

Ignorant, novice 
111, a. 


I imagine, v. 

It is impossible 

In, within 









Inquire, p. 



Insolence (of 

language) . 
For instance 



jar'ra, kiddreh. 

har^beh, khUbt. 



tum'bal, bsttiil. 

s6ora, ma&.kh6ota. 


el Kotia ICadytia,] 


bil dehek ; tee Jpke. 


Bini Izra^L 
in-kan, izak&n, isza, 
lo-k^n, mut'Uma. 
me-show'-esh, aiin, 


tekh-ra^nee, ana 

ma yoomkin'sh, 
la yoomkin ^bc- 
gooa ; at, fee. 

B^eleh. [fer^n. 

k&fer, pL koofiir, ka- 
khusseeh, khuss^h 
heb'r, hebber. 
dow&i, dow&ieh. 
saal, es'saal. 
g6oa, fee kulb. 


toolt e* lissiin, kootr 

el kaldm. 

D 5 



Sect. I. 

Instrument dooUb, t.e. maehine. 

— toob ed'deh. 

Interpret, o. ter'gem {tranJate), 



Intrigue, plot 





Irrigate, v. 

Is there? there 

There is not 



Its juice 


Just now 

tergimin, toorgi- 

iit'neb, khibs. 
Cettin, khabb^ 
layb,mtM-AA«ra, day- 

bek, m^zh. 

fer'han, mabsoot. 
is fee. 
ma fe^. 
hakeek, 8edee||. 

Xeep, take care 

Keep, hold» v. 
Kick, V. 
Kill, V. 
Kind, 5. 
Kind, a. 

Kindle, v. 




Kite, miluMi 




Know, 9. 
I do not know 

istah'rus, ah'fod, 

im'sek, bosh (stop), 

ka^^lweh, kUweb. 
mow'-et, mow'wet* 
mat, m^-it. 
M&hab mar6of, 

keed (geed). 
m^lek (mellek,) 

bo§' sa, 
hedy (hed^i). 
ebn ha-Him. 
sek^en ; pL seka- 

ma arifkhee, ma mi- 

ish khibber. 


Lake, pond, pool beer'keh. 





ma^-refeb, ma^« 

sit, sit'teh(mistTe8s). 

The last 

Last, V, 


kand^I, mus'rag. 


ard, bur (opip. to 


keb^r, aried, wi^^a. 
el iokher, el akb- 

o'kut ket^r, istih. 


It is late 

el wakt rib. 

Laugh, V. 




Law, justice 


Lay, ». 


Lay, V. «• 




Lead, # . 


Leaf (of book) 

wirakeh, war'rak. 

Leap, V. 

noot (nut). 

Learn, v. 

itailem, ilem. 

Lease (of a 

o'gera, k^rree. 



gild matbo6k (mat- 


I.«ave, f . 

ez'n, egiseh. 

Without leave 

min ghayr egizeh. 

Leave, v. 

khal'lee, foot. 









Left, a. 

sheroal, yesir. 




laymmm, laymoon 


kind) . 

Lend, v. 

iddee-selle^ ^sUf. 



Lengthen, v. n. 


• 9, a. 



ats, ads, addus. 




as'-gher, ak6U. 




l«t go, or 

sf -eh, khaUee. 

Lock, e. 


■lone, V. 




harf, fi. har6of. 



»— , epistle 

makt6ob, gow.'4b, 

Look, 9. 

shoof, boss, 6n- 





Loose, a. 


Level, e. 


Loosen, v. 

8^-eb, hell; sse 






At liberty 

me-sy-eb» me- 

Liberate^ eiift«ii- ^-tuk. 


chise, V. 

Lose, V. 







om'r, h^-a. 

Lovc^ p. 



shee), er'fiH ayn. 



Light, a. 



Hnnes, far'fnts 






Light the candle wiilla e* thein'mS. 



Give light to, «. 








As you like 

ala ka^fiik, ala me» 


hiLftel, sh6n. 

s&gak, ala k{ir* 

sh6ona, m&kh* 



Like, a. 

say, mittel, mitl. 





8a;^her (sayhr). 

In like manner 

gaz^lik el omr, ga- 




Female ' 

net^-eh, netf, 




I should like 

fee khitree, blddee. 

Make, tt. 






Ldine (fruit) 

laymo6n htiw 





r^el ; V- «'«g*l' 

Line, or mark 

khot, suttr (of a 


in^n, beni adam 


(sons of 

Linen -cloth 

komiah kett^n. 



bisr kettin* 




as^sad, s^ba. 







Listen, «. 


Mark, v. 


Listen, hear 



»-l&m ; SM Line. 

Listen to, take tow'wa. 


sook, haxar. 




Little, small 

sogheer, zwf er. 

Marry, v» 

gow'-es, zow'.^. 

Little, not much shwoya. 



Live, 9. 

n&Ai, esh. 


sid, seed. 




hass^ereh, (has- 


boorae, aabl^h. 

84era); |>2.hos- 




Load, V, 


What's the 

khabbar 4y, ger- * 

Loaf of bread 


matter ? 

ra kj. 



with you 

? m&lak. 







D 6 



Sect. I. 

<— of length 
Meet, o. 



Metals mine 



Mighty* able 


A mill 
Press mill 
Never mind 

A mine 
Mine, of rae 
Minute, #. 

Mirror, #. 

Mix, V. 














dow'-a, dow'eh. 

fikr, bal. 

t&ger, hawigee*, 

syee, s&i. 

wooat (Eng. wmtt), 
fub'ben (luVbun), 

See NeTer and 

m4dan ; fd. ma&din. 
betaee; fl bet&htee. 
dak^keh ; pi, da- 

miraeh, mOrai, 
tiree ; set Humidity, 

Jhos (from obolus?). 

rAhib ; pL robbdn. 
shahr; jd. sh6h6or, 

Name$ of fhe Arabic Moniht. 
1. Moharrera. 8. Shibin. 

2. SafTer. 9. 

3. Reb^h '1- 10. 
6we1. U. 

4. RebiTe-hn-i. 
kher. 12. 

El K&deh, 
£1 Ho'g-h, 


5. Go6mad«owel. or Zul-Heg 

6. G6omad-akber (Hag). 

7. Reg'eb. 

kumr (iNa«e.) 


floobb, aabah. 


t61at e'shenos. 



Moral, a. 
Sunset miigb-reb. 

1 J hour after csh'a, aah'a. 

Evening messa, ash^eh. 

Good moroing sabdl khayr, sab^ 

koom b«l-khayr. 
Morrow bo6kra, biker. 

the day after bad bo6kra. 
A Mortar hone, bon, mus-han. 

Mosk gtoiah,fiiiM^e(f(fit>m 

s^ged, to bow 
Moth (of clothes)kitteh. 
Mother om. 

of pearl sudduf. 

My (hb) mother ommee (ommoo). 
Move, V. H. hax. 

— — 9. a. Icow'wum. 

Mountain geb'el (gebbel), pi. 

Mount, ascend, P. etia foke (fok). 

, ride, r. ^rkub. 

Mouth fom, hannak (ha- 

Much ketecr (ms Quan- 

tity, and What). 
Mud teen, wah-L 

Mug kooz. 

Musk misk. 

Musquito nam6os. 

— net namoos^h. 

You must lazem. 

Mustard khar'del. 

Mutton lahm dinee. 

My bet&ee ; betdbtee, 

/mm., as, £uTaa be- 
t&htee, my mare, 

My son 


Nail, V. 


* Hawagte, a Cbriitian ; Kfaowagv^ a Motleiii. 








Nature, the Cre- 

Neat, elegant 
It is neoessarj 




Neither (one 

nor the other) 
Nerer mindt v. 


News, to tell, 






No, nor 
Noble, prince 

Not so 

Nothing, none 

For noUiing 


A great number 

Number, v. 



mah'rama, wtlgarhf 

d^k, dthduk. 
el khaluk. 

kar^-ib (garei-ib). 

likzem, tlsem. 
mk-abeh (riikka- 

cb'ree, pL o'bar. 
mes^lleh, mayher. 

geerin, aiug, gar, 
wulla w^hed wulla 

eb'eden, ebbeden. 
maldsh, ma an* 

ged^t, gedied. 
khabber (khabbar> 
e'tinee (ett&nee), 

alagemboo '(at 

its side), 
nukb, lakh. 
layT, pL luyiL 
bar6ot abiad. 
la, wulla. 
em^er, ameer, pi» 

shemil, b^ree. 
monokh6er, un£ 
mooh kMdee, moosh 

ma ieesh h&-geh. 

delwlkt [tee Day], 
6hseb, edd. 

l%e Number*, £1 Eddud 
1 w£hed. 5, khimsa. 

2, ethn^en. 6, sitteh, sitt. 

3, theUta. 7, sibSu 

4, er^ba. 8, themibieh. 


10, isherah. 

11, hedisher. 

12, ethn^Bher. 
IS, thelatiaher. 

14, erbatlbher. 

15, khamstisher. 

90, thelat^en. 
40, erbl^en. 
50, khams^en. 
60, sitteen. 
70, saba^n. 
80, theman^en. 
90, tesa^. 

16t sittibher. 

17, sabatisher. 

18, themantiwber. 

1 9, tesit^sher. 

20, isher^n. 

21, w4bed oo aahe- 
r^n, etc. 

100, m^ea {tee 
1 1 , meea oo w£hed. 
120, meea oo ashe- 
1000, elf. 
1100, elf oo meea. 





Tlie ocean 

The Mediterra^ 

An odd one 
A pair and an 

odd one 
Do not be of- 

fended (hurt) 
Often, many 


Oil of oliyes 
Sweet oil 

Lamp oil 
Train oil 
Lettuce oil 
Old, ancient 
Old in age. 
On, upon 


Open, V. 

• From the kortam, or Carthamut tinctorial, 
t From the tiroiim, or ScMmum Orientale. 

dAda (Turk.), mor- 


mukdaf, pL maka- 

helft&n, yam^en. 
el bdhr el miilh, el 

el bahr el ablad, i. e. 

the white tea, 
ferd, furd. 
goz oo ferd. 

ma takhodahee ala 

ke|^r n6ba, kam 
no'bal (t. «. koto 
many times !) 


sayt-ty-eb*, layt- 

s^erig f 

sayt-bir. | 


kadeem, minsemiin. 



wihed ; tee Num- 

nobaw^ed, raarra 



% From the flax. 



Open, />./). 



Order, com- 
mand, v. 
Order, s. 
In order that 
The other 



Over and abore 

Overturn, «. 


Overtake, e. 









A pair 


Palm, date tree 

Pane (of glaai) 


A para (coin) 


Part, piece 




Pass, 9. «. 


Patch, f. 



ilit-hah, applied aUo 
to the I St chapter 
of the KoriUk 

wulla, ya, ow } «. y. 
either this or 
none, ya d6e ya 

aom6or, om6or. 



as'sel, assl. 


e*t4nee, el &-kher. 

wihed &kher, wihed 
ghayr, w&hed tk- 
nee, gb&yroa 


fok (foke). 






bet&na, beta-niihna. 



muss^; (homed 
— ) b6oma. 


teeriin; sm Bull. 


sutl, dilweh. 
goz, ethn^en. 
aiyiad, as'fer. 
nakhl, n&kh-el 
loh, kesAs. 
war'ak; (leaf of) 

warrakeh, ferkh. 
fodda, t. e. silver. 

foot ; 9. a. ibw'wet 
t6oUt«l.b4I, sibbr. 

Be patient 
He is patient 
Pay money, v» 
Peace, pardon 


of war 
We have 


toVei bdlak, ^boor. 

rohoo tow^l. 

ed'fa Boos. 



made istullah'na bad. 
each other 
Pear koomittree. 

prickly, tin shok, tin seralSn- 

or Cactus 



Lead pencil 


Our people 




felWh. ^ 
gild, kishr. 
k41am (kuUum). 
nas, gem'ma, r^g&l. 
sah^h, kllmeL 
yo6mkin, ipsar (&b- 


iigemee, Farsee. 



Person, self 

A piastre (coin) kirsh, plur, krooah. 

Pickaxe; see Axe. 

Pickles toorshee. 

Picture s6ora, taasow^r. 

A piece het'tcji, kottah. 

Piece, V. fiiis'el. 

Pig khansder. 

Pigeon ham&m. 

Pilgrim hag, hag'gee. 

Pill hab. 

Pin dab6os. 

Pinch, V. ek'-roos. 

Pinchbeck (me- tomb&k (Fr.). 

Pipe sb^book, ood. 

Hpe, mouth- fom,mup'8em(mul»'- 

piece sem), terkdebeh. 

Pistol taban'gia. 

A pair of pistols gos tabangiit. 
A single pistol fWrd. 


ya khos&ra. 

mat'rah, moda, m»- 
k&n, mahil. 

d k6obbch, e*ti6on. 

A pit 
What a pity ! 
A place 

The plague 




P]ank, pane (of loh | 

Pull out, V. ; pull ek'-Ia ; les Pluck 


off (clothes). 









leb (layb> 

On purpose 

bilinieh (m a had 

Play, ». 


fcase), bilamed. 







Pkm/ /msf / 

biuf bi$9/ 





PludL a ibvl, v< 

. en'tifelflir-kher. 

Putrefy, V. 


Pluck, poll out, 




h&ram, ahram. 

Plonder, v. 

UJuib, nd'kab (Jo 




What quantity' 

} kud-dAy, t. «. huw 





Quarrel, v. 

hinuk, &mel kalim. 


shayr, nusm. 

Stone quarry 




A quarter 


Point, end 


Quench (fire) V. 


Pole, stick 

middree, ncb6ot 






ka-w&m, beliggel 

A poor man 

mes-k£en, ie-ke6r 

(t. e. on wheels). 








A pound 


Pour out, 9. 

soob, koob. 


ptnt (ffetue). 



rarao^se (ramo6s). 

away, v. 


shann6ota, kbillaka 


trob; (gun—) ha- 


semk, kudb. 



matur, nuttur. 


kodr (kudr> 

It rains 





harbee, kabb^ 

I pray you 




P^ess, 9. 


Rare, strange 


, squeese, o. a4ser (aser). 

A rascal 

ebn haiim. 


kouei^is (qui'yis). 






ny (nye). 

Price (see Wliat,^em'n, (temmen,) 



and Worth) 


Reach, v. 

tool, ^Ihak. 

Agree about uPsel, fussdi. 

Read, e. 


price of 




kobr e' n^is. 


sah^, sAduk. 



Really, truly 

min hik, bak^ke* 

It is prohable 


ten, hak'ka. 

Property, poa- milk. 

The reason 

e* sebbubr ' 



akaee^pL aisiVn. 



Receive money 

' ek'budfloos. 


nuthr, nuar. 

Reckon, p. 


Prosper, v. 


Recollect, v. 



wQfwidt kkvX oo sberb 





A reed 


•'•OnyonrboDOW.** Uicd to depracste p 

untahBMnt, sad on other preninf oocsdont. 



Sect. I. 

A relation 
Relate, tell, v. 
Remember, «. 
I remember, o. 
Reply, t. 
Reside, v. 
Return, r. 

kar^eb, iihi. 


khallee fee bUak. 

fee b41ee. 

rood (roodd). 



., give back, r^ga. 


Rhinoceros horn korn khart^t. 
Ribs dullooa. 

Rich shebin, ghunnee. 

Riches ghunna (gfaena). , 

'Rid, 0. khal'lus. 

Ride, r. er'kub. 

Riding, t. roko6b. 

A rifle bendook^eh shesh- 

Right, a, doghree. 

Right, t. h«k (hak). 

Right (hand) yem^n. 
Rim harf, soor. 

Ring (annulus). hallakah, hallak. 
Finger ring dib'leh ; «ee SeaL 
Rite, V. koom (goom). 

River n^ar ; bahr, t. e. 

ocean (applied to 

the Nile), 
Road derb, sikkah, tare^. 

Robber har&mee. 

Roof sukf. 

A room oda. 

Root gidr, gidder. 

Rope habbel, liabL 

Hemp rope habl teel. 

Palm habl leef. 

Rose werd. 

Rose water moie-werd 

otto of better el werd. 

Round, a. medow'-er, mekiib- 

Around bowal&yn, deir ma 

Rouse, 9. kow'em, kowwem. 

Royal soltinee* 

Rudder duffeh. 

Ruins, remains ; ben^i kadeto, kha- 
eee Temple rf-lfb, khariibeh. 
Run, r. ig'geree. 

, as a liquid khor. 

Rushes soom£r (sumlff). 

Rust suddeh. 

Saddle (of horse)8erg. 
-^-<doiikey) b^rda. 
— (dromedary )ghab^ 



Sail, f. 

For his sake 
for Sale 
Salt, o. 
The same 

Sash, girdle 
A saw 
I saw, V. 

witter, howdehp sh&« 

ker, bas6or. 

kiUa, komiab, i e, 
cloth. " 

legneti kbAtroo. 

melh In^Sez. 
bur'doo, bisitoOfp/. 

ina sh6oft ; be 

hooa sh4f. 

Say, V, 

What do you betk6ol ay. 

Scabbard (of 

Scales (large) 
Scold, V, 

bayt (e'sayO. 

meezdn (k ubbineh ). 

hinuk, it-h&nuk. 
ak>raba (ag'raba). 

bahr, bahr el malh, 

See»«. shoof; I s^ ana 

sheif (ahyfe), be- 
A seal khitom (worn as a 


impression khitmefa. 

Search, v. fettesh. 

Search tefteM. 


Four Secuome. 






A second of time x&nee. 

Be silent, v. 

os'-kut (oslcoot). 

The second* 




the other 






mooifrud, ferd. 


hizr, hab, tel^ow'ee. 

Sing, 9. 



The singular 


Seek for 

dow'r al&y 


s^edeel sidit 

Send, V. 

^ba&t, sbiya, ^rsel. 



Scpante one for'red. 

My sister 


from the other 

His sister 



khuddam, subbee 

Sit, V. 


. (lad). 



Serre, r. 


Skin, s. 


Shade, «. 

dooll, dool, dill, zUl. 

Water skin 




Sky, heaven 


Shame, disgrace eb» aeb. 


abd, kh6dem. 

SbnTe, r. 




Sheep, fl 






Sleep, «. 

u6m, V. nim. 




neim (nyim). 

Sheet, «. 





Small, se« Little sogh^er. 



Smell, 9. 


Shine^ v. 


Smell, s. 

shem, reeh. 



Sweet smell 

reeh (reht)helwa. 

Shirt, «. 

kam^: pL koms^n. 




merkoob^v^. mara- 

Smoke, # . 

do- khan. 


Smoke, o. 

ish'rob do>kh£n. 

Horse shoe 


Snnooth, v. 

efred ; adj, nam. 

Yellow slipper 

must, mes. 


liala'Zo'n (bala-zon). 


koseir (koss^^r). 


tib&n, ban'nesh. 

Small shot 






hei biUkor6on. 





Show me 




Shut, V. 



nesholc, (ne8h6ke). 

Shut the door 

rood, ^trusb, 6klel 


mak6ss (mekiias) 

el bab. 

— e'shem'roi. 

Shut, bolt the 

Book el bab. 


keddee, k^xa. 




iw-karee, pi. as&kcr, 

Sbut,/ii p. 

merd6od, matr6osb, 


mask6ok, makfbol. 




mesbow'ish, aiiuL 

Some of it 

roinoo, minnoo. 

Sick, to be 

istufnigh. , 


bigeh, shay. 



Some few things bad shay. 








Sight, s. 

shoof, oudr. 


ebn, welled. 





• The camel is MmMtimes csllcd m^rkeb (as a shoe inerk6ob), not becauw it U the " Ship 
of the Desert,*' M some have •uppoMd, but because merlieb signiBes tomething to mount 
upon CPt. momtmre), $o that the ship Is rather the camel of the aea than the convene, and 
the Arabs bad esmds or mtmiures before tbejr bad chips or shoes. 



Sect I. 


I am sorry, «. 

Sort, f . 

Sound, voice 

Sour, acid 


hat^en (a&b&n). 


<f€n8f shikl. 


h£-duk, hi-mood. 

genoob, kublee 


— wind 
Sow (seed) v. 

(cloth) V, 


with fore- fitr. 
Speak to one wessee (wuasee). 

about, bespeak 
Speak, §e» Talk. 
Spear harbeh. 

Spend (money) d^-a, 4s-re£ 
Spider ankab6ot. 

web ankab6ot 

Spill, V. koob (kubb). 

Spirit roh. 

A spirit dfreet, pL afar^t, 

ffinnee, pL gin, 
A good spirit, see Angel. 

Split, p. p. 
Stable, s. 
Stand up 
Stand, V, 

Stay, wait, «. 
Steal, 9. 

Stealth, s. 
By stealth 




sy-Ad. [rublNL 

morub'bah, md« 


koom ala ha^lak. 

yo6kuf, wukkuf. 

nigm ; pL nigo6m. 



e^rookt ea'rnk \to 


A steel (for flint) seen&d. 


Stick of palm 

— — yet 

He is stingy 

Stop, M Stand 
and Wait. 

neb6ot; assaia (as- 
s^eh ), shamro6kb. 

eMoo misek. 

Stop up, V. 

Stopped, dosed 






Stumble, «. 

He struck 

Strike a light 


Begin the sub- 
Such a one 
Suck, «. 

The sun has set 
Suppose, V. 

Swell, o. 
Swear, testify, V. 
at, abuse, p. 
Swallow, V. 
Swim, tr. 

Table elofb 


k Turkish 

Talk, V. 

Take, v. 
Take away, «. 
Take in, cheat 

T^n, o. 

Teach, v. 
Tear, r. 
A tear 





shede^t, gow'ec. 


derb, sikkeb. 


d&reb (^eet Beat). 

ek'da (igda). 

kesm, tert^b, 

dftah s£eratoo, 6fUh 

fooUn (felto> 
shems (/em. ). 
e*shems gh&bet. 
soon' (soonn), 


ish'-had, ihlifl 
tert^eb, nis4m. 

fo6ta e*8o'firm. 





itkellem, it-had'- 


ghush, gbush'em. 
towe^l (towwM). 
t6mr hindee, 







kaxdeSr (aa^'e'frc- 



' pot^y 

Tell, 9, 

kool, ^-kee. 

Tin plate 




Hq, v. whiten 

b6iad, b^ad. 


khaym, khiymeh. 



Tent peg 





min, an. 


ilia, e41a. 

Weth«ikyoaVj^^^ ,^^ 
fin* a present J 

Toast (bread) 

esh mekum'mer. 
do-khin, i. e. smoke. 

r allah ibArak ftek. 


sow'a — sow'a, wete 



isTour, I am 



much db* 
also ironi- 

► ket'-ther (gettber) 



sin, pL sinn4n, si- 



ghutta (cover). 

Thank God 

el ham'doo liU&h. 




somma, bad^n. 







They, their 

hoom, beta'-hoom. 

£col% And^lk 

WkmKlff ■UOaO. 



Touch, feel, v. 


Thief (MS Rob. 


Do not touch 

la teh6t eddak aUy. 

ber and Steal). 



fukhd, werk. 




roof^a (roof^ia), re- 

Tow (a boat) 

goor e* lelWbu 


Towel, napkin 


bigeh, shay. 





k&la. [bel4d. 



beHed Xbel'ed), pL 

Think, p. 

iftekker, khum'- 

Large town 



e men. [nee. 



I think, sup- 

ana az6on, tekhmee- 

Treacherous ; 




(MS Betray 


dee, b&za. 

and Perfidy). 


de&a, dikkAi, da. 


seg'gereh, sheg'- 


dole (dol). 




Trickery, ma- 

> doolib, doob^ra, 






shoke (sbok). 






siheh, do'ghree, ai- 

Thread, s. 


duk, sah^eh. 



Try, prove, ». 


ThriTC, e. 




Throw, V. 



ihaOt em'meh. 


suba el kebeer. 


Toork, Onnilnlee, 




Tickle, V. 

suksuk (sugsug). 

Turn, V. 






Tight, drawn 



marrataf n, noba- 

Time, narrow 




Twist, V, 


lime, vdUa 


Tyrant "1 
Tyrannical J 




*fk ICIU. 



Sect. L 


I want nothing moosh ow'es h&geh. 


barb, shemmata. 


w4dee (w4dy). 



Value, price 

temn (t^mun). 





I warned yoa 

ana wusa^ak. 



I was 




He, it, was 



kow'ee; very large. 

She was 


kebe6r kow'ee. 

We were 



w&hesh, bil*h&m. 

You were 

ko6ntum, ko6ntoo. 


kow'wee (kow'ee). 

They were 




Wash, r. 




Waste, f . 




A watch 


Undo, unite, v. 

fook', hell 

Water, t. 

mo'ie, ma, mo'ieh. 



Water, v. 




ro6sh, rush. 


Fresh water 

moie hel'wa. 


iila, le, lllama. 

Spring (of water) ain, ayn (t. e. eye). 

16 ma. 




Water, torrent of say]. 


sillemee, ketAb sil- 

{in the desert) 





(in a rock) 

Up, upon, over 

foke (mk). 

small basin mes&yk. 




Use, utility 


basin oi 

' tbem^leh. 

It u useful 


natural reser- 


of no use 

ma iniSsh. 

voir, when 


Used, worn. 


eUed up with 


sand or gravel 





Vulture [tenu 

nisser, nisr. 

— reservoir 


rlikh-am (r^khum). 


pool of rain mag&ra (makAn). 






river or 






wooMt, 1. e. middle. 

channel or mig'gree. 

Wait, stop, V. 



Wake,'-hur (es'-her). 

Water melon 


Walk, V. 


Wax candles 

shemmd skaoderA- 








sikkah, deifo. 




ah'na, nah'na. 

I want, V. 

ana ovf^es (owe), 


bat-lin, da-e^f. 

ana ar^ed, ana 

One week 

gooma w&*hed. 

tileb (atlub). 

Weigh, V, 


What do yea 

ow'es-ay, oW»-ay $ 


tokl, wteen. 


by the Arab$, Esh 

A well 





I want 

ow'es, ow'z, lAzem- 



lee, ar^ed. 






What ay, esb. 

What do you betko6l-iy, tekooU 

aay? ay? 

What's the mat* khabbar-dy» g^ra- 

ter ? ayi el kbabbar-&y ? 

What*s the price be-kim dee ? 

of this? 
What is this eswa &y dee ? 

What are you betimel ily ; 6y fAe 

Araht^ esh te» 


sow'wee ? 

What o'clock is e' a'a fee k&m ? 

Wheat kum'h. 

A wheel a^geleh. 

When Uma (le]iiiDa),^mte. 

At the time that wak t ma. 
Where? fayn {hy (ht Arabs, 

Where are- you ente rye fayn ? 

Where did you ente gayt min ayn? 

come from ? 
Which? an'-h6o? 

That which e1-as^ 61ee (ellce). 

Whip of hippo- korb&g. 
potamus hide 

ab'iad, fenu bayda. 


Whiten, 9. 




Who U that? 

Who said so? 


The whole 


— rascal 




Wild animal 

I will, V. 


North wind 






lay? lesh? 


da min ? [dee ? 

min kal (gal) ked- 

beta min. 

el kool, koolloo. 


cbn harim. 

as'beh, er'meleh. 

4xeb, er'mel. 

marra, zog, bormah. 

w4hsh (w6hesh). 

ana ow'es (aw's). 

r^eh, how's. 



nd>^t, $hardb, 


Wipe, V, 
Wish, o. 
I wish, V. 

I had wished 






I wonder at 
I wonder if, •*. e. 
wish to know 
Work, 9. 
Worth, it is 
Write, V. 



silk. ' 



bid'dee, fee khdtree. 

ar^ed. [tree, 

era^t, k6n fee khii- 
m^ w^a. 
deeb (deep), 
marra, nissa, hor- 

nis>win, hareem. 
ana as-t£-geb. 
ya tArra, hiU toora. 





kilmeh, kalam. 

ishtogbl, faal. 

dooneea. ^ 



g^rah (gerrab). 

magrooh. [teb. 

ik'tub ; writer, k&- 





The day before 


Not yet 


Young man 



court h6sh. 

senna (senneh). 
emba'ra (by the 
jirah§,um% or unise). 
owel embara. (£y the 

Araln,o^el ums). 
Iwa, eiwa, nam. 
en'tc ; entee, /cm. ; 

^ntoom, pi, 
sogh^ier ; vulgo 

sheb, gedda. 
betak; betihUk,/ 
sheb^b, sbeboob^eh. 




Y. ./ 

ROUTES. ^^'^ /^" '-- ^ 



Id going from England to Alez- 
andria, the quickest way is by tea to 
Gibraltar and Malta, or througb 
Fnuce to Marseilles, and thence by 
tbe steamer to Egypt. (See Intro- 
duction, on tbe Voyage to Alex- 

ALEXANDRIA. — I. Arrival 
at Akiandria. 

Pompey's pillar is in latitude 31^ 
10^ 43* N. and longitude 29^ &Af E. 
fiom Greenwich. The coast is ex- 
ceedingly low, so that the highest 
parts only begin to be seen at the dis- 
tance of about 18 miles, and the line 
of tbe coast itself is not discernible 
till within 1 3 or 14. Though there is 
water to the depth of 6 fathoms close 
to tbe Pharo«, and from 5) to 4 along 
the whole shore to the pc^int of Eu- 
nosttts, at the entrance of the- western 
harbour, and at 1 4 mile ofi not less 
than 20 fathoms, it is exceedingly 
dangerous to approach at night. There 
is, faowerer, very good holding ground 
in the roads ; and ships anchor, or lay 
to^ about a mile off shore. The first 
objects perceived from the sea are 
Pompey's Pillar, the forts on the 
mounds raised by the French, the 
Pharos and new lighthouse, and the 
buildings on the Ras e' Tin (the 
•'Cape of Figs"), between the two 
ports ; and on uearing the land, the 
obdisk, the Pasha's hareem and palace, 
tbe bouses of tlie town, the masts of 
ships, and the different batteries 
(which have been lately much in- 
creased), the windmills to the i»est, 
and the line of coast extending to 
Maribut Point, begin to be seen. 

Tbe old lighthouse, which occupies 
tbe site of the ancient Pharos, on a 
rock joined to tlie land by a cause- 
way, has long been pronounced in- 
sufficient for the safety of vessels 
making tbe coast, both from its want 
of height, and tbe bad quality of 
the light itself, especially in foggy 
weatljer, when it can scarcely be seen 
till a vessel has neared the land. Its 
distance from the western harbour is 
an additional cause of complaint. To 
remedy these inconveniences, Mo- 
hammed AU has erected a new light- 
house on the point of Eunostus, 
which has at least the advantage of 
being In a better position for vessels 
arriving from Europe; but he has 
made the mistake of not having a 
revolving light, which might have 
been put up at little more expense. 

On arriving off Alexandria by day. 
light, a pilot comes on board, to carry 
the vessel through the complicated 
channels of the western or old port, 
which are beset with shoals and reefs. 
But on making the coast late in tbe 
evening, she lays to till daylight, and 
early in the morning the pilot comes 
off; for no captain thinks of entering 
the harbour without him ; the buoys 
laid down by the English in 1801, to 
mark the passage, having been re- 
moved as soon as tbey left tbe country. 
There are many shoals on which the 
water is not sufficient for vessels of 
large tonnage ; and first-rate line of 
battle ships are obliged to Uke out 
their guns, to enable them to pass 
safely through these channels. The 
main or central channel has 5 and 6 
fathoms water, the Maribut 4^ 5, 
and 6 ; others, 4, 5, and 6' ; but they 
are very narrow, the widest not quite 



Sect. L 

2^ cables or 1 500 Teet. The deepest 
part of the harbour, about due W. 
and due N. of the Catacombs, is 10, 
10^, and in one place 1 1 fathoms ; 
close in, to within 200 feet of the 
shore, it is from 4 to 6 ; and under 
the town itself, at little more tlian I 
cable's length off, 3 and 4 fathoms. 

The steamer anchors alongside a 
large boat moored there ns a coal 
depot : and shoals of boats come off 
to take the newly arrived strangers 
with their baggage ashore. When 
the packet is full of passengers, there 
is frequently great confusion with 
the luggage, which is piled up and 
so mixed in one general mass, that it 
is difficult for any one to find his 
own : a traveller should therefore 
take care to have it all put together 
when he embarks, particularly if he 
has much; and should go, or send 
bis servant, a short time before he 
reaches Alexandria, to see that it is 
in one place and accessible, to escape 
a disagreeable scramble at the last 

If be has paid his passage at 
the office, and arrangements have 
been made for landing his things, 
it is unnecessary to take further 
trouble about them beyond seeing 
that they are all safe t and the Cawdss 
employed by the Company will un* 
dertake to pass thom at the Custom 

When a passenger bas paid before- 
hand for the expenses of landing his 
luggage and Custom House fees, the 
Cawds» has no further claim on him ; 
but in order to give some idea of the 
charges made in other cases by this 
functionary, it may be said that the 
ordinary sum paid him, for taking 
the luggage of two persons from the 
vessel to the hotel, is 33 piastres, 
which includes the boat, one camel, 
and the Custom House fee, and is 
nearly twice as much as it ought 
to be. 

If not on his way to India, and 
consequently no previous arrange- 
ments have been made, or if be does 

not apply to the Company*s Cawdss 
for this purpose, the traveller will be 
obliged to hire a boat for himself, or 
with some other passenger, and go lo 
the Custom House, where a small fee 
will enable him to pass his luggage 
without examination ; provided it has 
the appearance of containing solely 
personal etfects, and does not consist 
of large cases, which have the cha- 
racter of merchandise. The hire of a 
boat ought not to be more than 3, or 
at most 5, piastres, though the boat- 
men will not be contented with double 
that sum ; and the Custom House fee 
may be from 6 to 10 piastres, accord- 
ing to the quantity of things. Wine 
and spirits pay a duty, as well as all 
merchandise, but a small quantity for 
private use is passed under the tide of 

There is at present some difficulty 
respecting the question of duties. 
According to the treaty of Balta 
Lim4n, all goods are to pay 5 per 
cent. ; that is, 3 on entering the ports 
of Turkey, and 2 on leaving tbem for 
the interior; which of course exempts 
them from further examination at any 
inland towns. In virtue of this, wine 
and spirits are free from every other 
duty, hitherto levied upon them at 
Cairo and other places. Tbe treaty 
is very explicit in its conditions 
respecting tbe duties, the abolition 
of monopolies and tbe rigbt given to 
all Europeans of purchasing the pro- 
duce of tlie country, and exporting it 
without impediment on tbe payment 
ofrnn ad valorem duty i notwithsumding 
which it is constantly evaded. 

On landing, the stranger, if be 
escapes the rapacity of the boetmen, 
who, like all other classes at Alex- 
andria, ere never satisfied, however 
well paid, is immediately pressed OQ 
all sides by tbe most importunate 
of human beings, in the shape of 
donkey drivers. Their active litUe 
animals may be called tbe cabs of 
Egypt ; and each driver, with vehe- 
ment vociferations and geaticulations» 
recommending bis own^ in broken 



English or bad Italian, strives to take 
possession of the unfortunate traveller, 
and almost forces him to mount 
Having quickly selected one, in order 
to avoid a continuation of this, to a 
sufferer disagreeable, and to a by- 
stander ridiculous, scene, away he is 
hurried off through narrow dirty 
streets, leaving his servants to bring 
tb« lugg^® on asses or camels. 

For a donkey he ought to pay 1 
piastre to the Frank quarter, a native 
or a resident giving about half that 
mm ; and although 5 would not con- 
tent these people, he should not, for 
the sake of saving himself trouble, 
have the folly to yield to their impor- 
tunities. It is by doing this that the 
English lately travelling in Egypt 
have entailed so much trouble on 
those who now visit the country, in- 
creasing not only the expense, but 
numerous annoyances ; and the hotel 
keepers are not the least to blame for 
their encouragement of such imposi- 
tions, of which they themselves now 
begin to feel the bad effects. 

For a camel to the hotel he should 
not give more than 5 piastres ; 
though, if there are numerous pas* 
sengers, and many camels are in re- 
quisition, 1 must sometimes be paid. 

If he does not dislike going on 
foot (provided it is dry weather), a 
walk of 15 or 20 minutes will take 
him to the hotel. 

The streets through which he passes 
are narrow and irregular, the houses 
appearing as if thrown together by 
chance, without plan or order; and 
few have even that Orientalcharacter 
which is so interesting at Cairo. Here 
and there, however, tlie lattice-work 
of the windows and a few Saracenic 
arches give the streets a picturesque 
appearance ; and if he happens to take 
the longer, but more interesting, road 
through tlie baaaars, the stranger will 
be struck with many a novel and 
Eastern scene. But he had better 
▼isit them, after he has secured and 
arranged his rooms at the hotel. 

On emerging from the dingy streets 

of the Turkish quarter, he will be 
surprised by their contrast with the 
larger and cleaner dwelHngs of the 
Europeans, where he will readily dis- 
tinguish the houses of tlie consuls by 
I the flag-staffs rising from their flat 
roofs. In the western harbour he 
will also have observed some build- 
ings, of a superior style, as the Pasha*8 
palace, and some public buildings, 
which bear the stamp of Constanti- 
nople, or of Frank, taste ; and even 
before landing he will have perceived 
considerable activity in the port, from 
which he may form some idea of the 
improvements that have there taken 
place under the rule of Mohammed Ali. 
The Frank quarter stands at the 
extremity of the town, farthest from 
the new port ; which is in consequence 
of the European vessels having for- 
merly been confined to the eastern 
harbour, and the consuls and mer- 
chants liaving built their houses in 
that direction. It has, within the 
last seven years, greatly increased ia 
size by the addition of the large 
square ; in the centre of which stands 
a small badly proportioned obelisk of 
Oriental alabaster, presented to the 
town by Moliammed Ali. The stone 
is from a quarry in the desert opposite 
Beoisooef ; but it is of very inferior 
quality, and badly selected, having 
been taken from parts of the stratum 
not sufficiently compact for slabs of 
large dimensions. In this square 
stand the principal hotels and most of 
the consulates ; and here the national 
guard are drilled soon after sunrise 
every Saturday morning ; the regular 
troops, if any in garrison, being exer- 
cised every morning, except Friday, 
near the Pasha's palace on the Ras- 
e*teen, between the two ports. 


The principal hotels are Rey's, or 
L*H6tel d'Europe ; Coulomb*s, or 
L'H6tel de I'Orient. The former, 
which till 1842 belonged to Messrs. 
Hill, is the one mostly frequented by 
the English. The charges are 40 
piastres a day board and lodging, 



Sect. I. 

which include breakfast, dinner, tea, 
and a bedroom. A sitting-room is 
charged extra, as well as wines, beer, 
wax candles, coffee, &c. The cuisine 
is good, and the landlord and atten- 
dants civil. 

The prices at the other hotel are the 
same. At Coulomb's you meet with 
much civility ; and his rooms at the 
Orient are by no means bad. 

It is less easy to find good rooms, 
or houses *Uo be let,*' at Alexandria 
than at Cairo; and they are much 

3. Servants. — Native and other 
servants may be engaged at Alex- 
andria, or Cairo, for the voyage to 
Upper Egypt, or for a residence at 
those places, at the following rate : — 

Turkish Caw&ss,or Kaw^s (Chow- 
ish), improperly called Janissary, ] 
dollar a day or 30 dollars a month ; 
Italian, French, German, or Greek 
servant, 20 to SO ; Maltese, 12 to 20. 
Native servant speaking Italian, or 
other European languages, 13 to 20 ; 
Native man cook, 5 ; Cook and ser- 
vant of all work, 6 ; Native servant 
speaking very little Italian, 3 to 8 ; 
Native servant speaking only Arabic, 
from 55 to 60 piastres. (These are 
all fed by their master.) Sets (Sjris) 
or groom, 65 piastres, and keeping 

Turks and natives resident at Alex- 
andria or Cairo pay much less, and 
at the latter place they seldom give 
their servants more than from 10, or 
even less, to 20 piastres. But they 
are very badly dressed, and have often 
a miserable appearance, unless clothed 
by their masters. (See Servants at 
Cairo, sect. 2. c.) 

4. Boats Boats are engaged at 

Alexandria for the voyage to Cairo, 
at from 225 to 275 piastres; with 
a small fee to the captain, if he be- 
haves well. When taken to Atfeh 
only the price is about 100 piastres. 
Those who prefer the steamer, may 
take a place from Alexandria to Cairo 
for S/. lOs. ; but it only goes occasion- 
ally. The voyage by a steamer oc- 

cupies 32 or 3 S hours from Alexandria 
to Cairo, and about 20 in returning ; 
in a sailing boat about 3) to 4| days, 
and 3 in returning. (See Route VI. ; 
and for boats hired at Cairo for Upper 

5. Things to bb purcuaskd at 
Alexandria for thb jodrnet to 
Cairo. -— I have already mentioned 
the things requisite for a journey in 
Egypt. I shall now point out those 
which are most necessary in the route 
from Alexandria to Cairo, supposing 
the traveller to be already provided 
with tlie others marked " £.** and 
" A.*' in the list of p. 3. They are 
for one person, and the quantity may 
be increased according to the number 
or wants of a party. 



Potatoes, 1 oka - 




Rice, 1 oka 




Maccaroni, 1 oka - 




1 cheese - 



Sugar, 1 loaf 




Coffee (6o»«), 1 rotl 














2 GooUd or water bottles - 



Meat, 2 reds or lbs. 




Charcoal, 1 mat - 




Kumr-e^deen. (apricots) 




Common soap, \ oka 




Butter, 1 oka 




4 fowls at 3 or 3^ (1 piastre 

on the road) 




Caf<u9 or coop 




Food for fowls 



2 mats for cabins - 




Oil, 1 flask 




1 basket, and wood 


lighting fire 




Candles, | oka (spermaceti) 



2 baskets for things 












It may not be altogether useless 
to the traveller to know the prices of 
some of the thingt mentioned in the 
list of p. S.» which he may probably 
purchase at Alexandria. 




A blanket called buttaneeh 
Mouthpiece of pipe 
Cherry stick pipe, 4 feet 

to 5 long - 9 to 

S pipe bowls 
Wire for pipe - 
1 carpet (setfodee) 
3 copper boilers (AoZZeA, pL 

1 towOf or saucepan, with 

cover (copper) 
1 small coffee-pot (copper) 
Turning copper • 
1 tin^^uKOM, or lanthorn 

with cloth sides 
1 small/aiuios, or lanthorn 

with glass 

1 tin pot for water 

2 tin cases for coffee and 

2 small tin cases for salt 

and pepper 
I tin coff^pot - 
1 tin kettle 
1 rope for flag, &c. 

1 pulley for flag, &c. 
Flag (small jack ) 

2 fire-places, Mungud - 
White bason 
Turkish cofftee-cups and 

their stands, each 
2 wooden spoons for 

5 oftos spermaceti candles 

for the yoyage in Upper 

Egypt - - 120 

Tea, the oka (green) - 80 
Tea, the oka (black) - 40 
Wooden bowl for wash- 
ing linen, called kuBMa 

Tongs and kitchen knife 
Potatoes, 20 okas for 

the journey to Upper 

Basket for the journey to 

Upper Egypt- 
8 oHuzM of maccaroni for 

Cloth for curtains, the 

drah or cubit 
Tobacco (the oka) 









150 to 400 
















40 to 50 






20 to 30 

1 20 


1 10 
14 to 18 







4> add the 

at Alex« 











Flour (if thought neces- 
sary), the oAa- 

Fan for fire in lieu of 

Fly flap, manasheh 

It may also be as well 
prices of the following 
andria : ~- 

Beef and mutton, the oka 


Wood . 

Rice - - - 

Butter ... 

Oil - 

Fine oil 

6. HisTOKT OF Alexandria. — 
Alexandria was founded on the site 
of a small town called Racotis, or 
Rhac6tis, by the great - conqueror 
after whom it received its name. 

Its commodious harbour and other 
local recommendations rendered it a 
convenient spot for the site of a com- 
mercial city, and its advantageous 
position could not fail to strike the 
penetrating mind of the son of Philip. 
It promised to unite Europe, Arabia, 
and India ; to be a successful rival of 
Tyre ; and to become the future em- 
porium of the world. 

In the time of the Pharaonic kings 
the trade of Egypt was confined to the 
countries bordering on the Arabian 
Gulf; and if, as is possible, India 
may be included among the number 
of those with which the Egyptians 
traded, (either directly by water, or 
tlirough Arabia,) the communication 
was maintained by means of that sea, 
or by land over the Isthmus of Sues. 
Indeed, I believe that iEnnum (or, 
as it was afterwards called, Fhilotera), 
and the predecessor of Arsinoe, were 
the only two ports on the Red Sea 
during the rule of the early Pharaohs; 
the small harbours (the portus mvHi 
of Pliny) being then, as afterwards, 
merely places of refuge for vessels in 
stress of weather, or at night during a 
coasting voyage; and no towns yet 
existed on the sites of those known in 




Sect. L 

later times as Berenice, Nechesia, and 
Leucos Portus. 

The commercial intercourse with 
the N. of Arabia, Syria, and the parts 
of Asia to the N. and N. £. of Egypt, 
was established by means of caravans, 
which entered Egypt by the Isthmus 
of Suez ; and it was with one of these, 
on its way from Syria, that the Ish- 
maelites travelled, who brought Joseph 
iato Egypt. They had come ** from 
Gilead, with their camels liearing 
spicery, and balm, and myrrh, going 
to carry it down to Egypt ;*' and 
this was the same line of route taken 
by the Egyptian armies on their march 
into Asia. 

The Mediterranean was not used 
by the Pharaohs for maritime pur- 
poses connected either with war or 
commerce, until the enterprise or the 
hostility of strangers began to suggest 
its importance. But such was the 
jealousy of the Egyptians, that foreign 
merchants were forbidden to enter any 
other than the Canopic, of all the 
seven branches of Uie Nile ; and 
Naucratis was to them what the fac- 
* tories of a Chinese port have so long 
been to European traders. It was 
not until the reign of A pries that 
ships of war were fitted out upon the 
Mediterranean, though so long used 
on the Red Sea. Under that Pha- 
raoh an expedition was sent against 
Cyprus ; and even the Tyrians were 
defeated in a naval combat by an 
Egyptian fleeL 

But when the advantages of a more 
extended commercial intercourse with 
Europe, and the possibility of divert- 
ing the course of the lucrative trade 
with India and Arabia from Syria to 
Egypt, were contemplated, the neces- 
dty of a port on the Mediterranean 
became evident ; and the advantages 
offered by the position of Rbacdtis 
with its Isle of Pharos pointed it out 
as a proper place for establishing the 
projected emporium of the East. 

Tradition had fixed on this spot as 
the abode of the fabulous Proteus, 
called by Virgil and others a sea god 

and prophet, by Herodotus and Dio- 
dorus a king of Egypt ; whose pre- 
tended appearance under various forms 
is gravely attributed by Lucian to his 
postures in the dance, and by Dio- 
dorus to his knowledge of astrology, 
or to the supposed custom of the 
king's assuming various dresses to 
impose on the credulity of the people. 
Though, after all these statements, 
there seems to be only one doubt, 
which is the greatest fable, the fable 
or the explanation. 

Afler his conquest of Syria, Alex* 
ander had advanced into Egypt, and, 
by the taking of Memphis, had se- 
cured to himself the possession of the 
whole country. While at Memphis 
he conceived the idea of visiting the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon in the Afri- 
can desert; and with this view he 
descended the river to the sea. He 
then followed the coast westward 
from Canopus, until his attention 
being struck with a spot opposite the 
Isle of Pharos, he stopped to examine 
its position, and the advantages it 
offered as a naval station. It had 
been occasionally used as a refuge for 
ships at a very remote period, and 
Homer had mentioned it as a water- 
ing place at the time of the Trojan 


According to Strabo, the ancient 
Egyptian kings, seeing that it was a 
spot frequented by foreigners, and 
particularly by Greeks, and being 
averse to the admission of strangers, 
stationed a garrison there, and as- 
signed to them as a permanent abode 
the village of Rbacotis, which was 
afterwards part of Alexandria. 

** The island of Pharos,*' says the 
Geographer, ** is of oblong form, 
standing near the shore, and forming 
by its position an admirable port. 
The coast here curves into a large 
bay, with two promontories jutting 
out into the sea, on its eastern and 
western extremities; between which 
is the island, furnishing a barrier in 
the middle of the liay." 

This island was afterwards con- 




nected with the main land by a dyke^ 
and on a rock close to its extremity 
^na built the famous tower of Pharos. 
But the description given of it by 
Homer, and the error respecting its 
supposed distance from the shore I 
shall have occasion to mention pre- 

Alexander, on arriving there, see- 
ing how eligible a spot this natural 
haibour offered for building a city, 
lost no time in making arrangements 
for its commencement. The plan 
was drawn out, and Dinocrates, the 
architect, was commissioned to build 
the new city, which, from its founder, 
received the name of Alexandria. 

" The future prosperity of this 
city," continues the Geographer, ** is 
reported to have been foreshown by a 
remarkable sign, manifested during 
the operation of fixing its plan. For, 
whilst the architect was marking out 
the lines upon the ground, the chalk 
he used happened to be exhausted, 
upon which the king, who was pre- 
_sent at the time, ordered the flour 
destined for the workmen's food to be 
employed in its stead, thereby en- 
abling him to complete the outline of 
many of the streets. This occurrence 
was deemed a good omen ; ** and pre- 
vious to prosecuting his journey to tb& 
Oasis he had the satisfaction of wit- 
nessing the commencement of this 
flourishing city, a. c. 323. Strabo 
then enumerates the advantages of its 
site, and describes the position of some 
of its public buildings. "It pos- 
sesses," he says, <* advantages of more 
than one kind. Two seas wa!»h it on 
both sides, one on tlie north, deno- 
minated the Egyptian, the oUier on 
the south, which is the Lake Marea, 
called also Mareotis. The latter is 
fed by several canals from the Nile, 
as well from above as from the sides ; 
and by it many more things are brought 
to Alexandria than by the sea, so that 
the port on the lake side is richer 
than that on the coast. By ttiis, also, 
more is exp<)rted from Alexandria 
than imported into it, which any one 

who has been at Alexandria and 
Dicaearchia must have perceived, in 
looking at the merchant ships trading 
to and fro, and comparing the cargoes 
that enter and leave those two ports. 
Besides the wealth that pours in on 
either side, both by the seaport and 
the lake, the salubrity of the air should 
also be noticed, which is caused by the 
peninsular situation of the place, and 
by the opportune rising of the Nile. 
Other cities situated on lakes have a 
heavy and suflbcating atmosphere 
during the summer heats, and, in con- 
sequence of the evaporation caused by 
the sun, the banks of those lakes be- 
coming marshy, a noxious exhalation 
is generated, which produces pestilen- 
tial fevers ; but at Alexandria the in- 
undation of the Nile fills the lake in 
the summer season, and by preventing 
its becoming marshy, effectually checks 
any unwholesome vapours. At that 
time, aIso» the Etesian winds, blowing 
from the northward and passing over 
so much sea, secure to the Alexan- 
drians a roost delightful summer. 

** The site of the city has the form 
of a (Macedonian) mantle, whose two 
longest sides are bathed by water to 
the extent of nearly SO stadia, and its 
breadth is 7 or 8 stadia, with the sea 
on one side and the lake on the other. 
The whole is intersected with spacious 
streets, through which horses and cha- 
riots pass freely ; but two are oP 
greater breadth tlian the rest, being 
upwards of aplethrvm wide, and these 
intersect each other at right angles. 
Its temples, grand public buildings, 
and palaces occupy a fourth or a third 
of the whole extent : for every suc- 
cessive king, aspiring to the honour of 
embellishing these consecrated monu- 
ments, added something of his own 
to wluit already existed. All these 
parts are not only connected with 
each other, but with the port and the 
buildings that stand outside of it. 

" Pan of the palace is called the 
museum. It has corridors, a court, 
and a very large mansion, in which is 
the banqueting room of those learned 

X 3 



Sect. L 

men who belong to it. ThU society 
has a public treasury, and is superin- 
tended by a president, one of the 
priesthood, whose office, having been 
established by the Ptolemies, con- 
tinues under Caesar. 

" Another portion of the palace is 
called Soma {* the body'), which con- 
tains within its circuit the tombs of 
the kings, and of Alexander. For 
Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, took the 
body of Alexander from Perdiccas, 
while on its removal from Babylon ; 
and having carried it to Egypt, buried 
it at Alexandria, where it still re- 
mains. But it is no longer in the 
same coffin ; for the present one is of 
glass, and the original, which was of 
gold, was stolen by Ptolemy surnamed 
Cocces (KoKKiys) and Parisactus 
(UapeuraKTOf^t though his immediate 
fall prevented his bene6ting by the 

*' On the right as you sail into the 
great harbour are the island and tower 
of Pharos ; on the Icfl, rocks, and the 
promontory of Lochias, where the 
palace stands ; and, as you advance on 
the leA, contiguous to the buildings 
at the Lochias, are the inner palaces, 
which have various compartments and 
groves. Below them is a secret and 
closed port, belonging exclusively to 
the kings, and the Isle of Antirhodus, 
which lies before the artificial port, 
with a palace, and a small harbour. 
It has received this name as if it were 
a rival of Rhodes. Above this is the 
theatre, then the Posidium, a certain 
cove lying off what is called the Em- 
porium, with a temple of Neptune. 
Antony, having made a mole in this 
part projecting still further into the 
port, erected at its extremity a palace, 
which he named Timonium. This 
he did at the end of his career ; when 
he had been deserted by his friends, 
aflter his misfortunes at Actium, and 
bad retired to Alexandria, intending 
to lead a secluded life there, and imi- 
tate the example of Timon. Beyond 
are the Ca&sarium and emporium (mar. 
ket), the recesses, and the docks, ex* 

tending to the Heptastadium. All 
these are in the great harbour. 

*< On the other side of the Heptasta. 
dium is the port of Eunostus; and 
above tliis is an artificial or excavated 
one, called Kibotus (tlie basin), which 
has also docks. A navigable canal 
runs into it from the lake Mareotis, 
and a small portion of the town ex- 
tends beyond (to the W. of) this cs- 
n al. Farther on are the Necropolis and 
the suburbs, where fiiere are many 
gardens and tombs, with apartmentii 
set apart for embalming the dead. 
Within (to the E. of) the canal are 
the Sarapium, and other ancient fanes, 
deserted since the erecdon of the tern* 
pies at Nicopolis, where also the am- 
phitheatre and stadium are situ- 
ated, and where the quinquennial 
games are celebrated ; the old esta- 
blishments being now in little repute. 
The city, indeed, to speak briefly, is 
filled with ornamental buildings and 
temples, the most beautiful of which 
is the Gymnasium, wilii porticoes in 
the interior, measuring upwards of a 
stadc. Tliere, too, are the courts of 
law, and the groves ; and in this di- 
rection stands the Panium, an arti- 
ficial height of a conical form, like m 
stone tumulus, with a spiral ascent. 
From its summit the whole city may 
lie seen, stretching on all sides below. 

** From the Necropolis a street ex- 
tends the whole way to the Canopic 
gate, passing by the Gymnasium. Be- 
yond are the Hippodrome and other 
buildings, reaching to the Canopic 
canal. After going out (of the city ) by 
th& Hippodrome, you come to Nico- 
polis, built by the sea-side, not less than 
three stades distant from Alexandria. 
Augustus Ccesar ornamented this 
place, in consequence of his havin^^ 
there defeated the partisans of Antony, 
and captured the city in his adva&ca 
from that spot.'* 

Pliny, in speaking of the founda- 
tion of Alexandria, says, it was" built 
by Alexander the Great on the Afri- 
oin coast, 12 miles from the Canopic 
mouth of the Nile, on ' the Mareottc 

Egypt. BOtTTE 1. ALEXAlfDRlA — 

lake, which wai romwrlj called An- 
pota; tlul Dinochiim, ui archilrc 
at gml celebrity, Isid down the plir 
nwmbling the ihape oft Macedoniai 


irderfull a 

pUiti. and projecting 
tfw right and left ; the GRh part of iu 
lite being even then dedicated to (he 
paboc." Thii artliiiect ia better 
kiwvn bf the name of IMaocratei; 
and ii the ume wIk> rebuilt the fa- 
mou* tempit of Epheiua, after iU de- 
alniction bj Eratmtntui, and who 
bad preTiouiljr proposed to Altxapdcr 
to cut Mount Athos iota a iiaiue of 
the king holding in one hand a ciijr 
of 10,000 inhabitanta, and from the 
other pouring a copioui riTer ' 

Ma. But the i 


Hated b3r the people of 
the place, who pretended in com- 
mencement ID haie b«n owing to "a 
Tiiion, wherein a greybeadpd old man 
of renenible aspect appeared to ttand 
before the king in his deep, and to 
prononoce these words : — > 

, of the apot oppwiil 
{ a necic of land ol 

For want of chalk, the toil beinf 
black, tlie; made use of flour, with 

micircular ha; that fuimi the port. 
Thi* waa again marked out with 
itraight lines, and the form of the citf 
rewinbled that ofa Macedonian cloak. 
While AlEiander wai pleasing him- 
•eir with tliii prriject, an inlinite num- 
ber of birds of several kinds, rising 
suddenly like a black cloud out of 
the river a 
the flour th 

ncouraged him to proceed, by ob- 
eriing that it wai a sign the city he 
ra* about to build would enjoy such 
bundance of all thing., that it would 
lations. He Uwrefore commanded 
he workmen to go on, while he went 
visit the temple of Jupiter Am- 

lo the DriU durinf th 



Plin Df Alcund[i*,pTlncl[ull;rraiiit)i>iunc}of C 
HrptulHlluiB, 01 ijii «nDtctlii(thclilud of Flui 

Cupt W, H. SoiTlh, R. N— A A 




tofVD. e e. The Fmtk qiuiter. B, Port Cafbrelll. — perhaps the rite of the tower of the 
Hrptaitaaium — with the corretponding one at the other rad. C, Old gate of the Saracenic 
wallt, mnoTcd in 18^ D, Saracenic tower, where the wall turned ofT along the tith of the 
dockt. E, Rains, probablV of the Temple of Aninoc. F, Moak of St. Athananlua. O, 
Ancient columns. H H H. Modem Tillaa. I, Catholic conrent. J to K, Ruing, pro! 
bably of the Ccsarium, before which the obelisks stood. L, Greek convent If , Large 
ruins. From N to V was probably the quarter of Bruchion. N, Fort Cretin, or Fmt 
Nujoleoo. O, Columna and ruins. P, The RosetU Gate. Q, The ancient wall of Alex- 
andria, over which the Rosetta road puses, and near which stood the Canopic Gate. The 
Hippodrome is thought to be traced 280u metres (nearly 1| mile), to the east of the Rosetta 
Gate, and about 250 from the sea. At U, are the statues discovered by Mr. Harris. R, Ruins • 
the Emporium (martlet) probably stood near this, as well as the Museum and Library of the 
Bruchion. S^ The site of the theatre. T, Site of the inner palaces ? V, Site of the palace ? 
W, Pompey^s Pillar, erected in honour of Diocletian. X, Circus, or Stadium. Y, Site of 
the Gymnasium ? Or at O ? Z, Site of the Sarapeum ? aa^ Modern canal for irrigation 
The walk enclose what was the Arab city. At I is the supposed tomb of Alexander' 
according to Arab tradition. Of the Psnium, seep. 90. 

7. Plan or Alxxakdkia, and 


ixGs. — Little can be added to the 
description given by Strabo of the 
monuments of Aleiandria ; but as it 
is interesting to endeavour to trace 
their probable position from the re- 
mains and mounds that still exiit, or 
from other evidence, I shall mention 
each singly, and introduce vrhatever 
additional information may be ob- 
tained from other writers. 

The most remarkable objects at 
Alexandria were the Plaroe and the 
libraries. The former, which was one 
of the seven wonders of the world, 
was the well-known tower or light- 
hoase, whose name continues to be 
applied to similar structures to the 
present day. It was a square build- 
ing of white marble, and is said to 
have cost 800 'talents, which, if in 
Attic money, is about 155,0002. 8ter« 
ling, or double that sum, if computed 
by the talent of Alexandria. It was 
built by order of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, whose magnanimity in al- 
lowing the name of the architect to 
be inscribed upon so great a work, 
instead of his own, is highly com- 
mended by Pliny. The inscription 
ran in these words : *< Sostratus of 
Cnidos, the son of Dexiphanes, to the 
Saviour Gods, for those who travel by 
sea.** But, besides the improbability 
of the king allowing an architect to 
enjoy the sole merit of so great a 
work, we have the authority of Lucian 

for believing that the name of Ptolemy 
was affixed to the Pharos, instead of 
that of Sostratus, the original inscrip- 
tion having been: *< King Ptolemy, 
to the Saviour Gods, for the use of 
those who travel by sea.'* Sostratus, 
however, to secure the glory to him- 
self in future ages, carved the former 
inscription on the stone, and that of 
Ptolemy on stucco, which he placed 
orer it ; so that in process of time 
when the stucco fell, the only record 
was that of the deceitful architect. 

The Pharos itself stood on a rock 
close to the north-east extremity of 
the island of the same name, with 
which it communicated by means of 
a wall, and the island was also joined 
to the shore by a lafge causeway, 
called from its length of seven stades, 
the Hfpiastadium. It was already 
constructed, as Josephus shows, in 
the reign of the same Ptolemy, which 
therefore implies that it was the work 
either of Philadelphus himself, or bis 
father Sot«r, and not of Cleopatra, as 
Ammianus Marceilinus supposes ; 
who even attributes to the same 
princess the erection of the Pharos 
itself. These erroneous notions of 
the historian may probably have ori . 
ginated in the tradition of novae re- 
pairs made by Cleopatra, after the 
Alexandrian war. The causeway 
was similar to that of Tyre ; and 
though by connecting the island with 
the shore, it formed a separation be- 
tween the two ports, it did not cut 




off all communication from one to the 
othcFp two bridges being left for this 
purpose, beneath which boats and 
small vessels might freely pass. As 
the Heptastadium served for an aque- 
duct as well as a road to the Pha- 
ros, it is probable that the openings 
were arched ; and the mention of 
these passages satisfactorily accounts 
for the difference of name applied 
to tlie causeway by ancient writers ; 
some, as Strabo, calling it a mole, 
and others a bridge, connecting the 
Pharos with the town. 

Strabo, in describing the position 
of the island and causeway, says, 
"from the Canopic mouth to Pharos 
is 150 stadia. Pharos is an island of 
oblong shape, close to the shore, with 
which it makes a double port; fur 
the shore here curves into a bay, 
with two projecting headlands, be- 
tween which is the island, stretching 
in a parallel direction with the shore 
and closing the bay. Of the two 
eitreme points of the island the 
easternmost is nearest to the land, 
and to the promontory on that side. 
The latter is called Acrolochias, 
and forms a port with a contracted 
entrance. Besides the narrowness of 
its mouth, several rocks impede the 
free passage into this port, some 
below, others above water, which, 
obstructing the waves as they roll in 
from the sea, cause a dangerous surf. 
At tlie extremity of the island is an 
isolated rock, with a tower of white 
stone several stories high, and wonder- 
fully constructed, having the same 

name as the island. ** 

" The lowness of the coast, the absence 
of all other harbours on either side, 
and its numerous reefs and shoals, 
pointed out the necessity of it, as a 
signal to enable sailors to enter the port. 
The western one, it is true, is not of 
easy access, but it does not require 
tlie same caution. It is called the 
Port of Eunostus, and lies before the 
artificial and closed port. That whose 
entrance is from the Pharos tower is 
called the great harbour. 

^* The two ports are contiguous to 
each other in the bay, and separated 
by the dyke called the Heptastadium, 
which extends from the land to the 
western part of the island, leaving 
only two navigable passages into the 
Port of Eunostus, covered by s 
bridge. Indeed it was intended, not 
only as a mode of communication 
with the island, but also as an aque- 
duct when that spot was inhabited; 
For at the time of the war with the 
kings of Egypt, Caesar desolated it ; 
and since that, a few mariners alone 
have lived near the tower. The great 
harbour is not only well protected by 
the dyke, and its natural position, but 
is so deep that the largest vessels may 
lie close to the steps, and it is divided 
into several parts.** 

After the description of the Pharos 
given by ancient writers, it is singular 
tliat so great a mistake should have 
been made respecting the position of 
that island, and its distance from 
the shore. This was owing to the 
misinterpretation of the "AryuvTOv 
wpoxapot$€,'* of Homer, and it has con- 
tinned to be repeated even to the 
present day. Having already bad 
occasion to mention and explain it, 
I shall introduce what I before ob- 
served on the subject, to show tbA 
the following expression of tlie poet, 
** the distance of the isle of Pharos 
from Aiytnrros was as much as a 
vessel with a fair wind could perform 
in one day,** refers to the river, and 
not to the coast of Egypt, For, a 
very imperfect acquaintance with the 
situation of that island, and the nature 
of the ground, on which Alexandria 
is built, ought to have prevented so 
erroneous a conclusion : and if we 
readily account for the misconstruc- 
tion of the hiyvmrov xpompoiBtf of the 
poet, we are surprised at the notion 
which extends the river and its alluvial 
deposit over the spot occupied by that 
city, which was at no period within 
reach of the 'rising Nile. And if 
a certain deposit does take place in 
the tiarbour of Alexandria, it is very 




trifling, and by do menns capable of 
having united the Pharos to the fthore. 
This was done artificially by means 
of the Heptastadium, whose increased 
hmdth, owing to many subsequent 
additions from the accumulation of 
ruined buildings, now forms the base 
of the chief part of the modem city. 
The name of this causeway was derived 
from its length of 7 stadia, about } of a 
mile, or 4270 English feet, which was 
at that time the distance from the shore 
to the island. Ancient Alexandria, 
the successor of the town of Rliacotis, 
stood on the rock of the Libyan desert, 
which was then, as it still is, beyond 
the reach, and above the level of, the 
inundation : and the distance from 
the line of the coast to the rock of the 
Pharos Isle is still the same as in the 
days of Homer. The error respecting 
its having been a day's journey from 
Egypt originated in the misinterpret 
tation of the word Aryvirrof, which is 
used by the poet to designate both 
the Nile and Egypt; and that the 
river was so called in ancient times is 
testified by Diodorus, who states that 
Nileus, one of the early monarchs of 
the country, transferred his name to 
the stream, which previously lK>re 
that of ^gyptus. Arrian again 
justly observes, *' tliat the river, now 
called by the Egyptians and others 
Nile, is shown by Homer to have 
been named ^gyptus when he re- 
lates that Menelaus anchored his fleet 
at the mouth of the ^gyptus ; '* and 
a mere inspection of the verse to ' 
which be alludes suffices to prove his 
remark to be correct. It is then to 
the Nile, not to the coast of Egypt, 
that Homer alludes ; and thus the 
argument derived from his authority 
must cease to be brought forward in 
support of the great encroachments 
of the Delta, and of the consUnt ad- 
vanceof the land into the receding sea. 
Pliny, and numerous ancient as 
well as modern authors, Imvc been 
led into this error ; and it is singular 
that Arrian should be tlie only one to 

perceive and point out the evident 
meaning of the poet. 

The old lighthouse of Alexandria 
still occupies the site of the ancient 
Pharos. On that rock, at the eastern 
point of the island, to which it is joined 
by a wall, Pococke thought he could 
perceive in the water, when the sea 
was calm, some columns and other 
fragments of masonry, once probably 
a part of that renowned building. 
The form of the Heptastadium is no 
longer perceptible, in consequence of 
the modem buildings having en- 
croached upon it ; but its length of 
7 stadia, or, as Csesar reckons, 900 
paces, may be readily made out, in 
mea<«uring from the old Saracenic 
wall behind the Frank quarter. And, 
though its breadth has been greatly 
increased by the accumulation of 
earth on which the modem town 
stands, I believe that a line drawn 
from the site of that wall, or from 
Fort Caffareili, to what was properly 
the island of Pharos, would mark its 
exact position. 

The Library was first established 
by Ptolemy Soter, as well as the 
Museum. The latter was a sort of 
academy (as we have seen from 
Strabo*s account), where men of 
science and literature devoted them- 
selves to learned pursuits, as in 
similar institutions of modern Eu- 
rope. It was maintained at the pub- 
lic expense, and to it was attached 
the famous Library, which, from the 
many additions miule by the Second 
Ptolemy, contained at his death no 
less than 1 00,000 volumes, increased 
by his successors to seven times that 

No pains were spared in adding to 
to this collection. A copy of every 
known work was reputed to be depo- 
sited there, and it was amongst them 
that the Septuagint translation of the 
Bible, made by order of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, was placed. Of the 
arrangements respecting this transla- 
tion, and the reception of his countr}'- 




Sect. L 

men, Josepbus gives an interesting 
account; but, always ready to show 
the great importance of the Jews, he 
forgets probability in this as in many 
other instances, and informs us that 
each of the serenty-two interpreters 
received three talents. This, if com- 
puted in Alexandrian money, amounts 
to S,100/. sterling, mak'ing a total of 
223,20(V. ; a sum which not even the' 
supposed munificence of a Ptolemy 
can render credible; and some are 
inclined, as Prideaux, to compute the 
amount still higher, even at two 
millions of our money. 

Nor does it appear that the Ptole* 
mies were always so liberally disposed, 
or so scrupulous in their way of ob- 
taining additions to their library; 
and though they spared no expense in 
sending competent persons into distant 
countries to purchase books, much 
tyranny and injustice were resorted 
to, when they could bring their pos- 
sessors within their reach, or when 
other states were generous enough to 
send them an original work. All 
books brought into the country were 
Ri'ized, and sent to the Library ; not 
because forbidden, as in Italy, where 
the government sees in them an enemy 
to the morals of the people, or to its 
own security ; but because they were 
wanted by tlie royal collector; and, 
as soon as they had been transcribed, 
the copies were returned to the owners, 
tlie originals being deposited in the 
library. Ptolemy Euergetes even 
went so far as to borrow the works of 
^schylus, Sophocles, and Euripides 
from the Athenians, and only returned 
the copies he had caused to be tran- 
scribed in as beautiful a manner as 
possible, presenting them, in lieu of 
the original, 15 talents, or about 
20O6L sterling. 

Such sel6sh and unjust measures 
as these, doubtless, deserve our cen- 
sure ; but we cannot refuse due praise 
to the liberality of those princes in 
the formation of so useful an institu- 
tion : and we are surprised to 6nd a 
sensible man like Seneca refusing 

them the merit they deserve, and dis- 
approving of the praise bestowed upon 
that monument of regal munificence. 
** Some," be says, ** may have praised 
it, like Livy, who calls it a great proof 
of the taste and industry of kings. 
But it was attributable neither to 
taste, industry, nor studious enjoy, 
ment ; nay, far from studious, for it 
was not collected for study, but for 
display." "Seneca," as RoUin ob- 
serves, <*must have been dreadfully 
out of humour, when lie wrote tliis 
misplaced censure on a work so cre- 
ditable to the taste of the Ptolemies;** 
for, even if he looked upon it as a 
mere mania for collecting, which in- 
creased with the increase of the col- 
lection, it would be the excusable 
consequence of an interest common to 
all who take a pride in any favourite 
object, which of^en accompanies, 
without necessarily taking tlie place 
of, the original motive. But Seneca 
is not alone in attributing the motive 
of its founder to a mere love of pos- 
sessing the largest collection ; and 
whilst Vitruvius praises "the At- 
talic kings for their philological 
taste " in making the library of Per- 
gam us, he considers the wish on the 
part of Ptolemy to have been only ex- 
cited by an envious feeling of rivalry. 
Indeed, since we know that the Pto- 
lemies forliade the exportation of the 
papyrus, for the despicable reason of 
preventing the increase of the Perga- 
^ mus library, we cannot deny the 
selfishness of those princes ; and 
while we regret that tlie envious imi- 
tator should have obtained the merit 
' due to the originator of so valuable 
' an institution, we may remember tliat 
I the name parchment (Peyyemeiui ) re- 
cords the cause, as well as the nature, 
of this invention of Eumenes. 

Of the 700,000 volumes 400,000 
appear to have been in the library of 
the museum, which was in a quarter 
of the city called the Bruchion ; and 
the remaining 800,000 in another 
library, which was built long afWr, 
and attached to the temple of Sarapis. 




Tt bence obtained the title of the 
aster library, and it was here that the 
200,000 volumes belonging to the 
kings of Pergamus, presented to 
Cleopatra by Marc Antony, were de- 
posited. These were the two public 
libraries mentioned by Epiphantus. 

The library of the museum was 
unfortunately destroyed during the 
war of Julius Cssar with the Alex- 
andrians. For, in order to prevent 
his aggressors cutting off his commu- 
nication with the sea, being obliged 
to set fire to the Egyptian, or as Plu- 
tarch says his own, fleet, the flames 
accidentally caught some of the houses 
on the port, and spreading thence to 
the quarter of the Bruchion, burnt 
the library, and threatened destruction 
to the whole of the museum and the 
adjoining buildings. The museum 
itself escaped, but the famous library, 
consisting of 400,000 volumes, which 
had cost so much trouble and expense 
lor ages to collect, was lost for ever ; 
and in it doubtless some very valuable 
works of antiquity, . many of whose 
names may even be unknown to us. 

The collection in the Sarapion was 
also exposed to severe losses, at a sub- 
sequent period, during the troubles 
that occurred in the Roman empire. 
Many of the books are supposed to 
have been destroyed on those occa- 
sions particularly at the time when 
the Sarapion was attacked by the 
Christians; and Orosius says he was 
at that time a witness of its empty 
shelves. We may, however, conclude 
that these losses were afterwards in 
some degree repaired, and the num- 
ber of its volumes still farther in- 
creased ; though later contributions 
were probably not of the same im- 
portance as those of an earlier period : 
and Gibbon goes so far as to suppose 
that if the library was really destroyed 
by Amer, its contents were confined 
to the productions of an age when re- 
ligious controversy constituted the 
principal occupation of the Alexan- 
drians. " And,** adds the historian, 
^ ff the ponderous mass of Arian and 

monophysite controversy were indeed 
consumed in the public baths, a phi- 
losopher may allow, with a smile, 
that it was ultimately devoted to the 
benefit of mankind." But, notwith- 
standing the injuries sustained by the 
Sarapion, during those tumults which 
ruined so many of the monuments of 
Alexandria, which converted every 
public building into a citadel, and sub- 
jected the whole city to the horrors of 
internal war, many, doubtless, of the 
ancient volumes still remained with- 
in its precincts ; and the Caliph Omar 
will for ever bear the odium of having 
devoted to destruction that library, 
whose numerous volumes are said to 
have sufficed for six months fur tlie 
use of the 4000 baths of this immense 

It is related of John the Gramma- 
rian, the last disciple of Ammonius, 
surnamed Philoponus from his labo- 
rious studies of grammar and philo- 
sophy, that having been admitted to 
the friendship of Amer, the lieutenant 
of the Caliph Omar, he took advan- 
tage of his intimacy with the Arab 
general to intercede for the preserva- 
tion of the library of the captured 
city, which " alone, among the spoils 
of Alexandria had not been appropri- 
ated by the visit and the seal of the 
conqueror. Amrou (Amer) was in- 
clined to gratify the wish of the 
grammarian, but his rigid integrity 
refused to alienate the minutest ob^ 
jcct without the consent of the caliph ; 
and the answer of Omar, inspired by 
I the ignorance of a fanatic, ' if these 
writings of the Greeks agree with the 
Book of God, they are useless, and 
need not be preserved ; if they disa- 
gree, they are perniciou!), and ought 
to be destroyed,*** doomed them to 
destruction. Such was the sentence 
said to have been pronounced by the 
impetuous Omar. The Moslemsi 
however, to this day, deny its truth ; 
and Gibbon observes, that " the soli- 
tary report of a stranger (Abulpha- 
ragius), who wrote at the end of 60O 
years, on the confines of Media, is 



Sect. L 

overbalanced by the silence of two 
annalists of a more early date, both 
Christians, both natives of Egypt, and 
the most ancient of whom, the patri- 
arch £utychiu8, has amply described 
the conquest of Alexandria.** But 
the admission of some Arab writers, 
cited by the learned De Sacy in his 
notes on Abdal-Latif, seems to con- 
firm the truth of Omar*s vandalism : 
the authorities of Makrizi and Abdal- 
Latif are of considerable weight, not- 
withstanding the silence even of co- 
temporary Christian annalists ; * and 
while we regret the destruction of 
this library, we may wish, with M. 
Rey Dussueil, that the capture of 
Alexandria had not happened half or 
a whole century later ; when, instead 
of destroyers, the Arabs assumed the 
character of preservers of ancient 

^ . The Muaeum was a noble institu- 
tion, which tended greaily to the re- 
nown of Alexandria ; and from which 
issued those men of learning, who 
have so many claims on the gratitude 
and admiration of posterity. It was 
to this school of philosophy that the 
once renowned college of Heliopolis 
transferred its reputation ; and that 
venerable city, which had been the 
resort of the sages of Ancient Greece, 
ceded to Alexandria the honour of 
being the seat of learning, and the 
repository of the *•* wisdom of Jhe 
Egyptians.** Science, literature, and 
every branch of philosophy continued 
to flourish there, for many a genera- 
tion ; foreigners repaired thither, to 
study and profit by " the instruction 
of every kind, for which its schools 
were established;** and the names of 
Euclid, Ctesibius, the two Herons, 
Clemens, Origen, Athanasius, Am- 
monius, Theon, and his daughter 
Hypasia, shed a brilliant lustre over 
the capital of the Ptolemies. 

But however respectable the learn- 
ing and scientific acquirements of the 
philosophers of Alexandria, during 
the early periods of its history, the 
same credit does not atuch itself to 

the speculations of later times ; and 
philoKophy became at one time eD* 
cumbered with a mass of wild fancy, 
as senseless as it was injurious to the 
world. Nor was Alexandria less 
noted, after the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, for speculative doctrines and 
religious controversy; and the con- 
duct of some of the early Christian 
primates of that city reflects no ho- 
nour on the community, of which 
they were the most conspicuous, 
though not the most worthy, members. 
Still, that seat of learning retained 
some remnant of its pristine excel- 
lence, even amidst the tumults pro- 
duced by bigotry and sedition ; and 
the schools of astronomy, geometry, 
physic, and various branches of sci- 
ence maintained their reputation till 
the period of the Arab conquesL 

liie Museum stood, as already 
stated, in the quarter of the Bruchion. 
According to Strabo, it was a very 
large building, attached to the palace, 
surrounded by an exterior peristyle, 
or corridor, for walking ; and it is 
probable that the philosophers fre- 
quently taught beneath this covered 
space, as in the stoa of Athens, or in 
the grove of Academus. It is diffi- 
cult now to point out its exact site : 
it was probably near the modem 
branch of the canal, that runs past 
the Rosetta Gate to the sea; the 
Bruchion comprising the whole space 
on every side of it, as far at least as 
the Caesarium. 

The CreMriam, or temple of Ca*sar, 
is marked by the two obelisks (called 
Cleopatra's Needles,) which Pliny 
tells us ** stood on the port at the 
temple of Caesar." Near this spot 
are what is called the Roman tower, 
and to the eastward the vestiges of 
buildings, which still bear the name 
of the palace; and Strabo says, the 
palace of the kings was situated on 
the point called Lochias, on the left 
of the great harbour, which is the 
same as the headland behind the 
modern Pharillon. Other palaces, 
called the inner, were on the left, en- 

EgypL ROUTE 1. — Alexandria. — Alexander's tomb. 87 

teriog from the sea, connected with 
the former, and having numerous 
apartments and groves, below which 
was a private port belonging eiclu- 
sively to the sovereign. The lombs 
of the kings, also, stood in this dis- 
trict, and fonned part of the palace 
under the name of *' S6nuu** In 
this enclosure the Ptolemies were 
buried, as well as the founder o( the 
city, whose body having been brought 
to Egypt, and kept at Memphis while 
the tomb was preparing, was taken 
thence to Alexandria, and deposited 
in the royal cemetery. Strabo men- 
tions the removal of the original gold 
coffin in which it was buried, and the 
substitution of another of glass, in 
which it was seen by Augustus ; who, 
to show his respect for the memory of 
so great a man, adorned it with a 
golden crown, and strewed it with 

Arab tradition has long continued 
to record the existence of Uie tomb 
of Alexander; and Leo Africanus 
mentions "a small ediBce standing 
in the midst of the mounds of Alex- 
ander, built like a chapel, remarkable 
for the tomb, where the body of the 
great prophet and king, Alexander, 
is preserved. It is highly honoured 
by the Moslems: and a great con- 
course of strangers from foreign lands, 
who, with feelings of religious vene- 
ration, visit this tomb, oAen leave 
there many charitable donations.** The 
building traditional Ij reported to be 
the tomb, of Alexander, has lately 
been found by Mr. Stoddart amidst 
the mounds of the old city. It re- 
sembles an ordinary Shckh*s tomb, 
and is near the bath to the west of the 
road leading from the Frank quarter 
to the Poropey*s. Pillar- Gate. But 
its position does not agree with the 
** Soma,*' according to Strabo's ac- 
count ; and the authority of Arab tra- 
dition cannot always be trusted. 

The sarcophagus said to have been 
looked upon by the people of Alex- 
andria as the tomb of Iscander, was 
taken by the French from the mosk of 

Athanasius, and is now in the British 
Museum. That it is what the Arabs 
believed to be of the Greek conqueror 
seems sufficiently evident, but neither 
their authority nor probability suffice 
to establish its claims ; and the hiero- 
glyphic legends, containing the name 
of an Egyptian Pharaoh, prove it to 
have belonged to king Amyrta^us. 
It is not from the fact of Alexander's 
body having been deposited in a glass 
coffin that the claims of the breccia 
sarcophagus may be questioned, — as 
the glass (like the golden) case was 
doubtless placed in an outer one of 
stone; — but the improbability consists 
in the body of so great a king, the 
founder of the city, having been de- 
posited in a borrowed sarcophagus, at 
a time when the arts of sculpture and 
of cutting hard stones were as much 
practised as at any previous period ; 
and Ptolemy Lagus had at his coih" 
mand all the workmen of the country. 
Nor is it to be supposed that a Pha- 
raoh's body would have been deprived 
of its resting-place, to make room for 
that of a Greek monarch ; and the 
violation of the tombs, which could 
not have happened in secret, when 
such large sarcophagi were removed 
from them, was more likely to take 
place under the Arabs than the Greek 

Hie island of Antirhodtu^ situated 
before the artificial harbour, with its 
palace and port, is supposed by Po- 
cocke to have been entirely destroyed 
by the sea, and to have stood oppmite 
the two obelisks. 

The same learned traveller also 
conjectures that on a hill above this, 
now called Kom Dimas, near the 
Rosetta Gate, was the theatre. In 
the immediate vicinity was the Poai- 
dium, apparently a part of the city, 
on a cove, containing the Temple 
of Neptune, whence it derived its 
name. It extended from the em- 
porium or market-place ; and before 
it Antony built the Timonium, so 
called from his intending it as a place 
of retirement after his defeat at Ac- 



Sect. 1. 

tium, where, like the misanthropic 
Timon of Athens, he might shun the 
world, and lead a life of perfect seclu- 
ftion. It was in going tlience towards 
the west, that you came to the C«sa- 
rium and Emporium, and the recesses; 
beyond which were the docks, ex- 
tending even to the Heptastadium. 

The site of the 6rst of these I have 
noticed. The market was probably 
to the east of the obelisks ; the Timo- 
fit urn, at the projecting point between 
the obelisks and the small canal to the 
north-east; and the docks occupied 
what is now the great square of the 
Frank quarter, which stands on 
ground reclaimed from the sea. 

On the west side of the mole or 
Heptastadium, was the port of Eu- 
nostus, now called the old harbour; 
and an artificial one above it called 
the Cibotus, or basin (chest), with ' 
its docks, doubtless occupied the spot 
to the south-west of the modem Fort 
CafFarelli. Beyond this was the canal 
leading to the Mareotic Lake, llie 
limits of the city extended a very 
short distance farther to the west of 
the canal, beyond which were the 
suburbs and Necropolu^ with many 
gardens, occupying tlie space between 
the modern canal and the catacombs. 
Within the city, and on the eastern 
side of the canal, stood several ancient 
temples, most of which were neglected 
in Strabo*B time, in consequence of 
the erection of others at Nicopolis. ' 
There also was the Sarapion, or 
Serapeum, founded by Ptolemy Soter, 
tfs reported by Plutarch and others, 
for the reception of the statue of 
Sarapis, a foreign deity, whose wor- 
ship was introduced from Sioope. 
It stood in that part of the city which 
bad formerly been occupied by Rha- 
cotis, the predecessor of Alexandria, 
and was embellished with such mag- 
nificence, that Ammianus Marcellinus 
pronounces it unequalled by any 
building in the world, except the 
Capitol at Rome. It appears not 
only to have contained the temple of 
the deity, but to have consisted, like 

the museum, of several distinct parta, 
as the library already mentioned, and 
peristylar halls, adorned with boMiti- 
ful works of art. 

Of the introduction of Sarapis into 
Egypt, Plutarch gives the following 
account : *' Ptolemy Soter had a 
dream, in which a colossal statue, 
such as he had never seen before, 
appeared to him, commanding him 
to remove it as soon as possible from 
the place where it then stood, to 
Alexandria. On awaking, the king 
was in great perplexity, not knowing 
where the statue was. Sosibius, how- 
ever, who was a great travel ler. de- 
clared he had seen one answering its 
description at Sinope. Soteles and 
Dionysius were, therefore, sent thi- 
ther, and with much difficulty suc- 
ceeded in bringing the statue to 
Egypt. Timotheus, the interpreter, 
and Manetho the Sebennite, as soon 
as it arrived, and was shown to them, 
concluded, from the Cerberus and 
dragon, that it represented Pluto, and 
persuaded the king that it was no 
other than Sarapis. For it was not so 
called at Sinope ; but, on its arrival 
at Alexandria, it obtained the name 
of Sarapis, which, with the Egyptians, 
answers to Pluto. The observation 
of Heraclitus, the physiologist, that 
Hades ( Pluto) and Bacchus are tbe 
same, leads to a similar conclusion ; 
Osiris answering to Bacchus, as Sa- 
rapis to Osiris, after he had changed 
his nature ; for Sarapis is a name 
common to all, as those know who 
are initiated into the mysteries of 
Osiris. The opinion of such as pre- 
tend that Sarapis is no God, but the 
mere denomination of the sepulchral 
chest, into which the body of Apis, 
after death, is deposited, is perfectly 
absurd. The priests, indeed, at least 
the greatest part of them, tell us, that 
Sarapis is no other than the mere 
union of Osiris and Apis into one 
word ; declaring that Apis ought to 
be regarded as a fair and beautiAil 
image of the soul of Osiris. For my 
own part, I cannot but think tlmt this 




word is exprnsive of joy and gladness, 
since the festival which the Greeks 
call duxrmoayfna^ or * the feast of joy,' 
is by the Egyptians termed Scard.** 

A similar account is given by 
Tacitus, Macrobius, and Pausanias ; 
but Clemens states that the statue 
was sent by the people of Sinope to 
Ptolemy fliiladelphus, as a mark of 
gratitude, he having relieved their city 
from famine by a supply of com ; and 
some suppose ** it was brought from 
Pontus to Alexandria, in consequence 
of the great influx of strangers into 
that city." 

Whether Sarapis was a foreign 
deity, or merely an arbitrary Greek 
form of Osiris, the Egyptians them- 
selves never acknowledged him among 
the gods of their Pantheon, and no 
temple of Sarapis was ever admitted 
within the precincts of their cities. He 
was, however, the principal divinity in 
Greek and Roman towns, and in 
later times his worship became more 
general there than that of any other 

The Sarapeum subsisted long after 
the introduction of Christianity into 
Egypt, as the last hold of the Pagans 
of Alexandria. Nor did it lose its 
importance, as Strabo would lead us 
to suppose, from the number of rival 
temples, or the increasing conse- 
quence of Nicopolis ; and it continued 
to be their chief resort, until finally 
demolished by order of Theodosius, 
A. ]>. 389, when the votaries of the 
cross entirely subverted the ancient 
religion of Egypt, The building 
and its destruction, are thus described 
by Gibbon. The temple of Sarapis, 
*< which rivalled the pride and magni- 
ficence of the Capitol, was erected on 
the spacious summit of an artificial 
mount, raised one hundred steps above 
the level of the adjacent parts of the 
city; and the interior cavity was 
strongly supported by arches, and 
distributed into vaults and subter- 
raneous apartments. The conse- 
crated buildings were surrounded by 
a quadrangular portico: the stately 

halls, the exquisite statues, displayed 
the triumph of the arts ; and the trea- 
sures of ancient learning were pre- 
served in the famous Alexandrian 
library, which had arisen with new 
splendour from its ashes.** 

But in progress of time, the ani- 
mosity of the Christians was directed 
against this edifice ; the *< pious in- 
dignation of Theophilus*' could no 
longer tolerate the honours paid to 
Sarapis ; ** and the insults which he 
offered to an ancient chapel of Bac- 
chus convinced the Pagans that he 
meditated a more important and dan- 
gerous enterprise. In the tumul- 
tuous capital of Egypt, the slightest 
provocation was sufficient to inflame 
a civil war. The votaries of Sarapis, 
whose strength and numbers were 
much inferior to those of their an- 
tagonists, rose in arms at the instiga- 
tion of the philosopher Olympius, 
who exhorted them to die in defence* 
of the altars of the gods. These 
Pagan fanatics fortified themselves in 
the temple, or ratlier fortress, of Sara- 
pis, repelled the besiegers by daring 
sallies and a resolute defence, and by 
the inhuman cruelties which they ex- 
ercised on their Christian prisoners, 
obtained the last consolation of de- 
spair. The efforts of the prudent 
magistrate were usefully exerted for 
the establishment of a truce, till the 
answer of Theodosius should deter- 
niSne the fate of Sarapis. The two 
parties assembled without arms in the 
principal square; and the imperial 
rescript was publicly read. But 
when a sentence of destruction against 
the idols of Alexandria was pro. 
nounced, the Christians set up a 
shout of joy and exultation, whilst 
the unfortunate Pagans, whose fury 
had given way to consternation, re- 
tired with hasty and silent steps, and 
eluded, by their flight or obscurity, 
the resentment of their enemies. 
Theophilus proceeded to demolish 
the temple of Sarapis, without any 
other difficulties than those which he 
found in the weight and solidity of 



the materials; but these obstacles | 
proved so insuperable, that he was 
obliged to leave the foundations, and 
to content himself with reducing the 
edifice itself to a heap of rubbish ; a 
part of which was soon afterwards 
cleared away, to make room for a 
church, erected in honour of the , 
Christian martyrs. . . . Tlie colossal | 
statue of Sarapis was involved in the | 
ruin of his temple and religion. A 
great number of plates of different 
metals, artificially joined together, 
composed the majestic figure of the 
deity, who touched on either side the 
walls of the sanctuary. The huge 
idol was overthrown and broken to 
pieces ; and the parts of Sarapis were 
ignominiously dragged through the 
streets of Alexandria. *' 

The jPumicm, described by Strabo 
as an artificial height, in the shape of 
a top, resembling a stone mound, 
witli a spiral ascent, and commanding 
a view of^the whole city, was sup~ 
posed by Pococke to have been 
marked by a hill within the walls 
behind the Frank quarter, since oc- 
cupied by Fort Caflarelli, which is 
built on ancient substructions. Some 
have conjectured it to have been the 
height on which Pompey's Pillar 
stands, and others have placed it on 
the redoubt-hill to the west of that 

The Gjfmnasium stood near the 
street which extended from the west- 
em or Necropolis gate to that on the 
Canopic or eastern side ; which were 
distant from each other 40 stadia, the 
street being 100 feet broad. It bad 
porticoes covering the space of an 
eighth of a mile, of which Pococke 
conjectures the granite columns near 
the main street to be the remains. 
The Forum he places between this 
and the sea ; and he attempts to fix 
the site of the Necropolis gate on the 
south of the present town. The two 
principal afreets were a few years ago 
clearly traced, as well as the spot 
where they intersected one another 
(as Strabo states) at right angles. In- 

deed, besides their general direction, 
columns and the remains of build- 
ings, seen in several places, indicated 
their site; but it b difficult to as- 
sign a place to any particular edifice 
in streets, which, as Diodorus ob- 
serves, contained a succession of tem- 
ples and splendid mansions. 

One large building stood to the 
north of the main street (which is still 
partly marked by the modem road to 
the Rosetta Gate), on the n(»tb-east 
of S. Gibarra's Garden, where some 
very large columns have lately been 
found ; and tlie Forum or Emporium 
was perhaps between this and the 

The Rosetta Gate is the eastern 
entrance of the large walled eireuit^ 
which lies to the south and south-east 
of the modern town. The space it 
encloses is about 10,000 feet long, by 
3200 in the broadest, and 1600 in the 
narrowest part. It is a large unin- 
habited area, whose gloomy mounds 
are only varied here and there, by the 
gardens or villas of the Franks, and 
other inhabitanU of Alexandria. The 
site of the old Canopic Gate is very 
difiTerent from that of the modern en- 
trance, which lies considerably far- 
ther inward to the west. Indeed the 
circuit has been so much diminished, 
that the latter stands on what was 
once part of the street leading to the 
Canopic Gate, whose site was about 
half a mile further to the eastward. 
The wall of the ancient citv, on that 
side, lies under the lofty mounds 
occupied by the French lines, before 
the battle of Alexandria; and the 
remains of masonry, its evident line 
of direction, and the termination of 
the mounds of the town in that part, 
sufliciently show its position. 

8. Monuments oirrsjDKTMs Cakopxc 
GATS.— On going out of the Canopic 
gate, and passing by the Hippodrome, 
you came to NiccpoUs, distant 30 sta- 
dia, or, according to Josephus, 28 froon 
Alexandria. It was here that Augus- 
tus defeated the partisans of Antonj, 
whence its name, ** the City of Vic- 




tory." And in order still more to 
honour that spot, the conqueror adorned 
it with numerous fine buildings and 
places of public resort, which induced 
many persons to prefer it for an abode 
to Alexandria itself. He also estab- 
lished quinquennial games there, simi- 
lar to those at another citv of the same 
name built by him in Epirus, to com- 
memorate the victory of Actium. It is 
now marked by an old Roman station, 
called Caesar's Camp, and fragments 
of masonry, columns, and marble 
mouldings. The Hippodrome may 
also be looked for on this side of the 
town, and £L Mancini thinks that he 
hM traced its figure in the plain be- 
yond the French lines, 8800 metres 
( nearly 1 1 miles) from the Rosetta gate, 
and about 250 metres from the sea. 

There was also a Circus in tlie ▼!- 
dnity of Pompey's Pillar, which I 
shall have occasion to mention. 

The site of the Canojpic canal may 
be partly found in that of the Mah- 
mood^eb. It was on the right as you 
went out of the gate, flowing into the 
lake, and communicating with the 
town of Canopus. The water that 
supplied Alexandria was furnished by 
this canal from the Nile, and partly 
from the rains which fell in winter. 
But the principal supply was, as may 
be supposed, derived from the canal, 
and was preserved in cisterns or reser- 
voirs, constructed beneath the houses. 
These cisterns were often of consider- 
able sise, having their roofs supported 
by rows of columns, vaulted in brick 
or stone. Being built of solid mate- 
rials, and well stuccoed, they have in 
many instances remained perfect to 
this day ; and some continue even 
now to be used for the same pur- 
pose by the modem inhabitants. The 
water is received into them during the 
inundation, and the cistern being 
cleansed every year, previous to the 
admission of a fresh supply, the water 
always remains pure and fr%. In 

some, steps are made in the side ; in 
others, men descend by an opening in 
the roof, and this serves as well for 

lowering them by ropes, as for draw- 
ing out the water, which is carried on 
camels to the city. 

Reservoirs of the same kind are 
also found in the convents that stand 
on the site of the old town : and se- 
veral wells connected with them may 
be seen outside the walls, in going to- 
wards the Mahmood^b canal. They 
show the direction taken by the chan- 
nels, that conveyed the water to the 
cisterns in the town. One set of 
them runs parallel to the eastern exit 
of the Mahmood^h, another is below 
the hill of Pompey's Pillar, and ano- 
ther a little less than half way from 
this to the former line. It was by 
means of these cisterns that Gany. 
medes, during the war between Julius 
Ciesar and the Alexandrians, con- 
trived to distress the Romans, having 
turned the sea water into all those 
within the quarter they occupied ; an 
evil which Caesar found great difficulty 
in remedying, by the imperfect sub- 
stitute of wells. 

9. PaxsKNT Rkmains op ancixnt 
Alexandria. — The most striking 
monuments of ancient Alexandria 
are the well-known obeliBkB^ and 
Pompey's Pillar. Tl)e former are 
the same which, as already shown, 
Pliny mentions before the temple 
of Caesar, and which he supposes 
to have been cut and sculptured 
by Mesphres. In this, indeed, he is 
not far from the truth, since the 
Pharaoh whose ovals they bear was 
the third Thothmes ; and it is remark- 
able that the names of two kings who 
lived about that period, the first and 
second Thothmes, are written in Ma- 
netho's list as Mesphra-Thothmosis. 
In the lateral lines are the ovals of 
Reraeses the Great, the supposed Se- 
sostris, and additional columns at 
hieroglyphics at the angles of the 
lower part present that of a later king, 
apparently Osirei II., the tliird suc- 
cessor of the great Remeses. 

They stood originally at Heliopolis, 
and were brought to Alexandria by 
one of the Caesars ; though fame has 



attached to them the title of Cltopa- 
1ra*a Needles, with the same disregard 
to truth that ascribes to her the honour 
of erecting the Heptastadium and the 
Pharos. They are of red granite of 
Syene, like most of the obelisks in 
Egypt, and about 57 paces apart. 
The standing obelisk is about 70 feet 
high, with a diameter at its base of 7 
feet 7 inches. Pliny gives them 42 
cubits, or 63 feet. One is still stand- 
ing, the other has been thrown down, 
and lies close to its pedestal, which 
stood on two steps, of white limestone; 
the pedestals of Egyptian obelisks 
being usually a square dado or die, 
without any moulding, scarcely ex- 
ceeding the diameter of the obelisk^ 
and placed upon two plinths, the one 
projecting beyond the other in the 
form of steps. 

The height of the fallen obelisk, in 
its mutilated state, is about 66 feet, 
and of the same diameter as the other. 
It has been given by Mohammed AH 
to the English, who were desirous of 
removing it to England as a record of 
their successes in Egypt, and of the 
glorious tennination of the campaign 
of 1801. The Pasha even offered to 
transport it free of expense to the shore, 
jind put it on board any vessel or raft 
which might be sent to remove it; 
but the project has been wisely aban- 
doned, and cooler deliberation has 
pronounced, that, from its mutilated 
state, and the obliteration of many of 
the hieroglyphics by exposure to the 
sea air, it is unworthy the expense of 

Pococke supposes these obelisks to 
have stood before the temple of Nep- 
tune, but I do not know on what 
authority. He gives them 63 feet in 

Another obelisk once stood at Alex- 
andria, erected by Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus at tlie temple of Arsinoe his sis- 
ter, which was afterwards taken to 
Rome. It had originally been cut 
by Nectabis (Nectanebo), and was 
without hieroglyphics. Maximus, 
when praefect of Egypt, finding it in 

the way of the docks, removed it, and 
sent it to Rome, where it was put up 
in the Forum, its apex having been 
cut off* to be replaced with gold, which 
was never done. Pliny gives it 80 
cubits, or ISO feet. 

Tlie temple of Arsinoe, as Pliny 
shows, stood near the docks ; and it 
was here that tlie celebrated statue of 
that deified princess was placed by 
Dinocrates, which, being made of 
loadstone, was suspended in the air 
by an equal attraction of the iron that 
surrounded it. 

Philadelphus had also erected a 
temple to his father and mother, where 
their statues, made of gold and ivory, 
were treated with the honours paid to 
deities ; and Pliny mentions *' a sta- 
tue of topaz representing the same 
Arsinoe, and measuring 4 cubits, 
which was put up in what was called 
the golden sanctuary.** 

Just beyond the obelisks to the E. 
was an old round tower, forming the 
comer of the wall, at the point where 
it turns off to the southwutl. It was 
called the ** Roman tower,** though, 
from its position and style of building, 
I should rather attribute it to an early 
Saracenic age. A drawing of it is 
given ill the great French work. 

Pompey*$ Pillar stands on an emi- 
nence about 1 800 feet to the south of 
the present walls. It consists of a 
capital, shaft, base, and pedestal, 
which last reposes on substructions of 
smaller blocks, once belonging to 
older monuments, and probably 
brought to Alexandria for the pur- 
pose. On one I observed the name 
of the Second Psamaticus. A few 
years ago curiosity had tempted the 
Arabs and some Europeans to dig 
into, and pick out the cement that 
united those stones, which might have 
endangered the safety of the column, 
had not the Paslia ordered the boles 
to be filled up with mortar, to check 
the curious. 

Its substructions were evidently 
once under the level of the ground, 
and formed part of a paved area, tbe 

Egypt ROUTE 1. — Alexandria — pompey's pillar. 93^ 

stones of which have been removed 
(probably to Renre a« materials for 
more recent buildings), leaving only 
those beneath the column itself, to the 
great risk of the monuments 

It is to be regretted that the pro- 
tection of the Egyptian government 
has not been so far extended to this 
interesting relic of ancient Alexandria, 
as to prevent its pedestal and shaft 
being defaced by the names of per- 
sons vrho have visited it, or of ships 
that have anchored in the port, some 
of which are painted in black letters 
of monstrous height. 

The name given to this column has 
led to much criticism. Some derived 
it from Pompaios, as having served 
for a landmark, and others endea- 
voured to read in the inscription the 
name of Poropey, instead of Publius. 
Others, again, erroneously supposed 
iu Arabic title, Am6od e* Sowari, to 
connect it with Severus, and some 
even attributed it to Julius Ceesar. 
But Scaiy or Sowari, are terms applied 
to any lofty monument, which con- 
veys the idea of a "nuut;** and the 
inscription, of which Mr. Salt and I 
were enabled, with the assistance of a 
ladder, and by chalking out the letters, 
to make a complete copy, shows it to 
have been erected by Publius, the 
pnefect of Egypt, in honour of Dio- 

It is as follows : — 


noTBAioc EnAPxoc AirrnTOT 
EHArAea ? 

The total height of the column is 
98 feet 9 inches, the shaft is 73 feet, 
the circumference S9 feet 8 inches, 
and the diameter at the top of the ca- 
pital 16 feet 6 inches. The shaft is 
elegant and of good style, but the 
capital and pedestsl are of inferior 
workmanship, and, as has been re- 
mrked by Dr. Clarke and others, 
have the appearance of being of a 
different epoch. Indeed, it is pro- 
bable that the shaft is of an earlier 

time, and that the unfinished capital 
and pedestal were added to it, at the 
period of its erection in honour of the 

On the summit I observed a cir- 
cular depression of considerable size, 
intended to admit the base of a statue, 
as is usual on monumental columns ; 
and at each of the four sides is a 
cramp, by which it was secured. This 
is more probable than what I before 
supposed, that it indicated the posi- 
tion of an equestrian statue ; and, 
indeed, in an old picture or plan of 
Alexandria, where some of the ancient 
monuments are represented, is the 
figure of a man standing on the 
column. An Arab tradition pretends 
that it was one of four columns that 
once supported a dome or other build- 
ing ; but little faith is to be placed in 
the tales of the modern inhabitants. 
Macrisi and Abde*lat^f state that it 
stood in a gtoa surrounded by 400 
columns, where the library was that 
Omer ordered to be burnt; which 
(if true) would prove that it belonged 
to the Sarapeum. 

That the people of Alexandria 
should erect a simitar monument iu 
honour of Diocletian is not surprising, 
since he had on more than one occa- 
sion a claim to their gratitude, *< having 
granted them a public allowance of 
corn to the extent of two millions of 
medimni," and *< after he had taken 
the city by siege, when in revolt against 
him, having checked the fury of his 
soldiers in their promiscuous massacre 
of the citizens." To me, indeed, it ap- 
pears probable that this column silently 
records the capture of Alexandria by 
the arms of Diocletian in a. d. 296, 
when the rebellion of Achilleus had 
obliged him to lay siege to the re- 
volted city, and the use of the epithet 
eamcftToy, ** invincible,** applied to 
the emperor, is in favour of my 
opinion. This memorable siege, ac- 
cording to the historian of the Decline, 
lasted eight months ; when, " wasted 
by the sword and by fire, it implored 
the clemency of the conqueror, but 



Sect. I. 

several places hereabouts ; and just to 
the W. of the Port Lochias are ruins 
at the water*s edge; and some way 
beyond the mouth of the canal are 
remains of buildings, reservoirs, solid 
masonry, and broken granite columns, 
ft was here that I found the small 
statue of Harpocrates, now in the 
British Museum. At the first pro- 
jecting point to the W. of Cape 
Lochias, the French have laid down, 
in their plan of Alexandria, a ruined 
mole, at the next the remains of the 
palace, and then the Roman tower 
near the obelisks, already mentioned. 

10. Size and iMroaTANCE or 
Alkxandria. — The circumference 
of ancient Alexandria is said by 
Pliny to have been 15 miles, and we 
have seen that Strabo gives it a dia- 
meter of SO stadia, or, as Diodorus 
says, a length of 40 stadia. Its 
population amounted to more than 
300,000 free inhabitants, « besides at 
least an equal number of slaves;" 
and we may judge of its magnificence 
from the fact, that the Romans them- 
selves considered it inferior only to 
their own capital. Nor were the 
greatness and flourishing condition 
of Alexandria of short duration; and 
even as late as the year 640 a.o., 
when taken by the Arabs, it was re- 
markable for its wealth and splen- 
dour. " I have taken,*' says Amer 
in his letter to the Caliph, " the great 
city of the West. It is impossible 
for me to enumerate the variety of its 
riches and beauty, and I shall content 
myself with observing, that it contains 
4000 palaces, 4000 baths, 400 theatres 
or places of amusement, 1 2,000 shops 
for the sale of vegetables, and 40,000 
tributary Jews." 

The flourishing state of Alexandria, 
mentioned by Diodorus, refers to the 
time of Ptolemy Dionysius, in whose 
reign he visited Cgypt; but it was 
carried to a much higher point under 
tlie Caesars, and the suburbs alone 
contained the \)Opulatlon of a large 
city. Every thing tended to increase 
the importance of the place. Com- 

merce was established on a broader 
basis. The intercourse with Europe 
was increased to an extent unknown 
under the Ptolemies, and the bound- 
less dominion of the Romans made it 
the emporium of the whole world. 
*' In former times,** says Strabo, 
" there were not twenty vessels that 
ventured to navigate tlie Red Sea, so 
as to pass out of the straits ; but now 
there are great fleets that make the 
voyage to India, and to the remotest ■ 
parts of Ethiopia, returning laden 
with very valuable cargoes to Egypt, 
whence they are distributed to other 
places. They are, therefore, subject 
to a double duty, first upon importa- 
tion, and then upon exportation ; and 
the duties upon the valuable articles 
are themselves proportiooably valu- 
able. Besides, they have the advan- 
tage of a monopoly, since Alexandria 
is so situated as to be the only ware- 
house for receiving them, and for 
transmitting them to other places.'* 

" The lucrative trade of Arabia and 
India," says Gibbon, ** flowed through 
the port of A lexandria to the capital and 
provinces of the empire. Idleness was 
unknown. Some were employed in 
blowing of glass, others in weaving of 
linen ; others, again, in manufactur- 
ing the papyrus. Either sex, and 
every age, was engaged in the pur- 
suits of industry, nor did even the 
blind or the lame want occupation 
suited to their condition. But the 
people of Alexandria, a various mix- 
ture of nations, united the vanity and 
inconstancy of the Greeks with the 
superstition and obstinacy of the 
Egyptians. The most trifling occa- 
sion, a transient scarcity of flesh or 
lentils, the neglect of an accustomed 
salutation, a mistake of precedency 
in the public baths, or even a reli. 
gious dispute, were at any time sufli^ 
cient to kindle a sedition among that 
vast multitude, whose resentments 
were furious and implacable.** The 
sanM advantages of position which 
poiuted it out to the discerning eye of 
Alexander, as likely to rival and 




supplant commercial Tyre, continued 
till a late period to secure the wel- 
fare of Alexandria. The Indian 
trade, brought through Berenice, Phi- 
lotera, Myos Hormos, and Arsinoe, 
and, in after times, through Suez and 
Kosayr, and descending by the Nile 
and the canal to the gates of Alexan- 
dria* flowed for many centuries in this 
channel to the markets of Europe ; 
nor in spite of the fanaticinn of its 
Moslem conquerors, did it fail to re- 
tain some portion of its former conse« 
quence; and when the Venetians 
obtained permission to establish a 
commercial intercourse with Egypt, 
the trade of Alexandria was once 
more revived. And though the 
Asiatic caravans shared some portion 
of the emoluments of Indian com- 
merce, it was only finally annihilated 
by the discovery of the Cape of Good 
Hope, and the successful enterprises 
of the Portuguese. 

These bygone events are particularly 
interesting at a time when the overland 
communication seems once more to 
open favourable prospects for Alex- 
andria : but this is a subject which it 
is not necessary here to discuss. 

11. Tb« Ikhabitants of Alkxak- 

DaiA The population of modem 

Alexandria had till latterly been on 
the decline, and is reported to have 
been reduced at one time to 6000 
souls ; but under the government of 
Mohammed Ali it has greatly re- 
covered, and is computed at present 
to amount to 80,000, including the 
garrison of 6000 or 8000 men, and 
the sailors of the fleet, reckoned at 
about 12,000, leaving 60,000 for the 
population of the place. 

As in former times, the inhabitants 
are a mixed race, from the coast of 
Barbary, and all parts of Egypt, with 
Turkx, Albanians, Syrians, Greeks, 
Jews, Copts, and Armenians, inde- 
pendent of Frank settlers. 

According to the account of Alex- 
andria, given by Polybius, the inhabit- 
ants were, in his time, of three kinds: 
1. The Egyptians, or people of the 

country, a keen and civilised race ; 
2. The mercenary troops, who were 
numerous and turbulent, for it was 
the custom to keep foreign soldiers 
in their pay, who having arms in their 
hands were more ready to govern than 
to obey ; and, 3. The Alexandrians, 
not very decidedly tractable, for simi- 
lar reasons, but still better than the 
last : for having been mixed with 
and descended Trom Greeks, who had 
settled there, they had not thrown off 
the customs of that people. This 
part of the population was, however, 
dwindling away, more especially at 
the time when Polybius visited Egypt 
during the reign of Ptolemy Phys- 
con ; who, in consequence of some 
seditious proceedings, had attacked 
the people on several occasions with 
his troops, and had destroyed great 
numbers of them. The successors 
of Physcon administered the govern- 
ment as badly or even worse ; and it 
was not till it had passed under the 
dominion of the Romans that the 
condition of the city was improved. 

At this time, according to Strabo, 
'* one of the three Roman battalions 
was stationed at Alexandria, the other 
two in the country: exclusive of 
nine companies of Romans, three in 
the city, three in garrison at Syene, 
on the confines of Ethiopia, and 
three others in different parts of 
the country : besides three regiments 
of cavalry, distributed in like man- 
ner in the most convenient places. 
Of the natives who were employed in 
the government of the cities, one was 
the exfyitSa or expoui^der, clad in 
purple, and receiving the honours of 
the country, who took care of what 
was necessary for the city. There 
were' also the writer of commentaries 
or register, and the archidicastes or 
chief judge ; and the fourth was the 
captain of the night. The same 
officer existed in the time of the 
kings; but they (the Ptolemies) 
governed so badly, th^t the welfare 
of the city was sacrificed for want of 
proper management ;** and this neg- 



lect was rendered more injurious in 
Aleiandria by the seditious spirit of 
the people. 

The Alexandrians continued, even 
under the Romans, to manifest tlieir 
turbulent character; and Trebellius 
Pollio tells us, they were "of so im- 
petuous and headlong a disposition, 
that on the most trifling occasions 
they were enticed to actions of the 
most dangerous tendency to the re- 
public. Frequently on account of 
an omission of civilities, the refusal of 
a place of honour at a bath, the se- 
questration of a ballad, or a cabbage, 
a slave's shoe, or other objects of like 
importance, tliey have shown such 
dangerous symptoms of sedition, as 
to require the interference of an 
armed force. So general, indeed, 
was this tumultuous disposition, that 
when the slave of the then governor 
of Alexandria happened to be beaten 
by a soldier, for telling him that his 
shoes were better than the soldier's, a 
multitude immediately collected be- 
fore the house of ^milianus, the 
commanding officer, armed with every 
seditious weapon, and using furious 
threats. He was wounded by stones ; 
and javelins and swords were pointed 
ut and thrown at him.** 

The letter of Adrian also gives a 
curious and far from favourable ac- 
count of this people in his time ; 
which, though extending to all the 
Egyptians, refers particularly to the 
Alexandrians, as we perceive from 
the mention of Serapis, the great deity 
of their city. '* Adrian Augustus, 
to the Consul Servian, greeting : — I 
am convinced, my friend Servian, that 
all the inhabitants of Egypt, of whom 
you made honourable mention to roe, 
are trifling, wavering, and changing 
at every change of public rumour. 
The worshippers of Serapis are Chris- 
tians, and Uiose who call themselves 
followers of Christ pay their devotions 
to Serapis; every chief of a Jewisli 
synagogue, every Samaritan, each 
Christian priest, the mathematicians, 
soothsayers, and physicians in tlie 

gymnasia, all acknowledge Serapis. 
The patriarch himself, whenever he 
goes into Egypt, is obliged by some 
to worship Serapis, by others Christ. 
The people are, of all others, the most 
inclined to sedition, vain, and inso- 
lent. Alexandria is opulent, wealthy, 
populous, without an idle inhabitant 
They have one god (Serapis), whom 
the Christians, Jews, and Gentiles 
worship. I could wish that the dty 
practised a purer morality, and 
showed itself worthy of its pre-emi- 
nence in size and dignity over the 
whole of Egypt. I have conceded to 
it every point ; I have restored its an- 
cient privileges ; and have conferred 
on it so many more, that when I was 
there I received the thanks of the in- 
habiUnts, and immediately on my 
departure they complimented my son 
Verus. You have heard, too, what 
they said about Antoninus: — I wish 
them no other curse than that they 
may be fed with their own chickens, 
which are hatched in a way I am 
ashamed td relate. I have forwarded 
to you three drinking-cups, which hare 
the property of changing their colour." 

Besides the local authorities above- 
mentioned, there were numerous Ro- 
man officers in the time of the Caesars, 
appointed from Italy, as the governor, 
and others, exercising military com- 
mands; the decurions, to whom the 
police regulations, the superintendence 
of the games, and the provisioning of 
the city were entrusted; the agenta 
for transmitting corn to Rome ; the 
collectors of taxes and duties on ex- 
ports and imports ; and many others ; 
among whom may be mentioned the 
registrars of passports. For Strabo 
seems to say that no one could leave 
the port of Alexandria without tfanr 
sanction; and their authority was 
maintained by '* numerous guards 
stationed at the port, and every other 
exit of the city." This scrutiny, 
however, seems to have been less in 
the time of the Romans than under 
the Ptolemaic kings. 

The character of the Alexandrians 

Egypt. KOUTE 1. — AL£SAin>RIA — CLIMATE — PORT. 


•t the present day is not looked upon 
witb respect either by the Cairenes, 
"or the people of the Barbary coast, 
who occasionally visit this city. They 
are still both io manner and appear- 
ance a mixed race; and yoa may 
perceiTe in them something of the 
Egyptian, the Greek, and the Mo- 

12. Climatx. — TRx Lacs MAax- 
OTis. — Cakals. — Several ancient 
writers, as Diodonis, Strabo, Am- 
mianas Marcellinus, Quintus Curtius, 
and eVen Celsus, speak of the climate 
of Alexandria as healthy, with a tem- 
perature both cool and salubrious. 
This Strabo attributes to the admis- 
sion of the Nile water into the Lake 
Mareotis, and apparently not without 
reason ; since it is notorious that the 
fevers prevalent there are owing to 
exhalations from it ; and medical men 
have lately recommended that the 
Nile water should he freely admitted 
into it, to remedy this evil. At the 
close of the last century, this lake was 
nearly dry; but during the contest 
between the English and French at 
Alexandria, the sea was let into it by 
the former, iu order to impede the 
communication of the besieged with 
Cairo, and cut off* the supply of fresh 
water from the city; and it is now 
onoe more a lake. 

The Lake Mareotis was formerly 
practicable for boats, and of sufficient 
depth to answer all the purposes of in- 
land navigation. Strabo gives it a 
little less than SCO stadia in length, 
and upwards of 100 in breadth, hav- 
ing eight islands within it; and its 
banks, which were thickly inhabited, 
enjoyed great reputation for the ex- 
cellent wine they produced. 

Pliny says it was formerly called 
Arapotes; that it communicated by a 
sluice vrith the Canopic canal, and 
contained several islands. He gives 
it SO miles acroas, and 600 in cir- 
cumference ; and, according to other 
calculations, it was 40 schflent 
150 Roman miles, in leuj 
same in breadth. 



Mr. Hamilton mentions the site of 
an old canal which communicated 
from Lake Mareotis with the port of 
Alexandrii. Tlie banks and channel 
of a large canal, running from the 
lake to the old harbour, may also be 
seen about half-way between the 
modern city and Maribut point, about 
4 miles to the S. W. of the modern 
town and little more than 1 ) mile be- 
yond the Catacombs. It is 6600 feet 
long ; the high mounds on either side 
are about 250 feet apart, and the 
breadth of the canal itself may have 
been about 80 feeL There is also 
the bed of a small channel about half 
way from the town and the Cata- 
combs, but probably of late time; 
and the canal that leads from the 
Mahmood^h to the Rosetta gate, and 
enters the new port near the lasaretto, 
is a modern work, cut through the 
walls and basements of ancient build- 
ings. The old canal that ran into the 
sea, near the basin of Kibotos, was 
doubtless that passing under the pre- 
sent walls, within the western gate. 
The Canopic canal was on the east of 
the town. 

1 S. Thi two PoaTs, Gates, Walls. 
— THK OLD Docks. — We have seen 
that the two ports, called the Western 
or Eunostus, and the Great Harbour, 
were formerly only separated by the 
Heptastadium, and had a communi- 
cation by bridges, which formed part 
of that mole. Since the rule of 
the Moslems, a far more marked dis- 
tinction has been made between those 
two ports, than is conveyed by the 
mere difference of name, the one hav- 
ing been till lately reserved exclu- 
sively for Turkish vessels, and the 
other alone appropriated to those of 
the Christian states. For until the 
beginning of the present century no 
Christian vessel was permitted to 
enter the old or western harbour ; or, 
if compelled to do so by stress of 
weather, was forced to go round as 
soon as an opportunity offered ; and 
in consequence of this custom 
the houses of the Europeans, 
F S • 



^. i«Ji 



constituting the Frank quarter, were 
built on that side of the city. The 
privilege of using the old harbour and 
that ofjriding on horseback were ob- 
tained by the English for all Euro- 
peans, on evacuating Alexandria. 

The four principal gates of Alex- 
andria were the Canopic on the east, 
the Necropolis Gate on the west, and 
tliose of the Sun and Moon at the two 
ends of the street that ran from the sea 
to the lake. As you looked down the 
latter street, the ships in tlie Great 
Harbour were seen on one side, and 
those in the Mareotic port on the other; 
the two streets intersecting each other 
at right angles, as already stated. 

No portion of the ancient circuit 
now remains, and even the Saracenic 
wall has lately been removed to make 
way for the increasing sise of Alex- 
andria. The Saracenic tqwer, at the 
extreme end of the wall towards the 
sea, is still left standing, and may be 
seen immediately behind the first row 
of houses to the south of the Frank 
square. This is said once to have 
been bathed by the sea, and the 
buttress projecting from it might seem 
to justify this assertion ; but it is far 
more probable that the low space be- 
fore it, formerly a pool of water, and 
now the Frank square, was the site of 
the ancient docks, and that the wall 
turned off to the right at this spot, iq 
order to avoid so low and unstable a 
foundation. The Saracenic walls en- 
closed what may be called the Arab 
city, and the modern Alexandria may 
be styled the Turkish town. It stands, 
as already observed, without the circuit 
both of the Greek and Arab city, 
partly on the Mole or Heptastadium, 
and partly on the site of the docks 
mentioned by Strabo ; and its bouses 
may be said to occupy no portion of 
ancient Alexandria, except at the ex- 
tremity of the ancient mole. Nor 
are any cisterns found beneath the 
bouses of the modern town. 

My conjecture that the new square 
of the Frank quarter covers the 
principal part of the Great Docks, is 

confirmed by there being no cisterns 
below the surface, by the luwness of 
its original level (which I remember 
to have seen a pool of water in winter^ 
before the ground was raised to re- 
ceive the present houses), and by the 
fact that the architect, ** Signor Man- 
cini, when digging to lay the foun- 
dations of the bouses, found nothing 
below the surface upon the whole line 
but a layer of sea-weed, showing the 
sea to have been once over it.** The 
Coptic name of this spot, AftSnsAm, 
is also remarkable, signifying a "pool,** 
or ** marshy ground : *' and has beeo 
mentioned to me by Mr. Harris in 
support of my opinion. 

I may also observe that the present 
walls, enclosing a portion of tlie 
mounds of the old city, were built in 
1 811, and that those alone behind the 
Frank quarter are of early Arab time. 
Other portions, however, may be 
based on Saracenic foundations; but 
the only ancient part appears to be 
the Roman tower to the east of the 


iNGS WITH IK THE Walls. — Theie 
are some mosks, convents, gardens, 
and villas, amidst the mounds of the 
old city, as well as two or three forts, 
thrown up by the French during their 
occupation of Egypt. One of the 
convents or rather monasteries, is 
called of Sl Mark. It belongs to 
the Copts, who pretend to possess the 
head and body of St. Mark ; though 
Leo Africanus affirms that Uiey were 
secretly carried away by the Vene- 
tians, and taken to their city. The 
Greeks also pride themselves in some 
relics, said to be of St. Catherine, who 
suffered martyrdom at Alexandria. 
Another convent belongs to the Latin 
church. In the garden of that con* 
vent a marble pedestal has lately been 
found bearing an inscription with the 
name of Julia Domna. 

One of the mosks is called ** of 
ICOl columns,** according in nuntber 
with the /oM^ of the 1001 nights. It 
is on the west side^ near the gate of 




Necropolis. Pococke obserred in it 
four rows of columns from S. to W., 
and one row on the other sides ; and 
here, be says, it is supposed that the 
church of St. Mark once stood; 
where the patriarch formerly lived; 
and where the Evangelist is reported 
to have been put to death. This 
church was destroyed by the Moslems 
in Uie reign of Melek el Kamel» the 
•on of Melek Adel, in 1219» whilst 
the Crusaders were besieging Dami. 
etta, for fear that they might surprise 
Alexandria and make a fortress of its 
solid walls ; and no offers on the part 
of the Christians could induce them 
to spare this venerated building. The 
other great mosk b called of St. Atha- 
naaius, doubtless, as Pococke observes, 
firom having succeeded to a church 
of that name. It is from this that 
the sarcophagus, called the "tomb 
of Alexander,*' was taken, which is 
now in the British Museum. 


MoDKEN Alkxandeia. — Alexandria 
has a small theatre. The actors are 
Europeans, and all amateurs, with 
fbe exception of the pHtna donna. 
Tickets of admission may be ob« 
tained by strangers, not residents, 
graiisy as at Cairo. 

During the carnival, many private 
and public balls are given ; the latter 
at the Casino. There is also a read- 
ing-room, with a library, at the cor- 
ner of the Frank square, to which 
access may be had, on application to 
a member. 

Few objects worthy of a visit can 
be mentioned in the modem town. 
Those who are interested in Egyptian 
antiquities will be gratified by seeing 
the collection of S. D'Anastasy, the 
Swedish consul-general, and a smaller 
one with some rare medals belonging 
to Mr. Harris. As they are both 
strictly private, an introduction is 
required to obtain permission to visit 

The Pasha*s palace may be seen by 
an order, easily obtained from the we- 
ked or *< steward.** It stands on the 

port close to the hareSm, which is on 
the opposite side of the road, facing 
the sea. The latter cannot be visited. 
The former is approached tiirough a 
small garden ; and, after ascending a 
substantial staircase in the Turkish 
style, you reach the upper rooms, 
which are occupied by the Pasha 
during his residence in Alexandria. 
They are not remarkable for any 
splendour, and the whole is fitted up 
in a simple manner, partly Turkish 
and partly European. The large 
circular room is handsome, with an 
English chandelier suspended in the 
centre, over a round table. Though 
the Pasha's bed-room partakes of an 
European character, he prefers his 
old custom of having his bed upon 
the fioor, to what we should consider 
the more comfortable mode of rai&ing 
it on a bedstead. It is in the middle 
of the room, and a frame- work sur- 
rounding it supports a mosquito cur- 

Near this is an Italian drawing- 
room, and in another are the portraits 
of Ahmed Bey, a son of Ibrahim Pa- 
sha, and of the three younger sons of 
Mohammed All. The dining-room 
is small, with an inlaid wooden floor. 
The bath is neatly fitted up with mar- 
ble. There is a billiard-room, where 
the Pasha frequently amuses himself 
\}j playing, and by seeing the suc- 
cess or disappointment of others, in 
which he appears to take great de- 
light. The rooms and passages are 
covered with floor-cloth of ordinary 
quality, made in the arsenal. The 
view looking over the port is striking, 
and particularly so when the fleet Is in 
harbour, which is best seen from the 

The arsenal is only interesting to 
those who wish to see the manner in 
which that and similar establislimenU 
are conducted in Egypt ; but a vi6it 
to some of the ships of war would re- 
pay any one, who is curious about the 
rapid formation of a fleet and navy, 
with the imperfect means afforded by 
the country. On going to the Pasha's 
F S 



Sect. L 

palace and the arsenal, from the Frank 
quarter, the road lies through the 
principal streets of Alexandria ; but a 
walk should be taken in the bazaars, 
in order to obtain a better idea of the 
Turkish part of the town, though the 
tortuous narrow streets, or rather un- 
paved Janes, will not give an exalted 
notion of this dirty quarter. The 
stranger may, however, find jimuse- 
ment in tlie novelty and drollery of 
many a scene witnessed there ; amidst 
the confusion of camels carrying large 
burdens through these narrow pas- 
sages, the hurry of donkeys driven at 
full trot or gallop, amidst a crowd of 
pedestrians, and the more serious in- 
convenience of a carriage. This last 
can only pass through the principal 
thoroughfare ; and many an impre- 
cation is whispered against so trouble- 
some an intruder, which, before the 
Pasha introduced his own, was un- 
seen in Alexandria. 




From the Rosetta gate of Alex- 
andria to the Roman station, 
called Caesar's camp * ~ ^i 

To Caravanserai, or Caf^, be- 
yond the site of Canopus, on 
Abookfr Bay - . - 13^ 

To ancient Canopic or Hera^ 
cleotic mouth (called Ma* 
d^eh) - - - - 1} 

To Etko . . . . isl 

To Rosettft - - - - 134 


On leaving the Rosetta gate of 
Alexandria, the road runs for half a 
mile over the mounds of the ancient 
city, when it crosses the old wall, on 
which the French lines were raised, 
and descends into a plain, now partly 
cultivated by order of Ibrahim Pasha. 

Here, about | of a mile from the 

old wall, two granite statues were dis- 
covered by Mr. Harris, apparently of 
one of the Ptolemies, or of a Roman 
emperor, with his queen, in the Egyp- 
tian style. One has the form of 
Osiris, the other of Isis, or of Athor. 
Other granite blocks and remains of 
columns show that this was the site 
of some important building. 

About S miles beyond the French 
lines, or S| from the Rosetta Gate, is 
a Roman station, called Caesar's, or 
the Roman, camp. It marks the site 
of NicopoUi, or Juliopolis, where Au- 
gustus overcamt the partisans of An- 
tony; and is the spot where, 1832 
years after, the English and French 
armies engaged. 

A few small monuments to some of 
our countrymen who fell there may 
still be seen outside the walls, on one 
of which I observed the name of 
Colonel Dutens. It had been tlirown 
down, and we once more pot it up, 
with a faint hope of its being left in 
that position. Here fell the gallant 
Abercrombie, on the memorable 21st 
of March, 1801. 

The " Camp '* resembles the Myos 
Hormos, and the fortified stations or 
hydreumoM in the desert ; but is strong- 
er, larger, and better built. It is 
nearly square, measuring 291 paces 
by 266 within, the walls being from 
5 to 5) paces thick. It has four en- 
trances, one in the centre of each 
face, 15 paces wide, defended by round 
or semicircular towers, 18 paces in 
diameter, or 1 2 within. On each fac« 
are 6 towers, distant from etxh other 
33 paces ; those of the doorway ex- 
cepted, which are only 15 paces apart. 
Those at the 4 corners are larger than 
the others, having a diameter of S2 
paces. The whole was surrounded 
by a ditch, apparently filli*d from the 
sea, which is close to the N. W. lace : 
and a short way from the S.W. gate 
are the remains of the aqueduct that 
supplied it with water ; probably part 
of the one seen to the nortli of the 
Mahmood^eb, about 8 miles from 
Alexandria. The walls are of Btoocp 




with courses of flat bricks, or tiles, 
at iotenralsy usual in Roman build- 

The most remarkable town on this 
road, in old times, was Canopus. The 
places on the way were Eleusis, a 
little to the south of Nicopolis, Ze- 
phyrium, and Taposiris Panra. A 
short distance beyond, to the east of 
j£leusis, was the canal that led to 
Scbedia; and on a promontory at 
Taposiris was a chapel dedicated to 
Venus Aninoe. 

In this place the town of Thonis 
was reported to have stood, whose 
name was derived from Thonis, the 
king (or governor?) who entertained 
Menelaus and Helen. 

Pococke thinks the island a short 
distance from the coast, to the east of 
Abookir, is the promontory of Ta- 
posiris, the successor of Thonis, the 
land having sunk and admitted the 
sea, so as to convert it into an island ; 
and he there perceived some ruins, 
the traces of subterraneous passages, 
and a fragment of a sphinx. He also 
mentions the ruins of an ancient tem- 
ple under the water, about 2 miles 
from Alexandria, which he conjectures 
to have belonged to Zephyrium, or 
some other place on the road to Nico- 

Cmopifs was IS M.P., or accord- 
ing to Strabo, 120 stadia (nearly 14 
English miles) from Alexandria, by 
land. It stood on the west of the 
Canoptc mouth, between which and 
that town was the village of Hera- 
cleum, famed for its temple of Her- 
culea. The Greeks and Romans 
imagined it to have been called after 
Canopus, the pilot of Menelaus, who 
was buried there; but its Egyptian 
name Kahi-noub, or the '* golden 
soil," and its high antiquity, suffice to 
show the folly of this assertion ; which 
is one of many instances of their mode 
of changing a foreign name, in order 
to connect it with, and explain it by, 
Xhaw own history. Canopus had a 
temple of Serapis, who was the deity 
worshipped there with the greatest re^ 

spect; and it is worthy of remark 
that Mr. Hamilton discaiis«d, amidst 
the ruins of Alexandria, a Greek in- 
scription in honour of " Serapis in 
Canopus.** The deity was supposed 
to answer by dreams to the prayers of 
his votaries, and persons of all ranks 
consulted him, respecting the cure of 
diseases, and the usual questions sub- 
mitted to oracles. Many otlier tem- 
ples also stood at Canopus, as well as 
numerous spacious inns for the re- 
ception of strangers; who went to 
enjoy its wholesome air, and, above 
all, the dissipation that recommended 
it to the people of Alexandria; fa- 
mous, or rather infamous, as it was, 
in the time of the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, for the most wanton amuse- 
ments. Thither they repaired in 
crowds by the canal for that object. 
Day and night, the water was cover- 
ed with boats, carrying men and wo- 
men, who dsnced and sang with the 
most unrestrained licence. Arrived 
at Canopus, they repaired to booths 
erected on the banks, for the express 
purpose of indulging in scenes of dis- 
sipation. The immorality of the 
place was notorious, and it is this 
which led Seneca to say, '* no one in 
thinking of a retreat would select 
Canopus, although Canopus might 
not prevent a man being virtuous.'* 

The degraded state of public mo- 
rals in that town appears to have been 
confined to the period afVer the foun- 
dation of Alexandria ; and the Cano- 
pus we read of was a Greek town. 

On the right of the Canopic canal 
was the Elai'tic nome, so called from 
the brother of the first Ptolemy ; and 
at the mouth of the Canopic branch 
of the river was the commencement 
of the base of the Delta. 

Canopus stood near the present 
Abookir (Abookir), so well known 
in modern times from the victory ob- 
tained by the English fleet under 
Nelson, recorded in our annals as the 
" battle of the Nile." To that place 
Mohammed Ali sends his state pri- 
soners; having substituted confine- 
r 4 



ment in its castle for the more serious 
punishment of death. 

A few miles to the eastward of 
AbookSr is an opening, called Madea 
(Mad6eh), the "ford," or "ferry," 
by which the lake Etko communi- 
cates with the sea, and which is sup- 
posed to be the old Canopic branch. 
Near this Pococke places Heracleum, 
whence the name Heracleotic, applied 
to this mouth of the river, which wai 
also called Naucratic, or Ceramic. 

The Canopic was the most wes- 
terly, as the Pelusiac was the most 
easterly, of the mouths of the Nile. 
Some ruins still mark the site of the 
city of Herculesy to whose temple tlie 
slaves of Paris fled, when he was 
forced by contrary winds to take re- 
fuge in the Canopic branch of the 
Nile. The temple still existed in the 
time of Herodotus and Strabo. 

The whole road from Alexandria 
to Rosetta is as tedious, dreary, and 
bleak in winter, as it is hot in sum- 
mer, with scarcely any resting-place 
except the Caf^ near Abookir, and 
tlie village of Etko, the Coptic Tkoou, 
a short distance to the south of the 
road. After traversing a level plain, 
you reach Rosetta, whose gardens 
and palms, rising above tlie surround- 
ing sand-drifts, are an agreeable 
change after this gloomy tract. There 
is a constant communication by sea 
between Alexandria and Rosetta ; but 
the passage over die bar of the river is 
always disagreeable and often dan- 
gerous, so that the journey by sea can- 
not be recommended. 

ROSETTA. — Rosetta, properly 
Rasheed, in Coptic Trasbit,has always 
been considered the most agreeable 
and the prettiest town of Egypt, cele- 
brated for its gardens, and looked 
upon by the Cairenes, as well as 
Alexandrians, as a most delightful 
retreat during the summer. It has 
still its gardens, which surround it on 
three sides, and the advantages of 
situation ; but it has lost much of its 
importance as a town, and has ceased 
to be the resort of strangers. The ( 

population, too, is so much diminished 
that a great proportion of its houses 
are completely deserted, and falling, 
if not already fallen, to ruins. About 
twenty years ago it had 36,000 bouses, 
and its former flourishing, condition 
is shown by their style of building, 
which is very superior to that of other 
Egyptian towns. The calumns at 
the doors, the neatness of the wooden 
windows, and the general appearance 
of their walls, strike a stranger, afWr 
being in Upper Egypt ; and it is with 
regret that he sees whole quarters of 
the town deserted, and houses falling 
to decay. 

It has several mosks, AAojm, and 
bazaars, and is surrounded by a wall 
with loopholes, which might serve to 
protect it against a band of Arabs, 
but would offer little resistance to 
artillery. The northern gate has two 
small towers at its side, of a form by 
no means common in Egypt; and 
between this and the plain are the 
most extensive gardens. 

Rosetta boasts no antiquities, but 
on the blocks used as thresholds of 
doors, in the mosks and private 
houses, a few hieroglyphics may be 
seen, among which I observed the 
name of Psamaticus I. The stones 
are mostly of the hard silicious quality 
found near the red mountain behind 
Caii^ : fragments of granite and ba- 
salt are also common, on the latter of 
which I in vain looked for the re- 
mainder of the Rosetta stone, dis- 
covered by the French while digging 
the foundations of Fort St. Julien, 
a few miles lower down the river. 
The columns, as usual, are mostly 
granite and marble, which, like the 
others, have been brought from old 
towns in the vicinity. On tbe west 
side are large drifts of sand, vyii^ in 
height with the palm trees they 
threaten to overwhelm ; and at tbe 
S.W. corner, close to the river, the 
wall is terq^inated by a small fort, 
mounting half a dozen small iron 
guns with two or three Turkish sol- 
diers smoking in the embrasures. 




Rosetta is a smaller town than 
Damietta, but better built, and may 
be about 1} mile in diameter. It is 
little known in history, but to us it 
recalls a sad memorial, of an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to restore the authority 
of the Memlooks, and the disastrous 
retreat of our army, in 1807. 

The river at Rosetta is perfectly 
fresh, except after a long prevalence 
of northerly winds, when the sea wa- 
ter, forced upwards, makes it slightly 
■alt, and well water is brought for 
sale to the town and the boats. The 
sea is distant 6 miles by the river, or 
3 miles across the plain. 

About \\ mile to the south of Ro- 
setta is a hill, called Aboo Mandoor, 
on which stands a telegraph, now 
locked up, and only intended in case 
of alarm on the coast. This hill is 
supposed to mark the site of an an- 
cieot town, probably Bolbitine, and 
U was this commanding position that 
the English occupied on their advance 
upon Rosetta in 1807. 

Below are two mosks, very pic- 
turesque objects from the river, which 
seem to mark the limits of the fer- 
tile soil of the neighbourhood of , Ro- 



Rosetta to Aboo Mandoor - 1| 

— to Berembal . 8 

— to Daroot - - 9| 

— to Atfeh . . 4 
Atfeh to Cairo (see Routo 

6.) - - - - I25i 

There is nothing worthy of remark 
on the way from Rosetta to Atfeh. 

At Metoobis are the mounds of 
the ancient town of Metubis, and at 
Daroot and Shindeeoon are the sites 
of other towns. 

Atfeh is at the mouth of the Mah- 
mood^h, or Canal of Alexandria, 
where it joins the Nile. 



Alexandria along the north 

bank of the Mahmoodeeh 
Canal to e*Sid, or Maison 
Carr^ .... 5 
To Karioon - - - IS 

Birket Ghuttas, or el Birkeh 3^ 
Karrawee (crossing the canal) A\ 
Damanhoor (after leaving the 

canal and crossing the plain) 7| 
Nigeeleh, or to Zowyet el Bahr 23^ 
Cross the river, and then to 

Menoof - - - - 18^ 
Shoobra-Shab&h by Kafr el 
Hemmeh, then crossing the 
Damietta branch - - 18 
Shoobra-el-Makk&seh, the Pa- 
sha's vi|la ... 
N.W. Gate of Cairo . . 4 



For the Mahmoodeeh Canal to 
Karrawee, see Route 6. 

Damanhoor is the capital of £1 
Bahayreh, 1. e. "the lower *' or 
*< northern" province. It is called 
by Aboolf^a Damanhoor el W&besh, 
" of the desert,*' and in Coptic Pi- 
dlmenh&r, or Tminhor. It is sup- 
posed to be the successor of Hermo- 
polis Parva, which was near, or, as 
Strabo says, on the river, the Canopic 
branch passing through the plain to 
the north of it. 

At Nigeeleh are stationed the re- 
lays of asses that carry the Indian 
mails between Cairo and Alexandria, 
and here the road crosses the river. 

Menoof, by some supposed to be 
the ancient Nicium, or Prosopis, was 
once a town of some iroponance. It 
is now only noted for its manufactory 
of mats, called Menoof(6eh, much es- 

F 5 



teemed at Cairo. Menoof, or Ma- 
nouf, is the same name that was given 
to Memphis. Near it is a large canal 
called Pharaooniih, which, from its car- 
rying off too much water from the 
Damietta to the Rosetta branch, was 
closed some years since by Moham- 
med AH. (For Shoobra and the 
Pasha*s villa, see the environs of Cairo 
in Section II.) 





Alexandria to Zowyel el Bahr 

(see Route 4.) .J • 
Alg&m - - - - 

TeHLneh - - - - 

Beni SaUmeh ... 

£1 Guttah (or £1 Kuttah) 
Embiibeh .... 
Cross the river at £mb&beh to 
Boolak, and thence to Cairo 






For Teraneh see Route 1 4. 

£mb4beh is only remarkable for 
having been a fortified post of the 
Memlooks, and as the town which 
gave its name to the battle called by 
Uie French "of the Pyramids/* but 
in £gypt ** of £mb&beh." All the as- 
sociations connected with it in the 
minds of the modern Cairenes are de- 
rived from its lupins, which, under 
the name of Emb&beh Muddud, are 
loudly proclaimed in the streets to be 
" superior to almonds.'* 

For Boolak see Route 6. 



Alexandria to e*Sid, or the Mai* 

son Carr^ 
Kario6n ... 

Birket Ghuttis 
Karrawee - ' . 
Zowyet el Ghaz^l 





Ruins at Gheyk 

Atfeh .... 

Rabman^h . . - 

Sa-el-Hagar ( Sais) 


Shaboor - - - 

Nigeeleh . - - 

Ter4ne|i ... 

A boo Nish4beh 


Aboo Ghaleb 

N. point of DelU - 

Shoobra . - • 

Boolak (the port of Cairo) 

- H 

- fi 

- iT* 

- 14 

. 4 

- lOi 

- lOi 

- 28 

- 7 

- 11 

- 41 

- 12 

- 12 

- 4 


(For boats and steamers from 
Alexandria to Cairo see Route 1. 

Those who are on their way to In- 
dia are obliged to take the latter 
(see Introduction). 

For the things necessary on the 
journey see Sect. I. b. and 5.) 

All baggage is subject .to an exami- 
nation at the custom-house, on leav- 
ing Alexandria, unless released by a 
small fee, and the declaration that it 
is for private use ; and merchandise 
pays 2 per cent., according to the 
new tariff. 'i*he traveller may either 
go on board his boat at the end of the 
road below Pompey*s Pillar, or near 
Moharrem Bey's villa, which is a 
little further off; but by sending his 
baggage before him to the former 
spot, and ordering the boat to go oii 
to Moharrem Bey*s (or to Rimleh), 
he will have an hour or two more for 
breakfast, or any other purpose, at 
Alexandria, and may ride leisurely to 
his boat, without being pressed for 
time, or obliged to pass through a 
winding and tedious part of the ca- 
nal. Af^r having made about 4 
miles from tliat villa, he is hailed by 
a guard stationed at the maiwom carrie^ 
or e* «ul, who require that the tetkrtk 
(permit) of servants and other natives 
be shown, lest any improper persons 
may have taken a passage on board. 
He is then allowed to continue bia 
voyage without further molestation. 
A similar kind of permit appears, bj 


Strabo*s account, to have been re- 
quired in ancient times from persons 
leaving Alexandria ; and the trouble- 
•ome system of passports seems to 
have been adopted by the Egyptians 
at a very early period. 

It was at this spot that the English 
cut the passage, to admit the sea water 
into the Lake Mareotis ; and from its 
having been dottd again, they now 
give it the name of S'ld^ signifying 

If the wind is fair a good sailing 
boat should reach Atfeb in 8 hours 
from Alexandria ; if towed by horses, 
in 10 and a half. Within the last 4 
years the Government has established 
post-horses on the canal where relays 
of horses are kept for the use of boats ; 
but in order to have the right of en- 
gaging them, it is necessary to be 
furnished with an order {te^th) 
from the authorities at Alexandria. 
A separate tetkreh is given for each 
post, so that if the wind is favourable 
a portion of the way, and contrary or 
deficient in other parts of the canal, 
horses may be taken only as far as 
required. A dahabeth is towed by 
2 horses, each with iu rider, and 1 
dollar is paid for a horse. 

The Ctmal of Mahmoodeeh, which 
was begun by Mohammed AH in 
1819, and opened Jan. 24. 1820, re- 
ceived its name in honour of the late 
sultan. It is said by Mengin to have 
cost 188,400 piastres, or 7,500,000 
francs, and 250,000 men were era- 
ployed about one year in digging it, 
under the direction of Hagee Osman 
agha, the Pasha*s chief Turkish sur- 
Teyor, assisted by SS. Bilotti, Costa, 
Massi, and two other lulian engi- 
neers. It was done in too hurried a 
manner, and the accumulation of 
mud, deposited in it after a very few 
years, so clogged its channel, that no 
boats of any size could navigate it 
during the greater part of the year ; 
an inconvenience only removed for a 
time by supplying it with water from 
a lateral canal from TeWineh, by mak- 
ing locks at its junction with the 

Nile. Another proof of bad manage- 
ment in its execution was the great 
loss of life among the workmen, no 
less than 20,000 being said to have 
perished by accidents, hunger, and 

An old canal existed on this line, 
which brought water from the Nile, 
and had been used in the time *of 
the Venetians for carrying goods to 
Alexandria. It was called the canal 
of Fooah, and existed, though nearly 
dry, in Savary's time, a. d. 1777. 
The spot where it entered the walls 
of Alexandria may still be seen, at 
the salient angle to the west of Pom- 
pey's Pillar ; and it was probably the 
same that of old went towards the 
Kibotos. There was also a canal on 
part of this line which left the Nile 
at Rahmaneeh, supposed by some to 
have been the old Canopic branch. 

The appearance of the Mahmood^h 
is far from interesting, and the mono- 
tony of its banks is not relieved by 
the telegraphs, rising at intervals 
above the dreary plain, which extends 
on both sides of it to a seemingly 
endless distance. They communicate 
between Alexandria and the capital ; 
following the canol as far as Kar- 
rawee, and then by Damanhoor, Zow- 
yet el Bahr, N4der, Menoof, and 
other intermediate places, to the 
citadel of Cairo. The earth thrown 
up from the canal forms an elevated 
ridge, rising far above the adjacent 
lands; and the only objects tliat in- 
terrupt the uniform level are the 
mounds of ancient towns, whose 
solitary and deserted aspect adds 
not a little to the gloominess of the 

On the Mahmood^eh are some 
villas, and farms, of Turks and Eu- 
ropeans, living at Alexandria. The 
most remarkable among the former is 
that of Moharrem Bey, already men- 
tioned. He was formerly governor 
of Alexandria, and son of the governor 
of Cawala, the native town of Mo- 
hammed Ali,and one of the few from 
that place who witnessed the gradual 

r 6 


rise of the Pasha during his career in 

The Mahmood^eh follows part of 
the ancient Canopic branch of the 
Nile, and the old canal of Fooah; 
and here and there, near its banks, 
are the remains of ancient towns. 
The most remarkable in its immediate 
vicinity are those (supposed to be) of 
Schedia, between Kario6n and Nishoo. 
Beginning a short way inland from 
the telegraph of the former, they ex- 
tend about three quarters of a mile to 
the south end of the large mounds of 
Nishoo, and contain confused remains 
of stone and brick, among which are 
two fragments of stone (apparently 
parts of the same block), bluing the 
name of the Great Remeses, and 
some capitals and fragments of late 
time. The most remarkable object is 
a series of massive walls in an isolated 
mound, 300 paces to the south-east- 
ward of these fragments, which Mr. 
Salt conjectured to be the docks of 
the state barges, kept at Schedia ; but 
they were evidently cisterns, like those 
in Italy and at Carthage. They are 
of Roman time, built of stone, with 
horizontal courses of the usual flat 
bricks or tiles, at intervals, and but- 
tresses projecting here and there, to 
give them greater strength ; the whole 
originally covered with a casing of 
stucco. The walls were about six- 
teen in number, of which twelve may 
be still distinctly seen, and the spaces 
between them were about 215 feet 
long, and 27 broad. The walls are 
now alx>ut 15 feet high. The ex- 
tremity of each gallery or cistern is 
rounded off, and we may suppose that 
they had arched roofs. A canal or 
branch of the river appears to have 
run through the levej space, about 
750 feet broad, between them and the 
town. The distance of Nishoo from 
Alexandria agrees exactly with that 
given by Strabo from Schedia to that 
city, wliich he calculates at 4 schoenes, 
or nearly 14 English miles. 

Schedia was so called by the Greeks, 
from the barrier, or bridge of boats, 

that closed the river at this spot, where 
duties were levied on all merchandise 
tliat passed ; and the name of Nishoo, 
applied to the neighbouring mounds 
and the modem village, seems to be 
derived from the Egyptian nitAoi, 
signifying '* the boats." The mounds 
of Nishoo are in four almost parallel 
lines, the two outer ones about 250, 
the centre two about 756 feet apart. 
They contain no traces of building ; 
they appear to be entirely of earth, 
though of very great height, and were 
probably the result of excavations, 
made in deepening the river, or the 
neighbouring canal, which, from the 
low space separating the two centre 
mounds, appears to have passed be- 
tween them. 

Schedia was a bLihop*s see in the 
time of Athanasius, as were Menelais 
and Andropolis. 

At KarioSn is a manufactory of 
glass, and a little more than a mile 
farther is another of pottery. The 
canal in the vicinity of Kario6n in- 
creases in breadth. Cbereu, in Coptic 
Chereus, stood near this; and An- 
thylla and Archandra in the plain 
between the Mahmood^h and Lake 

About 3^ miles from Kario6n is 
the village of Birket Ghutt^ or £1 
Birkeh (« the Lake**); aud at Karra- 
wee the road, which has thus far fol- 
lowed the bank of the canal, turns off 
to Damanho6r. 

Near Karrawee are mouqds of an 
old town of some extent, and others 
are seen in tlie plain to the south. A 
few miles farther, the canal mskes a 
bend northwards to Atfeh ; quitting 
the bed of an old canal, which joined 
the Nile farther to the south, just 
below e' Rahman^h. 

Atfeh. — On reaching Atfeh there is 
sometimes a delay in obtaining per- 
mission to pass through the locks to 
the Nile. The new arrangements are 
French, and nothing is done without 
signatures or seals of oflScials. Six 
seals are required here, the last being 
that of the Bey, who is not always to 




be found ; sometimes he is not up, at 
others he is dining, or taking bis 
siesta. But a bribe of five piastres 
will frequently get over all difficulties, 
and stand in lieu of seals. 

Atfeh is a miserable Tillage, abound- 
ing in dust and dogs; but the first 
▼iew of the Nile is striking, and a 
relief after the canal. 

The voyage between Atfeh and 
Cairo (or Boolak) occupies about S 
or 4 days, in ascending the stream 
with a good wind ; or by the steamer 
about 2S hours, and 11 to 12 in 
coming down the stream to Atfeh. 

During the high Nile, the voyage 
to Cairo takes rather more time. 

Fooah, — Nearly opposite Atfeh is 
Fooah^ conspicuous with its minarets, 
and a picturesque object from the 
river, as you pass during the high 
Nile. It occupies the site of the 
ancient Metelis (in Coptic Meleg, or 
Meledg), but contains no remains 
beyond a few granite blocks, now 
used as the thresholds of doors, with 
hieroglyphic inscriptions, containing 
the names of A pries and other kings 
of the 26th or Sa'ite dynasty. Foooh 
has now only a manufactory of tar- 
homhts or red caps, and the usual 
w^heh ** manufactory '* of large 
towns; but in the time of Leo 
Africanus it was very flourishing; 
and though its streets were narrow, 
it had the character of a large town, 
teeming with plenty, and noted for 
the appearance of its bazaars and 
■hops. ** The women,'* he adds, 
^ enjoy so much freedom there, that 
their husbands permit them to go 
during the day wherever they please ; 
and the surrounding country abounds 
in date trees." 

The best Egyptian dates come from 
a place on the other side of the Delta, 
called Korayn, near Salah^h, which 
are known at Cairo as the dSmeree. 
The Ibr^emee are from Nubia. 

Fooah has given its name to the 
madder, which was first planted there. 
It continued to be long a flourishing 
town; and Belon describes it in the 

15tb century, 6fty years after the con- 
quest of Sultan Selim, as second only 
to Cairo. 

During the wars of the Crusaders, 
tlie Christians penetrated into Egypt 
as fur as Fooah, in the reign of Melek 
Adel ; and having plundered and burnt 
the town, retired with much booty. 

DtBtoSk is well known in modem 
times for the f^te celebrated there in 
honour of Shekh Ibrahim e' Des- 
so6kee, a Moslem saint, who holds 
the second rank in the Egyptian ca- 
lendar, neit to the Sayd el Beddowee 
of Tanta. 

At e* Rahmanelfh was the entrance 
of an old canal that went to Alex- 
andria; which some suppose to be the 
andent Canopic branch, placing Nau- 
cratis at this town. £* Rahmandeh 
was a fortified post of the French 
when in Egypt, and was taken by 
the English in May 1801, previous 
to their march upon Cairo. 

SaU. — The lofty mounds of Sals 
are seen to the N. of the village of 
Sa-el-Hagar, *< Sa of the Stone," so 
called from the remains of the old 
town ; which are now confined to a 
few broken blocks, some ruins of 
houses, and a large enclosure, sur- 
rounded by massive crude brick walls; 
These last are about 70 feet thick, 
and of very solid construction. Be- 
tween the courses of bricks are layers 
of reeds, intended to serve as binders ; 
and I have been assured that hiero- 
glyphics have been met with on some 
of the bricks, which may perhaps, 
contain the name of the place, or of 
the king by whom the walls were 
built. I cannot, however, affirm that 
this is really the case, not having 
been able to find them myself, but 
others may be more fortunate in their 

These walls enclose a space mea- 
suring 2325 feet by 1960; the north 
side of which is occupied by the lake 
mentioned by Herodotus, where cer- 
tain mysterious ceremonies were per- 
formed in honour of Osiris. As he 
j says it was of circular form, and it is 


now long and irregular, we may con- 
clude that it has since encroached on 
part of the temenot or sacred enclo- 
sure, where the temple of Minerva 
and the tombs of the Saite kings 
stood. The site of the temple ap- 
pears to have been in the low open 
space to the W., and part3 of the 
wall of its temenos may be traced on 
two sides, which was about 720 feet 
in breadth, or a little more than that 
around the temple of Tanis. To the 
£. of it are mounds, with remains 
of crude brick houses, the walls of 
which are partially standing, and here 
and there bear evident signs of having 
been burnt This part has received 
the name of "el Kala,'* "the citadel," 
from its being higher than the rest, 
and from the appearance of two mas- 
sive buildings at the upper and lower 
end, which seem to have been in- 
^nded for defence. It is not impos- 
sible that this was tlie royal palace. 
Below it to the S. is a low space, 
now cultivated, and nearly on tlie 
same level as the area where I su)>- 
pose the temple to have stood. 

The water of the lake is used for 
irrigating this spot, but it is generally 
dried up from the end of May until 
the next inundation fills the canals. 
On its banks, particularly at the 
western extremity, grow numerous 
reeds, and when full of water it is 
frequented by wild ducks and other 
water fowl, now the only inhabitants 
of ancient Sais. 

On a low mound, between 800 
and 900 feet from the N. E. corner 
of the walls, beyond a large modern 
canal, are a block of granite and psrt 
of a sarcophagus ; to the S. is an- 
other mound, with a Shekh*s tomb ; 
and beyond this are the ruins of 
houses. They are distant about 1000 
feet from the walls of the large enclo- 
sure, and are doubtless the remains 
of the ancient town, the S. extremity 
of which is occupied by the present 
village. Here too are some ancient 

There are no remains of sculp- 

ture amidst the modem or ancient 
bouses, except fragments in the two 
mosks, and at the door of a bouse ; 
which last has the name of king 
Psamaticus 1 1. , tlie goddess Neith, 
and the town of Ssa, or Sals. 

Sais was a city of great importance, 
particularly during the reigns of the 
Saite kings, who ruled Egypt about 
150 years, until the Persian invasion 
under Cambyses; and some claim 
for it the honour of having been the 
parent of a colony, which founded 
the city of Athens in 1556 a. c, and 
introduced the worship of Minerva on 
the shores of Greece. 

At Sa'is were tlie sepulchres of all 
the kings of Egypt, natives of the 
Sa'ite nome. They stood in the teme- 
not, or sacred enclosure, of the tem- 
ple of Minerva ; and it was here that 
the unfortunate Apries and his rival 
Amasis were both buried. The 
tomb of Apries was near the temple, 
on the left, entering the tetnenos : 
tliat of Amasis stood farther from the 
temple than those of Apries and bis 
predecessors, in the vestibule of this 
enclosure. It consisted of a large 
stone chamber, adorned with columns 
in imitation of palm trees, and other 
ornaments, within which was an (iso- 
lated) stone receptacle, with double 
doors (at each end), contiuning tlie 
sarcophagus. It was from tliis tomb 
that Cambyses is said to have taken 
the body of Amasis ; which, aAer be 
had scourged and insulted it, he or- 
dered to be burnt, though the Egyp- 
tians assured Herodotus that the 
body of some other person had been 
substituted instead of the king*s« 
" They also show,** continues the 
historian, **the. sepulchre of him 
(Osiris) whom I do not think it 
right here to mention. It stands in 
the sacred enclosure, behind the tern* 
pie of Minerva, reaching along the 
whole extent of its wall. In this 
temenos are several large stone obe- 
lisks ; and near it a lake cased with 
stone, of a circular form, and about 
the sixe of that at Delo% called Trt>- 




choTdes. On this lake are represented 
at night the sufferings of him, con- 
cerning whom, though much is known 
to me, I shall preserre strict silence, 
except as far as it may be right for 
me to speak. The Egyptians call 
them mysteries. I shall obsenre the 
same caution with regard to the in- 
stitutions of Ceres, called Thesmo- 
phoria, which were brought from 
Egypt by the daughters of Danaiis, 
and afterwards taught by them to 
the Pelasgic women." Sals was the 
place where the ** fete of burning 
lamps** was particularly '< celebrated 
during a certain night, when eYcry 
one lighted lamps in the open air 
around his house. They were small 
cups full of salt (and neater?) and 
oil, with a floating wick which lasted 
all night. Strangers went to Sals 
from difierent parts of Egypt to assist 
at this ceremony ; but those who 
oould not be present lighted lamps 
at their own homes, so that the fes- 
liTal was kept, not only at Sais, but 
throughout the country.'* 

I have already mentioned the spot 
which appears to have been occupied 
by the temple of Minerva ; and it is 
probable that in excavating there, its 
exact position and plan might be as- 
certained. *' Amasis added to it some 
▼ery beautiful propy/«a, exceeding all 
others both in height and extent, as 
well as in the dimensions of the stones 
and other respects. He also placed 
there several large colossi and andro- 
spbinxes, and brought numerous 
blocks of extraordinary size to re- 
pair the temple, some from the quar- 
ries near Memphis, and the largest 
from Elephantine, a distance of 20 
days* Mil from Sais^ 

•* But,** adds Herodotus, «< what I 
admire most is an edifice of a single 
block brought from the latter place : 
8000 men, all boatmen, were em- 
ployed three years in its transport to 
Sals. It is 21 cubits long externally, 
14 broad, 8 high ; and its measure- 
ments within are 16 cubits 20 digits 
long, 12 broad, and 5 high. It stands 

at the entrance of the sacred enclo- 
sure : and the reason given by the 
Egyptians for its not liaving been ad- 
mitted is, that Amasis, hearing the 
architect utter a sigh, as if fatigued 
with the length of time employed 
and the labour he had undergone, 
considered it so bad an omen, that he 
would not allow it to be taken any 
farther; though others affirm that* it 
was in consequence of a man having 
been crushed, while moving it with 
levers." At Sais was also a colossus 
dedicated by Amasis, 75 feet long, 
similar in size and proportion to one 
he placed before the temple of Pthah 
at Memphis, which was lying on its 
back ; and the grand palace of the 
kings in the same city, which Apries 
left to attack Amasis, and to which 
he afterwards returned a prisoner, is 
another of the interesting monuments 
mentioned at Ssls. 

The Egyptian name of this city 
was Ssa, which is retained in the 
modem Sa; and the Sals of ancient 
writers was the same, with a Greek 
termination. It is about a mile from 
the Nile, on the right bank, and in 
order to save time, if the Nile is 
low, the traveller may land when in 
a line with the mounds, and send his 
boat to wait for htm at the bend of 
the river near Kodabeh, about 1^ 
miles higher up. During the inun- 
dation the plahi is partly flooded and 
intersected with canals, which are 
not forded without inconvenience be- 
fore November. 

Seven or eight miles inland to the 
W. from Dahreeb, between Nikleh 
and Shab6or, is Rams^es, on the Da- 
manbo6r canal, where report speaks 
of a few stone remains, though I hear 
they have been lately removed to 
build a bridge, or for some other pur- 
pose. They, as well as the name, 
mark the Kite of an ancient town, 
which would be of very great interest, 
were it on tlie E. instead of the W. 
side of the Delta. This Rams^es, or 
rather its predecessor, is unnoticed by 
profane writers, and it is too far from 


the spot where the Israelites lived, to 
have any claim to the title of one of 
the two treasure cities, Pithom and 
Rameses, mentioned in Exodus. And, 
indeed, Rameses is expressly stated 
to have been the place whence the 
Israelites took their departure for 
Succoth, and Etham at the edge of 
the Wilderness, on their way to the 
Red Sea. 

Wild boars frequent some of the 
islands in the Rosetta branch, but 
they are difficult to find, without ex- 
perienced guides. Traces of an old 
canal, running to the N. N. W., by 
sonofle supposed to be the Canopic 
branch of the Nile, may be seen above 
Nig^Ieh, which is traditionally called 
the Bahr Yoosef. It has been lately 
enlarged, and joined by tlie new canal, 
opened five or six miles above Ter&neh, 
and is used to carry water to the plain 
of the Bahayreh, and even to supply 
the Mahmooid^eh during the summer. 
Not far from this should be the site 
of Gynaecopolis and Andropolis, by 
some supposed to be the same city. 

About two or three miles to the 
westward of Kom-Sher^k are the 
mounds of an ancient town, on the 
canal. Some stone remains were 
found there a few years since, in dig- 
ging for nitre, but were speedily taken 
away, which is the fate of every frag- 
ment of masonry as soon as discovered. 
The mounds arc called Tel el odilmeh 
(** of the bones '* ), from the bodies 
found buried amidst them. A little 
higher up is Tar^eh, near which are 
other mounds, and the branch of a 
canal, which follows the course of the 
ancient Lycus canalU^ that ran towards 
the lake Mareotis. Some suppose 
Momemphis to have stood here ; but 
as it was near the road to the Natron 
Lakes, it is more likely t<i have been 
at £1 Boorag&t, or Kafr Daoot, near 
the former of which are the mounds 
of an old town of considerable sise. 
At Aboo-Ukh&wee and Shaboor are 
the shallowest parts of the Rosetta 
branch, which in summer are barely 
passable for large boaU. About Na- 

der, on the E. bank, are many wild 
boars, which are found in many other 
parts of the Delta, particularly in the 
low marsh lands to the N., and al>out 
the lake Mensaleh, as well as in the 

Ter&neh is the successor of Tere- 
nuthis. About 1) mile to the W., 
beyond the canal, are mounds of con* 
siderable extent, which probably mark 
its ancient bite: and it is from this 
place that the road leads from the 
Nile to the Natron Lakes. The in- 
habitants of Ter&neh are principally 
employed in bringing the natron from 
the desert, the whole of which is 
farmed from die Pasha by Signor 
Gibarra ; and to this is attributable 
the prosperous condition of that village. 
The lakes are distant from Ter6neh 
about twelve hours' journey. (See 
Route 14. Section II.) 

Near Lekhmas are other mounds, 
perhaps of the city of Menelaus ; so 
called, not from the Greek hero, but 
from the brother of the first Ptolemy ; 
and between Aboo-Nishibce and 
Beni-Sal&meh is the entrance of the 
new canal, cut by Mohammed Ali in 
1 820, which, as before stated, carries 
the water to that of Alexandria. 

The traveller descries the Pyramids 
for the first time, from the shore, a 
little above Werd&n, when about due 
west of Ashmoon ; and hereabouts 
the desert has invaded the soil on the 
west bank, and even poured its drifled 
sand into the Nile. At Ashmoon or 
Oshmoun are lofty mounds, but no 
sculptured remains. A little beyond 
Aboo-Gh£leb the pyramids are seen 
from the river, and continue in sight 
the remainder of the voyage to Cairo. 
About two miles below, or N. W. of 
Om-e*deen&r, is tlie spot where the 
works for tlie proposed barrage of the 
Nile have been commenced; and 
about the same distance above that 
village is the southern point, or apex, 
of the Delta. Here the Nile divides 
itself into the two branches of Rosetta 
and Damietta ; though the increasinf^ 
shallowness of the passage between 


the point, and the island to the south, 
will soon place the commenceroent 
of the Delta about two miles funher 
south. Dearly opposite the Tillage of 

The object of the barrage is to re- 
tain the water of the Nile, in order 
that it may be used for irrigating the 
lands, when the inundation has retired, 
and supply the place of water-wheels, 
which add so much to the expense of 
cultivation. One dam is to be thrown 
across the Rosetta, another across the 
Damietta, branch ; a large canal is to 
be carried direct through the centre 
of the Delta, and the quantity of water 
allowed to pass into this, and the two 
branches of the river, is to be regulated 
by means of sluices, according to cir- 
cumstances. A slight change is also 
to be made in the course of the Nile, 
so as to cut off a useless angle below 
Elafr Mansoor on the western, and 
another above Shoobra-Sbab^eh on 
the eastern, branch ; and the canal for 
irrigating the plain between Belbays 
and Bubastis, communicating with 
that of Tel el Wadee,48 to Ivave the 
Nile at Shelaiuln. 

By these means, the want of water 
during the low Nile, a deficient inun- 
dation, and the great loss of water 
suffered to run oflT uselessly into the 
sea, will be obviated ; and the addi- 
tional effect will be obtained of in- 
creasing the height of the river, above 
the barrage, during the inundation, 
so as to enable it to irrigate lands of 
every level. The barrage of the Ro- 
setta branch is to consist of a massive 
atone dam, with 24 arches SO feet 
broad, and a large central arch 92 feet 
broad, to allow the passage of the 
principal volume of water. The dam 
of the Damietta branch is to have 
16 arches, SO feet broad, with a large 
central arch. The principal arches 
of both dams are to be always kept 
open, but the lateral arches are to be 
closed during the low Nile j by which 
means sufficient water will be afforded 
to supply the canals intended for the 
irrigation of the interior. 

Many delays have occurred, from 
various causes, to prevent the com- 
pletion of this gigantic undertaking. 
M. Linant, by whom it has been pro- 
jected and commenced, has been fre- 
quently ordered to abandon, and as 
oflen desired to continue, the works ; 
and fear of disasters from tiie volume 
of water thus withheld, a political 
apparition, or the intrigues of in- 
dividuals, have at times interfered to 
prevent its completion. It is far from 
my wish to presume to decide on the 
probability of its success ; the pressure 
of so enormous a body of water will 
require precautions of no ordinary 
kind, to prevent the river's carrying 
away, or piercing through, the banks 
at the haunches or abutments of the 
stone dam ; and, being of alluvial 
soil, they will be exposed to danger both 
from the force of the water against 
the bank, and by its filtration beneath 
the surface. If the dam abutted on 
either side oa rock, this would be 
effectually obviated, and the only 
thing then required would be the soli- 
dity of the dam itself, and the firm- 
ness of its well-founded piers: but 
the construction of a dam in alluvial 
soil appears to present difficulties, 
and even dangers to the country, which 
the most wonderful skill can alone 

In former times, the point of the 
Delta was much more to the south 
than at present. Cercasora, in the 
LStopolite nome, which was just above 
it on the west bank, stood, according 
to Strabo, nearly opposite, or west of 
Heliopolis, close to the observatory 
of Eudoxus. In Herodotus's time, 
the river had one channel as far as 
Cercasora; but below that town it 
divided itself into three branches, 
which took different directions : one, 
the Pelusiac, going to the east; 
another, the Canopic, turning off to 
the west ; and the third going straight 
forward, in the direction of its previous 
course through Egypt to the point of 
(be Delta, which it divided in twain 
as it ran to the sea. It was not less 


connderable in the Yolume of its 
water, nor less celebrated than the 
other two, and was called the Seben- 
nytic branch ; and from it two others, 
the Sa'itic and Mendesian, were de- 
rived, emptying themselves into the 
sea by two distinct mouths. 

After passing the palace of Shoobra, 
the distinct appearance of the numer- 
ous minarets of Cairo announces to 
the traveller his approach to the 
Egyptian capital, and he soon enters 
a crowd of boats before the Custom- 
house of BooUk. 

Bool&k, the port of Cairo, con- 
tained, in 1833, a population of about 
5000 souls. It formerly stood on an 
island, where Macrisi says sugar-cane 
was cultivated ; and the old channel 
which passed between it and Cairo 
may still be traced in parts, particularly 
to the northward, about half-way from 
the Shoobra road. The filling up of 
this channel has removed Cairo farther 
from tlie Nile, and has given to Boo- 
l£k the rank and advantages of a 
port Here the duties on exports and 
imports to and from Alexandria are 
levied ; those on goods from Upper 
Egypt being received at the port of 
Musrel Ateekeh (Old Cairo); and 
the whole are farmed by some wealthy 
Copt or Armenian merchant. 12 
per cent, is in like manner exacted at 
Asouan on all goods entering Egypt 
from Ethiopia. All merchandise 
which has not passed the custom- 
houses of Old Cairo or Bool&k, are 
stopped at the gates of Cairo, as at 
the barriiret of Paris and other 
French towns; and the Egyptians 
have to thank the French for this 
silly and oppressive mode of taxation. 

But the revival of the new treaty 
has once more freed all European 
imports, after they have once paid the 
5 per cent., from further duties in the 
interior ; and those levied at Boolik 
and Old Cairo are confined to the 
productions of tlie country. The 
traveller may therefore console him- 
self with the feeling that he is not 
amenable to the scrutiny of the cus- 

tom-house of BooUk, or any other 
place after leaving Alexandria; and 
if any obstruction is offered, he should 
immediately represent it to the con- 
sulate, and require the punishment of 
the offenders. 

At Boolik is the palace of Ismail 
Pasha, who was killed in the pro- 
vince of Shendy, little more than 20 
years ago. He had ventured with a 
small suite of about 50 persons into 
the heart of the country, and had 
ordered a considerable number of 
Blacks to be levied by the chief, Me- 
lek Nimr, for the service of his father 
Mohammed Ali, within the short 
space of 3 days : and on the Ethio- 
pian requesting a longer period, he 
struck him on the mouth with his 
pipe, adding insult to the blow. The 
wily Nimr dissembled his feelings, 
and by pretended respect and con- 
cern for the comfort of so distin- 
guished a guest, engaged the young 
Pasha to pass the night on shore ; 
when preparations were speedily made 
for satiating his revenge. A large 
quantity of reeds were collected about 
the house, on pretence of feeding the 
camels; and in the dead of the 
night, surrounded by flames, and a 
countless host of furious Ethiopians, 
the Pasha and his party were over- 
whelmed without the possibility oi 
resistance or escape. 

Many other palaces and country 
houses are seen in the vicinity, and 
Mohammed Ali has expressed a widi 
that each of the principal grandees 
sliould erect a k<ur (or villa) on tb« 
plain beteen Bool4k and Shciobra, as 
well as a house at Cairo ; with the 
double motive of fixing their property 
in the country, and of displaying to 
foreign visiters tlie riches they haTe 
derived from his bounty, and the pros- 
perous state of the country be rules. 
On one of the mounds on the N.E. 
side of Bool&k is an observatory, call- 
ed Bayte* Uussud. 

On arriving at Bool&k, the travel- 
ler had better engage a camel, or more, 
according to the quantity of his lug- 




gage, and proceed immediately to 
Cairo. He will pay about 7 piastres 
for two camels, and for a donkey to 
the inn at Cairo 1 piastre. After 
passing through some of the narrow 
streets of Boolik be arrives at an open 
space, where the road turns to the left 
ciirect to Cairo ; and the citadel, the 
nu^i(e of the Mokuttum hiils, and 
the minarets of Cairo, now open to 
his view. This road has been grestly 
improved within the last ten years, 
the earth taken from the mounds hav- 
ing been used to raise it, and the 
ground on either side levelled and 
partly planted with trees. The re- 
moval of the mounds on the W. 
side of Cairo has been undoubtedly 
one of the most useful works per- 
formed by the Pasha, both for the 
appearance and health of the city ; 
and some idea may be had of the 
greatness of the undertaking from 
those that still remain on the other side. 
The entrance to Cairo from Boo- 
Uk is by the gate of the Usbek^eb, 
an extensive square, containing about 
450,000 square feet ; nearly the whole 
of which used to be, during the inun- 
dation, one large sheet of water. In 
the following spring it became a com* 
field, with the exception of that part 
appropriated to a military esplanade. 
Within the last few years a canal has 
been cut round it, in order to keep 
the water from the centre, though 
from the lowness of its level much 
still ooses through to its surface, 
during the high Nile; and it has 
been laid out partly as a garden, and 
partly as fields, with trees planted 
on the banks of the canal that sur- 
rounds it. A broad road leads 
through the centre, from the entrance 
to the opposite side, passing over a 
bridge at either end ; and it is in con- 
templation to establish a Turkish caftf 
on one side, and a European one on 
the other, for the convenience of the 
natives and the Franks. On the W. 
aide, or the left as you pass through 
the gate, is the palace of the late Mo- 
hammed Bey Defterd&r, in whose 

garden the unfortunate Kleber wis 
assassinated ; and on the south are the 
hareem of the Paabn, the house of 
Ahmed Pasha T^er, and other 
buildings ; offering a pleaung con- 
trast to the gloomy abodes of the 
Copts, which form the northern side. 
These, as well as all the other houses 
of Cairo have been lately white- washed 
by order of the Pasha, to the destruc- 
tion of the Oriental character of the 
town ; and as a security against fire, 
no more picturesque wooden miiffftre- 
h€ihMy or latticed balconies, are to be 

Mohammed Bey Defterd&r, or, as 
he is called by Europeans, the Def- 
terdiir Bey, was the son-in-law of 
Mohammed All, whose daughter, 
Niisleh H&nem, he married. He was 
well known for his savage disposition 
and the many cruelties he perpetrated, 
both in Cairo, and when commanding 
in Senn&r and Kordofan ; and his 
death in 1833 was hailed, as might be 
expected, with universal satisfaction. 
He was a man of some talent, and 
was more accomplished than the 
generality of Turks; but this su- 
periority only served to add to his 
condemnation for the cruelties he de- 
lighted in committing, which could 
not be palliated by the excuse of ig- 
norance. It would neither be desir- 
able nor agreeable to enumerate all 
the follies and cruelties of this man, 
many of which were done for the 
pleasure of sustaining the fame he 
had acquired for madness, as well as 
from real savageness of disposition : 
a single example will suflSce. On 
one occasion a black slave of his had 
bought some milk from a poor woman, 
and after drinking it had refused the 
payment of 5 paras, which was the 
price of the quantity he had taken. 
The woman, finding who he was, 
complained to his master. The boy 
was sent for, but denied the accusa- 
tion. The Defterdiir inquired of the 
woman if she was positive he had 
drunk the milk ; and on her answer- 
ing in tlie affirmative, he said, ** I will 


soon discover the truth ; but if yoii 
have accused him falsely, I will treat 
you io the same manner I now treat 
him.*' Upon this he ordered his 
stomach to be cut open ; and on dis- 
covering the milk threw her the 5 
paras, with the exulting feeling that 
no one should dare to deceive him, or 
forget his power. 

The same thing had once been done 
by Sultan Bajazet, and it was no 
doubt partly in imitation of what he 
had read in the history of his country, 
with which he was well acquainted, 
and partly from the natural tendency 
of his disposition, that this savage ex- 
pedient occurred to him. 

Not content with continuing to 
exercise the right of life and death, 
which Mohammed Ali had openly de- 
clared to be no longer vested in any 
chief, he even pretended to defy the 
Piyiha, of whose indulgence towards 
the husband of his daughter, and con- 
sideration for his station, he had the 
bad taste to take advantage; till at 
length his father-in-law took from 
him all command, and confined him 
to one of his estates, where death put 
an end to his career, without exciting 
any other regret than that it had not 
happened many years earlier. 

Notwithstanding the cruelty of his 
disposition, some were found to ex- 
cuse, and even to commend him for 
the love of justice that prompted his 
savage puni^ments, which, they add, 
were not inflicted on the poor, but on 
men who had been their oppressors ; 
so that the rule of the Defterdar, 
however dreaded by those in power, 
was always welcome to the peasants, 
who were sure to find redress for the 
conduct of their shekhs and Turkish 

In the square of the Usbek^eh the 
Moolcd e* Nebbee, or ** Prophet's 
birth-day," and some other fites, are 
held; and here, during the former ; 
ceretnony, the Saadeeh (the modem i 
Psylli), exhibit the juggling per- 
formance of tearing with their teeth 

the living asps they carry in proces- 
sion ; while their s^ekh, mounted on 
a horse, rides over the bodies of a 
number of fanatics, who prostrate 
themselves on the ground for the pur- 
pose, and suppose themselves ben»^ 
fited in proportion to the pain they 
endure. None, however, will ac- 
knowledge that they suffer, or are at 
all sensible of being trodden upon by 
the hoofs of the blessed animal ; and 
the same kind of enthusiasm enables 
them to deny the pain, which, of old, 
induced the votaries of Mars to bear 
the blows they received at the fete of 

Having traversed the Uzbek6eh, 
the traveller is hurried on to the 
Frank quarter, a short distance off, 
where an enormous board, to the sur- 
prise of the Faithful, bestrides the 
street, in order to point out the 
British Hotel. A turn to the left, 
down the Derb el Bar&bra, soon 
brings him to this hotel, where, if he 
is on his way to India, there is every 
reason to suppose he will put up. 
Passing through the court, he sees 
the various preparations for a journey 
across the desert. Here part of a 
tilted cart, wheels, and other things 
are on the eve of completion, to make 
up tlie complement of carriages which 
the increasing numbers of passengers 
to India are constantly requiring. 
In another place a row of covered 
chairs (a sort of hybrid between a se- 
dan and a bathing chair) awaits the 
ladies of the party, and a lynx pacing 
backwards and forwards in a cage, an 
ostrich spatiating about the court, and 
Eabtern and Frank costumes add to 
the variety of the scene. If he is so 
unfortunate as to arrive with many 
other passengers, and is neither among 
the first, nor has sent any one before 
him to secure rooms, he will be 
obliged to put up with the disagree- 
able inconvenience of having another 
person in tlie same bed-room, and a 
sitting-room will be quite out of the 






a. Hotels. 1^6. Housss. — c Scrtants. — d, Hoasvs akd Assxs. — c. 
Placss or ruBLic exsort. —f, Qoickkst modi op bixino Cairo and tuk 
Nkiohbourhood. — g. Boats. — A. History or Cairo. — t. Tux Citadcl. 
— j. Orucvtal Character op ths Town. — A. Mosks, — Early poimtxd 
Archcs. — Morostan or Mad-uouss. — Bab Zooatlxh.— t Tombs op 
THx Caliphs OP Egypt. — m. Tombs op tux Baharitx Mkmlook Kings. 
— It. Tombs op thx Circassian Mxmlook Kings. — Tombs op tuk Mbm- 


— r. Capks. — Punch. — «. Baths. — /. Slayx Markxt.— m. Bazaars, 

— pRicxs or Goods AT Cairo.*— r. Quartxrs op Cairo. — w. Wails 
ANB ExTXNT OP Cairo. — Canal. — X. Gatxs. — y. Antiquitiks in 
Cairo. — z. Population. — Dogs. — aa, Fxstiyals and Sights at Cairo. 

— Pilgrim AGK to Mxcca. — Opxnino thx Canal or Old Cairo. — Tux 
Propubt*s Birthday. — Fxtxs. — bh, Thx Magician. — ee. Institutions 
op THX Pasha. — Schools. — dd, Intxrnal Administration. — Poucx. — 
Courts op Jusncx. — ee. Thx Mahkkmxh, or Cadi*s Court. 

Excursion 1. — a. Old Cairo. — h. Nilometer and Isle of Roda.^e. Kasr 

el Ainee, and College of Derwisbes ; — Kasr Dubarra. 
Excursions. — a. Heliopolis. — b. Petrified Wood. 
Excursion 3. — Gardens and Palace of Shoobra. 
Excursion 4. — Pyramids of Geexeh, Sakk&ra, and Memphis. 


7 Cairo to Suex 

8 Cairo to Mount Sinai 

9 Mount Sinai to £1 Akaba ; 
Petra; Hebron 

10 Cairo to Syria 

1 1 Cairo by water to Damietta 

12 Cairo by water to Mensa- 
leh and Tanis 

IS Cairo by water to Bu- 
bastisy Pbarbsthus, and 
Tanis . - - - 

14 Cairo to the Natron Lakes 
and Bahr el Fargh - 







15 Cairo to the Seewah, or 
Oasis of Ammon 
Cairo to the Fyo6m 
Mede^neh to Benisooef - 
Cairo to the Little Oasis, 
Great Oasis, and the Oasis 
of Dakhleh, by the Fyo6m 
Cairo to the Convents of 
St. Antony and St Paul and 
other parts of the Eastern 
Desert north of Kossayr . 

(For the Desert south of Kossayr, see 
Routes 16, 17, 18.) 






a. uotxls. 
The first hotel for some years was 
Kill's, now the British. But there are 
two others, one the Hotel d'Orient, 

\^'7.'-<C''^ / 

/ • 

on the N. side of the Uxbek^eh. and 
Levick*s in the Wisat e' Geer, about 
half-way between the Uzbek^eb and 
the British Hotel, 



Sect. n. 

Of the charges I cannot speak po- 
sitively ; but the following, which 
were made at Hill's, may serve to 
give some idea of the arrangements 
on this head at a Cairo Hotel. 


► - 



- 20 

Board and lodging including*] 

a bed- room for each person y - 
per day 

Children under 10 years of 
age, for board and lodging 
each per day 

Servants' board and lodging 
per day ' 

Wines, &c. — Rose Cham- | ^ ^^ 

paigne, per bottle J ' 

White Cbampaigne, Ditto - 40 

Charapaigne, Ditto -> SO 

Claret Ditto - 35 

Burgundy, Ditto - 27 

Hermitage, Ditto - 27 

Madeira, Ditto - 27 

Port, Ditto - 25 

Sherry, Ditto - 25 

Bronti, Ditto - 15 

Marsala, Ditto - 15 

Frontignac, Ditto - 12 

Bordeaux, Ditto - 12 

French wine, Ditto - 4 

Brandy, Ditto - 15 

Rum, Ditto - 15 

Whiskey, Ditto - 20 

Hollands, Ditto - 12 
Ale, porter, and \ 
stout J 

Cider Ditto - 10 

Soda Water, Ditto - 5 

Porterage charged to each"! 

person on leaving this Ho> I - 5 
tel. J 

Boato, camels, asses, tents, saddles, 
chairs, water-skins, &c., provided. 

Provisions of all kinds supplied. 

Dinners for private parties. 

All orders for payments or purchases 
to be given in writing. 

^^gings may also be found at 
Carlo Peni*s, near tbe British consu- 
late,^ who keeps a large store of re^ 
quisitesfor a journey in Upper Egypt; 
and there is a small inn opposite 

Ditto . 8 

the palace of Ahmed Paslia Taher, 
behind the Uzbek^eh (to the S. £.) 
frequented by English, and reason- 

The Giardino, or French hotel, 
kept by Doumergue, in the French 
Street, is cheap, but it has no very 
good rooms. The charges are 30 
piastres a day, including a room, 
breakfast, lunch at noon, and dinner 
at the table dkdU in the evening, with 
vin ordinaire^ other wines being 
charged according to the carte. It 
is mostly patronised by French and 
Italians. In former times it was the 
only hotel that travellers frequented ; 
with the exception of an indifferent 
one (no longer existing) in the same 
street ; and some took up their abode 
at the Latin convenL 

There is a trattoria opposite the 
main guard, in the principal street of 
the Frank quarter, or Moskee, kept 
by Pietro Chiesa, which is frequented 
by Italians and others. It is reputed 
by them not bad, and of course mo* 
derate. There is also an hotel in the 
same street, kept by Guerra, but not 
first-rate, and, I have no doubt, seldom 
visited by English travellers. Tbe 
rest are not worthy of notice. 

Four houses of the late Osroan 
Effendi in the Soog e* ZuUut, are also 
let furnished, and one floor or set of 
rooms may be had at from 5 to 8 
piastres a day, or by the month at 
about 1 50 piastres. It consists of a 
bed- room, sitting-room, and kitchen ; 
the hdthf or entrance court below, 
being common to all who live in the 
bouse. Tbe largest has only two 


House rent in the Turkish qnarter 
varies from about SO to 1 20 piastres 
a month. Some small houses iu out- 
of-the-way places let even at 10 or 
15, and some large ones at 900. 
The average rent of good houses 
there may bie rated at from 50 to 100, 
and the latter may be considered, 
generally speaking, a full price ; un- 





less beyond tbe usual size, or fitted up 
with glass windows, and other extra 
conTeniences. In the Frank quarter 
and the Wcinity they are dearer, vary- 
ing from 100 piastres to 250 a month ; 
and the British Hotel was let for 
20,000 piastres (200^) a year, or at 
1 667 piastres a month. 

This great increase in price is partly 
owing to the great fire of 18S8 hav- 
ing destroyed many houses in the 
Frank quarter, which their owners 
have never been able to rebuild, and 
which are still in ruins ; partly to 
the influx of strangers who occupy so 
many more than formerly ; and partly 
to their owners finding that strangers 
make little difficulty in paying Urge 
prices, whenever they are asked. It 
is to these two last causes also that 
must be attributed the increase in the 
prices of so many other things, as 
boat-hire, servants* wages, and the 
like; while in the Turkish quarter, 
beyond the influence of Europeans, 
prices have only risen in proportioif 
to the decreased value of the piastre. 

Those who, coming from India on 
two years* leave, wish to stay in Egypt, 
may find houses which can be made 
comfortable at a trifling expense. It 
would, perhaps, not be worth while 
for a month or two; but the total 
expense for furniture, alterations, and 
rent, would be very little at the end 
of a year. Generally speaking, the 
houses are in a very uncomfortable 
state, and for vrinter scarcely habit- 
able ; it is, therefore, necessary to put 
in glass windows, and iotroduce va- 
rious little improvements, besides fur- 
nishing the rooms, and making re- 
pairs. It will he as well to come to 
an understanding with the owner of 
the house, that the substitution of glass 
windows, or other alterations, shall 
not entail upon you the necessity of 
replacing all the original wood* work ; 
and if be has any scruples about the 
matter, it had better be stipulated that 
he shall take it away, or lock it up 
himself in some closet of the house. 

It is the uncomfortable state of 

houses at Cairo that prevents many 
invalids going from Europe to that 
excellent climate for the winter ; and 
unless a friend prepared one before* 
hand, in vain would they hope to meet 
with a Cairo house fit for a winter's 
residence. If no friend could be 
found to perform this charitable office, 
the best plan would be to go to an 
hotel at Cairo, and after having fixed 
upon a house, to request some one to 
overlook the repairs and alterations, 
and then go into Upper Egypt (if not 
inclined to stay at the hotel), while 
they were fi^oing on. The best houses 
are in the Frank and Copt quarters. 

That Cairo is well adapted fbr those 
who require a mild climate is certain, 
and many English medical men would 
send patients to Egypt, as did those 
of ancient Rome, provided houses could 
be found ready for their reception. 
Unfortunately the natives are too poor 
to fit them up ; and the Europeans 
settled there are so prone to impose on 
strangers, that it is hopeless to depend 
upon, or appiv to, them to procure a 
house ; therefore, if a man wishes to be 
comfortable, and not to be cheated, 
be had better go and arrange matters 
for himself. 

In hiring houses one thing should 
be remembered, of which European 
strangers are seldom aware, that a 
house at Cairo lets much below the 
average rent, if without the advantage 
of a well, or a court yard; and one 
which would let with a well at 40 pias- 
tres wcftild not be taken by a native 
for more than 30 ; ahd that of 100 
piastres would not fetch more' than 75 
or 80. The cost of making a well is 
very little, not being more titan 500 
to 700 piastres, according to the 

In looking at empty houses, the 
most disagreeable result is being 
covered with fleas, which it is next to 
impossible to avoid. A Turk, in 
mentioning the subject, recommended 
that three or four/elZaAs should be 
first sent through the rooms, to carry 
off the hundreds that lay in wait for 



Sect. n. 

the first comer ; by these means he 
could Tenture in, with the prospect 
of being attacked only by tlie doxent, 
which might be more patiently en- 

After having agreed respecting the 
price, a fee is expected for the pos- 
session of the key, or right of entry, 
which is usually a month's hire ; un- 
less a bargain be made to reduce this 
extraordinary demand. 

The washing and sweeping, and in 
winter the covering the open wood- 
work of windows, will occupy some 
days, before possession can be taken 
of the empty rooms, which must be 
well matted before they become habit- 
able and ready for diwoiM, or whatever 
other furniture may be put into them. 

If a house is taken in the Turkish 
quarter by a bachelor, or one having 
no hareim, the neighbours may, as 
they frequently do, object to his occu- 
pying it ; in which case the only re- 
medy (besides abandoning it, in the 
hopes of finding other less fastidious 
neighbours) is to get some person of 
respectability to talk them over, by 
representing the intended occupant 
as a man of good character, who is 
not likely to shock their feelings. In 
the event of their still objecting, and 
the house suiting him well, he may 
look out for some liberated black slave 
who will act as cook, and who, how- 
ever old, may, under the cover of a 
Cairene woman's dress, lie denomi- 
nated a hare&n, without their having 
the right to ask any further questions. 
• It must, however, be observed, that no 
native maid-servant is allowed to take 
service in tlte house of a bachelor ; 
though this is sometimes overlooked 
by the shekh of the quarter, through 
particular persuasion, and on the pro- 
mise that she shall be a properly con- 
ducted person, whose conduct shall 
notexcite the displeasure of tlie neigh- 
bours ; the consequence of the dis- 
covery by the police entailing on the 
shekh a bastinado, and the same on 
the woman herself, as a substitute 
for the old custom of putting her into 

a sack, and throwing her into the 

In buying houses, the price varies 
very much in different quarters, and 
depends, of course, on their sixe. In 
the Turkish quarters they vary from 
5000 to 80,000 piastres. It may be 
generally considered that they pay 
an annual rent of five per cent. ; aod 
a house is thought to be a good bar- 
gain which repays the purchase-money 
iu twenty years. No European can 
legally buy a house. 


The monthly pay of servants at 
t^airo is a little less than at Alex- 
andria. Turkish and Frank servants 
are much the same at both places. 

Native servant, speaking DoU«ri' 
Italian or Engluh • 12 to 15 
and even - - to 20 

Native servant of all work, '^••''w- 

speaking a little Italian 100 to 150 
Native servant of all work, 

speaking only Arabic - SO to GO 
Native man-«ook, speak- 
ing only Arabic - 50 to 100 
The Moh^ddum, or head 

servant - - - 50 to 100 
Porter, bowab - - 15 to SO 
Sukha^ or water-carrier in 

the house - • 10 to SO 

SyU or SdMt groom, (his 

office is also to go out 

with the hartem, if there 

is no Mokuddum) - 25 to 45 
SyiB or Sets, groom, if not 

fed bx his master - 45 to 120 
Servants of all work, in 

tlie houses of Turks 

and natives - - 10 to 30 
Women servants * - 10 to 50 

These are all fed by their masters, 
unless arrangements are nude that 
they should provide themselves; in 
which case an allowance is given, of 
about a piastre to 1) piastre a day. 
If a servant has been tried for some 
time and gives satisfaction, be ia usu- 
ally clothed by his master, but this is 




looked upon as a favour, and a re» 
ward for good behaviour ; and the only 
thing required oF the master is a pair 
of shoes every jthree months, if em- 
ployed in much out-of-doors service. 

It is as well not to trust too much 
to the honesty of servants. 

Among the servants of Egypt, 
some of course possess recommen- 
dations, vrhich make them preferable 
for the traveller ; as, besides honesty 
and activity, a knowledge of Upper 
Egypt, of the requisites for a jour- 
ney, and of the habits and languages 
of Europeans, are indispensable. It 
cannot be supposed that all the com- 
parative excellencies of each are suffi- 
ciently known, to enable me Co point 
out those who are positively the best ; 
but without excluding others from the 
merit of possessing proper qualifica- 
tions, I may mention the names of 
some, who, from having been long in 
the service of travellers, are particu- 
larly deserving of recommendation : 
as Hagee Sulaym&n, formerly caw&ss 
of the British and Sardinian consu- 
lates; Mahm6od; Mohammed Abdel 
A'tee, another Mohammed, who was 
a long time with Mr. Burton ; and 
Mohammed Abdeen; who are per- 
haps the best in the country. But 
the best, both for the Continent as 
well as the East, is a Neapolitan, 
named Vincenxo Braico. 


The horses of Egypt are not an 
Arab breed, nor have they the points 
most people expect to meet with in 
the East. They are a race peculiar 
to the country, which, though not 
possessing the characteristics of the 
thorough-bred Arab and English 
horse, is not deficient in some essen- 
tial recommendations. They are low, 
usually about 14 to 14^ hands, with 
small heads, fine crests (but short 
neck), strong shoulders, good barrel, 
and well ribbed up, hind quarters 
clumsy, and legs heavy, with short 
pasterns, lliey are very docile and 
good tempered, bear heat admirably. 

being accustomed to be tethered out 
all day in the sun, and live hardily. 
Their food is barley, and they are 
only watered once a day, about S 
p. M. Once every year they are 
turned out to clover, without which 
they suflTrr from an eruption of the 
skin, or some other disease. Their 
paces are the walk and gallop, being 
seldom taught to trot; but an am- 
bling pace is sometimes given them, 
by tying the legs together; which is 
so great a recommendation in a horse 
or mule, that they often sell for dou* 
ble the sum of those with ordinary 
paces. A horse thus trained is called 
Rahw&n. The Egyptian horses are 
not good leapers, and are unable to 
gallop for a long distance ; so that 
they would be of very little use in 
hunting, if such an amusement ex- 
isted in Egypt; hut for a short dis- 
tance their gallop is quick and strong, 
and being very manageable, their ra- 
pidity of movement is very available 
in playing the gtintit or throwing the 
lance. This graceful and manly ex- 
ercise is now seldom seen, and will 
soon be mentioned among by-gone 
pastimes, like tilting and archery. 

Horses sell at Cairo from about 
700 to 2000 piastres; in Upper 
Egypt, as low as 300 and 400 ; and 
mules and rahwant fetch the same 
prices. Asses are also sold, when of 
unusual size, at from 500 to 1500 
piastres, and a common hack donkey 
from 10 to 500. Asses are very con- 
venient in Cairo for passing through 
the crowded streets, and are the cabs 
of the place ; Christians seldom use 
any other animals, partly from conve- 
nience, partly from old habit, not 
having been allowed before the begin- 
ning of tlie present century to ride a 
horse ; and the Copts are in possession 
of the best breed. Mules and rait' 
wan* are thought more convenient 
than horses for the city, and are al- 
ways used by old men, shekhs of the 
religion, and inactive people, who like 
to ride without tiring themselves; and 
as nobody walks, it is an object to 



Sect, II. 

eTery one to be provided with a mode 
of conveyance best suited to his taste. 
In going out to see Cairo the best 
plan is to hire a donkey for the day or 
by the course. There is no diflSculty 
in finding them, but as the drivers 
always try to impose on strangers, it is 
as well to send and make an agree- 
ment beforehand in engaging one. 
Ladies may take sedan chairs if they 
prefer them. The hire of a donkey 
for the day ought to be five piastres, 
and a trifle for the boy : this last is 
not necessary when by the course. 

e. rLAczs or public kxsokt. — 

Cairo scarcely offers any places of 
public resort. Within the last few 
years a theatre has been set on foot, 
in the Frank quarter, which is main- 
tained by subscription among the 
Europeans, the actors, with the ex- 
ception of the manager, being dilei* 
tanti. The manager, who receives 
a salary, is an actor by profession, 
and has the arrangement of the pieces 
and other miiautiae with which ama- 
teurs are not supposed to be ac- 
quainted ; there is also a person who 
superintends the scenery and the ma^ 
tirid of the house. Strangers who 
are desirous of obtaining admission 
have only to apply to any subscriber 
the day before, and tickets are sent 
for the next representation, which are 
always gratU : and it may not be 
amiss to observe, that if any attempt 
to charge travellers for tickets is made 
by the innkeepers (to whom they are 
given, not for their sakes, but as a 
favour to strangers), it should be 
peremptorily resisted ; and it would 
be a piece of justice, as well to the 
subscribers as to future travellers, to 
represent and put a stop to the im- 

One of the most useful institutions 
for those who visit Egypt is the li- 
brary of the Egyptian Society, also in 
the Frank quarter. Any one who 
wishes to become a member is pro- 
posed and balloted for in the usual 

way, and may have the satisfaction of 
promoting a very useful institution. 
Strangers who are only passing 
through the country may obtain tick- 
ets of admission, and the use of the 
books, during one whole month. 

There is also a society of a simi- 
lar kind formed^ in 1 84 S, principally 
for the purpose of publishing docu- 
ments connected with Eg:ypt and the 
East. It is called the Egyptian Lite- 
rary Association, and members are 
chosen and strangers admitted much 
in the same manner as in the other. * 

A shop has been opened near the 
Basaar of the Khan Khaleel for 
Arabic and Turkish works ; and Eu- 
ropean books may be bought of Mr. 
Walmas, at the Egyptian Society's 
Rooms, and of Mr. Castello in the 
Frank Street. 

There is a library belonging to Ib- 
rahim Pasha, consisting of Arabic 
and Turkish books, which, though 
formed since the year 18S0, contains 
already a great number of volumes, 
comprising the works of the most 
noted Arab authors, in manuscript, 
besides many printed books. 

Ibrahim Pasha has also begun a 
collection of Egyptian antiquities; 
and a veto being put to the removal of 
antiquities from Egypt, great hopes 
have been entertained of the success of 
his museum. It is more than twelve or 
fifteen years since this collection has 
been commenced, and in IBS I a Turk 
was employed at Thebes in excavat- 
ing, and preventing all access to the 
under-ground treasures not sanc- 
tioned by government authority. I 
therefore expected, on returning to 
Egypt lately, to find many objects 
of interest at the palace, where they 
are now deposited. My surprise and 
disappointment were therefore great^ 
when I found nothing but a confused 
mass of broken mummies and casest 
some imperfect tablets, and varioua 
fragments, which, had they been capa* 
ble of being spoilt, would have been 
rendered valueless by the dsmp of the 
place ; and I can safely say that thcr« 




was nothing which, had it been given 
me, I should have thought worth the 
trouble of taking back to Cairo. Time 
may make a museum and a Turkish 
antiquary, but to these must be al- 
lowed the full extent of the Turkish 

There is also a collection of anti- 
quities belonging to Mohammed Ali, 
which is occasionally increased by 
those seised at the Custom-house, in 
the possession of persons unauthorised 
by special faTour to take them out of 
the country. It was to have formed 
part of a museum to be erected in 
the Ushek^ai ; but the establishment 
of a museum in Egypt is purely Uto- 
pian ; and while the impediments 
raised against the removal of antiqui- 
ties from Egypt does an iiyury to the 
world, Egypt is not a gainer. The 
excavations are made without know- 
ledge or energy, the Pasha is cheated 
by those who work, and no one there 
tidies any interest in a museum ; and 
it would not be too much to predict 
that, after all the vexatious impedi- 
ments thrown in the way of Europeans, 
DO such institution will ever be formed 
by the Pasha of Egypt. 


For those who are pressed for time, 
and wish to see every thing at or near 
Cairo as quickly as possible, the best 
plan is to portion out the different 
sights as follows : — 

\tt I}ay.^To Heliopolis.* Go 
out of the Bab el Foto6h, visit the 
tomb of El Gh^ree, half way, to the 
right; interior of dome handsome: 
then to Heliopolis ; obelisk, remains 
of sphinxes, mounds of old town, 
fountain of the Sun, and sycamore of 

the holy family -. returning, go to the 
tombs of the Memlook kings t (Kait- 
bay) to left, thence to the Boorg e* 
Ziffr^, and enter Cairo by the Bab e^ 
Nusr. § 

Sd 2>a^.— To Old Cairo and Roda 
Id. Go to the tombsof the Memlooks ||, 
that of the Pasha*8 family, the Imam 
e* SULffaee: to Old Cairo^, Moskof 
Amer, Roman station of Babylon to 
S. of it : cross over to Isle of Roda ; 
Nilometer** (requires an order), and 
garden of Ibrahim Pasha: return by 
the College of Der wishes -fft Kasr 
el Ainee (the school of medicine), the 
palace of Ibrahim Pasha, to Cairo. 

Sd Day At Cairo. Bas^r of 

Ghor^'b, Bab Zoo^ylehf}, citadel §§ 
(Joseph's Well, Pasha's palace, new 
mosk, view), mosk of Sultan Has- 
san) ) below citadel (porch and arch 
of east end), mosk of Tsyloon^^, 
oldest in Cairo, with early pointed 

4th Day, — See the other mosks and 
royal tombs ••• of Cairo, basAarsftt* 
streets, buildings in Cairo ; and go to 
the palace and gardens of Shoobra.|ff 

5th Day,-' The petrified wood §§§ 
on the top of the Gebel Go6shee, or 
Mokuttum, between 6 and 7 miles 
from Cairo. It is possible to make 
only two days of these three last. 

eth Day, ^To the Pyramids. |||]| 
Pyramids, Sphinx, and tombs ; thence 
to pyramids of Abooseer and Sakki- 
rallYi and vaulted tomb in eastern 
front of hills facing the cultivated land, 
about 1} mile to N. of Sakkira; thence 
to Mitrahenny, colossus of Remeses 
II., and site of Memphis : **** back 
to Cairo ; a long excursion for one day. 
It is better to sleep at the Pyramids, 
and go to those of Sakk^ra next morn- 
ing. The order of these days may be 
changed, as most convenient. 

• See Seet IL Excuzsion.3. f See Sect. II. ». 
4 See Sect IL r, \\ See Sect. II. n. 

*• See Excursion. 1. &. f f See Exeanioo. 1. e. 

AS See Sect. II. S. II tl See Sect. II. k. 
See Sect IL A, Lot. fff See Sect. TL a. ^. 

See Sect IL Excursion 2. b. ||l| See Sect. IL Excursion. 4. 
See Sect IL ExcurdoD. 4. •••* See Sect II. Excursion. 4. 


t See Sect IL a. 

T See Sect II. Excunioo.l. 
tt See Sect. U.kaadk. 
ft See Sect. ILJc 
ttX See Sect IL ExcuriioaJL 

Q 2 

J 24 


Sect. n. 

g» BOATS. (^Mtrkeb, pi. Mar&hh,) 

The boats of the Nile are the djerm 
(germ), ttie ma&dil, aggub (akkub), 
maash or r&hleh, dahab^eh, cangia 
(kangeh),ky4s(kv^h,) Sdndal, aef£e- 
nee, garib (k&rib), and maad^h. The 
largest are the germs, which are only 
used on the Nile during the inunda- 
tion, or between Alexandria, Rosetta, 
and other ports on the Mediterranean. 
They carry from 800 to about 2000 
ardebs ; but four have been built at 
Osioot which are rated at 4800 
ardebs; and to give some idea of 
their size, a boat of 250 ardebs mea- 
sures ^ feet in length and 10 or 12 
in breadth. Th«y have two masts 
and large lateen sails, like the gene- 
rality of the boats on the Nile. They 
are only employed for carrying corn, 
and during the summer mr^ laid up, 
covered with mats, to protect them 
from the sun. The maiidil, or, as it 
is sometimes called, ky&s, is of a very 
similar construction, but smaller, car- 
rying from 130 to 800 ardebs. The 
aggub is only used for carrying stone, 
and is singular among the boats of the 
Nile for its square sail. 

The last five are open boats. The 
name of sandal is chiefly applied to 
a small kind of cangia, and to ships* 
boats, or those attached to the gun- 
boats of the Nile; the garib is the 
fishing-boat, and the maadeeh the 
ferry ; but the maash, dahab^eh, and 
cangia, are the three peculiarly adapt- 
ed for travelling on the river, being 
furnished with cabins. 

The maash, or, more properly, 
r&hleh, is convenient from its large 
and loAy cabins-; but unless a tra- 
veller has plenty of time to spare, a 
dahab^eh is far preferable ; and many 
of these are now so large as to yield 
very little to the r&hleh in the comfort 
of their cabins, added to which they 
are always cleaner. The traveller who 
has time to spare, and intends making 
a long sojourn at Thebes, may take 
a rihlth to go up the Nile, send it 
off at Thebes, and write to Cairo for 

A dahal)^*eh or cangia ; or, if he does 
not object to the expense, he may take 
both with him, and, paying off the 
rahleh at Asouan, use the smaller boat 
to pass the cataracts and return to 

The dahab^eh differs only' from the 
cangia in its greater size, and in hav- 
ing a plank, or gangway, at the side 
of the cabin windows extending to 
the steerage. They vary in size. The 
large ones have generally two cabins 
and a smaller room, called a batli, in 
all which a short man may stand nearly 
upright; and some persons have added 
to the height of the cabins by low- 
ering the floor. The large-sized daba- 
b^ehs let at from 2000 to 3000 piastres 
a month ; smaller ones at from 1000 
to 1350, which last is about the aum 
paid for a large cangia. It is diflicuU 
to distinguish between the cangia and 
dahab^eh, as tbey are so very like each 
other, when of the same size, that no 
definite line can be drawn between 
them ; generally speaking, therefore, 
the prices o^ all this class of boats 
may be reckoned at from 1000 to 
3000 piastres a month. In all cases 
the price varies with the number of 
the men, whose pay is as follows : — 

Piast. a numth. 
The reU or captain of 

a small dahab^b, or 

Eight men at 50 piastres 

Mettdhmd or steersman, 

rated as a man and a 

half - 
Kitchen boy, rated as 

half a man 


- 400 


DomAn, or hire of boat, 
paid to the owner, 
(varying witli its size, 
and lately reduced) 

Profit of the r^Is 



- 594 





A cangia may be hired at from 
1000 to 1300, which used to be the 
price of a dahab^h when the wages 
of sailors were 25 piastres a month. 
There is a small kind of cangia, sel- 
dom wilh more than one cabin, only 
high enough to admit of persons 
kneeling in it, which may be had at a 
lower rate, perhaps 700 piastres a 
month ; but this implies a reduction 
in the number of men ; and it has 
this discomfort, that no one can pass 
from one side of the boat to the other 
without making it heel over. It has, 
however, the advantage of being easily 
tracked, when the wind fails, and is 
quickly rowed down the stream on 
returning. Another species of cangia, 
called sandal, with one mast and one 
cabin, may also be rated at the same 
price as the last mentioned. 

The contracts are usually written 
at the consulate, as few travellers un- 
derstand sufficient Arabic, or the cus- 
toms of the country, to do without a 
translation, or to have it drawn up by 
a public scribe. They are generally 
worded like the following : — 


** Saturday the 20th of the month 
of Showal, of the year 1257 (4th Dec. 
1841,) Mr. — f an Englishman, has 

taken on hire from the r^s (ryU) 

of the town of (Boolik belonging to 
), a cangia of about — 
ardebs burthen, for a voyage on the 
Nile, during such length of time as it 
may please the above to keep the said 
boat. It is to be manned by — 
sailors, not including the r^s, and the 
sails, ropes, oars, &c are to be in good 

** The hire agreed upon is — pias- 
tres a month, without any further 
charges, to begin from the date of 
the present contract, which is in every 
thing agreeable to law. 

'* The r^is and sailors are to be 
obedient to the orders of the hirer, 
during the night as well as the day, 
but it is understood that they will not 
be obliged to tow the cangia after 
dark, unless necessity requires it. 

*< The sailors are to be full -grown, 
able-bodied men, understanding their 
work, and two of them are to keep 
watch during the night, when the boat 
is at anchor. If the boat passes the 
cataracts, the charges made for them 
by the r^is of the cataracts will be 
defrayed by the hirer. 

** This agreement is signed (one 
month's pay having been given in 
advance) by the two parties in pre- 
sence- of tlie witnesses. 

Witnesses/" ^- (Signed) A. B. 
witnesses j^jj Sealofr^is, .'• 

It may be as well to make the rHs 
understand that he is not to take any 
other passengers, or merchandise of 
any kind, that the whole boat shall 
be at the traveller's command, tliat 
the sailors shall be obedient to orders, 
and that no one shall quit tlie boat 
on the pretext of visiting relatives, or 
with similar pleas, without previouily 
atking permUtion, 

Some abuses have crept in of late, 
which ought to be put a stop to, 
being unjust to travellers (who now 
pay unheard-of prices for boats), con- 
trary to the customs of the country, 
and likely to pave the way for many 
others. One is the attempt to make 
the hirer of a boat responsible for any 
accident that may happen on passing 
the cataracts, which has even been in- 
troduced info written contracts. This 
is both unjust and absurd. It was 
never heard of till of late, and no 
Turk or native would take a boat 
under such conditions. Besides, the 
r^is of the cataracts is placed there 
on purpose to pass iKiats, and at Mm 
risk; and certainly nothing can be 
more ridiculous than for the traveller 
to remove that responsibility from the 
r^.s of the cataracts, and nothing more 
unjust than for any one to take ad. 
vantage of his ineiperience to put 
him into this position. It should be 
resisted by all means, and the boats 
of those who refuse to allow them to 
puss the cataracts should not be hired 
at all, unless they agree fo pay the hire 
of the other taken, for the reet of the 
o 3 



Sect IL 

journey beyond the eaiaract, or to de- 
dud from that of their own boat during 
the whole absence of the traTeller in 

Another is the demand for the r«- 
tum of a boat, when taken to some 
place either up or down the river, and 
there discharged. This is also a new 
and unheard-of abuse, and should not 
be tolerated. There is no such thing 
as back carriage in the country. As 
agreements are drawn up and depo- 
sited at the consulate, such abuses 
ought to be prevented. 

The hire of the first month may be 
paid in advance ; and when in Upper 
Egypt, half of each successive month, 
or the wages of the boatmen only, 
which are 50 piastres a month each. 
By all meahs the re is and boatmen 
must be made obedient to orders : the 
traveller will otherwise find them in> 
sufferably unruly and troublesome, 
too much indulgence being considered 
by them the result of fear or inexperi- 
ence ; nor, unless he maintains strict 
discipline, can he venture to give 
tliem a feast of meat at the large 
towns. They sometimes stop at places 
on some excuse, even when the wind 
is fair: this should not be allowed, 
except at Osioot, or some other large 
town, to have their bread made. Be- 
sides occasionally giving meat (or 
money to buy it, or tobacco), lie will 
make them a present of money, on 
his return to Cairo. The reis is 
always paid twice as much as a sailor, 
) nd at the end of the journey he re- 
quires about half, or one third of the 
whole sum given as backxhish. This 
will depend on the number of sailors. 

Before his departure, the traveller*8 
servant must see that all the oars are 
on board, and the sails in good con- 
dition ; he %vill also overlook the con- 
struction of an awning before the 
cabin, which is the most comfortable 
addition to a boat, and serves as a 
cool and cheerful place to sit in during 
the day. The reis will undertake to 
have it made under the superintend- 
ence of his servant. It is sometimes 

formed of mats laid over palm sticks, 
and if so, care should be taken that 
they be not common coarse ones called 
Noohht but the same that are used in 
rooms at Cairo. A far better kind of 
awning is made of thick tent-cloth, or 
a white cotton stuff called AUmkf or a 
thicker kind called Morubbot lined 
with the same dyed blue, stretched 
over a wooden frame-work. This 
gives more room than the circular top 
of the mats, and is easily raised, if 
necessary, in a high wind. Find- 
ing that Europeans always made 
those awnings as an extra room, 
and sought a place where they could 
stand upright, many have added an 
open wooden porch to that part of 
the boat, when it was buildiug, and 
have made fbe fioor of the cabins 
lower ; which last is a great improve- 

The first tiling to be done, afUr 
taking a boat, is to have it sunk, to 
rid it of the rats,* and other noxious 
inhabitants it may have. This should 
be done on the opposite shore, which 
the boat must leave before night; 
otherwise the rats will resume their 
berths on board, and the precaution 
will have been useless. The cabins 
should also be well washed, and when 
dry should be painted carefully, the 
expenses of which will be about 70 
piastres for a cangia of 100 ardeba 
burthen, with two small cabins, oz 
more if many colours are used : 
larger boats of course in proportion. 
All the cracks should be previously 
stopped with putty, and they may be 
closely papered over ; but paste must 
not be used, as it will harbour insect% 
and is not likely to hold fast for any 
time. The best preservative against 
disagreeable intruders at night ia Mr. 
Levinge*s contrivance of dieets and 
mosquito net in one piece, already 
mentioned in page S. The only dis- 
advantage of it is the trouble of geu 
ting in and out. Another preventive 
is a small piece of camphor in the bed, 
and another under the pillow. An 
iron rat-trap is also a good thing to 




have on board, and I have no dottbt 
that an ichneumon (which i« an ani- 
mal very common about Shoobim and 
Geexeh), if even kept tied up in the 
boat, might tend greatly to preyenl 
the ▼isit of rats from the shore. A 
piece of tin in the shape of a funnel 
placed on the rope at night with the 
mouth towards the land, would also 
prevent their running along it to the 
boat, but it would be difficult to in- 
duce the sailors to take the trouble of 
placing it nightly on the rope, and the 
boats are often so close to the shore 
tfaat these troublesome Tisitors have 
nothing to do but leap into them. 
Cats are useful if they can be kept on 
board, but they are apt to go ashore, 
and are often lost. All things which 
the rats are likely to eat, and which 
can be put into jars, called BaOdti, 
may be easily kept out of their reach 

The best thing to destroy flies, still 
one of the plagues of Egypt, is an 
infusion of quassia. Put a small 
handful into a white basin, and pour 
a pint of boiling water over it, and let 
it cool : a little sugar may be sprink- 
led orer it as a greater inducement to 
them to come to it. 

Besides curtains for the windows at 
night, it will be as well if tliere is no 
glass in them to put it into two at letut 
(one on each side of the cabin), as the 
alternative of cold or darkness is by 
no means pleasant in winter. 

A kitchen should also be put up 
in the fore part of the boat. It should 
be made of planks of wood, with 
three or four 6re -places in it, having 
their sides strengthened with gypsum, 
and the bottoms or gratings of thin 
iron bars. It will cost about 54 
piastres, and may be made by the r^'is 
under the superintendence of a servant. 

After having been a few days on 
board, on his way up the Nile, if he 
finds the boat make little way, he had 
better order one of his native servants 
unobserved at night, or under the 
plea of bathing, to examine the end 
of the keel near the rudder, to ascer- 
tain that no tricks have been played 

lo impede the sailing of the boat ; for 
with this view they sometimes fasten 
a log or sliort plank of wood athwart 
the keel, to stop the speed of the boat 
and lengthen the voyage ; and in 
coming down, if the round stone with 
a hole in the centre, which on ascend- 
ing the Nile is generally kept on deck 
near the prow, is no longer seen on 
board, he had better bid bis servant 
ascertain where it has been put, as 
they sometimes suspend it by a long 
rope from the stem beneath the water, 
with the same view of impeding the 
boat, on its way down. Herodotus, 
in describing the large boats of the 
ancient Egyptians, says, ** Tliey 
adopt the following method in 
going down the Nile. 'Being pro- 
vided with a bundle or wicker hur- 
dle of tamarisk interlaced with 
rushes, and a stone with a hole weigh- 
ing about two talents (about ISO lb.), 
tliey tie the former to the head of the 
boat, allowing it to follow the course 
of the stream, and fasten the stone 
by a rope to the stern. The tama- 
risk hurdle carried forward by the 
current drsgs after it the barit f such 
is the name of these boato), ana the 
stone sinking in the water serves to 
direct its course." But the modem 
Egyptians omit the tamarisk bushes, 
which was intended to aid the boat in 
its descent, and have only adopted 
tliat portion of the contrivance in- 
vented by tlieir ancestors, which an- 
swers the object they have in view. 

Another very necessary precaution 
is to order the r^'is to forbid the boat- 
men to tie tlie sails, and insist upon 
their holding the rope called •hogh6al 
in their hands: which is termed keep- 
ing it kKahu, «« free ;" for to this al- 
most all the accidents that happen 
on the Nile are to be attributed. In 
those parts where the mountains ap- 
proach the river it should be particu- 
larly attended to, as at Gebel Shekh 
Umb&mk, Gebel e* Tayr, and thence 
to SliekhTimiy, Gebel Aboo-Faydee, 
Gebel Shekh Her^dee, and Gebel 
Tookh below Girgeh. 

Q 4 



Sect. n. 

The traveller should have the deck 
of his boat washed every morning ; 
and he may select any one of the 
crew who appears most willing for 
this duty. When one is chosen, it is 
more likely to be done. An allow- 
ance of a piastre or two a week 
should be given for this extra labour, 
and care should be taken that it is 
never omitted: unless done always, 
it will cease to be done with good 
will. Above all things, I recom« 
mend strict discipline in the boat, and 
invariable obedience to orders, what- 
ever they may be, with the full un- 
derstanding of course that they 
are reasonable and just. But I am 
far from advising that constant use 
of the stick which is sometimes re- 
sorted to most unnecessarily : firm- 
ness and the determination of being 
obeyed seldom fails to command 
respect and obedience; for, when 
they know you will be obeyed, they 
will seldom disregard an order. 
When once that obedience is estab- 
lished, then you may be as indulgent 
as you like, and every good office, 
every reward, will be received as a 
favour. Without it, kindness will 
be construed into fear or ignorance ; 
every attempt will be made to deceive 
the too easy traveller ; and in order to 
have a moment's peace, he will be 
obliged to have recourse to the very 
means he had been hoping to avoid ; 
by applying to some Turkish gover* 
nor, or by substituting for kindness 
loo late severity, either of which will 
only draw upon him hatred and con- 

One thing, however, I must say, is, 
that however nwch they may try to 
impose on one, over whom they think 
to get the upper hand, they never har- 
bour any feelings of revenge. They 
are like the frogs in the fiil>le with the 
log of wood. In short, my advice is, 
to be strict and just, without unneces- 
sary violence, in order to have the 
satisfaction of being indulgent 

In visiting the ruins, one or two 
of the crew will carry water, or any 

thing else you may require^ and they 
may occasionally receive a few piastres 
to buy tobacco. It is better not to 
give It each time, but aAer having 
been so employed on several occadons ; 
the promise of it being held out, pro- 
videid they are aheojfM found ready to 
go ; and if there is any rivalry among 
the others, they also should be allow- 
ed to take their turns in this employ- 
ment. When properly managed, no 
people are so willing or good-natured ; 
when not understood, none so trou- 

I have already stated that when the 
crew behave well, they may have a 
sheep given them at some of the large 
towns, or a certain quantity of meat at 
least, as a reward for pott exertwiu ; 
and at the end of the journey they 
and the r^s will expect a present in 
money, according to their behaviour 
during the voyage. Any man 'who 
has done extra work should be paid 
more ; and the back^isk of the crew 
should be given to one of them, and 
not to the rCU, as he would proliably 
cheat them of a great portion; for 
few in Egypt, whether Turks or 
natives, part with money without ipi 
effort to defraud. 

In leaving Boolak either for Upper 
Egypt or tlie North, as well as in ar- 
riving there, the traveller should re- 
sist any demand for haektkish (a word 
that haunts him in Egypt), which the 
custom-house cawdstet will of course 
ask for ; they have nothing whatever 
to do with him or liis baggage, and 
have therefore no claim, on the score 
of allowing to pass free what they 
dare not touch. Any attempt to 
stop his things should be repre- 
sented, and care should be taken 
that the offender is punished, in order 
to put a stop to this nuisance. 


Musr el Kiherah, corrupted by 
the Italians into CcnVo, was founded 
by G6her, a general of El Moes, or 
A boo Tummim, the first of the 
Fow4tem or Fatemite dynasty who 


ruled in Egypt. He was sent in 
the year 358 of the Hegira, a. d. 
969» with a powerful army from 
Kayrawan, near Tunis, tlie capital of 
tlie Fowdtem, to invade Egypt; and 
baring succeeded in conquering the 
country, be founded a new city, near 
the citadel of Kuttaeea, under the 
name of Musr el Kaherah. This in 
36^ (a. d. 973) became the capiul 
instead of Fostat; which then, by 
way of distinction, received the name 
of Musr el Ate^keh (old Musr). 

£1 Moes soon afterwards arrived 
w^ith the whole of his court, and the 
Fowitem, bringing with them the 
bones of their ancestors, for ever re- 
linquished the country whose so- 
vereignty they had also usurped, and 
which they still retained, by leaving a 
viceroy in the name of their mo- 
narch. Cairo was at 6rst called Dar 
el Memlekeh, or ** the royal abode,*' 
and then Musr el Kaherah ; and 
Fostat was distinguished ever after 
by the name of Musr el Ate^keh, or 
old Musr, which has since bi^en 
transformed by Europeans into old 

The epithet Kaherah (Cairo) is de- 
rived from Kaher, and signifies " vic- 

The first part of the city erected 
by Goher was what is still called el 
Kasriiyn, or " the two palaces,*' one 
of which, formerly the residence of 
Saladin and other kings, has been 
long occupied by the Mahkemeh, or 
Cadi's Court. Till wttliin a few 
years it was almost a ruin, but is now 

The walls of Cairo were built of 
brick, and continued in the same state 
till the reign of Yoosef SaUh-e*-deen 
(Saiadin), who substituted a circuit of 
stone, and united to the original town 
the whole of that part lying between 
the Bab Zooayleh and the citadel. 

Yoosef Salih-e'-deen was the 
founder of the Eiyoobite dynasty in 
Egypt, and is well known in the 
history of the Crusades under the 
name of Saladin. Shortly -before his 



arrival, and during the troubles that 
obscured the latter end of the reign 
of the Fowitem, whom he expelled, 
Cairo had been attacked by the Franks, 
and partly burnt on their approach, 
about the year 1171. Their designs 
against the city were unsuccessful ; 
but in order to place it eflectually 
beyond the reach of similar attempts, 
Saladin raised around it a stronger 
wall of masonry ; and observing tliat 
the elevated rock to the south of the 
city offered a convenient position for 
the construction of a fortress, to com- 
mand and protect it, he cleared and 
walled in that spot ; and discovering 
a large well near the centre that had 
been cut by the ancients, and was 
then filled with sand, he eicavated it, 
and brought another welcome sup- 
ply of water to the citadel by an 
aqueduct, which conveyed a con- 
tinuous stream from the Nile, at 
Fostat, to the new citadel. This last 
was then merely a conduit, sup- 
ported on wooden pillars; and it 
was not till about the year 1518 tliat 
the stone aqueduct, still used for the 
same purpose, was substituted by 
order of Sulun el Ghor^e. 

It is probable that the well above 
mentioned, which now bears the name 
of Beer Yoosef, ** Joseph's well," from 
tlie caliph Yoosef, was hewn in the 
rock by the ancient Egyptians, like 
the tanks on the hill behind the 
citadel, near tlie Kobbet el Howa; 
and this is rendered more probable 
from the circumstance of there having 
been an old town, called Loui- 
Tkeshromi, on the site of the modem 
city. It seems, indeed, to be gene- 
rally allowed by the Cairenes, that 
Yoosef was not the real author of this 
great work ; and some have claimed 
it, without much show of probability, 
for Amer, the first Moslem con- 
queror of Egypt. It consisu of two 
parts, the upper and lower well, and 
a winding staircase leads to the bottom, 
a depth of about 260 feet. The 
exact part of Cairo occupied by the 
Egyptian town is uncertain ; but we 

a 5 



Sect. II. 

learn from Arab writers that two 
villages existed there, before the 
time of G6her, one called el Maks, 
where the Copt quarter now stands, 
and the other Kuttaeea. 


The best way of going to ' the 
Citadel is on asses, but ladies will 
find the 'sedan chairs at the hotel very 
convenient for this excursion. 

Besides the well just described, the 
citadel contains several objects worthy 
of a visit; among which may be 
mentioned the Pasha*s palace, the 
new mosk, now building by Mo- 
hammed All, the site of Joseph's 
hall, and the arsenal. 

The palace contains some hand- 
sivne rooms, and the view from it is 
very fine. 

The mosk is still far from being 
finished. It consists of an open 
square, surrounded by a single row 
of columns, 10 on the N. and S., 
13 on the W., and 12 on the £., 
where a door leads to tlie inner part, 
or house of prayer ; as in the Tay- 
loon, and other mosks of a similar 
plan. The columns have a fancy 
capital supporting round arches, and 
tlie whole is of Oriental alabaster, 
with the exception of the outer walls. 
Of the general appearance and eHect 
no opinion can be formed from a 
building in so unfinished a state ; but 
I fear it will not have tlie beautiful 
character of the old mosks of Cairo, 
and that it will be ratlier admired 
for the materials than tlie style of 
iu arclii lecture. Beyond it is the 
hareem of the Pasha, with a garden 
on the side nearest the mosk. It 
was to make room for this mosk that 
Joseph's Hall, a lofty building sup- 
ported on numerous handsome granite 
columns, was removed in 1 829. But 
it is to be regretted that the careless- 
ness, or want of skill, in taking down 
the columns, caused the destruction 
of the greater part of them, being 
thrown down at once, and mostly 
broken by the fall. Some few are 

still sunding in their original po- 
sition, but will, of course, soon be 
taken away, and probably share the 
fate of their companions. 

From the platform is a grand and 
commanding view of the city and 
the surrounding country, taking in 
the arsenal immediately below, •— 
the Roomaylee, and the splendid 
mosk of Sulun Hassan, just outside 
the gates of the citadel, — the nu- 
merous minarets of Cairo, —and, in 
the distance, the Pyramids, — with 
the valley of the Nile, to Sakkira on 
the south, and to the point of the 
Delta on the north. 

Parts only of the old citadel walls 
now remain, the others having been 
replaced by bastions and curtains of 
European construction ; and, what 
strikes a stranger, the portion most 
strongly and regularly fortified is that 
least open to foreign aggression, the 
town side. A great part of the walk 
was blown up by the explosion of the 
powder magazine, in 1823, but all was 
restored the same year, and since that 
time some additions have been made 
to the worksk 

The spot a little to the north of 
the Roomaylee gate is where Era in 
Bey escaped, during the well-known 
massacre of the Memlooks, by leaping 
his horse over a gap in the then 
dilapidated wall. But independent 
of that opening, a large mound of 
rubbish had accumulated below from 
the fallen materials, and it is to this 
that his safety must priDdpally be 

On the western wall of the citadel 
is an eagle in high relief, supposed to 
be an emblem, or banner, of Kara- 
koosh, the minister and buflfbon of 
Yoosef-Salali e' de^n, whose name 
signifies in Turkish, ''eagle** (or 
** black-bird **). It lus no inscription, 
but is evidently of the same date aa 
the wall into which it is built ; and 
the credulous believe that it fonncrly 
uttered a cry when any calamity waa 
about to happen to the city. 

Behind the citadel ia a fort upon a 




rock, or projecting point of the Gebel 
e* Jo&Jiee (Gooshee), the ascent to 
which is by a long causeway. 

It was on the site of this fort tliat 
Mohammed Ali erected a battery 
against the citadel, then in possession 
of Khoorshid Pasha, by which he ob- 
tained the surrender of the place. 


The narrowness o^ the streets of 
Cairo, and their great irregularity, 
may strike an European as imper- 
fections in a large city; but their 
Oriental character fully compensates 
for this objection, and of all Eastern 
towns none is so interesting in this 
respect as the Egyptian capital. Nor 
is this character confined to the 
bazaars, to the mosks, or to the pecu- 
liarities of the exterior of the houses ; 
the interiors are of the same original 
Arab style, and no one can visit the 
hareeros and couru of the private 
dwellings of the Cairenes^ without re- 
calling the impressions he received 
on reading the Arabian Nights. The 
disposition of the different parts of the 
interior is, to an European eye, singu- 
larly confused, without the appear- 
ance of plan or systematic arrange- 
ment; but the picturesque style of 
the courts, the inlaid marble, the 
open fonts, mcmdarat with a facade of 
two arches supported on a single 
column, the elaborate fretwork of 
wood forming the nuuhrebSeht, or pro- 
jecting windows, and the principal 
room with its lantern (a sort of covered 
impluvium), its diwans, deep window 
aeats, and stained glass windows, have 
an effect which cannot fail to strike a 
stranger, and remind him of the 
descriptions of old Saracenic cities. 
The accurate work of Mr. Lane, and 
the drawings published by Mr. Hay, 
Mr. Roberts, and Mr. Owen Jones, 
have illustrated the mode of living, 
and have given excellent represen- 
tations of some of the public build- 
ings in Cairo ; but much remains to 
be done in the interiors; and it is 

gratifying to know tliat the pencil o 
one, who has already occupied him- 
self V) successfully in Spain, is now 
engaged in portraying the striking 
peculiarities of this truly Eastern 
capital, which we may shortly hope 
to receive from the hand of Mr. Lewis. 

k, MosKS or CAimo — xaelt pointed 

Cairo is said to contain about 400 
mosks. Many of them are in ruins, 
but the number of those that are still 
iu repair, and used for the daily 
prayers, cannot fail to strike any one 
who passes through the streets, or 
sees their numerous minarets from 
without. The prindpal mosks are 
the Tayloon (Tooloon), the Ex'her, 
the Hassanin, £1 Hdkeni, and those 
of the Sultans Hassan, el Ghoree, 
and Kaiaoon, (to which last is at- 
tached the Morostin, or nladhouse,) 
the Shardwee, Moditid, Berkook, 
Sitteh Ziyneb, and others ; to many 
of which are atuched the tombs of 
their founders. 

There is little difHculty attending a 
visit to the tnosks of Cairo ; and, with 
the exception of tlie Hassanin and 
the Ez'her, they may be visited by per- 
sons wearing the Frank dress, if ac- 
companied by a Cawass, and provided 
with an order from the Government. 

The first in point of antiquity, is the 
mosk of Ahmed ebn e' Tooloon, gene- 
rally known as the Jama (Gama) 
Tayloon. It is said to l>e built on the 
plan of the Kaaba, at Mecca, which 
seems to have been that of all the oMcst 
mosks founded by the Moslems. The 
centre is an extensive open court, 
about 100 paces square, surrounded 
by colonnades ; those on three of the 
sides consisting of two rows of columns, 
25 paces deep, and that on the eastern 
end of five rows, all supporting 
pointed arches. These arches are of 
a very graceful shape, retaining a little 
of the horse-fthoe form at the base of 
the archivolt, as it rises from the 
pilaster ; and in a wall added after- 
wards to connect the mosk with the 

o 6 



Sect. II. 

base of the principal minaret is one 
round borse-shoe arcb, which is rarely 
ntet with in Egypt. Around the 
mobk is an outer wall, now encum- 
bered in part by houses, at each angle 
of which rose one of the minarets ; 
that on the N. W. corner being the one 
used for the call to prayer. This mosk 
rs the oldest in Cairo, haring been 
founded 90 years before any other part 
•f the city, in the year 879 a. d., or 265 
of the Hegira, as is attested by two 
Cuflc inscriptions on the walls of the 
court* a date which accords with the 
era of that prince, who ruled in £gypt 
from 868 to 884. If not remarkable 
for beautv, it is a monument of the ' 
highest interest in the history of archi- 
tecture, as it proves the existence of 
the pointed arch about three hundred 
years before its introduction into Eng- 
land, where that style of building was 
not in common use until the begin- 
ning of tlie ISth century, and was 
scarcely known before the year 1170. 
There is reason to believe that the 
pointed arch was used in some parts 
of Europe as early as the beginning 
•f the twelfth century ; but it was 
then evidently a novel introduction, 
generally mixed with the older round- 
beaded arch, and not exclusively 
adopted throughout any building. 
And since we here find a mo&k pre- 
senting the pointed style in all its 
numerous arches, we may conclude 
not only that the Saracens employed 
it long before its introduction into 
Europe, but that we were indebted to 
them for the invention. The mosk 
of Tayloon being the oldest build- 
ing in Cairo, it is impossible to ascer- 
tain from any monuments there at 
what time they adopted this style of 
architecture, but we may reasonably 
suppose that it was not the firat mo»k 
ever erected with pointed arches, and 
that in the East this kind of arch dated 
considerably before the year 879. That 
it should have been introduced from 
thence into Europe is not at all impro- 
bable ; and the time of its first appear- 
ance naturally leads to the conclusion, 

that the Crusaders made us acquainted 
with the style of building they had 
seen during their wars against the 

Alon^ the cornice, above the arches 
within the colonnades, are Cufic in- 
scriptions on wood, many of which 
have long since fallen. The style of 
the letters is of the same ancient cha- 
racter, as in the stone tablets before 
mentioned ; and indeed, were the date 
not present to determine the period of 
its erection, the style of the Cufic 
alone would sufiice to fix it within 
a very few years, that character 
having undergone very marked 
changes in different periods of its 
use ; aud what is singular, the oldest, 
which is the most simple and least 
ornamented, has perhaps a nearer re- 
semblance to the Arabic, than tliat in 
vogue about the time when the mo- 
dern form of letters was introduced. 
The Arabic chiracter was first adopted 
about 950 a. d., but Cufic continued 
in use till the end of the Fowitem 
or Fateroite dynasty ; and on build- 
ings, Arabic and Cufic were both 
employed, even to the reign of Sulun 
el Ghoree, a.d. 1508. 

The wooden pulpit, and the dome 
over the front in the centre of the 
quadrangle, are of the Meiek Mun- 
soor Hesam e* deen Lageen,and bear 
the date 696 of the Heg' Arabic 

Another m<»k (which I shall men- 
tion presently), at Cairo, founded in 
1003 by the SulUn £1 H^kem, bav- 
ing also pointed arches, suflSciently 
shows this to be tlie usual style of 
architecture in the East at a period 
when it was still unknown in Europe ; 
and there is every reason to believe 
that if other Saracenic buildings could 
be discovered of the same era, and 
probably long before the time of 
Ahmed ebn e* Tooloon, they would 
present the same pointed style. It is, 
however, sufficient to have found two, 
of the years a. d. 879 and 1003, to 
settle the question respecting the pre- 
▼ious use of tlie pointed arch in the 




East ; and the idea of its origin from 
the intersection of two round arches, 
or groined mulfs, may at once be 
abandoned, and, i^ove all, its inven- 
tion in England, which was years be- 
hind the ContiDent in the date of its 

Thtf minaret of the Tayloon, which 
rises from the exterior wall of circuit, 
has a singular appearance, owing to 
the staircase winding round the out- 
side. Its novel form is said to have 
originated in the absent habits of its 
founder, and an observation of his 
Wisher. He had observed him uncon- 
sciously rolling up a piece of parch- 
ment into a spiral form ; and having 
remarked, ** It was a pity bis majesty 
had no better employment,** the King, 
in order to excuse himself, replied, 
'* So far from trifling, I have been 
thinking tliat a minaret erected on 
this principle would have many ad- 
vantages ; I could even ride up it on 
horseback : and I wish that of mv 


new mosk to be built of the same 

From its summit is one of tlie 
finest views of the town ; and though 
inferior in extent, it possesses an ad- 
vantage over that from the platform 
of Joseph's Hall, in having the citadel 
as one of its principal features. The 
hill on which the mosk stands was 
formerly called el Kutiaees, and was 
chosen by Ahmed ebn e' Tooloon as a 
place of residence for himself and his 
troops : but it was not till long after 
the foundation of Cairo that this hill 
was enclosed within the walls, and 
became part of the capital of Egypt. 
Its modern name is Kalat-el-Kebsh, 
<*the ciudel of the ram,** and tradi- 
tion pretends that it records tlie spot 
where the ram was sacrificed by 
Abraham. Nor is this the only fanci> 
ful tradition connected with the hill, 
or the site of the mosk of Tayloon. 
Noah*s ark is reported to have rested 
at the very spot where a Ntbk tree 
still grows, witliin a ruined enclosure 
in the court of the mosk ; and the 
name of Gebel O'tAoor is believed to 

have been given it, in consequence 
of the tkank$gimng be there offered to 
the Deity for his rescue from the 
perils of the flood. 

llie Es'her or « splendid "mosk, 
was originally founded by Goher 
(J6her) el Ki'ed, the genera] of Moes, 
about the year 970 ; but that which 
is now seen is of a later date, having 
been subsequently rebuilt, and con- 
siderably enlarged. Each part bean 
an inscription relative to the era, and 
authors, uf its successive restorations, 
to the year 1762. It is of consi- 
derable sixe, and ornamented with 
numerous columns, which give a light- 
ness and grace to the interior. It is 
the College of Cairo, and here the 
Koran is particularly studied ; but as 
in the ancient temple of Jerusalem 
and the modern Bayt- Allah at Mecca, 
idlen of all descriptions resort thither 
to buy and sell, read and sleep, and 
enjoy the coolness of ito shady and 
extensive colonnades. 

Close to the south-west angle is 
another handsome mosk, and a little 
farther to the north is the small but 
celebrated HassanSn, dedicated to the 
two sons of Ali, el Hassan and el 
Hossayn, whose relics it contains. It 
is said that the head of Hossayn, and 
the hand of Hassan, are preserved 
there. Like the Eiher, it was built 
or restored at diflTerent periods, the 
last addition dating in 176S, and 
bearing the name of Abd e* Rahman 
k^hia ; but none of the earliest part is 
now visible. The moo2e</ or birth-day 
of tlie HassanSn is one of the principal 
fetes of Cairo, when a grand illumi- 
nation, with the usual amusements of 
Eastern fairs, continues for eight, and 
sometimes more, days, in this quarter 
of tlie town. The tomb of the patron 
saint on such occasions is always 
covered with the IGsweh, or sacred 
envelope of embroidered cloth or vel- 
vet ; which calls to mind the clothing 
of the statues with the ttpop Koa/totf, in 
the temples of ancient Egypt. 

Of the early mosks, that have re- 
tained tlieir original style of architec- 




Sect. n. 

ture from the period of their founda- 
tion, the oldest, next to the Tayloon, 
is that of *< Solt4n Kl Hikem/* near 
the Bab e* Nusr, one of the principal 
gates of Caira 

The arches are all pointed, with 
a slight borse^shoe curve at the 
base ; and as the date of its erection 
is nearly SOO years before that style 
of architecture became general in 
England, it offers, as already stated, 
another important proof of its early 
adoption in Saracenic buildings. 
<« Soltin £1 H&kem," or "El Hakem 
be-omr-IUih," the third Caliph of the 
Fatemite dynasty, reigned from 996 
to 1021, ▲. D. This eccentric and 
immoral prince was the founder of 
the sect of Druses, still extant in Sy- 
ria. He pretended to be vested with 

a divine mission, and aided by a 
derwish named Derari, s>icceeded in 
obtaining many proselytes, by whom 
he was looked upon as a prophet, or 
even as an incarnation of the Deity 
himself; and it is worthy of remark, 
tliat in an inscription over the western 
door of the mosk, his name is followed 
by the same expressions tliat usually 
accompany that of the founder of 
Islam. But the modern Cairenes, 
who are incapable of reading tlie 
Cufic, are ignorant of this secret, the 
discovery of which would raise their 
indignation ; and I observed this feel- 
ing strongly shown by some indivi- 
duals to whom I read the passage 
contained iu the inscription. In Ara- 
bic letters, it is as follows : — 

J.=, iAc ^\ CLi\^ ,j^)^^jr*\ ^\ ^V f^^^^ 


rjji^ uS*i:;i>»^^ *iV^ 

** El Hakem be-omr.lllfch. Prince of the Faithful, the blcMingc of Ood be unto 

him and to his ancestors, the pure, in the month Regeb, the >ear a.h. d9S/* or 4.0- lOUS. 

The minaret of this mosk was fortified 
by the French during their possession 
of Egypt, and the whole building has 
now become a complete ruin. A 
thoroughfare leads through it by the 
very entrance over which the inscrip- 
tion is placed; and as this doorway 
will, in all probability, be soon taken 
away to make more room for tlie road, 
it is very desirable that some one in- 
terested in such subjects (who happens 
to be at Cairo at the time) should 
endeavour to secura this curious docu- 
ment for some European museum, ere 
it be destroyed, or buried in the wall of 
any new building. 

The finest mosk in Cairo i% un- 
question^ly the '* Jdma-t-e' Softdn 
Iltuiam,** immediately below the cita- 
del, between the Roomiylee and the 
Soog e' Sull4h. Its lofty and beau- 
tifully ornamented porch, the rich 
cornice of its towering walls, its mi- 
naret, and the arclies of its spacious 
court, cannot fail to strike every ad- 
mirer of architecture. And so im- 

pressed are the Cairenes with its 
superiority over other mosks, tliat they 
believe the king ordered the hand of 
the architect to l)e cut ofiT, in order 
to prevent his building any other tliat 
should vie with it; absurdly ascrib- 
ing to his band what was due to his 
head. Tlie same story is applied to 
other fine buildings, of which they 
wish to express tlieir admiration, as 
to the two minarets of Samalood and 
Osioot, in Upper Egypt. 

The interior is of a different form 
from the mosks of eariy times, and 
from the generality of those at Cairo ; 
consisting of an hypaethral court, 
with a square recess on each side, 
covered by a noble and majestic arch, 
that on the east being much more 
spacious tlian the other three, and mea- 
suring 69 feet 5 inches in span. At 
the inner end of it are the niche of the 
imAm, who prays before the congre- 
gation on Fridiay, and the mtaUfer or 
pulpit; and two rows of handsome 
coloured glass vases of Sytian manu- 




facture, bearing the name of the 
sultan, are suspended frtmi the side 
walls. Behind, and forming the same 
part of building, is the tomb, which 
bears the date of 764 of the Hegirm 
(▲. D. 1S63), two years later than his 
death, which happened in the month 
of Jumad el owel, a. b. 76S. It is 
surmounted by a large dome, like' 
many others, of wood and plaster, on 
a basement and walls of stone, and 
tbe ornamental details are of the same 
materials. On the tomb itself is a 
large copy of the Koran, written in 
beautiful distinct characters, and over 
it are suspended three of the coloured 

The blocks used in the erection of 
this noble edifice were brought from 
the pyramids ; and though we regret 
that one monument should have been 
defaced in order to supply materials 
for another, we must confess, that few 
buildings could summon to their aid 
greater beauty to plead an excuse, 
while we regret that it is not likely 
to be as durable as those ancient 
structures. The mosk of £1 Gb6ree, 
tbe Morostin, the citadel, and other 
buildings, were indebted for stone to 
the same monuments, which were to 
them the same convenient quarry, as 
the Coliseum to the palaces at Rome. 

Tbe mosk of Sultan Kalao6n is 
Dear the baxaar of tbe Khan Kbaleel, 
and b better known from being at- 
tacfacd to the Morostin or madhouse, 
founded by that philanthropic prince 
inik.H. 684, or 1287 a. d. In the 
Moro8t4n itself is another mosk bmlt 
by the same king, whose name is 
found at the £. end, ** mowl4na oo 
scedna e* Solr4n el Melek el Munsoor 
Sayf e* d6oneea oo e' deen Kalao6n 
e' Salehee,*' in an inscription of four 
lines, with the date of *«684 a. h., in 
tbe month of Jumad el owel ; *' and 
over the door of the main entrance 
of tbe building, another inscription 
says the whole was begun in the 
month of Rebeeh el akher 683, and 
finished in Jumad el owel 684 ; being 
only IS months. It is said, that tbe 

king offered a large reward to the ar- 
chitect and builders if finished within 
the year, lliis, however, they failed 
in doing ; but it was completed in the 
short space of time mentioned in the 
inscription, only one month over the 
period prescribed ; which fully refutes 
the notion that Sultan Kalaoon only 
laid the foundations, and that the 
Morost&n was finished by his son 
Niser Mohammed. 

The first morostin in Egypt is 
said to have been built by Abool- 
gaysh Khamaraweeh, tbe son and 
successor of Ahmed ebn e* Tooloon, 
about the year 890 a. i>. ; or, accord- 
ing to some, by Ahmed ebn e* Too- 
loon himself. The following story 
is related as tlie cause of its foun- 
dation. A lady of distinction having 
become obnoxious to her husband, 
was put away on the plea of insanity, 
and given in charge to persons who 
took care of mad people ; but having 
escaped from her place of confine- 
ment, at the moment the king hap- 
pened to be passing by, she threw 
herself at his feet, and implored his 
protection. The injustice of her de- 
tention, and the many cases of mis- 
management detected on this occasion, 
determined the king to found a public 
institution, where similar practices 
could not take place ; and be there- 
fore made two morosiins or mad- 
houses, one near the hippodrome or 
Kara-mediin (where this scene took 
place), tbe other between the ^alat 
el Kebsh and Uie island of Boolik. 
Little less than 400 years after, was 
founded the present Morost&n, tbe 
only one now existing in Egypt, 
which, though conducted in a dis- 
graceful manner in late times, speaks 
highly for the humane intentions of 
its founder. 

By his orders, the patients, what- 
ever might be the nature of their 
complaints, were regularly attended 
by medical men, and nurses attached 
to the establishment ; and their minds 
were relieved by tbe introduction of 
a band of music, which played at in- 



Sect n. 

tervaU on a pUlfomi (that still exists) 
in the court of the interior. It is in 
this court that the wards, or benches, 
are put up for the infirm admitted to 
the hospital ; but the music has long 
ceased: and the neglect and embei- 
slement of the directors would have 
reduced the whole to a ruined con- 
dition, had it not been for the bene- 
volence of the late Sayd el Mah- 
rookee; and, above all, of Ahmed 
Pasha Tiiher, who repaired the build- 
ing and supplied whatever was want- 
ing. This last is recorded in an 
inscription over the inner door, bear- 
ing date 1248 a. h., or 1833 a. d. 

The lunatics have lately been re- 
moved to another hospital, under the 
superintendence of Europeans; and 
the sad treatment they before expe- 
rienced no longer continues. 

In the mosk is the tomb of its 
founder, who was the first of the 
Kalaoon^eh or Salah^eh, a division 
of* the Baharite dynasty. He died 
in the year 1 290 a. d. The tomb of 
his son N4<«r Mohammed forms part 
of the same mass of buildings. That 
of Sultan Kalao6n is handsome; it 
is on the right, as the mosk is on the 
left, of the passage, as you enter the 
principal door of the Morostin ; and, 
like the mosk, it is supported on 
large columns surmounted by arches, 
which in the latter are of elongated 
shape, and in the former slightly par- 
taking of the horse-shoe form. Their 
spandrils, and the windows above, 
are ornamented with light tracery ; 
and the Makrabf or niche for prayer, 
inlaid with mother-of-pearl and mo- 
saic work, not unlike the Byiantine 
taste, with rows of small columns 
dividing it into compartments, lias • 
rich and curious effect. 

In the vicinity are the tombs of 
other monarchs of the same dynasty, 
and of their predecessors, the caliphs 
of Egypt, which I shall mention pre- 
sently. After passing the mosk-tomb 
of Kalaoon, you come to that of 
Sultan Berkook ; which, like others 

of that time, consists of an open court, 
with large arches at each side, one of 
which, larger and deeper than the 
other three, is the eastern or Mecca 
end. Attached to it is the tomb of 
his wife and daughter, where a fine 
illuminated copy of the Koran is 
shown, said to be all written by the 
latter, who was called the princess 
Fatima (Fatmeh). Sultan Berkook 
himself was buried in one of the 
tombs of the Memlook kings, outside 
the city. 

The Sliar&wee is another celebrated 
mosk dedicated to one of the princi- 
pal saints of Cairo. The Moaiud 
founded between the years 1412 and 
1420 A. D. is a handsome mosk with 
pointed arches, having slight traces 
of the horse-shoe form, at the base 
of tiie arcbivolt, like many others of 
the pointed style at Cairo. It is 
close to the gate called Bab Zookj- 
leh ; which, with the two elegant 
minarets that rise above it, is a noble 
specimen of eastern architecture. 
This gate was formerly tlie entrance 
of the city on the south side, before 
the quarter, now connecting it with 
the citadel, was added. 

Wiihout the Bab 2:oo&yleh, at the 
junction of the four streets, is one of 
the places assigned for capital punish- 
ments. Here, and in the Rooniaylee, 
Moslem culprits are beheaded ; 
Christians and Jews, whose blood is 
thought to defile the sword, being 
hanged in the Frank quarter, or at the 
grated window of the Ashraf^eh, at 
tlie comer of a street meeting that 
which runs from the Ghor^h to the 
Khan Khal^l. It was at the Bab 
Zooiyleh that Toman Bay was put to 
death, when taken prisoner by Sultan 
Selira in 1517. 

The privilege accorded to the 
Moslems in this respect is not merely 
an honour; it has a much more im- 
portant advantage, which consists in 
being put to a speedy death instead of 
being left to struggle for a length of 
time against the iron gratings ; which. 




in spite of the buniftne offices of the 
hangman, in pulling the culprit's feet, 
must tend to prolong his sufi^ngs. 

Th« mosk of £1 Ghoree stands at 
the extremity of the baziUr, called 
alter hin £1 Gbor^eh, and from its 
position is one of the most pictu- 
resque buildings in Cairo. On ap- 
proaching it bj the Ghoreeh, which 
is of more than ordinary breadth, 
you are struck with the effect of its 
lofty walls; and the open space in 
which it stands, together with the 
variety of costumes in the groups who 
throng that spot, and tlie grand door- 
way of the tomb on the opposite side, 
offer a beautiful subject for the pencil 
of an artist. The tomb of £1 Ghoree 
stands on the other side of the street : 
there are also two other tombs of the 
same king, one at £1 Kaitbay, and 
the other on the road to Heliopolis, 
called Kobbet el Gh6ree; as if the 
number of tombs were intended to 
compensate him for not having been 
buried in £gypt; though the Cairenes 
affirm that his body was really brought 
from Syria, and deposited in that of 
the Ghoreeh. He was killed in 1517 
near Aleppo in a conflict with the 
Turks undvr Sultan Selim, who then 
advanced into £gypt ; and Toman 
3ay, who was elected by the Mem- 
Tooks as his successor, having been 
defeated near Heliopolis, was t^e last 
of the Memlook monarchs of the 


The tombs of the caliphs occupied 
the site of what is now the Bazaar of 
Khan-Khal^l, but they are all de- 
stroyed with the exception of that of 
£*Saleh £iyoob. This monarch was 
the seventh caliph of the £i^oobite 
dynasty, and died in l'S50 a. d., or 
647 of llie Hegirs, as is stated by the 
Cufic inscription over tlie door. It 
was during his reign that the rash 
attempt was made by St. Louis to 
surprise Cairo^ in 1249 ; which ended 
in the defeat of the Crusaders, the 

death of the Count d*Artois, and the 
capture of tlie French king. On the 
death of £*Salch, his Mem looks con- 
spired, killed his son, and after the 
stiort reigns of his widow and the 
Melek eJ Ashraf Moosa, who was de- 
posed in his 4th year, the first Mem- 
look dynasty was established in £gypt 
under tlie name of *' Dowlet el 
Memaleek el Bahr^eh," or " Toor- 
k^eb,'* known to us as the Baharite 
dynasty. Among them were several 
of the Memlooks of £'Saleh. 

Those tombs, improperly called by 
Europeans " of the caliphs,** outside 
the walls to the £. of the town, are 
of a much later date, being of the 
Memlook kings of the Circassian or 
Borgite dynasty, who ruled from 
138'J A. n. to the invasion of Sultan 
Selim in 1517. I shall mention them 
in their due order, aAer noticing some 
of those of the first or Baharite dy- 


The tombs of SulUn Bayb^rs, 
Naser Mohammed, and some otliers, 
are worthy of a visit. Bayb^rs, or 
E'Z&her Bayb^rs el Bendukd^ree, 
was the fourth prince of this dynasty, 
and reigned from 1260 to 1277. 
That of £*Naser Mohammed, the son 
of Sultan Kalao6n, standi close to 
the Morost6n and the mosk of his 
father, and is remarkable for an ele- 
gant doorway, with clustered pillars 
in the £uropean or Gothic style, such 
as might be found in one of our 
churches, and therefore differing in 
character from Saracenic architec- 
ture. Over this door is an inscrip- 
tion purporting that the building was 
erected by the Sultan Mohammed, 
son of the Sultan el Meiek el Mun- 
soor e* deen Kalaoon e* Salehee. 
The date on the lintel is 698 a.b. 
(or A. D. 1299), and on the body of 
the building 695. The minaret which 
stands above this Gothic entrance is 
remarkable for iu lace-like fretwork. 



Sect n. 

which calls to mind the style of the 
Alhambra, and of the Al Cazar at 




The greater part of these tombs 
stand outside the town, a short dis- 
tance to the £. of the Bab e* Nusr. 
They are frequently called by Euro- 
peans <*of the caliphs,** as above 
stated, but are better known to the 
Cairenesas £1 Kajtbay (Kiedbai) ; a 
name taken from that of tlie prin- 
cipal building, which is of £1 Ashraf 
Aboo-1-Nusr Ki'edbai v* Ziheree, the 
1 9th Sultan of this dynasty, who died 
and was buried there in 1496 a. d. 
The minaret and dome of his mosk 
are very elegant, and claim for it the 
first place among thesesplendid monu- 
ments, though some others may be 
said to fall little short of it in 
beauty; and those of £1 Berkook 
and £1 £shraf have each their re- 
spective merits. £1 Berkook or £*- 
Z&her Berkook was the first sultan of 
this dynasty, and was renowned for 
having twice repulsed the Tartars 
under Tamerlane in 1 393-4. 

To each of these tombs a mosk is 
attached, as to the others already 
mentioned in Cairo ; and in the latter 
place it may often be doubted whether 
the tomb has been attached to the 
mosk, or the mosk to the tomb. 

It is much to be regretted that these 
interesting monuments are suffered to 
fall to decay : the stones have some- 
times even been carried away to serve 
for tlie construction of other build- 
ings; and there is reason to fear that 
in another fifty years they will be a 
heap of ruins. In their architecture 
they resemble some of the mosks of 
Cairo : and the same alternate black 
and while, or white and red, courses 
of stones occur, as in those within the 
city, which call to mind the same 
Peculiarity in some of the churches of 
Italy. The stone of which they are 
principally built is the common stone 

of the neighbouring hills. The black 
limestone is brought from the vicinity 
of the convent of St. Antony in the 
eostern desert ; but the red bands in 
the mosks of Cairo are merely painted 
on the originally white surface. 

There are other tombs called '*of 
the Mcmlooks," to the south of the 
city, usually designated by the Cai- 
renes as the Im&m e' Shaffaee, from 
the chief of that branch of Moslems 
whase tomb there forms a conspicuous 
object. It is easily recognised by its 
large dome, surmounted by a weather- 
cock* in the form of a boat. It is 
said to have been built by Yooscf- 
Salah-e' deen (Saladin), from which 
it received, according to Pococke, the 
name of e' Salah&h. Near this is 
the sepulchre of Mohammed Ali and 
his family, consisting of a long corri- 
dor and two chambers, each covered 
by a dome, in the inner one of which 
is the tomb intended for the Pasha 
himself. The others are of Toossoom 
and Ismail Pashas^ his sons ; of Mo- 
hammed Bey Defterdar; of Z6hra 
Pasha, his sister; of his first wife; 
of Mustafa Bey Delli Pasha, hu 
wife's brother ; of Ali Bey Salonik- 
lee, and his wife, a cousin of the 
Pasha; of Toossoom Bey, Sbereef 
Pasha*s brother, and his wife; of 
Hossayn Bey, the nephew; of tb^ 
younger children of tlie Pasha ; and 
of Ibrahim Pasha's sister, Tafeedeh 
Hanem, the wife of Moharrem Bey. 
Many of the tombs near to the city 
on this side are also curious, and offer 
interesting subjects for the pencil of an 


Many of the Sibe^ls or public foun- 
tains in the city merit admiration, as 
curious specimens of the peculiarities 
of Orientnl taste, abounding in great 
luxuriance of ornament. The moat 
remarkable are of Toossoom and Ismail 
Pashas, the sons of Mohammed AH ; 
and some of older date in the centre 
of the town. 





The principal palaces are those of 
Mohammed Ah' ; of Ibrahim Pasha, 
the younger ; of Abbas Pasha ; of the 
late Mohammed Bej Defterdar; of 
Mahmood Bey, formerly kehia of the 
Pasha; of Ahmed Pasha; of Niuleh 
Hiioem, the Pasba*s daughter; of 
Hassan Pasha; and outside the city 
those of Slioobra, of Ibrahim Paslia, 
and of Abbas Pasha; and Kasr e* 
Neely belonging to Shemsa H4nem, 
and Kasr Dubarra, built by Mo- 
bammed Bey Defterdar, but now 
giTen to the Pasha's hareem, between 
Old Cairo and Boolak. Few, how- 
ever, repay the trouble of a visit, 
except tiKMe of Mohammed Ali and 
Ibrahim Pasha. 


There are few streets in Cairo of 
sufficient breadth to admit carriages, 
sritliout great inconvenience to foot 
passengers, if the changes now taking 
place in the East introduce their use. 
Here and there, however, streets are 
met with broad enough to allow 
them a free passage ; and the Pasha's 
carriage goes from the citadel to the 
gntes without difficulty. Caru, indeed, 
employed in carrying rubbish from 
some of the fallen houses, are often 
seen in the larger thoroughfares ; and 
though there are few where two 
carriages could pass each other, it 
may be said that nearly all the prin- 
cipal streets are sufficiently broad to 
admit one. Here and there a gate- 
way or a sliarp turning would be a 
serious obstacle ; the unfortunate foot 
passerigers would be occasionally 
crushed ; and the projecting fronts of 
shops would inevitably be carried 
away; but these last incumbrances 
have lately been partially removed, and 
the most intnisive have withdrawn to 
the line of the houses, upon which like 
a fungus they had previously grown. 

The by-streets, and those in the 
quarters of the interior, are very nar- 
row ; and in consequence of the 

Cairene mode of building houses, each 
story projecting beyond that imme- 
diately below it, two persons may 
shake hands across the street from the 
upper windows. This narrowness of 
the streets is common to many towns 
in hot climates, having for its ob- 
ject greater coolness ; and so small 
a portion of blue sky is sometimes 
seen between the projecting mtisAre- 
hiehif or the approaching tops of the 
houses, that they might give a very 
suitable answer to the lines in Yir- 

** Die quibut in territ, et erit mihi magnus 

Tras pstest cceH tpstium non amplius 

Some of the bat^ars are covered over 
to protect those seated in the shops be- 
low from the sun ; and where the 
coverings are of wood, the appearance 
of the street is not injured by the 
effect ; but when of mats or a mere 
awning, their tattered condition, and 
the quantity of dust they shower down, 
during a strong wind, upon those be- 
low, tend little to the beauty of the 
street, or to the comfort of the people, 
for whose benefit they are intended. 
The streets of the baslUrs are also 
kept cool by watering ; which, though 
it may contribute to that end, has a 
very prejudicial effect ; the vapour 
constantly arising from the damp 
ground in a climate like Egypt, tend- 
ing greatly to cause or increase oph- 
thalmia ; and to this may, in a great 
degree, be attributed the startling fact 
that one out of ux among the inha- 
biunts of Cairo is either blind, or has 
some complaint in the eyes. 

r. CAPis. PUNCH. 

Tlie caf4s in Cairo are numerous, 
but little worthy of notice ; nor are 
any of them deserving of a visit, ex- 
cept one or two during the fast of 
Ramadin ; on which occasion it would 
be imprudent to go to some of them 
in a Frank dress. During that month, 
thtragiooB, the Turkish punch, is ex- 
hibited with great 6clat, particularly 



Sect n. 

at a cafe in the street where the 
Bash-agha resides. The perform- 
ances are not reniarkable for decency. 
Karagioos sometimes exhibits many 
strange feats, which he pretends to 
have performed, during bis career ; in 
his satirical sallies he spares neither 
rank, age, nor sex ; and until a com- 
plaint was made to the government, 
the licentiousness of these jS'atan-alia 
was so gross, that it would have 
shocked an ancient Greek audience, 
* though accustomed to the plays of 

8, BATHS. 

There are many' baths in Cairo, but 
none remarkable for size or splendour. 
They are all vapour baths ; and their 
heat, the system of shampooing, and 
the operation of rubbing with horse- 
hair gloves, contribute not a little to 
cleanliness and comfort ; though it is 
certainly disagreeable to be pulled 
about by the bathing men. The 
largest bath is the Tumbalee, near the 
gate called Bab e* Sliar^h, but it is 
less clean and comfortable than many 
others. One person, or « party, may 
take a whole bath to themselves alone, 
if they send beforehand and make 
an agreement with the master. In 
that case, care should be taken to see 
that tlie whole is well cleaned out, and 
fresh water put into the tank, or 
mnkut. You had always better use 
your own towels, or promise an 
extra fee for clean ones, which you 
cannot be too particular in rejecting, 
if at all of doubtful appearance. The 
baths at Cairo are on the same prin- 
ciple as those of Constantinople, 
though inferior in size. 


The slave market, Okillet e* Gelib, 
is no longer one of the sights of Cairo ; 
the black slaves are kept at the Kaitbay 
outside the town, and the Circassians, 
Georgians, and Greeks, as well as 
most of the Abyssinians, are in the 
private bouses of the dealers. 

It may be hoped that a far more 
important change will eventually take 
place, in the abolition of slavery 
altogether; and it is gratifying to 
feel that £ngland*s interference has 
already had the happy result of 
putting a stop to the slave hunts in 
the interior. 


Bazaars. — The principal baz4ars 
are the Ghoreeh and Khan Khal^l. 
The former is called from Sultan el 
Ghoree, whose mosk and tomb termi- 
nate and embellish one of its extre- 
mities. There cottons, stuffs, silks, 
Fex caps, and other articles are 
sold; and in Khan Khal^l (which, 
as I have shown, occupies the 
site of the Caliphs' tombs) cloth, 
dresses, swords, silks, slippers, and 
embroidered stuffs, are the principal 
articles. The two market days at tlie 
latter baziar are Monday and Thurs- 
day, the sale continuing from about 9 
till 1 1. Various goods are sold by auc- 
tion, the appraisers or ekUals {detlalin}, 
carrying them through the market, 
and calling the price bid for them. 
Many things may be bought at very 
reasonable prices on those occasions ; 
and it is an amusing scene to witness 
from a shop ; where, if in the habit of 
dealing with the owner, a stranger is 
always welcome, even though in a 
Frank costume. Crowds of people 
throng the baziar, while the dtVdlt 
wade through the crowd, carrying 
drawn swords, fly-flaps, silk dresses, 
chain armour, amber moutli-pieces* 
guns, and various heterogeneous sub- 

Formerly the only dtH&U in the 
Khan Khal^el were Turks* but now 
natives are admitted to vociferate the 
prices in bad Turkish, or even Ara- 
bic, and the owner oi the thing to be 
sold frequently goes himself to the 
baz&ar, to save the expense of a hired 
appraiser. In every cane, however, 5 
per cent, is paid to government, on the 
sale of each article. 




IVIthin this khan is a square oc- 
cupied by dealers in copper, and some 
other commodities ; and in a part . 
called '* within the chains,** are silks 
and other Constantinople goods; 
these, as well as most of the other 
shops, being kept by Turks. There 
are also some Greeks, who are princi- 
pally tailors. The shops are open in 
fronts and might be mistaken for cup- 

The Khan Khal^l, (or Khan Kha- 
leelee) was built in 691 ▲. ii. (a.d. 
1292) by one of the officers of the 
reigning Sultan, whose name, Khaleel, 
it bears. This man, under the pre- 
tence of re0iOTing the bones of the 
Caliphs to a more suitable place of 
interment, is said to have thrown them 
carelessly on the mounds of rubbish 
outside the walls; to which profane 
conduct they ascribe his miserable 
end ; having been killed in battle in 
Syria, and his body having been eaten 
by dogs. This, like many other Arab 
stories, may be doubted. 

The Hamz6wee is a sort of lihan 
or oialeh, where crape, silks, doth, 
and other goods, mostly of European 
manufacture, are sold. The dealers 
are all Christians, and it is therefore 
closed on a Sunday. 

In the Terb^ea, which is between 
the Hams6wee and the Ghor^eh, otto 
of rose and various perfumes, silk 
thread, and a few other things are 
sold ; and near this is the Fahamin, 
tlie abode of the Moghrebins, or 
Moors, who sell blankets, Fez caps 
(tarabSesh), bomooses (ftamaeej), and 
other articles from the Barbary coast. 

After passing the Ghor^h and the 
Fahamin (going towards the Bab 
Zooiyleh, is the Akkadeen, where silk 
cord and gold lace are bought ; behind 
which is the market of the Moalud, 
where cotton, wools, cushions, and 
beds of a common kind, woollen 
shawls, and other coarse stuffs worn 
by tlie lower orders, are sold daily, 
both in the shops and by auction. 
After passing the Sib^el, or fountain 
of Toossoom Pasha, is tlic Sookerichy 

where tugar, almonds, and dried fruits 
are purchased ; and this, like many 
other names, indicates the goods sold 

In the Soog e' Sullali, close to the 
mosk of Sulun Hassan, swords, guns, 
and other arms may be bought, as 
the name (« arms-market**) implies. 
Every day, but Monday and Thurs- 
day, an auction is held tliere, early in 
the morning. 

Kaasobet Had wan, outside the Bab 
Zoo&yleh, is abroad well-built market, 
where shoes only are sold. 

The Merg6osh, and the Gemal^eh, 
are also well known markets ; at the 
former of which cotton cloths called 
huftth are kept; and at the latter, 
cdBTee and tobacco, soap, and different 
goods imported from Syria ; and at 
the Bab e* Shar^h are found fruits, 
candles, and a few other things. 

There are also markets held in 
some parts of the town, independent 
of the shops in their neighbourhood ; 
as the Soog e* Jvnui, held on a *• Fri- 
d^jyt** (on the way to the Bab el Ha- 
d^t, at what is called the Soog e* 
Zullut,) where fowls, pigeons, rags, 
and any old goods are sold; the 
Soog e' Semmak, or Soog cl Fooat^eh, 
near the same spot, where '*^tA'*is 
sold every afternoon ; and the Soog el 
Asser, close to the Bab e* Nusr, where 
second-hand clothes are sold by auc- 
tion every afternoon. 

Several parts of the town are set 
apart for, and called after, certain 
trades, or particular goods sold there ; 
as. the Sooker^eh before mentioned ; 
the Nahasin, occupied by copper- 
smiths, near the Morost&n ; the Khor- 
dukldeh, in the same street, where 
liardware, cups, knives, and coffee- 
pots are sold; the Seeoof^h, occu- 
pied by those who mount swords ; the 
S4gha, by gold and silver workers; 
and the Gohergteh, by jewellers. 

AND 1842. 

In mentioning the basiUrs, it may 
be at well to give some idea of 



Sect n. 

the prices of goods at Cairo ; and the 
following lisU will show the increase 
from 1827 to 1842. 

Purchases of most eastern things 
had better be made at Cairo or Damas- 
cus, than at Constantinople, particu- 
larly silks. This is contrary to gene- 
ral opinion, but it is so ; and you are 
less cheated at those two places. 
Carpets, and a few other things, should 
be bought at Constantinople. 

Great impositions are practised on 
travellers at Cairo who buy arms. The 
peculiar ring of the old metal ought 
to distinguish them; it cannot be 
imitated like the watering. 

Tbe standard of valuation is the 
dollar, which was rising in 1827, 
from twelve and a half piastres to fif- 
teen, but which has since reached 
twenty, owing to the deterioration of 
the coin. 

raicx or, ik riASTRxs, and fodda (oe paras). 

AlmondSf shelled, the oka 
Aloes wood (ood), the Derhm 
Apricots (mishmish) dried, the oka 
Asses - - - - 


Piast Pod, 



3 30 

10 p. to 200 

Barley, the ardeb - - • 13 

Beans, ditto - - - - 14 

Beef, the rotl - - - - 10 

Boats, carriage in, by ardeb, to Alexandria - 4 

Books ( MSS. ) the karr&s, or quire - 5 

BornooS) silk and wool - - - 100 
Bread, the rotl of 12 oa. reduced in baking 

to 10 OB. - - - - 04 

Bricks, the 1000 - - - - 5 

Bridle - - • - - 100 

Buffaloes -.-*.- 200 

Butter, the roll. - . . . 10 

Calves - - ' - 

Camels and dromedaries - • 

Candles, tlie oka - - - 

Candles, spermaceti, European ditto 
Carpets (segiUlee) 
Ditto (keleem) - 

Charcoal, the oka - 

Cheese, the rotl. ... 
Ditto, (Dutch) .... 
Cloth (European), the drah 
Clover, fresh, the donkey load 
Cofi*ee, the rotl. - • - 

Cotton, the drah - . - 

Cotton, printed, ditto 
Copper, the oka, worked • 
Courier to Alexandria 
Couriers (Dromedary) for distance of 

70 miles ... 

Cows - - . . 

Crape stuff* ... 


300 to 1500 



70 to 200 

100 to 800 


90 to 

30 to 






20 to 


50 to 200 

6 to 8 




1841- 2- 

Piatt. Pod- 

5 O 


5 to 7 90 





9 O 

130 to 155 

200 p. to 800 

2 SOto S 


55 to 190 

400 to 1500 


22 to 24 

40,150 to 400 








20 to 

10 to 















225 to 500 
9 to 13 





», the rot]. ... 
Day's labour, of a man 
Ditto of bricklayer 
Ditto of builder ... 
Doora shimee (Indian com), tlie ardeb 
Doora b^ledee (sorghum), the ardeb 

Plast. Fod 
5/. to O 10 






DresMes for Women . — - 

Gold brocade, the piece • . . 200 

Broosa, silk stuffs, ditto- . . so 

Embroidered shirts - . 60 to 110 

Gibbeh (pelisse) of velvet embroidered - 11.50 
Salu (jacket) ditto ditto 

Dying cotton, the drah 

Ditto linen, ditto «... 

Ditto woollen cloth, ditto ... 





M the oka 
Flour, the roob 

the oka 

Firewood, the kaniar 

2 for 1 or 80 for 1 
Engraving seal, with the stone (the best) - 


1 10 

7 20 
10/. to 30 

O SO/, to 2 

5 to 15 O 


1 SO 

- 2 to 2 20 

- 4 to 6 

O 32 

500 to 2000 

500 to 50,000 

Goats ... 

Gypsum, the ardeb 
Gold, the derhm . 

Himijtt the donkey load 
Henneh (Lawsonia), the mid 
Hooey, the rotl . 
Horses, native 
Houses ... 

Siiferest of money, 60 per cent, per an- 
num withoQt security. 
Interest of money with security, 24 per cent. 
Interest, with jewels as security, 12 per cent. 

XentUSv the ardeb 

linen, the drab ... 

(14 feet by 8) 
Mats, best menofee, the square drab 
Mouth piece (amber without jewels) 
Mulct .... 

Pisft. Fod. 
15to SO 

1 20to 




170 to 



2 23 to 

1 10 
5 14 


3 for 5 

or 24 for 1 


S 20 


15 Oto 





50 O 

1 10 
600 to 5000 


48 Oto 60 




4 Oto 12 


50 to 500 

80 to 1000 

800 to 2000 

800 to 2000 



Sect. n. 

Mutton, tiie rotl. . . - 

Wlmam (Turkish) dress, embroidered 
Nuts, the oka ... 

Oil Lamp, the rotl 

— Seerigy ditto - - • 

— Olive, ditto - - - 
Otto of rose, better el werd, the mitk4l 

Vearto, the mttkil 

Pigeons, the pair - 

Pipes, without the mouthpiece 

Potatoes, the oka ... 

■f the oka 
Rent, per month, (see Sect. II. b.) 
Rice, the oka ... 
Ropes, the oka . . - 
» Syrian ditto 

Saddle, Turkish, complete, velvet covering 
Sea salt, the roob (of 28 rotl) 
Servant*s hire, the month (see Sect II. c.) 
Sheep .... 
Silver, the derbm ... 

Shoe leather, the skin 


18^1 — 


Piast. Fed. 

FiJtt. Fod. 
























and upwards. 




10 to 50 

10 to 



I to 






10 to 100 

10 to 200 oi 

•250 10 




20 to 






g 450 




5 to 50 

10 to 


8 to 25 

200 to 






Slaves, black, bojs 
, girls 


Abyssinian boys 

While boys, (memlooks) 


Skins ... 
Silk, Turkish shirt (humbiisa) 

, shirting (bumbiisa) ditto 

— , raw, the derhm 
— , thresul ditto 

, piece of (alliga) 

, stuffs, the drah 

, small Trablua sash - 

Soap, the rotl 

SoIdier*s pay, the month - 
Suaw, the donkey load 
Sugar, the rotl 

, white 
Swords - • . 

Tak^eAv white cap 

J p. 

1 to SO 

500 to 


800 to 


1000 to 


700 to 


2000 to 5000 

1500 to 10,000 






85 to 


90 Co 125 



35 to 1 




45 to 


100 to 150 

11 to 








2 Oto 31 

50 to 


2 to 



Sto 3 




1 10 to 3 

. 10 / to 




130 to 1000 

130 to 3000 






Tarboosh (red cap), best - 
Timber, planks, 10 feet long 
Tobacco, gebelee, the oka - 

^ sooree, ditto 

i b^ledee, ditto 

Treacle, the rotl 


UTateTf Nile, the skin - 

leather bottle, or zemsemeeh 

■ skins ... 

bottle of pottery or koolleh 

rose, the quart bottle 

Wheat, theardeb (varying in Upper Egypt 18) 

&« also, sect. 1. 5. p. 74. some prices at Alexandria. 

PUit. Fod. 
25 O 

6 O 

1 10 


5/. to 10 

15 O 

20 to 50 

O 5 

3 O 


1841 —2. 
Piwt Fod. 
3 to 50 



12 O 

d 10 

O 2f> 

O 35 


16 20 






V. QUAftTKRa. — corr and jkws* 



The whole town is divided into 
quarters, separated from each other 
by gates, which are closed at night. 
A porter is appointed to each, who is 
obliged to open the door to all who 
wish to pass through, unless there 
is sufficient reason to believe them to 
be improper persons, or not furnished 
with a lamp, which every one is 
obliged to carry after the E'thtr, 
The majority of these quarters consist 
of dwelling-houses, and are known 
by a name taken from some public 
building, from some individual to 
whom the property once belonged, or 
from some class of persons who live 
there: as the Hart e' Suggain, 
'< quarter of the water-carriers ; ** the 
Hart e* Nass^ra, or Hart el Kobt, 
" the Christian,** or*« Copt, quarter ; " 
the Hart el Yeh6od, " Jews* quarter; ** 
the Hart el Frang,.« Frank quarter," 
and the like. 

The Copt quarUr occupies one side 
of the Uzbek ^li. It is built much on 
the same principle as the rest of the 
town ; but some of the houses are very 
comfortably fitted up, and present a 
better appearance than is indicated by 
their exterior. It has a gate at each 
end, and others in the centre, two 

of which are on the Uzbek^eh ; but 
these last are not opened, except as a 
favour, to any one after the E'sher, 
or labour after sunset The Copt 
quarter stands on the site of the old 
village of £i Maks. 

The Jews* quarter consists of nar- 
row dirty streeU or lanes, while many 
of the houses of the two opposite 
sides actually touch each other at the 
upper stories. The principal reason 
of their being made so narrow is 
to aflbrd protection in caae of the 
quarter being attacked, and to faci- 
litate escape when the houses have 
been forced. 

The Frank quarter is usually known 
to Europeans by the name of £1 M6s- 
kee, supposed to be corrupted from 
El Mi&kawee. This last is said to 
have been given it in very early times 
(according to some, in the reign of 
Moes, the founder of the city), in 
consequence of its being the abode of 
the water-carriers ; and^ according to 
the same authority, when the city was 
enlarged, and their huts were re- 
moved to make way for better bouses, 
the streets, which extended through 
this quarter (from what is now the 
Derb el Baribra to the Hamzowee) 
still retained the name of Derb el 
Miskawee. This, however, appears 
not to have been the real origin of 




Sect. IL 

the name; and some derive it from 
misk, " musk," but for what reason 
does not appear. Others, again, sup- 
pose it to have been the street of the 
Moskee or Russians. The name is 

written in Arabic JLj*^, «nd Ma^ 

crizi says the bridge, or Kantarat el 
Moskee, was built by the Ame^r 
Ghazaleb, who died in Syria 530 
A. H. (a. d. 1136.) 

It was here that the first Franks 
who opened shops in Cairo were per- 
mitted to reside, in the reign of 
Yoosef Salih e* deen (Saladin). But 
the number of houses occupied by 
them in later times having greatly in- 
creased, the Frank quarter has ex- 
tended far beyond its original limits, 
and tlie Moskee now includes several 
of the adjacent streets. 

Though this name is used both by 
Europeans and natives, that of Hart 
el Frang, " Frank quarter,** has of 
late been generally substituted by the 
latter, and each street within it is dis- 
tinguished by its own name. 


The extent of Cairo was at first 
very limited. The walls were ori- 
ginally of brick, as already staU*d, 
until the time of Saladin. At that 
period the city extended only to the 
Bab Zoo^yleh on the south ; but 
when he added the portion beyond it, 
the walls were also prolonged to the 
citadel, and this continues to be the 
circuit of Cairo to the present day. 
The original part of the city, how- 
ever, still retains the name of £1 
Medeeneh, ** the city ;'* as is the case 
in some towns of Europe. It was at 
this time, too, tliat the ^^isolated Kalat 
el Kebsh, or Kuttaeea, of Ahmed ebn 
e* Tooloon, became part of Cairo. 
The town was also extended on the 
northern side, and the present Bab 
el Had^et (" gate of iron ") stonds 
some distance furtlier out than the 
original site of that entrance. 

One portion, however, of the old 

city was left out in the last circuit, 
and a space containing about 14,000 
square feet, called Boorg-e'- ZifiTr, is 
entirely uninhabited. It is about 
400 paces to the S. £. of the Bab 
e* Nusr, and is partly buried by the 
mounds of rubbish from time to time 
carried out of the town. But this 
diminution is fully compensated by 
the size of the suburbs of Hossayn^eh, 
beyond the Bab el Fotooh and the 
Bab e* Shar^eh, which cover a space 
of 270,000 square feet. 

The Boorg-t'-Ziffir, or "tower of 
filth,** is curious, from its showing the 
masonry, loopholes, and general style 
of the Saracenic walls, which are more 
easily seen there than in any other part 
of the town. At the northern angle is 
a staircase of peculiar construction, and 
on the inner face of its tower are some 
Cu fie inscriptions. Many of the stones 
in the walls have remains of hierogly- 
phics, and were probably brought from 
the ruins of Heliopolis, or the site of 
Memphis. On the mounds, that cover 
part of the walls, and command the 
town, are several small stone forts 
erected by the French, and some wind- 
mills built by Mohammed AU. Im- 
mediately behind the citadel are some 
small Egyptian sepulchral grottoes 
hewn in the face of tlie rock, and the 
cisterns already mentioned. 

Canal — Through the town passes 
the canaly which conveys the water 
from Old Cairo to the city, and thence 
to the lands abou{ Heliopolis. It is 
the successor of the Amnis Trajanus* 
The cutting of this canal in the month 
of A ugust is a grand ceremony, and 
gives the signal for opening the other 
canals of Egypt. In 183S-3 a new 
canal was opened near Boolak, for 
the purpose of irrigating the lands 
about Heliopolis and the Birket el 
Hag, which has partly superseded the 
old one, whose oflSlcc is now confined 
to ^e conveyance of water to the city ; 
and it is probable that were it not for 
an old prestige in its favour, the 
government would close the latter 
altogether, and make of its bed a con* 




▼cnient street ; which would have the 
additional advantage of freeing the 
houses on its banks from the noxious 
vapours that rise, when the water has 
retired, and left a bed of liquid mud. 


Some of the gates of Cairo are well 
worthy of a visit. The most remark- 
able are the Bab e' Nusr, " Gate of 
Victory;" the Babel Fotooh, "Gate 
of Conquest ;*' and the Bab Zoo4yleh 
(already mentioned), in the interior of 
the city. The first opens towards the 
desert and the tombs, on the east side, 
and is that by which the Hag, or " pil- 
grims,** go in procession ; when, taking 
the covering off the Prophet*s tomb, 
they leave Cairo for the pilgrimage to 


Cairo itself presents no remains of 
ancient times except columns, blocks 
of stone used as thresholds of doors, 
and fragments brought from Helio- 
poUs, Memphis, or other places ; and 
few are found with sculpture or 
hieroglyphics. The most remarkable 
are a column of a mosk in the Berb 
e* Toorgemaa,near the Soog e' ZuUut, 
with the names of Amenoph III., of 
Pthahmen, the son and successor of 
Remeses the Great, and of Osirei 
III., the fourth successor of that con- 
queror ; a stone at Joseph *s Hall ; the 
threshold of the Okilet el Bokh£r, 
near the Hamzowee, with the name of 
Psamaticus ; two or three in and near 
the Frank quarter ; one at the Mer- 
go6sh ; another with the name of 
Apries, at a gateway opposite Ahmed 
Pasha Taber's palace behind the Ux- 
bek^h ; the capital of a column with 
the name of Horus, in the D£li e* 
Semak ; and a few others. But they 
are of little interest, from our not 
knowing the place or building whence 
they came. Nor is any thing found 
outside the town, near Ute walls, ex- 
cept the tanks and grottoes of Gebel 
e' J6oshee. 


Cairo is of irregular form ; about 
two miles in length, by about half that 
in breadth. The population has been 
variously stated by different writers. 
It appears to be now reduced from 
300,000 to about 200,000 souls, and 
the number of the inhabitants of Egypt 
is gradually decreasing throughout the 
country. Cairo is supposed to con- 
tain 30,000 inhabited houses ; and of 
the population of 200,000, about 
121,000 are Moslems, 60,000 Copts, 
4,000 Jews, 8,500 Franks and Greeks, 
2,000 Armenians, and 4,500 Roman 
Catholic Copts, Greeks, and Arme- 

It were well if the population of 
dogs decreased in the same proportion 
as the inhabitants of Cairo : a smaller 
number would suffice for all the pur* 
poses for which they are useful, and 
the annoyance of these barking plagues 
might be diminished to great advan- 
tage. Their habits are strange : they 
consist of a number of small republics, 
each having its own district, deter- 
mined by a frontier line, respected 
equally by itself and its neighbours ; 
and woe to the dog who dares to ven- 
ture across it at night, either for 
plunder, curiosity, or a love adven- 
ture. He is chased with all the fury 
of the offended party, whose territory 
he has invaded ; but if lucky enough 
to escape to his own frontier unhurt, 
he immediately turns round with the 
confidence of right, defies his pursuers 
to continue the chase, and, supported 
by his assembled friends, joins with 
them in barking defiance at any fur- 
ther hostility. Egypt is therefore not 
the country for an European dog, 
unaccustomed to such a state of canine 
society : and I remember hearing of 
a native servant who had been sent by 
his Frank master to walk out a fa- 
vourite pointer, running home in tears 
with the bind leg of the mangled dog, 
being the only part he could rescue 
from the fierce attacks of a whole tribe 
of *^$ubuTrana caneg.** This he did 




Sect. IL 

to show he had not lost or sold his 
master's pointer, at the same time 
that he proved his zeal in the cause 
of what Moslems look upon as an 
unclean and contemptible animal. 


The principal annual ceremony at 
Cairo is the departure of the pilgrims 
for Mecca, on the 25th of Show&l. 
The Mahmel and tlie Kisweh are the 
chief objects in this procession. The 
former is a veWet canopy, borne on a 
camel richly caparisoned, and was ori- 
ginal ly intended for the travelling seat 
or GarmSot, of the wives of the 
caliphs, who went to the pilgrimage. 
This and the Mokub, or pomp that 
attends the pilgrims, were first sug- 
gested by Sheggeret e* Door, the 
queen of Sultan Sileh, who was anxi- 
ous to add to the splendour of tlie 
hitherto simple procession of the Faith> 
ful ; and the dangers of the journey 
were at the same time greatly de- 
creased by an additional reinforcement 
of guards. The Kiswet e* Nebbee 
is the lining of the K^ba, or temple 
of Mecca. It is of rich silk, adorned 
with Arabic sentences embroidered in 
gold, and is yearly supplied from 
Cairo ; the old one being then returned, 
and divided into small portions for the 
benefit or satisfaction of the credu- 

The pilgrims, after staying two 
days at the edge of the desert, near 
Dimerd&sh, proceed to the Birket el 
Hag, or « lake of the pilgrims,** where 
they remain a day : from thence they 
go to £1 Hamra ; and after a halt of 
a day there, they continue tlieir jour- 
ney as far as Agerood, where they 
stop one day ; and having seen the 
new moon of Zul-k&di, they leave 
the frontier of Egypt, cross the nor- 
thern part of the peninsula of Mount 
Sinai to £1 Akaba, at the end of the. 
Eastern Gulph, and then continue 
their march through Arabia, till they 
arrive at Mecca. After having per- 
formed the prescribed ceremonies 
there, having walked seven times at 

least round the K&aba, and kissed the 
black stone, taken water from the holy 
well of Zemaem, visited the hill of 
Zafa, and the Omra, the 70,000 pil- 
grims proceed to the holy hill of 
Araf&t. Tliis is the number said to be 
collected annually at the pilgrimage 
from the various nations of Isl4m ; 
and so necessary is it that it should 
be completed on the occasion, that 
angels are supposed to come down to 
supply this deficiency, whenever the 
pilgrimage is thinly attended. Such 
is the effect of the magical number 7, 
and of the credulity of the East. 

Their return to Cairo is also a day 
of great rejoicing, when the pilgrims 
enter in procession by the Bab «' 
Nusr, about the end of the month 
SaflTer, generally the 25th or 27th. 
But this ceremony is neither so im- 
portant, nor so scrupulously observed 
as the departure ; each person being 
more anxious to return to his friends, 
than to perform a part in an unprofit- 
able pageant. 

The Eed e' Sogh^ir, or lesser festi- 
val, falls on the beginning of Showal, 
the month immediately following the 
fast of Ramad4n, and continues three 
days, which are kept like those of the 
Eed el Keb^er, with the exception of 
the sacrifice, which is not then per- 
formed. These two festivals are called 
by the Turks, BaiHLm. The Eed el 
Keb^er, <* the greater Eed,** or Eed 
e' Dah6eh (** of the sacrifice *') also con- 
tinues tliree days, and is kept on the 
10th, nth, and 12thof Zul-bag, being 
tlie three days when the pilgrimage 
of Mecca is performed. 

The day before the Eed the pilgrims 
ascend the holy hill of Araf&t, which 
is thence called Nahr el Wikfeh, 
*< the day of the ascent,** or "standing 
upon** (the hill): there they remain 
all night, and next day, which is the 
Eed, they sacrifice on the hill ; then, 
having gone down, they with closed 
eyes pick up seven-times-seven small 
stones, which they throw upon the 
tomb of the devil at even, and next 
day go to Mecca, where they remain 




ten or fifteen days. Tbe period from 
leaving Cairo to the W&kfeb is thirty- 
three days, and the whole time from 
the day of leaving the hill of Arafat 
to that of entering Cairo, is sixty- 
leren days. 

The three days of both the Eeda are 
celebrated at Cairo by amusements of 
various kinds ; the guns of the cita- 
del during that time being fired at 
every hour of prayer, five times each 
day. The festival of the Eed e' Da^ 
h&eh is intended to commemorate the 
sacrifice of Abraham when he offered 
a ram in lieu of his son ; though the 
Moslems believe that son to have been 
Ismail ; in which they differ from the 
Jews and Christians. 

Tbe opening of the canal at Old 
Cairo is also a ceremony of great im- 
portance, and looked upon with feel- 
ings of great rejoicing, as the har- 
binger of the blessings annually be- 
stowed upon the country by the Nile. 
The time fixed for cutting tbe dam, 
that closes its mouth, depends of 
course on the height of the river, but 
is generally about the 1 0th of August. 

The ceremony is performed in the 
morning by the Governor of Cairo, 
or by the Pasha's deputy. The whole 
night before this, the booths on the 
shore, and the boats on the river, are 
crowded with people ; who enjoy 
themselves by witnessing or joining 
tbe numerous festive groups, while 
fireworks and various amusements 
enliven tbe scene. 

Towards morning, the greater part 
either retire to some house to rest, or 
wrap themselves up in a cloak, and 
sleep on board the boats, or upon the 
banks in the open air. About eight 
o'clock A.M. the Governor, accom- 
panied by troops and his attendants, 
arrives ; and on giving a signal, several 
peasants cut the dam with hoes, and 
the water rushes into the bed of the 
canal. In the middle of the dam is 
a pillar of earth, called Arooset e' 
Keel, " the bride of the Nile,** which 
a tradition pretends to have been sub- 
stituted by the humanity of Amer for 

tbe virgin previously sacrificed every 
year by the Christiant to the river 
god I While the water is rushing into 
the canal, the Governor throws in a 
few para pieces, to be scrambled for 
by boys, who stand in its bed| ex- 
pecting these proofs of Turkish muni- 
ficence ; which, though 200 go to an 
English shilling (and this is a far 
larger sum than is scrambled for 
on the occasion), are the only in- 
stance of money given gratis by the 
Government to the people, from one 
end of the year to the other. It is 
amusing to see the clever way in 
which some of the boys carry off* these 
little prizes, the tricks they play each 
other, and their quickness in diving 
into the water; which threatens to 
carry them off*, as it rushes from the 
openings of the dam. As soon as 
sufficient water has entered it, boats 
full of people ascend the canal, and 
the crowds gradually disperse, as the 
Governor and the troops withdraw 
from the busy scene. 

This was formerly a very pretty 
sight, and was kept up with a spirit 
unknown in these days of increased 
cares and diminished incomes. The 
old Turkish costume too, the variety 
in the dresses of the troops, and the 
Oriental character that pervaded the 
whole assemblage in former times, 
tended not a little to increase the 
interest of the festival ; but the pomp 
of those days has yielded to a tame- 
ness, with which every one, who 
twenty or fifteen years ago witnessed 
this and other ceremonies of Cairo, 
cannot fail to be struck. 

The story of the virgin annually 
sacrificed to the river shows how 
much reliance is to be placed on tra^ 
dition, or even on the authority of 
Arab writers ; for credulity revolts at 
the idea of a human sacrifice in a 
Christian country, so long under the 
government of the Romans. The in- 
vention of a similar fable discovers 
the ignorance, as well as the malicious- 
ness, of its authors, who probably lived 
long after the time of Amer, and who 





thought to establish the credit for their 
own nation by misrepresenting the 
conduct of their enemies. 

The Mooted e* Nebbee, or *< birth- 
day of the Prophet** Mohammed, is 
a filt of rejoicing, and offers many 
an amusing scene. It was first in- 
stituted by Sultan Murad the son of 
Sellm, known to us as Amurath III., 
in the year 996 of the Hegira, a. d. 
1588. It is held in the Uzbek^eh 
in the beginning of the month of Re- 
b^eh-el-owel, on the return of the 
pilgrims to Cairo; and from the 
booths, swings, and other things 
erected on the occasion, has rather 
the appearance of a fair. It con- 
tinues a whole week, beginning on 
the 3d, and ending on the 11th, or 
the night of the 12th, of the month, 
the last being always the great day ; 
the previous night having the name 
of Layleh Mobirakeh, ox "blessed 
night'* On this day the Saad^eh 
derwishes, the modern Psylli, go in 
procession and perform many jug- 
gling tricks with snakes, some of which 
are truly disgusting; these fanatics 
frequently tearing them to pieces witli 
their teeth, and assuming all the cha- 
racter of maniacs. For the last two 
years, however, this part of the per- 
formance has been omitted, being too 
gross for the public eye, in these days 
of increasing civilisation ; but fanati- 
cism is not wanting to induce them, 
as well as many bystanders, to degrade 
themselves by other acts totally un- 
worthy of rational beings, such as 
could only be expected among»t 
ignorant savages; and no European 
can witness the ceremony of the 
Ddsehf which takes place in the after, 
noon of the same day, without feelings 
of horror and disgust. On this occa- 
sion the shekh of the Siad^eh, mounted 
on horseback, and accompanied by the 
derwishes of various orders, with their 
banners, goes in procession to the 
Uzbek :eh, where between 200 and 
300 fanatics having thrown them- 
selves prostrate on the ground, closely 
wedged together, the shekh rides over 

their bodies, the assembled crowd fre- 
quently contending with each other to 
obtain one of these degrading posts, 
and giving proofs of wild fanaticism 
which those who have not witnessed 
it could not easily imagine. A grand 
ceremony is also performed in Uie 
evening at the house of their president, 
the Shifkh el Bekree, the reputed de» 
scendant of A boo Bekr e* Saad^h. 

The Mooledel Haasanin, ihebirtli- 
day of the "two Hassans** (Hassan 
and Hossayn), the sons of Ali, is cele- 
brated foi* eight days about the 12th 
of Rebeeb-*l-akher, and is considered 
the greatest flu in Cairo, being of 
the psUron saints of the city. The 
people go in crowds to visit their 
tomb, where grand Zikn are per- 
formed in their honour; the mosk 
being brilliantly illuminated, as well 
as the quarters in the immediate 
neigbbourliood ; while tlie people in- 
dulge in the usual amusements of 
Eastern fairs. 

The fites of Saydeh Ziyneb, the 
grand-daughter of the Prophet, and 
other male and female shekbs of Cairo, 
are kept much in the same way, by 
illuminating their respective mosks; 
but are mucii less worth seeing than 
the ordinary evening occupations of 
the Moslems during the whole month 
of Ramadtui, which, to a person un- 
derstamling the language, offer many 
attractions. The bazaars are then 
lighted up, and crowds of people ait 
at the shops, enjoying themselves, 
after the cruel fast of the day, by 
conversation, and by listening to story 
tellers; who, with much animatioo, 
read or relate the tales of the Thou- 
sand-and-one Nights, or other of 
the numerous stories for which the 
Arabs have been always famed. 


One of the first lions which the 
traveller inquires after, on arriving 
at Cairo, is the magician, who baa 
become noted for certain perform- 
ances through a supposed auperos- 
tural power, by which figures are 

■ full u 

made to ■ppev to cbiidren ; >nd tfae 
penoni otlhotit wholHie been called 
for bj tbe byaunderi hi*e been wtne- 
tim» deicTibed lO uciirattljr u to 
lewl to tlie belief that " 
were not unfouodtd. 

Mtp Lane hu giveD 
of what he doe*, or preleads to do ; 
for Kbich I reTer lo liii work, and 
proceed to describe the performance 
of the ^me penon, Sbekh abd el 
Kider, ai wjtnnud b; me in 1R4I, 
with the obwiTitions I biTe been ied 
to make on the occuion ; which I 
■ubmit to the judgment of tbe reader, 
■nd aboie all of the traveller, who 
■CH him, and hai lufficient knowledge 
at Arabic to be independent of an in- 
terp'Vter. A belief in the power of 
calling up the dead, or eihibiting ap- 
pearance! of abwnt penoni, haa been 
long current in the EuL The man- 
ner of doing Ihii calli lo mind the in- 

Samucl waa made to appear at the 
rcqueM of Saul ; and the uteof ink in 
ibe boy'ihandi* timilir lo tlicoil uid 
lo hav* been einptojed for the lame 
purpose bj the Greeks, atTording to 
(be Scboliait oD Ariitophaoes. 

I now proceed to ihow ai brieSj a* 
poaiible what are the chiimi nf the mo- 
dera magician in riTalling lho«eof old. 

On going to see him I wai deter- 
mined to examine the matler with 

that I direated myself of every pre- 
tioua bias, either for or against hii 
pretended powers. A party having 
been made up lo wititeu the eihibi. 
lion, we met, according to previous 
agreement, at Mr. Lewis'* house on 
Wednrvlay evening, the 8ib of De- 
cember. The magician was ushered 
ing taken his place, we ail 



IE befon 

Tbe party conuited of 
Colonel Bamet our consul -general. 
Chevalier Krehmer tbe Ruuiaii con- 
lul-general, Mr. Lewis, Dr. Ahbol, 
Mr. Samuel, Mr.Chriilian, M. Prisse, 
with aootber French gentleman, and 
mjaclf; row of whom undentood 

Arabic very well, so that we bad no 
need of an inlerpreler. 

The magician, after entciing into 
conversation with many of us on in- 
different lubjecti, and discusaing two 
or three pipes, prepared fur (he per- 
formatice. He lirgt of all requested 
that a braiier of live charcoal might 
be brought, and in the mean while 
occupied himself in writing upon a 
long slip of paper five sentences of 
two lines each, then two others, one of 
a single line, and the other of two, a* 
an invocation to the tpiriu. Ever; 
sentence biK*" <*'''■ Tuyunboon, and 
tliey weie very limilar to those given 
in Mr. Lane's book i — 

Each waa separated from the one 
above and below it by a line, to direct 
him in tearing them apart. 

A boy was then called, who was 
ordered lo >il down before the magi- 
cian. Me did 10. and the magician 
having asked for some ink from Mr. 
Lewis, traced with a pen on the palm 

band a double square, conlaining the 
nine numbers in this order, or in 
English — making 1£ each way ; the 

7 the magician, 
Q brought and 



Sect. n. 

the boy, who was ordered to look 
stedfasdy into the ink and report 
whatever he siiould see. I begged 
the magician to speak slowly enough 
to give me time to write down every 
word, which he promised to do, with- 
out being displeased at the request ; 
nor had he objected, during the pre- 
liminary part of the performance, to 
my attempt to sketch him as he sat. 

He now began an incantation, call- 
ing on the spirits by the power of 
" our Lord Soolayman," &c., with the 
words tt^ur$hooH and hadderoo (be 
present), frequently repeated. He 
then muttered words to himself, and 
tearing apart the different sentences 
he had written, he put them one after 
the other into the fire together with 
some frankincense. This done, he 
asked the boy if any body had come. 

— BoT. " Yes, many." — Magician. 
" Tell them to sweep." — B. «* Sweep." 

— M. *' Tell them to bring the flags.'* 

— B. » Bring the flags." — M. 
" Have they brought any?" — B. 
" Yes." — M. " Of what colour?" 

— B. " Green. •• — M. "Say, bring 
another." — B. ** Bring another.** 

— M. " Has it come?*'— B. " Yes, 
a green one." — M. " Another.** 

— B. « Another." — , M. " Is it 
brought?"— B. "Yes; another green 
one — they are ail green.** — M. 
" What now ?"— B. •* Another ; half 
white, half red." — M. « Bring an- 
other.** — B. " Bring another." — M. 
«Heh?"— B. « He has brought a 
black one; all black."— M. "An- 
other." — B. *< Another; here it is; 
there are five.** — M. "Another." — 
B. <* Bring another ; here it is, all 
white.** — M. "Bring one more." — 
B. " Bring one more."— M. " Well ?" 

— B. " He has brought one more, 
green.** — M. "Bring the sultan*s 
tent." — B. " They have brought it, 
but have not yet put it up." — M. 
*' Order them to pitch it and lay down 
diwans." — B. " They have put it 
up, aud have brought diwans; here 
comes the sulun on a black horse, and 
he alighu and sits on a throne.** — 

Finding the boy very ready with his 
answers, I said to him, " Have I not 
seen you perform before?" He said, 
" Yes, I have done it before often."— 
M. " What do you see now?" — B. 
" He is washing his hands."— M. " Is 
a soldier before him?"— B. " Yes." 

— M. "Have they brought coffee?" 

— B. " They have ; and he drinks — 
put me some more ink." 

This being done, the magician asked 
who would call for some one. Mr. 
Lewis called for his father by name. 

— M. " Say to thechowish, * Chowisb, 
bring Frederick Lewis before me that 
I may see him ?* Well ! "— B. " Here 
he is, dressed in black, short and fat, 
of a white colour, with no beard, but 
mustaches, wearing a tarboosh and 
red shoes." The description of this 
person was as unlike as the last part 
to a European dress. The magician, 
on being told this, said, *< Let him 
go." The boy repeated this order, 
and said, " I tell the truth as be ap- 

I suggested that the magician, bav- 
in;' once caused Siakspeare to be so 
Wfll described, ought to have the 
same power of doing it again with a 
different boy, and I asked for him. 

— M. " Say, Chowish, bring Sbak- 
speare." — B. " Bring Sbakspeare.** 

— M. " Is he come ?*'— B. " Yes ; 
he is short, fat, dressed in black, with 
a child standing by him ; he has a 
beard.** Somebody asked if he bad 
any thing round his neck. B. " Yes ; 
a handkerchief, red. He has a black 
beard, no mustaches, a black high hat *' 
Some one asked if it was like a com- 
mon hat. B. <* A hat with a band 
round it ; he wears red shoes, has 
nothing in his hand, Arab trowsers, 
and a nizAm dress, and a black niz6m 
coat, with a red shawl round his 
waist, a stick in his hand, many peo- 
ple near him, and a little boy dressed 
in white, an Arab dress, tarbooaky and 
red shoes."— M. " Let him go — is 
begone?"— B. "Yes." 

Lord Anglesey was then called 
for. The boy described him as " an 




Englishman, tall, in a Frank dress of 
a black colour, with a white hand- 
kerchief round his neck, wearing black 
boots and white stockings, light or 
yellow hair, blue eyes, no beard, no 
mustaches, but whiskers ; with black 
gloves on his hands, and a low flat 
black hat** He was then asked how 
he walked. M. «< Tell him to walk.**— 
B. ** He stretches out his leg far, and 
puts his hands to his sides in his 
trowsers pockets. ** Some one asked if 
he stepped out equally with both legs? 
and the boy replied, ** He puts them 
out both equally.** 

He was then sent away, and ano- 
ther boy was brought, who had never 
before seen the magician, having been 
chosen with another by Mr. Lewis on 
purpose. The ink being put into his 
band he was asked if he saw the re- 
flection of his face ; and having an- 
swered in the aflirmative, he was told 
to say when he saw any thing; but 
after many incantations, incense, and 
long delay, he could see nothing, and 
fell asleep over the ink. 

The other boy was then called in, 
but he, like the last, could not be made 
to see any thing; and a fourth was 
brought, who bad evidently often acted 
his part before. He first saw a sha- 
dow, and was ordered to ** tell him 
to sweep,** and after the flags and the 
sultan as usual, some one suggested 
tliat Lord Fitaroy Somerset should be 
called for. He was described in a 
white Frank dress, a long (high) white 
hat, Hack itoekinga, and white gloves, 
tall, and standing before him with black 
boola, I asked how he could see his 
stockings with boots ? The boy an- 
swered ** under his trowsers.** He 
continued, ** His eyes are white, no 
mustaches, no beard, but little whis- 
kers, and yellow (light) hair ; he is 
thin, thin legs, thin arms; in his left 
hand he holds a stick, and in the other 
a pipe ; he has a black handkerchief 
round his neck, bis throat buttoned 
up ; his trowsers are long ; he wears 
green spectacles. '* The magician 
seeing some of the party smiling at 

the description and its inaccuracy, said 
to the boy, " Don't tell lies, boy.** 
To which he answered, <* I do not, 
why should I ?*' — M. '< Tell him to 
go.**— B. '^Go.** 

Queen Victoria was next called for, 
who was described as short, dressed in 
black trowsers, a white hat, black 
shoes, white gloves, red coat with red 
lining, jind black waistcoat, with whis- 
kers, but no beard nor mustaches, and 
holding in his hand a glass tumbler. 
He was asked if the person was a man 
or a woman ? he answered, " a man.** 
We told the magician it wasour queen ! 
He said, ** I do not know why they 
should say what is false ; 1 knew she 
was a woman, but the boys describe 
as they see.** ■ 

From the manner in which the 
questions are put, it is very evident 
that when a boy is persuaded to see 
any thing, the appearances of the 
sweeper, the flags and the sultan, are 
the result of leading questions. The 
boy pretends or imagines he sees a 
man or a shadow, and he is told to 
order some one to sweep : he is there- 
fore prepared with his answer ; and the 
same continues to the end, the magi- 
cian always telling him what he is to 
call for, and consequently what he is 
to see. The descriptions of persons 
asked for are almost universally com- 
plete failures, and the exceptions may, 
I think, be explained in this manner. 
A person with one arm is called for, 
as Lord Nelson; while described, 
questions are put by those present as 
to this or that peculiarity, and the mere 
question, ** Has he one or two arms?** 
will suffice to prompt a boy of any 
quickness to say, " No, I see he has 
only one ; ** and when asked which he 
has lost, he must be right, as the ma- 
gician has the wir, if wrong, to say 
"he sees him as in a mirror;'* and 
the same unintentional hints, aided 
sometimes by an interpreter, have, 
doubtless, led to the few striking de- 
scriptions which have been given. 
Indeed, though every one had agreed 
to avoid any thing which might lead 




Sect. n. 

the boy t to their answers, on the occa- 
sion above mentioned at Mr. Lewis's, 
this question was inadvertently asked, 
** Does Lord Anglesey step out 
equally with both legs ? ** which, had 
the boy been sufficiently quick, would 
have led to a description that might 
have been cited in favour of the power 
of the magician. It is also very evi- 
dent that the boy describing an Euro- 
pean with trowsers, boots, and stock- 
ings, was not telling what he saw, but 
what he was thinking of, and putting 
together as the description of a Frank 
dress ; for he could not, of course, see 
the stockings, concealed, as they would 
be, by trowsers and boots. 

I am decidedly of opinion that the 
whole of the first part is done solely 
by leading questions, and that when- 
ever the descriptions succeed in any 
point, the success is owing to accident, 
or to unintentional prompting in the 
mode of questioning the boys. That 
the boys are frequently sent beforehand 
by the magician to wait near the house 
has also been discovered ; but in cases 
where European and other boys, who 
have never seen him , are brought, the 
same leading questions will answer, 
if the boys can be induced by their 
imagination to fancy they see any 
thing. Indeed, this imagination has 
been sometimes so worked upon as to 
alarm them for many days and weeks 
afterwards, and we have no need of 
Egyptian magicians to induce credu- 
lity, or to work upon the fears of 
children. With regard to those who 
have learnt of the magician, if they 
really believe that with such questions 
they have any other power over the 
boy, independent of his imagination, 
or the wish to please the party, I 
leave them to explain it according 
to their own version. I must how- 
ever observe that the explanation 
lately offered, that-Osman Effendi 
was in collusion with the magician, is 
neither fair on him, nor satisfactory, 
as he ufaa not present when those 
cases occurred, which were made so 
much of in Europe; while for my 

own part I see no difficulty in ac- 
counting for it, in the manner above 


It is not my intention to enter into 
a detailed account of all the institu- 
tions of the Pasha, as manufactories, 
arsenals, schools of medicine, geome- 
try, and modem languages, military 
and naval establishments, or of the 
formation of his disciplined army and 
his fleet. But I cannot pass them 
over altogether without notice ; and I 
recommend those who are interested 
in the subject to visit the Kroomfish 
manufactory, near the Frank quarter ; 
the arsenal at the citadd ; the schools 
of Boolak, the Uzbek^eh, and Moble- 
deedn near Saydeh Zayneb ; the 
printing office, observatory, dockyard, 
foundries, and other establihhments at 
Boolak : the hospital of Kasr el Ainee, 
and the military schools. 

The most praiseworthy establish* 
ments set on foot by the Pasha are the 
hospitals and schools ; and the latter 
claim greater credit from the diffi- 
culties with which he had to contend, 
owing to the prejudices of the priests 
or ulemas, and the fears of parents. 
Nor can he be accused of interested 
or ambitious views, in the education 
of the children of persons too poor, or 
too ignorant, to take any steps for that 
purpose. Numerous difficulties pre- 
vented these institutions from being 
establislied as quickly as might have 
been done in any other country. The 
schools of surgery met with additional 
opposition from the horror of surgical 
operations, the examination of a body 
after death, and a thousand other ob- 
jections, which readily offered tfaem^ 
selves to the minds of a people, preju- 
diced by religion and habit against the 
customs of the Franks, under whose 
guidance the government required 
their children to be placed. Nor was 
this feeling confined to the schools of 
surgery and medicine; the people 
were satisfied with the instructioo 
given by their Fe^tes, — those Mo»- 




lem schoolmasters, hj whom they and 
their ancentors had been taught all that 
the Faithful were required to know ; 
— and the prestige of ages was in 
favour of those hoi j instructors. 

They objected to their children 
being taught what they had not them- 
leWes learnt, or what was not con- 
nected with their religion, and FVank 
languages and sciences appeared to 
be an abomination to the Egyptians. 
The system too of detaining boys at 
school was unheard of: the day-schools 
of the East were never so bard-heart- 
ed as to deprive parents of their chil- 
dren beyond the hours of study ; and 
the cruelty of keeping them all day, 
and obliging them to sleep away from 
home all night, horrified their mo- 
thers, who preferred cutting off the 
forr-finger of a child*s right hand, 
to pret'ent his being able to write, ra- 
ther than suffer him to be taught at 
no expense in the Pasha's schools. 
With such a feeling, the diflSculties 
encountered may easily be imagined ; 
and so averse are they still to this in- 
novation, that though they confess the 
condition of their children is bettered, 
though they are paid by the govern- 
ment instead of paying for their edu- 
cation, and though children of the 
poorest people may, if industrious, 
arrive at high and lucrative employ- 
ments, yet their prejudices are insur- 
mountable; and without giving any 
reason, they express a blind dislike to 
send their sons to school, and if they 
possibly can, they withdraw them even 
after they have gone through half the 
course of their education. The Chil- 
dren are clothed, fed, and receive a 
monthly allowance of pay, according 
to their abilities, and the class they 
are in ; and it is gratifying now to see 
that many boys in Egypt, who are 
usually ignorant of every thing, read 
and write, and have become acquainted 
with the rudiments of science. There 
are different schools or colleges, be- 
sides those of medicine and other 
branches: 1. The Rozm4neh; 8. The 
Mobtedee; 3. That of AboosAbel; 

and 4. the Kasr e* Shekh Refifii in the 

At the first, the boys are very young, 
from three to four years old. Tliey 
begin by receiving 6 piastres a month 
as pay, besides food and clothing, and 
are taught to read and write. 

At the second they receive, on en- 
tering, from 7 to 9 piastres ; when 
about sixteen or seventeen years old, 
11; and if they read well, 1:2. They 
are taught the Koran, literal Arabic, 
geography, arithmetic, Turkish, &c 

At the third the youngest receives 50, 
others 100, and the oldest and most 
advanced 250, all being regulated 
according to their proficiency. They 
learn drawing, mathematics, riding, 

At the fourth the youngest has 50 
piastres, the oldest 15 dollars, 300 p. 
They are taught European languages, 
medicine, &c., and are afterwards eli- 
gible to the office of effendee, 


Matters relating to the internal ad- 
ministration of the country and of the 
city are settled by <he diwdnt estab- 
lished at the ciudel. Each is super- 
intended by a president. Police cases 
are decided by the bash- agha, or chief 
of the police, at his office near the 
Frank quarter, who either settles them 
summarilv, or enters them into the 
police report, and sends them up to the 
citadel for judgment. The sentries 
are also police officers ; and minor 
cases, as disputes about a purchase 
at a shop, or other trifling questions, 
are arranged without the parties being 
taken to the police-office, or even to 
the corps de garde» Europeans are 
only amenable to their consuls, and 
cannot be punished by Turkish law. 
In disputed cases between them and 
natives, a mixed commission is some- 
times appointed to decide the matter, 
by mutual agreement of the parties. 

Questions of property, family dis- 
putes, and all cases that come under 




Sect. IL 

the bead of lawsuit, are settled at the 
MciUtemeh, or Cadi*t Court. 


This mighty court, looked upon 
with fear and respect by some, and 
contempt and disgust by others, occu- 
pies a portion of the old palace of the 
SulCanSy which succeeded to one of 
the Kasrayn or ** two palaces,*' built 
by G6ber el K&ed, the founder of 
Cairo j and close to it is still shown 
a fine vaulted chamber, once ,part of 
the abode of Saladiii. This last, as 
well as its adjoining companion, is 
now a ruin, and occupied by mills; its 
large pointed arches have lost all 
their ornaments except tlie Arabic 
inscriptions at the projection of their 
horse-shoe base; and the devices of 
its once richly-gilded ceiling can 
scarcely l>e distinguished. At the 
end is a lofiy mahrab, or arabesque 
niche for prayer, similar to those in 
the mosks, which are sometimes ad- 
mitted into large houses for the same 

The crowded state of the Mahkemeh 
sufficiently shows how fond the 
Cairenes are of Uligation, every petty 
grievance or family quarrel .being 
referred to the Cadi*s Court. Cases 
of a very serious nature are settled by 
the Cadi himself; others of more or- 
dinary occurrence, but still of due 
importance to the parties, are decided 
by his effhndee, and confirmed by the 
seal of the Cadi ( Kddee) ; and those of 
little weight are often arranged by the 
kSUebg {kodtuba), clerks or scribes, 
without any application to either. The 
personages who hold office here are 
the Cadi, his effisndee, his k^hia, the 
bash-k&teb, or '* head scribe,*' and 
tlie ^kodtttba, or clerks. The minor 
officers are roo$$ul or messengers, the 
k^hia's dragoman (called el mihdtar), 
the meh^ndes or architect, and the 
koshaf for the inspection of houses. 
There are also scribes who enter cases 
into the defier or ngil, of the record 
office. The bayt el mal, or " property 

house," is a separate court for all pro- 
perty left without an heir, and may be 
called the Court of Chancery. 

The Cadi is appointed by the Sultaoi 
and is sent from Constantinople. 

It is bad enough in any country to 
be occupied in lawsuits ; but nowhere 
does a poor man find so much dif- 
ficulty in obtaining justice as in Egypt. 
He is not only put off from day to 
day, but obliged to run from one per- 
son to another, to no purpose, for days, 
weeks, or months ; and unless he can 
manage to collect sufficient to bribe 
the bath'ketteb and other emplojfe* of 
the court, he may hope in vain to ob- 
tain justice, or even attention to his 

The fees of the Cadi are four- 
fifilis of all that is paid for cases at 
the court, the remaining fifUi going 
to the bash-kiteb and other scribes 
under him. The division is made 
every Thursday. 

When a case is brought up for de- 
cision, the documents relating to it, 
after having passed through the hands 
of a scribe, are examined by the 
eflfendee, and being settled by him, 
the kehia decides on and demands 
the fee. This he does whether sealed 
by the Cadi, or only by his eflfendee. 

Minor cases, as disputes between 
husband and wife, if the parties can- 
not be reconciled below in the hall, 
by the advice of a k&Ubt are taken up 
to the eflTendee. When settled in the 
hall, a small fee is demanded for the 
charitable intervention of the scribe ; 
which is his perquisite, for not trou- 
bling his superiors with a small case. 
Decisions respecting murder, robbery, 
the property of rich individuals, and 
other important matters, are pro- 
nounced by the Cadi himself. In 
cases of murder, or wounding or 
maiming, if the friends of the deceased 
or the injured party consent to an 
adjustment, certain fines are paid by 
way of requital. These are fixed by 
law, regulated however by the quality 
of the persons. Ransom for murder 
{d&th el KtUiel) is rated at 50 pursei 




(250£i) ; an eye put out in an affray, 
half that dieh ; a tootli one tenth, and 
so on. 

The most efficient recipe for stimu- 
lating the torpid temperament of the 
Molikemeh is bribery ; and the persons 
to whom bribes are administered with 
singularly good effect, are the bash- 
kateb and the other scribes. And so 
impatient are they of neglect in this 
particular, thatthe moment they think 
some of these iRentions to Mahkemeh 
etiquette ought to show themselves, 
they begin to put forth every difficulty 
as a delicate hint. WheneTer the 
simple-minded applicant, trusting to 
the e? ident justice of his cause, ap- 
pears before them, they are far too 
much occupied with other papers of 
long standing to attend to him : a 
particular person, whose presence is 
absolutely required, is not to be found ; 
or some official excuse is invented to 
check tlie arrangement of the business, 
and he is put off from day to day with 
a chance of success. On the appear- 
ance of these marked symptoms, a 
domeew should, in doctorial language, 
be immediately exhibited in a suffi- 
ciently large dose to allay tlje irritation; 
and it is surprising to observe how the 
gladdened face of the man>of-law ex- 
pands on taking the welcome potion. 
It is of course a matter tl«at passes 
in secret between the donor and the 
receiver ; for, though notorious, se- 
crecy is required for the acceptance of 
a bribe unshared by the Cadi or his 
effendee; and the Cadi himself is 
never propitiated with a similar offer- 
ing unless the case is very serious, and 
requires that touching appeal to his 

axcuasiOK 1. — a. old cairo. 

Old Cairo, or Musr el At^keh, is 
a ride of about S miles from Cairo. 
It was originally called Fostit. It 
was founded by Amer ebn el A% who 
conquered Egypt in the caliphate of 
Omar, a. d. 638 ; and is said to have 
received its name from the leather tent 
(fos|iit) which Amer there pitched for 

himself, during the siege of the Roman 
fortress. In the same spot he erected 
the mosk, that still bears his name, 
which in after times stood in the centre 
of the city, and is now amidst the 
mounds and rubbish of its fallen 
houses. Fost&t continued to be the 
royal residence, as well as the capital 
of Egypt, until the time of Ahmed 
ebn e* Tool6on, who built, the mosk 
and palace at the Kiilat el Kebsh, a. i>. 

Goher el Kaed, having been sent 
by M6es to conquer Egypt, founded 
the new city called Musr el Kiherah 
(Cairo), which four years after (in 
A. D. 974), became the capital of the 
country, and Fostat received the new 
appellation of Musr el Ateekeh or 
** Old Musr,** corrupted by Europeans 
into Old Cairo. The ancient name 
of the city, which occupied part of 
the site of Old Cairo, was Egyptian 
Babylon ; and the Roman station, 
which lies to the S. of the mosk of 
Amer is evidently the fortress be- 
sieged by the Moslem invader. The 
style of its masonry has the peculiar 
character of Roman buildings ; which 
is readily distinguished by the courses 
of red tiles or bricks, and the con- 
struction of its arches : and over the 
main entrance on the S. side (which is 
now closed and nearly buried in rub- 
bish) is a triangular pediment, under 
whose left-hand corner may still be 
seen the Roman eagle. Above, ap- 
pears to have been a slab, prolwbly 
bearing an inscription, long since fallen 
or removed. Its solid walls and 
strong round towers sufficiently tes- 
tify its former strength, and account 
for its having defied the attacks of the 
Arab invaders for seven months ; and 
it is doubtless to this that Aboolfeda 
alludes, when he says, " in the spot 
where FosUt was built stood a Kasr, 
erected in old times, and styled Kasr 
e* Shemma ( * of the candle ' ), and 
the tent (fost4t) of Amer was close to 
the mosk called J4mat Amer.** This 
fortress now contains a village of Chris- 
tian inhabitants, and is dedicated to 



Sect n. 

St George, the patron saint of the 

In an upper chamber, over the W. 
tower of the old gateway above men- 
tioned, is an early Christian record, 
sculptured on wood, of the time of 
Diocletian, curious as well from its 
style as from the state of its preser- 
vation. The upper part, or friese, has 
a Greek inscription ; and below it, at 
the centre of the architrave, is a re- 
presentation of the Deity, sitting in a 
globe, supported by two winged an- 
gels ; on either side of which is a pro- 
cession of six figures, evidently the 
twelve apostles. The central group 
readily calls to mind the winged globe 
of the ancient Egyptians ; and its po- 
sition over a doorway accords with the 
ordinary place of that well-known 
emblem. Indeed, this is not the only 
instance of the adoption of old devices 
by the early Egyptian Christians ; the 
tea, or sign of life, was commonly 
used to head their inscriptions, instead 
of the cross ; and it is not improbable 
that the disc or globe of the gods 
gave rise to the glory over the heads 
of saints; who were frequently 
painted on a coat of stucco, that 
alone separatedi them from the deities 
to whose temples they succeeded. 
Nor were the Christians of Egypt 
singular in the admission of emblems, 
borrowed from their Pagan predeces- 
sors ; another religion, equally averse 
to the superstitions of antiquity, has 
been unable to prevent their adoption, 
even at a much later period ; and the 
serpent of Shekh Hereedee still claims 
the respect, if not the worship, of the 
Egyptian Moslem. We may, tliere- 
fore, readily believe that in tJie time 
of Origen, it was rare to meet with 
an Egyptian who had surmounted 
his early prejudices in favour of the 
sacred animals of his country. 

Besides the Coptic community, is 
a Greek convent, within the precincts 
of this ancient fortress, and numerous 
Moslems have opened shops in its 
narrow streets, living in perfect bar- 
mony with their religious adversaries. 

Among other objects shown by the 
priests of the Greek convent, is the 
chamber of the Virgin, the traditions 
concerning which are treated by the 
credulous with the same pious feel- 
ings as the tree and fountain of He- 
liopolis. Here it was, in the garden of 
the Greek convent, that those English 
who died in Cairo were permitted to 
be buried ; their tombs being hired, 
rather than bought, from the priests ; 
who, finding that more money and 
room were to be obtained by remov- 
ing the bones, were not long in pre^ 
paring the same spots for other oc- 
cupants. There is reason therefore 
to rejoice that a subscription for an 
English burial-ground is now opened ; 
and though donations are much 
wanted, we may hope that in a short 
time it will no longer be necessary to 
borrow tombs from the monks of Old 

Two other convents stand to the 
N. ; one between this and the mosk 
of Amer, which is occupied by Ca- 
tholic Armenians and Syrian Maro- 
nites ; tlie other to the N. of the mosk, 
belonging to the Copts. 

Strabo mentions the station or for- 
tress at Babyltm, *' in which one of 
the three iioman legions was quar- 
tered, which formed the garrison of 
Egypt.** This Babylon he describes 
as a castle fortified by nature, founded 
by some Babylonians, who, having 
left their country, obtained from the 
Egyptian kings a dwelling-place in. 
this spot. His statement, however, 
of its being fortified by nature, scarcely 
agrees with the Ka&r e* Sbemma, un- 
less (which is very possible) the 
mounds of rubbish have raised the soil 
about it, and concealed its once ele- 
vated base ; though the ridge of hill 
it occupied by the river, where hy- 
draulic machines raised the Nile 
water for its supply, seems to accord 
with the description of its site given 
by Arab writers, who state, that when 
taken by the Saracens the river flowed 
near its walls. At all events, it is 
evidently a Roman station, and pro- 




bably the very ooe that existed in the 
days of the geographer, judging both 
from its style of building and from 
the little likelihood of their forsaking 
a place " fortified by nature '* for an- 
other ; and no vestiges of any other 
Roman ruin are to be met with in 
the neighbourhood. 

These Babylonians, according to 
Diodorus, were descendants of cap« 
lives taken by Sesostris: some sup- 
pose them to have been left by Se- 
miramis in Egypt; and others say 
the town was not founded until the 
time of Cambysesu Some, again, pre- 
tend that the fort was first built by 
Artaxerxes, while Egypt was in the 
possession of the Persians. Strabo 
asserts that these Babylonians wor- 
shipped the Cynocephalus, which 
throws great doubt upon his assertion 
of the town having been founded by 
foreigners, and would rather lead to 
the conclusion that it was Egyptian ; 
for it is more probable that those 
strangers were allowed to live there, 
as the Franks now a^e in a quarter 
of a Turkish city, than that they were 
presented by the kings with a strong 
position for the erection of a fortress. 

The mosk of Amer is of square 
form, as were all the early mosks, ex- 
cept those which bad been originally 
churches * ; and it is somewhat simi- 
lar in plan to the mo&k of Taylo6o, 
with colonnades round an open court. 
At the west end is a single line of 
columns; at the two sides they are 
three deep, and at the east end in six 
rows, the total amounting to no less 
than 229 or 2S0, two being covered 
with masonry. Others are also built 
into the outer wall, to support the 
dUtkeh or platform of the mdeddins 
and the octagon in the centre of the 
open court is surrounded by eight 
columns. Many have fallen down, 
and time and neglect will soon cause 
the destruction of the whole building. 
It has three doors on the east side, 
over the southernmost of which is a 

minaret, and another at the southeast 

At that early time the Arabs were 
contented with bumble imitations 
of Roman architecture, and round 
arches, with small round-headed win- 
dows, were introduced into all their 
sacred buildings. Here, therefore, 
we find that the arches are all round, 
except in some parts more recently 
added; and the small portion that 
remains of the original structure su^ 
fices to show how simple Saracenic 
architecture was at its commencement. 

The mosk has undergone several 
repairs, and in Murad Bey*s time, 
who was the last restorer of its crumb- 
ling walls, some Cufic MSS. were 
discovered, while excavating the sub- 
structions, written on the finest parch- 
ment. The origin of their discovery, 
and the cause of these repairs, are 
thus related^ by M. Marcel : ** Murad 
Bey being destitute of the means of 
carrying on the war against his rival 
Ibrahim, sought to replenish his cof- 
lers by levying a large sum from the 
Jews of Cairo. To escape from his 
exactions, they bad recourse to stra- 
tagem. After assuring him they had 
not a single para, they promised, on 
condition of abstaining from his de- 
mands, to reveal a secret which 
would make him possessor of^im* 
uiense wealth. His word was given, 
and they assured him that certain 
archives mentioned a large iron chest, 
deposited in the mosk of Amer, either 
by its founder or by one of his sue* 
cessora in the government of Egypt, 
which was filled with invaluable 
treasure. Murad Bey went immedi- 
ately to the mosk, and, under tlie plea 
of repairs, excavated the spot indi- 
cated by his informants, where, in 
fact, he found a secret underground 
chamber, containing an iron chest, 
half destroyed by rust, and full — not 
of gold — but of manuscript leaves 
of the Koran, on vellum of a beau- 
tiful quality, written in fine Cufic 

• This never was a church, as some have imagined.^ 




characters.'* This treasure was not 
one to satisfy the cupidity of the 
Memlook Bey, and it was left to the 
shekh of the mosk, by whom it was 
sold to different individuals. 

Tradition has not been idle here; 
and the credulous believe that an an- 
cient prophecy foretells the downfall 
of Moslem power, whenever this 
mosk shall fall to decay; and two 
columns placed 10 inches apart, near 
the southernmost door, are said to 
discover tlie faith of him who tries 
to pass between them, no one but a 
true believer in the Koran and the 
Prophet being supposed to succeed 
in the attempt. When all but Mos- 
lems were excluded from the mosks, 
the truth of this was of course never 
called in question ; and now that the 
profane are admitted, the desecration 
of the building is .readily believed to 
cause the failure of the charm. 


In the island of Roda, opposite Old 
Cairo, is the Me][keeis or Nilometer. 
It consists of a square well or cham- 
ber, in the centre of which is a gradu- 
ated pillar, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the daily rise of the Nile. 
This is proclaimed ever^ morning in 
the streets of the capiul, during" the 
inundation, by four criers, to each of 
whom a particular portion of the city 
is assigned. 

The Mekkee&s was formerly sur- 
mounted by a dome, which is said to 
have borne a Cufic inscription, and a 
date answering to 848 of our era. Its 
erection is attributed to the Caliph 
Mam6on, who reigned from 813 to 
833 ; but if the above date be correct, 
it is probable that the dome was not 
added until the time of £1 Mota- 
wuklLel-al- Allah, his third succes- 
sor, who ruled from 847 to 861. In 
the year of the Hegira 245 (a, d. 
860) tliis MoUwuk'kel, tenth caliph 
of the Abbaside dynasty, is said to 
have made a new Nilometer in the 
Isle of Roda, which some suppose to 
be the one used at the present day ; 

and this account seems to be con- 
firmed by the date above mentioned. 
It afterwards underwent some repairs 
in the time of Mostunser Bill&h, the 
fifth of the Fatemite princes of Egypt, 
A. D. 1092. But the first who built 
a Nilometer at Roda was Soolayman, 
seventh caliph of the Ommiade 
dynasty, who reigned from a. d. 714 
to 717 ; and this was afterwards re- 
placed by the more perfect work of 
his successors. 

Round the upper part of the cham- 
ber is a Cufic inscription, of an ancient 
character, but without a date ; in the 
vain hope of ascertaining which I re> 
moved the upper part of the staircase 
in 1 882. It contains passages from 
the Koran, relating to the "water 
sent by God from heaven,** which 
show the received opinion of the causes 
of the inundation, first alluded to by 
Homer in the expression Aurcrcor 
voTttfwio applied to the Nile, and 
occasionally discarded and re-admitted 
by succeeding authors till a very late 
period. The inscription, however, is 
not without its interest for architec- 
tural inquiry, though devoid of a date; 
since the style of the Cufic is evidently 
of au early period, corresponding to 
that used at the time of its reputed 
erection, tlie middle of the 9lh cen- 
tury ; and as the arches are all pointed, 
we have here another proof, of the 
early use of that form of arch in Sara- 
cenic buildings. 

The dome has long since ceased to 
exist, having ' been thrown down by 
accident; and its fallen blocks still 
encumber the chamber, or well, at the 
base of the graduated column. It is 
this irregular mass that prevents our 
ascertaining the exact height of the 
column ; and besides at the low Nile, 
when the Nilometer is said to be 
cleared out, a great quantity of the 
alluvial deposit is always left at its 
base, to the depth, as is reported, of 
about five feet. 

Much diflSculty has arisen from the 
various accounts given of the rise of 
the inundation. In the time of Moeris, 




according to Herodotus, 8 cubits 
sufficed for the irrigation of the land 
of £g]rpt ; and 900 years afterwards, 
in the time of the historian, 15 or 16, 
which would give between 7 and 8 
cubits for the increase of the height of 
the land during that period. But \m 
this is impossible, we must either con- 
clude that he has confounded the 
measures of diflferent parts of Egypt, 
or that in one case the rise is calculated 
from the surface, and in the other fVom 
the bed of the river. Sixteen cubits 
were marked for the rise of the Nile, 
on the statue of that deity at Rome, 
which implies no alteration since the 
days of Herodotus, so that it is pro- 
bable that the average rise of the river 
remained the same : and this is further 
testiSed by the fact that, in the fourth 
century, 15 cubits were recorded by 
the Emperor Justinian, as the height 
of the inundation. lu 1720, 16 cubits 
were again cited as the requisite height 
for irrigating the land, and the people 
were then said to make rejoicings, 
and to consider the wuffa AUak or 
** promise of God," to be fulfilled. 
Pliny also allows 1 6 for an abundant 
harvest, and Plutarch gives 1 4 as the 
least rise capable of producing benefit 
to tl^ country about Memphis, 20 at 
Elephantine, and six at Xois and 

It is calculated that the pillar of 
the Mekkeeds contains 24 cubits, a 
number which implies completion, 
and which may be purely ideal, not 
being affixed to the scale marked 
upon it. And as each of these diri- 
sioQs or cubits consists of 24 digits 
or 6 palms, and is 21fg inches 
long, it is exceedingly improbable 
that so slender a column should ex- 
ceed the height of 1 6 cubits, which 
would be about 18 diameters. Po- 
cocke is of the same opinion. He 
aupposes *' there could not be above 5 
or 6 peeks (cubits) below the 1 1 he 
■aw above water *' in 1 738 ; though 
one writer gives 36 feet 8 inches for 
the height of the column ; and says 
the column is divided into 20 peeks 

of 22 inches each. By his accoant 
the two lowermost peeks are not 
divided at all, but are without mark, 
to stand for the quantity of sludge 
deposited there, which occupies the 
place of water: 2 peeks are then 
divided on the right hand into 24 
digits each ; then on the left 4 peeks, 
each into 24 digits ; then on the right 
4 ; and on the left 4 again ; and 
again 4 on the right, which complete 
the number of 18 peeks from the first 
division marked on the pillar; the 
whole, marked and unmarked, amount- 
ing to 36 feet 8 inches. 

It is perhaps seldom that travel lers 
are in Cairo at the beginning of June, 
or the end of May ; but if so, it 
would be worth while to ascertain 
the exact height of tlie column at 
that time, when the water is at its 

Since writing the above, I have 
seen Mr. Coste*s architectural views 
and plans of the buildings of Cairo, 
from which it appears that the column 
has, as I supposed, only 16 cubits 
from the base to the capital. The 
cubit he reckons at 541 1 millimetres, 
and the cubit of Cairo being equal to 
361 millimetres, 24 of the latter are 
equal to the 16 of the column. The 
« D^ription de TEgypte** gives the 
same number of 1 6 cubits above the 
pedestal. The six lowest are se- 
parated by a line, but not divided into 
digits, like the remaining 10 at the top 
of the column. 

Some have stated that the cubits 
are of different lengths, but this is not 
the case : though it is certain that no 
accurate calculation can be obtained 
from a column, which has been broken, 
and repaired in such a manner, that 
one of the cubits remains incomplete; 
<nd it is evident that the number of 
cubits of the river's rise, as calculated 
at the time of its erection, must diflTer 
much from that marked by it at the 
present day ; the elevation of the bed 
of the Nile having altered the relative 
proportion of the rise of the water, 
which now passes about one cubit and 



Sect. II. 

tiro-tbirds above the higheit part of 
the column. 

According to the Cairenes, the 
Nile is supposed to have risen 18 
cubits when the canals are cut, whicli 
is called Wuffa el Bahr. After this 
the criers call 2 from 18, to 23 from 
18, then 19> and so <» ; but no one 
believes they state the rise of the river 
correctly. The lowest inundation is 
reckoned at 18; 19 is tolerable (me- 
n6»eb)t 20 good, 21 sufficient, 22 
fills every canal, and is termed perfect 
{tem&m), but 24 would overwhelm 
every thing, and do great injury to 
the country. 

It appears that the discordant ac- 
counts of the rise of the river, and of 
the Nilometer, are owing to the base 
or standard level, from which the in- 
undation is measured, having varied 
at different times, or to their not 
having taken into consideration the 
elevation of the bed of the river ; and 
we may conclude that the water now 
rises exactly to the same proportionate 
level as formerly, and will continue 
to do so for ages to come. M. Savary, 
M. Dolomieu, and other iavatu, have 
long since announced the miseries 
that await Egypt, from the accumu- 
lating deposit of the Nile, and the 
consequent rise of the soil. M. Dolo- 
mieu has decided that, owing to the 
decomposition of the granite moun- 
tains, by whose summits the clouds 
are retained, which pour down the 
torrents that supply tlie Nile, the rise 
of this river has already diminished : 
M. Savary states, that the villages of 
the Delta no longer present the ap- 
pearance of islands in the sea, as 
Herodotus had observed in his time : 
and M. Larcher concludes, that if the 
soil has risen, the water must cover 
a less extent of land. M. Dolomieu 
must allow a considerable time for the 
effect he proposes: and even admitting 
a diminution in the height of those 
mountains, in some thousand years, 
the rainy season will afford as large 
a supply of water as ever, the rtUUivt 
positions and heighto remaining the 

same. M. Savary'a notion it only 
founded on ih^faet, that he never saw 
the Delta as Herodotus describes it ; 
but many travellers at the present 
day have been more fortunate. Such 
theories are completely overthrown 
by the actual rise of the Nile over a 
plain raised about seven feet in the 
last 1 7(30 yean : and every one will 
perceive that this perpendicular height 
of seven feet must carry the water in 
a horizontal direction to a considerable 
distance £. and W. over the once un- 
cultivated and unwatered slope of the 
desert. In answer to the assertion 
of the learned Larcher, that ''the 
soil of Egypt is not higher now than 
in the time of Herodotus," I re- 
fer the traveller to the statues of 
Amenoph at Thebes. The fact is, the 
soil and the bed of the Nile have 
both risen, and in the same propor* 

Diodorus would seem to affirm, 
that the first Nilometer in the time of 
the Pharaonic kings was erected at 
Memphis ; which is repeated by Arab 
historians. Herodotus speaks of the 
measurement of the river's rise under 
Moeris, and at the period he visited 
Egypt : a Nilometer is mentioned at 
Eilethyas, of the time of the Ptole- 
mies : that of Elephantine is described 
by Strabo: and from the inscriptions 
remaining there, we know it to have 
been used in the reigns of the early 
Roman emperors. A moveable Ni- 
lometer was preserved till the time of 
Consuntine, in the temple of Sarapis 
at Alexandria, and was then transfer- 
red to a church in that city, where it 
remained until restored to the Saim- 
peum by Julian. Theodosius after- 
wards removed it again, when that 
building was destroyed by his order. 
The first Nilometer built in Egypt, 
after the Arab conquest, is ascribed 
to Abd el Axe^s, brother of the Ca- 
liph Abd el Melek, erected at Helwin 
about the year 700 ; but being found 
not to answer there, a new one waa 
made by SoolaymAn, son of that 
prince, in the Isle of Rods. Mamooa 




built another at the trillage of Ben- 
benooda, in the Saeed, and repaired 
an ancient one at Ekbmira. These 
are perhaps the oldest constructed by 
the Arab kings ; thoueh Kalkasendas 
pretends that Omar has a prior claim 
to this honour. 

Close to the MekkeeiU is a powder 
magazine, which some years ago acci- 
dentally blew up, and nearly destroyed 
all that remained of the Nilometer; 
in consequence of which an order is 
always required for the admission of 
strangers. In the same inland is the 
garden of Ibrahim Pasha, commenced 
about twelre years ago by Mr. Trail, 
an £nglish gardener and botanist, 
sent out to Egypt by the Horti- 
cultural Society ; and though the 
inundations of 1840 and 1841 de- 
stroyed some thousand trees, mostly 
of India and other foreign countries, 
it is still in a very flourishing con- 

Roda was formerly the favourite 
resort of the Cairenes, who went to 
enjoy the cool shades of this pretty 
island; and in 1832 I accompanied 
a party to this spot, who seemed to 
hare very pleasing recollections of 
former visits. But the days of simi- 
lar ezcursioiis are passed for the 
people of Cairo; and present cares 
and constant anxiety for the morrow 
are now substituted in lieu of occa- 
sional relaxation. 

It is here that Arab tradition fixes 
the finding of Moses by the daughter 
of Pharaoh, whose name, Josephus 
tells us, was Thermuthis. 

In the time of the latter princes of 
the Greek empire, Roda was joined to 
the main land by a bridge ot boats, 
for the purpose of keeping up a direct 
communication between Babylon and 
Memphis^ which still existed at the 
period of the Arab invasion under 
Amer ; and at a later period the island 
was fortified by the Baharite Mem- 
looks with a wall and towers of brick, 
some of which still remain. Geexeh, 
on the opposite or western bank, was 
also a fortified post of the Memlooks. 


Close to Old Cairo stands the 
aqueduct, already mentioned. On 
returning thence to Cairo, you pass 
by the Kasr el Ainee, one of the 
colleges or schools established by 
Mohammed Ali, and the Kasr or 
palace of Ibrahim Pasha ; the neigh- 
bourhood of which has been greatly 
improved within the last ten years, by 
the planting of trees, the removal of 
mounds of rubbish, and the formation 
of roads by which it is approached. 

Near Kasr el Ainee is the college 
of derwishes, mentioned by Pococke. 
The derwishes are both the monks 
and the freemasons of the East. I'hey 
profess great sanctity, and a scru- 
pulous observance of religious duties, 
but without looking down upon other 
religions, or reriling those who are 
of a different creed, in which they may 
be said to follow these injunctions of 
the Koran, <* We liave prescribed to 
each people their sacred rites. Let 
them observe them, and not wrangle 
with thee concerning this matter. 

If they dispute with thee, say, 

' God knoweth your actions; God 
will judge between you.* *' They are 
divided into innumerable sects, or 
orders, the principal and original of 
which are the twelve following : — 

1. Tar^kh.t el Mowloweeh, the 
largest of all, and the first instituted. 
It originated in Persia, and, like the 
others, looks with particular respect 
on Ali. The founder was Gelal e' 
deen ; and his descendants, settled at 
Konieh, under the titles of Mowlina, 
and Shellebee EfTendec, still claim the 
right of investing every new sultan 
with the sword of sovereignly. This 
is the principal order in Turkey. 
It was instituted in the middle of 
the seventh century. 

2. BiktiUhee or Tar^ekh-t el Bik- 
tash^h. This, the Rufadeh, and some 
others, were also instituted during the 
lifetime of the founder of the first 



Sect. n. 

S. Tar6ekh.t e' Rufa&li. 

4. Tareekh-t e' Nuksh-band^eh. 

5. Tar6ekh.t AImI el Kader Gay- 

6. Tar6ekh.t e* ISuUl^b,the modem 
Psylli of Egypt 

7. Tar6ekb.t el Kudr^eh. 

8. Tar^ekh-t el Allaw^eh. 

9. Tar^ekh-t e* Dellal^eh. 

10. Tar^ekh-t el Beddow^'eh, of 
Sayd Ahmed el Beddowee of Tanta. 

11. Tar^kh.t e' ShasaUeh. 

12. Tai^ekh-t el Byoom^eh. 
Some only of the above-mentioned 

twelve orders exist in Egypt : as, 

1. The Mowlow^eh, whose college 
or tag^a is at the Sele^beb, near the 
Seeoof^eb. They are whirling der- 

2. The Rufa^eby who have a col- 
lege in the Soog e* Sill&h, opposite 
the roosk of Sultan Hassan. 

3. The Biktash^eb, whose college 
is at the Maghira, near the fort be- 
hind the citadel of Cairo. 

4. The Saad^eb, in many parts of 
the city. They perfornt the ceremo- 
nies at the dSseh, on the last day of 
the Prophet's festival, tearing snakes 
to pieces, and doing other strange 

5. The Kudr^eb, who have colleges 
in many parts of Cairo, besides that 
of Old Cairo already mentioned. 

6. The Beddow^eb, who have also 
many colleges. It is this order which 
performs the ceremonies at the Mooled 
e* Nebbee, or «« Prophet's birth-day,*' 
held in the Uxbek^eh, in the begin- 
ning of the month of Reb^h el owel ; 
those of the last day ( Friday) alone 
being committed to the Saad^b. 

7. The Byoom^eb, whose principal 
college is in the Hossayn^eb. They 
are distinguished by long hair. 

Marriage is not forbidden to the 
derwtfthes, unless they have once taken 
the vow of celibacy, when they are 
called Megurr%id, and are expected 
to lead an austere and exemplary 

The derwisbes arc distinguished by 
their high caps, the large amulet they 

wear, generally of agate, and a pecu- 
liar dress, at least when belonging to 
a college of their order; but others 
bear no external mark, and are only 
known to each other, like freemasons, 
by certain secret signs. 

At the Mooled el Hassanin, all the 
derwisbes of Cairo perform zikrt, on a 
particular day assigned to each sect, 
except the Mowlow^h, who are only 
permitted by their rules to celebrate 
this strange ceremony within the walls 
of their own college. One or two in- 
dividuals may, however, assist at the 
fite^ and whirl round, as is their cus- 
tom, but witliout the pipes, drums, 
and other concomitants, which, in the 
zikrt within their own college, are a 
necessaiy part of the performance. 
In turning, they always hold the 
right band with the palm upwards and 
the left downwards; the reason of 
which is, doubtless, as full of religious 
wisdom as their laying the spoon up- 
side down after eating, and other 
mysterious customs. In their zikr, 
all those who are present whirl round 
at the same time, the shekh alone 
standing still ; and such is the merit 
of the union of many, on this occa- 
sion, that unless four are present, 
the ceremony cannot be performed. 

The dancing derwisbes are said not 
to exist in Egypt, but the Rufaeeh 
and Saad^eh have nearly I be same 
kind of gesture ; and the Nuksh- 
band^eh dance together in a circle. 

The college of derwisbes at Old 
Cairo originally belonged to the Bikta- 
sh^eh, having been founded by one of 
that order ; but the shekh having 
died, and the college standing on 
ground claimed by Ibrahim Pasha, 
the latter transferred it to one of the 
Kudr^eb, who had accompanied him 
from the Morea ; and thus this order 
came into possession of a college pro- 
perly belonging to another sect. 
Whether this grant was according to 
justice or no I know not; but pre- 
judice and fancy were not long in dis- 
covering a direct proof <^ the displea- 
sure of Allah (which, they add, was 




greatly increased by the new shekh 
having cut down a sycamore tree 
"entailed** upon the college, and 
therefore revered as sacred) ; and the 
devoted man was msractifous/y killed 
by a cannon ball in Syria, whither he 
had accompanied his patron. His 
brother succeeded him as principal of 
the college. 

Like the other derwishes, they have 
a particular day set apart for their zikr, 
which is performed once a week. The 
day varies according to the sect; 
that of the Kudr6eh is Thursday, 
and the zikr is celebrated in the dome 
or mosk; when numerous furs are 
spread on the ground, and arms, 
banners, drums, and other things kept 
there, are used in the ceremony. 

They here show the shoe of the 
founder of the building, which is of 
immense stxe. This precious relic 
was formerly placed over the door of 
the dome, and exposed to the view of 
all who entered ; but it is now kept 
in a closet, and only produced when 
asked for. A friend of mine, who had 
been there many years ago, observed, 
that the shoe was much smaller than 
the one he had before seen ; and it is 
probable, as he suggested, tliat the der> 
wishes, perceiving tlie more enlarged 
ideas of the present age, had thought 
it prudent to limit their pretensions in 
the marvellous, by decreasing its size 
in a suitable ratio to the decrease of 
credulity. Its position, too, in a closet 
may have the double effect of season- 
ing it with the mouldy appearance of 
age, and of concealing it from those 
who have not the curiosity to ask to 
see it. Pococke, who visited the place 
in 1737, speaks of the curious relics 
preserved by these strange beings. 

The largest convent of derwishes is 
at Cairo, in the street called Hab- 
baneeh, near the Derb el Ahmar, built 
in 1174, under the reign of Sultan 
Seliro, by Mustapha agha, his wekid; 
views of which are given in M. Caste's 

The Kasr Dubarra was built by 
Mohammed Bey Defkerdar, at tlie 

same time as the palace in the Uzbe* 
k^eh, on his return from Kordofiin. 
It contains two good rooms, with a 
spacious colonnade opening upon a 
garden, which gives it a pretty and 
truly Oriental appearance. In the 
garden are. two large sycamore 6g- trees 
overshadowing afountain, with benches 
in an open kwak that encloses it, which, 
in summer, is a delightful evening re- 
treat. It has a very Eastern character, 
heightened by a happy contrivance, 
through which an artificial shower is 
made to fall from above on all sides 
of the kiosk, pipes being carried up 
the trees and concealed among the 
branches ; but it is to be regretted, 
that those who executed this not in- 
elegant design, have not done justice 
to the idea that suggested it. In the 
Kasr Dubarra, as in many other 
things, the Defterdar certainly showed 
considerable taste; and had his dis- 
position been equal to bis talents, he 
might have lived beloved, and have 
died regretted by all classes. * 

The Pasha has now fitted up this 
palace for his hareem, and has fur- 
nished the rooms, partly in the 
Turkish, and partly in the European 
style, in the ho))e8 of combining what 
is most suitable in those two opposite 
tastes. Diwans, walls painted by Greeks 
in the manner of Constantinople, 
fountains, and niches, are united with 
chairs, tables, sofas, mirrors, curtains, 
French windows, and chandeliers ; 
and ottomans are there, with this 
supposed Turkish name, showing 
how strangely Europeans fancy they 
adopt a Turkish piece of furniture, 
which, unknown in the East, is 
obliged to retain its European name 
in rooms, whence it is supposed to 
have derived its origin. The arrange- 
ment of colours in the furniture is by 
no means happy, and the frightful 
taste of Greek painting ill accords 
with European hangings. The ceil- 
ings are very inferior to those usually 
met with in Turkish palaces; and 
there is an inconsistent mixture of 
wood and marble. The windows 



Sect. 11. 

are double, to exclude the dust of 
Egypt, but without success. Up- 
stairs is a boudoir, which, had the walls 
been differently painted, would have 
been pretty. However, there is 
enough in this to show that the two 
styles may be combined ; for which 
the first step would be the substitu- 
tion of panels in frescoes, used in 
some of our modem houses, for the 
Greek monstrosities. The prettiest 
part is the colonnade, which is lighted 
at night by two English chandeliers, 
of very elegant shape. 

xxcuasioK 2. — a, heliopolis. — 


The ride from Cairo to Matar^eh, 
near which are the mounds of Heli- 
opolis and the obelisk of Osirtasen I., 
occupies about two hours. A little 
beyond tbe Dimerdish, to the right of 
the road, on the edge of the moun- 
tains, are the mosk and totrib of the 
welUkn'Own Melek Adel, *ca1I^ «! 
Adleeh. It is now nearly destroyed, 
the* dome alone remaining, which is 
curious and richly wrought. 

The last tomb, after passing the 
Dimerd^sh, has a dome very richly 
ornamented inside ; and beyond this, 
about half-way between the gate 
(Bah e* Nusr) and Heliopolis, is the 
Kobbet el Ghoree, the tomb of that 

The ride to Matareeh is pretty, and 
the latter part is well planted with 
trees. In a field to the left of the 
road, a little before reaching Ma- 
tareeh, are some very large blocks, 
which some suppose to be capitals of 

Heliopolis is a little beyond that 
Tillage. It is sufficiently known from 
a distance by its obelisk. Tradition 
speaks of another, which formerly 
stood opposite this, and which was 
doubtless of the same Pharaoh ; and 
we may readily credit it, as it was cus- 
tomary for the Egyptians to place 
them in pairs at the entrance of their 
temples. Before them appears to 

have been an avenue of sphinxes, 
which probably extended to the north- 
west gate of the city, fragments of 
which may still be seen near tbe 
site of that entrance. Pococke men- 
tions, near tbe same spot, a sphinx of 
fine yellow marble, 32 feet long; "a 
piece of tbe same kind of stone with 
hieroglyphics ; and, 1 6 paces more to 
the north, several blocks,'* having tbe 
appearance of sphinxes ; as well as an- 
other stone with hieroglyphics on one 
side. According to Strabo, it was by 
one of these avenues that you ap- 
proached the temple of the sun of 
Heliopolis, which he describes as laid 
out in the ancient Egyptian style, with 
a dromos of sphinxes before it, form- 
ing the approach to the vestibule. 
And this t>eing the first time I have 
bad occasion to notice an Egyptian 
temple, I cannot do better than in- 
troduce his description of the general 
plan of those buildings, which is less 
out of place here, as he has given it 
in connection with Heliopolis. 

** At the entrance is a pavement, 
one plethrum (100 feet) or some 
what less in breadth, and three or four, 
or even more, in length, which is 
called the dromos (course) ; and this 
according, to Callimachus, is sarred 
to Anubis. Throughout its whole 
length are placed on either side stone 
sphinxes, distant from each other SO 
cubits, (30 feet), or a little more ; so 
that one set of them is on the right, 
the other on the left (as you pass up 
the dromos to the temple). After 
the sphinxes, is a large propylon ; and 
when you have proceeded further in, 
another propylon, and then a third ; 
but neither to the propyla nor the 
sphinxes is there any fixed number, 
these varying in diflTerent temples, as 
well as the length and breadth of 
the dromos. After the propyla is 
the temple, having a large handsome 
portico (pronaos, irpo¥ctos) and an 
adytum (s^kos, <nyirot), in proportion 
without any statue, or at least not 
in the form of a man, but of some 
animal." Next follows a not very 




intelligible piece of detail. *' On 
either side of the portico project, 
what are called the wings ; they are 
equal in height to the temple itself, 
and distant from each other, at first a 
little more than the breadth of the 
base of the temple ; but then, on pro- 
ceeding forward, their lines curve 
over towards each other, to the extent 
of 50 or 60 cubits. These walls 
have sculptures of colossal figures, 
like the works of the Etruscans, and 
those of the ancient Greeks. There 
is also a certain chamber supported 
by columns, as in Memphis, of Bar- 
barian character, for except that the 
columns are large and numerous, 
and in many rows, it has nothing 
either graceful or elegant about it, 
but is rather remarkable for a vain 
display of labour." 

The apex of the obelisk indicates, 
from its shape, the addition of some 
covering, probably of metal ; and the 
form of tliat in the Fyoom, of the 
same king, Osirtasen I., is equally 
singular. It is, indeed, not unusual 
to find evidences of obelisks having 
been ornamented in this manner; 
and the apices of those at Luxor, as 
well as of the smaller obelisk at 
Karnak, which have a slight curve at 
each of their four edges, recede from 
the level of the faces, as if lo leave 
room for overlaying them with a 
thin casing of bronze gilt. 

The faces of the obelisk at Helio- 
polls mea»ure at the ground 6 feet 1 
inch on the N. and S. ; 6 feet 3 
inches on 4he £. and W. ; and it is 
about 62 feet 4 inches high, above 
the level of the ground, or 68 feet 
2 inches above the ba«e or first pe- 
destal. The latter is 2 feet in height, 
and 10 feet 4 inches in breadth, pro- 
jecting therefore about two feet be- 
yond the obelisk on every side. This, 
again, stands on a larger pedestal, 
about 19 feet square, the height of 
which, owing to the water at the bot- 
tom, I could not ascertain. 

According to Strabo the city of 
Heliopolis stood on a large mound 

or raised site, before which were lakes 
that received the water of the neigh- 
bouring canals. It is therefore evi- 
dent how much the Nile and the land 
of Egypt have been raised since his 
time, as the obelisks are now buried 
to the depth of 5 feet 10 inches (with- 
out reckoning the pedestal); and as 
he saw the base of the temple and the 
pavement of iu dromos, the inunda- 
tion could not then have reached to a 
level with iu area. Part of the loAy 
mounds may still be seen in the site 
of the ancient houses of the town, 
which appear to have stood on higher 
ground than the temple, owing no 
doubt to their foundations having 
been raised from time to time as they 
were rebuilt, and no change of eleva- 
tion taking place in the site of the 
temple. This continued in the place 
where its foundations had been laid 
by the first Osirtasen ; and the same 
was observed by Herodotus, though 
in a much greater degree, in the 
position of the temple of Diana at 
Bubastis, « which, having remained 
on the same level where it was first 
built, while the rest of the town had 
been raised on various occasions, was 
seen by those who walked round the 
walls in a hollow below them.'* 

That Strabo is fully justified in 
speaking of the antiquity of the 
Temple of the Sun, is proved by the 
presence of the name of Osirtasen, 
who reigned from the year 1740 to 
1 696 before our era. 

Tliough small, Heliopolis was a 
town of great celebrity ; but it suf- 
fered considerably by the invasion of 
Cantbyses. Many of its obelisks, 
and probably other monuments, were 
afterwards taken away to Rome and 
Alexandria; and at the time of the 
Geographer's visit it had the cha- 
racter of a deserted city. Strabo also 
saw *< some very large houses where 
the priv'sts used to live, that being the 
place to which they particularly re- 
sorted in former times for the study 
of philosophy and astronomy;" but 
tlie teachers, as well as the sciences 



Sect. n. 

tbey taught, were no longer to be 
found, and no professor of any one 
was pointed out to him. Those only 
who had charge of the temple, and 
who explained the sacred rites to 
strangers, remained there ; and among 
other lions to interest the Greek 
traveller, the houses where. Eudoxus 
and Plato had lived were shown, 
these philosophers having, it is said, 
remained thirteen years under the 
tuition of the priests of Heliopolis. 
Indeed, it ceased to be the seat of 
learning aAer the accession of the 
Ptolemies, and the schools of Alex- 
andria succeeded to tlie ancient col- 
leges of that city. 

The form of Heliopolis, judging 
from the mounds of the wall of circuit, 
was irregular, and iu utmost extent 
was only about 3750 feet, by 2870. 
The houses lay on the north side, 
covering a space of 575,000 square 
feet, to the south of which stood the 
Temple of the Sun. Towards the 
N. W. are remains of the sphinxes 
above mentioned, and Uie positions of 
its several gates may be traced in the 
apertures of the mounds that cover 
its crude brick walls. It was from 
one of these that a large road led in 
a S. £. direction, on the desert aide, 
to the Red Sea and a smaller one 
crossed the hills of the Mokuttum, 
in a southerly direction, passing near 
the petrified wood which has been 
dignified by the name of foreat, and 
rejoined the valley of the Nile near 
the modem village of Toora, a little 
below the ancient quarries of the Tro- 
jan mountain. On a red granite frag- 
ment, lying some distance from the 
obelisk, are the name and mutilated 
figure of the Great Remeses ; and 
Mr. Salt found a pedestal with a bull 
and Osiris, about a quarter of a mile 
to the eastward. The bull Mnevis 
shared with Re or Phra the worship 
of this city, and was one of the most 
noted among the sacred animals of 
Egypt. It was kept in a particular 
enclosure set apart for it, as for Apis 
at Memphis, and enjoyed the same 

honour in the Heliopolite as the latter 
did in the Memphite nome. 

The name of the neighbouring vil- 
lage Matar^h is erroneously supposed 
to signify ** fresh water,** and to be 
borrowed from the Ain Shems(*' foun- 
tain of the Sun ** ) of ancient times ; 
and though in reality supplied like 
the other wells of Egypt by filtration 
from the river, it is reput^l the only 
real spring in the valley of the Nile. 
That the word Matar^eh cannot sig- 
nify *< frt»h water,** is evident from the 

form of the Arabic <0 Jb.« M- tar^eh ; 
for the word Ma, << water,** should 
be written t«, and being masculine, 

would require the adjunct to be iarteg 
and this -last is not applied to water, 
but to fruit. According to tlie Mosaic 
of Palaestrina, the *< fountain of the 
Sun,** stood a short distance to the 
right, or £. of the obelisks before the 

The ancient Egyptian name of 
Heliopolis was in hieroglyphics, Re-ei 
or Ei- Re, « the House,*' or *' abode 
of the Sun,** corresponding to the title 
Bethshemes, of the same import, which 
was applied to it by the Jews ; and in 
Scripture and in Coptic it is called 
*• On.'* The water of <* the fountain 
of the Sun *' is reported to have been 
originally salt, until the arrival of 
Joseph and the Virgin, who converted 
it into a sweet source, and who, having 
reposed under a sycamore tree near 
this spot, are said to have caused it to 
flourish to the present day. This 
truly perennial tree is still shown to 
strangers ; and the credulous believe 
it to be the very one tluit afforded shade 
to the holy family: but neither a 
respect for these last, nor the in- 
credulity of sceptics, seem to have 
exempted it from the name-cutting 

The gardens of Matar^eh were for- 
merly renowned for the balsam they 
produced, and the ground close to the 
obelisk claims the honour of having 
been the spot where the cultivation of 




Indian cotton was first tried in Egypt, 
little more than 25 years ago, which 
has succeeded so far beyond the ei- 
pectations of the most sanguine. 

The balsam plants are said to have 
been brought from Judsa to tliis spot 
by Cleopatra; who, trusting to the 
influence of Antony, removed them, 
in spite of the opposition of Herod, 
having been hitherto confined to 
Juda». Josephus tells us that the 
lands where the balsam tree grew 
belonged to Cleopatra, and that 
** Herod farmed of her what she 
possessed of Arabia, and those reve. 
nues that came to her from the region 
about Jericho, bearing the balsam, the 
most precious of drugs, which grows 
there alone." This is the Balm of 
Gilead mentioned in the Bible. The 
plants were in later times taken from 
Matar^eh to Arabia, and grown near 
Mecca, whence the balsam is now 
brought to Egypt and Europe, under 
the name of Balsam of Mecca; and 
the gardens of Heliopolis no longer 
produce this valuable plant. In the 
houses of the village are several frag- 
ments of stone bearing parts of hiero- 
glyphic sentences, which have been 
removed from the old town or the 
tombs in the vicinity ; and many pieces 
of petrified wood He scattered in the 
field?, and at the edge of the desert, 
on which the ancient city originally 

It was in the neighbouring plain 
that Sultan Selim encamped, in 1517, 
previous to his defeat of Toman Bay, 
the successor of £1 Gh6ree, which 
transferred the sceptre of the Mem« 
look kings to the victorious Osmaniee. 

Beyond Heliopolis are the Birkti 
d Hag, or « Lake of the Pilgrims,'* 
El ^anka, and some mined towns ; 
which are not of general interest, and 
are seldom visited. 

Birket el Hag is about 5 miles to 

the eastward of Heliopolis, and is tl)e 

rendezvous of the Mecca Caravan. 

Beyond this is El Kkanha ; and still 


further to the N. is AboozaM, once 
known for its military college, camp, 
hospital, and schools of medicine. 
The first of these is now removed to 
Damietta, the second to Toora, and 
the last to Kasr el Ainee, near Old 

At El Khanka there is still a col- 
lege ; and this place was remarkable, 
even in the days of Leo African us, 
** for its fine buildings, its mosks, and 
colleges," as the neighbouring plain, 
for the abundance of dates it pro- 

Continuing thence towards the N. 
W. you come to the mounds of an 
ancient town called Tel el Yeh6od, 
or Tel Yehoode'eh, the « Mound of 
the Jews," a name given to other 
ancient ruins in this neighbourhood, 
one of which is on the edge of the 
desert, a short distance to the S. of 
Bclb&ys. The first stands in the 
cultivated plain, near Shibb^en. Its 
mounds are of very great height, and 
from its name and position, there is 
little doubt that it marks the site of 
Onion (Onias, or Onii Metropolis), 
called after Onias the high- priest, 
who built a temple there, and mad^ 
it the resort of the Jews, in the time 
of Ptolemy Philometor. Its position 
Is a little to the £. of N. from Helio- 
polls, from which it is distant 12 miles. 
It is not the Vicus Jud«orum, being 
out of the direction from Memphis to 
Pelusium ; but another ruined town 
corresponds with the site of that place; 
which, in the Itinerary of Antoninus, 
is stated to be 30 m. p. from Helio- 
polis, on the road to Pelusium from 
that city. Colonel Rennell, in his 
invaluable work, the Geography of 
Herodotus, is right in his conjecture 
that this applies to some other of the 
"Jewish establishments besides the 
one formed by Onias,'* though he 
does not fix its exact position, which 
was at the ruins to the S. of Belbayi^ 
twenty-four English miles in a direct 
line from Heliopolis. 

Josephus gives a curious account of 
the foundation of Onion, and the 




Sect. n. 

building of the temple there. The 
ion of Oiiiai the high- priest, who bore 
the same name as his father, haWng 
fled from Antiochus, king of Syria, 
took refuge at Alexandria in the time 
of Ptolemy Phllometor. Seeing that 
Judaea was oppressed by the Macedo- 
nian kings, and being desirous to 
acquire celebrity, he resoltred to ask 
leave of Ptolemy and Cleopatra to 
build a temple in Egypt, like that of 
Jerusalem, and to ordain Levites and 
priests out of their own stock. To 
this he was also stimulated by a pro- 
phecy of Isaiah, who predicted that 
there should be a temple in Egypt 
built by a Jew. He therefore wrote 
to Ptolemy, expressing this wish, and 
saying he had found a very fit place 
in a castle that received its name from 
the couhtry, Diana. He represented 
it as abounding with sacred animals, 
full of materials fallen down, and be- 
longing to no master. He also inti- 
mated to the king that the Jews would 
tlicreby be induced to collect in Egypt, 
and assist him against Antiochus. 
Ptolemy, after expressing his surprise 
that the God of the Jews should be 
pleased to have a temple built in a place 
so unclean, and so full of sacred ani- 
mals, granted him permission ; and the 
temple was accordingly erected, though 
smaller and poorer than that of Jeru- 
salem. Josephus afterwards states that 
the place was 1 80 stades distant from 
Memphis ; that the nome was called 
of Heliopolis ; the temple was like a 
tower (in height?), of large stones, 
and 60 cubits high ; the entire tem- 
ple was encompassed by a wall of 
humi brick, with gates of stone. In 
lieu of the candlestick he made a lamp 
of gold, suspended by a golden chain. 
Such is the substance of the not very 
clear description given by Josephus. 
It is sufficient to settle the position 
of the place; and we may suppose 
that Onias chose this neighbourhood 
for other reasons, which he could not 
venture to explain to an Egyptian 
king surrounded by Egyptians, per- 
baps because it had associations con- 

nected with the abode of the ances- 
tors of the Jews in Egypt, whence 
they started with a high hand, and 
freed themselves from the bondage of 

Other Jewish cities seem after- 
wards to have been built in this dis- 
rict; and tliese whose mounds still 
remain are probably of the *' five cities 
in the land of Egypt,** which, accord- 
ing to Isaiah, were <'to speak the 
language of Canaan.'* They con- 
tinued to be inhabited by Jews till a 
late period. It was by them that 
Mithridates of Pergamus received so 
much assistance, when on his way to 
assist J. Caesar; and the 500 who 
were embarked by £lius - Gallus 
against Arabia appear to have been 
from the same district And though 
Vespasian, after the taking of Jerusa- 
lem, had suppressed their religious 
meetings in tlie Heliopolite nome, 
they continued to be established in 
many parts of Egypt, independent of 
the large quarter they possessed in 
Alexandria, from which they were 
expelled by the persecutions of the or- 
thodox Cyril* 

About twenty-one miles beyond 
Onion to the N. N. £. is Tel Basta, 
whose lofty mounds mark the site of 
Bubastis, and fourteen miles to the 
N. £. is Belbays, the successor of 
Bubastis Agria, in Coptic Phelbes. 
Near to this passed the ancient canal 
that once led to Arsinoe (now Suez) 
on the Red Sea, whose bed may stilly 
be traced for a considerable distance 
in that direction. 

Returning to Cairo from Heliopo* 
lis, about a mile and a half to the left 
of the road, is a red gritstone moun- 
tfiin, which lies over the calcareous 
strata of the Gebel Mokuttum. The 
gritstone, which gradually runs into 
a siliceous rock, contains numeroua 
calcedonies, and is of the same na- 
ture as the vocal statue at Thebes. 
Owing to the quality of the stone» 
which renders it peculiarly adapted 
for mills, this mountain has beea 




quarried from a very early period to 
the present day, at may be seen from 
the fragments found at Heliopolis. 
The same species of rock rises here 
and there to the southward, upon' the 
slope of the limestone range, and the 
bed above it contains petrified wood 
of various kinds. 

6. pcraiFiED WOOD. 

The principal mass of this, mis- 
called the ** forest,** may be seen four 
miles to the & S. E. of the Red 
Mountain; where, besides thorn- 
bearing trees and palms, are some 
jointed stems resembling bamboos, 
one of which is about fifteen feet long, 
broken at each of the knots. 

Other specimois of palms are met 
with on the Sues road ; and the same 
kinds of agatiaed wood occur again 
inland on the other side of the Nile, 
on the borders of Wady Fargh, evi- 
dently once imbedded in a similar 

The Mokuttum range is of mag- 
nesian limestone, like the greater part 
of the mountains on the eastern side 
of the valley of the hill. That part 
behind the citadel has also obtained 
the name of Gebel e' Jooshee, from 
the tomb of a shekh buried there. 

Among other fossils in this moun- 
tain, I found the crab, echini, &c., 
and shark's teeth in the lower rocks, 
immediately behind the citadel. In a 
ravine to the right of the road to the 
petrified wood is a spring of water, 
issuing from the mountain ; and the 
spot, for £gypty is romantic. 



A ride of about 4 miles from Cairo, 
through a shady avenue of trees, takes 
you to Mohammed All's palace and 
gardens of Shoobra, to the north of 
the city, on the banks of the Nile. 
This avenue^ which has been planted 
about SO years, is formed almost 
entirely of the Acacia Lebbekh; 
which last lias not only the recom- 
mendation of rapid growth, but of 

great beauty, particularly when In 
blossom. The river is at first at some 
distance to the left, having forsaken 
its ancient channel, which may still 
be traced between the road and the 
bank, and which in early times ran 
through the plain that now separates 
Cairo from Boolak. Before reaching 
the palace, you pass the village of 
Shoobra, or as it is called, Shoobra 
el Makk^h, to distinguish it from 
another place, 14 miles lower down 
the river, Shoobra e* Shab^eb, where 
the direct road to Alexandria crosses 
the Damietta branch. 

Tlie gardens of Shoobra, though 
formal, are pretty ; and the scent of 
roses, with the gay appearance of 
flowers, is an agreeable novelty in 
Egypt The walks radiate from 
centres to different parts of the gar- 
dens, some covered with trelliswork, 
most comfortable in hot weather. 
They are carefully kept by natives 
under the direction of Greek garden- 
ers; but a great mistake has been 
made in cutting down the trees behind 
the great fountain-kiosk, which tended 
so much to keep it cool, and to mask 
the ugly gas-house that supplies its 

There is no great variety of flow- 
ers ; roses, geraniums, and a few oth^r 
kinds are the most abundant. In one 
place I observed some iont trees (Aca- 
cia Nilotica), of unusual height, not 
leM than 40 or 45 feet high. The 
great fountain is the Hon of the gar- 
den. In the centre is an open space 
with an immense msrble basin con- 
taining water, about 4 feet deep, sur- 
rounded by marble balustrades. These 
as well as the columns and mouldings, 
are from Carrara, the work of Italians, 
who have indulged their fancies by 
carving fish and various strange things 
among the ornamental details. Tou 
walk round it under a covered corri- 
dor, with kiosks projecting into the 
water ; and at each of the four cor« 
ners of the building is a room with 
diwans, fitted up partly in the Turk- 
isti, partly in the European style. 

I 2 



Sect. n. 

At the other side of the garden, 
near the palace, is another kiosk, 
called e* Gebel, " the hill,** to which 
you ascend by flights of steps on two 
sides, and which forms a pretty sum* 
mer-house, rising as it does above a 
series of terraces planted with flow- 
ers, and commanding a view over 
the whole garden, the Nile, and the 
hills in the distance. It consista of 
one room paved with Oriental ala- 
baster, liaving a fountain in the 

The palace itself has nothing to 
recommend it, but the view from the 
windows. The aviary is neat, sur- 
rounded by Ionic columns of wood ; 
but it is not overstocked with birds, 
and in the cages outside one is sur- 
prised to see a rakham and a nitTf the 
two vultures of Egypt, which are too 
common to merit their imprisonment. 
Near this are some weeping willows, 
whose bright green is very agreeable 
in this hot climate, where they thrive 
femarkahly well. 

Outside the gardens are the stables 
of the Pasha, seldom containing any 
horses worth looking at ; and tlie cu- 
riosity of strangers is expected not to 
wish for more than an elephant, a 
girafife, and some gazelles kept in tlie 
adjoining yard. 


a. Things required, b. Village of 
Geezeh ; Egg Ovens, e. History of 
Pyramids, d. Great Pyramid, e. 
Second Pyramid. /. Third Pyramid ; 
Small Pyramids, ff. Sphinx, h. 
Tombs, i. Causeway. J. Small Py- 
ramids, near that of Cheops ; Nature 
of the Rock, k. Date of Pyramids. 
/. Pyramid of Abooro&h. m. The 
Two Arab Bridges, n. Busiris. o. 
Pyramids of A booster, p. Pyramids 
of Sakkira; Tombs, g. Pyramids 
of Datih6or. r. Memphis ; Name of 
the Hill of the Pyramids. 


The principal requitittt in a visit to 

the pyramids are a stock of provisions, 
some pooUehs or water-bottles, a sup- 
ply of candles, a lanthom, mats, and 
carpet ; and, if the traveller intends 
passing the night there, a mattrass and 
bedding, and a broom for sweeping 
out the tomb, where he is to take up 
his abode. A fly-flap is also neces- 
sary, and, in hot weather, a mosquito 
curtain. If he wishes to visit the 
rooms discovered by Colonel Howard 
Vyse over the king*s chamber, he 
must take a rope-ladder, or a wooden 
ladder in short pieces, to enable it to 
be carried into the upper passage. 

Chairs and tables are provided by 
the shekh who lives there, whom he 
will find civil and obliging. Most 
strangers complain of the torment of 
the people of the village, who collect 
about him like a swarm of flies, forcing 
their troublesome services upon him 
to his great discomfort and incon- 
venience. In order to avoid tliis, on 
arriving at the flight of steps leading 
to the enclosure before the tombs, he 
had better call for the shekh, and re- 
quest him to appoint 3 or 4 guides, 
who will act as guards at night, and 
attend him during his stay, to the en- 
tire exclusion of every other person. 
On leaving tlie pyramids, he may pay 
them at the tate of 5 piastres a day, 
if for S or 4 days, or rather more if 
for 1 day, or when they have had much 
trouble in assisting him into the up- 
per chambers of the pyramid ; the 
shekh himself receiving about the 
same for the use of his tables and 
chairs. Nothing, on any account, 
should be given them when in the py- 
ramids, and all attempts at exaction 
should be firmly resisted. 

The time occupied in going to the 
pyramids depends on the season of the 
year. When the lands are free from 
water, the road is direct from Geezeh, 
a distance of about 5 miles ; but, 
during the inundation, it follows the 
pt»r, or dyke, and is a great detour^ 
being double tliat distance. It then 
passes by the village of Shebram^nt, 
which is half-way between the pyra* 




mids and those of Sakkira, and then 
turns northwards by the Hoffer, or 
edge of the desert. There is no 
necessity to sleep at the pyramids, in 
taking a rapid Tiew of them and the 
tombs in the vicinity, especially when 
the road is open direct from Geeseh : 
indeed, in the other case, it is not ab- 
solutely required, though it will be 
necessary then to start very early in 
the morning. Some have even visited 
the pyramids of Geeseh, those of 
Sakk&ra, and the colossus of Mitra- 
henny, and have returned to Cairo the 
same day; but this is a long day*s 
work at any season. The most com- 
fortable plan is to sleep at the pyra- 
mids, and go over to Sakkira next 
day, returning to Cairo tluit evening. 
A visit to the ruined pyramid of 
Abooro&'sh will require another day ; 
but this, though interesting to those 
who have the time to spare, would 
not repay the generality of travellers 
for the journey. 

If the traveller intends visiting the 
pyramids on his way up the Nile, be 
may ride over from Geezeh, and send 
his boat to wait for him at Bedre- 
sh4yn; where he may join it, after 
seeing Sakkira, and the remains of 
Memphis, the same evening : but he 
must take care the boat starts in time, 
particularly if the wind is not fair. 


Geezeh itself presents nothing worth 
notice ; but the traveller, if he^ wishes, 
may see the process of hatching eggs by 
artificial means in ovenj ; which has 
been continued from the time of the 
Pharaohs to the present day. Hie 
Coptic name of Geezeh was Tpersioi. 
It is now a mere village, with a few 
cafi^s, ruined baziutrs, and the wrecks 
of houses, once the summer retreats 
of the Memlooks and Cairene& At 
the time of the Memlooks it was for- 
tified, and formed, with the Isle of 
Roda, a line of defences which com- 
manded or protected the approach to 
the capital. Leo Africanus calls it a 
dty, beautified by the palaces of the 

Memlooks, who there sought retire- 
ment from the bustle of Cairo, and 
frequented by numerous merchants 
and artisans. It was also the great 
market for sheep, brought, as he says, 
from the mountains of Barca ; whose 
owners, the Arabs fearing to cross 
the river, sold their stock there to 
agents from the city. The mosks 
and beautiful buildings by the river's 
side are no longer to be seen at 
Geeaeli ; and the traveller, as he leaves 
his boat, wanders amidst uneven heaps 
of rubbish, and the ill-defined limits 
of potters' yards, till he issues from 
a breach in the crumbling Memlook 
walls into the open plain. On passing 
some of the villages on the way, a pic- 
turesque view of the pyramids may 
here and there engage the eye or the 
pencil of an artist. 


The pyramid$ have been frequently 
mentioned by ancient and modern 
writers; but the statements of the 
former, respecting their founder*, are 
far from satisfactory, and no conjec- 
tures seem to explain the object for 
which they were erected. According 
to Herodotus, the founder of the 
great pyramid, called by him Cheops, 
was a prince whose crimes and tyranny 
rendered his name odious even to 
posterity. ** He closed all the tern pies 
and forbade the Egyptians to perform 
sacrifices ; after which he made them 
all work for him. Some were em- 
ployed in the quarries of the Arabian 
bills, to cut stones, to drag them to 
the river,- and to put them into boats, 
others being stationed on the opposite 
shore to receive them, and drag them 
to the Libyan hills; and the 100,000 
men thus occupied were relieved by 
an equal number every S months. Of 
the time," he adds, ** passed in this 
arduous undertaking, 10 years were 
taken up with the construction of the 
causeway for the transport of the 
stones, — a work scarcely less won- 
derful in my opinion than the pynt- 
mid itself; for it has 5 stades iii 

I 3 



Sect. n. 

length, 10 orgy es in breadth, and 8 in 
height, in the highest part, and is 
constructed of polished stones sculp> 
tured with the figures of animals. 
These 10 years were occupied exclu- 
sively in the causeway, independently 
of the time spent in levelling the hill 
on which the pyramids stand, and in 
making the subterranean chambers 
intended for his tomb, in an island 
formed by the waien of the Nile 
which he conducted thither by a 
canal. The building of the pyramid 
itself occupied 20 years. It is square, 
each face measuring 8 plethra in 
length, and the same in height. The 
greater part is of polished stones, most 
carefully put together, no one of 
which is less than 30 feet long. 

** This pyramid was built in steps, 
and as the work proceeded, the stones 
were raised from the ground by means 
of machines made of short pieces of 
wood. When a block had been 
brought to the first tier, it was placed 
in a machine there, and so on from 
tier to tier by a succession of similar 
machines, there being as many ma- 
chines as tiers of stone ; or perhaps 
one served for the purpose, being 
moved from tier to tier as each stone 
was taken up. I mention this, be- 
cause I have heard both stated. When 
completed in this manner, they pro- 
ceeded to make out (the form of) the 
pyramid, beginning from the top, and 
thence downwards to the lowest tier. 
On the exterior was engraved in 
Egyptian characters tbe sum expend- 
ed in supplying the workmen with 
raphanua, onions, and garlic ; and he 
who interpreted the inscription told 
me, as I remember well, that it 
amounted to 1600 talenU (200,000^ 
sterling).'* '' If that be true, bow 
much must have been spent on the 
iron tools, the food, and clothing of 
the workmen, employing at they did, 
all the time above mentioned without 
counting that occupied in cutting and 
transporting the stones, and making 
the subterraneous chambers, which 
must have been conuderable. '* 

The historian then mentions a ri- 
diculous story about the daughter of 
the king, to whom he attributes the 
construction of the central pyramid 
of tbe three, standing to the £. of that 
of Cheops, each side of which was 1 J 
plethrum in length. 

** Cheops,** be continues, *' having 
reigned 50 years, died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Cephren, who 
followed the example of his prede- 
cessor. Among other monuments he 
also built a pyramid, but much less 
in sixe than that of Cheops. I mea- 
sured them both. It has neither un- 
derground chambers, nor any canal 
flowing into it from the Nile, like 
the other, where the tomb of its foun- 
der is placed in an island, surrounded 
by water. The lowest tier of this 
pyramid is of Ethiopian stone of va- 
rious colours (granite). It is 40 feet 
smaller than its neighbour. Both are 
built on the same hill, which is about 
100 feet high. The same priests in- 
formed me that Cephren reigned 56 
years, so that the Egyptians were 
overwhelmed for 106 years with 
every kind of oppression, and tbe 
temples continued to be closed dur- 
ing the whole time. Indeed they 
have such an aversion for the me* 
mory of these two princes, that they 
will not even mention their names, 
and for this reason they call the pyra- 
mids aAer the shepherd Philitis, who 
at the time of their erection used to 
feed his flocks near this spot.** 

*< Af^er Cephren, Mycerinus, the 
son of Cheops, according to the state- 
ment of the priests, ascended the 
throne. He also built a pyramid, 
much less than his father*s, being SO 
feet smaller. It is square : each of 
its sides is 3 plethra long ; and it is 
made half way up of Ethiopian 
(granite) stone. Disapproving of 
the conduct of his father, he ordered 
the temples to be opened, and per- 
mitted the people, who had been op- 
pressed by a long series of cruelties, 
to return to their work, and their 
religious duties; and administering 




justice with great equity, he was 
looked upon by the Egyptians as su- 
perior to all the kings who had ever 
ruled the country." 

Mycerinus, after having treated his 
people with humanity, seems to have 
been treated by tlie gods with much 
unkindness, according to the account 
of the historian, who takes occasion 
to relate an absurd story of his 
daughter, which, like others of the 
same kind, was probably a produc- 
tion of the Greek quarter of those 
days, where idle tales and a love of 
the marvellous seem to have been as 
prevalent, as in the Frank quarter at 
the present thne. After this, he as- 
signs the cow at Sals (which, accord- 
ing to his own showing, was connected 
with the mysteries of Ists and Osiris) 
to the daughter of Mycerinus; but 
another Greek tale, attributing the 
erection of the third pyramid to 
Rhodopis, he very properly rejects. 
<* There are some Greeks,** he says, 
*<who ascribe it to tlie courtesan 
Rhodopis, but they are in error, and 
do not appear to know ^ho she was, 
or surely they would not have attri- 
buted to her the building of a pyra- 
mid, which must have cost thousands 
and thousands of talents. Besides, 
Rhodopis did not live in the time 
of Mycerinus but of Amasis, many 
yean after the kings who built these 
monuments. She was from Thrace, 
tlie slave of ladmon, the son of 
Heph«stopolis, a Samian, the fellow- 
slave of ^sop, the fabulist 

Rhodopis was brought to Egypt by 
Xanthus of Samos, and was ransomed 
at a large price by Charaxus of Mity- 
lene, the son of Scamandronymus, 
and brother of the poetess Sappho. 
Having been restored to liberty, she 
remained in Egypt ; and being very 
beautiful, she amassed a large for- 
tune, for a person in her condition, 
though not sufficient to build such a 
pyramid. Indeed, as every one may 
at this day see what the tenth part of 
her wealth was, it is very useless at- 
tributing to her great riches; for 

Rhodopis, wishing to leave a memo- 
rial of herself in Greece, thought of a 
novel kind of offering that had oc- 
curred to no one else, which she de- 
dicated to the temple of Delphi. It 
consisted of numerous iron spits for 
roasting oxen, the cost of which was 
just equal to the tenth of her pro- 
perty ; and these being sent to Delphi, 
were put up behind the altar dedi- 
cated by the Chians, opposite the 
sanctuary, where they now lie. ** 

Diodorus says, that ** Cbembis (or 
Chemmis), a Memphite, who reigned 
fifty years, built the largest of the 
three pyramids, which are reckoned 
among the seven wonders of the 
world. They stand on the Libyan 
side (of the Nile), distant from Mem- 
phis ISO stadia, and 45 from the river. 
They strike every beholder with won- 
der, both from their size and the skill 
of their workmanship ; for every side 
of the largest, at the base, is 7 pie- 
thra in length, and more than 6 in 
height. Decreasing in sixe towards 
the summit, it there measures 6 cubits 
(9 feet). The whole is of solid stone, 
made with prodigious labour, and in 
the most durable manner, having 
lasted to our time, a period not lest 
than 1000 years, or, as some say, up- 
wards of S400 ; the stones still pre* 
serving their original position, and 
the whole structure being uninjured. 
The stone is said to have been brought 
from Arabia, a considerable distance, 
and the building made by means of 
mounds (inclined planes), machines 
not having yet been invented. What 
is most surprising is, that though 
these structures are of such great 
antiquity, and all the surrounding 
ground is of so sandy a nature, there 
is no trace of a mound, nor vestige 
of the chippings of the stone : so that 
the whole seems as if placed on the 
surrounding sand by tlie aid of some 
deity, rather than by the sole and 
gradual operations of man. Some 
of the Egyptians tiy to make won- 
derful stories about them, saying that 
the mounds (inclined planes) were 

I 4 



Sect IL 

made of salt and nitre, which, by di- 
recting the water of the river upon 
them, were afterwards dissolved with- 
out human aid, when the work was 
completed. This cannot be true: 
but the same number of hands that 
raised the mounds removed the whole 
to the original place whence they 
were brought For it is reported 
that 360,000 men were employed in 
this wdk-k, and the time occupied in 
finishing the whole was scarcely less 
than twenty years. 

" On the death of this king, his 
brother Cephren succeeded to the 
throne, and reigned fifty-six years. 
Some say he was his son, by name 
Chabry'is, and not his brother. All, 
however, agree that on his acces- 
sion, wishing to emulate his predeces- 
sor, lie built the second pyramid, simi- 
lar to the other in iu style of building, 
but far inferior in size, each face being 
only one stade in length at its base. 
On the larger one is inscribed the 
sum spent in herbs and esculent roots 
for the workmen, amounting to up- 
wards of 1600 talents. The smaller 
one has no inscription, but on one side 
steps are cut to ascend it Of the two 
kings who raised these monuments 
for themselves, neither one nor the 
other was destined to be buried there- 
in. The people, who had endured 
so much fatigue in building them, and 
had been oppressed by their cruelty 
and violence, threatened to drag their 
bodies from their tombs, and tear 
them to pieces ; so that these princes 
at their death ordered their friends to 
bury tliem privately in some other se- 
cret |)lace. 

'* After them came Mycerinus, or, 
as some call him, Mecherinus, the son 
of the founder of the great pyramid. 
He built the third, but died previous 
to its completion. £ach side was 
made three plethra long at the base, 
with (a casing of) black stone, similar 
to that called Thebaic, as far as the 
fifteenth tier, the rest being completed 
with stone of the same quality as the 
other pyramids. Though inferior in 

size to the others, it is superior in its 
style of building, and the quality of 
the stone. On the north side is in- 
scrilied the name of its founder, My- 
cerinus. This king, avoiding the 
cruelty of his predecessors, exercised 
great benevolence towards his sub* 
jects, and courted their good will by 
his justice 

'* There are also three other pyra- 
mids; each side of which measures 
two plethra. In their style of build- 
ing they are similar to the preceding, 
and differ only in their dimensions : 
and they are stated to have been built 
by the above-mentioned kings as se- 
pulchres for their queens. There is 
no doubt that the pyramids surpass 
all other monuments in Egypt ; and 
the architects are thought to deserve 
more credit than the kings at whose 

expense they were made But 

neither the natives, nor writers, are 
agreed respecting the names of their 
founders; some attributing them to 
the above-named, others to different 
princes; the largest, for instance, to 
Armaeus, the second to Amasis, the 
third to Inaron, or, as some pretend, 
to the courtesan Rhodopis.** 

Strabo, in describing the pyramids, 
says, ** Forty stadia from the city (of 
Memphis) is a brow of hills on which 
many pyramids stand, the sepulchres 
of kings. Three of them are re« 
markable, and two are reckoned 
among the wonders of the world. 
They are both a stadium in height, of 
a square figure, and their height is 
little more than the breadth of the 
sides ; but one is rather larger than 
the other. Near the centre of the 
sides is a stone which can be taken 
out, from which a passage leads to 
the tomb. The two (large pyramids) 
are near each other on the same plain ; 
and at some distance on a more ele- 
vated part of the hill is the third, 
smaller than the other two, but built 
in a more costly manner. From the 
base to about the middle, it is of black 
stone, of which they make mortars, 
brought from the mountains of 

Ethiopia; and this being hard and 
difficult to work, rendered its con- 
struction more expensive. It is said 
to be the tomb of a courtesan, built 
by her loVers, whom Sappho the 
poetess calls Doricha, the fHend of 
her brother Charaxus, at the time that 
he traded in wine to Naucratis. 
Others call her Rhodope, and relate a 
story that when she was bathing, an 
eagle carried off one of her sandals, 
and having flown with it to Mem- 
phis, let it fall into the lap of the 
king as he sat in judgment. Struck 
by this singular occurrence, and the 
beauty of the sandal, (he king sent to 
every part of the country to inquire for 
ks owner ; and having found her at 
Naucratis, he made her his queen, 
and buried her at her death in this 
sepulchre.*' This Cinderella tale was 
probably an invention of the Greek 
quarter, after the time of Herodotus. 

llie geographer then mentions the 
fragments of stone resembling lentils 
and barley (which he thinks very 
likely to be remains of the workmen's 
food), and the quarries of the Trojan 
mountain, whence the stones were 
brought to build the pyramids. Close 
to these quarries and to the river, he 
adds, was <<a village called Troja, 
the ancient abode of the Trojan cap- 
tives brought to Egypt by Menelaus, 
who settled there.** 

Pliny's account of the pyramids 
represents them to be «an idle and 
silly display of royal wealth. For 
some state the reason of their erection 
to have been either to deprive succes- 
sors or ambitious competitors of the 
money, or to prevent the people be- 
coming idle. Nor was this vanity 
confined to one person, and the traces 
of many begun and left unfinished 
may still be seen. There is one in 
the Arsino'ite nome, two more in the 
Memphitic, not far from the Laby* 
rintb, • . . the same number where 
the Lake Maris ww, this being a 
large canal. These Egypt reckons 
among her wonders, the summits of 
which are represented towering (above 



the water's surface). Three others, 
which have filled the whole world 
with their renown, are seen from a 
great distance by (hose who navigate 
the river. They stand on the bairen 
rocky eminence on the African shore, 
between the city of Memphis and 
what is called the Delta, less than 4 
miles from the Nile, and 6 from 
Memphis, close to a village called 
Busiris, where the people live who 
are in the habit of climbing up them. 
Before them is the Sphinx, even 
more wonderful, and having the ap* 
pearance of a local deity of tiie neigh- 
bouring people. They suppose king 
Amasis was buried within it, and that 
the whole was brought to the place 
where it now stands, though in reality 
it is cut out of the naturul rock, and 
worked smooth. The circumference 
of the monster's head is 102 feet 
across the forehead, its length is 143, 
and its height from the belly to the 
highest point of the head 63 feet 

*' The largest pyramid is built of 
stones from the Arabian quarries; 
366,000 men are said to have been 
employed for 20 years in its con- 
struction ; and the three were all 
made in 68 years and 4 months. 
Those who have written about them 
are Herodotus, Euhemerus, Duris of 
Samos, Aristagoras, Dionysius, Ar» 
temidorus, Alexander Polyliistor, 
Butorides, Antisthenes, Demetrius, 
Demoteles, Apion; and yet no one 
of them shows satisfactorily by whom 
they were built ; a proper reward to 
the authors of such vanity, that their 
names should be buried in oblivion. 

«Some have affirmed that 1800 
talents were spent in raphanus roots, 
garlic, and onions. The largest covers 
a space of 8 acres (jugera), with 4 
faces of equal siie from corner to 
corner, and each measuring 883 feet ( 
the breadth at the summit being 25 
feet. The faces of the other pyramid 
measure each 737 feet from the four 
comers. The third is less than the 
other two, but much more elegant, 
being of Ethiopian stone (granite)i 

I 5 



Sect. IL 

and measures 363 feet between the 

** No vestiges of hoases remain near 
them, but merely pure sand on every 
side, with something like lenUls, com* 
mon in the greater part of Africa. 
Ttfe principal question is, how the 
blocks were carried up to such a 
height? For some suppose that 
mounds, composed of nitre and salt, 
were gradually formed as the work 
advan^i and were afterwards dis- 
solved by the water of the river, as 
soon as it was finished ; others, that 
bridges were made of mud bricks, 
which, when the work was completed, 
were used to build private houses; 
since the Nile, being on a lower level, 
could not be brought to the spot. 
Within the great pyramid is a well 86 
cubits (129 feet) deep, by which they 
suppose the river was admitted." 

d, TBI oaEAT rraAMiD. 

The first thing the traveller gene- 
rally does, on arriving at the/TyromJcif, 
is to ascend that of Cheip$, The 
ascent is by no means difficult, though 
fatiguing to some unaccustomed to 
climbing, from the heightof the stones, 
while others ascend with the greatest 
ease ; and I have known one, an officer 
of the Cyclops, reach the top in 8 
minutes. Ladies, who are often drag- 
ged up, rather than assisted, by the 
Arabs, will find a great advantage in 
having a couple of steps, or a foot- 
stool, to be carried by the Arabs, and 
put down where the stones are high ; 
and this would be not less useful in 
descending, than in going up, the 
pyramid. The easiest side to ascend 
IS the east. On the summit is a 
space about 3S feet square, (much 
larger than in the days of Pliny and 
Diodonis,) having been increased 
when the casing and the outer 
tiers were removed by the caliphs 
to serve for the construction of 
mosks and other buildings at Cairo. 
The mania for writing names is 
abundantly manifested in the number 
inscribed on the top of this monu* 

ment, and scarcely less at the entrance 
of the passage below, which, as in all 
the pyramids, is on 4he north side. 
The view from the summit is exten- 
sive, and, during the inundation, pe- 
culiarly interesting, and character- 
istic of Egypt. The canals winding 
through the plain, or the large expanse 
of water when the Nile is at its highest, 
and the minarets of Cairo, the citadel, 
and the range of the Mokuttum hills 
in the distance, with the quarries of 
Masarah, whence so many of the 
blocks used for building the pyramids 
were taken, are interesting features 
in this peculiar landscape ; and the 
refreshing appearance of the plain, 
whether covered with water or with its 
green vegetation, are striking con- 
trasts to the barren desert on the 
west. To the southward are the py- 
ramids of Abooseer, Sakkira, and 
Dashoor; to the northward, the 
heights of Abooroish ; and a little to 
the east of north, are the two stone 
bridges built by the Arab kings of 
Egypt, which some suppose to have 
served for the transport of the stones 
from the pyramids to Cairo. 

The masonry over the entrance of 
the great pyramid is very singular: 
two Urge blocks resting against each 
other form a sort of pointed arch, and 
serve to take off the superincumbent 
weight from the roof of the passage. 
The position of the stones in the body 
of the pyramid is horiiontal, and not, 
as in the false pyramid, with a dip 
towards the centre at right angles 
with its exterior face ; but at the en- 
trance, they follow the inclination of the 
passage, which is an angle of 27^, or, 
as Col. Howard Vyse gives it, 26^ 41'. 

On going down the passage, at 
about 80 feet from its present mouth, 
you perceive the end of a granite 
block, which closes the upper pas- 
sage, and which was once carefully 
concealed by a triangular piece of 
stone fitting into the rM>f of the lower 
passage, and secured in that position 
by a cramp on cither side. This 
stone has been reinoTed« and the end 


A, RMlud Ibmd tnlnncrlo U» gnat prmnld. B, Entnnctlo (he kcmhI pti^bM. 
' (.', Lont ptu, bj taut •uppoHil for miilng tlw mBtur. D. Pirunid of the diuihler ol' 
)hK»<H(ro(latut. 11. I3S.)- K Pi<n>n>l ol bluk lUmei IbuiKic [rip),ih> ume ■< 
nincToiUhfauKwinoriinpTniiildi of Sikktn. P. Rnulpior duuhit). O. Kound 
icl«ur» of crude bi^, at At A ible, ■[ V. ■. ui|Kor thu PTnmld. H, Twnba of Imll. 

nder KTDutid, apMfcntltonu tHtontitit Lo ■«mk]l pvrdnklthat ttand orn- thrm, L L, 
lieiRkliheRcutloiInriiurhc*. k, A nirro* and ihallo* Irench cut Intheiock. 
I. AiqiuueiiMcecul Id Ibe rocli, pntaU^ to renin ukI Hippait the comer itiin* gt Ihe 
uio| gflhenreinld. P, Hare luod > lonb lehich hu ttcelted Ihe lilli of Ihe Tnniile or 

•le. ' B.^nw Ihlid priupB. T.Threeiiiullprnnldi. In Iht cmtic one li tAe nenie of i 
Inf. Seebelowj>.in. U V, Sulped builarnp. nhsHoriglul uk It li now difflcull to 

'ofbbieul In the rock. r»i^fl iphina. /^^ Pita, probBhlT ubopciud. f, Ptu. j|,SioiMn>ln 
n ■ rock, i, DoorwaT, or pauan. thrtHien the cauievar- *. A gntto In the tock, and 
me to the H. E. an pit! at (. 7, Inclined cauient, part of V. m, ■, Tombi In Ihe lock. 

ck, near the n- w, angle of the KTaal pframid. MNiHi. j, Mafnelic North andSoulh, In 

I 6 



Sect. IL 

of Uie granite it once covered is now 
exposed. But the granite, closing 
the upper passage, remains in its ori- 
ginal place ; and in order to avoid and 
pass above it, you turn to the right by 
a forced passage, and after climbing a 
few rough steps, you come to its 
upper extremity, and ascend to the 
great gallery ; on entering which to 
the right you perceive the entrance to 
the well, which served as another com- 
munication with the lower passage. 
The angle of the upper passage is the 
same as that of the lower one, and 
both have the same direction, which is 
due south ; but one runs down to a 
subterranean room, the other up to the 
entrance of the great gallery, where a 
horizontal passage leads to what is 
called the queen*s chamber. 

Hiis is generally visited before as- 
cending the great gallery.' It is a 
small chamber, with a roof formed of 
blocks of stone resting against each 
other, as over the entrance of the py- 
ramid ; and on the east side, a short 
way from the door, is a sort of niche 
or recess, built with stones projecting 
one beyond the other, like those of 
the great gallery. The object for 
which it was intended is not easily 
explained; and the Arabs, in hopes 
of 6nding treasure, have broken 
through the stones for some distance. 
It is worthy of remark that this, and 
not what is called the king's chamber, 
stands in the centre, or below the 
apex, of the pyramid. The stones in 
the side walls are admirably fitted to- 
gether, so that the joints can scarcely 
be traced ; and an incrustation of salt 
has tended still more to give them'tlie 
appearance of having been hewn in 
the solid rock, which, however, on 
close inspection proves not to be the 
case. You here stand 7*2 feet above 
tlie level of the ground, 408 feet be- 
low the original summit, and 71 feet 
below the floor of the king's chamber* 
Returning to the great gallery, you 
continue to ascend at the same angle 
of 26^ 41', and then enter a horixontal 
passage, once closed by four portcuU 

lises of granite, sliding in grooves of 
the same kind of stone, which con- 
cealed and stopped the entrance to 
that chamber. 

It is the principal apartment in the 
pyramid, its dimensions being 34 feet 
long, 17 feet 7 inches broad, and 19 
feet 2 inches high. The roof is flat, 
and formed of single blocks of granite 
resting on the side walls, which are 
built of the same materials. Towards 
the upper end is a sarcophagus of 
the same kind of red granite, 3 feet 1 
inch in height, 7 feet 4 inches long, 
by 3 feet broad, which is only 3 inches 
less in width than the door by which 
it was admitted, having been probably 
introduced by means of the screw. 
On being struck, it emits a very fine 
sound, resembling a deep-toned bell : 
but the depredations of travellers, if 
continued for a few more yeara, will 
end in reducing it to a mere frag- 
ment, and give us reason to regret 
the senseless destruction of this monu* 
ment, while they justify a remark 
made by Mohammed All, that Euro- 
peans might do well to remember, 
when censuring the ignorance of the 
Turks in destroying so many relics 
of antiquity, that they themselves con- 
tribute not a little to their deteriora- 
tion, and set a bad example to those 
of whom they complain. The sarco- 
phagus is entirely destitute of hiero- 
glyphics and every kind of sculpture ; 
which is the more singular, as it is the 
very place of all othen where we 
might expect to find them. And this 
has been used as an argument in 
favour of the assumption, that hiero* 
gljrphics were not known at the time 
the pyramids were erected. But the 
authority of Herodotus, who saw aa 
inscription on the face of the great 
pyramid, the assertion of Abd-el- 
Az^ex, who mentions the same thing, 
and the sculptures of the tombs in 
the vicinity bearing the name of 
Cheops, Suphis, or Shofo, by whom it 
was erected, as well as the probability 
that people so far advanced in the 
science of architecture could not b^ 




without a written language, suffice to 
disprove this conjecture ; and the dis- 
coveries of Colonel Howard Vyse, 
who found hieroglyphics containing 
the king's name on the stones of the 
upper chambers, have satisfactorily set 
the question at rest, and proved their 
use at the period of its erection. 

The inscription mentioned by Hero- 
dotus on the front of the pyramid 
is said to have contained an account 
of the expenses incurred in feeding 
the workmen, according to the ex- 
planation given by the interpreter who 
accompanied him. From the man* 
ner in which he speaks of it, we 
might suppose the inscription to have 
been in Hieratic, or in Enchorial, ^ut 
the latter was then unknown, and the 
Hieratic was not used on monuments; 
and though he seems to use the ex- 
pression " the figures of animals '* to 
indicate hieroglyphics, we may con- 
clude the inscription on the pyramid 
to have been in the same character. 
With regard to the stones mentioned 
by some modem writers in the walls 
of the adjacent tombs, it is certain 
that they were not taken, as they sup- 
pose, from the pyramids. Nor are 
those buildings anterior in date to the 
great pyramid, since their position is 
evidently regulated by the direction of 
that monument. In the hieroglyphic 
inscriptions of the tombs, the names of 
kings are of very great antiquity, long 
before the accession of the 16th dynas- 
ty ; and we even find that of 

Suphis, or Cheops, the founder of the 
great pyramid, which, as well as their 
general style, proves the early date 
of hieroglyphics, and of their com. 
roon use at that period. There is a 
dlfierence between the name we have 

always ascribed to Suphis h, and that 
found in the great pyramid a ; but it 
may be observed that the latter was 
painted on the stones before they were 
built into the walls, probably while in 
the quarry ; which, with other facts, 
argues that this king may have been 
a predecessor of the founder of the 

In the side walb of the king's cham- 
ber are small holes, or tubes, the use 
of which perplexed every one until 
ascertained by the valuable researches 
of the same person, to whose perseve- 
rance we are so greatly indebted ; and 
it was left for Colonel Howard Vyse 
to ascertain their real use, as tubes to 
conduct air into the interior of the 
pyramid. Over the king's chamber 
is another room, or rather entresol, 
which, like those above it, was evi- 
dently intended to protect the roof of 
that chamber from the pressure of the 
mass of masonry above. This was 
discovered by Mr. Davidson, British 
consul at Algiers, who accompanied 
Mr. Wortley Montague to Egypt in 
1763, and. therefore received his name. 
The ascent to it was by means of 
small holes cut into the wall at the 
S. £. corner of the great gallery, at 
the top of which was the entrance of 
a narrow passage leading into it. This 
room is not more than S ft 6 in. high ; 
and the floor, which is the upper side 
of the stones forming the roof of the 
chamber l>elow, is very uneven. Its 
roof also consists of granite blocks^ 
like tliat of the king's chamber, and 
serves as the floor of another entresol ; 
above which are three other similar 
low rooms, the uppermost of which, 
called after Colonel Campbell, has a 
pointed roof, made of blocks placed 
against each other, like those of the 
queen's chamber, and over the entrance 
of the pyramid. 

These four upper entresols were 
discovered by Colonel Howard Vyse, 
and received from him the names of 
Wellington's, Nelson's, Lady Ar-« 
butbnot's, and Campbell's chambers. 

On the stones were found som^ 
hieroglyphics, painted in red ochre, 



Sect IL 

presenting more than once the name 
of the king above mentioned, and 
evidently written upon the blocks be> 
fore tbey were put into their present 
places, as some are turned upside 
down, and others are partly covered 
by the adjacent stones. Many of ibem 
may still be traced ; though the ad- 
mission of air, and, above all, the 
rige for writing names, which is here 
done with the smoke of candles, will 
soon cause them to disappear. The 
number of visitors, however, to these 
chambers is likely now to be very 
limited, as the wooden steps at the 
end of the gallery are beginning to 
decay, one or two having been taken 
away, and the ascent is by uo means 
easy without a ladder. 

It seems singular that while the 
roofs of these chambers are smooth 
and even, the floors are left rough ; 
and in some, the inequalities of the 
stones are of several feet, plainly 
showing them not to have been in- 
tended for any use beyond that of 
relieving the king's chamber from the 
superincumbent weight. Towards the 
ends of the blocks in the floor of the 
uppermost room are small square 
holes, the use of which it is difficult 
to determine. They are probably con- 
nected with their transport from the 
quarry, or their elevation to their 
present position. 

At the bottom of the great galleiy, 
on the W. side, is a passage partly 
vertical, partly slanting and irregular, 
generally called '* the well,** which is 
now closed. It connects the gallery 
with the lower passage ; and in de- 
scending it some years ago, I observed 
that the rock rose to the height of 
about 72 feet above the level of the 
ground, showing that the pyramid 
was built over a small hill, which 
may be called the nucleus of the 
fabric. The well is nearly 800 feet 
deep, which is the distance between 
the two passages, the point where it 
enters the lower one being 91 feet 
below the level of the pyramid*s base. 
It was by this well that the workmen 

descended, after they had closed the 
lower end of the upper passage with 
the block of granite before mentioned ; 
and having reached the lower pas- 
sage, they followed it upwards to the 
mouth of the pyramid, which they 
stopped in the same manner; and 
it is to this last that Strabo alludes 
when be says it was closed by a stone 
fitted into the mouth of the passage. 
The lower passage u a continuation of 
the one by which you entered, and 
left on ascending near the granite 
block; on returning to which point 
from the great gallery, you continue 
the descent by the lower passage for 
225 feet (or from the present entrance 
of the pyramid 306 feet}, and then 
reach the mouth of the well, from 
which to the lower chamber is 53 feet 
more, nearly half at the same angle, 
and the rest on a level. When in this 
chamber you are 105 feet below the 
base of the pyramid, and about the 
same level as the plain under the rock 
on which it stands. 

This chamber was left unfinished, 
and on the W. side are several pro* 
jecting pieces of the rock cut into 
irregular shapes. In the wall, op» 
posite its entrance, is a small un- 
finished passage, extending 52 feet in 
a southerly direction, leading to no 
room ; and in the floor between this 
and the entrance is a pit placed dia- 
gonally with regard to the walls, which 
was excavated by Colonel Howard 
Vyse to the depth of 36 feet, without 
leading to any result Nor did he 
succeed in finding the canal mentioned 
by Herodotus. Indeed, I doubt the 
assertion of the historian, respecting 
the introduction of the waters of the 
Nile, which, in the days of Suphis or 
Cheops, must have been on a much 
lower level than at the present time. 

On the N. wall of the great gallery 
I observed the names of Aibek, Bay- 
bdrs, and Sultan Mohammed, which 
were either written by visitors during 
those reigns, or by some one who 
wished to deceive future travellers. 
Aibek was the first king of tha 




Baharite dynasty of Memlooks. He 
reigned in 1250, and Bayb^n in 
1S60; and as the word Saeed foUovfi 
the name of Mohammed, we may 
suppose him to be the son and suc- 
cessor of Bayb^rs. He died in 1 279* 
If really written during those reigns, 
they would prove that the pyramid 
was open at that period ; which is by 
no means improbable, since these 
monuments serred during a long 
period as quarries for the erection of 
mosks and other buildings at Cairo ; 
and it is generally believed that it 
always Kmained open after the reign of 
the Caliph Mamoon. It is said to have 
been Brst opened by that prince, about 
the year 8S0 a. d. ; and the long 
forced passage to the west, below the 
level of the present entrance, is sup- 
posed to have been made at that time ; 
from which we may conclude that he 
found tile pyramid so carefully closed, 
that the stone could not be discovered 
which stopped the entrance. And in 
order more effectually to deceive those 
who should attempt to violate the 
tomb, the Egyptians had placed the 
passage 23 feet from the centre, being 
401 feet from the western, and 355 from 
the eastern face, measuring from the 
middle of the passage, along the base 
of the pyramid ; each of whose sides, 
when entire with the casing, was 756 

The object of the Caliph was the 
discovery of treasure. Tradition, or 
the accbunts of ancient writers, with 
whose works the Arabs at that period 
bad become acquainted, had informed 
them of the existence of chambers and 
a closed passage, and the engineers of 
the day were required to discover the 
entrance, and open the pyramid. 

They commenced, as was natural 
enough, and as the Egyptians fore- 
saw, in the centre of the face, and 
forced their way through the solid 
masonry. The labour must have 
been excessive. But when they had 
penetrated to the distance of about 100 
feet, the sound, or the falling of some 
stones accidentally disclosed the vici- 

nity of the real passage, 15 feet to 
their left, by which they continued to 
the great gallery and the two cham- 
bers. As they returned, they cleared 
the real passage to its mouth, being 
more commodious than the rough 
way they had forced, for the ingress 
and egress of the workmen. 

Access was at length obtained to 
the place of the wished-for treasure^ 
and great hopes were entertained, say 
the Arab historians, of finding a rich 
reward for their toil. But these hopes 
were doomed to end in disappoint- 
ment. The pyramid was found to 
have been previously entered and 
rifled, and the Caliph was about to 
abandon his vain search, when the 
people began to evince their discon- 
tent and to censure his ill-placed 
avidity. To check their murmurs, he 
had recourse to artifice. He secretly 
ordered a large sum of money to be 
conveyed to, and buried in, the inner^ 
most part of the excavated passage ; 
and the subsequent discovery of the 
supposed treasure, which was found 
to be about equal to what had been 
expended, satisfied the people; and 
the Caliph gratified his own curiosity 
at the expense of their labour, their 
money, and their unsuspecting cre- 
dulity. Abd-el-H6km says, that a 
statue resembling a man was found in 
the sarcophagus, and in the statue 
(mummy case) was a body, with a 
breast-plate of gold and jewels, bear- 
ing characters written with a pen 
which no one understood. Others 
mention an emerald vase of beautiful 
workmanship. But the authority of 
Arab writers is not always to be relied 
on ; and it may be doubted whether 
the body of the king was really de* 
posited in the sarcophagusL Lord 
Munster found in the second pyramid 
the bones of an ox, which he brought 
with him to England ; but from these 
no conclusion can be drawn, as they 
may have been taken into it after it 
was opened, either by men or wild 
beasts ; neither of whom were aware 
how much they might puaxle future 



Sect, n, 

antiquaries with speculations about 
the bones of Apis. 

That both the pyramids had been 
opened before the time of the Arabs, 
is exceedingly probable, as we find 
the Egyptians themselves had in many 
instances plundered the tombs of 
Thebes; and the fact of its having 
been closed again is consistent with 
experience in other places. Belxont*s 
tomb iiad been rifled and re-closed, 
and the same is observed in many 
Hieban tombs, when discovered by 
modern excavators. 

The forced passage of the Caliph 
could be followed for a great distance, 
from the point where the upper and 
lower passages join; but it is now 
filled with stones, brought, I believe, 
from the late excavations in the 

Pliny mentions a well in the great 
p]rramid 86 cubits or 129 feet in 
depth, by which it was supposed that 
the water of the Nile was admitted ; 
but this may only have been known 
to him by report, and does not prove 
that the pyramid was open in his 
time. The same remark applies to 
the stonei said by Strabo to close the 
mouth of the passage. With regard 
to the admission of the water of the 
Nile, mentioned by Herodotus, the 
much lower level of the river at once 
prevents the possibility of its having 
been introduced by a canal into the 
pyramid, the base of which is, even 
now, upwards of 100 feet above the 
surface of the highest inundation, and 
was more in the time of Herodotus, 
and still more again at the period of 
its erection. That a well in the 
pyramid might have been deep 
enough to reach the water is certain, 
but it could not rise to surround the 
lowest chambers, now seen at the bot- 
tom of the passage ; and unless other 
chambers exist from SO to 90 feet 
below the level of this one, the water 
could not have surrounded them, even 

were the Nile at its present level. 
Much less could it have done so in 
the time of Suphis. At all events, 
a canal from the Nile is out of the 
question, and quite unnecessary; as 
the Egyptians must have known, that 
by digging to a certain depth the 
water always oozes through the soil, 
and the cUy that forms the base of 
the rocks* ; and if they wished to 
form chambers surrounded by water, 
they had only to make them at a 
certain level, below the ground, to 
obtain this result Pliny mentions the 
report of this canal ; but though he 
says, very properly, that the Nile is 
lower than the pyramids, he does not 
express any opinion respecting the 
possibility of the water being admitted 
round the underground chamber. The 
well he speaks of is not what now 
bears that name, but probably the one 
in the chamber at the end of the lower 
passage ; the former agreeing neither 
with the measurement h^ gives (which 
it exceeds by about 70 feet), nor with 
the object for which it was supposed 
to have been intended. The use of 
the present well, connecting the two 
passages, was, as I have already said, 
for the exit of the workmen. 

In going into the pyramid, I need 
scarcely suggest the necessity of being 
provided with candles and a lanthom, 
lucifers, and a supply of water ; and 
a long stick to raise a light upon, 
in examining the upper part of the 
rooms, may be useful. I should 
also recommend a cloak, to put 
on in coming out, particularly in 
the evening, which is by no means a 
bad time for visiting the interior. It 
may be as well not to entrust it to 
the care of the Arabs, when not 
wanted vrithin the pyramid, as they 
are not particularly clean. 

I do not presume to explain the 
real object for which the pyramids 
were built, but ieel persuaded that 
they served for tombs, and were also 

• or the level of the water in the welU, compared with the Nile and the base of the nrra- 

1 '.."^ ?1^ carious Infbrmation in the Appendix of Colooel Howard Vyse** book, 
TOL ii. p. I48L 




intended for astronomicil purposes. 
For though it is in vain to look for 
the polestar in latitude 30^, at the 
bottom of a passage descending at 
an angle of 27S or to imagine that a 
do$ed passage, or a pyramid covered 
with a smooth inaccessible casing, 
were intended for an observatory, yet 
the form of the exterior might lead to 
many useful calculations. They stand 
exactly due north and south, and 
while the direction of the faces, 
east and west, might serve to fix the 
return of a certain period of the year, 
the shadow cast by the sun at the 
time of its coinciding with their slope, 
might be observed for a similar pur- 

The angle of the face was 52^, or, 
according to Colonel Howard Vyse*s 
more minute measurement, 51^ 50f \ 
and that the pyramids presented a 
smooth exterior surface (generally, 
though perhaps not quite correctly, 
called the casing) is very evident, not 
only from the portion that still remains 
on that of Cephren, but from the 
statements of ancient authors, and 
from one of the stones found on the 

In Pliny's time, both the pyramids 
seem still to have had this exterior tier 
of stones, which was probably not 
stripped off until the time of the ca- 
liphs ; and according to the account 
of ancient writers, the people of the 
neighbouring village of Busiris were 
paid by strangers for climbing them, 
as the/e^/oAj of El Kafr now are, for 
going over the smooth part of the 
second pyramid. Diodorus also 
speaks of rude steps, cut on the side 
of that of Cephren, the whole, no 
doubt, being then covered with a 
smooth exterior ; and if we may be- 
lieve Abd e' Lateef, the dilapidation 
of the pyramids took place at a late 

The dimensions of the great pyra- 
mid have been variously stated at 
different times, by ancient and modem 
writers. According to my own ob- 

It covered an area of about 571 *5S$ 
square feet. 

The length of each face, when entire, 
was 756-0 feet by measurement. 

Its perpendicular height, when en- 
tire, was 480*9 feet by calculation. 

Its present base was 732 -0 feet by 

Present perpendicular height was 
460*9 feet by calculation. 

Present area was 535*824 square 

It has been said to cover the same 
space as Lincoln's Inn Fields ; which 
is not far from the truth, judging 
from a rough calculation of paces, by 
which I found the area of that place 
to contain about 550,000 square feet, 
the breadth being more one way than 
the other. The solid contents of the 
pyramid havS been calculated at 
85,000,000 cubic feet ; and it has been 
computed that there is space enough 
in this mass of masonry for 3,700 
rooms of the same size as tlie king*t 
chamber, leaving the contents ijf every 
second chamber solid, by way of sepa- 
ration. Colonel Howard Vyse gives 
the following measurements : — 

Former base (of great pyra- 
mid) - - - - 764-0 
Present base - - - 746-0 
Present height perpendicular 450*9 
Present height inclined - 568*3 
Former height inclined - 611-0 
Perpendicular height by cas- 
ing stones, . - - 480*9 
Angle of casing stones - 51^ 50^ 

Acret. Roodt. Polw. 
Former extent of base 13 1 28 
Present extent of base 12 3 3 

I am far from pretending that my 
own measurements are more correct 
than the above, which have been taken 
with so much care, and by persons so 
capable of the task ; but such is the 
difficulty of measuring the ill-defined 
exterior of the pyramid, that no two 
measurements agree, and, if taken 
along the ground, can seldom be de- 
pended on. I may therefore state the 
manner in which my measurements 



Sect. n. 

were taken, which appean to me the 
least liable to error, and leave otben 
to decide on the apot respecting their 
accuracy. This was done by ascend- 
ing to one of the tiers, near the 
entrance» and' measuring in an un- 
interrupted line, from one end of the 
pyramid to the other, free from all 
accumulation of sand or other in- 
equalities; and then, by letting fall 
an imaginary perpendicular to the 
ground, and adding the base of the 
small triangle at each comer (where 
the casing stone rested in the rock), 
the measurement of the whole side 
was determined. * 

For the heights I am indebted to 
the angle given by Colonel Vyse, 
which, with the half base, gives the 
altitude much more accurately than by 
any other measurement, llie side, 
then, S78 (the half of 756), with the 
angle 51^ £(y, requires a perpendi- 
cuUr qf 480 '9, and deducting 80 feet 
for the fallen apex, leaves 460*9 for 
the present height. The base of the 
apex, 32 feet, by a similar calculation, 
gives about 20 for its perpendicular, 
and this deducted from the 480*9 is 
preferable to any other calculation of 
the present height It is also evident 
by the same process, that with the 
base given by Colonel Vyse, the 
angle 51^ SO' would require the per- 
pendicular height when entire to be 
486 feet, and at present, without the 
apex of 20 feet, 466 feet. 

We have seen, according to the 
statement of Herodotus, that 100,000 
men were employed in the construc- 
tion of this pyramid, and in cutting 
and transporting the stones from the 
Arabian mountain, who were relieved 
every three months by the same num- 
ber; and besides the 20 years em- 
ployed in erecting the pyramid itself, 
ten more were occupied in construct- 
ing the causeway, and a considerable 
time in making the subterraneous 
chambers, and in clearing and level- 
ling the hill on. which it stands. This 
last may also include the nucleus 
over which it is built. Herodotus 

says the whole time employed in 
building the 2 pyramids was 106 
years, without stating how long the 
third took for its completion ; but 
Pliny only gives 78 years and 4 
months for the whole three. The 
number of men employed about the 
great pyramid he reckons at 360,000, 
which is 40.000 less than the calcu- 
lation of the historian, whose 100,000 
every 3 months require a total of 
400,000 men. The number of years 
taken to complete this pyramid is 
stated by the naturalist to have been 
20 ; in which he agrees with Hero- 
dotus, if the time occupied in clearing 
the rock is not reckoned in that ac- 
count ; and it is reasonable to suppose 
that the pyramid of Cheops, and the 
works connected with it, occupied 
more time than that of his brother 
Cephren, who found the causeways 
both on the £. and W. sides of the 
Nile already made. The total of 78 
years for the three, given by Pliny, 
therefore appears more consistent with 
probability, than the 106 for the two 
stated by Herodotus; 50 and 56 
years being too much for two suc- 
cessive reigns, notwithstanding the 
long lives of numy of the Egyptian 

It would be curious to know the 
means employed by the Egyptians 
for raising the stones, and the exact 
form of Uie machines mentioned by 
Herodotus : the admirable skill with 
which tlie passages and chambers are 
constructed show the advancement of 
that people in architectural know- 
ledge, at the time of their erection, 
and we are not a little surprised to 
find Diodorus assert that machinery 
had not yet been invented. 

e. sxcoMD rraAxiD. 

The style of building in the teamd 
pyramid is inferior to that of the first, 
and the stones used in its construction 
were less carefully selected, though 
united with nearly the same kind of 
cement. The lowest tier of stones 
was of granite, but probably only the 




casing, as the expression of Herodotus, 
like that applied by Pliny to the third 
pyramid, does not require the granite 
to extend beyond the surface. That 
granite was employed for some portion 
at least of the outer part or casing of 
this pyramid, is sufficiently proved by 
the blocks that lie scattered about its 
base, among which I observed a comer- 
stone. The stones used in the body 
of this, as well as all the other P3rra- 
mids, have been brought partly from 
the nummulite rocks of the neigh- 
bouring hills, partly from the quarries 
of the " Arabian mountain," on the 
opposite side of the river ; and the 
casing stones or outer layers were 
composed of blocks hewn from its 
compact strata. 

This mountain is the Troici lapidis 
mons of Ptolemy and Strabo ; and it 
is to it that Pliny alludes when he 
says, " the largest pyramid is formed 
of blocks hewn in the Arabian quar- 
ries.** The mountain is now called 
Gebel Masarah, from a town below 
on the river ; and the compound name 
Toora-Masarah is sometimes applied 
to it, from another village to the N., 
which, though bearing an Arabic 
name, signifying " a canal,*' has every 
appearance of baring been corrupted 
from the ancient Troja, or Vicus 
Trojanus. From this the hill was 
called Th>icl lapidis mons. 

The ascent of the second pyramid 
over the casing is difficult. In my 
first visit to these monuments, in 1 821, 
before the real meaning of Herodotus*s 
statement occurred to me, I went up 
to the summit of it, in order to ascer- 
tain something relative to its com- 
mencement from the top ; I need 
scarcely say without being repaid for 
the trouble. My ascent was on the 
W. face, which I either supposed to 
be the easiest, on looking at it from 
the ground, or probably from what I 
had heard before, being entirely alone 

when I went up. There is some 
difficulty in getting upon the pro- 
jecting casing, which greatly overhangs 
the other part below it ; and in de- 
scending over its smooth face. It 
requires a good head, as In looking 
down between your feet you see the 
plain below, while searching for a 
footing in the small holes cut here and 
the^e to serve as steps. These, how- 
ever, have lately been made larger and 
more numerous. The portion of the 
casing that remains extends about one 
quarter of the way from the present 
summit of the pyramid ; and Colonel 
Vyse calculates it at from 130 to 150 
feet, which I suppose to mean along 
the inclined face. On the top is a 
level space, the apex being broken 
away ; and on one of the stones is an 
Arabic inscription, of which I regret 
I did not take a copy, though it pro- 
bably contains little more than a 
record of the ascent of some one ra- 
ther more venturesome than a Cairene. 
I mention this in case any of my 
readers should have an opportunity 
of copying it; at the same time that I 
recommend those who attempt the 
ascent to take off their shoes. 

The passages in the second pyramid 
are very similar to those of the first ; 
but there is no gallery, and they lead 
only to one main chamber, in which 
is a sarcophagus sunk in the floor. It 
is remarkable that this pyramid had 
two entrances; an upper one, by which 
you now enter, and another about 60 
feet below it, which, though nearly 
cleared by Beltoni, was only com- 
pletely laid open by Colonel Vyse. 

Like all the others, it had hien en- 
tered by the Arabs and re-dosed ; and 
when Belzoni opened it in 1816, he 
found, from an inscription in the 
diamber, that it had been visited be- 
fore by Sultan Ali Mohammed, by 
whose order it was probably re-dosed. 
The Arabic is as follows : — 



Sect IL 

which, according to Mr. Salame*8 
interpretation is, " The Master Mo- 
hammed son of Ahmed, mason, has 
opened them; and also the Master 
Othman was present ; and the king, 
Ali Mohammed, from the beginning 
to the closing up." Professor Lee 
gives it, " The Master Mohammed, 
son of Ahmed, the stonecutter, first 
opened them ; and upon this occasion 
were present El Melek Othman, and 
the Master Othman, and Mohammed 
Lugleik.** If this were the correct 
reading, the opening of the second 
pyramid would be fixed to the year 
1200, during the short reign of El 
Melek el- Ax^s- Othman, the second 
son and immediate successor of Sala- 
din ; but it is not borne out by the 
copy given by Belxoni, which is very 
correctly translated by Mr. Salame ; 
the expression "closing up" being 
alone doubtful. 

The opening of the second pyramid 
was highly creditable to the enter- 
prising Belxoni; not from the mere 
employment of a number of men to 
seek or force a passage, but because 
the prejudices of the time were so 
strong against the probability of that 
pyramid containing any chambers. 

One hundred and thirty feet from 
the mouth of the upper passage was 
a granite portcullis ; and the other 
was closed in the same manner about 
100 feet from its entrance. A little 
beyond the latter portcullis is a long 
narrow chamber ; and the passage is 
afterwards united with the upper one 
by an ascending talus. The dimen- 
sions of this pyramid are — 

Present length of the base 690 feet 
by measurement. 

Present height perpendicular 446*9 
feet by calculation, taking the angle 
53P SO', given by Col. Vyse. 

Former height perpendicular, about 
453 feet by calculation, allowing for 
the fallen apex. 

Colonel Howard Vyse gives 


The former base • - 707*9 

Present base - - - 690'9 

Former perpendicular height 454*3 

Present perpendicular height 447*6 
Passage eastward from the 

centre of face . - - 43*10 
Angle 52<' SO' 

Acres. Roods. Poles. 
Former extent of base 11 1 38 
Present extent of base 10 8 SO 

It stands on higher ground than 
the great pyramid, and has, when seen 
from certain positions, the appearance 
of greater height. An area sunk in 
the rock runs round its northern and 
western face, parallel with the pyra- 
mid, distant from it on the N. 200, 
and on the W. 100 feet. In the scarp 
of the rock to the W. are a doxen 
tombs, in one of which (the 6th froni 
the S. ) the ceiling is remarkable, the 
stone being cut in. imitation of palm 
tree beams, reaching from wall to 
wall. This shows that the houses 
of the Egyptians (when the arch was 
not preferred) were sometimes so 
roofed, as at the present day ; the 
only difference being, tliat the beams 
were close together, while in modem 
houses they are at some distance from 
each other, with planks or layers of 
palm branches, and mats across them. 
And the latter was no doubt the 
usual mode of placing the beams with 
the ancient Egyptians also. 

Tliis tomb is the third from the line 
of the S. W. angle of the pyramid, 
going northward* along the face of 
the rock. 

The object of thus cutting away 




the rock was to lerel the ground for 
the base of the pyramid, the bill in 
this part having a slight fall towards 
the £. and S. ; which is very evident 
from tlie N. W. corner of the scarped 
rock being of great height, 32 feet 6 
inches, and gradually decreasing to its 
southern and eastern extremities. In 
^e level surface below this comer the 
rock has been cut into squares, mea- 
suring about 9 feet each way, similar 
to those at Tehneh near Minieh ; 
showing the manner in which the 
blocks were taken out, to form this 
hollow space, and to contribute at the 
same time their small share towards 
the construction of the pyramid. On 
the face of the rock on the W. and N. 
side are two inscriptions in hierogly- 
phics* One contains the name of 
Remeses the Great, and of an indi- 
vidual who held the office of super- 
intendent of certain functionaries 
supposed to be attached to the king, 
and officiating at Heliopolis. He is 
called Maia (deceased), the son of 
Bak?-n-Amun (also deceased), who 
once held the same office as his son. 
The inscription is in intaglio, and of 
much more modern style than the 
hieroglyphics in the neighbouring 
tombs ; which would suffice to show, 
if other evidence were wanting, how 
much older the latter, and conse- 
quently the pyramids themselves are, 
than this king. And that those tombs 
are of later date than the great pyra- 
mid, is very evident from their being 
arranged in conformity with the posi- 
tion of that monument. 

On the east side, and about 270 
feet from the second pyramid, is a 
building which some suppose to have 
been a temple, not unlike that at the 
end of the causeway leading to the 
third pyramid. Under the brow of the 
rock, to the N. of it, at o, is an arched 
tomb, of the time of Psamaticus. 


The third pyramid, of Mycerinus, 
(Moscheris, Mencheres, or Mecheri- 
nus,) has been opened by Colonel 

Vyse. Its entrance, as of all the 
others, was found on the northern 
face. The chamber has a pointed 
roof, formed of stones placed one 
against the other, as that of the queen's 
chamber in the great pyramid : and 
over this is a vacant space, to prevent 
the blocks pressing upon it. On 
going up to this space or entresol, 
you look down upon the pointed roof. 
In the chamber was discovered a stone 
sarcophagus, which, when on its 
voyage to England, was unfortu- 
nately lost, the vessel having gone 
'down at sea; but the wooden coffin, 
with the name of tlie king, Mencheres, 
or Mycerinus, which it contained 
within it, is in the British Museum ; 
where there is also a body, found in 
the postage of this pyramid, lying 
between two large stones. 

The third, like all the other pyra- 
mids, was found to have been opened 
by the Caliphs, and re-closed ; and 
the record of Colonel Vyse*s labours, 
inscribed within them, very modestly 
claims only the merit of re-opening 
them. It had been attempted before 
by the Memlooks, and then by M. 
Jumel, a Frenchman in the employ of 
the Pasha, who hoped to enter the py- 
ramid from tlie upper part, and who, 
after throwing down numerous stones, 
and making a large hole in t^e north 
face, relinquished the undertaking; 
having only succeeded in encumber- 
ing the spot, where the entrance 
really was, with a mass of broken 
stones, and rendering the operation 
more difficult for any one who should 
afterwards attempt it. 

The third pyramid shows a mode of 
construction not seen in the other two, 
being built in almost perpendicular 
degrees or stories, to which a sloping 
face has been afterwards added. But 
it has been conjectured by Dr. 
Lepsius, and doubtless with reason, 
that all the pyramids were built in 
this manner, and that the statement 
of Herodotus, **that they finished 
them from the top,** is explained by 
their first filling up tlie triangular 



Sect II. 

spaces of the uppermost degrees. 
This is preferable to my own interpre- 
tation of the expression cinroMiy, which 
I supposed to refer to the removal of 
the projecting angles of the steps, to 
form the slope of the pyramid. 

Many of the stones, particularly in 
the tombs, and the small pyramids, 
are not in the same horisontal straight 
line, and some of the joints arbitrarily 
incline one way, some another, as in 
many buildings of early Greek time ; 
a style which is looked upon as the 
transition from Cyclopean and Pelas- 
gic, to the perfect mode of building 
in Greek architecture, where the 
stones break joint, and the courses are 
all regular, as at the present day. 
But the inclination of the stoiTes in 
those pyramids is irregular, and not 
with any other object than to fit the 
stones to their accidental shape, and 
may be attributed to the caprice of the 
builders. Some have even fancied 
that the courses of stones in the great 
pyramid are slightly arched, or convex 
upwards, like the stylobates of Gq^ek 
temples ; but this is an error. 

The outer layers, or casing, of the 
third pyramid were of granite, many 
of which still continue in their origi- 
nal position at the lower part; nor 
can we doubt the justness of Pliny's 
remark,, when he says <' the third, 
though much smaller than the other 
two,** was ** much more elegant, *' 
from the '* Ethiopian stone,** or gra- 
nite of Syene, with which it was 
clothed. Herodotus and Strabo say, 
this casing, which the latter calls 
"black stone,'* only extended half 
way up ; and Diodorus says to the 
15th tier. It was left unfinished in 
consequence of the king's death ; but 
''the name of its founder was %rritten 
on its northern face.** Following 
Herodotus, he calls him *'Myceri- 
nus; or, as some say, Mecherinus.** 
The stones of the casing have bevelled 
edges ; a style of masonry common 
in Syria, Greece^ and Rome; but 
round the entrance their surfaces are 
smooth, and of a lower level than the 

rest, as if something had been let into 
that depressed part. Here perhaps 
were the hieroglyphics containing the 
name of Mycerinus, mentioned by 

Herodotus, after telling us it was 
built by Mycerinus, the son of Cheops, 
and not by Rhodopis, gives some 
curious anecdotes of several persons, 
among whom are ^sop and Sappho ; 
but the conjecture mentioned by Dio- 
dorus, that it was founded by Inaron, 
is very far from the truth, if that king 
was the same as Inarus; he having 
lived (a. n. 463) as late as tlie reign 
of Artaxerxes Longimanus, S years 
after Herodotus visited Egypt. 

The measurements of the third 
pyramid are, -— 

Present base was S3S-0 feet by 

Present height perpendicular was 
203*7 feet by calculation with angle of 
51° given by Col. Vyse. 

Colonel VjTse gives 
(Former) base was 354*6 feet ; 
Present height perpendicular is 203*0 
feet ; Former height perpendicular 
was 21 8 -a (or «18*9?) feet. Angle 
of casing 51^. 

Acres. Roods. Poles. 
Eitentofarea - 2 3 21 
Present height of granite, perpen- 
dicular from base, was 36*9 feet on 
west side, and 25*1 on north side. 

On the south side of this are three 
tmaikr pyramitU. They each have 
a passage leading to a chamber ; and 
in the centre one is the name of the 
king Mencheres (or Mycerinus?), 

painted on a stone 

in the roof of its 

chamber, the same 

that occurs on the 

wooden caCRn of the third pynunid. 

The roof is flat, and above it is a space 

or entresol, as in the great pyramid, 

to protect it from the pressure of the 

upper part of the building. In the 

chamber is a sarcophagus of granite, 

without hieroglyphics or sculpture of 

any kind. Tbe lid had been forced 

open before it was found by Colonel 




Vyse, and is remarkAble for the in- 
genious contrivance by which it was 
fastened. It was made to slide into 
a groove, like the sKding lids of our 
boxes ; and its upper rim (which pro- 
jected on all sides, to a level with the 
f<mr outer faces of the sarcophagus) 
was furnished with a small moveable 
pin, that fell into a corrAponding 
bole, and thus prevented the lid being 
drawn back. 

About 40 feet from the eastern side 
of the third pyramid is the supposed 
temple before alluded to, at the upper 
end of the stone causeway ; and around 
the spot where this cluster of monu- 
ments stands is an enclosure about 
ISOO feet square, formed of rough 
stones heaped on each other in the 
form of a low rude wall. Similar 
heaps of stones occur in parallel rows 
to the northward of it, bounded by 
others which run parallel to the 
western face of the second pyramid. 

Descending by the causeway, about 
350 feet from the part where it is 
broken away, you come to a scarped 
piece of rock ; and a little to the left 
is a tomb, with hieroglyphics, and 
figures in relief hewn in the stone. 
"Diis has been taken possession 
of by a Moslem saint, who of late 
has become more than usually scru- 
pulous in his religious prejudices. 
For though living amidst the unclean 
dust of the \ heathen dead, he has 
thought it right to prevent the living 
Christian visiting his abode; and, 
making religion a plea for his petty 
malice, he takes this his only oppor- 
tunity of spiting those, whom curiosity 
attracts to the neighbourhood. Five 
hundred feet thence, to the N. £., 
are other smaller tombs, with the 
name of a very early king, and a few 
sculptures, among which is a gazelle 
with its young fawn — a graceful 
little group, very creditable to the 
taste of the draughtsman. 


Little more than the eighth of a 
mile from these tombs, to the S. £., 

are some pits, and a stone ruin of 
some size on a rock, by some supposed 
to have been a pyramid. The angle 
of its faces is about 75®. About 800 
feet from this ruin, to the N. E., is 
the Sphinx, standing SOO feet north 
of a line drawn from the S. £. comer 
(or from the plane of the S. face) of 
the second pyramid. It is cut in the 
rock, part only of the back being 
cased with stone, where the rock was 
defective; and the assertion of Dr. 
Clarke, ** that the pedestal proves to 
be a wretched substructure of brick- 
work and small pieces of stone, put 
together like the most insignificant 
piece of modem masonry," is as un- 
founded as that ** the French uncovered 
all the pedestal of this statue, and all 
the recumbent or leonine parts of the 
figure,** which, it is well known, 
were first cleared from the sand by 
the labours of Mr. Salt and« Signer 
Caviglia. The whole is cut out of 
the solid rock, with the exception of 
the forelegs, which, with the small 
portion above mentioned, are of hewn 
stone ; nor is there any pedestal, but 
a paved dromos in front of it, on 
which the paws repose. They extend 
to the distance of 50 feet. 

An altar, three tablets, a lion, and 
some fragments were discovered there: 
but no entrance could be found ; and 
I think it very probable that this 
should be looked fur on the N. side, 
as in the pyramids. The altar stands 
between the two paws ; and it is evi- 
dent, from its position, that sacrifices 
were performed before the sphinx, 
and that processions took place along 
the sacred area, which extended be- 
tween the forelegs to the breast, where 
a sort of sanctuary stood, composed 
of three tablets. One of these, of 
granite, attached to tlie breast (the top 
of which may still be seen above the 
sand), formed the end of the sanc- 
tuary; and two others, one on the 
right, the other on the left, of lime* 
stone, the two sides. The last have 
been both removed. At the entrance 
of the sanctuary two low jambs pro* 



Sect. n. 

jected, to form a doorway, in the 
aperture of which was a crouched lion, 
looking towards the sphinx and the 
central tablet. It is supposed that the 
fragments of other lions found near 
this spot, indicated their position on 
either side of the doorway, and others 
seem to have stood on similar jambs 
near the altar. On the granite tablet. 
King Thothmes IV. is represented 
offering, on one side, incense, on the 
other a libation (of oil, or ointment?) 
to the figure of a sphinx, the repre- 
sentative no doubt of the .colossal 
one al)ove, with (he beard and other 
attributes of a god. He seems to have 
the tide of Re (the Sun) in his resting- 
place, Re-ma-shoi? (Re-m-shoi?j 
or perhaps Hor-ma-shoi ? 
from which no doubt he 
was styled *< the Sun, Ar- 
maehit, ** in the Greek 
inscription of BalbiUus, 
which I shall mention 
presently. Like other dei- 
ties, he is said to grant 
*« power** and •• pure life ** 
to the king; and there is no doubt 
that, as Pliny observes, this sphinx 
had the character of a local deity, and 
was treated with divine honours by 
the priests, and by strangers who 
visited the spot Over the upper part 
of the picture is the usual winged 
globe, the emblem of Agathoda^mon. 
The side tablets have similar repre- 
sentations of the king offering to the 
sphinx, who has the attributes and 
name of the same deity. The king 
Remeses the Great ; so that these side 
walls of the sanctuary were not added 
till about ninety years after the granite 

The deification of the sphinx is 
singular, because that fanciful animal 
is always found to be an emblematic 
representation of the king, the union 
of intellect and physical force ; and 
is of common occurrence in that cha- 
racter, on the monuments of early and 
recent Pharaonic periods. 

Some Greek exvoto& or dedica- 
tory inscriptions, were cut upon the 

paws, one of which, restored by Dr. 
Young, ran as follows : — 

Etfutr»p tuOinmtnt ufMtfM** «i(s«CtKt 

Fwrw* iritf «/bu)«f ntti* 3irs» wr«f«c#Au, 
Ov Ti|» OtAiwtitu flf9T$Mmf, mt trt BijCMf , 

(El/ /MmXat) Tfumirtut wurt6ii/M»9f twiXf 

r«ii(r KiyvwrtM ^^ttrfum myinni^i 
Ou(mti0t /Myttf uuTOfMOfrm ( J^Uirif 9ftmif*f)f 

{Akanput IV w»XMfMM, Ktu utwuitup w&Xniraut) 
Tmuu aiBvfmrSm {lirm^mt OMJumtn mikcvrm). 

To the same learned and accom- 
plished scholar we are indebted for 
translations of the inscription above, 
one in Latin, the other in English 
verse ; which last I transcribe : 

*' Thv form stupendous here the gods have 

Sparing esch fpotpf harrMt-bearingland ; 
And with thli mighty work of art have 

A rocky isle, encumber'd once with sand ; 
And near the pyramids have bid thee stand : 
Not that fierce sphinx that Thebes erewhile 

laid waste. 
But great Latona's servant, mild and bland ; 
Watching that prince beloved who fills the 

Of Egypt's plains, and calls the Nile his own. 
That heavenly monarch (who his foes defies) 
Like Vulcan powerftil (and like Pallas 

wise).*' AaaiAN. 

The inscription is remarkable from 
its allusion to the isolated position 
of this monument of rock, and the 
notion of the Egyptians sparing the 
cultivable land, of which many in- 
stances occur in the foundation of tow ns 
on the edge of the desert, <* The sig- 
nature, too,*' as the writer in the 
Quarterly Review observes, "gives 
it a more than common interest ; 
which will not be weakened, if it 
should be decided that it is to be 
ascribed to the celebrated historian, 
whom Gibbon has dignified with the 
epithet of the * elegant and philoso- 
phical Arrian.**' 

On the right face were found some 
exvotos to Mars, Harpocrates, and 
Hermes; and, in one inscription, 
where the emperor '* Nero Claudius** 
has the dignified title of " Agathods- 
mon,** after roentiooing the benefits 




conferred on Egypt by the appoint- 
ment of Tiberius Claudius Balbillus 
as prefect, it is stated that " the in- 
habitants of the village of Busiris, in 
the Letopolite nome, living near the 
pyramids, and the scribes of the dis- 
trict and village, have resolved on 
erecting a stone tablet (stela) to Ar- 
machis.** It also mentions a record 
of their benefactor's virtues, in the 
'* sacred character ; ** showing that a 
hieroglyphic inscription in honour 
of Balbillus may still be looked for 
in the vicinity ; and he is said to 
have worshipped the sun, the pro- 
tecting deity of the place, previously 
alluded to under the name of Ar- 

The remains of red colour were 
traced upon the lions, as well as on 
the fragments of a small sphinx 
found near the tablets; and the same 
may be seen on the face of the great 
sphinx itself, on whose right cheek 
some Arab characters have been 
slightly scratched. Among them I 
observed the name of Ibrahim, pro- 
bably some visiter who recorded his 
admiration of this colossal 6gure. It 
is known to the Arabs by the name 
of Aboolhdl. 

Two flights of steps, one aiVer the 
other, led down to the area before 
the sphinx, from the plain above; 
and, in the landing-place between 
them, was a small isolated building 
or ahar, and another at the foot of 
the uppermost flight, on which were 
two columns. It is this hollow space, 
or area, which gave so much trouble 
to clear from the sand, that had for 
ages been accumulating within it, 
and so great is the quantity which 
collects there, that it is now nearly 
filled as before ; and the same labour 
would be again required to remove 

This accumulation of sand was in 
former times prevented by crude brick 
walls, remains of which are still visi- 
ble ; and it is probably to them that 
the inscription set up there, in the 
time of " Antoninus and Venis," al- 

ludes, in noticing the restoration of 
the walls. 

Pliny says tliey suppose it the 
tomb of Amasb; a tradition which 
arose, no doubt, from Uie resemblance 
of the name of the king, by whose 
order the rock was cut into this form, 
Thothmes or Thothmosis, to that of 
the Saite Pharaoh. The oval of the 
fourth Thothmes occurs in the hiero- 
glyphic inscription on its breast; 
but from the known architectural 
whims of the third of that name, it 
is not improbable that he was the 
originator of this singular monument, 
and that Thothmes IV. may have 
added this inscription, as Remeses 
II. did those of the side tablets. 
The mistake of assigning the sphinx 
to Amasis may also be accounted 
for by the simple fact that the Greeks 
and Romans were better acquainted 
with his name than that of the earlier 
Pharaohs ; and Lucan has gone 
further, and given to Amasis the 
pyramids themselves. In another 
place, he even buries the Ptolemies 
in those monuments. Lucan, how- 
ever, was not famous either for accu- 
racy or poetical composition ; though 
we may indulgently forgive any fancy 
of the ancients, when one modem 
writer buries the patriarch Joseph in 
the great pyramid} and others con- 
found the son of Jacob with Sarapis, 
or condemn him to be worshipped by 
the Egyptians, under the form of 

The cap of the sphinx, probably the 
pahmtt (or the ram's horns and fea* 
thers,) has long since been removed ; 
but a cavity in the head attests its 
position, and explains the method by 
which it was fixed. The mutilated 
state of the face, and the absence of 
the nose, have led many to the erro- 
neous conclusion that the features 
were African ; but, by taking an 
accurate sketch of the face, and re- 
storing the nose, any one may con- 
vince himself that the lips, as well 
as the rest of the features, perfectly 
agree with the physiognomy of au 




Sect. U. 

Egyptian. Pliny lays it measured 
from the belly to the highest point of 
the head 63 feet, its length was 143, 
and the circumference of its head 
round the forehead 102 feet ; all cut 
out in the natural rock, and worked 


In the perpendicular face of the 
low rock, behind the sphinx, are the 
remains of lom5f, one of which, dis- 
covered in 1820, by Mr. Salt, had 
an interesting representation of Osi- 
ris and its deceased inmate, named 
Pet-pasht, or Petubastes. 

About 180 feet behind this rock 
is a Tery curious tomb, discovered 
by Colonel Howard Vyse, and called, 
after our consul-general, **Campbeir§ 
tomb.** It consists of a large square 
pit cut in the rock to the depth of 
53 feet 6 inches, and measuring SO 
feet 6 inches east and west, and S6 
feet 3 inches north and south. The 
masuve circuit of rock, in which the 
pit is cut, is surrounded by a large 
trench 68 feet square, and 73 feet 
deep ; and in the space between the 
trench and the pit are a passage lead- 
ing to the latter, and two other small 
pits from one of which a sarcopha- 
gus, now in the British Museum, was 
taken. The large pit is not in the 
centre, that is, equidistant on all sides 
from the trench, but about 21 feet 
from it on the south, about half that 
on the north, and about 9 feet on the 
east and west. In the large pit is a 
coffin of black basalt, still in its place, 
covered with a stone case or sarco- 
phagus; over which was raised a 
stone arch of the time of Psamaticus 
II., which I regret to say has been 
taken down, as I was told, by the 
Sliekh of Kerdassy, to build a water- 
wheel, or some equally important work. 
The whole of this tomb was very cu- 
rious, and one feature was remarkable, 
that the walls of the arch stood on abed 
of sand, about 2) feet thick ; but for 
the plan, section, and description of 

it, I refer the reader to Colonel Vyse's 

In the high plain between this 
and the great pyramid are several pits, 
where sarcophagi are found, frequently ' 
of black basalt ; one of which, with a 
lid in the form of the dwarf deity of 
Memphis, Pthah Sokari, is still lying 
on the ground above. Near it is the 
pit where a gold ring, bearing the 
name of Suphis, was found, which is 
now at Cairo, in the possession of Dr. 

On three sides of the great pyramid 
are the tombs of private individuals, 
which Mr. &lt supposed to be of 
the chief people of HeliopoUs. They 
are most numerous to the westward: 
and in one of them marked Q in my 
plan, near the extremity of this ceme- 
tery, are some interesting sculptures. 
Trades, boats, a repast, dancing, 
agricultural scenes, the farm, the 
wine-press, and other subjects, are 
there represented ; and it is worthy of 
remark that the butchers slaughtering 
an ox sharpen their red knives on a 
hltie rod, which would seem to indi- 
cate the use of steel at this early pe- 
riod. The name of Suphis (b) and an- 
other Pharaoh occur in the sculptures. 


and in the adjoining tomb are the 
names of some very old kings, who, 
in that instance, have only the title of 

There are also these names at the 
tombs here, the first of which (a) 

is found in the 
if great pyramid. 
Many of the 
^ UK tombs have false 

im ^ entrances, and 

^* I •^^^ several have pits 
with their mouths 
at the top of the 
tomb, as in the larger oues to the 


east of the pyramid. Some of the 
tombs are of immense siset though 
of no great height ; they are all built 
with their sides indining inwards to- 
wards the top, as is usual in Egyptian 
buildings ; and we may conclude that 
while the smaller tombs belonged to 
private families or individuals, the 
large ones served as public burial- 
nlaces for the less wealthy classes. 
Two to the S. £. of *the south-east 
angle of the pyramid have a few 
hieroglyphics. In the westernmost 
one is Uie name of a very old king 
over a false door above a pit, 

and in the other a funeral inscription 
over a similar false door ; on the wall 
opposite which are some herons and 
animals of the country. 

In the eastern face of the rocky 
height on which the tombs and pyra^ 
mids stand, are other tombs containing 
sculpture, and the names of Shofo 
(Suphis), and other ancient kings. 
One of them, nearly in a line with the 
S. E. angle of the great pyramid, 
contains a curious and satisfactory 
specimen of the Egyptian numbers, 
from units to thousands, prefixed to 
goats, cattle, and asses, which arc 
brought before the scribes, to be re- 
gistered as part of the possessions of 
the deceased. 

This inventory of stock alludes to 
the weekly, monthly, or yearly census 
made for the owner of the estate, dur- 
ing his lifetime, and not, as might be 
suppoeed from being in a tomb, after 
his death, he himself being present to 
receive the report. The subjects re- 
lating to the manners and customs of 
the Egyptians, so conmion in their 
tombs, are intended to show their 
ordinary occupations, and are a sort 
of epitome of life, or the career of man 
on earth, previous to his admission to 
the mansions of the dead. They are, 
therefore, illustrative of the habits of 
the people in general, and are not 



confined exclusively to the occupant 
of the tomb. 

On the wall opposite the entrance 
are three false doorways, of a style 
rarely met with, except in the vicinity 
of the pyramids, not very unlike those 
at the end or the Egyptian gallery 
in the British Museum, which came 
from a tomb near the sphinx. In the 
floor before each is a pit, where the 
bodies were buried ; and I have gene- 
rally observed, that a pit may be 
looked for beneath th'ese false doors, 
as before the stel» in the walls of 
tombs, at Beni Hassan and other 

Some sculpture and hieroglyphics 
may also be found in tombs under the 
brow of the rock, near the northern 
causeway ; some of which have ardud 
Toofi of stone. But the most curious 
arched tomb is that to the N. of the 
supposed temple on the E. side of the 
second pyramid, which I have already 
noticed. It has columns before it, and 
is of the time of Psamaticus, in the 
7th century b. c. 


The fonMsm causeway I have al- 
ready mentioned, in speaking of the 
third pyramid, to which it seems to 
have been intended to convey the 
stones up the hill from the plain, after 
having been brought from the river. 
I stated it was broken ; but at the 
base of the rocky height, to the south 
of the well and palm trees, the con- 
tinuation of it appears, with an open- 
ing in the centre, for the passage of 
persons travelling by the edge of 
the desert during the high Nile. The 
stones were, no doubt, carried on 
sledges by these causeways to the py- 
ramids. That of the great pyramid is 
described by Herodotus as 5 stades 
long, 10 orgyes (fathoms) broad, and 
8 high, of polished stones adorned 
with the figures of animals (hiero- 
glyphics), and it took no less than 10 
years to complete it. Though the 
site of the stade is uncertain, we may 
take an average of 610 feet, which will 

K 2 



Sect n. 

require this causeway to haTe been 
30.50 feet in length, a measurement 
agreeing very well with the 1000 yards 
of Pococke, though we can now no 
longer trace it for more than 1424 
feet ; the rest being buried by the in- 
crease of the alluvial deposit of the 
inundation. Its present breadth is 
only 32 feet, the outer faces having 
fallen, but the height of 85 exceeds 
that given by Herodotus; and it is 
evident, from the actual height of the 
hill, from 80 to 85 feet, to whose 
surface the causeway necessarily 
reached, and from his allowing 100 
feet from the plain to the top of this 
hill, that the expression 8 orgyes (48 
feet) is an oversight either of the 
historian or his copyists. It was re> 
paired by the caliphs and Memlook 
kings, who made use of the same 
causeway to carry back to the ** Ara* 
bian shore ** those blocks that had be- 
fore cost so much time and labour 
to transport from its mountains; and 
several of the 6 nest buildings of the 
capital were constructed with the 
stones of the quarried pyramid. 

There does not appear to have been 
any causeway exclusively belonging 
to the second pyramid, unless we sup- 
pose it to have been^ taken away when 
no longer require<l, and the stones 
used for other purposes ; and were 
it not for the presence of the cause- 
way of the third pyramid, we might 
attribute the northern one to the 
caliphs, and thus explain the state- 
ment of Diodorus, who says, that 
owing to the sandy base on which it 
was built, it had entirely disap- 
peared in his time. There are, indeed, 
many black stones, a sort of basal- 
tic tn^>, lying some way to the south 
of the great causeway, which might 
be supposed to have belonged to, and 
to point out the site of, a fallen caus^ 
way ; and others of the same kind of 
stone appear near the centre of the 
eastern faee of the great pyramid, as 
if forming part of the same work. 
There is some probability of the cause- 
way having been made of hard stone 

of this kind : the same basaltic blocks 
are found near the other pyramids of 
Abooseer and Sskkira : and if the 
tombs interfere with the line it took, 
we may account for this by supposing . 
them to have been built after the py- 
ramid was completed, and the cause- 
way no longer wanted. Again, it 
is more likely that the causeway 
should carry the stones towards the 
centre, tlian to the comer, of the 
pyramid ; and the direction of the 
present causeway, instead of being 
towards the spot whence the stones 
were brought, is in the line of Cairo. 
This certainly seems to indicate an 
Arab origin. On the other hand, 
that of the third pyramid is not of 
black stone ; it is evidently Egyptian, 
and not Arab work : no mention is 
made by Herodotus or others of 
black stone; and the same expres- 
sion of ** polished stones,'* applied to 
this as to the pyramid, are strong ar- 
guments in favour of the present 
causeway being the original one 
built by Cheops, subsequently re- 
paired by the Arab sultans. 


To the east of the great pyramid 
are Mree tmaUer omuy built in de- 
grees or stages, somewhat larger than 
the three on the south of the pyramid 
of Mycerinus. The centre one is 
stated by Herodotus to have been 
erected by the daughter of Cheops, of 
whom he relates a ridiculous stoiy, 
only surpassed in improbability by 
another he tells of the daughter of 
Rhampsinitus. It is 122 feet square, 
which is less than the measurement 
given by the historian of 1^ pie- 
thrum, or about 150 feet ; but this 
difference may be accounted for by 
its ruined condition. About 180 feet 
to the north of the northemmoat of 
these three small pyramids, and .*KX> 
to the east of that of Cheops, is a 
passage cut in the rock, descending 
from the north, and ascending again 
to the south, which . might be sup* 




poMd to mark the site of a fourth 
pyramid, did not Herodotus, by men- 
tioning three only, prove that none 
existed there in his time. Near this 
face of the great pyramid are three 
trenches of considerable size, which 
some have supposed to be intended 
for mixing the mortar ; there are also 
some smaller trenches, and steps cut 
in the rock, in various places near the 
great pyramid, the object of which it 
is not easy to determine. The rocA 
hereabouts abounds in nummulites 
and other fossil remains, common, as 
Fliny justly observes, in the moun- 
tains of the African chain, but wliich 
Strabo supposed to be the petri6ed 
residue of the barley and lentils of 
the workmen. Lentils, no doubt, 
constituted their principal food, to- 
gether with the three roots, figl^ 
onions, and garlic mentioned by He- 
rodotus, all of which are still in com- 
mon use among the lower orders of 
Egyptians ; and when we see the' 
errors of the present day, we readily 
forgive the geographer for his fanci- 
ful conclusion. The nummulite is 
the Nautilus Mammilla, or Lenticu- 


Respecting the daU of the pyra^ 
mids, it is very evident that Hero- 
dotus is far from right, when he 
places Cheops (or Suphis) after Mce- 
ris and Sesostris, who were kings 
of the 18th dynasty. It may, how. 
ever, be observed, that though Re- 
meses the Great corresponds to Se- 
sostris, there was an older Pharaoh of 
this name, mentioned by Manetho in 
the 12th dynasty, which has led to 
the mistakes nuide by Greek writers 
respecting this king. It is probable 
that the pyramids are the oldest mo- 
numents in Egypt, or, indeed, in the 
world, and that the kings who built 
them reigned some time before the 
age of the Ostrtasens and the 16th 
dynasty. But whether they governed 
the whole, or part only, of Egypt, it 
|s not easy to determine, from the 

absence of monuments in the The* 
baid of that remote period. I have 
supposed the date of the great pyra- 
mid, or the reign of Suphis, to be 
about 21 SO B.C. ; but this is a con- 
jecture, which remains to be con- 
firmed or refuted by future disco- 
veries. At all events, the opinion of 
those who conclude, from the pyra- 
mids not being mentioned in the 
Bible, and by Homer, that they did 
not exist before the Exodus, nor at 
the time of the poet, is totally in- 
admissible ; and we may, with equal 
readiness, reject the assertion of those 
who pretend that the Jews aided in 
their construction. 

With regard to the opinion that 
those kings were foreigners, argu- 
ments may be found both to refute 
and support it. The style of acrhi- 
tecture, the sculptures in the tombs, 
and the scenes they represent, are all 
Egyptian ; and there are no subjects 
relating to another race, or to cus- 
toms differing from those of the 
country. On the other hand, the 
aversion stated by Herodotus to have 
been felt by the Egyptians for the 
memory of their founders, if really 
true, would accord with the oppres- 
sion of foreign tyrants ; other stran- 
gers who ruled in Egypt employed 
native architects and sculptors; and 
it is remarkable that, with the excep- 
tion of the sphinx, CampbelPs tomb, 
and a few others, the pyramids and 
the monuments about them are con- 
fined to nearly the same period. But 
however strong the last may appear 
in favour of a foreign dynasty, it must 
be remembered that all the tombs of 
Beni Hassan were in like manner 
made within the short period of two 
or three reigns; and many other 
cemeteries seem to have been used 
for a limited time, both at Thebes 
and other places. 


At AboorooMh, about 5 miles to the 
northward, is another ruined pyra- 
mid, which, from the decomposed 
K 3 



Sect. II. 

condition of the stone, haa the ap- 
pearmnce of still greater age than 
those of Greeseh. It stands on a 
ridge of hills, that skirt the desert 
behind Kerd&sseh, and forms the 
southern side of a large Talley, a 
branch of the Bahr el Fargli, which 
I shall have occasion to mention pre- 
sently. The pyramid itself has only 
about 5 or 6 courses of stone re- 
maining, and contains nothing but 
an underground chamber, to which 
a broad inclined passage, 160 feet 
long, descends at an angle of 299 
S5', on the north side. These are 
the measurements given by Colonel 
Vyse, who calculates the base of the 
pyramid to be 920 feet square, and 
the chamber 40 by 15, with smaller 
apartments over it, as in the great py- | 
ramid of Geezeh. 

Near the pyramid to the westward 
is toother stone ruin ; and a cause- 
way SO feet broad leads up to the 
height on which they both stand, 
from the northward; the length of 
which is said by Colonel Howard 
Vyse to be 4950 feet A great quan- 
tity of granite is scattered around 
the pyramid, mostly broken into 
small fragments, with which (if ever 
finished) it was probably once cased. 
From the hill is a fine view over the 
valley of the Nile ; and being much 
higher than that of the great pyra- 
mids, it commands them, and has 
the advantage of showing them in 
an interesting position, with those of 
Aboos6er, Sakkara, and Dash6or, in 
the distance. This view is also re- 
markable from its eiplaining the ex- 
pression **peni%smki, on which the 
pyramids stand,** used to denote the 
isolated position of the hill. It is the 
same that Pliny applies to the i$oiaied 
rocky district about Syene. 

At the eastern extremity of the 
hills of Aboorofish are some massive 
crude brick walls, and the ruins of 
an ancient village, with a few unin- 
teresting tombs in the rock ; and in 
the sandy plain to the south of them 
is the tomb of the shekb who has given 

his name, Abooroash, to the ruined 

fa. THI TWO A&AX BftlDOia. 

A little more than one-third o( the 
way from the pyramids of Geezeh to 
Abooroiish, you pass, some way inland 
to the right, the two ttone bridges of 
several arcbes built by the Arab sul- 
tans. They have each two Arabic 
inscriptions, mentioning the king by 
whom they were built, and the date 
of their erection. The westernmost 
of the two has on one side the name 
of Naser Mohammed, the son of 
Ka-la6on, with the date 716 a. it. 
(1317-18, A. D.);and on the other 
that of £1 Ashraf Abool Nusr Kaed- 
bay e' Zaheree, with the date 884 a.h. 
(a. d. 1480). The eastern bridge 
has the name of the latter king on 
both sides, and the same date of 884 
A. H. when they were both completed 
or repaired. 

Half way from the pyramids to 
Abooroiish are the remains of an old 
village on the edge of the desert, now 
a heap of pottery and bricks. 


Close to the pyramids was an an- 
cient village called Busiris, from which 
the people used to ascend them, being 
paid, no doubt, by visitors, as the 
peasants are by travellers at the pre- 
sent day to go over the casing to the 
top of the second pyramid.^ The 
steps said by Diodorus to have been 
cut in the face of that pyramid, were 
probably similar to those used by the 
people who ascend it in modem times, 
being merely small holes sufliciently 
deep and broad to place the feet and 
hands. The same kind of rude steps 
were probably cut in the faces of the 
great pyramid also, before the casing 
was removed, which, if we may be- 
lieve Abd e* Latif, did not happen till 
a late time. 

The village of Busiris may have 
stood on the site of one of those 
below the pyramids : that called £1 
Hamra, ** the red, " or, more com- 
monly, £1 K6m-el- Aswed, "the black 




mound," to the N. £., is eTidently 
ancient ; and another stood just above 
the two hafr; or hamlets, to tlie south 
of Kdm-eU Aswed. A Greek inscrip- 
tion found before the sphini speaks 
of « the inhabitants of the TilU^e of 
Busiris in the L6topolite nome, who 
live near the pyramids, the scribes of 
the dbtrict and the scribes of the 
village (the topogramnuUt and the 
camogrammaU\ dedicating the stone 
ttda *' on which it was inscribed ; — a 
sufficient proof that Busiris was close 
to the pyramids, and farther to the N. 
than the modem Aboosto, which 
stands beyond the limits of the L^to- 
polite, and within the Memphite, 
nome. It has succeeded to the name, 
though not to the site, of the ancient 
village ; nor is this the only instance 
of the Arab form of the Egjrptian 
word ; and Abooste is the modern 
name of Busiris in the Delta, near 
Sebennytus, and of Busiris, the sup- 
posed Nilopolis, near the Heracleo- 
polite nome. 


Abooteer is 7) miles to the south- 
ward of the great pyramid, and has 
the mounds of an ancient town. 
Half way, on a hill to the W. of 
Shebremint, is a small ruin ; and 
about one mile to the N. of Abooste 
are the pyramids to which it has given 
Its name. There is also another pyra- 
mid standing alone, and bearing 85^ 
W. of N. from the great pyramid of 
Aboos^er, from which it is distant 
about 2970 feet, or, according to 
•Colonel Vyse, three quarters of a mile. 
He gives the base of it 123 feet 4 
inches square ; and on a block used in 
building it, probably taken from an 
older monument, is the name of 

one of the early Pharaohs. 

In the plain below are the 

remains of a stone building, 

^tf apparently a temple, con- 

n p nected with the pyramid by 

>* a causeway ; and about half 

way between this 

pyramids of A 

other vestiges of masonry, now a heap 
of broken fragments of white stone. 
Fifty paces to the E. of the northern- 
most pymmid of Aboos^r, is a 
temple, and a causeway leading from 
it to the plain ; and some distance to 
the S. of this is another causeway 
leading to the central pyramid, at the 
side of which lie fragments of black 
stone that once paved it. 

Besides the pyramids are 8 or 9 
other stone ruins, one of which, to 
the S. W. of the large pyramid, is 78 
paces by 80, with an entrance on the 
N. It has perpendicular sides, and 
some of the stones measure nearly 1 7 
feet in length. In the largest of these 
pyramids the degrees, or stories, are 
exposed, the triangulsr portions that 
611ed up the spaces having been re- 
moved. It measured originally, ac- 
cording to Colonel Vyse, 359 feet 9 
inches square, and 227 feet 10 inches 
high, now reduced to 325 feet and 
164 feet. The northernmost one is 
surrounded by an enclosure 137 
paces square ; the pyramid itself being 
about 213 feet square, or 216, ac- 
cording to Colonel Vyse, having been 
originally 257 feet ; and its height 
of 1S2 feet 9 inches is now reduced 
to 118. 

p, rraAMins of sAKKAaA — tombs. 

Those of Sakkira, about 2 miles 
more to the S., are worthy of a visit, 
and hold a conspicuous place among 
the " many pyramids on the brow of 
hills *' mentioned by Strabo, in which 
he included no doubt those of Geexeh, 
Aboos^r, Sakk&ra, and D&sh6or. 
The largest pyramid of Sakkira has its 
degrees or stories stripped of their 
triangular exterior. ' It measures 
about 137 paces square ; or, according 
to Colonel Vyse's measurements, 351 
feet 2 inches on the N. and S. faces, 
and 393 feet 1 1 inches on the £. and 
W., and is surrounded by what may 
be considered a sacred enclosure, about 
1750 feet by 950 feet. Within, it re- 
a hollow dome, supported 
there by wooden lafters. 
X 4 



Sect. n. 

At the end of the passage, oppo- 
site the entrance to this dome, is a 
small chamber, re-opened about 17 
years ago, on whose door- way are 

some hieroglyphics containing the 
square title or banner of a very old 
king, apparently with bis name placed 
outside, and not, as usual, within, an 



oval. It may, however, be observed, that this chamber and its 
entrance passage appear of a later date than the rest of the 
pyramid. The chamber was lined with blue slabs similar to 
those now called Dutch tiles ; and it is scarcely necessary to 
remark that vitrified porcelain was a very old invention in 
Egypt, and continued in vogue there till a late period, even 
after the Arab conquest and the foundation of Cairo. All had 
been carefully closed, and concealed by masonry; but the 
treasures it contained, if any, had long since been removed. 


In the face of the rocks to the 
eastward, near the cultivated land, is a 
vaulted tomb of the time of Psama- 
ticus II.i of hewn stone. This, and 
others near the pyramids of Geeseh, 
are the oldest gtone arches hitherto dis- 
covered, having been erected more 
than 600 years before our era. That 
style of building, however, was 
known to the EgypGans long before, 
even as early as the time of Amu- 
noph I. and Thothmes III. of the 
18th dynasty, who lived in 1570 and 
1490 b. c, some tombs with arched 
roofs being found at Thebes of that 
period ; and if they, like others built 
in the time of the S6th dynasty, are 
of crude brick, they are not less con- 
vincing proofs of the invention of 
the arch. 

Among the most curious objects at 
Sakk&ra are the ibis mummy pits to 
the north of the great pyramid, 
and nearly due west of the village 
of Aboos^r. Near the same spot 
are also found mummies of snakes, 
oxen, sheep, and other animals. The 
ibises have been put into long earthen 
pots, very like tliose used in making 
sugar ; but, owing to the damp, they 
are mostly reduced to powder ; and 

unless a small opening is made in 
them to ascertain their contents, they 
are for the most part not worth taking 

The mummied ibises of Thd>es are 
much better preserved ; and, instead 
of being in pits, are put up in ban- 
dages, like cats and other animals. 

In the human mummy pits at Sak- 
k4ra objects of curiosity and value 
are often found, though some are oc- 
casionally damaged by the damp, 
owing to the great depth of many^ 
of the tombs, which are ofWn more 
than 70 feet deep. This is more 
surprising as the Egyptians generally 
calculated very accurately the changes 
that took place in their country, and 
could not but be aware of the in- 
creasing rise of the level of their 
river. Here, as about the pyramids 
of Geeseh, representations of the 
pigmy deity of Memphis are fre- 
quently met with ; from whose name 
Pthah-Sokari, or Pthah-Sokari- Osi- 
ris, Mr. Salt, with great ingetfiuity, 
suggested the origin of the name of 

Some years ago many curious 
sculptured tombs were seen on the 
high plain near these pyramids, con- 




Uining the names of ancient kings, 
many of which were destroyed by 
Mohammed Bey Defterdar to build 
fats palace of Kasr Dubarra. 

Besides the great pyramid of Sak- 
k&ra, are nine or ten smaller ones, 
and the Mustaba Pharaoon, or 
" Pharaoh's throne/' and other ruins; 
which, as well as the mummy pits, 
and the general position and dimen- 
sions of all these objects, have been 
fully described by Pococke and Colo- 
> nel Howard Vyse. 

q. rraAMiDs or nA8H6oa. 

Tlie stone pyramids of DathSor, 
or MauhSeh, have both been opened. 
Tlieir entrances are to the north, as in 
those of Geezefa. The summit of the 
second or southernmost one was 
finished at a different angle from the 
lower part ; and from its being the 
only pyramid of this form, I am in- 
clined to think they depressed the 
angle in order more speedily to com- 
plete it ; for, had it retained its ori- 
ginal talus, it would have been con- 
siderably higher. In the passage are 
some hieroglyphics, cut perhaps by 
a visitor at a late period. The 
northernmost of these pyramids mea- 
sures, according to Colonel Vyse, 700 
feet square, having been originally 
71 9 ft 5 in. ; and of its former height 
of 342 ft. 7 in., there now remain 
326 ft 6 in. The southernmost one 
has the angle of its casing in the 
lower part 54^ 14' 46", and the upper 
part 42^^59' 26". 

Here are also two crude brick py- 
ramids, in one of which I could trace 
the base of a chamber. The question 
then naturally suggests itself how was 
this roofed ? The chambers of the 
crude brick pyramids of Thebes are 
all vaulted, and we can scarcely sup- 
pose that the roof of this was sup- 
ported in any other way. Herodotus 
tells us that Asychis, wishing to sur- 
pass all other kings who had reigned 
before him in Egypt, made a brick 
pyramid for his monument, to which 

he affixed this sentence engraved on 
stone: *' Do not despise me, when 
compared to the stone pyramids ; I 
am as superior to them as Jupiter to 
the other Gods. For men plunging 
poles into a lake, and collecting the 
mud thus extracted, formed it into 
bricks, of which they made me." Dr. 
Richardson justly asks, in what could 
this superiority over stone pyramids 
consist ? and suggests, that it points to 
the invention of the arch that roofed 
its chambers ; — which, provided 
Asychis lived prior to the 16th and 
18Ui dynasties, may possibly be true. 
Those of Dash6or, and otlier places, 
doubtless imitated the original brick 
pyramid of Asychis, in this, as well 
as other peculiarities of style ; but we 
are uncertain if either of these two, 
or those at the entrance of the Fy- 
6om, have a claim to the honour of 
bearing that notable inscription. 

Some give it to the nonhemmost 
of the Dash6or brick pyramids, where 
Colonel Howard Vyse discovered, in 
the temple before it, a stone bearing 
part of an early king*s name, pro- 
bably Asychis. This pyramid, he 
says, measured originally 350 feet 
square, and was 215 feet 6 inches 
high, of which 90 feet now only re- 
main ; and the southern one was 342 
feet 6 inches square, and 267 feet 4 
inches high, now reduced to 156 feet. 
There is also a small one of brick, 
close to the south of the second stone 
pyramid, originally 181 feet square, 
and 106 feet high. 

Large groves of sont, or acanthus, 
extend along the edge of the culti- 
vated land in the neighbourhood of 
Sakk^ and Dash6or, and have 
succeeded to those mentioned by 
Strabo; though the town of Acan- 
thus, if Diodorus is right in his dis- 
tance of 120 stadia from Memphis, 
stood much further to the S. A 
large dyke runs from the edge of the 
desert, a little to the north of the vil- 
lage of Sakkira, to the mounds of 
Memphis, at Mitrahenny. 
K 5 



Sect n. 


Memphis is styled in Coptic Mefi, 
Momf, aud Menf, which last is tra- 
ditionally preserved by the modern 
Egyptians, though the only existing 
town, whose name resembles it, is 
Menoof in the Delta« The Egyp- 
tians called it Paoouf, Memfi, 
Membe, and Menofre (Ma-nofre), 
" the place of good ; " which Plu- 
tarh translates " the haven of good 
men ;" though it seems rather to re- 
fer to the abode of the Deity, the 
representative of goodness, than to 
the virtues of its inhabitants. In 
hieroglyphics it was styled *' Me- 
nofre, the land of the pyramid ; *' and 
sometimes £i-Pthah, *< the abode of 
Pthah/' as well as « the city of the 
white wall." 

In the time of Aboolfeda, a.d. 
1 342, the remains of Memphis were 
very extensive, of which little or 
nothing now exists but a large co- 
lossus of Remeses II., a few frag- 
ments of granite, and some sub* 
structionst Herodotus and Diodorus 
s*tate that two statues were erected by 
Sesostris, one of himself and another 
of his queen, with those of four of 
his sons, before tlie temple of Vulcan 
or Pthah ; and as the name of that 
conqueror seems often to have been ap- 
plied to Remeses, it is probable that 
this is one of the two they mention. 
The statues of Sesostris were 80 cu- 
bits (45 feet) high ; the other four, 
20 cubits (30 feet). The colossus is 
unfortunately broken at the feet, and 
part of the cap is wanting ; but its 
total height may be estimated at 42 
feet 8 inches, without the pedestal. 
The expression of the face, which 
is perfectly preserved, is very beau- 

The stone is a white silicious lime- 
stone, very hard, and capable of tak- 
ing a high polish. From the neck of 
the king is suspended an amulet or 
breast-plate, like that of the Urim and 
Thummim of the Hebrews, in which 
is the royal prenomen supported by 

Pthah on one side, and by his con- 
templar companion Pasht (Bubastia) 
on the other. In the centre, and at 
the side of his girdle, are the name 
and prenomen of this Remeses, and 
in his hand he holds a scroll, bearing 
at one end the name Amun-mai- 
Remeses. A figure of his daughter 
is represented at his side. It is on 
a small scale, her shoulder reaching 
little above the level of his knee. 

If this be really one of the statues 
mentioned by the historian, it marks 
the site of the famous temple of 
Pttiah ; a fact that might be ascer- 
tained by excavating behind it, follow- 
ing the direction in which it stood. 
During the high Nile, it is nearly 
covered with water, and parts of the 
ancient Memphis are no longer ap- 
proachable; the traveller, therefore, 
who goes up the Nile in October, had 
better defer his visit to Mitrahenny 
till his return. Hiis beautiful statue 
was discovered by Signor Cavigliaand 
Mr. Sloane, by whom it was given 
to the British Museum, on condition 
of its being taken to England, but the 
fear of the expense seems to have 
hitlierto prevented its removal. When 
the Turks have burnt it for lime, it 
will be regretted. 

There is very little else worthy of 
remark amidst the mounds of Mem- 
phis. Near the colossus lies a small 
figure of red granite, broken at the 
wrist. To the south of this is a lime- 
stone block, on which is sculptured 
the god Nilus, probably binding the 
throne of a king, which is broken a- 
way ; and beyond it are two statues 
of red granite, one entirely corroded 
by exposure, the other holding a long 
«fe2a, surmounted by the bust of a king 
wearing a necklace and a head-dress of 
horns, with a globe and two ostrich 
feathers. On the stela is a column 
of hieroglyphics, containing the ban- 
ner and name of Remeses the Great, 
with the title '* Lord of the assemblies, 
like his father Pthah." 

Though the mounds of Memphis 
lie chiefly about Mitrahenny, it is pro- 




bable that the Sarapeum was in the 
direction of SakjUum, an we learn 
from Straboi that it was in a ** very 
sandy spot," which could only be near 
the desert. Judging too, from the 
sise of Thebes, we may readily ima- 
gine that Memphis eitended as far as 
the desert, to the westward ; and 
Diodonis calculates its circuit at 150 
stadea, or upwards of 17 English 
miles, requiring a diameter of nearly 
6 milea. The Sarapeum, indeed, was 
probably outside the circuit of the 
city, if what Macrobius says be true, 
that the temple of this deity was never 
admitted within the precincts of an 
Egyptian town ; and the distance from 
the centre of Memphis, at Mitrahenny, 
to the sandy slope of the desert, is far 
from being too much for the sise of 
such a city, even if we deduct consi- 
derably from the dimensions given 
by Diodonis. It probably extended 
(rom near the river at Bedreshayn to 
Sakjdlra, which only allows a breadth 
east and west of S miles, and its long- 
est diameter was probably north and 
south. But it may be doubted, if 
Memphis was surrounded by a wall. 
It was not the custom of the Egyp- 
tians to include tlie whole of a large 
city within one circuit : Thebes, even 
with its 100 gates, had no wall ; and 
we find there, as in other cities, that 
portions alone were walled round, 
comprehending the temples and other 
precious monuments. In places of 
great extent, as Thebes, each temple 
had its own circuit, generally a thick 
crude brick wall with stone gate* ways, 
sometimes within another of greater 
extent ; and the quarters of the troops, 
or citadel, were surrounded by a mas- 
sive wall of the same materials, with 
an inclined way to the top of the 

The temples of Memphis were, no 
doubt, encompassed in the same man* 
ner by a sacred enclosure ; and the 
« white wall ** was the fortified part of 
the city, in which tlie Egyptians took 
refuge when defeated by the PeruanaL 
This white fortress was very ancient. 

and from it Memphis was called the 
« city of the white wall." 

Memphis, was said to have been 
built by Menes, the first king of 
Egypt; and the fact of his having 
changed the course of the river, which 
previously ** flowed under the Libyan 
mountains,*' and for which he opened 
a new channel, about half-way be» 
tween the Arabian and Libyan chain, 
is strongly corroborated by the actual 
appearance of the Nile. According 
to Herodotus, the river was turned off 
about 100 stadia above Memphis; 
and the dykes constructed at this 
point, to prevent its returning to its 
original channel, were kept up with 
great care by his successors, even to 
the time of the Persians. At Kafr 
el lyiit, 14 miles above Mitrahenny, 
the Nile takes a considerable curve 
to the eastward, and would, if the 
previous direction of its course con- 
tinued, run immediately below the 
Libyan mountains to Sakk^ra; and 
the slight difierence between this du- 
tance and the approximate measure- 
ment of Herodotus offers no objec- 
tion. Indeed, if we calculate from 
the outside of the town, which the 
historian doubtless did, we shall find 
that the bend of Kafr el Iy4t agrees 
exactly with his 100 stadia, or about 
\\\ miles, Mitrahenny being, as before 
stated, at the centre of Memphis. 

The canal that now runs between 
SakjULra and Mitrahenny, and con- 
tinues thence through the plain below 
the great pyramids, has probably suc- 
ceeded to an ancient one that passed 
through Memphis, and brought the 
water of the Nile to the famous lake, 
which was '* on the north and west 
cX the city." This lake was excavated 
by Menes. Herodotus says it was 
made on the north and west side, and 
not on the east, because the river was 
in the way ; showing that Memphis 
stood near tlie Nile; as is further 
proved by his account of the herald 
sent from Cambyses by water to that 

The site of the lake I believe to be 

K « 



Sect. II. 

close to the dyke below Sakk&ra* 
where a hollow spot containing water 
for a great part of the year still re- 
mains, and the recess in the low hills 
to the westward of it accords with 
the direction it took. It was across 
this lake that the dead were trans- 
ported to the tombs on the hill about 
the pyramids of Sakkira, and other 
parts of the cemetery of Memphis ; 
and here were performed the cere- 
monies which gave rise to some of the 
fables of Greek mythology. 

Diodorus, in speaking of their 
adoption from Egypt, says, << Orpheus 
had learned of the Egyptians the 
greater part of his mystical ceremo- 
nies; the orgies that celebrate the 
wanderings (of Ceres), and the my- 
thology of the shades below . . ., and 
the punishments of the impious in 
Tartarus, the Elysian plains of the 
virtuous, and the common imagery 
of Bction, were all copied from the 
Egyptian funerals. Hermes, the con- 
ductor of souls, was, according to the 
old institution of Egypt, to convey 
the body of Apis to an appointed 
place, where it was received by a man 
wearing the mask of Cerberus ; and 
Orpheus having related this among 
the Greeks, the fable was adopted by 
Homer, who makes the Cyllenian 
Hermes call forth the souls of the 
suitors, holding his staff in his hand. 
.... The river he calls ocean, as 
they say, because the Egyptians call 
the Nile oceanu$ in their language ; 
the gates of the sun are derived 
from Heliopolis ; and the meadow is 
so called from the like named Ache- 
rusian, near Memphis, which is sur- 
rounded by beautiful meadows and 
canals, with lotus and flowering 
rushes. And it is consistent with 
the imitation to make the dead inhabit 
those places, because the greater 
number and the most considerable 
of the Egyptian tombs are there ; 
the bodies being ferried over the 
river and the Acherusian lake, and 
deposited in the catacombs destined 
to receive them. And the rest of 

the Grecian mythology respecting 
Hades agrees also with the present 
practice of Egypt, where a boat, called 
Baris, carries over the bodies, and a 
penny is given for the fare to the 
boatman, who is called Charon in the 
language of the country. They say 
there is also, in the neighbourhood of 
the same place, a temple of the noc- 
turnal Hecate, with the gates of Co- 
cytus and of Lethe, fastened with 
bruen bars ; and besides, other gates 
of Truth, and near them a figure 
of Justice, without a head. In the 
city of Acanths, on the Libyan side 
of the Nile, 120 sUdia (about 14 
miles) from Memphis, they say there 
is a barrel pierced with boles, to 
which 360 priests carry water from 
the Nile : and a mystery is acted in 
an assembly in that neighbourhood, in 
which a man is made to twist one end 
of a long rope, while other persons 
untwist the other end : an allusion to 
which has become proverbial in 
Greece. Melampus, they say, brought 
from Egypt the mysteries of Bacchus, 
the stories of Saturn, and the battles 
of the Tiuns. Daedalus imitated the 
Egyptian labyrinth in that which he 
built for king Minoa ; the Egyptian 
labyrinth having been constructed by 
Mendes, or by Marus, an ancient 
king many years before his time: 
and the style of the ancient statues 
in Egypt is the same with that of the 
statues sculptured in Greece. They 
also say that the very fine propylon 
of Vulcan in Memphis was the work 
of Da^alus as an architect, and that 
being admired for it, he had the ho- 
nour of obtaining a place in the same 
temple for a wooden statue of him- 
self, the work of his own hands ; 
that his talents and inventive facul- 
ties at last acquired him even divine 
honours ; and that there is to this day 
a temple of Daedalus, on one of the 
islands near Memphis, which is re- 
vered by the neighbouring inhabi* 

The principal deities of Memphis 
were Pthah, Apis, and Bubastis; and 




the goddess Isis bad a magnificent 
temple there, erected by Amasis. 
That of Pthab, or Vulcan, was said to 
have been founded by Menes, and 
was enlarged and beautified by suc- 
ceeding monarchs. Mcsris erected 
the m, I tiiern vestibule; and Sesostris, 
besides the colossal statues above 
mentioned, made considerable addi- 
tions with enormous blocks of stone 
which "be employed his prisoners 
of war to drag to the temple.** Phe- 
ron, his son, also enriched it with 
suitable presents, which he sent on 
the recovery of bis sight, as he did to 
all the principal temples of Egypt, 
and on the south of the Temple of 
Pthah were added the sacred grove 
and Temple of Proteus. The west- 
em vestibule, or propylsum, was the 
work of Rhampsinitus, who also 
erected two statues, 25 cubits in 
height ; one on the north, the other 
on the south ; to the former of which 
the Egyptians gave the name of 
summer, and to the latter winter. 
The eastern was the largest and most 
magnificent of all these propyliea, 
and excelled as well in the beauty 
of its sculpture as in its dimensions. 
It was built by Asychis. 

Several grand additions were 
afterwards made by Psamaticus, who, 
besides the southern vestibule, erected 
a large hypsethral court covered with 
sculpture, where Apis was kept, when 
exhibited in public. It was sur- 
rounded by a peristyle of Osiride 
figures, 12 cubits in height, which 
served instead of columns ; similar 
no doubt to those in the Memno- 
nium at Thebes. I have endeavoured 
to give an idea of the interior of this 
court of Apis in my ** Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Egyptians/* 
(Frontispiece of Vol. i.) 

Many other kings adorned this 
magnificent temple of Pthah, with 
sculpture and various gifU; among 
which may be mentioned the statue of 
Sethos, in commemoration of his vic- 
tory over the Assyrians, holding in 
his hand a mouse, with this inscrip- 

tion, « Whoever sees me, let him be 
pious.* * Amasis, too, dedicated a re- 
cumbent colossus, 75 feet long, in 
this temple ; which is the more sin- 
gular as there is no instance of an 
Egyptian statue, of early time, in 
that position. 

According to Herodotus, *< The 
temenos or sacred grove of Proteus 
was very beautiful and richly orna- 
mented. Some Phcenicians of Tyre 
settled at Memphis, lived round it, 
and in consequence the whole neigh- 
bourhood received the name of the 
Tyrian camp. Within the temenot 
was the temple of Proteus, which was 
called <of Venus the stranger;*** 
whence the historian conjectured that 
it was of Helen, who was reported 
to have lived some time at the court 
of tlie Egyptian king. This is of 
course an idle Greek story ; which, 
like so many others, shows bow ready 
the Greeks were to derive every thing 
from their own country. 

Strabo, in speaking of Memphis, 
says, ** Near to the pyramids is Mem- 
phis, the royal residence of the 
Egyptians, distant three schcenes from 
the Delta. It has a temple of Apis, 
who is the same as Osiris. Here the 
bull Apis is kept in an enclosure, and 
treated as a god. He has a white 
mark on his forehead, and other small 
spots on his body, the rest being 
black ; and when he dies, another is 
selected, from having certain sign^to 
take his place. Before the enclosure 
is a court, and another for the mother 
of this bull. He is permitted to go 
out occasionally into the court, par- 
ticularly when any strangers are de- 
sirous of seeing him (at other times 
being only seen through the windows 
of his abode); and after he has 
played about a little he is taken 

** The temple of Apis is close to 
that of Vulcan (Pthah), which is 
very magnificent, both in size and 
other respects. Before the dromoi lies 
a colossus of a single stone ; and in 
this space it is customary to have 



Sect. 11. 

bull fights, the animals being trained 
for the purpose by persons who are 
like the breeders of horses ; and hav- 
ing fought together, the reward is 
adjudged to the victor. At Mem- 
phis is also a temple of Venus, sup- 
posed to be a Greek goddess. Some 
believe it to be dedicated to the moon. 
There is also a Serapeum ** (or temple 
of Sarapis) *' in a very sandy spot, 
where drifts of sand are raised by the 
wind, to such a degree that we saw 
some sphinxes buried up to their 
heads, and others half covered. From 
this circumstance any one may judge 
of the danger of being overtaken 
there by a whirlwind of sand. The 
city is large and populous, next to 
Alexandria in size, and, like that, 
filled with foreign residents. Before 
it are some lakes; but the palaces, 
situated once in an elevated spot, and 
reaching down to the lower part of 
the city, are now ruined and deserted. 
Contiguous are the grove and lake.** 
. . . . " Beyond Memphis (to the 
southward) is the city of Acanthus, 
with a temple of Osiris, and a grove 
of Tbeban acanthus trees, which pro- 
duce gum ; after which is the AphnK 
ditopolite nome, and a city of that 
name on the Arabian (eastern) bank 
where a sacred white cow is kept.*' 

The taking of Memphis by the 
Persians, under Cambyses, was the 
first blow received by this ancient city, 
which continued to be the capital of 
the lower country until the wealth of 
Alexandria had raised its import- 
ance to such a point, that Thebes and 
Memphis gradually decreased in size 
and opulence ; and in the time of the 
Romans, Memphis held a secondary 
rank, and Thebes had ceased to be a 
city. Memphis still continued to en- 
joy some consequence, even at the 
time of the Arab invasion ; and 
though its ancient palace was a ruin, 
the governor of Egypt, John Me* 

caukes, still resided in the city ; and it 
was here that he concluded a treaty 
with the invaders, after they had suc- 
ceeded in taking the strong Roman 
fortress at Babylon. The wealth, as 
well as the inhabitants of Memphis^ 
soon passed to the new Arab city of 
Fo8$4t, and the capital of Lower 
Egypt in a few years ceased to exist. 
The blocks of stone of its ruined mo- 
numents were taken to build modem 
edifices; and we* find Pococke, a 
hundred years ago expressing his as- 
tonishment that the position of Mem- 
phis should be entirely unknown. 
Modern discoveries have ascertained 
its site, but we are surprised to find 
so few remains of this vast city ; and 
the only traces of its name in the 
country are preserved by very doubt- 
ful tradition, and the MSS. of the 

Several roads lead from the valley 
of the Nile to the F^6om, across 
the low Libyan bills ; some from near 
Abooroash, the great pyramids, and 
the neighbourhood of Sakkara and 
Dash6or. There are others from dif- 
ferent points, along the whole range 
to its entrance near the pyramid of 
Illah6on, westward of Benisooef. 

In the plain between the pyramids 
and the Nile are the sites of many an- 
cient towns; and about five miles 
to the N. N. £. of Abooroash, is 
Weseem, in Coptic Boushem, which 
probably occupies the position of Le- 
topolis, the capital of the nome joining 
the Memphitic to the N. 

The hUls, where the pyramids stood 
appear to have been called in hiero* 
glyphics either Roosh, or Loot ; 
which probably applied to the whole 
range, as far as Memphis ; and that 
it was customary for the Egyptians to 
give names to particular portions of 
the Libyan and eastern mountains, is 
evident from numerous inscriptions in 
various parts of Egypt. 






a. Various Roads, 

Though there are many roads and 
tracks over the desert to Suez, one 
only need be described as a route, 
the rest not being taken by European 
travellers. But I shall first mention 
the principal roads, in the order in 
whidi they come, beginning at the 

1. From BeJbaySt by the Delta, as- 
cends the Wadee Jaffra, crosses 
the road to Syria, and joins the' 
Derb el Maazee. 
2^ The Derh d Maazee, from Cairo, 
passes by Heliopolis and the 
Birket el Hag ; 10 miles beyond 
which last the road to Syria 
branches off* to the left, after 
passing the high sand-hills of 

3. Derb d Hag «road of the pil- 
grims,** is the same as the last, 
until after it passes the Birket el 
Hag, when it turns to the right 
by a stone ruin called e* Sibeel 
(** the fountain "), and the other 
continues below the Undthilm 
hills to the left 

4. DeihtkHttmra{yck\(3iis^<metaken 
hy the Indian Mail) passes to the 
south of the red mountain, and 
joins the Derb el Hag about 27 
miles from Cairo. 

5. Derb^ Toi^ara (like the three last, 
from Cairo) joins the Hamra, 
about 6 miles from the Wadee 
e* Gendelee. 

6. Derh e' Tarabeen from Bus- 
sateen, a village 3 miles above 
Old Cairo, ascends the Mukuttum 
range, by the Bahr.bela-roe, and 
joins the Towara road 25 miles 
from Cairo, and the same distance 
from Bussateen. It falls into 
the Derb el Hag at El Muggreh 
58f miles from Cairo. 

7. A road also leaves the Nile, about 
half way between Cairo and Beni- 
sooef, passing by Wadee el Gho- 

6. Distances, Cairo to Suez hy the 
Derb el Hamra. 

Cairo to Kalaiat Raiiln - 9 

Wadee Halaz6nee - 8 

Derb el Hag joins this road from 

the north . . . lo 
Cross Wadee Gendelee, and then 

Wadee Jaffra - - 10 

Om e* Sharame^t . . s 

Kobbet e' Takrooree . . 4 

Plain of el Muggreh - - 10 
ElMiiktela . . . lo 
Fort of Agero6d . . 6 

Beer Suez (wells) . . g 

To Suez .... 4 


Stations on this road. 

Cairo to station No 1. stabling, 
and 1 resting-room • . 9 

No. 2. One public room for 
ladies, one for men, 2 private 
rooms, and one for servants - 11 

No. 3. Stabling for horses, and 
one resting-room - . - 10 

No. 4. One large Aoor, a ladies* 
room, a servants' room, kitchen, 
several bed chambers^ water 
tank, and stabling - - ] 1 

No. 5. The same as No. 1. 
and 3. - - - - 1 1 

No. 6. The same as No. 3. 
and 5. - ... 10 

Na 7. The same as No. 3. 
and 5. - • . . 1 ] 

To Suez .... 9 


c. The "Tart/f" at these stations is 
as follows : 

£ «. <f. Piastres. 
** Accommodations the 

whole route for a 

lady or gentleman, 

including the use 

of servants, fumi. 

ture, &c. - .1 O O or IOC 
Do. children under 

10 years of age .0100 50 
Do. servants - 10 O 50 

No, 4. Station, 
Dinner . -040 20 

Breakfast or tea .020 10 



Sect. IL 

'£ t. d. PlaftTM. 
Champagne - -0.80 40 
Claret - - - 7 35 
Port - - -050 25 
Sherry - - - 2 6 12 
Bordeaux - - 3 3 16 
Marsala - -033 16 

Brandy - -033 16 

Rum - - -033 16 
Gin - - -083 16 
Cyder - - - 2 10 
Ale, porter, and 

stout - - -020 10 
Filtered water, per 

bottle - - 4 2 

Water for animals, 

per bucket - -030 15 
Not, 2. tmd 6. 
Private rooms for 

parties or families, 

furnished with 

beds and all other 

requisites - * O 10 50 
Breakfast or tea, in- 
cluding coffee, 

biscuits, fruit, 

eggs, &c - -020 10 
Ale, porter, and 

stout - - - 2 10 
Port - - -050 25 
Sherry - - -050 25 
Marsala - -033 16 

Claret - - -070 35 
Bordeaux - - 2 6 12 
Brandy - - 3 3 16 

Filtered water, per 

bottle - - 4 2 

Water for animals, 

per bucket - 3 15 

N. B. Passengers are requested to 
pay on delivery. 

d. It takes from 32 to 33 hours to 
go from Cairo to Suez on a camel, 
and 14 to 20 on a dromedary ; and 
the ordinary time allowed for those 
who are conveyed by the Company 
(and now by the Egyptian Govern- 
ment) is about 19 hours. 

Vans go quicker, and in winter 
those with 4 horses holding 4 persons, 
or three with light carpet bags, take 
from 14} to 16 hours. They profess 
to change 7 times on the road, at each 

station, independent of the first set of 
horses taken from Cairo, and the 
charge is 6L for each person, from 
Cairo to Sues, including accommoda- 
tion and provisions, without wine. 
Donkeys, or donkey litters, take from 
30 to 50 hours. Tlie charge for a 
litter with 3 donkeys and men is SQO 
piastres, or 3/. ; a donkey is rated at 
]6«., and camels or dromedaries are 
charged 12«., or 60 piastres each. 

Between Kalaiat Raiin and Wadee 
Halaz6nee is much petrified wood* 
I observed a palm tree from 25 to SO 
feet long, and other wood in the sand- 
stone rock. The Wadee Halaz6nee, 
or the « valley of snails,** is so called 
from their abounding there, as indeed 
throughout this part of the desert. 
But they are not found to the south 
of lat. 29<> 2(y, 

The small Acacia tree, called Dar 
el Hilrora, ** the red house," or Om e* 
Sharam^t, « the mother of rags," is 
the spot where the pilgrims rest on 
their way to Ager6od ; and near this 
is the principal station (No. 4.) of 
the passengers by the overland route. 

Kobbet e* Takr6ore is a tomb built 
by the friends of an African stranger 
who died there, and a little beyond it 
is Beer el Batter, a " well " only in 
name, having no water, though many 
attempts were made to find it there 
some years ago. 

There is no fresli water on the Suez 
road, except after abundant rains in 
the Wadee Gendelee, \ a mile to the 
left of the road, and also in the Wadee 
Jaffra, into wliich the Gendelee runs 
not far from where the road crosses 
it. Near Beer el Batter tlie lime- 
stone rocks reappear, and the petrified 
wood ceases with the sandstone. 

The plain of El Muggreh is the 
highest part of the road. To the easU 
ward of it all the vallies flow towards 
the sea, and to the westward towards 
the Nile ; and here the Derb e* Tara- 
b^n joins the ** road of the Pilgrims." 
About 8 miles further, and about 2 
miles short of £1 M^ktala, is the 
course of an ancient road, the stones 

Egypt ROUTE 7. — buez. — passaqe of Israelites. 209 

cleared off and ranged on either tide, 
indications of which are seen long 
before to the westward in the heaps of 
stones placed at interrals as road-marks. 

The ancients probably followed 
the same line as the pilgrims at 
the present day, by the Derb el Hag, 
though another road seems to have 
led in a southerly direction from 
Heliopolis, and either to have fallen 
into it to the west of the Wadee 
Halaz6nee, or to have gone in a dif- 
ferent line through the desert to the 

A little beyond this, the Maaaee 
road joins the Derb el Hag, and they 
continue together to £1 Miiktala and 
Ager6od, where, as already shown, 
the road of the pilgrims runs off to 
the eastward, and the others go in a 
southerly direction to Sues. 

£1 Mdktala, I suppose from iu 
name and position to be the Migdol 
of the Bible. By this defile, the main 
road passes ; most of the roads having 
been once more united into one, a short 
distance before reaching it. The course 
thus far from Cairo is nearly east, it 
then takes a southerly direction to 
Sues; but the Derb el Hag again 
strikes off to the eastward from the 
Fort of Ager6od, and crosses the 
Peninsula of Sinai. Ager6od is a 
Turkish fort ; and at Beer Suei is a 
well of brackish water. 

SU£Z is in lat. 29<^ 57' SO'' N., 
and long. SS^' S5' £. from Green, 
wich. The environs are monotonous 
and barren. The town is small and 
insignificant. But Sues is not with- 
out interest in an historical poiut of 
view, from baring been the spot 
where the Israelites crossed the Red 
Sea on their way to the wilderness of 
Sinai, and were delivered from the 
bondage of the £gyptians. This 
passage of the sea was probably a 
short distance to the £. of the modem 
town, at the spot where the camels 
now ford it on their way to the foun- 
tain of el Ghurkudeh. In former times 
the water appears to have been con- 
siderably deeper than at the present 

day, as we find positive evidences of 
the elevation of the ground in the 
vicinity, at least on the west side of 
Sues ; where the plain, once covered 
by the sea, and still strewed with 
shells, is &r above the reach of its 
highest rise. 

Many reasons combine to fix the 
spot about the present ford ; among 
which are the direction of the channel, 
the general line of the road, and the 
depth of the water. Of the first it 
may be observed that it is the part of 
the sea most likely to be affected in 
the manner described "by a strong 
east wind.** 8. The road from Mig- 
dol, (which I believe to be the defile 
still known to the Arabs by the name 
of Miiktala), where the Israelites 
turned off to the right, goes directly 
to this point; and S. Though the 
traditions of the Arabs fix the passage 
at the eastern end of the Wadee el 
Amba, '• the valley of the ehariaU^** 
and the wells and mountain of Ham- 
mam, Pfaara6on, on the opposite 
shore, are said to have derived that 
name from the destruction of Pha- 
raoh's host, the depth of thtf sea 
there, and in all other parts would 
have been too great to allow of its 
division being compared to a wall on 
either hand; for it is natural to 
suppose the Israelites would not have 
made less of the miracle, and the 
dirision of deeper water would un- 
doubtedly have justified their calling 
it a mountain, rather than a wall. 
Moreover, the greater breadth of the 
sea in other places would have re- 
quired a longer period for their passage 
than is given in the Bible ; and the 
object of entangling and overwhelm- 
ing the chariots and host of Pharaoh 
would be suflidently obtained here, 
by the return of the waters blown 
back by the wind, and the addition of 
a tide of between 5 and 6 feet ; which 
rises there regularly to the present 
day. Besides, according to Dr. 
Robinson, the island just below the 
ford is still called Ges6eret el Yah6od 
•( the island of the Jews.** 



Sect. IL 

It is from the delirteranee of the 
Israelites that tradition asserts 'the 
n&ghbouringGtM Attdka has received 
its name; though the Moslems pre- 
tend that its signification, ** deliver- 
ance," relates to their release from 
the perils of the pilgrimage, when in 
sight of this welcome mountain. 
Ager6od has also been allowed to 
claim some connection with that re- 
markable event ; and etymology might 
perhaps discover in it a distinct allu- 
sion to the overthrow of Pharaoh's 
chariots, whose Hebrew appellation 
<*Age]o6t*' bears some resemblance 
to this modern name. 

With regard to MiUdalaoreX Miik- 
tala, I must observe that there is 
great reason to believe it marks the 
site of the ancient Migdai; not only 
from a similarity of name, but from 
its position, being the point where the 
road turns off, from its previously 
easterly course, direct to the sea; 
aud though the name signifies **the 
slaughter,** and appears to mark the 
spot of some later Arab battle, it must 
bie remembered that the Arabs are in 
the constant habit of substituting 
names from their own language, when- 
ever they happen to trace any resem- 
blance to them ; an instance of which 
may be found in El Crez6>( Algiers), 
"the islands," substituted for the 
ancient name Julia Canarea ; and in 
numerous others. 

The name of Kolzim or KoUxoom^ 
given to the range of mountains, and 
to the Red Sea itself in this part, is 
also supposed to relate to the history 
of the Israelites, its meaning, << de- 
struction,'* referring to that of the 
host of Pharaoh: though the great 
antiquity of the town of Clysma sug- 
gests that Kolsim is an Arab corrup- 
tion of the old Greek name. Clysma 
appears to have been a fort as well as 
a town, and was perhaps the spot 
where the troops destined to guard 
the sluices of the canal were stationed ; 
and it is remarkable that the elevated 
heiffht, outside the north gate of the 
modem town of Sues, is still known 

by the name of Kolsim. It was 
called Castrum by Hierocles and St. 
Epiphanius ; and ttXwrfta (clysma) or 
KX^uriuL, is first mentioned by Lucian. 
It appears to be the same as the 
Clysma Praesidium of Ptolemy, 
though he places it much farther 
down the coast. His positions, how- 
ever, are not alwajrs certain ; and it is 
much more probable that a garrison 
would be stationed where their services 
were so evidently required, than on 
any other part of the coast. Besides, 
we have not only the traditional name 
of tliis eminence to guide our opinion, 
but the authority of history, which 
mentions the re-opening of the canal 
by Omer to Kolzim on the Red Sea, 
for the purpose of sending provisions 
to Mecca. Aboolfeda is still more 
precise in his position of Kolsim, and 
leaves no room to doubt that it stood 
exactly at the spot now occupied by 
Suez. His words are, M At the ex- 
tremity of the gulph, intervening 
between Tor and Egypt was situated 
the town of Kolzim, and those who go 
from Egypt to Tor are wont to follow 
the coast from Kolsim to Tor." 
Close to it (he says in another place) is 
the spot where Pharaoh was drowned. 
It has given the name of « Sea of 
Kolzim *' to the gulph, and appears 
to have succeeded to Arsinoe, found- 
ed by Ptolemy Philadelphus, so called 
after his sister, and has been itself 
succeeded in turn by the modem Sue& 


This ancient work, known in former 
times as the canal of Hero, is now 
completely filled with sand, except in 
that part where it is made to supply 
the modern village of Tel el Wadee, 
and the neighbouring lands, for the 
purposes of cultivation. Its greatest 
extent, to the Tel e' Rigibeh, is about 
26 miles from Belbiiys. The com- 
mencement of the canal may be 
said to be about 6 miles west of 
Tel el Wadee, a modem town built 
by Mohammed Ali, and at 15 miles 
to the N. E. of BelbAys; though the 




point where it 6nt diverges from the 
Tftlley of the Nile may be fixed near 
el Ha'ld, 2 miles to the N. £. of that 
town. After continuing fhnn Bel- 
b4ys in a direction nearly due east, 
35 miles, as far as Shekh Han&ydik, 
it curves to the southward, and runs 
by the bitter lakes to the Red Sea; 
its ancient course being easily traced 
here and there, between Tel el Wadce 
and Shekh Haniydik, though nearly 
filled with sand. It may also be seen 
towards the Sues end, for a consider- 
able distance, in the direction of the 
bitter lakes ; and a little to the north 
of that town, just below the mound of 
Kobim, are the remains of masonry 
which appear to have been connected 
with its exit into the sea, and the 
sluices which closed this mouth. Here 
is a channel cut in the rock, corre> 
sponding to the direction of the mounds 
of the old canal, of which it doubtless 
formed a part ; and a stone wall has 
been thrown across the arm of the sea 
that runs up at the side. The ford is 
some distance to the N. N. £. of the 
stone wall. 

Several mounds mark the sites of 
ancient towns upon its banks, the 
largest of which is that called by the 
French Abookeshayd, supposed by 
some to be Heroopolis, or, according 
to M. Champollion, the Avaris of the 
shepherd-kings. This, however, is 
not very probable. 

The name of Abookeshayd is not 
known to the Arabs, and tlie place is 
called by them e' S4gheea, <* the water 
wheel. '* This is the only place where 
any sculptured remains are found. 
They consist of a block of granite of 
the time of Remeses 1 1., the supposed 
Sesostris, ornamented with three sit- 
ting figures in high relief, represent- 
ing Re, Atmoo, and the king. 

." This canal,*' says Strabo, ** was first 
cut by Sesostris, before the Trojan 
war." Some say it was begun by 
Neco, or rather Psamaticus II., who 
desisted from the undertaking on 
being warned by an oracle that he was 
labouring for the Barbarians. Da- 

rius, the son of Hystaspes, continued 
it ; but having, according to the same 
account, been (eft unfinished, Pt<K 
lemy Philadelphus completed it, and 
made sluices to regulate the quantity 
of water, while they permitted the 
passage of vessels. They had also for 
their object the exclusion of the salt 
water; and so effectually was this 
done, that the bitter lakes were ren- 
dered perfectly sweet, and abounded 
with Nile fish and the usual water- 
fowl of Egypt. 

Pliny and Aristotle also mention 
Sesostris as the originator of this 
work. The former says it was com- 
menced by him, continued by Darius 
and Ptolemy (Philadelphus) to the 
bitter springs (lakes), and abandoned 
for fear of the greater height of the 
Red Sea; to which Diodorus and 
others attribute its non-completion by 
Darius. According to Herodotus, it 
was *' four days' voyage in length, 
and suflSciently broad for two trir€me9 
to row abreast;" or, according to 
Strabo, 100 cubits (150 feet). " The 
water was derived from the Nile, 
which entered it a little above Bu- 
bastis, and it entered the Red Sea 
near to Patumos, a town of Arabia.** 
It was here that Ptolemy founded 
Arsinoe, which Strabo says was also 
called Cleopatris, though he shortly 
after appears to consider them two 
distinct towns. 

With regard to Heroopolis, if Pliny 
and Strabo are right in placing it <m 
the gulph ; it may be the same as Pi- 
Hahiroth (nn^HH ^fi), where the Is- 
raelites encamped near the sea, and the 
name of the Heroopolites Sinus might 
be adduced in favour of this opinion. 
Nor would it be diflicult to trace the 
name in that given by the Hebrews ; 
the Pi being the Egyptian article 
*< the," and the h and th at 'the be- 
ginning and end being Hebrew addi- 
tions, which leave the real word Hiro, 
or Hero. But this is an etymological 
fimcy, on which I by no means insist. 

In the time of the Romans, the 
canal was still used for the purposes 




of communication with the Red Sea, 
but at a subsequent period it fell into 
disuse, and being neglected, was 
choked up with sand, in which state 
it continued till re-opened by the 
Arabs in the caliphate of Omar. This 
prince was induced to send orders for 
repairing it, on finding that the Holy 
Land of Arabia had only been rescued 
from the miseries of a famine by op- 
portune supplies of com from Egypt ; 
and Omar, to prevent the recurrence 
of a similar disaster, resolved on re- 
establishing this means of communi- 
cation with the Red Sea. His anxiety 
for the welfare of the Holy Cities was 
welcomed with unbounded demon-^ 
Btrations of gratitude from all ranks 
of Moslems, as well as from the peo- 
ple of Arabia itself; and Omar re- 
ceived the flattering title of *' Prince 
of the Faithful" (Ameer el Mo- 
mene^n), which was thenceforward 
adopted by his successors in tfie ca- 
liphate. One hundred and thirty- four 
years after, £1 Munsoor Aboo Gafer, 
the second caliph of the Abbaside 
dynasty, and the founder of Bagdad, 
is said to have closed this canal, to 
prevent supplies being sent to one of 
the descendants of Ali, who had re- 
volted at Medeeneh. Since that time 
it has remained unopened ; though 
some assert that the Sultan Hakem 
once more rendered it available for 
the passage of boats, in the year a, d. 
1000, after which it became neglected 
and choked with sand. 

But though the passage of. boats 
was impeded, and it was no longer 
of use for communication with^ the 
Red Sea, some portion still contained 
water during the inundation, until 
closed by Mohammed Ali ; at which 
time it is said to have flowed as far as 
Shekh Hanilydik and the bitter lakes. 

With regard to the respective levels 
of the Nile, the Red Sea, and Me^ 
diterranean, it has been ascertained 
by the French that the Red Sea, at low 
tide, is now 14, and at high tide 9 
feet lower than the Nile at Cairo 
during its inundation, and 90) feet 

higher than the Meditersanean. But 
besides the rise and fall of a tide of 
from 5 to 6 feet, it must also be re* 
membered that the Red Sea is some- 
what lower in summer after the vernal 
equinox than in the winter months, 
when the prevalence of the south wind, 
after the month of September, causes 
a certain rise of its level. 



For the journey to Mottnt Sinat it 
will be necessary to engage some of 
the Tor Arabs, who will supply 
camels, and act as guides through their 
desert. As usual in these excur- 
sions, one of them is to be the shekh 
or chief of the party, the director of 
all relating to the Arabs, and re- 
sponsible for the protection of the 

To give some idea of the charges 
frequently made for camels, I will 
give a few items of an agreement 
made at Cairo, for the journey to 
£1 Alcaba. 

*' l.~From Cairo to £1 A'kaba, each 
camel 2/. lOf., or S50 piastres. 

2. From £1 A'kaba to Sues, 150 

d. From Sua to Dahar^, 150 

4. All the camels going to £1 
A'kaba to be paid for their return to 

5. The whole to be paid at Cairo 
for the journey to £1 A'kaba. 

6. On returning to Sues, the 
journey from £1 A'kaba to Sues to 
be paid for there. 

7. At Dahar^eh the camels hired 
at Sues to be paid for their return 

I must, however, observe, 1. That the 
chargi for tlie camels is far too much, 
and the payment beforehand should 
nevtr be a condition. But the Tor 
Arabs have been spoilt by Euro- 
peans; and the above hire of a camel 
to £1 A'kaba of 250 piastres b more 




than two thirds of the ralue of the 
animal itself. It is usual to pay 175 
to 200. 2. In this as in every part of 
the country, it may be observed as a 
general rule, that you are nerer ex- 
pected to supply, or pay for, the food 
of the camels, or the provisions of the 
Arabs under any plea whatever ; any 
offer of the kind would infallibly lead 
to impositions from the very persons 
it was intended to befriend, and every 
attempt on their part to make such a 
demand should be firmly resisted. 
This I urge the more strongly, as 
some have been very improperly ad- 
vised to provide beans for the camels, 
on the plea of having them for their 
return to El A'kaba, or on some other 
excuse. S. You should always engage 
the Sinai Arabs and their camels at 
Cairo, and not be persuaded to go 
by water from Sues to Tor, where, 
having you in their power, they may 
demand whatever they choose, with, 
out leaving you any alternative but 
that of returning to Sues and aban- 
doning your intended journey. 

Another observation I may also 
make about the tricks upon travellers 
practised by the Arabs, particularly 
in Svria, which should not be tole- 
ratea. It sometimes happens that a 
traveller is stopped on the road, by 
what is said to be a party of hostile 
Arabs, and obliged to pay a sum of 
money, as he supposes, to save his 
life, or to secure the continuation of 
his journey in safety. 

Every body who knows Arab cus- 
toms must be aware that no one of a 
hostile tribe can ever enter the ter- 
ritory of any other Araba» without 
the insult being avenged by the 
sword ; and it is evident if no resist- 
ance is made on the part of those wlw 
conduct the traveller, that the attack- 
ing party are either some of tlieir 
own, or of a friendly, tribe, who are 
allowed to spoil him by the very per- 
sons he pays to protect him ; for an 
Arab would rather die than suffer 
such an affront from a IwMtUit tribe in 
his oum desert. If then his Arabs do 

not fight on the occasion, he may be 
sure it is a trick to extort money : he 
should, therefore, use no arms against 
the supposed enemies, but afterwards 
punish his faithless guides by deduct- 
ing the sum taken from their pay ; 
and it is as well, before starting, to 
make them enter into an engagement 
that they are oMe as well as willing to 
protect him. 

I should add, that on starting it is 
very necessary to see that every camel 
has its proper and full load ; if not, 
the Arabs will put a few things on 
each, and go away pretending they 
are loaded, their object being to get 
as many engaged as possible. 

Tlie shckhs of the Tor Arabs, who 
generally accompany Europeans to 
Mount Sinai, are Tw4yleb, Hossayn, 
and Besh&rah, of the Welad Saeed. 
There is no objection to them, except 
perhaps their having been spoilt by 
Europeans, and taught to be exor- 
bitant ; but they have no very great 
influence in their tribe, and are not 
the principal shekhs. Care should 
tlierefore be taken to ascertain if they 
have sufiicient authority to prevent 
any disputes in the desert ; and par- 
ticularly if any quarrel has lately hap- 
pened with the Mes4yneh tribe, who 
possess the district between Mount 
Sinai and £1 A'kaba. Indeed, the safest 
mode would be to agree with a shekh 
of the latter for safe conduct through 
tliat portion of the desert, if desirous 
of going to £1 A'kaba, and in crossing 
from that place to Hebron, the H»- 
wat, or Hey w4t A'rabs are the in- 
fluential tribe. Tlie Tor Arabs, or 
tribes of the peninsula of Mount Sinai, 
are, according to Burckhardt, — 

I. The Sow&lha, the principal tribe, 
who live to the west of Mount 
Sinai, and are subdivided into the 

1. Welad Saeed. 

2. Korishee. 

3. Ow&remeh, part of whom are 

called Beni-Moshen. 

4. Rafjamee. 

II. Elegit, or AleyUt, who live ge* 



Sect. n. 

nerally with the Meiiyneh. Tbu 
is the same tribe to which those of 
Wadee el Arab belong, who live 
about Sabooa in Nubia. 

III. £1 Meiiyneh, Mezaynee, or 
Emziyna, to the east of Mount 

IV. Welad Soolayman; very few; 
mostly at Tor and the neighbour, 
ing villages. 

V. Beni Wiuel, about 15 families, 
living with the Mei&yneh, ori- 
ginally from Barbary. 

And at the northern fiarta of the 
peninsula the Heyw4t, the Te&dia, 
and tlie Tarab^n. 

An idea of travelling with one 
tribe through a desert belonging to 
another, when they are not on friendly 
terms, should never be entertained. 
There is another disagreeable thing 
to which travellers are sometimes ex- 
posed. Two parties of the same 
tribe quarrel for the right of con- 
ducting him ; and after he has gone 
some distance on his journey, he and 
his goods are taken by the opposition 
candidates, and transferred to their 
camels. "Die war is merely one of 
words, which the inexperienced in the 
language cannot understand ; but he 
fully comprehends the annoyance of 
being nearly pulled to pieces by the 
two rivals, and his things are some- 
times thrown on the ground, to the 
utter destruction of every thing fragile. 
This should also be provided against, 
before starting, and a shekh or guide 
should be secured who has decided 
authority, and can overawe all par- 
ties. But all should be done with 
perfect good humour; and there is 
every advantage in securing the good- 
will and friendly understanding with 
the Arabs, on whom so much of the 
comfort of a journey necessarily de- 
pends. It can of course be better 
done if the traveller speaks Arabic ; 
and I can safely say I never had a 
disagreement of any kind with any 
Arab, but have always met with 
good humour and willingness to oblige 
on every occasion. 

RequisiteMfor the Journey, — Water- 
skins may be bought at Cairo^ and if 
new, should be filled and emptied fre- 
quently to rid them of the disagreeable 
taste they give to the water. A tent 
should also be bought at Cairo. A 
single-poled tent is the best. Extra 
ropes are useful, as well as a double 
supply of pegs and mallets. A Mac- 
intosh sheet, or canvas, for damp 
ground (brought from Europe), and 
warm covering are requisite, as well as 
wax candles, lamps, mishmish (dried 
apricots), maccaroni, rice, and other 
provisions. Some charcoal is useful 
for the first part of the road : you after- 
wards find sttflicient fuel in the val- 
leys. An extra supply of coflTee and 
s6oree tobacco, to give the Arabs oc- 
casionally, will be found useful ; and 
a xemzemS^ or water-bottle of Ru^ 
sia leather, to suspend from your sad- 
dle, and the ShMekeh rop&>nets for 
packing baggage on the camels, are 
of service. The water-skins should 
be placed on these last, and never on 
the ground, which often contains much 

DiitsDoei. Houn. MIn. 

Cairo to Sues (see Route 7. ) 32 SO 
Sues to Ain Moosa (round the 
gulf), but direct only, IJ 

hour ... 6 20 

Wadee Sudr, middle - - 7 'lO 

Ain Hawirah {Marak 9) ' S 45 
Wadee Ghurundel (passing 
Hammam Pharao6n about 

4 miles to the right) - 1 30 

W. Shubaykeh - ~ 6 5 

HeadofWidee Humr - A 5 

Sar&butel KhAdem - - 4 30 

Head of WlUlee el Berk - 6 15 

W. e' Shekh - - - 6 20 

W. SolAf - - - 3 80 

Convent .... 4 

Total from Sues 63 15 

— horn Cairo 95 30 

In going to Mount Sinai, you fol- 
low the Sues road, and either turn 
off before reaching that town, or pass 
close to its walls, and thenoe at a short 




distance from the water-side, round 
the end of the gulf. The camels, 
which bring water to Sues from the 
fountains of Naba or Ghurkudeh, 
cross the ford at the spot where the 
Israelites are supposed to have passed 
when pursued by Pharaoh ; and you 
may either go direct by the ford or 
round the gulf with the baggage. 

The manna is still found in the 
desert, yet it is rarely met with. Dr. 
Robinson sajs, " it is not produced 
every year, sometimes only after 5 or 
6 years, and the quantity in general 
has greatly diminished. It is found 
In the form of sliining drops, on the 
twigs and brabches (not upon the 
leaves) of the Turfa, {^Tamarix GaU 
Kca manmfera of Ehrenberg,) from 
which it exudes in consequence of the 
puncture of an insect of the Coccus 
kind, CoceuM mannipanu of the same 
naturalist.*' It is white, of the sise 
of a very small pea, and *' what falls 
upon the sand is said not to be ga- 
thered. It has the appearance of 
gum, is of a sweetish taste, and melts 
when exposed to the sun, or to a fire.*' 
In Arabic it is called men, and is sold 
by the druggists of Cairo. This 
name is similar to the old Hebrew, 
men or min, by which it is mentioned 
in the Bible, and which was given it 
in consequence of the uncertainty of 
the Israelites about this unknown 
substance, who called it m0fi(** what") 
" for they whist not what it was.** 

Quails, which also served the Is- 
raelites for food in their wanderings 
here, still frequent this desert, but 
they are in very small numbers, and 
always single birds. 

Had I not been prevented visiting 
Mount Sinai, and fulfilling my in- 
tention of surveying that part of the 
coiratry, I might have spoken with 
more confidence of the journeyings of 
the Israelites, and of the difierent 
places where they encamped, during 
their long sojourn there, as well as of 
the objects most worthy of a visit in 
this deserL But for^ll that portion 
beyond Sues I am indebted to the ob- 

servations of others, and to the assbt- 
ance of some friends who have visited 
it. The distances are taken from 
Dr. Robinson. 

After passing round the gulf, the 
road crosses « the track leading from 
the ferry of Suez to the fountain of 
Naba, or, as it vras called by the 
Arabs, £1 Ghurkudeh, from which 
that town is supplied with water for 
drinking. From this point the foun- 
tain is apparently three miles 4iB* 
tant;** and after an bour*s march 
along the coast you come to the Ain 
Moosa, or <* fountain of Moses.** 
Here are some wild palm trees, and 
a small spot of land irrigated by the 
brackish water of its springs, and 
cultivated by a few fdiahs from Suez. 
Some broken pottery, and a low 
mound of rubbish, mark ** the site of 
a former village.** In Wadee Sudr 
are the head quarters of the Tarabeen 
Arabs, ** who claim the whole terri- 
tory from opposite Sues to Wadee 
Gb<irunde] ;** and at the head of it is 
the isolated peak of T4sat Sudr, 
.which is a conspicuous point on the 
road from Sues, and is seen fi-om 
the interior of the E^ptian desert. 
Ain How&rah is supposed to be the 
Marah of the Israelites, where they 
found "bittwr" water, *< therefore 
the name of it was called Ma^ 
rah,'* The water is brackish, and 
«• somewhat bitter ;** and though no 
stream ever flows from the basin, 
*< there are traces of running water 
round about.** 

Much has been said of the supposed 
nature of the tree, which, when 
Moses " had cast into the waters ** of 
Marah, they "were made sweet;'* 
and some have imagined it to be 
the Ghardek, or Ohurkud, which 
abounds in these deserts. The red 
berry of that bush is eaten, but is not 
supposed. to have any virtue in sweet- 
ening water ; though there is a tree 
called yitnar, common in the Maazee 
desert, the seeds of whose long pods, 
when eaten before drinking, render 
the taste of water peculiarly sweet. 



Sect. IL 

It is the Moringa apiera, and the seed 
is called in Arabic Hab-ghaUe, 

The road then continues at some 
distance from, and nearly parallel 
with, the sea, till it passes on the 
light the mountain of Hammam 
Phara6on, " the baths of Pharaoh," 
which projects into the sea about 45 
geographical miles to the S. S. £. of 
Sues. This mountain is so called 
from the hot springs that rise at its 
foot on the sea-shore ; and a fanciful 
tradition of the Arabs has named it 
after the Egyptian king, as a memo- 
rial of the passage of the Israelites. 
The temperature of the largest spring 
is about 157^ Fahr., and the water is 
strongly impregnated with sulphur 
and common salt. They lie scnne 
distance out of the road, and to visit 
them is a dktmr of several miles. 
The direct road from Wadee Ghurun- 
del, after having passed to the east of 
this mountain, takes a curve more in- 
land, and then divides into two, one 
going to Mount Sinai by Wadee 
Humr and Sar^ut el Kh^em to 
the left, the other by Wadee Mu- 
kuttub, and Wadee Farin to the right, 
which may be called the lower road. 

At Nusb, or Nitfbeh, a short dis- 
tance off the road to the right, about 
4 miles before reaching Sar6but el 
Khadem, are ancient copper works, 
and many inscriptions in what has 
been called the Sinaitic character, 
from having been considered peculiar 
to the desert of Mount Sinai. -They 
do not however belong eidusively to 
that part of the country, as I found 
them on tlie rocks near the sea at Ge- 
bel Aboo Durrag on the Egyptian 
side of the Arabian Gulf, and others 
have been met with in the interior, at 
Wadee Dthalial, as well as at e* Gim- 
shdi, and, as I have been told by Mr. 
Burton, in the grottoes of Wadee Om- 
Dthummerina. Tlieir long-wished- 
for interpretation is said to have been 
lately accomplished, and they are 
found to be of Christian time. 

The only ruins at Nisbeh are some 
small stone houses, probably miners* 

huts ; and the scoria of copper shows 
that metal to have been worked or 
smelted there, though no mines have 
been found in the neighbourhood. 
Instances of this frequently occur 
in the deserts, which was in conse- 
quence of their finding more wood in 
particular places for smelting the ore. 

SAaABOT XL Khaobk. — Swrobut 
(or Sarhdat) d Khddem is remarkable 
for its numerous hieroglyphic tablets, 
of very ancient date, and for the pe- 
culiar appearance of the place. It is 
a rocky eminence about | of an hour's 
walk from the road, on a range of 
sandstone hills, with a footpath on 
one side, leading to its extensive flat 
summit, at one end of which is a con- 
fused mass of ruins and many tablets, 
some fallen, some standing erect, 
covered with hieroglyphics, which 
from their containing the names of 
very early Pharaohs are worthy the 
attention of the Egyptian antiquary. 
A plan of the ruins here is much 
wanted. ^ 

Besides the numerous tablets with- 
in the building, are others on the 
outsidf, and some at a distance of 
half a mile from the entrance. They 
bear the names of various Pharaohs, 
among which are Osirtasen I. — the 
queen of the great obelisk at Kar- 
nak, — Thothroes III. and IV., — 
and Amunoph I. and III.,^ Osirei 
and his son Remeses the Great, — 
Osirei III., — Remeses IV. and V., 
and some others. 


The ancient name of SaHLbut el 
Khidem seems to have been Mafak. 

Egypt BouTE 8. — inscriptions at mottnt sinai. 


Athor was the presiding deity, and 
Re (or Mandoo) probably shared the 
honours of the place. 

About 2 miles to the south-east of 
the ruins of Sar&but el Kliideoi are 
three tablets cut in the face of the 
rocky bearing the names of Thothmes 
IV., and another old king: and close 
to them are small caves in the rock, 
used as tombs. 

On the lower, or western road, at 
Gthel d Mukuitubt or *' the written 
mountain,'* the Sinaitic inscriptions 
occur in considerable numbers. They 
cover the rocks on both sides of the 
▼alley, during great part of a day's 
journey, principally on the south side 
towards the Gebel, or *< mountain,*' 
of that name. There are also a few 
in Arabic and Greek. 

Other Sinaitic inscriptions are 
found near the supposed rock of 
Moses; between it and the convent 
of the forty martyrs; and again on 
the rocks of Mount Catherine ; and 
some are met with in Wadee Meg- 
gub and W. Barak. 

At Wadee Magh&ra^ which runs 
from W. Mukuttub to the upper 
road, are some Sinaitic and hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions of early time; 
the latter containing the names of Re- 
4. mai (4.), who ap- 
pears to have been 
O 1 the same as Papi ; 
Shofo, Su- 
phis, or Cheops 

1^ V P**" 

(5*)f and of several other very an- 
cient Pharaohs. 



Tlie word Magh&ra signifies a ''cave.'* 
In Wadee T}6neh are other hiero* 
giypliic inscriptions, with the names 
of early Pharaohs; 

IS. IS. 15. 

and on a sandstone rock in Wadee Ke- 
neh is that of a very ancient king, with 
the date of his 3rd year. (No. 15.) 

Wadee Faran, which, as Niebuhr 
says, has not changed its name since 
the days of Moses, is on the western 
road to Mount SinaL It is a sort of 
oasis, with high mountains, where a 
stream of water flows; which, after 
bursting forth and running with ra- 
pidity for a few hundred yards, is lost 
in the sand. Here are several gar- 
dens with date trees, claimed by the 
Tor Arabs as belonging to them,, and 
cultivated by some of the Gebel ^eh, 
a sort of Arab peasantry, who live 
there, and who are the same class of 
persons as those above mentioned. 
These fiB&he pay a tribute to the 
Arabs in dates. 

These inscriptions are of consider- 
able importance to the antiquary-; but 
the convent, or rather monastery, of 
i St. Catherine, Gebel Moooa, and the 




neighbouring localities, are the great 
object* of interest to those who visit 
the peninsula of Mount Sinai. 

Convent of Mount Sinai, — The 
convent is situated in a narrow val- 
ley, backed on the S. W. by the bold 
granite peaks of Mount Sinai, tliat 
give a grandeur to the scene, while 
they accord with the character of the 
secluded spot chosen for the abode of 
monks. In addition to these impres- 
sions, the traveller is delighted by the 
appearance of a habitation, and the 
sight of other objects as rare and 
pleasing in the desert as the abode of 
human beings, — the green trees of a 
garden, which, however small, has in 
such a spot peculiar charms. 

liie convent stands on the slope of 
a rising ground, on the western side 
of the valley. It is surrounded by 
a strong and lofty wall, defended 
by towers. Moreover, the monks 
have small arms, and even cannon ; 
but there is little reason to suppose 
that circumstances or tlieir inclination 
often call for their use ; and however 
successful they might be in hostility 
against the Arabs, the deatli of their 
enemies would be a far greater mis- 
fortune tlian advantage to the con- 
vent, and would be severely avenged 
by the stoppage of their supplies. 
We may, therefore, conclude that visi- 
tors know much more of these wea- 
pons than the Arabs, and that the 
defence of the convent consists, as 
becomes a Christian commtmity, more 
in the friendly offices performed to 
the Arabs than in their arms: and 
its inaccessible walls, being a suffi- 
cient barrier to unwelcome strangers, 
suffice to prevent the intrusion of idle 
or ill-disposed persons. Though they 
have a back entrance through the 
garden, from which an underground 
passage communicates with the inte- 
rior, the usual mode of admittance is 
by a trap-door, or window, raised 
about 30 feet from the ground, to 
which visitors are drawn up by ropes, 
as at the convents of St. Antony and 
St. Paul, in the Eastern Desert of 

Egypt. The interior consists of 
several courts, with two sets of rooms, 
one over the other ; the doors of the 
ground-floors opening on the open 
area, and those of the upper story on 
a balcony or wooden corridor that 
rnns round it. 

The inmates are Greek Christians. 
In the church are preserved the re- 
lics of the patron, St. Catherine ; 
though Burckhardt says Seetsen is 
wrong in caliinj^ it the ** Convent of 
St. Catherine," as it is not dedicated 
to her but to the Transfiguration, or, 
as the Greeks call it, the Metamorpho- 
sis. That, however, is the name by 
which it is generally known; though 
it does not prevent St. Geor^ from 
receiving a few spare honours in a 
small chapel on the walls, where he is 
represented on his white horse, warring 
with the dragon, and with all the rules 
of drawing, in much the same manner 
as he usually does in the Coptic 
churches ; and the votaries of Islam 
are flattered by the admission of a 
mosk within the precincts of the con- 
vent, with the same object that induces 
the monks of Bibbeli to convert their 
saint into a Moslem sbekb. Nor is 
this the only safeguard against the ani- 
mosity of their religious enemies, or the 
assaults of the Arab freebooter. The 
monks of Mount Sinai have a claim 
on the protection, or, at least, on the 
toleration, of the Moslems, by the ex- 
press order of Mohammed, given them 
during bis (supposed) visit to their 
convent, whidi enjoins his followers to 
abstain from molesting its charitable 
and useful inmates, on condition of 
their feeding those who pass by. Thu 
precious document was preserved by 
them with becoming respect within the 
convent, until Sultan Selim begged or 
demanded its removal to Constanti- 
nople, substituting another written bj 
him fur the same purpose. 

The convent only contains, at this 
time, SO monks. They are governed 
by a superior ; and tome are priests, 
others lay brethren. The various 
duties required for the benefit of the 




community are divided amongst its 
members. One is the baker, another 
the miller, and another the cook ; one 
has the care of the church, another of 
the dresses ; in short, every department 
IS in the hands of a responsible per- 
son, — one of the brethren, — and no 
strange servant is admitted within the 
walls. They have stores sufficient to 
last far a length of time, which they 
take care to replenish long before they 
are too much diminished ; and every at< 
tention is paid to those measures which 
render them independent of the Arabs, 
and capable of at least passive defence. 
The great church is ornamented in 
the manner of similar buildings of 
early Christian times. It has a double 
row of Corinthian columns, and on 
the dome ovn the altar is represented 
the crucifixion in mosaic, of the By- 
zantine style, with portraits of Jus- 
tinian and the Empress Theodora. 
The screen separating the altar from 
the nave is elaborately worked, and 
rich with gilding : a large cross towers 
above all, rising nearly to the roof, 
and the altar is resplendent with 
chalices, candlesticks, and other orna- 
ments. Numerous handsome silver 
lamps are suspended from different 
parts of the ceiling, and many bad 
pictures of saints ornament or dis- 
figure the walls. << The exterior of 
the church,** says Mr. Kinnear, '*is 
without any architectural beauty ; but 
one little circumstance struck me as 
very interesting. This was, several 
shields and coats of arms rudely en- 
graved on the stone, on each side of 
the entrance ; memorials, no doubt, 
of the chivalry of the Crusades, and 
perhaps scratched with the daggers of 
some knightly pilgrims.** 

Th^ most sacred spot within this 
building is the chapel of the Burning 
Bush. ^ We descended a A^w steps,** 
says the same traveller, "from the 
interior of the church to a low door, 
where we were required to take off 
our shoes, before entering this sanc- 
tum sanctorum of the monks, who 
displayed a great deal more fuss and 

ceremony about adtnittiag us, than 
reverence after we were in. It is a 
small circular chapel under a domc^ 
lighted by two or three lamps, and 
containing nothing worthy -of note, 
except two very beautiful illuminated 
MSS. of the gospels, which were lying 
on the altar.** This Bush is a sort of 

They also <*show the silver lid of a 
sarcophagus representing a ftill-length 
figure of the Empress Ann of Russia, 
who, it seems, intended to be buried 
there ; and another, said to contain the 
bones of St. Catherine, which were 
found in the neighbouring mountain ; 
whither, according to the monkish 
legend, her body was conveyed by 
angels. The spot is still marked by a 
small chapel, or hut, which covers a 
bed hollowed out of the rock, where 
the bones lay, and is looked upon 
with great respect by the credulous. 
In the library of the convent area few 
printed books, and some Greek, Ara- 
bic, and other MS& 

The convent is said to have been 
founded by the Emperor Justinian ; 
but Pococke observes that St. Helena, 
the mother of Constantine, appears to 
have been the first to lay the founda- 
tion of it, in the tower she built, pro- 
bably for herself and the monks, 
when she went to Mount Sinai. This 
tower is in the middle of the convent^ 
where the archbishop lives, and is 
called after the name of the raapress. 
There are several small chapels in 
the neighbourhood, and the ruins of 
other convents, which are among the 
objects visited by strangers, but pos- 
sess no interest beyond that given by 
local tradition. 

Some poor people, styling them- 
selves Gebel^eh, ''mountaineers/' live 
in the vicinity of the convent. They 
are said, by Burckhardt, to be de- 
scended from a few slaves, originally 
Christians, from the shores of the 
Black Sea, who were sent by Justinian 
as menial servants to the priests. They 
are dependent for their food on the 
monks, in the same manner as those 

t, S 



of Wadee Airaba are maintained by 
the convent of St. Antony. 

The Gebel Moosa consists of two 
parts ; the lower portion has been 
called Mount Horeb, and the name of 
Mount Sinai has been applied to the 
highest peak, which stands upon the 
elevated platform of Horeb. 

I do not venture, nor do I feel 
myself authorised, to give any opinion 
respecting the disputed claims of 
Gebel Moosa and Mount Catherine to 
the sites of Sinai and Horeb of Scrip- 
ture. Nor will I enter into the 
question of Horeb being the name 
used to denote ** the whole wilderness, 
including the lower group, called 
Gebel l^rbal, as well as the upper 
group of Mount Sinai;** or of Sinai 
being, as Mr. Kinnear supposes, 
** the general names fur tlie whole 
cluster,** which is the opinion of Dr. 
Robinson. I may, however, observe, 
that Horeb is sometimes mentioned 
as *< an individual mountain,** in the 
same manner as Sinai, and is deno- 
minated **the mount Horeb.** (l^iod. 
iixviii. 6. ; Deut. i. 6.) 

The stone which is supposed by the 
monks to have been the one struck by 
Moses, and from which the water 
gushed out in Rcphidim, is a piece of 
the granite rock which has fallen from 
the mountain above, and lies in a 
hollow recess at the place where it 
was stopped in its fall. It is remark- 
able for an unusual appearance in the 
centre of one side, which the credulous 
have converted into the marks of 
falling water. 

On the top of Sinai is shown a 
fissure in the rock, where Moses is 
supposed to have retired when the 
glory of the Lord passed by ; which, 
like all other localities, has been long 
looked upon with undoubting faith 
by the monks, and has been often 
questioned by sceptics. I do not 
pretend to enter upon these and other 
controverted points ; but I cannot help 
expressing a regret, which all mu&t 
feel, that though many have visited 
this desert, we are still without an 

accurate trigonometrical survey of so 
interesting a district. 

From Sucx to the town of Tor the 
rocks are limestone; the primitive 
range extends thence nearly to Raa 
Mohammed, the headland at its 
soutliern extremity, at the point of 
which the h'mestone again appears, 
and runs to the eastward, or north- 
east, along the coast to a little beyond 
e* Shurm, where the primitive rocks 
again advance to the sea. All the 
mountain ranges about Gebel Moosa 
and the convent are primitive, and 
stretch thence in a north-easterly di- 
rection to Sar&but el Khadero, where 
the secondary sandstones begin, in- 
tervening between the primitive and 
the limestone strata, and extending 
thence on the west nearly to tlie town 
of Tor, and on the east in the direc- 
tion of El Akaba. 

The town of Tor is not worth 
visiting. It is a mere seaport, in- 
ferior to Suez, and about 40 mi lea 
from the convent. 

It was probably founded originally 
by the Phoenicians, and appears to 
have been called Phoenicon by the 
Greeks, though its real name was per- 
haps taken from the mother city 
Tyre, Toor, or Txur. 





Convent to Wadee el Orfan 

- 4 


Wadee Murrah - 

- 8 


Ain el Hudhera (ffazeroih) 



W. e' Sumghee - 

- 4 


Ain e' Nuweibia (then by the 


- 4 


Ain el Wasit 

- 1 


Ahoo Suwcirah - 

- 7 


W. el Mekubbeleh 

- 4 


W. Mer&kh, moutli 

- 3 


N.W. Corner of Gulf - 

- 4 


Castle of £1 Akaba - 


El Akaba, or Akkaha, at t 

- 1 




he nortb- 

Egypt. ROUTE 9. — mount sinai to el akaba. 


east extremity of tbe EUnitic gulf, 
contains some miserable houses and 
a fort, where a governor resides with 
a few Turks. Tlie name signiBes *' a 
mountain pass.*' It is a pretty spot, 
with the advantage of the sea l>efore 
it, which, after the monotonous co- 
lour of the desert, is a pleasing ob- 
ject ; but it may be doubted whether 
it is worth the journey, if the traveller 
does not intend going thence to Petra. 
It stands about 2 miles south of the 
site of AUdih or AUath, which, like 
its neighbour Esion-geber, was re- 
markable for tbe importance attached 
to it in the time of Solomon, and 
from having been the channel by 
which the treasures of Arabia and 
India flowed to Syria. It was the 
possession of this point that led to 
the wealth of Solomon; and it is 
curious to observe how every place 
has successively risen to importance 
the moment it enjoyed the beneflts of 
the Indian trade. 

When the Edomites were con- 
quered by David, the whole of their 
country to the head of the Elanitic 
•gulf fell into the possession of the 
Jews; all the *< Edomites became 
David's servants,*' and " he put gar- 
risons in Edom." (1 Chron. xviii. 
11.) Solomon afterwards establ ished 
and " made a navy of ships afr Esion- 
geber, which is beside Elotb, on the 
shore of the Red Sea, in the land of 
Edom.'* The ships were navigated 
by Phoenicians in the service of tbe 
Jewish king, whose friendship with 
Hiram secured for him the aid of 
those skilful navigators ; and this 
important source of wealth continued 
' in the hands of the kings of Judah 
until the Edomites .<' revolted from 
under the hand of Judah, and made a 
king over themselves,** in tbe reign of 
Joram. (1 Kings iz. 26. ; 2 Kings 
viii. 20.) 

Eloth was called by the Romans 
AUa or Mia; but this and Esion- 
geber lost all their importance under 
the Greeks and Romans; the ports 
of Berenice, Myos Hormos, and 

Arsinoe, succeeded to the commerce 
of the East ; and the Elanitic gulf en- 
joyed little of the lucrative trafllc of 
former days. And if Petra, the 
capital of the Edomites, which once 
profited so much from the passage of 
Eastern commerce, continued to the 
late time of the Roman empire to 
benefit^'by its position on the way 
from Arabia to Syria, the trade that 
passed through it was principally con- 
fined to that of caravans, the rise of 
Alexandria having put a stop to tbe 
traffic from the eastern end of the 
Red Sea. 

AUa or AUeh is mentioned by 
Arab writers, and a quotation from 
Macriii, given by Burckhardt, speaks 
of it as near to Esion-geber. ** It 
is from hence that tbe Hedjaz begins. 
In former times it was the frontier 
place of the Greeks: at 1 mile from 
it is a triumphal arch of the Caesars. 
In the time of Islam it was a fine 
town, inhabited by the Beni Omeya. 
Ibn Ahmed Ibn Touloun (a caliph 
of Egypt) made tbe road over the 
Akaba, or steep mountain, before 
Aila. There were many mosks at 
Aila, and many Jews lived there. It 
was taken by the Franks during the 
crusades, but in 566 a. h. Salah ed 
deen (Saladin) transported ships on 
camels from Cairo to this place, and 
recovered it from them. Near Aila 
was formerly situated a large 
and handsome town called Asxiouii 

^^»ygg. (Aseeoon), (Esion-geber),' 

which in Hebrew is written Attioun- 

Gebr(n33 jl^VV)." 

The crusaders also took possession 
of the island of Grata, now known to 
the Arabs as the Kalat e' dayr, *< the 
citadel of the convent.** It has been 
fortified, and remains of the works 
may still be perceived, though it does 
not appear from Laborde's account, 
who contrived to reach it on a raft, to 
be worthy of a visit. 

In going to Petra ( Wadu Mootd) 
from El Akaba, it is necessary to 
make an agreement with the AUoween 

L S 




Arabs ; but taking adrantage of the 
position of the traTeller in these 
lonely regions, who must pay what- 
ever they choose to ask, <Mr give up his 
journey, their demands have become 
so exorbitant, that few will feel dis- 
posed to take this route ; and it is far 
better to go from Hebron. 

There are two roads from He- 
bron to Petra (Wadee Moosa) ; the 
eastern one by the south end of the 
Dead Sea, occupies 44 b. 50 m. ; 
the western road, 42 h. 10 m. From 
£1 Akaba to Hebron, or £1 Khaleel, 
is 71 b. 45 m. ; £1 Akaba to Jeru- 
salem, 80 h.; but the best road to 
Syria is from Cairo, or from Suei, on 
returning from Mount Sinai. 

ROUTE 10. 

cAiao TO sraiA. 

Cairo, by Heliopolis, or Mate- 

r^eh, to the Birket el Hag ] OJ 
To separation from the Maazee 

road to Sues - - - 10 
To ascent of hills of Um 

Gummal - - - 10 

To centre of bed of old canal 

to Arsinoe - - - 30 

Salah^'eh - ... 20 

Kateeh .... 50 

£1 Areesh . . . 65 

To Gasa ( Ghuneh) . - 524 


The road passes a short way to the 
south of Heliopolis, and of the Bir- 
ket el Hag, over the plain where 
Toman Bey was defeated by Sulun 
Selim. After leaving the Maasee 
road you turn round the eastern cor- 
ner of the large sand hills of Und- 
th£m. Um- Gummal is high land, 
and from the summit the pyramids 
are seen to the west, and Gebel 
AtUga, near Sues, to the east. About 
6 miles further you cross the Wadee 
Jaffra, which runs down to Belbays, 
about 9 miles to the left. In the 

ancient canal of Arsinoe you pass 
near the mounds of an old town, 
called Tel e* Rigibeh. About 6 miles 
to the east of it is another old town 
called Abookeshiyd, or e* SAgheea 
(•e« RouU 7), on tlte canal also, lliere 
are the mounds of another town on 
the south bank before you descend 
into the canal, about three quarters of 
a mile from Tel e' Rigibeh, and 8 
miles after leaving the canal are the 
hills called £1 Beeud, <*the white." 

Salah^h was probably either Tara- 
sarta, or Sile, of the Itinerary of An- 
toninus. One of the roads is more 
direct than this, and leaves Salah^h 
considerably to the left. Several 
mounds of ancient towns are seen in 
the distance ; and Tel Defenneh, 
which is nearly in a direct line be- 
tween Salah^eh and Pelusium, marks 
the site of Daphne, the Tehaphnelies 
or Tahpanhesof the Bible, which was 
a fortified outpost of Pelusium, and 
distant from it 1 6 Roman miles. At 
T:ihpanhes the Egyptian king is said 
by Jeremiah to have had a palace. 
(Jeremiah liii. 9.) 

Pelusium lies considerably to the 
left of the road. The remains there 
consist of mounds, and a few broken 
columns. It is difficult of access, 
and is only approachable during the 
high Nile, or when the summer's 
sun has dried the mud that is left 
there by tbe inundation. It stands 
near the sea-shore. It is now called 
Teeneh (TineK), which seems to 
indicate the muddy nature of the soil 
in the vicinity, for which some sup- 
pose it was indebted to its ancient 
appellation Pelusium, peioi being the 
Greek for ** mud.** Its ancient name 
probably resembled the Peremoun or 
Pheromi of the Copts, and the latter 
is the origin of tbe Farama of the 
Arabs, by which it is still known ; 
though Savary states that *' Farama 
was founded to the £. of Pelusium* 
which was a ruin in the ISth cen- 

Pelusium in former times was a 
place of great consequence. It was 




strongly fortified, being the bulwark 
of Uie Egyptian frontier on the eastern 
side, and was considered tlie '* Key,** 
or, as Eiekiel calls it, the *< Strength 
of Egypt.** It was called in Scrip- 
ture «* Sin." (Ezek. zix. 15, 16.) 
Near this the unfortunate Pompey 
n^et his desth, basely murdered by 
order of Ptolemy and his minister 
Photinus, whose protection he had 
claimed, b. c. 48. 

The young king was engaged in a 
war with his sister Cleopatra, whom 
he had just before ei pel led the king- 
dom ; and the two armies were en- 
camped opposite each other in the 
vicinity of Pelusium, when the galley 
of Pompey arrived; and Achillas, 
who afterwards figured so conspicu- 
ously in the Alexandrian war against 
Caesar, aided by L. Septimius and 
Sabinus, Romans in the Egyptian 
service, " under pretence of taking 
him ashore, invited him into a boat 
and treacherously slew him.** A 
mound of sand on the coast, about 
4 hours to the wtH of Pelusium, called 
by the Arabs the Roman hill, is said 
to record the spot of Pompey's death. 
His body was indeed burnt on the 
sea-shore by his freedman Philip, and 
Cssar is said to have raised a monu- 
ment to his memory, which was after- 
wards repaired by Adrian, and visited 
by Severus. But '* the ashes of Pom- 
pey were taken to his widow, Cor- 
nelia, who buried them at his villa 
near Alba,** though Lucan would 
seem to say that they were still in 
Egypt in his time. Be this as it may, 
the tomb might still remain; but 
Pliny places it to the eati of Pelusium, 
in the direction of Mons Casius. The 
** Roman hill ** cannot therefore be 
the *' tumulus ** of Pompey ; and the 
tomb which Aboolfeda, on the au- 
thority of Ebn Haukel, gives to 
Galen, may perhaps be transferred to 
Pompey. Certain it is that the phy- 
sician of Aurelius was not buried in 
Egypt, but in his native place Per- 
gamus ; and the distance from Pelu- 
sium, mentioned by Pliny, seems too 

great for the position of Pompey's 

On the coast to the east of Pe- 
lusium, Pliny mentions ** Chabriae 
Castra, Casius Mons, the sanctuary 
of Jupiter Casius, the tumulus of 
Pompey, and Ostracina,** which were 
on the Lake Sirbonis. Ostracina is 
now Straki, and is about 88 milea 
west of El Areesh. 

Magdolum is supposed to have been 
about half way between Tacasartaand 
Penta Schcenon, which last may have 
been at the modem Kat^h. 

Ebn Said says that the sea of 
Kolsim (Arabian Oulf) is so close 
to the Mediterranean, in this part, 
that Amer ebn el As had intended 
cutting a canal through the Isthmus, 
at the spot called the Crocodile's Tail, 
but was prevented by Omar, w1k> 
feared lest the Greek pirates should 
plunder the pilgrims of Mecca. 

El Areesh (Arish) has succeeded 
to the ancient' Rhinocolura, which 
was a place of exile in the time of the 
Pharaohs, and was so called from the 
malefactors having their <* noses cut 
ofl^'* instead of the punishment of 
death. "At one season of the year 
numerous quails visited the district, 
which they caught in long nets made 
with (fastened to) split Keds;** and 
these birds are often met with through- 
out this part of the desert, as in the 
days of Actisanes. 

Wailee el Areesh is supposed to be 
the torrent or "river of Egypt,** 
which was the ancient boundary od the 
side of Syria. 

The road continues very near the 
sea-coast, the whole way from El 
Areesh to Gasa. Rather more than 
halfway from El Areesh is Refah, 
the ancient Rhaphia, off the road to 
the westward ; Khan Yoones has 
succeeded to Yenisus, and Anthodon 
probably stood to the S. of Wadee 

At Gasa a quarantine is performed 
of a few days, according to the sup- 
posed state of Egypt. 
I Gaxa or Ghusseh, once a large 

L 4 



Sect. II 

city, and <' strongly fortified,** as iu 
Hebrew and Arabic names imply, is 
now a small open town, containing 
about 4000 inbabtUnts. It per- 
formed a distinguished part in the 
early history of Palestine, and is often 
mentioned in the Bible ; but it was 
destroyed on the conquest of Syria by 
the Moslems, and bas never since re- 
covered its importance as a city. 



Cairo, or Boolak, to the point 

of the Delu ... 16 

Bershoom, East bank . . 9 
Beuha-eUAssal (Athribts), £. 

bank - - - - 20 

Entrance of Canal of Mo^s - 2| 

Sahrigt (Natho), E. bank - 17 

Zifteb and Mit Ghumr, £. &W. 6 

Semenood ( Sebennytus), W. - 26 

Bebayt el Hagaf (Iseum), W. 6\ 
Mensoora, and mouth of Canal 

of Menzileli, £. - - 6^ 

Shiribin W. - - - - 22 

Faraskoor, E. - - - 22 

Damietta, E. - - - 12 

The point of the Deha was for- 
merly a little below the palace of 
Sho<^ra, where the Pelusiac branch 
turned off to the N. N. E. towards 
Bubastis. It is now at the junction 
of the* Rosetta and Damietta branches. 
These two, the ancient Bolbitine and 
Bucolic (or Phatmetic) branches, are 
said by Herodotus to have been 
** made by the hand of man,*' and 
are the only two remaining, the 
ethers having either entirely disap- 
peared, or being dry in summer; 
which would seem to explain an ap- 
parently unintelligible prophecy of 
Isaiah, that man ^ould go over the 
Nile «< dry shod." (Isaiah zi. 15.) 

Berikoom is famous for its figs; 
and a little beyond, on the opposile 
bank, inland in the Delta, is Pha. 
Taoon^h, from which the canal of 

Menoof, connecting the two branches 
of the Nile, derired its name. . This 
canal began id>out four miles farther 
north, close to the village of Beer- 
shems, and passing by Menoof, fell 
into the Rosetta branch at Nader. 
About thirty years ago it was found 
necessary lo close its eastern en- 
trance, in consequence of its carrying 
off tlie water into the Rosetta branch ; 
and other navigable canals have been 
used for communication with the inte- 
rior. Four or five miles lower down is 
the canal of Karinayn, another noble 
work. At e* Jaffar^eb it separates 
into two channels, one going to the 
W. to Tanta, and the other by Ma^ 
ballet el Kebcti^r, to the sea, which it 
enters at the old Sebennytic mouth, 
and the Pineptimi ostium, one of the 
false mouths of the Nile. The 
western channel that goes to Tanta 
is only navigable for small craft after 
January ; but the other is sufficiently 
deep to admit boats of 200 ardebs 
burthen the whole year. It is, how- 
ever, closed by a bridge and sluices 
at Santab, below e' Jaffar^h; and 
here goods are transferred to smaller 
boats for Nabaro, and those places 
with which the communication is 
kept up by other chanpels. This is 
the generid principle of all the large 
canals of the Delta, and has been 
adopted in that of Moes, and some- 
times in that of Alexandria. 

Benka-d'Aual, «* Benlia of honey,** 
is the successor of Athribis, whose 
mounds are seen to the north. They 
still bear the name of Atre^b. The 
town appears to have been of con- 
siderable extent, nearly a mile in 
length, £. and W., and three quartera 
of a mile N. and S. It was inter- 
sected by two main streets crosdng 
each other nearly at right angles; 
and there was probably a square at 
the spot where they met A little 
beyond this quadrivium, or crossway, 
to the W., is another open space, 
apparently the site of the principal 
temple, and traces may perhaps be 
discovered of the sacred enclosure on 




the outer side. In the streets are 
seTeral large buildings, whose po- 
sitions are marked by granite columns, 
some with capitals of the same kind of 
stone, others of marble, and of the 
Corinthian order. They are of Ro- 
man time, and 1 suppose that the 
main streets had colonnades on either 
side, like those of Antinoe. A short 
distance from the extremity of the 
eastern street is a small column with 
spiral flutes ; there are also some 
houses with vaulted rooms, and others 
built of burnt brick, of late time ; but 
the ruins are mostly of the usual crude 
brick of Egyptian towns. I found 
no sculptures, except on a stone once 
belonging to the wall of a temple, 
and now the threshold of a shekh's 
tomb, representing a king offering to 
a god. There are several Corin- 
thian capitals lying about, and a block 
of Christian time, representing a saint 
holding a cross, badly executed, in 
the worst village-tombstone style, and 
unworthy of a town which held the 
rank of an episcopal see. I also 
picked up several small objects du- 
ring my rambles over these mounds, 
evidently of a Roman date. 

That Athribis possessed build* 
ings of olden time is certain, not 
only from the antiquity of the 
place, but from a monument found 
there, that still may be seen near the 
government manufactory of Benha- 
eUAssal. It is a granite lion, bear- 
ing the name of Remeses the Great, 
who did more towards the embellish- 
ment of the cities of the Delta than 
any other Pharaoli. 

To the N. of the town is a double 
row of low mounds, resembling the 
banks of a canal, or the remains of 
walls ; but they extend only to a cer- 
tain distance, al>out 2000 feet, and 
are closed at the eastern end, so that 
they suit neither ^f these two. 

Many of the bouses of the town 
have bc^n burnt, as is frequently the 
case in Egyptian towns; and parts 
of the mounds have been used for 
tombs^ doubtless ui after times, when 

the limits of the inhabited part were 
contracted. They may, therefore, 
be referred to a late Roman or Chris- 
tian e|K)ch, like those at Bubastis and 
other towns ; and thus the occurrence 
of tombs in the midst of houses, which 
is at first perplexing, may be ac- 
counted for. 

The modem village of Atreeb, or 
Treeb, is built at the eastern extre- 
mity of the old city, but contains a 
very small population. Benha-el- 
Assal is about one-third of a mile to 
the S. W., close to the river. It was 
long famous for its honey, whence it 
received its name ; and this town 
supplied part of the present seiit by 
John Mekaukes, the Coptic governor 
of Egypt, to Mohammed, which 
consisted of two Copt virgins, one 
of whom became his wife, a piece of 
fine cloth, a mule, and a jar of honey 
from Benhael-i^ifo/. Beershems now 
claims the honour of having this rare 
production of Eg}pt in the greatest 
quantity, and Benha has nothing left 
it but Uie name. 

To the N. of this town is the en- 
trande to the Toorat Moes, or Canal 
of Moes, which takes the water to 
Zakaxeek, and thence to the L4ike 
Menzaleh by the old Tanitic chan- 

Continuing down the Damietta 
branch, no place of any great interest 
occurs between Athribis and Seben- 
nytus. Sahrigt on the E. occupies 
the site of Natho, and is called in 
Coptic Nathopi. The isle of Natho 
was on the other side of the Nile. 
Zifteh and Mit Ghumr stand on op- 
posite* sides of the river ; they have 
the rank of bSnder or town. Mit 
Damsees is the Pitemsi6t of the 
Copts. Benneh, in Coptic Piueban 
or Penouan, has the mounds of an 
old town, but no remains, and is now 
a small village. Abooter is larger, 
and has more extensive mounds, 
marking the site of Busiris. It is 
called by the Copts Bosiri. The 
mounds extend beyond the village to 
the westward, and a short disunce 

L 5 



Sect. n. 

beyond is another mound, said to 
have belonged to the old town. After 
many inquiries and searching all orer 
the place, I found nothing but the 
granite thresholds of doors, and co- 
lumns of Roman time in the princi- 
pal mosk. A few large stones are 
also seen here and there, but none 
bearing hieroglyphics, except part of 
a column, apparently of Ptolemaic 
time, in the smaller ruined mosk, 
and a stone at the door of a shekh*s 
tomb at the south end of the village. 
This has belonged to an ancient tomb, 
and is of old style, like the false doors 
of grottoes at £1 Bersheh; but nothing 
can be traced relating to the name of 
Busiris, nor to the worship of the 
deity from whom it was so called. 

Semenocd is a place of some sise, 
'With the usual baaaars of the large 
towns of £gypt» and famous for its 
pottery, which is sent to Cairo. Here 
are the mounds of Sebennytus, the dty 
of Sem, (Gem, or Gom,) the Egyp- 
tian Hercules. In Coptic it is called 
Gemnouti, which implies ** Gem the 
God,*' and shows the origin of the 
present as well as the orthography of 
the ancient name ; and it is remark- 
able that the name of the god begins 
with the word nouU in many legends. 

On arriving at Semenood, I in- 
quired of the people for sculptured 
stones, and was shown some granite 
blocks with hieroglyphics, two of 
which had the name of Alexander, 
and one the figure of the deity of ihe 
place, who is the same supposed by 
Cbampollion to be the Egyptian Gem 
or Hercules. It lies close to the 
principal oil-mill of the town, the 
owner of which is most profuse in his 
praises of the stone, his property, 
which he would willingly sell to the 
first bidder. On a block built into 
the modern quay are a few hierogly- 
phics of no importance. 

Boats are constantly employed in 
keeping up the communication with 
the different towns of the Delu 
throughout the year, the reCt callinc 
out the name of the place he is bound 

for, to obtain passengers, like the 
conductor of an omnibus. 

A Greek papyrus in the possession 
of Signor d*Anastasy, the Swedish 
consul-general, speaks of a temple of 
Mars, Oyovpts (Onuris, Honurius), at 
Sebennytus ; and it is much to be re- 
gretted tliat this curious document 
has not been published. 

Bebayt'^l'Hagart theancient lseum» 
is little more than 6 miles below Se- 
menood, opposite Weesh, and about 
1^ mile from the nr^T, Hie remains 
are very interesting, and larger than 
in any other town of the Delta. They 
are inferior in stvle to those of San 


(Tanis), being of a Ptolemaic time ; 
but the number of sculptured blocks, 
and the beauty of the granite, used in 
this temple, are very striking ; and if 
Bebayt does not boast the number of 
obelisks, which must have had a very 
grand eflfect at Tanis, it has the merit 
of possessing rich and elaborate sculp- 
tures; and to the antiquary is par- 
ticularly interesting, from its present- 
ing the name of the deity worshipped 
there, and that of the ancient town. 
Isis was evidently the divinity of this 
city, and it was from this that the 
Greeks and Romans gave it the name 
of Ision or Iseum. By the Egyp* 
tians it was called Hebai or Hebait, 
'*the city of assembly," which has 
been preserved by the modern inha- 
bitants in the name Bebayt ; with the 
affix el Haggar, " of the stone,** from 
its numerous stone remains. 

The temple, like many others in 
Egypt, Mood in an extensive square 
about 1500 by 1000 feet,*kurrounded 
by a crude brick wall, doubtless with 
stone gateways ; which was the tememo» 
or sacred enclosure, and was planted 
with trees, as Herodotus informs 
us in descriUng that of Bubastis. 
These are the grovt denounced in 
the Bible as an alsmination to the 
God of Israel. (Exod. zxxiv. 13. ; 
Deut. xii. 8. ; 2 Kings zviL 10.) 

The temple itself was about 400 
feet long, or 600 to the outer vesti- 
bule, by about SOO in breadth, and 




built of granite, some red, some grey, 
of a very beautiful quality, and cover- 
ed with sculptures, in intaglio aftd in 
relief. Many of the blocks are of 
very great sixe ; and though the tem- 
ple has beeu entirely destroyed, and 
the broken stones forcibly torn from 
their places, and thrown in the great- 
est confusion one upon the other, it 
is easy to form an idea of its former 
magnificence. It is entirely of gra- 
nite — walls, columns, roofs, and door- 
ways; affording a striking instance 
of the use of this stone in the Delta ; 
for tliough the building is so large, no 
Mock of the ordinary kinds employed 
in Upper Egypt has here been ad- 
mitted. The whole appears to have 
been erected by Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus, whose name occurs in all the 
dedications, and who alone is seen 
presenting offerings to the gods. The 
principal divinities are Isis, (the deity 
of the place, who has always the title 
"Ladyof Hebai-t;*') 0»iris,( who fre- 
quently accompanies her, and is gene- 
rally called •'Lord of Hebai-t;**) 
Anubis, Savak, (the crocodile-headed 
god,} and some others whose legepds 
are lost, and who may possibly be 
characters of Osiris. 

Unfortunately it has been so com- 
pletely destroyed that the plan cannot 
easily be recognised ; and such is the 
mass of broken blocks, that yoa can 
go down amongst them to the depth 
of 12 and 15 feet; below which are 
the numerous abodes of jackals, hares, 
and other animals, who alone rejoice 
in the ruinous state to which this 
building has been reduced. Nothing 
seems to be in its original position. 
The door- ways are seen, as well as 
parts of cornices, ceilings, architraves, 
and walls; but all in confusion, and 
hurled from their places ; and one is 
surprised at the force and labour that 
must have been used for the destruc- 
tion of this once splendid building. 
The ceilings have been studded with 
the usual tive pointed Egyptian stare. 
The cornices have the Egyptian tri- 
gfyphi with the ovals of the king be- 

tween them ; but in some the name of 
** Isis, the beautiful mother-goddess ** 
is substituted for the rojal prenomen, 
and is accompanied by the nomen of 

On one of the walls, about the cen- 
tre of tlie temple, is represented the 
sacred boat, or ark, of Isis; and in 
the shrine it bears is the '* Lady of 
Hebai-t,'* seated between two figures 
of goddesses, like the Jewish Cheru- 
bim, who seem to protect her with 
their wings. They occur in two com- 
partments, one over the other, at the 
centre of the shrine ; and these figures 
were doubtless the holy and unseen 
contents of the sacred repository, 
which no profane eye was permitted 
to behold, and which were generally 
covered with a veil. In the upper 
one Isis is seated on a lotus flower, 
and the two figures are standing ; in 
the other all three are seated, and be- 
low are four kneeling figures, one 
with a man's, the other three with 
jackals* beads, beating their breasts. 
At either end of the boat is the head 
of the goddess, and the legend above 
shows it to have belonged to her. The 
king stands liefore it, presenting an 
offering of incense to Isis. The stone 
has been broken, and part of the pic- 
ture has been taken away ; but on a 
fragment below, that appears to have 
belonged to it, is represented a sledge 
on trucks with the usual ring attaclied 
to the end, for drawing it into the 
»iko»f of which this doubtless marks 
the site. It was probably one of 
those isolated sanctuaries, that stood 
near the centre of the naoB, or body of 
the temple. 

The sculptures on this wall, as on 
some other portions of the building, 
are in relief, — an unusual mode of 
sculpturing granite, which shows the 
great expense and labour bestowed on 
the temple of the goddess, and the 
importance of her temple. That it 
was very handsome is evident ; and to 
it might be applied the remark made 
by Herodotus respecting tlie temple 
of Bubastis — that many were larger, 

L 6 



Sect. n. 

but few so bemutiful. Besides the 
nn usual mode of sculpturing granite 
rn relief, the size of some of the hiero- 
glyphics is remarkable, being no less 
than 1 4 inches long, and all wrought 
with great care. The cornices varied 
in different parts of the building ; and 
one, perhaps of the wall of the $Skoi 
itself, has the heads of Isis surmount- 
ed by a shrine alternating with the 
oval of the king, in which, however, the 
hieroglyphics have not been inserted. 

On the lower compartment of the 
walls, in this part of the temple, were 
the not uncommon figures uf the god 
Nilus in procession, bNMtring vases and 
emblems. Between each are water 
plants, and they have a cluster of 
those of the upper and of the lower 
country, alternately on their heads; 
emblematic of the nature of the river, 
as the position of this deity at the base 
of the walls denoted the benefits de^ 
rived from the Nile — the foundation 
and support of the whole of Egypt. 
Not far from this are the capitals of 
large columns, in the form of Isis* 
heads, bearing a shrine, like those of 
Dendera. Though inferior in sise, 
they excel them in the quality of the 
materials, being granite instead of 

There appears to be a very great 
variety in the sculptures, which mostly 
represent offerings to Ins and the 
cont«mp1ar deities, as in other Pto- 
lemaic buildings; and in one place 
the hawk-headed Hor-Hat conducts 
the king into the presence of the god- 
dess of the temple. But the battle 
scenes and grand religious processions 
of old times are wanting here, as in 
other temples of a Ptolemaic and 
Roman epoch ; and though the sculp- 
tures are rich and highly finished, 
they are deficient in the elegance of a 
Pharaonicage, — tlie fault of all Greco- 
£(ryptian sculpture, and one which 
strikes every eye accustomed to mo- 
numents erected before the decadence 
of art in Egypt. 

The modern village stands to the 
N. W., a little beyond the enclosure 
of the ttmenoB, and near it is a lake 

containing water all the year, except 
after unusually low inundations, 
which was probably once atuched to 
the temple, like those of Kamak and 
other places. 

After finishing my examination of 
these ruins, I h^ the satisfaction of 
shooting the great enemy of the vil- 
lage, a large wolf, which in broad 
daylight was prowling about the 
field, that now occupies part of tlie 
enclosure of the temple. It had been 
a great annoyance to the people, and 
had been in the habit of entering the 
village at night, and carrying off 
sheep, poultrVf and whatever it could 
find; so that its death caused great 
joy among those who had suffered 
from its unwelcome visits. 

Inland from Bebayt el Hagar is Be- 
no6b, which occupies the site of Om- 
pkis, but as far as I could learn, with- 
out any stone remains, or any other 
indication of the ancient town beyond 
its moands. 

Manio6ra is one of the largest 
towns of the Delta, with basaars, 
several mosks, and a government par- 
lace, and is one of the most flourish- 
ing in this part of Egypt. It was 
founded by Melek el Kamel in 1921, 
as Aboolfeda states, at the time of the 
siege of Damietta, to serve as a point 
(Tappuif and was called Manso^ra, 
** the Victorious," from his defeat of 
the Crusaders in that spot, at the 
time the city was building. Ii was 
there that Louis I X. was imprisoned, 
after his disastrous retreat, and cap- 
ture, in 1250 It is famous for its 
manufacture of a sort of crape called 
kherdytheh ; sail-cloth, and other cot- 
ton and linen stuffs, common to the 
large towns of the Delta, are also 
made there. In sise it holds the sixth 
place among the provincial towns of 
Egypt, after Osioot, the capital of the 
Saeed, Mahallet-el-Kebeer, Alexan> 
dria, Damietta, and JMenoof. 

Manso6ra has no ruins, and is not 
supposed to occupy the site of any an* 
cient city. On the N. side of it is the 
entrance to the canal of Menaaleh or 
Ashmoon. There is nothing worthy 




of remark between Man8o6ra and 

Damietta or D<tmiatt once famous 
as the principal emporium on this 
side of the Delta, has sunk in im- 
portance, in proportion as Aleiandria 
has increased, and now only carries 
on a little commerce with Syria and 
Greece. Its rice and fisheries, how- 
ever, enable it to enjoy a lucratire 
trade with the interior. It was once 
' famous for its manufacture of leather 
and striped cloths, which last, when 
imported into Europe, receiyed from 
it the name dimity. The Houses are 
well built, though inferior to those of 
Rosetta ; and the town is one of the 
largest in Egypt, with a population of 
28,000 souls. 

Damietta is known in the history 
of the Crusaders as the bulwark of 
Egypt on that side, and its capture 
was always looked upon as the most 
important object in their expeditions 
against that country. Aboolfeda says 
**it stood on the shore, where the 
river runs into the sea; until the 
danger to which it was exposed, from 
the Franks, induced the Egyptian 
caliphs to change its position ; and 
the modem town was founded higher 
up the Nile, about five miles further 
from the sea.** According to Abool- 
feda, the old Damietta was destroyed, 
and the inhabitants were transferred 
to the village of Mensh^eh, which 
was built in its stead, and which after- 
wards succeeded to the importance 
and name of the ancient town ; and 
Michaelis, on the authority of Nie- 
buhr, says Mensheeb is the name of 
one of the squares, or plaeei, of the 
modern Damietta. The time of this 
change of position, and the destruc- 
tion of the old town are fixed by 
Aboolfeda in the year of the Hegtra 
648 (a. d. 125 1 ). The old Damietta 
had been walled round and fortified 
by Motawukkel, the tenth of the 
^ Abbaside caliphs (about a. d. 850) ; 
and the new town was built by Bay- 
b6rs, the fourth sultan of the Baharite 
The ancient name of the original 

Damietta was Tamiithis, and the 
many antique columns and blocks 
found in tlie present town have pro- 
bably been brought from its ruins. 
They are principally in the mo&ks ; 
and on a slab used for the ablutions 
of the faithful, in the mosk of Aboo- 
lita, (a short way outside the town, 
on the east,) is a Greek inscription 
with the name of Tennesus. 

Other Towni in the Delta The 

sites of many interesting towns exist 
in the Delta which are little known, 
but which would probably repay the 
curious traveller for the trouble of a 
visit. Few ruins of consequence 
might reward his research; but the 
discovery of the name or figure of a 
deity on the fragment of a temple, or 
the exact position of the mounds, 
might enable him to determine the 
town they belonged to, and make us 
better acquainted with the ancient geo- 
graphy of a district now imperfectly 
known. The sites, too, of Buto, of 
the Isle of Helbo, and many other 
places of note mentioned in history, 
are of no less interest to the geogra- 
pher than to the antiquary. 

Near the centre of the Delta is 
Tanta, well known for its fStee in 
honour of Sa^d Ahmed el Beddowec, 
a Moslem saint of great renown. He 
was bom at Fez in a. h. 596 (a. i>. 
1200), and having passed through 
TanU, with all his family, on his way 
to Mecca, established himself in that 
place on his return, and was buried 
there at his death. 

These fites are celebrated twice a 
year ; one at the beginning of March, 
and the greater /e/c* during the inun- 
dation, a little before the canals are 
cut. Both are attended by an immense 
concourse of Moslems, who perform 
a sort of pilgrimage to the tomb of 
this holy personage. Some have 
stated their number to be 150,000; 
and, as at the festival of Bubastis, in 
old times, a greater -quantity of wine 
was consumcii than at any otlier period 
of theyear,so at Tanta greater excesses 
are committed by the modern Egyp- 
tians than on any other occasion. 


People of all classes, and of all 
Moslem nations, who happen to be in 
Egypt, repair to the festival; and 
many a Cairene, who has not an op- 
portunity of joining a party to Tania, 
is left to regret the pleasure, or the 
profit, be has lost ; for with many it 
is a source of speculation, as well as 
pleasure ; and tome repay themseWes 
handsomely for the journey. The 
greater part, however, attend merely 
for amusement, and a few faifhas 
at the tomb are repeated, without 
much trouble, on the chance of a 
blessing from the saint. 

The fUe lasts eight days, and is 
succeeded by that of Ibrahim e* Des- 
8o61cee, held at the village of Dessook, 
on the Rosetta bmnch, nearly opposite 
e* Rahman^eh. This, which is second 
only in rank to thefite of Tanta, is 
followed by those of Aboore^, of 
Aboo Mando6r, of el Boab, of el 
Abb&see, and others, each lasting 
eight days. These yiSfef occur twice 
a year, those of Cairo once only ; the 
people of the Delta perhaps thinking 
that sufficient honour would not be 
done to their saint unless they gave 
him two birthdays in the year. 

The Sayd el Beddowee seems to 
hare succeeded to the god of Seben- 
nytus, the Egyptian Hercules, whose 
attributes have been given him by 
popular fancy or tradition. It is the 
Saj^d whose aid is invoked, when any 
one is in need of Mtrtngth to resist a 
sudden calamity ; thecfiectsofastorm, 
or any frightful accident are thought 
to be averted by calling out ** Ya 
Sayd, ya Beddowee ; " and the song 
of •< Gab el Yoosara," " he brought 
back the captives,** records the might 
and prowess of this powerful hero. 

There do not appear to be any ruins 
of an ancient city at Tanta ; but re- 
port speaks of a trilinguar inscription 
in a mosk there, as well as at Meno6f, 
tlie truth of which it would be in- 
teresting to ascertain. 

That we may find another of those 
yaluable documents, or duplicates of 
the Rosetta stone, is a very reasonable 

hope, as there is little doubt that de- 
crees were made in Greek and Egyp- 
tian, both in the time of the Ptolemies 
and Carsars, copies of which were 
deposited in all the principal temples; 
and when we read on the Rosetta 
stone that the same memorial was 
ordered to be placed ** in the temples 
of the first, second, and third orders,** 
we are surprised that several copies 
of it have not been discovered. 

Tlie Delta was in ancient limes com- 
posed of 35 name; including the 
Oasis of Ammon and Nitriotis ; and 
iu modern provinces are seven, which 
are subdivided into thirteen depart- 
ments : — 

1. Kalioob^eh, 

the depart- 
ments of 

2. Menoof^h 


3. Bahiyreh 

4. Gharfo^h 



Mansoor^h - < 

mietta) - 



1. Kalio6b 
S. Ashmoon 

3. Sbib^n 

4. Neg^leh 

5. Danumhoor 

6. Alexandria 

7. Mahallet-el- 


8. Kafr Maggir 

9. Mit Ghumr 

10. Mansoora 

1 1. Damietta 

12. Bclbays 
IS. Shibbeh 

* ROUTE 12. 



Cairo to the Canal of Mansoora 

{See Ramie 11.) - - I09| 

Mahallet D&maneh . . 8 

Aatimoon, or Oshmoun - • 9) 

Mensaleh - - - - 194 

Toweel, on the Tanis Canal - 4 

Tanis, now San ... lU 



The Canal of Menzaleh, or of Ash- 
moon, called also e* Toora e* Sogbeer- 




eh, "the •mall canal,*' leaves the 
DamietU branch to the N. of the 
town of Mansoora. It is much nar^ 
rower than tho&e of Moes and Kari- 
nayn, being only about 70 or 80 feet 
broad, and in the neighbourhood of 
Mensaleh much less. It winds very 
much, which, if the wind is not 
favourable, may delay a boat a long 
time, both in going to and coming 
from Mensaleh; and this perhaps 
renders the route to Tanis by Zaka- 
seek and Bubastis preferable. ( St^ 
RouU 13.) It contains water the 
whole year; but after April is only 
navigable as far as Tel e' Nassara. 

ifie point of land on the N. of the 
canal, where it joins the Nile, oppo- 
site Mansoora, is memorable from 
having been the spot where the Cru- 
saders had their camp in 1S121, and 
again in 1950. 

Near Ad6ogtef a village about 9 
leagues to the N. of Mansoora, a 
sphinx was found some years ago, 
bearing the name of Osorkon. Mo' 
haUtt D6maneh is, perhaps, the best 
point of departure in summer for a 
visit to the ruins of Tel et Mai in the 
plain to the southward; and during 
the high Nile it may be approached 
by water to within a short distance. 

2W et'Mai occupies the site of 
Thmuis; which is at once pointed 
out by its Arabic name, as well as by 
the Coptic Thmoui. A large mono- 
lith is still standing on the site of 
Thmuis. It is of granite, and mea- 
sures 21 ft. 9 in. high, 13ft. broad, 
and II ft. 7 in. deep ; and within, it 
is 1 9 ft. 3 in. high, 8 ft. broad, and 
8 ft. 3 in. deep. In the hierogly- 
phics is the prenomen of Amasis, and 
mention seems to be made of the gods 
Nephand Ao? (Hercules?) Josephus 
says that Titus, on his way from 
Alexandria to Judea passed by 
Thmuis. He went by land to Nico- 
polis, and tlien putting his troops on 
board long ships, went up the Nile 
by the Mendesian province to the 
city of Thmuis. 

About 5 miles aW. by & of Ash- 

moon is MU^FSrei, whose mounds 
indicate the site of an old town ; but 
I could not hear of any stone remains 

AakmoOH, or, as Aboolfeda writes 
it, Oshmoom, — Oshmoom-Tan^, 
or Oshmoom e* Roo-min (** of 
the pomegranates"), was in his 
time a large city, with baxiUrs, 
baths, and large mosks, and the capital 
of the Dahkala and Bashrooor pro* 
vinces. Jt is supposed to occupy the 
site of Mendes, but now presents 
nothing of interest. The only re- 
mains are of Roman time, consisting 
of a few small broken columns, frag* 
ments of granite, burnt bricks and 
pottery, amidst mounds of some extent 
but of no great height. I found a few 
Roman copper coins entirely cor- 
roded. No other place of interest 
occurs between this and Mensaleh. 
Mit «' Natidrah probably occupies 
the site of an ancient town, judging 
from its distinctive appellation **of 
the Chritiiant,'* Miniei SiheSl was 
formerly of much greater extent and 
more flourishing than at present, as 
the style of its houses, its broken 
minarets, and its brick walls attest; 
and GanelSkh is distinguished from 
afar by its lofty minaret. 

On the canal grow numerous reeds 
and water plants, among which is a 
Qfperus. It is found principally on 
the N. bank, where it has the benefit 
of the sun, and only at the eastern 
part of the canal. I have no doubt 
it has been mistaken for the papyrus, 
and has led to the belief that this last 
grows in the vicinity of the lake 
Mensaleh. In Arabic it is called 
Dees, a name given also to the cype- 
rus dives ; and both are used for the 
same purposes, for making baskets, 
and an ordinary kind of mat. 

On the canai of Mensaleh, or Ash- 
moon, are several ferries, each con- 
sisting of a boat swinging or traversing 
on a rope, in which they pass over 
their cattle and goods from bank to 
bank, and which the unexpected pas- 
sage of my boat often threatened to 


carry away, to the constemation of 
the natives. 

The land to the N. and S. of the 
canal, particularly around Mensaleh, 
is little productive, and in parts per- 
fectly barren; and the increase of 
nitre in the soil seems to doom to de- 
struction even that which is still de- 
serving of cultivation. Some land 
scarcely repays the labour of tilling 
it, and some has been found so un- 
productive, that though rated for tax- 
ation, and annually paying firdeh, it 
has ceased to be cultivated. 

The land of the Delta is through- 
out inferior to that of the Saeed, 
or Upper £gypt, where com is much 
cheaper than to the N. of Cairo. 
Pliny says the Theba'id was formerly 
a better corn country than Lower 
Egypt. Tlie ardeb of wheat is sold 
from Mellawee southwards at SO pi- 
astres, aud in the Delta at 66 ; and 
though the same proportion of seed is 
sown in the latter, or half an ardeb to 
one feddin of land, the proportion of 
produce is much less, being as S and 
4 to 5 and 7, or even 8. This may 
partly be attributed to the greater 
proportion of other produce, as flax, 
cotton, sem«tm, and other tilings, 
grown in the Delta, besides rice, 
which is unknown in the upper coun- 
try. But still, the fact of the land 
being of better quality is the main 
cause of the greater proportion of corn 
produced tliere; for much land is 
also taken up in the Saeed with cot- 
ton, flax, sugar-cane, indigo, and 
beans; and the proportion of the 
number of square miles in the two are 
4500 in the Delta provinces, and ^55 
in the Saeed. Hie Delta itself, in- 
deed, between the Rosetta and the 
Damietu branches, contains only 
1976 square miles. 

1 found the flax just in seed, in the 
Delta, .at this season, the 1st of 
March, 23rd of the Coptic Imsh^r 
(Mechir); and some was still in 
flower. (See Exod. ix. SI.) 

Memaleh and th€ Neighbourhoods — 
Mtnzakh stands on the canal, about 

13 miles from its entrance into the 
lake. It is supposed to occupy the 
site of Panephysis; and near the 
point of land projecting to the N. 
into the lake, some have placed Pa» 
premis, the City of Mars. Menzaleh 
has no remains. It is now much 
larger Uian some years ago, when it 
was merely a village of fishermen ; 
and several minarets, with some re- 
spectable houses, present an appear- 
ance little expected in such an out- 
of-the-way place. The canal, which 
contributes so much to its import- 
ance, and to its very existence as a 
town, also gives it a cheerful aspect. 
A wooden bridge crosses it, and 
unites the few houses on the W. side 
with the principal part of the town ; 
but this oflTcrs no other obstacle to the 
passage of boats to its mouth beyond 
the lowering of their masts. In the 
autumn there is some fever at Menza- 
beh, butin winter it is perfectly healthy, 
and at all times more so than 
Damietta. Its principal trade is in 
rice and fish. The former is of good 
quality, little inferior to that of Da- 
mietta and Kafr el Bateekh. 

The fresh- water fish mostly comes 
from Toweel, on a branch of the 
canal of San or Moez, the salt-water 
kinds being brought from Matar^eh. 

On arriving at Menzaleh, I found 
that it was too late in the season fcr 
my cangia to go into the lake, and 
thence to Tatiis ; I therefore went to 
the shekh of the town, who advisied 
my riding over to Matareeh, on the 
lake, (or, as they here call it, tlie 
JffoA^yreA,) and there engaging a 
fisherman's boat to take me up the 
canal of Moez to San. Having lent 
me his rahwdn (a horse trained to a 
peculiar ambling pace), and asses for 
my luggage and servants, I rode 
over to Matareeh ; but the fi^ihermen 
were too certain of their profits on 
fifth, or too much averse to the trouble 
of tracking or punting up a canal, to 
let me a boat ; aud aAer being doomed 
to listen to numerous assertions, ** by 
the beard of the Ph>phet,*' that the 




moutb of the canal had been closed 
for some days by the wind (which 
erery one knew to be false), I was 
obliged to return to Mensaleh, in 
spite of all my attempts, by bribery 
and persuasion, to induce them to 

Matar^eh is all fish ; — the boats, 
the houses, the streets, the baskets, 
the people's hands, all are full of fish. 
They catch fish, they salt fish, they 
lire on fish, and by fish; and one 
would think it had been founded by 
the Ichthyophagi themwlves. The fish 
is dried and salted here, and sent on 
camels or asses to Menzaleh, whence 
it is carried by the canal to different 
parts of the country ^ the fisheries of 
the lake and canals being all farmed by 
some wealthy Christian speculator. 

Matar^h stands on a point of land 
projecting into the lake, between 6 
and 7 miles from Mensaleh, to the N. 
of which is another village, called £1 
Ghuineh, united to it by a dyke or 
causeway. Due £. of it is Shekh 
Abdallah, in an island called Toona, 
about 2 miles from the shore, where 
are a capital of red granite, some an- 
cient ruins of little importance, and a 
shekh's tomb, whence its modem 
name. The lake abounds in islands. 
The most interesting to an antiquary 
is that of Tennees, the ancient Ten- 
nesus. The remains there are of 
Roman time, and consist of baths, 
tombs and substructions. The tombs 
are ▼aultcd and painted, mostly red 
on a white ground. There are also 
earthenware pipes, stamped with a 
letter or mark, either of the owner 
or the maker. 

PelusiuM is about 23 miles to the 
S. £. of this island, and about 11 
from the lake. 

The Lake Mennleh may either be 
visited from Matar^eh, Damietta, 
Mensaleh, or the canal of Moei ; but 
in order not to be disappointed, as 
'was my fate at the first of tliese places, 
it may be as well to send over from 
Menzaleh to secure a boat ; which 
may also be done, when Toweel on 

the Moez canal is chosen as the 
starting-place. In the mean time the 
traveller will find sufficient to employ 
his time, in shooting water-fowl that 
abound about Menzaleh, which indeed 
would prove excellent head-quarters 
for a sportsman ; ducks being not only 
pumerous there, but by no means wild, 
and easily approached. Boars also 
abound in the marshes on the way 
to Tanis, and the abundance of ducks, 
coots, and water-fowl is extraordinary. 

Hems and other wadirrg birds are 
also very abundant, as well as the 
ibis. The coot is now called ghoor; 
the hem, haUuhdn ; the ibis, biuhards; 
the spoonbill, midw6s ; and the peli- 
can, bepga, HaloSf is the Arabic 
name of the wild boar. 

Menzaleh to San, or Tanis, — To- 
weel is four miles to the southward of 
Menzaleh. The road, like that of 
Matar^eh, passes through a barren 
tract, rendered doubly sterile by the 
quantity of nitre, which impregnates the 
soil, and after a shower of rain makes 
it so slippery, that it is difficult for 
camels and bar-shod horses to walk 
upon it. About half way to Toweel 
are the mounds of an ancient village, 
and others a little more to the east- 
ward, but with no ruins of any kind. 
There are some places without a 
name, but Toweel is a name without 
a place, to which it can be said to 
belong, and is nothing more than the 
spot where the boats discharge their 
cargoes of fish to be carried to Men- 
zaleh. A Turkish overseer and a 
Christian scribe repair thither every 
morning, to await the arrival of tlie 
fishermen, who, on an account being 
taken of the contents of each boat, 
are paid accordingly, tlie day's sport 
bringing from 8 to 25 piastres. The 
fish are caught in nets, and by nu- 
merous hooks fastened to a line ex- 
tended from one side of the canal to 
the other, which being dragged along 
its muddy bottom rake up all that 
come in the way. Those taken in 
this manner are mostly the garmoot, 
sAofi, and other stlart; and so abun- 



dant are they here and in the canal 
of Mensaleh, that I have leen men 
stand in the ilirater and catch them in 
the mud with their hands. The fresh- 
water fisheries are farmed in the same 
manner as those of the Lake Men- 

The shekh having sent over to 
secure a boat for me at Toweel, I 
found an awning put up, and every 
thing ready for my journey to San, 
which is about eleven miles to the 
southward. The canal is the same 
that passes by Bubastis, Zakaaeek, 
and Harbayt ; but to the north of 
San it runs through a low marshy 
tract, abounding in reeds and stunted 
tamarisk bushes. The banks are very 
low, and the whole is flooded during 
the inundation. Here are the pas- 
tures for cattle, which, like similar 
low lands on the borders of the Lake 
Brulos, hence received, in ancient 
times, the name of Bueolia, and were 
comprehended under the denomina- 
tion ofElearchia, or the marsh districL 
They were also called BtuhmSor, as at 
the present day ; and the same name 
was applied to a dialect of the Coptic, 
which differed both from the Thebaic 
and Memphitic, and was spoken in 
this part of the Delta. 

Aboolfeda comprises under the 
name of Bashmo6r the whole of the 
island between the canal of Ashmoon 
(or, as it is now called, of Mensaleh) 
and the Damietta branch, and con- 
siders Ashmoon the capital of this 
district The people who live in the 
marshes differ much from thefeUdkM 
of Egypt. Some are employed in 
tending cattle, others in fishing. The 
principal abode of the fishermen of 
the canal of Moes is San, where a 
wtHd or agent for the owner of the 
fisheries lives, who receives the pro- 
duce of their labour, and forwards it 
to Zakaseek And other places.' They 
call themselves Arabs, and, from the 
name of their tribe, Malak6en. 

On the way from Toweel to San, 
we passed, at some distance inland to 
the east, the high mounds of Dibgo, 

which mark the site of an ancient 
town ; but they are said to contain no 
ruins, nor could I hear of any, ex- 
cept at Senhoor, where report speaks 
of a few white stones. 

The plain of San is very extensive, 
but thinly inhabited ; no village exists 
in the immediate vicinity of the 
ancient Tanis; and, when looking 
from the mounds of this once splendid 
city towards the distant palms of in- 
distinct villages, we cannot fail to be 
struck by tlie desolation spread around 

The *< field" of Zoan is now a 
barren waste : a canal passes through 
it without being able to fertilise the 
soil ; " fire *' has been set « in Zoan,'* 
and one of the principal capitals or 
royal abodes of the Pharaohs is now 
the habitation of fishermen, the resort 
of wild beasts, and infested with rep- 
tiles and malignant fevers. But no 
one can look upon the site of Tanis 
without a feeling of intense interest. 
It was one of the old cities of Egypt, 
founded seven years after Hebron 
(where Sarah was buried), and already 
existing in the time of Abraham ; and 
" the field of Zoan " is stated by the 
Psalmist to be the spot where Moses 
performed those miracles that ended 
in the liberation of ttie Israelites from 
the oppression of the Egyptians. 
(See Exek. xix. 11., and xxx. 14. ; 
Isaiah xxx. 4.; Ps. IxxviiL 12. Numb^ 
siit. 22. ; Gen. xxiii. 2.) 

TanU — San or Zan, the Tanis of 
the Greeks, the Zoan of Scripture, 
and the Gani or Athennea of the 
Copts, is remarkable for the height 
and extent of its mounds which are 
upwards of a mile from N. to S^, and 
nearly three quarters of a mile from 
E. to W. The area, in which the 
sacred enclosure of the temple stood, 
is about 1500 feet by 1250, sur- 
rounded by mounds of fallen houses, 
as at Bubastis, whose increased eleva^ 
tion above the site of the temple was 
doubtless attributable to the same 
cause, — the frequent change in the 
level of the houses to protect them 




from the inundation, and the un- 
altered position of the sacred build- 
ings. The enclosure or iemeno9 sur- 
rounding the temple is 1000 feet long 
by about 700 broad, not placed in the 
centre of this area, but one third more 
to the northward ; while the temple 
itself lies exactly at an equal distance 
from the northern and southern line 
of bouses, — one of the numerous in- 
stances of Egyptian symmetrophobia. 
The enclosure is of crude brick ; and 
a short way to the east of the centre, 
on its northern side, is a gateway of 
granite and fine gritstone, bearing the 
name of Remeses the Great ; to whom 
the temple was indebted for its nu- 
merous obelisks, and the greater part 
of the sculptures that adorned it. 

Outside the enclosure, on the east, 
are two granite columns, apparently 
unconnected with the temple. Th«:y 
are 2 feet 8 inches mean diameter, 
with the name of the same Pharaoh, 
fltnd have palm capitals of beautiful 
style. They may have belonged to 
some other edifice, that stood without 
the temenos of the principal temple, 
like the tomb of Amasis at Sais, de- 
scribed by Herodotus; which hsd 
also palm-tree capitals, and stood in 
the vestibule of the temenos. But 
though this apparent inconsistency 
may thus be explained, it is not 
equally easy to account for the en- 
closure not comprehending within it 
the whole of the temple itself ; and 
the western wall abuts against the 
sides of the nao$t leaving the end 
projecting beyond it. 

From the wall of the enclosure to 
the two front obelisks is 100 feet ; 
1 50 beyond which, going towards the 
nao», are fragments of columns, and 
probably of two other obelisks, cover- 
ing an area of 50 feet ; beyond these, 
at a distance of 120 feet, are several 
fragments of sculptured walls, two 
other obelisks, and two black statues, 
extending over a space of SO feet ; 
and after going 100 feet further, you 
come to two other obelisks ; and then 
two others 86 feet beyond them ; and 

again, at a distance of 164 feet, two 
other large obelisks, from which to the 
noos front is 150 feet. 

Though in a very ruinous con- 
dition, the fragments of walls, co- 
lumns, and fallen obelisks, suffi- 
ciently attest the fontvtr splendour of 
this building ; and the number of the 
latter, evidently ten, if not twelve, is 
unparalleled in any Egyptian temple. 
They are all of tlie time of Remeses 
the Great; some with only one, 
others with two lines of hierogly- 
phics. The columns had the lotu»- 
bud capital ; and their appearance, 
as well as the walls bearing tlie 
figures of deities, seem to prove that 
some, at least, of the obelisks stood 
in courts or vestibules, forming ap- 
proaches to the naoB, Among these 
figures I observed Pthah, Maut, and 
Nofre-Atmoo; and on the apex of 
the obelisk tlie king is offering to, or 
kneeling before, Atmoo, Horus, Ao 
or Djom, and Ra, who has sometimes 
the additional title of Atmoo. The 
obelisks vary in sise: some have a 
mean diameter of about 5 feet, and 
wlien entire may have been from 50 
to 60 feet high ; and tliose at the 
lower extremity of the avenue, 
farthest from the naos, measured 
about S3 feet. Some of the obelisks 
are of dark, others of light red, granite, 
which might appear to have a bad 
effect, if we did not recollect that the 
Egyptians painted their monuments, 
whether of granite or other stone. 

The name of Remeses the Great is 
seen throughout the temple. In 
one place I observed that of his im- 
mediate successor Pthahmen, and on 
one of the statues above mentioned 
are the ovals of an unknown king. 
Mr. Burton, also, found th<Me of 
Osirtasen III. and Tirhaka. 

llie nao9 itself was very small, 
being, as before stated, only 64 feet 
by 48; and it presents very few 
traces of sculpture. A cornice, and 
the name of HajAt or the god Nilus, 
at the front, and the figure of a god, 
with traces of hieroglyphics, at the 



Sect. II. 

bftck, are all that I could find upon itt 
fallen blocks. 

The obeliskf and other remains are 
much buried » and the hieroglyphics 
cannot be copied, without previously 
clearing them from the soil accumu- 
lated around them. On the mounds 
at the east of the area is a shekh*s 
tomb, from which you have a very ex- 
tensive view over the country; and 
beyond this, nearly in a line with the 
& £. comer of the enclosure, is a 
broken monolith without sculpture. 

Nearly half a mile from the temple, 
in the direction of S. £. by S., are 
several large round blocks of granite, 
in two lines, wliich appear to have 
once formed the avenue to another 
temple, now destroyed. They are 
much corroded, and I could discover 
no hieroglyphics, or traces of sculp- 
ture, on any of them. They stand 
nearly east and west, like the other 
temple, and at the western end are 
two square blocks resembling tablets ; 
about 80 feet beyond which are other 
remains of granite, and some white 
stone, probably marking the site of 
tlie building to which they formed 
the avenue. On the mounds to the 
. N. W. of this are three blocks bear- 
ing the name of the great Remeses ; 
and on those to the S. W. of the great 
temple are the walls of crude brick 

The modem village consists of 
mere huts, with the exception of a 
Kasr built by Shekeer Effendi, who 
set up nitre works here some years 
since, of which the ruins alone re- 
main. The Kasr is occupied by an 
Armenian agent for the fisheries, who 
was absent during my visit to Sao. 

ROUTE 13. 


Cairo to entrance of Canal of 

Mm<s. (See RouUn,) - 48 
Minietel {j^umh • - - 15 


Bubastis (Tel Basta) - 

- 19 

Zakaxeek ... 

- 1 

Pharbaethus (Harbayt) - 

- 15 

Tanis (or San) • 

. 5J5 


The canal of Moes, or Toorat 
Moex, is a noble work, being on an 
average about 150 feet broad, navi- 
gable all the year for large boata. and 
having the character of a river, here 
and there with small islands, and 
steep banks, like the Nile. And 
such is its importance to this part of 
the country, Uiat it has been styled 
the " Golden Canal." 

The abundance of fish in the Toorat 
Moil is very remarkable, and I have 
seen men catch many of the silwnia 
shaU with their bands (as at Toweel), 
by seeking them in hollow parts 
of the muddy bottom. Many people 
are employed in nshing ihere with 
nets, rods, and lines; which last 
have numerous hooks fastened to 
them, without baits, and being drag- 
ged along the bottom of the canal by 
men holding the two ends from the 
opposite banks, catch those that are 
lodged in the mud. They have est»- 
blished ferry-boato on the Toorat 
Mdet, which are dragged across by a 
rope ; and the scenes of confusion in 
an evening, as the cattle on their way 
home cross the water, are often very 

At Miniet el Kvmh is a Kasr or villa 
of the Pasha, where he stops occa- 
sionally to assemble the chiefs of dis> 
tricts, for the settlement of accounts, 
and other matters relative to their 
administration; and at Tel Howeei 
are the mounds of an old town. 

BubatHn, tlie Pibeeetk of Scrip- 
ture, is one mile to the south of 
Zakaxeek, and nearly the same 
distance from the canal. It is now 
called Tel Basta, or the <* mound of 
Basta,** in which we trace the ancient 
name of the city of Paaht,the Egyptian 
Diana. The mounds are very exten- 
uwCf and consist of the remains of the 




crude-brick houses of the town, with 
the usual heaps of broken pottery. 
They are of great height, confirming 
the remark of Herodotus, that Bu- 
bastis was raised more than any other 
place, when the increasing height of 
the Nile rendered it necessary to ele- 
vate the sites of the towns of Egypt. 
Indeed, the description he gives of 
the pontion of the temple (below the 
level of the houses, from which you 
looked down upon it on all sides of 
the sacred enclosure), as well as of 
the street leading from its vestibule 
to the temple of Mercury, is fully 
con finned by the actual appearance 
of Tel Basta; and the interest we 
feel in finding his description so ac- 
curate, makes us regret that be was 
not equally minute in his notice of 
other places. 

From what he tells us of Sabaco, 
abolishing capital punisliments, and 
condemning those who were guilty of 
crimm, to the labour of raising the 
sites of their native towns, it appears 
that tlie people of the Bubastite nome 
did not enjoy a very good reputation, 
since their capital was raisied more 
than that of any other town. He 
then proceeds to describe the temple. 
** Many others,** he says, *' are larger 
and more magnificent, but none more 
beautiful than this. The goddess 
Bubastis is the Diana of the Greeks. 
The temple forms a peninsula sur- 
rounded by water on all sides, except 
that by which you enter. Two canals 
from the Nile conduct the water to 
the entrance by separate channels 
without uniting, and then, diverging 
in opposite directions, flow round it 
to the right and left. They are each 
a hundred feet brood, and shaded 
with trees. The propylaea (towers 
of the propylseum) are 10 argyt§ in 
height, ornamented with beautiful 
figures 6 cubits (9 feet) high. The 
temple is in the middle of the town ; 
and as you walk round it, you look 
down upon it on every side; for 
the former having been considerably 
raised, while the temple continues on 

the same level where it was originally 
founded, entirely commands it. It 
is surrounded by a wall of circuit, 
sculptured with figures, containing a 
grove of very large trees, planted 
round the body of the temple itself, 
in which is the statue of the goddess. 
The length and breadth of the whole 
temple measures a stadium. At the 
entrance is a way paved with stones 
about three stadia long, and about 
four plethra broad, planted on either 
side with very lofty trees, which, 
after crossing the market-place in an 
easterly direction, leads to the temple 
of ^Mercury." 

This street, from the temple of Pasht, 
(or Bubastis) to that of Mercury, 
I found to measure 2250 feet, which 
exceeds the tlu-ee stades of Herodotus ; 
but the breadth, owing 4o the confused 
mass of fallen walls, could not be 
ascertained. On the way is the square 
he mentions, 900 feet from the temple 
of Bubastis, and apparently about 
200 feet broad ; though we may con- 
clude its original size to have been 
much greater, allowance being made 
for the walls of fallen houses with 
which it has been encumbered. Her 
temple is entirely destroyed; but from 
the stones that remain, we may readily 
believe the assertion of the historian 
respecting its beau^, the whole being 
of the finest red granite. Its total 
length appears to have been about 
500 feet, but iu breailtli is no longer 
traceable. The sacred enclosure im« 
mediately surrounding it was about 
GOO feet square ; and the outer cir- 
cuit containing this, and the canal 
that ran round it, measured 940 feet 
by 1200, the breadth exceeding the 
length. Few hieroglyphics remain; 
and the only names are of Remeses 
the Great, of Osorkon, and^if Amyr- 
tsus. I observed part of an Egyptian 
ccHiiice, with hieroglyphics and some 
small sculptures, representing^ hem. 
and other deities; and near it another 
fragment ornamented witli a similar 
cornice of the time of Osorkon. 
These sculptures probably belonged 



Sect. XL 


to A chamber near the adytum. Thej 
are very singular. In the centre is a 
sort of pillar, passing below the level 
of the picture, which I could not 
trace to the bottom, having come to 
water after digging a few inches. 
Another block is of some importance, 
as it gives the deity of the place, who, 
it is always supposed, had a lion*ft or 
cat*s headi and whose name 
occurs so often on monu- 
ments about the pjrraraids. 
The columns, at least in the 
vestibule, had lotus>hud (or papyrus- 
bud) capitals, in the ancient Egyptian 
style ; but close to the landing-place 
is another, said to have been taken 
many years ago from this temple, 
which has the palm capital. This, 
like the blocks in the temple, has the 
ovals of Remeses the Great, orer 
which Osorkon has cut his name ; 
but what is singular, the goddess of 
the city is nowhere mentioned upon 
it ; and the principal deity who gives 
** life^* to the Pharaoli, b the square- 
eared Ombo, « the son of Netpe.'! 
This column, when entire, was about 
28 feet long, with a diameter of 2 
feet 8 inches, and was probably in 
the portico^ or an inner part of the 

In these and other ruins of the 
Delta certain peculiarities may be ob- 
served, in which they differ from 
those of Upper Bgypt. In the latter 
the walls of the temples are sand- 
stone, and the columns built of several 
pieces, and granite is confined to 
obelisks, statues, doorways, and to the 
adyta of some remarkable roonu> 
ments: in the Dvlta the temples 
themselves are in great part built of 
granite, and the porticoes and ves- 
tibules have columns of a single 
block of the same materials ; which, 
as far as I remember, have not been 
met with in any part of the upper 
country. • 

The temple of Mercury is iu a 
stfll more ruinous state than that of 
Pasbt : a few red granite blocks are 
all that remain of it, and one only 

presents a few imperfect hierogly- 

In the town, the plansof some of the 
houses may be traced, as well as the 
directions of some of the streets and 
alleys, varying from 14 feet 6 inches, 
to 7 feet ; as the rooms of some 
houses vary from 26 feet by 14, to 7 
feet square. Here and there are some 
narrow chambers, or recesses, like 
coffins, which might be intended for 
the sepulture of the sacred animals. 
I looked in vain for the bones of cats ; 
but some human bones are met with 
among the crude brick ruins to the 
W. of the temple, where one small 
building has the form of a pyramid, 
eitlier the work of man or worn into 
that shape by the rain. On that side 
is a large enclosure of crude brick, 
268 feet square, with walls 20 feet 
thick, which appears to have been a 
fort, with one entrance on the temple 
side. On the N. of it was a narrow 
street Many of the houses of Bu- 
bastis have been, burnt, as at Thebes, 
Sals, and other places ; and on the S. 
side are some large mounds reddened 
by fire, and fragments of pottery. On 
the way you pass some very large cir- 
cular pits, with square margins of 
crude* brick. 

To the N. E. a very large open 
space lay between thew all of the town 
and the houses, which is now a cul- 
tivated plain ; and at one end of it 
stood the temple of Mercury. 

At Zakaseek are a bridge and 
sluices, which require a change of 
boats in going this way to Tanis. 
Here too the present canal to Tel el 
Wadee, once the famous canal of 
Arsinoe, commences; and it is re- 
markable that this, whose mouth has 
been so often changed, and taken 
more and more to the southward, 
should return at last to the vicinity of 
Bubastis, near which, Herodotus says, 
it was first opened. 

Harha^t or Heurhoft, the ancient 
JRIarfrcBfftiM, and the capital of a nome, 
to which it gave its name, is between 
18 and IS miles to the N.E. of Bu- 

Egypt ROUTE 14. — CAmo to the katron lakes. 


bastts. It presents nothing to repay 
the trouble of a visit, and is of far less 
extent than the capital of the adjoin- 
ing nome. The only stone remains 
are shafts of red granite columns of 
Roman time, and fragments of fine 
grey granite, apparently of an altar, 
and part of a statue, which, with 
mounds and crude brick ruins, are all 
that remain of the city. It stood on 
the Tanitic branch, and was a town 
of some consequence till a late time, 
and an episcopal see under the Lower 
Empire. It is still occupied in part 
by the modem village, which has re* 
tained the ancient name. 

During the winter months, afVer 
the inundation, the canal is open from 
Harbayt to Tanis, but in February it 
is closed again, at Kof6or-Nigm below 
Harbayt, and the only way of going 
to Tanis by water is from Mensaleh. 

Between Harbayt and Tanis, the 
only place worthy of notice is Tel- 
Fakk6os, the ancient Phacusa. 

For the description of Tanis, see 
RouU 12. 

ROUTE 14. 


Cairo by water to Teraneh («m 

Rouf 6.) - - - - 501 
Teraneh to Zakook - - 36| 


The usual route from the Nile to 
the valley of the Natron Lakes, or 
Wadee Natr6on, is from Ter&neh. 
The journey to Zakeek, or Zakook, 
the most northerly inhabited spot in 
the Natron valley, occupies about 18 
hours on camels. 

The road, on quitting the Nile, at 
the distance of about \\ mile from 
Terineh, passes over tlie ruins of an 
ancient town, which have of late years 
been turned up in every direction 
for the purpose of collecting the nitre 

that abounds in all similar mounds 
throughout Egypt. These ruins are 
of great extent, and apparently, from 
the burnt bricks and small decomposed 
copper coins occasionally found amidst 
them, of Roman time. Some columns, 
one of which is about Sj feet in 
diameter, have also been met with; 
but no object of value has presented 
itself to indicate a place of much con- 
sequence ; and it is tlierefore probable 
that its sise was rather owing to its 
having been the abode of the many 
persons employed in bringing the 
natron to the Nile, than to the im- 
portance it possessed as At Egyptian 
town. This opinion is in some de- 
gree confirmed by the appearance of 
a large road leading to it from the SL 
end of the Natron valley, which is 
still used by those who go from that 
part of the country to the Convent of 
St Macarius. Tliough Teraneh has 
succeeded to, and derived its name 
from, Terenuthis, it is probable that 
these mounds occupy the site of that 
ancient town, and that its successor 
was built more to the E. in conse- 
quence of a change in the course of 
the river. Momemphis and Menela'i 
urbs also stood in the vicinity of Te- 
renuthis; and the ancient road to 
Nitriotis is said by Strabo to have left 
the Nile not far from those places. 

According toa rough observation, I 
calculate the bank of the Nile at Te- 
r&neh to be about 58 feet above the 
village of Zakeek, or 86 feet above 
the surface of the Natron lakes. 

The village of Zakeek occupies the 
site of what is marked in Colonel 
Leake*s Map of Egypt as an ancient 
glass-house. This is still visible be- 
neath, and dose to the house built 
about seventeen years since by some 
Europeans, who there established 
works for drying the natron, and who 
then founded the village, which now 
contains 50 or 60 ^uts, and about 
900 inhabitants of both sexes. The 
glass-house is probably of Roman 
time. It is built of stone, and the 
scoria of common green glassy and 



pieces of Uie fused matter attached to ] 
the stones, sufficiently indicate its site, 
as their rounded summits the form of 
three distinct ovens. 

The natron is found both in the 
plain and in two or three of the lakes. 
Those from which it is principally 
taken are called £1 Geonfed^h and 
£1 Hamra. Two others, £1 Khor- 
til and the lesser Melldhat e* Joon, 
also produce this salt; but, being 
very small, they yield but little ; and 
the last is only frequented by the 
Arabs, who smuggle it tlience to the 
Nile chiefly by the road through the 
Fy6om« There are eight lakes which 
contain water all the year, and are 
called Mell^hat. The largest and 
roost southerly, MelUlhat om Re£- 
sheh, produces only muriate of soda, 
or common salt. Next to this in 
sise is Mell&hat e* Ja^r, also a salt 
lake ; then £1 Goonfed^eh and Mel- 
lAhat el Hamra, or Dow£r el Hamra 
(from its round form), both which 
contain natron ; tlien the larger MeU 
Ubat e* Joon, a salt lake; then ^* 
Rasoon^h, another salt lake; and 
last £1 Khort^i, and the lesser Joon, 
which two produce natron, and are 
much inferior in sise to the preceding. 
There are also two ponds (birkeh), 
the Birkeh e* Shookayfeh, and the 
Birkeh e' Rumied, which contain 
water the greater part of the year, 
but are dry in summer ; and a few 
other pools not worthy of notice, some 
of which yield natron of indifferent 
quality. In those lakes which con- 
tain natron, or the subcarbonate, as 
well as the muriate, of soda, the two 
salts crystallise separately ; the latter 
above, iu a layer of about 18 inches, 
and the natron below, varying in 
thickness, according to the form or 
depth of the bed of the lake, the 
thinnest being about 27 inches. All 
the lakes contain salt, thou^ few 
have natron ; but I could not hear 
of any that yield sulphate of soda 
(Glauber's Salts). 

The water in the lakes varies much 
in height at different seasons of the 

year. They begin to increase about 
the end of December, and continue 
to rise till the early part of March, 
when they gradually decrease, and in 
May all the pools and even the two 
larger Birkehs are perfectly dry. The 
abundance of water in winter renders 
them less salt than in the subsequent 
months, and even the height of the 
MelUhat diminishes greatly in sum- 
mer, leaving the dry part covered with 
an incrustation of muriate, or subcar- 
bonatei of soda, according to the nature 
of the salt they contain. The dif^ 
ference between the bed of the Bir- 
kehs and of the salt and natron lakes 
is, that tlie former, when the water 
has evaporated, is mud, and the two 
latter a firm incrustation ; and it is at 
this time that the natron called SoU 
tdnee is collected. 

The natron consists of two kinds, 
the white, and the SoUdnee ; the latter 
taken from the bed of the lakes as the 
water retires, and the former from 
the low grounds that surround them, 
which are not covered by water. Thia 
is the best quality. It is prepared 
for use at the village by first washing 
and dissolving it in water, and then 
exposing it to the sun in an open 
court ; from which it is removed to 
the oven, and placed over a fire in a 
trough, till all the moisture is ex- 
tracted. It is then put into a dry 
place, and sent to the Nile for ex- 
portation to £urope ; but the ScUante 
is taken, in the state in which it is 
found, direct to Cairo. In measuring 
the specific gravity of the water, that 
of the lakes containing natron and 
salt is found to mark 35 keer4t (carats) 
in summer, immediately before it dries 
up ; in January and February, about 
24 ; the well water of the village one, 
and that of the Nile 0. 

The Wadee Natr6on is not the only 
district in which natron is produced. 
It is found in the valley of £iletliyas, 
now £1 K£b, where it crystallises on 
the borders of some small ponds to 
the eastward of the ancient town. 
The shores of the lake Moeris are also 


said to yield it, as well as " the vici- 
nity of Alexandria, near the lake 
Mareotis, and the Isthmus of Suez.'* 
Some is also brought by the caravans 
from Darfour ; and from specimens I 
saw in the hands of the Jellabs, wliom 
I met at the great Oasis, the latter 
appears to be of very good quality. 
It IS much sought to give a pungency 
to snuff. 

There are several springs of fresh 
water in the Natron valley, the purest 
of which are at the convents (or rather 
monasteries) to the S. ; that of Dayr 
Baram6os being slightly salt. The 
water rises from and reposes on a bed 
(^clay, which I found close to Zakeek, 
and at the base of the hills to the west- 
ward ; and I have no doubt, from 
what I observecl here, and at the 
Oases, that it filters beneath the moun- 
tains that separate the V/adee Natro6n 
from the Nile ; and, being carried 
over tlie clay which constitutes the base 
of the Libyan chain, finds an exit in 
these low valleys, forming springs 
of fresh water in places where the soil 
is free from all saline matter, and salt 
springs or ponds of natron when the 
earth, through which it passes from 
the clay to the surface, presents that 
foreign substance deposited of old in 
the neighbouring strata. The same 
is tlie case in many parts of £gypt ; 
and in support of this opinion I need 
only state, that the water uf all the 
salt wells becomes much sweeter 
when a quantity has been quickly 
taken out ; proving the water itself to 
be originally fresh, and rendered salt 
by contact with earth containing saline 

It seems singular that the lakes 
should rise so long after tlie high 
Nile, a period of nearly three months ; 
and this can only be explained by 
the slowness of the water's passage 
through the strata of the mountains 
intervening between the river and this 
distant valley ; which, judging from 
the time the Nile water takes to ooxe 
through the alluvial deposit of its banks 
to the edge of the desert, frequently 

not more than a mileor two off, appears 
to be proportionate to the increase of 
distance. The dip of the strata that 
border the Natron valley, is towards 
the north-east, whence it is that the 
descents to it and the adjacent Wadce 
Eargh are more rapid to the west than 
to the east ; and this is consistent with 
the lower level of the former valley. 

The Wadee Natroon boasts a 
very small population ; the village of 
Zakeek and the four monasteries, con- 
taining altogether not more than 277 
inhabitants, of which the village, as 
before stated, has 200, and the con- 
vents the remaining 77 ; — Dayr 
Suri&ni SO to 40, St. Macarius 22, 
Amba Bishoi 13, and Dayr Bara- 
moos 7. The inmates of all these 
monasteries are Coptx, though Dayr 
Bararo6os is said to be of Greek, as 
the Suriani of Syrian, origin. They 
ofiTer little to interest a stranger, and 
are inferior in sixe and importance to 
those of St. Antony and St. Paul, in 
the eastern desert, to which they also 
yield in point of antiquity. They 
are, however, quite as well built ; and 
some portions of them, particularly 
the churches in the tower of St. Ma- 
carius, are, perhaps, superior in point 
of construction. Indeed, the slender 
marble columns that adorn its upper 
church are very elegant ; and many 
of the arches in the lower part of the' 
convent are far better than we should 
expect to find in these secluded re- 

Each community is governed by a 
superior. " some ofthe monks are priests, 
with the title of father ( Aboona), and 
the rest lay brethren. 

Some of the monasteries have a 
collection of books, rather than a 
library, composed of Arabic, Coptic, 
and Syriac MSS., mostly relating to 
the Church service and religious sub- 

Mr. Tattam, on his visit to these 
lAonasteries, brought away upwards 
of fifty volumes ; among which was 
a treatise of Eusebius, not previously 
known, and on his return, in 1842, he 



obtained four times thAt numbei of 
MSS., all indeed tliat were not umnI 
by the monks. 

Each monastery does or ought to 
possess a ketab Hillemee, or vocabu- 
lary, in which each Coptic word Is 
placed opposite its equivalent in 
Arabic ; not arranged aipliabetically, 
but under various heads, as parts of 
the human body, vegetables^ utensils, 
&c., as well as the names of towns in 
Egypt. These last have been of great 
use in fixing the positions of many 
ancient places. It is however to be 
regretted that some of the names are 
far from certain, owing to the ignor- 
ant presumption of the copyists, who 
have often introduced the name they 
supposed the town to have had, with 
or in lieu of that in the M& they 
were employed to copy ; instances of 
which I observed in the vocabulary 
at Dayr Macarius, where Babylon is 
said to be the same as On (the ancient 
Heliopolis), and the Matareeh of the 

The Natron convents or monasteries 
are all surrounded by a lofty wall» 
with an entrance on one side, so low 
that you are obliged to stoop down on 
entering ; and on the outside are two 
large millstones, generally of gra- 
nite, which in case of danger are 
rolled together into the passage after 
the door has been closed, in order 
that the Arabs shall neither burn it 
nor break it open ; tlie stones being 
too heavy and fitting too closely to be 
moved from without^ and intervening 
between tlie enemy and the door. 
Those who have rolled them into the 
passage are afterwards drawn up by a 
rope through a trap-door above ; and 
the want of provisions soon obliges 
the Arabs to raise the unprofitable 
siege, which not having been pro- 
voked by any outrage committed by 
tlie monks, seldom leaves in the recol- 
lection of the aggressors any rancorous 
feelings ; and it rarely happens that 
they illtreat those whom they happen 
to meet on their way to the Nile. 
Notwithstanding the lowoess of 

fliese doorways, the cattle that turn 
the water-wheels for irrigating the 
gardens, and the mills for grinding 
the com, are made to pass through on 
their knees ; and even tbe oxen we 
bad with us were subjected to this 
operation, boms, legs, and tail being 
in turns pulled, to force them through 
the unaccommodating aperture ; fear 
of the Arabs, who had a few days be- 
fore carried off some cattle belonging 
to Zakeek, having rendered this pre- 
caution necessary. 

As soon as the bell lias announced 
the arrival of a stranger, proper in- 
quiries and observations are made, to 
ascertain that there is no danger in 
opening the door for his reception; 
and no Arabs are admitted, unless, 
by forming his escorti they have some 
one responsible for their conduct. 
On entering, you turn to the right 
and left, through a labyrinth of pas- 
sages and small courts, and at last 
arrive at the abode of the superior and 
the principal monks. This part con- 
sists of numerous small rooms, each 
with a door serving as an entrance for 
the inmate and his share of light, which 
is fastened up during his absence at 
prayers or other avocations with a 
wooden lock, whose key might serve as 
an ordinary bludgeon. In some parta 
of the world the bearer of such an in- 
strument about his person might run 
a risk of an est, for carrying a dan. 
gerous weapon ; and it is by no 
means certain that an Oriental ink- 
stand would not render him liable to 
a similar accusation. 

A garden with a few palms, some 
olive, nebk ( Rhemnus Nabeca), and 
other fruit trees, occupies the centre 
of the principal court ; and here is 
frequently one of the churches;-. 
, for these monasteries contain more 
j tluin one, and tlie tower or keep of 
St. Macarius has no less than three 
within it, one over the other; as if 
additional services were required when 
the danger was great, the tower be- 
ing the last place of refuge, when tlie 
entrance has been forc^l^ or tbe walla 

Egypt ROtJTE 14. — cairo to the natron lakes. 


scaled. Retreating to this, they pull 
up the wooden drawbridge that se- 
parates it from the rest of the build- 
ing : a well of water and a supply of 
provisions always deposited there, and 
never allowed to decrease below a 
certain quantity, secures them against 
the risk of want of food ; and the 
time occupied in the siege, ere the 
Arabs could effect an entrance, would 
always be sufficient to enable them to 
remove every thing eatable, or other- 
wise va]uiU>le, from below, and render 
the occupation of the body of the 
place totally unprofitable to the in- 

Every civility is shown to the stranger 
during his stay, which I experienced 
both at Dayr Suri&ni and St. Maci^ 
rius, particularly from the superior of 
the latf er ; and I have reason to be- 
lieve that the others are equally hos- 
pitable. The room allotted to a 
stranger at Dayr Suri&ni is large and 
well lighted ; but I recommend him 
to remove the mats before he takes up 
his abode there, otherwise he is not 
likely to pass a comfortable night, 
under the assaults of some hundreds 
of bugs; and he will run a risk of 
carrying away many scora in his bag- 
gage, which may continue to torment 
him, and people the houses of his fu- 
ture hosts, unless he can spare a cou- 
ple of hours in the morning to clear 
bis things of these intruders. St 
Macarius is free from this scourge ; 
but of the other two I can say nothing, 
not having passed the night either at 
Baramo6s or Amba Bishoi. 

The Dajrr Suri^ni was built by one 
Honnes, a holy personage, whose tree 
is still seen about a couple of miles to 
the southward, near the ruins of two 
other convents. It is supposed to re- 
semble Noah*s ark in form, though in 
no other respects ; for here, as at 
other Coptic monasteries, the admis- 
sion of women is strictly prohibited, 
to the g^eat discomfiture of any ladies 
who may happen to visit these regions. 
But though stem and inflexible, like 
other monks, respecting the admission 

of women, and in refusing to all but 
t}*e unmarried the privileges of a mo- 
nastic life, they do not exclude a 
widower, on his renouncing for ever 
the thoughts of matrimony. The 
rules of the Coptic church are even so 
indulgent as to allow a priest, who 
has not taken monastic vows, to marry 
once ; but the death of this his only 
wife condemns him to future celibacy, 
though it should happen a few weeks 
after the celebration of the marriage 
rites. Like the Greeks, they adopt 
the command in 1 Tim. iii. 2 — 12. 

The title of the superior of a mo- 
nastery is Gcnimos, He is next in 
rank to a bishop. The bend of the 
Coptic, like the Greek and other 
eastern churches, is the patriarch, who 
answera to the pope of Rome, and is 
elected to this high office from among 
the fathers of St. Antony, or some 
other monastery. Next to him is the 
mutr&n, who, appointed by the Egyp- 
tian patriarch, is sent to Abyssinia to 
superintend that offiiet of the Coptic 
church. In former times, when the 
patriarch lived in Alexandria, there 
was a\nutrlin at Cairo; but his re- 
moval to the capital has rendered this 
office unnecessary ; and the only dig- 
nitary now holding that title is thA 
chief of the Abyssinian Christians; 
who at his death is succeeded by ano- 
ther from Cairo, sent in chains to his 
see, as if to demonstrate with full 
effect the truth of *< nolo epiwcopari." 

Egypt, which once swarmed with 
monks, and was not less prolific in 
nuns, has now only seven monasteries, 
and is entirely destitute of nunneries, 
whose inmates might not perhaps feel 
safe in a country in the hands of the 
Moslems. These seven are the two 
in the eastern desert of St Antony 
and St. Paul, the four of tite Natron 
valley, and one at Gebel Koskam, in 
Upper Egypt. To these the name 
monastery properly belongs ; and 
convent may be confined to those 
where women are admitted as well as 
men, as in the numerous Dayrt on 
the Nile. The Dayr el Adra oix 
M 3 



Gebel e' Tayr, those of Bibbeh, Boosh, 
Negadeh, A boo Honnes, near Ami- 
noe, tbree in the capital, and two at 
Old Cairo, Amba Samoeel and Dayr 
cl Hamnnim in the Fyoom, thone of 
Alexandria, Girgeh, Abydus, £kh- 
mim, Mellawee, Sook, Feesheh near 
Menoof, "the red and white monas- 
teries,'* that of Amba Shn6odeh, near 
Soohdg, as well as others ijn different 
parts of Egypt, no longer have the 
character of monasteries, the priests 
being seculars, and the inmates of 
both sexes. They bear, however, the 
name of monasteries^ and are looked 
upon with peculiar respect ; the 
churches are visited as possessing 
peculiar sanctity, and one- called Sitte 
Gamian, near Damietta, has the 
honour of an annual pilgrimage, 
which is attended by the devmit from 
all parts of the country. 

Tradition states their former num- 
ber in Egypt and its deserts to have 
been 366, a favourite amount in tra- 
ditions of the country, which has been 
given to the villages of the Fyoom, 
as well as to the windows of the tem- 
ple of Dendera. 

llie district of Nitria, or Nitriotis, 
is sometimes known as the Desert of 
St. Macarius, whose monastery still 
remains there, a short distance to the 
S. of the Natron lakes, from which it 
it is separated by a few low hills. 
Here too are the ruins of three other 
similar buildings, once the abode of 
monks ; and about half a mile to the 
£. are mounds of pottery, that indt- 
cate the site of an ancient town. 
The remains of Pagan date are rare 
in this valley : even tlie small stone 
ruin, 521 miles to the S- W. of Dayr 
Suri&ni, is of Christian time ; and 
it is difficult to fix the position of the 
two towns of Nitriotis, the only an- 
cient remains being the glass-house 
of Zakeek, and the heaps of pottery 
just mentioned. The former, per- 
haps, marks the site of Nitria, and 
tbe latter Sciatliis, whence this district 
received the appellation of Sciathia, 
or Sciatbica regio, in Coptic Shi^ 

Strabo says it contained tteo pita 
(lakes) of nitre (natron), the inhabit- 
ants worshipped Sarapis, and it was 
the only district of Egypt where 
sheep were sacrificed ; though Hero- 
dotus tells us the Mendesians had 
also the custom of immolating them 
to the deity of their city. 

The Coptic name of tlie town of 
Nitria was Phanihosem, and the dis- 
trict was called Pmam-pihMem. 

Other ruined convents may be 
seen about two miles to the S. of tbe 
Dayr Suri^ni ; and the vestiges of a 
few others may be traced here and 
there in the Natron valley ; but it 
would be difficult now to discover the 
sites of the 50 mentioned by Gibbon, 
or even half that number. The mo* 
dern monks are little interested about 
the ruined abodes of their prede- 
cessors : they are ignorant even of 
the history of their church ; and it 
would be difficult to find any one to 
point out the convent where the am- 
bitious Cyril passed some years, under 
the restraint of a monastic life. 

The productions of the Wadee 
Natron are few ; and from its dreary 
appearance, it might be supposed to 
boast of nothing but the salt and 
natrcm, for which it is indebted to 
its barrenness and its name. Two 
other articles, however, of some 
importance are grown there, and 
exported thence to the Nile, — the 
rushes {toamdr), and bulrushes (bSer^ 
dee), used for making the well-known 
mats of Egypt, that tend so much 
to the comfort of the Cairenes. Of 
the former the best kind are made, 
called Mendofte, from the town where 
they are manufactured ; of the latter 
an inferior quality, most commonly 
used at Cairo, the Menoofee being 
principally confined to the houses of 
the rich. But it is not to the Natron 
valley that tbe Men6ofee mats are 
indebted for the best rushes ; those of 
£1 Maghra or WMee e* Sooro^r (" the 
valley of rushes") are greatly superior* 
and are brought across the desert ex - 
pressly for this manufacture. Wiidee 

l^ypt. ROUTE 14. — CAmO TO THE NATRON LAKfiS, 245 

el Maghra is on the road to S^ewah 
from the Nile, and is three days 
from the Natron lakes. The name 
beerdee, or burdee, is also applied to 
the papyrus ; but that of the Natron 
lakes is a common bulrush, or 

The aspect of the Natron valley is 
no less gloomy from the sands that 
have invaded it, than from the ch»* 
racter of the few plants it produces. 
No trees, no esculent vegetables, re- 
lieve the monotony of the scene, or 
reward the labour of him who at- 
tempts to rear them : the palm, which 
seems to belong to every district of 
Egypt where water can be found, is 
here a stunted bush ; and no attempt 
has been successful to enable it 
to attain the height or character of a 
tree. The few that are found between 
Zakeek and Dayr Baramo6s, and to 
the east of Dayr Macarius, seem only 
to rise above the earth to bear witness 
to the barrenness of the salt and sandy 
soil, which condemns them to asso- 
ciate with its other stunted produc- 
tions. These too, which are of the 
most humble species common to 
sandy districts, are smaller than in 
otiier deserts: the tamarisk is even 
rare here, and notliing appears to 
flourish except the mesembrian- 
themum and bulrushes. These last 
grow both in the water, and at a 
distance from the lakes, amidst the 
sand-hills of the plain. In the water 
they reach the height of 10 feet. 

The animals that frequent this dis- 
trict are the gazelle, buk kar el Wahsh 
(" wild cow'*), or antelope defaua, the 
jerboa, fox, and otliers common to 
the Libyan desert; and some tra- 
vellers mention the stag ;< though I 
could not find any one who had seen 
or even heard of it, either in the 
Wadee Natro6n or the adjacent 
valley. I do not, however, affirm 
that it has not been seen there : the 
sculptures of the ancient Egyptians 
represent it as an animal of their 
country, and the horns are sometimes 
sold in the streets of Cairo, as rarities 

brought by the Arabs, and strangelymis 
called by the sellers ** fishes* bones.*' 

Water-fowl abound ; ducks are in 
great numbers, and water-hens, jacki 
snipes, sandpipers, and other birds 
common to the lakes and ponds of 
Egypt, frequent the shores of the 
Natron lakes. 

The length of the W&dee Natro6a 
is about 22 miles, its breadth, reckon- 
ing from the slope of the low hills 
that surround it, 5\ in the broadest 
part ; though the actual level plain is 
not more than two, and is here and 
there studded with isolated hills, and 
banks of rock covered with sand. Tlie 
ascent from it towards the Babr el 
Fargh is very gradual, but the descent 
to this last is rapid, more so even than 
on the eastern side of tlie Natron val- 
ley ; the Bahr el Fargh is, however, 
less deep than its Eastern neighbour, 
though it surpasses it both in length 
and breadth. The hills that separate 
the two valleys, as well as the low banks 
that form the undulating ground of 
the Bahr el Fargh, are covered with 
rounded silicious pebbles, with here 
and there pieces of petrified wood 
and coarse gritstone, lying amidst 
loose sand, the rocks below being 
a coarse sandstone. These agatiscd 
woods are mostly palms, a knotted 
wood, apparently of a thorny kind, 
and a jointed stem resembling a cane, 
or a solid bamboo, precisely the 
same that are found on the opposite 
side of the Nile,, at the back of the 
Mokuttum range behind Cairo. The 
pebbles and woods have probably 
been once imbedded in a friable layer 
of sandstone, which, having been de- 
composed and carried otf by the wind, 
has left these heavier bodies upon the 
surface of the stratum next beneath it; 
while its lighter particles have con- 
tributed not a little to increase the 
quantity of sand in these districts : 
and, indeed, the rock immediately 
below is of a texture little more com- 
pact than that which I suppose to 
have been thus removed. 

Tux BAHa EL Faxgr. ^The 
M S 



JBahr el Fargh, or, as it is sometimes 
called, Bahr'bda''ma, runs towards the 
Widee e* Soomir (or £1 Maghra), on 
the road to S4ewah on one side, and 
to the back of the mountains on the 
west of the Birket el Koru in the 
F^oom on the other ; another branch 
diverging towards the east, and com- 
municating with the valley of the 
Nile a little below Abooroifeh, about 
five or six miles nortli of the pyramids 
of Geezeh. The bills that border it 
are of irregular form, its bed is varied 
by numerous elevated ridges, and 
depriving it of all the character of 
a river, which many suppose it 
originally to have been. Some have 
even claimed it for the Nile, as an old 
bed of that river, seeing in the petrified 
wood within its bed and on the adja* 
cent hills the remains of boats that 
navigated this ancient channel. But 
instances of similar hollow valleys are 
not wanting in the Oases and other 
parts of the limestone regions, both 
in the western and eastern deserts. 

ROUTE 15. 



Cairo, by water, to Ter&neh. ( See 

Route 6. Section I. and last 

Route) .... I 
Natron Valley (good water) 37 

miles .... 1 

El Mdghra, or Wddee e' Soomir 

(brackish water) - * ^1 

£1 Ebah, or Libba (salt water) 1 

£1 Gara (good water) - • S 

' Town of S4ewah (good water) . 3 

Days 10} 

From £1 £bah the salt water is 
taken to Alexandria, and used as 

The most usual and perhaps the 
best route to the Oasis of Ammon is 
from Cairo by Tcr^neh (as above) ; 
*«ut there is one from Alexandria by 

Baratoon ; another from Terinch by 
Baratoon ; and a third from the 
Fy6om by the Little Oasis. 

a. The road from Alexandria goes 
by the sea-coast as far as Baratoon, 
the ancient Parstonium, and then 
turns south to the S^wah. It was 
the road taken by Alexander. Browne 
went by it in 1792, and reached 
S^wah in 15 days. At Baratoon 
are some ruins of Paretonium, which 
Strabo describes as a city, with a 
large port, measuring 40 stadia across. 
By some it was called Ammonia. 

b. That from Terineh goes to 
HamroiLm, and thence by Bsratoon 
to the S6ewah ; but it is a long round, 
and there is no good water except at 

c. For the road from the Fy6ora 
to the Little Oasis, ler Route 18. 

From that Oasis to the S^wah, 
they reckon 7 days, making only a 
total of 10 days from the Fyo6in ; but 
the journey from the Nile may be caU 
culated at 1 1 J or 12 days, which is the 
distance given by Pliny from Mem- 
phis. In going from £1 Kasr, or from 
Bowitti in the Little Oasis, they 
reckon 4 days to Suttra, a small 
irrigated spot with salt water, but 
without any palms ; then one day 
and a half to Ar'rag, where are palms 
and springs of good water; to the 
north of which, and separated from it 
by a hill, is Bahrayn, a valley with 
palms and water. This is out of the 
road. From Ar'rag to Mcrtesek is 
one day. It has a few palms, and 
water under the sand. ^Thence to 
S4ewah is one day. 

The Arabic name of the " Oasis 
of Amnum,** Siwakt or See-wah, is 
doubtless taken from the ancient 
Egyptian. Jt consists of two parts, 
the eastern and western district ; the 
former the most fertile, and abound- 
ing in date trees. According to 
Browne, it is 6 miles in length, and 
from 4^ to 5 in breadth ; but from the 
irregular form of all the»e valleys it 
is difficult to fix the exact sise of any 
one of them $ and this measurement 



of 6 miles can only include the eastern 
part about the town of Stwah. Be- 
tween 2 and 3 miles to the east of 
S^wah is the temple of Amun, now 
called Om Baydah, <* mother white ; '* 
and near it is what is supposed to be 
the fountain of the Sun, which mea- 
sures about 80 feet by 5$^ and is form- 
ed by springs. The water appears to 
be warmer in the night than the day, 
and is 12^ heavier in speci6c gra- 
vity than that of the Nile. 

The ruins at Om Baydah are not 
of very great citent, but sufficient 
remains to show the style of building; 
and many of the sculptures still re- 

Amun-Neph, or Amun, with the 
attributes of the ram-headed god, as 
might be expected, is the principal 
deity. The figures of other divinities 
are also preserved, and the many 
hieroglyphics that remain on the 
walls, and fallen stones, make us re- 
gret that these records of so remark- 
able a monument should not have 
been all copied. These remains, in 
a place possessing such hi*ttorical as. 
sociations as the '* Oasis of Aramon," 
certainly offer as great an interest as 
any in Egypt ; and, judging from the 
destruction of temples in other parts 
of the country, we can scarcely hope 
for the continued preservation of 
these ruins. Baron Minutoli has 
given many curious details and views 
of this temple, which has since been 
visited and described by Caillaud and 
other travellers; and we may hope 
that M. Linant will add still more to 
our information on the subject of 
this Oasis. 

Near the temple is the supposed 
fountain of the Sun above mentioned. 

Little less than three quarters of a 
mile from Om Baydah, and about 
2 miles £. S. E. by E., from the 
town of S^ewah, is a hill called Dar 
Aboo Bere6k, in which arc some 
ancient excavations, apparently tombs, 
and a little higher up the hill are 
some Greek inscriptions on the rock. 

Kasr Gashast, or Gasham, to the 

east of S^wah, on the way to Zay- 
toon, is a ruined temple of Roman 
time ; and at Zaytoon, which is about 
8 miles on the road from S^ewah to 
Gara, are the remains of two temples, 
and other buildings of Roman- 
Egyptian date. 

Between Zaytoon and Gara, at 
Miwe, is a Roman temple in a marsh, 
and at Gara are some tombs without 

There are many other sepulchral 
excavations in the rock in the vicinity 
of S^ewah ; and Gebel el Mot, or 
« the hill of death,*' about three 
quarters of a mile from that town, 
contains numerous tombs, one of 
which appears to be of an Egyptian 

Kasr Room, '< the Greek *' {or 
Roman) palace, is a small Doric 
temple of Roman time, once ^r- 
rounded by a sacred enclosure. To 
the north are some tombs in the face 
of the hill, below which are the re- 
mains of brick arches ; and near the 
village the vestiges of an ancient 
town. It is about 5 miles to the 
westward of S^ewah, and a short dis- 
tance to the northward of El Ka- 
m^seh ; where there are other tombs, 
and the remains of a stone edifice. 
The ruins of Amoodayn, <*the two 
columns,'* are a little more than half 
a mile to the south-west of El Ka- 
myseh. They are of little import- 
ance and of late time. There are 
also some ruins at Gharb Amun, 
in the western district, on the way to 
the lake, called Birket Arashleh, 
Though the lake has no ruins on its 
banks, it is remarkable for the re- 
verence, or air of mystery, with which , 
it is treated by the modem inha- 
bitants of the Oasis. In it is an 
island, to which, till lately, access was 
strictly forbidden to all strangers; 
and the credulous tried to persuade 
others, as well as themselves, that the 
sword, crown, and seal of Solomon 
were preserved there as a charm for 
the protection of the Oasis. M. 
Linaut assured me it contained 

M 4 



nothing, which is confirmed by M. 
Drovettiy and others who have visited 

The productions of the S^wah are 
very similar to tho&e of the Little 
Oasis, but the dates are of very su- 
perior quality, and highly esteemed. 
They are of six kinds: 1. Tlie Sol- 
tanee; 2. The Saidee; 3. The Fr&. 
hee; 4. The Kaibee; 5. llie Gha- 
zalee ; 6. The Roghm — Ghas&lee. 
The Frihee are the most esteenied. 
They are a small white date, wnen 
dry, and in 1824 they sold at from 5 
to 8 dollars n camel load of 80 sdy 
or roob (3^ ardeb), in the S^ewah, and 
in Alexandria at from 1 5 to 20. 

Tiie people of S^cwah are hos- 
pitable, but suspicious and savage in 
their habits and feelings. Strict in 
the outward forms of religion, even 
beyond those of the Little Oasis, they 
are intolerant and bigoted in the ex- 
treme ; and like all people who make 
a great outward display of religion, 
are more particular about the observ- 
ance of a mere form, or the exact 
hour of prayer, than the life of a 
human being. 

They have a form of government 
as well as a language peculiar to 
themselves, which is in the hands of 
several shekhs, some of whom hold 
the office for life, and others for 10 
years. They are called elders or 
senators, and are always consulted by 
the shekhs of the villages on all matters 
of importance. They dispense justice, 
and maintain order, in the province ; 
and the armed population is bound 
to obey their commands for the de- 
fence of the town and villages against 
the Arabs or other enemies. 

The Bayt-d-maly "house of pro- 
perty," is a depot of all property of 
persons dying without heirs, of fines 
levied for various offences against the 
state, as not going to prayers at the 
stated times, and other crimes and 
misdemeanors. The sums thus col- 
lected are employed in charitable pur- 
poses, repairing mosks, entertaining 

strangers, or in whatever manner the 
Diwan may think proper. 

They have a curious custom in re* 
ceiving strangers : as soon as any one 
arrives, the shekh el Khabbar, " shekh 
of the news,*' presents himself, and 
after the usual tokens oi welcome, 
proceeds to question him respecting 
any sort of intelligence he may be able 
to give. As soon as it has been ob* 
tained from him, the shekh relates it 
all to the people ; and so tenacious 
is he of his privilege, that even if 
they had all heard it at the time from 
the mouth of the stranger, they are 
obliged to listen to it again from this 
authorised reporter. 

They understand Arabic ; but have 
a peculiar language of their own, of 
which a native gave me the follow* 
ing words : — 

Tegmirt, a horse. 

Dalghriimt, camel. 

Zeetan, donkey. 

Shiha, goat 

Ragdwen, dates. 

Esdin, wheat. 

Tineefayn, lentils. 

Roos (Arabic), rice. 
Thoiigh the shekhs pretend to great 
authority over the people, they are 
unable to prevent numerous feuds 
and quarrels that take place between 
different villages, and even between 
two gtru (families) in the same town. 
These generally lead to an appeal to 
arms, and fierce encounters eusue, 
often causing the death of many per- 
sons on both sides, until stopped 
by the interference of the fekke^s 
(priests). Each party then buries its 
dead, and open war is deferred till 
further notice. 

The town of S^ewah is divided into 
an upper and lower district. It is 
defended by a citadel, built on a rock, 
and surrounded by strong walls, — a 
perfect protection against tlie Arabs, 
and formidable even to better armed 
assailants. The streets are irregular 
and narrow, and, from the height of 
the houses, unusually dark; and 




some are covered with arches, over 
which part of the dwelling-rooms are 

Married people alone are allowed to 
inhabit the upper town, and there no 
strangers are admitted. Nor is a 
native bachelor tolerated there : he is 
obliged to live in the lower town, and 
as thought unworthy to reside in the 
same quarter as his married friends 
until he has taken a wife. 

He then returns to the family 
house, and builds a suite of rooms 
above his father's ; over his again, the 
second married son establishes him- 
self, and the stories increase in pro 
portion to the size of the family. This 
suflSces to account for the height of 
many of the houses at ^S^ewah. A 
similar regulation seems to have been 
observed in ancient times; and Q. 
Cunius says the first circuit contains 
the old palace of the kings (shekhs) ; 
in the next are tlieir wives and chil- 
dren, as well as the oracle of the god ; 
and the last is thojibode of the guards 
and soldiery. 

The S^wah was first brought 
under the rule of Mohammed Ali, 
and attached to Egypt, in 1820. It 
was then invaded and taken by Has* 
san Bey Shamashirgee, who has ever 
since received the revenues, as well 
as those of the Little Oasis and 
Fariifreh, which he also annexed to 
Egypt £* Dakhleh belongs to Ibra- 
him Pasha, and the Great Oasis pays 
its taxes to the government treasury. 
Restless and dissatisfied wi th the loss 
of their independence, the people of 
S^ewah have since that time more 
than once rejected the authority of 
the Turks, and declared open re- 
bellion. But their attempts to re- 
cover their freedom in 1829 and 1835 
were soon frustrated by the presence 
of Hassan Bey with tome Turkish 
troops, a body of Arabs, and a few 
^uns ; and a later rebellion has proved 
their inability to rescue their lands 
from the grasp of Egypt. 

The principal commerce and source 

of revenue, as already stated, is de- 
rived from datte. The people hav^ 
few manufactures beyond those things 
required for their own use ; but their 
skill in making wicker baskets ought 
not to pass unnoticed, in which they 
far excel the people of the other 

As I did not visit the S^ewah 
I am indebted to other travellers 
for Uie foregoing short notice of iti 
and to some Seewee people I met 
at the little Oasis for the peculiar 
customs I have mentioned ; to which 
I will only add this advice to travel- 
lers who go to the Seewah, that 
they provide themselves beforehand, 
with letters and good guides. 

ROUTE 16. 

CAlaO, BY LAND, TO THE PTo6>f.' 

a. Roads to the Fyoom. b. Dis- 
tances from Cairo to Medeeneh, 
Tomeeh, Seno^ris Biihmoo, Medee- 
neh. c. Excursion from Medeeneh 
to Biggig, Obelisk, d. Excursion to 
the Lake Moeris. e. To Kasr Kha- 
roon. f. Gherek. 

a. Many roads lead from the val- 
ley of the Nile to the Fyo6m, which 
is only separated from it by the low 
range of the Libyan hills. Some go 
from the neighbourhood of the pyra- 
mids, and others from El K«ifr, (near 
Dashoor), from Kafr-el-Iy&t ( Aiat), 
from Ogayt, from Benisooef, and from 
nearly every place between Kerdassy 
and Behnesa. Tiie be<i»t roads are 
from Cairo by £1 Kafr, and from 
Benisooef; and as the most convenient 
way of visiting the Fyo6m is to go from 
Cairo, and send up your boat to Beni- 
sooef and join it there, I shall give 
the route by £1 Kafr to Medeeneh,. 
and from Medeeneh to Benisooef. 
Those who merely wish to make a 
rapid excursion to the Fyo6m may go 
from Benisooef, and back again. 




Sect. IL 


Cairo (crossing tlie Nile at 
Geezeh, by Shebrement 
and Abooseer) to Sakkira 
Dashoor . . • - 
El Kafr . - - - 
Tono^eh • - - - 
Senooris . - - - 
Bialimoo . . . - 
Medeeneh ... 

Cairo to Medeeneh « 







Afler passing Shebrement you fol- 
low the edge of the desert, leaving 
the pyramids of Abooseer, Sakkara, 
and Dashoor on the right. £1 Kafr 
is (he best place to sleep at. A wealthy 
shekh lives there, called £1 Khd>e^ee, 
his ancestor having been the guide 
(khebeer) to Sultan Selim, when 
he conquered £gypt. Next morn- 
ing you cross the low Libyan 
hills to Tomeeh. On the east side 
of that town is a ravine called El 
Botts, SI 4 feet broad, dyked across 
by a strong wall, which retains a 
large body of water above it to the 
south, for the purposes of irrigation. 
Many dykes existed there before, 
all successively broken down by the 
weight of the water,' the ruins of 
which are seen in the ravine below. 
Some are apparently of Roman time. 
About a mile from Tom^eh to the 
south on the kank of this reservoir, is 
Kom e* Toob, "the mount of brick." 
It has no ruins except of crude brick 

At Kafr Makfoot, 4 miles from 
Tom^eh, on the road to Seno6ris, are 
some fragments of granite columns, 
cut into mortars and millstones by 
the Arabs, amidst whose deserted 
huts they lie. 

SenodrtB occupies the site of an 
ancient town, but has no ruins. 

Near Biahmoo are some curious 
stone ruins. They consist of two 
buildings, distant from each other 81 
imces, measuring 45 in breadth, and 
about 60 in length, the southern end 
of boA being destroyed. 

They stand nearly due N. and S., 

and at the centre of the £. and W. 
face is a doorway. In the middle of 
each is an irregular mass of masonry 
about 10 paces square, and about 20 
feet high, having ten tiers of stone 
remaining in the highest part; and 
at the north-east corner of the eastern 
building the outer wall is entire, and 
presents a sloping pyramidal face, 
having an angle of 67^. Some have 
suppMed them to be pyramids and 
have seen in them tlie two mentioned 
by Herodotus. 

Much of the large Cyperus dives, 
called by the people Kush (Gush) or 
Dees, is grown about Biahmoo, as in 
many other parts of the Fyo6m, for 
making coarse mats and baskets. I 
believe it is the largest species known 
in Egypt, growing to the height of 5 
or 6 feet, and has sometimes been 
mistaken for the papyrus. 

( At Medeendi, called also Medeenet 
el Fyoam, or Medeenct el F&res, are the 
mounds of Arsinoe, formerly Crocodi- 
lopolis, but no remains of buildings; 
and the only variety to the desolate 
heaps of rubbish are a gunpowder ma- 
nufactory, a gibbet, and some Arab 
tombs, all strangely connected with 
death, on a desolate spot, once the site 
of a populous city. I looked in vain in 
some of the mosks at Medeeneh for re« 
mains of sculpture or inscriptions : s 
few columns of Roman time were all 
they contained; but in one of the 
streets I saw a block with rich Ara- 
besque scrolls, once belonging to some 
Roman monument, and over it the 
acanthus leaves of Corinthian pi lasters. 
On a red granite column, now the 
threshold of a door, were two lines of 
hieroglyphics, containing the name 
of a town, and part of an inscription 
that probably extended around the 

Medeeneh is a town of some im- 
portance, and the residence of the 
governor or niztss. It has the usual 
baa^rs of Egyptian provincial towns, 
caravansarais, and baths, with a mar- 
ket-day every Sunday. Leo Africa- 
nus says, « the ancient city was built 




by one of the Pharaohs, on an ele- 
vated spot near a small canal from the 
Nile, at the time of the Exodus of the 
Jews, after he had aflSicted them with 
the drudgery of hewing stones and 
other laborious employments.*' Here, 
too, they pretend "the body of Joseph, 
the son of Israel, was buried,** which 
was afterwards removed by the Jews at 
their departure ; and the surrounding 
country is famed for tlie abundance 
of its fruit and olives ; though these 
last are only fit for eating, and useless 
for their oil. Wansleb says the Copts 
still call the city Arsinoc, in their 
books, and relates a strange tradi- 
tion of its having been burnt by a 
besieging enemy, who tied torches 
to the tails of cats, and drove them 
into the town. This is evidently 
an Arab tale, taken from Samson*s 

The whole extent of the cultivable 
part of the F^oom measures about 23 
miles north and south, and 28 east 
and west, which last was in former 
times extended to upwards of 40, in 
that part (from Kasr Kharoon to 
Tom^eh), where it has the greatest 
breadth. Its length north and 
south, if measured to the other side of 
the lake, is increased to 32 miles. 
Tlie Fyoom is governed by a k^shef, 
or o&zer, within the jurisdiction of the 
bey or modeer of Benisooef, who, 
like all the other provincial chiefs', is 
imder the governor of Upper Kgypt, 
residing at Osioot. 

Strabo says the Arsinoite nome ex- 
celled all others in appearance, in 
goodness, and in condition. It was 
the only place where the olive tree 
arrived at any size, or bore good 
fruit, except the gardens of Alexan- 
dria. That nome, too, produced a 
great quantity of wine, as well as 
com, vegetables, and plants of all 
kinds. In Coptic it is called Piom, 
which was probably derived from 
Piomi, '* the cultivated land.** 
Though its merits have been greatly 
exaggerated, it is still superior to other 
parts of Egypt from the state of its 

gardens, and the variety of its pro- 
ductions ; since, in addition to com, 
cotton, and the usual cultivated 
plants, it abounds in roses, apricots, 
figs, grapes, olives, and several other 
fruits, which grow there in greater 
perfection and abundance than in the 
valley of the Nile ; and the rose- 
water used in Cairo comes from the 
neighbourhood of Medeeneh. 


Near Biggig, about 2 miles to the 
S.S.W. of Medeeneh, is ai\ obelisk of 
the time of Osirtasen, first erected like 
that of Heliopolis, about the time of 
Joseph's arrival in Egypt. It has 
been thrown down, and broken in 
two parts; one about 26^ feet, the 
other 16 feet 3 inches long. One 
face and two sides are only visible ; 
and few hieroglyphics remain on the 
lower part, llie mean breadth of 
the face is 5 feet 2 inches, or 6 feet 
9\ inches at the lower end, and the 
sides are about 4 feet in width. At 
the upper part of the face are five 
compartments, one over the other; 
in each of which are two figures of 
king Osirtasen oflering to two deities. 
Below are columns of hieroglyphics, 
many of which are quite illegible. 
Tlie other face is under the ground. 
On each of the two sides is a single 
column of hieroglyphics, containing 
tlie name of the king, who on one is 
said to be beloved by Pthah, on the 
other by Mandoo ; evidently the two 
principal deities of the place. On 
the summit of the obelisk a groove 
has been cut, doubtless to hold some 
ornament, as that of Heliopolis; 
though this of Biggig differs from it, 
and from other obelisks, in its apex 
being round, and not pointed. The 
people of tlie country look upon these 
fragments with the same superstitious 
feeling as the stones of the temple at 
Panopolis, and some other places; 
and the women recite the Fat'ha over 
tliem in the hope of a numerous off- 




Sect. IL 


The best road to the Birketel Korn 
is by Senhoor, whicli is 1 1 miles from 
Medeeneh, snd 6 from the lake. At 
Senhoor are the exten&ive mounds of 
a large town, but without any ruins. 
By applying to the shckh of Senhoor, 
A boat may be obtained for crossing 
the lake. The ruins near tiie lake 
are at Kom Weseem to the eastward, 
at Dimdy or Nerba to the north, and 
at Kasr Kharoon to the south-west. 
There are also a few remains on the 
shore itself, particularly at two places 
called £1 Hamro4m,or "the Baths.'* 

The lake Is about 35 miles long, 
and a little more than 7 broad in the 
widest part, and has received its 
name, Birket el Korn, *< the lake of 
of the horn,*' from its form, which is 
broad at the eastern end, and curves 
to a point at its opposite extremity. 
Towards the middle is an island, 
called Gezeeret el Korn, in which 
report has incorrectly spoken of ruins. 
For though, from its numerous fis- 
sures, the rocky table hill that rises 
in the centre has the appearance of a 
building at a distance, this is dis- 
proved by closer examination, and I 
found nothing there but a few bricks. 
What appeared most unaccountable 
in this island was the existence of 
homed snakes, one of which I killed 
near the shore. 

The lake is of little depth, and 
though I sounded in several places I 
found what is considered the deepest 
part to be only 28J feet. The water 
is brackish, and even salt, particularly 
in summer, before the inundation has 
poured into it a supply of fresh water. 
It is partly fed by this, and partly by 
«prings, which are probably derived 
from filtrations from the Nife, over a 
bed of clay. The shores are barren, 
and at the N. W. comer the hills ap- 
proach to within the distance of a 
mile. If the reservoir discovered by 
M. Linant be the artificial lake men- 
tioned by Herodotus, Pliny, and 
Suabo, the Birket el Kom still pos- 

sesses a claim to the name of Lake 
Moeris, as is shown by Herodotus 
saying that it " makes a bend to the 
westward, and runs inland along the 
mountains above Memphis, emptying 
itself, according to the statement of 
the natives, into the Syrtis of Libya 
by an underground channel." It will 
also prove that Herodotus has united 
in his description the canal, and the 
natural, as well as the artificial lake. 
Pliny too in one place calls the Lake 
Moeris a large canal, and, in another, 
speaks of it as " having been between 
the Arsino'ite and Memphite noroes, 
250 Roman miles in circumference, 
or, according to Mutianus, 450, and 
50 paces deep, made by order of king 
Mcsris, distant 70 miles from Mem* 
phis." His expression «/atf,'* seems 
to imply that it no longer existed ia 
his time ; and if so, he must have had 
in view a different lake from the 
modem Birket el Kom. The same 
remark applies to Strabo, who places 
the lake much more to the S. E. ; 
and from his mention of two mouths 
of the canal that communicated with 
the lake, one of which was used dur- 
ing the low Nile, for letting off* the 
water wanted for irrigation, it is evi* 
dent he could not have had in view 
the present Birket el Korn. Strabo's 
account of two mouths of the canal, 
which ran by the Heracleopolite 
nome on the right, towards Libya 
(i. e. on the western side of it), to the 
Arsino'ite, so that the canal had a 
double mouth, and enclosed between 
its two channels a portion of the 
island, in which the Heracleopolite 
nome stood, evidently alludes to two 
channels or canals from the Nile, that 
took the water into tlie Arsino'ite nome 
to feed the lake. One of them, I 
imagine, left the Nile some distance 
to the south, and ran diagonally along 
the Libyan hills, where the Bahr 
Yoosef still flows ; and the other left 
it much lower down to the eastward 
of the Fyo6m, — as an auxiliary canal 
still does, in the neighbourhood of 
Benisooef. It was probably at the 




union of these two branches that the 
aluices for irrigating the Arsinoite 
nome were fixed ; and the northern 
was the only one opened during tlie 
low Nile. 

At all events, the account of the 
water returning from the lake to the 
Nile, on the retiring of the inunda- 
tion, is totally inapplicable to the 
Birket el Kom, the level of its sur- 
face being about 120 feet lower than 
the bank of the river at Benisooef ; 
^ which, making every allowance for i 
the rise of the bed of the Nile, and i 
the proportionate elevation of its 
banks, could never have been on a 
level, even in Herodotus*8 time, with 
that lake; and consequently no re- 
turn of the water could have taken 
place from it to the Nile. And that 
the surface of the lake is about the 
same now as formerly is evident, 
from our finding ruins on its shores 
at the water's edge ; and its acciden- 
tal and temporary rise, which hap- 
pened some years ago, was merely 
owing to the bursting of the great 
dyke at Tom^'h. 

The Bathen of D'Anville is purely 

The ruins of Kam WeuSm or Kom 
Wtiheem-el-Haggar, are little more 
than 5 miles from the eastern end of 
the lake, and 4 from Tom^eb, close 
to the road leading to the pyramids. 
They consist of extensive mounds, 
and below them are remains of crude 
brick houses on stone substructions, 
amidst which may be traced the di- 
rection of the streets of a town. On 
the mounds the remains seem to be 
chiefly, if not entirely, of tombs, in 
some of which animals were buried. 
I observed a few granite blocks, and 
others of a compact shell limestone. 
Some of the former had been cut 
into millstones. I also found frag- 
ments of glass, and Ptolemaic coins 
badly preserved, which, together with 
an arched room, prove these ruins to 
be of late time. Beyond the town to 
the north-east are numerous large 
round blocks of stone, extending to a 

great distance along the plain, which 
has given the epithet El Haggar to the 
place ; but they are not hewn stone* and 
have not belonged to any monument 

At El Hammdm, by the water's 
edge, at this end of the lake, are the 
remains of <* hatha,** and a few other 
ruins of no great interest, broken am- 
phors, glass, and other fiagments. 
A little above was the town to which 
they belonged. 

There is another place called *< the 
baths,'* with still fewer remains of 
burnt brick, on the south side of the 
lake ; and to the east of this, at the 
projecting headland below Shekh Abd 
el Kadee, are a few more vestiges of 
brickwork. The tomb of the Shekh 
also stands on the site of an old town, 
on the way from Senhoor to the Lake. 

Nearly opposite these southern 
** baths** are the ruins of Dim6y or 
Nerba, a large town, distant about 2 
miles from the lake. 

On the way from the usual place 
of landing, below Dim&y, you pass 
several large blocks resembling broken 
columns, but which are natural, as at 
'Kom Wese^m. 

A raised, paved dromo$ leading di* 
rect through its centre, to an elevated 
platform and sacred enclosure, forms 
the main street, about 1290 feet in 
length, once ornamented at the upper 
end with the figures of lion$, from 
which the place has received the name 
of Dimdy (or Dimeh) e* Saba. This 
remarkable street, which recalls tho 
paved approach to the temple of Bu- 
bastis, the lions, and the remains of 
stone buildings, prove the town to 
have been of far greater consequence 
than Kom Wese^m. The principal 
edifice, which is partly of stone, stands 
at the upper end of the street, and 
was doubtless a temple: it measures 
about 109 feet by 67, and is divided 
into several apartments, the whole 
surrounded by an extensive circuit of 
crude brick, 370 feet by 270. An 
avenue of lions was before the en- 
trance of this sacred enclosure (or te- 
fnenoa), 87 feet in length, connecting 




it with one of those square open plat- 
forms, ornamented with columns, so 
often found before the temples of the 
Tbebaid ; and this avenue formed a 
continuation of the main street. The 
total dimensions of the area occupied 
by the town was about 1730 feet 
by 1000, but the extent of its walls 
is not easily traced, amidst the heaps 
of sand that have accumulated over 
them ; and the whole is in a very 
dilapidated state. 

Though the relative latitudes of 
Bacchis and Dionysias, given by 
Ptolemy, do not allow the former to 
have been at Dim^y, it is not impro- 
bable that it stood there; and it is 
evident that the position be assigns 
to Dionysias, S9° O', cannot suit any 
place in the Arsinolte nome. Not- 
withstanding the latitude he gives it, 
and its reputed longitude due south 
of Bacchis, Dionysias seems to have 
stood at the Kasr el Kharo6n, near 
the south-west corner of the lake, if 
he is correct in placing those towns 
** near the Lake Moeris.** Were it 
not for this expression, we might 
suppose Dionysias to have been 
one of the ruined towns near £1 
Gh^rek; and Har&b-t e' Nish&n 
would suit Ptolemy*s longitude in 
reference to Bacchis or Dimiy. At 
all events, the ruins at Kasr el Kha- 
ro6n are the most important, as well 
as the best preserved, of any in the 
Fyo6m : a place of so much conse- 
quence could not have been omitted ; 
and the authority of D*Anville sup- 
ports itn claim to the site of Diony- 
sias. He places Bacchis or Banchis 
near the east end of the lake at Kom 


The Kasr Kharoon (or Katr El Kha» 
fo(m)may be visited from the lake ; but 
the best way is to go from Medeeneh 
to Nealeh, distant about 14 miles, and 
thence to Kasr Kharoon, a ride of 
SI miles. The principal building to 
which the name of Kasr Kharoon pro- 
periy belongs, is airEgyptian temple, 

measuring 94 feet by 63, and 46 in 
height, preceded by a court about 35 
feet in depth. It contains 14 cham- 
bers and S staircases on the ground- 
floor, besides a long passage on 
either side of the adytum, whose end 
wall is divided into three narrow 
cells. The whole is of hewn stone, 
and a very good style of masonry. 
It appears to be of Roman date; and 
in the upper story is a vaulted stair- 
case. Pococke has erroneously sup- 
posed this to be the Labyrinth, with 
which it agrees neither in dimensions, 
distribution, nor position. 

Three hundred and eighty paces 
(about 996 feet) in front of the temple 
is a square stone ruin, that probably 
formed the entrance of its dromoM g 
and near it is another small building 
of similar materials. One hundred 
and thirty paces to the south-east is a 
Roman temple of brick, stuccoed, 
about 1 8 feet square, on a stone plat- 
form, the outer face of its walls or* 
namented with pilasters and half 
columns. In form, size, and appear- 
ance, it resembles two buildings near 
Rome, one called the temple of Re- 
diculus, and the other a supposed 
tomb, outside the Porta Pia. The 
roof is arched, and the door in front 
opens upon a small area, part of the 
platform upon wbidi it stands ; and 
the principal difl^erence between this 
and tlie above-mentioned buildings 
is, that here half-columns are substi- 
tuted at the side walls for pilasters^ 
and it has a side-door. Other ves' 
tiges of ruins are scattered over an 
extent of about 900 by 400 paces, or 
about 2334 by 1050 feet ; and at the 
western extremity of this space, 350 
paces behind the temple, are the re- 
mains of an arch, partly of stone, and 
partly of crude brick, whose northern 
face looks towards the lake, and the 
other towards a small crude brick 
ruin. Near the arch is a stone re- 
sembling a stool, or an altar, also of 
Roman time. 

It is not alone by the situation of 
this town that the former extent of 




the cultivated land of the Areinolte ^ 
nomc is attested, but by the traces of 
gardens and vineyards which are 
met with on all sides of the Kasr 
Kharoon, whose roots now supply 
the Arabs with fuel when passing 
the night there. 

To the north-east, on the shore of 
Birket el Korn, are Testiges of ma- 
sonry, perhaps of the port (if it de- 
serves tlie name) of this town; and 
at the extreme point of the lake is a 
jnound, or small hill, upon which I 
found an engraved cornelian seal, 
and some other relics of Roman time. 
To the north, about twelve miles 
from the lake, is a lofty range of 
Hme^one mountains, and behind 
them is the ravine that joins, and 
forms part of, the Bahr el Fargh, to 
the west of the Natron Lakes. 

Returning to N^sleh, a little to the 
south of the road from the Kasr Kha- 
roon to the Kasr el Ben^t, you pass 
a stone wall, the traces of vineyards, 
and the channels of old canals, and a 
little farther (on the direct road to 
N^sleh), much pottery, and some 
tombs. Kasr el Benit, <* the palace 
of the girls," is a small crude brick 
ruin, of which the plans of three 
rooms only can be traced ; the whole 
measuring SO paces by 10. Near it 
is the site of an old town, with much 
broken pottery, briclcs, and other 
fragments. One mile and a half to 
the south are the mounds of Here^t, 
presenting the remains of brickwork, 
but no ruins; and at the same dis- 
tance beyond them is a stone wall, 
near the large ravine or canal called 
ElWadee (*< the valley**). About 
1| mile below N^ileh are other 
mounds, called Watf^li, and the 
tomb of Shekh Abd el Bin. In the 
ravine itself are the remains of a wall, 
partly brick, partly stone, which is 
said to have been once used to re- 
tain the water, like that of Tom^eh, 
where there is a similar deep broad 
channel, and where the large reservoir 
of water, kept up by the dyke, has pro- 
bably been made in imitation of the 



old artificial Lake Moeris. At N£z- 
leh the ravine, from bank to bank» 
measures 673 feet, and 100 in depth 
from the top of the bank to the level 
of the water in the channel at the 
centre, which is 120 feet broad. 

To. the west of N^leh are the sites 
of two ancient towns, called Harib 
-t-el Yahood, ** the ruins of the Jews, 
and £1 Hamm&m, <* the baths. 
Neither of them present any but 
crude brick remains, and the former 
was evidently inhabited till within a 
few years by Moslems, whose mud 
houses still remain. Medeenet Hati, 
Medeenet Madi, and HaWib-t-e* Ni- 
sh4n, have extensive mounds of 
ancient towns, amidst which are 
found fragments of limestone co- 
lumns, bricks, pottery, glass, and a 
few Roman coins. 

El Gherek. — About SO miles from 
Medeeneh to the & W. is El GhSrek, 
a town about 700 paces long, by 500 
broad, protected against the Arabs by 
a wall, furnished with loopholes and 
projecting towers. Over the gateway 
is some old sculpture, and parts of 
small columns and pilasters; and I 
observed other sculpture of similar 
style in the wall of a house, evidently 
taken from a Roman building. It 
has no ruins, and the mound near it, 
called Senooris, seems only to mark 
the site of an older Arab village. 
And though the stones on the west 
side, from which the village has re- 
ceived the pompous name of Me- 
deenet el Haggar, *< the city of the 
stone," once belonged to ancient 
ruins, there is no vestige of building 
that has any claim to antiquity. The 
town stands at the edge of an isolated 
spot of arable land, surrounded by 
the desert, and watered by a branch 
of the canal that supplies the lands 
about N^leh and the western ex- 
tremity of the F^o6m. It is the land 
that has given the name Gh<$rek, 
" tubmerged/* to the village; doubt- 
less from its having been exposed to 
floods, by the lowness of its level, 
when accidents have occurred to the 


ROUTE 17. — medejSneh TO BENisoofiE. Sect IL 

dykes. It has been erroneously called 
a lake. 

The inhabitants are principally of 
the Howaynat, or Owaynat tribe, 
once Arabs, and now FtUahiiu 'lliey 
have possessed the land for the last 
70 years, and are now aided in tilling 
it by another tribe, the Samaloos, 
about thirty of whom reside in the 
town, and the rest in tents in the 

At El Beni&n, " the buildings,*' to 
the N. E. of £1 Gherek, are an old 
doorway, broken shafts, and capitals 
of Corinthian columns of Roman 
time, built into a shekh*s tomb ; and 
at Talent and Shekh Aboo-Hamed, 
to the eastward, are the mounds of 
two other towns. These indeed 
occur in many parts of the Fyo6m ; 
and though we cannot credit the tra- 
dition of the people that it formerly 
contained 366 towns and villages, it 
is evident that it was a populous 
nome of ancient Egypt; and that 
many once existed both in the centre 
and oi\ the now barren skirts of the 
Fyoom. Indeed the cultivated land 
extended formerly far beyond its 
present limits : a great portion of the 
desert plain was then taken into cul* 
tivatton, and I have seen several 
places where canals and the traces of 
cultivated fields are still discernible 
to a considerable distance £. and W. 
of the modern irrigated lands. 

ROUTE 17. 


Mede^neh to Haw^ra • 7] 

lUahoon ... 7J 

Benisooef (according to the 
state of the canals) • 1 5 to 22 

' 30 to 37 

The road from Mede^neh to Ha- 
wira, or as it is called by way of dis* 
tinction, Hawara el Kassob, is on the 
N. side of the great canal or Bahr 

Yoosef, and crosses several smaller 
canals that branch off from it, and 
convey the water to the N. £. side of 
the Fyoom. A short way before 
reaching Hawdra you pass a deep 
ravine, caused by the irruption of 
water, probably when the dykes havd 
given way to the eastward. To the 
north of Hawira is a crude brick py- 
ramid, which is highly interesting 
from its marking the site of one of 
the roost celebrated monuments of 
ancient Egypt, the Labyrinth, at 
whose northern extremity it stands. 
When I visited it, the extent of that 
buildingcould with difficulty be traced ; 
but it has since been excavated by Dr. 
Lepsius. Sufficient, however, remain- 
ed above ground to show the extent 
of the area it occupied, which mea- 
sured 580 feet by 271 feet, within the 
mounds raised round it, and which 
separate it from tlie pyramid, distant 
80 feet. The pyramid when entire 
was 348 feet square ; but it is much 
ruined. The style of its building in 
degrees, or stories, to which, sloping 
triangular sides were afterwards added , 
is very evident. The bricks are of 
great sise, and appear to be of very 
great age. Strabo gives 4 plethra 
(400 feet) for the length of each face, 
and the same for the height, which 
Herodotus calculates at 50 orgyies 
(300 feet). From Colonel Howard 
Vyses's account it appears to cover a 
rock, which rises to the height of about 
40 feet within It. Several stone walls 
intersecting it in regular lines, act as 
binders to the intermediate mass of 
brickwork, built in between them ; 
and the outside was coated with a 
stone casing. 

Close to the west side runs a small 
modern canal ; and on the opposite 
bank, as well as on the east side, are 
the fallen walls of crude brick houses, 
mostly of late time. 

I observed amidst the ruins of the 
labyrinth some broken columns of 
fine red granite^ in the old Egyptian 
style, with the bud capitals, 4 feet 7 
in., and 3 feet 5 in. in diameter, frag* 




xnents of gritstone, and some blocks 
of hard white limestone, probably 
" the white stone," of the corridors 
mentioned by Herodotus. The hiero- 
glyphics on the granite have been 
painted green. 

Herodotus says, the lower under- 
ground chambers were set apart << for 
the sepulchres of the sacred crocodiles, 
and of the kings who founded the 
monument.'* The crocodile was tlie 
sacred animal of the nome, and gave 
its name to the city of Crocodilopolis; 
and it was the hatred of the inhabit- 
ants of the neighbouring province of 
Heracleopolis for this animal that 
caused the destruction of the laby- 
rinth. De Pauw makes a judicious 
remark respecting its worship, which 
will apply to tliat of the eel at Phra- 
groriopolis, and of other fish in differ- 
ent parts of Egypt ; tliat the towns 
where it was sacred always stood at 
some distance from the Nile, in or- 
der to ensure the maintenance of the 
canals which conducted the fresh 
water to those places, without which 
the crocodile could not live. 

Near lllahoon is another crude 
brick pyramid ; and a short distance 
to the S. W. of that town, at the vil- 
lage of Hawira, are the great stone 
dyke and sluices, mentioned by Abool- 
feda, ihut regulate Uie quantity of 
water admitted into the Fyo6m. Some 
remains of older bridges and dykes 
swept away by various irruptions of 
the Nile are seen there, and to the 
west is a dyke, serving as a commu- 
nication with the high land at the edge 
of the desert during the inundation. 

From the branch of the Bahr Yoo- 
sef, which runs from the bridge of 
lllahoon to Mede^neh, numerous 
canals conduct the water to various 
parts of the province, the quantity 
being regulated by sluices, according 
to the wants of each. One goes from 
the bridge of lllahoon along the edge 
of the southern hills to £1 Gh^rek and 
Nezleh ; another by the labyrintb to- 
wards Tom^eh ; ten others between 
How^ra and Mede^iieh ; and the 

same number from the west side of 
Mede^neh to the central villages of 
the Fyo6m. As of old, they still 
offer a more interesting specimen of 
irrigation than any other part of 
Egypt; and were it properly ma- 
naged, there is little doubt that this 
province would enjoy its former repu- 
tation for fertility, notwithstanding 
the injury done to many parts by tlie 
increase of nitre in the soil. 

About 2 miles to the south-west of 
the bridge of lllahoon are the mounds 
of an ancient town, called Ttima^ 
which, from its name and position, 
probably marks the site of Ptolema'is, 
the port of Arsinoe. It may be 
seen on the way to Benisooef. 

There are two main branches from 
the Bahr Yoosef that conduct the 
water into the Fyo6m, and during the 
inundation several smaller canals that 
oblige you to make a long detour in 
going from lllahoon ; the distance 
from which, in a line, is only about 14 
miles. To the right you see the lofty 
mounds of Anisieh, the ancient Hera- 
clr>opolis, which stood in an island 
forme<^ by the canal. The mounds 
of Noiyreh, Baheh, Beshennee, Bi- 
liffieh, Kom Ahmar, and others also 
mark the sites of old towns. 
i^For Beniaooef, see RouteSO. Sec. III.) 

ROUTE 18. 


a. Different roads to the Oasis. 
b. Requisites for the journey, c. Dis- 
tances. d. Wadee Ryan. — Moileh. 
e. Little Oasis. /. £1 Hayz. y, Fa- 
r&freh. A. Oases of the Blacks in 
the interior to the West. i. Oasis 
of Dakhleh. j. Great Oasis, k. Dis* 
tances in the Great Oasis. L Roads 
to the Nile at Abydus. m. Road to 

a. The most frequented roads to 
the Little Oasis are from the Fyoomi 



Sect. n. 

and from Behnesa, and the average 
distance from them is the same, about 
S days* journey. 

The Great Oasis may be visited 
from Osioot, from Geeteh by Aby- 
dus ; from Farshoot, from Thebes, or ' 
from £sn6; and that of Oakhleh from 
fieni A dee near Manfaloot, or by the 
Great Oasis. 

The route by the F^oom and the 
Little Oasis includes El Hayz and 
Fariifreh, and gives tlie best idea of 
the character of the African desert; 
but most persons who go to tlie Oases 
will be satisfied with a visit to the 
Little Oasis from the F^o6m or Beh- 
nesa, and to the other two from some 
point in Upper Egypt, returning again 
to the same, or to some other, place on 
the Nile. 

There is little to vary the monotony 
of the roads to the Oases, and the 
dreary journey over a high desert 
plain, or table land, scarcely diversi- 
fied by occasional barren valleys, has 
led to the mistaken impression of the 
charm of those ** islands of the 
blessed.** Some have supposed them 
to be cultivated spots in the midst of 
a desert of sand, rich fields kept in a 
state of perpetual verdure by the 
streams tliat run through them, and 
affording the same contrast to the ex- 
tensive barren plain around them as 
islands to the level expanse of the 
ocean. These highly-wrought pic- 
tures soon vanish on arriving at the 
Oases. The surrounding tract, over 
which the roads lead to them, consists 
of a lofty table land, intersected here 
and there by small shallow valleys, or 
ravines, worn by the water of rain 
that occasionally falls there ; and the 
Oases He in certain depressions in this 
mountain plain, surrounded by cliffs, 
more or less precipitous, and very like 
those to the £. and W. of the valley of 
the Nile. In the centre, or in some part 
of this depressed plain, is the Oasis 
itself, — a patch of fertile soil, com- 
posed of sand and clay, which owes 
its origin to the springs that rise here 
and there to fertilise it. Here are 

gardens, palm groves, fields, and vil- 
lages, not unlike a portion of the valley 
of the Nile, with a sandy plain beyond, 
in which stunted tamarisks, coarse 
grasses, and other desert plants, 
struggle to keep their heads above tlM 
drifted sand that collects around them. 
The distant hills, or the abrupt faces 
of the high mountain plain surround- 
ing the whole, complete the scene ; and 
if you ascend a minaret, or any point 
higher than the rest, you may add to 
these general features some stagnant 
lakes, whose feverish exlialations cause 
and account for the yellow complexion 
of the inhabitants, and make it unsafe 
to visit the Oases in summer or au- 

6. RequUitei for ^ Jonmey. 

The principal things required, are 
good water skins, their number de» 
pending on the number of persons. 
They should not be new, as they then 
give a disagreeable flavour to the 
water. Some may be bought of the 
water-carriers in Cairo, which, without 
being old, have been used long enough 
to get rid of the taste of the godran. 
If not to be found, the new skins 
should be frequently filled and emptied 
before starting. An extra set may be 
taken for fear of accidents ; and two 
or four spare skins will do for a small 
party. One of the servants should 
know how to sew on a patch, which is 
soon learnt ; and a piece of leather, 
some string, and an awl, are required 
for mending the skins. Never put 
the skins on the ground on a journey, 
unless a mat or something be first laid 
down, to prevent the salt tainting the 
water. The Arabs must provide their 
own water-skins, and not be allowed 
to use those of the traveller. Take a 
zamemeh for each person. Have a 
set of rope-nets, called ahibektht for 
each camel-load, to hold boxes and 
other things, by which means they are 
secure, and quickly put on the camels. 
If you have a dromedary-saddle, take 
large saddle-bags of the country, 
and a rope to tie over them, to keep 
them from swinging to and fro. 





There is no difficulty in obtaining 
camels for the journey, which should 
be engaged in the presence, and with 
the assistance, of the Turkish authori- 
ties. It may be as well to repeat 
that in this, as in other deserts, the 
traveller has nothing to do with pro- 
viding food for the Arabs or their 
camels. There are no dromedaries in 
the western desert, but a dromedary 
saddle can be put on a camel ; and as 
it is comfortable, I reconmiend one 
being bought at Cairo. 

c. Dhtancetm 

Cairo to Medeenet-cl-F^o6m. 

See Boute 16. 
£1 Gh^rek (sleep there and 

take water 
Wiidee R^in v brackish water) 
Zubbo, in the Little Oasis 

From the Fyo6m S days, or 
from Cairo 

Zubbo to £1 Kasr in this 
Oasis 6^ miles 

£1 Kasr in Little Oasis to 

£1 Hays (short day) 
£1 Hays to FaHLfreh - 
Farifreh to Oasis of Dakhleh 
Oasis of Dakhleh to Great 

Great Oasis to Abydus 38 to 

40 hours (long days) 





d. Wddee Ry6n, and MaiUh. 

On going from the F^o6m to the 
Little Oasis, the first halt is at the 
▼alley called W4dee Raiin or Ry4n, 
abounding with palm trees and water. 
It is not sweet, like that of the Nile, 
but is good for camels ; the supply 
for the journey should therefore be 
taken in at the western extremity of 
the lands of £1 Gli^rek. It is always 
better to have too much than too little, 
and rather more than the Arabs say 
is necessary ; as they try to load their 
camels as ligtitly as possible, and think 
little for the future. 

About fifteen miles to the S. £. of 
W&dce Ryin, and some way to the 

lefl of the road, is the valley of Moi- 
leb, with a mined convent or monas- 
tery, and a spring of salt water. It 
may be visited on the way to Wftdee 
. Ry4n, by making a small dStour, and 
is curious as a Christian ruin. It 
contains two churches, one of stone, 
the other of brick, and is surrounded 
by a strong wall, with a tower of de- 
fence on the north side. In the 
churches are several Coptic and some 
Arabic inscriptions, and figures of 
the apostles and saints ; and tfie 
cornice that runs round a niche in 
the stone church is richly carved, 
though in bad taste. The total di- 
mensions of the convent are 89 paces 
by 65, In the same valley are some 
curious specimens of the picturesque 
wild palm tree. 

There is nothing remarkable on the 
road to the Oasis ; and one cluster of 
acacia trees appears a singular no- 
velty. On descending into the low 
plain in which the Oasis, properly so 
called, stands, you ^rceive that the 
calcareous mountains repose on sand- 
stone, with a substratum of clay, 
holding the water that rises from it in 
the form of springs. You pass nu- 
merous stunted tamarisk bushes, some 
palms and springs, then some stagnant 
lakes ; and after sinking in the salt 
crust of once flooded fields, that 
crackles under your feet, you reach 
the thick palm groves, gardens, and 
villages of the Wah. It is divided 
into two parts, sepairated by some 
isolated hills, over which the principal 
road passes from one to the other. 
Those hills are sandstone, and they 
present some curious geological fea- 

e. LitUe Oatie* — The modem name 
of the Little Oasis, the Oasis Parva 
of the Romans, is Wah el Behnesa, — 
a translation of the old Coptic Ouahe 
Pemge. The Arabs pretend that it 
was so called from having been once 
colonised from Behnesa, on the Bahr 
Yoosef ; and it is to this that Abool- 
feda alludes in speaking of *< another 
Behnesa in the Wah." It is also 



Sect, IL 

known as Uic Wah el Mend^esheh, 
and tlie Wah el Ghdrbee, though this 
last is properly its " tPM/cra " divisioD. 
The Arabic name Wah is the same as 
the ancient Egyptian Ouah, Aua, or 
Oa, which with the Greek termina- 
tion formed Auasis, or Oasis, and u 
the Coptic Ouahe. 

The only ancient stone remains 
are a small ruin near Zubbo, and a 
Roman building in the town of £1 
Kasr, which has thence derived its 
name, signifying ** the palace.** This 
was once a handsome edirice, well 
built, and ornamented with Doric 
mouldings ; and its arch, with the 
niches at the side, has still a good 
effect. The Kasr el A 14m, about 1^ 
mile to the west of £1 Kasr, is an 
insignificant crude brick ruin : there 
is another about three quarters of a 
mile to tlie south -west of the same 
town, and to the east of Zubbo are 
some rude grottoes. 

The Little Oasis has several springs 
of warm water, which, when led to 
cool in yorous jars, is perfectly whole- 
some and palatable, though some say 
it disagrees with strangers in the sum- 
mer. The most remarkable are at 
Bowitti and £1 Kasr, the former 
having a temperature of 27^ Reaum. ; 
the latter, whose stream is converted 
into a rude bath, of 27 \^ Reaum., or 
about 93J^ Fahr. With regard to the 
real and apparent warmth of Uie water of 
some of these springs, an idea may be 
had from a pond formed by them at 
Zubbo, whose water soon after sunrise 
(Feb. S.), tlie exterior air being 8|o 
Reaum., was 18^°, and quite warm 
to the hand ; at mid-day, the exterior 
air being 15^ it was 21°, and cold to 
the hand) and io the evening, at 9 
r. M., the exterior air being 1&J°, the 
water was 20)°, and consequently 
warm to the hand ; explaining the ex- 
aggerated phenomena of the fountain 
of the Sun, in the Oasis of Ammon. 
But I may add, that the pond, which 
is about 30 feet wide, is not more 
than 5 or 6 feet in depth. It is the 
one mentioned by Bclzoni« 

In this Wah are grown a variety of 
fruit trees, much liquorice, rice, bar- 
ley, wheat, doorOf clover, wild cotton, 
and most of the usual productions of 
the Nile ; but the principal source of 
wealth here, as in the otlier Oasis, is 
the date tree, which yields a very su- 
perior quality of fruit. 

The dates are of four kinds : the 
Soltinee, the Saidee, which are the 
best, the K&ka, and the £rtob (rot- 
tub) ; but those of the S^ewah are 
even better. The proportion of fruit 
trees is also much greater than on the 

A conserve of dates, called Ag'weh, 
is made by pounding them in a mass, 
and then mixing whole dates with 
it. The Saidee are preferred for this 
purpose, and are preserved in earthen 
jars, and kept by the natives for their 
own use ; but some, which they put 
into baskets, are sent to the Nile, 
where they are highly and justly es- 
teemed. They are very sweet and 
rich, unlike any produced in Egypt, 
and are sold at 5 or 6 dollars the 

They make no brandy from dates, 
but extract a palm wine, called Lowb'- 
geh, from the heart of the tree, — 
an intoxicating beverage, of which 
they are very fond. It is thus made : 
in the summer, when the sap is up, 
they cut off* all the pereets (palm 
branches), except three or four in the 
middle ; and then, having made inci- 
sions in every part of Uie heart, at the 
foot of those branches, they stretch % 
skin all round, to conduct the juice 
into a jar placed there to receive it. 
Some palms fill a jar in one night, 
holding about six pints. It is sweeten- 
ed with honey, and drunk as soon as 
m.ide ; and its taste and effect are 
very much like new wine, with the 
flavour of cyder. 

The heart of the palm tree is also 
cut out and eaten. But this, like the 
process of making the wine, s|>oil8 
the tree. The people of tlie Nile^ 
therefore, never taste tlie former un- 
less a tree falls, as they cannot afford 




to sacrifice what costs them an annual 
duty. Tlie trees of the Oasis are 
taxed in mass, Uioseofthe Nile singly ; 
and whether dead or living, have the 
privilege of paying a fixed tax. 

Tiivy also make treacle from the 
dates : and they lay up dried pome- 
granates for the winter and spring. 

The liquorice roots (jtooti) are sent 
to the Nile in baskets, and are used 
for making a sort of sherbet. 

The principal gardens are about £1 
Kasr, where fruit trees are abundant, 
particularly apricots, pomegranates, 
Seville oranges (luiWa^, whence the 
Spanish, naranja, and our *< orange), 
and vines : they have al»o the banana, 
the nebk, and mokhayt (lihamnus 
Nabeca, and Ztzyphus), olive, peach, 
fig, pear, and some others, among 
which I was surprised to find one 
plum, and 2 or S apple trees. Olives 
are not abundant ; and tliey are mostly 
brought from the S^wah and Fari- 

Though the inhabitants of the Oa- 
sis are a much less industrious and 
energetic race than the fellahs of 
£gypt, tliey pay considerable atten- 
tion to the cultivation of their lands ; 
but they have not to undergo the same i 
toil in raising water as on the Nile, i 
the streams that constantly flow from 
plentiful springs aflbrding a conve- 
nient and never-failing supply for irri- 
gation. But the stagnant lakes cre- 
ated hy the surplus of water exhale a 
pernicious miasma, causing a danger- 
ous remittant fever, which annually 
rages in the summer and autumn ; 
and the Arabs of the desert consider 
it unsafe to visit these districts at any | 
otlier season than the winter and the 

Whatever theory may be proposed, 
or admitted, regarding the origin of 
the springs, 1 am persuaded that this 
Wah is about 200 feet higher tlian the 
Nile in the latitude of Benisooef ; nor 
is the relative height of this and the 
other Oasis at all regular ; Kliargeh 
and Dakhleh, which are nearly on the 
same level as the valley of the Nile, 

being considerably lower than Fari- 
freh and the Little Oasis. But in all 
of them the water seems to rise from 
an argillaceous bed, which in the two 
former lies under limestone, and in the 
latter under sandstone strata. It may, 
however, be reasonably conjectured 
that the water comes originally from 
the Nile, whence, carri«;d over the 
clay, it finds its way to the different 
Oases, as to tlie Natron valley ; and 
its occasionally rising, in a level higher 
than the Nile in the same latitude, is 
explained by its having entered the 
conducting stratum at some more 
southerly, and consequently more 
elevated, part of the river's course. 

The tax imposed on the Little. 
Oasis was in 1825 20,000 r^iils, about 
640L sterling, annually paid to Has- 
san Bey Shamashirgee, to whom this 
and the Oasis of Ammon both belong : 
and the peace of the district is main- 
tained by 400 or 500 armed men, and, 
above all, by a fine of 200 dollars for 
every native killed in a dispute, or on 
any other account within its limits, 
and double that sum for the murder 
of a stranger. It is diflicult to ob- 
tain any information respecting the 
population of tlie Oasis; but, from 
what I could learn, — 



Zubbo contains about 

- SOO 


- 400 

£1 Kasr, about • 

- 3500 

Bowitti, about 

- 3000 

Total about 7200 
The distances in this Oasis are : — 

From Zubbo Hnd Mar^'eh (which are 

not half a mile apart) to the ruined 

village of Bayrees to the S. £.,3 

From Zubbo to Bowitti in the west- 

em division of the Oasis, crossing 

the hill, 4 miles. 
From Bowitti to £1 Kasr, less than 

half a mile. 
From El Kasr to the western limit of 

the cultivated lands, 1 j mile. 



Sect. IT. 

No general extent of tliU Oasis can 
be given, owing to its irregularity ; 
and indeed in all of them the cul- 
tivable spots bear a very small prcv 
portion to the dimensions of the valley 
over which they are studded. 

/. El Hayz. — The small Wah of 
£1 Hayz is a short day to the south 
of tills Oasis, of which, indeed, it is a 
continuation. It has springs and 
cultivated land belonging to the peo- 
ple of El Kasr and Bowitti, who go 
there at certain seasons to till it, and 
collect the crops. But it has no vil- 
lage, and the only appearance of 
buildings is at £1 Errees, where a 
ruined church shows it was once the 
abode of Christian monks. This 
consists of a nave and aisles, with 
rooms on the upper story. Some of 
tlie arches have the horse-shoe form ; 
and over a window I observed a 
Coptic inscription. About 600 paces 
to the south-west is another crude 
brick ruin, about 74 paces by 50, 
within the walls, which are about SO 
feet high, and near this are much 
pottery and some nAk trees, which 
indicate the previous existence of a 
garden, either belonging to a monu- 
tery or a town. 

g, Far&frtK — About 3 days from 
£1 Hayz is the Oasis and village of 
Fariifreh, containing about 60 or 70 
male inhabitants. The Kassob, 
•*cane," mentioned by Ebn-el-Wer- 
dee, appears to be the Dokhn or millet 
(Holcus saccharatus), grown in this 
district ; and it is remarkable that the 
name Kastoh, usually confined to 
sugar-cane, is here applied to millet. 
The productions of Farifreh are very 
mucfk the same as those of the other 
Oasis, but it excels them in the qua- 
lity of its olives, which are exported 
to the Little Oasis. Far&freh was 
formerly called Trinytheos Oasis, but 
it boasts no remains of antiquity. It 
has a castle or stronghold that com- 
mands and protects the village in case 
of attack from the Arabs, or more 
dangerous enemies; and they relate a 
melancholy account of a sudden at- 

tack from some Blacks of the interior, 
many years ago, who killed or carried 
off the greater part of the popula- 

A. Oaiea of the Blacki. — Fire or 
six days west of the road to Farafrdi 
is another Oasis, called Wadee Zer- 
zo6ra, about tlie size of the Oasis 
Parva, abounding in palms, with 
springs, and some ruins of uncertain 
date. It was discovered about 20 
years ago by an Arab, while in search 
of a stray camel, and from seeing the 
footsteps of men and sheep he sup- 
posed it to be inhabited. Geb&bo, 
another Wah, lies 6 days beyond tliis 
to the west, and 12 days from Au- 
gila ; and Tazerbo, which is still far- 
ther to the west, forms part of the 
same Oasis. The general belief is 
that W4dee Zerz6ora also communi- 
cates with it. The inhabiunts are 
black, and many of them have been 
carried off at different times by the 
Moghrebbins for slaves: through 
the ** Vallies of the Blacks,** a series 
of similar Oases lie still fartlier to the 

According to another account, 
Zerz6ora is only two or three days 
due W. from Dakhleh, beyond which 
is another Wadee; then a second 
abounding in cattle; then Geb4bo 
and Tazerbo; and beyond these, 
W4dee Rebee&na. Gebilbo is in- 
habited by two tribes of Blacks, the 
Simertayn and Ergezayn. 

Tliese are, perhaps, the continuation 
of palm-bearing spots mentioned by 
Edrisi, extending to Cuca and Ca- 

t. Oa$u of Dakhleh. — Four days 

to the S. of Far^freh, is the Wah 

I el Gharbee, or Wah e' Dakhleh, 

I "the Western or Inner Oasis.** The 

I name of Dakhleh is put in opposition 

to Khargeh (which is given to the 

, Great Oasis that lies £. of it^, — the 

I one meaning the "receding,** the 

other the ** projecting ** Wah ; Khar« 

, geh being called projeetingt as being 

nearer to £gypt. 

A great portion of the road from 




YwiSteh lies between two of the nu- 
merous high ridges of drifted sand 
that eitend for many miles, n^iriy 
due N. and S., parallel to each other. 
Tliere is no water after passing Ain 
e' Dthukker, the halting-place of the 
first day's march. 

Though noticed by Arab writers, 
the position and even the existence 
of the Wah e' Dakhleh were unknown 
in modem times, until visited by Sir 
Archibald Edroonstone in 1819. 

The crude brick remains of nu- 
merous towns and villages^ prove it to 
have been once a very populous dis- 
trict. A little more than 5 miles to the 
W. S. W. of the modem town of £1 
Kasr, is a sandstone temple, called 
e' Dayr el Hagar, *' the stone con- 
vent,** the most interesting ruin in 
this Oasis. It has the names of Nero 
and Titus in the hieroglyphics ; and 
on the ceiling of the adytum is part 
of an astronomical subject. Amun, 
Maut, and Khonso, the Tbeban triad, 
were the principal deities; and the 
ram-headed Nepb and Harpocrates 
were among the contemplar gods; 
but the Tbeban Jupiter and Maut 
held the post of honour. The 
temple consists of a vestibule, with 
screens half way up the columns ; a 
portico, or hall of assembly ; a transept 
(if I may so call it) or prosekos; and 
the central and two side adyta. 121 
feet before the* door of the vestibule 
is a stone gateway or pyl6nS, the en- 
trance to an area measuring 235 feet 
by 130, surrounded by a crude brick 
wall. At the upper or W. end of it 
are the remains of stuccoed rooms ; 
and on the N. £. side are some 
columns, covered also with stucco, 
and coloured. 

There are many crude brick re- 
mains in the neighbourhood; and 
about one mile and a half from El 
Kasr are the extensive mounds of an 
ancient town with a sandstone gate- 
way. The fragments of stone which 
lie scattered about appear to indicate 
the site of a temple, now destroyed. 

These mounds are about half a 

mile square, and below them to the 
E. is a spring called Ain el Keead, 
whence they have received the name 
of Medeeneh Kee&d. They are also 
known as Lambada. The only ruins 
now remaining are of crude brick ; 
and from the state of their vaulted 
rooms, they appear to have been of 
Roman time. 

£1 Kasr and Ka1am6on are the 
chief towns of the" Wah e* Dukhleh. 
The shekhs of £1 Kasr call them- 
selves of the tribe of Koriiysh, and 
say that their ancestors, having mi- 
grated to this part of the country 
about 400 years ago, bought the 
springs and lands, which they have 
ever since possessed ; and the Sli6r- 
bagees of Kalam6on (which is dis- 
tant eight miles to the S.) claim the 
honour of having governed the Oases 
from the time of Sultan Selim. This 
privilege, however, is now much cur- 
tailed; and tiie governor of Kala- 
m6on, reduced to the rank of other 
shekhs, can only now be distinguished 
by his TurkiHh dress, his title of 
Eflendee, and the more diitingui de- 
portment of an Osmanlee. When I 
visited this Oasis, Hagee Ismai'n was 
shekb of £1 Kasr, and Ghuttas £f- 
fendee was governor of Kalam6on ; 
from both of whom I experienced the 
greatest kindness and hospitality. 

About nine miles and three quarters 
to the £. of Kalamoon is the village 
of Isment, where I observed the ca« 
pital of a column with an Athor or 
Isis head, and near it some crude 
brick ruins, called, as usual, e* Dayr, 
*< the Convent.*' About one mile 
and a half to the S. W. is Masarah. 
Ballat is a little more than ten miles 
to the £. of Isroent. On the road, 
and about two and a half miles from 
the latter village, are the ruins of a 
large town, called Isment el Khar&b, 
*• the ruined Isment." The most re- 
markable remains there are a sandstone 
building, measuring nineteen paces 
by nine, consisting of two chambers, 
in a very dilapidated state; and 
another near it, measuring five paces 



Sect, rr. 

by five, with an addition before and 
behind of crude brick, stuccoed and 
painted in squares and flowers. Nine- 
teen paces in front of it is a stone 
gateway, the entrance to the area in 
which it stood. Tliere are also some 
large crude brick buildings orna- 
mented with pilasters, apparently of 
Roman- Egyptian time; within which 
are vaulted chambers of sandstone. 
Many of the houses of the town re- 
main, mostly vaulted and stuccoed; 
and the streets may easily be traced. 
A little more than one mile from this 
are other ruins, called £1 Kasr el 

Near Ballat is a ruined town called 
Besh^ndy. The houses were vaulted 
and stuccoed, and the principal build- 
ing seems to have been a temple, of 
crude brick, with the Egyptian ovals 
and cornice. The doorway is arched, 
and it is evidently of Roman time. 
Tene^da is a ruined village of Arab 
time, which has long been deserted : 
but, as the land about it is very good, 
serious thoughts are entertained by 
the people of Ballat of colonising it, 
and rebuilding the houses. 

Of the population of the Wah e* 
Daklileh, I could leirn nothing satis- 
factory ; but, according to the doubt- 
ful accounts of the natives, — 

Male Inhabitant!. 

£1 Kasr contains from 1200 to 1500 

Kalamoon - - 800 to 1000 

Ged^dee - - 1000 

Ballat ... 800 

Moot ... 400 

Masarah ... 250 

Isment ... 250 

Hindow ... 600 
Bedcholo, or Aboo- 

doknloo . - 400 

Moosh^eh . . 500 

Gharghoor . - 50 

ToUl from 6250 to 6750 

The condition and population of 
this Oasis are very superior to those 
of the other two ; and in spite of the 
authority of Yacutus, who says, «• The 
Wah which is opposite the Fyo^m, is 

better inhabited than the second,** or 
Wall e* Dakhleb, it is evident that 
the latter was always more populous, 
and always contained a greater num- 
ber of villages. Indeed in the Oasis 
Parva there are only 4 — * Zubbo, 
and Mnreeh, or Mendeesheh, £1 
Kasr, and Bowitti ; whereas Dakhleh 
contains 11, and a population of 
more than 6000 yaale inhabitants. 
The remains, too, of ancient towns 
and villages far exceed any that the 
former can boast, and prove its supe. 
riority in this respect at all times. 

Dakhleh abounds in fruits, par.^ 
ticularly olives and apricots ; hut 
dates, as in all the Oases, bring the 
principal revenue to the district. At 
£1 Kasr is a warm spring, whose 
copious stream supplies several batlis 
attached to the mosk, for which its 
temperature of 102° Fah. is well 
adapted. The people are hospitable, 
and consequently differ from those of 
the Oasis Parva; nor are they so 
ignorant and bigoted as the latter, or 
as those of Far^freh. 

The general position of the Oaitis/ 
of Dakhleh is N. and S. in the di- 
rection of a line passing through £1 
Kasr to Kalamoon, and thence E. 
towards Ballat; its extent north- 
wards measuring about 15 miles, and 
£. and W. about 28. Much rice is 
grown in this, as in the other Oases, 
particularly about Moot and Masarah: 
but it is very inferior to that of the 
Delta, the gnKn being small and 


KHAROKH. — Three short days to the 
eastward of the Wah e* Dakhleh, is 
the Great Oasis, or Wah el Khiirgeh. 
It has also the name of Menaraoon* 
perhaps taken from Ma-ii-amun, sig. 
nifying ** the abode of Amun." On 
the road is a small temple, and a well 
of water called Ain Amo6r, sur* 
rounded by an enclosure of crude 
brick, intended to protect the temple, 
and secure access to the spring. 
Kneph, Amunre, and Maut are the 
principal deities. Tliough the name 




seems to be of a Casar, the temple 
has an appearance of greater an- 
tiquity than the generality of those in 
the Oases ; but I could find no re- 
mvns of a town ; and it is possible 
that this temple was intended merely 
to add a sanctity to the site of the 
spring, and to ensure its protection. 

Tlw first object of interest, on 
entering the Oasis of £1 Khirgeh on 
that side, is a eelvmbarium, consisting 
of a large arched chamber, pierced 
with small cells for cinerary urns, 
capable of containing the condensed 
residue of numerous burnt bodies. 
It measures about 1 7 ft. by 8 ft., and 
about 80 ft. in height Beyond it 
are other ruins and tombs; then 
another columbarium, and a tower 
about 40 ft. high, in which were once 
separate stories, the lower rooms 
arched, the upper ones baring had 
roofs supported by rafters. The tower 
protected a well, and was probably 
an outpost for soldiers. About one 
third of a mile to the north of this, 
and S. £. of the columbarium, are 
the remains of another tower and 
ruined walls ; beyond which is another 
ruin of crude-brick with an arched 
roof, and a door in the Egyptian style. 
Half a mile further are other crude- 
brick ruins on the hills, and an old 
well about 50 ft. in diameter. About 
a mile beyond, to the south, is the 
Kasr AIn e' Sont, *< the palace (or 
castle) of the Acacia fountain," so 
called from a neighbouring spring. 
It consists of about SO rooms and 
passages, with staircases, leading to 
the upper part, and the exterior is 
ornamented with the Egyptian cor- 
nice. It is of crude-brick, and pro- 
bably of Roman time; and in the 
wall facing the well a stone niche or 
doorway has been put up in the 
midst of the brickwork, for what pur- 
pose I could not discover, being 
some distance from the ground. In 
one of the rooms are some Coptic in- 
scriptions. There are other ruins 
near this, all a little out of the direct 
road to the town of El Khiirgeh; 

and beyond are some tombs, one of 
which is ornamented with pilasters, 
and a pediment over the entrance. 
From the fountain, or Ain e' Sont, to 
the great temple of El Khirgeh, is 
about one mile and a quarter, or to 
the town about three miles. On the 
way, and about half a mile to the left, 
you pass the Necropolis, which I 
shall mention presently. 

The great tempi* of El Kh&rgeh 
is much larger than any in the Oases, 
and is an interesting monument. It 
was dedicated to Aroun, or Amunre ; 
and it is worthy of remark that the 
ram-headed god has here the same 
name as the long-feathered Amun of 
Thebes. In explanation of this I 
must observe, that we are not to look 
upon the ram-headed god as Amun, 
but to remember that it is Amun who 
has assumed the head of a ram, in the 
same way as he takes the form of 
Khem, or any other god. The cus- 
tom was common to other deities of 
the Egyptian Pantheon, who bor- 
rowed each other's attributes without 
scruple ; and it was this his assump- 
tion of an attribute of Knepb, par- 
ticularly in the Oasis, that led to the 
error of the Greeks and Romans, 
in representing Amun with the head 
of a ram, as a general form of that 

The sculptures of the temple are 
not of the spirited style of the early 
Pharaooic ages ; though some are by 
no means bad, particularly on the 
transverse wall separating the front 
from the back part of the portico. In 
the adytum the figures are small, and 
the subjects very extraordinary, pro- 
bably of Ptolemaic or Roman time^ 
when extravagant emblems took the 
place of the more simple forms of an 
earlier period. 

The oldest name I met with was of 
Darius, which occurs in many places ; 
and on a screen before the temple 
is that of Amyrtaus. There are 
also several Greek inscriptions on the 
front gateway or pylon, one of which, 
bearing the date of the first year <^ 




the Emperor Galba, consists of 66 

The whole length of the temple 
measures about 142 feet by 63, and 
about 30 feet in height. Attached 
to the front of it is a screen, with a 
central and two side doorways ; and 
in the dromos is a succession of pylons, 
one before the other, at intervals of 
80, 70, And 50 feet It is the outer 
one (which is furthest from the tem- 
ple), that bears the inscriptions; and 
50 feet before it is an hypsethral 
building on a raised platform, termi- 
nating the dromos, from which there 
is ascent to it by a flight of steps. 
The temple was enclosed within a 
stone wail, abutting against the in- 
nermost pylon. This formed the 
temcHot. Near the S.W. corner is 
another smaller hypaethral building, 
and some distance to the N. of the 
temple is a small stone gateway. On 
the summit of the second or middle 
pylon of the drom^ some brickwork 
has been raised in later times by the 
Arabs; forcibly recalling the addi- 
dons made during the middle ages to 
many Roman buildings in Italy. The 
stone part itself is much higher than 
the other two gateways, being about 
45 feet to the top of the cornice ; 
while the other two, the first and in- 
nermost, are only respectively 15 ft 
7 in. and 20 ft. 3 in. The stones are 
well fitted, and have been fastened 
together with wooden dovetailed 

In the vicinity of the temple stood 
the ancient town. It bore the name 
of Ibis, or in Egyptian, Hebif ** the 
plough," under which character it is 
frequently designated in the hiero- 
glyphics with the sign of land, and it 
was the capital of the Great Oasis. 

On a height, south east from the 
temple, is a stone building called 
E' Nadira, surrounded by a spacious 
crude>brick enclosure, which bears tlie 
names of Adrian and Antoninus. 

To the north is a remaiicable 
Necropolis, consisting of about 150 
crude brick tombs ornamented with 

pilasters and niches, not in very pure 
style, but on the whole having a good 
effect On the stucco within are re- 
presented various subjects, which, as 
well as the style of architecture and 
the presence of a Church, decide 
that they are of a Christian epoch. 
The inscriptions on their walls are 
mostly Coptic and Arabic ; and the 
sacred Tau^ the Egyptian 

symbol of O life, adopted 
by these ■¥■ early- Chris- 
tians, fre I quently oc- 
curs here in stead of the 
cross of their successors. 

Tliere are many other ruins in the 
vicinity of El Kh&rgeh; the others 
are in the southern part of this Oasis, 
on the road to Bayr^es. 

The caravans from Dar-Foor to 
Egypt pass through the Great Oasis, 
on their way to Osioot. Slaves are 
also brought this way by Takr6orees, 
who are blacks from ibe interior of 
Africa, and Moslems, but are looked 
upon as an inferior kind of merchant. 
The great and wealthy Jel&bs are 
from Dar-Foor, who sometimes bring 
from 2000 to 4000 slaves. The rate 
of travelling by tlie slave caravans is 
very slow ; they only go from sunrise 
to half past 2 or 3 r.M., or about 
8 hours* march ; and the journey from 
Dar-Foor to Be]rrees, at the south of 
the Oasis, occupies 31 days; — 10 
from Dar-Foor to tlie Natron plain 
called Zeghr&wa, 7 to Elegeeh, 4 to 
Sele^meh, 5 to Sheb, and 5 to Bay- 

The population of this Oasis, ac- 
cording to the natives, is thus calcu- 
I lated : — 

Hale Inhab. 

At El Kh&rgeh ... 3000 

Genih .... 250 

Belik .... 400 

Beyr^es ... - 600 
(Doosh, included in Bay- 


Maks ... . 40 





The town of £1 Khargeh stands 
about IS miles from the hills that 
bound this Oasis to the east, over 
which the various roads lead to the 
Nile. The length of the central 
plain, in which it stands, extends in a 
direct line N. and S. about 66 miles, 
great part of which is desert, with 
cultivable spots here and there, which 
depend on the presence of springs. 

The productions of the Wah £1 
Khirgeh are very much the same as 
those of the Little Oasis ; with the 
addition of the Theban palm, much 
wild senna, and a few other plants ; 
but it is inferior in point of fertility. 
The number of fruit trees is also much 
less, nor can it boast of the same 

The Oases are little noticed by 
ancient writers, except as places of ex- 
ile, which ill accord with the fanciful 
name of *< Islands of the blessed," 
given them by Herodotus ; who adds 
another extraordinary assertion that 
the great Oasis was inhabited by 
Samians of the iBschrionian tribe. 
Through it the army of Cambyses is 
said to have passed, when going to 
attack the Ammonians ; and it was in 
the desert, about half-way between 
this and S^wah, that the Per- 
sians perished. One of the most re- 
markable persons banished to this 
place, was Nestorius, who was con- 
demned by the council of £phesus, 
and was at length sent to the Great 
Oasis in 435 a. d. 


£1 Khirgeh to Kasr el Goaytah 9j 
Kasr Ain e* Zayin - - - 2 

Bel&k 4 

Tomb of £m^r Khiled - ^ ^ 
Low hills and springs of Deka- 
keen (just beyond the ruined 
village to the right) • - 23^ 
Bayr^s (about) - - - 8 
Temple of Doosh - - - 8J^ 


At KatT d GSayt6h is a temple 
with the names of Ptolemy £uer- 
getes I , of Philopater, and of Lathy- 
rus. It was dedicated to Amun, 
Maut, and Khonso, — the great 
Theban triad. 

At Kasr Ain e* Zay&n is another 
temple, which was restored in the 
third year of Antoninus Pius, and 
was dedicated to Amen^bis. This 
deity appears to have been the same 
as Amun, and his name was evidently 
a Greek form of Amun-Neph. The 
following Greek dedicatory inscrip- 
tion over the door of the temple at 
Kasr Ain e* Zay&n contains this name 
and tliat of the town, which was called 
Tch6nemyri8 : — 

Afuv$fit j>if» fuyt^r^ TxMri^H^Mr, mm 
rvnmtt ^Wf vwt^ Tits Ut tumttt hm/uttmc 


Kmtru^, TMi xufMv, mm ntfurmtm mtrw 

Mmmit • nix«r rm ii(«v. mm r% 
fl'(M«M (« xmtifxt mmrtrxtum4^ iwi AmuZieu 

HAi«diM{«; ^WMfx^ AsyvirTWt 
Jtwnpum Mmtftnts twirr^mvnymtt fTftiTt- 

nwt Tftrmt AvT«x^r«(«f Kmira^ts Ttrtm 
AiAiMi Atfi«»«v Amntivm 

*' To Amen6bit, the mott great Ood of 
TchAnemyrit, and to the contemplar deities, 
for the eternal preservation of the Lord An- 
toninus Caesar, and all his family, the ady- 
turn (t^kos), and the portico (pronaos), have 
been tniilt anew under Avidius Heliodorus, 
prefect of Egypt, S«ptiniius Macron being 
commander«in'Chief, and Pamius Csppion 
ccmmander of the forces, in the third year 
of the Emperor Cseear Titus Alius Adrianus 

Antoninus, Augustus, Pius, the eighteenth 
of Mesor^** 

About 2} miles beyond the village 
of BeUk is a tomb taid to be of tlie 
famous Khiled ebn el Weleed, or 
£m4er Khilled. 

Three hours beyond Bayr^ is the 
temple of Doosh, which has the names 
of Domitian and Adrian, and was 
dedicated to Sarapis and Isis ; but the 
Greek inscription on the pylon has 
the date of the 19th year of Trajan. 
The ancient name pf the town was 
Cysis ; and the inhabitants added this 
stone gateway for the good fortune of 
the emperor, and in token of their 
own piety ; as we learn from the in- 
scription on the lintel : — . 
» 2 


Tmucvw. Atirrmf, liCturw, Tt^fuutmwt 

Atiftrmt , % tk 

E««f X*v Ai^wrriv, Za<«ri9< ««i IriSi, 3i«if 

« For thetfortune of the 'Lord Emperor 
Caesar Nerva Tn^anut, the beet, Auguctus, 
Oennanicui, Uaaeua, under Marcus Ruti- 
Uus Lupus, praefect of Eoypt. To Sarapis 
and Isis, the most great gods, the inhabitanto 
of Cysis,haTing decreed the building of the 
pylon, did it in token of their piety. In the 
year 19 of the Emperor Canar Nerva Traja. 
nus, the best, Augustus, Oermanlcua, Daci- 
cus, the first of Pachoo." 


The roads to Abydus, to Osioot, 
and to Farsboot, go from £1 Kbargeh. 
The northcmmost one is that to 

After six hours* march with camels, 
on the road from £1 Khargeh to 
Farshoot, or to Abydus, you come to 
a Roman fort of crude brick, about 
ninety paces square, with a doorway 
of burnt brick on one side. The 
walls are very thick, about 50 feet 
high, and defended by strong towers 
projecting at the comers and three of 
the faces ; and, from its position, 
about 100 paces south of the spring, 
it is evident that it was intended for 
the protection of this, the only water- 
ing place, on the way to the Nile. 
It is called £' Dayr, <« the convent," 
probably in consequence of its having 
been occupied at a subsequent period 
by the Christians, who have left 
another ruined building in the vici- 
nity, with two vaulted chambers, in 
which are some Coptic and Arabic 
inscriptions. Seven minutes* walk 
to the north west from the fort is 
another ruin, with vaulted chambers, 
but without any inscriptions. 

The rest of the journey to the valley 
of the Nile at Abydus occupies nearly 
three days, or from thirty-two to 34 
hours* march. Nothing is met with 
on the way but remains of enclosures 
made with rough stones, at intervals; 
and much broken pottery, during the 

second day's journey. The journey 
from £1 Khargeh to Farehoot takes 
about 46 hours ; but you then avoid 
a bad descent of the hills into the 
valley of the Nile. 

m. aOAD TO K^NE. 

The road from the Great Oasis to 
£^n^, or to Rexekat, goes from near 
Bayrees, and thence across the desert 
to the Nile. The journey is per- 
formed in about 50 hours from Bay- 
rees to the Nile. There is also a 
road from £1 Khargeh to Resekat, 
which occupies the same time, fifty 
hours, and that distance is computed 
at about 125 miles. 

ROUT£ 19. 


IHstanoet. MUes. 

Cairo to Benisoo^f by water 

(we Sect, III. BmUe 20.) - 77 
Benisooef by land to the con- 
vent of St Antony - - 76J 
Convent of St. Paul - » 14 


Several roads lead flrom the Nile 
to the convents, and to other parts of 
the desert; but the best and moat 
frequented is that from Dayr By6d, a 
village opposite Benisooef. After 
crossing various torrent beds, it enters 
the Wadee el Arraba, a large valley, 
nearly 20 miles broad, which runs to 
the Red Sea between the ranges of 
the northern and southern {^alla. 
It has the advantages of several water- 
ing-places, in the Wadee el Arraba, 
the most convenient of which are at 
Wadee el Areideh on the north, and 
at Wadee Om Ainebeh on the south 

This desert belongs to the Maa- 
zee tribe of Arabs, whose camels or 
dromedaries may be engaged at Dayr 
By4d. The tribes of the desert, be- 
tween the Nile and the Red Sea, 
are: — 


1. The Maacy or Maaiee, called by 
the Ab4bdefa« AtowneeXsing. 
Atweoee), the largest tribe. 

8. Howaytat, about the Suei road 
and Cairo. 

S* Tarab^en, on the northern ex- 
tremity of Egypt. 

4. Amrin or Anii[r^n,on the Suei 


5. Ey^ideh, or Aiiideh, about Mit- 

tar^'^h (HeliopolU). 

6. AUowien or Allawin, mostly be- 

tween Egypt and Petra, or 
to the north of Mount Sinai. 

7. Neaim or Neam, about Bussateen. 

8. Beni Wisel (now FeOoAtn, op- 

posite Beniaooef). 

9. How^sem, about Kossayr. 

la Baiee 1 Small tribes, in dif- 
11. Subbaha I ferent parte, chiefly 
IS. Geh^ynee ( near the Kossayr 
IS. Harb J road. 

14. Metahrit, at Birg, opposite 

Osi6ot, now Fdhkin. 

15. £* Shereef, at e* Shurafa, near 

Keneh, now FeUahin. 

16. Howira, in the Thebald, long 

since Fdlahin. 

17. Aaeixee, or Axfsee, on the Kos- 

sayr road. 

18. Asisne 

19. Tmylit 

50. Howinieh 

51. Deboor 
SS. Aid 
S3. Akaileh 
S4« Semaneh 

55. Attaint 

56. Kelaybit 

57. Haggiza 
88. Eufm 

To the south of Kossayr are the 
Jenaab, and other Emfar, or sub- 
divisions of the Abilbdeh. 

Dayr Mar-Ankmiott **tbe mo- 
noHtry of Si. AtUony," is inhabited 
by Copts, who are supported b^ 
the Toluntary contributions of their 
brethren in Egypt Their principal 
saint is St. George of Cappadocia ; 
but their patron is St. Antony of the 
Thebaid. He was the friend and 
companion of Mar-Bolos, or St. Paul, 

Small tribes. 

a hermit who founded another mo- 
nastery, called after him Dayr BSlot, 
distant by the road about fourteen 
miles to the south-east. • Dayr An- 
tonios is seventeen or eighteen, and 
Dayr B61os nine miles from the sea. 
The former may be considered the 
principal monastery in Egjrpt; and 
its importance is much incrnsed since 
the election of the patriarch has 
been transferred to it from those at 
the Natron lakes. Dayr B6los, how- 
ever, claims for itself an equal rank ; 
and one of the patriarchs has been 
chosen from its members; though 
Dayr Antooios surpasses it in the 
number of its inmates. I tried in 
vain to learn something about the 
dictionary for Coptic and Arabic, 
said by Wansleb to be in the library 
there, which he says was written by 
Ebn el Assal, and valued at thirty 
crowns. Nor were my questions re- 
specting the Coptic map of the patri- 
arch, containing the names and posi- 
tion of the towns in Egypt, mora 
successfuL Both convents have gar- 
dens. Those of Dayr Antonios aro 
kept in very good order, and are 
an agreeable retreat after crossing the 
desert The monks ara hospitable, 
and the convent is famed for its 
olives. They show the cavern where 
their founder lived in the rocks above ; 
but there is nothing remarkable in 
the convent beyond its antiquity and 

Both convents have been destroyed 
and rebuilt That of St Antony 
stands below the Kalalla mountains, a 
limestone range of considerable height, 
which bounds the Wadee el Arraba 
to the south. This valley has re- 
ceived its name from the fimutrot or 
qyrts, that formerly carried provisions 
to the two monasteries, and is absurdly 
reported to have been so called from 
the chariots of Pharaoh, that pursued 
the Israelites, as they crossed the sea 
to the desert of Mount Sinai. 

The quarries of oriental alabaster, 
discovered about ten years ago, from 
which the stone has been taken to 



ornament the new mosk of the citadel, 
and other works, is in the Wadee Om- 
Argo6b ; a valley running into the 
Wadee Moathil, which again falls 
into the Wadee Sennoor, to the south 
of the road leading to the convents. 
There is also a gypsum quarry near 
the Gebel Khaleel, on the north side 
of the Wadee Arraba ; and Wansleb 
speaks of a ruined town in the same 

In this part of the desert the moun- 
tains are all limestone ; like those 
that border the valley of the Nile, 
from Cairo southwards to the sand- 
stones of Hagar Silsili and its vicinity ; 
which, with the few variations in the 
strata about Cairo, the secondary 
gres of the Red Mountain, and the 
petrified wood lying over the Gebel 
Mokuttum, are the principal geo- 
logical features of Egypt. In the 
interior of the desert, however, about 
latitude 28^ 4(y, begins a range of 
primitive mountains, which continues 
thence, in a direction nearly parallel 
with the sea, even to Abyssinia. As 
it goes southwards it increases in 
breadth, branching off to the west- 
ward, after passing the latitude of 
Kossayr, and afterwards crosses the 
Nile in the vicinity of Asouan. The 
principal primitive rocks in the Maa- 
zee desert are the famous Egyptian 
porphyry, various granites, serpen- 
tines, and a few others : in the Abab- 
deh portion, the Breccia Verde, 
slates, and micaceous, talcose, and 
other schists. Along the coast, ge- 
nerally, a short distance from the sea, 
is another range of low limestone hills, 
which borders the primitive ridge to 
the east, as the others do to the west ; 
the lofty peaks of granite and other 
primitive mountains rising betwe^ 
them like vertebra^ of the large back- 
bone of the desert, one of which, 
Ghireb, measures 6000 feet above 
the sea. 

The same formation occurs on the 
other side of the sea in the peninsula 
of Mount Sinai, where the limestone 
19 succeeded by sandstone beds that 

separate it from the granite and other 
primitive rocks. 

The junction of the limestone and 
sandstone in the Maazy desert takes 
place at about latitude 28° 42f to the 
south of Dayr Bolos, and the primi- 
tive rocks begin a few miles farther 
down. As few are likely to visit this 
desert, I shall only notice the most 
remarkable places. 

Gebel e* Zayt, *<the mountain of 
oil,'* is close to the sea, nearly opposite 
Ras Mohammed, between latitude 
27° 50^, and 28° 3'. It abounds in 
petroleum, whence its name ; and at 
£* Gimsheh, a headland, terminating 
the bay to the S. S. W. of it, are some 
sulphur mines, grottoes and inscrip- 
tions in the Sinaitic character. 

The porphyry quarries are at GAd 
e* Dohhan, ** the mountain of smoke,*' 
about the latitude of Manfaloot, and 
27 miles from the Red Sea. They 
are highly interesting, from their 
having supplied Rome with stone for 
columns and many ornamental pur- 
poses, from the importance attached 
to them by the ancients, and from the 
extent of the quarries, the ruins there, 
and the innight they give into the 
mode of working that hard stone. 
Tlie remains consist of an Ionic tem- 
ple, of the time of Trajan, left un- 
finished, a town irregularly built of 
rough stones, tanks, and two large 
wells, one cut in the porphyry rock, 
and the ruins of buildings in various 
parts of the mountains. 

The mention of a well sunk in the 
porphyry rock may appear singular ; 
yet it is not from the di£Bculty of 
cutting through so hard a substance, 
hut from its being made in a pri- 
mitive rock ; and it is probable that 
it was only intended to catch the 
water which occasionally runs down 
the torrent'bed during the rains of 
winter, and that it should be con- 
sidered rather a reservoir than a well. 

Roads lead from Gebel e' Dokhan 
in several directions, one to the Nile 
at Keneh, another to the Myos Hor- 
mos, and others to different places; 




and that between ** the porphyry 
mountain** and the Nile is furnished 
with fortified stations at intervals, to 
protect those who passed, and to sup- 
ply them with water from the large 
wells within their walls. 

The ruins of Myo9 Homu>$ are on 
the coast, in latitude 97^ 24^. The 
town is small, very regularly built, 
surrounded by a ditch, and defended 
by round towers at the corners, the 
faces, and the gateways. The port, 
which lies to the northward, is nearly 
filled with sand. Below the hills, to 
the eastward, is the Fons Tadmos, 
mentioned by Pliny. 

Myos Hormos was the principal 
port on the Red Sea in the time of 
Strabo. According to Agatharcides 
it was afterwards called the port of 
Venus, under which name it is also 
mentioned by Strabo. Besides the 
ancient roads that lead from Myos 
Hormos to the westward, is another 
running north and south, a sliort dis- 
tance from the coast, leading to A boo 
Durrag and Sues on one side, and 
to Sow^kin on the south, to which the 
Arabs have given the name of Dthe- 
nilyb el Ayr, or *' the ass*s tail." 

The granite quarries in thai part 
of the Claudian mountain, now called 
Gebel el FaieSrehf with the town of 
Fon$ Trajanus, lie in nearly the same 
latitude as Gow (Antsopolis), on the 
Nile, and about 24 miles south-east of 
the porphyry mountains. The stone 
has a white ground with black spots, 
of which some columns are still seen 
in Rome. The quarries are very ex- 
tensive, and many blocks were evi- 
dently taken from them. They were 
principally worked in the time of 
Trajan and Adrian. The H} dreuma. 

or Fons Trajanus, is a town of con- 
siderable size. Tlie houses are well 
built, considering the roughness of 
the materials, and outside the walls 
are a temple and other buildings. 
In the quarries are some large co- 
lumns, and round blocks, probably 
intended for their bases and capitals. 

The Greek inscriptions here, and 
at Gebel e* Dokhan may be found in 
the account given by me of this de- 
sert in the Transactions of the Geo- 
graphical Society and in M. Le- 
tronne's Inscriptions of Egypt. 

At Old Kouayr are the small town 
and port of PAi^fera, of which little 
remains but mounds and the vestiges 
of houses, some of ancient, others of 
Arab, date. The name of Pbilotera 
was given it by an admiral of Pto- 
lemy Philadelphus, ill honour of the 
king*8 sister, hiaving been previously 
called ^nnum. 

llie modem town of Kossayr stands 
on a small bay or cove, 4j^ miles to 
the southward. It is defended by a 
small fort, mounting a few rusty 
cannon, and may be called a village, 
rather than a town. The inhabitants 
are called Embaw^eh, being originally 
from Emba (Yambo) in Arabia, of 
the tribes of Jehaf n and Harb. 

In the Wadee Jasoos, to the N. of 
Kossayr, between it and Ras Saff&gee, 
is a very old station, with a small 
temple* and a tablet of hieroglyphics, 
bearing the name of Osirtasen II. 
In this valley is some brackish water ; 
but in the neighbouring ravine it is 
found perfectly sweet ; and we may 
conclude that the town of ^nniim 
was supplied from this spot. (For 
the desert south of Kossayr, aee 
Routes 26, 27. Section IV.) 

X 4 




Prdiminary Informatiotu 

IB. Thx Saxxd, ok Ufpxr Eorrr. — 6. Denoiiinatioms or Towns, &c. — > 
c. Amcuemt Diyisions or Egtpt. — dL Egyptian Tkmplu. 


SO. Cairo to Benisootf - 277 

21. Benisoo^fto Minieh - 282 

22. Minieh to Orioot - 291 


23. Osioot to Girgeb - - 313 

24. Girgeh to Keneh - - 325 

25. Keneh to Thebes - - 333 


According to Aboolfed«, the Saeed begins at Fostit, or Old Cairo ; all 
to the south of that city having this name, and the northern part of the 
country being called Reef. I may, however, observe, that the latter word, 
at the present day, is applied to all *< the cultivated land/' in contra- 
distinction to ** the desert*' 

The whole of Egypt is styled in Arabic Ard»Mu$r, or simply Mtur 
(MUr), a name given also to Cairo itself; which recalls the old Hebrew 
Misraim ( Mixrim), ** the two Mixrs." In the ancient Egyptian language it 
was called KhmiU, or *< the land of Khem," answering to the land of 
** Ham" or rather « Khem," mentioned in the Bible; and in Coptic Ckmi 
or Cfiimi, According to Arab tradition, Misraim, the son of Ham, had four 
sons, Oshmoon, Athreeby Sa, and Copt. The last of these peopled the 
country between Asouan and Coptos ; Oshmoon that to the north, as far aa 
Menoof (Memphis) ; Athreeb the Delta ; and Sa the province oi Bah£yreh, 
as well as the land of Barbary. Copt, however, having conquered the rest 
of Egypt, became sovereign of the whole country, and gave it his name. 

The two sides of the valley seem at all times to have been distinguished, 
generally with reference to their position E. and W. of the river. By the 
ancient Egyptians, the desert on each side was merely styled " the eastern 
and western mountain;** and, at a later period, ''the Arabian and Libyan 
shore;** parts of the mountain ranges having always had certain names 
attached to them, as at the present day. They are now called " the eastern 
and western shore ; '* and it is remarkable, that the Arabs of the eastern 
desert have substituted the term Bur-Agem <* the Ftnian^** for the old name 
'' AnAioM, shore," applying it to the space between the Nile and the Red 

Egypt, under the Moslems, has been divided into provinces, or h&jf^Uka^ 
each under the command of a bey ; or, according to their new titles, Mamoor, 

U. Egypt AKCiEKT divisioks op eotpt' 273 

or Mode6ri and in the time of the Memlooks, the whole country was 
governed by twenty-four beys, including the Delta. 


The large, or market, towns of Egypt have the title of Bender. Medeeiteh 
is a " capital," and is applied to Cairo, and the capital of the Fyoom. 
BeUetf or Beled, is the usual appellation of a ** town ; *' whence Ebn bebd, 
'* son of a town," or '< townsman.** Kafr is a village : NexUh, or NezUt a 
village founded by the people of another place, as NexUt d FetU, Mnieh 
(corrupted into Mit, palticularly in the Delta) is also ^plied to villages 
colonised from other places. Beni, <* the sons," is given to those founded 
by a tribe, or family, as Bent Amr&n, « the sons of Amran," and then many 
villages in the district are often included under the same name. Zow^yeh is a 
bamlet, having a mosk. Kasr, or kusr, is a '* palace,** or any large building. 
Boorg is a " tower" (like the. Greek Tlvpyof); and it is even applied to the 
pigeon-houses built in that form. S&hU, a level spot, or opening in the bank, 
where the river is accessible from the plain. Mendif an anchoring place, or 
harbour. Dayr is a "convent," and frequently points out a Christian village. 
Kom is a ''mound,*' and indicates the site of an ancient town, and Td is 
commonly used in the Delta in the same sense. Khar6b and Kooffree are 
applied to « ruins." Beerbeh, or Birheh (which is taken from the Coptic), 
signifies a ** temple.** fFadee, or Wtufy, is a *( valley ; ** GSbel, a " mountain ; ** 
and Birkeh^ a " lake,** or a <• reach** in the Nile. 


In the time of the Pharaohs, Egypt consisted of two great regions, the 
upper and lower country, both of equal consequence, from which the kings 
derived the title of Lord of the two Regions. Each of these had its peculiar 
crown, which the monarch at his coronation put on at the same time, showing 
the equal rank of the two states, while they seem to argue the existence of 
two distinct kingdoms at an early period. 

Egypt was then divided into thirty-six nomes (departments, or counties), 
from Syene to the sea. In the time of the Ptolemies and early Caesars, this 
number still continued the same ; « ten,** says Strabo, *< being assigned to 
the Theba'id, ten to the Delta, and sixteen to the intermediate province.** 
The geographer adds, ** some say there were as many nomes as chambers in 
the labyrinth, which were under thirty. These were again subdivided into 
toparehia, and these too into smaller portions.** The number of chambers in 
the labyrinth is not quite certain : Herodotus, Pliny, and Strabo, do not 
agree on this point; and it is probable, that as the number of the nomes 
increased, other places were added for their reception ; the labyrinth being 
the building where the nomes met, and each had its own apartment. Pliny 
gives forty-four nomes to all Egypt, some of which are mentioned under 
other names. 

The triple partition of the country described by Strabo, varied at another 
time, and consisted of Upper and Lower Egypt, with an intermediate 
province, containing only setten nomes, and thence called Heptanomis. 
Upper Egypt or the Theba'id then reached to the Thebaica PbyUce 
(^vAajKi)), now Daroot e* Sher^f $ Heptanomis thence to the fork of the 
Delta; and the rest was comprehended in Lower Egypt. In the time of the 
later Roman emperors, the Delta or Lower Egypt was divided into four 
provinces or districts — Augustaronica Prima and Secunda, and ^gyptus 
Prima and Secunda; being still subdivided into the same nomes : and in the 

y 5 



Sect. nr. 

time of Arcadius, the son of Theodosiut the Great, Heptanomis received the 
name of Arcadia. The Thebaid too was made into two parts, under the 
name of Upper and Lower, the line of separation passing between PanopoUs 
and Ptolema'is-Hermti. The nomes also increased in number, and 
amounted to fifty-seven, of which tlie Delta alone contained thirty-four, 
nearly equal to those of all Egypt in the time of the Pharaohs. 

Ammianus Marcellinus says, « Egypt is reported to have had three 
provinces in former times, Egypt Proper, the Thebaid, and Libya; to which 
posterity added two others, Augustamnica, an offset from Egypt, and 
Pentapolis, separated from Libya." 

The northern part of Ethiopia, or of what is now called Nubia, had the 
name of Dodeca«Schopnus, or "12 schoenes,*' and comprehended the 
district from Syene to Hierasycaminon, now Maharraka. 

The schoene, according to Strabo, varied in different parts of EgypL 
In the Delta it consisted of SO stadia ; between Memphis and the Tbeba'id of 
120; and from the Thebaid to Syene of 60. The Itinerary of Antoninus 
reckons 80 miles or 640 stadia from Syene to Hierasycaminon ; the schoene 
was therefore (at 8 stadia to a Roman mile) of 5SJ stadia above Syene. 

Some of the towns on the two banks of the Nile are mentioned in the 
Itinerary of Antoninus. 

1. Alexandria to Hurasycaminon (in 
Nubia) by the west hank. 

Alexandria to Cliereu 

Isiu ... 


Apollonos Minoris 

Contri Copto 




Apollonos Superioris 

Contrik Thmuis . 

r. p. 























2. By the ea$t bani from HeUopoUt 
to Contrd PttUi9 ondHitrasycaminon 
in Nubicu 

u. p. 

Heliopolisto Babylon 
Sceiias Maudras 


Speos Artemidos 

Hieracon • 
Isiu ... 

Vico Apollonos - 

. ContrA Lato 
Contri Apollonos 






V. Egypt 



1. AUxftndria to Hienuyeamitum (in 
Ntibia) OH tke weit bank — continued. 

Coniri Ombos 

Contri Syene 









2. On the east bank from Hdiopotis 
to Conird Ptelcis ^ continmed. 

M. p. 

- 40 

- 30 

- 3 

- 24 

- 10 

. 24 

- 11 

M. p. 









Contr^ Tapbis 


Cootri Talmit 



Contra Pselcis 





In order to render tbe description of Egyptian temples more intelligible, I 
shall introduce the plans and arrangementa of the different parU. 

»"■ >• ^■ 

Crude brick Wail qf endoture. 

The Temenos planted vitk trees. 







JFi$. 1. 

n a 90 sow 





Scale qf feet. 


Fig. 1, St a simple form of a temple, censiiting of (A b b) the dromos of fphinzef, sss; 
three propjionc or pylonc, aaa i tbe pronat or portico, d ; and the adjftwm (sikoe) or 
•anctuary «, which was dther isolated, or occupied the whole of the naot, as in Jig, 9. cc 
are ecreemt, reaching half way up the columns, as seen in Jig, 3. In tlie adytum {e,Jlg. S.} 

N 6 



■ iiuiiiiiiiiiiiiii H.«....H--"--- l 5 ''l, 

1 Mlwi;j!l»...l.jJlJn!mM 

,__iiii iiiiiiiiiii ■ ■ H> j"l»***rn>T^^ln 

B!..,,.,..,..,.^|i K.jjiife;fea 


tfritOat, 1 utl or miucpt | 

uilB^MH, or>Mat,-*ii,iidca4M. ftr 6. a, (win iw rplani i A, rfniMi i/i|iiilnxc( j 
utbetiiiOofiiiHiDlilT (*) :'tlili unlF-rocaii J mar Ik conddnvd lk(|ieilHis. I, bmiK^iM. 



^nnitliiiainnt.wlI^iupilctdlniuUrnnn within lh(jrg!>ia((t] TtitrM mA-j- tn 

U. Egypt. 


iihalc lUodlnfon ( riiHd pliUami. One dF Uich Uinpla itiicid U ElcpbuUlie, ud anatbcr 
Wuh rconl u Uia UM of tha void piopjlan, 1 Du|ht to nbHrrs that pnoTUin, pjUn, 

"^ J^h^"* '"li'JSS''' 'T'd* *" '*'•«""■» Iflf- T., oroj(fi. * inAS.); but Ilia 
. .. ..._ . .__ .. — cnoftheiuopirlBuiii," I Eiia idopud jqifM 

Cairn (Boolak) to El Miunh, E. 
Bedmhaja (and HenpUi], W. - 
Tblun , . . . 

Kafrcl AUt, (or lyit) W. 
B!gg«,W. . , - . 
Atfieh ~ 


, W, 


After paning the palaces of Ka*r 
Dubam, and Kaar el Ainee, the 
itland of Rhoda, and Old Cairo (o 
the i(f\, and the towni of Embibeh 
and Geeieb on tha right, jaa maj 
be taid to eater the Sieed. About 
1| mile beyond the old capiUl and the 
mound* of the itill older Babylon, ii 
the picturesque moak of Attar e* 
Mebbee, illuated on a prtjecting 
point of the eaalern bank, at the end 
of an aTcnue of fine treea. Jli name 
i> 4eriTCd tnta an iniprewioa of 



Sect in. 

"the prophei*8 fooittep,** said to be 
preserved there. A large sandbank 
has now been formed before it, so 
that boats only pass close to the 
inosk during the inundation. A 
short distance inland, to the east- 
ward, is a river of late time, at 
the southern extremity of a low ridge 
of hills, which has received the not 
uncommon name of StabJ Antar. 
Here a powder magazine has lately 
been established by the pasha ; and on 
the low ground beyond it to the east 
are the remains of an aqueduct of 
Arab construction, probably the one 
mentioned by Pococke. A long 
reach of tlie Nile extends from Attar 
e* Nebbee to Uie village of e' Oayr 
" the convent," inhabited by Copt 
Christians; and inland to the east is 
the village of Bussateen, once famed 
for its ** gardens,'* whence its name, 
but now scarcely known, except as 
the resort of a troblesome set of 
Arabs, the Neam, who encamp upon 
the plains in the vicinity. Near it is 
the burial ground of the Jews, in the 
sandy plain below the limestone hills 
of the Mokuttum. That range is 
here rent asunder by a broad valley 
called Bahr-hela-me, " the river 
without water,** which comes down 
from the eastward, and measures to 
its head about 8 miles. It separates 
that part, called Gebel e* Jooshee, 
from the rest of the Mokuttum 

'Die name Bahr-bela-me (or -ma) is 
applied to several broad deep valleys, 
both in the eastern and western 
deserts, the most noted of which lies 
beyond the Natron lakes. 

One of the Sues roads, called Derb e' 
Tarab^en, passes over this part of the 
Mokuttum, and comes down to the 
Nile by this valley to the village of 
Bussateen ; and immediately above 
the brow of the cliff" on its north side 
is the plain of petrified wood (already 
mentioned), as well as an ancient road 
that led from Heliopolis over the 
hills to this part of the country. ( See 
Sr.cT. 2. — ExcuasioK 2.) 

On the right, the majestic pyramids 

seem to watch the departure of the 
traveller when he quits the capital, 
as they welcomed his approach from 
the Delta ; and those of Abooseer, 
Sakk&ra, and Dashoor, in succession, 
present themselves to his view, and 
mark the progress of his journey. 
A little below Toora, on the east 
bank, are some low mounds of earth, 
probably ancient walls of decayed 
crude bricks, belonging to an enclo- 
sure, once square, but now partly 
carried away by the river ; and to the 
east of it is another long mound, 
through which a passage led to the 
plain behind. The name of Toora 
signifies "a canal,** but it is more 
likely to have been originally derived 
from that of the ancient village that 
once stood near tliis spot, called Troja, 
or Tro'icus pagus; the conversion of 
an old name into one of similar sound 
in Arabic being of common occur- 
rence in modern Egypt. 

The wall stretching across the 
plain to the hills, and the fort above, 
were built by Ism&'il Bey, whose 
name tliey bear. On the recovery of 
Egypt by the Turks under Hassan 
Pasha, in 1787, Ismiil Bey was ap* 
pointed Shekh-Beied of Cairo ; and 
Murad, with the other Memlook 
Beys, being confined to Upper Egypt 
this wall was erected to prevent their 
approach to the capital. But Ismi'il 
Bey dying of the plague in 1790, 
Ibrahim and Murad shared Upper 
and Lower Eg}rpt between them till 
the French invasion. 

A short distance to the south 
of the fort, on the top of the same 
range of hills, are the ruins of an 
old convent, called Dayr el Bughleh 
which is mentioned by Arab writers, 
and was discovered a few years ago 
by M. Linant. 

El MStarah, or Tbora - MdmrOf 
about 1} mile further to the south, 
claims, with Toora, the honour of 
marking the real site of the Trolcus 
pagus, which, occording to Strabo, 
stood near to the river and the quar* 
ries. Strabo and Diodonis both re- 
port that it was built and named 

XI. Egypt. 



after the Trojan captives of Menelaus, 
with what probability it is difficult 
now to decide; and some ancient 
Egyptian name of similar sound is 
as likely to have been changed by the 
Greeks and Romans into Troja, as by 
the modern Arabs into Toora. The 
mountain to the eastward is evidently 
the Troici lapidis mons, or Tpaucov 
opos of Ptolemy and Strabo; and 
from it was taken the stone used in 
the casing of the pyramids. It is to the 
same mountain that Herodotus and 
Diodorus allude, when they say the 
stone for building the great pyramid 
came "from Arabia," or the eastern 
side of the Nile. 

The quarries are of great extent; 
and that they were worked from a 
very remote "period is evident from the 
hieroglyphic tablets and the names of 
kings inscribed within them. Those 
to the north, to which a railway has 
been laid down by the Pasha, are 
sometimes distinguished by the name 
of the quarries of Toora, those to the 
south, of Masarah. At the former 
are tablets bearing the names of 
Amun-m>gori, of Amunoph II. and 
III., and of Neco : at the latter are 
those of Ames, Amyrtseus, Acoris 
'(Hakori), and Ptolemy Philadelphus 
with Arsinoe; and some have the 
figures of deities, as Athor and Thoth, 
and the triad of Thebes — Amun, 
Maut, and Khonso — without royal 
ovals. In one of the tablets at the 
quarries of Masarah, sculptured in 
the 22nd year of Ames or Amosis, 
the leader of the 1 8th dynasty, who 
ascended the throne in 1575 a. c, is 
the representation of a sledge bearing 
a block of stone, drawn by six oxen. 
The hiereglyphic inscription above 
this is much defaced; but in the 
legible portion, besides the titles of 
the king and queen *< beloved of 
Pthah and Atmoo,** we read ** in the 
22nd year of his beloved majesty the 
king, son of the Sun, Ames, to whom 
life is given, was opened the door • . 

. . the chambers freestone, 

hard and good, to build the hall of 

assembly, which is ... . the temple 
of Pthah, the temple of the god (and) 
the temple of Amun in Thebes .... 
he has caused .... with oxen .... 
of the good god the king, who lives 
.•..'* In another quarry towards 
the south is a larger tablet, represent- 
ing king Amyrtaeus offering to the 
triad of the place, Thoth, the goddess 
Nehimeou, and Horns (Nofre-Hor, 
•* the lord of the land of Bahet **), and 
below the king stands a small figure, 
in the act of cutting the stone with a 
chisel and mallet. Besides the Hie- 
roglyphic ovals of the kings, are seve- 
ral names and inscriptions in encho- 
rial ; and here and there are various 
numbers and quarry-marks, frequently 
with lines indicating the size of each 
stone. The name of the place ap. 
pears to be Benno. The quarries are 
not only interesting from their extent 
and antiquity, but from their showing 
how the Egyptian masons cut the 

They first began by a trench or 
groove round a square space, on the 
smooth, perpendicular &ce of the 
rock ; and having pierced a hori- 
sontal shaft to a certain distance, by 
cutting away the centre of tlie square, 
they made a succession of similar 
shafts on the same level, after which 
they extended the work downwards 
in the form of steps, removing each 
tier of stones as they went on, till they 
reached the lowest part, or intended 
floor, of the quarry. A similar process 
was adopted on the opposite side, in the 
same face of the rock, till at lengtli 
two perpendicular walls were left, 
which marked the ex tent of the quarry ; 
and here again, new openings were 
made, and another chamber, connected 
with the other, was formed in the same 
manner; pillars of rock being left here 
and there to support the roof. These 
communications of one quarry, or 
chamber of a quarry, with the other, 
are frequently observable in the 
mountains of Masarah^ where they 
follow in uninterrupted succession for 
a considerable distance; and in no 



Sect. m. 

part of Egjpt is the method of quar- 
rying more clearly shown. The lines 
traced on the roof, marking the sise 
and division of each set of blocks, 
were probably intended to show the 
number hewn by particular workmen. 
Instances of this occur in other places, 
from which we may infer that, in 
cases where the masons worked for 
hire, this account of the number of 
stones they had cut served to prove 
their claims for payment ; and when 
condemned as a punishment to the 
quarries, it was in like manner a re- 
cord of the progress of their task ; 
criminals being frequently obliged to 
hew a filed number of stones accord- 
ing to their offence. The mountain 
of Masarah still continues to supply 
stone for the use of the metropolis, as 
it once did for Memphis and its vici- 
nity ; and the floors of the houses of 
Cairo continue to be paved with flags 
of the same magnesian limestone 
which the Egyptian masons employed 
4000 years ago. ' 

Tlie occasional views over the plain, 
the Nile, and the several pyramids on 
the low Libyan hills beyond the river, 
which appear through openings in the 
quarries, as you wander Uirough them, 
have a curious and pleasing effect; 
and on looking towards the village of 
Masarah, you perceive on the left a 
causeway or inclined road, leading 
towards the river, by which the stones 
were probably conveyed to the Nile. 

Hdwttm, a village on the east bank, 
is known as having been the first 
place where the Arabs made a Nilo* 
meter, under the caliphate of Abd el 
Melek, abput the year 700 a. d. It 
was built by Abd el Asees, the bro- 
ther of the caliph ; but being found 
not to answer there, a new one was 
made by Soolayman, his second suc- 
cessor, about 1 6 years afterwards, at 
the Isle of Roda, where it has con- 
tinued ever since. Aboolfeda speaks 
of Helw&n as a very delightful vil- 
lage, and it was perhaps from this 
that it obtained its name, Helwa 
signifying « sweety" though, as Nor- 

den observes, it possesses nothing 
more to recommend it on this score 
than its opposite neighbour. Nearly 
opposite Helwin, on the W. bank, 
and a little way from the shore, is 
Bedreshayn; and H mile to the 
westward is Mitrahenny, the site of 
Memphis. Its lofty mounds ouiy be 
seen from the river, halfway between 
the village of Sakkira and the Nile ; 
and about 4 miles farther up the 
stream, you pass Shobuk, and the py- 
ramids of Dasb6or, 4 miles inland to 
the right About 2 miles to the west- 
ward of Ma8gb6on, is el Kafr, a 
small village, from which on of the 
principal roads leads to the F^o6m, 
across the desert (See Route XVI.) 

In this neighbourhood, probably 
near Dash6or, were <^the city of 
Acanthus, the temple of Osiris, and 
the grove of Thebaic gum-producing 
Acanthus,** mentioned by Strabo; 
which last may be traced in the many 
groves of that tree (the sont, or 
Acacia Nilotica), which still grow 
there, at the edge of the cultivated 
land. The town of Acanthus was, 
according to Diodorus, 120 stadia, or 
15 K. r.from Memphis, equal to ISi, 
or nearly 14 English miles, which, if 
correct, would place it much farther 
south, to the westward of i^r el 
lyit ; though it is generally supposed 
to have stoMl nvar Dash6or. 

In the hills near £1 Kafr, are some 
small tombs, not worth visiting. 

On the same bank, and near Kafr 
ri lyit, at the extremity of a large 
bend of the river, is, as I suppose^ 
the site of Menes* Dyke. {Sea above. 
Section II. Excursion 4. page 203.) 

From this spot are descried the 
two ruined pyramids of Lisht, built 
of small blocks of limestone ; which 
were probably once covered with an 
exterior coating of larger stones. 

Three miles to the N. W. is a coni- 
cal hill resembling a pyramid. It is, 
however, merely a rock, with no 
traces of masonry ; and in this part 
of the low Libyan chain are a great 
abundance of fossils, particularly 

Cr. Egypt. 



oytter-shellsy with which some of the 
rocks are densely filled, in some in- 
stances retaining their glossy mother- 
of-pearl surface. 

Wadee Ghomf er (or el Ghomeir) 
opens upon the Nile at £*Saf on the 
east bank. By this valley runs the 
southernmost of the roads across the 
desert to Sues. 

W. S.W.from Rigga, on the op- 
posite bank, is a pyramid, called by 
the Arabs « H&rom d Keddb/' or the 
** false pyramidy** from tlie erroneous 
idea that the base is merely rock, and 
that it does not form part of the build* 
ing itself. It is built in stories or 
degrees, and is remarkable for the 
position of the stones, which lie nearly 
at the tom^bemtnX of the exterior an^, 
and not horizontally, as in other 

At A tf^eh are the mounds of Aphro- 
ditopolis, or the city of Athor, the 
Egyptian Venus. It presents no 
monuments. • The Coptic name is 
Tpeh, or Petpieh, easily converted 
into the modem Arabic Atf^eh. It 
was the capital of the Aphroditopo- 
lite nome, and noted, as Strabo tells 
us, for the worship of a white cow, 
the emblem of the goddess. 

At Maydoon, which stands on the 
canal, opposite the false pyramid, are 
lofty mounds of an ancient town ; 
and opposite Zow'yeh, at the north 
comer of the low hills overlooking 
the Nile, is Broombel, where mounds 
marks tha site of an old town, pro- 
bably Ancyronpolis. That city is 
supposed to have owed its name to 
the stone anchors said to have been 
cut in the neighbouring quarries. 

Zow'yeh appears to be Iseum, in 
Coptic Naesi, the city of Isis, which 
stood near the canal leading to Pou- 
siri, or Nilopolis, and thence to the 
Crocodilopolite nome. This canal 
on the north, with part of the pre- 
decessor of the Bahr Yoosef on the 
west, and the Nile on the east, formed 
the island of the Heracleopolite nome ; 
and the dty of Hercules was, accord- 
ing to Strabo, towards the southern 

extremity of the province, of which 
it was the capital. And this agrees 
with the position of An^eh, or Om 
el Keem&n, "the mother of the 
mounds," as it is often called by the 
Arabs, from the lofty mounds of the 
old city, which are seen inland about 
twelve miles to the westward of Be- 

Nothing of interest is met with on 
the Nile between Zow'yeh and Be- 

Inland, about nine miles to the 
south-west of the former is Abooseer, 
the site of Busiris, or Nilopolis, in 
Coptic Fousiri, upon the canal already 
mentioned, bounding the Heracleo- 
polite nome to the west. The posi- 
tion of the city of the Nile, at a dis- 
tance from the river, was evidently 
chosen in order to oblige the people 
to keep the canal in proper repair, 
that the water of the sailed stream 
might pass freely into the interior, 
and reach the town where the god 
Nilus was the object of particular 
veneration; a motive which M. de 
Pauw very judiciously assigns to the 
worship of the crocodile in towns 
situated far ftom the river. 

Zaytoon has succeeded to an ancient 
town, called in Coptic Phannig6it. 
It was in the district of Poushin, the 
modem Boosb, which is distant lEUxnit 
three miles to the south, and is 
marked by lofty mounds. It is re- 
markable that Zaytoon, signifying 
« olives,'* is an An^ic translation of 
the^ld name Pha-n-ni-goit, *<the 
place of olives,** probably given it to 
show a quality of the land, which 
differed from the rest of the Heracleo- 
polite nome. 

Dallas, about a mile to the S. W. 
of Zaytoon, appears to be the Tgol (or 
Tlog) of the Copto; and at Shenow^eh, 
close to Boosh, are mounds of an 
ancient town, whose name is un- 

Booeh is a large and thriving town, 
considering the state of the Egyptian 
peasantry. Among the inhabitants 
are many Copt Christians, and it has 



Sect III. 

a large depot of monks, which keeps 
up a constant communication with the 
convents of St. Antony and St. Paul, 
in the eastern desert, supplying them 
with all they require, furnishing them 
occasionally wiUi fresh monastic re- 
cruits, and superintending the regu- 
lations of the whole corps of ascetics. 
Pococke supposes Boosh to be the 
ancient Ptolemais, the port of Arsinoe, 
but this was further ipland. 

Benitooef is the capital of the pro- 
vince or beylik, and the residence of 
the governor, whose palace stands 
on the north. Benisoo^f has also 
a manufactory for silk and cotton 
stufls, built by Mohammed Ali in 
1826, as in other large towns of 
Egypt ; but it is no longer famous for 
its liuen manufactures, as in the time 
of Leo Africanus, when it supplied 
the whole of Bgypt with flax, and ex- 
ported great quantities to Tunis and 
other parts of Barbary. A market is 
held at Benisoo^f every week, but it 
is badly supplied ; and the town can- 
not boast even the common Eastern 
comfort of a bath, which at Minieh, 
and other large towns of Egypt, is 
always to be met with. 

The bank at Benisoo^f presentothe 
ordinary scenes common to all the 
large towns on the Nile; the most 
striking of which are, numerous boats 
tied to the shore, — buffaloes standing 
or Ijring in the water, — women at 
their usual morning and evening oc- 
cupation of filling water-jars and 
washing clothes, — dogs lying in holes 
they have scratched in the cool earth, 
— and beggars importuning each 
newly arrived European stranger with 
the odious word "bakshish.** This 
is followed by the equally odious 
«< Ya Hawiigee," by which the Franks 
are rather contemptuously designated; 
and the absurd notion of superiority 
over the Christians affected by the 
Moslems is strikingly displayed in 
these as in many other instances. 
The faithful beggar, barely covered 
with scanty rags, and unclean with filth, 
thinks himself polluted by the contact 

of a Christian, whose charity he sel- 
dom condescends to ask in the same 
terms as from a true believer; and 
*< bakshish, ya Haw&gee *' is subtituted 
for ••Sow&b lill&h, ya SidL" 

He also marks hb superiority by 
the use of the word Hawigee. It 
answers to the French marehand; and 
the same presumption which led some 
silly people in France to stigmatise 
the English as a nation of shopkeepers 
(marehandt), has found a worthy 
parallel iu the mouths of the beggars 
of Egypt. Lee beaux esprit* se ren'- 
contremti and in like manner the Mos- 
lems, however degraded their condi- 
tion, treat all Europeans as shop* 
keepers, unworthy of aspiring to their 
own innate excellence. 

From Benisoo^f isone of the prin- 
cipal routes to the Fyo6m, (sec Sec- 
tion 2, Route 16.) The brick py- 
ramid of Illaho6n, at its north-east 
entrance, may be seen from the town. 
On the opposite bank is the Wadee 
By&d, by which the road leads to tlie 
monasteries of St. Antony and St* 
Paul, situated in the desert near the 
Red Sea. (See Route 19.) 

ROUTE 21. 


Benisoo^f to Aboogtrgeh, (W.) 45{ 

{Excureion to B^neta, inland.) 
Aboogirgeh to Mfnieh, (W.} 87} 


The village of Dayr By£d, in an 
island opposite Benisoo^f, so called 
from a neighbouring convent, is in- 
habited by people originally of the 
tribe of Beni-Wisel Arabs; whose 
chief, Shekh Ibrahim, was about 15 
years ago one of the roost wealthy 
persons in the valley of the Nile. 

Some small mounds, called Tel e* 
Nass4ra and Tel e' Teen, inland oa 
the south of the island, mark the site 
of ancient villages ; and on the oppor 

U.Egypt ROUTE 21. — BENisooip to m/nieh. 


site bank are many mounds of larger 
towns, whose ancient names are un- 

Isment, between 2 and 3 miles S. 
of Benisoo^fy on the river side, has 
mounds, but no vestiges of ruins, nor, 
indeed, any relic of antiquity, except 
the margin of a well. It is called 
Isment el Bahr (" of the river'*), to 
distinguish it from Isment (miscalled 
Sidment) e* Gebel (" of the moun- 
tain'*), which stands at the foot of 
the hills separating the F^o6ra from 
the valley of the Nile. This name 
cannot fail to call to mind Ismendes, 
and may, perhaps, be the Shbent of 
the Coptic list of towns in this dis- 

Anisieh, or Om el K^emdn, "the 
mother of the mounds,'* the ancient 
city of Hercules, lies inland to the 
west. The Coptic name of that 
town, Ebnes or Unes, is readily 
traced, in the mo<lem An&sieh, as its 
position by the lofty mounds on which 
it stands. That this is the site of 
Hcracleopolis there is no question, 
though the Arabic and Coptic names 
bear no resemblance to that of the 
deity, Sem or Gom, the Egyptian 
Hercules. It was here that the ich- 
neumon, the enemy of the crocodile, 
was particularly worshipped ; and tlie 
respect paid to that animal by the 
Heracleopolites, the immediate neigh- 
bours of the Arsino'ite or Crocodilo- 
polite nome, led, in late times, during 
the rule of the Romans, to serious 
disputes, which terminated in blood- 
shed, and made the contending par- 
ties forget the respect due to the sa- 
cred monuments of their adversaries. 
And judging from what Pliny states 
respecting the injuries done to the 
famous labyrinth, there is more rea- 
son to attribute tlie destruction of 
that building to the superstitious pre- 
judices of the Heracleopolites, than 
to the ordinary ravages of time. 

At Tanseh, Brangeh, Bibbeb, Sits, 
and other places, are the mounds of 
old towns, with whose names we are 
unacquainted. Fococko supposes 

Brangeh (or, as he calls it, Benm- 
gieh), to be Cynopolis ; but the posi- 
tion of that town was farther to the 
south. Bibbeh, which has succeeded 
to an ancient town, is noted for a 
Copt convent, and for an imaginary 
Moslem santon, thence called £1 Bib« 
bdwee. This holy individual is the 
offspring of a clever artifice of the 
Christians; who, to secure Ibeir 
church from outrage, during the dis- 
turbances that formerly took place in > 
Egypt, gave out that a Moslem shekh^ 
presided over and dwelt in its pre^ 
cincts ; and the priests to this day tell- 
them a heterodoi story of his ezploit^^ 
and his wars against the infidels. The 
name of infidel is indefinite ; it may 
satisfy the Moslem or the Christian, 
according to his peculiar applica- ' 
tion of the word ; and the pious false- 
hood is at all events as true as thesceiie 
represented by the picture. So well * 
indeed has it succeeded, that visits are 
frequently paid by the passing Mos- 
lem to the sanctuary of this revered 
personage ; he reads the Fat' ha before 
the likeness of a man (though so 
strictly forbidden by his religion), 
and that too within the walls of a 
Christian church ; and he gladly con- 
tributes a few paras for the lamps 
burnt before it, with the full persua^ 
sion that his voyage will be prospe- 
rous, through the good offices of the 
saint. But while the priest who re- 
ceives the boon tells the plausible tale 
of the power of the "shekh," the in- 
different spectator, who recognises the 
usual representation of St. George 
and the Dragon, may smile at the 
credulity and the ignorance of the 
donor. The conversion of St. George 
into a Moslem saint may appear 
strange to an Englishman; but it is 
found to be far less difficult to de- 
ceive an Egyptian by this clumsy 
imposition, than to persuade a Copt 
Christian that his guardian saint, with 
the same white horse, green dragon, 
and other accessories, holds a similar 
tutelary post in England. Tlie most 
credulous^ as well as^tbe most rea^ 




soDsble Copt, iromediately rejects 
this statement as a glaring impos- 
sibility ; and the question, *' What 
can our St. George have to do with 
England?'* might perplex the most 
plausible, or the most pious, of the 

Nearly opposite Bibbeh is Shekh 
Aboo Noor, the site of an ancient 
Tillage ; and beyond it the position of 
some old towns are marked by the 
mounds of Sits, Miniet e* Geer, and 
Feshn. A little higher up the river, 
on the east bank, behind the island 
that lies half way between Feshn and 
el Fent, is el H^ybee, or Medeenet- 
e* Gahil, where some remains mark 
the site of a small town of consider- 
able antiquity. They consist of crude 
brick walls, and remains of houses. 
On the north side is a large mass of 
building of some height, founded on 
the rock, but probably of later date 
than the walls of the town. It is 
built of smaller brick, and between 
every fourth course are layers of reeds, 
serving as binders. Behind this, a 
short distance out of the town, is an 
isolated square enclosure surrounded 
by a crude brick wall; and in the 
centre of the open space it encloses, 
is a grotto or cavern cut in the rock, 
probably sepulchral, a tomb being 
also found between this and the wall 
of the town. The tombs are pro- 
bably of a later time than the build- 
ings themselves. Near t^e water's 
edge are the remains of a stone quay ; 
and some fragments of unsculptured 
blocks are met with in different places. 
But the most remarkable feature in 
the ruins at el Hiybee is the style of 
the bricks in its outer walls, which 
have two hieroglyphic legends stamped 
upon them, sometimes one contain- 
ing the oval of ft king, sometimes 
ftnother, with the name of a high- 
priest of Amun. 

That the town existed, also, in 
Roman time is proved by the frag- 
ments of mouldings found there. 
Some of the stamped bricks have been 
lately burnt, and used by Ahmed 

Pasha for some modem buildings; 
which accounts for the unusual ap- 
pearance of burnt bricks of early 
Egyptian time. May this be the site 
of Alyi or of Hipponon ? 

At Malat^eh are other mounds, 
and at the south-west comer of Gebel 
Shekh Embdrak Is an old ruined town, 
long since deserted, which affords one 
of many proofs that the Egyptians 
availed themselves of similar situa- 
tions, with the double view of saving 
as much arable land as possible, when 
a town could be placed on an un- 
productive though equally convenient 
spot, and of establishing a command- 
ing post at the passes between the 
mountains and the Nile. 

Gebel Shekh Emb&rak is a lofty 
table mountain, approaching very 
close to the river, and detached from 
the main chain of the Gebel el B4xam, 
which stretches far inland to the 
south-east. After this follow a suo 
cession of low hills to Gebel e' Tayr. 
A little above El Meragha (or Meg- 
higha), on the same bank, is the 
H&gar e* SaUm, or '< stone of wel- 
fare," a rock in the stream near the 
shore, so called from an idea of the 
boatman, *' that a joumey down the 
Nile cannot be accounted prosperous 
until after they have passed it." The 
mountains here recede from the Nile 
to the eastward ; and at Shar6na are 
the mounds of an ancieQt town, perhaps 
Pseneros or Shenero. Pococke sup- 
poses it to be Musa or Muson. The 
sites of other towns may also be seen 
on the opposite side of the river, as at 
Aba, three or four miles inland* and 
at. Aboo- Girgeh some distance to the 
south. A few miles above Shar6na, 
on the east bank, is Kom Ahmar, 
" the red mound,** with the remains 
of brick and masonry, perhaps of 
Muson, and a few rude grottoes. 
To the east of this are several dog 
mummy pits, and the Testiges of an 
ancient village, in the vicinity of 
Ham&tha. At j4boo - Girgth (or Aboo 
Girg) are extensive mounds. It is 
still a large /cOdA town, situated in a 


BOUTB 21. — BimnesA. 


rich plain about two miles from the 

EzcaasiON to Bshnzsa ; imlahd. 

Inland to the west it BShutOy the 
ancient Oxyrhinchut, in Coptic 
Pemge, which is a ride of 10) miles 
across the fields, from Aboo-Girgeh. 
The peculiar worship of the Oxyrhin- 
chus fish gave rise to the Greek name 
of this city ; and, from the form of its 
'< pointed nose," I am inclined to 
think it was the Mixzth or Mixdeh of 
the present day, which may be traced 
in the Coptic emge. The modern 
name of the place is Bahnasa or 
Behnesa, in which some have endea- 
voured to trace that of the Bennif one 
of the many fish of the Nile, con- 
veniently transformed into theozyrhin- 
chus for an etymological purpose, and, 
it is needless to say« without the least 
shadow of reason. 

Tlie position of Behnesa is far from 
being advantageous ; the Libyan desert 
having made greater encroachments 
there than in any part of the valley. 
Downs of sand overgrown with bushes 
extend along the edge of its culti- 
vated land ; to the west of which is a 
sandy plain of great extent, with a 
gentle ascent, towards the hills of the 
Libyan chain ; and behind these is a 
dreary desert. The encroachments 
are not, however, so great as Denon 
would lead us to suppose, nor will the 
people of B^hneaa, as be supposes, be 
driven by the sand beyond the Bahr 
Toosef. The site of the town 
guarantees the inhabitants from such 
a catastrophe, even if they neglect the 
most common precautions, and they 
have always the means of protecting 
themselves from it, though the inva- 
sion of sand were to increase by more 
than its usual ratio. 

On the south side are some mounds 
covered with sand, on which stand 
several shekhs* tombs; and others, 
consisting of broken pottery and bricks, 
suflSciently mark the site of a large 
town, whose importance is proved by 
the many granite columns, fragments 

of cornices, mouldings, and altars that 
lie scattered about Little, however, 
remains of its early monuments ; and 
if the site of its mounds proclaims its 
former extent, the appearance of its 
modem bouses and the limited num- 
ber of three mosks show its fallen 

Like other towns Behnesa boasts a 
patron saint. He is called e* Tak* 
r6ory, and is known in Arab songs 
and legendary tales. He is even be- 
lieved to appear occasionally to the 
elect, outside his tomb, accompanied 
by a numerous retinue of horsemen, 
but without any ostensible object. 

The " single column, with its capi- 
tal and part of the entablature, show- 
ing it to be a fragment of a portico 
of the composite order,** described by 
Denon, no longer exists, though the 
columns he mentions in the mosks 
may still be seen. According to an 
account given me in the Fyo6m, aAer 
my visit to Behnesa, there are some 
caverns to the N.W.(?) of the town, 
and in one of them about eighteen 
columns arranged around the interior, 
and standing in water, which is of 
great depth, and never dried up. 
Nearly opposite the door is a niche or 
recess, once (as they pretend) the 
site of an altar or a statue. Though 
the authority of the Arabs may be 
doubted, any one who visits Behnesa 
may easily inquire about it, and as- 
certain tlie trutlk 

Behnesa is still the residence of a 
governor ; in 1 82SHt had a garrison 
of 400 Turkish soldiers ; and in the 
time of the Memlooks it enjoyed con- 
siderable importance, and was one of 
the principal towns of modern Egypt. 
The Bahr Yoosef once passed through 
the centre ; but the eastern portion 
of tlie city ^ of Oxyrhmchus is no 
longer part of Behnesa, and being 
now called SAndofeh, may be con- 
sidered a distinct village. At the 
period of the Arab conquest, Beh- 
nesa was a place of great importance, 
and of such strength that of the 
1 6,000 men, who besieged it, 5,000 



Sect. m. 

are said to have parisbed in the as- 

The account of this conquest and of 
the previous history of the city, given 
by the Arab historian A boo Ab- 
dillahi ben Mohammed el Mukkari, 
is more like fable than a real his- 

ROUTE 21. (eantinued.) 


Above Aboo-Girgeh are el Kays, 
Aboo-Axees, and other places, whose 
mounds mark the positions of old 
towns. £1 Kays, the Kais of the 
Copts, which is laid down in Coptic 
MSS. between Nikafar and Ozy- 
rhinchus, is the andent^Cynopolis, the 
'* City of the Dogs ; '* and it is worthy 
of remark, that one of the principal 
repositories of dog mummies is found 
on the opposite bank, in the vicinity 
of Hamitha. It was not unusual 
for a city to bury its dead, as well as 
its sacred animals, on the opposite side 
of the Nile ; provided the mountains 
were near the river, or a more con- 
venient spot offered itself for the con- 
struction of catacombs than *in their 
own vicinity; and such appears to 
have been the case in this instance. 
There is reason to believe that one 
branch of the Nile has been stopped 
in this spot, which once flowed to the 
west of el Kays ; and this would ac- 
cord with the position of Cynopolis, 
in an bland, according to Ptolemy, 
and account for the statement of el 
Mukkari that el Kays was on the 
east bank. Co, which Ptolemy places 
opposite Cynopolis, should be some 
miles inland to the west Beni- 
Mohammed-el-Kofo6r has succeeded 
to the old Nikafar mentioned in the 
Coptic MSS. It was above Kais; 
but another town, called Tamma, is 
placed by them between Cynopolis 
and Oxyrhinchus. 

In the hills behind Skekh Hassan, 
on the east bank, are extensive lime- 
stone quarries. Near them are some 

crude brick remains, with broken 
pottery ; and in a chapel or niche in 
the rock is a Christian inscription. 
A singular isolated rock stands in the 
plain behind Nezlet e* Shekh Has- 
san ; and similar solitary masses of 
rock, left by the stone-cutters, are 
met with to the south, with other 
quarries, and a few small tombs. 
About two and a half miles to the 
south of Nexlet e' Sbekh Hassan are 
the vestiges of an ancient village ; and 
in the plain, near the mouth of the 
Wadee e* Serar^eh, are an old station, 
or fort, and another village. The 
river here makes a considerable bend 
to the west, leaving two large islands 
on the eastern side opposite Gol6- 
saneh. Near the latter village Po- 
cocke saw two rows of stone, about 
20 feet long, under the water, ap- 
parently the remains of an ancient 
wall ; but I could find no traces of 
them, though it is possible that at the 
low Nile they may still be discernible, 
and Gol6saneh may occupy the site 
of an old town. 

On the north-west corner of the 
hills, at the mouth of Wadee «* Dojfr, 
are some limestone quarries. Their 
principal interest always consisted in 
two painted grottoes of the early time 
of Pihahmen, the son of Remeaes the 
Great, the last king of the 18th dy- 
nasty. One of them has unfortu- 
nately been destroyed by the Turks, 
and the other has already lost its 
portico, and is threatened with th6 
fiite of its companion. It is very 
small, measuring only 7 paces by 4, 
inside, but very interesting from the 
subjects it contains, and from the 
fact of its having been the rock 
temple, or chapel, of the adjoining 
quarries. The portico was in antis 
witli two columns, one of which was 
standing two or three years ago ; and 
it received the name of Bahayn, **the 
two doors,'* from its double entrance. 
Athor was the presiding deity. 

This custom of placing quarries 
and other localities, under the pe- 

U. Egypt. 



culiar protection of some god, was 
observed by the Egyptians from the 
earliest to the latest pAiods; the 
quarries of Toora-Masurab, and the 
hills of the pyramids, were under 
their tutelary deity; and the L«atin 
inscription ' of Caracalla at Asouan 
speaks of ** Jupiter- Ammon, Ce- 
nubis, and Juno, under whose 
guardianship the hill was placed," 
where new quarries had been opened. 

Round the comer of the rock out- 
side this grotto, king Remeses III., 
the fourth successor of Pthahmen, is 
represented with the crocodile-headed 
god Savak and Athor, receiving the 
honourable distinction of ** president 
of the assemblies ;'* and at the side are 
two large ovals of the same Pharaoh, 

On Uie south side of Wadee e' 
Dayr are vestiges of a small town, 
and near it some tombs and quarried 

A ruined wall of crude brick 
ascends the low northern extremity of 
the Gebel e* Tayr ; and some dis- 
tance further up to the east, near the 
spot where the mountain road de- 
scends into the Wadee e' Dayr, about 
£. S. £. from the convent, is a bed 
of trap rock, rarely met with in the 
valley of the Nile. The wall appears 
again at the ravine called Wadee el 
Ag6os, four or five miles further 
south, which I shall have occasion to 
mention presently. 

Inland, on the west bank, nearly 
opposite e' Serar^eh, and the mouih 
of Wadee e* Dayr, is the town of 
Samalood, whose name and mounds 
proclaim the former existence of an 
ancient town, and whose lofty mi- 
naret is looked upon as a duf 
J*(EMrr0 of yc//dA architecture. The 
builder of it is reported to be the 
same who made that of Osioot. 

The convent of Sitteh (Sittina) 
Mariam el Adra, ** Our Lady Mary 
the Virgin,** hence called Dayr el 
Adra, and by some Dayr el Buk- 
kar, "of the pulley,** stands on the 
flat summit of the. Gebel e' Tayr 
on the east bank. It is inhabited 

by Copts, who frequently descend 
from these lofty' and precipitous cliff's 
to the river, and swimming off to a 
passing boat on inflated skins, beg for 
charity from the traveller, not with- 
out being sometimes roughly handled 
by the Arab boatmen. The impor- 
tunity of land beggars every one has 
experienced ; but these water men- 
dicants will be found not inferior to 
any of the fraternity ; and long be- 
fore an European's boat comes abreast 
of the convent, the cry of "ana 
ChriMttdn ya Hawiigee" Arom the 
water announces their approach. 

Here ends the district of Benisoo^f. 

GeM e' Tajp^, ** the mountain of the 
bird,** has a strange legendary tale at- 
tached to it. All the birds of the 
country are reported to assemble an- 
nually at this mountain ; and, after 
having selected one of their number, 
to remain there till the following year, 
they fly away into Africa, and only 
return to release their comrade, and 
substitute another in his place. Tlie 
story is probably only another version of 
that mentioned by ^lian, who speaks 
of two hawks being deputed by the 
rest of the winged community to go 
to certain desert islands near Libya, 
for no very definite purpose. 

Between three and four miles S, 
of the convent is the Gisr'(or JTayt) 
d Agoot, " the dyke (wall) of the old 
man,** or rather "old woman," already 
noticed. It is built across the 
ravine, which is called after it 
Wadee el Agoos, and is evidently in- 
tended to prevent any approach from 
the desert into the valley of the Nile. 
It is reported to have been built by 
an ancient Egyptian queen, whose 
name was Delo6ka, and to have ex- 
tended from the sea to Asouan, at 
the edge of the cultivated land on 
either bank. I have myself found 
vestiges of it in the Fyoom ; and on 
the east I have traced its course along 
the cliffs that approach the Nile, not 
only at e' Serar^eh and Wadee el 
Agoos, but at Gebel Shekh Embirak, 
I Shekh Timiy, Asouan, and other 



Sect. m. 

place. I hare even met with it in 
the cultivated land to the east of Be- 
noob el Ham^m, and to the north- 
east of Koos ; but from the present 
increaaed extent of the inundation, 
few traces are left of its existence in 
the # low lands, which, though they 
once marked the edge of the desert, 
now form part of the cultivated plain 
of Egypt. That this wall was raised 
to check the incursions of those rob- 
bers par exeeUenee, the Arabs (for the 
deserts were formerly, as now, in- 
habited by similar wandering tribes), 
is highly probable ; and the object of 
it was evidently to prevent an ingress 
ftrom that quarter, since it extends 
along the opening of the ravines, and 
is not carried over those cliflfs, whose 
perpendicular faces being precipitous 
and impassable, obviated the necessity 
of its continuation. Diodorus says 
that Sesostris " erected a wall along 
the eastern side of Egypt, to guard 
against the incursions of the Syrians 
and Arabs, which extended from 
Pelusium, by the desert, to Heliopo- 
lis, being in length 1500 stadia" 
(about 173^ English miles) ; and it is 
not improbable that Uie Gisr el Agoos 
may be a continuation of the one he 
mentions. But the observation of 
Voltaire, <<s'il construisit ce mur 
pour n*etre point vol^, c*est une 
grande pr6somption qu*il n*alla pas 
lui-mlme voler les autres nations,*' is 
by no means just, unless the fortified 
stations built by the Romans in the 
desert for the same purpose are proofs 
of the weakness of that people. The 
Arabs might plunder the peasant 
without its being in the power of any 
one to foresee or prevent their ap- 
proach; and every one acquainted 
with the habits of these wanderers is 
aware of the inutility of pursuing 
them in an arid desert with an armed 
force. Besides, a precaution of this 
kind obliged them to resort to the 
towns to purchase com ; and thus 
the construction of a wall had the 
double advantage of preventing the 
"blunder of the peasant, and of render* 

ing the Arabs dependent upon Egypt 
for the supplies necessity forced them 
to purchase ; nor did the government 
incur the expense of pajring their 
chiefs, as at the present day, to deter 
them from hostility. 

At the Gisr el Agoos are the re- 
mains of an ancient village ; and 
above the town of Gebel e* Tayr are 
some grottoes. 

Two miles beyond this is the site of 
an ancient town, now called Tehneh, or 
TWineh oo Mekneh. Its lofty and ex- 
tensive mounds lie at the mouth of 
Wadee T^hneh, three quarters of a 
mile from the river, under an isolated 
rocky eminence of the eastern chain 
of bills, whose precipitous limestone 
cliffy overhang the arable land that 
separates them from the Nile. 

Above a rough grotto in the lower 
part of the rock, about a quarter of a 
mile to the south of the ancient town, 
is a Greek inscription of the time of 
Ptolemy Epiphanes ; which, from the 
word Acoris in the third line, appears 
to indicate the position of the city of 
that name. This, however, is not 
certain. Acoris, the individual who 
put up the dedication, may have had 
the same name without its proving 
any thing respecting the site of the 
city ; though probability is in favour 
of Tehneh marking the site of Acdris. 

The inscription is 




*' For the welfare of King Ptolemy, the 
Ood EpiphuiMf the Great EucharUtei,' Ac6- 
rlt the Son of Ergeut, to lata Moctaiaa, So- 
teini (the Saviour Qoddesc.)." 

On one side, below the inscription, 
is the figure of a goddess ; on the other 
that of a god, probably Osiris ; and 
it was perhaps intended that the king 
should be introduced in the centre, 
offering to the two seated deities. 

Above this is a flight of steps cut 
in the rock, leading to a grotto, 
which has a niche, but no sculptures. 
Following the path to the south. 

U. Egypt 

along the western face of the cliffs, 
you come to a tablet of Remestes III., 
receiving the falchion from the hand 
of the crocodile-headed god Savak, or 
Savak'Re, in the presence of Amun ; 
and, beyond this is a large oval, the 
nom^i of the same Pharaoh. 

lieturning thence to the south side 
of the isolattrd rock that stands above 
the town, you perceive, at the upper 
part of it, two figures in high relief, 
each holding a horse. They represent 
two Roman emperors (rather than 
Castor and Pollux, as some have 
imagined), and between them ap- 
pears to have been another figure, 
perhaps of a god. 

The base of this hill is perforated 
with tombs, some of which have Greek 
inscriptions, with the names of their 
owners. At the door of one I ob- 
served a Roman figure standing be- 
fore an altar, who holds in one hand 
some twigs, and apparently pre